LUMMUS CLEANING AND HULL
Where maximum cleaning is required, the
Lummus Unit Groups are ideal. By-pass ar-
rangement allows greatest possible flexibil-
ity. Hot Air Cleaner provides good distribu-
tion to Hull Separator. Hull Separators come
10’ with five cylinders; 14’ with six cylinders
—and cause no mechanical damage to
fibres. Can be grouped with or without
after-cleaner. Shown at right, the 14’ “Great
Western” group. Write for Bulletin 632.
Bulletin No. 631 covers
“Dixie Belle” 10’ group. , ’ a ‘
ame ; £9, ee. 5, 99, 9:
LUMMUS COTTON GIN CO.
Lummus is doing more to put gins on a better paying basis.
DALLAS, TEXAS COLUMBUS, GEORGIA MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
You Save on Power Costs with a
CONTINENTAL GINNING SYSTEM OUTFIT
Continental System Ginning Outfits do a top-notch drying, cleaning and
ginning job with fewer fans than many other outfits. This feature of design not
only results in a savings on the cost of the fans but also a substantial savings in
power Costs since in some gin plants more power is consumed by the fans than
all other machinery combined.
Economical power use is only one of many outstanding and distinctive fea-
tures which have won for Continental System Ginning Outfits the universal
acclaim of ginners wherever cotton grows.
Entered as second-class matter February 4, 1905, at the Post Office at Dallas, Texas, Under Act of Congress of March 3, 1897
a me ae a
When the leading edges of the hammers
in this mill get dull, the direction of rotor
operation can be reversed to bring the other
edges forward. This hammer life saves
money, and reduces shut-down time. Alloy
tool steel, borod tipped, and tungsten car-
bide inlaid hammers are available.
That’s only one of the improvements in
the new Bauer No. 406 Hammer Mill. It is
heavier and sturdier. It runs at relatively
low speed to granulate with minimum fines
and dust. It has an unusually large screen
area. It recirculates air through return ducts
in the side of the mill, thus more com-
pletely controlling dust discharge. This is a
special advantage in installations which do
not employ pneumatic collecting systems.
A Bauer Magnetic Separator is built in
the feed spout. It effectively removes tramp
iron and steel. Ferrous objects are trapped
before they damage machinery, contam-
inate the product, or cause sparks.
If you require additional grinding ca-
pacity or if your present equipment needs
replacement, get all the facts about the
Bauer No. 406 Hammer Mill.
Write, wire, or phone for complete in-
1701 Sheridan Ave.
THE BAUER BROS. CO.
REPRESENTATIVES Martin Neumunz & Co., Inc., 90 West St., New York 6, N. Y. ¢ Franklin F. Landis,
Dallas, Ga. ¢ Industrial Supplies, Memphis, Tenn. ¢ R. R. Dill, 468 Prairie Ave.,
Elmhurst, Ill. ¢ Halsell Brokerage Co., Denver, Colo. ¢ C. C. Cantrell, 2541 Greene
Ave., Fort Worth, Tex. ¢ Kenneth Wylie, Eugene, Ore. * A. E. Thompson Co.,
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951
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August 18, 1951 + THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
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Steel Frame — 141 or The Popular “TRU- The Original Bright
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When rebuilding your
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HULLERS - SEPARATING
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CARVER COTTON GIN CO.
DIVISION OF THE MURRAY COMPANY OF TEXAS, INC.
EAST BRIDGEWATER, MASS.
Sales Offices: ATLANTA — MEMPHIS — DALLAS
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss + August 18, 1951
FIRST AND FOREMOST
Volume 52 August 18, 1951 Number 17
Published every other Saturday in our own printing
plant at 3116 Commerce Street, Dallas 1, Texas
Officers and Editorial Staff
RICHARD HAUGHTON B. P. RIDGWAY
Chairman of the Board Vice-President and
DICK HAUGHTON, Jr. ortisacemonaind
President and Advertising Manager ANN JARRATT SORENSEN
GEORGE H. TRAYLOR
Executive Vice-President and
FRED BAILEY and DON LERCH
IVAN J. CAMPBELL 740 Jackson Place, N.W.
Vice-President and Editor Washington 6, D. C.
Official Magazine of:
National Cottonseed Products Association
National Cotton Ginners’ Association Louisiana-Mississippi Cotton
Alabama Cotton Ginners’ Association Ginners’ Association
Arkansas-Missouri Ginners’ Association New Mexico Cotton Ginners’
Arizona Ginners’ Association x ‘ .
California Cotton Ginners’ Association Oklahoma Cotton Ginners’ Association
The Carolinas Ginners’ A iat T Cotton Ginners’ Association
Georgia Cotton Ginners’ Association Texas Cotton Ginners’ Association
The Corton Gin and Oil Mill Press ss the Official Magazine of the foregoing asso-
ctations for official communications and news releases, bus the associations are in
no way responsible for the editorsal expressions or policies contained herein.
Subscription Rates: 1 year $3; 2 years $5 3 years $7; foreign $3.50 per year.
Executive and Editorial Offices: 3116 Commerce St., Dallas 1, Texas
008 OED PORCINE OLLIE
NOBODY WILL EVER be able to de-
sign a mechanical cotton harvester
with anything like the personal ap-
peal of this atttractive young woman.
But if we owned a cotton farm and
N had to make a choice between picking
.) @) 0) T al W E .) T E R the white gold ourselves or having it
done by a machine—we would choose
SUPPLY AN ) the latter course. It’s not that we’re
lazy—-with us it’s simply a matter of
vy NG@si hid WORKS improper weight distribution.
Phone local and long distance
3-8314 — 3-8315
READ BY COTTON GINNERS, COTTONSEED CRUSHERS AND OTHER
OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA '
P.O. BOX 1217 OILSEED PROCESSORS FROM CALIFORNIA TO THE CAROLINAS
The Cover PRESS £9
August 18, 1951 * THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
. have specified FRENCH SCREW PRESSES because
of their simplicity, large capacity, and ruggedness.
FRENCH BASKET EXTRACTORS because of their
ability to handle all types of materials, pre-pressed or
direct extracted, without excessive fines common to other
systems and because of their enviable record for reliability dtaieuasinianis diene
‘ : Sold in 1947-18 French Screw Presses ahead of
and excellence of engineering workmanship, leading to French Basket Extractor, on Flaxseed.
uninterrupted and extremely safe operation.
The French Basket Extractor will perform efficiently when
the going gets tough and others fail.
WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG ON FRENCH SOLVENT
EXTRACTION SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT.
Other installations of French screw
presses and extractors are currently
handling peanuts, corn germ, copra,
and many other oil seeds.
Aoches Dentin tant 5 Company, Mtencapeli, p Miameste
1946—20 French Screw wees
oe 2 Basket Extractor, on Flaxseed.
Vertical type Basket Extractor. High capacity 4 section French Mechanical Victory Mills, Limited, Toronto, Canada
—_ f= in Rectangular and Screw Press shown with feeder. ‘ Sold in bg om French Screw Presses with French Basket Extractor
jorizontal types. Soybeans, Peanuts, and all types of oil seeds.
THE FRENCH OIL MILL MACHINERY COMPANY
OWS LICK their chops plenty over cattle feed heavy residue left in the meal, when the oil is
t that’s processed with Phillips 66 Normal extracted by this excellent Phillips solvent.
Ae. TES A LT Oe ON, se Phillips 66 Normal Hexane has a typical boil-
ing range of only 5 degrees. No light ends to
lose. And Phillips has adequate supplies. You
can depend on prompt, sure deliveries.
Fine-quality Phillips Hexane and other select
hydrocarbon solvents can be used successfully
for the soybean, cottonseed, flaxseed, tung nut,
rice bran, corn germ, castor bean, alfalfa, ani-
mal fat and other oil extraction industries.
Write for complete information.
PHILLIPS PETROLEUM COMPANY
August 18, 1951 * THE CorroN GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
HE TEXAS Engineering Exper-
T iment Station is one of the nine
separate parts of the Texas Ag-
and Mechanical College Sys-
tem. The prime interest of each part
of this System lies in resident instruc-
tion, in research, or in extension work,
in one or more aspects of the broad
fields of engineering and agriculture.
The main interest of the A. and M. Col-
lege, for example, is resident instruction
at both the undergraduate and graduate
levels. The objectives of the Station, ac-
cording to the Rules and Regulations
adopted by our Board of Directors on
~~ 14, 1944, are:
. To stimulate enginee ring education,
To investigate engineering and in-
PRR problems of importance to the
3. To disseminate
gard thereto, and
4. To otherwise assist in
trial development of Texas.
In accordance with these objectives,
part of the program of research admin-
istered by the Texas Engineering Ex-
periment Station is conducted by
teaching departments of the A. and M.
College of Texas, largely those depart-
ments within the School of Engineering.
Members of the teaching staff, and
graduate and undergraduate students
participate in this portion of the pro-
gram on a part-time basis. Many of the
projects organized in this manner serve
as a source of thesis material for grad-
uate students. The remainder of the
Station’s program is conducted by full-
time research personnel who work in
laboratories under the direct control of
the Station. The work in these labora-
tories, such as the Cottonseed Products
Research Laboratory, the Chemurgic
Laboratory, and the Fan Testing Labora-
tory, is also co-ordinated with the grad-
uate program of the College when feas-
ible. Special laboratories such as these
are the outgrowth of planned efforts
directed to the solution of problems
having statewide and regional signifi-
information in re-
the two-year period ended
“Research Activities for the Sessions 1948-49
and 1949-50; Texas Engineering Experiment Sta-
tion and School of Engineering of the A. and M.
College of Texas,”’ Bulletin No. 122, Texas Engi-
neering Experiment Station, 74 pp., Oct. 1, 1950.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MIL!
By ARTHUR W. MELLOH
Vice-Director, Texas Engineering
Experiment Station, College Station
THE AUTHOR presented the accompanying paper at
the Twelfth Annual Meeting of the Cotton Research
Congress, held at Texas A. & M. College, July 26-
Aug. 31, 1950, a total of 79 separate
projects was under investigation by the
Texas Engineering Experiment Station. ’
These projects were distributed among
the following 17 subject matter fields:
Aeronautical Engineering, Architec-
ture, Chemical Engineering, Chemurgy,
Cottonseed Processing, Electrical En-
gineering, Engineering Drawing, Freight
Rates, General Engineering, Geology,
Highway Engineering, Management En-
gineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mu-
nicipal and Sanitary Engineering,
Petroleum Engineering, Soil Mechanics,
At the present time, the number of
active projects is 54, of which 10 are
concerned with the processing and util-
ization of cottonseed.
The size of our research staff fluc-
tuates throughout the year, since such
a large number of our personnel are
students and members of the teaching
staff of the College who participate in
research on a part-time basis. The av-
erage at any one time is about 120 for
technical and service personnel of all
grades. About 25 of these are assigned
to projects involving cottonseed. The
over-all program of research adminis-
tered by the Station is supported by
funds appropriated by the legislature of
the State of Texas, and by funds made
available through contracts with in-
dustrial and governmental agencies. Our
principal contracts in the field of cot-
tonseed processing are with the Cotton
Research Committee of Texas and U.S.
Department of Agriculture.
In further keeping with our stated
objectives, an important phase of our
activities is the dissemination of infor-
mation on engineering subjects. Prac-
tical information for the layman, as
well as highly technical data for the
scientifically trained specialists, is given
in the individual numbers of the several
* August 18, 1951
series of publications issued by the Sta-
tion. A complete list of these publica-
tions may be obtained by writing to the
Station. Since 1915, the Station has
issued 167 different bulletins, reports,
and reprints. Of this number, seven
deal with cottonseed and related topics.
During a year’s time, our total mailing
amounts to about 24,000 separate publi-
cations, nearly all of which are supplied
free of charge upon request.
Research in Cottonseed Processing
That portion of the research program
of the Texas Engineering Experiment
Station devoted to cottonseed in recent
years may, for purposes of discussion,
be divided into three parts:
(1) Projects devoted primarily to
various aspects of oil mill operation,
economics, and design; hydraulic and
screwpress extraction; and fundamental
studies of cottonseed oil and other
(2) Projects devoted primarily to
studies of the solvent extraction process;
(3) Studies of food uses for the cot-
tonseed and its products.
The first group of projects consists
of those conducted by our Cottonseed
Products Research Laboratory under the
general supervision of A. Cecil Wamble.
This Laboratory is unique in that it
not only is devoted exclusively to the
study of cottonseed processing problems
but also is equipped with standard oil
mill machinery for conducting exper-
imental work on a full-scale basis. This
Laboratory, consisting of offices, analyt-
ical laboratories, shops, and pilot plant,
is housed in its own two-story, mill-type
building in the heart of the campus. The
building itself was constructed in 1943
with funds made available by the Cot-
ton Research Committee of Texas and
by the College. Much of the pilot plant
equipment has been provided by various
manufacturers through a _ cooperative
arrangement with the Texas Cottonseed
Crushers’ Association. This group, to-
gether with the National Oil Mill Super-
intendents’ Association and the Oil Mill
Machinery Manufacturers and Supply
Association, through such men as H. E.
Wilson, Wharton, C. W. Rankin, Bren-
ham, H. D. Reeves, Sweetwater, and
Jack Howell, Bryan, as well as others,
have had a major part in the establish-
ing and equipping of this important cot-
tonseed research facility. Current re-
sponsibility for the operation and main-
tenance of the Laboratory rests with the
Texas Engineering Experiment Station,
The following investigations have re-
cently been or are now in progress at
the Cottonseed Products Research Lab-
(a) Extraction of Oil from Oil-Bearing
Materials by the Combined Action of
Mechanical Pressure and Solvents (co-
operative with the Cotton Research Com-
mittee of Texas).
Experiments conducted between Sep-
tember 1947 and August 1949 showed
conclusively that significant improve-
ment in oil yield could be obtained bv
using prepressing ahead of, and in com-
bination with, the conventional solvent
extraction process. The advantages of
the combined process were shown to be
increased plant capacity, reduced sol-
vent requirements, lowering of the per-
centage of fines, and a reduction of
residual oil in the cake to less than one
percent. A complete report of these find-
ings is available. *
As a result of our preliminary inves-
tigation of prepressing, the process was
introduced into a commercial Texas oil
mill as early as May 1948. Using hy-
draulic presses for prepressing followed
by solvent extraction, the soundness of
the technical principles involved was
thus demonstrated on a commercial scale.
Subsequent experiments in our labora-
tory showed that the process could be
utilized economically by performing the
prepressing operation with an ordinary
screwpress. It was further shown that
such a screwpress when properly mod-
ified for optimum prepressing work on
cottonseed meats could be expected to
handle about three times its normal
capacity with about one-third the elec-
tric power consumption per ton of ma-
terial processed. The residual oil in the
solvent-extracted cake could be reduced
to less than one percent if the prepressed
cake were used just as it came from the
screwpress. By reflaking the prepressed
cake, the residual oil could not only be
reduced to less than half of one percent
but the extraction time could also be re-
duced by a ratio of about four to one.
Reliable estimates indicate that an oil
mi!l employing the solvent extraction
process can, under proper conditions, in-
crease its return by six to seven dollars
per ten of seed processed by using pre-
pressing. That the idea is sound, both
technically and economically, is borne
out by the fact that it appears to have
ha: almost 100 percent adoption by
these cottonseed oil mills employing the
ec'vent process which are either now in
eneration or under construction.
(b) Solvent Extraction of Oil from Cot-
tonseed Prior to the Removal of Linters
of Oil from Oil Bearing Mate-
rials by Prepressing Followed by Solvent Extrac
tion,”’ H. E. Rea, Jr., and A. Cecil Wamble, Re-
search Report No. 11, Texas Engineering Experi
ment Station, 9 pp. il., Feb. 1950
“The Extraction «
and Treatment of the Residue to Effect
Separation of Meal, Hulls, and Linters*
(cooperative with the U.S. Department
of Agriculture and the Cotton Research
Committee of Texas).
The mechanical removal of linters
from cottonseed prior to extraction of
the oil is one of the most expensive op-
erations in cottonseed processing, and at
best less than 90 percent of the linters
are removed from the seed. Moreover,
the linters are more or less contaminated
by hull particles and some oil is lost
with the hulls. The purpose of this in-
vestigation was to study the possibility of
developing a process, ultimately feasible
on a commercial basis, for the solvent
extraction of the oil from cottonseed
prior to the removal of linters, followed
by treatment of the extracted residue for
separation of meal, hulls, and linters.
In the process proposed for study, the
whole seed were rolled in flaking rolls
and the oil then extracted with commer-
cial hexane. The extracted seed were
separated into protein and _ hulls-lint
fractions by revolving-drum hull beater
and by shaker screen, while the lint was
separated from the hulls in defibrating
machinery. This was to be compared
with the conventional process in which
the cottonseed are delinted by saw-type
delinters, the Meats rolled after separa-
tion from the hulls, and the oil extract-
ed from the rolled meats. In the whole-
seed process, essentially all of the oil is
subjected to the extraction process, thus
the potential oil yield is greater.
| The problem involved determination
of the technical feasibility of the process
by laboratory and pilot plant studies,
and _ determination of the economic
feasibility by estimated cost comparison
with the cottonseed meats process in
current use. The investigation was in-
tended to be only of a preliminary
nature and to serve as a basis for jus
tifying further detailed development of
processes based on the general idea in-
The experimental phases of the project
were designed to accomplish the follow-
ing: (1) determination of the comminu-
tion method which would produce a max-
imum of extracted oil and at the same
time produce extracted solids easily
separated into protein and_ hulls-lint
fractions; (2) determination of the
optimum processing conditions during
comminution and extraction; (3) deter-
mination of the best method for separat-
ing the proteinaceous material from the
hulls an lint; (4) determination of the
quality of oil, meal, and lint in com-
parison with the quality of the prod-
ucts produced by standard processes:
and (5) comparison of the operation of
the extractor on comminuted whole seed
and on rolled meats.
Our experimental work showed that
the method investigated for the proc-
essing of the whole cottonseed into meal.
oil, hulls, and lint, is less economical
than the conventional method. Future
development of a market for the hulls-
lint fraction as such, however, would
not only make the process economical but
would also simplify matters by eliminat-
ing the delinting, hulling, and separat-
ing operations completely. It was
further shown that by removing first-
cut linters with saw-type delinting ma-
chines in the usual way and then treat-
*A report of work done under contract with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture and authorized by
the Research and Marketing Act. The contract
was supervised bv the Southern Regional Research
Laboratory of the Bureau of Agricultural and
August 18, 1951 -°
ing the whole seed, a process economical-
ly on a par with the conventional method
resulted. Full details and recommenda-
tions for further study of the problem
are contained in the final project re-
port to the U.S. Department of Agri-
(c) Cottonseed Hulls as an Insulating Ma-
terial (cooperative with the Department
of Mechanical Engineering, A. and M.
College of Texas, and the Cotton Re-
search Committee of Texas).
For every three pounds of lint cot-
ton produced, about one pound of hulls
appears as a by-product. New commer-
cial outlets for such by-products are
continually being sought, although the
economic situation at any given time
usually is the factor which determines
the feasibility of such uses. This project
was concerned with the properties of
untreated cottonseed hulls as a heat in-
Heat transfer determinations made by
the shielded box method gave 0.38 as
the average value of the coefficient of
thermal conductivity in B.t.u. in./ft.?
hr. deg. F. in the temperature range of
80° to 100° F. It was found that for
certain ranges of conditions, cottonseed
hulls would be competitive with other
standard loose-fill type materials so far
as insulating effectiveness is concerned.
Complete details are available in a
published report. ‘
(d) Relationship Between Variety, Soil
and Climatic Conditions, Growing Sea-
sons, Cultural and Harvesting Practices,
and the Yield and Quality of Cottonseed
and Its Products (cooperative with the
Department of Agronomy, Texas Agri-
cultural Experiment Station, and the
Cotton Research Committee of Texas).
The principal aim of this project is
to study the variations in quality and
quantity of manufactured cottonseed
products from season to season. Labora--
tory analyses, together with grade and
product evaluations, are made on
samples which have been grown at,
various locations in Texas and else-
where. Approximately 500 samples are
analyzed annually for the Texas Agri-
cultural Experiment Station. The re-
sulting data not only provide means for
insuring uniformity of results in cot-
tonseed processing but also provide in-
formation useful to breeders, growers,
ginners, and mill operators.
(e) A Study of the Operating Character-
istics of Oil Mill Machinery (cooperative
with the Cotton Research Committee of
Many unit operations such as clean-
ing, delinting, hulling, separating, roll-
ing, and cooking, are performed on cot-
tonseed prior to the extraction of the
oil. Each such operation not only serves
a definite purpose and is carried out
with machinery designed for the par-
ticular function performed, but also has
its own effect upon the quality and
quantity of the extracted oil. The over-
all efficiency of an oil mill, as measured
in terms of the net dollar return per
ton of seed crushed, is a function of the
efficiency with which each unit opera-
tion is carried out, and the latter must
® “Solvent Extraction of Oil
Prior to the Remova! of Linters and Treatment
of the Residue to Effect Separation of Meal.
Hulls, and Linters,” S. P. Clark and A. Cecil
Wamble, Final Report to U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Contract No. A-1s-30131, 102 pp. il.,
Nov. 3, 1950.
“Cottonseed Hulls as an Insulating Material,”
w. E. Long, Research Report No. 2, Texas Engi-
neering Experiment Station, 12 pp. il., July 1948.
COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss +
a truck does the work of two
© when you use
in Boardman 's light-weight
with the exclusive, patented
non-slip conveyor belt!
You save hours in loading time and labor when
you use a Boardman PORTA-LOADER (portable
loader). It's made of strong aluminum alloy,
with exclusive patented no-slip conveyor belt!
One man can easily get this light weight unit
into position for loading. And, under ordinary
conditions, a load of approximately ten tons
OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLA.
August 18, 1951
can be completed in two hours and often less
with one man handling the entire operation.
The driver can easily place engine or motor in
truck cab, push loader up on top of full trailer,
lash down tarpaulin and be “gone” hours be-
fore the driver who loads his seed by hand.
Send for free Porta-loader folder now.
>. te geek my
Wy... BOARDMAN. C0.
be evaluated in relation to its particular
contribution to the final result rather
than as an isolated process.
Using the full-scale oil mill machinery
available in our Cottonseed Products Re-
search Laboratory and in cooperating
commercial mills, a comprehensive study
is being made of the characteristics of
machines commonly used in the proc-
essing of cottonseed. Emphasis is placed
upon the effect on quality and quantity
of products produced and on the ¢a-
pacity and power consumption of the
machines themselves as a function of
variation within the range of operat-
ing conditions normally encountered in
“The Effect of Rolling Cottonseed Meats on
Oil Extraction,” H. E. Rea, Jr. and A. Cecil
Wamble, Research Report No. 16, Texas Engineer-
ing Experiment Station, 17 pp. il, Sept. 1950
BE SURE IT’S
To hold the hooks and stand the strain—to
guard against weather and mildew damage—
HINDOO 2-lb., open-weave bagging has no
For quality, strength, protection and vaiue,
HINDOO Bagging for almost a century has
been the wise ginner’s choice.
ORDER IT EARLY. ORDER IT ALWAYS.
industry. A report has been prepared
on the rolling operation,® and prelim-
inary studies of the delinting and cook-
ing operations have either been made
or are currently in progress.
(f) A Vitamin Study of the Cottonseed
and Its Products (cooperative with the
Cotton Research Committee of Texas).
Under investigation is the effect on
vitamin content (especially vitamin E)
in cottonseed and cottonseed products of
such things as variable factors in proc-
essing, storage conditions, seed variety,
growing conditions, and harvesting prac-
tices. Vitamin E is a powerful antiox-
idant, or stablizing agent, and hence is
effective in preventing rancidity of oil
and meal during storage. High vitamin
content in cottonseed meal is desirable
in the supplemental feeding of live-
MANUFACTURING & SALES CO.
MEMPHIS, TENN. ATLANTA, GA. GALVESTON, TEXAS. BOSTON, MASS
August 18, 1951 °
stock intended either for breeding or
Emphasis is being given to the effect
on vitamin E content in oil and meal of
each of the several unit operations em-
ployed in connection with currently used
oil extraction processes. A small mole-
cular still has been constructed and lab-
oratory techniques have been developed
which insure the quantative recovery of
the vitamin being studied. A brief dis-
cussion of these techniques and related
topics has been published. *
(g) The Economies of Scale in the Op-
eration of Cottonseed Oil Mills by Type
of Extraction Process* (cooperative with
the U.S. Department of Agriculture and
the Cotton Research Committee of
Of the three principal methods of ex-
tracting oil from cottonseed—the hy-
draulic, the solvent, and the screwpress
methods—the first named is the most
commonly used at the present time.
With the hydraulic method, not only is
the residual oil content of the resulting
meal often higher than with the other,
newer methods, but the man-hours of
labor required per ton of seed processed
Even though the current capital in-
vestment in cottonseed oil mill facilities
employing the hydraulic extraction
method is estimated to be in excess of
$2 billion there is a definite trend
toward the use of the solvent and screw-
press methods. Any great shift from the
hydraulic method to either of the other
two would entail a considerable economic
loss in equipment, changes in marketing
centers, and shifts in labor practices, as
well as shifts in costs and methods of
distributing the cottonseed products
from the oil mills. The U.S. Department
of Agriculture is in the process of
evaluating the economic effects that
such shifts in the processing method
used would have on the entire cotton-
seed industry, the market outlets, and
the returns to growers. In order to arrive
at a satisfactory evaluation of the eco-
nomic problems involved, it is necessary
that there be available physical input
and output data by size of mill for each
of the following types of extraction
processes: hydraulic, solvent, screwpress,
and combination screwpress-solvent. The
required data, including detailed layouts,
specifications, and performance and cost
data for 35 different model mills, are
being prepared by the Texas Engineer-
ing Experiment Station and will be in-
corporated into the over-all study by
the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
(h) Screwpressing of Cottonseed** (coop-
erative with the U.S. Department of
Agriculture and the Cotton Research
Committee of Texas).
The use of the screwpress method of
extracting oil from cottonseed has in-
creased in recent months to the point
where more than 200,000 tons of seed
are processed annually in that way. This
figure constitutes about 20 precent of
the total tonnage crushed in this coun-
*“Cotton Vitamin Study Progresses,” Texas En-
gineering Experiment Station News, Vol. 1, No. 2,
p. 6, June 1950.
*A report of work done under contract with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture and authorized by
the Research and Marketing Act. The contract is
supervised by the Fats and Oils Branch of the
Production and Marketing Administration.
**A report of work done under contract with the
U.S. Department of Agriculture and authorized by
the Research and Marketing Act. The contract is
supervised by the Southern Regional Research
Laboratory of the Bureau of Agricultural and
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
took its first step
With cotton ties
IFTY YEARS AGO, when cotton was king in Georgia, only
| Sp products were rolled by Atlantic Steel Company—
cotton ties and hoop.
Making fine-quality cotton ties has never ceased to be an important
part of our business, even though the list of DrxisTEEL products has
grown during the half-century from two to 65, including DrxisTEEL
Made strong at the start from our own special-analysis steel,
DixisTEEL Cotton Ties are rolled to exacting specifications to assure
uniform quality, strength, durability and finish.
DixtstEEL Buckles are made to withstand strain and pull; they
won’t give way or cut the tie. Scientifically designed, they thread
easily, provide firm seating and will not slip up or down.
Specify DixisteeEL—the ginner’s favorite for half-a-century.
Standard bundles weigh approxi-
mately 45 pounds and contain 30
ties—each 15/16 inches by approxi-
mately 1944 gauge, 1144 feet long.
Thirty buckles attached to each bun-
dle. Sixty-pound ties also are made.
Both weights available without
buckles. Buckles shipped in kegs
or carload bulk lots.
ATLANTIC STEEL COMPANY + ATLANTA, GEORGIA
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951
try. With the screwpress method under
proper operating conditions, the amount
of residual oil left in the cake may be
less than that left in cake produced
by the conventional hydraulic method.
This difference is definitely significant
when translated into dollar returns to
oil mill operators and cotton growers.
With the use of screwpress extrac-
tion on the increase, it has been found
desirable to determine the answers to
a number of questions pertaining to the
method: the effects of high tempera-
tures inherent in screwpressing on color
and quality of the oil and meal pro-
duced; the effectiveness of present
methods of cooling screwpressed oils
and how these methods may be im-
proved; and the degree of permanent
color damage in screwpressed oils and
how this damage can be_ reduced.
Further problems being studied under
this project are the development of im-
proved screwpressing methods which
will increase the efficiency and reduce
the cost of operation of screwpresses,
and obtain better yields and higher
grades of end products.
This research, currently in progress,
is being conducted partly in cooperation
with the Cen-Tex Cooperative Oil Mill,
Thorndale, and partly in our Cottonseed
Products Research Laboratory.
The second group of projects to be
described consists of those devoted to
various aspects of solvent extraction—
the basic chemistry of the process, its
economics, and the design of equipment
and selection of solvents and operating
methods to fit specific needs. The fol-
lowing investigations, all of which have
been unaer the general supervision of
Dr. D. Harris, Professor, Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, A. and
M. College of Texas, are representative
of our activity in this area.
(i) Isopropanol as a Solvent for the Ex-
traction of Cottonseed Oil (cooperative
with the Department of Chemical Engi-
neering, A. and M. College of Texas, and
the Cotton Research Committee of
This project was concerned with the
use of isopropanol as a solvent for ex-
tracting oil from cottonseed. A compre-
hensive basic and engineering study of
the solvent process using isopropanol
has been made and reported in the
literature. ’-" Included among the results
is the description of a process using
isopropanol to extract cottonseed oil,
gossypol, and other suistances from cot-
tonseed meats, and subsequently using
a liquid-liquid extraction process for
separating the high grade oil product
from the miscella.
The work indicates that the resulting
7“Isopropanol as a Solvent for Extraction of
I. Preliminary Investigations,”
*. Bishop, C. M. Lyman, and R.
2r. Oil Chemists’ Society, Vol.
24, pp. 370-875; Nov. 1947.
5 “Developments in Processing Cottonseed,” W.
D. Harris, Chemurgic Digest, pp. 9-12; Nov. 1948.
*“Isopropanol as a Solvent for Extraction of
Cottonseed Oil—II. Separation of Purified Oil
from Miscella,””’ W. D. Harris, J. W. Hayward,
and R. A. Lamb, Jour. Amer. Oil Chemists’ So-
ciety, Vol. 26, pp. 719-723; Dec. 1949.
10 ‘‘Isopropanol as a Solvent for Extraction of
Cottonseed Oil—II. The Use of Recycling to Ef-
ect Solvent Economy,” W. D. Harris and J. W.
u“Solvent Extraction of Cottonseed Oil with
Isopropanol,” W. Harris, Bulletin No. 121,
Texas ~Engineering Experiment Station, 72 pp.,
oil product may be of uniform quality
over a wide range of seed quality, and
the yield of refined oil will be appre-
ciably greater than that obtained with
conventional processes, including ex-
traction with hexane. The results of
feeding tests with the meal produced
by the new method have shown that it
is of much higher nutritional quality
than meal produced by hydraulic or
screwpress methods, or by solvent ex-
tractions with hexane. Isopropanol was
found to have other properties which
make it a most suitable solvent: its
ability to extract the toxic substances
found in cottonseed meats, and its low
(j) Acetone as a Solvent for Extraction
of Cottonseed Oil (cooperative with the
Department of Chemical Engineering,
A. and M. College of Texas, and the
Cotton Research Committee of Texas).
An investigation has been made of the
efficiency of acetone for the removal
of oil and gossypol from cottonseed and
the subsequent separation of the pure oil
from the extract. From laboratory and
pilot-plant studies it has been shown
that while the extraction efficiency ob-
tained with acetone is somewhat less
than that obtained with isopropanol,
there is also a reduced heat requirement
so that one solvent is about as econom-
ical as the other.”
(k) Design and Development of New
Type Solvent Extraction Equipment for
Cottonseed (cooperative with the Depart-
ment of Chemical Engineering, A. and M.
2 “‘Acetone as a Solvent for Extraction of Cot-
tonseed Oil,” In-Wai Hui, M.S. thesis, A. and
College of Texas, June 1950.
DALLAS, TEXAS °
MORE PROFIT FOR THE GINNER!
This Cross Sectional View of a Cen-
Tennial Centrifugal Lint Cleaner tells
Leaf particles, pin trash and motes are
removed from the Lint Cotton without
any loss of spinnable lint.
Grades are raised from one-half to a
full grade on rough, hand - picked or
mechanically harvested cotton.
CEN-TENNIAL COTTON GIN CO.
Write for Bulletin 51-L
° MEMPHIS, TENN.
August 18, 1951 -
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss
College of Texas, and the Cotton Re-
search Committee of Texas).
During the extraction of oil from cot-
tonseed by the solvent process, using
conventional equipment, considerable
quantities of very small particles of
meats, technically known as “fines,” are
formed. These particles are difficult to
separate from the liquids in which they
are suspended and give rise to certain
operating and maintenance problems.
While these problems may be eliminated
by using prepressing, it is well known
that the necessity for using prepressing
is much greater with materials of high
oil content, and that cottonseed meats
containing 30 percent oil probably rep-
resent a borderline case. It is natural, .
therefore, at least as far as cottonseed
are concerned, to seek an improved ex-
tractor design which would obviate the
need for prepressing.
The essential function of any type of
solvent extraction equipment is to bring
about efficient contact between the oil-
bearing meats and the solvent in a con-
tinuous counter-flow fashion. Greatest
extraction efficiency is obtained when
the solvent is caused to percolate
uniformly through the bed of flakes at
maximum allowable velocity, the latter
being determined both by the resistance
of the flakes to the flow of solvent and
by the allowable pressure drop.
The new extractor developed under
this project title is of the traveling
sereen type. It is so arranged that the
solvent flows upward through essential-
ly horizontal layers of the flakes as the
flakes are moved from top to the bottom
of the extractor in a continuously mov-
ing serpentine stream. Extended tests
made at the rate of 60 lbs. of meats
per hour have shown the design to be
sound, have produced meal with less
than one percent residual oil, and have
shown that the problems presented by
the presence of excessive fines are
absent. Experiments have indicated that
the equipment may readily be scaled up
to full commercial size.
(1) The Separation of the Constituents
of Crude Cottonseed Oil by the Use of
Liquid-Liquid Solvent Extraction (coop-
erative with the Department of Chemical
Engineering, A. and M. College of Texas,
and the Cotton Research Committee of
Previous solvent extraction studies
have produced a liquid-liquid method for
separating relatively pure oil from an
isopropanol extract of cottonseed. The
objective of this project is to extend
the method to the separation of other
valuable constituents occurring in crude
cottonseed oil such as fatty acids, phos-
pholipids, sterols, tocopherols, carbon-
hydrates, gossypol, and color bodies. To
date, emphasis in the experimental work
has been on the refining of the oil,
though some information has been se-
cured on the separation of a fatty acid
fraction and a pure sugar raffinose
which normally is not digested by most
animals. However, this sugar may be
hydrolyzed to an edible syrup which
should make a valuable by-product of
cottonseed processing. This, as well as
other phases of the project, are current-
ly under investigation.
The final project to be described has
been conducted in our Chemurgic Re-
search Laboratory. This laboratory was
established by the 49th Legislature of
the State of Texas for “. . . basic in-
vestigation in Texas raw materials and
(Continued on Page 34)
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREsSs
Plenty of dependable power
» heavy loads at lower cost
Lar . I
That’s why Edroy Co-op Gin
Company chose two Le Roi
L-3460's—600 hp (max.) each
When you gin mechanically-picked cotton and operate extra accessory
equipment you need plenty of power. Ginners like Edroy Co-op Gin
Co. faced with this problem are turning to Le Roi L-3460 engines.
Maximum output of these big V-12 units is 600 hp — no other
engine of this kind can match this power. Recommended load for con-
tinuous operation at 1200 rpm is 460 hp — at 900 rpm 360 hp.
Despite its 600 hp, the 12 cylinder L-3460 is compact. Note the twin
installation above at Edroy, Texas. Only a minimum of floorspace is
required — installation is simplified, costs are low.
For plenty of smooth, low-cost power to run your stands, cleaning
equipment, pumps, blowers, presses, etc., your best buy is a Le Roi
L-3460. You can run it on natural gas, butane, or —— Learn all
about the many features of this remarkable engine. See your nearby
Le Roi distributor, F-36
MILWAUKEE 14, WISCONSIN © BIRMINGHAM © TULSA”
Le Roi Cotton-Engine Distributors
Ingersoll Corporation, Shreveport, Lo.
Tri-State Equipment Co.,
Little Rock, Ark., Memphis, Tenn.
Nortex Engine & Equipment Co.,
Wichita Falls, Texas
Farmers Supply, Lubbock, Texas
Carson Machine & Supply Co.,
Oklahoma City, Oklo.
General Machine & Supply Co., Odessa, Texas
Southern Engine & Pump Company,
Houston, San Antonio, Kilgore, Dal-
las, Edinburg, Corpus Christi, Texas,
and lafayette, Houma, La.
August 18, 1951
Quality of Ginning Service in Relation
To Cost of Ginning in South Louisiana
By JAMES F. HUDSON and ROBERT A. MONTGOMERY °
N ECONOMIC and technological ap-
praisal of the quality of ginning
services provided and the costs involved
has been completed recently in the south-
ern part of Louisiana. Conducted coop-
eratively by the Louisiana State Univer-
sity and the Research and Testing Di-
vision of the Cotton Branch, Production
and Marketing Administration of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture, the re-
sults of this two-year study will be made
available to Louisiana ginners and
others by the Louisiana Experiment Sta-
tion, Baton Rouge, La. The following is
a brief synopsis of the findings, which
will be of interest to ginners in areas ex-
periencing similar weather and growth
The most important single factor ad-
versely affecting the value of cotton
produced in South Louisiana is the re-
duction in grade caused by rough gin-
ning preparation. In recent years as
much as 40 percent of the crop was re-
duced one or more grades because of
this factor. This reduction represents
a considerable loss in income to pro-
ducers in the area.
The study revealed that beneficial re-
sults were obtained by those producers
who patronized the better or modern
gins and the cost of ginning services to
these producers was practically the same
at all types of gins. From the standpoint
of the ginners, the modern plants, op-
erating with higher fixed costs owing
to larger investments, were able to at-
tract larger volumes and thereby to com-
pete profitably with older obsolete plants
at similar ginning rates.
The standard or modern cotton gins
in South Louisiana are equipped with an
ll-shelf tower drier and a relatively
small amount of auxiliary cleaning
equipment which consists of either an
overhead cylinder cleaner or multiple
extractor feeders. The older and more
obsolete plants are equipped with drum
feeders, approximately 17 percent have
no drying facilities, and none are equip-
ped with overhead cleaning machinery.
A comparison of average bale values
of actual grades and estimated grades,
assuming all bales were smooth, reveals
that modern gins had an_ estimated
seasonal loss of $2.31 per bale due to
rough gin preparation, whereas sub-
standard gins had a loss of $3.33 per
bale and substandard gins without driers
a loss of $5.67 per bale.
e Excess Moisture Is Chief Cause of
Rough P i Excess moisture in
1 Assistant agricultural economist, Louisiana Ex-
periment Station, Baton Rouge, La., and agricul-
tural economist, Stoneville Laboratory, Cotton
Branch, Production and Marketing Administration,
U.S. Department of Agriculture, respectively.
the seed cotton was found to be responsi-
ble for most of the rough gin preparation
in South Louisiana. ror most efficient
ginning it is desirable that the seed cot-
ton moisture content be below 12 percent
when it reaches the gin saws. On all but
the early season ginning in 1948, the
most favorable season on record, both
standard gins and substandard gins with
driers were able to lower the average
seed cotton moisture content to this
amount prior to ginning. Approximately
60 percent of the cotton contained in
excess of 12 percent seed cotton moisture
upon arrival in 1948, as compared with
90 percent in 1949, a more normal
season from the standpoint of rainfall
and other weather conditions in this
An analysis of the relationship of
lint moisture to rough gin preparation
in 1949 revealed that each increase in
the moisture content of the lint resulted
in an_increase in the proportion of bales
reduced in grade because of rough gin
preparation. Only three percent of the
ginnings with a lint moisture content
of 5.9 percent or less were reduced in
grade because of rough gin prepara-
tion, whereas 72.2 percent were reduced
when the lint moisture was 12 percent
or greater. Within the normal or rel-
atively dry lint moisture ranges of six
to 6.9 percent and seven to 7.9 percent,
13 and 21 percent, respectively, of the
ginnings were reduced in grade. Thus,
efficient drying of the seed cotton is
desirable. The possibility of effecting
significant reductions in the proportion
of rough preparation in this area
through employment of additional dry-
ing capacities is illustrated by the fact
that only three percent of the bales were
reduced in grade when the lint moisture
content was below six percent, as com-
pared with 13 percent when the lint
moisture content ranged from six to
Although excess moisture in the fiber
is a principal factor causing rough prep-
aration in South Louisiana, it is ap-
parent that certain physical character-
istics of the seed cotton and lint in con-
junction with lint moisture content have
a direct bearing on the preparation
element of lint grades. The motiness of
weevil-damaged locks of seed cotton de-
tracts from the appearance of the lint.
Rank plant growth and excessive rain-
fall throughout this area frequently
prohibit normal boll openings on the
stalk, and, as a result, much of the cot-
ton is picked with the locks of seed cot-
ton in a compact form very similar to
locks in unopened bolls. Unless these
locks of seed cotton are opened or fluffed
in the drying, cleaning, and extracting
processes, the lint will be removed by
August 18, 1951 °
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL
the gin saws in the form of tangled or
matted tufts of fibers, referred to in the
cotton trade as naps. Although use of
additional drying and cleaning equip-
ment by ginners to provide more open-
ing action on the unopened locks of seed
cotton would also aid in reducing losses
caused by rough preparation, the in-
creased costs incurred would in most
cases be prohibitive. Ginners should ad-
vise producers of these facts and en-
courage the proper use of insecticides
and defoliants when needed.
e Foreign Matter Affects Lint Grades
—Although the foreign matter content
of cotton as harvested in this area is
relatively low and the extent of plant
equipment limited, findings of this study
reveal that both the amount of foreign
matter in the seed cotton received by
the gins and the equipment emp.oyed in
its removal have a direct relationship to
the resulting lint grades. Significant dif-
ferences were found to exist in the for-
eign matter content of seed cotton that
graded Strict Muiddling, Middiing and
strict Low Middling after being gin-
ned on standard gins. In like manner,
significant differences existed in the for-
eign matter content of seed cotton ginned
by the standard and substandard gins
that produced similar lint grades. For
example, an increase in the average
foreign matter present before ginning of
0.6 percent, or eight pounds per bale of
seed cotton, resuited in a decrease in
grade from Strict Middling to Middling
when the seed cotton was ginned on
standard gins; and substandard gins
required cleaner seed cotton—cotton that
did not contain more than an average
of 1.2 percent foreign matter—to pro-
duce Middling lint whereas standard
gins produced Middling lint from seed
cotton that contained 1.5 percent foreign
The importance of adequate drying in
obtaining maximum efficiency from
cleaning and extracting machinery was
illustrated by the fact that all gins re-
quired cleaner seed cotton in 194¥, when
the crop contained excessive moisture, to
produce lint grades comparable to those
obtained in the dry 1948 season. In both
the 1948 and 1949 seasons, standard
gins received seed cotton containing
more foreign matter than that received
by substandard gins. That the better
equipped plants will normally receive
rougher cotton is an established fact,
not only in South Louisiana, but over
the entire Cotton Belt.
The cleaner seed cotton and the rel-
atively dry condition in which the 1948
crop was harvested enabled substandard
gins to produce lint grades comparable
to those turned out by the standard gins.
If, however, the foreign matter present
in the seed cotton had been the same,
pronounced grade differences in favor
of the better gins would have been
evident. In 1949, standard gins, although
receiving trashier cotton, turned out
lint averaging $1.08 per bale higher than
cotton ginned on substandard gin$ with
driers and $2.50 per bale higher than
cotton ginned on substandard gins with-
Offsets Extra Moisture
extra weight ginned
in high moisture content cotton has
somewhat restricted the employment of
driers in this area, an analysis of the
relationship of lint moisture to monetary
returns to the producers was made on
(Continued on Page 33)
e Lint Loss
Soybean Convention to Hear
Dr. Cowan on Research
Research problems of soybeans and
soy products will be discussed by USDA
scientist J. C. Cowan at the American
Soybean Association’s 3lst annual con-
vention, Secretary Treasurer Geo. M.
Strayer said this week. The convention
will be held in Des Moines and Ames,
Iowa, Sept. 6, 7, and 8.
Dr Cowan’s subject will be “Recent
Research Development on Soybeans at
the Northern Regional Research Lab-
oratory.” He is head of the oil and pro-
tein division of the laboratory, which
is located at Peoria, Ill. He will discuss
in particular the laboratory’s investiga-
tion of the problems of flavor stability
of soybean oil and the use of soy flour
in commercially baked bread.
“Soy oil is one of the nation’s two
leading vegetable food oils from a
volume standpoint,” says Strayer. “Its
main outlets are shortening, margarine
and salad oil. Its chief drawback as a
food oil is a tendency toward flavor
instability that the Northern Labora-
tory has been trying to overcome for a
number of years. When this problem
is solved soybean oil will command an
even larger market in food than it does
“The use of soy flour, which is refined
from soybean oil meal, in bread is also
a promising market for the producer of
soybeans. It is a concentrated source
of needed protein, and also imparts
physical qualities to bread that bakers
like. One of the problems is to standard-
ize the various soy flours produced so
that bakers will know what they are
buying and how they will perform when
added to bread.”
The Northern Laboratory installed a
soy flour bakery in 1950 and is now
working with the industry to standardize
soy flour as a product. Dr. Cowan is in
charge of this bakery.
Convention headquarters will be Hotel
Fort Des Moines. Formal program will
be held there on Thursday and Friday,
Sept. 6 and 7. The program will be fol-
lowed by a field trip to Iowa State Col-
lege at Ames on Saturday, Sept. 8.
When Defoliating, Use
Thorough coverage of cotton plants
with chemical defoliant is essential for
good defoliation, cautions F. C. Elliott,
cotton work specialist for the Texas
“This means going to the field with
plenty of water,” Mr. Elliott said. “Under
most conditions 25 gallons of water per
acre will be necessary. In West Texas
30 gallons per acre are needed. Six to
eight spray nozzles are required per
row, depending on the size of the
Mr. Elliott recommends using dust de-
foliants only when plants are wet with
dew or when adequate dew is forecast.
He cautions that the dust must remain
in moisture on the leaf for at least two
hours; four hours is preferred.
The cotton specialist suggests that
farmers contact their county agents or
local defoliant dealers about the amounts
of defoliant to use and the proper pro-
cedure for applying.
Leaflet 145, “Cotton Defoliation
Guide,” may be obtained at county ex-
tension offices in Texas.
To a chemist
(No wonder it took years of research
and testing to develop!)
and his gang /
Powerful aldrin is
the latest weapon in
the planter’s war
against insects. Just
one pound of aldrin,
controls boll wee-
vils, thrips, tar-
_—® bugs, rapid plant
bugs, cotton flea-
hoppers and grass-
hoppers on 2 to 4
acres of maturing
SHELL CHEMICAL CORPORATION
Aldrin is manufactured by Julius Hyman & Aldrin is available under the brand names of
Co., and is distributed by Shell Chemical leading insecticide manufacturers. Consult
Corporation, 500 Fifth Avenue, New York 18. your local dealer and county agent.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951
Marcnincar COTTON HARVESTER |
Continues to grow
WITH TEXAS GROWERS
M“ and more cotton growers in Texas each
year are harvesting their crop with the
John Deere No. 15 Two-Row Cotton Harvester.
It's just good business when they can reduce
harvest costs by as much as $25 to $40 per bale
over hand picking costs. These tremendous sav-
ings pay for the No. 15 in just a few days and
the John Deere’s simple design and rugged con-
struction assure these savings over many years.
The John Deere Cotton Harvester does an
excellent, once-over job in defoliated cotton
that is suitable for mechanical harvesting. Much
of the dirt and trash is separated; cotton grades
as high as cotton hand-pulled at the same time.
The changeover to mechanical harvesting re-
quires ginners to keep abreast of the times. Be
sure you have the
ment to handle
On No More Acreage —
Legumes Help Farmer
Grow More Cotton
Use of legumes over all cotton growing acreage of the South
would mean a tremendous increase in production—an increase
of at least 1,000 bales a year in Texas alone, agronomists of
Texas A. & M. College System and the Soil Conservation
for example: Texas’ cotton output last year averaged about
211 pounds an acre. Using legumes in rotation with cotton
boosts cotton yields about 20 percent on the average, or 40
pounds (and this is a conservative estimate, experts say) to
the acre. Therefore, Texas’ 13,000,000-odd acres in cotton,
each acre producing an average of 40 pounds more, would
mean 520,000,000 more pounds of cotton at ginning time.
A legume crop on cotton land is worth money just for the
nitrogen alone that goes into the soil, agronomists point out.
Take vetch, one of the leading legume crops, for instance.
Green vetch contains from .5 to .6 of one percent nitrogen—
equal to 60 to 70 pounds of nitrate of soda—when a ton of
green vetch is plowed into the soil. Vetch (dry weight) con-
tains 2% to three percent nitrogen. That means that about
60 pounds of nitrogen, or about 400 pounds of nitrate of soda,
are supplied when a ton of dry vetch is cut into the soil.
Other legumes add nitrogen about like vetch.
Legumes add organic matter to the soil, but one of their
main functions is to hold rather than add to the organic matter
there. Fresh, easily decomposed crop residues must be worked
into the soil to furnish food for soil bacteria. The bacteria
need this food to do their work. Fertilized legumes such as
hairy vetch, Austrian winterpeas, crimson clover, singletary
peas, Hubam and annual yellow sweetclover also provide a
protective soil cover, improve the soil structure so that it will
absorb water readily and reduce soil losses and loss of plant
nutrients through leaching.
In areas where climatic conditions may make the use of
legumes impractical, small grains such as rye, barley, oats
and wheat can be used with good results. These crops, like
legumes, provide an effective cover and reduce grosion damage
by wind and water. They help to maintain the productive
capacity of the soil when not harvested.
In addition to the higher yields made possible by legumes,
there is the grazing value of the legume crop to be considered.
Legumes provide excellent grazing for livestock.
A good supply of legume seed is in sight, agronomists say.
But they add that farmers should lay in their seed and fer-
tilizer early in order to avoid shortages that will be the result
of a sudden demand.
Agriculture Secretary Brannan in his recent appeal for
higher production declared that “higher production must come
largely from increased yields per acre if we are to avoid
permanent injury to our land resources.”
The agronomists point out that the use of legumes is one
of the surest ways to increase yields without running the risk
of further damage to the soil.
New Mexico “Imports” Meal and Cake
New Mexico stockmen use much of the cottonseed meal and
cake produced in that state, and also large tonnages shipped
in from Texas and other states, according to figures obtained
by the Educational Service of the National Cottonseed Prod-
Based upon feed tag and tax reports, the figures show:
Cottonseed Meal and Cake (Tons)
1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951
Produced in New Mexico 13,000 11,703 19,700 16,334 34,608 8,305
Shipped into New Mexico 20,348 19,344 50,855 34,857 54,910 17,400
e Of the 1,024 million pound growth in total fiber
consumption which occurred between 1937 and 1949, 74 per-
cent was due to increased use of snythetic fibers, according to
a study made by E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. and pub-
lished in the Rayon Organon, Supplement May 1951. Com-
pared to 1937, consumption of synthetics has increased 218
percent, and natural fibers, six percent.
August 18, 1951 * THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss
Conference Nov. 5-7 to
Review Feeding Tests
A conference to review the progress
made in current feeding experiments
with cottonseed meal and to discuss
technical problems involved in further
tests will be held at the Southern Re-
gional Research Laboratory in New
Orleans, La., Nov. 5-7, according to a
joint announcement by Dr. C. H. Fisher,
director of the Laboratory, and A. L.
Ward, Educational Service director, Na-
tional Cottonseed Products Association.
While attendance is expected to in-
clude primarily the nutrition special-
ists and other scientists from federal
and state agencies, and from industry,
who are engaged in research to improve
the utilization of cottonseed’ meal, the
conference is open also to others in-
terested in the technical aspects of cot-
This conference follows a similar one
held in Nov., 1950, at which experimen-
tal procedures for producing cottonseed
meals of superior nutritive value were
announced along with encouraging re-
sults from a few preliminary feeding
trials with swine and poultry. Since
then, 25 tons of the improved meals
have been produced and fed with results
which will be reviewed and analyzed at
the 1951 conference.
Since accommodations are limited,
persons desiring to attend this conference
should contact Dr. Fisher at 2100 Robert
E. Lee Boulevard, New Orleans 19, La.,
well in advance, advising whether or
not hotel reservations are desired.
Mississippi May Become
No. 1 Seéd Producer
The Mississippi Seed Improvement f
Association was told at its twelfth Le ae
annual meeting at State College Aug. 9 s ; Bemis 18 also a
that “Mississippi has potentialities of Z ?
becoming the leading seed producing “ ’ major source of
state in ae age’ a _
made by V. A. Johnson of Indianola, the f
association’s president. cotton bags,
The certified seed crop produced in
the state last year had an estimated paper bags, and
value of $10 million and could easily °
reach the $25 million mark within the | bag-closing thread
next few years, he said. '
During the past 12 years the list of So i
Mississippi crops certified by the asso- -e" and twine.
ciation has grown from four to 18 and
the organization’s membership from 25
to around 600.
This year the association will inspect
for certification 105,000 acres of cotton,
compared to 86,000 acres in 1950.
Flooded Kansas Will Need
More Cottonseed Feeds
Kansas livestock producers will rely
heavily on cottonseed meal or cake for ‘
<a senting is winter to offset flood An American enterprise
damage to their feed crops, according
to James Leathers, Cowley prices agent, | in business since 1858
Arkansas City, Kan.
Mr. Leathers reported that farmers
who have any alfalfa left are being ad-
vised to make every effort to harvest it
as a seed crop, rather than hay, and to
turn to cottonseed meal and cake to re-
place the alfalfa. He feels that cotton-
seed meal combined with native blue-
stem pasture will take the place of al-
falfa and that there is greater need for |
alfalfa as a seed crop.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press + August 18, 1951
with Farmers Union support, had begun
a drive to stop the use of Mexican farm
workers to save U.S. crops. A critical
farm labor shortage would have created
conditions which the labor groups could
have used to force unionization of all
farm labor. Our story forced the AFL
into the open with a declaration of
intent to push its invasion into the
AFL President William Green ap-
pointed a committee to study “the con-
ditions of farm laborers, as distinct
from farm owners, and their relations
with the owners of the big, corporate
farms.” This, of course, could result in
iw ow Washingten Bureau
By FRED BAILEY
The Cotton Gin and Oil Mill Press
e Labor War Against Farmers—News-
papers last week carried a brief item
under a Montreal, Canada, dateline an-
nouncing that the Executive Council of
the American Federation of Labor,
meeting there, had “broken off rela-
tions” with the Farm Bureau and Na-
tional Grange. The AFL went a step
further and issued what amounted to a
declaration of war on the two major
U.S. farm organizations.
It still is too early to determine
whether this will lead to bitter warfare
between the powerful labor and farm
organizations. The threat, however, is
seriously disturbing to leaders of both
groups. They feel that both sides would
have a lot to lose and little to gain by
a labor-farmer feud.
The action, however, cannot be taken
however, say they have no intention of
retaliating with an anti-labor policy;
that they will go ahead as in the past
doing their best to represent national
and farm interests. Any action they
take will be defensive.
Despite Grange and Farm Bureau
reluctance to engage in a cat and dog
fight with labor, there are indications
that the AFL declaration was no mere
letting off of steam, but the start of a
long-planned program to make farmers
bow to the will of organized labor.
Other pro-labor and anti-farm groups
jointed in backing the AFL so speedily
that many here believe the statement
was a part of a carefully planned cam-
paign. The CIO said it will support the
AFL 100 percent. The Farmers Union,
which frequently reflects more of a
labor than a farm viewpoint, applauded
distrust and suspicion in farm ranks
and the AFL and CIO could be ex-
pected to cap?talize on such a develop-
The AFL, in its invasion of the farm
field, will work through one of its af-
filiates, the National Farm Labor
Union, which has been active in several
states. A CIO spokesman said his organ-
ization will “work closely” with the
Farmers Union. The drive is to be
backed by the multi-million-dollar
treasuries of the two big labor groups.
Farmers Union President James Pat-
ton, in a letter to AFL President Green,
endorsed the unprovoked attack on
farmers by the AFL, and added AFL
aid “will be greatly appreciated.” He
promised labor the full support of the
Farmers Union in killing present farm
as a mere gripe by the AFL. It is deep-
and intense. If pursued, the
AFL has chosen would result
in a further bitterness between
producers and consumers. |
Grange and Farm Bureau leaders,
the AFL action with a statement that
it was “fully justified” in fighting the
Farm Bureau and Grange.
Less than a month ago we reported
here -exclusively that the labor groups,
laws which protect farmers and in sub-
stituting therefor a Brannan Plan type
of farm socialization.
control of farm labor is only the first
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August 18, 1951 THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
PROVED for Ages
IMPROVED for /////
For fifty centuries, cotton has held a prominent place among the
textiles of the world. Specimens of spun cotton have been
found in the ruins of ancient cities dating back to 3,000 §. C.
Today, despite the development of new synthetic fibers, cotton
maintains its leadership, for modern research has continually improved
its near-perfect natural fiber.
Cotton fabrics now come in a greater variety of weaves, finishes and
textures than ever before. Science has made cotton wrinkleproof,
fireproof, dustproof, waterproof and stainproof. Modern weaving
methods have given cotton textiles new beauty and the qualities of more
expensive fabrics. The new cottons come as sheer as silk, as
smooth as satin, as rich as brocade or as luxurious as velvet.
Still you can rely on cotton’s practical qualities—
color-fastness, durability, comfort,
versatility, economy. These have made it the
wonder fabric for five thousand years.
Choose wisely. Support your cotton
industry by picking the new cottons!
AND COMPANY, INCORPORATED
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press + August 18, 1951
step toward the objective sought by the
AFL and CIO. The ultimate aim is to
force acceptance of the Democratic ad-
ministration’s socialization program and,
consequently, make farmers subservient
to the orders of powerful labor leaders.
The tone of the AFL blast and the
Farmers Union pledge of support indi-
cate a basic conflict of interest and
objectives. The statement boasts that
it was a “liberal administration” which
“bailed out” farmers when they were in
trouble. It makes the astounding claim
that it was labor leaders and liberal
politicians who deserve the credit for
such programs as crop loans, support
prices, soil conservation, REA and the
adoption of the parity formula. The
facts, of course, are to the contrary.
But now, the AFL threatens, unless
farm leaders do as they are told, labor
will lead the fight to have those laws
repealed. “Labor,” says the statement,
“cannot go on indefinitely supporting
legislation beneficial to farmers... ”
The AFL calls the failure of farmers
to go along with politico-socialization
schemes one of the “most disturbing
political developments of our times.”
e Johnston vs. the Farmer—Stabiliza-
tion officials who follow the Truman
line are as sore as a boil at farm leaders
who opposed the administration-labor
coalition drive for putting farm prices
in an economic straightjacket. Among
the most outspoken is Eric Johnston,
former president of the U.S. Chamber
of Commerce and now stabilization
Behind locked doors and before the
President’s War Mobilization Advisory
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August 18, 1951 °
Committee made up of farm, labor and
business leaders, Johnston repeatedly has
attacked “the reactionary farm leaders”
because they refused to go along with
the administration’s control program.
Johnston says he is convinced that farm-
ers really want the controls he had
planned for them.
Farm leaders have stood their ground,
but they are fearful that they may yet
regret leaving any kind of a club in
the hands of a man who so openly and
vehemently hates them. Labor leaders
are slapping Johnston on the back and
whooping it up for big wage hikes as
their reward for backing the adminis-
Congress, in passing the new Defense
Production Act, said it would do the
job of preventing inflation “if properly
administered.” The administration says
that was Congress’ way of giving itself
an “out’’ when inflation really comes.
Stabilization officials, however, are pre-
paring to blame Congress and farmers
for whatever happens.
e Texas Cotton Crop Big Question
Mark — The heat that has seared the
Texas cotton crop has Washington of-
ficials sweating. They wonder if they
acted too hastily in open-ending export
quotas solely on the Aug. 1 estimate of
17,266,000 bales, Texas, in that estimate,
was counted on for five million bales.
Agriculture Department officials say
they will continue to act on the basis of
the Crop Board forecast until the Sept.
1 report, to be released Sept. 10, is
made, Some think they can stand a mil-
lion-bale reduction and still leave ex-
ports on an open-end basis. More than
that would have them in trouble, they
The open-end announcement by Secre-
tary Brannan provides that all restric-
tions on the amount of cotton to be ex-
ported are temporarily removed. Ex-
port licensing, however, will be contin-
ued in order to block shipments to coun-
tries that might re-export behind the
Iron Curtain. Brannan can, if the crop
turns out short, reinstate quotas, but
his statement indicated he has no
thought of doing that.
e It’s a Promise: No Cotton Price Roll-
back—-OPS officials have re-stated and
emphasized their promise that there will
be no further rollback in cotton price
ceilings this year, but they are mum on
their intentions for 1952.
As a matter of fact, they point out,
there would be no object in rolling back
ceilings so long as market prices remain
below the lowest point at which new
ceilings could be established. They are
pleased that, for a change, the heat will
be on USDA to keep prices,from sag-
ging too low.
It still is to early to talky, officially,
about ceilings for next yeag,,One OPS
official “guessed” that ceilitigs next year
will be “under 40 cents @ pound.” In
his opinion “we can get just as much
cotton at 40 cents as we'can at 45
Meanwhile, an OPS regulation per-
mitting ginners to raise their ginning
price six percent over July, 1950, has
been prepared and awaits only the sig-
nature of DiSalle to make it final. That
may come any day.
@ The community that makes
progress is the community that decides
what it wants to do and lays out a plan
to attain its goals.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
August 1 Cotton Report
The Crop Reporting Board of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics makes the following report
from data furnished by crop correspondents, field statisticians, Production and Marketing Administra-
tion, and cooperating State agencies. The final outturn of cotton compared with this forecast will
depend upon whether the various influences affecting the crop during the remainder of the season are
more or less favorable than usual.
Area in Condition
July 1, 1951
1949 1950 1951
Other States *
500-lb gross wt. bale
Lint Yield Per
| From natural causes. 2 Indicated August 1, on area in cultivation July 1 less 10-year average abandon-
tucky, and Nevada
Infestations Light, but —
USDA Warns Against
aw Cotton insect control measures
so far have been good this year,
but USDA warns now is the cru-
cial time of the 1951 season.
Federal and state cotton insect sur-
veys throughout the Cotton Belt up to
Aug. 14 showed that boll weevils were
still largely under control, with infesta-
tion generally light but some spotted
Cotton growers in all states were
urged to keep a close watch on their
fields to detect increases in insect pop-
ulations during the crucial weeks of
August and to apply insecticides
promptly where needed. USDA also
urged producers in the weevil belt to
destroy their cotton stalks as early as
possible, “since early fall destruction
of stalks is one of the best and cheapest
means of reducing damage from boll
weevils for the next season.”
e Boll Weevil—Boll weevil infestations
in Virginia have remained low, prob-
ably due to weather conditions and dust-
ing operations. Sharp weevil increases
early in August were reported in North
Carolina fields which have shown heavy
populations all season throughout the
state, with migration in most areas.
Weevils were found in all South Caro-
lina fields examined, but at much lower
rates of punctured squares than at the
same time in 1950.
Boll weevils were increasing in Georgia
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
A'lowances made for interstate movement of seed cotton for ginning. * Illinois,
Included in State and United States totals.
and many fields still need poisoning,
reports to USDA indicated, although
infestations generally were light. Weevils
were also found in almost all Alabama
fields examined, with heavy infestations
in some fields.
Quick and efficient control of early
infestations and unfavorable weather
for weevils a few weeks ago resulted in
low infestation rates in Tennessee, en-
tomologists reported. The few high in-
festations present in that state are due
to no controls or to lack of proper ap-
plication, reports said.
Boll weevil infestations were low in
the Delta counties of Mississippi, being
less than one-third as heavy as during
the first week of August last year. Local
migrations were causing an increase in
Rains in Louisiana were unfavorable
for weevil control, but infestations were
generally much lighter than in 1949 and
1950. Weevils in Arkansas were well
under control up to Aug. 14 except in
areas where showers had interrupted
poisoning, although local migration had
caused jumps in weevil population in
Boll weevils were reported to be well
under control in practically all fields in
Oklahoma up to Aug. 11. Weevils were
still numerous enough to cause damage
in some fields in northern and north-
eastern Texas, although infestation
counts were dropping and were less than
half as much as at the same time
e Bollworms — Bollworms were causing
some damage in the western half of
the Cotton Belt, although populations
generally were under control. Bollworms
were the No. 1 pest in Oklahoma at
mid-month and were causing much
damage in fields where no control or
- August 18, 1951
insufficient control measures have been
Heaviest bollworm infestations in
Texas were in the western part of the
state, mostly in irrigated cotton on the
South Plains and in the Pecos and El
Paso Valleys. The bollworm was also
building up throughout New Mexico,
with infestations reported from severe
to light and much poisoning activity.
Bollworms were also found in damag-
ing numbers in many fields in the Salt
River Valley in Arizona early in August.
Bollworms and other lepidopterous
larvae were also reported in Alabama,
Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and
Arkansas, although no serious outbreaks
e Other Cotton Insects — Lygus bugs,
stink bugs, beet armyworms and salt
marsh caterpillars were among insects
infesting cotton in Arizona. Mites, white
flies, lygus bugs and leafhoppers were
found in most California fields. These
— and red spiders were reported in
Only two leafworms, one in Lamb
County and one in Cameron County,
Texas, have been found this year.
Support Price Determined
For 1951 Peanut Crop
Secretary of Agriculture Brannan
has announced an average support price
of $230.56 per ton for 1951-crop farm-
ers stock peanuts of all types. This
average support level reflects 88 per-
cent of parity price ($262 per ton or
13.1 cents per pound) as of the beginning
of marketing season on Aug. 1. This
year’s average support price represents
an increase of $14.56 per ton over
average suport price for 1950-crop pea-
nuts. Support for the 1950-crop at $216
per ton was based on 90 percent of
parity as of Aug. 1, 1950.
Farmers Urged to Put
Half of Crop in Loan
In several sections of the Belt
this week agricultural leaders
began echoing the Beltwide Pro-
ducers Committee’s recent plea to
farmers to put one of every two
bales in the government loan.
Commissioner of Agri-
John C. White said that
“the cost of raising the crop has
gone so high that the prospective
market price will not cover
“But,” he said, “by borrowing
money on their cotton from the
government and holding it in loan,
at least until next December,
farmers can sell it for enough to
meet expenses and perhaps make
And at a pink bollworm meeting
at Brownsville, Texas, this week,
Dr. C. R. Sayre of Scott, Miss.,
said a drop in lint prices might
be averted if growers kept half
the crop off the market for a
time. USDA has made such a sug-
gestion, appealing to farmers to
“feed the market,” and _ stretch
sales over a 12-month period to
keep prices of the 1951 crop from
Cotton in Two Texas Areas
Studied in New Bulletin
When properly selected, cottons of
the Lower Rio Grande Valley and Texas
Coastal Bend make stronger yarns than
do fibers of the same length grown in
the Mid-South and Southeast.
That fact was revealed in a bulletin
just published at the University of
Texas by the Cotton Research Com-
mittee of Texase*®
The report gives data on Valley and
Coastal Bend cotton production, va-
rieties planted and their fiber proper-
ties. It also presents information on
distribution of fiber properties accord-
ing to strength and fineness and the
cotton’s behavior during spinning, when
different amounts of twist are used.
From the data, merchants and mill
representatives can learn exactly what
the cotton will do when it is put into
manufactured products and where each
particular variety with its special prop-
erties may be found.
The report is the fourth in a series
of investigations made by Cotton Re-
search Committee scientists and is de-
signed to show the merchandising ad-
vantages of Texas cotton. Other reports
have been made on varieties produced
in the El Paso area, High Plains and
Blacklands of Texas.
Another study comparing cotton va-
rieties planted for the 1950 and 1951
season in the Valley and Coastal Bend
shows there were significant shifts to
the planting of Deltapine this year in
Cameron and Willacy Counties. Delta-
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For example, in the spraying of insecti-
cides for such pests as the boll weevil,
the TeeJet makes certain that spraying
will be effective. The TeeJet makes
possible the correct misting action, with
forceful spray particle penetration to
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TeeJet Spray Nozzles are supplied for
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e insecticide spraying of
the boll weevil and
other cotton pests
e weed control
e defoliating sprays
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evide ] capacity and spray type
exactly as specified.
August 18, 1951 °
pine, Stoneville and Empire were the
most popular varieties ae during
1951 in the Valley, while Lankhart,
Stoneville and Delfos were favored by
Coastal Bend farmers.
The planting report also includes the
average tensile strength and fineness of
samples of 1951 cotton in the Lower
Rio Grande Valley.
The general report on Valley and
Coastal Bend cotton was a cooperative
effort of the University of Texas
Cotton Economic Research and the
Texas Technological College Cotton Re-
search. The University division con-
ducted the plantings study.
Both units work through the Cotton
Research Committee of Texas made up of
the heads of the University, Texas Tech
and Texas A. & M. College.
The Valley area covered in the re-
ports includes Hidalgo, Willacy and
Cameron Counties, and the Coastal
Bend section includes Refugio, San
Patricio, Nueces and Kleberg Counties.
James R. Strain Is Victim
Of Heart Attack Aug. 7
James R. Strain, 51, president of
Tupelo Oil & Gin Co., Tupelo, Miss.,
died Aug. 7 following a heart attack at
his home early that morning.
Mr. Strain, known to his friends as
“Zook,” was a prominent member of the
cottonseed crushing and cotton ginning
industries and a director of the Na-
tional Cotton Council. He was active in
civic, business and church affairs in
Tupelo. He served his city as alderman
from 1933 to 1949 and as vice-mayor
from 1936 to 1949. Mr. Strain had been
Pea of the Bank of Tupleo since |
The Mid-South business leader was
born July 15, 1900, the son of the late!
Clark R. and Muzette Biggs Strain. He
graduated from Tupelo Military Insti-
tute and Mississippi State College. He
was married to the former Mary Stevens
In addition to his wife, Mr. Strain is
survived by a son, James R. Strain,
Jr.; two daughters, Miss Mildred Lake
Strain and Miss Janetta Strain, all of
Tupelo; a brother, Cecil C. Strain, Jack-
son, Miss.; and two sisters, Miss Etta
Strain, also of Jackson, and Mrs. Jayne
Strain Leake, Tupelo.
Funeral services were held at Tupelo
on Aug. 8, with burial in that city.
Bolton Heads Louisiana
M. L. Bolton, Lafayette, was elected
president and secretary-treasurer of the
Louisiana Cottonseed Crushers Associa-
tion at its annual meeting held in
Alexandria Aug. 2. He succeeds F. L.
J. L. Cazayoux, Jr., New Roads, was
named vice-president to succeed Mr.
Linters and Pulp Export
USDA and U.S. Department of Com-
merce have announced an increase of
100,000 bales in export allocation for
raw cotton linters or equivalent pulp,
bringing the total 1951-52 preliminary
allocation to 250,000 bales.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
: cleaner cotton
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THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS August 18, 1951
On Livestock Feeding
e Dry, Mature Pasture Lacks Protein
Most pastures are furnishing 1/3 to 1/2
less protein than they did last month.
When pasture forage starts maturing,
the protein content drops rapidly, the
volume of forage is less abundant and
livestock eat less of what is available
because it is less palatable.
The best way to maintain good gains
and high production is to supplement
with cottonseed meal or other high
protein supplement. The cottonseed meal
in the dairy concentrate mixture should
be increased. Steers, calves and lambs
on pasture will make better use of dry
forage and continue good gains if sup-
plemental cake or pellets are fed.
e Plan Now for Early Supplemental
Feeding — Extension and experiment
station livestock specialists agree that
most cattle and sheep raisers wait too
late to start supplemental protein feed-
A California College of Agriculture
sheep specialist said, “We have found
that the best way to supplement ewes
is to start feeding 1/10 pound (of cot-
tonseed cake) daily as early as Septem-
ber 1 when the weather is still warm
and there appears to be plenty of dry
feed available. About a month later, the
ration is increased to 1/8 pound and
gradually built up until, during Decem-
Applied as a Spray
Commercial and experimental use
show that Shed-A-Leaf will de-
foliate cotton plants from top to
bottom—also that it is very eco
nomical to use. Shed-A-Leaf is a
powder—to be dissolved in water
and applied by airplane or ground
sprayers. Good defoliation can be
obtained even when there is no
dew on the plants. Time of appli
cation is generally 2 to 3 weeks
IT PAYS TO DEFOLIATE
Experiment stations have found that
chemical defoliation of cotton will:
1. Hasten maturity.
2. Reduce boll rot.
3. Reduce late insect infestation.
4. Facilitate hand or machine
. Reduce trash and leaf stain.
. Permit earlier cover crop
CHIPMAN CHEMICAL COMPANY,
BOUND BROOK, N. J.
Circular on Shed-A- Leaf
and how to defoliate cotton
PALO ALTO, CALIF.
Also Manufacturers of Chipman Cotton Poisons
August 18, 1951 °
ber and January, they are receiving %
A Colorado A. & M. livestock special-
ist says that in the fall, even before
winter sets in, cake is needed by beef
herds on range pastures to supply both
protein and phosphorus which is de-
ficient in mature grass.
The Southern Forest Experiment
Station warns that cattlemen in the
South should not wait until Christmas
to start feeding because most cattle
have already lost valuable weight by
that time. They say, “Where pastures
are scarce, 1% pounds of cottonseed
cake or meal per cow per day from mid-
November through mid-March will do
e Silage-Making Time — Many Cotton
Belt farmers are making more silage
this year because they got caught short
on roughage and pasture last winter.
A full silo is like money in the bank
because it is sure to be needed and may
be held in reserve until needed. Silage
is especially good roughage for dairy
cows when pastures are scarce.
Silage and cottonseed hulls make a
good roughage combination. Both are
highly palatable. Silage is succulent and
hulls help to provide bulk and prevent
e Plenty of “Good” Water Is Important
—Livestock must have plenty of water
during hot summer days. Fresh, clean
and cool water is more palatable and
increases water consumption. Troughs
should be cleaned regularly. A shade
over the water trough will keep the
water temperature low enough to insure
e Protein Is Important in the Field or
in the Lot—Many Cotton Belt farmers
are about ready to start hogging-down
corn fields. Supplemental protein is need-
ed there just as it is in dry lot feeding.
A good mixture to use is: 40 pounds
of cottonseed meal, 40 pounds of tank-
age and 20 pounds of alfalfa leaf meal.
The alfalfa may be omitted if green
pasture is available along with the grain
in the field.
e Prepare for Temporary Fall Pastures
—Small grain and other temporary fall
and winter pastures will reduce food
costs. Early seeding on well-prepared
fields provides the most grazing.
Plants are damaged by grazing be-
fore they get well established. Supple-
mental feeding of cottonseed meal and
hulls, before pastures are ready and
during scarce periods, maintains good
production and increases pasture value.
Hulls are also good to help prevent
bloat and scours on young, tender
pasture. —Educational Service, National
Cottonseed Products Association.
Congressmen to Ask USDA
To Stockpile Cotton
Rep. Harold D. Cooley (D., N. C.),
chairman of the House Agriculture
Committee, and Rep. W. R. Poage (D.,
Texas) were to have presented an of-
ficial request to USDA Aug. 17 asking
that 2,000,000 bales of cotton be stock-
piled immediately to stabilize the
Rep. Poage said that after careful
study by congressmen the Agriculture
Committee was convinced that USDA has
the authority to stockpile cotton under
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
Starved Land Doesn’t Produce
Boost Crop Yields
@ And, says E. A. Miller of the
Texas Extension Service, now is
the time to obtain seed and fer-
tilizer to put in a legume crop.
Plants need plenty of the right kind
of food in order to thrive and produce
profitable yields. It is not possible, says
Y Miller, extension agronomist of
Texas A. & M. College, to produce good
crops unless sufficient amounts of the
right plant foods are available, regard-
less of how good the seed or cultural
In addition to the plant food, plants
also need a good home in which to live
and lots of water to drink. Miller says
one of the best ways to provide these
important items is to feed the land by
planting inoculated and fertilized le-
gumes. Legumes not only furnish plant
food—especially the high priced and
badly needed nitrogen they get from the
air—but also make a better home for
the crops that follow them. The action
of the organic matter supplied by
legumes when plowed under improves the
tilth of the soil, increases bacterial
action and provides more water by in-
creasing the water holding capacity of
Miller points out that the test of any
program aimed at increasing crop yields
and farm profits comes with results
and cites research findings and hun-
dreds of Extension Service demonstra-
tions as proof that it pays to feed the
land. Cotton yields on the Texas Agri-
cultural Experiment Stations at Nacog-
doches and Tyler were increased by
more than 100 pounds of lint per acre
and corn yields doubled when planted
following inoculated and _§ fertilized
At the Temple Station in the Black-
land area, cotton, following Hubam
sweetclover, which was harvested for
seed, produced a five year average of
315 pounds of lint per acre as com-
pared with a yield of 165 pounds per
acre from cotton grown continuously
without clover. The yields of corn, oats,
barley and wheat following clover were
also increased. County agents, Miller
adds, report similar results from the
farm demonstrations they have super-
Aside from increased yields, certain
of the legumes also provide the best
known method for controlling cotton
root rot. The use of sweetclover in the
rotation plan for the farm is Miller’s
suggestion for controlling this disease.
The recommended varieties are Hubam,
Madrid and annual yellow blossom—the
latter mainly in South Texas and the
Gulf Coast Prairie.
Hairy vetch, Willamette vetch, winter
peas and other legumes also increase
yields and reduce root rot losses but
are not as effective on the Blacklands
as sweetclover. This may be due, says
Miller, to the fact that the clovers with
their extensive and deep root system
open up the soil and this in turn per-
mits better soil aeration, allowing faster
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss *
and deeper water penetration, in ad-
dition to adding nitrogen and organic
matter. This leaves the soil in a very
favorable condition to produce.
Now is the time, says Miller, to secure
the necessary legume seed and fertilizer
that will be needed to put in the legume
crop. He suggests that soil samples be
taken from the fields in which legumes
are to be planted and sent to the Soil
Testing Laboratory at College Station
for an analysis. The analysis and recom-
mendations from the laboratory are a
mighty good foundation on which to
start a soil building or improvement
program, and Miller suggests to farmers
and others who are interested in start-
ing such a program that they contact
their local county agent for information
on soil testing and legume varieties for
their section of the state.
or Best Foods Real
the BEST FOODS, Inc. (BEY
Peanut Stocks Are High
As of June 30
Stocks of peanuts in off-farm po-
sitions on June 30 totaled about 414 mil-
lion pounds, farmers’ stock equivalent,
according to USDA’s Bureau of Agri-
cultural Economics. This compares with
252 million pounds on June 30, 1950 and
the record high of 455 million pounds
on June 30, 1946.
Holdings of farmers’ stock peanuts,
reported at 197 million pounds, were
more than twice the 81 million pounds
on this date last year, but about equal
to stocks of 198 million pounds on June
30, 1949. Stocks of shelled, edible pea-
nuts totaled 192 million pounds com-
pared with 196 million pounds on May
31, 1951 and 154 million pounds on June
30 last year.
of His Power!
U.S. PAT. OFF
Yes, homemakers throughout the country are grateful to the cotton
industry for the delicious, wholesome foods produced from cottonseed
oil. And King Cotton may well be proud of the part he plays in
the making of Nucoa margarine and Hellmann's or. Best Foods
Real Mayonnaise! The: flavorful goodness of these food products
are wonderful reasons why American cooks so love King Cotton.
Enjoy flavor fit for a king!
Enjoy Nucoa margarine and Hellmann’s
1 East 43rd Street, New York 17, N. Y.
August 18, 1951
“QD” SPROCKET MADE BY
FORT WORTH CONCERN
As a V-belt sheave manufacturer and
roller chain sprocket distributor, the need
for an interchangable hub sprocket has
long been apparent to Fort Worth Steel
and Machinery Co. This firm has de-
veloped a sprocket to fit their “QD”
V-belt sheave hub so that their distrib-
utors can give immediate “off the
shelf” service without reboring on
sprockets as well as V-sheaves.
The “QD” sprocket is taper-bored to
receive the tapered hub. Bolts are pro-
vided to pull the sprocket onto the
tapered split hub for a tapered drive
assembly and a positive press fit on the
shaft. Tapped holes in the sprocket per-
mit the use of pull-up bolts as jack
screws to break the tapered fit when
dismounting the sprocket. Set screw
over the keyway holds key in position.
In addition to the advantage of “off
the shelf” service without reboring,
speed changes are greatly simplified at
a savings in price. The “QD” sprocket
cuts cost of replacement on worn
sprockets and reduces cost of spare
sprockets. Maintenance and break down
time are reduced as “QD” sprockets can
be installed or removed quicker than
conventional type. These sprockets are
stocked at the factory in %” pitch
through 1%” pitch.
Peanuts, Butter, Cheese
USDA announced Aug. 9 that ef-
fective immediately no commercial im-
ports of peanuts, peanut oil, butter oil,
and nonfat dried milk solids will be per-
mitted for domestic consumption. The
announcement stated also that the im-
ports of cheese and casein had been
placed on a quota basis.
The action was taken in accordance
with the provisions of the Defense Pro-
duction Act, as amended, which require
the imposition of controls over fats and
oils, butter, cheese and other dairy
products if the importation would (1)
impair or reduce domestic production,
(2) interfere with orderly domestic
storing or marketing, or (3) result in
any unnecessary burden or expenditure
under any government price-support
program. Department officials st “ed
that uncontrolled imports of the com-
niodities listed in the Aug. 9 announce-
ment would have one or more of the
specified adverse effects.
Harper to Direct Beef
Cattle Show at Fair
Names of officials for livestock shows
at the State Fair of Texas, Dallas, Oct.
6-21, have been announced by Ray W.
Wilson, livestock manager.
Superintendent of the beef cattle di-
vision will be Garlon A. Harper, field
representative of the National Cotton-
seed Products Association in Dallas,
assisted by Norman G. Schuessler,
regional manager of the Federal Land
Bank of Houston, San Angelo.
W. L. Stangel, dean, Division of Ag-
riculture, Texas Technological College,
Lubbock, will serve as general superin-
tendent of the livestock department and
C. G. Seruggs, associate editor of The
Progressive Farmer, Dallas, as arena
In the dairy cattle division, R. E.
Burleson, extension dairy husbandman
of Texas A. & M. College, will be super-
intendent, assisted by A. M. Meekma,
ween dairy husbandman at Texas
For swine, Fred Hale, professor,
Animal Husbandry Department, Texas
A. & M., will be superintendent, assisted
by Dan Kiber, head, Department of Ag-
riculture, Arlington State College, Ar-
J. P. Heath, breeder, Argyle, will be
superintendent of sheep and angora
goats. W. E. Shepard, manager of Star
Brand Cattle Co., Kaufman, Texas, will
serve as superintendent of the quarter
Enterprise Vertical Hammer Mills
Outperform, Outlast Them all
© 4 Sizes,
VEGETABLE OIL PROCESSORS using Enterprise Vertical Mills
know their value in terms of high output per hp, top product
quality and uniformity, minimum maintenance and repair
costs, small space requirements and accessibility. For greater
profits in your processing operations, write for full information,
or contact your nearest Enterprise distributor.
ENTERPRISE ENGINE & MACHINERY CO.
A Subsidiary of General Metals Corporation
18th & Florida Sts., San Francisco 10 Calif.
August 18, 1951 * THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
2 7 4
SOLD EVERYWHERE BY QUALITY SEEDSMEN
THE SINKERS CORPORATION
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951
RATES Ten cents per word, per insertion. In-
clude your firm name and address in count. Mini-
mum advertisement $2.00. Strictly cash basis—en-
close check with order. Write copy plainiy.
‘Oil Mill Equipment for Sale
Three-section cage French screw
40 h.p. flange mounted motor and
tempering hin. Also No. 1 Anderson expleliers,
belt driven, attractively priced. Inquire—Box 493,
care The Cotto mn Gin and Oi] Mill Press, P. O. Box
444, Dallas 1 exas
FOR SALE—72-45” cookers, rolls, formers, cake
presses and parts, accumulators-pumps, hull-pack-
ers, Bauer No. 153 separating units, bar and disc
hullers, beaters-shakers, Carver linters, single box
baleing presses, filter presses, expellers, attrition
mills, pellet machines, pheumatic seed unloader.
If it’s used in oil mill, we have it. V. A. Lessor
and Co., P. O. Box No 108, Fort Worth, Texas.
OIL MILL Cookers
* HINERY FOR SALE:
*resses Cylinders eads
Columns ie rs Accumulators Hydrau-
lic Pumps Hot Cake Cutters and Beer guterty
Cake Bin Feeders Filter Presses,
Plates Electric Motors, 15 to
starters Shaft Coupling and Pulleys -
6” Chandler nul rs Post and Pillow *Block
Ball Bearings ynveyor Heads and Hangers
Enclosed Right iuale Drives Elevator Belts,
Buckets, Sprockets and Chain Carver Lint
Tailing Beater and Shaker.—-Write, wire or phone
Sproles & Cook Machinery Co., Ine., 151 Howell
Street, Dailas, Texas. Telephone PRospect 5958.
FOR SALE—Bauer Bros. 199 seed cleaning unit
60” trays, French center drive 4 throw hydraulic
pump, French cake trimmer. A. Lessor & Co.,
P. O. Box 108, Fort Worth, Texas.
FOR SALE One used Helm
machine. This machine may be
mill plant here in Colorado City,
nental Oil-Cotton Company.
junior size pellet
inspected at our
FOR SALE-- Used expellers
n ym N 1 parts, new
French 3 and 4 cage.
and rebuilt. Rebuild-
Sanford G. Smith &
Company 26 East
FOR SALE—Oil mill equipment including Ander-
son expellers and French screw presses.—Pittock
and Associates, Glen Riddle, Pa.
Gin Equipment for Sale
FOR SALE—3 rebuilt 80-saw Murray gins, never
been used. In factory crates. A bargain if you
need three gins same as new.—-Farmers Cotton
Oil Company, Wilson, N. Cc.
FOR SALE—460-saw Continental B. B. Wood mat-
tress gin with hopper. Practically new. In first-
class operating condition. Will take cotton or lint-
ers in trade instead of cash if preferred.—Seaiy
Mattress Company, 3841 East 37th St., Cleveland
FOR SALE One 0 saw ¥ ‘Couiimaatal gin bat-
tery complete. All modern cleaning and drying
equipment, with lint cleaners. Has 600 h.p. LeRoi
natural gas engine. All steel building with double
suction wagon shed.—Bishop Cooperative Gin Co.,
ALL STEEL GIN BUILDINGS, any size. For
immediate delivery in Texas.—Marvin R. Mitchell
Construction Co., 1220 Rock Island, Dallas, Texas,
Phone RAndolph 5616.
FOR SALI E—One M “hell 6-cylinder Jembo, com-
bination extractor, drier, and cleaner. 4-80 Con-
tinental model “C”’ A.B., D.C. air blast gins with
model “30” fronts, lint flue. Eight 66” cast iron
head standard Mitchells. A bargain: Murray big
reel drier. Three 14° Hardwicke-Etter wood bur
machines with by-pass conveyors. One 14’ Wichita
steel bur machine. 4-80 Continental D.C., A.B.
model “F-3"" gins with roll indicators, factory re-
built, with lint flue. One 45” Continental cast-
iron fan, reworked and repainted. Five 60” Hard-
wicke-Etter huller feeders. Four 80 saw Murray
gins with glass fronts and 6” mote conveyors,
lint flue. One 80-saw Continental brush gin,
model “FE.” Five 66” convertible Mitchells.—Bill
Smith, om Texas, Box 694. Phones 4-9626
FOR SALE—Three 70-saw Cen-Tennial gins, air
blast, two 35 inch fans, three Mitchell standard
cleaners, Murray hydraulic ram and pump, Jacobs
tramper, wood press, priced complete or separate.
Reasonable.-_J. F. Suttle, Suttle, Ala.
Take advantage of factory-trained men,
-800 hp. 3/60/2300 /600 rpm, slip ring
250 hp. 8 /60/440/600 rpm, slip ring
200 hp. 8/60/2200/900 rpm, slip ring
200 hp. 3 /60/440/900 rpm, slip ring
-150 hp. 3/60/2800/900 r.m, slip ring
-150 hp. 3/60/440/900 rpm. slip ring
125 hp. 3/60/440 /900 rpm, slip ring
Phone HUnter 2801
Sales — Repairs
' better serve the Southwest cotton industry we now pick up and deliver FREE any
for sale or repair. Don't be shut down! Call us and we will deliver a
motor to your plant free while we repair your equipment in our shop.
To further our aim to give fast and —— service, we have estab-
lished a motor repair shop at Harlingen,
large copper wire availability, expert machin-
ists, accurate balancing and testing equipment. Our facilities are as close as your telephone.
and no more expensive than if done in your city.
Partial list of motors we have for immediate delivery:
Fan and Press Pump motors and all other ratings in stock.
CALL ON US — DAY OR NIGHT — ANYWHERE
Complete starting eqnipment available for above motors.
rental while we repair your motors.
SMITH ELECTRIC CO.
2—125 hp. 3/60/2200 /900 rpm, squirrel cage
2—125 hp. 3/60/440/900 rpm, slip ring
1—100 hp. 3/60/2200 /900 rpm, squirrel cage
2—100 hp. 3/60 /220/900 rpm, squirrel cage
4—100 hp. 3 /60/2200/900 rpm, slip ring
2— 75 hp. 3/60/440/900 rpm, slip ring
2— 75 hp. 3/60/220/1200 rpm, squirrel cage
August 18, 1951 °
FOR SALE—Four 70-saw Lummus air blast, di-
rect connected ball bearing gins complete with
120 h.p. Fairbanks full deisel engine and Lokey
hull extractor. Will sell all or any part. Gins in
perfect shape. Also, four 80-saw Continental AA
Munger air blast ball bearing stands, like new.
One Continental Paragon bale press with 3 stroke
pump and Jacobs tramper. . A. Krumme, Box
749, Bristow, Okla.
GOOD USED MACHINERY—One Model PH Mur-
ray steel bound press, two Continental presses, all
in plants where used. Oe 72” Continental all
steel, square type, up draft condenser. One 60”
Lummus wood frame condenser, excellent condi-
tion. One 14 foot Hardwicke-Etter and one 14
foot Wichita wood frame bur extractors. Three
66” Continental model “D’” Double X extracting
feeders. Five 80-saw Murray steel 6” mote con-
veyor air blast gins. Fans, hydraulic rams and
casings, hydraulic pumps, shafting, pulleys, belt-
ing and transmission equipment. Tell us your
needs.— R. B. Strickland & Co., 13-A Hackberry
t., Tel. 2-8141, Waco, Texas.
HELP WANTED-—-Ginner for new Murray-Mitch-
ell Su od Super gems who can assume re-
ib and help. Four room
mudern hg "fered. Year-around job. Good
schools. Als four ginners for night jobs, start-
ing September ist. Give references.—Box 548,
Artesia, New Mexico.
QUALIFIED GINNER wanted on straight time or
hourly basis to take complete charge of operating
four stand See Mitchell gin. Start approximate-
ly Sept. 1 to Jan. Modern house furnished with-
out charge. a Box “AZ,” The Cotton Gin
and Oil Mill Press, P. O. Box 444, Dallas, Texas.
Power Units and Miscellaneous
ALL STEEL BUILDINGS for cotton industry—
warehouses, cottonseed houses and gin buildings.
-Marvin R. Mitchell Construction Co., 1220 Rock
Island, Dallas, Texas. Phone RA-5615.
FOR THE LARGEST STOCK of good, clean used
gas or diesel engines in Texas, always see Stewart
& Stevenson Services FIRST. Contact your nearest
FOR SALE—Immediate delivery any weight or
width filter cloth or paper, numbered Duck, Filter
Twills and Chain cloth.—S. A. Orrell, P. O. B
ENGINES AND MOTORS—In Waco stock: One—
Model RX1, 100 h.p. LeRoi power unit, fully
equipped with gasoline engine starter, $1,250.00
One 35 h.p. Minneapolis-Moline 4-cylinder power
unit. One 60 h.p., 2200 volt, 865 r.p.m. slip-ring
motor with starting equipment. One 50 h.p. G.E.
220 volt, 1200 r.p.m. squirrel cage motor, less
starter. On foundations near Waco: 120 h.p
Fairbanks-Morse type “Y,” style ‘‘VA"” diesel en-
gine. 125 h.p. Tips 3-cylinder semi-diesel engine
and one 80 h.p. Fairbanks-Morse “Model 32” diesel
engine here on our testing block. All above very
reasonable prices.—R. B. Strickland & Co., 13-A
Hackberry St., Tel. 2-8141, Waco, Texas.
Memphis 2, Tenn.
FOR SALE—Various ttema, new H 78 and H 82
drag chain with attachments every fifth link and
sprockets, roller chain and sprockets, V-Belts
sneaves, bearings, all types and age leather on
rubber belts, conveyor and tro fabricated etrel
=. ete.—-S. A. Orrell. P. 4 2351, Memphis,
FOR SALE—New and rebuilt Minneapolis- Moline
power units in stock, all sizes. Sales, parts and
service, day or night.—Fort Worth Machinery Co.,
913 E. Berry St., Fort Worth, Texas.
NGINE BARGAIN FOR PARTS—125 h.p. Tips
3-cylinder vertical, semi-diesel engine with stub-
shaft on foundation near Waco. Operating nicely
when last used. $500.00 on foundation, if sold im-
mediately.—R. B. Strickland & Co., 13-A Hack-
berry St., Tel. 2-8141, Waco, Texas.
FOR SALE—One Worthington 5-cylinder diesel
engine, 110 h.p. at 8750 ft. alt. 614 r.p.m.—
Western Cottonoil Co., Pecos, Texas.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
FOR SALE—One 16 x 15” Skinner center crank
automatic steam engine on cast iron sub-base and
all regular fixtures and 66” x 16” flywheel, one
2-15/16" face coupling.-Union Cotton Oil Co.,
FOR SALE--One 40 h.p., 220 volt, 900 r.p.m.,
three-phase electric motor with starter switch.
One 60 h.p., 220 volt, 1800 r.p.m., three-phase
electric motor with starter switch. One 125 h.p.,
2300 volt, 900 r.p.m., rebuilt slip ring electric
motor with sliding base and starter equipment.
One 30 h.p., 2300 volt, 1800 r.p.m., sliding base
and starter equipment.—Bill Smith, Abilene, Texas,
Box 694. Phones 4-9626 and 4-7847.
FOR SALE—H&S 12 x 18 steam engine in good
shape; has 144 K light unit mounted on base.
Name your price.-—Fuller-King Gin, Box 3132,
FOR SALE—100 h.p. M.M. engine, perfect con-
dition. Several practically new by-passes. Four
good drum feeders. One 35” and one 45” fan.-
Schrade Gin Co., 2 miles east, Rowlett, Texas,
Atlantic Steel Expanding
Atlantic Steel Company, Atlanta, Ga.,
manufacturers of Dixisteel cotton ties
and buckles and o.her steel products,
broke ground last week fcr the first
phase of a multi-million dollar expah-
sion program designed to keep in step
with the growing demand for steel prod-
ucts in the Southeast.
The first unit of the expansion pro-
gram will be an electric furnace with an
annual capacity of 100,000 tong of steel.
This furnace will supplement the com-
pany’s three present open-hearth fur-
naces, and will increase Atlantic Steel’s
annual capacity by 50 percent, to 300,000
Excavation for footings and fluor of
the huge building are now underway,
and will be completed within six to
eight weeks. The building itself will be
Texas Crop Hit Hard
By Long Drouth
Instead of being able to make
their full contribution to the 1951
cotton goal, Central and North
Texas farmers are watching their
crop—and their income—shrink
under drouth conditions that may
prove to be the worst in the state’s
Texas Commissioner of Agricul-
ture John C. White has estimated
that the 5-million-bale Texas crop
forecast by USDA on Aug. 8 has
already been reduced by at least
500,000 bales. Many observers pre-
dict an even greater reduction.
In Ellis County, in the Central
Texas Blackland Belt, County
Agent Walter Love estimated the
cotton crop 35 to 50 percent below
normal. A similar condition exists
in other Central Texas counties,
C. Patterson, McLennan
County agent, said the six-weeks
drouth has damaged the crop so
severely that rich Central Texas
Brazos River bottomland cotton
fields normally yielding a bale to
the acre will make only about a
bale on 10 acres this year.
And in Washington, the U.S.
Geological Survey took serious
note of the Texas drouth when it
said the situation threatens to be-
come the worst in the state’s
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
200 feet long by 135 feet wide, and will
stand 90 feet high. Craneways for the
handling of scrap and ingots will be
located at each end. The 60-ton furnace
will be the largest electric furnace in
Robert S. Lynch, president of Atlantic
Steel, said the new furnace will pro-
vide the additional quantities of carbon
steel necessary to keep the company’s
present finishing mills producing at
capacity. “It will also give us facilities
for producing such steels as tool steels
and aircraft steels, for which there is
an ever-increasing demand in_ the
South,” said Lynch. The new furance
is expected to be in operation by Feb-
ruary of next year.
Chemists Schedule Many
Papers for Fall Meeting
In observance of its twenty-fifth fall
meeting at the Edgewater Beach Hotel,
Chicago, Oct. 8-1), the American Oil
Chemists’ Society has arranged a
technical program numbering 40 or
Tentative plans include a paper on
the economics of fats and oils as the
opening presentation, according to H. T.
Spannuth, program chairman. The chief
detergent section is scheduled for Mon-
day. Other divisions of the program are
drying oils, fatty acids and fat deriva-
tives, engineering and processing, and
On Oct. 11 there will be a choice of
field trips to the Food and Container
Institute of the Quartermaster Corps,
Chicago, or the new research laboratory
of S. C. Johnson & Son, Racine, Wis.
R. W. Bates is in charge, assisted by
R. R. Allen and L. A. Goretta.
General chairman of the meeting is
C. E. Morris. Other chairmen are Mrs.
V. C. Mehlenbacher, La Grange, IIl.,
ladies; and R. H. Rogers, Jr., Chicago,
Extension Bulletin Gives
Cotton Production Facts
A comprehensive booklet on “Growing
Cotton for Profit” has been issued by
the Georgia Extension Service as Bulle-
tin No, 568.
Attractively covered with a _photo-
graph in blue, black and white, and well
illustrated, the bulletin gives details on
the cotton programs used in Georgia,
figures on cotton variety tests, instruct-
tions on soil preparation, fertilization,
planting, cultivation, insect control and
harvesting of cotton.
Credit Controls Lifted on
Loans in Flood Areas
Acting Secretary of Agriculture Mc-
Cormick has announced that credit re-
strictions on farm housing loans to fam-
ilies whose homes were damaged by
floods have been removed by Farmers
Home Administration. The action was
effective immediately in Kansas, Mis-
souri and Oklahoma.
Farmers eligible for loans in flooded
areas can borrow up to the full amount
they need to reconstruct, repair or re-
place homes and other farm buildings
damaged or lost in the flood, USDA
said. Loans can be made for periods up
to 33 years at four percent interest.
* August 18, 1951
Cotton Loan Drive
€alling on all Mississippi farmers to
place at least 50 percent of their 1951
cotton crop in the Commodity Credit
Corporation loan, Governor Fielding L.
Wright launched a state-wide program
Aug. 14 to help provide for orderly
marketing of the state’s 2,000,000 bale
expected cotton production. More than
100 agricultural and business leaders
attended the meeting to make plans for
handling the crop in an orderly manner.
Fire Destroys Gin at Frost
A fire which apparently started in
the seed house destroyed the Williams
& Griffis gin at Frost, Texas, early
Aug. 13. The gin building and its equip-
ment, cotton and seed houses, one bale
of cotton, 850 pounds of seed cotton and
four bales of cottonseed were lost in
the blaze. Although partially covered
by insurance, the gin will not be rebuilt
this year, owners said.
e Reports indicate that a good
percentage of the land being taken out
of cotton and peanuts in Georgia is going
Reminder: August Is a
Bad Insect Month
Insects usually cause the great-
est damage to the cotton crop in
August, the National Cotton Coun-
cil has reminded farmers, It
urges them to continue cotton in-
sect control parctices recommended
by federal and state entomologists.
The Council calls attention to a
recent Department of Agriculture
report advising that “many thou-
sands of bales of cotton can be
saved from the boll weevil by the
proper use of insecticides during
“Insecticides widely used include
benzene hexachloride, calcium ar-
senate, toxaphene, aldrin, dieldrin,
and chlordane,” the USDA report
noted, adding that “every cotton
field where there are bolls to save
and where weevils are numerous
should be treated with insecticides
until the weevils are checked or a
cotton crop matured.”
“Although boll weevil infesta-
tions average lower now than a
year ago in most areas, there are
thousands of cotton fields where
from 40 to 80 percent or more of
the squares are punctured. In most
of these fields, the proper appli-
eation of insecticides during
August will greatly increase the
yields,” USDA pointed out.
“Every cotton field in the U.S.
should be carefully examined for
cotton pests at least once each
week during August or until the
cotton is harvested.
“This is the month when boll-
worms, spider mites, stink bugs,
cotton leafworms, and boll weevils
do their greatest damage. All of
these and all other cotton pests
can be checked by the proper use
Cash Receipts in July
And Jan.-July, 1951
BAE-USDA reports that farmers re
ceived 15.4 billion dollars from market-
ings in the first seven months of 1951,
17 percent above receipts in the same
period last year. This increase was part
of the general rise in national income
that has occurred during 1951. It was
not entirely a net gain for farmers,
however, as farm cost rates rose 12
percent on the average during this
Receipts from livestock and livestock
products were about 10.7 billion dollars,
25 percent more than a year ago, with
average prices showing about the same
percentage gain. All major livestock
groups were up substantially. Crop
receipts for the first seven months were
4.7 billion dollars, about the same as last
year. Higher average prices were off-
set by a smaller volume of crop
Cash receipts in July totaled about 2.6
billion dollars, 20 percent more than in
June because of larger marketings and
11 percent above July 1950, mostly be-
cause of higher prices. Receipts from
livestock and livestock products were
about 1.5 billion dollars, slightly below
June but 15 percent above a year ago.
Receipts from meat animals were prob-
ably about the same as the month before,
but dairy products and poultry were
lower because of a seasonal decline in
marketings. All major livestock groups
were substantially above last July,
Crop receipts in July were around
1.1 billion dollars, 80 percent more than
in June and six percent above July of
last year. Most of the principal crops
were up seasonally, with a substantial-
ly larger volume selling for slightly
lower average prices than in June.
Receipts for most crops were above July
1950 because of higher average prices.
Dedicate New One-Variety
Community in Alabama
In the fall of 1950 several Southeast
Limestone, Ala., County farmers decided
they could make more money from grow-
ing cotton if they did it in a one-va-
riety community. They met with J. D.
Elliott & Sons of Greenbrier, dealers in
cotton and cottonseed, and worked out
plans that resulted in the dedication of
the Greenbrier One-Variety Cotton Com-
munity on Aug 15. The new one-variety
community embraces 5,000 acres of
Stoneville 2-B cotton and lies between
Decatur and Huntsville.
Present to take part in the dedication
ceremonies were USDA representatives
from Washington, Alabama Polytechnic
Institute at Auburn, and many ginners,
cottonseed crushers and cotton buyers
of the Tennessee Valley.
Trigg Is Named Deputy
Ralph S. Trigg, formerly chief of
USDA’s Production and Marketing Ad-
ministration and president of the Com-
modity Credit Corporation until a recent
departmental shake-up, has been ap-
pointed deputy administrator of the
Defense Production Administration.
Mr. Trigg, who is in charge of steel,
copper and aluminum allocations in his
new job, heads the agency’s require-
ments committee, a group which reviews
the needs of defense, defense-supporting
and civilian production programs and
then recommends allotments of steel,
copper and aluminum to meet those
Winter Cover Crop Seed
Goals Are Set by USDA
Secretary of Agriculture Brannan
has announced 1952 production goals for
major winter cover crop seeds. He also
re-emphasized the immediate importance
of cover crops in the farm mobilization
program and urged farmers to plant
maximum acreages to them for soil im-
provement. For 1952, acreage-for-seed
goals are: Crimson clover, 125,000 acres;
hairy vetch, 270,000 acres; common and
Willamette vetches, 72,000 acres; lupine,
58,000 acres; roughpeas, 70,000 acres;
and common ryegrass, 130,000 acres.
Seed goals are established for each state
in the West and Southwest and other
adapted areas. Prices of these seeds
have been supported in the past several
On Display at Fair:
PELLETIZED FERTILIZER TO BE
SHOWN IN LOUISIANA
High analysis pelletized fertilizers
will be exhibited in Louisiana for the
first time at the State Fair at Shreve-
port, Oct. 20-28. Mathieson Chemical
Corporation will display these modern
plant foods at booths A and B.
Little Rock, Arkansas
Capacity up to one ton per
Ideal equipment for temporary
Equipped with the patented fea-
tures of the Phelps Pneumatic
HUBERT PHELPS MACHINERY CO.
P. O. Box 1093
August 18, 1951
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
Quality of Ginning Service
(Continued from Page 16)
the 1949 crop. As previously stated, it
was found that the moisture content of
the lint at the time ot ginning was di-
rectly related to the preparation element
of grade, and that increasing propor-
tions of roughly ginned cotton occurred
at increasingly higher lint-moisture con-
tents. Also related to the moisture con-
tent of the seed cotton and, consequent-
ly, to the lint moisture at time of gin-
ning, is gin turnout, or proportion of
lint weight to seed cotton weight. Sig-
nificantiy, it was found that gains in
wei, .t trom excess moisture were more
than offset by the loss of lint through
the failure of the gins to remove as
much lint from the seed when the cotton
contains excess moisture. Gins not em-
pioying driers turned out lint contain-
ing as much as 20 pounds of moisture
per bale more than did standard gins
employing driers and ginning seed cot-
ton of similar moisture content. How-
ever, for each ginning period and for
the season as a whole, gins employing
driers were able to give the producers
more weight in the torm of actual lint
for each pound of seed cotton than were
gins not employing driers. Although the
differences in turnout by weight be-
tween the gin groups were small, the
differences in actual pounds of lint were
great, being as high as 20 pounds per
500-pound bale. Producers patronizing
gins not equipped with driers in 1949
were placing on the market cotton con-
taining 16.5 pounds of excess moisture
and a corresponding less amount of
lint per bale. As cotton containing ex-
cess moisture rapidly loses weight, gen-
erally buyers make allowances in the
average prices paid in areas from which
such cotton is consistently shipped.
Therefore, all producers and ginners
alike are generally penalized in any
area where such conditions exist.
e Cost Analyses by Type of Gin—The
average cost per bale for ginning cot-
ton in South Louisiana during 1948 was
$10.30 for standard gins and $10.38 for
substandard gins at average volume of
1,561 and 1,320 bales, respectively. Per
bale costs in 1949 were higher by $1.78
per bale for standard gins and $3.84 for
substandard because of lower volumes
and a prolonged ginning season. Operat-
ing costs constituted the major part of
total cost for both groups of gins dur-
ing 1948 and 1949. The most important
item of expense during 1948 was bag-
ging and ties; however, owing to lower
volumes ginned, labor represented a
larger part of total cost in 1949.
The cost of ginning incurred by stand-
ard gins was higher than that incurred
by substandard gins at all comparable
volume ranges, as a result of additional
facilities provided by them. The _ in-
creased cost ranged from $0.30 to $3.50
per bale, depending upon the volume of
cotton ginned. However, because of the
larger volumes ginned by the standard
plants, they were able to more than off-
set these additional costs and operated
as a group at somewhat lower cost than
did the substandard gins.
There was a direct relationship be-
tween the volume ginned per stand and
the per bale costs for both standard and
substandard gins. Total costs, however,
were higher for standard gins than for
substandard gins of similar size ginning
approximately the same volume of cot-
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss
ton. The greatest reduction in cost oc-
curred up to the 300-bale-per-stand
volume range. Beyond this point, re-
ductions were at a lower rate.
There was a direct relationship be-
tween ginning volumes per gin stand
and fixed costs per bale for both groups
of gins. Because of increased capital in-
vestment, the standard gins incurred
higher fixed costs than substandard gins
at any given volume. At the lower
volume ranges, fixed cost per bale de-
creased at a greater rate for standard
gins than for substandard gins. How-
ever, the differences tended to become
more established at the higher volume
Fixed costs per bale were relatively
@ Sizes—40', 45’ and 50’
Platforms. Other sizes special.
@ Capacities to 80,000 Ibs.
@ Hydraulic 10’x 10’ Pit Door.
@ TWIN Hydraulic Power Units.
@ Pit and Pitless Models. Pit-
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UNLOADS all sizes of Trucks and big
Tractor Trailers in a “jiffy.” Takes all
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keeps trucks “‘on the go.”
Powerful TWIN Hydraulic Unit.
Raises to 43° angle in less than a min-
ute, lowers in 25 seconds. Maximum
safety because of “‘oil-locked” hydraulic
control. No danger of accidents.
Pit Door opens and closes hydrauli-
cally in seconds, permits cottonseed to
be dumped directly into open pit.
Easy, simple controls... one man
operates the Dumper, Wheel Stops and
Pit Door from one location. Eliminates
high for both groups of gins owing to
the small volume ginned. Since succes-
sive increases in volumes result in pro-
portionate decreases in fixed costs, it
is essential that gins in the area ob-
tain adequate ginning volumes.
Increased volumes of ginning per
stand caused decreases in operating
costs per bale for both groups of gins.
At any given volume range, per bale
operating costs were higher at standard
gins than at substandard gins. How-
ever, at the lower volume ranges they
tended to decreases at a greater rate
for standard gins. Increased volumes
made it possible for more effective use
to be made of gin capacity and such use
results in increased efficiency of labor
This New KEWANEE Pitless Model cuts
foundation costs to a minimum.
back-breaking labor and cuts costs.
Evidence of KEWANEE performance
and economy is overwhelming. It is
substantiated by successive repeat
orders from outstanding firms who
have installed them in all their plants.
Every Trucker and Ginner is a real
booster. They appreciate ‘“‘no long
waiting in line” in busy hauling seasons
and they tell others. It attracts new cus-
tomers, widens your territory and ex-
pands your volume.
WRITE FOR BULLETIN — find out how
KEWANEE will cut your unloading costs.
’ a Oe
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dependable performance, backed by 31
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Extra strength channel steel frame
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mechanism. All working parts are be-
low the frame, permitting maximum lift.
Telescoping frame adjustable every
2” for driveways 11'0” to 156". New
@ Adjustable for Driveways
11’ to 15'6” widths.
@ Low Head Room.
@ Large, deep flanged Winding
Drums. Uniform winding.
@ Cut Worm Gear Reducer.
@ Crucible steel Lifting Ca-
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heavy duty Cradje of greater strength
and utility. Strong lifting cables.
Whatever your unloading problem,
there’s a KEWANEE to handle it. Write
for Free Bulletin and fuil information.
INDUSTRIAL SUPPLIES, Inc.
Poplar Ave. & River Front, Memphis, Tennessee
R. C. BROWN, 5538 Dyer St., Dallas 6, Texas
KEWANEE MACHINERY & CONVEYOR CO., Kewanee, Illinois
* August 18, 1951
and power plant and consequently lower
labor and fuel costs.
There was a direct relationship be-
tween the size of plant, volume of cotton
ginned and ginning cost per bale. All
size groups showed reduction in per
bale costs as volume increased. How-
ever, there were significant differences
in the costs for gins of varying size that
ginned similar volumes. In view of this
relationship it is essential that gin own-
ers carefully weigh any projected capital
outlay against anticipated ginning
volumes before building large new
plants or enlarging present facilities.
e More than 10,000 Texas cot-
ton farmers last year used rotary hoe
equipment on their farm tractors to re-
duce the cost and amount of labor need-
ed for hoeing their crops.
Cottonseed Processing Research
(Continued from Page 15)
agricultural products .. .” Our work in
this area, originally under the super-
vision of Dr. B. R. Holland and current-
ly Dr. W. W. Meinke, has been concerned
with the production of essential oils
from sweet goldenrod and other native
Texas plants and shrubs, uses for the
protein from the Chinese tallow nut,
and the utilization of rice bran. During
the past year a study of possible food
uses for cottonseed has been in progress.
(m) Development of New Food Uses for
Cottonseed and Its Products (coopera-
tive with the Cotton Research Committee
A systematic study is being made of
possible ways of producing human food
There are more than 11
thousand uses for cotton
in the military requirements of this nation. .™ 7;
Our soldiers, sailors, marines, and airmen depend on our
cotton farmers, and our whole cotton industry as a great
arsenal of essential supplies. It has been authoritatively
acknowledged over and over again that our military
strength would be destroyed if we were stripped of cotton!
Warehouse service makes it possible to maintain a cotton
reserve to meet the nation’s demands in time of peace or
war. Cotton is one of the vital materials that must be “stock
piled” and protected to fill the nation’s needs as they arise.
The negotiable warehouse receipt, issued on each bale
of cotton, is accepted and used throughout the world as the
undisputed title of ownership of the bale identified by the
receipt. Warehousing service is indispensable in safe stor-
age and in distribution of cotton to its world wide markets.
NATIONAL COTTON COMPRESS aie
& COTTON WAREHOUSE ASSOCIATION *
Ca TIONAL fiery
orron come uw
ano corto yarrow 1NC
August 18, 1951 °
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL
products from cottonseed which will be
acceptable on the basis of appearance,
texture, flavor, food value, keeping
quality, and toxicity.
Processes for making a sauce, com-
parable to that currently produced
from soybeans, useful for flavoring
soups and vegetable dishes have de-
veloped. This cottonseed sauce (termed
“coy” by the experimenters) utilizes as
ingredients a five-to-two ratio of hull-
free cottonseed kernels and _ parched
wheat. For commercial production two
processes have been developed—a rel-
atively lengthy fermentation method
and one which utilizes an acid hydroly-
sate with molasses added to give proper
color. The product produced by the latter
process lacks many of the flavor char-
acteristics of the fermented product.
These processes have been described in
the literature. *
Additional research has shown that
French-fried cottonseed kernels can
serve the function of roasted nuts in
brittle and fudge-type candies. Methods
of preparation insuring the production
of non-toxic kernels with satisfactory
keeping qualities have been developed.
Current emphasis is being placed on
the development of a satisfactory proc-
ess for producing a cheese food from
cottonseed. Protein curds similar in tex-
ture and taste to unseasoned cottage
cheese have been prepared and are
undergoing further study.
The foregoing paragraphs describe
the highlights of our program of re-
search in cottonseed processing and
utilization. There are always more
problems to be investigated than can be
effectively undertaken with available
funds and facilities. For every one
answer obtained, several new questions
rise to stimulate the inquiring mind.
Our program is believed to be typical’
of what can be done by a public agency
whose activities are intended to serve
the needs of a geographical area as well
as those of an educational institution.
By maintaining a reasonable balance
between the fundamental and the prac-
tical, and between the economical and
the technical, the Texas Engineering
Experiment Station hopes to continue
to serve the cottonseed industry of Texas
and elsewhere through research—Re-
search in Action.”
13 “Create Food Sauce from Cottonseed,” Texas
Engineering Experiment Station News, Vol.
No. 2, p. 10, June 1950.
Drops Sharply This Year
Although the acreage of upland cot-
ton in cultivation in the U.S. on July 1
increased sharply, the acreage of Ameri-
can-Egyptian cotton decreased just as
sharply. Last season 104,600 acres of
American-Egyptian were in cultivation
on July 1, but on July 1, 1951, only
59,800 acres, 43 percent less than last
year, were planted to this crop.
large acreage was planted to
American-Egyptian cotton in 1950-51
because of acreage allotments for up-
land cotton and no allotments for Ameri-
can-Egyptian. There are no allotments
on upland cotton this year, and much of
the land formerly planted to American-
Egyptian was planted to upland this
A BUSINESS-GETTER AND MONEY-MAKER FOR GINS!
THE NEW DRI-SLIDE STATIFIER’
At left, is the
Unit, with in-
the new Dri-
Restoring only 14.% moisture, approximately 8-pounds per bale, improves
the sample, helps the staple, and is a necessary service now that cotton is
dried to a very low moisture content to facilitate cleaning for high grades.
Improves pressing and reduces losses to gins from “Big-Ended” bales,
broken ties, and press repairs.
Dri-Slide Electric Valves were tested during the 1950 season in gins
that had runs of more than 4,000 to more than 8,000 bales and gave care-
free operation. Standard equipment on 1951 Statifier units, and can be in-
stalled on any Statifier that has automatic controls.
Statifiers are used by progressive ginners across the U. S. Cotton Belt
Complete Dri-Slide Statifier Moisture Restoration Units
And Wet Water Chemicals Shipped Promptly.
White for “Moisture Means Money ,
KEMGAS PROCESS COMPANY
Mail Address: 2414 Fifteenth St., Phones 2-3692 and 2-2894 LUBBOCK, TEXAS
* Trade-Mark Registered
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press + August 18, 1951
cotton comes cleaner...
you get higher prices
at the gin when you
To get a better grade of cotton and to
make picking easier and faster . . . apply
Arro* Cyanamid, Special Grade, the
original and most widely used defoliant.
Plan to dust 25 to 30 days after the
setting of the last bolls that will make
cotton, and about ten days to two weeks
before harvest date.
Leaves fall off without damage to
More sunshine and air reach the
bolls for earlier maturity and to
check boll rot.
Greater part of crop is harvested
at one time
Picking is easier, faster, less costly
—either by hand or machine.
Green leaf stain and trash are
minimized for better grade and
Apply Agro Cyanamid, Special Grade,
either by airplane or ground duster.
See your supplier, write for literature
AMERICAN Ganamid COMPANY
Agricultural Chemicals Division
31-B Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, N. Y.
Branch offices: 20No. Wacker Drive, Chicago 4, Ill.;
P. O. Box 808, Winchester, Va.; Brewster, Fla.;
1308 Donaghey Bidg., Little Rock, Ark.;
111 Sutter St., San Francisco 4, Calif.;
1705 Locust St., St. Louis 3, Mo.
| Cotton Research in Korea
@ USDA research officials are
| awaiting reports from Korea on battle-
| front results in the use of a new cotton
| bandage. It is of elastic gause, and was
| developed during World War II at the
| department’s regional laboratory in New
Orleans. Researchers expect the bandage
to be especially effective in treatment of
first-degree burns, as well as for wounds
| of the head and joints.
| Cotton Coating for
@ Demand for fur is great these
days for use as trim and lining in parka
| hoods, flight jackets and caps used in
| Arctic areas by the Air Force. Result
| is an artificial fur composed of cotton
| and synthetic fibers, said to be better
than fur itself. The phony fur has a
backing of knit cotton coated with rub-
ver. The product is currently being
| tested at Wright-Patterson Field, Day-
| Home -Made Spray Cools House
~ ‘@ Agricultural engineers, who have
| conducted tests, report that you can rig
| your own cooling system at home by
laying nozzle-fitted pipes along the roof.
| You need to feed only the amount of
water that will evaporate on the roof’s
| surface. USDA engineers report it works
| fine, reducing interior temperatures
We Are Too Fat
@ Americans are too fat. According
to medical studies, approximately one
in four of us is overweight. The big
reason is simple: we eat too much. Many
of us tend to take on fat with age. For
example, 60 percent of women between
50 and 70 tip the scales at more than
| is good for them. Some medics and
| psychiatrists think the reason people
| over-eat is because they are unhappy
and frustrated, but there are arguments
} on this score.
Those Mules Are Expensive
@ USDA specialists who go in for
figures have it doped out that a big
tractor doing the work of 10 mules can
save $1,500 per year. Or that a small
tractor can save $800 each year by doing
the work of six mules. Although there
| are many tractors in Texas and Okla-
homa, for example, there are still many
farmers in the southeast states who
don’t have them.
New Cotton Opener
@ USDA research officials have
high hopes for a new cotton opener now
being tested in textile mills. They are
optimistic that the new devices will
make more efficient opening and clean-
August 18, 1951 °
ing of cotton—a problem that has _ be-
come more acute with mechanical har
vesting. The opener would be of special
value in crowded mills, since it occupies
little floor space in relation to the volume
of cotton it handles.
Big Fight Brewing Over
@ This year’s tragic and widespread
floods have revived bitter argument
among weather experts over rain-
making. Some think that efforts to force
rain from the cloud have been responsi-
ble—at least in part—for the floods.
Others vociferously deny there is any
connection. Meanwhile, rainmaking ex-
periments go on, not only in the U.S.
but in foreign countries. The British,
Delta Pine 15
P. O. Box 1946-G
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
for example, are testing balloons as
rain-makers in the African territory of
Kongwa. Silver iodide and gunpowder ‘cc 99
are placed in the balloons, which are THERMO-LAST
time-fused to explode at 15,000 feet.
Results are still in doubt. NYLON PRESS CLOTHS
South Outstrips U.S. in Milk Cut Oil Extraction Costs
ere are still milk shortages in
the Mouth but the aren has bec out. | “THERMO-LAST” Nylon Press Cloths
gaining the nation in production. The e Outlast old-type cloths Other Nylon Advantages
Sone ae een ee e Practically eliminate repair work Strong—Lightweight
of milk cows and in dairy income. e Handle faster, easier Dienenatonal Stability
e Permit use of larger cake, more oil per '°w Moisture Absorption
Fungus Prevents Decay of
@ Fungus is usually responsible for SUMNER COM PANY
decay of wood. But forestry experts
have now come up with a friendly Mill and Offices, Columbia, South Carolina
fungus which is being used to extend
the life span of stored fence posts and Call our nearest representative
pulpwood. After spraying peeled south-
ern pine with ammonium and sodium Rebt. Burgher, Daljas, Tex. + Central Bag Co,, Macon, Ga. » Mason Jackson Co., Shreveport, La.
fluoride, the researchers noted stim- Foreign Agent: M. Neomans & Son, Inc., 90 West Street, New York 6, X. T.
ulation in the growth of a certain mold.
Not only was the mold itself compara-
tively harmless, but it greatly reduced
the decay of wood caused by other
Lightning Strikes 40 Times in | To Do A Good Job
Same Place . Vy GINNING & MILLING
@ Engineers at Westinghouse have : .
studied lightning for some 35 years with Z . T h C ‘@) T T re) iy Cc
interesting results. For one thing, they e rop
give the raspberry to the old idea that
lightning never strikes twice in the same . You Need the Proper Tools
place. As a matter of fact, they point
, it has hit as often as 40 times in
the same place. What appears to be a
single flash to the human eye may be
several strokes occurring in rapid suc-
cession, Crimps and Packing of All Kinds, Hydraulic
Cotton Press Pumps, Spiral Conveyor and
Science Seeks Wider Use of Fittings. SKF Bearings, Shafts, Pulleys, Mo-
Waste tors, Engines, Leather, Rubber and V-Belts.
We've spent 35 years studying your needs and
will be happy to give you the benefit of our
® Discovery of new uses for citrus HAND TOOLS OF ALL KINDS
wastes would be a substantial shot in
the arm for the southern economy. In
20 years the production of processed
citrus has increased approximately 10 ane MACHINERY & SUPPLY C0 Inc
times. That is all to the good, but creates "y .
a problem in that about 60 percent of
processed fruit remains as peel, rag and 1629 MAIN STREET FORT WORTH
seeds. Consequently, research men at
USDA and elsewhere are intensifying
efforts to find new uses for the waste.
Much of the waste, it is believed, can
be dried and used either as feed or
fertilizer. Already, citrus molasses, re-
covered from liquid wastes, have been
used as feed. Growing of feed yeasts
from sugar wastes is being attempted.
Many Drunks Are Substantial
@ Previous notions that practically
all drunks are bums and no-goods are One of the Most Complete Lines of
going out the window. Scientists at Yale 3 : : : .
report that studies show many alcoholics . Agricultural Chemicals in the Nation
are uppercrust citizens. Harvard re-
searchers report that craving for drink HAYES-SAMMONS COMPANY
can be reduced by large doses of certain MISSION. TEXAS
vitamins—the B complex vitamins, and
vitamins A, C and D.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL Press * August 18, 1951
Values in Ginning
m More than 330 ginners attend
Delta Shortcourse at Stoneville,
where experts emphasize impor-
tance of proper ginning to pre-
serve inherent value of cotton
The need for preservation of the in-
herent spinning value of Delta cotton by
proper ginning was emphasized by Ben
P. Whitney, head, cotton department,
Pacific Mills, speaking at the Delta Gin-
ners Shortcourse on Aug
The two-day program, sponsored by
the Ginning Improvement Committee of
Delta Council and the Mississippi Agri-
cultural Extension Service, was attend-
ed by more than 330 ginners from
throughout the Mississippi Delta area.
Ginners from Arkansas, Louisiana and
Alabama also attended the shortcourse.
Oil mills of the Delta area were hosts at
a barbecue on the opening day.
“The modern gin is an expensive and
elaborate plant,” Mr. Whitney said.
“To properly maintain and operate such
a plant requires real mechanical abil-
ity. The mills ask that gins be operated
to avoid creating the objectionable
things such as neps, seed fragments,
rough preparation and injury from ex-
The necessity for proper gin opera-
tion was presented by Delta Council
President Maury Knowlton, who pre-
sided at the opening session.
“It is our job as ginners to improve
the competitive position of Delta cotton
by performing a first class job of gin
operation,” Mr. Knowlton said. “From
the Delta’s standpoint, good ginning is
more important today than ever before,
since we are facing increasing competi-
tion from synthetic fibers and cotton
from other areas.”
How to get better grade cotton with-
out fiber damage was presented by
J. C. Oglesbee, Jr., USDA extension gin-
ning specialist, Atlanta, Ga. Mr. Ogles-
bee listed the following points: (1)
maintain loose uniform rolls, (2) keep
overflow to a minimum, (3) use only
necessary cleaning equipment and (4)
use only enough drying to insure smooth
“Owners should exercise care and
judgment in the selection of personnel
to operate gins,’ Harold C. Lummus,
vice-president, Lummus Cotton Gin Co.,
Columbus, Ga., said in discussing “What
Gin Machinery Manufacturers Should
Expect From Ginners.” “The gin opera-
tor is probably the most important man
in the whole set-up and should be well
qualified,” Mr. Lummus added.
Orville Mitchell, vice-president, John
E. Mitchell Co., Dallas, Texas, talked
on “What Ginners Should Expect From
Gin Machinery Manufacturers.”
Mr. Mitchell, Mr. Lummus, Mr. Whit-
ney, Mr. Knowlton and Charles A. Ben-
nett, engineer in charge, USDA Cotton
Ginning Investigations, Stoneville, Miss.,
participated in a forum discussion led
by F. L. Gerdes, in charge of the Cotton
Branch’s Stoneville Laboratory.
C, P. Owen, chairman, Delta Council
Ginning Improvement Committee, pre-
sided at the afternoon session. Others
taking part in the program and their
subjects were: L. H. Moseley, district
extension agent, Stoneville, “Agricul-
tural Practices and Their Effect on Gin-
ning Problems”; Charles M. Merkel,
engineer in charge, U.S. Ginning Labora-
tory, Stoneville, “Drying Problems Af-
fecting Cotton Quality”; Vernon Moore,
cotton technologist, U.S. Fiber Labora-
tory, Stoneville, “Cleaning and Extract-
ing”; Tom Wright, engineer, U.S. Gin-
ning Laboratory, Stoneville, “Feeding
and Operation of Gin Stand”; Mr.
Barksdale, Rating Bureau, Jackson,
“Housekeeping and Insurance Rates”;
Tom Johnston, extension ginning special-
ist, Stoneville, “Summary and Discus-
sion’; and John Ross, economist, U.S.
Fiber Laboratory, “Lint
Gins visited on the gin tours were the
Zumbro Plantation Gin, Cleveland;
Finklea Gin, Leland; Bridge Gin Co.,
Greenville; Delta Gin, Metcalfe; A. J.
Hill Gin, Rome; and Dean Gin Co.,
Gin machinery manufacturers sup-
plied specialists and technicians for dem-
onstrations at each gin. Emphasis was
placed on the operation of gin machinery
to obtain maximum efficiency and cot-
e Farms which provide the
main source of income for a family in-
clude probably 98 percent of the farm
units in the U.S. Members of such
families generally supply a large part
of the farm labor, and join in making
sia affecting management of the
AVERAGE YIELD PER HARVESTED
ACRE OF COTTON IN THE U.S.
Actual yields i
9-year moving average, centered |
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
100 Dal Toylaphyhola jaalsaaahoons Joes Daapionphaagslongslaagsla oleae
BUREAU OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
SINCE 1925 the yield per acre of cotton in the U.S. has tended to move rapidly
upward, as shown in the above chart prepared by USDA. In 1946, the trend yield
was about 271 pounds per acre, while in 1925 it was approximately 160 pounds per
acre. Actual yields vary above and below the trend yields. About two-thirds of the
actual yields have been within 20 pounds of the corresponding trend yields.
Trend in Yield Per Acre Moves Steadily Upward
As the above chart shows, the yield
per harvested acre has shown a steady
upward trend since 1925. This trend be-
comes apparent when centered nine-
year moving averages of yields per acre
are fitted to each year. The yield showed
a slightly upward trend from 1870 to
1917 and then dropped sharply. The
lowest actual yield per acre in that
period was in 1921, when the reduction
from full yield because of boll weevil
was at its all time high of 31 percent.
In 1925 the trend yield stood at 159.8
pounds per acre, but by 1946 it had
risen to 271.1 pounds per acre. This
steady rise was undoubtedly due to im-
proved varieties of cotton, better pro-
duction methods and shifts to cotton
acreage in new areas.
The actual yield per acre differed
from the trend yields by 20 pounds or
August 18, 1951 °
less in about 70 percent of the years.
The largest negative deviation of actual
yield from trend yield was 36.6 pounds
in 1946 and the largest positive devia-
tion was 48 pounds in 1937.
Although there were more negative
deviations, 43, from the trend yield
than there were positive deviations, 34,
the positive deviations were of larger
magnitude, The actual yields were more
than 20 pounds below the trend yields
in 10 years, but they were more than 20
pounds above the trend in 13 years.
There were no negative deviations be-
low 40 pounds, but there were two
positive deviations of more than 40
The trend yield in 1946 was 271.1
pounds. Trend yields after that year
cannot be computed because centered
averages for the later years are not
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
Council Asks USDA to
Protect Farmer From
Loss on Cotton Crop
Action by the Secretary of Agricul-
ture in support of a four-point program
designed to aid in protecting the na-
tion’s cotton farmers from financial loss
on the 1951 crop was urged last week
by the National Cotton Council.
Pointing out that U.S. cotton growers
have responded to the fullest of their
MONEY CAN BUY
The tremendous popularity of Wat-
son cotton has made it impossible to
supply all of our fine friends who
would like to plant this high yielding,
profit-making cotton. If you are not
able to get Watson cotton this year,
make it a point to get your order in
early for next season because it is the
to choose from
e WATSON COTTON
e WATSON’S NEW ROWDEN
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FERRIS WATSON SEED CO.
GARLAND + Dallas County + TEXAS
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
abilities to the government’s urgent re-
quest to increase production 60 percent
and that production costs have been
extremely high this season, Council
President Harold A. Young telegraphed
Agriculture Secretary Brannan asking
that “you do everything possible to pro-
tect these farmers against financial
Specifically, Mr. Young recommended
that the federal government:
“Encourage cotton exports by pro-
gramming foreign aid funds as quickly
as possible to permit purchases for the
year during the period of the crop move-
ment from the farm, and by extending
special credits through the Export-Im-
port Bank to aid countries in making
purchases before ECA funds are avail-
able and also to aid those countries
having temporary difficulties with
balance of payments.
“Stimulate domestic cotton mill ac-
tivity by stepping up the schedule of
“Stockpile cotton for national security
by open market purchases to the extent
of the difference between current pro-
duction and the estimated requirements
for domestic consumption and exports.
“Place cotton exports under general
license if the estimate is above the level
of the goal established last fall by the
Pointing out that although current
prospects indicate that the entire 1951
cotton production will be needed over
the coming year to meet actual require-
ments and build security reserves, Mr.
Young said that the movement of a
heavy volume during the _ relatively
brief harvest season temporarily could
unduly depress the farmer’s prices.
“In view of the tremendous efforts
put forth by the cotton producer to meet
the fiber requirements of this country
and its allies,” the Council leader said,
“it would be unjust to expect him to
suffer financial hardship when it could
be avoided by adoption of a sound pro-
gram by the government.”
World Cotton Carry-Over
Aug. 1 Is Small
World cotton carry-over Aug. 1 prob-
ably amounted to about 10.7 million bales
compared with 16.6 million at the same
time last year—the smallest world
carry-over since Aug. 1, 1929. Most of
the decrease of 5.9 million bales from
last year is accounted for by the de-
crease of about 4.9 million in U.S.
Stocks outside the U.S. probably
amount to about 8.8 million bales, a de-
crease of about 0.9 million bales, and
smaller than at the beginning of any
peace-time year since 1938, according to
information furnished by the Inter-
national Cotton Advisory Committee.
Although these estimates include rather
indefinite figures for Russia and China,
the carry-over in the world outside these
two countries and the U.S. has probably
decreased about 800,000 bales.
According to 1951 production esti-
mates world supply of cotton will
amount to about 45.9 million bales of
cotton. If consumption in 1951-52 holds
at about the 1950-51 level of 33 million
bales, a supply of this size would be
sufficient to meet mill demand plus a
moderate increase in carry-out stock.
* August 18, 1951
TRY different brands of
margarine they sooner or
later hit on Allsweet. Then
their search for flavor sud-
denly ends. For there is no
artificial flavoring in All-
sweet. Its flavor is delicate,
And no wonder. A true
farm product, Allsweet is
made from clear rich food
oils blended—by an exclu-
sive process—with cultured
pasteurized skim milk.
So always ask for Allsweet
—the margarine with the
delicate natural flavor.
SWIFT & COMPANY
Quantity Limits for Cotton
Exports Are Dropped
Following release of the Crop Re-
porting Board’s first 1951 cotton pro-
duction estimate of 17,266,000 bales,
Secretary of Agriculture Charles F.
Brannan announced establishment of an
open-end export quota for all types of
raw cotton. Under open-end, there will
be no restriction on quantities of cotton
that can be shipped under export
licenses. A preliminary export allocation
of 3,500,000 bales has been in effect for
early months of the marketing season.
Export licensing under open-end quota
will be continued. This will enable
USDA to keep the supply situation
under constant review. Office of Inter-
national Trade, Department of Com-
merce, has been authorized by USDA to
extend the validity period on all licenses
issued under quota through July 31,
Lyman L. Bryan to Join
Cotton Council Staff
Lyman L. Bryan of Texas City, Texas,
ll join tl ‘ational Cotton Council
Me as associate in public
ns, Ed Lipscomb, Council director
notion and public relations,
s wee z,
Currently assistant director of public
relations at the Pan-American Refining
Company at Texas City, Mr. Bryan
also is president of the Texas Public
Relations Association, an affiliate of the
American Public Relations Association.
He is a former executive manager of the
Lindsay, Okla., Chamber of Commerce.
A graduate of the journalism school
of the University of Oklahoma, Mr.
Bryan is a member of the American
Chamber of Commerce Executive Asso-
ciation, the membership and campus
activities committees of the APRA;
board of directors, Texas City Recrea-
tional Council and the Galveston County
In the Cotton Council office of public
relations, Mr. Bryan will be charged
with the development of cotton educa-
tional and information programs in the
cotton states and with the planning and
execution of publicity and public rela-
tions programs stressing the need for
broader cotton and agricultural research
Blaw-Knox Gets Additional
Soybean Mill Contract
Chemical Plants Division of Blaw-
Knox Company has received an addition-
al contract from General Mills, Inc., to
increase the project already being
handled by this contractor for a 250-
tons-per-day soybean processing plant
to be located at Rossford, Ohio.
Included in the new award are a boiler
house, lecithin building, service building,
and auxiliary equipment. The complete
project now covers the engineering,
p> and erection by Blaw-Knox
»f all materials and machinery for the
extraction including auxiliary
Transplanting Tung Trees
is Made Much Easier
Much of the hand work of digging
and transplanting young tung trees
from nursery to orchard can be elim-
inated with use of tools and methods
developed by a USDA research en-
gineer. Normally, these important oil
nut-producing tung trees are dug with
a wheel-mounted, U-shaped blade that
is pulled behind a tractor. It is neces-
sary for two men to follow behind the
blade to keep it at the proper depth and
centered on the row, so that it will cut
the tree roots 10 to 12 inches below the
surface of the ground and about 10
inches on both sides of the nursery row.
Centering the cutting blade is difficult,
especially on contoured fields, because
pruned height of the tung tree (18
inches) makes it necessary to drive the
tractor so that trees pass under the
tractor’s rear axle near wheel, causing
side-drift of blade.
Agricultural Engineer R. E. Jezek,
working in cooperation with the Mis-
sissippi Agricultural Experiment Station,
successfully mounted a similar U-shaped
blade on a tractor so that the tractor
operator alone could dig the trees. His
digger, mounted on the right of the
tractor frame, and in front of the opera-
tor, reduces labor needs two-thirds and
satisfactorily solves side-drift problem.
By substituting a 20-inch-diameter
auger for ordinary tractor-mounted
post-hole digger to dig transplant holes,
Mr. Jezek has cut out more than half of
the labor needed for hand transplanting.
August 18, 1951 °
belton superior bagging
@ 7 oe,
the best protection
against handling —.
2 Ib. weight—21 Ibs. TARE
Open weave Jute Bagging
Pretested for uniform strength
Makes cleaner, stronger bales
“Built to Stand the Pressure”
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
SCIENCE AT WORK
= THE SOUTH has discover-
ed that it possesses almost
unlimited potentials in crop
and livestock production,
and USDA scientists at Belts-
ville are giving Southern
farmers a big hand in their
effort to set bigger and big-
ger production records.
USDA Photo “
DR. ROBERT M. SALTER, head of USDA’s Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, Ltn.
and Agricultural Engineering. Salter is enthusiastic salesman of what
researchers call the “integrated” approac hat is to say, getting the most
—on the farm—out of all that science knows about crop production,
FOURTH IN A SERIES
Carolina farmer, got the surprise of his life: one of 25 acres
he’d planted in corn had outyielded all the others by three to one.
He’d made 75 bushels on a single acre surrounded by land which
produced an average of less than 25 bushels per acre!
Agricultural research men had persuaded Parke against his judg-
ment, to follow methods cn his 75-bushel acre which violated all the
“best” practices of 150 years.
First off, they had recommended a hybrid. Parker planted one on
his record-breaking acre, although he had always grown the open-polli-
nated varieties. He applied nitrogen with a lavish hand. He planted
the corn twice as thick as on his other acres, a practice he knew had
brought disastrously low yields earlier tests in the area.
After the corn was up, Parker side dressed it with added nitrogen
between the rows. That was another departure recommended by the
scientists who had tested the specific fertilizer needs of the soil. Parker
cultivated shallow instead of deep as was his custom; and “laid by”
the experimental corn early instead of plowing late into the growing
“I thought the scientists were nuts,” Parker said, “but I stuck my
toe in the pond. I’ve stayed in ever since.”
In subsequent years Parker has produced up to 100 bushels of corn
per acre on his farm, using the new methods. Today, more than 50,000
farmers throughout a seven-state area of the South have got into
Their yields have been approximately four times the average though-
out the area!
At the root of the southern corn production success is a new approach
to crop research that is summed up by agricultural scientists in the
Ss“ YEARS AGO, come next harvest, Conrad Parker, a North
MANY SOUTHERN FARMERS have pyramided corn yields .. .
increased them four-fold above average yields . . . by using new
production techniques developed in recent years. By use of modern
techniques, in the right combination, production of almost all crops
could be tremendously increased, according to Beltsville scientists.
phrase, “the proper integration of all
“All that means,” says a plain- spoken
member of the scientific fraternity, “is
working cooperatively with individual
farmers under ordinary farm conditions
and trying a whole pack of new things
at varying rates and in different combi-
Parker has benefited from the special-
ized knowledge of many men and many
ingredients—all brought together in a
practical, workable pattern on his land.
Involved are the plant breeder’s knowl-
edge of new varieties, the agricultural
engineer’s knowledge of new equipment
and fertilizer placement, the agron-
omist’s knowledge of weed control, the
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conservationist’s knowledge of soils, ete.
Corn is only a single example.
Yields of many crops can be doubled,
and more by simply putting to work
.. in the proper combination . . . what
the scientists already know.
Clearing house and symbol for the
new approach to production is USDA’s
12,000-acre Agricuitural Research Center
near Beltsville, Md., 13 miles northeast
of the nation’s capital. One of the most
important of the Beltsville operations
is that of the Bureau of Plant Industry,
Soils, and Agricultural Engineering,
headed by Dr. Robert M. Salter.
Salter has great faith in the future
of the new approach to production of
food and fiber, but also great impatience
because progress isn’t faster.
“New discoveries often sit on the
shelves for months or even years until
some enterprising farmer tries them
out,” he complains. “Such a farmer gets
the bugs out of a new practice and
fits it into a farming system. Through
natural observation of other farmers
and the work of county agents, the
jpractice spreads. But the rate of spread
is too slow.’
For faster progress, he recommends:
(1) Establishment of “pilot plant”
farms where research results would be
tested in combination with all other pro-
duction factors before being passed on
to the farmer.
(2) A nationwide network of farmer-
operated demonstration farms where re-
;search results would be further tested
,and observed by farmers themselves.
(3) A farm management team in
every county to assist all farmers in de-
_veloping production plans.
Salter has especial hope for the
agricultural future of the South. A while
back he bluntly told a Midwestern
“There are million of acres in the
South now growing corn and additional
millions that can grow corn. Southern
farmers are awake to the fact that they
need to diversify . .. The South has a
longer growing season and more abun-
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August 18, 1951 °
dant rainfall than the Midwest ... Un-
less Midwestern farmers adopt more ef-
fective measures for protecting their
God-given heritage of productive soil,
it is not inconceivable that future gen-
erations will look South when they speak
of the great American corn belt.”
Two conclusions are crystal clear
from results obtained with the “integrat-
ed production” technique such as that
employed on Parker’s North Carolina
First, that a single crop practice may
increase yield, but yields actually can
be pyramided when several practices
are used together in the right combi-
Second, that a single crop practice,
although it reduces yields in a solo run,
may actually contribute to substantial
increases when combined with other
The new approach can be used to find
ways of pyramiding . . . doubling and
increasing several fold ... the produc-
tion of any crop now grown in the U.S.,
say Beltsville scientists. The larger
crops, in turn, foreshadow larger live-
Improvement and increase of forage
production in Southern tests already in-
dicate that production of dairy prod-
ucts could be doubled throughout the
Cotton Belt, where there is still a
serious shortage of milk to meet full
needs of the population.
Use of the new techniques in manage-
ment of pastures has increased southern
beef production as much as 150 percent.
Only a few years ago, economists
were telling the South to forget about
expanding livestock numbers. Feed
crops, they said, couldn’t be grown
economically in the South.
In the 70 years prior to 1940, the acre-
vield of major crops in the U.S. in-
creased little if any. Since 1940, how-
ever, there has been approximately a
30 percent increase in food production,
on approximately the same land area.
One of the important reasons is the
adoption by more farmers of new
As still more farmers come to under.
stand the theory of the interdependence
of crop practices, we can expect even
greater yields. Scientists, sold on the
combination approach, believe that food
production can be increased 50 percent
in the next decade, or about five times
our expected increase in population
over that same period.
improved Methods Sought
For Flameproofing Cotton
An extensive program of chemical
research to develop better flameproof
cotton fabrics is being undertaken for
the Army Quartermaster Corps by
The investigations are already under
way at the Southern Regional Research
Laboratory in New Orleans, La. Prac-
tical methods that can be applied com-
mercially at reasonable cost to make
fabrics permanently flameproof without
imparting undesirable properties are
being sought. Such cotton fabrics are
needed greatly by the Army for clothing
and tentage and by civilians for many
purposes such as clothing, draperies,
curtains and other household articles.
fifth article by Mr.
September 1 issue.)
Richter will appear
THE COTTON GiN AND OIL MILL PRESS
Conventions ° Meetings * Events
e Sept. 6-7-8—American Soybean Asso-
ciation annual convention. Hotel Fort
Des Moines, Des Moines, Iowa. George
M. Strayer, Hudson, Iowa, secretary-
e November 8-9—Fifth Annual Beltwide
Cotton Mechanization Conference, Chick-
asha, Okla. For information, write Na-
tional Cotton Council, P. O. Box 18,
Memphis 1, Tenn., sponsor of the confer-
e March 24-25, 1952— Valley Oilseed
Processors Association annual conven-
tion. Hotel Buena Vista, Biloxi, Miss.
C. E. Garner, 1024 Exchange Bldg., Mem-
phis 3, Tenn., secretary.
e March 30, 1952—National Cotton Gin-
ners’ Association annual meeting. Baker
Hotel, Dallas, Texas. Carl Trice Wil-
liams, P. Box 369, Jackson, Tenn.,
e March 31, April 1-2, 1952 — Texas
Cotton Ginners’ Association annual con-
vention. Fair Park, Dallas, Texas. Jay C.
Stilley, 109 North Second Ave., Dallas 1,
Texas, executive vice-president. For ex-
hibit space, write R. Haughton, Presi-
dent Gin Machinery & Supply Assn., Inc.,
P. O. Box 444, 3116 Commerce St., Dal-
las 1, Texas.
e May 19-20-21, 1952—National Cotton-
seed Products Association’s annual con-
vention. Roosevelt Hotel, New Orleans,
La. S. M. Harmon, Sterick Bldg., Mem-
phis 3, Tenn., secretary-treasurer.
e June 3-4-5, 1952—Tri-States Cottonseed
Oil Mill Superintendents’ Association an-
nual convention. Hotel Buena Vista,
Biloxi, Miss. L. E. Roberts, 998 Kansas,
Memphis 5, Tenn., secretary-treasurer.
e June 8-9-10-11, 1952—North Carolina
Cottonseed Crushers Association - South
Carolina Cotton Seed Crushers’ Associa-
tion joint annual convention. The Cava-
lier, Virginia Beach, Va. Mrs. M. U.
Hogue, P. O. Box 747, Raleigh, N. C.,
secretary-treasurer, North Carolina as-
sociation; Mrs. Durrett Williams, 609
Palmetto Bldg., Columbia 1, S. C., treas-
urer, South Carolina association.
Insects Cut Cotton Crop
In South Africa
The 1950-51 cotton crop in the Union
of South Africa is privately estimated
at 14,000 to 15,600 bales (of 500 pounds
gross) compared with 6,000 in 1949-50
and an average of only 1,300 bales for
the previous 10 years. A crop previously
expected to reach 25,000 bales this year
was reduced by insect infestation. Poten-
tial production under favorable con-
ditions is placed at upwards of 50,000
bales. Current prices paid to growers
range from 46.7 to 49 U.S. cents a
pound for ginned cotton.
Part of the stimulus for increased
production is provided by a rapidly ex-
panding mill industry that consumed
around 42,000 bales in 1950-51 com-
pared with 10,000 in 1946-47. Further
anticipated expansion may result in
annual mill consumption of nearly 150,-
000 bales within the next three or four
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August 18, 1951
Soybean Stocks Set New
| Record High July 1
ic | N Pp R E S S Soybean stocks of nearly 51.6 million
bushels in all storage positions July 1
HY 8) R A U | c p U ial p were largest for the date in the 10 years
“ ‘ea sg acoeeng to reports assem-
ay 7 3 wl sled by USDA’s Bureau of Agricul-
Eticenty fle need of the in and cilmill.Largecapee |] | tural Economics. These stocks compare
low price. Drives direct from electric motor or line shaft. | with 46.1 million a year earlier and the
| previous high July 1 total of 47.8 mil-
| lion in 1944.
* A. | The current total includes nearly 33.4
pe Al | million bushels of soybeans at processing
ALAMCG.IR S5NANORKS | plants, as enumerated by the Bureau of
| the Census, which is more than were
| ever in that position on any previous
July 1. Commercial stocks at terminals
were reported by the Production and
Marketing Administration at 4.2 million
bushels. The Crop Reporting Board
estimated farm stocks at 9.6 million
bushels, about one-seventh more than
average, and holdings in interior mills,
elevators and warehouses at 4.4 million
] bushels—virtually the same as a year
ago, but more than usual in that position.
a Disappearance of soybeans in the
April-June quarter was computed at 90
million bushels. About 61,020,000 bush-
els were processed in that period, as
reported by the Bureau of the Census,
. and nearly nine million bushels were ex-
- Snow rl t ported. Most of the 18 million bushels
used in planting the 1951 crop were
' planted prior to July 1, but some of the
Pure vegetable shortening... farm stocks were likely seed to be
: we planted after July 1.
Emulsorized for quick-method From the Oct. 1, 1950 estimated sup-
For full data ask your dealer or address the
San Antonio - Houston - Brownsville
Corpus Christi - San Angelo
for Stir-N-Roll pastry and a cakes . . . makes digestible, ply of 290 million bushels, the computed
biscuits! —— good-tasting fried foods.
disappearance is about 238 million
bushels. On the other hand, since Oct.
1 about 201 million bushels have been
processed and 25 million bushels ex-
ported. This, with quantities used for
seed and feed, results in an apparent
discrepancy only slightly smaller than in-
WESSON OIL & SNOWDRIFT SALES COMPANY dicated by the report as of April 1, 1951,
NEW YORK — NEW ORLEANS — SAVANNAH — SAN FRANCISCO — HOUSTON — CHICAGO a
Soybean Receipts Show
Increase in June
Inspected receipts of soybeans in June
were somewhat above the preceding
month and above average, according to
reports to USDA. Inspections totaled
4,801 cars in June compared with 4,210
in May, 3,634 in June 1950 and 3,260 the
June average for 1941-49.
The quality of the soybeans marketed
in June continued good, 85 percent grad-
ing No. 2 or better compared with 86
percent in May, 74 percent in June 1950
and 67 percent the 10-year June average.
Inspections of soybeans in June in-
cluded the equivalent of 338 cars in-
spected as cargo lots and 164 cars as
Texas Agricultural Workers
To Meet Jan. 11-12
Covered with Carolina’s Standard 2-lb. Jute Bagging, cut of bales, above, is actual Pin ingen SS gc
photograph of same before cutting sample holes. annual convention on Jan. 11-12, 1952,
Cotton so covered is subjected to less weather damage than either closely woven | at the Plaza Hotel in San Antonio, Paul
cotton, Burlap, or Sugar Bag Cloth due to open weave admitting sunlight and air, | H. Walser, Temple, president, has an-
and looks better than either after sample holes are cut, and is unquestionably | nounced.
better for the purpose. Mr. Walser also announced the ap-
pointment of a program committee con-
CAROLINA BAGGING COmPANY — of Be B. Moore, assistant
director, Educational Service, National
a ae Manufacturers and Importers natin oe Cottonseed Products Association, Dal-
Memphis, Tennessee HENDERSON, NORTH CAROLINA Dallas, Texas las; W. N. Williamson; V. N. Johnson;
Dr. Carl Moore and Dr. Mina Lamb.
44 August 18, 1951 * THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PRESS
Flaxseed Stocks on July 1
Are Lower Than Usual
Stocks of old flaxseed in all storage Ready Soon !
positions July 1 totaled 12,269,000 bush-
els, according to reports assembled by
SDA’s Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics. This compares with 16,998,000
bushels a year earlier and 19,359,000 9
bushels on July 1, 1949.
Disappearance from the total stocks
of 26,464,000 bushels on April 1 is thus
computed at 14,195,000 bushels. The
quantity processed in the April-June
quarter is reported by the Bureau of the 3 \
Census at 10,561,000 bushels, of which 6 5 . = —
at least 168,000 bushels was 1951 crop 12th Edition Completely Re vised
seed crushed prior to July 1. Nearly
2% million bushels of flaxseed were
used for seed in that period and nearly
a million bushels were exported. aa r %, 1 ee - 937) j y
From the supply of 56,261,000 bushels The last Yopp’s Code, 11th Edition (published 1937) is nov
on July 1, 1950, the season’s disappear- being completely revised and brought up to date, and will be
ance is indicated at 44 million bushels. : : : 3 * ,
Exports accounted for about three mil- ready for distribution the latter part of September. Included in
lion bushels. During the 1950-51 season
the quantity processed for oil is reported
by the Bureau of the Census at 42,230,-
000 bushels. | ae :
Farm stocks on July 1 were down to % NEW WORDS and phrases for description of oils and
1.6 million bushels, half of which were . ¥ R
in North Dakota and about one-fifth oilseed products as to method of extraction—hydraulic,
each in Minnesota and South Dakota. + la
Of the off-farm portion, terminals held Expeller, solvent.
5.4 million, a little above half as much
2) ay ee ee % NEW WORDS for linters cellulose settlements.
as on July 1, 1949. The 5.2 million
bushels of old flaxseed at processing : mr: : : i
plants and interior mills, elevators and % NEW WORDS for milling in transit, destinations basis
warehouses was about the same as a ‘. ‘
year earlier but double the quantity f.o.b. cars certain points such as Decatur, IIL, ete.
there on July 1, 1949.
this new edition are:
. E NEW TERMS for Mexican purchases; various other
Council Urges Ginners new trading terms.
To Save Bale Ties
A cotton crop larger than expected in NEW CODED LIST of Traders (buyers, refiners, brok-
1951 could cause the bale tie situation
to become tight, the National Cotton ers, dealers).
Council is pointing out in advising cot-
oe NEW CODED LIST of Oil Mills (cottonseed, peanut,
all used bale ties on hand.
In making allocations for bale ties wn ee -_ .
the National Production Authority con- soybean, flaxseed, etc.)
sidered imports and domestic production
of ties. Defense orders have been au-
thorized for domestic production of ties
in an amount that, when added to tie The lists of traders and oil mills are almost completely new
imports, would cover a 16-million-bale +f .
am. plus a supply for linter bales from due to many new firms, corporate name changes, firm dissolu-
the new crop.
Possibilities that some unforeseen tions, etc. This edition is being revised by Wm. D. Yopp, who
problem could curtail bale tie imports
and domestic tie production, and that a
cotton crop in excess of 16 million bales
might be produced, provide sound reasons
for saving good bale ties, the Council
points out. Used ties should be straight-
ened, reworked and stored for use in
pe Order Your Copy Now! $10
Indonesian Copra Exports
Decrease in June
Indonesian copra exports during June
totaled 45,547 long tons, a decrease of Published and for sale exclusively by
almost 12 percent from the 51,528 tons - .
exported during May.
January-June shipments totaled 206,- e e e
680 tons against 123,211 tons during the
corresponding period of 1950. Total 4 0 on in an ] ] ress
copra production in June amounted to
52,850 tons. Deliveries to oil mills in ‘ 0 a & ,
June were 3,297 tons. Copra output for 3116 Commerce Street Dallas 1, Texas
July is forecast at 46,300 tons and ex-
ports at 44,300 tons.
with his father edited and revised previous editions.
THE COTTON GIN AND OIL MILL PREss * August 18, 1951
* Memphis, Tenn.
* Little Rock, Ark.
LABORATORIES * Blytheville, Ark.
* Cairo, Ill.
TO SERVE * Des Moines, Iowa
YOU * Decatur, II.
WOODSON -TENENT LABORATORIES
Main Offices: MEMPHIS, TENN.
Specializing in analyses of Cottonseed, Soybeans and their products,
Fats — Feeds — Fertilizers
141- and 176-Saw
BUTTERS IMPROVED AUTOMATIC LINTER
SAW SHARPENING MACHINES FOR 141 OR 176 SAWS
Produces More Lint Cut Per Saw
LINTER SAWS . . . DROP-FORGED STEEL RIB GRATE FALLS . . .
STEEL RAKE HEADS SAW MANDRELS .. . BALL
BEARINGS ... FLOATS ... ALUMINUM SPACE BLOCKS
PERMANENT MAGNET BOARDS
BUTTERS MANUFACTURING CO.
MODERN STEEL STORAGE
Self-Filling | Non-Combustible
e COTTON SEED
° SOY BEANS
Designed, Fabricated and Erected
Confer with us on your storage problems
MUSKOGEE IRON WORKS
August 18, 1951
eee ws | Ae OY ll a
A tourist traveling through the Texas
Panhandle got into conversation with an
old settler and his son at a filling station.
“Looks as though we might have rain,”
said the tourist.
“Well, I hope so,” replied the native,
“not so much for myself as for my boy
here. I’ve seen it rain.”
She: Do you think a cannon can cause
enough vibration to cause rain?
He: Well, I can’t say as to that, but
I’ve seen a shot gun bring on a shower.
Professor: “Are you cheating on this
Student: “No, sir. I was only telling
him that his nose was dripping on my
“I told him I didn’t want to see him
“What did he do?”
“He turned off the lights.”
2 FF ©
Cop (to inebriate trying to fit key
into lamp post): I don’t think anyone is
Buzzed: Mush be. There’s a light up-
A colored preacher at the close of his
sermon discovered one of his deacons
asleep. He said, “We will now have a
few minutes of prayer. Deacon Brown,
will you lead?”
Deacon Brown sleepily replied, “Lead,
hell, I just dealt,”
ee e e@ ‘
You can't tell a farmer girl that a
stork brings baby calves, because she
knows it’s the bul’.
Slightly Inebriated (to girl on Main
Street): Do you speak to strangers on
Sweet Little Thing: Oh, no.
S. I.: Well, then, shut up!
eo ¢ e@
An optimist is a guy who thinks his
wife has quit cigarettes when he finds
cigar butts around the house.
“The Sultan’s son is inclined to be a
“Harum scaren, eh wot?”
“Oh no, he’s used to them.”
Drunk—Believe it or not, offisher, I'm
hunting for a parkin’ plash.
Officer—But you haven’t an automo-
Drunk — Yesh, I have. It’s in the
parkin’ plash I’m huntin’ for.
Ss 2 »
She: “Do you think we'll have a dull
He: “Oh, no. Things will keep coming
up all the time.”
ee e® @
“Sarah, that blasted dog’s been chas-
ing cows all over the meadow this whole
day. It spoils the milk and scares the
poor cows to death. What’ll I do?”
“You can’t do anything. It’s all your
fault for buying a bull dog.”
“My hen lays eggs with no yolks.”
“Mighty white of her!”
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GULLETT GIN COMPANY
ATLANTA, GEORGIA DALLAS, TEXAS MEMPHIS, TENNESSEE
Field Tested sonnets
90 Saw Split Rib Gin
Positive Vacuum Moting System
MANUFACTURERS Sherman, Texas
We are publishing a new series of
“ADJUSTING & OPERATING”’
which contain valuable information on correct speeds, maintenance, cross
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no charge for these, and all operators of Murray Equipment should keep a
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THE sion COMPANY oF TEXAS inc.
DALLAS MEMPHIS ° ATLANTA