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DEC/86 %1.50 


usmnrpDLumer- Sinclai- users чгпир 


пехт Meeting: INSiDe 








шаа at EE) ПЕВ ea pan eo a 2 

URNCOUUER - BLFTSu& a BTEGES: Zur 252255; 2 

3 MEETING CALENDAR............. 3 

FRIDAY 3 БЕК PERRA o Ed IE 4 

DECEMBER 12, 1986 | 1000 PROGRAMM. 12.2 a5 cecus 4 

7 P.M. 3 GATALOBS S. те, ызаға ыы 4 

u BYTE2ZPOWERS Z О Л тИ 2525 5 

COMPUHTJERESEZ2 Z XZ ortis deas 6 

GERD GORKEGHS LI 4 Vs er REOR 8 

ZXAPPEAL IS A MONTHLY кое асу igit ч 

РР PLAYING WITH ELECTRICITY..... 10 
NEWSLETTER PUT OUT BY THE 

VANCOUVER SINCLAIR USERS GROUP. PROGRAM LANGUAGES............ 12 

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON THE СЕОСКО. алоца рысы] 13 


CLUB AND ZXAPPEAL SEE THE ВАСКСОУЕВ, 1000 PROGRAM 13 





THES S-SSURE W eee, кушу» wo жаши» е ө 


Ho Ho Ho...its that time of year 
again. When we start leaving 
mail-order catalogs lying around 
with certain pieces of software апа 
hardware highlighted...just in case 
anyone is interested. In this issue 
I'm including the addresses of some 
catalogs that arrived at my door by 
random this month. The number of new 
products recently brought on the 
market for Sinclair and related 
machine is impressive. Back with us 
in this issue are two contributors 
well known to loyal reader: Harvey 
T. gives us another chapter of his 
ongoing saga for the QL of 'Playing 
With Electricity'; Ken A. supplies 
a couple of neat little programs 
'sure to baffle and amuse one and 
all'. Hugh P. writes from Cowtown 
with a problem I'm sure one of you 
will let him know the answer to. 
Take special note of our advertisers 
this month.  BYTEPOWER presents 
themselves again for you for your 
consideration. I've read that this 
product is well worth the money. 
Weymil has finally come up with the 
impossible...a program that allows 
MULTI-TASKING on a 1000 (ZX81). I 
saw it - otherwise I wouldn't 
believe it. Ме round out this 
month's ZXAppeal with assorted odds 
and ends as well as the usual select 
articles from the NETWORK. 


BITS. & PIECES - vv Wee. eR S.» 


...Sad news this month fellow 
Sinclairions, another valued TS 
publication is calling it a day. 
QUARTERS, published by WMJ DATA 
SYSTEMS four times a year tells us 
in the just arrived FALL edition 
that the forthcoming WINTER edition 
will be the last. Bill says the 
cause was less available time due to 
an increase in business. Sadly, the 
jump was due to his expansion into 
'other' computer lines. 

... the new CANADA COMPUTES mag is 
here and will be handed out to 
everyone at the meeting. 


2 


... the Pacific Coast Computer Fair 
Association's swap meet was a 
roaring success. Our Group put on a 
most impressive display of three 
generations of Sinclair 
machines...the 1000, the 2068, and 
Harvey's QL. Many old newsletters 
were passed out and much interest 
was shown by the public. There was a 
crowd in front of the booth almost 
all day. A few machines even changed 
hands. A little old lady came up to 
us with a box containing 5 1000's 
for sale. Harry S. would have taken 
the lot if I hadn't grabbed one for 
myself. Many thanks to: Wilf, Glenn, 
Harvey, Ken, Gerd, Harry, John, and 
me for manning the tables. 

...last month we warned gentle 
reader that if,as a result of a 
hardware article in the newsletter, 
smoke was observed coming from 
Whence it shouldn't, thats the way 
She goes. I decided to wire in the 
Tantalum cap in the Reset button 
article for the 2068 in backwards. 
Just as a test of the TIMEX repair 
System, you understand. Now we'll 
see how long TIMEX takes repairing 
my machine. 


... the QL Kit group purchase is 
moving ahead with increased speed. 
Doug Dewey called from Carrboro, NC, 
the other day to say that the price 
lists and other info will be going 
out to the 15 individuals in our 
area who signed up. Doug said that 
the total number of kits ordered 
topped 60. This qualified us for 
dealer pricing on certain items that 
he will detail in his letter to 
those on the list.  Eg:..flat screen 
TV. .. $50.00. 

...for all those interested in other 
languages that can run on our 
machines, Jack Brown of the 
Mathemetics Dept., B.C.I.T., will be 
leading several classes on various 
levels of FORTH starting in January 
at B.C.I.T. for 12 weeks. Mr. Brown 
gave a very interesting tutorial on 
FORTH at the swap meet. 

...І have seen the promised land!!! 
Multi-tasking on a 10001 3 
different programs running 
simultaneously on the same screenll 
Make sure you read the advert from 
WEYMIL then read it again. This has 
to be the biggest breakthrough in 
real applications for TS machines 
since Harvey came up with MINI-XMOD. 
I'm told that multi-tasking on the 
2068 is only days away. 


RENEWING MEMBERS: 


B.Holden, N.Trylsson, B.Hoffert 
G.Winterburn, C.H.Key, B.G.Watts, 
K.Gamey, H.Polley. 


NEW MEMBERS: 


Vince Lee, Vancouver, В.С. 
Ken Duda, Northlake, Illinois 


If you received notice that your 
dues are due,please pay at the 
next meeting or reiit by mail. The 
club can only remain in existence 
SO long as interest remains. 





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DECEMBER 


Has anyone seen the Club 1000? 
Sometime back, the Club TS1000 and 
Rampak were loaned to a member and 
now the lender can't remember who 
the lendee was. If you have it or 
know who has, please bring it to 
the next meeting. We intend to 
raffle it off, proceeds to the 
Club treasury. 


Speaking of raffles...what do you 
think of the Club buying a QL Kit 
and raffleing it off to the 
membership at, say, two bucks a 
ticket? As long as a minimum 
number of tickets were sold to 
cover the cost, someone would come 
up with a OL real cheap and the 
Club might make a few extra bucks. 
Let's have your input at the 
meeting. 


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HELPHELPHELPHELPHELPHELPHELPHELPHELP 


HUGH POLLEY writes: 


I have a radio shack М100 and away 
like to use it with my TS 2065€ but 
have some problems with MTERMII. 


1/ I have МТЕКМ11, Rotronics 
Vafadrive, and modem. After loading | 
МТЕКМ11 should I try to return to basic 
the system crashes. 

2/ I would like to be able to 
transfer a basic program from the TS to 
the MTERMII text file. 

3/ І would like to be able to 
transfer a program written in авс11 
formatt to sinclair basic and vic versa 
one line at a time inorder to make 
required changes. 


INFO: 

The system uses a spectrum rom, and 
the operating system lies between 23734 
and 26026 plus channel buffers. 


I would like to hear from anyone with 
Partial or total solutions to any of the 
above problems. 


HUGH A. FOLLEY 
1635 MARANDA CL. 
CALGARY, ALTA. · 
T2T SE7 


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GOODIESGOODI ESGOODIESGOODI ESGOODIES 


This month the mailperson has pushed 
5 very tempting TS mail-order 
catalogs thru my door. One of these 
is even Canadian! 


---Beaver Computer Products 

756 Fleming Ave.,Winnipeg, Man, 

R2K 1V5 

....а WP for the 2068 they call 
"Beaver Writer' plus other neat 
stuff. They have a great demo Їаре you 
can send for. 


---WMJ DATA SYSTEMS 
4 Butterfly Drive 
Hauppauge, NY 11788 
-.. business programs, games, 
utilities, graphics, books, and 
much more. 


---Thomas B. Woods 

P.O. Box 64, 

Jefferson, NH 03583 

...Рго/Ғі1е, MemoNotes, Extended 
Basic, 8K ROM upgrade, & lots 

more. My orders already gonel 


---Knighted Computers 
707 Highland St. 
Fulton, NY 13069 
...а11 the good stuff for the 
2068 and QL. 


---E-Z KEY 
225 Beach Street 
Wollaston, MA 02170 
**.16 pages of goodies - most of 
it for the QL. A better 
selection I've yet to see. 
They have KEYTOPS for the 206811 
$4.00 gets you a set of keytops 
for that decent 2068 keyboard. 
I've already received the PCB for 
the keyboard interface. 


Send for these catalogs. You'll be 
glad you did! Surprisingly, most of 
the items they carry are not 
expensive. Have you priced programs 
for 'Big Blue' 

lately? 


EE At Last’ a computer 
an mum magazine: on:cassett 
the. Finex. ou have to 985 


ҮТЕ P a SOFTWARE. Aye | 
Magazine. ith: aver: 438: Pra pan 
рег years most: 1432 th 

ма 


Plus POTE gat картош e 
and Harduare for your 152068 and 
tips to help: ypu design. betten т 
prograns?. T 2 | 


BYTE. : POWER 7 
- 1748. Meadouvieu ААТ 
Pickering; Ontario, Canada. 
| fav 368 | 





A PHRASE BOOK OF COMPUTERESE 
...WES BRZOZOWSKI, SINCUS (MAR/APR 86) 


YOU'VE PROBABLY SEEN DOZENS OF GLOSSARIES OF COMPUTER TERMS. NEWSPAPER 
ARTICLES, MAGAZINES, AND EVEN SOME COMPUTER MANUALS CONTAIN LISTS THAT WILL LET 
YOU LOOK UP THE MEANING OF WORDS SUCH AS BYTE, RAM, FLOPPY DISK, ETC. 


BUT YOU CAN'T LEARN FRENCH BY READING A FRENCH DICTIONARY, AND YOU CAN'T 
UNDERSTAND COMPUTERESE BY SCANNING A GLOSSARY. ALTHOUGH A TRUE UNDERSTANDING OF 
A LANGUAGE REQUIRES PRACTICE WE COULD REALLY USE A PHRASE BOOK. YOU KNOW, THE 
KIND TOURISTS TAKE WITH THEM WHEN THEY TRAVEL. THE LITTLE BOOK THEY OPEN AT 
THE RESTAURANT IN CHINA, JUST TO MAKE SURE THEY DON'T ACCIDENTIALLY ORDER A 
STIR-FRIED TRACTOR. 


HERE'S A SMALL LIST OF USEFUL COMPUTER PHRASES,...AND WHAT THEY REALLY MEAN: 


“THEY'LL BE AVAILABLE IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS --IF ENOUGH PEOPLE ACT INTERESTED 
WE MAY START DESIGNING ONE. 


«ТТ PRINTS NEAR-LETTER QUALITY Ru. a MATRIX IS LARGER THAN 

*YOU WON'T BE CONSTANTLY REFERRING TO THE 

MANUAL --WE DON'T PROVIDE MUCH 
DOCUMENTATION, 


*THE'LL BE AVAILABLE IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS --THE COMPETION HAS ANNOUNCED 
ONE, AND WE DON'T WONT YOU TO 
BUY THEIRS. 


*OURS IS EASIER TO LEARN --OURS DOESN'T DO AS MUCH. 

*TT'S PORTABLE --WE PUT A HANDLE ON IT. 

*NEW LOW PRICE --WE GOT THIS DEAL ON A LOAD OF 
REJECT PARTS THAT USUALLY 
WORK OK. 


*THEY'LL BE AVAILABLE IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS --WE'RE TRYING TO HIRE A DESIGNER 
WHO KNOWS WHAT THE HECK HE'S 
DOING. 


*WE'VE IMPROVED IT --МЕ THINK IT'S FINALLY DEBUGGED. 


*THEY'LL BE AVAILABLE IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS --THE PROTOTYPE STILL DOESN'T 
WORK FOR SOME REASON. 


*[T'LL UPGRADE YOUR SYSTEM --NoW YOU WON'T CRASH AS OFTEN. 


*IT'S FULLY COMPATIBLE --WE HEARD THAT SOMEONE GOT IT 
WORKING, ONCE. 


I 


*THEY'LL BE AVAILABLE IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS --МЕ FORGOT TO WRITE SOFTWARE FOR 


*THE OWNER INSTALLS IT --YOU DO THE WORK AND SAVE US THE 
LABOUR COSTS. 


*IT'S THE BEST ONE AROUND --YOU EXPECT WE'D SAY IT ISN'T? 


*THEY'LL BE AVAILABLE IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS --WE'VE GOT TO REDESIGN IT. WE'VE 
BEEN FIDDLING WITH IT SO LONG 
THAT THEY'VE STOPPED MAKING SOME 
OF THE PARTS. 


*IT'S WIDELY SUPPORTED BY THIRD PARTIES AND 
USER GROUPS --IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS WE 
DON'T WANT TO HEAR THEM. 


“THEY'LL BE AVAILABLE IN A COUPLE OF MONTHS --THERE'S A SUCKER BORN EVERY 
MINUTE. ; 


*IT'S COMPATIBLE WITH EARLIER MODELS --WE TOOK THE GUTS AND PUT 
THEM IN A NEM BOX. 


*TT'S NEW AND INNOVATIVE --IT'S NOT COMPATIBLE WITH ANYTHING 


*WE WONT BE MAKING IT AVAILABLE: 

THERE'S NOT ENOUGH OF A MARKET --THE ONLY GUY WHO UNDERSTOOD THE 
THING LEFT US TO WORK FOR A MORE 
ORGANIZED OUTFIT. 


AS YOU CAN SEE, THERE'S MORE TO COMPUTERESE THAN JUST WORD MEANINGS. NOTE THAT 
THE MEANING OF SOME PHRASES CHANGES DEPENDING ON HOW MANY TIMES THEY'RE 
REPEATED. WE CAN ALSO BE SURE THAT THOSE WHO ANNOUNCE SHIPPING DATES F OR 
COMPUTER PRODUCTS FULLY AGREE WITH EINSTEIN THAT TIME IS RELATIVE. 


=ч" “атала: 
ES 


Sae 9. 9 9. 








LAS VEGAS — More speed and memory 
аге the major thrusts of the microcomputer 
industry at this `s Comdex show. 

ing to Vancouver companies exhi- 
biting here, the computer market looks 
headed for an excellent year. 

William Lowe set the tone of this year's 
show by telling 80,000 dealers tu “‘lasten 
their seatbelts.” 

He said 1987 would be the most exciting 
year the industry had ever seen. 

Lowe, president of IBM's entry sysiems 
- i gave the keynote speech at Com- 

X. : 

He sent а collective wave of relief through 
the show by reaffirming IBM's intention to 
maintain an open architecture with its per- 
sonal computers. 

In other words, IBM does not intend to 


lock out hardware competitors by devel- 
oping a proprietary, IBM-only, personal 


computer. 
Much of the interest to date at this year's 
show has centred on the high-speed 80386 


microprocessor. 
Compag set the pace by releasing the first 
80386-based computer in September, but 
already there are imitators, including 
upgrade kits for IBM AT computers. 
other development unveiled at the 
show includes a substantial pe to make 
the IBM PC suitable for desk-top publish- 


ing. 
t high-resolution monitors, with both 
color and black-and-white capabilities, are 


al! over the 3 

ol systems are demonstrated 
"T sa printers that have come down 
in price and have improved in quality over , 
the past ycar. i 


One other trend that business users will 
probably appreciate is a continued influx of 
clones that are bound to keep hardware 
prices competitively kw. 

Noticeable by its absence, however, is 
multi-user software using the Unix operat- 
ing system. 

Dealers looking for multi-user systems in 
the main had to be content with improved 
networking software and hardware. 

Canada ts well represented with two gov- 
ernment-sponsored display areas and a 
number of individual corporate displays. 

Walter Steel, president of Vancouver- 
based Sydney Development Corporation, 
said he was pleased а! the response to the 
company's display. 

Sydney is stressing its new communica- 
tons protoco! that was developed at the 
University of British Columbia. 

Tom Flaherty, president of Bedford Soft- 


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ware о! Burnaby, said the Canadian dis- 
plays, with a distinctive maple leaf theme, 
seemed to attract buyers. 

Greg Boorman, president of Daetech Elec- 
tronics of Burnaby, said orders hal way 
through the frst two days had made atten- 
dance at Comdex worthwhile. 

One loca! disappointment at the show was 
for Synex Systems, whose SQZ! spreadsheet 
compression program made it on to the list 
of candidates for an outstanding technical 


achievement award from PC Magazine. 
In its cat о -ons, SQZ! 
was beaten t's Best and HAL, both 


enhancements for Lotus 1-2-3. 

Hardware awards went to for its 
Deskpro 386 while Zenith and Toshiba 
shared portable computer honors. 

The award for а software application went 
to NewViews, billed as a new approach to 
accounting software. 


Gerd says that the schematic of the one chip NVM in the 


Jul/Aug newsletter was slightiy incorrect. 


He assures 


me that it will work as shown but feels that the slight 
change as shown below is more correct. 





JMO Рротєст 


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WEYMIL presents... 


A small collection of truly innovative products for Sinclair computers 


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NEW POR 1 


MULTI-TASKING ОН THE TS 1000 ? 


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SPECIAL OFFER!!! 


qi 664.95 


BOH 5 9 D 4 
WA 98227-59 04 


BELLINGHAM 


WEYMIL CORPORATION 


Sae $ 5 , Ü Ü when you order the combination of THRUST, RIGTER JOYSTICK INTERFACE, әгі KANCER 1000 and pau 


SHIPPING INSTRUCTIONS  Bease enclose $2 .0 0 shipping and handling wth your orden, 


10 


PLAYING WITH FLECTRICITY 
Nov 14/86 


How do you represent, .5 in binary? How about .75? That 
is a teaser for next time. 


What 1 want to talk about this month is getting оп the 
QL bus, а 6821 expansion board. The 68008 addresses one 
megabyte directly; іп hex that is Ø -> $OFFFFF. The memory 
map looks roughly like this: 


$0FFFFF — ІМ - Top of address space 

— 128K ROM expansion 
$0DFFFF - 896K - 

— 8 - 16K Expansion cards 


$ØBFFFF - 768K 
— 512K Expansion Ram 
SO3FFFF - 256K - 
- 128K On board ram 
$01FFFF - 128K - 
- 1/0 Hardware 
$09FFFF - 64K - 
- Plug in КОМ ' 
$0O0BFFF - 48K - е 
— Оп board КОМ 
со – - Bottom of address space 


From this brief outline you can see that we have to aim 
for the 768K-1M slot. If we look at the address lines in 
binary we see: 


A19 A18 А17 А16 А15 А14 RANGE FUNCTION 

1 1 x x x x 768K-1M Hardware expansion 
1 @ х х х х 512K-768K Ram expansion 

0 1 х х х х 256К-512К Ram expansion 


If we аге to design a circuit to Het into this slot we will 
have A19 & A18 Һійһ; while the other address lines will narrow the 
range in that slot. In particular, what I chose to do was use this 
decoding. 


A19 AJB A17 A16 A15 A14 A13 ........ Al Ад 
1 1 1 0 1 1 1 R R which is $ØEEØØR 


The 6821 uses the two low address lines to differentiate 4 of 
its internal registers. Looking at the circuit dingram, you see 
that lines A19.A17 но directly to the 741521 which has dual 4 
input. AND gates. A16 is first inverted by the 741.5905 and then goes 
to the 741,521. Note that the 741,505 is an open collector device & 
БО needs n pull up resistor at its output. The output of the first 
AND ante ік fed to the other side which also watches А15 A13. 

This positive signal 1 have called board select. One of the 
intricacies of the QL is that the internal hardware will grab any 


address above 256К un]ess it is told not {о via an open collector 
input line called confusingly Data Strobe Master Chip; DSMCL where 
the L indicates active low. One other restriction has to do with 
timing. DSMC must be driven low before Address Strobe (ASL) 
becomes active. On the board this is accomplished by the 2N3993 
transistor which is driven by board select. 

So far we have generated a board select & told the QL we are 
interested. The ASL signal is used to qualify board select to 
generate a Chip select signal for the 6821. Note that Motorola 
recommends that Chip Select (CSL) be qualified as well by the E 
signal; which 1 have not done. Now the 6821 knows the QL is 
talking to it, the board has to be able to tell the QL to 
continue. This is done with the Valid Peripheral Address (VPAL). 
Note that VPAI. is an open collector line , so that по pullup 
resistor is used for this connection. 

All of the other connections are straightforward; such as the 
Data lines & power grid. I > 
This 15 a hardware expansion which ignores QDOS completely. 
There 15 no way for the operating system to know that this board 
is attached. А11 driving software must therefore be particularly 
written for the $ØEEØØR address. 


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Selecting a Programming Language Made Easy 


Danie! Salomon & David Rosenblueth 


Department of Computer Science, University of Waterloo 
Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 


With such a large selection cf programming languages it can be difficult to choose one 
for a particular project Reading the manuals to evaluate the languages is a time consuming 
process. On the othe: hand, most people already have a fairly good idea of how various auto- 
mobiles compere. So in order to assist those trying to choose a language, we have prepared a 
chart that rnatches programming languages with comparable automobiles. 


Assembler — 


FORTRAN II — 
FORTRAN IV — 
FORTRAN 77 — 
COBOL = 
BASIC == 


PL/I — 


С — 


ALGOL 60 — 
Pascal — 


Modula II — 
ALGOL 68 — 
LISP — 


A Formula I race car. Very fast, but difficult to drive and expensive to 
maintain. 

A Model T Ford. Once it was king of the road. 

A Model A Ford. 

A six-cylinder Ford Fairlane with standard transmission and no seat belts. 
A delivery van. It's bulky and ugly, but it does the work. 


A second-hand Rambler with a rebuilt engine and patched upholstery. 
Your dad bought it for you to you to learn to drive. You'll ditch the car as 
soon as you can afford a new one. 


A Cadillac convertible with automatic transmission, a two-tone paint job, 
white-wall tires, chrome exhaust pipes, and íuzzy dice hanging in the 
windshield. 


A black Firebird, the all-macho car. Comes with optional seat belts (lint) 
and optional fuzz buster (escape to assembler). 


An Austin Mini. Boy, that's a small car! 


A Volkswagen Beetle. It's small but sturdy. Was once popular with intel- 
lectuals. , 


A Volkswagen Rabbit with a trailer hitch. 
An Aston Martin. Ап impressive car, but not just anyone can drive it. 


An electric car. It’s simple but slow. Seat belts are not available. 


PROLOG/LUCID — Prototype concept-cars. 
Maple/MACSYMA — All-terrain vehicles. 


FORTH =s 
LOGO — 


APL — 


Ada — 


A go-cart. 


A kiddie's replica of a Rolls Royce. Comes with a real engine and a work- 
ing horn. 

A double-decker bus. It takes rows and columns of passengers to the same 
place all at the same time. But, it drives only in reverse gear, and is instru- 
mented in Greek. 


An army-green Mercedes-Benz staff car. Power steering, power brakes and 
automatic transmission are all standard. No other colors or options are 
available. If it’s good enough for the generals, it’s good enough for you. 
Manufacturing delays due to difficulties reading the design specifications 
are starting to clear up. | 


Speaking of O1d Friends, look who 
popped up in a recent Sinclair/QL 
World....Original Member Rois. 


Sinclair/QL World August 1986 


It was good to receive my June 
Sinclair QL World and to find 
some sympathy in an article 
describing the loss of files due 
to “VO incomplete? or "invalid 
Quill file” ypes of error 
messages. 

With my JM VERS QL, 1 have 
not been able to sive апу 
documents longer than about 
5,650 words or 64 sectors. In 
vour Open Channel was a letter 
from lan Tait suggesting that he 
could store files on Microdrive 
up to 10,000 words in length. I 
am asking how that is so, in the 
light of my system's limitation. 
Could someone please explain 
how he can reach that great 
length? 

Incidentally, I have а PCML 
256K memory add-on and have 
never had any real problem 
with my system. Lam interested 
in any information or letters 
from anvone knowing a little 
more about this “сше” kind of 
storage svstem. 

Rois Harder £15, 
P O Box 491, Yanbu, 
K. of Saudi Arabia. 


FRANK & ERNEST BOB THAVES 





COMPUTERS 
‚ COMPLETE HOME SYSTEMS 


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PRINT AT га, 
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FRUSE 4Е4 
CLS 
FRINT AT 20,0; " 
RS NOU: " 
INPUT A$ 
IF CODE я$=55 THEN GOTO 240 
LET A=VAL A$ 
PRINT ñ 
LET Е-Бән 
LET C=C+1 
SCROLL 
сото 150 
LET RzB;C 
CLS 
PRINT 5% 
FOR *=1 TO 9 
PRINT AT Y,ð; 


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240 PRINT 


550 FRINT 5% 

260 FRINT AT 15,0; "FOR ANOTHER 
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400 SAVE "AvERAGEB 
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13 


CLOCKING THE 2068 


Our 2068's have a built-in clock, sometimes called 
the Frame counter. This clock starts at zero 
every time the computer is turned on, It 
increments the value at the variable address 23672 
every 1/60th of a second until it reaches 255.This 
takes about 4 1/4 seconds and then resets to zero 
and increments the value at 23673. This counter 
will also go up to 255 but only every 18 minutes. 
At that time it, in turn, increments the final 
Counter at address 23674. The final counter 
reaches 255 after about 3 days and 6 hours. 


The counters can be reset to zero or any other 
value by POKEing the number into three addresses. 
The accuracy of the clock Ís .01 percent (*/- 10 
seconds per day). The clock counts up as long as 
the 2068 15 left on, with three exceptions: 


- During a BEEP, 
- During tape operations (SAVEing and LOADIng), 
- During printing on the printer. 


Under the above three conditions, time will 
stand still and continue when the condition is 
completed. The following expression gives the 
present count on the clock: 


(65536 * PEEK 23674 + 256 * PEEK 23673 
* PEEK 23672) / 60 


When using this expression in a program it 15 
possible to PEEK 23673 just as 22672 resets to 
zero. This wil! give a false reading of 23673 
because 1% should have been incremented at that 
moment, between reading the two addresses. To 
overcome this situation, use the above expression 
twice successively, and take the highest reading. 


from : SPECTRUM Users manual, Chapter 18 
compiled by Fred Schakel 
London T/S Users Group 


T++++++i+i+i++++++ii+++++iiii+i+i+i+iiiiiiiTiiTiTiiiiiiiiiTTiTT4TTTTTTTTT TT +++ ++ 


BASICALLY "ІҢ" 


An advantage of uslng the IN function instead of 
INKEY$ 15 that multiple keys can be sensed, |f 


the 
keyboard was to be divided into 8 groups so that 
each group was half a row containing 5 keys, then 


these groups would be represented by 
as follows: 

IN 65278 = keys CAPSHIFT to V 

IN 65022 * keys A to G 

IN 64510 = keys Q to T 

IN 63486 = keys 1 to 5 

IN 61438 = keys O to 6 

IN 57342 * keys P to Y 

IN 49150 = keys ENTER to H 

IN 32766 * keys SPACE to B 


IN addresses 


When IN 65278 equals 31 (btnary 11111), none of 
the keys from CAPSHIFT to V are being pressed. If 
one of these keys was pressed, 1t would Change the 
binary 1 to a zero. The least significant digit 
represents the key closest to the outside of the 
keyboard. For example, IN 61438 15 19 (Binary 
10011) indicating that both keys 7 and 8 are 
pressed. Check this by RUNning this one-line 
program: (press keys 6 to 0) 


10 PRINT AT 1,1: IN 61438: GOTO 10 


This only uses the 5 least Significant digits of 
the address. The 6th least significant digit 15 the 
bit which presently appears at the EAR socket. IN 
251 handles the data for the printer as does OUT 
251. OUT 254 colours our border on the 3 least 
significant bits while it's 4th and Sth bits are 
used for the MIC socket and the BEEPer 
respectively. 


from: SPECTRUM Users Manual, Chapter 23 
compiled by: Fred Schakel 
London T/S Users Group. 


—————————Á 
— ——— 
————] 


SUBROUTINE TO CLEAR A PORTION OF A SCREEN 
WHEN DESIRED (2X81 BASIC) 


100 GO SUB 3000 


120 PRINT АТ 15,9;"YOU HAVE CLEARED THIS PART OF 


THE SCREEN" 


3000 FOR H = 13 TO 21 
3010 PRINT AT H,0;" (32 spaces) 


3020 NEXT H 
3030 RETURN 


14 


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