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Where maximum cleaning is required, the 
Lummus Unit Groups are ideal. By-pass ar- 
rangement allows greatest possible flexibil- 
ity. Hot Air Cleaner provides good distribu- 
tion to Hull Separator. Hull Separators come 
10’ with five cylinders; 14’ with six cylinders 
—and cause no mechanical damage to 
fibres. Can be grouped with or without 
after-cleaner. Shown at right, the 14’ “Great 
Western” group. Write for Bulletin 632. 


Bulletin No. 631 covers 

“Dixie Belle” 10’ group. , ’ a ‘ 
ame ; £9, ee. 5, 99, 9: 

J i 


Lummus is doing more to put gins on a better paying basis. 
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You Save on Power Costs with a 


Continental System Ginning Outfits do a top-notch drying, cleaning and 

ginning job with fewer fans than many other outfits. This feature of design not 
only results in a savings on the cost of the fans but also a substantial savings in 
power Costs since in some gin plants more power is consumed by the fans than 
all other machinery combined. 

Economical power use is only one of many outstanding and distinctive fea- 
tures which have won for Continental System Ginning Outfits the universal 

acclaim of ginners wherever cotton grows. 

Entered as second-class matter February 4, 1905, at the Post Office at Dallas, Texas, Under Act of Congress of March 3, 1897 

a me ae a 

When the leading edges of the hammers 
in this mill get dull, the direction of rotor 
operation can be reversed to bring the other 
edges forward. This hammer life saves 
money, and reduces shut-down time. Alloy 
tool steel, borod tipped, and tungsten car- 
bide inlaid hammers are available. 

That’s only one of the improvements in 
the new Bauer No. 406 Hammer Mill. It is 
heavier and sturdier. It runs at relatively 
low speed to granulate with minimum fines 
and dust. It has an unusually large screen 
area. It recirculates air through return ducts 
in the side of the mill, thus more com- 

for grinding 

oil cakes 


pletely controlling dust discharge. This is a 
special advantage in installations which do 
not employ pneumatic collecting systems. 

A Bauer Magnetic Separator is built in 
the feed spout. It effectively removes tramp 
iron and steel. Ferrous objects are trapped 
before they damage machinery, contam- 
inate the product, or cause sparks. 

If you require additional grinding ca- 
pacity or if your present equipment needs 
replacement, get all the facts about the 
Bauer No. 406 Hammer Mill. 

Write, wire, or phone for complete in- 

1701 Sheridan Ave. 


Springfield, Ohio 

REPRESENTATIVES Martin Neumunz & Co., Inc., 90 West St., New York 6, N. Y. ¢ Franklin F. Landis, 
Dallas, Ga. ¢ Industrial Supplies, Memphis, Tenn. ¢ R. R. Dill, 468 Prairie Ave., 
Elmhurst, Ill. ¢ Halsell Brokerage Co., Denver, Colo. ¢ C. C. Cantrell, 2541 Greene 
Ave., Fort Worth, Tex. ¢ Kenneth Wylie, Eugene, Ore. * A. E. Thompson Co., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951 

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Steel Frame — 141 or The Popular “TRU- The Original Bright 
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THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss + August 18, 1951 

SINCE 1925 

Volume 52 August 18, 1951 Number 17 

Published every other Saturday in our own printing 
plant at 3116 Commerce Street, Dallas 1, Texas 

Officers and Editorial Staff 

Chairman of the Board Vice-President and 

Gen rink 
DICK HAUGHTON, Jr. ortisacemonaind 
President and Advertising Manager ANN JARRATT SORENSEN 
Editorial Assistant 
Executive Vice-President and 

Washington Representatives 
(Editorial Only) 
IVAN J. CAMPBELL 740 Jackson Place, N.W. 
Vice-President and Editor Washington 6, D. C. 

Official Magazine of: 

National Cottonseed Products Association 
National Cotton Ginners’ Association Louisiana-Mississippi Cotton 
Alabama Cotton Ginners’ Association Ginners’ Association 
Arkansas-Missouri Ginners’ Association New Mexico Cotton Ginners’ 

Arizona Ginners’ Association x ‘ . 
California Cotton Ginners’ Association Oklahoma Cotton Ginners’ Association 

The Carolinas Ginners’ A iat T Cotton Ginners’ Association 
Georgia Cotton Ginners’ Association Texas Cotton Ginners’ Association 

The Corton Gin and Oil Mill Press ss the Official Magazine of the foregoing asso- 
ctations for official communications and news releases, bus the associations are in 
no way responsible for the editorsal expressions or policies contained herein. 

Subscription Rates: 1 year $3; 2 years $5 3 years $7; foreign $3.50 per year. 
Executive and Editorial Offices: 3116 Commerce St., Dallas 1, Texas 

PL a 

NOBODY WILL EVER be able to de- 

sign a mechanical cotton harvester 

with anything like the personal ap- 

peal of this atttractive young woman. 

But if we owned a cotton farm and 

N had to make a choice between picking 

.) @) 0) T al W E .) T E R the white gold ourselves or having it 
done by a machine—we would choose 

SUPPLY AN ) the latter course. It’s not that we’re 

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vy NG@si hid WORKS improper weight distribution. 

Phone local and long distance 

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The Cover PRESS £9 


. have specified FRENCH SCREW PRESSES because 
of their simplicity, large capacity, and ruggedness. 
ability to handle all types of materials, pre-pressed or 
direct extracted, without excessive fines common to other 
systems and because of their enviable record for reliability dtaieuasinianis diene 
‘ : Sold in 1947-18 French Screw Presses ahead of 
and excellence of engineering workmanship, leading to French Basket Extractor, on Flaxseed. 
uninterrupted and extremely safe operation. 

The French Basket Extractor will perform efficiently when 
the going gets tough and others fail. 


Other installations of French screw 
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Aoches Dentin tant 5 Company, Mtencapeli, p Miameste 

1946—20 French Screw wees 
oe 2 Basket Extractor, on Flaxseed. 

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—_ f= in Rectangular and Screw Press shown with feeder. ‘ Sold in bg om French Screw Presses with French Basket Extractor 
jorizontal types. Soybeans, Peanuts, and all types of oil seeds. 



OWS LICK their chops plenty over cattle feed heavy residue left in the meal, when the oil is 
t that’s processed with Phillips 66 Normal extracted by this excellent Phillips solvent. 
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lose. And Phillips has adequate supplies. You 
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Fine-quality Phillips Hexane and other select 
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for the soybean, cottonseed, flaxseed, tung nut, 
rice bran, corn germ, castor bean, alfalfa, ani- 
mal fat and other oil extraction industries. 
Write for complete information. 



August 18, 1951 * THE CorroN GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS 

HE TEXAS Engineering Exper- 
T iment Station is one of the nine 
separate parts of the Texas Ag- 
and Mechanical College Sys- 
tem. The prime interest of each part 
of this System lies in resident instruc- 
tion, in research, or in extension work, 
in one or more aspects of the broad 
fields of engineering and agriculture. 
The main interest of the A. and M. Col- 
lege, for example, is resident instruction 
at both the undergraduate and graduate 
levels. The objectives of the Station, ac- 
cording to the Rules and Regulations 
adopted by our Board of Directors on 
~~ 14, 1944, are: 
. To stimulate enginee ring education, 
To investigate engineering and in- 
PRR problems of importance to the 
3. To disseminate 
gard thereto, and 
4. To otherwise assist in 
trial development of Texas. 
In accordance with these objectives, 
part of the program of research admin- 
istered by the Texas Engineering Ex- 
periment Station is conducted by 
teaching departments of the A. and M. 
College of Texas, largely those depart- 
ments within the School of Engineering. 
Members of the teaching staff, and 
graduate and undergraduate students 
participate in this portion of the pro- 
gram on a part-time basis. Many of the 
projects organized in this manner serve 
as a source of thesis material for grad- 
uate students. The remainder of the 
Station’s program is conducted by full- 
time research personnel who work in 
laboratories under the direct control of 
the Station. The work in these labora- 
tories, such as the Cottonseed Products 
Research Laboratory, the Chemurgic 
Laboratory, and the Fan Testing Labora- 
tory, is also co-ordinated with the grad- 
uate program of the College when feas- 
ible. Special laboratories such as these 
are the outgrowth of planned efforts 
directed to the solution of problems 
having statewide and regional signifi- 


information in re- 

the indus- 

the two-year period ended 

“Research Activities for the Sessions 1948-49 
and 1949-50; Texas Engineering Experiment Sta- 
tion and School of Engineering of the A. and M. 
College of Texas,”’ Bulletin No. 122, Texas Engi- 
neering Experiment Station, 74 pp., Oct. 1, 1950. 




Vice-Director, Texas Engineering 
Experiment Station, College Station 

THE AUTHOR presented the accompanying paper at 
the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Cotton Research 
Congress, held at Texas A. & M. College, July 26- 
28, 1951. 

Aug. 31, 1950, a total of 79 separate 
projects was under investigation by the 
Texas Engineering Experiment Station. ’ 
These projects were distributed among 
the following 17 subject matter fields: 

Aeronautical Engineering, Architec- 
ture, Chemical Engineering, Chemurgy, 
Cottonseed Processing, Electrical En- 
gineering, Engineering Drawing, Freight 
Rates, General Engineering, Geology, 
Highway Engineering, Management En- 
gineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mu- 
nicipal and Sanitary Engineering, 
Petroleum Engineering, Soil Mechanics, 
Structural Engineering. 

At the present time, the number of 
active projects is 54, of which 10 are 
concerned with the processing and util- 
ization of cottonseed. 

The size of our research staff fluc- 
tuates throughout the year, since such 
a large number of our personnel are 
students and members of the teaching 
staff of the College who participate in 
research on a part-time basis. The av- 
erage at any one time is about 120 for 
technical and service personnel of all 
grades. About 25 of these are assigned 
to projects involving cottonseed. The 
over-all program of research adminis- 
tered by the Station is supported by 
funds appropriated by the legislature of 
the State of Texas, and by funds made 
available through contracts with in- 
dustrial and governmental agencies. Our 
principal contracts in the field of cot- 
tonseed processing are with the Cotton 
Research Committee of Texas and U.S. 
Department of Agriculture. 

In further keeping with our stated 
objectives, an important phase of our 
activities is the dissemination of infor- 
mation on engineering subjects. Prac- 
tical information for the layman, as 
well as highly technical data for the 
scientifically trained specialists, is given 
in the individual numbers of the several 

* August 18, 1951 

series of publications issued by the Sta- 
tion. A complete list of these publica- 
tions may be obtained by writing to the 
Station. Since 1915, the Station has 
issued 167 different bulletins, reports, 
and reprints. Of this number, seven 
deal with cottonseed and related topics. 
During a year’s time, our total mailing 
amounts to about 24,000 separate publi- 
cations, nearly all of which are supplied 
free of charge upon request. 

Research in Cottonseed Processing 

and Utilization 

That portion of the research program 
of the Texas Engineering Experiment 
Station devoted to cottonseed in recent 
years may, for purposes of discussion, 
be divided into three parts: 

(1) Projects devoted primarily to 
various aspects of oil mill operation, 
economics, and design; hydraulic and 
screwpress extraction; and fundamental 
studies of cottonseed oil and other 

(2) Projects devoted primarily to 
studies of the solvent extraction process; 

(3) Studies of food uses for the cot- 
tonseed and its products. 

The first group of projects consists 
of those conducted by our Cottonseed 
Products Research Laboratory under the 
general supervision of A. Cecil Wamble. 
This Laboratory is unique in that it 
not only is devoted exclusively to the 
study of cottonseed processing problems 
but also is equipped with standard oil 
mill machinery for conducting exper- 
imental work on a full-scale basis. This 
Laboratory, consisting of offices, analyt- 
ical laboratories, shops, and pilot plant, 
is housed in its own two-story, mill-type 
building in the heart of the campus. The 
building itself was constructed in 1943 
with funds made available by the Cot- 
ton Research Committee of Texas and 


by the College. Much of the pilot plant 
equipment has been provided by various 
manufacturers through a _ cooperative 
arrangement with the Texas Cottonseed 
Crushers’ Association. This group, to- 
gether with the National Oil Mill Super- 
intendents’ Association and the Oil Mill 
Machinery Manufacturers and Supply 
Association, through such men as H. E. 
Wilson, Wharton, C. W. Rankin, Bren- 
ham, H. D. Reeves, Sweetwater, and 
Jack Howell, Bryan, as well as others, 
have had a major part in the establish- 
ing and equipping of this important cot- 
tonseed research facility. Current re- 
sponsibility for the operation and main- 
tenance of the Laboratory rests with the 
Texas Engineering Experiment Station, 

The following investigations have re- 

cently been or are now in progress at 
the Cottonseed Products Research Lab- 
(a) Extraction of Oil from Oil-Bearing 
Materials by the Combined Action of 
Mechanical Pressure and Solvents (co- 
operative with the Cotton Research Com- 
mittee of Texas). 

Experiments conducted between Sep- 
tember 1947 and August 1949 showed 
conclusively that significant improve- 
ment in oil yield could be obtained bv 
using prepressing ahead of, and in com- 
bination with, the conventional solvent 
extraction process. The advantages of 
the combined process were shown to be 
increased plant capacity, reduced sol- 
vent requirements, lowering of the per- 
centage of fines, and a reduction of 
residual oil in the cake to less than one 
percent. A complete report of these find- 
ings is available. * 

As a result of our preliminary inves- 
tigation of prepressing, the process was 
introduced into a commercial Texas oil 
mill as early as May 1948. Using hy- 
draulic presses for prepressing followed 
by solvent extraction, the soundness of 
the technical principles involved was 
thus demonstrated on a commercial scale. 
Subsequent experiments in our labora- 
tory showed that the process could be 
utilized economically by performing the 
prepressing operation with an ordinary 
screwpress. It was further shown that 
such a screwpress when properly mod- 
ified for optimum prepressing work on 
cottonseed meats could be expected to 
handle about three times its normal 
capacity with about one-third the elec- 
tric power consumption per ton of ma- 
terial processed. The residual oil in the 
solvent-extracted cake could be reduced 
to less than one percent if the prepressed 
cake were used just as it came from the 
screwpress. By reflaking the prepressed 
cake, the residual oil could not only be 
reduced to less than half of one percent 
but the extraction time could also be re- 
duced by a ratio of about four to one. 
Reliable estimates indicate that an oil 
mi!l employing the solvent extraction 
process can, under proper conditions, in- 
crease its return by six to seven dollars 
per ten of seed processed by using pre- 
pressing. That the idea is sound, both 
technically and economically, is borne 
out by the fact that it appears to have 
ha: almost 100 percent adoption by 
these cottonseed oil mills employing the 
ec'vent process which are either now in 
eneration or under construction. 

(b) Solvent Extraction of Oil from Cot- 
tonseed Prior to the Removal of Linters 

of Oil from Oil Bearing Mate- 
rials by Prepressing Followed by Solvent Extrac 
tion,”’ H. E. Rea, Jr., and A. Cecil Wamble, Re- 
search Report No. 11, Texas Engineering Experi 
ment Station, 9 pp. il., Feb. 1950 

“The Extraction « 


and Treatment of the Residue to Effect 
Separation of Meal, Hulls, and Linters* 
(cooperative with the U.S. Department 
of Agriculture and the Cotton Research 
Committee of Texas). 

The mechanical removal of linters 
from cottonseed prior to extraction of 
the oil is one of the most expensive op- 
erations in cottonseed processing, and at 
best less than 90 percent of the linters 
are removed from the seed. Moreover, 
the linters are more or less contaminated 
by hull particles and some oil is lost 
with the hulls. The purpose of this in- 
vestigation was to study the possibility of 
developing a process, ultimately feasible 
on a commercial basis, for the solvent 
extraction of the oil from cottonseed 
prior to the removal of linters, followed 
by treatment of the extracted residue for 
separation of meal, hulls, and linters. 

In the process proposed for study, the 
whole seed were rolled in flaking rolls 
and the oil then extracted with commer- 
cial hexane. The extracted seed were 
separated into protein and _ hulls-lint 
fractions by revolving-drum hull beater 
and by shaker screen, while the lint was 
separated from the hulls in defibrating 
machinery. This was to be compared 
with the conventional process in which 
the cottonseed are delinted by saw-type 
delinters, the Meats rolled after separa- 
tion from the hulls, and the oil extract- 
ed from the rolled meats. In the whole- 
seed process, essentially all of the oil is 
subjected to the extraction process, thus 
the potential oil yield is greater. 
| The problem involved determination 
of the technical feasibility of the process 
by laboratory and pilot plant studies, 
and _ determination of the economic 
feasibility by estimated cost comparison 
with the cottonseed meats process in 
current use. The investigation was in- 
tended to be only of a preliminary 
nature and to serve as a basis for jus 
tifying further detailed development of 
processes based on the general idea in- 

The experimental phases of the project 
were designed to accomplish the follow- 
ing: (1) determination of the comminu- 
tion method which would produce a max- 
imum of extracted oil and at the same 
time produce extracted solids easily 
separated into protein and_ hulls-lint 
fractions; (2) determination of the 
optimum processing conditions during 
comminution and extraction; (3) deter- 
mination of the best method for separat- 
ing the proteinaceous material from the 
hulls an lint; (4) determination of the 
quality of oil, meal, and lint in com- 
parison with the quality of the prod- 
ucts produced by standard processes: 
and (5) comparison of the operation of 
the extractor on comminuted whole seed 
and on rolled meats. 

Our experimental work showed that 
the method investigated for the proc- 
essing of the whole cottonseed into meal. 
oil, hulls, and lint, is less economical 
than the conventional method. Future 
development of a market for the hulls- 
lint fraction as such, however, would 
not only make the process economical but 
would also simplify matters by eliminat- 
ing the delinting, hulling, and separat- 
ing operations completely. It was 
further shown that by removing first- 
cut linters with saw-type delinting ma- 
chines in the usual way and then treat- 

*A report of work done under contract with the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture and authorized by 
the Research and Marketing Act. The contract 
was supervised bv the Southern Regional Research 
Laboratory of the Bureau of Agricultural and 
Industrial Chemistry 

August 18, 1951 -° 


ing the whole seed, a process economical- 
ly on a par with the conventional method 
resulted. Full details and recommenda- 
tions for further study of the problem 
are contained in the final project re- 
port to the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture. * 

(c) Cottonseed Hulls as an Insulating Ma- 
terial (cooperative with the Department 
of Mechanical Engineering, A. and M. 
College of Texas, and the Cotton Re- 
search Committee of Texas). 

For every three pounds of lint cot- 
ton produced, about one pound of hulls 
appears as a by-product. New commer- 
cial outlets for such by-products are 
continually being sought, although the 
economic situation at any given time 
usually is the factor which determines 
the feasibility of such uses. This project 
was concerned with the properties of 
untreated cottonseed hulls as a heat in- 
sulating material. 

Heat transfer determinations made by 

the shielded box method gave 0.38 as 
the average value of the coefficient of 
thermal conductivity in B.t.u. in./ft.? 
hr. deg. F. in the temperature range of 
80° to 100° F. It was found that for 
certain ranges of conditions, cottonseed 
hulls would be competitive with other 
standard loose-fill type materials so far 
as insulating effectiveness is concerned. 
Complete details are available in a 
published report. ‘ 
(d) Relationship Between Variety, Soil 
and Climatic Conditions, Growing Sea- 
sons, Cultural and Harvesting Practices, 
and the Yield and Quality of Cottonseed 
and Its Products (cooperative with the 
Department of Agronomy, Texas Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, and the 
Cotton Research Committee of Texas). 

The principal aim of this project is 

to study the variations in quality and 
quantity of manufactured cottonseed 
products from season to season. Labora-- 
tory analyses, together with grade and 
product evaluations, are made on 
samples which have been grown at, 
various locations in Texas and else- 
where. Approximately 500 samples are 
analyzed annually for the Texas Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station. The re- 
sulting data not only provide means for 
insuring uniformity of results in cot- 
tonseed processing but also provide in- 
formation useful to breeders, growers, 
ginners, and mill operators. 
(e) A Study of the Operating Character- 
istics of Oil Mill Machinery (cooperative 
with the Cotton Research Committee of 

Many unit operations such as clean- 
ing, delinting, hulling, separating, roll- 
ing, and cooking, are performed on cot- 
tonseed prior to the extraction of the 
oil. Each such operation not only serves 
a definite purpose and is carried out 
with machinery designed for the par- 
ticular function performed, but also has 
its own effect upon the quality and 
quantity of the extracted oil. The over- 
all efficiency of an oil mill, as measured 
in terms of the net dollar return per 
ton of seed crushed, is a function of the 
efficiency with which each unit opera- 
tion is carried out, and the latter must 

from Cottonseed 

® “Solvent Extraction of Oil 
Prior to the Remova! of Linters and Treatment 

of the Residue to Effect Separation of Meal. 
Hulls, and Linters,” S. P. Clark and A. Cecil 
Wamble, Final Report to U.S. Department of 
Agriculture, Contract No. A-1s-30131, 102 pp. il., 
Nov. 3, 1950. 

“Cottonseed Hulls as an Insulating Material,” 
w. E. Long, Research Report No. 2, Texas Engi- 
neering Experiment Station, 12 pp. il., July 1948. 



a truck does the work of two 

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August 18, 1951 

can be completed in two hours and often less 
with one man handling the entire operation. 
The driver can easily place engine or motor in 
truck cab, push loader up on top of full trailer, 
lash down tarpaulin and be “gone” hours be- 
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be evaluated in relation to its particular 
contribution to the final result rather 
than as an isolated process. 

Using the full-scale oil mill machinery 
available in our Cottonseed Products Re- 
search Laboratory and in cooperating 
commercial mills, a comprehensive study 
is being made of the characteristics of 
machines commonly used in the proc- 
essing of cottonseed. Emphasis is placed 
upon the effect on quality and quantity 
of products produced and on the ¢a- 
pacity and power consumption of the 
machines themselves as a function of 
variation within the range of operat- 
ing conditions normally encountered in 

“The Effect of Rolling Cottonseed Meats on 
Oil Extraction,” H. E. Rea, Jr. and A. Cecil 
Wamble, Research Report No. 16, Texas Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station, 17 pp. il, Sept. 1950 




2 LB----21LBS-TARE 

To hold the hooks and stand the strain—to 
guard against weather and mildew damage— 
HINDOO 2-lb., open-weave bagging has no 

For quality, strength, protection and vaiue, 
HINDOO Bagging for almost a century has 
been the wise ginner’s choice. 


industry. A report has been prepared 
on the rolling operation,® and prelim- 
inary studies of the delinting and cook- 
ing operations have either been made 
or are currently in progress. 
(f) A Vitamin Study of the Cottonseed 
and Its Products (cooperative with the 
Cotton Research Committee of Texas). 
Under investigation is the effect on 
vitamin content (especially vitamin E) 
in cottonseed and cottonseed products of 
such things as variable factors in proc- 
essing, storage conditions, seed variety, 
growing conditions, and harvesting prac- 
tices. Vitamin E is a powerful antiox- 
idant, or stablizing agent, and hence is 
effective in preventing rancidity of oil 
and meal during storage. High vitamin 
content in cottonseed meal is desirable 
in the supplemental feeding of live- 




August 18, 1951 ° 

stock intended either for breeding or 
marketing purposes. 

Emphasis is being given to the effect 

on vitamin E content in oil and meal of 
each of the several unit operations em- 
ployed in connection with currently used 
oil extraction processes. A small mole- 
cular still has been constructed and lab- 
oratory techniques have been developed 
which insure the quantative recovery of 
the vitamin being studied. A brief dis- 
cussion of these techniques and related 
topics has been published. * 
(g) The Economies of Scale in the Op- 
eration of Cottonseed Oil Mills by Type 
of Extraction Process* (cooperative with 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture and 
the Cotton Research Committee of 

Of the three principal methods of ex- 
tracting oil from cottonseed—the hy- 
draulic, the solvent, and the screwpress 
methods—the first named is the most 
commonly used at the present time. 
With the hydraulic method, not only is 
the residual oil content of the resulting 
meal often higher than with the other, 
newer methods, but the man-hours of 
labor required per ton of seed processed 
are greater. 

Even though the current capital in- 
vestment in cottonseed oil mill facilities 
employing the hydraulic extraction 
method is estimated to be in excess of 
$2 billion there is a definite trend 
toward the use of the solvent and screw- 
press methods. Any great shift from the 
hydraulic method to either of the other 
two would entail a considerable economic 
loss in equipment, changes in marketing 
centers, and shifts in labor practices, as 
well as shifts in costs and methods of 
distributing the cottonseed products 
from the oil mills. The U.S. Department 
of Agriculture is in the process of 
evaluating the economic effects that 
such shifts in the processing method 
used would have on the entire cotton- 
seed industry, the market outlets, and 
the returns to growers. In order to arrive 
at a satisfactory evaluation of the eco- 
nomic problems involved, it is necessary 
that there be available physical input 
and output data by size of mill for each 
of the following types of extraction 
processes: hydraulic, solvent, screwpress, 
and combination screwpress-solvent. The 
required data, including detailed layouts, 
specifications, and performance and cost 
data for 35 different model mills, are 
being prepared by the Texas Engineer- 
ing Experiment Station and will be in- 
corporated into the over-all study by 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture. 
(h) Screwpressing of Cottonseed** (coop- 
erative with the U.S. Department of 
Agriculture and the Cotton Research 
Committee of Texas). 

The use of the screwpress method of 
extracting oil from cottonseed has in- 
creased in recent months to the point 
where more than 200,000 tons of seed 
are processed annually in that way. This 
figure constitutes about 20 precent of 
the total tonnage crushed in this coun- 

*“Cotton Vitamin Study Progresses,” Texas En- 
gineering Experiment Station News, Vol. 1, No. 2, 
p. 6, June 1950. 

*A report of work done under contract with the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture and authorized by 
the Research and Marketing Act. The contract is 
supervised by the Fats and Oils Branch of the 
Production and Marketing Administration. 

**A report of work done under contract with the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture and authorized by 
the Research and Marketing Act. The contract is 
supervised by the Southern Regional Research 
Laboratory of the Bureau of Agricultural and 
Industrial Chemistry. 


took its first step 
With cotton ties 

IFTY YEARS AGO, when cotton was king in Georgia, only 
| Sp products were rolled by Atlantic Steel Company— 
cotton ties and hoop. 

Making fine-quality cotton ties has never ceased to be an important 
part of our business, even though the list of DrxisTEEL products has 
grown during the half-century from two to 65, including DrxisTEEL 

Made strong at the start from our own special-analysis steel, 
DixisTEEL Cotton Ties are rolled to exacting specifications to assure 
uniform quality, strength, durability and finish. 

DixtstEEL Buckles are made to withstand strain and pull; they 
won’t give way or cut the tie. Scientifically designed, they thread 
easily, provide firm seating and will not slip up or down. 

Specify DixisteeEL—the ginner’s favorite for half-a-century. 



Standard bundles weigh approxi- 
mately 45 pounds and contain 30 
ties—each 15/16 inches by approxi- 
mately 1944 gauge, 1144 feet long. 
Thirty buckles attached to each bun- 
dle. Sixty-pound ties also are made. 
Both weights available without 
buckles. Buckles shipped in kegs 
or carload bulk lots. 



THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951 

try. With the screwpress method under 
proper operating conditions, the amount 
of residual oil left in the cake may be 
less than that left in cake produced 
by the conventional hydraulic method. 
This difference is definitely significant 
when translated into dollar returns to 
oil mill operators and cotton growers. 

With the use of screwpress extrac- 
tion on the increase, it has been found 
desirable to determine the answers to 
a number of questions pertaining to the 
method: the effects of high tempera- 
tures inherent in screwpressing on color 
and quality of the oil and meal pro- 
duced; the effectiveness of present 
methods of cooling screwpressed oils 
and how these methods may be im- 
proved; and the degree of permanent 
color damage in screwpressed oils and 
how this damage can be_ reduced. 
Further problems being studied under 
this project are the development of im- 
proved screwpressing methods which 
will increase the efficiency and reduce 
the cost of operation of screwpresses, 
and obtain better yields and higher 
grades of end products. 

This research, currently in progress, 
is being conducted partly in cooperation 
with the Cen-Tex Cooperative Oil Mill, 
Thorndale, and partly in our Cottonseed 
Products Research Laboratory. 

The second group of projects to be 
described consists of those devoted to 
various aspects of solvent extraction— 
the basic chemistry of the process, its 
economics, and the design of equipment 
and selection of solvents and operating 
methods to fit specific needs. The fol- 
lowing investigations, all of which have 
been unaer the general supervision of 
Dr. D. Harris, Professor, Depart- 

ment of Chemical Engineering, A. and 
M. College of Texas, are representative 
of our activity in this area. 

(i) Isopropanol as a Solvent for the Ex- 
traction of Cottonseed Oil (cooperative 
with the Department of Chemical Engi- 
neering, A. and M. College of Texas, and 
the Cotton Research Committee of 

This project was concerned with the 
use of isopropanol as a solvent for ex- 
tracting oil from cottonseed. A compre- 
hensive basic and engineering study of 
the solvent process using isopropanol 
has been made and reported in the 
literature. ’-" Included among the results 
is the description of a process using 
isopropanol to extract cottonseed oil, 
gossypol, and other suistances from cot- 
tonseed meats, and subsequently using 
a liquid-liquid extraction process for 
separating the high grade oil product 
from the miscella. 

The work indicates that the resulting 

7“Isopropanol as a Solvent for Extraction of 
I. Preliminary Investigations,” 
*. Bishop, C. M. Lyman, and R. 
2r. Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol. 
24, pp. 370-875; Nov. 1947. 

5 “Developments in Processing Cottonseed,” W. 
D. Harris, Chemurgic Digest, pp. 9-12; Nov. 1948. 

*“Isopropanol as a Solvent for Extraction of 
Cottonseed Oil—II. Separation of Purified Oil 
from Miscella,””’ W. D. Harris, J. W. Hayward, 
and R. A. Lamb, Jour. Amer. Oil Chemists’ So- 
ciety, Vol. 26, pp. 719-723; Dec. 1949. 

10 ‘‘Isopropanol as a Solvent for Extraction of 
Cottonseed Oil—II. The Use of Recycling to Ef- 
ect Solvent Economy,” W. D. Harris and J. W. 

u“Solvent Extraction of Cottonseed Oil with 
Isopropanol,” W. Harris, Bulletin No. 121, 
Texas ~Engineering Experiment Station, 72 pp., 
Sept. 1950. 

oil product may be of uniform quality 
over a wide range of seed quality, and 
the yield of refined oil will be appre- 
ciably greater than that obtained with 
conventional processes, including ex- 
traction with hexane. The results of 
feeding tests with the meal produced 
by the new method have shown that it 
is of much higher nutritional quality 
than meal produced by hydraulic or 
screwpress methods, or by solvent ex- 
tractions with hexane. Isopropanol was 
found to have other properties which 
make it a most suitable solvent: its 
ability to extract the toxic substances 
found in cottonseed meats, and its low 
fire hazard. 

(j) Acetone as a Solvent for Extraction 
of Cottonseed Oil (cooperative with the 
Department of Chemical Engineering, 
A. and M. College of Texas, and the 
Cotton Research Committee of Texas). 

An investigation has been made of the 
efficiency of acetone for the removal 
of oil and gossypol from cottonseed and 
the subsequent separation of the pure oil 
from the extract. From laboratory and 
pilot-plant studies it has been shown 
that while the extraction efficiency ob- 
tained with acetone is somewhat less 
than that obtained with isopropanol, 
there is also a reduced heat requirement 
so that one solvent is about as econom- 
ical as the other.” 

(k) Design and Development of New 
Type Solvent Extraction Equipment for 
Cottonseed (cooperative with the Depart- 
ment of Chemical Engineering, A. and M. 

2 “‘Acetone as a Solvent for Extraction of Cot- 
tonseed Oil,” In-Wai Hui, M.S. thesis, A. and 
College of Texas, June 1950. 



This Cross Sectional View of a Cen- 
Tennial Centrifugal Lint Cleaner tells 
the story. 

Leaf particles, pin trash and motes are 
removed from the Lint Cotton without 
any loss of spinnable lint. 

Grades are raised from one-half to a 
full grade on rough, hand - picked or 
mechanically harvested cotton. 



Write for Bulletin 51-L 


August 18, 1951 - 


College of Texas, and the Cotton Re- 
search Committee of Texas). 

During the extraction of oil from cot- 
tonseed by the solvent process, using 
conventional equipment, considerable 
quantities of very small particles of 
meats, technically known as “fines,” are 
formed. These particles are difficult to 
separate from the liquids in which they 
are suspended and give rise to certain 
operating and maintenance problems. 
While these problems may be eliminated 
by using prepressing, it is well known 
that the necessity for using prepressing 
is much greater with materials of high 
oil content, and that cottonseed meats 
containing 30 percent oil probably rep- 

resent a borderline case. It is natural, . 

therefore, at least as far as cottonseed 
are concerned, to seek an improved ex- 
tractor design which would obviate the 
need for prepressing. 

The essential function of any type of 
solvent extraction equipment is to bring 
about efficient contact between the oil- 
bearing meats and the solvent in a con- 
tinuous counter-flow fashion. Greatest 
extraction efficiency is obtained when 
the solvent is caused to percolate 
uniformly through the bed of flakes at 
maximum allowable velocity, the latter 
being determined both by the resistance 
of the flakes to the flow of solvent and 
by the allowable pressure drop. 

The new extractor developed under 

this project title is of the traveling 
sereen type. It is so arranged that the 
solvent flows upward through essential- 
ly horizontal layers of the flakes as the 
flakes are moved from top to the bottom 
of the extractor in a continuously mov- 
ing serpentine stream. Extended tests 
made at the rate of 60 lbs. of meats 
per hour have shown the design to be 
sound, have produced meal with less 
than one percent residual oil, and have 
shown that the problems presented by 
the presence of excessive fines are 
absent. Experiments have indicated that 
the equipment may readily be scaled up 
to full commercial size. 
(1) The Separation of the Constituents 
of Crude Cottonseed Oil by the Use of 
Liquid-Liquid Solvent Extraction (coop- 
erative with the Department of Chemical 
Engineering, A. and M. College of Texas, 
and the Cotton Research Committee of 

Previous solvent extraction studies 
have produced a liquid-liquid method for 
separating relatively pure oil from an 
isopropanol extract of cottonseed. The 
objective of this project is to extend 
the method to the separation of other 
valuable constituents occurring in crude 
cottonseed oil such as fatty acids, phos- 
pholipids, sterols, tocopherols, carbon- 
hydrates, gossypol, and color bodies. To 
date, emphasis in the experimental work 
has been on the refining of the oil, 
though some information has been se- 
cured on the separation of a fatty acid 
fraction and a pure sugar raffinose 
which normally is not digested by most 
animals. However, this sugar may be 
hydrolyzed to an edible syrup which 
should make a valuable by-product of 
cottonseed processing. This, as well as 
other phases of the project, are current- 
ly under investigation. 

The final project to be described has 
been conducted in our Chemurgic Re- 
search Laboratory. This laboratory was 
established by the 49th Legislature of 
the State of Texas for “. . . basic in- 
vestigation in Texas raw materials and 

(Continued on Page 34) 


Plenty of dependable power 
» heavy loads at lower cost 

Lar . I 


That’s why Edroy Co-op Gin 
Company chose two Le Roi 
L-3460's—600 hp (max.) each 

When you gin mechanically-picked cotton and operate extra accessory 
equipment you need plenty of power. Ginners like Edroy Co-op Gin 
Co. faced with this problem are turning to Le Roi L-3460 engines. 

Maximum output of these big V-12 units is 600 hp — no other 
engine of this kind can match this power. Recommended load for con- 
tinuous operation at 1200 rpm is 460 hp — at 900 rpm 360 hp. 

Despite its 600 hp, the 12 cylinder L-3460 is compact. Note the twin 
installation above at Edroy, Texas. Only a minimum of floorspace is 
required — installation is simplified, costs are low. 

For plenty of smooth, low-cost power to run your stands, cleaning 
equipment, pumps, blowers, presses, etc., your best buy is a Le Roi 
L-3460. You can run it on natural gas, butane, or —— Learn all 
about the many features of this remarkable engine. See your nearby 
Le Roi distributor, F-36 


Le Roi Cotton-Engine Distributors 

Ingersoll Corporation, Shreveport, Lo. 
Jackson, Miss. 

Tri-State Equipment Co., 
Little Rock, Ark., Memphis, Tenn. 

Nortex Engine & Equipment Co., 
Wichita Falls, Texas 

Farmers Supply, Lubbock, Texas 

Carson Machine & Supply Co., 
Oklahoma City, Oklo. 
General Machine & Supply Co., Odessa, Texas 
Southern Engine & Pump Company, 
Houston, San Antonio, Kilgore, Dal- 
las, Edinburg, Corpus Christi, Texas, 
and lafayette, Houma, La. 

August 18, 1951 

Quality of Ginning Service in Relation 
To Cost of Ginning in South Louisiana 


N ECONOMIC and technological ap- 

praisal of the quality of ginning 
services provided and the costs involved 
has been completed recently in the south- 
ern part of Louisiana. Conducted coop- 
eratively by the Louisiana State Univer- 
sity and the Research and Testing Di- 
vision of the Cotton Branch, Production 
and Marketing Administration of the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, the re- 
sults of this two-year study will be made 
available to Louisiana ginners and 
others by the Louisiana Experiment Sta- 
tion, Baton Rouge, La. The following is 
a brief synopsis of the findings, which 
will be of interest to ginners in areas ex- 
periencing similar weather and growth 

The most important single factor ad- 
versely affecting the value of cotton 
produced in South Louisiana is the re- 
duction in grade caused by rough gin- 
ning preparation. In recent years as 
much as 40 percent of the crop was re- 
duced one or more grades because of 
this factor. This reduction represents 
a considerable loss in income to pro- 
ducers in the area. 

The study revealed that beneficial re- 
sults were obtained by those producers 
who patronized the better or modern 
gins and the cost of ginning services to 
these producers was practically the same 
at all types of gins. From the standpoint 
of the ginners, the modern plants, op- 
erating with higher fixed costs owing 
to larger investments, were able to at- 
tract larger volumes and thereby to com- 
pete profitably with older obsolete plants 
at similar ginning rates. 

The standard or modern cotton gins 
in South Louisiana are equipped with an 
ll-shelf tower drier and a relatively 
small amount of auxiliary cleaning 
equipment which consists of either an 
overhead cylinder cleaner or multiple 
extractor feeders. The older and more 
obsolete plants are equipped with drum 
feeders, approximately 17 percent have 
no drying facilities, and none are equip- 
ped with overhead cleaning machinery. 

A comparison of average bale values 
of actual grades and estimated grades, 
assuming all bales were smooth, reveals 
that modern gins had an_ estimated 
seasonal loss of $2.31 per bale due to 
rough gin preparation, whereas  sub- 
standard gins had a loss of $3.33 per 
bale and substandard gins without driers 
a loss of $5.67 per bale. 

e Excess Moisture Is Chief Cause of 
Rough P i Excess moisture in 

1 Assistant agricultural economist, Louisiana Ex- 
periment Station, Baton Rouge, La., and agricul- 
tural economist, Stoneville Laboratory, Cotton 
Branch, Production and Marketing Administration, 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, respectively. 


the seed cotton was found to be responsi- 
ble for most of the rough gin preparation 
in South Louisiana. ror most efficient 
ginning it is desirable that the seed cot- 
ton moisture content be below 12 percent 
when it reaches the gin saws. On all but 
the early season ginning in 1948, the 
most favorable season on record, both 
standard gins and substandard gins with 
driers were able to lower the average 
seed cotton moisture content to this 
amount prior to ginning. Approximately 
60 percent of the cotton contained in 
excess of 12 percent seed cotton moisture 
upon arrival in 1948, as compared with 
90 percent in 1949, a more normal 
season from the standpoint of rainfall 
and other weather conditions in this 

An analysis of the relationship of 
lint moisture to rough gin preparation 
in 1949 revealed that each increase in 
the moisture content of the lint resulted 
in an_increase in the proportion of bales 
reduced in grade because of rough gin 
preparation. Only three percent of the 
ginnings with a lint moisture content 
of 5.9 percent or less were reduced in 
grade because of rough gin prepara- 
tion, whereas 72.2 percent were reduced 
when the lint moisture was 12 percent 
or greater. Within the normal or rel- 
atively dry lint moisture ranges of six 
to 6.9 percent and seven to 7.9 percent, 
13 and 21 percent, respectively, of the 
ginnings were reduced in grade. Thus, 
efficient drying of the seed cotton is 
desirable. The possibility of effecting 
significant reductions in the proportion 
of rough preparation in this area 
through employment of additional dry- 
ing capacities is illustrated by the fact 
that only three percent of the bales were 
reduced in grade when the lint moisture 
content was below six percent, as com- 
pared with 13 percent when the lint 
moisture content ranged from six to 
6.9 percent. 

Although excess moisture in the fiber 
is a principal factor causing rough prep- 
aration in South Louisiana, it is ap- 
parent that certain physical character- 
istics of the seed cotton and lint in con- 
junction with lint moisture content have 
a direct bearing on the preparation 
element of lint grades. The motiness of 
weevil-damaged locks of seed cotton de- 
tracts from the appearance of the lint. 
Rank plant growth and excessive rain- 
fall throughout this area frequently 
prohibit normal boll openings on the 
stalk, and, as a result, much of the cot- 
ton is picked with the locks of seed cot- 
ton in a compact form very similar to 
locks in unopened bolls. Unless these 
locks of seed cotton are opened or fluffed 
in the drying, cleaning, and extracting 
processes, the lint will be removed by 

August 18, 1951 ° 


the gin saws in the form of tangled or 
matted tufts of fibers, referred to in the 
cotton trade as naps. Although use of 
additional drying and cleaning equip- 
ment by ginners to provide more open- 
ing action on the unopened locks of seed 
cotton would also aid in reducing losses 
caused by rough preparation, the in- 
creased costs incurred would in most 
cases be prohibitive. Ginners should ad- 
vise producers of these facts and en- 
courage the proper use of insecticides 
and defoliants when needed. 

e Foreign Matter Affects Lint Grades 
—Although the foreign matter content 
of cotton as harvested in this area is 
relatively low and the extent of plant 
equipment limited, findings of this study 
reveal that both the amount of foreign 
matter in the seed cotton received by 
the gins and the equipment emp.oyed in 
its removal have a direct relationship to 
the resulting lint grades. Significant dif- 
ferences were found to exist in the for- 
eign matter content of seed cotton that 
graded Strict Muiddling, Middiing and 
strict Low Middling after being gin- 
ned on standard gins. In like manner, 
significant differences existed in the for- 
eign matter content of seed cotton ginned 
by the standard and substandard gins 
that produced similar lint grades. For 
example, an increase in the average 
foreign matter present before ginning of 
0.6 percent, or eight pounds per bale of 
seed cotton, resuited in a decrease in 
grade from Strict Middling to Middling 
when the seed cotton was ginned on 
standard gins; and substandard gins 
required cleaner seed cotton—cotton that 
did not contain more than an average 
of 1.2 percent foreign matter—to pro- 
duce Middling lint whereas standard 
gins produced Middling lint from seed 
cotton that contained 1.5 percent foreign 

The importance of adequate drying in 
obtaining maximum efficiency from 
cleaning and extracting machinery was 
illustrated by the fact that all gins re- 
quired cleaner seed cotton in 194¥, when 
the crop contained excessive moisture, to 
produce lint grades comparable to those 
obtained in the dry 1948 season. In both 
the 1948 and 1949 seasons, standard 
gins received seed cotton containing 
more foreign matter than that received 
by substandard gins. That the better 
equipped plants will normally receive 
rougher cotton is an established fact, 
not only in South Louisiana, but over 
the entire Cotton Belt. 

The cleaner seed cotton and the rel- 
atively dry condition in which the 1948 
crop was harvested enabled substandard 
gins to produce lint grades comparable 
to those turned out by the standard gins. 
If, however, the foreign matter present 
in the seed cotton had been the same, 
pronounced grade differences in favor 
of the better gins would have been 
evident. In 1949, standard gins, although 
receiving trashier cotton, turned out 
lint averaging $1.08 per bale higher than 
cotton ginned on substandard gin$ with 
driers and $2.50 per bale higher than 
cotton ginned on substandard gins with- 
out driers. 

Offsets Extra Moisture 

extra weight ginned 
in high moisture content cotton has 
somewhat restricted the employment of 
driers in this area, an analysis of the 
relationship of lint moisture to monetary 
returns to the producers was made on 
(Continued on Page 33) 

e Lint Loss 


Soybean Convention to Hear 
Dr. Cowan on Research 

Research problems of soybeans and 
soy products will be discussed by USDA 
scientist J. C. Cowan at the American 
Soybean Association’s 3lst annual con- 
vention, Secretary Treasurer Geo. M. 
Strayer said this week. The convention 
will be held in Des Moines and Ames, 
Iowa, Sept. 6, 7, and 8. 

Dr Cowan’s subject will be “Recent 
Research Development on Soybeans at 
the Northern Regional Research Lab- 
oratory.” He is head of the oil and pro- 
tein division of the laboratory, which 
is located at Peoria, Ill. He will discuss 
in particular the laboratory’s investiga- 
tion of the problems of flavor stability 
of soybean oil and the use of soy flour 
in commercially baked bread. 

“Soy oil is one of the nation’s two 
leading vegetable food oils from a 
volume standpoint,” says Strayer. “Its 
main outlets are shortening, margarine 
and salad oil. Its chief drawback as a 
food oil is a tendency toward flavor 
instability that the Northern Labora- 
tory has been trying to overcome for a 
number of years. When this problem 
is solved soybean oil will command an 
even larger market in food than it does 

“The use of soy flour, which is refined 
from soybean oil meal, in bread is also 
a promising market for the producer of 
soybeans. It is a concentrated source 
of needed protein, and also imparts 
physical qualities to bread that bakers 
like. One of the problems is to standard- 
ize the various soy flours produced so 
that bakers will know what they are 
buying and how they will perform when 
added to bread.” 

The Northern Laboratory installed a 
soy flour bakery in 1950 and is now 
working with the industry to standardize 
soy flour as a product. Dr. Cowan is in 
charge of this bakery. 

Convention headquarters will be Hotel 
Fort Des Moines. Formal program will 
be held there on Thursday and Friday, 
Sept. 6 and 7. The program will be fol- 
lowed by a field trip to Iowa State Col- 
lege at Ames on Saturday, Sept. 8. 

When Defoliating, Use 
Ample Materials 

Thorough coverage of cotton plants 
with chemical defoliant is essential for 
good defoliation, cautions F. C. Elliott, 
cotton work specialist for the Texas 
Extension Service. 

“This means going to the field with 
plenty of water,” Mr. Elliott said. “Under 
most conditions 25 gallons of water per 
acre will be necessary. In West Texas 
30 gallons per acre are needed. Six to 
eight spray nozzles are required per 
row, depending on the size of the 

Mr. Elliott recommends using dust de- 
foliants only when plants are wet with 
dew or when adequate dew is forecast. 
He cautions that the dust must remain 
in moisture on the leaf for at least two 
hours; four hours is preferred. 

The cotton specialist suggests that 
farmers contact their county agents or 
local defoliant dealers about the amounts 
of defoliant to use and the proper pro- 
cedure for applying. 

Leaflet 145, “Cotton Defoliation 
Guide,” may be obtained at county ex- 
tension offices in Texas. 

To a chemist 

aldrin is 

hexachlorohexahydro — 
2 € 


va 7 


(No wonder it took years of research 
and testing to develop!) 


and his gang / 
Powerful aldrin is 
the latest weapon in 

the planter’s war 
against insects. Just 
one pound of aldrin, 
properly diluted, 
controls boll wee- 

vils, thrips, tar- 
nished plant 

_—® bugs, rapid plant 
bugs, cotton flea- 
hoppers and grass- 
hoppers on 2 to 4 

acres of maturing 

Aldrin is manufactured by Julius Hyman & Aldrin is available under the brand names of 
Co., and is distributed by Shell Chemical leading insecticide manufacturers. Consult 
Corporation, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York 18. your local dealer and county agent. 

THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951 

oe oe, 
Continues to grow 

in popularity 



M“ and more cotton growers in Texas each 
year are harvesting their crop with the 
John Deere No. 15 Two-Row Cotton Harvester. 
It's just good business when they can reduce 
harvest costs by as much as $25 to $40 per bale 
over hand picking costs. These tremendous sav- 
ings pay for the No. 15 in just a few days and 
the John Deere’s simple design and rugged con- 
struction assure these savings over many years. 
The John Deere Cotton Harvester does an 
excellent, once-over job in defoliated cotton 
that is suitable for mechanical harvesting. Much 
of the dirt and trash is separated; cotton grades 
as high as cotton hand-pulled at the same time. 

The changeover to mechanical harvesting re- 
quires ginners to keep abreast of the times. Be 
sure you have the 
proper equip- 
ment to handle 

stripped cotton. 

jow™ Metae 

On No More Acreage — 

Legumes Help Farmer 
Grow More Cotton 

Use of legumes over all cotton growing acreage of the South 
would mean a tremendous increase in production—an increase 
of at least 1,000 bales a year in Texas alone, agronomists of 
Texas A. & M. College System and the Soil Conservation 
Service agree. 

for example: Texas’ cotton output last year averaged about 
211 pounds an acre. Using legumes in rotation with cotton 
boosts cotton yields about 20 percent on the average, or 40 
pounds (and this is a conservative estimate, experts say) to 
the acre. Therefore, Texas’ 13,000,000-odd acres in cotton, 
each acre producing an average of 40 pounds more, would 
mean 520,000,000 more pounds of cotton at ginning time. 

A legume crop on cotton land is worth money just for the 
nitrogen alone that goes into the soil, agronomists point out. 
Take vetch, one of the leading legume crops, for instance. 
Green vetch contains from .5 to .6 of one percent nitrogen— 
equal to 60 to 70 pounds of nitrate of soda—when a ton of 
green vetch is plowed into the soil. Vetch (dry weight) con- 
tains 2% to three percent nitrogen. That means that about 
60 pounds of nitrogen, or about 400 pounds of nitrate of soda, 
are supplied when a ton of dry vetch is cut into the soil. 

Other legumes add nitrogen about like vetch. 

Legumes add organic matter to the soil, but one of their 
main functions is to hold rather than add to the organic matter 
there. Fresh, easily decomposed crop residues must be worked 
into the soil to furnish food for soil bacteria. The bacteria 
need this food to do their work. Fertilized legumes such as 
hairy vetch, Austrian winterpeas, crimson clover, singletary 
peas, Hubam and annual yellow sweetclover also provide a 
protective soil cover, improve the soil structure so that it will 
absorb water readily and reduce soil losses and loss of plant 
nutrients through leaching. 

In areas where climatic conditions may make the use of 
legumes impractical, small grains such as rye, barley, oats 
and wheat can be used with good results. These crops, like 
legumes, provide an effective cover and reduce grosion damage 
by wind and water. They help to maintain the productive 
capacity of the soil when not harvested. 

In addition to the higher yields made possible by legumes, 
there is the grazing value of the legume crop to be considered. 
Legumes provide excellent grazing for livestock. 

A good supply of legume seed is in sight, agronomists say. 
But they add that farmers should lay in their seed and fer- 
tilizer early in order to avoid shortages that will be the result 
of a sudden demand. 

Agriculture Secretary Brannan in his recent appeal for 
higher production declared that “higher production must come 
largely from increased yields per acre if we are to avoid 
permanent injury to our land resources.” 

The agronomists point out that the use of legumes is one 
of the surest ways to increase yields without running the risk 
of further damage to the soil. 

New Mexico “Imports” Meal and Cake 

New Mexico stockmen use much of the cottonseed meal and 
cake produced in that state, and also large tonnages shipped 
in from Texas and other states, according to figures obtained 
by the Educational Service of the National Cottonseed Prod- 
ucts Association. 

Based upon feed tag and tax reports, the figures show: 

Cottonseed Meal and Cake (Tons) 

1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 

Produced in New Mexico 13,000 11,703 19,700 16,334 34,608 8,305 
Shipped into New Mexico 20,348 19,344 50,855 34,857 54,910 17,400 

e Of the 1,024 million pound growth in total fiber 
consumption which occurred between 1937 and 1949, 74 per- 
cent was due to increased use of snythetic fibers, according to 
a study made by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. and pub- 
lished in the Rayon Organon, Supplement May 1951. Com- 
pared to 1937, consumption of synthetics has increased 218 
percent, and natural fibers, six percent. 

August 18, 1951 * THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss 

Conference Nov. 5-7 to 
Review Feeding Tests 

A conference to review the progress 
made in current feeding experiments 
with cottonseed meal and to discuss 
technical problems involved in further 
tests will be held at the Southern Re- 
gional Research Laboratory in New 
Orleans, La., Nov. 5-7, according to a 
joint announcement by Dr. C. H. Fisher, 
director of the Laboratory, and A. L. 
Ward, Educational Service director, Na- 
tional Cottonseed Products Association. 

While attendance is expected to in- 
clude primarily the nutrition special- 
ists and other scientists from federal 
and state agencies, and from industry, 
who are engaged in research to improve 
the utilization of cottonseed’ meal, the 
conference is open also to others in- 
terested in the technical aspects of cot- 
tonseed nutrition. 

This conference follows a similar one 
held in Nov., 1950, at which experimen- 
tal procedures for producing cottonseed 
meals of superior nutritive value were 
announced along with encouraging re- 
sults from a few preliminary feeding 
trials with swine and poultry. Since 
then, 25 tons of the improved meals 
have been produced and fed with results 
which will be reviewed and analyzed at 
the 1951 conference. 

Since accommodations are limited, 
persons desiring to attend this conference 
should contact Dr. Fisher at 2100 Robert 
E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans 19, La., 
well in advance, advising whether or 
not hotel reservations are desired. 

Mississippi May Become 
No. 1 Seéd Producer 

The Mississippi Seed Improvement f 
Association was told at its twelfth Le ae 
annual meeting at State College Aug. 9 s ; Bemis 18 also a 
that “Mississippi has potentialities of Z ? 
becoming the leading seed producing “ ’ major source of 
state in ae age’ a _ 
made by V. A. Johnson of Indianola, the f 
association’s president. cotton bags, 

The certified seed crop produced in 
the state last year had an estimated paper bags, and 
value of $10 million and could easily ° 
reach the $25 million mark within the | bag-closing thread 
next few years, he said. ' 

During the past 12 years the list of So i 
Mississippi crops certified by the asso- -e" and twine. 
ciation has grown from four to 18 and 
the organization’s membership from 25 
to around 600. 

This year the association will inspect 
for certification 105,000 acres of cotton, 
compared to 86,000 acres in 1950. 

Flooded Kansas Will Need 

More Cottonseed Feeds 

Kansas livestock producers will rely 
heavily on cottonseed meal or cake for ‘ 
<a senting is winter to offset flood An American enterprise 
damage to their feed crops, according 
to James Leathers, Cowley prices agent, | in business since 1858 
Arkansas City, Kan. 

Mr. Leathers reported that farmers 
who have any alfalfa left are being ad- 
vised to make every effort to harvest it 
as a seed crop, rather than hay, and to 
turn to cottonseed meal and cake to re- 
place the alfalfa. He feels that cotton- 
seed meal combined with native blue- 
stem pasture will take the place of al- 
falfa and that there is greater need for | 
alfalfa as a seed crop. 

THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press + August 18, 1951 

with Farmers Union support, had begun 
a drive to stop the use of Mexican farm 
workers to save U.S. crops. A critical 
farm labor shortage would have created 
conditions which the labor groups could 
have used to force unionization of all 
farm labor. Our story forced the AFL 
into the open with a declaration of 
intent to push its invasion into the 
farm field. 

AFL President William Green ap- 
pointed a committee to study “the con- 
ditions of farm laborers, as distinct 
from farm owners, and their relations 
with the owners of the big, corporate 
farms.” This, of course, could result in 

iw ow Washingten Bureau 


Washington Representative 
The Cotton Gin and Oil Mill Press 

e Labor War Against Farmers—News- 
papers last week carried a brief item 
under a Montreal, Canada, dateline an- 
nouncing that the Executive Council of 
the American Federation of Labor, 
meeting there, had “broken off rela- 
tions” with the Farm Bureau and Na- 
tional Grange. The AFL went a step 
further and issued what amounted to a 
declaration of war on the two major 
U.S. farm organizations. 

It still is too early to determine 
whether this will lead to bitter warfare 
between the powerful labor and farm 
organizations. The threat, however, is 
seriously disturbing to leaders of both 
groups. They feel that both sides would 
have a lot to lose and little to gain by 
a labor-farmer feud. 

The action, however, cannot be taken 

however, say they have no intention of 
retaliating with an anti-labor policy; 
that they will go ahead as in the past 
doing their best to represent national 
and farm interests. Any action they 
take will be defensive. 

Despite Grange and Farm Bureau 
reluctance to engage in a cat and dog 
fight with labor, there are indications 
that the AFL declaration was no mere 
letting off of steam, but the start of a 
long-planned program to make farmers 
bow to the will of organized labor. 

Other pro-labor and anti-farm groups 
jointed in backing the AFL so speedily 
that many here believe the statement 
was a part of a carefully planned cam- 
paign. The CIO said it will support the 
AFL 100 percent. The Farmers Union, 
which frequently reflects more of a 
labor than a farm viewpoint, applauded 

distrust and suspicion in farm ranks 
and the AFL and CIO could be ex- 
pected to cap?talize on such a develop- 

The AFL, in its invasion of the farm 
field, will work through one of its af- 
filiates, the National Farm Labor 
Union, which has been active in several 
states. A CIO spokesman said his organ- 
ization will “work closely” with the 
Farmers Union. The drive is to be 
backed by the  multi-million-dollar 
treasuries of the two big labor groups. 

Farmers Union President James Pat- 
ton, in a letter to AFL President Green, 
endorsed the unprovoked attack on 
farmers by the AFL, and added AFL 
aid “will be greatly appreciated.” He 
promised labor the full support of the 
Farmers Union in killing present farm 

as a mere gripe by the AFL. It is deep- 

and intense. If pursued, the 
AFL has chosen would result 
in a further bitterness between 
producers and consumers. | 
Grange and Farm Bureau leaders, 

the AFL action with a statement that 
it was “fully justified” in fighting the 
Farm Bureau and Grange. 

Less than a month ago we reported 
here -exclusively that the labor groups, 

laws which protect farmers and in sub- 
stituting therefor a Brannan Plan type 
of farm socialization. 

control of farm labor is only the first 

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THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press + August 18, 1951 

step toward the objective sought by the 
AFL and CIO. The ultimate aim is to 
force acceptance of the Democratic ad- 
ministration’s socialization program and, 
consequently, make farmers subservient 
to the orders of powerful labor leaders. 
The tone of the AFL blast and the 
Farmers Union pledge of support indi- 
cate a basic conflict of interest and 
objectives. The statement boasts that 
it was a “liberal administration” which 
“bailed out” farmers when they were in 
trouble. It makes the astounding claim 
that it was labor leaders and liberal 
politicians who deserve the credit for 
such programs as crop loans, support 
prices, soil conservation, REA and the 
adoption of the parity formula. The 
facts, of course, are to the contrary. 
But now, the AFL threatens, unless 
farm leaders do as they are told, labor 

will lead the fight to have those laws 
repealed. “Labor,” says the statement, 
“cannot go on indefinitely supporting 
legislation beneficial to farmers... ” 
The AFL calls the failure of farmers 
to go along with politico-socialization 
schemes one of the “most disturbing 
political developments of our times.” 

e Johnston vs. the Farmer—Stabiliza- 
tion officials who follow the Truman 
line are as sore as a boil at farm leaders 
who opposed the administration-labor 
coalition drive for putting farm prices 
in an economic straightjacket. Among 
the most outspoken is Eric Johnston, 
former president of the U.S. Chamber 
of Commerce and now stabilization 

Behind locked doors and before the 
President’s War Mobilization Advisory 




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Write, wire or phone us today! 


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August 18, 1951 ° 

Committee made up of farm, labor and 
business leaders, Johnston repeatedly has 
attacked “the reactionary farm leaders” 
because they refused to go along with 
the administration’s control program. 
Johnston says he is convinced that farm- 
ers really want the controls he had 
planned for them. 

Farm leaders have stood their ground, 
but they are fearful that they may yet 
regret leaving any kind of a club in 
the hands of a man who so openly and 
vehemently hates them. Labor leaders 
are slapping Johnston on the back and 
whooping it up for big wage hikes as 
their reward for backing the adminis- 

Congress, in passing the new Defense 
Production Act, said it would do the 
job of preventing inflation “if properly 
administered.” The administration says 
that was Congress’ way of giving itself 
an “out’’ when inflation really comes. 
Stabilization officials, however, are pre- 
paring to blame Congress and farmers 
for whatever happens. 

e Texas Cotton Crop Big Question 
Mark — The heat that has seared the 
Texas cotton crop has Washington of- 
ficials sweating. They wonder if they 
acted too hastily in open-ending export 
quotas solely on the Aug. 1 estimate of 
17,266,000 bales, Texas, in that estimate, 
was counted on for five million bales. 

Agriculture Department officials say 
they will continue to act on the basis of 
the Crop Board forecast until the Sept. 
1 report, to be released Sept. 10, is 
made, Some think they can stand a mil- 
lion-bale reduction and still leave ex- 
ports on an open-end basis. More than 
that would have them in trouble, they 

The open-end announcement by Secre- 
tary Brannan provides that all restric- 
tions on the amount of cotton to be ex- 
ported are temporarily removed. Ex- 
port licensing, however, will be contin- 
ued in order to block shipments to coun- 
tries that might re-export behind the 
Iron Curtain. Brannan can, if the crop 
turns out short, reinstate quotas, but 
his statement indicated he has no 
thought of doing that. 

e It’s a Promise: No Cotton Price Roll- 
back—-OPS officials have re-stated and 
emphasized their promise that there will 
be no further rollback in cotton price 
ceilings this year, but they are mum on 
their intentions for 1952. 

As a matter of fact, they point out, 
there would be no object in rolling back 
ceilings so long as market prices remain 
below the lowest point at which new 
ceilings could be established. They are 
pleased that, for a change, the heat will 
be on USDA to keep prices,from sag- 
ging too low. 

It still is to early to talky, officially, 
about ceilings for next yeag,,One OPS 
official “guessed” that ceilitigs next year 
will be “under 40 cents @ pound.” In 
his opinion “we can get just as much 
cotton at 40 cents as we'can at 45 

Meanwhile, an OPS regulation per- 
mitting ginners to raise their ginning 
price six percent over July, 1950, has 
been prepared and awaits only the sig- 
nature of DiSalle to make it final. That 
may come any day. 

@ The community that makes 
progress is the community that decides 
what it wants to do and lays out a plan 
to attain its goals. 


August 1 Cotton Report 

The Crop Reporting Board of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics makes the following report 
from data furnished by crop correspondents, field statisticians, Production and Marketing Administra- 
tion, and cooperating State agencies. The final outturn of cotton compared with this forecast will 
depend upon whether the various influences affecting the crop during the remainder of the season are 

more or less favorable than usual. 

August 1 

Area in Condition 

July 1, 1951 

less 10-year 



1949 1950 1951 


North Carolina 
South Carolina 

New Mexico 
Other States * 

United States 
New Mexico 

All other 

Production (Ginning)* 
500-lb gross wt. bale 

Lint Yield Per 
Harvested Acre 


age 1950 
1940 Crop 

1950 cated 



| From natural causes. 2 Indicated August 1, on area in cultivation July 1 less 10-year average abandon- 

tucky, and Nevada 

Infestations Light, but — 

USDA Warns Against 

Weevil Outbreaks 

aw Cotton insect control measures 
so far have been good this year, 
but USDA warns now is the cru- 
cial time of the 1951 season. 

Federal and state cotton insect sur- 
veys throughout the Cotton Belt up to 
Aug. 14 showed that boll weevils were 
still largely under control, with infesta- 
tion generally light but some spotted 
heavy populations. 

Cotton growers in all states were 
urged to keep a close watch on their 
fields to detect increases in insect pop- 
ulations during the crucial weeks of 
August and to apply insecticides 
promptly where needed. USDA also 
urged producers in the weevil belt to 
destroy their cotton stalks as early as 
possible, “since early fall destruction 
of stalks is one of the best and cheapest 
means of reducing damage from boll 
weevils for the next season.” 

e Boll Weevil—Boll weevil infestations 
in Virginia have remained low, prob- 
ably due to weather conditions and dust- 
ing operations. Sharp weevil increases 
early in August were reported in North 
Carolina fields which have shown heavy 
populations all season throughout the 
state, with migration in most areas. 
Weevils were found in all South Caro- 
lina fields examined, but at much lower 
rates of punctured squares than at the 
same time in 1950. 

Boll weevils were increasing in Georgia 


A'lowances made for interstate movement of seed cotton for ginning. * Illinois, 
Included in State and United States totals. 

Kansas, Ken- 

and many fields still need poisoning, 
reports to USDA indicated, although 
infestations generally were light. Weevils 
were also found in almost all Alabama 
fields examined, with heavy infestations 
in some fields. 

Quick and efficient control of early 
infestations and unfavorable weather 
for weevils a few weeks ago resulted in 
low infestation rates in Tennessee, en- 
tomologists reported. The few high in- 
festations present in that state are due 
to no controls or to lack of proper ap- 
plication, reports said. 

Boll weevil infestations were low in 
the Delta counties of Mississippi, being 
less than one-third as heavy as during 
the first week of August last year. Local 
migrations were causing an increase in 

Rains in Louisiana were unfavorable 
for weevil control, but infestations were 
generally much lighter than in 1949 and 
1950. Weevils in Arkansas were well 
under control up to Aug. 14 except in 
areas where showers had interrupted 
poisoning, although local migration had 
caused jumps in weevil population in 
some fields. 

Boll weevils were reported to be well 
under control in practically all fields in 
Oklahoma up to Aug. 11. Weevils were 
still numerous enough to cause damage 
in some fields in northern and north- 
eastern Texas, although infestation 
counts were dropping and were less than 
half as much as at the same time 
in 1950. 

e Bollworms — Bollworms were causing 
some damage in the western half of 
the Cotton Belt, although populations 
generally were under control. Bollworms 
were the No. 1 pest in Oklahoma at 
mid-month and were causing much 
damage in fields where no control or 

- August 18, 1951 

insufficient control measures have been 

Heaviest bollworm infestations in 
Texas were in the western part of the 
state, mostly in irrigated cotton on the 
South Plains and in the Pecos and El 
Paso Valleys. The bollworm was also 
building up throughout New Mexico, 
with infestations reported from severe 
to light and much poisoning activity. 

Bollworms were also found in damag- 
ing numbers in many fields in the Salt 
River Valley in Arizona early in August. 

Bollworms and other lepidopterous 
larvae were also reported in Alabama, 
Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and 
Arkansas, although no serious outbreaks 
were noted. 

e Other Cotton Insects — Lygus bugs, 
stink bugs, beet armyworms and salt 
marsh caterpillars were among insects 
infesting cotton in Arizona. Mites, white 
flies, lygus bugs and leafhoppers were 
found in most California fields. These 
— and red spiders were reported in 
New Mexico. 

Only two leafworms, one in Lamb 
County and one in Cameron County, 
Texas, have been found this year. 

Support Price Determined 
For 1951 Peanut Crop 

Secretary of Agriculture Brannan 
has announced an average support price 
of $230.56 per ton for 1951-crop farm- 
ers stock peanuts of all types. This 
average support level reflects 88 per- 
cent of parity price ($262 per ton or 
13.1 cents per pound) as of the beginning 
of marketing season on Aug. 1. This 
year’s average support price represents 
an increase of $14.56 per ton over 
average suport price for 1950-crop pea- 
nuts. Support for the 1950-crop at $216 
per ton was based on 90 percent of 
parity as of Aug. 1, 1950. 

Farmers Urged to Put 
Half of Crop in Loan 

In several sections of the Belt 
this week agricultural leaders 
began echoing the Beltwide Pro- 
ducers Committee’s recent plea to 
farmers to put one of every two 
bales in the government loan. 

Commissioner of Agri- 

John C. White said that 

“the cost of raising the crop has 

gone so high that the prospective 

market price will not cover 

“But,” he said, “by borrowing 
money on their cotton from the 
government and holding it in loan, 
at least until next December, 
farmers can sell it for enough to 
meet expenses and perhaps make 
a profit.” 

And at a pink bollworm meeting 
at Brownsville, Texas, this week, 
Dr. C. R. Sayre of Scott, Miss., 
said a drop in lint prices might 
be averted if growers kept half 
the crop off the market for a 
time. USDA has made such a sug- 
gestion, appealing to farmers to 
“feed the market,” and _ stretch 
sales over a 12-month period to 
keep prices of the 1951 crop from 

Cotton in Two Texas Areas 

Studied in New Bulletin 

When properly selected, cottons of 
the Lower Rio Grande Valley and Texas 
Coastal Bend make stronger yarns than 
do fibers of the same length grown in 
the Mid-South and Southeast. 

That fact was revealed in a bulletin 
just published at the University of 
Texas by the Cotton Research Com- 
mittee of Texase*® 

The report gives data on Valley and 
Coastal Bend cotton production, va- 
rieties planted and their fiber proper- 
ties. It also presents information on 
distribution of fiber properties accord- 
ing to strength and fineness and the 
cotton’s behavior during spinning, when 
different amounts of twist are used. 

From the data, merchants and mill 
representatives can learn exactly what 
the cotton will do when it is put into 
manufactured products and where each 
particular variety with its special prop- 
erties may be found. 

The report is the fourth in a series 
of investigations made by Cotton Re- 
search Committee scientists and is de- 
signed to show the merchandising ad- 
vantages of Texas cotton. Other reports 
have been made on varieties produced 
in the El Paso area, High Plains and 
Blacklands of Texas. 

Another study comparing cotton va- 
rieties planted for the 1950 and 1951 
season in the Valley and Coastal Bend 
shows there were significant shifts to 
the planting of Deltapine this year in 
Cameron and Willacy Counties. Delta- 




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August 18, 1951 ° 

pine, Stoneville and Empire were the 
most popular varieties ae during 
1951 in the Valley, while Lankhart, 
Stoneville and Delfos were favored by 
Coastal Bend farmers. 

The planting report also includes the 
average tensile strength and fineness of 
samples of 1951 cotton in the Lower 
Rio Grande Valley. 

The general report on Valley and 
Coastal Bend cotton was a cooperative 
effort of the University of Texas 
Cotton Economic Research and the 
Texas Technological College Cotton Re- 
search. The University division con- 
ducted the plantings study. 

Both units work through the Cotton 
Research Committee of Texas made up of 
the heads of the University, Texas Tech 
and Texas A. & M. College. 

The Valley area covered in the re- 
ports includes Hidalgo, Willacy and 
Cameron Counties, and the Coastal 
Bend section includes Refugio, San 
Patricio, Nueces and Kleberg Counties. 

James R. Strain Is Victim 
Of Heart Attack Aug. 7 

James R. Strain, 51, president of 
Tupelo Oil & Gin Co., Tupelo, Miss., 
died Aug. 7 following a heart attack at 
his home early that morning. 

Mr. Strain, known to his friends as 
“Zook,” was a prominent member of the 
cottonseed crushing and cotton ginning 
industries and a director of the Na- 
tional Cotton Council. He was active in 
civic, business and church affairs in 
Tupelo. He served his city as alderman 
from 1933 to 1949 and as vice-mayor 
from 1936 to 1949. Mr. Strain had been 
Pea of the Bank of Tupleo since | 


The Mid-South business leader was 
born July 15, 1900, the son of the late! 
Clark R. and Muzette Biggs Strain. He 
graduated from Tupelo Military Insti- 
tute and Mississippi State College. He 
was married to the former Mary Stevens 
in 1929. 

In addition to his wife, Mr. Strain is 
survived by a son, James R. Strain, 
Jr.; two daughters, Miss Mildred Lake 
Strain and Miss Janetta Strain, all of 
Tupelo; a brother, Cecil C. Strain, Jack- 
son, Miss.; and two sisters, Miss Etta 
Strain, also of Jackson, and Mrs. Jayne 
Strain Leake, Tupelo. 

Funeral services were held at Tupelo 
on Aug. 8, with burial in that city. 

Bolton Heads Louisiana 
Cottonseed Crushers 

M. L. Bolton, Lafayette, was elected 
president and secretary-treasurer of the 
Louisiana Cottonseed Crushers Associa- 
tion at its annual meeting held in 
Alexandria Aug. 2. He succeeds F. L. 
Morgan, Natchitoches. 

J. L. Cazayoux, Jr., New Roads, was 
named vice-president to succeed Mr. 

Linters and Pulp Export 
Allocations Increased 

USDA and U.S. Department of Com- 
merce have announced an increase of 
100,000 bales in export allocation for 
raw cotton linters or equivalent pulp, 
bringing the total 1951-52 preliminary 
allocation to 250,000 bales. 


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On Livestock Feeding 

e Dry, Mature Pasture Lacks Protein 

Most pastures are furnishing 1/3 to 1/2 
less protein than they did last month. 
When pasture forage starts maturing, 
the protein content drops rapidly, the 
volume of forage is less abundant and 
livestock eat less of what is available 
because it is less palatable. 

The best way to maintain good gains 
and high production is to supplement 
with cottonseed meal or other high 
protein supplement. The cottonseed meal 
in the dairy concentrate mixture should 
be increased. Steers, calves and lambs 

on pasture will make better use of dry 
forage and continue good gains if sup- 
plemental cake or pellets are fed. 

e Plan Now for Early Supplemental 
Feeding — Extension and experiment 
station livestock specialists agree that 
most cattle and sheep raisers wait too 
late to start supplemental protein feed- 


A California College of Agriculture 
sheep specialist said, “We have found 
that the best way to supplement ewes 
is to start feeding 1/10 pound (of cot- 
tonseed cake) daily as early as Septem- 
ber 1 when the weather is still warm 
and there appears to be plenty of dry 
feed available. About a month later, the 
ration is increased to 1/8 pound and 
gradually built up until, during Decem- 



Applied as a Spray 

Commercial and experimental use 
show that Shed-A-Leaf will de- 
foliate cotton plants from top to 
bottom—also that it is very eco 
nomical to use. Shed-A-Leaf is a 
powder—to be dissolved in water 
and applied by airplane or ground 
sprayers. Good defoliation can be 
obtained even when there is no 
dew on the plants. Time of appli 
cation is generally 2 to 3 weeks 
before picking. 


Experiment stations have found that 
chemical defoliation of cotton will: 
1. Hasten maturity. 
2. Reduce boll rot. 
3. Reduce late insect infestation. 
4. Facilitate hand or machine 
. Reduce trash and leaf stain. 
. Permit earlier cover crop 





Circular on Shed-A- Leaf 
and how to defoliate cotton 



Also Manufacturers of Chipman Cotton Poisons 

August 18, 1951 ° 

ber and January, they are receiving % 

A Colorado A. & M. livestock special- 
ist says that in the fall, even before 
winter sets in, cake is needed by beef 
herds on range pastures to supply both 
protein and phosphorus which is de- 
ficient in mature grass. 

The Southern Forest Experiment 
Station warns that cattlemen in the 
South should not wait until Christmas 
to start feeding because most cattle 
have already lost valuable weight by 
that time. They say, “Where pastures 
are scarce, 1% pounds of cottonseed 
cake or meal per cow per day from mid- 
November through mid-March will do 

e Silage-Making Time — Many Cotton 
Belt farmers are making more silage 
this year because they got caught short 
on roughage and pasture last winter. 
A full silo is like money in the bank 
because it is sure to be needed and may 
be held in reserve until needed. Silage 
is especially good roughage for dairy 
cows when pastures are scarce. 

Silage and cottonseed hulls make a 
good roughage combination. Both are 
highly palatable. Silage is succulent and 
hulls help to provide bulk and prevent 

e Plenty of “Good” Water Is Important 
—Livestock must have plenty of water 
during hot summer days. Fresh, clean 
and cool water is more palatable and 
increases water consumption. Troughs 
should be cleaned regularly. A shade 
over the water trough will keep the 
water temperature low enough to insure 
adequate consumption. 

e Protein Is Important in the Field or 
in the Lot—Many Cotton Belt farmers 
are about ready to start hogging-down 
corn fields. Supplemental protein is need- 
ed there just as it is in dry lot feeding. 
A good mixture to use is: 40 pounds 
of cottonseed meal, 40 pounds of tank- 
age and 20 pounds of alfalfa leaf meal. 
The alfalfa may be omitted if green 
pasture is available along with the grain 
in the field. 

e Prepare for Temporary Fall Pastures 
—Small grain and other temporary fall 
and winter pastures will reduce food 
costs. Early seeding on well-prepared 
fields provides the most grazing. 
Plants are damaged by grazing be- 
fore they get well established. Supple- 
mental feeding of cottonseed meal and 
hulls, before pastures are ready and 
during scarce periods, maintains good 
production and increases pasture value. 
Hulls are also good to help prevent 
bloat and scours on young, tender 
pasture. —Educational Service, National 
Cottonseed Products Association. 

Congressmen to Ask USDA 

To Stockpile Cotton 

Rep. Harold D. Cooley (D., N. C.), 
chairman of the House Agriculture 
Committee, and Rep. W. R. Poage (D., 
Texas) were to have presented an of- 
ficial request to USDA Aug. 17 asking 
that 2,000,000 bales of cotton be stock- 
piled immediately to stabilize the 

Rep. Poage said that after careful 
study by congressmen the Agriculture 
Committee was convinced that USDA has 
the authority to stockpile cotton under 
existing laws. 


Starved Land Doesn’t Produce 

Fertilized Legumes 
Boost Crop Yields 

@ And, says E. A. Miller of the 
Texas Extension Service, now is 
the time to obtain seed and fer- 
tilizer to put in a legume crop. 

Plants need plenty of the right kind 
of food in order to thrive and produce 
profitable yields. It is not possible, says 
Y Miller, extension agronomist of 
Texas A. & M. College, to produce good 
crops unless sufficient amounts of the 
right plant foods are available, regard- 
less of how good the seed or cultural 
method used. 

In addition to the plant food, plants 
also need a good home in which to live 
and lots of water to drink. Miller says 
one of the best ways to provide these 
important items is to feed the land by 
planting inoculated and fertilized le- 
gumes. Legumes not only furnish plant 
food—especially the high priced and 
badly needed nitrogen they get from the 
air—but also make a better home for 
the crops that follow them. The action 
of the organic matter supplied by 
legumes when plowed under improves the 
tilth of the soil, increases bacterial 
action and provides more water by in- 
creasing the water holding capacity of 
the soil. 

Miller points out that the test of any 
program aimed at increasing crop yields 
and farm profits comes with results 
and cites research findings and hun- 
dreds of Extension Service demonstra- 
tions as proof that it pays to feed the 
land. Cotton yields on the Texas Agri- 
cultural Experiment Stations at Nacog- 
doches and Tyler were increased by 
more than 100 pounds of lint per acre 
and corn yields doubled when planted 
following inoculated and _§ fertilized 
hairy vetch. 

At the Temple Station in the Black- 
land area, cotton, following Hubam 
sweetclover, which was harvested for 
seed, produced a five year average of 
315 pounds of lint per acre as com- 
pared with a yield of 165 pounds per 
acre from cotton grown continuously 
without clover. The yields of corn, oats, 
barley and wheat following clover were 
also increased. County agents, Miller 
adds, report similar results from the 
farm demonstrations they have super- 

Aside from increased yields, certain 
of the legumes also provide the best 
known method for controlling cotton 
root rot. The use of sweetclover in the 
rotation plan for the farm is Miller’s 
suggestion for controlling this disease. 
The recommended varieties are Hubam, 
Madrid and annual yellow blossom—the 
latter mainly in South Texas and the 
Gulf Coast Prairie. 

Hairy vetch, Willamette vetch, winter 
peas and other legumes also increase 
yields and reduce root rot losses but 
are not as effective on the Blacklands 
as sweetclover. This may be due, says 
Miller, to the fact that the clovers with 
their extensive and deep root system 
open up the soil and this in turn per- 
mits better soil aeration, allowing faster 


and deeper water penetration, in ad- 
dition to adding nitrogen and organic 
matter. This leaves the soil in a very 
favorable condition to produce. 

Now is the time, says Miller, to secure 
the necessary legume seed and fertilizer 
that will be needed to put in the legume 
crop. He suggests that soil samples be 
taken from the fields in which legumes 
are to be planted and sent to the Soil 
Testing Laboratory at College Station 
for an analysis. The analysis and recom- 
mendations from the laboratory are a 
mighty good foundation on which to 
start a soil building or improvement 
program, and Miller suggests to farmers 
and others who are interested in start- 
ing such a program that they contact 
their local county agent for information 
on soil testing and legume varieties for 
their section of the state. 

or Best Foods Real 

the BEST FOODS, Inc. (BEY 

Peanut Stocks Are High 
As of June 30 

Stocks of peanuts in off-farm po- 
sitions on June 30 totaled about 414 mil- 
lion pounds, farmers’ stock equivalent, 
according to USDA’s Bureau of Agri- 
cultural Economics. This compares with 
252 million pounds on June 30, 1950 and 
the record high of 455 million pounds 
on June 30, 1946. 

Holdings of farmers’ stock peanuts, 
reported at 197 million pounds, were 
more than twice the 81 million pounds 
on this date last year, but about equal 
to stocks of 198 million pounds on June 
30, 1949. Stocks of shelled, edible pea- 
nuts totaled 192 million pounds com- 
pared with 196 million pounds on May 
31, 1951 and 154 million pounds on June 
30 last year. 

More Proof 

of His Power! 


\ es 


Yes, homemakers throughout the country are grateful to the cotton 
industry for the delicious, wholesome foods produced from cottonseed 
oil. And King Cotton may well be proud of the part he plays in 

the making of Nucoa margarine and Hellmann's or. Best Foods 

Real Mayonnaise! The: flavorful goodness of these food products 
are wonderful reasons why American cooks so love King Cotton. 

Enjoy flavor fit for a king! 

Enjoy Nucoa margarine and Hellmann’s 


1 East 43rd Street, New York 17, N. Y. 

August 18, 1951 

New Products: 

As a V-belt sheave manufacturer and 
roller chain sprocket distributor, the need 
for an interchangable hub sprocket has 
long been apparent to Fort Worth Steel 
and Machinery Co. This firm has de- 

veloped a sprocket to fit their “QD” 
V-belt sheave hub so that their distrib- 
utors can give immediate “off the 
shelf” service without reboring on 
sprockets as well as V-sheaves. 

The “QD” sprocket is taper-bored to 
receive the tapered hub. Bolts are pro- 
vided to pull the sprocket onto the 
tapered split hub for a tapered drive 
assembly and a positive press fit on the 
shaft. Tapped holes in the sprocket per- 
mit the use of pull-up bolts as jack 
screws to break the tapered fit when 
dismounting the sprocket. Set screw 
over the keyway holds key in position. 

In addition to the advantage of “off 

the shelf” service without reboring, 
speed changes are greatly simplified at 
a savings in price. The “QD” sprocket 
cuts cost of replacement on worn 
sprockets and reduces cost of spare 
sprockets. Maintenance and break down 
time are reduced as “QD” sprockets can 
be installed or removed quicker than 
conventional type. These sprockets are 
stocked at the factory in %” pitch 
through 1%” pitch. 

Peanuts, Butter, Cheese 
Imports Restricted 

USDA announced Aug. 9 that ef- 
fective immediately no commercial im- 
ports of peanuts, peanut oil, butter oil, 
and nonfat dried milk solids will be per- 
mitted for domestic consumption. The 
announcement stated also that the im- 
ports of cheese and casein had been 
placed on a quota basis. 

The action was taken in accordance 
with the provisions of the Defense Pro- 
duction Act, as amended, which require 
the imposition of controls over fats and 
oils, butter, cheese and other dairy 
products if the importation would (1) 
impair or reduce domestic production, 
(2) interfere with orderly domestic 
storing or marketing, or (3) result in 
any unnecessary burden or expenditure 
under any government price-support 
program. Department officials st “ed 
that uncontrolled imports of the com- 
niodities listed in the Aug. 9 announce- 
ment would have one or more of the 
specified adverse effects. 

Harper to Direct Beef 
Cattle Show at Fair 

Names of officials for livestock shows 
at the State Fair of Texas, Dallas, Oct. 
6-21, have been announced by Ray W. 
Wilson, livestock manager. 

Superintendent of the beef cattle di- 
vision will be Garlon A. Harper, field 
representative of the National Cotton- 
seed Products Association in Dallas, 
assisted by Norman G. Schuessler, 
regional manager of the Federal Land 
Bank of Houston, San Angelo. 

W. L. Stangel, dean, Division of Ag- 
riculture, Texas Technological College, 
Lubbock, will serve as general superin- 
tendent of the livestock department and 
C. G. Seruggs, associate editor of The 
Progressive Farmer, Dallas, as arena 

In the dairy cattle division, R. E. 
Burleson, extension dairy husbandman 
of Texas A. & M. College, will be super- 
intendent, assisted by A. M. Meekma, 
ween dairy husbandman at Texas 

For swine, Fred Hale, professor, 
Animal Husbandry Department, Texas 
A. & M., will be superintendent, assisted 
by Dan Kiber, head, Department of Ag- 
riculture, Arlington State College, Ar- 

J. P. Heath, breeder, Argyle, will be 
superintendent of sheep and angora 
goats. W. E. Shepard, manager of Star 
Brand Cattle Co., Kaufman, Texas, will 
serve as superintendent of the quarter 
horse show. 

Enterprise Vertical Hammer Mills 
Outperform, Outlast Them all 

© 4 Sizes, 
®@ Replaceable 

VEGETABLE OIL PROCESSORS using Enterprise Vertical Mills 

know their value in terms of high output per hp, top product 

quality and uniformity, minimum maintenance and repair 

costs, small space requirements and accessibility. For greater 

profits in your processing operations, write for full information, 

or contact your nearest Enterprise distributor. 

~ Enterprise 
Process Machinery 

A Subsidiary of General Metals Corporation 
18th & Florida Sts., San Francisco 10 Calif. 

© Interchangeable 



4Pri. nF 
acer sti 

2 7 4 







THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951 

RATES Ten cents per word, per insertion. In- 
clude your firm name and address in count. Mini- 
mum advertisement $2.00. Strictly cash basis—en- 
close check with order. Write copy plainiy. 

‘Oil Mill Equipment for Sale 

Three-section cage French screw 

40 h.p. flange mounted motor and 

tempering hin. Also No. 1 Anderson expleliers, 

belt driven, attractively priced. Inquire—Box 493, 

care The Cotto mn Gin and Oi] Mill Press, P. O. Box 
444, Dallas 1 exas 

FOR SALE—72-45” cookers, rolls, formers, cake 
presses and parts, accumulators-pumps, hull-pack- 
ers, Bauer No. 153 separating units, bar and disc 
hullers, beaters-shakers, Carver linters, single box 
baleing presses, filter presses, expellers, attrition 
mills, pellet machines, pheumatic seed unloader. 
If it’s used in oil mill, we have it. V. A. Lessor 
and Co., P. O. Box No 108, Fort Worth, Texas. 
OIL MILL Cookers 


*resses Cylinders eads 
Columns ie rs Accumulators Hydrau- 

lic Pumps Hot Cake Cutters and Beer guterty 
Cake Bin Feeders Filter Presses, 
Plates Electric Motors, 15 to 
starters Shaft Coupling and Pulleys - 
6” Chandler nul rs Post and Pillow *Block 
Ball Bearings ynveyor Heads and Hangers 
Enclosed Right iuale Drives Elevator Belts, 
Buckets, Sprockets and Chain Carver Lint 
Tailing Beater and Shaker.—-Write, wire or phone 
Sproles & Cook Machinery Co., Ine., 151 Howell 
Street, Dailas, Texas. Telephone PRospect 5958. 

FOR SALE—Bauer Bros. 199 seed cleaning unit 
60” trays, French center drive 4 throw hydraulic 
pump, French cake trimmer. A. Lessor & Co., 
P. O. Box 108, Fort Worth, Texas. 

FOR SALE One used Helm 
machine. This machine may be 
mill plant here in Colorado City, 
nental Oil-Cotton Company. 

junior size pellet 
inspected at our 

FOR SALE-- Used expellers 
n ym N 1 parts, new 
‘th Street. 

French 3 and 4 cage. 
and rebuilt. Rebuild- 
Sanford G. Smith & 
Chester, Pa 

ing of 

screw p 
Company 26 East 

FOR SALE—Oil mill equipment including Ander- 
son expellers and French screw presses.—Pittock 
and Associates, Glen Riddle, Pa. 

Gin Equipment for Sale 

FOR SALE—3 rebuilt 80-saw Murray gins, never 
been used. In factory crates. A bargain if you 
need three gins same as new.—-Farmers Cotton 
Oil Company, Wilson, N. Cc. 

FOR SALE—460-saw Continental B. B. Wood mat- 
tress gin with hopper. Practically new. In first- 
class operating condition. Will take cotton or lint- 
ers in trade instead of cash if preferred.—Seaiy 
Mattress Company, 3841 East 37th St., Cleveland 
15, Ohio. 

FOR SALE One 0 saw ¥ ‘Couiimaatal gin bat- 
tery complete. All modern cleaning and drying 
equipment, with lint cleaners. Has 600 h.p. LeRoi 
natural gas engine. All steel building with double 
suction wagon shed.—Bishop Cooperative Gin Co., 
Bishop, Texas. 

immediate delivery in Texas.—Marvin R. Mitchell 
Construction Co., 1220 Rock Island, Dallas, Texas, 
Phone RAndolph 5616. 
FOR SALI E—One M “hell 6-cylinder Jembo, com- 
bination extractor, drier, and cleaner. 4-80 Con- 
tinental model “C”’ A.B., D.C. air blast gins with 
model “30” fronts, lint flue. Eight 66” cast iron 
head standard Mitchells. A bargain: Murray big 
reel drier. Three 14° Hardwicke-Etter wood bur 
machines with by-pass conveyors. One 14’ Wichita 
steel bur machine. 4-80 Continental D.C., A.B. 
model “F-3"" gins with roll indicators, factory re- 
built, with lint flue. One 45” Continental cast- 
iron fan, reworked and repainted. Five 60” Hard- 
wicke-Etter huller feeders. Four 80 saw Murray 
gins with glass fronts and 6” mote conveyors, 
lint flue. One 80-saw Continental brush gin, 
model “FE.” Five 66” convertible Mitchells.—Bill 
Smith, om Texas, Box 694. Phones 4-9626 
and 4-784 

FOR SALE—Three 70-saw Cen-Tennial gins, air 
blast, two 35 inch fans, three Mitchell standard 
cleaners, Murray hydraulic ram and pump, Jacobs 
tramper, wood press, priced complete or separate. 
Reasonable.-_J. F. Suttle, Suttle, Ala. 

Take advantage of factory-trained men, 

-800 hp. 3/60/2300 /600 rpm, slip ring 
250 hp. 8 /60/440/600 rpm, slip ring 
200 hp. 8/60/2200/900 rpm, slip ring 
200 hp. 3 /60/440/900 rpm, slip ring 
-150 hp. 3/60/2800/900 r.m, slip ring 
-150 hp. 3/60/440/900 rpm. slip ring 
125 hp. 3/60/440 /900 rpm, slip ring 


Phone HUnter 2801 


Sales — Repairs 

' better serve the Southwest cotton industry we now pick up and deliver FREE any 
for sale or repair. Don't be shut down! Call us and we will deliver a 
motor to your plant free while we repair your equipment in our shop. 

To further our aim to give fast and —— service, we have estab- 
lished a motor repair shop at Harlingen, 
large copper wire availability, expert machin- 
ists, accurate balancing and testing equipment. Our facilities are as close as your telephone. 
and no more expensive than if done in your city. 

Partial list of motors we have for immediate delivery: 

Fan and Press Pump motors and all other ratings in stock. 


Complete starting eqnipment available for above motors. 
rental while we repair your motors. 





2—125 hp. 3/60/2200 /900 rpm, squirrel cage 
2—125 hp. 3/60/440/900 rpm, slip ring 
1—100 hp. 3/60/2200 /900 rpm, squirrel cage 
2—100 hp. 3/60 /220/900 rpm, squirrel cage 
4—100 hp. 3 /60/2200/900 rpm, slip ring 
2— 75 hp. 3/60/440/900 rpm, slip ring 
2— 75 hp. 3/60/220/1200 rpm, squirrel cage 

Phone 3905 

August 18, 1951 ° 

FOR SALE—Four 70-saw Lummus air blast, di- 
rect connected ball bearing gins complete with 
120 h.p. Fairbanks full deisel engine and Lokey 
hull extractor. Will sell all or any part. Gins in 
perfect shape. Also, four 80-saw Continental AA 
Munger air blast ball bearing stands, like new. 
One Continental Paragon bale press with 3 stroke 
pump and Jacobs tramper. . A. Krumme, Box 
749, Bristow, Okla. 

ray steel bound press, two Continental presses, all 
in plants where used. Oe 72” Continental all 
steel, square type, up draft condenser. One 60” 
Lummus wood frame condenser, excellent condi- 
tion. One 14 foot Hardwicke-Etter and one 14 
foot Wichita wood frame bur extractors. Three 
66” Continental model “D’” Double X extracting 
feeders. Five 80-saw Murray steel 6” mote con- 
veyor air blast gins. Fans, hydraulic rams and 
casings, hydraulic pumps, shafting, pulleys, belt- 
ing and transmission equipment. Tell us your 
needs.— R. B. Strickland & Co., 13-A Hackberry 
t., Tel. 2-8141, Waco, Texas. 

Personnel Ads 

HELP WANTED-—-Ginner for new Murray-Mitch- 
ell Su od Super gems who can assume re- 

ib and help. Four room 
mudern hg "fered. Year-around job. Good 
schools. Als four ginners for night jobs, start- 
ing September ist. Give references.—Box 548, 
Artesia, New Mexico. 

QUALIFIED GINNER wanted on straight time or 
hourly basis to take complete charge of operating 
four stand See Mitchell gin. Start approximate- 
ly Sept. 1 to Jan. Modern house furnished with- 
out charge. a Box “AZ,” The Cotton Gin 
and Oil Mill Press, P. O. Box 444, Dallas, Texas. 

Power Units and Miscellaneous 

ALL STEEL BUILDINGS for cotton industry— 
warehouses, cottonseed houses and gin buildings. 
-Marvin R. Mitchell Construction Co., 1220 Rock 
Island, Dallas, Texas. Phone RA-5615. 

FOR THE LARGEST STOCK of good, clean used 
gas or diesel engines in Texas, always see Stewart 
& Stevenson Services FIRST. Contact your nearest 

FOR SALE—Immediate delivery any weight or 
width filter cloth or paper, numbered Duck, Filter 
Twills and Chain cloth.—S. A. Orrell, P. O. B 


ENGINES AND MOTORS—In Waco stock: One— 
Model RX1, 100 h.p. LeRoi power unit, fully 
equipped with gasoline engine starter, $1,250.00 
One 35 h.p. Minneapolis-Moline 4-cylinder power 
unit. One 60 h.p., 2200 volt, 865 r.p.m. slip-ring 
motor with starting equipment. One 50 h.p. G.E. 
220 volt, 1200 r.p.m. squirrel cage motor, less 
starter. On foundations near Waco: 120 h.p 
Fairbanks-Morse type “Y,” style ‘‘VA"” diesel en- 
gine. 125 h.p. Tips 3-cylinder semi-diesel engine 
and one 80 h.p. Fairbanks-Morse “Model 32” diesel 
engine here on our testing block. All above very 
reasonable prices.—R. B. Strickland & Co., 13-A 
Hackberry St., Tel. 2-8141, Waco, Texas. 

Memphis 2, Tenn. 

FOR SALE—Various ttema, new H 78 and H 82 

drag chain with attachments every fifth link and 

sprockets, roller chain and sprockets, V-Belts 

sneaves, bearings, all types and age leather on 
rubber belts, conveyor and tro fabricated etrel 

=. ete.—-S. A. Orrell. P. 4 2351, Memphis, 

FOR SALE—New and rebuilt Minneapolis- Moline 
power units in stock, all sizes. Sales, parts and 
service, day or night.—Fort Worth Machinery Co., 
913 E. Berry St., Fort Worth, Texas. 

3-cylinder vertical, semi-diesel engine with stub- 
shaft on foundation near Waco. Operating nicely 
when last used. $500.00 on foundation, if sold im- 
mediately.—R. B. Strickland & Co., 13-A Hack- 
berry St., Tel. 2-8141, Waco, Texas. 

FOR SALE—One Worthington 5-cylinder diesel 
engine, 110 h.p. at 8750 ft. alt. 614 r.p.m.— 
Western Cottonoil Co., Pecos, Texas. 


FOR SALE—One 16 x 15” Skinner center crank 
automatic steam engine on cast iron sub-base and 
all regular fixtures and 66” x 16” flywheel, one 
2-15/16" face coupling.-Union Cotton Oil Co., 
Prague, Okla. 

FOR SALE--One 40 h.p., 220 volt, 900 r.p.m., 
three-phase electric motor with starter switch. 
One 60 h.p., 220 volt, 1800 r.p.m., three-phase 
electric motor with starter switch. One 125 h.p., 
2300 volt, 900 r.p.m., rebuilt slip ring electric 
motor with sliding base and starter equipment. 
One 30 h.p., 2300 volt, 1800 r.p.m., sliding base 
and starter equipment.—Bill Smith, Abilene, Texas, 
Box 694. Phones 4-9626 and 4-7847. 
FOR SALE—H&S 12 x 18 steam engine in good 
shape; has 144 K light unit mounted on base. 
Name your price.-—Fuller-King Gin, Box 3132, 
Lubbock, Texas. 

FOR SALE—100 h.p. M.M. engine, perfect con- 
dition. Several practically new by-passes. Four 
good drum feeders. One 35” and one 45” fan.- 

Schrade Gin Co., 2 miles east, Rowlett, Texas, 
Highway 67. 

Atlantic Steel Expanding 

Atlantic Steel Company, Atlanta, Ga., 
manufacturers of Dixisteel cotton ties 
and buckles and o.her steel products, 
broke ground last week fcr the first 
phase of a multi-million dollar expah- 
sion program designed to keep in step 
with the growing demand for steel prod- 
ucts in the Southeast. 

The first unit of the expansion pro- 
gram will be an electric furnace with an 
annual capacity of 100,000 tong of steel. 
This furnace will supplement the com- 
pany’s three present open-hearth fur- 
naces, and will increase Atlantic Steel’s 
annual capacity by 50 percent, to 300,000 

Excavation for footings and fluor of 
the huge building are now underway, 
and will be completed within six to 
eight weeks. The building itself will be 

Texas Crop Hit Hard 
By Long Drouth 

Instead of being able to make 
their full contribution to the 1951 

cotton goal, Central and North 
Texas farmers are watching their 
crop—and their income—shrink 
under drouth conditions that may 
prove to be the worst in the state’s 

Texas Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture John C. White has estimated 
that the 5-million-bale Texas crop 
forecast by USDA on Aug. 8 has 
already been reduced by at least 
500,000 bales. Many observers pre- 
dict an even greater reduction. 

In Ellis County, in the Central 
Texas Blackland Belt, County 
Agent Walter Love estimated the 
cotton crop 35 to 50 percent below 
normal. A similar condition exists 
in other Central Texas counties, 
reports say. 

C. Patterson, McLennan 
County agent, said the six-weeks 
drouth has damaged the crop so 
severely that rich Central Texas 
Brazos River bottomland cotton 
fields normally yielding a bale to 
the acre will make only about a 
bale on 10 acres this year. 

And in Washington, the U.S. 
Geological Survey took serious 
note of the Texas drouth when it 
said the situation threatens to be- 
come the worst in the state’s 


200 feet long by 135 feet wide, and will 
stand 90 feet high. Craneways for the 
handling of scrap and ingots will be 
located at each end. The 60-ton furnace 
will be the largest electric furnace in 
the Southeast. 

Robert S. Lynch, president of Atlantic 
Steel, said the new furnace will pro- 
vide the additional quantities of carbon 
steel necessary to keep the company’s 
present finishing mills producing at 
capacity. “It will also give us facilities 
for producing such steels as tool steels 
and aircraft steels, for which there is 
an ever-increasing demand in_ the 
South,” said Lynch. The new furance 
is expected to be in operation by Feb- 
ruary of next year. 

Chemists Schedule Many 
Papers for Fall Meeting 

In observance of its twenty-fifth fall 
meeting at the Edgewater Beach Hotel, 
Chicago, Oct. 8-1), the American Oil 
Chemists’ Society has arranged a 
technical program numbering 40 or 
more papers. 

Tentative plans include a paper on 
the economics of fats and oils as the 
opening presentation, according to H. T. 
Spannuth, program chairman. The chief 
detergent section is scheduled for Mon- 
day. Other divisions of the program are 
drying oils, fatty acids and fat deriva- 
tives, engineering and processing, and 

On Oct. 11 there will be a choice of 
field trips to the Food and Container 
Institute of the Quartermaster Corps, 
Chicago, or the new research laboratory 
of S. C. Johnson & Son, Racine, Wis. 
R. W. Bates is in charge, assisted by 
R. R. Allen and L. A. Goretta. 

General chairman of the meeting is 
C. E. Morris. Other chairmen are Mrs. 
V. C. Mehlenbacher, La Grange, IIl., 
ladies; and R. H. Rogers, Jr., Chicago, 

Extension Bulletin Gives 
Cotton Production Facts 

A comprehensive booklet on “Growing 
Cotton for Profit” has been issued by 
the Georgia Extension Service as Bulle- 
tin No, 568. 

Attractively covered with a _photo- 
graph in blue, black and white, and well 
illustrated, the bulletin gives details on 
the cotton programs used in Georgia, 
figures on cotton variety tests, instruct- 
tions on soil preparation, fertilization, 
planting, cultivation, insect control and 
harvesting of cotton. 

Credit Controls Lifted on 
Loans in Flood Areas 

Acting Secretary of Agriculture Mc- 
Cormick has announced that credit re- 
strictions on farm housing loans to fam- 
ilies whose homes were damaged by 
floods have been removed by Farmers 
Home Administration. The action was 
effective immediately in Kansas, Mis- 
souri and Oklahoma. 

Farmers eligible for loans in flooded 
areas can borrow up to the full amount 
they need to reconstruct, repair or re- 
place homes and other farm buildings 
damaged or lost in the flood, USDA 
said. Loans can be made for periods up 
to 33 years at four percent interest. 

* August 18, 1951 

Mississippi Launches 
Cotton Loan Drive 

€alling on all Mississippi farmers to 
place at least 50 percent of their 1951 
cotton crop in the Commodity Credit 
Corporation loan, Governor Fielding L. 
Wright launched a state-wide program 
Aug. 14 to help provide for orderly 
marketing of the state’s 2,000,000 bale 
expected cotton production. More than 
100 agricultural and business leaders 
attended the meeting to make plans for 
handling the crop in an orderly manner. 

Fire Destroys Gin at Frost 

A fire which apparently started in 
the seed house destroyed the Williams 
& Griffis gin at Frost, Texas, early 
Aug. 13. The gin building and its equip- 
ment, cotton and seed houses, one bale 
of cotton, 850 pounds of seed cotton and 
four bales of cottonseed were lost in 
the blaze. Although partially covered 
by insurance, the gin will not be rebuilt 
this year, owners said. 

e Reports indicate that a good 
percentage of the land being taken out 
of cotton and peanuts in Georgia is going 
into pasture. 

Reminder: August Is a 
Bad Insect Month 

Insects usually cause the great- 
est damage to the cotton crop in 
August, the National Cotton Coun- 
cil has reminded farmers, It 
urges them to continue cotton in- 
sect control parctices recommended 
by federal and state entomologists. 

The Council calls attention to a 
recent Department of Agriculture 
report advising that “many thou- 
sands of bales of cotton can be 
saved from the boll weevil by the 
proper use of insecticides during 

“Insecticides widely used include 
benzene hexachloride, calcium ar- 
senate, toxaphene, aldrin, dieldrin, 
and chlordane,” the USDA report 
noted, adding that “every cotton 
field where there are bolls to save 
and where weevils are numerous 
should be treated with insecticides 
until the weevils are checked or a 
cotton crop matured.” 

“Although boll weevil infesta- 
tions average lower now than a 
year ago in most areas, there are 
thousands of cotton fields where 
from 40 to 80 percent or more of 
the squares are punctured. In most 
of these fields, the proper appli- 
eation of insecticides during 
August will greatly increase the 
yields,” USDA pointed out. 

“Every cotton field in the U.S. 
should be carefully examined for 
cotton pests at least once each 
week during August or until the 
cotton is harvested. 

“This is the month when boll- 
worms, spider mites, stink bugs, 
cotton leafworms, and boll weevils 
do their greatest damage. All of 
these and all other cotton pests 
can be checked by the proper use 
of insecticides.” 

Cash Receipts in July 
And Jan.-July, 1951 

BAE-USDA reports that farmers re 
ceived 15.4 billion dollars from market- 
ings in the first seven months of 1951, 
17 percent above receipts in the same 
period last year. This increase was part 
of the general rise in national income 
that has occurred during 1951. It was 
not entirely a net gain for farmers, 
however, as farm cost rates rose 12 
percent on the average during this 

Receipts from livestock and livestock 
products were about 10.7 billion dollars, 
25 percent more than a year ago, with 
average prices showing about the same 
percentage gain. All major livestock 
groups were up substantially. Crop 
receipts for the first seven months were 
4.7 billion dollars, about the same as last 
year. Higher average prices were off- 
set by a smaller volume of crop 

Cash receipts in July totaled about 2.6 
billion dollars, 20 percent more than in 
June because of larger marketings and 
11 percent above July 1950, mostly be- 
cause of higher prices. Receipts from 
livestock and livestock products were 
about 1.5 billion dollars, slightly below 
June but 15 percent above a year ago. 
Receipts from meat animals were prob- 
ably about the same as the month before, 
but dairy products and poultry were 
lower because of a seasonal decline in 
marketings. All major livestock groups 
were substantially above last July, 

Crop receipts in July were around 
1.1 billion dollars, 80 percent more than 
in June and six percent above July of 

last year. Most of the principal crops 
were up seasonally, with a substantial- 
ly larger volume selling for slightly 
lower average prices than in June. 
Receipts for most crops were above July 
1950 because of higher average prices. 

Dedicate New One-Variety 
Community in Alabama 

In the fall of 1950 several Southeast 
Limestone, Ala., County farmers decided 
they could make more money from grow- 
ing cotton if they did it in a one-va- 
riety community. They met with J. D. 
Elliott & Sons of Greenbrier, dealers in 
cotton and cottonseed, and worked out 
plans that resulted in the dedication of 
the Greenbrier One-Variety Cotton Com- 
munity on Aug 15. The new one-variety 
community embraces 5,000 acres of 
Stoneville 2-B cotton and lies between 
Decatur and Huntsville. 

Present to take part in the dedication 
ceremonies were USDA representatives 
from Washington, Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute at Auburn, and many ginners, 
cottonseed crushers and cotton buyers 
of the Tennessee Valley. 

Trigg Is Named Deputy 
DPA Aministrator 

Ralph S. Trigg, formerly chief of 
USDA’s Production and Marketing Ad- 
ministration and president of the Com- 
modity Credit Corporation until a recent 
departmental shake-up, has been ap- 
pointed deputy administrator of the 
Defense Production Administration. 

Mr. Trigg, who is in charge of steel, 

copper and aluminum allocations in his 
new job, heads the agency’s require- 
ments committee, a group which reviews 
the needs of defense, defense-supporting 
and civilian production programs and 
then recommends allotments of steel, 
copper and aluminum to meet those 

Winter Cover Crop Seed 
Goals Are Set by USDA 

Secretary of Agriculture Brannan 
has announced 1952 production goals for 
major winter cover crop seeds. He also 
re-emphasized the immediate importance 
of cover crops in the farm mobilization 
program and urged farmers to plant 
maximum acreages to them for soil im- 
provement. For 1952, acreage-for-seed 
goals are: Crimson clover, 125,000 acres; 
hairy vetch, 270,000 acres; common and 
Willamette vetches, 72,000 acres; lupine, 
58,000 acres; roughpeas, 70,000 acres; 
and common ryegrass, 130,000 acres. 
Seed goals are established for each state 
in the West and Southwest and other 
adapted areas. Prices of these seeds 
have been supported in the past several 

On Display at Fair: 


High analysis pelletized fertilizers 
will be exhibited in Louisiana for the 
first time at the State Fair at Shreve- 
port, Oct. 20-28. Mathieson Chemical 
Corporation will display these modern 
plant foods at booths A and B. 

Little Rock, Arkansas 

Capacity up to one ton per 

Ideal equipment for temporary 

Equipped with the patented fea- 
tures of the Phelps Pneumatic 


Phone 2-1314 

P. O. Box 1093 

August 18, 1951 


Quality of Ginning Service 
(Continued from Page 16) 

the 1949 crop. As previously stated, it 
was found that the moisture content of 
the lint at the time ot ginning was di- 
rectly related to the preparation element 
of grade, and that increasing propor- 
tions of roughly ginned cotton occurred 
at increasingly higher lint-moisture con- 
tents. Also related to the moisture con- 
tent of the seed cotton and, consequent- 
ly, to the lint moisture at time of gin- 
ning, is gin turnout, or proportion of 
lint weight to seed cotton weight. Sig- 
nificantiy, it was found that gains in 
wei, .t trom excess moisture were more 
than offset by the loss of lint through 
the failure of the gins to remove as 
much lint from the seed when the cotton 
contains excess moisture. Gins not em- 
pioying driers turned out lint contain- 
ing as much as 20 pounds of moisture 
per bale more than did standard gins 
employing driers and ginning seed cot- 
ton of similar moisture content. How- 
ever, for each ginning period and for 
the season as a whole, gins employing 
driers were able to give the producers 
more weight in the torm of actual lint 
for each pound of seed cotton than were 
gins not employing driers. Although the 
differences in turnout by weight be- 
tween the gin groups were small, the 
differences in actual pounds of lint were 
great, being as high as 20 pounds per 
500-pound bale. Producers patronizing 
gins not equipped with driers in 1949 
were placing on the market cotton con- 
taining 16.5 pounds of excess moisture 
and a corresponding less amount of 
lint per bale. As cotton containing ex- 
cess moisture rapidly loses weight, gen- 
erally buyers make allowances in the 
average prices paid in areas from which 
such cotton is consistently shipped. 
Therefore, all producers and ginners 
alike are generally penalized in any 
area where such conditions exist. 

e Cost Analyses by Type of Gin—The 
average cost per bale for ginning cot- 
ton in South Louisiana during 1948 was 
$10.30 for standard gins and $10.38 for 
substandard gins at average volume of 
1,561 and 1,320 bales, respectively. Per 
bale costs in 1949 were higher by $1.78 
per bale for standard gins and $3.84 for 
substandard because of lower volumes 
and a prolonged ginning season. Operat- 
ing costs constituted the major part of 
total cost for both groups of gins dur- 
ing 1948 and 1949. The most important 
item of expense during 1948 was bag- 
ging and ties; however, owing to lower 
volumes ginned, labor represented a 
larger part of total cost in 1949. 

The cost of ginning incurred by stand- 
ard gins was higher than that incurred 
by substandard gins at all comparable 
volume ranges, as a result of additional 
facilities provided by them. The _ in- 
creased cost ranged from $0.30 to $3.50 
per bale, depending upon the volume of 
cotton ginned. However, because of the 
larger volumes ginned by the standard 
plants, they were able to more than off- 
set these additional costs and operated 
as a group at somewhat lower cost than 
did the substandard gins. 

There was a direct relationship be- 
tween the volume ginned per stand and 
the per bale costs for both standard and 
substandard gins. Total costs, however, 
were higher for standard gins than for 
substandard gins of similar size ginning 
approximately the same volume of cot- 


ton. The greatest reduction in cost oc- 
curred up to the 300-bale-per-stand 
volume range. Beyond this point, re- 
ductions were at a lower rate. 

There was a direct relationship be- 
tween ginning volumes per gin stand 
and fixed costs per bale for both groups 
of gins. Because of increased capital in- 
vestment, the standard gins incurred 
higher fixed costs than substandard gins 
at any given volume. At the lower 
volume ranges, fixed cost per bale de- 
creased at a greater rate for standard 
gins than for substandard gins. How- 
ever, the differences tended to become 
more established at the higher volume 

Fixed costs per bale were relatively 

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keeps trucks “‘on the go.” 

Powerful TWIN Hydraulic Unit. 
Raises to 43° angle in less than a min- 
ute, lowers in 25 seconds. Maximum 
safety because of “‘oil-locked” hydraulic 
control. No danger of accidents. 

Pit Door opens and closes hydrauli- 
cally in seconds, permits cottonseed to 
be dumped directly into open pit. 

Easy, simple controls... one man 
operates the Dumper, Wheel Stops and 
Pit Door from one location. Eliminates 

high for both groups of gins owing to 
the small volume ginned. Since succes- 
sive increases in volumes result in pro- 
portionate decreases in fixed costs, it 
is essential that gins in the area ob- 
tain adequate ginning volumes. 
Increased volumes of ginning per 
stand caused decreases in operating 
costs per bale for both groups of gins. 
At any given volume range, per bale 
operating costs were higher at standard 
gins than at substandard gins. How- 
ever, at the lower volume ranges they 
tended to decreases at a greater rate 
for standard gins. Increased volumes 
made it possible for more effective use 
to be made of gin capacity and such use 
results in increased efficiency of labor 

This New KEWANEE Pitless Model cuts 
foundation costs to a minimum. 
back-breaking labor and cuts costs. 

Evidence of KEWANEE performance 
and economy is overwhelming. It is 
substantiated by successive repeat 
orders from outstanding firms who 
have installed them in all their plants. 

Every Trucker and Ginner is a real 
booster. They appreciate ‘“‘no long 
waiting in line” in busy hauling seasons 
and they tell others. It attracts new cus- 
tomers, widens your territory and ex- 
pands your volume. 

WRITE FOR BULLETIN — find out how 
KEWANEE will cut your unloading costs. 

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* August 18, 1951 

and power plant and consequently lower 
labor and fuel costs. 

There was a direct relationship be- 
tween the size of plant, volume of cotton 
ginned and ginning cost per bale. All 
size groups showed reduction in per 
bale costs as volume increased. How- 
ever, there were significant differences 
in the costs for gins of varying size that 
ginned similar volumes. In view of this 
relationship it is essential that gin own- 
ers carefully weigh any projected capital 
outlay against anticipated ginning 
volumes before building large new 
plants or enlarging present facilities. 

e More than 10,000 Texas cot- 
ton farmers last year used rotary hoe 
equipment on their farm tractors to re- 
duce the cost and amount of labor need- 
ed for hoeing their crops. 

Cottonseed Processing Research 

(Continued from Page 15) 

agricultural products .. .” Our work in 
this area, originally under the super- 
vision of Dr. B. R. Holland and current- 
ly Dr. W. W. Meinke, has been concerned 
with the production of essential oils 
from sweet goldenrod and other native 
Texas plants and shrubs, uses for the 
protein from the Chinese tallow nut, 
and the utilization of rice bran. During 
the past year a study of possible food 
uses for cottonseed has been in progress. 
(m) Development of New Food Uses for 
Cottonseed and Its Products (coopera- 
tive with the Cotton Research Committee 
of Texas). 

A systematic study is being made of 
possible ways of producing human food 


There are more than 11 
thousand uses for cotton 

in the military requirements of this nation. .™ 7; 
Our soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen depend on our 
cotton farmers, and our whole cotton industry as a great 
arsenal of essential supplies. It has been authoritatively 
acknowledged over and over again that our military 
strength would be destroyed if we were stripped of cotton! 
Warehouse service makes it possible to maintain a cotton 
reserve to meet the nation’s demands in time of peace or 
war. Cotton is one of the vital materials that must be “stock 
piled” and protected to fill the nation’s needs as they arise. 
The negotiable warehouse receipt, issued on each bale 
of cotton, is accepted and used throughout the world as the 
undisputed title of ownership of the bale identified by the 
receipt. Warehousing service is indispensable in safe stor- 
age and in distribution of cotton to its world wide markets. 


Ca TIONAL fiery 
orron come uw 
my irae 

my warneHouse 

ano corto yarrow 1NC 


August 18, 1951 ° 


products from cottonseed which will be 
acceptable on the basis of appearance, 
texture, flavor, food value, keeping 
quality, and toxicity. 

Processes for making a sauce, com- 
parable to that currently produced 
from soybeans, useful for flavoring 
soups and vegetable dishes have de- 
veloped. This cottonseed sauce (termed 
“coy” by the experimenters) utilizes as 
ingredients a five-to-two ratio of hull- 
free cottonseed kernels and _ parched 
wheat. For commercial production two 
processes have been developed—a rel- 
atively lengthy fermentation method 
and one which utilizes an acid hydroly- 
sate with molasses added to give proper 
color. The product produced by the latter 
process lacks many of the flavor char- 
acteristics of the fermented product. 
These processes have been described in 
the literature. * 

Additional research has shown that 
French-fried cottonseed kernels can 
serve the function of roasted nuts in 
brittle and fudge-type candies. Methods 
of preparation insuring the production 
of non-toxic kernels with satisfactory 
keeping qualities have been developed. 

Current emphasis is being placed on 
the development of a satisfactory proc- 
ess for producing a cheese food from 
cottonseed. Protein curds similar in tex- 
ture and taste to unseasoned cottage 
cheese have been prepared and are 
undergoing further study. 


The foregoing paragraphs describe 
the highlights of our program of re- 
search in cottonseed processing and 
utilization. There are always more 
problems to be investigated than can be 
effectively undertaken with available 
funds and facilities. For every one 
answer obtained, several new questions 
rise to stimulate the inquiring mind. 
Our program is believed to be typical’ 
of what can be done by a public agency 
whose activities are intended to serve 
the needs of a geographical area as well 
as those of an educational institution. 
By maintaining a reasonable balance 
between the fundamental and the prac- 
tical, and between the economical and 
the technical, the Texas Engineering 
Experiment Station hopes to continue 
to serve the cottonseed industry of Texas 
and elsewhere through research—Re- 
search in Action.” 

13 “Create Food Sauce from Cottonseed,” Texas 
Engineering Experiment Station News, Vol. 
No. 2, p. 10, June 1950. 

American-Egyptian Acreage 
Drops Sharply This Year 

Although the acreage of upland cot- 
ton in cultivation in the U.S. on July 1 
increased sharply, the acreage of Ameri- 
can-Egyptian cotton decreased just as 
sharply. Last season 104,600 acres of 
American-Egyptian were in cultivation 
on July 1, but on July 1, 1951, only 
59,800 acres, 43 percent less than last 
year, were planted to this crop. 

large acreage was planted to 
American-Egyptian cotton in 1950-51 
because of acreage allotments for up- 
land cotton and no allotments for Ameri- 
can-Egyptian. There are no allotments 
on upland cotton this year, and much of 
the land formerly planted to American- 
Egyptian was planted to upland this 




At left, is the 
Statifier Lint 
Slide Misting 
Unit, with in- 
set showing 
the new Dri- 
Slide Valve 
mounted at 
the supply 

Restoring only 14.% moisture, approximately 8-pounds per bale, improves 
the sample, helps the staple, and is a necessary service now that cotton is 
dried to a very low moisture content to facilitate cleaning for high grades. 

Improves pressing and reduces losses to gins from “Big-Ended” bales, 

broken ties, and press repairs. 

Dri-Slide Electric Valves were tested during the 1950 season in gins 
that had runs of more than 4,000 to more than 8,000 bales and gave care- 
free operation. Standard equipment on 1951 Statifier units, and can be in- 
stalled on any Statifier that has automatic controls. 

Statifiers are used by progressive ginners across the U. S. Cotton Belt 

and abroad. 

Complete Dri-Slide Statifier Moisture Restoration Units 
And Wet Water Chemicals Shipped Promptly. 

White for “Moisture Means Money , 


Mail Address: 2414 Fifteenth St., Phones 2-3692 and 2-2894 LUBBOCK, TEXAS 

* Trade-Mark Registered 

THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press + August 18, 1951 

cotton comes cleaner... 
you get higher prices 
at the gin when you 



To get a better grade of cotton and to 
make picking easier and faster . . . apply 
Arro* Cyanamid, Special Grade, the 
original and most widely used defoliant. 
Plan to dust 25 to 30 days after the 
setting of the last bolls that will make 
cotton, and about ten days to two weeks 
before harvest date. 

Leaves fall off without damage to 
the plant. 

More sunshine and air reach the 
bolls for earlier maturity and to 
check boll rot. 

Greater part of crop is harvested 
at one time 

Picking is easier, faster, less costly 
—either by hand or machine. 

Green leaf stain and trash are 
minimized for better grade and 
higher prices. 

Apply Agro Cyanamid, Special Grade, 
either by airplane or ground duster. 


See your supplier, write for literature 


Agricultural Chemicals Division 
31-B Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y. 

Branch offices: 20No. Wacker Drive, Chicago 4, Ill.; 
P. O. Box 808, Winchester, Va.; Brewster, Fla.; 
1308 Donaghey Bidg., Little Rock, Ark.; 

111 Sutter St., San Francisco 4, Calif.; 
1705 Locust St., St. Louis 3, Mo. 


| Cotton Research in Korea 
@ USDA research officials are 
| awaiting reports from Korea on battle- 
| front results in the use of a new cotton 
| bandage. It is of elastic gause, and was 
| developed during World War II at the 
| department’s regional laboratory in New 
Orleans. Researchers expect the bandage 
to be especially effective in treatment of 
first-degree burns, as well as for wounds 
| of the head and joints. 

| Cotton Coating for 
Artificial Fur 
@ Demand for fur is great these 
days for use as trim and lining in parka 
| hoods, flight jackets and caps used in 
| Arctic areas by the Air Force. Result 
| is an artificial fur composed of cotton 
| and synthetic fibers, said to be better 
than fur itself. The phony fur has a 
backing of knit cotton coated with rub- 
ver. The product is currently being 
| tested at Wright-Patterson Field, Day- 
ton, Ohio. 

| Home -Made Spray Cools House 

~ ‘@ Agricultural engineers, who have 
| conducted tests, report that you can rig 
| your own cooling system at home by 

laying nozzle-fitted pipes along the roof. 
| You need to feed only the amount of 

water that will evaporate on the roof’s 
| surface. USDA engineers report it works 
| fine, reducing interior temperatures 
| considerably. 

We Are Too Fat 

@ Americans are too fat. According 
to medical studies, approximately one 
in four of us is overweight. The big 
reason is simple: we eat too much. Many 
of us tend to take on fat with age. For 
example, 60 percent of women between 
50 and 70 tip the scales at more than 
| is good for them. Some medics and 
| psychiatrists think the reason people 
| over-eat is because they are unhappy 
and frustrated, but there are arguments 
} on this score. 

Those Mules Are Expensive 

@ USDA specialists who go in for 
figures have it doped out that a big 
tractor doing the work of 10 mules can 
save $1,500 per year. Or that a small 
tractor can save $800 each year by doing 
the work of six mules. Although there 
| are many tractors in Texas and Okla- 
homa, for example, there are still many 
farmers in the southeast states who 
don’t have them. 

New Cotton Opener 

@ USDA research officials have 
high hopes for a new cotton opener now 
being tested in textile mills. They are 
optimistic that the new devices will 
make more efficient opening and clean- 

August 18, 1951 ° 

ing of cotton—a problem that has _ be- 
come more acute with mechanical har 
vesting. The opener would be of special 
value in crowded mills, since it occupies 
little floor space in relation to the volume 
of cotton it handles. 

Big Fight Brewing Over 

@ This year’s tragic and widespread 
floods have revived bitter argument 
among weather experts over rain- 
making. Some think that efforts to force 
rain from the cloud have been responsi- 
ble—at least in part—for the floods. 
Others vociferously deny there is any 
connection. Meanwhile, rainmaking ex- 
periments go on, not only in the U.S. 
but in foreign countries. The British, 






Delta Pine 15 
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Stoneville 2-B 


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Alexandria, Louisiana 


for example, are testing balloons as 
rain-makers in the African territory of 

Kongwa. Silver iodide and gunpowder ‘cc 99 
are placed in the balloons, which are THERMO-LAST 
time-fused to explode at 15,000 feet. 

Results are still in doubt. NYLON PRESS CLOTHS 

South Outstrips U.S. in Milk Cut Oil Extraction Costs 
Production Gain 

ere are still milk shortages in 
the Mouth but the aren has bec out. |  “THERMO-LAST” Nylon Press Cloths 
gaining the nation in production. The e Outlast old-type cloths Other Nylon Advantages 
Sone ae een ee e Practically eliminate repair work Strong—Lightweight 
of milk cows and in dairy income. e Handle faster, easier Dienenatonal Stability 
e Permit use of larger cake, more oil per '°w Moisture Absorption 

Fungus Prevents Decay of 
Southern Pine 

@ Fungus is usually responsible for SUMNER COM PANY 

decay of wood. But forestry experts 
have now come up with a friendly Mill and Offices, Columbia, South Carolina 
fungus which is being used to extend 
the life span of stored fence posts and Call our nearest representative 
pulpwood. After spraying peeled south- 
ern pine with ammonium and sodium Rebt. Burgher, Daljas, Tex. + Central Bag Co,, Macon, Ga. » Mason Jackson Co., Shreveport, La. 
fluoride, the researchers noted stim- Foreign Agent: M. Neomans & Son, Inc., 90 West Street, New York 6, X. T. 
ulation in the growth of a certain mold. 
Not only was the mold itself compara- 
tively harmless, but it greatly reduced 
the decay of wood caused by other 

Lightning Strikes 40 Times in | To Do A Good Job 
Same Place . Vy GINNING & MILLING 

@ Engineers at Westinghouse have : . 
studied lightning for some 35 years with Z . T h C ‘@) T T re) iy Cc 
interesting results. For one thing, they e rop 

give the raspberry to the old idea that 

lightning never strikes twice in the same . You Need the Proper Tools 
N eee 

place. As a matter of fact, they point 

, it has hit as often as 40 times in 
the same place. What appears to be a 
single flash to the human eye may be 
several strokes occurring in rapid suc- 
cession, Crimps and Packing of All Kinds, Hydraulic 
Cotton Press Pumps, Spiral Conveyor and 
Science Seeks Wider Use of Fittings. SKF Bearings, Shafts, Pulleys, Mo- 
Waste tors, Engines, Leather, Rubber and V-Belts. 

We've spent 35 years studying your needs and 
will be happy to give you the benefit of our 

® Discovery of new uses for citrus HAND TOOLS OF ALL KINDS 

wastes would be a substantial shot in 
the arm for the southern economy. In 

20 years the production of processed 

citrus has increased approximately 10 ane MACHINERY & SUPPLY C0 Inc 
times. That is all to the good, but creates "y . 
a problem in that about 60 percent of 
processed fruit remains as peel, rag and 1629 MAIN STREET FORT WORTH 
seeds. Consequently, research men at 
USDA and elsewhere are intensifying 
efforts to find new uses for the waste. 
Much of the waste, it is believed, can 
be dried and used either as feed or 
fertilizer. Already, citrus molasses, re- 
covered from liquid wastes, have been 
used as feed. Growing of feed yeasts 
from sugar wastes is being attempted. 

Many Drunks Are Substantial 
@ Previous notions that practically 
all drunks are bums and no-goods are One of the Most Complete Lines of 
going out the window. Scientists at Yale 3 : : : . 
report that studies show many alcoholics . Agricultural Chemicals in the Nation 
are uppercrust citizens. Harvard re- 
searchers report that craving for drink HAYES-SAMMONS COMPANY 
can be reduced by large doses of certain MISSION. TEXAS 
vitamins—the B complex vitamins, and 
vitamins A, C and D. 

THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951 

Shortcourse Advice: 

Preserve Spinning 
Values in Ginning 

m More than 330 ginners attend 
Delta Shortcourse at Stoneville, 
where experts emphasize impor- 
tance of proper ginning to pre- 
serve inherent value of cotton 

The need for preservation of the in- 
herent spinning value of Delta cotton by 
proper ginning was emphasized by Ben 
P. Whitney, head, cotton department, 
Pacific Mills, speaking at the Delta Gin- 
ners Shortcourse on Aug 

The two-day program, sponsored by 
the Ginning Improvement Committee of 
Delta Council and the Mississippi Agri- 
cultural Extension Service, was attend- 
ed by more than 330 ginners from 
throughout the Mississippi Delta area. 
Ginners from Arkansas, Louisiana and 
Alabama also attended the shortcourse. 
Oil mills of the Delta area were hosts at 
a barbecue on the opening day. 

“The modern gin is an expensive and 
elaborate plant,” Mr. Whitney said. 
“To properly maintain and operate such 
a plant requires real mechanical abil- 
ity. The mills ask that gins be operated 
to avoid creating the objectionable 
things such as neps, seed fragments, 
rough preparation and injury from ex- 
cessive heat.” 

The necessity for proper gin opera- 
tion was presented by Delta Council 
President Maury Knowlton, who pre- 
sided at the opening session. 

“It is our job as ginners to improve 
the competitive position of Delta cotton 
by performing a first class job of gin 
operation,” Mr. Knowlton said. “From 
the Delta’s standpoint, good ginning is 
more important today than ever before, 
since we are facing increasing competi- 
tion from synthetic fibers and cotton 
from other areas.” 

How to get better grade cotton with- 
out fiber damage was presented by 
J. C. Oglesbee, Jr., USDA extension gin- 
ning specialist, Atlanta, Ga. Mr. Ogles- 
bee listed the following points: (1) 
maintain loose uniform rolls, (2) keep 
overflow to a minimum, (3) use only 
necessary cleaning equipment and (4) 
use only enough drying to insure smooth 

“Owners should exercise care and 
judgment in the selection of personnel 
to operate gins,’ Harold C. Lummus, 
vice-president, Lummus Cotton Gin Co., 
Columbus, Ga., said in discussing “What 
Gin Machinery Manufacturers Should 
Expect From Ginners.” “The gin opera- 
tor is probably the most important man 
in the whole set-up and should be well 
qualified,” Mr. Lummus added. 

Orville Mitchell, vice-president, John 
E. Mitchell Co., Dallas, Texas, talked 
on “What Ginners Should Expect From 
Gin Machinery Manufacturers.” 

Mr. Mitchell, Mr. Lummus, Mr. Whit- 
ney, Mr. Knowlton and Charles A. Ben- 
nett, engineer in charge, USDA Cotton 
Ginning Investigations, Stoneville, Miss., 
participated in a forum discussion led 


by F. L. Gerdes, in charge of the Cotton 
Branch’s Stoneville Laboratory. 

C, P. Owen, chairman, Delta Council 
Ginning Improvement Committee, pre- 
sided at the afternoon session. Others 
taking part in the program and their 
subjects were: L. H. Moseley, district 
extension agent, Stoneville, “Agricul- 
tural Practices and Their Effect on Gin- 
ning Problems”; Charles M. Merkel, 
engineer in charge, U.S. Ginning Labora- 
tory, Stoneville, “Drying Problems Af- 
fecting Cotton Quality”; Vernon Moore, 
cotton technologist, U.S. Fiber Labora- 
tory, Stoneville, “Cleaning and Extract- 
ing”; Tom Wright, engineer, U.S. Gin- 
ning Laboratory, Stoneville, “Feeding 
and Operation of Gin Stand”; Mr. 
Barksdale, Rating Bureau, Jackson, 
“Housekeeping and Insurance Rates”; 
Tom Johnston, extension ginning special- 
ist, Stoneville, “Summary and Discus- 
sion’; and John Ross, economist, U.S. 

Fiber Laboratory, “Lint 

Gins visited on the gin tours were the 
Zumbro Plantation Gin, Cleveland; 
Finklea Gin, Leland; Bridge Gin Co., 
Greenville; Delta Gin, Metcalfe; A. J. 
Hill Gin, Rome; and Dean Gin Co., 

Gin machinery manufacturers sup- 
plied specialists and technicians for dem- 
onstrations at each gin. Emphasis was 
placed on the operation of gin machinery 
to obtain maximum efficiency and cot- 
ton quality. 


e Farms which provide the 
main source of income for a family in- 
clude probably 98 percent of the farm 
units in the U.S. Members of such 
families generally supply a large part 
of the farm labor, and join in making 
sia affecting management of the 




Actual yields i 


9-year moving average, centered | 



100 Dal Toylaphyhola jaalsaaahoons Joes Daapionphaagslongslaagsla oleae 

1940 1960 



SINCE 1925 the yield per acre of cotton in the U.S. has tended to move rapidly 
upward, as shown in the above chart prepared by USDA. In 1946, the trend yield 
was about 271 pounds per acre, while in 1925 it was approximately 160 pounds per 
acre. Actual yields vary above and below the trend yields. About two-thirds of the 
actual yields have been within 20 pounds of the corresponding trend yields. 

Trend in Yield Per Acre Moves Steadily Upward 

As the above chart shows, the yield 
per harvested acre has shown a steady 
upward trend since 1925. This trend be- 
comes apparent when centered nine- 
year moving averages of yields per acre 
are fitted to each year. The yield showed 
a slightly upward trend from 1870 to 
1917 and then dropped sharply. The 
lowest actual yield per acre in that 
period was in 1921, when the reduction 
from full yield because of boll weevil 
was at its all time high of 31 percent. 

In 1925 the trend yield stood at 159.8 
pounds per acre, but by 1946 it had 
risen to 271.1 pounds per acre. This 
steady rise was undoubtedly due to im- 
proved varieties of cotton, better pro- 
duction methods and shifts to cotton 
acreage in new areas. 

The actual yield per acre differed 
from the trend yields by 20 pounds or 

August 18, 1951 ° 

less in about 70 percent of the years. 
The largest negative deviation of actual 
yield from trend yield was 36.6 pounds 
in 1946 and the largest positive devia- 
tion was 48 pounds in 1937. 

Although there were more negative 
deviations, 43, from the trend yield 
than there were positive deviations, 34, 
the positive deviations were of larger 
magnitude, The actual yields were more 
than 20 pounds below the trend yields 
in 10 years, but they were more than 20 
pounds above the trend in 13 years. 
There were no negative deviations be- 
low 40 pounds, but there were two 
positive deviations of more than 40 

The trend yield in 1946 was 271.1 
pounds. Trend yields after that year 
cannot be computed because centered 
averages for the later years are not 


Council Asks USDA to 

Protect Farmer From 
Loss on Cotton Crop 

Action by the Secretary of Agricul- 
ture in support of a four-point program 
designed to aid in protecting the na- 
tion’s cotton farmers from financial loss 
on the 1951 crop was urged last week 
by the National Cotton Council. 

Pointing out that U.S. cotton growers 
have responded to the fullest of their 




The tremendous popularity of Wat- 
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supply all of our fine friends who 
would like to plant this high yielding, 
profit-making cotton. If you are not 
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GARLAND + Dallas County + TEXAS 


abilities to the government’s urgent re- 
quest to increase production 60 percent 
and that production costs have been 
extremely high this season, Council 
President Harold A. Young telegraphed 
Agriculture Secretary Brannan asking 
that “you do everything possible to pro- 
tect these farmers against financial 

Specifically, Mr. Young recommended 
that the federal government: 

“Encourage cotton exports by pro- 
gramming foreign aid funds as quickly 
as possible to permit purchases for the 
year during the period of the crop move- 
ment from the farm, and by extending 
special credits through the Export-Im- 
port Bank to aid countries in making 
purchases before ECA funds are avail- 
able and also to aid those countries 
having temporary difficulties with 
balance of payments. 

“Stimulate domestic cotton mill ac- 
tivity by stepping up the schedule of 
military procurement. 

“Stockpile cotton for national security 
by open market purchases to the extent 
of the difference between current pro- 
duction and the estimated requirements 
for domestic consumption and exports. 

“Place cotton exports under general 
license if the estimate is above the level 
of the goal established last fall by the 

Pointing out that although current 
prospects indicate that the entire 1951 
cotton production will be needed over 
the coming year to meet actual require- 
ments and build security reserves, Mr. 
Young said that the movement of a 
heavy volume during the _ relatively 
brief harvest season temporarily could 
unduly depress the farmer’s prices. 

“In view of the tremendous efforts 
put forth by the cotton producer to meet 
the fiber requirements of this country 
and its allies,” the Council leader said, 
“it would be unjust to expect him to 
suffer financial hardship when it could 
be avoided by adoption of a sound pro- 
gram by the government.” 

World Cotton Carry-Over 
Aug. 1 Is Small 

World cotton carry-over Aug. 1 prob- 
ably amounted to about 10.7 million bales 
compared with 16.6 million at the same 
time last year—the smallest world 
carry-over since Aug. 1, 1929. Most of 
the decrease of 5.9 million bales from 
last year is accounted for by the de- 
crease of about 4.9 million in U.S. 

Stocks outside the U.S. probably 
amount to about 8.8 million bales, a de- 
crease of about 0.9 million bales, and 
smaller than at the beginning of any 
peace-time year since 1938, according to 
information furnished by the Inter- 
national Cotton Advisory Committee. 
Although these estimates include rather 
indefinite figures for Russia and China, 
the carry-over in the world outside these 
two countries and the U.S. has probably 
decreased about 800,000 bales. 

According to 1951 production esti- 
mates world supply of cotton will 
amount to about 45.9 million bales of 
cotton. If consumption in 1951-52 holds 
at about the 1950-51 level of 33 million 
bales, a supply of this size would be 
sufficient to meet mill demand plus a 
moderate increase in carry-out stock. 

* August 18, 1951 

'Fromthe —.- 




TRY different brands of 
margarine they sooner or 
later hit on Allsweet. Then 
their search for flavor sud- 
denly ends. For there is no 
artificial flavoring in All- 
sweet. Its flavor is delicate, 

And no wonder. A true 
farm product, Allsweet is 
made from clear rich food 
oils blended—by an exclu- 
sive process—with cultured 
pasteurized skim milk. 

So always ask for Allsweet 
—the margarine with the 
delicate natural flavor. 


Quantity Limits for Cotton 
Exports Are Dropped 

Following release of the Crop Re- 
porting Board’s first 1951 cotton pro- 
duction estimate of 17,266,000 bales, 
Secretary of Agriculture Charles F. 
Brannan announced establishment of an 
open-end export quota for all types of 
raw cotton. Under open-end, there will 
be no restriction on quantities of cotton 
that can be shipped under export 
licenses. A preliminary export allocation 
of 3,500,000 bales has been in effect for 
early months of the marketing season. 
Export licensing under open-end quota 
will be continued. This will enable 
USDA to keep the supply situation 
under constant review. Office of Inter- 
national Trade, Department of Com- 
merce, has been authorized by USDA to 
extend the validity period on all licenses 
issued under quota through July 31, 

Lyman L. Bryan to Join 
Cotton Council Staff 

Lyman L. Bryan of Texas City, Texas, 
ll join tl ‘ational Cotton Council 
Me as associate in public 
ns, Ed Lipscomb, Council director 
notion and public relations, 

s wee z, 
Currently assistant director of public 
relations at the Pan-American Refining 
Company at Texas City, Mr. Bryan 
also is president of the Texas Public 
Relations Association, an affiliate of the 

American Public Relations Association. 
He is a former executive manager of the 
Lindsay, Okla., Chamber of Commerce. 

A graduate of the journalism school 
of the University of Oklahoma, Mr. 
Bryan is a member of the American 
Chamber of Commerce Executive Asso- 
ciation, the membership and campus 
activities committees of the APRA; 
board of directors, Texas City Recrea- 
tional Council and the Galveston County 
Red Cross. 

In the Cotton Council office of public 
relations, Mr. Bryan will be charged 
with the development of cotton educa- 
tional and information programs in the 
cotton states and with the planning and 
execution of publicity and public rela- 
tions programs stressing the need for 
broader cotton and agricultural research 

Blaw-Knox Gets Additional 
Soybean Mill Contract 

Chemical Plants Division of Blaw- 
Knox Company has received an addition- 
al contract from General Mills, Inc., to 
increase the project already being 
handled by this contractor for a 250- 
tons-per-day soybean processing plant 
to be located at Rossford, Ohio. 

Included in the new award are a boiler 
house, lecithin building, service building, 
and auxiliary equipment. The complete 
project now covers the engineering, 
p> and erection by Blaw-Knox 
»f all materials and machinery for the 
extraction including auxiliary 


Transplanting Tung Trees 
is Made Much Easier 

Much of the hand work of digging 
and transplanting young tung trees 
from nursery to orchard can be elim- 
inated with use of tools and methods 
developed by a USDA research en- 
gineer. Normally, these important oil 
nut-producing tung trees are dug with 
a wheel-mounted, U-shaped blade that 
is pulled behind a tractor. It is neces- 
sary for two men to follow behind the 
blade to keep it at the proper depth and 
centered on the row, so that it will cut 
the tree roots 10 to 12 inches below the 
surface of the ground and about 10 
inches on both sides of the nursery row. 
Centering the cutting blade is difficult, 
especially on contoured fields, because 
pruned height of the tung tree (18 
inches) makes it necessary to drive the 
tractor so that trees pass under the 
tractor’s rear axle near wheel, causing 
side-drift of blade. 

Agricultural Engineer R. E. Jezek, 
working in cooperation with the Mis- 
sissippi Agricultural Experiment Station, 
successfully mounted a similar U-shaped 
blade on a tractor so that the tractor 
operator alone could dig the trees. His 
digger, mounted on the right of the 
tractor frame, and in front of the opera- 
tor, reduces labor needs two-thirds and 
satisfactorily solves side-drift problem. 
By substituting a  20-inch-diameter 
auger for ordinary  tractor-mounted 
post-hole digger to dig transplant holes, 
Mr. Jezek has cut out more than half of 
the labor needed for hand transplanting. 

August 18, 1951 ° 

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= THE SOUTH has discover- 
ed that it possesses almost 
unlimited potentials in crop 
and livestock production, 
and USDA scientists at Belts- 
ville are giving Southern 
farmers a big hand in their 
effort to set bigger and big- 
ger production records. 

USDA Photo “ 
DR. ROBERT M. SALTER, head of USDA’s Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, Ltn. 

and Agricultural Engineering. Salter is enthusiastic salesman of what 
researchers call the “integrated” approac hat is to say, getting the most 
—on the farm—out of all that science knows about crop production, 


Carolina farmer, got the surprise of his life: one of 25 acres 

he’d planted in corn had outyielded all the others by three to one. 
He’d made 75 bushels on a single acre surrounded by land which 
produced an average of less than 25 bushels per acre! 

Agricultural research men had persuaded Parke against his judg- 
ment, to follow methods cn his 75-bushel acre which violated all the 
“best” practices of 150 years. 

First off, they had recommended a hybrid. Parker planted one on 
his record-breaking acre, although he had always grown the open-polli- 
nated varieties. He applied nitrogen with a lavish hand. He planted 
the corn twice as thick as on his other acres, a practice he knew had 
brought disastrously low yields earlier tests in the area. 

After the corn was up, Parker side dressed it with added nitrogen 
between the rows. That was another departure recommended by the 
scientists who had tested the specific fertilizer needs of the soil. Parker 
cultivated shallow instead of deep as was his custom; and “laid by” 
the experimental corn early instead of plowing late into the growing 

“I thought the scientists were nuts,” Parker said, “but I stuck my 
toe in the pond. I’ve stayed in ever since.” 

In subsequent years Parker has produced up to 100 bushels of corn 
per acre on his farm, using the new methods. Today, more than 50,000 
farmers throughout a seven-state area of the South have got into 
the act. 

Their yields have been approximately four times the average though- 
out the area! 

At the root of the southern corn production success is a new approach 
to crop research that is summed up by agricultural scientists in the 

Ss“ YEARS AGO, come next harvest, Conrad Parker, a North 

MANY SOUTHERN FARMERS have pyramided corn yields .. . 
increased them four-fold above average yields . . . by using new 
production techniques developed in recent years. By use of modern 
techniques, in the right combination, production of almost all crops 
could be tremendously increased, according to Beltsville scientists. 

USDA Photo 

phrase, “the proper integration of all 

production factors. 

“All that means,” says a plain- spoken 
member of the scientific fraternity, “is 
working cooperatively with individual 
farmers under ordinary farm conditions 
and trying a whole pack of new things 
at varying rates and in different combi- 

Parker has benefited from the special- 
ized knowledge of many men and many 
ingredients—all brought together in a 
practical, workable pattern on his land. 
Involved are the plant breeder’s knowl- 
edge of new varieties, the agricultural 
engineer’s knowledge of new equipment 
and fertilizer placement, the agron- 
omist’s knowledge of weed control, the 

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conservationist’s knowledge of soils, ete. 

Corn is only a single example. 

Yields of many crops can be doubled, 
and more by simply putting to work 

.. in the proper combination . . . what 
the scientists already know. 

Clearing house and symbol for the 
new approach to production is USDA’s 
12,000-acre Agricuitural Research Center 
near Beltsville, Md., 13 miles northeast 
of the nation’s capital. One of the most 
important of the Beltsville operations 
is that of the Bureau of Plant Industry, 
Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, 
headed by Dr. Robert M. Salter. 

Salter has great faith in the future 
of the new approach to production of 
food and fiber, but also great impatience 
because progress isn’t faster. 

“New discoveries often sit on the 
shelves for months or even years until 
some enterprising farmer tries them 
out,” he complains. “Such a farmer gets 
the bugs out of a new practice and 
fits it into a farming system. Through 
natural observation of other farmers 
and the work of county agents, the 
jpractice spreads. But the rate of spread 
is too slow.’ 

For faster progress, he recommends: 

(1) Establishment of “pilot plant” 
farms where research results would be 
tested in combination with all other pro- 
duction factors before being passed on 
to the farmer. 

(2) A nationwide network of farmer- 
operated demonstration farms where re- 
;search results would be further tested 
,and observed by farmers themselves. 

(3) A farm management team in 
every county to assist all farmers in de- 
_veloping production plans. 

Salter has especial hope for the 
agricultural future of the South. A while 
back he bluntly told a Midwestern 

“There are million of acres in the 
South now growing corn and additional 
millions that can grow corn. Southern 
farmers are awake to the fact that they 
need to diversify . .. The South has a 
longer growing season and more abun- 

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August 18, 1951 ° 

dant rainfall than the Midwest ... Un- 
less Midwestern farmers adopt more ef- 
fective measures for protecting their 
God-given heritage of productive soil, 
it is not inconceivable that future gen- 
erations will look South when they speak 
of the great American corn belt.” 

Two conclusions are crystal clear 
from results obtained with the “integrat- 
ed production” technique such as that 
employed on Parker’s North Carolina 

First, that a single crop practice may 
increase yield, but yields actually can 
be pyramided when several practices 
are used together in the right combi- 

Second, that a single crop practice, 
although it reduces yields in a solo run, 
may actually contribute to substantial 
increases when combined with other 
modern practices. 

The new approach can be used to find 
ways of pyramiding . . . doubling and 
increasing several fold ... the produc- 
tion of any crop now grown in the U.S., 
say Beltsville scientists. The larger 
crops, in turn, foreshadow larger live- 
stock production. 

Improvement and increase of forage 
production in Southern tests already in- 
dicate that production of dairy prod- 
ucts could be doubled throughout the 
Cotton Belt, where there is still a 
serious shortage of milk to meet full 
needs of the population. 

Use of the new techniques in manage- 
ment of pastures has increased southern 
beef production as much as 150 percent. 

Only a few years ago, economists 
were telling the South to forget about 
expanding livestock numbers. Feed 
crops, they said, couldn’t be grown 
economically in the South. 

In the 70 years prior to 1940, the acre- 
vield of major crops in the U.S. in- 
creased little if any. Since 1940, how- 
ever, there has been approximately a 
30 percent increase in food production, 
on approximately the same land area. 

One of the important reasons is the 
adoption by more farmers of new 

As still more farmers come to under. 
stand the theory of the interdependence 
of crop practices, we can expect even 
greater yields. Scientists, sold on the 
combination approach, believe that food 
production can be increased 50 percent 
in the next decade, or about five times 
our expected increase in population 
over that same period. 

in the 

improved Methods Sought 
For Flameproofing Cotton 

An extensive program of chemical 
research to develop better flameproof 
cotton fabrics is being undertaken for 
the Army Quartermaster Corps by 

The investigations are already under 
way at the Southern Regional Research 
Laboratory in New Orleans, La. Prac- 
tical methods that can be applied com- 
mercially at reasonable cost to make 
fabrics permanently flameproof without 
imparting undesirable properties are 
being sought. Such cotton fabrics are 
needed greatly by the Army for clothing 
and tentage and by civilians for many 
purposes such as clothing, draperies, 
curtains and other household articles. 

fifth article by Mr. 
September 1 issue.) 

Richter will appear 



Conventions ° Meetings * Events 

e Sept. 6-7-8—American Soybean Asso- 
ciation annual convention. Hotel Fort 
Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. George 
M. Strayer, Hudson, Iowa, secretary- 

e November 8-9—Fifth Annual Beltwide 
Cotton Mechanization Conference, Chick- 
asha, Okla. For information, write Na- 
tional Cotton Council, P. O. Box 18, 
Memphis 1, Tenn., sponsor of the confer- 

e March 24-25, 1952— Valley Oilseed 
Processors Association annual conven- 
tion. Hotel Buena Vista, Biloxi, Miss. 
C. E. Garner, 1024 Exchange Bldg., Mem- 
phis 3, Tenn., secretary. 

e March 30, 1952—National Cotton Gin- 
ners’ Association annual meeting. Baker 
Hotel, Dallas, Texas. Carl Trice Wil- 
liams, P. Box 369, Jackson, Tenn., 

e March 31, April 1-2, 1952 — Texas 
Cotton Ginners’ Association annual con- 
vention. Fair Park, Dallas, Texas. Jay C. 
Stilley, 109 North Second Ave., Dallas 1, 
Texas, executive vice-president. For ex- 
hibit space, write R. Haughton, Presi- 
dent Gin Machinery & Supply Assn., Inc., 
P. O. Box 444, 3116 Commerce St., Dal- 
las 1, Texas. 

e May 19-20-21, 1952—National Cotton- 
seed Products Association’s annual con- 
vention. Roosevelt Hotel, New Orleans, 
La. S. M. Harmon, Sterick Bldg., Mem- 
phis 3, Tenn., secretary-treasurer. 

e June 3-4-5, 1952—Tri-States Cottonseed 
Oil Mill Superintendents’ Association an- 
nual convention. Hotel Buena Vista, 
Biloxi, Miss. L. E. Roberts, 998 Kansas, 
Memphis 5, Tenn., secretary-treasurer. 

e June 8-9-10-11, 1952—North Carolina 
Cottonseed Crushers Association - South 
Carolina Cotton Seed Crushers’ Associa- 
tion joint annual convention. The Cava- 
lier, Virginia Beach, Va. Mrs. M. U. 
Hogue, P. O. Box 747, Raleigh, N. C., 
secretary-treasurer, North Carolina as- 
sociation; Mrs. Durrett Williams, 609 
Palmetto Bldg., Columbia 1, S. C., treas- 
urer, South Carolina association. 

Insects Cut Cotton Crop 

In South Africa 

The 1950-51 cotton crop in the Union 
of South Africa is privately estimated 
at 14,000 to 15,600 bales (of 500 pounds 
gross) compared with 6,000 in 1949-50 
and an average of only 1,300 bales for 
the previous 10 years. A crop previously 
expected to reach 25,000 bales this year 
was reduced by insect infestation. Poten- 
tial production under favorable con- 
ditions is placed at upwards of 50,000 
bales. Current prices paid to growers 
range from 46.7 to 49 U.S. cents a 
pound for ginned cotton. 

Part of the stimulus for increased 
production is provided by a rapidly ex- 
panding mill industry that consumed 
around 42,000 bales in 1950-51 com- 
pared with 10,000 in 1946-47. Further 
anticipated expansion may result in 
annual mill consumption of nearly 150,- 
000 bales within the next three or four 



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August 18, 1951 

Soybean Stocks Set New 
| Record High July 1 

ic | N Pp R E S S Soybean stocks of nearly 51.6 million 

bushels in all storage positions July 1 
HY 8) R A U | c p U ial p were largest for the date in the 10 years 
“ ‘ea sg acoeeng to reports assem- 
ay 7 3 wl sled by USDA’s Bureau of Agricul- 
Eticenty fle need of the in and cilmill.Largecapee |] | tural Economics. These stocks compare 
low price. Drives direct from electric motor or line shaft. | with 46.1 million a year earlier and the 
| previous high July 1 total of 47.8 mil- 
| lion in 1944. 
* A. | The current total includes nearly 33.4 
pe Al | million bushels of soybeans at processing 
ALAMCG.IR S5NANORKS | plants, as enumerated by the Bureau of 
| the Census, which is more than were 
| ever in that position on any previous 
July 1. Commercial stocks at terminals 
were reported by the Production and 
Marketing Administration at 4.2 million 
bushels. The Crop Reporting Board 
estimated farm stocks at 9.6 million 
bushels, about one-seventh more than 
average, and holdings in interior mills, 

£ ® 
elevators and warehouses at 4.4 million 
] bushels—virtually the same as a year 
ago, but more than usual in that position. 
a Disappearance of soybeans in the 

April-June quarter was computed at 90 
million bushels. About 61,020,000 bush- 
els were processed in that period, as 
reported by the Bureau of the Census, 
. and nearly nine million bushels were ex- 

- Snow rl t ported. Most of the 18 million bushels 
used in planting the 1951 crop were 

' planted prior to July 1, but some of the 
Pure vegetable shortening... farm stocks were likely seed to be 

: we planted after July 1. 
Emulsorized for quick-method From the Oct. 1, 1950 estimated sup- 

For full data ask your dealer or address the 

San Antonio - Houston - Brownsville 
Corpus Christi - San Angelo 

for Stir-N-Roll pastry and a cakes . . . makes digestible, ply of 290 million bushels, the computed 
biscuits! —— good-tasting fried foods. 

disappearance is about 238 million 
bushels. On the other hand, since Oct. 
1 about 201 million bushels have been 
processed and 25 million bushels ex- 
ported. This, with quantities used for 
seed and feed, results in an apparent 
discrepancy only slightly smaller than in- 

WESSON OIL & SNOWDRIFT SALES COMPANY dicated by the report as of April 1, 1951, 

Soybean Receipts Show 

Increase in June 

Inspected receipts of soybeans in June 
were somewhat above the preceding 
month and above average, according to 
reports to USDA. Inspections totaled 
4,801 cars in June compared with 4,210 
in May, 3,634 in June 1950 and 3,260 the 
June average for 1941-49. 

The quality of the soybeans marketed 
in June continued good, 85 percent grad- 
ing No. 2 or better compared with 86 
percent in May, 74 percent in June 1950 
and 67 percent the 10-year June average. 

Inspections of soybeans in June in- 
cluded the equivalent of 338 cars in- 
spected as cargo lots and 164 cars as 
truck receipts. 

Texas Agricultural Workers 
To Meet Jan. 11-12 

Covered with Carolina’s Standard 2-lb. Jute Bagging, cut of bales, above, is actual Pin ingen SS gc 
photograph of same before cutting sample holes. annual convention on Jan. 11-12, 1952, 
Cotton so covered is subjected to less weather damage than either closely woven | at the Plaza Hotel in San Antonio, Paul 
cotton, Burlap, or Sugar Bag Cloth due to open weave admitting sunlight and air, | H. Walser, Temple, president, has an- 
and looks better than either after sample holes are cut, and is unquestionably | nounced. 

better for the purpose. Mr. Walser also announced the ap- 
pointment of a program committee con- 
CAROLINA BAGGING COmPANY — of Be B. Moore, assistant 
director, Educational Service, National 
a ae Manufacturers and Importers natin oe Cottonseed Products Association, Dal- 

Memphis, Tennessee HENDERSON, NORTH CAROLINA Dallas, Texas las; W. N. Williamson; V. N. Johnson; 
Dr. Carl Moore and Dr. Mina Lamb. 


Flaxseed Stocks on July 1 
Are Lower Than Usual 

Stocks of old flaxseed in all storage Ready Soon ! 

positions July 1 totaled 12,269,000 bush- 

els, according to reports assembled by 
SDA’s Bureau of Agricultural Eco- 

nomics. This compares with 16,998,000 
bushels a year earlier and 19,359,000 9 
bushels on July 1, 1949. 
Disappearance from the total stocks 
of 26,464,000 bushels on April 1 is thus 

computed at 14,195,000 bushels. The 
quantity processed in the April-June 
quarter is reported by the Bureau of the 3 \ 
Census at 10,561,000 bushels, of which 6 5 . = — 
at least 168,000 bushels was 1951 crop 12th Edition Completely Re vised 
seed crushed prior to July 1. Nearly 
2% million bushels of flaxseed were 
used for seed in that period and nearly 
a million bushels were exported. aa r %, 1 ee - 937) j y 
From the supply of 56,261,000 bushels The last Yopp’s Code, 11th Edition (published 1937) is nov 
on July 1, 1950, the season’s disappear- being completely revised and brought up to date, and will be 
ance is indicated at 44 million bushels. : : : 3 * , 
Exports accounted for about three mil- ready for distribution the latter part of September. Included in 
lion bushels. During the 1950-51 season 
the quantity processed for oil is reported 
by the Bureau of the Census at 42,230,- 
000 bushels. | ae : 
Farm stocks on July 1 were down to % NEW WORDS and phrases for description of oils and 
1.6 million bushels, half of which were . ¥ R 
in North Dakota and about one-fifth oilseed products as to method of extraction—hydraulic, 
each in Minnesota and South Dakota. + la 
Of the off-farm portion, terminals held Expeller, solvent. 
5.4 million, a little above half as much 
2) ay ee ee % NEW WORDS for linters cellulose settlements. 
as on July 1, 1949. The 5.2 million 
bushels of old flaxseed at processing : mr: : : i 
plants and interior mills, elevators and % NEW WORDS for milling in transit, destinations basis 
warehouses was about the same as a ‘. ‘ 
year earlier but double the quantity f.o.b. cars certain points such as Decatur, IIL, ete. 
there on July 1, 1949. 

this new edition are: 

. E NEW TERMS for Mexican purchases; various other 
Council Urges Ginners new trading terms. 

To Save Bale Ties 

A cotton crop larger than expected in NEW CODED LIST of Traders (buyers, refiners, brok- 
1951 could cause the bale tie situation 
to become tight, the National Cotton ers, dealers). 
Council is pointing out in advising cot- 

oe NEW CODED LIST of Oil Mills (cottonseed, peanut, 

all used bale ties on hand. 
In making allocations for bale ties wn ee -_ . 
the National Production Authority con- soybean, flaxseed, etc.) 
sidered imports and domestic production 
of ties. Defense orders have been au- 
thorized for domestic production of ties 
in an amount that, when added to tie The lists of traders and oil mills are almost completely new 
imports, would cover a 16-million-bale +f . 
am. plus a supply for linter bales from due to many new firms, corporate name changes, firm dissolu- 
the new crop. 
Possibilities that some unforeseen tions, etc. This edition is being revised by Wm. D. Yopp, who 
problem could curtail bale tie imports 
and domestic tie production, and that a 
cotton crop in excess of 16 million bales 
might be produced, provide sound reasons 
for saving good bale ties, the Council 
points out. Used ties should be straight- 
ened, reworked and stored for use in 

pe Order Your Copy Now! $10 
Indonesian Copra Exports 

Decrease in June 

Indonesian copra exports during June 
totaled 45,547 long tons, a decrease of Published and for sale exclusively by 
almost 12 percent from the 51,528 tons - . 
exported during May. 

January-June shipments totaled 206,- e e e 
680 tons against 123,211 tons during the 
corresponding period of 1950. Total 4 0 on in an ] ] ress 

copra production in June amounted to 
52,850 tons. Deliveries to oil mills in ‘ 0 a & , 

June were 3,297 tons. Copra output for 3116 Commerce Street Dallas 1, Texas 
July is forecast at 46,300 tons and ex- 
ports at 44,300 tons. 

with his father edited and revised previous editions. 

THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss * August 18, 1951 

* Memphis, Tenn. 
* Little Rock, Ark. 

LABORATORIES * Blytheville, Ark. 
* Cairo, Ill. 

TO SERVE * Des Moines, Iowa 
YOU * Decatur, II. 

Main Offices: MEMPHIS, TENN. 

Specializing in analyses of Cottonseed, Soybeans and their products, 
Fats — Feeds — Fertilizers 


141- and 176-Saw 
Change-Over Equipment 


Produces More Lint Cut Per Saw 






Self-Filling | Non-Combustible 



Designed, Fabricated and Erected 

Confer with us on your storage problems 


Muskogee, Oklahoma 

August 18, 1951 

eee ws | Ae OY ll a 

A tourist traveling through the Texas 
Panhandle got into conversation with an 
old settler and his son at a filling station. 

“Looks as though we might have rain,” 
said the tourist. 

“Well, I hope so,” replied the native, 
“not so much for myself as for my boy 
here. I’ve seen it rain.” 


She: Do you think a cannon can cause 
enough vibration to cause rain? 

He: Well, I can’t say as to that, but 
I’ve seen a shot gun bring on a shower. 
ee e 

Professor: “Are you cheating on this 

Student: “No, sir. I was only telling 
him that his nose was dripping on my 


“I told him I didn’t want to see him 
any more.” 

“What did he do?” 

“He turned off the lights.” 

2 FF © 

Cop (to inebriate trying to fit key 
into lamp post): I don’t think anyone is 
home there. 

Buzzed: Mush be. There’s a light up- 

ee e 

A colored preacher at the close of his 
sermon discovered one of his deacons 
asleep. He said, “We will now have a 
few minutes of prayer. Deacon Brown, 
will you lead?” 

Deacon Brown sleepily replied, “Lead, 
hell, I just dealt,” 

ee e e@ ‘ 

You can't tell a farmer girl that a 
stork brings baby calves, because she 
knows it’s the bul’. 

ee? e@ 

Slightly Inebriated (to girl on Main 
Street): Do you speak to strangers on 
the street? 

Sweet Little Thing: Oh, no. 

S. I.: Well, then, shut up! 

eo ¢ e@ 

An optimist is a guy who thinks his 
wife has quit cigarettes when he finds 
cigar butts around the house. 

ee e 

“The Sultan’s son is inclined to be a 
bit wild.” 

“Harum scaren, eh wot?” 

“Oh no, he’s used to them.” 

Drunk—Believe it or not, offisher, I'm 
hunting for a parkin’ plash. 
Officer—But you haven’t an automo- 
Drunk — Yesh, I have. It’s in the 
parkin’ plash I’m huntin’ for. 

Ss 2 » 
She: “Do you think we'll have a dull 
sea voyage?” 
He: “Oh, no. Things will keep coming 
up all the time.” 

ee e® @ 

“Sarah, that blasted dog’s been chas- 
ing cows all over the meadow this whole 
day. It spoils the milk and scares the 
poor cows to death. What’ll I do?” 

“You can’t do anything. It’s all your 
fault for buying a bull dog.” 

ee e 
“My hen lays eggs with no yolks.” 
“Mighty white of her!” 



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