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March 1989 



Canada $4.95 U.S. $3.95 



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THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 




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ami* «" 



rd Drive 
- Guide 








Discover the Inner Workings of the CoCo 3 
Add a Point-and-Click Interface to Your BASIC Programs 









Plus: Scratch Golfer, a Numeric Keypad, 
Two New OS-9 Utilities and MORE! 



3Erad 



"44254"00001 l 



■ 









Still pounding away at that keyboard? 




Save Time and Money with a Combination Subscrip 



SAVE up to 19%" 

when you buy a joint sub- 
scription to the magazine and 
either rainbow on tape or 
rainbow ON disk! A one-year 
subscription to the rainbow 
and rainbow on tape is only 
$91 in the U.S., $108 in Can- 
ada, $153 foreign surface rate 
and $188 foreign airmail. A 
one-year subscription to the 
rainbow and rainbow on 
DISK is only $115 in the U.S., 
$138 in Canada, $183 foreign 
surface rate and $218 foreign 
airmail.* 

Every month, these convenient 
services bring you as many as 24 
ready-to-run programs. Using the 
current issue of the rainbow as 
documentation, all you have to do is 
load and run them. A one-year com- 
bination subscription to the rain- 



bow and rainbow on tape or rain- 
bow on disk give you more than 230 
new programs! The typing time you 
save can be spent enjoying your 
CoCo! 



RAINBOW ON TAPE 
For No-Fuss Fun 

Back issues of rainbow on tape 
are available beginning with the 
April 1982 issue. A single copy of 
rainbow on tape is $10 within the 
United States; U.S. $12 in all other 
countries. The annual subscription 
rate for rainbow on tape is $80 
within the U.S.; U.S. $90 in Canada; 
and U.S. $105 for all other coun- 
tries.* 



RAINBOW ON DISK 
Offers OS-9 Programs 

In addition to all the programs 
offered on tape, part of one side of 
rainbow on disk is formatted for the 
OS-9 operating system. That means 
you can now get all the OS-9 pro- 
grams from the magazine — pro- 
grams that cannot be put on tape. 
Back issues of rainbow on disk are 
available beginning with October 
1986. Subscriptions to rainbow on 
disk are $99 a year in the U.S. Cana- 
dian rate is U.S. $115. All other 
countries, U.S. $130. Single copy 
rate is $12 in the U.S.; U.S. $14 in 
Canada; and U.S. $16 in all other 
countries.* 



To order by phone (credit card orders only), call (800) 847- 
0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. All other inquiries call (502) 228- 
4492. 

Look for our envelope located between pages 66 and 67 for 
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tape and rainbow on disk. 



YES! Sign me up for a joint 1-year subscription (12 issues) to: 



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for delivery of first copies. Joint subscriptions to the rainbow and rainbow on tape or rainbow on disk begin with the current issue. 

Please note: While group purchases of RAINBOW ON tape and RAINBOW ON disk are permitted (and multiple subscriptions are even discounted, if purchased in one 
order from a club), no license to make copies is conveyed or implied. Yes. your group may even purchase a subscription to our disk/tape services, but such purchase 
in no way authorizes that any copies be made of that original disk/tape. Specifically, this means that the original disk/lape itself may indeed be kept in a club library 
lor use by members. However, a group purchase does not entitle club members, individually or as a group, to copy that disk/tape. 
Unauthorized copying of any copyright product is strictly illegal. The copyright (right to make copies) is in no way conveyed in the purchase transaction 



From Computer Plus to YOU 



T 



after 



T 



after 




Tandy 1400 LT $1129* 
Tandy 102 32K $439 
Tandy 200 24K $429* 



E£r~~~3 



Color Computer 3 
w/128KExt. Basic $159 




Tandy 1000 SL $689 
Tandy 1000 TL $969 




DMM32$289 







Color Computer Disk Drive 
Drive $179* Drivel $149 I 




TandyFax$1029 



BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL 

COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 HX 1 Drive 256K 439.00" 

Tandy 1 000 TX 1 Drive 640K 799.00' 

Tandy 3000 NL 1 Drive 51 2K 1 279.00 

Tandy 4000 1 Drive 1 Meg. Ram 1959.00 

Tandy 5000 MC 2 Meg. Ram 3799.00 
PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-106 80 CPS 169.00* 

Radio Shack DMP-1 32 1 20 CPS 289.00 

Radio Shack DMP-440 300 CPS 549.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 Daisy Wheel349.00 

Tandy LP-1 000 Laser Printer 1 899.00 

Star MlcronlcsNX-1000 144 CPS 199.00 
Star Micronics NX-1000 Rainbow 269.00 

Panasonic P-1080i 144 CPS 199.00 

Panasonic P-10911 194CPS 249.00 

Panasonic P-1 092i 240 CPS 369.00 

Okidata320 300 CPS 369.00 

Okldata390 270CPS24WireHd 515.00 

NEC Plnwriter P-2200 170 CPS 399.00 
MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-6 52.00 

Radio Shack DCM-7 85.00 

Practical Peripheral 2400 Baud 229.00 

Practical Peripheral 1200 Baud 149.00 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-143-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 
SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 

COCO Max III by Colorware 79.95 

MaxlObyColorware 79.95 

AutoTerm by PXE Computing 29.95 39.95 
TW-80 by Spectrum (CoCo3) 39.95 

TeleWrlter 64 49.95 59.95 

Telewriter 128 79.95 

Elite Word 80 79.95 

Elite Calc 3.0 69.95 

CoCo 3 51 2K Super Ram Disk 1 9.95 

Home Publisher by Tandy (CoCo3) 35.95 



COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 

Extended Basic Rom Kit (28 pin) 14.95 
64K Ram Upgrade Kit (2 or 8 chip) 39.00 
Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 
HI-RES Joystick Interface 8.95 

Color Computer Del uxe Mouse 44.00 
Multi Pak Pal Chip for COCO 3 14.95 
PBH Converter with 64K Buffer 119.00 
Serial to Parallel Converter 59.95 

Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 

Magnavox 8515 RGB Monitor 299.00 
Magnavox Green or Amber Monitor99.00 
Radio Shack CM-8 RGB Monitor 249.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
PBJ OK COCO 3 Upgrade Board 19.95 
PBJ512K COCO 3 Upgrade 159.00 

Tandy OK COCO 3 Upgrade Board 24.95 
Tandy 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 149.00 
COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 
The Wild West (CoCo3) 25.95 

Worlds Of Flight 34.95 34.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Slmul. 34.95 34.95 
Flight 16 Flight Slmul. 34.95 34.95 



Sub Battle Sim. by Epyx (CoCo3) 
Thexder by Sierra (CoCo3) 
Kings Quest III by Sierra (CoCo3) 
Flight Slm.ll by SubLogic (CoCo3) 
OS-9 Level II by Tandy 
OS-9 Development System 
Multi-View by Tandy 
VIP Writer (disk only) 
VIP Integrated Library (disk) 



26.95 
22.45 
31.45 
31.45 
71.95 
89.95 
44.95 
69.95 
149.95 



Prices ore subject to change without notice. 
Please call lor shipping charges. Prices In our re- 
tall store may be higher. Send lor complete 
catalog 
"Sale prices through 2/28/89 



com 



C& 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (508) 486-31 93 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp 




Featu 



res 



14 

GIME Power 

Rick Adams 

The powerhouse chip inside 

our favorite machine 



30 ^ 

Let There Be Music 

William P. Nee 

Part IX: Machine language 

made BASIC 

34 




34 

Upgrading the 
Color Computer's 
Memory 

Martin H. Goodman, M.D. 
Get everything you want 
from your Color Computer. 

44 

A Hard Drive 

for Your CoCo 

Martin H. Goodman, M.D. 
A comparative look at 
complete systems and the 
various components of a hard 
drive 



March 1989 
Vol. VII No. 7 

58 

Scratch Golfer ^ 

Larry Duggins 

Enjoy the game on and oil 

the green 



100 




88 ^ 

The Do-lt-Yourself 
Database, Part II 

Richard Perlman 
Designing your own money 
management system 

100 ^ 

The CoCo Desktop 

Tony Zamora 

Add a point-and-click 

interface to your BASIC 

programs 

44 



fli 



X 



SO-VV.re SASl'SCS' 
Inierta-e Ced* 




phl Deiu»e System- only 



S T 50G'ST^? 
interlace Cao.ei 



^Httfi Or ■- .' 



""I Har; Dr. 
^iM Corn-on 



3d W re CaDit 



Host 
AOHpte' 



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THE RAINBOW March 1989 



78 

Big Brother's Watching 

Kenneth R. Hill 

79 

CoColeidoscope 

Andy Wolstromer 

79 

ASCII Calc 

Greg Bauer 

80 

Five-Column Directories 

Bill Bernico 

80 

ASCII Search 

Stephen Miller 

81 

The Mathematics of 
Chaos 

John E. Phillips 

82 

Will it Float? 

James Abell 



..«■ The cassette tape/disk sym- 
SJ bols beside features and col- 
umns indicate that the program listings 
with those articles are on this month's 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAIN- 
BOW on disk. Those with only the 
disk symbol are not available on 
rainbow on tape. For details, 
check the rainbow on tape and 
rainbow on disk ad on the 
inside iront cover. 



D ep a rtme nts ' 



Advertisers Index 
Back Issue Info _ 
CoCo Gallery 



_160 
_ 73 
_ 26 

Letters to Rainbow 6 

One-Liners 148, 152 

One-Liner Contest 

Information 

Racksellers 

Rainbow Info 



.146 
_158 
_ 8 



Received & Certified 128 

Submitting Material 

to Rainbow 143 

Subscription Info 144 



Columns 



130 ^ 

BASICally Speaking ^T 

Bill Bernico 

BASIC problems solved here 

76 

CoCo Consultations 

Marty Goodman 

Just what the doctor ordered 

96 

Delphi Bureau 

Don Hutchison 

New commands, virus demos 

and Don's database report 

94 

Doctor ASCII 

Richard Esposito 
The question fixer 

28 

Education Notes -^ 

Steve Blyn 
Animal stories 

10 

PRINT#-2, 

Lawrence C. Falk 
Editor's Notes 



132 

Turn of the Screw 

Tony DiStefano 
Do you read me? 

Wishing Well -> 

Fred Scerbo 

From keyboard to keypad 



Dainhnm 4c*r>fc»_ 

n din ukj wicun 



154 

Accessible Applications 

Richard A. White 

The importance ol standard 

formats in directory use 

136 

KISSable OS-9 ^ 

Dale L. Puckett 
Programs to tempt the 
DECB user 

Barden's Buffer will return 
next month. 



>ws- 



Disto Assortment/CftC Computers . 
Football U/Tandy Corp. 



GAT Backup/GSW Software. 
I Ching/7of/7/'an Software 



L1+L2 Utility Pak/D.P. Johnson 

Leonardo's Paintbox/f.Z. Friendly 
Quantum**Leap/JR & JR Softstuff^ 
R.S.B./Burke & Burke 



Silpheed/Tandy Corp 

Solid Drive/ Vidicom Corp. 

YahtzzzAVfl & JR Softstuff 

ZoomDump/Cod/'s Enterprises 



_122 
_120 
_113 
_124 
_116 
_124 
_121 
_110 
_115 
_126 
-121 
-112 



the rainbow is published every month ol the year by FALSOFT. Inc., The 
Falsolt Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059, 
phone (502) 228-4492. THE RAINBOW. RAINBOWIett and THE RAINBOW and 
RAINBOWfest logotypes are registered • trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • 
Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and additional ollices. USPS N. 705- 
050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797}, POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE 
RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385. Prospect, KY 40059. Authorized as second class 
postage paid Irom Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
• Entire contents copyright » by FALSOFT, Inc., 1989. the rainbow is intended 
lor the private use and pleasure ol its subscribers and purchasers and 
reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use ol Information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All 
programs herein are distributed In an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind 
whatsoever. • Tandy. Color basic. Extended Color basic and Program Pak are 
registered * trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to the rainbow 
are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail 
to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin with 
next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for 
issues that are in print and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard, 
American Express, cash, check or money order In U.S. currency only. Full 
refund after mailing of one issue. A refund of 1 0/1 2ths the subscription amount 
alter two issues are mailed. No refund after mailing ol three or more magazines. 



The Rainbow 



Editor and Publisher 
Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor Julia Kapfhammer 

Associate Editor Sue Fomby 

Reviews Editor Lauren WilloughDy 

Submissions Editor Tony Olive 

Copy Editor Beth Haendlges 

Technical Editors Cray Augsburg. 
Ed Ellers 

Technical Assistant David Horrar 

Editorial Assistants Wendy Falk Barsky. 
Sue H. Evans 

Contributing Editors 
William Barden, Jr., Bill Bernico, 
Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano. 
Richard Esposito. 
Martin Goodman, M.D.. 
Joseph Kolar, Dale Puckelt. 
Fred Scerbo. Richard White 

Art Director Heidi Maxedon 

Designers Sharon Adams, 
Ten Kays. Denise Webb 

Typesetters Linda Gower, 
Renee Hutchins 

Falsolt, Inc. 



President Lawrence C. Falk 
General Manager Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Assl. General Mgr. lor Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Admin. Asst. to the Publisher 

Sarah Levin 
Editorial Director John Crawley 
Asst. Editorial Director Judi Hutchinson 
Senior Editor T Kevin Nickols 
Director ol Production Jim Cleveland 
Chiel Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Dealer Accounts Judy Ouashnock 
Assl. General Manager For Administration 

Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager 

Patricia Eaton 
Customer Service Manager 

Beverly Bearden 
Customer Service Representative 

Carolyn Fenwick 
Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 
Chiet ol Printing Services Melba Smith 
Dispatch Michael Willis 
Business Assistants Laurie Falk, 

Vivian Turbeville 
Chief ol Building Security 
and Maintenance 

Jessie Brooks 
Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representatives 

Belinda Kirby, Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 
(502) 228-4492 

For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, 

see Page 160 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 




&.fottt& 



Ma Bell "Bytes" Off a "Bit" Too Much 

Editor: 

On September 30, SysOps of bulletin 
board systems in the Houston area 
began receiving calls from Southwest- 
ern Bell Telephone Company stating 
that their rates would be changed from 
residential to commercial. This decision 
on the part of Bell was due to a "recent 
clarification of an existing tariff." 
Although those who received the calls 
protested that they were not in business 
and that their bulletin board systems 
were free. Bell did not relent. 

The higher rates will not only mean 
a lower resale value on many computer 
owner's expensive equipment, but, for 
some, will put an end to a once- 
affordable hobby. 

Southwestern Bell spokesman Ken 
Brasel said Bell was simply rectifying its 
own error. "We shouldn't have con- 
nected these (bulletin boards) at the 
residential rate to begin with," he said. 
"When the lines are used to provide a 
service to others, it is business. Whether 
for profit or not isn't germane." 

By this definition, what distinction is 
there between business and residential 
users? Some may argue that since 
churches, government, charities and 
other nonprofit organizations are 
charged at business rates, the same rule 
applies to home computer users. But 
even those organizations endeavor to 
make money, taxable or nontaxable. 
Users of SysOps and BBSs, however, 
generally do not. In fact, the only 
connection with business these persons 
have is that their hobby has worked to 
greatly expand and develop the tele- 
communications industry, making 
equipment more affordable. 

Computer users everywhere have 
begun a letter writing and phone call 
campaign to Bell, the Public Utilities 
Commission of Texas and the FCC. It 
has been sucessful in temporarily re- 
versing the commercial rate to free 
BBSs. We hope the new tariff will 
recommend BBS users be charged at the 
residential rate, but we need continued 
support. 

Beware: If it happened in Texas, it 
could also happen in your state. 

Nancy Ward, Secretary 

Houston Area Co Co Club 

Pasadena, Texas 



BACK TALK 

Editor: 

1 read with interest the letter written 
in "utter desparation" to RAINBOW by 
Mr. Ron Hengerer of Jacksonville, 
Florida (January '88, Page 6). It seems 
to me that Mr. Hengerer should be 
doing what the fellow on the cover is 
doing in the same issue. I often wonder 
what some of those who buy computers 
and other electronic devices do with the 
manuals that come with them. It seems 
to me that 95 percent or more of ques- 
tions asked by novices can be answered 
by the manual. The clincher was the fact 
that he bought a modem and does not 
know what it is or what it is used for. 
If a beginner starts at the front of the 
manual, studies each chapter in turn 
until he comes to the last one, and tries 
the do-it-yourself programs as I did a 
couple of years ago, he will have fewer 
problems. He will know about pokes 
and peeks, sines and cosines, for they 
are all in the book. This is not to say 
I did not have questions, but only after 
searching both manuals packed in the 
box with my Color Computer 3 did I 
ask them elsewhere. 

Russell Robbins 
Pennsauken, New Jersey 

REQUEST HOTLINE 

Editor: 

For those of us who came back to 
CoCo, please be so kind as to reprint 
some of those old utilities. I'm referring 
to such programs as Merge for disk 
drives, found in "Get it Together With 
Disk Merge" (February '85, Page 175). 
Also, you had a program that runs 
programs from tape without pulling the 
disk drive interface out of the computer. 

I have a CoCo 2 and a single drive 
from Radio Shack as well as many 1985 
programs. For awhile, after suffering a 
stroke, my programming days were 
over. But now I have the ability to 
continue my past pleasures, and 1 would 
like to run old tapes through the disk 
drive, as well as the new ones found in 
your magazine. 

1 hope to find them in future issues. 
It feels good to get back in the world of 
digitals. 

Norbert B. Nowak 
Taylor, Michigan 



Welcome back to computing! 

There's no need to miss out on past 
issues of THE RAINBOW. See Page ???for 
a list of the back issues that are avail- 
able. Although some issues are no 
longer in print, article copies can be 
obtained for $2, and back issues of 
RAINBOW ON TA PE and DISK are always 
available (seepage ???for more details). 

To free up more memory to run long 
programs without unplugging your disk 
drive, check out Jeremy Spiller's Disk 
OH program (July '88, Page 118). While 
this version runs on the CoCo I and 2, 
a version for the CoCo 3 is printed on 
Page 100 of the December '88 issue. 

And They're Off 

Editor: 

I was wondering why 1 have never 
seen an advertisement for a well-written 
horse-race game. I know that more 
people than just my family and I would 
like to see one. 

A program like this would go over big 
because more than two people could 
play at the same time, and it could 
include the daily double, exacta, trifecta 
and quinella. Players could consider the 
track condition, jockey standings, speed 
ratings, distance of race and post posi- 
tion. 

Anyone thinking of writing a pro- 
gram like the one I describe can write 
to me for information. 

Jim Kirk 
General Delivery 
Logan, IL 62856 



INFORMATION PLEASE 

Editor: 

I recently acquired two Color Com- 
puter 2s (one 16K, the other 64K). 
However, I was unable to buy, borrow, 
steal or locate a manual. Please tell me 
where a manual for the above can be 
found. 

Arthur W. Woodall 

60S So. Court St. 

Water Valley, MS 38965 

Manuals for the CoCos I, 2 and 3 can 
be ordered at your local Radio Shack 
store through Tandy National Parts. 
You'll need to indicate the stock 
number found on the bottom of your 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S £* 

SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 

EXTRA FEATURES ON COCO 3 DISK 

80 char, screen, 2400 baud thru serial port, 
95,000 to 475,000 character buffer. 



EASY COMMUNICATION + WORD PROCESSING + TOTAL AUTOMATION 



Full prompting and error checking. 
Step-by-step manual has examples. 
Scroll text backward and forward. No 
split words on screen or printout. 
Save, load, delete files while on line. 
Print, save all or any part of text. 300 
or 1200 baud. All 128 ASCII 
characters. Works with D.C. Hayes or 
any modem. Screen widths of 32, 40, 
42, 51, 64. 

DISK VERSION SUPPORTS RS232 
PAK, XMODEM and SPLIT SCREEN 
FOR PACKET RADIO. 



Please hire the mentally retarded. 

They are sincere, hard working and 

appreciative. Thanks! _, „. 

Kr Phyllis. 



Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly too! 
Insert printer control codes. Specify 
page size and margins. Switch 
quickly between word processing 
and intelligent terminal action. Create 
text, correct your typing errors; then 
connect to the other computer, 
upload your text or files, download 
information, file it, and sign-off; then 
edit the receive data, print it in an 
attractive format, and/or save it on 
file. Compatible with TELEWRITER. 

CASSETTE S29.95 
DISKETTE S39.95 

Add S3 shipping and handling 
MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



Advanced system of keystroke 
macros lets you automate any 
activity, such as dial via modem, 
sign-on, interact, sign-off, print, save. 
Perform entire session. Act as 
message taker. At start-up, disk 
version can automatically set 
parameters, dial, sign-on, interact, 
read/write disk, sign-off, etc. Timed 
execution lets AUTOTERM work 
while you sleep or play. No other 
computer can match your COCO's 
intelligence as a terminal. 

PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



machine. For quicker service, be sure to 
prepay when ordering. 

KUDOS 

Editor: 

I am a great fan of THE RAINBOW and 
anxiously wait for the new one each 
month. I don't program at all and use 
the magazine for the advertisers and to 
keep up with the CoCo Clubs. 

I am writing specifically to ask that 
you evaluate the word processing pro- 
gram Word Power 3.2. I have used 
many word processing programs, but 
this one is the best one I have used so 
far and is simple to learn. 

I was able to read the instruction 
book in an hour and go right into using 
the program. For the first time I could 
use bold, double-wide, underline, etc. 
Whenever I have a problem with one of 
its programs (usually caused by some- 
thing dumb that I have done), Micro- 
corn has always straightened me out. 
The owner has even called me person- 
ally when I've had a problem. If it is a 
bug, I get a new corrected disk within 
the week. Microcom has even helped me 



put the printer codes on the disk over 
the phone. 

I use Word Power for all my word- 
processing needs, both personal and 
business. The upgrades are great but I'm 
surprised Microcom can keep making 
such a good program better. 

Kenneth Br owns on 
Newark, Delaware 

See next month 's issue for a compar- 
ative review of the word processors 
available on the Co Co market. 

A Standing Ovation 

Editor: 

1 would like to give hearty applause 
to an advertiser of yours — Zebra 
Systems, Inc. I purchased its old CoCo 
Graphics Designer, which I was pleased 
with. While at the Princeton RAIN- 
BOWfest, I decided to update to CGD 
Plus. Upon returning home with my 
trusty program, I discovered it would 
not run on my CoCo 2. There were 
repeated conversations, notes, etc., but 
this company steadfastly stood by me. 
My problems were isolated to my sys- 



tem, yet Zebra promptly worked out the 
bugs. Now, several "test" disks later, I 
have a great sign, banner and card 
designer so simple my seven-year-old 
can run it by himself. Thank you. Zebra 
Systems! 

Kathie Donaldson 
Ml. Holly, New Jersey 



THE kainbow welcomes letters to 
the editor. Mail should be addressed 
to: Letters to Rainbow, The l-'alsoft 
Building, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. Letters should include the 
writer's full name and address. Letters 
may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or to conserve space. 

Letters to the editor may also be 
sent to us through our Delphi CoCo 
S1G. From the CoCo S1G> prompt, 
typeRAI to take you into the Rainbow 
Magazine Services area of the SIC. At 
the RAINBOW> prompt, type LET to 
reach the LETTERS> prompt and 
then select Letters for Publication. Be 
sure to include your complete name 
and address. 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 




How To Read Rainbow 



When we use the term CoCo, we refer to an affection- 
ate name that was first given to the Tandy Color 
Computer by its many fans, users and owners. 

The basic program listings printed in the rain- 
bow are formatted for a 32-character screen — so they 
show up just as they do on your CoCo screen. One easy 
way to check on the accuracy of your typing is to com- 
pare what character "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings come out the same 
— you have a pretty good way of knowing that your 
typing is accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you the minimum 
system a program needs. But, do read the text before 
you start typing. 

Finally, the little disk and/or cassette symbols on the 
table of contents and at the beginning of articles 
indicate that the program is available through our 

RAINBOWON DISK Or RAINBOW ON TAPEService. 



Using Machine Language 



The easiest way to "put" a machine language program 
into memory is to use an editor/assembler, a program 
you can purchase from a number of sources. All you 
have to do, essentially, is copy the relevant instructions 
from the rainbow's listing into CoCo. 

Another method of putting an ML listing into CoCo 
is called "hand assembly" — assembly by hand, which 
sometimes causes problems with OR I G I N or EQUATE 
statements. You ought to know something about 
assembly to try this. 

Use the following program if you want to hand- 
assemble ML listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3FB0 

20 PRINT "ADDRESS: ";HEX$(I); 

30 INPUT ~BYTE";BS 

10 POKE I, VAL("&H~+B$) 

50 I = I+1:GOTO20 

This program assumes you have a 16K CoCo. If you 
have 32K, change the &H3F80 in Line 10 to &H7F00 
and change the value of I to &H7F80. 



OS-9 and RAINBOW ON DISK 



The OS-9 side of rainbow on disk contains two 
directories: CMDS and SOURCE. It also contains a file, 
read . «ib . f i rs t, which explains the division of the 
two directories. The CMDS directory contains executa- 
ble programs and the SOURCE directory contains the 
ASCII source code for these programs. BASIC09 
programs will only be offered in source form so they will 
only be found in the SOURCE directory. 

OS-9 is a very powerful operating system. Because 
of this, it is not easy to learn at first. However, while we 
can give specific instructions for using the OS-9 



programs, you will find that the OS-9 programs will be 
of little use unless you are familiar with the operating 
system. For this reason, if you haven't "learned" OS-9 
or are not comfortable with it, we suggest you read The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 by Dale Puckett and 
Peter Dibble. 

The following is not intended as a course in OS-9. It 
merely states how to get the OS-9 programs from 
rainbow on disk to your OS-9 system disk. Use 
the procedures appropriate for your system. Before 
doing so, however, boot the OS-9 operating system 
according to the documentation from Radio Shack. 

1) Type load dir list copy and press enter. 

2) If you have only one disk drive, remove the OS-9 
system disk from Drive and replace it with the OS- 
9 side of rainbow on disk. Then type chd'da 
and press enter. If you have two disk drives, leave 
the sytem master in Drive and put the rainbow 
ON DISK in Drive 1. Then type chd--dl and press 

ENTER. 

3) List the read . me . F i rs t file to the screen by typing 
list read . me . f i rs t and pressing ENTER. 

4) Entering dir will give you a directory of the OS-9 
side of rainbow on disk. To see what programs 
are in the CMOS directory, enter di r cmds. Follow 
a similar method to see what source files are in the 
SOURCE directory, 

5) When you find a program you want to use, copy it 
to the CMDS directory on your system disk with one 
of the following commands: 

One-drive system: copy •'dO-'cmds-' filename 'd<b' 
cmds'lilename -s 

The system will prompt you to alternately place the 
source disk (rainbow on disk) or the destination 
disk (system disk) in Drive 0. 
Two-drive system: copy 'dl'cmds' filename 'dQ/ 
cmds' iilename 

Once you have copied the program, you execute it 
from your system master by placing that disk in Drive 
and entering the name of the file. 



The Rainbow Seal 



rainbow 



The Rainbow Certilication Seal is our way of helping 
you, the consumer. The purpose of the Seal is to certify 
to you that any product that carries the Seal has actually 
been seen by us, that it does, indeed, exist and that we 
have a sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hardware, software and 
firmware — are encouraged by us to submit their prod- 
ucts to the rainbow for certification. 

The Seal is not a "guarantee of satisfaction." The 
certification process is different from the review 
process. You are encouraged to read our reviews to 
determine whether the product is right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship between advertis- 
ing in the rainbow and the certification process. 
Certification is open and available to any product per- 



taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded to any com- 
mercial product, regardless of whether the firm adver- 
tises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of instances of violation 
ol Seal use. 



Rainbow Check Plus 



rcT 



The small box accompanying a program listing in 
the rainbow is a "check sum" system, which is 
designed to help you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the number and values 
of characters you type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the rainbow. 
On longer programs, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those lines with your 
typing, simply check to see if the numbers match. 

To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in the program 
and save it for later use, then type in the command RUN 
and press enter. Once the program has run, type new 
and press enter to remove it from the area where the 
program you're typing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the rainbow, 
whenever you press the down arrow key, your CoCo 
gives the check sum based on the length and content 
of the program in memory. This is to check against the 
numbers printed in the rainbow. If your number is 
different, check the listing carefully to be sure you typed 
in the correct basic program code. For more details 
on this helpful utility, refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on 
Page 21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts spaces and 
punctuation, be sure to type in the listing exactly the 
way it's given in the magazine. 

10 CLS:X=25G*PEEK(3S)+1?B 

20 CLERR 25.X-1 

30 X=25G*PEEK (35)+178 

10 FOR Z=X TO X+77 

50 READ Y:U=U+Y:PRINT Z,Y;W 

G0 POKE 2, Y: NEXT 

70 IFW=79B5THENB0ELSEPRINT 

"DATA ERROR": STOP 
80 EXEC X:END 

90 DATA 162, 1, 10G, 1G7, 140, G0, 134 
100 DATA 12G, 1B3. 1, 106, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 48. 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 38, 38 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 158, 25. 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171. 128, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250, 48, 1, 32 
1G0 DATA 240, 1B3. 2, 222, 48. 140. 14 
170 DATA 159, 1GG, 1GG, 132, 28, 254 
1B0 DATA 189, 173. 198, 53. 22, 12G, 
190 DATA 0, 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



^ 



Word 
Power 3.2 



More Versatile • More Powerful With 
Spooler • Calculator • Split-Screen • 2-Column Printing 



"... friendly...amazing execu- 
tion speed., .much easier to use 
than VIP software & 2 other 
word processing systems I've 
tried.. .very user-friendly.. .mas- 
sive text storage capacity 
...highest among word proces- 
sors..." - Rainbow Oct. 88 
Review for Word Power 



Unparalleled Power packed in this 100% ML Word Processor 
written from scratch for the CoCo 3! No other word processor 
offers such a wide array of features that are easy to learn & use. 



— J 



DISPLAY & SPEED jLuiHKLj 

Word Power 3.2 runs at double-clock speed 
— v_. and uses the true 80-column display with 
O jgai.J lowercase instead of the graphics screen. The 
■ r1 "' result is lightning fast screen reformatting and 
added speed! All prompts are displayed in 
plain English in neat colored windows. The current column num- 
ber, line number, page number, percentage of free memory is dis- 
played at all times. Even the page break is displayed so you know 
where one page ends and the other begins. The Setup program 
allows you to change fore/background colors as well as (in)visible 
carriage returns. Word Power 3.2 can be used with RGB/Com- 
posite/Monochrome monitors as well as TV. 

MAXIMUM MEMORY MMFMIPftfc.MI 

Word Power 3.2 gives you over 72 K on 128K and over 
450K on 512K CoCo 3 for Text Storage - more 
memory than any other CoCo word-processor. 
Period. 

EFFORTLESS EDITING WM&M - .M. W 

Word Power 3.2 has one of the most powerful and user-friendly 
full-screen editor with word-wrap. All you do is type. Word 
Power takes care of the text arrangement. The unique Auto-Save 
feature saves text to disk at regular intervals for peace of mind. 

Inscrt/Ovcrslrikc Mode (Cursor Style Changes to indicate mode);OOPS Recall 
during dclete;Typc-ahcad Buffer for fast typcrs;Kcy-Rcpcat (adjustable); Key- 
Click; 4-way cursor and scrolling; Cursor to beginning/end of text, beginning/end 
of line, top/bottom of screen, next/previous word; Page up/down; Delete charac- 
ter, previous/next word, to beginning/end of line, complete line, text before/after 
cursor; Locate/Replace with Wild-Card Search with auto/manual replace; Block 
Mark, Unmark, Copy, Move & Delete; Line Positioning (Center/Right Jus- 
tified); Set/Reset 120 programmable tab stops; Word-Count; Define Top/Bot- 
tom/Left/Right margins & page length. You can also highlight text 
(underlinc-with on-screen underlining, bold, italics, superscripts, etc.). Word 
Power even has a HELP screen which an be accessed any time during edit. 




SPLIT-SCREEN EDITING JBii 

Splits the screen in half so you can view one portion of your text 
while you edit another. You'll love it! 



MAIL-MERGE; 

Ever try mailing out the same ielter to 50 different 
people? Could be quite a chore. Not with Word 
Power 3.2! Using this feature, you can type a letter, 
follow it with a list of addresses and have Word Power 
print out personalized letters. It's that easy! 





-11 


u 


D 


-\ - 





CALCULATOR 

Pop-up a 4-function calculator while you edit! Great for tables! 

SAVING/LOADING TEXT lllilllliil:Illilliiigiill 

Word Power 3.2 creates ASCII format files which are compatible 
with almost all terminal/spell-checking & other word-processing 
programs. Allows you to Display Free Space, Load, Save, Ap- 
pend & Kill files. The ARE YOU SURE? prompt prevents ac- 
cidental overwriting & deletion. You can select files by simply 
cursoring through the disk directory. Supports double-sided 
drives & step-rates. 

printing ^mm^M^ wnwF^^^^^ 

Word Power 3.2 drives almost any printer (DMP, EPSON, 
GEMINI, OKIDATA, etc). Allows options such as baud rates, 
line spacing, page/print pause, partial print, page number- 
ing/placement, linefeeds, multi-line headers/footers, right jus- 
tification & number of copies. The values of these parameters & 
margins can be changed anytime in the text by embedding Printer 
Option Codes. The WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET fea- 
ture allows you to preview the text on the screen as it will appear 
in print. You can view margins, page breaks, justification & more. 

PRINT SPOOLER J1HL . my*^Efm*Mj&&ffl 
Why buy a hardware Print Spooler? Word Power 3.2 has a built- 
in Spooler which allows you to simultaneously edit one document 
& print another. 

TWO-COLUMN PRINTING W] 

This unique feature allows you to print all or portion of your text 
in two columns! Create professional documents without hours 
of aligning text. 




SPELLING CHECKER; 

I Word Power 3.2 comes with spelling checker/dic- 
tionary which finds & corrects mistakes in your 
text. You can add words to /delete words from 
dictionary. 

PUNCTUATION CHECKER 

This checker will proofread your text for punctuation errors such 
as capitalization, double-words, spaces after periods/commas, 
and more. Its the perfect addition to any word processor. 

DOCUMENTATION [™~ 

Word Power 3.2 comes with a well-written instruction manual & 
reference card which makes writing with Word 
Power a piece of cake! Word Power 3.2 comes on an 
UNPROTECTED disk and is compatible with 
RSDOS. Only $79.95 

(Word Power 3.1 owners can get Word Power 3.2 Upgrade FREE by sending 
proof of purchase & $5.00 to cover S&H costs & instructions) 




MJI 1 MICROCOM SOFTWARE SfflSB 

All Word Power 3.2 orders shipped by UPS Next Day Air at no extra charge within 
the Continental US. Offer good thru January 15, 1989. 
To Order: Refer to Page 17 ofour 6-pagc ad scries: (Pgs. 9-17) 

Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 




I PRINTft - 2, 




■ I A 




What's Good 
for General 
Bullmoose . . 



A whole lot of you will remember 
"Li'l Abner," the cartoon strip by Al 
Capp before he retired and ended his 
commentary on the world scene. One of 
my favorite characters in "Li'l Abner" 
was General Bullmoose, who — in 
Capp's world anyway — was a very big 
businessman and went by the slogan, 
"What's good for General Bullmoose is 
good for everybody!" 

While Capp did not always depict 
General Bullmoose fondly, I always 
liked him. He was the sort of self- 
starting entrepreneur who appealed to 
the times in which he was created. Those 
times, frankly, were when big business 
was pretty big, and in many ways 
General Bullmoose was right: If the 
economy was good and General Bull- 
moose was making money, then there 
was full employment, wages were higher 
and people could easily afford "a 
chicken in every pot and a car in every 
garage." (This, at least, tells you how 
long ago General Bullmoose was 
around.) 

1 was thinking about General Bull- 
moose the other day when Tandy and 
Panasonic announced that Tandy will 
be making personal computers mar- 



keted in the United States under the 
Panasonic label. That, as it happened, 
followed on the heels of a similar an- 
nouncement concerning DEC (which, 
of interest, had a PC called Rainbow 
several years ago). Someone asked me 
what all this meant, and it just sort of 
snapped into my head: "What's good 
for General Bullmoose is good for 
everybody!" While we should not be 
quite so flip about the very genuine 
accomplishments of John Roach and 
his staff at Tandy in these last few years, 
this is true. Sure, the folks are making 
money, but things are going very well 
for a lot of people because of it. 

Since I have already mixed meta- 
phors (or whatever) here, let me add 
another. We need to stir in this witch's 
brew a heavy dose of Desk Mate as well. 
DeskMate, as you know, has recently 
been "opened up" for interfaces with 
outside programs. That means a lot of 
applications will run on it in the future 
— and there will be a lot of sales in 
places all over, too. So, I think we agree 
that things are good for General Bull- 
moose. But how are they also "good for 
everybody?" 

Quite simply, I think, it means that 



10 THE RAINBOW March 1989 




COLOD 

SCHEMATIC 

DESIGNED 



Best Desktop Publishing / Document 
Creator for the CoCo 3. Features Pull 
Down Menus, What You See Is What You 
Get , UNDO, integrated text & graphics 
capability , multiple fonts & more. 
Graphics can be imported from CoCo 
Max 1,11,111, MGE, MGF, 5 Level DS-69, 
PMODE4, HSCREEN 2/3 pictures. Sup- 
ports: DMP 105/130, EPSON 
MX/FX/RXLX/ Gemini 10 Series, CGP- 
220 and OKI-92. Only $79.95 

VIP calc in 

Best Spreadsheet for your CoCo 3. 
Features 4 color menus, 
32/40/64/80 column display, 2 Mhz 
speed & more. Allows up to 1024 
rows x 5.12 columns. VIP Calc III 
also has up to 16 windows, trig, 
averaging, sorting, algebraic & 
sorting functions. Locate, block 
move/copy commands & limitless 
programmable functions. Works 
with any printer. Only $69.95 

Font Disk #1,#2 lor CoCo Graphics 
Designer: $19.95 each 



GAMES 

(Disk only) 

(CoCo 1,2 & 3 except where mentioned) 

WARRIOR KING (CoCo 3): $29.95 
IN QUEST OF STAR LORD(Animaled Graphics Adventure 
for CoCo 3): $34.95 Hint Sheet: $3.95 
HALL OF THE KING 1,2,3: $29.95 Each Trilogy: $74.95 
FLIGHT 16: $34.95 

P-51 MUSTANG SIMULATION: $34.95 
WORLDS OF FLIGHT: $34.95 
PYRAMIX(Cubix for CoCo 3): $24.95 
KUNG FU DUDE: $24.95 CHAMPION: $19.95 

WHITE FIRE OF ETERNITY: $19.95 
QUEST FOR THE SPIRIT STONE (CoCo 3): $18 
WARGAME DESIGNER (CoCo 3): $29 
TREASURY PACK#1: Lunar Rover Patrol, Cubix, Declathon, 
Qix, keys of Wizard, Module Man, Pengon, & Roller Con- 
troller.Only $29.95 

TREASURY PACK #2: Lancer, Ms. Gobbler, Froggie, Mad- 
ness & Minotaur, Ice Castles, Galagon, Devious. Only $29.95 
SPACE PAC: Color Zap, Invaders, Planet Invasion, Space 
Race, Space War, Galax Attax, Anaroid Attack, Whirlybird, 
Space Sentry & Storm Arrows.Only $29.95 
WIZARD'S CASTLE: A hi-res graphics adventure game filled 
with traps, tricks, treasures. Only $19.95 
CLASSIC PAK: Treasury Pack 1, 2, Space Pac & Wizards 
Castle: Only $59.95 



By Prakash Mishra 

An excellent Circuit Schematic Design 

Software Package for CoCo 3. Features: 

* Runs in 640x192 at 1.8 Mhz 

* Pull Down Menus 

* Keyboard/Mouse/Joystck Support 

* RGB/ Composite/Monochrome 
Monitor Support 

* 72 Modifiable Symbols 

* Multiple Hi-Res Fonts 

* Multiple UNDO Command 

* Symbol Rotate/Line/Box Draw 

* Supports 3 Layers of Circuits 

* Powerful Screen Print Command for 
DMP/Gemini/Epson Printers 

* Complete Documentation 



Only $39.95 
$8 




RSB 



A Revolutionary Program that allows 
you to use Basic Programs from OS9! 

OS9 Level 2 is the future of the CoCo. 
Unfortunately, most Basic Program- 
mers are "afraid" of using OS9 because 
it is completely different from Basic. 

Introducing RSB from Burke & 
Burke. It converts RS-DOS into an 
OS9 "shell" and allows you to program 
in Basic from under OS9! You can 
even take advantage of the OS-9 "built- 
in" windows to run several BASIC 
programs at once! And RSB always 
runs at the full 2 Mhz speed of the 
CoCo! 

If you're new to OS9 or you simply 
want to take advantage of the ad- 
vanced features of the OS9 operating 
system, RSB is for you. Req. OS9 L II. 
Only $39.95 



ULTRAPATCII SYSTEM 

by Randall Rcid 
Patches the Superpatch EDTASM + 03 
for 80 columns, 47K Buffer (ap- 
proximately 3000 lines!) & more. Req 
CoCo 3. Only $19.95 




XENOCOPY-PC 

An amazingly versatile program lhal allows you lo Forniai/Duplicaic / Read/ 
Write disks from over 300 different computers. For example you could trans- 
fer programs between CoCo, IBM, PC-DOS, TRS-80 Model 3. TRS-80 Model 
4, TRS-80 Model 100, Xerox 820, Zenith, Kaypro II, Novell , NEC DOS and 
much much morel! Send for FREE List. Requires an IBM Compatible with 2 
drives. Disk $79.95. 

512K BACKUP LIGHTNING 

(From Colorventure) 

The ultimate CoCo 3 disk copying utility!! Reads your master diskette once 
and then makes as many copies as you want. It automatically formats an un- 
formatted disk while copying! Supports 35, 40 or 80 track drives with various 
step rates. A must for any disk user!! Only S19.95 

PRINTER LIGHTNING 

(From Colorventure) 

Never wait for your printer again!! This Print Spooler allows you lo print to 
your printer and simultaneously continue with your programming. No need to 
wait for those long printouts! Disk Only $19.95 

BASIC FREEDOM 

A Full Screen Editor for Basic Programs! ! A Must for anyone who writes Basic 
Programs. Only $24.95 

VOCAL FREEDOM 

Turn your computer inlo a digital voice / sound recorder. Produces natural 
voices/ sound effects. Req. inexpensive RS Amplifier (#277-1008) & any 
microphone. Only S34.95 

HACKER'S PAC 

Allows you to incorporate voices created by Vocal Freedom into your own 
Basic and ML programs. Only $14.95 



MJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 



^tTi idMMfe ft'MERICAl 



To Order: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-page ad scries: (Pgs. 9-17) 
Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 




— more and more — the people at 
Tandy will have the necessary funds to 
continue to innovate and produce 
newer and better products for us. Not 
only will they have those funds, but they 
will also be able to continue to attract 
and hold on to the kind of people 
needed not only to develop those prod- 
ucts, but to make them work. 

Finally, we are talking about what is 
potentially a huge user base out here. 
Well, it is huge already. Recent statistics 
from an independent firm say that the 
percentage of persons who use personal 
computers is larger for Tandy comput- 
ers than for any other kind. Add Pana- 
sonic selling American-made comput- 
ers in every hoot and holler in the 
United States, and throw in DEC's 
marketing muscle. It leaves us with all 
the financial and marketing muscle 
(already most considerable) on the 
leading edge of the technology. As a 
good example of this, remember Tandy 
has developed the THOR laser disc with 
its read /write technology. Don't you 
just wonder what else is going on in 
those Tandy labs? 

Well, 1 am sure you are asking just 
what all this stuff means as far as we 



CoCo owners are concerned. The truth 
is that it means a great deal. It means 
Tandy is able to market a wide range 
and type of computers simply because 
of the base it has in the market. 



"Tandy will be 

making personal 

computers marketed 

in the United States 

under the Panasonic 

label" 



Yes, I know Tandy in Canada is no 
longer selling the Color Computer. 
There are some things to remember 
about that, though. First, Tandy does 
not sell in Canada any more at all. A 
company called Intertan was formed 
about a year ago to handle Tandy's 
international operations. Tandy has not 
stopped selling — or manufacturing — 
Color Computers. 



The reason for the decision in Canada 
has as much to do with the value of the 
dollar and international trade as any- 
thing. Canadians could always buy 
CoCos for less in the United States 
because of the relative value of the 
American dollar. 1 am betting they will 
keep on doing so. 

Also, frankly, I think Intertan has 
misjudged the impact of the CoCo on 
the market. Certainly, everyone has 
misjudged the impact of the entertain- 
ment market during the past holidays — 
"game machines" were almost impossi- 
ble to find. And, of course, for our many 
Canadian friends, Intertan is commit- 
ted to support the CoCos it has sold 
over the years. That is a basic Tandy 
philosophy that did not change with the 
changes made in corporate structure. 

No, I won't even mention what in- 
creased sales for Tandy means to the 
city of Fort Worth and environs. Many 
of you have heard the old joke anyway: 
"Welcome to Ft. Worth, a division of 
Tandy Corporation." 



— Lonnie Falk 



COMPUTER ISIAND EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 



PROGRAMS ON SALE THIS MONTH 



$15 each-tape or disk 
TITLE GRADE LEVEL 




Distance Problems 5 

Area and Perimeter 5 

Sales and Bargains 5 

Comparison Shopping ... .4 

Linear Equations 7 

Quadratic Equations ... .8 

Trigonometry Tutor 8 

Fractions - Addition... 4 
Fractions-Subtraction. .4 

Fractions-Multiply 4 

Factors Tutor 5 

Math Invaders 1 

Binary Dice Game 4 

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12 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 




COCO 3 UTILITIES GALORE 

(CoCo 2 Versions Included where specified) 



SUPER TAPE/DISK 
TRANSFER r==-S 



• Disk-Io-Disk Copy • Tapc-to-Disk Copy 
' Tape-to-Disk Auto Relocate 

* Disk-to-Tapc Copy • Tape-to-Tapc Copy 
Copies Basic/ML/Daia Piles. CoCo 1,2 or 3. 
Req. min. 64K Disk System. Disk Only $24.95 



COCO CHECKEF^^^J 

Something possibly wrong with your CoCo? 
CoCo Checker is the answer. Will test your 
ROMs, RAMs, Disk Drives & Controller, 
Printer, Keyboard, Cassette, Joysticks, Sound, 
PIAs, VDG, Internal Clock Speed, Multi-Pak 
Interface and more! Only $24.95 



DISK UTILITY 2.1A 



ft 



A multi-featured tool for USER FRIENDLY 
disk handling. Utilize a directory window to 
selectively sort, move, rename & kill Tile entries. 
Lightning fast Disk I/O for format, copy & back- 
up. Single key execution of Basic/ML programs. 
This will become your MOST USED program !! 
CoCo 1,2 or 3. Req. Min. 64K. Disk Only $24.95 




MAILLIST PRO 



The ultimate mailing list program. Allows you 
to add, edit, view, delete, change, sort (by zip- 
code or name) and print labels. Its indispen- 
siblc!! Disk $19.95 (CoCo 2 version included) 






DISK LABEL MAKER 

Allows you to design professional disk labels! 
Allows elongated, normal and condensed for- 
mat for text. Double Strike, Border Creation, 
and multiple label printing. Its a MUST for any 
user with a disk drive. Supports DMP 
105/106/110/120/ 130/430, GEMINI, STAR, 
EPSON and compatibles. (CoCo 2 version in- 
cluded). Only $19.95 




COCO UTIL II co, 



(Latest Version): Transfer CoCo Disk files to 
IBM compatible computer and vica-versa. Re- 
quires 2-Drivc IBM Compatible. Disk $39.95 



RGB PATCH 

Displays most games in color or. RGB monitors. 
CoCo 3 Disk $24.95 



Ajr 



COMPUTERIZED 
CHECKBOOK 5 



^i 



Why bother with balancing your checkbook? 
Let the CoCo do it for you. Allows you to add, 
view, search, edit, change, delete and printout 
(in a table/individual entry format) checkbook 
entries. Updates balance after each entry. Al- 
lows files for checking, savings, and other ac- 
counts. Disk$19.95.(CoCo2version included) 



BOWLING SCORE 
KEEPER 



An excellent utility to keep track of your bowl- 
ing scores. Allows you to save scores under in- 
dividuals or teams. You can edit change, delete, 
and compare scores. A must for anyone who 
wants to keep track of his or her bowling perfor- 
mance. Disk $19.95 (CoCo2version included) 



VCR TAPE ORGANIZER^?, 

Organize your videotapes with this progiam. 
Allows you to index tapes by title, rating, type, 
play time and comments. Also allows you to sort 
titles alphabetically & view/print selected tapes. 
If you own a VCR, this program is a MUST!! 
Disk $19.95 (CoCo 2 version included) 



COCO 3 SCREEN DUMP 



32, 40, 80 column text dump, PMODE 4 
Graphics Dump. Single Keystroke Operation al- 
lows you to take snapshots of your screens even 
when programs arc running! Works on DMP's, 
Epson, Gemini and compatibles. CoCo 1, 2 and 
3. Disk $24.95 



Let the CoCo keep track of your bills. Allows 
you to enter bills under various categories and 
reminds you when they arc due. Disk $19.95 



HOME BILL MANAGER 5S£ 



CALENDAR MAKER 



Generate monthly calendars on your printer for 
any year in the 20th century. Disk Only $19.95 
(CoCo 2 version included) 



ADOS 3 

Advanced disk operating system for CoCo 3. 
Comes on disk and is EPROMablc!! Disk 
$34.95. ADOS (for CoCo 1,2): $27.95 



Start OS9 

An Enjoyable Hands-on Guide to OS9 Level II. In- 
cludes stcp-by-stcp tutorials, articles. Free disk in- 
cludes examples & utilities. Req. 512K, Level 11,2 
drives & monitor. Book + Disk: $32.95 



The Zapper: Patch Disk Errors. $19.95 
Disk Manager Tree: Change, create & delete 
directories quickly. Req. 512KLII. S29.95 
Level II Tools: Wildcards, tree commands, win- 
dowing & 22 more utilities. 128K Req. S24.95 
Warp One: Complete LII Windowing, Terminal, 
Auto Dial, macros, file transfer, capturc.timcr.chat, 
etc. Req. 512K. Only S34.95 

Multi-Menu: Creatcyourown pull-down menus. 
Req. 512K & OS9 Level II. S19.95 
OS9 Level II BBS 2.0: Supports multiple users. 
Tsmon, Login, chat, Message/Mail Retrieval, 
Uloadx.Dloadx & much more! Req. S12K. S29.95 



XWord: Best OS9 Word Processor with true 
Character oriented editing & more. S69.95 
XMerge: Mail Merge for Xword: $24.95 
Xspell: Spelling Checker, 40000 words. S39.95 
XEd: OS9 Full Screen Editor. $39.95 
XDis: OS-9 Disassembler. $34.95 
XTerm: Communications pro. w/ Up/download, 
xmodcm.scrial /RS232 pack support. $49.95 
XDir & XCal: Hicrarchial Dir. & Calc. $24.95 



OS9 Level II RAMDISK: Must for any Level 
II user. Rcq512K. $29.95 



GSC File Transfer Utilities: Transfer files 
to & from MSDOS/OS9/RSDOS & Flex. Req. OS9 
(LII for Mullivuc Vcrsion),2 drives, 
SDISK/SDISK3. Standard Version: $44.95. Multi- 
vue Version: $54.95 



PC-Xfer Utilities: Programs to format/transfer 
files to/from MSDOS diskettes to CoCo Under 
Level 1 & 2. Requires SDISK or SDISK 3. $44.95 
S DISK 3: Standard drive module replacement al- 
lows full use of 40/80 track double-sided drives. Req. 
OS9 Level II. S29.95. SDISK: $29.95 



Wild & MV Version 2.1: Use "wildcards" with 
OS9 & re-arrange directory tree. $19.95 
EZGen Version 1.04: Powerful OS9 bootfilc 
editor. Change names, add/delete modules, patch 
bytes, etc. $19.95 



WIZ: Terminal Package with 300-19200 baud 
rates/windowing. Req 512K & RS232 Pack. $79.95 



DYNASTAR: Word Processor with Macros, ter- 
minals/windows, mail-merge & more. Only $99.95 
DYNASPELL: $79.95 
Both Dynastar & DynaSpell: $124.95 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

To Order: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-pagc ad series: (Pgs. 9-17) 

Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 
Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 




F e atur e 



U 



The powerhouse chip 
inside our 
favorite machine 



Those familiar with assembly- 
language programming on the 
Color Computer 1 (and later, the 
Color Computer 2) became accustomed 
to accessing the CoCo's inner power via 
two Motorola chips — the SAM 
(Synchronous- Address Multiplexer) 
and VDG (Video-Display Generator). 
However, with the advent of the Color 
Computer 3 came a new programming 
challenge — accessing the power of the 
GlMEchip. 

The G1ME (Graphics-Interrupt 
Memory Enhancement) is a new pro- 
prietary chip designed to Tandy's spec- 
ifications. It combines the functions of 
the SAM and VDG chips with an array 
of new and more powerful functions 
that had been reserved for more expen- 
sive machines. Combined with the 
impressive power of the Motorola 6809 
CPU (Central Processing Unit), the 
GIME makes the Color Computer 3 a 
powerful machine in the computer 
market. Add OS-9 Level II (which takes 
full advantage of the 6809's multitask- 
ing capabilities and the GIME's graph- 
ics power), and the combination is 
amazing. 

Let's look at the inner workings of the 
GlMEchip. (See Table 1 for a summary 
of the GIME chip's functions.) Full 
programming details, available in Tan- 
dy's CoCo 3 Technical Manual, are 
beyond the scope of this article, but we 
get an idea of how the chip works. 

Communications to and from the 
GIME chip take place via accesses to 
memory between addresses SFF90 and 
SFFDF. Accesses to those addresses do 
not go to memory but are routed di- 
rectly to the GIME chip hardware. 
Locations SFF90 and SFF91 are two 
initialization registers. Bits within these 
two bytes are used to set up the mode 



Rick Adams (R1CKADAMS) is the au- 
thor of Tandy's Temple of Rom, the 
Co Co 3 version of Activision's 
Shanghai, and DelphiTerm. Rick, his 
wife A lice and their three children live 
in Rohnert Park, California. 




in which the GIME will operate. The 
CoCo 2-compatible bit will disable 
most of the GIME chip's special fea- 
tures, so CoCo 1 and 2 software can 
operate without any conflicts with the 
new features available. The GIME chip 
provides a special SAM emulation at 
locations SFFCO to SFFDF to dupli- 
cate all functions of the SAM chip used 
by Color Computer 1 and 2 software. 
Thus all accesses to the SAM result in 
the same operations on the Color 
Computer 3 that would take place on a 
Color Computer 1 or 2, (assuming the 
CoCo 2-compatible bit is on). 

Other bits are used to enable or 
disable interrupts, set up the mode of 
ROM mapping, and select the set of 
registers used for the MMU (Memory 
Management Unit) feature of the 
GIME. Interrupts are signals that cause 
the CPU to drop what it's doing and 
execute another, more important task. 
When that task is done, the CPU re- 
turns to what it was doing before. 
Addresses SFF92 and SFF93 hold two 
registers that offer further control over 
interrupts. While on the CoCo Is and 
2s certain events within the computer 
generate a hardware interrupt, the 
GIME interrupt-enable registers at 
SFF92 and SFF93 let you enable inter- 
rupts from events that did not generate 
interrupts previously. The serial port 
and keyboard, the display's vertical and 



horizontal border, the programmable 
timer in the GIME, and the cartridge 
can all generate interrupts. 

SFF94 and SFF95 hold the pro- 
grammable-interrupt timer within the 
GIME chip. This feature allows the 
programmer to generate interrupt sig- 
nals over a wide range of time intervals. 
This feature is usually used to "wake 
up" a background task at regular inter- 
vals. This task might keep up printer 
I/O, handle graphics on the screen, 
generate sound effects or perform some 
other job that's inconvenient for the 
main task to complete. This capability 
is available on the Color Computer 1 
and 2, but in a limited fashion. On those 
machines, there are only two set speeds 
a programmer can use for timer inter- 
rupts. One of them is too fast for any 
practical use, and the other is too slow 
for many purposes. The flexibility 
provided by a timer interrupt with a 
programmable interval is a welcome 
addition to the programmer's arsenal. 

Two registers controlling graphics are 
found at locations SFF98 and SFF99. 
The bit-plane graphics bit turns on the 
GIME's Hi-Res graphics modes. If this 
bit is off, one of the text modes is used. 
I f bit-plane graphics is enabled, the area 
of memory reserved for the video dis- 
play will be interpreted as pixel data for 
the screen. In a four-color mode, for 
example, each byte of video data will be 



14 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



Books That Can Launch A 1000 Programs!! 

Pokes, Peeks and Execs are your guides into the jungle of computer programming. These commands give you the power of 
Machine Language without leaving the security of BASIC. Each book is a collection of "inside" information, with explanations 
and examples to help you immediately put it to use. Everyone from the novice to the professional will find these handy books a 
wealth of information. RDfl PDKF^ 

PEEKS.'N EXECS 



300 POKES, 
PEEKS, N EXECS 
for COCO III 



'"10/80 column Screen Text Dump 
•Save Text/Graphics Screen lo Disk 
"Command/Functions Disables 
•Enhancements for CoCo3 BASIC 
• 128K/512K RAM Test Program 
•HPRINT Character Modifier 




Only $19.95 



•Autostart your BASIC programs 

•Disable Color BASIC/HCB/Disk BASIC 

commands 

•Disable Break Key/ Clear Key/ Reset Button 

•Generate a Repeat-key 

•Transfer ROMPAKs to tape 

•Set 23 different GRAPHIC modes 

'Merge two BASIC programs 

'And much much more!!! 

For CoCo 1,2 and 3. Only $16. 95 
ALL 3 HOOKS for $39.95 



SUPPLEMENT TO 500 
POKES.PEEKS, 'N EXECS 

200 additional Pokes.Pecks and Execs (500 

Pokes Pecks 'N lixecs is a prerequisite) 

•ROMPAK transfer to disk 

•PAINT with 65000 styles 

"Use of 40 track single/double sided drives 

•High-speed Cassette Operation 

•Telewriter, CoCo Max enhancements 

• Graphics Dump (for DMP printers) /Text 

Screen Dump 

For CoCo 1,2 or 3. Only $9.95 



UNRAVELLED SERIES 



COCO LIBRARY 



/ 



An invaluable aid for Basic and Machine Language programmers, these 
books provide a complete disassembly and annotated listing of the 
BASIC/ECB and Disk ROMs. These listings give complete, unintcruplcd 
memory maps of the four ROMs. Gain complete control over all versions of 
the color computer. 

EXTENDED COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED: COLOR 
BASIC and EXTENDED BASIC ROM Disassembly: $39.95 
DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: DISK BASIC ROM 1.1 and 
1.0 Disassembly : $19.95 

BOTH ECB AND DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: $49.95 
SUPER EXTENDED BASIC UNRAVELLED: SUPER EX- 
TENDED BASIC ROM Disassembly for CoCo 3. $24.95 
COMPLETE UNRAVELLED SERIES (all 3 books): $59.95 



CoCo 3 Service Manual: $39.95 

CoCo 2 Service Manual: $29.95 

Inside OS9 Level II: $39.95 

Rainbow Guide To OS9 Level II: $19.95 

Rainbow Guide To OS9 II (disk): $19.95 

Complete Guide To OS9 (Level 1): $19.95 

Complete Guide To OS9 (2 Disk): $29.95 

CoCo 3 Secrets Revealed: $19.95 

Basic Programming Tricks: $12.95 

Assembly Language Programming(tcpco): $18 

Addendum For CoCo3 (tepco): $12 
Color Computer Disk Manual (with ref card): $29.95 
Start OS-9 (Book & Disk): $32.99 





OTHER SOFTWARE ... 

COCO MAX III (with hi-res interface): $79.95 { 
COCO MAX II: Disk $77.95 Tape $67.95 
MAXFONTS #1,.#2,#3,#4: Disk $19.95 Each 
NX1000 Rainbow Driver for CoCo Max III: $19.95 
MAXPATCH: Run COCO MAX II on COCO 3. $24.95 

EDT/ASM 64D: Editor-assembler (specify 1,2,3) $59.95 
SOURCE: CoCo Disassembler $34.95 SOURCE III: $49.95 
CBASIC: Best Basic compiler $149.95 CBASIC III: $149.95 

TELEWRITER 64 (COCO 1&2) :Best Word Processor for 
CoCo 1 & 2. Disk $57.95 Tape $47.95 

AUTOTERM:Modem software Disk $39.95 Cas $29.95 
PRO-COLOR FILE *ENHANCED*: $59.95 

VIP DATABASE III 
Best Database for CoCo 3. Features 40/64/80 columns, size 
limited only by disk space, easy to understand menu system, 
LIGHTNING FAST in-memory sort, multiple search, built- 
in mail merge, built-in MATH PACKAGE, print spooler and 
report generator, unlimited print formats & more. $69.95 



Ajr 



WINDOW MASTER 

The hottest program for your CoCo 3!! Imagine using Win- 
dows, Pull-Down Menus, Buttons, Icons, Edit Field, and 
Mouse Functions in your Basic Programs. No need to use 
OS9. It uses the 640x255 (or 320x255) hires graphics mode 
for the highest resolution. Up to 31 windows can appear on 
the screen at one time. Need extra character sets? Window 
Master supports 5 fonts in 54 sizes! How about an enhanced 
Editor for Basic? It gives you a superb Basic Editor which 
leaves the standard EDIT command in the cold. And don't 
forget that many existing Basic/ML programs will operate 
under Window Master with little or no changes. In fact, it 
docs NOT take up any memory from Basic. Requires 1 Disk 
Drive, RS Hi-res Interface & Joystick or Mouse. Includes 
128K & 512K Version. $69. 95 Window Master & Hi-Res In- 
terface. Only $79.95 

FKEYS III 

A user friendly, user programmable function key utility that 
creates up to 20 function keys. Includes EDITOR, DOS 
mods, DISABLE, and its EPROMable! Disk $19.95 

SIXDRIVE 

Allows the use of 3 double-sided drives from RSDOS or 
ADOS. Only $16.95 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 



E ilEHICAIl l 
Excess; 



To Order: Refer to Page 17 of our fi-pagc ad scries: (Pgs. 9-17) 

Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 



-8pm 7days/week) 



512K BASIC 



(For 128K & 512K Computers) 
From the authors of Word Power 3 2, the best-selling Word Processor for CoCo 3, comes a revolutionary programming tool! 



Do you have a 128K or 512K CoCo 3? Are you being told that 
you could only use 22K from Basic?? Don't believe it!! 

Lets face it. You bought your CoCo 3 so you could get better 
graphics, more speed and more MEMORY. Unfortunately as it 
comes, the CoCo 3 only allows you to use 22K for Basic 
Programs. A big disappointment for Basic Programmers. 

Introducing the revolutionary S12K Basic. It gives you up to 80K 
Basic program/variable space (64K for Basic Program/16K for 
variables) on a 128K CoCo and over 400K (384K Basic Program 
Space & 16K Variable Space) on a 512K CoCo! There are no 
new commands to remember and approximately 90-95% of the 
exisling Basic Software will run without any modifications. 512K 
Basic is completely transparent to the user. You won't even know 
its there until you realize that you were able to type in a massive 
Basic program without the dreaded ?OM Error. And 512K 



Basic will even run at double clock-speed and automatically slow 
down for printer and disk operations. 

Step up to 512K Basic. It's the tool you need to tap the full poten- 
tial of your CoCo 3. 512K Basic Requires a 128K or 512K CoCo 
3 with a disk drive. OS9 is NOT required. Only $39.95 

51 2K Upgrades for CoCo 3. 

(Only $160 with purchase of 512K Basic) 
Fully assembled, tested and ready to be shipped now. Comes 
with $100 worth of 512K Software: 

• 512K Backup Lightning •SHK Print Spooler » «fc^ 4^^to 

• 512K Memory Test •512KRamdisk %^^V ""^P 

• OS9 Level II Ramdisk. 

No soldering. Comes with all instruction manuals^O day war- 
ranty. Only $188 
OK Upgrade Board: $39.95 



KEYBOARDS , ETC. 

KEYBOARD EXTENSION CABLE: 

Move your keyboard away from the com- 
puter & type with ease. Use your existing 
keyboard with this g-. ,. 

cable or leave your -^ Cj 

present keyboard in- ([Q&X^Z'O/} 
tact and use a second ^C^^C-^'" i 

keyboard. Only 0-?" <- ' 

$39.95. 

Cable with CoCo 2 Keyboard: $49.95 
Cable with CoCo 3 Keyboard: $69.95 
CoCo 3 Keyboard (with free FUNCTION 
KEYS software value S14.95):$39.95 
CoCo 2 Keyboard: $19.95 

ACCESORIES 



COMMUNICATIONS 
EXTRAVAGANZA 

1) Avatex 1200e Modem: Fully Hayes 
compatible 300/1200 w/ speaker, Auto- 
Dial/ Answer/Redial. 

2) MODEM CABLE: 4 pin/DB 25 (Reg. 
S19.95) 

3)Autoterm Software: (Reg $39.95) 
4)FREE CompuServe Offer & Acess Time 
5) UPS 2nd Day Air Shipping 

Only $129.95 
With Avatex 2400e instead of I200e: $229.95 

Avatex 1200e Modem Only: $85 .- 





Avatex 2400e Modem Only: $189/^-^ 



INTRONICS EPROM PROGRAMMER 

(for CoCo): Programs 2516-27512 & 
more! Includes software & complete 
documentation. Latest version. Lowest 
Price Anywhere! Only S137.95 
EPROM ERASERFast erase of 24/28 pin 
EPROMs. Only $49.95 
BOTH EPROM PROGRAMMER & 
ERASER: $179.95 
EPROMS: 2764-$8 27128-$9 
ROMPAK (w/ Blank PC Board 27xx 
Series): $12.95 

BLANK CARTRIDGE (Disk Controller 
Size): $10.95 



5 1/4" DS/DD Disks: $.40 each 
3 1/2" DS/DD Disks: $1.49 each 
5 1/4" Disk Case (for 70 disks): $9.95 
3 1/2" Disk Case (for 40 disks): $7.50 

Curtis Printer Stand: $19.95 

Surge Supresser Strip w/ 6 outlets: 

$14.95 

Curtis Static Mat: $24.95 



RIBBONS 



NX1000 Color Ribbon: $12.95 
NX1000 Black Ribbon: $8.50 
Seikosha, EPSON, DMP, 

Panasonic, Okidata, Gemini Rib- 
bons: $8.50 each 




JAJF 



CABLES 

8505/8515/8CM643 



Analog RGB 



MAGNAVOX 

Cable: $24.95 

SERIAL-TO-PARALLEL INTERFACE: Use your 

parallel printer at high speed (300-9600 baud) with CoCo. Comes 

willall cables. Nosoftwa re compatibility problems. Only $44.95 

15" MULTIPAK/ROMPAK EXTENDER CABLE: 

$29.95 

VIDEO DRIVER: Use a monochrome/color monitor with 

your CoCo. Comes with audio/video cables. Specify CoCo 1 or 2. 

Excellent picture quality/resolution! $34.95 

RS232 Y CABLE: Hook 2 Devices to the serial port. Only 

$18.95 

Y CABLE: Use your disk system with Speech Pak.CoCo Max, 

DS69, etc. $27.95 

RGB Analog Extender Cable:$19.95 t| 

SONY Monitor Cable: $29.95 »\ 

VIDEO CLEARReduccTV intcrfcrencc.$19.95 

MODEM CABLE:4 pin to DB25.0nly $19.95 

3-POSITION SWITCHER: $37.95 

HI-RES JOYSTICK INTERFACE: $11.99 





CHIPS, ETC 

Disk Basil- Kum 1.1 (Needed for CoCo 
3): $29.95 ECB ROM 1.1:$29.95 
68B09E or 6809E Chip: $14.95 
MultiPak PAL Chip for CoCo 3: 
$19.95 

PAL Switcher: Now you can switch be- 
tween the CoCo 2 and 3 modes when using 
the Multi-Pak. You need the OLDER & 
NEW PAL chip for the 26-3024 Multipak. 
Only $39.95. With NEW PAL Chip: 
$49.95. 

UPGRADES 

64K Upgrade for CoCo I's, CoCo 

II's with Cat #26-3026/27, 26-3134, 

26-3136: $29.95 

64K Upgrade for 26-3134 A/B 

CoCo II: $39.95 

(Free 64K Software incl. with 64K Upgr.) 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

To Order: Refer to Page 17 of our 6-pagc ad scries: (Pgs. 9-17) 

Credit Card Toll Free Orderline 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: 716-383-8830 




COCO 3 



CoCo 3 Combo Package 

• 128K Color Computer 3 

• 500 Pokes Peeks 'n Execs Book 

• CoCo 3 Secrets Revealed Book 

• Basic Programming Tricks Book 

• Utility Routines Volume 1 Book 

• $10 off our Drive system 

CoCo 3 Combo Package: $169 

(Please add $8 S&H in US/$20 in 
Canada) 



DS69B Digitizer: Use your CoCo 3 to 
display pictures from your VCR or video 
camera. Includes C-SEE 3.3 software. 
Only $149.95 

Gravis Joystick: The BEST joystick for 
your CoCo. Tension, rotary.center- 
ing,free-floating controls with 3 buttons: 
$59.95 

MP1 Locking Plate (Specify Cat #):$8 

Coming Soon: ROMPAK Wild card: 

Lets you transfer ANY Rompak to disk. 



MAGNAVOX 8CM515 RGB 
MONITOR 

Razor-sharp picture 
quality for your CoCo! 
Has 14" screen, 
Analog/TTL RGB, 

Composite Inputs for 
CoCo 2/3, Speaker, tilt- 
stand & 2 year warranty! 
Only $265 (add $12 S&H/$40 in Canada) 

Magnavox RGB Cable for CoCo 3 and 
Composite Video / Audio Cable Set with 
purchase of monitor: $19.95 




DISK DRIVES for CoCo 2 & 3 


HARD DRIVE SYSTEMS/ 
INTERFACES 


There are a lot of dealers selling disk drives for the CoCo. Why buy from us? 
First, all our drives are Brand New and made by Fujitsu. They are sleek, 
quiet and have a reputation of superb reliability. Second, our Drive sys- 
tems come with the acclaimed DISTO Controller - with gold-plated con- 
tacts. Third, our Drive systems come with the official 200 page Radio Shack 
Disk Manual with floppy disks; everything you need to get started. Fourth, 
you get $60 worth of our utility software (Disk Util 2.1A & Super Tape/Disk 
Transfer) & our DISKMAX software which allows you to acess BOTH sides 
of our drives. Our drive systems are head & shoulders above the rest. 

Drive (With Disto Controller, Case, Power Supply, 1 Drive Cable, Manual, Software): 

$209 

Drive 1 (with Case, Power Supply & software): $129 Bare 5 1/4" Drive: $89 

2 Drive System (With Disto Controller, Case, Power Supply, 2 Drive Cable, Manual & 

Software): $309 

1 Drive Cable: $16.95 2 Drive Cable: $ 22.95 4 Drive Cable:$ 34.95 

FD501 Upgrade Kit: Bare Drive, 2 Drive Cable & Instructions: $109 


Complete w/ Hard Drive, Western Digital Con- 
troller, B&B Interface, Cables, Case, Power Supply, 
Software (HYPER IO) & Instruction manuals. As- 
sembled/tested/formatted. Just Plug'N'Run. This is 
the best hard drive deal for the CoCo. 

Seagate 20 Meg System: $509 fejnlil^M»t 
Seagate 30 Meg System: $539 ^^^^ 

CoCo XT: Use 2 5-120 Meg Drives with your CoCo. 
Only $69.95 w/ Real Time Clock: $99.95 
CoCo XT ROM: Boots OS9 from hard/floppy. $19.95 
HYPERIO: Allows Hard Drive Use with RSDOS. 
Only $29.95 HYPERIO: Disto Versiomlf you have a 
DISTO Controller w/ Hard Drive Interface, this 
program will allow you to use your Hard Drive from 
RSDOS!! Only $29.95 



PRINTERS 



1000 Sheets of paper included r IvJl/Ii/ with every printer 

NX1000 Rainbow System: NX1000 Color Printer w/144 CPS draft • Friction/Trac- 
tor Feed • Epson/IBM Compatible • 1 Year Warranty. Only $289 



NX1000 System: NX1000 Printer w/ 144 cps Draft 

• Epson/IBM Compatible • 1 Year Warranty. Only 
$199 

Panasonic KX-P1080i II System: Panasonic Printer 
w/ 144 cps Draft • Tractor/Friction Feed 

• Epson/IBM Compatible • 2 Year Warranty. Only 
$189 



Panasonic KX-1592 System: Panasonic Printer 

w/216 cps Draft • 16.5" Wide Carriage • 2 Year Warranty: $399 



(Friction/Tractor Feed 




DISTO PRODUCTS ... 



Disto Super Controller $79.95 Disto 
Super Controller II: $129.95 

• Mini Eprom Programmer Add on: $54.95 
• Hard Disk Add On: $49.95 
• RT Clock & Parallel Interface: $39.95 
• MEB Adapter Add On: $24.95 

MULTI-BOARD ADAPTER: Printer Port, 
Faster RT Clock & true RS-232 Serial Port. 
$59.95 

RS232 SUPER PACK: Here it is! True RS-232 
Port for your CoCo. Compatible with Tandy® 
Deluxe RS232 Pack. Includes DB25 Cable. Re- 
quires Multipak. Only $54.95 



2 $»§§§§ 



A4T MICROCOM SOFTWARE. 2900 Monroe Avenue • Rochester, NY 14618 

To Order: All Orders $50 & above (except Printers, Monitors, Drives, Computers) shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air in Continental US. 
We accept Visa.MC, Amcx,Discover, Check & MO. Please add $3.00 S&H ($10 for Drives/Printers) in continental US; foreign add 
10% S&H (Min $5). NYS Residents please add sales tax. Our Australian Agent: Ausl. Peripheral DcvelcM 

Credit Card Toll Free Order line 1-800-654-5244 (9am-8pm 7 days/week) 

Order Status, Info, Technical Info: (716) 383-8830. FAX: 716-383-0026 




SFF90 Initialization Register 

Bit 7 CoCo 1 and 2-compatible bit 

Bit 6 MMU enable bit 

Bit 5 Enable IRQ bit 

Bit 4 Enable FIRQ bit 

Bit 3 Enable secondary vectors bit 

Bit 2 Standard SCS bit 

Bits 1 toO ROM map mode 

SFF91 Initialization Register 1 



SFF99 Video-Resolution Register 



Bit 7 




Bit 6 


Memory type 


Bit 5 




Bit 4 




Bit 3 




Bit 2 




Bit1 


Timer clock-select bit 


BitO 


MMU Task bit 



SFF92 IRQ Enable Register 



Bit 7 




Bit 6 




Bit 5 


Enable IRQ from timer 


Bit 4 


Enable IRQ from horizontal 




border 


Bit 3 


Enable IRQ from vertical border 


Bit 2 


Enable IRQ from serial data 




input 


Bid 


Enable IRQ from keyboard 


BitO 


Enable IRQ from cartridge 



SFF93 FIRQ Enable Register 



Bit 7 
Bit 6 
Bit 5 
Bit 4 

Bit 3 

Bit 2 

Bit 1 

BitO 
SFF94 
SFF95 
SFF96 
SFF97 



Enable FIRQ from timer 

Enable FIRQ from horizontal 

border 

Enable FIRQ from vertical 

border 

Enable FIRQ from serial data 

input 

Enable FIRQ from keyboard 

Enable FIRQ from cartridge 
Timer MSB 
Timer LSB 
<Reserved> 
<Reserved> 



$FF98 Video Mode Register 



Bit 7 
Bit 6 
Bit 5 
Bit 4 
Bit 3 
Bits 2 to 



Bit-plane graphics enable bit 

Artifact color mode bit 
Composite-monochrome bit 
50Hz bit 
Lines per character row 



Bit 7 

Bits 6 to 5 
Bits 4 to 2 
Bits 1 toO 



Lines per field 
Horizontal resolution 
Color resolution 



$FF9A Border-Palette Register 
$FF9B <Reserved> 
$FF9C Vertical-Fine Scroll Register 
$FF9D Screen Start Address 1 
SFF9E Screen Start Address 2 
$FF9F Horizontal Offset Register 

$FFA0-$FFA7 MMU Segments Task 0: 



SFFAO 
SFFA1 
SFFA2 
SFFA3 
$FFA4 
$FFA5 
$FFA6 
$FFA7 



Logical 
Logical 
Logical 
Logical 
Logical 
Logical 
Logical 
Logical 



Addresses 
Addresses 
Addresses 
Addresses 
Addresses 
Addresses 
Addresses 
Addresses 



$0000to$1FFF 
$2000 to $3FFF 
$4000 to $5FFF 
$6000 to $7FFF 
$8000 to $9FFF 
$A000 to $BFFF 
$C000to$DFFF 
$E000 to $FDFF 



$FFA8-$FFAF MMU Segments Task 1 



$FFA8 Logical 
$FFA9 Logical 
$FFAA Logical 
$FFAB Logical 
$FFAC Logical 
$FFAD Logical 
$FFAE Logical 
$FFAF Logical 



Addresses $0000 to $1FFF 
Addresses $2000 to $3FFF 
Addresses $4000 to $5FFF 
Addresses $6000 to $7FFF 
Addresses $8000 to $9FFF 
Addresses $A000 to $BFFF 
Addresses $C000 to $DFFF 
Addresses $E000 to $FDFF 



$FFB0-$FFBF Palette Registers 

$FFB0 Color Palette (Text Background Color 0) 
$FFB1 Color Palette 1 (Text Background Color 1) 
$FFB2 Color Palette 2 (Text Background Color 2) 
$FFB3 Color Palette 3 (Text Background Color 3) 
$FFB4 Color Palette 4 (Text Background Color 4) 
$FFB5 Color Palette 5 (Text Background Color 5) 
$FFB6 Color Palette 6 (Text Background Color 6) 
$FFB7 Color Palette 7 (Text Background Color 7) 
$FFB8 Color Palette 8 (Text Foreground Color 0) 
$FFB9 Color Palette 9 (Text Foreground Color 1) 
$FFBA Color Palette 10 (Text Foreground Color 2) 
$FFBB Color Palette 11 (Text Foreground Color 3) 
$FFBC Color Palette 12 (Text Foreground Color 4) 
$FFBD Color Palette 13 (Text Foreground Color 5) 
$FFBE Color Palette 14 (Text Foreground Color 6) 
$FFBF Color Palette 15 (Text Foreground Color 7) 

SFFC0-SFFDF SAM Emulation 

$FFC0-$FFC5 Display mode control 
$FFC6-$FFD3 Display offset 
$FFD4-$FFD5 Base page 
$FFD6-$FFD7 <Unused> 
$FFD8-$FFD9 CPU rate 
$FFDA-$FFDD <Unused> 
$FFDE-$FFDF Map type 



Table 1: GIME Chip Functions 



18 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 





gsSSSsi * ntro 




«■.«***•* 



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Th e Works mci 



95 



$149 

Save $80.00 



Max-10+ 

Now with online 40,000 word 
spellchecker 

Regularly $79.95 

The latest in CoCo word processors 
and the only one with true 
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What 
You Get) output. Mix graphics with 
text. Max-10 is great for anything 
from greeting cards up to newsletters. 
Just turn the next page for a full list 
of Max-10's unbelievable features. 

fin; [illl search* inuoiil ram Sli|l(* fc. 



CoCo Max III 

Regularly $79.95 

The ultimate graphics creation 
program. See the list of features on 
the next page. Also read the superb 
review in The Rainbow, April 1988. 

rile toil nininns colors rom Size siuie y 



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7t>i$ is tbe Coco Max screen v/itb 
its pull down menus (above), its 
tool box(left), its palette, (below 

vou can dram with: 










Max-1 Font Set 

Regularly $29.95 

36 fonts on 2 disks. Can all be used 
easily and quickly with Max-10. 






CoCo Max Fonts 

Almost 100 fonts for incredible 
headlines and text. Four disks full of 
fonts. Use CoCo Max styles (Bold, 
Italic, 3-D, Shadow ...), sizing and 
colors for absolutely wonderful 
effects. Thousands of combinations 
are possible. Here are some of the 
fonts: 



Frontier IB point 

Athens 18 paint 

1/ via* 12 point 

Irvine 2H 

Swan Jonq *l point 

5wdii }or\g 24 

tllrsmere I? point 

Ellesmere Z4 poinl 
rjlesmcre Bold Z4 

Digital IS point 



Lonijhand 24 

Bllllw IX Mlat 



Slcicil III poial 
Futura 24 

Courier 1Z point 

Crookliavcn 48 

Shames 18 point 
sa n FranciSco 18 
Century 24 



All these and 14 more! 



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Prinimuli 5ivcll 

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Dic]>1*al [TlBcJitjrn 

Digital Large 
Futura 

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mm* 



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30 DAY TRIAL OFFER 

AND OUR 
NO-RISK GUARANTEE 

We understand perfectly that you 
have no reason to believe anything 
you read. Including this ad. (Or the 
rave reviews) 

So we invite you to evaluate The 
Works yourself. Call and order it. 
We'll send it with detailed, clear 
instructions. Use it with your own 
CoCo 3, on your own work, for 30 
days. Try it for brilliant presentation 
graphics, outstanding word proces- 
sing. Wring it out- 
After 30 days, if it isn't for you, 
for any reason, we'll take it back 
and write you a check imme- 
diately for your full purchase 
price. 

The risk is all ours. But we urge 
you not to wait, this deal may end 
soon. We can guarantee this price 
only if you order now. 

Call today. You have 
nothing to lose. 

(203) 348-9436 

Order line open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 
See next page for more ordering info. 



[COLORWARE 



A division of Sigma Industries. Inc. 



A REAL DESKTOP 



^ 




AND 



File Edit Options colors Font Size Style 




CoCo Max III is absolutely the best drawing package 
available for the CoCo 3. and it does more than just let 
you draw. CoCo Max III includes animation, text, color 
mixing and more features than you would think 
possible. It combines incredible speed with dazzling 
graphics and it is a joy to use even its most powerful 
features. 

Pictures, graphs, flyers, cards, signs, school projects, 
labels, buttons and anything else you might dream of 
creating is now possible with CoCo Max III. Is it any 
wonder that the majority of CoCo Gallery pictures in the 
last five months were created with CoCo Max? 
Thousands of CoCo users have found that you don't 
have to be an artist to have fun with CoCo Max. You'll 
wonder why you waited so long to get the incredible 
CoCo Max III. 



CoCo Max III is the best because it includes: 

- a huge picture area (two full hi-res 320x192 screens) - a large 
editing window - Zoom mode for detail work - 28 drawing tools 
which you just point and click on - shrink and stretch - rotation at 
any angle (1.5 degree steps) - 51 2K memory support (all features 
work with 128K too) - an Undo feature to correct mistakes - you 
can even Undo an "Undo" - Animation - special effects - color 
sequencing (8 colors, variable speed) - thirteen fonts (more 
available) - each font has eight different sizes - five style options 
(bold, italic. 3D. etc.) for thousands of font/size/style combination 
possibilities. - the CoCo Show "slide show" program - color 
editing of patterns - automatic pattern alignment - prints in single 
and double size - smart lasso (move text over a background...) 

- advanced tools: arc. ray, cube. etc. - select 16 of the 64 colors (all 
64 colors are displayed at once for selection!) - picture converter 
(CoCo Max II. MGE, BASIC) - extensive prompting - "glyphic" 
clipbook of rubber stamps - double click shortcuts - color mixing 
(additive/subtractive/none) - money back guarantee - sophisticated 
data compression saves disk space - pull down menus (no 
commands to remember) - forty paintbrush shapes - two color 
lettering - spray can - scrapbooks of pictures - error free 

- Y-cable or murtipack not required - high speed hi-res interface 
included (plugs into joystick port) - disk is not copy protected 

- amazing "flowbrush" - RGB and composite monitor support 

- replace color - printing on black and white printers in five shades 
of gray - full color printing with optional drivers for the NX-1000 
Rainbow and CGP220 - entirely rewritten for the CoCo 3 




CoCo Max III: $79.95 

Max-10 owners: deduct $10 

System Requirements: 

CoCo 3 disk system and a Joystick 

or Mouse 

Printer drivers included: 

IBM/Epson and compatibles. GEMINI, 
DMP105/106/130.OKI182/192, CGP220 
(B&W), DMP110. DMP200 

Color printer drivers (prints 125 
different colors) Star NX-1000. CGP- 
220, or Okimate 20 each $1 9.95 



For all CoCo Max Versions 

Max Edit Font Editor: A font is a set of 
characters of a particular style. With Max Edit you can 
create new fonts or modify the existing ones.$1 9.95 
Max Font disks (send for list) each $1 9.95 
Max Font Set (95 fonts on 4 disks) $49.95 
DS69/69B Digitizers: allows you to capture the 
image from a VCR or video camera and bring it into 
your computer. CoCo Max will let you load digitized 
pictures and modify them. 
DS-69 (2 images per second. Requires 
murtipak) $99.95 

DS-69B (8 images/second) $1 49.95 



CoCo 1 & 2 Owners 
Still Available: 

(See previous ads or 
write for information) 
CoCo Max II (works on 
all disk CoCos) $69.95 
CoCo Max Tape 
(C0C01 & 2 only) $59.95 
Y-Cable $24.95 

CoCo Max II Picture 
Disk Set 
set of 3 disks: $29.95 



Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Use CoCo Max or Max-1 for a full month. 

If you are not delighted with either of them, 

we will refund every penny. 



[COLORWARE 



A division ol Sigma Indusirica. Inc 




TO ORDER 



«S* 



(203)656-1806 M0N-FRI 9 to 5 EST ^ 

Visa or Mastercard accepted. COD. orders $3 extra 

Check or M.0. to: Cokxware. 242-W West Ave. Darien CT 06820 

Add $3 per order tor shipping (t5 to Canada. 1 0% to overseas) 

CT residents add 7,5% sales tax 



PUBLISHING 



[COLORWARE 




THE DAZZLING WORD PROCESSOR 

You probably already have a word processor, and you 

probably wish it had these features: 

*■ Fully menu driven (CoCo Max style) with point and 

click marking of text. You don't need the arrow keys! 
- True WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) 

including variable size fonts, styles (bold, italics, etc.) 

and graphics. 
*■ Can print multiple columns on a page. 
*- Not limited by printer capabilities: fonts up to 24 

points (1/3") high, superscripts, small print, etc. 
+■ Fully integrated spelling checker (incredibly fast), no 

need to exit program to check spelling. 
*• Graphics can be imported from just about anything 

(CoCo Max; MGE; BASIC; even Macintosh pictures 

from a BBS) and resized to fit your document. 
*■ Full screen preview including graphics. 
Max-10 has all these unique features, plus all the 
features you are used to in your current word 
processor. Even with all this, you don't give up anything. 
Max-1 is easier to use. more intuitive, faster and more 
powerful than anything else. It's not just a word 
processor, it's a desktop publisher. 

D . c n D_IA* 



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Max-1 0: $79.95 

CoCo Max III owners: deduct (10 
Max-10 requires a CoCo 3. at least 1 disk. & joystick or mouse 
Printer drivers included: IBM/Epson and compatibles: DMP 
105, DMP106. DMP130; CGP220 (B&W); Gemini/Star 



File Edit Search* Layout Font MPin 

■ 4 .ii,.,. A .i2 g i^.KF ';■■"■- f -- - 

m BBS 





Bold 



Underlined 

Superscript 

Subscript 



cu 

CH 
CL 



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WYSIWIG adj. (wiz-ee-wig) 1. What 
You See Is What You Get (acronym) 

. ui« cliice if f»i liakiii font, aid ji/Zm. 



p.4ge: 2 



Some of the many features of Max-1 0: 

- Blinding speed - printing in multiple columns - online dictionary 

- spell checking - graphics can be mixed with text - full justification 
of proportionally sized characters - bold, Italic, underline 
superscript and subscript type styles - superb file support, just point 
and click - "Undo" lets you correct mistakes - easy to use. no 
commands to remember - any graphics program can be used 

- pictures can be shrunk or stretched to fit - right and left alignment 

- centering - variable line spacing - page numbering - current 
page number displayed on the screen - variable tab stops - left and 
right margins - tabs and margins can vary in the same document 

- cut and paste text and graphics anywhere In the file - page break 
shows on the screen - pull down menus are quick and simple to use 

- lightning fast access to any point In the document with the scroll 
box - twenty fonts (styles and sizes), more available - any number 
of character sizes and styles can be mixed on the same line - up to 
more than 120 characters per line, depending on font size, style and 
letters - headers and footers, even with graphics - file compatibility 
with other word processors - right, left, bottom and top margins 

- word wrap - set starting page - type ahead - key repeat - key 
click - scroll up and down - ASCII file output for compatibility 

- disk directory - kill files- block cut, copy and move - global 
search and replace - paragraph indent - clipboard - merge 

- show file (on disk) - free memory display - page count 

- paragraph count - word count - graphics can be resized and 
moved - multiple fonts - error recovery - true lowercase - 51 2K 
memory support (all features work with 128K too) - complete point 
and click cursor control - moving, clearing and changing blocks of 
text Is ridiculously easy, just point and click at each end of the text 
block - onscreen ruler - preview file before loading - search and 
replace - disk is not copy protected - more than 35 pages of text 

CoCo Max III and Max-10 
Perfect Together 

You do not need CoCo Max III to insert and print 
graphics in Max-10. Max-10 works with any graphics 
creation program, and you can also use graphics 
downloaded from bulletin boards. 

Similarly, you do not need Max-1 to create graphics 
with text in CoCo Max III. There are tremendous 
lettering capabilities in CoCo Max III, with its many 
fonts, styles, and sizes. 

Together Max-10 and CoCo Max III are an unbeatable 
combination. This desktop publishing system is better 
than anything you've ever seen on a CoCo. We are so 
confident that you will use, and enjoy using *he two 
software packages, that we offer an unconditional 
money back guarantee. Stop wasting your time and 
effort using inferior or obsolete products. Move up to 
the new generation of CoCo software now. 



T & D SOFTWARE PRICE 



ISSUE #1, JULY 1982 

COVER I 
RACE TRACK 
HANGMAN 
MUSIC ALBUM 
LIFE EXPECTANCY 
WORD TESTS 
KILLER MANSION 
BARTENDER 
CALENDAR 
ROBOT WAR 

ISSUE #2, AUG. 1982 

UFO COVER PT I 
BIORYTHM 
BOMBARDMENT 
BLACK JACK 
COST OF LIVING 
FRENZY 

BUSINESS LETTER 
QUICK THINK 
OUEST INSTRUCTIONS 
QUEST FOR LENORE 

ISSUE #3, SEPT. 1982 
UFO COVER PT 2 
BASKETBALL 
CHUCKLUCK 
SLOT MACHINE 
ALPHABETIZER 
NFL PREDICTIONS 
FLAG CAPTURE 
ROBOT BOMBER 



ISSUE #4, OCT. 1982 

UFO RESCUE 

TANK BATTLE 

DRIVEWAY 

SOUNDS 

BALLOON DROP 

MIND BOGGLE 

COCO- TERRESTRIAL ADV. 

CALORIE COUNTER 

JACK-O-LANTERN 



ISSUE #5, NOV. 1982 

CATALOG COVER 

BOWL IMG 

PROGRAM INVENTORY 

PROMISSORY-LOANS 

CHECKBOOK BALANCER 

TRIGONOMETRY TUTOR 

CONVOY 

BAG-IT 

SPECTRA SOUND 

CONVEYOR BELT 

ISSUE #6. DEC. 1982 

CHRISTMAS COVER 

RAINDROPS 

STOCK MARKET 

ADVANCE PONG 

DESTROY 

SOUND ANALYZER 

CREATIVITY TEST 

VOICE DATA 

ML TUTORIAL PT I 

LOONY LANDER 

ISSUE #7, JAN. 1983 
NEW YEARS COVER 
LIST ENHANCER 
SUPER PRECISION DIV. 
BOMB DIFFUSE 
SPACE STATION 
ML TUTORIAL PT 2 
SHOOT OUT 
FIND UTILITY 
CYBORG INS. 
CYBORG FACES 



ISSUE #8, FEB., 1983 

COVER 8 

DEFEND 

3 DIMENSIONAL MAZE 

COCO CONCENTRATION 

AUTO LINE NUMBERING 

ML TUTORIAL PT.3A 

ML TUTORIAL PT 3B 

NUCLEAR POWER PLANT 

DUAL BARRIER 

BRICKS 

ISSUE #9, MARCH 1983 

TIME MACHINE COVER 

TRIG DEMO 

PYRAMID OF CHEOPS 

PROGRAM PACKER 

BUDGET 

ELECTRONIC DATE BOOK 

ML TUTORIAL PT .4 

TAPE DIRECTORY 

BLOCK-STIR 

COCO ADDING MACHINE 

ISSUE #10, APRIL 1983 

TENTH COVER 

PYRAMID OF DANGER 

TYPING TUTOR 

ML TUTORIAL PT.5 

TINYCALC 

STOCK MARKET COMP 

YAH-HOO 

MISSILE ATTACK 

SCREEN PRINT 

BRIKPONG 

ISSUE #11, MAY 1983 
ELEVENTH COVER 
ARCHERY 
FROG JUMP 
ML TUTORIAL PT.6 
MLT DICTIONARY 
BASIC SPEED UP TOT 
METRIC CONVERTOR 
GRAPHIC QUAD ANTENNA 
GRAPHICS PROGRAM 
CATERPILLAR CAVE 

ISSUE #12, JUNE 1983 
TWELFTH COVER 
SHOOTING GALLERY 
BOMB STOPPER 
VALLEY BOMBER 
STAR FIGHTER 
WHEEL OF FORTUNE 
ML TUTORIAL PT 7 
MERGE UTILITY 
RAM TEST 
LANDER 

ISSUE #13, JULY 1983 

THIRTEENTH COVER 

FLASH CARD 

ICE BLOCK 

COSMIC FORTRESS 

MAIL LIST 

DOLLARS 4 CENTS 

ML TUTORIAL PT.8 

SOSK COPY 

MUSIC SYNTHESIZER 

CRAWLER 

ISSUE #14, AUG. 1983 
MYSTERY COVER 
ROW BOAT 

COMPUTER TUTL PT 1 
INDEX DATA BASE 
DISK ZAPPER 
COCO-MONITOR 
COCO-ARTIST 
ROBOT COMMAND 
TEST SCREEN PRINT 
HIGH RESOLUTION TEXT 



ISSUE #15, SEPT. 1983 

MYSTERY COVER PT.2 

GOLD VALUES 

TREK INSTRUCTIONS 

TREK 

HIGH TEXT MODIFICATION 

ASTRO DODGE 

DR COCO 

PEG JUMP 

MORSE CODE 

PURGE UTILITY 

ISSUE #16, OCT. 1983 

MYSTERY COVER 

BOPOTRON 

DIRECTORY RECALL 

VECTOR GRAPHICS INST. 

VECTOR GRAPHICS 

SKYOIVER 

SWERVE AND DOOGE 

NIMBO BATTLE 

TAPE ANALYSIS UTILITY 

LIFE GENERATIONS 

ISSUE #17, NOV. 1983 
THANKSGIVING COVER 
3-D TIC-TAC-TOE 
INDY 500 

COLLEGE ADVENTURE 
MEMORY GAME 
DUNGEON MASTER 
WEATHER FORECASTER 
GRID FACTOR INST 
GRID FACTOR 
DRAW 

ISSUE #18, DEC. 1983 
CHRISTMAS COVER 

CLIMBER 

GALACTIC CONQUEST 

WARLORDS 

STATES REVIEW 

MATH TUTOR 

MACHINE LANGUAGE DATA 

PRINTER UTILITY INST 

PRINTER UTILITY 

MUTANT WAFFLES 

ISSUE #19, JAN. 1984 

BANNER 

PROBE 

DISK DIR. PROTECTOR 

OPTICAL CONFUSION 

WORD PROCESSOR 

WORD SEARCH 

ASTRONAUT RESCUE 

STAR TRAP 

PIE CHART 

FORCE FIELD 

ISSUE #20, FEB. 1984 

INTRODUCTION 

HINTS FOR YOUR COCO 

ESCAPE ADVENTURE 

SEEKERS 

MASTER BRAIN 

LIST CONTROLLER 

DISKETTE CERTIFIER 

ROM COPY 

BASIC RAM 

SNAFUS 

ISSUE #21. MAR. 1984 
BASIC CONVERSIONS 
FINANCIAL ADVISE 
CASTLE STORM 
DOS HEAD CLEANER 
COCO TERMINAL 
SNAKE CRAWLER 
WAR CASTLE 
SKY FIRE 
EASY BASIC 
DOTS 3-D 



ISSUE #22, APRIL 1984 

HEALTH HINTS 
GLIBLIBS 

CLOTHER SLITHER 
BIBLE I & 2 
BIBLE 3 S 4 
CATCH ALL 
INVADER 
ALIEN RAID 
MOON ROVER 
IO ERROR IGNORER 

ISSUE #23, MAY 1984 
MONEY SAVERS I & 2 
STOCKS OR BOMBS 
WALL AROUND 
COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT. I 
NUCLEAR WAR INST 
THERMONUCLEAR WAR 
CIRCUIT BREAKER 
MOUSE RACES 
SUPER SQUEEZE 
DATA FALL 

ISSUE #24, JUNE 1984 

DIR PACK & SORT 

BRICK OUT 

COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT 2 

USA SLIDE PUZZLE 

51 "24 SCREEN EDITOR 

51 '24 SCREEN EDITOR 

CITY INVAOERS 

PRINTER SPOOLER 

STEPS 

SNAKE 

ISSUE #25, JULY 1984 

CLOCK 

COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT.3 

SKID ROW ADVENTURE 

MONEY MAKER 

PIN-HEAD CLEANING 

LINE EDITOR INST 

LINE EDITOR 

BOOMERANG 

BUBBLE BUSTER 

ROCOCHET 

ISSUE #26, AUG. 1984 
PEEK POKE 8 EXECUTE 
SAUCER RESCUE 
YOUNG TYPER TUTOR 
O-TEL-0 

OLYMPIC EVENTS 
DOUBLE DICE 
COCO DATABASE 
BATTLE STAR 
COCO-PIN BALL 
MONTEZUMAS DUNGEONS 

ISSUE #27, SEPT. 1984 

COCO TO COM 64 

GALACTIC SMUGGLER 

INDY RACE 

ACCOUNT MANAGER 

CASSETTE MERGE UTILITY 

STRING PACKING TUTORIAL 

SPACE OUEL 

BUGS 

TRAP-BALL 

BALLOON FIRE 

ISSUE #28, OCT. 1984 

HANGING TREE 

CHECKERS 

FOOTBALL 

MORE PEEKS & POKES 

SPELLING CHECKER 

SOUND DEVELOPMENT 

WORD GAME 

SCREEN REVERSE 

AUTO COPY 

RAT ATTACK 



ISSUE #29, NOV. 1984 

DISK ROLL OUT 
ROBOT ON 
MULTIPONG 

AOVENTURE GENERATOR 
QUEST ADVENTURE 
QUARTER BOUNCE 
DUAL OUTPUT 
KEY REPEAT 
FULL EDITOR 
METEOR 

ISSUE #30, DEC. 1984 

MATH HELP 

ZECTOR ADVENTURE 

WORLD CONQUEST 

DRAG RACE 

MINE FIELD 

T-NOTES TUTORIAL 

T & D PROGRAM INDEXER 

SYSTEM STATUS 

ERROR TRAP 

DROLL ATTACK 

ISSUE #31, JAN. 1985 

TREASURES OF BARSOOM 

BATTLEGROUND 

STRUCT COMPILED LANG. 

MINIATURE GOLF 

STAR DUEL 

ARITHMETIC FOOTBALL 

GRID RUN 

SPIRAL ATTACK 

FAST SORT 

MUNCHMAN 

ISSUE #32, FEB, 1985 
DR. SIGMUND 
ICE WORLD ADVENTURE 
LOTTERY ANALYST 
BASIC COMPILER 
MUSIC CREATOR 
MEANIE PATROL 
TRI-COLOR CARDS 
SHAPE RECOGNITION 
DISK BACKUP 
SPACE PROTECTOR 

ISSUE #33, MAR. 1985 

LIGHT CYCLE 

PAINT 

SKEET SHOOTING 

GUITAR NOTES 

Ml DISK ANALYZER 

PERSONAL DIRECTORY 

NAUGHA ADVENTURE 

EGGS GAME 

DISK DIRECTORY PRINT 

SPEED KEy 

ISSUE #34, APRIL 1985 

HOVER TANK 

POWER SWORO 

TERMITE INVASION 

SPELLING CHECKER 

DOS BOSS 

NINE CARD CHOICE 

MUSIC GENERATOR 

FYR-DRACA 

DRIVE TEST 

GRAPHIC TOUR 

ISSUE #35, MAY 1985 
SELECT A GAME 1 
TAPE PROBLEMS 
STROLL TRIViA 
SOFTBALL MANAGER 
FONTS OEMO 
CLOWN DUNK MATH 
ALPHA MISSION 
DOS ENHANCER 
KNOCK OUT 
HAUNTED HOUSE 



ISSUE #38, JUNE 1985 
SELECT A GAME 2 
VIDEO COMPUTER 
SPEECH SYNTHESIS 
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interpreted as four 2-bit values, specify- 
ing four dots (or pixels) of video on the 
display. The values of each of these 2- 
bit values are used to reference the color 
palettes, which contain the color codes 
to be used. For a 16-color mode, each 
byte of video data will be interpreted as 
two 4-bit values. (Of course, more 
RAM is needed for such a screen.) For 
text modes, the data in the video display 
memory will be interpreted differently. 
Each character on a text screen is 
specified by two adjacent bytes in 
memory. The first byte is the character 
itself, in ASCII code. The second, called 
the attribute byte, specifies the manner 
in which the character is displayed. It is 
interpreted like this: 



Attribute 


Byte 


Bit 7 


Blink 


Bit 6 


Underline 


Bits 5 to 3 


Foreground palette for 




character 


Bits 2 to 


Background palette 




for character 



The background palette has eight 
added to it before it is used. Thus, a zero 
in bits 2 through results in the use of 
Palette 8, a one. Palette 9, and so on. 

Bit 5 of the video mode register at 
Location SFF98 controls the color set 
available to Color Computer 1 and 2 
programs using artifact colors. This 
trick, discovered after the release of the 
Color Computer 1, enables color sets 
not supported by the original VDG 
chip. The only drawback is that the 
color set selected is dependent on the 
clock's state at the time the computer is 
turned on or reset — requiring the user 
to press reset repeatedly until the proper 
colors appear. (Any software that has a 
setup screen with a message like "Press 
Reset until this square is blue" uses this 
mode.) 

The artifact-color mode bit removes 
this guesswork. Depending on the orig- 
inal programming, a value of either zero 
or one in this bit will make the software 
come up in the proper mode every time. 
This bit is set to one value or the other 
depending on whether the Fi key is 
pressed when the reset key is pressed. 
This lets non-programmers set or clear 
this bit, so existing programs with this 
problem may be initialized correctly. 

Bit 4 of SFF98 is the monochrome bit 
and reflects some foresight on Tandy's 
part. It enables support for composite 
monochrome monitors, a monitor 
Tandy does not currently market. Bits 
2 to ofSFF98 and bits 6 to of SFF99 
set up the resolution and number of 



colors used by the various Hi-Res 
G1ME graphics modes. 

SFF9A contains the color value for 
the display border. Normally this regis- 
ter is set to zero, so the display will have 
a black border like the Color Comput- 
ers 1 and 2, but now the border can be 
set to any one of the 64 colors available 
via the GIME. More palette registers 
are found at locations SFFOO through 
SFFBF. They control the color set 
visible on the display. 

Color Computers 1 and 2 can display 
up to eight colors. The GIME allows 
display of up to 16 colors at one time, 
chosen from a palette of 64. Color 
Computers 1 and 2 display one of a 
number of fixed color sets, but the 
GIME palette registers allow the pro- 
grammer to pick and choose the colors 
used, for more realistic graphics. 

SFF9C and SFF9F are the vertical 
and horizontal fine-scroll registers. 
They let the display scroll in either 
direction under hardware control — a 
feature that has yet to be used in any 
commercial software. An unfortunate 
bug in early production runs of the 
GIME chip rendered the horizontal- 
scroll register useless. These features 
may see some interesting applications 
once machines with later versions of the 
GIME chip become more widely avail- 
able. 

Locations SFF9D and SFF9E con- 
trol the section of memory used by the 
GIME chip for its video. One nice thing 
about this 2-byte register: The section of 
memory used for the GIME's video 
need not reside in the current memory 
map. 

This brings us to one of the GIME 
chip's most powerful features: the 
MMU. The 6809 CPU chip can only 
address 64K of memory at one time. 
This is an inherent limitation designed 
into the 6809 when memory cost more 
than it does today. To get around this 
limitation and make the 128Kand 512K 
Color Computer possible, Tandy added 
the GIME's MMU feature. 

On a 128 K. Color Computer 3, mem- 
ory is available as sixteen 8K segments 
of memory. On a 512K machine, there 
are 64 of these 8K. segments available. 
When the MMU is enabled, a set of 
eight registers in the GIME control 
which segment is addressed by the CPU. 
The MMU register at SFFAO, for exam- 
ple, controls which segment is seen in 
memory from addresses $0000 to 
S1FFF. The next register controls ad- 
dresses S2000 to S3FFF. This scheme 
continues through the MMU register at 
$FFA7, which determines the segment 



to be mapped in at addresses SEOOO 
through SFDFF. (Addresses SFE00 
through SFFFF are a special case since 
the GIME chip is addressed in that 
range.) 

There are two sets of MMU registers. 
The set at SFFAO to SFFA7 is used if 
Bit 1 of SFF91 is zero; if it is one, the 
set at SFFA8 to SFFAF is used. This 
feature can be used to switch rapidly 
between two pre-defined sets of MMU 
values. In this manner, sections of 
memory can be switched into, and then 
out of, the 64K address space at will. 
Memory segments switched out of the 
space do not lose their contents and can 
even be switched back in at a different 
place. 

The Color Computer 3's Super Ex- 
tended BASIC uses the MMU to access 
high-resolution graphics areas outside 
the normal 64K address space. Much of 
the commercial software for the Color 
Computer 3 also uses the MMU to run 
a program larger than the 64K limit of 
the Color Computer 1 and 2. OS-9 
Level II provides access to the full 128K 
or 512K of memory available with no 
special programming needed. 

So there you have it — a quick look 
inside the GIME, the powerhouse chip 
inside our favorite new machine. There 
are many sources available for more 
information. Perhaps the best source of 
data on the GIME is Tandy's Technical 
Reference Manual for the Color Com- 
puter 3. Other sources of information 
are Inside OS-9 Level II, and the 
BASIC Unraveled series. Finally, there 
are many knowledgeable Color Com- 
puter users on the CoCo and OS-9 SIGs 
of online services like Delphi and Com- 
puServe. Professional software devel- 
opers have long known of the value such 
online services can provide. Delphi has 
many tutorial articles on 6809 program- 
ming and details on the GIME chip 
available in its CoCo SIG's online 
database. 

Armed with this information, many 
of you may decide to tackle the world 
of assembly-language programming on 
the Color Computer — a task that is 
both challenging and rewarding to 
those willing to persevere. Perhaps this 
quick tour of the many powerful func- 
tions available via the Color Comput- 
er 3 GIME chip will inspire some of you 
to begin that journey. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this article may be directed to the author 
at 712 Brett, Rohnert Park, CA 94928. 
Please include an SASE when request- 
ing a reply.) 



24 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



"In the beginning there was VIP Writer and users saw thai it was good, But it's 
not the best anymore. There's a new word processor to claim the crown... 

VIP Writer III -Setting the Standard" 



—RAINBOW SEPT. 1988 



MORE SCREEN DISPLAY OPTIONS 

VIP Writer III offers screen widths of 32, 40, 64 & 80 - all with 24 lines and actual lower 
case letters using the CoCo 3's hardware display. It runs at double clock speed and has 4- 
color menus making VIP Writer 111 FAST and EASY to usel You can choose foreground, 
background, hilite and cursor colors from up to 64 hues. Color can be turned ON or OFF 
for the best possible display using a monochrome monitor or TV set. VIP Writer III has a 
context sensitive help facility to display command usage in easy to read colored windows. 

CUSTOMIZER & PRINTER INSTALLER 

VIP Writer III comes with a configuration / printer installation program which lets you 
customize VIP Writer III to suit your own liking. You can set screen width and colors as well 
as margins and more. You can also install your own printer and set interface type (serial, 
parallel or J8M), baud rate, line feeds, etc. Once done, you never have to enter these 
parameters again! VIP Writer III will load n' go with your custom configuration every timel 

MORE TOTAL TEXT STORAGE 

VIP Writer III has 106K total text storage in a 128K CoCo 3 (495K in 512K). VIP Writer 
III creates ASCII text files which are compatible with all other VIP Programs as well as 
other programs which use ASCII files. You can use VIP Writer III to even type BASIC 
programs! There is a 48K text buffer (438K in a 51 2K CoCo 3) and disk file linking 
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lets you display directories and free space as well as rename or kill disk files. In addition 
VIP Writer III is 100% compatible with the RGB Computer Systems Hard Disk. 

POWERFUL EDITING FEATURES 

VIP Writer III has a full featured screen editor which can be used to edit text with lines up 
to 240 characters long with or without automatic word wrap around. You can select 
type-over mode or insert mode. There is even an OOPS command to recall a cleared text 
buffer. Other editing features include: Type-ahead • typamatic key repeat and key beep 
lor llawless text entry • end of line bell • full four way cursor control with scrolling • top 
of textfile • bottom ottextfile • page up • page down • top of screen • bottom of screen • 
beginning of line • end of line • left one word • right one word • DELETE character, to 
beginning or end of line, word to the left or right, or entire line • INSERT character or line 
• LOCATE and/or CHANGE or DELETE single or multiple occurrence using wildcards • 
BLOCK copy, move or delete with up to TEN simultaneous block manipulations • TAB key 
and programmable tab stops • word count • line restore • three PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS to perform tasks such as auto column creation and multiple copy printing. 



AUTOMATIC TEXT FORMATTING 

VIP Writer III automatically formats your text for you or allows you to format your text in 
any way you wish. You can change the top, bottom, left or right margin and page length. 
You can set your text Hush left, center or flush right. You can turn right hand 
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appearl You can even change the line spacing! Parameters can be altered ANYWHERE ! 

PREVIEW PRINT FORMAT WINDOW 

VIP Writer III features an exclusive format window which allows you to preview your 
document BEFORE PRINTING IT! You are able to move up, down, left and right to see 
centered and justified text, margins, page breaks, broken paragraphs, orphan lines etc. 

PRINTING VERSATILITY 

VIP Writer III prints TWICE as fast as any other CcCo word processor! It supports most 
serial or parallel printers using JSM JFD-CP or Rainbow interface and gives you the 
ability to select baud rates from 110 to 19,200. You can imbed printer control codes 
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strokes. Other features include: multiple copy printing • single sheet pause • line feeds. 

BUILT IN PRINT SPOOLING 

VIP Writer III has a print spooler with a 57,000 character buffer which allows you to print 
one document WHILE you are editing another. You don't have to wait until your printer is 
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50,000 WORD SPELLING CHECKER 

VIP Writer III includes VIP Speller (not FREEWARE) to check your text for misspelled 
words It has a 50,000 (not 20,000) word dictionary that can be added to or edited. 

QUALITY DOCUMENTATION 

VIP Writer III comes with a well written 125 page manual which is Laser printed, not dot- 
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VIP Writer III includes VIP Speller 1.1. DISK $79.95 

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Writer III or Library /W owners: Upgrade to the VIP Writer III 2.0 
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VIP Database III 

VIP Database III features selectable screen displays of 40, 64 or 80 characters by 24 
lines with choice ol 64 foreground, background, hilite and cursor colors for EASY DATA 
ENTRY. It uses the CoCo 3's hardware screen and double clock speed to be the 
FASTEST database available! VIP Database III will handle as many records as will fit on 
your disks and is structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system with full 
prompting for easy operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design. All files 
are fully indexed for speed and efficiency. IN-MEMORY SORT of records is LIGHTNING 
FAST and provides for easy listing of names, figures, addresses, etc., in ascending or 
descending alphabetical or numeric order. Records can be searched for specific entries 
using multiple search criteria. The built-in mail-merge lets you sort and print mailing lists, 
print form letters, address envelopes - the list is endless. The built-in MATH PACKAGE 
even performs arithmetic operations and updates other fields. VIP Database III also has a 
print spooler and report generator which uses print forms you create. DISK $69.95 
Available through Radio Shack Express Order Cat. #900-0915 



VIP Database owners: Upgrade to the VIP Database III for 
$39.95 + $3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $42.95 total. 



VIP Library /WDCE 

The VIP Library AVDCE combines all six popular VIP application programs - VIP 
Database III, VIP Writer III, VIP Speller, VIP Calc III, VIP Terminal and VIP Disk-ZAP - 
into one integrated program on one disk called VIP Desktop. DISK $1 79.95 

For VIP Library shipping please add $4 USA. $5 Canada. $10 Foreign. 



VIP Library owners: Upgrade to the VIP Library /WDCE for $99.95 
+ $3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $102.95 total. 



VIP Library AVDE owners: Upgrade to the VIP Library AA/DCE for 
$10 + $3 S/H. Send ORIGINAL disk and $13 total. 



SID IE en d © ir ip ir 3 s © $ 

©(503) 663-2865 ^PQB 1233 Gresham. OR 97 030 



We accept VISA I MASTERCARD and C.O.D. orders by phone. 

Non VIP Library orders add $3 lor shipping and handling in USA. Canada $4. Foreign 

$6. COD orders add an additional $2.75. Checks allow 3 weeks for delivery. 



VIP Calc m 



FAST 4-color POPUP menus • PRINT SPOOLER 
32, 40, 64 and 80 Column HARDWARE display! 

Runs VERY VERY FAST at double clock speed! 

Now every CoCo 3 owner has access to a calculating and planning tool better than 
VisiCalc'™ containing all its features and commands and then some. VIP Calc III allows a 
large worksheet with up to 51 2 columns by 1 024 rowsl In addition, VIP Calc III has up to 16 
windows which allow you to compare and contrast results of changes. Other features 
include 8 AND 16 digit precision • trig, funclions • averaging • algebraic functions • column 
and row ascending and descending SORTS • locate formulas or titles in cells ■ block move 
and replicate • global or local column width • limitless programmable functions • create 
BAR charts. Embed printer control codes for customized printing. Combine spreadsheet 
data with VIP Writer documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical & financial 
budgets and reports. DISK $69.95 



VIP Calc owners: Upgrade to the VIP Calc III for $29.95 + $3 S/H. 

Send original disk and S32.95 total. 



Buy RGB-DOS for $29.95, 

Get Hard Disk support, new commands and a Disk Drive FREE!' 

Sounds too good to be true? II you own a Radio Shack FD 502 or other 
double sided Disk Drive, using RGB-DOS, you can access the other side 
of your Disk Drive giving a second disk drive absolutely free!' RGB- 
DOS also supports up to 2 Hard Drives that can be used by DISK 
BASIC as well as OS-9. RGB-DOS works with CoCo 1, 2 and 3 and 
supports double sided drives and faster stepping rates. Other 
features include: Full screen directory display shows drive #, free 
space and even a disk name! • RUNM command and FLEXIKEY Last 
Command Recall and Edit system • EPROM version executes any 
program when CoCo is turned on for hands Iree start-up. 64K Req'd. 

All products run under RSDOS and are not copy protected. 



CoCo GALLERY 



1st Prize 

Parkview 

Barbara Ann Slorrier 

Drawn originally with pen 

& ink, Barbara recreated 

this landscape of Lacy Park 

in San Marino, California, 

on the CoCo 3. The striking 

realism showcases the 

features of CoCo Max III 

and the artist's talents. 

Barbara lives in Arcadia, 

California. 





2nd Prize 

War 

Ken Roblson 

Breaking through the ene- 
my's perimeter, this soldier 
moves closer to his objec- 
tive. Ken, a citizen of Port 
Colborne, Ontario, de- 
signed this scenario via The 
Rat package. 



26 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 




River 

Joel R. O'Rear 

Red sky at night, sailors delight. 
Joel has enjoyed photography 
since his days in the Navy and 
now transfers his pictures to the 
computer with CoCo Max III. He 
lives in Tucumcari, New Mexico. 



Honorable 
Mention 

Faucon 

Pierre Morris 

This revered bird waits patiently for 
its prey. Pierre used a program he 

designed that enables him to obtain 

256 different colors onscreen. He 

resides in Beauport, Quebec. 





Honorable Mention 

Butterfly 
Brad Bansner 

Although it isn't spring yet, I daydream of the plant 
lite turning green again. Brad's Colormax Deluxe 
"Butterfly" is a welcome sight. A sophomore in high 
schoot. he sent this picture from Wyomissing, 
Pennsylvania. 



SHOWCASE YOUR BESTI You are Invited to nominate 
original work for inclusion in upcoming showings of "CoCo 
Gallery." Share your creations with the CoCo Communltyl 
Be sure to send a cover letter with your name, address and 
phone number, detailing how you created your picture 
(what programs you used, etc.) and how to display it. Also 
please include a few facts about yourself. 

Don'f send us anything owned by someone else; this 
means no game screens, digitized images from TV pro- 
grams or material that's already been submitted elsewhere. 
A digitized copy of a picture that appears in a book or 
magazine Is nof an original work. 

We will forward one first prize of $25; one second prize 
of $15 and one third prize of $10. Honorable Mentions may 
also be given. 

Please send your entry on either tape or disk to the CoCo 
Gallery. THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
Remember, this is a contest and your entry will not be 
returned. 



— Tony Ollvs, Curator 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



27 



-Netes- 



16K ECB 



This month's program is a fun lan- 
guage arts program for elementary- 
school children. First and second grad- 
ers will probably need assistance with 
some of the vocabulary words and 
spelling, but third graders and higher 
should have no trouble working on their 
own. 

This program is concerned with pets. 
You know — those fuzzy, furry, obe- 
dient, curious creatures that share both 
our children's and our own lives. Pets 
are often considered full-fledged 
members of a family. Our own family 
has given its hearts to several pets over 
the years. 

Even the computer world has fallen 
prey to this phenomenon. Look at the 
popularity of the imaginary CoCo Cat. 
No RAlNBOWfest is complete without 
appearances from the furry feline. Little 
kids line up at these semiannual events 
to greet and hug CoCo Cat; adults stop 
to take pictures. Buttons with CoCo 
Cat's image are sold — all this for an 
imaginary mascot. 

Things have gotten so out of hand 
that a new store called The Yuppie 
Puppy recently opened near Computer 
Island. In this store, you could easily 
spend a small fortune on pet clothing 
and gifts. Pets have certainly become a 
big business. 

We have decided to write a program 
that kids can use to show their love for 
their pets — real or imagined. This 
program will help children create a 
short poem or story about a pet. If a 
printer is available, this poem or story 
will be printed on paper. Underneath 
the text is room to draw a picture of the 
real or imaginary pet. 

The program first requests informa- 
tion about the child and the pet. These 
questions and answers are contained in 
lines 70 to 190. One by one, questions 
are asked, and the computer waits for 
the student to type an answer. A few of 
the answers had to be error-trapped. It 
is necessary, for example, for the child 
to type in either boy or girl for an 
answer on Line 120. The error-trapping 
is on lines 130 to 150. The program will 
not proceed until one of these responses 
is keyed in. A correct response is needed 

Sieve Blyn leaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 



Those loving creatures 
that share our lives 



Animal 
Stories 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

here to enable the computer to choose 
the proper gender of other pronouns 
later on. Most other answers allow 
more creativity or flexibility on the part 
of the student. 

The child should enter short answers 
to the questions. One- or two-word 
answers are all that are required. If 
longer answers are entered, the CoCo's 
32-character line limit will be exceeded. 
This would ruin the screen output of the 
finished product. (Naturally, the print- 
er's output can handle longer lines of 
text.) 

Lines 220 to 300 contain the direc- 
tions for a printout of a story about the 
pet. The story's content is dependent on 
the child's answers to the questions. If 
there is no printer at hand, key in the 
program until Line 340. The remainder 
of the program contains the directions 
to print the story on any printer. 

There are two options after the story 
appears on the screen. This routine is 
included on lines 310 to 320. The child 
may either end the program by pressing 
E or have the story printed on a printer 
by pressing P. As a precaution, be sure 
there is a printer connected and online 
before pressing E. If a mistake is made 
and the key is inadvertently pressed, 
control of the computer can be regained 
by pressing the Reset button on the rear- 
left side of the computer. 

Experiment with any alterations you 
want or feel appropriate to your child's 
or pet's needs. You could change any of 
the questions or alter parts of the fixed 
content of the story. As always, we at 
Computer Island hope that you and 
your children enjoy and learn from our 
programs. D 



The Listing: PETST0RV 



1? REM"THE YUPPIE PUPPY" 

23 REM"STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER IS LAN 

D, STATEN ISLAND, NY, 1989" 

33 CLEAR ippp 

43 CLS:AAS=STRINGS(3 2,191) 

53 PRINT@8,"PET QUESTIONS"; 

63 PRINT? 32, AAS; 

73 PRINTS 64, "WHAT IS YOUR FIRST 

NAME ?":LINEINPUT A$ 

8JI GOSUB 210:PRINT"ARE YOU A BOY 

OR A GIRL?";:LINEINPUT QS 
93 IF QS="BOY" THEN RS="HIS" ELS 
E IF QS="GIRL" THEN RS="HER" ELS 
E 80 
133 GOSUB 213:PRINT"WHAT XIND OF 

PET DO YOU HAVE?":PRINT"MY ";:L 
INEINPUT BS 
113 GOSUB 213:PRINT"WHAT IS YOUR 

PET'S NAME?":LINEINPUT CS 
123 GOSUB 213:PRINT"IS "CS" A BO 
Y OR A GIRL?": PRINT" A ";:LI11EINP 
UT DS 

133 IF DS="BOY" THEN XS="HE":YS= 
"HIS" 

143 IF DS="GIRL" THEN X$-"SHE":Y 
$="HER" 

153 IF DS<>"BOY" AND DS<>"GIRL" 
THEN 123 

163 GOSUB 213:PRINT"HOW OLD IS " 
CS"? " ; : LINEINPUT ES 
173 GOSUB 213:PRINT"NAME ONE FOO 
D THAT "XS" LIKES" :PRINT"TO EAT 
BEST. ";:LINEINPUT G$ 
183 GOSUB 213:PRINT"NAME ONE THI 
NG THAT "XS" LOVES ":PRINT"TO DO 
OFTEN. ";: LINEINPUT HS 
193 GOSUB 213: PRINT "WRITE SOMETH 
ING THAT TELLS WHAT" : PRINTCS" LO 
OKS LIKE. ";: LINEINPUT IS 
233 GOTO 223 

213 PRINTS64 , " " : PRINTS96 , " " : PRIN 
T964 , "" ; : PLAY"03L83CEDFGGG" : RETU 
RN 

223 CLS:PLAY"03L8CDEDC":PRINT@4, 
AS;'"S YUPPIE ",-BS 
233 PRINT(?32,AAS 

243 PRINT@64,"MY PET'S NAME IS " 
CS"." 

253 PRINT CS" IS A "DS" "BS"." 
263 PRINT@163,CS" IS "ES" YEARS 
OLD AND" 

273 PRINT YS" FAVORITE FOOD IS " 
GS"." 

283 PRINT9256,XS" LOVES TO "HS". 
i« 

293 PRINT XS" LOOKS LIKE "IS"." 

333 PRINTS352,AS" WILL ALWAYS LO 

VE "RS: PRINT "PET "BS" NAMED "CS 

" . " 

313 ENS=INKEYS 

323 IF ENS="E" THEN 333 ELSE IF 

ENS="P" THEN 343 ELSE 313 

333 CLS:END 

343 REM"****PRINTING ROUTINE***" 

353 PRINT;-2,TAB(33)AS;"'S YUPPI 

E ";BS: GOSUB 473 

363 PRINTS-2,TAB(25)"MY PET'S NA 

ME IS "CS"." 

373 PRINT*-2,TAB(28)CS;" IS A " 1 

DS;" ";BS: GOSUB 473 

383 PREINT#-2,TAB(25)CS" IS "ES" 

YEARS OLD AND" 
393 PRINTJ-2,TAB(28)YS;" FAVORIT 
E FOOD IS ";GS:GOSUB 473 
433 PRINT#-2,TAB(25)XS;" LOVES T 

O ";HS;"." 

413 PRINT#-2,TAB(28)XS" LOOKS LI 

KE "IS". " :GOSUB 473 

423 PRINT#-2,TAB{25)AS;" WILL AL 

WAYS LOVE "RS 

433 PRINTS-2,TAB(28)"PET ";BS;" 

NAMED ";CS;". ": GOSUB 473 

443 PRINT#-2,TAB(13) STRINGS (63," 

-") 

453 PRINT#-2,TAB(25)"HERE IS A P 

ICTURE OF MY PET" 

463 GOTO 313 

473 FOR T=l TO 3:PRINTS-2," ":NE 

XT T: RETURN 



28 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



the Color Computer 3 Word Processor 



TELEWRITER: UNDISPUTED #1 



If you've read the oilier word processor ads, 
you've probably had your fill of cold lists of 
features, and claims of ultimate speed, power, 
and ease of use. So let's try to get past the 
overblown claims and empty buzz words — with 2 
simple facts: 

Fact I: Telewriter is undisputedly the H\ most 
popular word processor on the Tandy Color 
Computers. 

Fad 2: Telewriter's exemplary ease of use and 
power have been acclaimed in numerous maga- 
zine reviews and in thousands of letters and calls 
from end users. 



THE OTHERS DON'T UNDERSTAND 



So why has Telewriter gained such a large and 
loyal following, while other Color Computer 
word processors have come and gone? Ironically, 
our competitors' ads tell you exactly why. 

For them, word processing is nothing more than 
features and numbers. The longer the list of 
features, and the bigger the numbers, the better 
the word processor. Or so they think. 

They just don't understand that power and ease of 
use are not gained by tacking on random features 
or throwing in freebie utilities or forcing you to 
use a cumbersome mouse. 

Real Power, true Ease of Use, and genuine Speed 
can only be attained through thoughtful, logical, 
intelligent design, attention to detail, and a com- 
mitment to the act and the art of writing. Thai's 
the Telewriter tradition, and that's the reason for 
Telewriter's phenomenal success. 



TELEWRITER— 128: INTELLIGENT 
DESIGN PERFECTED 



And now, Telewriter-128, the latest Telewriter, 
uses the added hardware power of the Color 
Computer 3 to bring this intelligent design to its 
logical perfection. 

Telewriler-128 adds unsurpassed speed and 
important new features to the already impressive 
arsenal of Telewriter-64. Not just speed for 
speed's sake, or features for the sake of 
advertising— but speed where it counts and fea- 
tures that make you a more efficient, more effec- 
tive writer. 

Rainbow magazine put it this way: "Tele- 
writer-128 will set the word processing standard 
for the Color Computer 3 because it is so simple 
and user friendly. . . . The 81-page tutorial/user's 
manual is nicely done. It is written in easy to 
understand language but the program itself is so 
easy. . . . Most people will be able to use the 
software right out of the package." 



TELEWRITER-128 OR DESKTOP 
PUBLISHING 



Desktop publishing is nice for adding pictures 
and fancy fonts to newsletters or business 
presentations— but its graphics orientation sacri- 
fices some important capabilities when it comes to 
working with words. 

If your main concern is expressing ideas through 
words (notes, letters, reports, papers, novels, 
etc.), the dedicated word processing power of 
Telewriler-128 still provides the most efficient tool 
for the job. Each tool has its place— desktop 
publishing for striking visuals, Telewriter-128, for 
effective writing. 



TELEWRITER-128 OR TELEWRITER-64 



You can no longer afford to be without the ease, 
power, and efficiency, that Telewriter brings to 
everything you write. 



Tclcwriler-128 for the Color Computer 3 costs 
$79.95 on disk, $69.95 on cassette. 

For the Color Computer 1&2, Telcwriler-64 costs 
$59.95 on disk, $49.95 on cassette. 

To order by MasterCard or Visa, 

call (619) 755-1258 anytime, or send check to: 

COGNITEC 

704 Nob Avenue 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

(Add S2 S&H. Californians add 6% lax. To upgrade 
from TW-64 to TW-128 send original TW-64 disk and 
$41.95.) 

Telewriter is also available through your nearby 
Radio Shack Computer Center and participating 
Radio Shack stores and dealers— or order direct 
from Express Order by dialing 1-800-321-3133. 

Ask for: Telewritcr-128 (disk) ... cat //90-0909 

Tclcwriter-64 (disk) cat #90-0254 

Tclcwritcr-64 (cass) cat 1/90-0253 



FEATURES THAT MATTER: Telewriter's out- 
standing design and its complete set of features, put 
it in a class by itself for smooth, efficient writing 
and letter perfect printed documents. Telewriter-128 
includes: 

Unbeatable SCREBN PERFORMANCE: lightning 
fast paging and scrolling, on-screen text that never 
lags behind your typing, and a response that is 
always instantaneous, no matter how much text is in 
the buffer, or where you are in the document. 
26 User definable MACRO KEYS type your often 
used phrases and titles with a single keypress— saving 
you time and freeing your concentration for writing. 
User settable DUAL SPEED CURSOR moves you 
anywhere on the line, on the page, or in the docu- 
ment, fast or slow— you decide, with the touch of a 
finger. Fast PRINT PREVIEW MODE shows you 
text as it will print: headers, footers, margins, page 
breaks, page numbers, justification— saves time and 
paper and guarantees perfect looking documents 
everytimc. 

Instant, ON-LINE HELP summarizes all Tclc- 
wriler-128 commands and special symbols. The On- 
line OPTIONS MENU lets you instantly customize 
the writing environment at any lime to suit your 
precise needs (Screen/character color, Monochrome 
on/off, Key repeal/delay rale, 2 Cursor repeal/delay 
rales, Casc-sensilivitv of search, Auto file backup 
on/off. and more). A SINGLE FUNCTION KEY 
takes you instantly to any menu, so you never have 
to stop and think. 

The 24, 25 or 28 LINE SCREEN DISPLAY option 
lets you sec 16% more on-screen lext (28), or wider 
line spacing (25). The auto-loading OPTIONS FILE 
stores all your Macros, Print Format settings, and 
Options Menu settings, so they are always there 
everytimc you run Telewriter-128. 3 pop-up STATUS 
WINDOWS tell you cursor position, word count, 



free space, etc. 

The QUICK SAVE feature lets you instantly save 
your current document wilh jusl 2 keystrokes and 
without leaving the editor. CURSOR THROUGH 
DIRECTORY to Load. Append, Rename and Kill 
files— so you'll never type a filename after the first 
lime. HANGING INDENTS help you organize ideas 
on the page more effectively. Also: Foolers, Multiple 
Print, Prim lo Disk, Key Click, Key Repeal, 40/80 
Column Option, Overstrikc, Word Delete, Nested 
Macros. Definable Foreign and Math Symbols and 
more. . . . 

And, of course, Telewriler-128 incorporates all the 
Features of TELEWRITER-64, like: Works with 
absolutely any printer thai works with your Color 
Computer (I, 2, or 3). Uses simple Embedded Con- 
trol Codes so all intelligent features of your primer 
are easily accessed, including: Underlining. 
Boldface, variable Fonts, Sub-script. Super-script, 
Italics etc. 

Format commands allow dynamically changing 
Margins, Headers, Spacing, Cenlcring, etc., any- 
where in the document. Format menu scls Margins, 
Spacing, Page numbering. Baud rale. Lines per 
page, Justification. Chain Printing means the size of 
your prinled document is unlimited. Also Single 
page and Partial Prim. 

Fast full-screen editor with wordwrap, lext align- 
ment, block copy/move/dclete, global search and 
replace, wild card search, fasl 4-way aulo-repcal 
cursor, fasl scrolling, forward and backward paging, 
sellable labs, word and line counter, full error pro- 
tection. Insert or delete anywhere on screen. Simple, 
easy lo remember, "mnemonic" Editor Commands. 
Load, Save, Append, Partial Save files to disk or 
Cassette. Kill, rename and lisi disk files. ASCII file 
compatibility. 



F e atur e 



16K ECB 




The ninth in a series of tutorials for 

the beginner to intermediate machine 

language programmer 



Machine Language Made BASIC 

Part IX: Let There Be Music 



By William P. Nee 



The Color Computer is adept at 
producing musical sounds. Com- 
plicated and expensive hardware 
can replicate almost any musical instru- 
ment and play over many octaves with 
several voices. This month we'll explore 
the SDUND and PLRY commands and 
execute them from machine language 
programs. In a later article, we'll learn 
how to play music with up to six voices 
(notes) at one time. However, for right 
now, let's stick to one note at a time. 

Let's start with the SOUND command. 
To use this command in BASIC, you need 
to enter a note (1 to 255), followed by 
the duration of play. Table 1 gives each 
note and its corresponding number. 
Middle C is C4, with a value of 89. These 
values can only approximate the note's 
actual frequency, but they will produce 
a good sound. 

Load Register A with the desired 
sound and Register B with the duration; 
store A in Location $8C and execute the 
SDUND command at Address SA951. 
Please note: You'll lose anything stored 
in registers A and X. Routine 1 plays 



Bill Nee bucked the "snowbird" trend 
by retiring to Wisconsin from a banking 
career in Florida. He spends the long, 
cold winters writing programs for his 
Co Co. 



Notes 




Octave 










3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


C 


— 


89* 


176 


218 


239 


C#/D- 


— 


99 


180 


221 


241 


D 


— 


108 


185 


223 


242 


D#/E- 


— 


117 


189 


225 


243 


E 


— 


125 


193 


227 


244 


F 


5 


133 


197 


229 


— 


F#/Q- 


19 


140 


200 


231 


— 


G 


32 


147 


204 


232 


— 


G#/A- 


45 


153 


207 


234 


— 


A 


58 


159 


210 


236 


— 


A#/B- 


69 


165 


213 


237 


— 


B 


78 


170 


216 


238 


... 


♦Middle C 














Table 1 


: SOUND Notes 







every note from 1 to 255. A sine-wave 
table of 36 notes (used in cassette 
programs) starts at Address SA85C. If 
you want to play these notes, try Rou- 
tine 2. 

To play a tune with notes of different 
durations, make up your own note table 
of two bytes for each note and its 
duration. Load Register A with the note 
and Register B with its duration, then 
play the note. Decrease the note counter 
and continue until out of notes. Playing 
notes can also be integrated with your 
visual display, but that will slow down 
the tempo. 

The play command is more compli- 



cated and requires more set-up. It uses 
the following locations: 



Location 


Description 


$D8 


Number of notes, 




pauses, etc. 


SDE 


Octave (0 to 4) 


SDF/E0 


Volume 


SEI 


Note length 


$E2 


Tempo 


SE5 


Number of dots after 




length 



Each note is numbered from one to 
12 since there are 12 half-steps in an 



30 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 





ORG 


$3000 




SOUND 


LDD 


HS0101 


NOTE = 1, DURATION = 1 


AGO IN 


STA 


SBC 






PSHS 


fl 


SAVE NOTE 




JSR 


$1=1951 


SOUND NOTE 




PULS 


fl 


GET NOTE 




INCfl 


NEXT NOTE 






CMPA 


HSFF 


TOP NOTE? 




BLO 


AGAIN 


IF LOWER, AGAIN 




SWI 

Routine 1: Playing the Notes 





ORG 


$3000 




START 


LDV 


H$AB5C 


ADDRESS OF NOTE TABLE 




LDB 


HI 


NOTE DURATION 




LDA 


B3G 


NUMBER OF NOTES TO PLAY 




STA 


NOTES 


SAVE IT 


LOOP 


LDA 


,v+ 


GET A NOTE 




STA 


SBC 






JSR 


$A951 


PLAY THE NOTE 




DEC 


NOTES 


ONE LESS TO PLAY 




BNE 


LOOP 


IF NOT OUT OF NOTES, BACK TO LOOP 


DONE 


SWI 






NOTES 


RMB 


1 






END 


START 






Routine 2: Notes From a Sine- Wave Table 



octave (C natural, C sharp/ D flat, D 
natural, D sharp/ E flat, E natural, F 
natural, F sharp/ G flat, G natural, G 
sharp/ A flat, A natural, A sharp/ B flat 
and B natural). 

There are five available octaves, but 
the computer subtracts one from the 
octave number, giving us octaves to 
4. The frequency table for the five 
octaves begins at S9C62. (See Table 2). 
The volume is a two-byte number cor- 
responding to V3l, V0 (Volume 0) in 
BASIC. Table 3 gives the basic volume 
and the corresponding number that 
goes in locations SDF and $E0. The first 
number is 126 plus four times the 
volume; the second number is 126 
minus four times the volume. 

The length can be any value between 
1 and 255. Adding a dot after the value 
increases the value by one half. The 
common notes and their lengths are as 
follows: 



Note 




Location 








00 


01 02 


03 


04 




S9C62 


$9C7A $9C92 


S9C9E 


$9CAA 


C 


#S1A8 


#$0D3 #$A6 


#$51 


#$26 


C# 


#$190 


#$0C7 #$9C 


#$4C 


#$23 


D 


#$I7A 


#$0BB #$93 


#$47 


#$21 


D# 


#$164 


#$0B1 #$8B 


#$43 


#$1F 


E 


#$150 


#$0A6 #$83 


#$3F 


#$1D 


F 


#$I3D 


#$09D #$7B 


#$3B 


#$1B 


F# 


#$12B 


#$094 #$74 


#$37 


#$19 


G 


#$11 A 


#$08 B #$6D 


#$34 


#$18 


G# 


#$10A 


#$083 #$67 


#$31 


#$16 


A 


#$0FB 


#$07C #$61 


#$2E 


#$14 


A# 


#$0ED 


#$075 #$5B 


#$2B 


#$13 


B 


#$0DF 


#$06E #$56 


#$28 


#$12 




Table 2: PLAY Delay Cycles 





Note 


Length 


Whole 


LI 


Half 


L2 


Quarter 


L4 


Quarter Triplet 


L6 


Eighth 


L8 


Eighth Triplet 


L12 


Sixteenth 


LI6 


Sixteenth Triplet 


L24 


Thirty-second 


L32 


Thirty-second Triplet 


L48 



The tempo can be any number be- 
tween one and 255. The computer 
defaults to a tempo of two at power-up. 
Use the same length values as above for 



Volume: 


$DF/E0: 


Volume: 


$DF/E0: 


V31 


#$FA02 


V30 


#$F606 


V29 


#$F20A 


V28 


#$EE0E 


V27 


#$EAI2 


V26 


#$E616 


V25 


#$E2IA 


V24 


#$DEIE 


V23 


#$DA22 


V22 


#$D626 


V2I 


#$D22A 


V20 


#$CE2E 


V19 


#$CA32 


V18 


#$C636 


VI7 


#$C23A 


VI6 


#$BE3E 


V15 


#$BA42 


V14 


#$B646 


V13 


#$B24A 


V12 


#$AE4E 


Vll 


#$AA52 


VIO 


#$A656 


V9 


#$A25A 


V8 


#$9E5E 


V7 


#$9A62 


V6 


#$9666 


V5 


#$926A 


V4 


#$8E6E 


V3 


#$8A72 


V2 


#$8676 


VI 


#$827A 


VO 


#$7E7E 




Table 3: PLAY Volume 





"35* 



&,>jcks 



You spent $60 to $80 for 
your CoCo 3 Word 
Processor and now the 
incredible Max-10 comes 
along! 

We know the feeling, so we 
have a special offer for you, 
but you have to find the 
"GOOD NEWS" ad 
somewhere in this issue. 
Do you know that with 
Max-10, word processing is 
actually fun? (Hard to 
believe, huh?) 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 31 



a pause or rest. A pause actually plays 
a note, but at V0. The number of notes 
and pauses to be played goes into 
Location SD8, and the location of your 
note table goes into SD9/DA. Since 
$D8 is a one-byte location, you cannot 
have a note table of more than 255 
notes. Any more will require a second 
note table. 

The play command goes from Ad- 
dress S9A22 to S9CB5, taking up 660 
bytes — quite a routine. Fortunately 
there is a way to get around entering 
individual volumes, tempos, notes and 
lengths. This method involves loading 
your note table location into Location 
SA6/A7 (the current pointer location) 
and creating a note table using the 
EDTASM FCC (Form Constant Char- 
acter) op code. The note table must start 
and end with quotes, just as the PLOY 
command would. Use all the PLAY 
command notations, such as notes A to 
G, octaves I to 5, lengths 1 to 255, 
tempo, pause, etc. After using the PLAY 
routine at S9A22, reload Location $ A6/ 
A7 with its original value. This routine 
cannot be executed from ZBUG; you 
must be in BASIC. Remember: Once you 
go to BASIC, your machine language 
program buffer is lost. It's still in 
ZBUG, but the source code has van- 
ished. Try Routine 3; notice that NTABl 
starts at $30 ID and NTAB2 starts at 
$3056. Jot down those locations if you 
want to correct or change any notes. 
While in ZBUG, use the A mode to find 
that the last byte used (") is at $30CE. 
If you want to add any more notes, they 
would have to start after that location. 

When there are no errors in the 
source code, enter Q to return to BASIC, 
then enter EXEC &H3000 to play the 
music. If you decide to slow down the 
tempo, enter EXEC 8.HC000 to return to 
EDTASM, then Z to get to ZBUG. 
Since NTflBl contains the tempo, type fl 
for the ASCII mode and 301D' to get 
to NTflBl. Continue pressing the down- 
arrow key until you get past the T The 
next byte contains the original tempo of 
4. Enter 3E to change the tempo and 
return to the edit mode, then press Q to 
return to BASIC. Type EXEC S.H3000 
again, and the same music plays — but 
at a slower speed. 

When you first power up, the subrou- 
tine at Address $829C sets the octave 
(03), the volume (V15), the length of the 
note (L4) and the note's tone (T2). 
Unless you're going to change one of 
these, you don't need to enter them. 
Regardless of what any manual states, 
the scale goes from C to B in each 
octave. 





ORG 


S3000 




START 


LDX 


SAG 


SAVE CURRENT POINTER LOCATION 




PSH5 


X 






LDX 


HNTAB1 


REPLACE IT WITH NOTE TABLE 1 LOCATION 




STX 


SAG 






JSR 


S9A22 


PLAY NOTE TABLE 1 




LDX 


BNTAB2 


REPLACE IT WITH NOTE TABLE 2 LOCATION 




STX 


SAG 






JSR 


S9A22 


PLAY NOTE TABLE 2 




PULS 


X 


GET OLD POINTER AND PUT IT BACK 




STX 


SAG 






RTS 




RETURN TO BASIC 


NTflBl 


FCC 


'"T4V30D3L4CP100C/ 




FCC 


'GP100GAP100AGP100G/ 




FCC 


/FP100FEP100E-' 




FCC 


'DP100LB 


DL1GEL2CV 


NTAB2 


FCC 


/"'L4GP100GFP100FEP100E/ 




FCC 


/■DP100DGP100GFP100F/ 




FCC 


'EL100FEDLB.EL10F-' 




FCC 


/L4EDCP100CGP100GAP100A' 




FCC 


/GP100GFP100FEP100E/ 




FCC 


/DL100EDCL8 . DL1GEL2CV 




END 


START 








Routine 3: Replacing Locations 



The Listing: MLNOTES 






3000 




00100 


ORG 


$3000 


3000 9E 


A6 


00110 START 


LDX 


$A6 


3J3J32 34 


10 


00120 


PSHS 


X 


3004 8E 


3019 


00130 


LDX 


#NTAB1 


30)37 9F 


A6 


00140 


STX 


$A6 


3009 BD 


9A22 


00150 


JSR 


$9A22 


300C 8E 


3058 


00160 


LDX 


#NTAB2 


300F 9F 


A6 


00170 


STX 


$A6 


3011 BD 


9A22 


00180 


JSR 


$9A22 


3014 35 


1? 


00190 


PULS 


X 


3016 9F 


A6 


00200 


STX 


?A6 


3018 39 




00210 


RTS 




3019 


22 


00220 NTAB1 


FCC 


/"T4V30O3L4CP100C/ 


3029 


47 


.00230 


FCC 


/GP100GAP100AGP100G/ 


303B 


46 


00240 


FCC 


/FP100FEP100E/ 


3047 


44 


00250 


FCC 


/DP100L8 .DL16EL2C"/ 


3058 


22 


00260 NTAB2 


FCC 


/"L4GP100GFP100FEP100E/ 


306D 


44 


00270 


FCC 


/DP100DGP100GFP100F/ 


307F 


45 


00280 


FCC 


/EL100FEDL8.EL10F/ 


308F 


4C 


00290 


FCC 


/L4EDCP100CGP100GAP100A/ 


30A5 


47 


00300 


FCC 


/GP100GFP100FEP100E/ 


30B7 


44 


00310 


FCC 


/DL100EDCL8 .DL16EL2C"/ 




3000 


00320 


END 


START 


00000 TOTAL ERRORS 







My program offers a simple tune, but 
don't stop with my tune. The musical 
possibilities are endless. You only need 
a C0C0, some imagination and some 
patience. 



Questions or comments about this 
tutorial may be directed to the author 
at Route 2, Box 216C, Mason, WI 
54856-9302. Please enclose an SASE 
when requesting a reply.) /«\ 



32 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 




Give your kids a head start 

with the affordable, expandable 

Tand/ Color Computer 3 @ 




Get real computing powei with thi 
Tandy Color Computer 3. Conneci ll m 
your TV and you'll have your own Kom 
computer system— for jusi $ 1 9! '.95. 

With the educational software avallal 
for the Color Computer 3, your children 
can study math, reading, typing— a variety 
of subjects — all while learning how to use 
a real computer. 

The Color Computer 3 provides impres- 
sive computing power for grownups, t<3Q. 
There's a library of useful Color Compute! 
software available— choose from word 
processing, spreadsheet, database and, of 
course, games the whole family can enjoy. 

Make your computer more versatile with 
optional accessories such as a printer, disk 
drives, a telephone modem and more. 
Add a CM-8 high-resolution monitor to 
create colorful, razor-sharp graphics. 

The Color Computer 3 offers uncompro- 
mising performance at a terrific price. 
And it's available now — visit Radio Shack 
today for a demonstration! 



Radio /hack 



Price applies at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating stores 
and dealers. Monitor, platform and Program Pak"" sold separately. 



The Technology Store 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 



,TM 



1 F e at ure^ 



Upgrading 
CoCo's Memory 

By Martin H. Goodman, M.D. 



Probably one of the simplest 
things CoCo owners can do to 
improve the utility and perform- 
ance of their machines is adding more 
memory. All it takes is the right chips 
and tools and a few modifications to 
your computer. Usually memory up- 
grades can be done by CoCo owners 
with a little help from Tandy or a third- 
party vendor. This article discusses 
things to consider before upgrading 
memory, offers the general procedures 
for upgrading memory, and gives brief 
technical reviews of the various prod- 
ucts on the market. 

The Warranty 

Some of the procedures I discuss 
involve opening your CoCo. Please 
note: Opening the computer can void 
the warranty, so if your machine is 
under warranty you may want to wait 
until that warranty has expired. More 
adventurous users may want to run 
their machines continuously for 72 
hours. If no trouble arises, these hardy 
souls may assume with some degree of 
confidence that their warranties will not 
be needed and open their machines. 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cose 1 1 of the CoCo world. On 
Delphi, Marty is the SIGop of RAIN- 
BOW'S CoCo SIG and database man- 
ager ofOS-9 Online. His non-computer 
passions include running, mountaineer- 
ing and outdoor photography. Marty 
lives in San Pablo, California. 




Defining Directions 

1 often describe procedures for the 
CoCo circuit board. While some dia- 
grams are provided, many procedures 
are just described. At all times I will be 
talking about the CoCo circuit board as 
if it were sitting in front of you in the 
CoCo case with the keyboard (or the 
space where the keyboard was) facing 
you — as if you were about to type on 



an intact CoCo. When I say front, 1 
mean "toward the keyboard," and when 
I say rear or back, I mean "toward the 
back of the computer, where the power 
and reset switches, and joystick, cassette 
and serial port connectors are located." 
Similarly, right means "toward the 
system bus (ROM pack) connector," 
and left means "toward the power 
supply side of the circuit board." 

Opening the Machine 

Upgrading memory on all CoCos 
requires opening up the machine. This 
is accomplished by removing the screws 
holding it together (accessed from the 
bottom of the case). In most cases it is 
necessary (or at least desirable) to 
remove the keyboard to gain better 
access to the circuit board. On all 
CoCos, beginning with the CoCo l's "F 
board," the keyboard is attached to the 
computer with a mylar ribbon cable 
that plugs into a connector on the CoCo 
motherboard. You can pull the mylar 
cable out of this connector and reinsert 
it later. Do not scratch or tear the mylar 
cable; it's rather delicate. 

Turn the Power Off! 

Let me remind you to unplug the 
machine before working on it. Trying to 
modify a CoCo with the power on could 
result in frying some or all of the chips 
in the computer and possibly getting 
you electrocuted in the process. Electro- 
cution by 1 10 volts AC is a grisly way 
to go. 

Put the Chips in the Right Way 

Plugging in a chip upside down can 
destroy the chip, so plug in the chips 



34 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 




correctly. Chips are typically oriented 
using either a notch or a dot (or both) 
at one end of the chip. This mark should 
correspond to the notch on the socket 
for that chip, to the notch on the silk- 
screen or to the part of the socket that 
has one corner filed down. On most 
CoCo models, all chips point the same 
way. Use this information to guide your 
placement of new chips. However, this 
information cannot be used when put- 
ting a new ROM chip into models A and 
B of the CoCo 2. In that situation, pay 
attention to the marks on the chip and 
the socket in which it goes. 

You will need a Phillips screwdriver 
to open up the CoCo's case. In addition, 
you need a soldering iron and solder for 
almost all CoCo 1 and 2 upgrades. A 
temperature-controlled or low-wattage 
(15 to 25 watts) pencil iron with a small 
tip is essential. Some upgrades require 
cutting pliers, and most of the upgrades 
need needle-nosed pliers and a short 
piece of wire. 

ROM and RAM chips are sensitive 
to static electricity. They are usually 
shipped in anti-static tubes or on anti- 



static foam pads. Make sure you and the 
foam surrounding the RAM chip have 
touched the ground plane on the CoCo 
before you handle or insert the chips. 
This will bring you, the CoCo and the 
chip to the same potential. Be careful in 
dry, cool environments, especially if 
you are on a thick rug. In such situa- 
tions, it may be necessary for you to 
ground yourself to a water pipe via a 
conductive wrist band before working 
on the machine. Be sure the machine's 
ground and the foam-padded chips are 
brought to the water-pipe ground, too. 
The best tool for removing memory 
chips from their sockets is a small 
screwdriver, which can be slipped be- 
tween the chip's body and the socket 
and then rotated to gently pull up first 
one and then the other side of the chip. 
Occasionally a chip will be in a position 
not easily reached with a screwdriver. In 
this case, you may want an IC extractor 
tool. Radio Shack sells its extractor in 
combination with a IC inserter tool 
(Cat. No. 276-181, $6.95); however, 
many electronic supply houses sell an 
extractor for $2 or less. The extractor 



is a U-shaped piece of resilient metal 
with little teeth at the end of the U. Slip 
the teeth under the IC at both ends and 
use a rocking motion to remove the 
chip. Caution: It is easy to misuse the 
tool — especially when attacking a 
"stuck" chip. Be careful. 

When inserting chips in the sockets, 
first put the chip on its side and gently 
bend the pins a little inward. Brand-new 
chips are often supplied with the pins 
angled out a bit, which makes it difficult 
to insert them. When inserting the chip, 
make sure all pins go into the holes of 
the socket. It is easy to leave one pin 
sticking out or (worse) bend a pin under 
the chip. 

Many of these upgrades call for you 
to solder wire across two adjacent 
solder pads on the motherboard of the 
CoCo. Often the wire should be an 
eighth of an inch long — or less. Han- 
dling such short pieces of wire can be 
quite difficult. I recommend you jumper 
such pads in the following manner: 
Strip a bit of the insulation off a piece 
of 24-, 26- or 30-gauge wire. Then bend 
it at its end, so the length you want to 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 35 



use is bent in an L shape. Now tin that 
end of the wire, and put a little blob of 
solder on the two pads you need to join. 
Using the rest of the wire as a handle, 
lay the L part of the wire across the pads 
and melt the solder to the wire and the 
pads. When the solder has thoroughly 
melted, flowed over the wire and 
bonded to the pads, let the joints cool. 
Then cut off the remainder of the wire. 

CoCos 1 and 2 

If you own a CoCo I or CoCo 2 with 
16K of memory, you should upgrade. 
Upgrades for late-model CoCo Is and 
all models of CoCo 2 are easy, relatively 
inexpensive and (for most programs) 
necessary because 64K is now the stand- 
ard for CoCo 1 and 2 memory. 

The upgrade procedure will vary with 
the model CoCo 1 or 2 you have, as will 
the exact type and number of memory 
chips required. All CoCo Is and CoCo 
2s whose Tandy catalog numbers do not 
have an A or B suffix require eight 4164 
chips. These chips can be as slow as 
200 ns in access time. However, any 
faster chips of that kind ( 1 50 ns, 1 20 ns, 
etc.) will work fine. At the time I am 
writing this article, these chips sell for 
between $1 and $2 each. 

If you have a late-model CoCo 2 
whose serial number includes an A or 

B, your upgrade to 64K will require two 
4464 chips. These are 18-pin, 4-bit-by- 
64K chips. They may have a 200-ns 
access time or faster. 

CoCo 1 C-, D- or E-Board Computers 

These large Color Computers came 
with a chieklet keyboard and a gray 
case. When opened, they have a key- 
board connected to the motherboard at 
a 16-pin connector. At the front-right 
side of the computer, you will see a 
multidigit number followed by the letter 

C, D or E. C-board computers will also 
have a satellite board connected to the 
main board via a cable. For all but the 
most fanatic hackers, the C-board 
upgrade can be considered impossible. 
C-board computers are rare and should 
not be upgraded but considered mu- 
seum pieces. 

D- and E-board CoCos can be up- 
graded to 64K., but the procedure is 
tedious, especially for the D board. 
These upgrades were covered in past 
issues of THE RAINBOW (see "ROM- 
RAM Roundup," May 1984, Page 49) 
and space does not permit my rehashing 
those instructions. Problems arise be- 
cause the D-board CoCo 1 was not 
designed to support any more than 1 6K 
of memory. The E-board CoCo 1 was 



Location of W1 jumper 
that must be soldered 
for64K upgrade 




U6 



U7 



Keyboard Connector 



U14 



U15 



U16 



U17 



U1I 



U19 



U20 



U21 



V 

Memory Chips 
FRONT 

Figure I: CoCo 2 (26-3026) Memory Upgrade 



IC7 



IC2 



run 
O 



R27 R7 
J 1 



FRONT 



Memory Chips 



Figure 2: Memory Upgrade of CoCo 2 (26-3134 and 26-3136) 
Showing Location of Jl and of the Eight Memory Chips 



designed to support 64K memory chips 
but was not designed to use more than 
32K of those chips. Thus extensive 
modifications to the chip power supply 
and address lines and the addition of an 
extra logic gate in the memory circuitry 
is required to accomplish the upgrade of 
those machines. The E-board CoCo 1 
was designed to accept half-bad (opti- 
mists call them half-good) 64K memory 
chips (sometimes mistakenly called 
32K-RAM chips), which Tandy bought 
at a discount. The board even had a 
jumper, so Tandy could populate it with 
chips that had either their top or bottom 
halves intact. 



The CoCo 1 F-board (Cat. Nos. 26- 
3002A, 26-3003A and 26-3004A) was 
the first Color Computer made by 
Tandy designed from the start to be 
upgraded to 64K of memory. The 3002 A 
and 3003A models require memory 
upgrading. They are large computers, 
like the CoCo 1 C-, D- and E-board 
machines. The CoCo 1 F board did not 
actually have the letter F on its circuit 
board. Rather, it had either no letters 
at all, or the phrase REV NC was silk- 
screened on it. However, because it 
followed the CoCo C, D and E boards, 
CoCo owners refer to it as the F-board 
CoCo 1. The machine came in a beige 



36 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



case with a keyboard somewhere be- 
tween the old CoCo chicklet keyboards 
and the later keyboards. This was a low- 
profile keyboard, with keys that looked 
as if they had been melted down. Early 
F board units were also gray and had 
the chicklet keyboard. Tandy marketed 
the same machine in a square white case 
as the TDP 100 computer. 

This computer's upgrade consists of 
removing the metal shield that hides the 
74LS783 chip and the eight DRAM 
chips. This shield is attached with little 
tabs, some of which can be removed by 
moving your finger around under the 
circuit board. With most of the tabs 
unbent, the shield can be removed from 
above. You then remove the old 16K 
DRAMs (U21 through U28) and cut 
out capacitors C58, 60, 62, 64, 66, 68, 
70 and 72. Insert the eight 4 164 DRAMs 
in the sockets you just cleared. Two sets 
of three staking pins are located to the 
left of the DRAM chips. Each has a 
jumper that connects the middle pin to 
one of the two side pins. These jumpers 
should be moved from the 16K. position 
to the 64K position. Another set of three 
pins is to the right of the DRAM chips. 
This set also needs to have its jumper 
moved from the 16K to the 64K posi- 
tion. (Note: If you fail to move all three 
of these jumpers, you will probably 
burn out your new DRAM chips.) A 
fourth jumper needs to be added (not 



moved). This jumper must connect two 
pins labeled 64, found to the left of U 1 7 
(the 6821 chip). Serious hackers will 
remove the jumpers entirely and solder 
the appropriate pins together. 

CoCo 2s 

If you own an American-made, orig- 
inal CoCo 2 (Cat. No. 26-3026 or 3027) 
with 16K. of memory, open the comput- 
er and remove all eight socketted 16K 
DRAM chips. These are located in the 
front of the computer in a single row of 
eight chips and are numbered U14 
though U21. Replace them with 4164 
chips. Now find U7, a 40-pin 6822 chip 
in the center of the board, toward the 
rear. Just to the left-front of U7 (bottom 
of the chip), you will find two adjacent 
solder pads labeled Wl on the circuit 
board. 

These two pads are close together and 
oriented front to back. Jumper these 
two pads together, using a tiny bit of 
wire and a soldering iron. When you 
have jumpered them, the jumper wire 
will run parallel to U6 and U7. That's 
all there is to it — your upgrade is 
complete. (See Figure 1 for details.) 

If you own one of the first Korean- 
made CoCo 2s (Cat. No. 26-3 1 34 or 26- 
3136), you need eight 4164 chips. Up- 
grade the memory on your computer in 
the following manner: Open your ma- 
chine. You will find eight socketted 16- 



BACK 



n 



CT? 




Memory Chips 
CN3 A CN4 



■ 
■ 
■ 

M 

• 

a 




M 




V 







IC10 IC11 



?;•••• 






> 



CO 



000 















• ••• 








o 




in 
O 




O 


c_ 






CM 

O 





FRONT 
Figure 3: Front of 26-3134B, 26-3136B CoCo 2 



pin 16K DRAM chips, which are in two 
rows (one of five and one of three chips). 
Remove those chips. Immediately to the 
left of IC-7, between R27 and R7, you 
will see two solder pads labeled Jl. 
Solder a jumper between those two 
pads. This jumper will run front to back 
and join the two J 1 pads. That's all there 
is to this upgrade. (See Figure 2 for 
details.) 

If you want to upgrade a 26-3 1 34A, 
26-3134B, 26-3136A, or 26-3136B 
model CoCo 2, the procedure is slightly 
different. You will need two 4464 
DRAM chips. These chips are 4-bit-by- 
64K DRAMs and have 18 pins. These 
are the same chips used in 128K CoCo 
3s. If you upgraded your CoCo 3 and 
saved the four 18-pin chips you re- 
moved from it during that upgrade, you 
own two sets of "upgrade kits" for these 
CoCo models. When you open these 
CoCo 2s, you will find two socketed 18- 
pin memory chips — 4416 chips. Re- 
move these two chips and replace them 
with two 4464 chips. Now look on the 
left front of the circuit board. There you 
will find two solder pads labeled RAM 
Size and 64 K. The two pads are en- 
closed by a white silk-screen rectangle. 
Solder a jumper between those two 
pads. That's all there is to it. (See Figure 
3 for details.) 

On all these A and B models of CoCo 
2 there are two white connectors that 
look like the white connectors for the 
memory upgrade board on the CoCo 3. 
You cannot use those connectors. They 
are there to support a plug-in board 
with eight 4 1 64 chips, which Tandy used 
at one time to upgrade these machines. 
When Tandy designed those boards, the 
cost and availability of DRAMs was in 
a state of flux, and Tandy could not be 
sure which would be the most economic 
upgrade — two 4464 chips or eight 4164 
chips. For this reason, the company 
designed the boards to allow use of two 
4464 chips on the board, or eight 4164 
chips via a plug-in memory upgrade 
board. 

The CoCo 2 B models have both the 
white connectors and places on the 
main circuit board where Tandy could 
solder eight 4164 chips. Therefore, the 
B model boards can be upgraded to 64K 
in one of three ways: Two 4464 chips to 
replace the 4416 chips, a plug-in board 
with eight 4164 chips, or 4164 chips 
soldered directly to places provided on 
the motherboard. For both the A and 
B models of the CoCo 2, I recommend 
using the two 4464-chip approach. This 
approach is cleaner, simpler, and puts 
less power drain on the computer. 

March 1989 THE RAINBOW 37 



Frank Hogg Laboratory 

12 Years of Service, Support, and Friendly Help! 

After Christmas SALE 



THE ELIMINATOR 



NEW!! J MULTI I/O CARD FOR THE COCO 
2 Serial Ports, 1 Parallel, Clock, Disk Interface! 

'litis mulli I/O card is called ihc "KUminator" because ii provides all die I/O capability 
under OS-9 thai most people want without the need for a Multi-Pak Interface. If de- 
sired, it is possible to use one or more Elimiimliim in I MPl or other bus expander, with 
or without other hardware. 

The ICliminalor is completely address decoded, and docs not depend on any of the slot 
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• 50 bytes of battery backed scratchpad RAM 

WD 1002-05 IID/FD Interface 

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SPECIFICATIONS: size 16" deep, 5.5" high, 7" wide. 60 Wau power supply with 
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Did you ever wonder why there is only one really good communications package for 

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Sculptor, a 4ih Generation Language, is an applications 
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2nd generation. In Sculptor you can develop an application in one 
lentil the time over Basic or one of the other 3rd generation 
languages. Sculptor brings the power of high level programming to 
the less experienced individual. If you cannot do what you want to 
do in a 3rd generation language, then Sculptor will open doors for 
you. In conventional programming 1/2 of your time is spent 
deciding what you want to do and 1/2 writing the code. With 
Sculptor most of your time is spent deciding what to do because it 
takes so little time to turn your dream into reality 

In 1988 we sold an incredible, number of Sculptors at the special 
price of $149. We proved that the market was there if the price was 
right. Version 1.16 lists for S695 on the IBM PC and goes up to 
$17,000 on a DEC VAX. Because of our success last year, thru a 
special arrangement we arc now able to offer Sculptor version 1.16 
to you for only S249.95. Now you can take applications created on 
your CoCo and run them on PC's, Unix machines etc. (with the 
proper runtime) Sculptor is the most powerful program available for 
the CoCo. 

But wail... During this special introduction of version 1.16 we 
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Requires OS9 Level II and 512K. Works on floppies or hard disks. 



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ORDERING INFORMATION VISA and M/C NY residents add 7%salcs lax. US 
software shipping add S3. 50. Please call for Air Express shipping. 

Send for FREE FHL NewsLetter and catalog. 
**Mo.st of our software requires OS9 LII and 512K. 

Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

Since 1976 

770 James Street - Syracuse, NY 13203 
Fax 315/474-8225 

Call 315/474-7856 



Testing Memory 

After upgrading your memory to 
64 K., you should get the Color BASIC or 
Extended Color BASIC copyright mes- 
sage when you turn on your CoCo. 
Entering PRINT MEM (or ?MEM) will give 
you the number 24871 if you have 
Extended Color BASIC or 31015 if you 
have Color BASIC. Even with a full 64K 
of memory, the CoCo is capable of 
using only the lower 32K of RAM under 
Color BASIC. This is true even for a 
512K CoCo 3. The problem here is that 
the ROM software was never revised to 
work with more than 32K of RAM 
memory. To better test memory, try 
using one of a number of RAM-test 
programs published in past issues of 
RAINBOW or posted on Delphi. 

ROM Upgrade 

On some of the computers discussed, 
you may be hampered by a lack of both 
memory and Extended Color BASIC 
(ECB). With the CoCo I and 2, Tandy 
offered the machines in any of three 
options: 16K Color BASIC, 16K Ex- 
tended BASIC and 64K Extended BASIC. 
Those with machines with only Color 
BASIC (not ECB) are missing a great 
deal. Such machines lack most of the 
graphics commands under BASIC and 
cannot be used with a disk controller — 
ECB is needed for the Disk Controller 
to work. If your machine does not have 
ECB, you can add it yourself. 

There are two types of Extended 
BASIC upgrades for Color Computers 1 
and 2. If you have only Color basic and 
own any CoCo 1 or CoCo 2 (Cat No. 
26-3 1 26 or 26-3 1 34), you will need a 24- 

There are two types of Extended 
BASIC upgrades for Color Computers 1 
and 2. If you have only Color basic and 
own any CoCo 1 or CoCo 2 (Cat No. 
26-3 1 26 or 26-3 1 34), you will need a 24- 
pin, 8K-by-8-bit Extended BASIC ROM. 
If you own a Cat No. 26-3 134A or 26- 
3I34B model CoCo 2, you will need a 
28-pin 16K Extended Color BASIC 
ROM that has both Color BASIC 1.3 and 
Extended Color basic 1.1. Both these 
chips can be ordered from Microcom, 
Computer Plus, Micro World or Tandy 
National Parts. The cost should be 
under S25. 

Installing the 28-pin Extended BASIC 
ROM in an A- or B-model CoCo 2 is 
a bit trickier. Refer to Figure 3 for a 
diagram of the Model B CoCo 2. Re- 
move the 24-pin Color basic ROM 
from the 28-pin socket, and locate the 
five ROM size jumpers near that socket. 
Four are behind it, and one is to the left 



of the socket. These jumpers are labeled 
64 on one side and I28K on the other. 
They are soldered in place. The 64K and 
I28K. refer to the number of bits in the 
ROM chip and are not indicative of a 
128K RAM memory upgrade for that 
machine. Clip all five jumpers where 
they touch the 64K solder pad. Then 
bend them over so they touch the I28K 
solder pad. Now solder them in that 
position. A fine pair of diagonal cutters 
and a fine-tipped soldering iron are 
helpful. You can remove the old 
jumpers and install new ones; however, 
I prefer the first method because it's 
faster. After moving the jumpers, insert 
the 28-pin ROM chip into the socket. 
The notch on the chip must point 
toward the front of the computer (i.e., 
it should be pointing in the direction 
opposite to IC chips 4, 5 and 1, which 
lie to its left, and point in the same 
direction as IC 2, to its right). You have 
now rewired the ROM socket to accept 
the pin of a 28-pin 16K-by-8 ROM. 

Hacker's note: The 24-pin 8K DECB 
ROM is pin-compatible with a Motor- 
ola 68766 EPROM. This ROM is pre- 
dominantly pin-compatible with a 
27128 EPROM; however, you must 
short Pin 1 to Pin 28 of the EPROM 
after programming it to make sure it 
will work in a CoCo. Pin 1 of the ROM 
is not connected internally, whereas Pin 
1 of a 27128 EPROM needs to be tied 
high to +5 volts. On some CoCo models, 
Pin 1 is left unconnected. In addition, 
while you can read the 28-pin ROM in 
most EPROM programmers, you can- 
not read the 24-pin ROM because it is 
a dynamic ROM, which requires its 
enable line to be pulsed each time a byte 
is read from it. The best way to extract 
data from that ROM is to read its 
contents using a working CoCo that has 
the ROM installed. 

Why upgrade to 512K? 

All OS-9 Level 11 users require 5I2K 
to make any reasonable use of OS-9 
Level IPs capabilities. At this time, few 
Disk basic programs make use of 
memory above 128K. Word Power 3.1 
from Microcom, Vterm from Gimme- 
soft, and CoCo Max 3 and Max 10 from 
Colorware are among the exceptions, 
using a significant amount of the mem- 
ory available with a 512K CoCo 3. 
Microcom sells a disk duplicator imple- 
menting a complete RAM image of the 
disk to be copied if you have a 512K 
CoCo 3. SpectroSystems soon presents 
an ADOS enhancement providing a 
very Disk BASIC-compatible RAM disk 
feature. 



The Tandy 512K Upgrade 

The upgrade provided by Tandy's 
designers is in the form of a plug-in 
memory board populated with 16 one- 
bit-by-256K (41256) chips. For this 
upgrade, first remove the four 4464 
chips from their sockets. Next make a 
minor alteration in the timing of the 
RAS and CAS lines by removing C65 
(a timing "fudge-factor" capacitor on 
the RAS line). Finally, insert a popu- 
lated memory-upgrade board into the 
three white connectors provided on the 
CoCo 3 motherboard. Most third-party 
upgrades are electrically identical to the 
Tandy upgrade, but these vendors often 
suggest different timing modifications. 

The 256K DRAM Crisis 

About a year ago, 256K DRAMs 
were cheap and plentiful. They were 
available to dealers at about $2 a chip 
or less. Then U.S. chip makers — 
unable to compete with Japanese pro- 
duction — demanded limitations on 
memory-chip import. The government 
responded by pressuring Japan to cut 
back on this import. After this, all but 
one U.S. manufacturer (Micron Tech- 
nologies) ceased production of 256K 
DRAMs, which they deemed unprofit- 
able, and Japanese manufacturers 
began converting factories that had 
been making 256K DRAMs into plants 
to make I -megabit chips. At this same 
time, there was an unforeseen increase 
in the demand for 256K DRAMs be- 
cause desktop computers with standard 
memories of 640 K or more were coming 
into their own. These computers re- 
quired 256K chips. 

The combination of these factors 
caused DRAM chip prices to skyrocket. 
Over a period of months, the price 
soared to a high of S15. By July '88, the 
price leveled off, but it hasn't come 
down much. Dealers still pay between 
$9 and $13 per chip for memory chips 
on a 16-chip CoCo 3 upgrade board. 
Therefore, the cost of a fully populated 
CoCo 3 memory-upgrade board can be 
in excess of $170. (Compare this to the 
$100 or so that such upgrade boards 
were selling for before the DRAM 
crisis.) There is no end to this crisis in 
sight. Prices for 256K DRAMs are 
expected to remain high for an indef- 
inite time. No matter who is to blame 
for the prices, we must deal with these 
high memory-chip prices. 

Tandy was able to lock its supply of 
256K DRAMs at a fixed price for a long 
time, so recently the Tandy upgrade, at 
$130 to $150, has been the most eco- 
nomical way to add 512K to your CoCo 



40 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



3. However, I doubt Tandy can sell 
memory chips at that price for long. 

Memory Chips 

The CoCo's manner of addressing 
memory is a bit odd. The timing on the 
GIME chip for its memory access is not 
quite right, especially on older (1986) 
GIME chips. Users have been faced 
with an array of inconveniences: 
"Sparklies" occasionally appear on the 
screen; memory chips in the 512K 
upgrade run hot; and some particular 
brands of memory chip work better 
than others for subtle reasons. I have 
been told that the minimum access time 
for proper operation of a DRAM chip 
on a CoCo 3 running at 2 Mhz is around 
142 nanoseconds. In theory, one really 
should use 120-ns access-time parts. In 
practice, however, most 150-ns parts 
will work fine. Although NEC memory 
chips are reported to work very well, I 
have used several brands of memory 
chips (including NEC, Motorola, TI, 
Hitachi, Fujitsu, Micron Technologies, 
and Samsung) with no problems. 

Available Memory Upgrade Boards 

With one exception, the various 



CoCo 3 memory upgrade boards come 
with sockets for the DRAM chips and 
can be populated with any speed or 
brand of DRAM chip. With DRAMs 
so expensive these days, many sales of 
512K. upgrades are in the form of bare 
boards users will populate when they 
get good deals on memory chips. 

Considerations in 512K upgrade- 
board design include the following: 

• The quality of the chip sockets used 

• The layout of the traces on the board 

• The number and value of deglitching 
capacitors used 

• The positioning of the deglitching 
cap traces 

Sockets with gold plating are best but 
are too expensive for use in this market. 
Next to gold-plated sockets, double- 
wipe sockets would be best (i.e., sockets 
that contact each pin of the memory 
chips on two sides). Single-wipe sockets 
are least desirable, but they work ade- 
quately. A large fraction of CoCo Is and 
2s use single-wipe sockets for their 
memory chips, and the CoCo 3 uses 
single-wipe sockets for its 4464 chips. 
All these work reliably. Proper provi- 



sion for wide ground plane traces will 
reduce noise on the power-supply lines 
and radio frequency interference. 

In theory, every DRAM chip should 
have a .33-mfd deglitching capacitor 
wired to its positive and ground pins. In 
practice, many board makers cannot 
include a cap for every memory chip, so 
some chips share the same deglitching 
cap. In addition, many manufacturers 
supply boards with .1-mfd deglitching 
caps, despite manufacturers' specifica- 
tions, which often say the .33 mfd value 
is preferred. The shorter the length of 
wire or printed circuit board trace 
between the power supply pins of the 
DRAM chip and its associated deglitch- 
ing cap, the better. 

The Tandy 5 1 2K upgrade board is (or 
was) sold with DRAM chips by Tandy 
for between $130 and $150. Its price 
may increase as Tandy's supply of 
lower-priced DRAMs is exhausted. The 
Tandy board is unique because it is 
mounted upside down (i.e., the DRAM 
chips a~ p . facing the CoCo mother- 
board, and the solder side of the board 
is up). Tandy designed the board this 
way because it was easier to mass- 
produce. All components (including the 



Tandy's 512K Upgrade 




These photographs illustrate the steps involved in upgrading to 51 2K with 
the Tandy upgrade. Above left: The CoCo 3 with case top removed. The 
upgrade is shown behind the computer. Above right: The four 4464 RAM 
chips have been removed and capacitor C65 is being clipped with "dikes." 
While the keyboard has been left in the computer, it has been moved 
slightly forward. More working room can be gained by carefully removing 
the keyboard entirely. Right: The completed upgrade. Note how the ground 
plane is visible and the chips, which are underneath, cannot be seen. 




March 1S89 THE RAINBOW 41 



pins that connect it to the motherboard) 
are soldered on the same side of the 
board, so the entire thing can be wave- 
soldered. By putting the solder side up, 
Tandy can add a foil-ground plane to 
reduce radio interference and comply 
with FCC regulations. Tandy has the 
only memory-upgrade board with such 
an added ground plane. Tandy's board 
uses roughly 12 deglitching caps for the 
16 DRAM chips, and each are .1-mfd 
in value. All reports indicate that the 
Tandy board works adequately; how- 
ever, when the DRAM chips get hot, 
their position beneath the board con- 
serves that heat. Tandy uses single-wipe 
sockets in all of the Tandy 512K up- 
grade boards 1 have seen. 

Although PBJ no longer makes pro- 
ducts for the CoCo market, before it 
disappeared it ran off a large number of 
512K memory-upgrade boards. This 
board is still sold by Computer Plus. 
The board comes with about a dozen . 1 - 
mfd deglitcher caps for its 16 memory 
chips. It is supplied with a variety of 
sockets — sometimes double-wipe, 
sometimes single-wipe. 1 used a PBJ 
upgrade board for nearly a year in one 
of my CoCo 3s, and it worked fine. One 
word of warning: PBJ's quality control 
seems a bit sloppy. I have seen three 
separate boards delivered to customers 
"dead on arrival." Naturally, a dealer 
will take back and replace a bad board, 
but you may need a second board 
present to be sure the problem is the 
board and not your chips. 

Tony DiStefano (author of the "Turn 
of the Screw" column in RAINBOW) 
designed a 5I2K upgrade board sold by 
CRC. This is the smallest 5 1 2K upgrade 
board I have seen. Tony also uses . 1 -mfd 
caps. He says some production runs of 
the board use single-wipe sockets and 
others use double-wipe sockets. I used 
one of his boards for several months 
with no problems, nor have I heard of 
any problems with them. Prior to ship- 
ment of any bare board, it is tested using 
continuity checks to weed out boards 
with internal shorts. Tony's quality 
control should be quite good. 

Performance Peripherals makes a 
high-quality 51 2K upgrade board using 
sixteen .33-mfd deglitching caps (one 
for each DRAM chip) and double-wipe 
IC sockets. Bare upgrade boards are 
tested in a CoCo 3 before shipping, and 
the boards are sent only when tested and 
burned in as good. This is a painstaking 
amount of quality control. I currently 
use one of its boards in my development 
system and have had no problems with 
it. Performance Peripherals is a small 

42 THE RAINBOW March 1989 



company but worthy of serious consid- 
eration by CoCo 3 owners. 

J&R makes another design of mem- 
ory upgrade board. This board features 
an excellent ground plane on the PC 
board. The company uses double-wipe 
sockets and 16 caps (one per DRAM 
chip); however, it tends to use only .1- 
mfd instead of .33-mfd caps. I've never 
used this board, but I have examined 
one. It looks well-made and -designed, 
and I have heard of no problems from 
anyone using one. J&R is the only 
company to offer a board in kit form 
(without sockets on the board). 

The Hemphill upgrade is the most 
unique memory upgrade of all. Instead 
of using dual-inline pin chips, Hemphill 
uses single-inline pin chips. This lets the 
company make a very small circuit 
board and include one capacitor per 
chip. The company uses .33-mfd caps. 
The memory chips are soldered to the 
board, making them less usable any- 
where else but making the board relia- 
ble and trouble-free. Hemphill's up- 
grade has a reputation as one of the 
most reliable and trouble-free 512K 
upgrades. You must buy this board with 
the chips provided. 



All 512K upgrade boards advertised 
in RAINBOW work fairly well. Although 
there are a number of theoretical rea- 
sons to prefer one to another, you will 
get reliable performance regardless of 
which one you purchase. (See Table I.) 

Timing Modifications 

When you install a 512K upgrade 
board, make a timing modification to 
the computer, or it will not work. There 
are various modifications to the CoCo 
3 recommended by different manufac- 
turers. Tandy's service manual for the 
CoCo 3 specifies the removal of only 
C65 (the RAS timing fudge-factor 
capacitor). Many third-party upgrades 
specify removing both C65 and C66 (a 
CAS line timing fudge-factor cap). 
Hemphill Electronics suggests yet a 
third timing modification for installa- 
tion of its upgrade. The company sug- 
gests leaving both C65 and C66 in place 
and soldering a 47-ohm resistor in 
parallel with R22 (a 120-ohm timing 
fudge-factor resistor on the RAS line). 
Some people who have tried the Hemp- 
hill modification say their memory 
chips run cooler with that modification 
than with the cap-removal mods. Some 



n 



o 

3 



o 



C66, 
^IC18 



r> IC 19 




XL 



n^ 



j>IC16 
}> IC 17 



*C65 



CN4 

| u iirina J 



Keyboard Connector 
/ 




Remove IC 16, 17, 18 and 19. 

512K upgrade board plugs into 
connectors CN4, CN5 and CN6 



R22 

120 ohm 

(brown, red, brown, gold) 



Figure 4: 512K CoCo 3 Upgrade 



also claim the Hemphill method results 
in fewer or no sparklies on machines 
that previously had them. 

Figure 4 shows the location of the 
various components referred to above. 
C65 and 66 are little green blobs, and 
R22 is a gray cylinder with brown, red, 
brown and gold stripes. If you destroy 
the capacitors in the act of removing 
them, you can find near replacements at 
Radio Shack. Radio Shack Part No. 
272-121 is a 47-pf capacitor. Two of 
those in parallel will be 94-pf — close 
to the 82-pf value for C65. Two of those 
capacitors in series will yield a value of 
23.5 pf — close enough to the 27-pf 
value for C66. If you try the Hemphill 
upgrade. Radio Shack sells a 47-ohm 
resistor (Cat. No. 271-009). 

About Those 4464 Chips... 

Memory on the CoCo 3 is addressed 
via the GIME chip, which is both a 
memory-manager chip and a video- 
display generator chip. The CoCo 3 
comes supplied with 128K of memory 
in the form of four socketted 4-bit-by- 
64K 18-pin 4464 chips. This memory is 
wired so it presents 64K of 16-bit words 
to the GIME chip. Therefore, while the 
6809 can address external memory 
along an 8-bit data path, the GI ME chip 
can read the DRAMs 16 bits at a time. 
This allows the GIME chip to read 
memory faster to properly update the 
Hi-Res color graphics screens. Each of 
the four 64K-by-4 chips contributes one 
quarter of each 16-bit word read by the 
GIME chip. 

The logical way to accomplish an 
upgrade to 512K on the CoCo 3 would 
be to substitute 4-bit-by-256K chips for 
the 4-bit-by-64K chips with which it 
came. After all, 44256 chips do exist; 
they sell for about $45 each. But Tandy 
chose not to provide for this upgrade 
route. The 44256 chips are 20-pin chips, 
with a different pin out from the 4464 
chip. Worse, the 44256 chips require a 
different refresh cycle because they are 



Company 


Product 


Warranty 


Bundled Software 


Comrrcnts 




Tandy/Radio Shack* 


Tandy 512K 


90-Day 


None 


Optional installation 
extra. 




Computer Plus* 


Tandy 512K 
Tandy OK 
PBJ 512K 
PBJ OK 


90-Day 
One Tear 


None 


Optional installation 
extra. 




The Computer Center* 


Disio 513K 


90-Day 


RAH Disk 
RAH Test 


Optional installation 
extra. 




Owl -Ware* 


LR Tech 512K 

Performance 
Peripherals 
512K 


One Year 
One Year 


RAH Disk 
RAH Test 
Printer spooler 


Optional installation 
extra. 




Performance Peripherals 


Performance 
Peripherals 
512K 


One Year 


RAH Disk 
RAH Test 
Printer spooler 






HicroUorld* 


Tandy 512K 


90-Day 


None 


Optional installation 
extra. 




Hicrocom Software* 


Performance 
Peripherals 
5 12K 


90-Day 


RAH Disk 
RAH Test 
Printer spooler 
Backup utility 
OS-9 Lll RAH Disk 


Optional installation 
extra. 




CRC/DistO 


Disto 51ZK 


90 Day 


RAH Disk 
RAH Test 
Printer Spooler 


Optional installation 
extra. 




Arizona Small Computer Co. 


Oisto 512K 


180 Day 


RAH Disk 
RAH Test 
Printer Spooler 


In- shop installation 
included. 




J & R Electronics 


J 8, ft S12K 
JltW 
J S P. Kit 




RAH Disk 
RAH Test 
Printer Spooler 


Available in kit form. 




■These advertisers also offer 64K upgrades for the CoCo 1 and 2. 
Because of rapidly fluctuating chip costs, our advertisers request that you contact 
them for current pricing information. 

Table 1: Sources for CoCo Memory Upgrades 





internally more like the 1-bit-by-l- 
megabit chips than the 4-bit-by-64K 
chips. They require a 512-cycle refresh 
while the GIME chip provides a 256- 
cycle refresh. There is no way around 
this problem. The chips cannot be 
interfaced to the GIME chip. 

Finally, hold onto those 4464 
DRAMs you remove. If a problem 
develops in your upgrade, you will have 
an alternative of downgrading to 128K, 
or you may want to switch these chips 
with those in another board. There are 
not many machines around that use the 
4464 DRAMs for memory upgrade, 
except the Tandy 3000 and some 10- 



Mhz 8088 PC compatibles. If you are 
certain you have no use for your 4464 
DRAMs, you can send them to me in 
care of RAINBOW magazine. I sometimes 
have projects that use them. 

That's all there is to it. Follow the 
instructions found in this article care- 
fully, and you will soon have the mem- 
ory you and your computer need. Mod- 
ifying your Color Computer takes time 
and patience. Look around; find the 
best merchandise for you. Then watch 
for the best prices on that equipment. 
Once you have your parts and your 
tools, be sure to take the time to do the 
work right. /"-"N 



PREMIUM COC03 512K UPGRADE 

•Made in USA by J&R Electronics 'Memory chips sockeled, user replaceable 

■Rugged, long life construction "Top mounted Memory for cooling 

•Heavy duty POWER and GROUND planes lo minimize memory errors due lo noise 
•High pertormance design, permils use ol less expensive 150ns memory chips 

•We supply Prime memory chips, not interior pulls or fallouts* 

•Includes RAMDISK, Spooler and Memory Test soltware on disk with 28 page User's 
Manual (We set the standard lor 51 2K support software. Wo believe our software 
Is uniquely powerful, as opposed to tnese 'Me, loo' companies that charge exlra 
for software with much less power 1 ) 

SPECIAL PRICES 

f/1010-29.95 JramR bare board plus connectors and software 

81014-39.95 JramR assembled & tested 0K (No memory chips) and software 

"CALL (for latest price of #1014 with memory chips and other products) 

To place an order, wme lo: J&R Electronics, P.O. Box 2572, Columbia, MD 21045, 

OR call (301) 987-9067-Jesse or (301) 788-0861-Ray 




The Dazzling Word Processor and Document 

Creator for the CoCo 3. 

Nothing else comes close. 

(coioitwnr 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



43 



I F ea tur e 

What's the best choice? 
You decide 



AHar 




By Martin H. Goodman, M.D. 



Over the last two years, more and 
more Color Computer owners 
have been adding hard drives to 
their systems and enjoying the benefits 
of greater storage capacity and speed of 
operation. During this time, vendors 
have begun to market a variety of hard- 
drive systems, and the entry-level price 
for these has dropped under $200 — 
even for the non-hacker. When you 
compare the cost of adding a hard drive 
to that of adding two floppy drives to 
your system, you'll see that the hard 
drive is the sensible choice. For around 
$250, you can add a 5- or 10-Meg system 
and increase storage and access speed. 
When you consider adding a hard 
drive, you are bombarded by a bewil- 
dering array of alternatives. This is an 
introduction to the basic elements of 
any CoCo hard-drive system and the 
options available for it. I don't have 
experience using all the systems de- 
scribed, so do not consider this a com- 
parative review of the products. 

Man in H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cosell of the Co Co world. On 
Delphi, Marty is the SIGop of rain- 
bow's CoCo S1G and database man- 
ager of OS-9 Online. His non-computer 
passions include running, mountaineer- 
ing and outdoor photography. Marty 
lives in San Pablo, California. 



The Elements of a CoCo Hard Drive 

Color Computer hard-disk systems 
consist of both the physical hardware 
(circuit boards, hard drive, case and 
power supply) that must be added to the 
system and the driver software that lets 
the system use this added hardware. The 
differences in OS-9 drive software are 



of limited significance; however, the 
differences in Disk Extended Color 
BASIC driver software are significant. 

A final common element in all hard- 
drive systems is the actual hard drive. 
Hard-disk drives are characterized in 
terms of their physical size, the number 
of platters inside them, the number of 




The Arizona Small Computer's 20-Meg system . Inset, the Disto Interface 



44 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



cylinders per platter and the number of 
heads. A platter is the hard disk inside 
the drive. Typically, each platter is 
serviced by two heads, one on each side 
of the platter. These heads write con- 
centric circular tracks of data called 
cylinders. A CoCo floppy disk will have 
a maximum of two heads, each of which 
accesses up to 40 tracks, for a total data- 
storage capacity of 360K bytes. A small 
data capacity hard-disk drive will have 
four heads and 306 cylinders (tracks) for 
each head — a total capacity of 10 Meg. 
Higher-capacity drives can have over a 
thousand cylinders per platter and eight 
or more heads — and up to 500-Meg 
capacity. 

The disk in a CoCo floppy drive 
rotates at 300 rpm. The disks in a hard 
drive rotate at 3600 rpm. The heads of 
the hard drive float a fraction of an inch 
above the oxide-coated aluminum plat- 
ters, which are physical disks inside the 
hard disk drive. Do not jostle the hard- 
disk drive or the case in which it resides 
while it is in operation. A minor bump 
while the drive is spinning can cause the 
head to bash into the platter, destroying 
all the data on that cylinder and (per- 
haps) adjacent cylinders as well. In 
addition, this can destroy the heads, 
rendering the drive useless and destroy- 
ing all the data on it. 



Hard drives used in CoCo systems are 
manufactured by many companies and 
come in an assortment of sizes, shapes, 
capacities and power requirements. 
They can be as big as 514-inch, full- 
height floppy drives or as small as 314- 
inch half-height drives. Hard drives 
vary in capacity from 5 to several 
hundred Meg. Those commonly used in 
the Color Computer market are in the 
5- to 40-Meg range. When we discuss 
small-capacity (5- to 40-Meg) hard-disk 
drives, the bigger drives are older drives. 

Most hard-drive systems for the 
CoCo use a hard drive with a logic 
board, which talks to the hard-drive 
controller via a ST506 or ST412 inter- 
face. This interface consists of a 34- and 
a 20-contact edge connector. It is named 
after two ancient 5-Meg Shugart drives: 
the ST506 drive and the ST412 drive, 
which originally used this hardware 
interface. This same generic physical 
hard drive is still used in most IBM PC 
XT and AT-compatible computer sys- 
tems. The phrases ST506 and ST412 
refer to the same physical hardware. 

However, the old ST506 drive from 
Shugart did not include buffered seeks. 
This deficiency resulted in slower oper- 
ation. For years, all hard drives with 
ST506/ST412 interfaces have been 
made with smart logic boards, and to 



varying degrees, they support buffered 
seeks. Although the term ST506 implies 
a drive that does not support buffered 
seeks and the correct term is ST4I2, in 
practice the two terms are used inter- 
changeably. 

In most cases, the hard drive and a 
power supply will be mounted in a case, 
often with an additional controller 
circuit board. While hard drives resem- 
ble floppy drives externally, they usu- 
ally require more power. Thus, only the 
latest (most expensive and compact) 
3',4-inch hard drives can use a power 
supply designed for floppy drives. In 
order to reach the appropriate speed, 
the oldest full-height hard drives require 
as much as 5 amps on their 12-volt 
supply lines during the first seconds of 
operation. Once at operating speed, 
such drives draw 1 to 2 amps at 12 volts 
and about an amp at 5 volts. By com- 
parison, a typical floppy drive requires 
0.6 amps at 12 volts and 0.3 amps at 5 
volts. 

One major difference between the 
various hard drives is the distinction 
between those that can and those that 
cannot be used with an RLL (Run 
Length Limited) controller. Most hard 
drives are designed to work with hard- 
drive controllers that write data to the 
platters with MFM (Modified Fre- 



What Does a Hard Drive Offer? 



A 20-Meg hard-disk drive holds more 
information than 120 single-sided, 35- 
track floppy disks or about as much 
information as 55 double-sided, 40-track 
floppy disks. Information on the hard 
drive can be accessed more than ten times 
as last as information on a floppy drive. 
Willi a hard drive, you don't need lo 
shuffle through stacks of disks looking 
for the program or file you need; it's at 
your fingertips. 

Hard drives do not completely replace 
floppy drives. Many systems still require 
at least one working floppy drive, which 
is accessed when the system is booted. 
Hard-drive users will need to use floppy 
disks to add new software and data to 
their systems and to back up the infor- 
mation on their hard drives. The latter is 
critical, for in the unlikely event that your 
hard drive crashes, greater amounts of 
data can be lost than with floppy drives. 

All OS-9 Level II users will benefit 
from a hard-drive system. OS-9 can be 
cumbersome on a floppy-based system if 
all your most-used commands aren't 
loaded into memory at startup. A sea- 
soned OS-9 user will still benefit from 
having all software and data files on 



hand. In a hard-drive system, OS-9 Level 
II comes into its own. Because of OS-9's 
design, software compatibility with any 
OS9-based hard-drive system is near 100 
percent. There are some exceptions 
(including hard-coded drivers found in 
some sloppily coded Tandy OS-9 games). 
However, these are the exceptions, and 
patches can be made for most of them. 

Many Disk Extended Color BASIC 
(DECB) users will benefit from a hard- 
drive system; however, here the issue is 
not as clear-cut as it is for OS-9 users. 
Most DECB applications run fine on a 
floppy-disk system. However, the system 
code in the BASIC ROM was designed for 
use with 35-track, single-sided floppy 
drives and was not written to substitute 
larger-capacity floppy drives or hard- 
disk drives easily. Because the system 
code in the ROM is so inflexible, authors 
of different DECB software chose a 
variety of ways to let their programs 
handle disk files. Some of the methods 
make it hard for the application program 
to work with the modified DECB code 
needed for hard-drive systems. Because 
neither Tandy nor Microsoft set stand- 
ards for extending DECB to larger 



floppy- and hard-drive capability, au- 
thors for different hard-drive systems 
chose various approaches to such exten- 
sions. H owever, in some cases, the DECB 
software patches sold by one company 
are available in versions that run with 
hardware sold by different companies. 

DECB users who brave the problems 
associated with running Extended Color 
BASIC on a hard drive will benefit from 
the immense storage provided by this 
system. While compatibility problems 
are real, the popular implementations of 
DECB hard-drive systems have solved 
most of them, and patches make the more 
popular application software hard-drive 
compatible. Those who use DECB soft- 
ware to generate and modify graphics 
images will benefit from use of a hard 
drive. Such users work with many 
moderate-sized picture files and will 
appreciate not changing disks constantly 
to find or save the necessary graphics file. 
DECB-based BBSs are improved by the 
addition of a hard-disk drive because the 
operators can maintain a larger message 
and database area than with a floppy- 
drive system. □ 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



45 



quency Modulation) coding. Some of 
the newer hard drives also accept data 
sent in RLL format. These RLL- 
capable drives hold about 50 percent 
more data when used with an RLL 
controller rather than an MFM con- 
troller. The speed of data transmission 
between the drive and the controller is 
also 50 percent faster when used with an 
RLL controller. 

While one might assume that RLL is 
the way to go, only a fraction of the 
newer (more expensive) hard drives can 
be used with an RLL controller, and 
some disk drives rated for use with RLL 
don't give reliable operation when used 
in that manner. The Seagate ST238 
drive is an example of a drive rated for 
use with RLL but only able to give 
reliable performance when used with an 
MFM controller. The "extra speed" 
RLL offers is of little significance on 
CoCo systems because the speed bottle- 
neck is not between the drive and the 
controller board but between the 
CoCo's host adapter and the controller 
board. Finally, few CoCo users need to 
squeeze the extra megabytes out of the 
hard drive. Unless you know what 
you're doing and really need every byte 
you can get, stick to the reliable (less 
expensive) MFM hard drives and con- 
trollers. 






A complete system from RGB. 

The Controller Board 

In order to hook a CoCo to a floppy 
drive, you need to plug a floppy-drive 
controller card into the CoCo or Multi- 
Pak Interface. This card is designed for 
the Color Computer and connects to the 
CoCo system bus at one end and to the 
logic board's 34-pin edge connector on 
the floppy drive. All hard-drive systems 
for the CoCo also require a controller 
board. Like the floppy drive's controller 
board, this board connects (via two 
cables) to the logic board on an ST506 
interface hard drive. Unlike in the 
floppy system, however, this card does 
not plug into the Color Computer or 
Multi-Pak. 



Plugs into 
MultiPak — 
Interface 



50-Wiro SA SI/SCSI 
Interface Cable 



2^ 



Hosl 
Adapter 



In most similar systems, the 
equipment in the shaded area Is 
packaged in a single case. 




Hard Drive Logic Board 



Power 
Supply 



m==n<J: 110 VAC 



Figure 1: Typical hardware setup. 



None of the controller boards used 
with CoCo hard drives were designed 
for the Color Computer. They are 
generic hard-drive controller boards 
used on a large number of small com- 
puter systems. In almost all cases, these 
boards talk to the main computer sys- 
tem via a SASI or SCSI bus, which 
usually takes the form of a 50-pin cable. 
The main computer system must have 
another card plugged into it to generate 
the bus. This other card is usually 
referred to as the host adapter. 

SASI (pronounced sassy) stands for 
Shugart Associates System Interface. It 
represented the earliest incarnation of 
the bus now used to hook small com- 
puters to hard-drive controllers. The 
SASI protocol is a hardware and soft- 
ware standard because it defines the 
cable, the nature of the signals carried 
and details of the software protocol 
used. In this manner, the computer can 
talk to devices on the SASI bus. Elec- 
tronically this standard is a parallel 
port, allowing 8-bit data transfer be- 
tween a small computer and other 
devices (such as a hard-drive controller 
card). Originally this bus took the form 
of a 50-wire cable. However, many of 
the wires on that cable were reserved for 
future assignment, and uses were never 
defined for them, so some CoCo hard- 
drive systems use less than 50 wires in 
the SASI cable. 

Soon after the SASI standard was 
introduced by Shugart, others decided 
to make some improvements. SASI was 
enhanced and incarnated as the SCSI 
(Small Computer System Interface) 
standard. SCSI (pronounced scuzzy) is 
backward-compatible to SASI (i.e., a 



computer generating a SCSI bus can 
talk to a device that has a SASI bus). 
A computer that generates a SASI bus 
may be able to talk to a device with a 
SCSI bus, but it cannot use all the SCSI 
standard features. 

SASI and SCSI differ significantly 
because the SCSI bus supports 
multiple-master devices on the same bus 
(i.e., there can be more than one con- 
trolling host computer on the same 
SCSI bus). This is implemented 
through use of open-collector control 
lines and other hardware and software 
protocols. Additionally, full SCSI ports 
allow the hosts to be disconnected and 
reconnected in the middle of a com- 
mand sequence. 

Both SASI and SCSI ports can sup- 
port multiple slave devices, and fre- 
quently both standards are used to- 
gether. Indeed, you often encounter the 
phrase SASI I SCSI compatible. With 
either SASI or SCSI ports, a hard-drive 
controller card can be supported, and 
tape backup and CD ROM units can (in 
theory) be added. True, this ability is 
almost useless to most Color Computer 
users because no standard packages 
include hardware and software for 
using such devices. However, such 
packages may be available in the future, 
so the manufacturers of CoCo host 
adapters have been revising their prod- 
ucts to make them SCSI-compatible 
and to increase the number of devices 
on which they can work. 

Hard-drive controller cards differ 
from CoCo floppy-drive controller 
cards in another respect: They are smart 
devices with onboard microprocessors. 
At a software level, the host computer 



46 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



talks to these boards using a sophisti- 
cated language. A single command can 
tell these boards to fetch a sector from 
the hard drive or to write one. These 
boards usually buffer (store on the 
board) at least a sector's worth of data. 
Thus, the CoCo can send data to the 
hard-drive controller board and then do 
other things while the hard-drive con- 
troller board writes that data. Similarly, 
the CoCo can tell a hard-drive con- 
troller board to fetch a sector and then 
do something else while the board finds 
that sector on the hard drive, takes the 
data from the hard drive and places it 
in its buffer. When the board has gath- 
ered the requested data, it will send the 
CoCo an interrupt to let the computer 
know it has the data. In contrast, 
standard CoCo floppy-drive controllers 
are simple (dumb) devices. You must 
write tedious, critical code to walk these 
controllers through their operations. 

The Host Adapter 

The host adapter is a card specific to 
the CoCo system bus into which it 
plugs. On the host-adapter card, some 
circuitry creates a SASI or SCSI bus. 
This bus then links the host adapter 
(and thus the CoCo itself) to the generic 



hard-drive controller board. Most host 
adapters for the CoCo exchange one 
byte of data between the CoCo and the 
SASI or SCSI bus at one time. 

A typical CoCo hard disk system is 
shown in Figure I. This figure is a 
representation of the arrangement of 
hardware used in Owl- Ware/ LR Tech- 
nologies, RGB Computer Systems/ 
Ken-Tron Electronics, and Isted/ Frank 
Hogg Laboratories. In these setups, a 
separate physical host adapter plugs 
into the Multi-Pak. This adapter 
produces a SASI or SCSI bus con- 
nected via ribbon cable to a separate 
box housing a hard-drive controller, the 
actual hard-disk drive with its logic 
board, and a power supply to operate 
the hard-drive and the hard-drive con- 
troller board. Please note: Although the 
Isted/ FHL Deluxe system's host adapt- 
er uses the same interfaces as the other 
systems mentioned in Figure 1, this 
adapter uses a bus unique to that sys- 
tem. 

Although many hard drives talk to 
the rest of the computer system (specif- 
ically to a hard-drive controller) via a 
ST506 or ST4I2 interface, more re- 
cently manufacturers have been making 
hard-disk drives that are attached to a 



combined logic and controller board. 
Such hard drives connect to the rest of 
the system via a SCSI bus because it 
eliminates one extra board (the SCSI 
controller board). By eliminating the 
ST506 interface, faster data transfer 
rates can be achieved. Apple Macintosh 
and Macintosh II computers use such 
SCSI drives, as do some high- 
performance IBM PC systems. Drives 
equipped with the SCSI board tend to 
be higher-capacity drives. I know of no 
dealer who currently supplies such 
drives with any of the commercial 
packages, but hackers who chance upon 
such drives should know that when 
hooked to a CoCo SASI/ SCSI host 
adapter they can operate with the 
CoCo. Check with the maker of the 
software and host adapter to see if a 
particular SCSI drive is supported. The 
Shugart N series works with most 
current CoCo host adapters (i.e., those 
from CRC/Disto, Owl-Ware, Frank 
Hogg Laboratories and Ken-Ton Elec- 
tronics/RGB Computer Systems.) 

The Hard-Drive Market 

Radio Shack is not in the CoCo hard- 
drive market. The Tandy Color 
Computer's hard-drive host adapter 



r 

i 

i 

i 

i 

i 



EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE A 

HARD DISK 

YOU CAN STILL SUPERCHARGE YOUR COCO 1,2, OR 3 WITH 

RGB-DOS(HD) 

HERE ARE JUST SOME OF THE FEATURES OF RGB-DOS(HD): 

• FULLY COMPATIBLE WITH RS-DOS 

• WILL RUN TWO HARD DISK DRIVES 

• WILL AUTO-EXECUTE ANY PROGRAM 
' FULL SCREEN DIRECTORY DISPLAY 

* ELECTRONIC DISK LABELING 

* IMPROVED "COPY" COMMAND 
' "RUNM" COMMAND FOR M/L PROGRAMS 

* ...AND MUCH MUCH MORE! 

RGB-DOS(HD) COMBINES ALL THESE FEATURES WITH THE 
ABILITY TO RUN ANY SIZE HARD DISK DRIVE IN BASIC! 

DO YOUR COCO A FAVOR...SUPERCHARGE IT WITH RGB-DOS! 



n 



System Disk with User's Manual $29.95 

COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

(716) 876-7538 




294 STILLWELL AVE 
KENMORE.NY 14217 





KEN-TON ELECTRONICS 
PRESENTS 

"Real" SCSI INTERFACE 

-AND- 
THE DUAL RS-232 PAK 



DUAL COMM 
BOARD 

S74 (single) $89 (Dual) 

Replaces RS-232 PAK 
2-6551 A.C.l.A.'s 
2 Independenl RS-232 Channels 
Jumper Selectable for up lo 4 
(Four) Channels (with 2nd board) 
Ultra low power draw 
28-Pin ROM Socket 



HARD DRIVE 
INTERFACE 

$89 or $119 (with RTC) 

Real-Time Clock Battery-backed 
LR. Tech Compatible 
Owl DOS Compatible 
RGB DOS Compatible 
H-DOS Compatible 
OS-9 Compatible 
28 Pin Rom Socket 

Build your Hard Drive the RIGHT way with a REAL SCSI Interface. All 
our products are MIL-Specification Quality P.C. Boards and carry a full 
90 day warranty. Both the Dual Comm and the SCSI Interface work 
directly with a Y-CABLE or the Multi-Pak Interface and are made in the 
U.S.A. 

CALL US FOR PRICES ON CUSTOM SYSTEMS, 
HARD DRIVES AND CABLES 



Terms: 

Check or M.O. accepted (US Funds only) 

Please idd S4.00 for S & H 

Phone Orders are welcomed! 

Call 1-116-8.17-9168 (24 hr. order line) 



KEN— TON 
ELECTRONICS 

187 GREEN ACRES RD. 
TONAWANDA. NY 14150 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



47 



(the only one supported by the hard- 
drive software in Tandy's OS-9 pack- 
age) has three small-scale logic chips 
and a 50-pin connector. Tandy sells this 
device for SI 29.95, without a hard-disk 
drive or a controller. Old Radio Shack 
35- and 15-Meg hard-drive packages 
have an internal customized WD-1000 
controller. It works properly only with 
a few specific Tandy hard-drive pack- 
ages, which are no longer sold. This 
takes Tandy and Radio Shack out of the 
CoCo hard-drive market. 

Burke & Burke 

Figure 2 illustrates a significant 
variant of the basic component arrange- 
ment. Chris Burke, of Burke & Burke, 
wanted to design a low-cost, quality 
hard-drive system for the CoCo. He 
noted that one of the major expenses in 
most CoCo systems was the controller 
card. These generic SASI or SCSI cards 
cost $150 or more brand new. Although 
suppliers could sometimes get deals on 
used controller boards, such supplies 
were uncertain and could falter at any 
time. Chris says he got an idea from one 
of my "CoCo Consultation" columns 
about the desirability of adapting de- 
vices specific to the IBM PC world to 
the CoCo and so benefiting from the 
economy of mass production enjoyed 
by such products. Chris noted that IBM 
PC-specific hard-drive controller cards 
were often available for $50 or less new. 
These PC-specific products were a 
combination of an IBM host adapter 
and the controller card — all on the 
same card. Chris decided to adapt a 
particular IBM bus-specific hard drive 
controller card to the CoCo. 



Much to his (and everyone else's) 
surprise, the hardware needed to make 
this conversion of the Western Digital 
IBM disk controllers was simple. To 
make the conversion, he used a single 
inexpensive chip. Indeed, most of the 
magic (and expense) of his adapter is in 
the box that supports the PC Western 
Digital hard-drive controller card and 
converts it — electronically and phys- 
ically — into a device that plugs into a 
Multi-Pak. Chris even had room on his 
adapter to provide an optional real-time 
clock. 

Having adapted the hardware, Chris 
was faced with the problem of writing 
drive software. IBM PC disk controllers 
all write 512-byte sectors, but CoCo 
Disk BASIC and OS-9 operating systems 
are geared for 256-byte sectors. Using 
clever software tricks, Chris solved 
those problems and now offers a full 
line of hardware and software for his 
system. Indeed, his Hyper I/O (for 
running DECB on the hard drive) 
became so popular he developed ver- 
sions of the software that are compat- 
ible with other brands of CoCo hard- 
drive hardware, including those from 
CRC/Disto and Owl- Ware. 

The system developed by Chris Burke 
of Burke & Burke is different from all 
the other systems available for the 
Color Computer. All other systems use 
a generic SASI, SCSI or similar con- 
troller and come with a host adapter to 
let the CoCo generate the signals needed 
for the controller board to talk to the 
computer. The Burke & Burke system 
uses a different sort of hard-drive 
controller. 

Hard-drive controller cards designed 



ST506/ST4I2 
Interface Cables 



HHfd Drive Logic Board 



Weslorn Digital 
Hard Drive — 

Controller Board 



Burke and Burko 
Host Adapter 



34-Wiro Cable 



r " 30-Wite Cable 



, Hard Drive L 
•412 / 

iables r—J 

°^—4 Co 



Drivo ' 



Plugs into 
Multi Pak 
Interlace 



Power 
Supply c 



4 1 "Q "0 VAC 



Sbaded area Indicates equipment typically 
mounted in one case. 



Figure 2: The Burke & Burke arrangement allows the use of standard IBM 
PC-bus compatible controllers packaged in a metal housing along with 
the host adapter. 



to work with the IBM PC-compatible 
computers are different from the ge- 
neric SASI and SCSI controllers. They 
are designed to plug into the system bus 
on an IBM PC. A host adapter dedi- 
cated to PC-compatible computer buses 
and a hard-drive controller are on the 
card. Due to the economics of mass 
production, these cards are available 
(new) for between half and a quarter of 
the price of comparable SASI and SCSI 
cards. 

Chris Burke decided to use the West- 
ern Digital line of PC-compatible con- 
troller cards. Later he was able to 
support a few other common IBM PC 
controller cards. (A full listing of these 
is given in the hardware section of this 
article.) Chris Burke devised an adapter 
and cage, so the PC-bus Western Digital 
controller card can be adapted to the 
CoCo system bus and mounted in a 
little metal box. This device connects to 
the logic board on the physical hard 
drive via the standard ST506/ST412 
cables (one 20-pin cable and one 34-pin 
cable). 

This arrangement has a number of 
advantages. First, if you own this sys- 
tem and later want to convert to a PC- 
compatible computer, you already have 
a hard drive and controller card for it 
in the Burke & Burke system. Next, the 
Western Digital hard-drive controllers 
are widely available, and hackers who 
want to build their own system are able 
to purchase just the adapter and neces- 
sary driver software from Burke & 
Burke. 

However, there is a far greater advan- 
tage to Chris Burke's choice of con- 
troller. Using these PC controllers, he is 
able to transfer data between them 
without time-consuming hardware/ 
software handshaking. Thus, his system 
has data-transfer speeds similar to that 
exhibited by the FHL deluxe system. 
Indeed, in some independent tests re- 
ported by Kevin Darling, the Burke & 
Burke and FHL systems both took 
about 45 seconds to transfer a megabyte 
of data from a hard drive while the 
various SASI/ SCSI-based CoCo hard 
drive systems took 85 seconds. 

Chris Burke also makes available the 
adapter board only. Chris not only 
provides needed device descriptors and 
drivers for his hard-drive systems, he 
also sells a useful utility called EZGen, 
which makes altering your boot file a 
simpler process than it used to be. Burke 
& Burke employs the ROM socket on 
the Western Digital controller card to 
provide data for booting the system 
from the hard drive. However, Burke & 



48 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



Burke will not provide source code for 
their drivers. The company supports 
Radio Shack's Disk Extended Color 
BASIC on its hard-drive system through 
a product called Hyper I/O — a pow- 
erful (somewhat complex) software 
package that allows you to create vir- 
tual disks of any size to run under Disk 
BASIC. You can use Hyper 1/ to create 
both 35-track virtual drives and giant 
virtual drives on the hard drive. It can 
also be used with a normal floppy disk 
controller to utilize 40- and 80-track 
double-sided disks. The level of com- 
patibility with Hyper I/O is quite good. 
Even most programs that use undocu- 
mented ROM calls will work with it. 
Versions of Hyper I/O that work with 
Owl-Ware, Disto and RGB systems are 
available. Unfortunately, RGB 
Computer Systems' Disk BASIC for 
hard-drive systems is not available in a 
version that works with Burke & 
Burke's hardware. 

Burke & Burke encourages hide- 
bound Disk BASIC programmers to try 
OS-9 with yet another product it sells. 
RSB is an OS-9 program that lets you 
run DECB under OS-9. It provides a 
familiar programming environment for 
Color BASIC users within the OS-9 
operating system, while providing ac- 
cess to some of OS-9's unique aspects. 
(See Page 1 10 for a more detailed review 
of RSB.) 




Burke & Burke's 20-Meg system (ST-225), packaged and sold by Howard Medical. 



At present, Burke & Burke does not 
sell its hardware as packaged systems. 
The company's hard-drive hardware 
and software is used, however, in fully 
configured hard-drive systems available 
from a number of respected CoCo 
vendors. Howard Medical in Chicago 
and Microcom and Frank Hogg 
Laboratories in New York sell systems 
using the Burke & Burke line of pro- 
ducts. These companies sell new, tested 
20-Meg Seagate ST225 half-height 5'A- 



inch hard drives with the systems they 
sell. All three companies have long 
track records as honest dealers in the 
CoCo Community. These three com- 
panies have enjoyed many compliments 
from their customers for their prompt 
service and equitable resolutions of any 
problems arising in the course of sales. 
I know and recommend the people at all 
three companies. 

Steve Bjork currently uses a Burke & 
Burke hard-drive system and reports 



n 



COCO GALLERY LIVE 
SHOWCASE YOUR BEST AT RAINBOWFEST 

We are taking the popular "CoCo Gallery" on the road to RAINBOWfest Chicago — and we'd like you to 
submit your own graphics creations to be exhibited at the show! 



RIILtt 



• You can enter color or black-and-white photographs or printouts of your original artwork produced on 
the CoCo 1 , 2 or 3. Entries must be framed, mounted or matted, and may not be smaller than 5-by-7 inches 
or larger than 11-by-14 inches. 

• Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this means no game screens, digitized images from TV 
programs or material that's already been submitted elsewhere. A digitized copy of a picture that appears 
in a book or magazine is not an original work. 

• Along with your entry, send a cover letter with your name, address and phone number, detailing how you 
created your picture (what programs you used, etc.). Please include a few facts about yourself, too! 

• Your name, address and phone number, along with the title of your work, must be clearly marked on the 
back of each entry, and a disk copy of each piece must also be included. 

• Entries must be mailed to THE RAINBOW before March 31 , 1 989, or brought to the RAINBOWfest registration 
booth by 10 a.m., Saturday, April 15th. 

• All entries to CoCo Gallery Live become the property of Falsoft, Inc., all rights are reserved. 

There will be two categories: one for graphics produced on the CoCo 1 and 2, and one for CoCo 3 graphics. 
Several awards will be made in each category. Winners will be determined by votes from RAINBOWfest 
attendees. In case of any ties, winners will be determined by our chief judge, CoCo Cat. 

Prizes and ribbons will be presented Sunday, April 16, 1989, and winning entries will be published in the 
August '89 issue of THE RAINBOW. Send your entry to "CoCo Gallery Live," THE RAINBOW, 9509 U.S. Highway 
42, Prospect, KY 40059. 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 49 




•i^^M^^A-y^ki^^i'^^^Kj^ 



■■■•- 



R 



^ 



£, 



V 



^ 



AINBOWIest is the only computer show dedicated 
exclusively to your Tandy Color Computer. 
Nowhere else will you see as many CoCo-related 
products or be able lo attend free seminars conducted 
. by the top Color Computer experts. It's like receiving the 
(latest issue of the rainbow in your mailboxl 

RAINBOWfest is a great opportunity for commercial 
programmers lo show off new and innovative products 
for the first time. Chicago is the show to get information 
on capabilities for the CoCo, along with a terrific 
selection of the latest CoCo software. In exhibit after 
exhibit, there will be demonstrations, opportunities to 
experiment with software and hardware, and special 
)RAINBOWfest prices. 

Set your own pace between visiting exhibits and 
attending the valuable, free seminars on all aspects of 
'your CoCo — from improving basic skills to working with 
the sophisticated OS-9 operating system. 

Many people who write for the rainbow — as 
well as those who are written about — are there 
to meet you and answer questions. You'll also 
meet lots of other people who share your interest 
in the Color Computer. It's a person-to-person 
event and a tremendous learning experience in 
a fun and relaxed atmosphere. 

A special feature of RAINBOWfest is the 

CoCo Gallery Live Showcase, where 

CoCo artists enter their own graphics 

creations for display at the show. Cash 

prizes are presented and winning 

entries are decided by 

votes from RAINBOWfest attendees. 

(See the previous page lor more 



details.) As an additional treat for CoCo Kids of all ages, 
we've invited frisky feline CoCo Cat to join us for the show. 
RAINBOWfest has something for everyone in the family! 

If you missed the fun at our last RAINBOWfest in Princeton, 
why don't you make plans now to join us in Chicago? 
For members of the family who don't share your 
affinity for CoCo. there are many other attractions in 
the Chicago area. 

The Hyatt Regency Woodfield — Schaumburg, 
Illinois offers special rates for RAINBOWfest. The show 
opens Friday evening with a session from 7 p.m. to 10 
p.m. It's a daytime show Saturday — the CoCo Com- 
munity Breakfast (separate tickets required) is at 8 
a.m., then the exhibit hall opens promptly at 10 a.m. and 
runs until 6 p.m. On Sunday, the exhibit hall opens at 
11 a.m. and closes at 3 p.m. 

Tickets for RAINBOWfest may be obtained directly^ 
from the rainbow. We'll also send you a reserva- 
tion form so you can get a special room rate. 

The POSH way to go You can have your travel 
arrangements and hotel reservations handled 
through rainbow affiliate, POSH Travel Assist- 
ance, Inc., of Louisville. For the same POSH 
treatment many of our exhibitors enjoy, call POSH at 
(502) 893-331 1 . All POSH services are available at no 
charge to RAINBOWfest attendees. 

3b THfaRb? 



«%/<•' 



to 



® 



" 



v->~. 



s 

4 







Cray Augsburg 

RAINBOW Technical Editor 
OS-9 For Absolute Beginners 

Bill Bernico 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 
BASICally Speaking 

Steve Bjork 

SRB Software 

Writing Game Software 

Chris Burke 

Burke & Burke 
Hard Drive Systems 

Kevin Darling 

Independent Programmer 
Overview of OS-9 



FRfcfc SbMINARS 



Art Flexser 

SpectroSystems 

Extending the Capabilities of 

BASIC 

Dr. Martin Goodman, M.D. 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 
Two CoCo Consultations Live 

Ed Hathaway 

Glenside CoCo Club 
Organizing a CoCo Club 

Cecil Houk 

Rulaford Research 
Music, MIDI and the CoCo 

Jutta Kapfhammer 

RAINBOW Managing Editor 
Writing for Publication 



William Nee 

Independent Programmer 
Machine Language Made BASIC 

Dale Puckett 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 
Overview of BASIC09 

Dick White 

RAINBOW Contributing Editor 
Spreadsheets for the CoCo 

Sister Berdelle Wiese 

Community Computer Consultant 
CoCo and the Teacher 



ۥۥ COMMUNITY BRbAKFAST 

Rick Adams — Software Developer 

Our keynote speaker for the traditional CoCo Community Breakfast 
is Rick Adams, who is the founder of Color Central Software and the 
author of programs like DELPHIterm, Tandy's Temple of ROM and 
Activision's CoCo 3 version of Shanghai. 

Mr. Adams will describe his life as a programmer on the "front lines" 
of the ongoing efforts to program software for the CoCo 3, including 
humorous "war stories" from some of his software developments. 

Don't forget . . . 

If yours is one of the first 500 ticket orders, a coupon for a complimentary 
issue of The Second RAINBOW book of Simulations will be enclosed with 
your tickets — if yours is one of the first five orders received from your state, 
a coupon for a complimentary RAINBOWfest T-shirt will be enclosed with 
your tickets. So hurry up and place your order to take advantage of this offer. 



RAINBOWfest - Chicago, Illinois 

Dates: April 14-16. 1989 

Hotel: Hyatt Regency Woodfield 

Rooms: $66 per night, 

single or double 

Advance Ticket Deadline: March 

1989 

Join us at a future RAINBOWfest! 



31. 



RAINBOWfest - Somerset, New Jersey 
Dates: October 20-22, 1989 
Hotel: The Somerset Hilton 
Rooms: Single, $65 per night; 
Double, $75 per night 
Advance Ticket Deadline: October 6, 
1989 

FREE T-Shirl lo first five ticket orders re- 
ceived from each state. 
First 500 ticket orders received get The 
Rainbow Book ol Simulations. 



YES, I'm coming to Chicago! I want to save by buying tic 
advance sale price. Breakfast tickets require advance reservatio 
Please send me: 



kets now at the special 
ns. 



. Three-day ticket(s) at $9 each total 

One-day ticket(s) at $7 each total 

Circle one: Friday Saturday Sunday 



. Saturday CoCo Breakfast 
at $12 each total 

. RAINBOWfest T-shirt(s) 
at $6 each total 
Specify size: 
S M I XL 



Name 

[please print) 

Address 



City 



Telephone 
Company _ 



State _ 
ZIP 



(T-shirts must be picked up at the door) 
Handling Charge $1 

TOTAL ENCLOSED 



□ Payment Enclosed, or Charge to: 
□ VISA D MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number 



(U.S. Currency Only, Please) 
D Also send me a hotel reservation card for the 



Exp. Date 



Hyatt Regency Woodfield ($66, single or double cjanature 

room). 

Advance ticket deadline: March 31, 1989 Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you 
at the door Tickets will also be available at the door al a slightly higher price. Tickets will be mailed six weeks prior to show 
Children 4 and under, free; over 4. full price. 

Make checks payable to: The RAINBOW. Mail to: RAINBOWfest, The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. To make reservations by phone, in Kentucky call (502) 228-4492, or outside Kentucky 
ill (800) 847-0309. 



that it has fully met his need for a 
reliable system for software develop- 
ment. In addition, Tim Koonce (author 
of Vterm) has praised the Burke & 
Burke system, which he uses daily. Both 
of these CoCo celebrities have only the 
highest praise for the extensive support 
Chris Burke has offered when support 
was needed. 

CRC/Disto 

Figure 3 shows another variant of the 
typical arrangement. Tony DiStefano 
has been designing an extensive line of 
products for the CoCo to eliminate the 
need for a Multi-Pak. His hard-drive 
host adapter does not plug into the 
Multi-Pak. Instead, it is on a card with 
an MEB (Mini-Expansion Bus, specific 
to CRC/Disto products) that mounts 
inside one. of the two available CRC/ 
Disto floppy-disk controller cards. 
Thus, you can hook a floppy-disk 
controller (regular or no-halt variety) 
and a hard-disk drive to your CoCo 
without using a Multi-Pak. However, 
you must use the CRC/ Disto controller 
in order to do this, and you cannot add 
another company's hardware cards to 
your system without getting a Multi- 
Pak. CRC/ Disto is selling a 4-in-l MEB 
card that has a hardware serial port, 
parallel port, real-time clock and a 
Disto host adapter on a card that fits 
inside a CRC/Disto floppy controller. 
If you choose the 4-in-I card, you will 
need to supply an external power source 
(using a wall transformer) because the 
CoCo 3 does not have enough power to 
operate both the floppy controller and 
all four other functions. 

Tony DiStefano (author of rain- 
bow's monthly "Turn of the Screw" 
column) is the engineer behind the line 
of Disto products produced and sold by 
CRC of Canada. Even before it had a 
hard-drive host adapter, Disto had 
standardized its line of products around 
a unique Mini-Expansion Bus (MEB). 

The MEB was created to eliminate 
the need for a Multi-Pak. This is nice 
because the Multi-Pak is no longer 
being produced. Currently, CRC/ Disto 
has four products that create the MEB. 
Among them are the Super Controller 
I and the No-Halt Super Controller II. 
These controllers can work as ordinary 
floppy-disk controllers, but they are 
internally expandable because they 
possess this mini-expansion bus. (The 
Super Controller II is available from 
Radio Shack stores through Express 
Order.) 

CRC/ Disto makes two cards that act 
as SASI/SCSI hard-drive host adapt- 



External 
Power Supply 



*-=*>-n 



ST506/ST412 
Interface Cables 



5ASI Interface Cable 



ablo r- 

Z3I 



Hard Drive 

Controller 

Boarc 



/..'• Wire Cabio- 



I j-.20-WlnJ~C' 



M12 ^ Hard Drive 

*abtes ' 

;gg3 \^ I 



Hard Drive Logic Board 



# Dislo Hard Drive 
Host Adapter 



* i * 



■ Disto Super 
Controller I or II 

• Disto RAM Disk 

• Disto MEB 



■t 




Plugs into 

Color Computer or 

Mulli-Pak 

Interlace 



Shaded area Indicates equipment 
typically mounted in one case. 



Figure 3: The Disto interface is plugged into an expansion point offered 
on many other Disto products. 



ers. Both are tiny cards that plug into 
the MEB inside either of the Super 
Controllers. One card is only a host 
adapter. The other is a 4-in-l card that 
offers a serial port, a parallel port, a 
real-time clock, and a host adapter. The 
4-in-l card requires a separate power 
supply, because the CoCo 3 alone 
cannot supply enough current to oper- 
ate all of its functions. Either of these 
host-adapter cards then connects to 
SASI or SCSI hard drive controller 
boards, which in turn connect to a 
ST506/ST412 interface hard drives. 
(See Figure 3.) 

If you already have a Multi-Pak or 
other disk controller, Disto offers one 
of two alternatives. You can purchase 
an MEB Card, which adapts Disto's 
two host-adapter cards so they can be 
plugged into a Multi-Pak. You can also 
purchase the RAM disk card, which 
supports up to a megabyte of extra 
RAM (that can be used only as a RAM- 
disk, not as main system memory). This 
provides space to plug in MEB-based 
host adapters. If you use either of these 
adapter cards, you can use Disto host 
adapters with other brands of regular 
and no-halt disk controllers. 

Disk BASIC users will be happy to 
know Burke & Burke's Hyper I/O and 
RGB's BASIC for the hard drive exist in 
versions that work with Disto host 
adapters. The Disto, Owl-Ware, RGB 
and Ken-Ton Electronics systems are 
similar because they use the same va- 
riety of SASI and SCSI hard-drive 
controllers. Owl-Ware, RGB and Ken- 
Ton Electronics systems' host adapters 
are addressed to the same I/O port 
locations: SFF74 through SFF77. Dis- 
to's MEB products' I/O port addresses 



are a bit different. The MEB uses the 
SCS line to create its I/O port ad- 
dresses, keeping the MEB ports in the 
range of SFF50 to SFF5F. Naturally, 
the Disto Super Controllers decode the 
SCS line for their floppy controller 
ports, so the controller registers are 
valid only in the SFF40 to SFF4F range 
and an image is not formed in the SFF50 
to SFF5F area as it is with Radio Shack 
floppy controllers. Disto's 4-in-l card's 
RS-232 port is not easily used with 
conventional Disk BASlC-based termi- 
nal programs because its I/O port 
address is different from the traditional 
addresses used by the Deluxe RS-232 
Pak and subsequent clones. 

However, the different port address 
poses no real problems under OS-9 
because once a proper driver for the RS- 
232 port is installed, all OS-9 software 
calling the port can find it without any 
modification. The Disto hardware RS- 
232 port found on the 4-in-l card uses 
the same 6551 UART chip as used by 
the Tandy Deluxe RS-232 Pak. 

Arizona Small Computer Peripherals 
is a new company, dedicated to provid- 
ing exceptional bargains on CoCo hard- 
drive systems. Using the Disto host 
adapter and software, along with a 
Xebec I4I0A controller, it put together 
cost-effective hard-drive systems with 
CM I full-height 5-, 8-, 10- and 20-Meg 
hard drives. Some of the drives the 
company sells are brand new; others are 
used but tested thoroughly and some- 
times reconditioned. Many of the Xebec 
controllers sold by Arizona Small Com- 
puter Peripherals are used. In some of 
its lowest priced systems, the company 
does not include a case for the hard 
drive, controller and power supply. 



52 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



However, the company is able to offer 
full systems for under $150. (If you do 
not own a Disto Super Controller, you 
may have to spend more — as much as 
$100 more if you don't own a Multi- 
Pak.) 

The people at Arizona Small 
Computer Systems have a full profes- 
sional facility for repairing hard drives, 
including test equipment, and a com- 
plete working "clean room" in which 
drive "bubbles" can be repaired and 
drive platters replaced. If you send them 
your OS-9 system disk, they will config- 
ure their hard drive system for you. This 
way you'll need only turn on the drive 
and it will boot from the floppy drive. 
They are working on their own version 
of Disk Extended BASIC drivers for their 
systems. Dale Puckett has used the 
Disto hard drive system for quite a 
while, and it has performed reliably. 

Frank Hogg Laboratories 

Frank Hogg Laboratories has been 
selling OS-9 hard-drive systems longer 
than any other RAINBOW advertiser. In 
the past, however, these were for its QT 
line of 680XX systems, not the CoCo. 
It currently sells two different hard- 
drive systems for the CoCo. The econ- 
omy model is the system designed by 
Burke & Burke. Frank Hogg Laborato- 
ries also sells, exclusively, a full- 
featured system engineered by Bruce 
Isted of Calgary, Alberta. This system 
is unique in several respects. First, it is 
the most expensive hard-drive system 
for the CoCo. For the price, however, 
several unique features are delivered. 




Heavy duty power supply and case 
offered by FHL 

This system uses a Western Digital 
WD-1002-05 controller board. This 
unit is a high-performance item, fash- 
ioned for the mini computer and the 
high end of the microcomputer market. 
It features greater data transfer rate 
than the average SASI or SCSI con- 
troller board/ host adapter arrange- 
ment. The controller board used also 
supports three hard drives. In addition 
to talking to up to three hard-disk 
drives, this board can support up to four 



double-sided floppy disk drives. The 
support provided is unusual because the 
system can talk to ordinary 360K. or 
720K 5!4- or 3'/2-inch floppy drives; the 
high-density, double data rate 1.2-Meg, 
514-inch floppy drives; and the 1.44- 
Meg 3 '/2-inch floppy drives. Although 
these drives are not supported in the 
system as delivered, tinkerers can alter 
certain jumper settings on the controller 
board and add a simple adapter-patch 
board to assign some of the floppy 
drives as high density and others as low 
density. At present, both the hard and 
floppy drives are supported under OS- 
9, and users must have a separate Radio 
Shack controller and floppy drives 
hooked to a Multi-Pak if they want to 
use DECB. However, software to make 
the system work under Disk BASIC is in 
the works. The floppy-drive controller 
in the FHL deluxe system is a no-halt 
controller, so when a floppy disk is 
accessed, no keyboard input or data 
coming in through the serial port is lost. 

The Western Digital controller used 
in the FHL deluxe system can transfer 
data faster than the SASI/ SCSI con- 
trollers used by all competing systems 
except those by Burke & Burke. The 
system can do this because it does not 
go through a handshake with the host 
adapter during data transfer. Data can 
be read or written to the Isted host 
adapter without checking the status of 
handshake lines for each byte. Addi- 
tionally, Bruce Isted's system allows 
transfer of data between the CoCo and 
the host adapter two bytes at a time. 
While the FHL deluxe system is similar 
in configuration to the SASI and SCSI 
systems sold by others, this system uses 
a cable and a communication protocol 
between its host adapter and controller 
that is neither SASI nor SCSI, but 
rather a protocol unique to the Western 
Digital WD-1002-05 board. 

FHL has also come out with a vari- 
ation on this system, the Eliminator. 
This is a single card that plugs into the 
CoCo system port and provides two 
hardware serial ports, a parallel port, a 
real-time clock and the host adapter 
needed to work with the high perfor- 
mance Western Digital controller. The 
Eliminator uses CMOS logic chips so it 
will not need an external power source. 

Frank Hogg Laboratories caters to 
tinkerers and sells only the critical 
hardware and software pieces of the 
system. This allows hackers to put 
together the system for less money if 
they have access to bargains in hard 
drives, WD-1002-05 controller cards, 
cases, power supplies, etc. Western 



Digital makes a variant of the WD- 
1002-05 controller card called the WD- 
I002-HDO card that is basically the 
same card without the components 
devoted to talking to floppy drives. 
Greg Law, SysOp on Delphi's OS-9 
SIG, has been using one of these sys- 
tems for some years, configured with 
high density floppy drives. He reports 
reliable service from it. 

Owl-Ware 

Owl- Ware's advertisements in RAIN- 
BOW promise "Proven Technology," 
and its hard-drive system confirms the 
claim. Its CoCo system has been avail- 
able longer than any other CoCo hard- 
drive system. 

The system was originally engineered 
by LR Technologies and consists of a 
host Adapter, which generates a SASI 
bus and is connected to one of several 
SASI or SCSI controller boards 
(which, in turn, is connected to and 
packaged with a hard-disk drive and 
power supply). LR Tech designed the 
host adapter. Owl- Ware has since ob- 
tained the rights to the LR Tech design 
and — after making some revisions to 
it — is producing the interface itself. 
The people at Owl-Ware tell me that the 
product is more fully SCSI than their 
older SASI device. They are even hint- 
ing about producing software and hard- 
ware packages to support tape backup 
units and CD ROMs on this SCSI bus. 

The systems Owl-Ware sells include 
new hard-disk drives, which are burned 
in (tested in operation for some hours) 
before shipment. In addition, its inter- 
face is more complex electronically than 
those of its competitors. These factors 
make this product more expensive when 
ordered as a working system. However, 
like Frank Hogg Laboratories and most 
hard drive system vendors, Owl-Ware 
will cater to the tinkerer. It sells pieces 
of the system to those who want to make 
their own. The hacker package includes 
the host adapter, drivers for various 
different controller boards and a full 
source code listing of the drivers. (You 
need an OS-9 Level I assembler to use 
that listing.) It sells for under $120. If 
you want to forgo the testing done prior 
to shipping, you can have around $60 
deducted from the price of the system. 

Unlike the FHL deluxe system, Owl- 
Ware's system can be supported by three 
different software packages that allow 
operation under DECB. The company 
sells Owl BASIC 3 for its hard-drive 
system. Implementations of DECB on 
Owl- Ware's hardware are also available 
from Burke & Burke, which has a 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



53 



version of its Hyper I/O that runs with 
this hardware. RGB Computer Sys- 
tems' primary concern is support of 
Radio Shack's Disk BASIC, but it also 
has a version of its software that runs 
with the Owl-Ware hardware. The exact 
degree of compatibility and flexibility 
offered depends on which basic system 
software you get. All are fairly compat- 
ible, but none are totally compatible. 

At this time, Owl-Ware's host- 
adapter card does not have a real-time 
clock, which will come as a disappoint- 
ment to OS-9 users. However, the 
company has acquired rights to manu- 
facture J&M's floppy controllers and 
plans on engineering and selling a single 
card that will be a floppy disk controller 
and a hard-drive host adapter. Its 
commitment to supporting OS-9 users 
will be extended by the introduction of 
a major word processor, said to be 
similar to Microsoft's Word. 

The people at Owl-Ware maintain 
voice lines for support of their hardware 
and tell me that they will soon set up a 
24-hour BBS to support their products. 
Rick Adams, author of several pieces of 
commercial Color Computer software 
and author of RickyTerm and Delphi- 



Term, owns an Owl-Ware hard-drive 
system. Since its arrival, the system has 
worked ruggedly and reliably. 

RGB/Ken-Ton Electronics 

Roger Krupski of RGB Computer 
Systems has a particular interest in 
supporting Radio Shack's DECB with 
the greatest amount of compatibility 
possible. His hardware is a SCSI host 
adapter for the CoCo (which he devel- 
oped together with the folks at Ken- 
Ton), a standard SASI or SCSI hard- 
drive controller card, hard drive and 
power supply. The unique aspect of 
Krupski's system is the software. RGB's 
implementation of DECB is considered 
the most compatible. RGB also pro- 
vides patches for some of the popular 
Disk BASIC application programs, 
which present problems for any hard 
drive implementation of DECB. Of 
course, RGB also provides OS-9 driv- 
ers. The RGB Computer System soft- 
ware supporting DECB on a hard drive 
is available in forms that work with 
hardware from Owl-Ware, Ken-Ton 
and CRC/Disto. However, versions are 
not currently available for the Burke & 
Burke svstem. 



Ken-Ton Electronics has long sold 
CoCo products for industrial systems. 
Part of their business involves building 
complete Color Computer systems 
customized for particular business and 
user applications. This work has re- 
sulted in Ken-Ton's SCSI host adapter 
for the CoCo, which is included in 
RGB's systems. This host adapter fea- 
tures heavy gold contacts and is avail- 
able with a real-time clock that uses a 
rechargeable lithium battery (say good- 
bye to battery replacement.) Option- 
ally, users can purchase the Ken-Ton 
SCSI Interface in an open collector 
version. This allows more than one 
CoCo to access the controller and hard 
drive on the same system. Also, to 
support larger systems, Ken-Ton offers 
H-DOS. While very similar to RGB- 
DOS, this custom DOS features opti- 
mized commands, a larger sector space 
and storage of hard drive parameters in 
EPROM (instead of on the physical 
disk) to increase data security. Ken-Ton 
also sells a dual-corn RS-232 port board 
that provides up to two RS-232 ports. 
Joe Scinta, the man behind Ken-Ton, is 
a savvy engineer who knows CoCo 
hardware inside and out. 



Where to Go From Here . . 


I 


Main Hard Drives 


Commonly Supported 


Currently Being Sold 

Seagate ST-225 20 Meg 


Hard Drive Controllers 


MFM 


RLL 


Seagate ST-238 30 Meg (RLL) 


Adaptec 4000 


Adaptec 4070 


Seagate ST-251 40 Meg 


DTC-5150 


Adaptec 2072 


Miniscribe M-8425 20 Meg 


WD1002-SHD 


DTC-5160 


Miniscnbe M-8438 30 Meg 


WD1002-GEN 


WD1002-27X 


Miniscribe M-3650 40 Meg 


WD1002-WX1 




Miniscribe M-6085 70 Meg 


Xebec 1410 




CMI 5206 5 Meg 






CMI 5412 10 Meg 






CMI 6426 20 Meg 






CMI 6639 30 Meg (non-RLL) 







Arizona Small Computer Systems sells 
complete systems as well as the individual 
components that make up a hard drive 
system. All units include the Disto interface 
($50), the WD1002-SHD controller ($75) 
and OS-9 drivers. In addition, all system 
drives are formatted under OS-9 and are 
shipped with approximately 1 Meg of public 
domain software on the drive. A 20-Meg 
system, including a CMI 6426 drive and a 
power supply and case ($50), sells for $350. 
A similar system with a 30-Meg drive (CMI 
6639, non-RLL) is available for $425. 
Lower-end systems, sold with power 
supply but no case, are the 5-Meg system 
(CMI 5206, $60) for $120 and the 10-Meg 
system (CMI 5412, $75) for $160. All pro- 
ducts carry a 180-day warranty. 

Burke & Burke's main item of interest is an 
IBM PC bus-compatible interface, the 



CoCo XT, retailing for $69.95 without the 
real-time clock (RTC) option and $99.95 
with the RTC. The CoCo XT includes driv- 
ers for both OS-9 and Disk BASIC. Other 
related products include Hyper-IIO 
($29.95), RSB ($39.95) and the hardware 
XT-ROM ($19.95). All CoCo XT boards, 
built and tested by Burke & Burke, include 
a 90-day warranty. 



CRC/Disto is offering the Disto Hard Disk 
Interface for $49.95. This interface offers 
the advantage of eliminating the Multi-Pak 
Interface while preserving access to most 
of the hardware accessory functions OS-9 
users require. The MEB Adapter, used to 
carry this SCSI interface, is sold for $24.95. 
Alternatives to the MEB are the Super 
Controller I ($99) and the Super Controller 
II ($130). Both units feature an internal MEB 



to hold the hard drive interlace. The Disto 
interface includes a 90-day warranty. 

The Computer Center sells drive/controller 
kits that can be used if you want to build 
your own hard drive system. A 20-Meg ST- 
225 drive with the WD1002-GEN controller 
goes for $339, and a 40-Meg ST-251 drive 
with the same controller can be had for 
$499. 

Frank Hogg Laboratories offers the Burke 
& Burke interface and optional extras at 
Burke & Burke prices. Additionally, FHL 
carries a full line of hard drive systems and 
components. Complete systems built 
around the Burke & Burke interface in- 
clude: 20 Meg (using an ST-225 or Minis- 
cribe M-8425) for $498, 30 Meg (Miniscribe 
M-8438) for $548 and 40 Meg (M-6085, full 
height) for $618. In the high-speed cate- 
gory, FHL offers deluxe systems built 
around its Eliminator interface ($199). 
These deluxe systems feature built-in 
capability to handle three hard drives and 
four floppy drives, including high-density 
(1.2 Meg and 1.44 Meg) floppy drives, in a 
no-halt fashion under OS-9. At present, the 
deluxe systems are strictly for use with OS- 
9. Systems, including the WD1 002-05 high- 
speed controller ($199), are as follows: 20 
Meg (ST-225 or M-8425) for $799, 40 Meg 
(M-3650) for $899 and 70 Meg (M-6085, full 
height) for $1335. All systems include a 
dual half-height power supply (60W with 
cooling fan) and case ($99.95), cable set 
and OS-9 Level I and II software. All units 
are fully tested and FHL warranties its 
products for one year. 



54 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



Disk BASIC Software 

At present, there are three sets of 
driver software to let you use hard-drive 
systems under DECB. RGB appears to 
have concentrated on Disk Basic's use 
on a hard drive. The company divides 
the drive into however many standard 
35-track disks can fit on it. The software 
allows you to cordon off some of the 
hard drive for use with OS-9. This 
approach has certain advantages and 
disadvantages. By making the virtual 
drives all 35-track, RGB gets around 
many compatibility problems caused by 
software whose file I/O does not use 
calls in Disk BASIC ROM. In most cases, 
the software gives you the 100 or more 
accessible virtual 35-track drives. For 
example, type BACKUP 53 TO 105, and the 
contents of virtual Drive 53 are backed 
up to virtual Drive 105. Also (via a 
software switch) bring in or out your 
four physical single-sided floppy drives 
(i.e., set things up so that drives 
through 3 can be physical floppy or 
virtual drives actually part of the hard 
disk drive). 

RGB's software offers exceptional 
compatibility. All implementations of 
Disk BASIC on a hard drive must be 



done by by burning an EPROM with a 
modified version of the DECB ROM 
code. RGB's version of this modified 
ROM is still only 8K in size, which 
means that it will not suffer compatibil- 
ity problems from software that expects 
the upper 8K of the CoCo ROM ad- 
dress space to be unused. In addition, 
RGB's software stays almost com- 
pletely out of the base page of RAM 
memory. Thus, its parameters are un- 
likely to conflict with variables that 
application software tends to store in 
the base page. (I believe RGB uses only 
a single byte in the base page of RAM 
for system variables.) Finally, RGB's 
software comes with a few patches not 
available elsewhere, to allow certain 
application programs (ones that don't 
go through DSKCON when they input or 
output disk sectors) to work with RGB 
software. When these patches are in- 
cluded, RGB states that its system will 
run TW-80, TW-128, CoCo Max 3, 
Max 10 and other popular Disk BASIC 
software. BBS users, please note: RGB's 
implementation of Disk BASIC can be 
set up to automatically boot a particular 
program on power up. This means that 
after a power failure, your BBS can 



automatically restart itself from your 
hard drive. 

The software offered by Owl-Ware 
and hinted at by Arizona Computer 
Systems is likely to be similar to the 
software offered by RGB systems. But 
RGB has had a long time to work bugs 
out of its system. This is not the case 
with the other offerings. 

Burke & Burke offers an alternative 
to RGB systems. The approach is quite 
different and has its pros and cons. 
Under Hyper I/O, Burke & Burke 
formats the entire hard disk drive as an 
OS-9 hard disk. It then creates Disk 
BASIC devices in the form of OS-9 
binary files on the hard drive. Under 
Hyper I/O, these virtual disks can be 
any size the user cares to make them. 
Steve Bjork reports that it is desirable 
to make at least one or two of them 
standard 35-track single-sided virtual 
drives. However, you can define drives 
a megabyte or more in size. If you are 
using 40-track double-sided floppy 
drives under Disk BASIC, you can define 
similar-sized devices on the hard disk. 

The Burke & Burke approach offers 
a few nice features. First, you can 
change the proportions of the hard 



Howard Medical carries a 20-Meg system 
retailing for $499. This system is built 
around the Burke & Burke approach and 
includes an ST-225 20 Meg drive, Burke & 
Burke interface, DTC-5150 controller, and 
a case and power supply. The drive is tested 
and formatted before shipping and the 
system is warranted for one year. If you 
want the RTC option for the Burke & Burke 
interface, include $20. In addition, Howard 
Medical is offering Hyper-I/O ($29.95), RSB 
($39.95) and the XT-ROM (S19.95). 

Ken-Ton Electronics offers a SCSI inter- 
face and will develop custom hard drive 
systems on request. Because of the many 
options available, you are invited to call for 
specific information. The Ken-Ton SCSI 
Interface currently retails for $89 without 
the real-time clock option and $119 with the 
clock installed. This true-SCSI interface 
will work with most any SASI or SCSI 
controller and allows control of multiple 
devices (hard drives, floppies, CD ROMs, 
etc.). It features real gold contacts. The 
clock option uses a rechargeable Lithium 
battery so replacement is unnecessary. The 
unit is also compatible with RGB-DOS, H- 
DOS (an extension of RGB-DOS), Owl- 
DOS and LR Tech software. Ken-Ton will 
supply custom drivers for the interface at 
the user's request. The interface is available 
in an open-collector version ($10 extra), 
which allows multiple CoCos to drive SCSI 
devices. Ken-Ton's software will not run 
with the Burke & Burke interface. 

Owl-Ware has made some refinements to 
the LR Tech interface and the result has 



been dubbed the LR Tech/Owl Interface 
($99). This host adapter will drive the 
Adaptec SCSI controllers. Among many 
other controllers, it will also easily drive the 
Omti 5000 series of controllers, allowing 
use of hard drives, floppies and other 
devices. A 10-year clock option is being 
offered for $25. Among several systems, 
Owl-Ware is offering a 20-Meg ST-225 
($239) complete with controller, LR Tech/ 
Owl Interface, cables, case and power 
supply ($95) for $599. A similar 40-Meg, M- 
3650 system sells for $725. These systems 
are available in kit form for $549 and $659, 
respectively. Alternatively, they can be had 
in kit form with the Burke & Burke interface 
for $489 and $609. All assembled systems 
are formatted and tested before shipping. 
An optional product is Owl BASIC, a hard 
drive BASIC, selling for $35 with a hard 
drive purchase or $79 separately. Owl-Ware 
currently warrants drives for one year and 
all other products lor six months. 

Microcom Software sells both the Burke & 
Burke line and the Disto line of hard disk 
products. In addition, a complete 20-Meg 
system (ST-225) with the Burke & Burke 
interface goes for $509. For $539, a com- 
plete 30-Meg system (ST-238) is available. 
Microcom sells a separate case and power 
supply ($119) and the WD1002-GEN and 
WD1002-27X controllers for $79 each. The 
Seagate drives (with controller and cables) 
are sold as follows: 20-Meg ST-225 for 
$299, 30-Meg ST-238 for $329 and the 40- 
Meg ST-251 for $439. Microcom also offers 
a Disto version of Burke & Burke's Hyper- 
I/O for $29.95. All products listed are 
warranted for 90 days. 



MicroWorld sells the ST-225 20-Meg drive 
for $259 or $299 with a WD1002-WX1 con- 
troller. The 30-Meg ST-238 RLL drive retails 
for $309 or $349 with WD1002-27X con- 
troller. Also, the 40-Meg ST-251 drive goes 
for $399 (without controller only). 

Perry Computers sells the bare, 20-Meg ST- 
225 for $239 and the 20-Meg Miniscribe M- 
8425 for $240. The bare 40-Meg ST-251 
drive is available for $409. 

RGB Computer Systems can supply com- 
plete hard drive systems and software. 
Because of the different equipment availa- 
ble, you are invited to call RGB for specific 
information. RGB Computer Systems is 
also offering RGB-DOS, a hard drive- 
compatible DOS, at a price of $29.95. RGB- 
DOS has many of the features found in 
other alternate DOSs for the CoCo in 
addition to added commands for hard drive 
access. Because of its design, RGB-DOS 
works equally well with the CoCo 1, 2 and 
3, and it will work with floppy-only systems. 
In addition to the inclusion of an non-OS- 
9 autoexec file, it allows users to boot OS- 
9 straight from the hard drive. Like Ken- 
Ton, RGB Computer Systems' software will 
not run with a Burke and Burke interface. 

True Data Products offers parts and pieces 
of hard drive systems. There you can find 
the WD1002-WX1 controller for $99. The 
ST-225 20-Meg bare drive retails for $249 
($299 with controller) and the bare 40-Meg 
ST-251 can be had for $399 ($459 with 
controller). Alternatively, True Data sells a 
power supply, case and controller combo 
for $199. □ 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



55 



drive in OS-9 and Disk BASIC use (i.e., 
by killing or creating another of these 
virtual devices, you can add or subtract 
space allocated to Disk BASIC). This is 
not the case with the RGB software; it 
locks you into a particular partition at 
the siart. Second, software and text files 
written under Disk basic are relatively 
accessible to OS-9 programs. 

However, the ROM is 16K, which 
means it can be used only with third- 
party controllers. To use it with a Radio 
Shack controller requires a special 
adapter. Because Hyper I/O uses more 
RAM-base page locations for its system 
variable, there is more potential for 
compatibility problems with other 
software, and at present Burke & Burke 
does not have as many specific patches 
for popular software offerings as does 
RGB Computer Systems. Please note: 
Some of the fixes that RGB sells with 
its Disk basic system software will fix 
the target programs, so they work with 
Burke & Burke's Hyper I/O, too. 
(These patches are not sold separately 
by RGB; you have to buy the entire 
package.) 

Although I imply that Burke & 
Burke's system may have some compat- 
ibility problems, Steve Bjork reports 
that Hyper I/O does provide a satisfac- 
tory degree of compatibility with appli- 
cation software designed to work with 
Disk Extended Color BASIC. 

Technical Hints for Tinkerers 

If you are making your own hard 
drive system with pieces of one of the 
systems 1 have mentioned, the following 
technical information may be of help to 
you. The following SAS1 and SCSI 
controllers work with CRC/Disto host 
adapters: 



SASI: 


WDI002SHD 




XEBEC 1410A 




DTC (all of the 520 




series) 


SCSI: 


Rodime 650 series of 




drive plus controller 




Seagate N series of 




drive plus controller 




Adaptec 4000A 




(MFM type) and 




4070(RLLtype) 



Name 


Username 


Company 


Burke. Chris 


COCOXT 


Burke & Burke 


Krupski, Roger 


HARDWAREHACK 


RGB Computer Systems 


DiStefano, Tony 


DISTO 


CRC/Disto 


Isted, Bruce 


BRUCEISTED 


Designer of the FHL Deluxe 
System 


Vishinski, Tom 


OWLI 


Owl-Ware 


Law, Greg 


GREGL 


SysOp of the OS-9 SIG 


Koonce, Tim 


TIM KOONCE 


Author of VTerm, A knowledge- 
able OS-9 programmer and hard- 
ware expert 


Darling, Kevin 


KDARLING 


SysOp on CompuServe's OS-9 
SIG 


Adams, Rick 


RICKADAMS 


OS-9 technical consultant 




Table 1: Whom to Contact on Delphi 



The Burke & Burke host adapter can 
be used with the following IBM PC 
controller boards: 



Western Digital: 




WD1002-WX1 


(MFM type) 


WD1002S-WX2 


(MFM type) 


WD1002-27X 


(RLL type) 


WD1002-GEN 


(MFM type) 


DTC: 




DTC5150CRH 


(MFM type) 


DTC5160CRH 


(RLL type) 


Adaptec: 




ACB2072 


(RLL type) 



• Most of these should also work with 
Owl- Ware and Ken-Ton/ RGB host 
adapters, but contact the manufacturer 
in question to make sure. 

• Tony DiStefano seems to prefer the 
Adaptec controller boards. 



The OMTI 5520 controller will also 
work with the Burke & Burke adapter, 
but it will not support the Burke & 
Burke boot ROM. If you use this con- 
troller, you must boot your hard-drive 
system from a floppy disk drive. Actu- 
ally, this is not as much of a problem 
as some might think, and many sea- 
soned OS-9 users prefer booting off a 
floppy anyway, for the added flexibility 
it offers. 

If you are packaging your hard drive 
and controller board in a case, Frank 
Hogg warns you to beware, of potential 
problems. Mount your hard drive con- 
troller in a plane that is at least 14-inch 
away from the the hard drive and its 
logic board. If you do not do this, you 
may get unreliable operation due to 
interference between the controller 
board and the logic board. If you 
package a floppy drive in the same case 
with the hard drive, put the logic board 
of the floppy drive next to the metal side 
of the hard drive — not next to its logic 
board. Placing the logic board of the 
floppy drive close to the logic board of 
the hard drive can cause interference 
and unreliable operation. 

As in all systems, it is best to keep 



inter-connecting cables as short as 
possible. While SASI and ST506 cables 
have been known to work at lengths of 
6 feet or more, I suggest lengths be kept 
under 3 feet for each cable. 

All the companies and people in- 
volved in the CoCo hard drive business 
seem reputable and conscientious. At 
the beginning of system development, 
almost all the developers encountered 
problems with their equipment. For 
example, when the CoCo 3 was intro- 
duced, none of the developers realized 
the timing of the SCS line on the CoCo 
3 was different from the timing of the 
SCS line on the older CoCo models. 
Specifically, devices using the SCS line 
on a CoCo 3 must gate that line with 
the high portion of the E-clock signal. 
In some of their early products for the 
CoCo 3, both Disto and Burke & Burke 
failed to do this, and maddeningly 
intermittent unreliable operation re- 
sulted. Eventually both Chris Burke 
and Tony DiStefano solved this subtle 
problem. Although all their current 
products implement the required gating 
of the SCS line, in the beginning, these 
problems caused ill will between them 
and some customers and dealers. I urge 
patience should problems arise and 
remind you that even subtle problems 
can be solved. 

For more details on hard drives, refer 
to Kevin Darling's article on hard drive 
systems, published in the OS-9 Special 
Interest Groups on Delphi and Compu- 
Serve. It was a valuable reference in 
writing this article. When you consider 
getting a system, contact the maker 
first. Delphi users can contact many of 
the principals online. Refer to Table I 
for a list of such people, their usernames 
and their companies or qualifications. 
Of course, you can contact me, MARTY- 
GOODMAN. I'm always available on 
Delphi to answer questions. /R\ 



56 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



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1 F e atur e ^— 

Enjoy the game on and off the green 




58 THE RAINBOW March 1989 



32K ECB 




Have you ever dreamed of con- 
sistently hitting a golfball 250 
to 300 yards and having it land 
in the fairway? Have you imagined your 
shot sailing past a fairway bunker or 
your second shot clearing the pond and 
landing safely on the green of a par 5 
hole? You don't have to just dream 
anymore. Scratch Golfer, a golf simu- 
lation that makes use of text and Hi-Res 
screens, can make your dreams come 
true. 

To begin playing the game, just load, 
run and press ENTER. You'll be on your 
way. (The program is long and a little 
complicated, so watch for typos if you 
typed it in.) Follow the screen prompts 
to enter all necessary information for 
each shot. 

Scratch Golfer's objectives are the 
same as those of regular golf: To play 
the 18-hole round of golf in as few 
strokes as possible. With the exception 
of putts, all shots will be determined by 
data entered by the player. The number 
of putts taken by the player is deter- 
mined by a system of percentages based 
on the distance between the ball and the 
hole once it lands on the green. 




No matter which way you face, for a 
right-handed golfer, a draw curves to 
the left and a fade curves to the right. 

Diagram 1: Draw and Fade 



After the title screen appears, the 
computer determines if you have a disk 
drive connected. The computer will ask 
whether or not your computer will 
accept the speed-up poke. Press Y to 
answer yes and N to answer no. The 
program assumes that you are a right- 
handed golfer and will ask you to 
identify your normal shot. Since it is 
rare for a golfer to consistently hit a ball 
straight, you will need to indicate the 
direction in which the ball usually 
curves in the air. Press D for Draw and 
F for Fade. 



Larry Duggins currently teaches fifth 
grade in Kettering, Ohio. He recently 
returned to school to work on a com- 
puter science degree. Larry enjoys golf 
and has a handicap of two. 



Once you have answered these ques- 
tions, the title screen is replaced by 
Screen I , which contains data about the 
hole, wind conditions, lie of the ball, 
distance to the hole and average dis- 
tances you can expect from each club if 
your yard length is six. At this screen, 
you will enter the information needed to 
play each shot. Screen 2 is a graphic 
representation of the hole. Toggle be- 
tween screens 1 and 2 by pressing S. 




Screen 3 appears after you have 
played a hole. It offers you statistics 
about the way you played the hole. 
Screen 4 is your scorecard. (Sorry, you 
can't tear it up if things are going badly.) 



The number to the right of your score 
is a running tab, identifying how far 
above or below par you are: A number 
in inverse video represent an under-par 
score; regular numbers represent over- 
par scores; and an E represents even par. 

The final screen, Screen 5, appears at 
the end of the last hole. It displays the 
final statistics for each hole. This infor- 
mation can be saved to disk. 

At the first screen, you will be 
prompted by a flashing question mark 
for four different values. The program 
first asks you to select a club. Make 
your selection and press ENTER. Next, 
you'll need to enter the initial direction 
of your shot. The program then asks for 
the length of arc. Values 2, 3 and 4 are 
chip and pitch swings, and values of 5, 
6 and 7 are full swings. You cannot draw 
or fade with an arc value less than 5. 
Therefore, if you select a value of 4 or 
less, the program places an asterisk on 
the screen for "Type of Shot." If you 
choose a high value, you must respond 
to the prompt by pressing F for Fade or 
D for Draw. Your normal shot (entered 
while in Screen 1) is the best bet; how- 
ever, if you like to gamble, enter the 
opposite shot. Since you are a scratch 



Terminology: 

Draw: For a right-handed golfer, a draw 
is a shot that curves from right to left. 
(See Diagram I.) 

Fade: For a right-handed golfer, a fade 
is a shot that curves from left to right. 
Note: For a left-handed golfer, a draw 
and a fade are just the opposite. 

Hazard: Any bunker or water hazard. 

Bunker: An area of bare ground — often 
a depression — usually covered by sand. 
They are yellow in this simulation. 

Water Hazard: Any sea, lake, pond, 
stream, ditch, etc. They are blue in this 
simulation. 

Rough: Taller grasses bordering the 
fairway. These arc large yellow areas. 

Out of Bounds: Any shot that comes to 
rest off of the course. In this simulation, 
you are out of bounds when the ball goes 
off the graphics screen. 
Teeing Grounds: A rectangle, two club 
lengths in depth, the front and side of 
which are defined by the outer limits of 
two markers. This is represented by the 
red rectangle. 



Direction of Shot: The initial path the 
ball will take when first struck. You can 
enter any value from zero to 23. (See 
Diagram 2.) 

Length of Arc: The length of arc is 
determined by how far back you swing 
the club. Your choice of swing ranges 
from two to seven. 

Lie: The lie of the ball refers to the degree 
of difficulty that enters into the shot 
caused by how the ball is resting on the 
ground. If the ball is nested in tall grass 
or plugged in the sand bunker, the shot 
is more difficult. There are three types of 
lies: good, fair or bad. 



Penalties: 

Water Hazard: If a ball lands in a water 
hazard, the player will be given a one- 
stroke penalty. The ball will be placed 
near the hazard on approximately the 
same line as the ball took upon entering 
the hazard. 

Out of Bounds: The player takes a one- 
stroke penalty and must replay the ball 
from where it was originally struck. 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



59 



23 C 
22 \ 


1 
/ 2 




21 \ \ 
\ \ \ 




3 


20 \. \ \ 




4 


19 *~>^ ^ Ss O\\\ 




• n 


17 """"^ / X //Y 







16 ./ / / 




8 


15 / / 




'9 


14 / \ 10 
13 12 11 




This diagram shows you the initial direction the ball will 
enter one of the 24 possible direction values. 


move after you 


Diagram 2: Swing Direction 





golfer, you have a good chance with 
either swing. Once you have pressed the 
key corresponding to the type of shot, 
press ENTER if you are ready to begin 
or the space bar if you need to change 
any values. 

Once you are ready to begin, the 
program will pause for a few seconds. 
The second screen appears, and you see 
your shot. After the ball lands, the 
program pauses while the ball flashes on 
the screen. Press S to return to the first 
screen to set up your next shot. 

Philosophy, Hints and Strategies 

To play this golf simulation, all you 
have to do is choose the club and the 



arc and direction of the screen. How- 
ever, it's not that easy. The program 
takes into consideration a number of 
wild cards: missed and inaccurate shots, 
the lie of the ball, etc. For instance, I 
have designed a "distance-versus- 
accuracy" factor into the length of the 
swing. The farther you swing the club 
back, the farther the ball can go. How- 
ever, the the greater the length arc, the 
greater the chance of a missed shot or 
of a greater curve than you expect. (See 
Table 1.) 

Screen I offers the distances for each 
club as they apply to a good lie of the 
ball. Be careful if you have a fair or bad 
lie and intervening water. Note: If you 



have a bad lie with the message "Be 
Careful," the ball is either plugged in the 
sand or nestled in deep grass. In these 
instances, your only safe shot is with 
your #10 club. 



Length 
of Arc 


Possible 
accuracy 


Potential 
distance 


Possible 
amount 
distance 
can vary 


5 


Best 


Fair 


Least 


6 


Good 


Good 


1 


7 


Fair 


Best 


Most 


Table shows how full swing length of 
arc values influence accuracy and 
distance. 

Table 1: Swing Length of Arc Values 



The winds play a big part in club 
selection and the direction of the shot. 
Don't be concerned about mild winds, 
but consider the speed and direction of 
stronger winds when entering your 
data. In addition, you might want to try 
onger distance clubs and a short arc to 
get some of the distances under 120 
yards. Finally, if you are having trouble 
choosing the direction of your swing, 
draw the direction chart shown in 
Diagram 2 on a clear sheet of plastic. 
Using this as a guide may help you make 
your decision. 

Enjoy Scratch Golfer and 1 hope your 
game improves. 



(Questions or comments about this 
program may be directed to the author 
at 2706 Symphony Way, West Carroll- 
ton, OH 45449. Please include an S AS E 
when requesting a reply.) □ 



■ 



W" 


...190 


117 ... 


...148 


255 .. . 


...221 


1 19 .. 


....17 


124 .. 


...154 


267 .. . 


...203 


28 ... 


...127 


134 .. 


...195 


277 .. . 


...105 


40 ... 


...232 


143 .. 


....42 


287 


...230 


56 ... 


...152 


155 .. 


...79 


301 ... 


....27 


66 ... 


...187 


169 .. 


....52 


311 ... 


...123 


77 ... 


...203 


192 .. 


...223 


321 ... 


...129 


85 ... 


56 


207 .. 


....92 


327 .. . 


...144 


97 ... 


...107 


225 .. 


....37 


339 


....78 


107 


65 


237 


77 


END 


134 



The Listing: golfer 

j3 ' SCRATCH GOLFER 

1 ' (C) 1986 BY LARRY DUGGINS 

2 ' 2 7,06 SYMPHONY WAY 



3 ' W. CARROLLTON OH 

COPYRIGHT 19 89, FALSOFT,INC 

4 GOSUB342 

5 CLS:PD=PEEK(&HCJ30£) : IF PD=68 T 
HEN INPUT "DOES YOUR COMPUTER ACC 
EPT THE SPEED UP POKE WITH YOU 
R DRIVE CONNECTED (Y/N) " ;AQ$EL 
SE INPUT" DOES YOUR COMPUTER ACCE 
PT THE SPEED UP POKE (Y/N) " ;AQ 

$ 

6 IF AQ$="Y"THEN POKE65495,0 

7 X=RND ( -TIMER) : CLS : INPUT"WHAT T 
YPE OF SHOT DO YOU WANT ASYOUR N 
ORMAL ONE... PRESS (D) FOR DRAW 

(F) FOR FADE" ;SS$ 



60 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



8 IF SS$="D"OR SS$="F"THEN12ELSE 
7 

9 DATA0, 1,2, 3, 4, 2,1,5, 3,4, 5, 2, 3, 
4 

10 DATA4,1,0,3,2,3,4,5,0,1 

11 DATA5, 536, 4, 468, 5, 596, 3, 152, 4 
,440,4,416,4,424,3,212,4,376,4,4 
20,4,292,4,388,5,53 2,4,3 68,3,240 
,4,424,5,640,3,164 

12 WD=RND(7)+1:WS=RND(20)+1:IF W 
D=l THEN WD$="N"ELSEIF WD=2 THEN 

WD$="NE" 

13 IF WD=3 THEN WD$="E"ELSEIF WD 
=4 THEN WD$="SE" 

14 IF WD=5 THEN WD$="S"ELSEIF WD 
=6 THEN WD$="SW" 

15 IF WD=7 THEN WD$="W"ELSEIF WD 
=8 THEN WD$= M NW" 

16 G$="H5L1H1L2H2U1H2U1L1H3L1H1L 
1H1L1G1D1G1D1G1D1G1D1G1D1G2D1G2D 
1F1D1F1D1F1D1F2D1F3D1F3D1F3R3F2R 
3E2R3E5U3E3U3H3U2":F1$="G3D2G2D3 
F3R4F3R4F6R3E4R3F2R2E4R4E3R5F14R 
4F12R4F12R4F10R3F2R3F1R2E16R3E12 
R3E10R3E8R3E8R3" 

17 GW$="E2R2F3R2F3R2F2D2G5D2G2L3 
G6L2H4U3H5U3E3" : FW$="G14L2G6L2G4 
D3G5D3G8D3G5D4G2D3G1D2G1D1F2D2F2 
D2G2D2G1D3F2D3F3D2G1D2R2E1R3E4R2 
U2E2U2E2U2H2U3E6U2H2U3H2U2H3U2E5 
U2E7U2E4U2E4U2E3U2E4U2E6U2E2U2L3 
" :GS$="L2G2L2G3D3G3D3F4R4F2R4E3R 
3U2E6U2H4U1H3G2L3 

18 SR$="R3F2R3F2R3F2R1F2D2G3L2H3 
L2H4L2H2U4":SF$="H3U2H2L2H2U2L2G 
3D2G2D3F3D2F2R4F2R2E3U4":FB$="L3 
G2L2G2L2G5D1G2D2F6" : LB$="F3R3D2F 
3R3E3U2H6L2H3L4H2L4G3L2G6L3G4L2G 
2D6F4D3F4R6E3H4" 

19 FT$="H1L1H1L2H2L1H2H3U2H4U2H3 
L2G3L2G4D2F6R3F5R2F3R2F4R2U2R2E3 
U2":SM$="H3L2H1L1G2L1G1D1G1D1F2R 
1F1R2E2R2U1E2":SL$="H4L2H2L2D3L2 
D3F3D2F3D2L2D2F3R3E3U2E2R2U3H8" : 
FL$="R2D5R4D3R5D2R6E2R7E2R5E3R5D 
3R7F8R5F7R6F5R3E6R3E5R3E3F3D4R5E 
7U4E8U3E7R5F9R3F10R4E7R5F10 

20 G4$= M F9R2F4R2F3R2F1R4F1R3E1R2 
E1R3E2R2E2U1H2U2H1U1H3U1L2H1L1H2 
L2H2L4H1L2H1L2H4L1H2L1G2L2G4D2G2 
D2":GR$="U2H2U1H2U1L3H1L3G2L2G2D 
3F4D2F3R4E3R2E2U1" 

21 CLS:PRINT@200,"***ONE MOMENT* 
**":DIM LE(18) ,ST(18) ,TS(18) , PS ( 
18) ,NP(18) ,WD(30) ,PA(18) ,S1(18) , 
SC(18) ,TR(18) :HO=l:CP=72:CT=l:RP 
=109:PV=1134:SZ$=STRING$(32,131) 
:BS$=STRING$(64,32) :BL$=" ":AT$ 



=STRING$(3 2,42) :GF=1 
22 FOR X=0 TO 23 : WD(X) =X:NEXTX: F 
OR X=l TO 24: READ A: NEXT X:FOR X 
=1 TO 18:READ PA(X) ,LE(X) :NEXT X 
: RESTORE 

2 3 FX=0:FY=0:FT=0:GOSUB2 41 

24 PMODE3,l:PCLSl:RF=.99:ON HO G 
SUB26, 33, 42, 54, 63, 69, 73, 84, 79, 
88,92,95, 100 , 104 , 107 , 110 , 114 , 119 

25 G0T0121 

26 LINE(13,157)-(23,170) ,PSET,BF 

27 DRAW"BM70 , 109 ; XF1$ ; BM70 , 109 ; X 
FL$ ; » 

28 CIRCLE (230, 99) , 14 , 4 :HX=226 : HY 
=103: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2,3 

29 CIRCLE (104, 138) ,5, 2: CIRCLE (12 
2,143) ,5, 2: CIRCLE (120, 13 6) ,5,2:C 
IRCLE ( 115 , 13 9 ) , 5 , 2 : CIRCLE ( 110 , 13 
2), 5, 2 

30 PAINT(210,138) ,3,4 

3 1 COLOR1 , 1 : DRAWBM10 , 180 ; XD1$ ; B 
M70 , 109 ;XF1$ ; BM70 , 109 ;XFL$ ; " 

32 GOT0121 

33 HX=192:HY=125:LINE(26,41)-(42 
,49) ,PSET,BF 

34 CIRCLE(196,133) , 16 , 4 , 1 . 45 : CIR 
CLE(HX,HY) ,2,3 

3 5 H$="L2U1L3U1L4U1H3U1L2H3U1L2U 
1L5U1H2L4U1H2L7H1L4H2L4H1L5G2L4G 
2L4H3L4H2L3G2L3" 

3 6 R$="R2F2D3R5F5R4F4R4F2D2F2D2E 
1U2R4F5R3E4R3E2R3E6R3E4" 

37 DRAW"BM98,91;XR$;BM152, 60;A2; 
XFT$ ; BM206 , 114 ; A3 ;XGW$ ; BM13 6,71; 
XSM$;BM190, 113 ; A0XH$ ; BM128 , 75 ;XS 
M$ ; " : PAINT ( 170 , 72 ) , 2 , 4 : PAINT ( 218 
,110) ,3, 4: PAINT (116, 95) ,2,4 

38 PAINT(120,74) , 2 , 4 : CIRCLE (170, 
108) ,24,4,1.45, .17, . 49 : PAINT (172 
,130) ,3,4 

39 CIRCLE (170, 108) ,24,1,1.45, .17 
,.49: PAINT (137,76) ,2,4 

40 COLOR1 , 4 : DRAW"BM152 , 60 ; A2 ;XFT 
$ ; BM206 , 114 ; A3 ; XGW$ ; BM98 , 91 ; A0 ;X 
R$ ; BM190 , 113 ; XH$ ; BM13 6 , 71 ; A3 ; XSM 
$ ; BM128 , 75 ; A0XSM$ ; " 

41 GOT0121 

42 HX=72 :HY=18: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2,3 

43 LINE(232,139)-(242,149) ,PSET, 
BF 

4 4 W$="F3D2F6D3F3D3F4D4G6L5G4L6U 
3G2L4U4E4U3R2E2U3R4H4U2G1U4E2H4U 
3H3" 

45 DRAW"BM118,0;A0;XW$;BM160,100 
;XSR$ ; BM166 , 95 ; XSL$ ; " : PAINT (163 , 
103) ,2, 4: PAINT (166, 98) , 2 , 4 : PAINT 
(170,106) ,2, 4: PAINT (160, 107) ,2,4 
4 6 PAINT (118, 4) ,3,4 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 61 



47 DRAW"BM76,33;A1;XG$;" 

48 DRAW"BM176,82;A2XSF$;" 

49 DRAW"BM13 8,90;A1XFW$;" 

50 PAINT (84, 55) ,2, 4: PAINT (180,86 
),2,4 

51 CIRCLE (59, 29) ,12, ,1.22, .10, .7 
: PAINT (54, 27) , 3 , 4 : CIRCLE (59 , 29) , 
12,1,1.22, .10, .7 

52 C0L0R1 , 1 : DRAW"BM118 , ; A0XW$ ; B 
M138 , 90 ; A1XFW$ ;BM160 , 100 ; A0XSR$ ; 
BM166,95;XSL$;BM176,82;A2XSF$;" 

53 GOT0121 

54 HX=110 :HY=76 : CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2, 
3 : LINE ( 52 , 100 ) - ( 59 , 108 ) , PSET , BF 

55 WL$="F30D4F10D4F10D3F7D2F9D5F 
3D3F7R5F3R5F4R3E2U7" 

56 WR$="F10D2F8R3F4D2F8R2F10R3F4 
R3F1R4F2R5F4R3F2R4F1R5F1R3F1R3F1 
R4" 

57 WG$="D1F4R2F6R1F5D1F3R1F7R2F2 
D2F3" 

58 WB$="R5F2R5F1R6F2R4F2R6F3R5F1 
R3F1R4E2U3H5" 

59 DRAWBM20 , ; A0XWL$ ; BM30 , ; XWR 
$ ; BM8 2 , 60 ; XWG$ ; BM82 , 60 ; XWB$ ; » : PA 
INT(25,0) ,3,4 

60 DRAW M BM120,7 8;XGR$;" 

61 COLOR1 , 1 : DRAWBM20 , ; XWL$ ; BM3 
0,0; XWR$ ; BM8 2 , 60 ; XWG$ ; BM8 2 , 60 ; XW 
B$;» 

62 GOT0121 

63 HX=85:HY=46:LINE(138,149)-(14 
8,157) , PSET, BF: CIRCLE (80, 40) ,16, 
4 : CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2,3 

64 DRAW'BMlll , 86 ;S6 ;XSL$ ; " : LS$=" 
H3L2H2G3D2L2F3R3F2R3E2U2" :DRAW"B 
M93,86;XLS$;":PAINT(112,95) ,2,4: 
PAINT(93,89) ,2,4 

65 DRAW"BM124 , 75 ;S8 ;XSR$ ; " : PAINT 
(142,86) ,2,4 

66 GT$="G3D2G2D2F3R2F1R3F2D2F2R3 
E2R2E3U2E2U3H2 " : DRAW"BM66 , 50 ;S4 ; 
XGT$; " :TR$="E3R2E2R2F3R2F2D3R2D2 
G3L2G2L2H1L3HL3H2" : DRAWBM96 , 43 ; 
XTR$ ; " : PAINT (66, 55), 2, 4: PAINT ( 9 6 
,47), 2, 4 

67 COLOR1, 1: DRAW'BMlll, 86; S6XSL$ 
;BM93,86;XLS$;BM124,75;S8XSR$;BM 
66 , 50 ; S4XGT$ ; BM9 6,43; XTR$ ; " 

68 GOT0121 

69 HX=62:HY=122:LINE(205,40)-(20 
8,46) , PSET, BF: CIRCLE (60, 124) ,12, 
4: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2,3 

70 DRAW"BM118 , 82 ; A1S6XSF$ ; BM134 , 
108 ; A0XSF$ ;BM63 , 106 ; A2XSF$ ; " : PAI 
NT (118, 80) ,2, 4: PAINT (130, 110) ,2, 
4: PAINT (68, 107) ,3,4 

71 COLORl,l:DRAW"BM118,82;Al;XSF 
$ ;BM134 , 108 ; A0 ;XSF$ ; BM63 , 106 ;A2 ; 



XSF$;" 

72 GOT0121 

73 HX=166:HY=40:LINE(50,130)-(58 
,138) ,PSET,BF:CIRCLE(HX,HY) ,2,3: 
CIRCLE (168, 42) ,13,4 

74 DRAW M BM104 , 89 ; Al ;S4 ;XFT$ ; BM12 
4 , 104 ; A0 ; S6 ;XSM$ ; BM126 , 108 ; A2 ;XS 
M$ ; BM12 6 , 88 ; A3 ; XSM$ ; BM151 , 79 ; Al ; 
XSR$ ;BM155 , 45 ;A0 ;XSM$ ;BM154 , 39 ;A 
1 ; XSM$ ; BM184 , 40 ; XSM$ ; BM18 6 , 55 ; A0 
;XSM$;":PAINT(101,86) ,2,4 

75 PAINT (117, 105) ,2, 4: PAINT (129, 
108) ,2, 4: PAINT (124, 93) ,2,4 

76 PAINT(148,84) , 2 , 4 : PAINT (147 , 4 
5) ,2,4:PAINT(150,32) ,2,4:PAINT(1 
83,37) ,2, 4: PAINT (185, 54) ,2,4 

77 COLOR1 , 1 : DRAW"BM104 , 89 ; Al ; S4 ; 
XFT$ ; BM124 , 104 ; A0 ; S6 ;XSM$ ; BM126 , 
108 ;A2 ;XSM$ ;BM12 6 , 88 ; A3 ;XSM$ ;BM1 
51 , 79 ; Al ; XSR$ ; BM154 , 39 ; Al ; XSM$ ; B 
M184 , 40 ; XSM$ ; BM155 , 45 ; A0 ; XSM$ ; BM 
186,55;A0;XSM$;" 

78 GOT0121 

79 HX=60:HY=12 2: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2, 
3 : LINE ( 170 , 40 ) - ( 179 , 50 ) , PSET , BF : 
CIRCLE (58, 121) ,11,4 

80 DRAW"BM124 , 122 ; A1S4XSL$ ; " : PAI 
NT(120,120) ,2,4 

81 DRAWBM118 , 35;A0XFW$ ;BM54 , 101 
; A2XSF$ ; BM140 , 91 ; A1XSR$ ; BM119 , 99 
;A3XSM$ ; BM108 , 112 ;A2XSM$ ;": PAINT 
(111,111) ,2, 4: PAINT (121, 106) ,2,4 
: PAINT (116, 40), 3, 4: PAINT ( 63 , 107 ) 
,2,4: PAINT (13 8, 94), 2, 4: COLOR1 , 1 : 
DRAWBM118 , 35 ; A0XFW$ ; BM54 , 101 ; A2 
XSF$;BM140,91;A1XS$; 

82 DRAW"BM119 , 99 ;A3 ;XSM$ ;BM108 , 1 
12 ; A2 ; XSM$ ; BM12 4 , 12 2 ; Al ; XSL$ ; BM1 
40,91;A1XSR$; 

83 GOT0121 

84 HX=68:HY=65:LINE(172,56)-(178 
, 64) , PSET, BF: CIRCLE (68, 62) ,10,4: 
CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2,3 

85 CIRCLE(75,75) , 4 , 2 : CIRCLE (70, 7 
8) ,4, 2: CIRCLE (63, 74) , 4, 2: CIRCLE ( 
54 70) , 4 , 2 

86 DRAW"BM68 , 49 ;A2S4XFT$ ; " -.PAINT 
(82 , 53 ) , 2 , 4 : COLOR1 , 1 : DRAWBM68 , 4 
9;XFT$;" 

87 GOT0121 

88 HX=107:HY=50:CIRCLE(HX,HY) ,12 
,4:LINE(139,148)-(151,158) ,PSET, 
BF : CIRCLE (HX , HY) , 2 , 3 

89 DRAW"BM108,37;A0XFB$;BM110,3 7 
; XLB$ ; BM122 , 81 ; S6 ; XSL$ ; BM146 , 91 ; 
A2;XSM$;":PAINT(96,40) , 2 , 4 : PAINT 
(118,87) ,2,4:PAINT(158,92) ,3,4 

90 COLOR1 , 1 : DRAW"BM108 , 37 ; A0 ;S4 ; 
XFB$ ; BM110 , 37 ;XLB$ ; BM122 , 81 ;S6 ;X 



62 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



SL$ ;BM146 , 91 ;A2 ;XSM$ ; " 

91 G0T0121 

92 HX=14 6 : HY=40 : DRAW"BM157 , 42 ; A0 
S4XGR$ ; " : LINE ( 14 , 70 ) - ( 2 2 , 82 ) , PSE 
T,BF: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2,3 

93 DRAW"BM90,124;A2XFW$;BM166,38 
; XSR$ ; " : PAINT (164, 35), 2, 4: PAINT ( 
110 , 104 ) , 3 , 4 : C0L0R1 , 1 : DRAWBM90 , 
124 ;A2 ;XFWS ; BM166, 38 ;XSR$ ; " 

94 GOT0121 

95 HX=48 :HY=65: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2,3 
: LINE ( 176 , 130) - ( 184 , 140 ) , PSET, BF 
: CIRCLE (50, 62) ,11,4 

96 WO$="S6L2H3L6H3U4E3R2E3R6F6D4 
G6" : DRAWBM106 , 99 ; A0XWO$ ; " : PAINT 
( 100 , 9 1 ) , 3 , 4 : DRAW" BM10 6,99; C1XWO 

$ ; " 

97 DRAW"BM3 8,63;C4A3S6XSM$;":CIR 
CLE (96, 101) ,4, 2: PAINT (42, 70) ,2,4 

DRAW" BM3 8 , 6 3 ; A3 ; XSM$ 



98 



COLOR1,! 



; BM70 , 63 ; S4A0XWF$ ; " 

99 GOT0121 

100 HX=198:HY=178:LINE(120,45)-( 
132,53) , PSET, BF: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2, 
3 

101 DRAW"BM198,169;S4;XGS$;BM106 



, 123 ; A3 ;XFW$ ; BM180, 101 ; A3 ;XFT$ ;B 
M177 , 128 ; A2XSM$ ; " : PAINT (122 , 138) 
,3,4: PAINT (182, 104 ) , 2 , 4 : PAINT ( 18 
1,130), 2, 4 

102 COLOR1,1:DRAW"BM106,12 3;A3;X 
FW$ ; BM180 , 101A3XFT$ ; BM177 , 128 ;A2 
XSM$ ; " 

103 GOT0121 

104 HX=105:HY=13 9: CIRCLE (HX,HY) , 
2,3: LINE ( 140 , 42 ) - ( 150 , 50) , PSET, B 
F:CIRCLE(HX,HY) ,9,4,1.3 

105 DRAW"BM126,129;S6A0XSL$;BM83 
, 120 ; A3 ; S8 ; XSR$ ; BM132 , 121 ; S4 ; A2 ; 
XGS$ ; " : PAINT (134, 118), 2, 4: PAINT ( 
124,140) ,3, 4: PAINT (90, 112) ,3,4:C 
OLOR1 , 1 : DRAW"BM12 6,129 ; S6A0XSL5 ; 
BM83,120;A3;S8;XSR$;BM132,121;S4 
;A2;XGS$;" 

106 GOT0121 

107 HX=124 :HY=128: CIRCLE (HX, HY) , 
2, 3: CIRCLE (12 8, 12 6) ,14,4, .66: LIN 
E(124,64)-(132,72) ,PSET,BF 

108 CIRCLE (110, 12 6) , 5 , 2 : CIRCLE (1 
10,120) ,5, 2: CIRCLE (105, 12 3) ,5,2: 
CIRCLE (112, 115), 5, 2: CIRCLE (113,1 
31) ,5,2:CIRCLE(118,136) , 5 , 2 : CIRC 



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reliab.s long-term storage available 
to the small computer user! 

OS9 is the trademark of Microware 
Systems Inc and Motorola Inc. 
Mulli-pak is the trademark ol 
Tandy Corp. 




f/wT 



IsllSailril^B'" by Vidicom Corp 
512K (524.288 bgles) $395.00 
1 Rleg (1,048,576 bytes) $695.00 
Please add $1.U0 shipping 
Arizona Residients add 5.5% Sales tax 
Visa mastercard orders welcome 



Vid^om Corp 20 E. main St. Suite 7I0 
mesa,RZ8520l (602) 827-0107 
Hours m-F 9:00 am - 5:00 pm IRST 

SEEKS 



~~ — "~~ — ; — ~S> 




Command rne &kaphics%# 
-^ POWER*- 

Of -THZ CoCo 3 J! 



"gptmrdefs 
tiintbox" 

THE AUTOMATIC GRAPHICS PROGRAMMER-. 

<Actualh) writes graphics programs 1 1 1 
Simply use a joystick to pick from 64 colors, 
draw, paint, Sr even add pixel-bippixel detail I 
Then <\ive the command to SAVE a short rou- 
tine that recreates t/our araphic exactly as um 
did itorjaimllif (amy much faster) 1 . <T)o all 
kinds of graphics, titles, diaarams which can 
he merged into your programs or used alone I 
Tor CoCo 3 with disk $c self centering joystick, 
fty $29.95 S pecial intrq price $26.95 +*/h I 

^r - . , ■ j p ou ^| 1 | {ee „ sl( . | [gY 1 

$1.50 S/H ON ALL ORDERS 
NY RESIDENTS INCLUDE SALES TAX 



Avenue 
601 
(914)485-8150 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



63 



LE(lp7,128) ,5,2:CIRCLE(126,138) , 

5,2 

1)89 G0T0121 

lip HX=ip8 :HY=153: CIRCLE (HX, HY) , 

3, 3: LINE (96 ,40) -(112, 48) ,PSET,BF 

: CIRCLE (lip, 152) ,11,4,1.33 

111 C1$="H6U3H6U3H5L2U4E12U3E7U3 
E12R3U3R4H8U4E15R2" 

112 DRAW"BM9p,18p;S3;A3;XFl$;BM9 
p,18p;S4;Ap;XCl$;": PAINT (95, 175) 
,3,4: C0L0R1 , 1 : DRAW"BM9j3 , 180 ;S3 ; A 
3 ; XF1$ ; BM9p , 18p ; S4 ; Ap ; XC1$ ; '• 

113 GOT0121 

114 HX=108 :HY=34: CIRCLE (HX,HY) ,2 
, 3 : CIRCLE ( lip , 3p ) , 13 , 4 : LINE ( 240 , 
175)-(252,183) ,PSET,BF 

115 CIRCLE (19 2, 114) , 5 , 2 : CIRCLE (2 
lp,124) ,5,2:CIRCLE(16P,12P) ,5,2: 
CIRCLE ( 159 , 13P ) , 5 , 2 : CIRCLE ( 15p , 1 
23) ,5,2:CIRCLE(2p7,113) ,5,2 

116 DRAW"BM14p,64;S8;A2;XSM$;BMl 
16 , 56 ; A3 ; XSM$ ; BM13p , 2 8 ; S4 ; XGR$ ; B 
M88 , 4 1 ; A2 ; XGR$ ; " : PAINT ( 12p , 68 ) , 2 
, 4 : PAINT ( 15 6 , 58 ) , 2 , 4 : PAINT ( lpp , 4 
6) ,2, 4: PAINT (132, 34) ,2,4 

117 COLORl,l:DRAW"BM14p,64;S8;A2 
; XSM$ ; BM116 , 56 ; A3 ; XSM$ ; BM13p , 28 ; 
S4 ;XGR$ ; BM88 , 41 ;A2 ;XGR$ ; BM19p , 12 
4C3XSM$;": PAINT (196, 122) ,3,3 

118 GOT0121 

119 HX=116 :HY=94: CIRCLE (HX, HY) ,1 
P , 4 : CIRCLE (HX , HY ) , 2 , 3 : LINE ( 150 , 1 
28)-(158,136) ,PSET,BF 

12P WC$="G4D2G2D2F2D3F2D2F3R3F2R 
3E3R3E3R2E2U3E2U3H6U2L3U2L4H2L2G 
4" : DRAW"BMlp6 , 79 ; S6ApXWC$ ; " : PAIN 
T(lp8,86),3,4: COLOR1 , 1 : DRAW" BMip 
6,79;S6ApXWC$;" 

121 CLS:OB=p:POKEip24,191:PRINT@ 
1, "COURSE YARDAGE = 7,p88 YDS.": 
P0KE1P56,191:PRINT@3 3,"C0URSE PA 
R = 72" 

122 POKElp88, 239 :PRINT@65, "HOLE" 
;HO ; : POKE1P97 , 239 : PRINT@74 , "PAR" 
;PA(HO) :POKElip5,239:PRINT@82,"L 
ENGTH";LE(HO) ;"YDS" 

123 POKE112p,175:PRINT@97, "WIND- 
SPEED" ;WS ; "** DIRECTION ";WD$:P 

OKE3 59,12 6:PRINT@12 8,SZ$; 

124 PRINT@288,SZ$:PRINT@326, "AVE 
RAGE DISTANCES" ; : PRINT@3 53 , "WOOD 
S: DR=265 3W=241" ; : PRINT@385 , "I 
RONS: 1=223 2=211 3=2p2";:P 
RINT@425, "4=193 5=184 6=175" 
;:PRINT@457, "7=166 8=157 9=1 

48";: PRINTS 4 82," 10=133"; 

125 TG=p:IF RF<>.99 THENPRINT@17 
9,CHR$(175) ;"YOU HAVE A":IF RF=1 

THENPRINT@212,"GOOD LIE":GOT012 



9 

126 IF RF=.99THEN129ELSEIF RF> . 7 
AND RF<1THENPRINT@212,"FAIR LIE 

":GOT0129 

127 IF RF>.5 AND RF< . 8THENPRINT@ 
212, "BAD LIE";:GOT0129 

128 PRINT@179,CHR$(191) ?"BAD LIE 
":PRINT@212, "BE CAREFUL" : TG=1 

129 IF RF<>.99 THENPRINT@243 , CHR 
$(239) ; "DISTANCE TO" : PRINT@276, " 
HOLE" ;DH*4; "YDS"; 

13p A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""THENPRINT@ 
161,"WHICH CLUB**** " ; : FOR T=l T 
2p:NEXTT:POKE1198, 127 : FOR T=l 
TO 8p:NEXTT:GOT013p 

131 IFA$=CHR$(83)THENSCREEN1,P:P 
SET(SX,SY,3) :FOR T=l TO 5p:NEXTT 
:PSET(SX,SY,2) :FOR T=l TO 5p:NEX 
TT : B$=INKEY$ : IF B$=" "THEN13 1ELSE 
SCREENp , p : GOT013p 

132 SOUND3p,l:IF A$=CHR$ ( 13 ) THEN 
13 4ELSENN=NN+1 : C$ (NN) =A$ : GOT013p 

133 FOR T=l TO 4pp :NEXTT: POKE12 3 
2,32:GOT013p 

134 FOR N=l TO NN: C$=C$ (1) +C$ (2) 
: NEXT N : PLAY"T2 3p ; 05A04B05F" : PRI 
NT@176,C$; :IF FL=1 THEN IF SS$=" 
D"THEN SS$="F"ELSEIF SS$="F"THEN 

SS$="D" 

135 IFTG01THEN138ELSEIF C$="DR" 
ORC$=" 3W"THENRF= . 2 -RF : G0T0138 

136 C=VAL(C$):IF C<5THENRF=.3-RF 
:GOT0138 

137 IF C<lpTHENRF=.4-RF ELSERF=R 
ND(4)+3:RF=RF/lp 

138 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""THENPRINT§ 
193, "DIRECTION***** " ; : FOR T=l T 
2p:NEXTT:POKE12 30,12 7:FOR T=l 
TO 8p:NEXTT:GOT013 8 

13 9 IF A$=CHR$(83)THENSCREEN1,P: 
PSET(SX,SY,3) :FOR T=l TO ipp:NEX 
TT : PSET ( SX , SY , 2 ) : B$=INKEY$ : IF B$ 
=" "THEN139ELSESCREENp , p : GOT0138 
14p SOUND3p,l:IF A$=CHR$ ( 13 ) THEN 
141ELSE PR=PR+l:DR$(PR)=A$:GOT01 
38 

141 FOR N=l TO PR:DR$=DR$(1)+DR$ 
(2) :NEXT N:PLAY"T23p;05A04B05F": 
PRINT@2P8,DR$; 

142 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""THENPRINT@ 
2 25, "LENGTH OF ARC* " ; : FOR T=l T 
2p:NEXTT:POKE1262, 127:FORT=l T 
8p:NEXTT:GOT0142 

143 IF A$=CHR$(83)THENSCREEN1,P: 
PSET(SX,SY,3) :FOR T=l TO 5p:NEXT 
:PSET(SX,SY,2) :FOR T=l TO 5p:NEX 

T : B$=INKEY$ : IF B$=" "THEN143ELSES 
CREENp,p:GOT0142 

144 IF A$>"7"OR A$<"2"THENSOUNDl 



64 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 




///////' rmiii.nr 



on 



S O F T W A 



THIS MONTHS 





by Sieve Bjork 



Blast in to Hyper-Drive with 
this lun-filled starship shoot- 
em-upi you'll have a cap- 
tains ' eye view out ol your 
3-D cockpit as you try to rid 
the galaxy of the evil enemy 
forces. Game includes 3-D 
glasses and works on any 
Color T. V. . Composite or 
RGB monitor. 
$24.95 
(Extra Glasses $2.95) 




by Steve Bjork 

Based on a popular arcade game which we can 7 mention (But 
sounds like ' 'Art Gannoyed"). BASH challenges you to clear 
the screen by "BASHING" 
your ball through multiple 
bricklayers. Of course you'll 
have help getting through 
this 20 level game by activ- 
ating options like, Slow Ball, 
Expanded Paddle, Multi-Ball , 
and more! 

$24.95 




Enemy alien creatures have 
been identified entering our 
solar system, Iheir destina- 
tion: our home planet! Their 
goal: the total annihilation 
of our race. They must not 
be allowed to land! 
An action arcade game lea- 
luring high qualify 16 color 
graphics and sound effects. 
$24.95 



^ 



\\l//. 




by Nickolas Marentes 

Help Rupert infiltrate ' 'Music Box Records" and collect 
all of his stolen notes which are scattered throughout 
the complex. Ride the crazy elevators and beware of the 
security robots on patrol. 

Rupert Rythym is a strategy arcade game featuring 17 
different, 16 color graphic screens and some of the hottest 
digitized percussion music and vocals you 've ever heard 
on your Tandy Color Computer 3. 

Available on Disk or Tape. . .$24.95 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE A COLOR COMPUTER 3 DISK OR TAPE SYSTEM. 

Personal checks, money orders, and American C.O.D. orders accepted. Include $3.00 lor S/H. $2.50 exlra 

lor C.O.D. orders. (Cal. res. add 6.5 % lax.) 

ATTENTION PROGRAMMERS: Game Point Sottware is looking lor talented writers. Top royalties guaranteed. 




RESCUE by Steve Bjork 

A terrible mine disaster has just occured and it will be up 
to you and your talents to 
enter the mine, jump the pits, 
avoid the spikes, light oil the 
bats and other creepy crawlers 
and get air to the needy 
victims. Mine rescue features 
over 2 megabytes of arcade- 
style graphics, real lime music 
and multiple mine levels. 

$24.95 




Post Office Box 6907 

Burbank, California 91510-6907 

(818) 566-3571 • BBS: (818) 772-8890 




'. 



HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 

1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 • orders (800) 443-1444 • inquiries and order status (312) 278-1440 

Showroom Hours 8-5 M-F. 10-3 SAT 



* 5 STAR FINAL 



MARCH '89 



VERY DRY 



CLOSEOUT ON ZENITH 



Howard Medical will close out its remaining supply of Zenith l23A's 
green screens at $49.50 each. These monitors are used but all carry our 
30-day money back guarantee and 90-day warranty. Originally priced 
at $199. 

MAGNAVOX 7622 12" Amber Screen offers 900 dots x 350 lines resolu- 
tion at 20 MHz on a dark glass anti-glare CRT with built-in audio and 1 year 
warranty. ($7 shipping) $ 88 7652 green screen also available $88 
MAGNAVOX 8 CM 515 has analog RGB for CoCo 3, TTL RGB for 
Tandy 1000 or IBM PC's, and composite color for CoCo 2 and 3. Built-in 
speaker. 14" screen with 640 dot x 240 line resolution. Plus 2 years parts 
and labor warranty, reg. list $499 was $298 $266 + $14 Shipping 

CC-3 Magnavox RGB cable for CoCo 3 only s 19.95 with Magnavox 
Monitor order. $29.95 w/o monitor. 






7622 



8CM515 



123 A 



1 23 A 1 2" This 1 2" green screen high resolution monitor offers 80 column 
capability, Zenith quality and a 90-day warranty valid at any of Zenith's 
1200 locations. Retail $199. Our price $49.50 ($7 shipping) REPACK 
VA-1 for monochrome and color monitors delivers video interface for CoCo's 
1 & 2 $ 29.45 ($2 shipping) 

DRIVE +. Howards Drive 

gives you a DD-3 MPI drive, a CA- 
1 cable and DISTO DC-3 Disk Con- 
troller for only $178.45. Double 
sided double density 360K. ($5 ship- 
ping) 




HMC's Guarantee- 
A Promise you can take to the Bank. 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
of dealing with a company through 
the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compat- 
ibility. If you're not happy with it for 



any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 



Price Break on DISTO 
Disk Controllers 

Includes controller and C-DOS 4.0 
ROM Chip. DISTO $ 75 DC-3[a] 
($2 shipping on all DISTO products) 

ADD-ON BOARDS 

DC-3P Mini Eprom programmer 
includes all software to program 
2764 or 27128 chips [|] s 55 
DC-3C Clock Calendar and parallel 
printer port[C] s 40 




RS-232 $49.95 

Replaces R.S. RS-232 board. Plugs in 
drive port or multi pack. 2 MHz 
operation works with OS-9.($2 ship) 

3 in 1 Board $59.45 

Clock calendar at 2 MHz parallel 
printer port pack requires DISTO 
Controller or MEB(S2 ship) 

MEB $30 ($2 ship) 

Plugs into multi pak to expand 
DISTO DC-3 bus. Use clock in DC- 
3 and eprom programmer in MEB. 

24 HOUR ORDER LINE 

DON'T MISS OUT 

D0NT MISS OUT, ORDER T&DAY! 

800 / 443-1444 

WE ACCEPT VISA . MASTERCARD : 

. AMERICAN EXPRESS • C.O.D. OR" 

CHECKS. SCHOOL P.O. 

NEW - DISCOVER CARD 




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The Big9e st 

The Best 

The indispensable 



The 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and 
most comprehensive publication a happy C0C0 
ever had! THE RAINBOW features more programs, 
more information and more in-depth treatment of 
the Tandy Color Computer than any other source. 

A monthly issue contains nearly 200 pages and 
up to two dozen programs, 14 regular columns and 
as many as 12 new product reviews. And advertise- 
ments: THE RAINBOW is known as the medium for 
advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else 
about new products! Hundreds of programs are 
advertised in its pages each month. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the 
wide spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color 
Computer — from beginners' tutorials and arcade 
games to telecommunications and business and 
finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to 
expand your CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly 
reviews by independent reader reviewers take the 
guesswork out of buying new software and hard- 
ware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE 
RAINBOW to be an absolute necessity for their 
C0C0. With all this going for it, is it surprising that 
more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW subscrib- 
ers renew their subscriptions? We're willing to bet 
that, a year from now, you'll be doing the same. 



Rainbow On Tape 

& Rainbow On Disk! 



— great ways to bring THE RAINBOW into your life. 
Each month, all you do is pop the tape into your 
cassette player or the disk into your drive. No more 
lost weekends. As soon as you read an article about 
a program in THE RAINBOW, it's ready to load and 
run. No work. No wait. 

Just think how your software library will grow. 
With your first year's subscription, you'll get almost 
250 new programs: games, utilities, business 
programs, home applications. And, with RAINBOW 
ON DISK, you'll also get all the OS-9 programs. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK — 
they 're the "meat" of THE RAINBOW at a price that's 
"small potatoes." And now you even have a choice 
about how it should be served up to you. 

To get your first heaping helping, just fill out and 
return the attached reply card. No postage neces- 
sary. 



,5:A$="" :GOT0142 

145 LA=VAL(A$) : PLAY M T23j3 ;05A04BO 
5F":PRINT@2 3 9,LA; : IF LA<5THENTS$ 
="":PRINT@2 57, "TYPE OF SHOT** " ; 
: PRINT@272 , "*" ; : GOTO150 

146 A$=INKEY$:IF A$= M "THENPRINT@ 
257, "TYPE OF SHOT** " ; : FOR T=l T 
2J3:NEXTT:P0KE1294,127:F0RT=1 T 
8j3:NEXTT:GOT014 6 

147 IF A$=CHR$ (83)THENSCREENl,p: 
B$=INKEY$ : IF B$=" "THEN147ELSESCR 
EENJ3,1:G0T0146 

148 IF A$="F"OR A$="D"THEN149 EL 
SE146 

149 TS$=A$:PLAY"T2 3£S;05A04B05F": 
PRINT@27 2,TS$; 

150 PRINT@320,BS$ 

151 PRINT@416,"* (PRESS <ENTER> T 
PLAY HOLE) " : PRINT@448 , "* (PRESS 

<SPACE BAR> TO CHANGE ANY V 
ALUES " ? 

152 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""GOT0152 

153 IF A$=CHR$(13)THEN156 

154 IF A$=CHR$(32)THENPRINT@176, 
BL$ ; : PRINT@ 208 , BL$ ; : PRINT@2 3 9 , BL 
$ ; : PRINT@271 , BL$ ; : PR=0 : NN=0 : C$ ( 1 
) =" " : C$ ( 2 ) =" " : DR$ ( 1) =" " : DR$ ( 2 ) =" 



" :GOTO130 

155 PRINT@271,BL$;:GOT0146 

156 DR=VAL(DR$) : IF INT (WD/2) =WD/ 
2THEN163 

157 IF WD=1 OR WD=5 THEN158ELSE1 
6p 

158 IF DR=0 OR DR=1 OR DR=2 3 THE 
NIF WD=1 THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*W 
S 

159 IF DR>10 AND DR<14 THENIFWD= 

5 THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*WS 

160 IF WD=3 OR WD=7 THEN161ELSE1 
63 

161 IF DR>4 AND DR<8 THENIFWD=3 
THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*WS 

162 IF DR>16 AND DR<20 THENIFWD= 
7 THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*WS 

163 IF WD=2 OR WD=6 THEN164 ELSE 
166 

164 IF DR>1 AND DR<5 THENIFWD=2 
THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*WS 

165 IF DR>13 AND DR<17 THENIFWD= 

6 THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*WS 

166 IF WD=4 OR WD=8 THEN167 ELSE 

167 IF DR>7 AND DR<11 THENIFWD=4 
THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*WS 

168 IF DR>19 AND DR<23 THENIFWD= 



© 



Conquer the 
World! 



DOMINATION $18 

MULTI-PLAYER STRATEGY 
GAME! 

Try to take over the 
planet of YCNAN Battle 
other players armies to 
take control of their 
provinces ana defend yours 
Play on a Hi-res map of 
the planet. Take the "RISK" 
and be a planet-lord 
today!!! Requires 1 disk and 
joystick or mouse See 
Rainbow Review JULY 86 



MYDOS 115 

EPROMABLE! CUSTOMABLE! 

MYDOS is an enhancement 

to Disk Extended Basic 2 I 

on the CoCo 3 Screen echo 

and SAY command for RS 

Speech Pak Point and click 

mouse directory. NEW 

FEATURES! Supports 0/S 

and 40 track drives 

Power-up in any screen 

colors (or monochrome), 

width, and palettes (RGB 

or CMP) you wish! More 

options than you can 

shake a joystick at! See 

Rainbow Review JUNE 87 



^ 



HAWKSof t 

P 0. Box 7112 """'" 

Elgin, 11 60121-7112 

312-742-3084 

S/H always included 

Check COO or MO accepted 

II orders add 7% sales tax 



HAWKSoft KEYBOARD 
CABLE $25 

UNCHAIN YOUR KEYBOARD! 

Five foot extender cable 

for Coco I! and 3. Move 

your keyboard where you 

want it! Installation 

instructions and tips 

included! Custom lengths 

available 



WIGHT OF THE 
LIVING DEAD 



AN INTERACTIVE 
NIGHTMARE 




IN" 11 



iffl 



00UC1OB-- r y 

s'34 95 > 



';.,hwiy'(t.,*l..->- 



«fc 






V 



\ 



^ Uf % flOUEnTUREriDUEL SOFTWARE 

* j^M^J % P °' B0X 8 ' 76, SPARTANBURG - sc 29 3° 5 rfp^S. 

I «» , | 24 hr. order HOTLINE R »' NB0W 

I^^<f M ft) (803) 578-7421 

"CrinS* 51 W. C.O.D. ADD $5 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 67 



8 THENDW=-2*WS ELSEDW=2*WS 

169 IN(1)=5:IN(2)=4:IN(3)=5:IN(4 
)=5:IN(5)=4:IN(6)=5 

170 IF WD=1THENX1(1)=2:X1(2)=5:X 
1(3)=14:X1(4)=17 

171 IF WD=2THENX1(1)=5:X1(2)=8:X 
1(3)=17:X1(4)=20 

172 IF WD=3THENX1(1)=8:X1(2)=11: 
X1(3)=20:X1(4)=23 

173 IF WD=4THENX1(1)=11:X1(2)=14 
:X1(3)=23:X1(4)=2 

174 IF WD=5THENX1(1)=14:X1(2)=17 
:X1(3)=2:X1(4)=5 

175 IF WD=6THENX1(1)=17:X1(2)=20 
:X1(3)=5:X1(4)=8 

176 IF WD=7THENX1(1)=20:X1(2)=23 
:X1(3)=8:X1(4)=11 

177 IF WD=8THENX1(1)=23:X1(2)=2: 
X1(3)=11:X1(4)=14 

178 IF C$="DR"THENCC=460:IF ST>0 
THENGF= (RND ( 5 ) +5 ) /10 

179 IF C$="3W"THENCC=410 

180 IF C$="1"THENCC=380 

181 IF C$="2"THENCC=3 60 

182 IF C$="3"THENCC=345 

183 IF C$="4"THENCC=330 

184 IF C$="5"THENCC=315 

185 IF C$="6"THENCC=300 

186 IF C$="7"THENCC=285 

187 IF C$="8"THENCC=270 

188 IF C$="9"THENCC=255 

189 IF C$="10"THENCC=230 

190 IF LA=7THENR=RND(100) : CO=-R 

191 IF LA=6THENR=RND(40) :CO=R-25 

192 IF LA=5THENR=RND(40) : CO=R 

193 IF LA<5THENR=20:CO=-(R) 

194 IF LA>4 THENLF=1 ELSELF=.l 
19 5 IF LA<5 THENNT=0:GOTO229 

196 R1=RND(13)+1:IF TS$=SS$ THEN 
R2=RND(9)+15:R3=RND(3) : IF R3<>3T 
HEN199 

197 R4=RND(10) : IFR4<4THENTS$=SS$ 
:G0T0199 

198 FOR N=l TO Rl : READNT : NEXTN : G 
OTO200 

199 FOR N=l TO R2 : READNT : NEXTN 
2,0,0 RESTORE 

201 FOR X=X1(CT)T0X1(CT)+IN(CT) : 
IF WD(X)=DR THEN203ELSENEXTX 
2j32 CT=CT+l:IF CT>6THEN CT=0ELSE 
2J31 

203 IF CT=2 OR CT=5 THEN AF=INT ( 
WS/4.1)ELSE AF=INT(WS/12+.3) 

204 IF CT>3THEN IF TS$="F"THEN A 
F=-AF 

205 IF CT=0 THEN206ELSEIF CT>0 A 
ND CT<4 THEN IF TS$="D"THEN AF=- 
AF 

206 CT=1:NT=INT(NT*LA/10*1.92+AF 



) 

207 IF NT<0THEN FL=1:IF TS$="D"T 
HEN TS$="F"ELSE IF TS$="F"THEN T 
S$= M D" 

208 NT=ABS(NT) :AF=0:C=VAL(C$) 

209 IF C>6 AND C<11 THENIF NT>1 
THEN NT=1 

210 IF C>3 AND C<7 THENIFNT>2 TH 
ENNT=2 

211 IF C>0 AND C<4 THENIF NT>3 T 
HEN NT=3 

212 IF TS$="F"THEN 221 

213 IF INT(DR/2)<>DR/2THEN217 

214 IFDR=0 OR DR=2 OR DR=12 OR D 
R=16THENXC=3 : YC=6 : GOT0229 

215 IFDR=4 OR DR=10 OR DR=16 OR 
DR=2 2THENXC=6 : YC=6 : GOT02 29 

216 IFDR=6 OR DR=8 OR DR=18 OR D 
R=20THENXC=8 : YC=2 : GOT0229 

217 IFDR=1 OR DR=13THENXC=0:YC=9 
:GOT02 29 

218 IFDR=3 OR DR=11 OR DR=17 OR 
DR=2 3THENXC=4 : YC=7 : GOT02 29 

219 IFDR=5 OR DR=9 OR DR=15 OR D 
R=2 1THENXC=7 : YC=4 : GOT02 29 

2 20 IFDR=7 OR DR=19THENXC=8 : YC=0 
:GOT02 2 9 

221 IF INT(DR/2)<>DR/2THEN225 
2 22 IFDR=0 OR DR=10 OR DR=12 OR 
DR=2 2THENXC=2 : YC=8 : GOT02 2 9 

223 IFDR=2 OR DR=8 OR DR=14 OR D 
R=20THENXC=6 : YC=6 : GOT0229 

224 IFDR=4 OR DR=6 OR DR=16 OR D 
R=18THENXC=8 : YC=2 : GOT0229 

225 IFDR=1 OR DR=9 OR DR=15 OR D 
R=2 1THENXC=4 : YC=7 : GOT02 2 9 

22 6 IFDR=3 OR DR=7 OR DR=13 OR D 
R=19THENXC=7 : YC=4 : GOT02 2 9 

227 IFDR=5 OR DR=17THENXC=8 : YC=0 
:GOT0229 

228 IFDR=11 OR DR=2 3THENXC=0 : YC= 
9 

229 IF INT(DR/2)=DR/2 THEN233 

230 IF DR=5 OR DR=7 OR DR=17 OR 
DR=19THENXI=10 : YI=2 . 34 : GOT02 37 

231 IF DR=3 OR DR=9 OR DR=15 OR 
DR=2 1THENXI=4 . 34 : YI=4 . 345 : GOT023 
7 

232 IF DR=1 OR DR=11 OR DR=13 OR 
DR=2 3THENXI=1 .34: YI=5 .34: GOT02 3 

7 

233 IF DR=0 OR DR=12THENXI=0 : YI= 
5.34:GOT0237 

234 IF DR=6 OR DR=18 THENXI=11:Y 
I=0:GOTO2 37 

235 IF DR=2 OR DR=10 OR DR=14 OR 
DR=2 2THENXI=3 : YI=5 . 26 : GOT02 37 

23 6 IF DR=4 OR DR=8 OR DR=16 OR 
DR=20 THENXI=7:YI=3.34 



68 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 






The New 



Announcing a Great New Floppy Drive System for the Color Computer: 



OWL- Ware floppy Drive System 

No Better System is Available at Any Price (But the Price is Great, too!) 
Two New Products First Shown at Rainbowfest, Princeton 1988 



DISK 
CONTROLLER 

We at OWL-WARE are 
pleased to announce that we 
have purchased the rights to all 
of the Color Computer 
Products of J&M Systems. 
J&M has had more experience 
with CoCo controllers than any 
other supplier (except for 
Radio Shack® itself) and we 
are proud to add them to our 
nest! OWL- WARE will now be 
producing J&M controllers 
under the OWL brand. These 
controllers all use J&M's 
proven designs, with some 
minor improvements, and they 
will serve you for years to come. 

• All gold contacts 

• Works with all CoCo 
models (1,2,3) 

• Holds 2 switchable ROMS 

• Positive switching by 
simple jumper or optional 
external switch (No erratic 
software or pokes re- 
quired) 

• Buffered I/O lines to help 
prevent burn-out if unit 
accidentally pulled out 
with the system on 

• Latching chips are sock- 
eted to speed repairs 

• Does not use the WD1773 
chip which caused 
problems with many CoCo 
3 systems and is now dis- 
continued 

• Attractive all metal case 

• Dealer inquiries now in- 
vited 



CONTROLLER onh/ $69. 
(without ROMs) 

(Add $14.95 for RSDOS 

$19,95 RSDOS and 

OWLDOS) 




Disk drives are not our only business, but they sure are our 
main business! We have been selling hard and floppy drives for 
the CoCo longer than any other Rainbow advertiser. Our double 
sided drives are brand new, half-heights with a full one year 
warranty! The full-height drives offered cheap by our competi- 
tion are used or surplus! 



See the next 2 pages for more 

drive and somvare specials 

from OWL-WARE 



IlivV! Keyboard Interface for the CoCo! 

At last youc^nttypeoriareal IBM'"i type professional com- 
puter keyboard. You can use the keyboard in your lap or a com.: 
fortable table and/or f> to 12 feet from the CoCo. This interff c|l 
allows; the use of 'Both user programmable function keys and 
programmed "quijek keys". The cursor pad and the number 
keypad function like an IBM®. An on board ROM provides for 
different programmed keys for BASIC and OS-9. Easy to. install 
and no soldering is required. Probably the most useful and 
pleasant addition to yprtr CoCo and is much, better than any 
keyboard extension or add-on keyboard. Includes easy to follow 
instructions Use with arty standard 1BM# style keyboard or use 

Interlace $11 9.; lQi-Key K«yl>oard only$40. 



CASE AND 
POWER 
SUPPLY 

In recent months it has be- 
come very difficult to obtain de- 
pendable, safe power supply 
and cases for floppy drive sys- 
tems. They just couldn't pass 
our quality control. OWL- 
WARE has now produced a 
case and power supply that you 
can be proud to own and use. 
We believe that this is the best 
and most attractive drive case 
available for any computer. 

• Built in surge protector! 
(we believe that this fea- 
ture is unique in CoCo 
drive cases) 

• Sleek, modern design 

• Heavy-duty power supply 

• Fully shielded data cable 

• Modular power supply 
construction for ease of 
repairs 

• Stackablc case design 

• Dealer inquiries now in- 
vited 



SPECIAL WINTER SALE 
Double Sided Drives 

Drive Systerrt 
Complete $199. 

Drive 1 
Only $129. 



More 




©WL-WARE 



P.O. Boxll6-A 
Mertztown, PA 19539 

— ORDER LINES (only) 

(800) 245-6228 
(215) 682-6855 (PA) 




Pro ven 

On the Razor's Edge of 



Basic and OS-9 Hard 
Drive Systems 

Proven Performance for Demanding Home or 
Business Users 



Because of many requests for a lower 
price system in kit form, we are now 
selling a kit of all parts at a significant 
discount compared to our regular 
prices. We recommend this kit (or any 
kits offered by any other supplier) only 
to those who have experience in 
electronic assembly and OS-9. 

We have LR Tech and Burke & Burke 



For OS-9 
Levels 1 

and 2 



Every hard drive which has been 
produced by OWL- WARE during the 
last 3 years is complete. A system con- 
sists of software, hard drive, controller, 
heavy-duty power supply, and LR Tech 
Interface. There are no hidden costs for 
assembly or testing. When a drive sys- 
tem is ordered, we fully assemble, test, 
and burn-in the system for 3 full days. 
This ensures dependability and op- 
timum performance. 

We have now been supplying CoCo 
hard drive systems and parts for more 
than 3 years. This is the longest history 
in the CoCo market of any system. 
Some other advertisers are stating that 
they have one of the most reliable sys- 
tems for the CoCo witli all of 4 months 
history in the CoCo hard drive market'. 
We have reached our position in the 
hard drive market by providing our cus- 
tomers with a quality product that they 
(and we) can be proud to own and use. 



10 Meg. 20 Meg. 40 Meg. 80 Meg. 

{2 X 40 Meg.) 
System Prices: (Includes Hard Drive, Controller, LR Tech Interface, 
Software. Fully assembled and tested.) 

$469. $599. $725. $ 1,069. 

Kit Prices: (LR Tech System as above but not assembled or tested.) 

$419. $549. $659. $999. 

Kit Prices: (As above but using Burke & Burke bus adapter) 
(na) $489. $609. Qower prices) 

30 M eg Kit: $5 39. (Low est prices anywhere) 




OWL Hard Drive BASIC 3 

There have been several ads in this 
magazine about BASIC for Color 
Computer hard drive systems. These 
ads sometimes only tell a part of the 
story. Our BASIC system price in- 
cludes assembly, testing, and 3-day 
burn-in period. We do not require a 
Multi-pak to operate. 

Our hard drive systems are fast, reli- 
able, and reasonable in price. This has 
been proven by hundreds of users over 
the past 3 years. We do not have to turn 
off error checking for speed. We 
achieve high speed BASIC from a uni- 
que indexing method. 

The table below will summarize some 
of the key points about our BASIC hard 
drive system and the B&B system. We 
believe that we have the best BASIC in- 
terface for CoCo hard drives available. 



BASIC Hard Drive Systems 

Feature OWL B&B 


Drive Portion 
Available at 
One Time 


Entire 


Partial (4 
sections) 


User Sets 

BASIC/OS-9 

Partitions 


YES 


Yes 


Add to Exist- 
ing OS-9 
Drive Without 
Reformat 


YES 


No(?) 


Drives 0-3 
Hard/Floppy 


YES 


No 


Built in Park 


YES 


No 


Speed' 


FAST 


Fast 



All feature details are believed to be 
true at time of writing and are subject 
to change. We believe that our BASIC 
hard drives are the fastest due to our in- 
dexing method, but both systems are 
fast and we sell both. On ours all 
BASIC commands work including 
PSKIN1, DSKIS, and DSKOS. 



Prices: With/Without Hard 
Drive 

$35./$79. 



Technology 



the Color Computer Frontier 





Floppy Drive Systems 

The Highest Quality for Years of Service 

(We have located a number of unused, surplus single sided drives for 
those who wish a quality, inexpensive system.) 

Drive Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) $1 99. (Same but Single sided) $1 85 

Drive systems complete with drive, controller, legal DOS, 
cable, case, power supply, and manual 

Dhve 1 Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) 5|>1 c. 9. (Same but Single sided) 5j>I It). 

New 3.5", 720K Drives for OS-9 with case & 

Power Supply $ I f 9« 

Drive 1 Systems have drive, case, power supply. (You may 
require optional cable and/or DOS chip to use) 

Special for 0/1 Combos (Drives 0,1,2,3) $295. 



HALF- HEIGHT DRIVE 

UPGRADES FOR RS 

HORIZONTAL, CASES 

Why only double the capacity of your 
system when you can triple in the same 
case? Kit includes: double-sided to fit 
your case, chip to run both sides of new 
drive, hardware, and detailed instruc- 
tions. Easy! Takes only 5 minutes! 

Model $119. Model $129. 
500 501 or 502 



All drives are new and fully assembled. 
We ship only FULLY TESTED and 
CERTIFIED at these low prices. We 
use Fuji, YE Data, and other fine 
brands. No drives are used or surplus 
unless otherwise slated to you when 
you order. We appear to be the one of 
the few advertisers in Rainbow who 
can truly make this claim. We have 5 
years experience in the CoCo disk 
drive market! We are able to provide 
support when you have a problem. 



OWL Phones 

Order Numbers (only) 

1-800-245-6228 
1-215-682-6855 

Technical Help 
1-215-837-1917 



OWL WARE Software Bundle 



Disk Tutorial/Utilities/Games 
DISK TUTOR Ver 1.1 

Learn how to use your disk drive from 
this multi-lesson, machine language 
program. This tutor takes you through 
your lessons and corrects your mistakes 
for a quick, painless disk drive introduc- 
tion. (This professionally written tutor 
is easily worth the bundle's total price.) 

OWL DOS 

An operating system that gives faster 
disk access and allows the use of 
double-sided drives. Corrects a floating 
point number error on early CoCo sys- 
tems. 

COPY-IT 

Quickly copies selected programs be- 
tween disks. A wild card option selects 
groups of programs to copy. 

VERIFY 

Verifies reading of each sector. Bad 
sectors are listed on the screen. 

2 GAMES 

We will select 2 games from our stock. 
These sold for more than $20 each. 

If sold separately this is more than $125 
worth of software!! 

Do not mistake this software with 
cheap, non-professional "Public 
Domain" software which is being of- 
fered by others. All of this software is 
copyrighted and professional in quality. 
The tutor is unique with us and has 
helped thousands of new users learn 
their disk drive. 

only $27.95 

(or even better) 

only $6.95 with 

any Disk Drive Purchase'.! 

glur .prices, include a. discount for cash 
ut do not include shipping. 

OWL-WARE has a liberal warranty policy. During Ihe warran- 
ty period, all defective items will be repaired or replaced at our 
option at no cost to the buyer except lor shipping costs. Call 
our tech number for return. Return of non-defective or un- 
authorized returns are subject to a service charge. 



Drives 1 Year Warranty 



OWL-WARE 

P.O. BOX 116 
Mertztown, PA 19539 



237 PRINT@17 6,BL$; : PRINT@208, BL$ 
? : PRINT@2 3 9 , BL$ ; : PRINT§2 7 1 , BL$ ; : 
PRINT0416 , BS$ ; : PM0DE3 , 1 : SCREEN1 , 
0:DI=INT(CC*LA/10*RF*GF+(DW*LF) ) 
+C0 

238 RF=1:GF=1 

239 AC=INT(AC*LA/10*1.3+.5) :PP=D 
1/22 : FP=PP-INT ( PP) : PP=INT ( PP+ . 5 ) 

240 IF FT=1THENGOTO2 60 

241 IF H0=1THENSX=18:SY=161:BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

242 IF HO=2THENSX=38:SY=45:BX=SX 
:BY=SY 

243 IFHO=3THENSX=236:SY=142:BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

244 IFH0=4THEN SX=57 : SY=103 :BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

245 IFH0=5THEN SX=145 : SY=153 : BX= 
SX:BY=SY 

246 IFH0=6THEN SX=204 : SY=43 : BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

247 IFH0=7THEN SX=56 : SY=132 : BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

248 IF H0=8THEN SX=174 : SY=60 : BX= 
SX:BY=SY 

249 IFH0=9THEN SX=174 : SY=4 6 : BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

250 IFHO=10THEN SX=145 : SY=150 : BX 
=SX:BY=SY 

251 IFH0=11THEN SX=20 : SY=78 : BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

252 IFH0=12THEN SX=178 : SY=132 : BX 
=SX:BY=SY 

2 53 IFH0=13THEN SX=12 6 : SY=50 : BX= 
SX:BY=SY 

254 IFH0=14THEN SX=145 : SY=47 : BX= 
SX:BY=SY 

255 IFH0=15THEN SX=128 : SY=68 : BX= 
SX:BY=SY 

256 IFHO=16THENSX=104:SY=45:BX=S 
X:BY=SY 

257 IFHO=17THENSX=246:SY=179:BX= 
SX:BY=SY 

258 IFHO=18THENSX=155:SY=131:BX= 
SX:BY=SY 

259 IF FT=0THENFT=1: RETURN 

2 60 IF DR>-1 AND DR<7 THEN QX=1 : 
QY=-l:GOT02 64 

261 IF DR>6 AND DR<13 THEN QX=1: 
QY=l:GOT02 64 

262 IF DR>12 AND DR<19 THEN QX=- 
l:QY=l:GOT02 64 

263 IF DR>18 AND DR<24 THEN QX=- 

1:QY=-1 

264 RX=SX:RY=SY:IY=YI-INT(YI) :IX 
=XI-INT(XI) 

265 FOR T=l TO 300 : NEXT T:CX=PP- 
NT : CX=PP-NT : TS ( ST) =DI : PLAY"T100V 
3 104AB" : PSET ( SX , S Y , 1 ) : PSET ( BX , BY 

,4) 

2 66 FOR N=l TO PP: CX=CX-1 : IF CX< 



0THEN SX=SX+XC*QX:SY=SY+YC*QY 
2 67 IF CX>=0 THEN SX=SX+ (INT (XI+ 
IX+TX) *QX) :TX=TX+IX:IF TX>1THENT 
X=0 

268 IF CX>=0 THENSY=SY+(INT(YI+I 
Y+TY)*QY) :TY=IY+TY:IF TY>.66THEN 
TY=0 

269 IF SX<0 OR SX>255 OR SY<0 OR 
SY>191 THENSOUND1, 5 :CLS: PRINTS 1 

97 / »****0UT OF BOUNDS****" : FOR T 
=1 TO 900:NEXTT:OB=l:PS=PS+l:SX= 
RX:SY=RY:C$(1)="":C$(2)="" :DR$(1 
) =" » : DR$ ( 2 ) =" " : NN=0 : PR=0 : IF ST=0 
THENSX=BX : S Y=BY : ST=ST+1 : GOT02 8 4 : 
ELSE284 

270 IF PPOINT(SX,SY)=2THENPSET(S 
X,SY):FOR T=l TO80:NEXT T:PSET(S 
X,SY,2):NEXT N:TR(HO) =TR(HO) +1:R 
F=RND(9) :RF=RF/10:GOTO2 93 

271 IFPPOINT(SX,SY)=3THENPSET(SX 
,SY,2) :FORT=l TO80:NEXTT:PSET(SX 
,SY,3) :NEXTN: IFABS (HX-SX) <5 AND 
ABS(HY-SY)<5 THEN273ELSEPLAY"T20 
0O1ABO4CDO1EF" :PS=PS+l:TW=TW+l:W 
H=WH+1: CIRCLE (SX,SY) ,3,2:FORT=l 
TO 300:NEXTT: CIRCLE (SX,SY) ,3,3 :G 
OTO290 

272 PSET (SX, SY) : FOR T=l TO 60:NE 
XT T: PRESET (SX, SY) : NEXT N 

273 PSET(SX,SY,2) 

274 RF=RND(100) : IF RF>92 THENRF= 
.8 ELSE IF RF<4 THENRF=.6 ELSERF 
= 1 

275 IF SX<HX THENSP=1ELSESP=-1 

276 IF SY<HY THENSE=1ELSESE=-1 

277 IF SX>HX+18 THENCX=HX+20 :GOT 
0280 

278 IF SX<HX-18 THENCX=HX-20 : GOT 
0280 

279 CX=SX 

280 IF SY>HY+18 THENCY=HY+20 :GOT 
0283 

281 IF SY<HY-18 THENCY=HY-20 :GOT 
0283 

282 CY=SY 

283 FOR NX=CX TO HX STEPSP'.FOR N 
Y=CY TO HY STEP SE:IF PPOINT(NX, 
NY) =4 THEN FG=1 ELSE NEXT NY, NX: 
FG=0 

284 DD=0:LX=ABS(SX-HX) :LY=ABS(SY 
-HY) :DH=INT(SQR(LX A 2+LY A 2) ) : DX=A 
BS (BX-SX) /2 : DY=ABS (BY-SY) : DD=INT 
(SQR(DX^2+DY^2) ) : DD=INT (DD*4+. 5) 
:TS(ST)=DD 

285 LX=ABS(SX-HX) : LY=ABS (SY-HY) : 
LX=LX/2:DH=INT(SQR(LX A 2+LY A 2) ) I I 
F 0B=1 THEN121 

286 CIRCLE(SX,SY) ,1,4:ST=ST+1 

287 A$=INKEY$ : CIRCLE (SX,SY) ,1,2: 
FOR T=l TO 50: NEXT T: CIRCLE (SX, S 
Y),1,3:IF A$<>CHR$(83)THEN287ELS 



72 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



EPR=0 : DD=0 : NN=0 : C$ ( 1) =" " : C$ (2 ) =" 
" : DR$ ( 1 ) -" " : DR$ ( 2 ) =" " : PRINT@ 180 , 
" "; :PRINT@212," 

";:PRINT§244 / " ";:PR 

INT@276," "; 

288 SCREEN0,0:IF FG=0 THENCLS : LP 
=DH:GOT0295 

289 GOT0124 

290 IF ST=0 THENS1(H0)=1 

291 IF CX>=0 THENSX=SX-XI*QX:SY= 
SY-YI*QY:IF PPOINT(SX, SY) <>3 AND 

(ABS(HX-SX)>11 OR ABS(HY-SY)>11 
) THEN2 9 4 ELSE291 

292 SX=SX-XC*QX:SY=SY-YC/2*QY:IF 
PPOINT(SX,SY)<>3 AND PPOINT(SX, 

SY)<>2 AND (ABS(HX-SX)>11 OR ABS 
(HY-SY)>11) THEN294ELSE CX=CX+1: 
GOT02 91 

293 IF ST=0THENS1(HO)=1 

294 GOT0275 

295 DW=0:PS(HO)=PS:PG=RND(100) :S 
T(HO)=ST 

296 IF PG>22 AND PG<28 THEN NP=1 
:GOTO305 

297 IF DH>10 AND PG>50 AND PG<54 
THENNP=4 

298 IF DH=0 THENPLAY"T805GBD03FA 
C05CEG" : SCREEN^ , 1 : CLS : PRINT§102 , 
"YOU HOLED OUT!": FOR T=l TO 600: 
NEXTT:GOTO305 

299 IF DH>0 AND DH<3 THEN IF PG> 
9 THENNP=1 ELSENP=2:GOTO305 

300 IF DH>2 AND DH<5 THEN IF PG> 
49 THENNP=1 ELSENP=2 :GOTO305 

301 IF DH>4 AND DH<7 THEN IF PG> 
69 THENNP=1 ELSENP=2 :GOTO305 

302 IF DH>6 AND DH<9 THEN IF PG> 
29 THENNP=2 ELSENP=1 :GOTO305 

303 IF DH>8 AND DH<11 THEN IF PG 
>49 THENNP=2 ELSENP=3 : GOTO305 

304 IF DH >10 THEN IF PG>69 THEN 
NP=2 ELSENP=3:GOTO305 

305 NP(HO)=NP:SC(HO)=ST+NP+PS:PT 
=PT+NP 

306 SCREEN0,0:CLS:PRINT@7, "STATS 
FOR HOLE " ;HO; :PRINT@3 3, "PAR " ; 

PA (HO);" LENGTH OF HOLE ";LE 
(HO) ; :PRINT@64,SZ$; 

307 PRINT @ 9 7, "PENALTY STROKES*** 
*********», • PS :XP=XP+PS:PRINT@129 
, "SCORE FOR THE HOLE*********" ;S 
C(HO) ;:PRINT@160,SZ$; 

308 IF HO=4 OR HO=8 OR HO=15 OR 
HO=18 THENPRINT@225,"DRIVE LAND 
IN FAIRWAY?***** — ";:GOTO310 

309 TL=TL+TS(0) : PRINT02 25 , "DRIVE 
LAND IN FAIRWAY?***** " ; : IF Sl( 

HO) =1 THENPRINT"NO"ELSEPRINT"YES 
"; :GD=GD+1 

310 PRINT@19 3, "LENGTH OF TEE SHO 
T*********" ;TS (0) ; 



The 





THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 




Back Issue 
Availability 

BACK ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 

Have you explored the wealth of informa- 
tion in our past issues? From our very first, 
four-page issue to many with more than 300 
pages of material, it's all just for CoCo users 
— a great way to expand your library! 

A WORLD OF INFO AT A BARGAIN PRICE 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
cover price. In addition, there is a $3.50 
charge for the first issue, plus 50 cents for 
each additional issue for postage and han- 
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is a $5 charge for the first issue, plus a $1 
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sent by U.S. Mail. UPS will not deliver to a 
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MOST ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 

Issues July 1981 through June 1982 are 
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others are in regular magazine form. VISA, 
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are accepted. 

Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
order the back issues you want now while 
supplies last. 

To check availability and order, review and 
fill out the form on the next page and mail 
it with your payment to: 

THE RAINBOW 

The Falsoft Building 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

March 1989 THE RAINBOW 73 





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RAINBOW INDEX A complete index lo In 


i first three years. July 1981 tr 


rough June 1 


1984, is printed in Ihe July 1984 issue Se 


parate copies are available fo 


r S2.50 D | 


The Fourth. 


Filth and Sixth Year 


ndexe 


s including 


RAINBOW ON TAPE are printed | 


in Ihe July 1985. 1986 and 1987 issues. 


respectively 


. The Seventh Y 


Bar Index is i 


printed in the 


July 1988 issue. 






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311 PRINT@257,"# OF TIMES IN ROU 
GH/TRAP***";TR(HO) ; : BR=BR+TR(HO) 
:PRINT@2 3 9, "# OF TIMES IN WATER* 
*******», -WH; :PRINT@320,SZ$; :PRIN 
T@353, "REACHED GREEN IN REGULATI 
ON ";:IF ST+PS<=PA(HO)-2 THENPRI 
NT" YES" :GR=GR+lELSEPRINT"NO"; 

312 PRINTS 3 8 5, "NUMBER OF PUTTS** 
**********"; NP ; 

313 IF HO<10 THENYF=YF+SC(HO)ELS 
EYB=YB+SC(HO) 

314 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""THEN314ELS 
EST=0 : YS=YF+YB : CLS 

315 PRINT@9 "***SCORECARD***":PR 



INT@64 "HOLE PAR SCR 



HOLE P 



AR SCR"; :FH=9 6:BH=113:FP=102:FS= 
106:BP=119:BS=123 

316 FOR X=l TO 9:PRINT@FH,X:FH=F 
H+32 : PRINT@FP, PA (X) : FP=FP+32 : PRI 
NT@FS , SC (X) : FS=FS+32 : NEXTX : PRINT 
@3 84, "TOTAL 3 6 ";YF; 

317 FOR X=lj3 TO 18 : PRINT@BH,X:BH 
=BH+3 2 : PRINTQBP , PA (X) : BP=BP+32 : P 
RINT@BS,SC(X) :BS=BS+3 2:NEXTX:PRI 
NT@ 401, "TOTAL 3 6 ";YB; 

318 TP=TP+PA(HO) :SR=YS-TP:IF SR< 
THENPOKEPV,ABS(SR)+4 8 ELSEIF S 
R=0 THENPRINTgRP," E" ;ELSEPRINT§ 
RP,SR; 

319 IF HO=9 THENRP=9 3:PV=1118 

320 RP=RP+3 2:PV=PV+32 

321 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""THEN321ELS 
EIF HO=18 THEN3 22 ELSEHO=HO+l: PS 
=0 : NP=0 : WH=0 : GOT02 3 

322 CLS:PD=PEEK(&HC000) : IF PD<>6 
8THEN326ELSEINPUT"DO YOU WANT T 
O SAVE YOUR STATS TO DISKETTE Y/ 
N";F1$:IF F1$="N"THEN325ELSEPRIN 
T:INPUT"MAKE SURE YOUR DRIVE IS 
ON AND A DISK IS IN IT PRESS 

RETURN WHEN READY" ;F2$ 

323 INPUT"IS THIS YOUR FIRST SAV 
E OF THIS FILE Y/N";F3$:IF F3$=" 
N"THEN3 24ELSEZS=85:ZD=6:ZL=245:Z 
G=6 : ZP=3 6 : ZG=10 : ZW=8 : ZX=10 : OPEN" 
0",#1, "FINLSTAT/DAT" : WRITER 1,ZS, 
ZD,ZL,ZG,ZP,ZR,ZW,ZX:CLOSE#l:GOT 
0325 

324 OPEN"I",#l,"FINLSTAT/DAT":IN 
PUT#1,ZS,ZD,ZL,ZG,ZP,ZR,ZW,ZX:CL 
OSE#l 

325 CLS 

32 6 PRINT@10, "FINAL STATS" -.PRINT 
@65 , "SCORE********************** 
";YS; :PRINT@97,"# OF DRIVES IN F 
AIRWAY*****", *GD; :PRINT@129, "AVER 
AGE LENGTH OF DRIVE****" ; INT (TL/ 
14) ; :PRINT@161, "GREENS REACHED R 
EGULATION**";GR;:PRINT@19 3,"# OF 

PUTTS *****************" ; PT ; 
3 27 PRINT@2 2 5 ,"# OF TIMES IN ROU 



74 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



GH / TRAPS" ; BR;: PRINT§ 257," # OF 
TIMES IN WATER********" ;TW;:PRIN 
T@289 , "PENALTY STROKES********** 
**";XP 

328 FOR T=l TO 600 :NEXTT: IFMT=3T 
HEN3 40 

329 IF Fl$="N"OR PD<>68 THEN340E 
LSEPRINT0352, "**FLASHING ASTERIS 
KS=NEW RECORD" 

330 IF YS<ZS THENPRINT@93,"**"; : 
IFMT=2 THENZS=YS 

331 IF GD>ZD THENPRINT@12 5, "**••; 
:IFMT=2 THENZD=GD 

332 IF INT(TL/14)>ZL THENPRINT@1 
57,"** ";:IFMT=2 THENZL=INT (TL/1 

4) 

333 IF GR>ZG THENPRINT@189 , "**" ; 
:IFMT=2 THENZG=GR 

334 IF PT<ZP THENPRINT§221,"**"; 
:IFMT=2 THENZP=PT 

335 IF BR<ZR THENPRINT@253 , "**" ; 
:IFMT=2 THENZR=BR 

336 IF TW<ZW THENPRINT@285,"**"; 
:IFMT=2 THENZW=TW 

337 IF XP<ZX THENPRINT@317,"** M ; 
:IFMT=2 THENZX=XP 

338 FOR T=l TO 200:NEXTT 



3 39 PRINT@3 52," "? 

340 IF F1$="Y"THENMT=MT+1:IF MT< 
4THEN3 2 6ELSEOPEN"0", #1, "FINLSTAT 
/DAT" : WRITE* 1, ZS , ZD, ZL, ZG, ZP, ZR, 
ZW,ZX:CL0SE#1 

341 PRINT: PRINT: INPUT "PLAY AGAIN 
Y/N" ;F4$:IF F4$="Y"THENRUN0ELSE 

END 

342 XB=1216:YY=1247:X=480:CLS:A$ 
=STRING$(32,32) :T1$=" SC 
RATCH GOLFER" :N$=" LARRY 

DUGGINS" 

343 PRINT@X,T1$:X=X-32:IFX>193TH 
ENFORT=l TO 30 :NEXT: PLAY"T100 ;A" 
:GOT0343 

344 X=480 

345 PRINT@X,A$:X=X-32:IFX>129THE 
NFORT=l TO 30 .-NEXT: PLAY"T160 ;02A 
":GOT03 4 5 

34 6 FORT==l TO 100: NEXT 

347 FOR L=l TO 16 : PLAY"T190O5AED 
" : POKEXB-1 , 9 6 : POKEYY+1 , 9 6 : FORT=l 

TO 30:NEXT:POKEXB, 66 : POKEYY, 89 : 
XB=XB+1 : YY=YY-1 : NEXT 

348 PLAY"T200" : FORFT=1TO20 : PLAY" 
T+CE" : NEXTFT : PRINT@256 , N$ 

349 FORT=l TO 800 : NEXT : RETURN ^ 



MUTANT MINERS 



C* 



«N? 



V 



*>-' 



Bailie mutant uranium miners in a run tor your life, action-packed, 

arcade style game. 10 levels with 10 screens per level! 
100% Machine Language (CoCo 1 , 2 or 3 and Joystick) $19.95 

BURIED BUXX 

Fry your helicopter into enemy territory, dig 

up the loot and return to base. 

Watch out for the ever-present patrol aircraft and 

ground based missiles. 

100% Machine Language (CoCo 1, 2 or 3 and Joystick) $19.95 

See Review 'Rainbow' 2/89 

REVENGE of the 
MUTANT MINERS 

CoCo 3 owners rejoice! Muntant Miners is back with game 

configuration mode and much more! 

Joystick required. $19.95 



Many more programs available Including: 

Milestones, Fontgen, Dlskease, Picture Puzzles, 

Quantum Leap and more. 



JR & JR SOFTSTUFF 

P.O. BOX 1 18 • Lompoc, CA • 93438 • (805) 735-3889 
Orders Accepted 24 Hours a Day. 
All Programs on Diskette Only. 

All orders add $3.00 shipping. C.O.D. orders $4.00 additional 

You can usually get us in person from 5-9 PM PST. 

If you get the machine, leave a message 

and we will call back at your convenience. 

CALL OR WRITE FOR A COMPLETE LIST OF AVAILABLE PROGRAMS. 



"I cannot imagine the CoCo 3 without ADOS-3; 
it would not be a complete machine." 

The RAINBOW, July 1987 

Vou've moved up to a CoCo 3. A powerful new machine. Now, It's lime lo 
give BASIC a shot In the arm, with ADOS-3. Wouldn't it be nice to turn on your 
machine and be greeted by an 80-column display, in the colors ot your 
choice, with your own custom startup message? to run routinely at 2 MHz 
(double speed) without having to slow down lot disk and printer operations? 
This and much, much more is possible with ADOS-3. our CoCo 3 adaptation 
ol the acclaimed original ADOS, which shares the original's virtual 100% 
compatibility with commercial soltware. After customizing ADOS-3 using the 
provided configuring utility, you can have it burned into an EFROM that plugs 
into the Disk BASIC ROM sockel, cr just use it in RAM as a disk utility. IEPROM 
+ burning will cost S 15-20: we provide Information concerning how you can 
have this done.) Supports double-sided drives (35. 40. or 80 tracks). FAST and 
SLOW commands, auto line number prompts, RUNM command, keystroke 
macros, arrow-key scroll Ihrough BASIC programs, auto-edit of error line, and 
many more valuable fealures. 

"ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 10, I RATE ADOS-3 A SOLID 15." RAINBOW, 7/87 
Disk SM95 Original ADOS for CoCo 1 or 2 527 95 (See 6/87 RAINBOW review) 

Original ADOS plus ADOS-3 S50.00 

THE PEEPER 

ML program tracer that multitask with the target program. An excellent 
learning tool for the ML novice: an Invaluable debugging aid tor the expert. 
CoCo 1 . 2. or 3 compatible 
Disk S23.95 Assembler source listing Ada S3.00 



MONITOR CABLES for CoCo 3 

Magnovox 8CM5 1 5/8CM505/BCM643 



Sony KV 131 1CR 



S29 95 



. 



SPECTROSYSJEMS- 



• 1 1 1 1 1 N. Kendall Drive, 
Suite A 108 
Miami, Florida 33176 

. (305) 274-3899Day or Eve 

No delay on personal checks • Please add $2.00 shipping • Sorry no credit cards or COD'S . 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



75 



Hacking Is Required 

/ am about to release Extended 
ADOS, which will offer numerous 
added features including a Disk BASIC- 
compalible RAM disk. However, it 
requires that users burn it into a 27128 
(16K) EPROM. I know the shortie 
controller for the FD 502 drive from 
Tandy has a 28-pin socket in it, but can 
one drop a 27128 EPROM into that 
socket and have it work? Or is some 
hardware hacking needed? 

Art Flexser 

(ARTFLEXSER) 

Spectro Systems 

Miami, Florida 

Tandy insisted on wiring that socket 
so it only accepts 2764 chips. This is a 
shame because it could have been wired 
to accept both 2764 and 27128 chips 
without jumper changes. To fix the FD 
502 controller to accept 27128 
EPROMs, you must open the controller 
(voiding the warranty) and remove the 
printed circuit board. Remove the 
ground plane from the bottom of the 
board. Now look carefully at the 28-pin 
ROM socket. You'll note that pins 28, 
27 and 26 are tied to each other with a 
trace on the solder side of the socket. 
You need to cut the trace joining Pin 26 
to pins 27 and 28. Then jumper Pin 28 
to the A13 contact on the 40-pin edge 
connector, which plugs into the CoCo 
or Multi-Pak Interface. If you look at 
the disk controller's top (component 
side) with the edge connector pointing 
up, Pin 37 is the second pin from the 
left. 

Definite Differences 

Can I use an FD 502 drive with a 
Commodore 64? 

Brett Stafford 
Franklinton, Louisiana 

No. The Commodore uses a unique 
arrangement for talking to its disk 
drives and requires special logic boards 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D.. a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cosell of the Co Co world. On 
Delphi, Marty is the SIGop of rain- 
bow's Co Co SIG and database man- 
ager of OS-9 Online. 




By Marty Goodman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



for the drives. The CoCo uses industry- 
standard disk drives, like those used in 
PC compatibles and many older CP/ M 
machines. You can't even read a disk 
written by a Commodore 64 using a 
normal (CoCo or IBM) disk drive. It is 
physically impossible. 

Transfer Trouble 

How can I transfer a binary file from 
a CoCo to an IBM PC, so I can burn 
it into an EPROM? I have access to an 
IBM PC with an EPROM burner and 
want to use it to burn a file I created and 
saved to disk on my CoCo. 

Steve Imlay 

(SIMLA Y) 

St. Joseph, Missouri 

While possible, what you want to do 
is fraught with problems due to idiosyn- 
crasies of the file structures of the CoCo 
and the IBM PC. Generally when you 
are saving binary data to disk on a 
CoCo (especially via BASIC), you are 
actually creating a binary program file. 
This file contains not only the data you 
are saving, but also an extra 10 bytes 
(five at the start and five at the end) of 
system information telling the CoCo 
where to put the file and where to 
execute it. You can bring such a file over 
to the IBM using a null modem cable, 
CoCo Util. or even MS-DOS-to-CoCo 



transfer programs. But you need to snip 
off the first and last five bytes of the file 
once it arrives on the IBM and before 
you burn it into an EPROM. I suggest 
you snip off the first five bytes first, 
retain as many bytes as you know the 
file should have, then discard every- 
thing following that. Some file transfer 
situations, like Xmodem and my 
transfer program, append garbage to 
the end of files they bring over. 

Your question reminds me of an 
amusing situation where a well-known 
CoCo author tried to get a company he 
was working for to burn a CoCo ROM. 
He sent it an ML program file with 
multiple segments for the data. Such 
files (generated by the output of as- 
semblers on the CoCo) are more diffi- 
cult for other systems than a mere ML 
save from BASIC because they have not 
two, but many sets of five system bytes 
located at the ends of the file and 
scattered throughout it. Needless to say, 
the people at the company could not use 
the file as presented. But it took the 
CoCo author some time to realize his 
mistake. 

No Software Solution 

How can I put the game Rad Warrior 
onto my disk drive? I don't want to 
damage my system by plugging and 
unplugging the cartridge and my disk 
controller. 

JD Cleveland 

(JDCLEVELAND) 

Lundberg, Nova Scotia 

and Gabriel Paradis 

Matapedia, Quebec 

The new 32K ROM packs are very 
difficult to put onto disk, and none of 
the old ROM pack-to-disk utilities are 
capable of dealing with them. Even 
packs that were not specifically con- 
structed to be difficult to transfer to disk 
(like Rad Warrior and Silpheed) are 
tricky because of the 32K-ROM and 
128K-RAM environment of the CoCo 
3. ROM packs like Pitfall II, whose 
author went to great lengths to prevent 
transfers to disk, are so hard to put on 
disk that I doubt anyone can do so using 
software alone. Frankly, I have not had 
time to figure out how to transfer these 
new-generation ROM packs to disk in 
a simple fashion. 

However, with hardware (a static 
RAM-based emulator of ROM packs), 
it should be easy to put any ROM pack, 
32K or less, onto disk, load the data 



76 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



from the ROM pack into the emulator, 
and execute from there. While the 
ability to transfer ROM packs to disk 
opens the software up to piracy, forcing 
disk users to plug and unplug their 
controllers or jam cartridges in and out 
of their Multi-Pak Interfaces forces 
them to risk frying their CoCos. For this 
reason, a static RAM pack might be- 
come a legitimate commercial product 
someday. 



New Sources for an Old Favorite 

Now that the Deluxe RS-232 pack is 

unavailable, where can one gel the 

hardware- U ART capabilities it offered, 

which are needed by serious Co Co 

John Burke 

(JBURKIi) 

Fremont, California 



users: 



There are two current sources of 
clones of the old (and now long discon- 
tinued) deluxe RS-232 pack. Disto/ 
CRC makes one, and Orion makes two 
others. Disto's pack requires both 
positive and negative 12 volts, so a 
Multi-Pak Interface or a CoCo 1 is 
required. (Those voltages are not pres- 
ent on the CoCo 2 or 3 system bus.) 
Orion makes two versions of its RS-232 
pack clone (called Telepak). One is 
similar to Disto's pack, but the other 
does not require a Multi-Pak to work 
on the CoCo 2 or 3. Like the old Tandy 
RS-232 pack, Orion's generates the 
extra voltages using DC-to-DC 
converter circuitry on board. See ads in 
RAINBOW. 

Note that CRC, Owl-Ware, and 
Frank Hogg Laboratories all offer (or 
at one time offered) other RS-232 ports 
too, but these either use different 
UART chips or are addressed quite 
differently from the Tandy RS-232 
pack. While these will work under OS- 
9, they necessitate rewriting all Disk 
BASIC software you want to use with 
them. 

A Compatible Monitor 

/ have a Tandy 1000 and a CoCo 3. 
The ads in RAINBOW make the Mag- 
navox 8CM5I5 look pretty good. They 
claim it will work with both computers 
(unlike the CM-8). Is this true? 

Rick B. Morgan 

(CON I BEAR) 

Windsor, Connecticut 

Yes. The Magnavox 8CM5 1 5 is a fine 
monitor, probably the best value today 



for those wanting to use the same 
monitor for the CoCo's RGB and the 
PC compatible's CGA system. I recom- 
mend it highly. I also recommend all 
RAINBOW advertisers who offer it. 

A Good Program for a Different CoCo 

I have a CoCo 2, a FD 50 J drive and 
a DC Modem Pak from Tandy. I want 
to use GlMMESOFTs V-Term. What 
other equipment do I need? I want to 
use V-Term because it offers VT-IOO 
emulation, which I need to talk to my 
main frame. 

John V. Allen 

(A LLENJOHNV) 

Duncanville, Texas 

V-Term is an excellent choice in 
terminal programs. However, it re- 
quires a CoCo 3. It cannot run on the 
CoCo I or 2. To do VT-IOO emulation, 
you need an 80-column screen, unavail- 
able on the CoCo 1 and 2. Either a 
Multi-Pak Interface or a Y cable are 
needed to use the DC Modem Pak with 
a CoCo 3 and a disk drive. I recommend 
a Multi-Pak. To use the Y cable you 
must remove the ROM from the DC 
Modem Pak, which can cause problems. 
I recommend you abandon the modem 
pack and use an RS-232 pack with a 
separate modem. The Tandy DC 
Modem Pak limits you to 300 baud and 
does not provide for future upgrades. 
With used 1200-baud modems available 
for $25 at computer swap meets and 
selling for about $90 brand new, the 
ability to use them or faster modems 
would seem to be quite important. See 
ads for CRC and Orion in rainbow. 
Also, note that Cer-Comp makes a 
terminal program for the CoCo 3 that 
emulates VT-100 terminals. 



Your technical questions are wel- 
comed. Please address them to CoCo 
Consultations, THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit 
for brevity and clarity. Due to the large 
volume of mail we receive, we are unable 
to answer letters individually. 

Questions can also be sent to Marty 
through the Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG. prompt, pick Rainbow 
Magazine Services, then, at the RAIN- 
BOW> prompt, type ASK (for Ask the 
Experts) to arrive at the EXPERTS> 
prompt, where you can select the "CoCo 
Consultations" online form which has 
complete instructions. 



et^i 



T5o° 



-248 



-3&23 



TANDY COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000-HX 256K 5 1/4"D. 
Tandy 1000-SL 384K 5 1/4"D. 
Tandy 1000-TL 640K 3 1/2"D. 
Tandy 3000-NL 512K 3 1/2"D. 
Tandy 4000-LX 2 Meg 3 1/2"D. 
Tandy 4000 1 Meg 3 1/2" D. 
Tandy 5000MC 2 Meg 1 Drive 
Tandy 5000MC 2 Meg 40 Meg 
Tandy 5000MC 2 Meg 84 Meg 
Tandy 1400LT 768K 2 Drives 
Tandy 102 24K 
Tandy Color 3 1 28K 

MONITORS & BOARDS 



535.00 

675.00 

955.00 

1275.00 

2999.00 

1890.00 

3825.00 

4955.00 

5395.00 

1335.00 

430.00 

155.00 



VM-5 Monochrome Green 1 15.00 

CM-5 Color RGB 220.00 

CM-11 Color RGB 315.00 

EGM-1 Color RGB (EGA) 510.00 

VGM- 1 00 Monochrome Analog 1 69.00 

VGM-200 Color Analog 425.00 

VGM-300 Color Analog 535.00 

Tandy EGA Card 205.00 

Paradise Basic EGA Card 195.00 

OK Multifunction Board T-1000 99.00 

DRIVES 

Color Computer Drive 175.00 

5 1/4" External Drive 1000EX 180.00 

Tandy 20 Meg Hardcard 450.00 

30 Meg Hardcard 395.00 

20 Meg Hard Drive 1400LT 775.00 

5 1/4" External for Tandy 1400 215.00 

Seagate 20 Meg_ Hard Drive 219.00 

Tandy 1000/SX/TX Controller 69.00 

MODEMS 

Prac. Peripherals 1200B Internal 75.00 

Prac. Peripherals 1200B External 89.99 

Prac. Peripherals 2400B Internal 175.00 

Prac. Peripherals 2400B External 205.00 

Packard Bell 2400B Internal 140.00 

PRINTERS 

DMP-106 Dot-Matrix 165.00 

DMP-1 32 Dot-Matrix 285.00 

DWP-230 Daisy Wheel 345.00 

Panasonic KX-P1080I Dot-Matrix 179.00 

Panasonic KX-P1091I Dot-Matrix 199.00 

Panasonic KX-P1092I Dot-Matrix 349.00 

Panasonic KX-P1 124 Dot-Matrix 369.00 

Panasonic KX-P1524 Dot-Matrix 595.00 



Please write for complete price list. 
We carry more items than listed here. 



AH P'KM and offals may De cnangod hi valndiattn without nolieo Advei- 
lised pices ato cash p-tces COD occupied add 2«e (minimum charge 
SI0 00) M C . Visa aad 2 B o All nan detective iloma ioqu.ro roluin 
merchanotati authorualKW Caa lor IVM Numtnw Dntoro letuining 
Oo*ivory is suDrecl lo product availability Add I Vi^t lor shipping and 
handling. 45 00 minimum chargo 

TM - Registered Trademark of Tandy. Epson, and IBM 
Monday thru Friday 9am - 5pm EST. 



PEHRSI 



UDCUG 
DDaDD 

era EsaaEPDDUQrag 

124 South Main Street, Perry, Ml 48872 

CALL 1-517-625-4161 or TOLL-FREE 

1-800-248-3823 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 77 





the rainbow is a teaching environment and we realize that the 
majority of our readers will always be beginners. In our 
continuing effort to always keep the new user in mind, and in 
addition to the many beginner feature articles and programs 
published in every issue, "Novices Niche" contains shorter 
BASIC program listings that entertain as well as help the new 
user gain expertise in all aspects of the Color Computer: 
graphics, music, games, utilities, education, programming, etc. 




Big Brother's Watching 

By Kenneth R. Hill 



32K 
ECB 



In response to your November appeal for more submis- 
sions to Novices Niche, here is a program I wrote in 1981 
for the original 32K CoCo 1. It's called Blink, and it draws 
a big blue eye. Watch it closely while it's watching you — 
yes, it blinks! If you want your eye to blink a little faster, 
change the 400 in Line 270 to 100. For sound, add this line: 
255 SOUND 250,1. 

The Listing: BLINK 

' COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT,INC 

1 'BLINK, by K.R.Hill 

5 'Draws a blinking blue eye. Ty 

pe CMP if a CM-8 monitor is in u 

se. 

10 PCLEAR 8 

20 PMODE 3 , 5 

30 PCLS 

40 PMODE 3 , 1 

50 PCLS 

60 SCREEN 1,1 

70 CIRCLE(128, 191) ,156,8,1, .60, . 

91 

80 CIRCLE(128, 191) ,158,8,1, .60, . 

91 

90 CIRCLE(128,0) ,160,8,1, .10, .40 

100 CIRCLE(128,0),162,8,1,.10,.4 



110 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,74,7, .8 




120 CIRCLE(128,96) ,30,7, . 

130 PAINT (128, 150) ,7,7 

140 FOR N=l TO 4 

150 READ A,B 

160 PCOPY A TO B 

170 NEXT N 

180 DATA 1,5,2,6,3,7,4,8 

190 RESTORE 

200 PAINT (128, 36) ,6,8 

210 PMODE 3,5 

220 SCREEN 1,1 

2 30 FOR T=l TO 2000: NEXT ' 

240 PMODE 3,1 

250 SCREEN 1,1 

2 60 PAINT (128, 3 6) ,6,8 

270 FOR T=l TO 400 : NEXT T 

2 80 GOTO 210 

2 90 END 



8 



78 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



CoCo of Many Colors 

By Andy Wolstromer 



CoCo3 



CoColeidoscope uses random numbers, trigonometry and 
the PRLETTE command to produce a colorful imitation of a 
kaleidoscope on your CoCo 3. Just type it in and run it. If 
you like to experiment, try changing the hline statement in 
Line 5 10 to draw HClRCLEs, or you could even HDRflW a shape 
of your own. Also, try changing the way ox and ov are 
calculated. Just make sure that any changes you make stay 
in the range of the screen. 

The Listing: CDCOLEID 

' COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT,INC 
1,0 'CoColeid by Andy Wolstromer 
20 POKE65497,0:ONBRKGOTO999 
30 HSCREEN2 
40 PALETTE0,0 



50 P4=ATN(1) 

10,0 R=RND(8^) :AN=RND(J3)*P4:C=RND 

(15) :SZ=RND(5) 

11)3 OX=INT(COS(AN)*R) :OY=INT(SIN 

(AN) *R) 

12,0 X=16,0-OX:Y=9 6-OY:GOSUB5j3j3 

13/3 X=160-OX:Y=9 6+OY:GOSUB500 

14,0 X=160+OX:Y=96-OY:GOSUB500 

150 X=160+OX:Y=96+OY:GOSUB500 

160 X=160-OY:Y=9 6-OX:GOSUB500 

170 X=16£-OY:Y=96+OX:GOSUB500 

180 X=160+OY:Y=96-OX:GOSUB500 

190 X=160+OY:Y=96+OX:GOSUB5#0 

200 GOTO100 

500 PALETTERND ( 15 ) , RND (63) 

510 HCOLORC : HLINE (X-SZ , Y-SZ) - (X+ 

SZ,Y+SZ) ,PSET,B 

520 RETURN 

999 RGB:POKE65496,0:END 



16K 
ECB 



Turning Text Graphics 
Into Title Screens 

By Greg Bauer 

ASCII Calc is a program to calculate the ASCII values of 
text graphics characters. These values may then be used in 
your programs in data lines to produce title screens, etc. In 
fact, this principle was used in the title screen of this program, 
beginning in Line 220. To save memory, the program 
subtracts 128 from the actual ASCII value and adds it back 
in the READ command, as shown in Line 240. 

1 use a PRINT S sheet to plan my screens and then use this 
program for the data lines. Now you can easily dress up your 
programs for a pleasing effect. 

The Listing: flSCICALC 

' COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT,INC 
10 'PROGRAM TO CALCULATE ASCII 

GRAPHICS FOR DATA LINES 
20 'GREG BAUER 
30 '6411 SO. ALDER 
40 'TACOMA,WA. 98409 
50 GOSUB200 
60 CLS 

70 PRINT@4 2,"COLOR NUMBERS ";: PRI 
NT@101,"0=GREEN l=YELLOW" 
;: PRINTS 165, "2=BLUE 3=RE 

D"; : PRINTS 2 29," 4=BUFF 5= 

CYAN" ; :PRINTS293, "6=MAGENTA 

7=ORANGE"; 
80 PRINT: PRINT :LINEINPUT" 

ENTER (0-7)";C$:C=VAL(C$) : IFC 
<0 OR C>7 THEN80 
90 CLS 

100 PRINTS 41, "PATTERN NUMBERS"? 
110 PRINT @10j3,CHR$ (192) "=0»; : PRI 
NTS107 , CHR$ ( 193 ) "=1" ; : PRINTS114 , 
CHR$(194) "=2"; :PRINT@121,CHR$(19 
5)"=3"; 
120 PRINT@164,CHR$(19 6)"=4";:PRI 



NT@171,CHR$(197) "=5" ; : PRINTS178 , 

CHR$ ( 198 ) "=6" ; : PRINTS185 , CHR$ ( 19 

9)"=7"; 

130 PRINT@2 2 8,CHR$ (20J3) "=8" ; : PRI 

NTS235,CHR$(201) »=9"; :PRINT@242, 

CHR$(202) " = 1J3"; :PRINTS2 4 9,CHR$(2 

03) "=11"; 

140 PRINT@292,CHR$(204)"=12";:PR 

INT@299,CHR$ (205) "=13" ; :PRINT@30 

6,CHR$(206) "=14"; : PRINTS 313 , CHR$ 

(207) "=15"; 

150 PRINT: PRINT :LINEINPUT" 

ENTER (0-15) ";P$:P=VAL(P$) 
160 IFP<0 OR P>15THEN150 
170 CLS:A=(16*C)+P:PRINTS2 65,"AS 
CII#-128=";A 

180 INPUT" AGAIN" ;A 

$ : IFA$="Y"THEN6pELSEIFA$="N"THEN 
190ELSE180 
190 CLS: END 

200 CLS0:FORI=1TO3 2:PRINTCHR$(12 
8 ) ; : NEXT 

210 F0RI=1T03 2:PRINTCHR$(2^4) ; :N 
EXT 

220 F0RI=1T09 6:READ A:PRINTCHR$( 
12 8+A) ;:NEXT 

230 F0RI=1T032:PRINTCHR$(195) ; :N 
EXT 

240 PRINTS 2 6 6, "PRESENTED BY";: PR 
INTS3 63,"GREG BAUER" ;: PRINTS 4 55, 
"COPYRIGHT (C) 1988"; 
250 FORX=1TO4000: NEXT: RETURN 
260 DATA0, ,46,45, ,46,44, ,46,44, , 
45, 40, 36, 46,,,, 46, 44,, 46, 45,, 42, 
, ,46,44, ,,0 

270 DATA0, ,43,39, ,44,45, ,42, , ,37 
,,,42,,,, 42, ,,43, 39,, 42, ,,42,,,, 



280 DATA0, ,42,37, ,35,39, ,43,35,, 

39,34,33,43, ,,,43,35, ,42, 37,, 43, 

35, ,43, 35,, 34,0 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



79 




Five-Column Directories 



CoCo3 



Here's a handy little utility for CoCo 3 users, a program 
that will list the disk directory to either the screen or the 
printer in five-column format. Naturally, it works in the 80- 
column mode, so it looks best if run with an RGB monitor. 
The program is very easy to use: Just type it in, run it and 
when prompted, press S or P for output to screen or printer. 

The Listing: 5-C0LDIR 

j3 • COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT,INC 

1 '5 COLUMN DIRECTORY LISTER 

FOR THE COCO 3 (C) 1988 
FROM BILL BERNICO SOFTWARE 

2 CLEAR2000:DIMX$(75) 



3 WIDTH80 : PALETTE 1 , ft : ATTR3 , 1 : CLS 
:CLS: INPUT "OUTPUT TO SCREEN OR P 
RINTER (S/P) ";Y$ 

4 IFY$="S"THEND=0ELSEIFY$="P"THE 
ND=-2ELSE3 

5 CLS:FORX=3T011:DSKI$p,17 / X,A$, 
B$ : C$=A$+LEFT$ (B$ , 127 ) : F0RQ=1T02 
55STEP32:IFMID$(C$,Q,1)=CHR$(0)T 
HEN7ELSEIFMID$(C$,Q,1)=CHR$(255) 
THEN8 

6 X$(I+X-3)=MID$(C$,Q,11) :I=I+1 

7 NEXTQ,X 

8 FORL=J3TO4:FORM=0TOI+3:IFLEN(X$ 
(M))<>j3 THENPRINT#D," ";X$(M); M 

";ELSE9 

9 NEXTM:PRINT#D:PRINT#D:PRINT#D, 
" FREE GRANULES =" ;FREE (0) : PRIN 
T:PRINT" ANOTHER DISK (Y/N) " ; 

10 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$=" Y"THEN3ELSEIF 
I$="N"THENWIDTH32:ENDELSElp 



Has Anyone Seen My String? 



9 



16K 
Disk 



ASC Search is a short and sweet way to find those 
variables, strings and comments that could be located 
anywhere throughout a BASIC program. Generally, 1 am a 
lazy individual — the more work I can get my computer to 
do for me, the better my life becomes. I got quite tired of 
trying to find where all those fiss are in my programs and 
decided to find a way for the computer to do it for me. 

ASC Search can help you in finding bugs, variables, 
comments and any information that may be in a BASIC listing. 
These "comments" could range from a single letter to a 
complete word or sentence — but all of them must be within 
a program that has been saved in ASCII format in this 
fashion: 5MZ."Jilename" ,R. 

When run, ASC Search asks if you would like a hard copy 
of the results sent to the printer. The program then prompts 
you for the filename of the ASCII-saved program you want 
to search. (If the program is on another drive, type DRIVE n 
— DRIVE 1, for example, if the file is on Drive 1 — before 
running ASC Search.) When you separate the filename and 
extension, use the period (.) and not the slash (/). If you run 
the program again, you need not enter the filename again: 
ASC Search remembers the last filename used and displays 
this when you press ENTER. 

Next you are asked for "target letters" — what you are 
searching for. This could be any string of letters you want. 
You are also offered a pause option, which will cause the 
computer to wait for a key press after every occurrence of 
the string it finds. However, don't use the pause option if 
you're searching for numbers or special characters 



(#$%&+@), as you'll be presented with an FC (Function Call) 
Error. Any other symbol is acceptable. 

The file will be searched and displayed until the end is 
reached, or until the program has found more than 1,000 
occurrences of the target string. Then it will stop and display 
a report of the results, giving you a hard copy if you selected 
the printer option. The report tells you how many occurren- 
ces of the target string there are, and also the lines in which 
they are found. It even tells you how many lines are in your 
program. 

If the program is too slow for your tastes, you can add the 
speed-up poke to Line 1 1 (POKE 65495,0 for the CoCo 2 and 
POKE 65497,0 for the CoCo 3). But remember: The pokes 
affect printer operation (baud rate is changed); so if you're 
printing a hard copy, don't use the speed-up poke — you 
could add the slow-speed poke to lines 18 and 23 (not 
forgetting to add the speed-up poke again at the end of Line 
18). 

Use ASC Search to eliminate all that time spent squinting 
over a listing with a marker, looking for those fiss. Go watch 
a ball game instead! 

The Listing: flSCSERCH 

p 'ASCSERCH.BAS 

1 i ***************************** 

2 '** ASCII FILE SEARCH ** 

3 '** VERSION 2.0 APR/88 ** 

4 '** BY: STEPHEN MILLER ** 

5 '** (C) 1989 FALSOFT,INC ** 

6 '***************************** 

11 CLEAR20,&H7F00:CLEAR5000:DIMZ 
$ ( 20 ) : CLS : PRINTTAB ( 6 ) "ASCII PROG 
RAM SEARCH" :D$=INKEY$ 

12 PRINTS 64, "PRINTER (Y/N) ? ";: 



80 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



D$=INKEY$ : IFD$=""THEN12ELSEIFD$= 
"Y"THENPRINT"YES" : D=-2ELSEPRINT" 
NO":D=0 

13 PRINT :LINEINPUT" FILENAME .EXT 
OF 'ASC PROGRAM: " ;N$ : IFN$="" 

THENF0RT=1T012 : N$=N$+CHR$ ( PEEK ( & 
H7F00+T) ) :NEXT:PRINT@161,N$:GOTO 
16 

14 A=A+1 : IFMID$ (N$ , A, 1) <>" . "THEN 
14ELSEN1$=LEFT$(N$,A-1) :N2$=RIGH 
T$(N$,3) 

15 IFLEN(N1$)<8THENN1$=N1$'-" ":G 
OT015ELSEN$=Nl$+» . "+N2$ : FORT=lTO 
12 : POKE&H7F00+T , ASC (MID$ (N$ , T, 1) 
) :NEXT 

16 PRINT@224,"";:LINEINPUT"ENTER 
TARGET LETTERS (WORDS) >";T$ 

:L=LEN(T$) :IFL<1THEN16 

17 PRINT§320,"DO YOU WANT 'PAUSE 
• (Y/N) ? ";:P$=INKEY$:IFP$=""TH 
EN17ELSEIFP$="Y"THENPRINT"YES"EL 
SEPRINT"NO" 

18 IFD$="Y"THENPRINT#D, "ASCII FI 
LESEARCH" : PRINT#D, "SEARCHING FOR 

" ; CHR$ (34) T$CHR$ (34): PRINT#D , "F 
ILENAME:- "N$ 

19 OPEN"I",#l,N$ 

20 LINEINPUT#1,A$:NT=NT+1:CLS:PR 
INTA$ 



21 FORT=lTOLEN(A$) :IFMID$(A$,T,L 
) =T$THENSOUND2 2 5,2: GOSUB2 5 : GOSUB 
26:TN=TN+1:IFLEN(Z$(W) ) >200THENW 
=W+1:IFTN>1000THENPRINT"THERE AR 
E FAR TOO MANY OCCURANCEOF "CHR$ 
(34)T$;CHR$(34) " TO CONTINUE. ":G 
OT02 3 

22 NEXT:IFEOF(1)THEN2 3ELSE20 

23 CLOSE#l:PRINT"«finished»":P 
RINT#D:PRINT#D, "YOUR PROGRAM USE 
S"NT-1"LINES":PRINT#D, "THERE WER 
E"TN"OCCURANCES":PRINT#D,"IN LIN 
ES " ; : FORT=0TOW: IFT=1THENPRINT" 

<ENTER> TO LIST MORE. . . " : EXEC4 4 
539:NEXTELSEPRINT#D,Z$(T) :NEXT 

24 PRINT"OF "CHR$(34)T$CHR$(34) : 
PRINT"IN YOUR "N$" PROGRAM" : PRIN 
T" <L>IST AGAIN OR <R>UN" ; : 
EXEC44539:N$=CHR$ (PEEK(135) ) : IFN 
$="L"THEN2 3ELSERUN 

25 F0RR=1T06:Y$=MID$(A$,R,1) : IFY 
$=" "THEN Z$(W)=Z$(W)+",": RETURN 
ELSEZ$ (W) =Z$ (W) +Y$ : NEXT : RETURN 

26 IFP$="Y"THENPOKE1024+(T-1) ,AS 
C(LEFT$(T$,1) ) :FORV=1TO50:NEXT:I 
FINKEY$=""THENPOKE1024+(T-1) , (AS 
C(LEFT$(T$, 1) )-64) : FORV=1TO50 :NE 
XT : IFINKEY$=" "THEN2 6 

27 RETURN : ENDend 



16K 
ECB 



ys0& 



The Mathematics of Chaos 

By John E.Phillips 



Fractals are branching geometric forms whose details recur 
at different scales. Examples in nature include the veins in 
a leaf, the branches of a tree and the formation of an island 
chain. Fractal geometry, a recent branch of mathematics 
fathered by Benoit Mandelbrot, is a method of explaining 
random events. 

While supercomputers are currently being used to produce 
fractal patterns, your CoCo can also generate fractals, though 
much more slowly (this program takes over an hour to 
produce the image). However, the CoCo is thousands of times 
less expensive! 

Fractal creates its pattern by sending dots toward the 
center of the screen where a circle has been placed. When 
these randomly projected dots touch the circle or each other, 
they set to form the design. When the circle changes color, 
the program is finished. I have used the speed-up poke for 
the CoCo 3 in Line 100. If you have a CoCo 1 or 2, be sure 
to delete this poke or to supply the poke appropriate to your 
machine (POKE 65495,0 for the CoCo 2). 




The Listing: FRhcthl 



■ COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT,INC 

100 POKE65497,0:PMODE3,1 

lip PCLS:SCREEN1,1 

120 CIRCLE(128,96) ,15,8 

130 A=RND(2 55) :X=A 

140 IFY<99THENY=0 

150 IFA<52THENX=X+1.3 

March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



81 



160 IFA>52ANDA<=9 6THENX=X+.9 
170 IFA>9 6ANDA<=114THENX=X+.5 
180 IFA>114ANDA<=143THENX=X 
190 IFA>143ANDA<=192THENX=X-.5 
200 IFA>192ANDA<=220THENX=X-.9 
210 IFA>2 20THENX=X-1.3 
220 Y=Y+1:PSET(X,Y) 
230 IFPPOINT(X+1,Y+1)=8THEN130 



240 IFPPOINT(X-1 / Y-1)=8THEN130 

250 IFPPOINT(X+1,Y-1)=8THEN130 

260 IFPPOINT(X-1,Y+1)=8THEN130 

270 PRESET (X,Y) 

280 IFPPOINT(X,3)=8THEN300 

290 IFY<99THEN150ELSEY=0:GOTO130 

300 PAINT(128,96) ,8:GOTO280 



Does Archimedes' Discovery 
Hold Water? 

By James Abell 



4K 



Will It Float? is a program based on the principles outlined 
in the writings of Archimedes (287 to 212 B.C.). As the story 
goes, Archimedes was working on an invention and became 
so engrossed in thought that he forgot to eat and neglected 
his personal hygiene. 

After days of such neglect, his friends decided to bathe him. 
While in the tub, Archimedes continued to think and 
suddenly jumped out of the tub and ran home, naked, 
screaming, "Eureka!" (i.e., "I've found it!") What he "found" 
was that a body displaces its own weight in water. 

Using the CoCo and Archimedes' discovery, you can 
determine if objects around the house can hold their own in 
water. Type in the listing and save it to tape or disk. When 
you run the program, think of an object. You will be asked 
to provide the closest approximation of your object's shape 
(cylinder, sphere, etc.). Then CoCo will ask for the object's 
dimensions and its weight in pounds. Finally, CoCo will 
inform you whether or not the object will float, along with 
the percentage of buoyancy. 

The Listing: uilfloht 



2 
3 

4 
5 



■ COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT,INC 

1 REM' WILL IT FLOAT? 
REM' BY 

REM' JAMES ABELL 
PI=3. 1415927 
CLS: PRINT" WILL IT FL 

OAT": PRINT: PRINT" FIRST, FIND T 
HE VOLUMN. ": PRINT" PICK THE SHAP 
E CLOSEST TO YOUR OBJECT. ": PRINT 
"(1) CUBE (OR RECTANGLE)": PRINT" 
(2) CYLINDER": PRINT" (3) SPHERE": 
PRINT" (4) CONE": PRINT" (5) ELLIPT 
ICAL TUBE" 

6 PRINT" (6) TRIANGULAR (HALF OF A 
CUBE) " 

7 INPUTA:ON A GOSUB 8,10,12,14,1 
6,18 

8 CLS : PRINT " CUBE " : PRINT " ENTER LE 
NGTH" : INPUTL: PRINT"ENTER WIDTH" : 
INPUTW: PRINT "ENTER HEIGHT" : INPUT 
H 



9 A=L*W:V=A*H:GOTO20 

10 CLS : PRINT"CYLINDER" : PRINT"ENT 
ER DIAMETER" : INPUTD : PRINT"ENTER 
LENGTH" : INPUTL 

11 R=D/2:A=(R A 2)*PI:V=A*L:GOTO20 

12 CLS : PRINT"SPHERE" : PRINT"ENTER 
DIAMETER" : INPUTD 

13 R=D/2:V=((4/3)*PI)*(R A 3) :GOTO 
20 

14 CLS:PRINT"CONE":PRINT"ENTER D 
IAMETER" : INPUTD : PRINT"ENTER LENG 
TH" : INPUTL 

15 R=D/2:V=((R A 2)*PI*L)/3:GOTO20 

16 CLS:PRINT"ELLIPTICAL TUBE": PR 
INT"ENTER DIAMETER LONGEST SIDE" 
:INPUTDA: PRINT "ENTER DIAMETER SH 
ORTEST SIDE" : INPUTDB : PRINT"ENTER 

LENGTH" : INPUTL 

17 RA=DA/2:RB=DB/2:A=RA*RB*PI:V= 
A*L:GOTO20 

18 CLS: PRINT "TRIANGULAR (HALF OF 
CUBE) " : PRINT"ENTER LENGTH" : INPUT 
L: PRINT"ENTER WIDTH" : INPUTW: PRIN 
T" ENTER HIGHT" : INPUTH 

19 A=L*W:V=A*H:GOTO20 

20 CLS: PRINT "ENTER OBJECT WEIGHT 
IN POUNDS": INPUT WT: WW=62 . 5 :PRI 

NT"WERE THE DIMENSIONS IN (1) FE 
ET OR (2) INCHES?" :INPUTA:IFA= IT 
HEN24 ELSE IF A=2 THEN 21 

21 PRINT"INCHES":WI=62. 5/1728 :WZ 
=WI*V:IF WT>WZ THEN 22 ELSE IF W 
T<WZ THEN 23 

22 PRINT"IT WILL SINK! " :P= (WZ/WT 
)*100:P=100-P: PRINT" IT IS"P"% T 
00 HEAVY": GOTO 2 7 

23 PRINT" IT WILL FLOAT! ": P= (WT/W 
Z) * 100 :P= 10,0 -P: PRINT" IT IS"P"% 
BOUYANT":GOTO 2 7 

24 PRINT"FEET" : WI=62 . 5 : WZ=WI*V: I 
F WT>WZ THEN 25 ELSE IF WT<WZ TH 
EN 26 

25 PRINT" IT WILL SINK! ": P= (WZ/WT 
)*100:P=100-P:PRINT"IT IS"P"% TO 
HEAVY":GOT027 

26 PRINT" IT WILL FLOAT! ": P= (WT/W 
Z)*100:P=1#0-P:PRINT"IT IS"P"% B 
OUYANT":GOT027 

27 PRINT: PRINT" PRESS ENTER TO 
RETURN . . . " : INPUTA$ : G0T05 



/R\ 



82 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



DIGISECTOR 

DS-69B 

VIDEO 

IGITIZER 

FOR THE 

COCO 3 

(AND ALL OTHER COCOS . . .) 





COCO 3 SCREEN 



Terms: Visa, Mastercard, Check or C.O.D. 



USE YOUR COCO 3 TO ITS FULL POTENTIAL! 

Use The Micro Works' DIGISECTOR™ DS-69 or 
DS-69B and your COCO 3's high resolution graphics 
to capture and display television pictures from your 
VCR or video camera. The DIGISECTOR™ systems are 
the only COCO video digitizers available that 
accurately capture and reproduce the subtle shades of 
gray in TV pictures! 

• COLOR: Add color to your screen for dramatic 

special effects. 

• HIGH RESOLUTION: 256 by 256 spatial resolution. 

• PRECISION: 64 levels of grey scale. 

• SPEED! 8 images per second on DS-69B, 

2 images per second DS-69. 

• COMPACTNESS: Self contained in a plug-in 

Rompack. 

• EASY TO USE: Software on disk will get you up and 

running fast! 

• COMPATIBLE: Use with a black and white or color 

camera, a VCR or tuner. 

• INEXPENSIVE: Our low price puts this within 

everyone's reach. 

POWERFUL C-SEE 3.3 SOFTWARE 

This menu-driven software 

will provide 5 and 16 shades 

of gray to the screen and to 

the printer with simple 

joystick control of 

brightness and contrast. 

Pictures taken by the 

DIGISECTOR™ may be 

saved on disk by C-SEE 3.3 

and then edited by our 

optional MAGIGRAPH, or by COCO MAX or 

GRAPHICOM. This versatile new software is included 

in both DIGISECTORS™ 




DS-69B and C-SEE 3.3 
DS-69 and C-SEE 3.3 



$149.95 
$ 99.95 



TRADE IN YOUR OLD DIGISECTOR™ 

If you already have one of The Micro Works' DS-69 or 
DS-69A DIGISECTORS™, you may return it to us and 
we will upgrade your unit to a DS-69B. 



UPGRADE DS-69A to DS-69B 
UPGRADE DS-69 to DS-69B 



$49.95 
$69.95 



The DS-69B comes with a one year warranty. Cameras 
and other accessories are available from The Micro 
Works. DS-88 version available for IBM PC. 

NO RISK GUARANTEE 

If you are not completely satisfied with the performance of your new 
DS-69B, you may return it, undamaged, within ten days tor a full 
refund of the purchase price. We'll even pay the return shipping. If 
you can get any of our competitors to give you the same guarantee, 
buy both and return the one you don't like. We know which one 
you'll keep. 



Purveyors of Fine Video Digitizers Since 1977. W©^^!]^? 



P.O. Box 1110 Del Mar, CA 92014 (619) 942-2400 



Wis h i ng W el l 



16K ECB 




If you have an idea for the "Wishing 
Well, " submit it to Fred e/o THE 
RAINBOW. Remember, keep your 
ideas specific, and don V forget this is 
BASIC. All programs resulting from 
your wishes are for your use, but 
remain the property of the author. 



Ask any CoCo owner what feature he 
or she would most like to see added to 
our wonder machine. Nine out of 10 
owners will say they want a numeric 
keypad. While newer Tandy computers 
have this feature included as a standard, 
there are no plans to add it to our trusty 
Color Computer. 

Still, what Tandy cannot give us in 
hardware, we can accomplish in soft- 
ware. I am going to show you how to 
use your CoCo like a pocket calculator. 
The program Q-Lator will do this with 
great precision. However, that is all it 
will do. (Don't expect to combine it with 
a spreadsheet program.) 

One Step Forward, Two Steps Back? 

Many of you already own pocket 
calculators, so why would you want to 
use your CoCo for one? Believe it or 
not, there are times when you don't have 

Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm. Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



Simulate a numeric 
keypad 

From 
Keyboard 
to Keypad 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



that calculator on hand. I can recall 
many times at the computer when I 
wanted to work out some calculation, 
but I didn't want to type ? 24.5G-11.73 
just to do a simple math function, either. 
That is where Q-Lator comes in. Let's 
say you need to check your child's math 
problems. Pop in Q-Lator, and you 
have a fully functioning calculator at 
your fingertips. Granted, it will not do 
SIN/COS/TAN and other advanced 
functions of some calculators. How- 
ever, it will add, subtract, multiply, 
divide and do square roots. 



The Listing 

The listing may appear long for a 
program that appears to do so little, but 
there are several reasons for this. First, 
I wanted to be sure that we had an 
attractive screen. By using pmqde: 0, we 
get large, vibrant black and white 
graphics that are not confusing. When 
a key is pressed for a number, the key 
will also flash on the screen. (This 
makes it an excellent training tool for 
those just learning to use a pocket 
calculator.) 

Second, I needed to write subroutines 
that worked a certain way one time and 
a different way the next time. This could 
be accomplished with a ton of IF-THEN 
statements, but it would also slow down 
the program. Even though pmode will 
work with lightening speed, we don't 
need anything slowing down the sub- 
routines. 

That is why you will find some sub- 
routines duplicated with their necessary 
variations — it allows them to be exe- 
cuted more rapidly. 

When you type in the listing, make 
sure you enter all the Dhtr statements 
correctly. Most bugs in the programs 
people write to me about come from a 
failure to get the typing done correctly. 

Using the Program 

When you run the program, you will 
see a familiar title screen. Press ENTER 
to start the program. You will see a 
calculator pictured on the entire screen. 
Although not pictured, the minus sign 
(-) is used for a negative value. If you 
want to enter the number -25, press the 



Vfso 

85 

160 
265 



236 390 80 

247 500 35 

145 630 86 

120 END 49 



The Listing: QLflTOR 



REM*************************** 



REM* CO CO Q-LATOR * 

REM* KEYBOARD CALCULATOR * 

REM* BY FRED B. SCERBO * 

REM* COPYRIGHT (C) 1988 * 

REM* 60 HARDING AVE * 

REM* NORTH ADAMS, MA 01247 * 

8 REM*************************** 

9 CLEAR2000 

10 CLS0 : PRINTSTRING$ (64,188); 



15 FORI=lTO 256 :READ A:PRINTCHR 
$(A+128) ;:NEXT 
20 PRINTSTRING$(3 2,188) ; 
25 PRINT@390," KEYBOARD CALCULAT 
OR ";:PRINT§422," BY FRED B. SC 
ERBO ";:PRINT@454," COPYRIGHT 
(C) 1988 "; 

30 DATA30,28,26,30,28,26,37,44,4 
4,44,45,32,32,100,110,96,96,101, 
108 , 108 , 106 , 110 , 109 , 108 , 106 , 110 , 
108 , 109 , 101 , 108 , 108 , 109 
35 DATA26, ,16,26, ,26,37,32, , ,37, 
, 32 , , 106 , 96 , , 101 , , 96 , 106 , 104 , 101 
,96,104,106,96,101,101,96, ,101 
40 DATA27, 19,26,27,19,26,37,32, , 
,37, ,32,16,106,96, ,101, ,96,106,9 
6, 101,, 96, 106, 96, 101, 101, 96, 96,1 
01 



84 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



3. 1 HEB511 H 




IBIEJIEII 



a men 

\H\E\E 
EH 



negative sign (or hyphen) on the key- 
board to assign the negative value. This 
is not the same as the subtraction 
(minus) key, which will be designated by 
the letter M for minus. 
The CLEAR key works just as it does 



on any calculator. However, to clear a 
single entry (clearentry), you must press 
U (for undo). Clear entry prevents 
having to re-enter a long list of numbers 
when you make an error. It clears only 
the last number entered. 

The four math function — addition, 
subtraction, multiplication and division 
— are represented by the letters P, M, 
X and D. They are as follows: 



Add: 


P for plus 


Subtract: 


M for minus 


Multiply: 


X for times 


Divide: 


D for divide 



Z gives you the square root function. 
To perform the "equals" function, press 
ENTER. You do not need to remember 
these functions since each key on the 



screen has the letter it represents in thai 
box. 

That's all there is to it. You can 
continue to perform math functions on 
any answer Q-Laior generates. If a 
number is too large, you will gel an 
Overflow Error. Sorry, 1 didn't include 
exponents on this calculator. In addi- 
tion, the keyboard can take no number 
longer than 10 digits, so keep the 
numbers short. 

Conclusion 

I think you will find Q- La lor handy. 
1 have already put it to good use with 
my students. Next month, 1 hope to 
offer a program that anyone who runs 
a small business will be thrilled to use. 

Keep those ideas coming in. □ 



45 DATA19,19,18,19,19,18,37,32, , 
,37,68,76,64, 106 , 96 , , 101 , 108 , 1/38 
,106,96,1/31, ,96,1/36,96,1/31,101,1 
08,109,1/38 

50 DATA26, ,24,26, ,26,37,32,35,32 
,37,, 32,, 106, 96,, 101,, 96, 106, 96, 
101,, 96, 106, 96, 101, 101, 96, 100, 10 
6 



55 DATA26, ,18,26, ,26,37,32,36,43 

,37,, 32, ,106,96,97,101,96,96,106 

,9 6,101, ,96,106,9 6,101,101,96, ,1 

09 

60 DATA28,28,24,28,28,24,36,44,4 

4,44,47,32,32, 100 , 108 , 108 , 108 , 10 

0,96,96,104,96,108,104,96,108,10 

8,108,100,104,96,100 




METRIC INDUSTRIES, INC. 



Model 101 

Serial to Parallel Printer Interface 

Works wilh any COCO 

Compatible with "Centronics" Parallel Input Printers 

Just turn the knob to select any one ol 6 baud rates 300-9600 

Comes complete with cables to connect to your pri nter 

and computer 

Can be powered by most printers 

Model 104 Deluxe Interface 
with "Modem Switch" 

* Same Features as 101 Plus 

Built in Serial Port for your Modem or other serial device 
Switch between Serial Output and Parallel Output 
Comes with cables to connect to your computer and printer 
Can be powered by most printers 

Model 105 Serial Switch 

Connects to your COCO to give you 2 switch selectable 

Serial Ports 

Comes with a 3 foot cable to connect to your comp uter 

Now you can connect your Printer (or printer interface) 

and your Modem (or other serial device) to your COCO 

and flip the switch to use either device 

Does not require power 

Cassette Label Printing Program 

New Version 2.1 prints 7 lines of information 

on Cassette labels 

Comes on Tape with instructions to transfer to disk 

Menu driven, very easy to use 

Save and Load Labels from Tape and Disk 

Uses the features of your printer to print standard, 

expanded, and condensed characters 

Automatically Centers Each Line of Text 

Allows editing of label before printing 

Program comes with 24 labels to gel you started 

16KECB required 



Some of the Printers 
That Can - 

Supply power for the 101 and 
1 04 are Radio Shack, Star, 
Okidata, Brother, Juki, and 
Smith Corona. 

Some of the Printers 
That Cannot - 

Supply power lor the interfaces 
are Epson, Seikosha, 
Panasonic. Silver Reed and 
NEC. If your printer cannot 
supply power to the Interface 
you can order your interface 
with the "P" option or you can 
supply your own AC adapter. 
We recommend the Radio 
Shack 273-1431 AC adapter 
with a 274-328 connector 
adapter. 

Write or call for more 
Information or for technical 
assistance. 



Price List 




Model 101 


35.95 


Model 1 01 P 


41.95 


Model 104 


44.95 


Model 104P 


51.95 


Model 105 


14.95 



Cassette Label Program 6.95 
Pin Feed Cassette Labels: 
White 3.00/100 

Colors (specify) 3.60/C 
Red-Blue-Yellow-Tan 



4 Pin Oin Serial 
COCO Cables: 

Male/Male 6 foot 4.49 

Male'Female6loot 4.49 

Female/Female 6 foot 4.49 
Other Lengths Available. 

All Items covered by a 
1 year warranty 



Ordering Info 



* Free Shipping in the 
U.S.A. (except AK and HI) 
on all orders over $50 

* On orders under $50 
please add $2.50 for 
shipping and handling 

* On orders outside the 
U.S.A. please write or call 
for shipping charges 



You Can Pay By: 

• VISA or MasterCard 

• COD. -add $2.25 

• Or send check or money 
order payable in U.S. funds 

Metric Industries Inc. 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 

(513) 677-0796 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



85 



65 DATA60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 6J3 , 60 , 60 , 6 

, , 3 6 , 40 , , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 6 

, 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 60 , 

60 

70 X$=INKEY$:IFX$<>CHR$(13)THEN7 



75 DIM S$(5) ,A$(11) ,A(9) ,B(9) ,N$ 

(ID 

80 FORI=0TO11 : READA$ ( I ) : NEXT : FOR 

I=1T05 : READS $ ( I ) : NEXT : FORI=0TO9 : 

READA(I) ,B(I) :NEXT 

85 DATA U12L12D12NR12BL6,BL6U12N 

G2D12BL10,L12U6R12U6L12BD12BL6,N 

L12U6NL12U6L12BD12BL6 ,U12D6L12NU 

6BD6BL6,NL12U6L12U6NR12BD12BL6 

90 DATA NU6L12U6NR12U6NR12D12BL6 

,U12L12D2BD10BL6,U12L12D6NR12D6N 

R12BL6 , NL12U6NL12U6L12D6BD6BL6 , B 

L6NL4U2L4D2BL8 , BU6L12BD6BL6 , BU6R 

12 , BU6R6NU6ND6R6 , E6NH6NE6F6 , BU6R 

6NR8BU4NR2BD8R2 , "BU10M+4 , +10U10R 

12" 

95 DATA 10,153,10,118,58,118,106 

,118,10,83,58,83,106,83,10,48,58 

,48,106,48 

100 PMODE0,1:PCLS1:SCREEN1,1:PMO 

DE0 , 4 : PCLS0 

105 LINE(10,8)-(244,42) ,PSET,BF 

110 FORI=0TO2 30STEP4 8 

115 FORY=0TO120STEP3 5 

120 LINE(12+I,50+Y)-(48+I,76+Y) , 

PSET,B:NEXTY,I 

125 LINE(156,155)-(242,181) ,PSET 

,BF 

130 FORI=158TO230STEP48:FORY=54T 

0126STEP35 

135 PAINT (0+1, 0+Y) ,1,1 

140 NEXTY,I 

145 PAINT(136,175) ,1,1 

150 DRAW"BM160,17 2C0NR8U6NR8U6R8 

BR4ND12F12U12BR4R4ND12R4BR4NR8D6 

NR8D6R8BR4U12R8D6L8R2F6BR6BU4NR1 

0BU4R10" 

155 DRAW"BM160,140E8NF8NH8NE8BF1 

0BR4BU6F4NE4NF4NG4BE10BR12R8NR10 

BU4NR2BD8R2BR10BD2R8D8L8R2U8" 

160 DRAW"BM168,9 6NU10ND10NL10R10 

BD4BR4R8D4L8U4D8BE12BR14R18BR2BD 

4ND8F4E4D8" 

165 DRAW"BM160,66NR10U12R10BR6D1 

2R8BG4BL2NR4D4R4BR4NU4R4" 

170 DRAW"BM208,66NR10U12R10BR6NR 

8D6NR8D6R8BG4D4R6U4" 

175 DRAW"BM138,160L20D10M-4,-10B 

F10BR6R8G8R8" 

180 DRAW ,, BM36,172C1"+A$(0) 

185 DRAW"BM36,138"+A$(1) 

190 DRAW"BM84,138"+A$(2) 

195 DRAW"BM13 2,13 8"+A$(3) 

200 DRAW"BM36,103"+A$(4) 

205 DRAW"BM84,103"+A$(5) 



210 DRAW M BM132,103"+A$(6) 

215 DRAW"BM3 6,68"+A$(7) 

2 20 DRAW M BM8 4,68"+A$(8) 

225 DRAW"BM13 2,68"+A$(9) 

230 DRAW"BM76,172R4U2L4" 

235 PCOPY4T01:PCOPY4T03 

240 PMODE0 , 1 : DRAWBM230 , 30C0"+A$ 

(0) :PMODE0,4 

245 F$=" " : S$=" " : AN$=" " : D=0 : E=0 : G 

S=0 : R=0 : FORP=1TO10 

250 GOSUB540 

255 IFX$=CHR$(12)THEN235 

260 N$(P)=CHR$(48+X) 

2 65 DRAW"BM2 30,30C0" 
270 FORQ=P TO 1STEP-1 

275 PMODE0,3:QQ=ASC(N$(Q))-48:DR 

AW ,, C0"+ A$(QQ) :NEXTQ:PCOPY3T01 

280 PCOPY4T03 

285 IFR>0THEN295 

290 NEXTP:P=P-1:IFP=10THEN GS=1: 

GOSUB540 

295 GOSUB700 

300 FORI=lTOP:IF ASC (N$ (I) ) =58TH 

EN N$(I)="." 

305 IF ASC(N$(I) )=59THEN N$(I)=" 

_ii 

3 10 F$=F$+N$ ( I ) : NEXTI 
315 IF R=5 THEN 400 

3 20 GOSUB700 

3 25 D=0:E=0:FORP=1TO10 

3 30 PCOPY4T03 : PMODE0 , 3 

335 GOSUB635 

340 IFX$=CHR$(12)THEN235 

345 IFX$="U"THEN:PCOPY4T01:PMODE 

0,1:DRAW*'BM2 30,30C0"+A$(0) : GOT03 

25 

350 N$(P)=CHR$(48+X) 

355 IFX$=CHR$(13)THEN385 

3 60 DRAW"BM2 30,30C0" 

3 65 FORQ=P TO 1STEP-1 

370 PMODE0,3:QQ=ASC(N$(Q) ) -48:DR 

AW"C0"+ A$(QQ) :NEXTQ:PCOPY3T01 

375 PCOPY4T03 

380 NEXTP 

385 PCOPY4T01:P=P-l:FORI=lTOP:IF 

ASC(N$(I) )=58THEN N$(I)="." 
390 IF ASC(N$(I) )=59THEN N$(I)=" 
-it 

395 S$=S$+N$(I) :NEXTI 

400 F=VAL(F$) :S=VAL(S$) 

405 IF R=l THEN AN=F-S : GOT0435 

410 IF R=2 THEN AN=F+S : G0T0435 

415 IF R=3 THEN AN=F*S : G0T0435 

4 20 IF R=4 AND S=0 THEN 705 

42 5 IF R=4 THEN AN=F/S 
430 IF R=5 THEN AN=SQR(F) 

43 5 PCOPY4T03 

440 AN$=STR$(AN) : IF AN=>0 THEN P 
=LEN(AN$)-1:AN$=RIGHT$(AN$,P) :EL 
SE P=LEN(AN$) 
445 IF P>10THEN705 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



450 DRAW"BM2 30,30" 

455 FORQ=P TO 1STEP-1 

4 60 PMODE0,3:QQ=ASC(MID$(AN$,Q,1 

))-48:IF QQ=-2THENQQ=10 

465 IF QQ=-3THENQQ=11 

470 IFQQ=21THEN705 

475 IFQQ=-5THEN705 

480 DRAW"C0 n +A$(QQ) :NEXTQ: PCOPY3 

TOl 

485 FORI=1TO10:N$(I)="":NEXT 

490 F$=AN$:S$= M " :F=0:S=0 

495 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=""THEN495 

500 IFX$=CHR$(12)THEN235 

505 IFX$="U"THEN235 

510 IFX$="M"THEN R=1:GOTO320 

515 IFX$="P"THEN R=2:GOTO3 20 

520 IFX$="X"THEN R=3:GOTO320 

525 IFX$="D"THEN R=4:GOTO320 

530 IFX$="Z"THEN R=5 : GOTO400 

535 GOT0495 

540 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=""THEN540 

545 IFP=1THEN585 

550 IFX$="M"THEN R=l : P=P-1 :RETUR 

N 

555 IFX$="P"THEN R=2 : P=P-1:RETUR 

N 

560 IFX$="X"THEN R=3 : P=P-1 :RETUR 

N 

565 IFX$="D"THEN R=4 : P=P-1 :RETUR 

N 

570 IFX$="Z"THEN R=5 : P=P-1:RETUR 

N 

575 IFE=1THEN585 

580 IFX$="-"AND P=l THEN X=11:E= 

1 : RETURN 

58 5 IFX$=CHR$(12)THENRETURN 

590 IF GS=1THEN540 

595 IFD=1 AND X$=" . "THEN540 

600 IFX$="."THEN X= 10 : D=l: RETURN 

605 XX=ASC(X$) :XX=XX-4 8 

610 IFXX<0THEN540 

615 IFXX>9THEN540 

620 X=XX 

625 PMODE0,l:LINE(A(X) ,B(X))-(A( 

X) +40, B (X) +30) , PSET, B: PLAY"P36" : 

LINE- (A (X) ,B(X) ) , PRESET, B:PMODE0 

,3 



New Max-10 Fonts 

Futura 24 point 2 Disks -.$29.95 
Century 24 Digital EM 
ionqhand 24 Memphis 24 

flthens IB ttjiarae* 18 SsHlsfflj fi@ 
Ft. Worth 18 point 14 point 12 point 
And 1 9 More! See "The Works" ad on page 19. 



Note. Actual lont size is 40% larger than shown here, {colorwaiic 



630 RETURN 

635 X$=INKEY$:IFX$= ,n, THEN635 

640 IFX$=CHR$(12)THENRETURN 

645 IFX$= M U n THENRETURN 

650 IFE=1THEN660 

655 IFX$="-"AND P=l THEN X=11:E= 

1 : RETURN 

660 IFD=1 AND X$=" . "THEN540 

665 IFX$="."THEN X= 10 : D=l : RETURN 

670 X=ASC(X$) :X=X-48 

67 5 IFX$=CHR$(13)THENRETURN 

680 IFX<0THEN635 

685 IFX>9THEN635 

690 PMODE0,1:LINE(A(X) ,B(X) )-(A( 

X) +40, B(X) +30) , PSET, B: PLAY"P32" : 

LINE- (A (X) ,B(X) ) , PRESET, B:PMODE0 

,3 

695 RETURN 

700 PMODE0,1:DRAW"BM2 4,30C0"+S$( 

R) : RETURN 

705 PMODE0,1:DRAW"BM5 6,30C0U12R1 

2D12NL12BR6BU12M+6 , +12M+6 , -12BR6 

NR12D6NR12D6R12BR6U12R12D6L12R6F 

6BR6U6NR12U6R12BR6D12R12BR6U12R1 

2D12NL12BR6NU12R6NU6R6U12" 

710 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=""THEN710 

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March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



87 



1 F ea tu 



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32K Disk 



&..>! 



(?Ms±\l 



The second in a series of tutorials on 
designing a database 



Designing Your Own 
Money Management System 



By Richard Perlman 



When writing your own data- 
base, you don't have to be an 
experienced programmer. 
You don't have to know about data- 
bases, and you don't have to know 
much about disks. All you must do is 
read this series of articles and follow the 
programs as they are explained. If you 
have read the first article on subrou- 
tines, loops and arrays, (January '89, 
Page 36), you are ready to move ahead 
to this database which will help you 
manage your money. This month, let's 
discuss a new topic: system design. 

How to Design a System 

System Design is not that difficult to 
figure out. You begin by deciding what 
you want your system to do. I want this 
system to help me manage my money — 
to keep track of bills and expenses, to 
make sure I don't run out of cash, and 
to budget and save for the future. The 
system must be able to record money 
coming in, money going out and money 
that must be paid. It will have to place 



Richard Perlman spends his time at 
work helping others with their PCs. At 
home, he shares his Co Co 2 with his 
wife and two children. 



this information into records and store 
these records on the disk. (These re- 
cords will be referred to as deposits, 
checks and bills.) I must be able to 
change entries if I make a minor mistake 
and delete them if I make a major 
mistake. I will also want to examine the 
records and run reports about the 
information stored in them. This is what 
my system will do, so the first step in 
the design process has been completed. 

But how will it work? I must describe 
the items of information needed and 
write this down in a way that will be easy 
to understand both now and in the 
future. This is called creating a "Data 
Dictionary," and this dictionary will be 
the blueprint for everything else that 
follows. My Data Dictionary is shown 
in Figure 1. 

Since the items needed for a check, 
bill or deposit are just about the same, 
I can put the same items in each record. 
Each record will have this information 
in the order shown; therefore, I have 
formed one of the rules to follow when 
using this database. I've completed the 
second design step. 

By describing the items I will store in 
the database, this blueprint tells me 
what I need to know to construct and 
run the system. It tells me what each 
item is, the name I'll use for it in the 



programs, what type of information it 
is, where it will appear in each record, 
and its allowable range of values. Ex- 
cept for the key field and the separator, 
all the data items are fully described in 
this dictionary. Let's examine them. 

The first item in my Data Dictionary 
is the date. I need to know this for each 
type of record — check, bill or deposit. 
Next, the record type identifies whether 
this information refers to a check, bill 
or deposit. Following the record type, 
I have included an identifying number. 
For a check I will use the check number, 
and for a bill or deposit I will create and 
use a number for identification pur- 
poses. 

I also have included in each record an 
indicator that tells me a transaction has 
cleared. When you deposit someone 
else's check or write one of your own, 
you have to know whether it has cleared 
your account. If this is a bill record, the 
indicator will identify whether you have 
paid the bill. In addition, you must 
know the amount — anything from S.01 
to $999,999.99. Last, but not least, you 
must record the purpose of the transac- 
tion, and who or what else is involved 
with it. 

In the Dictionary there are two ref- 
erences to the separator. It is described 
as chrs(12?). A CHRS(127) is a special 



88 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



character that cannot be typed at the 
keyboard. Insert it at the end of items 
that will not have the same length in 
every record. Then you can tell exactly 
where each item ends. You must use a 
special character — otherwise you 
could type the separator in the middle 
of something and cause the computer to 
process the information incorrectly. It is 
no problem to create this special char- 
acter, and you can choose from many. 
The following program generates spe- 
cial characters for you: 

100 CLEAR S00:CLS 

120 FOR 1= A3 TO 132 

130 PRINT BG4,"I EQUALS == > ";I 

140 flS= CHR$(I) 

150 PRINT "THIS DISPLAYS AS ==>";A$ 

1S0 FOR J= 1 TO 250: NEXT J 

170 NEXT I 

IBB GOTO 120 

I used the CHRS instruction on Line 
140 to create characters. Some were 
special, and some were not. If you want 
to see the possible range of characters, 
change Line 120 to vary I from 1 to 255. 
Some special characters do not print at 
all, others produce strange shapes, and 
still others are letters and numbers. Of 
all the characters, I chose CHRS(12?) as 
my separator because it is dark and has 
a pointer in it, which makes it easy to 
spot if I have to look directly at my data. 
Line 160 adds a pause to the program, 
so the display doesn't change too 
quickly for the eye to follow. 

The Data Dictionary identifies that 
each database record will have A mount, 
To-or-From and Purpose entries. The 
Amount entry uses between three and 
nine characters. The To-or-From entry, 
describing money's points of origin and 
destination, can be between one and 30 
characters long. The Purpose entry 
indicates why the money changes hands 
and can be up to 50 characters long. To 
figure out when an entry ends, I have 
placed a separator character between 
each entry. 

Listing 1 shows how this is done. I use 
the data-entry Subroutine 9020 created 
last time to enter three items. One of 
them is a decimal number between 1.00 
and 999,999. 60. The other two are 
names of varying length. I use this 
listing to enter the three items separ- 
ately, verify that they are in the correct 
ranges and use separators to combine 
the items into one record. Next I display 
the entire record, including the separa- 
tors, and separate the record into its 
three original parts. 

1 used SSS to hold the separator 



Description/ Program ID 


Key 


Type 


Length 


Range 


Date/ CDS 


Yes 


Number 


4 


mmdd: 

mm=0/-/2 

dd=01-31 


Record type/TP$ 


Yes 


Alpha 


1 


c,d or b 
c=check 
d=deposit 

b=bill 


Number/ RN$ 


Yes 


Number 


4 


nnnn 
9999>nnnn>l000 


Cleared/CLs 


No 


Alpha 


1 


y or n 
y=cleared 
n=not cleared 


Amount/ AM$ 


No 


Decimal 
Number 


4-9 


nnn.nn 


Separator/ ss$ 


No 


Alpha 


1 


CHRS [127] 


To or From/DSS 


No 


Alpha 


<=30 


characters long 


Separator/ SS$ 


No 


Alpha 


1 


CHRS (127) 


Purpose/ CT$ 


No 


Alpha 


<=50 


characters long 




Figure 1: 


Data Dictionary 





character, so I wouldn't have to recreate 
it each time I needed it. 1 also used the 
Subroutine 9020 to control the input. 
Here are the variables in use at this time: 



P$: Holds the input instruc- 

tions 

SL: Holds the screen location 

VTs: Identifies the type of 

input (Numeric Non- 
Decimal, Decimal with 
two places or Alphanu- 
meric) 

HV: Holds the highest accep- 

table value 

LV: Holds the lowest accepta- 

ble value 



I built the NN$ record as I went along, 
adding to it each time I had some more 
information (see lines 124, 145 and 165). 
You might think it is unusual to add 
characters, such as Cs=A$+B$, but this 
is not the same as adding numbers. 
When you add character variables to 
one another, you are really tacking the 
beginning of the next one to the end of 
the last one. This technique also allows 
you to place the separator character SSS 
at the correct spot in the record. 

In Line 145 I used Variable NN$ on 
both sides of the equal sign. This may 
not make sense, but when the computer 
sees an equal sign, it reacts by figuring 
out the value to the right of the sign. 
Then it sets the left side of the sign to 
that value. 

You have seen the MID$ instruction 
before. Here you also show the LEFTS 



and rights instructions (see lines 124, 
190 and 240). They are all useful in 
slicing up and putting together strings 
of characters. The INSTR instruction in 
Line 180 is new. It identifies where in the 
string the separator characters are 
located, so you can then divide nns to 
reveal its three parts. 

In addition to letting you put together 
and take apart information, the sepa- 
rator character can also be used to save 
space on the disk. The standard CoCo 
disk holds about 150,000 characters. 
There is a limit to the amount of infor- 
mation that can be held on one disk, and 
the smaller the size of the record, the 
more records you can fit in the data- 
base. For long names I allowed a max- 
imum of 32 characters for both the first 
and last names. If I didn't use separators 
and reserve a fixed space of 32 charac- 
ters for both the first and last names, all 
records would be about 70 characters. 
However, in most cases, a name is less 
than seven characters long, so a lot of 
space would be wasted. By using sepa- 
rators, you can write records of consid- 
erably shorter length no matter what the 
length of a person's first or last name. 
I also saved space by not storing the 
decimal point (see Line 124). You know 
where it must be, and can recreate a 
decimal number that is entered. 

Next, look at the LEFTS and rights 
statements on lines 190 and 240. The 
number 1-5 in the LEFTS statement does 
the same thing as the expression 
len(NNS) -l in the rights statement. It 
specifies the number of characters to be 
selected from either the left or right of 
NN$. Using the expression instead of a 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



89 



number is a shorthand coding technique 
that saves both time and space. 

How to Use the Disk 

The disk is used like a file cabinet — 
you can add files and remove them. The 
actual filing of data is done by the CoCo 
disk controller. The program sends 
simple instructions, like WRITE, to the 
controller, and the controller does the 
complicated things — turning the drive 
motor and red indicator light on and 
off, finding information already on the 
disk, figuring out which parts of the disk 
are available to write on, and transfer- 
ring information between the disk and 
computer memory. Remember: The 
disk can hold approximately 150,000 
characters of information (which is 
either a lot or a little, depending upon 
how you use it). Be careful when attach- 
ing the controller to your computer. It 
must not be inserted, removed or ad- 
justed when the computer is on, or you 
might find yourself with a burned-out 
controller. 

When you use a file folder, you write 
a description on it. Like file folders, 
each disk file must have a filename. A 
filename has two parts, separated by a 
slash (/) or a period (.). You can use 
almost any name you want, as long as 
the left side of the filename is no more 
than eight characters and the right side 
no more than three characters. Before 
using a disk for the first time, you must 
prepare it for accepting data from the 
computer system by allowing the con- 
troller to write special information on 
it. This is called disk initialization. To 
initialize, place a blank disk in Drive 0, 
enter DSKINI0 and wait. It takes about 
a minute to complete. This procedure 
needs to be done only once. A used disk 
can be reformatted, however, it will 
erase any information already on the 
disk so be careful when you use the 
DSKINI command. 

You have to open a file cabinet before 
using it, and before you use a disk file 
you must open it, too. If your program 
tries to use a file that isn't open, the 
controller will stop the program. There- 
fore, you use an OPEN statement to tell 
the controller the name of the file to be 
opened. This statement also tells the 
controller whether it is to read from or 
write to this file and gives the file a 
number, so the controller can identify 
it later in the program. For example, to 
open the MflRBLES'RED file for writing 
(or output), use the following state- 
ment: 

OPEN "0",Hl,"MftRBLES/'RED" 



To open the same file for reading (or 
input), use this statement: 

OPEN ~I", HI. "MARBLES/RED" 

Remember: You can't open a file that is 
open already. 

Reading from or writing to a disk file 
is not difficult. Listing 2 shows how to 
write ten records to a file and then read 
them back. This listing shows you a lot 
about disk and display operations. 
Look at the PRINT statements in the 
listing. They are almost all different in 
format. Some end in a semicolon (lines 
110 and 120), which means that after 
printing, the display position will re- 
main exactly where it is. After display- 
ing the information in a PRINT state- 
ment that does not end in a semicolon, 
the computer will display the item on 
the beginning of the next line. Lines 1 10 
and 140 use the PRINT @ format, which 
tells the computer where to start the 
display, regardless of where the last line 
ended. 

More Disk Operations 

The OPEN statements in lines 1 10 and 
150 can use the Character Variable Nfls 
instead of a filename in quotes. You can 
use this technique in most disk opera- 
tions. 

The CLOSE statements in lines 140 and 
190 should be used after you are fin- 
ished with a file. CLOSE is required on 
Line 140 because you cannot use the 
same file for both I (Input) and 
(Output) without closing and re- 
opening it. The CLOSE statement on Line 
140 has a number in it while the one in 
190 does not. The CLOSE statement 
without a number will close all files still 
open. The one with a number closes 
only the file opened with that number. 

The INPUT statement in Line 170 
reads two data items at a time. Make 
sure you know just what you are reading 
when reading a file. Try changing Line 
170 to INPUT ni.iNS, and see what you 
get. Now try changing it to LINE INPUT 
HI, INS. See what I mean about being 
careful? 

Line 210 includes the disk statement 
KILL. This does exactly what you think 
it does; it kills the possibility of using 
the file again. The controller doesn't 
actually erase the information. It marks 
the file as unusable. It then allows new 
information to be written over that 
which was killed. However, if no new 
information was written and you know 
how to do it, you can unkill this file. 
Don't try it unless you know exactly 



what you are doing. You will need to 
know a lot more about how the con- 
troller operates than we can go into 
here. One last point: A file must be 
closed before you kill it. 

When you read files, you won't know 
how many records each file contains, 
and this number will change each time 
you add or delete a record. Fortunately, 
the disk controller can tell you when we 
are at the end of a file — no matter how 
many records the file contains. It does 
this by setting an end-of-file indicator. 
You can ask the controller what the 
value of this indicator is by using the EOF 
(End Of File) statement in our program. 
The code on lines 160 and 190 was 
changed to include such a statement and 
is shown in the following example: 

1G0 IF EOF(l) = -1 GOTO 190 
170 INPUT Hl.INS.NB 
180 PRINT ••===> ";INS;NB 
190 CLOSE 

Make these changes in Listing 2 and 
rerun the listing. 

The program reads the file in the 
same way, but now you don't have to 
know the value of IX used to create the 
file. In fact, you can change the value 
of IX in Line 120 to anything you want, 
and all the records will still be read. 
Another note of caution: If you don't 
check EOF before you read a record, 
don't think the controller will save your 
information. If you read past the end of 
the file, the controller will stop your 
program. 

What's the Secret? 

The secret of the system is really no 
secret at all. You will use files like the 
one we created in the example. These 
are called sequential files because the 
records follow each other in the se- 
quence they were written. When you use 
the open command to create a file, the 
disk controller finds an unused space on 
your disk for the file and uses only the 
space you need. Your program does not 
have to worry about the file's location 
on the disk because the controller does 
this automatically. After you have 
closed the file, the controller needs to 
know its name to get it back for you. 

A disk file can occupy space on the 
outside, middle, or inside of the disk. As 
you add to it, it becomes larger and 
larger, and although a computer is a fast 
machine, it will be slowed to a crawl if 
you force it to start looking at the 
beginning of an ever-longer file each 
time you are looking for a particular 
point in that file. The database will 



90 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



Listing 1: SEPARATE 

? ' COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT.INC 

1?? CLEAR 5??:SS$=CHR$(127) 

1?5 CLS: PRINT "- ENTER, COMBINE. AND SEPARATE -" 

11? P$="ENTER A DECIMAL NUMBER" :VTS="D" 

12? HV=999999:LV=-l:SL=64:GOSUB 9?2? 

124 NN5=LEFT$(VA$,LEN(VA$)-3)+RIGHTS(VAS,2) 

13? P$="ENTER YOUR FIRST NAME" :VT$="A" 

14(3 HV=32:SL=128:GOSUB 9?2? 

145 NN$=NN$+SS$+VA$+SS5 

15? P$="NOtf YOUR LAST NAME, DON'T BE SHY":VT$="A" 

16? HV-32:SL=192:GOSUB 9?2? 

165 NN$=NN$+VA$ 

167 PRINT: PRINT " THE ENTIRE RECORD IS " 

17? PRINT NN$ 

18? I- INSTR(1,NN$,SS$):J= INSTR(I+1,NN$,SSS) 

185 PRINT:PRINT " THE PARTS ARE - " 

19? NBS=.LEFT$(NN$,I-3)+"."+MID$(NN$,I-2,2) 

2?? PRINT "NUMBER >";NB$ 

23? PRINT "FIRST NAME -->" ;MID$(NN$ ,1+1, J-I-l) 

24? PRINT "LAST NAME --->" [RIGHTS (NN$ ,LEN(NN$) -J) 

25? PRINT:PRINT "TOUCH 'ENTER' TO CONTINUE" ;: INPUT CT$:GOTO 1?5 

9?2? PRINT @SL, PS: PRINT @SL+32," ": PRINT @SL+32,""; 

9?26 LINE INPUT "=> ";VA$ 'INPUT THE VARIABLE 

9?28 LA= LEN(VA$):IF VT$- "A" GOTO 9?44 

9?3? VV- VAL(VA$):IF VTS- "D" GOTO 9?38 

9?34 IF INT(VV) O VV GOTO 9?2? ELSE GOTO 9?42 

9?38 IF LA > 9 OR LA < 3 GOTO 9?2? 

9?4? IF MIDS(VAS,LA-2,1) O "." GOTO 9?2? 

9?42 IF VV < LV OR W > HV GOTO 9?2? 

9?44 IF LA > HV GOTO 9?2? ELSE RETURN 



Listing 3: TIMER 

? ' COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT.INC 

1 CLEAR 5??: CLS 

2 PRINT "-- READ/CALCULATE COMPARISON -- 
4 OPEN "0",#1, "RECORDS/DAT" 

6 AS - STRINGS ( 15?, "X"): FOR ID = 1 TO 2? 

8 WRITE #1, AS: NEXT ID: CLOSE 

1? OPEN " I ",#1, "RECORDS/DAT" 

2? TIMER - ? 

3? FOR ID - 1 TO 2? 

4? LINE INPUT #1,IN$ 



Listing 2: RITEREfiD 




9 ' 


COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT.INC 




m 


CLS:NA$= 


"RECORDS/DAT" 




1?5 


PRINT "- 


-- TEN RECORDS ON A FILE " 


11? 


OPEN "0" 


,#1,NA$:PRINT @32,"+++ WRITING ===>"; 


12? 


FOR IX - 


1 TO 1?: PRINT " ";IX; 




13? 


WRITE #1 


, "RECORD NUMBER : " , IX 




14? 


NEXT IX: 


CLOSE #1: PRINT @96,"+++- 


V READING BACK ++++" 


15? 


OPEN "I" 


,#1,NA$ 




16? 


FOR IX - 


1 TO 1? 




17? 


INPUT #1 


,IN$,NB 




18? 


PRINT "=• 


=> ";IN$;NB 




19? 


NEXT IX: 


CLOSE 




2?? 


LINE INPUT "ERASE THE FILE? Y/N 


";KF$ 


21? 


IF KF$ - 


"N" GOTO 25? ELSE KILL 


NAS 


25? 


LINE INPUT "RUN IT AGAIN? Y/N " 


MTS 


26? 


IF MTS - 


"N" THEN END ELSE GOTO 


1?? 



work much faster if you can split the 
information into smaller files and find 
an easy way to see which file you should 
open when we are looking for specific 
information. 

This is called indexing, and it is like 
using an index in a textbook. With the 
book, you look in the index for a topic, 
and the index tells you where to locate 
the information. In this program, the 
index will tell you which file to open. 
Since each of the records contain a date, 
use the date as an index and put all the 
information for a group of dates in its 
own file. Then create an index subrou- 
tine that opens the correct file when you 
give it the date. 

Listing 3 gives you an idea how much 
faster your program will run by using 
indexing. It uses the internal TIMER of 
the CoCo to time the operation of 
reading a disk file. As in Listing 2, the 
program creates a file (this time, of 20 
records), reads the records back one at 
a time and times how long this takes. It 
then times the processing of a set of 
arithmetic instructions for comparison. 

Lines 1 to 8 create the file; lines 10 to 
50 read the file; and Line 60 tells how 
long it took to read the records. Line 70 
resets the timer to do the comparison. 
You will see that reading one record 
from the disk file took longer than 
executing the lines of code from 90 
through 110, including 13 arithmetic 
instructions and a FOR'NEXT loop. It 
really is worth the extra effort to index 
information. 

Creation: The Empty Database 

The disk controller does a lot of good 
things, but it will not put more than 72 
files on a single disk. This prevents the 
use of a daily file system because you 
cannot have 365 files. We could have a 
weekly system of 52 files, a monthly 
system of 12 files or a bimonthly system 
with 24. How about using a weekly 
system? How would you like to write a 
program that puts each week's informa- 
tion in the proper month, splitting each 
week at the month's end and working 
perfectly well on leap years? I wouldn't, 
so I discarded the 52-file system. I also 
didn't want to read through an entire 
month's data just to find one record, so 
I discarded the 12-file system. 1 settled 
on 24 files, using two files for each 
month. The first file holds everything 
from the first to the 15th and the second, 
from the 16th to the end of the month 
— whenever that might be. To identify 
these files as a database, I named them 
M..D../-CHK and wrote Listing 4 to 
create the empty database. 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



91 



Run Listing 4 once on an empty or 
nearly empty disk. It creates the 24-file 
empty database. If you run it again, it 
destroys any existing database, replac- 
ing it with an empty one. To make sure 
the database is there, you can enter 
various combinations of months and 
days to see which file is selected. Be 
careful: The program will not reject 
invalid input (December 43, anyone?) 
and may try to open a nonexistent file. 
If this happens, the program ends with 
an NE (Non Existent File) Error, but 
the database is still there. 

The Key to It All 

Part of the information of each rec- 
ord in the database serves as its Index 
Key. This key identifies the record's 
location on the database. Together with 
the indexing subroutine, it tells you in 
which file the record belongs and the 
location of the record in the file. Listing 
5 shows how this is done. It adds records 
to the database, using one subroutine to 
open the correct database file and 
another to add individual records. A 
database (empty or not) must already be 
in place on the disk you use. 

This program lets you add check 
records to the database. Option 2 stops 
the program. To restart it enter RUN. You 
are asked to supply the information 
required to build the record on lines 380 
to 440. After you have typed it in — but 
before going any further — you are 
forced to make a final check of the 
information before you add it (Line 
480). You can indicate that it is OK as 
is or you can change anything you want 
until you like it. This is one of the 
additional steps taken to ensure that no 
garbage gets into the database. After 
you indicate that the information is 
correct (Line 520), the program con- 
structs an Output Key, oi<$, on Line 522 
and a Write Record, wrs on Line 524. 

The output key is that part of the 
record used to determine where in the 
database this record is stored. Each 
record written to a file must have a 
higher key than the one before it. No 
duplicate keys are allowed. Therefore, 
only one record in the entire database 
can have a key with this information. 
Part of the key (the date) identifies the 
file the record will be on. The rest of the 
key (record type, and record number) 
tells you where on the file this record is 
placed. 

Subroutine 9070 opens the correct 
database file, and the Subroutine 9100 
adds the record. Later, the 9100 subrou- 
tine will be used to change and delete 
records. If a value of zero is placed into 



50 


^EXT ID 




60 


PRINT "READING TOOK " 


TIMER 


70 


riMER = 




90 


FOR ID - 1 TO 20 




\W 


Z - Z + 1: X = X + 2 


Y = Z + X 


103 


W - 3 * Y:V - W - Z:l 


J - 365 * V 


106 


T - (U+V+W+X+Y+Z)/24 


3 


1(37 


FOR DD - 1 TO 4 




108 


S - S+1:NEXT DD 




110 


NEXT ID 




120 


PRINT "PROGRAM TOOK 


'; TIMER 


130 


CLOSE: END 





Listing 4: CREATE 






' 


COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT.INC 






100 


CLEAR 


500 : CLS 






105 


PRINT 


" CREATE THE DATABASE - 




110 


FOR I 


= 1 TO 12 






115 


A$" RIGHTS (STR$ (I), 1) 






120 


IF I > 9 THEN A$= "1"+A$ ELSE A$- "0" 


+ A$ 


130 Fl$ - 


"M"+A$ +"D01/CHK" 






140 F2S = 


"M"+A$ +"D15/CHK" 






150 


PRINT 


"CREATE ";F1S;" AND " 


;F2$ 




160 


OPEN ' 


0",#l,Fl$:OPEN "0",#2 


,F2$: CLOSE 




170 


NEXT I 






175 


CLS 








180 


PRINT 


PRINT "DATABASE CREATED LET'S CHECK" 


190 


PRINT 


@ 2 5 6, "ENTER THE MONTH 


01-12" 




200 INPUT MM§ 






210 


PRINT 


"ENTER THE DAY 01 TO 


31" 




220 


INPUT 


DD$ 






230 


IF DD$ 


> "15" THEN FD$="15" 


ELSE FD$= 


'01" 


240 SG$- ' 


M"+MMS+"D"+FD$+"/CHK" 






245 


CLOSE 








250 


OPEN ' 


I",#1,SG$ 






260 


PRINT 


"FILE "SG$" IS THERE" 


:GOTO 190 





Listing 5: hDDRECRD 

' COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT.INC 

50 FILES 3,1000 

100 CLEAR 750:DIM LIS(7) :SS$=CHRS(127) 

150 CLS0: PRINT @jj,"--- MONEY MANAGER DATA BASE ---a 

200 LI$(1)-"1- ADD INFORMATION 

203 LI$(2)="2= END SESSION 

210 SL=128:NL=2:AD=0: GOSUB 9000 

250 ON A GOTO 320,260 

260 PRINT @385,STRINGS(30,"*"); 

262 PRINT @417, "SESSION IS OVER - BYE FOR NOW "; 

265 PRINT @449, STRINGS (30,"*"); 

266 FOR 1=1 TO 1800: NEXT I: CLS: END 

320 CLS0:PRINT "--- ADDING INFO TO DATABASE ---b" 

321 AD-1:LI$C1)-"1- ENTER A CHECK 

330 LIS(2)="2= RETURN TO THE FIRST MENU a 

340 LI$(3)="3= END THIS SESSION" :NL=3 

345 SL=128:GOSUB 9000: ON A GOTO 370,150,260 

370 CLS0: PRINT @0," CHECK INFORMATION c 

375 GOSUB 380:GOSUB 400: GOSUB 406:GOSUB 410:GOSUB 414: GOTO 430 

380 P$-"l= ENTER THE MONTH: 1-12" : LV=1:HV=12 :SL-64 

390 VT$="N":GOSUB 9020:MM$=RIGHT$("0"+VAS ,2) :RETURN 

400 P$="2= ENTER THE DAY: 1-31" :LV=-1 :HV-31:SL=128 

402 VT$="N":GOSUB 9020: DD$=RIGHT$("0"+VA$ , 2) :RETURN 

406 P$="3- ENTER CHECK NUMBER: 1000-9999" :LV=1000:HV=9999 

408 SL=192:VT$="N": GOSUB 9020 : CN$=VA$ : RETURN 



92 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



410 P$-"4= ENTER THE AMOUNT: NNNNNN.NN" :LV-1.00:HV=999999 .99 

412 VT$ ="D":SL=256:GOSUB 9020 

413 AMS=LEFT$(VA$,LEN(VAS)-3)+RIGHT$(VAS, 2): RETURN 

414 P$="5- ENTER WHO CHECK WAS PAID TO" :SL=320: VT$="A 
420 HV=31:GOSUB 9020: CP$=VAS : RETURN 

430 P$="6« ENTER WHAT CHECK WAS FOR" :SL=384: VT$="A 

44J3 HV=58: GOSUB 9020:CFS=VA$ 

47? PRINT @0,"--- FINAL O.K. OR CHANGE d 

480 PRINT @32,">TYPE 'Y' IF ALL ITEMS ARE O.K.<"; 

481 FOR I = 1 TO 220 

482 AS-INKEY$:IF AS O "" GOTO 490 ELSE NEXT I 

484 PRINT @32," OR TYPE LINE NUMBER TO CHANGE ";:FOR 1=1 TO 3 

486 AS=INKEY$:IF AS O "" GOTO 490 ELSE NEXT I: GOTO 480 

490 IF AS = "Y" GOTO 520 

500 A = VAL(A$):IF A > AND A <7 GOTO 510 ELSE GOTO 470 

510 ON A GOSUB 380. 400,406 , 410, 414, 430: GOTO 480 

520 CLS0:PRINT " ADDING THE CHECK e" 

522 PRINT " PLEASE WAI T":OK$= MMS+DD$+"C"+CNS 
524 WR$ = OKS+"*"+AM$+SSS+CP$+SS$+CF$ 
526 GOSUB 9070: GOSUB 9100:CLS0 

530 IF GE =1 THEN PRINT " CHECK WAS ADDED - f" 

ELSE PRINT "** DUPLICATE CHECK NOT AD DED **d 

540 LIS<1)="1= ADD ANOTHER CHECK 

550 LI$(2)="2= RETURN TO THE FIRST MENU a 

557 LI$(3)="3= END THIS SESSION RIGHT NOW 

560 SL=96:NL= 3:G0SUB 9000:ON A GOTO 370,150,260 

9000 FOR 1= 1 TO NL:PRINT @SL,LI$(I) 

9001 SL= SL+32:NEXT I 

9005 PRINT @32,"* SELECT FROM THE FOLLOWING 

9006 FOR I = 1 TO 200 

9007 A$ = INKEYS:IF A$ O "" GOTO 9012 ELSE NEXT I 

9008 PRINT @32," *":FOR I = 1 TO 65 

9009 A$ = INKEY$:IF AS O "" GOTO 9012 ELSE NEXT I 

9010 GOTO 9005 

9012 A - VAL(AS):IF A > AND A < NL+1 THEN RETURN 

9013 GOTO 9005 

9020 PRINT @SL,P$ :PRINT @SL+32 , " " 'PROMPT 

9024 PRINT @SL+32,""; 'REPOSITION 

9026 LINE INPUT "> ";VAS 'INPUT 

9028 LA= LEN(VA$):IF VT$ - "D" GOTO 9044 

9030 IF VTS - "N" GOTO 9036 

9032 IF LA > HV GOTO 9020 

9034 RETURN 'VARIABLE IS IN RANGE 

9036 W= VAL(VA$):IF W < LV OR VV > HV GOTO 9020 

9038 IF VT$="D" GOTO 9034 

9039 IF RIGHTS (VA$,1)< "0" OR RIGHTS (VAS , 1)> "9" GOTO 9020 

9040 IF VV O INT(VV) GOTO 9020 ELSE GOTO 9034 
9044 IF LA > 9 OR LA < 3 GOTO 9020 

9046 IF MID$(VA$,LA-2,1) O "." GOTO 9020 

9048 GOTO 9036 

9070 IF DDS > "15" THEN DFS = "15" ELSE DF$ - "01 

9072 SG$= "M"+ MMS+ "D"+ DFS+ "/CHK" 

9096 CLOSE:OPEN "I" ,#1 ,SGS :OPEN "0" ,#2 , "WORK/CHK" ; RETURN 

9100 IF E0F(1) - -1 GOTO 9130 

9105 INPUT #1,LI$:IKS = LEFTS (LIS, 9) 

9110 IF IK$< OK$ THEN WRITE #2, LIS ELSE GOTO 9160 

9120 GOTO 9100 

9130 ON RA GOTO 9132:ON AD GOTO 9131,9134,9134 

9131 WRITE #2.WR$ 

9132 RA=0: CLOSE: KILL SGS:C0PY "WORK/CHK" TO SG$ :GE=1: RETURN 
9134 RA=0:GE=2: CLOSE: RETURN 

9160 IF IK$ > OKS GOTO 9200: 'INPUT >-0UTPUT 

9162 ON AD GOTO 9134,9170,9170 'INPUT =OUTPT 

9170 GE=1: RETURN 'CHANGE 

9200 ON AD GOTO 9202,9220,9220: 'INPUT > OUTPUT 

9202 ON RA GOTO 9210:WRITE #2,WRS:WRITE #2 .LIS :RA=L :GOTO 9100 

9210 WRITE #2, LIS: GOTO 9100 

9220 ON RA GOTO 9210 -.GOTO 9134 



the variable flD, the subroutine assumes 
that you are using it to add a record 
(WR$) with the key (OKS). 

The detailed working of this subrou- 
tine will be explained in the next article. 
What should be noted here is the way 
the subroutine uses the GE (Good End- 
ing) variable. It is possible that the 
record to be added (wr$) will be added 
correctly. It is also possible that there 
will be some problem (such as a dupli- 
cate key), and it will not be added. The 
program must take different action 
depending upon the result. If the record 
is successfully added, the subroutine 
places a value of 1 into Variable GE. If 
there was a problem and the record was 
not added, then a value of or 2 is 
placed in the variable. When the sub- 
routine returns control to Line 530, the 
program tests the value of GE to deter- 
mine which message to display. You can 
then add more records or stop the 
program. 

That's all for this month. By now you 
know a good deal about how to use your 
disk. [For more detailed information on 
disk operation, see Bill Barden's "Delv- 
ing Into the CoCo Disk" (January '88, 
Page 180).] In the the next article, I'll 
go into more detail about the 9100 
subroutine and show you the complete 
program, which adds, deletes and 
changes both checks, deposits and bills. 
See you next time. 



(Questions or comments about this 
tutorial may be directed to the author 
at 83-34 169 Street, Jamaica, NY 11432. 
Please include an SASE when request- 
ing a reply.) /R\ 



Real Desktop Publishing with 
THE WORKS. See page 19 




March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



Losing the Picture 

/ have a 128K Co Co 3 with an FD 
502 disk drive. I am having problems 
saving HSCREEN 2 pictures to disk and 
loading them back into BASIC. I use 
S AVEM "filename" , 3584 , 9727 , 3584 
to save them. To reload, I use LORDM " 
filename" -.POKE. &HE6CG,&HSCREEN 2, 
but this process doesn't work. It will 
reload properly right after being saved, 
but after I re-power the computer, I get 
nothing but garbage. Can you help? 

Cory Burgess 
Tullahoma, Tennessee 

\\i You are having problems because 
A basic is using more than 64K by 
bank switching in the HSCREEN memory 
when it is needed and then switching it 
out when it is not. The following two 
BASIC programs allow you to save and 
load hsgreen images: 

HISAVE 

10 INPUT "NAME :;"N$ 

20 FDR I=&H70 TO &H73 

30 POKE &HFFA2.I 

40 FS=N$+'VHR"+CHR$( I -64 ) 

50 SAVEMFS,&H4000,&H5FFF, 44539 

G0 NEXTI 

70 POKE S.HFFA2.&H7A 

HI LOAD 

10 INPUT "NAME :;"NS 

20 INPUT"HSCREENH;"H 

30 HSCREEN H 

40 FOR I=&H70 TO &H73 

50 POKE &HFFA2,I 

G0 FS=NS+'VHR"+CHR$(I-G4) 

70 LOADMFS 

80 NEXTI 

90 POKE &HFFA2,$H7A 

Assembly Language References 

J / recently went to my local Radio 
_ Shack store and purchased an Edi- 
- tor/ Assembler with ZBUG (Cat. No. 
26-3 2 50) for use with my Co Co 2. At the 
time I was buying this, I did not know 



Richard Esposito is the principal engi- 
neer for BDM Corporation. He holds 
bachelor's, master's and doctorate 
degrees from Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn. He has been writing about 
microcomputers since 1980. 

Richard Libra is a simulator test 
operator for Singer Link Simulation 
Svsrems Division. 




By Richard E. Esposito 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

with Richard W. Libra 



that this product had been discon- 
tinued. After I got it home, I started 
reading the manual and found it would 
not teach me how to program in assem- 
bly language. The manual referred to a 
book (Cat. No. 62-2077), which would 
teach me this. I returned to Radio 
Shack only to find that the book had 
been discontinued as well, and there was 
no possible way for me to get a copy of 
it. Could you suggest a place where lean 
purchase this book? If not, could you 
recommend another book that would 
serve the same purpose? 

Chay Wesley 
Danville, Kentucky 

Y\, The best source for technical in- 
/L formation on assembly language 
is 6809 Assembly Language Program- 
ming, by Lance Leventhal, Osborne/ 
McGraw-Hill ($16.95. 562 pages). 
Three other assembly language refer- 
ences are: Assembly Language Graph- 
ics for the TRS-80 Color Computer, by 
Don Inman, Reston (S 14.95, 280 pages); 
The MC6809 Cookbook, by Carl 
Warren, TAB Books, Inc. ($6.95, 162 
pages); and Programming the 6809, by 
Rodnay Zaks, Sybex ($14.95, 362 
pages). Also, see the ad for Tepco in this 



Pascal Problems 

/ recently purchased a copy of OS- 
H 9 Pascal Version 2.00 for use with 

OS-9 Level II. After creating a short 
source program, I attempted to direct it 
to the computer. I received a Pascal 
Error 203, or OS-9 File Error, followed 
by an OS-9 Error 216 (pathname not 
found). I got the same result when I 
tried to compile the sample program 
included on the disk. What pathname is 
the compiler looking for? Isn't this 
package compatible with Level II? 

Jonathan Roorda 
Holland, Michigan 



I?, Thanks to Greg Law for the fol- 
% lowing information: In the pro- 
gram Pascal, there is a minor bug in the 
specification of the access mode for the 
open calls of the two files Pas- 
cal-Compiler and PascalErrs. As 
distributed, those two files are in the 
execution directory. When Pascal opens 
those two files in the READ mode, it 
attempts to locate them in the current 
data directory. The following patch 
changes the access modes of the open 
calls to EXECUTE+READ, so they are 
correctly located in the current execu- 
tion directory. 

load pascal 
modpatch -s 
1 Pascal 
c 0G97 21 25 
c 1G92 21 25 



After the patch is made, use the Level 
I Save utility, which is Level II- 
compalible, to put the patched version 
of Pascal on disk. 

Keep It Accessible 

Some time ago RAINBOW had an 
article that explained how to keep a 
Multi-Pak Interface and a Co Co 
together by attaching them to a board. 
The cases are screwed together at the 
bottom, so how do you get the cases 
back together after they are secured to 
the board? 

Joseph J. Diovanni 
Laurence Harbor, New Jersey 



^ 



Drill access holes in the board to 
get at the screws. 



94 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



A Drive Patch 

/ read your September '88 column 
Z\ (Page 138). I can add a bit to your 

response to the person unable to 
access double-sided drives with the TW- 
80 Telewriter patcher under A DOSS. 
TW-80 must be configured to work with 
double-sided drives. (Unpatched Tele- 
writer works fine with double-sided 
drives.) There is provision for this in 
TW-80 's configure program, CON- 
FIG. BflS. However, Doug Masten, the 
author of TW-80, told me he chose not 
to "officially" support double-sided 
drives because he had none of his own 
and was unable to test this feature 
properly. To get TW-80 to recognize 
double-sided drives (with or without 
A DOSS), look at the following in 
C0NFIG.BRS: 

350 GOSUB 3890:D0=R 'disk drive se- 
lect table 
360 GDSUB 3890:01=0 
3?0 GOSUB 3890:D2=fi 
380 GOSUB 3890:D3=fl 

For double-sided drives, change D2 r fl to 
D2=&H41 and D3=R to D3=&H42 in lines 
370 and 380. This makes the program 
recognize Drive 2 as the back side of 
Drive and Drive 3 as the back of Drive 
I. After making these changes, run 
CONFIG.BfiS to save the configuration 
file that lets TW-80 recognize the 
double-sided drives from then on. 

Art Flexser 
SpectroSystems 



^ 



Thanks for the information. 



Changing Terminals 



Is it possible to hook my Televideo 
910 terminal to my CoCo via OS-9 
Level II 't2? My system includes an 
MPI and a Deluxe RS-232 pack. 

Bert A. Challenor 
Albuquerque, New Mexico 



r\. On each of two DB-25 connectors, 
A wire pins 4, 5 and 8 together. Do 
the same with pins 6 and 20. Then, using 
a three-wire cable, wire Pin 7 (ground) 
on one DB-25 to Pin 7 on the other DB- 
25. Connect Pin 2 (transmit) on one 
DB-25 to the wire on Pin 3 (receive) on 
the other DB-25. Wire Pin 3 on the first 
DB-25 to Pin 2 on the second, so you 
can transmit and receive in both direc- 
tions. 



Only Your Vendor Knows 

/ have a Tandy FD 501 disk drive. 

Will any half-height drive work as a 
U second drive? How hard is a second 
drive to install? If I expand my CoCo 
2 to 128K, how would I use the extra 
memory as a print spooler or RAM 
disk? How would I get my CoCo to 
auto-boot a program when I power up? 
Is there a Color Computer equivalent to 
MS-DOS's autoexec.bat? Also, how 
can I transfer M L programs from tape 
to disk if I don 't know the start, end or 
exec? 

Albert Noah 

I? Using the extra 64K. of memory on 
/L an upgraded CoCo 2 requires 
special software to use it as a RAM disk. 
J&R Electronics supplies this software 
with its Banker CoCo 2 memory up- 
grade. Since memory beyond 64K on a 
CoCo 2 was never officially supported 
by Tandy, those upgrades from various 
manufacturers all work differently, 
hence each CoCo 2 upgrade requires its 
own vendor-specific software. 



Direct Access in Disk BASIC 

How do you locate and change the 
3 sequence of bytes of VIP Calc, so it 
will work on a CoCo 3? 

Lionel Boucher 
Mont Saint- Hilaire, Quebec 

\<j Any BASIC file including machine 
/£• language files can be read and 
written to as direct access files in Disk 
Color BASIC. Set the record length to 
one byte. Then a simple BASIC program 
can loop through all the bytes that make 
up the program and rewrite the new 
bytes when the proper sequence is 
found. 

Looking for a Common Sequence 

I have RGB Patch by Spectral Asso- 
ciates, and I use it with my CM-8. 
When I load One-On-One, the open- 
ing screen is in color, hut after the game 
loads and begins, it goes to black & 
white. How can this be fixed to display 
color? The patch seems to work fine 
with other games. 

Jeff P. Szczerha 
Sturtevant, Wisconsin 

IP RGB Patch is a program that 

/C looks for common sequences of 

bytes that denote PMODE A in machine 

language. It then changes them to a 



sequence of bytes that denote pmode 3. 
If a program uses a sequence of bytes 
that the author did not anticipate, the 
program will not be fixed. The only 
alternative in such a case is to disassem- 
ble the code, analyze it and come up 
with your own custom fix on a case-by- 
case basis. 

To Upgrade or not to Upgrade 

What advantages are there in up- 
grading to the latest versions of 
L Burke & Burke's hard disk software 
drivers? 

Joe Schmitz 
Detroit 

Y\j The upgrade to Version 2.3 lets 
/*• you run two different-sized hard 
drives and does a much better job of 
reporting errors. It also turns off auto- 
matic retries during formatting, so it 
will lock out more marginal sectors 
during the verify pass. The best thing 
about Version 2.3 is that it includes 
EZGen, a handy boot-file editor. 
Hyper-I/O 2.5 is CDOS-compatible. 
However, on a CoCo 3 CDOS system, 
there is a problem in the startup mes- 
sage. There will probably be a Hyper- 
1/02.6 that corrects this and eliminates 
the limit on MSA size for drives 2 and 
3. XT-ROM 2.3 does not require any 
jumpers on the controller or any special 
DEBUG patches to the boot module, and 
it has a version of Life that you can 
actually play instead of just watching. 

Changing Levels 

Is there a quick fix to get DynaCalc 
to run on the CoCo 3? It's a great 
program, but it hangs up when I try 
to run it on my CoCo 3. 

A I Bilinski 
Selkirk, Manitoba 

\\j If you have the OS-9 version, copy 

X it over to an OS-9 Level 11 disk. 

The OS-9 Level 1 boot that came with 

the program is not CoCo 3-compatible. 

For a quicker response, your ques- 
tions may also be submitted through 
rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. 
From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick 
Rainbow Magazine Services, then, 
at the RAINBOW> prompt, type 
RSK for "Ask the Experts" to arrive 
at the EXPERTS> prompt, where 
you can select the "Doctor ASCII" 
online form which has complete 
instructions. 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 95 



For the last few weeks, we've been 
really active on the Delphi SIGs, and 
many things have been happening on- 
line. We've changed some commands, 
developed a virus (don't worry, it's not 
contagious), and added a Delphi termi- 
nal program. Let me give you a few 
details. 

New Database Commands 

The upload and download commands 
have been changed. These commands 
formerly applied only to text files, but 
now you can choose from several file 
transfer methods, which work with both 
text files and other kinds of files. Use 
the UPLOAD command to upload a file 
and the DOWNLOAD command to down- 
load a file. If you want to use a method 
of file transfer different from the one 
you usually use, you can type upload 
menu or download nenu. You can also use 
one of the commands not visible on the 
Workspace menu. 

upload and download display menus 
of file transfer protocols. To upload or 
download the way these commands 
used to work, select Buffer Capture as 
your protocol. You can make this file 
transfer method a permanent selection 
by following the instructions shown 
after completing a successful transfer. 
Once you have done that, type UPLOAD 
MENU or DOWNLOAD MENU if you want to 
change your mind. For a brief explana- 
tion of other file transfer protocols 
available, type OTHER at the WS> 
prompt. 

Uploading Files to the CoCo SIG 

Uploading to the database of a SIG 
consists of a two-step process: First 
upload the file to your workspace, then 
submit the file to the staff of a given SIG 
for publication. You can reach your 
workspace from the CoCo Sig> prompt 
or from within the database by typing 
wo. You can reach it from any SIG on 
Delphi. Once in your workspace, tell 
Delphi you want to upload a file using 
the Xmodem, Ymodem or Kermit pro- 



Do/? Hulchison is an electrical engineer 
ami lives in A ilanta, Georgia. He works 
as a senior project engineer involved in 
the design of industrial control systems. 
On Delphi, Don is the Database Man- 
ager of the RAINBOW CoCo SIG. His 
Delphi username is DONUUTCH1SON. 



New commands, virus 

demonstrations and more 

on Delphi 



What's 
Goin' On? 



By Don Hutchison 

Rainbow CoCo SIG 

Database Manager 



tocol. (Naturally, your terminal pro- 
gram must also support the file transfer 
protocol you use.) 

To upload using Xmodem, type XUP; 
to use Ymodem, type YUP. Use KUP for 
a Kermit upload or KERMIT to invoke the 
Kermit server. Using help and the 
question mark (?), you can find more 
information about this. You can also set 



up your default settings to a specific file 
transfer protocol and modify other file 
transfer parameters. You will be 
prompted by Delphi for a filename, and 
you'll be asked whether or not the file 
is a text file. If you are uploading BASIC 
programs to Delphi, please make sure 
you have already saved them to tape or 
disk in ASCII format in this manner: 



(C)SAVE "filename" , A 



After you answer the prompted ques- 
tions, Delphi will tell you to begin 
sending your file, and it will wait for 
your upload. Initiate the file transfer 
sequence (which will be found in the 
instructions for the terminal program 
you're using). You can upload as many 
files as you like by following this proce- 
dure repeatedly. 

When all the files you want to submit 
are in your workspace, you are ready to 
submit the file or files to the SIG. To 
do this, you must be in that SIG. From 
your workspace or from the DBASES> 
prompt, enter the submit command. 
You'll be asked for the number of files 
in the group you want to publish. 
Identify the number. Delphi has a tree- 
structured database, where sets of files 
(e.g., programs and documentation) 



Database Report 



The holiday rush is over and the New 
Year is off to a great start. We've gained 
many new CoCo users because of gifts, 
and the uploading activity has been great 
on Delphi. Let's look at what's new on 
the Rainbow SIGs. 

OS-9 Online 

In the General topic of the database, 
Paul Ward (PKW) sent us the start of a 
new OS-9 "buglist." Jay Truesdale (JAY- 
TRUESDALE) uploaded a text file de- 
scribing a new bus-based system from 
Frank Hogg Laboratories, and Keith 
Alphonso (ALPHASOFT) posted a text 
file containing various notes about BBS 
operation. Finally, Mike Stutc (GRID- 



BUG) sent us some notes on computer 
viruses. 

The Applications topic brings us Chris 
Burke (COCOXT), who uploaded a fix for 
auto-linefeed printers under the RSB 
operating system. John Barrett (J BAR- 
RETT) sent us a program for designing 
highway curve layouts, and Don Thrash 
(DONTHRASH) posted his D5.INIT. 
MRKER file. 

In the Utilities topic, Warren Moore 
(WJMOORE) uploaded a utility to strip 
leading/ trailing spaces from a text file 
and a utility to strip any column range 
from a printer. While John Beveridge 
(JOHNTORONTO) sent us a program to 
help keep disks virus-free, Greg Jandl 



96 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



can be grouped together. 

Once this is finished, you'll be 
prompted for a description of the file's 
or files' purpose. (A note of the file- 
names should be in your Workspace 
when you upload them.) You must 
specify an extension for all files submit- 
ted to the CoCo SIG. Just as CoCo Disk 
BASIC uses filenames and extensions, so 
does Delphi. You will now be prompted 
for other information as the procedure 
continues. You'll be asked for the name 
of each file and the name you want them 
to bear when seen by the public. After 
the submission process is over, the files 
will appear as a group in a place visible 
to the SIG staff, who will review them 
and then make them visible to the 
public. Delphi will also thank you for 
your submission. During the submis- 
sion process, you will be asked if you 
want to have the file in your workspace 
deleted. 1 suggest you answer no until 
the submission is complete and pub- 
lished — then delete the files from your 
workspace. If you are interrupted for 
any reason and bounced offline, the 
submission process will be terminated, 
and you'll have to upload the files that 
have been deleted again. (Call waiting 



is a common example of such an inter- 
ruption.) 

Please do not submit files to the SIG 
that you also intend to submit to RAIN- 
BOW for possible publication. Once a 
program is published online, it can't be 
accepted by THE rainbow. The single 
exception here would be CoCo Gallery 
pictures. 

Naturally, programs and material 
that have a copyright can be published 
online only with the owner's permis- 
sion. MikeyTerm is an example of such 
a program that is available on Delphi 
with the author's permission. However, 
a program such as V-Term would not 
be acceptable online because it has a 
copyright and is distributed commer- 
cially. 

More About Viruses 

Delphi CoCo SIG members are de- 
veloping our own, special virus online. 
This is something new and interesting to 
many users because the CoCo's ROM- 
based operating system is more virus- 
proof than other systems. 

However, Steve Bjork (6809ER) re- 
ports that while "a true virus cannot be 
placed in a ROM system, you can have 



a virus that replicates itself from disk to 
disk." Steve also mentioned that he's 
writing a demonstration program, 
which will enter the CoCo's system 
inside a program and hide until a write 
is done to the directory track. At that 
point, it will reformat Track 17 to put 
another virus on the disk that automat- 
ically introduces a new virus into the 
system any time the user enters the DIR 
command or loads a file. Naturally, 
Steve's code is intended only for dem- 
onstration purposes and will not cause 
any damage or disruption to a user's 
system. Further, Steve comments, "Be- 
cause of the way the new virus is placed 
on Track 17, you can make a backup 
without spreading it. In other words, 
you can cure a virus-infected disk by 
making a backup of it." 

All of us on the CoCo SIG are look- 
ing forward to seeing Steve's demon- 
stration program. (Interested users may 
follow the thread starting with Forum 
Message #46032 for further details and 
more specific information.) This dem- 
onstration could help us learn more 
about protecting ourselves from vir- 
uses. Thanks, Steve. 

In spite of intense media attention. 



038 Lml II BB3 Btltm 3.Q 

Tha beat BBS ayat*in hu just gotten belter! Syatam come* templet* and ready to run m leai than 
S minutes! Uw the bmlt in menui or create your own, you can oven run your - t ~. ; ■, J , 

own prop-ami or gamea on-line! Complete menage ayilom allows easy f^m *J ) pJ 

menage poaunK and retrieving. Complete Ale transfer system supports >.Sjfc^r» _j*al. 

Xmodam and Ymodem aa wellai keyword searching single line and " — 9* < ^^_*- 

paragraph tile deacnpDana Syatem runa completely in the background, allowing you full use 
of vour computer' Also cornea with it's own Terminal program Quiklerm" Free! 
512k QS9 Level II and RS-232 Pak Required J29.95 

Bm Zassai 

This wonderful utility allows you to patch anything! Patch command; 
directly on the disk and fn CRCs automatically! Even allows you to pairh the 
.rV.^ OSSboot file without making a new boot disk! Save files that have beei ' 

»0»\ deleted! Fu crashed disks! Hundrada of uses! 
^£ \ Wk OS9 Level I or II required $19.95 

Piai Maangtr Tm 

Thii versatile utility will make your OS9 life a bre«ie! No more will you ~ J '— % '~'-^ -J-~' 

have to fiifht with complicated directory structures. No more searching ."fvL'^afc ' l -^ 
for files and typing long path names. All of thia is displayed using i'' ^mXtSfW^m^.^ 

windows. A tree window allowa you to change, create, and delate j x-s=z. y^^^t*"" 

direcUnea quickly. A rilea window allows you U copy, view and delete ■ A . ♦ V 

files easily. Perfect for the OS9 beginner! Multi-Vue compatibility makes II 

it perfect for Multi-Vut uuri! e}V> 

Sl2k OS* Level II Required $23.95 -f^— 





S! With these put utilities you II be 
•i* wildcard c 




Finally OS9 life become 

imonda make file 
manipulation simple and easy! Tree commands make directory 
manipulation a breeze! Windowing utilities moke changing colors 
and creatine and maintaining windows a snap! Many other useful 
uulitiiea make your OS9 life mora pleasant! 25 great utilities for only 
124.95, thots leu than $1.00 per utility! 

128k OS9 Level 11 Required 124.95 

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Finally a complete OS9 Le*el II windowing terminol that you can afford! 

The program a many features include Auu-dial. Auto-macro, File tranafera. 

buffer capture, on-line timer, chat-mode and much, much more! Menu and 

dialog windows make it super simple la use 1 All vou'll ever need in a terminal 

program! Comes complete with ICON for Mulb-vue compatibility. 

512k OS9 Level II and RS-232 Pak Required J34.95 

Easily create your own pop-down menus with this great u 
^fi yf | ., programming experience neccessary 1 With this utility y*->u can run any 
OS9 command or program from a mem;. Menu creation is super-simpl 
and super easy! Actually see the menu aa it developa. A must for any 
Multi-Vue user! 
512k OS9 Uvel II and Mulb-Vue required. -...-- — $19.98 

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rrsn 

RAINBOW 



FILE TRANSFER UTILITIES 

XXX: Reviews - December Rainbsw Dale Puckoll - November Rainbow. XXX 

The GCS File Translor Uiili'.ios prc/de a simple and quick method lo transfer 
te*1 and binary liles Irom and lo a \ariely ol lloppy disk lormals. 

Need lo transfer liles lo and Irom PC (MSDOS), RSOOS. FLEX and MINI-FLEX 
disks on your OS-9 syslem? Have ;exl dies on a PC (MSDOS) system al work 
and want lo work on Ihem al home? Have source programs (BASIC. C. Pascal. 
elc.J which you wish lo pon lo ano:ner syslem? 

Wilh GCS File Translor Ulililies. jus: place Ihe PC (MSDOS), RSOOS, FLEX or 
MINI-FLEX disk inlo you disk-drive • enlor a simple command and Ihe lile is 
copied inlo a OS-9 lile. File Iransle: back is just as simple. Wilh Mulli-Vuo 
version, just selecl command Irom cr.e ol three menus. 



PCDIR directory ol PC disk 

PC D U M P display PC disk secsc 

PCREAD read lilo Irom PC disk 

PCWRITE wrile Tile lo PC disk 

PCRENAME rename PC file 
PCDELETE delele PC file 
PCFORMAT lormatPCdisk 



R S D I R directory ol RSDOS disk 

R S D U M P display RSDOS disk secloi 

RSREAD read file Irom RSDOS disk 

RSWRITE wrile lile lo RSDOS disk 

FLEXDIR directory ol FLEX disk 

FLEXDUMP display FLEX disk sc-clor 

FLEXREAD road FLEX We 

FLEXWRITE write lile lo FLEX disk 



Extensive Single, double sided disks. Single, double density disks. 35, 40 

options or 80 track lloppy drives. 8 or 9 sectors (PC). First level sub- 

directories (PC). Einary files. Use pipes lor direc: and multiple 
transfers. 

Requires OS-9. 2 drives (one cen be hard or ramdisk). Multi-Vue lor Mulli-Vuo 
version. SDISK (SDISK3 lor COCO III). 

GCS File Transler Utilities (or CoCo - Multi-Vue version S54.95 

- Standard version S44.95 



SDISK or SDISK 3 



S29.95 



Standard diskelles aro OS-9 lormat (5.2S - , - add $2 50 lor 3.5\ Orders mull be prepaid or COD 
VISA/MC accepted. Add St. 75 SAH, COO is additional. 



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(603) 464-3850 

OS-0 It l trademark of Mio-dmjo Systomt Corporanon and Motorola Inc. 
MS-DOS is a trademark of Uo-oioft Corp FLEX it a trader™ iV ol TSC, *rc. 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 97 



viruses are still very rare. However, 
viral-protection programs may also 
serve as disaster-prevention programs. 
In other words, they might keep you 
from accidently reformatting a disk. 
They might also protect you from a 
program with a conventional bug or 
from some hardware glitch fouling up 
your file-allocation table. This side 
benefit could be more important than 
the intended purpose of vaccine pro- 
grams. 



DelphiTerm Now Available 

Rick Adams (RlCKADAMS) has re- 
leased DelphiTerm. Previously called 
RickeyTerm, this data communications 
package runs on the Tandy Color Com- 
puter 3. You need a Color Computer 3, 
disk drive and modem to run Delphi- 
Term. A printer, a Deluxe RS-232 Pak 
and a color monitor would be very 
useful, but are not essential. 

Users of RickeyTerm will note that 
DelphiTerm's new features include 



automatic log-on to Delphi, Ymodem 
downloading and printer support for 
RS-232 pack owners. DelphiTerm and 
its supporting files are available for 
downloading in the Telecommunica- 
tions topic of the database. 

1 hope you'll join us in the fun and 
excitement online on Delphi, and I'll see 
you next month. D 



(DAMIONGREY) posted a directory util- 
ity supporting wild cards, and Zack 
Sessions (ZACKSESSIONS) sent a Unix- 
like word-counl utility. Marc Genois 
(MARCGENOIS) sent in a program for 
loading script files into memory as you 
do a module. 

The Patches topic includes Mike Sweet 
(DODGECOLT), who sent a patch for the 
Disto hard drive that corrects a bug in the 
interrupt handling, and Gary Lynch 
(GARYLYNCH), who uploaded a patch 
for King's Quest 3 that fixes the monitor 
bug. In addition. Dave Archer (DAVE- 
ARCHER) posted his patch for DynaCalc 
to work in a 105-column graphics win- 
dow, and Karl Quinn (QKQ) uploaded a 
patch for Epson printers using Phantom- 
Graph. Finally, Jim Johnson (REIN- 
DEER) sent in a descriptive text file 
concerning porting Multi- Vue to a hard 
disk. 

In the Telcom topic. Bill Brady 
(OS9UGED) posted UIZZER02.CCB, 
UPXM0D1G.CCB, WI2C0NFIE 1.2 and WIZ- 



G ooV s 

If you own Telewriter, VIP 
Writer, Word Power, or 
Textpro, you can upgrade to 
Max-10 for only $49.95 
Send proof of purchase (first 
page of original manual or 
original disk) with your 
order for this special offer. 
Be amazed or your money back. 
See big ad on page 19 tor ordering inlo. 

VIP Writer. Telewriter. Textpro end Word Power ere 
trademerks of SD Enterprises. Cognltec. Cer-Comp. 
and Mlcrocom Software, respectively. 



cotottm/te 

242-W West Avenue 
Darien. CI 06820 



1203) 656-1806 

(coHiRWARE 



CONFIG 1.2'COCOBIN. These files are for 
use with The Wiz. Michael Schneider 
(MSCHNE1DER) uploaded the OSTerm 
package, and Keith Alphonso uploaded 
QuikTerm. 

Graphics & Music has Steve Clark 
(STEVECLARK) uploading a graphics- 
clock program written in C. Glen Hath- 
away (HATHAWAY) posted two music 
files for UltiMuse, and Kevin Darling 
(KDARLING) uploaded a MAX9 paint 
program. While Warren Moore uploaded 
a program for displaying artifact colors 
on an RGB monitor, Mike Knudsen 
(RAGTIMER) posted several new files for 
UltiMuse and a documentation file de- 
scribing how to construct a simple, 
inexpensive cable to hook your CoCo to 
a MIDI synthesizer. Andy Duplay 
(KB8BMN) uploaded VEFpictures of the 
Mono Lisa and Samantha Fox. 

In the Programmers Den. Merle Kem- 
merly (TOOK3) sent the C source code for 
a procs-like utility. Zack Sessions posted 
a Tic-Tac-Toe game, and Mike Stute 
posted some D&D hints and tips. 

CoCo SIG 

In the General topic, Marty Goodman 
(MARTYGOODMAN) posted two exten- 
sive articles about October's RAIN- 
BOWfest. Marty also posted a text file 
describing the future of the CoCo 3. 
Jerome Kalkhof (GRUMCLUB) posted 
some further thoughts on the future of 
the CoCo 3. 

I posted the CoCo Gallery pictures for 
the months of November and December 
in the CoCo 3 Graphics topic of the 
database. John Malon (JOHNLM) sent us 
a picture of Madonna and another pic- 
ture of King Tut in Atari ST format. 
Richard Gonzales (DRIFTY) sent us a 
digitized picture of Mr. Spock from Star 
Trek, and Richard Trasborg (TRAS) 
posted more famous women as charac- 
terized by Mike Trammcll. While John 
Lancas (DUSTIN) sent digitized pictures 
of Marilyn Chambers and ET, Jim Ta- 
tarka (TATARCOCO) sent The Creature 
and Bambi (what a combination!). How- 
ard Rouse (HOWARDC) sent two pictures 
drawn using The Rat, and Donald Rick- 



etts (STEVEPDX) posted a 16-level patch 
for MAX-10'% PixTran program. 

In Utilities & Applications, Eric Parish 
(ERICPAR) uploaded his Mandelbrot 
Numbers program and an interesting 
astronomy program. Ken Halter (KEN- 
HALTER) posted a utility for searching 
BASIC programs, and Donald Jereczek 
(DONJERE) posted his program for 
tracking school grades. Alan DeKok 
(ALANDEKOK) sent his fine custom 
CoCo BASIC programs, and Roger Carl- 
son (PERCH) sent us several programs 
for statistical analysis. Zack Sessions sent 
us his video library catalog program 
while Marc Genois (MARCGENOIS) sent 
a spooler program for the CoCo 3. 

The Hardware Hacking topic gives us 
Terry Blackwell posting a collection of 
software for the Green Mountain Micro 
EPROM burner, and the Games topic 
includes Eric Parish posting his Checkers 
game, and Zack Sessions with a Star 
Trek game for the CoCo 2 and 3. 

In the Classic Graphics topic, Steven 
Imlay (SIM LAY) uploaded some Atari 
pictures he had converted into RLE 
format, and I posted the CoCo Gallery 
pictures for the months of November and 
December. 

In the Music & Sound topic, Lester 
Hands (LHANDS) provided CM3Demo, 
a demonstration of a MIDI sequencer 
program soon available commercially. 
Lester also uploaded LMRDemo, a 
MIDI recorder program. Mike Stute 
posted his "Classical Breakdown" and 
"Inside" by Van Halen. John Sebella 
(FORBIN1) sent a sample of the music 
from Star Trek and a simple waltz. 

The Archives topic presents Polls 
Manager Dick White (DICKWHITE), 
who published twelve new archived polls 
from the CoCo SIG's Polls section. 

In the Data Communications topic of 
the database, Ernest Schwaegerl (PEN- 
ROSE) uploaded a set of weather images 
for use with WEFAX, and Rick Adams 
(RlCKADAMS) uploaded DelphiTerm, 
his latest version of the popular Rickey- 
Term program. Watch for new versions 
as Rick adds special graphics abilities to 
this version. See you next month. 



/R\ 



98 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



JBr. UreWe'0 program* 



mmm 



For Color Computer Software 
Since 1983 




Pyramix 

This fascinating CoCo 3 game 
continues to be one of our best 
sellers. Pyramix is 100% 
machine language written 
exclusively to take 
advantage of all the 
power in your 
128K CoCo 3. The 
Colors are bril- 
liant, the graphics 
sharp, the action fast. Written by 
Jordon Tsvetkoff and a product of 
ColorYenture. 

The Freedom Series 
Vocal Freedom 

I've got to admit, this is one nifty 
computer program Vocal Free- 
dom turns your computer into a 
digital voice recorder. The 
optional Hacker's Pac lets you 
incorporate voices or sounds that 
you record into your own 
BASIC or ML programs 
This is not 
a synthe- 
sizer. Sounds 
are digi- 
tized dir- 
ectly into com 
so that voices 
sound very natural. One 

"off-the-shelf" application for 
Vocal Freedom is an automatic 
message minder. Record a message 
for your family into memory. Set 
Vocal Freedom on automatic. When 
Vocal Freedom "hears" any noise in 
the room, it plays the pre- 
recorded message 1 Disk operations 
are supported. VF also tests 
memory to take advantage of from 
64K up to a full 512K. 



amplifier (RS 
♦277-1008) 
any microphone. 

Mental 



\ 13 



and 



computer could read their 
minds? Mental Freedom 

uses the techniques of 
Biofeedback to control video 
game action on the 
screen. Telekinesis? 
Yes, you control the 
action with your 
thoughts and emotions 
And, oh yes, it talks in a perfectly 
natural voice without using a 
speech synthesizer 1 Requires 
Radio Shack's low cost Biofeedback 
monitor. Cat. *63-675 

BASIC Freedom 

Do you ever type in BASIC 
programs, manually 9 If you do, 
you know it can be a real chore 
Basic Freedom changes all that 
It give3 you a full screen editor 
just like a word processor, but for 
BASIC programs Once loaded in, it 
ys on-line. It hides 
nvisibly until you call it 
forth with a single 
program 
ust for 
progra 
mers or 
nyone 
ho types 

programs. By Chris Babcock and a 
product of ColorYenture. 

Lightning Series 

These three utilities give real 
power to your CoCo 3. 

Ramdisk Lightning 

This is the best Ramdisk available. 

It lets you have up to 4 mechanical 

disk drives and 2 Ram drives 

on-line and is fully 

compatible with our printer 

spooler below 

Printer 




Printer runs at high speed while 
you continue to work at the 
keyboard i 

Backup Lightning 

This utility requires 51 2K Reads 
your master disk once and then 
makes superfast multiple disk 
backups on all your dirvesl No 
need to format blank disks 
firstl Supports 35, 40 
or 80 track dnve3 

COCO Braille 

Produce standard grade 2 Braille 
on a Brother daisy wheel printer 
Easy to use . . . 

for sighted ■ ■ ■ ■ 

■ ■ ■ ■ 

or blind user No knowledge of 
Braille is necessary. Call for free 
sample. 

Prices 
CoCo 3 only 

Ram Disk Lightning, Disk $19.95 

Printer Lightning Disk $19.95 

Backup Lightning, Disk $19.95 

All three. Disk $49 95 

Pyramix, Disk $24.95 

CoCo 1,2, or 3 

Vocal Freedom, Disk $34.95 

Vocal Freedom Hackers Pac .$ 1 4 95 
COCO Braille $69 95 

CoCo 2 or 3 only 

Mental Freedom, Disk $24.95 

Basic Freedom, Disk $24 95 

CoCo 1 or 2 only 

VDOS, The Undisk, ramdisk for the 

CoCo 1 or 2 only, Tape $24 95 

VDUMP, backup Undisk files to single 

tape file, Tape $14.95 

VPRINT, Print Undisk directory, 
Tape $9 95 

Add $2.50 shipping/handling 

in USA or CANADA 

Add $5.00 to ship to other 

countries 



Requires low cost 

Lightning 

Load it and forget 

it- -except for the 

versatility it gives you. 

Never wait for your printer again! 



Freedom 

Would your friends be 
impressed if your 




Dr. Preble's Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 

Louisville, KY 40228 

24 Hour Hot Line 

(502) 9691818 

Visa, MC, COD, Check 



feature 



CoCo3 



"''".- 



Add a point- and- click interface, 
complete with windows and pull-down 
menus, to your BASIC programs 



CoCo Does Windows 
and a Whole Lot More 



By Tony Zamora 



Recently commercial programs 
such as CoCo Max, Lyra and 
Mulii-Vue have introduced the 
CoCo Community to the power of pull- 
down menus, pop-up windows and a 
point-and-click user interface. How- 
ever, we have had no easy way to 



1 ■ 


111 1 1 ' 1 III 1 1 11 III I 1 




1 I I \ ^^^^^"^^ r*. ^\ JL ^ N * s s»_ ^^H / \ 1 









incorporate these features into a BASIC 
program. CoCo Desktop is a set of 
routines for the CoCo 3 allowing you to 
add the power of a point-and-click 



Tony Zamora is currently a computer 
science major at Rose-Hulman Institute 
of Technology. When he 's not program- 
ming, Tony enjoys reading, music and 
distance running. 



interface, complete with windows and 
pull-down menus, to your own BASIC 
programs. 

Just Point and Click 

A point-and-click interface allows 
users to work the way they think. 
Instead of remembering long com- 
mands or cryptic control codes, users 
use a mouse (or joystick) to move a 
cursor around the screen. When they 
want to do something, they point the 
cursor at an object on the screen and 
press the mouse button. 

When CoCo Desktop is run, a list of 
menus appears at the top of a high- 
resolution graphics screen. You will see 
a small, arrow-shaped cursor on the 
screen. With the mouse plugged into the 
right-joystick port, move this cursor 
onto one of the menu titles and press the 
mouse button. A list of menu choices 
will pop up, and you will be able to 
select one of the items by moving the 
arrow up and down the menu. When 
you select an item, it is highlighted in 
reverse video. To choose the highlighted 
option, release the button. If you release 
the button when no option is high- 
lighted, no selection is made. 

Menus Made Easy 

It is easy to create your own menus. 
All you need to do is put the names of 
the menus and the list of options you 
want to appear in the menu in DflTfl 
statements near the beginning of your 
program. Put the menu title first, fol- 
lowed by the choices in the order you 
want them to appear. The list should 
end with a special choice called END (all 
uppercase). For example, if you wanted 



100 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



to create an Option menu containing 
the choices Send, Receive, Clear Buffer 
and Baud Rate, you would write a line 
like the following: 

100 DPTR Options, Send, Receive, 
Clear Buffer, Baud Rate, END 

After the last menu has been put in 
a DATR statement, you need to denote 
the end of the menus with another DATA 
statement containing only END. 

You can use two special options when 
creating menus. The first separates 
menu choices with a dotted line. To do 
this, enter a hyphen as one of your menu 
options, so it appears between the two 
choices you want separated. This fea- 
ture is useful when you want to group 
a set of choices together or isolate an 
option. If you want the options Send 
and Receive grouped together in the 
menu, the DATA statement appears as 
follows: 

100 DATA Options, Send, Receive, -, 
Clear Buffer, Baud Rate, END 

When the Options menu is chosen, a 



dotted line appears between the options 
Receive and Clear Buffer. The second 
feature defines a special menu title that 
looks like a rainbow. When you use it, 
place it in the first menu in your DATA 
statements so it appears at the top left 
of the menu bar. This menu contains a 
list of small subroutines, called desk 
accessories, which perform actions that 
may be unrelated to the main program. 
For example, a pop-up calculator or a 
mini-text editor for making notes would 
be a useful desk accessory. In order to 
get the rainbow menu to appear instead 
of a menu title, put two @ signs in the 
DATA statements, as is done in the 
following example: 

100 DATA @@, Calculator, Note Pad, 
Get Info, END 

Adding Windows and Dialog Boxes 

CoCo Desktop has some subroutines 
that let you use windows anywhere on 
the screen. The first of these starts at 
Line 12000. This routine draws a win- 
dow on the screen. It automatically 
saves what was on the screen, so you 
don't have to worry about losing any- 



thing. Variables wx and WY tell CoCo 
Desktop where to draw the window. 
The x coordinate for the top left corner 
of the window goes in WX(l), and the y 
coordinate for the top left corner goes 
in wv(i). The coordinates for the bot- 
tom right-hand corner go in variables 
wx(2) and WV(2). After setting these 
variables, use a GOSUB 12000 statement 
to draw the window on the screen. To 
erase a window and replace the part of 
the screen it covered, call the subroutine 
at Line 13000. 

A dialog box is similar to a window, 
but it contains an area in which you can 
type a response. Usually this kind of 
window is used to get input from the 
user. Because there are several different 
kinds of input (strings, numbers, etc.), 
CoCo Desktop provides a general struc- 
ture, which can be modified to handle 
any kind of input. The dialog routine in 
the program draws a window and an 
area in which the user can type. It allows 
a user to enter a string consisting of 
digits. The part of the program calling 
this routine converts the string to a 
number and checks to see if the input 
is in the desired range. By modifying the 




ARK ROYAL GAMES is drastically 
cutting prices and reducing our in- 
ventory on most of our CoCo prod- 
ucts. Prices have been slashed on 
even our new programs. Send a 
ARK \W SASE for complete price listing or 
ROYAL v MM for catalog (refunded with 

GAMES #k firstorder )- 

Better hurry. When item is de- 

•jP^ ^ S \M pleted it will not be restocked. 
EXAMPLES 

ACES (64K Disk) WWI Flight/Combat simulator $15 

DOUGHBOY (64K Disk) WWI Real Time Combat $14 

COMPANY COMMANDER (32K) Tactical War Game ... $15 

ALL MODULES FOR COMPANY COMMANDER $10 

COMPANY COMMANDER SCENARIO CREATOR (32K) . . $12 

OKINAWA (64K Disk) WWI Marine Invasion $12 

LUFTFLOTTE (32K) Battle of Britain $14 

FIRE ONE! (CoCo 3 Disk) Sub Warfare in WWII $15 

PRO FOOTBALL (CoCo 3) 1 or 2 players $12 

BATAAN (64K Disk] Two games in one $10 

TUNIS (32K) Battle in North Africa $ 8 

GUADALCANAL (32K) America Strikes Back $ 7 

BOMBER COMMAND (32K) $ 6 

And more! Almost all prices have been cut. Call or write for 
price list. 

ARK ROYAL GAMES 

Post Office Box 14806 • Jacksonville, FL 32238 

(904) 221-5712 

Include 50 cents per program shipping and handling. 
Florida residents add 6% sales tax. 




PflOGA'MS . P|BiP-fo*i V SuPPl'ES • \l flV'C( 



Fast Delivery... 
Friendly Service 

Now in our 7th year! 



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Avatex 1200e 
with Coco Cable 



Reviewed in 
April, 1988 
Rainbow! 



Avatex 1200e. Cable 
AUTOTERM... $119 




/^\ 



Avatex 2400 $169 

with Coco Cable 179 
(Coco 3 only) 

with RS-232 Cable* 205 



Avatex 2400. Cable 
AUTOTERM . . . $209 



"Coco 1 2 lequices Deluxe RS 232 Pah 



• Call' 

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2235 Losantiville. Cincinnati. OH 45237 

SHIPPING will be charged at our ACTUAL COST 
Ohio residents add 5.5% Sales Tax COD add 3.00 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 101 



subroutine to accept characters instead 
of digits, dialog boxes can process string 
input. 

The dialog routine contains some 
statements that draw a blinking cursor 
in the area where the user types. There 
is a provision for checking if the user 



clicked on buttons marked "OK" and 
"Cancel." Often people choose a menu 
option that pops up a dialog box and 
then decide they did not want to change 
anything. A Cancel button lets this 
person abort without any ill effects. The 
OK button is an alternative to pressing 



Hot Spot 
at (1,1) 


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Figure 2 





ENTER when finished typing. It can also 
be used to accept a default value dis- 
played in the dialog box. 

To create a dialog box, draw a win- 
dow where you want the box to appear. 
Then you draw the box where the user 
will type. Do this with the HLINE com- 
mand with the ,B option. Once every- 
thing has been drawn in the window, set 
variables P, PY and L. P is the horizontal 
screen coordinate where the user will 
type; PY is the vertical coordinate; and 
L is the maximum length of the string 
the user can enter. Note: P and py must 
be between and 79 because they are 
used in an HPRINT command. Study 
lines 1000 through 1240 to see an exam- 
ple of the use of the dialog routines. 

Moving Around 

The workhorse of C0C0 Desktop is. 
a routine at Line 1 0000, which checks, 
the mouse and draws the arrow-shaped 
cursor on the screen. This routine works, 
like Basic's INKEYS command. The: 
difference is that instead of getting a key 
press, the subroutine at Line 10000 gets, 
a mouse event. A mouse event is a signal 
that the mouse was moved or the user 
clicked. If the user moved the mouse, 
the routine moves the cursor to its new 
position and returns. If the button was 
pressed, the routine responds by setting 
variables CX and CY. CX and CY are used 
to return to the place on the screen 
where the button was pressed. For 
example, if the user clicked at screen 
position (300,45), CX is 300 and CY is 45. 
If the user moved the mouse but did not 
click, CX and CY both have the value 
negative one (-1). 

When you click in the menu bar at the 
top of the screen, a menu pops up, and 
you can select one of the choices. If you 
select any of the options, a variable 
called SELECT is assigned a number 
based on the order of the choices. For 
instance, if you choose the first option 
of the first menu, SELECT will be as- 
signed the number one. If you choose 
the second option, SELECT will be two. 
If the first menu contains four options, 
and you choose the first option in the 
second menu, SELECT will have the value 
five. The numbers are assigned in the 
order in which they appear in the DATA 
statements. If there is a dotted line in the 
menu, it does not count as a choice. If 
the user does not select anything, SE- 
LECT will be zero. 

When you call Line 10000 in your 
program and want to respond to the 
choice made, use an ON select goto or 
ON SELECT GDSUB statement. If SELECT is 
zero, none of the line numbers in the ON 



102 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



GOTO statement will be executed, and the 
program will drop through to the next 
statement. 

Other Features 

In some applications, you will need to 
clear the screen. So you don't have to 
worry about redrawing the menu titles, 
Line 14000 contains a routine that 
clears the screen and redraws the menu 
bar. Using this routine instead of the CLS 
command will keep you from having to 
worry about maintaining the menus. 

Once you have created a window, use 
it for any purpose. Nothing drawn in a 
window affects any object outside or 
under the window. When you close the 
window, everything in the window will 
be erased, and the screen will appear as 
it did before the window was opened. 
However, if you draw outside the win- 
dow, those changes remain intact even 
when you close the window. If part of 
an object is not in the window when the 
window is closed, only the part of the 
object in the window will be erased. This 
also applies to text drawn with the 
hprint command. 

Problems can arise when you draw 
objects on the screen. When a window 
is opened over the cursor or a shape is 



drawn on top of the cursor, part of the 
object or window will be erased when 
the cursor is moved. This happens 
because of the way the cursor is dis- 
played. Whenever the cursor is drawn, 
it saves part of the screen. If you draw 
on the screen without erasing the cur- 
sor, the cursor replaces the portion of 
the screen it saved, wiping out whatever 
you just drew. Therefore, erase the 
cursor before you draw anything, and 
replace it when you are done. This will 
prevent the cursor from destroying any 
of your work. A subroutine at Line 
15000 will clear the cursor and replace 
the area it covered. The routine at Line 
16000 redraws the cursor. Using these 
routines guarantees the screen is re- 
drawn correctly. 

The subroutines that draw the cursor 
use Variable CURSORS. This variable 
contains a string used by the DRAW 
statement to draw the cursor. By creat- 
ing different strings and assigning them 
to CURSORS, you can have several differ- 
ent cursors. A cursor must not be larger 
than 16-by-l 6 pixels, and you must 
define the cursor's hoi spot (the point 
of the cursor aligned with the mouse). 
For example, the hot spot for the arrow 
cursor is ( 1 , 1 ) near the upper-left corner. 



If you define a cursor shaped like a 
cross-hair, the hot spot would probably 
be (8,8), close to the center of the grid 
(see Figures 1 and 2). Store the hori- 
zontal component of the hot spot in 
Variable HI and the vertical component 
in H2. When creating your own cursors, 
define the DRAW string so it will start at 
the hot spot. If you switch between 
several cursors in the same program, 
erase the old cursor with the routine at 
Line 15000 before calling Line 16000 to 
draw the new cursor. 

Special Notes 

You need to be careful about using 
some aspects of CoCo Desktop. The 
program uses the high-speed poke, so if 
your program does disk I/O, make sure 
you slow down the CoCo with POKE 
G5496,0 before each disk access. You 
can speed it up again with poke G5497,0 
when you are done. 

When windows are drawn or menus 
are popped up, the area of the screen 
covered is saved in an HGET buffer. 
Because of this, it is possible to crash the 
program if menu options are too long 
or you try to create too-large windows. 

If the windows get too large, the 
buffer will not be big enough to save the 




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March 1989 THE RAINBOW 103 



entire area, causing an ?FC (Function 
Call) Error. One possible solution to 
this is to reserve larger buffers with the 
hbuff command. The commands that 
allocate the buffers are in Line 50. 
Buffer I is used to store the area under 
the cursor. Buffers 2, 3 and 4 are used 
for menus, and Buffer 5 keeps the part 
of the screen under the windows. The 
values for these buffers allow moder- 
ately large windows and menus. If you 
use small menus, you may be able to 
decrease the buffer for menus and 
increase the buffer for windows. 

If you use long menus, you may need 
to increase the DIM statements in Line 
150. Variable menus holds the menu 
titles. It currently holds 10 menu titles. 
If you need more than 10, increase the 
dimension of the array, choices keeps 
the names of the menu options. NU 
stores the number of the menu, which 
is returned in SELECT. NU should have the 
same dimensions as CHOICES. HEIGHT 
must be dimensioned to the maximum 
number of menu choices, and Wl and 
RANGE must have the same dimension as 
MENUS. 

I chose hscreen 3 as the graphics 
mode because it provides high resolu- 
tion without using a lot of memory. 
CoCo Desktop can be modified to use 
other graphics modes with more colors. 
If you make this modification, be care- 
ful: The other graphics modes use more 
memory to provide the extra colors, so 
you will not have as much memory for 
windows and menus. If you are using 
medium-sized windows, this should not 
be a problem. However, big windows 
might need more memory, so make sure 
your windows don't get too big. 

If you are using data statements in 
your program, be careful that your data 
values do not conflict with the values 
containing the menu options. As long as 
your data statements come after the 
DflTfl statements containing the menu 
choices, there should be no problems. 
There is only one exception: When you 
use a RESTORE statement to reread your 
data, the statement will restore not only 
your data but also data for the menu 
items. You will have to use some dummy 
READ statements to skip the menu 
choices, so you can read your own data. 

Using Variables 

In order to minimize conflict between 
your variables and the variables used by 
the program, the variables CoCo Desk- 
lop uses all start with the letters CD or 
the letter C, followed by a digit. As long 
as your program does not use any 
variables with these names, everything 



Cl, C2, C3, 


Cl Loop Variables 


C5 


Unused 


CG 


Unused 


C7 


Current x-position of cursor 


C8 


Current y-position of cursor 


C9 


Previous x-position of cursor 


C0 


Previous y-position of cursor 


CD(0) 


Counts the number of menu items 


CD(1) 


Checks if the routine has been entered 


CD(2) 


Unused 


ED(3) 


Unused 


CD(4) 


Loop Variable 


CD(5) 


Length of the menu option 


CD(G) 


Left margin of menu 


CD(7) 


Number of menus 


CD(8) 


Vertical position of dotted line 


CD(9) 


Unused 


CD(10) 


Unused 


CD(ll) 


Scaling factor for menus 


CD(12) 


Unused 


CD(13) 


Right margin of menu 


CD(14) 


The menu that was chosen 


CD(15) 


Scaling factor for menus 


CD(1G) 


Scaling factor for menus 


CD(17) 


Scaling factor for menus 


CD(1B) 


Top margin of menu 


CD (19) 


Number of characters in the menu bar 


CD (20) 


Loop Variable 


CD (21) 


Loop Variable 


CD(22) 


Bottom margin of menu 




Table 1: Program Variables 



should work fine. However, there are 
some variables the program uses to 
communicate with your program that 
you must avoid as well. These are 
SELECT, CX, CY, WX, WY, CURSORS, RAIN- 
BOWS, ARROWS, MENUS, CHOICES, NU, 
HEIGHT, Wl and range. (See Table 1 for 
an explanation of the variables.) When 
selecting variable names, remember 
that only the first two letters of a 
variable are significant in BASIC. 

Conclusion 

The listing includes all the Desktop 
routines and a demonstration program 
using these routines to create a point- 
and-click Tic-tac-toe game. The game is 
for two players and does not recognize 
wins and losses because the demo pro- 
gram was designed to demonstrate the 
use of windows and pull-down menus. 
By studying the program, you will be 
able to get an idea of how the routines 
work and how to better use them in your 
own programs. Experiment with the 
program and feel free to modify it to suit 
your particular needs. 



The routines in CoCo Desktop 
should let you use menus and windows 
in your programs with a minimum of 
problems. There are many ways the 
program can provide a friendly user 
interface. These range from painting 
and drawing programs, to point-and- 
click spreadsheets, to mouse-driven 
word processors. If you have a collec- 
tion of short programs, you can draw 
icons for each one and have them 
execute when the user clicks on the icon. 
This provides a nice alternative to the 
traditional text menus. Alternate high- 
resolution fonts for the hprint com- 
mand can add individuality and style to 
your program. The possibilities are 
limited only by your imagination. Be 
creative and have fun. 



(Questions or comments about the 
program may be directed to the author 
at 5500 Wabash Avenue, Box 568, Terre 
Haute, IN 47803. Please enclose an 
SASE when requesting a reply.) □ 



104 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 





* 








1 


yT 


...189 


1210 .. 


..124 


V 


170 .. . 




340 .. . 


....97 


10120 . 


.123 


550 .. . 


....56 


10240 . 


...86 


690 . . . 


...119 


10390 . 


.197 


840 ... 


1 


10490 . 


..125 


1000 . . 


5 


12080. 


..221 


1080 


253 


END 


134 



The Listing: DESKTOP 

jS ' COPYRIGHT 1989 FALSOFT,INC 

10 POKE&HF015,&H21 'MAKE SOLID H 

PRINT CHARACTERS 

20 POKE65497,0 

30 PALETTE 0,63: PALETTE 1 , 

40 PCLEAR1 

50 HBUFF 1,512:HBUFF 2,2256:HBUF 

F3 , 512 : HBUFF4 , 512 : HBUFF5 ,4096 

60 HCOLOR1 

70 HSCREEN3 

80 POKE&HFF9A,63 'SET BORDER TO 

WHITE 

90 CLEAR 209 6 

100 DATA @@, About The Desktop, Ge 

t Info, Key Caps, Music, END 

110 DATA File, New Game, -, Quit, EN 

D 

120 DATA Edit, Undo,-, Cut, Copy, Pa 

ste,END 

130 DATA Options, Foreground, Back 

ground, END 

140 DATA END 

150 DIM CD (22) ,MENU$(10) , CHOICE$ 

(10,20) ,NU(10,20) ,HEIGHT(20) ,WI( 

10) , RANGE (10) 

160 ARROW$="C0D13M+3,-3M+l,+lDM+ 

1 , +1D2R3U2M-1 , -1U2M-1 , +1U2R4M-9 , 

-9DC1D10M+1 , -1U8M+1 , +1D6RDRD2RD2 

RULU2LU2LU5M+l,+lD3RU2M+l,+lDR ,, 

170 RAINB0W$="D3R1U3M+1,-1URDUM+ 

1 , -1R3M+1 , -1R7M+1 , +1R3M+1 , +1DRUD 

M+1,+1RD3LU3D3BL3U2LD2U2M-1,-1LU 

RLM-1 , -1L7M-1 , +1LDRLM-1 , +1LD2RU2 

D2BR3U2RD2U2M+1,-1R3M+1,+1D2RU2" 

180 CURSOR$=ARROW$:Hl=l:H2=l 

190 CD(1)=1 

200 CD(18)=16 

210 CD(7)=1:CD(0)=1 

220 READ MENUS (CD (7)) 

230 IF MENU$(CD(7J)="END" GOTO 3 

50 

240 HEIGHT(CD(7) ) =1 

250 WI(CD(7) )=0 

260 READ CHOICE$ (CD(7) ,HEIGHT(CD 

(7))) 

270 CD(5)=LEN(CHOICE$(CD(7) ,HEIG 

HT(CD(7)))) 

280 IF CHOICE$(CD(7) ,HEIGHT(CD(7 

) ) )="END" GOTO 330 

290 IF CD(5)>WI(CD(7) ) THEN WI(C 



D(7))=CD(5) 

300 IF CHOICE? (CD(7) ,HEIGHT(CD(7 

)))<>"-" THEN NU(CD(7) ,HEIGHT(CD 

(7)))=CD(0) :CD(0)=CD(0)+1 

310 HEIGHT (CD (7) ) =HEIGHT (CD (7) )+ 

1 

3 20 GOTO 2 60 

330 CD(7)=CD(7)+1 

340 GOTO 220 

350 CD(7)=CD(7) -1 :RANGE (0) =8 

3 60 FOR Cl=l TO CD (7) 

3 70 HEIGHT (CI) =HEIGHT (CI) -1 

380 CD(19)=CD(19)+LEN(MENU$(C1)) 

+2 

390 RANGE (CI) =RANGE (Cl-1)+ (LEN (M 

ENU$(C1) )+2) *8 

400 NEXT 

410 RANGE(C1)=640 

420 IF CD(19)>80 THEN PRINT"Menu 

bar Options Too Long": END 

4 30 FOR Cl=l TO CD (7) 

440 FOR C2=l TO HEIGHT (CI) 

450 IF CHOICE$ (CI, C2 )<>"-" THEN 

CHOICE$ (CI , C2 ) =" "+CHOICE$ (CI , C2 

) +STRING$ ( (WI (CI) -LEN (CHOICES (CI 

,C2)))+1,32) 

460 NEXT C2 

470 NEXT CI 

480 GOSUB 17000 'DRAW MENUBAR 

490 ' ' ' END MENU STEUP 

500 ' ! ' YOUR PROGRAM STARTS HERE 

510 DIM GR(2,2) 

520 TURN$="X":FOR T=0 TO 2 : FOR T 

2=0 TO 2:GR(T,T2)=0:NEXT T2,T 

530 HLINE(200,75)-(440,75) ,PSET: 

HLINE(200,115)-(440,115) ,PSET 

540 HLINE(280,35)-(280,155) , PSET 

:HLINE(360,35)-(360,155) , PSET 

550 GOSUB 10000 

560 ON SELECT GOTO 930,700,790,7 

70 , 900 , 990 , 910 , 660 , 660 , 660 , 1000 , 

1000 

570 IF CX<200 OR CX>440 OR CY<35 

OR CY>155 GOTO 550 
580 IF CX=2 80 OR CX=3 60 OR CY=75 

OR CY=115 GOTO 550 
590 XI=INT((CX-200)/80) :YI=INT(( 
CY-35)/40) 



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March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



105 



600 IF GR(XI,YI) THEN SOUND 55,1 
:GOTO 550 ELSE GR(XI,YI)=1 
610 A=XI*80+200:B=YI*40+35:MOVE= 
1:LX=XI:LY=YI 
620 GOSUB 15000 

630 IF TURN$="X" THEN HLINE (A+10 
, B+5) - (A+70 , B+35) , PSET : HLINE (A+l 
, B+35) - (A+70 , B+5 ) , PSET : TURN$="0 
" ELSE HCIRCLE(A+40,B+20) ,30:TUR 
N$="X" 

640 GOSUB 16000 
650 GOTO 550 

660 WX(1)=208:WY(1)=70:WX(2)=430 
:WY (2) =120: GOSUB 12000 
670 GOSUB 15000: SOUND 55,1:HPRIN 
T(29 , 11) , "Sorry, not implemented 
" :HPRINT( 3 1,12) , "Click to contin 
ue": GOSUB 16000 

680 GOSUB 10000: IF CX=-1 AND CY= 
-1 AND SELECT=0 GOTO 680 
690 GOSUB 13000: GOTO 560 

700 WX(1)=170:WY(1)=70:WX(2)=470 
:WY(2)=130:GOSUB 12000:GOSUB 150 

00 

710 HPRINT(2 3,10) , "The CoCo Desk 

top - A programming" 

720 HPRINT (23 ,11) /'environment w 

hich supports Pop-Up" 

730 HPRINT(2 3, 12) /'Windows and P 

ull-Down Menus. " :HPRINT(23 , 14) ," 

Available Memory : " :HPRINT(42, 14 

) ,MEM:HPRINT(49,14) , "Bytes" 

740 GOSUB 16000 

750 GOSUB 10000: IF CX=-1 AND CY= 

-1 AND SELECT=0 GOTO 750 

760 GOSUB 13000: GOTO 560 

770 POKE65496,0:PLAY"T3L2FL8GB-A 

GL404CCL8CD03AB-L4GGL8GB-AGF04CO 

3GAL4F":POKE65497,0 

7 80 GOTO 550 

790 WX(1)=70:WY(1)=60:WX(2)=310: 
WY (2) =112: GOSUB 12000: GOSUB 1500 



800 FOR C=65 TO 90 :HPRINT ( ll+C-6 

5,9) ,CHR$(C) :NEXT 

810 FOR C=97 TO 122 :HPRINT (11+C- 

97,10) ,CHR$(C) :NEXT 

820 FOR C=3 3 TO 58 :HPRINT (ll+C-3 

3,11) ,CHR$(C) :NEXT 

830 FOR C=59 TO 64 :HPRINT (ll+C-5 

9,12) ,CHR$(C) :NEXT 

840 FOR C=91 TO 96 :HPRINT (17+C-9 

1,12) ,CHR$(C) :NEXT 

850 FOR C=123 TO 12 6 :HPRINT(23+C 

-123,12) ,CHR$(C) :NEXT 

8 60 GOSUB 16000 

870 GOSUB 10000: IF CX=-1 AND CY= 

-1 AND SELECT=0 GOTO 870 

880 GOSUB 13000: GOTO 560 

890 GOTO 550 

900 GOSUB 14000: GOTO 520 'CLEAR 



SCREEN AND REDRAW MENUBAR 

910 IF MOVE=l THEN GR(LX, LY) =0 :M 

OVE=0:IF TURN$="0" THEN TURN$="X 

" : HLINE ( A+10 , B+5 ) - (A+70 , B+35 ) , PR 

ESET : HLINE (A+10 , B+3 5 ) - (A+70 , B+5 ) 

, PRESET ELSE TURN$="0" :HCIRCLE (A 

+40,B+20) ,30,0 

920 GOTO 550 

930 WX(1)=228:WY(1)=30:WX(2)=410 

:WY(2)=90:GOSUB 12000 

940 GOSUB 15000 'CLEAR CURSOR 

950 HPRINT(3 2,5) , "The CoCo Deskt 

op":HPRINT(3 3,7) , "By Tony Zamora 

":HPRINT(3 3,9) /'Copyright 1988" 

960 GOSUB 16000 'DRAW CURSOR 

970 GOSUB 10000: IF CX=-1 AND CY= 

-1 AND SELECT=0 GOTO 970 

980 GOSUB 13000: GOTO 560 

990 POKE 65496, : CLS : RGB: END 

1000 TEMP=SELECT:WX(1)=144:WY(1) 

=16:WX(2)=496:WY(2)=64:GOSUB 120 
00: GOSUB 15000 

1010 IF TEMP=11 THEN HPRINT(20,3 
) , "Enter the new foreground colo 
r." ELSE HPRINT(20,3) /'Enter the 

new background color." 
1020 HPRINT(53,3) , "Cancel" :HPRIN 
T(55,5) ,"OK" 

1030 HCIRCLE(421,25) ,8, ,1, .5, .75 
: HLINE (42 1,21) -(471, 21) ,PSET:HLI 
NE(421,34)-(471,34) , PSET:HCIRCLE 
(421,30) ,8, ,1, .25, .5:HCIRCLE(471 
,25) ,8, ,1, .75,0:HCIRCLE(471,30) , 
8, ,1,0, .25: HLINE (413 ,26) -(413, 29 
) ,PSET:HLINE(479,26)-(479,29) , PS 
ET 

1040 HCIRCLE(421,41) ,8, ,1, .5, .75 
: HLINE (42 1,37) -(471 ,37) ,PSET:HLI 
NE (421, 50) -(471, 50) , PSET:HCIRCLE 
(421,46) ,8, ,1, .25, . 5 :HCIRCLE(471 
,41) ,8, ,1, .75,0:HCIRCLE(471,46) , 
8, ,1,0, .25. -HLINE (413, 42) -(413, 45 
) ,PSET:HLINE(479,42)-(479,45) ,PS 
ET 

1050 HLINE(157,37)-(352,50) , PSET 
,B: GOSUB 16000 

1060 P=20:PY=5:L=2 3:GOSUB 1110 ' 
INPUT THE COLOR 
1070 IF ST$<>STRING$(L, " ") THEN 

ST=VAL(ST$) ELSE 1100 
1080 IF ST>63 THEN SOUND 55,1: GO 
TO 1060 

1090 IF TEMP=11 THEN PALETTE 1,S 
T ELSE PALETTE , ST: POKE&HFF9A, S 
T 

1100 GOSUB 13000: IF SELECT=0 THE 
N GOTO 550 ELSE GOTO 560 
1110 R=P:ST$=STRING$(L," "):GOSU 
B15000 : HPRINT (R, PY) , ST$ : GOSUB160 

00 

1120 GOSUB 10000 :K$=INKEY$:TR=TI 



106 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



MER:IF TR-INT(TR/3) *3=0 THEN HLI 

NE (R*8 ; PY*8-1) - (R*8+l, PY*8+8) , PS 

ET,B 

1130 IF SELECTOR THEN ST$=STRIN 

G$(L, " ") : RETURN 

114j3 'CHECK TO SEE IF THEY CHOSE 

"CANCEL" OR "OK" 
115,0 IF CX>=421 AND CX<=471 AND 
CY>=21 AND CY<=30 THEN ST$=STRIN 
G$(L, " ") : RETURN 

1160 IF CX>=421 AND CX<=471 AND 
CY>=37 AND CY<=4 6 THEN RETURN 
1170 HLINE(R*8,PY*8-1)-(R*8+1,PY 
*8+8) , PRESET, B 
1180 IF K$="" GOTO 1120 
1190 IF K$<>CHR$(8) GOTO 1220 
1200 R=R-1:IF R<P THEN R=P 
1210 MID$(ST$,R-P+1,1)=" ":GOSUB 
15000 :HPRINT(R,PY) ," ":GOSUB1600 

0:GOTO 1120 

12 20 IF K$=CHR$(13) THEN RETURN 
1230 IF K$>="0" AND K$<="9" THEN 
IF R<L+P THEN MID$ (ST$ ,R-P+1, 1) 
=K$ : GOSUB15000 : HPRINT (R, PY) , K$ : G 
OSUB16000:R=R+1:IF R>L+P THEN R= 
L+P 
1240 GOTO 1120 

9999 'GET A MOUSE EVENT 

10000 SELECT=0 

10010 C7=INT(JOYSTK(0)*9.9+H1) :C 

8=INT(JOYSTK(l)*2.783+H2) 

10020 IF BUTTON (0)<>0 AND C8<10 

AND CD(1)<>1 THEN HPUT (C9-H1, C0- 

H2)-(C9-H1+16,C0-H2+16) ,1:G0SUB 

10120 : CX=-1 : CY=-1 : RETURN 

10030 IF C7=C9 AND C8=C0 GOTO 10 

100 

10040 IF CD(1)<>1 THEN HPUT(C9-H 

1,C0-H2)-(C9-H1+16,C0-H2+16) ,1 

10050 IF C7-HK0 THEN C7=H1 

10060 IF C8-H2<0 THEN C8=H2 

10070 HGET(C7-H1,C8-H2)-(C7-H1+1 

6,C8-H2+16) ,1 

10080 HDRAW "BM"+STR$ (C7 ) +" , "+ST 



R$(C8)+CURS0R$ 

10090 C9=C7:C0=C8:CD(1)=0 

10100 IF BUTTON(0)<>0 AND C8>=10 

THEN CX=C7 : CY=C8 : RETURN 
10110 CX=-l:CY=-l: RETURN 
10120 CD(14)=1:SELECT=0:C7=INT(J 
OYSTK(0)*9.9+H1) 

10130 IF C7>RANGE(CD(14) ) THEN C 
D(14)=CD(14)+l:GOTO 10130 
10140 IF CD(14)>CD(7) GOTO 10530 
10150 CD(6)=RANGE(CD(14)-1) :CD(1 
3 ) = (WI (CD ( 14 ) ) +2 ) *8+CD ( 6 ) -1 : CD ( 2 
2)=HEIGHT(CD(14) ) *8+15 
10160 HGET(CD(6)-1,11)-(CD(13)+1 
,CD(22)+1),2 

10170 HLINE(CD(6)-1,10)-(CD(13)+ 
1,CD(22)+1) ,PSET,B:HGET(CD(6) ,0) 
-(RANGE (CD (14) )-l,9) ,3:HPUT(CD(6 
) ,0)- (RANGE (CD (14) )-l,9) , 3 , PRESE 
T 

10180 HLINE(CD(6)-1,0)-(CD(6)-1, 
9) ,PSET 

10190 HCOLOR0:HLINE(CD(6) ,11)-(C 
D ( 13 ) , 15) , PSET , BF : HCOLOR1 
10200 HLINE(CD(13)+2,12)-(CD(13) 
+2,CD(22)+1) ,PSET 
10210 CD(4)=CD(6)/8 
10220 FOR C3=l TO HEIGHT (CD(14) ) 
10230 IF CHOICE$(CD(14) ,C3)="-" 
THEN HPRINT (CD (4 ) ,C3+1) , STRINGS ( 
WI(CD(14) )+2," ") :CD(8)=(C3+1)*8 
+3: FOR C4=CD(6) TO CD (13) STEP 2 
:HSET(C4,CD(8) ) :NEXT: GOTO10250 
10240 HPRINT(CD(4) ,C3+1) ,CHOICE$ 
(CD(14),C3) 
10250 NEXT 
10260 GOTO 10430 

10270 IF BUTTON (0)=0 GOTO 104 80 
10280 C7=INT(JOYSTK(0) *9.9+Hl) :C 
8=INT(JOYSTK(l) *2.783+H2) 
10290 IF C7=C9 AND C8=C0 GOTO 10 
270 

10300 IF C8<9 AND (C7<RANGE (CD(1 
4)-l) OR C7>RANGE(CD(14) ) ) AND C 



Join the MID/ revo/ut/'on - Turn your music synthesizer into a 
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All come backed by a guarantee of satisfaction. We have been in the CoCo music business for over 5 years and are committed to providing 
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CoCo MIDI 3: A powerful MIDI recorder/sequencer; includes hardware MIDI interface and cables.. Multipak or Y cable required. 
S149.95. FB01EDIT Edit and creal new P'IS-01 voices on your CoCo 3. Requires CoCo MIDI hardware pack. $29.95. FB-01 Calc creates 
custom configurations for your FB-01 and Lyra. S19.95. Music Library is a collection of 4-part music to play on your CoCo (no extras 

needed!). I inch disk S5.00. Musica 2. the companion music composition program, is only 
S24.95. Lyra Lybrary is an extensive collection of 6-8 part music (over 13 disks) to play 
on your MIDI synthesizer. I inch disk S14.95. Lyra: a powerful yet easy-to-use MIDI music 
composition program. 8 voices plus much more. Comes with MIDI cable. Only S59.95. 
Yamaha PSS-480 12 note multitimbrnl synthesizer: call for price and availability. 
Ordering information: send check or money order. Sorry, no credit cards. COD is ok. 




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P.O. Box 143 

Imperial Beach, CA 92032 

(619) 690-3648 (evenings 6-10 PT) 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



107 



7>8 GOTO 10480 
10310 CD(15)=FIX( (C8-8)/8) 
10320 CD(17)=FIX((C0-8)/8) 
10330 CD(16)=CD(15) *8+8 
10340 CD(ll)=CD(17)*8+8 
10350 HPUT(C9-H1,C0-H2)-(C9-H1+1 
6,C0-H2+16) ,1 

10360 IF C7<CD(6) OR C7>CD(13) 
R C8<CD(18) OR C8>CD(22) GOTO 10 
420 'IF C7 IS OUTSIDE, GOTO 
10370 IF C9<CD(6) OR C9>CD(13) O 
R C0<CD(18) OR C0>CD(22) THEN IF 
CHOICES (CD (14) ,CD(15) )<>"-" THE 
N HGET(CD(6) ,CD(16) )-(CD(13) , CD ( 
16)+7) ,4:HPUT(CD(6) ,CD(16) )-(CD( 
13) ,CD(16)+7) ,4, PRESET: GOTO 1043 
ELSE GOTO 10430 
10380 IF CD(16)=CD(11) GOTO 1043 



10390 IF CHOICE$ (CD (14) ,CD(15))= 
n_ii THEN HGET(CD(6) ,CD(11) )-(CD( 
13) ,CD(ll)+7) ,4:HPUT(CD(6) ,CD(11 
))-(CD(13) ,CD(ll)+7) ,4,PRESET:GO 
TO 10430 

10400 IF CHOICES (CD(14) ,CD(17))= 
h-ii THEN HGET(CD(6) ,CD(16) )-(CD( 
13) ,CD(16)+7) ,4:HPUT(CD(6) ,CD(16 
) )-(CD(13) ,CD(16)+7) ,4,PRESET:GO 
TO 10430 

10410 HGET(CD(6),CD(11))-(CD(13) 
, CD (11) +7) ,4:HPUT(CD(6) ,CD(11))- 
(CD(13) ,CD(ll)+7) ,4, PRESET : HGET ( 
CD (6) ,CD(16) ) -(CD (13) , CD (16) +7) , 
4:HPUT(CD(6) ,CD(16) )-(CD(13) ,CD( 
16) +7) ,4, PRESET: GOTO 10430 
10420 IF C9>=CD(6) AND C9<=CD(13 
) AND C0>=CD(18) AND C0<=CD(22) 
THEN IF CHOICES (CD(14) ,CD(17) )<> 
"-" THEN HGET(CD(6) ,CD(11) )-(CD( 
13) ,CD(ll)+7) ,4:HPUT(CD(6) ,CD(11 
) )-(CD(13) , CD (11) +7) ,4, PRESET 
10430 IF C7-HK0 THEN C7=H1 
10440 IF C8-H2<0 THEN C8=H2 
10450 HGET(C7-H1,C8-H2)-(C7-H1+1 
6,C8-H2+16) ,1 

10460 HDRAW "BM"+STR$ (C7) +" , "+ST 
R$(C8)+CURSOR$ 
10470 C9=C7:C0=C8:GOTO 10270 
10480 HPUT(C9-H1,C0-H2)-(C9-H1+1 
6,C0-H2+16) ,1 

10490 HPUT(CD(6)-1,11)-(CD(13)+1 
,CD(22)+1) ,2:HGET(CD(6) ,0)-(RANG 
E(CD(14) )-l,9) ,3:HPUT(CD(6) ,0)-( 
RANGE (CD (14)) -1,9) , 3 , PRESET 
10500 HLINE(CD(6)-1,0)-(CD(6)-1, 
9) , PRESET 

10510 IF C7-HK0 THEN C7=H1 
10520 IF C8-H2<0 THEN C8=H2 



10530 HGET(C7-H1,C8-H2)-(C7-H1+1 

6,C8-H2+16) ,1 

10540 HDRAW "BM"+STR$ (C7) +" , "+ST 

R$(C8)+CURSOR$ 

10550 C9=C7:C0=C8 

10560 C7=INT(JOYSTK(0) *9.9+Hl) :C 

8=INT(JOYSTK(l) *2.783+H2) 

10570 IF C7>=CD(6) AND C7<=CD(13 

) AND C8>=CD(18) AND C8<=CD(22) 

THEN SELECT=NU ( CD ( 14 ) , CD ( 15 ) ) 

10580 RETURN 

119 99 'POP UP A WINDOW 

12000 GOSUB 15000 

12010 HGET(WX(1) ,WY(1) )-(WX(2) ,W 

Y(2)),5 

12020 HLINE(WX(1) ,WY (1) ) - (WX(2) , 

WY(2) ) ,PSET,B 

12030 HCOLOR0 

12040 HLINE(WX(1)+1,WY(1)+1)-(WX 

(2)-l,WY(2)-l) ,PSET,BF 

12050 HCOLOR1 

12060 HLINE(WX(l)+4,WY(l)+2)-(WX 

(2)-4,WY(2)-2) ,PSET,B 

12070 HLINE(WX(l)+5,WY(l)+2)-(WX 

(l)+5,WY(2)-2) ,PSET 

12080 HLINE(WX(2)-5,WY(l)+2)-(WX 

(2)-5,WY(2)-2) ,PSET 

12090 GOSUB 16000 

12100 RETURN 

1299 9 "ERASE THE CURRENT WINDOW 

13000 GOSUB15000:HPUT(WX(1) ,WY(1 

) )-(WX(2) ,WY(2) ) ,5:GOSUB16000:RE 

TURN 

13999 'CLEAR THE SCREEN AND REDR 
AW THE MENUBAR 

14000 HCLS:GOSUB17000:CD(1)=1:C9 
=-l:C0=-l: RETURN 

14999 'ERASE THE CURSOR 

15000 HPUT(C9-H1,C0-H2) -(C9-H1+1 
6,C0-H2+16) ,1:RETURN 

15999 'REDRAW THE CURSOR 

16000 HGET(C9-H1,C0-H2)-(C9-H1+1 
6,C0-H2+16) ,1 

16010 HDRAW"BM"+STR$(C9)+","+STR 

$(C0)+CURSOR$ 

16020 RETURN 

16999 'DRAW MENUBAR 

17000 HLINE(0,10)-(639,10) , PSET 
17010 IF MENUS (1)="@@" THEN HDRA 
W"BM12,4"+RAINBOW$ ELSE HPRINT(2 
,0) ,MENU$(1) 

17020 C2=2:C1=2 

17030 C1=C1+LEN (MENUS (C2-1) ) +2 

17040 IF C2>CD(7) THEN RETURN 

17050 HPRINT(C1,0) ,MENU$(C2) 

17060 C2=C2+1 

17070 GOTO 17030 



/R\ 



108 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



— ■ 






J M ?: ' / 



XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program 



< Menu oriented 

■ Upload/download Ascii 

or XMODEM protocol 
i Execute OS-9 commands 

from within XTERM 



Definable macro keys 
Works with standard serial port, RS232 
Pak, or FBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers 
Works with standard screen, Xscreen 
WORDPAK or DISTO 80 column board 



$49.95 with 



source 



$89.95 



ECONOMIST 

Perform economic analysis to compare differ- 
ent cost and income alternatives! Compute 
present and future Life Cycle Worths for var- 
ious combinations of single, series and gradi- 
ent dollar amounts. Quickly edit and recom- 
pute for sensitivity analysis! Display line 
graphs. Printout data and results. Pull-down 
menus, windows and prompts. Requires os-9 
level II and Basic09. 

$39.95 WITH SOURCE $79.95 



HARDWARE 



512k memory upgrade 

Ram Software 
Ram Disk 
Print Spooler 
Quick Backup 



$134.95 



All three for only 
$19.95 




•Software by ColorVcnttire 



XWORD 
OS-9 word processing system 

• Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or DISTO 

- True character oriented full screen editing 

• Full block commands 

• Find and Replace commands 

- Proportional spacing supported 

• Full printer control, character size, emphasized, Italics, overstrike, 
underline, super/sub-scripts 

• ID header/footers 

■ Margins and headers can be set different Tor even and odd pages 

$69.95 with source $124.95 

XMERGE Mall merge capabilities Tor XWORD 

$24.95 with source $49.95 

XSPELL OS-9 spelling checker, with 40000 word dictionaries 

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XED OS-9 lull screen editor 

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This sales-based accounting package is de- 
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outputs include Balance Sheet, Income State- 
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$79.95 
INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory 
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produce a detailed analysis of the business' 
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and update the SBAP inventory. 

$59.95 



PAYROLL 

Designed for maintaining personnel and 
payroll data for up lo 200 hourly and salar- 
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culates payroll and lax amounts, prints 
checks and maintains year-to-date totals 
which can be automatically transferred to 
the SKA package. Computes each pay peri- 
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bonus pay and determines taxes to be with- 
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$59.95 



PERSONAL BOOKKEEPING 2000 
Handles 45 accounts. Enters cash expenses as 
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$39.95 



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Includes detailed audit trails and history 
reports for each customer, perpares in- 
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terms for commercial accounts or fllMBCC 
charges for revolving accounts. This path- 
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integrates with the Small Business Accllng 
package. 

$59.95 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 
Designed for the maintenance of vendor 
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invoices. The user can run a Vendor list. 
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1 Softwar e — 

R.S.B. — 

Real BASIC Under OS-9 

You've had your Color Computer 3 for 
some time now and keep hearing about 
OS-9. You know that you'll have to try it 
sooner or later, but you "d rather not just yet 
— OS-9 sounds so unfriendly, [f you could 
just run all of the programs you've written 
in BASIC it would make the experience a 
lot easier. But don't you have to learn 
BASIC09 to write under OS-9? Not any- 
more, thanks to Burke & Burke. 

Now you can run the programs you've 
written under Disk BASIC and write new 
ones thai lake full advantage of OS-9 with- 
out having to learn a new language. How is 
this possible? Burke & Burke have made it 
easy with the introduction of R.S.B. 

R.S.B. is an implementation of Disk 



CoCo 3 OS-9 Level II 



BASIC under OS-9. To run. it needs a 
Color Computer 3 (minimum of 128K), a 
monitor or TV, a disk drive, OS-9 Level II 
and a floppy controller with one of the 
following ROMs: Disk Extended Color 
BASIC 1 .0, 1 . 1 . 2.0, 2. 1 or Dislo CoCo 3 
CDOS Disk BASIC. It also supports a 
printer, multiple floppy drives, hard drives, 
a mouse and joystick. Speech/Sound Pak 
or Super Voice, RS-232 Pak, and Mulii- 
Viie. It will even work with a cassette 
recorder. A 5 12K CoCo is recommended. 
though, if you really want to lake advan- 
tage of graphics or run BASIC programs 
longer than 100 lines. 

So how does it work? R.S.B. comes 
with two disks, one labeled Installation 



Disk and the other Demo/Utilities Disk. 
After backing up both disks, the user merely 
inserts the Installation Disk in drive /d0 
and types install. Of course, the exe- 
cution and data directories must have been 
previously switched to /d0 with chd / 
dO, chx /d0. Also, Install must be 
run from a high-resolution window, not 
the default VDG screen. 

The Install program reads the Color 
Computer's BASIC interpreter from ROM 
and writes it on the disk. It then modifies 
certain portions of the program to allow it 
to run under OS-9. This process uses all of 
the computer's power and takes about 10 
minutes. Once Install has been run, 
R.S.B. can be copied into the normal exe- 
cution directory and run any lime. 

R.S.B. can be run from the command 
line in either a VDG or a true window, or 
it can be executed from the Mulli-Vue 
environment by clicking on its icon, which, 
along with an AIF, is included on the disk. 
R.S.B. can be called with just one parameter. 



110 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



-g, which tells it not to allocate a VDG 
graphics screen at startup. Because Lo- 
Res graphics will still run in a Hi-Res 
window even if -g is specified, it is a good 
idea to use it if you don't run R.S.B. from 
a VDG screen. The -g option saves about 
6K of RAM. R.S.B. can also be called with 
a program name that it will load and exe- 
cute automatically. 

The documentation is excellent. The 
first few chapters explain the process of 
installation and execution. The later chap- 
ters and appendices detail the differences 
between standard Disk BASIC and R.S.B. 
and give instructions on how to use the 
utilities. The manual also goes into detail 
about the program's internal operation and 
memory map. 

The program itself starts up with a 
black-on-green copyright notice followed 
by the standard Disk BASIC message. 
Operation from this point on is almost 
exactly like disk BASIC, except that all 
commands can be entered in lowercase. 
This feature is similar to B ASIC09. and, as 
with BASIC09. all keywords entered in 
lowercase are capitalized, including hexa- 
decimal numbers. 

"All of the graph- 
ics routines in 
R.S.B. have been 
modified to use 
OS-9's graphics 
commands." 



The Demo/Utilities Disk contains sev- 
eral short demonstration programs in BA- 
SIC. All of these worked fine, with one 
exception — Joy . bas. This program con- 
stantly calls JOYSTK ( ) , JOYSTK ( 1 ) , 
J0YSTK(2) and JOYSTK (3) and prints 
their values onscreen. Those familiar with 
Extended BASIC know that JOYSTK ( ) 
refers to the horizontal axis of the right 
joystick and JOYSTK ( 1 ) refers to its ver- 
tical axis. This is also what the R.S.B. 
manual indicates. However, it seems that 
JOYSTK ( ) returns the vertical position 
of the left joystick and JOYSTK ( 1 ) re- 
turns its horizontal value. For review I had 
available Version 1.1. Version 1.2 is out 
now, and I've been informed that this 
version fixes the joystick problem. 

1 tried to run one of my own programs, 
in which the user flies a helicopter around 
the screen with the right joystick. After 



several minutes of frustration, I figured 
out that if I used the left joystick and 
pushed left and right in order lo go up and 
down, and up and down in order to go left 
and right, everything worked fine — al- 
most. The helicopter was one solid color, 
the color that its windshield should have 
been, and the animation was incredibly 
slow, as was the sound. The differing color 
is explained by the fact that, as the manual 
states, the way the coordinates are scaled 
causes the lines in DRAW commands not 
always to meet as expected. This caused 
my painting of the windscreen to fill the 
entire helicopter. Also the HPAINT com- 
mand works differently under R.S.B. be- 
cause it uses OS-9's Fill command. The 



slowness of animation and sound is caused 
by OS-9's multitasking, and thus the 
computer is constantly interrupting the 
BASIC program in order to check for 
other tasks. Chris Burke has corrected this 
slight bug. also, and posted a fix on Delphi. 
It is fixed in Version 1.2. 

Two years ago, before I had OS-9. I 
wrote a program lo solve // equations of// 
unknowns using Gaussian elimination. 
When I got OS-9. I never bothered to 
rewrite the program and always ran it from 
BASIC. Now, I'm happy to say, I can run 
it from OS-9 and don't have to keep re- 
booting. In fact, the only programs that I 
have had trouble running involve graph- 
ics. For instance, I have (rouble with a 



OS-9 for the Common Man 



Last year at the Princeton RAINBOWI'cst, 
Burke & Burke celebrated one year of pro- 
viding excellent products for OS-9 and the 
CoCo. Their first offerings made hard drives 
affordable, and now their latest product 
makes OS-9 usable. 

What is this product? R.S.B., Disk Ex- 
tended BASIC for OS-9. Now users can run 
their old Disk Extended BASIC programs 
under OS-9 — and write new ones, using all 
of OS-9's power in the old. familiar lan- 
guage. 

Why bring BASIC to OS-9? Chris Burke. 
R.S.B.' a developer, says that OS-9 is impor- 
tant to the survival of the Color Computer, 
and that if people are going lo get the most 
out of their CoCos. they are going to have to 
start using OS-9. However, many people 
don't I ike OS-9 or are afraid to try it because 
they think it is so unfriendly. Besides, they've 
written a lot of neat programs in Disk 
BASIC. So Chris produced R.S.B. to "bridge 
the gap" between the familiar environment 
of Disk BASIC and the hostile environment 
of OS-9. 

As interesting as the products Burke & 
Burke comes out with is Burke & Burke 
itself — or themselves — Chris, a hardware/ 
software engineer for a major electronics 
company, and Trisha. a fi ighl attendant. 
Shortly after their marriage two years ago, 
Trisha says. Chris was looking into adding 
a hard drive setup to his CoCo. The whole 
system from Radio Shack would cost about 
$800. and Chris wondered why he couldn't 
build an interface for PC-compatible hard- 
ware to put together a system more cheaply. 
He built it. calling it the CoCo XT 
Interface. This interface allowed him to 
assemble a comparable hard drive system 
forbetween $400 and $600— almost half of 
Radio Shack's price. He realized other people 
were thinking along the same lines when he 



saw a question in Marty Goodman's "CoCo 
Consultations" column asking about the 
possibilities of interfaces and cheaper PC 
equipment. This realization sparked the 
teamup of husband and wife in a venture to 
market the interface: Trisha. with her busi- 
ness background, would take care of man- 
agement, and Chris would handle the pro- 
gramming/designing end. Burke & Burke's 
fledgling product was successful, for it 
scratched an ever-increasing itch among 
the CoCo Community. The interface is still 
available for its original price of $69.95 
($99.95 for a version with a clock). 

Trisha says the couple works around the 
clock, getting only five to six hours of sleep 
at night. "It never ceases to amaze me that 
he never tires of this," Trisha said of Chris. 
"He'll spend eight hours at work and come 
home and work eight hours more. I just 
cannot keep pace with him." In those mid- 
night vigils Chris and Trisha manage to fill 
all their orders and plan and develop new 
products, loo. The couple is planning a 
move from Illinois to Washington state, 
where they will devote their full time to 
running Burke & Burke and developing 
new CoCo products. 

What great future products are they 
currently working on? As far as hardware is 
concerned. Ihey're designing an IBM bus 
adapter that will allow CoCo users to plug 
in expansion cards made for the PC and 
clones — possibly even graphics cards. In 
ihe software area, they arc working on a 
multiuser OS-9 game. They are also consid- 
ering writing an OS-9 arcade game, and are 
checking into ihe possibility of converting 
one of the current non-OS-9 word proces- 
sors to OS-9, I think this last project, espe- 
cially, will fill a real need, and will again 
make the user's introduction to OS-9 just 
thai much easier. 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



111 



graphing program I wrote. The problem 
revolves around a modification i made to 
the HSCREEN routine so that it doesn't 
clear the graphics screen. This allows me 
to graph multiple equations on the same 
screen. This patch did not work under 
R.S.B., but the manual gave an equivalent 
patch. So I changed all of my POKE .v,v 
commands to reflect that change in address 
of the routines, with the result that the 
INKEY$ function stopped working. This 
problem is caused by the fact that all of the 
graphics routines in R.S.B. have been mod- 
ified to use OS-9's graphics commands. 

R.S.B. does all of its disk I/O in standard 
OS-9 formal. This means that one can't 
simply insert a Disk BASIC disk and type 
LOAD"fileiuinie". Programs are ported to 
OS- using the utilities that are included 
on the Demo/Utilities Disk. These are 
SKITZO, HDIR, HCOPY, HDEL and 
WIDTH. WIDTH merely changes the win- 
dow format from 80 to 40 to 32 columns. 
The other utilities are for file transfers. 

The first utility, SKITZO, formats a 
disk so that the first half is in OS-9 format 
and the last half is in Disk BASIC format. 
Once a disk's personality has been split 
with SKITZO, one merely copies programs 
onto it from Disk BASIC. SKITZO is 
amazingly simple to use — just put a 
newly formatted disk in a drive and type 
skitzo /d0 orskitzo /dl (or /d2 or 
/d3, depending on how many drives you 
have and which one you put the disk in). 
When the files to be transferred have been 
copied onto the disk, and OS-9 has again 
been booted, you can copy the Disk BA- 
SIC files onto the OS-9 half of the disk, or 
OS-9 files onto the Disk BASIC half with 
HCOPY. HDIR is used to get a directory of 
the Disk BASIC portion of the disk, and 
HDEL is for deleting files from the Disk 
BASIC half. 



old -box»»- 

.. i , , i ■, 

X;JMIj?J{0> Y«KHD<192> 

ItlHC (X.V)-(Xi ,Y1>.PS£T.I 

pyri 'Iwilir' 

.Moduli Birfolarv gl 6« 13 ?5 



in? 



Qnan 
Took 



if 



SKITZOand WIDTH worked perfectly 
on my system, but I had to reformat my 
disk with only 35 tracks for the other three 
to work. So I could either reformat my disk 
with only 35 tracks, or I could use a nifty 
utility that can have several options passed 
to it on the command line. One of these, 
-t, is used to set the number of tracks. 



When 1 called utilities with -t4 0, they 
all worked perfectly. Passing the -? 
parameter to a utility will give a listing of 
all the options available with that utility. 
I think that R.S.B. is an excellent pack- 
age, and I highly recommend it. It will 
allow beginners to step easily into OS-9, 
and let experienced users run the old pro- 
grams they wrote in Disk BASIC. I hope it 
will draw many new users to OS-9. 

(Burke & Burke, P.O. Box 1283, Palatine, 
II. 60078. 312-397-2898; $39.95) 

— Robert Marsa 



CoCo 1 , 2 & 3 



'-Software- 

ZoomDump — 
Versatility at an 
Attractive Price 

Have you ever wanted your dot-matrix 
printer to print out your CoCo PMODE 3 
and PMODE 4 graphics screens at specific 
sizes'? Or have you wished your current 
screen dump software could do more than 
simply print out an entire PMODE graphics 
screen? If you've been yearning for greater 
control over the way your PMODE graph- 
ics arc printed on the page, then ZoomDump 
may have the features you've been look- 
ing for. 

ZoomDump is a machine language 
program with an easy-to-use BASIC driver. 
The program comes on disk or tape and 
prints out PMODE 3 and 4 graphics while 
you control the printout size and height- 
to-width ratio. In addition, the program 
gives you a choice between printing out 
the full PMODE screen or just a rectangu- 
lar portion. To run ZoomDump, you need 
any version Extended Color BASIC CoCo, 
a dot-matrix printer (DMP-105, DMP- 106 
or compatible) and a disk drive or CoCo- 
compalible tape recorder. The program is 
not copy-protected. 

I began my evaluation by reading the 
two pages of documentation that come 
with the program. On the first page, there 
are two paragraphs outlining the easiest 
method for using ZoomDump via the BA- 
SIC driver, which is a program written in 
Extended Color B ASlC that simplifies en- 
tering the printout parameters and running 
the program. The second page of Zoom- 
Dump'* documentation contains informa- 
tion covering the use of ZoomDump with- 
out the BASIC driver. This method lets 
you pass commands directly to the pro- 
gram's machine language routine using 
Extended Color BASIC'S USR function. 
While not as convenient to use as the 



BASIC driver, entering commands in this 
way allows more control over ZoomDump' 1 5 
operations. It would be interesting to those 
with some knowledge of machine lan- 
guage procedures. 

Running the program from the BASIC 
driver was simple and straightforward. I 
began my first screen dump by selecting a 
PMODE screen graphic from which to 
work. I chose an image that was drawn on 
the PMODE 4, 1 screen (a 256-by-l92 
pixel, two-color screen on PMODE pages 1 
through 4). The documentation lists a one- 
line BASIC command sequence that may 
be typed in. so you can have a look at 
what's on the current PMODE screen be- 
fore printing it out. 1 ran the one-liner, and 
once I was confident the PMODE image I 
wanted was in memory. I put the Zoom- 
Dump disk in Drive 0, typed RUN "Z" 
and pressed ENTER. The program in- 
stalled itself quickly and began with a 
request for the first of 10 options thai 
would determine just what, where and 
how the screen would be printed. 




The available options include the selec- 
tion of height and width (in inches) of the 
printed graphic, the graphic's distance from 
the left margin, and whether all or only a 
rectangular portion of the screen should be 
printed. If you decide to print only a por- 
tion of the screen, you can select the size 
and location of the print area at the resolu- 
tion of a PMODE 4 screen (196-by-255 
pixels). With this control, it is easy to 
select even a small seel ion of the screen 
and "blow" it up to fill a full sheet of 
paper. 

Once I had answered the prompts and 
pressed ENTER for the last lime, my DMP- 
105 printer sprang to life. My 4-by-5-inch 
graphic took about 13 minutes to print at 
600 baud. The result was a clean, accurate 
print of the current PMODE screen in 4-by- 
5 inches, centered on the paper. Every- 
thing was just as I had specified. 

Working from the BASIC driver, I 
explored other options that offered further 
control over my printout. There is a 
"Sideways" option with which you may 
print the screen graphic on its side so lhal 
the bottom of the PMODE screen is parallel 
to the left margin of the paper. While 7.9 



112 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



inches is ihe maximum allowable hori- 
zontal width, there is no upper limit given 
on how many pages "long" a print may be. 
ZoomDuntp had no problem when I gave il 
a two-page, 7.8-by- 1 8-inch lull-screen 
graphic to print. 

The program also had no problem print- 
ing sections of screens at the desired pro- 
portions and dimensions. Il easily printed 
such extreme proportions as l-by-7 inches, 
where images are stretched and squashed 
to create interesting effects. The best prints 
came from PMODE 4 graphics when the 
foreground was black and the background 
was white. While PMODE 3 graphics may 
also be printed, they come out as they 
appear on the PMODE 4 screen — with 
limited shading values. Blues and yellows 
and magentas and cyans are indistinguish- 
able on the print. 

I was somewhat confused by the be- 
havior of the option that allows switching 
of the foreground and background colors 
for a positive or negative print. Selecting 
negative did not always print a negative of 
what I saw on the screen, and selecting 
positive did not always print a positive 
image of the screen. Due to the different 
ways in which the video hardware and the 
printer interpret a bit as output color, an 
image that "looks negative" on the screen 



may not necessarily "look negative" on the 
paper. Usually I kept my eye on the printer 
to see what was actually printing out so 
that I could abort the dump if the image 
was not what I wanted. Because there is no 
option to stop the program in the middle of 
a printout, aborting the procedure requires 
resetting the CoCo 3 by pressing the Rese! 
button. 

I was happy to see that the program 
implemented a one-minuie pause every 
five minutes of continuous printing. This 
"duty cycle" pause keeps the printer head 
from becoming too warm and is perfect for 
the DMP-105. You cannot use the BASIC 
driver to adjust the duty cycle for other 
types of printers; however, adjustment is 
possible by passing variables to ZooiuDwnp 
via Extended Color BASIC'S USR func- 
tion. 

To run ZoomDump using the USR func- 
tion instead of the BASIC driver required a 
little more work, but the lines of code can 
be entered as a simple BASIC program and 
then saved lo disk. It is then a simple 
matter to run the small program as many 
times as you want with all ihe printout 
options already in place. This option kept 
me from answering all the prompts that 
come with each run of the BASIC driver. 

Overall. ZoomDump performed very well 



for the price, and I can recommend il with 
enthusiasm to all CoCo users. 

(Codis Knierprises, 2301-C Central Drive. 
Suite 684, Bedford, TX 7602/; $14) 

— Walter Myers 



Software 



CoCo 3 



GAT Backup — 

Fast Disk Duplication 

for the CoCo 3 

I have to admit. I like hardware. As 
soon as I bought my Color Computer 3. I 
was looking for a 5 1 2K upgrade. 1 run two 
Tandy 1000 double-sided drives with a 
popular optional operating system. I've 
had my RGB monitor for years. And I like 
programs that use my accessories to their 
maximum. So when I picked up a certain 
CoCo 3 5 1 2K backup program that would 
work with up to three 40-irack, double- 
sided drives at the Princeton RAINBOW- 
fesl. I was in heaven. This program would 
duplicate disks at "'lightning" speed in a 
single pass. It ran so fast I couldn't keep up 
with it. 



BASIC UTILITY DISKETTE 

A real time saver for the person who develops 
software using COCO Basic. 

— DUMPDIR: Prints a hard copy of a disk's 
directory. No more searching one disk after 
another looking for a lost file. 

— DUMPCRT: Copies text from the screen to the 
printer. Versions included for 40 and 80 column 
COCO 3 text screens. 

— DUMPFILE: Dumps any disk file to the printer. 
Printout can be in either decimal or in hex values. 

— CROSSREF: Prints cross reference of source 
and destination line numbers for basic jump 
instructions (GOTO, GOSUB, etc.). 

— COMPARE: Reads two BASIC Programs from 
diskette and compares them line by line. Lists all 
lines that are not identical. 

Requires COCO 2 or 3, disk and printer. 
Order at $19.95 plus $2 p&h. 
Calif, residents add $1.20 tax. 



T.E.M. of California 

Box 4311 

Fullerton, CA 92634-4311 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



COLOR RIBBONS & PAPER 



RED 



BLUE 



COLOR RIBBONS 

GREEN • BROWN • PURPLE • YELLOW 



Ribbons Price Each: 


Black 


Color 


Hool 
Transfer 


Radio Shack - DMP 100 


6.00 


9.00 


— 


- DMP 110 


4.15 


4.75 


5.75 


- DMP 120 


6.75 


8.50 


- 


- DMP 130 


5.25 


6.50 


7.95 


- DMP 200 


6.75 


8.50 


— 


- DMP 230/520 


4.00 


5.25 


— 


- DMP 2100 


5.75 


— 


— 


- DMP 410/510 


5.00 


7.00 


— 


- DMP 430 


12.00 


— 


— 


Apple Imagewriter l/ll 


3.75 


4.50 


6.50 


Citizen 120 D 


5.00 


6.00 


7.95 


Epson MX80/LX800 


3.75 


4.25 


6.75 


Okidata 182/192 


6.50 


7.50 


— 


Panasonic K-XP 1090 


6.75 


7.75 


- 


Seikosha SP 800/1000 


5.25 


6.50 


7.95 


Star NX10/NL10 


5.00 


6.00 


7.95 



Star NX 1000 



Call For Price 



COLOR PAPER 

BRIGHT PACK -200 Sheets/50 each color: Red. 

Blue. Green, Yellow. 9 1/2 x 11 - $10.90/pk. 

PASTEL PACK- 200 Sheets/50 each color: Pink, 

Yellow, Blue. Ivory. 9 1/2 X 11 - S10.90/pk. 



T-SHIRT RIBBONS (Heat Transfer) - Call For Price. 



COLOR DISKETTES 

5 1/4" DS/DD Rainbow Pack. 10/pack - $12.50 



For ribbons & paper nol listed above, call for price & avail. Price & spec, subject lo 
change w/o notice. Min order $25.00. Min S & H $3.50. Add $2.25 COD ndd'l 
IL res. add 6.25% rax. MC & Visa accepted 

RENCO COMPUTER SUPPLIES 

P.O. Box 475, Manteno. IL 60950 U.S.A. 

1-800-522-6922 • (IL) 1-800-356-9981 • 815-468-8081 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



113 



Let's face it: The typical CoCo 3 disk 
user has only 128K and usually one drive, 
which Disk Extended Color BASIC ad- 
dresses as single-sided, 35-track. Our 
average user is probably getting a little 
tired of the archaic BACKUP command, 
which hasn't changed since the CoCo 1 
days. It's slow and takes seven passes to 
copy a disk. In addition, you have to physi- 
cally swap your original and copy disks at 
each pass. (I can'l remember how many 
limes I've gotten confused and tried to 
back up the target disk to the source.) To 
say that this procedure is frustrating would 
be an understatement. 

Enter GSW Software's GAT Backup. 
The company claims its product can back 
up a 35-track disk in two passes, a section 
of a disk or only the granules used. A 
Galling gun for the CoCo 3. the program 
does all that — and more. 



GSW's menu-driven operation allows 
first-time users to go directly to work. 
After running the simple BASIC loader, 
G/BAS, the screen displays an easy-to- 
read menu: 

1 ) GAT backup 

2) Section backup 

3) Entire disk backup 

4) Directory 

5) Format a disk 

6) Set number of copies 

If you haven't already run DSKINIO 
on your blank disks, you're in luck. Option 
5 instructs you to insert the disk to format 
and press ENTER. Want to make sure 
there's nothing important on that disk? 
Option 4 offers information about the disk, 
calling up a disk directory. 

The formatting function is no ball of 




MUL TI-FONT PRINTER 

NX-IOOO 



NEW 



The NX-1000 gives you plenty of print 
options for attractive printing. Four 
typestyles. Four pitch sizes, in standard 
and italics for a total of 32 NLQ modes. The 
NX-1000 Rainbow gives you all these 
features plus online access to 7 color 
printing and graphics. Black, blue, red, 
yellow, green, violet, and orange. Both 
models have a 1 year warranty, nationwide 
service and a 30 day online trial. 




NX-1000 SPECS: U4 cps Otall, 36 cos NLO (IBx 23 dol malm), 
i NLQ Fools, Hales, Sub 5 Suporscripls, Emphasizod, Don- 
bleslrike, Proportional Condensed, International, Downloadable, 
Quad Tall, Double Tall, Underline, 9t PKchs, Forward and Reverse 
rv21 6' Line Feods. Absolute oi Rolalivo Von. 1 Horz. Tabs, Left, 
Cooler oi RighlJutlifealion, 8 Graphics Modes lo 1 920dpi, Macro 
Instruction, Bidiredlon, Adjustable Tractor Feed, 200* Printable 
Characters, Semi Auto Shoot Food, Flonl Panel Soil Touch 
Control, Epson and ISM Emulate, 4k Dala Bufler. Hex Dump 
Rainbow: Same plus color. 



NX-1000 SYSTEM INCLUDES: 

• Star NX-1000 Printer * f 9 9 

• Blue Streak Ultima * r Y Y. 

• Software Support Trio ^SSffSSg 

NX-1000 RAINBOW SYSTEM INCLUDES: 

95 



$ 284 



• Star NX-1000 
Colour Printer 

• Blue Streak Ultima * s '° Shippm 9 and ,nsw3nce 

• Software Trio COMPLETE 
- Color Super Gemprint 



910W 



SUPER 
GEMPRINT 

Wit transfer a Pmode 0, 1, 2, 3. or 

4 piclure screen lo primer 8'xlV 

hardcopy. Black/while, white/black 

or grey level shading lor color. 



HI-RES 

SUPER 

GEMPRINT 

Disk software that will 

transfer a Hsoeen 1,2,3 or 4 

picture screen to printer. 

Grey level shading lor color. 



TYPE 

SELECTION/ 

TUTORIAL 

Online instructional program 

that will select 24 special leatures 

ol your printer or display methods 

to incorporate them into your 

programs. 

Price, availability and specifications subject lo change wilhoul notice. 



DAYTON ASSOCIATES^ , INC. 

9644 QUAILWOOD TRAIL 

SPRING VALLEY, OHIO 45370 

OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX • C.O.D. ADD $2.00 



Software Trio 

$Yg95 

FREE 

with purchase ol any 
NX-1000 Printer 



PERSONAL SERVICE 
(513) 885-5999 

Visa & MasterCard 
within iiie continental U.S. 



fire; it's clearly linked to the DSKINI 
command and is here for your conven- 
ience. When you're ready to start the fire- 
works, press 3 to back up your disk. The 
program will ask you to enter the source 
disk and press ENTER. The disk drive 
then comes to life and the numbers of the 
tracks and sectors being read into memory 
flash by on the screen. If there is an error of 
any kind, the program gives you the option 
of skipping the affected granule, trying it 
again, or returning to the main menu to do 
something else. 

After it finishes reading, the computer 
asks you to replace the source (original) 
disk with your target (copy). Again the 
drive spins and the numbers whiz by. The 
procedure is then repeated to copy the 
other half of the source to your target. The 
time and frustration saved on the entire 
disk backup is worth the S15 price tag 
alone, but there's more. 

With GAT Backup, it's possible to copy 
selected sectors of the disk. Option 2 asks 
the user to identify the starting track and 
sector and the ending track and sector. The 
program then reads the appropriate gran- 
ules to memory. Although not for the cas- 
ual user, this function can be very useful 
for hackers. 

While these options are wonderful in 
themselves. Option 1 is what makes the 
program shine. It works exactly like Entire 
Disk Backup, but it ignores blank tracks, 
copying only the granules actually used. 
I've never seen anything like it; if you 
have a regular 67-granule disk (type 
FREE ( ) sometime to find out how many 
granules you have left) with only 20 or 30 
granules in use, why copy the whole thing? 
GAT Backup zips through only the parts of 
the disk you actually used and ignores the 
rest. Indeed, the program copied the disk it 
was supplied on so fast I wasn't sure it 
worked. The three granules were copied in 
seconds. 

The Set Number of Copies option asks 
you how many copies you want to make. 
You'd better have a pile of blanks ready to 
use; it will read your original and then 
have you put every copy disk in once for 
each of the two passes. 

The company has even included an 
"oops" key: If you make a mistake or 
want to cancel an option before it does its 
work, pressing the ESC and BREAK keys 
brings the query, "Do you want to abort to 
the menu?" The program can also be 
terminated from the menu with the ESC/ 
BREAK combination. The program will 
ask if you are ready to exit. If you press Y, 
the program will execute a warm restart, 

Like any other disk backup program, 
GAT Backup cannot and should not be 
used to copy protected software, nor is it 



114 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



intended to be used to back up your latest 
copyrighted games and applications for 
your friends; but if, like me, you make up 
a "club disk" for your users group every 
month, it can be a great lime saver. 

I can think of one change I'd suggest for 
this program; I would like the addition of 
a multiple-drive option because it assumes 
you just have Drive 0. With two drives, 
GAT Backup would become almost auto- 
matic, writing to Drive 1 in record time. 

GAT Backup is a well-conceived, finely 
executed program. It is simple enough for 
a novice user yet lends flexibility to the 
seasoned hacker, and it delivers what it 
promises for a very reasonable price. 

(GSW Software. 8345 Glenwood, Overland 
Park, KS 66212, 913-341-3411; $15; soft- 
ware source, $5: First product review for 
this company appearing in THE RAIN- 
BOW.) 

— Fred T<x>n 



1 Softw are^ 



CoCo 2 & 3 



Silpheed — 
Space-Age 
Dogfighting 

Silpheed is billed by Radio Shack as 
"The Hit Japanese Arcade Game." Well, 
after playing it with my 1 1 -year-old daugh- 
ter, I can see why it's so popular. In Silpheed 
(who comes up with these names?) you are 
the pilot of a super space-age dogfighter in 
an intergalactic war to defend the United 
Universe from an evil empire. If you can 
survive 16 levels of attack, you get to en- 
gage in the ultimate battle for control of 
the galaxy. Sixteen? We're only up to 
seven, but we're having a ball trying. 

"A lot of program- 
ming effort went into 
creating some neat 
effects. I like the 
wobbly movement of 
my ship when I 
receive several hits." 



Silpheed is supplied on a ROM pack 
and can be plugged into either the car- 
tridge slot of your computer or into a 
vacant slot on your Multi-Pak Interface. 



The program works on botli the CoCo 2 
and 3. but the graphics are much sharper 
and detailed with the CoCo 3. The graph- 
ics and sound effects were excellent on my 
CoCo 3 and CM-8 monitor. Provisions are 
made to run it on a composite color moni- 
tor, as well. 

A lot of programming effort went into 
creating some neat effects. I like the wob- 
bly movement of my ship when I receive 
several hits. Other handy features include 
the ability to toggle the sound on or off and 
to pause the action while you try to collect 
your wits. The game works OK with the 
arrow keys, but I recommend a joystick, as 
the fighter is very responsive to joystick 
control. The action is very fast and furious. 
I was impressed with the 3-D-iike screen, 
complete with stars that seem to rush past 
the spacecraft. 

An interesting feature in this game is 



the ability for players to choose specific 
armament for their fighter. In addition to 
the various enemy crafts you will encoun- 
ter, there are also a number of little square- 
lettered boxes that you will want to try to 
collect, although they, too, are quite eva- 
sive. Hitting these little blocks results in 
various features to assist you in battle. 
Hitting B provides a temporary barrier. 
The D will destroy all enemies on the pres- 
ent screen. Finding F results in automatic 
fire. The H key advances your shield, and 
1 provides temporary invincibility. I was 
constantly seeking the R block, which re- 
paired all my ship's damage. Hitting Swill 
result in a warp-iike speed, and W allows 
you to select your weapons as displayed in 
an overhead expanded view of your ship. 
Onscreen scoring is provided, as well as 
other game data and screens survived. 
Silpheed is a fun-packed arcade game. 



The Ultimate 




1 fe°ooo 



DAYTON ASSOCIATES"^, INC. 

9644 QUAILWOOD TRAIL 

SPRING VALLEY, OHIO 45370 

OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX • C.O.D. ADD $2.00 



mm 



Color Screen Dump Software 

Use your favorite program lo create a pmode or hi-res graphic image, but don 7 
stop there! Run our color graphics software and print a color image using a 
pallette o!8t+ colors on yourNX-1000 Rainbow from a CoCo 1, 2, or 3. This 
system superimposes 4 graphic screen dumps (black, blue, yellow & red). The 
colors mix and add to give you your own color masterpiece. 

$1Q95 

FREE with purchase ot 

Price, specifications subject lo change without notice. nx-woo Rainbow Printer 



System Requirements: 32k ECB Disk. Slue Streak t . 2. 3 or Ultima 



PERSONAL SERVICE 
(513) 885-5999 

Visa & MasterCard 
within the continental U.S. 






March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



115 



It's right for all ages of CoCo lovers and is 
sure to provide hours of entertainment 
during the long winter nights. 

(Tandy Corporation, 1700 One Tandy Cen- 
ter, Fort Worth, TX 76102; $29.95: Avail- 
able in Radio Shack stores nationwide.) 

— Jerrv Semones 



^Toft 



OS-9 levels I & 



ware 

L1+L2 

Combination Pak — 
Utilities for OS-9 

Today, most computer owners use their 
machines for application programs — word 
processors, spreadsheets, databases, etc. 
However, as good as these applications 
may be. they are never able to do all things 
for all people. Enter the world of the util- 
ity! Two software packages from D.P. 
Johnson. LI and L2 (not to be confused 
with the OS-9 levels I and II), provide 
utilities to do just about everything — if 
you are willing to spend time reading the 
manual. I can't emphasize this too much. 

An examination of tables I and 2. which 
list all of the utilities contained in the LI 
and L2 packages, will confirm the above 
statement on the necessity of reading the 
manuals. It should also be evident that 
space does not permit a discussion of all 
these utilities. For this review 1 have se- 
lected several utilities that should be of 
interest to beginning and intermediate OS- 
9 users. 

LI Utility Pak 

Of all the utilities contained in this 
package, MacGen is an important one to 
start off with because it provides you with 
the capability to build additional utilities 
from existing ones. 

MacGen is a command macro genera- 
tor that will build new commands out of 
existing executable program modules. Users 
with a UNIX background will appreciate 
MacGen because it adds capability that is 
found in the Bourne shell. Among Mac- 
Gen's many features are shell variables 
andcontrol structures such as FOR/NEXT, 
REPEAT/UNTIL, IFNUL/ELSE/ENDIF 
and a number of other features. In essence. 
MacGen provides an extension to shell 
programming that allows the development 
of fairly complex shell scripts without 
having the user resort to a major program- 
ming effort. 

The LS command is in many respects 
the heart of the LI Pak. In its simplest form 
it provides a single-column listing of files 



Access used within a macro to determine 
if a pathname exists. 
AFMT assembly source code formatter. 
Append copies a source file to the end of 
an existing file. 
Bell sounds the bell. 
But' reads the standard input until an eof 
or the buffer is full; then writes to stan- 
dard output. 

Confirm writes a text message to stan- 
dard output and waits lor a key to be 
pressed. 

CP copies files from standard working 
directory to destination pathname. 
Dislnp disassembles file listed from stan- 
dard input to standard output. 
DL reads a list of names from standard 
input that are assumed to be files in the 
current directory, and deletes them. 
Eat reads lines of text from standard 
input and deletes the first n characters 
from each line. 

FF sends a form feed to the printer. 
Filter copies standard input to standard 
output, removing all occurrences of a 
specified character. 

FixCRC updates the CRC value of a 
memory-resident module. 
FLisI reads a list of filenames and lists 
each file to standard output. 
Fold reads lines of characters from stan- 
dard input and moves n characters at the 
beginning ol the line to the end of the line. 
ForceError causes an error number to be 
returned to the shell. Useful in macros for 
flow control. 

GRep reads lines of characters from a 
file and passes only those lines that meet 
the specified match criteria to a standard 
output. 

Info for a given file, displays the owner, 
creation date, modification dale, attrib- 
utes and byte count. 

ListTFDS lists the256-byte file descrip- 
tor. 



LS lists filenames, one name per line to 
standard output. 

MacGen command macro generator that 
allows the building or new commands 
from existing commands. 
Medio a multi-line echo command that 
allows listing what would normally be 
several lines of input on one command 
line. Medio translates the tilde character 
to a carriage return. 

MemList provides a listing of memory in 
unformatted binary. 

MemLoad reads standard input into mem- 
ory beginning at the specified absolute 
memory address. 

ModBuster breaks a file containing sev- 
eral modules into separate files. 
MV moves a file from one directory to 
another without physically moving the 
file, i.e.. copying. 

NulDcvice contains driver and descriptor 
to implement a null device or"bil bucket." 
Pag formats standard input as to lop. bot- 
tom, left and right margins and sends lo 
output. 

Rep provides the capability lo make any 
OS-9 command repetitive. 
ResMem reserves an area of memory for 
special use. 

ReWrite writes standard input lo speci- 
fied pathnames al a specified offset. Pro- 
vides ability to overwrite a file. 
SectEdit a menu-driven sectoredehanges 
Sell changes ownership of a file. 
SclAt changes attributes of a file while 
preserving currently set values. 
Size reports size of specified file. 
Sort a filter thai sorts filenames. 
Split splits a file into multiple files ac- 
cording to a specified number of lines or 
bytes. 

Touch changes the modification of file- 
names specified on standard input. 
Unload repeatedly unlinks memory-resi- 
deni modules until their memory is freed. 



Table I: LI Utility Pak 



in the current directory. It supports the 
standard wildcard characters (* and '?) as 
well as a character range (all the files 
whose names begin with the letters A to G, 
for example). LS can also list files based 
on ownership, date and attribute. For date. 
LS can select on year, month, day or hour, 
etc. The output of L S is often used in a pipe 
as a source of data for many of the other 
utilities. 

CP copies files from the default work- 
ing directory to the destination path. This 
is a multiple-file copying utility; Tandy's 
is a single-file copying command. Options 
include the following: the ability to update 
a file if its modification date is older than 



the file being copied; straight replacement 
of an existing file; and the options to 
ignore filenames not found (great for poor 
typists who have just typed a long list of 
filenames). 

The combination of the LS command 
with the CP command provides tremen- 
dous file manipulation capability. For 
example, the command 

LS | cp -u /hO/archive 

copies all of the files in the current direc- 
tory to the archive directory on the hard 
disk. Should any of the files already exist 
in the archive directory, they will be up- 



116 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



dated. In another example using wildcards, 
all C source files could be copied (o the 
archive with the following: 

LS *.c | cp -u /hO/archive 

As a final example, the following 
command line will copy all files created 
with today's modification dale: 



LS -t 



cp /hO/archive 



MV is another useful utility. MV moves 
files in the current data directory to the 
specified directory. Using the -i option, 
MV will ignore existing files in the speci- 
fied directory that have the same name as 
those being moved. This command comes 
to be quite useful, especially after you 
have just copied 20 files to the wrong 
directory! The following example illus- 
trates the use of LS and Sort with MV: 

LS | sort |mv /dl/cmds. sorted 

In this example, LS will list all files in 
the current directory. Sort will sort them 
alphabetically, and MV will move the file- 
names in the sorted order to the /dl/ 
CMDS . SORTED directory. It is important 
to note that MV does not physically move 



OS9P3 a module that provides the "Print 
Error" function to Level II. an English 
translation of the OS-9 error number. 
RAM Disk the modules C and Cache 
provide the capability to create a RAM 
disk for any memory size. 
Clone provides multiple links lo the same 
file so that duplicate copies do not have to 
be maintained in separate directories. 
DPRM provides a Hex memory dump of 
a process ID's memory 10 standard out- 
put. 

Dump produces a formatted Hex/ASCII 
dump of a file to standard output. 
DumpMem dumps memory to standard 
output. 

DumpPR dumps a process descriptor to 
standard output. 



FLS reduced version of LS from the LI 
package. 

GrabMap dumps system memory block- 
map to standard output. 
ImageCopy duplicates partially lull 
diskettes. 

ImageSave stores partially full disk- 
ettes. 

MakeRRMod generates the data mod- 
ule used by the Print Error function. 
MSave copies the list of memory mod- 
ules to standard output. 
OS9Genz an improved OS9Gen com- 
mand. 

Remove deletes cloned file directory 
entries. 

WhoAml prints your user ID number 
on the terminal. 



Fable 2: L2 Utility Pak 



the files but merely updates the appropri- 
ate directory. 

The Rep command is a way of making 
any OS-9 command repetitive. This is a 
much-needed feature that, unfortunately, 
Microware left out of OS-9. The following 
example best illustrates the use of Rep: 

LS | REP ident $ 



In this example. Rep repetitively runs 
the Ident command for each filename 
passed to it by the LS command. The $ 
tells Rep to read one line from the stand- 
ard input and insert the text at that point. 

GRep provides the capability to ex- 
tract lines of data from a text file according 
to a specified matching criteria. The wild- 
cards * and ? are supported. In addition. 



Are you having trouble learning machine language? 

Are you tired of depending on Basic subroutines? 

Then this program is for you: 

ROOTS 

A machine language source file with over 100 subroutines. You can 
easily append it to your own source files and be free of Basic. You 
can send characters to the screen or printer, read and write 
sectors to disk, convert registers into ASCII numbers, generate 
sound, create and read disk Hies, transfer data through a modem, 
generate random numbers, put ASCII characters on hi-res 
screens, read joysticks, INPUT strings and numbers, use 
32/00/61/80 columns, and many more. On the CoCo III you can use 
the extra keys, speed, giaphics, and memory. Best of all, you can 
change Roots to fit your needs and learn more about machine 
language. Most routines work on a CoCo II. Disk only. $25 

Dl ASM 
A powerful disassembler that can disassemble files even if they 
overlap Diasm or Basic. You can print the entire file or part of It. 
Editing features include: find, insert, and delete a byte; toggle 
between decimal and hexadecimal base; jump to an address, and 
much more. Works with auto-executing programs. Many other 
features. CoCo I, II, or III, disk only. 520 

OMNI UTILITY 

The ultimate CoCo III disk file-handling utility program. An on- 
screen directory allows you to copy, kill, list, execute, display 
information about, and rename files at the touch of a key. You can 
also alphabetize and move directory entries, and format, backup, 
verify, and print the directory of disks. There is a full-featured 
sector editor, and other features. 520 

CAT BACKUP 

The ultimate CoCo III disk backup utility. It gives you the 
options to backup the entire disk, a section, or only the granules 
in use. It makes multiple copies, and copies 35 tracks in two 
passes — fast. It formats and gives directories. 515 

All programs are 100% machine language. For an extra $5 you can 
get the source file with the program (price of ROOTS includes 
source file). We pay shipping and sales tax. Write for more 
information, or send check or money order to: 

CSW Software 
8345 Clenwood 
Overland Park, KS 66212 



TOTHIAN 
SOFTWARE 





THIS IS ONE OF 
OUR CUSTOMERS. 



AND THIS IS NOT. 

URITE US AND ASK THAT 
YOUR NANE BE PLACED ON 
OUR FREE NAILING LIST. 
NO OBLIGATION. 



TOTHIAN SOFTWARE, INC. 

BOX 6G3 
RIHERSBURG, PA. 16248 



(SINCE 1985) 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



117 



<« GJMMESOFT >» 

A new generation of Color Computer products 



MAXSOUND Q 

A High Quality Digital Audio Sampler and Sequencer 

Turn your CoCo III into a REAL digital audio sampler with HIGH quality audio reproduction. Easily 
add exotic effects, ECHO, stuttering, speed shifting, sequencing, and reverse audio to BASIC or ML 
programs or GRAPHICS! Now includes Data Compression. Imagine recording any Voice, Music, or 
Sound effect and being able to use these DIGITAL recordings in your own programs! 3 disk sides 
includes: INTERFACT/BIN - ML driver for sound effects. G&M/BAS - Adds sound effects to 
Graphics. SHOWTIME and DEMO disks. SCOPE/BAS - Turns CRT into a Digital Oscilloscope to 
look at MAXSOUND waveforms. Version 3.0 upgrade (Includes improved ECHO and the ability to 
print NAMETAGS and locations to the screen and/or printer) $6.95 + Shipping & Handling 

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CALL TO HEAR 'OVER THE PHONE* DEMO (128k or 512k CoCo III only) DISK .... $59.95 

Maxsound Soundtracks & Graphics 

These exciting disks are samples of what can be created with MAXSOUND and CoCo Max III! 
These unbelievable soundstracks w/graphics DO NOT require the MAXSOUND program to run. 



Airwolf 128k $5.95 -JftSff'^ War of the Worlds 512k $5.95 

Knight Rider 128k $5.95 *Slm A ^~~ Warrior King Demo 512k $5.95 

Startrek 128k $5.95 ~PT^ Probe 512 k $5.95 

5 in 1 Demo (Airwolf, Startrek, Knight Rider, Probe, Other World) 512k $9.95 



V-Term Terminal Emulator d 

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Communicate with VAX, UNIX, Mainframe, and BBS Systems! 

-VT-100, VT-52, Vidtex (includes RLE graphics display), and standard CRT emulations. 

-Developed and tested on a UNIX system using the EMACS and VI full-screen editors. 

-All 128 ASCII characters accessible from the keyboard. 

•Uses a high-resolution graphics screen to implement a highly readable 80-column screen. 

-Menus can be operated concurrently with other terminal functions. (Disk Basic!) 

-Full 28 line by 80 column screen, with 3 bottom lines protected for menus. 

-Serial port up to 2400 baud, RS-232 Pak up to 9600 baud, DCModem Pak at 300 baud. 

-XModem, XModem-CRC, Y-Modem, and ASCII file transfers directly to disk or memory. 

-Prints disk or buffer files with settable margins, baud rate and word wrap. 

-Full 128k or 512k support with a RAMDISK like buffer. Monochrome monitor support. 

•Capture buffer, Snapshot, Conference mode, 35/40/80 Tracks, and over 56 pages of docs! 

"...one of the most versatile and full featured terminal emulators for the CoCo 3." 
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Vereion 02.00.00 upgrade $6.95 + S&H Disk (128k or 512k CoCo PI only) $39.95 

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A TRULY COMPATIBLE RS-232 INTERFACE! 



Now, from Orion Technologies, comes the answer to the continuing demand for an RS-232 Interface. No 
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Enhances the Multi-tasking capabilities of the V-Tenu Terminal Emulator found on the opposite page. Only $49.95 



CoCo Max III 



(CoCo III only) 

THE BEST Graphics Package 

See April '88 review. Disk ... $74.95 



BO Til 



MAX-10 < CoCo 1H on, y) 

THE DAZZLING Desktop Publisher 
CM3 owners -$10 Disk ... $74.95 



{^RAPHIC > ^-9 C % <512k CoCo "' onl ri Great with MAXSOUND and/or CoCo Max ffl! 
V**i"l* M BMKsO £>V Up to 25 ONBOARD HIRES SCREENS! Six new BASIC commands. Fast & Smooth 
Graphics animation. Save and Load graphics screens to and from disk. See September 1988 Rainbow review. Disk .. $19.95 



M-U LI l-LAJ5i.lL. Ill (CoCo III only) See July '87 review. An easy to use, versatile label creating program 
including many new CoCo III features. Print multiple fonts on each label! This one's a MUST for the CoCo III!! Disk .... $16.95 



FKEYS III(CoCo I/II/lll) See April '87 review. A user friendly, programmable function key utility that creates up to 20 
function keys. EDITOR, DOS mods, Single or Double sided, 35/40 tracks, DISABLE, and it's EPROMablel. Disk .. $19.95 

SIXDRIVE (CoCo I/II/III) This machine language utility modifies DECB 1.0, 1.1, FKEYS ID, or ADOS to allow the 
use of 3 double-sided drives (or 2 D/S drives and J&R's RAMDISKS) as 6 S/S drives. Disk $16.95 



AUTO DIM. (CoCo III only) See Jan. '88 review. This hardware device protects your monitor, or TV from IMAGE 
BURN after a few minutes of inactivity from your keyboard. Illustrated and easy to install. Hardware $29.95 

MPI-CoCO LOCking Plate (CoCo HI only) See Sept '88 review. Protects your CoCo III and Multi 
Pak Interface from destroying each other! Please specify MPI number 26-3024 or 26-3124 when ordering! SALE $7.95 




(CoCo III only) Become Rastann, Warrior King, on the quest to regain his rightful 

I crown hidden deep within a sinister land. Battle monsters, gain magic & weapons, and travel thru harsh wilderness & 
dark castle dungeons in this medieval realm. From the creator of Kung-Fu Dude comes this awesome arcade game for the 
CoCo lilt Uses the most detailed 320 x 200 16 color graphics & high speed ML code to vault you into a world of fantasy! Dare 
ye challange the many perils ahead to become Warrior King? Requires 128k CoCo III, Disk drive, and Joystick .... $29.95 



HALL OF THE KING TRILOGY (CoCo I/II/m) See December 1988 Rainbow review. The epic 
adventure is back! The largest adventure campaign ever seen for the CoCo is again available. A total of 6 DISK SIDES of 
intense graphics adventure will have you playing for weeks! Each section is a 2 disk stand alone adventure, but all 3 together 
form an epic saga! Quest for the legendary Earthstone In the ancient dwelling of the dwarves while you enjoy the classic 
graphics that made this trilogy famous! Each adventure can be purchased separately for only $29.95, the lowest price ever , or 
you can SAVE and purchase the entire set for only $74.95. Requires 64k, Disk drive, (and composite monitor for the CoCo III). 
Please specify HALL of the King I, II, or III $29.95 each or the entire 6 DISK Trilogy for only $74.95 



Mfi QUCSl OJ the Star LOrd (CoCo III only) See Aug '88 review. This is THE graphics 
adventure for the CoCo III! Unparalleled 320 x 200 animated graphics will leave you gasping for more! You quest for the 
Phoenix Crossbow in this post-holocaust world of science and fantasy. Full 4 Disk sides of mind-numbing adventure! 
Requires 128k CoCo III and Disk drive. HINT SHEET $3.95 (+ $1.00 S&H by itself) Disk $34.95 



KUNG-FU DUDE (CoCo I/II/III) See Feb. '88 review. An exciting arcade game. The BEST karate game ever for 
the CoCo! Destroy opponents and evade obstacles as you grow ever closer to your ultimate objective! Spectacular graphics, 
sound effects, and animation! Requires 64k, Disk drive, and Joystick. Now displays color on CM8. Disk $24.95 

PYRAMIX(CoCo HI only) See Dec. '87 review. Brilliant colors, sharp graphics, and hot action in this 100% ML arcade 
game. You'll enjoy hopping Kubix around the pyramid, avoiding Kaderf, Smack, Smuck, & the Death Square! Disk .. $19.95 



jfAi£ L^AD&D Character's Companion (coco i/n/m) This great timesaving 

T^T^ utility helps create compatible AD&D characters. Includes dice rolling routine, pick ability, race & class. Buy from 
the Players Handbook, magic Items & spell materials. Save, load, and print character info. 3 Disk sides .... $24.95 



White Fire Of Eternity (CoCo I/II/III) See Dec '86 review. Enter the era of monsters & magic. Search for the 
legendary power of White Fire throughout the Forbidden Wood & Dark Caverns in this 64k animated adventure! Disk. .$19. 95 

ClnampiOn (CoCo I/II/III) See May '87 review. Become a superhero in this action adventure! Disk. .$19.95 

DragOn Blade (CoCo I/II/III) See Nov '86 review. Slay evil dragon In this 64k animated adventure! Disk.. $19.95 



GRep can select from either the beginning 
or the end of a line according to the speci- 
fied search pattern. GRep could actually 
be used as a very simple database — for 
keeping lists of phone numbers, for ex- 
ample. This command would find the phone 
number for Smith in the file phone . list: 

GRep A Smith phone. list 

L2Pak 

In addition to the utilities listed in Table 
2. the L2 package contains two modules 
that can be added to OS 9Boot — OS9P3 
and a RAM disk. In the original OS-9 
Level I system, as delivered by Tandy, 
there was a "print error" command that 
caused OS-9 to print an English message 
whenever an error occurred. This capabil- 
ity was never included in Level II; how- 
ever, with the OS9P3 module and the 
associated print error command, Johnson 
has restored this capability. But this ver- 
sion allows the user to turn this capability 
on or off. something the original Level I 
version did not. Of course, the addition of 
this capability requires the generation of a 
new Boot, which for many can be a 
trying experience. 

The modules Cache and C provide the 
capability for a RAM disk. To set up a 
RAM disk, these two modules must be 
added to OS9Boot. Once the new boot is 
made, the RAM disk can be established by 
simply entering the OS-9 command I ni z 
/C. A very nice feature of this RAM disk 
is that it is adjustable. Using the provided 
CS i z e command, you can change the size 
or the name of the RAM disk before it is 
Iniz'd. Some users may prefer /RO or 
/MO instead of the default /C, or a different 
size from the default 96K. Another advan- 
tage of Johnson's RAM disk is that it can 
be removed with the Amputate com- 
mand, returning the memory to the free 
system memory pool. To my knowledge, 
this capability is not possible with Tandy's 
RAM disk that is included in the Develop- 
ment package. 

The utilities Clone and Remove are 
particularly worth noting, especially for 
users with hard disks. As an example, I 
currently have three execution directories 
on my hard disk: /hO/CMDS, /hO/APPL 
and /hO/ETC. While these directories are 
useful for organizing all of my programs, 
there are times when I am in one directory 
and need something from another. Clone 
makes a new directory entry for a file 
that's in another directory. 

Well, this review has grown quite long, 
and as I said in the beginning, it is impos- 
sible to discuss all the utilities provided in 
these two software packages. So, look 
over the two tables for the contents of both 



packages. Many of you have probably 
recognized a number of similar utilities 
available on Delphi or from the OS-9 
Users Group. The advantage of buying 
Johnson's software packages is that they 
are supported with very good documenta- 
tion. And they work, which is something 
you can't always say for the public domain 
counterparts. As many of you know. D.P. 
Johnson is the author of SDisk and has a 
reputation for excellent software. 

One really nice feature of Johnson's 
software is the way he packages it. The 
disk is contained in a sealed envelope, 
while the documentation is "available" to 
allow the purchaser to read everything 
about the software. If you decide that the 
package is not for you, you can return it 
and obtain a full refund (as long as you 
don't open the envelope!). To me this is an 
excellent way of selling software — it 
protects the author from piracy and gives 
the purchaser the opportunity to get a good 
view of the package before deciding to 
accept it. I wish that all software compa- 
nies would adopt this approach, as we 
would all be belter off for it. 

For those just starling OS-9, as well as 
for the more advanced user, I strongly 
recommend buying LI and L2. This is 
good software, with very good documen- 
tation, and is a must for any serious OS-9 
user. 

(D.P. Johnson, 7655 Cedarcrest St., Port- 
land, OR 97223, 503-244-8 1 52; $49.95 for LI 
Utility l'ak, $39.95 lor 1.2 Utility I'ak, $75 for 
1.1+L2 Utility Pak) 

— Donald Dollberg 



^Software 



CoCo3 



Football II — 

Running 

in the End Zone 

Football II is a one-player football 
simulation for the CoCo 3. Unlike most 
other football games that give you just a 
blimp's view — that of looking down on 
the field — Football II gives two views. 
The left half of the screen is at ground 
level, letting you see the game from a 
player's viewpoint. The right half of the 
screen is from high in the end zone. 

The first thing to do is draft the teams. 
You can either choose your opponent's 
team or let the computer pick its own. You 
then decide which team you want to coach; 



every team has its strengths and weak- 
nesses. There are 20 different teams to 
pick from. Next you get to decide whether 
you want a game with 15-minute quarters 
or short 7 1/2-minute quarters. (If you 
choose the 15-minute quarters, you arc 
allotted 30 seconds to make a play selec- 
tion. If you choose the shorter quarters, 
you have 15 seconds to make your plays.) 
Once the preliminaries are decided, it's 
time to play ball! 




The computer always starts the game 
by kicking off. This is the only break you 
can count on the computer giving. From 
then on, it is unmerciful. After you have 
returned the kickoff, you choose from eight 
offensive formations. You can run almost 
any play you can think of from these eight 
basic formations. Just remember the 1 5- or 
30-second play selection time. 

The referees also give no breaks. They 
will deal out "delay of game" penalties 
all day. The onscreen scoreboard gives 
indications of the plays. It shows the pen- 
alties along with other good and bad an- 
nouncements — "Punt in the Air," "Ball 
Is Snapped," "Completed Pass," etc. So 
there are many things to do and watch out 
for, so many things going on at the same 
time. You can watch the left half of the 
screen as the defense smothers you. You 
could really use an extra pair of eyes in 
order to track all that is going on. It's going 
to take some long hours with a joystick in 
hand to master this one. 

Football II requires a CoCo 3 and a 
joystick, a TV or a monitor. However. I 
found the detail on the TV not very sharp 
at all, and this makes the game even more 
difficult to follow. It is hard enough with a 
monitor on which you can see everything 
going on. For a TV, I would have rather 
had just the overhead view increased in 
detail. So. I highly recommend running 
the game with a monitor, not a TV. Over- 
all. I find the game very challenging. 

(Tandy Corporation, 1700 One Tandy Cen- 
ter, Kort Worth. IX 76102; $29.95: Avail- 
able in Radio Shack stores nationwide.) 

—Dale Shell 



120 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



D 



Software 



C0C01.2&3 



Yahtzzz and 

Quantum * *Leap — 

Take-Offs 

on Dice Games 

I was pleasantly surprised when 1 came 
home from work and found a package 
from RAINBOW wailing on the table — 
Ycihlzzz and Quantum** Leap from JR & 
JR Soflstuff. 1 sat down in front of the 
C0C0. poked a disk in the drive and made 
the recommended backups. Yes. that's right, 
these programs are not copy-protected, 
and the publishers recommend making 
backups. In fact, the original diskettes 
come with write-protect labs already in 
place, to prevent accidents. And since both 
programs maintain a high-score log on the 
program disk, they nuisi be backed up 
before playing. 

Yahlzzz, as you might have guessed 
from the title, is a clone of a popular dice 
game. Yahtzzz requires a 32K C0C0 1 , 2 or 
3. A score sheet is placed on the screen, 
along with five dice. The keyboard or 



joystick is used to roll, to discard dice and 
to pick the scoring box to enter the result 
in. Almost everyone has played this type 
of game at some time, in some incarnation. 
Yahtzzz is programmed in BASIC, with 
some machine language routines. 

Quantum** Leap is a somewhat similar 
dice game for the C0C0 3. It uses the 16- 
color screen, mixing text and graphics 
with lots of colors. On startup, you are 
asked if you are using an RGB or a com- 
posite monitor, and then you are thrust into 
the game. Once in, there is no way out 
without either playing a complete game or 
pressing the reset button. 

The biggest difference between 
Quantum**Leap and Yahtzzz, though, is 
that Quantum** Leap is played not with 
five dice, but with six! As you can imag- 
ine, this changes the strategy of play more 
than a little. ..but lest things get too impos- 
sible, you are allowed four rolls instead of 
three to try to accomplish your scores. 
Scores are much higher, and some of the 
rolls are much more difficult. 

Since Quantiim**Leap is strictly for 
the C0C0 3, 1 ran it first. I quickly discov- 
ered that something in the machine lan- 
guage of the game conflicts with modifi- 
cations 1 routinely load into Disk BASIC 
when I start up my C0C0. However, when 



I rebooted and ran the program from un- 
modified Disk BASIC 2.1. everything 
worked OK. 

The game is fun, interesting and much 
fresher than I would have expected from 
yet another Yahtzee clone. The six dice 
make more difference than I would have 
credited at first glance. On completion of 
a game, the score is automatically entered 
in the "Top Ten" and saved to disk. 




Eyestrain might gel to you unless you 
try the RGB color set: it is much more 
readable on my monitor. The only other 
difficulty with Qiumliim**Leap arose when 
1 left it for my wife to play with during the 
day. I came home to discover she had been 
unable to get the program to load. There 
was a minor error in the instructions, tell- 
ing users to LOADM"QUANTUM**LEAP" 



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You toss it in and CoCo-Accountant sorts it out. Here's 
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• Lists and totals all transactions for any calendar 
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• Lists and totals transactions by account, payee or 
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• Instant account and monthly summaries with net cash 
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•Tracks, lists and totals 
deductible expenses . 
• Tracks uncleared checks 
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CoCo-Accountant III stores up to 2,000 transactions and 72 
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March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



121 



— a command any seasoned hacker would 
have instantly recognized as erroneous, 
bin which could trip up beginners. 

When I ran Yahtzzz, I tried it both on the 
CoCo 3 and on my backup machine, a 
CoCo 2B. I found, first, that CoCo 3 users 
who have RGB analog monitors will see 
this game in black-and-white because it 
uses the artifact color set. This will not 
affect play of the game, however, because 
all text and graphics are in black and buff, 
and will display adequately regardless of 
display options. 

The second thing I found was thai the 
program would crash immediately on fin- 
ishing the first game whenever I ran it on 
the CoCo 2, but would change to high 
speed at the same point when running on 
the CoCo 3. When I listed the BASIC 
portion of the program. 1 found what I had 
suspected: POKE 654 97, a CoCo 3 high- 
speed poke. This is an easy error to make 
when developing programs on a CoCo 3 lo 
be run on an older CoCo, since the old 
poke to 65495 will not work on the CoCo 
3. Furthermore, the user is not even prompt- 
ed for use of the high-speed poke, even 
though many of the older CoCos will lock 
up when it is used. Fortunately, anyone 
who is aware of this situation can fix the 
problem very easily by removing the of- 
fending pokes wherever they appear, be- 
cause the BASIC portion of Yahtzzz is not 
listing-hidden. 

Also, Ycihlzzz turned out to be incom- 
patible with my modified BASIC, but that 
was no real surprise ■ — the modifications I 
installed use practically every byte of 
memory not used by the BASIC inter- 
preter itself. When I rebooted. I found that 
Yahtzzz, too, was stable and bug-free, both 
with keyboard and with joystick, when 
running under both Disk BASIC 2.1 and 
1.1. aside from the already mentioned high- 
speed problem. |JR & JR Softstuff has 
reported (hat these bugs have been fixed in 
;i corrected version. | 

With Quantum**Leap priced at $19.95, 
and Yahtzzz at SI 2.95. neither game is 
priced too high for the entertainment de- 
livered. The first time I loaded the games, 
I found myself playing for nearly four 
hours, just trying to gel the Quantum Leap 

— six of a kind. While I have seen a five- 
dice game in the public domain, the graph- 
ics and sound are nothing to compare with 
Yahtzzz. and I have never seen a six-dice 
game from any source. 

(JR & .IK Softstuff, P.O. Box 118, Lompoc, 
CA 93438, 805-735-3889; $19.95 for 
Quantum**Leap, $12.95 for Yalii:zz, $3 for 
S/H) 

— Don Quails 



Hardware 



Disto Assortment — 
A Smorgasbord 
of Products 

Our friends at CRC/Disto have released 
a variety of hardware products for the 
CoCo. Included in this group are Super 
Controllers I and II. the RS-232 Super 
Pack, the RS-232 Switcher, and an RGB- 
Mono Video and Audio Interface. All of 
these products are worth considering if 
you are in the market for hardware addi- 
tions for your CoCo. 



"The RGB-Mono 
Video and Audio 
Interface is a fine 
product and pro- 
vides much better 
video resolution on 
a composite mono- 
chrome monitor 
than is available 
through the compos- 
ite jack on the back 
of the CoCo 3." 



Super Controller I: a floppy disk 
controller that employs the latest state-of- 
the-art technology and is compatible with 
all versions of the Color Computer. It is 
housed in a rugged metal case, utilizes 
gold-plated contacts and the Western Digi- 
tal WD 1 773. It contains four 28-pin sock- 
ets, which can be fitted with either 2764 or 
27 1 28 EPROMs, and comes with C-DOS 
installed. Each socket is software-selectable 
with asimple POKE 65345.V (where.v is 
a number between zero and three). 

There are no adjustments to be made, 
so nothing needs to be calibrated to main- 
lain reliable operation. The Super Con- 
troller 1 also incorporates a mini-expan- 
sion bus connector that lets you add other 
Disto products (i.e.. a real-time clock cal- 



endar, a hard disk adapter, an EPROM 
programmer and other user-oriented proj- 
ects). As an option, you can add a parallel 
printer port that can be used with a Cen- 
tronics-compatible printer under OS-9. The 
controller operates at 1 6 MHz, so it's fast. 
It needs only +5 VDC, which it picks up 
from your CoCo's expansion slot or Multi- 
Pak Interface. Because it doesn't need the 
12 volts used on the older CoCo disk 
controllers, it doesn't draw as much cur- 
rent. 

Although the Super Controller I is 
memory-mapped to be compatible with 
the Radio Shack controller, it has differ- 
ences that accommodate the extra fea- 
tures. The controller's 10-page instruction 
booklet shows the memory map and SCS 
select pin. The I/O select is mapped at 
SFF40 (65344) to SFF5F (65376). 

Each of the four available sockets is 
made to use either an 8K EPROM. like a 
2764, or a 1 6K EPROM 27 1 28. If you use 
the high-speed poke, the maximum access 
lime for the EPROM is 300ns: otherwise, 
a 450ns EPROM will work. Each of the 
sockets will access either 8K or 16K. 
depending on whether an 8K or a I6K 
EPROM is used. The memory map of this 
area is from $C000 (49152) to $FEFF 
(65279) for a 16K EPROM and $C000 
(49152) to SDFFF (57343) for an 8K 
EPROM. Since all four sockets are mapped 
to the same area, only one chip can be 
active at any time. The active-chip byte 
determines this. Any socket and DOS can 
be selected at any time even from within 
your BASIC or machine language pro- 
gram. Although specific instructions are 
provided on how to do this. I prefer to boot 
up a specific DOS from a warm start. 

The Super Controller I is a fine product 
and will provide even the most demanding 
CoCo user with fast and reliable disk 
operation. It sells for $99.95. 

Super Controller II: This controller is 
similar to the Super Controller I but con- 
tains only one 24- or 28-pin socket for an 
8K ROM or EPROM or for 1 6K EPROMs. 
It too incorporates an internal mini-expan- 
sion bus for any of the available Disto add- 
ons. The big difference, however, is that 
under OS-9 this controller uses a buffered 
read/write scheme to allow read/write I/O 
without halting the computer's CPU. This 
translates into speed as well as continual 
use of the CoCo keyboard — even while the 
disk is reading or writing. It also means 
that the system clock will no longer lose 
lime during these read/write operations. 
The controller is completely interrupt-driven 
to allow fast, smooth multitasking opera- 
tions — - something some PC compatibles 
can't do. 

The Super Controller II is the best choice 



122 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



if you are into OS-9 programming. Il sells 
for $130. 

RS-232 Super Pack: This is Disto's 
answer to the Tandy Deluxe RS-232 Pak. 
It is housed in a black plastic case only 
about half the size of the older Tandy 
product but containing no software. I tried 
the Disto Super Pack with MikeyTerm, 
Greg-E-Term and RickeyTerm and was 
very impressed with its operation. It re- 
quires the use of a Multi-Pak and provides 
a true RS-232 serial port. 

Although I did not try it with OS-9, 
Disto claims its Super Pack is compatible 
with OS-9 ACI A software. It comes ready 
to go and includes a DB-25 cable. My only 
complaint is that the supplied cable is 
about X inches long. I'd like to see it about 
3 feet long, so it could be plugged right 
into my modem without requiring an ex- 
tender cable. 

The RS-232 Super Pack sells for $49.95. 

RS-232 Switcher: This handy gadget is 
amustif you useaserial printer along with 
a modem or other serial device. It's housed 
in an attractive off-white case to match the 
color of the CoCo 2 and 3. A three-position 
rotary switch is used to select any one of 
three serial devices. Four 3-foot cables are 
routed out the back of the switcher, and 



each is terminated with the appropriate 
DIN connector. One of the cables has a 
male DIN connector that plugs into the 
back of your CoCo serial port. The other 
three cables have a female DIN connector, 
so your serial-to-parallel adapter can be 
hooked up. The box measures 4.5 inches 
long, 2.5 inches deep and 1 .25 inches high. 
The RS-232 Switcher sells for $19.95. 

RGB-Mono Video and Audio Inter- 
face: This product is made just for the 
CoCo 3 and lets you use a composite 
monochrome monitor with that Color 
Computer. What's different here is that 
while you can hook a composite mono- 
chrome monitor directly to the back of the 
CoCo 3, the computer puts out a color 
signal. Although this is satisfactory, it is 
not as good as what you can get using this 
gadget. This interface plugs into the 10- 
pin RGB socket on the bottom of the CoCo 
3 and provides exceptionally crisp, clear 
text or graphics. 

In addition, this interface has a built-in 
speaker and volume control, so you can 
obtain sound at the same time. Although 
the results are worth the effort, you do 
have to open your CoCo 3 case to add this 
interface. If you are concerned about this, 
it may be best to wail until your warranty 



has expired and then get a friend with 
technical experience to help out. A little 
red clip has to be connected to a diode 
inside the computer. The directions are 
quite clear, and I had no trouble making 
this solderless connection. The interface 
itself is 4 1/2-inches long. 2 1/2-inches 
wide and 1 1/2-inches high, and it sits 
outside the computer. Three cables come 
out of one side of the off-white plastic 
case. While the one with the red clip is 
about 2-feet long, the one that plugs into 
your monitor's composite video jack is 
almost 6-feet long and has a standard RCA 
plug on the end. The last of the three is a2- 
foot, 10-conductor ribbon cable, which 
plugs into the RGB connector on the bot- 
tom of your CoCo 3. After it's all hooked 
up. there's plenty of cable length to allow 
you to put the interface in a convenient 
spot near your computer. 

The RGB-Mono Video and Audio In- 
terface is a fine product and provides much 
better video resolution on a composite 
monochrome monitor than is available 
through the composite jack on the back of 
the CoCo 3. It sells for $29.95. 

All of these Disto products performed 
as advertised and were well documented. 
The quality is first class, and 1 see no 



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THE RAINBOW 



123 



indication of shortcuts in their design or 
operation. 

(CRC Computers, Inc. 10802 I.ajeunesse, 
Montreal, Quebec Canada, H3L 3E8j 514- 

383-5293) 

— Robert Gray 



Software 



CoCo3 



Leonardo's 

Paintbox — 

What Would da Vinci 

Have Done 

With a CoCo 3? 

Do you hate trying to program Hi-Res 
graphics in BASIC? I mean, do you really 
hate spending hours plotting and planning 
down to (he last point to keep the PAINT 
from going outside the lines? Have you 
had it with trying to figure out your start- 
ing point to make sure the whole picture 
fits and then finding out it won't? Wouldn't 
you love to sit down with your joystick, 
draw the picture and have the BASIC 
program magically appear on your disk? If 
you answered "yes" to any of these ques- 
tions, get ready to open Leonardo's Paintbox 
because — believe it or not — this little 
program lets you do just that. 

Requiring a CoCo 3, I28K and a disk 
drive. Paintbox is accompanied by six 
unassuming pages of instructions. The 
recommended drawing tool is a self-cen- 
tering joystick. The instructions are bro- 
ken into five parts: Starting the Graphic. 
Drawing Mode. Painting Mode. Adding 
Dots of Color and Saving the Graphic. 

Starting the Graphic is just that: You 
center your joystick and then select 16 
colors from your palette to use when creat- 
ing your drawing. 

Moving on to Part 2 is really compli- 
cated — press the space bar. You are now 
ready to draw. (Like I said, really compli- 
cated.) Drawing is accomplished by mov- 
ing the cursor to the starting position on 
the screen. To draw, press the red fire 
button, and you're drawing. To stop draw- 
ing, let go of the button. Did someone say 
you can't use Radio Shack's joysticks for 
Hi-Res? Wrong! I used not only my stan- 
dard slicks, but an Atari stick and even a 
Koala pad — all with good results. You can 
even draw from the keyboard for point-by- 
point accuracy. If you do manage to make 
a mistake, there is an Undo feature to undo 
your mistake. Finally, a Redraw option 
lets you redraw the picture from the begin- 



ning to repair gaps that may occur if your 
"undo" line crosses another line. 

Let's move on to Part 3, painting. This 
is the hard part, right? True, it's more 
difficult than pressing the space bar. Now 
you must press and hold Fl until the Part 3 
title appears. Next, press the space bar, and 
you're ready to paint. Your palette of 16 
colors, located at the bottom of the screen, 
is ready for you. Use the joystick to select 
a color and then move the cursor to the 
area to be painted. Press the firebutton 
again, and it's painted. What if the paint 
spills into the next area? No problem. Use 
Redraw to return to the draw mode and 
plug the "leak." Now press Fl to return to 
the Paint mode. 

Have you finished painting? Then it's 
time to learn a new command. Press F2 to 
leave the Paint mode, and you're ready for 
Part 4 or 5. If you are satisfied with your 
picture, you can save it, or you can add 
texture, shading, highlights and more de- 
tail to your graphic by using the dots of 
color available. Again, simply click onto 
the color of your choice, using the stick or 
the keyboard to place dots of color on your 
graphic. This really gives the graphic some 
style. 

When do we get to the hard part? Hold 
on, it's coming. To save the graphic, press 
B. You are now asked for a name for the 
picture. Type in your selected name and 
press ENTER. Paintbox begins writing the 
BASIC program — in ASCII format — to 
your disk. 

Now for the hard part. 

The instructions ask you to wait while 
the program is created. I round this to be 
the hardest part. I hate to wait for any- 
thing! The more complex your graphic, 
the longer this will take. It took about two 
minutes for the drawing I made. Once the 
program is created and stored on disk, 
you'll be asked if you want to run the 
BASIC program. 




If you press Y, the program runs, and 
your graphic is reproduced from BASIC 
using PALETTE, HDRAW, HPAINT and 
HSET commands with variables stored in 
data statements within the routine, or in a 
separate data file saved on the disk along 
with the routine. 



Is there anything this program can't do? 
Unfortunately, yes. There is no easy way 
to clear the screen and start the drawing 
over again. To start over, you must reach 
back to the old reset button and rerun the 
program. A one- or two-keystroke com- 
mand, like CTRL-C, to clear the screen 
would have been a lot more convenient. 

Now if — like me — you have no artistic 
talents, you probably think you can't do 
anything with Paintbox because you can't 
draw. Wrong again. One of the helpful 
hints on the last page of the instructions 
suggests tracing a picture on clear plastic 
wrap and using it as a guide. I traced a 
picture from my daughter's coloring book 
onto a clear plastic sheet, placed it on the 
monitor screen and used Paintbox to trace 
the tracing. I couldn't believe my eyes. I 
can draw. (Is this fantastic or what?) This 
is a great program and worth the price. 

(E.Z. Friendly, 1 18 Corlies Ave., Poughkeep- 
sie, NY 12601, 914-485-8150; $26.95 plus 
$1.50 S/H. introductory price; $29.95 regu- 
larly) 

— Randy Cassel 



Software 



CoCo 1 . 2 & 3 



/ Ching — 
The Whims 
of Fortune 

1 know, I know. You don't really be- 
lieve in this fortune-telling stuff. You're a 
cosmopolitan person living in the 20th 
century. You know where you're going 
and you don't need anyone or anything to 
help you solve your problems or tell you 
where you're headed. You just bought this 
as a.. .party game. That's it. That's why I 
asked to review / Ching. I enjoy fortune- 
telling. It's a great ice-breaker — a conver- 
sation piece. 

Sure it is. 

According to an Eastern philosophy, 
our universe is bipolar (i.e., the universe is 
composed of opposites — light and dark, 
life and death, male and female, yin and 
yang). However, these opposing forces are 
not constant; the universe changes — night 
becomes day, and day becomes night again. 
Followers of this philosophy saw a pattern 
in these changes. They documented these 
changes in the / Ching — the Book of 
Changes. By asking questions and tossing 
sticks, which symbolized the opposing forces 
of yin and yang, these people believed 
they could predict future events — see the 
pattern of change in their futures. 



124 



THE RAINBOW March 1 9S9 



The people al Tolhian realized thai this 
pattern of change was binary in nature and 
lhal il would be simple lo emulate mis 
pattern with the Color Computer. Willi 
this in mind, they created / Ching, which 
runs on any 32K CoCo (disk or tape). The 
program offers five different ways to peer 
into the future (or break the ice at a party), 
and onscreen instructions make it easy to 
use. In addition, the program's documen- 
tation offers a brief history of the Book of 
Cluiiit'es. The manual explains the various 
symbols and how this manner of divina- 
tion works. 

Like any fortune-teller, CoCo cannot 
gaze into your future without help from 
you. The program requires user response. 
You are offered five options for determin- 
ing the appropriate responses. You may 
toss coins, use yarrow sticks, shuffle cards, 
swing a pendulum or use your intuition. In 
each instance, the program offers detailed 
instructions to the novice but lets the expe- 
rienced useravoid the instructions and just 
enter the appropriate data. 

I tried all the available options. I am 
lazy, so I preferred the simplest option, 
Option 5, which asks the user to enter six 
random numbers (from I to 100). Option 
1, tossing coins, wasn't bad either because 
I only had lo toss three coins six times — no 



problem, I had that much change in my 
pocket. 

"/ asked if I would 
someday be rich and 
famous, entering the 
numbers as requested. 

The program then 

computed my hexagram 

(my present situation) 

and a second hexagram 

(my path of change — my 

future). It concluded 

with the hexagram 

representing initial 

difficulty but ultimate 

success. (And just think, 

you'll be able to say you 

knew me when....)" 

Option 3, which uses cards, required 
that I make four cards before I began, and 
the pendulum (Option 4) required that I 
draw a diagram and make a pendulum 



before I could start the process. Of course, 
none of these tasks was too difficult for 
someone who wanted to ponder the secrets 
of...um, I mean, review this program. 

However, Option 2 was too lime-con- 
suming for me to try more than once. The 
program asks for 49 yarrow sticks, but il 
will settle for 49 of something else. I had a 
roll of pennies lo use, so I gave il a try. This 
process requires an elaborate series of 
selections. Although the program supplies 
instructions, you must complete this proc- 
ess of elimination six times. OK. maybe I 
want to know the secrets lo the universe, 
but not that much. 

Once you have entered all the requested 
information, the program determines the 
two hexagrams representing your present 
and future conditions. For instance, I asked 
if I would someday be rich and famous, 
entering the numbers as requested. The 
program then computed my hexagram (my 
present situation) and a second hexagram 
(my path of change — my future). The 
program responded with the hexagram 
representing incomplete action (i.e.. I 
haven't started on the path to wealth). It 
concluded with the hexagram represent- 
ing initial difficulty but ultimate success. 
(And just think, you'll be able to say you 
knew me when ) The program's an- 



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March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



125 



swers are, of course, rather cryptic, but 
you can use them to formulate your own 
theories about the future. 

When you have seen the results, you 
can save the judgment in a file or add it to 
a previous file. You also have the option to 
print a copy of the program's prediction. 
Finally, you can review earlier prophecies 
and edit them. Yes, that's right. You can 
change the hexagrams the question origi- 
nally offered to something you find more 
suitable. Who says you can't change the 
future? 

(Tothian Software, Inc., Box 663, Rimers- 
burg, PA 16248; $24.95.) 



— Beth Haendiges 



Hardware 



CoCo 1 . 2 & 3 



SolidDrive — 
Get Six Floppy 
Drives on a Card 

Imagine turning on your CoCo and in 
less than two seconds — with no disks 
clattering and rumbling — having 1 mega- 
byte of disk space available, running with 
sub-second response faster than even a 
hard drive. Now imagine grabbing a metal 
cartridge the size of a disk controller and 
taking it to work with you to use on your 
OS-9 system at the office. 

That's not good enough for you? 

OK. Turn on the computer again, but 
hold down the space bar this time. There 
you are in Disk BASIC — SolidDrive 
Version SI. I. Now you have six floppy 
disks available to you, drives 4 through 9. 
Go ahead. Run your graphics programs at 
blistering speed. Edit text faster than you 
could have imagined. Is this a CoCo? Now 
take the pack out and go to a friend's house 
to show him or her your new desktop 
publishing creation. 

Still nol good enough? 

OK. Let's run a little utility that'll for- 
mat a megabyte of RAM disk in under 30 
seconds. Now let's split it up: three logical 
drives, say — 4,5 and 6 — to RS-DOS, and 
drives 7, 8 and 9 to OS-9. You have Level 
I at home and Level II at work? No prob- 
lem. Split it any way you like. Have a 
separate boot file for each. 

This is no fantasy. This is SolidDrive 
from Vidicom Corporation, a fast-access, 
high-speed RAM cartridge that can be 
configured for either half a megabyte or a 
full megabyte of RAM to emulate either 
three or six floppy disk drives. It is not an 
"actual" disk drive but a hardware car- 



tridge that plugs into a Mulii-Pak Interface 
or a Y-cable: it consists of RAM chips and 
circuitry. There are also several software 
programs required to make SolidDrive work; 
also available is an optional EPROM chip 
for your disk controller to make SolidDrive 
come to life when you start the computer. 

SolidDrive is not a "real" disk drive — 
it just thinks it is. In actuality it is a bank of 
RAM chips organized in such a way that 
they are split up and assigned disk drive 
numbers, just like real disk drives. With a 
conventional disk drive (and OS-9 users 
know this all too well), when you ask the 
computer to go and get something or to 
load something or store something, you're 
in for a wail. Like a tired old janitor, it tells 
the disk drive to wake up, Ihen goes and 
seeks (and seeks and seeks) a program or a 
file, and then loads or saves it, and then 
unloads what it loaded. ..you get the pic- 
lure. Even with a hard drive running at 10 
times the speed of a floppy drive, multiple 
seeks, reads and writes lake lime. 

The RAM chip, however, is online and 
standing by. as if il were already in mem- 
ory. If it is not, but needs to be loaded, 
there is no mechanical or physical process 
involved: We simply have a circuit-to- 
circuii transfer thai noeleclro-mechanical 
process can match, because what you are 
looking for is already there! It is for ihis 
reason that a super-fast RAM carlridgecan 
be called the Jaguar of disk drives. In 
addition, the SolidDrive has an on-board 
ballery backup, so you won't have to worry 
about a power failure or accidental power- 
down. The moment power is removed 
from the system, SolidDrive write-pro- 
tects itself, keeping all the dala alive and 
well. Just plug it into a cartridge slot again, 
and off you go. The battery is good for at 
least two years, and the unit will shui itself 
down several days before critical power 
loss, allowing you lime for ballery re- 
placement. 

SolidDrive can be used for OS-9 and 
Disk BASIC both. Il fills the gap between 
the hard drive and the floppy, or just boosts 
your floppy power with more speed and 
slorage. Certainly in terms of users with 
applications thai involve a lot of disk ac- 
cess, like programs that deal with inte- 
grated text and graphics. Il can really boost 
productivity with its reliability, speed, 
storage and portability. OS-9 users who 
are relying heavily on applications that go 
through a lot of disk seeks and reads would 
find Ihis an invaluable tool, and in con- 
junction with a hard drive, well, il could 
probably beal the pants off mosl PCs! If 
you are an OS-9 power user, ihis product is 
mosl definitely for you. 

SolidDrive comes with excellent, well- 
organized documentation in extra large 



prim. Il tells you everything you need to 
know about installing and using SolidDrive, 
from how lo change its memory locations 
to how to use it in auto-boot mode. It gives 
you hints on allocating drive space and 
even troubleshooting. Vidicom Corpora- 
tion warranties SolidDrive for two years 
with a limited warranty. You are invited lo 
call the company if trouble arises that you 
cannot handle. A word of caution lo the 
curious: Breaking the case seal will void 
the warranty! 

Inexperienced users should be careful 
when allocating which logical disk drives 
are to be used for Disk BASIC and which 
for OS-9 if you intend to use both operat- 
ing systems. There is a utility included 
with SolidDrive called SMap, but as is the 
case with all utilities, one must know how 
to use it properly! Il is possible lo confuse 
the software in such a way that you would 
need to reformat SolidDrive. Careful plan- 
ning will avoid (his risk. 

For those users who want SolidDrive 
available the moment they turn the CoCo 
on, there is an optional EPROM for $19 
that can be purchased from Vidicom. You 
can also load the software drivers from 
disk, but this will not give you instant 
access to SolidDrive. Be sure to specify 
either the 24- or 28-pin EPROM when 
ordering. I highly recommend the EPROM. 
If you are investing in the SolidDrive, the 
EPROM is a must 

I think this is an outstanding product. I 
received my unit with physical damage in 
evidence (probably from dropping or bang- 
ing), but when I plugged it in il worked 
flawlessly and has continued to do so ever 
since. This is one tough, reliable unit, and 
il is a must for serious users. For those who 
cannot or do not want to make the invest- 
ment in a full megabyte of memory, the 
unit can be later upgraded at the factory. 
When you consider the cost of the equiva- 
lent hard drive or multiple floppy disk 
drives, ihis is an excellent value for the 
money. The service available when prob- 
lems arise is excellent. I had a damaged 
disk and a wrecked EPROM, along with 
the damaged unit when it arrived; after a 
quick, courteous and helpful phone con- 
versation wilh the owner of Vidicom. I 
received replacement equipment the next 
day, and il functioned flawlessly. This 
company and its products are a model for 
the entire CoCo Community. On a scale of 
I to 10, this product rates a If). 

(Vidicom Corporation, 20 K. Main St., Suite 
710, Mesa, AZ 85201, 602-827-0107; $395 
for 512K version, $695 for 1-Meg version, $4 

S/H) 

— Jeffrey S. Parker 



126 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



Tflakma, /L ^^ 



■7 COMPUTER CENTER 



MicroWorld II 

PO Box 5330 
Clinton, NJ 



Since 1982 



I MicroNorld ] 

tia&iaaoii 




calu In Pa: (215)863 8911 
In NJ: (201) 735 6131! 

CALL FOR WEEKLY SPECIALS 



' i i ■ 

8 I 

MicroWorld 
P0 Box 69 
Wind Cap, Pa. 18091 



Since 1982 



Free Shipping* 100% TANDY Products* 




CoCo 

26-3334 CoCo III. 128K $149.00 

26-3215 CM-8 $248.00 

26-3133 FD-502DrO, CoCo $235.00 

26-2802 DMP-106 $145.00 

26-2814 DMP-132 $279.00 

26-1208 CCr-81 $43.00 

26-3008 Joysticks (Pair) $10.00 

26-3025 Color Mouse $33.00 

26-3125 Deluxe Color Mouse S38.00 

26-3012 Joystix - DELUXE $24.00 
26-3028 Hi-Res Joystick In tfee S8.00 

LoL& Upa/iaast. 

AXX-7117CoCoIlI,S12K Bd S199.00 

AXX-7123Multi-pkUp-Old $12.00 

AXX-7124Multi-pk Up-New $12.00 

CoCo- auuuate 

26-3031 OS-9 Level II $64.00 

26-3032 OS-9 Dcvcl Sys. S82.00 

26-3035 Mullivue $40.00 



COMPUTKRS 



25-1053 TANDY 10001 IX 
25- 1600 TANDY 1000TX 
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25-5000 TANDY 4000 
25-5100 TANDY 4000 I.X 



MONITORS 



25-1023 CM-5RC.B Mon. 
25-1024 CM-11 RCiBMon. 
25-4035 BGM-1 Monitor 
25-3012 VM-5 Mono. Mon. 
26-3215 CM-8 



$549.00 

$799.00 

$689.00 

$969.00 

S1375.00 

$1299.00 

$1979.00 

$2999.00 



$220.00 
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$525.00 
$11S.00 
$248.00 



HARD CARDS 

20 Meg Hard Card SALE $360.00 

30 Meg ZUCKER $499.00 
HARD DISKS 

Seagate 20 Hg Ki t $299 . 00 

Seagate 30 Mg Kit $349.00 
Seagate 40 Mg Kit(no Ctrl) 
$399.00 

I'LOITY DRIVES 

TEAG5 1/4 Disk-360kb S99.00 

TBAC3 1/2 Disk-720kb SI 19.00 

Oiaaur onam: 

5 1/4 I-xl. Drive-lIX/liX SI80.00 

3 1/2 Bxt. Drivc-llX/liX $199.00 

5 1/4 Disk-360kb S 125.00 

3 1/2 Disk- 720kb S125.00 

3 1/2 to 5 1/4 Adapter S24.00 

3 1/2 Disk- 720kh 'IT.' $125.00 

31/2-5 1/4 Adapter *TL* $24.00 

5 1/4 1.2M IDDK.it S215.00 

5 1/4 360K I'D!) Kit S 140.01) 



I'KI 



DMP-106 
DMP-132 
DWP-230 
IAII'440 
DMP 2120 
LP 1000 Laser 



SALE! 



HOARDS 



Smart Watch 

Plus Upgrade Adapter Hoard 

Memory Plus Expansion BD 

Plus RS-232 

256K RAM Kit 

2 Port Serial Baord 

EGA Adapter 



$145.00 
$279.00 
$345.00 
$545.00 
SI 199.00 
SI899.IK) 

S30.00 

$12.50 
$1 10.00 

$45.00 
$110.00 

$79.00 
S185.00 



MODKMS 






300 Baud Pc Modem 


$40.00 




2400 Baud Hall I'd Modem 


SI 35 00 




Plus 1200 Baud Pi: Modem 


$80.00 




MISC 






Serial Mouse 


$36.00 




Joystick - DliLUXIi 


S24.00 




Monitor Platform 


S24.00 




Ribbons - DMP- 130 


$8.00 




Ribbons- DMP- 105/ 106 


$5.50 




Hips - R/S 


SI 1.00 




Disk Clean Kits 


S5.00 




Cover - DMP- 105/6 


$3.00 




Cover - CoCo 11/111 


$3.00 




Cover - DMP- 130 


S3.00 




Hulk Erasers 


SI2.00 




Hip n' Piles w/lock 


$11.00 




3-1 '2 or 5- 1/4 






Library Case- Black 


SI. 50 




Library Case-Tan 


$2.00 




Paper- Mini 20# 


$4.00 




Paper #15 


$14.00 




Paper #20 


$10.00 




DISKS 






Tandy SS 5 1/4 Disks 


$9.00 




Tandy DS 5 1/4 Disks 


$10.00 




Tandy DS 3 1/2 Disks 


S28.U0 




Winners DS/DD W/I.ib case 


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Winners SS/DD W/l.ib case 


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1 b% ntf. Oiallla hhiuh JWiatOOM, 




70% ,»// Skdk -Vm/1 h^Lum 





* 100% TANDY Warranty on TANDY products - Manufacturer's Warranty applies on all other items. 

* FREE UPS shipping on orders over $50 (In the Continental US) - under $50 add $5 for shipping. 

* The above prices are CASH prices - add 3% for credit cards. Mo COD's will be taken. Prices 

may be slightly higher in our retail stores. 

* All returns must have prior authorization and are subject to a re-stocking fee. 

* Minimum Order $25 _^ 



c i vexl<ZMd ' 




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The following products have recently been received by 
THE RAINBOW, examined by our magazine staff' and issued 
the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance that we 
have seen the product and have ascertained that it is what it 
purports to be. 



^m 



£$?**• 



Black Grid, a computer adaptation of the 

"Black Box" game in which the computer hides 
from iwo lo nine blocks inside a black grid. 
Players must locale them by shooting "rays" 
into the grid. Three different play modes are 
available. Requires a CoCo 3 and a disk drive. 
SPORTSware. 1251 S. Reynolds Road, Suite 
414. Toledo. OH 43615. (419) 389-1515; $21. 

Calendar and Convert, two OS-9 Level II 
programs on one disk. Calendar (32K required) 
creates an 800-year calendar for the years 1 600 
through 2400. Printing out selected monthly 
calendars requires a printer capable of elon- 
gated type. Convert (24K required) is a utility 
to convert numbers to and from decimal, bi- 
nary and hexadecimal. It also converts ASCII 
characters to decimal, and decimal lo ASCII. 
Both programs create and erase their own 
overlay windows: they come on a 35-track 
disk. Alan llanusiak. 37 Grand Ave., Rock- 
ville. CT 06066. (203) 875-2027; $24. 

CoCo 3 Wheel of Fortune, an upgrade of the 
CoCo 2 version of the popular TV game show. 
(The CoCo 2 version is still available.) Re- 
quires a CoCo 3 and a disk drive. SPORTSware. 
1251 S. Reynolds Road, Suite 414. Toledo. Oil 
43615. (419) 389-1515; $21. 

CoCo Stereo Headphone Amplifier, an audio 
amplifier that plugs into the rear cassette port. 
It makes game sounds or music audible through 
one or two headphones that have 1/8-inch 
Stereo plugs (headphones not included). For 
the CoCo I, 2 and 3. Mike Forrest, 2501 
Summer Tree Lane. #1096. Arlington. TX 76006, 
(817) 860-3885; $3995. 

<S> Disk Handyman, a CoCo 3 disk utility 
that performs 1 28/5 1 2K backups for one- or 
two-drive systems, and can perform backups 
between two Drive Os using the Multi-Pak 
Interface. It will also verify a disk, encode the 
DOS track lo auto-start a program, and "lock 
out" bad granules, permitting use of a disk with 
errors. Micro Data Systems, P.O. Box 462. 
Princeton. KY 42445. '(502)365-0206; $24.95 
plus $3 SIM. 

KJV Disk #35: The Book of Acts, the Book of 

Acts from the King James version of the Bible, 
in ASCII files. Fo"r the CoCo I. 2 and 3 and a 



word processor. BDS Software. P.O. Box 485. 
Glenview. IL 60025. (312) 998-1656; $3. 

Lyra 2.6. an upgraded version of the menu- 
driven CoCo music composition program that 
can work with MIDI. A graphic display allows 
entry and editing of a music score with up lo 
eight independent parts. Requires any model 
CoCo that has at least 64K. a disk drive (Disk 
Extended Color BASIC LO. LI. 2.0 or 2.1) and 
a mouse or joystick. Optional equipment in- 
cludes a MIDI synthesizer and a connecting 
cable. Rnlaford Research. P.O. Box 143. Impe- 
rial Beach. CA92032, (619)690-3648; $59.95. 

Nine-Digit Calculator, a BASIC program that 
emulates a handheld, nine-digit calculator. It 
uses Reverse Polish Notation, with an entry 
pad. a six-register stack and 100 memory loca- 
tions. For the CoCo 1 . 2 and 3. BDS Software, 
P.O. Box 485, Glenview. IL 60025, (312) 998- 
1656; $10. 

Omni Utility, a menu-driven disk utility that 
offers such functions as printing and alphabet- 
izing disk directories, performing backups, 
editing seclors. and copying, moving, execut- 
ing, killing and renaming files. For the CoCo 3. 
GSW Software, 8345 Glenwood, Overland Park. 
KS 66212, (913) 341-3411; $20. 

Public Domain's Disk #22. a collection of 32 

public domain games, including Othello. Suh- 
cliase. Gammon and HogJowl. Other disks 
available: send $ I for a catalog. Public Domain 
Software Copying Company, 33 Gold St., Suite 
L-3, New York. NY 1 0038, ('800 )22l-7372: $10 
plus $4.50 S/H. 



iir Simply Better. A command-driven CoCo 
3 word processor with pop-up windows. Fea- 
tures include onscreen underlining, a window 
allowing two documents to be open at the same 
lime, index and table of contents creation, 
macros, sorting, display of five print fonts, 
forms fill-in. automatic print spooling, a spell- 
ing checker, mail merge and more. On the 
I28K CoCo 3 il provides 90K of text storage; 
on the 5I2K il provides 480K. Simply Better 
Software. P.O. Box 20726, Portland. OR 97220. 
(503) 254-7225; $29.95. 

<► WHF.EI.KR.BIN and GAMEGEN.BIN, 

two machine language programs for lottery 
players. WHEELER.BIN lets users wheel 
from seven to 19 different numbers for their 
state's lottery games. GAMEGEN.BIN out- 
puts random games. For CoCos 2 and 3. disk 
drive required, printer optional. Davissmi. 13733 
Celestial Road, Powav, CA 92064. (619) 748- 
7441; $19.50 plus $2.50 Sill. 

Zebra's Picture Disks #2, #3 and #4. a set of 
disks each containing 1 20 pictures for use with 
CoCo Graphics Designer Plus, CoCo Graph- 
ics Designer. CoCo Max. CoCo Max II and 
Max-10. An instruction manual and 15 custom 
disk labels are provided. Each disk covers four 
"topics": Disk 2 — Sports, America, Parly and 
Office: Disk 3 — Animals, Nature. Religion 
and Travel: Disk 4 covers holidays — Popular. 
National, Christian and Jewish. Upgrades from 
earlier picture disks are available for $5 plus 
$3 S/H and return of the original, serial-num- 
bered disk. Zebra Systems, Inc., 78-06 Jamaica 
Ave., Woodhaven. NY 1 1421. (718) 296-2385; 
$14.95 each plus $3 S/H. 



First product received from this company 



The Seal of Certification is open to all manufacturers of products for the Tandy 
Color Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal . the magazine certifies the program doesexist — that we have 
examined it and have a sample copy — but this does not constitute any guarantee 
of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these hardware or software items will be 
forwarded lo THE RAINBOW reviewers for evaluation. 

— Lauren WiUoti&hby 



128 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 




ar. 



ftwar 



e 



03" New 
Save $10.00 
Package #-5, 
just $19.95 is available through Feb. 28, 1989. Specify RSDOS or OS9 



for 1989 - 30 Brand New Calligrapher Fonts! "O 

when you order the new Calligrapher Economy Font 
known as the Typewriter fonts. The introductory price of 



CALLIGRAPHER 

CoCo Calligrapher - Turn your 
Co Co and do tr matrix printer into 
a calligrapher's quill. Make beau- 
tiful invitations, dyers, certif- 
icates, labels and more. Includes 
3 fonts: Gay Nineties. Old English 
and Cartoon. The letters are l k 
inch high and variably spaced. 
Works with many printers such 
as Epson, Gemini and Radio 
Shack. Additional fonts are avail- 
able (see below). Tape /Disk: 
$24.95. 

OS9 Calligrapher - Prints all the 
same fonts as the CoCo Calligra- 
pher. It reads a standard text file 
which contains text and format- 
ting codes. You may specify the 
font to use, change fonts at any 
time, centering, left, right or full 
justify, line fill, margin, line 
width, page size, page break and 
indentation. Similar to troff on 
UNIX systems. Includes the 
same 3 fonts and additional fonts 
are available (see below). Disk 
only; OS9 Level I or II; $24.95. 

Calligrapher Fonts - Requires 
Calligrapher above. Each set on 
tape or disk; specify RSDOS or 
0S9 version; $14.95 each. Set 
#1 (9 fonts) Reduced and re- 
versed versions of Gay Nineties, 
Old English and Cartoon; Set #2 
(8 fonts) Old Style and Broadway: 
Set #3 (8 fonts) Antique and 
Business; Set #4 (8 fonts) Wild 
West and Checkers; Set #5 ( 10 
fonts) Stars, Hebrew and Victori- 
an; Set #6 (8 fonts) Block and 
Computer; Set #7 (5 small fonts) 
Roman, Italics. Cubes. Digital 
and Old World: Set #10 (8 fonts) 
several Roman styles; Set #11 
(10 fonts) Gothic and Script; Set 
#12 (10 fonts) more Roman and 
Italic. 

Economy Font Packages on 
disk; specify RSDOS or OS9: 
29.95 each " or $59.95 for all 
three: Font Pkg #1 - Above font, 
sets 1, 2 and 3 (25 fonts). Font 
Pkg #2 - Above font sets 4, 5 
and 6 (-26 fonts). Font Pkg #4 
(also known as the Hersney 
fonts) - Above font sets 10, 11 
and 12 ( 28 fonts) . Font Pkg #5 - 
See description to the right. 



Calligrapher Combo Package - Includes the Calligrapher 
and Economy Font Packages #1 and #2. 54 fonts in all- 
suecilV RSDOS or OS9: $69.95. 



New! TYPEWRITER Fonts Now Available 
For the Calligrapher! 

These 30 fonts are known as the Typewriter fonts. As displayed 
below, each set contains several styles of the fonts in different sizes 
and boldness. Ihese fonts all all fixed width. Set #13 includes 10 
Courier lonts in Roman and Bold. Set #14 includes 10 CMR 
Screen and Gallant fonts. Set #15 includes 10 TekTron, Prestige 
and Courier fonts. Each set is $14.95. Sets 13, M and 15 on one 
disk make up the Economy Font Pkg #5. (30 fonts) for $29.95. 
.See special offer above. 



Courier Bold 

Courier Bold 

Courier 1 Bold 



Courier I 
Courier 



to 



O 



Cur Bold 

S c r e e n Bold 
Screen B o 1 d 

Screen Roman 

Screen Roman 

T e k T r o n 
TekTron 

T e k T r o n 
TekTron 

Co ur i e r Roman 



Courier Roman 

Courier Roman 

Cour i e r Roman 

C o u rier R o m 

Courier R 

Ci'ir Roiian 

S c r e e n R o rn a n 

Screen Roman 

Screen Roman 

Gal 1 ant 

Prestige 
Prestige 

Prestige 
Prestige 

Prestige 



The OS!) Font Massager - This 
OS9 utility program allows you 
to do many things to Calligra- 
pher font files. You may create 
new fonts, modify existing 
fonts, invert fonts, compress 
fonts, double the height and/or 
width, halve the height and/or 
width and convert between OS9 
and RSDOS formats. $19.95. 



This is a saiple of the dot-iatrix 
printer output froi the 0S9 
Calligrapher set to full-justify the 
text vithin a 2.1 inch vide coltun. 
The font used is the 11-point 
Prestige font froi the font set /15 
or font package J5. 



For a complete catalog of Sugar Software products and fonts, send a stamp and a label. 



RAINBOW 

CCMWCAfKM 

'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 




SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 

Hollywood, Florida 33081 

(305) 981-12 11 



All progrnyriB run on the CoCo J, 2 and 8, 82 K 
Extended Dune, nnleee olherwiee noted. Add 
$1.50 per tape or disk for shipping and han- 
dling. Florida residents add 6% sales tax. COD 
orders add So. Dealer inquiries invited. Orders 
generally shipped in 2*1-48 hours. No refunds 
or exchanges without prior authorization. 



>5 



1 B AS I Ca ll y Sp e ak i n g 



The Start of Something Big 

Dear Bill: 

I have a 128 K CoCo 3 and Magnavox 
8-CM5I5 monitor. I'd like to write a 
slot-machine game, but I'm not quite 
sure where to start. Any help you can 
offer would he appreciated. 

Harold Tetzlaff 
Jasper, Tennessee 



Here's a 21 -line program (Listing I) 
to start you down the path to the 
programmer's hall of fame. It contains 
enough information to provide the core 
of a pretty good slot-machine game. 
You'll have to spruce up the graphics to 
make the slot machine look like a slot 
machine. I've also left the scoring and 
prize-collection routines in your hands. 
All I want to show you is a way to make 
the different symbols show up in the 
three windows. 

For my example, I've used plain 
circles with the numbers one through 
seven in them. You'll want to substitute 
pictures of cherries, oranges, lemons, 
bells, etc. in place of these circles, but 
the procedure for storing them will be 
about the same. 

First, in Line 10 I've set the screen 
resolution, cleared it to white and 
defined my foreground and background 
colors. Next, in order to store my seven 
symbols or circles, I have to define their 
buffers. Since I'm using seven circles 
(pictures in your case), I have to define 
buffers one through seven and describe 
their size. This is done in Line 20. I 
could have written the following: 

20 HBUFF 1,300:HBUFF 2,300:HBUFF 
3,300 (etc.) 

However, 1 decided to save a little space 
and memory by putting all seven in a 
loop. 

My next step would naturally be to 
draw each of the seven pictures and then 
store them in their respective buffers for 
later use. Again, 1 could have drawn and 



Bill Bernico is the author of over 200 
Color Computer programs and is a 
frequent HA IN BOH' contributor whose 
hobbies include golf writing music and 
programming. Bill is a drummer in a 
rock band and lives in Sheboygan, 
Wisconsin. 




By Bill Bernico 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



painted and stored each one on its own 
line, but to save space I used a for^next 
loop again. In either case, the steps are 
as follows: DRAW the object and PfllNT it. 
HGET the area around the object, clear 
the screen and then move on to the next 
object. 

After you HDRRW and hprint the first 
object, you have to HGET that object and 
number it like this: 

HGET (24, 0)-(44,20),l 

The next object would also go 
through the HGET routine, but you'd end 
up that statement with a 2, and so on. 

Line 90 draws a simple window for 
your objects to appear in. You must 
retrieve your objects from their buffers 
and position them in those windows. 
The three windows are filled bylines 100 
through 110, 120 through 130 and 140 
through 150. The even-numbered lines 
put the objects in the windows while the 
odd-numbered lines make the clicking 
sound and include a GOSUB to the pause 
routine. 

In order to make each object appear 
at random in a window, you have to use 
RND(7) after the HPUT command. That 
will retrieve one of the seven pictures 
and place it in the window. Line 160 is 
a counter, which makes the objects shift 
ten times before the program jumps to 



Line 200. There, a prompt appears on 
the screen telling you to press ENTER to 
simulate pulling the one-armed bandit's 
lever. 

Line 210 pauses, clears the screen and 
sets the counter (ft) to zero before 
returning to Line 90 to start spinning 
the windows again. 

There's your core, Harold. I'll be 
looking forward to seeing your com- 
pleted slot machine in the near future. 



Listing 1: 5L0TCDRE 



10 HSCREEN2:HCLS4:HC0L0R8,4:RGB 

20 FOR B=l TO 7:HBUFF B, 300:NEXTB 

30 FDR C=l TO 7 

40 HCIRCLE (35, 11), 9 

50 HPflINT(35,ll),C,8 

G0 HPRINT(3,1),C 

70HGET(24,0)-(44,20),C 

B0HCLS 4:NEXTC 

90 HDRflW"BM4G,4GR90D30L90U30R30N 

D30R30D30" 

100 HPUT(50,50)-(70,70),RND(7),P 

SET 

110 EXEC 43345:G05UB 180 

120 HPUT(B0,50)-(100,70),RND(7), 

PSET 

130 EXEC 43345:G0SUB 180 

140 HPUT(110,50)-(130,70) ,RN0(7) 

,P5ET 

150 EXEC 43345:G0SUB 180 

1G0 A=H+1: IF H=10 THEN 200 

170 GOTO 100 

180 Y=RND(40) 

190 FOR X=l TO Y:NEXT X: RETURN 

200 HPRINT(3,20),~Hlt (ENTER) to 

pull lever" 

210 EXEC44539:HCL54:R=0:GOTO90 

Line Connections 

Dear Bill: 

For some time I have been trying to 
teach myself BASIC. The CoCo 3 manual 
says the colon (:) may be used in place 
of a line number as long as the total 
characters following a line number do 
not exceed 249. On the basis of this, I 
have assumed that the converse is true 
(i. e. , a colon may be substituted by a line 
number). I now find this is not true. In 
the November '88 issue of RAINBOW, 
Page 168, Listing 1, Line 220, if the 
colons are replaced by line numbers, the 
program does not run correctly. 

Can you please tell me under what 
conditions it is necessary to join two 
commands by a colon rather than se- 
quential line numbers, or under what 
conditions you may not replace colons 



130 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



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with line numbers? It seems there is a 
subtlety of programming in BASIC that 
is not explained anywhere I have looked 
so far. 

J.S. Smith 
Ennismore, Ontario 

It's nice to see that you don't simply 
follow the rules without questioning 
them. If you make a programming 
mistake and learn from it, it is worth the 
effort. 

As a rule of thumb, you can combine 
commands on a single line with a colon, 
provided none of those commands has 
to work independent of the others. 
Look at the following example: 

100 PRINT AS 

110 IF B=2 THEN GOTO 350 

120 C$=INKEY$:IF C$=""THEN 120 

130X=X+1:GOTO 70 

In this example, these commands 
cannot be joined with a colon if you 
expect the program to branch accord- 
ingly. Now look at this modification of 
our example: 

100 PRINT A$:IF 8=2 THEN GOTO 35 
0:CS=INKEYS:IF C$=""THEN 120:X=X+ 
1:G0T0 70 

If the line looked like this, you'd have 
one heck of a time getting each com- 
mand to work. In the first example. 
Line 110 contains an if-then state- 
ment. Generally, you want to leave this 
type of statement in a line all its own. 
There are examples where several com- 
mands will work on the same line, but 
a logical step must be followed. You 
may combine if-then statements in the 
following fashion: 

110 IF B=2 THEN GOTO 350 ELSE IF 
B=3 THEN GOTO 450 ELSE GOTO 110 

The word ELSE provides an alterna- 
tive if the conditions of the first part of 
the statement are not met. You could 
also have written this command in the 
following manner: 

110 IF B=2 THEN GOTO 250 

111 IF B=3 THEN GOTO 450 

112 IF B<2 or B>3 THEN GOTO 110 

However, this method uses up precious 
space and memory as well as three 
separate line numbers. Whenever you're 
working with a larger program where 
space and memory are likely to ap- 
proach the limits, combine statements 
wherever you can. If the program is 



short and you want to include lots of 
REM statements and easily trace certain 
steps, it won't hurt to make separate 
lines out of each command. 

Another problem with using colons is 
when a program branches back from a 
higher line number to a lower number. 
In Listing I, Line 210 branches back to 
Line 90. If Line 90 had been combined 
with several other statements in Line 
100, there would be nowhere for your 
program to go when it reached Line 210, 
resulting in a UL (Undefined Line) 
Error. This is a common mistake made 
when trying to condense an already- 
written program. 

You can replace the colons from a 
combined statement with line numbers, 
provided those numbers are on their 
own lines. Look at the following mod- 
ification of the first example: 

100 PRINT AS 110 IF B=2 THEN GOT 
350 

120 C$=INKEYS:IF C5=""THEN 120 
130X=X+1:GOTO 70 

In this example when your program 
gets to Line 100, it prints out the con- 
tents of AS. You then get an error 
message because you're telling the 
computer to do something it doesn't 
understand. 

There are quite a few examples of 
alternate programming not explained in 
the manuals. I guess it's similar to a 
dictionary not endorsing slang words 
and terms. You can get by with them, 
but it's not proper. 

As far as the 249-character limit is 
concerned, you may be able to squeeze 
a couple more characters onto the line 
by typing EDIT yy (yy is the line number) 
and then pressing X to extend to the end 
of the line. This allows you to enter 
more characters but if you type RENUM, 
some lines may be too long and you'll 
lose the last character or two, so use 
caution with this method. 

Keeping Score 

Dear Bill, 

I'm trying to write a CoCo 3 graphics 
program using the HPRINT command to 
display a player's name and score. 
According to my CoCo 3 manual, you 
can write lines like this: 

HPRINT (0,20), "The Score is", SC 
HPRINT (0,0), "Your name is"; AS 
HPRINT (10,10), AS+EJS 

I've tried all of these samples and only 



the third one works properly. The only 
solution I can come up with is this: 

HPRINT (0,20), "The Score is": HPR 
INT(12,10),5C 

While it does work, it takes a separate 
hprint statement each time I want to 
display statistics. Is there an easier way? 

Owen Cornell 
Twenty-Nine Palms, California 

I think a bug crept into Tandy's files 
in Fort Worth. As written, the first two 
examples will not work. It's probably 
just a typo, but if you change the semi- 
colon in the second example to a plus 
sign (+), it will display your name as well 
as "your name is." This will work 
providing that AS was defined earlier in 
the program as containing your name. 
You must change the first example to: 

HPRINT (0,20), "The Score is"+5TRS (SC) 

By changing the numeric variable SC 
to a string variable, using the 5TR$ 
command, you make everything on that 
line compatible. If you wanted to add 
the score to the end of the last line you'd 
write: 

HPRINT (10,10), AS+BS+STRS (SC) 

Or you may want to define the whole 
line early in your program with 
D$="Your Score Is: "+STR$(SC). Then 
when your program gets to the part 
where scores are displayed or updated, 
all you have to put is hprint 
(10,10),DS and the text as well as the 
score will appear. 



Questions about specific basic 
programming problems can be ad- 
dressed to BASK all> Speaking, THE 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385, Prospect KY 
40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to 
edit for brevity and clarity. We are 
unable to answer letters individually. 

For a quicker response, your ques- 
tions may also be submitted through 
rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. 
From the CoCo SlOprompt, type 
ASK for "Ask the Experts." At the 
EXPERTS>prompt, select the 
"BASICally Speaking" online form, 
which has complete instructions. 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 131 



^ urn of th e Scrcw ^ 



Part 1 of this project (November '88, 
Page 157) explained the basics of start 
up. We started with a big project board 
and put two TTL circuits and a few 
LEDs on it. I used the first part of this 
project to show you how to output to 
the board and turn each LED on and 
off. In Part 2 (December '88, Page 146), 
I expanded the board to control things 
that required more current (like relays, 
buzzers and motors). This required 
anotherTTLchiplikethoseusedin Part 
1 and an additional chip capable of 
carrying more current. 

The first two parts of the project dealt 
only with outputs. You could turn 
devices on and off, but then you could 
not read the condition of the devices 
(like switches). In order to do that, you 
need a circuit able to read in data via 
the data lines DO to D7. This, in turn, 
requires the proper decoding circuitry 
and a device that will buffer the 
switches. Study the circuit in Figure 1. 
It is a continuation of the circuit used 
in the last part of our project. In order 
to save space, 1 removed the details of 
the first and second parts. Any parts 
that will not be changed, I removed. The 
LEDs of Part 1 and the motors and 
buzzers of Part 2 have been removed. I 
left the buffer chips there, so you can see 
how the circuits work. 

The first thing we need in order to be 
able to read in some data is a decoder 
able to decode the Read/ Write (R/W) 
line. Chip U2 of Figure 1 is the decoder 
chip we have been using. It is a 
74LS138, a three-to-eight decoder. By 
now, you should be familiar with this 
chip, but let's review what lines are 
connected to it. The most important line 
is the SCS from the computer. This is 
connected to one of the select lines of 
U2, the G2B. This line is used to select 
a block of memory from SFF40 to 
SFF5F, which is the normal I/O area 
for disk drives. The second line going to 
G2A is an address line. Since this is an 
active low input, when A4 is low, the 
chip will be selected. When A4 is high, 
the chip de-selects. This limits our 
memory area to 16 bytes and leaves the 
other 16 for future expansions. The 
third connection to our chip is the E 



Tony DiSlefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware proj- 
ects. He lives in Laval Ouest. Quebec. 
Tony's username on Delphi is D1STO. 



Adding input devices to 
an expansion board 



Do You 
Read Me? 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

clock from the CPU. It connects to Gl 
of our chip. This is an active high input. 
So when the E clock is high, our chip 
is selected again. The E clock signal 
from the CPU is sort of a "data valid" 
indication. All data is valid when the 
CPU is writing to a device and the E 
clock is high. When the CPU is reading, 
the data is latched (or swallowed) on the 
falling edge of the E clock. 

Those three signals control the select- 
ing of the chip. The next three lines I 
describe determine which of the eight 
outputs will be selected, a three-to-eight 
decoder. Inputs A and B are connected 
to AO and A 1 , respectively. Two address 
lines in binary represent four locations. 
The third line is connected to the R/W 
line of the CPU. Connected to the C 
input, it divides the eight outputs into 
two groups of four. The R/W line of the 
CPU is high for reading and low for 
writing. This makes one group a write- 
only select and another group a read- 
only select. YO to Y3 is the write-only 
group. We know this because we have 
already used two of the four lines with 
the controls for the LEDs and motors. 
The other group, Y4 to Y7, are read- 
only selects. We will use one of these 
read-only lines today, to read in data. 

That takes care of the decoding part 
of today's project. We now have a read- 
only chip select. For the second part, we 
need a chip we can use as a buffer. Since 
this chip interfaces to the CPU's data 
bus, it must conform to some rules. The 
main rule is that when it is not selected, 
it must not interfere with the data bus. 
This condition is called tri-state. That 



means when the chip is not selected, it 
must be electrically disconnected (high 
impedance). Since the CoCo uses an 8- 
bit bus, we might as well use an 8-bit 
buffer. Looking through the TTL parts 
manual, 1 came across a chip that meets 
all our requirements — a 74LS244. It is 
an 8-bit, tri-state buffer. 

U4 in Figure 1 is a 74LS244. It has 
eight outputs connected to the CPU's 
data bus. It also has eight inputs. These 
are our eight readable bits. Let's look at 
the two control lines. There are two 
because this chip can be controlled as 
both two 4-bit buffers and one 8-bit 
buffer. This makes the chip a little more 
versatile. For our project, we want it to 
be a single 8-bit buffer, so we will tie 
both control lines together. The TTL 
manual states that when the control line 
of a 74LS244 is high, the outputs are in 
tri-state mode. This is good because 
when the 74LS138 is disabled, all out- 
puts are high. The manual also states 
that when the control line of this chip 
is low, the signal level appearing on the 
chip's inputs will appear on the chip's 
output. This is perfect for our project. 

When the CPU is reading the proper 
location, the 74LS138 will respond by 
putting Y4 low. This will cause the 
74LS244 to generate whatever level 
(high or low) it has on its inputs to the 
CPU. If we tied all the inputs of the 
74LS244 to ground, the CPU would 
read $00 or all zeroes. On the other 
hand, if we tied the inputs to +5 volts, 
the CPU would read $FF or all ones. 
This is good, but soldering the wires to 
this chip every time we want to change 
the condition is a drag. Let's use a 
switch instead. SW1 in Figure I is a 
quad switch. The diagram shows that it 
is a PC board-mount DIP switch. This 
type of switch is generally found on a 
modem or printer as an option switch, 
and you can get them at a good elec- 
tronic shop. 

A switch is not the only thing needed 
for this project. You also need a resistor. 
Look at the diagram again, and you'll 
see why. One side of the switch is 
connected to the input of the 74LS244, 
and the other is connected to ground. 
When the switch is on, a direct connec- 
tion to ground is made. The chip will see 
that as low, but when the switch is off, 
no connection is made anywhere. The 
input to the 74LS244 is just floating — 
a condition of uncertainty. When the 
chip is called upon to give the state of 



132 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 




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T0 MORE SWITCHES 
OR OUTPUTS 



Figure 1 



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March 1989 THE RAINBOW 133 



the input, it may give a reading of high 
or low. It all depends on exterior con- 
ditions, such as how close it is to 
another wire. In order to make sure the 
input is high, we use a resistor to tie it 
high. Therefore, when the switch is off, 
the resistor supplies +5 volts to the input 
of 74LS244, and the chip reads high. 
When the switch is on, the current is 
shunted to ground, and 74LS244 reads 
low. 

The SW1 switch is only a quad 
switch. That means there are only four 
switches in that package. The 74LS244 
chip has eight inputs. As you can see in 
Figure 1, I have connected the other 
four inputs to the outputs of the other 
chips. This is a way to monitor the 
output conditions of the other circuits 
in this project. The wiring in Figure 1 
is just an example. You may not want 
to monitor the LEDs or motors I have 
selected; you can make any changes you 
want. For instance, you have a program 
that turns the first LED on and off in 
UI in several places. (See Part I of this 
project for proper connections of the 
LEDs.) Using this read-only circuit, you 
are not certain at any time if the LED 
is on or off. Using the circuitry dis- 
cussed in this column, you may now 
determine the condition of your LED. 
The same can be done with motors and 
buzzers. 

Now that the theory is clear (I hope), 
let's look at the construction. You will 
need different parts for any application, 
so I'll just describe them and let you 
decide what you need. First, you need 
the board you used for the first two 
parts. For this application, you need 
one or two 74LS244 chips and one or 
two 20-pin sockets, depending on how 
many bits you need to read. For 1 to 8 
bits, you need one; for 9 to 16, you need 
two. 

Next, you'll need switches. You can 



use any quantity of DIP switches. The 
diagram shows four, but you can use 
any number from one to 16. You can 
also use individual switches and run 
them off the board, but the wires should 



Bit 


Decimal 


Hex Binary 


DO 


I 


01 00000001 


DI 


2 


02 00000010 


D2 


4 


04 00000100 


D3 


8 


08 00001000 


D4 


16 


10 00010000 


D5 


32 


20 00 1 00000 


D6 


64 


40 01000000 


D7 


128 


80 10000000 




Tabid: 


Bit Values 



be no longer than about 10 feet. In 
addition, don't run the wires outside. If 
lightning hits the switches, you'll find 
yourself shopping for a new computer. 
You'll need one resistor for every switch 
you use. As the diagram says, a 10K, l A- 
watt resistor will do. 

Mount the ICs, switches and resistors 
close to each other and close to the 
CPU's data bus. Construction is not too 
critical, but keep your work neat — it's 
better for trouble shooting. Try not to 
spread out your work. Next month I'll 
add something you might want to add 
as well. Check your work before turning 
on the computer. If something feels 
wrong, turn the computer off right away 
and check it again. Remember, my 
diagram does not include power and 
ground to the ICs; they must be con- 
nected. The two ICs you are adding this 
time require +5 volts at Pin 20 and 
ground at Pin 10. Also, use two more 
. 1 uf capacitors close to the ICs. 

Finally, let's discuss the software. 



This project uses the CoCo's SCS pin. 
This maps all I/O from SFF40 to 
SFF5F. (Remember, the dollar sign 
means it's a Hex number.) To enter a 
Hex number on the CoCo, just put the 
characters &H in front of the number. 
Now, when you want to read the 8 bits 
connected to U4, the address is SFF40. 
The following is an example of a line in 
BASIC to read the 8 bits at U4: 

100 X = PEEK(&HFF40) 

The value returned in x is a value 
from zero to 255 or SFF Each of the 8 
bits contribute to the value. If the value 
returned is zero, then all bits on that IC 
(U4) are off. In order to find out which 
particular bit is on or off, you can use 
the and command in basic to mask the 
other bits. This command will change 
any bit that is zero to zero. A full 
explanation of the AND command can be 
found in your basic manual; I will not 
go into detail here. 1 will, however, give 
you an example of how to do it. Look 
at U4 in Figure 1. I have connected Pin 
13 of U4 to Pin 2 of UI. That means 
reading U4 and looking at D4 will give 
you the condition of whatever you 
poked at U 1 DO. If U 1 Pin 1 is high, then 
when you read U4, D4 will also be high. 
The following is an example of this: 

10 POKE &HFF40.1 

20 X=PEEK(&HFF40) 

30 IF X AND &HB O THEN PRINT "04 IS 

HI" 

The first line makes DO of U 1 high; 
the second line reads U4; and the third 
line masks all bits except D4. If D4 is 
equal to zero, then there is something 
wrong. To check other bits one at a 
time, use the values in Table 1 with the 
AND command. 

That's it for now. See you next time 
when we'll add new input devices. /R\ 




"Assembly Language Programming for the CoCo" (The Book) and the CoCo 3 (The Addendum). 
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THE BOOK - 289 pages of teaching 
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covered are PIAs, VDG, SAM, kybd, 
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THE ADDENDUM - Picks up 
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134 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



ffluvkt & #uvkt 




0*0 9f 



d© tfto «r» ^o dv^. 




It's a long way from the Windy City to Burke & Burke's new headquarters In Renton, Washington. Here, In the rolling 
countryside just southeast of Seattle, we pledge to continue to offer Color Computer owners the high quality, affordable, 
and innovative products that have built our reputation. 

We are also pleased to announce our new TOLL FREE ORDER HOTLINE. You can now place an order with Burke & Burke 
by dialing 1-800-237-2409. You can remember this number as 1-800-ADS-AHOY! And now, the ads . . . 



Real BASIC for OS9! 

There is nothing wrong with your Color Computer. 
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Burke & Burke's new R.S.B. program gives you s complete, OS9- 
compatible vorsion of Disk Extended Color BASIC. We've sdded new 
software for OS9-styto graphics, sound, prlntor, and disk I/O. The BASIC 
you know and lovo Is now running under Level 2 OS9 windows! 

R.S.B. loads and saves files using OS9's file format, so we've also 

Included utilities to transfer BASIC programs and data files betwen OS9 and BASIC disks. Of course, you can't use R.S.B. to run machine language 

programs, and some BASIC commands work slightly differently under R.S.B. 

Your BASIC programs can take full advantage of great OS9 features like hard disks, no-halt floppies, multi-tasking, and 2 MHz operation. 









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R.S.B. requires a CoCo 3 with al leaat 128K RAM, a floppy controller with oillior 
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Buy a hard dfak kit and a 
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set, and Western Digital, DTC, 

or equivalent PC-compatible 

hard dlak controller. 



XT-ROM: Inatall XT-ROM In your hard disk controller's BIOS ROM socket. 
It automatically boots and reboota OS9 from your CoCo XT ha rd disk. 
Select among any of two different hard dlak boot flloa, two 
different floppy boot flies, or your BASIC ROM at power-up. 
XT-ROM gives your system that "professional touch". Great 



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Now BASIC runs hard drives, 
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HYPER-I/O modifies the Disk BASIC in your CoCo 1, 2, or 3 to provide a 
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Groat for BBS and multi-user systems . . . 
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Burke S Burke Advertisement The RAINBOW March, 1989 (Composite B/W) 
Copyright 1989 by Gurke 8 Buike 



RAINBOWTECH 





OS-9 Level II 



Programs to tempt the DECB user 



Moving to OS-9 



By By Dale L. Puckett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



It's been a long wait, but we may have 
an easy path for Disk BASIC users 
who want to try OS-9. RSB, written 
by Chris Burke of Burke & Burke, 
modifies the code in your Color Com- 
puter's Disk BASIC ROM so it can run 
under OS-9. This month, let's take a 
look at RSB. Then, with the help of 
John Alan Lind, I'll follow Bill Barden's 
lead and give you another tool that 
makes your Color Computer an impor- 
tant part of amateur radio. 

RSB stands for Radio Shack BASIC 

I first mentioned RSB in this column 
after speaking with Chris Burke at last 
spring's Chicago RAINBOWfest. At 
the Princeton show, 1 had the opportu- 
nity to pick up a copy of Burke's pro- 
duct. RSB may be the incentive needed 
to interest more Disk basic users in the 
OS-9 operating system. If you agree, 
please tell your Color Computer friends 
about it. 

Since Chris Burke believes most 
people are more comfortable when 
working in a familiar environment, he 
tried to recreate the Disk BASIC envi- 
ronment in OS-9 Level II. Chris felt that 
once people started running their favor- 

Dale L. Puckett, a freelance writer and 
programmer, serves as director-at-large 
of the OS-9 Users Group and is a 
member of the Computer Press Associ- 
ation. His username on Delphi is 
DALEP: on packet-radio, KOHYD @ 
N4QQ; on GEnie, D.PUCKETT2; and 
on CIS, 71446,736. 



ite Disk Extended Color BASIC (DECB) 
programs on the OS-9 platform, they 
would begin to explore the powerful 
operating system. Chris feels they'll be 
hooked on OS-9 once they take this step 
and start to observe the system's power 
first-hand. 

RSB is a version of DECB, modified 
to be compatible with OS-9 Level II. 
Because of Burke's modification, it is 
fully re-entrant and relocatable. At first, 
Color Computer BASIC users might not 
care that RSB is re-entrant and relocat- 
able, but once they start running differ- 
ent BASIC programs in various OS-9 
Level II windows, they'll take notice. 

RSB sports a command syntax iden- 
tical to that found in Disk BASIC. In 
addition, you'll find several new verbs 
that let you access OS-9 directly. RSB 
will also accept commands typed using 
either upper- or lowercase characters. 

Burke uses OS-9 system calls for all 
I/O operations. With these, you can use 
VDG graphics screens or OS-9 Level II 
windows. RSB lets you use a Tandy 
Color Mouse in place of your joystick. 
You'll have a reason to do so — RSB 
is Multi- Fue-compatible. In fact, Burke 
ships a Multi-Vue GIF file and several 
icons with the program. 

RSB can convert Disk Extended 
BASIC versions 1.0, 1.1, 2.0, 2.1 and the 
Disto CoCo 3 CDOS Disk BASIC to run 
on OS-9. There's only one catch — 
Burke recommends you have 512K of 
RAM in your Color Computer when 
running the program. This is a standard 
requirement for all OS-9 programs 



designed to do any real work. However, 
RSB will run in a 128K CoCo. 

Installing the program is a snap. You 
run an install procedure supplied on the 
disk. After this, edit the RSB environ- 
ment file to tell your new OS-9 BASIC 
interpreter about the hardware you 
have attached to your Color Computer. 
Start by making a backup of the orig- 
inal installation disk. Then create an 
OS-9 window. You can set up an OS-9 
window with the following commands: 

0S9: shell i=/u?l 

8.005 

059: 

Press CLEAR and these command 
lines assume the device descriptor for 
Window Device 'w? is installed in your 
D598oot file. The process number of 
your new shell is 005. The shell will print 
it on your screen. You'll see the new 
screen with the word "Shell" and an 
OS9: prompt in the upper-left corner 
after you press CLEAR. Once you see the 
prompt, you can place your backup 
copy of the installation disk in Drive 
and type the following commands: 

chd 'd0 
chx 'd0 

install 

You'll see a few messages, and about 
10 minutes later your Color Computer 
will report, "Installation complete." 
After running the installation proce- 
dure, copy the file named RSB from your 



136 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



disk in Drive to the CUDS directory of 
your normal system disk. The following 
two commands lines will do this for you: 

copy 'dO^rsc /dl^cmds''rsb 

copy •'dQ-'sys-Tsb enw.file 'dl'sys-' 
rsb_env. file 

After you have copied these files to 
your system disk you can run your new 
OS-9 based interpreter by entering rsb. 
This command line will give you 8K of 
memory for the program. The interpret- 
er uses 3K of memory for its own 
variables, which leaves 5K for your 
BASIC program. If you are working with 
a longer program, you can ask OS-9 for 
more memory when you run RSB in this 
manner: 

rsb B20K 

You can also tell the program not to 
allocate a VDG graphics screen when it 
starts up. This will save 6K. If you want 
to run an RSB program from an OS- 
9 command line, enter a line similar to 
this: 

rsb -'dO'basic-'mydemo B20K 



Under RSB, loading a BASIC pro- 
gram from a disk file is just like doing 
so under DECB. However, with RSB, 
Run can unlock the universe. RSB lets 
you run OS-9 commands from within 
BASIC. When you get ready to return 
to OS-9, type dos. 

If you move to OS-9 through RSB, 
you'll be right at home. Moving from 
OS-9 to DECB via RSB, 1 was occa- 
sionally at a loss for commands. (I had 
misplaced my DECB command sum- 
mary card.) However, with a little 
coaxing from Burke's RSB manual, I 
was able to use the DECB syntax to 
open and close BASIC files. For example, 
the Open command Open "0",1, 
"Saveit:3, opens Path Number 1 to a 
file named Saweit on Drive 3. It took 
me a while to get used to the plot here 
also. Instead of typing chd to change my 
current data directory and tell OS-9 
where I wanted to read or store data, I 
opened a drive to a directory. Look at 
the following example: 

open drive 2, "'"dB-'games" 

Alter typing this command line in RSB, 
you can load or run any program in the 
OS-9 directory --de'games as you would 
with DECB. After opening the drive 



already described, the following com- 
mand lines could be used: 

dir 2 

load "program:2" 

run "demoi t:2" 

One of the big advantages of RSB is 
that it gives you a way to communicate 
with any device attached to your com- 
puter. The only requirement is an OS- 
9 device driver and descriptor. These 
usually come with the hardware from 
commercial vendors. To send output 
from an RSB program to your printer, 
use a sequence like this: 

100 open "0",l,"/ p - 

200 print ttl, "Hello, is the printer 

working''" 

Burke gives you a number of OS-9 
utility commands to move your old 
DECB commands over to OS-9 files 
and RSB. A special command named 
Skitzo gives you a freshly formatted 
disk with a split personality. After you 
run the utility, half of the disk is recog- 
nized by OS-9, and the other half is used 
by Disk BASIC. Ski tzo works with a 35- 
track, single-sided disk. Once you have 



MLBASIC 2.0 - BASIC Compiler 

If you wantyour BASIC programs to run up to 50 timesJaster, or want more 
programming features without learning another language, MLBASIC is for you. 

MLBASIC is the most compatible BASIC compiler available for the Color Com- 
puter. WHY? Because MLBASIC fully supports: 

- Low- and high-resolution graphics 

- All types of I/O ( disk, screen, printer, RS232 ) 
- All available commands offered with BASIC 

- Floating pouu functions and expressions 
- Integer, floating point and string type variables and arrays 

- Use of all available 512K RAM in the COCO 3 

- 80,40 or 32 column text displays 

MLBASIC not only contains everything that you would expect a BASIC pro- 
gramming language should contain, MLBASIC has features that offer flexibility 
of other languages like C, Pascal, FORTRAN and even assembly language. These 
features will allow programmers to directly access the CPU registers on the 
COCO, produce modular program code with SUBROUTINES, manipulate memory 
in blocks, and even call ROM routines in other areas of memory. 

MLBASIC revision 2,0 has incorporated all enhancements that were 
suggested by MLBASIC 1.0 users and more. Revision 2.0 did away with all the In- 
compatibility problems that existed with revision 1.0. ■ 

MLBASIC allows for the first time user to quickly compile a program using 
default compiler settings. The advanced user has the capability of controlling 
over a dozen settings which control where the program is compiled, which 
medium to compile to (memory or disk), string space, compiler listings and 
more. 

With all this going for MLBASIC, your might expect the cost to be a little out 
of your budget. After looking at prices of other BASIC compilers for the COCO 3 
you might be correct. But look again at this ad; for only S59.95, you can have a 
programming language that will spark your interest once again in the COCO. 

Before you buy another BASIC compiler for the COCO, find out if it supports 
everything MLBASIC supports. Then look at the price tag. We feel that it won't be 
long before you place an order for MLBASIC. 

"MLBASIC is a tine program for any serious programmer, " 
said David Gerald in the December 198? RAINBOW. 

<<<< 0NLY S S9 98 >>>> 

COCO 3 WITH DISK REQUIRED -Add S4.00 Postage. 
Check, Money Order or COD accepted 
Foreign orders use U.S. MONEY ORDERS only. 



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March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



137 



made a Ski tzo disk, you can use Burke's 
HDel, HDir and HCopy commands to 
move files between OS-9 and DECB. 

That's it — a new toy for OS-9 
hackers and a painless introduction to 
OS-9 for DECB programmers. Pass the 
word. Maybe a giant congregation of 
DECB programmers will join us this 
year. 

About Those Satellites . . . 

John Alan Lind (KD7XG), of Corona, 
California, is back this month with 
TrakSat — a BASIC09 program that 
tracks satellites in low-earth orbit. It's 
fascinating and it's fast. Lind believes 
TrakSai fills two needs: It gives him a 
vehicle to develop a satellite tracking 
program in a compiler-based language 
like C or Pascal; and, because TrakSai 
is written in BASIC09, a working pro- 



gram that everyone with OS-9 Level II 
can run and enjoy now can be pub- 
lished. If he had used Pascal, you would 
have to purchase OS-9 Pascal to run the 
program because you would need the 
run-time support files that come with 
the compiler. 

TrakSai uses the general tracking 
strategy developed by Dr. Tom Clark 
(W3iwi) in his Orbits program. Lind has 
enhanced nearly all portions of the code 
by making use of many BASIC09 fea- 
tures. Lind has simplified data entry, 
created an improved output display, 
eliminated tables containing constants 
that expire beyond a certain date, and 
added the ability to make predictions in 
one year, based on Keplerian data from 
the previous year. 

Lind has also made it possible to 
correctly compute sidereal time into the 



next millennium — beyond the year 
2000 — and has made it easier to update 
the Keplerian element sets. This makes 
computation much faster. Lind was nice 
enough to let THE RAINBOW and me 
publish his copyrighted program, so 
you can take advantage of the educa- 
tional material it contains. He has also 
given us permission to distribute it with 
RAINBOW ON DISK and on Delphi. Al- 
though TrakSai is a copyrighted pro- 
gram, Lind wants it distributed free of 
charge for non-commercial use in the 
amateur radio and OS-9 communities. 
Your non-profit users group may charge 
its members a reimbursement fee for the 
cost of copying the program. 

To run TrakSai, you need to load the 
source code published here into 
BASIC09. (See Listing 1.) Then, use the 
BASIC09 Pack command to store a 



UO-9 


88 


273.7266081 


9 


88 


279.1402083 


9 


9 


285.0977435 





9 


9 





9 


9 


0536-10/10/88 


9 


9 


0019-09/30/88 


82.5333 


9 


0352-10/05/88 


57.5382 


062.3349 


0327-10/11/88 


98.0439 


237.5590 


0.0012382 


97.6054 


339.0661 


0.6578369 


030.1296 


321.6080 


0.0014642 


191.3601 


330.0614 


0.0001255 


044.5398 


139.7626 


13.71910488 


034.4121 


315.7023 


2.09697959 


H.189E-05 


325.7259 


14.62461626 


+3.0E-07 


6520 


15.36110723 


+1.207E-05 


0226 


9 


2.5709E-04 


24525 





29.5 


39051 


9 


145.812 


MIR 





145.826 


RS-10 


88 


145.825 


FO-12 


88 


291.6451331 


AO-10 


88 


284.8280217 


9 


88 


279.2684671 





9 


279.1313234 


9 





9 


9 


9 


9 


0460-10/17/88 





9 


0536-10/10/88 


51.6150 


9 


0115-10/05/88 


82.5333 


158.4827 


0358-10/05/88 


50.0147 


062.3349 


0.0024915 


27.1079 


001.9211 


0.0012382 


202.3449 


301.3539 


0.0011139 


030.1296 


157.7286 


0.6034945 


058.6669 


330.0614 


15.74171102 


342.1045 


301.5254 


13.71910488 


3.3749E-04 


003.6398 


12.44395542 


+1.189E-05 


15311 


2.05880749 


-2.5E-07 


6520 





-8.2E-07 


09766 





145.000 


3996 


9 


29.5 


DATEND 





435.0 


RS-11 




145.809 


AO-13 


88 




00-11 


88 


284.8280217 






Figure 1: 5a 


tsllite_dat 





138 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



Satellite name 

Epoch year 

Epoch Julian date, either decimal or integer 

Epoch hour if date is integer, or if date is decimal 

Epoch minute if date is integer, or if date is decimal 

Epoch second in decimal if date is integer, or if date is decimal 

Element set number and calendar date of element set 

Inclination of orbit 

RAAN: Right Ascension of the Ascending Node 

Eccentricity of orbit 

Argument of Perigee 

Mean Anomaly 

Mean Motion 

Orbit Decay rate in rev/day /A, 2 

Revolution # of satellite at Epoch 

Semi-major Axis of orbit, may also be 

Beacon frequency, or mid-frequency of transponder down-link passband 

DATEND 

Table 1: Sa tell ice da t format 



Listing 1: TrakSat 



PROCEDURE 

9999 
9991 
999*> 
P0« 
99B9 

00BC 
00F7 
(!136 
0174 

0m 

01EE 
022A 
0266 
02A2 
02 DA 
JI3L7 
(1355 
0360 
0363 
037C 
0392 
03A7 
03C8 
03CB 
0407 
0448 
0487 
04AA 
04AD 
04D3 
0515 
0536 
0573 
058A 
05CA 
0603 
0611 



* TRAKSAT - A program for computing a satellite's azimuth and 
elevation from a specific point on the Earth's surface over 

* a specified tine period. This program is written for the 

* Tandy Color Conputer 3 under the OS-9 Level II operating 

* system using a high resolution monitor. The main algorithms 

* used by this program are adaptations of the algorithms used 

* by Dr. Tom Clark, U3IWI, in his noted ORBITS program. His 

* original program written in BASIC inspired the creation of 

* this program for the Color Computer 3 and OS-9. Numerous 

* improvements to the algorithms have been made to increase 

* speed and further modularize them. The amateur satellite 

* community owes a debc of gratitude to Dr. Clark whose 

* original program has inspired many other orbit calculation 

* programs for various micro-computers and numerous operating 
systems. 

* Copyright (c) 1988 by: 

* John A. Lind. KD7XC 

* 2194 Conejo Street 

* Corona, California 91720-4001 
* 

* Distributed as "freeware" to the amateur radio community. 

* Except as provided for in this copyright notice, this software 

* may not be sold. The copyright notice must remain unchanged 
in the software and source codo . 

* Specific permission is granted for: 

1. Upload and distribution through commercial on-line services 

* such as CompuServe and Delphi. 

2. Distribution by the OS-9 User's Group as part of their 

* library of software. 

3. Distribution by the Amateur Satellite Corporation (AHSAT) 

* any proceeds from which may be used by AMSAT for their 

* operations. 

4. Publication of the source code in periodicals for the 



packed version of TrakSai in your 
current execution directory — 'dd/ 
cmds. RunB, the BASIC09 run-time pack- 
age, must also be in your current exe- 
cution directory. 





KD7XG 






John 






33.87 






117.43 






600 






V 






/PI 




Figure 


2: Station_ 


dat 



Call sign 


Name 


Ground Station Latitude in decimal degrees 


Ground Station West Longitude in decimal degrees 


Altitude above Sea Level in meters 


Angle of horizon in degrees above horizontal (usually, 0) 


OS-9 printer device name (usually, /P) 


Table 2: Station_dat format 



Two additional files, Satelli te_dat 
and Station_dat must be present in 
your current data directory when you 
run TrakSat. (See figures 1 and 2.) 
Satellite_dat contains Keplerian ele- 
ment sets for many amateur radio 
satellites. You may edit this file to add 
data for additional satellites or delete 
data for those in which you are not 
interested. The format of 5atei- 
lite_dat is specific and must remain 
the same; however, the number of 
satellites listed in the file does not 
matter. The last line must be DATEND. 
The program looks for this word and 
knows the end of the file has been 
reached when it is found. The entire 
format for Keplerian element sets is 
listed in Table 1. 

Keplerian Data Sets 

You will find the data you need to fill 
in the blanks in Table 1 in QST or the 
Amateur Satellite Report. It is also 
distributed by packet radio bulletins 
and ARRL RTTY bulletins. These 
publications provide the data in the 
same general order listed in Table 1 . The 
element sets come from NASA. They 
should be no more than 90 days old, if 
accurate predictions are needed, and no 
more than 1 80 days old in most amateur 
radio applications. The element sets 
shown in Figure I were released during 
the first week of October '88. 

The station data provided in Figure 
2 (and defined in Table 2) is for Lind's 
location in Corona, California. You 
must use your own location to get the 
predictions for your location. If you are 
not an amateur radio operator and 
don't have an amateur call sign, leave 
the first line blank. However, do not 
delete the line because TrakSat expects 
seven lines in the Station_dat file. 

To run TrakSat, you must have at 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



139 



least one window device available. 
TrakSal uses Window Device 'a to 
open the next available window in an 
80-by-24 text (Type 2) screen. When you 
first run the program, you will be 
greeted by a copyright message, and 
you'll hear the disk drives click while the 
program reads your Station_dat file. 
You will then be prompted for a start 
date and time. After you enter the start 
date, you will be asked for a duration 
in hours and minutes. (Lind recom- 
mends using 48 or 72 hours because this 
gives you several days' predictions at a 
time.) After you supply the duration, 
you will be asked for a step time in 
minutes. The step time is used to step 
the program from the start time through 
the chosen duration. A step time of 10 
minutes is more than adequate for 
Phase III satellites such as AO-10 and 
AO-13 since these machines have orbi- 
tal periods of close to half a day. If you 
are tracking the low-altitude Phase II 
satellites with orbital periods of one or 
two hours, you might want to use a step 
of one or two minutes. 

TrakSal reads your Satellite_dat 
file and then asks you which satellite 
you would like to track. After you pick 
one from a menu, the program will 
display the orbital elements for your 
selection. (If you plan to ask the pro- 
gram to output its data to your printer, 
make sure you have turned your printer 
on and placed it online before you select 
the printer.) You will notice a short 
delay between orbit passes. BAS1C09 
runs TrakSal four to five times faster 
than the original DECB program, Or- 
bits. Look at the source code to get an 
idea of the number-crunching going on 
in TrakSal. 




FOOLING AROUNI 




064D <* purpose of furthering program distribution. 

067B (* 

067E (* If you like this program give it to a friend. This program 

06BC (*■ nay not be sold and the copyright notice oust be retained in 

06FB (*" the program code. Commercial/business use of this software 

3739 (* Is strictly prohibited. 

0753 (* 

0756 (* REVISION HISTORY: 

076A (* 

076D (* Revision Comments 

0786 <* 

07C4 (* 1.0 Truly bare-bones "strawraan" Just to get things 

0803 (* workingl Uses GOSUBS (yecccchl), but gives 

0831 C* results comparable to other predicion methods. 

0862 (* 

0865 <* 1.1 Replaced GOSUBS with separate procedures. 

0B9F (* Keplerian element sets and sidereal time table 

08D0 {* are still embedded as DATA statements. This 

0BFF <* was OK for standard BASIC (oh what a pun!) but 

0930 (* is unacceptable for BASIC09. You can't edit 

095F {* I-code with a text editor. 

097C (* 

097F (* 1.2 Replaced sidereal time table with procedure to 

09BE (* compute it as needed for the prediction year. 

09EE (* Still need to get the Keplerian elements out of 

0A20 (* the DATA statements! 

0A37 (* 

0A3A (* 2.0 Not only removed the Keplerian element sets to 

0A79 (" a separata text file, station data for the user 

0AAB <* is now in its own text file as well. This 

0ADB (* eliminates the need to ask for it at the beginning 

0B0D (* of the program. I need to revise the SKIFMUF 

0B3D (* program to read the same user station file. The 

0B70 (* file name is different and this one has an extra 

0BA3 (* line in it for horizon data. 

0BC2 (* 

0BC5 (* 2.1 Fixed a minor bug in paginating the print-out portion 

0C0B <* of the code. Fixed the sidereal procedure to compute 

0C43 (* correctly into the next milienium. Users would have 

0C7A (* had an interesting surprise using a sidereal time con- 

0CB3 (* stant for 1900 in the year 2000! 

0CD6 (* 

0CD9 {* 2.2 Added code to allow computation of orbits using 

0D19 (* element sets from the previous year. This solves 

0D4D (* the Jan/Feb agony every year. Also added code to 

0D81 (* display and print the calendar date instead of the 

0DB6 C* Julian date in the output. This was definitely not 

0DEC C* easy, epeclally when combined with having to be able 

0E23 (* to use the previous year's element sets. I never 

0E57 (* did like the Julian date in the output, though. Most 

0E8F (* of us are used to thinking in calendar dates and Julian 

0EC9 (* dates are too confusing, especially in leap years. 

0EFE (* It makes more sense to let the computer worry about 

0F34 (* what day it really is and do all the conversion work. 

0F6C (* I may just burn my Julian date cheat sheet now. 

0F9E C* 

0FA1 (* 2.3 Fixed the problem of the doppler shift being wacko on 

0FE7 (* the first lino of output. It was an easy fix and has 

101F (* bugged me for some time. I don't know why I didn't do 

1058 (* it before now. Also tidied up some of the output in 

10BF <* the portions of code that interact with the user to 

10C5 (* request data. 

1JJD5 (* 

lpD8 (* 2.4 Decided to have program open its own 80x24 text screen. 

1120 (* Sooner or later someone would try to run it on a 4(1x24 

1159 (* graphics screen or some other biszare combination and 

1191 (* get strange results. Now opens a white on blue stan- 

11C9 (* dord screen and resets the palette registers to the 

11FF (* default. Discovered in the process that the HultiView 

1238 (* gshell does strange things to the palette registers when 

1273 C* it reads the "stock" env.file during initialization. 

12AA (* Had to rewrite the env.file for MultiView to set the 

12E1 (* palette to its standard colors. Whoever set the palette 

131C (* up in the "stock" env.file must have strange taste in 

1354 (* colors - either that or I have strange tastes. This 

138B (* looks like it will be the last rev in BASICP9 . Unless 

13C4 (* I discover a serious bug, anything else that comes to 

13FC (* mind will have to wait until I rewrite it in OS-9 

143? (* Pascal or C. 

143F (* 

1442 DIM ABORT , FLAG 1.FLAC2, FLAG 3, PV.FIRSTRUN: BOOLEAN 

145D DIM GG.I.J.LN. PC. PRN.SCRN: INTEGER 

147C DIM A 1 A0,A9.CC ( C(3,2),Ca,C9,D.D3.D9.DC.DD,E,E0.El 1 E8.F,Fl:REAL 

14D0 DIM F9,Gp,Cl,G2,H,Hl,H3,H4,H9.Ip,JULCAL(13),K,K0,K7.L5 J L9:REAL 

1518 DIM H,M0,Ml,M2,H3,M4,M,N0,Nl,O,O0,Pp,CJ?,R,RJI,R5,a6,aB,S3,S4 

:REAL 

156B DIM S8,S9.T.T0,Tl.T2,T3.T6.T7.T8.T9,W 1 U0.W5,W9,X,X9 ( Y,Y3,Y9 

,Z,Z9:REAL 

15C6 DIM DASTART.MOSTART.YRSTART:REAL 

15D5 DIM DANOH.MONOW,YRNOU:REAL 

15E4 DIM AAS:STRINGll] 

15F0 DIM CS:STRING[6] 

15FC DIM DATENS:STRINC[8] 



140 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



1608 


DIM DAT0RB1S: STRING [52] 


1614 


DIM DAT0RB2$:STRING[llj 


162? 


DIM DDS: STRING [121 


162C 


DIM DNOUS:STRING[21 


1638 


DIM HS: STRING! 21 


1644 


DIM H4$:STRING[2] 


165? 


DIM IS: STRING [4?] 


165C 


DIM MNOHS: STRING [2) 


1668 


DIM H4S:STRING(2J 


1674 


DIM NS : STRING[ 2? 1 


168? 


DIM PRNPATH:STRING[32] 


168C 


DIM SS : STRING[ 4? 1 


1698 


DIM S4S:STRING(2J 


16A4 


DIM TNOWS:STRING[71 


16B? 


DIM UNDUS:STRING(2] 


168C 


DIM YNOMS:STRING|21 


16C8 




1609 


FOR I:-l TO 13 


16D9 


READ JULCAL(I) 


16E2 


NEXT I 


16ED 


R8:-.? 


16F8 


T6:-.? 


17?3 


CC:-299792.5 


17?E 


R?:-6378.16 


1719 


F:-1./298.2S 


172B 


G?:-7.5369793Etl3 


1736 


Gl:-l.??273791 


1741 


P?: -PI/18?. 


174E 


DAT0RB1$:-"T9. ' DATE: '.SB, 1 ORBIT #' ,R7 .?>" 


1789 




179B 


WNDtfS:-"/W" 


17A4 




17A5 


SCRN:-? 


17AC 


OPEN »SCRN.WNDU$: UPDATE 


1788 


PRINT »SCRN.CHRS(S1B); CHRSCS2?); CHRS<2); CHRSC?); CHRS(?) 


17D5 


PRINT »SCRN.CHRS<8?); CHRS<24); CHRS(P); CHRS<1); CHRS(l); 


17F? 


PRINT XSCRN.CHRSCSIB); CHRSCS3?); 


1B?1 


PRINT »SCRN.CHRS(S1B); CHRS(S21): 


1812 




1813 


RUN LOGO(SCRN) 


181D 




181E 


RUN INIT1(CS,NS,1.9.W9,H9.E8.PRNPATH) 


1846 





If you get hooked on satellite tracking 
after running TrakSat, Lind says The 
Satellite Experimenter's Handbook is 
the best beginner's book on the subject. 
If you really love the subject, he recom- 
mends the current Astronomical Al- 
manac from the U.S. Government 
Printing Office and Fundamentals of 
Astrodynamics, published by Dover. 

If you are an active ham, you can send 
a message to Lind's packet bulletin 
board. His address is KD7XG @ KD7XG. 
Lind runs the following packet bulletin 
boards: K.D7XG-0, a packet gateway for 
Southern California operating in the 
20-meter (14-Meg) amateur radio band; 
KD7XG-I , a packet bulletin board system 
on 145.05 Meg; and KD7XG-2, a packet 
bulletin board system on 223.42 Meg. 

A few nights on packet radio will 
make you a believer. I recently received 
a message at my home bulletin board 
(KOHYD @ N4QQ) containing a request 
for a portion of some C source code 
accidentally deleted from "KISSable 
OS-9" last spring. I found the code and 
sent it back up to Bob (RC2WZ @ NN2Z) 
in New York. The next day, I got a 
message saying he had received the 
source code and all was working well. 

I hope by the time you read this the 
manufacturer of my packet radio termi- 



StG 



NO HVPEI 
JUST QUALITY 
0S9 SOFTWARE ANO HARDWARE 

£®m@w$w& tan's. 



SUPERCOntl 2.0 by Dave Philipsen $30 

Xmodem CHK.CRC & Ymodem batch transfer with buffering 
Autodial and redlal with keyboard macros, auto log on 
ANSI and 0S9 terminal emulation / Access to 0S9 Shell 
ASCII file capture and send / Split screen conference 
Unattended remote file access with password protection 
Reliable with T2 or any other device even at 2400 baud 
will work with only I2BK and a black and white monitor 
Pop-up windows w/Help and easy to use ALT-KEY commands 
done In 100% assembly language for effecient operation 
Not necessary to build new boot disk - Just lood and run! 



0S9 Level 2 Login/BBS Package 



J50 



Auto-Baud Tsmon with command passing and optional hours 
Login with DES password encryption, logs access attempts 
Group and Net Accounts con be set-up, new users verified 
Configurable Menu w/User-select ANSI, 0S9, or no graphics 
Moil, public News, and Net Mall (exchange w/other systems) 
BLAST Included for ultra-fast bidirectional Not transfers 
Chat, Xmodem/Ymodem transfers. Help, multi-user conference 
Chown. FindFlle. Pop/Label (for windows), other utilities 
Any 0S9 command can be run from login, no doors required 
0S9 Level 2. 512k, Hard drive or NO-Halt controller roq"d 
Limited free updoles-modlfications available upon roquest 
(call or write for details on OSK version of this pockage) 



CDI-Corrler Detect Interface 


Only SI 5 


w/logln 


$20 


Hardware which allows bnu 


d rote detection w/logln pack 


age 


VEF Printer Dump for Star NX- 


1000 Rainbow 




$20 


hos fast and slow dump modes, matches 0S9 


palettes 





Indiana residents odd 5* sales tax. COD Add $3. No credit cards. 
Shipping C handling Included. Send check or money ordor to: 
StG Computers. Inc. - P.O. Box 24285 - Speedway IN 46224 
(317) 241-6401 (voice) - (317) 244-3159 (modem, 3/12/2400) 



<2V} Armchair cAdmiral £^P 

"Avast ye sivabbizs!" %pars Captain 

'Blackbeard. "Odoist the jolly %oger! 'When 

I gives the zoord, give 'em a Broadside!" 

!As 'Blackd> card's flotilla closes upon 

it's prey, a look-out suddenly cries, 

"Captain, a "British 9rfan-ofWar!" 



The time- honored parlor game of Battleship, 

enhanced by intelligent computer opponents, 

comes to your Coco3 complete with sloops and 

galleons. Up to eight opponents, any mix of human 

or computer. For the Coco3, please specify tape or 

disk when ordering. $14.95 + $2 S&H. 

WA residents please add 7.6% sales tax. 



RAINBOW 



Eversoft Games, Ltd. 

P.O. Box 3354 

Arlington. Wa 98223-3354 

(206) 653-5263 

10 am to 6 pm PST 



RAINBOW 



Personal check, money orders, and COD orders 

welcome. 

GEnie mailbox: EVERSOFT 

NOW FOR TV AND MONITOR 
TAPE OR ONE DISK DRIVE 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 



141 



nal node controller will have upgraded 
my firmware and 1 will have a personal 
mailbox running 24 hours a day. (I'll 
give you the details when 1 get the 
firmware.) However, if you want to get 
a head start and would like to chat live 
via packet radio, try to connect with 
KOHYD via DCA4 — one of the NetROM 
nodes run by K3AF in Washington, D.C. 

A Modified Echo from Goldberg 

I received a note and another contri- 
bution from Steve Goldberg in Beth- 
page, New York. I can't say enough 
about Goldberg's utilities. 1 have them 
all loaded on my hard drive and use 
them quite often. Steve has made a 
fantastic contribution to the OS-9 
community. 

This month THE RAINBOW and I are 
publishing an enhanced version of the 
Echo command that delivers some of the 
features found in the UNIX version. 
The new features are as follows: 

\n Go to a new line 

\c Terminate display without a 

new line 
\f Clear the screen (form feed) 

\\ Print a backslash (\) 

\hbh Print the character with an 

ASCII value of ### 

The following is a sample command 
line: 

echo \F\7Nou is the timeXnfor all 
good men\nto come to the aidNnof 
their party. \n\nThe date and time 
are: \c;date t 

If you enter the preceding example. 
Echo will clear your screen, sound your 
Color Computer bell and display the 
following message on the screen: 

Now is the time 

for all good men 

to come to the aid 

of their party. 

The date and time are: 

December 14, 1988 21:30:25 

Kenneth-Leigh Enterprises is run by 
author Paul Ward, who tells me his 
second edition of Start OS-9 should be 
out by the time you read this. He has 
designed this edition to fit better on 
your desk and be easier to use. Give it 
a try. 

That's about all for March. If I find 
the time, I plan to develop a FindFile 
utility for OS-9 Level II. (I better find 
time, I need the utility.) Till then, keep 
on hacking! □ 



1847 


REIEAT 




1849 


REPEAT 




184B 


REPEAT 




184D 






184E 


?G:-9 




1855 


IB:-/ 




185C 






185D 


PRINT »SCRN,CHR5<12); 




1868 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(26) ; "KD7XG Orbit Prediction Program" 




1893 


PRINT »SCRN. 




189A 


PRINT #SCRN. 




18A1 






18A2 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(25); 




18AD 


PRINT «SCRN, "Input data for Initialization:" 




18D4 


PRINT •SCRN.TAB(25}; 




18DF 


INPUT »SCRN." Start: Year - ".YRSTART 




18 FD 


YRSTART : -INT( 1?? . *(YRSTART/ipi» . - INT(YRSTART/ip? . ) )+ . 1 




1927 


> 
FLAG1 : -YRSTART/4 . -INT(YRSTART/4 . ) 




1942 


FLAC3:-FLA01 




194A 


YRNOU : -YRSTART 




1952 


RUN STRNGNUM(YNOUS.YRNOW) 




1961 






1962 


REPEAT 




1964 


PRINT «SCRN,TAB(25); 




196F 


INPUT »SCRN," Honth - " .MOSTART 




198D 


UNTIL H0START>-1. AND M0START<-12. 




19A7 


MONOtf: -MOSTART 




19AF 


RUN STRNGNuM(MNOWS.MONOU) 




19BE 






19BF 


REPEAT 




19C1 


PRINT #SCRN,TAB<25); 




19CC 


INPUT »SCRN." Day - ".DASTART 




19EA 


UNTIL DASTART>-1. AND DASTART<-31. 




1A04 


DANOK : -DASTART 




1ASTC 


RUN STRNGNUH(DNOWS.DANOU) 




1A1B 






1A1C 


DATENS : -HNOWS+"/"+DNOW$+"/"tYNOW$ 




1A34 






1A35 


Tl : -DASTART+JULCAL(FIX(>!OSTART) ) 




1A45 


IF FLAG1 AND M0START>2. THEN 




1A59 


Tl:-Tl+1. 




1A68 


ENDIF 




1A6A 






1A6B 


REPEAT 




1A6D 


PRINT «SCRN.TAB(25); 




1A78 


INPUT 1SCRN," Start: Hours - ",H 




1A96 


UNTIL H>- .? AND H<-24. 




1ABJJ 






1AB1 


REPEAT 




1AB3 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(25): 




1ABE 


INPUT «SCRN." Minutes - ~.H 




1ADC 


UNTIL M>— .p AND M<-59. 




1AF6 


Tl:-Tl+H/24.+H/1440. 




1B14 






1B15 


REPEAT 




1B17 


PRINT BSCRN.TABC25); 




1B22 


INPUT »SCRN." Duration: Hours - ".HI 




1B42 


UNTIL Hl>-.jl 




1B51 


REPEAT 




1B53 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(25); 




1B5E 


INPUT »SCRN," Hlnuces - ".Ml 




1B7E 


UNTIL Hl>-.jJ AND MK-59. 




1B98 


T2:-T1+H1/24.*M1/144|J. 




1BB6 






1BB7 


REPEAT 




1BB9 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(25); 




1BC4 


INPUT »SCRN," Step: Minutes - ",M2 




1BE4 


UNTIL M2>.(J AND M2<-6(l. 




1BFE 


T9:-M2/144jJ. 




1CJ9D 






1CPE 


PRINT *SCRN,TAB(25); 




1C19 


INPUT »SCRN,"Is above data correct? ",AAS 




1C3D 


UNTIL AASO"N" AND AA$0"n" 




1C51 






1C52 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB<25): 




1C5D 


PRINT "SCRN USING "JC5 , 'Start time - '.R9.4>".T1 




1CB2 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(25): 




1C8D 


PRINT "SCRN USINC "X6,'Stop time - '.R9.4>".T2 




1CB1 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(25); 




1CBC 


INPUT #SCRN."To continue press ENTER ".AAS 




1CE1 






1CE2 


RUN GEOCENTR(C8.C9,F,H9,L9.PP,RiJ.S8.S9,W9.X9.Y9,Z9) 




1D28 






1D29 


PRINT •SCRN,CHRS(12); 




1D34 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(34); "STATION: ": C$ 




1D4E 


PRINT »SCRN USING "T29,'LAT: l ,R6.2>,' LONG: • , R7 . 2>" . L9 




1D8? 


,U9 
PRINT «SCRN USINC "T26 . 'ELEV: ' ,R6 .(T>. ■ MIN HORIZON: • ,R5 

,H9,E8 


1>" 


1DB9 


PRINT "SCRN. 




IDC? 






1DC1 


RUN GETDATCSCRN,SS,IS.Y3,D3,H3.M3,S3,I|J.0j>.Ej>.V(l,M!I.N|J. 





142 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 





N1.KP.AP.F1) 




1E2JJ 






1E21 


FLAG2:-Y3/4.-INT(Y3/4.) 




1E3C 






1E3D 


ABORT: -FALSE 




1E43 


IF Y3-OYRSTART THEN 




1E5P 


IF Y3-YRSTART-1 OR YRSTART-J) AND Y3-99 THEN 




1E71 


IF FLAG2 THEN 




1E7A 


T7:-TH-366. 




1E89 


T8:-T2+366. 




1E98 


ELSE 




1E9C 


T7:-Tl+365. 




1EAB 


T8:-T2+365. 




1EBA 


ENDIF 




1EBC 


RUN SIDEREAL(Y3,G2) 




1ECB 


ELSE 




1ECF 


PRINT «SCRN,CHRS(12); 




1EDA 


FOR I:-l TO 7 




1EEA 


PRINT »SCRN, 




1EF1 


NEXT I 




1EFC 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(14); "This satellite's element set Is OVER A YEAR 


OLDII" 


1F3A 


PRINT «SCRN,TAB(19): "Update element set Cor this satellite." 




1F6D 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(27); CHRS(SIF); CHRS(S24); "Aborting Ehls runl" 
; CHRSCS1F); CHRS(S25) 




1FA0 


ABORT: -TRUE 




1FA6 


PRINT »SCRN, 




1FAD 


REPEAT 




1FAF 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(2(0: "Do you want to quit now (Y/N)" 




1FDA 


INPUT KSCRN.AAS 




1FE4 


UNTIL AAS-"y" OR AAS-"n" OR AAS-"Y" OR AAS-"N" 




2?pa 


IF AAS-"y" OR AAS--Y" THEN 




2()ID 


CLOSE DSCRN 




2P23 


END "TRAKSAT aborted" 




2936 


ENDIF 




2038 


ENDIF 




2P3A 


ELSE 




2P3E 


T7:-T1 




2p46 


T8:-T2 




204E 


RUN SIDEREAL(Y3,G2) 




2?5D 


ENDIF 




2?5F 


UNTIL NOT(ABORT) 




2068 






2P69 


PRINT »SCRN,CHRS(12); 




2?74 


REPEAT 




2?76 


FOR I:-l TO 7 




2086 


PRINT »SCRN, 




2P8D 


NEXT I 




2(198 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(18); 




2?A3 


INPUT »SCRN, "Output to printer or screen (enter P or S)7 " 
,AA3 




2JDC 


UNTIL AAS-"P" OR AAS-"p" OR AAS-"S" OR AAS-"s" 




21?? 


IF AAS-"P" OR AAS-"p" THEN 




2115 


PV : -TRUE 




211B 


PRINT »SCRN. 




2122 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(22); CHRS(SIF); CHRSCS24); 




2137 


PRINT »SCRN,"Make sure printer Is on and readyl"; CHR$( 
51F); CHR$<525> 




216C 


PRINT OSCRN. 




2173 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(27); 




217E 


INPUT #SCRN, "Press ENTER to continue" ,AAS 




21A2 


PRN:-j» 




21A9 


OPEN »PRN.PRNPATH: UPDATE 




21B5 


ELSE 




21B9 


PV: -FALSE 




21BF 


ENDIF 




21C1 






21C2 


IF D3-INT(D3) THEN 




21DJ) 


T() : -D31-H3/24 . +M3/1440 . +S3/864(J(J . 




21F9 


ELSE 




21FD 


T?:-D3 




22(15 


ENDIF 




22(17 






2298 


T:-T7-T9 




2214 


RUN ELEHUPDT(A,AB,C,E0.El,G(J,I(J,Ka.M(I,N.Np,Nl,O.Op,Pfl,QP, 
RB.T.TP.U.tfp) 




22E2 


RUN MEANANOMCK , M . H9 . N(J , Nl . Q . QP . T . T(3> 




22B4 


RUN TRUEAN0M(AB,C.EP,E1.G1.C2.H,R.T.X.Y.Z) 




22F5 


RUN AZELRNGE(A9 . CB . C9 , E9 . L5 , PP . R . R5 , R6 , R8 . S8 , S9 ,T . T6 , W5 . X 
.X9.Y.Y9.Z.Z9) 




2363 


T:-T7 




236B 


RUN ELEMUPDT( A , A3 . C . E? . El . G8 . ip . KB , MB . N , N8 , Nl , , OP . PP , Qp . 
RP,T.TP,U.«P) 




23D9 


RUN MEANANOH(K,M,M9,NP,N1.Q,OP,T.TP) 




240B 


PRINT »SCRN,CHRS(12) ; 




2416 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(14); "Elements for: "; S$ 




2435 


PRINT »SGRN,TAB(13); "Element sec: "; IS 




2453 

2494 






PRINT «SCRN.TAB<13>; "Element Reference Starting" 




24CF 







Submitting 

Material 
To Rainbow 

Contributions to the ra/nbow 
are welcome from everyone. We 
like to run a variety of programs 
that are useful/helpful/fun for 
other CoCo owners. 

WHAT TO WRITE: We are inter- 
ested in what you may wish to tell 
our readers. We accept for consid- 
eration anything that is well- 
written and has a practical appli- 
cation for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. If it interests you, it will 
probably interest lots of others. 
However, we vastly prefer articles 
with accompanying programs 
which can be entered and run. The 
more unique the idea, the more the 
appeal. We have a continuing need 
for short articles with short list- 
ings. These are especially appeal- 
ing to our many beginners. 

FORMAT: Program submis- 
sions must be on tape or disk, and 
it is best to make several saves, at 
least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have 
time to key in programs and debug 
our typing errors. All programs 
should be supported by some ed- 
itorial commentary explaining 
how the program works. We also 
prefer that editorial copy be in- 
cluded on the tape or disk using 
any of the word processors cur- 
rently available for the Color Com- 
puter. Also, please include a 
double-spaced printout of your 
editorial material and program 
listing. Do not send text in all 
capital letters; use upper- and 
lowercase. 

COMPENSATION: We do pay 
for submissions, based on a 
number of criteria. Those wishing 
remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who 
wish more detailed information on 
making submissions, please send 
a self-addressed, stamped enve- 
lope (SASE) to: Submission 
Guidelines, the rainbow, The Fal- 
soft Building, P.O. Box 385, Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit material 
currently submitted to another 
publication. 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 143 



About 

Your 

Subscription 



Your copy of the rainbow is 
sent second class mail. You 
must notify us of a new address 
when you move. Notification 
should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to 
the month in which you change 
youraddress. Sorry, we cannot 
be responsible for sending 
another copy when you fail to 
notify us. 

Your mailing label also 
shows an account number and 
the subscription expiration 
date. Please indicate this ac- 
count number when renewing 
or corresponding with us. It 
will help us help you better and 
faster. 

For Canadian and other non- 
U.S. subscribers, there may be 
a mailing address shown that is 
different from our editorial of- 
fice address. Do not send any 
correspondence to that mail- 
ing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at Falsoft, Inc., 
The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. This 
applies to everyone except 
those whose subscriptions are 
through our distributor in Aus- 
tralia. 




251? 


PRINT «SCRN,TAB(13); "Epoch"; TAB(34); 13; "+" ; T9; TAB<52 




) ; YRSTART; "+" ; Tl 


2542 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(13); "Incl of Orbit": TAB(34); 19; TAB(52 




): 19 


256C 


PRINT »SCRt!.TAB(13); "RAAN"; TABC34) ; 09; TAB(52>; 


258D 


PRINT «SCR1I,TABU3); "Eccentricity"; TAB(34); E9; TAB(52) 




: E? 


25B6 


PRINT »SCRH.TAB(13); "Arg of Perlgeo"; TAB(34); V9; TABC52 


25E1 


): w 

PRINT "SCRN.TABU3); "Mean Anomaly"; TAB<34); M9: TAB(52) 




I M/P9 


263E 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(13); "Mean Motion"; TAB(34); N9; TAB(52); N9 


2636 


PRINT #SCRN.TAB(13); "Decay Rate"; TAB(34); HI I TAB(52) ; Nl 


265D 


PRINT #SCRN.TAB(13); "Ref Orbit »"; TABf.34); K9; TABC52); K 


2685 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(13); "Seml-Ha] Axis"; TAB(34) ; A9; TAB(52 




): A? 


26AF 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(13); "Beacon Freq" ; TAB(34) ; Fl; TAB(52); Fl 


26D7 


PRINT HSCRN, 


26DE 


IF T7-T9<-9?. THEN 


26F2 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(13); "Element set Is "; FIX<T7-T(I) ; " days old." 


2724 


PRINT HSCRN, 


272D 


ELSE 


272F 


IF T7-T9<-189. THEN 


2743 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(13) ; "Element set la "; CHRS(SIF); CHRS 




(S24); FIXCT7-T9): 


2773 


PRINT «SCRN,CHRS(S1F): CHRS(S25); " days old." 


279(1 


PRINT »SCRN. 


2797 


ELSE 


279B 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(13); CHRS(SIF); CHRS(S24); 


27B9 


PRINT »SCRN. "WARNING: Element set Is "; FIX(T7-T9): " days old." 


27E8 


PRINT »SCRN.CHRS(S1F); CHR5(S25) 


27F8 


PRINT HSCRN, 


27FF 


ENDIF 


2B01 


ENDIF 


2BJJ3 


PRINT KSCRN,TAB(13); 


28(IE 


INPUT #SCRN, "Press ENTER to start ".AAS 


283|] 


PRINT #SCRN, 


2837 


PRINT *SCRH.CHRS<S1F); CHRSCS24); 


2848 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(13); "Performing calculations ..." 


287(1 


PRINT «SCRN.CHRS(S1F); CHRS(S25); 


2881 




2882 


K9 : -9 . 9E+99 


288D 


K3:-9.8E+99 


2B98 


D0:-2. 


28A3 


FIRSTRUN : -TRUE 


28A9 


PG:-l 


28Bfl 


LN:-9 


28B7 


T3:-T1 


28BF 


FOR T:-T7 TO T8 STEP T9 


28D7 




28D8 


IF K70INT(T3) THEN 


28E6 


IF T35—366. AND N0T(FLAG3) OR T3>-367, THEN 


2996 


IF FLAG3 THEN 


299F 


T3:-T3-366. 


291E 


ELSE 


2922 


T3:-T3-365. 


2931 


ENDIF 


2933 


IF YRN0W-99. THEN 


2943 


YRN0W:-.9 


294E 


ELSE 


2952 


YRNOH:-YRN0U+l. 


2961 


ENDIF 


2963 


FLAG3 : -YPJ10W/4 . -INT( YRN0U/4 . ) 


297E 


RUN STRNGNUMCfilOWS.YRNOW) 


298D 


ENDIF 


298F 


I:-9 


2996 


DAN01I:-INT(T3) 


299F 


REPEAT 


29A1 


I:-I+l 


29AC 


IF FLAG3 AND 1-2 THEN 


29BC 


DANOW:-DANOtf-l. 


29CB 


ENDIF 


29CD 


UNTIL JULCAL(I(-1)>-DAN0U 


29DF 


H0N0W:-FL0AT(I) 


29E8 


D ANOW : -D ANOW - JULCAL ( I ) 


29F7 


IF FLAG3 AND 1-2 THEN 


2A97 


DAN0W:-DAN0V+1. 


2A16 


ENDIF 


2A18 


RUN STRNGNUM(HNOWS.MONOW) 


2A27 


RUN STRNGNUM(DNOMS.DANOW) 


2A36 


DATENS : -HN0V$-f"/"+DN0V$+"/"+YN0W$ 


2A4E 


K7:-INT(T3) 


2A57 


ENDIF 


2A59 




2A5A 


RUN HEANAN0H(K,M,H9,N9,N1,Q,Q9.T,T9) 


2A8C 


IF DJ-9 AND KOK9 THEN 


2AA1 


RUN ELEHUPDT(A,A9,C,E9,E1,C9,I9,K9,H9,N,N9.N1,0,09,P9 



144 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 





,QP,RP.T,TP,H,va) 






lift 


KS:-9.0E+JJ9 






2B1A 


K9:-9.pE+p9 






2B25 
2B27 


END IF 

RUN TRUEAN0M<AP.C,EP.E1,G1,G2,M.R,T,X,Y,Z) 










2B68 


RUN AZELRNGE(A9 , C8 . C9 , E9 , L5 , Pp , R , R5 . R6 , R8 . S8 . S9 . T . T6 . U5 
.X.X9,Y,Y9.Z.Z9> 






2BD6 


D.--E9-E8 






2BE2 


IF D<.p THEN 






2BF2 


IF DPOl THEN 






2BFF 


D : -R5*D*D* . ppppflpppi 






2C16 


09- -9 






2C1E 


IF D>.2/NP THEN 






2C32 


T:-T+.2/NP 






2C45 


T3:-T3+.2/Np 






2C53 


ELSE 






2C5C 


T:-T+D 






2C68 


T3:-T3+D 






2C74 


ENDIF 






2C76 


ENDIF 






2C78 


ELSE 






2C7C 


IF DP-jJ THEN 






2C89 


IF T3>-Tl THEN 






2C96 


T3:-Tl+T9*INT((T-T7)/T9-2.) 






2CB6 


ELSE 






2CBA 


IF FLAG1 THEN 






2CC3 


T3:-TltT9*INT((T-T7)/T9-2.)-366. 






2CEA 


ELSE 






2CEE 


T3:-Tl+T9*INT((T-T7)/T9-2.)-365. 






2D15 


ENDIF 






2D17 


ENDIF 






2D19 


T:-T7+T9*INT((T-T7)/T9-2.) 






2D39 


Dfl:-1 






20*1 


ELSE 






2D4S 


DJ>:-2 






2D4D 


IF K70-K8 OR KOK9 THEN 






2D62 


IF KOK9 AND FIRSTRUN THEN 






2D73 


K9:-K 






2D7B 


RUN SCRNHDR(SCRN , C5 . DATENS . DATORBIS . DAT0RB2S ,SS 
.GG.LN.K) 






2 DAD 


IF PV THEN 






2DB6 


RUN PRNTRHDR(.PRN,LN,PG,E8.F1,H9,K,L9,W9,CS, DATENS 
, DATORBIS , DAT0RB2S , SS ) 






2E01 


ENDIF 






2E03 


FIRSTRUN: -FALSE 






2ED9 


ELSE 






t&pB 


IF KOK9 THEN 






2E1A 


K9:-K 






2E22 


ENDIF 






2E24 


PRINT «SCRN USING DATORBIS .DATENS .K; 






2E37 


PRINT "SCRN.DAT0RB2S 






2E41 


GG:-GG+1 






2EAC 


IF GG-23 THEN 






2E58 


RUN SCRNCONT(SC!UI.PV) 






2E67 


RUN SCRNHDR(SCRN . CS . DATENS . DATORBIS . DAT0RB2S , 
SS,GG,LN,K) 






2E99 


ENDIF 






2E9B 


IF PV THEN 






2EA4 


IF LN>-59 THEN 






2EBP 


PRINT »PRN, 






2EB7 


W:-9 






2EBE 


PG:-PG+l 






2EC9 


RUN PRNTRHDRCPRN,LN.PG.E8,F1.H9.K,L9,W9.CS. 
DATENS .DATORBIS .DAT0RB2S ,SS) 






2F14 


ELSE 






2F18 


PRINT »PRN USING DATORBIS .DATENS. K: 






2F2B 


PRINT "PRN.DAT0RB2S 






2F35 


LHl-LS+1 






2F4? 


ENDIF 






2F42 


ENDIF 






2F44 


ENDIF 






2F46 


ENDIF 






2F48 








2F49 


K8:-K7 






2F51 


T4:-T-INT(T) 






2F5E 


S4:-INT(T4*864)JiI. + .5) 






2F75 


H4:-INT(S4/36|JjJ. + .pj>SJp(ll) 






2FBC 


M4:-INT((S4-H4*36jI8.)/6a. + .pppppL) 






2FAE 


S4:-S4-36pp.*H'.-6p.*H4 






2FCC 


F9: — <F1)*1PP(IPPP.*R8/CC 






2FE4 


RUN STRNGNUMCH4S.H'.) 






2FF3 


RUN STRNGNUMCH'.S.H'.) 






3P02 


RUN STRNGNUM(S4S.S4) 






3(JU 


TN0W5 :-H4S+M'iS+" ! "+S4S 






3p25 
3?26 








PRINT »SCRN USING "T8 ,S7>.T17 ,R5.p>,T24 ,R4.p>,T28 , R7 .p>,T37 ,R7 .p>" 






,TNOWS,A9.E9,F9.R5; 






3JJ72 


PRINT *SCRN USING "T14.R7 .p>.T52 ,R4 f> ,T58 ,R5 ,p>.T67 ,R5 .p>" 
.R-RP.L5.W5.M9 







WARGAME 
DESIGNER II 



Introducing this NEW enhanced version of 
our most popular COCO 3 product! 

Here are just a few of the new features; 
Choose from keyboard or joystick control. 
Now you can control every phase of design 
and play by joystick! We've added a new 
enhanced icon design system. Work on new 
icons at 5 times actual size. No more eye 
strain 1 There's a new terrain modifier menu 
with default values to speed up input. New 
menus, more visual and audio 
enhancements & a super fast screen loader 
& more! 

Wargaming & game design have never been 

so much fun. If you haven't tried it, 

NOW is your chance! 

WARGAME DESIGNER II 

Introductory sale priced at ONLY S25 

WGD ICON DISK #1 528 ready made, easy 
to use WGD II compatible unit and terrain 
icons. Just S15 

WGD STAND ALONE SCENARIOS ONLY S15 each 



INVASION NORTH 
ROBOT COMMAND 
GHOST HUNTERS 
ZULU REVENGE 
ISLAND DOMINATION 
TECH WARS 



ATTACK ON MOSCOW 

DUNGEON WARRIOR 

ORC AMBUSH 

DESERT RATS 

FORT APACHE 

ROTC 



GRIDIRON STRATEGY Sale price at S1 8 
100% ML football strategy for 1 or 2 players. 
The first & still the best! 

WEEKLY WINNER 2.0 just S15 

The only lotto program we know of that has pro- 
duced winning numbers. 100% ML COCO 2 & 
3 disk or tape. A proven winner 

CATALOG ON DISK A good investment S3 
Skeptical? See before you buy. Then deduct 
$3.00 from your first order. 

CC3FLAGS A "risky" game. only S21 

Graphics oriented and definately addictive! A 
game of world conquest for 1 to 6 players. 
COCO 3 disk only. 

BLACK GRID S21 

An intriguing graphics puzzel for the COCO 3. 
Find the hidden boxes inside the black grid. 3 
play modes. 

MAIL MASTER Sale priced at just S10 

Get your mailing lists organized. All ML 

CC3CRAM Introductory sale S12.00 

Stop wasting valuable disk space with COCO 
3 graphic pages. Cut most files to just 4 
granules! A real space saver. 

****MARCH SPECIAL **** 
Order any product listed above & get the 
WGD stand alone game of your choice FREE 

Catalog orders excluded. 

**••*•*********•*** 

VISA & MASTERCARD accepted FREE shipping 



SPORTSware 

1251 S. Reynolds Road, Suite 414 
Toledd, Ohio 43615 
(419) 389-1515 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



145 



About 
The One-Liner 
Contest . . . 



the rainbow's One-Liner 
Contest has now been ex- 
panded to include programs 
of either one or two lines. 
This means a new dimen- 
sion and new opportunity 
for those who have "really 
neat" programs that simply 
just won't fit in one line. 

Here are the guidelines: 
The program must work in 
Extended basic, have only 
oneortwo line numbers and 
be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, 
no calling ROM routines, no 
poked-in machine language 
code. The program has to 
run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our read- 
ers will use it). Make sure 
your line, or lines, aren't 
packed so tightly that the 
program won't list com- 
pletely. Finally, any instruc- 
tions needed should be very 
short. 

Send your entry (prefera- 
bly on cassette or disk) to: 

THE RAINBOW 

One-Liner Contest 

P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 




30B6 


CG:-CC+L 






39C 1 


IF CG-23 THEN 






3(JCD 


RUN SCRNCONT(SCRN.PV) 






3JIDC 


RUN SCRNHDR(SCRN , CS . DATENS . DAT0RB1$ , DATORB2S , SS , GO 
,LN,K) 






31PE 


ENDIF 






311(1 








3111 


IF PV THEN 






311A 


PRINT "PRN USING "T8 ,S7>,T17.R5 .p>.T24,R4.»>,T28 ,R7 .B> 


T37,R7.]I>" 




.TN0US.A9.E9.F9,R5; 






3166 


PRINT #PRN USING "T44 ,R7 .0>,T52 ,R4 .(T>,T58 ,R5.0>,T67 .R5 
,R-R9.L5,W5,M9 


B>" 




31AA 


LN:-LN+1 






31B5 


IF Lit— 69 THEN 






31C1 


LN:-() 






31C8 


PG:-PG*-l 






31D3 


RUN PRNTRHDRC.PRN.LN.PG,E8.F1,H9,K,L9,W9,CS.DATENS 
,DAT0RB1S,DAT0RB2S.SS) 






321E 


ENDIF 






322? 


ENDIF 






3222 








3223 


ENDIF 






3225 


ENDIF 






3227 


T3:-T3+T9 






3233 


NEXT T 






323E 








323F 


PRINT »SCRN."End of "j SS; " calculations. "; 






3267 


IF PV AND LN<61 THEN 






3277 


REPEAT 






3279 


PRINT »PRN, 






328(! 


LN:-LN+1 






328B 


UNTIL LN>-63 






3296 


ENDIF 






3298 


PRINT WSCRN, "Enter Q Co quit, any ocher key Co concinue. " 






32CE 


INPUT »SCRN,AAS 






32D8 


UNTIL AA5-"q" OR AAS-"Q" 






32EC 








32ED 


IF PV THEN 






32F6 


CLOSE 1PRN 






32FC 


ENDIF 






32FE 


CLOSE "SCRN 






3304 


END 






33?6 








33(37 


DATA . J. 31., 59.. 9|».. 12(1.. 151.. 1B1.. 212.. 243.. 273., 3(14.. 334. 
,365. 






3366 


END 






3368 








PROCEDURE 


logo 






9999 








WW 


PARAH SCRN:INTECER 






m» 


PRINT »SCRN,CHRS<12): 






0(113 


FOR I:-l TO 5 






«KS 


PRINT »SCRN, 






JI?2C 


NEXT I 






PSJ37 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(33); "TRAKSAT v 2.4" 






7052 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(28); "Orblc Predlcclon Program" 






(1977 


PRINT #SCRN, 






W7E 


PRINT #SCRN,TAB(29); "Copyright (c) 1988 by" 






P0A1 


PRINT »SCRN.TAB(39): "John A. Llnd. KD7XG" 






UJIC2 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(31); "Corona. California" 






P0E1 


FOR I: -1 TO ltW9 






PPF4 


NEXT I 






0BFF 


PRINT «SCRN,CHRS(12); 






?1?A 


END 






Pipe 








PROCEDURE 


inltl 






jjjjpj) 








9m 


PARAH CS:STRING[6]; NS:STRING(2jI] ; L9.W9 ,H9 ,E8 :REAL; PRNPATH 
:STRING[32] 






(1(135 


DIM INPATH:3YTE 






?S>3C 


OPEN »INPATH,"scaClon dac":R£AD 






W52 


READ »INPATH.C5 






PP5C 


READ "INPATH.NS 






(1366 


READ XINPATH.L9 






9919 


READ WIN PATH. U9 






fflk 


READ »INPATH.H9 






0084 


READ OINPATH.E8 






pjuz 


READ OINPATH, PRNPATH 






9098 


CLOSE XINPATH 






O09E 


END 






9W 








PROCEDURE 


gecdac 






9999 








9991 


PARAH SCRN:INTEGER: SS , IS:STRINCI401 | Y3 ,D3 ,H3 ,M3 .S3 , 19,09. 
E0 , W(T . MO , Nfl . Nl , K(J , Afl . Fl : REAL 






P?55 


DIH INPATH: BYTE 







146 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



The Coco Graphics Designer Plus $29.95 



SQUARE 
DHNCE 



a 



5 5 7PH 

IDH 'SCHOOL] 




HEU 

VERB 



Makes Signs, Banners, Greeting Cards 



Super easy-to- 
use point and 
click graphical 
interface, fea- 
tures windows, 
scroll bars, radio 
buttons, and joy- 
stick or mouse 
control. 



COCO SIGN DESIGNER 




LOHD SIGN 



The CoCo Graphics Designer Plus (CGDP) is CoCo 2 and 
3 Compatible. It allows pictures, and text in up to 4 sizes 
and 16 fonts, per page or banner. The cards & signs fea- 
ture hi-resolution borders and complete on-screen pre- 
views. The CGDP comes with 16 borders, 5 fonts, and 32 
pictures. It's 100% machine language for fast execution. 
Printer Support Radio shack dmpios, 106, 110,120, 130, 132, 200, 400, 420, 430, 

440, 500, Epson FX/RX/LX/EX, LQ, Star 10X, SG10, NX10, NX1000, Panasonic 
KXP1080, 1090, 1091, 1092, Prowriter, C. Itoh 8510 & more.. Call for complete list. 
Requirements: 64K CoCo ll or HI, disk drive with RSDOS, mouse or joystick. 



.Picture Disks Now> 

CoCo MAX 
&MAX-10 

Compatible 

response to the many requests 
we received, our picture disks now 
include a simple format conversion 
utility making them easy to use 
with Colorware's MAX-10 and 
CoCo MAX II and III. 



Sampios From 

Picture Disk #2 




Office 



1 f A Av 1 K $ 



BV& 



Animals 

it* 

Religion 

Nature 

& 

Travel 



; 



Bl 



flit 



m 



Chrlatmaa, Eaalar, Thanksgiving, 

Jawlah Holldaya, Him Vaat., July 

4th, Hallowaan, Paradaa, Saint 

Palrlcfc'a, Salnl Val.nlli,.. D.y 



These two optional font col- 
lections supplement the 
fonts built into the CGDP. 
Font Disk A 10 fonts $14.95 
Font Disk B 10 fonts $14.95 



Font Disk A 



B0LD3 

1 1 f iTQl 

uiui i i ■>_ 

STE1CIL 

3 T n I r c9 

TYPE 
VARIETY 

HESTEF... 



Font Disk B 



RRCRDE 

ALIEN 

DflDQD 
COMPUTER 

©©©©©© 
3009999 

EJGJDU 
[afffllBlalil 

OECO 
GRAY 

£CJMJ&7 



GREAT COCO CLIP-ART! Picture disks 2, 3, and 4, supplement the pictures 
that come with the CGDP. Each disk has 120 pictures arranged by subject. A few samples 
are shown above. Besides being compatible with Zebra's CGD and CGDP, each disk contains a 
utility to easily transform our pictures into CoCo Max pages, CoCo Max II clip book pages, 
CoCo Max III scrap books, and Max-10 clip art files. Order your picture disks today and use 
our great clip art with your favorite graphics programs! 
Zebra's Picture disks 2, 3, and 4 are priced at $14.95 each. 



New Product! 
Border Disk #1 

Over 100 high-resolution borders for the 
CoCo Graphics Designer Plus. Includes 
geometric patterns and artistic graphics 
for making great signs and greeting cards. 
A few samples are shown here at the 
right. Order CGDP Borber Disk#1 $14.95 




t, , « 



, Call, or mail us your address for a copy of our FREE CoCo Catalog! 



i_ 



Name 

Address 
City 



State 



ZIP 



-j 



Ordering Instructions: All orders add $3.00 Shipping & Handling. UPS COD add $3.00. VISA/MC Accepted. NY residents add sales tax. 
Zebra Systems, Inc., 78-06 Jamaica Ave., Woodhaven, NY 11421 (718) 296-2385 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This CoCo 3 one-liner illus- 
trates the use of the PALETTE 
command to create animation — 
experience the "Sound Stretcher." 

The listing: 

RGB:A=160:B=A:M=96:HSCREEN2:FO 
RZ=1T08 : C=C+Z : PALETTE0 , p : F0RL=1T 
01S:D=L:A=A-L:HCIRCLE(A,M-L) ,C,D 
: B=3+ 1 : HCIRCLE ( B , M+L) , C , D : NEXTL : 
NEXTZ : FORT=8T063 : F0RL=1T015 : PALE 
TTEL,T:S0L7JD154+T,1:NEXTL:F0RD=1 
5T01 STSP-1:PA£ETTED,0:NEXTD:NEX 
TT 

Paul Olmstead 
Toledo, OH 

(For this winning one-liner contest entry, the 
author has been sent copies of both The Third 
Rainbow Book oj 'Adventures and its companion 
Hie Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



Two- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

This two-liner repeatedly prints 
a column number line index, 
which can be used to format print- 
er output. 

The listing: 

1 CLS:P=PEEK(65314)AND1:IF P>0 T 
HENPRINT9231, "printer offline" :G 
OTOl ELSSPRINT9231, "PRINTING LIN 
ES": PRINT" HOLD <SPACS BAR> T 
STOP" :F0RX=lTO8 : FORY-1T09 : LS=L 
S+RIGHTS(3TRS(Y) ,1) :HEXTY:LS=LSt 
"3":NEXTX 

2 PRINTS-2, STRINGS (2, 13) :F0RX=1T 
08 :PRINTS-2, STRINGS (8, " ") ;STRS( 
X) ;:NEXTX:PRINTS-2,LS:IF PEEK(34 
5) =247 THENEND ELSE2 

Sam Mony 
Kalamazoo, MI 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the 
author has been sent copies of both The Second 
Rainbow Book of Simulations and its compan- 
ion The Second Rainbow Simulations Tape.) 




PP5C 


DIH I, J, K: INTEGER 




PP6B 


DIM DD:REAL 




PS"2 


DIM AAS:STRING11] 




PP7E 


DIM DD5: STRING [4P1 




PP8A 


DIM SATFILE3: STRING (13] 




PP96 


SATFILES :-"satelllte_dat" 




PPAA 


OPEN HINPATH. SATFILES: READ 




PPB6 


PRINT dSCRN,TAB(26); "Satellite Selection Directory" 




PPEP 


PRI 








I>1P9 


I.-P 




Jill? 


READ »INPATH,S5 




PUA 


WHILE SSO-DATEND" DO 




P12C 


FOR K:-l TO 5 




P13C 


READ »INPATH.DD 




oi46 


NEXT K 




P151 


READ »INPATK.I5 




P15B 


I:-I+l 




(1166 


PRINT »SCRN USING "T24,I3>. ' . '.S12<,' ■ ,S13<" .I.SS.IS 




(!195 


FOR K:-l TO LP 




I>ias 


READ "INPATH.DD 




PIAF 


NEXT K 




(I1BA 


READ "INPATH.SS 




P1C4 


ENDUHILE 




pica 


REPEAT 




PICA 


INPUT "SCRN. "Enter number desired ",J 




JHEC 


UNTIL J>P AND J<-I 




(I1FF 


CLOSE KINPATH 




?2?5 


OPEN «INPATH . SATFILES : READ 




P2U 


READ OINPATH.SS 




P21B 


FOR I:-l TO J-l 




P22F 


FOR K:-l TO 5 




P23F 


READ •INPATH.DD 




P249 


NEXT K 




p254 


READ "INPATH.DDS 




P25E 


FOR K:-l TO ip 




0Z6E 


READ "INPATH.DD 




P278 


NEXT K 




(1283 


READ "INPATH.SS 




(J28D 


NEXT I 




P298 


PRINT "SCRN, "Obtaining data for "| S5 




0228 


READ »INPATH,Y3 




SJ2C2 


READ »INPATH,D3 




P2CC 


READ WINPATH.H3 




p2D6 


READ HINPATH.M3 




P2EP 


READ "INPATH.S3 




P2EA 


READ MINPATH.I5 




P2F4 


READ -INPATH.IP 




P2FE 


READ OINPATH.op 




P3?8 


READ XINPATH.EP 




(1312 


READ MINPATH.WP 




(I31C 


READ XINPATH.MP 




(1326 


READ HINPATH.NP 




?33? 


READ OINPATH.N1 




P33A 


READ aINPATH.KP 




(1344 


READ "INPATH.AP 




(I34E 


READ WINPATH.F1 




(1358 


CLOSE "INPATH 




P35E 


PRINT "SCRN USING "'Frequency for dopplor calculations: ' ,R8 . 3>. •MHz'" 




Fl 




P39D 


INPUT »SCRN."Any change (Y/N)7 ",AAS 




(I3BC 


IF AAS-"Y" OR AAS-"y" THEN 




P3D1 


REPEAT 




?3D3 


INPUT "SCRN. "Enter new frequency: ",F1 




P3F5 


UNTIL Fl>.p 




P4p4 


ENDIF 




P'.p6 


END 




P4?8 






PROCEDURE 


raeananon 




SWP 






WPi 


PARAM K.M.H9,NP.N1.Q,QP.T,TP:REAL 




PP28 


Q:-QP+NP*(T-TP)+N1*(T-TP")*2. 




PP4F 


K:-INT(Qt.pppppi). 




??5F 


M9:-INT((Q-K-f.pPPPpi)*256.) 




007* 


M:-(Q-K)*2.*PI 


, 


PP8F 


END 




??91 






PROCEDURE 


elemupdt 




PPPP 






PPP1 


PARAM A,AP,C(3,2).EP,El.GP.ip.Kp.Mp.N.Np,N1.0.0p.Pp.Qp.Rp.T 
,TP,H,Wp:REAL 




Pf>61 


DIH CJ),C1,C2,E2.K2.SP,S1.S2:REAL 




P?84 


IF NP>.1 THEN 




PP94 


AP:-(GP/(Np*NP))-<l./3.) 




PPB2 


ELSE 




PPB6 


NP:-SQRT(GP/AP*3) 




PPC7 


ENDIF 




PPC9 


N:-NP+2.*(T-Tp)*Nl 




PPE4 


A:-(GJ>/(N*N)> A <l./3.) 




P1P2 


E2 


-1-Ep"2. 




P115 


El 


-SQRT(E2) 




P11E 


QP 


-MP/36P.+KP 




P131 


K2 


-9 . 95*(RP/AP) *3 . 5/E2*2 . 




P156 


SI 


-SIN(IP*PP) 




P163 


CI 


-C0S(IP*PP) 





148 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



fJ17(J 


0:-OP-(T-TP)*K2*Cl 




S133 


SP:-SIN(0*PP) 




(1195 


CO:-COS(0*P8) 




JJ1A2 


H:-wp+(T-TP)*K2*(2.5*Cl"2.-.5) 




P1CF 


S2:-SIN(U*PP) 




JilDC 


C2 : -COS (U*P9) 




01E9 


C(1,1):-C2*CP-S2*SP*C1 




?2?6 


C<1,2):— (S2*CP)-C2*SP*C1 




0224 


C(2.1):-C2*sp+S2*cp*Cl 




0241 


C<2.2): — (S2*SjJ)+C2*cp*Cl 




JJ25F 


C(3.1):-S2*S1 




027a 


C(3.2):-C2*Sl 




0281 


END 




(1283 






PROCEDURE 


crueanon 




9999 






9m 


PARAM AP,C(3,2),EP.E1,G1.02.M.R,T,X,Y,Z:R£AL 




9f3B 


DIM C3 , C7 . E . G7 .Ml , M5 . R3 . S3 . S7 . XP . XI , Y? , Yl , Zl : REAL 




0078 


E:-HtEp-fSIN(M)1-.5*Ep"2.*SIBC2.*M) 




PPA7 


REPEAT 




9/ia 


S3:-SIN(E) 




(JOB2 


C3:-COS(E) 




OOBB 


R3:-1-EP*C3 




OOCB 


M1:-E-EP*S3 




OODB 


H5:-H1-H 




P0E7 


IF ABS(H5)>-.PPPPP1 THEN 




B0F8 


E:-E-M5/R3 




pips 


ENDIF 




(tt?A 


UNTIL ABS(M5)<.pppppi 




JI11A 


XP:-AP*(C3-EP) 




012A 


YP:-AP*E1»S3 




013A 


R:-AP*R3 




0146 


Zl 


-XP*C(1,1)+YP*C(1.2) 




0162 


Yl 


-XP*C(2,1)+YP*C<2,2) 




OL7E 


Zl 


-XP*C(3,1)+YP*C(3.2) 




019A 


G7 


-T*G1+G2 




OUA 


G7 


-(G7-INT(G7))*2.*PI 




P1C9 


S7 


— (SIN(G7)) 




PICA 


C7 


-COS(G7) 




01D3 


X:-X1*C7-Y1*S7 




01E7 


Y:-XI*S7*Y1*C7 




OlFB 


Z:-Z1 




8203 


END 




P2P5 






PROCEDURE 


geocencr 




9999 






pppi 


PARAM C8.C9,F,H9,L9,PP,RP.S8,S9,W9,X9,Y9,Z9:REAL 




PP3B 


DIM L8 . R9 : REAL 




PP43 


L8:-L9*PP 




PP4F 


S9:-SIN<L8) 




PP58 


C9:-COS(L8) 




PP61 


S8:-SINC-(W9)*PP) 




PP6F 


C8:-COS(W9*PP) 




PP7C 


R9:-RP*(l-F/2.tF/2.*COS(2.*L8>)+H9/ippp. 




PPB5 


L8:-ATN((1-F)"2.*S9/C9) 




PPD1 


Z9:-R9*SIN<LB) 




PPDE 


X9:-R9*COS(L8)*C8 




PPEF 


Y9:-R9*COS(L8)*S8 




PIP? 


END 




P1P2 






PROCEDURE 


azelrnge 




9999 






pppi 


PARAH A9.C8,C9.E9.L5,PP.R.R5,R6.R8.S8.S9,T,T6,W5.X,X9, 
Z.Z9:REAL 


f.Y9, 


PP58 


DIM B5,C5,D,S5,X5,X8.Y5,Y8.Z5.ZB:REAL 




PP83 


x: 


-X-X9 




PP8F 


Y5 


-Y-Y9 




PP9B 


ZS 


-Z-Z9 




PPA7 


R5 


-SQRT(X5«X5*Y5*Y5+Z5*Z5) 




PPC4 


IF T6oT THEN 




PPD1 


R8:-<R6-R5)/(T6-T)/864pp. 




PPEC 


ELSE 




PPFP 


R8: — 9.PE+P9 




PPFB 


ENDIF 




PPFD 


R6:-R5 




pips 


T6:-T 




9190 


ZB : -X5*C8*C9-fY5*S8*C9+Z5*S9 




P131 


X8 : — (X5*C8*S9) -Y5*S8*S9+Z5*C9 




P1S6 


Y8:-Y5*C8-X5*S8 




P16A 


S5:-Z8/R5 




P176 


C5:-SQRT(1.-S5*S5) 




?18A 


E9:-ATN(S5/C5)/PP 




P1SB 


RUN QUADRANTCX8.Y8.D) 




P1AF 


A9:-D/PP 




013B 


RUN QUADRANT(X,Y,D) 




P1CF 


W5:-36P.-D/PP 




P1E2 


B5:-Z/R 




P1EE 


L5:-ATN(B5/SQRT(1.-B5*B5))/PP 




P2PB 


END 




P2?D 






PROCEDURE 


quadratic 




9999 






pppi 


PARAM DX.DY.D:REAL 




ppip 


IF DX>.p THEN 




PP2P 


IF DY>.P THEN 





VIP Writer 1.1 

RATED "BEST" IN SEPT '88 "RAINBOW" 

VIP Writer has all the features ol VIP Writer III described elsewhere in this 
magazine except the screen widths are 32, 51 . 64 & 85. Screen colors are black, 
green & white, double dock speed is not supported, Spooler and menus are 
unavailable because of memory limitations. Even so, VIP Writer is the BEST word 
processor for the CoCo t & 21 Version 1.1 includes the configuration program 
and RGB Hard Disk support. Includes VIP Speller 1.1 DISK $69.95 

Available through Radio Shack Express Order Cat. 090-141 
Writer owners: upgrade to Writer 1 .1 lor S20 1 S3 S/H. Send only original disk and$?3 total. 



VIP Speller 1.1 

INCLUDES 50,000 WORD DICTIONARY 

VIP Speller works with ANY ASCII file created by most popular word processors - 
even Telewriter 64. It automatically checks text files for words to be corrected, 
marked for special attention or even added to the 50,000 word Dictionary. You 
can even view the word in context. Words can be added to or deleted from the 
dictionary or you can create your own dictionary I New features of version 1 . 1 are 
FASTER and more reliable disk access and printing at 9600 baud. DISK $34.95 
Spi'lic-' owners, usnfiide lo Spoit-r 1 t lor S10 • S3 S/H. Send original disk and S13 Total 



VIP Calc 1.1 



"MORE USEABLE FEATURES" FEB. 1985 "RAINBOW" 

VIP Calc has all the features of VIP Calc III described elsewhere in this magazine 
except the screen widths are 32, 51, 64 & 85. Screen colors are black, green and 
white, double clock speed and Spooler are not supported. Even so. VIP Calc is the 
most complete calc tor the CoCo 1 & 21 Version 1.1 has faster and more reliable 
disk access and improved display speed. DISK $59.95 

Calc owners: upgrade to Calc 1.1 for $10 + $3 S/H. Send only original disk and S13 total. 



VIP Database 1.1 

"ONE OF THE BEST" JUL '84 "RAINBOW" 

VIP Database has all the features of VIP Database III described elsewhere in this 
magazine except the screen widths are 51, 64 & 85. Screen colors are black, 
green and while, double clock speed and Spooler are not supported. Even so, VIP 
Database is the most complete database for the CoCo 1 S 21 Version 1.1 has 
faster and more reliable disk access and single spaced reports. DISK $49.95 
Database owners: upnradc to Da'abase 1.1 lorS'O + 53 S/H. Serdonlyd:skandS13to[al 



VIP Disk-ZAP 1.1 

RAVED ABOUT IN THE APRIL 1983 "RAINBOW" 

Now you can retrieve lost data on any disk. VIP Disk-Zap is the ultimate repair 
utility for repair of most disk errors. VIP Disk-Zap verifies diskettes, reads and 
writes any sector and lets you retrieve all types of bashed text files, BASIC and 
ML programs. VIP Disk-Zap includes an informative 50 page tutorial manual. 
New features of version 1 .1 are FASTER and more RELIABLE disk access and 
printing at up to 9600 BAUD. DISK $24.95 

Disk-Zap owners: upgrade to Disk-Zap 1.1 for$lO + S3S/H. Send original disk and St3 Total 



VIP Terminal 

RATED BEST IN JANUARY 1984 "RAINBOW" 

For your important communications needs you've got lo go beyond soltware that 
only lets you chat. You need a smart terminal so that you can send and receive 
programs and messages and print them I The VIP Terminal features 32, 51 , 64 or 
85 characters by 21 or 24 lines on the screen and has a 43K byte buffer lo store 
information. DISK $29.95 



VIP Integrated Library 

Outperforms ALL OTHER Integrated programs! 

The VIP Integrated Library 1.2 combines all six popular VIP 
programs - Writer 1.1, Speller 1.1, Calc 1.1, Database 1.1, 
Terminal and Disk-Zap 1.1 - into one program on one disk. The 
program is called VIP Desktop. From the desktop you have 
instant access to word processing with a spelling checker 
always in attendance, data management with mail merge, 
spreadsheet financial analysis, telecommunications and disk 
maintenance. 64K required. DISK $1 49.95 

Available through Radio Shack Express Order Cat. #90-213. 
VIP Library orders add $4 S/H USA, $5 Canada & $10 Foreign 
VIP Integrated Library owners: upgrade to the VIP Integrated Library 
1.2 lor $45 + $3 S/H. Send only ORIGINAL disk and $48 total. 



SD ENTERPRISES 

(503) 663-2865 P.O. Box 1233. Gresham, OR 97030 

We accept VISA / MASTERCARD and C.O.D. orders by phone. 

Non Library orders add $3 S/H in USA, $4 Canada, $6 Foreign. COD orders 

add an additional $2.75. Personal checks allow 3 weeks for delivery. 



March 1989 



THE RAINBOW 



149 



*** *** *** *** COLOR COMPUTER III SOFTWARE *** *** *** *** 



CBASIC III EDITOR/COMPILER 

The ULTIMATE Color Computer 111 BASIC COMPILER!!! 

If you want to write fast crficient machine language programs and you don'! 
want 10 spend Ihe next few yeans trying lolcarn how lowrilc Ihcm in Assembly 
language or with a cheap compiler, then CBASIC III is the answer!!! 

CBASIC III is ihe only fully integrated Basic Compiler and Program Editing 
System available for the Color Computer 3. It will allow you 10 take full advantage 
of all Ihe capabilities available in your CoCo-3 including 512K RAM, without 
having to spend years trying to learn assembly language programming. CBASIC 
HI allows you to create, edit and convert programs from a language you arc 
already familiar with Enhanced Disk Color Basic, into fast efficient machine 
language programs easily and quickly. CBASIC III supports all the enhanced 
hardware available in the CoCo-3, including I li-Rcs Graphics. & Screen displays, 
Extended Memory and Interrupts (Keyboard, Timer. Serial & Clock). We even 
added advanced commands not available in Basic to give you a level of control 
only available to very advanced Machine Language Programmers. Plus we made it 
exceptionally easy to use, not like some other compilers. CBASIC III is the 
friendliest and easiest compiler available for the Color Computer HI. 

CBASIC III is a powerful tool for the Beginner as well as the Advanced Basic 
or Machine Language programmer. You can write programs without having to 
worry about the Stack. DP Register, memory allocations and so on, because 
CBASIC III will handle it for you automatically. For Advanced users, CBASIC III 
will lei you control every aspect of your program, even generating machine code 
directly in a program easily. 

CBASIC III features well over 150 Compiled Basic Commands and Functions 
that fully support Disk Sequential and Direct access files. Tape, Printer and 
Screen I/O. It supports ALL the High and Low Resolution Graphics. Sound. Play 
and String Operations available in Enhanced Color Basic, including Graphics 
H/GET, li/Put, H/Play and I I/DRAW, all with 99.9% syntax compatibility. 
CBASIC III also supports the built in Serial I/O port with separate programmable 

frintcr & serial I/O baud rates. You can send and receive data with easy to use 
ROT, INPUT, INKEY, GETCHAR and PUTCIIAR commands. 

CBASIC makes full use of the powerful and flexible GIMI chip in the Color 
Computer 3. It will fully utilize the 128K of RAM available and install 2 Ultra 
Fast Ramdisks if 512K is available, for program Creation. Editing and 
Compilation. You can easily access all 512K of memory in a Compiled program 
thru several extended memory commands that can access it in 32K or 8K blocks 
and single or double bytes. 

CBASIC has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor which allows 
you to load, edit or create programs for the compiler. It is a full featured editor 
designed specifically for writing Basic programs. It has block move and copy, 
program renumbering, automatic line number generation, screen editing, printer 
control and much more. 

The documentation provided with CBASIC III is an 8 1/2 by 11 Spiral Bound 
book which contains approximatly 120 pages of real information. We went to 
great lengths to provide a manual that is not only easy to use and understand, but 
complete and comprehensive enough for even the most sophisticated user. 

CBASIC III is the most expensive Color Basic Compiler on the market, and 
well worth the investment. You can buy a less expensive compiler for your 
CoCo-3. and then find out how difficult it is to use, or how limited its features arc. 
Then yoii^ll wish you had bought CBASIC III in the first place. Dollar for dollar, 
CBASIC III gives you more than any other compiler available. If you can find a 
better CoCo-3 Basic Compiler then buy it!!! 
Requires 128K & Disk $149.00 

DATAPACK III PLUS V1.1 

SUPER SMART TERMINAL PROGRAM 

AUTOPILOT & AUTO-LOG PROCESSORS 

X-MODEM DIRECT DISK FILE TRANSFER 

VT-100 & VT-52 TERMINAL EMULATION 

■ No lost data even at 2400 Baud on the COCO-3 Serial I/O port. 
" 8 Display Formats, 32/40/64/80 columns at 192 or 225 Res. 

" 50K Text Buffer when using the Hi-Res Text Display & Disk. 

■ ASCII & BINARY disk file transfer support via XMODEM. 

■ Directly record receive data to a disk file (Data Logging). 

" VT-100 terminal emulation for VAX, UNIX and other systems. 
' VT-100/52 cursor keys, position, insert/delete, PF & Alt. keys. 

* Programmable Word Length, Parity, Stop Bits and baud rates. 

* Complete Full and Half Duplex operation, with no garbled data. 

* 9 Variable length, ProgrammablcMacro Key buffers. 

* Programmable Printer rates from 110 to 9600 baud. 

" Send Files directly from the Buffer, Macro Keys or Disk. 

" Display on Screen or Print the contents of the Buffer, 

" Freeze Display & Review information On Line with no data loss. 

" Built in Command Menu (Help) Display. 

* Built in 2 Drive Ramdisk for 512K RAM support and much more. 

Supports: R.S. Modem- Pak & Deluxe RS-232 Pak. even with Disk. 
Requires 128K & Disk, $59.95 

EDT/ASM III 

128/512K DISK EDITOR ASSEMBLER 

EDT/ASM III is a Disk based co-rcsidcnl Text Editor & Assembler. It is 
designed to take advantage of the new features available in the CoCo-3 with either 
128K or 5 12K of memory. It has 8 display formats from 32/40/64/80 columns by 24 
lines in 192 or 225 Resolution, so you use the best display mode whether you arc 
using an RGB or Composite monitor or even a TV for your display. Plus you can 
select any foreground or background colors or even monochrome display modes. 
It will even support 512K by adding an automatic 2 drive Ultra Fast Ramdisk for 
lightning fast assembly of program source code larger than memory. There is also 
a free standing ML Debug Monitor, to help you debug your assembled programs. 
EDT/ASM III has the most powerful, easy to use Text Editor available in any 
Editor/Assembler package for the Color Computer. 

■ Supports Local and Global string search and/or replace. 

■ Full Screen line editing with immediate line update. 

■ Easy to use Single keystroke editing commands. 

* Load & Save standard ASCII formatted Tile formats. 

* Block Move & Copy. Insert, Delete, Overtype. 
" Create and Edit files larger than memory. 

The Assembler portion of EDT/ASM lit features include: 

■ Supports the full 6809 instruction set & cross assembles 6800 code. 

* Supports Conditional IF/THEN/ELSE assembly. 

* Supports Disk Library file (include) up to 9 levels deep. 

■ Supports standard Motorola assembler directives. 

* Allows multiple values for FCB & FDB directives (unlike R.S. EDT/ASM) 
" Allows assembly from the Editor Buffer, Disk or both. 

Requires 128K & Disk $59.95 



TEXTPRO IV 

The ADVANCED COCO-3 Word Processing System" 

■ 9 Hi-Res Displays from 58 to 212 columns by 24 lines in 225 Res. 

• On Screen Display of Bold, Italic, Underline & Double Width print. 
" Up to 8 Proportional Character Sets Supported with Justification. 

" Up to 80 Programmable Function Keys & Loadable Function keysets. 

• Fully Buffered keyboard accepts data even duiring disk access. 

' Auibexccutc Startup files for easy printer & system configuration. 

• 8 Pre-Dcfined Printer function commands & 10 Programmable ones. 

■ Supports Library files for unlimited printing & configurations. 

• Disk file record access for Mail Merge & Boiler Plate printing. 

■ Completely Automatic Justification, Centering. Mush left & right. 

■ Change indents, margins, line length, etc. anytime in the text. 
" Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to a full disk. 

" Easily imbed any number of printer format and control codes. 

• Built in Ultra Fast 2 drive RAMDISK Tor 512K support. 

TEXTPRO IV is the most advanced word processing system available for Ihe 
COCO-3, designed for speed, flexibility and extensive document processing. It is 
not like most of the other word processing programs available for the Color 
Computer. If you are looking for a simple word processor to write letters or other 
short documents, and never expect to use multiple fonts or proportional spacing, 
then most likely you'll be better off with one of the other simpler word processors. 
But, if you want a powerful word processor with extensive document formatting 
features to handle large documents, term papers, manuals, complex formatting 
problems and letter writing, then TEXTPRO IV is what your looking for. It works 
in a totally different way than most word processing programs. It uses simple 2 
character abbreviations of words or phrases for commands and formatting 
information that you imbed directly in your text. There arc over 70 different 
formatting commands you can use without ever leaving the text your working on. 
There are no lime comsuming, and often frustrating menu chases, you arc in total 
control at all times. You can sec what the forma l (ed document will look like 
before a single word is ever printed on your printer. Including margins, headers, 
footers, page numbers, page breaks, column formatting, justification, and Bold. 
Italic. Underline. Double Width, Superscript and Subscript characters right on the 
screen. 

TEXTPRO IV can eyensupport LASER PRINTERS with proportional fonts. 
take a good took at this AD? It was done with TEXTPRO IV on an OKI DATA 
LASERLINE-6 laser printer!!! All the character sets used on this AD arc 
proportional spaced characters, all centering, justification, and text printing was 
performed automatically by TEXTPRO IV. 
Requires 128K & Disk $89.95 

HI -RES III Screen Commander 

The DISPLAY vou wanted but didn't gel on your CoCo-3 

• 54 Different Character Sizes available from M to 212 cpl. 

■ Bold, Italic. Underline. Subscript, Superscript and Plain character styles. 
" Double Width, Double Height and Quad width characters. 

• Scroll Protect form 1 to 23 lines on the screen. 

• Mixed Text & Graphics in HSCREEN 3 mode. 

" PRINT @ is available in all character sizes & styles. 

■ Programmable Automatic Key repeal for fast editing. 
" Full Control Code Keyboard supported. 

• Selectable Character & Background color. 

" Uses only 4K of Extended (2nd 64K) or Basic RAM. 

■ Written in Ultra Fast Machine Language. 

HI-RES III will improve the standard display capabilities of the Color 
Computer 3. even the 40 and 80 column displays have several features missing. 
For example, you can't use PRINT <§> or have different character sizes on the same 
screen, even when mixing text and graphics with the HPRINT command. Hi-RES 
III can give you the kind of display you always dreamed about having on your 
CoCo-3. with a wide variety of display options that you can easily use with your 
Basic or ML programs. 

HI-RES III is totally compatible with Enhanced Color Basic and its opcralion 
is invisible to Basic. It simply replaces the normal screen display with an 
extremely versatile display package. With the full control code keyboard, you can 
control many of HI-RES III extended functions with just a couple of simple 
keystrokes. 

Requires 128K Tape or Disk $34.95 

512K RAMDISK & MEMORY TESTER 

RAMDISK is an ALL Machine Language program lhal will give you 2 ULTRA 
Highspeed Ram Disks in you CoCo-3. Ii docs nol need or require ihe OS-9 
operating system. It works with R.S. DOS VI.O or VI. 1 and it is completely 
compatible with Enhanced Color Disk Basic! Plus it allows your CoCo-3 to run at 
double speed all the lime even for (loppy disk access!!! It will not disappear when 

Ku press reset like some other ramdisk programs. The MEMORY tester is a fast 
L program to test the 5I2K ram. It performs several bit tests as well as an 
address test so you know lhal your 512K of memory is working perfectly. 
Requires S12K & Disk $19.95 

"The SOURCE III" 

DISASSEMBLER & SOURCE CODE GENERATOR 

The SOURCE HI will allow you lo easily Disassemble Color Computer 
machine language programs Directly from Disk and generate beautiful, Assembler 
compatible Source code. 

• Automatic label generation and allows specifying FCB. FDB and FCC areas. 

• Disassemble programs Directly from disk, unlike other disassemblers. 

• Automatically locates Begin. End and Execution address. 

• Output Disassembled listing with labels to the Primer, Screen or both. 

■ Generates Assembler source files directly to disk or primer. 

" Built in I Icx/Ascii dump/display to locate FCB, FCC & FDB areas. 
' 8 Selectable Display formats 32/40/64/80 columns in 192 or 225 Res. 
' Selectable Foreground & Background colors & Printer Baud rales. 

• Built in Disk Directory an Kill file commands. 

" Menu display with single key commands for smooth, Easy opcralion. 

• Written in Ultra Fast Machine Language. 

Requires 128K & Disk $49.95 

To order products by mail, send check or money order for the amount of 

purchase, plus S3.00 for shipping & handling to the address below. 

To Order by VISA. MASTERCARD or COD call us at (702) 452-0632 

(Monday thru Saturday. 8am lo 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP LTD. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702) 452-0632 



Iff 



U x J7 do w Ms ster 



if 



Fkeys 



O 



O 



ETTlHlSBi 
lelete Key 
Display Keys 



Save Keys 
Load Keys 



ojrai Keys Used 
0PEH:?CHR$P^ 



PIT Or m 



BUTTON 
OPEN 355,7 



C L O SE ti ;'> 



Window Master Features 



ONHENU 
CONFIG 
CHECK BAS 
AUTOEXEC BAS 
CONFIG SYS 



_ DRIVE 1 

brs e b a 

BAS 6 B 2 



Uindov Hasten 
Finder VI. 9 

ti\ Unit ten by Bill Veryona 
I — I Copyright CcJ> 1988 by Cer-Comp Ltd 

B 31 



Screen Display Fonts 



Window Master supports up to 54 different character sizes on 
the screen with S different character styles. You can have Bold, 
Italic, Underlined, Super-Script, Sub-script or Plain character 
styles or any combination of them in any character size. You 
can also change the text color and background at any time to get 
really colorful displays. 

Fully Basic Compatible 

Window Master is fully compatible with Enhanced Color 
Disk basic with over 50 Commands & functions added to fully 
support the Point & Click Window System. Window Master 
does not take any memory away from Basic, so you still have all 
the Basic Program memory available. 

Hi-Resolution Displays 

Window Master uses the full potential of the Color 
Computer 3 display by using the 225 vertical resolution display 
modes instead of the 192 or 200 resolution modes like most 
other programs. It uses either the 320/16 color mode or the 
640/4 color display to give you the best display resolution 
possible, and can be switched to either mode at any time. 

Mixed Text & Graphics 

Window Master fully supports both Text & Graphics displays 
and even has a Graphics Pen that can be used with HLINE, 
HC1RCLE, HSET and more. You can change the Pen width & 
depth and turn it on or off with simple commands. We also 
added Enhanced Graphics Attributes that allow graphics 
statements to use And, Or, Xor and Copy modes to display 
graphic information. With the Graphics enhancements added 
by Window Master, you could write a "COCOMAX" type 
program in Basic! In fact we provide a small graphics demo 
program written in Basic. 



Event Processing 



Window Master adds a powerful new programming feature lo 
Basic that enables you to do "Real Time" Programming in Basic. 
It's called Event Trapping, and it allows a program to detect and 
respond to certain "events" as they occur. You can trap Dialog 
activity, Time passage, Menu Selections, Keyboard activity and 
Mouse Activity with simple On Gosub statements, and when the 
specified event occurs, program control is automatically routed 
to the event handling routine, just like a Basic Gosub. After 
servicing the event, the sub-routine executes a Return statement 
and the program resumes execution at the statement where the 
event occured. 

Enhanced Editing Features 

Window Master adds an enhanced editor to Basic that allows 
you to see what you edit. It allows you to insert & delete by 
character or word, move left or right a word or character at a 
time, move to begin or end of line, toggle automatic insert 
on/off or just type over to replace characters. The editor can 
also recall the last line entered or edited with a single key stroke. 
You can even change the line number in line lo copy it lo a new 
location in the program. 



Disk contains 
128K&512K 

version 
of program. 



Multiple Windows 



Window Master supports multiple window displays with up to 
a maximum of 31 windows on the screen. Overlapping windows 
arc supported, and any window can be made active or brought to 
the top of the screen. Windows can be picked up and moved 
anywhere on the screen with the mouse. There are 6 different 
Window styles to choose from and the window text, border and 
background color is selectable. 



Pull Down Menus 



Menus arc completely programmable with up to 16 menus 
available. They can be added or deleted at any time in a 
program. Menu items can be enabled, disabled, checked or 
cleared easily under program control. Menu selection is 
automatically handled by Window Master & all you have to do 
is read a function variable to find out which menu was selected. 

Buttons, Icons & Edit Fields 

Each Window can have up to 128 buttons, Icons or Edit fields 
active, if you can fit that many. Buttons, Icons and Edit field 
selection is handled automatically by Window Master when the 
mouse is clicked on one. All you have to do is read a Dialog 
function to find out which Button, Icon, or Edit field was 
selected, its very simple. 

Mouse & Keyboard Functions 

Window Master automatically handles the Mouse pointer 
movement, display and button clicks. It will tell you the current 
screen coordinate, the local window coordinate, window number 
the mouse is in, the number of times the button was pressed, 
which window number it was clicked in and more. The 
Keyboard is completely buffered, and supports up to 80 
programmable Function keys that can contain any kind of 
information or command sequences you can imagine. You can 
load and save function key sets at any time. So, you can have 
special sets of function keys for different tasks. The "Ctrl" key is 
supported so that you have a full control code keyboard 
available. 

Window Master Applications 

Window Master pushs the Color Computer 3 far beyond its 
normal capabilities, into the world of a "User Friendly" 
operating enviornment. We are already planning several new 
programs for use with Window Master. So you don't have to 
worry about having to write all your own programs. And don't 
forget that many existing Basic and M.L. programs will run 
under Window Master with little or no changes. The 
Possibilities for Application programs are endless: Spread 
Sheets, Word Processing, Communications, Education, Games, 
Graphic Design, DeskTop Publishing and on and on. 

Hardware Requirements 

Window Master requires 512K of memory, at least 1 Disk 
Drive, a Hi-Res Joystick Interface and a Mouse or Joystick. 

Technical Assistance 

If you run into difficulty trying to use some of Window 
Master's features, we will be happy to assist you in any way 
possible. You can write to us at the address below or call us 
between 10am and 2pm Pacific Standard Time for a more timely 
response. Sorry, no collect calls will be accepted. 

Ordering Information 

To order WINDOW MASTER by mail, send check or money 

order for S69.95, plus $3.00 for shipping & handling to the 

address below. To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD 

call us at (702)-452-O632 

(Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP Ltd. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702)-452-0632 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

The object of this two-player 
game is to blockade your oppo- 
nent. Use the joysticks to force 
your opponent to run into the wall 
or the blue or yellow "trails." 

The listing: 



POK265495,0:CLS:PRIHTgi2,"3LOC 
KADE" : PMODE1 : PCLS : LIME (£ , ,3) - ( 255 
,191) ,PSET,3:C(0)=178:C(1)=96:C( 
2)=76:C(3)-96:FORI=1TO1000:NEXT: 
SCREEN1,0:FORO]>1TO11395:PSET(C( 
0) ,Cfl) ,2) :PSET(C(2) ,C(3) ,3) : FOR 
I=^T03:J(I)=JOVSTK(I)-32:NEXT' 
(C) 1988 M. TOEPKE 

1 FORI=0TO2STEP2:H=-(ABS(J(I))<A 
BS(J(I+1))) :C(H+I)=C(H+I)+2*SGN( 
J(H+I))-2«(J(H+I)=0) :NEXT:H=>PPOI 
NT(C(0) ,C(1) ) :I=PPOINT(C(2) ,C(3) 
) :IFH>1ANDI>1THENPRINT"B0TH LOSE 
"ELSEIFH>1THEHPRINT"RIGHT LOST"S 
LSEIFI>1THENPRINT"LEFT LOST"ELSE 
NEXT 



Michael Toepke 
Oak Harbor, WA 

(For this winning two-liner conlcsl entry, the 
author has been sent copies of both The Second 
Rainbow Book of Simulations and its compan- 
ion The Second Rainbow Simulations Tape.) 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Time is difficult to add and keep 
track of because it's in "base" 60 
instead of 100. It is even more 
difficult to average. This one-liner 
provides a running total and run- 
ning average of input hours, min- 
utes and seconds. 

The listing: 

10 CLS:PRINT"TIME BY CHARLES L. 
GIBSON" : PRIHT"TOT . -" ; D; "HRS . *" ; E 
; "MTN. »" ;F; "SEC": PRINT" AVE. -";L 
; "HRS . *" ;M; "MIN. *" ;N; "SEC. " : INPU 
T"HRS. .";A:D-D+A:INFUT"MIN. .";3: 
E=E+3::NPUT"SEC..";C:F=F+C:H=F-( 
E*60)+(D«3600) :J=J+l:K=H/J:L=j3:M 
=0:N-0 

20 IFE=>60THENE=E-60:D=D+1:GOTO2 
0ELSEIFF=>60THENF=F-60 : E=E+1: GOT 
O20ELSEIFK=>3600THENK=K-3600 : L=L 
+1;GOTO20ELSEIFK=>60THENK=X-60:M 
=M+l:GOTO20ELSEIFM=>60TH£NM=M-«0 
: K=K+3 600 : GOTO20ELSEIFK<60THENN= 
K: GOTO 10 



Charles Lee Gibson 
Edwardsville, IL 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the 
author has been sent copies of both The Third 
Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion 
The Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



m> 


D:-ATN(DY/DX) 


003D 


ENDIF 


003F 


IF DY<.0 THEN 


m? 


D:-2.»PI+ATN(DY/DX) 


(1065 


ENDIF 


(1067 


IF DY-.p THEN 


0077 


D:-.p 


0082 


ENDIF 


0084 


ENDIF 


0086 


IF DX<0 THEN 


(Jf!93 


IF DY-.0 THEN 


0PA3 


D:-PI 


00A9 


ELSE 


P0AD 


D:-PI+ATN(DY/DX) 


00BC 


ENDIF 


00BE 


ENDIF 


00C0 


IF DX-.0 THEN 


00D0 


IF DY>.p THEN 


00E0 


D:-PI*1.5 


00ED 


ELSE 


P0F1 


D:-PI*.S 


00FE 


ENDIF 


vw 


ENDIF 


0102 


END 


0104 




PROCEDURE 


scrnhdr 



?m 



9fi* 

005A 
0061 
PP87 
0092 



PARAH SCRN:INTEGER; CS :STRINC[6 ) ; DATENS:STRINC[8] ; DATORB1S 

:STRING[52); DATORB2S :STRINC[U) ; SS : STRING [40] ; GG.LN 

: INTEGER; K:REAL 
PRINT »SCRN.CHR$(12); 
GO:-? 

PRINT »SCRN,TAB(27); CS ; " PREDICTIONS FOR »J S$ 
GG:-GG+1 
PRINT »SCRN,TA3(8); "D.T.C. AZ EL DOPPLER RANGE HEIGHT LAT LONG" 



00D6 PRINT OSCRN," PHASE" 

P0E8 PRINT »SCRN.TAB(8); "HHMM:SS DEG DEC 



P12C 


PRINT #SCRN," (256)" 


013E 


PRINT »SCRN USING DATORB1S .DATENS ,K; 


0151 


PRINT KSCRN.DATORB2S 


P15B 


CG:-GG+3 


0166 


END 


J3168 




PROCEDURE 


scrnconc 


9999 




9991 


PARAH SCRN: INTEGER; PV: BOOLEAN 


PPPE 


DIM AAS:STRINC11] 


P01A 


IF PV THEN 


PP23 


END 


0025 


ENDIF 


0027 


PRINT »SCRN,TAB(20); 


P032 


PRINT »SCRN, "Press "; CHR$<51F); CHRSC524); "ENTER"; CHRS(S1F 




); CHRS(S25); 


005E 


INPUT *SCRN," CO continue predictions ",AA$ 


0084 


END 


0086 




PROCEDURE 


prncrhdr 


0000 




0001 


PARAH PRN.LN.PG: INTEGER; E8 , Fl ,H9,K.L9 ,H9 :REAL; CS:STRINC[6 




1; DATENS :STRIHC[8]; DATORB1S : STRING (52) ; DATORB2S : STRING 




[11); S$:STRING[40] 


0061 


IF PG>1 THEN 


006D 


PRINT »PRN, 


0074 


PRINT »PRN, 


007B 


PRINT «PRN. 


0082 


ENDIF 


0034 


PRINT »PRN, 


PP8B 


PRINT «PRN, 


0(192 


PRINT «PRN, 


PP99 


PRINT »PRN.TAB(16); CS; " PREDICTIONS FOR "; SS; ". BEACON: " 



0JD6 



0109 



0139 
0169 



: Fl: "HHZ" 

PRINT »PRN.TAB(8); CS ; TAB(15); "LAT- "; L9; TAB<27); "U. LONG- 

; W9; 

PRINT »PRN.TAB<44); "ALT- "; H9; "HETERS"; TAB(62); "PAGE; " 

: re 

PRINT «PRN.TAB<25); "KINIHUH ELEVATION - "; E8 ; " DEGREES" 
PRINT «PRN.TAB(8); " - •' 



019F PRINT »PRN." " 

01BF PRINT «PRN.TAB(8); "U.T.C. AZ EL DOPPLER RANGE HEICHT LAT LONG" 



0203 



PRINT »PRN," PHASE" 



152 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



JJ215 PRINT »PRN,TAB(8); "HHMM:SS DEC DEC 



(1259 PRINT »PRN," (256)' 

026B PRINT »PRN.TAB(8); "-- 



PRINT »PRN . " • 

PRINT »PRN USINC DAT0RB15 .DATENS ,K; 

PRINT «PRN.DAT0RB2$ 

LN:-LH+8 

END 



02A1 
02C1 
02D4 
02DE 
)I2E9 
02EB 
PROCEDURE stmgnum 

9999 

P0P1 PARAM STR: STRING [2) ; SUM: REAL 

Pf«13 STR:-CHR$(48+FIX(INT(NUH/10.)))+CKRS(48--FIX(NUH-1?.*INT(NUM 

A?))) 

0044 END 

w« 

PROCEDURE sidereal 

9999 

0001 PARAM YEAR. C2: REAL 

000C DIM DAYS78:REAL 

9913 DAYS78:-INT((YEAR-77.)*365.25)-366. 

9931 IF YEAR<-77 THEN 

003E DAYS7B:-DAYS78+36525. 

004D ENDIF 

(JJJAF G2:-DAYS78*2.73790931E-03+DAYS78*DAYS78»8.()5975E- 16+. 278586056 

JJP7A G2:-G2-INT(C2) 

0081 END 



Listing 2: echo. source 



A AA AAAAAA A AAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAA A AAAAAAAAAAA A AAA A AAAA 

* 

* ECHO - COPYRIGHT (c) 1988 by S.B.GOLDBERG 
* 

* Echo text co standard output path with some 

* UNIX like enhancements. 
* 

* Use: Echo [text] 

* \c - terminate vithouc new line 

* \f - clear screen (form-feed) 

* \n - go to new line 

* \\ ■ print backslash 

* \### - print decimal **» ASCII character 
* 

ifpl 

use /d0/defs/os9defs 
endc 
* 

mod len . name . prgran-ob jet . reent+1 . entry . ds lz 



empb «S0d end of parameter? 

bne loop no, get next character 

print ldy hicounc output length 

puis x output address 

Ida #1 standard output path 

os9 iSwritln print it 

bes out exit with error 

clrb clear error flag 

out os9 fSexit quit 

A AAAA A AA A AAAAA A AAAAAAA - A - A - A - A - A ' AA 'A 

* DECIHAL NUMBER TO BINARY 

A A A A A A A ' A A' A ' A AAAAAAAAAAAAAA ' AAAAA 



bin 



hicounc 


nnb 


1 msb character count 


locounc 


raib 


1 lsb character count 




rab 


199 


stack 




nnb 


299 


parameter 


dsir 


equ 






name 


fes 


/Echo/ 




feb 


1 edition number 




fee 


/(c)1988 S.B.Goldberg/ 


* CONVERT AND DISPLAY 


oncry 


clr hicounc zero character count 




clr 


locounc 




cfr 


x.y 


start of texc 




pshs 


x save parameter pointer 


loop 


ldb 


,x+ 


gee Cexc characcer 




enpb 


*'\ 


backslash? 




bne 


save 


no. save characcer 




ldb 


,x+ 


get nexc characcer 




enpb 


*'\ 


backslash? 




beq 


save 


yes, save ic 




orb 


#32 


make lower case 




enpb 


#'c 


princ wichout new line? 




beq 


print 


yes, print line 




enpb 


#'f 


form feed (clear screen)? 




bne 


newln 


no. check for new line 




ldb 


#S0c 


yes, clear screen character 




bra 


save 


save it 


novln 


enpb 


#'n 


new line? 




bne 


ascli 


no, cesc for ascil nuobar 




ldb 


-SPa 


yes, line feed 




bra 


save 


save ic 


ascii 


bsr 


nuia 


decimal number Co binary 




tstb 


zero 


■ 




beq 


loop 


yes. concinue looking 


save 


stb 


.y* 


save outpuc character 




inc 


locounc count it 



loax 

clrb 

bsr 

bsr 

Ida 

suba 

empa 

bhl 

pshs 

Ida 

mul 

addb 

leax 

res 

cmod 

equ 

end 



-l,x reset pointer 

zero value 
bin first digit 
bin next 2 digits 
,x get digit 
*'9 make binary 
»9 valid digit? 
back no. return 
a yes . save it 
• 10 multiply old total 
by ten 

, s+ add current digit 
l,x bump pointer 
return 



Listing 3: Make Echo 



PROCEDURE MakeEcho 

9999 (* Generates the module "Echo" in the CHDS directory *) 

9037 DIM path, byt: BYTE 

0042 DIM count : INTEGER 

0049 (* If echo already exists in your CMDS directory *) 

007C (* include the following line *) 

009C (* SHELL "rename /dd/emds/echo echo. old" *) 

B8C7 CREATE »path, "/dd/ends/echo" :WRITE 

00DF FOR count-1 TO 137 
00EF READ byt 

00F4 PUT Kpath.byt 

00FE NEXT count 

8189 CLOSE #path 

919F SHELL "attr /dd/emds/echo e pe" 

012A END 

012C DATA 135,285.8.137.8.13.17.129.161,8,38,1.146.69.99 

015D DATA 184,239,1,48.99,41.49,57,56,56,32,83,46,66,46 

818E DATA 71.111,188, 188.98. 181.114. 103, 15,8,15.1,31.18. St 

01BF DATA 16,230,128,193,92.38,33.230,128,193.92,39,27,282.32 

01F0 DATA 193.99,39.29,193,102.38.4,198.12,32.13.193,110.38 

0221 DATA 4.198.10,32,5.141,27.93.39,217,231,160,12,1,193 

0252 DATA 13.38.209,16.158,0.53,16.134,1,16.63,140,37.1 

0283 DATA 95,16,63,6,48,31,95,141,2,141,0,166,132,128,48 

02B4 DATA 129,9,34,9,52,2.134.10.61.235.224.48.1,57,30 

02E5 DATA 168,89 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 153 



RAINBOWTECH 




The importance of standard formats in 
file and directory use 



What's the Difference? 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



I received a call from Bill Guthke of 
Greenville, South Carolina, and his 
problem was pertinent to this 
month's topic. Although fairly new to 
the CoCo and to OS-9, Bill did run a 
Model I and works as an industrial- 
controls specialist. Further, he had read 
the manuals and one of Dale Puckett's 
books. Unfortunately, he had little 
opportunity to practice what he had 
read, so OS-9's use of directories hadn't 
sunk in. Basically, Bill was unable to 
load Config or BA5IC09. Let's work 
through the basics of directory use, so 
we can understand the basics of Bill's 
problem. 

Let's start with the OS-9 distribution 
disk's directories. A directory is a table 
of filenames and the data pertinent to 
each. Some of those filenames can be 
the names of other directories (sub- 
directories) under the one we are read- 
ing. The first directory table on a disk 
is for the root directory, and it begins 
in Sector 3 of the disk. Since sector 
numbering begins with zero, this is the 
fourth sector. All OS-9 files, including 
directories, have file-header sectors, 
and the root directory's file header is in 
Sector 2. 



Richard While lives in Fairfield, Ohio, 
has a long background with microcom- 
puters and specializes in BASIC pro- 
gramming. With Don Dollberg, he is 
the co-author of the TIMS database 
management program. 



The sector number identifying the 
beginning of the file or sub-directory 
offers information for each listing in a 
directory table. If we start with a 
freshly-formatted disk and make a new 
CMOS directory on it, we use the com- 
mand MakDir in the following manner: 

05S:mal<dir 'dO'CMOS 

The word CMDS is displayed as the 
first file listing in Sector 3 and starts at 
Byte 64. After the foqr bytes represent- 
ing the letters C, M, D and S, there are 
zeros until Byte 95, which is SO A (10 
decimal). This means that the CMDS 
directory's header starts at Sector $0A. 
(Actually, OS-9 uses three bytes for 
sector location, but in this example the 
first two bytes are zero, so I won't write 
them out.) 

Note that when you format a disk, the 
format process allocates sectors for the 
root directory. If you type free -"d0 to 
determine the space available for a 35- 
track, single-sided disk, the computer 
identifies that disk capacity is 640 
sectors and that 630 are free. The format 
process allocates sectors $01 to $09 for 
the root directory. 

On the OS-9 system disk, the first file 
in the root directory (Sector 3) is 0S- 
9baDt. Byte 95 now refers to the starting 
location for OSSboot and is also $0A, 
which is the first free sector after the 
sectors allocated for the root directory. 
The next root directory entry, CMDS, 
starts at Byte 96 of Sector 3. Its starting 
sector is shown at Byte 127 as $75. All 
the sectors between $0A and $75 have 



been used by 059boat. Note: These are 
the locations used on the Level II system 
and Conf ig distribution disks. The same 
pattern holds for the Level I versions, 
but the CMDS directory location on this 
system disk is different because the 
length of Level I's OSSboot is different. 

Now let's consider what happens 
when you boot using the system disk. 
OS-9 assigns its current execution and 
data directories in memory. A current 
execution directory is the drive and disk 
directory in which OS-9 will look for an 
executable (program) module when a 
module name has been entered at the 
OS-9 prompt. A current data directory 
is the drive and disk directory in which 
OS-9 looks for a data file if given a 
filename and no other path data. 

These files will be on 'd0 or on your 
hard drive ('ha). The data directory will 
be the root directory whose header is on 
Sector 2, so an $00 00 02 location will 
be stored in memory. Whenever OS-9 
needs to find a data file, it will determine 
the drive number for the current data 
file and then find the sector where the 
directory itself starts. It does the same 
thing when it is looking for an execu- 
table module, which it expects to find 
in the current CMDS directory. 

Now we have enough information to 
consider the trap Bill has fallen into. 
First, he booted using a backup of his 
distribution disk. OS-9 carefully re- 
corded the sectors where the root and 
CMDS directories started, so it could use 
them as its current data and execution 
directories. He then replaced his system 
disk with his disk containing Config 



154 



THE RAINBOW March 1989 



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and typed Con fig. OS-9 went through 
the following reasoning process: It first 
looked at its in-memory module table 
and found no Conf ig. It next looked up 
the starting sector of the current execu- 
tion directory and read that sector. 
Because the CMDS directory on the 
Conf ig disk was at a different location 
than on a system disk, OS-9 looked in 
what was now the wrong sector. It did 
not read what it expected to read and 
stopped trying to find a CMDS directory 
on the disk. 

At this point, OS-9 looked for a data 
directory. Since the root directory 
started on the same sector on both 
disks, it found a directory, but there was 
no Config listed in that directory. OS- 
9 had no choice but to send the "Path 
Name Not Found" message. 

1 asked Bill to boot up his machine, 
put in his Config disk and enter the 
following: 

059:chx -"d0/cmds 
0S9:conflg 

He reported disk action, and then 
Config came up for him for the first 
time. 

I have spent a lot of time explaining 
why you must use the command chx 
and/ or end when you change disks. Not 
doing so is one of the more frequent 
errors a new or occasional user makes, 
and it is difficult for inexperienced users 
to figure out their errors by themselves. 
Count on making this mistake in the 
future, but remember how to solve the 
problem it causes. 

I had problems because the manual 
and distribution disk for OS-9 Level I 
did not agree in procedure. The manual 
instructs users to type basic09 to start 
the program. Anyone who did so got the 
infamous 216 Error. Ultimately, I (and 
many others) discovered that the distri- 
bution disk had no commands direc- 
tory, and all files are saved in the root 
directory. The root directory worked for 
a data directory, but OS-9 would not 
load .an executable module from a data 
directory. Users could load BAS1C09 by 
typing the full path name: /d0/basic09. 
The best solution was to copy BASIC09 
to a CMOS directory that could be used 
as a current execution directory. After 
all, you need a CMDS directory to store 
your packed modules. 

Also, I expect others to set up OS-9 
directories and files the same way I do 
when I "follow the book." Deviations 
waste my time and cause confusion 
when I discuss problems and possible 
solutions. There is a wrong way to 



CflLC 


CMDS 


COM 


DOCS 


DS 


FORTH 


GAMES 


HPUB 


MODULES 


RRINBOW 


RFEST10SB 


SCULPTOR 


SPELL 


SY5 


TEMP 


TESTING 


UTIL 


dynacalc. trm 


startup 






Table 1: Directory of . . 15:27:44 



correct the Level I distribution disk that 
works: Change your current execution 
directory to whatever directory the 
program module you want is in — 
regardless of the directory's name. It 
could be a root directory. 

Since this works, you may wonder 
why I consider it wrong. It's wrong 
because it is not organized, nor would 
this procedure be expected. This may 
not seem important to beginners, whose 
only programs are those that come on 
their OS-9 disks. However, it becomes 
vital as you collect more and more 
software. A hard disk can look like a 
library after a tornado if a careful 
directory discipline is not maintained. 

The primary purpose of directories is 
to organize files so they can be found 
easily. They are just like file folders and 
file drawers. The number of directories 
you have on a disk is dependent on how 
you want to organize your files. If you 
are using 35-track, single-sided drives, 
you may not have any directories on a 
data disk. The disk itself is the directory. 
However, a double-sided, 40-track 
drive provides over twice as many file 
sectors for storage, and having a 
number of directories on these larger- 
capacity disks makes sense. Some of us 
use double-sided, 80-track, 3'/4-inch 
disks for storage and archiving. In this 
case we have 2880 sectors available, and 
directories are nearly always needed. 
With hard disks, which can hold thou- 
sands of files, there is no alternative to 
carefully planning directory structure. 

Under OS-9, we follow conventions 
that govern how directory and file- 
names are written. Directory names are 
written in uppercase letters. Filenames 
always contain lowercase letters. Some 
may have a number of uppercase letters, 
like CC30i.sk, but there arc always some 
lowercase letters as well. This way, you 
can scan a directory listing and identify 
directories and files. 

If you accidentally use all uppercase 
letters for filenames or put lowercase 



letters in a directory name, use Rename 
to correct it — whether it is a filename 
or a directory name. OS-9 doesn't care 
if you use upper- or lowercase. So when 
you are changing a directory or calling 
a module, you can use either. The 
upper- and lowercase conventions are 
meant to help you read directory list- 
ings, not to help OS-9. 

Let me give you some examples. 
Table 1 shows a portion of the root 
directory on my hard drive: 

Since my system boots in part from 
the hard drive (after 0S9Boot is loaded 
from - / d0), the expected CMDS and SYS 
directories are present. The Startup file 
is in the root directory where OS-9 
expects it. The only other file present in 
my root directory is dynacalc. trm, 
which is used by DynaCalc to initialize 
itself. 

The CMDS directory contains all the 
commands and programs that I rou- 
tinely use (currently, 92 files). These 
files have nothing in their names to 
indicate that they are executable, but I 
know they are since I only put execu- 
table modules in a CMDS directory. 

Some programs, like Home Pub- 
lisher and Sculptor, use files that are 
designed to go in a CMDS directory but 
are not executable files. On the hard 
drive, I make a directory for each 
application and put these files in a CMDS 
sub-directory under the application 
directory. (Those using only floppies 
have one or more application disks with 
a CMDS directory on each.) 

All of us collect software we very 
seldom use. Unless you have limited 
space, the only reason to keep these 
modules in a separate directory is to 
make them easier to find for use or 
update. I keep two directories, UTIL and 
modules, with a cmds sub-directory 
under each for unused modules. 

Those of you who use only floppies 
work under a more severe capacity limit 
and need to move infrequently used 
modules to other disks for storage. 



156 



THE RAINBOW 



March 1989 



Again, include a CMDS directory on each 
disk and put your modules there, so you 
know they are programs and not data 
files. 1 sometimes make a backup of my 
current boot disk and then delete DS- 
9Boot and everything in the CMDS direc- 
tory. Then I copy a selection of program 
modules onto this disk. This disk can 
replace the boot disk without changing 
directories. 

Finally, keep your directory names 
short. This saves typing and makes 
directories easier to use. If they are easy 
to use, you are more likely to use them. 
As far as OS-9 is concerned, all disk files 
are the same. They consist of a file 
header and sectors of bytes. The first 
byte in the file-header sector is the 
attribute that tells OS-9 whether it is a 
directory or a file — and if it is a file, 
whether it can be read, written to or 
executed. This is all OS-9 wants to 
know about the file contents. The 
remainder of the file header contains 
data OS-9 needs to read or write to the 
file. Included in this information is the 
length of the file because OS-9 files do 
not include an end-of-file marker. The 
file itself includes only information 
written by the application that saved it. 



OS-9 could have sent it anywhere — to 
a printer, through a serial port or to the 
display. This is what is meant by the 
term "Unified Input/ Output System." 
The file data is not specific in any way 
to the device to which it is sent. 

File content is specific to the applica- 
tion. A DynaCalc spreadsheet can be 
sent to a printer or to a display, but it 
won't make any sense to you. It needs 
DynaCalc to translate it to a readable 
form. On the other hand, you can 
redirect a program's screen output to 
the printer, where it is completely 
readable. Software hackers delight in 
writing file-handling utilities. You can 
get utilities to count Files, lines, words 
and letters, sort files, and filter and 
search files. One of the more useful 
utilities is one that compresses a file, 
generally for archive-storage purposes. 
These utilities take advantage of each 
series of the same character that are 
found in many files. In other words, if 
you indent a paragraph in a letter, you 
might insert five spaces. A compression 
program finds this series of characters 
and replaces it with two or three bytes 
identifying the character and its number 
in the series. 



A good archive program also stores 
multiple files in one sequence, which 
wastes little space. If a file uses only one 
byte of its last sector, OS-9 allocates 
that whole sector to the file. An archive 
program is set up to start the next 
archived file in the byte that follows the 
end of the preceding file. Savings of 10 
to 60 percent are possible with text files. 
These columns normally can be com- 
pressed to save 40 percent of their 
original length. 

flR and PAK are the two widely used 
OS-9 archiving programs. Both are 
available for downloading on the Del- 
phi OS-9 SIG Database. They are also 
available from many other BBSs. I 
suggest you get both since you will find 
downloads archived both ways. 

OS-9's use of directories makes file 
location and sorting much easier. This 
ease gives OS-9 users more freedom to 
use a variety of applications; however, 
it can also make learning to use the 
system effectively a little more difficult. 
If we standardize our methods of direc- 
tory use and modification, we can make 
this system easier to use and more 
enjoyable. 

See you next month. /R\ 



»TM 



TM 



NEW FOR OS-9 : FORTH09 

from D. P. JOHNSON 

FORTH09 is a FORTH-83 Standard implementation specially taylored tor OS-9. Includes the double number extension 
word set, system extension word set, complete forth 6809 assembler and more. Programs written in forth can instantly be 
saved as compact executable machine language modules. The FORTH09 system runs on any level I or level II OS-9 (6809) 
machine with at least 32k of available memory and one disk drive. Saved Forth09 application code is romable, reentrant and 
fully position independent, requiring as little as 3k for a small program. Where maximum speed is required the user can force 
small code words to be automatically compiled as in line code rather than subroutines. Supplied with complete printed docu- 
mentation. $150.00 (+ $3 S&H) Specify disk format if other than CoCo OS-9 format desired. 

Other OS-9 SOFTWARE from D. P. JOHNSON 

L1 UTILITY PAK - Contains 40 useful utilities that run under both level I and II OS-9. Included are a complete set of "wild card" tile handling 
utilities, a disassembler, a disk sector editor, and the MacGen command language compiler. MacGen will allow you to generate many useful 
command macros in minutes, much more useful than procedure files. Macro source is included for a macro to implement an archival backup 
type function. $49.95 

L2 UTILITY PAK - Contains a Level II "printerr" function that also shows the pathname being searched for when "not found" or per- 
mission type errors occur. Also contains level II software ram disk driver. Ten other utilities included, some useful lor level I also . $39.95 
L1+L2 COMBINATION PAK both of above together for $75.00 

SDISK - Standard disk driver module replacement allows full use of 40 or 80 track double sided drives with OS-9 Level I. Full compatibility with 
CoCo 35 track lormat and access all other OS-9 non-CoCo formats. Easy installation. $29.95 
SDISK+BOOTFIX - As above plus boot directly from a double sided diskette $35.95 

SDISK3 - Level II version of SDISK driver. Same features as level I (except bootfix not required to boot from double sided). $29.95 
PC-XFER UTILITIES - Programs to format and transfer files to/from MS-DOS 4 " 1 diskettes on CoCo under OS-9. (Requires either SDISK or 
SDISK3 to run depending on which level of OS-9 you are using) $45.00 

MSF - MS-DOS disk format file manager. More complete file transler capabiltites lor level II only. (Requires SDISK3 to operate). 
Now supports 720K 5-1/4" and 3-1/2" MS-DOS Formats. $45.00 MSF+SDISK3 together $65.00 

All diskettes are in CoCo OS-9 tormat unless otherwise requested; other OS-9 formats can be supplied tor $2.00 additional charge. All orders must be prepaid or 
COD, VISA/MC accepted, add S1 .75 S&H lor first soltware item, + .25 lor each additional item, additional charge for COD. 
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AM Pacific Time. Mon.-Fn.) 

OS-9 is a Irademark 0! Microware and Motorola Inc.. MS-DOS is a trademark ol Microsoft. Inc . FOP.TH09 15 a trademark of D. P Johnson 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 157 



Racksellers 

The retail stores listed below carry THE RAINBOW on a regular basis and 
may have other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We 
suggest you patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 




Birmingham 


Jefferson News CO. 


Brewton 


McDowell Electronics 


Florence 


Anderson News Co. 


Greenville 


MSB Electronics 


Modison 


Madison Books 


Montgomery 


Trade 'N' Books 


Tuscaloosa 


Injun John's. Inc. 


ALASKA 




Fairbanks 


Arrow Appliance/Radio Sliack 


ARIZONA 




Coltonwood 


A & W Graphics Co. 


Lake Havasu 




City 


Book Nook 


Phoenix 


TRI-TEK Computers 


lempe 


Books. Etc. 




Computer Library 


Tucson 


Anderson News Co 


ARKANSAS 




Fayetleville 


Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 


Ft Smilh 


Hot OK the Press Newsstand 


Utile Rock 


Anderson News Co. 


CALIFORNIA 




Berkeley 


Lyon Enterprises 


Glrus Heights 


Software Plus 


Hollywood 


Levity Distributors 




Stef-Jen. Inc. 


La Jolla 


Butler & Mayes Booksellers 


Los Angeles 


Circus of Books (2 Locations) 


Marysville 


Book land 


Napa 


Bookends Bookstore 


Oakland 


DeLauer's News Agency 


Rancho 




Murieta 


Software Plus 


Sacramento 


Deibert'5 Readerama 




Tower Magazine 


San Francisco 


8ooksmith 




Bookworks 




Castro Kiosk 


Santa Monica 


Midnight Special Bookstore 


San Jose 


Computet Literacy Bookshops 


Santo Rosa 


Sawyer's News, Inc. 


Stockton 


Harding Way News 




Paperbacks Unlimited 


Sunnyvale 


Computer Literacy 


Torrance 


El Camino College Bookstore 


COLORADO 




Aurora 


Aurora Newsstand 


Colorado 




Springs 


Hathaway's 


Denver 


News Gallery 


Glenwood 




Springs 


The Book Train 


Grand 




Junction 


Reodmore Book & Magazine 


Longmonl 


City Newsstand 


DELAWARE 




Middletown 


Delmar Co. 


Newark 


Newark Newsstand 


Wilmington 


Noimar, Inc.— The Smoke Shop 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 


Washington. 




DC 


Chronichles 




News Room 




World News, Inc. 


FLORIDA 




Boca Raton 


Great American .Book Co 


Clearwater 


The Avid Reader 


Cocoa 


The Open Door 


Dania 


Dania News & Books 


Davie 


Software Plus More 


Ft. Lauderdale 


Bob's News & Book-Store 




Clarks Out of Town News 




Mike's Electronics Distributor 


Gainesville 


Paper Chase 


Jacksonville 


Book Co 


North Miami 




Beoch 


Almar Bookstore 


Panama City 


Boyd-Ebert Corp. 


Pensacola 


Anderson News Co. 


Pinellas Park 


Wolfs Newsstand 


South 




Pasadena 


Poling Place Bookstore 


Starke 


Record Junction, Inc. 




Radio Snack Dealer 


Sunrise 


Sunny s at Sunset 


Tallahassee 


Anderson News Co. 




DuBey's News Center 


Tltusville 


Computrac 


158 THE RAINBOW March 1989 



GEORGIA 




MASSACHUSETTS (cont'd) 


Atlanta 


Border's 


Littleton 


Computer Plus 


Bremen 


Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 


Lynn 


North Shore News Co. 


Forest Park 


Ellers News Center 


Swansea 


Newsbreak. Inc 


Jesup 


Radio Shack 






Thomaswlle 


Smokehouse Newsstand 


MICHIGAN 




Toccoa 


Martin Music Radio Shack 


Allen Park 


Book Nook. Inc. 






Birmingham 


Border's Book Shop 


IDAHO 




Durand 


Robbins Electronics 


Boise 


Book Shell, Inc. 


E. Detroit 


Merit Book Center 


Moscow 


Johnson News Agency 


Hillsdale 


Eleclronics Express/Radio Shack 


ILLINOIS 




Holland 


Fris News Company 


Belleville 

Champaign 

Chicago 


Software or Systems 

Bookmark 

B Dalton Bookselleis 


Kalamazoo 

Lowell 

Muskegon 


The Book Raft 
Lowell Electronics 
The Eight Bit Comer 


Decalur 


Book Emporium 
K-Mart Plaza 


Niles 
Perry 


Michiana Mews Service 
Perry Computers 




Northgate Mall 
Book Emporium 


Riverview 


Riverview Book Slore 


East Moline 


Roseville 


New Horizons Book Shop 


Evanston 


Norris Center Bookstore 


MINNESOTA 




Kewanee 


Book Emporium 


Burnsville 


Shinder's Burnsville 


Lisle 


Book Nook 


Crystal 


Shinder's Crystal Gallery 


Lombard 


Empire Periodicals 


Edina 


Shinder's Leisure Lane 


Newton 


Bill's TV Radio Shack 


Minneapolis 


Shinder's (2 Localions) 


Paris 


Book Emporium 


Mlnnetonka 


Shinder's Ridge Square 


Peoria 


Book Emporium 


Roseville 


Shinder's Roseville 




Sheridan Village 


St. Paul 


Shinder's Annex 




Westlake Shopping Center 




Shinder's Maplewood 




Illinois News Service 




Shlndefs St. Pauls 


Springfield 


Book Emporium 
Sangamon Center North 


Willmar 


The Photo Shop 




Town & Country Shopping Ctt. 


MISSOURI 




Sunnyland 


Book Emporium 


Farmington 


Ray's TV & Radio Shack 


West Frankfort 


Paper Place 


Flat River 


Ray's TV & Radio Shack 


Wheeling 


North Shore Distributors 


Florissant 


Book Brokers Unlimited 






Jefferson City 


Cowley Distributing 


INDIANA 




Kirksville 


T&R Electronics 


Angola 


DSD Electronics 
Radio Shack 


St Louis 


Book Emporium 


Berne 


White Cottage Eleclronics 


MONTANA 




Bloomington 


Book Corner 


Butte 


Plaza Books 


Columbus 


Micro Computer Systems. Inc. 


NEBRASKA 




Crawfordsvllle 


Koch's Books 


Lincoln 


Nebraska Bookstore 


Dyer 


Miles Books 


Omaha 


Nelson News 


Franklin 


Gallery Book Shop 






Ft. Wayne 


Michiana News Service 


NEVADA 




Garrett 


Finn News Agency, Inc. 


Carson City 


Bookcellar 


Indianapolis 


Bookland. Inc 


Las Vegos 


Hurley Eleclronics 




Borders Bookshop 




Steve's Books a Magazines 




Indiana News 


NEW HAMPSHIRE 






Soulhslde News 


Keene 


Radio Shack Associate Store 


Lebanon 


Gallery Book Shop 


Manchester 


Bookwrighls 


Martinsville 
Richmond 


Radio Shack 

Voyles News Agency, Inc. 


West Lebanon 


Verham News Corp. 


Wabash 


Milling's Eleclronics 


NEW JERSEY 




IOWA 

Davenport 




Atlantic City 


Atlantic City News Agency 


Interstate Book Store 


Cedar Knolls 
Clinton 


Village Computer a Software 
Micro World II 


Des Moines 


mockery's Books, Inc. 


Pennsville 


Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 


Fairfield 


Kramers Books & Gills 


Rockaway 


Software Station 


KANSAS 




NEW MEXICO 




Hutchinson 


Crossroads. Inc 


Alamogordo 


New Horizons Computer Systems 


Topeka 
Wellington 


Palmer News, Inc. 

Town Crier of Topeka. Inc. 

Dandy's/Radio Shack Dealer 


Albuquerque 
Santa Fe 


Page One Newsstand 
Downtown Subscription 


Wichita 


Lloyd's Radio 






KENTUCKY 
Hazard 


Daniel Boone Gulf Marl 


NEW YORK 

Amherst 


Village Green-Buffalo Books 


Henderson 


Mall's News & Gifts 


Brockport 


Lift Bridge Book Shop. Inc. 


Hopklnsville 
Louisville 
Middletown 
Paducah 


Hobby Shop 

Hawley-Cooke Booksellers (2 Locations) 

Software City 

Radio Shack 


Brooklyn 
Elmira Heights 
Fredonia 
Hudson Falls 
Huntington 


Cromland. Inc 

Southern Tier News Co., Inc. 

On Line: Computer Access Center 

G.A. West 8 Co. 

Oscar's Bookshop 


LOUISIANA 




Johnson City 


Unicom Eleclronics 


Baton Rouge 


City News Stand 


New York 


Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 


Lockport 


TV Doctor/Radio Shack 




Coliseum Books 


New Oileans 


Sidney's News Stand Uptown 




Eastern Newsstand 


Monroe 


The Book Rack 




Grand Central Station. Track 37 
200 Park Ave., (Pan Am #1 ) 


MAINE 






55 Water Street 


Bangor 


Magazines. Inc. 




World Trade Center #2 


Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 




Firsf Slop News 


Caribou 


Radio Shack 




Idle Hours Bookstore 


Oxford 


Books-N-Thlngs 




International Smoke Shop 


Sanford 


Radio Shack 




Jonil Smoke 
PennBook 


MARYLAND 






Software City 


College Park 


University Bookstore 




State News 
Walden Books 


MASSACHUSETTS 






World Wide Media Services 


Boston 


Eastern Newsstand 


Pawling 


Universal Computer Service 


Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 


Rochester 


Microcom Software 


Cambr.dge 


Out Of Town News 




Village Green 


Ipswich 


Ipswich News 




World Wide News 



NORTH CAROLINA 


Cory 


News Center In Cary Village 


Chapel Hill 


University News S Sundry 


Charlotte 


Newsstand Int'l 


Hickory 


C ; Books S Comics 


Jacksonville 


Mlchele's. Inc. 


Kemersvllle 


K & S Newsstand 


Marion 


Boomers Rhythm Center 


Winston-Salem 


K & S Newsstand (3 Locations) 




Rainbow News Ltd. 


OHIO 




Akron 


Churchill News S Tobacco 


Canton 


Little Professor Book Center 


Chardon 


Thrasher Radio & TV 


Cincinnati 


Clnsoft 


Cleveland 


Eiieview News 


Columbiana 


Fidelity Sound & Electronics 


Columbus 


B5 Software 




Micro Center 




The Newsstand 


Dayton 


Books & Co. 




Huber Heights Book & Card 




Write News 




Wright News S Books 


Dublin 


Book Barn 


Fairbom 


News-Readers 




Sandbox Micro Systems 




Wilke's University Shoppe 


Findley 


Open Book 


Kent 


The News Shop 


Lakewood 


Lakewood International News 


Lima 


Edu-Caterers 


Miamisburg 


WllkeNews 


Parma 


Bookmark Newscenter 


Toledo 


Leo's Book S Wine Shop 


Warren 


Book Nook. Inc. 


Xenla 


Fine Print Books 


Youngstown 


Plaza Book S Smoke Shop 


OKLAHOMA 




Oklahoma 




City 


Merit Micro Software 


Takleguah 


Thomas Soles. Inc. dba Radio S 


Tulsa 


Steve's Book Store 


OREGON 




Eugene 


Libra Books - Book Mark 


Portland 


Fifth Avenue News 



Rich Cigar Store, Inc. 
Sixth & Washington News 
Salem Capitol News Center 

Checkmate Book 



PENNSYLVANIA 




Allentown 


Owl Services 


Altoona 


Newborn Enterprises 


BrynMawr 


Bryn Mawr News 


Corry 


Cony Books & Cards 


Feasterville 


Global Books 


King of Prussia 


Gene's Books 


Malvern 


Personal Software 


Reading 


Smith's News & Card Center 


Temple 


Software Comer 


West Chester 


Chester County Book Co. 


Wind Gap 


Micro World 


York 


The Computer Center of York 




Tollgate Bookstore 


RHODE ISLAND 




Newport 


Bellevue News 



SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston Hts. Software Haus. Inc. 
Clemson Clemson Newsstand 

Florence Ray's *1 

Greenville Palmetto News Co 

Spartanburg Software City 



TENNESSEE 




Brentwood 


Bookworld*5 


Chattanooga 


Anderson News Co. 




Guild Books S Periodicals 


Dickson 


Highland Electronics 


Knoxvllle 


Anderson News Co. 




Davls-Kidd Bookseller 


Memphis 


Computer Center 


Nashville 


Davis-KIdd Booksellers 




Mosko's Place 




R.M. Mills Bookstore 


Smyrna 


Delker Electronics 


TEXAS 




Big Spring 


Poncho's News 


Desoto 


Maxwell Books 


Elgin 


The Homing Pigeon 


Ft. Worth 


Trinity News 


Harllngton 


Book Mark 


UTAH 




Provo 


Valley Book Center 



VIRGINIA 




Danville 


K & S Newsstand 


Hampton 


Benders 


Lynchburg 


Self Serve Software 


Norfolk 


l-O Computers 




Turn The Page 


Richmond 


Volume I Bookstore 


WASHINGTON 




Port Angeles 


Port Book S News 


Seattle 


Adams News Co.. Inc. 




Bulldog News 


Tacomo 


B & 1 Magazines & Books 




Nybbles 'N Bytes 


WEST VIRGINIA 




Huntington 


Nick's News 


Logan 


Stan's Electronics & Radio Shack 


Madison 


Communications. LTD 


Parkersburg 


Valley News Service 


South 




Charleston 


Spring Hill News 


WISCONSIN 




Appleton 


Badger Periodicals 


Cudahy 


Cudahy News & Hobby 


Kenosha 


R.K. News, Inc. 


Madison 


Pic A Book 




University Bookstore 


Milwaukee 


Juneau Village Reader 


Waukesha 


Holl Variety 


ARGENTINA 




Cordoba 


Information Telecommunicatlonr. 


AUSTRALIA 




Blaxland 


Blaxland Computers 


Klngsford 


Paris Radio Electronics 


CANADA 




ALBERTA 




Banff 


Banff Radio Shack 


Bonnyville 


Paul Tercier 


Brooks 


Double "D" A.S.C. Radio Shack 


Calgary 


Billy's News 


Claresholm 


Radio Shack Associated Stores 


Drayton Valley 


Langard Electronics 


Edmonton 


CMD Micro 


Edson 


Radio Shack, asd 


Fairview 


D.N.R. Furnitures TV 


Fox Creek 


Fox City Color & Sound 




A.S.C. Radio Shack 


Ft. Saskatche- 




wan 


Ft. Mall Radio Shack. ASC 


Grande 




Cache 


The Stereo Hut 


Grande 




Centre 


The Book Nook 


Hlnton 


Jim Cooper 


Innlsfail 


L & S Stereo 


Lecombe 


Brian's Electronics 


Leduc 


Radio Shack Assoclaled Stores 


Lethbridge 


Dalatron 


lloydmlnster 


Lloyd Radio Shack 


Okotoks 


Okotoks Radio Shack 


Peace River 


Radio Shack Associated Stores 




Tavener Software 


St. Paul 


Waller's Electronics 


Stettler 


Slettler Radio Shack 


Strathmore 


Wheatland Electronics 


Taber 


Pynewood Slant S Sound 


Westlock 


Westlock Stereo 


Wetasklwln 


Radio Shock 


BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Burnaby 


Compullt 


Burns Lake 


VT. Video Works 


Campbell 




River 


TRS Electronics 


Chilllwack 


Chailes Parker 


Coqulflam 


Cody Books LID 



BRITISH COLUMBIA (cont'd) 



Coartenay 


Rick's Music & Stereo 


Dawson Creek 


Bell Radio & TV 


Golden 


Taks Home Furnishings 


Kelowna 


Telesoft Marketing 


Langley 


Langley Radio Shack 


Nelson 


Oliver's Books 


New West- 




minster 


Cody Books LTD 


Parksville 


Parksville TV 


Pentlcton 


DJ.'s 




Four Corner Grocery 


Sidney 


Sidney Electronics 


Smithers 


Wall's Home Furniture 


Squamish 


Kotyk Electronics 


Vancouver 


Active Components 




Frlendlyware Computers 




Granville Book Co 




Slliconnections Books LTD 


100 Mile 




House 


Tip Top Radloft TV 


MANITOBA 




Altona 


LA Wiebr Ltd. 


Lundar 


Goranson Elec. 


Morden 


Central Sound 


The Pas 


Jodl's Sights Sound 


Selkirk 


G.L Enns Elec. 


vlrden 


Archer Enterprises 


Winnipeg 


JSJ Electronics Ltd. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 




Moncton 


Jeffries Enterprises 


Sussex 


Dewitt Elec. 



NEWFOUNDLAND 
Botwood Seaport Elec. 

Carbonear Slode Realties 

NOVA SCOTIA 

Halifax Atlantic News 



ONTARIO 




Angus 


Micro Computer Services 


Aurora 


Compu Vision 


Concord 


Ingram Software 


Exceter 


J. Macleane & Sons 


Hanover 


Modem Appliance Centre 


Huntsvllle 


Huntsvllle Elec. 


Kenora 


Donny "B" 


Kingston 


T.M. Computers 


Ustowel 


Modem Appliance Centre 


South River 


Max TV 




Dennis TV 


Toronto 


Gordon and Gotch 


QUEBEC 




LaSalle 


Messogeries de Presse Benjamin Enr. 


Pont. Rouge 


Boutique Bruno Laroche 


SASKATCHEWAN 




Assinibola 


Telstar News 


Estevan 


Kotyk Electronics 


Moose Jaw 


D&S Computer Place 


Nlpiwan 


Cornerstone Sound 


Reglno 


Regino CoCo Club 




Software Supermarket 


Saskatoon 


Everybody's Software Library 


Shellbrooke 


Gee. Laberge Radio Shack 


Tisdale 


Paul's Service 


Unity 


Grant's House of Sound 


YUKON 




Whitehorse 


H SO Holdings 


JAPAN 
Tokyo 


America Ado, Inc. 



PUERTO RICO 

East Isla Verde The Color Computer Store 
San Juan Software City 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and 
selected Coles and W.H. Smith in Canada, 
Waldenbooks, Pickwick Books, Encore Books, 
Barnes & Noble, Little Professors, Tower Book & 
Records, Kroch's & Brentano's, and Community 
Newscenters. 



March 1989 THE RAINBOW 159 



Advertisers Index 



IVe encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the Tandy Color 
Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning THE RAINBOW when you contact these firms. 



Adventure Novel Software 67 

Alpha Software Technologies . . .97 
Arizona Small Computer 

Company 12 

Ark Royal Games 101 

Burke & Burke 135 

CRC/Disto 103 

Cer-Comp 150, 151 

Cinsoft 101 

Cognitec 29 

Colorware 19,20,21,31, 

43, 93,98, 105, 140, 148 

Computer Island 12 

Computer Plus 3 

D.P.Johnson 157 

Dayton Associates of 

W.R.Hall, Inc 114,115 

Dorsett Educational Systems 133 

Dr. Preble's Programs 99 

E-Z Friendly Software 63 

Eversoft 141 

Federal Hill Software 121 

Frank Hogg Laboratories 38, 39 

GSW Software 117 

Game Point Software 65 

Gimmesoft 118, 119 

Granite Computer Systems 97 

HawkSoft, Inc 67 

Howard Medical 66, 162 

J & R Electronics 43 

JR&JRSoftstuff 75 

Kenneth Leigh Enterprises 1 23 

Ken-Ton Electronics 47 

Magus Systems Engineering . . .123 

Metric Industries 85 

MichTron BC 

Micro Works, The 83 

Microcom Software 9, 11, 13, 

15, 16,17, 
Microtech Consultants 

Inc 109 

MicroWorld 127 

NRI Schools Insert 

Orion Technologies 137 

160 THE RAINBOW March 1989 



Owl-Ware 69, 70, 71 

PXE Computing 7 

Perry Computers 77 

Puritas Springs Software/ 

SoftWAR Technologies 133 

Rainbow Bookshelf IBC 

Rainbowfest 49, 50, 51 

Rainbow on Tape & Disk IFC 

Renco 113 

RGB Computer Systems 47 

Rulaford Research 107 

SD Enterprises 25, 149 

STG Computers, Inc 141 

Second City Software 161 



Call: 

Belinda Kirby 
Advertising Representative 
(502) 228-4497 



Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 

(502) 228-4492 



The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

FAX (502) 228-5121 



SpectroSystems 75 

SPORTSWARE 145 

Sugar Software 129 

Sundog Systems 1 55 

T&D Software 22,23, 125 

T.E.M. of California 113 

Tandy/Radio Shack 33 

Tepco 134 

Tothian 117 

True Data Products 57 

Try-O-Byte 87 

Vidicom Corporation 63 

Wasatchware 1 37 

Zebra Systems 1 47 




MasterCard VISA C.O.D. CHKCKS EMa 7 ! 



fi 



Second Citv Software 



=ia= 



CoCo CALENDER DELUXE: 



Organizcall of yourappoinlmcnts with this 365day 
Calender. Now with Hi-Rcs print driver for the 
DMP, CGP, Epson MX-80 and Star Gemini 10X 
printer. Please specify printer. 64k DISK S19.9S 

B1ACKJACK ROYALE : 

Even your casino odds with this Blackjack card 
simulation and tutor! Program can be edited for 
different house rules. 64k DISK S16.95 

BSE - BASIC SCREEN EDITOR : 
Gives Basic a full-screen editor to supplement the 
regular EDIT commands. Works on the CoCo 1 &2 
and with the CoCo 3, WIDTH 32, 40 or 80 is sup- 
ported! Complete screen cursor control with the 
arrow keys plus features to make EDITing Basic- 
programs a snap! BSE, a must have CoCo utility. 
Our low price was the only corner that was cut on 
thisqualily program. 64k DISK $19.95 

CMECK-09MV - Version 2.0 : 
Finally, a program that interacts with MulliVuc for 
FAST and EASY check balancing. CHECK-09MV 
and you can now take control of your bank checking 
account. No more waiting on your bank statement 
for an ending balance. CHECK-09MV will provide 
a chcck-by-check balance in an easy to use format 
that eliminates those monthly surprizes! Bring your 
money and you closer together and have the buck 
STOP HERE! Featuring an all new EDITING 
command. 512k DISK S25.95 

CoCoMAX II : By Colorware 
The 'CLASSIC CoCo graphic program. Draw great 
works of art with the program that set a standard for 
allothers to follow. Supported bya Hi-Res interface 
and numerous printer drivers for complete set-up. 
64k DISK S78.45 

CoCoMAX III : By Colorware 
All new program based off the "CLASSIC' CoCo- 
Maxll software. Allows forfull animation, select 16 
colors from a 64 colorpalette. fast & easy to use w/ 
pull down menus in a point-and-click environment. 
128kor512kDISK $78.45 

DISK UTILITY 2.1A PLUS : 
A complete disk utilitypackagc forall CoCo's.Full 
Disk I/O for FORMAT, COPY, and BACKUP. 
Supports single or double sided 35 or 40 track 
drives. With DISK UTILITY 2TAPLUS from 
SCS, you gel TWO programs-' 1 ''' \E low price. 
DISK UTILITY>-^-~rr;c£ V d DISK 
UTILIT^^^c'Vi?^" \ ..S23.95 



TELBPATCH: 



SCS DOS: 



P.O. Box 72956 
Roselle, IL 60172 
Voice: 312-653-5610 
BBS: 312-307-1519 



Turn Telewriter 64 into the best Word Proccs-l 
|sorfortheCoCol&2!'I"ELEPATCHiscompat- 
■ iblcwithall CoCo's. Comes with complete docu-| 

mentations for easy upgrading and changes. 

64kDISK S24.95[ 

SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR- 



A 'FAST and 'EASY TO USE' ELECTRONIC 
DRAFTING PROCESSOR Create pro-look- 
ingdiagrams using a480x540 pixel screen with 6 
viewing windows! Over '30' electronic symbols 
with 10 definable symbols. Even supports Logic 
gates & Multipin chips! Print hardcopy or save 
to disk for later editing. NOW CoCo 3 COM- 
PATIBLE. 64k DISK $22.95 

pS-9 SOLUTION : 
Tame the hostile environment of OS-9\vith OS- 
9 SOLUTION! Replaces 20 of the command 
calls with single keystroke, menu driven com- 
mands. No more long and complex pathnames 
orsynlaxes to remember! WorkswilhcilherOS- 
P Level One orTwo $24.95 

TAPE/DISK UTILITY : 



Add24 newdiskcommandswilh2 Hi-Rcs Screens! 
Supports 40 track & Double Sided drives, 6ms 
stepping, auto disk search, error trapping and 
burnable intoan EPROM.64k DISK $24.95 

MY DOS : By Chris Hawks 
Supports accesses to double sided drives, able to 
use the J&M Controller with the CoCo 3, DIR 
commands simplified and a host of other special 
features. 64k DISK $14.95 

A-DOS 3: 



A utilitypackagc that transfers TAPE to DISK 
orDISKlo'TAPEautomalically. If you just got 
your first disk drive, TAPE/DISK is a MUST 
HAVE program. Will print tape & disk directo- 
ries to anysupported printer. 64k DISK... .$19.95 

I II-RES JOYSTICK DRIVER $19.95 

MAX PATCH $19.95 

BUY BOTI IFOR ONLY $34.95 

11GRXDUMP : 

Produce hardcopy graphic files with your DMP 
and CGP(BAW) printer. CoCol,2&3compal- 
ible.64kDISK $19.95 

CoCo SCREEN DUMP : 
Allows you to hard copy graphic pictures using 
thcStar Gemini 10X, Epson MX-80oranyolher 
Epson compatible printer. 32k DISK $9.95 

MULTI-PAK CRACK: 






S* 



<#&& 



Allows you to save your ROM-PAK programs 
over to disk..,WHERETIIEY BELONG! In- 
:ludcs POKES for problem PAKs and the new 
l6kPAKs.64kDISK $24.95 

MAX-10 : By Colorware 
The 'Dazzling Word Processor & Document 
Creator for the CoCo3'. You asked for it and 
now it is available at an SOS special price. 
128k DISK $78.45 







^ 



fosfl 



ss^ 



si** 



lAGtf 



<ttt*° ~w* at6 - 



Co' 






SECOND CITY SOFTWARE '■ 



The popular Disk Operating System from Spec- 
troSystcms for the CoCo 3.128k DISK $34.95 

SCS can custom 'burn' your purchased DOS pro- 
gram for only $15.00! This includes the price of the 
EPROM chipand the BURN charge. Call or write 
for details. 

VIP LIBRARY : 

This popular 'intergraded' package includes, VIP 
Writer, Terminal, Data Base, Calc and Disk Zap 
which can fix a diskette with I/O errors. SCS 
special price. 64k DISK $149.95 

VIP WRITER HI w/SPELL CHECKER : 
All new and completely up-graded with expanded 
memory and pop-up main menus. You can also 
have up to 8 - 48k working text screens that will 
allow you to create 8 separate documents! Settle 
for only the best 100% ML word processor for the 
CoCo3. 128k DISK S79.95 

VIPDATABASEIII $69.95 

SPECIAL: Order any VIPprogram from SCS.and 
receive an additional program at NO EXTRA 
CHARGE! Call or write for full details. 

THE NEWSPAPER PLUS : 
DeskTop Publishing for the CoCo 3? With the 
ALL NEW NEWSPAPER PLUS, you now can 
create complete and sophisticated Banners, 
HeadlinesalongwithTcxt Columnsand Graphics. 
THE NEWSPAPER PLUS allows for importing 
different pictures, fonts and fill patterns from disk 
for that pro-look. Comes complete with 22 fonts 
and 50 clip art pictures. THE NEWSPAPER 
PLUS is an all new upgraded program based on 
the original NEWSPAPER program. SCS is the 
ONLY company authorized to handle TUB 
NEWSPAPER PLUS program. Why buy the old, 
overpriced and outdated program when you can 
get the newest release for less! 
128k DISK S4S.95 

THE NEWSPAPER GRAPI IICS DISK I: 



Accepts MasterCard, Visa, C.O.D. and 
Check orders. Please add $2.50 for ship- 
ping($4.50 for Canadaorders) & allow 1 to 
3 weeks for delivery. C.O.D. orders, add 
an additional $2.50. 



The FIRST OFFICIAL supplementary program 
disk for THE NEWSPAPER. Contains '50' NEW 
PICTURE FILES, TO' NEW FILL PATTERNS 
and '3' ADDITIONAL FONT SETS! GRAPH- 
ICS DISK I is available only from Second City 
Software for $19.95 



.00 



HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 

1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 • orders (800) 443-1444 • inquiries and order status (312) 278-1440 

Showroom Hours 8-5 M-F. 1Q-3 SAT 



'•'• 



* 5 STAR FINAL 



MARCH '89 



CLOUDY 



NX-1000R COLOR 



DC-6 DISTO SUPER 
CONTROLLER 

Gives Radio Shack compatability 
and double-sided access to drives 
like our DD-4. A buffer collects 
keystrokes in memory so nothing 
is lost when disk is reading or 
writing. Especially useful with 
OS-9, multi tasking or multi user. 
$129 ($2 ship) 

NX- 1000 STAR printer 

. forward and backward tractor 
. 4K input buffer $189 

. 144 C PS ($7 ship) 

NX- 1000 RAINBOW 

color printer $289 

. four-color ribbon ( $7 shl P) 

. front panel font select 
. single sheet and tractor feed at 
same time 

Howard SP-C $35.49 

. serial-to-parallel converter 

. 300 - 9600 baud ($2 ship) 

Drive and Drive 1+ 

. two 360K Vi height Teac 55-B 
. one case and double power 

supply 
. DISTO DC-3 expandable con- 
troller DD-4 $310 

• CA-2 double cable ($7 ship) 

• Free T&D coupon 



MAGNAVOX 8 CM 515 

has analog RGB for CoCo 3, 
TTL RGB for Tandy 1000 or 
IBM PC's, and composite 
color for CoCo 2 and 3. Built- 
in speaker. 14" screen with 640 
dot x 240 line resolution. Plus 
2 years parts and labor war- 
ranty, reg. list $499 was $298. 
$266+ $14 Shipping. 




HARD DRIVE ACCESSORIES 

3' Hard Drive Cable s 20 

Clock Upgrade s 20 

HYPER I/0 $ 29.95 

RSB s 39.95 

TEAC 55B s 118 

Hard Drive ROM Boot s 20 



"Guarantee" As good as Gold. 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
of dealing with a company through 
the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compat- 
ibility. If you're not happy with it for 




any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 





Hard Drive— Ready to Run! 

20,000,000 Bytes or the equivalent to 
a 125 R.S. 501's on line are packed - 
into this hard drive, pre installed and 
ready to run. All you need to do is 
plug it in and go! This complete easy 
to use package includes a Seagate 
ST-225 hard drive, a DTC 5150 
controller, a Burke & Burke interface 
that plugs into slot 3 of the multi pak 
interface, plus a case & power supply 
AND a 1 year warranty. The Seagate 
and controller can also be used in a 
TANDY 1000, IBM-XT or clone. 

HD-2 20 meg $ 498 
HD-3 30 meg *548 
HD-4 40 meg *598 

Free 3' hard drive cable with orders 
thru 4/ 16/89 

PAL UPGRADE 
FOR MULTI-PAK 

specify for 26-3024 or 26-3124 
14.95 ($2 ship) 

24 HOUR ORDER LIRE 

800/443-1444 

WE ACCEPT VISA . MASTERCARD )[. 
. AMERICAN EXPRESS . C.O.D. OR 
CHECKS. SCHOOL P.O. '■■■ 

NEW - DISCOVER CARD 



I 



The Rainbow Bookshelf 




I 



Fill out your Co Co library 
with these selections 



The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 

Authors Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble show how to take 
advantage of OS-9's multitasking and multiuser features. An easy- 
to-read, step-by-step guide packed with hints, tips, tutorials and free 
software in the form of program listings. 
Book $19.95, Disk Package $31 (2 disks, book not included) 



The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

20 award-winning entries from THE RAINBOW'S first Simulations 
contest. You are a Civil War Commander, an air traffic controller, 
a civil defense coordinator, or a scientist on Mars . . . your wits are 
on the line. 
Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 



The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level II 
Vol. I: A Beginners Guide to Windows 

Puckett and Dibble have done it again! They uncover the 
mysteries of the new windowing environment and demonstrate 
clever new applications. More hints, tips and plenty of program 
listings. Book $19,95, Disk $19.95 

The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics 

Dr. Michael Plog and Dr. Norman Stenzel give a solid introduction 
to the realm of statistical processes and thinking for both the 
beginner and the professional. (80-column printer required.) 
Book $6.95, Tape or Disk $5.95, Package $1 1 .95 

The First Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Contains 14 winning programs from our first Adventure contest. 
Includes Sir Randolph ol the Moors, Horror House, One Room, Dr. 
Avatoe and more. Plus hints, tips on solving Adventures. 
Book $3.50, Tape $3.50 

The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Featuring 24 of the most challenging Adventure games ever 
compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the Blue Meanies, find a 
hidden fortune, or win the heart of a mysterious princess. Ring 
Quest, Secret Agent Man, Dark Castle, Curse ol Karos and more! 
Book $13.95, Tape $13.95 

The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures 

The excitement continues with 19 new Adventures. Discover 
backstage intrigue at the London Theatre, attempt a daring space 
rescue, or defeat evil in the year 2091 as a genetic android. Evil 
Crypt, Spymaster, Time Machine, The Amulet, and that's only the 
beginning! Book $11.95, Tape $9.95, Two-Disk Set $14.95 

The Fourth Rainbow Book of Adventures 

Fourteen fascinating new Adventures trom the winners of our 
fourth Adventure competition. Rely on your wits to escape a hostile 
military installation, try to stop the Nazi plan to invade Great Britain, 
manage to reinstate our defense system before the enemy launches 
a massive missile attack, and more! 
Book $10.95, Tape $9.95, Two-Disk Set $14.95 



The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

The 16 winners from our second Simulations contest. Fly through 
dense African jungle, bull your way down Wall Street, lead a bomb 
squad, or try your hand at Olympic events. Test your skills and 
talents. Book $9.95, Tape $9.95, Disk $10.95 



I 1 

/ want to start my own Rainbow Bookshelf! 

Name 

Address 

Ci 



)ity 

State 

D Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 



ZIP 



□ American Express 



D VISA □ MasterCard 
Account Number 

Card Expiration Date 

Signature 

Please send me: 

L The Rainbow Book ol Simulations $ 9.95 

C Rainbow Simulations Tape S 9.95 

Z The Second Rainbow Book ol Simulations S 9.95 

□ Second Rainbow Simulations Tape S 9.95 

D Second Rainbow Simulations Disk S10.95 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to 0S-9 (book only) $19.95 

I Rainbow Guide to 0S-9 Disk Package (2 disks) S3 1 -00 

Z The Windows & Applications Disk lor 

The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level II, Vol. I S19.95 

Z The Rainbow Book ol Adventures (first) S 7.95 

C Rainbow Adventures Tape (litsti S 7.95 

D The Second Rainbow Book ol Adventures S13.95 

D Second Rainbow Adventures Tape S13.95 

□ The Third Rainbow Book ol Adventures S1 1 95 

G Third Adventures Tape S 9.95 

C Third Adventures Disk Set (2 disks) S14.95 

C The Fourth Rainbow Book ol Adventures S10.95 

C Fourth Adventures Tape S 9.95 

□ Fourth Adventures Disk Set (2 disks) $14.95 

Z Introductory Guide to Statistics S 6.95 

C Guide to Statistics Tape or Disk (indicate choice) S 5.95 

O Guide to Statistics Package (indicate choice ol tape or disk) $1 1 .95 

'Add $2 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 

"Outside U.S., add $4 per book 

■ Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks tor delivery) Total 

Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 385, 
Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone (credit card orders only) call (800) 847- 
0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. For other inquiries call (502) 
228-4492. 

Please nole The lapes and disks ottered by The Rainbow Bookshell are r-ol sland-alone products 
Thai is. they are intended to be an adjuncl and complement to the books. Even <l you buy the tape 
or disk, you will still need the appropriate book. OS-9' is a registered trademark ol the Microwaie 
Systems Corporation 



Speed Racer 



As the checkered flag drops your pulse rises in this lively arcade 
game. The road twists to the horizon on the 3-D panorama that sets 
the stage for exciting racing. Vie for time as you glide through the 
curves at incredible speeds. Step through the'gears to stay ahead of 
the pack, but be quick! Some will stop at nothing to see the end of 
the race, or the end of you! Four challenging raceways, complete 
with obstacles and colorful 3-D scenery test your skills in this Pole 
Position™ type game. 

32K Color Computer required... $34.95 






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CARS PASSED 
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SCORE 4 100 




PINBALL 

FACTORY! 




BY KARY MCFADDEN 

PLAYER 1 PLAYER 2 
1 8*18838 1 lYZUllX 

PLAYER H 



[86*18881 18284561 



Pinball Factory 

Video games come full circle in this tribute to the original ardade 
game, Pinball. Classic pinball springs to life as never before, with 
fresh new angles that only a computer can offer. Crisp graphics, 
sound, and fast smooth action give this machine-language arcade, 
game a realistic, responsive feel you'll hardly believe. There are 
even "tilt" buttons that let you "bump" the machine. In addition to 
playing a great game of pinball, you can enjoy hours of creative 
pleasure as you design, build, edit, and play your own screens. 

64K Color Computer required... $34.95 



Demon Seed 



The first waves of flying, diving, bloodthirsty bats are arriving. 
Move, fire, and move again. It's a never ending battle. If you are 
lucky enough to defeat the bats, be ready for a much greater 
challenge, The Evil Demons themselves. Destroy a wing and 
another takes its place. Only a direct hit can save you now. It will 
take great skill to triumph. If you do, then you better be ready for 
the End. The Demon Flag Ship descends to destroy your remaining 
ships. Your only hope is to penetrate the hull, break through the 
shield, and destroy the dreaded Gargoyle. 

32K Color Computer required.. .$19.95 






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• MichTron is .always looking for programmers and programs. If you are interested in working with one 
of the most respected company's in the computer software field please give us a call. 



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For more information 576 S. Telegraph Dealer inquiries welcome, 

on these or other fine products Pontiac, MI 48053 Visa and Mastercard accepted, 

call our knowledgeable staff! (313) 334-5700