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КККК КККК КК ЖАЖА Ж ЖИА ЖЕЖ КККК 
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ЕЕЕ OID III OIDIDIDIDIDIDI III ODIO OOO OO III IOI OIIOIOIIOIO 


JUNE "86 NEWSLETTER OF THE 
ж 1.50 


AGG 222222222222 ELE E EEE ELEC E IDIDIDI IDI DIDIDIOI IOI ЖК 
VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP 
ЖЖЖЖ Ж Ж 


EERE EER EE EEE EE EEE E EDE E E BE E E E E EEE EEE g'e 
с Next Meeting: ; Д-Т Lise Қ 
ж ж — 
* KILLARNY COMMUNITY CENTRE x T 
* 
A 6260 KILLARNY ST., VANC 
* * 
ж JUNE 13, 7:00 PM ж 
ж ж 
* THIS WILL ВЕ OUR LAST MEETING * 
ч BEFORE THE SUMMER BREAK к 
LEE SESE ELSES SESE SS ESS SSCS E E SSE ЖЖЖ КККК 


ZXAPPEAL IS A MONTHLY 

NEWSLETTER PUT OUT BY THE 

VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP. 

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE 

CLUB AND ZXAPPEAL SEE THE BACKCOVER. 


News 


Reviews 


Programs 





Sir Clive Sinclair 


STEP RIGHT UP FOLKS ........... 
........МЕ EDITOR IN THE BARREL 


Well, I guess it's my turn. As 
most of you know, we held our 
infamous "Annual Elections" a 
short time ago. Somehow I came 
out of it all not only holding 
down the Treasurer's spot but was 
also delighted to find I was now 
the Newsletter Editor. I 
immediately headed for the land 
down under hopeing for a miracle 
but no such luck. Many thanks to 
Arbie for getting the last two 
issues out on short notice but now 
I guess it's my turn. Bear with 
me folks I'm new to the game. 


The April meeting was a bit ofa 
blur --- jet lag and all, but I 
seem to recall about 35 or so 
bodies turned out. Wilf R. spoke 
about the exotic doodads he and 
his cohorts are almost ready to 
release to the eager masses. 
Harvey had a few words about QL 

` doings. John mentioned the latest 
goodies he has on the shelf 
available to all who have a little 
extra folding green. I told all 
about the Sinclair scene in 
Australia --- more later in this 
issue. Ken A. brought along a 
most fascinating display of REAL 
HONEST MOON ROCKS!! We seem to 
grow more complacent with each new 
advance in technology. I don't 
know about you guys but stuff like 
this blows me away. To think 
twenty years ago that stuff was on 
the moon and now we had it right 
in front of us. Many thanks Ken. 


I suppose everyone is still not 
too sure how the dust will settle 
after the big 'Sinclair Sellout'. 
Well the general concensus of 
thought around the other user 
groups is that the Amstrad buyout 
will be a GOOD thing in the long 
run. Amstrad has the best 
computer marketing savy in Britain 
while Sinclair was the most 
innovative. Now these two firms 








have just become one. Could be 
veeery interesting. 


Anyone out there speak Spanish? 
We've received a copy of the 30 
page newsletter of the "Grupo 
Usarios T/S de Mexico". Looks 
great with lots of good stuff 
inside -- I think. I don't speak 
Spanish. 


FIRST THE: BAD NEWS <0 00 04s sawed ces 
We're having a small problem with 
MONEY. We don't have any, well 
almost none. We need to have 
everyone pay their membership fees 
when due. I'm married to someone 
in the photocopying business and 
will be able to print the 
newsletter at almost по cost other 
than my time and labour but the 
postage must still be paid. After 
long and deep consideration the 
Executive has decided from this 
point on two changes are going to 
be instituted. Fees will be 
annual with everyone's due at the 
same time. All memberships will 
expire December 3lst. Those 
members renewing for a partial 
year so as to coincide with the 
others will pay $1.25 per month 
for how many months are required. 
Secondly, newsletters will only be 
sent out to paid up members. Sorry 
folks but we can't afford to give 
anything away any longer. Also 
it's not fair to those members who 
keep themselves paid up. 


NOW FOR THE GOOD NEWS........ 


Remember the T/C 2068? That's 
right, the 2068/Spectrum hybid 
from Portugal. Well it's had some 
slight changes and is again 
available in North America. Now 
it's ‘called the Timex 2048 & looks 
like a T/S 2068 without the 
cartridge port. Timex ROM, 
Spectrum edge connector, but also 
added is a Kempston compatible 
joystick port. Also now available 
is a new 1500 -- all black case 
with a silver keyboard. That's 
Cont., g 


т OF page Із. а 5 





SINCLAIR DOWN UNDER 


„«»» о» о ә ө ө ө ө э ө ө ө ө ooo es ROA Humphreys 


As most of you know, I hung upside 
down for five weeks recently. 
Australia is a beautiful place-- 
and I don't just mean the ladies 
and the beer. The economy is 
booming, the sunshine is great, 
the beaches are fantastic, the 
natives are VERY friendly, and the 
beer is TERRIFIC. And they also 
have Sinclair computers. Two and 
a half years ago, when I was last 
there, the shops were jammed with 
Spectrums. Now I'm afraid to say 
the big seller is the Amstrad. 
Anyway, the 'Speccy' is still very 
popular. Before leaving home I 
looked up the name and number of 
the President of the Western 
Australia Sinclair User's Group in 
an old ZX Computing. Upon arrival 
Garth Gregson put me onto the 
current Pres - Ralph Bailey. Both 
Garth and Ralph invited me over to 
see their respective set-ups but 
time did not allow. I was able to 
attend their group's April 23rd 
meeting located in a community 
centre much like our own venue but 
much more modern. The W.A. user's 
group raises funds by raffleing 
off to the members, at a buck a 
ticket, hardware purchased by the 
club for evaluation purposes. 
Ralph introduced me to the 40 or 
so members present (out of a paid 
up membership of over 90) and 
said that as I was a visitor he 
would have me pick the lucky 
number for the current raffle for 
an Interface III. He remarked that 
this way if I picked his number 
everyone would know all was on the 
up and up. So guess who's number 
86 picked. Everyone booed and 
yelled fix but what could I say. 
Their meeting was much like 
ours...first half business, 
second half taken with, 


the 


НУНУН 


1 


demonstrations in three corners 
while a basic course carried on in 
а small ante room. One of the 
programs demoed enabled a Spectrun 
to be connected to a good quality 
short wave radio and decode not 
only Morse Code but also RTTY 
(Radio Teletype) and SSTV (Slow 
Scan T.V.). Very impressive. I 
have a Morse decoder for the 1000 
but this was quite superior. The 
other program demoed was ARTWORX. 
VERY impressive. The meeting then 
broke up into the usual scattered 
conversations. I had some very 
interesting and informative chats 
with various members and traded 
addresses for later 
corressponding. I was givena 
copy of each of their last two 


“newsletters and passed them one 


each of our last half dozen 
editions. It's nice to know that 
even on the other side of the 
globe one can find an immediate 
common ground with a bunch of guys 
very much the same as the guys in 
our club. 


> ғ 50 м 39 


HAV-INFO HAS INFO 


You modem'ers might try a new 
board now on-line in Vancouver. 
Hav-Info at 682-1991 is our very 
own 'Compuserve' with information 
оп any subject one could think off 
in the Greater Vancouver area: 
movie reviews, restaurants, 
personal and want ads, sports 
scores, cultural events, etc., and 
its all free. The establishments 
listed pay for the listing. 


G ‘LEC 2 ГУ 


When I first started machine language programming on the 
QL, I found the distinction between machine language 
procedures ( and functions ) & jobs very confusing. Having 
graduated from the ZX81, I was used to sticking code wherever 
I could get away with it. On the QL, the operating system 
-QDOS, dictates where code can go, and the two 
straightforward Places where the code can go is into 
extensions to the basic language as machine language 
procedures( or functions) or as a completely seperate job. I 
include machine language procedures and functions in the same 
category because, although they are different, they are quite 
Similar. Jobs on the other hand can be anything. 

For each of these categories, there is a well defined 
format which must be used to keep QDOS happy. А machine 
language procedure ( or function) is then used in an ordinary 
Basic program in the same you would use ’PRINT’, or any other 
Keyword. A job is always started with EXEC or EXEC_W. Each 
job is assigned a priority (9-127), so that the operating 
system will know how to divide up its time. А priority of 
` zero, signifies that а job is inactive, but still resident іп 
memory. It is possible to create jobs which are nothing but 
data, and which are never activated. Indeed which would crash 
the machine if activated. It is also possible to suspend a 
job, for up to 32767 frames. A frame is a slice of. processor 
time at 60 Hz, derived from the AC frequency. So the maximum 
timed wait is 32767 /60ж60 => about 9.1 minutes. An indefinite 
timeout is also possible. 

Examples of jobs are assemblers, the PSION quartet, and 
other language compilers. Basic runs as a special job. 

In general, it seems to me a much clearer understanding 
of principles occurs when you can actually get your hands on 
specific examples. The code below, is a version of a job 
which опе EXEC’s to run alongside the Basic job. What the 
program does is monitor the Basic Variables area & print out 
the line number which the basic program is executing at each 
instant. There is an extra added wrinkle, in that Superbasic 
allows multiple statements per line ( seperated by ’:’ ). The 
program prints out the statement number as well. 

The idea for this program, came from A. Robertson, an 
English programmer, whose code I saw via IQLUG. This 
implementation is my own. If you would like an assembled copy 
of this code, drop me a line. 


= = «= ы 


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BV_LINUM 
BY_STYNT 
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May 1785 

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efter A ROBERTON via IGLUE 


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ICA ЗАРЕ + JOB FLAS IN BYTES 6,7 

рс.я SD, TRACE’ + JOB NAME 

LEA STACK ТОР, SF + SET JOB STACK TOP 

LEA СК _РАК, А1 + NOTE SP 15 REGISTER 87 

МОЧЕ. Н UT_SCR,AZ 

158 (А2) + JUMP TO UT_SCR 

TST.L D8 + TEST FOR ERRCF 

SHE cPROR + IF UNABLE TO OPEN SCREEN 

KOVEL ADDE + SAVE CHAN ID IN Dé 

FOVE.L 22,52 + JDE AT TOP OF TREE 

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TRAF 41 + 0005 

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LES LINHA + STORAGE ASEA 

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SOR LAZINESS 256 


... BUT I'M WORKIN ow jy 





This article is reprinted from 


SUM, April '86. оо ео è 


The Heart of the Sinclair QL. ..the 68008 


There is great confusion about the QL. 
The question is: in which computer 
category does the QL fall? The 32, the 16 
or the 8-bit computer!?! It depends on the 
point of view. For now, we can say that 
the microprocessor, the MC68008, which is 
the heart of the QL, is an 8/32-bit type. 


The microprocessor or the Central 
Processing Unit (CPU) is the nerve center 
of all activities in the computer system. 


It has generally 3 major tasks: 
1-Control of operations 
2-Interpretation of data 
3-Execut ion of instruction 


But a CPU alone is not very useful. The 
CPU needs memory and some peripherals to 
communicate with the outside world. The 
communication is possible via a computer 
BUS made up of multiple connectors which 
carry information to or from the CPU. A 
computer has generally three main bus 
types: 

l-Address bus 
2-Data bus 
3-Control bus 


Until now, most home computers were 
built around an 8-bit CPU. (8-bit CPUs are 
designed to work оп 8-bit words at a 
time.) The two most popular of these were 
the 280 (2X81, TS2068, TANDY) and the 6502 
(C64, ATARI). The 68008 of the QL is, like 
we previously called, an 8/32-bit because 
it has an 8-bit wide data bus and works 
internally on 32-bit words. On this point, 
the 68008 is similar to the INTEL 8088 
(ІВМ PC) which is ап 8/16-bit CPU because 
of its 8-bit data bus and 16-bit internal 
structure. Apple's Macintosh is a 
16/32-bit with its MC68000. 


MC68008 vs MC68000: THE HARDWARE SIDE 


The MC68008 is the “economical version" 
of the MC68000. In fact, the MOTOROLA's 
68000 series forms a real family. The 
68000, itself, has a 16-bit wide data bus, 
the 68008 has an 8-bit one and the 68020 
has the 32-bit wide data bus. The 
“advantage” of the 68008 over the other 
members of the family is, like we said, 
economical because the most commonly 
available low cost support chips аге 
organised оп ап 8-bit basis. This means 
that these can be more easily designed 


into a system around the MC68008. Also the 
necessary connectors are smaller on 8-bit 
data bus systems than on a 16-bit data bus 
systems. : 

The address bus has been reduced on the 
68008 to 20 address lines (24 on the 
68000) and 3 of the 6800078 control 
Signals are not directly present оп the 
68008. These omissions are justified by 
the fact that the 68000 is а 64-ріп І.С. 
and the 68008 is a 48-ріп І.С.. With 20 
address lines, the QL can address directly 
1MB of memory. There is no need here for a 
complicated BANK SWITCHING system like on 
the COMMODORE 128 and ATARI 130XE. On the 


QL, all the memory is accessible anytime. 
The 68000 has 2 pins not present оп the 
68008, UDS (upper data strobe) and LDS 
(low data strobe), but on the 68008 the 


pin DS (data strobe) does the same job. 
Also the VMA (Valid Memory Address) is not 
Present, an external circuit is required 
here to simulate it. 


MC68008 vs MC68000: THE SOFTWARE SIDE 


The 68008 has the SAME instruction вес 
as the other members of the 68000 family. 
With only 56 instruction types and the 14 
different addressing modes, the programmer 
can access up to 1000 powerful in- 
structions. These instructions can be from 
1 to 5 words long, that is 2 to 10 bytes 
long. The 68008 (like the 68000) has 17 
all-purpose 32-bit wide registers, one 
16-bit FLAGS register and a 32-bit Program 
Counter. The 32-bit all-purpose registers 
means SPEED because complex operations can 
be carried out internally to the 68008 
with the minimum need of data to ос from 
memory. Each one of the all-purpose 
registers can be used like an Accumulator 
and we сап do operations on 1 bit, 4 bits 
(DIGIT), 8 bits (BYTE), 16 bits (WORD) and 
32 bits (LONG WORD). 

In conclusion, if you love machine code 
programming then the Sinclair QL is 
certainly a good choice. -- REAL GAGNON 

544 Hermine #2 
Quebec, Quebec 
CANADA GIN 2G6 


22 


Review 


Reprinted from 


DISTACALC 

Basically Programming 
2528 West Olive Avenue 
Fullerton, CA 92633 

16K TS/1000, 1500; $12.95 


Were you ever taught while in school 
that an airplane flying from the United 
States to the Soviet Union flies over the 
North Pole? The principle involved is that 
of the Great Circle route. The concept 
flies in the face of common perception. It 
is shorter to travel what appears to be a 
curved path instead of a “straight line" 
when traversing great distances across the 
globe. 


Navigators must regularly utilize the 
great circle concept wherein both the 
distance between two points and the 
direction to take can be calculated. All 


(2) that is needed is a good knowledge of 
non-Euclidean geometry and spherical 
coordinate systems...or a computer with 
the right software. 

DISTACALC is the right software if 
"close" 15 good enough. Тһе program 


calculates distance and direction along a 


great circle route from one point on the 
earth to another. It also estimates your 
present location if you know the point 
from which you departed and the direction 
and distance you traveled. 

I asked Distacale the distance and 
direction from Memphis to Nashville and 
back. Both cities are stored in the 


Distacale database. The database is а list 
of 107 worldwide cities whose latitude and 
longitude are filed within the program. 

The results obtained were satisfactory. 
The distance was given іп statute and 
nautical miles and in kilometers. In 
addition, the azimuth, the direction in 
degrees measured clockwise from north, 
told me which way to travel to get from 
one to the other. For the return trip the 
direction should have been 180 degrees 
different. Іс was in error by опе degree. 

If the two points involved are not 
among those listed, then you can add them 
to the database. The name, latitude, and 
longitude must be entered. The file holds 
up to 200 locations. Individual cities can 
be deleted, or a new file can be started. 

The second option calculates your new 


SUM, Аюг11*86...... 


position if you know your former location 
(latitude and longitude) and the direction 
(azimuth) and distance (in nautical miles) 
you've traveled. The term for this type of 


calculation is “dead reckoning". І used 
the same two locations and the direction 
and distance of travel previously 
calculated to determine the accuracy of 


this option. 

The results were very close but not in 
perfect agreement. The calculation of my 
new position should have been identical to 
the latitude and longitude for each 
destination city. Instead it was off by 
one to two minutes. A “minute” is 1/60 of 
a degree. This translates into 1-2 miles 
of error for the 180 mile trip. 

In short the distances сап 
considered accurate calculations, while 
the directions are close estimations. The 
instruction booklet warms that this is the 
case. Use Distacalc to plan your vacations 
but not to aim your ICBMs. (Editor's Note: 
since nuclear warheads generally clear 
quite an area, it's probably close enough 
for them, too!) 


be 


-- Duncan Teague 
3308 Bluemont Drive 
Memphis, TN 38134 


RRERK RK RRL K KKK ERK KEK KERR 


ж TS 2068 
This program wes printed in an old 
* issue of Synapse, the newsletter 
= of the Central РА User Group. 
е 20 PRINT “Enter 4 numbers betw 
че єєп 1 and 20" 
Же 30 INPUT а,Ь,с,4 
эк 35 CLS 

it 40 LET 4-9 
Ж 50 LET хісіг5з125%5ІМ (at) 
* БӘ LET yl=87+374SIN ibet} 
ы 70 LET x22=125412545IN іс%1) 
Б 80 LET уг-27437%5ІМ (9+1) 
+ ӘӘ PLOT x1,31 

T 120 DRAW х2-х1,у2-у1 

= 110 LET 1=1+.01 

А 129 GO ТО 5a 


Reprinted from 


Milestones 
by Wes Brzozowski,SINCUS 


Sosetises it's vorth tating a little look at where we've 
been so we can appreciate where ме аге. We may feel that the 
present support for the T/S computers is nothing less than 
abysmal, While this maybe tree іу кінп standards, just a 
shert look back can show us how quickly we forget and perhaps, 
how spoiled we've becone, 

Having been involved with personal coeputers for about 
years, I've been privileged to see the field evolve, first hand. 

I've been able to vork vith sany of the old gadgets that have 
сове along, over the years. In other cases, I've been at least 
been able to see the itens, o talk to those who've used thea. 

The vast changes we've had are absolutely breathtaking. 

This vill not be a comprehensive history of howe computing. 
There's not enough space (or reader interest) for it. Well 
just cover a few highlights to give a feel for computing іп the 
past. Mote that I've tried to make this as accurate as 
possible, verifying ay facts and figures wherever I could. 
Still, some parts are done entirely fron memory and a ‘verbal 
bug" or two вау creep in. If So, please forgive м. 

What computers vere available 12 years ago? They aight 
have been wore aptly called “computer trainers". You aight 
answer an ad in an electronics magazine, send hundreds of 
dollars, and get a bag of parts. These vould be assembled into 
а little gadget that you ‘programmed’ by flipping Sone svitches. 
The output vould be sone little lights. Sone of these iteas 
actually contained aa obsolete 4004 or 8008 microprocessor. 

Your program was machine code vhich you entered іп binary 
fora. There vas no cassette interface, as there маса" enough 
Beary to sake it necessary. Some early enthusiasts bought and 
learned fron these, others felt then too limiting and avoided 
thea. 

The next alternative was to design and build your от 
(мін. Since commercial support was unheard of, you dida't 
bave to be compatiable vith anything. Sone didn’t even use 
вісгоргосезѕогѕ. The thea "top-of-the-line" chip, Intel's 800A 
then cost about $180 apiece. Others were difficult to use and 
Still quite costly. So some hone designed computers included a 
custoa CPU built froe TIL chips. Instruction sets vere crude 
and limited, but they vere fanastic toys. (My owa first васћіпе 
had an average instruction length of 18 BITS, which were read 
one at а tine, out of about four thousand bits of соге senory. 

I was real мөні of it; it almost worked properly.) 

A third alternative vas possible. If you vanted to spend 
а thousand bucks or so, you could buy a commercial trainer for 
a particular microprocessor, These vere intended for 
electronics fires that wanted to develop their ол 
eicroprocessor based products, and vere priced to match vhat 
such fires could afford to рау. Howe users who could afford (or 
even obtain) these, меге rare and much envied, 

On or about 1975, hovever, several significant things 
happened. First, one of Intel's competitors started selling 
К9 microprocessors for only $30 each. Hov, they vere cheap 
enough for the masses. Also, a company named MITS packaged the 
КӨ in а large box with a huge pover supply, 4K of RAM, and 
lots of slots for expansion cards. This bor vas the ALTAIR 
0900. For about $500, you could get a “bare bones” ALTAIR in 


Sincus News May/June '86 м 


a 


tit form. For another couple hundred, you could get it 
assembled and tested (and it vas worth it, Га told). 

The existence of expansion cards brought sone interesting 
results. Sone companies didn’t want to ake entire computers, 
but vere glad to build cards that would plug into the ALTAIR. 
Others that did market their owa computers used the ALTAIR’ s 
internal bus, so that they'd be compatible with all the 
available plug-in cards. The first home computer standard vas 
born. It turned out to be both an unwanted baby and one of the 
ugliest offspring ever seen! the 5-100 bus. 

You see, MITS never tried to produce a standard; they just 
wanted an easy vay to connect several of their circuit boards 
together. The 8080 microprocessor produces Sone very veird 
signals that were intended to be “sorted ой” by a seperate 
system controller chip. This chip would "бе" the weird 
Signals, and present us vith saner, easier-to-wse ones. 
Unfortunately, this chip wasn’t available when the ALTAIR vas 
designed, and all the “flakey stuff’ vas put right on the bus. 
When the system controller chip became available, it really 
couldn't be included. 

Also, this "convenient" vay of wiring several boards 
together made a signal layout that was very inconvenient for 
later designers. All of this gave rise to speculation that, if 
you locked 20 monkeys in a room vith an 8080 pinout, they'd only 
take 10 minutes to design the 5-100 bus. The home computer 
field vas burdened with this “thing” for years; traces still 
reaain. 

The bare-bones ALTAIR was programmed in binary by flipping 
Switches on the front panel. The only output vas LED'S. 1а 
this way, it resembled its predecessors, a bit. The difference 
is, it vas a bit prettier, a lot more expandable, aad a vhole 
lot wore expensive. 

What could you plug into a S-100 type coeputer? Memory for 
one thing. A nere (мо hundred bucks would get you a 4K су 
card. Disk drives? № problea. It was about $400 for the 
interface and $500 for each drive. Rather use cassette? The 
cassette interface cost only $175, and vas SLOW. Other add-ons 
, ald include keyboards (the ALTAIR ordinarily had none), an 
interface for а ТУ or monitor, or analog or digital 1/0. In 
1977, а full 64K RAM board could be had for $3900. The 
expandability of this thing vas only limited by the depth of 
your pocketbook! 

These machines normally had no internal RON. In order to 
get the cassette interface to vork, you had to “toggle in a 20 
byte machine code bootstrap program everytine you powered the 
machine wp. You aight then LOAD ia BASIC, for example, provided 
you paid the hundred bucks or so to buy (!!) it. 

Perhaps it vas the BASICS for these machines that gave the 
first varning that software priracy vould someday be a great 
problea. Most “old tiners® vill never forget the letter in one 
Computer magazine by a seller of BASIC. The gentleaan thanked 
the many people vho vrote and copliaented hia on hov well the 
BASIC interpreter worked. He then pointed out that he'd checked 
his customer list (the product vas sold by direct nail, only) 
and found that only a small fraction of those who wrote had 
actually BOUGHT the product. 
they'd better pay up. 

Unfortunately, the piracy problem hasn't gotten any 
better. 


Continu 


= 


He then warned the rest that - 


Howe users were were fairly trusting in those days, Мапу 
people had no quales about sending hundreds of dollars to a 
total stranger to buy a product sight unseen. This innocence 
vanished after a series if ads appeared іп a major magazine, 
advertising 2 bunch of non-existent products that the advertiser 
had no intention of delivering. (He never paid for the ads, 
either.) Despite some very wild claies that were even 
inconsistent vith the photographs for his "product", the guy 
sanaged to take in a fair bit of cash before he vanished. | 
don't know if he vas ever caught. 2 

Those who got the proper word-of-mouth information could 
have purchased their very оил Apple 1 computer, hand built by 
Steve Wozniak, hieself. Although, this vas really intended to 
be the "емс" of a terminal, it could be used as а stand alone 
Cosputer. For $700, you got the assembled, tested circuit board 
and that was it. You attached your own transforaer, keyboard, 
and eonitor. The board had rooa for a full BK of RAM, which you 
prograssed, vith pachine code. The board also had a single 
expansion slot, into which you could plug a cassette interface, 
if you chose to buy one. Sounds great, eh? 

In 1976, а big step was taken towards affordable hone 
Computing vith the KIN-1. For $250 you got an asseabled, 
tested, (and very static sensitive) circuit board, It required 
multiple pover supply votages, which you had to provide 
yourself. The board had IK of RAM, and a sual! ROM prograna that 
Controlled a her keypad and sone 7 segaent LED displays (your 
input and output). If you could spring seven or eight hundred 
bucks for a surplus teletype, it could run that, too. You 
programmed it in wachine code only, but the price vas going 
бом! 

In 1977, ме saw the introduction of the Apple Il. It саве 
with an OK ROM vith INTERGER (') BASIC, a cassette interface 
about as fast as the 152068, and graphics and text capabilities 
only slightly better than a 152068 in the 32 colunn sode. It 
had alsost no software available for it. With 48K of RAM, you 
could get one for $2,638, 

То be sure, the Apple II vas designed to be expanable and 
its original design has been greatly isproved. It truly 
deserves all the success it's enjoyed. But don't forget that 
people back then paid a huge swa for a machine vith little 
support and capabilities about comparable to the 152068. Also, 
don't forget that all the prices mentioned so far should be 
double to get a comparable 1986 dollar әкені. 

Back in 1979, I read about this British kook named Sinclair 
whe сігімі he could wake a computer that hooked to an ordinary 
ТУ set, had a alphanumeric keyboard, and BASIC built in, so you 


didn't have to pay extra for it,...all for about 9200! This 
sounded like a show stopper, but still highly unlikely, 
Considering the price to performance ratio of the КІМІ. (жұ 


vas [ to know that Clive vas so seart?) 

Well, of course Clive Sinclair made good on his pronise, 
and his later aachines have enriched our lives even as ұғу! 
enriched his pockets. We've seen the rise in the popularity of 
his machines, and nov we're seeing thea decline, As the 
personal computer field has grown and changed in the past, it 
vill continue in the future. It von’t be long before our 
1520685 will look just as outrageous as the old MITS ALTAIR 
looks to us today. And as the support for our machines 
continues to decline, ve'll feel a sense of 1055. Yet the old 
tine users had so auch less. Our machines are far cheaper, far 


BSINCUBS NEWS MAY/JUN 1986 


easier to use, far wore pover ful, have far more enthusiasts, and 
have far more commercial support than they could have ever hoped 


for. They aade out 0.K. 

So vill ve. 

There's nothing wrong with change, or looking to the 
future. For quite some time, I've owned an IBM PC, vith which 
1 do most of ay serious vork, Still, ay happiest (ім is spent 
tinkering with ву 152068. Perhaps it’s because ме still have a 
core of interested and interesting users who know how to have 
„lun with the sachine. But perhaps, it's because 1 still view 
the 152068 with a sense of ave, vhen I realize how euch pover 
there is in such a seall, inexpensive package, and how far ve've 
сове to achieve it. 


Ery Ehese 


12 REM 
_2@ PRIN 


ЕМ Y$) 


Ч=1 TO LEN Z 
ІҒ Z$) ese" THEN 
IF 72%41)-“ғ-” THEN 

NEXT J — 

RETURN 

PRINT “ENTER 
INPUT y$ 

LET Z2$=¥$+"5" 
PRINT “ENTER STA 


INPUT Y$ 
LET. 2 =Z$+ 
FRINT “ENT 
INPUT ү 
LET г2%-7%. 
PRINT "ENTE 
INPUT Y$ 
LET zZ =Z$47 $45" 
CLs 
зза сото 
PRINT 
INPUT 
CLs 
FOR 


NAME" 


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PHONE 


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мо." 


SHORT TS1000 PROGRAM Sf 


by Chuck Dawson 


DO YOU GET TIRED OF THE 


INCREDIBLY SLOW AND JERKY 
SCROLL COMMAND ON THE 
TS/10007 
TAKE HEART TRUE PROGRAMMERS. 
THE FOLLOWING MACHINE CODE 
PROGRAM WILL NOT ONLY PERMIT 
you TO SCROLL UP, IT WILL 
ALSO PERMIT SCROLL DOWN, 
SCROLL LEFT, AND SCROLL 
RIGHT. 

AFTER YOU TYPE ІМ THE 


PROGRAM SAVE IT. THEN RUN THE 
PROGRAM. THE PROGRAM І5 THEN 
STORED SAFELY ABOVE КАМТОР SO 
THAT YOU CAN USE IT WITH ANY 
PROGRAM. TO USE THE SCROLLS 
USE THIS LINE IN YOUR 
РОКСКАМ: 


ЕТ 2 = USR X 
WHERE Х=32521 FOR SCROLL UP 
=32542 FOR SCROLL DOWN 
=32566 FOR SCROLL 
RIGHT . 
=32586 FOR SCROLL LEFT 
1 REM (YOU NEED 1061 SPACES OR 
OTHER CHARACTERS IN ТНІ5 REM 
STATEMENT) 


2 LET АЗ" 
“21097F 220440EB015500219240EDB 
0ОС9Е05ВӨС40132121001901Ғ6Ө2ЕОВ 
006202871109ҒСС924А0С4011Ғ602424 
_ B19EB2121001SEBEDB80620237110F 
СС9017617240С401600237ЕВ928047 
25718F710F 3C90176192A104016002 
B7EBS2804725718F 710F 3C9S” ; 


3 FAST 
4 LET A=16514 
5 FOR B=1 TO LEN А$-1 STEP 2 


6 POKE A,16*CODE A$ (В) +CODE 
A= (B+1) -476 


7 LET A=A+1 
8 NEXT В 


S RAND USR 16514 
10 NEW 


REPRINTED FROM “SYNAPSE” VOL. 


3 NO 6 TO 12 JUNE - DECEMBER 
ISSUE PAGE 6, 290 


SSERAKKETESTEKRECKCTREEKr er xrxrrxzx 


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“PAYOFF $2" 


2509 FOR I=SGN РІ то 50 
_252 PRINT AT 15.0; "sUACKPOT=" 
r 28/10 


260 LET T=T+0+0 
270 GOTO 2232 
сай FRINT Н 
310 LET T=T+5 
сй GOTO 232 





әт ркі FR СНЕ ARMED БАМ 
=" ? ф із Ы 

CIT ==: 

S20 PRINT = 

И — * 

S3@ FOR I=S6GN РІ ТО Б 

S40 PRINT Ҥ ': Tse 2a, F 

БЕЙ NEXT I 3 

SEA РБІМТ 1 — — =} ғ 

570 PRIM & oe TRE Ө; “E "FA 
E іт "$9 TAB GS: "EE P 

550 PRINT Ч See! — By 
mer E 

S3@ FOR I=SGN РІ с 

Ега PRINT *1 Е тав К p ae E: 

Б1@ NEXT I | 

620 PRINT "ш. = 

p 
S20 PRINT “TOTAL = $20" 
B42 RETURN 


EE EEE ELLE AMAA YAY YY YY YN E 3E E ZY 


This program by Randy Adams of Santa 
Cruz СА was printed in the July? 
-August issue of SYNC. Input 
numbers between 1 and 
100. (Try 26, 31, 
32,35,and 38). 


(N/Z¥PI) 


каз, — 


-4- 









Some о? Programs listed 
аге: Stack Folia, Monthly 
БВА To Rental Bill ‚ Couponing, the 
Тана < Зорєгагарћ, tipt Loader with 
к^ TORRE Fat Charact апа you can even 
een с EGE Ргіпі-оџі y ошп Bingo Cards. 
а 


Б 
mg through 
йе t 






























— — —— х6 | After taoki Ч the 
— Tree Gee — ee book and trying some of the lis- 
рііес for se. 1P} years, 1195, І find TIS good мгіше 
the remaining such а: software жыртық ADEE ere горан 
the Software Houses may back off LO езш he ous 7 
From producing programs as the ми ы nt ele iene у зе е 
Machine is no Longer іп produc- the book at SOx, Тһе pecite of it 
tion. aliens i “oe is U.S. $7.95+81.58 p&h for u.5. 
orders, Үл PEA FOr Foreign 
415. P 1 ет orders, f interested іп this 
We have been told by 3 com- — ч Б : = 
баны % 22 р с 04-4 Ж ел Product you can get it by Wri- 
а оез Year suppiy OF BE in the ting to: BIT/s Software, 3202 
North America ares. It seems up goat VO Rehr ih. agence 
to пош а few American companies E 
Buch ас The ЕМС inaw G-Clannec- 
tión? and Rames іпош Foundation 
SYStemsi are п Getting mare 
into Ші produc ‚ LF mare infû 
12 required on the ШІ products 
available please caontact:- 
G-Connection, 
15 Kilburn Ori. 
Newport, БІ 22540 TH 1 
U.S.A. Penns: іа Я ج‎ - 
Foundation Systems, eX Text тх гі: Ту-ба 25 
17520-26 Mite Road, programs at U.S. 811,95 ea and 
ыы НІ 45094 51.508 Post each. — — 
іе 2х-Т = а 
It ша bu the sûr ШІН is — 
пеш owner AMSTRALC 1353 to ада 5p 
that the іі гісе ж 
Бе а part igstory. The 2Х-С 5 а 
ргоагап and Lee 
RAH & afford E 
ractersarspre 2%< 
i5 columns & оша, 
_.. 2Х-Сбаймвпааг operates іп 15 
b В; Бақ RAH апа keeps 3B sppoint- 
2 ments іп 16Қ, 1020 іп Sek i3 іп 
This = ФБК. of 258 in 84h. Басы а int 
publishe: зе к Ji ment record һоі25 max. 220 cha- 
with the help of ma #5 pre racters, 
бгаттег= who contributed same Of TN- 
тезгә пат: 7 All the above have тапу more 
features than Listed but due ta 
The book іс BEE pages thick Limiitéd space of this Newsletter 
апа 64%°x411"-in size. It has the I һауе listed some of the main 
heavy plastic G-post binding апа features, 
heavy clear plastic covers for | 
prolonged handiing апа abuse. It А These programs ше г 
іс well put taosether. іі а magazina dated МО 
рігіше ENGUICE With th 
The Listings іп the book a befaré placing ап огає 
cover the gamut af the T75 cam- the fafe Sida, а= іс ш 
puters. Host af the Listings аге Ly. 
диііг short апа easy tao type іп, 
though some аге 2-3 pages iong. 
The programs іп the book cover а 
wide area af useruLliness such ас 
wordpracessars, games, Databases 
апа educational.: - 1 1 — 








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1 REM BORDER DRAWING UTILITY 
BY KEN ABRAMSON 


16 PRINT AT 3,0; "ENTER BORDER 

GRAPHICS CHARACTER: “ 

20 INPUT Bs 

3@ LET S=CODE Bs 

46 CLS 

50 REM YOUR TEXT (CIN PRINT 
STATEMENTS) CAN GO INTO 
THIS LOCATION 


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ХЕҰ ХХХ Ж ЖҰ KKK 
Cont.) From page г. prih 


not all folks --- how about the 
T/S 2080, the 80 column printer. 
It's here along with a 40 column 
little brother. These are the 
Seikosa GP-1000 and GP-505 
respectively all wrapped up in 
Timex clothing. Last but 
certainly not least - a serial 
interface (probably to connect the 
printers). I said available in 
North America --MEXICO. Timex of 
Portugal is shipping in an initial 
load of 10,000 units. Should be 
there now. Sure sounds exciting. 
I'll keep you posted. 


For a computer concept that was 
supposedly killed off more than 
two years ago things are more 
alive now than ever. It seems the 


only one who dropped the ball was 
Timex U.S.A. 


One last thing before I finish up. 
If anyone knows of any 2068s for 
sale, let me know. I've had an ad 
in the Buy & Sell for three weeks 
and not one reply. 


“*өо» өө өө ө ө ө ө ө ө ө э ө ө ө ө ө э ө э ө э ө ө ә ө ө ROD 


Sinclair Research 


Sells Out! 


THE ZEEPER SPEAKS... 

My dreams have come true. Who 
would have thought that Clive 
would give up so easily. Can't 
he take a joke? Don't go away 
mad, Clive. It sure has been 
fun---I threw everything I could 
think of at you poor fools. I 
have a real feeling of 
accomplishment about the 7Х81 
keyboard but the RamPack wobble 
was a stroke of genius. I must 
admit, my brother came up with 
that one. The 2068 was 
certainly fertile ground. 
Imagine, a machine able to 
address 10 megs being loaded 
from a TAPE RECORDER. They 
almost came up with a decent 
keyboard but a little whisper in 
the right ear fixed that. The 
printer was fun---the ink faded 
оп the paper in the sun light. 
One of my happiest days was when 
I was able to sublimally 
convince the new man at TIMEX 
that no self respecting toy 
watch maker should be mixed up 
with those new-fangled 
computerwhatzits. I didn't 
reckon on the hardiness of the 
average Sinclair nut. As soon 
as I dried up one area of supply 
than another popped up. You 
probably thought you had пе 
whipped when the TC2068 came 
over from Portugal. Little did 
you realize that was all part of 
the master plan---as you soon 
found out. То and behold if you 
didn't eventually go back to the 
land of the beginnings for 
support. 


he QL might have given me a run 
for the money until I came up 
with the idea of a 32 bit 
machine being loaded froma 
MIDGET tape recorder. And still 
you bought the infernal things. 
With the appearance of the 128, 
the war started to get serious. 
You left me no choice but to put 
a stop to this-once and for all. 


From now on you are just going 
to have to accept the fact that 
if you want to play with 
computers, you are going to have 
to play with the usual mundane, 
unexciting, characterless boxes 
everyone else puts up with. I 
don't think this AMSTRAD will be 


апу threat to the 'status quo’. 


( Have you seen this Alan Sugar? 
Looks like he sold stainless 
steel pots door to door before 
he discovered computer suckers. ) 
There was the slight chance that 
AMSTRAD could have made life a 
little more difficult if the QL 
had been kept in production but 
I quickly put the kybosh to that 
threat. 


Well, it looks like all is right 
with the world from where I sit. 
I think I'll wander over to 
adjacent fields to see how 
things are going. Don't worry, 
1'11 still look in every now and 
then and as soon as I see the 
slightest amount of innovation 
ок creativity rearing it's ugly 
head I'll be back faster than 
you can lose your memory ina 
power glitch. Have fun kiddies. 


....РБій some опе say some thing 
about electric cars and 'planes? 
Hmmm. 





i SPECTRUM 123k МІРІ SYSTEM | | 

bu Б. Lussier , 6998 STOP 
6999 see WRITE eeo 
7000 CLS 







5 7010 PRINT “READ OR WRITE? (А/Ш) 
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ins тег as ап 7080 Рог N = S TO F STEP 8 
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тй ы eee се 7145 LET 2:0 
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сзи съв 7160 LET С= (СОЕ А%8(К)-28)%16%С0 
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1015 LET m=INT (RND#123) +2 
1020 PLOT m,t: INK а: DRAW т, і 
1030 NEXT т й 
1032 NEXT ( 
1040 NEXT q 
1045 60 TO 2003 #44 LIBRARY HEUssse 
2003 FOR q=0 TO 7 «Сады 
2005 FOR (-175 TO 119 STEP -3 
`2007 FOR т-255 TO 200 STEP -8 A note to all, we are setting 
2010 LET L=INT (RND#88) +0 ир а tape Library. 
2015 LET m=INT (RND#128) +0 
2020 PLOT 255-m,174-l: INK q: DR ee Sare ected іп donateine 
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2030 NEXT m = ш „з т Livi = v oss i ызы 9 re „Ж. 
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ІНЕ VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP HAS 
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SUPPORT GROUP FOR THE OWNERS AND USERS 
OF THE: MICROACE, ZX80, 7Х81, Т/5/1000, 
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