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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 

Council of Planning Librarians exchange bibliography 

February 1973 



Uriel Cohen, Assistant Professor 
Bernard Pencikowski 

Component Systems 

School of Architecture 

University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee 

Mrs. Mary Vance, Editor 
Post Office Box 229 
Monticello, Illinois 61856 


JAN 2 4 1973 


COUNCIL OF PLMNING LIBPJiRIiUIS Szchsnge Bibliography #367 

Uriel Cohen, Assistant Profer.sor 
Bernard Pencikoxjski 
CoiTiponent S^'^stems 
School of Architecture 
University of Visconsin-Iulxraukee 


This publication was facilitated in part by the TTork of the 
Architectural Team/Coronary Care Project, directed by Professor 
Colin Clipson and Professor Joseph IJehrer, Department of Arclii- 
tecture. University of liichigan. 


3.1 The Patients 


TIZIT 1. 1. Iripact of Illness and Hospitalization 

2. Sub-Populations in Crisis and HospitcJ.ization ^ 

3. Social/Psychological Factors in Health Care 



3.2 Personnel 10 

U. Social/Psychological Factors in Specialized 

U.l Intensive Care Units H 

li.2 Coronary Cere Units H 

5* Behavioral Concepts « Issues Related to the 

Health Care iinvironment 13 

PART II. 6. Human Factors I6 

7. Research and Design ilethodology 1° 

8. Spatial Design and Physical Organization 

8.1 General 20 

8.2 Nursing Units 20 

8.3 Patient's Environment 21 

9. Plaiming ajid Design of Health Ctre Systems 

9.1 General 22 

9.2 Specialized Units 23 

9.3 Environmental Control eind Support 21; 


(Contents continued) 2. GPL Sxchrnge ELbliography //367 

10, Bibliographies 26 

Part one deals mostly with the human-behavioral aspects of 
the care environment j part two contains selected items in applied 
areas, and includes mor.tly reference data, Methods and techniques, 
case studies, etc. in planning and design of health care systems 
and sub-systems. 


The Expanding Role of "jnyironmental Design 

Psjrcho- social elements in the diagnosis and treatment of dis- 
eases are nox'f considered essential aspects of the total patient 

Modern medicine recognizes that the treatment process is af- 
fected by such factors as the social and psychological environ- 
ments of the patient, uhich are in turn affected also by the phy- 
sical and orgamzational structure of the health care system. 

In designing environments for health care as well as other 
building types - the planners traditionally addressed themselves 
to the functional aspects oj? human performance and needs, e.g. 
optimal floor plan of nursing unit, the design criterion being 
number and duration of nurses trips j or optimal lighting intensity 
and distribution, the criterion being human task performance. In 
both cases, as vrell as a multitude of similar situations, design- 
ers concentrated on factors that lent themselves to quantitative 
methods of identification, analysis and evaluation, e.g. monetary 
cost, time, temperature, etc. 

Factors such as human psychological stress, adaptation, sub- 
jective comfort and preferences were usually relegated to a lower 
priority order in the design process, if considered at all. 

lath the groxjing knowledge of environmental psychology and 
relented disciplines, their methods and findings irdght be applied 
to the design process: the effects of the physical environment 
on the users vjill be better understood, consequently developing 
the ability to design, regulate, and control the care environment 
for optimal benefit. 

3. CPl ::!;xchange Bibliography //367 

?J\RT I 
1. Impact Ox Illness 1 Hospitalization 

Hospitalization due to acute illness is described as: "A 
process accoiripajiied by a sudden and drastic change in the life 
pattern, characterized by the substitution of a more or less self- 
regulated active e:dLstence, by an enforced passi-s/ity occurring in 
a subjective state of suffereing and ill healthj it is a strange, 
friendleso and aseptic smelling enviroP-iiisnt, i-fhere bodily functions, 
habitually exercised in discreet privacy, are noxr exposed to the 
indignity of open-season inspection, xiith a concomitant dislocation 
of economic, domestic, social and se:aial patterns." (Simpson, 1969) 

The association of hospitalisation mth acute illness, the 
hospital bein^ the last resort after other means have failed, is 
still a popialar concept. It permeEtes the tliinlcLng of the commun- 
ity and the individual patient, and results in regarding hospita- 
lization lath misgiving and apprehension. 

The patient is subjected to examinations aaid tests, the pur- 
pose of XiTliich he does not always vinderstand, even if it is being 
explained. He is reluctant to ask questions, either because he is 
afraid of the ansifers, or hesitates to bother the busy personnel^ 
knoT'ledge of results often leave him vlth the need to malce inter- 
pretations of Tiliich he is not crpable. 

Despite the use of sedatives and tranquilizers to combat 
physical pain and discomfort, intrusive dsvices such as IV needles 
in the arm, prolonged bad stay in one posture and other physical 
discomforts iiiipinge on the patient's state of mind. 

The patient has to give up his personal control on important 
as well as siriiple functions: i/hat, when and hou to eatj keeping 
x-jindox'S open, closed or shaded^ sitting, Ijdng, or getting upj 
these and other minutia. of everyday living are no longer determin- 
ed by the patient and Iiis preferences j most of the routine activ- 
ities are done by others for lum, and the enforced dependence, a- 
long lath the physical demcnds of his illness, increase his feel- 
ings of helplessness. 

The phenomenon of patient "childlike" behavior and submis- 
sion is a typical transformation that most patients experience to 
some extent. It is both a defense mechanism and social convention 
to facilitate the drastic change in norms. Hov;ever, frequently 
tliis teiTiporary transform.ation deteriorates into regression, xath 
all the attended adverse outcomes. 

Being faced xdth unaccustomed routines and schedules, the 
patient has to make emotional and social adjustments to new ways 
of life. Loss of autonomy'" is accompanied also by breach of soc- 
ial norms regarding privacy, communication, and other behavioral 
concepts . 

k. CPL 3xchsiige Bibliography #367 

These factors are usually recognized, ajid so is the realiza- 
tion that their cxuaulative affect can create a significant stress. 

Hoxiever, very seldora are these factors acknoiiedged by the 
designers of the patients oaviromaent, vho could, and should, in- 
tervene to effectively mininiizs stress. 

Abram, H.S. "Psychological Responses to Illness and Hospitaliza- 
tion," Psycho somatic s , 10:2l8-2U, Jxily-August 1969. 

Barnes, Elizabeth. People in Hospitals . ¥.e\r York: liacmillan 
and Co., Ltd., 1961. 

Colman, Arthur D. "Territoriality in lian: A Conparison of Be- 
havior in Horae and Hospital," imerican Journal of Orthopsy - 
chiatry, 38:36U-8, 1968. 

Duff, P.O. and A.B. Ilollingshead. Sickness and Society . New Tork: 
Harper Sz Rot:, 1968. 

Earickson, jlobert. The Spatial Behavior of Hospital Patients. 
Chicago: University of Chicago, Department of Geography, 

JanLs, I.L. and H. Leventhal. "Psychological Aspects of Physical 
Illness and Hospital Care," Methods of Treatment , p. I36C- 

liing, Joan M. "Denial.", American Journal of Nursing , 66:5:1010- 
1013, Kay 1966. 

Lev, P. and M.S. Spelman. Corjnuni eating vath the Patient . London: 
Staple Press, 1967. 

Lsyy, Roland. "The Immobilized Petient and His Psychological Uell- 
Being," Postgraduate Medicine , 1:0:1:73-77, July 1 966. 

Wecl, i..F. "ileflections on Psychological Distance as a Function 
of Length of Hospitalization," Psychol Rep , 26:ii6, February 

Rubinstein, D. "Family Therapy," Progress in Neurological Psy - 
ciatry, 2li:U2U-l435, 1969. 

Simpson, I. "HumaJis and Hospitals," Medical Journal of /'ustralia , 
1:17:833-9, Apill 26, 1969. 

Skipper, James K. and Tlobert C. Leonard. Social Interaction aiid 
Patient Care . Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Conpany, 1965. 


5. CPL Exchange Bibliography 7','367 

Susman, Harvin et al. The l.'alkin^ Pat ient. Cleveland: IJestern 
Reser\'e University Press, 1967. 

Taylor, Carol. "Sociological Sheep Sheailn,-^;, " Nursing Forum , 1: 
79-100, Spring 1962. 

Tolor A. and M.S. Donnon. "Psychological Distance as a Function 
01 Length of Hospitalization," Psychol Rep , 2^:Q^l-$, Decem- 
ber 1969. 

Weissman, R. et al. "Role Disorders in Extended Hospitalization," 
Hospital Adinini strati on, "'inter 1967, 52-5'9. 

6. CPL Exchange Bibliogrs.phi'" i!'367 

2. Subpopuletions in Crisis ^ Hospitalization 

\J3 need a constEnt reminder that humcH nature is variable. 
Individuality - the qualities that distinguish one person from 
another - defy typology and universal prescriptions for coiimcn 
problems. Understanding of the potential range (rather than 
"average") of human responses and needs due to individual differ- 
ences, is an essential requirement for optimal problem solving. 
Often it is not feasible to design environments that viill accom- 
modate specific user needs, since many environments are designed 
for short term use of variety of users, like the patient area in 
a nursing unit. 

Yet, knoirledge and appreciation of the ranges of users' 
needs, mil enable the designer to provide open options and enough 
variability in the environment to satisfy a larger spectrum of 
potentiol requirements. 

IJitliin societies, some groups - or sub-populations - possess 
some common characteristics irliich are not shared lath the whole 
society or other societies. These characteristics are largely 
influenced by c\altural and developmental factors. The uays in 
which individuals tliink, believe, and act depend largely on the 
culture and society in wliich they dwell. It is ivithin these soc- 
ietal boundaries that group life and subsequent interpersonal re- 
lationships are structured. 

Developmental factors create a different set of sub-popula- 
tions: the very young, the very old, the handicapped, and others, 
all perceive and conceive the social and physical environment in 
different ways. 

/Jdrich, C.K. "Personality Factors and Mortality in the Reloca- 
tion of the Aged," Gerontologis t, Vol. U, 1961;, pp. 92-3. 

Aldrich, C.K. "J''.elocation of the Aged and Disabled: A liortality 
Study," Journal of the ^jierlcan Geriatrics Society, 11:185- 
9h, 19637 

/iltnan, Irwin and \J.\). Ha.j.'-bhorn. "The Effects of Social Isola- 
tion and Group Composition on Performance," Human Relations , 
20:313-39, 1967. 

Bayes, Kenneth (ed.) Desi.'^ting for the Handicapped . I Montreal: 
Society of Emotionally Disturbed Cliildren, 1971. 

Carp, Frances H. "The Elderly and Levels of ..daptation to Chan- 
ged Surroundings," Spatial Behavior of Older People , L.A. 
Past al an and D.H. Carson (eds.)". University of liichigan 
Press, 1970, pp. 162-82. 

7. CPL Sxchange Bibliography #36? 

Cotler, S.R. "How to Keep the Handicapped to Keep Moving," Modern 
Nursing Home , October 1967, p. 96. 

Curtis, B.H. "A Survey of Forty-3ight Children's Hospitals: 

Factors Shaping a Broader Concept of Children's Orthopedics," 
J. Bone Joint Surg , kkA'.39Q-hl.$, 1962. 

Haller, J. iilex, James L. Tslbert and Robert H. Dombro (eds.) 

The Hospitalized Child and His Family . Johns Hopkins Univ- 
ersity Press, 1967. 

Leibman, Miriam. "The Effects of Sex and Race Norms on Personal 
Space," Environment and Behavior , 2:2C8-1;6, September 1970. 

Liebermsn, Morton i: . "Factors in Environmental Change," in Pat - 
terns of Living and Housing of Middle Aged and Older People . 
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Velfare, 1965, Pub- 
lic Health Service Publication No. Iii96. 

Lindsley, Ogden R. "Geriatric Behavioral Prosthetics," in NetJ 
Thoughts on Old Age , Robert Kastenbaura (ed.). New York: 
Springer Publishing Co., 196ii, pp. I4I-6O. 

Meff, IJalter S. and Samual s,. Weiss. "Psychological Aspects of 
Disability," Handbook of Clinical Psychology . New York; 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., 1965. 

Mellist, Ivan. Planning Buildings for Handicapped Children . 
London, England: Crosby Lockviood and Son, Ltd., 1970. 

Nuffield Foundation. Children in Hospital; Studies in Planning . 
London: Oxford University Press, 1963. 

Pastalan, Leon A. and Daniel H. Carson. Spatial Behavior of Old - 
er People . Institute of Gerontology, University of Mchigan 
and Wa^Tie State University, 1970. 

Rapoport, Amos and Newton Watson. "Cultural Variability in Phy- 
sical Standards," Transactions of the Bartlett Society , 6;6l- 
83, 1967. 

Riley, M.l,'. (ed.) Aging and Society . NevT York; Russell Sage 
Foundation, 1969. 

Torrens, P.R. and D.G. Yedvab. "Emergency Room Treatment Varies 
with Make-Up of Local Pop\ilation," Hospital Topics , Ui:71, 
December I966. 

U.S. Senate Proceedings. A Barrier Free Environment for the Eld - 
erly and the Handicapped . Hearings of the Special Committee 
on Aging, U.S. Senate, 92 Congress, October I8, 1971. 

8. CPL £ Bibliography #367 

3. Social/Psychological Factors in the Health Cere Snvironnient 

Rapid advances in our knowledge and understanding of physio- 
logical mechanisms and causes of disease, and of medical treatment 
procedures, have caused a relative neglect of the consideration 
given to the psycho-social aspects of illness, especially in hos- 
pital practice. 

With the great influx of technology and related human activi- 
ties in the health care environment, the need to not lose sight of 
patients as people is even greater. ¥0 longer is the cure of the 
human organism and tissue the only care objective j the restora- 
tion of a person to the optimal mental and physical level, compa- 
tible idth the status of his organism requires consideration of 
psychological trauma as well as the physiological one. 

Functional activities of health care personnel were tradi- 
tionally a major determinant of physical design and organization. 
However, as in the patient's case, staff socio-psychological needs 
are ill defined and thus rarely accommodated. 


Bailey, R. "Needed; Optimum- Social Design Criteria," Modern 
Hospital , 106:101-3, March I966. 

Beahrs, O.H. "Patient Care in the Hospital of Tomorrow," Indus - 
trial Medical Surgery , 37:609-l5, ..ugust 1968. 

Bloom, B.L., E.M. Lang and H. Goldberg. "Factors Associated with 
Accuracy of Prediction of Posthospitalization Adjustment," 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology , 7Si2'.2h3-2h9', October 1970. 

BroTr/n, Lucile ilsther. Newer Dimensions of Patient Care , Part I. 
New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 1961. 

Broiime, I.Ij. and T.P. Hackett. "Em.otional Reaction to the Threat 
of Impending Death," Irish Journal of Medical Science , Series 
6, No U96, p. 177-187, April 1967. 

Field, Minna. Patients are People . New York: Columbia Univer- 
sity Press, 1967. 

Folta, Jeannette R. and Edith S. Eck. A Sociological Framework 

for Patient Care . New York: John V'iley and Sons, Inc., I966, 

GeliJicks, L.E. "Design Can Brainwash the Chronic Care Patient," 
Modern Hospital , 102, March I96U, pp. IO6-II. 

Glass, David, et al. "Psychic Cost of Adaptation to an Environ- 
mental Stressor," Journal of Personality and Social Psycho - 
loe.v. 12:200-10, July 1969. 

5. CPL Exchange Bibliography #36? 

Graham, L.E. and E.M. Conley. "Evaluation of Anxiety and Fear in 
Adult Surgical Patients," Mursing Research , 20:2:133-122, 
March- April 1971. 

Hawxhurst, D. and H. VJalzer. "Patients Helping Patients," Mental 
Hygiene . 5U: 3: 370-373, July 1970. 

Hewitt, P.B. "Subjective Follow-Up of Patients from a Surgical 
Intensive Therapy V/ard," British Medical Journa l, ii:669-673, 
December 12, 1970. 

'dyde, R. Experiencing the Patie nt's Day; A Manual for Psychia - 
tric Hospital Personnel. Wew York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 

195^: — — \ 

Mumford, Emily. Sociology in Hospital Care . Keu York: Harper & 
Rot: Publishers, 1967. 

Osmond, H. "Design Must Meet" Patient's Human Needs," Modern Hos - 
pital , 106:98-100, March 1966. 

Rosengren, 'Ailliam R. and Mark Lefton. Hospitals and Patients. 
Kew York! Atherton Press, 1969, p. 219. 

Senescu, R. "The Problem of Establishing Communication i-.dth the 
Seriously 111 Patient," Me^^^ York Academy of Science Annals , 
l6U:696-706, December 19, 1969. 

Sivadon, P. "Space as Experienced: Therapeutic Inplications," 
in Environmental Psycholog.y , H.M. Proshansky, et al. (eds.) 
Holt, Rinehart and I'inston, Inc., 1970, pp. U09-I4I9. 

Sommer, R. "Implications for Patient IJell -Being in Hospital De- 
sign," Hospitals; J..A.H..ri ., U0:71-U, .^ril 16, I966. 

Tey, R. and M.S. Spellman. Communicating xath the Patient . St. 
Louis: Wanen H. Green, Inc., 1967. 

Thompson, John D. and Robert J. Pelletier. "Privacy vs. Effici- 
ency in the Inpatient Unit," Hospitals, J.A.H.A. , 36:^3-7, 
August 16, 1962. 

Ward, Anthony. "Notes on Therapeutic Environment," Emerging Met - 
hods in :J:nvironmental Design and Planning , Gary T. Moore 
(ed. ). D.M.G. 1st International Conference, Cambridge., Mass- 
achusetts, J-une 1968, pp. 2I1.7-69. 

VJilliams, i?.L. "a Social System Model Applied to a Rehabilitation 
Program for Institutionalized Patients," Journal of Rehabil - 
itation . 36:20-23, July- August 1970. 

10. GPL Sxchc-nge Bibliography #367 

3.2 P^aSOMB L 

Crook, J. "User ileeds of Pctients and rlurses in Clinical Monitor- 
ing," Postgraduate Hedical Journal , U6:37li-7, June 15^70. 

Currie, F.II. "The Psychological Aspects of Patient Nursing," 

yaather Van e, 38:11-6, February 1965. 

George, iiary. "The Transferring Phenomena Influences on Nurse 
and Patient," Hospital Hanagement , 10U:92, October 1967 • 

Hackett, T. and N.H, Casssm. "Sources of Tension for the CCU 
Nurse," /unerican Journal of Nursing , August 1972. 

Kornfield, D.S., T. liexvrell and D. iiomrou, "Psychological Hazards 
of the Intensive Care Unit; Nurse Care Aspects," I-Mrsing 
Clinics of North America , 3:lji|l-U7, March I968. 

Lecompte, IJilliam et al. "Ecological j^ialysis of a Hospital: 

Location Dependencies in a Behavior of Staff and Patients," 
J. Archea, et al. (ed.), Sdra Two . Proceedings of the 2nd 
A^nnual Environmental Design Research Association Conference, 
Pittsburgh, October 1970. 

Robinson, Alice h'. "Professional Conflict in the ICU/CCU, " ., 
Kay 1972, pp. ItO-U5. 

Rosenberg, S.D. "Hospital Culture as Collective Defense," Psy - 
chiatry , 33:21-35, February 1970. 

Rosenblatt, Deniel. "Physical Plant, Staff L'orale and Informal 
Ideolo^es in Mental Hospitals," Spaticl Behavior of Older 
People, L.A. Pastalan and D. Carson (edvS.) Institute of 
Gerontology, University of Michigan, 1970. 

Rosengren, Uilliau R. and Spencer Devault. "The Sociology of 
Time and Space in an Obstetrical Hospital," Environmental 
Psychology, H.M. Proshanskj'-, et al. (ed. ) Holt, PJ.nehai't 
and Uinston, Inc., 1970, pp. U39-52. 

Trites, David K. et al. "Influence of Nursing-Unit Design on the 
Activities and Subjective Feelings of Nursing Personnel," 
Environment and Behavior , ll:303-3li, December 1970. 

Wilson, R.N. "The Social Structure of a General Hospital," The 
Annals, 3U6:67, March I963. 

11, CPL Sxchange Bibliography if367 

k. Social/Psychologicsl Fc.ctors in Specialized Units 

Intensive care iinits are by definition the raost coinplex en- 
■vironments mtliin the health care system. In the recovery room, 
ICU, coronary care unit, burn unit, etc., the patients are in 
sone stage 6f ■critical illnessj the physical environment is de- 
signed to facilitate life support procedures and the appropriate 
systems. The latter are taking the form of monitoring devices, 
oxygen tents, mres, electrodes, defibrillators intravenous tubesj 
sone are literaJ-ly impinging upon the patient, iihile other ele- 
ments are suggestive of the critical nature of the environraent. 
The overwhelming impact of these units on their users present an 
added, or intensified dimension for consideration in the design 
of an optimal environiiient for health care. 


Lazarus, H..71. and J.H. Hagens. "Prevention of Psychosis FolloT.^- 
ing Open-Heart Surgery," ■/'jierican Journal of Psychiatry , 
12lis 1190-5, March I968. 

KornfLeld, D.S. "Psjrchiatric View of the Intensive Care Unit," 
British Medical Journal , 1:108-10, January 11, 1969. 

Rome, H.P. "The Irony of the ICU," Psychiatric Digest , 30:10-14, 
May 1969. 

Strauss, Anslem. "Intensive Care Unit: Its Characteiustics and 
Social Relationships," Nursing Clinics of North, imorica , 3:7- 
15, March I968. 


Bishop, L.F. and P. ileichert. "The Psychological Impact of the 
Coronary Care Unit," Psychosomatics , Vol. X, pp. 189-192, 
May- June 1969. 

Brulm, J.G., ii.E. Thurman, B.C. Chandler and T. Eruce. "Patients' 
Reaction to Death in a Coronary Care Unit," JournrJ. of Psy - 
chosomatic Research , Vol. ll;, pp. 65-70. Pergamon Press, 

Dorainian, J. and M. Dobson. "Study of Patients' Psychological 

Attitudes to a Coronary Care Unit," British Medical Journal , 
1969, h, pp. 795-798. 

Druss, R.J. and D.S. Komfield. "The Svirvivors of Cardiac Arrest 
- A Psychiatric Study," Journal of iatierican Medical Associa- 
tion, 201:5:291-296, July 31, 1967. 

12. GPL Exchange BibliogrEphy #36? 

Grace, It. J. "Terror in the Coronary C^re Unit," >jieric£Ji Journal 
of Cardiology , 22:7ii6j 1966. 

Hackett, T.P. et ?1. "Detection and Treatment of ijrcd-ety in the 
Coronary Crre Unit," American Heart Journal , 78:6:727-730; 
December 1965. 

Hackett, T.P., 'N.H. Cassem and K.h. Idshnie. "The Coronary Care 
Unit - i'ji Appraisal of its Psychological Hezards," New Eng- 
land Journal of Medicine , 279:1365-1370, December 1"9"68 . 

Hackett, T.P. and H.A. l.'ishnie. "Factors Contributing to Delay 
in Ptesponding to the Signs and Syrnptoms of Acute I4yocardial 
Infarction," i^mericen Journal of Cardiology , 21;: 5 5651-658, 
November 1969. 

Hackett, T.P. and H.^;. Wishnie. " Hazards of Coron- 
ary Care Units," New England Journal of Medicine, 279:25: 
1365 & 1370, December 19, 1968. 

Jones, Barbara. ''Inside the CCU — The Patient and his Responses," 
>imerican Journsl of Nursing , 67:11:2313-2319] November 1967. 

Klein, R.F., W.A. Kliner and D.P. Zipes. "Transfer From a Coron- 
ary Care Units Some Adverse Responses," Arch Intern Med , 
122:10U-8, August 1968 (Chicago). 

Iiiller, P.R. "Psychiatric Observations of the Coronary Cere 
Unit," Current Medical Digest , 36:956, 1969. 

Neughton, J. and J. Bruhn. "Emotional Stress, Physical Activity 
and Ischemic Heart Disease," Disease-i':-Month , July 1970. 

Parker, D.L. and J.R. Hodge. "Delirium in a CCU," Journal of 

the American Medical Association , 201:9:702-703, August 28, 

Roberts, S.L. "The Patient's Adaptation to the Coronary Care 
Unit,'^ Nursing Forum . 9:56-63, 1970. 

Twerski, A.J. "Psychological Considerations on the Coronary Care 
Unit," Cgrdiovcsculer Nursing, 72:65-68, March- April 1971. 

13. CPL Jbcchsnge Bibliography #367 

5. Behsvioral Concepts Ic Issues Relgted to the Heslth Csre 

Plaruiers end designers of the health cere environment are 
becoming increasingly avjare of the significance of the behavioral 
aspects of man's relationsliip vdth his environment. I'ith the 
groTO-ng Icnoxijledge and interest in the application of environment- 
al psychology, the potential for optimizing the therapeutic as- 
pects of the health care environment increases. The understand- 
ing of the basic concepts and issues is essential to all those 
involved in the planning, design and administration of the health 
care environment. 

iiltman, Irian. "Territorial Behavior in Humans: An iaislysis of 
the Concept," Spatial Behavior of Older People , L. Pastalsn 
and D. Carson (eds.) The Institute of Gerontology, Univer- 
sity of Miclugan, 1970, pp. 1-21;. 

Cole, J.D., D. MaciTir, I. jatman, U.¥'. Haythorn and CM. Wagner. 
"Perceptual Changes in Social Isolation and Confineraent," 
Journal of Clinical Psychology , 23030-333, July 1%7. 

Bsser, i^.H., A.S. Chamberlain, E.3. Chappie and N.S. Kline. 

"Territoriality of Patients on a Research Ward," Recent Ad- 
vances in Psychiatry , 7:37-UU, 196U. 

Gtrlington, W.K. and H..^. Shimota. "The Change Seeking Index: A 
Measure of the Need for Variable Stimulus Input," Psycholog- 
ical Reports , lh:919-2h, June 196[|,. 

Gendreau, P. 3., H. Freedman, J. Wilde and G.D. Scott. "Stimula- 
tion Seeking After Seven Days of Perceptual Deprivation," 
Perceptual and Motor Skills , 26:2^7-2^0, 1968. 

Good, L.R., S. Siegal and A. P. Bay. Therapy by Design , Charles 
C. Thomas, Publisher, 1965 . 

Hall, .Ildward T. "The Anthropology of Space; An Organizing Model," 
Environmental Psychology , H.M. Proshansky, et al. (ed. ) Holt, 
Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1970, pp. 16-26. 

Hall, "Cdward T. The Hidden Dimension . Garden City: Doubleday 
c': Co., 1969. 

Ittelson, Idlliam H. et al. "The Environmental Psychology of the 
Psychiatric Wcrd," Envir onmsnt al Psycholo gy . Holt, Rinehart 
and 1/inston, 1970, pp. Iil9-39. 

Larson, C. Theodore (ed.) SER I: Environmental Abstracts . 

iJTChitectural Research Laboratory, University of i^acliigan, 
February 1965. 

lU. CPL .ixchenge Bibliography #36? 

Lazarus, R.S. Psychological Stress and the Coping Process . New 
York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., I566"; 

Lecompte, l^illiain F. "Behavior Settings; The Structure of the 
Treatment Environment;," in 3n"';ironm3ntal Desigri; Research 
and Practice , IJilliam J. ilitchell (ed. ) 

Lee, Douglas H.K. 'The Role of i.ttitude in Response to Environ- 
mental Stress," Journal of Social Issues , 22: No. h, 1966. 

Mason, R.K. "The Influence of Hoise on Emotional States," Journal 
of Psychomatic Research , 13:275-82, September I569. 

Michelson, IfLlliam H. Man and His Urban Environment: a Sociolo - 
gical .fipproac h. Reading^ Massachusetts: /.ddison-wesley Pub- 
lishing Co., 1970. 

Miller, David and Morton A. Lieberman. "The Relationship of i^S- 
fect State and /daptive Capacitj'- to Reactions to Stress," 
Journal of Gerontology , 20:li92-l|97, October 1965. 

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Sommer, Robert. Design Awareness . California! Rinehart Press, 

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16. GPL 3xchc.ngs Bibliogrsphy =!!=%! 

P;uiT II 

6. Hurdan Factoro 

Bffrtholet, liery IJigg. ""^ffectc of Color in the Dyricmcs of Pat- 
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7. Research &. Design Methodology 

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HoiJ-land, Daniel and Ijanda McDoxrell. "The Measurement of Patient 
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Jones, Christopher J. Design Methods: Seeds of Human Futures . 
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Liberakis, Argyris. "The Human Factor Introduced in Hospital 
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I'iitchell, William J. Environmental Design; Research and Prac - 
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Sidel, V.W., J. Acton and B. Lokti, "Models for the iilvaluation of 
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Using Computer-Aided Techniques . Ciiicago: iimeiican Hospital 
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8. Spatial Design ^•. Physical Organization 

8.1 Gl.lWiU'Ij 

Anonymous. "Planning the Environment," Modern Hospital, I06:, 
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I, Dorothy 3. "Interior Design," Hospitals, Journal of the 
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i.tkinson, G.ii. and Phillips. "Hospital Design; Factors Influen- 
cing the Choice of Shape," jiTchitect ' s Journal , April 1$, 

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SchuDi, M.L. "Translating Objectives into Interior Design: A 
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Sheoris, John V. "The Large Scale Planning Module/Unit Theory 
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Strauss, Anselm at al. "The Hospital and Its Negotiated Order, " 
The Hospital in Modern Society , Eliot Freidson (ed.). Nevr 
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IMte, A.M. "The Ward Unit in a Mex\r Hospital: l.'hat the Architect 
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Babroxr, Mchael. "The Evolution of Nursing Space Planning for 

Efficient Operation," ■/;rchitectural Record , Vol. 150, No. 3, 
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Dornblaser, B.M. and E.B. Piedmont. "Designing for Nursing Unit 
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Garfieldj Sidney. "An Idesl Nufeing Unit/' Hospitals, J.A.H.A. , 
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Gentisins, A. "The Nurse, the Patient cc Friesen, " Supervision 
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I'icLaughlin, Herbert. "I'fliat Shape is Best for Nursing Units?" 
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Osmond, Hunphrey. "Function as the Bpsis of Psychiatric ¥frd 

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Sturdauant, Madelyne. "Comparisons of Intensive Nursing Service 
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Sturdauant, iladelyne. "Intensive Nursing Service in Circular and 
Rectangular Units Compared," Hospitals, J.A.H.iL. , 3hiho+, 
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IJhite, A.M.IJ. "Hospital Architecture, 3s Planrdng the Nursing 
Unit," Int. Nurs. Rev ., 7:53-7, October I96O. 

8.3 pati3lJT :^i!ViR0ifi:H:i'iT 

Anonyiiious. ''Capsules Replace Hospital Rooms," The Architectural 
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Anonymous. "Geometric Approach to Patient Care," Hospitals; 

Journal of the Americcn Hospital Association , Februaay 1965, 
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Angell, Faith ii. and George L. Spaeth. "Hulti Bed Rooms Improve 
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5. Planning <": Design of Health Cars Systems 

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Anonjotious. "Users Point the iJay to Best Hospital Design," llodern 
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/jtionymous. "Hospital Planning Today," Hospitals; Journal of the 
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:lnonymous. "Health Facilities," Architectural Forum, Vol. 13ht 
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Anonymous. "Innovative Design in Hospitals," Architectural Re- 
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Anonymous. "Hospitals," Progressive Architecture, Vol. LIII, IIo. 
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Anonymous. "Outpatients Are In," Progressive Architecture , Vol. 
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Bell, George il. (ed.) Hospital et Medical School Design , Vol. 2. 
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tegrated," Hospital; J.A.H.A. , May I6, 1969, p. 63. 

Clibbon, Sheila and Marvin L. Sachs. "Creating Consolidated Clin- 
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ArcliitecturaJ. Record , February 1971. 

RLeld, Herman- H. "Medical Centre Planning and Design l^ithin the 
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Field, Herman H. ''Health Care in Our Sick Inner Cities," AIA 
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Gainsborough, Hugh and Jolin Gainsborough. Principles of Hospital 
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Gelwicks, L.E. "Best Function Heeds I'JLght Environment," Modern 
Hospital, 106s 93-U, March 1966. 

Hudenburg, J. "Hospital Design," Hospitals; J.A.H.A. , April 1, 
1969, p. 109. 

Johnson, X.E. et al, "Hovr the Behavioral Sciences Influence the 
Design of Hospital Interiors," Hospital Progress , 1;8:U8, 
September 1967. 

Kira, A. "The Antiquated Hospital: Tine for a New Departure," 
Hospitals , 39:50-U, Februaiy 1, 1965 . 

23. CPL Exchange 13ibliogr£phy j;-'367 

Lleweljm-DsvieSj, Richard. Ilospitgl Plarming and Administration . 
Geneva: l.'orld Health Organization, 1966. 

McLaughlin, Herbert, John ItLbre and Hort Raphael. "Patterns of 
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Mellen, R.C. "Arcliitects Must Respond to Problems of HuBien Eco- 
logj'- as they Affect the Need for and Use of Health Care Fac- 
ilities," Hospitals; J.ii.H.A. , April 1, 1969, p. 109. 

Moore, J.M. Plant Layout and Design . New York: Macmillan Co., 

Rosenfield, Isadore. Hospital Architecture and Beyond. Hew York, 
New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., 1969. 

Rosenfield, Isadore. Hospital Architecture; Integrated Cornpon - 
ents . Hew York: Van Nostrand Reinliold Co., 1971. 

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Steele, Fred. "Arcliitectura and Organizational Health," J. Archea 
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onmental Design Association Conference, Pittsburgh, October 

liiiheeler, E. Todd. Hospital Design and Function . New York: 
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 196U. 


Anonymovis. "Emergency Service," Modern Hospital , 106, January 
1966 . 

BobroiT, M.L. and N.B. Craft. "ICU ?'. CCU Facilities," Hospitals: 
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Frommer, P.L. "The Design of the Coronary Care Unit and its In- 
strumentation," icute Myocardicl Infarction , proceedings of 
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James, George. "The Emergency Room: Entry to the Health-Care 
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2k. GEL Exchange ELbliography #367 

Lee, 3.S., J. A. Solon and C.G. Sheps. "How iletr Patterns of l^edi- 
Col Care Affect the "iriergency Unit," Hodsm Hospital , 9U:57, 
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Lindheim, Roslyn. Uncouplin?^ the Radiology System . Chicago: 
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Silson, John E., Elliot i'i, Cohen end Beatrice H. Hill. Recrea - 
tion in Hospitals . New York: National Recreation Associa- 
tion, 1959. 

Skudder, P. A., J.R. McCarroll and ?.A. I."ade. ''Hospital Emergency 
Facilities and Services, a Survey," Biilletin of the American 
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Smith, Warijick. Planning the Surgical Suite . Neir York: F.V/, 
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Sobel, D..]. "Personali action on the Coronarj'' Care Unit," American 
Journal of Nursing , 69:lli39-U2, July 1969. 

Spencer, J.H. "ITiat Emergency Service in Small Hospitals Must 
Have," Modern Hospital , 106:86-7, Jaiiuary I966. 

Vincent, Sister. "Accent on Comfort in imbulatory Suite," Hos - 
pitals; J.i'.H.A. , 39:117-20, February 1, 1965. 

Voorliis, Charles C. "Emergency Care in Small Hospitals," Journal 
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Veil, liayz Harry et al. "A New Approach to Critical Care Units, 
Total Centralization of all Critical Crre Units is Both De- 
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1971, Vol. U5. 

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ilnonymous. Infectio n Control in the Hospital . American Hospital 
/association, Comiidoteo on infection conti-ol tdthin hospitals, 
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Flymi, Jolin E. and Artmir I.'. Segil. Architectural Interior S'rs - 
tems: Lighting a/C j^.coustics . Hew York: Van Nostrand Rein- 
hold Co., 1970. 

Greenberg, A. "Environmental Control in Hospital Design," Archi - 
tectural Record , October 196U, pp. 202-6. 

25. CPL Exchange Bibliography •;^'367 

Hastings, F.W. "■Environmental /irchitccture: A Checlclist for ijed- 
ical Planners," Hospita ls, J.i..H.A. j February l6, I966. 

Hudenbui'g, P.oy. "Hospital Design," Hospitals, J.A.H.A. , April 
1, l?69y p. 109. 

Holroyd, IJ.A.H. (ed.) Hospital Traffic and Supply Problems. 
London: King Edxirard's Hospital Fund, 1968. * 

Jacobs, T.T. "Closed-Circxiit Television for Patient Observations," 
Hospitals, Journal of American Hospital Association , U35 53-56, 
Part I, August 1, 1969. 

Knighton, Philip H. "The Purposefiil Use of Color in Hospitals," 
Hospitals, J.A.H.A. , 36:36+, February 1, 1962 and 62+, Feb- 
ruary 16, 1962. 

Xotscheuar, C.H. et al. Food Service Planning. Jolin l.iley and 
Sons, 1962. 

Hobel, J.J. and R. Mosenkis. "Hospital Emergency Command System," 
Hospitals, J.A.H.A. , I;l4:130-U, August I6, 1970. 

XJheeler, Todd E. "Base Line for Evaluating . utomatic Equipment: 
Is It Good for The Patient?" Hospitals, J./.H.A ., 36:l;2-5, 
September 16, 1 962. 

26. GPL i^lxchengs Bibliography #36? 

10. Bibliographies 

U.3. Department of H.S.IJ. Biblio.Traphy on Design and Constructio n 
Ox Health Care F£.ciliti3S . Public Ileelth Service, 1J71. 

Council of Planning librarians, ^'cchange Bibliographies; 

•;r82 Housing -Health Relationsliips, 1?6?. 

;;i02 Periodicals for the Health Planner, 1969. 

ivll7 Coriiraunity Mental Health Planning, 1970, 

#123 Behavior and Environment, 1970. 

i;a68 Health Planning, 1971. 

7/233 Health Planning Applications of Operation Research and 
System Analysis, 1971. 

i;'-235 mnvironinental and Spatial Behavior, 1971. 

#255 The Ergonomics of Environmental Design and Activity 
lianrgement for the Aging, 1972. 

#'265 Health Systems and Health Planning in International 

Perspective, 1972. 

#285 Intei'ior Ergonomics, 1972. 

#•288 The Psychology and Physiology of Light and Color, 1972. 

Some related information ctoring and retreiving systems: Institution. Sc ience Information S:cchange , lOCO Jef- 
ferson Drive, '.ashing-ton, D.C. 20560. 

U.S. Department of Commerce, jlationcl Technical Iiiformation Ser - 
vice (IITIS) Springfield, Virginia 22151 

U.S. Dopai'tment of H.:".U. MEDLARS (iledical Literature /Jialj'-sis 
and Retrieval System). National Library of liedicine, 8600 
P.ockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 2001U. 

27. CPL Exchange Bibliography //367 

CCUirciL OF PLmTiHIIG- LIBRiaTIxalS acchange Bibliography ,,-'36? 

Additional copies available from: 

Council of Planning librarians 
Post Office Box 22? 
rionticello, Illinois 6l656 

fors $2.50