Skip to main content

Full text of "The Board of Trade Journal of Tariff and Trade Notices and Miscellaneous Commercial Information 1897-06: Vol 22 Iss 131"

See other formats

; 3 Stats, Tre ken. 
“JUL 15 1897 *, 

Hoard of Crade Journal 




June 1897. 

Vol. XXII] 

[No. 131. 



The following memorandum has been prepared by the Labour 
Department of the Board of Trade for the “Board of Trade 
Journal,” and also (with additions) for the “ Labour Gazette ” :-— 

During May the state of employment has continued to improve, 
the proportion of trade unionists returned as unemployed being 
less than in any month since the summer of 1890, All the 
important branches of industry, except the cotton trade, share in 
the improvement. 

In the 113 trade unions making returns, with an aggregate 
membership of 460,685, 10,418 (or 2°3 per cent.) were reported as 
unemployed at the end of May, compared with 2:5 per cent. 
in April, and with 3°3 per cent. in the 110 unions, with a 
membership of 422,194, from which returns were received for 
May 1896. 

Employment in various Industries.-—Coal Mining.— 
Employment during May was better in almost every district 
than a year ago. ‘Ihe average number of days worked per week 
at pits employing 412,205 persons was 5°20, compared with 4°86 
in May 1896. Unemployed miners in trade unions in Northum- 
berland and Durham amounted at the end of May to 0°7 per cent. 
of the membership, as compared with percentages of 0°9 in April 
last and 1°8 in May 1896. 

Tron Mining— Employment was good during May, the average 
number of days worked per‘week by 17,109 workpeople covered 
by the returns being 5°87, as compared with 5°66 in April, 
and 576 in May 1896. The number of workpeople employed 
in May was about 34 per cent. more than a year ago. The 

97813. Wt. 56. A 

634 BOARD OF TRADE NOTICES. (June 1897. 

increase in the average number of days worked in May as com- 
pared with April is accounted for by the Easter holidays falling 
in April. 

is the Pig Iron industry employment at the end of May was 
slightly better than a year ago. It was better in the Midlands 
than at the end of April, whilst in other districts it remained 
practically unchanged. At the end of May the ironmasters 
making returns had 354 furnaces in blast, or four more than a 
year ago, and three more than at the end of April. The number 
of workpeople employed was 22,363, as compared with 22,240 at 
the end of April, and 22,204 at the end of May 1896. 

Employment at Steel Works was again slightly better than last 
month, and much better than a year ago. At 134 works 38,814 
persons were employed at the end of May, or 111 more than at 
the end of April, and 2,764 more than at the end of May 1896. 

Employment at Puddling Furnaces and Rolling Mills improved 
during the month, and was much better than a year ago. At 95 
works 18,886 persons were employed at the end of May, or 
399 more than at the end of April, and 1,332 more than a 
year ago. 

In the Tinplate trade there has been a further falling off in 
employment. The number of mills reported as at work at 88 
works at the end of April was 302, or 5 less than at the end of 
the previous month, but 13 more than at the end of May 1896. 

Employment in the Engineering and kindred trades has im- 
proved. The percentage of unemployed union members at the 
end of May was 1°8, compared with 2°1 in Apri], and 2-2 per cent. 
at the end of May 1896. 

In the Shipbuilding trades employment has further improved. 
The percentage of unemployed union members at the end of May 
was 4°1, compared with 4°9 per cent. in April. The percentage 
in May 1896 was 7-7. 

Employment in the Building trades has continued brisk. The 
percentage of unemployed in unions making returns for May 
was only 0°8, compared with 1:0 in Apri, and with 16 in May 

The Furnishing trades show a slight falling off, though still 
busy. The percentage cf unemployed union members at the end of 
May was 1:1, compared with 0°5 in April, and 11 per cent. at the 
end of May 1896. 

Employment in the Printing and Bookbinding trades continues 
good for the season, and bas somewhat improved. The percentage 
of unemployed union members at the end of May was 3'4, 
compared with 3°7 in Apri), and 5°6 per cent. in May 1896. 

Employment in the Paper trade has improved. The percentage 
of unemployed union members at the end of May was 3°3, com- 
pared with 4°8 in April, and 3°9 per cent. at the end of May last 

In the Glass trade the percentage of unemployed union 
members at the end of May was 11:4, compared with 11°6 in 
April and 14°1 per cent. in May 1896. 

June 1897.] BOARD OF TRADE NOTICES. 635 

Employment in the Leather trades has improved, and continues 
good. The percentage of unemployed union members at the end 
of May was 2:2, compared with 2°9 in April, and 5:3 per cent. at 
the end of May 1896. 

Employment in the ready-made Boot and Shoe trade was 
good at the end of May in most of the principal centres. In the 
bespoke branch employment generally was good. 

Employment in the ready-made Tailoring trade continued 
good. In the bespoke branch it improved, and was good at the 
end of the month. 

In the Spinning branch of the Cotton trade employment has 
been only moderate. The Weaving branch has again declined, 
and was very slack at the end of May. 

In both the Woollen aud Worsted trades the slight improvement 
in employment reported for April has been maintained. In the 
Hosiery trade employment has been moderate. 

As regards the employment of women in the Teztile trades, 
information respecting 496 mills, employing 80,000 women and 
girls, shows that 74 per cent. were in mills giving full employment 
during the month, compared with 81 per cent. among those for 
whom returns were received for April, and 93 per cent. for May 

Changes in Rates of Wages.—Changes in rates of wages, 
affecting about 33,200 workpeople, were reported during May, of 
which number about 33,140 received increases and 61 sustained 
decreases. The net result of these changes is an advance estimated 
at 1s, 93d. per head on the weekly wages of those affected. The in- 
creases include 8,700 building trade operatives, 19,450 workpeople 
engaged in the metal, engineering, and shipbuilding trades, and 
3,050 workpeople in the furnishing and woodworking trades. 
Changes affecting about 13,600 workpeople were preceded by 
strikes ; the remainder, involving about 19,600, by arbitration, 
negotiation, or otherwise. 

Trade Disputes.—One hundred and six fresh disputes 
occurred in May 1897, involving 16,463 workpeople, as com- 
pared with 97, involving 8,617 workpeople, in April, and 135 
disputes, involving about 41,000 workpeople, in May 1896. Forty 
disputes took place in the building trades, 20 in the engineering and 
shipbuilding trades, 5 in other metal trades, 8 each in the mining 
and clothing trades, 11 in the textile trades, 7 in the furnishing 
and woodworking trades, and 7 in the miscellaneous group of 
industries. Of the 94 new and old disputes, involving 26,408 
workpeople, of which the settlement is reported, 42, involving 
14,665 persons, were successful from the workpeople’s point of 
view ; 25, involving 8,193 persons, partially successful; and 27, 
involving 3,550 persons, unsuccessful. 



A formal investigation was held at Blackburn on the 15th May 
last into the circumstances attending the explosion of a boiler at the 
Lancashire and Yorkshire livery stables on the 26th March last, 
whereby two persons were injured. The boiler, one of the vertical 
type, was purchased second hand in 1890 and it was used for 
supplying steam to an engine which drove a chaff cutting 

It was insured in the same year by an insurance company, and it 
was periodically examined by their inspector until April 1894. 
Since that date no less than 13 applications were addressed by 
the company to the owner to have the boiler prepared for thorough 
examination, and his attention was particularly directed to the 
necessity for such an examination. The inspector also called at the 
stables with the same object, and failing to see the owner he left 
messages with his employés. Nonotice was given to the company 
or to their inspector that the boiler was prepared for examination 
and it was not examined. 

The last premium to the insurance company was paid in August 
1895 and the policy lapsed in September 1896. 

On the 26th March the boiler exploded. It was projected 
upwards through the floor above it and fell on its side some 
distance from where it originally stood. 

The Court found that the explosion was due to the firebox 
having become so reduced by corrosion as to be unable to with- 
stand the pressure of steam to which it was subjected, in fact, it 
was completely wern out. 

The Court were of opinion that this explosion was due to gross 
neglect and carelessness on the part of the owner. The boiler 
had not been examined by any competent person since April 
1894, and his attention had been called to the necessity for such 
an examination upon 13 different occasions, 

The Court ordered the owner to pay the sum of 80/. towards 
the costs and expenses of the investigation. 

A formal investigation was held at the Town Hall, Halifax, on 
the 29th May, into the circumstances attending the explosion of 
a boiler at the Watson Quarry, South Owram, Halifax, on the 
26th April last. 

The boiler, one of the vertical type, was made in 1873, and it 
became the property of the owner of the quarry in 1891. It 
was then examined and reported to be in good condition. 

Since 1891 the boiler was cleaned out from time to time and 
examined by the owner or his boiler tenter, and it was examined 
by the former on the 17th April last, but he found no defects, 
and the boiler was thereafter worked as before to supply steam 
to an engine which set a crane in motion, the working pressure 
vatying from 30 to 35 lbs. On the 26th April the boiler 

June 1897.} BOARD OF TRADE NOTIOES. 637 

The crown of the fire-box collapsed and ruptured, the boile¢ 
was blown over, and the owner’s son, who was attending to it,.was 
blown into the quarry, but he was not seriously injured. 

The Court found that the explosion was due to over-pressure, 
the fire-box having wasted by internal corrosion until the thickness 
of the crown was reduced from 2 to 4 inch, and that it was unable 
to withstand the working pressure. 

They were of opinion that neither the owner nor his boiler 
teater had the knowledge aud experience necessary to enable 
them to make a proper examination of the boiler, that it had not 
been examined by a competent person since 1891, that the owner 
had not taken proper measures to insure that the boiler was 
being worked under safe conditions, and that he was to blame for 
the explosion. 

Having regard to his position and circumstances, the Court 
ordered the owner to pay 10/. towards the cost and expenses of 
the investigation. 

A formal investigation was held at the Public Hall, Little- 
borough, on the 31st May, into the circumstances attending the 
explosion of a boiler at the Botanic Brewery, Whitelees, on the 
10th May. 

The boiler, one of the vertical type, was purchased second hand 
in 1879 by two persons working as iron-moulders. It was not 
examined by anyone until 1891, when, owing to leakage, it was 
sent to a boiler-maker’s for repairs. 

After the repairs, the boiler was worked at a pressure of about 
60 Ibs. per square inch, and in February 1897 the iron-moulders 
gave up business and sold the boiler to a relation, who was told 
by one of them that it was fit for a working pressure of 50 or 
60 lbs. per square inch. 

The relation (who was the owner at the iime of the explosion) 
had been a cotton operative ; he knew nothing about boilers, and 
he had only used this boiler about six times to boil ingredients 
used in the manufacture of botanic beer, at pressures varying 
from 25 to 40 lbs. 

On the 10th May, the boiler exploded and carried away the 
boiler-house, but no one was injured. 

The Court found that the explosion was due to over-pressure, 
the crown of the fire-box having become so reduced by corrosion 
as to be unfit for any safe working pressure. 

That the owner was to blame for neglecting to have the boiler 
examined before he purchased it, but that the iron-moulder was 
seriously to blame for neglecting to have the boiler examined 
from 1891 to 1897, and that he was not justified in advising the 
purchaser that it could be safely worked at 50 or 60 lbs. per 
square inch. 

The vendor gave his evidence very frankly. He was in poor 
circumstances, and at present out of work, and the Court ordered 
him to pay the sum of 5/ towards the costs and expenses of the 



The Foreign Office have received notice of an International 
Conference on the subject of sanitation on railways, ships, &c., 
to be held at Brussels in September of the current year. 

The lines of the conference will follow thuse laid down at a 
former similar gathering at Amsterdam in September 1895, the 
subjects to be discussed being as follows :—Organisation of the 
medical service of railways ; certificates as to the physical qualities, 
or otherwise, of the staff; hygienic regulations to be observed on 
railways and passenger steamers, and on vessels connected with 
the merchant marine and sea fisheries and canal boats, with 
regard to accomodation of all sorts on board, food and water, 
medical service, heating and ventilation, whether for the staff of 
the railways and boats or for the passengers carried, as well as 
with regard to every kind of building or locality occupied by 
employés, and, in addition, the means for Preventing the spread 
of infectious disease. 

Tue British TimMBper TRADE WITH POLAND. 
A report, dated 28th May last, has been received at the Foreign 

Office from Her Majesty’s Consul at Warsaw, in which it is stated 
hat the kingdom of Poland is richly covered by forests, much of 
he wood from which eventually finds its way to England, but 
that this wood mostly passes through Germany, where it pays 
dues to the German Government, and through the hands of 
German middlemen, who naturally make their profit from the 

If British firms wish to put themselves in direct communication 
with the owners of the forests, and to import the wood themselves, 
the Consul (Mr. Alexander Murray) states that he could readily 
put them in direct communication with the owners of as much 
wood as they could want, and that conditions could probably be 
found which would be very satisfactory to both parties as com- 
pared with the present arrangement of selling to and then buying 
from German middlemen. 

In connection with the wood trade, there is a good opening for 
a regular transport service on the River Vistula, to carry away the 
pre. per to bring back imports, as at present, although there are 
boats which take away the timber, when hired for that purpose, 
there is no regular service for other goods, the choice lying 
between the railway, which is dear, and the chance of catching a 
boat coming up to take timber, which is very uncertain. 

The amount of transport required, if a regular service were 
established, could be best ascertained on the spot, the demand 
being fairly regular, and the want much felt by the inhabitants of 
the country along the river. 

June 1897.] BUARD OF TRADE NOTICES. 639 


A despatch, dated 20th April last, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from Sir F. R. Plunkett, Her Majesty’s Minister 
at Brussels, enclosing copy of extract, from the “ Moniteur Belge,” 
warning commercial houses, especially those abroad, that it has 
been brought to the notice of the Belgian Government that 
circulars are being sent out from Brussels by certain individuals, 
inviting co-operation in a pretended “exhibition,” which has no 
kind of connection with the International Exhibition recently 
opened at Brussels under the auspices of the Belgian Government. 
The warning in the “ Moniteur Belge” states that this enterprise 
has only a shop at its disposal as locale for the “exhibition” and 
that there will be but one International Exhibition at Brussels 
this year under the auspices of the Government. 


The Board of Trade have received through the Foreiga Office 
copy of a despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Berlin, 
enclosing a memorandum by Her Majesty’s Commercial Attaché 
at Berlin, with reference to certain alterations in the tare allow- 
ances on various descriptions of dutiable goods imported into 
Germany which have recently been enacted. The following is a 
list of the goods and the descriptions of coverings in respect of 
which alterations have been made :— 

Architects’ drawing linen, on wooden rollers, in cases of over 
200 kilos. gross weight—tare allowance for the cases reduced 
from 18 per cent. to 15 per cent. . 

Thick cotton tissues, bleached or dressed, except cut velvets, in 
cases—tare allowance for the cases reduced from 18 per 
cent. to 14 per cent. 

Wrought iron screw keys or spanners, nickelled, in cases—tare 
allowance for the cases reduced from 13 per cent. to 8 per 

Spectacle glasses of white glass, unset, in casks or cases—tare 
allowance reduced from 40 per cent. to 17 per cent. 

Tea; in ordinary wooden cases, not lined with tin-foil, of 
20 kilos. gross weight or under—tare allowance increased 
from 23 to 24 per cent. 

Tea; in similar unlined cases of from 20 to 30 kilos. gross 
weight—tare allowance reduced from 23 to 21 per cent. 

Tea; in similar unlined cases of 30 kilos. and upwards—tare 
allowance reduced from 23 per cent. to 19 per cent. 

Plates of clay (“ Thonplatten”), not assessed for duty by gross 
weight, in cases of soft wood of less than 100 kilos. gross 
weight—tare allowance reduced from 22 to 14 per cent. 

Similar articles in cases of soft wood of a gross weight of 
100 kilos. or upwards—tare allowance reduced from 22 to 
12 per cent. 

These alterations are to take effect from the lst July next. 



A communication has been received at the Board of Trade 
from Mr. Casimir Arduin of the Commercial Museum, Turin, 
forwarding announcement of the Exhibition to be held at Turin 
in 1898. 

The Exhibition, which is to remain open from April to October, 
embraces all subjects connected with the industries and progress 
of the Italian nation during the last 50 years. 


The Board of Trade have received, through the Foreign Office, 
a copy of a note from the Austro-Hungarian Ambassador 
conveying an intimation that the second International Cookery 
Exhibition will take place at Vienna between the 5th and 9th 
January 1898, under the patronage of Her Majesty, the Empress 
Queen, and forwarding copies of the general regulations for the 
exhibition, and of the forms of application for permission to 
exhibit. The regulations and forms may be seen on application 
between the hours of 11.0 and 5.0, at the Commercial Department 
of the Board of Trade, 7, Whitehall Gardens, S.W. 

British TraprE Marks IN Eeypt. 

The Foreign Office have received a communication from 
Alexandria, reporting that the Court of Appeal at that place has 
confirmed the judgment of the Alexandria Mixed Tribunal of 
First Instance of the 2nd January last, in favour of the Cutlers’ 
Company of Sheffield in their action against Messrs. Orosdi, 
Back et Cie, which ordered the defendants to cease from 
importing or selling in Egypt all articles of cutlery falsely marked 
with the name of “ Sheffield” as the place of their manufacture 
or origin under a penalty of 2/. for each dozen articles imported 
or sold. 

The seizure made at the defendants’ shop is confirmed, and 
all the marks on articles seized are to be effaced at the expense of 
the defendants, who are also liable for damages caused by reason of 
their illegal competition, and, further, have to pay the costs of the 

This judgment with reference to trade marks should be of 
immense value to British trade in Egypt. 

Notice to Gotp Prospeotrors in Duron GUIANA. 
Her Majesty’s Consul at Paramaribo reports to the Foreign 
Office that with a view to guard against over-sanguine, and the 
sometimes apparently, exaggerated representations of those 

June 1897.] BOARD OF TRADE NOTICES. 641 

offering mining concessions abroad, the Government of Surinam 
has determined to offer enquirers as to its concessions, every 
possible facility in order to control the statements made by 
concessionaires regarding their rights. 


The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, has received a 
despatch from Her Majesty’s Consul at Paramaribo, stating that 
the Government of Surinam, invite tenders for the supply of 2,400 
tons of Cardiff coal, to be delivered from the 15th December 

Tenders must reach the Superintendent of the Colonial 
Navigation Department at Paramaribo before the 17th July next. 

Such further particulars as may be received may be seen at the 
Commercial Department of the Foreign Office any day between 
the hours of 11 a.m. and 6 p.m. 


The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received a 
despatch from Her Majesty’s Chargé d’ Affaires at Madrid, stating 
that tenders are invited by the Spanish Government for the 
supply of Cardiff coal for the Spanish Navy. 

Tenders must reach the Ministry of Marine by the 3rd July 

Such further particulars as have been received can be seen at 
the commercial department of the Foreign Office, any day between 
the hours of 11 am. and 6 pm. 


The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs has received a 
despatch from Her Majesty’s Consul-General at Rio de Janeiro, 
stating that the limit of time for the presentation of tenders for 
the lease of the Government railways in Brazil has been extended 
to the 9th September next. 


India Office—The Secretary of State for India in Council is 
prepared to receive tenders from such persons as may be willing 
to supply :—1. Steel rails and fish-plates. 2. Steel fish-bolts. 
3. Wrought-iron spikes for rails. 4. Wheels and axles. 5. Cast 
steel wheels. 

The conditions of contract may be obtained on application to 

the Director-General of Stores, India Office, Whitehall, S.W., 

‘G42 BOARD: OF TRADE NOTICES. [June 1897. 

and tenders are to be delivered at that office by Two o’clock p.m. 
on Thursday the 24th June 1897, after which time no tender 
will be received. 


The Board of Trade have awarded a binocular glass to Mr. 
Zacharie Surette, master of the American schooner “George S. 
Boutwell,” of Gloucester, Massachusetts, in recognition of his 
humanity and kindness to the shipwrecked crew of the s.s. 
“ Warwick,” of Glasgow, which stranded oft the coast of New 
Brunswick on the 31st December last. 

The Board of Trade have received, through the Colonial Office, 
a binocular glass for Mr. Thomas M. Scott, master, and silver 
watches for Mr. George M. Horsburg, second mate, and Mr. John 
Provan, quartermaster, of the s,s, “ Hestia,” of Glasgow, which 
have been awarded to them by the Canadian Government, in 
recognition of their services to the shipwrecked crew of the 
Canadian brigantine “ Margaret E, Dean,” of Parrsborough, Nova 
Scotia, on the 10th September last. 

The Board have also received a sum of two pounds (2/.) each 
for Wm. Giles, Alexr. McPherson, Wm. G. Brown, and John 
Orr, seamen of the “ Hestia,” in recognition of their services on 
the occasion. 

The Board of Trade have received, through the Consul- 
General for Sweden and Norway, a binocular glass for Mr. Ralph 
Gasden, master; silver medals of the second class for Mr. William 
A. Miller, first mate, and Mr. David Davidson, second mate; and 
a silver medal of the third class for Mr. Dennis Kiely, boatswain, 
of the s.s. “Sobraon,” of London, which have been awarded to 
them by the Norwegian Government, in recognition of their 
services to the shipwrecked crew of the Norwegian barque 
“ Terzo,” of Skien. 



The monthly accounts of trade and navigation show that the 
imports from foreign countries and British Possessions into the 
United Kingdom for the month ended 31st May last amounted 
in value to 36,336,348/., as compared with 33,349,988/. for May 
1896, an increase of 2,986,360/., or about 89 per cent. The 
exports of British and Irish produce and manufactures were 
valued at 19,322,146/., as against 18,835,243/. in May 1896, an 
increase of 486,903/., or 2°6 per cent. ; and the exports of foreign 
and colonial merchandise were valued at 4,954,692/., as against 
4,748,642/. in May 1896, showing an increase of 206,050/.,, or 4°3 
per cent. 

With regard to the imports, the following categories show an 
increase in the returns for May 1897, as compared with May 
1896 :—Articles of food and drink (duty free) have increased in 
value 1,602,5241 ; manufactured articles, 844,313/. ; raw materials 
for sundry industries and manufactures, 660,087/.; articles of 
food and drink (dutiable), 281,771/.; animals living (for food) 
183,918/. ; chemicals, dyestuffs, and tanning substances, 20,6001. ; 
and parcel post, 13,2447. On the other hand the imports ‘of 
raw materials for textile manufactures have decreased in value 
455,165/.; metals, 84,111/.; miscellaneous articles, 68,9144. ; oils, 
6,6971.; and tobacco, dutiable, 5,210, 

By far the largest increase is under the head of articles of food 
and drink, duty free, and in this category corn alone shows a net 
increase of 732,5291; the imports of wheat having increased 
540,3591., and of Indian corn or maize, 135,922/, Fish of all 
kinds has increased 181,9291.; fruit of all kinds show a net 
increase of 179,6422: bacon has increased 115,4322, and butter 
1053617. On the other hand, sugar, refined and unrefined, has 
decreased 147,4082. The imports of wood and timber show a 
net increase of 208,438/., and in the same category, viz., raw 
materials for sundry industries and manufactures, the imports of 
hides, manures, and paper ‘making materials have also increased. 

The decline in the value of the imports of raw materials for 
textile manufactures is due principally to the decrease in the 
value of the imports of sheep and lambs’ wool which shows a falling 
off of 466,194/., and in cotton, raw, which shows a decrease of 

Under manufactured articles, leather has increased 116,796/, ; 
woolien manufactures, 130,8107.; and cotton manufactures of all 
kinds, 83,1677. The decline in the value of the imports of metals 
is due to the decreased imports of quicksilver, the value of which 
shows a decrease of 143,996/, as compared with May 1896. 

Taking now the exports for May 1897 as compared with May 
1896, all categories show an increase, except machinery and mill- 

* See also pp. 744-745. 


work, which have declined 63,8007, and apparel and articles of 
personal use, 21,729/. Raw materials have increased 257,323). ; 
yarns and textile fabrics, 110,449/. ; metals, and articles manu- 
factured therefrom (except machinery), 3,443/.; chemicals and 
chemical and medicinal preparations, 35,698/.; all other articles, 
either manufactured or partly manufactured, 84,066/. ; animals, 
living, 27,0152. ; articles of food and drink, 29,476/.; and parcel 
post, 24,9627. 

The principal increase in the category of raw materials was 
under coal, coke, and fuel, and amounted to 186,208/., and the 
chief increase in the category of articles manufactured and partly 
manufactured was under worsted tissues, and amounted to 
175,354l. The only decreases worthy of note were in the 
exports of cotton piece-goods, 107,045, and of woollen and 
worsted yarn, 95,2321. Germany, Belgium, and France took less 
woollen and worsted yarn, and the decrease in the exports of 
cottun piece-goods is chiefly to be accounted for by the smaller 
amounts sent to the British East Indies, Brazil (85,400/. as com- 
pared with 152,237/. in May 1896), Argentine Republic, France, 
and Italy—though larger amounts were sent to Turkey, Egypt, 
and China, and more than double the amount of the previous 
year to the United States. 

With regard to the trade for the five months ended 3lst May 
1897, the imports are valued at 7,895,740/. more than during the 
corresponding period of 1896. Articles of food and drink (duty 
free) have increased 3,187,447/.; articles of food and drink 
(dutiable), 1,000,604/.; tobacco (dutiable), 53,389/.; metals, 
448,281/.; raw materials for textile manufactures, 969,434l.; raw 
materials for sundry industries and manufactures, 793,601/.; and 
manufactured articles, 2,504,960/. On the other hand, the imports 
of animals, living (for food), during the period of five months 
referred to, as compared witb a like period of 1896, have decreased 
in value 17,640/. ; chemicals, dyestuffs, and tanning substances, 
328,731/. ; oils, 504,040/.; miscellaneous articles, 210,216/.; and 
parcel post, 1,349/. 

The exports of British and Irish produce and manufactures for 
the five months ended 31st May 1897 show a net decrease in 
value of 265,224/. as compared with a similar period of 1896, 
chiefly due to the decrease of 2,747,1591. in the value of the 
exports of yarns and textile fabrics. Animals, living, have in- 
creased in value 84,0151. ; articles of food and drink, 209,2861. ; 
raw materials, 830,185/.; metals and articles manufactured there- 
from (except machinery), 659,164/; machinery and millwork, 
517,580. ; chemicals and chemical and medicinal preparations, 
233,7861.; all other articles, either manufactured or partly 
manufactured, 23,051/.; and parcel post, 173,2912. ; apparel and 
articles of personal use have decreased 248,423/. 

The exports of foreign and colonial merchandise for the five 
months ended 31st May last, as compared with the first five 
months of 1896, were valved at 26,912,8941 as compared with 
25,166,803/, an increase this year of 1,746,046l. 



The following extracts from some recent numbers of the reports 
made by United States Consuls in this country, and appearing in 
an official publication issued by the Department of State at 
Washington, are illustrative of the American view of the question 
of the competition of United States manufactures on our home 

It is asserted by the consular agents of the United States 
established in Great Britain that success in the sale of articles 
of American manufacture has been won, so far, in the face of 
many disadvantages, and notwithstanding close and eager indus- 
trial competition. The United States Consul at Bradford, in a 
report to his Government, states that, hitherto, large wholesale 
importing firms in London and Liverpool have generally been 
solicited to take agencies for American specialities in manufac- 
tures or in certain products. ‘The older and wealthier these firms, 
the more conservative they have been. Operating on recognised 
lines, they have hesitated to take up new commodities and 
have been slow in pushing them. For this reason many an 
enterprising American firm has found itself with very respect- 
able agents in England but without trade. Recently some 
United States houses have discarded this old-time method, have 
sent over their own agents and their own travellers and called 
upon large retailers, directly soliciting import orders. If the 
result has been as successful for Americans in other parts of 
England as it has been in Bradford, such firms have reaped a rich 
harvest, and have inaugurated a business that will continually 


A short time back, according to the Consul, the representative of 
a New York brass founder called at a prominent hardware esta- 
blishment in Bradford and offered the agency for brass valves, 
The house did not see its way clear to take it, but a rival establish- 
ment did. The first firm soon found out that the travelling man 
for the rival firm was making 7/. per week extra as his percentage 
or commission on the sale of brass valves alone. A second man, 
representing another brass-founder in New York, now appeared on 
the scene, and the house that was first approached was only too glad 
to take the line up. The astonishing result is this: they pay the 
American firm 15s. for the same quantity and quality of goods 
they paid British makers 25s. for, and the carriage by sea and 
rail from ‘the United States to Bradford is 5 per cent. less than 
from London, by rail alone, to Bradford. The American goods 
were also carefully packed and assorted, while the others were 
thrown in any how. In each instance the American commercial 
man concluded his business in Bradford in half a day, 


It is not, perhaps, generally known that American files have 
been largely imported into England, and still command a large 
sale. One order recently amounted to 1,000 dozen. A local 
dealer stated that 200 dozen would have been considered a large 
order for an English house. The American files, though made 
by machinery, are said to be very good, and come in assorted 
sizes. They compete with Sheffield and Warrington houses. 
This line is constantly being pushed, and the trade is expected 
by the American manufacturers to grow larger from year to year. 

The Consul at Bradford goes on to say “if you go into any 
“ cutlery or hardware shop in Bradford and ask for shears you 
‘* will be harded a pair bearing a Newark or Trenton, N.J., 
“ imprint. They are considered superior in every way, and one 
“ of the strange things about it is that they must be purchased 
* through Sheffield, which is supposed to be the rival of American 
* cutlery manufacturers.” These shears, a dealer informed him, are 
superior to all others, because they are excellent cutters. The 
shears used by tailors and cutters are almost entirely of American 
make, as are the safety razors on sale at cutlers, and it is also a 
fact that a preparation made in Connecticut, plainly labelled 
“ Yankee shaving soap,” is now in demand. It is used and 
sold in first-class shops and is recommended by hair-dressers 
to their customers as being the best and purest extant. It 
retails in cakes or in shaving sticks for 1s. 0}d. and has become 
quite an item in American exportation. ‘The thousands of hair 
clippers operated on the lawn-mower principle, which are used so 
much instead of scissors to cut hair, are of United States manu- 
facture. It has often been complained that they can not be 
properly sharpened in England, and it has been suggested that 
some good American mechanics would do well to start an estab- 
lishment in England where they could be sent for repair. 
Washing soap, toilet soap, and soft soap for washing wool, all of 
American production, have an enormous sale.” 

The Consul further states that furniture from the United 
States. of nearly every description can now be had in England, 
and that it is good and cheap. He states also that lumber for 
boxes, and various woods used in manufacturing and for picture 
frames are imported from the United States. 

With regard to printing presses and materials, the same report 
says that American printing is in high repute in England and 
that therefore the machinery that produces it is wanted. Brad- 
ford printers buy both American job and newspaper type, and 
a Chicago firm has been especially active in advertising its 
goods. A daily newspaper uses a typesetting machine manu- 
factured in Connecticut, and papers published in the interest of 
the printing trade are full of advertisements of American type, 
machinery, and presses. 

American watches and clocks are everywhere in demand, one 
Bradford firm of jewellers alone having a stock of some 20,000 
Waltham watches ; in addition, it has watches of the Elgin and 
other makes, and sells great numbers of them. The general run 



of customers ask for watches with the Waltham works, but the 
small American alarm clocks are also in great repute. These are 
imitated by German makers with an inferior article which is 
sold at a cheaper rate. The jeweller shows both the American 
clock ard the German imitation and remarks “ You can take 
whichever you like, but the American clock is much superior” ; 
and, unless the buyer be very poor, the American clock has the 
preference. Many articles of American jewellery are also sold. 

The same American Consul has also some instructive remarks 
to make with regard to the duties of Consuls in promoting the 
trade of their own country. He says that for the past two or three 
years American Consuls have been pointing out to manufacturers 
and exporters of the United States that in order to obtain a 
foreign market they must work for it. Many times it has been 
made plain that the duty of consular representatives was to point 
out the opportunity, the needs and requirements of a country, 
the chance, in other words, to sell goods of whatsoever character, 
and that it was then the exporter’s or manufacturer’s duty to 
embrace the opportunity. A Consul is not permitted by the 
Government to become a commercial traveller and solicit orders. 

The Consul concludes his remarks thus :— 

“Tt would be well if American manufacturers, exporters, &c., 
and publishers of trade and agricultural papers would send 
catalogues and price lists of their journals to Consuls more than 
they do. Often there are callers at the consulate who desire to 
purchase some article or to handle a line and wish to know the 
names of manufacturers or producers. Some time ago, a small 
shopkeeper from a village near Bradford called to inquire the 
name of the makers of a certain lamp chimney, with the idea 
of direct importation. Recently an English gentleman resident 
in South Africa called to inquire the names of firms manufac- 
turing steam corn-shellers, which he was desirous of importing. 
He stated that they had plenty of hand-shellers in Africa, but, 
so far as he knew, not a single steam or horse-power sheller. 
There was not at the time a book or pamphlet at the consulate 
giving the information, but one has since arrived and it has been 

Inquiries have been also made concerning leather belting, 
machinery, wood-bobbins, moulding for’ picture frames, lumber, 
printers’ type, corn meal, ready-made clothing, phonographs, and 
whisky and tobacco. It is, perhaps, useless to allude to the fact 
that the United States is considered the home of patent medicines 
and other preparations. Dozens of them are advertised every 
day, and it is said the complete list for sale by chemists would 
run over 100. 

American food products, such as cheese, bacon, lard, hams, 
flour, wheat, prepared oats, barley, corn, mutton, beef, and an 
enormous variety of timhed or canned goods are on sale at all 
grocers and provision dealers in England. In the latter are 
included canned tomatoes, peaches, pears, apricots, plums, cherries,. 
green corn, baked beans, and beef extracts; also, pressed or 


corned beef, mutton, and beef tongues, and the various other 
edibles put up by Chicago and Omaha packers. The Australian 
meat packers have attempted to compete with the United States 
in these tinned-meat products, but have made little headway on 
account of the excellence of the American article. American 
fruit would be much cheaper, and more of it would be consumed 
were it not that railway freight is so high between inland towns 
and the seaports. 

The above statements respecting this competition of American 
goods on English markets may be closed by the following quota- 
tion from the introductory remarks to the “ Review of the World’s 
Commerce,” issued by the Bureau of Statistics, Department of 
State, Washington, to which reference has been made above. 

“The reports of our consular officers herewith presented, as 
well as those which have been printed from time to time in the 
monthly Consular Reports, disclose the gratifying fact that our 
manufacturers, in many lines, are successfully meeting the com- 
petition of the oider industrial countries of Europe, not only on 
neutral markets but on their own home markets. Striking 
illustrations of this are shown in exports of iron and steel, of 
machinery, leather, cotton goods, boots and shoes, hardware, 
cutlery, bicycles, sewing machines, paper and manufactures 
thereof, wood manufactures, electrical supplies, &c., to European 
countries. Apart from the question as to the causes of this 
increase, the fact that our manufactures, in various lines, have 
competed successfully with foreign products in the home markets 
of the latter would seem to indicate the practicability of greatly 
extending the sale of American goods abroad.” 



The following statistics showing the development of the manu- 
facture of steel in the leading producing countries of the world, 
taken from the “Iron Age,” include, in the case of the United 
States and England, crucible steel, but do not, so far as is known, 
take in that product in the case of the other countries. The 
statistics for Austria are not available beyond the year 1890. If 
they were added, they would probably carry the total for the year 
1895 to close on 15,000,000 tons :— 

Production of Steel. 
1880, 1886. 1895. 
Metric Tons. Metric Tons. Metric Tons. 

Germany and Luxembou - 624,418 954,586 2,830,468 
United States - - 7 1,267,700 2,604,355 6,212,671 
Great Britain ~ - 1,320,561 2,403,214 3,312,115 
France - - - 388,894 427,589 714,523 
Belgium - - - 132,052 164,045 454,619 

Austria-Hungary - - 134,218 259,967 — 
Russia . a 295,568 241,791 574,112 
Sweden - - - - 28,597 77,118 197,177 
Italy - . - a 23,760 55,000 
Spain - - - a 20,261 65,000 
Total, - - | 4,192,008 7,176,686 14,415,685 

A glance at these figures shows that the United States is now 
far in the lead, and has gained even more rapidly than Germany, 
whose progress has been most conspicuous in Europe. It is true 
that American output of Bessemer ingots fell off about 1,000,000 
tons in 1896, as compared with 1895. This is certainly not fully 
compensated for by any progress in open-hearth steel, however 
great that may have been. 

The doubling of the world’s steel product during the short 
space of time between 1886 and 1895 is a wonderful achieve- 
ment. A very large part of the increase is unquestionably due 
to the substitution of mild steel for puddled iron, which has 
proceeded so energetically in the United States particularly. 

During late years the growth in open-hearth steel manufacture 
has been a very notable feature of the steel trade in the United 
States, and there is some interest in looking into the question, 
whether a similar movement has been taking place fresh 

In Germany statistics of steel production by the Bessemer and 

the Siemens-Martin processes have never been kept separately. 
97813. B 


The following estimates, put forward for the first time by the 
secretary to the Society of German Iron Manufacturers at 
Dusseldorf, possess particular value :— 

—_— 1894, 1895. 1896. 
Bessemer : 

Acid - - - - 354,700 843,600 $85,100 
Basic - 7 - 2,356,700 2,541,300 3,011,300 

Acid ~ = - 175,100 183,100 200,100 
Basic a ss 2 928,800 1,061,800 1,342,000 
Direct castings - - 47,800 55,100 65,300 
Total Bessemer - - | 2,711,400 2,884,900 3,396,400 
Total open-hearth ~ 1,151,700 1,299,900 1,607,400 

There has been a slight gain in favour of open-hearth steel, but 
it isso small that no general conclusions may be drawn from it. 
The most striking fact in the figures presented is the tremendous 
preponderance of the basic over the acid process. 

In Great Britain the progress of the open-hearth furnace has 
been very great. In 1890 the production was 2,047,080 tons of 
Bessemer ingots and 1,589,227 tons of open-hearth metal. In 
1896 the figures were reversed, the Bessemer product standing at 
1,844,896 tons, and the open-hearth at 2,354,636 tons. Of this 
464,578 tons of Bessemer and 175,043 tons of open-hearth ingots 
were basic steel. 

In France the open-hearth furnace has gained. In 1896 the 
product of Bessemer ingots was 726,848 tons, against 401,921 
tons of open-hearth steel. 

In the United States the rush into open-hearth plants has been 
such that a good many men in the steel trade have reached the 
conclusion that the days of new Bessemer plants are over, and 
that the use of pneumatic steel will steadily decrease relatively, 
but recently there have been tested modifications in Bessemer 
practice, which may go very far toward restoring a goodly share 
of the prestige of the Bessemer metal. Until the effect of these 
experiments is clearly established, it will be wise to reserve judg- 
ment on the accuracy of the prediction that open-hearth steel is 
the coming metal. 



The “ Handels Museum” states that the Russian iron trade 
showed a considerable improvement in the year 1896. The 
domestic consumption of iron in that country is still small, 
and it is therefore, as a rule, by no means difficult to satisfy the 
demand of the home markets. But during the past year there 
was a very sensible increase in home consumption, so that the 
enlarged native product, and the not unimportant importation from 
abroad were scarcely more than necessary to meet the requirements 
of home buyers. 

There were last year considerably larger orders for railways ; 
and in the south-western districts the introduction of the alcohol 
monopoly led to an increased activity. A proof of the vitality of 
the industry is the fact that a large number of new enterprises 
have been commenced. On the other hand, the low price of corn 
has entailed loss to the agricultural population, which the rela- 
tively high price of iron goods has not tended to counteract. 
That in spite of this disadvantage, the increase of prosperity in 
the Russian iron trade is a very noticeable one, is due to the fact 
that the consumption of iron in this branch of the population is 
still very slightly developed. 

The influence of foreign textiles on the state of prices in the 
Russian home markets, can scarcely be taken into consideration, 
especially as prices have remained high on the foreign markets. 
Moreover, the textile industries hardly influence the use of 
foreign iron at all, except, perhaps, at some points along the 
frontier. If, too, foreign iron is imported from distant markets, 
the freight raises the price so much that it is prevented from 
exercising any pressure on market values. It is to be taken 
into consideration, moreover, that the import from abroad is little 
more than a disposal of excess of produce, for the purpose of 
relieving the original market, and the only attraction that Russia 
offers is that the producing market can at present discover no 
easier or more lucrative mode of getting rid of surplus goods. As 
to the inland textile industry, it exercised very little influence 
during the year, for all the forges were amply able to supply 
what demand there was. 

The iron trade has flourished most in the south-west and west, 
including the district of St, Petersburg. Quite at the outset of 
the business year, a tendency for prices to rise made itself felt. 
During the last two years a great deal of South Russian cast iron 
has appeared on the markets of St. Petersburg, and has benefited 
by the reduced freight. In consequence of this, there has been a 
marked decrease in importation from abroad, the figures being 
37,488 tons in 1896, as against 90,796 tons in 1894, ‘Lhe large 
supply of South Russian cast iron has caused a slight decline in 
price, perhaps 2 or 3 kopecks per poud for the whole business 

B 2 


year, but it is not anticipated that this decline will proceed 
further. The cast iron from the Ural Mountains comes first 
hand on the St. Petersburg market at from 8U to 84 kopecks ; 
the South Russian at from 78 to 80 kopecks the poud. 

The iron industry has not developed in quite so satisfactory a 
way in the central provinces, because there the influence of the 
low price of corn has made itself fully felt. From its convenient 
situation, the Platz at Moscow stands at the head of all the con- 
sumption markets of Russia, Here there are annually received 
from 4} to 5 million pouds of iron, of which from 14 to 2 million 
are sent away, and the rest is used on the spot. Iron from 
every part of Russia finds its way here, and even foreign iron is 
met with at the Platz of Moscow. 

The business year at the iron market of Nijni-Novgorod is 
calculated from one closing of Volga navigation to the next. 

In many ways business done at Nijni-Novgorod was slacker 
than usual, but roofing tin was more in demand than it was the 
previous year, and the prices were well sustained, so far as they 
went. Assorted iron was less in request than it had been in 
1895, but it must be borne in mind that the demand for this class 
of goods in 1895 had been quite abnormal. On the whole, prices 
were better than they were in 1895; for instance, the price of 
roofing tin was 10 kopecks, and of assorted iron 5 or 7 kopecks, 
higher than in the previous year. There was little demand for 
cast iron although the prices were a little lower than in 1895. 

The iron markets of the Volga work mostly, nay almost ex- 
clusively, to supply the agricultural demand, and in a quiet way 
they were busy throughout last year. 

The forges in the Ural Mountains have been favourably 
affected by the new line of railway, and by the increasing demand 
for their produce in Siberia. The ironworks of the Ural 
Mountains dispose at the present moment of at least half of their 
produce directly, that is to say, without the aid of a middleman. 

It is, in conclusion, to be remarked that the Russian iron 
industry is steadily developing, and private enterprise is more and 
more making itself favourably felt. 




A despatch has been received at the Foreign Office from the 
Commercial Attaché to Her Majesty’s Embassy at Berlin, enclos- 
ing a copy of a work by Mr. E. Fitger on the “Increase of the 
Population of Germany and Commercial Treaty Policy” (Die 
Zunahme der Bevilherung Deutschlands und die Handelsvertrags- 
politik). ‘The following is a précis of the views of Mr. Fitger on 
the subject as expressed in the work in question :— 

“The increase of population in Germany year by year is about 
half a million people. It is shown by the two occasions on which 
a census of occupations and trades has been taken, i.e. 1882 and 
1895, that the population in the 13 years increased by 6,548,171, 
and that of this total some two-thirds, or 4,195,161, have found 
employment in industries. The second large group of the increase 
is for trade and transport with 1,485,765, or, more or less, a 
fourth of the total increase. In agriculture, on the other hand, 
only 723,148 persons’ found employment. More noteworthy still 
is the increase of breadwinners in the separate categories. 

“One finds an increase of 1,884,775 breadwinners for indus- 
tries, one of 768,199 for trade and transport, and one of 56,196 
only for agriculture. This development will be still more marked 
in the fature with the yearly greater increase of the population. 

“The part of this book dealing with the possibility of employ- 
ing a large number of persons in industries and agriculture is of 
particular interest. 

« Agriculture cannot employ many more hands as the number 
of persons engaged in it is quite sufficient and the area of cultiva- 
tion remains the same. Statistics for the 10 years, 1883 to 1893, 
show for ploughed land, meadows, and forests only a small increase 
of 132,288 hectares (about } per cent. of the whole land area), 
including all pasturage and meadows, which in the older statistics 
were included as unoccupied lands, There is no increased area 
demanding more hands. Even with a continual improved and 
more active cultivation more lavour will not be wanted, as the 
greater use of machinery replaces the extra human labour required. 
Also the continually extending network of light railways saves a 
large amount of labour formerly engaged in transport. In short, 
in this direction, agriculture cannot otter to the increasing popula- 
tion any labour, pay, or food. _On the contrary, the agricultural 
population must seek other employment for their numbers. It is, 
indeed, an unavoidable necessity to provide for the food and 
clothing of the increased population, especially by exporting the 
products of home industries. If this one possibility is taken away 
by reducing the markets abroad for our products, the working 
population will suffer by the withdrawal of the corresponding 


wages and want of work in those industries. The power of 
consumption at home is a limited one; it is naturally restricted 
by the growth of population, by the general prosperity, and by 
the increasing demands of the industries themselves. 

“ On the other hand, the consumption abroad is unlimited and 
can afford an enormous field for the out-put of German industries, 
restricted only by the willingness of foreign nations to admit 
Germany to trade. Their progress must increase their demand for 
European articles. The greater part of them devote themselves 
principally to agricultural production and buy their clothes, house- 
hold furniture and requisites, machines, engines and rails from 
abroad, except where protective duties have altered this natural 
course of events. These countries buy from Germany quite as 
readily as from England or Belgium, but require to be well treated 
in return. 

The author of the work in question says: “The preliminary 
conditions required to increase this exportation to foreign lands 
is in our hands. We are wanting neither in business enterprise 
nor in scientific knowledge (chemical or technical). Neither are 
we deficient in aptitude and business talent in the export trade. 
Want of labour troubles us so little that the problem is not to obtain 
hands, but employ the daily increasing supply. But even intelli- 
gence, the capability of doing all this, and the desire to undertake 
business enterprises are not sufficient in themselves. There is one 
other requisite, and that is, the willingness of other nations to buy 
our products. Naturally, it is not the wish even of the extreme 
party of agrarians to damage our exportation of industrial products, 
but they would like it to coincide with their policy. They cannot 
accomplish this by the rough policy of increasing the cost of the 
necessaries of life. 

“Other nations ask in retura for their agricultural products 
admittance to our markets. If we do not allow this they will not 
take our manufactures, and will transfer to other countries (who 
meet their wishes) the custom which they deny to us. 

“ By the commercial treaties we have bought, not satisfactory, 
but only bearable conditions for our export trade. And, even of 
these, the agrarians wish to deprive us. They agitate most 
against those treaties which deal with duties on necessaries of 
ife, &c.” 



A despatch, dated 11th May last, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from Mr. W. S. Harriss-Gastrell, Commercial 
Attaché to Her Majesty’s Embassy in Berlin, enclosing memo- 
randum on the proposed Bill for the extension of the railway 
system of the State, and its participation in building light 
railways and also storehouses for grain. 

Mr. Gastrell says that light railways (“ Kleinbahnen”) in 
Prussia are regulated by a law of July 28, 1892, which kept in 
view the special object of attracting private capital to this useful 
agricultural undertaking. The reports on these lines show that a 
considerable and rapid development has taken place by the aid of 
private capital, but, of course, only on those portions which 
promised fair returns on the money invested. This was not the 
case with those lines started merely with the object of developing 
adjoining lands. It was clear from the very beginning that it was 
only possible to build such lines with certain help. Hence the 
power, given in the law on Light Railways to the Provinces, to allot 
part of their revenues for their furtherance. Although some 
Provinces, such as Hanover and Westphalia, at once : made 
extensive use of this power, it was not much employed elsewhere 
until State aid was given to these railways. 

By the law of April 8, 1895, 250,0002. was granted for this 
purpose ; and a further 400,000/. was added thereto by the law 
of June 3, 1896. These sums were applied to create such light 
railways as were deemed necessary in the interests of the public, 
but which could not be built otherwise than with State aid. Up 
to 1897 some 350,000/. have been granted or promised (it is 
believed) in different forms of subsidy. These grants have been 
made to railways which have an aggregate length of about 
625 miles. In only one case, apparently, have these subsidies 
been accorded without stipulating for a return of interest. 

On the 31st of March 1896, the length of narrow-gauge railways 
in the German Empire was given at about 811 miles, as compared 
with 238 in 1886. 

Such is, briefly, the history of light railways in Germany up to 
the present time; and the following is a précis of the new Bill 
now before the House of Deputies for the extension of the State 
Railways System and its participation in building light railways 
and storehouses for grain, This Bill is known by the name of 
the Auxiliary Railway Proposal, and consists of three distinct 
- proposals: (1) the expenditure of a sum of 2,970,800/. on branch 
railways; (2) the construction of light railways for a sum of 
* 400,000/.; and (3), the erection of agricultural storehouses for 
_grain at a cost of 100,000. The choice of the new branch lines 


has been expressly governed by the consideration of bringing the 
light railways into connection with the main lines in order to 
more thoroughly complete the railway system. This whole 
scheme involves an expenditure of 3,470,800/. The items are 
distributed thus :— 

L—wNew Branch Lines. 

. From Stallupénen to Goldap. 
From Orletsburg to Neidenburg. 
From Kulm to Uinslaw. 
From Schweidnitz to Charlottenbrunn. 
From Petersdorf to Ober-Polaum (Griinthal). 
From Gritz (i. P.) to Kosten (i. P.), or Ezemfrin, or a 
point between these places on the Line Lissa-Posen. 
From Kallies to Falkenburg. 
- From Wollin to Swinemiinde. 
. From Blankenstein to Marrgiin. 
. From Niederfiillbach to Rossach. 
From Ebersdorf near Sonnefeld to Weidhausen. 
. From Schaudelah to Oedisfelde. 
. From Triangel to Uelzen. 
. From Miinster (i. W.) to Coesfeld. 
. From Coesfeld to Borken (i. W.). 
. From Borken (i. W.) to Empel. 
. From Wiilfrath to Ratingen (West). 
. From Kirchberg i. Hunsriick to Hermeskeit. 
. From Primeweiler to Dillingen. 

SP Ot eG pO 

6 OO -7 

Total: for branch lines - - - - 2,671,400 
For working requisites, rolling stock, &c. - 299,400 
II.—For furthering construction of light railways- 400,000 
III.—For the erection of agricultural storehouses for 
grain - : ~ - - 100,000 

Total - - 3,470,800 

The above-mentioned sum of 660,000/. formerly allotted to 
this purpose will be fully absorbed by this scheme. As it has 
been proved to be necessary, for the development of this desirable 
method of communication, that the State should step in and help 
those lines where traffic is small, the further sum of 400,0002, 
has now been proposed, which, if accepted, will bring up the total 

to 1,050,0002. 

The grant of 100,000/. for subsidising grain storehouses is a 
recent departure in State aid, to which 150,000/. had already 
been formerly allotted by the law of June 3, 1896. In the 
preface to this new Bill it is stated that agriculturists are now 
paying more attention to them, and that it is only in Schleswig- 
Holstein, the Rhine Provinces, Silesia, Posen, and Brandenburg © 
that a reluctance has been shown to adopt them. Subsidies for 


this purpose appear to have been already granted to the Chief 
Society of Pomeranian Agriculturists, 50,000/.; to similar 
societies at Halle, 18,0007. ; at Pelplin (in West Prussia), 3,7502. ; 
and at Janowitz (in Posen), 3.350/. The Agricultural Chamber 
of Saxony has asked for 17,5002; the Society of Eastern Prussia 
wants 28,250/.; the. Pomeranian Society requires 25,000/.; and 
the Agricultural Society of Loest requests 10,2002. The “ Borsen 
Courier ” recently called attention to the fact that the Society for 
Grain Storehouses at Halle, to whom it was proposed to give 
18,0002, has already drawn up regulations affecting the admit- 
tance of corn, and says that they have fixed a minimum quantity 
of grain that can be stored there which will exclude the small 
da al from participation in the benefits conferred by 
these storehouses, That paper further remarks that the money 
devoted to them should be so spent as to place the advantages of 
this system within the reach of all perscms for whose special 
benefit the subsidies are paid. 



Mr. A. Woodhouse, Her Majesty’s Consul at Riga, in a report 
to the Foreign Office (Annual Series, No. 1901) states that, going 
through the long list of imports to Riga, a host of miscellaneous 
articles are found which it is next to impossible to classify under 
any special head, but everywhere it is plainly to be seen that 
Germany takes advantage of every possible opportunity of finding 
an opening for her goods. nnd it is not merely in the cheapness 
of any individual article that she has the advantage, but in adapting 
it to the requirements of the customer. 

To give one single instance out of many, the manager of a large 
saw-mill in Riga, owned by British capitalists, states that, while 
English-made circular saws are the best obtainable, English 
frame saws are not adapted to the class of logs sawn there. 
There is always something wrong with the tempering of them 
They are too brittle and liable to break, in fact, to snap off. 
When the representatives of various English saw manufacturers 
were spoken to on the subject, they sent samples which erred on 
the other side as regards tempering, they being so soft that the 
teeth curled up like tin. Much as this gentleman would like to 
give England the preference, he finds it impossible to do so. He 
can use French, German, Swedish, and even Russian frame saws 
of 13 and 14 gauge, while an English frame saw will not “stand 
up” to the Riga wood unless it is of a thicker gauge, «.e., 11 or 12, 
which means a greater waste of wood, more sawdust and less 
sawn goods. He asserts that this is simply due to the British 
manufacturers, who fail to make themselves acquainted with the 
actual requirements of the various countries. The grain and 
growth of Riga logs require a specially-tempered frame saw, but 
the English sawmaker seems to think that what will do for the 
timber of his country, ought to be good enough for that of any 
other. Unfortunately for him, his foreign competitors take the 
trouble to find out what is really wanted, and they do their best to 
supply it. 

Again, German firms, who manufacture machinery, carpentering, 
gardening, and other kinds of tools and appliances, exert them~- 
selves to become thoroughly acquainted with the Russian Customs 
Tariff, in which nearly everything goes by weight. Finding, for 
instance, that the presence of certain metals, such as brass, would 
cause an article to fall under a dearer tariff in Russia, they 
substitute, wherever possible, something less suitable, perhaps, and 
less durable, but still practicable, and in this way they are enabled 
to supply the said article, delivered duty paid in Russia, at a 
figure with which the British manufacturer cannot enter into 
competition, for the — reason that his article would come 
under a higher duty. hen brasses cannot be dispensed with 


entirely, the German makes a separate parcel of them, and ‘the 
heavier duty is only levied on their own individual weight, and 
not on the whole machine or implement. The German keenly 
studies requirements as well as Custom-house tariffs, and knows 
the weight of his machine as well as the cheapest way of sending 
it; he can calculate to a nicety, and translates his prices into 
Russian currency delivered duty paid at a Russian seaport, while 
this necessity is not fully recognised by the Englishman, with 
some few exceptions. hen again, he carefully watches his 
competitors, and studies how to undersell them, and generally 
finds out that by making certain parts lighter he can do so. The 
Americans send out broadcast enormous quantities of illustrated 
price lists of machinery, tools, &c., not only with Y coaye reduced to 
Russian roubles, delivered duty paid, but printed in the Russian 
language, the exact weights and every possible detail being 
supplied, whereas the Englishman contents himself with sending 
over price lists in the English language and in English currency. 
As generally no weights are given, the would-be purchaser 
cannot even guess what the duty would come to, and considering 
that, roughly speaking, the duty varies from 40 to 90 per cent. 
of the cost price, according to the weight and the different 
classes of metals employed, such price lists are useless to Russian 

Another thing which has, time after time, been touched upon, 
is the inefficiency of the British commercial traveller. Men of 
undoubted business capacity, who would be able to hold their own 
at home, are sent out toa country like Russia, with no knowledge 
of the language. They may show their samples and produce 
inexhaustible catalogues and price lists, such as they are, and with 
the assistance of some indifferent interpreter endeavour to secure 
orders, but they laci the power of persuasion, and in the smallest 
matters of explanation are dumb, while their rivals, possessing a 
} oad of the language, step in and take everything before 


This is apart from the knowledge of the Customs tariff require- 
ments of the country, &c., in which the Germans excel. Besides 
sending out commercial travellers, a large number of British firms 
have appointed agents in the principal towns of Russia, but here, 
again, the houses represented are under a disadvantage, for the 
simple reason that most, if not all, of the said agents are foreigners 
and, in the majority of cases, persons with other, and it may be 
more remunerative, occupations. 



The Foreign Office have recently received from Sir F. R. 
Plunkett, Her Majesty’s Minister at Brussels, a copy of the 
Report of the Central Section of the Belgian Chambers, on the 
Budget of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs for 1897, which was 
presented to the House on the 13th April last. 

This report shows, in the first place, the very great importance 
which in Belgium is attached to the furtherance of commercial 
interests by the Foreign Minister and the Legations and Con- 
sulates abroad, and the steps which are being taken in order to 
train up a corps of consular officers, who shall be thoroughly 
competent to watch over and assist Belgian trade in other 

The report also contains an account of the manner in which 
the “ Commercial Bourses,” which were established a few years 
since for young men desirous of studying in foreign countries, are 
at present distributed. 

‘These “ Bourses,” which are a sort of commercial travelling 
fellowship, are 17 in number, amounting in the aggregate to about 
2,2501, and as a general rule they are tenable for three years. 
They were established, as already noticed, to enable young men 
to study in foreign countries, and are included under Art. 38 of 
the Budget, viz., “ Various expenses connected with the encourage- 
“ ment of trade, purchase of commercial documents, and publica- 
“ tion of consular reports and other works connected with trade 
‘* and industry,” it having been considered the establishment of 
Belgian firms in foreign countries is one of the best methods of 
developing the export trade of the country. 

The activity of Belgian industrials abroad is well exhibited by 
a list of the Belgian companies which have been recently formed 
forthe purpose of carrying on various branches of business in 
foreign countries. 

In Spain, 6 companies for the working of railways or tramways 
and 1 mining company, with an aggregate capital of 25,000,000 
frs.; in Portugal, 1; in Servia, 1; in Italy, 3; in Greece, 1 ;:in 
Germany, 1; in Egypt, 2; in Persia, 4; in Mexico, Venezuela, 
and Brazil, 1 each; and in the Congo State, 14. 

But it is especially in Russia (chiefly in the south) that Belgian 
commercial activity has been lately manifested to such an extra- 
ordinary degree. 55 companies, with a total sbare capital of 
178,545,000 frs. (7,141,800/.), have been founded in Russia with 
Belgian capita! since the 1st January 1895, and these represent 
but a small portion of Belgian interests in Russia, and only give 
an approximate idea of their importance. 

This list of Belgian companies recently established abroad is 
very incomplete ; no returns are given for many countries such as 
Roumania, Turkey, Chile, &c., where many associations exist in 


the form of water and lighting companies; nor for Argentina, 
where the agricultural companies are prospering ; nor for Hungary, 
where the forestal and mineral wealth is being brought to light by 
Belgian activity; nor for Holland and the Dutch Colonies, nor 
France or Algeria. 

A few paragraphs in the report are also devoted to the Belgian 
trade with the Congo and the advantages of commercial relations 
with the independent State are insisted upon. It declares that 
in the seven years from January 1, 1890 to December 1, 1896, 
the Congo has bought goods to the value of 29,000,000 frs. 
(1,160,000/.) from Belgium and paid over half a million sterling 
in salaries to the Belgian employés. 


The Board of Trade have received through the Foreign Office 
a copy of the third biennial report on the measures taken by the 
Belgian {Government in carrying out the law relating to food 
adulteration, and on the effects of the said law. 

During the four years 1890-94, the Belgian Government 

published regulations from time to time relative to utensils and 
receptacles, artificial colouring, saccharine and other sugar 
products, meat, milk, artificial butters, flours, &c., coffee, chicory, 
mustard, vinegars, cocoa, chocolate, beer and yeasts, and more 
recently, in the years 1895-96, Royal Decrees have been issued 
with regard to the trade in lard and other edible fats, butter and 
margarine, oils, honey, sugars, fruit pulps and juices, confectionery 
jellies and syrups, as well as beers. Regulations have been drawn 
up relating to brandies, alcoholic liquors and alcohols, as well as 
with regard to cattle food; and finally, regulations concerning 
the trade in wines are under consideration. 

During the period 1895-96 the number of cautions given to 
traders by the inspectors for non-observance of the regulations 
showed a considerable decrease, having been 7,000 only as 
compared with 11,0v0 for the preceding biennial period. The 
fact is that honest traders, who disobeyed the regulations through 
ignorance, have taken care to conform to them, whilst the dis- 
honest, who have disregarded the cautions previously given, 
have found themselves confronted with the law; and this fact 
explains the considerable increase in the number of summonses 
issued, which has risen from 886 for the period 1893-94 to 
2,859 in 1895-96. Additions to the staff of inspectors have 
contributed to a more thorough exposure of the frauds connected 
with the most important articles of food, which have been 
examined in greater numbers. The result is a decrease in the 
proportion of articles exposed for sale in a manner not in 
conformity with the law. 


The following table shows the proportion per cent. of groups 
of articles examined which were found not to be in accordance 
with the law in the last four years :— 


1893. 1894. 1895. 1896. 

Per Cent. | Per Cent. | Per Cent. | Per Cent. 
Meats - ~ 13 6 3 4 
Butter and margarine - 27 21 8 7 
Flour and breads - 380 23 16 18 
Beers - - - 35 18 16 9 
All food products - 20 17 11 9 

The improvement is especially noticeable in the observance of 
regulations which compel the trader to indicate to the buyer by 
means of labels or inscriptions the nature and composition of the 
product sold. The use of lead or brass receptacles for beers has 
considerably diminished, and tends to disappear. 

As far as adulteration itself is concerned, a matter much more 
difficult to detect, the improvement is also very marked, although 
the small shopkeeper is not always able to guard against the 
attempts of dishonest manufacturers or wholesale houses which 

supply him with adulterated products without his knowledge. 
The result has been obtained by the vigilance of the inspectors 
and the severity of the courts; fined sometimes very heavily, 
these unscrupulous merchants have been compelled to desist from 
their illegalities. 

June 1897.). FRENOH SUGAR LAW. 


With reference to the note on p. 436 of the “Board of Trade 
Journal” for April last, the following is a translation of the 
text of the new sugar law which was published in the “ Journal 
Officiel ” of the 8th April last :— 

Art. 1—From the promulgation of the present law, bounties, 
the rates of which are fixed as follows, are to be granted for the 
exportation to foreign countries and to French colonies not subject 
to the Customs tariff of France :— 

1. Of home-grown sugars produced since the 1st September 
1896, and declared for export since the promulgation of this law. 

2. Of French colonial sugars shipped to France since the 
lst September 1896, and exported from French depéts since 
the promulgation of this law. 

3. Sugars and “vergeoises” allowed to be deducted from 
temporary admission. accounts for sugar produced in France or 
exported from French colonies since the 1st September 1896. 

4 frs. per 100 kilogs. of refined sugar for raw sugars in powder 
or crystals, of a saccharine richness of 98 per cent. at least for 
beetroot sugars, or 97 per cent. at least, for French colonial sugars, 
the yield to be calculated before the deduction of the refining 

(Sugars of this kind dutiable and exported direct to other 
- countries by the manufacturer himself, when they polarise at 
least 99°75 per cent., shall be placed to the credit of the manu- 
facturer according to their gross weight as refined sugar without 
any deduction.) 

3°50 frs. per 100 kilogs. of refined sugar for raw beetroot 
sugars yielding 65 to 98 per cent. or colonial sugars yielding 
65 to 97 per cent. 

4:50 frs. per 100 kiloge. net for sugar candy, calculated 
according to its legal coefficient. 

4°50 frs. per 100 kilogs. net for refined sugars in loaves or 
broken, perfectly pure, hard, and dry. 

4°50 frs. per 100 kilogs. of refined sugar for “ vergeoises.” 

400 fre. per 100 kilogs. for refined sugars in grains or crystals 
of at least 98 per cent. 

(When sugars of this last class polarise 99°75 at least, they will 
be considered as refined pure sugars, and the exports certificates 
in respect thereof shall be accepted in discharge of temporary 
admission bonds for their total-weight without any deduction.) 

Art. 2.—A rebate (“ detaxe de distance”) of 2°25 frs. per 100 
om 3 of refined sugar will be allowed to sugars imported from 
the French colonies on the Atlantic; and 2°50 frs. per 100 kilogs, 
of refined, to sugara imported from other colonies. 

664 FRENOH SUGAR LAW, [June 1897. 

Art. 3.—Raw sugar, proceeding from French factories, shipped 
from French ports on the North Sea and the English Channel to 
French ports on the Atlantic and Mediterranean, to be refined 
in refineries established in these ports, and intended for exporta- 
tion, shall be allowed, on and after the promulgation of the present 
law, a rebate of 2 frs. per 100 kilos. provided that such 
sugar be shipped under the coasting trade regulations from the 
French port of shipment to the French port of destination. Such 
sugar shall be conveyed under bond from the Customs warehouse 
to the Custom-house of destination, where the temporary admis- 
sion bonds must be signed. These bonds must be discharged by 
deducting the export certificates according to the conditions pre- 
scribed by the present legislation, under penalty of restitution of 
the rebate. 

The same rebate of 2 frs. shall be granted in refineries in 
French ports on the Atlantic and Mediterranean to raw sugar 

roceeding from French refineries situated at a minimum distance 
of 250 kilometres from the port where the refinery exists to which 
the sugar is directly sent, when such sugar is gent direct from the 
factory by railway to be refined for exportation. 

The same will be also granted to raw sugars from French 
manufactories situated more than 300 kilometres in a direct line 
from the refineries of the interior, when these sugars are sent 
direct from the manufactory by railway or canal to be worked up 
for export in the said refineries. 

From the date of the promulgation of the present law there is 

1, A refining duty of 4 frs. per 100 kilogs. of refined sugar, on 
sugar-candy, refined sugars perfectly pure, hard, and dry ; and on 
other refined sugars of a richness of at least 98 per cent., and on 
* vergecises.” 

2. A manufacturing duty of 1 fr. per 100 kilogs. of refined 
sugars, on raw sugars not going into a refinery. 

Sugars exported are exempt from the duty specified in the two 
preceding paragraphs. 

The refining duty shall be levied on the entry of sugars into 
the refinery, in conformity with the laws in force and conditions 
determined by the public administration. 

Art. 5.—The Customs duties on the following articles contain- 
ing sugar are modified as follows :— 
Molasses, other than for distillation, having a saccharine rich- 
ness of 50 per cent. or less: 

General tariff - - - 24°75 per 100 kilogs. 
Minimum tariff - - 20°75 as 

Do., do., of over 50 per cent. : 
General tariff - - - 52°50 per 100 kilogs. 
Minimum tariff . - 4290 - 

Chocolate containing 55 per cent. of cocoa or less: 
General tariff - - ~- 132:25 per 100 kilogs. 
Minimum tariff . - 102°25 » 

June 1897.) FRENCH SUGAR LAW. 665 

Art. 6.—The surtaxes established by Article 4 shall be applied 
to sugars of all kinds already freed from duties, as well as to 
the materials in course of manufacture also freed from duties: 
found at the time of the promulgation of the present law in 
refineries, manufactories, or stores, or in all other places 
in the possession of refiners, manufacturers, or traders. The 
amounts shall be determined by means of an inventory after 
declaration made by the holders. Any quantity not declared will 
be liable to pay, in addition to the surtax, a fine equal to twice 
the surtax ; but quantities of refined sugar not exceeding 500 
kilogs. shall not be included in the inventory. 

Art. 7—Manufacturers and refiners must sign supplementary 
bonds to guarantee the surtax provided for by the present. law, 
for sugars of all kinds and materials in course of manufacture 
admitted to temporary importation. 

The liquidation of these supplementary bonds will take place 
under the same conditions as at the putting in force of the laws 
of the 31st December 1873, 29th July 1884, and 27th May 1887. 

From the time of the promulgation of the present law, and 
until the close of inventory ordered by Article 6, Customs-house 
and other officers will have the right of entry into the refineries 
at any hour of the day or night, with power to follow the opera- 
tions and make all the verifications they may think necessary. 

Art. 8.—In the grant of the export bounties, established by 
the present law, warrants for duty will be issued, transferable by 
endorsement, which will be received as cash in liquidation of the 
obligations of the temporary entry of native and French colonial 
sugars. These bends, granted for sugars exported from manu- 
factories in suspension of tax, will be received as cash for the 
payment of excise dues. 

From the 1st of September 1897 these bonds must be used 
within two months of their date of issue. 

Art, 9.—The decree of the 26th July 1896 relating to surtaxes 
on foreign sugars is ratified and has become law. 

From the date, however, of the promulgation of the present 
law, these surtaxes are fixed as follows, reai weight 100 kilogs. 
net in each case :— 

Raw sugars of European origin or imported from European 
depéts, 9 frs. 

Sugars, refined, and similar, other than candied, general tariff, 
16 frs. 

— refined, and similar, other than candied, minimum tariff, 
10 frs. 

Sugar-candy, general tariff, 28-80 frs. 

Sugar-candy, minimum tariff, 25:80 frs. 

As long as the drawbacks noted in Articles 2 and 3 of the 
present law are allowed, the surtax of 9 frs. per 100 kilogs. (real 
weight) will be extended to sugars in powder of a saccharine 
richness of 98 per cent. or less, imported for consumption from 
extra-European countries. 

97813, 0 

666 : FRENCH SUGAR LAW. [Sane 1897. 

The manufacture and refining taxes laid down in Article 4 of 
this law are equally applicable to all foreign sugars, in the same 
conditions as to home and French colonial sugars. Foreign 
colonial sugars have the privilege of temporary admission, but 
are not entitled to export bounty. 

Art. 10.—The manufacture and refining taxes of Article 4 are 
not applicable to Algeria and Corsica, and sugars exported from 
those countries will not benefit by the regulations of Article 1. 

Art. 11—If beetroot-sugar producing countries at present 
granting export bounties, either suppress or lower those bounties, 
the Government is authorised, in the absence of the Chambers, to 
ee the same measures, the decree to be afterwards ratified by 
a law. 

Art. 12.—In the case where the amount of the bounties paid 
during a season exceed the product of the manufacture and 
refining taxes established by this law, the rate of the bounties 
shall, in the following season, be reduced to such an amount as 
to cover the Treasury for its advance, by means of a decree 
delivered by the Council of Ministers, and presented in the form 
of a Bill to the Chambers before the close of the session if they 
are assembled or during the next session if they are not assembled. 

Art. 13.—From the 1st September 1897 the scales for weighing 
the beetroot handed in by the grower must be fitted with a 
registering apparatus. In every manufactory, one or more State 

agents will be charged with the duty of verifying the accuracy of 
the weighing operations, and controlling the allowances to be 
made for earthy matter, roots, and necks of beets as well as the 
determining of the density. 

Temporary Regulation, 

Until the Ist September 1897 the export bounties will only 
be granted to the extent of one-half. 

n the lst September 1897 a calculation will be made of the 
amount realised by virtue of this law, on which will be calculated 
the amount of the bounties paid up to the extent of one-half. 
The total will be divided proportionately among those having a 
right to it. 

Sugars of the season 1896-97 which shall not have been 
exported on the Ist September 1897 will only have the right, 
during the ensuing season, to half the export bounties laid down 
in Article 1. 



The principal trade of Lyons, the silk trade, is at the present: 
moment in a well-defined state of transition, and Mr. Nott, British: 
Vice-Consui at Lyons, in a recent report, to the Foreign Office, 
points out the chief conditions under which this trade is carried» 
on, and the changes that are now taking place. r 

The silk goods manufacturers may be roughly divided: into 
two classes, namely, the manufacturer who owns or hires: his 
own mil], and weaves the goods, which, after having been given 
out to dry and finish, he sells on his own account; and» ithe 
so-called manufacturer who in reality weaves no goods at 
all, but who buys his own-raw materials and sends «the 
goods out for both weaving, dyeing, and finishing. . The: mill 
owners, who formerly were not numerous, and who worked: at 
an agreed price for this second category of manufacturers, are 
coming more and more to the front, in many cases buying their 
own raw materials and selling their woven articles in the ; 
supplanting thus their former employers for all staple piece-dyed 

The large and constant produce of power looms, of which over 
28,000 are now in existence, whilst the number of hand looms 
remains stationary, if it does not diminish, is the natural result ‘of 
this change. Last year’s trade shows most instructive results as 
to the advantage reaped by the mill owners. Whilst in value the 
total production remains exactly the same, the. reduced price of 
silk, and the lower qualities chiefly manufactured, indicate a large 
increase in the total quantity produced. The profits also seem 
to have been confined almost entirely to the mill owners, who 
have been enabled to renew their plant with better and larger 

The year started with all looms, both hand and power, fully 

eoccupied, and continued well into the month:of June, but the 
sale of goods during the spring season did not correspond to this 
production, and, on the contrary, disappointed all the distributing 
agencies engaged in the trade. Many important orders for late 
delivery were cancelled, and many houses had to sacrifice those 
goods which they had accepted, as the retail trade fell far short « 
of what had been anticipated. It was only, however,.after the 
beginning of June that the weavers felt the effect of the falling- 
off in trade, 

The first looms to be stopped were, as usual, the hand looms, | 
situated within the city boundaries, and gradually those in the: 
country followed suit. On the other hand, the enormous demand :: 
for silk, muslins, and crépe lisse, made on power looms, occupied . 
80 many of them, that the remainder were not sufficient for even»+ 

c 2 

668. THE SILK TRADE OF LYONS, [June 1897. 

the reduced demands in other silk articles, and the mill owners 
working for other houses put up the price per metre for weaving 
all articles. This situation continued in even a more marked 
manner throughout the rest of the year, and, in fact, is felt even 
more at present. The result is that the houses manufacturing rich 
all-silk articles, both plain and fancy, complain bitterly of their 
year’s trade, whereas those whose speciality is low-priced union 
articles (silk and cotton), and all light materials, such as muslins, 
crépe lisse, gauzes, &c. have had an exceptionally good year. 
The power-loom weavers, who are now practically always women, 
have only slightly shared in the prosperity of their branch, but 
have not been out of work for a single day during the year. 
Their average pay was about 2 frs., or 1s. 7d. per diem. The pay 
of the hand-loom weavers was so very irregular that it is im- 
possible to establish an average. 

The silk trade, depending as it does so largely upon the export 
trade for its prosperity, has always been greatly influenced by all 
perturbations abroad, and the Lyons and St. Etienne authorities 
agree is ascribing the bad trade of the latter half of the year to 
the unsettled state of the political and financial world. 

At St. Etienne the movement of trade was exactly the same as 
at Lyons, namely, the first six months were very good, and the 
latter half year exceptionally bad, and can count as one of the 
worst periods the trade of that town has experienced, prices for 
ribbons falling as much as 35 per cent. compared to those of 

As a consequence of the St. Etienne trade it is the weaver who 
has to bear the largest part of these variations in prices, and last 

ear the average wages of a good workman varied as much as 

m 6 frs. to 2 frs. 

A large proportion of the weaving is done by master weavers 
employing two or three workmen, who offer their looms to the 
manufacturer who pays the best rate, hence the great variation 
in prices according to whether the supply exceeds the demand, or 
vice versd. 

A question widely discussed both in Lyons and St. Etienne is 
the distribution of a cheap motor-power from house to house, 
and whilst in Lyons there are several companies with large 
capital engaged in the experiment, still they are not sufficiently 
advanced to indicate their chances of success, but in St. Etienne 
the problem appears to be already solved. At the present moment 
1,200 looms, of which about two-thirds are situated in the town, 
and the remainder in the surrounding districts, even as far as 30 
miles away, are driven by power distributed by the Company of 
St. Victor-sur-Loire. This company, founded in 1893, with 
1,000 horse-power, has since that date added already 400 horse- 
power now working, 1,200 horse-power on the point of being used, 
and now propose to add another 3,000. The power is transmitted 
by electricity, the price per loom being 8s. per month, and the 
time when the loom is not working is allowed for at the rate of 
4d. per diem. The production of hand-looms transformed by this 


June 1897.) THE SILK TRADE OF LYONS. 669 

system, which entails no alteration to the loom itself, is increased 
by 25 per cent., and allows many weavers who were incapacitated 
from lack of strength to resume work. 

The raw silk market was exceedingly quiet throughout the year. 
Prices decreased during the first six months by about 10 per cent. 
and remained stationary for the rest of the year. 

The price paid for cocoons in France shows a reduction of about 
10 per cent. on that paid in 1895, and the total production of 
cocoons is estimated at 20,549,000 lbs. as against 20,484,000 Ibs. 
in 1895, and 23,287,000 lbs. in 1894. The quantity of raw silk 
produced from these cocoons was 1,733,000 lbs, in 1896 as against 
1,719,000 in 1895 and 1,974,000 in 1894. 

The total values of silk goods exported from Lyons and 
St. Etienne were as under:— 


£ £ 
United Kingdom - 4,795,560 5,042,400 
United States - - 3,010,560 1,931,680 
Other countries 8,027,040 2,976,400 

Total - 10,833,160 9,950,480 



(From an American point of view.) 

A New York journal has recently published a memorandum 
by a-merchant of that city in which, among other questions, is 
discussed that.of the best methods for developing an export trade. 
The “Iron Age,” in a summary of this memorandum, states that, 
according to the writer of it, the best methods are :—1..By the 
establishment of international banking facilities based upon a 
currency of undoubted stability. 2. By controlling means of 
transportation. 3. By manufacturing what is most suitable for 
the needs of foreign markets. 4. By proper legislation, commer- 
cial treaties, and intelligent representation abroad; and 5. By 
manufacturing products of good quality at low cost. 

One of the first steps to take toward the extension of export 
trade in neutral markets should be the establishment of banking 
facilities. In London alone there are no less than 60 incorporated 
banks, having for their sole function the conduct of international 
finance as related to commerce, and these have branches and 
agencies in all foreign ports, Similar banking institutions exist 
in France and Germany for co-operation with the exporters of 

gach of those countries; but there is not an American bank, or 

_Presees of an American bank, in South America, Africa, or Asia. 

American merchants and manufacturers are dependent for bank- 

a | ing accommodations—which would be largely withdrawn in case 

of war or rumours of war—upon institutions principally under the 

control and influence of their competitors abroad. By act of 

Congress, an invitation was extended to the representatives of 

18 American republics to assemble in Washington for the purpose 

of providing means for the extension of inter-American trade. 

That conference recommended the establishment of an inter- 

national American bank, with branches in all the American 

republics ; thus committing the South American Governments to 

| its support. No charter has yet been granted, although the Bill 

| introduced into Congress provided that the bank, while subject 

} «to Governmental supervision, should not receive Governmental 
( _ assistance nor have the right of issue. 

There are grave objections to the Government directly assisting 
yprivate enterprises ; but it is nevertheless true that the export 
vtrade is greatly increased by improved facilities of communication. 
‘Every vessel flying the American flag “is a commercial traveller 
for the American farmer and manufacturer.” By i 
superior means of communication. Europe, though more distant, is 
nearer to South America in point of time than the United States. 
Lines of steamships to South America could be established, if 
aided with liberal mail contracts by American and other interested 
Governments. The ships should fly the flags of the United 
States and of the republics of South America. 


The writer of the memorandum goes on to say : “In order to 
develop trade with foreign countries, it is necessary that we 
should manufacture what they want and as they want it, instead 
of insisting upon their taking what we are producing for home 
consumption, With a comparatively small export trade, the 
manufacturer often finds -it inconvenient to supply the special 
wants of foreign markets,- but as his-export trade increases this 
difficulty decreases. When a foreign trade is once secured it 
should be ‘held. Owing to the rapidity with: which American 
demand sometimes springs up, manufacturers, who rely naturally 
and properly upon the home market as their ‘principal support; 
forget the advantage to be had-from an export trade in times of 
depression, and advance their prices too rapidly as against the 
foreign buyer and refuse to meet his special requirements. He 
becomes disgusted and reverts to his former sources of supply in 
Europe, and it is much harder to regain a foreign customer once 
lost than it is to secure a new one. 

“The question of legislation as affecting our export trade is 
too complex to be discussed comprehensively within small limits. 
Substantial advantages would have been secured from reciprocity 
arrangements had they been continued. [t is natural and pro 
that we should ask countries from whom we are buying’ four 
times as much as they are taking from us, to facilitate the 
interchange of products. We bought last year from Brazil, La 
Plata, and the Spanish West Indies 126,000,000 dols., and we 
sold them only 30,000,000 dols.—the balance against us being 
96,000,000 dols., which we had to remit in gold to Europe to 
pay for manufactured goods which those countries bought from 
Europe instead of from us. While reciprocal arrangements are 
of undoubted benefit, the field’ of opportunity under reciprocity 
is small as compared with the greater opportunities obtainable 
through economic manufacture.” 

The “Iron Age,” in conclusion, says: “The writer of the 
memorandum finishes with advice which might well be followed 
by other nations than that to which it was primarily addressed, 
He points out that the most important element in securing 
foreign trade is price. The cost of production can be reduced 
by utilising the advantages of consolidation; by the adoption 
of whatever is best in methods, machinery, styles, and materials— 
points generally ascertainable only through comparison of the 
processes of different establishments brought together by com- 
bination; by closing obsolete, badly placed plants, and per- 
fecting the best; by the reduction (by centralisation) of the 
percentage of general expenses of factory superintendence, 
buying, selling, accounting, and advertising; by running full 
time because of added orders for export; by eliminating liti- 
gation through a common ownership of conflicting patents ; ‘by 
discarding needless brands and styles ; by stimulating interest and 
effort through ‘distribution of ownership in centralised manufac- 
ture; by ooppenne with ‘sound, honest goods the inferior aud 
often counterfeit goods produced by obsolete machinery and poor 



*‘ The Philadelphia Museum” was first organised by ordinance 
of City Councils, with the approval of the mayor of the city, 
June 15, 1894, with the object of making a special study of 
foreign commerce, and of compiling all facts relative thereto, so as 
to make them available in as concise and definite a form as possible 
to American business men and manufacturers. 

This institution has, since starting, made very marked progress 
towards utility and development under the active administration 
and energy of Dr. William P. Wilson, who is secretary and 
director of the museum. In starting out, the originators of the 
museum were able to obtain some of the important exhibits made 
by foreign exhibitors at the Chicago World’s Fair, at the Atlanta 
Exhibition, and also from the exhibitions held in Berlin and at 
Buda-Pesth. The administration was also fortunate in obtaining 
a vast, well-built, and suitable building, in which it was enabled 
to store and exhibit samples in the original premises of the 
Pennsylvania Railroad, which had been vacated by the company 

to occupy their new offices at the terminal situated in the centre 
of the city. 
The object of the museums is to be in a position to show 
— to manufacturers and dealers who desire to import raw 

products of foreign countries, advise them as to prevailing prices 
in the country of origin, the means and cost of transportation, 
quantity available, and conditions under which the particular pro- 
ducts desired can be obtained. Those desiring to secure a wider 
market for their products can see samples of what is now being 
made for the trade of the countries where they might compete 
and learn the specific requirements of the market, and the tastes 
of the people, with full details of the competition likely to be 
met with; the character and variety of goods demanded in each 
market ; the countries whence imported, together with the names 
and addresses of foreign manufacturers; the quantity imported 
annually ; the manufacturer’s price at factory ; the retail price in 
each city where sold; the transport charges from Europe to each 
market, compared with similar charges from the United States ; 
import duties; character of packing; the names and addresses of 

The Bureau collects detailed information on all public improve- 
ments in progress or contemplated in Spanish America, South 
Africa, Australia, and other export countries of interest to the 
business men of the United States, and likewise collects all 
information concerning the state of oe markets from which 
_products are imported, such as wools, hides, skins, woods, fibres, 


dyestuffs, minerals, food products, &., and all new products 
of the world obtained through constant communication with the 
museums’ correspondents are immediately made known for the 
benefit of American commerce. 

It is claimed that the exhibition of raw products contains over 
50,000 objects, and is probably, therefore, the largest permanent 
collection in existence, coming from nearly all countries of the 
world, and renewed from time to time. Large exhibits of pro- 
ducts from all countries and in all branches of trade are being 
secured so as to enlighten the manufacturer as to where American 
goods may profitably compete.—( Foreign Office Annual Series, 
No. 1910.) 


Three Bills submitted to the Diet this session by the Government 
have special interest for foreigners. The first is a Bill relating to 
corporations of dealers in principal staples of export* (Chdyd naru 
yushutsu-hin digyo no kumiaz); the second is for the encourage- 
ment of deep-sea fishing (yenyd gyogyo shdrei); and the third is 
for the encouragement of the direct export of raw-silk (Kiito 
choku-yushutsu shdrei). Speaking generally, foreigners have no 
direct concern with measures adopted by the Japanese Government 
for the development of the country’s resources, unless violations of 
the freedom of trade provided by the treaties be involved. 

The “Japan Weekly Mail” with reference to this legislation 
says :— 

“The first of the three Bills is, perhaps, the most striking. 
Its ostensible, and doubtless genuine object is to promote improved 
methods of production and manufacture, and to prevent frauds, in 
the case of articles constituting principal staples of export. It 
has evidently seemed to the authorities, prompted, presumably by 
producers and manufacturers themselves, that the best way of 
attaining that object is to organise corporations among all persons 
engaged in any particular branch of the export business, so that 
the articles in which they deal shall be subjected to inspection by 
experts acting in the common interest. The idea is not new. 

* A despatch, dated 23rd April last, has been received at the Foreign (Office 
from Sir Ernest Satow, Her ty’s Minister at Tokio, stating that this Bill 
received the Imperial sanction, and was promulgated in the Official Gazette of 
12th April last, : 


It was conceived several years ago, and found practical expression 
in'tegulations resembling these embodied im the present Bill, » But 
the drastic character of the new legislation constitutes aw 
emphatic difference. If the Bill obtains the consent of the Diet, 
as it probably will, a consensus on the part of four-fifths of the 
men connected with any one branch, or even with different 
branches, of theexport trade in a given district, will constitute a 
fiat'to which the «remaining one-fifth must: bow by joining the 
corporation, under pain of fine ; and a similar penalty is provided 

inst a member's failure’ 'to contribute his share of the cor- 
poration’s expenses;' A ‘corporation once formed, all the goods in 
the possession of a member become liable to inspection by experts 
appointed by the corporation, as well as by experts appointed by 
the Minister of State for Agriculture and Commerce. Such is 
the Bill in outline. Its spirit is at obvious variance with the 
principle of individual freedom, for it invests a majority of dealers 
with power to control the co-operation of the minority. The 
framers of the Bill and their advisors are, of course, more 
competent than outsiders to judge whether unions of the kind are 
necessary to purge the abuses now impeding the development of 
manufacture and production. Evidently, if the corporations 
honestly devote their strength to the enforcement of better methods, 
they may beable to accomplish something. - But the-scheme is 
beset with practical difficulties, to say nothing of its pernicious 
character as an example of flagrant official interference in trade 
eoncerns. ‘The Government appears to think that inspectors of 
thorough and recognised competence grow upon every bush in 
Japan. The tobacco monopoly scheme was framed upun.,that 
supposition, and the same curious faith underlies this corporation’s 
Bill. It cannot be imagined that any manufacturer or producer 
would willingly submit his goods to inspection of the kind con- 
templated. The whole project seems clumsy in conception, to say 
nothing of the tax it must impose on the staples whose produce and 
manufacture it is intended to encourage. Nothing can be more 
disappointing than to find that a necessity for such legislation is 
still thought to exist in Japan, and that the only sound factors of 
improvement—free competition and practical experience—cannot 
yet be trusted to work effectively. 

“Looking at. the matter from another point of view, the 
conclusion is- suggested that a law of this nature must tend to 
confine the foreign trader to the open ports, and to prevent him 
from taking an active share in enterprises of production. and 
manufacture in the interior. He will prefer to remain at the 
open ports, because there, by. joining with his fellow-occidentals, 
he can organise a minority strong enough to prevent the for- 
mation of an’ inconyenient corporation., He will avoid operations 
of manufacture or production in the interior, because there, in the 
presence of an overwhelming number of Japanese, he cannot hope 
to avoid compulsory combination. Referring to the guilds 
organised under previous regulations, nominally for: the same 
purpose as that contemplated by the new law, we have frequently 


had occasion to remark that, so far from applying their combined 
strength to the useful purpose of their creation, they employed it 
chiefly as a means of bending the foreign merchant to their will, 
or of supporting one of their members in an unjust campai 
against a Kuropean or an American dealer. By reserving) to +t 
Minister of State for Agriculture and Commerce power to disselve 
a corporation or subvert its decisions, should he deem its methods 
mischievous, the Government virtually constitutes: him superviso 
of those methods. . ns 

“ The second of the three Bills provides bounties for persons 
engaged in deep-sea fishing, In connection with that valuable: 
branch of their country’s resources the Japanese have certainly 
shown a want of enterprise that contrasts strangely with their 
activity in other directions, and doubtless the theory is correct 
which attributes the defect to pecuniary inability on the part of 
the coastwise folk to provide themselves with proper boats and 
appliances. There is nothing strange in the Government's disposi- 
tion to devote a small sum of public money towards the develop- 
ment of this highly important source of national wealth. 

“The third Bill, namely, that for encouraging the direct export 
of silk, is a cognate measure. It provides that a bounty of from 
20 to 50 yen per picul (133 lbs.) shall be given to encourage the 
direct export of raw silk ; direct export meaning, of course, ‘the 
placing of the staple in European or American markets without 
the intervention of a foreign middle-man. 

“ An interesting feature of these last two Bills is their relation 
to the clause of the revised treaty, which provides that ‘the 
‘ subjects of each of the high contracting parties shall enjoy; in ~ 
‘ the dominions and possessions of the other, * * * perfect 
* equality of treatment with native subjects in all that relates to 
‘ warehousing, bounties, facilities, and drawbacks.’ Would 
foreigners be entitled, under this clause, to receive the bounties 
provided in the above two Bills? The reasons for a negative 
answer are not the same in each case. As to deep-sea fishing, 
the bounty is of a personal character, and it is obvious that such 
cases cannot have been contemplated by the framers of the treaty. 
No one would contend, for example, that because the Nippon 
Yusen Kaisha, or the Osaka Shosen Kaisha, is entitled, under the 
provisions of the law for the encouragement of navigation and 
shipbuilding, to receive a subsidy for a service to America, or for 
a steamer built abroad, therefore the Pacific Mail S.S. Company 
will be entitled, under the revised treaty, to receive a similar 
subsidy op the former account, or the Peninsular and Oriental 8.5. 
Company a similar bounty on the latter. 

“ That is not the intention of the treaty; and, for the rest, 
British subjects at all events, have no desire to receive Japanese 
State aid for the purpoge of engaging in deep-sea fishing off 
Japanese coasts; if they want to compete in this industry, their 
sense of justice would rebel against the idea of competing by 
J apanese assistance. The silk bounty, however, is different. 
This is a case that seems to fall precisely within the intended 


scope of the treaty, since the object of the subsidy is to 
strengthen the hands of the Japanese in their trade competition 
with foreigners, Yet it is plain that such a bounty is precluded 
by its nature from being enjoyable by foreigners, inasmuch as 
the term ‘direct export’ (choku-yushutsu) applies only to the 
operation of placing goods in a market abroad without foreign 
intervention. From the moment that a foreigner engages in the 
business, either as purchaser of the silk in Japan, or as its shipper, 
there ceases to be any question of choku-yushutsu, or ‘direct 
export.’ That, however, is a purely technical difficulty. The 
fact cannot be gainsaid that the purpose of the treaty is to 
protect foreigners against such discrimination, and if the Japanese 
Government attempts to maintain this system of bounties after 
July 1899 it must be prepared to receive vigorous protests from 
foreign states, As for the scheme itself it seems quite futile. The 
object of encouraging Japanese exporters to work independently 
of the foreign merchants at the open ports is inexplicable. Better 
agents could not possibly be discovered than the foreign mer- 
chants. They pay ready money and take upon themselves all 
the risks connected with finding a market for the staple. But 
even if it were desirable to eliminate them, this system of bounties 
could effect nothing. For the foreign exporter can secure the 
bounty for himself by the simple device of sending forward his 
silk in the name of a Japanese. It would be found, before long, 

that ‘ direct export’ had largely increased, in appearance, and that 
the Treasury was paying out a considerable sum in bounties for 
the benefit of the foreign merchant. 

“Leading Japanese journals uncompromisingly condemn the 
Direct-export Bill. If the Diet passes these measures it will not 
be with the approval of public opinion.” 



The following return, showing the quantities of the various 
kinds of cocoa and chocolate imported into and exported from the 
under-mentioned European countries in the quinquennial period 
1891-1895, has been recently prepared at the Board of Trade :— 


Imported into 

, 1,000 lbs. | 1,000 Ibs. | 1,000 Ibs. | 1,000 lbs. 
Cocoa in the bean 20,797 20,875 22,441 24,485 

“ ss 164 153 152 164 

Kingdom. ee eee 

a 2s | age | 2505 | 2,000 
 factured -  - 

.| 1,000 kilogs.} 1,000 kilogs.} 1,000 kilogs.| 1,000 kilogs. 
(Cocoa in the bean 7,461 7,961 8,320 9,951 

Germany - + Cocoa shells, &c. - 27 3 

Cocoa-butter . Not separately distinguished. 166 
Cocoa in the bean 8,180 8,283 
Cocoa in the husk 

shell - - 

472 304 
and shell 
Holland - 4 Qhocolate - 

mn 5 

| chocolate with 99 
L sugar - . 

(Cocoa in the bean 

Cocoa-butter . 
Belgium - + 

including choc- 
olate - . 
Cocoa in the bean 
and husk - - 
Cocoa, crushed - 
= 4 Cocoa-butter 
Cocoa shells - 
Chocolate - - 
(Cocoa in the bean 
Switzerland { Cocoa, ground or 
in paste - ° 
Chocolate - - 
Cocoa in the bean 
Portugal - f andhusk - - 
Chocolate - - 21 
(Cocoa in the bean 5,884 
Cocoa, ground or 105 
in paste - ° 
Cocoa shells- - ‘eli 
Chocolate - - 13 

Cocoa in the bean 632 

Spain . 


Cocoa, ground, 

manufactured, : 50 51 78 
or in - 

Chocolate + ~- 110 102 182 

Cocoa in the bean 
Austria- { andhusk —- 672 775 871 1,090 

Hungary ground, 
and chocolate - } 185 ial 125 176 

* For the United it th: ti 
; ‘or ay i e quantity entered for home consumption. 



cate | | | om | |e 

1,000 Ibs. | 1,000 Tbs, | 1,000 Ibs, | 1,000 Ibs, | 1,000 Ibs, 
Cocoa in the bean 8,837 8,970 9,286 7,886 11,936 

Cocoa husks and 
United § shells 14 21 68 55 
Kingdom Cocoa or chocolate, 
ground or pre- 
or manu- 

384 329 456 348 419 
1,000 ki 1,000 kilogs.| 1,000 kilogs.| 1,000 kilogs.| 1,000 kilogs. 
(Cocoa in the bean — ws » 099 a — py 
Germany -+ Cocoa shells, &c. - _ 4 5 1 58 
Cocoa-butter - Not separately distinguished. 39 
Cocoa in the bean 4,500 4,687 4,587 5,072 5,279 

Cocoa in the husk 
and shell - ~- 
Checolate - . 

Chocolate with 
sugar - - 

Cocoa in the bean } ll 1 anf 

15 n 4 29 
1,165 916 

47 47 34 

Cocoa-butter - 10 1 — 

Cocoa, prepared, 
{ pean tee $1 36 

ate - 
(Cocoa in the bean 

and husks . 
Cocoa, crushed - 

~4< Cocoa-butter . 
Cocoa shells 
Chocolate - - 
Cocoa in the bean 
Switzerland + Cocoa, ground, or 

in paste - - 
Chocolate - - 

- . a ~ ~ bean 
ortuga: ani jus. - 

Cocoa in the bean 

oun Cocoa, “eae or 
pain -<_ in paste 
Cocoa shells - 

Chocolate - 
Cocoa in the bean 

Cocoa, ground, 

manufactured, : J 



or in paste 
Ch 43 

ocolate - 
Cocoa in the bean 

* In Holland, Dutch colonial produce is treated as domestic produce. 



Statement showing the rates of Customs duties leviable on 
unrefined and refined sugar, and on molasses, imported into the 
principal European countries and the United States, according 
to the latest information in the possession: of the Board of 


Tariff Classification. 

Tariff Rates of Duty. 

English Equivalents. 

Russi : 
Raw - 
Refined, in loaves, pieces, 
or lump, and sugar 
candy - - - 


Sugar : 
Unrefined, up to No. 18, 
Dutch standard 
Unrefined, No. 18, Dutch 
standard, and above . 
Refined, including candy, 
loaf, and powdered sugar 
Syrup or molasses . 

Sugar, all kinds 
Syrup or molasses 

Sugar : 
Refined, candy, lump, or 
powdered, above No. 18, 
Dutch standard - - 
Unrefined, above No.9 and 
up to and including No. 
18, Dutch standard - 
Unrefined, of and below 
No. 9, Dutch standard ; 
also syrup - - 

Sugar of all kinds 
Syrup and molasses 

Unrefined (Excise duty) : 

Of a saccharine richness of 
more than 99 per cent. - 

Of a saccharine richness 
of not more than 99 per 
cent. for every percent- 
- age of quality 

Rbl. cop. 

3 00 



Poud gross 

Kr. dre 
0 23°5 
0 33 

0 33 
0 10 

Kr. ore. 
0 20 

0 03 

0 02 
0 Ol 
Mk. pf. 
40 00 
40 00 

100 kilos. 


Fi. ¢. 

100 kilos. 27 00 

0 27 
but not less than 18 fis. 
per 100 kilos. 

£ s. 

) ae 


1 210 

0 0 3} 
but not less than 15s. 
per cwt. 




[June 1897, 

Tariff Classification. | 

Treacle or molasses contain- 
ing more than 10 per cent. | 
of solid sugar, or having, 
when liquid, an absolute | 
richness exceeding 50 per 
cent. (Excise duty) - 
Ditto, ditto, other qualities 
(Excise duty) - - 
Refined (Excise duty): 
Candy, Ist class - ° 
»  2ndclass - - 
Loafandlump = - 
Grape sugar, dry, granulated, 
and powder sugar, as also 
or other fine made | 
sugar (Excise duty) . 
Common block or piece sugar, 
not otherwise mentioned | 
(Import duty) - - - | 

Import duty : 
Refined sugar : 
Candy, ist class 
es 4 
8rd _i,, 
4th ,, 
eo - | 
Loaf . - - 
Powdered white sugar 
(“ poudres blanches”’) | 
Raw beet sugar, ators No. 
18 - - 

Other raw sugar - 

Molasses containing less 
than 50 per cent. of 
saccharine matter - 

Syrups and molasses for 
distillation - - 

* With an addition of 10 
per cent. of the duty | 
as surtax. 

Excise duty on raw sugar : 

Raw cane sugar above He. 

18 : 

Other raw sugar (cane or 

beet) — 

Ist class, from No. 15 
to No. 18, inclusive 
2nd class, from No. 10 | 
to No. 15, exclusive 
8rd class, from No. 7 | 

to No. 10, exclusive | 
4th class, below No. 7; 
also molasses con- 
tairing 50 per cent. 
ormore of saccharine 
“matter, and syrups 
con crystal- 
lisable sugar - 7 

| 100 kilos, 

English Equivalents. 

100 kilos. 

6 00 

Frs. cts. 

ae | 1 

*59 00 
*58 00 
*56 50 
*54 70 
*45 00 
*51 13 

*50 56 0 7 

*50 56 we het, She 
Free, but chargeable with Excise duties as stated 
below, and subject also to the general surtax 
on sugars, z.e.,10 per cent. on the amount of 
the duty leviable. 


18 00 

100 kilos. Cwt. 


50 56 | 

100 kilos. 

June 1897.] 



Tariff Classification. 

Tariff Rates of Duty. 

English Equivalents. 

Sugar from French colonies 
and possessions : 
Raw - - { 

Refined : 

Other than candy 
Other : 

Raw, the estimated yield 1 

at the refinery being : 
98 °/, or less - 

More than 98 “lo 

Refined : 
Candy : 

General tariff -{ 

Minimum tariff - 
Other than candy : 
General tariff - 
Minimum tariff - 
Molasses other than for dis- 

tion : 

Having a saccharine 
richness of 50 °/, or 
less : 

General tariff . 
Minimum tariff - 

Having a saccharine 
richness of more than 
50 °/, : 

General tariff - 
Minimum tariff - 
Raw sugar from French 
colonies, on the amount 
of the allowance “for 
waste ’’ in respect of the 
excess yield obtained by 
—- producers - 

r declared for sweeten 

sy wine, &c. : 

From French colonies 
and possessions : 

Candy - { 

Other than candy { 

Fr. ¢. 

100 kilos. of 
refined sugar } 60 ad 
with an additional 1 fr. 

£ s. d. 

Gey “4 -g 
refined sugar 
00 c.* per 100 kilos. net 

(5d. per cwt. net) for sugar not going into a 


100 kilos. net 64 00 
4 28t 
60 00 
4 00t 


100 kilos. of 
refined s 
with an 

} 60 00 



Cwt. of 145 

Cwt. net 


refined sugar 
itional 1 fr. 00 ¢.* per 100 kilos. net 

(5d. per cwt. net) for sugar not going into a 
refinery, and a surtax of 

9 00 
76 00 
4 00t 

100 kilos. net 


52 50 
* 42 90 
100 kilos. of 

refined s 80 00 
with an additional 1 fr. 

8 8 
10 11 

Cwt. net 

017 6 

refined 0% 3 
00 c.* per 100 kilos. of 

refined sugar (5d. per cwt.) for sugar not going 

into a refinery. 

100 kilos. of 
refined sugar }o “ 
a 1 00* 

100 kilos. net 24 00 
» 4 

” 24 00 

” 4 00f 

* Equivalent to the new manufactufing tax on home production. 
+ Equivalent to the new refining duty on homie-refined sugar. . 




Tariff Classification. | Tariff Rates of Duty. | English Equivalent. 

France—cont. | Fr. c. a. 

Other : | 100 kilos. of Cwt. of 

Raw, the estimated refined sugar refined sugar 

}o 00 
yield at the refinery 

J 1 00* 
98° oe leas and a surtax of and a suxtax of 
° { 100 kilos. net 9 00 | Cwt. net 0 8 

° 40 00 = 0 16 

More than 98 °/, - x 4 00t . “ee 
Refined : 

Candy : 

. 52 80 

General tariff 4 28+ 

Minimum tariff { " ad 
Other than candy : 

. 40 00 

General tariff -{ 4 00¢ 

+ at . 34 00 
Minimum tariff -{ 4 00t 

coco of oe 

Sugar refined by the Portuguese 
system ; also sugar superior Reis. 
to No. 20, Dutch standard i 
Tien not otherwise specified 
clusive of consumption 

Molasses a similar pro- 
ducts . 

Internal duty on ‘molasses 
of a saccharine rich- 
ness of more than 
75 °/,, in addition for 
each 10 °/, or fraction 
thereof of saccharose - 9 


Sugar and glucose - -/| 100 kilos. 

Consumption duty in 
addition : 

On foreign sugar and 

possessions - - 
Iraty : 
1st clase, superior to No. 20, 
Dutch standard . - 
2nd class, No. 20, Dutch’stan- 
dard, and inferior qualities 
Molasses - 
Glucose, solid : 
lst class - 
2nd class 
Do., liquid - 
Avstria-HunGaky : 
Below No. 19, Dutch standard 
No. 19, Dutch standard, 
and superior qualities - 
Refined sugar - - - 
Molasses or syrup - 
Note.—The consumption 
duties are included in 
the above rates. 

* Equivalent to the new manufacturing tax on home production. 
+ Equivalent to the new refining duty on home-refined sugar. 

June 1897.] DUTIES ON 




Tariff Classification. 

Tariff Rates of Duty. 

English Equivaleats. 

no and crystallised ; 
crushed sugar - - - 
Refined : 

In loaves and lumps - - 
Cut or in fine powders - 
Molasses and syrup, purified 
ornot - SE - 

Grape sugar - - 
Sugar of all other kinds 
Molasses - - 

Allkinds - 

BuLaaria : 
All kinds, import duty - 
Do., excise duty in addition - 


Raw - - - 
Refined in lumps and loaves 
and sugarcandy -. - 
Syrups, other than for con- 
fectionery or for pharma- 
ceutical purposes - - 
Molasses - - - 
[* Exclusive of the “ half 
per cent. tax” for har- 

bour works. ] 

Unrrep Srares : 

All sugars above No. 16, 
Dutch standard, in colour, 
and all which have 
been discoloured = - - 

All other sugar, tank bottoms, 
syrups of cane or beet juice, 
melada, concentrated me- 
lada, concrete or concen- 
trated molasses - - 

Note.—The existi 

Fr. ¢. 
7 50 

9 00 
10 50 

8 00 
Dr. lep. 
25 00 
73 91 
25 00 

8 °/, ad val. 
Lew. st. 

14 °/, ad val. 

100 kilos. 20 00 

Lei b. 

100 kilos. *25 00 

*35 00 

*25 00 
*20 00 

Dols. cts. 
Lb. 0 00} 
40 °/, ad val. 

40 °/, ad val. 


8 °/, ad val. 

14°), ad val. 
' 0 8 

0 10- 

0 10 
0 8 

0 0 
40 °/, ad val. 

40 °/, ad val. 

tariff of the United States further provides as follows :—- 
bottoms, syrups of cane juice or of beet-juice, melada, 

“ All sugars, 
concentrated melada, concrete or concentrated molasses, which are im- 
ported from or are the product of any country which at the time the 
same are exported therefrom pays directly or indirectly a bounty on 
the export thereof, shall pay a duty of 4, cent. per Ib. in addition to 
the foregoing rates.” 

“ Provided, That the importer of sugar produced in a foreign country, the 
Government of which grants such direct or indirect bounties, may be 
relieved from this additional duty under such regulations as the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury may prescribe, in case said importer produces a 
certificate of said Government, that no indirect bounty has been 
received upon said sugar in excess of the tax collected upon the beet 
or cane from which it was produced, and that no direct bounty has been 
or shall be paid.” «+ 

“ Provided further, That nothing herein contained shall be so construed 
as to abrogate or in any manner impair or affect the provisions of the 
Treaty of commercial reciprocity concluded between the United States 
and the King of the Hawaiian Islands on the 30th January 1875, or the 
—— ‘apy Act of Congress heretofore passed for the execution 
0! same. 


ee eS ee eee 


Tariff Classification. Tariff Rates of Duty. English Equivalent. 

Unirzep Sratres—cont. Dols. cts. 2 s. d. 
Molasses, not conerete nor 
concentrated, testing above 
40° and not above 56° 
polariscope - - 
Molasses, not concrete nor 
concentrated, testing above 
56° polariscope  - - 
Molasses, not above 40° 
polariscope test, and con- 
taining 20 per cent. or less 
of moisture - - " Free, 
Do., do. and containing 
more than 20 per cent. of 
moisture - . - 
candy and all con- 

fecti a made wholly or 
in part of sugar, and sugars 
after being refined, when 
tinctured, coloured, or in 
any way adulterated - 35 °/, ad val. 35 °/, ad val, 
Glucose or grape sugar . 15 °/, ad val. 15 °/, ad val. 

20 °/,, ad val. 


The following is a copy of the Resolutions proposed in the 
Committee of Ways and Means of the Canadian House of 
Commons relative to duties of Customs, excise, &c. in Canada, 
to take effect from the 23rd April last :— 

1. Resolved,—That it is expedient to revise and consolidate the 
Acts and parts of Acts now in force respecting the duties of 
Customs, and that for this purpose it is expedient to repeal the 
followiag Acts or parts thereof not heretofore repealed, viz. :— 

57-58 Victoria, chapter 33, intituled :— An Act to consoli- 
date and amend the Acts respecting the duties of Customs.” 

58-59 Victoria, chapter 23, intituled:—* An Act to amend 
the Customs Tariff, 1894.” 

59 Victoria, chapter 8, intituled :—“ An Act further to amend 
the Customs Tariff, 1894.” 

And to provide otherwise by enacting that the following he 
substituted in lieu thereof :— 

1. That, unless the context otherwise requires,— 

(a.) The initials “” represent and have the meaning of 

the words “not elsewhere specified ” ; 

(d.) The initials “n.o.p.” represent and have the meaning of 

the words “ not otherwise provided for” ; 

(c.) The expression “gallon ” means an imperial gallon ; 


(d.) The expression “ton” means two thousand pounds 
avoirdupois ; 

(e.) The expression “ proof” or “ proof spirits,’ when applied 
to wines or spirits of any kind, means spirits of a strength 
equal to that of pure ethyl alcohol compounded with distilled 
water in such proportions that the resultant mixture’ shall, 
at a temperature of 60 degrees Fahrenheit have a specific 
gravity of 0°9198 as compared with that of distilled water at 
the same temperature ; 

(f) The expression “gauge,” when applied to metal sheets or 
lates or to wire, means the thickness as determined by 
tubbs’ Standard Gauge ; 

(g.) The expression “ in diameter,’ when applied to tubing, 

means the actual inside diameter ; 

(h.) The expression “sheet,” when applied to metals, means a 
sheet or plate not exceeding three-sixteenths of an inch in 
thickness ; 

(i.) The expression “ plate,” when applied to metals, means a 
plate or sheet more than three-sixteenths of an inch in 

2. That the expressions mentioned in section 2 of The Customs 
Act, as amended by section 2 of The Customs Amendment Act, 
1888, whenever they occur herein, or in any Act relating to the 
Customs, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning 
assigned to them respectively by the said sections 2; and any 
power conferred upon the Governor in Council by The Customs Act 
to transfer dutiable goods to the list of goods which may be 
imported free of duty is not hereby abrogated or impaired, 

3. That, subject to the foregoing provisions and to the require- 
ments of The Customs Act, chapter 32, of the Revised Statutes, 
as amended, there shall be levied, collected, and paid upon: all 

s enumerated or referred to as not. enumerated, in Sche- 

le A.,* the several rates of duties of Customs set forth and 

described in the said Schedule and set opposite to each item 

respectively or charged thereon as not enumerated, when such 

goods are imported into Canada or taken out of warehouse for 
consumption therein. 

4, That, subject to the same provisions and «to the further 
conditions contained in Schedule B.* all goods enumerated in the 
said Schedule B. may be imported into Canadaor may be taken 
out of warehouse for consumption therein, without the payment 
of any duties of Customs thereon. 

5. That the importation into Canada of any goods enumerated, 
described, or referred to in Schedule C.* is prohibited ; and that 
any such goods, if imported, shall thereby become forfeited to the 
Crown, and shall be destroyed ; and that any person importing 
any such prohibited goods, or causing or permitting them to be 

* It is proposed, in a forthcoming number of the “ Board of Trade Journal,” to 
publish a list of the goods enumerated in the Schedules A., B., and C. 


imported, shall, for each offence incur a penalty of two hundred 

6. That the export of deer, wild turkeys, quail, partridge, 
prairie fowl, and woodcock, in the carcase or parts thereof, is 
hereby declared unlawful, and prohibited; and any person 
exporting or attempting to export any such article shall for each 
such offence incur a penalty of one hundred dollars, and the article 
so attempted to be exported shall be forfeited, and may, on 
reasonable cause of suspicion of intention to export, be seized by 
any officer of the Customs, and, if such intention is proved, shall 
be dealt with as for breach of the Customs laws: Provided, that 
this section shall not apply to the export, under such regulations 
as are made by the Governor in Council, of any carcase or part 
thereof of any deer raised or bred by any person, company, or 
aseociation of persons upon his or their own lands. 

7. That regulations respecting the manner in which molasses 
and syrups shall be sampled and tested for the purpose of 
determining the classes to which they belong with reference to 
the duty chargeable thereon, shall be made by the Controller of 
Customs; and the ivostruments and appliances necessary for 
such determination shall be designated by him and supplied to 
‘such officers as are by him charged with the duty of sampling 
and testing such molasses and syrups; and the decision of any 
officer (to whom is so assigned the testing of such articles) as to 
the duties to which they are subject under the tariff shall be 
final and conclusive, unless, upon appeal to the Commissioner of 
Customs within thirty days from the rendering of such decision, 
such decision is, with the approval of the Controller, changed ; 
a the decision of the Commissioner with such approval shall be 

8. That, in the case of all wines, spirits, or alcoholic liquors 
subject to duty according to their relative strength of proof, 
such strength shall be ascertained either by means of Sykes’ 
hydrometer or of the specific gravity bottle, as the Controller of 
Customs directs; and in case euch relative strength cannot be 
correctly ascertained by the direct use of the bydrometer or 
gravity bottle, it shall be ascertained by the distillation of a 
sample, and the subsequent test in like manner of the distillate. 

9, That all medicinal or toilet preparations imported for com- 
pleting the manufacture thereof or for the manufacture of any 
other article by the addition of any ingredient or ingredients, or 
by mixing such preparations, or by putting up or labelling the 
same, alone or with other articles or compounds, under any pro- 
prietary or trade name, shall be, irrespective of cost, valued for 
duty, and duty shall be paid thereon at the ordinary market 
value in the country whence imported of the completed prepara- 
tion when put up and labelled under such proprietary or trade 
name, less the actual cost of labour and material used or expended 
in Canada in completing the manufacture thereof or putting up 

or labelling the same. “ 


10. That all medicinal preparations, whether chemical or other, 
usually imported with the name of the manufacturer, shall have 
the true name of such manufacturer and the place where they are 
prepared permanently and legibly affixed to each parcel by stamp, 
label, or otherwise; and all medicinal preparations imported 
without such names so affixed shall be forfeited. oi ue 

11. That packages, when imported, shall be subject to the 
payment of the following duties, viz. :— 

(a.) All bottles, flasks, jars, demijohns, carboys, casks, hoge- 
heads, pipes, barrels, and all other vessels or packages 
manufactured of tin, iron, lead, zinc, glass, or any other 
material capable of holding liquids, and all packages in 
which goods are commonly placed for home consumption, 
including cases, not otherwise provided for, in which bottled 
spirits, wines, or malt liquors, or other liquids are contained, 
and every package being the first receptacle or covering 
enclosing goods for purpose of sale, shall in all cases, not 
otherwise provided for, in which they contain goods subject 
to an ad valorem duty or 2 specific and ad valorem duty, be 
charged with the same rate of ad valorem duty as is to be 
levied and collected on the goods they contain, and the 
value of the packages may be included in the value of such 


( 1 F Provided that all such packages as aforesaid containing 
goods subject to a specific duty. only, and not otherwise 
provided for, shall be charged with a duty of 20 per cent. ad 

(c.) That packages not hereinbefore specified, and not) herein 
specially charged with or declared liable to duty, and bein 
the usual and ordinary packages in which goods are pack 
for exportation according to the general usage and custom 
of trade, shall be free of duty. 

(d.) Provided further, that all such special packages or cover- 
ings as are of use or apparently designed for use other than 
in the importation of the goods they contain, shall be subject 
to the same rate of duty as would thereon be levied if 
imported empty or separate from their contents. 

12. That any person who, without lawful excuse, the proof of 
which shall be on the person accused, sends or brings into 
Canada, or who, being in Canada, has in his possession any 
bill-heading or other paper appearing to be a heading or blank 
capable of being filled up and used as an invoice, and bearing any 
certificate purporting to show, or which may be used to show, 
that the invoice which may be made from such bill-heading or 
blank is correct or authentic, is guilty of an indictable offence and 
liable to a penalty of five hundred dollars and to imprisonment for 
a term not exceeding twelve months in the discretion of the court, 
and the goods entered under any invoice made from any such 
bill-heading or blank shall be forfeited. 

13. That with respect to goods imported for manufacturing 
purposes that are admissible under Schedule A. for any specific 


purpose, at a lower rate of duty than would otherwise be 
chargeable, or exempt from duty under Schedule B. the importer 
claiming such exemption from duty, or proportionate exemption 
from duty, shall make and subscribe to the following affidavit 
or affirmation before the collector of Customs at the port of 

aris — 

(name of importer), the undersigned importer of the (names 
of the goods or articles) mentioned in this entry do solemnly 
(swear or affirm) that such (names. of the goods or articles) are 
imported by me for the manufacture of (names of the goods to be 
manufactured) in my own factory situated at (names of the place, 
county, and province), and that no portion of the same will be 
used for any other purpose or disposed of until so manufactured. 

2. Resolved,—That it is expedient to provide that nothing 
contained in the foregoing provisions shall affect the “ French 
Treaty Act, 1894,” or wa ps 3 of 58-59 Victoria, being “ An 
Act respecting Commercial Treaties affecting Canada.” 

15. That when the Customs tariff of ~ country admits the 
products of Canada on terms which on the whole are as favourable 
to Canada as the terms of the reciprocal tariff herein referred 
to are to the countries to which it may apply, articles which are 
the growth, produce, or manufacture of such country, when 
imported direct therefrom, may then be imported direct into 

~Oanada or taken out of warehouse for consumption: therein at 
the reduced rates of duty provided in the reciprocal tariff set forth 
in. Schedule D.* 

(a.) That any question that may arise as to the countries en- 
titled to the benefits of the reciprocal tariff shall be decided 
by the Controller of Customs, subject to the authority of 
the Governor in Council. 

(b.) That:the Controller of Customs may make such regulations. 
as are necessary for carrying out the intention of the two 
preceding sections. 

16,. That whenever it shall appear to the satisfaction of the 
Governor in Council that,as respects any article of commerce, 
there exists any trust, combination, association, or agreement of 
any kind among the manufacturers of such article, or the: dealers 

' therein,-or any. portion of them, to enhance the price of’such 

oarticle, or in any other way to unduly promote the advantage of 
such manufacturers or dealers at the expense of the consumers, 

sand that such disadvantage to the consumers is facilitated by the 

Customs duty imposed on a like article when imported, then the 
Governor in Council shall place such article on the free list, or so 
reduce the duty on it as to give to the public the benefit of reason- 
able competition in such article. 

1) 3, RResolved,—That it is expedient to cancel all. Orders in 

.Council and‘all departmental regulations contrary to, or inconsistent 
with, any of the provisions of the foregoing resolution or of the 
schedule thereto. 

* See p. 691. 


4. Resolved,—That it is expedient to provide that the foregoing 
resolutions, and the alterations thereby made in the rate of duties 
of Customs payable on goods imported into Canada, shall take effect 
on and after the 23rd day of April instant. 

_ 5, Resolved,—That it is expedient to repeal chapter 9 of 57-58 
Victoria, being “ An Act to provide for the payment of bounties 
on iron and steel manufactured, from Canadian ore,” and all 
regulations thereunder, made by order of the Governor in Council. 

That it is expedient to provide that the Governor in Council 
may authorise the payment of the following bounties on steel 
ingots, puddled-iron bars, and pig-iron made in Canada, that is to 
say :— 

On steel ingots manufactured from ingredients of which not 
less than 50 per cent. of the weight thereof consists of pig-iron 
made in Canada, a bounty of 3.dols. per ton. __, 

On puddled-iron bars manufactured from pig-iron made in 
Canada, a bounty of 3 dols, per ton. ; 

On pig-iron manufactured from ore, a bounty of 3 dols. per 
ton on the proportion produced from Canadian ore, and 2 dols. 
per ton on the proportion produced from foreign ore. 

That it is expedient to provide that the Governor ini Council 
may make regulations in relation to the bounties ‘hereinbefore 
mentioned, in order to carry out the intention of these resolutions. 

That it is expedient to provide that the said bounties shall onl 
be-applicable to steel ingots, puddled-iron bars, and pig-iron oaks 
in Canada prior to the 23rd day of April 1902. 

That it is expedient to provide that the foregoing bounties 
shall be payable only on iron and steel for consumption in Canada,. 
and that the Governor in Council may at any time, by proclama- 
tion, impose export duties on such iron and steel if the same shall 
be exported from Canada, such duties to be not greater than the 
amount of the bounty payable on such iron and steel. 

Inland Revenue. 

6, Resolved,—That: it, is expedient to amend section 130 of 
chapter 34 of the Act 49 Victoria (the Inland Revenue. Act), as 

amended by section 1 of, chapter 25 of the Act 58-59 Victoria, 
by. repealing such section and. substituting, in lieu, thereof, .as- 
follows :— 
There shall be imposed, levied, and_ collected on all spirits dis- 
tilled the following duties of excise, which shall be paid to the 
collector of inland revenue as herein provided, that is to say :— 
(a.) When the material used in the manufacture thereof con- 
sists of not less than 90 per cent., by weight, of raw, or 
unmalted grain, on every gallon of the strength of proof by 
Sykes’ hydrometer, and so in proportion for any greater or 
less strength than the strength of proof, and for any less 
quantity than a gallon, 1 dol. 90 cts. 
(6) When manufactured exclusively from malted barley, taken 
to the distillery in bond, and on which no duty of Customs. 


or excise has been paid, or when manufactured from raw 
or unmalted grain, used in combinations, in such proportions 
as the Department of Inland Revenue prescribe, with malted 
barley, taken to the distillery in bond, and on which no duty 
of Customs or of excise has been paid, on every gallon of 
the strength of proof by Sykes’ hydrometer, atid so in pro- 
portion for any greater or less strength, and for any less 
quantity than a gallon, 1 dol. 92 cts. 

(c.) When manufactured exclusively from molasses, syrup, 
sugar, or other saccharine matter, taken to the distillery in 
bond, and on which no duty of Customs has been paid, on 
every gallon of the strength of proof by Sykes’s hydrometer, 
and so in proportion for any greater or less strength, and for 
any less quantity than a gallon, 1 doi. 93 ets. 

Also to repeal so much of the Inland Revenue Act and amend- 
ing Acts as determine the excise duty on vinegar, and to provide 
that the excise duties thereon and upon acetic acid shall be as 
follows :— 

Vinegar manufactured in whole or in part from spirits in bond, 
4 cents per proof gallon. 

Acetic acid, produced by the destructive distillation of wood 
4 cents per proof gallon. 

Provided, that the Governor-General in Council may establish 
regulations exempting acetic acid from excise duty in whole or in 
part, when used in the mechanical arts. 

7. Resolved,—That it is expedient that a license fee of 50 dols, 
be collected in each fiscal year from every manufacturer of acetic 

Also, to so amend the said Act, and the Acts in amendment 
thereto, as to provide that the excise duty to be levied upon 
cigarettes shall be as follows :— 

On cigarettes, whether the product of foreign or of domestic 
leaf tobacco, weighing not more than 3 lbs. per 1,000, 3 dols. 
per 1,000. 

On cigarettes, whether the product of foreign or of domestic 
leaf tobacco, weighing more than 3 lbs. per 1,000, 8 dols. per 
1,000; and that, in addition to the excise duty at present levied 
on manufactured tobacco, cigars, and as herein determined in 
respect of cigarettes, there shall be levied and collected the 
following excise duties, that is to say :— 

(a.) On all foreign raw leaf-tobacco, unstemmed, taken out of 
warehouse for manufacture in any cigar or tobacco manufac- 
tory, 10 cents per lb. 

(b.) ‘On all foreign raw leaf-tobacco, stemmed, taken out of 
warehouse for manufacture in any cigar or tobacco manufac- 
tory, 14 cents per Ib. 

8. Resolred,—That it is further expedient to so amend the 

Inland Revenue Act and the Acts in amendment thereof, as to 

empower the Governor in Council to make regulations for the 


manufacture of tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes, from foreign and 
domestic leaf-tobacco in combination, in such proportions as may 
be deemed proper, and to impose duties thereon, having regard, as 
nearly as poeillle to the proportions of foreign and domestic leaf 
used ; such duties not to exceed the excise duties now imposed on 
tobacco, cigars, and cigarettes. 

9. Resolved,—The excise duties hereby fixed and determined 
shall come into force and effect on and after the 23rd day of April 

[Following these resolutions are Schedules A., B., and C., which 
contain the duties leviable on all articles imported into Canada, 
a list of articles admitted free of duty, and of ) se asargeaa goods. 
These schedules it is proposed to publish in a future number of 
the “Beard of Trade Journal.”] 

Schedule D. reads as follows :-— 

“On all the products of countries entitled to the benefits of 
this reciprocal tariff, the duties mentioned in Schedule ‘ A.’ shall 
be reduced as follows :— 

“On and after the 23rd day of April 1897 until the 30th day 
of June 1898 inclusive, the reduction shall in every case be one- 
eighth of the duty mentiored in Schedule ‘ A.,’ and the duty to 
be levied, collected, and paid shall be seven-eighths of the duty 
mentioned in Schedule ‘ A.’ 

“ On and after the lst day of July 1898, the reduction shall in 
every case be one-fourth of the duty mentioned in Schedule ‘ A.,’ 
and the duty to be levied, collected, and paid shall be three-fourths 
of the duty mentioned in Schedule ‘ A.’ 

Provided, however, that these reductions shall not apply to 
any of the following articles, but such articles shall in all cases be 
subject to the duties mentioned in Schedule ‘ A.,’ viz. :—Ales, 
beers, wines, and liquors ; sugar, molasses, and syrups of all kinde, 
the product of the sugar cane or beet-root ; tobacco, cigars, and 




Regulations as to the Levying of Excise on Liquors. 

The following translation of an Ordinance regulating the 
levying of excise on liquors in Curagoa, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from Her Majesty’s Consul in that island :— 

Art. 1 of the Ordinance of the 28th July 1881, containing 
regulations regarding the levying of excise on liquors in the 
Br ders of Curacoa, modified by Art. 1 of the Ordinance of the 
7th June 1894, is to be read as follows :— 

On wine, beer, and liquors, as soon as they are brought into the 

colony of Curagoa for consumption, a duty under the name of 
excise is levied. 

This duty amounts— i 

On wine, in the whole colony, to’ - 0°10 per litre. 

On beer, 5 ~ to - 005 ,, 

On rum, gin, anisado, cuscus, brandy, 
and all other liquors similar to the 
aforesaid ones, at Ouracoa, Buen 
Ayre, and Aruba, to - - 

And at St. Martin N.D., St. Eusta- 
tius, and Saba, to ‘ ¥ e 

On all other liquids containing alcohol, 
with the exception of those which can- 
not be used as beverages, and for 
preparing beverages, in the whole 
colony, to - - - 060 ,, 

The payment of the excise at one of the islands of the colony, 
frees the drinks at the other islands for the amount paid when 
proof of such payments are produced. 

Art. 2.—The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th paragraphs of Art. 9 of the 
Ordinance of the 28th July 1881 are to be read as follows :— 

The payment of the excise and rent of Government stores 
occurs immediately when brought in for consumption. Neverthe- 
less, credit can be given to merchants, although not otherwise 
than under the following conditions :— 

1st. That the credit be covered by security. This security can 
be given— 

(a.) By payment of a fixed amount in cash ; 

(b.) By bail ; 

(ec) By hypothecation ; 

(d.) By first mortgage. 

030 =, 
020 ,, 


2nd, That the credit must be settled every time after the 
three monthly accounts shall have’ been fixed, within three days 
after due notice being given, In default thereof the credit 
expires, and the sum due is immediately and without further 
formalities recovered. 

Art. 4. This Ordinance takes effect at the island of Curagoa on 
the day of the proclamation of the publication sheet wherein it is 

inserted ; at the other islands of the colony, the day after the 
publication of this Ordinance. 


Forms for Customs Declaration. 

The Board of Trade have received through the Foreign Office, 
copy of a despatch from Her Majesty’s Ambassador at Paris, 
enclosing copy of a Decree which has been issued by the French 
Government, authorising for the future the use of forms for 
Customs declarations chet than those issued by the Oustoms 

administration, on condition of their being similar to patterns 
approved by the Minister of Finance. A copy of the Decree 
may be seen on application to the Commercial Department, 
Board of Trade, 7, Whitehall Gardens, 8,W. 

Tariff Decisions, 
_The following decisions connected with the French Customs 
tariff. have recently been notified to the Board of Trade :— . 

With regard to the proportion of alcohol on which artificial 
silk (yarns and tissues) has to pay duty, it has been decided that 
the preparation of 1 kilog. of artificial silk necessitates the use of 
11°75 litres of alcohol. . 

Cakes of bitter almonds, which result from a trituration of a 
mixture of bitter almonds and apricot kernels, and are prineipally 
used in the distillation of essence of bitter almonds, are assimi- 
lated to almond paste, and pay duty as “ Perfumery, other, non- 

With reference to the importation of foreign salted meat into 
Algeria, it has been decided that foreign pork, salted, shall pay 
the duty fixed in the metropolitan tariff, less the average of the 
drawback allowed on salted provisions exported from France to 
Algeria, ic, 25 frs. less 2°75 frs., or 22°25 frs. per 100 kilogs. net 
of salted meat. 

The duties on tobacco, leaf and manufactured, imported into 
Algeria, other than that of French origin or that exported from 
France by national manufgcturers, have been modified, as follows :— 


Tobacco, in the leaf, or in bundles, per 100 

kilogs. \- - - iO: - 50°00 
Tobacco, for smoking, snuff-taking, and chewing 15000 
Cigars and cigarettes - - - - 250-00 

The duties on articles imported into Corsica have been modified 
as follows :— 

Foreign tobaccoe, in the leaf, per 100 kilogs. - 110-00 
* manufactured ae - 200-00 

N.B.—These duties include the tithes and additional tax of 
4 per cent. 

A consumption duty of 90 frs. per hectolitre of pure alcohol, 
independent of the Customs duty, is levied on alcohol, brandies, 
liqueurs, and products of an alcoholic base. 

The law as to the duty on playing cards in force in France 
(474 of the Customs tariff) is extended to the department of 

Foreign produce re-exported from continental depdts pay the 
same duty in Corsica which would have been leviable if it had 
been imported direct from the countries from which it was sent 
to France. 


Provisional Tariff of Port Dues at Sfaz. 

A communication has been received at the Foreign Oifice from 
Mr. W. H. D. Haggard, Her Majesty’s Consul-General at Tunis, 
enclosing an extract from the “Journal Officiel Tunisien,” con- 
taining the provisional tariff for the new port of Sfax, which waa 
to come into force the lst May last, and of which the chief articles 
are us follows :— 

Tax No. 1—For every vessel from the open which has passed 
the line of buoys at the entrance of the channel, per day and 
per ton (net tonnage), with a minimum of 10 days, 0°03 fr. 

Vessels from the Tunisian coast, per day and per ton (net 
tonnage), with a minimum of 10 days, 0-015 fr. 

These dues will be reduced one-third for vessels belonging to 
a regular weekly or monthly service with an oceanic port; in 
order to profit by this reduction, a declaration setting forth the 
nature and duration of the regular service to be undertaken must 
be first deposited at the cffice of the port. 

Vessels navigating exclusively between Sfax and the points of 
the coast situated between Khadidja and Ras-Tina, including the 
Kerkenna Islands, are exempt from Tax No. 1. 

Tax No. 2.—Every vessel moored to the quays or temporary 
structures for the purpose of loading or discharging cargoes, is 
allowed— : 

Steamers : one day free for every 200 tons of cargo ; 

Sailing vessels: one day free for every 40 tons of cargo; 

After the above periods of time the vessel will pay per ton 
and per day, 0°10 fr. 


Tax No. 3.—Every vessel staying habitually in port waters 
will pay, per ton per year :— 

Steamers and tow-boats - - - 1000 
Allotherkinds - - - + + = 125 

Tax No. 4.—Every vessel loading or discharging in the port, 
either directly or by means of lighters, galleys, &., will pay, per 
ton of cargo handled, 4:00 frs. 

This tax is reduced to 2 frs. per ton for the following class 
of goods, known as goods of the firet category, viz. :-—Alfas (un- 
dressed), rags, bones, cereals and dried vegetables, coal, firewood, 
olive oil, metals (raw), building materials of all sorts, stra.v, forage, 
and wines. And to 0°50 fr. per ton for goods of the second 
category, as follows, viz.:—-Olive husks, phosphates, and manures 
of all kinds: 

Tax No. 4 is reduced by one-half for the discharging (1) of all 
goods coming from the Tunisian coast, (2) of all goods of foreign 
origin destined for re-exportation by sea without quitting the 
neighbourhood of the port, and for the loading of all cargoes for 
the Tunisian coast. 

The ——s goods are exempt from Tax No. 4 :—Coal, water, 
and provisions for the use of the vessel; building materials from 
the Tunisian coast ; empty boxes, barrels, and packing ; goods 
going to or coming from the Kerkenna Islands, when they are 
carried on vessels plying between that place and Sfax. 

The weight of living animals will be calculated as follows for 
one ton of the second category :— 

1 ox, horse, mule, or camel. 
2 calves asses, pigs 
6 sheep, goats, kids. 
Every fraction of a ton will be reckoned as a ton. 

Tax No. 5.—Every passenger embarking or disembarking, 
direct, or by tranship arrangement, will pay: 1st class, 3-00 fra. ; 
2nd class, 2°00 frs.; and 3rd class, 100 fr. AJl French or 
Tunisian soldiers, and passengers coming from points on the 
Tunisian coast between Khadidja and Ras-Tina, including the 
Kerkenna Islands, are exempt from this tax. 

Taz No.6.—¥For goods stored in that part of the port set 
aside for the purpose, for more than three days, not including 
holidays, reckoning per ton and per day, in the case of covered-in 
warehouses :— 

For each day, for six days after the first three - 0°15 
For each of the three following days - + 030 
For each day afterwards - - - 0°60 
In the case of storing places not covered in, these charges will 
be reduced to 0°05 fr., 0°10 fr., and 0°20 fr. respectively. 
Tax No. 7.—For the pilotage of a vessel outside the waters . 
of the port, whatever her tonnage :— 
Per day . - - 1000 
Per night - ee. - 15°00 


For night pilotage within the port waters (in addition to Tax 
No. 1), for all vessels :— 

Up to 300 tons, net tonnage - - - 10:00 
From 301 to 800 tons, net tonnage - - 15°00 
From 801 tons and upwards, net tonnage - 20°00 

Every ship placed in quarantine which shall have taken the 
pilot on board will pay 10 frs. per day. 


Modification of Law as to Tonnage Dues, 

With reference to the note on p. 594 of Vol. XX. of the 
“ Board of Trade Journal,” respecting the Portuguese shipping 
law of 21st May 1896, a despatch, dated 7th May last, has been 
received from Sir H. G. MacDonell, Her Majesty’s Minister at 
Lisbon, transmitting copy and translation of a law modifying the 
tonnage dues levied in the ports of the transmarine provinces of 
Portugal, as follows :— 

Art. 1. The law of 21st May 1896 is hereby revoked as far as 
the transmarine provinces are concerned, and Art. 2 of the 
Decree—having the force of law—of the 14th of November 1895 
is likewise revoked. 

Art. 2, The Decree, having the force of law, of 24th Novem- 
ber 1892 is to continue in force, subject to the modifications set 
forth in the following paragraphs :— 

Sect. 1. The exemptions from tonnage dues set forth in the 
clauses (alineas) a to & of Art. 1 of the Decree—having the force 
of law—of the 14th of November 1895, will be enforced in the ~ 
ports of the province of Cape de Verde Islands. 

Sect. 2. In the said ports of the province of the Cape de Verde 
Islands, with the exception of the port of St. Vincent, vessels 
shipping or landing not. more than four passengers without 
effecting any commercial operation relating to the shipment or 
landing of merchandise, will also be exempted from the payment 
of tonnage dues. 

Art. 3. Steam vessels, whatever may be their tonnage, arriving 
from Hong-Kong, Canton, Pak-hoi, Hoi-han, from ports on the 
West River, or from any other Chinese ports, are exempted at 
the port of Macao from the payment of tonnage dues and other 
port dues. 

Art, 4. The Government will embody in one code the various 
provisions concerning the enforcement and recovery of the tonnage 
dues in the transmarine provinces. . 



Customs Fines on Shippers at Leghorn. 

Mr. W. Percy Chapman, Her Majesty’s Consul-General at 
Florence, has transmitted a report to the Foreign Office on the 
trade and commerce of Leghorn, in which it is stated that the 
local Custom-house has found occasion somewhat frequently 
during the past year to inflict smali disciplinary fines on British 
vessels, and numerous representations on the subject have been 
made by shipmasters at the Consular office. Some of these fines, 
generally imposed for differences between the ship’s stores and 
the quantity specified on the ship's manifest, or for alterations 
or erasures in the manifest, may, on occasions, seem unduly 
severe according to English ideas, but it should be remembered. 
that they are in all cases levied in accordance with the Italian. 
Customs reguletions, and that nothing but absolute accuracy in 
these matters can exempt a British vessel from fines. The- 
quantities of ship’s stores should never be guessed at or stated 
approximately. Italian Custom officers have time at their dis- 
posal and weigh all stores. Especial care should be taken to 
secure literal accuracy in the quantities of tobacco and salt, both 
Government monopolies. 

When, however, it is intended to dispute such fines, this should 
be done before they are paid. It is useless to make representa- 
tions against the justice of a fine after it has been paid, for the 

mere fact of paying it without protest is equivalent to acquies- 
cing in its justice. According to a system sot at Leghorn, 

it is not the ship’s agent, but the clearing agent employed by him, 
who settles these fines, and often both master and agent find, when 
accounts come to be made up, that the fine (if small) has already 
been settled without previous reference to them. But unless it 
could be shown that the fine was inflicted contrary to Italian 
Customs law—in other words, that it should never have been 
inflicted at all—it is useless to attempt to have it annulled or 
reduced after it has once been paid. 

Similarly, masters may be warned — the practice of 
appealing to the Minister of Finance at Rome from decisions of 
the local Customs Director, without first making an effort to have 
the matter in dispute amicably arranged on the spot by the good 
offices of the Consulate. The instant an appeal is made the matter 
is no loager susceptible of negotiation locally, and the mere fact 
of the appeal—seeing that it is a last resort—implies readiness. 
to abide by the decision that may be given. 

But on the whole subject of Customs fines the Consul 
observes that the Director of Customs has assured him that 
where proper representations are made at the Custom-house 
of any circumstances that would warrant the reduction or entire 
suspension of a fine-—provided such representations are made 
before payment-—-the matter in dispute will receive every con- 
sideraticn, and every effort will be made to settle it on an equit- 
able basis.—( Foreign Office Annual Series, No. 1886.) 




Prohibition of Introduction of Waste Paper. 

A despatch, dated 12th May last, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from Sir G. H. Wyndham, Her Majesty’s 
Minister at Bucharest, reporting that the Government maintain 
their decision in its entirety forbidding the introduction into the 
kingdom of all sorts of waste paper. The measure in question 
has, it is stated, been adopted not only as a preventive against 
the introduction of infectious diseases, but to prevent foodstuffs 
being packed in printed paper or in paper of doubtful origin, 


Monopoly of Matches. 

A telegram has been received at the Foreign Office from 
Mr. Villiers, Her Majesty’s Chargé d’ Affaires at. Bogota, stating 
that the monopoly of matches in the United States of Colombia 
is to come into force on October 1 next. The sale of matches 
arriving before that date will be permitted without restriction. 
After that date the importation of matches or of the material for 
making them will be absolutely prohibited except as regards the 
contracting parties. 

Britisn INp1a. 

Tariff Decisions. 

Copies of Customs circulars have been received at the Board 
of Trade from the India Office, stating that, with regard to the 
suggestion that a ruling should be prescribed as to the stones 
which should be classed as precious stones and passed free 
under Article 89 of Schedule IV. of the Indian Tariff Act, 
III. of 1896, the Government of India have decided that, in 
addition to the stones generally known as precious stones, the 
stones generically known as “Cambay stones” in Bombay, 
which include all the semi-precious stones (agates, cornelians, 
onyx, and so forth), should also be classed as ‘ precious stones ” 
and exempted from duty. 

Hoop iron, galvanised, is to be assessed for duty on import 
ad valorem. . 

The duty of 5 per cent. ad valorem, leviable under No. 15 of 
Schedule IV. of the Indian Tariff Act (VIII. of 1894), as 
amended by Acts XVI. of 1894 and ITI. of 1896, on sleepers of 
iron or steel ‘(other than the sleepers mentioned in No. 93 of 
the said schedule) shall be reduced to 1 per cent, ad valorem, 


Re- Valuations in the Import Tariff. 
The Board of Trade have received from the India Office a 

notification that, in exercise of the power conferred by section 22 
of the Sea Customs Act, VIII. of 1878, and in supersession of 
the values fixed, in columns 3 and. 4. of Schedule IV. (Import 
Tariff) of the Indian Tariff Act, VIII. of 1894, as amended, by 
Acts XV1. of 1894 and III. of 1896, for the articles specified in 
column 1 of the schedule hereto annexed, the Governor-General 
in Council is pleased to fix for the said articles the values stated 
in column 4 of the said schedule :-— 

No, in 1. 


Schedule. Names of Articles. Biot Stree 


Sago + - ~ 

SuGar :— 

Loaf - - - - 
Crystallised, beet - ‘ 
i and soft,'‘from China 

Drvues, Meprornes, anp Nar- 

Cassia lignea - - - 

METALS, UwrovucGat AND 
OF MeTaLs :— 

Iron, bar, plate, and sheet, 
Lowmoor - - - 
Tron, flat, square, and bolt, 
including Scotch - - 
Iron, pig = 3 a ” 
Iron, rice bowls - - | Set of ten 

Set of six 



” ” * 

Tron sheets and ridging, gal- 

vanised - - 

Iron, Swedish, flat, square, and 
bolt - - - 

t « 
Tron, Swedish, nail-rod - - 
Tin, block - . - 

Prron, Tar, AnD DAMMER :— 
Tar, coal - - - - 

Sr, CugisTorHER-NeEvis, 
Tariff Decision, 
According to ordinance No. 19 of 1896 of the Governor and 

Legislative Council of Saint Christopher- Nevis, dated 16th Novem- 
ber 1896, the item No. 20 of exemptions set forth in Schedule C. 

E 2 


to “The Customs Tariff Ordinance, 1896,” shall be deemed to 
include all and every kind or description of machinery or parts 
of a machine, and all and every kind or description of apparatus 
to be used in any manner whatsoever for, in, or towards the 
manufacture of sugar and rum, when not imported for sale. 

Ordinance No. 20 of 1896 fixes an ad val. duty of 10-per cent. 
on currants, raisins, and dates. 


Tariff Modifications. 

By ordinance No. 9 of 1896 (to continue in force until De- 
cember 31, 1897) an additional duty is imposed of 334 per cent. 
of amount of duty payable upon all dutiable articles imported, in 
= of the 10 per cent. additional duty fixed by ordinance No. 2 
of 1896. 


Diseases in Plants Act. 

The Board of Trade have received, through the Colonial Office, 
a ont of an Act passed by the Legislative Assembly of Queens- 

land, by which the Governor of that colony is empowered to make 
regulations for any or all of the following purposes, viz. :— 

(1.) For regulating or prohibiting the importation or introduc- 
tion into Queensland or any portion of Queensland, or the removal 
from any nursery, orchard, or other place, of any trees, plants, or 

vegetables ; 

“®) For secuting the detention and examination of trees, plants, 
and vegetables which are suspected to be diseased, and of boxes, 
baskets, packages, and cases which are suspected to contain 
diseased trees, plants, or vegetables, or to harbour or to be infested 
by insects or fungi ; : 

(8.) For securing the effectual treatment of diseased trees, 
plants, and vegetables, and the effectual destruction of insects and 
fungi ; 

(4.) For securing the disinfecting of boxes, baskets, packages, 
and cases used for shipping or forwarding fruit to any destination 
previous to the same being returned to any orchard, storeroom, 
saleeroom, or other place ; 

(5.) For defining the duties of inspectors under the Act ; 

(6.) For prescribing penalties not exceeding 201. for the breach 
of any regulations; and 

(7.) Generajly for carrying into effect the provisions of the Act. 

All such regulations shall be published in the “ Gazette,” and 
upon such publication shall have the full force of law. 




A report, dated 17th Muay last, has been received at the Foreign 
Office from Mr. A. Murray, Her Majesty’s Consul-General at 
Warsaw, stating that if British manufacturers are desirous of 
overcoming German competition (for it is the Germans who have 
hitherto supplied Russian Poland with @ cheaper class of goods 
made in England of a higher quality but at a higher price), the 
time is now ripe for it. The following lines may be indicated as 
those in which successful competition with Germany could be 
attempted, viz.: all articles of steel or iron ; bicycles of genuine 
English make; glass and china; and furs, these latter being of 
Russian origin, but sent abroad for treatment, generally to. 

It must, however, be clearly understood that it is not the highest 
clas of these articles which are wanted to gain the supremacy 
over the German trade, but a cheap article of second quality, 
pushed on the spot by travellers furnished with price lists in 
Polish, German, or Russian, and with samples. 

A further report, dated 29th May last, i been received at the 
Foreign Office from Mr. Murray, stating that, amongst other 
openings in Poland is one for the construction of a new railway, 
upon which the Russian Government might be expected to look 
with more than usual favour. Whilst it might be very useful to 
Russia strategically, it would very largely help the development 
of a port in the Baltic on which the Russian Government has spent 
much money and trouble, but which, itis said, has not, so far, given 
a corresponding return. It would also put a large expanse of 
country, rich in articles of export, and importing largely, in direct 
communication with the sea, avoiding the extra expense of transit 
through Germany, which is at present the only alternative to a 
long and expensive railway transport to Riga. 

GERMAN Eore1gn TRADE In 1897. 
In a despatch received at the Foreign Office from the Com- 
mercial Attaché to Her Majesty’s Embassy in Berlin, it is stated 
that the first quarter of 1896 showed a rise in the foreign trade 

eS Se ee) ee a. Ok a a ee 


of Germany. Trade with all Europe showed a large increase, and 
especially that portion to lands beyond the seas; and it was par- 
ticularly the case to the Americas, and chiefly to the United 
States. The East Indies began to employ much more extensively 
European wares. As compared with 1895, the first quarter of 
1896 showed an increased value of trade of 5,850,000/. In the 
course of that year circumstances arose which injuriously affected 
all industrial countries, namely, the elections in the United States 
and the unrest in South-Eastern Europe. This year, also, political 
troubles and the steps taken by the United States as regards 

duties, by which European goods are to be kept out, have both 
proved hindrances to commerce. 

The first quarter of 1897. shows a fall: in value of 1,211,450/., 
compared with the same period of 1896. Germany was con- 
siderably compensated for the fall in many articles exported, by 
the great increase in the exportation of sugar to the United 
States. Export trade to America was also. fomented by the 
attempts to send as many goods as possible there before the new 
tariff should come into force. 

As regards the United States, the following are the figures for 
German trade, as given in the “ National Zeitung.” German 
total exports to the United States in the first quarter of 1897 
amounted to 5,950,000/, as compared with 4,670,0002 for 1896, 
or an increase of 1,280,000/. 

The following table shows the value of the imports into and 

exports from the German Empire in the first quarter of each year 
from 1892 to 1897 :-— 

Years, Imports. Exports. 

£ £ 

1897 55,700,000 41,508,000 
Bo. 52,940,000 42,719,000 
1895 46,946,000 86,863,000 
1894 49,544,000 33,866,000 
1893 49,647,000 39,006,000 
1892 50,511,000 36,366,000 

The values of imports and exports. for the current year are 
founded on the prices of 1896, from which they are not expected 
to vary much. 

The importation exceeded the exportation by 14,192,000/. in. 
1897, by 10,220,0002 in 1896, by 10,083,0002. in 1895, by 
15,678,000/. in 1894, by 10,641,000/. in 1893, and by 14,144,000. 
in 1892. 

In the imports of certain articles, such, for example, as 
cotton and cotton goods, iron and ironware, hides and skins, 
silk, wool, and wheat, there sre considerable increases in the 
first quarter of the current year, as compared with the eorre- 
sponding period of 1896, while decreases are noted in cattle and. 
wool and woollen wares. : 


Coming now to the exports from Germany, in. most articles 
there is little change from last year in the quarters com 

The exportation of cotton — did | not rahe of 
leather and manufactures thereof shows a slight increase, while in 
iron and iron wares there is a falling off to) the extent. of 

THe Mininc anp MerartiurGicaL INDUSTRIES OF 

A despatch has been received at the Foreign Office from 
Mr. W. Harriss-Gastrell, Commercial Attaché to Her Majesty’s 
Embassy at Berlin, enclosing memorandum, based on tables in 
the official “ Reichsanzeiger,” relating to the yield of mines and 
the products of metal works in the German empire. 

he following table shows the quantity and value of. the 
output of the various minerals in Germany aud Luxemburg in 
the years 1895 and 1896:— 

Quantity. avesigs Pepe 


1896. 1895. 1896. 1896. 

1,000 tons, | 1,000 tons.} £ 1,000 Marks. 
85,639 | 79,169 | 29,652 6°92 
26,767 | 24,788 | 3,046 9°97 
14,162 | 12,849 | 2,569 3:63 

729 706 851 23°32 
154 161 618 80°00 
717 633 847 23°64 
18 10 119 129°09 
544 522 7381 26°88 

Coal . 
Tron ores - 
Zine ores = = 
Lead ores - 
Copper ores - 
Silver and gold ore 
Salt (rough) 

The immense increase in coal, amounting to 6,470,000 tons, 
and valued at 2,708,0002, from 1895 to 1896 deserves great 
attention; and besides this there is for lignite an improvement 
of 1,979,000 tons, worth 146,0007. The increase in iron ores is 
also large, being 1,813,000 tons, valued at 516,000/. 

The following table shows the output of iron and other metal 
works :— 

. » Average Price 
Quantity. per Ton. 

1896. 1895. 1896. 1895. 

1,000 tons. | ¥,000 tons. Marks. | Marks. 
Raw iron - 6,295 | §,417 46°98 43°32 
Zine (block) 153 150 ‘5807-70 | 277° 
Lead - 118 lll 219°98 | 200° 
Copper - 29 25 995:03 | 902° 


It will be noticed here that raw iron has increased by 878,000 
tons with a value of 3,053,000/. and that its price per ton 
av »d 46 marks 98 ome in 1896, as against 43 marks 
32 pfennige only in 1895. ‘This increase in quantity is more 
than a rise of 16 per cent. on the 1895 yield. As British trade 
will no doubt be affected by this large increase in the output 
of German iron, the following table is given here, showing the 
different kinds of iron produced :— 

Quantity. syns org 

Kinds of Raw Iron. 

1896. 1895. 1896. 1895. 

1,000 tons. | 1,C00 tons. Marks. | Marks. 
Pigs for casti - 919 829 51°26 47°26 
Pigs for ingot iron - 4,087 8,373 45°65 | 42°46 
Pigs for welded iron 1,296 1,178 46°70 | 41°42 
Castings (ist 

smeltings) - - $2 31 102°70 | 101°74 
Pieces and grains 

of iron - - 10 9 20 20 41°64 | 41°87 

A further despatch from Mr. Harrises-Gastrell, dated 22nd May 
last, states that, according to statistics of the German Society of 
Iron and Steel Industries, the production of raw iron in the 
German Empire was 560,343 metric tons in April last, of which 
140,823 tons were puddled iron and crystalline pig, Bessemer raw 
iron 44,992 tone, Thomas 285,541, and foundry iron 88,977 tone. 

The production of raw iron in Upper Silesia attained far larger 
dimensions in the first quarter of 1897 than ever before. The 
yield is already as large as the works can accomplish and many 

_Bew ovens are to be put up and are now being constructed so as 
‘to be able to still further increase the output. 

In the first quarters of the three past years the following was 
‘the production in Upper Silesia in tons :-— 

—_—— | 1895. | 1896. 1397. 

Tons. Tons. Tons. 
42,234 45,818 54,250 

39,075 47,302 50,420 
44,187 52,113 57,111 

lst quarter - ° 125,496 145,283 161,781 

There is, therefore, an increase in last quarter of 16,549 tons 
over that of 1895. 

The report of the Chamber of Commerce of Essen states that 
the flourishing condition of the iron industry is rather due to the 


immense amount of work done than to the rise in price. Whether 
such a flourishing state of things will continue cannot be said, but 
it seems certain that plenty of work will be forthcoming in 1897 
to keep all iron and steel works busy. 

A new employment has been found for steel, namely, the 
building of steel waggons on railways, which in the United 
States are said to be more economical than wooden ones. If such 
waggons are adopted in Germany a new impetus will be given to 
the steel trade. 


A despatch, dated 6th May last, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from Mr. W. S. Harriss-Gastrell, Commercial 
Attaché to Her Majesty’s Embassy in Berlin, stating that, 
according to an article in the “ Borsen Courier” on the growth 
of German shipping, there is much rejoicing in Germany at the 
great rise of her mercantile marine, which is now the fourth largest 
in the world, and is even the second as regards steamships. 
Moreover, she has outstripped that of France. The North Sea 
fleet has increased ‘rapidly, which has not been the case in the 
Baltic. The progress there of merchant shipping’ has been 
especially hindered by the German policy as regards dutice, which 
has almost ruined the export trade of wheat, and has injured the 
prosperity of Konigsberg, Dantzic, Stettin, and other p'aces. 
The North Sea ports have replaced wooden craft by iron ones, 
but Baltic ones have not Leen able to do much in that way. 

Since 1876 the progress of the North Sea fleet has been steady, 
The following table shows the position of the two fleets in 1871 
and 1896 :— 

North Sea Fleet. Baltic Fleet. 

Sailing Sailing | 
Steamers. Ships. Total. [Steamers, Ships. Total. 

lst January 1871 - | 71,000 | 461,000 582,000 | 10,000 | 439,000 | 449,000 
1st January 1896 - | 735,000 | 527,000 | 1,262,000 | 144,000 | 95,000 | 239,000 

The Baltic fleet has during 1896 lost a further 136,000 tons, 
leaving it only about 100,000 tons on January Ist, 1897. 
Nevertheless it has never demanded any State aid, as is the case 
on all sides in other industries, It is almost entirely a Prussian 
fleet, and the “ Courier” thinks that statesmen should endeavour 
to aid it by abolishing the system of custom credits and of private 
warehouses for grain. + 

The increase of the North Sea fleet is enormous, especially in 
steam tonnage: 


Prorosep Dese Water CANALS IN GERMANY 

Mr, W. Powell, Her Majesty’s Consul at Stettin, ina report 
to the Foreign Office, states that the long-talked-of project for 
enlarging and despaning the existing waterway between Stettin 
and Berlin has during last year (1896) assumed a rather more 
definite shape. Several largely attended meetings have been 
held, at which the commercial and industrial interests of Berlin 
and Stettin, together with the municipalities of those cities, and 
the Minister of the Interior, were represented. It is proposed to 
enlarge the existing waterway through the Finow Canal and the 
canalized River Havel. At the present time vessels of not more 
than 170 tons carrying capacity can. pass through the Finow 
Canal, whereas from Hamburg via the Oder-Spree Canal, vessels 
up to 400 tons carrying capacity can pass, and the project now 
advocated is to make the Stettin-Berlin waterway 
that of the Dortmund-Ems Canal, which has a depth of 24 metres. 
The promoters of this project call attention to the serious extent 
which the carrying trade of Stettin has been diverted to Hamburg 
since the opening of the Oder-Spree Canal, and on account of the 
improved connecting waterway between Berlin aud Hamburg, 
although the distance is quite as great as that from Stettin to 
Berlin, which has resulted in the diversion of a large part of the 
trade of the province of Silesia from Stettin to Hamburg, and a 
further loss may be looked for in Stettin when the Elbe-Trave 
Canal is completed, bringing the Elbe and the Baltic in direct 
communication. Figures are only available for 1893-94, but 
they confirm the above view :— 

Stettin and 
Swinemiinde to 

Hamburg to 

Tons. Tons. 
1893 - - - - - 643,800 1,465 ,000 
1894 : : - - - 826,000 1,406 ,000 

The total carrying trade of Berlin amounts to about 10,000,000 
tons, of which amount about 5,500,000 tons is carriage by rail, 
and 4,5€0,000 tons is carriage by water. 

Her Majesty’s Commercial Attaché to the Embassy at Berlin, 
in a despatch to the Foreign Office, dated 23rd May last, reports 
that early last March a Bill went before the House of Deputies 
for the building of a new canal and the improvement of the 
already existing ones, which involved an alteration in the Laws 
on Canals of July 9th, 1886, and of June 6th, 1888. 

The object of this Bill is to authorise a further expendi- 
ture of 14,750,000 marks (737,500/.), which is to be added to 
the sum of 59,825,033 marks (2,991,251/.) already allotted by 


those laws to improve the Dortmund-Ems Canal and to make a 
branch canal from: the Ems at Oldersum to the Emden inland 
harbour. : 

There are just now, in many directions, indications of the 
desire to still further increase cheap canal communications in the 
German empire. 

On the 14th May the “Society for the Extension of German 
River and Canal Communications” again expressed their opinion 
of the necessity of extending the system,'and that a Rhine-Weser- . 
Elbe Canal (a midland canal) was most desirable. 

The three great projects of the “German-Austrian Association 
of Inland Waterways” are the following :—I\st, a Danube-Oder 
Canal; 2nd, a Danube-Moldau-Elbe Canal; and,.3rd, a Danube- 
Main Canal. 

If all these projects to carry out the inland waterway com- 
munications between Germany and Austria are ever accomplislied, 
they will greatly facilitate the trade of the German empire to 
the South-Eastern portion of Europe, and enable her products to 
be sold in those regions at an even lower price than has hitherto 
been possible. 

A further memorandum on the proposed Austrian and German 
canals will be published in the July number of the “Board of 
Trade Journal.” 


A despatch, dated 6th May last, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from Mr. W. S. Harriss-Gastrell, Commercial 
Attaché to Her Majesty’s Embassy in Berlin, transmitting some 
recently published statistics on the silk and velvet industries of 

The number of hand looms at work on silk-velvet stuffs in this 
district was 10,819 in 1894, 12,597 in 1895, and 10,856 ‘in 1896. 
The mechanical looms numbered 5,665 in 1894, 6,908 in 1895, 
and 8,145 in 1896. “IM 

The year 1894 was a particularly bud one, and 1895 was a 
very favourable one for these industries. 1896 has not been as 
good as the latter year. The total, which in:1894 amounted to. 
3,301,0001, rose to 3,799,000/. in 1895, but fell to 3,653,0002. in 
1896.. The decrease was almost entirely in velvet. ‘There were 
decreases in sales to Germany, France, the United States, and 
other states outside Europe in both velvets and stuffs, but to 
England there was an increase of 72,500/. to a total of 907,0000. 
in 1896 (entirely in stuffs). 

For Krefeld manufacturers about 500 tons of silk, 311 of 
silk-waste and 711 of cotton were dyed, and for foreign makers 
668 tons of silk, 145 of silk waste, and 484 of cotton. 



A despatch, dated 26th May last, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from the Commercial Attaché to Her Majesty’s 
Embassy in Berlin reporting that the ‘‘Central Blatt” of the 
21st May contains the following official notification :— 

The “ Bundesrath,” in its sitting of May 6th, decided that the 
following addition should be made to paragraph 20 of the 
Regulations for “ Private” Warehouses (“ Privatlager”) issued 
previously in 1888 and 1895. 

In the case of petroleum that is notified for delivery in empty 
wooden, iron, &c. casks or other empty vessels, which are brought 
to a “ Privatlager ” under Customs centrol (“ Zollcontrole”) from 
abroad or out of a Customs depdt (* Zollniederlage ”), the said 
casks, vessels, &c., are to pay the special duty that corresponds 
to their category when sent into free traffic (“in freien Verkehr ”’), 
ie, no longer subject to duties. If further forwarded under 
Customs control, the accompanying papers must show the dead- 
weight of same and the amount of duty to which it is liable. 


While German shipping remains, in point of numbers, nearly 
where it did, a notable addition tothe German East African fleet 
has been made during the year in the two new vessels, the 
“ Herzog” and “ Konig” of the Woermann Line. 

Her Majesty’s Consul at Lorenzo Marques states that Germany 
may he said to have worked this one big line she runs to the port 
with more apparent success than any single British line has 

Something of this local success is due to the fact that where 
the large British companies are content to leave their interests in 
the hands of a single multiplex agency, the single German line 
of steamers has established for itself in Lorenzo Marques its own 
sole agency, with a staff of its own paid employés, as much 
servants of the company and each German steamer as are its 
captain and officers, who have no other interests to serve, and no 
other duties to perform save those of the German East African 
Line. This, no doubt, causes the German steamers to get quicker 
despatch from the port than any others. 

uite recently the “ Herzog” discharged 1,850 tons of general 
cargo, and took in 200 tons of coal and 2,000 bags of grain, all 
in 44 days, whilst a large Englich mail steamer lying not far 
from her at the time took over 7 days to discharge 820 tons of 
general cargo, and to take on buard 105 tons. 

At the same time a large English steamer lay from January 
27 eric to March 6 (1897) getting rid of 2,291 tons of railway 


It is not only in the matter of agency that the German line 
appears to take more interest in Lorenzo Marques than do the 
large British lines, but in other respects the comfort and con- 
venience of the public travelling by German vessels appear to be 

Passengers arriving at Lorenzo Marques by vessels of either 
of the large British mail lines are told they must shift for them-- 
selves in getting on shore, more particularly in landing their 
luggage. The fare charged by a shore boat, in a specific instance 
in the writer’s mind, for its services in conveying a passenger and 
his luggage from an English mail steamer to the shore, about 300 
yards away, was 2/. 2s.—a souvenir of journeying to Lorenz) 
Marques by one of these vessels unlikely to induce its frequent 

With the German line a small steam launch is carried on every 
steamer, which is put into the water for the convenience of 
passengers as soon as the ship anchors. This launch runs to 
and from the shore at stated intervals throughout each day 
of the vessel’s stay in port, and passengers—although not, it 
is said, their luggage—are landed by her, or get on board free 
of charge. They are thus enabled to visit their friends on shore, 
or otherwise amuse. themselves on land, without fear of being 
mulcted in sums often varying from 10s. to 21, which those 
dependent on shore boats are forced to pay when seeking to return 
on board ship. 

These may be said to be small things unworthy the attention 
of great companies with bigger matters to think of. It is just in 
such small things the travelling a is apt to be impressed 


favourably or otherwise with the ship by which they travel. 

It is again asserted that at present Lorenzo ues is not 
worth the attention of the bigger companies ; that by and by, when 
- the development of the port calls for serious consideration, then 

Delagoa Bay will receive from the big e liners something of 
that assiduous attention now lavished on Durban and its colonial 

That the German line has no reason to despise Lorenzo Marques 
the following figures derived from the steamship agency itself will 

During the last six months no vessel of the German East 
African line has ever landed fewer than 140, or taken from 
the port fewer than 119 passengers. One of the last of the 

to sail took 235 passengers from Lorenzo ues, and 
refused tickets to 21. She also took 200 tons of high freight 
cargo, and counted on having over 400 tons of similar cargo from 
Mozambique ports. : 

The point, too, not to be overlooked is that the future lies 
probably more with Lorenzo Marques than with the favoured 
ports further south. 

The Cape, with its 1,060 miles to Johannesburg, cannot long 
hope to control any preponderant share of the traffic to that 
market ; while at Lorenzo Marques, a splendid harbour, a great 


bay, and well-worked landing and railway methods must eventually 
draw both ships and goods to a port only 390 miles distant. 

The northern Transvaal railways—namely, Pretoria, Pieters- 
burg; Komati-Selati Goldfields; Nelspruit, or Machada dorp, 
Pilgrim’s Rest, and Lydenburg, some already in hand, others 
projected—will all converge on Delagoa Bay, not only as their 
feeder, but as the outlet for the wealth of the rich districts they 
are designed to open up. 

GerMan TrapE Enercy 1n Lorenzo MarguEs. 

Her Majesty’s Consul at Lorenzo Marques says that ‘in 
Lorenzo Marques an agency for the sale, on commission, of many 
things, made both in England and Germany, has been opened 
there bya native of the latter country, and by means of this 
sainple warehouse (if it may be so called) much is introduced to 
the public that it would possibly be found difficult to make known 
through any local shop or store. This agent might almost be 
termed a resident commercial traveller, and there is in the idea— 
contradictory though it may sound—much to commend. It is one 
worth the attention of British manufacturers. 

Her Majesty’s Consul goes on to say that, in the matter of trade 
circulars, Germany is more active and more intelligent in her 
distribution of them than is the United Kingdom. It is a not 

uncommon thing to see in Lorenzo Marques circulars and adver- 
tisements of German goods printed in Portuguese, the intention 
being to appeal to the public of a Portuguese possession in their 
own language, but similar statements in that language of the 
value or prices of British-made goods are not, so far as the 
Consul is aware, ever received. 

Coat IN THE Pas-pE-CALAIs. 

Her Majesty’s Consul at Calais, in a report to the Foreign 

Office, states that in the department of the Pas-de-Calais there are 
22 concessions for coal mines, forming two distinct groups. The 
most important is that which reaches from Douai to Flechinelle, 
and is made up of 19 concessions, with a superficial area of 56,722 
hectares, which forms the so-called “ Bassin du Pas-de-Calais.” 
The second includes only three concessions, with an extent of 
5,226 hectares, and constitutes the “Bassin du Boulonnais,” 
The concessions which unite the Escarpelle and Courcelles-lez- 
Lens, which form part of the northern group, encroach upon those 
of the Pas-de-Calais, the great centre of which is in the Bethune 
district, though there are a few in the district of Arras, St. Pol, 
and St. Omer (Pas-de-Calais), and also near Lille (Nord). 
Nineteen of these concessions include 59 mines and 83 shafts, 69 
of which are producing coal. The output in the Pas-de-Calais 
was, in 1895, 11,110,470 tons, and 11,870,517 tons in 1896. 

In the Nord the output was, in 1895, 5,059,871 tons, and 
5,226,754 tons in 1896. The increase, however, was not sufficient 


to compensate for the fall in prices from 10 fr, 79 c. to 10 fr. 38 ¢. 
ton. The labour employed in the Pas-de-Calais district was 
35,907. hands working in the pits, and 10,176 above ground. 

The average output per man employed was 257 tons. Wages 
averaged : underground hands, 4 fr. 54 c. per day; above-ground 
hands. 3 fr. per day. For underground work per ton, 3 fr. 89 c. 
or 4 fr. 86 c, per ton put on the banks. Wo fires from fire-damp 
occurred, but there were 46 men killed, and 153 hurt from various 

For some years past several companies have been formed to 
search for coal in the neighbourhood of Calais, but with little or 
no success till quite recently, when one of these companies found 
a bed of cual near a small hamlet, called Estrouannes, situated 
between Wissant and Blanc-Nez, some 12 kiloms. from Oalais, 
The demand for further concessions continues to increase, and 
boring is actively carried on, and should the efforts be crowned 
with success, there is no doubt but that Calais would benefit 
considerably as a port of export.—(Foreign Office Annual Series, 
No. 1899.) 

A New Svuaar-Cane In THE Frenou West Inpres. 

In a report to the Foreign Office, Mr..Gustave Borde, Her 
Majesty’s Acting Consul at Martinique, states that the 
disappointments that the planters were wont to experience in 
_ Fe to the quantity of sugar-canes reaped, have greatly 
diminished since the introduction on the sugar plantations of a 
species of sugar-cane, known locally as the ‘ Cristalline,” which 
is to be met with in Saint Lucia as the “‘ Caledonian Queen.” It 
is generally believed that this new plant is a valuable acquisition, 
and will be most useful to agriculture. When young it grows 
very fast, being the reverse of the se plants now under 
cultivation, the growth of which is slow. By its rapid growth 
the new plant covers ground quickly, and checks the development 
of the grass that. would otherwise impede the spreading of ‘its 
leaves. It resists more easily the irregularities:of the seasons and 
is able to sustain very long droughts. The “shot borer” seems 
to shun its company, or rather, if a few plants are attacked, 
their vegetation is not in any way impeded. Judging from. the 
experiments tried during the past year particularly, this species 
of sugar-cane is as rich in malian matter as all the others that 
haye been hitherto cultivated.. Hence, wherever the ordinary 
plant dies out, the planters endeavour to introduce the 
“ Cristalline,” the eon qualities of which were raat ea 
manifested in many localities very seriously affected by 

e fungus 
or other cane disease. For many years chemists have been. en- 

deayouring to find out the ‘cause of the disease, and haye tried 
various methods of fighting it, but invariably failed—{ Foreign 
Office Annual Series No, 1,897.) 


OpEnING FoR British TRADE IN THE Duton West INpIEs. 

In a report to the Foreign Office, Mr. Jesurun, Her Majesty's 
Consul at Curacoa, states that British merchants should turn 
their attention to that island; its trade is open to all traders on 
equal terms. The island being the stepping-stone to the Republics 
of Venezuela and Colombia, a great number of ngers are 
continually “passing to and fro, and if a properly established 
agency were organised, where samples of British products of 
different grades could be exhibited, orders wouid be regularly 
obtained, and the agency would at all times be well informed of 
the commercial standing of those with whom they are dealing. 
Such a national association of merchants and manufacturers should 

be represented by most competent men, se a general 
knowledge of the Spanish language, and that of the country. 
An agency established for this purpose would, with greater 
facilities, obtain orders from merchants, who would not be 
inclined to order through another merchant who is the special 
agent of any particular firm, for fear of having his order copied. 

Most of the catalogues and price lists sent to the Consulates, 
although kept on file, are very seldom of any use to the resident 
merchants, as they have hardly time to call at the Consulates 
for the purpose of looking through them. 

Mr. Jesurun goes on to say: “ Very often I have received letters 

of inquiry asking for information about some article or other; 

in every instance I have given immediate reply, and if I 

thought that were the article exhibited or tried, it would be to 

the advantage of the manufacturers, I have always caused them 
to ship a small trial consignment, and in many instances a first 
trial lot has given rise to regular orders. 

“The Wrexham Lager Beer Company, of Wrexham, after a 

first a of 10 cases of their beer, are now making 

frequent shipments of 70 cases of six dozen pints, and four 
dozen quarts of beer, with very good prospects of larger sales. 

No one accustomed to the German beer imported here thought 

highly of the English lager beer before they had occasion to 


* Others do not succeed because the article is not liked, or the 

rice is much higher ; but hardly ever do they lose if they have 
en advised to ship.” ; 

Some manufacturers will not entertain the idea of shipping on 
consignment, but wish to sell their goods for cash. They will 
neither take advice to change designs, nor pack as most con- 
venient to the importers; they always want to dispose of a larger 
lot than the merchant is willing to buy, and are most often dis- 
inclined to eer = ae pswrrgl “eee 

At present the following lines of steamships ply regularly to 
the island Ine 3 Bm 

The West Indian and Pacific Line, the Harrison, the Prince 
Line, British; the Koninghyke West Indische Maildienst, Dutch ; 


‘the Hamburg-Amerikanische Packetfahrt, Actien Gesellschaft, 
German; the Compagnie Générale Transatlantique, French; the 
Red D Line, American.—(Foreign Office Annual Series, No. 


Her Majesty’s Consul at Corunna, in a report to the Foreign 
Office, states that there is a great demand for cotton articles in 
the districts of his Consulate, and the supply is totally unequal to 
the demand. The high import duties on cotton goods render 
‘those made in foreign countries unattainable, or rather too dear 
in price for people of moderate means and the peasant population. 
Therefore there is a decided opening for the lucrative employ- 
ment of British capital in establishing a factory or factories, for 
there is plenty of room for more than one, for the production of 
cottons of a fine as well as course quality. Labour is cheap, and 
the original outlay probably need not be a very large one. 

There is only one factory at Corunna, one at Jubia, near 
Ferrol, and a smaller one at Lugo, and these sell at once all they 
can produce, and would dispose of a much larger quantity: if 
they were capable of producing sufficient to supply the demand. 

The class of material turned out is chiefly of a coarse make, 
and used for shirtings for peasants, sheetings, &c., &c., but the 
cotton employed is of excellent quality, and therefore the material 
manufactured is good and very durable. The finer goods are 
brought from Barcelona, and of course are higher in price than 
would be the case if they were made on the spot, so that any 
factory established in the neighbourhood devoted to the manu- 
facture of the finer class of cotton material would be able to 
undersell the Barcelona market. 


A despatch, dated 1st May last, has been received at the Foreign 
Office from Mr. F. R. St. John, Her Majesty’s Minister at Berne, 
enclosing copy of the annual report on the commerce, industry, 
and agriculture of Switzerland for the year 1896. 

Section VI. of the report refers to commercial travellers, 
and it is stated that whereas the number of these from 
Germany who visited Switzerland in 1896 amounted to 2,952, 
and from France 1,051, only 50 came from Great Britain—a 
circumstance which may in some measure account for the fact 
that the value of Swiss exports to Great Britain is three times 
that of British exports to Switzerland. 


Tue Coat Trape or GREECE. 

The British Vice-Consul at the Port of Laurium states that, 
in comparing direct trade in British vessels entered in the 
year 1895, it will be seen that there is a slight decrease in the 
number of vessels entered from the United Kingdom during the 
year 1896. Although foreign shipping has carried a proportion 
of fuel coming from the United Kingdom, yet as, on the other 
hand, British shipping has carried a proportion of the fuel 
supplied from abroad, it cannot be said that on the whole there 
is a falling-off in the imports in British bottoms. 

Although Durham coke was imported even previous to the 
starting of the lead foundries in 1866, yet it is suffering at 
present from the competition of German coke. This is owing 
to the fact that German engineers maintain that the Durham 
product is unsuitable for such work, although it is regularly 
bought in Germany for the same purpose. 

{t may be noted that, a satisfactory evidence of the fact that 
English coke is far superior to the German quality was given by 
a furnace burning German coke exhausting its heat long before 
the other using English coke did so. It was thus proved that 
there is not only a gain in its powerful heat which corresponds to 
an economy in combustion of about 35 per cent., but the ore, 
being more perfectly smelted, gives a higher output of lead. 

Still, although the result of these trials stopped all iy ae of 

German coke for the Greek company, the French foundry 
continues its use, on the ground that the ashes contained therein 
are 2 per cent. less than those of English coke, and that this last, 
being rather hard and small, does not meet their requirements in 
the smelting of thin and dusty ore. It is necessary to state, how- 
ever, that the excessive proportion of small coke and dust mixed 
up in the cargoes supplied from Durham, and the fact that smail 
coke generally contains a higher percentage of ash than Jumps, 
has to a great extent influenced the manager in his decision. 
Coke manufacturers should, therefore, be informed that it will be 
in their interest to send out cargoes containing a lower proportion 
of small coke.—(Foreign Office Annual Series, No, 1895.) 

Tue Trape or Corrvu In 1896. 

According to a report of Her Majesty’s Consul for the Ionian 
Islands, the value of imports at Corfu in 1896 amounted to 
244,770L, against 200,642/. in 1895, showmg a notable increase 
of 44,128/. This is equally distributed among all imports, those 
from the United Kingdom in 1895 amounting to 47,138/., and in 
1896 to 63,012/., an increase of 15,874/. The principai articles 
came direct for the most part by the Cunard and Leyland 
Lines of steamers about once every three weeks; the indirect 
trade is from Pirseus by Greek coastal boats through the Corinth 
Canal, cr round the Peloponnesus. Not many years ago Corfu 


was a transit port for Epirus, Albania, and Dalmatia, but this trade 
is now carried on mostly by the Austrian Lloyd line of steamers 
from Trieste. ‘I'he chief articles imported are Manchester and 
Birmingham goods. Iron, wrought and unwrought, salted and 
dried provisions, such as salmon, codfish, and herrings, earthen- 
ware, hardware, dry hides, indigo, and groceries show most 
favourably ; coals alone are comparatively stationary, but it must 
be remarked that two shipments of the latter were brought from 
the Adriatic, when the gasworks, a British undertaking, passed 
into the hands of a French company. 

Notwithstanding foreign competition in Corfu, it is remarkable 
how British trade stands its ground, the explanation being, it is 
presumed, the connection in business of the people in former 
times with houses in England. It must be remembered that 
there are two weekly Austrian as well as two weekly Italian 
postal boats, working upon Government grants between Corfu, 
Brindisi, and Trieste, besides two other weekly indirect Austrian 
Lloyd’s that come down the Dalmatian coasts.—(Foreign Office 
Annual Series, No, 1,906.) 


Her Majesty’s Consul at Samoa reports to the Foreign Office 
that during the year 1896 the Germans imported goods to the 
value of 25,95zI., a decrease as compared with the year 1895 of 
10,9372; the British imported goods to the value of 11,745/, a 
decrease of 7,255/. ; the Americans imported goods to the value of 
11,922/., an increase of 1,789/. 

Of the export duties, the Germans paid 728/., an increase of 
142/.; the Americans paid 297, an increase of 7/.; while the 
British only paid 277, a decrease of 78/. 

There are in the colonies firms with which the Samoan market 
does much of its wholesale trade, which are in reality merely 
German firms, or branches of firms in Germany, and which act as 
German middlemen. 

Proper combination and energy on the part of the British 
shippers would eoon deprive these firms of the power to injure 
British trade. 

Traders in Samoa have for years dealt with such a middleman, 
believing they were obtaining British goods, and are now 
discovering that by dealing direct with wholesale houses in 
England they can not only be certain of obtaining British 
manufactured goods, but also procure better articles on much 
more favourable terms.—{ Foreign Office Annual Series, No, 1,915.) 


THe Tin Puate Inpustry OF PHILADELPHIA. 

According to a Report of Her Majesty’s Consul at Phila- 
delphia (Foreign Office Annual Series, No. 1,910), the production 
of black and tin-plate has been rapidly pushed to the front, and 

F 2 


is now one of the leading industries of Pennsylvania. Out of a 
total capacity in the United States of 175 hot-mills for the turn- 
ing out of black plate for tinning purposes, Pennsylvania has 64, 
which represent some of the largest, best equipped, and most 
successfully operated tin-plate plants of any country. All the tin- 
plate works in this State, with the exception of two plants, are 
new works constructed on the most approved plan since the 
enactment of the McKinley law, while the works of the two old 
establishments have been so remodelled as to conform to the more 
modern plants. 

The American manufacturers have adopted what is known as 
the single stand of hot rolls, and claim that their mills are more 
substantially built with much stronger foundations, and housings 
and rolls much heavier, their standard housings weighing about 
11 tons. 

The rolls used are from 22 to 24 inches in diameter, with neck 
of 18 to 19 inches in diameter. It is said that much heavier 
work is therefore accomplished in American mills, where nearly 
all packs are usually rolled 20 by 56 inches, and cut in two 20 by 
28 inches. 

With the exception of one in Philadelphia and one in Harris- 
burgh, all the tin works in Pennsylvania manufacturing black 
plate are situated in the western part of the State, and of the 19 
dipping plants, 9 are in Philadelphia, 7 in Alleghany County, 
1 in Armstrong County, 1 in Berks County, and 1 in Montgomery 

iiecinaien paid to the hands of every description connected 
with these works are said to be fully 100 per cent. higher in the 
United States than are paid to the same hands in Great Britain. 

Notwithstanding all tke difficulties encountered it is now 
believed that with proper fostering the time is not far distant 
when the United States will produce all the tin-plate required for 
her consumption. Pennsylvania alone is prepared, should the 
condition of the market be such as to warrant it, to produce for 
the fiscal year ending 30th June 1897, from the steel billet to the 
finished product, 250,000,000 Ibs. of tin-plate—fully one-third of 
the entire consumption of the United States. 

It has been officially stated that the large falling-off since 
1892 of the production of tin-plates in Great Britain is due to 
the growth under protection of the manufacture of tin-plate in 
the United States. 


A report, dated 11th May last, has been reveived at the Foreign 
Office from Mr. A. Harkness, Her Majesty’s Acting Concul at 
Charleston, stating that, in accordance with a decision of the South 
Carolina State Phosphate Commission, the royalty on all phosphate 
rock mined in that State on and after April Ist, 1897, will be 


25 cents currency, equal to about one shilling sterling per ton, 
instead of 50 cents per ton previously charged. 

This reduction, however, under the final action of the Com- 
mission, just published, will not apply to rock on hand April lst 
last, but previously mined, which will be required to pay the 
former royalty of 50 cents per ton. The reduction in the 
Carolina royalty has been brought about by the decline in prices 
and the keen competition in the business resulting from the 
growth of phosphate mining in Florida, Tennessee, and elsewhere 
during the past two or three years. 

Wisconsin (U.S.A.). 

A report, dated 4th May last, has been received at the Foreign 
Office from Mr. A. G. Vansittart, Her Majesty's Consul at 
Chicago, stating that the beet sugar industry, which has recently 
started in Wisconsin, has met with a serious reverse, 

The Wisconsin Beet Sugar Company, which has just com- 
pleted a plant at Menomonee Falls, and of which great thi 
were expected, had to make an assigament on the Ist May. The 
plant had begun turning out the product in fairly large quantities, 
having successfully passed the experimental stage. It represented 

an investment of over 45,000/., and had a capacity of disposing of 
275 tons of beets every 24 hours. It was thought an establish- 
ment of this kind could not fail to be of great benefit to the 
neighbourhood, and practically all the material used was grown in 
the vicinity, and most of the money spent in conducting the 

business remained in the locality. Many farmers were induced . 
to go into the raising of beets extensively, and the erection of other 
factories in the States, which are in the sugar beet region; such 
as Michigan, Northern Illinois, Iowa, Southern Mirneaota, and 
parts of Kansas and Nebraska, had been freely advocated. It 
was expected that the introduction of the beet sugar industry 
would be of great benefit in a general way to farmers, by enabling 
them to diversify their products, and by emancipating them from 
the one crop system, the tyranny of wheat, whose eg shifts so 
constantly in sympathy with the reports from the Far East and 
Southern America, It was argued that the sugar beet crop would 
remain at a more fixed price, and give greater certainty of rewards 
for labour. Moreover, the more sugar made in America the less 
money would be sent away to pay for sugar imported into the 
United States 

The failure, though, was not unexpected, as over 4,000 tons of 
the product was stored in the warehouses of the factory, unavail- 
able, as a recent experiment showed, for working profitably, on 
account of having been held so long in store, only 9 per cent. 
being realised, when 15 per cent. had been expected. 


Port Works at VERA Cruz. 

Her Majesty’s Consul at Vera Cruz, in a report to the Foreign 
Office, states that it will be of interest to contractors and others 
to know that a contract on reasonable terms for the construction 
and establishment of public warehouses, perhaps bonded ware- 
houses, at Vera Cruz could now be offered with every probability 
of obtaining a Government concession. The harbour works of 
Vera Cruz, now being constructed by Messrs. S. Pearson and 
Son, are progressing rapidly, and a considerable amount of land 
and sea frontage suitable for sites will very shortly be effectually 

The necessity for bonded warehouses at the port is urgent, and 
the present opportunity should not be lost. 

It should be taken into consideration that Vera Cruz has been 
subject to the inconvenience of an unprotected harbour and the 
necessity of discharging vessels by lighters—inconveniences that 
will shortly disappear as the harbour works progress and wharves 
are carried out into deep water. It is expected that the break- 
water now being raised will afford sufficient protection from the 
northers by next winter to allow vessels to discharge alongside. 
The Mexican and Interoceanic Railroad Company's piers have 
been temporarily lengthened and it is expected will be able to 
receive vessels alongside this summer, and the new Government 
pier of 180 metres long is contracted to be built by September 

With these conveniences for discharging and Joading vessels an 
increase in the amount of freight handled at the port is to be 
expected. Foreign trade with Mexico is on the increase, though 
perhaps the returns for the present year will be affected hy the 
failure of crops in 1895-96. The resources of the country are 
being yearly developed, local freights by rail have greatly 
augmented, and so has freight on the coast, and new steamship 
companies have already started to open up this trade. 

Her Majesty’s Consul at Lorenzo Marques states that English 

cement, at one time a promising article of import to the 
Transvaal, has of late years, it is said, been almost entirely 
superseded at that port, by German cement. This is partly 
attributed to the fact that the latter is packed in iron drums, 
which withstand the rough handling and exposure often injurious 
to the contents of the frailer barrels in which English cement 
continues to be exported. 

Cement, however, is likely to form in the future an ever 
pe ort | article of import into the Transvaal, since a factory, 
enjoying Government support and a protective tariff, has now 
been established in that country. 

Portland cement might still recover the market were it not 
for this native product and the high charges levied in its interest 
by taxation, and an almost prohibitive railway charge. 


be ove 300 casks of Portland cement shipped to a Rand mine 
vid East London, in September, 1896, the following were the 
charges :— 

Prime cost of cement in England 
Sea freight - - - 
Colonial charges = - . 
Carriage by rail - - - 
Duty (East London and Transit) - 
a duty (Transvaal) - 

arine insurance - - 
Buyer’s commission - 

Total - - 
The cost of the cement was thus swollen on its journey from 

England to Johannesburg from 5s. 6d. per cask to 2/. 10s, 3d,— 
(Foreign Office Annual Series, No. 1,904). 

THE PromoTION oF BritisH TRADE In Hawalri. 

Her Majesty's Consul-General at Honolulu, in a report to the 
Foreign Office, states that advertising British goods may be done 
by (1) advertising in certain Hawaiian trade journals and news- 
papers; (2) sending trade catalogues, circulars, and samples ; 

(3) commercial travellers. 

(1.) As regards journals, &c,, the following may be mentioned 
as being the best advertising mediums, viz.: “The Planters’ 
Monthly,” “ Hawaiian Commercial Journal,” and the daily 
newspapers, which are the “ Daily Commercial Advertiser,” 
“Independent,” ‘Evening Bulletin,” and “ Hawaiian Star.” 
Advertising rates may be ascertained by addressing the managers 
of these newspapers. 

English is the commercial language in Hawaii and accounts are 
kept in American dollars and cents. Samples may be sent per 
post, and there is a parcel post between Great Britain and 
Hawaii and between Canada and Hawaii. 

(3.) Foreign commercial travellers who wish to take orders 
from local houses must take out a licence, costing 510 dols, (say 
1022) for Island of Oahu, where Honolulu the capital is situated, 
and 255 dols. (say 51/.) for each other island. A British com- 
mercial traveller going round the world should certainly take in 
Honolulu on his way between the Australian colonies and Canada 
or the United States, or on his way from the East towards the 
American Continent. Even if he finds that it would not actually 
pay him to take out the necessary licence, still by keeping his 
eyes open and by calling ~n. the different mercantile houses in his 
particular line, he would 10t only be able to pick up valuable 
information as to what kind of goods sell best here, but might be 
able to establish direct business relations between some good 
Hawaiian firm and his own house in Great Britain, which would 


prove mutually profitable in the future. A visit from an active, 
intelligent commercial traveller, especially if of pleasing manners,. 
and who is possessed of a knowledge of both the British and 
American, markets in his special branch of business is the best 
means of introducing and extending any British merchant’s trade 
on the Hawaiian islands. — (Foreign Office Annual Series, 
No. 1,900.) 

Tur Sucar Crop or JAVA. 

Her Majesty’s Consul at Batavia, in a report to the Foreign 
Office, states that the sugar crop has been a smaller one than its 
predecessor, and only reached 501,122 tons, as against 550,508 
tons in 1895, 488,307 tons in 1894, and 483,760 tons in 1893. 

The small cane yield disappointed expectations. The deficiency 
occurred in East Java, and was. chiefly due to the heavy rains 
and floods, which seriously affected the cane early in the year. 
The cane, it is true, in some cases contained a higher percentage 
of sugar, but this did not compensate for the smaller vutput. 

With regard to the sereh disease, Mr. Acting Vice-Consul 
Bonhote writes : 

*“ I understand that, owing to the continued introduction of 
healthy cane, it has been well kept in check, and provided this 
course is pursued in the future there seems every probability of 
the sickness gradually diminishing. 

“ In the latter half of March a congress was held at Sourabaya, 
and was largely attended by representatives from nearly every 
mill in the island, also many engineers, officials, scientific persons, 
and others interested in the industry. 

* Subjects chiefly of a technical nature were discussed, and 
the leading authorities in the various branches of the industry 
exchanged their views, and reported on experiments which they 
had made. 

“ A motion was carried suggesting the advisability of erecting 
a model mill, the initial cost of which should be borne by an 
annual subscription levied on all the existing mills, the amount of 
which should be based on their individual cane production. The 
object of the said mill would be to place planters in a more 
favourable position to have carried out and tested under careful 
scientific observation the many experiments and improvements 
which are constantly being suggested, and at the same time to 
form a school for the training of their chemists and employés. 

‘«* It appears, however, that many difficulties must be overcome 
before such a plan can assume a definite form, and I fear that the 
scheme will prove utterly impracticable.” 

The growing cane is showing well, and there appears to be 
fewer signs of the sereh disease in it than was apparent at the 
same time last year. It is confidently expected that a large crop 
will be harvested.—( Foreign Office Annual Series, No. 1,905.) 



A despatch, dated April 26 last, has been received at the 
Foreign Office from Mr. M. Villiers, Her Majesty’s Minister at 
Bagota, enclosing translation of a Ministerial Circular on the 
term allowed to commercial travellers to retain their samples. 

The following is an extract from the despatch in question :— 

“ The Government has resolved to fix, as a term that cannot be 
extended, that of six months, instead of that of four months, which, 
by a Resolution of the 5th of February 1889 on the ‘ permitted 
reshipment of various samples without paying import duties,’ can 
be conceded to commercial travellers of foreign houses who bring 
suck samples with them in search of purchasers in the commercial 
markets of the country, which will facilitate the operations of the 
said commercial travellers, and will make unnecessary the extension 
of the terms allowed, as at present is frequently solicited.” 




The “ Canal de Suez” bulletin, of the 22nd May last, publishes 
tables showing that the total number of vessels passing the canal 
in the month of February 1897 was 228, of a gross tonnage of 
833,414 tons. 

Of these 228 vessels, 140 were British, of a gross tonnage of 
532,557 tons; 24 German, 90,091 tons; 15 French, 59,612 tous; 
16 Dutch, 38,378 tons; 7 Spanish, 28,728 tons; 8 Austro- 
Hungarian, 27,320 tons; 5 Japanese, 18,633 tons; 3 Russian, 
15,323 tons; 5 Italian, 13,027 tons; 3 Norwegian, 8,137 tons ; 
1 Mexican, 891 tons; and 1 Danish, 718 tons. 

A Parliamentary Paper (Commercial No. 4) has been issued, 
giving statistical tables showing the shipping, tonnage, and transit 
receipts of the Suez Canal for the year 1896, as compared with 
1895 and 1894, and other details in connection with the traffic of 
the Canal. 

From these statistics it appears that the mean duration of 
passage for all vessels navigating the Canal shows a decrease 
from 19 hours 18 minutes in 1895 to 18 hours 38 minutes in 
1896. In 1896 the percentage of vessels navigating by night 

was 95 per cent., and 94 per cent. during 1895, the number bemg 
3,211 in 1896, and 3,266 in 1895. 

There has been a considerable increase in the number of troops 
carried through the Canal, owing chiefly to the military operations 
of France and Italy in Madagascar and Abyssinia respectively. 
The returns show 198,520 military passengers in 1896, as against 
118,635 in 1895. 

Tue Bextrast Linen TRADE. 

According to the report of the Belfast Linen Trade Board, as 
published in the “Irish Textile Journal,” little change in the 
demand occurred in April, and business all round was devoid of 

The home trade of the month of April was much interfered 
with by reason of the holidays at Easter, and after these the 
demand did not show much strength. Buying was confined to 
the current requirements of purchasers, and at the end of the 
month there was no immediate prospect of any briskness. 

Continental trade, on the whole, was quiet but sorting up 
orders continued to come in pretty regularly. According to the 
Board of Trade returns for April the value of the exports to 
Germany. were more than 17 per cent. Jess than for the corre- 
sponding period of last year. On the other hand, exports to France 
showed an improvement of over 50 per cent., Spain 83 per 
cent., and Italy 21 per cent. 

June 1897.) GENERAL TRADE NOTES. 723 

The speculative shipments to the United States were account- 
able altogether for the increase with this market, which showed 
an advance of 169 per cent. in value for April compared with 
April of 1896. 

With Australia no change of moment took place, the general 
trade with the Colony having been about supported. Foreign 
West Indian trade kept very slow, and the South American 
markets were all quiet. With the British East Indies trade was 
decidedly better than at the same time last year, and was even 
on a level with that of the foreign West Indies. 

For the four months ended 30th April the exports of piece 
goods from the United Kingdom showed an improvement in 
quantity of 14 per cent., and in value of nearly 1 per cent. 

Packxine Goops ror Export. 

The Philadelphia Commercial Museum reports that in packing 
goods for the foreign trade particular attention should be paid to 
compactness, American goods and sometimes German, are more 
closely packed than British goods. The “ Manufacturer ” states 
that the Americans have the reputation of being able to place a 
greater quantity in a cubic foot than the shippers of any other 
country. <A very commendable feature of the packing of articles 
shipped from the United States is the general practice of making 
up articles into a number of packages ; that is, into packages which 
can be boxed and sold in the cases in which they are imported. 
In the boxing up of small cases the United States manufacturers 
excel. They use cardboard boxes where Europeans pack in 
brown paper parcels. The United States practice is held to be 
preferable for the reason that the box is suitable for placing on 
the shelves in the shop. The excellence of the manilla paper and 
cardboard boxes used in the United States has been a con- 
siderable factor in advancing American export trade. Experience 
has shown that pitch paper for lining all classes of goods is much 
more eatisfactory than the use of tin or other metal. It is as 
effectual in preserving the goods, besides being lighter and more 


A copy has been received at the Board of Trade of the 
“Monthly Circular” (for May 1897) of the British Chamber of 
Commerce in Paris. It refers to the proposed warehouse tax on 
European cereals, the reform of wharfage in France, regulations 
as to Customs declarations of goods coming from abroad or for- 
warded abroad, the new law for the prevention of fraud in the 
sale of margarine and the fabrication of butter, modification of 
octroi duties on iron and Bessemer steel, and the circulars recently 
issued by the customs authorities. 

724 GENERAL TRADE NOTES. [June 1897. 

The Board of Trade have also received a copy of the “ Annual 
Report of the British Chamber of Commerce of Turkey” at 
Constantinople. The president of this Chamber in his annual 
address said that although no official statistics were forthcoming 
for a period later than 1892-93, he was justified in stating that 
the Customs dues of 1895-96 showed a diminution of about half 
a million of pounds, equivalent to a decrease of trade of about 

6,000,000/. on an average total (imports and exports) of about 

Imports oF Pic Iron anp UNwrovucut STEEL INTO THE 

According to a return received at the Board of Trade from the 
Secretary of Her Majesty’s Customs, the amount of pig iron and 
unwrought steel registered as imported into the United Kingdom 
from the United States of America during each month from 
January to May 1897, inclusive, was as follows :— 

Steel, unwrought. 

Quantity. | . Quantity. 

1897. Tons. £ Tons. 
January - 9,022 3 3,193 
February - 7,733 6,868 
March - 3,701 | 55 2,032 
April - 8,060 5,302 
May - 7,024 


According to the “ Manufacturer” a pamphlet has been issued 
containing the prospectus of the exhibition of the German 
Agricultural Society, which this year takes place in Hamburg, 
June 17-21. The association was formed more than 12 years 
ago on the lines of the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
and now it numbers upwards of 11,000 members. Every year 
the present state of German agriculture is shown by an exhibition 
in one of the larger towns of Germany. The coming fair at 
Hamburg will be the eleventh great general exhibition of German 
agricultural produce, animals, and implements given under the 
auspices of the society. 

June 1897.) GENERAL TRADE NOTES. 725 

tro Costa Rica. 

According to a notice in the “Journal Officiel” of 7th May 
last, postal pee not exceeding 5 kilogs. in weight can now be 
sent direct from France to Costa Rica in French packets. The rate 
from France is 3°10 frs. (about 2s. 6d.) The first despatch 
was to be made from Marseilles (for Port Limon) on the 8th May 


An Industrial, Hygienic, Food, and Fine Art Exhibition is to be 
held this year at Arcachon, from 15th July to 15th October, and 
all information relating to the same may be obtained on application 
to the director of the exhibition at Arcachon-les-Bains. 

THe Russtan Census, 

According to a despatch received at the Foreign Office from 
the Russian Ministry of the Interior, the population of the Russian 
Empire at the date of the last census numbered 129,211,113 of 
both sexes, divided as follows:—Russia in Europe, 94,188,750 ; 
Poland, 9,442,590 ; the Caucasus, 9,723,553 ; Siberia, 5,731,732; 
the Steppes, 3,415,174; Turkestan, &c., 4,175,101; Russian 
subjects in Khiva and Boukhara, 6,412; and Finland, 2,527,801. 
The population of St. Petersburg was 1,267,023, and that of 
Moscow 988,610. Then follow Warsaw (614,752), Odessa 
(404,651), and Lodz (314,780). Those cities in which the 
population exceeds 100,000 are as follows :—Riga, Kieff, Kharkow, 
Tiflis, Vilna, Taschkent, Saratow, Kazan, Catherinoslav, Roslow- 
on-the-Don, Astrakhan, Baku, Toula, and Kischinew. 


The Swiss Consul in Patras, in a recent report on the 
industrial condition of Greece, says that much advantage is to 
be anticipated from the extension of industry in that country, 
especially in the stimulus given to foreign trade. It shows a 
steady development, and it is not at all certain that the trade of 
Greece may not eventually compete with that of other countries 
in the markets of the East to a degree at present little foreseen. 
Three new cotton and woollen mills have lately been erected at 
the Pirzeus, Syra, and Livadia. In the Pireus there are at 
present seven mills, employing about 4,000 workmen, and in 
which about 15 million frs. are invested. A cloth factory is 
being successfully worked at Phaleron. Both the glass industry 
and the distilling business have favourable results to show. 
Greek cognac is used in the East more and more, its low price 
in comparison with French cognac giving it a great advantage. 

726 GENERAL TRADE NOTES, [June 1897. 

It is also epecially to be noted that the silk industry has been 
flourishing. There are now 37 establishments in Greece, pro- 
ducing annually 6,500,000 okes (or 8,333,333 kilogs.), of which 
1,480,000 okes (or 1,897,437 kilogs.) are destined for exportation, 
principally to Turkey. Zante is the main centre of the industry, 
with 14 establishments. 


According to a-statement published by the “ Iron Age,” large 
jobbing houses in the Western states, long prominent in the direct 
importation of tin-plate, are now carrying very small stocks of 
foreign brands, and in a short time, perhaps a few weeks, will 
handle nothing but the product of American factories. It would 
appear as if the home-made product was displacing the foreign 
article in one of its strongholds. Roofing plates long since 
experienced this change, the foreign ternes now carried in jobbers’ 
stocks being confined to but few brands and very small lots of 
those, which are not likely to be replenished under existing 
conditions. Coke plates have also for some time shown the effect 
of the inroads of American manufacturers on Welsh preserves. 
But it is only recently that foreign charcoal plates of high grade 
sericusiy felt the change, which had been proceeding gradually, 
Their turn has come also, and the ancient standards are being 
overthrown. Consumers may be found who will insist that 
nothing has yet been offered them by American manufacturers 
fully equal to the standard charcoal plates of the best Welsh 
makers, but price wins their favour, and they take the cheaper 
American brands, although reluctantly confessing that they are 
in all respects satisfactory. Evidently, the time appears to be 
close at hand when, in the West at least, imported tin plates will 
have no place in American market reports. 


The “ Bollettino di Notizie Commerciali” states that the 
Italian Steamship Company “ La Veloce ” has recently established 
@ new service of steamers in connection with its regular service 
to Central America. 

The steamers (a two-monthly service) start from Genoa, and 
passing by Barcelona and Las Palmas, touch at San Thomas 
Ponce, Mayaguez, San Domingo, Jacmel, Port au Prince, 
Kingston, and so on to Greytown, Porto Limon, and Colon. 



bel A New Rariway In Borivia. 

According to a recent report of the Belgian Chargé d’ Affaires 
at Santiago, the Bolivian Government have lately granted to 
M. Domingo Costa the concession for a railway which is to com- 
mence from the port on the Pacific to be acquired hy Bolivia 
from Chili, in virtue of a recent treaty ; it will pass by Orouro 
and finish at Cochabamba. ‘The works of the new railway will 
commence three months after the approval of the plans, which 
roust be deposited six months after the signature of the contract. 


The “Japan Weekly Times” gives the following details 
concerning the production of kerosine oil in Japan :— 

“The natural supply of kerosine oil beneath the soil of Japan 
is very limited, so that, even with the fullest development of the 
means for its extraction, it is entirely inadequate to supply the 
rapidly increasing home demands. 

“The annual output of this product for 1894, and the three 
years preceding, was as follows :— 

: Koku. 
1891 - - - 55,983 
1892 - 72,893 
1893 - - - 38,644 
1894 - - - 138,077 

“ A koku being equal to 39°70 gallons, the output for 1894 
amounts to 5,481,656 gallons, whereas the import of kerosine in 
the same year was 49,763,392 gallons. The greatest obstacle to 
the development of this industry is the circumstance that the - 
springs are now worked by too many (nearly 80) extremely 
small companies, many of them having capital under 10,000 yen. 
A tendency has set in for amalgamation, and a large syndicate is 
now projected by some leading business men in Tokyo.” 


Statistics of the weaving industry of Japan for the 29th 
year of Meiji (1896), are given in the “Japan Weekly Mail” 
and are as follow :—-The total number of weaving establishments 
was 660,408; the looms, 949,123; the weavers, 57,850 men 
and 985,016 women, or a total of 1;042,866. The value of the 
products was as follows :—Silk textiles, 46,471,401 yen; silk 
and cotton mixtures, 10,281,272 yen ; cotton fabrics, 37,083,757 
yen; hemp manufactures, 2,021,467 ; others, 329,338, making 
a total of 96,187,235 yen. The order in which the prefectures 
stand with respect to the number of weaving establishments 
that they contain is as follows :—Aidhi (42,032); Kuntamoto; 
Saitama; Kago:hima; Ehime; Shimane; Yamaguchi; Oita; 
Nagano; and Niigata. The same order does not hold with 
regard to the number of looms, however. In that respect the 
prefectures stand :—Aichi (80,104 looms); Saitama; Kumamoto ; 

‘728 GENERAL TRADE NOTES. [June 1897. 

Ehime; Kyoto; Osaka; Shimane; Kagoshima; Niigata, and 
Yamaguchi. It is said, also, that the silk and silk-and-cotton 
fabrics manufactured in Kyoto are valued at 15,885,830 yen 
annually, but that Aichi prefecture is the largest producer of 
cotton goods, namely, 5,832,295 yen, annually; and that in the 
matter of hemp manufactures Shiga prefecture heads the list, with 
a yearly production of 510,229 yen. 


The “ Japan Weekly Times” states that Osaka has the credit 
of being the birth place of the first mercantile agency in Japan. 
‘The Osaka Mercantile Agency, the “ Shogyo Koshinjo” as it is 
called, was organised in April 1892, by Mr. Shuzo ‘Toyama, one 
of the most prominent business men in that city. The novelty of 
the institution and the consequent prejudice against it on the part 
of the general business public, proved at first a serious obstacle to 
its success, But through the indefatigable exertions of Mr. Toy- 
ama, this has been gradually removed until at the present day 
there is not a single bank in Osaka or Kobe which is not a sub- 
scriber to the agency. “Among its other subscribers are found a 
large number of companies and private merchants, the list also 
including not a few foreign houses at Yokohama and Kobe. The 
increasing prosperity of the institution led to the establishment 
of a branch at Kobe; and steps are now being taken to establish 
similar branches at Kyoto and Nagoya, According to the printed 
rules of the agency, the subscribers are divided into three classes ; 
the annual fees required being 200 yen, 120 yen, and 60 yen 
respectively, The first class subscriber is supplied with all the 
information he may apply for, besides other news which the 
agency will supply to him without his request. The second class 
subscriber is only entitled to such information as he may apply 
for, though he may make as many applications as he wishes. The 
subscribers of the third class are not free to make more than 60 
inquiries in the course of a year. 

Tokyo was rather slow in this matter, its mercantile agency 
having been opened only in February 1896; it has a branch at 
Yokohama. These two agencies are understood to be in close 
communication with each other. 


The condition of sericulture in Japan occupied a leading place 
in the discussion of the Yokohama Chamber of Commerce at its 
last general meeting. There appears to be a general feeling that 
Japanese silk has reached a critical stage of its history. It is 
threatened, on the one hand, by keen competition from China, 
and on the other by that terrible disease pébrine, which seemed 
likely at one time to completely paralyse sericulture in France 
and Italy, Chinese silk would certainly be the finest in the world 
were the methods of its production and preparation regulated by 

Jane 1897.] GENERAL TRADE NOTES. 729 

modern scientific principles. But for many years they were so 
defective that the Japanese article ranked higher in Western 
markets. Owing, however, to the initiative of the resident 
‘foreign merchants, to whose intelligent and enterprising aid Japan 
and China owe virtually the whole development of their commerce 
with the outer world, filatures have been erected in Shanghai and 
at other places in China, with the result that Chinese silk has 
.gained the place previously held by the Japanese product. At 
the same time, the inbreeding consequent upon the Japanese 
-sericulturists’ efforts to obtain a fine thread of brilliant white 
-colour, has so weakened the race of worms that a disease said to 
present all the symptoms of pébrine has made its appearance 
among them. Considering that, under favourable circumstances, 
Japan’s export of silk aggregates from 40 to 50 million yen 
annually, the importance o this question can scarcely be overrated. 
“The current season will probably confirm or dispel the appre- 
hension suggested in the report of the Chamber of Commerce. 

The “Japan Weekly Mail” says that the Japanese Govern- 
ment is endeavouring to avert the threatened disaster by instituting 
a system of silk-worm eggs inspection. A Bill embodying a 
project of law for that purpuse was passed by the Diet in 
the session just closed. It enacts that eggs for breeding or 
reproduction shall be stored in specially constructed boxes; that 
they shall not be produced from ‘cocoons containing more than 
one worm, or cocoons that are thin, deformed, or defective in 
weight; and that arrangements shall be made for the inspection 
of the eggs by competent experts. Another provision is that 
eggs must not be prepared except by the use of cocoons produced 
from original seed. By “ original seed” is meant, it is presumed, 
Japanese seed. 


The statutes of the Japan Industrial Bank, founded as a joint 
stock corporation, have, according to the “ Japan Weekly Mail,” 
received the sanction of the Minister of Finance. They are as 
‘follows :— 

Section I—General Rules. 

Art. I.—This bank has been established in accordance with 
the Japan Industrial Bank Regulations promulgated by Law 
No. 82 of the 29th year of the Meiji, and is to be named the 
Industrial Bank (Joint Stock Corporation). 

Art. II,—The object of the bank shall be to issue loans in the 
form of capital with a view to secure the improvement and 
development of agriculture and commerce. 

Art. III.—The head office of the bank shall be in Tokyo, — 

The bank shall, according to the amount of its transactions, 
establish branches or agencies in each of the cities and prefectures. 

Art. IV.—The period of operation or maintenance of the bank 
“shall be one hundred years from the date of its charter. 

97813. G 


Section II.—Capital and Stock, 

Art. V.—The capital of the bank shall be ten million yen, 
consisting of fifty-thousand shares of two hundred yen each. On 
the demand of a shareholder, the amount of five, ten, fifty, or a 
hundred shares may be taken together to constitute a single 
bond. . 
Arts. VI. to XV. concern the payment of capital and rules 
connected with stock. Arts. XVI. to XXII. relate to the 
principal officers, and Arte. XXIII. to XXXIV. to the general 
meeting of shareholders. 
Art. XXXV.- -The following business shall be conducted by 
the bank :— 
1. To issue loans on the security of real estate according to a 
scheme of redemption by yearly instalments within a period of 
fifty years. 
2. To issue loans on the security of landed property, according 
to the method of periodical redemption within a period of five 
: 3. To issue loans without security to cities, prefectures, rural 
divisions, towns, districts, and other public communities organised 
by law. 

7 To accept in charge industrial and agricultural loan bonds. 

5. To take on deposit gold and silver bullion, and appreciable 

Art. XXX V1I.—The bank shall, under no circumstances, issue 
loans beyond the scope prescribed in Art. I. of the Japanese 
Industrial Bank Law. 

The following, however, may be taken as security for loans :— 

1. Lands that fall within the category of Art. IV. of the 
Land Tax Regulations as provided by Notification No. 7 of the 
17th year of Meiji. 

2. Buildings and lands appropriated to the use of schools, 
temples, em shrines, hospitals, theatres, and other public 

3. House lots excluded from use for agricultural and industrial 

4. Mineral and stone mines, swamps, and mineral springs. 

5. Lands under two different jurisdictions. 

6. Immovable property owned by several persons conjointly. 
This provision, however, does not apply to cases where the whole 
number of owners, by unanimous consent, offer the entire right 
of ownership as security. 

The remaining articles refer to loans, industrial loan bonds, 
accounts, reporte, &e. 

Tre Trynep Lospster InpDustry oF CapE COoLony. 
The “ South African Trade Journal” states that few industries 
have developed more rapidly or successfully in the Cape than the 
rage tins of crawfish or lobster. The lobsters exist in 
able Bay literally by millicns; quite a little fleet of fishing 

Jane 1897.) GENERAL TRADE NOTES. 731 

boats are engaged in their capture, and from early morning 
until noon the process of discharging their living cargo makes 
Grainger’s Bay a busy scene. The boats come alongside the 
jetty where a heavy iron basket is in readiness, and is lowered to 
the gunwhale, filled, hoisted on to the staging, and thence 
despatched along the aerial tram line, which is worked by steam 
power. The lobsters are then introduced to the cooking room, 
a large apartment, containing two lines of huge boilers and 
steamers. Scarcely have they arrived before the great iron 
cooking cylinder, which contains about 150 fish, is lifted bodily 
into the boiler and is submitted to the cooking process. This is 
soon complete, aud the pot is then lifted out, dropped on to a 
trolley and run into the next department, which is devoted to 
cooling and cleaning. The cooling is done, like everything else, 
with great rapidity. The pot is placed under a large shower 
bath arrangement, and the deluge of salt water soon reduces the 
temperature from boiling point to zero. The fish are then placed 
before about a hundred girls and women, who, under the 
guidance of experienced foremen, dock them of their tails—the 
only part used for canning—extract the succulent looking flesh, 
trim it into shape, and place it in the oval-shaped tins known to 
the world of commerce. No sooner is the fish in the tins than 
these are taken into another part of the factory, where, in a space 
of time that would seem incredible, the tins are hermetically 
sealed. The next process is to steam those tins, which to the 
number of 700 at a time are submitted to a very high temperature 
for nearly an hour, the object being to sterilise the contents and 
fit them for export. Subsequently the tins are labelled, packed in 
fresh, clean cases, and then despatched to all parts of the world, 
whilst considerable quantities ie go up country in South Africa. 


A communication, dated May 31 last, has been received from. 
the Agent-General for the Cape of Good Hope, enclosing extracts 
from the “ Cape of Good Hope (tovernment Gazetie” of May 11 
last, from which it appears that the value of the aor into the 
Colony for the four months ended April 30, 1897, including specie, 
amounted to 6,454,000, as compared with 6,799,000/. for the 
corresponding period of 1896. 

With regard to the exports, the total value for the four 
months ended April 30, 1897, incluting bullion and specie, was 
6,249,000/., as compared with 5,382,000/. for a like period in 

(From ad French point of view.) 

Mr. Edward Foa, an official who has lately visited Centrab 
Africa on behalf of the French Minister of Public Instruction, and 
whose book in connection with his travels has been reviewed in 
the “Journal des Economistes,” states that the regions round 

G@ 2 

732 GENERAL TRADE NOTES, (Jane 1897, 

Lake Nyassa are magnificent and very fertile, and it is the culti- 
vation of coffee (coffea arabica) which is especially increasing 
every day, and is proving most profitable. An acre of land costs 
6 frs. According to calculations of experts in the hill couvtry 
of Nyassaland, the opening up of it costs 200 frs. An average 
of 1,000 coffee plants are set on this acre, total outlay 206 fre. ; 
to this should be added the interest of 5 per cent. for two years, 
20°60 frs., total 226°60. It is reckoned that in the third year 
each plant will produce about 4 lb. of coffee, ae, 250 kilogs. 

per acre. 

It appears that Nyassaland coffee is beginning to compete in 
the markets with the product of the West Indies, and is worth 
at least 2 fre. to the kilog., say, 500 frs. for the produce of 
the acre, or 450 frs., if 10 per cent. be subtracted for loss and 
waste. The profit thus comes out at 223-40 frs., or cent. per 
eent. on the capital. These figures, according to Mr. Foa, ex- 
plains the great development which coffee planting has attained 
in these parts ; and when it is also taken into consideration that 
on the mountain slopes at the altitude where the plant grows best 
the climate is very suitable to Europeans, it will be understood 
that the region attracts a large number of colonists, and will 
attract many move when the ra‘lway replaces the present numerous, 
but somewhat primitive, ways of communication. 

With regard to the countries neighbouring on Nyassaland, 
Mr. Foa says: “ Beyond Tchiouta, calico becomes the currency ; the 
“* natives have great need of it ; clad in skins and bark, and armed 

with bows and arrows they have the appearance of real savages, 

but are honest people withal. They try to be useful to Europeans 
and to obtain as much as possible of the precious currency. Two 
metres of calico buys 6 hens, or 40 eggs, or a basket containing 

8 kilogs. of flour, or paye for a day’s journey or 3 days of work in 

one place. The lesser coins are represented by strings of beads ; 

20 strings equals 2 metres of calico, «.e., 7 strings will buy 2 hens, 

° ” 
or 1 string 2 eggs. 

Tar Trapve or British Nortu Borneo. 

The “ British North Borneo Herald” publishes the trade returns 
of that State for 1896. The total imports amount to 1,882,188 
dols. against 1,663,906 dols. for 1895. Out of 37 headings, 
27 show an increase, treasure coming first, then follow food-stufts 
(rice, sugar, vegetables, &c.), machinery and railway material, 
kerosine and other oils, opium, tobacco, and clothing. The total 
exports amount to 2,420,234 dols. against 1,962,350 dols. for 
1895. Out of 38 headings, 28 show an increase. Tobacco shows 
the largest, and accounts for one-third of the total increase on 
exports for the year; 8,700 bales were shipped in 1895, 10,448 
in 1896, and it is estimated that the 1896 crop shipped in 1897 
will amount to 14,500 bales. Rattans, cutch, timber, gatta, 
coffee, dried fish, copra, live stock, and gambier come next, The 
gross volume of trade has increased by over 18 per cent. 



Blackburn—The monthly meeting of this Chamber was held 
on 26th May last, the Mayor of Darwen in the chair. 

A large number of Chinese and Servian samples of cloth were 
spread out for inspection, they having been forwarded by the 
Foreign Office. The samples had been in the Chamber’s es- 
sion for a week, and a large number of people had inspected them. 
They were to be sent to Halifax that evening. 

A quantity of goods had been received from the members of 
the China Commercial Mission, but no note accompanied them. 
The chairman asked if it was intended to remove the samples to 
the museum, and make a permanent collection of them. The 
secretary replied that he was awaiting instructions, Some of the 
goods had been to Oldham, and applications had been received for 
permission to exhibit them in Burnley, a selection having already 
been made of those that were likely to be the most interesting to 
the district. Burnley had contributed its first instalment of 2502 
to the China Commercial Mission, and two more sums of an equal 
amount were expected. Nelson had subscribed 100/., and Padi- 
ham bad sent 97/. It had been suggested that the last-named 
towns should be permitted to have the goods on view. Ultimately 
it was decided to send the goods to Burnley, and ask the Nelson 
and Padiham people to inspect them there. 

Bristol.—At a monthly meeting of this Chamber a communica- 
tion was read from the Board of Trade, inviting the Chamber's 
opinion upon a draft of proposed instructions regarding the 
measurement of closed-in age on upper decks, Mr, M, 
Whitwill, jun., moved, and Mr. J. H. Howell seconded, “ That 
“ the council of this Chamber earnestly hopes that the Board of 
* Trade will not adopt the proposed new instructions of its 
“ surveyors regarding the measurement of partially closed-in 
** spaces on the or decks of vessels, as such would still further 
“ prejudice British shipping in the carrying trade.” Upon the 
motion of the president, it was resolved to refer this motion to 
the Shipping Committee of the Chamber. 

A deputation, representing the sugar refiners vf Bristol, 
waited upon the council to call the attention of that body to the 
difficulties the trade suffered from owing to the bounties given 
y foreign Governments on sugar sent to England. Mr. H. J. 

irehouse, Mr. F, Moline, Mr. T. G. Matthews, and Mr. P. I’. 
Miles formed the deputation. 

Other matters referred to were the Dock Railway Scheme, Bills 
of Lading, and Railway Rates. 


Leeds,—The monthly meeting of the council of this Chamber 
was held 26th May last, Mr. J. Peale in the chair. 

The secretary read the following resolution :— 

“'That this Chamber record their appreciation of the action of 
the Canadian Government in granting a reduction of the tariff 
duties in favour of this country, and of the sentiments of the 
Dominion towards this country involved in the change.” 

The resolution was adopted unanimously. 

The secretary said that the Canadian Government would accept 
certificates of Chambers of Commerce with regard to the origin 
of goods. Already he had granted several certificates. 

A communication, which had been received from the president 
of the Southampton Chamber of Commerce, was read by the 
secretary. It referred to the list of Leeds trades which he had 
received from the secretary of the Associated Chambers, and 
asked if he could be furnished with manufacturers’ catalogues. 
These were required for forwarding to the Brazils, through the 
Consul at Southampton, who had made application for them, and 
who believed that a considerable amount of business might be done, 
if information were forwarded that would enable purchasers to 
obtain what they required. 

The president said the fact that they had sent a list of trades to 
Consuls appeared to have attracted attention. The request was 
one that they ought to be pleased to receive under the circum- 

The secretary read a letter from the London Chamber of 
Commerce with reference to the Agricultural Produce (Marks) 
Bill. A resolution was enclosed disapproving of the Bill on 
various grounds. 

It was agreed to adopt the resolution, and to instruct the 
Members for the city to oppose the Bill. 

Other matters referred to were the proposed Burma-Chinese 
railway, the Northampton test case, the visit of the Sanitary 
Congress, the Employers Liability Bill, &c., &c. 

Liverpool.—A special meeting of the council of this Chamber 
was held on the 29th inst., Mr. F. C. Danson in the chair. 

From the proceedings of the General Trade Committee it 
appeared that Mr. Chamberlain had recently drawn the attention 
of the Chamber to the favourable prospects of the mining industry 
in British Columbia, and to the fact that at the time of his 
writing no English firms were supplying the mining machinery, 
for which there was a good demand. The notice of engineering 
firms likely to be interested had been called to this announce- 

The Chamber had recently been informed that permission had 
been given for it to issue certificates of origin for goods shipped 
to Canada, and that goods of British manufacture, for which such 
certificates had been taken out, would enjoy the lower tariff 
‘pending the settlement of the Canadian tariff. 


The Chamber has been in correspondence with the London 
Chamber on the subject of the second instalment of samples from 
the colonies which are at present on exhibition in London under 
the auspices of that Chamber. It appeared that the second 
instalment comprised samples from the Gambia, South Australia, 
Newfoundland, British North Borneo, British Honduras, Hong 
Kong, and Sierra Leone. The Colonial Office had been written 
to and asked whether the Liverpool Chamber is to receive the 
samples after their exhibition by the London Chamber, and had 
replied that the collection would be circulated in the provinces in 
the same way as the former collection, but that no final decision 
— yet been arrived at, and further communication would be 

The Select Committee of the House of Commons appointed to 
consider the Merchandise Marks Act Bill, had written tv the 
Chamber asking whether it desired to appoint representatives to 
give evidence before the Committee. The matter was referred 
to the Steamship Owners’ Association, who replied as follows :— 
The Steamship Owners’ Association is of opinion that the Mer- 
chandise Marks Act destroyed a great part of the transit trade of 
the port, but they are afraid that no useful purpose will be served 
by their offering evidence, inasmuch as they see no prospect of 
recovering the transit trade that was so lost. The goods which 
formerly came through Liverpool are still shipped, but the ship- 
ments are now made by firmly-established competing lines that 
are run direct between the countries producing the goods and the 
countries to which the guods are shipped. 

A meeting of the Committee of the African Trade Section was 
held on the 21st May last, Mr. A. L. Jones in the chair, 

A letter on the subject of duties in Lagos and Dahomey has 
been addressed to the Secretary of State for the Colonies and to 
the Governor of Lagos, referring to the disparity which exists 
between the spirit duties at Lagos and Porto Novo, where in the 
former instance the duty is 2s. per galion on trade gin and rum, 
whilst in the latter case it is only 64d. per gallon on such descrip- 
tions of spirit. The African trade section draw attention to 
Article IV., Section 5, of the West African Agreement between 
Great Britain and France of August 10, 1889 (Africa No. 3, 1890, 
C. 5,905), where it appears to have been the intention of the 
British and French -Governments that the Colony of Lagos and 
the French establishment of Porto Novo should enter into a definite 
Customs agreement. The desirability of carrying out this inten- 
tion has been pressed by the Chamber on the Colonial Office ; and 
the Marquis of Salisbury, on March 30, 1892, directed the atten- 
tion of the Marquis of Dufferin, then British Minister at Paris, to 
the matter. The committee of the African trade section inquire 
how the matter stands, and urge the Colonial Secretary to en- 
deavour to arrange definite Customs agreements between the 
British and French Possessions on the West Coast of Africa, and 
especially between the Colonies of Lagos and French Dahomey. 
The low spirit duty levied at Porto Novo is likely to encourage 


the smuggling of spirits from Dahomey into Western Lagos, to 
the prejudice of the revenue of the British Colcny. 

Other matters referred to were :—Native races and the liquor 
traftic, Siberian Customs officers on British ships, the Verdier and 
Daumas concessions, and the postage of letters on African 

The annual meeting of the African section was held on the 
27th May last. 

Manchester—An ordinary meeting of the Board of Directors 
of this Chamber was held on May 12 last, Mr. W. H. Holland in 
the chair. . 

The president stated that inquiries had been received from 
members of the Chamber interested in trade with Madagascar. 
It appeared that the preparation of goods for that market 
was to a considerable extent in a state of suspense owing to 
the uncertainty at present existing with regard to the future 
tariff of Madagascar. Under the treaty of June 27th,. 1865, 
between Great Britain and the Queen of Madagascar, the import 
duties were not to exceed 10 per cent. ad valorem, and British 
merchandise was subject to “most favoured nation” treatment. 
It is understood that the French annexation of the island and the 
deposition of the late Queen have annulled the treaty, The 
French Government has, since then, continued the same duty on 
British goods, whilst admitting French goods free of duty. It is 
now reported that the intention is to apply the maximum tariff of 
France to all imports except those of French production. 

An instance of apparently excessive zeal in the administration 
of the Indian Merchandise Marks Act was laid before the board. 
A consignment of bleached cotton goods had been stopped at the 
Madras Custom-house, because one cf the pieces in a case was cut 
into two portions. The correct length of the whole piece was 
marked upon the cloth in accordance with the provisions of the 
Act. It was contended by the Customs authorities that the portion 
of the piece bearing the indication of length might be fraudulently 
sold as if it were the whole, and it was insisted upon that the 
entire consignment should be minutely examined. Compliance 
with this requirement would render the goods unmerchantable. 

The president stated that at the instance of the Manchester 
shipper of the goods a letter had been addressed to the India 
Office, explaining that a certain proportion of the pieces in every 
shipment of bleached cotton goods is necessarily made up in the 
manner described, owing to the incidents attending the processes 
of bleaching and preparation for market. It was also pointed out 
that the subsequent fraudulent use of length marks was possible 
even in the case of pieces imported without being cut. The India 
Office was requested to forward a copy of the Chamber’s letter to 
the Indian Government for the information of the Madras 
Customs authorities. This proceeding was approved. 

Other matters discussed or referred to were the Gold Coast 
Public Lands Ordinance; filled or imitation cheese; alleged fraudu- 


lent use of British labels in India; and the adulteration of 

North Staffordshire.—A rap ag of this Chamber was held at 
Hanley on 19th May last, Mr. S. W. Wheatley presiding: 

Attention was called to the Compensation Bill, and the 
following resolution was carried. “That this Chamber, while 
* welcoming the principle of a general system of insurance against 

all accidents as embodied in the Government Bill, emphatically 

protests against the proposal that the whole responsibility for 

accidents caused altogether by the neglect or carelessness of the 
workman should be thrown on the employer, and that a copy of 
this resolution be forwarded to the Home Secretary and the 
local members of Parliament.” 

The annual meeting of the Chamber was subsequently held, 
when Mr. S. W. Wheatley was re-elected president, and Messrs. 
E. V. Greatbatch and H. Boddington were re-elected vice-- 
presidents for the ensuing year. Mr. A. P. Llewellyn, secretary, 
submitted the annual report, which contained a resumé of the 
work of the Chamber during the past year. The committee gave 
details of the negotiations which had taken place with the North 
Staffordshire Railway Company in the matter of ironstone rates 
and of rates for bricks, tiles, &c., in the matter of consignment 
notes, and the question of through rates from Runcorn. The 
report was adopted, and the various committees were appointed. 

Nottingham.—A special meeting was held on 24th May last, 
Mr. W. H. Davey in the chair, for the purpose of considering the 
Workmen’s Compensation Bill, and, after a long discussion, 
resolutions were subsequently passed as follows :—(1) “That the. 
“ borough members be requested to urge in Committee of the 

House of Commons the advisability of amending the Bill in the 

following particulars: With regard to clause 1, that it be so. 

amended as to except from compensation under the Act 

accidents caused by the wilful and wrongful ect or culpable 

neglect of the workman himself.” ‘ With regard to the first 

schedule clause 1 (b) that the period for which a weekly pay-- 
“ ment during incapacity for work is to be paid should be limited 
“ in point of time.” 

Wolverhampton.—In the annual report of this Chamber of 
Commerce, the council speaks of a substantial improvement ‘in 
- trade. The revival which had set in is stated to have been not 
merely maintained but developed in almost all branches of trade 
in the county. The report goes into special details with reference 
to the hardware trade, iron and steel, galvanised iron, cast-iron 
hollow ware, wrought enamelled hollow ware, - locks, brass 
foundry, and cycles. 



1, Mines and Quarries. Summaries of Statistics relating to 
the Mines and Quarries in the United Kingdom and the Isle of 
Man for the Year 1896. (C.—8460.) Price 6d. 

This is an annual statement prepared by the direction of the 
Secretary of State for the Home Department. In the introduc- 
tion it is stated that the present volume, relating to the mineral 
statistics of the United Kingdom, shows the number of persons 
employed, the quantities of mineral raised, the number of fatal 
accidents and deaths, the number of non-fatal accidents and 
persons injured, and the death rates from accidents in each 
inspection district. 

The information is given separately for mines under the Coal 
Mines Regulation Act, mines under the Metalliferous Mines 
Regulation Act, and open workings under the Quarries Act—the 
principal statutes which regulate the extraction of minerals in 
this country. The Coal Mines Act applies to mines of coal, 
fireclay, stratified ironstone, and shale; the Metalliferous Mines 

Act, to all other mines; and the Quarries Act, to all open 

workings for minerals which are more than 20 ft. deep. 

During the year 1896 the total number of Eaten employed 
in and about all the mines of the United Kingdom was 725,803, 
of whom 692,684 worked at the 3,885 minee under the Coal 
Mines Act, and 33,119 at the 731 mines under the Metalliferous 
Mines Act. 

The total output of minerals at mines under the Coal Mines 
Act was 208,503,868 tons, of which 195,351,951 were coal ; 
2,526,044, fireclay ; 7,856,586, ironstone ; 2,419,525, oilshale ; and 
349,762, sundry minerals. 

Adding 9,309 tons trom open quarries, the total output of coal 
was 195,361,260 tons, which exceeds that of the previous year 
by 5,708,698 tons. It is the highest output yet recorded. 

The total output of minerals at mines under the Metalliferous 
Mines Act was 3,873,697 tons, of which 2,237,327 tons were iron 
The total quantity of stone and other minerals obtained from 
quarries under the Quarries Act during the year 1896 was 
35,641,411 tons. 

2. Coal, Cinders, Gc. 90-1. Price 1d. 

This is a return (in part) issued by the Treasury in pursuance 
of an Order of the House of Commons for accounts of the quan- 
tities and declared value of the coals, cinders, and patent fuel 
shipped at the several ports of England, Scotland, and Ireland 
coastways to other ports of the United Kingdom in the years 
1895 and 1896; of the quantities and declared value of cvals, 


cinders, and patent fuel exported from the several ports of 
England, Scotland, and Ireland to foreign countries and the 
British settlements abroad in the years 1895-96, distinguishing 
the countries to which the same were sent; of the quantities of 
coal, cinders, and patent fuel exported from the United Kingdom 
in the years 1895-96 ; of the quantities of coals and patent fuel 
brought coastways into the port of London during the years 
1895-96 ; and of the quantities of coals and patent Fel received 

coastways at the various ports of the United Kingdom. 

3. Fifteenth Annual Report of the Fishery Board for Scotland, 
being for thé year 1896. Part I. General Report. (C.—8469.) 
Price 1s. 1d. 

This is the annual report of the Fishery Board for Scotland on 
the sea fisheries of that part of the United Kingdom. It contains 
details as to the quantity and value of the various kinds of fish 
landed on the coasts of Scotland during the year 1896 ; also as to 
the curing, branding, and export of herrings. 

The steam liners during the year were, as a rule, most success- 
ful in their voyages, although they were severely handicapped on 
more than one occasion by the lack of bait, especially of the 
kind most in favour—cuttle or ink-fish. These fish are very 
scarce, and are seldom taken on lines, and therefore realise very 
high prices. As the result of inquiries made by the Board into 
the matter, it was found that they were erratic in their movements, 
that they frequented both the inshore and offshore waters, but 
that they were seldom taken in large quantities. 

While the quantity of herrings taken was nearly as great as in 
any preceding year, and the fishery was consequently of the same 
importance as ever, the fish were of such poor quality that the 
prices realised were much lower than in 1895, and the fishermen 
and curers suffered accordingly. Matters were not improved by 
the fact that a large quantity of herrings cured in 1895 had not 
been sold when the fishing season of 1896 began, and that, owing 
to the mild winter experienced and the consequent facility of 
communication between Sweden and the South, the bulk of the 
herrings taken in the waters off that country were disposed of in 
a fresh state to German buyere. 

4. White Fish (East Coast of Scotland). 150. Price 4d. 

This is a return prepared by the Fishery Board for Scotland in 
pursuance of an Order of the House of Commons for a return of 
white fish (exclusive of herrings, sprats, sparlings, and mackerel) 
landed on the East Coast of Scotland from 1892 to 1896, both 
omen (I.) by steam trawl-fishing boats, and (II.) by line-fishing 

ats. 5 

5. Merchandise Marks Act. Return setting forth all Prosecu- 
tions which have been instituted by the Board of Trade under the 
Merchandise Marks Act since January i888 to the end of 1896. 
156. Price 1d. 


This is a return prepared by the Board of Trade to an Order 
of the House of Commons, setting forth all prosecutions which 
have been instituted by the Board of Trade under the Merchandise 
Marks Act since January 1888 to the end of 1896, showing the: 
name of the prosecutor; name and calling of the defendant; the 
place of hearing; the nature of the goods and alleged bad 
marking ; the section of the Acts under which action was taken ; 
the decision of the court; the fine (if any) inflicted; and, if 
carried to appeal, the result of the appeal. 

The return is dated March 1897. 

6. Gas Companies (Metropolis). Accounts uf the Metropolitan 
Gas Companies for the Year 1896. 212. Price 3d. 

The present return contains the accounts of the Gas Light and 
Coke Company, the South Metropolitan Gas Company, and the 
Commercial Gas Company for the year 1896. 

7. Liability of Shipowners in Foreign Countries, Return 
giving particulars respecting the Legal Limitation in various 
European Countries of Vessels under their Flags for Damages 
resulting from Loss or Accident. 219. Price 23d. 

This paper contains the replies which have been received in 
reply toa circular issued from the Foreign Office to many of Her 
Maiesty’s representatives abroad respecting the legal limitation in 
European countries of the responsibility of vessels under their 
flags, against which vessels damages resulting from loss or accident 
are claimed, to the value of such vessels ; and requesting a report, 
in a form suitable for presentation to Parliament, setting forth the 
state of the law in regard to such matters in the country to which 
they are accredited ; and, if necessary, citing briefly any leading 
decisions which may have been come to in the law courts in 
contested cases. 

The present return is in compliance with an Order of the House 
of Commons, aad contains the replies received from the following 
countries: Servia, Belgium, Denmark, Sweden and Norway, 
Portugal, Spain, Netherlands, France, Austria-Hungary, Greece, 
Italy, Russia, and Germany. 

8. British Ships Stranded inthe Red Sea, Returnof the British 
Ships Stranded during each year since 1884 in the Red Sea, South 
of 18° North Latitude ; also in the Gulf of Aden, and upon the 
North-East Promontory of Africa to the Meridian of 52° East 
Longitude ; with the following particulars: Name and Official 
Number of Ship, Tonnage, Voyage, Date and Hour of Stranding, 
Place of Stranding, State of Weather, Remarks. 201. Price 3d. 

This is a return prepared and issued by the Board of Trade in 
reference to an Order of the House of Commons dated the 26th 
Mareh 1897, and giving the information asked for in exrtenso. 
In a note it is stated that only two of the strandings were attended 

. June 1897.) RECENT TRADE BLUE BOOKS, 741 

with total loss of the vessels and none with loss of life, and that 
all the vessels which stranded were steamships. 
The return is dated April 5th, 1897. 

9. Abstracts of the Returns made to the Board of Trade of 
Shipping Casualties which occurred on or near the Coasts or in 
Rivers and Harbours of the United Kingdom frum 1st July 1895 
to the 30th of June 1896; also of the returns made to the Board 
of Trade during the Year 1895-96 of Shipping Casualties which 
occurred to British Vessels elsewhere than on or near the Coasts 
or in the Rivers and Harbours of the United Kingdom, and to 
Foreign Vessels on or near the Coasts or in Rivers and Harbours 
of British Possessions Abroad. With Charts and Appendices. 
(C.—8453.) Price 4s, 7d. 

This is the annual return relating to wrecks, which is prepared 
and issued by the Marine Department of the Board of Trade. 
It shows that the total number of sea casualties recorded in 
1895-96 (total losses and serious and minor casualties) was 6,872, 
or 684 less than in 1894-95, and 345 less than in 1893-94, 

The total number of losses and serious casualties together was 
2,042, which was 117 less that in 1894-95, and 466 less than in 
1893-94. : 

The number of total losses was 447 (tonnage 212,228), which 
was lower by 82 as regards number, and higher by 58,588 as 
regards tonnage, than 1894-95: lower by 137 as regards number, - 
and higher by 11,606 as regards tonnage than 1893-94: and 
lower by 167 in number, and by 2,312 in tons, than the average 
for the last 20 years. The number of vessels lost was lower than 
in any previous year except 1892-93, and the tonnage of vessels 
lost was higher than in any of the eight years 1887-88 to 
1894-95, but lower than in any of the 11 years preceding 
1887-88 except three. 

The tables show that, excluding Her Majesty’s ships, 12,280 
vessels of all descriptions (tonnage 4,290,811) belonging to the 
United Kingdom were totally lost in the 20 years ended June 
1896, The annual average loss was 614 vessels (tonnage 
214,540). The losses of sailing vessels fell from an average of 
498 vessels (tonnage 125,934) for the prévious 19 years to an 
actual loss of 320 vessels (tonnage 98,337) in 1895-96. The 
losses of steam vessels were 127 (tonnage 113,891), while the 
average for the previous 19 years was 125 vessels (tonnage 

During the last 20 years, 5,743 wrecks and casualties to ships 
belonging to the United Kingdom have been attended with fatal 
results to 36,664 persons, of whom 31,234 were members of the 
crews, and 5,430 were passengers, pilots, or other persons not 
on articles of agreement. * 

The average annual loss during the 20 years was 1,883 persons, 
consisting of 1,562 crew and 271 passengers; and the loss in 
1895-96 was 1,808 persons, of whom 1,334 were crew and 474 
were passengers. 


These figures show a decrease of 228 in the number of seamen 
and an increase of 203 in the number of passengers lost as com- 
pared with the average for the 20 years. The loss of life in 
1895-96 was swollen by the loss of 247 lives through the wreck 
of the “ Drummond Castle,” and the loss of 277 lives through the 
sinking of the “On Wo,” of London, by collision with the 
** Newchwang.” The number of passengers lost in 1894-95 was 
swollen by the large number (1,150) cf Chinese soldiers drowned 
by the sinking of the “ Kow Shing,” of London. 

The average number of seamen lost in sailing vessels was 1,053 
and of passengers, 59; againet 850 seamen and 48 passengers lost 
in 1895-96. 

The average number of seamen lost in steamships was 509 and 
of passengers, 213 ; against 484 seamen and 426 passengers lost in 
in 1895-96. 

The total number of sea casualties which occurred in 1895-96 
(total losses and serious and minor casualties) was 684. 

The number of total losses was 249 (tonnage, 41,331). This 
was lower as regards number than any of the previous 19 years, 
except 1888-89, 1889-90, and 1891-92, and lower as regards 
tonnage than any previous year except 1894-95, 

10. Sea Fisheries (England and Wales), Eleventh Annual 
Report of the Inspectors (for 1896). (C.—8481.) Price 94d. 

This volume contains the annual reports issued by the Fisheries 
Department of the Board of Trade, which have been prepared by 
the Inspectors of Fisheries for England and Wales. In addition 
to the reports of the inspectors, the return now issued contains 
statements relating to the annual returns and accounts of local 
fisheries committees ; particulars relating to apprentices to the sea 
fishing service for the last five years, number of applicants 
examined, and certificates of competency, and of service issued 
under Merchant Shipping Acts; statements showing the number 
of fishermen who died at sea when servirg on board fishing boats 
belonging to England, Scotland, and Ireland respectively during 
the year 1896 ; accounts of fish delivered and of fish seized and 
condemned at Billingsgate, Shadwell, and Farringdon markets 
during the year 1896; besides accounts of formal investigations 
into casualties to fishing vessels held by inspectors during the past 



Butearta.—The Board of Trade have received, through the 
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, a copy of a despatch from 
Her Majesty’s Representative at Sofia, intimating that the port of 
Rangoon bas never been considered as contaminated by the 
plague, and that the importation of rice direct from that port has 
always been allowed ; and, further, that jute sacks from Calcutta 
may be imported into Bulgaria after disinfection at a Bulgarian 


. BarBaDos.—The Board of Trade have received, through the 
Colonial Office, official notices that Curacgoa and Santos, on the 
recommendation of the Barbados Quarantine Board, have been 
declared to be no longer infected places. 

Matta.—aAll vessels arriving at Malta have to undergo strict 
medical inspection. 


Malits FOR THE West AND SoutH-WeEst Coasts or 

The following table shows the places for which mails will 
be despatched by the mail packets leaving ig or for the West 

and ‘South-West Coasts of Africa during the latter part of the 
month of June 1897. 

Wednesday, 16th June—Madeira, Teneriffe, Goree, Dakar, 
Rufisque, Bathurst, Isles do Los, Conakry, *Sierra Leone, 
Monrovia, Sinoe, Grand Bassa, Kroo Coast, Fale Jack, Lahou, 
Cape Lahou, Grand Lahou, Drewin, Grand Bassam, Assinie, 
Axim, *Cape Coast Castle, Elmina, Salt Pond, *Accra, Pram 
Pram, Addah, Quitta, Jellah Coffee, Lome, Little Popo, Grand 
Popo, New Calabar, Abonema, Bakana, and Degama. 

Saturday, 19th June.—Grand Canary, Sierra Leone, Cape 
Coast Castle, Accra, Lagos, Forcados, Bonny, Old Calabar, 
Opobo, Benin, Warree, New Calabar, Bakana, and Brass; also 
Liberia, Grand Bassam, and Assinie (supplementary mails), 

Saturday, 26th June—Grand Canary, Sierra Leone, Cape 
Coast Castle, Accra, Lagos, Forcados, Benin, Sapelli, Warree, 
Brass, and Akassa. 

Wednesday, 30th June.—Madeira, Teneriffe, Goree, Dakar, 
Rutisque, Bathurst, Isles do Los, Conakry, *Sierra Leone, Mon- 
rovia, Grand Bassa, Kroo Coast, Half Jack, Lahou, Cape Lahou, 
Grand Lahou, Drewin, Grand Bassam, Assinie, Axim, *Cape 
Coast Castle, Salt Pond, Appam, Winnebah, * Accra, Pram Pram, 
Addah, Quitta, Lome, Jellah Coffee, New Calabar, Abonema, 
Bakana, and Degama. 

* Correspondence for Sierra Leone, Cape Coast Castle, and Accra will not be sent 
by the steamers of the 16th and 30th of June unless specially so superseribed, 
as the direct Packets leaving on the following Saturdays are due at those ports some 
days earlier. 




Statement of the Imports into and of the Exports from the 
Unitep Kinepom during the Month and Five Months ended 
31st May 1897, compared with the corresponding periods of the 
year 1896. 

MontTH ENDED 3lst May. 

I. Imports From ForREIGN COUNTRIES AND BritisH PossgEssIons. 

Month ended | . 
31st May } 
celeb | Increase. | Decrease. 
1897, | 1096. | 
Le 6... bolted ing 
I, Animals, living (for food) . - 1,142,245 958,327 183,918 | — 
II, (A.) Articles of food and drink, duty | 
free - - - - «| 12,281,457 | 70,628,988 1,602,524 | - 
(B) Articles of food and anunk, duti- } | 
able - . - - -| 1,997,958 1,716,187 281,771 | _ 
Tobacco, dutiable - - - - 324,956 830,166 — 5,210 
Ill. Metals - - - - - | 1,688,518 1,767,629 _ | 84,144 
IV. Chemicals, dyestuffs, and tannin, ng 
substances ° 481,832 451,282 20,600 | ~ 
V. Oils . . - - . | 574,728 581,425 — 6,697 
VI. Raw materials for textile manufactures 5,160,092 5,615,257 _ 495,165 
VII. Raw materials for sundry industrie es | 
and manufactures - -| 4,143,172 8,488,085 660,087 - 
‘VIII. Manufactured articles - - -| 7,452,715 | 6,608,402 844,313 - 
IX. (A.) Miscellaneous articles  - -| 1,072,164 | 4,741,078 _ 68,944 
(B.) Parcel post - - ths | 71,511 58,267 13,44) = 
Total Value - - - ~ | 86,336,348 | 83,349,998 | 2,986,360 | — 
Il. Exvorts or British anp Irish’ Propuce anp MANUFACTURES. 
. i £ £ 2" £ 
I, Animals,living ~- - - “4 105,384 78,369 27,015 — 
II, Articles of food and drink - oe 871,245 841,769 29,476 
III, Raw materials - - - =| 1,808,937 | 4,646,674 257,823 oo 
IV, Articles manufactured and partly manu- 
factured, viz. :— 
(A.) Yarns and textilefabrics - ~~ 7,739,063 | 7,628,674 110,449 ca 
(B.) Metals and articles manufactured | 
therefrom (except machinery) - 2,954,991 2,951,648 38,443 _ 
(C.) Machinery and millwork - - 1,403,366 1,467,166 _ 63,800 
(D.) Apparel and articles of personal use 641,318 663,047 | _ 21,729 
= )¢ Chemicals and chemical and medi- | 
inal preparations = - 743,510 707,812 | 35,698 -- 
a) as other articles, either manu- 
ured or partly manufactured - 2,888,967 2,804,907 84,066 _- 
as pect a - - - - 170,365 145,408 24,963 - 
Total Value . - - =| 19,822,146 | 78,685,048 | 486,908 - 
Hil. Exports or Foreign anp Cotoniat Propvuce. 
| £ 2 2 2 
Total Value - - - 4,954,692 47 48,042 | 206,050 _ 

June 1897.] STATISTICAL TABLES, 745 


Five Montus ENDED 3lst May. 

I. Iuports rrom Foreign Countrigs anp Britisn Possessions. 

Five i ended 
—— I Decrease. 
1897. 1896. 
cf £ & 
I. Animals, living (for food) - - 4,396,451 4x41 4,091 - 17,640 

II. (A.) Articles of food and drink, duty 
free - - - =| 60,289,348 | 57,057,896 3,187,447 - 

(B.) Articles of food and drink, duti- 
able - - . - -| 10,286,179 9,285,575 1,000,604 _ 

Tobacco, dutiable - . . 1,629,089 1,875,700 53,389 - 
Ill. Metals . - - - 8,853,491 8,405,210 448,281 — 
IV. Chemicals, dyestuffs, and tanning 
substances 8,348,719 3,677,450 - 328,731 
V. Oils - . - - - 2,887,931 3,391,971 _ 504,040 
VI. Raw materials for textile manufactures | 37,909,611 | 36,940,777 969,434 _ 
VII. Raw materials for sundry industries 
and manufactures 16,867,171 | 16,078,570 793,601 a 
VIII. Manufactured articles - - | 36,532,153 | 34,097,793 2,504,960 a 
TX. (A.) Miscellaneous articles - . 5,833,296 6,043,512 _ 210,216 
(B.) Parcel post - - - 438,036 439,385 - 1349 

Total Value - . - + | 189,221,470 | 187,325,730 7,895,740 =_ 

Il. Exports or BririsH anD IrnisH PRODUCE AND MANUFACTURES. 

I, Animals, living - - - 397,970 olanes Sams = 
II. Articles of food and drink - - 4,340,915 4731,629 209,286 - 
IiI. Raw materials - . 7,818,674 6,988,489 830,185 _- 
IV. Articles manufactured eitgutpeiie: 
factured, viz. :— 
(A.) Yarns and textile fabrics - -| 41,604,002 | 44,857,767 - 2,747,159 

QS eee and ontiee manufactured 
t machinery) 14,160,509 | 13,501,346 659,164 _ 
(C.) aniinen and millwork - -| 7,246,235 6,726,655 517,580 = 

(D.) Apparel and articles of personal use | 3,979,883 4,228,306 oe 248,423 
(E.) Chemicals and chemical and medi- 
preparations - . - 4,008,674 | 8,769,888 233,786 oF 
(F.) All other articles, either manu- 
factured or partly manufactured - | 13,955,825 | 73,932,774 23,051 _ 
(G.) Parcel post - ~ - - 314,768 641,497 173,291 a 
Total Value - . - + | 98,320,455 | 98,685,679 _ 265,824 


III. Exports or Forrign AnD CoLonIAL Propuce. 


2 £ 2 2 
Total Value - . - | 26,912,849 | 25,766,808 | 1,746,046 _ 

97813, H 


IIl.—Corn PrIocEs. 

Return of the Quantities soLp and Averace Prices of Britisa 
Corn, Impzrtat Measure, as received frum the Inspectors and 
Officers of Excise during the under-mentioned periods, 

Periods. Wheat. Barley. 

Quantities sold. 

Qrs. bus. Qrs. bus. Qrs. bus. 
Week ended Ist May 1897 88,241 5 5,233 1 6,825 2 

Se aoe 67,083 6,980 6,897 
— ie 74,672 3,374 9,088 
» 22nd ,, 66,919 2,468 5,444 
aS als 49,312 1,836 5,433 

May 1897 - - 296,230 19,892 33,689 

Corresponding month in 1896 180,154 26,473 43,369 
a » 1895 180,362 19,119 41,152 

Average Prices. 

Week ended Ist May 1897 
”? 8th ” ”» 


» 29th 

May 1897 

April 1897 





May 1896. 
» 1895 
» 1894 
» 1893 

Peeereee Cette Coe eae Cerrar ee ee Bes ey 


IfI.—Emieration.—May 1897. 

Return of the Numpers, Nartionaritizs, and Destinations of the 
PassencErs that left the Unitep Kinepom for Praces out of 
Evrore during the Month ended 31st May 1897, and the Five 

Months ended 31st May 1897, compared with the "corresponding 
Periods of the previous Year. 

British All 
. . Austral- oe Good 
Nationalities. “ ae a ote. ike ope an ‘ona dl 

Month ended 31st May. 

English - 487 978 A 8,649 

Scotch 68 223 ¥ 1,461 

Irish 58 46 8644 

Total of British 
pon tag 7 613 1 18,754 

Foreigners - . . 26 8,444 
Nationalities not 
a ee 2 189 

Total - - 27,057 

Total Lyd vt 
Tronth, 196 : 

Five Months ended 31st May. 

English 3,366 6,149 3,826 31,913 

Scotch - 204 1,216 4,669 

Irish 161 436 

a of British 

rigin « ° 
Foreigners - * 

Nationalities not | 
distinguished 3 405 

Total - =| 47,701 8,130 10,891 
“godine } 

L 0514 8,501 11,708 6,984 
seg AO 65,369 9 7 96,367 

NotE.—The above figures, bi made up at the earliest possible date after the close of each 
month, are subject to poten rang 4 the Anaual Returns. 

H 2 


IV.—ALien ImuicgRaATION—May 1897, 

Return of the Numper of Arrens that arrived from the Continent at Porrsf in the 
Unirep Krxepom, during the Month and Five Months ended 31st May 1897, 
compared with the corresponding Periods of the previous Year. 

(Compiled from the Aten Lists received by the Customs under Act 
6 Will. 4. c. 11. sect. 2.) 


Hamburg, | Rotterdam, ° Other 

Bremen, and Amsterdam, Pn gael Dieppe. Continental 

Bremerhaven.| and Antwerp. \Ghristianseand. Ports. 

1896. | L | 1896. 1807, | 1896. 

Month ended 81st May. 
Aliens not stated to be en 
route to America or other 
a -_ of the United 

‘Arrived at ia . 


Newhaven - 
Other Ports 

Total - - 

Aliens en route to America 
or other places out of the 
United Kingdom : 

Arrived at Grimsby - 
a — gamed | ' ne 
Hull- - | 1212 | 7,647 | 2,658 
Leith - 2) 4 8 65 78 
Other Ports - | 16 327 | Pr 4} 379 

a 2,605 1,724 | 2,092 | 4,092 



PRR G Miaro en comteent 
: f Aliens no | 
en route to America or . | 8,056 945 | 2,879 | 3,049 | 9,031 
other places out of the 
United Kingdom* - EAA, | ices 8 Eee iatake. Pans 

Five Months ended 31st May. 

:Aliens not stated to be en 

route to America or other 

laces out of the United 

Total No. . 4 , 2,268 

‘Aliens en route to America 
or other places out of the 

United eats: 
No. - | 1,661 | 7,506 9,788 5,880 | 9,377 | 14,190| #7,084 
‘Total ofAliens en route and 
of Aliens not stated to be 
pk route to America or }| 7,127 | 7,488 , 11,996 10,497 | 72,728 |$32,783 |$38,726 

laces out iia | 
United Kingdom* -_ - 

* The distinction made in this Return between “ Aliens not stated to be en route to America, or other slows 
out of the United Kingdom,” and “ — en route to America, &c.,” is due to the fact that a large number of Aliens 
who arrive from Continental reported to be on the way to places out of the United Kingdom, and itt is 
considered desirable to this Fact. But it is not thereby tnplied that the “ ave oo yz = be en = 
to America, &c.” come od = country for settlement, there being in fact a large emigra’ ey t 
, ved oe pong, meee my the Aliens arriving from Continental ts return to the Continone Annual 

c ” c ‘ ee renee Returns.) 

29 the = ed t, Bristol, too Dublin, Folkestone, 
G ww, Goole, Grangemouth, Granton, Greenock, Grimsby, Harwich, Hull, Kirkcaldy, Leith, Liv 1, London, 
Mid esbroush, Newcastle, Newhaven, North Shields, uth Shields, Southampton, Sunderlan , and West 
Hartlepool. The lists received from Dover, Folkestone, Harwich, ee ae and Southampton show only deck 

passengera, and persons who, after landing, proceed by ro A as third-class passengers 

oli Tne number of sailors included with the Aliens who arrived at ports in the United Kingdom not en route to 
places out of the United Kingdom in the month of May 1897 was 984, and 886 in the same month of 1896; in the five 
months ended May 1897 the number was 4,740, and in the same months of 1896 the number was 4,334. 



Nomser of Recetvinc Orpers Gazetrep in the under-mentioned 
Periods and in the under-mentioned Principal Trades and Occupations. 

Five Months 
May ended May 

1896. 1897. 1896. 

No. No. No. 
Total gazetted - - - - 348 | 1,714 | 1,773 

Number gazetted in principal trades and 
occupations :— 
Farmers - “ « 
Grocers, &c. - - - 
Publicans and hotel keepers, &e. 
Boot and shoe ‘manatee an 
dealers - - - 
Bakers - 
Drapers, haberd: lashers, &e. 8 =e 
agg pointers, plumbers, &e. 
Tailors, &c. 
Coal and coke micrchonte ona dealers 
Greengrocers, fruiterers, &c. . 
Agents, commission and ee 
Solicitors - 
Furniture dealers and makers 
Confectioners - 
Clerks, commercial and general 
Fishmongers, poulterers, &c. - 
Provision merchants, &c. - 
Tobacconists, &c. - - - 
Corn, flour, seed, hay, and straw 
merchants and dealers - 
Carpenters and joiners - 
General dealers - 
Cabinet makers and upholsterers 
Engineers and founders, &c. - 
Wine and spirit commana, 9 
Auctioneers - 
Jewellers, watehiendioane, importers, 
silversmiths, &c. - 
Travellers, commercial, &c. - 
Carriers, carmen, lightermen, and 
hauliers - - . 
Gardeners, florists,&c. - - - 
Ironmongers - - - 
Wheelwrights - 
Curriers, tanners, and leather mpebente 
Clothiers, outfitters, &c. - - 
ing-house keepers rs, olan 
Hosiers, glovers, &c. - - - 
Milliners, dressmakers, &c. - 
Directors ard eens of public 
companies - 
Hairdressers - - - ~ 
Cattle and pig dealers - 
Contractors - . 
Carriage, &c. builders 




84 Eee SS: OO tk ee se Ee eRe 

oN Wwe or oe PROD Uh DROIT OM bd 


SUcCeahn aaa 

WWM AAD CAG Wh pan | oan ana 

bo = bo DD = CO DD 




Five Months 

May ended May 

1896. 1897. 1896. 


Number gazetted in principal trades and 

Restaurant, coffee, and oly: saad 
keepers . 

Saddlers and harness makers - 

Millers - 

Schoolmasters and achocleaietuemes 

Officers in Army - - 

Merchants - . - 

Brokers, stock and share - 

Printers and publishers - - 

Chemists, druggists, and chemical | 
manufacturers - | 

Timber merchants and wood denlers - 

Clerks in holy orders - - - 

Stone, marble, and monument masons - | 

Stationers - - - 

Dairymen, cowkespers, &e. - - | 

Fishing netand smack owners,and masters)s 1 — 

Architects and surveyors - - 

Blacksmiths, farriers, &c. - 

China, glass, and natin, &e. 
dealers - . - 

Cab, coach, and omnibus proprietors - 



a aS 

~ ~ 


tom CORR 

RRR OTAAAARH Tu 47-57 ® @ 

te A A GoW  & © & 


Great BriItTAIN. 
Retvrn of the Nomser of AnimALs exported from IRELAND to GREAT 

Britain during the Month and Five Months ended 3ist May 
1897, compared with the corresponding Periods of the Year 1896. 

Five Months 

Animals. y ended May. 

| 1897. | 71896. | 1997. | 1896. 

‘ No. | No. No. 

Cattle | 7 49,229 213,624 226,163 
Sheep 7 82,292 | 105,526 | 726,055 
Swine 36 257 | 319,021 | 293,297 
Goats 1,259 1,705 2,034 
Horses * 5,810 15,695 | 16,774 
Moles or Jennets 3 | 15 14 
Asses ~ 645| 1,127 943 

171,260 17595 | 656,713 | 665,274 

Jung 1397,] “STATISTICAL TABLES, 751 

VIL—Fisnery StTatistics.—ENGLAND AND WALES. 
Statement of the Toran Quantity and Vatue of the Fis returned 
as landed on the Eneatish and Wetsa Coasts from the fishing 
grounds during the Month and Five Months ended 3lst May 
1897, compared with the corresponding Periods of the Year 1896. 

May || Five Months ended 




Total prime fish ° | 78,856 

Brill . . : - 
Soles - . . . 

Turbot - . a 
Prime fish not separately distinguished 

Cod - 

Halibut - 


J Ling ° 

Sprats - ° 

: 8, 74500 
. 193,814 119,444 
not separateiy distinguished, “except} 

84,987 68,722 
13 13 

shell fish - 
Total . 

93,942 95,724 

678,283 561,208 

a= a - No. No. 

S - 931,903 41,108, 
Lobsters ~ ° 90,190 prego 
Oysters : . 1,447,000 1,812,000 || 12,950,000 

Cwts. Cwt: Cc 

8. wts. 
Other shell fish 33,464 40,837 | 185,474 



Prime fish not separately distinguished ‘876 16,206 | 


Halibut - 


ish not 
shell fish 

Shell fish :— 

£ | 2 
. . . e é 8,466 
- - : > 44596 

° 20,107 

Total pr'me fish . 84,875 


separately distinguished, eae | 61,155 

Total - 518,27] 

- 9,957 11,064 

Lobsters - 3,743 4,077 
Cyatere - . . 3,948 4 
Other shell fish | 10,820 12,817 



Total . | 28,468 82,917 


Total value of fish landed -| 546,739 | 474,847 



NotE.—The above figures are subject to correction in the Annual Returns, The values given 
: are the actual values returned by the local officers at each piace, 


VIIl—Fisnery Sraristics.—ScorLanp. 

Sratement of the Toran Quantity and VaLve of the Fisu returned 
as landed on the Scorca Coasts during the Month and Five 
Months ended 3lst May 1897, compared with the corresponding 
Periods of the Year 1896. 


1896. | 1897. | 1896. 

Five Months ended 


. Cuts. || Owts. Cuts, 
Soles (Lemon Soles) - 1,979 4,358 7,683 
Turbot - = ° . 335 | 1,789 
83,616 | 317,745 

Eel - - ° 
Flounder, Plaice, Brill 
Haddock - - 
Halibut - - 
Herrings - 

Mac erel * 
Saith (Coal Fish) - 
Skate ; 
Suerting - - 
Tora ( (Tusk) - x 



rately y distinguished, | saane nal 

cates ‘she 
Total : 1,413,399 1,543,188 

Shell Fish :-— b % No. No. 
Crabs - y | 1,962,299 
Lolsters - 71, 261,612 ‘267,195 
Oysters - 000 | 169,476 14 yh 62 

§ | Owts. Cwts. 

Clams | 9,597 9,844 

Mussels - 142,695 120,909 

Other shell fish 27,808 32,016 

Soles (Lemon Soles) - 
Turbot - - 

Pound Plaice, Brill 


Haddock ° -- 

Halibut = - : 

Mac ts 

saith ‘(Goal Fish) 

Spariin - 

ine ; ‘ 

Torsk (Task) § : 

Fie ae sly distinguished, 
ish not se ‘ely disti \ 





Rew tt tee eee eee eee 

Total 195,084 513,241 

Shell Fish :— 
Crabs . 4,988 8,361 10,259 
Lobsters 8,176 12,702 

* 11 723 
Clas : -80 1,361 
° 708 ss | 
Dither shell fish . 1519 6.194 
Total - - | 8,800 38,303 | 

Total value of fish landed 181,027 133,881 551,544 | 

Norz.—The above figures are subject to correction in the Annual Returns. 


1X.—Fisuery Sraristics.—IRELAND. 

SraTEMENT of the Torat Quantity and Vatue of the Fis returned 
as landed on the IrisH Coasts during the Month and Five 
Months ended 3lst May 1897, compared with the corresponding 
Periods of the Year 1896. 

Five Months ended 

Soles - 
Turbot - - - 

Total prime fish 

Cod - - 
Haddock - ° 
Hake - 
Herrings - . 
Ling . 



ra! . 

Whiting . - ee a 

Fish not separately distinguished, except 

shell fish 17,764 

Total - : . 239,991 

Shell fish :— “ay ae , No. 
Crabs - - } 66,782 
yee - | 35,799 35,904 
Owts. Cube. 

Other shell fish 

Turbot - - 
Total prime fish - 

Cod . - . 
Haddock - 
Hake - - 
Herrings - - 

" _ 
8 pe 

ie 8 es : ‘ 
Fish not separately distinguished, mans 
shell fish . . ° a 

Total - - - 

149 | 
505 | 12% 

~ 17 
252 | 1 i453 
. 1,007 906 | 3,921 
Total value of fish landed +} 48,772 47,885 110,1s 

—The above figures are sub to correction in the Annual Returns, The val 
a Or The above grened by the local officers at each place, om 


X.—Cotron Rerurns.—May 1897. 

Return of the NumBer of Bass of Corton ImporteD and ExPporTED, 
Forwarpep from Ports to Intanp Towns, and REeTurNEp to 
Ports during the Month and Five Months ended May 1897, 
compared with the corresponding Months of the Year 1896. 

| Month of | Five Months ended 
| May May 

1897. | 1896. 1897. | 1896. 



No. No. | No. No. 
American 143,874 168,177 || 1,418,160 | 4,307,950 
Brazilian - | 12,946 463 || 53,622 24,851 
East Indian | 13,745 15,100 || 54,291 80,748 
Egyptian - 28,367 18,612 || 185,994 179,982 
Miscellaneous } 4,220 2,893 || 19,436 15,931 

Total - | 197,652 200,245 || 1,781,508 | 7,603,429 


American 24,697 | 19,825 111,736 | 79,865 
Brazilian - 1,200 | 1,340 1,700 | 8,690 
Kast Indian 3,423 3,770 23,595 21,564 
Egyptian - | 7,567 | 5,589 36,190 | 48,401 
MiscelWaneous 979 536 4,669 10,683 

Total 37,866 31,000 177,890 | 164,208 

Forwakvep from Ports to InLanp Towns. 

American 201,248 205,792 1,144,163 1,104,150 
Brazilian 6,432 3,804 26,673 24,904 
East Indian 4,098 5,646 | 31,326 22,748 

tian - 19,964 25,981 135,753 142,175 
Miscellaneous 7,617 6,908 48,966 45,594 

Total 239,359 248,131 1,386,886 1 339,571 

ForRWARDED from InLtanp Towns to Ports. 

229 48 1,245 1,225 
_ _— 7 
mR ¥ iis 4 
cain 40 49 
41 | 406 

270 593 || 1,691 

June 1897.) STATISTICAL TABLES. 755 

XI.—PerriopicaL Returns oF Imports AND Exports. 

Statement of the Imports and Exports into and from the under- 
mentioned Countriss in the latest Month for which Returns 
have been received, with Aggregates for the Period of the Year, 
including such latest Month. 

Note.—Franc = 9,%,d.; Milreis= 4s. 6d.; Lira = 9,5,d.; Gulden 
= ls, 8d.;.L. Egyptian = 1/. 0s.64d.; Dollar = 4s. 2d. 


Aggregate for Period of the 
Latest Value for the Month. mets latest Month. 
Name of Country. Month. 

1897. 1896. 1897. | 1896. 

France April Frs. = 331,912,000 | 332,729,000 || 1,363,565,000 | 7,870,442,000 

Portugal - | Feb. Milreis - 4,271,000 | 3,549,000 7,633,000 | 7,414,000 


Italy- April Lire - 108,265,000 | 98,794,000 379,794,000 | 874,474,000 

Austria-Hungary -| April - | Gulden 64,686,000 | 66,/26,000 || 242,977,000 | 249,088,000 
Egypt |} Jan, -| LE. = 845,000 676,000 - 

United States | Apri Dollars - 101,305,000 | 8,650,000 288,241,000 | 256,231,000 

ft (1896.) (1895.) (1896.) (1898.) 
Mexico - > “s - 3,845,000 3,357,000 49,978,000 36,247,000 

(1897.) (7896.) (1897.) 1896.) 
British India* - | 5 Rupees - 5,64,44,220 | 6,68,54,865 71,95,44,392 Pine: Fm 


| { 
France April -| Frs. + 349,808,000 | 3@7,788,000 1,173,192, 000 | 1,187,689,000 

Portugal - - ~-| Feb. -/| Milreis - 2,337,000 2,070,000 4,033,000 | 4,€70,000 

Italy - April - Lire ~- 123,097,000 | 84,256,000 585,954,000 | 331,193,000 

Austria-Hungary -| April - | Gulden - 66,702,000 | 60,272,000 251,291,000 232,124,000 

Egypt Jan. -| LE. - 1,255,000 1,667,000 

United States April Dollars 77,726,000 | 71,092,000 338,750,000 | 377,388,000 

P (1896.) (7895.) 1896. . 
Mexico - - Dec. . ” ° 10,027,000 Taaeo rai oee poy oe 

y “ (1897.) (7896.) 1897. ; 
British India* Mar. Rupees 10,25,08,257 | 17,47,78,787 10d peea nes PP 

The above figures are subject to revision in the A 1 Returns, 
Norz.—The res are those of the “special” imports and exports, exce case 
Bulgaria, the United States, Mexico, and British India, where the figures are “ -- dh row 

means, in the case of imports, imports for home consumption; in the case 
of domestic produce and manufacture only. rot exports, exports 

* The aggregate figures are for the financial year commencing 1st April. 



XII.—Fore1Ggn Trape oF Inpzia, 

Imports into British Inp1a from Foreign Countries. 

Twelve Months, 
1st April to 3lst March 

1895-96. 1896-97. 

| Increase. 

R. R. R. 
I,—Animals, living 36,74,579 

II.—Articles of food and drink— 
Sugar - ° - 3,10,68,131 3,15,18,291 

Other articles 5,61,60,568 5,70,69,896 
III.—Metals and Manufactures of— 

Hardware and cutlery (in- 
cluding plated-ware) -{ 1,48,34,748 1,55,77,691 

Metals - 6,77,34,716 5,46,23,897 1,31,10,819 

Machinery and mill-work -{ 3,23,74,013 3,51,01,9 27,27,889 

Railway plant and rolling- | 
stock (other than Govern- | 
ment stores) - - -/| 1,52,05,845 | 2,66,17,172 1,14,11,327 

IV.—Chemicals, drugs, medicines 
and narcotics, dyeing and | 
tanning materials - are. 2,16,06,495 1,89,01,238 27,085,257 

Mineral - 2,96,74,004 3,11,85,097 15,11,093 

Otheroils - - - 17,00,193 | — 35,08,793 18,08,600 

VI.—Raw materials and unmanu- 
factured articles - - 4,85,16,275 $,61,05,212 

VII.—Articles manufactured and 
partly manufactured— 
Cotton yarn - - =- 2,97,10,904 | 3,32,58,708 35,47,804 
Cotton piece goods 22,15,94,843 | 25,74,71,305 3,58,76,462 

Other articles - 11,98,97,371 | 11,49,80,611 49,66,760 

Total of all Imports - | 69,31,63,952 | 71,95,44,392 



XIT.—Foreten Trapve or Inpia— continued. 

Exports of Inp1an Propuce and Manuracture from Britisa 
Inp14 to Foreign CountRIEs. 

Twelve Months, 
1st April to 31st March 

1895-96. 1896-97. 

R. R. 
I.—Animals, living - 16,10,528 17,79,670 

Il.—Articles of food and drink— 
Rice ° . 13,58,72,891 | 11,94,74,606 1,58,98,285 

Wheat - 3,91,38,962 83,63,948 3,07,75,014 

Tea 7,66,48,887 8,12,45,480 

Other articles - 5,13,37,883 4,43,03,160 

I1J.—Metals and manufactures of - 11,91,477 14,28,440 

IV.—Chemicals, drugs, medicines | 
and narcotics, dyeing and 
tanning materiais— 

Opium - | 845,983,364 8,02,29,228 


Indigo - | 585,485,112 | 4,87,07,570 

Other articles 1,75,04,667 1,51,38,410 

V.—Oils - 73,87,072 60,90,431 

Vi.—Raw materials and unmanu- 
factured articles— 

Cotton ss 14,09,01,926 | 12,97,00,886 1,12,01,040 

Jute 9,99,28,607 10,55,05,775 55.77,168 

Oilseeds 9,60,56,610 7,89,50,996 1,71,05,614 

Other articles - 8,49,97,569 7,87,39,689 62,57,880 
VII.—Articles manufactured 
partly manufactured— 

Cotton yarn - 6,73,08,363 7,17,31,082 

Cotton piece goods 1,49,89,631 1,20,53,140 

Other articles - 12,29,42,692 | 12,03,59,313 

Total of all exports 1,00,54,56,241 | 99,88,01,824 






Reports of the Annual Series, 1897, have been issued from Her Majesty’s- 
Diplomatic and Consular Officers at the following places, and may be obtained from 
Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding Street, Fleet Street, E.C. 



Old Calabar 
Tamsui - 
Honolulu - 
Buenos Ayres 
Para - 
Bolivia - 
Berlin - 
Uganda - 
Serajevo - 

La Rochelle 
Saigon - 
Suakin - 

Barcelona - 
Lisbon - 
Callao - 
Naples - - 
New Orleans 
Vera Cruz - 
Jerusalem - 

| Rio de Janeiro 

Trieste - 
Curagoa - 




Goa - 


Guayaquil - 

Havana ~ 

Reykavik (Iceland) 

Milan - - 
Itimore - 

| Cettinjé 
| Bilbao 




Stettin - 




Tripoli - o 
Batoum ee 
Lorenzo Marques 
Batavia - 
Corfu ve 
Foochow - 
Montevideo - 
China - - 
Philadelphia - 
Rio Grande do Sul 
Quito - 
San José - 

Samoa - 

Porto Rico 



List or DreLtomatTic AND ConsuLAR REPORTS—cont. 

The following Reports from Her Majesty’s Representatives abroad on subjects of 
general and commercial interest have also been issued, and may be obtained from 
the above-mentioned sources :— 


Belgium.—Report on the Metallurgical annie of tte 
Province of Liége during 1895 - - 

| Germany.—Report on the Finances of the German African 
Colonies for 1897-98 - - - ee 

Germany.—Report on molasses and peat fodder - . 

China.—Report on the Revenue and eee of the 
Chinese Empire - - ¥ ~ 

Russia.—Report on the Drink Question in Russia < - 

Italy.—Report on the oneal and Financial Situation in 
Italy - . - - 

Germany. ae on the Openetion of the Insurance Laws 
for 1895 - . . 

Netherlands.—Report on the German Competition las 
British Manufactures inthe Netherlands - 

Germany.—Report on the Wine Trade of Germany, 1895-96 

Mexico.—Report on the Tampico besa of the Mexican 
Central Railway - ° . 

Netherlands.—Report on the Gold Industry of Dutch Guiana 
United States.—Prospects of Farmers in the State of California 
Italy.—Report on the Straw Hat Industry of Tuscany . 

Hawaiian Islands.—Report on Coffee Culture in the Hawaiian 
Islands - - - - - - 



The following Reports relating to Her Majesty’s Colonial Possessions have been 
issued, and may be purchased from Messrs. Eyre and Spottiswoode, East Harding 
Street, Fleet Street, E.C. :-— 


No. | Colony. | Year. . Colony. 

1891 Labuan - - 
utoland . 
. uUuCcIa - 
Helena - - 
ion - . 
Fiji - - - 
Grenada - . 

Sierra Leone - = 
British Bechuanaland - 
British New Guinea 

50 | Falkland Islands 
51 | Leeward Islands - 

Grenada - 

st. Lucia - 

] uan - ° 
British Guiana - 

Zul d - 
Mauritius - - 
Straits Settlements - 
Ceylon - ¢ . 

0-0 8 0's € 6 0 00,8 @ Ua, 0 810 pat» 

ee Oe ee ee 

British Guiana - - 

amaica - - 
Newfoundland - - 
Gold Coast . 

Natal - - 
Basutoland ° - 
St. Helena - . 
Sierra — - . 

Jamai - 
Trinidad and Tobago - 

British New Guinea - 
Victoria - 

pesrignes - . : mt | Tasks and Caicos Islands 

hn Gambia . 
British endures * | Windward Islands - . 
Turks and Caicos Islands - men ony and Tobago - 
Gibraltar | Gibralta ‘ 
| [agers Islands - . | Ho Falkland Islands 

- ong 

| Trinidad and Tobago “Sais Settlements 

| Malta - - 

| Gambia . . 

| Straits Settlements 
Grenada - - 

Barbados - 


i ee ae ee oe ie Be oe ae ae 


Seychelles nee 
| Basutoland - 





84 | St. Vincent 
36 | 



British Honduras 
Tia Leone - 
Fiji _ 


ralkland Islands 
] ues - 

26.0 6. 0 9506.88 Bee 0-0: 218) Ore 6S OO 00 0 F Bo 60-0. O26 §.9 CHA eee ec wees 

ritius ° 
Strait Settlements - Bermuda. - 


. | noo maga Agriculture. 

. : Geology and Botany. 
- | Advantages to Emigrants.