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AOI III III ON ቹ ቶቹ E EER ቹ ቹቹ ች ቹቹ ቹቹ ቹቹ X ዛቶ اد‎ EE LE اد‎ ቹ ቹቹ ቴሐቹቹቸቹ ሐ X XO X OK OX XX ቾቹ ቹቹ የ ተቹ ቸቸቹቸ## 
ZxXAppeal 
# ቹቹ ቸቸ bb ቹ ህቱ ዛቱ ቱቹቹ ቹቹ LELE OCOD OC OOOO ዩቹቸቅቴቹቹዞ ቾች ቹቹ OOOO OOOO ፍቶ ሐተ ቹቹ ፍቹ 


: NEWSLETTER OF THE 
JULY/AUGUST 1986 s 1.56 


3 ቹቹቾቹችቾችቹቹችቹችቹችቹ ቹቹ ቾቹቹችቹቹችቹችቹችቹችቹችቹቾቹችቹጆቹ።ኝ፡።፡ቾዱ#ቹ።ቹ፤ቹ፤፤ችቹቾጾቹ።፤ቹቹችቾቹችችቹችችቹ።#።ቹችቾጾቹቾ#ጾ።#ፍ#።ቆሎቆ።#።#ቾጆ፤ችቹቹቹች፤ቹችቹቾቹ ቹቾቹቾቹቹቹችዞ።ቹቻቻችቹ‹። 
VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP 
E EEE ECR ON EE ቁቾቸቹቹ ዞቹቸቹ oe ae ee EE ELEC EEE EEE EE DEE EER ELE E ECELE EEC EEE E E EEE EE EE 


JO on اد بد بد اد با اد اد بد اد اد اد ماد اد اد بد بد آاد آاد‎ OR 


x * KXFINSIDE "ER 
s wsxsus** NEXT MEETING ******** 1 
+, EG NES ہیں‎ I 6 22 
x KILLARNY COMMUNITY CENTRE ሄ Ihe. Meera. si casa waka KSK. ጋ ped 
x 6260 KILLARNY ST., VANC x Ken!s ጋገር Speaks ینوئے‎ send 
x > The Decline of Uncle Clive....4 
> SEPT. 12, 7:00PM : BYL PODES ማማ ck dv les 4355 iwa 7 
: 1 Product/Dealer NewSs< ہہ ہہ ہے‎ B 
x THIS WILL BE THE FIRST MEETING ٭‎ Extended. Basie Jun «4433 و ےک‎ «425 
. AFTER OUR SUMMER BREAK. x 2068 TIPS CL. CA کو‎ ብሕ ቁ ወ. ክራ یع‎ ታች 
X oc coke o 0X0 oc oc oc oc oc oc o c6 oc oco aco okc ትችት ኦቹ EO ቾቾ ቹቾቹቾችቿቹችችች OG Exchange Groups. CZORT او و‎ GO) 
BUD ETSE ee Se لے‎ a ea 1 | 
TAG AEDES LOOTED 
ZXAPPEAL IS A MONTHLY Playing With Electricity.....15 
NEWSLETTER PUT OUT BY THE 2581 Display File ape FA 6 
VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP. ADA GSTEN: o. ua یا و‎ os Fe 2l 
FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE Graph PIOtLLborYa...» áo kd P 
CLUB AND ZXAPPEAL SEE THE BACKCOVER. “HONEA honi That" چو یو ہے‎ 12 1 ጋሜ 


Hardware Project... 32i x25 
Duüungeob:;ofi-Ymir.... e سے‎ ak 
News Message Board... ےک‎ 5-5 2 
Adding a Full-Sized Printer..34 
Tape Makes a Difference......35 
Banners crana serea ጨፍ s dO 
BIALA JueRlerceeveetokwkk sei 


Reviews The Pen 6S ¢ + as as SA be es avd 


Weyl bevy cere ses ወ 5 oe Ex men و‎ 9 


Programs 














This 1:9106 EE ERE De ee ŁZA 


Here we are - half way thru the 
summer and it's time for our 
summer double edition. This one 
is chock full of goodies: "The 
Decline of Uncle Clive" looks at 
Clive Sinclair in an 
unflattering but very candid 
light - must reading for any 
Sinclairphile; The Zeeper 
"graces" us again with his 
Presence; Ken A. gives us a nice 
example of 1000 programming; 
Gerd B. presents an article 
based on the Non Volitile Memory 
single chip internal add-on that 
Wilf R. recently engineered; 
I've included a program that 
allows one to set up å message 
BBS; all this and lots more too! 


Bits & 
gia adm eRe Bw aS EST YI NES 


++ «SUM magazine has been bought 
out by TIME DESIGNS. Sad to lose 
a great supporter of the 
Sinclair concept but hopefully 
TIME DESIGNS will, as a result 
of the merger, grow for the 
benefit of all. Remember, only 
our continued support of this 
and other publications will 
ensure their existence. 

..who says the QL is dead. 
We've heard of 2, maybe 3, QL 
clones coming on the market in 
Gt. Britain. Remember Alan, the 
cream always rises to the top! 
«++ take a good look at the 
advert for Byte Power. Sounds 
like a good deal. Remember, 
support our advertisers. Their 
paid ads subsidize your 
newsletter costs! 


«++ take a look at the ad for 
Fred Nachbour's "Dungeon of 
Ymir". Fred colaborated on 
Gerd's article. This game is HI 
RES on a 1500! 

„..1f anyone wants a good and 
CHEAP composite monitor hustle 
along to R&P Electronis at 4th & 
Arbutus. 14" B&W 'slightly' used 
-- $49.95 each or 3/$100.00. | 
These are Hi Res and come from a 
stock brokerage. 

„..I had a chance to try out a 
couple of new additions to John 
B.'s list of wares. ARTWORX is 
10 out of 101 A "must-have" for 
anyone with a 2068. We'll have a 
full review in an upcoming issue 
but let me say that this is the 
neatest, most friendly, & 
addictive graphics utility to 
come my way. I was up until 2:30 
just having fun with it. 
TIMACHINE is a complete MC ۱ 
compiler for all the 2068 Basic 
commands. Now that favourite 
BASIC program can be compiled 
into superfast machine code. 
CLONE will make a back-up of ANY 
2068 or Spectrum program. 

„..be sure to give CITY-LINK a 
call and tune into the HOTLINE 
sub-board hosted by our very own 
John B. A list of BBS numbers is 
listed in this issue. 

„..Peter Hacksel of Hacksel 
Electronics was in town recently 
and we got to gether so he could 
demo the Hacksel Centronics 
Printer Interface. This unit is 
comes in either rear edge or 
cartridge dock configuration. 
This is a very neat interface 
for the 2068 and if you are in 
the market for one BUY CANADIAN. 
That's all for this time TTUL 


9 ہت و وو 9 9 00 ویو وڑاھ »6:167 وو‎ oe vv w scs V ROU 


The Meeting: 

ፒ፣ -፦ Came to order with 
only 15 bodies present. Everyone 
seemed to have something else 
come up that nite. Bob L. 
announced he was stepping down 
as the Prez. He's sold his whole 
systen and going over to the 
other side(Atari). That means 
that Ken A. moves up to Prez. 
Anywun wanna be V/Prez? Hold up 
yor hand! Wilf brought us up to 
date on how the hard ware group 
was coming with the bankswitch 
memory unit. They now have 5 
prototypes up and running and 
hope to have the production 
model on the shelf by lst Sept. 








512k plus EPROM burner on the 
back of a 1000! Gerd 8. spoke 
about the article he was 
Submitting to the newsletter ra: 
Sk NVM inside 1000. Ken A. 
showed his I.0. board and ZSpeak 
board combo in a case. Very 
slick. He uses it as a teaching 
aid at school for children 
learning "ingrish" as a second 
language. Harvey T. proadly 
demoed his "text to speech" 
board for the QL. VERY slick. 
Paul R. gave us some 
"propaganda" about his ST and 
the ST club. We ajourned for the 
summer and will meet on the 12th 
of September. 


Ke ee e e KKK ode dede dece dece RK KK de ee EK KK KK 


Here's an 


elegant 2k program by Ken Abramson that 


utilizes the speech board on the 1000. 








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„PEEK sv PEEK E<=BACS BC IF + FO 230 RAND USA 15525 
0.9 250 NEXT 8 
= REM 2፡53 ZZPERK PROGRAM (SK) 250 POKE 16525,0 
PIW AR R 278 RAND USR 15525 
= T» Z=200 2308 SRUE A 
= CLS 5000 SAVE "WW" 
6 PRINT TAB 5: "FUNCTION" “com 5685 PAUSE 2 
MAND I Lo E 18; "MENU". "GOTO 8018 GOSUB Z 
57,24, NEU HLLOPHONES"."GOTO 10". 5525 GOTO 5. 
= ሜኑ 1 == መጫ ጫ ሙጫ ሙጫ ii = = መ ہے‎ m 
a chi E EHTERING',"GOTO ጋ ud 3182 PRINT "TO CHANGE ALLOPHONE: 
saue EO EOS RP RE ær a "LET ፐሄ (NUMBER) =CHR$ VALUE” 
a SH 2s BULG See TP جال‎ n 
LOPH. "5 6070-9190 8110 FOR F=1 TO P-1 
ieee eis 9120 PRINT “(";F;"3"; CODE T$(F); 
ze LET Pol : 3130 JEST F 
38_PRIMT AT 1,1; "ENTER AN ALLO aaa 
PHONE (200 MA." 
33 PRINT “SE ENTER ""2aa"" To 
SPES HT Z-SPEAK M.L. Locations: 
35 PRINT AT 18.0;"LasT ALLOPHO å AR 
NE WAS NUMBER ";P-1;" 3 Li 14 a 4 23 + 
36 IF P=1 THEM GOTO 4a 1i a ٦ 52 % 
37 PRINT AT 14,1;"LAST ALLOPHO 21 Sg a ET a 
NE VALUE WAS ";CODE T$iP-1);" ^" 1 152 ፪ Ti 211 PEEK 
18 INPUT_H ii 211 PEEK 1 sg BH E 
45 IF P:Z-1 OR M;Z-1 THEN GOSU 1 55 R 1i 219 :z 
5 2 4; 52 $ A mer ing 
50 IF N:Z-1 THEN GOTO 5 PE qu 1 503 AC: 
70 LET T$(P) =CHR$ N 211 PEEK ii 203 BCE 
80 LET P=P+1 33 Ba = ia ^ 
38 GOTO 30 281 TE ት + PANA 
282 RAND USR 15516 Bi v o 1 ak, 
205 FOR ü-1 TO P-1 a : S35 For 
210 LET D=CODE T$(0) 211 PEEK " ys E 


[ 
CA 
1 





The following article appeared in ,. 
the June 12/86 edition of the 
'Newscientist' and is reprinted 
without permission. Let'em suel 


i! 


The decline of Uncle Clive 








Knighted by Margaret Thatcher and widely considered as the most well-known scientist in Britain, 
the chairman of Sinclair Research seemed unstoppable. What went wrong? 


Ian Adamson and Richard Kennedy 





N 7 APRIL 1986, Clive Sinclair sold off his name and 
rights to all existing computer products to Amstrad. 
With this single, dramatic move, he has effectively 
withdrawn from the market in home computers that his prod- 
ucts played a major role in creating. When Sinclair signed the 
deal with Alan Sugar of Amstrad, Sinclair's products held the 
largest share (around 35 per cent) of this declining but stil! 
lucrative field. Sinclair's decision to opt out at this point 
illuminates several recurrent problems with his entre- 
preneurial style. 

It also raises questions about the viability of Sir Clive's 
future operations. Alternative offers (favoured by Bill Jeffrey, 
the managing director of Sinclair Research) would have 
allowed the computer business to continue, and avoided 
many of the redundancies, which involved 95 per cent of the 
workforce. However, the price of the alternative deal was that 
Sir Clive would become a minority shareholder. The history 
of the decline of Sinclair's earlier company, Sinclair Radion- 
Ics, subsequent to 1977, when Sinclair became a minority 
partner and the National Enterprise Board took the helm, 
showed that loss of absolute control, with tne attendant obli- 
gation to take into account the views of others, soon becomes 
intolerable to a partner programmed to run a one-man show. 

Sinclairs decade of fame and (mostly) favour, which 
resulted in both his knighthood and the less-inspiring sobri- 
quet of "Uncle Clive" among the enthusiastic young 
purchasers of his high-tech toys, is mainly the result of the 
popular success of the “ፖጂ” series of computers, from the 
ZX80 to the ZX Spectrum. While his predominant social 
contribution was to promote mass addiction to computer 
games, Sinclair has been widelv misrepresented— not least by 
those centres of learning that gave him honorary degrees for 
"services to computer literacy and education"—as the man 


who brought computers into the home. This is not strictly 
true, if we understand by "computer" a functional tool with 
several related applications, whose design increases the ease 
or efficiency with which we can perform such tasks. 

Sir Clive's marketing achievement was to downgrade the 
"concept" of a computer to the point where he could claim 
to provide one for less than the magical £100 mark. To this 
end, efficient keyboards and monitors, useful amounts of- 
memory, effective filing and storage systems and the like were 
stripped away, to leave an affordable facsimile of a 
"computer". The market image was more important than 
what the computer could do, but the burgeoning industry 
in computer games provided an application which 
adolescents—young and old—eagerly seized on as the raison 
d'être for their new gadget. In the main, it was ignorance of 
genuine computer technology that fired the success of the ZX 
range, despite the availability of accessories that, albeit ineffi- 
ciently, turned the Z80 processor chip at the heart of these 
up-market toys into the core of a useful machine. 

The QL microcomputer marked Sinclair's attempt to 
move out of games and into the market of true home comput- 
ers and computers for small businesses. The launch was a 
multi-faceted disaster. The original concept—an affordable, 
portable and genuinely useful computer, with a flat-screen 
displav, adequate memory, built-in communications modem 
and “free” software to perform basic functions—was viable, 
as attested to by Amstrad's later success with its less ambi- 
tious purpose-built word processor, the PCW8256. However. 
Sinclairs penchant for idiosyncratic technologies led the 
company to waste time and effort on trying to produce a 
workable flat-screen display, using Sinclair's modified 
cathode-ray tube. Other delavs in the development of the QL 
resulted from the choice of a new but inefficient microdrive 


-4- 





(a system which uses a fast audio cassette based on a 
continuous tape loop) as the medium for storing data. 

Another characteristic of Sinclair, launching products 
before they were really ready, reached its apotheosis in the 
high-profile launch of the QL. At the time, not even the 
company's engineers had seen a complete working prototype. 
The consequent deficiencies in the machine, and the delay of 
around a year before the QL became an available and 
adequate computer, prevented the support of a maturing 
market which, although ready for a product of this type, was 
wary of investing in unconventional technologies. There was 
very little software available at the time of the launch. Poor 
quality control, from Sinclair's practice of contracting out the 
manufacture of his products, meant that too many machines 
did not work when they reached customers. Alan Sugar was 
quoted as saying that Sinclair's quality control was 
"atrocious”. These shortcomings were also factors in the fail- 
ure of the QL. The public did not want an “innovative” 
machine for which they would, as Sinclair’s staff belatedly 
admitted, form a test-bed. They wanted a reliable, functional 
and staid application of proven technology. 


The working man’s boffin 


The significance of Sir Clive’s corporate decline, otherwise 
a minor event in the commercial world, is that he has worn 
the mantle of a great British inventor (the term he prefers), 
innovator and entrepreneur. He has been identified in the 
public eye with the visible application of microchip 
technology—what might be termed high-street high-tech. His 
corporate failings are likely to be equated with the failure of 
British “high technology” as commonly understood. In fact, 
Sir Clive’s talents lie in absorbing and adapting original 
research to develop inexpensive products, often of dubious 
utility (witness the flat-screen pocket television and the C5 
electric tricycle), and marketing them initially by mail order 
to increase his profit margins and finance his production. 
People confuse his valid commercial role (where validity can 
be measured in terms of corporate profits and marketing 
success), with the popular myth of the inventor beavering 
away in his lab. The image of Uncle Clive, the working man's 
boffin, is one that Sinclair's public relations machine has 
relentlessly promoted. We should base any assessment of Sir 
Clive's prospects not only on his success or otherwise in direc- 
ting his R&D staff creatively to exploit existing technology, 
but also his recurrent problems with production and occa- 
sional failures, both technical and commercial. 

What of the future for Sinclair Research? One major factor 
is cash flow. There may be no current debts, and some 
retained profit from the deal with Amstrad, but apparently 
the only income will be royalties received from ICL on sales 
of the modified Sinclair technology incorporated in the 
One-Per-Desk, "workstation"—an intelligent telephone 
system—plus any of his own assets (much diminished by the 
fiasco of the C5) that Sir Clive chooses to make available. Any 
future must depend on bringing new and viable products to 
the market quickly, or attracting sufficient financial backing 
for longer-term ventures. 

Leaving aside Sinclair's declared intention to become a 
"think-tank" for selected clients—a dubious role for the 
"visionary" who brought us the C$, one might think— 
Sinclair has three projects in prospect. On the computer 
front, the company is developing Pandora, a portable micro- 
computer, bearing a remarkable resemblance to the original 
QL, but by all accounts omitting microdrives in favour of 
3:5-inch disk drives. That Sinclair is still revising the specifi- 
cation of this product suggests a state of confusion that does 
not bode well for the timely arrival of a competitive and 
functional product. Amstrad has first refusal on marketing 
the Pandora, and it is unlikely to take on anything unless it 
accords with Alan Sugar's dictum of “the right product, at the 
right price, and at the right time". On past form, Sinclair's 
R&D team seem unlikely to achieve this, leaving Sinclair 


Research the task of starting again with minimal resources 
and little credibility as a designer of computers, in a field 
where companies such as Epson, NEC and Tandy are 
expending intense technical effort. 

The second project, emanating from Sinclair's low-profile 
telecommunications laboratory based in Winchester, is the 
cheap portable telephone for cellular networks. This will sell 
for less than £100, says Sir Clive, tilting at his magic figure 
once again. The product should be on the market in 18 
months’ time. This is manifestly a viable product, as Alan 
Sugar has also decided, since his company also intends to 
produce one. So the company jointly created by Timex and 
Sinclair to produce the telephone faces intense competition in 
an area where mere corner-cutting on the costs of 
components and production in the classic Sinclair style will 
not succeed in the long term—any more than Sinclair’s 
computers faced up to Amstrad’s challenge. 

The third and most intriguing option—and the one which 
Presents the most daunting technical challenges—is wafer- 
scale integration. This approach to the design of semicon- 
ductors offers financial savings by producing complete 
processing systems, laid down on a single wafer of silicon. It 


could also pave the way towards compact implementation of 
the new generation of processing techniques currently under 
development. The opening in 1983 of the prestigious Metalab 
research unit near Cambridge provided a base for the real- 
isation of Sir Clive's visions, among them the much- 
publicised "Fifth Generation" project to develop artificial 
intelligence. Sinclair made patriotic noises about beating the 
Japanese at their own game—whatever that might be, and to 
what end. One of the elements of this fantasy was the 
investigation of wafer-scale integration. 

Sir Clive's initiation into the world of the wafer took place 
in the summer of 1983, with the arrival of Ivor Catt who had 
answered Sinclairs advertisement for people to work at 
Metalab. Depending on who you talk to in the generally 
conservative semiconductor industry, Catt is either a crank or 
a visionary. For 20 years, he had been refining the theoretical 
foundations for a revolution in the semiconductor industry, 
and thus was tailor-made for the Sinclair project. Sir Clive 
took on Catt as a consultant and bought up Catt's patents to 
the wafer-scale process. 

Catt himself has succinctly summarised the appeal of the 
wafer against existing chips and methods of manufacture: 


"I noticed that the silicon wafer was a hundredth of the cost 
of the total system, so why not use that cheap commodity to 
build the system on the wafer instead of sawing it up to form 
separate circuits?" 

Currently, the computer industry produces multiple chips 
on each wafer of silicon. The production process involves: 
chopping up the wafer, testing each chip and then separating 
the working chips from a significant number of faulty chips. 
The working chips, after mounting, wiring and packaging in 
plastic, become part of a larger system mounted on a printed 
circuit board. Catt's alternative method involves preserving 
the entire wafer (including the faulty chips), which has inter- 
nal connections between chips so as to eliminate the printed 
circuit board. It also avoids the need to test and encapsulate 
each chip. An electronic logic test built into the wafer 
circuitry allows each chip to be tested. If functional, the chip 
becomes incorporated in the circuit and then tests an adja- 
cent chip. Faulty chips are bypassed as a spiral sequence of 
working chips is established on the wafer. The simplest form 
would be a memory wafer, but there is a potential to develop 
new, alternative computer architectures on the wafer. 

Throughout the 1970s, the attempt to realise such a 


product dominated the R&D strategies of many of the semi- 
conductor giants. ITT, Texas Instruments and Burroughs, 
among others, sunk undisclosed fortunes into the dream. The 
kiss of death for the wafer as an investment option was the 
debacle of Gene Amdahl, formerly a designer with IBM. 
Amdahl’s pursuit of a “supercomputer” based on the wafer- 
scale attracted around $240 million in backing from heavy- 
weights that included Sperry, Digital Equipment and the Bull 
Corporation of France. By June 1984, Amdahl’s company, 
Trilogy, had conceded that it could not overcome the prob- 
lems of implementing its version of wafer-scale technology. 

The failure of the big boys came as no surprise to Ivor Catt, 
whose approach had always radically differed from those of 
his rivals. Axiomatic to Catt’s technique was a reduction in 
the number of connections made to the chip. In the latter 
stages of Amdahl's mega-wafer, the doomed prototype had an 
astounding 1200 pins packed on to its 6-4-centimetre design. 
Since, according to Catt's theoretical design, communication 
with the wafer passed through the first chip on the spiral, his 
chips were designed as bipolar components, thus needing 
only two pins as connections. 


Investment in the wafer 


After years in the wilderness, the National Research Devel- 
opment Corporation eventually funded Catt's theories in the 
late 1970s. This at least enabled him to patent their impli- 
cations. At Middlesex Polytechnic, Malcolm Wilkinson ran a 
research team which examined the problems of imple- 
menting Catt's work. Wilkinson and his team went on to 
develop their research with Burroughs, where they success- 
fully realised a provisional "test structure". At this point, the 
project fell foul of company politics. A new and predom- 
inantly American management, presumably with the experi- 
ence of Amdahl fresh in their minds, wanted nothing to do 
with research into wafer-scale technology. 

Sir Clive's interest in the technology could hardly have 
come at a more opportune moment. At the end of 1983, his 
relatively small, if momentarily profitable, company was able 
to poach not only Catt, but Wilkinson and a significant 
proportion of the team from Burroughs. In time, valuable 
additions from research groups working in related tech- 
nologies from Plessey, TI, STL and DEC, would arrive. 

Although association with wafer technology does nothing 
to enhance his self-styled stance as inventor and innovator, 
Sir Clive's support of these discredited research Objectives was 
undoubtedly a canny move at a time when Sinclair Research 
was in a position to fund such an enterprise. In acquiring 
Catt, Wilkinson et al. and the wafer-scale patents, en masse 
and cut-price, it is arguable that Sir Clive was making an 
acceptable high-risk investment in the future. Sinclair's 
appropriation of Catt's work mirrors his advocation and 
adoption of Denis Gabor's work in the development of flat- 
screen technology at Imperial College in the late 1950s. 

In a relatively short time it looked as if the investment 
would pay dividends. By spring 1985, Wilkinson's research 
suggested that the company could economically produce a 
wafer with a memory of half a megabyte for Sinclair's ill-fated 
QL microcomputer. Unfortunately, at the same time, the 
price of conventional memory chips fell dramatically. A few 
weeks later the financial crisis at Sinclair Research came to a 
head, precipitating the sequence of events which ended in the 
abortive "rescue" by Robert Maxwell. It seems likely that 
Sir Clive's preoccupation with the wafer-scale project 
exacerbated his lack of interest in the computer division of 
Sinclair Research, hastening a deterioration of the financial 
crisis to the point of no return. The fact that Sir Clive later 
turned down an offer that would have ensured the survival of 
the computer products tends to support the impression that, 
as far as he was concerned, home computers were history. 
However, while Sinclair may have been intrigued by the 
"intellectual challenge" of wafer-scale, it is equally clear that 
his much-lauded vision was decidedly myopic. 

- 6 - 


As soon as it became apparent that wafers with memories 
were unlikely to provide the funding for more sophisticated 
research, Robb Wilmot, chairman of ICL, was recruited onto 
the research board as troubleshooter. 

Wilmot’s brief was to drum up investment for the wafer- 
scale project. He soon recognised a potential that had eluded 
Sir Clive. Up until Wilmot's intervention, Sir Clive's exclu- 
sive direction for research into wafer-scales was towards the 
enhancement and development of Sinclair's existing tech- 
nology and projects. Wilmot approached the problem of 
investment with the conviction that a solution to the pro- 
duction of wafer-scale chips could propel Sinclair Research 
into a position where the company would challenge the 
leaders of the semiconductor industry. 

According to Wilmot, wafer-scale chips could revolutionise 
the design and production of all types of computers, and play 
a major role in communications products and defence 
systems (particularly radar equipment). In other words, the 
development of wafer-scale technology seemed poised to take 
Sinclair Research well out of its depth. Ironically, the 
company's capacity to raise finance was in a sense impeded 
by the exciting potential of its R&D resources. The public's 
recognition of Sinclair Research's managerial, marketing and 
financial shortcomings called into question its corporate 
ability to exploit effectively such an innovation. During the 
crisis in 1985, the odds were stacked against even ICL's well- 
connected supremo, Wilmot, coming up with a result. 
Malcolm Wilkinson sums up the difficulties facing the 
project, which are the same today as they were six months 
ago: “It’s semiconductors, which are bad news 10 the City at 
the moment... It’s wafer-scale technology, which has had 
some notable failures . . . and then there are the problems that 
Sinclair Research has got, and questions about the viability of 
the business side of it.” 

As a broker commented when the price of shares in 
Amstrad fell following the announcement of the deal with 
Sinclair, "The City . . . gets wobbles in the stomach when the 
name of Sinclair is mentioned.” In the event, Wilmot failed 
to find the backers. A fortuitous deal with the Dixon chain of 
shops enabled Sir Clive's company to struggle on into the 
New Year until Alan Sugar came to the rescue in April. 

With the Amstrad deal came the announcement that two 
separate companies would continue the projects on the radio 
telephone and wafer-scale technology. Sir Clive made it clear 
that he would have no part in the day-to-day running of either 
corporation. Barclays, the company's bankers, agreed to a 
limited investment package for wafer-scale technology with 
Sir Clive retaining a majority interest in the company, and the 
bank having an option to take up minority holdings. Desper- 
ately under-capitalised, it is hardly surprising that the team 
researching into wafer-scale technology is directing its atten- 
tion towards distinctly unspectacular goals. The only project 
announced by the company is a wafer with a memory of 5 
megabytes. It remains to be seen whether the experimental 
pilot production achieved in September 1985 can be 
sufficiently improved to create a product that can compete 
with conventional memory components in 1987. 

Ivor Catt has always insisted that memory products are 
merely an incidental spin-off from the main work of wafer- 
scale development. The main purpose of wafer-scale tech- 
nology, he believes, is to assist in the design of systems that 
will revolutionise computer architecture. A growing number 
of computer theorists are inclined to view these developments 
with interest, but Sinclair's company is hardly in a position to 
fund such ambitious research programes. So while wafers 
may yet hold a hope for the future, it seems unlikely that they 
hold out much hope for Sir Clive. ር] 


lan Adamson and Richard Kennedy are freelance authors and 
journalists. They have based this article on research for Uncle Clive, a 


critique of Clive Sinclair's technical and managerial practice, to be 
published by Penguin Books next September. 








ST CLASS MAGAZINE 






zi = 
v? Due ri 


At last a computer magazine on cassette 

tor the TIMEX SINCLAIR 2868. No longer 

will you have to type in long fastidious 

programs. no more bugs and headaches... 
„..just load and run 


BYTE POWER is the Ultimate magazine for the T52068. Each cassette 
is full of programs....a real ٦٥2863 owner's dream. 


BYTE POWER is a software based magazine with over 138 programs 
ja year. Most of then in Machine Language. Programs vary from 
he Arcade Game to the Word-Processor. And all for... 


Hit LESS THAN 39 cents A PROGRAM XXX 
(based on 1 year subscription) 


Plus....you get programming articles, software and hardware 
reviews, and tips on how to program better. 


I would like to receive: 

One issue - $5.59(U.S.) 

6 Month subscription (6 issues) - $29.99(U.S.) 
1 Year subscription (12 issues)- $49.99(U.S5.) 


18 Month subscription (18 issues) - $69.99(U.S.) 
You save almost $39.29 


3€ 2 Year subscription (24 issues) - $89.99(U.S.) 
You save over $49.9 


* ck SŁ, 


NAME: 

ADDRESS: 

CITY: STATE (PROV): CODE: 
Send your MONEY ORDER or CHEQUE to: 


BYTE POWER 
1748 Meadowview Avenue 
Pickering, Ontario, Canada Liv 368 


-7- 


Reprinted from S.U.M. May/36 


Product/Dealer News 


Gulf Micro Electronics, 1317 Stratford Ave., Panama 
City, FL 32404, has available a comprehensive software 
package on either cassette or special expanded version 
on disc for Aerco FD-68 users. Entitled SMART TEXT TS- 
2068, the author, Bill Jones, refers to the package as 
"Administrative Software". There are four operating pro- 
grams, including a Data Base, a Word Processor, a Mail- 
ing List Manager, and a special Printer Patch program. 
Disc version comes with an automatic, self-adapting 
version of Printer Patch, and a Program Tutor file. Both 
versions come with full documentation. Price $34.00 ppd. 
When requesting information, ask about new versions for 
the Oliger Disk System and Zebra's 05-64 Cartridge. 

Speaking of Aerco's popular disc system, there is a 
specialty user group catering to this system and a news- 
letter which is publsihed quarterly. Cost for a one year 


subscription is $15. For information, write to: David 
Hill, 1159 S. Shore Dr. #12, Holland, MI 49423. 

You might also consider subscribing to a cassette- 
based magazine for the T/S 2068 called BYTE POWER. Each 


tape has programs ranging from Arcade games to Business 
programs. There are also reviews and programming tips. 
One tape (sample issue) is $5.50. Six issues, $29.99, 
and 12 issues for $49.99. Send check or money order to: 


Byte Power, 1748 Meadowview Ave., Pickering, Ontario, 
Canada L1V 308. 
Sprite graphics, the key to successful game pro- 


gramming is an area that hasn't been addressed too often 
for the 2068. Now two programmers (from separate states) 
have collaborated on a new software development package 
called SPRITES 2068. It contains several machine code 
utilities, demos, and a 34 page manual. Priced now at 
$19 ppd. Send check or money order and inquiries to 
either: Vern Tidwell, 1303 Whitehead St., Key West, FL 
33040, or Ron Ruegg, 37529 Perkins Road, Prairieville, 
LA 70769. 

Beaver Computer Products, 999 Munroe Ave, Winnipeg, 
Manitoba, Canada R2K 1J4, the company that features 
"extended video mode" software for the T/S 2068, has 
some new titles. "Beaver Writer" is touted as the first 
80 column word processor for the 2068, and "Character 
Font Generator" lets you add character (pun intended) to 
programs and text. Prices: Beaver Writer, $25 (U.S.), 
Character Font Generator, $15 (U.S.). A catalog which 
includes a demo tape is available for $1.50 (U.S.). 

Some very exciting software has been developed ኩሃ 
another Canadian company called Novelsoft (106 Seventh 
Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M8V 3B4). Some of you 
may be familiar with David ር. Ridge, who has had ከ15 
ARTWORX marketed in Great Britain for the Spectrum, and 
is currently the Senior Programmer for Novelsoft. Now 
there is an improved version of his popular graphics 
package for the T/S 2068 called ARTWORX version 1.1. It 
is priced at $19.95 (U.S.) + $3 postage. Another program 
being offered for the 2068, and should sell quite well 
here in the states, is a Basic Compiler called TIMACHINE 
and is reported to outperform any compiler on the market 
today for the Timex. Timachine will handle all Basic 
commands (except 1/0), and will convert your program to 
fast machine code in seconds. The program is priced at 
$19.95 (U.S.) * $3 postage. 

A.F.R. Software, 1605 Pennsylvania Ave. £204, Miami 
Beach, FL 33139, has three software programs for the 
T/S 1000/1500/2X81 (and versions for the 2068). ZX-TEXT 
is a word processor, ZX-CALC is professional spreadsheet 
program and accounting model package, and ZX-CALENDER is 
time-management program. All three titles are priced at 
$16.95 each * $3 postage. 

BF Kimbrough KEL "In-Memory Operating System Ver. 


1.0" for the T/S 1000 and ZX81, is an interesting soft- 
ware utility. It is written in relocatable machine code 
and operates in BASIC or user defined area. The oper- 


ating system also features ten user-definable function 


keys. Price: $7.97. Send check or money order to: ፪፻ 
Kimbrough, 723 Roselle Ave. Flr 2, Akron, OH 44307. 

COMLINK I is an RS-232 serial communications inter- 
face for the T/S 1000 and ZX81. All software is in EPROM 
for instant loading, and COMLINK I can be used with any 
300 baud modem. All operating power is derived from the 
Sinclair. The advanced software is menu-driven and has 
many features including user defined Macro keys, auto- 
repeat, expanded character set, and more. For further 
information and prices, write to: A. Eckhardt, 918 Anna 
Street, Boalsburg, PA 16827. 

Curry Computer, PO Box 5607, Glendale, AZ 85312, 
has obtained the exclusive marketing rights to an out- 
standing line of software developed in France, Pyramide 
Software for the QL, is popular in Europe, and has now 
come to America (thanks to Curry). WANDERER is a 3-D 
space arcade game that requires the user to wear the 
supplied red/blue glasses. VROOM is a racing simulation. 
The driver sits in a Grand Prix racer, and maneuvers 
around five different tracks. QL-PEINTRE is a graphic- 
design package that is very similar to MacDraw and Mac- 
Paint. OTHELLO is a 3-D (no glasses required with this 
one) version of the classic game. Write to Curry for a 
complete catalog with prices. 

PCIMPORT is a program that permits your QL to down- 
load ASCII files from an IBM PC via direct link. This 
permits the transfer of documents, program source code 
or any other ASCII encoded file from the IBM ቦር to the 
QL. Also included is a conversion program that converts 
Micro Soft Basic to QL Super Basic. For a catalog of 
QL items and prices (including PCIMPORT), write to: 
MIN-NY Electronics Inc., 7332 Douglas Dr., No. Brooklyn 
Park, MN 55443, 

A+ Computer Response of Keene, New Hampshire, has 
added five new American QL dealers to their list, making 
a total of 17. The new dealers are: Markel Enterprises, 
PO Box 2392, Secaucus, NJ 07094; C.W. Associates, 419 N. 
Johnson St., Ada, OH 45810; Variety Sales, 325 W. Jersey 
St., Elizabeth, NJ 07202; Quantum Computing, 8 Gillen 
Street, Mine Hill, NJ 07801; and Info-Mation, RR#1 Box 
260, California, MO 65018. 

The Second Annual Mid-West Timex/Sinclair Computer- 
fest will be held in Indianapolis, Indiana on the first 
weekend of May 1987. The core of organizers for the 
Cincinnati show are currently slating plans for the 1987 
"reunion" of dealers, exhibitors, and Sinclair fans from 
the mid-west and virtually everywhere else. If you would 
like to obtain some preliminary information...write to: 
Frank Davis, 513 East Main St., Peru, IN 46970 (send a 
S.A.S.E.) or call (evenings) 317-473-4885. There has 
been interest expressed in T/S Computerfests for the New 
York/New Jersey area, and for the west coast (possibly 
San Francisco?), but so far, nothing definite has been 
planned. 

"Commrades...a1] together now...enter the keyword 
[PRINT] and followed by CARL MARX in quotations." And 
its all for the good of the party! Whats going on here? 
The Polish government is about to receive 800,000 Timex 
2068's and 200,000 FDD-3000 Dual 3" Disk Drive Systems, 
to be used in public schools and institutions. The "iron 
curtain" deal was recently struck between the Timex 
Corporation and a Polish industrial firm (through a 
neutral distribution agency. 0.K., now how many issues 
of TDM should be shipped? 

The temporary shortage of three inch (Hitachi type) 
floppy disks is over...and supplys are very good. The 
following companies have the "special" disks in stock 
for immediate shipping: Zebra Systems Inc., (718) 296- 
2385; Peripherals Direct, (312) 498-9244; Speedysoft 
(London, England) 01-789-8546; various other dealers 
around Great Britain. Resulting from a recent deal 
struck between Amstrad International and Sears, various 
selected Sears outlets will carry the 3" disks. 


-8- 





The following is reprinted from 
The Plotter, Vol 2, # 7 « 8. 


EXTENDED BASIC FOR THE 
TS 1000 


by Dick Wagner, CCAT/S 


Extended Basic will put new life 
into your computer, give you FAST 
performanc, and will provide you 
with some new programming tools 
now used on the 2068 computer. 
Extended Basic is a program that 
uses machine code stored in REM 0 
and is accessed ANY time in your 
program with REM and then the 
command written out (no keywords). 
Thus you can mix Sinclair Basic 
with Entended Basic freely, use 
Extended Basic or Sinclair Basic 
alone. The interpreter is called 
with GOSUB 0 in the line ahead of 
the REM Extended Basic statement. 


There are 22 new commands at your 
disposal, you can put multiple 
comnands and statements in a line, 
you can use all 24 lines, and 
PRINT automatically. 


Here are some of the commands that 
make this program so interesting 
DRAW, UNDRAW, RESTORE, DATA, READ, 
FILL, MOVE, CIRCLE, UNCIRCLE, 
PAPER, UNPAPER, and SCROLL. Some 
of these are duplicates of 2068 
comnands. 


So called "standard" commands such 
as LEFT$, MID$, and RIGHT$ are 
provided which is helpful for 
other makes of computers. DATA, 
READ, and RESTORE permit the use 
of a DATA statement and then READ 
it into a program. Thus you can 
use many 2068 programs using such 
data input methods. 


INPUT and OUTPUT are new to you. 
KEY replaces INKEYS$ while IN and 
OUT permit access to the rear port 
to control peripheral equipment. 
KEY will return values of multiple 
key presses. IN and OUT works in 


! 
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2 
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2 
i 
? 
! 
! 
! 
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! 
! 
? 
2 
H 
? 
a 
? 
? 
2 
2 
2 
2 
2 
! 
? 
! 
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2 
2 
! 
! 
! 
! 
! 


either FAST or SLOW modes and 
control and get data from any I/O 
mapped device and maintain a 
continuous display. 


There are 11 ERROR CODES that 
indicate the kind of error and 
where it happened. This program 
can be merged with any program of 
less than 8K length and be put 
into REM O so it works properly. 


EXTENDE BASIC is available on 
cassette from Thomas B. Woods for 
U.S.$19.95 + $1.50 5፳ከ. Send to 
P.O. Box 64, Jefferson, NH 03583. 


‹ሩሩ‹ሩሩ‹ሩሩ‹ሩሩሩሩሩ‹ሩ‹ሩ‹ሩ<ሩሩ‹ሩሩ<ሩረሩሩ<ሩ<ሩ<ሩ<<ሩሩ<ሩ<ሩረሩሩ 


2068 TIPS 


-- To find out how much memory you 
have when using the SPECTRUM ROM 
try this line: PRINT 65536 — USR 
7962. The result is the same as 
the FREE command on the 2068. 


-- When saving a multi-part 
program, insert POKE 23736,181 
between the SAVE statements and 
the computer will then SAVE all 
the parts of the program without 
the " Start the Tape" prompt. 


== POKE 23756,0 will change the 
first line of a program to Line 0 , 


-- POKE 23692, 255 will provide 
automatic scrolling on long text 
programs. 


We are presently exchanging 
newsletters with the following 
Sinclair User Groups. If anyone 
wishes to read any of the 
newsletters on file just let me 


know... Rod. 


*TRIANGLE SUG 
JOUGLASS DEWEY 

96 JAMES ST. 
3RRBORO,NC 27514 


„S.U.G. of CINCINNATI 
. FUNSTON LN. 
NCINNATI, OH 45218 


*VICTORIA SYNC ASSOCIATION 
MR.D SHOOLIGIN 

942 CLOVERDALE AVE. 
VICTORIA, BC V8X 2T6 


*CAPITOL AREA T.S.U.G. 
P.0.BOX 725 
BLANDENBURG, MARYLAND 29716 


*TIME DESIGNS 
29722 HULT RD. 
COLTON, OREGON 97917 


*TORONTO TS USERS 
P.0.BOX 7274, STN. A 
TORONT, ONT M5W 1x9 


XSINCLAIR USERS MAGAZINE 
2/0 3224 NW 38th AVE. 
GAINSVILLE, FL 5 


*PORTLAND AREA USERS 
4798 S.W. 2815۲. AVE. 
ALOHA, OREGON 7 


*T/SUG OF FORT WORTH 
C/O DAVID BAULCH 
4424 GEDDES AVE. 
FT.WORTH, TX 76197 


*BOSTON COMPUTER SOCIETY 
SINCLAIR SECTION 
ONE CENTRE PLAZA 
BOSTON, MA 92198 


XN/E FLORIDA TS USERS GROUP 
C/O JOHN KUHN 

17487 KING ST. 

JACKSONVILLE, FL 32264 


¥ZX USERS GP OF NEW YORK 
C/O G.CORONADO 

BOX 568 - WALL ST. 

NEW YORK, NY 19695 


*PORTLAND AREA TS USERS GP 
C/O KEVIN FOWLER 

6854 N.E. MULTNOMAH 
PORTLAND, OR 97213 


*ATSU-HOME COMPUTER USERS 
C/O RAY THORTON 
P.0.BOX 16274 


XSOUTHWESTERN T.S.U.G. 
C/O CARL MILES 

1233 SANDLER ST. N.E. 
ALBUQUERQUE, NM 82112 


¥SINCLAIR COMPUTER USERS SOC 
SINCUS NEWS 

P.0.BOX 36 

JOHNSON CITY, NY 13798 


XCLACKAMAS COUNTY AREA 
TS GROUP; C/O ROD GOWEN 
1419 1/2 7TH ST. 

OREGON CITY, OR 97845 


XCENTRAL PA T/S USERS GROUP 
ZYNAPSE-C/O R.HEIL 

1525 N. ASHWICKEN CT. 

STATE COLLEGE, PA 16891 


-10- 





*GAINESVILLE TS USERS 
C/0 JOE WILLIAMSON 
3748 NEWBERRY RD. 
GAINESVILLE, FL 32447 


*BOSTON AREA TS USERS 
C/O RICK HEISER 

4 OX RGAD 

BILLERICA, MA 91829 


XSOUTH BAY COMPUTER CLUB 
C/0 JOHN PETERSON 

2316 WALNUT AVE. 
MANHATTAN BEACH, CA 99266 


XHAMPTON ROADS T.S.U.G. 
17 REX AVE. 
PORTSMOUTH, 


VA 23702-2925 


*L.I.S.T. 
P.0.BOX 438 
CENTERPORT, NY 11721-9438 


*STHN VA T/S COMPUTER USERS 
C/O GARY PRESTON 

RT 1,BOX 21 

GLADE HILL, VA 24992 


*NEWSLETTER EXCHANGE 
SVSTUG (TIMELINEZ/SINCLINK) 
6675 CLIFFORD DRIVE 
CUPERTINO, CA 95914-4539 


¥CIRCLE CHESS TS USERS 
C/O A.F.STANONIS 

BOX 63 

DES PLAINES, IL 7ء‎ 


*T.S. HORIZONS 
2962 SUMMITT ST. 
PORTSMOUTH. OHIO 45662 


*THE GREATER CLEVELAND *T.U.G. of LAS VEGAS *SMUG BYTES 


SINCLAIR USERS GROUP C/O J. SUMPOLEC OE SAVE FRANSON 

6514 BRADLEY AVE. (DOWN) 2495 HOWARD DR. 2702 N. MURRAY AVE. NO. 1 
PARMA, OHIO 44129 LAS VEGAS, NV 89194 MILWAUKEE, WI 53211 

¥T/S USERS-MILE HIGH CHAPTER *TSUG OTTAWA/HULL ¥WMJ DATA SYSTEMS 
me 1268 MAITLAND AVE. 4 BUTTERFLY DRIVE 

AURORA. CO Bemis OTTAWA, ONT., K2C 2C6 HAUPPAUGE, NY 11788 
EE *HAMPTON ROADS TS USERS GP  XKEYBOARDS 

ARARTARG ےجرد ےچ پر‎ C/O DAVID ALFORD C/O PAUL KALINSKI 
مویہ‎ 112 KOHLER CRESCENT 12736 N. 17TH ST. APT I-212 
MEXICO. DF. NEWPORT NEWS, VA 23496 TAMPA, FL 33612 


መሪ መሪ መያ‏ یہ መሪ‏ یہ یہ یہ io OG‏ یہ መጨ‏ یہ یہ یہ OG‏ یہ ጮህ መሪ OG OG OG OG‏ یہ یہ ጨ፡ OG‏ یہ یہ OG መሠ‏ یہ یہ OG‏ یہ OG መሪ OG OG መሠ OG OG OG OG‏ یہ یہ یہ یہ یہ یہ 


THIS IS A LIST OF PHONE NUMBERS THAT ARE ANSWERED BY A COMPUTER. MOST ARE BULLITON BOARDS. 

SOME BELONG 70 COMPANIES (NO CRACKING, OKAY). SOME BELONG TO UNKNOWN COMPUTERS - MOST LIKELY FEDERAL GOVT SYSTEMS. 
THIS LIST IS NOT COMPLETE BY Å LONG SHOT BUT SHOULD KEEP YSU MODEMERS BUSY FOR Å WHILE. 

MAKE SURE YOU GIVE CITY-LINK à CALL AND HAVE A LOOK AT THE VARIOUS DISCUSSIONS HOSTED BY CUR OWN JOHN BROHMAN. 


B.B.S. Name Number 


* dede ce e de de dede cde oe Nede Fe Fe de de de de de de År dece de de de de de He He eoe kkk He de de de de He جا‎ 


Unknown -------------------------------- 669-2215 
Unknown -------------------------------- 669-2234 
Unknown -—------------------------------- 669-2377 
Unknown -------------------------------- 669-2402 
Unknown -—--------------------------2----- 669-2460 
Unknown -------------------------------- 669-2602 
Unknown —-------------------------------- 669-4527 
Hav-Info-------------------------------- 683-1991 
Soto Blue C64 -------------------------- 683-1914 
Sota Main ------------------------------ 688-5061 
Datapac node --------------------------- 689-8601 
Twilight Zone -------------------------- 731-2724 
Element County ------------------------- 731-6966 
Ed Net ----------------------------2----- 734-3282 
Ground Zero ---------------------------- 736-7823 
Fast80 #3 ------------------------------ 738-2773 
Compuserve node ------------------------ 738-5157 
Turbo BBS ------------------------------ 738-7811 
Ibliss BBS ----------------------------- 872-2316 
Unknown ---------------------------2----- 874-8350 
Unknown -------------------------------- 875-9788 
Oneiro's Oracle ------------------------ 876-4868 
Swap Shop ------------------------------ 888-0052. 
Unknown -------------------------2------- 943-0734 
Unknown -------------------------------- 946-0955 


M.C.R. መመ“. ent mii oum t oi de sut O 8... لچ‎ cen om cin. ہے‎ መ ብ ብ ብ 222-1551 


Citylink ------------------------------- 222-2000 
Microstat -------------------------2----- 224-2337 
9067 UBC NIUM -------------------------- 228-9051 
Medical Services ----------------------- 261-5150 
Unknown -------------------------------- 261-6020 
Sparkboard ----------------------------- 261-9149 
Midi BBS ------------------------------- 263-8487 
Blackboard ----------------------------- 263-8573 
Missing Link ----------------------.---- 270-3657 
CCC BBS ---------------------2--2--------- 271-1082 
Startrader ----------------------------- 272-2549 
Disk Box ------------------------------- 274-7900 
B.A.M.H. Handicapped ------------------- 291-0542 
V.S.E. —-—-------------2-2--2----2--2----2------ 321-1130 
Unknown -------------------------------- 321-2161 
ASCII Express -------------------------- 321-4581 
Castle Arrrrrgh ------------------------ 327-9494 
LG73 ----------------------------2------- 327-9762 
New (after 10pm) ----------------------- 421-2301 
Buy & Sell ----------------------------- 433-6713 
Hardcore (answer) ---------------------- 438-2011 
Hardcore (node) ------------------------ 596-2011 
Hardcore ----------------------------—-——- 873-2011 
Unknown -------------------------------- 597-1964 
Dillingham Corp ------------------------ 669-0570 
Unknown -------------------------------- 438-2131 
Unknown -------------------------------- 475-7699 
Fast80 45 ------------------------------ 520-1470 
Peephole -----------------.------------- 526-3587 
Unknown -------------------------------- 531-6473 
Unknown ------------------------.-------- 534-1605 
OS-9 ---------------------2-2-2-2-2--------- 536-0024 
Unknown -------------------------------- 536-8533 
Unknown -------------------------2------- 574-3836 
Real State ------------------------—-——=—= 574-0015 
Delta80 -------------------------------- 585-0680 
Delta80II ------------------------------ 585-5614 
Unknown ---------------------------2----- 588-4375 
OTO BBS -------------------------------- 589-0592 
Unknown ---------------------—=-—-—-=——=———— 590-0851 
Fast Master --------------------- መ= መመመ 594-7398 
Fantasia ------------------------------- 594-8165 
Unknown --------------------------~-~~~- 669-0906 
Unknown ---------------------2--2-2-2--2----- 669-0960 
Unknown -------------------------------- 669-1931 


THE ZEEPER SPEAKS... 


Greetings to my favorite 
orphans, 


Oh I can hear the groans 
now. Here comes the Zeeper to 
further humiliate us. Well, rest 
assured that I have managed to 
contain my smugness over the 
demise of one Sir Clive Sinclair 
from the computer world. There 
will be no I-told-you-so's or 
muffled giggles. The Zeeper is 
much too big a person for that 
sort of thing. In fact, I was 
raised to be kind to those less 
fortunate than myself. 

I thought you would like 
to hear what has been happening 
in the world of real computers. 
I have just returned from the 
annual convention of Zeepers 
International. Yes, there are 
many Zeepers in the world of 
computers. In fact, you will 
find our handiwork wherever 
people congregate around any 
brand of computer. At our 
convention, we compared notes 
and had a great time. Yours 
truly, won an award for 
single-handedly picking off 
Clive Sinclair. There were 
others even more prominent. 

Over in Amiga land we were 
very busy making sure that this 
super-duper mega graphics, 
all-in-one, humdinger computer 
from Commodore received the same 
level of after-market support as 
the Edsel. That was called the 
Great Deception Campaign. The 
Amiga has GREAT GRAPHICS- if you 
buy the very expensive extra 
memory to make it work! The 
Amiga is IBM COMPATIBLE- if you 
can find a software emulator 
that is faster than an epileptic 
slug or buy a Sidecar hardware 
add-on for mega-bucks! The Amiga 
takes a HARD DRIVE- and about 


-13- 


$2000.00 ! The Amiga does 
MULTI-TASKING- if you have about 
six months to do nothing else 
but figure out how to make it 
work! 

Apple land is completely 
under Zeeper control. We thought 
they had learned their lesson 
with LISA. That was not the 
case. Enter MacIntosh. A cute 
little machine with a Mouse. We 
made sure it was absolutely 
impossible to do anything on 
your own with that silly little 
rodent. We made sure it was so 
tied up with source code 
spaghetti and legal restrictions 
that nobody would support it. 
Apple will never recover. 

IBM is not forgotten 
either. BIG BLUE land requires a 
full division of Zeepers. Now 
IBM is not an opponent to be 
taken lightly. We are talking 
about the Great Grand Mogul of 
the computer world. Only the 
most experienced Zeepers get on 
the BIG BLUE team. There is an 
entirely different tactic used 
with BIG BLUE. First, every time 
they come out with a new machine 
of any significant value, we 
make sure it is cloned to death. 
Everybody and their dog can make 
an IBM PC compatible better and 
cheaper than IBM, with a lot 
more features. Next, we made it 
the industry standard. This was 
not the blessing it would appear 
to be. We also made it the most 
boring of machines. Everyday all 
around the world, millions of 
people are doing very boring 
menial little jobs with an IBM 
PC. They are using boring LOTUS 
and boring SYMPHONY and 
particularly boring WORDSTAR and 
DBASE. There is an entire 
industry devoted to making 
endlessly boring spreadsheets, 
data bases, and word-processors. 
IBM PC users are doomed to a 
life of tedious boredom. 

There aren't many fun 


things to do with an IBM PC. The 
BIG BLUE division is ever 
vigilant to make sure that "fun" 
software writers stay 
un-discovered. In fact, our 
division has been so successful 
that it cost an arm and a leg to 
advertise in IBM glossy 
magazines so that the "fun" 
writers can't afford to 
advertise. The only way to get 
the real fun stuff is if you get 
freeware on a BBS. The fun guys 
are actually begging you to pay 


free. It's sad. Even I couldn't 


be that cruel. We have coined 
the phrase Incredibly Boring 
Machine. The next time you see a 
wretched little data entry clerk 
hunched over a desk with eyes 
permanently glazed over you'll 
know how effective the BIG BLUE 
division has been. 

So you see, we Zeepers 
haven't just singled out you 
lowly Timex users. We spread 
around. You guys are just my 
particular specialty. Don't 
think that because I finally 
stomped Sir Clive into the mud 
face first, that I am finished 
with you. Not by a long shot. 


it 


ጓሮ ሠ ሠ ነሁ ሆ ዓ پاپ‎ ነሆ ጓካሁ ሠሪ  ዓሯ ነሪ ነሆ “ኻሮ ሠ ዓሁ ጓሆ ነሆ ጓሆ ጓሮ ጓሆ ዓ/ vv ነሆ ዓሠ ነሪ ሠ vv Op Ab Oy ሠ يہ‎ Ay Oy ዓዖ ሠ ነሁ ሠ ي‎ ፍሆ پ۹‎ ጓሆ * ص۹‎ *ሆ  ሦ ና ና ሠ 





T/S 2066 SOUND ROUTINES 
GUNSHOTS bu- Re HUSSEN, مس توچ رو‎ sone: - EXPLOSION: - 
ją ۱ 2 42 = 42 
7,52;8,15 SOUND 5,6;7,7;8,15;9,15 
48 SOUND 5,15;7%,7;,8,15;9,15 18 SOUND 7,82;83,185 18 16.15:12,55;13,8 
10,15; 45,227 13,8 20 FOR I=5@ TO 108 sed eg 
ek a = 
2a us 52 = -PRIIS = 
20 PAUSE 62 30 SOUND O,I;PRUSE ہیں‎ syynp 9,0;9,0; 10,0 
30 GOTO 38 JE de = 


A c kc oc kc ae 2K kc 2K e kc ፡ች ፋች ቸቹ ዛች XC 2K ET ETTE EEE EE ETE TETTE ET ETE ተች EEE EEE 


Dial-by-voice phone on line 


Å speech recognizer patented this week has made possible a new 
dial-by-voice car telephone to be introduced this summer. Three 
staff scientists at AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, N.J., were 
awarded patent 4,587,670 for the mathematical procedure, which is 
said to eliminate 90 per cent of the computation previously required 
to identify spoken sounds. 

The new cellular phone, developed by AT&T Consumer Products 
as AT&T 1280, will enable a motorist to dial a number by pronouncing 
a person’s name. Twenty different numbers can be stored. The qua- 
lities of each sound are compared statistically rather than by com- 
paring recorded patterns. The inventors are Stephen E. Levinson, 
Lawrence R. Rabiner and Man M. Sondhi. 





=1 ዛ፦ 








PLAYING WITH ELECTRICITY (fx) by Harvey Taylor 


In the course of developing my Fractal program, I have 
developed data compression/expansion procedures for use with 
QL graphics screens. The price one pays for high resolution 
in a bit mapped display is lots of memory used in the frame 
buffer, the display file, the video ram....whatever you want 
to call that portion of memory devoted to the display. In 
particular, the QL uses 32K bytes for the primary screen. A 
little bit of arithmetic will tell you that is 256K bits. The 
maximum resolution is 512x256, ie. 128K points; which means 
that the QL uses 2 bits per pixel in mode 4 and has 4 
colours. In mode 8 ( 256x256 screen), there are 4 bits per 
Pixel which would give 16 colours, except that one bit is 
assigned to FLASH, so there are only (2”3=)8 colours. 

The practical problem is that every time you save a 
whole screen of information it takes up 32K of mass storage. 
On floppy disks you can live with these numbers, but on 
microdrive the story is different. Each microdrive can hold 
about 110K or three screens & precious little else. 

The practical solution is data compression. The method I 
used, called run length encoding, is the height of 
simplicity. Begin at the start of the screen. Look for 
sequences of more than three consecutive bytes which are the 
same. If you come across succeeding bytes which are 
different, save the individual bytes. When you find more 
than three bytes the same, save a flag byte, a count of the 
bytes and the byte itself. Thus using this method, a complete 
screen of one colour could be saved in three bytes. In 
practice, the amount of compression depends upon how much of 
the screen is the same colour. 

You might have wondered how the program reacts if it 
comes across a single byte which is the same as the flag 
byte. Clearly one must choose a flag byte which is not 
common. However in the unlikely event of this happening, the 
saving procedure appends a length of zero which tells the 
loading procedure "This is not a flag byte." 

The code below is extensively commented. Drop me a line 
& a blank microdrive if you wish a copy of the code. 


፥ SSAVE, SLOAD 

፥ by Harvey Taylor 

፥ 
GET 'flpl_STANDARD_HDR6" 

CN_ITOHW EQU $FC 

10 FSTRG EBU j 

FLAG EQU $1234 

SET_UP_PROC LEA PROC_TABL,A1 ቆቶ Link procedures into Superbasic 
VECT N BP INIT,A2 
MOVER 08 
RTS 

PROC_TABL DCW 2 + # OF PROCEDURES 
DC.W 55ለሃፔ-፥ + POINTER 


= 15- 


SSAVE 


SCRSAVE 
8 LOOP 


FIRST_TST 


+ # LEN OF NAME 
+ NAME! 


+ END OF PROC 
፥ # OF FUNCTIONS 


+ END OF TABLE 


+ ANY PARAMETERS? 


፥ NUMBER OF PARAMETERS 


* END OF BUFFER MARK 


+ BUFFER COUNT.W OF BYTES 
+ Gti inc 8080 TO CHECK 


፥ AT THIS POINT THERE ARE NOW AT LEAST 3 OF THE SAME WORDS IN A ROW 


CHK_FLAG 


REGULAR 


R LOOP 


INSERT 


INSERT ONE 


INSERT TWO 


SCR TEST 


08:8 5 
DC.B — 'SSAVE' 
DC.N — SLOAD-+ 
۵8:8 5 

DC.B — 'SLOAD' 
DC.N 8 

ርዝ 8 

DC.L 8 

CNOP 8,2 

CMPA.L A5,A3 

BEQ ፻፻ ERROR 
VECTOR CA_GTSTR,A2 
CHPI.W 81,03 

BNE — BP ERROR 
BSR OPEN NCHAN 
BNE — ERR EXIT 
MOVE.L ة3‎ 
LEA — BUF MARK,A4 
LEA 5 
MOVE 7 
MOVE.W (3) ,D3 
CHP.W 2/63) ,D3 
BNE INSERT ONE 
CHP.W — 4(A3),D3 
BNE _ INSERT TWO 
CHPI.W FLAG, (A3) 
BNE REGULAR 
MOVE.W #FLAG, (A5) 
MOVE.W #0, (A5)+ 
۸008. 44,02 

BRA — SCR TEST 
MOVEO 81 

ADDO — ፅፅ ة3‎ 
CHP.W (1) ,03 
BNE INSERT 
ADDO 11,01 

ADDO — 12,43 
CHPA.L 3 
BLT R LOOP 
MOVE.W ۰۶+ 
MOVE.W ۶ 
MOVE.W D3, (AS)+ 
۸00. #6,D2 

BRA — SCR TEST 
MOVE.W D3, (A5) + 
ADDO — 42,02 
ADDQ.L : 73 

BRA — SCR TEST 
MOVE.W D3, (AS) + 
MOVE. 2143), (A5)+ 
ADDO 44.12 

۵008 ሯ44,ለ፤ 
CMPA.L 3 


፥ FLAG? 
* INSERT FLAG 
+ ZERO COUNT 
# SET UP WORD COUNT.W 
+ ARE THE NEXT BYTES THE SAME? 


+ WORD ۷ 


* FLAG 

+ REPEAT COUNT. ዘ 

* OBJECT 

+ INCREASE BYTE COUNT.W 


+ BUFFER BYTES COUNT.W 


-16- 




















BET 
CMPA.L 
BLT 
MOVE.L 
MOVE 
LEA 
QDOS 
BNE 
CMPA.L 
BLE 
BRA 


BUF TEST 


SAVE STRE 


SLOAD CHPA.L 
BEQ 
VECTOR 
CMPI.W 
BNE 
BSR 


BNE 


MOVE.L 
MOVE. W 
BSR 
BEQ 
CMPI.L 
BNE 
LEA 
CMPA.L 
BEQ 
LEA 
CMPI.W 
BEG 
MOVE. W 
CMPA.L 
BBE 
CMPA.L 
BET 
BRÅ 

a flag 
ለ008... 
CHPA.L 
BGE 
MOVEQ 
MOVE. W 
BEQ 
CMPA.L 
BGE 
MOVE. W 
SUBO. W 
MOVE. W 
DBRA 
CAPA.L 
BLT 
BRA 
MOVE. W 


BET_STRG 


GS CONT 
CHK WORD 


* at this point 
PROCESS 


BUILD LOOP 
BU LOOP 


END TEST 


ZEROCOUNT 


5۸۷۲. 6 

A4,A5 * ARE WE PAST THE MARK 
FIRST_TST 

D7,A8 * FILE CHAN ID 
t-1,D3 + TIMEOUT 

BUFFER, Al # D2 ALREADY SET UP 
10_SSTRG,3 

ERROR 

1528080,43 * PAST END? 

B LOUP 

CLOSE UP * CLOSE UP & QUIT 
AS ,A3 * ANY PARAMETERS? 

BP_ERROR 

LA BTSTR,A2 + 8005 ROM call leaves string on stack 
#1,D3 ፥ NUMBER OF PARAMETERS 
BP_ERROR 

OPEN ۷ 

ERR_EXIT 

፥፥20000,ለ5 ፥ DISPLAY BUFFER 
+$208,D2 * BUF LEN.W 

FETCH 

65 CONT * if OK, go ahead 
፥-10,08 + End of File? 

ERR EXIT 

BUFFER , A2 

A2,A1 

CLOSE_UP * IF EOF & DATA, PROCESS 
BUFFER ,A2 
` #FLAG, (ለ2) 

PROCESS 

(A2)+, (AS) + ፥ PUT WORD ON SCREEN 
A1,A2 + END OF BUFFER? 
BET STRG 

152808, 5 

CLOSE UP ቶ IF > END OF DFILE 
CHK_WORD 
word has been seen 

#2,A2 

A1,A2 * END OF BUFFER? 
GET_COUNT 

#0,D6 * CLEAR TOP BYTES 
(82) +,Dó + GET COUNT 
ZEROCOUNT 

A1,A2 

BET, OBJECT 

(A2)+,D5 ፥ GET OBJECT 

#1,D6 * ADJUST FOR DBRA 
D5, (A5)+ * PUT OBJECT ON SCREEN 
D5,BU LOOP 

ስ1,ጳ2 + END OF BUFFER? 
CHK_WORD 

GET STRG 

FLAG, (A5) + 


-17- 





` GET COUNT 


8C CONT 


GET OBJECT 


G0 CONT 


FETCH 


ÜPEN OCHAN 


OPEN NCHAN 
OPEN CHAN 


OG EXIT 
BP ERROR 
ERR EXIT 


ERROR 


CLOSE UP 


EXIT 


፥ 
FILE_CHAN 
BUFFER 
BUF MARK 


BRA 
MOVE.W 
BSR 
BEQ 
CHPI.L 
BNE 
CMPA.L 
BEQ 
LEA 


MOVE. ዘ 
BEQ 


MOVE.W 
BSR 
BEQ 
CMPI.L 
BNE 
CMPA.L 
BEQ 
LEA 
MOVE.W 
BRA 
LEA 
MOVEQ 
MOVE.L 
2005 
RTS 
MOVEQ 
BRA 
MOVE 
LEA 
MOVE 
QDOS 
BNE 
LEA 
MOVE. L 
MOVE.L 
MOVEQ 
RTS 
MOVEQ 


VELT N 
BRA 


VECT_N 
LEA 
MOVE.L 
0008۷ 
MOVED 
RTS 


DS.L 
05.1. 
05.1 
END 


END_TEST 
12,02 
FETCH 

ፀር CONT 
i-18,08 
ERR EXIT 
A1,A2 

ERR EXIT 
BUFFER A2 


(A2) +, Då 
LEROCOUNT 


82,02 
FETCH 
60_CONT 
i-10,D8 
ERR EXIT 
A1,A2 

ERR EXIT 
BUFFER „AŻ 
(2) +,DS 
BUILD LOUP 
8481 
8-3, 
00 
103 


* BUF LEN.W 


+ EOF? 


+ COUNT 


+ OBJECT 


* TIMEDUT 

* CHAN ID 

* fetch string 
18,03 # OLD EXCLUSIVE FILE 
OPEN CHAN 
82,03 
8(A5,A1.L) „AB 
8-1 
10۵2 


* NEW EXCLUSIVE FILE 
+ AØ=> FILENAME 
+ THIS JOB 


'OC EXIT 


FILE CHAN,AI 
A8, (AL) 
A8,D7 

40,08 


፥ CHAN ID 


1-15,08 


UT ERR,A2 
EXIT 


UT ERRØ,A2 
FILE CHAN,AI 
(A1) „AB 

10 CLOSE, 2 
10,08 


128 ፥ POSSIBLE SECTOR SIZE + ? 
16 


-18- 








WORKING WITH THE ZXGL/TSL0G6 DISPLAY FILE 


By Ken Abramson 


The April, 55 Newsletter (Page 41 gave ል 
neat little drawing program called, 
"PRINT." Here is the original listing: 


18 REM 

11 REM PHIL DOUGHTY 
VIC 64 
P.O. BOX 5118 
PROVIDENCE, RI 02985 


38 LET v=5 

25 IHPUT = 

40 PRINT HT vY,x;5%; 

56 IF Z THEN PRINT AIS VE GT RE 

525 IF INKEY$="5" AND 40 THEN 
LET AsSX=i 

78 IF oe ab AND 4<51 THEN 
E. ጆ=ጺሟተ 2 

30 IF INKEY$="65" AND v*<21 THEN 
LET Yey tF 

SØ IF INKEYS$="7" AND Y>Ø THEN 
LET eer = 

198 IF INKEYS$="0" THEN LET Z=NO 


IF INKEY$="C" THEN GOTO 35 
GOTO 48 

SAVE "PAINT" 

RUN 


ኀ‏ تلا ضا 
pe‏ ضر تڑا ሀ)‏ 
bed‏ زا ህ ዚነ‏ 
w oi ca uU]‏ 


PROBLEM: 


When the drawing is finished, you must 
BREAK the program in order to COPY the 
screen to the printer, Once your beautiful 
drawing has heen printed, it Will 
dizakpear when you tru to restart the 
Programe 


Mang people do not realize that the 
Display File (screen memory) can easily be 
Saved by Saving While the program is 
running and the drawing is still on the 
screen. Add the following line to the 
above program: 


11? IF INKEYR="5" THEN SAVE "PAINT" 


Just press "S" while the finished drawing 
is still on the screen and your drawing 
Will be saved. (By the way, delete the last 
tuo program lines; lines 9998 and 9999 are 
no longer needed.! The drawing should come 
back on the screen after being saved, and 
uou can continue working on it. 


The trouble remains, however, that once 
you BREAK the program to COPY to the 
printer, you cannot restart the program 
Without losing your original screen. What 
to do? Simply insert your COPY command 
into the program as another prodram line: 


116 IF INKEY%="Z" THEN COPY 


You Can now retain the screen after 
COFYING, save your screen on tape at any 
stade and resume working on it at any 
stade, 





Bingo! we nob have a practical drawing 
program. Now add å little instruction menu 
for user friendliness and there you have 
ites. a. powerful little drawing program in 
less than ik!: 


18 REM ++ZXDRAWU++ 
EY KEN ABRAMSON 


28 REM BASED ON THE PROGRAM 
"PRINT" BY PHIL DOUGHTY 


22 REM THIS FROGRAM TAKES 
PHILS PROGRAM SEVERAL STEPS 
FURTHER Br ALLOWING YOU TO SAVE 
A SCREEN DRAWING. HARDCOPY IT, 
AMD CONTINUE WORK ING ON IT. 


40 CLS 
59 PRINT TAB F7: "ZXDRAU CONTROL 
KEYS",TAB 7; DNS 
= کٹ‎ MOVES CURSOR FEET, 13. = 


MOWES CURSOR DONN" "7 -MOUES C 
URSGR ا یک‎ -MOUEŚ CURSOR RIG 
HT". “ወ -DRAH (CURSOR NOT FLASH 
INGI ` -ERASE (CURSOR FLASHING 
E - -CHANGE DRAWING CHRRRCTE 
8". "M -INSTRUCTION MENU",,,"5 


SAVE SCREEN DIRECTLY TO TAPE” 3^9 
“Z -COPY TO PRINTER" 
58 PRINT AT 21,0; “PRESS™ 
TO oo gan DRAWING" 
INPUT F$ 
ża =ኢ:ሠሠ 
98 CLS 
100 LET S$=' 
119 LET Zzà 
120 LET X=15 
130 LET Y=18 
148 GOTO 188 
158 INPUT 35% 
150 PRINT AT YV,X; S$; 
178 IF Z THEN PRINT AT ORS -” 
188 IF INKEY $=" AND X>0 THEN’ 
LET X=xX-1 
198 IF INKEY$="38" AND X<31 THEN 
LET X=X+1 
200 IF INKEY$="5" AND Y<21 THEN 
LET r=r+1 
210 IF INKEY$="7" AND Y>Ø THEN 


220 IF INKEY$="0" THEN LET Z=NO 


259 IF INKEY$="C" THEN GOTO 158 
240 IF INKEY$="5" THEN SAVE "ZX 


250 IF INKEY$="Z" THEN COPY 
250 IF INKEY$="M'" THEN GOTO 4a 
270 GOTO 1688 


-19- 


FROBLEM: 


Can more than one screen be drawn, 
stored, and saved using à single program? 

30 Far, oun drawing program is Capable o£ 
Saving the Display File directly from RAM. 
But the program Can only Save one 
screenful in total, whether the computer 
if using 2۴ or 15۴ o£ RAM. 


Using 15 of RAM Should permit the 
Storage o£ several screens if the contents 
of the Display File are dumped into a 
different string variable array each time 
3. screen iz finished. This process has a 
major disadvantage, since the poor old 

T/ZL0GG takes a long time (about 15 - 
seconds even in FAST MODE! to dump the 725 

byte Display File into 2 String array, and 
Just as long a time tu POKE the stored 
string Characters back into the Display 
File in order to show å screen. 


The following program illustrates the use 
of å string array for storing a screen and 
regenerating the screen from storage: 


18 REM ++ZXDRAUWU+% (T/51000) 


Br KEN ABRAMSON 


2Ø REM THIS PROGRAM SHOWS HOU 
TO SAVE THE DISPLAY FILE IN Å 
STRING ARRAY (LINES 400 TO 450) 
AND HOW TO PORE THE STRING 
CHARACTERS BACK. INTO THE 
DISPLAY FILE OR SCREEN MEMORY 


(LINES 540 TO 530). 
30 FETT DEZ" 
40 LET 5$="3" 
58 SLOW 
BØ CLs 
70 PRINT TAB 10; ADB: ME 
HU“. TAB 10; THE 2 
;:"1. NEW DRAWING" , TAB 2; ; "2. CON 
TINUE DRAWING", , „TAB 2;"3, COPY 
DRAWING ONTO SCREEN" rm MOAB Tes de 
COPY DRAWING TO PRINTER" ,, „TAB 


2;"S. SAVE SCREEN TO TAPE" 
5ፎ IF INKEY$="1" THEN GOTO 179 
90 LET C$=INKEYS 
180 IF INKEYS$="2" THEN GOTO 538 
118 LET C$=INKEYS 
128 IF INKEY$="3" THEN GOTO 538 
138 LET C$=IHKEY $ 
148 IF INKEY$="4" THEN GOTO 538 
158 IF IMKEY$="5" THEN GOTO 480 
166 GOTO 89 
178 CLS 
188 PRINT TAB 10: "CONTROL KEYS" 


TAB 10; EEE SN "RES ፡፣ 


, "UO -MOVES 
CURSOR LEFT",,,"6 


-MOUES CURSOR 
DOUN",,,"7 -MOUES CURSOR UP",,, 


"O -MOVES CURSOR RIGHT",,,"Ø -DOR 

AW (CURSOR NOT FLASHING)", >> =ER 
ASE (CURSOR FLASHING)‘ ZEE -CHA 
NGE NUTS ARN CHARACTER" ,, "M -(1RI 


N MENU",,"(SAVES SCREEN TO RAM F 
IRST]",,,"5 -SAVE SCREEN DIRECTL 
Y TO TAPE" 


190 PRINT AT 21,0; "PRESS EE 
TG BEGIN DRAWING" 





206 
210 
220 
259 
240 
== 
2608 
270 
280 
230 
5908 
LET X 
310 
EET 


320 
LET 
230 
LET Y 
540 
ZZ 
350 
550 
570 
252 
398 
+08 
410 
420 
6597 
4322 
440 
450 
452 
470 
456 
498 
508 


RERDY , 


518 
526 
538 
540 
S508 
5560 
6597 
o 
580 
598 
eoa 
532 
520 
530 
542 
658 
552 
ora 
555 
ICE 
690 
700 
710 
720 
FOR M 
730 
746 


-20- 


INPUT P$ 

ZLOW 

CLS 

LET کے‎ 

LET x=15 

LET v=1Ø 

GOTO 288 

INPUT 5$ 

PRINT AT Y,X; S$; 

IF 2 THEN PRINT AT 
IF INKEY$="5" AND Z>0 THEN’ 


IF INKEY$="8" AND X<31 THEN 
IF INKEY$="6 "5" AND Y<21 THEN 
IF IN AND Y>Ø THEN 
THEN LET Z=NO 
THEN GOTO 278 


IF INKEYs= 

=Y-1 
THEN GOTO iaa 
THEN GOTO 430 


w 23061: M 


Ee 
IF INKEY$="Ø" 


IF INKEY$="C" 
LET L$=IHKEYv$ 
IF INKEY$="5" 
IF. INKEYS="M" 
GOTO 288 

FAST 

DIM D£i?28) 
LET DzPEEK 16396+2564PEEK 1 


FOR F=1 TO 726 
LET D$iF)!zCHR$ PEEK (D+F) 


NEXT F 
IF L$="5" THEN GOTO 580 
GOTO 5a 
THEN GOTO 6768 
21,0; "WHEN TAPE IS 


IF D4=" at 
Sien 


CLS 
FRINT AT 
» PRESS 
INPUT Py 
SAVE "“2XDRAR" 

IF D$='"" THEN GOTO 
FAST 

CLS 

LET DzPEEK 15396+256+PEEK 1 


FOR F=1 TO 726 
PORE D+F,CODE رح وم‎ 
NEXT 

ZLOW 


672 


THEN 
THEN 


GOTO 720 
COPY 
GOTO 280 


PRINT AT 18, 


FOR P=1 TO 30 
NEXT P 
GOTO 5a 
PRINT AT 
ENU" 
INPUT P% 
GOTO 50 


7; "USE MENU CHO 


21,0; "PRESS 





Line 416 sets aside 726 bytes in which ቲር 
store the contents of the Display File (22 
lines x 32 columns + 22 slots for ENTER 
characters needed at the end ር each 
line). 


سر ١دا‏ 


ነ 


Line 428 calculates the address of the 
beginning o£ the Display File. 


Lines 438 to 458 store each bute of the 
bisplay File in correct order in the 
string array D$. Other drawings could be 
stored in Other string arraz, €e.4. As, 
5ጴ. ርቅ. etc. 


To get the drawing from the string array 


back to the screen, each byte must ke 
POKER back into the Display File. 


ہے ے mmm‏ ہے ہے ہج ہے بے 


ہے ጩጨ ጨ‏ سے ጩ‏ سے سے ہو ہے ہو ہج نج ===መ=ጭ== on‏ 
z" "zc=s=cao=czo=z=s=s=‏ سس ےہ 


100 REM audicscan 

182 DEF FH alli =1+INT (.541.303 
183 GO SUB 416 

185 cO TO 200 

118 DRAW INK FH a(t/1.5);x-n,IN 
T C= 1.5: LET Sam: LET Yet: 
RETURN 

120 CRAH INK FH att ø1., 
: RETURN 

200 PAPER ©: INK 7: BRIGHT 1: C 
L3 

210 PRINT AT 8,182; "Audioscan" 
220 PRINT AT 2,2; "This program 


" 
ra 
| 

ኪነ 


Gives a Graphic representatin 
n Gf a signal input to the za 


53 ear socket, 


225 PRINT HT 7,2;"Load tape or 
other signal ZGUTCE to the ear 

SOCKET and select option:" 

2380 PRINT AT 12,5;'1--line grap 
h" AT 15,5, '2--bar graph";AT 14, 
5; "3--point graph" 

240 INPUT INVERSE 1; "enter opti 
on {1 to 317,42: IF 441 OR q>3 TH 


EN GO TO 2480 
250 CLS : PRINT 
a 


1; INVERSE 155 
ce ቲር Freeze 5 


Du LEN ےو‎ 
LET ቢ=ህ58 t 
S 


sp t 5 
LET^xz0- LET uz 
255 FOR ከ=ጄ5 TO 255 

one: PLOT n, INT tte. 

ao IF 4:3 THEN GO SUB 1@@4+iq41 
ei 

255 LET i$-zIHKEY£: IF ig=" " TH 
EN GO TO 300 

270 HEXT n 

275 60 TO 258 

aga PRINT Hi; INVERSE 3 ; "m=menu 

f=restart ፍኗ=ኗክጩ': PAUSE a 

310 LET i$=INKEY$: IF i%="m" TH 
EN RUN 

328 IF i$="r" THEN GO TO 2768 
330 IF i£-"e'" THEN STOP 

348 GO TO 388 


480 DATA 1,8,255,17,8,0,219,254 
:203,119,32,1,19,18,247,66,75, 2Ø 


1 

418 LET tone=65368 

420 FOR n=tone TO tone+17: READ 
d: POKE n,d: NEXT n: RETURN 

425 STOP 

438 SAVE "audiozcan": RUN 





Line 560 again locates the address of the 
beginning Of the Displau File (Which moves 
around). 


Lines S7@ to 598 POKE each byte from the 
string array, Oh, into each successive 
address in the Display File. Again, by 
accessing stored information from other 
string arrays, other screens may ኤዴ 
generated. | 


The above program may ke expanded ta 
Store at least ten screens. YOU may like 
to try your hand at this yourself, or a 
ten screen version will soon be found in 
our software library for circulation. IF 
you DO create some interesting graphics, 
please send them to the Newsletter. HAPPY 
DRAWING!!! 


=ሯሯሙ:2=:2ር= 2 ረ: 5ጮፎ ፎፎ ርፎ :ፎ 5 5 5 = ====፦= 
=========5=ኤ=5=፳=፳=፳=፳=።==፳=ጅ=መ==፳==፳መ====== 


Make sure you try these two 


programs - they're well worth the 
effort. 


و ااا -21- 


I can't remember where I originally 


found this little gem so my 


apologies to the originator but it 


is such a great little graph 
program I had to share it. 


ےہ 


PORE 23583 à 15 

CLS8 : PRINT FLASH 
STOP TAPE! å 
PRINT RT 15.0: رہد‎ 












PL E 
za PAUSE 298 2 : 60 To 929980 
58 FOR ህ=58 TO 158 STEP 19 
55 PLOT 58,u: ይጾጸህ 159,83 
FB NEXT u 
75 RETURH 
188 REM E =f ert ti TF 
205 LET =CUDE و‎ (213-56 
1198 FOR nsi TO 12 
i28 LET xznsi8: LET STEFF ERI 
158 LET zazÜ: IF z3m THEN LET x 
sm: LET zrzazi 
- 4435 FOR ዚ=3 ፐር 3 
158 PLOT x+k+p.58 
LES! CET 020: IE .& B THEM :.. => = 
CRAU OVER o;Ø,7+i1023 -ሮ= 
IF 2=8 THEN PLOT U =፡፳+ 
A 43 
Hi E 


443 


BE” 
^ra 19082 


omni 






23509, = 


php pen p 
یا ہکا ا‎ m EC mc 


4 
37 
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17 
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18 
ia 
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29 
eo 
ei 
ifi 






G 

R 

PO 

a c$="gpgp" 

‘ON ERR RESET : INPUT “enter 

truction code:":a£: IF LEM a 
$:2 ok LEN a$:2 THEN GO TO 1818 
1915 15 afż='st' TREN STOP 
1839 IF z$="in'" THEM GO To 9198 
1838 IF aż="cl" THEN GO TO 39989 
2 IF a$(l)="e" THEN GO TO 488 
d 
1950 IF agilis"1" OR a$(1)-"2" o 
R a$(11="3" THEN GO TO SBGA 
4255 IF a&z'"zv" THEN SAUE cS LIN 
E 310 
1985 IF ag$="vr" THEN VERIFY c$ 
1978 ፲ኛ a$="fl" THEM GO TO 76888 
1038 IF a$="co" THEN COPY 
19898 IF a$="mx" THEN GO TO 2088 
1835 IF a$="nt" TREN INPUT “Titi 
ET: PAGE IF LEN h$:22 THEN GO TO 
55225 IF a$="nt" THEN PRINT AT 3. 
45° Tod ፻ 


ቴዙ 


rr: 


eo 


TO 1000 


e 





ርር. 
a C) یا‎ cr 


"Enter New Max 





BORDER 5 
PRINT AT 1,6;h% 


GO SUB gagů 
PRINT AT 17 
l-";/AT 19,9; 


ር) ሀ) ር LI LIC TOMU > 
' ሀህህሀ,(ቫ ሩ NHC ٭-یم رع ضر‎ 


። © © C2 ሮህ با‎ ርህ 


PADLE: MG AF 13 


"AT 28,80; "3- 


^4 
ا‎ 
m 
= 





-22- 


-4ፅ4-4፪በ TO Ur. ሂበ un cn cn 


3098 
3108 


PLOT 55,152 
CRAW O,-182: DRAW 199,0 
2110 GO SUB یتم‎ 


3128 PRINT RT 18,7; t$; AT 17,7;m$ 


BT 18,7in$ 

3130 PRINT AT 3,2; BRIGHT lim 
3148 PLOT A, ወ: HU 255,8: DRRU 
0.175: DRRU 2: DRAN 8,-175 
3388 cO TO 1008 
+808 REM: 

HAAS _ 
Siz) < 
4807 LET ztz= a 
4005 IF g$(CODE 
" THEN GO TO 4a2 


S 


4818 IF g$(CODE ag (21-98) <3" 
" THEN INPUT “Hew FLLE CY) sUpdat 
5 Old ini Ig Fe 18=”ዛ” THEN GO 


TO 
1812 


4025 


CET stal 


4245 FOR ህ=3 TO 12 
4015 IF 3 iCODE 8$(2)-S56,W)=-,1 T 
HEN LET st=w: GO TO 4100 


4820 NEXT w 


40821 GO TO 41869 
4025 INPUT “Enter fite Mame tSchs 
f:'",9€(CODE 538 (2) -95) " 
4033 PRINT AT 4«CODE S$(2)-36,.2; 
8 !ሮሀሯጅ ag (21 -961 
4050 PLOT 56,152. ይጾጸህ تا‎ ,-2፲፳= 
4858 GO SUB 58 : 
4070 FOR b=1 TO 12 
4800 LET giCODE 551=ሯ3>2ሮ5 رح‎ =a 
4058 NEXT b 
4120 FOR 3=51 TO iz 
4118 PRINT AT 28,98; "Data for Hon 
Lie Ma መተ Re 
4128 INPUT gicope 3ሜ 1231 -935,54 
4130 IF 3 iCODE 34 (21 -98,41 == THE 
H GO TO 4156 
4143 NEXT 3 
4258 PRINT AT 283 "° 

TO 


DEE 


“ا 
eT F4 T1 71‏ 


— FM HM 7 C TE 


Ghee ጋ 





3. 
uec mc 


TU 


C) C3 Gat SO ሮሀ FO Ga ርህ ]۱( 
IDI ቱሩ ርዕ بے 63 سا‎ 
tha با‎ 


C m 
m 

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Cc 


Uo AESI ETEEN CFL CL ٢ Fe 
Uw 
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TT 64 1۱ 
dran 
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“ዎ 


4 
û 0 tu C) Ta OE 1 


H 


اتا 


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id 
DE 
i T 

cO TO ea 
188 IF a$ill="1" THEM LET papi 
å IF a$lli="2" THEN LET p=p32 
å IF a$iliz"3" THEN LET p=p3 
i ET tziCODE 58-45=)] 
2 RINT HT 17+41,2/9$(CODE 38! 
} 
5 


TO 1828 


گا ىہ زا ال TRE) Ga‏ 





4 Ur C ED ١ج‎ ርዕ رت‎ ሮ3 ሮሀ ሮህ 


ü 
e EH 
a ET 
232 MLS PRINT AT 8,10; BRIGHT 
4:" File Values ” 
7028 FOR €=17 TO 28 
7825 PRINT RT E, SE 148+e 1; ”፦ 


193 (6-16) 
7058 PRINT AT 
":9$ie-12] 
7048 PRINT AT 
“":95(5-5) 


€,- 


3 F3 r5 


إل ا ل“ ل“ 


Ul f rà a 


PRINT RT w 
POR d= si- TO. 19 
PRINT AT 
PRINT AT 
PRINT AT 
PRINT AT 


BRIGHT 1;" 


“44” “1 “4 “4 n 


+++ 
CG. C. نا‎ 
ር ክነኑ። 
ZZ ےم‎ 
ቴዙ ቲሹ ቴዙ 


X 
ከነ ኪነ ኪነ 


+ +: PE ے با بنا‎ C9 C 


H 
gi 


m 
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GJE 


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6107 
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O û Qi 4 ل- ل-‎ E 
PIDPA 


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Cı - NT E بن[ ے‎ GEDHOG O © 


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3375 PRINT > enter የ”ያ! ጣሣ to get 
File values," 

3188 PRINT "Enter "mx" -to-get 
NEU ax value," 

3185 PRINT. "This Will erase any 

old Plate, 

51928 PRINT "Enter sosy 1.3 tav 

& ሀከ tape," 

S135 PRINT “This Will save GPGP 

With Files," 

S200 PRINT “ "Enter Serer tę cie 

ar plats," 

9218 PRINT EREP IRE to ZEE 
Sear Ges cine 

3215 PRINT EDLE 4. COL" tü 8 

d On Paper," 

S220 PRINT FLASH T RC Press EM 

TER te continue, Y 

9288 PAUSE a 

9288 IF IHKEY '8="ር” THEN COPY 

225 GO TO 3908 


<<<<<<K<<<K<K<<<<<<<<<<<<<<(< 


18 SAVE " 
. 35 FOKE 1 
20 PRINT 
| 28 INPUT 
42 PRINT 
„SQ PRINT 
680 INPUT 


70 PRINT 
SQ PRINT 
THS?” 


1 
no 
7 


LOAN" 

6513,2 ad : 

D او‎ OF LORN?" 
H 
"ANNUAL 
å 

“LOAN DURATION IN MON 


INTEREST RATE 


28 INPUT M 

108 PRINT M 

118 LET Z=(R/180) “22 

lad LET D=(1+7) 55፡11 

138 LET ይ.=- (12 ሪር) 

148 LET P=Rz[Z;4D) 

158 LET P=.Ø1+INT | (P+100+1) 

160 PRINT "PAYMENT=":P 

178 PRIHT 

zð SCROLL 

ጃኳ... I=1 TO H‏ تا 

2@ SCROLL 
225 PRINT AT 9,8 t; CONO. INTERST 

PRINCIPAL BRLANC=" 

23a LET ከሪ - Z 

240 EET Y zZINT iF 3ج‎ 83+, 5( 7100 

250 LET R=P-y 

2508 IF RA THEN LET R=A 

278 LET A=INT (.54+100¢ (ጸ- Ri} sia 
e 

220 PRINT AT (21.8; ".880"; TAB 18; 
", 88": TRE 28: "QQ" 

232 PRINT AT 21.8; I;TAB (4+(Y<1 
ZZ) +IT IAI! ہہ هپ‎ 1613; Y; TAB (14+ (FR 
<1E31 + (Rt ሂቲ፲ወ፳1 کین‎ 181 m; R; TAB d 
(ALES) + IH LES] + IR CIE) + (RC LES 
(Mciad)cin:180)1;n 

380 NEXT I 


om "THE DATA EXPANSION" 


— The newsletter of the 
Timex Users Group of Fort Worth. 


“Reprinted fr 
June 1986 


-24- 


HOW ABOUT THAT 
By Gene Pickens 


"If śą E 2 industry had evolved as spectacularly as 
the computer industry over the past 25 years, a Boeing 767 would 
cost $500 today, and it would circle the globe in 20 minutes on 
5 gallons of fuel. Such performance would represent a rough 
analogue of the reduction in cost, the increase in speed of 
operation and the degree in enerøy consumption of computers. The 
cost of computer logic devices is falling at the rate of 25 
percent per year and the cost of computer memory at the rate of 
40 percent per year. Computational speed has increased by a 
factor of 200 in 25 years. In the same period the cost, the 
energy consumption and the size of computers of comparable pover 
have decreased by a factor of 10,000. 

The result is the advent of the personal computer, which 
for less than $500 can put at the disposal of an individual 
about the same basic computing pover as a mainframe computer did 
in the early 1960’s and as a minicomputer did in the early 


1970’s. Twenty years ago the cost of a computer could be 
justified only if the machine met the needs of a large 
organization. The minicomputer introduced in the 1970” are 
appropriate for a department or working group in such an 
organization. Moreover, just as it has become financially 
feasible to provide a computer for the individual worker, so 
also the technical developments have made the: interface between 
man and machine increasingly "friendly," so that a wide array of 
computer functions are now accessible to people with no 
technical background. 


The first personal computer was put on the market in 1975, 
By the end of this year (1982). . . , etc.” 


The above is a direct quote from the opening of the article 
"Personal Computers" by Toong and Gupta in SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN 
for December, 1982. As much or more has happened in the computer 
industry in the past 3 1/2 years. You might not want a Boeing 
767 even if you could get one for $500, but the next time you 
sit down at your "toy" TIMEX 1000 or 2068, pause and reflect for 
a moment about the machine and what you can do with it. Also, 


remember that you bought a very good computer for much less thań 
$500. | Tar 


TIMEX computers fit my definition of value --MORE FOR 
LESS-VALUE-- very well. Maybe the people that, in their 
ignorance, call TIMEX computers 'toys' are just trying not to be 
reminded of the old proverb; 'A fool and his money are soon 
parted.' Just think, ve all could have spent more money for each 
BASIC Keyword, ue could have spent more money. for a card: to have 
color and so on, and so on. 


Well, believe it or not I really an not out to knock other 
people’s computers. I just get tired of reading and hearing 
people make remarks, about mine or some other computer, that 
show the same mentality and maturity as a first grader saying 
*My daddy can whip your daddy." My TIMEX fits me just fine, 
thank you, and I have learned many things at a very economical 
price. HOW ABOUT THAT? . 


CI feel the urge to toss in my "two cents". I always feel proud 
of the fact that I own and use, really 'USE' a TIMEX 2068. 
Granted, with more money I would surpass the $500 mark to have 
the dual disk drives, 80 column printer, modem and such, but it 
still would be, for the most part, under what one of the other 
computers is priced. Besides-I’m comfortable with my machine! 
EDJ 


KKKEKKEKKEKKKKKKAKKKKKKKKKKKKKEKKAKKKKKAKKKKKKKKKAKKKKKEKKEKKKK 




















The following article will shortly appear in SYNCWARE NEWS 


ONE—CHIP MODS 


BUILT-IN NUM 


By Gerd Breunung & Fred Nachbaur 


[EDITOR"S NOTE: We have received several sub- 
missions for non-volatile memories based on the 
6264-LP BK static RAM. Though all have their 
merit, this one is the most elegant. It is fully 
decoded, yet still requires only one IC (the 
6264-LP SRAM). Furthermore, it is installed on 
the 2481/151888 board itself, and therefore does 
not require edge connectors, etc. Lastly, all 
parts except the RAM chip are available at your 
nearby Radio Shack. Some sources of the 6264-LP 
are Microprocessors Unlimited, Active Elec- 
tronics, and Jameco. Check the ads in "Byte" and 
"Computer Shopper" for other sources.] 


This battery backed-up RAM is a miniaturization 
and functional equivalent of the famous "Hunter" 
board. It was designed by Mr. Wilf Rigter of the 
Vancouver, BC T/S User Group. I owe many thanks 
to Mr. Rigter for inspiring ne to write this 
article, and assisting with technical advise 
during the construction and refinement of this 
project. Yes, everything in this article has 
been built and tested, 


This non-volatile RAM resides in the 8-16K space 
of the 2X/TS memory map, and is fully decoded. 
Now you can run utilities like Q-Save, Toolkits, 
Mini-Xmodem, and many others, without loading 
from tape each time. Furthermore, it is compat- 
ible with Mr. Rigter’s (The ZED Group) bit- 
mapped HI-RES, 


CONSTRUCTION 


You do not have to be a technical wizard to in- 
plement this project. No trace cuts are required 
on the computer board. We will build a small 
sub-assembly which plugs into the original 24- 
pin 2K RAM socket. Seven wire leads are then 
soldered to the computer board, and a battery 
holder is mounted using double-sided adhesive 
foam. Two additional wires connect to the bat- 
tery, 


If your particular computer has the 2K RAM sol- 
dered in, your best option is to scout around 
for another board with a socketed 2K RAM chip. 
Alternately, clip out the 2K chip with small, 
sharp wire cutters. Then remove the "legs" with 
needle-nose pliers and a soldering iron. Fin- 
ally, use a suction-type solder remover to clean 
out the holes, and install a 24-pin socket. 


If you have the original 2X81 with two 1K chips 
soldered in, you can simply leave them in. 
Solder a 24-pin socket into the space marked on 
the board for it. You will have to cut the 
centre support "strut" to clear the IK chip that 
lives in the centre of the 24-pin socket 
pattern. 


Obtain an "Experimenter Board" from Radio Shack, 
and cut out a 1"X3,2" piece as shown in Figure 
1. Note that Fig. 1 is the view from the circuit 
(trace) side. Insert a low-profile 28-pin wire- 
wrap socket as shown, letting the leads protrude 
3/16" on the trace side. Solder the lower 24 
pins (only) to the board. These will be the 
"legs" that plug into the 24-pin socket on the 
Computer, so be careful to Keep the pins free of 
excess solder. 


56 


Now use SMALL and SHARP wire cutters to cut the 
24 soldered pins on the "component" side, and 
set the socket aside. Then cut four traces 
between the socket and the male legs, as shown 
in Fig. 1, at pin numbers 26, 22, 23 and 26 of 
the 28-pin socket. (Note that the numbers apply 
to the 28-pin socket that will later be re- 
installed.) 


Next we”ll install the components and jumpers as 
indicated in Figure 2a. 


Install jumpers, components and "flying leads," 
referring to Fig. 2a, and the schematic of Fig. 
3. To make final assembly easier, you might want 
to cołour-code the flying leads. Individual 
strands of coloured ribbon cable are one pos- 
sible source of small-gauge coloured wire. Note 
that diode D1 should preferably be a Schottky or 
Bermanium type; silicon (1N4148) works on my 
unit, but might have too much forward drop to 
give reliable battery back-up with some chips. 


Now insert the just-freed 28-pin socket into the 
board; note that the socket is offset from the 
"legs" by two holes. (See Fig. 2b.) Solder all 
28 pins, and cut off the excess lengths. 


H you wish to install a write-protect switch, 
connect flying leads to the points shown. When 
this line is open, the board will be write- 
protected. If you don’t want this feature, re- 
place this line with a jumper. Check your work, 
and double-check it. Now check it again. Be 
alert for shorts, "cold" (dull-looking) solder 
joints, and backwards diodes, 


FINAL WIRING 


Before we get on with the installation, a war- 
ning is in order. If you have moved your con- 
puter to a larger case, with plenty of headroom 
over the 2K socket, then you have nothing to 
worry about. However, if your machine is still 
in the stock case, then the installation of this 
addition would Kink and thereby break the traces 
on the larger Keyboard "tail." More headroom is 
required over the new installation to allow for 
the already minimal bend radius in the ribbon 
cable. Install spacers, 1/2" long, between the 
component side of the board and the case top. 
Ideally, a grounded metal skirt should be in- 
stalled around the resulting perimeter gap, to 
contain RFI and Keep out dust. You might find 
another solution, such as shortening the cable 
slightly and/or taping it to curve the other 
Way. 


Plug your newly-built module into the 24-pin 2K 
RAM socket. Connect the seven flying leads to 
the 2X81 board. The best place to pick up the 
address lines All through A15 is at the cathode 
(banded) ends of the Keyboard diodes. See Figure 
2c. The diodes are number Di through 08, 
starting at the end closest to the ROM chip. 
"All" goes to Di, "A12" to 03, "ለ13" to DS, 
'A14* to 07) and "ለ15" to D8. Be careful about 
shorts, as there isn’t much clearance between 
the diode leads. Pick up MREQ NOT at the plated- 
through hole near (and connecting to) edge con- 
nector pin 14, component side. (Remember, the 
keyslot is "pin 3.") Pick up ROMCS NOT’ at the 
plated-through hole near (connecting to) pin 23 
on the solder side. Finally, use "sticky foam" 
to mount the battery holder at a convenient 
point in the case, and connect the battery 
wires. Check everything over one last time. Fix 
anything that looks at all suspicious. You're 
done! 





TESTING 


14 you have 4 ZX81 and left in the two IK RAM 
chips, you can test your system without a RAM 
pack. Otherwise, you will of course need to con- 
nect your external RAM pack in order to operate 
your system, since the built-in 2K RAM is no 
longer available. 


A preliminary test can be done by entering POKE 
18888,123. Then PRINT PEEK 10800. You should get 
the same number back. Try POKEing different loc- 
ations between 8192 and 16383; in each case, you 
should get back the same number you POKEd. 


So far so good? Great. Now let's do a more com- 
plete test. Since the CMOS RAM board is used in 
the 8-16K region, a special procedure is re- 
quired to test the memory. This is because the 
memory in this block is not regarded by the ZX 
operating system as being available. 50 we have 
10 use a program to do a conplete test on this 
memory space. To save time, ue^!] use a machine- 
code routine to do this. 


Enter the following short BASIC program, which 
will make it easy to enter the machine-code test 
routine: 


MACHINE-CODE LOADER FOR TEST 
1 REM 1234£2278980123456789080122 

455782881234£5572520122 

10 FOR A=1851i4 TO 36555 

20 SCROLL i 

38 INPUT ከ 

40 PORE ALE 

55 PRINT PEEK A 

50 NEXT Å 


Enter RUN, and input the values from the fol- 
lowing table, going from left to right, top to 
bottom. If you make a mistake, enter STOP, then 
LET AFA-1, then GOTO 28, and re-input the 
correct number. 


-27-— 





TEST ROUTINE: DECIMRL URLUES 


255 33 33 40 51 241 245 175 
4 40 64 254 124 جج 245 31 

241 119 ፎሩ 245 33255 31 35 

124 254 64 40 229 241 138 32 
3 245 ፎፋ 243 66 77 201 i 
e e 281 


This installs a machine-language routine (by 
Fred Nachbaur), which tests every memory loca- 
tion from 8192 to 16383, with every possible 
value from 6 to 255. (A total of 2,897,152 
writes and reads!) The disassembly is shown 
below. 


4082 AF TEST XOR A 

4083 FS PUSH AF 
4234 Fl NXUL POP AF 
4835 SD CEC A 

4086 2821 JR Z DRAY 
4255 Z1FF1F WRIT LD HL.1FFF 
4058 FS NAD PUSH AF 
4080 23 INC HL 
4080 7C LD R.H 
4085 ع۴‎ CP 40 

4000 2884 JR Z READ 
4295 F1 POP RF 
4093 77 LE [ክር1,8 
4054 18F5 JR NURD 
4006 Z1FF1F READ LD HL.1FFF 
4035 23 NRAD INC HL 
4034 7C LO ALH 
4028 FE48 CP 4d 

40902 =5፳5 JR 2 NXUL 
428F Fi POP AF 
4050 BE CP (Hi 
40A1 2203 JR NZ NOGD 
ت426‎ FS PUSH AF 
4054 18F3 JR NRAD 
4086 44 NØGD LD B,H 
40A7 ፊር LD C,k 
4053 CS RET 

4565 210802 OKAY LD BC,9009 
«onc CS RET 


Enter FAST mode, then enter PRINT USR 16514. If 
all is well, the routine will take about 78 
seconds to run. It would take about ten minutes 
in SLOW mode. (Don’t even ask how long it would 
take if it were written in BASIC!) If the screen 
returns with 6, all is well. If there is a de- 
fective location, its address will be printed 
instead. 


CUT TRACES 
Eg ገ, 10,11 X13 


<— TOP- Row | 


TRACE ( Socpee) 
SIDE ` 
OF 


"EXPERIMENTER 
BOARD“ 





Row 18 


agh NG Fig. 1‏ کنا 


Shopping List 


w 


Exper: meter Board 


Ul - HM 6264 LP -IS (HITACHI 0e EQUAL) 
OK x6 ይመ RAM 


KI IRS 7% w Carbon Film Resistor 
R2 - IMO ጄ W Carbon Film Resistor 


D 1 - Sch oH ky or Germanium type 
Signal Diode 


D2 -D5 - IN 4148 Diodes 
AT - 2N.390A4 NPN Trausistor 
| b] - 3 Volt ball ery System : 2 WAW ALEBLIWE 


CES COMPLET WITH HOLPER AWD DOUBLE SIPED 
FOA ^ TAPE 


-2i 





SOFTWARE 


A wealth of software exists for memory in the 8- 
16K region. Included are many types of toolkits, 
compilers, assemblers, and other utilities. 


I highly recommend that you obtain copies of the 
July and August, 1983 issues of Radio- 
Electronics magazine from your local library. 
These issues contain many useful software rou- 


JUMPER J| —> 
J2— 


25 ----ቅ 


VIEW ON 
COMPONENT SIDE 


(BEFORE FINAL INSTALLATION 
OF 28 PIN Socke?) 


— BAT. 


COMPONENT SIDE 


SOLDEC SIDE 










tines by Dr. Paul Hunter, creator of the ori- 
ginal "Hunter" board. Included are utilities to 
save and recall BASIC and machine-code prograns, 
screen displays, and other data. Also check pre- 
vious issues of SyncWare News, as well as back- 
issues of other magazines for software that will 
run in your new non-volatile memory. 


PROTECT * 


we 


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TO یں‎ 


Low PROFILE 
تم‎ dy WIEC WRAP Soccer 


EE ER TE | PINS ሮህኾ HEEE 
1 ET Auo SOCKET 
ነ a SAVED 





SAME AS STD. [.C.PIN THICENESS 
(FILE THIN IF NEEDED) 


Fig. B ZĘ 


-29- 


VIEW ON 
COMPONENT SIDE 


(INSTALLATION OF 26 
PIN Socker AND Ul 





COMPONENT SIDE 





e Pick up A11,412, A13, AM $AJS 

on DI D3 DS DT Da 
corresponding 2× /اة8‎ TS (000 Diode 
Cathodes. 


Pick ں‎ MREQ ou plated - through 
hole near Edge Connector - Pin 14^ on 
Component side (Key is p 3) 


fick op QOHCS' om lated - through 


hole near Edge Counector- Pin 23 on 
Solde side. 


—30— 









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SOCKET 
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“ው 2. چک جے‎ REE مس ں ددے مج‎ a یس شس ہر در‎ 





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IHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHBHHHHHHHHHHBHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHHI 


GA AA RE AB RR RR 
Hi "7 DUNGEON OF YMIR ^^ FE 
Å MULTI-LEVEL HAZE ADVENTURE GAME by Fred Nachbaur (ር ነ፲ዓኔኔ 


FOR THE TIMEX TS1 Soo 
FINALLY! A FULL-FEATURE, HIGH RESOLUTION DUNGEON GAME FOR THE TS1 508: 


This 24K game, written entirely in machine-code, is the most spectacular program 
ever written for the TS1500. Nine levels, 16 types of monsters, 14 objects, six 
spells. Easy to play, difficult to master. Includes FAST-SAVE with auto-boot to 
save in-progress games: time to load entire program reduced to 70 seconds! 
Revolutionary TRUE HI-RES puts your TS1588 on a par with much larger machines. 






Send $24.95 (cheque or MO) to FRED NACHBAUR, ር-12 MTN. STN. GROUP BOX, NELSON BC 
VIL SPI CANADA. Specify version: VI (TSIS88 + 8K Hunter NUM or équivalent) or V2 
(TS1500 + 16K RAM pack). V2 requires a minor hardware addition (included). 
COMING SOON: V3 for 2X81/TS1888. Inquire. ٭ھي×‎ ALSO AVAILABLE: TS1500 HI*RES 


EXTENDED BASIC ($16.95) E : 
È STRESS SSSA SESSLER ES TASES SRS RST ንትን ማንት ንን ፡። : : 
£ 9 9 


BYE KDL ZE 
* 3 ¢ Eb Oe ہے‎ 


چس چو ጣትን‏ سد 0۷ 
















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rm A l A ennas E EEEa | 


-31- 


Reprinted from the newsletter of the MILE HIGH CHAPTER of 
the TIMEX SINCLAIR USERS GROUP - Aurora, Colorado 


This program creates a limited 


2068 & 2050 Moden. 


‘TIMEX SINCLAIR USERS GROUP JUNSS 


THANKS TO BANDY & LUCY GORDON 
FOR MAKING BES SOFTUARE AVAIL- - 


ABLE TO US. THIS REVISED VERSION 


HAS NEW FEATURES THAT VILL MAKE 
IT EASIER TO USE. I HACKED THE 
BASIC COUN SOME TO MAKE MORE 

ROOM IN MEMORY FOR MESSAGES. I 


LEFT OVER 5000 BYTES FREE SO vau 


CAN CUSTOMIZE THE BULLETINS AND 
PROMPT STRINGS. 

TO SAUE THE MESSAGE BASE You 
WILL HAVE TO = THE PROGRAM 
& 9950. ANY NEW VERSIONS 
WILL BE SOLD BY ME FOR $5.00, 
I CAN ONLY SEND LISTINGS FOR 
THAT PRICE, 

PHILLIP BASFORD 

1554 BOSTON ST 

AURORA CO &0510-1902 


18 PAPER Q: INK 7: BORDER Ls MS 





LS 

12 PRINT “stop tape’ " "then B 
የድ55 (ENTERI": PAUSE 8: CLEAR 85 
i738 

lå LET i$z"175212811223008030758 
መ552922123213 32222 222፳83725232235 
2e3oO802O402442121158501858825507821 
31192581232081752191192390018483 
4412121111520121911925812829ø175 
2191192300019492443281" 


ib FOR x=8 TO 55: POKE o54804x 
MAL L#(34x41 TO 2፡2 +23)] : NEXT x 
18 LET o=VAL "85523". LET i =A 
L "554389": LET L=URL "S180": LET 
SS=URL "1000": LET q=URL "9298" 
20 DIM m$iagB,3090): DIM gil): P 
RINT “load?": PAUSE 8: IF INKEY $ 
<3"Y" THEM GO TO 24 
22 LORD "" DATA msi): LORD "" 
DATA uii: LET youn) 
23 66 TO 25 
ፎፋ LET gizà 
1888 OUT 119,34: OUT 11 
1981 POKE 23692,255: CL 
“””፣ 255 BBS""" 
1802 LET x=IH 119 + 
1804 IF x=5 THEN GO TO URL "1ØØ2 


1818 DUT 119,2: OUT 119,34: PRUS 

E 308: OUT 119,84: OUT 119,123: 

GUT 113,55 

1812 POKE 23674,0: POKE 23573,8: 
POKE 23672,0 

1814 PAUSE 12a 

1815 FOR x=1 TO 38: RANDOMIZE ህ5 
8 0: ሀህፐ 115,8: NEXT x 

1818 LET a=IN 119: IF a<128 THEN 
GO TO 1828 

1828 RANDOMIZE USR 6: OUT 115,28 
; RANDOMIZE USR o: OUT 115,31: R 

ANDOMIZE USR o: OUT 115,28 


3,80 
5 PRINT 


capacity message BBS using a 


1821 LET x=IN 115 

1822 GO SUB VAL “=588ሯ” 

1824 GO SUB 3429 

1826 GO SUB 3485 

i828 IF CODE L5$ILEN L$) ናነ33 THEN 


GO TO 1826 
PRINT 1$;" calling": 


1832 GO SUB 3886 

1834 GO SUB 9499 

1938 IF l$="R" THEN GO TO 2188 

1848 IF L$="F" THEN cO TO 2290 

1842 IF l$="L" THEN GO TO 2388 

18044 IF t$="8" THEN GO TO چو‎ 

1846 IF t$="#" THEN BO TO 2٤3 

1848 IF [8="ር”" THEN GO TO 2500 

1898 GO TO 1833 

21080 REM Reverse Read 

2184 FOR b-gi TO 1 STEP -1 

2105 GO SUB 3Ø138 

2195 GO SUB ==5፳ 

2114 IF t$="N" THEN HEXT b 

2116 IF L$="H" THEN GO TO 12 

2118 GO To daaz 

2208 REM Forward Read 

2204 FOR b=1 TO ji 

2285 GO SUB 3913 

2205 GO SUB 39598 

2214 IF L$4="N" THEN NEXT b 

2216 IF L$="M" THEN GO TO 1032 

2218 GO TO 1832 

2383 REH Leave Hessage 

2302 LET g1=y1+1: IF 91=9Ø8 THEM 

LET ህ13 کے‎ 

2304 GO SUB 3312 

2306 GO SUB 3458 

23808 GO SUB 39485 

2318 IF _ in<>13 THEN GO TO 2385 

2312 LET (%="T0: "+L4+4CHRE 13+4"F 

ROM: "+Uu$+CHR$ 13: LET y2=LEN چا‎ 

: LET m$iyi, TO 9፳3 =i چ‎ 

2314 GO SUB 8012 

2315 GO SUB 9428 

2318 GO SUB 3482 

2320 IF in<>13 THEN BO TO 2318 

2322 REM War dilr ap 

2330 IF LEW L$>R99-52+1 THEN LET 
tf=l$l TO 299-42) 

2332 LET ር 23 =33 


2334 IF [8(ር313)‹53" " THEN LET. cis 
c1-1 
2335 IF [8(ር31=" " THEN LET t$ic 


1I=CHR$ 13 

2338 IF CODE ($!c11<>13 THEN GO 
TO 2334 

2348 LET m$iul,g241 TO gsrcl)-ix 
( TO Ch: LET ህፎ=ሄፎተርኋ 

2342 LET [=[18ቹ(ርጊተ+ኋ TO ን 

2344 IF LEN l$>32 THEN GO TO 233 
2 

2345 LET L$=L$+CHR$E 7 

2346 LET måiyul,y2+1 TO 3981 = 1 % 
23580 GO TO 1833 

24080 REM Read bu Humber 


-3% 


2401 GO 
2482 60 


SUB URL 
SUB 34330 
2404 GO SUB 3485 
2405 IF ini»13 THEM GO TO 2404 
2483 LET b=VAL i$( TO (LEN L5$-1i 


ን 
2418 GO SUB 3818 
GO SUB 9588 


"3816" 


GO TO 
ሯወ TO 


2412 
2414 IF L$="H" THEN URL "2 
485” 

2415 IF L$="H" THEN VAL "1 
p32" 

2418 GO TO 1032 

2500 REM Chat Mode 

2502 GO SUB 3822 

2504 FOR x=1 TO 128 

2505 BEEP .1,1Ø+INT ix/10) 

2588 RANDOMIZE USR 6 


2519 OUT. 115,45 

2512 IF INKEY$<>"" THEN GO TO 25 
58 i 

2514 HEXT x 

2516 GO SUB 3822: GO TO 1832 

2558 CLS : PRINT "chat u;";u$ 

2552 GO SUB 3824 

2554 PRINT "NOT to escape" 

2556 IF CODE INKEY$=195 THEN GO 

TO 1832 

2558 POKE 23632 ,255 

2560 LET r=2: LET xmit=Ø 

2552 LET 2=ህ2፳ 55458 

2564 LET xmit=1 AND [(5=3 OR 1-31) 

2565 LET اع‎ AND (a=2 OR a=3i 

2559 IF የ THEN GO TO 2576 

2572 GO TO 2538 

2576 RANDOMIZE USR i: LET in-PEE 
K 55473: IF in»31 OR 1ከ ‹323 THEN 
PRINT CHR$ in;: IF in=13 THEN # 

RINT ">": GO TO 2556 

2588 IF xmit AND INREY$<>"" THEN 


GO SUB 2592 
2598 GO TO 2556 
2592 IF xmit THEN LET L$=INKEY$: 
PRINT ($;: OUT 115,CODE L$: FOR 
X=1 TO 5: NEXT x: IF CODE L$=13 
THEN PRINT ">"; 
2556 RETURN 
25 REM Strings 
S@8@2 LET p4=0HA% 12+'TIMEX BOARD 
"+CHR$ 134+°TURH YOUR CR SUPPRESS 
OR OFF'+CHRS 1354+CHRS 13+4"YDUR HA 
ME?'+CHRS 15+'>'+CHR$ 7: GO SUB 


L: RETURH 
URL "9988": LET p$=C 


Going Out 


S806 GO SUB 
ARS VAL "12"+"(BIYE BYE'+CHR$ 13 
t ULIERUE MSG. +ChR$ 13+" (FI UD. 

READ '+CHR$ 13+' (RIEU. READ'+CHRS 


13+' (RI READ By R'+ChR$ 13+" (ርፎ) 
HRT"+CHR$ 13+4"TIHE ON "+1l$+CHR$ 
13: GO SUB Ll: RETURN 
83888 LET p$=CHR$ 124" BYE-BY 
E": GO SUB L: RETURN 
S818 LET p$-CHR$ URL "12"+"UWHO G 
ETS HESSHGE7'"4CHR£ 13: GO SUB L: 


RETURN 

5542 LET Pe=CHRE 124+°258 CHARRCT 

ERS _MRZ'+CHR$ 13+" (ENTER) SAVES 

MESSARCE'+CHR$ 32: GO SUB L: RETU 

RH 

8814 LET P$=CHR$ 134" (ዘ) EXT MESS 

AGE OR iH)ENU'"«CHR€ 13: GO SUB t 
RETURN 


3815 LET p$zCHR$ 13+" INPUT MESSA 

GE R "+CHR%$ 32+” [1-58] -›”: GO 3 

UB L: RETURN 

30818 LET p$=CHR% 13+"MESSAGE 8 “ 

artes B+CHR$ 13: GO SUB 1: RETUR 

8820 LET p$-CHR$ 12+"PAGING SY5D 

ዞ......: GO SUB Li: RETURN 

3022 LET p$z"HE'5 NOT HERE! !": G 

O SUB L: RETURN 

8024 LET p$="0K, LET'S TALK...": 
“BSS” LINE 10: 


GO SUB L: RETURN 
9898 CLEAR SAVE 
STOP 

Xzl TO LEN p$: RANDOMIZ 
: OUT 1435 ,ርርይጅ pix): NEX 
POKE 23892,255: PRINT p$: R 


9281 GO SUB 3888: 
RANDOMIZE USR a: 
NDOHIZE. USR ao: 
5 t 
113,8 
S202 
S204 
$4800 
$406 
OH ie 


ON ERR RESET 
OUT 115,28: 
OUT 215,31: 
OUT 119,54: OUT 119,0: 


BEEP .2,18: BEEP 
GO TO aa 

LET Ly 
ON ERR GO TO 9: RANDOMIZE U 
LET in=PEEK 65479 

5487 IF in=13 THEM GO TO 3438 
9483 IF in<32 OR in>122 THEM GO 
TO 3486 

3403 POKE 23632,255: PRINT CHR$ 
TT, 

9410 LET casin: IF 385235 AND 
123 THEN LET Casin-32: 
9412 LET L$=L$+CHR$ in 
3414 RETURN 

3588 LET [ሄ=ጠ8 (5) 

S504 FOR a=3ØØ TO 1 STEP--1: 
CODE Ll5£ía!:57 THEN NEXT a 
3586 LET P5$-i$i TO a) 

3539 GO SUB 1: GO SUB 3814: GO Z 
UB 2428: RETURN 

9333 LET tlg": LET t=PEEK 23872 
+ፎተ 3+PEEK 238673+2t 18+PEEK 23674: 
LET m=INT (ቲ“/25ወፎ) : LET S=IHT f 
(t/35800-m) +58) : LET t$=STRE me": 
"+00" AND S<1Q81+5TR% 5: RETURN 
9958 SAVE "Msgs" DATA mbil: LET 
4 (11) =41: BEEP „1,58: SAVE "count 
“ DATA yil: STOP 


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Reprinted from S.U.M. May/86 


Adding a Full Size Printer to Your System 


Today, dot matrix printers are 
available from many sources at very 
reasonable prices. Many TS1000/1500 users 
are still using the TS2040 as their only 
printer. Now may be the time to upgrade. 
Let's consider some of the possibilities. 

First, there is a product now available 
for those who already have a dot matrix 
printer, in particular the Gorilla Banana 
or Seikosha 100. There is nowa simple 
chip plug-in available that can give a 
considerably better looking printout on 
these printers by giving characters such 
as "y" and "g" true descenders. Por those 


„who love their printers and are willing to 


spend $14.95 to upgrade them, contact RMG 
Enterprises, 1419 1/2 7th Street, Oregon 
City, OR 97045. 

Of course, those who fit the bill of 
the paragraph above must have a "printer 
interface" which allows them to use a full 
Size printer. This is the first 
requirement to adding a printer. Because 
the 081110 1 and family use 
non-standard codes to represent 
characters, interfaces generally cost more 
than on the TS2068 in order to translate 
these codes into something the printer 
understands. 

Interfaces that have been available for 
some time include the Aerco Centronics and 
Aerco RS-232C Serial (at $99 each) and the 
Byte-Back Centronics ($89.95) and ፪8-232 
Serial ($69.95). Generally, printers with 
centronics parallel interfaces are 1655 
expensive and so would dictate choosing 
this type interface. The above interfaces 
are available from their manufacturers as 
well as RMG Enterprises, Sunset 
Electronics, and other TS dealers. 

Another of the original TS interface 
manufacturers was Memotech which 
manufactured both types of interfaces as 
well. Word from several sources is that 
Memotech products are once again available 
from Oxford Data. These were excellent 
interfaces and well worth considering. 

Do you have a 752068 and printer 
interface? GOOD NEWS! You can now use that 
2068 printer interface on your ቸ91000/2፪81 
as well! What's the catch? Only that you 
will have to buy a software utility called 
the "Universal Printer Driver" to use 
them. It is available from Fred Nachbaur 


($16.95) or E. Arthur Brown. Even if you 
don't yet have a printer interface for 
your 2068, this might just be what will 
cause you to take the plunge--one 
interface that can work with both 
computers. The only exception are those 
interfaces which plug into the cartridge 
port of the 182068, since the 181000 
family has no such port. The UPD software 
supports COPY, LPRINT, and LLIST and 
allows the 512 byte program to be 
relocated anywhere in memory to make it 
compatible with most software. 

Hopefully, this article will encourage 
more users to move up to the advantages of 
a full-size printer using standard bond 
paper. 

Fred Nachbaur, C-12, Mtn. Station Group 
Box, Nelson, BC VIL 233 Canada. 


Oxford Data, 99 Cabot Street, Needham, 
MA 02194. 

Aerco, Box 18093, Austin, TX 78760. 

Sunset Electronics, 2254 Taraval 


Street, San Francisco, CA 94116. 
E. Arthur Brown Co., 3404 Pawnee Dr., 
Alexandria, MN 56308. 
Byte-Back Co., Rt. 
Rd., Leeville, SC 29070. 


3, Box 147 Brodie 


-- Richard Cravy 


=34= 





Reprinted from S.U.M. May/86 
Tape Makes a Difference 


Since my years with the 2፪83 and some 
time with the TS2068, I have fought the 
idea of adding another peripheral such as 
a Winky Board or any other type of 
amplifier and/or filter. I guess I'm fussy 
but I hate clutter in my computer area. So 
I've endured lost data, blaming it on the 
cassette recorder. In fact, I ended up by 
buying three recorders. Eventually, I went 
back to the first one, a Sony TCM-121, and 
had to run it "wide open* to get a good 
load on various brands of tape. A small, 
mostly defunct user group I once led had a 
"group buy” of cassettes once and we 
placed it with an outfit in Des Plaines, 
Illinois. In bulk, their prices per tape 
were the best we'd seen. The tape we'd 
selected out of the six offered still had 
me running at full volume. (This rates a 
"10" on my recorder since the volume 
control is marked from 1 - 10.) 

Thinking of the wide selection they 
had, I called  Polyline Corp., the 
distributor of the tape we'd gotten on the 
group buy. When I asked the sales rep 
about comparisons between four types of 
tape, she sent a sample of each for me to 
try. 





Å test was run in this manner: using 
the Tasword II word processor program, I 
wrote a short article and SAVEd it to each 
cassette, one after the other. Next, ፲- 
cleared the text from memory, set the 
volume control arbitrarily at "7" and was 
unsuccessful in LOADing the text from a 
BASF LHD cassette. Undaunted, I reset it 
at "8" and got a good LOAD. This means 
that I only needed 80% of the volume 
compared to any previous LOAD! Well, if 
the BASF was that good, what would the 
Magnetite 12 do for me? Since the text was 
already SAVEd, I set the volume control to 
"7" once again, cleared the text, and 
LOADed. It worked. Try "6", It worked, 
too! And with the Ampex 615/616 and Agfa 
611/811 tapes could LOAD safely at "5" -- 
50% of the volume required before the 
test! 

No 812 amplifier, no 820 Winky Board, 
nothing more than more sensitive tape. Not 
only that, but the Agfa 615/616 C-10 tape 
cost only 34.9 cents per cassette when 
bought in a lot ዕ፻ 100, even less in 
greater quantities. 

This is an unsolicited testimonial, not 
an advertisement. User groups or 
individuals who would like to get in on a 
good thing should call  Polyline 
Corportation at 312/298-5300 or 
312/297-0955 and ask for a free catalog 
$85Pl. The rest is up to you. 


-- John L. Donaldson 


5 PRINT AT 28,10;" 
1a PLOT 327. 

20 CRAU 25,18 

30 DRAW Ø,-38, 
45. DRAW -25,18 
SQ PLOT 1i 
55 DRAW 18 
78 DRAW -: 


st ያ 


>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 


imtellectual=------ 
EHO LUI OTIS Û = eea 


Physica (=-...... 
v کک‎ 14 R et . 5 . 2 
"RUG AUG; SEP 


AUG AUG 7, 


= “ tis På Krag “ዴታ 


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| 


Reprinted from S.U.M. May/86 





ra ROUND TUIT 
ጨርጐ: 

r THIS RARE. BUT I Banners on the TS-2040 

፤ HOMENIDUS DEVICE I 

WIL NHANCE THE 

COMP NOY 

DURE ee Ve Here is a program that will allow you 
VER SAID, "I DIDNT to input a message and have it print out 


GET A ROUND TUIT," the message as a banner on the 2040 


THIS ROUND ፐህ፲ፐ 
SHOULD HELP YOU T printer. 

EIO ALL OFE The letters are generated one at a time‏ ہب 
YOUR OBJECTIVES.‏ 





by PEEKing at the letter to be generated 
in the ROM, making it 8 times normal size 
and turning it on it's side and then 
COPYing it to the printer. 

The program is much faster in FAST 
mode, but you can't see the letter 
forming. 


change—the-ohazactez—that—is-aetually-ucod 


CONFUSED WITH A 
% A S0UARE a 


"ma IT) ar 
z FET 





5 PRINT “FIRST NAME?" 
@ INPUT አፄ 

15 CLS å 
20 IF _N$="" THEN GOTO 30 

29 PRINT pride er Enter the program as listed and use 


GOTO 280 to SAVE it so that it will self 


30 PRINT AT 3.11; "ROUND TUIT"; 
—— ٠ث‎ start next time it's LOADed. 


TABS, * 

40 PRINT TAB ت‎ "THIS RARE, BUT 
"TAB 8; "MOMENTOUS LEVICE"; TAB = 
; WILL ENHANCE THE"; TAB 7; "COMPE 
TENCY OF ITS";TAB 6; “OWNER, " 

55 PRINT AT 3,14; "IF you HAVE" 
TAB 5; EVER SAID, “”ፓ LIDNT";TA 


162a ኪነኑ። 


ር ፻3 IES بک‎ 







i3; ""PHIT)* 


B 7i "GET A ROUND TUIT,' z 
50 PRINT TAB S;"THIS$ ROUND TUI = 
T"iTRB 2; "SHOULD HELP YOU To" = 
"5 PRINT TAB ?; “ACCOMPLISH ALL E 
OF"; TAB 8; "YOUR OBJECTIVES," a 
55 PRINT TAB و‎ "(NOT TO BE": TA $ 

B 5; “CONFUSED WITH" > 
38 PRINT TAE 11; "A SOUARE": TAB = 

e 

1 


al Vat لمت ل‎ ፻3 ፻3 ሮህ ITE I II GO ای‎ IET] 











ORO LLL ዛዛ ak ችች ዱቹች፡ ህዝ aka ak E E KK ak kkk 


188 LET A=31 3 =; 

118 LET: B=22 F3 Y THE: ST rar መጫ 
128 LET R=zQ d e a PT EE RASA 
138 FOR xzà TO R+50R 2 ora e ا‎ 
140 LET Y=50R iR£R-XsX) qum c. 4 euro 178 
158 LET CzX e E 

168 LET D=* LET 

176 GOSUB Sag LEK 

388 LET 90 iQ PRIN B;CHRS CNTR 
198 LET D=x sO LET 

GOSUB sag BA NEXT‏ ت28 

210 NEXT x 218 NEXT 

228 GOTO sae 220 LET 

508 LET E=A+C z T 

518 LET F=B+C = x1 

S20 PLOT E,F z 

538 LET F=B-C z 

540 PLOT E,F 2 

550 LET E=A-C = “SANNER 

555 PLOT E,F 

278 LET F=B+D -- Joe Williamson 
S88 PLOT E,F 

598 RETURH 

500 COPY 

518 STOP 

620 SAVE "Ra" 

5258 RUN 


236- 














Timex Research and Development Photo shows the never re- 
leased Bus Expansion Unit (BEU) "piggy-backed" just behind 
the TS2068. The TS2020 Tape Recorder, TS2050 Modem and the 
Sinclair Microdrives are sitting on top. 


ተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተተቀተተተቀተታቱ 


Reprinted from 7/86 "SMUG BYTES" 
Sinclair Milwaukee Users Group 


Brain Tickler 


COMPUTER EDIFICATION BAUD RATE - The number 
of attractive and 
skimpily clad women/ 

8-BIT MACHINE ፦ a mer. passing by you 

computer selling for on the beach. 

four quarters. 

BREADBOARD - The only 

6502 - The year you kind of board you can 

will finally pay off afford after buying 

your computer. a computer. 

68000 - The year your EUBBLE SORT - Your 

spouse will forgive you spouse's term for 

for buying a computer. your friends. 

BAR CODE READER - BUFFER - Programmer 

Electronic device who works in the nude. 


used to find taverns. 
U.S. Journal Sep./Oct. 


BATCH PROCESSING - 1981. 
Making lots of cookies 
t once. 


0 


س7 3ہ 


„ SHOE 
WHAT SEBMS DOBE NELL, IT JUST 
THE PROBLEM? ZARTE TO 
THe WORDS. 








0 . 
መጣ ቁወቋ ማክ nnen فوع روہ‎ 3 


ccopted. ዘ PERSONAL COMPUTER: |) 
Data not avail- | 15 GETTING INCREASINGLY ۱ 
able at this time ے‎  |MPERGONAL. | 





382 ت 





WEYMIL CORPORATION 
للا کے‎ 


...makes a serious commitment to the Timex user in the development of high-quality, innovative, 


and user-friendly software, complete with layman-oriented documentation, and all at affordable 
prices. we are proud to offer you: 








QA 
OOOO) 






ሮን 
4.4 
DoD 


*THRUST* 


0000 
+... 
440 


Finally, real graphics power for your TS 
10001 THRUST, the last word in 
cursor-controlled hi-res graphics for screen 
or printer output, is a software package 
composed of SincArtist HR and Sincartist 


1.3. Examine this sample for an idea of the GE 
powerful versitility of THRUST. = B 
SINCARTIST 1.3 - The original! Fantastic  * 
hi-res graphics delivered to the 2040 iu 


printer.  SincArtist 1.3 boasts excellent $ 
user-group reviews and is simply the best ት አር 
non-hardware system available. Note these 

features: 


~ 192 X 256 high-resolution file displayed in a 48 X 64 screen window 

- Circles, triangles, rectangles, quadrilaterals, rays, inversing, and more 
- 40 redefinable patterns and a variety of draw and fill modes 

- Cursor or joystick control 

- No system modifications required 


SINCARTIST HR - The last word in cursor-controlled high-resolution screen graphics. Copy artwork 
to the 2040 printer and save to tape. SincArtist HR requires a TS 1000 with a socketed 2X RAM, 
less than $10.00 in parts, and a few minutes with a soldering iron. Super user-friendly 
documentation and instructions included, All modifications are fully transparent to other 
peripherals. HUNTER BOARD OWNERS: All you need is the FREE hardware upgrade that we providel!!!!! 


THRUST includes SincArtist HR and Sinc-Artist 1.3 (these programs are not sold separately). The 
Ultimate Hi-Res Tape is available exclusively from Weymil Corporation far only $20. 


“MINI XMOD* 


MINI XMOD - Allows your Westridge or Byte-Back modem to up and download Timex programs to any 
Amodem protocol BBS. 


~ Fully documented with easy-to-follow instructions for the layman 

7 16K and 64K versions included 

- Ideal for storage in Hunter Board $ 
= Produced on high-quality casette for the ZX 8l, TS 1000, and TS 1500 


› 


MINI XMOD is available from Weymil Corporation for only $20. Please specify Westridge or 
Byte-Back version. 


WEYMIL CORPORATION 
BOX 5904 
BELLINGHAM WA 
98227-5904 


(Write for a free catalogue of other TS 2068 and TS 1000 products) 


Z AG 





AETAT ን ተ ርር ሽሽ 
VAnTDOUVErTrsSINTLairusersS9ar GUF 


p 
THE VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP HAS 
BEEN IN EXISTENCE SINCE 1982. WE ARE Å 
SUPPORT GROUP FOR THE OWNERS AND USERS 
OF THE: MICROACE, ZX80, ZX81, T/S/1000, 
T/S1500, SPECTRUM, SPECTRUM +, T/S2068, 
AND QL COMPUTERS, 


PRES.--KEN ABRAMSON 
V/PRES.-- ? 
TREAS. 6 EDITOR--ROD HUMPHREYS 


OUR MEMBERSHIP DUES ARE ONLY $15.00/YEAR 
AND MAY BE SENT TO THE TREASURER. 


ROD HUMPHREYS 
2006 HIGHVIEW PLACE 
PORT MOODY, B.C., V3H 1N5 


MEMBERSHIP INCLUDES A SUBSCRIPTION TO 
ZXAPPEAL OUR MONTHLY NEWSLETTER. 
ZXAPPEAL ACCEPTS ADVERTISING, OUR 
««PREPAID** RATES ARE: 

$40.00 -- FULL PAGE 

$20.00 -- 1/2 PAGE 

$10.00 -- 1/4 PAGE 


ZXAPPEAL HAS A PRINT RUN OF 100 COPIES 
PER MONTH FOR MEMBERS AND IS ALSO 
DISTRIBUTED TO APPROX 50 OTHER SINCLAIR 
USER GROUPS THROUGHOUT NORTH AMERICA AS 
WELL AS OVERSEAS VIA THE NETWORK. 


NETWORK CORRESPONDENCE MAY BE DIRECTED 
TO THE EDITOR AT THE ABOVE ADDRESS.