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The Industry Newspaper for Software Development Managers 

ISSUE NO. 116 

Fortify Strengthens Source 
Code Analysis Tool 5 

NeuLion Roars Onto 

SOA Scene 5 

Sybase Shows More 

Signs of Life Cycle 6 

New From Versant: 

0/R Mapping Tool for .NET . .8 

Infragistics, Mercury 

Team Up to Launch 

Test Advantage 10 

Klocwork's InTellect Figures 
Out Software Woes 11 

ILOG Rewrites Rules 

For.NET 12 

Serena Expands 

Software's Dimensions 15 

Disputed Reports Say 

Microsoft Tops 

Embedded Market 19 

IBM's ChipOS Breaks Away 
From Smartcards 19 


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Thinking Outside the Aux . .27 


Do We Really Need ^^ 

The JCP? 29 


Solaris 10: 

A Flat in the Hat? 



Crossing the Channels 30 




Axalto targets Visual Studio developers 


Smartcards, once enjoyed main- 
ly by Java developers, have 
been opened up to .NET. 

Axalto Inc., in late Novem- 
ber, unveiled Cryptoflex .NET, 
claiming the first-of-its-kind 
edition of its smartcard applica- 
tion development platform has 
been adopted by Microsoft 
Corp. to secure its corporate 
networks and buildings, which 
house most of its 61,000 
employees worldwide. 

Two years in the making, 
the card combines an imple- 
mentation of the European 
Computer Manufacturers Asso- 
ciation [ECMA] .NET runtime 
► continued on page 19 

Chip set technologies needed to 
develop, says Axalto's Pattinson. 

J Boss Plans 
Stack in '05 

Open-source software vendor looks 
to drive innovation, mass adoption 


J2EE application server maker 
JBoss Inc. this week is 
announcing a middleware sys- 
tem that the company says 
shows its continued work to 
innovate beyond its popular 
Java application server. The 
pieces are expected to come 
together next year. 

JEMS— the JBoss Enter- 
prise Middleware System — will 
consist of a busi- 
ness process man- 
agement engine, the 
Hibernate object/ 
relational mapping 
tool, a cache, portal, 
development envi- 
ronment and the 
Tomcat servlet en- 
gine, according to 
Bob Bickel, vice 
president of strategy 
and corporate devel- 
opment at JBoss. 

Two solution-ori- 

Big-ticket packages have 
hurt the BPM market, 
says JBoss' Bickel. 

ented initiatives are JBoss Por- 
tal, which includes a content 
management element that 
should be production-ready by 
early next year; and an entry into 
the enterprise service bus/inte- 
gration space, which is not yet a 
product, but the pieces "will get 
stronger in 2005," Bickel said. 

"We're formalizing the pro- 
gram we started by building out 
a whole middleware stack," 
he said. "We're mak- 
ing a broad commit- 
ment and architec- 
ture statement to the 

The stack, accord- 
ing to Bickel, is loose- 
ly coupled; users 
can take whichever 
pieces they need. This 
differs from BEA's 
Web Logic or IBM's 
WebSphere product 
families, he said. "The 
► continued on page 14 

Cassatt Looks to Make an Art of SOA 

Executive team includes leaders from Java companies 


A group of software industry 
all-stars has teamed up for what 
it hopes will lead to champi- 
onship infrastructure products 
for service-oriented industries. 
The new company, Cassatt 
Corp., is led by chairman and 
CEO Bill Coleman, who was 
the original chairman and CEO 
of BEA. Other members of the 
executive team include execu- 
tive vice president for world- 
wide services Mark Forman, 
who managed a budget of $58 
billion as administrator for the 
U.S. government's Office of E- 
Government and Information 

Technology; CTO Rob Gingell, 
former chairman of Sun's Java 
Community Process; executive 
vice president for product 
development Richard Green, 
who had been Sun's vice presi- 
dent of Java and XML software; 
chief marketing officer Sunir K. 
Kapoor, who was vice president 
of Oracle's Collaboration Suite 
business; and chief scientist 
Steven Oberlin, who had been 
the chief architect of the Cray 
T3D and T3E systems. 

While BEA and Sun have 
both seen some executive brain 
drain in the past year, newest 
Cassatt executive team mem- 
ber Gingell said he was not 
fleeing Sun but rather advanc- 
ing his career. "I was looking 
for something higher up the 
value chain than Sun was offer- 
ing," he said. "I definitely didn't 
run away from Sun. That I'm 
here is basically a confluence of 
things that if they didn't hap- 

pen, I'd still be toiling away at 

The company is named for 
American Impressionist artist 
Mary Cassatt and her brother 
Alexander, who was president of 
the Pennsylvania Railroad and 
helped design Pennsylvania Sta- 
tion, which brought that railroad 
into Manhattan. He introduced 
the air brake and brought in var- 
ious infrastructure elements, 
including clearing traffic diffi- 
culties, extending lines, building 
terminals and stations, introduc- 
ing electrification and acquiring 
interest in other railroads. 

According to Kapoor, the 
officers chose the name not only 
because it is an infrastructure 
company, but because it views 
its business as merging art with 
managing communications. 

The company's first product, 

introduced in early December, 

is called Collage. The software 

► continued on page 15 



Sun Microsystems Inc. is offering 
a preview of the latest core Java 
implementation, and for the first 
time, it will release the source 
code as well as the binaries. 

Downloadable snapshots of 
the early releases of J2SE 6.0, 
code-named Mustang, are at J2SE 6.0 is 
the next core Java release and is 
due in the first quarter of 2006, 
according to distinguished 
engineer and J2EE co-architect 
Bill Shannon. 

Sun has not outlined a road 
map of features for J2SE 6.0. 
Some new features that have 
been discussed are more annota- 
tions and a new profiling engine. 
The snapshots are still in a very 
early stage before beta test. 

The ability to annotate is a 
► continued on page 16 



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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 


Fortify Strengthens Source Code Analysis Tool 

Says version 3.0 finds more security flaws, does better job of recommending fixes 


Fortify Software Inc. beefed up 
its source code analysis tool last 
month, which it asserts now 
enables developers to write 
"stronger" applications, more 
likely to withstand attack. 

The Palo Alto, Calif.-based 
start-up, which opened its 
doors for business in April, 
announced version 3.0 of 
Source Code Analysis, a tool 
designed to analyze source 
code as an application is writ- 
ten, identifying potential flaws 
and recommending fixes to 
make the software less vulnera- 
ble to attack. The new version 
supports the C# programming 
language, not just C, C++, Java, 

JSP and PL/SQL supported in 
version 2.0. It offers two new 
analyzers: Control Flow, which 
looks for improper event 
sequences; and Configuration 
Analyzer, which examines how 
code interacts with configura- 
tion files. In addition, it does a 
better job of presenting find- 
ings about potential flaws to 
developers, enabling them to 
address the most significant 
problems first, said Fortify 
CEO John Jack. 

The updated offering is part 
of a larger trend, in which "secu- 
rity is moving upstream into app 
development," instead of being 
managed at the perimeter, 
through a firewall, he said. The 

market for Web application 
security products and services is 
expected to grow to US$1.74 
billion in 2007, up from $140 
million in 2002, according to 
The Yankee Group, a Boston- 
based research company. 

Source Code Analysis, 
which starts at US$50,000 for 
teams that include an unlimited 
number of developers, works 
running the developers' code 
against a Fortify database of 
more than 500 known vulnera- 
bilities, essentially lines of code 
that a hacker could exploit. The 
database resides on the cus- 
tomer's server and is updated 
against Fortify's master data- 
base as needed. 

The Control Flow analyzer 
looks at the actual calls that the 
code makes, tracking down 
"sequences that should never 
happen," such as releasing mem- 
ory twice, and those that should 
happen, such as returning privi- 
lege level to normal, said Forti- 
fy's chief scientist, Roger Thorn- 
ton. When a process needs to 
deal with a password file, a 
developer must elevate the priv- 
ilege level. Failure to return it to 
the normal level can result in an 
attack known as "escalation of 
privilege," he explained. 

Also new to 3.0 is a feature 
Fortify calls Audit Workbench, 
which prioritizes the results 
of the source code analysis. 

Instead of just presenting a list 
of vulnerabilities, "it helps you 
zero in on what you should be 
looking at first," said Thornton. 
In addition, 3.0 allows a compa- 
ny to add its own coding rules 
to the database. 

Fortify also sells Red Team 
Workbench, for simulating 
potential Web attacks, and Soft- 
ware Security Manager, for 
reporting security metrics. It's 
taken some time for the industry 
to start looking at security at the 
application level, noted Thorn- 
ton. "But it's not completely 
ill-reasoned thinking. It's an 
expression that, historically, the 
people thinking about security 
couldn't change the code." I 

NeuLion Roars Onto SOA Scene 

Former CA team creates platform for composite applications 


There's a NeuLion on the 
Savanna. And it appears 
that there's plenty of food 
to go around. The compa- 
ny, founded by former 
Computer Associates In- 
ternational Inc. chief tech- 
nology officer Nancy Li, is 
ready to claw out a piece of 
the expanding market for 
tools and platforms for cre- 
ating and delivering com- 
posite, Web-based busi- 
ness applications. 

At an event launching 
the Plainview, N.Y. -based com- 
pany last month, NeuLion Inc. 
executive vice president Chris 
Wagner cited research that 
shows the Web services technol- 
ogy tools market is expected to 
grow to US$6.2 billion by 2008, 
with $43 billion in new invest- 
ment in composite business 
applications based on a service- 
oriented architecture (SOA). 

Li, the wife of CA founder 
Charles Wang, brought along a 
team of software architects who 
have been working together for 
more than 12 years, and who 
were instrumental in the devel- 
opment of that company's flag- 
ship Unicenter product line. 

With Savanna, NeuLion is 
addressing what Li called busi- 
ness agility — end-to-end, real- 
time integration of business 
services such as order fulfill- 
ment or inventory control com- 

NeuLion offers an out-of-the-box solution for 
services and SOA, says Li. 

bined with the ability to quickly 
respond to changing business 

While others already have 
blazed the trail in this market, 
NeuLion comes to it from both 
the development and deploy- 
ment perspective, with an out- 
of-the-box starting point for 
developing Web services and 
SOA applications, Li said. 
Savanna is made up of a design 
and development environment 
and a runtime platform. "What 
you design and develop is man- 
aged and supported by the exe- 
cution platform," she said. 

The benefits of SOA, in her 
view, are that developer roles 
become more focused, based 
on skill set and domain knowl- 
edge, and that it enables paral- 
lel development. "In an SOA 
implementation, you separate 
the interface from the reusable 


services," Li said. "You 
can assemble those ser- 
vices with a rules 
engine, or write J2EE 
code for the logic to cre- 
ate composite applica- 
tions. We're moving 
away from traditional 

The Savanna devel- 
oper portion is provided 
for free; the runtime is 
licensed on a per-server 
basis, with implementa- 
tions ranging in price 
from $US25,000 to 
$250,000, Wagner said. 

Developers work in the 
Integrated Designer tool to cre- 
ate services, business rules, 
workflows and user interfaces. 
The interfaces can be created 
to generate XSL, JSP or other 
planned Microsoft technolo- 
gies, Wagner said. Developers 
then move those assets to the 
Integrated Runtime, which 
consists of a publishing frame- 
work and a service engine. The 
publishing framework uses ser- 
vices and plug-ins to back-end 
systems to ensure the output in 
a Web application is correct, 
and the service engine provides 
routing, dispatching and orch- 
estration of the services as well 
as messaging and event ser- 
vices, Li explained. "It makes 
the creation and maintenance 
of applications easier and 
faster," she said. I 


The Portland Group has demonstrated a Fortran compiler for AMD's 
forthcoming dual-core Opteron processors. The compiler automatical- 
ly optimizes the binaries, using OpenMP's parallel programming direc- 
tives, to take advantage of multiple cores. The compilers are expected 
to ship with the AMD processors, due next summer . . . Intel Corp. is 
offering MPI Library 1.0, its first message-passing interface library for 
Linux-based high-performance clusters. The company also updated its 
Threading Tools; version 2.1 supports Linux, as well as Windows. Ver- 
sion 7.2 of the VTune Performance Analyzer now supports Intel's 
EM64T 64-bit extensions to the x86 instruction set. It also supports 
remote Java profiling on Itanium-based Linux systems, .NET profiling 
on Itanium-based Windows systems, and remote data collection on 
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0 .. . The Danish company Advanced Tech- 
nical Services ApS has launched ZigmaTest, a functional testing suite 
that includes specific test tools for C/C++, .NET, Java and Web user 
interfaces. The tools construct test sequences based on the Finite 
State Machine model. 



Version 5.5 of TotalView, a debugger from Etnus LLC, 
supports Intel's OpenMP implementation, as well as 
Intel's C/C++ and Fortran compilers for Linux, version 8.1. ToriNLViL* 
The debugger now also supports IBM Power servers running SLES 9.0, 
or AIX 5.3 .. . Kinzan Inc. has shipped a version of its Kinzan Studio 
software modeler that plugs into Visual Studio .NET 2003. Kinzan Stu- 
dio assembles Web applications from reusable components using the 
Model-View-Controller design. The company says that it will release in 
late 2005 an updated version that exploits the modeling framework in 
Visual Studio Team System . . . Version 2.4 of ANTs Data Server, a 
SQL database from ANTs Software Inc., is designed for faster real-time 
transactions than previous versions. The upgrade leverages Intel's 
Hyperthreading technology and can access up to 64GB RAM on 32-bit 
Linux and Windows . . . Maguma Workbench 2.1, a PHP development 

n environment from Maguma GmbH, now includes an Xde- 
bug-based debugger, a modular architecture that supports 
plug-ins, and remote file editing using FTP and SFTP. It also 
supports PHP5 language. The IDE costs €199 . . . Jinfonet 
Software Inc. has released version 7.1 of JReport, its embeddable 
reporting engine for J2EE applications. The update adds features that 
let end users drill into report details from a master report, and also 
embeds interactive Web controls 



Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

Sybase Shows More Signs of Life Cycle 

PowerDesigner modeling tool manages requirements, displays impact of change 

BY EDWARD J. CORREIA failure or cost overruns due to management and impact analy- and business processes. 

A survey of developers earlier scope creep. sis to its enterprise modeling "When you change require- 

this year showed that changes With the mid-November tool, claiming to permit devel- ments, it's more than just code 

in requirements were responsi- release of PowerDesigner 11, opers to more easily cope with that will be impacted," said 

ble for 68 percent of project Sybase Inc. adds requirements changes in deployed software David Dichmann, senior prod- 

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uct manager for PowerDesign- 
er. "Changes may affect the way 
a business process is managed 
or the way database data is 
manipulated," he said. 

PowerDesigner addresses 
that issue, Dichmann said, by 
providing a single repository for 
requirements, which he 
claimed simplifies the predic- 
tion of the impact of a change 
and gives greater control of the 
scope. The impact of changes, 
he explained, is now displayed 
as object dependencies in a sin- 
gle tree, with as many branches 
as necessary to reflect all the 
relationships. "You can click any 
object or set of objects and see 
how many different objects a 
change will impact." The bene- 
fit, he said, is the ability to pre- 
dict the cost and impact of a 
change and plan accordingly. 

Dichmann said the US$995 
per-seat PowerDesigner can 
work with competitive require- 
ments tools, which may lack the 
ability to link requirements to 
data and business-process arti- 
facts in the same framework as 
their development artifacts. 
"Most requirements tools are 
aligned to UML-based solu- 
tions, so with our import/export 
facility, you can continue to 
maintain requirements in other 
tools and then have those 
requirements link to additional 
artifacts in PowerDesigner." 


Also new in version 11 is so- 
called information liquidity, a 
capability Dichmann said tracks 
the movement of data as it flows 
though an enterprise. "This does 
more than just track it from end 
point to end point. This also 
documents all of the processes 
and transformations your data 
may go through," giving devel- 
opers what he said is a better 
understanding of data not just in 
its final form, but at all the 
places it is transformed and 
viewed, and how it got there. 

Available now, PowerDesign- 
er 11 plugs into Microsoft's Visu- 
al Studio .NET or Eclipse, for 
which Dichmann also claimed 
an edge. "The advantage of plug- 
ging into Visual Studio .NET, 
Java/Eclipse, [Sybase's] Power- 
Builder and additional [environ- 
ments] in the future is that this 
gives developers a single meta- 
data management strategy for all 
the work they're doing." I 



Software FX Puts Chart FX Right In Your Pocket 

Leading carting technology mow available for the .NET Compact Framework and Smart Device? applications. 

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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

New From Versanti 0/R Mapping Tool for .NET 


Object-relational mapping tools 
are commonplace in the C + + 
and Java worlds. And as .NET 
applications move toward true 
object orientation, such tools 
are making their way into the 

Microsoft camp, too. 

The latest company to 
enter the fray is Versant Corp., 
which last month announced 
a technology preview of Open 
Access .NET ( 

The new offering gives C#, J# 
and Visual Basic .NET develop- 
ers an easy way to persist objects 
into relational databases, said 
Manish Chandra, vice president 
of worldwide marketing at the 
Fremont, Calif., company, which 

also sells an O/R mapping tool 
for Java developers. 

Open Access .NET, which 
plugs into Visual Studio, saves 
them from having to contend 
with the fundamental incompat- 
ibility that arises when "you have 

Build Geography Into Your Applications 


Give Your Users the Complete Picture to 
Help Them Make Better, Faster Decisions, 

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objects on one side, and rela- 
tional tables on the other," said 
Chandra. "You could use SQL or 
[the Microsoft API] ADO.NET 
to write to the database," but 
getting objects to store and 
retrieve themselves requires the 
developer to write a lot of cus- 
tom code and to continually 
update that code, he said. 
Promised for January, Open 
Access works by enhancing the 
Microsoft Intermediate Lan- 
guage (MSIL) to store and 
retrieve objects and maintain 
information about them. It lets 
the developer visually map an 
object, such as a customer 
object, to a set of tables. It also 
supports caching, in order to 
speed up data access, Chandra 
said. Pricing has not yet been 
determined but is expected to 
start at US$400 per developer. I 

IBM Updates 
Portal Offering 


IBM Corp. last month released 
a revision of its WebSphere Por- 
tal for Multiplatforms, adding 
features that the company says 
help orchestrate workflow, build 
new portals and manage Web 
content more easily. 

New to 5.1 is a workflow 
orchestration feature called My 
Task, which alerts a portal user 
to take action on a process that 
requires multiple steps, such as 
making travel arrangements, 
said IBM's Bill Swatling, senior 
product manager for Web- 
Sphere Portal. 

A "virtual portal" feature 
eases the developer's job by 
enabling nondevelopers to cre- 
ate a new portal based on the 
specifications of an existing 
one. "Instead of repeating all 
the steps involved in deploying 
and configuring a portal, you 
can leverage all the work that 
went on in the first portal," said 

WebSphere Portal for Mul- 
tiplatforms 5.1, which starts at 
US$89,000 per server proces- 
sor, also makes it easier to man- 
age content, compared with 
its predecessor, version 5.0, 
Swatling said. By integrating 
the content management tech- 
nology IBM acquired when it 
bought Aptrix in July 2003, 
administrators no longer have 
to rely on third-party Web con- 
tent tools. I 

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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

Next Generation .NET Imaging Toolkits 

Atalasoft Dotlmage v2.0 

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Infragistics, Mercury Ally 
To Launch TestAdvantage 

New tool to test presentation layer of .NET apps 

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Infragistics Inc. and Mercury Interactive 
Corp. have teamed up to develop a tool 
that aims to take the tedium out of 
testing the presentation layer of .NET 

Infragistics, which sells presentation 
layer development tools, announced last 
month a technology preview of TestAd- 
vantage ( 
/testadvantage_portal.asp), a collection 
of custom libraries built using QuickTest 
Professional, Mercury's functional and 
regression testing tool. Promised for 
January, TestAdvantage, which will be 
sold and supported by Infragistics, is 
expected to enable developers to do 
regression testing on Windows forms 
applications that have user interfaces 
built using Infragistics' Net Advantage 
suite of tools, said Infragistics CEO 
Dean Guida. 

Due to limited knowledge of the 
object model used in the presentation 
layer, automated user interface testing 
has always been tedious, said Guida. 
That meant developers had to write 

their own tests, or simply not test the 
presentation layer at all. 

"In the past, testing tools would allow 
you to look at the x,y coordinate in a grid, 
for example," said Al Sargent, senior 
product marketing manager at Mercury. 
But the test would return such vague, 
obtuse information that it was difficult to 
see what was going on, he said. 

By contrast, Sargent said, the test 
scenarios in TestAdvantage replicate 
how a user is likely to interact with the 
application, letting developers see what 
happens when, for example, a customer 
places an order and the application 
looks up the customer record. "I can be 
much more productive when test sce- 
narios are created for me," he said. 

TestAdvantage, which will be sold on 
a subscription basis for US$2,295 per 
seat, will also automate the process of 
updating scripts, making them easier to 
maintain and reuse. 

"In the past, a tester could run a 
script. But because there has been a 
change in the app, the script didn't 
work," said Sargent. I 

Adopting Agile Development? 

Steer Clear of the Roadblocks: 

* Fwr visibility slows your response Id fast -changing customer needs 

* Can't easily synchronize the day-to-day efforts of your distributed leam 

* Custty II headaches with mutt Die systems tracking requests, 
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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 



InTellect Figures Out Software Woes 


To help companies better under- 
stand how their software is run- 
ning, Ottawa-based Klocwork 
Inc. on Dec. 15 is releasing 
InTellect, a software monitoring 
tool that it says provides key per- 
formance indicators from a soft- 
ware perspective. 

Information regarding such 
topics as defect density, churn, 
clones, code size and complexity, 
and analysis by category, such as 
component, owner or defect, is 
presented in a dashboard-type 
display, according to vice presi- 
dent of product management 
Chris Federko. The tool is being 
targeted at managers within a 
development group. Pricing had 
not been set as of press time. 

Looking at the count and 
density of defects build over 
build allows developers to see 
how the project is trending. "Its 
an early-warning system," Fed- 
erko said. "If the project is pro- 
gressing and the number of 
defects is not decreasing, you 
have a problem." 

As for code churn — the revi- 
sion of lines of code from version 
to version — InTellect focuses in 

at the entity, relationship and file 
level, to see where the applica- 
tion was changed in meaningful 
ways, and to help assess the 
impact of those changes on the 
overall application, he said. 

Federko asserted that there is 
a direct correlation between the 
number of complex functions in 
code and the number of errors in 

the field. InTellect can be used 
as a gatekeeper to set thresholds 
for the amount of complexity 
developers are allowed to write 
into the code, he explained. 

Identifying code that has 
been cloned is useful in that if 
errors are found in that code, fix- 
es can be made to other places 
the code appears, he said. I 

Agitator Runs Inside Eclipse 


Agitar Software Inc. has shaken 
up its unit-testing tool suite so 
that testers can iteratively switch 
between testing and developing. 

Agitar s Agitator 2.0 has been 
integrated into the Eclipse IDE 
so that when developers find 
bugs they can fix them, and 
developers can immediately test 
sections of code, said Kent 
Mitchell, senior director of 
product management. 

"The general idea behind it 
is to make the unit testing truly 
interactive," he said. "You can 
write a few lines of code, run 
the agitation process, but now 
when you see something's 
wrong, you can just fix it. The 

whole round-trip model is very 
tight and very controlled." 

In addition to the Eclipse 
integration, Agitator 2.0 now 
makes it possible to create 
code rules, and report excep- 
tions as errors. 

The software now can create 
mock versions of Enterprise 
JavaBeans, servlets, Java Data- 
base Connectivity objects and 
Java Naming and Directory 
Interfaces, which according to 
Mitchell make it possible to test 
J2EE applications without a 
database, Web server or appli- 
cation server. Prior versions 
could simulate servlets, JDBCs 
and only some aspects of JNDI, 
he said. I 



< continued from page 5 

directly into reports . . . Acucorp Inc. has updated its Extend COBOL 
tool suite. Version 6.2 lets COBOL applications interoperate with .NET 
applications. It also supports external sort modules, and adds a new 
thin Web client and new graphical controls . . . Sleepycat Software Inc. 
has updated its Berkeley DB embedded database system. Version 4.3 
supports Level 2 transaction isolation, allowing repeatable reads as 
well as committed reads; automatic initialization of replication clients; 
and automatic sequence generation . . . Spectrum Software Inc. has 
added a local proxy server to SpectrumSCM, its source configuration 
management system. Version 2.1 also improves support for automatic 
keyword expansion, file relocation, multifile operations and managing 
file dependencies . . . Wing IDE 2.0, the updated Python environment 
from Wingware, sports a new user interface with call tips, syntax error 
indicators, editor tabs and splits, multifile wildcards and regular 
expressions. The IDE runs on Linux, Mac OS X and Windows 
. . . MimarSinan International, based in Ankara, Turkey, has updated its 
InstallAware for Windows Installer. Version 3.0 adds a two-way inte- 
grated setup editor that lets developers 
switch between a visual and code-centric 

view of the installer job. Different versions of 

the software costs from US$99.99 to $799.99, or €80.99 to €644.99 
. . . Version 2.0 of ANTS Profiler, a .NET application profiler from Red 
Gate Software Ltd., includes a new memory analyzer for the .NET CLR, 
a redefined user interface, and greater performance while using fewer 
systems resources. ANTS costs US$295 . . . Aladdin Knowledge Sys- 
tems Ltd. has updated its software licensing system. HASP SL 6.4— 
formerly called Privilege — adds new service for managing software 
rentals, collecting user registration data, and securely passing appli- 
cation-specific data along with an activation code. It also offers Web- 
based reporting and customer service tools. I 


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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

I LOG Rewrites Rules for .NET 

Offering works with Microsoft Word, SharePoint, Visual Studio 


It's a double bind for business 
rules vendors. 

Their software must meet 
the needs of two very different 

parties: developers, who build 
the application, and business 
users, who update the rules that 
tell the application what to do. 
ILOG Inc., in Mountain 

View, Calif., aimed to address 
this problem last month, 
announcing Rules for .NET, 
which lets developers work in 
Visual Studio while business 

users do their part in Microsoft 
Word. "The needs are different, 
and the tools are different," said 
Colleen McClintock, ILOG's 
director of product marketing 


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for business rules. A developer 
uses the tool to create classes in 
C# or Visual Basic .NET. Busi- 
ness users, which ILOG refers 
to as "policy managers," spell 
out rules, such as "This loan 
product is available only to first- 
time home buyers," she said as 
an example. 

Once developers create a sta- 
ble model of the application, 
they publish it to SharePoint, 
Microsoft's collaboration envi- 
ronment in which policy man- 
agers write business rules. Rules 
for .NET works by embedding 
each rule in a Word document 
with a small XML file that links 
to the rule's corresponding class- 
es in Visual Studio. The tool 
guides policy managers through 
the process of mapping rules to 
an application model. "It allows 
you to select only valid options," 
said McClintock, noting that the 
developer configures the tool to 
determine how much flexibility 
is given to this process. 

ILOG's Rules for .NET, 
which starts at about US$50,000, 
lets developers import models 
created in Microsoft Visio. The 
ability to do so is important, 
because defining the business 
requirements and modeling the 
appropriate objects, such as the 
borrower, the loan, the property 
or the borrower's credit, for 
example, is the first step in creat- 
ing a rules-based application. 
ILOG also plans to support 
Microsoft's Class Designer, as 
well as third-party modeling 
tools promised for Visual Studio 
Team System next year, said 
McClintock. I 

To Your 

You choose 
which one. 

SD Times is free to qualified profession- 
als. Subscribe today for either format - 
print or e-mail with a .pdf attachment. 
Or get both formats. For all the trends, 
products, alliances and news of the soft- 
ware development industry, simply 
apply online at 


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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

JBoss Plans New Middleware Stack 

< continued from page 1 

BPM [business process manage- 
ment] market has stagnated 
because everyone is selling these 
big-ticket packages, tens of thou- 
sands of dollars per CPU," he 
said. JBoss will allow users who 

want only the BPM package to 
take just that package, which 
became a core part of the JBoss 
offering in October 

Also coming next year is the 
JBoss Network, communica- 
tions and IT management soft- 

ware that will allow customers to 
more closely tie in to the compa- 
ny for support of their deploy- 
ments. Included will be the por- 
tal technology for reporting 
problems that includes a knowl- 
edgebase and also can be used 

to download or upload patches 
and software updates, Bickel 
explained. "Companies will be 
able to use the network to man- 
age their deployment of JBoss 
throughout their organizations." 
The ability to update a running 

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environment will be an impor- 
tant feature, he noted. 

But a key challenge for the 
second-generation open-source 
company is to convert the mem- 
bers of the community to paying 
customers, acknowledged CEO 
Marc Fleury. To do so requires 
the company to show that the 
technology is in production, that 
it has round-the-clock support 
and that the company offers 
training and certain indemnifica- 
tions, Fleury said. "This is a 
statement of where we're going," 
he said. "We're trying to say to 
the market [JBoss] is something 
that can expand." 


A second challenge, he admit- 
ted, is decoupling the brand 
from its association as a simple, 
open-source application server 
provider. "We're here to make 
money," Fleury said. "We're a 
second-generation open-source 
free software vendor. We're not 
packagers of technology that's 
already out there." 

Fleury cited the company's 
election to the executive com- 
mittee of Sun's Java Community 
Process to make the point that in 
terms of innovation, "we have 
our fingers in every pie. We've 
replaced BE A as Johnny Apple- 
seed on the specs." BE A contin- 
ues to advance Web services 
specifications in conjunction 
with IBM and Microsoft and also 
participates in the Java Commu- 
nity Process, often submitting 
technology to the group for stan- 
dardization after it has been 
implemented in the company's 

Aspect-oriented program- 
ming (AOP) is an area in which 
JBoss is breaking ground, Fleury 
said. The JBoss Application 
Server 4 that shipped in Septem- 
ber includes aspect-oriented 
middleware, he said, and JBoss 
has made the JBoss AOP pack- 
age available. 

"Two years ago, J2EE was 
based on interface definitions," 
Fleury said. "It was quite com- 
plex. Asynchronicity required 
XML, JMS, 50 lines of code, 50 
lines of XML. CORBA was a 
one-way tag. The philosophy of 
standardizing a specification is 
what we're saying. Using a tag is 
enough for the system to under- 
stand" the communication is 
one-way," he added. 

Fleury emphasized that every 
project included in JEMS has a 
professional open-source meth- 
odology behind its development. 
"We're the vendor behind those 
modules." I 

Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 



Serena Expands Software's Dimensions 


An enhanced issue replicator and 
tighter integration with Visual 
Studio .NET and Eclipse top the 
new features in Serena Software 
Inc.'s Change Man Dimensions 
9.1, announced Dec. 6. 

The objectives of the new 
release, originally targeted for 
October, were to provide the 
ability to manage the increasing 
complexity in the application 
development life cycle where 
groups are geographically dis- 
persed; to help companies deal 
with the increasing pressure 
they face from regulatory 
compliance; to address scalabil- 
ity, performance and security 
issues; and to integrate with 
existing infrastructure tools, 
said Ash Owen, director of 
product marketing. 

"It's extending our process- 
to-process capability," Owen 

Dimensions Replicator has 
been upgraded with integration 
issue replication; prior to this 
release, it offered version, asset 
and baseline replication, 
according to Owen. "Now we 
can take individual units of work 
and parcel them out into the 
distributed team." It supports 
both push and pull models and 
lets administrators change read- 
only functionality to write 
access where needed, he said. 

Enhanced support for 
Eclipse 3.0 and VS.NET offers 
a "more seamless experience," 
Owen said; Dimensions sup- 
ports Borland's JBuilder for the 
first time. Among the new fea- 
tures in the .NET integration is 
the ability to create change doc- 
uments within the IDE, while 
the Eclipse integration now 
allows local changes without 
checking code out, and has rec- 
onciliation and merge capabili- 


< continued from page 1 

costs US$25,000, plus $1,500 
for each server managed. 

It discovers and reports on 
servers running in the network. 
It also performs load balancing 
and high- availability functions 
based on snapshots of the soft- 
ware on the distributed man- 
aged servers. 

"We can take a spare bare 
metal server and make it 
become very quickly a database 
server, or a midtier server or a 
Web server, for example," 
Kapoor said. I 

ties. "Before, if two developers 
checked out an item, the first 
one checked back in one, and if 
my revision conflicted with 
that, I'd have to do a merge. 
This is more flexible for agile 


Serena reported revenue of 
US$56.6 million and net income 
of 35 cents per share for the 
third quarter ended Oct. 31. 
The revenue marked an increase 
of 112 percent over the same 

period in the 2004 fiscal year 
and a 9 percent rise from the 
second quarter of this fiscal year, 
the company reported. Non- 
GAAP revenue of $62.2 million 
excludes charges relating to the 
acquisition of Merant. 

In the prior fiscal year, Sere- 
na's revenue was $96 million, 
while Merant showed revenue of 
US$122 million. "This is quite a 
step up from where we were," 
Owen said of Serena prior to the 
acquisition. I 

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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

Sun to Release Source With Next Core Java 

< continued from page 1 

programming language feature 
that was added in J2SE 5.0. It 
enables software developers to 
use a declarative style of pro- 
gramming in Java, said Graham 
Hamilton, vice president and 

fellow in the Java platform team. 
The profiling feature tracks 
where an application's time 
and space are going. It will use 
a new engine, the Java Virtual 
Machine Tracing Interface, 
which replaces the old Java 

Virtual Machine 



Sun began releasing snapshots 
of the developmental releases 
of J2SE 5.0 late in its develop- 

ment, giving developers access 
to the latest fixes and changes, 
but it released binary code, not 
the source code. 

"We at Sun went a little bit 
dark during the development of 
J2SE 5," said Mark Reinhold, 

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chief architect for J2SE. "We're 
trying to re-engage here." 

The source code is available 
for free, but not for commercial 
use. Sun will use a new license 
called the Java Research License 
instead of the former Sun Com- 
munity Source License. The 
JRL is designed for the research 
community, which includes 
schools and universities, as well 
as companies that want to create 
new products and services based 
on Java. For example, a software 
company could study the code 
to make better calls from its own 
product, but could not incorpo- 
rate the Java code itself into a 


"We definitely are in support of 
it," said Tom Evans, president 
and founder of Tachometry 
Corp., a Walnut Creek, Calif., 
open-source systems integrator. 
"Particularly in the role of an 
integrator, the more access we 
have to the platform, the better 
we are at putting together various 
vendors' proprietary software." 

He added, "When Sun 
comes out and says, 'We'll open 
up the source code,' it gives us 
deeper visibility into the imple- 
mentation of the platform and 
it gives us a greater impact." 

Having access to the code 
would help developers not only 
create compatible products, but 
also suggest ways that Sun could 
improve on Java. For example, 
Tachometry is working on the 
Apache Jakarta project and has 
been exploring how to improve 
J2EE APIs to improve exception 
handling, Evans said. 

However, other developers 
say having the J2SE source code 
is beyond what they need to 
develop their products. "At the 
moment, there's no need to go 
that deep," said Rich Conover, 
software engineer at Mountain 
View Software, a division of 
Gallagher Bassett Services Inc. 
that makes insurance claim soft- 
ware. "The only reason I think 
I'd be interested at this point is 
for educational purposes." 

Sun's application server 
competitors, particularly IBM 
Corp., have been asking for 
access to the source code for 
more than a year. 

However, releasing the 
source to the J2SE libraries 
may not really be that valuable, 
said Marc Fleury, president of 
JBoss Inc. "The problem is not 
with the libraries themselves. 
What would really make sense 
is a virtual machine implemen- 
tation," he said. I 

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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 . 


Disputed Reports Say Microsoft Tops Embedded Market 


A pair of research reports 
recently publicized by Micro- 
soft Corp. show the company 
leading embedded markets 
once dominated by PalmSource 
Inc. and Wind River Systems 
Inc., and both of those compa- 
nies are crying foul. 

A report by research firm 
Gartner Inc., published in 
November, tracked worldwide 
PDA unit sales by operating 
system for the third quarter of 
2004, and showed Windows 
CE leading Palm OS by a wide 

Michael Mace, chief com- 
petitive officer at PalmSource, 
said the report, which does not 
include palmOne s hugely suc- 
cessful Treo 600, is flawed. 
"The way they're defining the 
market is really screwy; they're 

only tracking handhelds, not 
smartphones. Any time Palm- 
Source sells new a smartphone, 
it shows as a loss of handheld 
market share." Gartner cur- 
rently does not publish a num- 
ber that reflects both handheld 
and smartphone markets. 

Perhaps more interesting is 
"Worldwide Shipments of Em- 
bedded Operating Systems, 
Bundled Products and Related 
Services," a report published by 
Venture Development Corp. in 
July that has Microsoft's embed- 
ded system sales at 25.5 percent 
of the market, outpacing Wind 
River's 23 percent share, and 
more than doubling Palm- 
Source's roughly 10 percent. 

Chris Lanfear, VDC's em- 
bedded software group manag- 
er, explained that unlike the 
Gartner study, which counted 

only Windows CE, VDC's report 
adds XP Embedded and so- 
called classic Microsoft operat- 
ing systems, including Windows 
3.x and DOS. "Companies like 
Green Hills and Wind River 
won't think [the classics] are tru- 
ly embedded, but we keep find- 
ing reinforcement from sources 
to include them." 

Lanfear said that Windows 
CE, thanks largely to a severe 
price drop in 2003, also played 
a major role in shifting the mar- 
ket. "Windows CE has gotten 
traction in a lot of good mar- 
kets," including point-of-sale 
terminals and so-called head- 
less devices like gateways. 

John Bruggeman, Wind Riv- 
er's chief marketing officer, 
agreed that the market is in flux 
and cites different reasons. 
"Devices have increased connec- 

tivity and content requirements, 
and [developers] demand lower 
cost, higher quality, in shorter 
market windows," he said, which 
in turn causes developers to rely 
less on in-house development 
and more on commercial soft- 
ware. Hence the larger share for 
Microsoft operating systems. 
PalmSource's Mace has a dif- 

ferent take on VDC's numbers. 
"VDC focuses on embedded sys- 
tems like industrial devices, 
which are not central to our busi- 
ness. Those two worlds are dif- 
ferent customer spaces with dif- 
ferent mechanics. Lumping 
them together is like putting the 
car and airplane industries to- 
gether when counting vehicles." I 








Windows CE 






Palm OS 






























Note: Totals do not include smartphones such as the Treo 600 or BlackBerry 7100 but include 
wireless PDAs such as HP's iPA 6315. Source: Gartner Inc., November 2004 

Axalto's Smartcard a First for .NET World 

< continued from page 1 

developed by Berkeley, Calif. - 
based software maker Hive 
Minded Inc., and hardware that, 
according to Neville Pattinson, 
Axalto's director of business 
development, did not exist when 
the project began. "We've been 
waiting for chip set technologies 
to develop to a level we could 
use," said Pattinson. "We need- 
ed to have a lot of RAM and 
memory space for the device to 
implement a sophisticated .NET 
Framework within the card." 

Pattinson, who has been 
with the .NET smartcard pro- 
ject since it began in December 
2002, said the card contains 
8KB of RAM— which he 
claimed is the most of any 
smartcard today — plus 150KB 
ROM and a 128KB EEPROM. 
"This is the leading edge of 
chips today, with up to 128KB 
of space for applications." Pric- 
ing was not disclosed. 

Unlike its JavaCard counter- 
part, which Axalto has been 
manufacturing for more than 
five years, a .NET-based card 
permits developers to target 
many platforms from a single 
environment. "With Visual Stu- 
dio .NET, you can simultane- 
ously develop your server, 
client and card application all at 
once. With JavaCard you're 
really only doing the card appli- 
cation. This new paradigm 
allows you to put an application 
very quickly on all the [systems] 
you need to." 

■ ML^DJbi 1 

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J -£>■ z.iLinm 

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t-ammnn Lan( us ;* ftmhrm 

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Axalto claims its .NET implementation offers all major runtime capabilities. 

Pattinson said the card can 
be used to target a wide array of 
applications. "This is essentially 
a blank sheet of paper. It's a ful- 
ly fledged .NET node that is 

able to accept code in the form 
of XML." Possible services 
might include those for identity, 
cryptographic or biometric 
authentication and assertion of 

digital signatures. "It can com- 
municate with other .NET 
devices, it can interrogate ser- 
vices and communicate with 
the .NET Framework. It can be 
as rich and creative as you think 
of in an XML structure." 

Pattinson said that with all 
the attacks, identity theft and 
phishing on the Internet today, 
"this two-factor authentication is 
a convenient form for applica- 
tion developers to make use of. 
We think this technology will 
ultimately replace passwords." 

The card is not compliant 
with any specifications beyond 
ECMA's 335 describing the 
.NET runtime, however, which 

limits its interoperability with 
non-.NET cards and prohibits 
adoption in financial and other 
markets that call for adherence 
to a specification known as the 
Global Platform. But Pattinson 
did not rule out compliance in 
the future. "This is the first gen- 
eration. Global Platform clearly 
has a lot of market penetration. 
If it's appropriate, then we'll 
provide card management ser- 
vices in line with that platform." 
The company, formerly a divi- 
sion of SchlumbergerSema, is set 
to begin shipping a development 
kit early next year that will 
include a smartcard, reader and 
a Visual Studio .NET plug-in. I 

IBM's ChipOS Breaks Away From Smartcards 


When is a smartcard not a 
smartcard? When it's a dongle, 
of course. With the addition in 
November of support for USB 
in its Java-based smartcard 
operating system, IBM Corp. 
gives developers the ability to 
build such applications as hard- 
ware-based security keys and 
other devices apart from the 
credit-card-sized form factor. 

According to Angus Mcln- 
tyre, product line manager for 
embedded Java products, 
IBM's so-called Java Card Open 
Platform (JCOP) operating sys- 
tem also now offers support for 
long crypto keys. "As the need 
for more security on smartcards 

grows, you need longer keys to 
store in them," he said. 

Known as JCOP 40, the 
newest feature set supplements 
a line that starts with JCOP 10, 
which Mclntyre said is intend- 
ed for price-sensitive cards 
such as those for high-volume 
financial markets; JCOP 20, 
which adds public key encryp- 
tion; and JCOP 30, which intro- 
duces dual-interface capability 
for developing contact or con- 
tactless smartcards, such as 
those for building security and 
point-of-sale applications. 

JCOP cards conform to the 
JavaCard 2.1.1 and Global Plat- 
form 2.1.1 specifications, the 
latter of which has been adopt- 

ed by major financial institu- 
tions, including Visa. "You have 
to cover Global Platform to be 
in the financial card market," 
Mclntyre said. 

The company also has intro- 
duced the JCOP toolkit, which 
Mclntyre said includes a card 
reader, sample cards and a 
plug-in for the Eclipse IDE. 
"You plug the smartcard into 
the reader, and you can debug 
though emulation in the IDE or 
live on the card," he said. 

Also new is a hardware 
abstraction or porting layer that 
Mclntyre claimed will allow card 
makers to port IBM's operating 
system to their silicon faster than 
previously possible. "Because 

each time you bolt the OS to a 
new chip system, you need to go 
though due diligence to make 
sure everything works." 

The company also will now 
market JCOP and MultiFunc- 
tion Card Edition, its native 
smartcard operating system for 
custom one-offs, under the Web- 
Sphere Everyplace Chip Operat- 
ing System brand. "Now we have 
a WebSphere infrastructure 
going from smallest processors 
on 8-bit cards all the way to 
[S/390] servers powering the 
largest transactional e-business 
sites in the world," he said of the 
rebranding strategy. Both avail- 
able now, royalty costs vary from 
99 cents to US$4.99 per card. I 



Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 . 

Real-Time Classics Prove 

With Java, Linux and Windows pushing into embedded systems, the 

Going strictly by trade publica- 
tions and press releases, one 
would think that the entire 
I embedded systems market has 
been taken over by Linux, Win- 
dows, Java and other nontraditional 
embedded operating systems. 

However, that is not the full picture 
of the industry. While Linux and 
Microsoft Corp. have certainly had suc- 
cess, much to each others dismay, there 
still remains a large community of real- 
time operating system suppliers target- 
ing deeply embedded, safety-critical 
applications with severe power, process- 
ing and memory constraints. 

While commercial real-time operat- 
ing systems have been around since the 
early 1980s, real growth started as elec- 
tronic content in a wide range of devices 
began to expand in the 1990s, when the 
industry flourished. But starting in 2000 
and running through 2001 into 2002, the 
real-time operating system came under 
pressure as macroeconomic growth 
slowed and key industries (including 
telecommunications) crashed. 

Coincidentally, this time period also 
saw the rise of Linux, Windows and Java 
in the embedded market. Their success 
and the overall poor performance of the 

Chris Lanfear is embedded software 
group manager with market research 
firm Venture Development Corp. 


traditional players 
combined to obscure 
what had been a clear 
definition of the real 
time/embedded operating 
system market. So the question 
is: What ever happened to the classic 
real-time operating systems that have 
been somewhat overshadowed by the 
new market entrants? Some have been 
acquired, some have gone end-of-life, 
and some are thriving. 

Neutrino is perhaps the most recent 
example of an operating system in tran- 
sition. In October, Neutrino's maker, 
QNX Software Systems Ltd., was 
acquired by Harman International 
Industries Inc. for US$138 million. Har- 
man, a supplier of home and car audio 
products, had been a QNX customer for 
several years. Why would a car audio 
company want an embedded operating 
system supplier as a wholly owned sub- 
sidiary? The answer is telematics. 

QNX has established its Neutrino 
operating system as the de facto stan- 
dard software platform for a number of 
top-tier automotive suppliers, including 
Harman. Apparently, the impetus for 
the acquisition was a lack of confidence 
in QNX's longevity. Twenty-three years 
of growth and profitability were not 
enough for the automotive industry to 
alleviate fears about the company's 
future direction. In the automotive 
industry, product development cycles 
are measured in years (not months), and 
committing to a software platform for 
telematics is a serious undertaking. 
Major automotive manufacturers 

demanded more certainty, and Harman 
obliged them by ensuring that the QNX 
platform would be around for the fore- 
seeable future. 

Of course, there is some concern on 
the part of Harman competitors with pre- 
vious relationships with QNX. It remains 
to be seen how other customers will react. 
Will they stay with the Neutrino-based 
software platform controlled by a single 
customer, or will they explore the many 
other options in the marketplace? 


Electronic Design Automation giant 
Mentor Graphics Corp. turned a few 
heads over the years with its acquisition 
of embedded software companies, 
including its spring 2002 purchase of 
Mobile, Ala.-based Accelerated Technol- 
ogy (ATI). Mentor Graphics had previ- 
ously purchased Microtec Research in 
1996. Microtec was known primarily for 
its compilers, XRAY debugger and VRTX 
operating system (commonly pro- 
nounced "vertex"). VRTX was the com- 
mercial real-time operating system that 
started it all. 

When Jim Ready introduced VRTX in 
the early 1980s, virtually all embedded 
operating systems were built in-house by 
developers. Now, hundreds of commer- 
cial and open-source operating systems 

and in-house or "roll your own" 
operating systems account for only 
about one-quarter of the market, 
with the rest using open-source or com- 
mercial operating systems. 

So what happened to VRTX? Follow- 
ing the acquisition of ATI by Mentor, 
VRTX was expendable. ATI already had 
its royalty-free Nucleus operating system 
that had a wider appeal than VRTX, 
which was primarily used in telecommu- 
nications infrastructure apps. Shortly after 
the acquisition, VRTX disappeared from 
Mentor's marketing materials and is no 
longer sold by the company. 

Nucleus, on the other hand, has con- 
tinued to thrive under the merged compa- 
ny. In fact, the operating system has such a 
strong following that Mentor Graphics is 
now emphasizing the Nucleus name and 
phasing out Accelerated Technology. 

Nucleus has established itself as a 
leading operating system for consumer 
electronics, mobile phones and other 
high-volume applications where its roy- 
alty-free business model and small foot- 
print make it a natural fit. However, 
Mentor Graphics also has pursued safe- 
ty-critical applications, including auto- 
motive and aerospace, by offering 
OSEK and DO-178B versions. OSEK is 
a trademark of Siemens AG and is 
meant to be an automotive industry 
standard for an open-ended architecture 
for distributed control units in motor 
vehicles, while DO-178B defines guide- 
lines for the development of aviation 
software in the United States. 

Mentor Graphics' recent activity has 
centered on building out the tools and 

. Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 . 


They're Timeless 

venerable RTOS vendors show they've still got what it takes 

additional components required 
for Nucleus to compete in these markets. 
In 2004, the company announced that it 
would offer its tools on the Eclipse open- 
source integrated development platform 
rather than on the Visual Studio platform 
that it had used in the past. Other offer- 
ings include a wide variety of middleware 
and communications stacks. 

When Red Hat Inc. acquired Cygnus 
Solutions, one of the pieces that came 
along in the deal was the eCos operating 
system. The design of eCos started in 
1997 with the aim to build operating sys- 
tems that would complement the 
GNUPro tools that Cygnus marketed. 
eCos was designed to be small, config- 
urable and flexible. The business model 
was based on an open-source license with 
support provided by Cygnus. Its modular 
architecture and inexpensive licensing 
helped eCos build a loyal customer base. 

Following the acquisition in 1999, Red 
Hat continued to market eCos, but clear- 
ly it was not going to work out in the long 
term. Red Hat is synonymous with Linux, 
and explaining why eCos was in the prod- 
uct portfolio was complicated as well as a 
drain on resources. Red Hat was under 
pressure to deliver on its business model, 
and supporting eCos was not part of its 
core strategy. 

Red Hat support began to decline and 

eventually, in Jan- 
uary 2004, the company 
announced that eCos would become 
an external open-source project governed 
by the Free Software Foundation. eCos 
continues to be used in embedded apps 
under its new licensing arrangement. 
Companies such as eCosCentric Ltd. pro- 
vide support and service around the oper- 
ating system. 


Recognized as the real-time operating 
system industry leader, Wind River Sys- 
tems Inc. has been revitalized with new 
leadership and a more flexible product 
strategy. Co-founded in 1983 by Jerry 
Fiddler and David Wilner, Wind River 
has evolved from the consulting organi- 
zation to a full-line supplier of embed- 
ded operating systems, development 
tools and services. Its flagship operating 
system, VxWorks, was originally a C run- 
time library for VRTX, but conflicts 
between Wind River and Microtec 
forced Fiddler to write a complete oper- 
ating system from scratch. The name 
VxWorks was kept for the new full oper- 
ating-system implementation. 

VxWorks continues to be a market 
leader, though its packaging has evolved 
over time. While VxWorks still can be 
purchased as a stand-alone operating 
system, Wind River was one of the first 
of the traditional operating-system ven- 
dors to see the value in bundling the 
operating system together with tools and 
additional components into vertical mar- 
ket or application-specific platforms. 

There are currently five vertical plat- 

forms for VxWorks: networking, con- 
sumer electronics, industrial automa- 
tion, safety critical and car infotainment. 
As an example, the network equipment 
platform includes VxWorks, a number of 
commonly used network protocol stacks, 
development tools and services. 

Although Wind River is growing again, 
it was the company most hurt by the 
downturn in the embedded market. A 
combination of factors contributed to the 
decline in revenue, including the decline 
in the network infrastructure space, com- 
petition from aggressive industry peers 
like Green Hills Software Inc., an increase 
in the use of embedded Linux, and the 
loss of pSOS customers from its ill-fated 
acquisition of Integrated Systems Inc. 
(ISI) in 1999. 

At the time of the acquisition, ISI and 
Wind River were roughly the same size, 
around US$130 million dollars. Soon after 
the acquisition, Wind River announced 
that it would transition pSOS customers to 
VxWorks. An obvious problem arose: If 
you selected pSOS, likely you evaluated 
VxWorks and decided against it. Seizing 
the opportunity, competitors began offer- 
ing pSOS evacuation packages. Venture 
Development Corp. (VDC) research has 
shown that while Wind River retained 
some customers, most moved to other 
real-time operating systems or Linux. Cur- 
rent developer research shows that pSOS 
is still used in some legacy applications, 
but the operating system, originally devel- 
oped by Al Chau at Software Components 
Group, itself an ISI acquisition, will be an 
industry footnote in the near future. 

Current Wind River management 

embraced a dual operating system strat- 
egy, pairing VxWorks and Linux particu- 
larly in network infrastructure applica- 
tions. How this change in strategy plays 
out remains to be seen, but Wind River 
is working to be more responsive to cus- 
tomers and this is what they are request- 
ing. They also are looking for simpler 
licensing agreements. Understanding 
this, Wind River has developed sub- 
scription pricing as well as a royalty buy- 
out option. These changes plus contin- 
ued improvements for VxWorks should 
position the operating system to effec- 
tively compete in the marketplace. 

Not all embedded operating systems 
companies have been involved in mergers 
and acquisitions; some, like San Diego- 
based Express Logic Inc., continue to be 
independent. ThreadX, the operating sys- 
tem built by Express Logic was often 
thought to be a Green Hills product. In 
reality, Green Hills was a major distribu- 
tor and a key tools supplier. 

Although Green Hills still supports 
ThreadX, both companies now pay more 
attention to marketing their own products 
than relying on each other. Green Hills is 
pushing its VelOSity Microkernel that 
competes directly with ThreadX, and 
Express Logic is putting more effort into 
establishing its own brand and direct cus- 
tomer relations. Companies use ThreadX 
extensively in high-volume applications, 
where memory is highly constrained, due 
to its royalty-free pricing and tiny foot- 
print (2.5KB at its smallest). Hewlett- 
Packard Co. has adopted ThreadX for all 
of its inkjet printers and many of its digital 
cameras. By Express Logics count, there 
are more than 100 million devices run- 
ning ThreadX in the field. 

Green Hills also has avoided acquisi- 
tions and instead has focused on develop- 
ing its products. It introduced Integrity in 
1996 after establishing itself as a leading 
supplier of compilers and debuggers for 
embedded applications. 

Recognizing that the most successful 
companies in the market offered both 
high-quality tools and operating systems, 
Green Hills set out to build an operating 
system from the ground up with a focus 
on performance, reliability and footprint. 
The result was Integrity, which requires 
only 5,000 lines of code in its smallest con- 
figuration. At the core of Integrity is the 
VelOSity Microkernel, which Green Hills 
recently started marketing for applica- 
tions requiring small and fast operating 
systems but not requiring the memory 
protection and partitioning of Integrity. 

► continued on page 22 



Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

RTOS Vendors Prove They've Still Got It 

4 continued from page 21 

Integrity has become perhaps the 
leading operating system for military and 
aerospace projects with more than 50 
major design wins. Some of the more 
high-profile projects that selected Integri- 
ty include the next-generation Joint Strike 
Fighter, F-22, and a number of military 
unmanned aerial vehicles. Green Hills 
has not stopped its product development 
efforts. The Santa Barbara, Calif., compa- 
ny has continued to develop Integrity by 
adding POSIX conformance to the latest 
1003.1-2001 standard, the only operating 
system to achieve this level to date. 

Another innovation is the capability to 
run other operating systems in partitioned 
"padded cells" controlled by Integrity. 
Integrity PC, a new product from Green 
Hills, controls access to the "guest" oper- 
ating systems, providing increased securi- 
ty as well as handling real-time processing 
for specific tasks. The guest operating sys- 
tems, which might be Linux, Windows or 
virtually any RTOS, will handle non-real- 
time tasks (e-mail, multimedia) and run 
legacy applications that would be difficult 
to port over. This approach is designed for 
applications that specify a particular non- 
secure operating system, such as the mili- 
tary's software-defined radio initiative. 

Other potential uses include applica- 
tion areas, which have an installed base of 

non-real-time operating systems with 
large investments in application software 
but now require greater security, such as 
industrial automation and process control. 
The net result is that the investments made 
in the past can now be made secure to 
address threats in the present and future. 


The dual RTOS/Linux operating system 
strategy employed by Wind River, Enea 
and others was pioneered by LynuxWorks 
Inc. LynuxWorks offers LynxOS, a Unix- 
based RTOS that has binary compatibility 
with Linux, as well as Blue Cat Linux. The 
theory is that often a developer may think 
that Linux is the answer to his problem, 
but he then might need a full RTOS, or 
that developer may start with Linux and 
move to an RTOS as his project evolves. 

Nevertheless, LynuxWorks has them 
covered. LynxOS has proven to be a reli- 
able operating system in such diverse 
applications as those used in office 
machines and fighter planes. LynxOS 
conforms to the older 1996 POSIX stan- 
dard and has been certified to the highest 
DO-178B level. Recent efforts have cen- 
tered on improving LynxOS for military 
and aerospace apps where it has a sub- 
stantial following due to its reliability. 

Other classic real-time operating sys- 
tems of interest include OSE (from Enea 

Embedded Technology) and piC (from 
Micrium Inc.). OSE is popular in tele- 
communications, both infrastructure and 
edge devices, and remains a leading real- 
time operating system. 

Recent changes at Enea, designed to 
make OSE a stronger competitor, include 
the reorganization of the company com- 
bining OSE Systems and its consulting 
divisions Teksci and Enea Realtime AB. 
The new combination allows Enea to mar- 
ket a combination of software and services, 
with the first major offering a platform for 
medical devices. The platform is based on 
the OSE operating system with Food and 
Drug Administration certification and is 
supported by consulting services provided 
by the former Teksci division. Other 
changes include a dual operating system 
offering with OSE and a linux distribu- 
tion from Metrowerks, a division of 
Freescale Semiconductor, for telecommu- 
nications infrastructure. 

fiC is a royalty-free operating system 
available through download or the book 
"^C/OS-II, The Real-Time Kernel" writ- 
ten by Jean J. Labrosse. Commercial ship- 
ments of devices incorporating fiC/OS-II 
require a commercial project license. 
jiC/OS-ll has a very small footprint 
requiring just 2.5KB in its smallest config- 
uration. In addition, it is supported by 
networking stacks, a graphical user inter- 

face and a file system. In a 2003 VDC sur- 
vey, jiC was reported to be the third-most- 
used operating system by developers, 
behind Linux and VxWorks. 

Contrary to reports, the real-time 
operating systems market is alive and 
thriving. Some consolidation has occurred 
and weak offerings have been dropped, 
but overall the players in the market today 
are smarter, quicker and better positioned 
for the future. That is important, because 
Java, Linux and Windows, previously con- 
fined to niches or applications that lie in 
the seam between enterprise and embed- 
ded, are being pushed into the real-time 
side of the industry by technology im- 
provements, enhanced features and more 
commercialization. In some cases, the 
real-time players are pushing into the 
enterprise themselves. 

The future remains interesting because 
the two camps will be forced to learn from 
each other. The real-time operating sys- 
tems companies will learn about commer- 
cial issues, such as marketing, promotions 
and packaging, and the enterprise compa- 
nies will learn about technical issues, such 
as reliability and performance. The result 
will be better products that are more easi- 
ly comprehended by developers who will 
be the real winners. I 

Bill Lamie of Express Logic Inc. assist- 
ed with this article. 



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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 . 


New Kids on the Block 

Cassatt is a name to watch. Named for an Impression- 
ist artist, Cassatt is the brainchild of Bill Coleman, 
the first chief executive of BE A Systems Inc., and the 
year-old San Jose start-up boasts a stellar lineup of talent 
from Sun, Oracle and other firms. This month, the com- 
pany will be releasing its first product, Collage, which 
seeks to let companies better manage distributed systems. 
The design of Collage could have profound implications 
for the way multitiered enterprise applications are 
designed, developed and deployed. 

But what's equally interesting about Cassatt is what it 
represents: a return to the venture-funded Silicon Valley 
start-up mentality that some analysts had written off as a 
relic of the dot-com era. It also represents the destination 
for some of the valleys recent brain drain, namely Sun's 
Rich Green and Rob Gingell, who have chosen Cassatt, not 
Sun, home of "the network is the computer," as the place 
to launch their latest networking-centric innovations. 

As the post-bubble economy begins to settle down, the 
landscape of Silicon Valley's platform makers is changing. 
That's good. 

Coleman, whose job at BEA had been redefined as 
chief customer advocate, left that company in late 2003 — 
and many other executives, including CTO Scott Dietzen, 
followed him out the door this year. HP has seen signifi- 
cant departures from its executive wing. And there's plen- 
ty of other talent on the street, looking for opportunities. 

Meanwhile, some longtime second-tier players, such as 
Advanced Micro Devices, are out-innovating industry 
giants like Intel at a rate few would have believed possi- 
ble only a short time ago. 

This not only shows that the big leaders are vulnerable, 
but also reminds everyone, including venture capitalists, 
that smaller companies and start-ups often invent the next 
technology revolution. 

It was Netscape, not Microsoft, that popularized the 
Internet. It was start-ups eBay and, not 
established retailers like Sears or Wal-Mart, that generat- 
ed a business out of e-commerce. Technology neophytes 
at Google and Yahoo, not established IT-centric database 
companies like IBM or Oracle, found a way of making the 
huge information within the Web accessible — and prof- 
itable., not SAP, Siebel or Peoplesoft, took 
CRM to the Web. 

Will Cassatt make a difference, and turn into the next 
Google or While the company bears 
watching, it's too early to tell. Far too early. A strong pedi- 
gree is important, but as Marc Andreeson's LoudCloud 
(now called Opsware) demonstrated, it's not enough to 
guarantee overnight success. A year or two from now, 
Cassatt might go public for billions of dollars, or it might 
be offered up by desperate investors for pennies. Or it 
might go bust, and Coleman, Green and Gingell might be 
back on the street. 

As we prepare to move into 2005, perhaps the flight of 
talent from companies like BEA and Sun, the rise of firms 
like AMD, and the tentative success of newbies like Cas- 
satt are the best indications yet that the economy has 
turned around. While it's possible that Silicon Valley 
won't always have a central place in software development 
and the Internet, its health is still a leading indictor for 
our industry. I 

Saving Trouble With 
Open-Source Software 

As open source becomes 
more popular, more and 
more organizations are begin- 
ning to implement open- 
source-based projects in IT 
infrastructures. When they do, 
however, they confront the fact 
that typical organizational prac- 
tices honed to work well with 
commercial software don't work 
perfectly with open source. 

Open-source products are 
freely available, and so the parts 
of the project devoted to obtain- 
ing evaluation copies, contract 
negation and setting SLAs are all 
missing from open-source-based 
projects. On the other hand, 
open-source products come 
unbundled, so support resources 
must be identified and obtained, 
documentation and training 
resources located, and any pro- 
fessional services required found 
and assessed as to quality. 


Clearly, project management 
processes must be modified to 
address the realities of open- 
source products. Here are five 
areas to address in your open- 
source project planning: 

Recognize the importance 
of project management for 

Bernard Golden 


open source. Open-source pro- 
jects themselves are managed in 
a rather freewheeling, consen- 
sus-oriented fashion with sched- 
uling a low priority. Therefore, 
many people believe 
that an open-source- 
based project should 
be managed in the 
same fashion. 

However, the real- 
ities of IT organiza- 
tions dictate a differ- 
ent approach. IT 
projects must inte- 
grate with the exist- 
ing IT infrastructure, 
and therefore often have to cre- 
ate connectors with other parts 
of the existing software stack. It 
is often critical to keep to a min- 
imum the disruption the new 
system imposes upon other 
parts of the business. 

Furthermore, go-live dates 
are often dictated by business 
objectives or the vagaries of 
merger and acquisition (or 
divestment) activities. These 
realities force projects to define 
deliverables, milestones and 
schedules. Therefore, a project 
using open-source products 
can't avail itself of the "release 
no software before its time" 

approach that open-source 
development takes. 

Address the additional 
work items posed by unbun- 
dled open-source products. 
Open-source pro- 
jects excel at deliver- 
ting functional, high- 
quality software. The 
availability and quali- 
ty of the other prod- 
uct elements that 
mainstream IT shops 
require vary enor- 
mously between pro- 

The size and 
nature of the product's commu- 
nity (see "Community Rules," 
Aug. 1, page 32, or at www 
. sdtimes . com/opinions/gues tview 
_107.htm for more information 
on open-source communities) 
are critical for product support. 
Moreover, other elements like 
documentation and training that 
traditionally accompany a com- 
mercial product may or may not 
be available — and probably 
aren't provided by the project 
team. Integrating the product 
into the existing software stack 
may be a challenge due to miss- 
ing connectors that will need to 
be created. Of course, many 

Letters to the Editor 


If I were an entry level pro- 
grammer, after reading the arti- 
cle "C# and VB.NET: What's 
the Difference?" [Nov. 15, page 
34, or at 
/news/1 14/special2. htm], I am 
afraid that I could not make a 
clearly defined decision about 
choosing between VB.NET and 
C# as a primary programming 
language to concentrate upon. 
The dilemma continues until 
you become familiar with both 

David Alexander 


In "The Lessons of Software 
Monoculture" [Nov. 1, page 28, 
or at 
/guestview_l 13.htm], Jeff Dun- 
temann argues that software 
monoculture itself is the source 
of the bad things that happen to 
it. This, in my opinion, is not 
the root cause. The root cause 
is that Microsoft wants to make 

a whole lot of features available, 
and does so without thinking 
about the security implications. 

For example, in a Web page 
context there are still advantages 
to executing code on the local 
computer instead of on a remote 
server machine. The simplest 
case is "animated gifs" — instead 
of refreshing the image from the 
server every one-tenth of a sec- 
ond, you have the local browser 
update the image. 

When Sun encountered this 
problem, it specified that Java 
would run in a "sandbox" and 
would not have access to the full 
host system. When Microsoft 
encountered this problem, it 
invented ActiveX, and this 
allows almost unlimited access 
to the whole system. 

For a long time, Microsoft 
has been trying to make things 
easy for their desktop users. 
That means that instead of con- 
figuring things closed (if you 
want to allow others to access 

your hard drive, you have to 
enable this here), they tend to 
configure things open (if you 
don't want others to access your 
drive, just click here). This is 
changing: Indeed, this sharing 
of disk space is no longer 
turned on by default. But 
because they don't want to 
break too many things at once, 
they have to keep some of those 
"insecure settings." 
Roger Wolff 

Jeff Duntemann's "By Invita- 
tion" omitted an important fac- 
tor: Bugs in open-source soft- 
ware are, in general, discovered 
faster and fixed faster than in 
closed-source software. For 
example, you mentioned the 
bug in FireFox, but you neglect- 
ed to mention that the problem 
was fixed, and a patch was avail- 
able for download on the same 
day the problem was discovered. 
Microsoft takes a bit longer. 
Bill Pringle 

Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 



projects require using outside 
resources that must be located 
and assessed for capability. 

It is critical to recognize that 
using an open-source product 
imposes extra tasks to locate, 
assess and integrate these other 
product elements. Every open- 
source project plan should 
identify those tasks and build 
them into the project plan. 

The Open Source Maturity 
Model (OSMM), presented in 
my book, "Succeeding with 
Open Source," can help to iden- 
tify and integrate these tasks into 
the project plan. No matter what 
process you use to help with 
these tasks, ensure that you have 
a project plan that addresses 
them. It is easy for their impor- 
tance to be obscured by the ease 
with which open-source soft- 
ware can be downloaded, but 
too often the cost of ignoring 
them is paid downstream during 
project pilot and rollout. 

Don't overlook the proto- 
type and pilot steps. Creating 
prototypes and pilot installa- 
tions of open-source-based pro- 
jects is more important than 
it is for commercial software- 
based projects. Working with 
open source requires new skills 
in all parts of the IT organiza- 
tion, from development to 
operations to the help desk. 

It takes time to learn how to 
effectively use open-source 
support forums. Product inte- 
gration, already alluded to earli- 

er, can be a real challenge for 
open-source products, because 
integrations provided by com- 
mercial software vendors often 
go undone for open-source 
products. It may even be neces- 
sary for you to create product- 
specific documentation (instal- 
lation guides, configuration 
documentation, etc.). 

Building prototype and pilot 
installation stages into your pro- 
ject plan lets you discover these 
requirements while you can ad- 
dress them in a deliberate fash- 
ion. These stages "bubble up" 
shortcomings in product imple- 
mentation and operations prac- 
tices. You want to be handing out 
project team T-shirts at imple- 
mentation, not frantically search- 
ing for missing admin guides. 

Join the product commu- 
nity. While the ease of down- 
loading open source makes it 
simple to begin working with an 
open-source product, there are 
real benefits to interacting with 
its community. Other people 
have probably confronted the 
same issues you will face with the 
product, and taking advantage of 
their experience can significantly 
shorten your product learning 
curve — and your project imple- 
mentation schedules. 

Furthermore, joining the 
product community makes it 
easier to engage with the devel- 
opment team, which can pay 
huge benefits as you implement 
the product. Interacting with 

the developers can make it 
much easier to obtain a neces- 
sary patch. Ongoing developer 
engagement makes it much eas- 
ier to influence product direc- 
tion — in ways that help your 

Be aware of the soft 
deliverables required for 
your project team. Of all the 
project management tech- 
niques needed for open source, 
this may be the most important 
and least obvious. Open-source 
software isn't better or worse 
than commercial software, but 
it is indisputably different. 

When you create your pro- 
ject team, recognize that it will 
be made up of individuals with 
different open-source experi- 
ence and enthusiasm. 

There may be some zealots 
on the team who wax rhapsodic 
about open sources benefits. By 
the same token, the team proba- 
bly will include some open- 
source neophytes for whom this 
project is their first exposure to 
open source. Their open-source 
inexperience may be mixed with 
active dislike, due to the changed 
working practices needed. 

An open-source-based pro- 
ject probably will have overt dis- 
agreement and covert resistance 
during its lifetime. Rather than 
dismissing the confusion and 
conflict, recognize that it is an 
inevitable companion to early 
open-source projects. Build 
time into the project schedule to 

allow extra interaction with team 
members. Consider teaming 
enthusiasts with open-source 
beginners as a way of fostering 
learning as well as respect. 

Any new project is stressful, 
and an early open-source pro- 
ject is doubly so. If you're 
building your project team, 
assign a project manager known 
for deft people skills. If you're 
the project manager, recognize 
that you'll be spending more 
time than usual in one-on-one 
meetings with team members. 

Open-source projects are not 
easier or harder than commer- 
cial software projects — just dif- 
ferent. As your organization 
begins to work with open source, 
keep these tips in mind to mini- 
mize problems and conflict. As 
the organization becomes more 
experienced with open source, 
the new tasks will become more 
familiar and will cause less chal- 
lenge, while the formerly critical 
skills of vendor negotiation and 
escalation will be less important. 

The important thing to keep 
in mind is that your project 
management experience will 
need to be upgraded to succeed 
with open source, but not 
thrown away altogether. I 

Bernard Golden is CEO ofNav- 
ica Inc. (, 
an open-source consulting firm, 
and is the author of "Succeeding 
with Open Source" (Addison- 
Wesley, August 2004). 


The current version of Mac OS 
X is 10.3; the next version will 
be 10.4. The version numbers 
were incorrectly identified in a 
story in the Nov. 15 issue. 

In a Nov. 15 story on the 
merger of Actional Corp. and 
Westbridge Technology Inc., 
the name of Actional's former 
president and CEO, Frank 
Bergandi, was misspelled. 


In a Nov. 15 story on Progress 
Software Corp.'s Stylus Studio 
6, it was reported to SD Times 
that the Saxon 8 XSLT proces- 
sor included with the new tool 
was the only one to support 
XSLT 2.0 stacks. Altova Inc. 
claims its XMLSpy product also 
offers that capability. 

Letters to SD Times should include the 
writer's name, company affiliation and 
contact information. Letters become the 
property of BZ Media and may be edited. 
Send to, or fax 
to +1-631-421-4045. Please mark all cor- 
respondence as Letters to the Editor. 

Do You Ever Use Open-Source 
Software Modules ii Your Apps? 


It should come as no surprise that use of open-source 
code is on the rise. But how quickly is it ascending? A 
study released in November by Evans Data Corp. 
shows that use of open-source software has nearly 
doubled among developers since 2001. 

According to Evans' North American Development 
Survey, Fall 2004, which polled more than 650 enter- 
prise developers, more than 61 percent now use at 
least some open-source modules in their programs, up 
from 38 percent in the spring of 2001. 

It is interesting to note that in approximately six 



months between spring and fall of 2001, when the 
concept of open source wasn't widely publicized, use 
of open source jumped from 38 percent to 52 percent. 
Usage hovered at about half of developers until the 
fall of 2003, when it peaked at slightly more than 62 

Evans attributes the increase to two interrelated 
factors: the change toward a more accepting atti- 
tude about using open-source code in applications, 
and an increase in the number of open-source mod- 
ules available. 


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Software Development Times 
December 15, 2004 - Issue No. 116 


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Thinking Outside the Aux 

Microsoft has begun talking about 
auxiliary displays for laptops. My 
least-favorite explanation of these "aux" 
displays is a comparison to the time- 
telling LCDs that grace the outside of 
many clamshell-style cell phones and 
that provide all the inconvenience of a 
pocket watch and none of the style. 

Does anyone want, much less need, a 
display whose flexibility can be out- 
matched by a Happy Meal giveaway? Of 
course not. So 30 seconds into any dis- 
cussion of aux displays, you're talking 
about bitmapped displays of at least sev- 
eral kilopixels — which undermines the 
premise that aux displays will have no 
discernible effect on the cost of a laptop. 

So a laptop with an aux display will 
have an incremental cost. Which means 
that aux displays will be optional. Which 
means that developers can't count on 
their presence. Which means that virtual- 
ly the only code that will target aux dis- 
plays will be from Microsoft (which can 
issue an internal fiat) and from niche 

But put aside the display temporarily. 
Consider a fundamental disparity be- 
tween a powered-down laptop and a cell 
phone or PDA in standby: The laptop 
requires intervention to become active, 
while the devices can wake themselves. 

The laptop is in a coma, while the 
devices are in REM sleep. 

Now, imagine that your laptop had a 
new power mode that was sustainable for 
days on end, a REM mode that woke 
occasionally, glanced at the system clock, 
groggily processed some important 
thought, and then drifted back to sleep. 
That is worth getting excited 

Every conversation with 
Microsoft about mobile com- 
puting involves battery life. 
Battery technology may be 
advancing but hardly along the 
geometrical curves of transis- 
tor density or storage capacity. 

Meanwhile, people want 
brighter and more pixel-dense 
displays, hard drives capable of 
holding video collections, and WiFi access 
everywhere, all in thinner, lighter and 
cooler packages. 

It is an intractable problem. Keeping 
your laptop alive throughout a transconti- 
nental flight involves darkened screens, 
radio silence and healthy doses of prayer. 

Changes in software can affect bat- 
tery life significantly. Microsoftians 
boast of the win their SPOT watches got 
from nothing-but-software changes, 
while Intel talks as much about power 

Windows & .NET Watch 

management as performance optimiza- 
tion (well, almost as much). 

Everything from spin-waits to video 
playback, wireless network traffic to drive 
access — all of these things can drain bat- 
teries quickly. Yet there are no tools for 
programming for battery longevity: Until 
there's a "power profiler" that gives the 
developer the fundamental feedback 
necessary to optimize for mobility, the sit- 
uation can only get worse. 

Returning to the subject of displays, 
it seems to me that one of the 
greatest gambles of Avalon 
(the new display stack that 
was a "Pillar of Longhorn" 
until recently being decou- 
pled from the operating sys- 
tem) is its energy efficiency. 

One can make a case for 
betting either way on its fun- 
I damental efficiency: worse 
(involving, as it does, managed 
code) or better (by improving 
context passing and switching). 

It's a no-brainer that the high-gloss 
demo interfaces we've seen, with video 
and animated transition effects, aren't 
going to be friendly to those reliant on 
batteries. The display is, without a doubt, 
the great battery hog of a laptop. That's 
why the key to the aux display concept is 
to decouple it from the display. 

Inherently, aux display scenarios must 
involve something less than full laptop 
computational and display capabilities. 

I can imagine a REM-mode applica- 
tion that woke up every minute, queried 
a Bluetooth GPS, and went back to sleep 
if the location were within a mile of a 
precalculated track. Similarly, I can 
imagine REM-mode applications that 
looked for upcoming appointments, 
checked for e-mail (toggling the WiFi 
radio off before returning to sleep) and 
so forth. 

In every scenario I can imagine, I 
want one of two things to happen vis-a- 
vis the display: Either I want an audio 
cue, or I want the laptop to come fully 
awake or prepare to come fully awake. 
And in either case, I want to trigger an 
event on the auxiliary display that I 
already carry — my cell phone. 

Every single person who will buy the 
high-end laptops that will support the aux 
display is already carrying a cell phone. 
The aux display SDK should assume 
nothing more about the display than a 
publish/subscribe service to which Blue- 
tooth phones and media players can 

If one of the subscribers is an on-board 
cell-sized display, so be it, but if Microsoft 
is to attract corporate developers, it would 
be foolish to emphasize bad display capa- 
bilities over the attractiveness of REM- 
mode applications. I 

Larry O'Brien is a technology consultant 
and analyst, and the founding editor of 
Software Development Magazine. 



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Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 



Do We Really Need the JCP? 

The two interesting pieces of news 
of the past few weeks are Sun's 
open-sourcing of Solaris and Sun's creat- 
ing a new Java-persistence community- 
process group by melding together the 
EJB and JDO efforts. These two events 
play off each other in interesting ways. 

My outsider view of the Java Com- 
munity Process is that it doesn't work. 
All the good technology that's come out 
of the process was good technology 
when it went into the process. Someone 
came up with something useful, built it, 
deployed it in real applications, and then 
put the technology into JCP because it 
seemed so useful that it would benefit 
the community. 

Most of the other Java-related tech- 
nology that I use on a daily basis — 
Eclipse, Hibernate, JUnit, Log4J — start- 
ed out the same way, as a tested tool that 
was built for real applications. The 
authors of these tools never saw the 
point in handing control over to Sun, 
however, and I can't say that I blame 
them. Hibernate didn't become accept- 
ed because it was built by renegades; it 
was just better than JDO. Even now that 
JDO 2.0 has played catch-up, why 
should I go with a JDO Hibernate clone 
whose APIs are essentially untested in 
real applications? 

Java Watch 

Once any technology becomes wide- 
ly used, it sets a standard, of course. 
Hibernate is the standard persistence 
technology right now, so what's the point 
of yet another JCP committee churning 
out what will undoubtedly be a bad stan- 
dard? I might buy the notion that Hiber- 
nate could be improved or extended by 
the people who actually use it, but I 
can't buy the notion of a com- 
peting "standard" created out 
of whole cloth. 

Sun, of course, wants con- 
trol of the "official" persis- 
tence standard, but that 
argument doesn't hold much 
weight. It's not as if "official" 
standards like EJB, SQL, 
HTML, JavaScript and so on 
have made it possible to 
write portable code. Either 
nobody follows standards — 
ness reasons for not doing so are too 
compelling — or the standards are so 
bloated, inconsistent and imprecise 
that everybody can implement a differ- 
ent subset and claim to be conforming. 
Java succeeded not because of Sun's 
iron hand, but because programmers 
understood the issues and didn't use 
the nonstandard variants. 

Moreover, bad standards are destruc- 

tive. Just look at created-by-committee 
junk like EJB and JSF. I personally 
believe that EJB has been responsible for 
the failure of more companies than 
almost any other single technology. EJB 
is too expensive at every level. The 
servers themselves, the learning curve, 
the time required for building and 
debugging EJB code — all these cost too 
much either in dollars or effort 
(which, ultimately, translates 
to dollars). Nonetheless, com- 
panies jumped onto the EJB 
bandwagon precisely because 
Sun was pushing it. EJB was 
the official standard. 

This thinking is counter- 
productive, of course. Com- 
TjJm.i panies used EJB even when 
the technology was absolutely 
inappropriate, and they often 
technology inappropriately. 
I've seen entirely too many EJB applica- 
tions that did nothing other than send 
entity beans around using RMI — proba- 
bly the world's least efficient way to 
access a database. I don't buy the "if 
they knew what they were doing, they 
wouldn't do that" argument. Well- 
thought-out technology doesn't let you 
hang yourself in this way. 

For a small Web app, direct JDBC 

calls to the database can work just fine 
(let the database server do the transac- 
tioning, failover and connection man- 
agement). Wrap the JDBC in a "factory" 
layer, and you have the option of going 
to something else in the future if you 
need to. Similarly, messaging is often a 
much better solution than EJB for inter- 
process communication. (Message-relat- 
ed beans are a kludge — a desperate 
attempt on the part of the EJB folks to 
keep themselves relevant.) 

You get the idea. Many bad systems 
that didn't need or leverage EJB were 
built at the cost of many millions of dol- 
lars, and many of these systems were so 
complicated that they never worked at 
all, much less worked correctly. 

That's the danger of bad standards. 

So, in the news we have Sun open- 
sourcing Solaris — a robust, tested, non- 
standard technology — possibly setting a 
standard by doing so (a good thing). We 
also have Sun cobbling together a com- 
mittee to wrest control of persistence 
away from open-source standards like 
Hibernate (a bad thing). I could support 
welcoming Hibernate into the JCP, but 
creating yet another competing technol- 
ogy is divisive and (I hope) an effort 
doomed to failure. The last thing we 
need is another bad standard. I 

Allen Holub is an architect, consultant 
and instructor in C/C++, Java and OO 
Design. Reach him at 

Solaris 10: A Flat in the Hat? 

In mid-November, Sun launched Solaris 
10, the latest incarnation of the compa- 
ny's Unix operating system. Unlike the 
ambivalence that characterized Solaris 9's 
x86 support, this version of the operating 
system is completely committed to the 
AMD and Intel 32-bit and 64-bit x86 
platforms, as well as its SPARC proces- 
sors. The x86 play, however, shows an 
interesting new strategy by Sun to be a 
player in the Linux server market. 

Consider the specific situation Sun 
faced: Having established a niche in Lin- 
ux servers on the strength of its low-end 
AMD-based systems, Sun wanted to 
return to the differentiating software 
technology that had provided much of 
the lift during its heyday: the operating 
system. Its interest in x86 Solaris had a 
second motive: to provide the same OS 
for SPARC and x86 clients, giving the lat- 
ter a smooth upgrade path to the more 
profitable RISC systems. The problem 
Sun faced was how to create interest in 
another x86 operating system when Win- 
dows and Linux rule the market. 

Sun decided to make Solaris free, 
open-source and Linux compatible, and 
also to endow it with nifty capabilities that 
Linux does not offer. Let's examine these 
choices. When Solaris 10 ships in the first 
quarter of 2005, it will run Linux binaries 
natively and be fully LSB 2.0 compliant. 

Integration Watch 

Sun's positioning on this topic is that 
it can do anything Linux can do. But Sun 
adds interesting features to this Linux 
baseline: a partitioning mechanism, so 
that you can run multiple instances of 
Solaris on the same machine (all covered 
by the one original license) and a raft of 
security options taken from Trusted 
Solaris — a variant of the oper- 
ating system widely used in 
defense and national security 

There's also a new file sys- 
tem that includes numerous 
enterprise-level storage man- 
agement resources, and 
dynamic tracing, which is a way 
to trace program activity for 
user and kernel operations, so 
that developers and adminis- 
trators can understand where applications 
spend their time. 

Through these features, Sun hopes to 
position Solaris as the true enterprise 
operating system for x86 platforms — 
ahead of Linux and, certainly, Windows 
Server 2003. Solaris 10 makes a good 
impression in this regard. 

In the many launch-day presentations, 
Sun made frequent reference to the supe- 
riority of Solaris 10 to corresponding 
offerings from — of all companies — Red 
Hat. In an interview with SD Times, Sun 

president Jonathan Schwartz averred that 
part of Solaris' push is to delink Red Hat 
and Linux. This delinking presumably is 
intended to allow another server-side x86 
operating system to appear on the short 
list of IT managers: Solaris 10. 

If you look at technology alone, I think 
Sun is onto something here. And, if you 
look at enterprise credentials, 
Sun obviously has a heritage 
Red Hat cannot match. 

But, the real action is in the 
business models. As I men- 
tioned, Sun is open-sourcing 
Solaris. In addition, the com- 
pany is making the operating 
system available for free. Sun 
earns revenue by providing 
service and support. The sup- 
port contracts are on a sub- 
scription basis: Depending on the level, 
sites pay either US$10, $20 or $30 per 
month per microprocessor. 

This model, of course, is similar to 
the one used by every vendor with free 
products (and by Red Hat, which now 
charges for all its commercial prod- 
ucts). However, since Sun's revenue 
derives from many other larger 
streams, it can adopt this model with- 
out the shortcomings faced by most of 
its Linux competitors. 

Open-sourcing Solaris might seem 

to present a problem: Why can't Red 
Hat simply copy Solaris' new gee-whiz 

First, copying depends on the open- 
source licensing model Sun chooses. At 
press time, it had not announced what 
license it would use, but a copyright 
approach would force Red Hat to rein- 
vent the features. 

Second, Solaris is not built on the Lin- 
ux kernel, so lifting the code is not just a 
copy-and-compile task. 

Finally, as Schwartz points out, 
whose support are you going to buy: that 
of Sun, which invented the technology 
and knows how to use it; or Red Hat, 
which copied the source code and fig- 
ured out some time later how to get it 
working properly? He's right. Given that 
choice, I'd pick Sun as well. 

The model Sun has chosen, however, 
has an important aspect to it. Red Hat's 
engineers will eventually adopt and 
learn the technology regardless of 
licensing schemes and will, years later, 
be capable of supporting it. 

For Sun to hold the technological 
high ground, it must continue to inno- 
vate in Solaris. That's a challenge, but 
operating system innovation is one clear 
area where Sun has a long and distin- 
guished record. Sun is hoping to become 
the enterprise Linux of choice. It's a tall 
order, but Solaris 10 impresses. I 

Andrew Binstock is the principal analyst 
at Pacific Data Works LLC 



Software Development Times . December 15, 2004 

Crossing the Channels 

Businesses and consumers seem to 
have reached a comfort level with 
using the World Wide Web to transact 
business. Companies can maximize 
trade partner opportunities and work 
more closely than ever with suppliers 
and delivery systems, while consumers 
have come to enjoy the ability to shop at 
home, at all hours, without hassle, and 
have gained the confidence 
that their credit card numbers 

Industry Watch 


are secure. 

So, where do we go from 
here? This is the challenge for 
businesses moving forward. 
They must work toward inte- 
grating their various sales 
channels — using a Web site to 
encourage shoppers to go into 
a store, using a catalog to 
drive traffic to a Web site. It 
also helps when specials advertised on 
the Web are honored in the store. 

An important metric reported by 
online retail tracker and For- 
rester Research — the ability for an 
online shopper to return a product to a 
local store if it is damaged or unwant- 
ed — now shows that 87 percent of the 
150 retailers participating in the online 
report will accept in-store returns of 
online purchases. Also, the report found 
that 77 percent of retailers promote 
their Web sites in the stores by collect- 
ing e-mail addresses, up from 57 percent 
last year. This indicates greater coopera- 
tion across the channels. 

The travel industry, which repre- 
sents the largest portion of online sales, 
also is facing those challenges. Accord- 
ing to Mark Koehler, vice president of 
interactive marketing for Starwood 
Hotels, about 10 percent of the hotel 
chain's business now is generated from 
the Web. The Web allows Starwood to 
put up room rate and availability infor- 
mation in all its holdings around the 
world, but also lets users explore a wide 
range of content, including local area 
attractions, the golf or spa facilities at 
the hotel or nearby, and restaurants and 
car rentals. 

"It's really about control of the expe- 
rience," Koehler said. "People want the 
ability in their own time frame, without 
the pressure of having an agent on the 
line, to make their plans." As for the 
software to make this happen, Koehler 
said, "We're very template-driven. Once 
a guest has interacted [with the Web 
site], the template is exchanged and 
then populated with data and content. 
We developed it in-house and continue 
to evolve it." 

But, Koehler admitted, "there are still 
large segments of our population who are 
not there," who are not using the Web to 
complete a transaction. "There's a genera- 
tional thing at play. Those people will plan 


their travel on the Web but not complete 
a purchase. We've found that over half of 
our guests that call our call centers have 
been to our Web site." 

While Koehler said Starwood does 
not differentiate its rates across the com- 
pany's distribution channels — people tell 
of being offered better rates if they book 
rooms online, but not at Starwood, he 
said — he did note that the 
Web allows the company to 
use some marketing tech- 
niques that would be very dif- 
ficult to put in place through 
other third parties, such as 
travel agents. "We can put a 
limited time offer on the Web 
during low times, and we can 
e-mail our guest lists to fill 
rooms, stimulate demand and 
create value for our guests. In 
the past, this would have required an ad 
in a newspaper, or a direct-marketing 

To further advance the user experi- 
ence, Starwood is working on "click- to- 
call" technology that will take Web users 
directly to a sales agent who has the 
same information that's on the Web site, 
Koehler said. 

Yet the study 
showed that retailers actually cut their 
investments in complex, cross-channel 
tracking systems, and that 31 percent of 
retailers — the same as in 2003 — report 
the Web, catalog and stores are all one 
division. Instead of completely integrat- 
ing their channels, retailers are spread- 
ing the costs of marketing and merchan- 
dising across the channels. 

Catalog and store retailer L.L.Bean 
spokesman Rich Donaldson said the 
company's online sales project to be up 
25 percent over last year, and that the 

Web fits in well as part of the company's 
multichannel strategy. 

"We're learning a lot about customer 
preferences," he said. When the Web 
site went live, Donaldson said one of the 
first things the company did was parse 
demand. "We wanted to know what was 
driving [online traffic]. We had a lot of 
informational hits, driven by the cata- 
log. Even to this day, we monitor the 
synergies between the two. The Inter- 
net bridges retail and catalog sales. In 
the store, you can touch and feel it, but 
we can't show our entire catalog of 
goods. We're trying to understand the 
roles the channels play. What do we do 
[online] that brings incremental value to 
the company?" 

At first, the Web was seen as a lower- 
cost channel of distribution. Companies 
didn't have to pay a lot to throw up a 
Web site and let users make their own 
purchases, at the time of day they 
wished. Now, businesses are becoming 
ever more savvy, and are creating these 
integrated channel experiences to sharp- 
en their messages to customers and 
serve them in as individualized a way as 
possible, by noting their browsing and 
purchasing habits. 

From a software development stand- 
point, this will mean greater customiza- 
tion of customer relationship manage- 
ment and enterprise resource planning 
applications. You've got to be able to 
quickly establish what a customer wants, 
how he wants to get it, what he's likely to 
spend, whether or not you have the 
item, and if you don't, how you can get 
it. And when the finishing touches are 
put on the technology to enable retailers 
to push coupons and other incentives 
specific to a customer via cell phone or 
handheld as he or she walks past an out- 
let, the term "direct marketing" is set to 
take a quantum leap forward. I 

David Rubinstein is editor of SD Times. 


Macworld Conference 

San Francisco 


Jan. 10-14 

OSDL Enterprise 
Linux Summit 

Burlingame, Calif. 


Jan. 31-Feb. 2 

Web Services 

Feb. 1-2 

On Wall Street 

New York 




Feb. 6-10 

San Francisco 



Feb. 14-17 

Conference & Expo 



Web Services 

Feb. 15-17 

Edge 2005 East 




Feb. 27-March 4 




Feb. 28-March 3 

Burlingame, Calif. 


Embedded Systems 

March 6-10 


San Francisco 


For a more complete calendar of U.S. software devel- 
opment events, see 
Information is subject to change. Send news about 
upcoming events to 

John Swainson has been named chief executive officer and president at Computer 
Associates International Inc., a company seeking stability after the revelation of 
accounting irregularities and a purge of top management that included former CEO 
Sanjay Kumar. Swainson, 50, has been in the computer industry for 26 years, most 
recently at IBM Corp., where he was vice president for IBM's worldwide sales. 
Ranieri said interim CEO Kenneth Cron will stay on for a time while Swainson makes 
the transition. Cron, widely credited with stabilizing things after Kumar's departure, 
has a contract that ends in March 2005. Jeff Clarke, who joined CA in April 2004, will 
continue as chief operating officer and chief financial officer. "What they need now 
is credibility," Laura DiDio, Yankee Group analyst, told Bloomberg News. "When you 
have the ex-CEO under indictment, who are you going to call? You want one of these 
IBM guys; it's like having Eisenhower as president again." . . . BZ Media LLC, 
parent company of SD Times, has announced the Software Security Summit, the 
industry's first technology conference focused on helping IT managers and software 
professionals improve the security of the software that they are currently designing 
and developing, and also secure the software that they already own. The Software 
Security Summit, to be held April 12-14, 2005, at the Hyatt Regency La Jolla, in San 
Diego, will consist of one full day of tutorials and two days of technical classes. More 
than 400 attendees are expected at this exclusive, timely and topical conference. In 
addition to the technical classes, 30 sponsors are expected to demonstrate their 
security products and services at a separate expo hall. 

EARNINGS: Novell Inc. reported revenue of US$1,166 billion and net income 
of $31 million for its fiscal year 2004, which ended Oct. 31. That was an improve 
ment from revenue of $1,105 billion and a net loss of $109 million from fiscal 2003. 
For its fourth fiscal quarter, revenue was $301 million and net income was $13 mil 
lion, or 3 cents per share, compared with revenue of $287 million in the fourth quar- 
ter of 2003 and a net loss of $109 million, or 29 cents per share. The company re 
ported that $12 million of its quarterly revenue was from its SUSE Linux business. 
On Nov. 8, Novell agreed with Microsoft Corp. to settle potential litigation related 
to Novell's NetWare operating system in exchange for $536 million, which has been 
received . . . Wind River Systems Inc. reported revenue of US$60 million for its 
fiscal 2005 third quarter ended Oct. 31, a 21 percent increase from the $49.6 mil- 
lion reported in the same period a year earlier. Generally accepted accounting prin- 
ciples (GAAP) net income for the third quarter of fiscal year 2005 was $2.3 million, 
compared with a net loss of $6.9 million for the third quarter of fiscal year 2004. 
GAAP net income per share was 3 cents for the quarter, compared with a net loss 
of 9 cents per share from the third quarter a year ago . . . MKS Inc. announced 
revenue of US$9.4 million for the second quarter of fiscal year 2005, a 24 percent 
or $1.8 million increase from $7.6 million in the second quarter of fiscal year 2004, 
and a 6 percent or $600,000 increase from $8.8 million in the first quarter of fis- 
cal year 2005. Net income for the quarter was $200,000, or 1 cent per share, com- 
pared with a net loss of $600,000 or 1 cent per share, in the second quarter. I 

Software Development Times (ISSN #1528-1965, USPS #001-9625) is published 24 times a year by BZ Media LLC, 7 High Street, Suite 407, Huntington, NY 11743. Periodicals postage paid at 
Huntington, NY and additional offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to SD Times, 7 High Street, Suite 407, Huntington, NY 11743. SD Times is a registered trademark of BZ Media LLC. 

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