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Science News LETTER for December 26, 1953 

Cigarettes and Cancer 

Primary argument linking cigarette smoking to cancer 
comes from statistics showing an increase in lung cancer at the 
same time cigarette consumption has increased markedly. 

> BURNING BESIDE the glowing tips of 
some billion cigarettes today is the hotly 
debated question, Does cigarette smoking 
cause lung cancer? 

Tobacco company stocks dropped sharply 
after the medical reports early this month 
charging that it does. Whether and how 
much cigarette sales are off will not be 
known exactly until after the end of the 
year when records for the final quarter are 

Tobacco company experts today are said 
to be more annoyed than scared, and to be 
readying answers to the medical charges. 

When the worried smoker, however, asks 
his doctor what about it, the chances are he 
will be told to cut down on his smoking if 
he has been smoking heavily. Some doc- 
tors will advise stopping altogether, others 
may advise moderation, as most have in the 

In the present state of knowledge, no 
one can guarantee that a person who quits 
smoking, or who has never smoked, will 
not get lung cancer. It can be said, how- 
ever, that a person who has his chest 
X-rayed regularly has a good chance for 
early discovery of lung cancer if he develops 
one, and that an operation, especially in the 
early stages, to remove the cancer and the 
lung if necessary, has a good chance for 

Primary argument linking cigarettes with 
lung cancer comes from statistics showing 
an increase in lung cancer has come during 
the same period that cigarette consumption 
has increased markedly. Backing this are 
statistics showing that, in cases of cancer of 
the lung, there is almost always a history 
of excessive smoking for a period of at 
least 20 years, and that it is rare to find 
lung cancer in a non-smoker. 

However, a Yale professor, who is direc- 
tor of statistical research for the American 
Cancer Society, E. Cuyler Hammond, says 
there is still no reliable statistical evidence 
to prove that cigarette smoking causes can- 
cer. Referring to previous studies, he said 
that “certain investigators, including my- 
self, are not completely convinced as to the 
validity of the results, in spite of the fact 
that a number of independent studies con- 
ducted in more or less the same way led to 
more or less the same apparent conclu- 

Right now Prof. Hammond is directing a 
study of the smoking habits of 204,000 men. 
This study for the American Cancer So- 
ciety is reversing the usual direction of such 
studies. It is designed to learn the smoking 
habits of men while they are alive and com- 
pare these with the causes of their deaths 

when they die. In the past, the comparison 
has been of smoking habits of patients with 
lung cancer and those without it. This has 
the weakness that until a person develops 
lung cancer or until he dies, no one can say 
he is not a lung cancer patient or going 
to become one. 

Some of the arguments linking cigarette 
smoking to lung cancer come from labora- 
tory experiments with mice. Cigarette 
smoke tar painted on the skin of mice over 
about a period of a year will produce cancer 
in these animals. An answer to that could 
be found from laboratory experiments in 
which other tars painted on mouse skin 
produced cancers. 

Cigarette smoke tar is not the only pos- 
sible cancer-causing product of combustion 
to which men and women have been in- 
creasingly exposed in the past quarter cen- 
tury. Fumes and gases that pollute city air 
on a smoggy day can do more than smart 
the eyes. They can, in the opinion of more 
than one scientist, take a good share of the 
blame for the increase in lung cancer. 
Chemicals from these fumes, when painted 
on mouse skin, will also produce cancers. 

More convincing, perhaps, than the skin- 
painting experiments are some reported 
about a year ago and also earlier. In the 
latest ones, mice were housed in a special 
cage with a specially designed automatic 
smoking machine. While the animals did 
not actually smoke cigarettes, they came as 
close to it as scientists could contrive. At 
least they breathed cigarette smoke from 
cigarettes smoked by the machine at the 
rate of one an hour for a 12-hour day. 

Half a lifetime of this increased the 
chances of getting lung cancer by about 
one-third—that is, for mice with a heredi- 
tary tendency to lung cancer. Similar ex- 
periments run in 1943, but for a shorter 
time in mouse life, showed no difference in 
lung cancers between mice who “smoked” 
and those that did not. Maybe this means 
the smokers who quit have a better chance 
of escaping lung cancer than those who 
continue the habit. 

Glandular activity that drives men and 
women to chain smoke may be a factor in 
causing lung cancer rather than the tobacco 
itself. This idea was advanced last year by 
a professor of surgery who has seen and 
operated on many lung cancer patients. He 
pointed out that there are numerous authen- 
ticated cases of lung cancer in persons who 
never used tobacco in any form. 

Arsenic, sprayed on tobacco plants to de- 
stroy crop-eating insects, has also been 
blamed for the cigarette-lung cancer situa- 
tion. If true, the remedy would be simple. 

If cigarette smoking is related to lung 
cancer, it will be important to know the 
degree of the relationship, Prof. Hammond 
has pointed out. To use such a finding to 
save lives, either people must be persuaded 
to give up smoking or the harmful. in- 
gredients must be discovered and removed 
from cigarettes. Unless the relationship be- 
tween lung cancer and smoking is large, 
neither is apt, in his opinion, to be accom- 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Restore Brain Chemical 
Process in MS Patients 

> A CHEMICAL that tends to restore nor- 
mal brain and nervous tissue chemistry in 
multiple sclerosis patients has been discov- 
ered by Drs. John E. Adams and Gilbert S. 
Gordan of the University of California 
School of Medicine, San Francisco. 

The National Multiple Sclerosis Society 
in New York, which supported their work, 
calls the discovery “significant in that it 
may lead to the cause and possible treat- 
ment” of this central nervous system disease 
that afflicts an estimated quarter of a mil- 
lion persons in the United States alone. 

The chemical whose effect was discovered 
by the California scientists is called a suc- 
cinate. They came to its discovery through 
a study of the way the brain tissue of MS 
patients handles another chemical, glutamic 

In 12 of 15 normal persons, amidation of 
glutamic acid was carried on by the brain 
tissue, they found. This, it is believed, rep- 
resents a mechanism for removal of am- 
monia within the brain cells. Removal of 
the ammonia is a necessary factor to avoid 
poisoning in the nervous tissue. 

In eight out of nine MS patients, how- 
ever, the amidation of glutamic acid was 
not carried on. But injections of succinate 
into the veins of the patients restored the 
amidation pattern toward normal. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Procaine Gives Relief 
To “Chronic Itcher” 

> THE “CHRONIC itcher” who has not 
been helped by other recognized forms of 
treatment can sometimes be relieved of his 
misery by doses of procaine, Dr. Samuel R. 
Perrin of the Western Pennsylvania Hos- 
pital, Pittsburgh, reported at the meeting 
of the American Academy of Dermatology 
and Syphilology in Chicago. 

Procaine is known chiefly as a local anes- 
thetic. For relief of itching it can be taken 
by mouth, can be injected into veins or can 
be put right on the itching skin in a solu- 
tion called efocaine. 

In some of the more acute itchy condi- 
tions, Dr. Perrin said, the period of dis- 
comfort can be hurried over by procaine. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

More Support Urged 
For Weather Service 

TION ideas for government bureaus and 
departments can be cheered by at least one 
of them—the U. S. Weather Bureau. This 
appears from the report of the Department 
of Commerce Advisory Committee on 
Weather Services to Secretary of Commerce 
Sinclair Weeks. 

A bigger budget, an aggressive research 
program, return of certain research, clima- 
tological and observing functions from the 
Armed Forces to the Weather Bureau, and 
the addition of more forecasters are among 
the committee’s recommendations. 

Decentralization, encouragement of state 
and local governments to take part in some 
programs and encouragement of private 
meteorology are other recommendations. 

High praise for the Bureau’s present 
chief, Dr. Francis W. Reichelderfer, and 
for the “frugality” of its operations is given. 

“We know of no other governmental 
agency that has been so economical in the 
expenditure of its funds,” the committee 

Per capita cost of U. S. Weather Bureau 
services is, roughly, 18 cents, compared to 
20 cents in England, 47 cents in the USSR 
and 50 cents in Canada. 

The committee was composed of eight 
non-governmental meteorologists under the 
chairmanship of Joseph J. George of At- 
lanta, Ga. 

The Weather Bureau needs more funds 
for such projects as a national radar storm 
detection network and electronic computers 
in forecasting, the committee said. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 


Colored Flint Further 
Piltdown Fraud Evidence 

> MORE EVIDENCE has been produced 
that the Piltdown Man discovery was in 
part a deliberate fraud foisted upon science. 

Drs. K. P. Oakley and J. S. Weiner, 
British scientists, reported previously that 
the jawbone was that of a modern ape 
stained with chromate to make it appear 
ancient. Now they find that one of the so- 
called flint implements similarly was stained 
with chromate, although other flints also 
supposedly recovered from the earth layer 
just above the fossil skull were stained only 
with iron, as they would be by weathering. 

This flint must have been “treated in 
that way by a forger requiring it to be of 
a certain color,” the scientists report in 
Nature (Dec. 12). 

When the stain was removed by acid, 
this flint was indistinguishable from a me- 
chanically broken piece of flint such as can 
be found in any plowed field in the south- 
ern England area where Piltdown Man was 
unearthed in 1912. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Science News Letter for December 26, 1953 


TRAINING BY TV—A member of the Signal Corps mobile television 
section gives a brief description of an airborne loading operation being tele- 
vised by the unit as part of a class instruction program. 


TV As Battlefield Aid 

See Front Cover 

> THE ARMY Signal Corps is experiment- 
ing with television as a weapon of warfare 
to save lives, time and money in future 

Battle commanders may be able to switch 
tactics almost instantly when the occasion 
demands it if they can watch on video 
screens the progress of their strategy at the 
front 10 miles away. 

This would give the U.S. an advantage, 
especially if the enemy depends upon the 
usual verbal reports from the front—reports 
that often are conflicting and inaccurate, 
the Army points out. 

Although television offers promise as a 
tactical tool, emphasis in experiments now 
under way at the Signal Corps’ Pictorial 
Center, Long Island, N. Y., is being placed 
upon television’s value as a training aid. 

Through the video medium, the Army 
can instruct larger classes than it can ac- 
commodate in present auditoriums with 
good results. For instance, a one-hour lec- 
ture was delivered from a laboratory con- 
taining the radio equipment under study. 
It would have been difficult to squeeze all 
the soldiers into the small lab. 

By watching a televised version of the 
lecture, each man was able to hear the in- 
structor and see the small radio dials and 

knobs almost as clearly as if he were stand- 
ing next to the electronic gear. 

Complex field problems can be explained 
to military students through the eyes of TV 
cameras. By way of a closed-circuit telecast, 
which could not be picked up on home 
receivers, a group of West Point cadets 
watched an amphibious assault exercise off 
the Sandy Hook, N. J., coast. 

The TV cameras in this case were carried 
aloft in L-20 liaison airplanes flying 3,000 
feet above the beach. The picture was 
broadcast to the Signal Corps mobile station 
at Camp Wood 10 miles away. There it 
was “distributed” to 10 television receivers 
being viewed by the visiting West Pointers. 

Shown on the front cover of this week’s 
Science News LETTER is such experimental 
television camera mounted in an L-20. The 
camera has a special lens mount to resist 
high winds. Before take-off, the pilot and 
cameraman check the problem to be tele- 
vised in regard to terrain, flying hazards 
and safety restrictions. During the flight, 
an intercommunication system is used to 
maintain contact between the pilot and 

Army video also offers promise as a 
technical tool. It is able to monitor areas 
contaminated with radioactivity that would 
present a hazard to human life. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 



Science News Letrer for December 26, 1953 

Separated Siamese Twins 

Doctors report successful separation of Siamese twin 
girls who have now passed their first birthday, marking the first 
known time both members survived so long after separation. 

> A ONE-YEAR-OLD birthday celebrated 
on Dec. 14 by twin girls in Cleveland was 
a record-breaking event in medical history 
as well as in the lives of the baby girls, 
their parents and doctors. 

For these girls were born as Siamese 
twins. They were separated surgically 
shortly after birth. And today both are 
alive and well, thus setting a medical rec- 
ord. Theirs is the first case, so far as is 
known, of both members of a pair of Sia- 
mese twins surviving this long after a sepa- 
ration operation. 

Healthy, gaining nicely and “just fine,” 
in the words of one of their doctors, the 
babies show every sign of continuing to live. 
A scar extending about an inch and a half 
down from the level of the breast bone on 
each baby is all that shows they once were 

The story of their birth and separation is 
reported in the Journal of the American 
Medical Association (Dec. 12) by Drs. Hyatt 
Reitman, Earl E. Smith and Jac S. Geller, 
obstetrician, pediatrician and surgeon, of 
Mount Sinai Hospital, Cleveland. 

These separated Siamese twins are com- 
pletely anonymous. Their names have not 
appeared in the public press and the medi- 
cal report does not even give their mother’s 
initials. She is identified only as “a 27-year- 
old woman” and the babies are called “twin 
A” and “twin B” in the journal. 

Three months before the babies’ arrival, 
Dr. Reitman recognized that their mother 
was going to have twins. But it was not 
known that they would be Siamese twins 
until they were born. Dr. Smith, who 
examined them shortly after birth, found 
them completely normal except for the band 
of flesh connecting them and for a heart 
murmur in one twin. Simultaneous electro- 
cardiograms taken by Dr. Bernard Brofman 
showed normal heart rates and rhythms 
which were not synchronous. This was a 
sign that the babies had separate blood cir- 
culation systems. 

The babies were given vitamin K to fore- 
stall undue bleeding, penicillin and strepto- 
mycin to check any infection, and taken to 
the operating room where Dr. Geller cut 
away the band of tissue connecting them. 

The separated twins were put in an incu- 
bator and given oxygen continuously for 
six hours after the operation. After two 
weeks they were doing so well they could 
be taken home. 

Fortunately, these babies did not have any 
organs or large blood vessels in common 
and the band connecting them was made up 
only of flesh and some cartilage from the 
breast bones. 

The original Siamese twins, Eng and 

Chang, were joined in much the same way 
as the year-old Cleveland babies. Examina- 
tion of their bodies after their deaths 
showed that the band that connected them 
was composed mainly of muscle, but, un- 
like the Cleveland twins, this band did con- 
tain a small band of liver tissue, showing 
that there was some slight sharing of inter- 
nal organs. Medical authorities have said, 
however, that it would have been possible 
to separate Eng and Chang surgically, even 
in their day over a century ago, before the 
development of modern aseptic surgery, 
antibiotics, blood transfusions and modern 

The Mouton Siamese twins, also girls, 
have both survived a separation operation 
performed in New Orleans. This was just 
three months ago, however, so they cannot 
yet be said to have reached the one-year 
survival record of the Cleveland babies. 
The Mouton twins were joined at the base 
of the spine. 

A history making operation in Chicago 
separated the Brodie twins, joined head to 
head, a year ago, but only one of these 
boys, Rodney, survived. The other twin, 
Roger, died a few weeks after the operation. 

Successful surgical separation of Siamese 
twins has apparently been done only three 
or four times previously. One authority 
reports three authentic cases with survival 
of one twin and death of the other. Accord- 
ing to another authority, there have been 
four cases, in one of which both twins sur- 
vived for six months. 

A famous case at the beginning of this 
century was that of the “Radica-Doodica” 
Hindu sisters who toured with Barnum and 
Bailey’s circus. At the age of 12, Doodica 
became critically sick with tuberculosis and 
a separation was performed to save her 
twin. Doodica died shortly after the opera- 
tion but Radica was reported restored to 
complete health. 

Dr. Reitman, who delivered the Cleve- 
land babies, thinks that he and his col- 
leagues may hear of other, so far unre- 
ported, successful separation operations 
after other doctors have read their report. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Medical Research Grants 
Follow Modern Practice 

medical research are following the modern 
trend in medical practice and education of 
seeing the patient as a whole, rather than 
as a case of heart disease or diabetes or 

kidney disease, it appears from the 1953 
Annual Report. 

Sickness, it is believed, can seldom be 
laid to a single cause. More often it results 
from the interaction of many aspects of a 
person’s environment, both external and 
internal. So first priority in the Common- 
wealth Fund’s medical research grants goes 
to studies primarily concerned with the 
interaction between the organism and its 
environment, such as studies of growth and 
personality, certain types of neuropsychiatric 
research, and studies of relationships be- 
tween social environment and chronic 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 


VOL. 64 DECEMBER 26, 1953 NO. 26 

The Weekly Summary of Current Science, pub- 
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organized 1921 as a non-profit corporation. 

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Science News LETTER for December 26, 1953 


One case prior to the Indiana baby is known of a 
human with two heads surviving. These fused twins, born in 
1937 in Russia, lived for over a year and began to “goo-goo.” 

> AT LEAST one case of survival for a 
year of a human baby born,with two heads, 
like the one in Indiana, is known to med- 
ical science. That “rare being,” like the 
Indiana one, had two heads and four arms. 
It also had four shoulders and was fused 
from there down into one body. 

These fused, or coalescent, twins were 
born in a maternity hospital in Moscow, 
USSR, in 1937. The two-headed baby girl 
was extensively studied at the All-Union 
Institute of Experimental Medicine there. 
The babies, named Ira and Galya, were 
one year, 22 days old when they died. 

Scientists observed that at an early age 
they stared fixedly at each other and, evi- 
dently to get better acquainted, one would 
reach out to feel the face of the other. If 
the touch involved scratching with sharp 
finger-nails, as it sometimes did, a loud 
cry of pain resounded throughout the ward, 
first from the scratched twin, then from the 
scratcher. But then in a minute the wrangle 
ended and the sisters sucked their fingers 

After a time such conflicts became rare 
and the sisters seemed to have reached an 
understanding. Soviet scientists believed 
that, since the sisters shared a common 
chest, crying by one was most unpleasant 
for the other. Each girl, perhaps through 
a conditioned reflex as the Soviet scientists 
theorized, learned to restrain all movements 
that caused her discomfort even though it 
would come through her sister. 

Before the end of their short lives, the 
babies were able to hold up their heads 
well and to wave their tiny hands and 
hold toys firmly. 

Because of the small size of their legs, 
their doctors did not think they would ever 
walk, though prolonged special training for 
walking had been planned for them at an 
older age. 

Shortly before they died at the age of 
one year, they began to utter sounds com- 
parable to the “goo-goo” of a six-month-old 
infant. This showed that their speech func- 
tion was very much retarded, although the 
development of their nervous reactions sug- 
gested that they would have talked if they 
had lived longer. 

The character of their nervous activity 
was distinctly individualized and they had 
“temperament.” Ira was vociferous, ener- 
getic and strong, while Galya was a great 
deal quieter, somewhat dull and feeble. She 
rarely smiled and cried a good deal. 

The Soviet scientists apparently had not 
thought of trying to separate the babies. 
They were given great care and were ob- 

served, but not experimented on, the object 
being to learn as much as possible about 
the physiology of sleep, appetite, pain and 
certain diseases without risking the health 
or comfort of the twins. 

In spite of “trials and: tribulations,” a 
frail constitution and many ailments, the 
twins gained and a few days before their 
death, the scientists felt every assurance 
that they would survive. 

In the 15 years since these twins died, 
medicine and surgery have made great 
strides which may give the Indiana boy 
fused twins a better chance for the future. 

A two-headed baby girl born in England 
in 1946 lived only 50 hours. In that short 
time, doctors found the two heads breathed 
independently and had different pulse rates, 
indicating two sets of lungs. Because the 
two heads fed separately, the doctors be- 
lieved this being had two stomachs. 

Another two-headed baby, with a third 
arm on the midline of its body, and two 
hearts and two stomachs, was reported from 
Detroit in 1930. This baby died at birth. 

Cats with two heads and seven legs, 
calves with two heads, calves and deer with 
two hind ends, a big two-headed trout, 


two-headed turtles and snakes, double or 
triple chick embryos on one yolk and two- 
headed or four-legged chickens have also 
been reported. 

All these double monsters, as well as 
identical twins, originate from one single 
egg. In most cases what happens is that 
the single egg forms two separate centers 
of organization in close proximity to each 
other. But when these begin to expand 
and differentiate, they fuse instead of con- 
tinuing as separately organized individuals, 
such as identical twins. 

Fused twins may be loosely conjoined, 
as Siamese twins, or they may be joined 
in many odd ways, it appears from medi- 
cal reports. One of these odd fusions gave 
a monster four legs and four arms but a 
fused chest and two heads fused so that 
each face was made up of two halves. One 
half belonged to one trunk and the other 
half face to the other trunk. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Robot Arm 
Can Make Cake 

> A 15-TON mechanical arm that can 
make cakes, tie iron bars into knots and 
pour glasses of water has been created to 
perform Herculean tasks where men could 
not survive. 

Despite its culinary prowess, the crane- 
mounted O-Man, will draw upon its mighty 
strength in the General Electric laboratory 
at Schenectady, N. Y., where nuclear air- 
craft engines are under study for the Air 

JUST A SMALL PIECE, PLEASE—This is the mighty-muscled O-Man, the 
newest mechanical arm designed to handle radioactive materials in areas 
dangerous to man. It is sensitive enough to slice this cake. 


Force and Atomic Energy Commission. 
O-Man, the big arm’s name, is derived from 
“overhead manipulator.” 

With its two steel fingers, the record- 
sized machine can pick up heavy parts, 
position them and fasten them into place. 
It can drill and tap holes, use power 
wrenches, hammers or riveters, and operate 
a sheet metal saw. Messages are dispatched 
to the arm through 140 wires running to 
a remote “brain” situated where human 
arms are safe from radioactive burns. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 


Saturday, Jan. 2, 1954, 3:15-3:30 p.m. EST 

“Adventures in Science” with Watson Davis, 
director of Science Service, over the CBS Radio 
Network. Check your local CBS station. 

Dr. George Wald, professor of biology at Har- 
vard University and winner of the 1953 Lasker 
Award of the American Public Health Associa- 
tion, will discuss “How We See.” 

New Blood Factor U 
Widely Distributed 

> DISCOVERY OF a new blood factor, 
called “U” because of its almost universal 
distribution, was announced by Dr. A. S. 
Wiener, Dr. L. J. Unger and E. B. Gordon 
of the Serological Laboratory of the Office 
of the Chief Medical Examiner of New 
York and the blood and plasma bank, Uni- 
versity Hospital (New York University- 
Bellevue Medical Center), New York, in 
the Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation (Dec. 19). 

The new factor was discovered after a 
Negro woman, taken to a hospital with a 
bleeding stomach ulcer, went into shock 
and died from reaction to blood being given 
her by transfusion. A previous transfusion 
given her had had to be stopped because 
of a reaction of chills and fever. Both 
donors, however, had belonged to the same 
blood group, B, as the patient. 

After she died, her blood was again 
examined. Cross-matching tests showed 
that her blood contained an abnormal anti- 
body that strongly clumped the cells of the 
two donors. Subsequent tests with blood of 
425 Negroes and 690 white persons showed 
the U factor present in all but four of the 

The U factor, the scientists report, is not 
related to the A-B-O, M-N, Rh-Hr or K-k 
systems, or to any other blood factor dis- 
covered to date. 

Blood grouping has become a highly 
specialized field, the scientists point out. 
In their opinion, the delicate tests needed 
can only be performed by specially trained 
persons. In order to avoid fatal reactions, 
they advise against having blood grouping 
and cross-matching done by interns who 
usually have very little training. Instead, 
they think, large hospitals should set up 
adequate blood grouping departments and 
small hospitals should make use of a central 
blood grouping laboratory. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Science News Letter for December 26, 1953 


Weather Control Studied 

> WHETHER CONGRESS should enact 
laws to control the weather, if it is eco- 
nomically possible at all to make rain or 
to disperse fog, is one of the questions an 
ll-man committee just appointed to study 
weather modification will probably decide. 

Retired Navy Capt. Howard T. Orville, 
chairman of the President’s Committee on 
Weather Control and Evaluation and a 
consultant of the Bendix Aviation Corp., 
Baltimore, outlined the aims of the com- 
mittee in Washington. 

Western ranchers and farmers are spend- 
ing hundreds of thousands of dollars a year 
on efforts to make it rain. Although many 
of them believe this money is well spent, 
the U.S. Weather Bureau, backed by close 
to 100 years of records, often can tell them 
that it would have rained without the 
rain maker’s efforts. Capt. Orville pointed 
out, however, that an increase of even ten 
percent in rainfall in the West would 
“mean a great deal.” Many scientists at 


present question whether cloud seeding 
achieves even this. The weather advisory 
committee, Dr. Orville said, will make a 
study of “all past, present and future cloud 
seeding experiments,” then try to decide 
if they have been successful. In their work, 
the committee will have access to classified 
information, both of the government and 
of private operators, since it has the power 
to subpoena records. Thus it will be able 
to base its final decision recommending 
weather control legislation, due in 1956, 
on more scientific data than has been avail- 
able to previous groups evaluating the 
claimed successes of rain making. 

Under the terms of the Public Law 256, 
passed by Congress at its last session, the 
committee is required to report periodically 
to Congress, by way of the President. Not 
only information on cloud seeding collected 
by U. S. scientists, but results of experi- 
ments in such countries as Australia and 
Spain will be considered by the committee. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Photosynthesis Method 

> GREEN PLANTS may use a photoelec- 
tric process for the “crucial step” of con- 
verting energy to make sugars and starches 
for food from carbon dioxide and water. 

This new theory, which will appeal to 
scientists working on the problem because 
it is both simple and profound, has been 
developed by Dr. Leonard S. Levitt of 
Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, 
N. J. 

According to this theory, a chlorophyll 
molecule, on bombardment with photons 
of red light, absorbs one quantum. This 
results in activation of an electron to such 
a high-energy level that it is easily ex- 
tracted by a mild oxidizing agent intimately 
associated with the chlorophyll molecule, 
that is, the disulfide group of pyruvic 

The entire process, Dr. Levitt thinks, may 
be thought of as a flow of electrons actu- 
ated by light, or, essentially, as a photo- 
electric current flowing from water through 
the chlorophyll to the disulfide. 

According to previous theories advanced 
by other scientists, the chlorophyll molecule 
transfers its electromagnetic energy to a 
disulfide ring and, through chemical reac- 
tion, two hydrogen atoms are extracted 
from water or some other substance. 

Dr. Levitt thinks it “rather unlikely” 
that this would go on in a living cell in a 
water solution or suspension where ions 
could be formed with much less energy. 

In reporting his theory in Sctence (Dec. 
4), he states: “The transfer of electrons can 
occur much more rapidly and efficiently 

than the transfer of relatively cumbersome 
hydrogen atoms, and it is not to be sup- 
posed that nature has not yet been apprised 
of the fact.” 

According to his theory, many things 
scientists have been searching for, because 
they assumed they happen, need not be 
searched for because they do not happen. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 


Milk, Living Standards 
Are Closely Connected 

> THERE IS a close connection between 
a high standard of living in a country and 
its ability to produce and distribute whole- 
some milk, Dr. Jacques M. May, head of 
the department of medical geography, 
American Geographical Society, declared at 
the World Congress for Milk Utilization 
meeting in Washington. 

Where milk is unobtainable or prejudices 
keep people from drinking it, the popula- 
tion is usually near starvation, he said. 

In India, the people like milk and the 
country has the largest number of cattle in 
the world, but only a quarter of a pint of 
milk is available per person per day. It is 
against religion in India to kill cows. Old 
cows no longer producing milk compete 
for food with young cows. The result is 
the cows are as starved as the people. 

A contempt for milk is traditional in 
China, Dr. May said. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

A-Bombs -- 25, 54,326 Baldwin, Horace S. 
ACTH ..149, rong 376 Balk, Jacob L. 
AD-X2 . 6, 7, 8, 39, 1 Ball, Gordon 

262, 338, +e Bananas 

Abbot, Charles G. 
Abell, George _ _ 
Aberle, Sophie D.. 
Abstracts, Pre-Publica- 

Bandage, Nylon elastic 
Barbecue __.. 5 = 
Barium titanate 
Bartlett, Grant R.. 

tion __......_... 181 Baseball cap oo 208 
Accidents —. 27, 52, 191, 198 Basin, Underwater . 
Achenbach, Paul Roa Bassham, James A. 
Acoustical “fish net’. 400 DRU saii 
Adams, John E... 402 Batterman, Robert 
Adams, R. E. 126 Battery additive 6, 7, 

Adamstone, F. B. 

18, 30, 39, 148, 262 
Adrenal glands : - 288 

Battery assembly _ 

Affeldt, John E. 99 Bauer, Franz K.. R LSE 
Age, Men’s danger 158 Baum, William A.. 
Agress, C. M 182 Baume, Louis J 103 

Ahern, John I. 
Air cooler __. 
Air defenses 

Bayley, Nancy.. 

Air pollution - alls 311 Bear 
Airplane Landing Aid” 133 Beard, Raimon L.. 
Airplane noise ___ , 341 Beard powder. 

Airplanes osas 53, 75. Bearings __ 
81, 87, 91, 184, 228, Beck, ©. A... 
244, 337, 338, 409 Bed, Sportm 

Airplanes, Designing 344, 386 Bed sores. 

Alaska __.... 

Alcohol _. 

DICONO. si isisisi A By 
Alexander, K. sar Bengelsdorf, Irving s. 
Algae _.. 35, 199, 201, 247, 388 Benjamin, H. B.. 

Ailard, A 106 Bennett, Clifford _ 

Allen, Ernest Bennett, Willard 
Allergies _ Benson, Ezra 4, 
Alphabet -.. Bent, Arthur Cleveland 102 
Alter, Dinsm Benton, Joseph G. p 
Aluminum _.. Berger, Alfred J.. 

Alvarez, Luis W 
Amino acids . 
Andrews, Jay D. 

Berger, Carl —_ . 
Bergmann, Ernst wW. 
Berke, Phillip —_ 
Bernstein, Arthur 
Berry, L. Joe 

Berry piant, New 

Anesthetic Bess, H. 25 
Anger E Beujon, R Eam 265 
Animal diseases ja Beverage carrier 304 
Animals ___ 9, 30, 83, Beverages, Summer 46 

106, 131, ise. ‘Veo. 191, Bhat, J..V..—.... 216 

230, 239, 254, 259, 291 Bicycle light i 352 
Antiaircraft gun __........ 95 Bigelow, W. G. 134 
Antibiotics __.. 73, 134, Billig, E. 71 

180, 185, 206, 207, 217, Bird, F. T.. 78 
231, 232, 249, 280, 291, Bird feeder. 

295, 310, 312, 324, 360 Birds 41, 73, 3 102, 
Antibodies 277, 371 136, 319, 357 
Antihistamine -- 357 Birthmarks .. 29, 341 
Appel, Kenneth E.. 375 Bison ___ = 158 
Appendix _._.. 199 Bjerknes, J. 196 
Apple . 361 Black, Donald M.. 215 
Applegarth, A. R. 329 Blackwelder, Richard — 166 
Appliance mat __ 272 Blades, Brian 243 

Archer, Sidney - 329 Blakely, C. L. 73 
Arctic bibliography 264 Blewett, M. Hildred 265 
Ardran, G. M.. 388 Blind child .. 124 
Arend, S. 200 Blisters 59 

Blockley, Vincent 
Blood, Animals’ 
Blood clots 

Arm rest = 
Armitage, H. M. 
Army worms . 

ATtEriC€S sri Blood donations 287, 329 
Blood expanders ___. 201, 

Arthritis 211, 295 

Asbestos ’ 311 Blood groups ___._57, 248, 406 

Ashe, John 83 Blood plasma, New use _ 312 

Aspirin 231 Blood platelets _. 130, 277 
Asthma 72, 287,295 Blood pressure . 130, 147, 

Astin, A. V....6, 8, 79, 148, 168, 260, 279, 373 

262, 339, 358 Bloodletting ---------—----------- 265 

Astronomical highlights 293 Blue babies _... .. 214, 278 

Astwood, By easy asta 344 Bluemle, Lewis W., Jr... 325 

Athletes, Recovery of . 27 Boblitz, O. W.. 164 
Atkinson, William B. — 56 Bock, John E. 213 
Atom smasher _ 163, 179, 310 Bohr, Niels _... 67 

Atomic nucleus ___. , 135 
Atomic power _ 93, 353 359 

Boicey, James H.. 
Bolton, John G. 

Atomic reactor .. 284 Bomb ‘door, ‘Rotary 

Auger, Pierre _ - 67 Bomber _.. 

Aureomycin __.. 159, 383 Bombing _ 37 

Auto deflectors -- 164 Bonmatiini, Giovanni . 79 

Averill, Harold P. Book jacket 6 
Book rack _.. 

Aviation’s future 
Axelrod, A. E, Boot, Armored 

Bottle opener 

Bowden, K. _._.. 312 

Bradley, J. Chester _ 166 
Baade, W. 103, 175, 186, 376 Brain .... 130, 132, 142, 
i212 SS (| J a s 40 143, 168, 230, 402 
Babies _.72, 100, 132, 202, Brak: ooo et ees , 412 

297, 388, 405 Branson, E. C. . 212 

Baby bottle - __.16, 28 Brattstrom, Bayard 57 
Baby care - 62 Bray, Ralph = 149 
Baby carriage rocker - 56 Bread _. 
Baby dish _. 320 Bridge span ——  — 
Bachrach, Howard L.. 323 

Brockman, H. “LeRoy _ 
Broker, Rajul sac an 
Bronowski, J. 

Backache operation 
Bacteriological warfare _— 
Bagno, Samuel.. as 
Bain, R. V. 8. 

Bair, Thomas D. 

Baker, Kenneth F . 212 Brown, Glenn _ 
Balchum, Oscar J Z 20 Brown, James B. 
Baldness  __........312, 356 Brown, Roger E.__.__.__ 

Brown, W. M. Court... 185 Clayton, John Jr.. Dalry herd -s 197 
Brucellosis _............ 50, 3 Cleft palate _. Damon, Albert 278 
Brush, Antistatic Clem, LeRoy H.. 7 Dan, Katsuma = 42 
Bruton, Ogden C.. Clements, Thomas Darroch, Ronald N.—— 57 
Bryson, Vernon Clifton, Eugene E 281 Dartnall, H. J. A. 260 
Buchanan, D. I.. Climate -unn 230 Das Gupta, M. K.-——-— 376 
Buchsbaum, Ralph _.... 116 Clinical Center 22 Dashboard tray ——--——— 32 
Building, New - . 45 Close, Albert W. 229 Davey, J. T. — - 276 
Bulls, Immortality for. 8 Clothes, Laundering 152 Davidow, Bernard _.._ 247 
G 292 Clothes sprinkler 272 Davidson, Harold B._.... 214 
Clothesline _ 64 Davis, Stanley —.___ 362 
Clothing stai 24 Davis, Warren G.. 56 

: Coal pipeline _. 280 Davis, Watson 52, 215, 
Burglar alarm - Cochran, Kenne 189 217, $0 

Bursitis patients . Code, A. D= 388 Dawson, E. Yale_.____. 
Burt, Wayne V.. Coffee maker 160 Day, Boysie E... s 
Burton, Glenn W.. Coffey, Robert - 345 Day, W. H. -= 20T 
BUS) sea Cohn, Edwin J.. 274 DeBakey, Michae 4 
Bush, Vannevar - 35, Colchicine 345 De Salardi, Albert 233 
Butsch, Winfield L. 248 Cold 47 Dean, John P. 20 
Butterfly Sis et ce ile ee _ 65, 69 card sores _ 228 Deatherage, F. E.. 206 
OLB qa. 308 Deaths, Bleeding 195 
online, Cc. 137 Decorating kit —_. 384 

Collins, Henry 

Cabbage concentrate Combat, Effects of. , 362 
Calotum. sa Comets ... 8, 38, i 180° 

Callaway, J. Lamar , 315, 325 
Calorie __... 166. Comics) aceite 71, 336 
Calvin, M 179 Commerce, Dept. of .— 358 
Camels _. 198 Communism espousal —. 230 
Cameras 19; 77; 240, 393: Compass: anonn 117 


Index — Vol. 
Nos. 1-26—July to December, 1953 
Published by 
Science Service, Washington, D. C. 

Lift out and insert in binder at beginning of volume. 
Errata appear on p. 411 

Cameron, A. G. W.........-- 376 Computers, Electronic 
Cancer - 42, 100, 168, 75, 101, 152, 203, 279, 
181, 184, 197, 232, 248, 309, 323, 357, 386, 409 
278, 280, 311, 313, 377, 402 Concrete, Detector for. 233 
Cancer training, TV 1 Conference psychology 82 
Cancer virus -..-—- Conger, Paul 22 
Candle, Electric - Conover, Lloyd H 232 

Conservation, Land 
Contact lenses 
Conway, Herbert . 
Cook, Leonard - 

Capacitor, Tiny — 
Car safety-lock _ 
Carbon, Radioactive 
Carl, Marion E... 

Carll, Walter T.. 3 Cook, Robert C 263 
Carmichael, Leonard 249, 339 Cooking _— 201 
Carpenter, ‘William K... 319 Cooley, Denton A 4 
Carpet padding - _. 128 Cooper, Herbert K. 59 
Carr, Duane 377 Cord pulls _. 96 
Carrabino, Joseph 94 COM | nse. 181, 355, 410 
Cass, Leo J. 116 Corner, George W. 142, 38 
Castle, W. E 297 Cornman, Ivor <-. an 
Caterpillars 222 Correll, Donovan S... 40, 
Cats __. , 325 Cortisone _. 30, 38, 169, 
Cattle 130, 201, 233, 370 199, 248, 366 
Caveness, William F... 142 Cosens, Kenneth W.. 

Celiac disease Cosmic rays 89, 150, 

Cells _... 42, 116, 212, 275, Cosmotron _. $ n265 
307, 340, 387, 388 Cotton fibers i 
Ceramic coating oes 93 Cottonseed 
Cerebral palsy 168, 356 Cougar a 
Cermets -u — 93 Cough-Stopping drug __ 116 
Chain, Aluminum 240 Council for European 
Chain letters —.. 372 Research ances ck 
Chamovitz, Robert 291 Couter, William T. 

Charles, Margaret S. A Cowie, Raymond R 
Charlesby, A. — 

Charney, Jule ... ~- 196 Cox, S Wiiliam J... 

Chelating agents B ] Crabs ae 40 
Chemicals -....... 72, 412 Cram, Donald J - 360 
Cheney, Garnett .. 265 Cranberries _— 380 
Chess set - 48 Crane —_-. 51 
Chickens _ 373 Cregan, Judith 389 
Child, Blind _. 101 Crescitelli, Frederick 260 
Childbirth _ an 

Children _.. 57, 78, 

Chiles, Noah H.. ae 

Chivers, WwW. H = 

Chlorophyll . 43, og 

Christmas 386, 

Chromosomes _ 42, i, 

Churchill, Bruce Wee, 

Churchill, Winston 
Cigarette lighter 
Clark, A 

Clay ‘artinine decd 

Dack, Simon canan 214 

Deevey, Edward S., 
Defense, North America 
Deferments, College 
Dehumidifier ____. 
Deignan, H. G. 

Delaney, John P.. 
Dennis, Clarence 

Dentifrices 21, 131, 2: 7, 310 
Dentists)... 230, 244 
Desert, Reclaiming -—... 342 

DesPaul John E.. 

Detergents -....... 
Dexheimer, W. A.. = 
Diabetes -9 108 
Diaper, Pinless ________ 288 
Diathermy — ~~ 

Diatoms ___. ae 
Dictionary, Talking ase, LOO 
Diet : 222 -- 184, 295 
Digestive track ________. 389 
Dill, Robert: P. -= or 

Dinken, Harold —_____ 

Dollies, Labor-Saving. = 

Doolittle, Be PP... 189 
Door devices —— 80, 288, 412 
Doudoroff, Peter —......._ 69 

Douglas, Beverly —_. 
Douglas, Gordon - 
Douglass, A. E. 

. 304, 368 
Dreger, Ralph Mason... 345 
Drennan, M. R.. —- 35: 
Drought 50, 
Drugs _..24, i. iso" 200, 216 
Dryden, Hugh L ec 1S 
du Vigneaud, Vincent. 243 

Duchesne, Maurice 

Dugan, by ‘Rs Jt... 0. 
Dummies _ ia 185, 369, 378 
Dunkle, David -=-= 233 
Duplice, H. T. 46 
Duran-Reynals, 83 
Dust hood -=== 400 

Eberling,. Walter - 
Eckert, Wallace J 

Edgerton, Milton T., Jr. 
Egan, James P. 

Einstein “theory 

ee , 103 

Eisenhower, Milton S. ” 249 
Electron microscope 

43, 323 

Electronic machinist —. 345 

Elements, Artificial 
Ellinger, Joseph P. 

Embezzlement —. 
Embryos, Human - 

Emery, Kenneth O.. 178 
Emery Beare eto ——- 224 
Engelberg, H. r =. 155 
Engineering outlook — 294 
English, David C.—— 264 

English, Learning 117 Glucoronic acid _.____._ 83 Honey _ a5. 084 Joly, Kath 222/955) Liver: eta Oe 
Enoch, Jay M. _______. 261 Glutathione ___... 376 Hopkins, 185 Jones, Philip _. 231 Livingston, M. S._____. 163 
Enos, William F. 70 Gold _ 280 Hoppe, Donald A... 198 Jones, R. Clark. 343 Loco weeds 105 
Enzyme -smm 182 Golde 78 Hormones _. 189, 235 Jorgenson, Georg 56: locusts crenis 

Eblepsy 61, 118, 168 Goldman, Leon 243, 326, ant Josephson, Donald 152 Log cabins __ 

Saa 104 ‘Golfer's: ald, .. Horning, Evan C Joy, Alfred H 149 Long, Robert R. 
Erdos, Leslie L. Golgi net _ Horseshoe crab _ Jupiter __. 388 Long, W. M.. 
Erosion ___. Gomber, H. Horsfall, Frank L. Just, John H 85 Longacre, J. J 
Erysipelas — 8 Gonser, Bruce \ Horton, Loom, Hand-Held 
Eskimos, Early Gooding, C. M.. Hose, Lightweight Toon, Clayton G 
Evolution mecha: Goodman, Clark _. Hospital _—. LOTAT -_.....-.. a 
Exposure meter _ Goodman, Thomas Houpt, T. Richard 198 Kaesberg, Paul ———-- 197 Lord, Merrill 
Eyes 249, 26 Goodwin, A. J. H._. 355 House calls Kalinga prize — Love, Lasting —— 

Gordan, Gilbert S 402 Houses __.. Kaplan, Lawrenc Low, Barbara W.. 

Lowdermilk, W. C 
Lowry, Robert D.. 
Loynd, Harry J. 

Gorelik, Aaron ~- 214 Housewives’ Karabinos, J. V.. 
Gotaas, Harold 247 Howe, Everett D. 342 Kallejian, Verne - 
Gould S. E... = 95 Hoyle, Fred _... . 175 Kauffeld, Carl F.. 

Hudson, J. C.. 215 Kaufman, William Luduena, F. P 111 
Huggins, Charles — 142 Kavanagh, Thomas Luggage - 272 
Hughes, Frank C. 247 Keilin, D. Lungs __ 243 
pee pa Hulbert, W. C. G. Lyle, Dorothy S. 24 
Fearing, Franklin —————- 73 Gravity, Lack of... 127 Human relations —— Kellogg, W. Lymph nodes _ - 277 
Fechter, Harry - —-— 117 Grease _129, 135 Humidity measurer Kelly, M. J.. Lynch, J. Joseph - 143 
Ferlin, H. J. —— 184 Green, J. D.— — 132 Humm, Harold J.. Kemmerer, Arthur |. 207 Lyon, J. B. 246 
Fermi, Enrico _ ~- 105 Greene, Benjamin F., Jr. Kendall, Ralph E... 217 
Ferris, B. G., Jr. 99 Greene, Benjamin N Kenney, Malcolm E.. 179 
Fesenkov, V. G 149 Griffenhagen, George Kent, Bartis 
Field, Henry — 56 Griminger, P. _. Hunter, Oscar B., Jr. 248 Kerr, Frank J. McBride, Earl D. 214 
Filmer, R. S. Gross, Marsha S. Hurricane Kesel, Robert G. = McCoy, Elizabet 324 
Fine, Bernard Growth abnormalities - . 75 Huxley, Julian S Kidney __ ï McCutcheon, R. J 200 
Fire alarm —__. Guhl, A. M.. 197 Hybrids, Better Kilbuck, John _ _. 362 McCrea, J. F.— 83 
Firewood carrier Guided missiles 105, Hydraulic press King, James T. > McCrea, W, H. a 
uit ši 261, 328, 357 Hydrocortisone Kinsell, Laurance wW. 199 reece ae se 
ream _. roge nsella, oe |e 
Fish 8, 29, 73, 94, 189, ama Bopecenia Kinsey, Alfred C. Macdonald, John B. 228 
233, 247, 263, 359, 383 Hypothalamus Kirby, Charles K... McFarland, Ross A 278 
Fisher, Harry Ja 132 Hyrax Kirkpatrick, Paul H.. McGraw, James L 
Fishing — h, E. Kirsner, Joseph B._ 
Flashbulb - Guyton, Arthur C © Kiser, J. B: 
yrobus -_. Kittmer, Karl __ 
I. Q. _... 345 Kittredge, Joseph ————— 89 MacLean, Lloyd D. 244 
Tee) = 176, 190 Kitts, Warren D. 201 McNamara, Bernard P. 182 

Ice cream . "112 Kleegman, Sophia J. 202 McVay, L. V., Jr.__159, 201 
Ice crystals 319 Klock, John Wi... 57 
Joe, Islands E Sate board., Pilotis = oe 
ceberg -—---- 13 niesner, er n 
$ Icebreaker 39 Knife, Fisherman’s 352 Macomber, W. Brandon 341 
Hair dryer, ne Iland, C. N. 174 Knopoff, Leon _. 23 Maegraith, B. G. 216 
Food and Drug Adm. 114 Hale, William M.. 277 Ills, Native _ 68 Koch, Robert L. —— 114 Maggot —— 
Food packaging .————- 200 Hall, B. Vincent— 260 Immunity, Body’s 178 Koenig, R. T. 135 Magnetic mine — 
Food poisoning -..- 102 Hall, Orlan . 72 Impurities, Value of. 12 Koerner, Donald R. 14 Magnets, Ring-Shaped — 101 
Foot-and-Mouth 22, 61, 111 Hammond, E. Cuyler_ 402 Indians _. 89, 102, 117, 127 a Mahler, R. F. — -- 185 
Forest fires __ c 126 Hamster socn 21 -J Malaria -—--——------------l117, 216 
Forests ——— -89, 347 Hanaoka, Toshimasa — 326 Industrial control — Kondo, Yoshio - 55, 207 Man, Early 179, 185, 
Forgrave, Paul R. 216 Hanbury Brown, R. 186 Infantile, paralysis Korff, Serge A. | 89 355, 374 
Fosdick, Leonard S.. 227 Hand cleaner 16 , 47, 69, 83, 88, 99, Koster, B. — 287 Mangelsdorf, Paul = 181 
Fossil fish - 233 Hand dryer _ 48 101, 136, 173, 189 Kotin, Paul - 311 Mann, George V. - 216 
Fossils __ 215 Hands, Artificial 198 Infantile paralysis, vac- Kralovec, R. D 217 Mann, William _ -- 355 
Fowler, W. B 103 Hannay, C. L. — 386 cine — 259, 338 Kraybill, H. R. 201 Manpower 51, 63, 153 
Francis, Thomas, Jr. - 189 Harper, Paul __ 248 Infanti Sere virus Krebs, H. A 274, 275, 388 Manus, Study of 15 
Franklin, Sid S... 68 Harrington, Robert _ 356 321, 323 Kreinin, sidney ee _ 136 Maps 256 
ia egg oe T= E Harington, Pobert G.— 133 Infection _. 159 Kriete, Bertrand 99 Marble, ,, imitation — 192 
, e: ---- arris SE m Infertility __ 2 Kuhn, rl „i arinus, Paul -..—. ———— 
Frederik, Willem S. 116 Harris; R. _. Renee e ns “ais Marlow, Arthur A. 55 

Influenza _ 83, 231, 297, Kuiper, G. Pos 

310, Kumm, Henry W. 
Kurland, Leonard T. 
Kurtin, Abner 

Freedman, Hyman 
Freon-12 _... oe 
Friedell, Morris 
Frog breathing 
Frohn, Adolph ve 

174 Hart, "George H. 
198 Harvesting dates - 
45 Harvey, Jesse _. 
99 Hatt, Robert T. 
154 Havener, Walter _ 
206 Haworth, Leland J. 

j Marriage statistics 
- 327 Influenza virus pa 
360 Ingle, L. —... 
361 Ingledow, T. 
274 Inhalant __.. 
~- 265 Insect-Killing paint 

— 38 Headaches __________. 133 Insect trap — Labecki, Thaddeus D.. 311 Mathewson, John -— 359 
Frostbite, “Treating —— 217 Headlights 192, 326 Insecticides Labels ___ zA Matthews, R. E. F. = 
Fruit disease _____ 324 Health __ B OS LOO Tackle, Robert J. May, Jacques M 
Frying devices 144, 412 Heart _43, 105, 137, Insects __ i, Lahee, Frederic H. Maya religion -.___. 388 
Fuller, John L 241, 250 195, 243, 248 114, 126, 153, 161, 173, Lallemand, Andre i Mayer, Rollin H — 328 
Fultz, Dave -—- 196 Heart beat rate... 9, 70 231, 277, 281, 307, 312, Landing gear 79, 361  Mazia, Daniel — 376 
Fungicides __. Heart disease —..70, 214, Landings, Bad weather.. 165 Mead, Albert — 207 
Fungous infection = 325, 370 Insemination . Landscaping —._____. — 39 Mead, James _. 5 
Fungus drug —. 134 Heart operations 329, Intelligence . Langhans, Robert W.. 189 Mead, Margaret _- = 15 
Fuoss, Raymonā Mocc tA 361, 372 Interlingua Language _.. 36, 156 Medical certificates _..._ 50 
Furgason, Waldo 78 Heat-Insulator __ 107 Interlining __ Lapping machine ____. 320 Meerloo, Joost A. M.. 230 
32 Heat pump 134 Iron detector ` Lark-Horovitz, Karl ——— 149 Meighan, Clement ___ 89 
Fuse plug ————_-— — 80 Heat-Resisting material 176 Iron lung —. 356 Lasker Award ——————— — 274 Meilman, Edward — 
Heaths, English ___._. 24 Irwin, John _.. _ 279 Lathrop, E. C. -Z “55 Meinke, W. W.__ 281 
Heating AEON, 211, 240, 264 Irwin, Stephen 54 Lauer, A. R . 198 Melamid, Alexander __. 104 
Hebenstreit, W. B._.... 386 Isoniazid Lawton, F. W. _. 169 Mental hospitals _..._. 3} 
Gableman, w. Ae 181 Heidelberger, Michael _ 2 Lead _. 248 Mental sickness 
Gaiser, Rom 167 Hein, John W. DM “eather e . _ 144 Menzel, R. 
Galaxies —_. 130, figa; “218, 376 Helicopter __38, “195, 385, 301 Leaves, Autumn 234 Mercury _. 
Gallagher, T. F. 38 “Hell Roarer’ 50 Jackel, S. S.. ._ 39 Legs, Utility a 64 Merger rate —————— 110 
Galloway, William __ 281 Heller, John H._178, 212 Jackson, M. L. 338 Leiser, Rudolf - 264 Metal, Finishing ____ 328 
Gamma globulin 25, 47 Heminway, Aen sass, 308 Jacobs, J. A. __ 139 LeMay, Curtis E.. . 61 Metal- =Resisting aprons. 80 
88, 101, 245 Jadeite mine _ - 370 Lenses, Magnifying 192 Metals _______.158, 162, 259 
Gantt, W. Horsley ” 230 Herbicide —.— James, William H 361 Leslie, Robert E.. 370 Meteor crater —————— 199 
ge _ Herrick, Samuel, Jancke, G. __ 167 Lester, O. B... 277 Motoors -m 58, 86, 151 
2 Hewes, Gordon W.. Janeway, Charles Letter-Filing aid ~- 96 Mettler, Frederiek A... 356 
Hewish, A. Jarnum, S. A... as Leukemia _.. 366 Meyerhoff, H. A. 53, 294 
Heyerdahl, Thor Jaundice _.. Levitt, Leonard S. _. 406 Miall, W. - 387 
Hibernating gland Lewis, Harlan - 148 Mice = r 104 
Hickey, G. M. 10 Lewis, Margaret - 218 ‘Microphone: -ei 80 
High-Fidelity turntable- 400 S ae Lewis, W. H. Jr. 158 Microscopes 211, 305, 307 
Gerathewohl, S. 1 Highways __. 264, 370 Jeffreys, M. D. Libby, Willard F. 10 Mileage indicator — ~- 200 
189 Hill, John - Licorice 90 Miles, Walter R 56 

oe ‘Shelby a 8 Jeffries, Zay 
"180, 183, 184 Hill, Melford . P 8 Jennison, R. C.. Lifespan, Biblical 
"71, 149, 373 Hill, Thomas J. _ 227 Jet airplanes — 115, 135, Light = =. me 
Geschickter, Chas. F. —. 287 Hindman, J. V.. 147 136, 152, 289, 296, Light bulb 
Gibbs, Martin 179 Hlavaty, Vaclav ei 315, 325, 361, 371 Lightning 
Giddings, J. L., J 265 Hoarding Jet launcher - Lillehei, Saichard 
Gill, Edmund D._ 169 Hoffman, Paul F.__ Lily bulb’ see 
85 Hofstadter, Robert __— Limbaugh, Conrad st Bs 
E Hoijer, Harry TEREA 104 Lindquist, E. F._. Mills, Bernard Y. 147, 186 
12, Holmlund, Chester E.— 201 Linoleic acid _. 5 ills, James Edward. 44 
Glasscock, “Wilford R... 53 Holter, Norman J.——— 53 Lipmann, Fritz — .. 275 Minerals, New aa 
CADNO. | 5 96 Homework -cum 249 Lipstick ————————— 68 Miners’ disease ________. 387 

Milk ___.73, 152° 207, 216, 

——. 243 

Minkowski, R. L._175, Perverts orl 
Sarnau «| 

186, 376 
Mitchell, John W. el 


as OE 
Moffett, Robert Bruce... 
Mold spoilage reventive 

Parks, Lloyd M. 
Parrot fever 

Morrison, Peter R.. 
Moseley, Alfred L. 
Moseman, A. H... 
Moskowitz, Eugene 

Moth) s Paulsen, Carl G.. 

Mothballs —. Payne, Howard M.. 40 
Motor, Midge 82 
Mt. Everest 24 
Movie projector —_. 9 
Muether, R. O... 374 

Muffer, Automobile Penicillin 37198, 2 8, 311, 357 
Mulder, Donald —_ PONS) 2c5 soe 96 
Muller, William - Perl, William __ 53 

Multiple sclerosis Perrin, Samuel R... 

Munch, Guido —___ Personality judging 82 
Munson, Charles S Peters, Betty A. 366 
Murdoch, Joseph - Peterson, Mendel L 3 

Pat a Petroleum search __ 7 

\ Pets): oso 8, (62) 73, 
Petterssen, Sverre - 
Pewe, Troy L 
Pfaffenberger, C.J 
Pfanstiel, Robert 

Muscular dystrophy - 
Music, Significance of... 73 
Mustard gas __. 44, 136 

Myer, Karl A.. ~- 195 Phillips, J. Neal, Jr. 

Myers, Jack E... = 201 Phillips, P. Boc 8 

Myers, Raymond R - 185 Photocopying machine. 336 

Myrvik, Quentin. 217 Photography - 51, 134, 361 
Photometer __ 150 
Photoperiodism _ 106 
Photosynthesis _179, 206, 406 

Physical examination _” 
Piccone, Camilo: -s-s 
Pickett, Samuel 
Pielmeier, John 
Pietenpol, W. B. 
Pigs, Diseases of 
Pill container 
Pillar, Rustless 
PUR sas encase 96, 
Pillsbury, Donald M. 

val, Virginia McKibben 

vason, Howard 

latl. Acad. Sci 
latl. Bu. Stds._ ty 

18, 30, 39, 79, ios, 

"262 39, 358 


176, 320 

Pilot’s clothing __17, 23, 

Piltdown Man 350, 355,” 

py pines Gmn 

Pipe, Smoking . 1 
Pipes: —__. 112, 224, 295 
88 EROL Helmet- -Mounted ae 
terve drugs - 182 Eittenger, a a 
jewcomer, Victor. 134 Pituitary 149, 344, 376 
lewsprint 182 Planets ---—- 58, 103, 138, 
Le 199 blant, wy 218, 2 ans, 346; 407 
an odel o K 
viiranen, John Dn Vietor an Plant diseases —— 185, 
212, 249, 324 
Plant exploration 40, 88, 330 
Plant pean 189, 229, 235 
ants —— 
torris, Dale aie oe 4g Plastic binding —— "11 
Jutmeg mill ——— site 272 Plastic modeling “kits. 
lystatin 134 Plastic repair patches __- 144 
ee a fee Plastics -..107, 179, 184, 197 
Play pen - 160 
Podesta, Charles D.. 29 
Poison. 22.2... 44 

131, 189 Police siren _. 41 
.350, 374, 403 Polister, Barbara 5 
= 108, 265 Pollock, H. E. D. 388 
Ybservatory, National... 279 Polunin, Nicholas - 189 
a EO 25, 178 Polyelectrolytes _.. 211 
Connor, Basil 231, Pontecorvo, Bruno 105 
259, 338 Pool, M. D. 371 
Ictopuses - 40 Population 373 
paan; Melita 8 Porcelain _ 310 
do: = Porpoise — 54 
felt, C. W 43 Potatoes _. 12 
Dil — 23, 104, 114, 390 Powell, J. E n 215 
Jil well model Power plant _ 46, 97, 111, 
Diler 165, 167, 169, 352 
ils, Automobile 185, 280 Power tool __ 16i 
Jldershaw, C. G. . 359 Pregnancies 
ligomycin 324 Prejudices 
Jlsen, M. 229 Prison ..... . 
Sppenheimer, B. S. ` 197 Probe and drogue E 

Drange juice 
Irgans, RODA TIDE 2 
rville, Howard T. 
Iswald, W. J... 
Jutboard motor _ 
Iverlay material 

3xley, Charles bo V9 

Production engineer 

Proton Beam, Polarized. 9 
Psychosomatic Medi- 

cine, Acad. of as OU 
Puddington, I. EB... 185 

Putnam, Tracy J.______ 118 
Putty, Aluminum ______. 176 
Pygmalion effect —----------- 206 
RES se 18) (212 
Rackliffe, Robert L. — =) 10 
Radar ——— 24, 118, 133, 

82, 228, 246 
Ràdiation -5,2 

Radiation meter 

Radio 43, 62; 70 
Radio astronomy _ 147, 
166, 175, 186, 346, 376 
Radio station, "New. 343 
Radioactive clean-u 
Radioactive pills 
Radiocarbon __ 
Radios 91, 111, 
Radomski, "Jack L. 
Rae, R. W.. 
Rain clothin 
Rain making _ 
Rajchman, Jan 
Ramsey, F. K.. 
Rand, Austin L. 
Rankin, Ds. Seen 
Rare earths 
Rasmussen, The 
Rathsman, B. G 
Rating scales — 
Ravin, Abe 
Razor blade 
Rea, R. L. Jr. 
Reading pacer 
Rear view mirro: 
Reber, Grote 
Reclamation Bureau 
Reid, Allen F.. 
Reid, Bobby L. 
Reitman, Hyatt .. 
Rense, William A.. 
Reptiles __. 5 

Research funds ... 30, 68, 404 
Retirement activity —_ 158 
Reynolds, S. R -169, 388 
Rheumatism __.. — 54 

Rhododendron leaves. 
Rice, Leonard M 
Rice oll 22... 
Richter, Curt P. 
Rifkind, David 

Robertson, E. 

Robinson, H. 
Robinson, L. V. 
Robinson, R. C. V.. 
Robitschek, P. 

Robot devices pea 16, 405 
Rocketry, Skills a ee 375 
Rockets __.._... 230 

Roemer, Elizabeth | 
Rogge, ‘Genevieve = 

Roll cutter — 16 
Roper, Val J.. 326 
Rose, H. A... ~ 184 

Rosenblatt, Frank _ è 
Rosenthal, Daniel n 
Rosin f= z 
Ross, A ian, B C. 
Ross, J. 

Ross, M. 
Ross, Sherman 
Ross, Sidney _.. 
Rossmann, Fritz O.. 
Rothenberg, Sanford F. 
Rubber -__....__.37, 200, 
Rubber adhesive _ 
Rug, First-Aid for. 
Runway material - 
Rush, J. 

Rusk, Howard A. 

195; 312 
Rusoff, Louis L.. ~- 206 
Russian, Learning | = 344 
Russian science _ 53, 115, 149 
Russo, Anthony L.. woe ia 

Rust remover 
Ryley, J. F 

Saffron _. 216 
Salad server - 256 
Saldanha Man 355 

Salk, Jonas E.. 
Sampling device 

Sander, Electric —. 

Sanding block ——__.__ 

Scheele, Leonard A. 
Schein, W. 

Schmidt-Nielsen, Knut L = 
Schmitt, Charles L. 
Schmitt, O: A... 
Schoeffel, M. F 
Schultze, M. O. 
Schwab, Robert S. n 
Schwan, Herman P. = 
Schwartz, Daniel S.___ 
Schwartz, Ferdinand F. 
Schwerdt, Carleton E. 
Schy, Albert A. 
Science review —. 

Science stories, Top. 390 
Science Talent Search. 215 
Scissor sharpener _____. 336 
Scott, J. P....-_._. 21, 104 

Sea animals . 

Sea water freshening... 
Seaborg, Glenn _._ 
Seaman, William B. 
Seljakov, N. 
Sell, H. 8... 
Sem-Jacobsen, Carl W.. 
Bemen banks: -cnm 
Senate Small Business 
Committee ——-—— 30, 
Severy, Derwyn _ a 
Sex research aided____ 
Sexual behavior, Female 119 
Shallard, Bruce —... 214 


Shane, C. 

Shapley, Harlow _ 143, 
147, 293 

SHARES) pice (60 

Sharp, Gordon n 245 

Shaver, Battery-Powered 208 

Sheehan, Joseph G... 206 

Sheep mamm 37, 376 

Sheeting, Aluminum _ 3 

Shelter sign —. 
Sherman, J. K. 

Shetland pony -= 297 
Shick, Wayne L.. === 102 
Shilo, M. -=~ — 295 
Ships, Non-Magnetic — 123 
Shock, Electric {= 248 
te are aasi 288 

Shower stall . 


Shutz, Howard G.. 
Siebert, C. A 
Silicon switch — 

Sivadjian, Joseph — xs 
Skin grafts __ 248, 313, 

Skin ills . 100, 356, 
Sleep ~- 118, 
Slote, Lawrence - 

Smithwick, Reginald H. 
Snails 55 

Snell, Foster D- 
Snodgrass, R. E. 
Socket, Electric - 
Socks, Electric 
SON. a 
Solecki, Ralph 
Sound ssa 
Soy products - 
ee sg Voice to 
Speed record 
Spiegelman, Marvin . 
Spink, Wesley W... 
Sponge mop 1 
Sponges, Potato- Like a: 

9 Struve, Otto 
9 Stuart, F. E.. 

een. iin 

Stain remover 176 
Stainless steel wire. 248 
Stamp pad -skami 48 
Stamps, Plastic _.._.. 224 
Stanley, Wendell __._-_. 323 
Starch, Animal __ 56 
Stare, Fredrick J... 265 
Stark, Robert R..—— 435 
Stars —— 51, 58, 71, 138, 
143, 149, 186, 218, 266, 

26, 339, 346, 376, 407 
Starvation, Human .—-— 155 
Stassinos, Odysseus _..._ 31 
Stator pies, > 
Staudinger, Hermann _. 307 
Steam log carriage- — 184 
Steede, J. H.. 1 

Steel, Plastic-Coated - 
Steel-Wool holder - 
Stefanini, Mario _ 

Sternberg, T. H. 
Stewart, I. McD. 
Stewart, T. Dale. 
Stirling, Matthew 
Stockmal, Frank _ 
Stollerman, Gene 

BStOOL. enc 

Storage bag _ 
Stoutmeyer, V. T.. = 
Straiton, A. W..___- 
Strategy ~~... 
Street, One-Way 
Stretcher _._ 
Strontium, Radioactive 
Struckmeyer, B. Esther. 

Stuart, Neil W. 
Sturkie, Paul D.. 
Sturtz, William J. 
Submarine, Atomic. | 
Submarine, Toy —- 

Sugar ne, oe 
Sulfa drugs -—--—-- $ 
Summer, Rules for__.. 19 
Sun —— 5, 141, 150, 153, 

$ , 376 
Sun glasses, Polarized... 216 
Sunflowers mnnm 142 
Sunspot, New cycle... 141 
Surgery 73, 134, 361 
Sutcliffe, R. 1 

Suter, C. M... 
Sutherland, James 

Switch, Giant 
Switch caps, Luminous. 
Synthetics, Chemistry of 
Szybalski, W. ssas 1 

Tamayo, Francisco — 390 
Tannehill, I. R. _ 360 
Tannenbaum, Albert —.. 

Tarbell, Praney 3. 

Taungs Baby 

Taylor, A. B 

Taylor, A. R. 

Taylor, Craig 

Technetium __- 

Teeth 103, 227, 228, 
247, 312, 371 

Telephone devices 208, 368 

Telescope aa 151, 166 


Telkes, Maria —__.._.__. 342 
Temperament, Tests of 170 
Tendons 30 
Teuscher, George W. 
Teweles, Sidney, Jr. 
Thermal barrier - 

Thomas, Richard - 
Thompson, Bagh a 
Thompson, Jesse E.. 
ey 74, 102, 1377 224, 
Thurstone, L. fi, 


Thye, Edward J. WHO Woodyard, John R. 310 
Tibbles, -J.. I... WIN drugs 5 Š Woolley, George W. —. 366 
Ticho, Harold 195 Ulcers 24, 136, 244, 265 Wald, George --274, 313 Western Union __ .. 261 Woolsey, Robert Dean 296 
Timer, Electric 272 Underkofier, Leland A... 201 Walker, Stuart 291 Wetzel, Wilfred W.. 246 Worms... 41, 110, 152 

Tire remover _ ~ 128 Walking stick ~ 351 Weyer, Edward M. Jr. 117 Wounds, Covering for... 313 

Tishler, Max _ Bote: Foe i A40 Wall panels -an ~ 320 Whales -60, 327, 328 Wrenn, Richard N. 

Tobacco __._ 40, 57, Unger Albert Howard. 72 Wallace, Arthur _ 3 Wheat __ na 281 Wright Flyer _ _ 
311, om 377, 402 U ' L = Wallis, Barnes Neville 357 Whipple, Fred L. 86, 151, 325 Wu, Betty Y. T.. 

= mosaic BeA 1r Unser, estes eae = Walton ia uated = = White, ee J. 370 

‘olefson, x , e an: ar a : ae e 
Tongues, Sore 198 Upholstery, Plastic ~.. Wart a Aaa a i White, Paul D. 9, 43 
Tonsils __ -- 297 Uranium. é Whitney, Elizabeth D._ 358 X-Rays 46, 136, 167, 

Tool kit 192 Whittenberger, James J. 99 
Tornadoes 328 Whooping cranes _...... 36 185,248; 299; Herre 371 
Torpedoes - - 24 ter Wiener, A. S. 
Towboat _ ~- 360 V-Particle Water, Polluted 69, 324 Wildman, Samuel G.. 
Town, Model of. .. 384 Vaccine, Making Water pepenent = Wiry: Alexander S 
‘oxemia __ Vacuum cleaner ___ E Waterlily _ 22 ams, lyde , 
Toxoplasma _ Van Alien, J. A... 89, 152 Watson, J. D. = Williams, F. X. 7 Yarns, Synthetic -.. ~- 128 
Toxoplasmosis van Bavel, C. H. M. —— 377 Weather 4, 28, 143, Williams, George C.. Yeager, Charles E. 380; oii 
Toys _ Van Cleave, Harley J... 41 165, 203, 213, 214, Williams, J. H.. 232 Zohalem, Stephen B. B. 4l 
Trace elements ae Van Meter, J. Ray —— 262 216, 217, 264, 344, 360 Williams, Jonathan W.. — 
Transistors 69, 91, 93 Van Scott, Eugene J 246 Weather, Computing Williams, Robley C M: | Will : 

193, 196, 245, 327, 373, 394 vanden Heuvel R. Co 338 196, 203, 309 Wilson, Charles E. ~ Young, William C.. 
Treasure hunt 3) Vasopressin. . Sa u Weather balloons 88 Winans, Donald C.. Yuhl, Erie T. 
Trees sa 359, 363, 366, 370 p Weather Bureau _ B Wind tunnels __...... 198, 245 

- 233 Veltman, Preston L Weather control 

~ Window trim - 304 
g5 Vibration eae EVEEN? Weather ships _ 

Tribes, Culture of . 

Trichinosis _ = Viets, F. G., Window washing bottle.. 256 

Trim, Iron-On _ = 256 Viets, Weatherstripping Window weights _. _ 400 Zander, Helmut A. 

Truck vibrations - ~ 79 Virus - 39, "50, 88, 116, Weaver, Robert W Winter, H. F. 324 Zaumeyer, William J. 

Trusler, G. A. 249 173, 17, '178, 180, 197 Weedkillers Winter survival __ _ 318 Zelinsky, Wilbur 

Tsao, Makepeace Uho — 100 Visibility instruments . | 165 Weeks, Sinclair _ 79, Witt, Frank 41 Zernike, F. _. 

Tschirgi, Robert a Vision _.56, 84, 313, 326, 360 148, 262, 339, 358 Wohlschlag, Donald E. 189 Zetek, James 

Tube squeezer _ Vitamins . 249, 312, 361, 386 Weidenreich, Franz h Wolf, F. A. _ 3 Zettlemoyer, Albert C 
Vivian, H. E.. ... 387 Weight indicator Wood inih - 320 Zies, E S 
Vogt, William H., Jr. 297 Weiner, J. S 5 Woods, Alan C. -271 Zimmerman, Elmer W. 

Woods, Ronald M. _ 271 Zirconium dioxide .. 
Woodward, Robert B. —. 169 Zovickian, Anthony 
Woodworking tools __.. 112 Zoeckler, Samuel J.. 

Volcano _.... 296, 387 Weinkauff, Olive 
von Doenhoff, Albert E.. 198 Weisskopf, Victor 
Vortex tube _ ~- 183 Welch, Henry __ 

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Science News Letter for December 26, 1953 

Total Moon Eclipse 

Five eclipses, three of the sun and two of the moon, 
are scheduled for 1954. Total eclipse of sun on June 30 will 
be first visible in any part of United States since 1945. 


> A TOTAL eclipse of the moon, on the 
evening of Monday, Jan. 18, one of five 
eclipses in 1954, is the chief event on the 
month’s astronomical calendar. 

Visible all over the United States, as well 
as Canada and the rest of North America, 
it will be at its height at 9:32 p.m. EST 
(8:32 CST, 7:32 MST or 6:32 PST). A lit- 
tle more than three hours will elapse from 
the time the moon enters the earth’s shadow 
until it leaves it. 

Aside from this, we also have the usual 
January evening skies, which are always 
brilliant, although this year the presence of 
a bright planet makes them even more so. 
This is Jupiter, high in the south in the 
constellation of Taurus, the bull. 

Its magnitude is minus 2.2 on the astro- 
nomical scale, so it exceeds in brightness 
any star, or any other planet, now visible. 

The accompanying maps show the ap- 
pearance of the heavens about 10:00 p.m., 
your own kind of standard time, on the 
first of January; an hour earlier at the mid- 
dle of the month, and two hours earlier at 
the end. 

Jupiter Is Only Planet 

They show the location of Jupiter, just to 
the left of Aldebaran, the first magnitude 
star in Taurus that marks the animal’s 
eye. Jupiter is the only planet in the eve- 
ning sky. 

Still higher, directly overhead as shown 
on the maps, we find Capella, in Auriga, 
the charioteer. To the left of Jupiter, in 
the constellation of Gemini, the twins, are 
Castor and Pollux. The latter is the 
brighter and a star of the first magnitude. 

Below Jupiter we come to one of the best 
known of all the star groups, Orion, the 
warrior, which is easily recognized by the 
three stars in a row that form his belt. 
Above this trio is Betelgeuse and below is 
Rigel, both of them also stars of the first 

The brightest of the stars, which are dis- 
tant suns and, unlike the planets, shine by 
reflected sunlight, is Sirius, the dog-star. 
It is in Canis Major, the great dog, below 
and to the left of Orion. Higher, and 
farther left, is Canis Minor, the lesser dog, 
with the bright star Procyon. Going up- 
wards still farther from this group we are 
again in Gemini. 

In addition to the stars mentioned, two 
others of the first magnitude are also shown 
on our maps, although their low altitude 

causes considerable atmospheric absorption 
of their light. This is particularly true of 
Deneb, in Cygnus, the swan, which is just 
above the northwestern horizon. It is all 
that remains visible of the northern cross, 
which shone so prominently in the evening 
sky a few months ago. 

The case is opposite for the other star— 
Regulus, in Leo, the lion—which is low in 
the east. In coming months it will become 
more and more prominent, until on April 
evenings it will stand where Taurus does 

January Lunar Eclipse 

As for the other planets, Mercury and 
Venus are about in the same direction as the 
sun, and can hardly be seen at all. Venus, 
in fact, passes behind the sun on Jan. 29. 
Mars and Saturn are both in Libra, the 
scales, rising several hours before sunrise. 
Saturn is to the west, and although both 
now rate with stars of the first magnitude, 
Saturn is about one and three-quarters 
times as bright as its brother planet. Mars, 
of course, is characteristically red in color. 
Later in the year it will come into much 
greater prominence as it approaches within 
a little less than 40,000,000 miles of the 
earth on July 2. 

The total eclipse of the moon on Jan. 18 
is one of two eclipses that occur in Jan- 
uary, although the first, which is of the 
sun on Jan. 5, is not of great interest in this 
part of the world. One must go to Antarc- 
tica or New Zealand to see it. But 1954 
brings a total of five eclipses, one of them 
a total eclipse of the sun, the first visible 
in any part of the United States or Canada 
since 1945. 

Basically, an eclipse occurs when one ob- 








ject gets between two others. On Jan. 18 
the earth will pass between the sun and 
moon. Since the source of the moon’s light 
is the sun, its illumination is then largely 
cut off. 

On the other hand, the moon may get 
between the sun and the earth, and this is 
what happens on Jan. 5, so the moon’s 
shadow will then reach toward the sur- 
face of the earth, in the region around the 
south pole. 

Because the sun is 864,000 miles in diam- 
eter, and the moon only 2,160 miles, the 
lunar shadow tapers to a point, at a dis- 
tance from the moon of about 230,000 miles. 
This is the inner shadow, the umbra, where 
the lunar disk completely hides the sun, and 
around it is a larger region, the penumbra, 
where the disk of the sun would only be 
partially covered. 

Sometimes the umbra reaches the sur- 
face of the earth. However, on Jan. 5 it 
falls short, so even in the part of the world, 
Antarctica, toward which the shadow is 
aimed, the solar disk would not be com- 
pletely covered. The moon then will be 
far enough away that it will look a little 
smaller than the sun. 

The result is that even though it goes 
in front of the sun a ring of that body, 
called the annulus, which is Latin for ring, 
remains visible around the dark moon. 
Hence such an eclipse is called “annular.” 

Totality Path in U.S. 

On June 30 the moon again comes be- 
tween sun and earth, producing the year’s 
second solar eclipse. But this time the tip 
of the umbra does reach the ground. As it 
moves along it traces out a strip nearly a 
hundred miles wide and thousands of miles 
long—the path of totality—in which the 
total eclipse is seen. 

This path starts in Nebraska as the sun 
is rising there, then travels northeastward 
over Iowa, Minnesota (including Minne- 
apolis), Wisconsin and Michigan. After 


pupbis coulMeia 

%4 koo 

crossing Lake Superior, it traverses the Ca- 
nadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec to 
the coast of Labrador. Thence it goes east- 
ward and southeastward over the Atlantic 
Ocean, southern Greenland, Iceland, Nor- 
way, Sweden, Lithuania, Russia, the Cas- 
pian Sea, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and 
ends in India as the sun is setting. 

Many scientific expeditions will be lo- 
cated along this path to make the many ob- 
servations that can only be made at such an 
eclipse. And also many astronomical en- 
thusiasts, not professional astronomers, will 
gather at points of vantage to see this rare 
phenomenon, a total eclipse of the sun, 
which is unquestionably one of the most 
magnificent spectacles offcred by nature. 

For those who want to plan such obser- 
vations, the U. S. Naval Observatory in 
Washington has issued a 42-page booklet, 
with tables and maps, entitled “Total 
Eclipse of the Sun, June 30, 1954,” which 
gives full details as to how it will appear 
from different parts of the earth. This is 
obtainable for 40 cents from the Superin- 
tendent of Documents, Government Print- 
ing Office, Washington 25, D. C. 

Two weeks later, on the evening of July 
15, the earth will again come between sun 
and moon, although the latter body will 
not enter completely into our shadow. 
Thus it will be only a partial eclipse; at 
best only a little more than four-fifths of 
the lunar diameter will be shaded. This 
eclipse will be visible in the eastern parts of 
the United States and Canada. 

The year’s fifth and last eclipse will come 
on Christmas day and, like the one which 
began the 1954 program, it will be of the 
sun and annular. The path over which the 
annular eclipse will be visible starts in the 
south Atlantic Ocean, crosses South Africa 
and the Indian Ocean, ending in Timor, the 
large island northwest of Australia. Over 
a larger area, including most of southern 
Africa, Australia, Indonesia and the Philip- 
pines, as well as part of Antarctica, the sun 
will be partially eclipsed. 

However, it is the total eclipse of the 
moon on Jan. 18 that is of most immediate 
interest. The accompanying diagram shows 
the way the moon passes through the earth’s 
shadow on that evening. North, i.e., the 



Science News LETTER for December 26, 1953 


direction toward the pole star, is at the top. 
The large circle represents the shadow, and 
the small circles, I, II, III and IV, successive 
positions of the moon. 

Position I occurs at 7:50 p.m., EST (one 
hour earlier for CST, two for MST and 
three for PST). At this time the moon 
starts to enter the shadow, and its curved 
edge will be seen gradually creeping over 
the lunar disk until 9:17 when the eclipse 
will be total, with the moon completely im- 
mersed in the shadow. During this time 
the moon does not disappear from view, 
for even in the center of the shadow there 
is some light, caused by rays from the sun 
which have been bent by the earth’s at- 

Because the blue waves of light are scat- 
tered in this passage through the air, thus 

giving the daytime sky its blue color, that 
which passes on through into the shadow 
is reddened, and the eclipsed moon has a 
typical coppery red color. In this particular 
eclipse the moon just gets into the shadow, 
and does not pass through its center. 

Hence the southern edge of the moon, 
which is never far from the edge of the 
shadow, will probably look noticeably 
brighter than the rest of its surface, even at 
mid-eclipse, which comes at 9:32 p.m., EST. 

At 9:47 p.m. the total phase of the eclipse 
ends, and once more the curved edge of the 
shadow will be seen traversing the face of 
the moon. Finally, at 11:13 p.m., the moon 
will be out of the shadow and the entire 
eclipse will be over. However, the moon 
will still be in the outer part of the shadow, 
the penumbra, until 12:24 a.m., and during 
this period an observer on the moon would 
see the earth partially hiding the sun. But 
even with part of the sun shining on the 
moon it still looks so bright that it seems 
practically normal. 

Celestial Time Table for January 

Jan. EST 
2 3:00a.m. Earth nearest sun, distance 91,- 
348,000 miles. 

Algol (variable star in Perseus) 
at minimum brightness. 

New moon, annular eclipse of 
sun visible in Antarctica. 

Algol at minimum. 

Algol at minimum. 

Moon nearest, distance 229,800 

Moon in first quarter. 

Moon passes Jupiter. 

Full moon, total eclipse of moon 
visible in U. S. and Canada. 

10:55 p.m. 
4 9:21 p.m. 

5 7:44 p.m. 
8 4:34 p.m. 
10 5:00 a.m. 

Il 7:22 p.m. 
15 8:30p.m. 
18 9:37 p.m. 



The large circle represents the shadow of the earth, and the small circles, I, II, I and 
IV, indicate the successive positions of the moon as it passes through the shadow. The 
four phases shown occur at the following times: 

I 7:50 p.m. EST 6:50 p.m. CST 5:50 p.m. MST 4:50 p.m. PST 

II 9:17 8:17 
Il 9:47 8:47 
IV 11:13 10:13 

LI 6:17 
7:47 6:47 
9:13 8:13 

Algol at minimum. 
Algol at minimum. 
Moon farthest, distance 251,400 
Algol at minimum. 
Moon in last quarter. 
Moon passes Mars. 
6:19 p.m. Algol at minimum. 
29 7:00p.m. Venus behind sun. 
Subtract one hour for CST, two hours for 
MST, and three for PST. 
Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

20 3:51 a.m. 
23 12:40 a.m. 
25 7:00 a.m. 

9:29 p.m. 
26 10:28 p.m. 
28 10:03 a.m. 

Exchange Resin Makes TB 
Medicine Easier to Take 

> AN ANION exchange resin is coming 
to the rescue of tuberculosis patients who 
find PAS, or para-aminosalicylic acid, hard 
to take. 

The PAS is adsorbed on the resin and 
when the combination is swallowed, the 
hydrochloric acid in the stomach gradually 
displaces the PAS. As it passes into the 
intestine, it is absorbed by the body and 
carried in the blood just as efficiently as if 
it had been taken alone. 

This new product was announced by its 
manufacturer, E. R. Squibb and Sons, who 
have tradenamed it Rezipas. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 


1,650 Miles Per Hour 
Sets New Speed Record 

> VIRTUALLY ON the eve of aviation’s 
golden anniversary, the U. S. again focused 
world attention upon the skies. Air Force 
Maj. Charles E. Yeager rocketed to 1,650 
miles an hour in the Bell X-1A research 

This world speed record of Mach 2.5— 
which is two and a half times the speed of 
sound—was chalked up Dec. 12 by the 30- 
year-old West Virginian. 

The Air Force said that Yeager’s flight 
was the “fastest known to have been at- 
tained by any aircraft or any human being 
anywhere in the world.” 

The rocket plane was powered by one 
engine rated at 6,000 pounds of thrust. The 
designed speed of the plane is 1,600 miles 
an hour, and apparently Maj. Yeager coaxed 
another 50 mph from the little craft. Its 
wings measure 28 feet, and its length is 
35.5 feet. 

Since it has merely a 4.2-minute “range,” 
the X-1A was carried aloft in a B-29 Super- 
fort, then released. The 1,650 mph speed 
record it subsequently established will not 
be officially recognized. International rules 
dictate that all planes trying for new speed 
records must take off from the ground un- 
der their own power. 

Maj. Yeager later told newsmen that he 
expects his new speed record to be shat- 
tered soon by a new rocket plane, the steel- 
bodied Bell X-2. The X-2’s steel construc- 
tion is aimed at reducing some of the heat 
problems created by friction at such speeds. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Science News Letter for December 26, 1953 


Optical Sensing Device 

Data reader, FOSDIC, capable of translating up to 
10,000,000 answer positions per hour for use in electronic 
computers, built by National Bureau of Standards. 

> A HIGH speed electronic device, called 
FOSDIC, that can read marks on census 
data sheets and feed the information direct- 
ly to an electronic computer for processing 
has been built by the National Bureau of 

Use of FOSDIC will provide an accurate, 
convenient. method for mathematically 
treating much of the data obtained in a 
census count. It is expected to reduce 
greatly the large volume of paper work re- 
quired to summarize census information. 

Designed at Standards for the Bureau of 
the Census, FOSDIC may be generally ap- 
plied to the processing of other types of 
information that must be handled in large 
quantities such as business and labor sta- 

As part of a program to speed up process- 
ing census data, the Census Bureau has 
been using UNIVAC, an electronic digital 
computer. This machine can process data 
much faster than it can be translated from 
the data sheets, so FOSDIC, a contraction 
for “Film Optical Sensing Device for Input 
to Computers,” was designed to speed up 
the translation process. 

The machine reads microfilm copies of 
census takers’ documents and processes the 
information contained in the form of posi- 
tioned marks into electrical pulses that are 
recorded on magnetic tape. The magnetic 
tape can then be used directly by the com- 
puting machinery. 

Basically the instrument is built around 
a combination of two rather common elec- 
tronic devices, consisting of a cathode-ray 
tube and an electric eye. In combination, 
these two devices can visually sense whether 
or not pencil or pen marks exist on particu- 
lar spots of an answer form. Since FOSDIC 
utilizes an optical principle, marks may be 
made with any common type of pencil or 

When the original documents are micro- 
filmed, they do not have to be precisely 
aligned. Instead, an aligning index marker 
is printed on the form below each column 
of twelve possible answer positions. One 
column might contain answers to six yes-no 

When the device scans a census form, its 
beam moves across a page until it senses 
a mark indicating possible answers in the 
column above. FOSDIC then sends its 
scanning beam up the column, reading and 
recording out on the magnetic tape each 
tally mark. Upon completion of the column, 
the machine then searches for the next 

To assure accuracy, FOSDIC keeps count 
of the number of columns read on each 
page. If for any reason a column is missed, 

the device makes a record on the magnetic 
tape informing the computer that the pre- 
ceding information is not trustworthy. 
Under laboratory test, FOSDIC has shown 
that it has nearly perfect performance when 
good marking and filming conditions exist. 
Currently the equipment is designed to 
provide for a maximum of some 2,800 
answer locations on each frame of 16mm 
microflm—an area of about one-quarter 
square inch. Its speed corresponds to a 
reading transcription rate of about 60 docu- 
ment sides per minute, and the transcrip- 
tion accuracy appears to be equal to or bet- 
ter than that of a skilled human copyist. 
FOSDIC was shown for the first time to 
scientists and engineers attending the Joint 
Computer Conference and Exhibition spon- 
sored in Washington by the American In- 
stitute of Electrical Engineers, the Institute 
of Radio Engineers, and the Association for 

Computing Machinery. 
Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Unusual Rats Collected 
In Thailand for Museum 

> WEIRD RATS, some two feet long and 
colored orange, buff, yellow-brown and 
blue-gray, were among 2,000 mammals and 
birds collected in Thailand for the U. S. 
National Museum by H. G. Deignan, as- 
sociate curator of birds at the Smithsonian 

The rats were caught in a region of high 
limestone crags and forests north of the 
Chao-Phraya river delta. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 



World's Standard Conversational Method 


—29 Languages available 

t Home learn easily, quic! by the LINGUAPHONE 

S-12 Mezz., Rockefeller Plaza 
New York 20, N. Y. 

Send me your FREE book. I 
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Science News LETTER for December 26, 1953 

- Books of the Week > 

For the editorial information of our readers, books received for review since last week’s issue are listed. 

For convenient purchase of any U. S. book 

in print, send a remittance to cover retail price (postage will 
be paid) to Book Department, Science Service, 1719 N Street, N. W., Washington 6, D. C 

Request free 

publications direct from publisher, not from Science Service. 

NER—Leonard R. Crow—Scientific Book, 240 
p., illus., paper, $2.50. A book in non-technical 
language intended for grade school pupils, 4-H 
Club members and other novices. Many experi- 
ments are described. 

Tue First Book or Bripces—Creighton Peet 
—Franklin Watts, 68 p., illus., $1.75. Explain- 
ing, for young boys, bridge building from sim- 
ple log structures to the modern suspension 

MetTHops oF THEORETICAL Puysics: Parts I 
and II—Philip M. Morse and Herman Feshbach 
—McGraw-Hill, 1978 p., $30.00 (or $15.00 per 
volume). Presenting the mathematical tools 
most useful in the study of the many branches 
of physics, with examples of how they are used. 

ALASKA AND Canapa—Lee Oras Overholts, pre- 
pared for publication by Josiah L. Lowe—Uni- 
versity of Michigan Press, University of Michi- 
gan Studies Scientific Series Vol. XIX, 466 p., 
illus., $7.50. Especially for this group of fungi, 
the strides made in the past half century have 
been tremendous in straightening out confusion 
and discord in nomenclature. This work brings 
together the newest data, although the editor 
points to the fact that many gaps remain to be 

Tue Psycuratrist His TRAINING AND DE- 
VELOPMENT: Report of the 1952 Conference on 
Psychiatric Education held at Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York, June 19-25, 1952—John C. 
Whitehorn, Francis J. Braceland, Vernon W. 
Lippard, and William Malamud, Eds.—Amert- 
can Psychiatric Association, 214 p., $2.50. This 
book points to the pressing need for the services 
of psychiatrists in preventive work as well as in 
the care of the mental ill, and discusses pri- 
marily the training of career psychiatrists. 

ard Stephenson and Wesley Fiske Pratzner— 
McGraw-Hill, 304 p., $4.50. Prestige in public 
relations is best developed through good pub- 
licity. Intended as a working manual. 

Space Traver—Kenneth W. Gatland and 
Anthony M. Kunesch—Philosophical Library, 
205 p. illus., $4.75. Tracing the history of 
rockets from the “fire arrow” invented by the 
Chinese and used by them in battle in 1232, the 

Get your money’s worth in 


Why ever again take a chance on spending your money 
for a poor performance or recording? Harian’s 64 
page guide, ‘‘Only the Best in Recorded Music,” shows 
at a glance what the nation’s music critics have de- 
cided are the best long playing recordings of sym- 
phonies, operas, ballets, concerts, etc. Listing hundreds 

_ of excellent records, it makes certain you get all the 
musical enjoyment your money should bring, and it’s 
a magnificent guide to expanding your record library. 
Price just 50c, so small a sum you’ll never miss it, 
but what extra enjoyment it can bring you. For your 
copy, wrap up 50c in coin and mail to HARIAN 

use of the rocket in battle in Europe in 1379, 
German experiments in 1405, to the V-2 devel- 
oped in Germany during World War II. A 
final chapter speculates on the future. 

Why WE Say .. .: A Guidebook to Current 
Idioms and Expressions and Where They Came 
From—Robert L. Morgan—Sterling, 128 p., 
illus., $2.00. Many of the words and expres- 
sions that we use today reflect different cul- 
tures. The origin of some of the most popular 
are given here. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 


Corn Leaves Deceive: 
Starved, Look Healthy 

> LIKE SOME children, corn can look 
healthy and actually be sick, F. G. Viets, 
Jr, C. E. Nelson and C. L. Crawford of 
the U.S. Department of Agriculture re- 
ported to the Soil Science Society of Amer- 
ica meeting in Dallas, Tex. 

In one field they found healthy looking 
plants with low yields. A check revealed 
that the plants were starved for nitrogen, 
although the leaves did not show the yellow 
tips commonly associated with nitrogen 
deficiency. Application of nitrogen to the 
field increased the yield. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Patent Review for 1953 

Numbers following items are U.S. Patent 
numbers. Printed copies of patents can be ob- 
tained from the U.S. Patent Office at 25 cents 
each. Order by number, do not send stamps, 
and address orders to the Commissioner of 
Patents, Washington 25, D. C. 

Notable and interesting inventions patented 
during the year include: 

A helicopter rotor which does not require the 
pilot to control the pitch of the blades. Patent 

A system to control the flight of antiaircraft 
shells and other missiles by ultra-high frequency 
radio signals. Patent 2,629,289. 

A radar device giving both visual and audi- 
ble warning to the pilot when he is approach- 
ing mountains or other obstacle. Patent 

Prismatic glass to cut down the glare in an 
automobile’s rear view mirror. Patent 2,631,498. 

A gas turbine engine for automobiles. Pat- 
ent 2,631,427. 

A twilight computer for use in planning 
flights over the Arctic where the twilight is 
extended and nights are six months long. Patent 

A load release to keep a wind-filled para- 
chute from dragging its cargo across the ground, 
water or snow. Patent 2,634,155. 

A method of scrambling television pictures, 
applicable to secret wartime messages and to 
Pay-as-you-see-it systems. Patent 2,636,936. 

A special helmet which allows an airplane 
pilot to move his head freely during normal 
flight, but which braces it firmly against buffet- 
ing when there is sudden acceleration or de- 
celeration. Patent 2,638,293. 

A new target for atom smashers that will 
cause a larger portion of the electrons to be 
converted into X-rays. Patent 2,640,924. 

A method for cooling high speed turbine 
blades of rocket engines by making the blades 
hollow and circulating air through them. Pat- 
ent 2,641,040. 

An improved body armor for troops in com- 
bat, consisting of from 12 to 15 laminated 
layers of a tightly woven nylon fabric. Patent 

A quick method for imparting a hickory 
smoke flavor to meat. Patent 2,641,544. 

A process for canning whole, fresh milk so 
that it does not have a cooked taste. Patent 

An indicator showing extent, rate and severity 
of airplane icing conditions. Patent 2,641,928. 

A tiny camera with its own light source for 
taking pictures inside the body. Patent 2,641,977. 

X-rays in colors which show up substances 
like slivers of glass invisible to ordinary X-rays. 
Patent 2,644,096. 

A way of sending military messages by radio 
without enemy interception by interspersing the 
message signals between bursts of radio jam- 
ming pulses. Patent 2,645,677. 

A weather balloon made of neoprene treated 
with a plasticizer to protect the fabric against 
the cold at night. Patent 2,646,370. 

A “snap sampler” to enable a drone airplane 
to obtain samples of air from radioactive clouds 
after atom bomb explosions. Patent 2,645,940. 

A flotation process for recovering uranium 
more easily from its ores. Patent 2,647,629. 

A substance that prevents corrosion in idle 
internal combustion engines if sprayed into the 
cylinders. Patent 2,648,643. 

A compound containing haloaryl sulfinic or 
thiosulfinic acid or their salts for use to control 
the growth of plants. Patent 2,632,698. 

Use of strontium titanate as a substitute for 
ordinary glass in special telescopes and other 
optical instruments. ‘Patent 2,628,156. 

A device for fixing slow leaks in tires by 
forcing an air-setting latex paste through the 
rupture in the casing until it covers the hole 
in the inner tube. Patent 2,646,707. 

A color film for the Polaroid-Land 
minute” camera. Patent 2,647,049. 

An apparatus for remote control bombing 
with gliders. Patent 2,649,262. 

Clothing to protect servicemen against mus- 
tard gas and other vesicants. Patent 2,649,389. 

An electricity-conducting glass sandwich 
which is fortified against operational failure, 
for such use as in heated windshields. Patent 

A safety seat, for airplane pilots and others, 
with a harness that tightens automatically in 
case of mishap. Patent 2,650,655. 

A fluid drive system for turbo-prop aircraft 
that permits the turbine to start unloaded. 
Patent 2,652,730. 

A submersible barge for petroleum engineers 
to use in deep water. Patent 2,653,452. 

Plastic landing mats for temporary air fields; 
they grip the ground and can be stacked in 
layers for added strength when heavy planes 
are to land. Patent 2,653,525. 

A rocket for remote controlled flights; it 
splits in two when the mission is completed 
and the instrument-carrying nose is lowered 


safely through use of helicopter motors. Patent 

A device for preventing icing in a jet engine. 
Patent 2,654,992. 

A glove hermetically sealed to garment sleeve 
for protecting flesh against dangerous liquids 
and gases. Patent 2,656,663. 

A floating oil storage tank for off-shore drill- 
ers. Patent 2,655,888. 

A non-wetting plastic matrix for printing 
electronic circuits on plastic, ceramics or glass. 
Patent 2,656,570. 

An electromagnetic pump for handling “hot” 
liquids in atomic plants. Patent 2,658,452. 

The synchrotron, a powerful atom smasher 
that increases the magnetic field in proportion 
to increase in mass of the electrons at high 
energies. Patent 2,624,841. 

A warning device for dangerous temperatures 
in jet airplane engines. Patent 2,621,239. 

A mechanical circulation device to substitute 
for a patient’s heart and lungs during delicate 
heart operations. Patent 2,659,368. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 


ASTRONOMY—When will a total eclipse of 
the sun next be visible from the U. S.? p. 407. 

ep) es ira) 

DERMATOLOGY—How can the chronic itcher 
get relief? p. 402. 

ELECTRONICS—What is FOSDIC? p. 409. 

MEDICINE—For how long has a two-headed 
baby been known to survive? p. 405. 


SURGERY—Who were the original Siamese 
twins? p. 404. 


Photographs: Cover and p. 403, U. S. Army; p. 
405, General Electric; p. 412, Vern S. Skamser 

Science News Letter for December 26, 1953 





> MISTLETOE, WHICH all over the 
country is making boys bold and girls 
blush, has many reputations. None are 
as romantic as the one we briefly bestow on 
it at the Yuletide season. 

For one thing, during the workaday 
months of the year mistletoe is thought of, 
if at all, preeminently as a plant pest. It is 
a plant that grows on trees as a parasite. 
In Australia mistletoe reached the status of 
a major pest. Its principal victim there was 
the eucalyptus tree, on which it worked 
such damage that weed killers were used 
in a full scale campaign against it. 

Mistletoe is native to both the Old World 
and the New, the two being different forms 
of the same family. Many legends and 
charms were associated with the mistle- 
toe in Europe. According to one belief, the 
mistletoe was once a full grown tree that 
grew like any proper tree on its own roots 
sunk firmly in the soil. Then, the legend 
has it, its timber was cut for the cross on 
which Christ was crucified. Since then it 
has dwindled to its present low estate, a 
dwarf and a parasite living off other trees. 

ERRATA, Vol. 64, Nos. 1-26, July-December, 1953 

24 New Anti-Ulcer 



The belief is still held in some of the 
more superstitious parts of Germany that 
mistletoe will make ghosts appear and if 
you talk to them they will answer you. 

Among the ancient Druids, mistletoe was 
a symbol of spirit, since it grew in the air 
on the sacred oak. At the year’s end, a 
Druid priest in a white robe would cut the 
mistletoe with a golden sickle. A white 
cloth spread on the ground made certain 
that the twig did not touch earth. 

The people would make charm bracelets 
and rings of the plant. Worn on the per- 
son or fastened over doorways, it was be- 
lieved to have power to ward off evil. 

The seeds of this parasitic plant, which 
has meant so many different things to differ- 
ent men and different ages, are given a wide 
range by the birds that feed on the berries. 
The seeds are sticky and they adhere to the 
bill of the feeding bird. Later the bird will 
clean his bill by rubbing it against the bark 
of a tree. 

The seed sticks to the bark. Eventually 
it puts out a tap root which penetrates the 
bark and draws on the food circulating in 
the tree’s sap. 

Mistletoe has many facets: Cupid’s ally, 
plant pest, magic charm, wood of the cross. 
It is also the official state flower of Okla- 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Warns of Hearing Loss 
From “Gin and Tonic” 

> “GIN AND tonic,” alchoholic beverage 
that has grown increasingly popular, at 
least in eastern United States, may cause 
ringing in the ears and even deafness in 
some persons, Dr. Stephen Bennett Yo- 
halem of New York warns in a report to 
the Journal of the American Medical As- 
sociation (Dec. 5). 

The ear trouble would come from the 
quinine in the “tonic,” or quinine water. 
While the amount per pint is probably so 
small that the average grown person would 
have to drink an “enormous” amount to 
get the ear trouble, some persons have an 
idiosyncrasy to quinine and they might get 
in trouble from smaller amounts of the 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Last paragraph, lines 2 and 3, read retail for 

to 7 cents a tablet. 

47 Better Humidity Par. 4, first sentence to read The instrument 
employs the principle of selective absorp- 
tion of two bands in the infrared portion 
of the visible spectrum. 

Col. 2, lines 16-18, read Escherichia coli, 
Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megathe- 
rium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 

Samples in DisOrder? 
Write for three good ideas about keeping 
small samples in order. 

Just ask for leaflets X-SNL 

Clue to 

Soap and Water Research not based on experimental work, but 
presented new theory explaining how bac- 

teria are killed. 

Mois-Tec RG 

“Cosmic Stopwatch” 

Line 5, to a hundred years read to nearly 300 
(p. 195) years. 

A new reagent for low concentrations of 
water, with possibilities of usefulness in many 

Fluorescent Light 
g fields. 

Line 4, Stoutmeyer for Stoutemyer. 
Dc You Know Write for Data Sheet RG-SNL 

117 Liberty Street, New York, N. Y. 

Lines 3 and 4, order for family. 

Col. 3, last line, read attain speeds of 70 miles 
an hour. 

—_— ar 


-~ Screncze News Lerrer for December 26, 1953 



- New Machines and Gadgets - 

For. sources of more information on new things described, send a self-addressed stamped envelope to SCIENCE NEWS LETTER, 1719 N St., N.W., Washington 6, 
D. C., and ask for Gadget Bulletin 706. To receive this Gadget Bulletin without special request each week, remit $1.50 for one year’s subscription. 

%% AIR COOLER, although not a room air 
conditioning device, is placed a few feet 
away from the user and is plugged into a 
household electrical outlet. It chills and 
dehumidifies air passing through it and 
blows the cool air toward the user. In win. 
ter, it humidifies air passing through its 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

4 FRY BOARD is made of hickory wood 
and has a little wooden handle. It is placed 
on meat in the frying pan to speed up the 
cooking. Measuring nine inches long, 3.5 
inches wide and % of an inch thick, the 
device is especially good to keep bacon 
“troned out.” s 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

% DOOR PULL has an extension at its 
bottom so that persons can pull doors open 
by hooking an arm around the extension. 
Said to be particularly suitable for hospitals, 
the door pull is optional hardware on a spe- 
cial hollow metal door. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

cial handle tip that twirls. Designed to help 
the housewife and mechanic tighten screws 
rapidly, it is shown in the photograph. In 
addition, a metal mallet-like device slides up 
the shank of the screwdriver to provide 
extra gripping leverage when needed. When 


ii 12-26-3 

positioned near the screwdriver’s blade, the `: 
mallet also doubles as the business end of a 
tack hammer. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

4 RUSTY-METAL PRIMER is particu- 
larly useful where rust removal by sand- 
blasting is impractical or dangerous. Loose 
rust is scraped off the metal to be treated 
with vinyl resin-base protective topcoatings. 

aaaeeeaa aaa lalelelaaiaiatnaeiaieialelalatelalelalalalelalalaladelelelelelelltatttttttittttt ttt.) tid 
i a 

Your SNL Copies 

stamped in gold on front and spine, 
this excellent buff buckram binder 
costs $2.50 postpaid. Snap new 
issues into the cover with a little 
unbreakable hooked wire. Remove 
any issue you desire and reinsert it 
just as easily. The binder holds 26 
copies, opens freely, allows pages 
to lie flat, is strong enough to last 
for years. 

To: Science News Letter, 1719 N St. 
N.W., Washington 6, D. C. 

Send me.............. SNL binders at $2.50 
each, postpaid. My name is imprinted 
to the left. 

Then the primer is applied followed by two 
coats of the anti-corrosion material. This 
primer is not recommended for new or 
bright metal. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

been developed for use on automobile bat- 
tery terminals and in other situations where 
metal-to-metal contact breeds corrosion. The 
chemical is painted on the metal to be pro- 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

4 EXTRA-WIDE BRAKE pedal for cars 
with automatic transmissions can be in- 
stalled in less than a minute, the maker re- 
ports. Designed to be used by either the 
right or left foot, the pedal originally was 
developed to aid the handicapped driver. 

Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

designed especially for children who like to 
make snowballs. The mittens are water- 
proof, therefore melting snow cannot filter 
through to soak the fleecy innerlinings. 
Science News Letter, December 26, 1953 

Do You Kaow? 

Firearm accidents take about 2,200 lives 
annually in the U. S. 

The U.S. consumes 35%, of the world’s 
total soap production. 

Heating pipes are being installed as a 
part of Boston’s new expressway to melt 
snow and ice from all access ramps. 

Water stains on glass pitchers and vases 
usually can be removed by rubbing them 
vigorously with freshly cut potato. 

In America there are more than 4,400 
privately owned tree farms, operated on 
about 28,000,000 acres. 

The sales value of soft drinks in 1952 ex- 
ceeded that of ice cream and almost 
equalled the production value of the plas- 
tics industry. 

It is not safe to collect young, unopened 
mushrooms for eating, since it is often dif- 
cult to distinguish between poisonous and 
edible species in the early stages. 

A specially built labor-saving device has 
been introduced on a railway project in 
North Norway; weighing seven tons, it lays 
108-foot lengths of rail at a time, complete 
with 52 pre-fixed cross ties.