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5&5#£ 



G°1 



August 1988 



Canada $4.95 U.S. $3.95 




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THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



All the Right Moves 

CoCo Chess, Sea War, 
Talking Bingo and 
Escape From Tut' 








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From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 

PLUS PLUS 



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Tandy 1400 LTS 1239 
Tandy 102 24KS 379 
Tandy 200 24K S429 



L^*i3 



Color Computer 3 
W/128K Ext. Basic $159 




' / 



Tandy 1000 HX $539 
Tandy 1000 TX $849* 




DMP-132 $289 







Color Computer Disk Drive 
Drive $ 249 Drive 1 $ 1 49 




DMP-106 $169 



BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 HX 1 Drive 256K 539.00 

Tandy 1000 TX 1 Drive 640K 849.00' 

Tandy 1000 SX 1 Drive 384K 499.00" 

Tandy 3000 HL 1 Drive 51 2K 1 129.00 
Tandy 4000 1 Drive 1 Meg. Ram 1959.00 
PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-106 80 CPS 169.00 
Radio Shack DMP- 1 32 1 20 CPS 289.00 
Radio Shack DMP-440 300 CPS 549.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 Daisy Wheel349.00 
Tandy LP-1000 Laser Printer 1699.00 
Star Micronics NX-1000 144 CPS 199.00 
Star Micronics NX-15 120 CPS 359.00 
Panasonic P-1080i 144 CPS 199.00 

Panasonic P-1091i 194 CPS 24900 

Panasonic P-1092i 240 CPS 349.00 

Okidata 182+ 144 CPS 259.00 

Okidata 192+ 200 CPS 359.00 

Okidata 292 240 CPS 479,00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-6 52.00 

Radio Shack DCM-7 85.00 

Practical Peripheral 2400 Baud 229.00 
Practical Peripheral 1200 Baud 149.00 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 14.95 

64K Ram Upgrade Kit 39.00 

Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 
HI-RES Joystick Interface 8.95 

Color Computer Deluxe Mouse 44.00 
Multi Pak Interlace 89.00 

Multi Pak Pal Chip for COCO 3 14.95 
CM-8 6' Extension Cable 19.95 

Serial to Parallel Conv. 59.95 

Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 

Magnavox 8515 RGB Monitor 329.00 
Radio Shack CM-8 RGB Monitor 249.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
PBJ 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 139.00 

Tandy 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 149.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 
COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 
The Wild West (CoCo3) 25.95 

Worlds Of Flight 34.95 34.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 34.95 34.95 
Flight 16 Flight Simul. 34.95 34.95 

COCO Util II by Mark Data 39.95 



COCO Max II by Colorware 79.95 

COCO Max III by Colorware 79.95 

AutoTermbyPXEComputing29.95 39.95 
TelePatch III by Spectrum 29.95 

TW-80 by Spectrum (CoCo3) 39.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Elite Word 80 79.95 

Elite Calc 3.0 69.95 

CoCo3512KRamDiskbyCerComp 19.95 
Home Publisher by Tandy (CoCo3)35.95 
Sub Battle Sim. by Epyx (CoCo3) 26.95 
Thexder by Sierra (CoCo3) 22.45 

Kings Quest III by Sierra (CoCo3) 31.45 
Flight Sim. II by SubLogic (CoCo3)31.45 
OS-9 Level II by Tandy 71.95 

OS-9 Development System 89.95 

Multi-View by Tandy 44.95 

VIP Writer (disk only) 69.95 

VIP Integrated Library (disk) 149.95 

"Sale prices through 8/30/88 
Prices are subject to change without 
notice. Please call for shipping charges. 
Prices In our retail store may be higher. 
Send tor complete catalog. 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 
SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



com 







P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark ot Tandy Corp. 







16 

77ie Crazy Poo/ 
Ba// Explained 

Bruce W. Ronald 
Solution to last month's 
logic problem 

20 ^ 

Sea War * 

Jeff Hameluck 

I/jere are s/?/ps our fhere ■ 

waiting lor you! 

28 

/f's /our Move ^ 

Joel F. Klein 

Test your skill with this 

strategic game of chess 



^ 



36 

CoCo Takes a Hint 

Dennis H. Weide 
A program to help you 
compare disk files 
lor duplicates 



38 * 

Bingo the CoCo Way 

Bruce K. Bell, O.D. 

An old favorite with some 

added bells and whistles 

44 

Child's Play # 

Bill Bernico 

You won't lose the pieces 

in this bug-making game! 

102 



































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53 

Emphasize ^ 
with the DMP-105 

David Francis 
Printing in italics on the 
Tandy DMP-105 printer 

58 . 

Escape from Tut's ^ 
Tomb, Parts 2 and 3 

Chris McKernan 
Just when you thought it 
was safe to go back into 
the tombs . . . 

87 

The "Hit" List fy 

Andrew Dater 

Keep track of the body count 

in role-playing games 

100 . 

ML-Data ^ 

Stephen Miller 
A routine to convert a 
machine language program 
into BASIC 

102 * 

The Little ^ 
Graphics Library 

Kevin Dowd 

A tutorial to help you create 
great games and Simulations 
in CoCo's own language 



August 1988 
Vol. VIII No. 1 



114 

Adventure Game 
Mapping Techniques 

John Dillon 
Simplify and organize 
Adventure playing without 
ruining the fun 

120 

The Old 
Switcheroo II 

Mark Haverstock 
A hardware project to handle 
the switching of the joystick 
and cassette ports 

137 «, 

High Finances ™ 

William P. Nee 
Machine language made 
BASIC, Part 2 

142 

Printer Diversions 
and Conversions 

Cray Augsburg 
Using control codes to 
enhance your printer's 
capabilities 

150 

Are You Missing 
Something? 

Roger D. Dowd 
Isolating and repairing 
keyboard problems 



,& 



156 

Working Together: 

Delphi and Tape I/O 

Don Hutchison 
Downloading programs using 
Radio Shack's Direct 
Connect Modem Pak 




THE RAINBOW August 1988 



I Novic e s N i ch e ^ 
76 

Seeking Immortality 

Paul Alger 



77 

Minding Your X's and Y's 

James Kevin Lowry 

78 

Space Attack 

John T. Wells 

78 

Winging It 

Chad Presley 

79 

What's Missing? 

Keiran Kenny 



.£s-^The cassette tape/disk sym- 
~ s 4r bols beside features and col- 
umns indicate thatthe program listings 
with those articles are on this month's 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAIN- 
BOW on disk. Those with only the 
disk symbol are not available on 
rainbow on tape. For details, 
check the rainbow on tape and 
rainbow on disk ad on Page 52. 





IS — ' 


Advertisers Index 


192 


Back Issue Info 


71 


CoCo Cat 


33 


OnOo Gallery 


34 


Hints 


1R9 


Letters to Rainbow 


fi 


Maxwell Mouse 


d1 


onp-i inera B1, 


89,117 


Raoksellers 


190 


Rainbow Info 


14 


Received & Certified 


136 


Scoreboard 


84 


Scoreboard 




Pninters 


8fi 


Submitting Material 
tn Rainbow 


187 


Subscription Info 


189 



Co l umns 



82 

BASIC Training 

Joseph Kolar 
The "Encyclopedia 
CoColoria" 

162 

CoCo Consultations 

Marty Goodman 

Just what the doctor ordered 

152 

Delphi Bureau 

Cray Augsburg 
Help and a place of your 
own, and Hutchison's 
database report 

165 

Doctor ASCII 

Richard Esposito 
The question fixer 

80 

Education Notes ■^ 

Steve Blyn 

Interpreting a newspaper 
collection chart 



10 

PRINT#-2, 

Lawrence C. Falk 
Editor's notes 

167 

Turn of the Screw 

Tony DiStefano 

All about serial packs 

92 

Wishing Well -^ 

Fred Scerbo 
Matching opposites 



170 <* 

Barden's Buffer ^ 

William Barden, Jr. 

Assembly language 

interrupts and BASIC 

"internals" 

182 

KISSable OS-9 V 

Dale L. Puckett 
Volunteers build a better 
mousetrap 



I Product R e vi e w 



Flight Simulator U/SubLOGIC Corporation 
Fraze Craze/RAM Electronics 



In Quest of the Star Lord/Sundog Systems. 

Mini Database/ Toth ian Software, Inc 

Power Stones of Ard/TTiree C's Projects 

RS-232 Switcher/fiadcomp Computers 

Syntrax 2.0/lntercomp Sound 

Thexder/S/erra On-Line, Inc 



Wargame Designer/SPORTSware. 



_132 
_128 
_133 
_133 
,134 
_135 
-128 
.134 
_126 



the rainbow is published every month ol the year by FALSOFT. Inc., The 
Falsoft Building. 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. Box 385. Prospect, KY 40059. 
phone (502) 228-4492 THE RAINBOW, RAINBOWtest and the rainbow and 
RAINBOWIest logotypes are registered ® trademarks of FALSOFT, Inc. • 
Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705- 
050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE 
rainbow, P.O. Box 385. Prospect, KY 40059. Authorized as second class 
postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada Post, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 
• Entire contents copyright « by FALSOFT. Inc., 1988. the rainbow is intended 
for the private use and pleasure of its subscribers and purchasers and 
reproduction by any means is prohibited- Use of information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use is expressly prohibited. All 
programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind 
whatsoever. • Tandy. Color BASIC, Extended Color BASIC and Program Pak are 
registered ® trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • Subscriptions to the rainbow 
are $31 per year in the United States. Canadian rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail 
to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $103. All subscriptions begin with 
next available issue. • Limited back issues are available. Please see notice for 
issues that are in print and their costs. Payment accepted by VISA, MasterCard. 
American Express, cash, check or money order In U.S. currency only. Full 
refund after mailing of one issue. A refund of 10/12ths the subscription amount 
after two issues are mailed. No refund after mailing of three or more magazines. 



The Rainbow 



Editor and Publisher 
Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor Jutta Kapthammer 

Associate Editor Sue Fomby 

Reviews Editor Lauren Willoughby 

Submissions Editor Angela Kapfhammer 

Copy Editor Beth Haendiges 

Technical Editors Cray Augsburg, 
Ed Ellers 

Technical Assistant David Horrar 

Editorial Assistants Sue H. Evans, 
Wendy Falk 

Contributing Editors 

William Barden, Jr., 
Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 
Richard Esposito, 
Martin Goodman, M.D., 
Joseph Kolar, Dale Puckett, 
Fred Scerbo, Richard White 
Art Director Heidi Maxedon 

Designers Sharon Adams, 
Robert Hatfield, Jr., Denise Webb 

Typesetter Eloise Gaines 

Falsoft, Inc. 

President Lawrence C. Falk 
General Manager Bonnie Frowenleld 
Asst. General Mgr. lor Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Admin. Asst. to the Publisher 

Sarah Levin 
Editorial Director John Crawley 
Asst. Editorial Director Judi Hutchinson 
Senior Editor T. Kevin Nickols 
Director ol Production Jim Cleveland 
Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Dealer Accounts Judy Ouashnock 
Asst. General Manager For Administration 

Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager 

Patricia Eaton 
Customer Service Manager 

Beverly Bearden 
Customer Service Representative 

Carolyn Fenwick 
Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 
Chiel ol Printing Services Melba Smith 
Dispatch Tony Olive 
Business Assistants Anne Brooks, 

Laurie Falk 
Chiel ol Building Security 
and Maintenance 

Jessie Brooks 
Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representatives 

Belinda Kirby, Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 
(502) 228-4492 



For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, 
see Page 192 

Cover photograph copyright 8 1988 

by John R. Longino 

Art direction by Heidi Maxedon 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



fottta 




BACK TALK 

Editor: 

I read the "Building May's Rainbow" 
column, and I'm surely glad to hear that 
there are plans to diversify the magazine 
instead of sticking so rigidly to the monthly 
theme. The magazine has become quite 
predictable because of the theme format. 

I'm also glad to hear that you plan to 
publish a cross-reference to the various 
printers, showing the different printer codes 
and what they do. There are some great 
programs in this year's Printer issue, but I'm 
not able to utilize many of them. I use an 
Epson printer, and many of the Tandy DMP 
printer codes are quite different from the 
Epson's. I'm sure there are many CoCoists 
who use different printers on the market. By 
the time the next Printer issue comes 
around, let's hope that there will be some 
kind of cross-reference so we can use the 
programs in that issue. 

Val Burke 
Red Oak. GA 

There 's no need to wait for our next 
Printer issue, Val. See Cray Augs- 
burg's "Printer Diversions and Con- 
versions " beginning on Page 142 of 
this issue. 

A Different Prescription 

Editor: 

There were a couple of questions and 
answers in the May '88 "Dr. ASCII" column 
that I would like to comment on. 

First of all, the "Dr. ASCII" column is 
worth its weight in hard disks, and both 
answers were correct. I'd simply like to 
provide alternate solutions to the reader's 
questions. (Besides, it gave me another good 
excuse to use Delphi.) 

In the first question, tilled "If You Fall 
Into an Error Trap," Mr. Lute slates that on 
his CoCo 3, an FC Error comes up as error 
number -I. instead of error number 4, as the 
manual states. His problem just might be 
that he is trying to get the Error Number 
(ERNO) value from the direct mode (that's 
when the CoCo is wailing for you to insert 
or edit lines, etc.). When the CoCo 3 enters 
the direct mode, il resets the value of ERNO 
to -I. So no mailer what the actual error 
number was, the result would always be -I. 

To solve the problem, you might insert a 
statement like: ER=ERNO:EL=ERLIN into 
your error trap routine. Then when the 
program halls because of an error, you can 
type: PRINT ER.EL and get correct results. 

In the second question, titled "High 
Poking Disk basic 1.1," Mr. Bradley wants 
lo know why his disk gets trashed in the 
double speed mode, while some other people 



use it all of the lime with no troubles at all. 
The Dr. says it's probably caused by an old 
12-volt disk controller. 

It might also be caused by the drive itself. 
Disk BASIC uses a series of fixed time delays 
when accessing ihe disk drive. The one thai 
causes the most trouble when using the 
double speed mode is the track-to-lrack slep 
rale. 

If you're using drives wilh a 30-ms slep 
rale, which is standard for the older drives 
(and Disk BASIC), and you try using the 
double speed mode, you're pushing the drive 
past its speed limit because the 30-ms time 
delay is converted to 15-ms when using the 
double speed mode. The person lhal is 
having no trouble in high speed might be 
using drives thai can handle 15-ms — or 
faster step rates. 

Ken F. Halter 
China, CA 



REVIEWING REVIEWS 

Editor: 

I wish to comment on bolh the product. 
Telewriter- 1 28, and ihe review of it in the 
May '88 issue. 

The excellent review caused me lo buy ihe 
product, which is superb. Indeed, the review 
seriously understates the excellence of this 
latest Telewriter. However, I would like to 
provide one or two suggestions and minor 
criticisms that may save olher readers lime 
when they install TW-128; I'll cover those 
first. 

Older versions of Telewriter were some- 
times DOS-sensitive; they would run fine 
under Disk basic, but misbehave under the 
more advanced optional DOSs some of us 
use. The review should have staled that TW- 
128 is more widely compatible; I am running 
it primarily on ADOS-3, bui I have run it 
on four other DOSs, only one of which was 
Disk basic. There was one minor glitch — 
the C0NVRTG4 auxiliary program (for 
transferring old TW-64 .BIN files to TW- 
128 .TXT formal) is DOS-sensitive in Fine 
450. If it hangs on, you go to a different 
DOS. That auxiliary program is only used 
occasionally, so this is not a significant 
glitch. However, the entire documentation 
to CDNVRTG4 is inside the program just after 
it hangs, which leads me to a frustrating 
hour or so! 

Nowhere in the documentation does it 
stale whether this version is compatible with 
a RAM disk. Earlier ones were not, so it 
would be nice to know. However, so far none 
of my files have been big enough to try my 
RAM disk; and witha48K buffer, few users 
will need one. 

There should be some way to dump the 



eight screens of help listings to hard copy. 
CTRI.-H is fast, easy, well-written and 
convenient. But I want to screen dump it for 
my file folder and haven't been able to so far. 
How does one do that? 

The review fails to mention one vital 
point: The macros allow recursive use! It's 
not even mentioned in the manual. Why is 
lhal important? It took me six macros to 
define all the non-printing junk with which 
I frequently preface my documents - lab 
sellings, embedded control codes, format- 
ling instructions, and a short, non-printing 
description of each of these. Because each 
macro can be included in other macros, I 
was able to define a series of single-stroke 
macros lo provide all the non-printing stuff 
plus my home or business letterhead. On 
earlier versions. I kept a series of dummy 
files to read in and append to for this 
purpose. Now. instead of four or five such 
files, I have one systems file, TW*DEF5. 
which sets up all of these with a single 
keystroke at the start of any document. 

TW-128 deserves even more praise lhan 
RAINBOW gave it. 

H. Larry Elman 
Port Jefferson, NY 

HINTS & TIPS 

Editor: 

My old CoCo 1 "died" and was replaced 
with a new CoCo 3. As I am a one-hand, 
one-finger typist, I was scared stiff. All those 
special extra keys were quite intimidating to 
me. 

As I struggled to master the monster, il 
gradually dawned on me that this new CoCo 
3 was easier to use than the CoCo I. The 
CTRL key gives me an un-shified =, and both 
CTRL and ait are duplicated at the right side 
of the keyboard. So, only a fewtxotic moves 
are barred lo me. (I have little desire to gaze 
at the picture of the three bearded magi 
imbedded in the CoCo 3 guts.) 

A new generation of users needs to be 
informed of the fl and E commands in the 
edit mode. Microsoft seems to have carried 
over the edit module from the programs in 
other early Tandy micros. The E command 
is valuable because it allows you to escape 
from a mistake, putting you back in the 
command mode at square one, so you can 
untangle your fingers and re-enter edit mode 
without loss of ten minutes' labor. 

The fl command seems to do whai the L 
command does prim the line and put you 
at the beginning. 

I see the CoCo 3 still has the old DLDfiD 
command, no longer operative from Disk 
basic. Vas dere a reason for dis, or vas tt 
chusl sloppy verk by der magi? 

Bob Rus.s 
Walworth, Wl 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S £* 

SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 

EXTRA FEATURES ON COCO 3 DISK 

80 char, screen, 2400 baud thru serial port, 
95,000 to 475,000 character buffer. 



EASY COMMUNICATION + WORD PROCESSING + TOTAL AUTOMATION 



Full prompting and error checking. 
Step-by-step manual has examples. 
Scroll text backward and forward. No 
split words on screen or printout. 
Save, load, delete files while on line. 
Print, save all or any part of text. 300 
or 1200 baud. All 128 ASCII 
characters. Works with D.C. Hayes or 
any modem. Screen widths of 32, 40, 
42, 51, 64. 

DISK VERSION SUPPORTS RS232 
PAK, XMODEM and SPLIT SCREEN 
FOR PACKET RADIO. 



Please hire the mentally reiarded. 
They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! 



Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly too! 
Insert printer control codes. Specify 
page size and margins. Switch 
quickly between word processing 
and intelligent terminal action. Create 
text, correct your typing errors; then 
connect to the other computer, 
upload your text or files, download 
information, file it, and sign-off; then 
edit the receive data, print it in an 
attractive format, and/or save it on 
file. Compatible with TELEWRITER. 

CASSETTE $29.95 

DISKETTE $39.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 
MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



Advanced system of keystroke 
macros lets you automate any 
activity, such as dial via modem, 
sign-on, interact, sign-off, print, save. 
Perform entire session. Act as 
message taker. At start-up, disk 
version can automatically set 
parameters, dial, sign-on, interact, 
read/write disk, sign-off, etc. Timed 
execution lets AUTOTERM work 
while you sleep or play. No other 
computer can match your COCO's 
intelligence as a terminal. 

PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



Saving CoCo's Three Wise Men 

Ed i I or: 

Here's a trick for the new CoCo 3. Almost 
everyone knows thai when you press CTRL 
and ALT with the reset button pressed, you 
get a picture with three people and their 
names. So what's the new trick? The picture 
is stored on the PM0DE4 graphics screen. 
When viewing this screen, you will see only 
the three people (not their names). To save 
this screen use the following steps: First, 
type PCLS1 and press ENTER. Press CTRL and 
ALT. Leaving them down, press the reset 
button. Release CTRl and ALT, press the 
reset button again, and the computer will 
cold start. Next, type in the following lines: 

10 PM0DE4:SCREEN1,1 

20 CSAVEM "C0C0TRI0 " , 1S3G , 7G79 , 153G 

Press the record button on your tape re- 
corder and run the program. After the 
program is done, rewind the recorder to the 
beginning of the file and change Line 20 to: 
20 CLOflDITCOCOTRIO". Press play and run 
the program. To have the screen on disk. 
type in Line 20 as: 20 SftVEM'COCO 
TRIO' ,3584,9727,3584, have yourdisk in 
the disk drive and run the program. Then 
phange Line 20 to: 20 LDfiDMTOCOTRIO" 
and type Line 30 as: 30 GOTO 30. Run the 
program. 

Mike Craig 
South Haven. Ml 



REQUEST HOTLINE 



Editor: 

1 got my first CoCo in 1984, and I had a 
subscription to RAINBOW for two years. I 
slopped my subscription because 1 outgrew 
it. I know you've got to keep the little tykes 
entertained, but how about me? I'm 36 years 
old. 

At work I am building an equipment 
monitoring system using a CoCo that has 24 
slave 8255 chips selected by a primary and 
a secondary master 8255 chip and an using 
techniques found in your magazine. The 
system is about 50 percent operative. 

I've become sick and tired ol" slow basic 
program games, and I don't want to bother 
with OS-9. Assembly language program- 
ming is what I want to learn — specifically 
how to program graphics games using Radio 
Shack's Assembler. I have TRS 80 Color 
Computer Assembly Language Program- 
ming by William Barden, but it is definitely 
not game-oriented. I also have a copy of 
Don Inman's Assembly Language Graphics 
for the TRS 80 Color Computer, but it was 
written for a different assembler; as ex- 
pected, when I type in the programs, they 
don't work. 

Would you please devote a section in 
RAINBOW to helping me and many others 
grow into a higher level of programming, 
using assembly language game tutorials? I 



am ready to advance beyond Beginner's All 
Purpose, Symbolic Instruction Code. 

Richard T. Maelhorn 
State College, PA 

See William Nee's second install- 
ment of "Machine Language Made 
BASIC on Page 137 of this issue. His 
13-part series of ML tutorials, which 
began in last month Is issue, will con- 
tinue monthly through August 89. 

Also, check out "The Little Graph- 
ics Library" by Kevin Dowd on Page 
102 of this issue. 

Printer Codes 

Editor: 

All of us have various types of printers; 
when a truly great program comes along and 
the author has not included the remarks 
regarding setting the printer codes, it is very 
frustrating to those who are not great 
programmers or not programmers at all. 

It would be a great service if this was one 
of the requirements when submitting a 
program to rainbow. In most cases, we can 
then go to our individual printer books, look 
up and change the codes, and voila, the 
program works. 

I was very happy to see in the May issue 
one or two programs where the authors did 
this, and I commend them for thinking of 
us who need this. They put down the lines 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



and the codes, which was such a help. 

J love your magazine and wail by my 
mailbox every month for it to arrive. Thanks 
to all of you who slave over your desks to 
bring this fine magazine to your readers. 

Dorothy J. Koniq 
Penis, CA 

See Page 142 of this issue for cov- 
erage of printer control code differen- 
ces. 

KUDOS 

Editor: 

T & D Subscription Software is to be 
commended for their prompt service and 
reliability. Most orders arc received within 
10 days instead of the usual four-to-six 
weeks. Anybody looking for great software 
and excellent service should patronize this 
company. 

W.A. Queen 111 
Bessemer City, NC 

Up and Running 

Editor: 

Just a note to tell you about the good 
people of Second Cily Software: Ed Hath- 
away and Dave Barnes. I met them at 
RAlNBOWfest in Chicago and bought 
CoCo Max III from them, and a Disto 
Super Controller 2 from the Disto booth. 
The controller wouldn't work for me. (Disto 
had been recommended to me by Ed and 
Dave of Second City.) I tried to find the 
trouble — including changing the EPROM 

to no avail. 

Then I called Second City, and Ed had 
Dave Barnes call me. After about an hour 
and a half on the phone, we got the con- 
troller working with my 1.2 DOS. The 
jumpers and the book were wrong. Thanks 
to Ed and Dave. I am up and running now. 
George L. Schneeweiss 
Chicago, II. 

Hard Drive Help 

Editor: 

First, / would like to thank Chris Burke 
of Burke & Burke for his help getting me 
going with my hard drive. It seems that OS- 
9 Level II is hard coded, so that whenever 
it sees 'H0 in the boot strap, it goes to the 
hard drive to finish booting. This is fine as 
long as you already have your hard drive 
formatted and the CMDS directory copied to 
it. If you have just gotten a hard drive, set 
it up as 'HO until you get it formatted and 
CUDS copied, then you can change it back 
to the 'H0 and will have no problems. 

Robert J. Gruhh 
Gallipolis. OH 

A New Subscriber 

Editor: 

I have used CoCos for over 10 years. 
Today is the first day I have seen your 
magazine. Ladies and gentlemen, I am duly 
impressed. My masters degree is in comput- 



er science (specifically in software engineer- 
ing), but believe me, if 1 knew anything 
beneficial to your company, I would be 
asking for a job in a second! Maybe I should 
get a second degree? 

It's obvious you put a lot of effort into this 
product. I'm proud to be your next sub- 
scriber. Good work! 

T. Riley 

President. Riley Programming 

Ames, I A 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 



PEN PALS 



• I am 1 1 years old and looking for a pen 
pal about my age. especially girls, but guys 
are welcome also. I have a CoCo 3. ED 502 
disk drive, and other accessories. All letters 
are guaranteed to be answered. 

Mike Miller 

c/o Greg Miller 

P.O. Box 55 

Somersville, CT 06072 

• I am 15 years old and would really like 
some pen pals. I have a CoCo 2 and 3, a 
CCR-82 cassette recorder, a disk drive, 
CGP-1 15 printer and a D MP- 106 printer. 

Sir Fred Patrick Hooper 

Rt. I. Box 370 

Stonewall. TX 78571 

• I am 1 1 years old and own a CoCo 2, disk 
drive, cassette recorder and OS-9. I would 
like to correspond with someone who knows 
about how to do things in Adventures, 
asking questions about them, or just talking 
about anything. I'll answer as many letters 
as I can. as soon as they gel lo me. 

Andrew Yarrows 

26 Briggs St. 

Easthampion. MA 01027 

• I am interested in amateur radio operators 
using the CoCo. I have a CoCo I and 2, MC- 
10, FD 502 disk drive and a DMP-I30A 
printer. I would like to exchange ideas and 
other information about this hobby. 

Gene Chambers 

2221 Lovvorn Rd. 

Carrollton, GA 30117 

• I would like to get in touch with all 
European CoCo 3 users — we can't be the 
only ones with this beautiful machine out 
here. Wc could exchange the latest informa- 
tion and help each other. 

Peter Tutelaers 

Slrvpcrstraak 50A 

5595 GO Leende 

The Netherlands 

• I am a 15-year-old boy and have a CoCo 
2 with one single-sided drive. I would like 
lo have pen pals anywhere in the world, 
especially North America. 

Carles Augusto A.C. Junior 

Rita Marques de Vulenca 

77 Casa 2 

Rio de Janeiro- R.I- Brazil 

CEP.20550 



• The Kansas [Connection BBS is now up 
and running daily from 10 p.m. to 7 a.m. 
Central time. We are running a CoBBS 
system and feature CoCo downloads and 
uploads, message bases, want ads and more. 
Coming soon . . . Galactic Conflict] KK- 
BBS runs al 300/ 1200 baud. Please call the 
KK-BBS at (913) 738-5613. 

Gary N. McCartv 

215 E. 15 ih 

lieloit. KS 67420 

• The K-Board in Gloucester, Va., wel- 
comes your call. It is a CoBBS system, 
online 24 hours. K-Board is a 300/ 1 200 baud 
board using three single-sided drives and 
one RAM disk. Call (804) 693-6151. 

William Keller 

Rt. I. Box 616 

Gloucester. VA 23061 

• The Tandy Terminal BBS is online 24 
hours/ 7days at (314) 966-8653 for all your 
CoCo 2 and 3 needs. We are running at 8- 
bits and no parity. To get connected, press 
the spacebar. We are running at 300/ 1200/ 
2400 baud on a 512K CoCo 3 with two 
double-sided drives. Online games such as 
Galactic Conflict arc available to play, and 
there are a number of downloads changed 
weekly. 

Thomas J. Wyrick 

519 Meadow Creek Lane 

St. Louis. MO 63122 

• The Golden Kingdom RBBS has been up 
and running for nearly a year now. Although 
it is an all computer IBM system, I operate 
a CoCo conference (J; COCO) in the main 
menu. Wc have lots of public domain pro- 
grams for downloads (pictures, games, 
utilities and OS-9) and a message base with 
bulletins. The number is (604) 562-1664. 
Supporting 3/12/24/9600 baud with no 
parity, 8-bils, I stop bit. 24 hours, 7 days a 
week. 

Ross Evans 

P.O. Box29HI 

Prince George. B.C. 

Canada V2N 411 



THE rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editor. Mail should be addressed to: Letters 
to Rainbow, The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. Letters should 
include the writer's full name and address. 
Letters may be edited for purposes of clarity 
or to conserve space. 

Letters to the editor may also be sent to 
us through our Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, type Rfll to take you 
into the Rainbow Magazine Services area of 
the SIG. At the RAlNBOW> prompt, type 
LET to reach the LETTERS> prompt and 
then select Letters for Publication. Be sure 
to include your complete name and address. 



8 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



^Word , 
Power 3*1 

(The Ultimate Word Processor for the CoCo 3) 




Power Unleashed! Unlike other word- processors. Word Power 
3.1 is written from scratch for the CoCo 3. It bridges the gap between 
"what is" and" what should be" in word- processors No other word 
processor offers such a wide array of features that are so easy to 
learn and use. 

DISPLAY 

The 80- column display with true lowercase lets you view the full 
width of a standard page All prompts are displayed in plain 
English in neat colored windows (see display above). The 
current column number, line number, page number and percentage 
of free memory is displayed on the screen at all times The program 
even displays the bottom margin perforation so you know where 
one page ends and the other begins You can also change foreground/ 
background color of screen and select menu and carriage return 
colors to suit your needs! Carriage returns can be visible or invisible 
Word Power 3.1 runs at double clock speed and can be used with 
RGB/ composite/ monochrome monitors as well as TV. 

AVAILABLE MEMORY 

No other word processor gives you so much memory. Word Power 
3.1 gives you over 72K on a 128K machine and over 450K on a 
5 1 2 K machine to store text 

EDITING FEATURES 
Word Power 3.1 has one of the most powerful and user- friendly 
full- screen editors with word- wrap. All you do is type Word 
Power 3.1 takes care of the text arrangement. It even has a built-in 
Auto- Save feature which saves the current text to disk at regular 
intervals; so you know that your latest version is saved to disk. Here 
are some of the impressive editing features of Word Power 3.1: 

Insert/ Overstrike Mode (Cursor style changes to indicate mode); 
OOPS recall during delete; Type- ahead buffer for fast typers; Key- 
repeat (adjustable) and Key- click; Four- way cursor control and 
scrolling; Cursorto beginning of text, end of text, beginning of line, 
end of line, top/bottom of screen, next/ previous word; Page up/ 
down; Delete character, previous/next word, beginning/end of 
line, complete line, text before and after cursor; Locate/ Replace 
with wild- card search with auto/ manual replace; Block Mark, 
Unmark, Copy, Move and Delete; Line Positioning (Left/Centei/ 
Right); Set/ Reset 120 programmable tab stops; Word count. Define 
left, right, top and bottom margins and page length. You can also 
highlight text (underline- with on-screen underlining, bold, 
italics superscripts etc). Word Power3.1 even has a HELP screen 
which can be accessed any time during edit. 



MJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 
RO. Box 214 
Fairport, NY 14450 
Phone (716) 223-1477 



MAIL- MERGE 

Ever try mailing out the same letter to50 different people or sending 
out several resumes? Could be quite a chore Not with Word Power 
3.1. Using this feature, you can type a letter, follow it with a list of 
addresses and have Word Power 3.1 print out personalized letters 
It's that easy! 

SAVING/ LOADING TEXT 

Word Power 3. 1 creates ASCII format files which are compatible 
with almost all terminal, spell- checking and other word- processing 
programs It allows you to load, save, append and kill files and also to 
create and edit Basic, Pascal, C and Assembly files You can select files 
by simply cursoring through the disk directory. Supports double- 
sided drives and various step rates 

PRINTING 

Word Power 3.1 drives almost any printer (DMP series, EPSON, 
GEMINI, OKIDATA, etc) . Allows print options such as baud rates, 
line spacing, page pause, partial print, page numbers, page number 
placement, linefeed option, multi-line headers/ footers, right 
justification and number of copies (see display above). The values 
for these parameters and the margins can be changed anytime in the 
text by embedding Printer Option Codes Word Power 3.1 has the 
WHAT YOU SEE IS WHAT YOU GET feature which allows you 
to preview the text on the screen as it will appear in print. You can see 
margins, page breaks, justification and more 

SPELLING CHECKER 

Word Power 3.1 comes with a 20,000 word spelling checker/ 
dictionary which finds and corrects mistakes within your text. You 
can add words to or delete from the dictionary or create a dictionary 
of your own. 

PUNCTUATION CHECKER 
This checker will proofread your text for punctuation errors such 
as capitalization, spaces after periods/ commas double words and 
much more It's the perfect addition to any word processor. 

DOCUMENTATION 

Writing with Word Power 3.1 is a breeze Word Power 3.1 comes 
with a well- written, easy- to- comprehend instruction manual which 
will lead you step- by- step through the program. 

Word Power3.1 comes on an UNPROTECTED disk and iscompatible 
with RS DOS 1.0/1.1 and ADOS Only $79.95. 

(Word Power 3 owners can get the 3.1 version by sending proof of 
purchase and $10.00 to cover the cost of shipping and the manual.) 

/ purchased your Word Power. It arrived in lime for my 
13 year old daughter to process her history fair project. 
Word Power was easy to use and the features beat the 
heck out of the other word processors we were using. 

KBG Tallahassee / Florida 



To Place Credit Card Orders Call Toll Free 1-800-654-5244 9 AM- 9 PM EST7 days » week 

NY, Canada, Foreign Orders, Information, Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223-1477 

All orders within Continental US shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air at no extra charge. 

VISA, MC AMEX, Check, MO. No CODs Please add $3.00 S&H (USA & Canada), other countries $5.00 S&.H. NYS residents please add sales tax. 




I PRlMTtt 9 

rniiN i tt tj 



Some 

Post-RAINBOWfest 

Reflections 



One of the things I love about the Color Computer market is its 
innovation. That was evident at RAINBOWfest more than ever, 
and it keeps showing up as more and more people begin dipping 
into what is rightly considered the best home and small-business computer 
system in the world! 

I'd like you to take just five minutes to page through this issue of the 
rainbow. Maybe you will note, as I have, that a number of new start-up 
companies are coming into the CoCo arena. Yes, we sometimes bemoan 
the fact that some of the larger software houses do not write (or adapt) 
programs for the Color Computer (except when they sell directly to Tandy), 
but the truth of the matter is that it has never been the big companies which 
have made this market a success. 

Over the past several months we have seen more and more smaller firms 
take a fling at the Color Computer market. According to an informal survey 
I conducted just the other day, they are very pleased with their results so 
far. This has always been the hallmark of the CoCo market — new and 
innovative products from people who are interested and care about their 
products and the people who buy them. 

And, because of those people, there are always new mountains to climb, 
new areas to explore for all of us. We're really fortunate to be able to have 
a computer that attracts the kind of innovative people who make the CoCo 
a continuing source of discovery. 

A number of the "old hands" are out there innovating, as well. I'm going 
to mention one of them here: Bill Vergona of Cer-Comp, simply because 
Bill's is an interesting story. 

Bill has been in the Color Computer market longer than just about 
anyone. He's one of the finest technical types we have, and he's written 
some excellent software to do the kind of technical things that technical 
types love — looking at bits and bytes and the like. 



10 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



COCO 3 UTILITIES GALORE 

(All utilities support 40/80 columns for CoCo 3) 
(CoCo2 versions are available for most utilities) 



#8* 



Disk- 



SUPER TAPE/DISK TRANSFER 

• Disk- to- Disk Copy (1-3 passes) • Tape- lo- Disk Copy • Tape- to- Disk Automatic Relocate 

to- Tape Copy • Tape- to- Tape Copy 

Copies Basic/ ML programs and DATA tiles CoCo 1 , 2 & 3. 32 K Disk System (Disk to Disk Copy requires 

64 K). Disk Only SZ4.95 



CoCo CHECKER 

Something possibly wrong with your CoCo? CoCo Checker is the answer! Will test your ROMs, RAMs, Disk 
DrivesS Controller, Printer, Keyboard, Cassette Joysticks Sound PIAs, VDG, Internal Clock Speed Multi- 
pak Interface and more! 524,95 



DISK UTILITY 2.1 A 

A multi-featured tool tor USER FRIENDLY disk handling Utilize a directory window to selectively sort move 
renames kill file entries Lightning last Disk I/O tor format copyS backup Single execution of both Basics 
ML programs 64 K DISK S29.95 NOW also CoCo III compatible! Upgrade only S15 w/proof of purchase. 



COCO NEWSROOM 

Now available for the CoCo III! You can design your own newspaper with Banner Headlines/6 articles using 
sophisticated Graphics Fonts and Fill Patterns Comes with22 fontsS50 pictures! Over 1 40 K of code Disk 
only S49.95 



MAILLIST PRO 

The ultimate mailing list program Allows you to add, edit view, delete change sort(by zipcode or name) and 
print labels Its indispensible! Disk Only S19.95 (CoCo 2 version included) 



DISK LABEL MAKER 

Allows you to design professional disk labels! Allows elongated normal and condensed format for text 
double-strike border creation and multiple- label printing lis a MUST lor any user with a disk drive Disk 
0nlySI9.95. Supports DMP 105/1 10/1 20/130/430, GEMINI. STAR EPSON and compatibles. (CoCo2 
version included) 



COMPUTERIZED CHECKROOK 

Why bother with balancing your checkbook? Let the CoCo do it for you! Allows you to add view, search edit 
change delete and printout (in a table or individual entry format) checkbook entries Updates balance after 
each entry. Allows files for checking saving and other accounts Disk Only SI 9.95 (CoCo 2 version 
included) 



BOWLING SCORE KEEPER 

An excellent utility to keep track of your bowling scores Allows you to save scores under individuals or 
teams You can edit change delete and compare scores A must for anyone who wants to keep track of his or 
her bowling performance Disk S19.95 (CoCo 2 version included). 



VCR TAPE ORGANIZER 

Organize your videocassettes with this program! Allows you lo index cassettes by title rating, type play 
time and comments Also allows you lo sort titles alphabetically and view/print selected tapes If you own a 
VCR this program is a must Disk Only SI 9.95 (CoCo 2 version included). 



SCREEN DUMP 

32, 40, 80 column text dump PMODE4 Graphics Dump Single Keystroke Operation allows 
you lo take snapshots of screens even when programs are running! Works on DMP' & Epson 
and Gemini CoCo 1 , 2 and 3. Disk Only S24.95 



HOME BILL MANAGER 

Let the CoCo keep track of your bills Allows you to enter bills under various categories and 
reminds you when they are due Disk Only SI 9.95 



m 



CALENDAR MAKER ^ 

Generate monthly calendars on your printer lor any year in the 20th century. Disk Only. %£&$ 
S19.95 "*»" 


COCO UTIL II 

(Latest Version): Transfer CoCo Disk tiles to IBM 
compatible computer. Transler MS-DOS files to 
CoCo Req. 2- Drive IBM compatible S39.95 




AD0S3 

Advanced Disk Operating System lor CoCo 3. 
S34.95 ADOS S27.95 


RGB PATCH 

Displays most games in color on RGB monitors 
For CoCo 3 Disk S24.95 


SPIT N IMAGE 

Makes a BACKUP of ANY disk S32.95 



OS 9 PRODUCTS 



OS 9 LEVEL II 
OPERATING SYSTEM 

Supports 512K RAM dual speed multi-tasking 
multiple windows and more! Comes with disk and 
complete documentation Only S89.95 



MULTI-VUE 

User friendly graphics interface with multiple 
"window" applications for Level II. Only S54.95 



WIZ 

OS9 Level II Terminal Package with 300-19200 
baud rate and windowing capability. Requires 5 1 2 K 
andRS-232 Pack Only S79.95 



DYNASTAR 

Best OS-9 Editor/Word Proccssoi/Text For- 
matter. Has Keyboard Macros, supports ter- 
minals & windows simultaneously, con- 
figurable, auto-indent for C/Pascal program- 
ming, mail-merge. New manual makes it easier 
than ever. ONLY S149.95. DynSpcll:$49.95 
Both DynaStar & DynaSpcll: Only $174.95 

DYNACALC: OS-9 

Excellent spreadsheet for OS-9 users. Only 
$99.95 



PC- Xfer UTILITIES 

Programs to format and transfer files to/from MS- 
DOS diskettes on CoCo Under OS9 Level 1 or 2. 
Requires SDISK or SOISK3. Only S44.95 



SDISK3 

Standard disk drive module replacement allows full 
use of 40/80 track double sided drives Req OS9 
Level II. Only S29.95 




0S9 LEVEL II RAMDISK 

Lightning Fast Ramdisk with Auto Formatting A 
must for any OS9 Level II User. Req 512KS29.95. 
(Only S14.95 with purchase of 512K Upgrade & 
Ramdisk!!). 



BOOKS 

Inside 0S9 Level II: S39.95 

Rainbow Guide To 0S9 Level II: SI 9.95 

Rainbow Guide To 0S9 Level II Disk: SI 9.95 

OS9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola 


Inc. 





JUP 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 214 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (71 6) 223-1477 




All orileisS 50 and above shipped by UPS2 nd Day Air within Continental US at no extra charge. No 
CODs We accept Visa MC, Amex Check or MO. Please add S3.00 SSH 
(USA/Canada). Other countries $5.00 SSH. NYS residents please ad1 sales tax 

To Place Credit Card Orders, Call Toll Free 1-800-654-5244 

NY, Canada, Foreign Orders, Information, Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223-1477 



At RAlNBOWfest Bill debuted a new 
offering. Window Master, which is 
quite a departure for him. Briefly, it is 
a windowing interface for the CoCo 3 
that runs under the "regular" operating 
system, not OS-9. 

I looked at it hurriedly while every- 
one, including Bill, was setting up. 1 try 
to stop by each booth at some point 
during the course of a show, but 1 had 
a hard time getting to Bill's at Chicago 
because there were lots and lots of 
people. 

Bill seemed a little tired. Once the 
show was over, 1 found out why. Bill 
said he had literally been up for 36 hours 
beforehand, cleaning up the final code 
for Window Master. It ran smoothly at 
the show, of course, for Bill is a metic- 
ulous programmer. We talked about 
things late that Sunday, and 1 pointed 
out to Bill that Window Master was 
really his first "non-techie" program. 
He agreed. 

As I write this. Bill is busy condensing 
his code to get the program to run in less 
than 5I2K. I am sure he will. And 1 am 
sure you will be interested in the prod- 
uct if you have a CoCo 3. 

My only point to all this is that you 
find all sorts of surprises at RAlN- 



BOWfest and in the pages of THE RAIN- 
BOW. As 1 mentioned above, I am happy 
to see new players in the field, and I am 
also so very pleased to see others, like 
Bill Vergona, innovating and coming 
out with new products, new ideas and 
new concepts. 



"A number of new 

start-up companies 

are coming into the 

CoCo arena. " 



It's what makes this Color Computer 
market so dynamic. 

* * * 

You may have noticed a difference 
when you got this month's issue of THE 
RAINBOW. We've gone from the paper 
wrapper we have been using to protect 
your favorite computer magazine in the 
mail, to a polybag. The polybag is 
tougher and allows us to place what are 



known as "outserts" in the magazine as 
well. 

An "outsert," which I guess is the 
opposite of an "insert," lets us include 
things inside the polybag without hav- 
ing to go to the expense of binding it 
inside the magazine itself. 

One of the changes is that you'll be 
getting an "outsert" notice when your 
subscription is about to run out rather 
than the notice printed on the paper 
wrapper. Another is that — we hope — 
some of our advertisers will be able to 
take advantage of the polybag and its 
"outserting" capability to include cata- 
logs and the like inside the bag. It makes 
it easier for us to handle and less expen- 
sive for the advertiser to produce. 

Finally, you may have noticed your 
favorite computer magazine "on the 
rack" at Waldenbooks, Cole's Books 
and several other locations. We've 
always been carried by a great number 
of Waldenbooks' stores, but now we will 
be in 1,100 of them nationwide. Not 
only will THE RAINBOW be in the stores, 
but we'll be on a special rack designed 
especially for computer magazines. Go 
by and see! 

— Lonnie Falk 



trf 




CoCo Cat 
JSat/6. 

NOT 



12 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



500 

POKES, 

PEEKs # 

EXECs 

FOR THE TRS-80 COCO 

NEVER BEFORE has this infor- 
mation of vital significance to a 
programmer been so readily 
available to everyone. This booK 
will help you GET UnDERNEATH 
THE COVER' of the Color Com- 
puter and develop your own HI- 
QUALITY Basic and ML pro- 
grams. SO WHY WAIT?? 
This 80-page book includes 
POKEs. PEEKs and EXECs to: 

* Autostart your basic programs 

* Disable Color Basic/ECB/Dlsk 
Basic commands like LIST. 
LLIST, POKE. EXEC. CSAVE(M), 
DEL, EDIT, TROM, TROrF, 
PCLEAR. DLOAD. REI1UM. PRINT 
USIMQ, DIR. KILL. SAVE, LOAD, 
MEROE, RENAME. DSKIMI. 
BACKUP. DSKI$. and DSKO$. 

* Disable BREAK KEY. CLEAR KEY 
and RESET BUTTON. 

* Generate a Repeat-key. 

* Transfer ROMPAKS to tape (For 
64K only). 

* Set 23 different 
QRAPHIC/SEMIORAPHIC modes 

* Merge two Basic programs. 

* AND MUCH MUCH HOREIII 

COMMANDS COMPATIBLE WITH 
16K/32K/64K/COLOR BASIC/ ECB/ DISK 
BASIC SYSTEMS and CoCo 1 . 1. & 3. 

ONLY $16.95 
SUPPLEMENT to 

500 POKES, 
PEEKS 'N EXECS 

ONLY $9.95 
t UU additional Pokes, Peeks 'n Execs to 
give you MORE PROGRAMMING POWER 
Includes commands for 

• fiompak Transfer to disk 

• PAINT with 65000 stylesl 

• Use ol 40 track single/ double sided drives with variable 
step- rates 

• High-Speed Cassette Operation 

• Telewriter 64'. Edtasm-K and CoCo Max" 
Enhancements 

• Graphics Dump (tor DMP printers) & Teit Screen Dump 

• AND MUCH MUCH MORE! 

• 500 POKES PEEKS N EXECS is a prerequisite 



300 POKES 
PEEKS 'N EXECS 

FOR THE COCO III 

Get more POWER for your CoCo III. Includes 
commands for r-~-_^ 

• 40/80 Column Screen Text Dump / 3Qq 

• Save Text/Graphics Screens lo Oisk hlg^" l > 

• Command/Function Disables 

• Enhancements lor CoCo 3 Oasic 

• I28K/5I2K Ram Test Program 

• HPRINT Character Modilier 

• AND MANY MORE COMMANDS ONLY $1 9.95 





MUST" BOOKS 

UNRAVELLED SERIES: These books provide a 
complete annotated listing of the 
BASIC/ECB and DISK ROMs. 

EXTENDED COLOR OASIC UNRAVELLED: S39.95 

DISK OASIC UNRAVELLED: SI 9.95 

80TH UNRAVELLED 000KS: S49.95 

SUPER ECB|CoCo3| UNRAVELLED: S24.95 -*?£& 

All 3 UNRAVELLED BOOKS: S59.95 W 

COCO 3 SERVICE MANUAL S39.95 

COCO 2 SERVICE MANUAL: $29.95 

INSIDE 0S9 LEVEL II S39 95 

RAINBOW GUIDE TO 0S9 LEVEL II ON COCO 3: SI9.95 

RAINBOW GUIDE TO 0S9 II DISK: SI 9.95 

BASIC PROGRAMMING TRICKS $12.95 

COCO 3 SECRETS REVEALED: SI 9.95 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING': SI8.00 

ADDENDUM FOR COCO 3: S12.00 
UTILITY ROUTINES VOL I BOOK: S19.95 

GAMES(Disk Only) (CoCo 1,2, S3 
except where mentioned) 
WILD WEST(CoCo3 Only) $24.95 
VEGAS SLOTS (CoCo 3 Only) S2 .95 
VEGAS GAME PACK: $24.95 
FLIGHT 16: $34.95 
IN QUEST OF STAR LORD 
(Animated Graphics Adventure 
CoCo 3): $34.95 

WHITE FIRE OF ETERNITY: $19.95 
PYRAMIX(Cubix for CoCo3): $24.95 
P-51 MUSTANG SIMULATION: $34.95 
WORLDS OF FLIGHT: $34.95 
KUNG FU DUDE: $24.95 




APPROACH CONTROL SIMULATION: $34.95 
TREASURY PACK#1: Lunar Rover Patrol 
Cubix, Declathon, Qix, Keys of Wizard, 
Module Man, Pengon, Space Wrek and 
Roller Controller. Only $29.95 

TREASURY PACK #2: Lancer, Ms Gobbler, 



JkJF 



Froggie,MadnessandMinotaur, Ice Castles 
Galagon, Devious and Syzygy. Only $29.95 
SPACE PACK: Color Zap Invaders, Planet 
Invasion, Space Race, Space War, Galax 
Attax, Anaroid Attack, Whirlybird, Space 
Sentry & Storm Arrows. Only S29.95 

MICROCOM SOFTWARE ah O rdersS50 and above shipped by UPS2 nd Day Air within Continental US at no extra charge No 

P.O. Box 214 CODs We accept Visa MC. Amex. CheckorMO. Please add S3.00 S&H( USA/Canada). 

Fairport, N.Y. 14450 Other countries $5.00 S&H. NYS residents please add sales tax 





COCO 
GRAPHICS DESIGNER 



4. Signs Greeting Cards Banners £ 



The CoCo Graphics Designer allows you 
to create beautifully designed Greeting 
Cards, Signs and Banners for holidays 
birthdays, parties, anniversaries and other 
occasions Comes with a library of pre- 
drawn pictures Also includes utilities 
which allow you to create your own 
character sets, borders and graphic 
pictures. Requires a TRS-80 COLOR 
COMPUTER I, II OR III OR TDP-100 with 
a MINIMUM OF 32K, ONE DISK DRIVE 
and a PRINTER compatible with DISK 
BASIC 1.0/1.1, ADOS 1.0/1.1 ANDJDOS. 
Supports the following printers: DMP 
100/105/110/130/430, CGP220, 
EPSON RX/FK GEMINI 10X, SG-10, 
NX-10&OKIDATA DISK $29.95 
PICTURE DISK #1: 100 more pictures for 
CGD: S14.95 

FONT DISK #1: 10 extra fonts! SI 9.95 
FONT DISK #2: 10+ extra fonts $19.95 

CAR SIGN DESIGNER 
Create distinctive bright yellow diamond 
shaped car signs Includes2 resuable clear 
plastic sign holders with suction cups and 
50 sheets of bright yellow fanfold paper. 
Disk Only $29.95 

COLORED PAPER PACKS $24.95 

COCO MAX III (with hi-res interlace): $79.95 
COCO MAX II: Disk $77.95 Tape $67.95 
MAX PATCH An excellent software patch to run 
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soldering Disk only $24.95 

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2 (Cas) $47.95 (Disk) $57.95 
TW-80: 80 Column Display & more features for 
TW-64. CoCo 3 Disk $39.95 
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Autoterm: Superb Terminal Program Works with 
any modem! (Cas) $29.95 (Disk) $39.95 
Pro Color File* Enhanced*: Multi-feature 
Database $59.95 Sidewise: $24.95 
Pro-Color Dir: $24.95 
EOT/ ASM 64 D: Best Disk Based Editor- 
Assembler (or CoCa$59.95 (Specify CoCo 1, 2 or a) 
THE SOURCE: Best Disassembler for CoCo$34. 95 
THE SOURCEIII: $4995 
CBASIC: Most powerful Basic Program Compiler 
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DODfe 



How To Read Rainbow 



When we use the term CoCo, we refer to an affection- 
ate name that was first given to the Tandy Color 
Computer by its many fans, users and owners. 

The basic program listings printed in the rain- 
bow are formatted for a 32-character screen — so they 
show up just as they do on your CoCo screen. One easy 
way to check on the accuracy of your typing is to com- 
pare what character "goes under" what. If the charac- 
ters match — and your line endings come out the same 
— you have a pretty good way of knowing that your 
typing is accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you the minimum 
system a program needs. But, do read the text before 
you start typing. 

Finally, the little disk and/or cassette symbols on the 
table of contents and a! the beginning of articles 
indicate that the program is available through our 

RAINBOW ON DISK or RAINBOW ON TAPEservice. 



Using Machine Language 



Theeasiest way to "put" a machine language program 
into memory is to use an editor/assembler, a program 
you can purchase from a number of sources. All you 
have to do, essentially, is copy the relevant instructions 
from the rainbow's listing into CoCo. 

Another method of putting an ML listing into CoCo 
is called "hand assembly" - assembly by hand, which 
sometimes causes problems with OR I G I N or EQUATE 
statements. You ought to know something about 
assembly to try this. 

Use the following program if you want to hand- 
assemble ML listings: 

10 CLEAR200,&H3F00:I=&H3F80 

20 PR I NT "ADDRESS : " ; HEXS ( I ) ; 

30 INPUT "BYTE";BS 

10 POKE I, VAL(~&H~+BS) 

50 I = I+1:GOTO20 

This program assumes you have a 16K CoCo. If you 
have 32K, change the &H3F00 in Line 10 to &H7F00 
and change the value of I to &H7F80. 



OS-9 and RAINBOW ON DISK 



The OS-9 side of rainbow on disk contains two 
directories: CtiDS and SOURCE. It also contains a file, 
read . me . f i rs t, which explains the division of the 
two directories. The CMDS directory contains executa- 
ble programs and the SOURCE directory contains the 
ASCII source code for these programs. BASIC09 
programs will only be offered in source form so they will 
only be found in the SOURCE directory. 

OS-9 is a very powerful operating system, Because 
of this, it is not easy to learn at first. However, while we 
can give specific instructions for using the OS-9 



programs, you will find that the OS-9 programs will be 
of little use unless you are familiar with the operating 
system. For this reason, if you haven't "learned" OS-9 
or are not comfortable with it, we suggest you read The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 by Dale Puckett and 
Peter Dibble. 

The following is not intended as a course in OS-9. It 
merely states how to gel the OS-9 programs from 
rainbow on disk to your OS-9 system disk. Use 
the procedures appropriate for your system. Before 
doing so, however, boot the OS-9 operating system 
according to the documentation from Radio Shack. 

1)Type load dir list copy and press enter. 

2) If you have only one disk drive, remove the OS-9 
system disk from Drive and replace it with the OS- 
9 side ol rainbow on disk. Then type chd-'d0 
and press enter. If you have two disk drives, leave 
the sytem master in Drive and put the rainbow 
ON disk in Drive 1. Then type chd'dl and press 

ENTER. 

3) List the read . me . f i rs t file to the screen by typing 

list read . me . f i rs t and pressing ENTER. 

4) Entering dir will give you a directory of the OS-9 
side of rainbow on disk. To see what programs 
are in the CMOS directory, enter dir cmds. Follow 
a similar method to see what source files are in the 
SOURCE directory. 

5) When you find a program you want to use, copy it 
to the CNDS directory on your system disk with one 
of the following commands: 

One-drive system: copy /d0/cmds-' filename /dQ>/ 
cmds/lilename -s 

The system will prompt you to alternately place the 
source disk (rainbow on disk) or the destination 
disk (system disk) in Drive 0. 
Two-drive system: copy 'dl /cmds-' filename /d<t>' 
cmds^ filename 

Once you have copied the program, you execute it 
from your system master by placing that disk in Drive 
and entering the name of the file. 



The Rainbow Seal 



rainbow 



The Rainbow Certification Seal is our way of helping 
you, the consumer. The purpose of the Seal is to certify 
to you that any product that carries the Seal has actually 
been seen by us, that it does, indeed, exist and that we 
have a sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of producls — hardware, software and 
firmware — are encouraged by us to submit their prod- 
ucts to the rainbow for certification. 

The Seal is not a "guarantee of satisfaction." The 
certification process is different from the review 
process. You are encouraged to read our reviews to 
determine whether the product is right for your needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship between advertis- 
ing in the rainbow and the certification process. 
Certification is open and available to any product per- 



taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded to any com- 
mercial product, regardless of whether the firm adver- 
tises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing of instances of violation 
of Seal use. 



Rainbow Check Plus 



rcT 



The small box accompanying a program listing in 
the rainbow is a "check sum" system, which is 
designed to help you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the number and values 
of characters you type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the rainbow. 
On longer programs, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those lines with your 
typing, simply check to see if the numbers match. 

To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in the program 
and save it for later use, then type in the command RUN 
and press enter. Once the program has run, type NEW 
and press enter to remove it from the area where the 
program you're typing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from the rainbow, 
whenever you press the down arrow key, your CoCo 
gives the check sum based on the length and content 
of the program in memory. This is to check against the 
numbers printed in the rainbow. If your number is 
different, check the listing carefully to be sure you typed 
in the correct basic program code. For more details 
on this helpful utility, refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on 
Page 21 of the February 1984 rainbow. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts spaces and 
punctuation, be sure to type in the listing exactly the 
way it's given in the magazine. 

10 CL5:X=256*PEEK(3S)+17B 

20 CLEAR 25.X-1 

30 X=25G*PEEK (35) +178 

10 FOR Z=X TO X+77 

50 READ Y:W=U+Y:PRINT Z,Y;U 

G0 POKE Z,Y: NEXT 

70 IFW=7985THEN80ELSEPRINT 

"DATA ERRDR":STOP 
80 EXEC X:END 

90 DATA 182, 1, 106, 1S7, 110, G0, 131 
100 DATA 12G, 183, 1, 10G, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 110, 50, 18. 110, 1, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 38, 38 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 158, 25, 230, 129 
110 DATA 39, 12, 171, 128, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38, 250. 1B, 1, 32 
1G0 DATA 210, 183. 2. 222, 18, 110, 11 
170 DATA 159, 1GG, 1GG, 132. 2B, 251 
180 DATA 189, 173, 198, 53. 22, 12G, 
190 OATA 0, 135, 255, 131, 10, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 11, 



14 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



SUPER 88 UTILITIES ^ v ^ 
For Only $88 <*^ 



40K FOR CASSETTE PROGRAMS: #200 

40K FOR DISK BASIC PROGRAMS: #201 

ALPHA-DIR:Alphabetize DIR's #202 

APPOINTMENT CALENDAR: #203 

ASCII FILE UTILITY: #204 

AUTOMATIC DISK BACK-UP:Req. 2 drives #205 

AUTOMATIC 5 MIN. CASSETTE SAVE: #206 

AUTOMATIC 5 MIN. DISK SAVE: #207 

AUTO DIR BACK-UP:No more FS errors #208 

BASE CONVERTER :#209 

BANNER MAKER:7" high letters #210 

BASIC SEARCH:Search for a string #211 

BORDER MAKER:255 border styles #212 

CASSETTE LABEL MAKER:DMP's only #213 

CLOCK:Keeps time as you program #214 

COMMAND KEYS: Shorthand for BASIC #215 

COMMAND MAKER:Design own commands #216 

COMMAND SAVER:Saves/recalls commands #217 

CALCULATOR:On-screen calculator #218 

CURSOR STYLES:65535 cursor styles #219 

DISK CATALOGER:DIR's into master DIR #220 

DISK ENCRYPT:BASIC password protection #221 

DMP CHARACTER SET ED I TOR: #222 

DMP SUPERSCRIPTS:Great for term papers #223 

DOS COMMAND ENHANCER: #224 

DOUBLE BANK:64K only #225 

ENHANCED KILL:#226 

ENHANCED LLIST:Beautiful LLISTings #227 

ENHANCED TRON: #228 

ERROR LOCATOR: #229 

E-Z DISK MASTER: #230 

FAST SORT:100 strings in 3 seconds #231 

FILE SCRAMBLER:Hide your private files #232 

FULL ERRORS: English error messages #233 

FUNCTION KEYS: Speeds prog time #234 

GRADE BOOK:Great for teachers #235 

GRAPHICS SCREEN COMPRESSION: #236 

GRAPHICS SHIFTER: #237 

GRAPHICS TYPE SETTING:2 letter sizes #238 

GRAPHICS ZOOM:Magnify/edit graphics #239 

INPUT/OUTPUT DATA MONITOR: #240 

KEY CLICKER: Ensures input accuracy #241 

KEY SAVER: Save/recall keystrokes #242 

LAST COMMAND REPEATER: #243 



LINE COPY: Copy BASIC lines #244 

LINE CROSS-REFERENCE: #245 

LIST/DIR PAUSE:No more fly-bys #246 

LOUER CASE COMMANDS: #247 

MASS DISK INITIALIZATION: #248 

MESSAGE ANIMATOR: Great billboard #249 

METRIC CONVERSION: #250 

ML/BASIC PROGRAM MERGE: #251 

ML TO DATA CONVERTER: #252 

MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST MAKER: #253 

NUMERIC KEYPAD: #254 

ON BREAK GOTO COMMAND: #255 

ON ERROR GOTO COMMAND: #256 

ON RESET GOTO COMMAND: #257 

PHONE DIRECTORY: #258 

PAUSE CONTROL:Put progs on hold #259 

PRINTER TO SCREEN: #260 

PRINTER TUTORIAL: #261 

PROGRAM PACKER: For BASIC progs #262 

PURCHASE ORDER MAKER: #263 

RAMDISK:In-memory disk drive #264 

REPLACE/FIND STRINGS: #265 

REVERSE VIDEO (GREEN): #266 

REVERSE VIDEO (RED): #267 

RAM TEST:Checks your RAM #268 

ROM SWITCHER: #269 

SIGN MAKER: Runs on any DMP #270 

SINGLE STEPPER:Great de-bugger #271 

SPEEDUP TUTORIAL: #272 

SPOOLER:Speed up printouts #273 

SUPER INPUT/LINE INPUT: #274 

SUPER COMMAND KEYS: #275 

SUPER C0PY:Copy multiple files #276 

SUPER EDITOR:Scroll BASIC progs #277 

SUPER PAINT :65535 patterns #278 

SUPER REPEAT: Repeat key #279 

SUPER SCROLLER:View scrolled lines #280 

TAB/SHIFT LOCK KEYS: #281 

TAPE ENCRYPT:Password protect BASIC #282 

TAPE INDEX SYSTEM:For tape progs #283 

TEXT SCREEN SCROLL LOCK: #284 

TITLE SCREEN CREATOR: #285 

UNKILL:Recover KILLed disk progs #286 

VARIABLE CROSS-REFERENCE: #287 



COLOD 

SCHEMATIC 

DESIGNED 



By Prakash Mishra 

An Excellent CACD Software 
Package for CoCo 3. Features: 

* Runs in 640x192 at 1.8Mhz 

* Pull Down Menus 

* Keyboard/ Joystk/Mouse Support 

* RGB/Comp/Monochrome Monitors 

* 72 Modifiable Symbols 
' Multiple Hi-Res Fonts 

' Multiple UNDO Command 

* Symbol Rotate/Line/Box Draw 

* Supports 3 layers of circuits 

* Complete Window Scrolling 

* Powerful Screen Print Command 

* Complete Documentation 



Disk Only $39.95 



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4 Programs $24, 5 or more at $5 each. All Programs on disk. More than 1 pro. 
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StarScan 

by J.D.Walker 

Dumps a HSCREEN2 screen to a NX- 
1000 Rainbow printer in 64 colors!! 
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NX 1000 Rainbow System 

* Star NX1000 Color Printer 

* Serial to Parallel Interface 

* Free Software: StarScan & Signs 'N 
Banners 0n | v $2 99 

(Include $10 Shipping; Amex 3% extra) 



WINDOW MASTER 

The hottest program for your 512K 
CoCo3!! Imagine using Windows, 
Pull Down Menus, Buttons, Icons, 
Edit Fields and Mouse Functions in 
your Basic Programs. No need to 
use OS9. It uses the 640x255 (or 
320x255) hires graphics mode for the 
highest resolution. Up to 31 win- 
dows can appear on the screen at 
one time. Need extra character 
sets? Window Master supports 5 
fonts in 54 sizes!! How about an en- 
hanced editor for Basic? I gives you 
a superb Basic Editor which leaves 
the standard EDIT command in the 
cold. And don't forget that many ex- 
isting Basic/ML programs will run 
under Window Master with little or 
no changes. In fact it does NOT 
take up any memory from Basic. 
Window Master has so many fea- 
tures that will fill 2 pages!! Don't 
MISS OUT on this one! Req. min 
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MJF 




MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 214 

Fairport. N.Y. 14450 
Phone(716) 223-1477 



All orders SSO and above (except Disk Drives] shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air within Continental US 
at no extra charge. No CODs We accept Visa MC. Amex. Check or M0. Please add S3 00 S& H 
J USA/Canada) Other countries S5.00 S&H NYS residents please add sales tax mrnm 

No Free 2nd day shipping for Printer . 



I 



To Place Credit Card Orders, Call Toll Free 1-800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pmest7 daysa week 
NY, Canada, Foreign Orders, Information, Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223-1477 




Solution to last month 's logic problem 

The Crazy Pool 
Ball Explained 



By Bruce W. Ronald 



The problem in last month's RAIN- 
BOW was to identify which of 12 
pool balls was heavier or lighter 
than the others. You had only three 
weighings on a simple balance scale, 
which only tells if one side is heavier 
than the other, to solve the problem. 
The program also provided you with a 
way to test your algorithm. 

One insight into the problem is that 
the most you can handle on the final 
weighing is three, and you must know 
each ball's proclivity. That is, if you 
weigh the first six balls on the left side 
of the scale against the second six on the 
right, and the left side of the scale goes 
down, you know that balls 1 through 6 
have a proclivity to be heavy and 7 
through 12 a proclivity to be light. If 
you end up with three suspects, all with 
a heavy proclivity, you can weigh one 
against the other — for instance. Ball I 
versus 2. If Ball I goes down, it's 'X'; the 
same goes for Ball 2. If the scales 
balance, X is Ball 3. 

You soon learn that the first weigh- 
ing, however, must be lour balls against 
four; no other comparison yields so 
much information and elimination. 
Weigh balls I, 2, 3 and 4 against 5, 6, 
7 and 8. If the scale balances, the 
solution is fairly easy. You next weigh 
balls 9 and 10 against 1 1 and Y (any ball 



Bruce Ronald, an advertising copywrit- 
er, holds a bachelor's degree in speech. 
He has written a science fiction thriller, 
Our Man in Space, and the hook of the 
musical, Dracula, Baby. He and his 
wife, Virginia, coauthored two prize- 
winning local histories of Dayton and 
its suburb. Oak wood — the latter on the 
CoCo. 



from the first eight that you know to be 
normal). 

If this scale balances. Ball 12 is the 
deviant; weighing Ball 12 against Y 
determines if it is lighter or heavier. If 
balls 9 and 10 go down, it can only be 
because either 9 or 10 are heavier, or 1 1 
is lighter; weigh 9 against 10 to finish the 
answer. If Ball 9 goes down, it is the 
"crazy" ball. Ditto for Ball 10. If this 
weighing balances. Ball 1 1 is light. 

If the original weighing does not 
balance, we have a trickier problem. If 
group I through 4 goes down, we know 
that I, 2, 3 or 4 could be heavy; or 5, 
6, 7 or 8 could be light; or vice versa if 
group I through 4 goes up. 

In this case the next weighing is balls 
I, 2 and 5 against 3, 6 and Y. If group 
I, 2, 5 drops, it can only be because I 
or 2 is heavy or 6 is light; a 1 versus 2 
weighing produces the answer. If group 
3, 6, Y drops, the crazy ball can only be 
Bali 5 (light) or Ball 3 (heavy). A 
weighing of one against Y produces the 
answer. If 1, 2, 5 and 3, 6, Y are equal, 
weigh Ball 7 against Ball 8. The lighter 
ball is the deviant. If 7 and 8 balance, 
the only possibility remaining is a heavy 
Ball 4. 

Whoever dreamed up this problem 
originally was an evil genius! I hate to 
admit how many hours I spent before 
spotting the concept of proclivity and, 
finally, the trick of crossing the balls on 
the middle weighing. I hope you were 
much faster and that the program 
helped you prove the validity of your 
answer. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this solution may be addressed to the 
author at 101 Forrer Blvd., Dayton, OH 
45419. Please enclose an SASE when 
requesting a reply.) /R\ 



16 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



DISK DRIVES 



DoubleSided Double Density360K40 Track V? Ht Disk Drives for CoCo2 and3. Buy from someone else and all you get is a disk drive Buy 
and not only do you get a quality disk drive but also $60 worth ol disk utility software ( Super Tape/ Disk Transfer and Disk Tutorial) 
DISKMAX utility which allows you to use BOTH sides of our disk drives Its like buying TWO disk drives for the price of ONE!! 

Drive (with J & M Controller & Cable): $229.95 Drive 1 : $1 49.00 
TWO Vz ht Drives in one case with cable & controller: $339.95 
Single Power- Supply & Case: $59.95 Disk Drive Power Supply T Cables: $8.95 

(90 day warranty on all drives) 
J&M Controller (with RSDOS): $79.95 DISTO Super Controller: $99.95 
Mini Eprom Programmer Add-On: $54.95 Real Time Clock & Parallel Printer Interface Add-on: $39.95 

DISTO Super Controller II: $129.95 
1 Drive Cable: $19.95 2 Drive Cable: $24.95 4 Drive Cable: $39.95 




HARD DRIVE KITS 

Complete with Hard Drive, WD Controller 
Burke Interface, Cables,. Case, Power 
Supply, Software (OS9 & Basic) and 
complete instruction manual. 
20 Meg Kit: $529 
30 Meg Kit: $549 
Assembled/Tested/Formatted: $30 extra 




I'l.addSlOS&H 
for drives in 
US/Canada 



HARD DRIVE INTERFACES 
COCO XT: Use 5-120 meg drives with CoCo 

$69.,95. With Real Time Clock: $99.95 
HYPER 10: Allows Hard Drives use with 

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MONOCHROME 

MONITOR S99 (Cable Extra) 

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MAGNAVOX 8CM5I5 RGB Monitor SO 
ivi/-win#-ww/\ 17% larger screen than standard 1 2" monitors 

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ONLYS294.00 Include $1 2 shipping 
FREE Magnavox cable for COCO 3 with the 
purchase of the monitor. 




EPROM 



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lAJMieilldUUII .nil. 



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^CABLES/INTERFACE 

RS232 Y CABLE: Hook 2 devices to the 

serial port ONLY SI 8.95 

Y CABLE: Use your Disk System with 

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RGB Cable: S24.95 

CM-8 RGB Analog Ext. Cable: SI 9.95 
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SI 9 95 

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switch selectable baud rates(300-9600) 

Comes with all cables S44.95 



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EPROM ERASER (Datarase): Fast erase of 
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ROM PAKw/ Blank PC Board 27xx Series: 

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.KEYBOARDS/ ACCESSORIES^ 

KEYBOARD EXTENSION CABLE: Our keyboard 
extender cable allows you to move your keyboard 
away from the computer and type with ease. You 
can use your existing keyboard with this cable or 
leave your present keyboard intact and use a second 
keyboard A MUST for all CoCo Users Only $39.95. 
Cable with CoCo II keyboard: $49.95 COCO 3 
KEYBOARO (includes FREE FUNCTION KEYS 
software value $1 9.95)539.95 
CoColl keyboard: SI 9.95 



CHIPS, ETC. 



Disk Basic Rom 1.1 (Needed lor CoCo III) S29.95. 
68B09E Chip: S14.95 ECB Rom 1.1: 529.95. Multi- 
Pak PAL Chip for CoCo 3 519.95 PAL Switcher: Now 
you can switch between the CoCo II and CoCo III 
modes when using the Multi-Pak You need the 
OLDER and NEW PAL chip for the 26-3024 
Multipak OnlyS39.95 With NEW PAL Chip 549.95 
!r :•. DS/DD Disks: S0.45 each. 



MJF 



MirnrtrnM «?n FTWA O F All orders S50 and above (except Disk Drives] shipped by UPS 2 nd Day Air within Continental US 
PO Box 21 4 **" nc a t no extra chargt No CODs We accept Visa MCAmex Check or MO. Please addS3.00SSH 

Fa j r 'port. N. Y. 1 4450 (USA/Canada). Other countries $5.00 S&H NYS residents please add sales tax mm 

Phone(7i6) 223-1477 No Free 2nd Day Shipping lor Monitors. 



To Place Credit Card Orders, Call Toll Free 1-800-654-5244 9 AM- 9 PM EST 7 days a week 

NY, Canada, Foreign Orders, Information, Technical Advice and Order Status call 1-716-223-1477 




COLORWARE 



BLINDING SPEED 

Max-10 is entirely written in 

machine language. Its speed wil 

amaze you. 



SUPERB FILE SUPPORT 

Max-10 menus let you load files 

without typing anything: simply 

point and click. 



SLEEK 

A lot of word processors "do the 

job", but Max-1 makes word 

processing fun. 



INTUITIVE 

Max-10 is so well designed you 

can use it without reading the 

manual. 



FUN 

Max-10 is actually fun to use, 

which is quite an achievement for 

a word processor. 



FORMAT 

Unlimited choice of right or left 

alignment, centering, and line 

spacing. Screen is updated 

immediately to show exact effects 

of changes. 



PAGE NUMBERING 

On-screen page number helps 
you find your place. 



FILE COMPATIBILITY 

Max-10 can import files from 
your outmoded word processor. 



GRAPHICS 

Mix text and graphics on your 
page. Pictures can be created by 
CoCo Max, the DS-69 Digitizer, 
or any graphics editor. 



FIT IT IN 

Pictures can be shrunk and 

stretched in both directions to fit 

the page and text. 



TAB STOPS & MARGINS 

The rulers make tabs and margins 
easy to see, use, and change. 




File Edit Search* 

, 1 1 \\ 1 1 1 1^1 1? J?i .in. 



• WYSIWIG adj. ( 

You See Is What 

a iwe choice if )ui iMltJM font 







CUT AND PASTE 

Move anything (even graphics) 
anywhere in the document. 



Max-1 Specifications: variable line length; right, left, top and bottom margins; word , 
wrap; undo; page numbering; set starting page; left and right justification; centering; margins 
and centering can be changed anywhere in the document; variable line spacing; 
programmable headers and footers (with centering, graphics, etc.); type ahead; key repeat; key 
click; scroll up and down; jump to any point in document; ASCII file ouput for compatibility; 
disk directory; kill files; bold, italic, underline, superscript and subscript type styles; wordwrap; 
block cut, copy, move; global search and replace; paragraph indent; clipboard; merge; show 
file (on disk); free memory display, page count, paragraph count, word count; graphics can be 
resized and moved; multiple fonts; error recovery and more! 



PRINTERS 

Max-10 currently works with the following printers: 

DMP-105, DMP-106, DMP-130, Epson MX,RX,FX,LX 

and compatible, Gemini 10 series, CCP-220, and OKI-92. 



BY DAVE STAMPE 

Author of CoCo Max III, the best 

and most acclaimed CoCo 3 

Graphics Editor. 



GRAPHICS 

Max-10 can import pictures stored in the following 

formats: CoCo Max l,ll,lll, MCE, MGF, 5 level DS-69, as 

well as any standard PMODE 4, HSCREEN 2 or 3 picture. 



THE DAZZLING WORD PROCESSOR 

AND DOCUMENT CREATOR FOR THE COCO 3 



PULL DOWN MENUS 

All Max-10 Functions can be 

easily accessed through the six 

pull-down menus. There are no 

commands to learn. 



WYSIWYG! 

What You See Is What You Get. 

Max-1 is the only CoCo word 

processor with graphics where the 

printout looks exactly like the 

screen (Macintosh style). 



ayout Font H1JITJ 
• Plain Tent cP 
Bold CB 




Underlined \ ell 
Superscript cH 
subscript cL 



7fLSUt 



iz-ee-wig) 1. What 
oil Get (acronym) - 

ad styles. 










\ 



PAGE BREAK 

Dotted lines on the screen show 

where pages begin and end. No 

more surprises at printing time. 



FULL JUSTIFICATION 

Proportionally spaced characters 

let you create text that looks 

really nice. No more squished 

"M"s and oversized "l"s. 



UNDO 

The undo feature lets you change 

your mind even AFTER you make 

a drastic change, such as a "block 

delete". 



SCROLL BOX 

Point and click for lightning fast 
access to any point in the entire 
document. 



MORE FONTS 

Max-10 features 20 different 
fonts (styles and sizes). It goes 
well beyond your printer's built in 
character sets. 



TOTAL CONTROL 

Any number of available 

character styles and sizes can be 

mixed on the same line. 

— — — — — — -— - — — - 



HEADERS & FOOTERS 

These are super easy to add and 

edit. They can even include 

graphics and pictures! 



Why Max-10? 

Most of you already have an 
"adequate" word processor, 
so why did we spend 
considerable time and effort 
to create Max-1 0? 
Because you asked for it. 
CoCo Max made graphic 
creation fun. it is fast and 
feature loaded, yet amazingly 
easy to use. You wanted your 
word processor to be as 
friendly, forgiving, and 
amazing as GoCo Max. We 
couldn't do it on the CoCo 1 
or 2, but with the advanced 
CoCo 3 graphics, the word 
processor you always wanted 
is here: Max-10 
Max-10 is not just a word 
processor, it gives you letter 
styles and sizes that your 
printer doesn't have. It lets 
you mix graphics and pictures 
in your text for a professional 
looking output 

Additionally, the screen shows : 
exactly what your output will 
look like. Text is in the size 
and style that it will print. 
Page breaks, line length and 
spacing are clearly shown. No 
more hoping that the text will 
fit, no more guessing at type 
styles, no more messing with : 
printer codes, no more cryptic 
commands to memorize, and 
best of all, the undo feature 
lets you make a mistake and 
still recover your text. 
Max-10 makes typing easy, 
and you'll love the new things 
you can do with the best word 
processor ever created for the 
CoCo. 

PRICE: $79.95 



CoCo Max 111 OWNERS 

f you already own CoCo Max III, 
deduct $10 from your order. 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 

Any CoCo 3 (1 28K or 51 2K) with at least 1 Disk Drive. 

Mouse or joystick. 

Monochrome, RGB or Composite monitor. 



[COLORWAREl 



■ 



jfo. TO ORDER 

^Call (203) 656-1 806 9 to 5 Eastern time' 

Visa or Mastercard accepted. CO.O olden $3 extra 

Send check Of M.O. to: Cokxwate, 242-W West Ave, Oarien CT 06820 

Add S3 pa c*der for shipping C5 to Gnada, 10% to overseas). 

CT residents add 7.5% sales tax 



F e atur e? 



16K ECB 



■ '■•'■''•• ■■■v. .. 



"- ■ 



There are ships out there — waiting for you 



SeaWar 



By Jeff Hameluck 



£*iea War is a one-player game 
^^ where you try to sink the ships the 
As-/ CoCo has hidden on a IO-by-lO 
grid. It requires at least 16K Extended 
Color Basic and the standard CoCo 
joystick or mouse. It does not use high 
resolution graphics, but it does use 
multi-dimensional arrays, thereby re- 
quiring Extended Color Basic. Sea War 
will also run on the CoCo 3 if it is run 
on the 32-column text screen. 



ENEHV CARRIER Sum'' 
SHOTS LEFT: 44 HIT: 



1-3 




When you run Sea War, a title screen 
will appear and theme music will play. 
To start the game simply press the right 
joystick button, and the game will 
continue. There is no need to wait for 
the music to cease. The next screen 
simply gives a little background infor- 
mation about the game's scenario. To 
continue, press the right joystick button 
once again. Next, the information on 
the ships you must sink is displayed (See 
Figure I). 

Jeff Hameluck is a high school senior 
who has won a BASIC programming 
contest sponsored by the Regina Stu- 
dent Chapter of the Association for 
Computing Machinery. 



After you press the button again, the 
game begins. The computer will put the 
five ships somewhere on the 10-by-10 
grid. It is your job to sink all of the ships 
in 60 shots or less. The ships will be 
placed on the grid either vertically or 
horizontally, but not diagonally. The 
length of each ship is the same as the 
number of hits it requires to sink the 
ship. Therefore, since it takes five hits 
to sink an Aircraft Carrier, an Aircraft 
Carrier will be five units long, and so on. 
Also, each hit has to be in a different 
part of the ship. In other words, once 
one part of the ship is hit, a second shell 
there will just waste ammunition; the 
shell counts as a shot, not a hit. 



To shoot, use the right joystick to 
move the cursor on the screen over the 
top of the square you want to shoot. 
There are pointers along the vertical 
and horizontal axes to help guide you. 
Once you are positioned, press the 
button. If the square comes up white, 
there is no ship there. If it comes up 
showing anything but while, you have 
hit a ship. The ship will be represented 
by a two-letter acronym on the game 
board. The type and location of the ship 
will be displayed at the top of the screen. 
The acronyms are listed on the left side 
of the screen with the number of hits 



Aircraft Carrier 


5 hits to sink 






Battle Ship: 




4 hits to sink 




Crusier: 




3 hits to sink 




Submarine: 




3 hits to sink 




Destroyer: 




2 hits to sink 




F 


igure 1 





20 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



The Amazing A-BUS 




m All IK 



An A-BUS system with two Motherboards 
A-BUS adapter in foreground 

The A-BUS system works with the original CoCo, 

theCoCo2 and the CoCo 3. 



Aboutthe A-BUS system: 

• All the A-BUS cards are very easv lo use with any language Ihat can 
read or write lo a Port or Memory In BASIC, use INPand OUT (or PEEK and 
POKE with Apples and Tandy Color Compulersl 

• They are all compatible with each other You can mix and match up lo 25 
cards to tit your application. Card addresses are easily set with jumpers. 

• A-BUS cards are shipped with power supplies (except PO-123) and 
detailed manuals (including schematics and programming examples! 

Relay Card re-1 40: si 29 

Includes eight industrial relays, (3 amp contacts. SPST) Individually 
controlled and latched. 8 LED's show status Easy to use (OUT or POKE in 
BASIC). Card address is lumper selectable 

Reed Relay Card re-is6:$99 

Same Icatures as above, but uses 8 Reed Relays to switch low level signals 
(20mA maxl Use as a channel selector, solid state relay driver, etc 

Analog Input Card AD-142:S129 

Eight analog inputs. to +5V range can be expanded to 1 00V by adding a 
resistor 8 bit resolution (20mV). Conversion time 120us. Perfect to 
measure voltage, temperature, light levels, pressure, etc Very easy to use. 

1 2 Bit A/D Converter AN-146:S139 

This analog to digital converter is accurate to .025%. Input range is -4Vto 
+4V Resolution: 1 millivolt The on board amplifier boosts signals up to 50 
times to read microvolts. Conversion time is 1 30ms. Ideal lor thermocouple 
strain gauge, etc. 1 channel (Expand to 8 channels using the RE-1 56card). 

Digital Input Card in-141:S59 

The eight inputs are optically isolated, so it's safe and easy to connect any 
"on/olf" devices, such as switches, thermostats, alarm loops, etc to your 
computer. To read the eight inputs, simply use BASIC INP (or PEEK). 

24 Line TTL I/O dg-i48:$65 

Connect 24 input or output signals (switches or any TTL device) to your 
computer The card can be set tor- input latched output, strnhed outpul 
strobed input, and/or bidirectional strobed I/O Uses the 8255 A chip. 

Clock with Alarm cl-144: $89 

Powerlul clock/calendar with: battery backup for Time, Date and Alarm 
setting (time and date); built in alarm relay, led and buzzer; liming to 1 /100 
second Easy to use decimal format Lithium battery included. 

Touch Tone® Decoder ph-145:S79 

Each lone is converted into a number which is stored on the board. Simply 
read the number with INP or POKE. Use for remote control projects, etc 

A-BUS Prototyping Card pr-152:$is 

3'k by 4'A in with power and ground bus. Fits up lo 10 ICs 




ST-143 



g mm 



Plug into the future 

With the A-BUS you can plug your PC (IBM, Apple, 
TRS-80) into a future of exciting new applications in the fields 
of control, monitoring, automation, sensing, robotics, etc. 

Alpha's modular A-BUS offers a proven method to build your 
"custom" system today. Tomorrow, when you are ready to take 
another step, you will be able to add more functions. This is ideal for 
first time experimenting and teaching. 

A-BUS control can be entirely done in simple BASIC or Pascal, 
and no knowledge of electronics is required! 

An A-BUS system consists of the A-BUS adapter plugged into 
your computer and a cable to connect the Adapter to 1 or 2 A-BUS 
cards. The same cable will also fit an A-BUS Motherboard for 
expansion up to 25 cards in any combination. 

The A-BUS is backed by Alpha's continuing support (our 11th 
year, 50000 customers in over 60 countries). 

The complete set of A-BUS User's Manuals is available for $10. 



Smart Stepper Controller sc-i49:S299 

World's finest stepper controller On board microprocessor controls 4 
motors simultaneously. Incredibly, it accepts plain English commands like 
"Move arm 10.2 inches lelt". Many complex sequences can be defined as 
"macros" and stored in the on board memory For each axis, you can control 
coordinate (relative or absolute), ramping, speed, step type (hall, hill, wave), 
scale factor, units, holding power, etc Many inputs: 8 limit & "wait until" 
switches, panic button, etc On the lly reporting ol position, speed, etc. On 
board drivers (350mA) lorsmall steppers (MO- 103) Send for SC-1 49 llyer 
Remote Control Keypad Option RC-1 21 : $49 

To control the 4 motors directly, and "teach" sequences ol motions 
Power Driver Board Option PD-1 23: $89 

Boost controller drive to 5 amps per phase For two motors (eight drivers) 
Breakout Board Option BB-122:$19 

For easv connection of 2 motors 3 It. cable ends with screw terminal board 

Stepper Motor Driver st-143: $79 

Stepper motors are the ultimate in motion control. The special package 
(below) includes everything you need to get familiar with them Each card 
drives two stepper motors (1 2V. bidirectional. 4 phase. 350mA per phase) 
Special Package: 2 motors (M0-1 03) + ST-143: PA-1 81 : $99 

Stepper Motors M0-103:$15or4for$39 

Pancake type. 2Vi" dia, V Shalt. 7 5"/steo. 4 phase bidirectional. 300 
step/sec. 1 2V. 36 ohm. bipolar, 5 oz-in torque, same as Airpax K82701 -P2 

Current Developments 

Intelligent Voice Synthesizer, 1 4 Bit Analog to Digital converter, 4 Channel 
Digital lo Analog converter. Counter Timer. Voice Recognition 

A-BUS Adapters for: 

IBM PC, XT, AT and compatibles. Uses one short slot 
Tandy 1 000, 1 000 EX& SX, 1 200. 3000 Usesone short slot 
Apple II, II+. He, Uses any slot. 
TRS-80 Model 102, 200 Pluqs Into 40 pin "system bus" 
Model 1 00. Uses40pinsocxel (Socket is duplicated on adapter) 
TRS-BO Mod3,4.4n HIB50 nlnhus tWiihh-iiritl.ck useY-cnbioi 
TRS-80 Model 4 P. Includes extra cable (50 pin bus is ieccss«ll 
TRS-80 Model I Plugs into 40 pin I/O bus on KB or E/l 
Color Computers (Tandy).Fits ROM slol Multinak. or Y-catile 

A-BUS Cable (3 ft, 50 cond.) ca-163: $24 

Connects the A-BUS adapter to one A-BUS card or to lirst Motherboard 
Special cable for two A-BUS cards: CA-1 62: $34 

A-BUS Motherboard mb-i20:$99 

— Each Motherboard holds live A-BUS cards A sixth connector allows a 
7^^^ ' second Motherboard to be added lo the first (with connecting cable CA- 
' " '\ 161 ■ $1 2) Up to live Motherboards can be joined this way to a single A- 
J BUS adapter. Sturdy aluminum frame and card guides included 

• The A-BUS is not a replacement for the Multi-pak 




CL-144 




RE-140 




IN-141 



II 



AR-133 .$69 
AR-133 S69 
AR-134...S49 
AR-I36...S69 
AR-135...S69 
AR-132 S49 
AR-137 S62 
AR-131...S39 
AR-138 .549 




'■BS2M 
1 1 1 . i ■ 



AD-142 



Add S3. 00 per order for shipping. 
Visa, MC. checks. M.O. welcome 
CT a NY residents add sales lax. 
C.O.D. add S3. 00 extra. 
Canada: shipping Is SS 
Overseas add 10% 




ALPHA 







a S'Qma Induzmts Company 



242- W West Avenue, Darien, CT 06820 



Technical inlo (203) 656-1 806 

£eM y 800 221-0916 

Connecticut otders: (203) 348-9436 

All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 




SPECIAL 





<S5"- 



- FREE DEMO DISK 

- FREE COCOSHOW PROGRAM 

- FREE EXTRA FONTS DISK 





must be the most enjoyable, useful, 

and awesome program you've ever 

seen or your money back. 



Instantly, 
no questions asked. 



CALL NOW TOLL FREE 1-800 221 



Mon-Fri 
9 to 5 EST 



AND LET THE FUN BEGIN 



anything l *«£, sn . t a 3'"3' e ven 

\fflgSteR— « 

Note: There is only one CoCo Max III. Do not confuse (coKww»nc 's CoCo Max with similar sounding imitations. 



A FEW QUOTES : 

Wo learn and use 
'.FamHy Computing 



In 

the 



F^ Sector Computer 



^^55^e a9 c a r 



s^aassssi^Kssa 



*flfiRS§ 




<#> 



"The best program ever written for the Color Computer" 



That's how thousands of enthusiastic users rated 
the CoCo Max II drawing program. With CoCo Max 
III we are ready to amaze them again. Instead of 
"patching" CoCo Max II, we rewrote it from scratch 
to take advantage of the CoCo Max III hardware. 
The results will knock your socks off! Below is a 
brief list of some of the new features, but some, 
such as animation, color sequencing, or the slide 
show, have to be seen. Send for the Demo Disk, and 
see for yourself. 

Everybody's favorite drawing package features: 

- A 50% larger editing window. - Zoom area 400% 
larger. - New drawing tools: rays, 3D cubes, arcs,... - 
New editing tools: shadow.text size,... - Rotate by 1 .5° 
steps - Select any 1 6 of the 64 possible colors (all 64 
colors displayed at once!) - Powerful color mix: additive, 
sub-tractive, overlay,... - Full color editing of patterns 
and color changing patterns. - Incredible special eff- 
ects with color cycling up to 8 colors with variable 
speed. -Animation adds the dimension of motion to 
your image. (Must be seen.) - Sophisticated data com- 
pression saves up to 70% of disk space when saving 
pictures. 

In addition, there are dozens of enhancements to the 
multitude of features that made CoCo Max 1 1 a best seller. 

More about CoCo Max III 

• CoCo Max III is not an upgrade of CoCo Max II. It is entirely 
rewritten to take advantage of the new CoCo 3 hardware 
(More memory, resolution, colors, speed,...) 

• The newCoCo Max III Hi-Res Interface and theCoCo Max II 
Hl-Res Pack are nof interchangable. 

• The new interface plugs into the joystick connector. 

• The CoCo Max III disk is not copy protected. 

• CoCo Max III only works with the CoCo 3. 

• A Y-Cable or Multi-pak is not necessary. 

• Colors are printed in five shades of gray. 

• CoCo Max III can read CoCo Max II pictures. 



Note: CoCo Max II (for the CoCo 2) is still available on disk 
($79.95). CoCo Max I isstill available on tape ($69.95). For 
details, refer to our double page ad in any Rainbow from 
January '86 to July '87 



Toll Free operators are tor orders only. II you need precise answers, call 
Ihe tech line. (Delailled CoCo Max specs are Included with the Demo Disk.) 



Add S3. 00 par ardor tor ihtnplna. 
Uln. MC. chichi. MO. walcomg. 
CT residents add sains lax. 
COD. idd $3.00 altra. 
Canada: shipping li SS 

Ovarian add 10% 



( 



Technical into (203)656-1806 

&°c n r y 800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders (203) 348-9436 
All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern lime 



Sf Beware ol inferior imitations that DO NOT include a Hi-Res Interface 
or charar extra lor each utility. 




Imagine this picture In sixteen colors ! 



Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Uc« CoCo Max for a full month. 

If you are not delighted with It, 

we will refund every penny. 




System Requirements: 

Any CoCo 3 disk system with a Joystick or a Mouse. 

We apologize to tape users, CoCo Max III needs the flexibility of a disk. 

The CoCo Max III system includes: • The special Hi-Res 

interface(foryourmouseorjoystick) • TheCoCoMax III disk • Many 

utilities: (Toconvert Max n pictures. Max colors. eta) • Adetailled User's 

Manual. Complete system; nothing else to buy, CoCo Max III: $79.95* 



WITH COUPON ONLY 



FREE DEMO DISK 

Name 
Street 
City 
State Zip 

Printer used: 

Please include $2 to help defray Processing and Shipping 
costs. (Check, Money Order, etc. Sorry, no COD or Credit 
Cards). Coupon (or copy) must be mailled to: 



[COLORWARE 



A division ol Sigma Industries, Inc. 



COLORWARE 

242-W West Avenue 
Darien, CT 06820 



required to sink that vessel. 

The game will end after you have 
either hit and sunk all five ships or used 
up all 60 rounds of ammunition. Either 
way, the screen will display the true 



way, the screen will display the true pressed, the 
locations of all the ships. You will then theme song 



be given a rating of one to 10 based on 
your shots-to-hits ratio. To play again, 
press Y or the right joystick button. To 
quit, press N. If neither of these keys are 
pressed, the game will start over at the 



(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 67 Dulton Crescent, Regina, 
Saskatchewan, Canada S4N 4E4. 
Please enclose an SA SE when request- 

D 



ing a reply.) 





S 








M 


410 ... 


....44 


1510 .. 


...115 




630 ... 


....87 


1740 . . 


...98 


740 .. . 


...180 


1900 . . 


...239 


960 ... 


....53 


2050 . . 


....18 


1270 


224 


END 


130 



The listing: SERWfiR 

100 ' 

110 ' + + 

120 ' : SEA WAR : 
130 ' + + 

140 ' : : 

150 • : COPYRIGHT (C) 1988 : 
160 ■ : : 

170 * + — + 

180 ' : : 

190 ' : by: Jeff Hameluck : 
200 ■ : : 

210 ' + + 

220 ' 

2 30 CLS 

240 PRINT @ 3 3, STRINGS (30, 19 1) ; 

250 FOR X=65 TO 417 STEP 32 

260 PRINT @ X,CHR$(191) ; 

270 PRINT @ X+29,CHR$(191) ; 

280 NEXT X 

290 PRINT @ 449,STRING$(30,191) ; 

300 A$="jeff" 

310 GOSUB 490 

320 PRINT @ 100, B$; 

3 30 A$="hameluck" 
340 GOSUB 490 

350 PRINT @ 109,B$; 

3 60 A$="proudly" 
370 GOSUB 490 

380 PRINT @ 169, B$; 

390 A$="presents" 

400 GOSUB 490 

410 PRINT @ 232, B$; 

420 A$="sea"+CHR$(128)+ ,, war ,, 

430 GOSUB 490 

440 PRINT @ 297 ,B$; 

450 B$=CHR$(128) 

4 60 PRINT @ 356, "press" ;B$;"the" 
;B$ ; "right" ;B$ ; "joystick" ; 

470 PRINT @ 393, "button" ;B$;"to" 

;B$;"play"; 

480 GOTO 550 

490 B$="" 

500 FOR X=l TO LEN(A$) 

510 B$=B$+MID$(A$,X,1)+CHR$(128) 

520 NEXT X 

530 BS=LEFT$(B$,LEN(B$)-1) 



540 RETURN 

550 FOR X=l TO 55 

560 READ A$ 

570 PP=PEEK(65280) 

580 IF PP=254 OR PP=126 THEN 660 

590 PLAY A$ 

600 NEXT X 

610 RESTORE 

620 GOTO 550 

630 DATA "T5L804C" , "03B", "04L4C" 

, "03C" , "C" , "L8G" , "F" , "E" , "G" , "04 

C" , "03B" , "04C" , "L804E" , "D" , "C" , " 

04" 

640 DATA "L4D" / "03D","D","L8D"," 

C" , "02B" , "03G" , "G" , "F+" , "L4G" , "L 

803A" , "B" , "04C" , "03B" , "A" , "G" , "A 



650 DATA "G" / "F","E","F" / ,, E","D" 

L802G",' 
,"D","F' 



, "C" , "D" , "C" , "02B" , "A" , "L802G" , " 
03C", "02B", "03D", "C" , "E" " n " "*" 



,"L4E","C","C" 

660 CLS 

670 PRINT 

680 PRINT" YOU COMMAND A SHORE 

BATTERY WHICH HAS BEEN ORDERED 
TO SINK AN ENEMY FLEET ANCHORE 

D IN A FOGGY COVE IN FRONT OF 
YOU. YOU CAN'T SEE THE SHIPS RI 

GHT AWAY BUT AS SOON AS YOU HIT 
ONE THE LOCATION AND TYPE OF S 

HIP WILL BE KNOWN"; 

690 PRINT" BECAUSE THE EXPLOSION 
WILL HIGHLY ILLUMINATE THE 
THE IMMEDIATE AREA FOR A SHORT 
TIME. YOU ONLY HAVE 60 ROUNDS 
TO SINK THE 5 SHIP ENEMY FLEET 
WHICH CONSISTS OF:" 

700 PRINT @ 482 /'PRESS THE BUTTO 

N TO CONTINUE" 7 

710 FOR X=l TO 200 

720 NEXT X 

730 PP=PEEK( 65280) 

740 IF PP=254 OR PP=126 THEN 750 
ELSE 730 

750 CLS: PRINT "AIRCRAFT CARRIER-5 
HITS TO SINK BATTLE SHIP -4 
HITS TO SINK CRUISER -3 

HITS TO SINK SUBMARINE -3 
HITS TO SINK DESTROYER -2 
HITS TO SINK" 

760 PRINT @ 482, "PRESS THE BUTTO 

N TO CONTINUE"; 

770 FOR X=l TO 200 

780 NEXT X 

790 PP=PEEK( 652 80) 



24 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



VIP Writer HI 

VIP Writer has ALWAYS led ihe pack with features and now VIP Wriier III still leads the 
wayl The chart below illustrates Ihis fact. Telewnter 1 28 only gives you 48K lor text. 
Why is it called Telewnter 128? Word power 3 gives only 72KI VIP Writer III makes use 
ol over 106KI VIP Wnter III is the ONLY CoCo 3 word processor worthy of it's namel 



WORD PROCESSOR COMPARISON CHART 


CoCo3with 128K 


VTP Writer HI 


Telewriter 128 


Word Power 3 


Texi S teniae 


ovrja 45.M6 


43.000 


72.000 


?r.x Spooler 


YtS 57.JM 


NGNc 


NOMb 


Total Slorace 


106,000 


48.000 


72.000 


Soeuing Cnecker 


VIP Soener 


NOT* 


l-REfcWAHc 


ftCB HO Support 


|6H 


NONE 


kOfJfe 


Screen U.'So:av 


32M0/84/8fl 


40/80 


80 



SCREEN DISPLAY OPTIONS 

As the chart above shows • VIP Wnter III offers more screen width optipos -all with 24 
lines and actual lower case letiers. It uses the CoCo 3s hardware display and double deck 
speed and is VERY VERY FAST! You can choose fore and background colors from up to 
64 different hues. Color can be turned ON pr OFF for the best possible display using a 
color or monochrome monitor or TV sel VIP Wnter III has a built in on-line context 
sensitive help facility which displays command usage in easy to read colored windows. 

CUSTOMIZER & PRINTER INSTALLER 

VIP Wnter III comes with a configuration / printer installation program which lets ycu 
customize VIP Wnter III to suit your own liking. You can set screen width and colors as well 
as margins and more. You can also install your own pnnter and set interface type (serial, 
parallel or J&M), baud rate, line feeds, etc. Once done, you never have to enter these 
parameters again! VIP Wnter III will load n' go with your custom configuration every umel 

TEXT FILE STORAGE 

VIP Writer III creates ASCII text files which are compatible with all other VIP Programs 
as well as other programs which use ASCII file formal You can use VIP Writer III to even 
create BASIC programs! There is a 49K text buffer and disk or cassette file linking 
allowing virtually unlimited text space. VIP Writer III works with up to lour disk drives and 
lets you display disk directories and free space as well as rename or kill disk files. In 
addition VIP Wnter III is 100% compatible with the RGB Computer Systems HARD DISK. 

EDITING FEATURES 

VIP Writer III has a full featured screen editor which can be used to edit text with lines up 
|p 240 characters long with or withcut automatic word wrap around. You can select 
type-over mode or insert mode. There is even an OOPS command to recall a cleared text 
buffer. Other editing leatures include: Type-ahead • typamatic key repeat and key beep 
for flawless text entry • end of line bell • full four way cursor control with scrolling ■ top 
of textfile • bottom of textfile • page up • page down • op pf screen • bottom ol screen • 
beginning of line • end of line • left one word • right one word • DELETE character, to 
beginning or end of line, word to the left or right, or enure line • INSERT character or line 
• LOCATE and/or CHANGE or DELETE single or multiple occurrence using wildcards • 
BLOCK copy, mpve or delete with up to TEN simultaneous block manipulators • TAB key 
and programmable tab steps ■ word count • line restore • three PROGRAMMABLE 
FUNCTIONS to perform tasks such as auto column creation and multiple copy printing. 

TEXT FORMATTING 

VIP Writer III automatically formats your text for you or allows you to formal your lext in 
any way you wish. You can change the top, bottom, left or nght margin and page length. 
You can -sel your text flush left, center or flush right. You can lurn right hand 
justification on or off. You can have headers, footers, page number! and TWO auxiliary 
lines which can appear on odd, even or all pages. You can also select the line on which they 
appear! Yeu can even change the line spacingl Parameters can be altered ANYWHEREI 

PREVIEW PRINT WINDOW 

VIP Writer III features an exclusive formal window which allows you to preview your 
document BEFORE PRINTING ITI You are able to move up, down, left and right to see 
centered text, margins, page breaks, crphan lines etc. This makes hyphenation a snap! 

PRINTING 

VIP Writer III prints TWICE as fast as any other CoCo word processorl II supports most 
serial or parallel printers using J&M JFD-CP or Rainbow interface and gives you the 
ability to select baud rates from 110 to 19.200. You can imbed pnnter control codes 
anywhere in your text file EVEN WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXTI VIP Writer III also has 
TWENTY programmable printer macros which allow you to easily control all of your 
pnnters capaoilities such as bold, underline, italics and superscnpt using simple key 
strokes. Other features include: multiple copy pnnong ■ single sheet pause • line feeds. 

PRINT SPOOLING 

Save uo to $150 on a pnnt spooler because VIP Wnter III has a built in print spooler with 
a 57.000 character buffer which allows you to print one document WHILE you are editing 
another. You don't have lo wail until your pnnter is done before starling another jobl 

DOCUMENTATION 

VIP Writer III is supplied with a 1 25 page instruction manual which is well written and 
includes many examples. The manual has a tulonal and glossary of terms lor ihe beginner 
as well as a complete index! VIP Writer III includes VIP Speller. DISK $79.95 

Cassette version does not include VIP Speller. TAPE $59.95 



VIP Writer owners: Upgrade to tha VIP Writer III Disk for $49.95 
or Tape for $39.95. Send original disk or tape. Include $3 S/H. 



It's Word Processor Trade In Time 

For a limited time you can trade in your old software for the VIP Writer I or III and save up 
to $201 Send in your old disk or tape and manual. VIP Wnter tape $34.95. disk $49.95. 
VIP Wnter III tape $44.95, disk $59.95. Include $3.00 shipping. Oiler expires 8/31/88 



VIP Database III 

The VIP Database III features selectaola screen displays of 40, 64 or 80 characters by 
24 lines with choice of 64 foreground and background colors for maximum utility. It uses 
the CoCo 3's hardware screen and double clock speed lo be the FASTEST database 
available! VIP Database III will handle as many records as will (it on your disks and is 
structured in a simple and easy to understand menu system with full prompting for easy 
operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design. All files are fulry indexed lor 
speed and efficiency. Full sen ol records is provided for easy listing of names, figures, 
addresses, etc., in ascending or descending alphabetical or numeric order. Records can be 
searched for specific entnes using multiple search cntena. With Database III mail-merge 
you may also combine files, son and print mailing lists, pnnt form letters, address 
envelopes - the list is endless. The built-in MATH package even perferms arithmetic 
operations and updates other fields. VIP Database III also has a pnnt spooler and repon 
generator with unlimited print format capabilities including embedcable control codes lor 
use with ALL pnnters. DISK $6935 



VIP Database owners: Upgrade to the VIP Database III Disk lor 

$39.95. Send original disk. Include $3 shipping. 



VIP Integrated Library 

The VIP Integrated Library comoines all six popular VIP applicaticn programs - VIP 
Writer", Speller, Calc. Database", Terminal and Disk-ZAP - into one program on one diskl 
The program is called VIP Desktop. From the desktop ypu have instant access to word 
processing with a spelling checker always in attendance, data management with mail 
merge, spreadsheet financial analysis, telecommunications and disk maintenance. 64K. 
required . Incluoe $4.00 shipping for this product. DISK SI 49.95 

"CoCo 3 owners: Purchase the VIP Integrated Library /WDE (Wnter & Database 
Enhanced) which has Ihe VIP Wnter III and VIP Database III in place of Ihe VIP Wnter and 
VIP Database. Include $4.00 shipping (or this product. DISK $169.95 

| Previous VIP Library owners: Cail or write lor upgrade pricing. 

VIP Writer 

VIP Writer is also available for CoCo 1 and 2 owners and has all the features found in the 
VIP Wnter III including VIP Speller except for the following: The screen display is 32, 51, 
64 or 85 columns by 21 or 24 rows. Screen colors are green, black or white. Help is not 
presented in colored windows. Double clock speed is no! supported. Parallel printer 
interface is not supported. Print spooler is not available. Hard disk is not supported. 
Even so, VIP Writer still out-features the rest! Ifs a CoCo 1 or 2 owners best choice in 
word processors. Includes VIP Speller. DISK $69.95 

Cassette varscn does not include VIP Speller. TAPE $49.95 



VIP Speller 



VIP Speller works with ANY ASCII file created by most popular word processors. It 
automaDcally checks text files lor words to be corrected, marked for special attention or 
even added to the dictionary. You can even view the misspelled word in contexil VIP 
Speller comes with a specially edited 50,000 word dictionary, and words can be added to 
or deleted from the dictonary or you can create your own. DISK $34.95 

VIP Database 

VIP Database has all the features of VIP Database III except the screen widths are 51 . 64 
and 85. Screen colors are green, black and white, double speed is net supponeo. spooler 
is not available. Sull VIP Database is ne best database for the CoCo 1 & 2! DISK $49.95 



VIP Calc 



Now every CoCo owner has access to a calculating and planning tool better than 
VisiCalc™, containing all its features and commands and then some. VIP Calc displays 32, 
51, 64 or 85 characters by 21 or 24 lines nght on the screen. VIP Calc allows up lo a 33K 
worksheet with up to 512 columns by 1024 rowsl In addition, VIP Calc has multiple 
windows which allow you to compare and contrast results of changes. Other features 
include 16 DIGIT PRECISION • trig, lunctons • averaging • algebraic functions • column 
and row ascending and descending SORTS • locate formulas or titles m cells • block move 
and replicate • global or local column width • limitless programmable functions • works with 
ANY printer. Embed printer control codes for customized printing. Combine spreadsheet 
data with VIP Writer documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and financial 
budgets and reports. Requires 64K. DISK $5935 

VIP Terminal 

For your important communications needs you've got lo go beyond software that only lets 
you chat. You need a smart terminal so that you can send and receive programs and 
messages and pnnt them I The VIP Terminal leatures 32. 51, 64 or 85 characters by 21 
or 24 lines on the screen and has a 43K byte buffer to store information. DISK $39.95 

VIP Disk-ZAP 

VIP Disk-ZAP is Ihe ultimate disk repair utility for simple and quick repair of most disk 
errors. Designed with the non-programmer in mind, Ihe VIP Disk-ZAP will let you retrieve 
all types ol bashed files, BASIC and Machine Language programs, it even works with 40 
track dnves! The 50 page tutonal makes the novice an expert. DISK $24.95 

All disk products are unprotected and run under RSDOS. 
0(503) 663-2865 ^POB 1233 Gresham. OR 97030 

Pe:ise add S3 lor snipping and Handling. Outsae coramenial US add S4 S/H COO oroe.-s add an 
additional S2.25. Checks allow 3 weeks lor delivery All other order; are snipped Ihe same day 
lalawra* 12a S i raaemaik ol CCQflUC «Vwd Pom* 3 a a taoanart c4 lAaccan Sc<r*aia. 



800 IF PP=254 OR PP=126 THEN 810 


1370 FOR X=H TO H+S(I)-1 


ELSE 790 


1380 L(X,V)=I 


810 CLS 


13 90 NEXT X 


820 DIM L(9,9) 


1400 NEXT I 


83J3 DIM G$(12) 


1410 OX=10 


840 S(l)=5 


1420 OY=10 


850 S(2)=4 


14 30 PRINT @ 37, "SHOTS LEFT:"; 60 


860 S(3)=3 


-SH;" HITS:";HT 


870 S(4)=3 


1440 IF HT=17 THEN 2000 


880 S(5)=2 


1450 IF SH=60 THEN 2000 


890 G$(0)=CHR$(175)+CHR$(175) 


1460 X=INT(JOYSTK(0)/7) 


900 FOR X=l TO 5 


1470 Y=INT(JOYSTK(l)/7) 


910 G$(X)=G$(0) 


1480 PRINT @ 135+X*2+Y*32,G$(12) 


920 NEXT X 


1 


930 G$(6)="ac" 


1490 IF OX=X THEN 1520 


940 G$(7)="bs" 


1500 PRINT @ 487+ (X*2) ," A "; 


950 G$(8)="cr" 


1510 PRINT 8 487+(OX*2)," "; 


960 G$(9)="sb" 


1520 IF OY=Y THEN 1550 


970 G$(10)="de" 


1530 PRINT @ 156+(Y*32)," " ; 


980 G$(11)=CHR$(207)+CHR$(207) 


1540 PRINT 8 156+(OY*32) ," " ; 


990 G$(12)=CHR$(191)+CHR$(191) 


1550 OY=Y 


1000 A$=STRING$(20,175) 


1560 OX=X 


1010 PRINT 6 103, "0 1 2 3 4 5 6 


1570 PRINT § 135+X*2+Y*32,G$(L(X 


7 8 9" 


,*)) ; 


1020 FOR X=0 TO 9 


1580 PP=PEEK(65280) 


1030 PRINT @ 134+X*32,RIGHT$(STR 


1590 IF PP=254 OR PP=126 THEN 16 


$(X) ,1) ;A$ , • RIGHTS (STR$(X) ,1) ; 


10 


1040 NEXT X 


1600 GOTO 1460 


1050 PRINT § 455,"0 12 3 4 5 6 


1610 PRINT 8 


7 8 9" 


1620 SH=SH+1 


1060 PRINT 8 129,"ac-5"; 


1630 PLAY"01L255V31" 


1070 PRINT 6 193,"bs-4"; 


1640 FOR M=l TO 31 


1080 PRINT g 257,"cr-3"; 


1650 PLAY"N10N3N5N4N2N6V-" -.NEXT 


1090 PRINT § 3 21,"sb-3"; 


M 


1100 PRINT @ 385,"de-2"; 


1660 Z=135+X*2+Y*32 


1110 A=RND( -TIMER) 


1670 IF L(X,Y)=0 THEN 1970 


1120 FOR 1=1 TO 5 


1680 IF L(X,Y)=>6 THEN 1430 


1130 A=RND(49) 


1690 HT=HT+1 


1140 FOR X=l TO A 


1700 C=L(X,Y) 


1150 B=RND(2) 


1710 ON C GOTO 1720,1770,1820,18 


1160 NEXT X 


70,1920, 


1170 IF B=l THEN 1310 


1720 PRINT 8 Z,"ac"; 


1180 V=RND(10)-1 


1730 L(X,Y)=6 


1190 IF V>5 THEN V=V-5 


1740 HA=HA+1 


1200 H=RND(10)-1 


1750 IF HA=5 THEN PRINT 8 6,"ENE 


1210 FOR X=V TO V+S(I)-1 


MY CARRIER SUNK!" ELSE PRINT 8 4 


1220 IF L(H,X)<>0 THEN 1130 


, "ENEMY CARRIER HIT AT " ; RIGHTS 


1230 NEXT X 


(STR$ (X) , 1) ; " , " ;RIGHT$ (STR$ (Y) , 1 


1240 FOR X=V TO V+S(I)-1 


) 


1250 L(H,X)=I 


1760 GOTO 1430 


12 60 NEXT X 


1770 PRINT 8 Z,"bs"; 


1270 GOTO 1400 


1780 L(X,Y)=7 


1280 L(X,H)=I 


1790 HB=HB+1 


1290 NEXT X 


1800 IF HB=4 THEN PRINT 8 5,"ENE 


1300 GOTO 1400 


MY BATTLESHIP SUNK!" ELSE PRINT 


1310 H=RND(10)-1 


8 2, "ENEMY BATTLESHIP HIT AT ";R 


13 20 IF H>5 THEN H=H-5 


IGHT$ (STR$ (X) , 1) ; " , " ;RIGHT$ (STR$ 


1330 V=RND(10)-1 


(Y) f l) 


1340 FOR X=H TO H+S(I)-1 


1810 GOTO 1430 


1350 IF L(X,V)<>0 THEN 1130 


1820 PRINT 8 Z,"cr" ; 


13 60 NEXT X 


1830 L(X,Y)=8 



26 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



1840 HC=HC+1 


2010 FOR X=0 TO 9 


185j3 IF HC=3 THEN PRINT § 7 , "ENE 


2020 IF L(X,Y)=0 THEN L(X,Y)=11 


MY CRUISER SUNK!" ELSE PRINT @ 4 


2030 IF L(X,Y)<6 THEN L(X,Y)=L(X 


, "ENEMY CRUISER HIT AT ";RIGHT$( 


,Y)+5 


STR$(X) ,1) ;",";RIGHT$(STR$(Y) ,1) 


2040 PRINT @ 135+X*2+Y*32,G$(L(X 


I860 GOTO 1430 


,Y)); 


1870 PRINT § Z, M sb"; 


2050 NEXT X,Y 


1880 L(X,Y)=9 


2060 FOR X=l TO 3 500 


1890 HD=HD+1 


2070 NEXT X 


1900 IF HD=3 THEN PRINT @ 5, "ENE 


2080 CLS 


MY SUBMARINE SUNK!" ELSE PRINT § 


2090 PRINT "SHOTS: ";SH;" HITS:"; 


3, "ENEMY SUBMARINE HIT AT ";RIG 


HT 


HT$(STR$(X) ,1) ;",";RIGHT$(STR$(Y 


2100 PRINT 


),D 


2110 PRINT "ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 1 


1910 GOTO 1430 


0" 


1920 PRINT @ Z,"de"; 


2120 PRINT USING "YOU RATE A: ## 


1930 L(X,Y)=10 


"; (61-SH)/4.5+.5 


1940 HE=HE+1 


2130 PRINT @ 487, "PLAY AGAIN <Y/ 


1950 IF HE=2 THEN PRINT § 5, "ENE 


N>"; 


MY DESTROYER SUNK!" ELSE PRINT @ 


2140 FOR X=l TO 1000 


3, "ENEMY DESTROYER HIT AT " ;RIG 


2150 A$=INKEY$ 


HT$(STR$(X) ,1) ;", ,, ;RIGHT$(STR$(Y 


2160 PP=PEEK(65280) 


),1) 


2170 IF PP=254 OR PP=126 THEN CL 


1960 GOTO 1430 


EAR: GOTO 810 


1970 PRINT @ Z,CHR$(207) ;CHR$(20 


2180 IF A$="Y" THEN CLEAR: GOTO 8 


7); 


IP 


1980 L(X,Y)=11 


2190 IF A$="N" THEN CLS: END 


1990 GOTO 1430 


2200 NEXT X 


2000 FOR Y=0 TO 9 


2 210 RUN /R\ 




S'Vi'TFMS* 



\i\ Qiiest of tfye Star*Jord 

A new animated graphic adventure for the Color 
Computer 3 from the author of the Hall of the King 
trilogy! Enjoy the mixture of science and fantasy as 
you quest for the Phoenix Crossbow, the only thing 
that can save you in the post-holocaust world. A full 
4 disk sides of adventure! Outstanding 320x200 
graphics will make this your favorite CoCo adven- 
ture! Req. 128K CoCo 3 and disk drive. Only $34.95. 



^un^-fu Dude 

An exciting new arcade game. This Is the long-awoited tesoonse to the huge 
demand for a Kung-Fu program tot the CoCo. The grophics. sound effects, 
and animation are spectacular! This is the BEST karate gome ever available 
for the Color Computer. Req. 64K. disk drive, and joystick. Only S24.95. 

"The CoCo karate gap has Oeen filled and Kung-Fu Dude does it excellent- 
ly, I highly recommend (it))" -2/88 Rainbow review 
"A definite 5 stars!" -12/87 Wizard's Castle review 




1 

9 


:T1*« 


i*ma*»M, in* 




Ihr liqurr ol a nun tdMflf. I 

,. u "" "'"""WlM » ! 


ConnANP 


I HUH UINIMIUB 





WHITE FIRE 

OF ETERNITY 

64K Animated Graphic Adven- 
ture. See 12/86 Rainbow review. 
Only S19.95. 

CHAMPION 

64K Superhero Action Adventure. 
See 5/87 Rainbow review. Only 
$19.95. 



All programs CoCo 1. 2, 3 compatible unless stated otherwise. 



I 
•55 






Sundog Systems Include S2.50 for S/H. S3.00 

21 Edinburg Drive extra for COD. orders. PA 

Pittsburgh. PA 15235 residents add 6% sales tax. 

(412) 372-5674 Authorship and dealer inquiries 

welcome. 




uripoq 



Personal checks, money orders, and COD orders 
accepted 



1 



i 



s^ysteros ■ 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 27 



i caiui » 



16KECB 




Test your skill with this strategic game of chess 



It's Your Move 



By Joel F. Klein 






The white knight moves in and 
captures your bishop. Your king 
is in peril! Taking a long look at 
the screen, you see your only move. 
Smiling at your opponent, you use the 
joystick to move your pawn and capture 
the white knight. 

Chess Set simulates all aspects of a 
chess game. When you run Chess Set, 
the start-up message is displayed. After 
a 15-second pause, the game begins. 
Players take turns moving their pieces 
using a joystick. (If two joysticks are 
used, the right joystick controls the 
while chess pieces and the left joystick 



Joel Klein, a 16-year-old sophomore 
studying, in a home-school program, has 
been programming for five years. His 
other interests include electronics, 
building, working plane and rocket 
models, politics, and jazz and big band 
music. 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



the Color Computer 3 Word Processor 



For over 5 years now, Telewriter has been 
the ff] Color Computer word processor, 
both in popularity and in performance. 
Telewriter's near perfect mix of sophisti- 
cated professional features and a very natu- 
ral user interface, has earned it the highest 
praise in numerous magazines, and an in- 
tensely loyal following among tens of thou- 
sands of Color Computer users all over the 
world. 



HISTORY 



Throughout the history of the Color Com- 
puter, Telewriter has pioneered software 
breakthroughs that set the standards. 

In 1981. it was Telewriter 1.0 that first took 
the Color Computer's inadequate 32X1 6 all- 
uppercase display, and replaced it with a 
graphics-based 51X2-4 upperand lowercase 
display. 

A few years later, Telewriter-64 added high 
density 64X24 and 85X24 displays and ac- 
cess to the full 64K of the newer Color 
Computers. 



THF. NF.WAGF. 



Today, Telewriter-64 is recognized as the 
standard Color Computer word processor. It 
runs on all Tandy Color Computers — from 
the original Color Computer 1, to the Color 
Computer 2, and 3. 

But the Color Computer 3 brings a whole 
new level of power to low cost computing 
and. so, a new Telewriter is here to put that 
power to work for you. We call it Telewriter- 
128. 



TELEWRITER- 1 28 



You don't mess with a good thing, so 
Telewriter- 128 is still Televvriter-64 at heart. 
The commands, and the user interface are 
essentially the same. If you know 
Telewriter-64, then you already know 
Telewriter-128. And. if you don't know 
Telewriter-64, you'll still have an easy time 
learning and using Telewriter-128. 



80 COLUMNS 



But there are major differences as well. First, 
Telewriter- 1 28 uses the Color Computer 3's 
new 80 column screen display. 

This means, simply, that using Telewritcr- 
128on a low cost ColorComputer3 will look 
a lot like using a more expensive word 
processor on a much more expensive IBM 
PC, PS/2, or clone. 



SPEED 



Second. Telewriter-128 is lightning fast. 
Telewriter-64 was fast in its own right, but, 
by accessing the Color Computer 3's video 
hardware directly, and by running the 
machine in double speed mode, Telewriter- 
128 is able to provide extremely fast scroll- 
ing and instant paging — functions whose 
speed is crucial to serious word processing. 

In this department, Telewriter-128 doesn't 
simply keep up with IBM-based word proc- 
essors — it generally surpasses them! 



Third, Telewriter-128 adds a host of new 
features big and small, that make it even 
easier to use. 

Features like: Quick function key access to 
the editor or the menus — an instant on-line 
help screen summarizing all Telewriter 
commands and special characters — an 
option file where you store your personal set 
of format and screen settings so you only 
have to set them once! 

Then, there's a quick save feature which 
allows you to save all your current work 
without leaving the editor. There's a simple 
way to cursor through the disk directory and 
read in a file by just hitting ENTER. And 
there's more. 



NEW POWER 



Telewriter-64 always had the power to 
handle any kind of serious writing, from 
letters to textbooks. But, here too, 
Telewriter-128 adds major features. 



Like Macros — which let you insert whole 
words or phrases (even sets of control codes 
or formal commands) into your text, with a 
single keypress. And every time you power 
up Telewriter- 1 28, the macro definitions are 
automatically loaded*, so they're always 
there. 

Then there's a Print Preview feature that 
shows you, on-screen, the way your printed 
text will look — with margins, headers, 
centering, justification, page numbering, 
and page breaks. This guarantees letter 
perfect documents every time, and makes 
tasks like widow/orphan line elimination, a 
breeze. 



TELEWRITER-64 ok TELEWRITER-128 



We could goon listing features, but the point 
is this: If you own a Color Computer, you al- 
ready have the hardware for the most 
powerful, low cost word processor in town. 
All you need now is to add the heart and 
soul: 

Telewriter-64, for the Color Computer 1 
and 2, costs $59.95 on disk, $49.95 on 
cassette. 

Telewriter-128 for the Color Computer 3 
costs $79.95 on disk, $69.95 on cassette. 

To order by Mastercard or Visa call (619) 
755-1258 anytime, or send check or money 
order plus $2 shipping (Californians add 6% 
sales tax) to: 

COGNTTEC 

704 Nob Ave. 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

To upgrade from Telewriter-64 to 
Telewriter-128, return your original disk or 
cassette with $39.95. (Add $10 if you're also 
upgrading from cassette to disk. Deduct $10 
with proof of Oct '87 - Feb '88, purchase of 
Telewriter-64.) 

When [first got Telewriter-64 last year, 
I was in heaven, I couldn't believe the 
program's versatility and ease of use. 
-The RAINBOW, Oct 1985 



TELEWRITER-64 FEATURES: Compatibility with any. printer thai works with 
the Color Computer; embedded control codes lor underlining, boldface, sub/ 
superscript, variable fonts; formal commands tor headers, centering, margin and 
spacing changes anywhere in the document; format menu to set margins, 
spacing, page numbering. BAUD rate, lines per page, justification; Chain 
printing for one shot printing of multi-file documents, fast, full-screen editor 
with wordwrap, block copy/move/delete, global search and replace, wild card 
search, fast 4-way auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, forward and backward 
paging, text alignment, tabs, error protection, word and line counter. Insert or 
delete text anywhere on the screen. Simple, easy to remember commands. 
Optional ASCII files for compatibility With spell checkers, terminal programs. 



i\nd BASIC toad, save, append, partial save files to disk or cassette. Kill, rename 

and list disk files. Cassette verify and aulo-retry on error. 

TELEWRITER-128 ADDITIONAL FEATURES: Print preview from editor; 

multiple copy print; footers; hanging indents; cursor thru disk directory to load, 

append, rename and kill files; quk k lilt- save from editor; keyclick; ke\ repeat; ^^*5^V 

true block move: 24, 25. or 28 line screen; 4(1 or 80 column screen: dual speed "- »■■ 

cursor; on-line belt); overstrike mode; word delete; wordwrap at margin; user "A'NBOW 

' ' CEnlirtCAttON 

definable macros; nested macros; instant status window for infonnalion on seai 

cursor position, word count, etc.: instant function key access to menus or editor; 
options menu for setting character and screen colors, key repeat and delay rales, 
definable foreign symbols. 



IBM and PS/2 arc tradureuks of International Buslnos Machines Inc 'disk version only 



T & D SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE CELEBRATES 6 YEARS 



ISSUE #1, JULY 1982 ISSUE #7. JAN. 1983 


ISSUE #13, JULY 1983 


ISSUE #19, JAN. 19B4 


ISSUE #25, JULY 1984 


ISSUE #31, JAN. 1985 


COVER 1 


NEW YEARS COVER 


THIRTEENTH COVER 


BANNER 


CLOCK 


TREASURES OF BARSOOM 


RACE TRACK 


LIST ENHANCER 


FLASH CARD 


PROBE 


COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT 3 


BATTLEGROUND 


HANGMAN 


SUPER PRECISION DIV 


ICE BLOCK 


DISK DIR. PROTECTOR 


SKID ROW ADVENTURE 


STRUCT. COMPILED LANG. 


MUSIC ALBUM 


BOMB DIFFUSE 


COSMIC FORTRESS 


OPTICAL CONFUSION 


MONEY MAKER 


MINIATURE GOLF 


LIFE EXPECTANCY 


SPACE STATION 


MAIL LIST 


WORD PROCESSOR 


PIN-HEAD CLEANING 


STAR DUEL 


WORD TESTS 


ML TUTORIAL PT 2 


DOLLARS & CENIS 


WORD SEARCH 


LINE EDITOR INST. 


ARITHMETIC FOOTBALL 


KILLER MANSION 


SHOOT OUT 


ML TUTORIAL PT 8 


ASTRONAUT RESCUE 


LINE EDITOR 


GRID RUN 


BARTENDER 


FIND UTILITY 


SDSK COPY 


STAR TRAP 


BOOMERANG 


SPIRAL ATTACK 


CALENDAR 


CYBORG INS 


MUSIC SYNTHESIZER 


PIE CHART 


BUBBLE BUSTER 


FAST SORT 


ROBOT WAR 


CYBORG FACES 


CRAWLER 


FORCE FIELD 


ROCOCHET 


MUNCHM/W 


ISSUE #2, AUG. 


1982 ISSUE #8, FEB.. 1983 


ISSUE #14, AUG. 1983 


ISSUE #20, FEB. 1984 


ISSUE #26. AUG. 1984 


ISSUE f,'32, FEB. 1985 


UEO COVER PT. 1 


COVER 8 


MYSTERY COVER 


INTRODUCTION 


PEEK POKE & EXECUTE 


DR. SIGMUND 


BIORYTHM 


DEFEND 


ROW B0A1 


HINTS FOR YOUR COCO 


SAUCER RESCUE 


ICE WORLD ADVENTURE 


BOMBARDMENT 


3 DIMENSIONAL MAZE 


COMPUTER TUTL PI I 


ESCAPE ADVENTURE 


YOUNG TYPER TUTOR 


LOTTERY ANALYST 


BLACK JACK 


COCO CONCENTRATION 


INDEX DATA BASE 


SEEKERS 


O-TEL-0 


BASIC COMPILER 


COST OF LIVING 


AUTO LINE NUMBERING 


DISK ZAPPER 


MASTER BRAIN 


OLYMPIC EVENTS 


MUSIC CREATOR 


FRENZY 


ML TUTORIAL PT.3A 


COCO-MONITOR 


LIST CONTROLLER 


DOUBLE DICE 


MEANIE PATROL 


BUSINESS LETTER 


ML TUTORIAL PI 3B 


COCO-ARTIST 


DISKETTE CERTIFIER 


COCO DATABASE 


TRI-COLOR CARDS 


QUICK THINK 


NUCLEAR POWER PLANT 


ROBOT COMMAND 


ROM COPY 


BATTLE STAR 


SHAPE RECOGNITION 


QUEST INSTRUCTIONS DUAL BARRIER 


TEST SCREEN PRINT 


BASIC RAM 


COCO-PIN BALL 


DISK BACKUP 


QUEST FOR LENORE BRICKS 


HIGH RESOLUTION TEXT 


SNAFUS 


MONTEZUMAS DUNGEONS 


SPACE PROTECTOR 


ISSUE #3. SEPT 


. 1982 ISSUE #9, MARCH 1983 


ISSUE #15, SEPT. 1983 


ISSUE #21. MAR. 1984 


ISSUE #27, SEPT. 1984 


ISSUE #33, MAR. 1985 


UFO COVER PT.2 


TIME MACHINE COVER 


MYSTERY COVER PT,2 


BASIC CONVERSIONS 


COCO TO COM 64 


LIGHT CYCLE 


BASKETBALL 


TRIG DEMO 


GOLD VALUES 


FINANCIAL ADVISE 


GALACTIC SMUGGLER 


PAINT 


CHUCKLUCK 


PYRAMID OF CHEOPS 


TREK INST RUC1 IONS 


CASTLE STORM 


INDY RACE 


SKEET SHOOTING 


SLOT MACHINE 


PROGRAM PACKER 


TREK 


DOS HEAD CLEANER 


ACCOUNT MANAGER 


GUITAR NOTES 


ALPHABETIZER 


BUDGET 


HIGH TEXT MODIFICATION 


COCO TERMINAL 


CASSETTE MERGE UTILITY 


Ml DISK ANALYZER 


NFL PREDICTIONS 


ELECTRONIC DATE BOOK 


ASTRO DODGE 


SNAKE CRAWLER 


STRING PACKING TUTORIAL 


PERSONAL DIRECTORY 


FLAG CAPTURE 


ML TUTORIAL PT 4 


DR. COCO 


WAR CASTLE 


SPACE DUEL 


NAUGHA ADVENTURE 


ROBOT BOMBER 


TAPE DIRECTORY 


PEG JUMP 


SKY FIRE 


BUGS 


EGGS GAME 




BLOCK-STIR 


MORSE CODE 


EASY BASIC 


TRAP-BALL 


DISK DIRECTORY PRINT 




COCO ADUING MACHINE 


PURGE UTILITY 


DOTS 3-D 


BALLOON FIRE 


SPEED KEy 


ISSUE #4, OCT. 


1982 ISSUE #10, APRIL 1983 


ISSUE #16, OCT. 1983 


ISSUE #22, APRIL 1984 


ISSUE #28, OCT. 1984 


ISSUE #34, APRIL 1985 


UFO RESCUE 


TENTH COVER 


MYSTERY COVER 


HEALTH HINTS 


HANGING TREE 


HOVER TANK 


TANK BATTLE 


PYRAMID OF DANGER 


BOPOTRON 


GLIBLIBS 


CHECKERS 


POWER SWORD 


DRIVEWAY 


TYPING TUTOR 


DIRECTORY RECALL 


CLOTHER SLITHER 


FOOTBALL 


TERMITE INVASION 


SOUNDS 


ML TUTORIAL PT.5 


VECTOR GRAPHICS INST. 


BIBLE 1 & 2 


MORE PEEKS & POKES 


SPELLING CHECKER 


BALLOON DROP 


TINYCALC 


VECTOR GRAPHICS 


BIBLE 3 & 4 


SPELLING CHECKER 


DOS BOSS 


MIND BOGGLE 


STOCK MARKET COMP 


SKYDIVER 


CAICH ALL 


SOUND DEVELOPMENT 


NINE CARD CHOICE 


COCO-TERRESTRIAL ADV. YAH-HOO 


SWERVE AND DODGE 


INVADER 


WORD GAME 


MUSIC GENERATOR 


CALORIE COUNTEF 


MISSILE ATTACK 


NIM80 BATTLE 


ALIEN RAID 


SCREEN REVERSE 


FYR-DRACA 


JACK-O-LANTERN 


SCREEN PRINT 


TAPE ANALYSIS UTILITY 


MOON ROVER 


AUTO COPY 


DRIVE TEST 




BRIKPONG 


LIFE GENERATIONS 


10 ERROR IGNORER 


RAT ATTACK 


GRAPHIC TOUR 


ISSUE #5. NOV. 


1982 ISSUE #11, MAY 1983 


ISSUE #17, NOV. 1983 


ISSUE #23, MAY 1984 


ISSUE #29, NOV. 1984 


ISSUE #35, MAY 1985 


CATALOG COVER 


ELEVENTH COVER 


THANKSGIVING COVER 


MONEY SAVERS 1 & 2 


DISK ROLL OUT 


SELECT A GAME 1 


BOWLING 


ARCHERY 


3-D TIC JAC-JOE 


STOCKS OR BOMBS 


ROBOT ON 


TAPE PROBLEMS 


PROGRAM INVENTORY FROG JUMP 


INDY 600 


WALL AROUND 


MULTIPONG 


STROLL TRIVIA 


PROMISSORY-LOANS ML TUTORIAL PT 6 


COLLEGE ADVENTURE 


COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT 1 


ADVENTURE GENERATOR 


SOFTBALL MANAGER 


CHECKBOOK BALANCER MLT DICTIONARY 


MEMORY GAME 


NUCLEAR WAR INST 


QUEST AOVENTURE 


FONTS DEMO 


TRIGONOMETRY TUTOR BASIC SPEED UP 101 


DUNGEON MASTER 


THERMONUCLEAR WAR 


QUARTER BOUNCE 


CLOWN DUNK MATH 


CONVOY 


METRIC CONVERTOR 


WEATHER FORECASTER 


CIRCUIT BREAKER 


DUAL OUTPUT 


ALPHA MISSION 


BAG-IT 


GRAPHIC QUAD ANTENNA 


GRID FACIOR INST 


MOUSE RACES 


KEY REPEAT 


DOS ENHANCER 


SPECTRA SOUND 


GRAPHICS PROGRAM 


GRID FACTOR 


SUPER SQUEEZE 


FULL EDITOR 


KNOCK OUT 


CONVEYOR BELT 


CATERPILLAR CAVE 


DRAW 


DATA FALL 


METEOR 


HAUNTED HOUSE 


ISSUE #6, DEC. 


1982 ISSUE #12, JUNE 1983 


ISSUE #18, DEC. 1983 


ISSUE #24, JUNE 1984 


ISSUE #30, DEC. 1984 


ISSUE #36, JUNE 1985 


CHRISTMAS COVER TWELFTH COVER 


CHRISTMAS COVER 


DIR PACK & SORT 


MATH HELP 


SELECT A GAME 2 


RAINDROPS 


SHOOTING GALLERY 


CLIMBER 


BRICK OUT 


ZECTOR ADVENTURE 


VIDEO COMPUTER 


STOCK MARKET 


BOMB STOPPER 


GALACTIC CONQUEST 


COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT. 


' WORLD CONQUEST 


SPEECH SYNTHESIS 


ADVANCE PONG 


VALLEY BOMBER 


WARLORDS 


USA SLIDE PUZZLE 


DRAG RACE 


SPEECH RECOGNITION 


DESTROY 


STAR FIGHTER 


STATES REVIEW 


51 -2-1 SCREEN EDITOR 


MINE FIELD 


SPACE LAB 


SOUND ANALYZER 


WHEEL OF FORTUNE 


MAIH 1UI0R 


5) -24 SCREEN EDITOR 


T-NOTES TUTORIAL 


AUTO COMMAND 


CREATIVITY TEST 


ML TUTORIAL PT 7 


MACHINE LANGUAGE DATA CITY INVADERS 


T & D PROGRAM INDEXER 


COMPUTER MATCHMAKEH 


VOICE DATA 


MERGE UTILITY 


PRINtBR UTILITY INST 


PRINTER SPOOLER 


SYSTEM STATUS 


KNIGHT & THE LABYRINTH 


ML TUTORIAL PT. 


RAM TEST 


PRINTER UTILITY 


STEPS 


ERROR TRAP 


STAR SIEGE 


LOONY LANDER 


LANDER 


MUIANI WAFFLES 


SNAKE 


DROLL ATTACK 


TALKING SPELLING QUIZ 




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ISSUE #37, JULY 1985 

CHESS MASTER 

BIBLE 5-7 

SHIP WREK ADVENTURE 

FILE TRANSFER 

FOUR IN A ROW 

MARSHY 

TAPE CONTROLLER 

CATACOMB 

AUTO TALK 

SGR8PAK 

ISSUE #38, AUG. 1985 

GOLF PAR3 

WIZARD ADVENTURE 

KITE DESIGN 

ROBOTS 

GOMOKU 

AMULET OF POWER 

LINE COPY UTILITY 

DISK PLUMBER 

SUPER RAM CHECKER 

GRAPHIC HORSE RACE 

ISSUE #39, SEPT. 1985 

DRUNK DRIVING 
CAR MANAGER 
SQUEEZE PLAY 
SUPER BACKUP 
RECIPE MACHINE 
ANTI-AIRCRAFT 
UNREASON ADVENTURE 
TALKING ALPHABET 
SUPER VADERS 
AUTOMATIC EDITOR 

ISSUE #40. OCT. 1985 

STAR TREK 
HAM RADIO LOG 
COCO WAR 
DISK LABELER 
SHIP WAR 
ELECTRIC COST 
MULTIKEY BUFFER 
NUKE AVENGER 
CURSOR KING 
SAND ROVER 

ISSUE #41, NOV. 1985 

GRUMPS 

DISK DRIVE SPEED TEST 

SOLAR CONOUEST 

GAS COST 

RIME WORLD MISSION 

WUMPUS 

CHARACTER EDITOR 

GRAPHIC TEST 

GRAPHIC LOOPY 

BOLD PRINT 

ISSUE #42, DEC. 1985 

HOME PRODUCT EVALUATION 

YAHTZEE 

DISK UTILITY 

MACH II 

ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD 

CAR CHASE 

SUPER MANSION ADVENTURE 

SLOT MACHINE GIVE AWAY 

TEXT BUFFER 

TUNNEL RUN 



ISSUE #43, JAN. 1986 
DUELING CANNONS 
WATER COST 
ZIGMA EXPERIMENT 
MUSICAL CHORDS 
SAFE PASSAGE 
PASSWORD SCRAMBLER 
GUNFIGHT 
KEYPAD ENTRY 
STYX GAME 
PRINTER DIVERT 

ISSUE #44, FEB. 1986 
HOME INVENTORY 
NINE BALL 
PRINTER REVIEW 
EXPLORER ADVENTURE 
SPANISH LESSONS 
CROSS FIRE 
RAM SAVER 
GRAY LADY 
JOYSTICK INPUT 
COSMIC SWEEPER 

ISSUE #45. MAR. 1986 

INCOME PROPERTY MGMT 

ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD 2 

MOUNTAIN BATTLE 

IHE FIGHT 

COCO KEENO 

HOCKEY 

LOGICAL PATTERNS 

ON SCALE SCREEN 

LIBERTY SHIP 

SINGLE STEP RUN 

ISSUE #46, APRIL 1986 

SPECIAL EVENTS REMINDER 

DISK LOCK 

SMALL BUSINESS MANAGER 

BOMB RUN 

TANKS 

TAR PITS 

BASEBALL 

NUMBER RELATIONSHIPS 

ROULETTE 

GLOBAL EDITOR 

ISSUE #47, MAY 1986 
CHRISTMAS LIST 
BLACK HOLE 
PITCHING MANAGER 
SYMBOLIC DIFF. 
BUG SPRAY 
OWARE CAPTURE 
EASY GRAPHICS 
DESERT JOURNEY 
SCREEN CONTROL 
FULL ERROR MESSAGE 

ISSUE #48, JUNE 1986 

CHESTER 
TV SCHEDULE 
BASE RACE 
ROMAN NUMERALS 
ASTRO DODGE 
HIRED AND FIRED 
MULTI COPY 
AUTO MATE 
SCROLL PROJECT 
NOISE GENERATOR 



ISSUE #49, JULY 1986 
COMPUTER I.O.U. 
DISK DISASSEMBLER 
BAKCHEK 
PACHINKO 
STOCK CHARTING 
HAUNTED STAIRCASE 
CANYON BOMBERS 
DRAGONS 1 & 2 
GRAPHIC SCROLL ROUTINE 
AUTO BORDER 

ISSUE #50, AUG. 1986 

BUSINESS INVENTORY 
D & ARENA 
DISK CLERK 
PC SURVEY 
TREASURE HUNT 
SCREEN GENERATOR 
ASTRO SMASH 
NFL SCORES 
BARN STORMING 
SMASH GAME 

ISSUE #51, SEPT. 1986 

ASSET MANAGER 
MONEY CHASE 
FISHING CONTEST 
RIP OFF 
HAND OFF 
BUDGET 51 
VAN GAR 
DOS EMULATOR 
MEM DISK 
VARIABLE REFERENCE 

ISSUE #52, OCT. 1986 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

WORKMATE SERIES 

CALENDAR 

INVASION 

THE TRIP ADVENTURE 

FOOT RACE 

FLIPPY THE SEAL 

SCREEN CALCULATOR 

ABLE BUILDERS 

SUPER ERROR2 

ISSUE #53, NOV. 1986 

CORE KILL 
LUCKY MONEY 
COOKIES ADVENTURE 
NICE LIST 
SPANISH QUIZZES 
PAINT EDITOR 
CARVERN CRUISER 
SNAP SHOT 
MEGA RACE 
KICK GUY 

ISSUE #54. DEC. 1986 

JOB LOG 

PEGS 

DIGITAL SAMPLING 

JUNGLE ADVENTURE 

PAINT COCO 3 

CONVERT 3 

COMPUTER TYPE 

PANZER TANKS 

MRS PAC 

8IG NUM 



ISSUE #55, JAN. 1987 

GRADE BOOK 

MAIL LIST 

DOWN HILL 

FIRE FOX 

JETS CONTROL 

GALLOWS 

OIR MANAGER 

FIRE RUNNER 

GRAPHICS BORDER 

COSMIC RAYS 

ISSUE #56, FEB. 1987 

CALENDAR PRINT 

CRUSH 

GALACTA 

OCEAN DIVER 

CLUE SUSPECT 

WORD EDITOR 

ALIEN HUNT 

DEMON'S CASTLE 

PICTURE DRAW 

DIG 

ISSUE #57, MAR. 1987 

THE BAKERY 

ENCHANGED VALLEY ADV. 
SAFE KEEPER 
WAR 1 

BOMB DISABLE 
PIANO PLAYER 
SPREAD SHEET 
SLOT MANEUVER 
LIVING MAZE 
GEM SEARCH 

ISSUE #58, APRIL 1987 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 
PRINTER GRAPHICS 
SIMON 

PANELING HELPER 
MULTI CAKES 
CAR RACE 
ELECTRONICS I 
BATTLE TANK 
DISKETTE VERIFY 
WEIRDO 

ISSUE #59, MAY 1987 

GENEOLOGY 

HOME PLANT SELECTION 

CHECK WRITER 

HELIHESCUE 

KABOOM 

NEW PONG 

CROQUET 

FUNCTION KEYS 

ZOOM 

ELECTRONICS 2 

ISSUE #60, JUNE 1987 

JOB COSTING 
LABELS 
CATCH A CAKE 
COCO MATCH 
ROBOTS 

STREET RACERS 
BOWLING 3 
ELECTRONICS 3 
GRAFIX 
KRON 



ISSUE #61, JULY 1987 

EZ ORDER 

SUBMISSION WRITER 

KEYS ADVENTURE 

WALLPAPER 

CHOPPER COMMAND 

UNDERSTANDING OPPOSITES 

BIT CODE PLOTTING 

ELECTRONICS 4 

KING PEDE 

RAIDER 

ISSUE #62, AUG. 1987 

PENSION MANAGEMENT 

HERB GROWING 

CATOLOGER UTILITY 

RAIDERS 

ALPHABETIZING 

U.FO 

ELECTRONICS 5 

RAMBO ADVENTURE 

BLOCKS 

MULTI SCREEN CAVES 

ISSUE #63, SEPT. 1987 

GENEOLOGIST HELPER 
SMART COPY 

MAINTENANCE REPORTING 
COC03COCO 2 HELPER 
DIRECTORY PICTURE 
SUB ATTACK 
SAVE THE MAIDEN 
CAVIATOR 
ELECTRONICS 6 
MONKEY SHINE 

ISSUE #64, OCT. 1987 
GARDEN PLANTS 
FORT KNOX 

ELECTRONICS FORMULAS 
SNAKE IN THE GRASS 
CYCLE JUMP 
GEOMETRY TUTOR 
WIZARD 
GAME OF LIFE 
ELECTRONICS 7 
FLIGHT SIMULATOR 

ISSUE #65, NOV. 1987 

TAXMAN 

DAISY WHEEL PICTURES 

CHILDSTONE AOVENTURE 

SIR EGGBERT 

CROWN QUEST 

GYM KHANA 

COCO 3 DRAWER 

FOOTBALL 

ELECTRONICS 8 

CHOP 

ISSUE #66, DEC. 1987 

ONE ROOM ADVENTURE 
OS9 TUTORIAL 
RIVER CAPTAIN 
SOUND EFFECTS 
BETTING POOL 
ADVANCE 
MATH TABLES 
ELECTRONICS 9 
LOWER TO UPPER 
NOIDS 



ISSUE #67, JAN. 1988 

AUDIO LIBRARY 
SAVE THE EARTH 
WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 
LOW RES PICTURES 
WORD COUNTER 
BACARAT 
BATTLE SHIP 
ELECTRONICS 10 
TAPE CONVENIENCE 
PENQUIN 

ISSUE #68, FEB. 1988 

COINFILE 
WORD COUNTER 
SQUIRREL ADVENTURE 
AREA CODES 
DRAW POKER 
TURTLE RACES 
ELECTRONICS 11 
MULTI SCREEN 
CANON PRINT 
COCO TENNIS 

ISSUE #69. MAR. 1988 
POLICE CADET 
STAMP COLLECTION 
BARRACKS ADVENTURE 
CITY/TIME 
HI-LO/CRAPS 
OLYMPICS 
HIRES CHESS 
ELECTRONICS 12 
DOUBLE EDITOR 
DOUBLE BREAKOUT 

ISSUE #70, APRIL 1988 

BLOTTO DICE 
SUPER COM 
GENESIS ADVENTURE 
PLANETS 
PHK/WAR 
SIGN LANGUAGE 
ARX SHOOTOUT 
ELECTRONICS 13 
MAGIC KEY 
SNAP PRINT 

ISSUE #71, MAY 1988 

SUPER LOTTO 

ROBOT ADVENTURE 

MAZE 

YAHTZEE 3 

PHASER 

SHAPES & PLATES 

STAR WARS 

ELECTRONICS 14 

PRINTER CONTROL 

MAZE 2 

ISSUE #72, JUNE 1988 

FLYING OBJECTS 

THREE STOOGES 

HOSTAGE 

PROGRAM TRIO 

GLADIATOR 

US & CAN QUIZ 

JEOPARDY 

ELECRONICS 15 

COCO 3 PRINT 

CTTY COMMUNICATOR 





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2 10 18 26 34 42 50 58 66 

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4 12 20 26 36 44 52 60 68 

5 13 21 29 37 45 53 61 69 

6 14 22 30 38 46 54 62 70 

7 15 23 31 39 47 55 63 71 

8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 

PLEASE CIRCLE 

TAPE or DISK 



controls the black pieces.) When a small 
arrow appears on the screen, you are in 
input mode. The arrow is then moved 
using the joystick to point to the desired 
square. Listed below are five play 
options, which can be used by pressing 
the corresponding key: 

Q Quit 

R Restarts a new game. 

N Next player 

1 1 joystick 

2 2 joysticks 

The N command is extremely useful for 
correcting mistakes. For example, if 
you moved P-K4, intending a P-K.B4, 
press N after the move is made. This will 
give control back to the same player. 
Simply move to the intended square, 
and no harm is done. (However, if you 
make an accidental capture, the cap- 
tured piece cannot be recovered.) Cas- 
tling can be accomplished the same way. 



Whrt e 's turn 






The only rule in Chess Set is that you 
must not move one of your pieces to a 
square containing another of your own 
pieces. After a moment's thought, you 
will realize this means you can make 
illegal moves. There are two reasons for 
this option: (1) You can make illegal 
moves with a real set, and (2) the 
processing time for determining a 
move's legality would be too long to be 
convenient. 



To move a piece, point the arrow to 
the piece you want to move and press 
the fire button. Then, point to the 
square you want the piece moved to and 
press the fire button. Captures are 
sensed automatically, and captured 
pieces are taken from the board. 

When a pawn reaches its eighth rank, 
you will be informed by a message on 
the text screen. Press any key and the 
board will again be displayed, this time 
with a rook, knight, bishop, and queen 
to the left of the board. Use the joystick 
to point to the piece desired, press the 
fire button, and the pawn is promoted. 

When you wish to end the game, 
simply press Q to return to BASIC, or R 
to begin a new game. Enjoy the game, 
and remember to keep your king safe! 

(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 4815 Morrison Place. Indian- 
apolis, IN 46226. Please enclose an 
SA SE when requesting a reply.) □ 



PT 


...216 


, 13 .... 


...102 


21 .... 


...230 


28 


...180 


END 


155 



The listing: CHESS 

1 'CHESS SET 

BY JOEL F. KLEIN 
16K ECB, 1 JOYSTICK REQUIRED 
ADDRESS CORRESPONDANCE TO 
K&R ELECTRONICS ,4815 MARRISON 
PL., INDPLS.,IN 46226 

2 CLS:CLEAR2 55:PCLEAR4:PMODE4,l: 

PCLS1:DIMA$(5) ,A(.,2),B(8,8),C(1 

,15),BT(.,15),WT(.,15) :D$=" 
ii 

3 B$="C0BM4,0G2DNG2D6GE2U7BR3D4N 
RD3G2EU7ERERDRDRDLG2FRFLFLDLGL2B 
R7EU7END7EBF4NRG2D2FNU3FERU4FD3F 
BE5BR2LULGND3GD2FRDRE2BF2EU7E2GD 
7UE2REBG3RDRDRD" 

4 W$="C0BM0 , 1ERD9FNU9RERNU5RDREU 
7END7EBR3DGD8EU6D4E3RDRD4FU4BE4H 
EDRBD4HD5GHRU4BEBR3NR5R2NU3D4FNU 
9ED2E2BFBR7GL2ULULNU3ENR3U3R3DRD 
2" 

5 T$="C0BM70,0D9HU4NU3L2R5BD5NGN 
LNHEBE2BU2ND5RD6RE3ND2U3RD6REBEB 
U3ERD6EU4RURF2BEBRERD6RU5RURF2ND 
3RD4REC1" 

6 C$="C0BM189,7G3L4ULNU6HU5E3GFD 
NGFEUNHEFREBF3D2F2HU4ERFD4NLRNU3 



FBFBDEU6NHRD5ERE2UGU2 LULBR5NR5R2 

NUD4FNTJ7ED2E2BE3NUD4FNU6RE3ND2U3 

RD6REBEBU3ERD6EU4RURF2BF3BR5GL2U 

LU2NR3U2LND3ER3DRD2BF4DLUBU2U7RD 
7 ii 

7 PRINT@107, "CHESS SET": PRINT :P 
RINT:PRINTD$"BY JOEL F. KLEIN" :P 
RINT:PRINTD$" MARCH 1988":PRIN 
T: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" ONE MOM 
ENT, PLEASE ..." 

8 FORJ= . T07 : FORK= . T07 : A=- (A». ) :C 
OLORA: LINE ( 48+K*20 , 16+J*20 ) - ( 66+ 
K*20,35+J*20) ,PSET,BF:NEXT:A=-(A 
= . ) :NEXT:DRAW"C0BM42,12R172NM-6, 
+3D168L172U168M+6,+3R160D161L160 
NM-5,+4U162":PAINT(212,44) , . , . 

9 DRAW"C1":LINE(. , .)-(42,ll) ,PSE 
T , BF : DRAW" C0BM4 6 , 5ENH2U2LURBF3 BD 
5RDR2EULUL2ULUER2DR" : DRAW"XB$ ;XT 
$;":GET(., .) "(42,10) ,BT,G:LINE(. 
, .)-(42,ll) ,PSET,BF:DRAW"XW$;":G 
ET(.,.)-(42,10),WT,G 

10 RESTORE : FORJ= . T05 : READA$ ( J) : N 
EXT:FORJ=.T07:READB(J, . ) ,B(J,1) , 
B(J, 6) ,B(J,7) :NEXT:FORJ=.T07:FOR 
K=2T05 : B ( J , K) =12 : NEXT : NEXT : FORJ= 
.T015:C(. ,J)=48+J:C(1, J)=8*( (J>7 
)-(J<8) )+J:NEXT:JN=l:BN=652 80 

11 FORP= . TOl : FORPN= . T015 : GOSUB30 
: NEXT : NEXT : SCREEN1 , . : SOUND200 , 2 

12 'MAIN GAME LOOP 

13 P=-(P=.) :IFP=.THENPUT(. , .)-(4 
2,10) ,WT,PSETELSEPUT(. , .)-(42,10 
) ,BT,PSET 

14 GOSUB26:IF(P+l) *6>B(X,Y) ANDP* 
6-KB (X, Y) THENSX=X: SY=Y :GOT015EL 



32 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



SESOUNDl,3:GOT014 

15 G0SUB26:IFB(X,Y)>P*6-1ANDB(X, 
Y)<P*6+6THENSOUNDl,3:GOT015 ELSE 

DX=X:DY=Y 

16 PP=-(P=.) :IFB(DX,DY)>PP*6-1AN 
DB(X,Y)<PP*6+6THENDRAW"XC$;C1":P 
LAY"T3V21L1203CEGL804CL1203AL404 
C " : LINE ( 180 , . ) - ( 2 4 4 , 11 ) , PSET , BF : 
X=DX : Y=DY : PP=P : P=- ( P= . ) : G0SUB3 1 : 
P=PP:C(-(P=.) ,PN)=72:B(DX,DY)=12 

17 IFY+P=P*8ANDINT(B(SX,SY)/6)=B 
(SX,SY)/6THEN20 

18 SOUND150,1:C=-((INT(SX/2)=SX/ 
2 ) = ( INT ( S Y/2 ) =S Y/2 ) ) : COLORC : LINE 
(49+SX*20,16+SY*20)-(66+SX*20,35 
+SY*20) ,PSET,BF:C=-( (INT(DX/2)=D 
X/2)=(INT(DY/2)=DY/2) ) :COLORC:LI 
NE (49+DX*20 , 16+DY*20) - ( 66+DX*20 , 
35+DY*20) ,PSET,BF 

19 X=SX:Y=SY:GOSUB31:B(DX,DY)=B( 
SX,SY) :B(SX,SY)=12:C(P,PN)=DX+DY 
*8:GOSUB30:GOTO12 

20 PLAY"T2V3103L12DDDP32L2A M : CLS 
:PRINT@128,D$" PAWN AT EIGHTH", 
D$ "RANK. YOU MAY NOW" , D$ "PROMOTE 

IT TO A",D$"PIECE OF HIGHER" ,D 
$ "VALUE. PRESS ANY", D$ "KEY TO DO 
SO.":GOSUB25:CLS:SCREENl, . 

21 FORJ=1TO4:X=2:Y=2 6+J*20:DRAW" 
BM0 ,0BR=X;BD=Y;C0XA$ (J) ; ": PAINT ( 
X+10,Y+10) ,-(P=.) , • :NEXT 

22 J=JOYSTK(.) :J=INT(JOYSTK(-2*( 
JN=2ANDP=1)+1)/16) :H=2:V=46+J*20 
: IFPEEK(BN) =12 60RPEEK(BN) =2540RP 
EEK(BN)=253THEN24 

23 GET(H,V+11)-(H+7,V+19) ,A,G:DR 
AW"BM0,0BR=H;BD=V;BRBD18C1E3FEU2 
EULGL2GFG3RCJ3E5GND2L2 " : PUT (H , V+l 
1)-(H+7,V+19) ,A,PSET:IFPEEK(BN)= 
1260RPEEK(BN)=2540RPEEK(BN)=253T 
HEN24ELSE22 

24 J=J+1:B(SX,SY)=J+P*6:DRAW"C1" 
:LINE(. ,26)-(21,126) , PSET, BF: GOT 
018 



25 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN25ELSERE 

TURN 

2 6 X=INT(JOYSTK(-2*(JN=2ANDP=l) ) 

/8 ) : Y=INT ( JOYSTK ( -2 * ( JN=2ANDP=1) 

+l)/8) 

27 H=48+X*20:V=16+Y*20:GET(H,V+1 

1)-(H+7,V+19) ,A,G:DRAW"BM0,0BR=H 

;BD=V;BRBD18C1E3FEU2EULGL2GFG3RC 

0E5GND2L2" 

2 8 K$=INKEY$:IFK$=""THEN2 9ELSESO 
UND100 , 1 : IFK$ = "Q"THENCLS : ENDELSE 
IFK$="N"THENPUT (H, V+ll) - (H+7 , V+l 
9) ,A,PSET:G0T013ELSEIFK$="R"THEN 

7ELSEIFK$="1"THENJN=1ELSEIFK$="2 
"THENJN=2ELSES0UND1 , 1 : PUT (H, V+ll 
)-(H+7,V+19) ,A,PSET:GOT027 

29 IFPEEK(BN)=1260RPEEK(BN)=2540 
RPEEK(BN)=253THENPUT(H,V+11)-(H+ 
7,V+19) , A, PSET :SOUND100,1: RETURN 
ELSEJ=X : K=Y : X=INT (JOYSTK ( -2 * ( JN= 
2ANDP=1) )/8) :Y=INT (JOYSTK (-2* (JN 
=2ANDP=l)+l)/8) :IFX=J ANDY=K THE 
N28ELSEPUT (H, V+ll)- (H+7, V+19) ,A, 
PSET:G0T027 

30 PO=C(P,PN) :Y=INT(P0/8) :X=PO-Y 
*8:NP=B(X,Y)+6*(P=1) :C=-((INT(X/ 
2)=X/2)=(INT(Y/2)=Y/2) ) :C=-(C=.) 
: X=48+X*20 : Y=16+Y*20 : DRAW"BM0 , 0B 
R=X ; BD= Y ; C=C ; XA$ ( NP ) ; " : PAINT ( X+ 1 
0,Y+10) ,-(P=.) ,C:RETURN 

31 FORJ=.T015:IFX+Y*8=C(P, J) THEN 

3 2ELSENEXT:STOP 

3 2 PN= J : FORJ= . TO . : NEXT : RETURN 
3 3 DATA BF6D2F2D5G2DR7UH2U5E2U2H 
2L3G,BF2BR3D6R2FD6G2DR7UH2U6ER2U 
6DGL2HULDGL2 , BF5R2ER2E2FDFD6L2GD 
3 F2 DL7UE2U5HL3 HLUER 

34 DATA BR9BD2DGDGD3FD5G2DR7UH2U 
5EU3HUHU, BR9BD2DG2LGDF3D5G2DR7UH 
2U5E3UHLH2U, BR9BD2DG2HD4F2D5G2DR 
7UH2U5E2U4GH2U 

35 DATA 7,6,0,1,8,6,0,2,9,6,0,3, 
10,6,0,4,11,6,0,5,9,6,0,3,8,6,0, 
2,7,6,0,1 ^ 



CoCO Cat by Logan Ward 



— - T !>r~~ — j—*^ 

■'■■ '-^nnWk ' f S0FT - WARE ' s ji 



§ * AMD I'U FIND THAT * ||| 
1 PROGRAM. OHCE IH A 
*% C BACK ISSUE, rt f ., 






<£* 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 33 



I 



CoCo Gallery 




Lighthouse 



Brad Bansner 




Brad, a high school student in Wyomissing, Pennsylvania, used Color Max Deluxe 
to develop this beautiful scene. 



Honorable Mention 








lilisM 






Pyramid 


Andrew Wright 












This graphic of an ancient Egyptian tomb was 
developed with CoCo Max III. Andrew lives in 
Conroe, Texas. 

34 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Wally, of Hamilton. Ohio, used CoCo Max III to develop this 
view of the night bird. Some of his hobbies include archery 
and guitars. 




This wild beast was generated with CoCo 
Max II. Serge lives in St-Polycarpe, 
Quebec, and enjoys many programs, such 
as CoCo Max II and ///, Lyra and Iron 
Forest. 



CoCo Max III was used to create these 
frightening marine creatures. Howard lives 

in Ocala, Florida. 




SHOWCASE YOUR BESTI You are mvlled to nominate original work lor Inclusion In upcoming showings ol "CoCo Gallery." Share your creations with the 
CoCo Community! Be sure to send a cover letter with your name, address and phone number, detailing how you created your picture (what programs you 
used, etc.) and how to display it. Also, please Include a few (acts about yourself. 

Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this means no game screens, digitized images from TV programs or material that's already been submitted 
elsewhere. A digitized copy of a picture that appears in a book or magazine is not an original work. 

We will award two lirst prizes of $25, one for the CoCo 3 and one for the CoCo 1 and 2; one second prize of $15 and one third prize of $10. Honorable Mentions 

may also be given 
Please send your entry on either tape or disk to the CoCo Gallery, THE RAINBOW. P.O. Box 385. Prospect. KY 40059. Remember, this Is a contest and your 

entry will not be returned. _ Ange | a Kapfhammer, Curator 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 35 



I Fo nt lift 



A program to help you compare 
disk files for duplicates 

COCO TAKES A HINT 




By Dennis H. Weide 




ou've got three disk drives and 
have been writing and keying in 
programs like crazy. With all the 
bulletin boards you've been accessing, 
you can't keep track of all the programs 
you now have. About 300 disks are lying 
around, filled with all sorts of duplicate 
programs. To confuse the issue even 
more, many different programs have 
the same names, and the same program 
is saved under different names. You 
don't know what to save and what to 
erase. Sound familiar? Well, it does to 
me, so 1 wrote a program thai helps me 
determine which are duplicate files. 

Filecomp is a machine language 
program that compares disk files much 
the same as the GDflP command in the 

Dennis Weide is a communications 
technician for AT&T in Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, where he programs 
AT&T and IBM PCs. He enjoys mak- 
ing toys and teaching computer pro- 
gramming. 



IBM PC and compatibles. It prompts 
you for two filenames, then reads the 
files to determine their size. If the files 
are not the same size, the size of each 
file will be reported on the screen and 
the program will end. If the files are the 
same size, the program compares them 
byte for byte, counts the number of 
mismatches between them, and reports 
the number of mismatches and the size 
of each file on the screen. If no mis- 
matches are reported, then the file 
contents are identical. 

To use the program, first protect the 
memory where the Filecomp program 
will load by keying in and entering 
CLEAR 200.&H4E20. Then type LOADM 
"FILECOMP", press ENTER, type EXEC 
and press ENTER again to load and 
execute Filecomp. Enter the names of 
the files to be compared at the prompts. 
The program can compare files on any 
drive, so you must include the drive 
number (0 through 3) in the filename 
even if you only have a one drive system. 



36 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



The listing: F I LECDMP 

PROGRAM FILECOMP( INPUT, OUTPUT); 

(* BY DENNIS H. WEIDE *) 
(* COMPARE DISK FILES *) 
(* TO VERIFY IF THEY *) 
(* ARE EXACT COPIES *) 

VAR FILE1,FILE2:TEXT; 

FILENAME1 , FILENAME2 : STRING ; 
MISMATCH , SIZE1 , SIZE2 : INTEGER; 
FILECHAR1 , FILECHAR2 : CHAR ; 

PROCEDURE FILESIZE(VAR FILETOREAD : STRING; VAR FSIZE: INTEGER) ; 

(* READ FILE SIZE *) 

VAR INFILE:TEXT; 

CHARACTER: CHAR; 

BEGIN 

FSIZE :=jj; 

RESET(INFILE,FILETOREAD) ; 
WHILE NOT EOF(INFILE) DO BEGIN 
READ(INFILE , CHARACTER) ; 
FSIZE :=SUCC (FSIZE); 
END; (*WHILE*) 
END; (*PROC*) 

(* MAIN PROGRAM *) 

BEGIN 

SIZEl:-0; 
SIZE2:-J7; 
MISMATCH : =0 ; 
PAGE; 

WRITE ('ENTER FILE1 > '); 
READLN( FILENAME!.) ; 
WRITE ('ENTER FILE2 > '); 
READLN(FILENAME2); 
WRITELN ; 

FILESIZE(FILENAME1, SIZE1) ; 
FILESIZE(FILENAME2,SIZE2) ; 
IF SIZE1=SIZE2 THEN BEGIN 
RESET (FILE1 , FILENAME1) ; 
RESET(FILE2,FILENAME2) ; 
WHILE NOT EOF (FILE1) DO BEGIN 
READ(FILE1,FILECHARL) j 
READ(FILE2 , FILECHAR2) ; 

IF FILECHAR10FILECHAR2 THEN MISMATCH :=SUCC (MISMATCH) ; 
END; (*WHILE*) 
IF MISMATCH=0 THEN 

WRITELN ('NO MISMATCHES ' ) ; 
IF MISMATCH-L THEN 

WRITELN (MISMATCH, ' MISMATCH' ) ; 
IF MISMATCHM THEN 

WRITELN(MISMATCH, ' MISMATCHES ' ) ; 
END; (*IF*) 
WRITELN; 

WRITELN (FILENAME! . 
WRITELN (FILENAME2 , 
END. 



\SIZE1,' BYTES'); 
'.SIZE2, ' BYTES') ; 



Three examples follow, the first com- 
paring the file on Drive to one of the 
same name on Drive 2: 

ENTER FILE1 > FILECOMP-'BIN:0 
ENTER FILE2 > FILEC0MP-'BIN:2 

The next example compares two files, 
with the same name but different exten- 
sions, that reside on the same drive: 

ENTER FILE1 > FILECDMP-'BIN:0 
ENTER FILE2 > FILECOMP''PA5:0 

The final example compares two files 
with different names on different drives: 

ENTER FILE1 > FILEC0MP'BIN:3 
ENTER FILE2 > OTHRFILE/BfiS:0 

The program can even compare the 
same file to itself on the same drive. This 
is a valid way to check file size. 



"Many different 

programs have the 

same names, and the 

same program is 

saved under 
different names. 
You don't know 
what to save and 

what to erase. 
Sound familiar?" 



Filecomp was written and compiled 
using Deft pascal Workbench. Only 
one non-standard PASCAL statement 
was used (PAGE) in the program to clear 
the screen. Therefore, this program can 
be written using any PASCAL compiler 
capable of compiling standard PASCAL. 
It loads and executes at address S4E20 
and ends at address S6099. For those of 
you who have a PASCAL compiler, you 
can type in the listing and compile it. 
For those who don't have a compiler, 
the binary file will appear on this 
month's rainbow on tape and disk. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 14201 Marquette N.E., Albu- 
querque, NM 877123. Please enclose an 
SASE when requesting a reply.) /S\ 



Augusl 1988 THE RAINBOW 37 







i6kecb \am. 



■ '■'VB' 



) 



'"' : '''7^ 



An old favorite with some added bells 
and whistles 



% 





Bingo 

the CoCo Way 





By Bruce K. Bell, M.D. 




ne of my favorite things to do 
is to take traditional games and 
adapt them for use with my 
CoCo. Usually those adaptations in- 
clude a few enhancements as well. 
Thai's what I've done with Talking 
Bingo. 

Talking Bingo includes several ad- 
vantages over a "store-bought" Bingo 
game or other computer Bingo games 
I've seen. For example, not only does 
CoCo select and display the Bingo 
numbers in bold colorful characters, 
but it also calls them out. You'll need a 
Tandy Speech/ Sound Cartridge for 
this. It also constantly displays all the 
numbers that have been called during 
the current game. And you needn't go 
out and buy Bingo cards, because Talk- 
ing Bingo will print out disposable cards 
for you. If you are alone on a rainy day, 
CoCo will challenge you to a few quick 
games. So let's get Talking Bingo up 
and running. 

You'll need a CoCo I, 2, or 3 with at 
least I6K. of memory and Extended 
Color BASIC. The Tandy Speech/ Sound 
Cartridge is optional, but it's needed if 

Bruce Bell is an optometric physician 
who spends hours using programs he 
finds in RAINBOW und programming his 
CoCo for home and office use. 



38 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



you want the numbers called aloud. 
You'll need an 80-column printer if you 
want to print your own Bingo cards. 

Once you've typed, debugged and 
saved the program you are ready to run 
it. On some older CoCos you may get 
an error after running; if so, just type 
RUN again. 

At the initial menu you are given four 
choices: 

1 . Play Bingo 

2. Computer Challenge 

3. Print Bingo Cards 

4. Exit to BASIC 

Press the number corresponding to your 
choice. There may be a momentary 
delay after you press your choice and 
before the function is executed. Let's 
look at these one at a time. 

Play Bingo 

The screen will clear and the first 
randomly chosen number will appear in 
the center of the screen. Simultaneously 
the number will be called out. A second 
clock to the right of the screen clicks off 
ten seconds before the next number is 
chosen and displayed. After each 
number is displayed, it will appear in 



normal Color Computer characters on 
the screen. You may refer to these at any 
time during the game. 

You've probably also noticed several 
items at the bottom of the screen. These 
are to remind you that you may at any 
time during the game press M to end the 
game and return to the menu, or press 
T to toggle between enabling and dis- 
abling the Speech/ Sound Cartridge's 
speech capabilities. You may also press 
P to pause in the game. This is useful 
if you want to go back and compare 
your cards to those numbers already 
called. When you "Bingo," press B; you 
will be prompted to enter the five 
numbers you've used to do so. Press F 
if one of the numbers is the free space. 
Enter your numbers by typing the letter 
followed by the number: for example, 
B3 or 071. If you enter a number that 
has not been called, a series of question 
marks appear, requesting you to re- 
enter. Press M to end the game and 
return to the menu, or C to continue the 
same game where you left off. 

After you've Bingoed and won the 
game, press M to return to the menu or 
C to continue where you left off. This 
allows you to have a second-place Bingo 
card. 



Line Number 

000-010 
100-120 


Description 

Initialize program 
Main Menu 


200-250 


Randomly select 


300-350 


Bingo numbers 
Input numbers for 


400-480 


Bingo 

CoCo creates and 


500-525 


plays its cards 
Print Bingo cards 


600-620 


Create Bingo cards 


700 
800-855 


Ends game 
Speech routine 


900-945 


Subroutines 


1000-1070 


Data 


1100 


Clears memory 


T 


ablel 



Computer Challenge 

This option operates exactly the same 
as Play Bingo, except that CoCo also 
selects three cards and plays against 
you. Don't worry! CoCo won't cheat! 
After you have selected this option, 
there is a momentary pause while CoCo 
creates its three cards. Then the game 
begins, played as above with the follow- 
ing differences: When you select Menu, 




PflOGAAUS • PtRlPHI RAt S ■ SUPPl >l ', • S(AV*C( 



Fast Delivery... 
Friendly Service 

Now in our 6th year! 



/twxtex 7HmU*k4> 



SUPER VALUE! SUPER SPEED! 




Avatex1200e $ 99 

with Coco Cable 109 



Reviewed in 
April. 1988 
Rainbow! 



Avatex 1200e. Cable 
AUTOTERM...S139 




Avatex 2400 $219 

with Coco Cable 229 
(Coco 3 only) 

with RS-232 Cable* 245 



fS3 Avatex 2400, Cable 
«TS— AUTOTERM . . . $259 



'Coco 1, 2 requires Delu«e RS-232 Pak 



Call 

513-396-SOFT 



• Shop by Modem • 

513-396-SHOP 



l£ELTE32 



223S Losantiville. Cincinnati. OH 45237 

SHIPPING Mill 0* charged -i out ACTUAL COST 

Ohio residents add 5.5% Sales Tax COO add 2.50 



TANDY COMPUTER 
DISCOUNTS 

COLOR COMPUTERS 



26-3334 CoCo 3 

26-3215 CM-8 color monitor 



PRINTERS 



26-2802 DMP 106 
26-2808 DMP 440 
26-1280 DMP-130 
Complete line ol Tandy (Daisy Wheel) print wheels 

MSDOS COMPUTERS 

25-1053 TANDY 1000 HX 
25-1600 TANDY 1000 TX 
25-4071 TANDY 3000 HL 
25-1023 CM-5 color monitor 
25-1020 VM-4 Monochrome monitor 



165.00 
259.95 



179.95 
599.00 
279.00 



599.00 
999.95 
1.300.00 
249.95 
110.00 



We Carry the Complete Line of Tandy 
Computer Products at Discount Prices 

CALL FOR A FREE PRICE LIST 800-257-5556 
IN N.J. CALL 609-769-0551 

WOODSTOWN ELECTRONICS 

Rt. 40 E. WOODSTOWN, N.J. 08098 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 39 



Bingo, Pause, or Talk, there is a pause 
before the function is executed. This is 
because CoCo may be checking its cards 
when you press the key. CoCo doesn't 
forget; it just finishes checking its cards 
before carrying out your command. 

When CoCo Bingos, its winning card 
appears in the center of the screen. 
Called numbers appear in reverse char- 
acters, and the winning row is marked 
in red. You may now return to the Menu 
and continue the same game or, by 
pressing V, sec all three of CoCo's cards. 
This is the only time you may see them. 
Note that if CoCo has won the game 
and you choose to continue play, CoCo 
does not continue with you — it stops 
playing. 

Print Bingo Cards 

The cards created in Talking Bingo 



are printed on standard paper in four 
rows of three cards, or 12 cards per 
page. The idea is that each player plays 
with three cards at a time and marks 
with a pen or pencil the numbers on his 
cards as they are called. After selecting 
this option, you are asked for the 
number of rows of cards you want to 
print. Remember that there are four 
rows per page. Set the top edge of your 
paper at the print-head and follow the 
prompts from here. 

I have a DMP 200 and CGP-220. 
both of which use CHR$(27)CHRS(14) 
to call expanded print and CHRS 
(27)CHR$(15) to recall normal print. 
If your printer is different, you will need 
to change lines 515 and 525 accordingly. 

Exit to BASIC 

This, of course, returns you to BASIC 



but does not erase the program from 
memory. 

One final note about the Speech/ 
Sound Cartridge. If you don't have one. 
no modifications are necessary. Just 
type in the program as it is and run it. 
You may, however, want to toggle the 
Talk function (by pressing T) to enable 
the alternate "beeps" that alert you 
when a new number appears. 

I hope you enjoy playing and study- 
ing Talking Bingu. Table I includes a 
breakdown description of each of the 
program modules within the program. 
Let me know if I can be of any help. 

(Questions or comments regarding this 
program may be addressed to the au- 
thor at 137 Samanda Circle, Rockmart, 
GA 30153. Please enclose an SASE 
when requesting a reply.) □ 





S 






1 


f 


...81 525 ... 
...160 850 ... 
....19 1000 .. 
...112 END .. 


144 

59 

112 

230 


V 


120 
305 




345 
450 



The listing: BING0TLK 



'BINGO 2.0; 
S7; 16KECB; 
i i 



<C> BRUCE BELL 19 8 
this program is no 





6, 

nwarranted! 
5 POKE3584,0:IFPEEK(33021)=50THE 
NWIDTH32 : POKE3584 , 2 
10 FORK=lT08 : PRINT, "BINGO" , , "bin 
go", : NEXT :GOT01 100 
100 POKE65495+PEEK(3584) ,0:PRINT 
@0,CHR$ (181) " ONE MOMENT "CHR$(1 
86) ; :CLEAR550:DIML$(14) ,N$(15) ,A 
(75) ,B(2,4,5) :R=RND( -TIMER) :M1=& 
HFF00:M2=&HFF7E:GOSUB920:DEF FNL 
(N) =INT ( ABS (N-l) /15) +1 
105 F0RK=1T014:F0RX=1T015:READD: 
L$(K)=L$(K)+RIGHT$(STR$(D) ,2) :NE 
XTX,K:FORK=0TO15:READN$(K) :NEXT: 
POKE65494+PEEK(3584) ,0 
110 CLS0:FORK=0TO63:SET(K,2,4) :S 
ET (K , 11 , 4 ) : NEXT : R=3 2 : L$ = "TALKING 

BINGO BY BRUCE BELLL" : PRINT@ 
19 , "by" ; CHR$ ( 128 ) "bruce"CHR$ ( 128 
) "bell"; :GOSUB850:GOSUB900:FORK= 
LT07 5 : A ( K) =0 : NEXT : Z=0 : F=0 
115 PRINT@224,TAB(6) "1. PLAY BIN 
GO"TAB(38)"2. COMPUTER CHALLENGE 
"TAB(38)"3. PRINT BINGO CARDS"TA 
B(38)"4. EXIT TO BASIC" : L$=" WHAT 

IS YOUR PLEASURE? ":PRINT@388,L$ 
; :GOSUB8 50 



120 GOSUB910:CH=Q:ONQ GOTO200,40 

0,500,700:R=RND(7) *16 : GOSUB900 :G 

OTO120 

200 L$="GGET READY" : GOSUB8 50 : CLS 

: L$="bingo" : GOSUB9 15 : GOSUB925 

205 IFQ$="B"THEN300ELSEN=RND(75) 

:IFA(N) >0THEN205ELSER=RND(6) *16: 

L=FNL(N) 

210 P=200:L$=L$(L) :GOSUB905 :R=R+ 

16:N$=RIGHT$(STR$(N) ,2) 

215 FORK=lTOLEN(N$) :X$=MID$(N$,K 

,1) :IFX$=" "THENL$=""ELSEL$=L$(V 

AL(X$)+5) 

220 P=200+6*K:GOSUB905:NEXTK 

22 5 TIMER=0:TALK=1:IFT=0GOSUB800 

ELSESOUND100,1 

2 30 IFCH=2THEN410 

235 GOSUB910:GOSUB9 30:IFDLAY=5AN 

DTALK=1GOSUB800:TALK=0:GOTO2 3 5EL 

SEIFDLAY THEN2 3 5 

240 PRINT@Z,MID$ ("BINGO", L,l) ;RI 

GHT$(STR$ (N) ,2) ;CHR$(128) ; 

245 A(N)=Z+3:Z=Z+4:IFZ=160THENZ= 

320 

250 GOTO205 

300 IFWV GOSUB465:GOTO330ELSEPRI 

NT@251,"bingo"; :GOSUB945: PRINT@4 

81," M=MENU F=FREE C=CONTINU 

E "; 

305 



ii ii 

310 
ii 



FORK=0TO4 : P=197+K*16 : PRINT@P 

: INPUTQ$ 

PRINT(§219+INT(K/2)*32, "bingo 
: IFQ$="M"THENK=5 : NEXT : GOTO 100 
315 IFQ$="C"THENK=5:NEXT:GOSUB94 
5 : GOSUB9 2 5 : F=0 : FORK=lT07 5 : IFA ( K) 
>1000THENA (K) =A (K) -1000 : PRINT@A ( 
K) ,CHR$(12 8) ;:NEXT:GOTO205ELSENE 
XT:GOTO205 
3 20 IFQ$="F"THENIFF=1THEN345ELSE 



40 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



F= 1 : NEXTK : GOTO 3 3 

3 25 N=VAL(MID$(Q$,2)) :IFA(N)=0OR 
A(N)>1000THEN345ELSEPRINT@A(N) ,C 
HR$(127) ;:A(N)=1000+A(N) :IFT THE 
NSOUND200 , 1 : NEXTK ELSEL$= M CHECK" 
:GOSUB8 50: NEXTK 

330 PRINT@480,STRING$ (31, 128) ; :P 
RINT@480 ; "GAME OVER! mENU cONTIN 
UE" ; : L$="BINGO" : GOSUB85J3 : IFCH=2T 
HENPRINT" VERIFY"; 
335 GOSUB910 : L$="BINGO" : GOSUB915 
: L$="bingo" : GOSUB915 : IFQ$="C"THE 
NPRINT@165,STRING$(22,128) ; :PRIN 
T@293,STRING$(22,128) ; :CH=2-WV:W 
V=0 : FORK=3T04 : GOT03 15ELSEIFCH=2 
AND Q$="V"THENUU=U:FORU=0TO2:GOS 
UB465:PRINT@480," CARD"U+1" : 

PRESS <ENTER> " ; ELSE335 
3 40 GOSUB9 10 : IFQ$=" "THEN3 40ELSEN 
EXTU:U=UU:IFU=3GOSUB945:GOTO3 30E 
LSEGOSUB465:GOTO330 
345 PRINTQP, "?????'» ;:IFT THENSOU 
ND1,5 ELSEL$=" PLEASE RE ENTER" :G 
OSUB850 

350 K=K-1: NEXTK 

400 L$=" ONE MOMENT PLEASE... " : 
PRINT@388,L$; :GOSUB850:GOTO600 
405 FORK=0TO75:A(K)=0:NEXT:GOTO2 
00 



4 10 FORK=0TO2 : FORC=0TO4 : FORR=0TO 

4:IFB(K,C,R)=N THENB(K,C,R)=B(K, 

C,R)+500 

415 GOSUB9 30 : IFDLAY=5ANDTALK=1G0 

SUB800 : TALK=0 

420 NEXTR,C,K:GOSUB910 

425 WV=0:FORU=0TO2:FORC=0TO4:W=0 

:V=0:FORR=0TO4:IFB(U,C,R)>4 9 9THE 

NW=W+1 

430 IFB(U,R,C) >499THENV=V+1 

435 NEXTR:GOSUB930:IFW=5THENFORR 

=0TO4 : B (U , C, R) =B (U, C, R) +500 : NEXT 

R: C=4 : NEXTC : GOT04 60ELSEIFV=5THEN 

FORR=0TO4:B(U,R,C)=B(U,R,C)+500: 

NEXTR : C=4 : NEXTC : GOT04 60ELSENEXTC 

440 R=4:W=0:V=0:FORC=0TO4:IFB(U, 

C,C)>499THENW=W+1 

445 IFB(U,C,R) >499THENV=V+1 

450 R=R-1 : NEXTC : GOSUB9 30 : IFW=5TH 

ENFORC=0TO4 : B (U, C, C) =B (U, C, C) +50 

: NEXTC : GOT04 60ELSEIFV=5THENR=4 : 

FORC=0TO4 : B (U , C , R) =B (U , C , R) +500 : 

R=R- 1 : NEXTC : GOT04 60 

4 55 NEXTU:GOT02 3 5 

460 WV=5:Q$="B" :GOTO240 

465 GOSUB945:FORP=165T0293STEP32 

:PRINT@P,CHR$( 165) STRING$ (20 ,32) 

CHR$ ( 170 ) ; : NEXT : FORR=0TO4 : P=166+ 

R*32:FORC=0TO4:IFB(U,C,R)>999THE 



Mouse Tales 



By Logan Ward 



Q 



B 


M 





D 

ska 





I SURE LIKE TO FAIHT 1 ; 
WITH HY --OCO, 6UESS 
THAT MAKES ME A 



□ 



o 



ORTIST 



a 




( 



# CocoTectr 



■/l T-sr.m&\ 



Vou ear. u»v 01tiHa« as a normal HI-REZ 
joyaticn interlace or switch It to be 
used with a popular Max 111 graphics 
program. The other feature o£ UltiHai 
ia the option to have a large or small 
stick area so you can. bo more accurate 
with your drawing-) 



Or trade in your original HiKes inter- 
face < sent postage prepaid ) and get 
UltiM** lor only 5M-95 





With MACPLAY. and a CoCo 3 you can play MAC sound 
files I Included on the second diskette) with puce 
6 BIT sound quality that the CoCo can produce! Or 
download other MAC sound files from a computer 
information service or MAC bulletin board systems 
to hear even more. Sound files can last for a few 
seconds or up to 1/2 minute. MAC sound files 
included on the second diskette contain excerpts 
from the 3 Stooyes to the Road Runnner and more!'. 

MACPLAY is only $ 19.95 

Please make check or money order payable lo: Thomas E. Keller 

Send to: 
CocoTech 
208 Cathy Ann Drive 



PA residents 

add 6% sales 

tax 



Reading, PA 19606 
(215)-779-7768 



^S hipping and handling*?^ 
USA and 0anac^>~-A^d- ^_2 . 50^ 
Other countries aacJ 55. 00 

** We now handle C.O.D. 's ** 



Please allow 
1 to 3 weeks 
for del ivery 

Sorry no 

redit cardi 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 41 



NB=B(U,C,R)-1000:D=2ELSEIFB(U,C, 

R) >499THENB=B (U, C,R) -500 : D=1ELSE 

B=B(U,C,R) :D=0 

470 IFD=0THENB$="BINGO"ELSEB$="b 

ingo" : IFD=2THENPRINT@P, CHR$ (18 6) 

;:IFB THENPRINT@A(B) ,CHR$(127) ; 

47 5 IFB=0THENPRINT@P+1, "fre" ;ELS 

EPRINT@P+1,USINGMID$(B$,FNL(B) ,1 

)+"##"; B ; : IFD THENF0RK=1T02 : POKE 

1025+P+K, PEEK ( 1025+P+K) -64 :NEXT 

480 P=P+4:NEXTC,R: RETURN 

500 PRINT@3 8 6, "HOW MANY ROWS OF 

CARDS" ;:INPUTQ 

505 PRINTS 4 16, "PREPARE PRINTER A 

ND PRESS enter"; :INPUTQ$: IF (PEEK 

(65314) AND1)=1THENPRINT@4 16, "PRI 

NTER IS NOT READY! 1 !": SOUND100 , 1 

: FORZ=1TO1000 : NEXT : GOTO505 

510 FORZ = lTOQ:PRINT#.-2:PRINT#-2: 

F0RK=1T07 5 : A (K) =0 : NEXTK 

515 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(14) ; : • 

call expanded print mode (DMP200 

) 

520 FORK=lT03:PRINT#-2," BIN 

G ";: NEXT: PRINT* -2 

525 FORK=lT03:PRINT#-2," 

";:NEXT:PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CH 

R$ (15) : 'cancel expanded print mo 

de (DMP200) 

600 FORR=0TO4 : FORK=0TO2 : FORC=0TO 

4 

605 N=RND(15)+15*C:X=2 A K:IF(A(N) 

ANDX)<>0 THEN605ELSEA(N)=(A(N)OR 

X) : IFR=2ANDC=2THENIFCH=2THENB (K, 

C,R) =500: NEXTC ELSEPRINT#-2 ,TAB( 

K*26+12) "**"; : NEXTC 

610 IFCH=2THENB(K,C,R)=N: NEXTC, K 

,R:GOTO405ELSEPRINT#-2,TAB(K*2 6+ 

C*4+3 ) N ; : NEXTC , K : PRINT#-2 : PRINT* 

-2:NEXTR 

615 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2:IFZ/4=INT( 

Z/4) THENPRINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 

620 NEXTZ:GOTO100 

700 CLSRND(8) :L$="SO LONG!":PRIN 

TL$:GOSUB8 50:END 

800 L$=MID$ ("BINGO", L,l)+" " : IFN 

<10THENL$=L$+STR$ (N) ELSEIFN<21TH 

ENL$=L$+N$(N-10)ELSEIFN/10=INT(N 

/10)THENL$=L$+N$ (N/10+8 )ELSEL$=L 

$+N$ (INT (N/10) +8) +RIGHT$ (STR$ (N) 

,D 

850 IFT THENRETURNELSEL$=L$+" » + 

CHR$(13) :F0RY=1T0LEN(L$) 

855 IFPEEK(M2) AND 128=0 THEN855 

ELSEP0KEM2,ASC(MID$(L$,Y,1) ) :NEX 

T 

8 60 RETURN 

900 F0RA=1T05:P=59+6*A:L$=L$(A) : 

GOSUB905 : NEXTA : RETURN 

905 FORB=1TO21STEP10 : PRINT@P, "" ; 

: FORC=0TO9STEP2 : PRINTCHR$ (R+128+ 



VAL(MID$(L$,B+C,2) ) ) ;: NEXTC : P=P+ 

3 2 : NEXTB : RETURN 

910 Q$=INKEY$:IFQ$="M"THEN100 EL 

SEIFQ$="T"THENT=(T+1)AND1:PRINT@ 

507,CHR$(84+T*3 2) ; :GOSUB920 :RETU 

RNELSEIFQ$="P"THEN9 3 5ELSEIFQ$<>" 

B"THENQ=VAL(Q$) : RETURNELSEIFCH T 

HEN 2 4 E LS ERETURN 

915 FORK=0TO2 : PRINT @ 19 2 +K* 3 2 , L$ ; 

:PRINT@219+K*32,L$; :NEXT:RETURN 

920 POKE &HFF7D,1: POKE &HFF7D,0:PO 

KEM1+1 , 52 : P0KEM1+3 , 63 : POKEM1+35 , 

60 : RETURN 

92 5 PRINT@480,CHR$(128) ;"Menu";S 

TRING$(4,128) ; "Bingo" ; STRINGS (4 , 

128) ; "Pause" ;STRING$ (4, 128) ; "Tal 

k" ; : IFT THENPRINTQ507 , "t" ; :RETUR 

NELSERETURN 

930 DLAY=10-INT (TIMER/60) : PRINT § 

251,RIGHT$(STR$(DLAY) ,2) "SEC";:R 

ETURN 

935 TI=TIMER:PRINT@481, " PRESS 

ANY KEY TO CONTINUE " ; 
940 IFINKEY$=""THEN940ELSETIMER= 
TI:GOT0925 

945 FORK=197T02 61STEP3 2:PRINT@K, 
STRINGS (2 2, 12 8) ; : NEXT: RETURN 
1000 DATA15,12,12,15,0,15,12,12, 
12,15,15,3,3,3,15 

1005 DATA4, 12, 15,12,8, 0,0, 15, 0,0 
,1,3,15,3,2 

1010 DATA15,9,0,0,15,15,0,9,0,15 
,15,0,0,9,15 

1015 DATA15,12,12,12,8,15,0,l / 3, 
3,15,3,3,3,7 

1020 DATA15,12,12,12,15,15,0,0,0 
,15,15,3,3,3,15 

1025 DATA0, 1,15, 0,0, 0,0, 15, 0,0,0 
,3,15,3,0 

1030 DATA0, 4, 12, 12, 15, 15, 12, 12,1 
2,12,15,3,3,3,3 

1035 DATA12,12,12,15,0,0,4,12,12 
,15,3,3,3,3,15 

1040 DATA15, 0,0, 15, 0,12, 12, 12,15 
,12,0,0,0,15,0 

1045 DATA15,12,12,0,0,12,12,12,1 
2,15,3,3,3,3,15 

1050 DATA15,12,12,0,0,15,12,12,1 
2,15,15,3,3,3,15 
1055 DATA0, 12, 12, 12, 10, 0,0, 0,6,0 

6 
1060 ' DATA0 ,15,12,15,0,15,12,12,1 
2,15,15,3,3,3,15 
1065 DATA15,12,12,12,15,12,12,12 

12 15 15 
1070 DATATENN,EELLEVEN,TWELLVE,T 
HHIRTEEN,FORTEEN,FFIFTEEN,SSIXTE 
EN, SSEVENTEEN, EIGHT TEEN, NINE TE 
EN , TWENTEE , THIRTEE , FORTEE , FIFTEE 
, SSIXTEE , SSEVENTEE 
1100 PCLEAR1: GOTO 100 



/R\ 



42 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Xfc 




IT •%&. -Aa % 



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for less with GEnie? 

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4. At the U#= prompt enter 30M1772 ,GEnie then RETURN. 

Need help or more information? No modem yet? We can help. 
In U.S. or Canada call 1-800-638-9636 or write GEnie, 
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"Baiic rates and services in effect WW apply in US. only. tNon-primc lime ialci apply Mmvfrfc fil'M-HAM local lime ami all 
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1 F e atur e- 



CoCo3 Disk 



'i*i'jfl"6 w 



)r 



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mi 






tfu 



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i 



Vol/ won't even lose any pieces 



Child's Play 



By Bill Bernico 



I remember, as a kid, playing a dice 
game where the players each got 13 
plastic bug parts and shook a die, 
trying to assemble their own bug first. 
The problem with that game was that 
someone kept losing the plastic bug 
parts, and there never seemed to be 
enough legs or feelers to go around. 
When playing Buggie, the computer 
can't lose the pieces. They're always 
there, safe in CoCo's memory, ready to 
play. 

1 should explain the value of the die 
for you Buggie novices. Rolling a one 
gets you a body. Two is good for a head. 
Roll a three for eyes (you need two). A 
four gives you a feeler (again, you need 
two). Rolling a five allows you to add 
the tongue. You will need to roll a six 
a total of 6 times, one for each leg that 
you will add to your bug. There are 13 
parts in all. Once you have all 13, you 
win. To "roll" the die, simply press any 

Bill Bernico is the author of over 200 
Color Computer programs and is a 
frequent rainbow contributor whose 
hobbies include golf, writing music and 
programming. Bill is a drummer in a 
rock band and lives in Sheboygan, 
Wisconsin. 



key when your name appears at the top 
of the screen. It sounds easy — too easy. 

Here is the catch. 

If you roll a one, you can begin with 
the body. No other number on the die 
has any value until a one is rolled. After 
all, you can't add a head, eyes, feelers, 
legs or a tongue unless you first have a 
body to put them on. 

Once you have rolled a one, you can 
get credit for any sixes you roll, adding 
a leg for each six. Numbers three, four 
and five are still worthless until you roll 
a two, which will give you the bug's 
head. Three, four and five represent 
eyes, feelers and tongue, in that order. 
You can't add them unless you first have 
a head, can you? 

All right, so now you have a body 
(one) and a head (two). From this point, 
any other number, in any order, will add 
to your bug. If you roll a number you 
don't need or can't use, simply pass the 
die and let the next player try for 
another piece. That's all there is to it. 
Have fun! 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 708 Michigan Avenue, She- 
boygan, Wl 53081. Please enclose an 
SASE when requesting a reply.) □ 



44 THE RAINBOW August 1988 




191 98 234 

95 110 157 

120 68 

25 END 102 



The listing: BUGGIE 



1 'COCO 
BILL 



BUGGIE (C) 1988 FROM 
BERNICO SOFTWARE 



2 CLEAR5 00 : CLS0 : PRINTTAB ( 10 ) " COC 
O-BUGGIE":FORX=1024TO1055:POKEX, 
PEEK ( X) - 64 :NEXTX: PRINT: PRINT "PLA 
YER'S NAME MUST BE LESS THAN EIG 
HT CHARACTERS EACH" : PRINT: INPUT" 
PLAYER l'S NAME";N1$:IFLEN(N1$)> 
8THEN2 

3 PRINT§ 19 2 , STRINGS (32,143): PRIN 
T@224 , STRING$ (32 , 143 ) : PRINTQ224 , 
"";: INPUT "PLAYER 2'S NAME";N2$:I 
FLEN(N2$)>8THEN3 

4 POKE65497,0:RGB:HSCREEN2:HCLS4 
: HCOLOR8 , 4 : ONBRKGOT013 1 : DT$="RDL 
U2R2D3L3U3F" : D$="BL4BUR22D22L22U 
22E4R22NG4D22NG4U22L22G4BF3":LR$ 
="G10D20L4DR5U21E10RG10D20L5DNR6 
DR6U22E10RG10 

5 HCLS4:HLINE(0,J3) -(160,191) ,PSE 



T,B:HLINE(5,5)-(155,186) ,PSET,B: 
HPAINT ( 2 , 2 ) , 2 , 8 : HLINE ( 160 , ) - ( 3 1 
9,191) ,PSET,B:HLINE(165,5)-(314, 
186) ,PSET,B: HPAINT (167, 2) ,3,8 

6 IFP2=13THEN100ELSEGOSUB113:D=R 
ND ( 6 ) : HCOLOR2 : PLAY"O2T20B" : HPRIN 
T(l,l) ,N1$+",HIT A KEY":EXEC4453 
9 :HDRAW"BM30 , 27"+D$ : Z=D: GOSUB106 
: PLAY"O4T60CBDAEGFC 

7 ON Z GOTO 8,12,18,26,34,40 

8 HPRINT(10,4) ,"l=BODY 

9 IFB1=1THEN11 

10 IFB1=0THEN X=87 : Y=93 :H=60 :GOS 
UB114 : Bl=l : P1=P1+1 : GOT052 

11 GOSUB127:GOT052 

12 HPRINT(10,4) ,"2=HEAD 

13 IFH1=1THEN16 

14 IFB1=0THEN17 

15 IFH1=0THEN H=100 :GOSUB115 :H1= 
1:P1=P1+1:G0T052 

16 GOSUB127:GOT052 

17 HPRINT(3,21) , "YOU NEED A BODY 
11 : GOTO 5 2 

18 HPRINT(10,4) , "3=EYES 

19 IFH1=#THEN2 4 

20 IFE1=2THEN25 

21 IFE1=0THEN H=113 : GOSUB116 

22 IFE1=1THEN H=98 : GOSUB117 : P1=P 
1+2 



FILE TRANSFER UTILITIES 

You asked lor " al the Chicago RainbowFesl - 

FILE TRANSFER UTILITIES NOW HANDLE RSDOS DISKSI 

Need 10 transfer text files 10 and Irom PC (MSDOS). RSDOS and FLEX disks into 
your C0C0 (OS-91 system? Have text liles on a PC (MSDOS ) system at work and 
want 10 work on them at home on your C0C0? 

With GCS File Transler Utilities you just place the PC (MSDOS). RSDOS or FLEX 
disk into your Co Co disk drKre • enter a simple command and the file is copied Into 
a C0C0 OS-9 llle. Re transler back to PC (MSDOS). RSDOS and FLEX disks is 
just as simple. 



PCDB directory of PC disk 

PCDUMP display PC disk sector 

PCBEAD read PC file 

PCWRfTE write file to PC disk 

PCRENAME rename PC file 

PCDELETE delete PC lile 

PCFORMAT format PC disk 



RSDIR directory ol RSDOS disk 

RSDUMP display RSDOS disk sector 

RSflEAD read lile from RSDOS disk 

RSWRfTE wnte file to RSDOS disk 

FLEXDIR directory ol FLEX disk 

FLEXDUMP display FLEX disk sector 

FLEXREAD read FLEX lile 

FLEXWRITE wnte file to FLEX disk 



Extensive Single, double sided disks. 40 or 80 track floppy drives. 

Options 8 or 9 sectors. First level subdirectories - PC (MSDOS). 

FLEX transfers binary liles also. 

Requires OS-9 (Lovel 2 tor MultiVue). 2 drives (one can be hard). MulliVue 

lor MultiVue version, SDISK (SDISK3 lor MultiVue) - see D.P. 
Johnson ad lor SDISK 

GSC File Transfer Utilities (or C0C0 - MulliVue version $54.95 

GSC File Transfer Utilities for C0C0 - Standard version $44.95 

All diskeiles are C0C0 OS-9 lormat. Orders must be prepaid or COD. VISA'MC 
accepted, add $1.50 S&H. additional charge for COD. 



^ 



GRANITE COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Route 2 Box 445 Hilfsboro. N.H. 03244 RAINBOW 

(603) 464-3850 CERTIFICATION 

SEAL 
OS-9 is a »ad©mart ol Mcroware Systems Corporate" and Motorola Inc. 
MS-DOS (s a trademark ol Microsoft Corp FLEX is a trademark ol TSC, Inc 



As EASY As WRITING A CHECK 

THAT'S HOW EASY IT IS TO: 

• RECONCILE YOUR CHECK BOOK 
■ USE A BUDGET 

• KEEP TRACK OF CASH EXPENSES 

■■ TRACK CHECK, ATM & CASH EXPENSES 
BY TYPE OR PAYEE 

• SUMMARIZE YOUR EXPENSES FOR TAX TIME - 

OR FOR ANY OTHER PURPOSE 



/^ 



/^ 



RAINBOW 



GREAT DOCUMENTATION 

mnmun 

"«"~ ON SCREEN MENUS & PROMPTS 

DEFINATELY USER FRIENDLY 

REQUIRES 32K CoCo1,2,or3 AND SINGLE DISK DRIVE 

REVIEWED IN DECEMBER' 87 RAINBOW 

THE CoCo CHECKBOOK - 
S25.00 + $2.50 shipping and handling 

PROGRAMS for PEOPLE 
from 



P.O. Box 391 Cleveland, Ohio 

44107-0391 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 45 



Frank Hogg Laboratory 



12 Years o/Servk^ 

Discoifh^r 



band Friendly Help! 

E LIST 



CoCo Burke & Burke Hard Drive Kits 

FLASH! More Burke and Burke systems 
have been bought in the last six months 
than other systems have sold in the last 
3 years!!!! 

Our first system features the Burke & Burke XT or XT RTC 
interface. This interface uses popular and inexpensive IBM PC 
type controllers. For this reason it is the least expensive hard 
disk system available today. Not as fast as the Isted system but 
faster than any other system available. It also supports RLL 
drives. Note: Disk Extended Color Basic support and other 
software options are listed on our price list. 
Disadvantage; requires a mulii-pak. 

KIT INCLUDES: Burke & Burke (B&B) XT PC interface. Hard 
drive with controller, 3 foot ST506 cable set. Hard Drive Case 
with 60 watt power supply and fan. Includes OS9 LI and LII 
software. 1 megabyte transfer in 45 seconds! Type ahead under 
OS9. Complete instructions. Easy one evening asscmj}li 



1 



YEAR WARRANTY ON ALL SYSTEM 

20 Meg Kit Complete 60MS 

30 Meg Kit Complete 60MS RLL 

40 Meg Kit Complete 60MS 

Assemble and test any of the above add 

OPTIONS: 

B&B Real Time Clock (add to above) 

B&B XT ROM Auto Boot from hard disk 

B&B Hyper I/O run DECB on hard drive 

B&B Hyper III Ramdisk/spooler for above 

FBI! Fast Hard disk Back Up 




*498.00 

♦548.00 

♦618.00 

50.00 

30.00 
19.95 
29.95 
19.95 
75.00 



Hard Drive Bits and Pieces 

B&B XT PC style interface 

B&B XT RTC interface w/clock/calendar 

(Call for Hard Drive and Kit prices) 
FHL HCA/WD High Speed Interface 
WD 1002-05 High Speed for FHL Interface 

(Supports both Hard and Floppy drives) 
(Call for Hard Drive prices) 

Hard Drive case with 60W P/S and Fan 




69.95 
99.95 

♦99.95 
♦196.00 

♦98.00 



(Can also be used for floppy drives) 
SPECIFICATIONS: size 16" deep. 5.5'' high, 7" wide. 60 Wall power supply 
with 3 drive type power connectors, quid 12 volt DC fan, LF.D power indicator, 
color matches CoCo. Holds 2 1/2 height hard or floppy drives and has card 
guided space for a PCB the size of a drive (like the WD1002-05 controller) 

Floppy Drives (5.25" and 3.5" FLOPPY DISKS) 
TEAC High Quality Drives - 1 Year Warr. 
FD55B 360K 40 Track DS 5.25" 118.00 

FD55F 720K 80 Track DS 5.25: 15 1.00 

FD35F 720K 80 Track DS 3.5" 14 7.00 

(Bare drives, requires case and power supply $75.00) 



CoCo FHL High Speed Hard Drive Kits 

Our top of the line system features Bruce Istcd's interface for 
the Western Digital WD 1002-05 high speed controller. 
Features; fastest system available, 1 megabyte transfer in 
only 37 seconds!! Twice as fast as other systems! Supports 4 
floppy and 3 hard drives, type ahead for both floppy and hard 
disk, autoboot OS9 LI or L2 from hard or floppy disk. 
Disadvantage; does not support DECB. This is the system of 
choice for the serious OS9 user. 

KIT INCLUDES: FHL HCA/WD High Speed interface. Hard drive 
with WD 1002-05 controller, ST506 cable set, 4 foot 40 pin 
cable, Hard Drive Case with 60 watt power supply and fan . 
OS9 software for LI and LII with source . Complete instructions. 
Easy one evening assembly. 

( INTERFACE SPECIFICATIONS: Size is the same as a floppy 
controller. Interfaces the WD 1002-05 controller to the CoCo. 
This controller handles 3 hard and 4 floppy drives. Type ahead 
under OS9 for both floppy and hard drive. Includes OS9 LI and 
LII sofdvare with source. Autoboot ROM included to boot from 
floppy or hard drive. Supports OS9 only. 1 megabyte transfer 
in 37 seconds!) 

1 YEAR WARRANTY ON ALL SYSTEMS! 



♦725.00 

♦825.00 

1260.00 

60.00 




20 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 
40 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 
70 Meg High Speed Kit Complete 
Assemble & Test any of the above add 

OPTIONS: 

Floppy Drive (Mounted in case) 
FBU Fast Hard disk Back Up 



128.00 
75.00 



ORDERING INFORMATION VISA and M/C. NY residents add 7% sales 
tax. US shipping add $3.50. Please call for Air Express shipping. 

Send for FREE FHL NewsLetter and catalog. 

♦♦Most of our software requires OS9 LII and 512K. 

♦ New LOWER PRICES!!! 

Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

770 James Street - Syracuse, NY 13203 
Telex 646740 

Call 315/474-7856 



Frank Hogg Laboratory 

12 Years of Service, Support, and Friendly Help! 

OS9 Software 



The WIZ 

by Bill Brady 

Did you ever wonder why there is only one really good 
communications package for OS9? The WIZ is so good that no 
one has been able to better it in over a year on the market! 
Simply the best package there is for OS9 and the CoCo III. 
FEATURES: Mac-Like interface with windows, text and 
binary upload/download with xmodem, kermit, on line HELP, 
AUTOLOGGLNG lets you dial up and log on to your favorite 
service. Macros, VT52 emulation. Usage log and much more. 

The Wiz requires a RS232 Pak or similar device, LII and 512K. 
Supports the Owl-Ware Super I/O board. 






The WIZ 



Disto RS232 Pak 



79.95 



49.95 



OS9 Users Group Disk Library 

We have the complete OS9 Users Group Library available 
for immediate delivery. We pay the UG a royalty so you will be 
helping a worthy cause when you buy these disks. All the 
programs include source and some documentation. The 11 disk 
library is the best deal if you can read 80 track double sided 
disks. These disks are 720K each and are all almost full. That's 
almost 8 megabytes of programs for only S156! The individual 
disks are on 35 or 40 track disks and some are double sided. 
Call or send for the list. 



OS9 Users Group Disks each (50+ 
Complete 11 disk library 



disks) 



10.00 
156.00 



Inside OS9 Level II 

The Book by Kevin Darling 
$39.95 
Arc your tired of playing games with Level II? Do you want to 
find out what's going on inside OS9? This is the book for you! 
Over 200 pages of hints, kinks, bugs, source listings and much 
more. Written by the well known CompuServe SysOp, Kevin 
Darling. 'Must reading' says Dale Puckelt in Rainbow! 



Sculptor 



DynaStar 



Used by more OS9 users than any other! 

FEATURES: Best OS9 editor/word processor/text formatter, has 
everything you would expect and more, supports terminals and 
windows simultaneously, auto-configurable, auto-indent for C 
and Pascal programming, mail merge for form letters, bug free, 
solid. New manual makes it easier to use than ever. Most pop- 
ular word processor since 1982! Uses CoCo 3's windows for 
pop-up help menus, can be disabled. Two key sequence to move 
from anywhere to anywhere in your text. WordStar command 
style. Will work with files larger than memory. Merge function 
allows stringing many files together at print lime. Full block 
manipulation, mark, move, copy, delete, read from disk, write 
to disk. Keyboard Macros: Define or redefine any control 
key (up to 29) to reproduce any key sequences, including 
commands! Macros can be read in at startup automatically or 
created on the fly as needed. Printer Control: Supports 
multiple printers via a print control file that transforms 
imbedded control characters to printer control characters. 
Changing printers is easy. Formatting Commands: 
Justification, word wrap, centering, headers, footers, macros, 
odd and even support, multiple index generation, multiple table 
of contents generation and more! DynaStar is the last word 
processor you will ever have to buy! Level I version also 
included on disk. 



DynaStar word processor/formatter 



150.00 









DynaSpell 

by Dale Puckett 

102,000 and 20,000 word dictionaries included. Supports both 
Level I and II. Fast, slick, the best available for OS9. Written 
by Rainbowtech columnist Dale Puckett. 

DynaSpell spelling checker 7 5.00 

SPECIAL WHEN PURCHASED WITH DYNASTAR 25.00 



Sculptor is a applications language, commonly referred to as a 
4th Generation Language. Basically this means that you can 
create applications in one tenth the time it would normally lake. 
Sculptors screen and print formatting make screen displays and 
reports easy and fast. Sculptors B+ tree index system makes 
record lookup lighting fast. Programs are portable too. 
Sculptor 249.00 

Sculptor Special (If we have any left, (call)) 14 9.00 



ORDERING INFORMATION VISA and M/C. NY residents add 7% sales 
lax. US shipping add $3.50. Please call for Air Express shipping. 

Send for FREE FHL NewsLetter and catalog. 
**Most of our software requires OS9 LII and 512K. 

Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

770 James Street - Syracuse, NY 13203 
Telex 646740 

Call 315/474-7856 



23 E1=E1+1:G0T052 

24 HPRINT(3,21) , "YOU NEED A HEAD 
":GOT052 

25 GOSUB127:GOT052 

2 6 HPRINT(10,4) ,"4=FEELERS 

2 7 IFH1=0THEN3 3 

28 IFF1=2THEN32 

29 IFF1=0THEN H=95 : GOSUB118 

30 IFF1=1THEN H=102 :GOSUB119 : Pl= 
Pl+2 

31 F1=F1+1:G0T052 

32 GOSUB12 7:GOT052 

33 HPRINT(3,21) , "YOU NEED A HEAD 
":GOT052 

3 4 HPRINT ( 10 , 4 ) , " 5=TONGUE 
35 IFH1=0THEN3 8 

3 6 IFT1=1THEN3 9 

37 IFT1=0THENX=100:H=106:GOSUB12 
: Tl=l : P1=P1+1 : GOT052 

38 HPRINT (3, 2 1) , "YOU NEED A HEAD 
": GOTO 5 2 

39 GOSUB127:GOT052 

40 HPRINT (10, 4) ,"6=LEGS 

41 IFB1=0THEN51 

42 IFL1=6THEN50 

43 IFL1=0THEN H=85 : GOSUB121 

44 IFL1=1THEN H=62 :GOSUB122 

45 IFL1=2THEN H=42 :GOSUB123 

46 IFL1=3THEN H=38 :GOSUB124 

47 IFL1=4THEN H=55 :GOSUB125 

48 IFL1=5THEN H=77 :GOSUB126 :P1=P 
1+6 

49 L1=L1+1:G0T052 

50 GOSUB128:GOT052 

51 HPRINT(3,21) , "YOU NEED A BODY 

52 FORX=1TO1500:NEXTX:IFP1=13THE 
N99ELSEGOSUB113:F=RND(6) :HCOLOR3 
:PLAY"O3T20B":HPRINT(21,1) ,N2$+" 
,HIT A KEY":EXEC44539:HDRAW"BM19 
, 27"+D$ : Z=F : GOSUB106 : PLAY"O4T60 
CBDAEGFC 

53 ON Z GOTO 54,58,64,72,80,86 

54 HPRINT (30, 4) ,"l=BODY 

55 IFB2=1THEN57 

56 IFB2=0THEN X=247 : Y=93 :H=220:G 
OSUB114 : B2=l : P2=P2+1 : GOT098 

57 GOSUB129:GOT098 

58 HPRINT (30, 4) ,"2=HEAD 

59 IFH2=1THEN62 

60 IFB2=0THEN63 

61 IFH2=0THEN H=260 : GOSUB115 :H2= 
l:P2=P2+l:GOT098 

62 G0SUB12 9:G0T098 

63 HPRINT (23, 2 1) , "YOU NEED A BOD 
Y":GOT09 8 

64 HPRINT (30, 4) ,"3=EYES 

65 IFH2=0THEN70 

66 IFE2=2THEN71 

67 IFE2=0THEN H=273 :GOSUB116 

68 IFE2=1THEN H=258 : GOSUB117 : P2= 
P2+2 



69 E2=E2+1:GOT098 

70 HPRINT (23, 21) , "YOU NEED A HEA 
D":GOT098 

71 GOSUB12 9:GOT098 

72 HPRINT(30,4) , "4=FEELERS 

73 IFH2=0THEN79 

74 IFF2=2THEN78 

75 IFF2=0THEN H=255 : GOSUB118 

76 IFF2=1THEN H=262 :GOSUB119 : P2= 
P2+2 

77 F2=F2+1:GOT098 

78 GOSUB129:GOT098 

79 HPRINT(23,21) , "YOU NEED A HEA 
D":GOT098 

80 HPRINT(30,4) ,"5=TONGUE 

81 IFH2=0THEN84 

82 IFT2=1THEN85 

83 X=260:H=2 66:GOSUB120:T2=1:P2= 
P2+l:GOT098 

84 HPRINT (2 3, 2 1) , "YOU NEED A HEA 
D":GOT09 8 

85 GOSUB129:GOT098 

86 HPRINT (30, 4) , "6=LEGS 

87 IFB2=0THEN97 

88 IFL2=6THEN96 

89 IFL2=0THEN H=245 :GOSUB121 

90 IFL2=1THEN H=222 :GOSUB122 

91 IFL2=2THEN H=202 :GOSUB123 

92 IFL2=3THEN H=198 :GOSUB124 

93 IFL2=4THEN H=215 :GOSUB125 

94 IFL2=5THEN H=237 :GOSUB126 : P2= 
P2 + 6 

95 L2=L2+l:GOT098 

96 GOSUB130:GOTO98 

97 HPRINT (23, 21) , "YOU NEED A BOD 
Y 

98 GOTO 6 

99 GOSUB113:HPRINT(3,21) , "THE WI 
NNER! " : PLAY"O1T60CDEFGABO2CDEFGA 
B03CDEFGAB04CDEFGAB05CDEFGAB" : FO 
RG=1TO2000 : NEXTG : GOTO 101 

100 GOSUB113:HPRINT(23,21) , "THE 
WINNER! " :PLAY"O1T60CDEFGABO2CDEF 
GAB03CDEFGABO4CDEFGABO5CDEFGAB": 
FORG=1TO2000: NEXTG: GOTO101 

101 HCOLOR6:HLINE(110,75)-(210,1 
20 ) , PRESET , BF : HLINE ( 110 , 7 5 ) - ( 2 10 
, 120 ) , PSET , B : HLINE ( 115 , 80 ) - ( 205 , 
115) ,PSET,B:HPAINT(112,77) ,6,6:H 
PRINT (15, 11) , "PLAY AGAIN" : HPRINT 
(17,13),"(Y/N)? 

102 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN102 

103 IFI$="Y"THENRUN 

104 IFI$="N"THEN131 

105 GOTO 10 2 

106 IF Z=1THENHDRAW"BR7BD8"+DT$ 

107 IF Z=2THENHDRAW"BR2BD2"+DT$+ 
"BR10BD12"+DT$ 

108 IF Z=3THENHDRAW"BR2BD2"+DT$+ 
"BR5BD6"+DT$+"BR5BD6"+DT$ 

109 IF Z=4THENHDRAW"BR2BD2"+DT$+ 



48 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



"BR1^BD12 ,, +DT$+"BU12" + DT$+"BD12B 


N 


L10 n +DT$ 


120 HC0L0R5:HDRAW"BM"+STR$(X)+", 


11/3 IF Z=5THENHDRAW"BR2BD2"+DT$+ 


121D8RU8":HCIRCLE(H,130) ,7:HPAIN 


"BR10BD12"+DT$+"BU12"+DT$+"BD12B 


T(H,130) ,5,5:RETURN 


Llj3"+DT$+"BU6BR5"+DT$ 


121 HC0L0R3 : HDRAW"BM"+STR$ (H) +" , 


111 IFZ=6THENHDRAW"BR2BD2 "+DT$+" 


110NFLF2D15LU15H2LF2D16R6DL6DR6" 


BD6"+DT$+"BD6"+DT$+"BR10"+DT$+"B 


: RETURN 


U6"+DT$+"BU6"+DT$ 


122 HC0L0R3:HDRAW"BM"+STR$(H)+", 


112 RETURN 


114ND13LD13LU13D14R6DL6DR6" :RETU 


113 HLINE(6,6)-(150,48) ,PRESET,B 


RN 


F:HLINE(166,6)-(310,48) , PRESET, B 


123 HC0L0R3 : HDRAW" BM"+STR$ (H) + " , 


F:HLINE(9,165)-(15j3,175) , PRESET, 


112ND13LD13LU13D14R6DL6DR6":RETU 


BF:HLINE(169,165)-(31p,175) , PRES 


RN 


ET,BF: RETURN 


124 HC0L0R3:HDRAW I, BM"+STR$(H)+" , 


114 HCOLORl:HCIRCLE(H,lj3j3) ,35, , . 


103 "+LR$: RETURN 


4, .11, .9:HDRAW"BM"+STR$(X)+","+S 


125 HC0L0R3 : HDRAW" BM"+STR$ (H) +" , 


TR$(Y)+"D15":HPAINT(H,1J30).,1,1:R 


Ij35"+LR$: RETURN 


ETURN 


126 HC0L0R3:HDRAW"BM"+STR$(H)+", 


115 HCOLOR0:HCIRCLE(H,10£) ,13, ,1 


105"+LR$: RETURN 


.7:HPAINT(H,10j3) , p , J3 : RETURN 


127 HPRINT( 3, 21) /'ALREADY HAVE I 


116 HCOLOR6:HCIRCLE(H,9j3) ,5:HPAI 


T": RETURN 


NT(H,90) ,6, 6: RETURN 


128 HPRINT(3,21) , "YOU HAVE ENOUG 


117 HCOLOR6:HCIRCLE(H,91) ,5:HPAI 


H" : RETURN 


NT(H,91) ,6,6:RETURN 


129 HPRINT( 23, 21) /'ALREADY HAVE 


118 HC0L0R2 : HDRAW" BM"+STR$ (H) +" , 


IT" -.RETURN 


80H10RF10RH10UHLGDFRULUR" : RETURN 


130 HPRINT(23,21) , "YOU HAVE ENOU 


119 HC0L0R2:HDRAW"BM"+STR$(H)+", 


GH": RETURN 


80E10RG10RE10HUERFDGLURUL" :RETUR 


131 POKE65496,0:WIDTH32:CLS:END 



HAUKSoft HAWKSoft HAWKSoft HAWKSo-*t HAUKSoft 



/^\ 



DOMINATION S18.SW B „ NB0W 

MULT I -PLAYER STRATEGY GAME' ""gf* 
Try to take over the planet o-f YCNAN. Battle 
other players armies to take control o-f their 
provinces and de-fend yours. Play on a Hi -res map 
of the planet. Take the "RISK" and be a 
planet-lord today!'! Requires 1 disk and joystick 
or mouse. See Rainbow Review JULY 88 



mydos *i5. aa 

CUSTOMIZABLE! EPRQMABLE ! ! 

The commands Tandy le+t out! 
MYDOS is an enhancement to Disk Extended Ba 
on the CoCo 3. One command loadm and exec 
M/L programs. Lowercase command entry and 
on ALL screens. Screen echo and SAY comma 
RS Speech Pak. Point and click mouse dir 

NEW FEATURES ! ! ! ! ! 
Supports double-sided and 40 track drive 
any palettes you want on power— up (RGB or 
Power-up in any screen width and col o 
monochrome) you wish 1 More options than 
shake a joystick at!! 1 See Rainbow Review 



sic 2.1 

ute for 
displ ay 
nd for 
ectory. 



n. 



Set 
CMP) . 
(or 
you can 
JUNE 87 



HAWKSo-ft KEYBOARD CABLE «25. 00 

UNCHAIN YOUR KEYBOARD! 
Five foot extender cable for Coco II and 3. Move 
your keyboard where you want it! Installation 

instructions and tips included! Custom lengths 
aval 1 i abl e. 



HAWKSoft P.O. Box 7112 
Elgin, II. 60121-7112 
312-742-30S4 



SfcH always included. II. orders add TL sales tax. 




MLBASIC 2.0 - BASIC Compiler 

If you want, your BASIC programs to pun up to 50 times faster, or want more 
programming features without learning another language, MLBASIC is for you. 

MLBASIC Is the most compatible BASIC compiler available for the Color Com- 
puter. WHY? Because MLBASIC fully supports: 

- Low- and high-resolution graphics 

- All types of I/O (disk, screen, printer, RS232 1 
- All available commands offered with BASIC 

- Floating point functions and expressions 
• Intoger, floating point and string type variables and arrays 

- Use of all available 512K RAM in the COCO 3 

- 80,40 or 32 column text displays 

MLBASIC not only contains everything that you would expect a BASIC pro- 
gramming language should contain, MLBASIC has features that offer flexibility 
of other languages like C, Pascal, FORTRAN and even assembly language. These 
features will allow programmers to directly access the CPU registers on the 
COCO, produce modular program code with SUBROUTINES, manipulate memory 
in blocks, and even call ROM routines in other areas of memory. 

MLBASIC revision 2.0 has incorporated all enhancements that v/ere 
suggested by MLBASIC 1.0 users and more. Revision 2.0 did away with all the In- 
compatibility problems that existed with revision 1.0. 

MLBASIC allows for the first time user to quickly compile a program using 
default compiler settings. The advanced user has the capability of controlling 
over a dozen settings which control where the program is compiled, which 
medium to compile to ( memory or disk ), string space, compiler listings and 
more. 

With all this going for MLBASIC, your might expect the cost to be a little out 
of your budget. After looking at prices of other BASIC compilers for the COCO 3 
you might be correct. But look again at this ad; for only S59.95, you can have a 
programming language that will spark your interest once again In the COCO 

Before you buy another BASIC compiler for the COCO, find out if It supports 
everything MLBASIC supports. Then look at the price tag. We feel that it won't be 
long before you place an order for MLBASIC. 

"MLBASIC is a fine program for any serious programmer, " 
said David Gerald in the December J9S7RAJNB0W. 

<<<< ONLY $ 59 9S >>>> 

COCO 3 WITH DISK REQUIRED -Add S4.00 Postage. 
Check, Money Order or COD accepted 
Foreign orders use U.S. MONEY ORDERS only. 



WASATCHWARE 

7350 Nutree Drive 

Sail Lake Cily, Utah 84121 

Phone (801) 943-1546 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 49 




PRINCETON 



."ti^iJVMiir^Jt.-ra,, /.:■.. 



OCT. 2-1-23 



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AINBOWIest is the only computer show dedicated 
exclusively to your Tandy Color Computer. 
Nowhere else will you see as many CoCo-related 
products or be able to attend free seminars conducted 
by the top Color Computer experts. It's like receiving the 
latest issue of the rainbow in your mailbox! 

RAINBOWfest is a great opportunity for commercial 
programmers to show off new and innovative products 
for the first time. Princeton is the show to get information 
on capabilities for the new CoCo 3, along with a terrific 
selection of the latest CoCo 3 software. In exhibit after 
exhibit, there will be demonstrations, opportunities to 
experiment with software and hardware, and special 
RAINBOWfest prices. 

Set your own pace between visiting exhibits and 
attending the valuable, free seminars on all aspects of 
your CoCo — from improving basic skills to working with 
the sophisticated OS-9 operating system. 

Many people who write for the rainbow — as 
well as those who are written about — are there 
to meet you and answer questions. You'll also 
meet lots of other people who share your interest 
in the Color Computer. It's a person-to-person 
event and a tremendous learning experience in 
a fun and relaxed atmosphere. 

A special feature of RAINBOWfest is the 
Educational Sandbox, which features 
child-oriented workshops to give hands- 
on experience to an age group often 
T'cS. \ neglected. There are sessions for the 

kindergarten through third-grad- 
ers, and for fourth- through sev- 



A, 



« 



enth-graders. And, as an additional treat for CoCo Kids of 
all ages, we've invited frisky feline CoCo Cat to join us for 
the show. RAINBOWfest has something for everyone in the 
family! 

If you missed the fun at our last RAINBOWfest in Chicago, 
why don't you make plans now to join us in Prince- 
ton? For members of the family who don't share your 
affinity for CoCo, there are many other attractions in 
the Princeton area. 

The Hyatt Regency Princeton offers special rates for 
RAINBOWfest. The show opens Friday evening with a 
session from 7 p.m. to 10 p.m. It's a daytime show 
Saturday — the CoCo Community Breakfast (separate 
tickets required) is at 8 a.m., then the exhibit hall opens 
promptly at 10 a.m. and runs until 6 p.m. On Sunday, 
the exhibit hall opens at 11 a.m. and closes at 3 p.m. 

Tickets for RAINBOWfest may be obtained directly__ 
from the rainbow. We'll also send you a reserva- 
tion form so you can get a special room rate. 

The POSH way to go. You can have your travel | 
arrangements and hotel reservations handled 
through rainbow affiliate, POSH Travel Assist- 
ance, Inc., of Louisville. For the same POSH 
treatment many of our exhibitors enjoy, call POSH at 
(502) 893-331 1 . All POSH services are available at no 
charge to RAINBOWfest attendees. 

3b THMb* 



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SPtClAL bVbNT* 

COCO GALLERY LIVE 
SHOWCASE YOUR BEST AT RAINBOWFEST 

We are taking the popular "CoCo Gallery" on the road to RAINBOWfest Princeton 
— and we'd like you to submit your own graphics creations to be exhibited at the 
show! 

MILLS 



• You can enter color or black-and-white photographs or printouts of your original artwork 
produced on the CoCo 1, 2 or 3. Entries must be framed, mounted or matted, and may 
not be smaller than 5-by-7 inches or larger than 1 1-by-14 inches. 

■ Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this means no game screens, digitized 
images from TV programs or material that's already been submitted elsewhere. A digitized 
copy of a picture that appears in a book or magazine is not an original work. 

• Along with your entry, send a cover letter with your name, address and phone number, 
detailing how you created your picture (what programs you used, etc.). Please include a 
few facts about yourself, too! 

• Your name, address and phone number, along with the title of your work, must be clearly 
marked on the back of each entry, and a disk copy of each piece must also be included. 

• Entries must be mailed to the rainbow before October 10, 1988, or brought to the 
RAINBOWfest registration booth by 10 a.m., Saturday, October 22. 

• All entries to CoCo Gallery Live become the property of Falsoft, Inc. 

There will be two categories: one for graphics produced on the CoCo 1 and 2, and 
one for CoCo 3 graphics. Several awards will be made in each category. Winners 
will be determined by votes from RAINBOWfest attendees. In case of any ties, 
winners will be determined by our chief judge, CoCo Cat. 

Prizes and ribbons will be presented Sunday, October 23, 1988, and winning entries 
will be published in the January '89 issue of the rainbow. Send your entry to "CoCo 
Gallery Live," the rainbow, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, Prospect, KY 40059. 



YES. I'm coming to Princeton! I want to save by buying tickets now at the special 
advance sale price. Breakfast tickets require advance reservations. 

Please send me: 



. Three-day ticket(s) at $9 each total 

. One-day ticket(s) at $7 each total 

Circle one: Friday Saturday Sunday 

. Saturday CoCo Breakfast 
at $12 each total 

. RAINBOWfest T-shirt(s) 

at $6 each total 

Specify size: 

S M I XL 



Name 

(please print) 

Address 



City 



Telephone 
Company _ 



State _ 
ZIP 



( T-shirts must be picked up at the door) 
Handling Charge S1 

TOTAL ENCLOSED 



□ Payment Enclosed, or Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard D American Express 

Account Number 



Exp. Date 



Signature 



(U.S. Currency Only, Please) 
□ Also send me a hotel reservation card for the 
Hyatt Regency Princeton ($88, single or double 
room). 

Advance ticket deadline: October 7. 1988. Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at 
the door. Tickets will also be available at the door at a slightly higher price. Tickets will be mailed six weeks prior to show. 
Children 4 and under, tree; over 4, lull price. 

Make checks payable to: The RAINBOW. Mail to: RAINBOWfest, The Falsoft Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. To make reservations by phone, in Kentucky call (502) 228-4492, or outside Kentucky 
call (800) 847-0309. 



•c^« 




Still pounding away at that keyboard? 




Save Ti 



ney with a Combinati 



bscrip 



SAVE up to 19°/<T 

when you buy a joint sub- 
scription to the magazine and 
either rainbow on tape or 
RAINBOW ON DISK! A one-year 
subscription to the rainbow 
and rainbow on tape is only 
$91 in the U.S., $108 in Can- 
ada, $153 foreign surface rate 
and $188 foreign airmail. A 
one-year subscription to THE 
rainbow and rainbow on 
disk is only $115 in the U.S., 
$138 in Canada, $183 foreign 
surface rate and $218 foreign 
airmail.* 

Every month, these convenient 
services bring you as many as 24 
ready-to-run programs. Using the 
current issue of the rainbow as 
documentation, all you have to do is 
load and run them. A one-year com- 
bination subscription to the rain- 



bow and RAINBOW ON TAPE or RAIN- 
BOW on disk give you more than 230 
new programs! The typing time you 
save can be spent enjoying your 
CoCo! 



RAINBOW ON TAPE 

For No-Fuss Fun 

Back issues of rainbow on tape 
are available beginning with the 
April 1982 issue. A single copy of 
rainbow on tape is $10 within the 
United States; U.S. $12 in all other 
countries. The annual subscription 
rate for rainbow on tape is $80 
within the U.S.; U.S. $90 in Canada; 
and U.S. $105 for all other coun- 
tries.* 



RAINBOW ON DISK 
Offers OS-9 Programs 

In addition to all the programs 
offered on tape, part of one side of 
rainbow on disk is formatted for the 
OS-9 operating system. That means 
you can now get all the OS-9 pro- 
grams from the magazine — pro- 
grams that cannot be put on tape. 
Back issues of rainbow on disk are 
available beginning with October 
1986. Subscriptions to rainbow on 
disk are $99 a year in the U.S. Cana- 
dian rate is U.S. $115. All other 
countries, U.S. $130. Single copy 
rate is $12 in the U.S.; U.S. $14 in 
Canada; and U.S. $16 in all other 
countries.* 



To order by phone (credit card orders only), call (800) 847- 
0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. All other inquiries call (502) 228- 
4492. 

Look for our envelope located between pages 66 and 67 for 
ordering individual subscriptions to the rainbow, rainbow on 

TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK. 



YES! Sign me up for a joint 1-year subscription (12 issues) to: 



□ THE RAINBOW and RAINBOW ON TAPE 

□ THE RAINBOW and RAINBOW ON DISK 

□ NEW D RENEWAL (attach labels) 



Name 



Address 
City 



State 



ZIP 



Payment Enclosed □ ('payment must accompany order) 

Charge: □ VISA □ MasterCard □ Am. Express 
Account Number 

Signature 



Exp. 



"U.S. currency only, please. In order to hold down costs, we do not bill. Kentucky residents add 5% sales tax. Please allow 6 to 8 weeks 
for delivery of first copies. Joint subscriptions to the rainbow and rainbow on tape or rainbow on disk begin with the current issue. 

Please note: While group purchases ot rainbow ON tape and RAINBOW ON disk are permitted (and multiple subscriptions are even discounted, if purchased in one 
order from a club), no license to make copies is conveyed or implied. Yes, your group may even purchase a subscription to our disk/tape services, bul such purchase 
in no way authorizes that any copies be made of that original disk/tape. Specifically, this means that the original disk/tape ifsell may indeed be kept in a club library 
for use by members. However, a group purchase does nol entitle club members, individually or as a group, to copy that disk/tape 
Unauthorized copying of any copyright product is strictly illegal. The copyright (right to make copies) is in no way conveyed in the purchase transaction 



F o atur o 



16K Disk 



t<-.,." 



fxi 



„*!H? 



Printing in italics on the Tandy 
DMP-105 printer 



Emphasize 

With the DMP-105 



By David Francis 



This program will allow you to acid the capability of 
printing italics on the Tandy DMP-105. It is self- 
prompting and very easy to use. 
When you run ltalics-105 the title banner is displayed and 
a check is made to ensure the printer is ready. The data for 
the characters is read into an array, and you are asked for 
the name of the file you wish to print in italics. This file is 
opened and printing begins. 



fAe Cc/or Co.weer 3 ca- £s aiec /■? s.^a// &ti£/'fi£££ &&0 A0#e 
afif'/t'cst/ons suc/i as srsfAicsi firasr-sflt/to ns • tacfsets, vs/V 
?Acvess//>Si csts^sse ,-*a,~£S£,w.- , s/'reaifSi'iest anafsrs/'s ar,c 
/nanv otAers. FAe Co,'cr Conrueer 3 cc/vs 6//'t/> I£S.H aem?,-* 
<£.<fsr,cadJs tc SlS/i), sne' s/i&s it?u e/>s acfva/Xass c/ Sfeater 
/>res-ras>*>;,;s ans cats fsccESS/ns />c&/eft as t/e/J as A/s.Ae,- 
'' 'ESC- 'Jut/ D/i STafi .-* ' c s . 



Although the operation of this program is very straight- 
forward, it can be used in two basic ways. First, if you wish 
to print an entire document in italics, save the document to 
disk in ASCII format using a word processor. Run ltalics- 
105, and enter the name under which you saved the docu- 
ment. On the other hand, if you simply wish to print part 
of a document in italics, you must first save that part of the 
document in ASCII format. Then print the main document 
up to the section you want to be in italics. Run ltalics-105 
and print the italicized portion. Now return to your word 
processor and finish printing the remainder of the main 
document. 

If your computer will not operate in the high-speed mode, 
be sure to delete lines 1030 and 4040. The baud rate is set 
to 2400 in Line 7050, so if for some reason you must print 
at 600 baud, be sure to delete this line as well. Keep in mind 
that everything you save will be printed, including control 
codes. 

David Francis, who recently received his bachelor's degree 
in linguistics, has owned a Color Computer for five years. 
He enjoys music, reading and programming. 



Use your imagination to mix the new characters with the 
others available on the DMP-105. You can easily create eye- 
catching notices and fliers. 

(Questions or comments regarding this program may be 
directed to the author at Box 49793, Austin, TX 78765. Please 
enclose an SA SE when requesting a reply.) □ 




1120 . 
3090 . 
6070 . 
10090 
10250 



.10 10400 

..66 10560 

.108 10720 

.110 10830 

.179 END . 



..100 

..115 

.220 

.212 

...50 



The listing: ITALICS 

10 ' &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& 
20 i & ITALICS-105 & 
30 ' & BY DAVID FRANCIS & 

50 CLEAR2000 



60 GOSUB5000 
70 GOSUB6000 
80 GOSUB7000 
90 GOSUB4000 
100 GOSUB3000 
110 GOSUB2000 



1 PRINT TITLE 

1 PRINTER ONLINE? 

• SETUP 

1 READ CHAR. DATA 

■ GET FILENAME 

1 LOAD STRING 



120 IF FLAG=1 THEN150 

130 GOSUB1000 ' PRINT CHARS. 

140 GOTO110 

150 PRINT@161,STRING$(254," ") 

155 PRINT@161, "END OF "F$ 

160 PRINT#-2,CHR$ (30) ; :PRINT:END 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 53 



IMP ■ ========================= 


S" 


1010 ' PRINT CHARACTERS 


5060 PRINTSTRING$(3 2,175) 




5070 RETURN 


1,030 POKE65495,0 


6)300 


1040 FOR 1=1 TO LEN(T$) 


6010 ' PRINTER ONLINE? 


1050 Z=ASC(MID$(T$,I,1) ) 




1060 IFZ<32 THEN IF Z=13 THENPRI 


6030 IFPEEK(65314)<>5 THEN6080 


NT#-2 : PRINT#-2 : GOTO1100 


6040 PRINT0161, "PRINTER IS NOT R 


1070 Z=Z-31 


EADY. PRESS ANY KEY WHEN PRI 


1080 POKE65494,0 


NTER IS READY." 


1090 PRINT#-2,A$(Z) ; 


6050 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN6050 


1100 NEXT 


6060 GOTO6030 


1110 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2 


6070 PRINT@161,STRING$(254, " ") ; 


1120 POKE65494,0 


6080 RETURN 


1130 RETURN 




2000 ' ========================= 


7010 ' SETUP 


2010 ' LOAD STRING 




2020 ' ========================= 


7030 DIMA$(100) 


2030 IF EOF(l) THENCLOSE:FLAG=l: 


7040 FLAG=0 


GOTO2080 


7050 POKE150,18 


2040 LINEINPUT#1,T$ 


7060 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(20) ; 


2050 IFT$="" THEN2030 


CHR$(18) ;CHR$(27) ;CHR$(16) ;CHR$( 


2060 PRINT@161,STRING$(254,32) 


0) ;CHR$(0) ; 


2070 PRINT@161,T$ 

's rt r\ fi t^ nmT'TT'WT 


7070 RETURN 


2080 RETURN 




3000 ■ ========================= 


10010 ■ CHARACTER DATA 


3010 ' GET FILENAME 


10020 • ======================== 


3020 ' ========================= 


10030 DATA 128,128,128,128,128,1 


3030 PRINT@161, "ENTER FILENAME T 


28,128,999 


BE PRINTED (MUST BE IN ASCI 


10040 DATA 128,128,192,128,144,1 


I FORMAT): " ; : LINEINPUTF$ 


36,132,130,129,999 


3040 IFF$="" THEN3030 


10050 DATA 128,128,132,130,129,1 


3050 EXT=INSTR(F$,"/") 


32,130,129,999 


3060 IF EXTO0 THEN IF LEN(F$)>1 


10060 DATA 128,128,192,176,144,2 


2 THEN PRINT@2 89, "FILENAME TOO L 


20,180,150,157,132,134,129,999 


ONG":GOTO3030 


10070 DATA 128,128,160,224,164,1 


3070 IF EXT=0 THEN IF LEN(F$)>8 


8 6,170, 174,154,131,130,12 8, 12 8,9 


THEN PRINTQ289, "FILENAME TOO LON 


99 


G. " :GOTO3030 


10080 DATA 128,128,194,163,145,1 


3075 PRINT@289,STRING$(32, " ") 


37,197,227,161,128,128,999 


3080 OPEN"I",l,F$ 


10090 DATA 128,128,224,208,206,2 


3090 RETURN 


17,163,208,12 8, 12 8,9 99 


4000 ■ ========================= 


10100 DATA 128,128,132,130,129,9 


4010 ' READ CHAR. DATA 


99 


4020 • ========================= 


10110 DATA 128,128,176,200,132,1 


4030 PRINT@161," WORKING, PLEASE 


30,129,129,999 


WAIT. . .":PRINTSTRING$(3 2," ") 


10120 DATA 128,128,192,192,160,1 


4040 POKE65495,0 


44,137,135,128,999 


4050 FORX=l TO 91 


10130 DATA 128,128,132,148,143,1 


4060 READA:IF A=999 THEN4090 


58,133, 132,999 


4070 A$(X)=A$(X)+CHR$(A) 


10140 DATA 128,128,168,152,136,1 


4080 GOTO4060 


40,138,999 


4090 NEXT 


10150 DATA 128,128,192,176,144,1 


4100 POKE65494,0 


28,128,128,999 


4110 RETURN 


10160 DATA 128,128,136,136,136,1 


5000 ' ========================= 


36,136,999 


5010 ' PRINT TITLE 


10170 DATA 128,128,192,224,160,1 


5020 ■ ========================= 


28,128,999 


5030 CLS:PRINTSTRING$(3 2,175) ; 


10180 DATA 128,128,192,190,129,9 


5040 PRINTTAB(10) "ITALICS-105" 


99 


5050 PRINTTAB(7) "BY DAVID FRANCI 


10190 DATA 224,208,216,212,202,1 



54 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



69, 149,141, 


133,131, 


999 








10340 DATA 128,128,192,130,145,1 


1020)3 DATA 


192,192, 


224, 


144 


138 


1 


37,133, 131, 128,999 


33,131,129, 


999 










10350 DATA 128,128,224,208,202,2 


10210 DATA 


192,224, 


208, 


200 


202 


2 


3 3,217,169, 14 5, 14 2,999 


01,137,133, 


131,999 










10370 DATA 192,160,144,152,148,1 


102 20 DATA 


224,192, 


194, 


201 


201 


1 


46,255,128,128,999 


69,153,133, 


131,999 










10380 DATA 192,192,224,208,200,2 


10230 DATA 


152,212, 


178, 


146 


154, 


1 


05,203, 169,153, 13 3,130,9 99 


33,131,129, 


128,999 










10390 DATA 224,208,200,196,194,1 


10240 DATA 


224,192, 


196, 


198 


197, 


1 


93,161,129,131,999 


65,149,141, 


129,128, 


999 








10400 DATA 192,192,224,208,200,1 


102 50 DATA 


224,208, 


200, 


204 


202, 


1 


96,195,161,145,137,13 3,130,999 


69,153,129, 


128,999 










10410 DATA 192,224,208,200,204,2 


102 60 DATA 


192,161, 


145, 


137 


133, 


1 


02,201,129,129,129,129,999 


31,128,999 












10420 DATA 192,160,144,136,140,1 


102 70 DATA 


224,208 


204, 


202 


201 


1 


38,137,129,129,129,129,999 


69,153,133, 


131,128, 


999 








10430 DATA 224,208,200,196,194,2 


10280 DATA 


192,192, 


204 


202 


169 


1 


09,177,145,131,999 


53,137,133, 


131,128, 


999 








10440 DATA 192,160,144,136,140,2 


10290 DATA 


128,128, 


160, 


176 


148 


1 


02,169, 152, 13 6,13 2,130,129,99 9 


34,130,128, 


999 










10450 DATA 192,192,224,144,136,1 


10300 DATA 


128,128, 


192 


192 


176 


1 


32,131,129,129,999 


48,134,130, 


128,999 










10460 DATA 224,208,192,192,192,1 


10310 DATA 


128,128, 


152 


164 


194 


1 


60,144,13 6,132,130,129,999 


29,128,999 












10470 DATA 192,160,144,136,140,1 


103 20 DATA 


128,128 


144 


148 


148 


1 


54,169,200,13 2,130,129,999 


48,148,132 


999 










10480 DATA 192,224,208,200,196,1 


103 30 DATA 


128, 128 


192 


161 


146 


1 


94,129, 128,999 


40,128,999 












10490 DATA 192,160,144,136,132,1 




New, Lowest Prices Ever On Interfaces 



Model 101 

Serial to Parallel Printer Interface 

Works with any COCO 

Compatible with "Centronics" Parallel Input Pnnters 

Just turn the knob to select any one of 6 baud rates 300-9600 

Comes complete with cables to connect to your printer 

and computer 

Can be powered by most printers 

Model 104 Deluxe Interface 
with "Modem Switch" 

Same Features as 101 Plus 

Built in Serial Port lor your Modem or other serial device 
Switch between Serial Output and Parallel Output 
Comes with cables to connect to your computer and printer 
Can be powered by most printers 

Model 105 Serial Switch 

* Connects to your COCO to give you 2 switch selectable 
Serial Ports 

Comes with a 3 loot cable to connect to your computer 
Now you can connect your Printer (or printer interface) 
and your Modem (or other serial device) to your COCO 
and flip the switch to use either device 
Does not require power 

Cassette Label Printing Program 

New Version 2.1 prints 7 lines ol information 

on Cassette labels 

Comes on Tape with instructions to transfer to disk 

Menu driven, very easy to use 

Save and Load Labels from Tape and Disk 

Uses the features of your printer lo print standard, 

expanded, and condensed characters 

Automatically Centers Each Line of Text 

Allows editing of label before printing 

Program comes with 24 labels to get you started 

16KECB required 



Some of the Printers 
That Can - 

Supply power lor the 101 and 
1 04 are Radio Shack, Star, 
Okidata, Brother, Juki, and 
Smith Corona. 

Some of the Printers 
That Cannot - 

Supply power for the interfaces 
are Epson, Seikosha. 
Panasonic, Silver Reed and 
NEC. If your printer cannot 
supply power to the interface 
you can order your interface 
with the "P" option or you can 
supply your own AC adapter. 
We recommend the Radio 
Shack 273-1431 AC adapter 
with a 274-328 connector 
adapter. 

Write or call for more 
information or for technical 
assistance. 



Price List 

Model 101 

Model 1 01 P 
Model 104 
Model 104P 
Modell 05 



35.95 
41.95 
44.95 
51.95 
14.95 



Cassette Label Program 6.95 
Pin Feed Cassette Labels: 
White 3.00'100 

Colors (specify) 3.60/C 
Red-Blue- Yellow-Tan 
C-10 Cassette 

Tapes 
Cassette Storage 

Boxes 
4 Pin Din Serial 
COCO Cables: 

Male/Male 6 foot 4.49 

Male/Female 6 foot 4.49 

Female/Female 6 foot 4.49 
Other Lengths Available. 

All items covered by a 
1 year warranty 



7.50/dozen 



2.50'dozen 



Ordering Info 

* Free Shipping in the 
U.S.A. and Canada 
(except AK and HI) 
on all orders over $50 

* On orders under S50 please 
add $2.50 for shipping 
and handling 

* On orders outside the 
U.S.A. and Canada please 
write or call for shipping 
charges 



You Can Pay By: 

* VISA or MasterCard 

* C.O.D.- add $2.25 

* Or send check or money 
order payable in U.S. funds 

Metric Industries Inc. 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 
P.O. Box 42396 

(513)677-0796 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 55 



30,193,162, 


148,138,133,131,129,9 


48,148,136,999 










99 




10750 DATA 192,160, 


152, 


136, 


140, 


1 


10500 DATA 


192,160,14 4,13 6,132,1 


38,129,129,130,999 










30,255,144, 


136,132,130,129,999 


10760 DATA 192,192, 


216, 


212, 


180, 


1 


10510 DATA 


22 4,208,200,196,194,1 


48,140,132,999 










61,145,137, 


133,130,999 


10770 DATA 192,160, 


144, 


136, 


132, 


1 


10520 DATA 


192,160,144,136,140,1 


98,165,148,136,999 










38,137,137, 


137,137,133,130,999 


10780 DATA 192,160, 


144, 


136, 


132, 


1 


10530 DATA 


2 2 4,208,200,196,210,1 


28,129,999 










61,209,137, 


133,131,999 


10790 DATA 224,192, 


192, 


160, 


144, 


1 


10540 DATA 


192,160,144,136,140,1 


36,132,128,129,999 










38,153,169, 


201,137,133,130,999 


10800 DATA 192,160, 


144, 


136, 


156, 


1 


10550 DATA 


192,192,196,202,201,2 


70,201,136,999 










01,169,145, 


129,999 


10810 DATA 192,192, 


224, 


144, 


136, 


1 


10560 DATA 


192,160,144,137,133,1 


32,131,129,999 










31,129,129, 


129,999 


10820 DATA 192,160, 


144, 


140, 


164, 


1 


10570 DATA 


22 4,208,200,196,194,1 


48,200,164,152,999 










61,144,136, 


132,130,129,999 


108 30 DATA 192,160 


144 


140 


196, 


1 


10580 DATA 


128,128,255,144,136,1 


64,148,136,999 










32,130,129, 


999 


10840 DATA 224,208 


200 


196 


196, 


1 


10590 DATA 


224,208,200,164,210,2 


64,148,140,999 










01,160,144, 


136,132,130,129,999 


10850 DATA 192,160 


144 


152 


148, 


1 


10600 DATA 


192,160,144,255,132,1 


48,148,136,128,999 










30,129,999 




10860 DATA 128,152 


212 


180 


148 


1 


10610 DATA 


192,160,159,136,132,1 


40,132,999 










30,129,999 




10870 DATA 192,160 


144 


136 


,132 


,1 


10620 DATA 


192,224,209,201,197,1 


32,132,136,999 










31,129,999 




10880 DATA 192,192 


216 


212 


,212 


,1 


10630 DATA 


192,224,208,136, 132,1 


64,132,999 










30,129,129 


999 


10890 DATA 224,208 


,204 


,132 


,134 


,1 


10640 DATA 


12 8,129,190,19 2,128,9 


32,999 










99 




10900 DATA 224,208 


,200 


,196 


,224 


,2 


10650 DATA 


192,192,19 2,160,144,1 


08,136,132,999 










36,133,131 


129,999 


10910 DATA 12 8,252 


,160 


,144 


,136 


rl 


10660 DATA 


136,132,130,143,999 


32,999 










10680 DATA 


128,128,135,136,999 


10920 DATA 224,208 


,200 


,164 


,208 


,1 


10690 DATA 


128,999 


92,160,144,136,132 


,999 








10700 DATA 


224,208,212,212,244,2 


10930 DATA 192,160 


,144 


,252 


,136 


,1 


12,136,999 




32,999 










10710 DATA 


192,2 2 4,208,200,196,1 


10940 DATA 192,216 


,212 


,176 


,144 


,1 


98,165,148 


136,999 


36,132,999 










10720 DATA 


224,208,200,196,196,1 


10950 DATA 192,228 


,212 


,204 


,132 


,9 


32,132,999 




99 










107 30 DATA 


224,208,200,196,196,1 












64,148,140 


132,130,129,999 












10740 DATA 


224,208,216,212,212,1 










/R\ 



Dr. Nibble 

By Kelly Taylor 




IF rOJFINO THE BALL, 
Mill's IN AFWE MS 
SA FE FOTTO GO THEN 

RDMVEll 
ELSE DARK 




(WELL, WW ARE 
' FCR? 




PHOOEY! WITH THAT 1 
LON&OFACWIANO, 
FXPECTED ATLEAS1 ONE 
SYNTAX ERROR'. 




-p°~i- 



56 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



MicnoWorld 



Mak i r-i s the V«_ 

C o CT cd ' s AFFORDABLE . 



CoColll 

Drive (NEW) 


Specia 


$139 
$235 


CM-8 Monitor 
Deluxe Joystick 


Specia 


I $239 
$ 24 


Mouse 
Joysticks (pair) 




$40 

$13 


Disk storage box (50) 
CCR-81 Cass. Rec. 


$12.50 
$42 



Disks (SS) 
Disks (DS) 



$7.00/box 
$7.50/box 



'Includes free library case 



DMP-106 

DMP-130A (120 CPS) 
DMP-440 



Tandy 1000 HX 
Tandy 1000 TX 



VM-4 Monitor 
CM-5 Monitor 
CM-11 Monitor 



CoCo3 512K Upgrade 
MultiPak Upgrade (26-3024) 
MultiPak Upgrade (26-3124) 
OS-9 Level 2 




M i n imum Order $15 .00 



* Please Note - Our ads are submitted 
early, so prices are subject to change!!! 
We appreciate your cooperation ft, 
understanding in this matter 



wmm. s>iaa©£ ikusv &w&v.L&.mLm 
sausa* asss ojfjf &&& ir&saaD's? ai&&Etf»&5i£ 



Full TANDY 

Warranty 
100% TANDY 

PRODUCTS 
FREE UPS Shipping 
ton orders over $50.00 
under $50 add $2.00 



Fe a ture 



Just when you thought it was safe to 
go back into the tombs . . . 



Escape 

From 



Tut's Tomb, 



Parts 2 and 3 




By Chris McKernan 



Talk about cliffhangers, gentle 
reader. Last month we left you 
busily keying in the first part of 
Tut's Tomb. No doubt you took a 
tumble into the passages and found 
yourself menaced by scorpion-tailed 
bats, disembodied dragon heads and 
other uglies. You might have discovered 
that it's hard to stay alive to the end of 
a five-level maze when you have only 
three lives. Those are the breaks, Ad- 
venturer. 

But if you're one of the quick-on- 
your-feet elite, you might have made it 
past the curses, the vile creatures whose 
job it is to prevent you from completing 
the fifth and final maze of Part 1 and 
receiving your hint. ( What hint? We're 
not telling.) 

In fact, if you made it through Part 
1 of Tut's Tomh, you can classify your- 
self as an arcade addict. And from there 
it's a safe assumption that right now you 
are experiencing withdrawal symptoms 
induced by the Tut's Tomb cliffhanger. 
(You'll recognize this condition by 
observing the behavior of your fingers, 
which will restlessly seek to manipulate 
a joystick that isn't there.) 

Here at THE rainbow, we take every- 
one's welfare to heart -- even you 
arcade junkies and video Adventurers. 
And so, without further ado, we bring 
you parts 2 and 3 of Tut s Tomb, which 
add up to 10 more mazes of thrills-and- 
chills excitement! 

Part 2 

Flex your fingers and follow these 
steps to key in Part 2 of Tut's Tomb: 

1 ) Type in and save the listings 
2PPRT1 and 2PRRT2 

2) Reset the computer with a cold 
start (enter POKE 113,0 and press 
the reset button) and load TUT1 
from last month by entering (C) 
LDPDM "TUT1",1S384 

Chris McKernan is an electronics tech- 
nician for Paramax Electronics. His 
hobbies include computers, photog- 
raphy and music. 



58 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



32K ECB 




3) RUN "2PRRT1" 

4) RUN "2PART2" 

5) (C)SAVEM "TUT2", 20479, 
26405,26405 

6) (C)LOflDM "TUT2", 49152 

7) (C)SAVEM "TUT2",4095, 
10021,10011 

When run, the two BASIC listings build 
a machine language file, TUT2. Steps 6 
and 7 change the loading addresses. 

Part 3 

To generate Part 3 of Tut's Tomb, 
TUT3. do the following: 

l)Type in and save the listings 
3PART1 and 3PART2 

2) Reset the computer with a cold 
start (enter POKE 113,0 and press 
the reset button) and load TUT1 
from last month by entering 
(C)LOADM "TUT1", 16384) 

3) RUN "3PART1" 

4) RUN "3PART2" 

5) (C)SAVEM "TUT3", 20479, 
26405,26405 

6) (C)LOADM "TUT3", 49152 

7) (C)SAVEPI "TUT3",4095, 
10021,10011 

You have now created the third and 
final machine language file, TUT3. 



Wrapping It Up 

After all this work, your Tut 's Tomb 
program should consist of the following 
files: 

0NE.BA5 

TWO.BAS 

THREE. BA5 

FOUR.BAS 

TUT1.BIN 

2PART1.BAS 

2PART2.BA5 

TUT2.BIN 

3PART1.BA5 

3PART2.BA5 

TUT3.BIN 

All you have to do to execute the 
game is enter (C)LOflDM "TUT1" and 
EXEC. 

Mummy's the Word 

For the benefit of those who were not 
with us last month, Tut's Tomb is an 
arcade game in which as an Adventurer 
you have discovered the priceless tomb 
of King Tut — but at perhaps the cost 
of your life (of which you have three, by 
the way). 

Five obstacles stand in your way to 
riches, fame and glory, and rather 



ghastly obstacles at that: scorpion- 
tailed bats, blue serpents, giant spiders, 
disembodied dragon heads and curses. 
For your defense against these crea- 
tures, you carry a musket, which you 
can fire only to the left and right; you 
need a joystick plugged into the right 
joystick port. Creatures are killed by 
being shot in the upper part of their 
bodies. But you can't get rid of them for 
long, however: Every time a creature is 
killed near its lair, a new one material- 
izes to take its place. 

In each maze level, the goal is to grab 
all the goodies you can (not forgetting 
the key) and sneak past the monsters 
into the next level. 

Programming buffs might want to 
examine Table I for a listing of the 
routines used and their locations. 

Psstl If you find you're losing all your 
lives before you can complete even the 
first or second maze, you might want to 
check out the program Immortality 
Finder in Novices Niche, Page 76. 

(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 2369 Madison #9, Montreal, 
Quebec, Canada H4B 2T5. Please en- 
close an SASE when requesting a 
reply.) □ 



LOCATION 


NAME OF ROUTINE 


5939 (BASE 10) 


Sound Routine 


6000 


PMODE 


6023 


PCLS 


6036 


Character print X=LOC A=CHAR 


6062 


SCORE (Prints Score) 


6108 


"HIGH:" 


6149 


Highscore print 


6195 


LVL:0(nol used) 


6237 


SHlPS:0(not used) 


6256 


Print Maze 


6403 


Maze Data 


6511 


Check Up 


6541 


Check Down „ 




_, ... — lor explorer 
Check Left 


6562 


6581 


Check Right 


6600 


Print Man 


6628 


Erase Man 


6647 


Move Up 


6670 


Move Down „ 


6693 


, , —for explorer 
Move Lett 


6715 


Move Right 


6738 


Laser Right 


6789 


Laser Left 


6846 


Move or Fire (Main Routine) 


6926 


Print Key & Treasure 


6978 


New Game Resets Variables 


7002 


Clear Creatures Resets Positions 


7024 


Print Smoke X=LOC 


7049 


Blank Print X.=LOC 


7066 


Points (creature) 


7104 


Check Hit 


7247 


Print Creature 



Table 1: Routines Listing 

LOCATION 



NAME OF ROUTINE 



7278 


Initialize Creatures 


7397 


Check Left 


7412 


Check Right . „ 

— for Creatures 


7427 


Check Up 


7442 


Check Down 


7459 


Dir 5 (exit Lair) 


7533 


Pick Direction 


7642 


Move Left 


7667 


Move Right 


7692 


Move Down 


7718 


Move Up 


7744 


Move 2 


7804 


Creature Main Movement 


7894 


- STOP - 


9307 


Move Change 


9451 


Change 2 


9548 


Take Prize 


9601 


Print Key 


9636 


Take Key 


9678 


Next Maze?? 


9742 


Check for kill 


9810 


Implement Check 


9853 


DIR 5 SOUND 


9909 


Clear screen, print key. treasure & CAM 


10006 


— STOP 


1001 1 


Relocate Stacks & Start Game 


5130 


Print "GAME OVER" 


5200 


Dead Sound 


5300 


Laser Sound 


5400 


Delay Creature dead (smoke) 


5550 


Sound Kev 


5600 


Sound Treasure 




August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



59 



I 



'dilor 's Note: For your convenience, last month 's 
machine language file, TUT1, is included on this 
month's RAINBOW ON TAPE and DISK, along with 
this month 'sfour BASIC programs and the two ML 
files for parts 2 and 3 o/Tut's Tomb: TUT2 .BIN and 
TUT2.BIN. RAINBOW ON TAPE and DISK users will 
only need to load Part 1. TUT1, and type EXEC. The 
files have already been moved to their proper 
memory locations. 




140 108 1260 71 

290 236 1400 248 

520 228 1600 72 

680 27 1750 41 

900 138 END 91 

1050 242 



Listing l:2PflRTl 

5 CLEAR 100,&H4FFE 

10 REM ######################## 
## RUN after LOADING ## 
## TUT1 SEE TEXT ## 

######################## 
15 FOR X=2j3479 TO 21959 :READ DT: 
POKE X,DT:NEXT X 

20 DATA 189,18,119,189,23,112,18 
9,23 

30 DATA 135,189,38,229,189,23,17 
4,189 

40 DATA 23,220,189,24,5,189,24,9 
3 

50 DATA 127,30,250,134,1,183,31, 
54 

60 DATA 183,31,55,134,240,183,31 
,24 

70 DATA 189,25,3,189,24,112,189, 
25 

80 DATA 200,189,27,14,189,27,90, 
189 

90 DATA 18,92,182,255,0,129,254, 
39 

100 DATA 4,129,126,38,245,189,37 
,76 

110 DATA 189,37,164,189,38,82,18 
9,38 

120 DATA 125,79,177,30,237,38,19 
,189 

130 DATA 20,10,182,255,0,129,254 
,16 

140 DATA 39,255,157,129,126,38,2 
43,126 

150 DATA 15,255,189,26,190,189,3 
7,206 

160 DATA 189,28,110,189,29,35,18 
9,16 

170 DATA 162,189,16,152,189,30,1 
24,189 

180 DATA 25,200,189,23,174,189,3 
6,235 



190 DATA 

200 DATA 

6 

210 DATA 

, 184 

2 20 DATA 

9,180 

2 30 DATA 

32 

2 40 DATA 

,57 

250 DATA 

255,255 

2 60 DATA 

2 70 DATA 

2 80 DATA 

2 90 DATA 
300 DATA 
310 DATA 
320 DATA 

3 30 DATA 
3 40 DATA 
255,255 

3 50 DATA 
,255,255 
3 60 DATA 
,255,255 
3 70 DATA 
,255,255 
3 80 DATA 
,255,255 

3 90 DATA 
,255,255 
400 DATA 
,255,255 
410 DATA 
,255,255 

4 20 DATA 
4 30 DATA 
440 DATA 
4 50 DATA 
4 60 DATA 
470 DATA 
480 DATA 
490 DATA 
500 DATA 
255,255 
510 DATA 
,255,255 
520 DATA 
,21,224 
530 DATA 
27,255 
540 DATA 
202,127 
550 DATA 
,255,194 
560 DATA 
16,142 
570 DATA 



16,142,0,0,49,33,16,140 
9,196,39,2,32,246,126,1 

68,79,189,25,228,57,128 

2 55,15,57,182,39,116,12 

3 6,7,13 9,60,18 3,39,116, 

3,127,39,116,189,29,109 

57,255,255,255,255,255, 

255,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,0,134,128,184 

255,15,182,255,15,183,4 

32,243,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,4,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

83,251,255,255,255,255, 

255,255,255,255,255,2 55 

255,255,255,255,255,255 

255,255,255,255,255,255 

255,255,255,2 55,2 55,2 55 

255,255,2 55,2 55,2 55,2 55 

255,255,255,2 55,2 55,2 55 

255,255,255,255,255,255 

255,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
35,255,255,255,255,255, 

255,255,255,255,255,255 

255,255,255,255,255,189 

189,21,224,189,21,224,1 

201,127,255,34,127,255, 

255,206,127,255,192,127 

127,255,196,142,17,248, 

4,0,95,166,128,167,160, 



60 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



<« G1HMES0FT »> 

A new generation of Color Computer products 



V-Term Terminal Emulator <i M k or sun coco m om y ) 444 IMPROVED! 

V-Term is one of the most advanced terminal programs for the CoCo III everl!! 

FEATURES: VT-100, VT-52, Vldtex(iocJudes RLE graphics display), and standard CRT emulations. Full use of 512K, 
80X28 text or graphics characters, Windows & MultJ-tasklng{Disk Basic!), RAMD1SK like buffer, Xmodem, Xmodem- 
CRC, Ymodem, Xon/Xoff, Monochrome monitor support, Capture buffer, Snapshot, Conference mode, Serlal/RS- 
232/DCModem Pak, 35/40/80 Tracks, Over 56 pages of docsl Disk $39.95 Ver 02.00.00 upgrade $6.95 

GrOGrO MaX 111 (CoCo 111 only) See April '88 review. Built In Animation! / Amazing Color 
Sequencing!!! Comes with HIRES INTERFACE, M1N1LOAD/BAS, DEMO DISK, COCO SHOW PGM. Sale .... $74.95 

MAXSOUND am or 512k coco hi only) See June '88 review 

Turn your CoCo ID into a REAL digital audio sampler with HIGH quality audio reproduction. Easily add exotic effects, 
ECHO, stuttering, speed shifting, sequencing, and reverse audio to BASIC or ML programs or GRAPHICS! Now 
includes Data Compression. Imagine recording any Voice, Music, or Sound effect and being able to use these DIGITAL 
recordings in your own programs! 3 disk sides includes: 1NTERFACT/BIN • ML driver for sound effects. G&M/BAS - 
Adds sound effects to Graphics. SHOWTIME and DEMO disks. SCOPE/BAS - Turns CRT into a Digital Oscilloscope 
to look at MAXSOUND waveforms. CALL TO HEAR 'OVER THE PHONE' DEMO $59.95 

MAXSOUND SOUNDTRACKS W/ GRAPHICS (MAXSOUND program NOT req'd) Call for Titles .... $5.95 

GRAPHICS-25 (sia coc* m «*) Goes great with MAXSOUND! 

Utilize the FULL 512k memory range of your CoCo III from BASIC for graphics! Create up to 25 ONBOARD HIRES 
SCREENS! Six new BASIC commands allow instant display switching while secretly drawing other screens. Save and 
load screens to and from disk. Copy one screen to another. Fast Graphics action. Smooth animation, and 100% 
Machine Language code. Requires DECB 1.0, DECB 1.1, or FKEYS 111. Complete with documentation. Disk .. $24.95 

M.ULlI-LA151iLj 111 (CoCo III only) See July '87 review. An easy to use, versatile label creating program 
including many new CoCo III features. Print multiple fonts on each label! Disk $16.95 

FKEYS III (CoCo 1/II/ni) See April '87 review. A user friendly, user programmable function key utility that 
creates up to 20 function keys. Includes an EDITOR, DOS mods, DISABLE, and It's EPROMable!. Disk $19.95 

SIXDRIVE (CoCo 1/II/HI) This machine language utility modifies DECB 1.0, 1.1, FKEYS IB, or ADOS to 
allow the use of 3 double-sided drives (or 2 D/S drives and J&R's RAMD1SKS) as 6 S/S drives. Disk .. $16.95 

AUTO DIM (CoCo III only) See Jan. '88 review. This hardware device protects your monitor, or TV from 
IMAGE BURN after a few minutes of inactivity from your keyboard. Illustrated and easy to install. Hdwe $29.95 

MPI-CoCO LOCking Plate (CoCo HI only) Now 2 styles Protects your CoCo 111 and Multi Pak 
Interface from destroying each other! Please specify MPI number 26-3024 or 26-3124 when ordering! Only $9.95 

Ifl QUeSt Of the Star Lord (CoCo 111 only) Enjoy the mixture of science and fantasy 
as you quest for the Phoenix Crossbow, the ordy thing that: can save you in the post-holocaust world. 4 Disk 
sides of animated graphics adventure! Outstanding 320x200 graphics! Disk $34.95 Hint Sheet $3.95 

Kling~FU Dude (CoCo l/U/III) See Feb. '88 review. A Kung-Fu program for the CoCo. Destroy opponents 
and evade obstacles as you grow even closer to your ultimate objective! Disk $24.95 

PYRAMLX (CoCo III only) See Dec. '87 review. Brilliant colors, sharp graphics, and hot action! Disk .. $19.95 

AD&D Character's Companion (coco i/n/m> Great ttmewvu* utility hei PS 

create a compatible AD&D character. Includes a dice rolling routine, pick ability, race and class. Buy anything from 
the Players Handbook, magic items and spell materials. Save, load and print character info. 3 Disk sides $24.95 

White Fire Of Eternity (CoCo I/U/III) See Dec. '86 review. A great graphics adventure! Disk.. $19.95 
CHAMPION (CoCo I/ll/lD) See May '87 review. Become a superhero in this action adventure! Disk. .$19.95 

^VToHEree- 1-800-44^^ Order line 

Technical assistance: 7pm to 9pm GIMMES OFT Add $3.00 for shipping and handling 

Orders: 9am to 9pm Eastern time P.O. Box 421 Add $2.50 for COD (USA only) 

On-line orders and up to date Perry Hall, MD 21128 MD residents add 5% sales tax 

information: Delphi's CoCo Slg 301-256-7558 or 301-256-2953 VlSA/MC/Check/Money Order/COD 



92 




1330 DATA 


189,23,148,142,42,79,1 


580 DATA 


193,78,39,2,32,245,182, 


34,20 




30 




13 40 DATA 


189,2 3, 148,142,42,80, 1 


590 DATA 


220,183,15,161,182,30,2 


34,21 




21,183 




1350 DATA 


189,23,148,142,42,82,1 


600 DATA . 


L5, 162, 182, 30, 222, 183,1 


34,22 




5,163 




13 60 DATA 


189,23,148,142,42,83,1 


610 DATA 


L82, 30, 22 3, 18 3, 15, 164,1 


34,23 




82,30 




1370 DATA 


189,2 3,148,142,42,84,1 


620 DATA 224,183,15,165,134,100, 


34,24 




183,15 




13 80 DATA 


189,23,148,142,42,85,1 


630 DATA 160,57,4,4,4,4,4,4 


34,25 




640 DATA 4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


13 90 DATA 


189,23,148,57,70,68,32 


650 DATA 0,3,12,21,5,32,4,5 


,13 




660 DATA 5,16,5,18,32,1,14,4 


1400 DATA 


0,198,30,247,20,179,13 


670 DATA 32,4,5,5,16,5,18,32 


4,255 




680 DATA 32,32,32,32,32,32,32,32 


1410 DATA 


16,142,0,15,189,23,51, 


5,255,255 




246 




1060 DATA 


255,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


14 20 DATA 


20,179,90,193,1,39,5,2 


1070 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


47 




1080 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


1430 DATA 


20,179,32,234,57,0,0,0 


1090 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


1440 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


1100 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


1450 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


1110 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


14 60 DATA 


0,118,255,255,2 55,255, 


1120 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


255,255 




1130 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


1470 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


1140 DATA 


193,255,255,255,255,25 


5,255,255 




5,74,32 




1480 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


1150 DATA 


32,255,255,255,255,255 


5,255,255 




,255,255 




1490 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


1160 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


5,255,255 




5,255,255 




1500 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


1170 DATA 


2 55,255,255,255,255,25 


5,255,84 




5,255,255 




1510 DATA 


85,84,84,69,84,85,84,6 


1180 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


6 




5,255,255 




1520 DATA 


13,13,13,32,2,191,21,2 


1190 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


2 




5,255,255 




1530 DATA 


142,36,14,16,142,0,2,1 


1200 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


34 




5,255,255 




1540 DATA 


255,230,132,189,23,51, 


1210 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


48,1 




5,255,255 




1550 DATA 


140,36,33,46,2,32,236, 


12 20 DATA 


255,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


190 




12 30 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,28,185 


1560 DATA 


21,22,57,0,0,0,0,0 


1240 DATA 


187,185,197,162,30,13, 


1570 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


185,236 




1580 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


12 50 DATA 


187,185,197,189,51,177 


1590 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


,106,0 




1600 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


12 60 DATA 


188,225,183,77,174,84, 


1610 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


173,45 




1620 DATA 


0,25,255,255,255,255,2 


1270 DATA 


173,196,0,0,0,0,0,85 


55,255 




12 80 DATA 


85,85,85,85,85,85,85,8 


1630 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


5 




5,255,255 




1290 DATA 


85,85,85,85,85,85,85,8 


1640 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,25 


5 




5,255,55 




1300 DATA 

5 

1310 DATA 


85,85,85,85,85,85,85,8 


1650 DATA 

6 

1660 DATA 


122,16,142,0,0,49,33,1 


85,85,85,142,42,77,13 4 


140,15,160,38,248,57,1 


,13 




98,50 




13 20 DATA 


189,23,148,142,42,78,1 


1670 DATA 


16,142,0,40,189,23,51, 


34,19 




134 





62 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



DIGISECTOR 

DS-69B 

VIDEO 

IGITIZER 

FOR THE 

COCO 3 

(AND ALL OTHER COCOS . . .) 



£$&? 



<l 




USE YOUR COCO 3 TO ITS FULL POTENTIAL! 

Use The Micro Works' DIGISECTOR'" DS-69 or 
DS-69B and your COCO 3's high resolution graphics 
to capture and display television pictures from your 
VCR or video camera. The DIGISECTOR'" systems are 
the only COCO video digitizers available that 
accurately capture and reproduce the subtle shades of 
gray in TV pictures! 

• COLOR: Add color to your screen for dramatic 

special effects. 

• HIGH RESOLUTION: 256 by 256 spatial resolution. 

• PRECISION: 64 levels of grey scale. 

• SPEED! 8 images per second on DS-69B, 

2 images per second DS-69. 

• COMPACTNESS: Self contained in a plug-in 

Rompack. 

• EASY TO USE: Software on disk will get you up and 

running fast! 

• COMPATIBLE: Use with a black and white or color 

camera, a VCR or tuner. 

• INEXPENSIVE: Our low price puts this within 

everyone's reach. 

POWERFUL C-SEE 3.3 SOFTWARE 

This menu-driven software 

will provide 5 and 16 shades 

of gray to the screen and to 

the printer with simple 

joystick control of 

brightness and contrast. 

Pictures taken by the 

DIGISECTOR'" maybe 

saved on disk by C-SEE 3.3 

and then edited by our 

optional MAGIGRAPH, or by COCO MAX or 

GRAPHICOM. This versatile new software is included 

in both DIGISECTORS'" 




DS-69B and C-SEE 3.3 
DS-69 and C-SEE 3.3 



$149.95 
$ 99.95 



TRADE IN YOUR OLD DIGISECTOR'" 

If you already have one of The Micro Works' DS-69 or 
DS-69A DIGISECTORS'", you may return it to us and 
we will upgrade your unit to a DS-69B. 



UPGRADE DS-69A to DS-69B 
UPGRADE DS-69 to DS-69B 



$49.95 
$69.95 



The DS-69B comes with a one year warranty. Cameras 
and other accessories are available from The Micro 
Works. 

NO RISK GUARANTEE 

If you are not completely satisfied with the performance of your new 
DS-69B, you may return it, undamaged, within ten days tor a full 
refund of the purchase price. We'll even pay the return shipping. If 
you can get any of our competitors to give you the same guarantee, 
buy both and return the one you don't like. We know which one 
you'll keep. 



COCO 3 SCREEN 



Terms: Visa, Mastercard, Check or C.O.D. 



Purveyors of Fine Video Digitizers Since 1977. ^^©[rSIr^y 1 



P.O. Box 1110 Del Mar, CA 92014 (619)942-2400 



168J3 


DATA 


2 55, 19 8,30,16,142,0,20 


1790 DATA 


255,255,255,255,255,83 


,189 






,84,69 




1690 


DATA 


23,51,57,120,2 4 6,21,11 


1800 DATA 


83,84,70,70,70,70,70,8 


9,90 






4 




1700 
,32 

1710 


DATA 


193,30,37,5,247,21,119 


1810 DATA 

7 

1820 DATA 


85, 84, 66, 65, 83, 73, 67, 6 


DATA 


223,57,0,16,142,31,49, 


67,67,67,67,67,67,67,6 


189 






7 




1720 


DATA 


37,37,57,0,0,0,0,0 


18 30 DATA 


67,67,67,67,67,67,255, 


1730 


DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


134 




1740 


DATA 


5,185,161,161,2 2 2,7,25 


1840 DATA 


2 55,198,50,16,142,0,2 3 


5,82 






0,189 




1750 


DATA 


161,197,11,0,0,171,238 


18 50 DATA 


23,51,134,255,198,25,1 


,161 






6,142 




1760 


DATA 


181,1,2,221,161,161,2, 


18 60 DATA 


0,115,189,23,51,134,25 


4 






5,198 




1770 


DATA 


30,0,79,0,0,0,0,0 


1870 DATA 


50,16,142,0,230,189,2 3 


1780 


DATA 


27,255,255,255,255,255 


,51 




,255 


255 













s 




270 DATA 
280 DATA 
290 DATA 
300 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4 
4,0,4,0,0,4,0,4 
4,0,0,0,0,4,0,0 
4,0,4,0,0,4,0,4 




i 


f 


235 

227 

2 


V 


270 57 950 

530 30 1150 . 




760 206 END .... 










310 DATA 
3 20 DATA 


3,0,4,0,0,4,0,4 
4,0,4,0,0,0,0,2 








Listing 2: 2PART2 






330 DATA 


4,4,4,1,4,4,4,4 












340 DATA 


4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




5 CLEAR 


100,&H4FFE 




350 DATA 


4,0,0,0,4,0,4,4 




10 REM i 


*####################### 


3 60 DATA 


4,0,4,0,0,0,0,0 






: 


t# RUN AFTER RUNNING 


## 


3 70 DATA 


0,0,4,0,4,0,4,4 








t# 2 PARTI SEE TEXT 


## 


3 80 DATA 


3,0,4,0,0,0,4,4 






i 


»####################### 


390 DATA 


4,0,4,0,0,0,0,2 




15 FOR ] 


(=24584 TO 25634 ".READ 


DT: 


400 DATA 


4,0,4,1,4,4,4,4 




POKE X,I 


)T:NEXT X 




410 DATA 


4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




20 DATA 


4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




420 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




30 DATA 


4,4,0,0,0,0,0,4 




4 30 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




40 DATA 


0,0,0,4,0,4,0,4 




440 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




50 DATA 


4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




450 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




60 DATA 


4,0,4,0,1,4,0,4 




4 60 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




70 DATA 


3,0,4,0,4,4,0,4 




470 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




80 DATA 


4,0,0,0,4,3,0,4 




480 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




90 DATA 


4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




490 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




100 


DAT; 


\ 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




500 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




110 


DATi 


\ 4,3,0,0,0,0,0,4 




510 DATA 


0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




120 


DATi 


\ 4,4,0,4,0,4,0,4 




520 DATA 


62,0,0,250,58,0,0 


171 


130 


DAT; 


\ 0,0,0,4,0,4,4,4 




530 DATA 


42,0,0,163,58,0,0 


135 


140 


DATj 


\ 4,4,4,4,0,4,0,0 




540 DATA 


54,0,0,147,50,0,0 


167 


150 


DAT. 


\ 4,4,0,0,0,0,0,4 




550 DATA 


58,0,0,171,58,0,0 


170 


160 


DAT- 


\ 4,3,0,4,1,4,0,4 




560 DATA 


62,0,0,171,0,0,0,160 


170 


DAT, 


\ 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




570 DATA 


254,170,170,250,70,170, 


180 


DAT, 


\ 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




170,164 






190 


DAT, 


\ 4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 




580 DATA 


19,168,170,177,71 


33,42 


200 


DAT 


A 4,0,4,0,4,0,0,4 




,180 






210 


DAT, 


A 4,0,3,0,4,0,0,4 




590 DATA 


19,52,74,49,71,49 


18,52 


220 


DAT 


\ 0,0,4,0,4,0,0,4 




600 DATA 


19,52,71,49,71,33 


19,52 


230 


DAT 


k 4,4,4,0,0,0,0,4 




610 DATA 


255,42,255,63,0,0 


0,0 


240 


DAT, 


fc 4,3,0,0,4,4,1,4 




620 DATA 


85,85,87,234,253,87,212 


2 50 


DAT, 


\ 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




,70 






2 60 


DAT, 


\ 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 




630 DATA 


255,87,245,18,255 


223,2 



64 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



44,7j3 




850 


DATA 


52,69,3 3,17,49,18,36,70 


64J3 DATA 


255,255,245,19,0,0,52,7 


860 


DATA 


63,170,43,250,0,0,0,0 


1 




870 


DATA 


254,42,191,63,70,49,19, 


650 DATA 


0,0,53,19,0,0,52,71 


52 






660 DATA 


0,0,55,255,0,0,52,0 


880 


DATA 


18,52,71,49,71,17,19,52 


670 DATA 


0,0,55,63,0,0,55,52 


890 


DATA 


19,20,207,49,71,17,55,5 


680 DATA 


0,0,55,49,0,0,55,52 


2 






690 DATA 


0,0,55,49,0,0,247,52 


900 


DATA 


18,36,118,49,70,33,210, 


700 DATA 


247,2 55,215,49,213,255, 


36 






215,52 




910 


DATA 


234,47,254,42,0,0,0,0 


710 DATA 


85,127,87,63,85,85,84,0 


920 


DATA 


2,128,10,160,170,170,2 5 


720 DATA 


43,21,85,85,33,21,253,8 


5,240 




7 




930 


DATA 


63,48,63,252,31,255,23, 


730 DATA 


55,23,255,87,51,23,255, 


240 






223 




940 


DATA 


87,224,85,84,21,85,85,8 


740 DATA 


52,23,255,255,17,20,0,0 


5 






750 DATA 


52,20,0,0,49,20,0,0 


950 


DATA 


170,170,40,40,40,40,40, 


760 DATA 


63,20,0,0,0,20,0,0 


40 






770 DATA 


254,20,0,0,70,20,0,0 


9 60 


DATA 


42,42,48,224,51,96,53,2 


780 DATA 


18,20,0,0,71,20,0,0 


24 






790 DATA 


19,20,0,0,71,23,0,0 


970 


DATA 


46,96,51,96,51,95,53,22 


800 DATA 


18,23,247,255,70,21,213 


3 






,255 




980 


DATA 


46,95,51,95,48,223,59,1 


810 DATA 


234,21,85,127,0,21,85,8 


50 






5 




990 


DATA 


47,6,52,10,59,156,54,13 


820 DATA 


43,2 50,62,191,33,210,52 









,71 




1000 DATA 57,2,59,134,59,134,57, 


830 DATA 


55,70,49,19,51,18,52,71 


2 






840 DATA 


52,69,49,19,17,17,20,69 


1010 DATA 57,28,53,241,58,241,58 




It's fun making your own Greeting Cards, Signs, and Banners. 



Coco 
Graphics 
Designer 

Only $29.95 



The Coco Graphics Designer pro- 
duces beautiful Greeting Cards, 
Banners, and Signs (or holidays, 
birthdays and other occasions. 

The program features picture, 
border, and character font editors, 
so that you can modify or expand 
the already built in libraries. Plus 
a special "grabber" utility is includ- 
ed to capture areas of high resolu- 
tion screens for your picture li- 
brary. 



Requirements: a Coco I, II or III 
with at least 32K, one disk drive, 
BASIC 1.0/1.1, ADOS 1.0/1.1 or 
JDOS. Printers supported include: 
Epson RX/FX, Gemini 10X, SG10, 
NX1 0, DM P 1 00/1 05/1 1 0/1 30/430 
CGP220, many Okidata (check 
with Zebra), Seikosha GP1 00/250, 
Gorilla Banana, Legend 808. Or- 
der #C323 Coco Graphics De- 
signer 

Picture Disk #1 

This supplementary picture library 
diskette contains over one hun- 
dred additional pictures. 
#C333 Picture Disk #1 $14.95 

Colored Paper Packs 

150 sheets (50 each red, yellow, 
blue) with 60 matching envelopes. 
Perfect for making your produc- 
tions outstanding. 
#C274 Paper Pack $19.95 



Three New 
Picture Disks 

We've hired freelance professional art- 
ists lo expand the selection of pictures, 
and lonls available lor our Coco Graphics 
Designer. We think you'll agree that the 
quaility ol their work is excellent. Each 
picture diskconlains 128 pictures. 

The selection ol pictures has been guid- 
ed by Ihe requests we've received Irom 
our many Coco Grahics Designer custom- 
ers. II we've missed drawing piclures for 
subjects that inleresl you, please submit 
your requesls for our consideration. 

Picture Disk #2 $14.95 

Special Occasions: 

Parly Hat, Cake, Gilt 

Box, Champaigne, Juke 

Box, Saxaphone, etc. 
Sports: Baseball, Basketball, 

Tennis, Running, etc. 
Office: Compuler, File Cabinet, 

Memo Pad, Clip Board. 

elc, 
American: Flag, Eagle, Astronaut, 

Indian, Liberty Bell, etc. 

Picture Disk #3 $14.95 

Religion: Church, Cross, Candles, 
Menorah, Bible, Slar, elc. 

Animals: Dogs, Cals, Tiger, Cow, 
Giraffe, Birds, Elephant, 
Turtle, Pig, Horse, etc. 

Nature: Rowers, Trees, Sunsets, 
Mountains, Lakes, etc. 

Travel: Car, Bus, Airplane, Taxi, 
Gas Pump, Tickets, elc. 



Picture Disk #4 $14.95 

Includes these holidays and others... 
Christmas: Tree, Star, Wreath, elc. 
Easter: Egg, Bunny, Lillies, etc. 

New Years: Calendar, Fireworks 
Chanukah: Menorah, Slar, etc. 
Holloween: Pumpkin, Witch, etc. 
Independence Day: Liberty Bell, Indepen- 
dence Hall, Fireworks, elc. 
Presidents Day: Linclon, Washington, etc 
Ground Hog Day: Ground Hog, Elc. 



Two New 
Font Disks 

Font Disk A $14.95 

Contains 10 Fonts 

Font Disk B $14.95 

Contains 10 Fonts 



NOTE: Our WICO Trackballs and Coco 
Car Sign Designer are slill available. See 
our ad in the orevious issue ol Rainbow. 



Ordering Instructions: All or- 
ders add $3.00 Shipping & Han- 
dling. UPS COD add $3.00. 
VISA/MC Accepted. NY resi- 
dents add sales tax. 

Zebra Systems, Inc. 

78-06 Jamaica Ave. 

Woodhaven, NY 11421 

(718) 296-2385 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 65 



HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 

:; 1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 • orders (800) 443-1444 • inquiries and order status (312) 278-1440 



f- 



* 5 STAR FINAL 



AUGUST '88 



CLEAR 



HMC CUTS *515 to *269 



Hundreds of $ off Monitors sighted as Major Factor. HMC is reported to 
have made a special purchase on Magnavox monitors. These items, listed, 
are being offered at remarkable savings. 

MAGNAVOX 7622 12" Amber Screen offers 900 dots x 350 lines resolu- 
tion at 20 MHz on a dark glass anti-glare CRT with built-in audio and 1 year 
warranty. ($7 shipping) s 88 7652 green screen also available $88 

MAGNAVOX 8 CM 515 has analog RGB for CoCo 3, TTL RGB for 

Tandy 1000 or IBM PC's, and composite color for CoCo 2 and 3. Built-in 
speaker. 14" screen with 640 dot x 240 line resolution. Plus 2 years parts 
and labor warranty, reg. list $499 was *298 s 269 + $14 Shipping 

CC-3 Magnavox RGB cable only *19.95 with Magnavox Monitor 
order. $29.95 w/o monitor. 






Savings have spread to the Zenith Line. 

123A 12" This 12" green screen high resolution monitor offers 80 column 
capability, Zenith quality and a 90-day warranty valid at any of Zenith's 1200 
locations. Retail $199. Our price s 67.50 ($7 shipping) REPACK 

VA-1 for monochrome and color monitors delivers video interface for CoCo's 
1 & 2 *29.45 ($2 shipping) 

DRIVE + . Howards Drive 

gives you a DD-3 MPI drive, a CA-1 
cable and a HDS DC-5 Disk Control- 
ler for only * 178. 45. Double sided 
double density 360K. ($5 shipping) 
Add S24 for a Disto DC-3 




HMC's Guarantee- 
A Promise you can take to the Bank. 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
of dealing with a company through 
the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compat- 
ibility. If you're not happy with it for 



any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 




terns featured as evidence 
of Savings 

INVESTIGATION OF "LOWEST 
PRICES" PROVES TRUE Disc Con- 
trollers, Add-On Board & Memory 
provide absolute proof. 
"Howard Medical Computer offers 
the Lowest Prices.!" That was the 
claim that was tested and verified 
today as HMC unveiled undeniable 
savings on dozens of items 



Buyout on DISTO 
Disk Controllers 

Includes controller and C-DOS 4.0 
ROM Chip. DISTO s 98 DC-3[a| 
($2 shipping on all DISTO products) 

ADD-ON BOARDS 

DC-3P Mini Eprom programmer 
includes all software to program 
2764 or 27128 chips[S] s 55 
DC-3C Clock Calendar and parallel 
printer port[C] s 40 




hotline 
number 



DON'T MISS OUT. 
D0NT MISS OUT, ORDER TODAY!* 

800 / 443-1444 

WE ACCEPT VISA . MASTERCARD • j 
. AMERICAN EXPRESS . C.O.D. OR 
CHECKS • SCHOOL P.O. 




The Biggest 

The Best 

The indispensable 




THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and 
most comprehensive publication a happy CoCo 
ever had! THE RAINBOW features more programs, 
more information and more in-depth treatment of 
the Tandy Color Computer than any other source. 

A monthly issue contains nearly 200 pages and 
up to two dozen programs, 14 regular columns and 
as many as 12 new product reviews. And advertise- 
ments: THE RAINBOW is known as the medium for 
advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else 
about new productsl Hundreds of programs are 
advertised in its pages each month. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the 
wide spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color 
Computer — from beginners' tutorials and arcade 
games to telecommunications and business and 
finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to 
expand your CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly 
reviews by independent reader reviewers take the 
guesswork out of buying new software and hard- 
ware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE 
RAINBOW to be an absolute necessity for their 
CoCo. With all this going for it, is it surprising that 
more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW subscrib- 
ers renew their subscriptions? We're willing to bet 
that, a year from now, you'll be doing the same. 



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Rainbow On Tape 

& Rainbow On Disk! 



— great ways to bring THE RAINBOW into your life. 
Each month, all you do is pop the tape into your 
cassette player or the disk into your drive. No more 
lost weekends. As soon as you read an article about 
a program in THE RAINBOW, it's ready to load and 
run. No work. No wait. 

Just think how your software library will grow. 
With your first year's subscription, you'll get almost 
250 new programs: games, utilities, business 
programs, home applications. And, with RAINBOW 
ON DISK, you'll also get all the OS-9 programs. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK — 
they're the "meat" of THE RAINBOW at a price that's 
"small potatoes." And now you even have a choice 
about how it should be served up to you. 

To get your first heaping helping, just fill out and 
return the attached reply card. No postage neces- 
sary. 



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<^ UR «% ADUEnTURE nnUEL SOFTWARE 

G? fefcA^d ^ P '°- BOX 8176 ' SPARTANB URG, SC 29305 

- HID oy ' - 24 hr - order H0TLINE 



\i/ 



gp ^ ^ 


[MasleiCard] 


W ^ Jt 



(803) 578-7421 

C.O.D. ADD $5 



VK 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



,249 




1170 


DATA 


9,96,0,64,0,16,4,64 


1020 DATA 


61,109,58,237,255,255, 


1180 


DATA 


1,0,5,80,31,244,7,253 


255,255 




1190 


DATA 


1,244,0,80,1,66,5,3 


1030 DATA 


255,255,0,0,63,252,31, 


1200 


DATA 


1,65,1,69,0,85,4,16 


244 




1210 


DATA 


17,132,67,193,7,208,17 


1040 DATA 


19,196,6,144,8,32,32,8 


,68 






1050 DATA 


32,8,8,32,6,144,0,0 


1220 


DATA 


67,193,7,208,17,68,66, 


1060 DATA 


21,4,5,17,1,65,10,161 


33 






1070 DATA 


42,168,170,170,42,168, 


1230 


DATA 


0,0,0,20,0,85,0,117 


10,160 




1240 


DATA 


0,85,21,85,172,213,170 


1080 DATA 


1,64,0,0,2,128,255,255 


,165 






1090 DATA 


61,124,61,124,182,158, 


1250 


DATA 


187,20,21,80,5,64,168, 


189,126 




21 






1100 DATA 


63,252,63,252,255,255, 


1260 


DATA 


8,17,40,80,32,64,131,2 


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34 






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4 




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189,37,164,189,38,82,18 




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0K 04 ^ 04 ^ #^ 0^ 0K r~— i— 04 ■* A 0* 1 *\ ~~ A 




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10 REM ######################## 


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## RUN after LOADING ## 


7,206 




## TUT 1 SEE TEXT ## 


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######################## 


9,16 




15 FOR X=20479 TO 21959: READ DT: 


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1 6 




3 


210 DATA 


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90 DATA 18,92,182,255,0,129,254 


255,255 





68 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



'$ 



& 



w 



Computer Island Educational Software 



BEYOND WORDS 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
These Language Arts programs cover 
common misspellings, and synonyns/ 
antonyms on each level. Additionally, 
Level 1 tests contractions and abbre- 
viations, Level 2 tests homonyms, 
and Level 3 tests analogies. Each 
program has three parts and con- 
tains over 400 questions and uses 
over 800 words. All tests are grade 
appropriate. User modifiable (direc- 
tions included). Printer option. Speci- 
fy Level. 

Level 1 Grades 3-5 

Level 2 Grades 6-8 

Level 3 Grades 9-12 




VOCABULARY BUILDER 

32K. Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
200 Vocabulary questions on appro- 
priate grade levels in a 4 part multiple 
choice format. 1000 words used. Ex- 
tensive research has provided chal- 
lenging words on all levels. When 
mastered, the words may be changed 
by the user (full directions included). 
Printer option. Specify Level. 

Level 1 Grades 3-5 

Level 2 Grades 6-8 

Level 3 Grades 9-12 



CONTEXT CLUES - 4, 5, 6, 7 
16K Ext. - $17.95 tape/$22.95 disk 
Each reading program contains 
about 50 situational paragraphs with 
one key word missing. Child uses 
context clues to find correct answer 
in multiple choice format. Random 
selection of readings each round. 
Specify 4th, 5th, 6th, or 7th grade. 

CONTEXT CLUES - 2-3 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
A reading program wherein the child 
uses the context to choose the cor- 
rect answer. Multiple choice format, 
hi-res screen. Grades 2-3. 



TRIGONOMETRY TUTOR 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
A step by step tutorial for learning to 
compute the sides and angles of right 
triangles. All examples have graphic 
representation. Help commands and 
cursor aids assist throughout. 




OPENING A BANK ACCOUNT 

32K Ext. - $24.95 disk only 
A set of programs designed to intro- 
duce and provide practice in the skills 
of filling out bank applications, deposit 
and withdrawal slips, and computing 
bank account balances. Loaded with 
graphic presentations. Grades 3-6. 



EQUATIONS TUTOR 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Elementary-Intermediate algebra. 
Step by step tutorials. Multi-level. 
SPECIFY Linear or Quadratic. 




AREA & PERIMETER 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Triangles, rectangles, and circles 
and covered in this Hi-res text and 
graphic program. 

COCO WHEEL OF FORTUNE 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
Hi-res graphics and screen in this 
version of the popular TV show. One 
to six players. Spin the wheel for 
points and guess a letter to solve the 
puzzle. Over 200 puzzles. Have fun 
while strengthening language arts 
skills. 

MATH INVADERS 

32K Ext. - $17.95 tape/$22.95 disk 
A multi-level "Space Invaders" type 
game to reinforce the 4 basic math 
operations (addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division). Prob- 
lems become more difficult as your 
progress. Hi-res graphics. Joystick 
required. 



M 



\i 



\ 



M 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



(718) 948-2748 

Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 
Please add S1.00 per order tor postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set ot BINARY DICE, including full directions, with 
orders of 2 or more items. 






Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



TRS-80 Color Computer 



All Payments in U.S. Funds. 



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70 



THE RAINBOW Augusl1988 



5,255,255 




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r" 



The 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 




Back Issue 
Availability 

BACK ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 

Have you explored the wealth of informa- 
tion in our past issues? From our very first, 
four-page issue to many with more than 300 
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— a great way to expand your library! 

A WORLD OF INFO AT A BARGAIN PRICE 

All back issues sell for the single issue 
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MOST ISSUES STILL AVAILABLE 

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Due to heavy demand, we suggest you 
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To check availability and order, review and 
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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 71 



BACK ISSUE ORDER FORM 

(See overleaf for instructions.) 

Please send me the following back issues: 



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Education 
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,13 






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DATA 


5,185,161,161,222,7,25 


5,82 






1750 


DATA 


161,197,11,0,0,171,238 


,161 







72 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



17 60 DATA 

4 

1770 DATA 

1780 DATA 

,255,255 

1790 DATA 

,84,69 

1800 DATA 

4 

1810 DATA 

7 

1820 DATA 

7 

1830 DATA 

134 

1840 DATA 

0,189 

1850 DATA 

6,142 

18 60 DATA 

5,198 

1870 DATA 

,51 



181,1,2,221,161,161,2, 

30,0,79,0,0,0,0,0 
27,255,255,255,255,255 

255,255,255,255,255,83 

83,84,70,70,70,70,70,8 

85,84,66,65,83,73,67,6 

67,67,67,67,67,67,67,6 

67,67,67,67,67, 67,255, 

255,198,50,16,142,0,23 

23,51,134,255,198,25,1 

0,115,189,23,51,134,25 

50,16,142,0,230,189,23 



V / ]270 4 

1 530 234 

760 154 

950 183 

1150 221 

END 252 



Listing 4: 3PART2 

5 CLEAR 100,&H4FFE 
10 REM ######################## 
## RUN AFTER LOADING ## 
## 3 PARTI SEE TEXT ## 
######################## 
15 FOR X=24584 TO 25634 :READ DT: 
POKE X,DT:NEXT X 
20 DATA 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 
30 DATA 4,4,0,0,0,0,0,4 
40 DATA 4,0,0,0,0,0,0,4 
50 DATA 0,0,0,4,1,4,0,4 
60 DATA 4,0,0,0,0,0,0,4 
70 DATA 4,0,4,4,0,0,0,0 
80 DATA 3,0,4,3,0,0,0,4 
90 DATA 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 
100 DATA 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 
110 DATA 4,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 
120 DATA 4,0,1,0,4,0,0,4 
130 DATA 4,0,4,0,4,4,0,4 
140 DATA 4,0,4,0,0,3,0,4 
150 DATA 0,0,4,0,4,4,0,4 
160 DATA 4,0,0,0,2,4,0,4 
170 DATA 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 
180 DATA 4,4,4,4,4,4,4,4 
190 DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,4 
200 DATA 4,4,0,4,4,4,0,4 



210 DATA 
220 DATA 
230 DATA 
240 DATA 
2 50 DATA 
2 60 DATA 
2 70 DATA 

2 80 DATA 
290 DATA 
300 DATA 
310 DATA 

3 20 DATA 
3 30 DATA 
3 40 DATA 
350 DATA 
3 60 DATA 
3 70 DATA 
3 80 DATA 

3 90 DATA 
400 DATA 
410 DATA 
420 DATA 
430 DATA 
440 DATA 
450 DATA 

4 60 DATA 
470 DATA 
480 DATA 
490 DATA 
500 DATA 
510 DATA 
520 DATA 
530 DATA 
540 DATA 
550 DATA 
560 DATA 
570 DATA 
170,164 
580 DATA 
,180 

590 DATA 
600 DATA 
610 DATA 
620 DATA 
,70 

6 30 DATA 
44,70 
640 DATA 



4,0,0,0, 
3,0,4,1, 
4,0,4,4, 
4,0,3,0, 
4,4,4,4, 
4,4,4,4, 
4,0,4,4, 
4,0,2,4, 
4,0,4,4, 
4,0,4,0, 
4,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
4,4,4,4, 
4,4,4,4, 
4,0,2,4, 
4,0,4,4, 
4,0,4,4, 
0,0,4,4, 
4,0,0,0, 
3,0,0,0, 
4,4,4,4, 

0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
0,0,0,0, 
62,0,0,2 
42,0,0,1 
54,0,0,1 
58,0,0,1 
62,0,0,1 
254,170, 



0,0,0,4 
4,0,4,4 
0,0,4,4 

0,0,0,0 
4,4,4,4 
4,4,4,4 
0,0,0,2 
0,0,0,4 
0,0,0,4 

0,0,0,0 

4,1,4,4 

0,0,4,4 

4,4,4,4 

4,4,4,4 

0,0,0,4 

0,4,0,4 

0,4,0,4 

0,4,0,4 

0,4,0,4 

0,4,0,4 

1,4,4,4 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

0,0,0,0 

50,58,0,0,171 

63,58,0,0,135 

47,50,0,0,167 

71,58,0,0,170 

71,0,0,0,160 

170,250,70,170, 



19,168,170,177,71,33,42 

19,52,74,49,71,49,18,52 
19,52,71,49,71,33,19,52 
255,42,255,63,0,0,0,0 
85,85,87,234,253,87,212 

255,87,245,18,255,223,2 

255,255,245,19,0,0,52,7 



GET THE BEST!!! 

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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 73 



1 




850 DATA 


52,69,33,17,49,18,36,70 


650 DATA 


0,0,53,19,0,0,52,71 


8 60 DATA 


63,170,43,250,0,0,0,0 


660 DATA 


0,0,55,255,0,0,52,0 


870 DATA 


254,42,191,63,70,49,19, 


670 DATA 


0,0,55,63,0,0,55,52 


52 




680 DATA 


0,0,55,49,0,0,55,52 


880 DATA 


18,52,71,49,71,17,19,52 


690 DATA 


0,0,55,49,0,0,247,52 


890 DATA 


19,20,207,49,71,17,55,5 


700 DATA 


247,255,215,49,213,255, 


2 




215,52 




900 DATA 


18,3 6,118,49,70,33,210, 


710 DATA 


8 5,127,87,63,85,85,84,0 


36 




720 DATA 


43,21,85,85,33,21,253,8 


910 DATA 


234,47,254,42,0,0,0,0 


7 




920 DATA 


2,128,10,160,170,170,25 


730 DATA 


55,23,255,87,51,23,255, 


5,240 




223 




930 DATA 


63,48,63,252,31,2 55,23, 


740 DATA 


52,23,255,255,17,20,0,0 


240 




750 DATA 


52,20,0,0,49,20,0,0 


940 DATA 


87,224,85,84,21,85,85,8 


760 DATA 


63,20,0,0,0,20,0,0 


5 




770 DATA 


254,20,0,0,70,20,0,0 


950 DATA 


170,170,40,40,40,40,40, 


780 DATA 


18,20,0,0,71,20,0,0 


40 




790 DATA 


19,20,0,0,71,23,0,0 


9 60 DATA 


42,42,51,96,56,96,46,96 


800 DATA 


18,23,247,255,70,21,213 


970 DATA 


58,224,53,224,56,95,46, 


,255 




95 




810 DATA 


234,21,85,127,0,21,85,8 


980 DATA 


58,223,53,223,58,219,59 


5 




,142 




8 20 DATA 

,71 

830 DATA 


43,250,62,191,3 3,210,52 


990 DATA 

,8 

1000 DATA 


54,150,54,130,49,13 6,47 


55,70,49,19,51,18,52,71 


59,130,59,144,59,138,4 


840 DATA 


52,69,49,19,17,17,20,69 


7,28 






Most people have been using statistics since they learned 
to talk. Statistical results and concepts turn up everywhere. 
A large part of our daily news consists of statistics. Results 
of opinion polls, surveys, research studies, the Dow Jones 
industrial average and, of course, our sports news are all 
statistics. But statistics are often misused. The informed 
person needs to understand the basic concepts in order to 
judge the appropriateness of applications. 

Rainbow Contributing Editor Dr. Michael Plog and co- 
author Dr. Norman Stenzel have written The Rainbow 
Introductory Guide to Statistics just for beginners. It is an 
easy-to-understand guide to this sometimes mysterious area 
of mathematics. Their aim is to introduce readers to the 
realm of statistical processes and thinking, and they believe 
that the Tandy Color Computer is an ideal machine for the 
reduction of data. 

Sharpen your skills with The Rainbow Introductory 
Guide to Statistics for only $6.95. Included in the book is 
the CoCo-Siai program, a basic statistics program just for 
the Color Computer. (80-column printer required.) Forget 
the typing hassle by ordering the accompanying Statistics 
Tape or Disk for only $5.95. Spend your time learning and 
enjoying the new material, not debugging your typing. Just 
pop in the tape or disk and you're ready for action! 



ntroductory 



Save when you buy The RainI 
Statistics book together with the tape or disk. Get both for 
only $11.95. 



Please send me: The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics Book $6.95* 

The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics Tape or Disk $5.95 
The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics Book/ Disk Set $1 1.95 

Name 

Address . 

City Slate ZIP 






D Mycheck in the amount of 

Please charge lo my: D VISA 

Acct. No. 

.nature 



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D MasterCard D American Express 



. Exp. Date . 



Signal 

Mail lo: The Rainbow Introductory Guide to Statistics. The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385. Prospect, KY 40059 

To order by phone (credit card orders only), call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. EST. 
For other inquiries, call (502) 228-4492. 

"Add SI. SO per book Tor shipping and handling in the U.S. Ouiside the U.S. add S4 per 
book (U.S. currency only). Kentucky residents add 5% sales lax. In order 10 hold down 
cosls. we do noi bill. Please allow 6-8 weeks lor delivery. 

Note: The tape and disk are not stand-alone products. If you buy eilher the tape or disk, 
you still need to purchase the book for instructions. 






74 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



1010 DATA 


59,130,51,113,48,233,5 


1170 


DATA 


9,96,0,64,0,16,4,64 


3,237 




1180 


DATA 


1,0,5,80,31,244,7,253 


1020 DATA 


56,117,61,113,255,255, 


1190 


DATA 


1,244,0,80,1,66,5,3 


255,255 




1200 


DATA 


1,65,1,69,0,85,4,16 


1030 DATA 


255,255,0,0,63,252,31, 


1210 


DATA 


17,132,67,193,7,208,17 


244 




,68 






1040 DATA 


19,196,6,144,8,32,32,8 


1220 


DATA 


67,193,7,208,17,68,66, 


1050 DATA 


32,8,8,32,6,144,0,0 


33 






1060 DATA 


21,4,5,17,1,65,10,161 


1230 


DATA 


0,0,0,20,0,85,0,117 


1070 DATA 


42,168,170,170,42,168, 


1240 


DATA 


0,85,21,85,172,213,170 


10,160 




,165 






1080 DATA 


1,64,0,0,2,128,255,255 


1250 


DATA 


187,20,21,80,5,64,168, 


1090 DATA 


61,124,61,124,182,158, 


21 






189,126 




12 60 


DATA 


8 , 17 , 40 , 80 , 3 2 , 64 , 13 1 , 2 


1100 DATA 


63,252,63,252,255,255, 


34 






4,16 




1270 


DATA 


171,194,1,8,5,40,68,32 


1110 DATA 


1,64,3,192,1,64,5,144 


1280 


DATA 


84,42,2,0,3,40,11,188 


1120 DATA 


86,165,85,84,21,80,5,6 


1290 


DATA 


11,238,46,172,187,188, 


4 




175,: 


L66 




1130 DATA 


1,64,42,168,170,170,15 


1300 


DATA 


126,224,126,192,24,0,0 


7,222 




,4 






1140 DATA 


42,168,10,160,255,255, 


1310 


DATA 


0,18,0,18,1,18,1,42 


36,24 




1320 


DATA 


17, 168,18, 12 8,2 6,0,168 


1150 DATA 


36,24,36,24,255,255,16 


,?> 






0,10 




1330 


DATA 


160,0,255,255,255,255, 


1160 DATA 


168,42,41,104,43,232,9 


255,255 




,96 








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"I cannot imagine the CoCo 3 without ADOS-3; 
it would not be a complete machine." 

The RAINBOW, July 1987 

You've moved up lo o CoCo 3. A powerful new machine Now. It's lime to 
give BASIC a shot in Ihe arm, with ADOS-3. Wouldn't II be nice lo lurn on your 
machine and be greeted by an 80-column display, in Ihe colors ol your 
choice, wilh your own custom startup message? To run routinely at 2 MHz 
(double speed) without having lo slow down lor disk and printer operations? 
This and much, much more is possible with ADOS-3. our CoCo 3 adaptation 
of Ihe acclaimed original ADOS, which shares Ihe original's virtual 100% 
compatibility with commercial software. Alter customizing ADOS-3 using the 
provided configuring utility, you can have it burned into an EPROM that plugs 
Into the Disk BASIC ROM socket, or just use It in RAM os a disk utility. (EPROM 
+ burning will cost S 15-20: we provide information concerning how you can 
have this done.) Supports double-sided drives (35. 40. or 80 tracks). FAST ond 
SLOW commands, auto line number prompts. RUNM command, keystroke 
macros, arrow-key scroll through BASIC programs, aulo-edit of error line, and 
many more valuable features. 

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ML program tracer that multitasks with the target program. An excellent 
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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 75 





the rainbow is a teaching environment and we realize that the 
majority of our readers will always be beginners. In our 
continuing effort to always keep the new user in mind, and in 
addition to the many beginner feature articles and programs 
published in every issue, "Novices Niche" contains shorter 
basic program listings that entertain as well as help the new 
user gain expertise in all aspects of the Color Computer: 
graphics, music, games, utilities, education, programming, etc. 



(PftUB! 



Seeking Immortality 

By Paul Alger 



16K 

Disk 



Do you have some older video games for your CoCo thai 
you have never completed, or games with graphics screens 
you've never even seen before? Fear not, gamester, for now 
your character will live long enough to reach the trail's end. 

Immortality Finder is a game utility that will help you find 
the elusive "immortality poke" for most video games. This 
poke is the memory location that holds the number of "men" 
you start with on a given game. If you poke this location with, 
say, a value of 255, then you start off the game with 255 men! 

Immortality Finder works on the principle that most 
machine language game programmers load the number of 
men using an LDfl or LDB command when the game is 
initialized. Immortality Finder checks the ML code for all 
LDRs and LDBs. It then checks the value that is loaded into 
the A or B register. If the value is close to the number of men 
you start with, that location becomes a possible immortality 
poke. 

It's easy to use the program. Just run and enter the filename 
and extension of the game you want to search. The program 
asks how many men the game starts with. Enter that number, 
insert the game disk and wait for Immortality Finder to 
complete the search. When the search is complete, you have 
the option to print the list of possible locations to the screen 
or to the printer. The list gives all of the possible immortality 
poke locations. 

To test a poke, first load your game, poke the location with 
the number of men you want, and then EXEC. For example, 
if you run Immortality Finder on last month's Tut's Tomb 
(July 1988 RAINBOW, Page 58), you will get a printout of nine 
possible locations. The first is Location 6979. In this example, 
we type the following: 

LOflDM "TUT1. BIN- 
POKE G979,255 
EXEC 



After giving this poke a test run, we discover — lo and behold 
- that it works! In fact, it gives us 255 "men" instead of three. 
But if Location 6979 didn't work, we would run the process 
again for the next location on the list, which happens to be 
Location 7090. And on and on, until we found one that did 
work. 

Immortality Finder will not work for all games, however. 
Game candidates must be in RS DOS, start with a specific 
number of men, and fit into memory with the Immortality 
Finder program. Here are some of the games 1 have found 
to work successfully with the program: Shock Trooper, 
Crash, Ninja Warrior and Gold Runner. 

Remember, immortality comes at a price: Gamesters who 
partake of the waters of immortality should not submit their 
immortal scores to RAINBOW'S Scoreboard. 

The listing: IMMORTAL 



GOTO90 

5 CLEAR200,&H2000:DIMA(50) ,B(50) 

: CLS : PRINT" IMORTALITY FINDER" : PR 

INT"BY PAUL ALGER": PRINT 

10 PRINT"ENTER FILENAME/EXT: " ; : 

LINEINPUTFI$:INPUT"HOW MANY MEN 

DO YOU START WITH" ; CI : PRINT" INSE 

RT DISK WITH "FI$" AND HIT ENTER 

. "; :LINEINPUTZ$ 

15 OPEN"D", #1,FI$,1:IF LOF(1)=0 

THEN CLOSE: KILL FI$:RUN 

20 FIELD* 1,1 AS A$:B=LOF(l) : FORQ 

=1T05:GET#1,Q:C(Q)=ASC(A$) :NEXTQ 

:CLOSE:ST=(C(4)*256+C(5) ) :LG=(C( 

2) *256+C(3) ) :ED=ST+LG:OF=&H2000- 

ST:IF OF<1THENOF=0 

2 5 IF OF+ED>&H8000 THENPRINT"WHE 



76 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



N 10 ERROR OCCURS, TYPE :": PRINT" 
GOT03 5 

30 LOADMFI$,OF 

3 5 CLS(3) :PRINT@5, "FILENAME: ";:P 
RINT@16,FI$; 

40 PRINT? 6 6, "START"; :PRINT@73,US 
ING"#####";ST; :PRINT@66+64, "END 
";:PRINT@73+64,USING"#####";ED; 
:PRINT@66+32, "NOW " ; :PRINT@73+3 
2,USING"#####";M; 

45 PRINTS 8 1,"LDA'S " ; : PRINTS89 ,U 
SING" ####", • LA; :PRINT@8 1+3 2,"LDB' 
S "; :PRINT@89+32,USING"####";LB; 
:PRINT@81+64, "POKES " ; :PRINT@89+ 
64,USING"####";0; 
50 FOR M=ST+OF TO ED+OF 
55 FORM=ST+OF TO ED+OF: PRINTS 105 
, USING" #### #";M-OF; 
60 IF PEEK(M)=&H8 6 THEN LA=LA+1: 
PRINT@89,USING"####";LA;:IF PEEK 
(M+1)=C1 OR PEEK(M+1)=C1+1THEN L 



=L+1 : A ( L) =M-OF : PRINTS 15 3 , USING" # 

###";L+Ll; 

65 IF PEEK(M)=&HC6 THEN LB=LB+1: 

PRINTS 121, USING" ####"; LB; : IF PEE 

K(M+1)=C1 OR PEEK(M)=C1+1 THEN L 

1=L1+1 : B (LI) =M-OF: PRINT§153 ,USIN 

G" ####»; L+Ll; 

70 NEXT: PRINTS 3 2 1, " ";:INPUT"DON 

E... HIT ENTER TO PRINT";Z$ 

7 5 CLS: PRINT" PRINT TO [S]CREEN 
R [P]RINTER. ": PRINT" (ENTER P OR 
S) ";:LINEINPUTZ$:IFZ$="P"THEND= 
2ELSED=0 

80 PRINT #-D, "FILENAME: ";FI$:PRI 
NT#-D, "DECIMAL" , "HEX" : F0RX=1T0L: 
PRINT#-D,A(X)+1,HEX$(A(X)+1) :NEX 
T : FORX=1TOL1 : PRINT#-D, B (X) +1 , HEX 
$(B(X)+1) :NEXT 

8 5 PRINT "HIT ENTER TO PRINT AGAI 
N . " : LINEINPUTZ $ : G0T07 5 

90 PCLEAR1 : G0T05 




Minding Your X's and Y's 

By James Kevin Lowry 



16K 
ECB 



You have two eyes, so you'd think you'd be able to see two 
things at once. Frogs can, sort of. With JoyZap, you had 
belter train your eyes to be ambidextrous or be very quick. 

JoyZap is a shoot-'em-up with a twist — you don't aim 
at your target using a "hairline" cursor; you use guides, points 
on the .v- and j-axes. When you boot up JoyZap, the two 
axes are drawn and the space they enclose begins to fill 
randomly with blocks. Your joystick position is tracked on 
the axes, and your mission is to lock on to the points that 
define a target and press the firebutton. Red blocks are worth 
20 points; blue, 10; white, 5. Be careful: If you don't hit the 
block squarely, hitting an adjacent space instead, the block 
will become green and worth only one point. 

Delete Line 40 if your computer cannot handle the high- 
speed poke. 

The listing: JOYZAP 

10 CLS : PRINTS172 , "JOYZAP" : PRINTS 

480, "COPYRIGHT 1987 JKL JAMES K 

LOWRY": FOR Z=l TO 1500:NEXTZ 

40 POKE 65495,0 

50 CLS(0) 

60 S=0:SC=0 

70 PRINTS480, "HITS="S" SCORE="S 

C; 

80 FOR B=0 TO 63:SET(B,0,3) :NEXT 

90 FOR C=0 TO 27:SET(0,C, 3) :NEXT 

100 TIMER=0 



110 Z=RND(20):IF Z=10 THEN SET(R 

ND(50)+7,RND(12)+7,RND(3)+5) 

120 X=JOYSTK(0) :Y=JOYSTK(l) 

130 IF X<2 THENX=2 

140 IF Y<2 THEN Y=2 

150 IF Y>27 THEN Y=27 

160 SET (X,2,5) :SET(2,Y,5) 

170 RESET(X,2) :RESET(2,Y) 

180 IF TIMER>7000 THEN GOTO 280 

190 IF BUTTON (0)=1 THEN GOTO 200 

ELSE GOTO 110 
200 H=POINT(X,Y) :IF H=6 THEN GOT 
230 ELSE IF H=7 THEN GOTO 2 40 
ELSE IF H=8 THEN GOTO 250 ELSE I 
F H=l THEN GOTO 2 60 
210 SET(X,Y,1) :SOUND 40,5::RESET 

(X,Y) 
2 20 GOTO 110 

230 GOSUB 270:S=S+1:SC=SC+5:RESE 
T(X,Y) :PRINTS480, "HITS="S" SCORE 
="SC; :GOTO 110 

240 GOSUB 270:S=S+1:SC=SC+10:RES 
ET(X,Y) :PRINT@480,"HITS="S" SCOR 
E="SC;:GOTO 110 

250 GOSUB 270:S=S+l:SC=SC+20:RES 
ET(X,Y) :PRINT@480, "HITS="S" SCOR 
E="SC;:GOTO 110 

260 GOSUB 270:S=S+1:SC=SC+1:RESE 
T(X,Y) :PRINT@480, "HITS="S" SCORE 
= "SC; :GOTO 110 

2 70 SOUND200,2 : SOUND185 , 4 :RETURN 
280 POKE65494,0 
290 PRINT"AVERAGE="INT(SC/S) : END 



Augusl 1988 THE RAINBOW 77 



Space Attack 

By John T.Wells 



CoCo3 



To me, the most interesting type of game for home 
computers has always been the space shoot-'em-up. I wrote 
EZShooi to illustrate how easy it is to write and develop such 
a program. 

In EZShooi you control a cannon's movement at the base 
of the screen with the left and right arrow keys. Using the 
space bar as a trigger, you shoot at spacecraft that fly above. 
For each direct hit, you score 10 points. The craft crosses the 
screen in uneven distance and timing spurts, so staying in one 
place and firing won't result in hits every time. 

The listing: EZSHQOT 

1 POKE65497,0:ON BRK GOTO 17 

2 HSCREEN2:HBUFF1,1900:HBUFF2, 19 
00 : HBUFF3 , 1900 : HCLS ( 8 ) : HDRAWC6 ; 
BM100,50;R10F5R5D2L5G5L10E6H6":H 
PAINT ( 110 , 55 ) , 6 , 6 : HGET ( 100 , 50 ) - ( 
145,85) , 1:HDRAW"C7;BM200, 100;D4R 
3D4L5U4R3U4":HPAINT(201, 105) ,7,7 
:HGET(190,90)-(235,125) ,2 

3 SO$="T255 ; 12 ; 11" : S1$="T255 ;02 ; 
12; 11" 

4 HCLS 8 

5 FOR T=1TO2000 

6 HGET ( 100 , 100 ) - ( 150 , 140 ) , 3 

7 X1=160:Y1=170:Y2=30:SC=0 

8 FOR Cl=l TO 20:F1=3 



,3,P 



,2,P 



3,P 



9 RD=RND(30) : IF RD<15 THEN 9 ELS 
E FOR X2 = 30 TO 270 STEP RD:HPUT( 
X2,Y2)-(X2+44,Y2+28) ,1,PSET 

10 II$=INKEY$:IF 11$="" THEN 11= 

10 ELSEIF II$=" " THEN GOSUB 18 
ELSE II=ASC(II$) 

11 HPUT(Xl,Yl)-(Xl+50,Yl+40) 
SET 

12 IF 11=8 THEN X1=X1-16 ELSEIF 
11=9 THEN X1=X1+16 

13 HPUT(X1,Y1) -(Xl+45, Yl+35) 
SET 

14 HPUT(X2,Y2)-(X2+50,Y2+40) 
SET 

15 NEXT X2 

16 NEXT CI 

17 HPRINT(10, 15) , "AGAIN (Y/N) <E 
NTER>? ":LINE INPUT AN$:IF AN$=" 
Y" THEN 4 ELSE POKE65496 ,0 : END 

18 F1=F1-1:IF FK0 THEN RETURN E 
LSE PLAY SO$:FOR YY=Y1-10 TO Y2 
STEP -30:HSET(X1+10,YY,1) : IF HPO 
INT(X1+9,YY)=6 OR HPOINT (Xl+11, Y 
Y)=6 THEN GOSUB20 ELSE HSET(X1+1 
0,YY,8) :NEXT 

19 RETURN 

20 HCIRCLE (Xl+15 , YY-2 ) , 10 , 7 : HPAI 
NT(X1+10,YY) ,7,7:FOR CT=1 TO 10: 
PLAYS1$ : NEXT : HPUT (Xl-20 , YY-20) - ( 
Xl+30 , YY+20) , 3 , PSET : SC=SC+10 : HPR 
INT (10, 1) , "SCORE":HCOLOR8,8:HPRI 
NT (20, 1) ,SC-10:HCOLOR7,8:HPRINT( 
20,1) , SC: RETURN 



$\m#w 



Winging It 

By Chad Presley 



CoCo3 



Who would have thought that a CoCo 3 could take flight 
in so few lines of BASIC coding? Well, with this little flight 
simulator you can't do dogfights and you can't drop bombs, 
but you can experience the illusion that you are actually in 
the cockpit of a plane, diving and turning. Just plug in your 
right joystick and take to the air. 



The listing: FLIGHT 

10 ONBRKGOTO190 

20 REM HI -RES FLIGHT SIMULATOR 

30 REM BY CHAD PRESLEY 

40 POKE65497,0:A=87:B=87 

50 HSCREEN2:HCLS14:HCOLOR3 




55 HCOLOR0:HLINE(0,10+A) -(320, 10 
+B) , PSET : HPAINT (0 , 100 ) , 



78 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



6/8 HC0L0R1 :HPRINT( 8, ), "HI-RES F 

LIGHT SIMULATOR" :HPRINT( 12,1) ,"B 

Y CHAD PRESLEY" :HCOLOR8 :HLINE (0 , 

25)-(320,25) ,PSET 

70 H=JOYSTK(0) :V=JOYSTK(l) 

80 IFA=15THENA=A+lELSEIFA=17j3THE 

NA=A-1 

90 IFB=15THENB=B+1ELSEIFB=170THE 

NB=B-1 

100 IFH>43THENA=A-1 

11^ IFH<2 3THENA=A+1 



120 IFV>43THENB=B+1 

130 IFV<2 3THENB=B-1 

140 HCOLOR0:HLINE(0,10+A)-( 320,1 

0+B) ,PSET 

150 HCOLOR8:HLINE(0,9+A) -(3 20,9+ 

B) ,PSET 

16/3 HLINE(0,6+A) -(32)3, 6+B) , PSET 

17/3 HCOLOR4 : HDRAW"BM170 , 96 ;L20 ;R 

10;U5":HCIRCLE(160,96) ,3 

18/3 SOUNDA+B/2,1:GOTO70 

19/3 POKE65496,0:END 



iMxiAOainft 



What's Missing? 

By Keiran Kenny 



4K 



You never miss something until it's gone, the saying goes. 
With this game you'll find it's hard to remember something 
when it's gone. 

This program allows you to test and train your memory. 
After you have given the program a difficulty level as 
prompted (a range from two to 10), the screen displays rows 
of random letters, which you must study until you think you 
have them memorized. Then test yourself by pressing any key. 
One of the rows will disappear, and you will be asked to type 
in what you think it was. The computer will tell you if you 
are right or wrong and will keep track of your score. 

The listing: MEMORY 

10 CLS:GOT03/3 

20 K$=INKEY$ : IFK$=" "THEN2/3ELSERE 

TURN 

3/3 PRINT@4/3,"<«MEMORY»>" 

40 PRINT@9 6,"BY KEIRAN KENNY, TH 

E HAGUE, 1987" 

50 PRINT§192,"SET DIFFICIULTY LE 

VEL: " 

60 PRINT@2 60,""; : INPUT "NO. OF RO 

WS (2-10) :";NR 

70 IFNR<2ORNR>10THENPRINT@256, "" 

:GOTO60 

80 PRINT @ 3 2 4, "";: INPUT "NO. OF LE 

TTERS (2-6) :";NL 

90 IFNL<20RNL>6THENPRINT§324, " " : 

GOTO80 

100 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 6) "PRESS ANY 

KEY. ":GOSUB20 

110 CLS 

120 P=34 

130 FORN=lTONR 

140 FORT=lTONL 

150 R=64+RND(26) 

160 A$=CHR$(R) 



170 PRINT @ P, A$; 

180 B$=B$+A$ 

190 P=P+1 

200 NEXT 

210 C$(N)=B$:B$="" 

220 P=P+3 2-NL 

2 30 NEXT 

2 40 PL=PL+NR*NL 

250 K$=INKEY$ 

260 P=32:PP=P*(NR+2)+2 

270 PRINT @PP, "WHEN READY, PRESS 

ANY KEY.":GOSUB20 

2 80 N=RND(NR) 

290 IP=P*N:PRINT@IP,"" 

300 PRINT@PP, "<ENTER> THE MISSIN 

G ROW. » 

310 PRINT@IP,"";:INPUTD$ 

320 PRINT@IP+NL+3 , "" ; : IFD$=C$ (N) 

THENPRINT"RIGHT 1 " : RT=RT+NR*NL EL 

SE PRINT "WRONG! IT WAS "CHR$(34)C 

$(N)CHR$(34) 

3 30 PRINTQPP, "SCORE: "RT;CHR$ (8) " 
! POSSIBLE: "PL; CHR$ (8) "." 

3 40 SC=SC+1 : IFSC/5=INT ( SC/5 ) THEN 

PRINT@PP+64,"CHANGE DIFFICULTY L 

EVEL? Y/N"ELSE390 

3 50 GOSUB20 

3 60 IFK$="Y"THENCLS:GOTO50 

370 IFK$="N"THENCLS:GOTO120 

380 GOTO350 

3 90 PRINTS PP+70, "PRESS ANY KEY." 

:GOSUB20 

400 CLS:GOTO120 

Submissions to "Novices Niche" are welcome from everyone. 
We like to run a variety of short programs that can be typed in 
at one sitting and are useful, educational and fun. Keep in mind, 
although the short programs are limited in scope, many novice 
programmers find it enjoyable and quite educational to improve 
the software written by others. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. We're sorry, 
but we cannot key in program listings. All programs should be 
supported by some editorial commentary, explaining how the 
program works. If your submission is accepted for publication, 
the payment rate will be established and agreed upon prior to 
publication. 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 79 



Education Note s- 



16K ECB 




Delivering newspapers and fliers 
for local stores is a popular way 
of earning money for many 
preteens and teen-agers in our area. 
They opt for this kind of job because it 
allows them to work close to their 
homes, and also affords them the op- 
portunity to be "their own boss." One 
of the essentials these junior entrepre- 
neurs soon discover is that it is vital to 
keep good records on their customers. 
This month's article presents a portion 
of a collection chart teens could use for 
their newspaper delivery routes. 

Newspaper carriers ordinarily prepay 
for their newspapers. Of course, they 
pay a lower price than the one printed 
on the newspaper. Money is made both 
from tips and the difference in the 
amount that carriers pay and later 
receive for the newspapers. We are 
concerned with figuring out how to read 
such a chart and to determine how 
much money to collect. 

There are only eight names on our 
sample collection list. (We would hope 
this represents only a small portion of 
a carrier's true list.) When using DATA 
statements of less than 10 elements, it 
is unnecessary to use a DIM statement. 
Line 40 is therefore able to read in the 
eight customer names, which are con- 
tained in the one DATA statement in Line 
280. Line 80 prints these names on the 
screen. You can alter these to more 
creative or meaningful names in your 
program. 

Line 50 asks for user input. The 
student may select a real or imaginary 
price for the newspaper. This becomes 
Variable W. Arbitrarily we decide to 
double the daily price to create a Sun- 
day edition price, which becomes Var- 
iable SU. 

We feel that this user input feature is 
a key element to the program; it can be 
used in various ways. You could insist 
that students select realistic prices, 
which could lead to a social studies 
discussion of newspaper pricing. For 
example, the 5-cent newspaper of my 
youth now costs 35 cents. On the other 
hand, you could encourage unrealistic 



Sieve Blyn teaches both exceptional 
anil gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Statcn Is/and, New York. 



Interpreting a newspaper 
delivery chart 



Carrier's 

Collection 

Chart 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



price selections to create a greater 
variety of possible arithmetic examples. 
Not all customers order the news- 
paper every day of the week. Some want 
delivery only on the weekdays, and 
some may want only the weekend edi- 
tions or just the Sunday paper. Lines 
1 00 through 140 offer five different 
sequences of delivery days customers 
may have to choose from. A plus sign 
indicates that the paper is ordered on 
that day. The delivery schedule for each 
customer is chosen randomly each time 
the program is run. This helps create 



interest and eliminates memorization. 

The student's task is to compute the 
amount each customer owes him for the 
week. The correct answer is represented 
by Variable TT; the user's answer is 
represented by Variable Q. Line 200 asks 
the student to input an answer. Lines 
210 through 230 then compare the two 
answers and inform the student whether 
or not the answer is correct. 

After each example, the student 
presses ENTER to go on to the next 
example. After each set of eight, the 
student should press either the E key to 
end the program or the ENTER key to 
begin again. 

Line 240 always prints the correct 
answer on the chart, whether or not it 
was answered correctly. You might care 
to examine the chart with the student at 
the end of each set of eight examples. 
You might, for example, ask which 
customer owes the most or the least 
amount of money. Perhaps you might 
ask for the total of the eight customers. 
Another idea is to make up a price paid 
for the papers vs. the price collected to 
determine the profit. Including imagi- 
nary tips would be even more realistic. 
These are only a few of the ideas that 
may evolve from the information 
printed on the screen during the course 
of the program. 

As usual, we encourage you to mod- 
ify our programs for use in the ways that 
best suit your child's or student's needs. 
We, at Computer Island, always enjoy 
hearing from our readers. □ 



The listing: NEW5CDST 

10 REM NEWSPAPER DELIVERY ROUTE 

20 REM STEVE BLYN , COMPUTER ISLAN 

D,STATEN ISLAND, NY, 1988 

30 CLEAR 10J8JB :P$=STRING$ (32, 131) 

:CLS 

40 FOR T= 1 TO 8: READ A$(T):NEXT 

T 
50 PRINT"HOW MANY CENTS IS A DAI 
LY NEWSPAPER THIS WEEK" ; : I 

NPUT W:SU=W*2 

60 CLS:PRINT@0, "SALES: DAILY=";W 
;" SUNDAY=";SU 
70 PRINT@32,P$; 

80 FOR T=l TO 8:PRINT@128+M,A$(T 
) :M=M+32:NEXT T 

90 IF X=256 THEN RUN ELSE R=RND( 
5) :PRINT@3 8 4,STRING$(12 6," " ) ; 
100 IF R=l THEN B$="+ + + + + + 
+":TT=6*W+SU 



80 



THE RAINBOW August 19B8 



110 IF R=2 THEN B$="+ +++++" 

:TT=6*W 

120 IF R=3 THEN B$="+ + + + +":T 

T=5*W 

130 IF R=4 THEN B$=" + 

+":TT=W+SU 

140 IF R=5 THEN B$="+ + + 

+":TT=3*W+SU 

150 PRINT@64,"NAME M/T/W/T 

/F/S/SU=TOTAL" 

160 PRINT? 96, P$; 

170 PRINT@384,P$; 

180 TT=(TT/100) 

190 PRINT@13 9+X,B$; 

200 PRINT@416,"WHAT IS THE TOTAL 

? $"; : LINE INPUT Q$ 

210 Q=VAL(Q$) :X=X+32 

220 IF INT(Q*(100+.05) )=INT(TT*( 

100+.05)) THEN PRINT? 4 60," CORREC 

T": SOUND 2 20, 2: GOTO 240 

230 PRINT@448,"SORRY, THE ANSWER 

IS "?:PRINT USING"$#.##";TT 
240 PRINT@153+X-32,"";: PRINT USI 
NG"$#.##";TT 
250 PRINT@485,"PRESS ENTER TO GO 

ON" ; 
2 60 EN$=INKEY$ 
270 IF EN$=CHR$(13) THEN 90 ELSE 

IF ENS="E" THEN 290 ELSE 260 
280 DATA JONES, SMITH, MARTIN, ROSS 
, PEARL, BELL, SCOTT, GOLD 
290 CLS:END 



/» 



Two- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

A classic pong-type game for two players, with an 
added obstacle in the center. Use the joysticks to keep 
the ball in play. For super-pro speed, use a speed-up 
poke. 

The listing: 

READF,G,T,0,C,D,A,B,N,S(1) ,S(3 
) ,0(1) ,0(3) :PMODEl:PCLS: LINE (0,0 
) - (T , 0) , PSET , B : C0L0R2 : SCREEN1 : FO 
RI=1T0N: FORJ=0TO3 : E (J) =J0YSTK (J) 
:NEXT: F0RJ=1T03STEP2 : E=E (J) *2 . 58 
+2 : IFEOO (J) THENLINE (S ( J) , ( J) ) - 
(S(J) ,0(J)+25) , PRESET: LINE (S (J) , 
E)-(S(J) ,E+25) ,PSET 

1 0(J)=E:NEXT:PSET(A,B,H) :A=A+C: 
B=B+D:H=PPOINT(A,B) : IFH=2THENPLA 
Y"T40G" : P0KE65495 , : C=-C : NEXTELS 
EIFH=4THENPLAY"T40G" : D=-D : NEXTEL 
SEIFA<10THENSOUND100, 9 rRUNELSEIF 
A>245THENSOUND100 , 9 .-RUNELSEPSET ( 
A,B,2) :NEXT:DATA1,1,255,191,8,8, 
128,96,9999,232,24,5,5 

Michael Toepke 
Oak Harbor, WA 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Ttiird Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 




DON'T JUST DUMP YOUR "PM0DE4" "PM0DE3" 
GRAPHICS... 

ki Expand, shrink &p 

US stretch fern withjjL 
6&« ] '/^sme^s Mm. 






£ 



^IIZOOMDUMP 

.•'ZOOMDUMP requiree an ext. BASIC CoCo £*£. 
L DMP-105 or compatible printer. Print*;* 
out "PM0DE4" or "PM0DE3" graphics iczaeni', 
to within a fraction of an inch of an y 
hei ght or width you sp ecify ~ up to 7.8" 
wide, in normal or negative image. MAKE 
YOUR GRAPHICS DUMPS FIT THE JOB — NOT 
VICE VERSA! V IT"'"- ' ! 

Specify tape or diek. Send check or 
money order for $14,00* to: 

■ '• CODIS ENTERPRISES : ' 

• '. 2301 -C Central Dr., Ste. 684 

I i Bedford, TX 76021 ■ 

Sample printouts available upon 
request if return poataga provided. 

WL\ K??\ W ^ 

'Texas residents edd 7% sales tax. „..,,...» 

: •''•■' : 3 ■ £ '— 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 81 



am i ng 



Throughout my adult life I've 
hummed to my tone-deaf self, 
"Once in the dear, dead days 
beyond recall/ When on the earth the 
mists began to fall." This scrap of verse 
was all I remembered of that old song, 
but it stuck in my mind like glue. 

Back in the dim '30s when I was 
struggling through the Big Apple's P.S. 
82, during a rudimentary music appre- 
ciation class an old Irishman came to 
teach us a song he had composed. 1 was 
impressed because he was a composer; 
no VIPs ever came within the purview 
of our self-contained ethnic neighbor- 
hoods, and nobody at all ventured to 
bother with grimy, runny-nosed kids. 

You must wonder what this has to do 
with THE RAINBOW! 

A friend of mine who had recently 
bought an expensive electronic organ 
had gone up North for the Christmas 
holidays. Left to my own devices, 1 
wondered if there were any music pro- 
grams that might be of value to her and 
help her comprehend music theory, etc. 
I checked out my personal hoard of 
programs but found it wanting. 

What do you do when you want to 
find a program suitable for your needs? 
Silly question — you consult the back 
issues of THE RAINBOW! Everybody 
knows that June is the Music Issue of 
THE RAINBOW, so that's where I headed. 

1 looked through the June '87 issue to 
see what 1 could find. I noticed some 
articles referring to a Music* program. 
I filed that information away in my 
mind, took down all my June issues 
from '83 onward and leafed through 
them. 

A chord identification program in the 
June '84 issue caught my eye, and 1 duly 
copied the listing. Hungry for more 
music theory material, 1 reverted to the 
June '87 issue and copied a program 
that allows you to play the CoCo as a 
two-level organ. From the '86 issue, I 
pulled another goodie. 

In doing all this pro bono work 1 
began to generate some interest of my 
own in what the programs promised . . . 
and did. 

Repairing to the June '87 issue, I read 
most of the articles. There was a tempt- 
ing musical synthesizer program, but 

Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer who special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of the Color Computer. 



Wondering what to do 

with that stack of 

RAINBOW back issues? 



The 

"Encyclopedia 

CoColoria" 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



the listing appeared daunting; even 
though it promised four-voice har- 
mony, 1 was chicken. 

Joseph D. Piatt's article intrigued me. 
It offered transposition refinements for 
Music*. Naturally, it meant nothing to 
me, but in his article he referred to Bill 
Ludlum's Music* program in the Music 
issues of '84 and '86. Back to the June 
'86 issue! Bob Ludlum's article had to 
do with improvements to his Music* 
program. Back further to the June '84 
issue! In this article Ludlum wasted no 
time listing the forerunners of his pro- 
gram; he referred to the December '83 
issue as the immediate basis of Music* 
and urged readers to refer to Larry 
Konecky's CoCo Composing program. 

Do you begin to see how useful 
rainbow's back issues are to a CoCo 
owner? Think of all the material at hand 
that will never get stale. Since your 
interests may change or expand, back 
issues and the yearly index of articles in 
July's Anniversary Issue is a readily 
available pool of information. 

Tracking down Music* led me to the 
June '84 issue for good. I compared it 
with Larry's program in the December 
'83 issue and found it so tempting that 
I keyed it in. What satisfaction! It 
allowed me, a tone-deaf, musical- 
instrumentless klutz to copy and create 
music. Following the rule that nothing 
breeds success like success, I returned to 



the '86 Music Issue and copied what 
refinements were listed. Then off to the 
'87 Music Issue to incorporate Joseph 
Piatt's enhancements to the Music* 
program. 

This musical odyssey was really get- 
ting me hooked. Here I was, with no 
musical instrument, copying a music 
score and creating creditable music in 
four-voice harmony. I couldn't get over 
it! As 1 played some of my home-grown 
selections, I kept looking around for the 
orchestra. 

Without the back issues of THE rain- 
bow I would not have been able to 
accomplish this feat. 

That music synthesizer program was 
luring me onward. Even though 1 had 
a perfectly good four-voice program, I 
decided to copy the listing offered by 
Matthew Thompson in the June '87 
issue (Page 58). This program, titled 
Bells and Whistles 2, was claimed by its 
author to be "one of the best-sounding 
all-software music synthesizers for the 
CoCo" in the entire world as of De- 
cember, 1986. It was a toughie to copy, 
and then I couldn't get it to work 
properly. 

Persistently I looked through a few 
issues after June's, just in case there 
were corrections to the program; none 
were offered. OK, then it must be my 
error. Here's another valuable use of the 
back issues: I usually wait a few months 
before I attempt to copy a listing to 
make sure no corrections are necessary. 

I checked the program over and over 
again, character by character, and that 
gets mind-boggling; still, I had a self- 
made error extant that I had to find. 
And one evening, I did find it; in the 
machine language section, I had copied 
"36" instead of "E6." This solved the 
problem and voila, I was in business. 

I love this program and the world it 
has opened for me. The Bells and Whis- 
tles 2 program, by a then 16-year-old, 
does what it claims. The text accompa- 
nying the article has no fluff or space- 
fillers; every sentence means something, 
and if you skip a line valuable informa- 
tion is overlooked. 

As good as the program is, I am sure 
in June '89 or some following year, 
improvements will be made and offered 
in THE rainbow. Someday these future 
issues will be back issues and will 
contain valuable material. If that article 
in the hypothetical future issue intrigues 
your curiosity and you have saved all 



82 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



your back issues, you will be able to 
refer diligently to whatever titillates 
your fancy at that moment. 

I have noticed that it is possible to 
change the Envelope/ Waveform setting 
in the four voices by locating the cursor 
over the proper voice in the E/W col- 
umn and using the octal number to 
replace the old data. For instance, if you 
type 24 in the desired voice, 3,0 will 
result. 24 is equal to octal 30, or in this 
case Envelope 3, Waveform 0. I found 
this to be very convenient when exper- 
imenting with various sounds to get the 
right mix for a particular song. 

We CoCo users have little opportu- 
nity to use octal code, but here is one 
time it becomes useful. Simply rule out 
several columns and lines, marking the 
top line and the first column through 
7. Then fill in the boxes horizontally 
from through 63. The information 
inside is equivalent to the vertical scale 
augmented by the horizontal scale. 
Thus to get Voice 1,1: Plot the vertical 
1, then the horizontal 1; where they 
cross you find the value 9, which calls 
octal 11 or 1,1. 

One oddity 1 spotted is that although 
at any given instance you can have no 
more than eight envelopes and eight 
waveforms, you can get some dissonant 
but curious effects. You would think 
that 63, which translates to octal 77, 
would be the highest value you could 
type in. You can, however, type in a 
value up to 255, even though the result- 
ant value shown in the E/W column is 
kind of weird. You might get a character 
other than a numeral or letter as the E 
value. Thus, you might get :4 or B2 or 
90 — obviously typing errors. Still, odd 
sounds are created. If only one voice has 
this pseudo-value, the resultant four- 
voice harmony might be acceptable if 
odd sounds are your game. This is 
beyond my talent, but somebody might 
investigate this anomaly. 

At any rale this program allows you 
to create all kinds of sounds. Practice in 
copying sheet music is one great self- 
teaching aide. In short order, you learn 
to read music. Then you begin to under- 
stand time, tempo and volume mixing. 
Then you begin to learn what notes to 
discard when more than four are listed 
in a location. And the first thing you 
know, you're looking for eight-voice 
harmony. This leads to special software 
and hardware — to get mired deeper 
and deeper in this musical quicksand. 
Then you get to wondering about 
MIDI, a whole new ballgame. (See the 
M 1D1 tutorial by John E. Mueller in the 
June '87 rainbow. Page 36). 



Bells and Whistles 2 is a great aide in 
teaching newcomers to music what the 
correct beat should be and what the 
song should sound like. All this flirting 
with music has me so enthusiastic that 
I have bought an organ keyboard with 
MIDI capabilities. Someday I will get 
into MIDI; but right now with the help 
of Matthew Thompson's super pro- 
gram, I have to learn to play the key- 
board. 




"You will find that 

your interests 

expand or change 

with time; programs 

that you ignore as 

useless today, you 

may seek eagerly at 

a future date." 



Recently, I went to the library to 
rustle up some music to copy using my 
new tool. I came across a 1930-vintage 
songbook, and lo and behold! I found 
the song that had been rattling around 
in my brain all these years. It was 
"Love's Old Sweet Song" by J. L. 
Molloy. As soon as I keyed in the first 
few bars and ran it, a little part of my 
youth returned. I wonder what Mr. 
Molloy would say if he were around to 
hear me play his song just the way he 
wrote it, without a musical instrument? 
If I could go back to that classroom 
knowing what I know now, how could 
I explain to Mr. Molloy that a good 50 
years later, without any musical train- 
ing or inclination, I would be playing his 
song, in four voices, on a computer? 
How could I explain the CoCo without 
his calling the looney bin to have me 
carted away as a raving maniac? 

Squirreling away all your copies of 
THE RAINBOW is one of the wisest ac- 
tions you can take. If you are a relative 
newcomer to CoColand, you should 
make it a point to buy all the back issues 
that pertain to your personal fields of 
interest. Fortunately, it is no problem to 
determine which months you require. 
The annual anniversary issues contain 
the index for the year's cornucopia of 



programs. It is an expensive outlay to 
get all the issues, so work backwards 
and get the more recent ones you lack. 
Add them to your reference library. You 
will find that your interests expand or 
change with time; programs that you 
ignore as useless today, you may seek 
eagerly at a future date. 

Let me give you an example. I was 
never much interested in disk programs, 
mainly because 1 didn't own a disk 
drive. But when I finally did get one, 
suddenly 1 wanted a good program for 
business files. Guess where I found a 
premier program? In THE rainbow! 
Beginning with the July '84 issue 
("Database Delight," Page 64), a six- 
part database tutorial by Bill Nolan 
taught me the rudiments of developing 
a database manager program. I had 
doubted the possibility of finding a 
suitable program, and here were six 
tutorials lying on my shelves! Though 
dated in time, they are just as useful 
today as in the summer of '84 when I 
flipped past them without a second 
glance. 

How much are all these back issues 
worth? To me, they are equivalent to an 
"Encyclopedia CoColoria." Priceless 
information is available upon demand. 

As more and more of the back issues 
become unavailable, all the wisdom 
contained therein will be lost to you. So, 
the corollary is: Don't let your subscrip- 
tion lapse. I have talked to CoCo 
owners who sadly state that they have 
dropped THE RAINBOW — incredible to 
me, because as CoCo owners they put 
themselves at a severe disadvantage 
without the wealth of information 
stored in the magazine. They may have 
saved a few bucks, but they are the 
poorer for it. 

You old CoCo veterans who have 
read my articles since December '82 
must have heard all this before. Still, the 
cheapest, most valuable reference tool 
is in your hands at this moment. Never, 
never throw away any issue — you'll be 
sorry! 

Beginning next month I'll be present- 
ing a series of 20 articles devoted to 
graphics. This material was written for 
the granddaddy CoCo, but it is just as 
valid today on CoCos 2 and 3. The 
articles could make a good-sized book 
of tutorials. You may find them valua- 
ble at some time in the future — when 
they will be buried in back issues! 

I hope you haven't minded this 
month's absence of listings. If you keep 
in mind the message I've presented 
instead, you will have been well 
served. /R* 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 83 



RAINBOW 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 

$ 



C/Ve us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world your 
high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the rainbow's 
"Scoreboard" column. All entries must be received 60 days prior to publication. Entries should be printed — 
legibly — and must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, your high score. 
Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 

For greater convenience, your high scores may also be sent to us through the MAIL section of our Delphi 
CoCo SIC From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then type SEND and address to: EDITORS. 



ADVANCED STAR'TRENCH (THE RAINBOW. 7/B6) 
4.750 *Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
4,475 David Schaller, Clarkston, WA 
4.500 Frankie DiGiovanni. Olney. MD 
4.300 Jeffrey Warren. Waynesville. NC 
3.960 Maurice MacGarvey. Dawson Creek. 
British Columbia 
ASTRO BLAST (Mark Data) 

46,825 *Tony Bacon. Ml. Vernon. IN 
BEE ZAPPER (THE RAINBOW. 9/87) 

15.7B5 *David Hartmann. Osoyoos. British 

Columbia 
12,825 Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 

Canada 
12,350 Tom Carpenter. Palenville. NY 
12,175 Sara Mltlelstaedl, Kiel, Wl 
11.675 Daniel Hartmann. Osoyoos, British 

Columbia 
11,075 John Valentine, Marlborough, CT 
10,850 Matthew Yarrows. Easthampton. MA 
10.700 Kevin Pereira, Corsicana, TX 
BOUNCING BOULDERS (Diecom Products! 

10.930 *Palrick Garneau. Sle-Croix. Quebec 
CANYON CLIMBER (Radio Shack) 
1.725.100 *John Guptill, Columbia, MO 
1.627.500 Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
213,400 Sara Mittelstaedt, Kiel, Wl 
202,000 David Brown. New Waterford. Nova 

Scotia 
178,200 Darren King, Yorkton, Saskatchewan 
CASHMAN (MIchTron) 

9,870 *Martin Parada. Arcadia, CA 
CLOWNS » BALLOONS (Radio Shack) 
688,960 *Faye Keefer. Augusta, GA 
217,500 Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
70,180 Charles Andrews, Delta Jet, AK 
36,650 Melody Webb, Lakeport, CA 
33.710 Timm Cappell. Freeland, Ml 
COLOR BASEBALL (Radio Shack) 

238-0 *»John Valentine, Marlborough, CT 
119-0 »Adam Silverstein, Chicago, IL 
111-2 David Czarnecki, Northhampton, MA 

96-0 "Chad Blick. Irwin, PA 
43-0 'Jason Kopp, Downs, IL 
COLOR CAR (NOVASOFT) 

316,550 *Alan Martin. Cornwall. Ontario 
113,970 Chad Blick. Irwin, PA 
110,870 Marlin Parada, Arcadia. CA 
COLOR POKER (THE RAINBOW, 4/83) 
44.022.600 *Earl Foslar. Lynchburg, VA 
DALLAS QUEST (Radio Shack) 

81 *Brad Wilson, Lilhia Springs, GA 
85 Paul Summers. Orange Park. FL 

85 David and Shirley Johnson, Leicester, 

NC 

86 Roy Grant, Toledo. OH 

88 Melanie Moor, Florence, AL 

87 Andrew Yarrows, Easthampton, MA 
87 Douglas Bell. Duncan, OK 

102 Hugh Flournoy, Jr.. Spanaway, WA 
DEF MOV (THE RAINBOW, 1/87) 

43.806 *Domlngo Martinez, Miami, FL 
35,331 David Schaller, Clarkslon, WA 

31,673 Douglas Bacon, Mlddlelown, CT 
30,753 Pasha Irshad, Silver Spring, MD 
30,326 Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 
Canada 
DEMON ATTACK (Imagic) 

279.435 *Jon Hobson, Plainfield. Wl 
202.260 Tom Briggs, Hillsdale, NY 



* Current Record Holder • Shutout 

89.285 Upton Thomas, Arnold, MD 
72,410 Glenn Hodgson. Aberdeenshire. 

Scotland 
67.760 Jim Davis. Sandwich, IL 

DESERT PATROL (Arcade Animation) 

234.300 *Steven Turcotte. Matane, Quebec 

DESERT RIDER (Radio Shack) 

80,703 *Thomas Payton. Anderson, SC 
65,351 Jason Hackloy. Clinton. CT 

64,789 Roby Janssen. Clear Lake. IA 
63.014 Rebecca Henderson, Ballston Spa, 

NY 
62,702 William Currie, Bryans Road. MD 
50.797 Palrick Devllt, Lombard, IL 
47.677 Thomas Beall, Odenton, MD 
33.498 Brian Anderson, Clear Loke, IA 



DEVIL ASSAULT (Tom Mix) 
t,866,100 *Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
623.550 Dalo Kruoger, Maple Ridge, 
British Columbia 
75,000 Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
40,800 Benoit Landry, Drummondville. 
Quebec 
DONPAN (Radio Shack) 

53,100 *Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 
52,600 Eric Olson. Wheaton, IL 
DOWNLAND (Radio Shack) 

99,980 *Danny Wimell, Rome. NY 
98.985 Karl Gulliford, Summerville, SC 
97,740 Slephane Deshaies, Beloeil, Quebec 
89.490 Nell Edge, Willislon, FL 
77.254 Tom Audas. Fremont. CA 
73.346 Jean- Francois Morin, Lorettevllle, 

Quebec 
70,142 Chris Goodman, Baltimore. MD 
68,142 Cooper Valentin, Vovenby. 

British Columbia 
67,721 Keith Yampanls, Jaflrey, NH 

62.442 Eddie Lawrence. Pasadena. 

Newfoundland 
55.300 Potrico Gonzalez, Buenos Aires, 

Argentina 
49,500 Danny Perkins, Clifton Forge, VA 
49.441 Kevin Pater. Port Alberni, British 

Columbia 
49.254 David Brown. New Waterford, Nova 

Scotia 
43,502 Mike Ells, Charlotte, Ml 
43,369 Jason Kloostra, Jenison, Ml 
41.896 Antonio Hidalgo, San Jose, 

Costa Rica 
40.360 Jesse Binns. Phoenix, A2 
35,611 Adam Broughton. Morris, PA 

35.169 Daniel Norrls, New Albany, IN 
23.649 Jim Herr, Newton. Wl 
22.366 Tommy Herr. Newton, Wl 
19,579 Steven Turcotle, Matane. Quebec 
DRAGON FIRE (Radio Shack) 

160,835 *Eric Olson, Wheaton, IL 
146,325 Stephana Martel, Laval. Quebec 
1 1 .726 Marcos Rodriguez. New York, NY 
9,861 Michael Adams, Columbia, SC 

9,200 Jesse Cogdell, Wilmington, DE 
ENCHANTER (Inlocom) 

400/223 *Konnie Grant, Toledo, OH 
ESCAPE 2012 (Computarwara) 

202 *Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
199 Milan Parekh, Anaheim, CA 
FIRESTORM (THE RAINBOW. 1/86) 

22.505 #Chad Presley, Luseland. 



Saskatchewan 
11,250 Stephane Martel. Laval. Quebec 
5.680 Kathy Rumpel, Arcadia, Wl 
3,760 Rick Beevers, Bloomfleld. MN 
3.505 Blake Cadmus. Reading, PA 
GALACTIC ATTACK (Radio Shack) 

31.100 *Uplon Thomas. Arnold, MD 
29,030 Dovid Czarnecki. Northhampton. MA 
26.370 Jeff Romlck, Warren. Ml 
22.250 Dave Staub, Moundsville. WV 
1 1.830 Sheldon Penney, Green Bay, 
Newfoundland 
GALAGON (Spectral Associates) 

751,020 *Sotia Giorgi. Brasilia, Brazil 
357,890 Jason Clough, Houston, TX 
328,820 Bernard Burke. Lee's Summit. MO 
249,960 Matthew Fumich, Munford, TN 
169.410 Danny Dunne. Pittslield. NH 
GANTELET (Diecom Products) 
45,235,820 *Ken Hubbard, Madison. Wl 
23.643.720 Geran Stalker, Rivordalo, GA 
20,921.490 Randall Edwards, Dunlap. KS 
10.222.940 Clinton Morell, Sacramento, CA 
7.493,340 Stirling Dell, Dundalk, Ontario 
GHANA BWANA (Radio Shack) 
2,350,750 *Michael Heilz, Chicago, IL 
702,520 Joseph Delaney, Augusta, GA 
105,820 David Reash, Hadley, PA 
GIN CHAMPION (Radio Shack) 

1,120-0 *»Kim Johns, Port Cog., British 
Columbia 
GROBOT (Children's Computer Workshop) 

8,090 *Curt Lebol. Louisville. KY 
HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE TO THE GALAXY (Inlocom) 
400/359 *Roy Grant, Toledo. OH 
400/422 Jeff Holtham. Waterloo, Ontario 
400/510 Brad Wilson, Lithia Springs, GA 
INTERBANK INCIDENT (Radio Shack) 

4.861 *Shara and Chns Euton. Lilburn, GA 
IRON FOREST (Diecom Products) 
3,1 73,200 *Charles Boyd, Amarlllo. TX 
2,676,300 Janel Boyd, Amarillo. TX 
1,141,650 Craig Penned, Amarillo, TX 
1.013.100 William Weller. Kailua. HI 
595.700 Daniel Wibier, Santa Rosa, CA 
JOKER POKER (THE RAINBOW. 3/87) 
43.616,750 UrCarole Rueckert, Mansfield. OH 
8,179,710 Brenda Kim, Athens. OH 
3.796,898 Curtis Trammel. Murphysboro. IL 
2.793,285 Blain Jamieson. Kingston, Ontario 
205,239 Paul Dykes. Baton Rouge. LA 
18,889 Frankie DiGiovanni. Olney. MD 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE (Computerware) 
2,503,000 *Stephane Martel, Laval, Quebec 
257,600 Keith Cohen. Rocky Mount. NC 
KARATE (Diecom Products) 

31,000 *Wayne Hulford, Kincardine, Ontario 
21.800 Daniel Hartmann. Osoyoos. British 

Columbia 
1 1 .600 Jonsthon Ross, Pocomoke City. MD 
6,300 David Darling, Longlac, Ontario 
5.600 Steven Turcotte, Matane, Quebec 
KORONIS RIFT (Epyx) 

186,710 *Tony Harbin, Cullman, AL 
184,180 Russell Johnson, Sarnia, Ontario 
184.120 John Farrar, Lebanon. TN 
174,810 Donald Cathcarl. Halifax. Nova Scotia 
133,990 Paul Blessing, Spring, TX 
KUNG-FU DUDE (Sundog Systems) 

32,000 *Tony Geitgey. University Park. PA 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 



84 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 




259.493 
255.625 
246,668 
175.771 



44 



Chris VanOosbree. Emmetsburg, IA 
Peter Antonacopoulos, Toa Baja. 

Puerto Rico 
PYRAMIX (CoiorVenture) 

67,850 *Richard Winkelbauer, Bronx. NY 
Andy Freeman. Turtle Lake. Wl 
Matthew Smith, Courtenay. British 

Columbia 
Todd Kopke. Glendale Heights, IL 
Lori Curran, La Porte City. IA 



125 
100 



56,970 
37.500 



45 
47 



5.960 
5.528 



355,570 
318,160 
144,510 
137,920 



10,420 
9,760 
9.270 

9,080 



1,276-0 
1,260-0 
1.242-0 
1,210-0 



399.350 
389,463 
213,300 
142.400 



54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
54 
51 
49 
14 
9 



26,900 
20.120 
QUIX (Tam Mix) 
8,407,772 *John Haldane, Tompe, AZ 

Curtis Goodson. Sao Paulo, Brazil 
Milan Parekh. Anaheim, CA 
Elisa Goodson, Sao Paulo, Brazil 
Martin Parada. Arcadia. CA 



1.404.000 

1,201,383 

1,003,104 

326,192 



RESCUE ON FRACTALUS (Epyx) 



1.000,948 
323.167 
292,633 
288,084 
270,000 



43,222 
27,542 
21,682 
17,851 
15.445 



82 

85 
86 
87 



♦Steven Ujvary. Calgary. Alberta 
Kenneth Hill, Severna Park, MD 
David Richards, Huntington, WV 
Donald Calhcart, Halitax, Nova Scotia 
Russell Johnson, Sarnia, Ontario 
RETURN OF THE JET-I (ThunderVision) 

336,563 *Jesse Collicott, Inman, KS 
RETURN OF JUNIOR'S REVENGE {Colorware) 
1 .792,800 *Chad Presley, Luseland, 
Saskatchewan 
ROGUE (Epyx) 

63.934 *Marshall Weisenburger, Quincy. IL 
Hans Lutenegger, Madison, IA 
Melanie Lapoint, Fitchburg, MA 
Paul Blessing, Spring, TX 
Yvan Langlois, Laval, Quebec 
Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
SAN DS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack) 

67 *Tristan Terkuc. Richmond. Ontario 
Edward Rocha. Cobleskill, NY 
Paul Summers, Orange Park. FL 
Roy Grant. Toledo. OH 
Neil Haupt. Elyrla, OH 
SAUCER DEFENSE (THE RAINBOW. 4187) 

40,000 *David Hartmann. Osoyoos. British 
Columbia 
4.000 Frankie DiGiovanni. Olney. MD 
SHAMUS (Radio Shack) 

25,450 *John Garness, Newell, SD 
SHOOTING GALLERY (Radio Shack) 

27.270 *Jocelyn Hellyor, Montgomery, IL 
25.510 Donald Knudson, Minot. ND 
20.480 Kevin Pereira. Corsicana, TX 
SHOOTN RANGE (THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 
55,623 *Paul Robbms, Picayune. MS 
14.702 Richard Winkelbauer. Bronx, NY 
Phillip Holaten, Modesto, CA 
Benoit Landry. Drummondvllle. 
Quebec 
SLAY THE NERIUS (Radio Shack) 

73,091 *Jell Remick, Warren, Ml 
SPACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 

13,110 *Jett Remick, Warren, Ml 
7,280 Jason Kopp. Downs, IL 
6,200 John Weaver, Amsterdam. NY 
(THE RAINBOW 8/87) 
♦Richard Winkelbauer. Bronx, NY 
Jason Landreth, Texico, IL 
Kevin Pereira, Corsicana, TX 
Frederick Lajoie. Nova Scotia. 

Canada 
John Valentine, Marlborough. CT 
Lisa Williamson, Watauga, TX 
SPIDERCIDE (Radio Shack) 

27,730 *Mike LeBrun, Cornwall, Ontario 
1 ,840 Dave Staub, Moundsville, WV 
SPRINGSTER (Radio Shack) 

303,520 *Mavis Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 
SUPER ROOTER (THE RAINBOW, 5/86) 

19,090 *Frederick Lajoie, Nova Scotia, 

Canada 
15,180 Richard Donnell, Penns Grove, NJ 
3.910 Daniel Bradford. Birmingham, AL 
TEMPLE OF ROM (Radio Shack) 

604.000 *Troy Graham. Arnold, MD 
507,700 Adam Broughlon, Morris, PA 
303.600 Tim Hennon, Highland, IN 
138.400 Gary Budzak. Westervllle, OH 
125.200 Michelle Murray. Salem, IN 



THEXDER (Sierra On-Lina) 

1 ,41 1 ,700 *Steve Hallin. Biloxi, MS 
1,314,100 Frankie DiGiovanni, Olney, MD 
312,300 Timothy DeJong. Rock Valley. I A 
195,000 Emmett Keyser, Napa. CA 
TREASURE QUEST (THE RAINBOW. 1 1/86) 
66,760 *Clara Smith. Courtenay. British 

Columbia 
29,340 Matlhew Smith. Courtenay, British 
Columbia 
TREKBOER (Mark Dara) 

1 23 *Roy Grant, Toledo, OH 
132 Matthew Fumich, Muntord. TN 
TRIG ATTACK (Sugar Software) 

196.000 ftCassaundra Stewart. Sacramento. CA 
TUT'S TOMB (Mark Data) 

118,720 *Reina Roy. Carleton, Quebec 
Mack Haynes, Nice, CA 
Chad Presley. Luseland. 

Saskatchewan 
Don Siler, Muncie, IN 
Blake Cadmus. Reading. PA 



74,780 
72.000 



60.020 
45,000 



VARLOC (Radio Shack) 



* 
M 

^•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••* 



12,150 Cody Deegan, Fallon. NV 
THE LAIR (Freebooter Software) 

112,940 *James Walton, Pittsburgh. PA 
LUNAR RESCUE (THE RAINBOW 8/87) 
260,427 *Tom Beeker, Gracey, KY 
Cody Deegan, Fallon, NV 
John Valentine. Marlborough. CT 
Phillip Holsten. Modesto. CA 
Jim Davis. Sandwich, IL 
LUNAR-ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 
37,890 *Dove Staub, Moundsville. WV 
30,000 Vincent Tremblay, Matane. Quebec 
MAGIC OF 2ANTH (Computerware) 

31 *Paul Summers, Orange Park, FL 
Matthew Smith, Courtenay. British 

Columbia 
Michael Green. Ware, MA 
Robert Williams. Yellowknile, 
Northwest Territory 
MEGA-8UG (Radio Shack) 

9.016 *Heather Richwalski. Medlord. Wl 
8.199 Eric Mellon, Nev/ark, DE 
6,404 David Hartmann, Osoyoos, British 
Columbia 
Mary Jensen, El Cajon, CA 
Douglas Bacon, Middlelown, CT 
MEMOCARDS (THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 

1,418 *Edward Kavanaugh. North Easton, 

MA 
1,414 Sara Mittelstaedl. Kiel, Wl 
MISSION: F-16 ASSAULT (Diecorn Products) 
468.750 *Karen Jessen, Cleveland, OH 
Stirling Dell, Dundalk. Ontario 
Jeremy Pruski, Sandwich. IL 
Donald Calhcart, Halifax, Nova Scotia 
Mike Grant, Fresno. CA 
MUNCHK1N BLASTER (THE RAINBOW, 8/87) 
11,950 *Jim Davis, Sandwich, IL 

Gabe Emerson, Baraboo, Wl 

Tom Beeker, Gracey, KY 

Edward Kavanaugh. North Easton. 

MA 
John Weaver, Amsterdam, NY 
ONE-ON-ONE (Radio Shack) 

1,302-0 *»Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 

•Jonathan Dorris, Indianapolis, IN 

•Brandon Reece. Chickamauga, GA 

•William Currie, Bryans Road. MD 

•Gregg Thompson, Chesterfield, VA 

OUTHOUSE (MichTron) 

38,640 *Dave Staub. Moundsville. WV 
PAC PANIC (Cougar) 

34,950 *Heather Hamblen. Bar Harbor, ME 
PINBALL (Radio Shack) 
1,139,450 *Benoit Landry, Drummondvllle, 
Quebec 
Troy Sloll, Washington, IN 
Thomas Payton, Anderson, SC 
Patrick Martel, Laval, Quebec 
Thomas Payton. Anderson, SC 
PITFALL II (AcriWsion) 

197.048 *Kelth Catrelt, Montgomery, AL 
159.400 David Cornetto. Green Bay. Wl 
104,479 David Stewart, Kent, OH 
PITSTOP II (Epyx) 

54 *Rusty Breitbach, Rickardsvllle, IA 
*Jetf Coburn, Easton. PA 
•Walter Hearne, Pensacola, FL 
*Se.in Noonan, Green Bay. Wl 
♦Thomas Payton, Anderson. SC 
*Jol( Szczerba, Sturtevant, Wl 
♦Brad Wilson, Lilhla Springs. GA 
Christian Grenier, Valleyfield, Quebec 
Randy Venable, Coal City, WV 
Eric Mellon, Newark. DE 
Laundre Clemon, Sacramento, CA 
POOYAN (Datasolt) 

236,650 *Jetl Mrochuk, Edmonton. Alberta 
111,600 William Calhey, Kings Mln.. NC 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

105.560 *Healher Condll, Gralton, ND 
26.889 Claude Jalbert. Matane, Quebec 
20,800 Knstopher Santos. Laurel. MD 
PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220 *Jason Ebbellng, Berkshire. MA 
PYRAMID 2000 (Radio Shack) 

220 *Darren King, Yorkton, Saskatchewan 



2.032 
2.032 
2.011 

2,008 
1.995 
1,991 
1.988 



11,902 
10,489 
6,294 
4.643 



13.794 
5,433 



SPEEDSTER( 

103.140 
88,090 
44,540 
37,970 



35,040 
32,110 



•Tony Harbin. Cullman. AL 
• Edward Rocha. Cobleskill. NY 
Antonio Souza III, North Dartmouth, 

MA 
Philip Puflinburger, Winchester. VA 
Denise Rowan. Minneapolis. MN 
Ryan Grady. Newbury Park. CA 
Randall Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
VICIOUS VIC (THE RAINBOW, 7/86) 
18,813 *Talib Khan. Bronx, NY 

Martha James. Swarthmore. PA 
Karl Gullilord. Summerviile. SC 
Pat O'Neill, Nepean, Ontario 
Martha James, Swarthmore. PA 
THE VORTEX FACTOR (Mark Dafa) 

100/276 *Tommy Crouser, Dunbar, WV 
100/483 Rick & Brenda Stump, 
Laureldale, PA 
210 Paul Maxwell. Vancouver. 
British Columbia 
WARP FACTOR X (Prickly-Pear) 
10.577,051 *Doug Lule. Clymer. PA 
WILDWEST (Tom Mix) 

35 *Paul Summers. Orange Park, FL 
WISHBRINGER (tnlocom) 

400/201 *Brad Wilson, Lilhia Springs. GA 
WIZARD'S DEN (Tom Mix) 

195.050 *Mark Touchette, Preston, CT 
WRESTLE MANIAC (Diecom) 

956.971 *Marc Reiter, Cincinnati. OH 

Louis Bouchard, Gatineau. Quebec 
Tony Bacon, Ml. Vernon, IN 
David Brown, New Watorlord, Nova 

Scotia 
Billy Helmick, Independence, KY 
ZAKSUND (Elite Software) 

357,550 *Martin Parada, Arcadia, CA 
268,350 Tony Bacon, Ml. Vernon, IN 
44,900 Michael Adams, Columbia, SC 
39,950 Walter Hearne, Pensacola, FL 
ZAXXON (Datasolt) 
2.061.000 *Byron Altord. Raytown. MO 
Blake Cadmus, Reading, PA 
Dan Brown, Pittstord, NY 
Andrew Urquhart, Metairie, LA 
Matthew Yarrows, Easthampton, MA 
Vincent Tremblay. Matane. Quebec 
ZEUS (Aardvark) 

4,500 *Benoil Si-Jean, Gatineau, Quebec 
3.380 Martin Kertz, Forrest City. AR 
ZORK I (tnlocom) 

350/328 *Konnie Grant. Toledo. OH 
350/587 Matthew Yarrows. Easthampton. MA 
ZONX (THE RAINBOW. 10/85) 

12.000 *Adam Broughlon, Morris, PA 



546,315 
45,483 
42,105 

39,086 



1,950,000 

1.300,500 

1,100.600 

376.600 

57,895 



— Jody Doyle 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 85 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••^1 

m luim 




In conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, we offer this column 
of pointers for our game-playing readers' benefit. If you have some 
interesting hints, tips or responses to questions, or want help yourself, 
we encourage you to write to the Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. 



In response to questions from: 
• Duncan Cameron: To get to the blue 
doors in Bedlam, you must be in your 
cell. From there, type OPEN GREEN DOOR. 
Then go south, east, open the green door, 
go north and get Napoleon to follow you. 
Go south, ask Napoleon to open the red 
door and go south again. You will find 
the blue doors as you go through the 
north-south hallway. 

To get the red key, go to the cabinet 
where the red key is located and type GO 
WEST. Take the window hook and go east. 
Take the red key with the window hook. 
You do not necessarily need the red key. 
just get Napoleon to follow you. When 
you need a door opened, whether it is 
green, red or blue, just type NfiPOLEON 
OPEN RED DOOR (or whatever color door 
you need opened). 

Jon Hobson 
Plainjield, Wl 



• James Green: It is impossible to re- 
trieve the wizard's image scroll in Dun- 
geons of Daggoralh. The third ring is in 
the level after you kill the wizard's image; 
it comes from a goldrog and is the joule 
ring. Incant it to the energy ring; you 
need this to help kill the evil wizard. The 
elvish sword also comes from a goldrog; 
you need this for the wizard as well. 



• Robert Sherman: In order to get the 
flashlight in the Chugalug trading post in 
Dallas Quest, you must pull the curtain, 
then give the monkey the tobacco. Drop 
everything except the flashlight, and type 
CLIMB LADDER. Before going down into 
the pit, turn the light on. In the pit go 
east, enter the post, get the sack, put 
everything in it and climb down. Get the 
light and go west. 

Andy Yarrows 
Easlhamplon, MA 



• Jason Ebbeling: To row the boat in 
Dallas Quest, you have to type ROW BOOT; 
you must have the small shovel. 

After giving the eggs to the natives and 
giving the mirror to the monkey, what do 
you do? How do you get to the cave? 



Sagie Kraidman 
Brooklyn, NY 



Scoreboard: 

1 am stuck on Level 9 in Bouncing 
Boulders and can only gel about five out 
of 25 gems. Can anyone give me some 
advice to get all of them so I can get to 
Level 10? 

Troy Grice 
Simon, TX 

Scoreboard: 

I have gotten as far as the iron castle 
in Caladuril Flame of Light, but I can't 
get across the blue and red game board. 
I have the map the parrot gave me, but 
when I step on the last square of the "safe 
route" I get zapped. 

In In Search of the Star Lord, I can't 
find the control circuit for the laser 
barricades. 

Floyd Resler 
Cincinnati, OH 

Scoreboard: 

When I get to the island in Calixto 
Island, I cannot get past the natives. 

Clifford Lingle 
Overland Park, KS 

Scoreboard: 

What do you do with the eggs in Dallas 
Quest once you're in the cave? 

Danielle Ramsey 
Centralia, MO 

Scoreboard: 

In Dallas Quest I cannot get out of the 
tree after I jump out of the plane. 

I die before I can get to the pool in 
Sands of Egypt. Please help. 

Andrea Jenkins 
Gander, Newfoundland 

Scoreboard: 

In Finding Enrakian Treasure I need 
to know what to do in the colored rooms. 
Where is the bullet? How do I get the 
rose? 

How do I get past the rats and through 
the locked door by the diner in Sam 
Diamond P. IP. 

In SYZYGY what do I do with the 
sword, knife, siring, blanket and space- 
suit? How do 1 work the transporter 
console? Where do I find this fuzzy 
creature I've heard about? What use is the 
elevator? 

Angela Aldred 
East Peoria, II. 



Scoreboard: 

How can I open the lock mechanism 

in Graphic Pyramid! How can I go back 

to the archeologist hut with the treasures? 

J. P. Brassard 

Jonquiere, Quebec 

Scoreboard: 

In Lansford Mansion how do you 
prevent the guard from throwing you out 
several moves after you yell fire? 

How do you prevent from getting 
killed by sand when vou dig in Infidel! 

Ed Gilliland 
Southftled, MI 

Scoreboard: 

I need help getting past the cliff and 
other places in Martian Crypt. Any hints, 
tips and vocabulary would be appre- 
ciated. 

Jon Miller 
St- Lambert. Quebec 

Scoreboard: 

How do I get to the central computer 

in Thexder after I have completed the 15 

levels? 

Glenn Laws 
Toledo. OH 

Scoreboard: 

After I deliver the letter to the magic 
shop in Wishbringer, I come down the 
mountain, but I cannot get past the troll 
at the covered bridge. He wants a gold 
coin, but I don't have any. How do 1 get 
past him? 

In Dallas Quest when you leave the 
trading post, how do you get to the 
cannibals? 

H. James Herchek 
Cleveland Heights, OH 

To respond to other readers' inquiries 
and requests for assistance, reply to 
"Scoreboard Pointers," c/o THE RAIN- 
BOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
We will share your reply with all "Score- 
board" readers in an upcoming issue. 

For greater convenience, "Scoreboard 
Pointers" and requests for assistance may 
also be sent to us through the MAIL 
section of our Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, then 
type 5END and address to: EDITORS. Be 
sure to include your complete name and 
address. 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••^ 



86 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



F e atur e 



64K ECB Disk 



l/Sj 



."'■' 



Bml 



•'--:. L 



e=a 



Keep track of the body count 
in role-playing games 



The'Hit'list 



By Andrew Dater 



Since 1981, a new role-playing game 
has swept across the nation. The 
game is Killer. Unlike those in 
other role-playing games, the players 
are the actual characters; they go 
around shooting other players with 
squirt or dart guns, blowing them up 
with water balloon hand grenades, and 
blasting them with flashlight lasers. 

Most games involve some sort of 
scenario. For instance, in the Circle of 
Death you are given a victim to "kill." 
If you "off" your victim, you go after 
your victim's victim, and so on. But 
watch out, the same thing is happening 
behind you, and if you're not careful, it 
could happen to you! 

Or you may be playing the Mafia 
scenario. This one pits rival gangs 
against each other, with one team 
designated as the FBI. Not only do you 
try to "kill" your opponents, but you try 
to amass enormous wealth. But be 
careful because, just as in real life, the 
gangs have spies, and you may not live 
to see tomorrow if you're found out! 

The person who organizes the game 
must keep track of large amounts of 
data. This includes who was killed, how 
many points earned, personal informa- 
tion, and so on. What could be better 
for keeping track of all this information 
than good ol' CoCo? 

The Assassination Game Utility is 
very easy to use. It runs from a main 

Andy Dater works for Tandy as a 
training and support specialist in the 
Business Products division. He is in- 
volved in many role-playing games, and 
playing Killer was a natural progression 
into real-life role-playing. Andy's user- 
name on Delphi is DATER. 



menu of 10 choices. All you have to do 
is press through 9 and you are taken 
to the appropriate subroutine. 

Throughout the program, if you want 
to return to. the menu, press Q. On 
options 2, 3 and 4, when it asks for the 
player's name, press ENTER. It will ask 
you for a code name if you can re- 
member it more easily. 

Options 1 through 3 let you add, edit 
or remove players. When players are 
created, they are automatically made 
alive and active. Both of these may be 
changed using Option 4. The program 
allows for only 40 players, so if you near 
the limit, you may delete players or 
change the DIM statement if memory 
allows. 

Option 4 allows you to change the 
amount of kill, bonus and penalty 
points a player has and change the alive 
and active statuses. If a player is in the 
round you are currently running, he 
must be active and either alive or dead. 
If a player you have on your list is not 
playing the current round, he must be 
made inactive. After you make the 
necessary changes, press Q to return to 
the menu and press the space bar to 
change another player. 

Options 5 and 6 take care of points 
for staying alive each day and points for 
not making a kill after a certain number 
of days. Option 7 separates the players 
by their being either "alive" or "dead," 
sorting them by points from highest to 
lowest, and then prints out the list to the 
printer. 

Option 8 sorts the players alphabet- 
ically and then returns to the menu (this 
is so the players will be in alphabetical 
order when you do a list). Option 9 lists 
the players and their code names to the 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 87 



screen. If you print the list to the printer, 
the alive and active statuses will also be 
printed. 

Before you run the program for the 
first time or after you have killed the 
data file, you must run the following 
listing, which creates a "dummy" data 
file: 



10 0PEN"0",1, 
20 PRINTH1.0 
30 CLOSE 



'TAG' 



If you find that the data categories 
don't suit your needs, you can change 
the category titles in Line 3040. You 
should not, however, change first name, 
last name or code name. 

I have used the speed-up poke in the 
two sort routines, so for those of you 
whose computers can't handle it, delete 
lines 960 and 2130. 

This program helps me a lot when I 
run rounds of The Assassination Game 
and have to keep track of points. I hope 



it will help you if you plan on running 
a round. 

If you want more information about 
the game, go to your local hobby or 
game store and look for the book called 
Killer, by Steve Jackson. It is a manual 
on the game and it explains it very well. 

(Questions about this program may 
be addressed to the author at 23751 
Albers, Woodland Hills. CA 91367. 
Please enclose an SASE for a written 
reply.) □ 





S 




300 A$= IMI :B$="":N=0 

310 ONVAL(Q$)+1GOSUB2 690,3 40,500 




l x 






v 


250 52 1730 . 


...251 




440 255 1970 


124 


,720,1140,1630,1890,2110,950,255 





650 78 2160 . 


200 




840 188 2450 . 


39 


320 I$="":GOTO170 




1100 40 2600 . 


196 


3 30 'ADD PLAYER 




1300 161 2880 . 

1520 159 END . 


255 
.166 


340 CLS:P$="ADD PLAYER" : GOSUB2 80 



3 50 GOSUB2 8 50 








The listing: KILLER 




3 60 R=R+1 

3 70 FORX=lT011 


10 'THE ASSASSINATION GAME 




3 80 L=7 6+3 2*X 


20 ' (C) 1986 ANDY DATER 




390 GOSUB2970 


30 GOTO3050 




400 IF(I$="Q"ORI$="")ANDX=lTHENR 


40 FILES1:CLEAR12000:DIMD$(40,18 


=R-1: RETURN 


) ,T$(40 ; 17) ,SM$(17),P(4) 




410 D$(R,X)=I$ 


50 CLS: PRINT "LOADING DATA. 


# ii 


420 NEXTX 


60 OPEN"I",l, "TAG/DAT" 




430 FORX=12TO15:D$(R,X)=STR$(0) : 


70 INPUT #1,R 




NEXTX: D$ (R, 16)="ALIVE" : D$ (R, 17) = 


80 IFR=0THEN130 




liyn 


90 FORX=lTOR 




440 PRINT@4 80,"ARE ENTRIES CORRE 


100 F0RY=1T017 




CT? (Y/N/Q)"; 


110 LINEINPUT#1,D$(X,Y) 




450 A$=INKEY$ : IFA$="N"THENN=R: GO 


120 NEXTY,X 




TO630ELSEIFA$="Q"THENRETURNELSEI 


130 CLOSE 




FA$O"Y"THEN450 


140 F0RX=1T011 




460 PRINT@4 80,"ADD ANOTHER? (Y/N 


150 READD$(0,X) 




) 


160 NEXTX 




470 A$=INKEY$ : IFA$="Y"THENPRINT@ 


170 CLS:P$="THE ASSASSINATION GA 


480,STRING$(31," ") ; :GOTO3 50ELSE 


ME":GOSUB2 800 




IFA$O"N"THEN470 


180 PRINT 




4 80 RETURN 


190 PRINTTAB(5)"1 - ADD PLAYER" 


4 90 'EDIT PLAYER 


200 PRINTTAB (5) "2 - EDIT PLAYER" 


500 CLS:P$="EDIT PLAYER" : GOSUB2 8 


2 10 PRINTTAB ( 5 ) " 3 - DELETE 


PLAYE 


00 


R" 




510 PRINT@9 6 , " " ; : LINE INPUT "NAME : 


2 20 PRINTTAB (5) "4 - CHANGE 


POINT 


";A$ 


S" 




520 IFA$="Q"THENRETURN 


2 30 PRINTTAB (5) "5 - DAILY 


BONUSE 


530 IFA$O""THEN560 


S" 




540 LINE INPUT "CODENAME: " ?A$ 


2 40 PRINTTAB ( 5 )" 6 - NON-KILL PEN 


550 IFA$=""THENRETURNELSE590 


ALTIES" 




560 Q=INSTR(A$," ") 


2 50 PRINTTAB (5) "7 - PRINT 


POINTS 


570 IFQ=0THENA$="":GOTO500 


LIST" 




580 B$=RIGHT$ (A$ , LEN (A$ ) -Q) : A$=L 


260 PRINTTAB(5) "8 - SORT LIST" 


EFT$(A$,Q-1) 


2 70 PRINTTAB (5) "9 - LIST PLAYERS 


590 FORN=lTOR 


ii 




600 IFA$=D$(N,1)ANDB$=D$(N,2)THE 


280 PRINTTAB(5) "0 - QUIT" 




N630ELSEIFA$=D$ (N, 3 ) THEN630ELSEN 


290 Q$=INKEY$:IFQ$<"0"ORQ$ 


>"9"TH 


EXTN 


EN290 




610 PRINT "NOT FOUND." 



88 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



620 EXEC44539:GOTO500 
630 AN=1:AD=1:GOSUB2850 
640 A$=" " : PRINTS44 8 , STRING$ (31," 
") ;: PRINTS 4 4 8,"";: LINE INPUT" CHA 
NGE WHICH FIELD: ";A$ 
650 IFA$="Q"THENRETURNELSEA=VAL ( 
A$) 
660 IFA<10RA>110RAOINT(A)THEN64 

670 L=112+32*(A-1) 

680 GOSUB2970 

690 IFI$=""THENPRINTSL,D$(N,A) ;E 

LSED$(N,A)=I$ 

700 GOTO640 

710 'DELETE PLAYER 

720 CLS:P$="DELETE PLAYER" : GOSUB 

2800 

730 print@96 , " " ; : line in put "name : 

";a$ 
740 ifa$="q"thenreturn 
750 ifa$o""then780 
760 lineinput"codename: ";a$ 
770 ifa$=""thenreturnelse810 

780 Q=INSTR(A$," ") 

790 IFQ=0THENA$="":GOTO720 

800 B$=RIGHT$(A$,LEN(A$)-Q) :A$=L 

EFT$(A$,Q-1) 

810 FORN=lTOR 

820 IFA$=D$(N,l)ANDB$=D$(N,2)ORA 

$=D$ (N , 3 ) THEN8 50ELSENEXTN 

830 PRINT"NOT FOUND." 

840 EXEC44539:GOTO720 

850 AD=1:GOSUB2850 

860 PRINTS 4 80, "ARE YOU SURE? (Y/ 

N) " ; 

870 A$=INKEY$:IFA$="N"THENRETURN 

ELSEIFA$O"Y"THEN870 

880 FORX=N+lTOR 



One-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

If you want to traumatize the authority figure in 
your life, run this program and take potshots at the 
TV. This one-liner generates a changing pattern of 
bull's-eyes. If you can find your old rubber-tipped dart 
guns, you're set for target practice. 

The listing: 

1 PMODE4,l:SCREENl,l:PCLS:POKE17 
8,3: CIRCLE (126,96) , 20 : CIRCLE (126 
,96) ,40: CIRCLE (126, 96) , 60 : CIRCLE 
(12 6,96) ,80: CIRCLE (12 6, 96) ,92: PA 
INT(126,96) , ,l:POKE178,l:PAINT(4 
4,96) , ,l:POKE178,2:PAINT(48,96) , 
,l:POKE178,31:PAINT(72,96) , ,l:FO 
RW=1TO5000 : NEXTW : GOTOl 

Merwyn Bly 
Vienna, VA 

(Kor Ihis winning one-liner contest enlry. ihe author has been sent copies 
of both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



890 F0RY=1T017 

900 D$(X-1,Y)=D$(X,Y) 

910 NEXTY,X 

920 R=R-1 

930 RETURN 

940 'SORT LIST 

950 CLS : PRINT "SORTING. . . " 

960 POKE65495,0 

970 FORP=lTOR 

980 PRINTS 3 2, P; 

990 SM$(1)=CHR$(255) : SM$ (2 ) =CHR$ 

(255) 

1000 FORA=lTOR 

1010 PRINTS 40, A; 

1020 IFD$(A,2)+D$(A,1)<SM$(2)+SM 

$ (1) THENF0RX=1T017 : SM$ (X) =D$ (A, X 

) :NEXTX:SB=A 

1030 NEXTA 

1040 F0RX=1T017:T$(P,X)=SM$(X) :N 

EXTX 

1050 D$(SB,1)=CHR$(255) :D$(SB,2) 

=CHR$(255) 

1060 NEXTP 

1070 FORX=lTOR 

1080 F0RY=1T017 

1090 D$(X,Y)=T$(X,Y) 

1100 NEXTY,X 

1110 POKE65494,0 

1120 RETURN 

1130 'CHANGE POINTS 

1140 CLS :P$=" CHANGE POINTS ":GOSU 

B2800 

1150 PRINTS96, ""; : LINE INPUT "NAME 

: ";A$ 

1160 IFA$="Q"THENRETURN 

1170 IFA$O""THEN1200 

1180 LINE INPUT "CODENAME: ";A$ 

1190 IFA$=""THENRETURNELSE12 30 

1200 Q=INSTR(A$," ") 

1210 IFQ=0THENA$="":GOTO1140 

12 20 B$=RIGHT$ ( A$ , LEN ( A$ ) -Q) : A$= 

LEFT$(A$,Q-1) 

1230 FORN=lTOR 

1240 IFA$=D$(N,1)ANDB$=D$(N,2)TH 

EN1270ELSEIFA$=D$ (N, 3 ) THEN1270EL 

SENEXTN 

1250 PRINT"NOT FOUND." 

1260 EXEC44539:GOTO1140 

1270 PRINTS9 6, "NAME: "D$(N,1)" " 

D$(N,2) 

12 80 PRINT" CODENAME: "D$(N,3) 
1290 PRINT 

1300 F0RX=1T04:P(X)=VAL(D$(N,X+1 

1)) :NEXTX 

1310 P(4)=P(1)+P(2)+P(3) 

1320 PRINTS192, "1 - KILLS: "P 

(1) 

13 30 PRINT" 2 - BONUSES: "P(2) 

1340 PRINT"3 - PENALTIES : "P (3) 
1350 PRINT"4 - TOTAL: "P(4) 
13 60 PRINT" 5 - STATUS: "D$(N, 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 89 



16) 


1800 


D$(X,13)=STR$(VAL(D$(X,13) ) 


137,0 PRINT" 6 - ACTIVE: "D$(N, 


+A) 




17) 


1810 


D$(X,15)=STR$(VAL(D$(X,15) ) 


1380 PRINT @ 3 8 4, "CHANGE WHICH? (1 


+A) 




-6) 


1820 


N=N+1 


1390 A$=INKEY$:IF(A$<"1"0RA$>"6" 


1830 


NEXTX 


)ANDA$<>"Q"ANDA$<>" "THEN1390ELS 


1840 


PRINTN" PLAYERS CHANGED" 


EA=VAL(A$) 


1850 


X$=INKEY$ 


1400 IFA$="Q"ORA$=" "THEN1570 


1860 


IFINKEY$=" "THEN18 60 


1410 PRINT@384,STRING$(31," ");: 


1870 


RETURN 


PRINT@384 / " H ; 


1880 


'NON-KILL PENALTIES 


1420 IFA=5THEN1470 


1890 


CLS : P$="NON-KILL PENALTIES " 


1430 IFA=6THEN1530 


:GOSUB2 800 


1440 C=0: INPUT " CHANGE" ;C 


1900 


PRINT 


1450 P(A)=P(A)+C 


1910 


PRINT @ 9 6, ; '.INPUT "HOW MUCH T 


1460 GOTO1310 


SUBTRACT FROM EACH ALIVE PLAY 


1470 PRINT" IS PLAYER <A>LIVE OR 


ER";S 


<D>EAD" 


1920 


IFS=0THENRETURN 


1480 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN1480 


1930 


IFS<>ABS(INT(S))THEN1890 


1490 IFI$="A"THEND$ (N, 16) ="ALIVE 


1940 


FORX=lTOR 


":GOTO1320 


1950 


IFD$ (X, 16) <>"ALIVE"ORD$ (X, 1 


1500 IFI$="D"THEND$ (N, 16) ="DEAD" 


7)="N"THEN2060 


:GOTO1320 


1960 


PRINT@192,"NAME: "D$(X,1)" 


1510 IFI$=CHR$(13)THENGOTO13 20 


"D$(X,2)+STRING$(12-LEN(D$(X,2) ) 


1520 GOTO1480 


,32) 




1530 PRINT" IS PLAYER ACTIVE? (Y/ 

N)" 

1540 I$=INKEY$ : IFI$<>" Y"ANDI$<>" 


1970 


PRINT"CODENAME: "D$(X,3)" 
ii 


1980 


PRINT@288,"KILL POINTS :"D$( 


N"THEN1540 


X,12) 


ii ii 


1550 D$(N,17)=I$ 


1990 


PRINT"SUBTRACT"S"POINTS? (Y 


1560 GOTO1320 


/N/Q) 


" 


1570 F0RX=1T04 


2000 


A$=INKEY$ : IFA$=" "THEN2000 


1580 D$(N,X+11)=STR$(P(X)) 


2010 


IFA$="Q"THENRETURN 


1590 NEXTX 


2020 


IFA$="N"THEN2060 


1600 IFA$=" "THEN1140 


2030 


IFA$O"Y"THEN2000 


1610 RETURN 


2040 


D$(X,14)=STR$(VAL(D$(X,14) ) 


1620 'DAILY BONUSES 


-s) 




1630 CLS:P$="ADD DAILY POINTS" :G 


2050 


D$ (X, 15) =STR$ (VAL(D$ (X, 15) ) 


OSUB2800 


-s) 




1640 PRINT 


2060 


NEXTX 


1650 INPUT"HOW MUCH TO ADD TO EA 


2070 


PRINT 


CH ALIVE PLAYER"; A 


2080 


PRINT "DONE." 


1660 IFA=0THENRETURNELSECLS 


2090 


EXEC44539: RETURN 


1670 FORX=lTOR 


2100 


'PRINT POINTS LIST 


1680 IFD$ (X, 16) ="DEAD"ORD$ (X, 17) 


2110 


CLS:P$="PRINT POINTS" : GOSUB 


="N"THEN1720 


2800 




1690 Q=Q+1 


2120 


PRINT :PRINT"SORTING. . . " 


1700 PRINTD$(X,1)" "D$(X,2) :PRIN 


2130 


POKE65495,0 


TTAB(10)D$(X,3) 


2140 


TV=0 : TR=0 : A=0 : NA=0 : NU=0 


1710 IFQ/7=INT(Q/7)THENPRINT@489 


2150 


FORX=lTOR 


,"PRESS <ENTER>"; :EXEC44539 : CLS 


2160 


IFLEFT$ (D$ (X, 16) , 1) ="A"ANDD 


1720 NEXTX 


$ (X, 17) ="Y"THENNA=NA+1 


1730 PRINT :PRINT"IS LIST CORRECT 


2170 


NEXTX 


? (Y/N)" 


2180 


FORX=lTOR 


1740 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN1740 


2190 


IFD$ (X, 17) ="N"THEND$ (X, 18) = 


1750 IFI$="Y"THEN1780 


"U":NU=NU+1 


1760 IFI$="N"THENPRINT"PRESS <EN 


2200 


NEXTX 


TER> TO RETURN" :EXEC4 4 53 9: RETURN 


2 210 


FORX=lTOR 


1770 GOTO1740 


2220 


PRINT @0,X; 


1780 FORX=lTOR 


2230 


FORY=lTOR 


1790 IFD$(X,16)="DEAD"THEN1830 


2240 


IFVAL(D$(Y,15) )=>TV ANDD$ (Y 



90 



THEHAINBOW August 1S 



,18)<>"U"THENTV=VAL(D$(Y,15)) :TR 


2650 


NEXTX 


=Y 


2660 


PRINT : PRINTR " PLAYERS " 


2250 NEXTY 


2670 


EXEC44539: RETURN 


2260 IFLEFT$ (D$ (TR, 16) , 1) ="D"THE 


2680 


•QUIT 


N2330 


2690 


CLS: PRINT "SAVE DATA? (Y/N) " 


2270 A=A+1 


2700 A$=INKEY$: IFA$="N"THENENDEL 


2280 FORZ=13T016 


SEIFA$O"Y"THEN2700 


2290 T$(A,Z)=D$(TR,Z) 


2710 


CLS : PRINT" SAVING DATA. . . » 


2300 T$(A,3)=D$(TR,3) 


2720 


OPEN"0" , 1, "TAG/ DAT" 


2310 NEXTZ 


2730 


PRINT #1,R 


2320 GOTO2 3 80 


2740 


F0RX=1T0R 


2330 NA=NA+1 


2750 


F0RY=1T017 


2340 FORZ=13T016 


2760 


PRINT#1,D$(X,Y) 


2350 T$(NA,Z)=D$(TR,Z) 


2770 


NEXTY , X 


2360 T$(NA,3)=D$(TR,3) 


2780 


END 


2370 NEXTZ 


2790 


'CENTER ROUTINE 


2380 D$(TR,18)="U":TV=0 


2800 


T=16-LEN(P$)/2 


2390 NEXTX 


2810 


PRINTTAB(T)P$ 


2400 F0RX=1T0R 


2820 


PRINTTAB(T)STRING$(LEN(P$) , 


2410 D$(X,18)= H " 


ii — ii \ 




2420 NEXTX 


2830 


RETURN 


2430 POKE65494,0 


2840 


'PRINT TITLES ROUTINE 


2440 PRINT@128, "PRINTING. . ." 


2850 


F0RX=1T011 


2450 F0RX=1T06 : PRINT#-2 , "": NEXTX 


2860 


AN$=RIGHT$(STR$(X) ,1)+" - » 


2460 PRINT#-2,TAB(11)"C0DENAME"T 


2870 


IFX=10THENAN$="10- " 


AB(24) "KILLS"TAB(34) "BONUSES"TAB 


2880 


IFX=11THENAN$="11- " 


(46) "PENALTIES"TAB(60) "TOTAL"TAB 


2890 


PRINT@64+X*32,""; 


(70) "STATUS" 


2 900 


I FAN THENPRINTAN$ ; 


2470 PRINT#-2,TAB(11)" "T 


2910 


PRINTD$(0,X) ; 


AB(24) " "TAB(34) " "TAB 


2920 


IFAD THENPRINTD$(N,X)ELSEPR 


(46) " "TAB (60) " "TAB 


INT 




(70) " " 


2930 


NEXTX 


2480 PRINT#-2,"" 


2940 


AN=0 : AD=0 


2490 F0RX=1T0(R-NU) 


2950 


RETURN 


2500 PRINT#-2,TAB(4)T$(X,3)TAB(2 


2960 


'INPUT DATA ROUTINE 


5)T$(X,12)TAB(3 6)T$(X,13)TAB(49) 


2970 


1$="" : PRINTgL, STRING$ (15, 32 


T$(X,14)TAB(61)T$(X,15)TAB(71)T$ 


) 




(X,16) 


2980 


PRINT@L+LEN(I$) ,CHR$(191) 


2510 NEXTX 


2990 


A$=INKEY$ : IFA$=" "THEN2990 


2520 PRINT#-2,CHR$(12) ; 


3000 


IFA$=CHR$(8)ANDLEN(I$) THEN 


2 530 RETURN 


I$=LEFT$(I$,LEN(I$)-1) : PRINTA$ ; : 


2540 'LIST PLAYERS 


GOTO2980 


2550 CLS:P$="LIST PLAYERS" :GOSUB 


3010 


IFA$=CHR$ (21) THEN2970 


2800 


3020 


IFA$=CHR$ ( 13 ) THENPRINT@L+LE 


2560 PRINT 


N(I$1 


," ";:RETURN 


2570 PRINT"PRINT LIST TO PRINTER 


3030 


IFASC (A$) <320RASC(A$) >122TH 


? (Y/N/Q)" 


EN2990ELSEI$=I$+A$:PRINT@L+LEN(I 


2580 A$=INKEY$ : IFA$o"Y"ANDA$<>" 


$)"1 


A$; :GOTO2980 


N"ANDA$<>"Q"THEN2580 


3040 


DATA"FIRST NAME: ","LAST NA 


2590 IFA$="Q"THENRETURN 


ME: 


" , "CODENAME : " , "TELEPHONE 


2 600 IFA$="Y"THENP=1ELSEP=0 


• it 


."HEIGHT: "''WEIGHT: 


2 610 CLS:FORX=lTOR 


"/'HAIR COLOR: ","EYE COLOR: " 


2620 PRINTD$(X,1) " "D$ (X, 2) :PRIN 


,"CAR DRIVEN: "/'ACTIVITIES: "," 


TTAB(10)D$(X,3) 


GRADE : " 


2630 IFP THENPRINT#-2,D$(X,1) " " 


3050 


PCLEAR1 : GOTO40 


D$(X,2)TAB(28)D$(X,3)TAB(45)D$(X 

,16) 

2640 IFX/7=INT(X/7)THENPRINT@489 










, "PRESS <ENTER>" ; : FORQ=0TO1STEP0 






: Q$=INKEY$ : IFQ$="Q"THENRETURNELS 






EIFQ$=""THENNEXTQ ELSECLS 




/R\ 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 91 



32K ECB 




If you have an idea for the " Wishing 
Well, " submit it to Fred c/o THE 
RAINBOW. Remember, keep your 
ideas specific, and don 't forget this is 
BASIC. All programs resulting from 
your wishes are for your use, but 
remain the property of the author. 

Inspiration can come from the 
strangest sources. That's the whole 
premise on which this column is 
based. You, the reader, suggest ideas 
that 1 can translate into concrete BASIC 
programs for your Color Computer. 

It has been a long time since I have 
gotten really excited about a project. 
Don't misunderstand me: 1 don't mean 
that recent "Wishing Well" programs 
have not been up to snuff. It is just that 
some suggestions can really light a fire 
in my head. Every now and then it is 
nice to be so excited about a program 
idea that 1 spend every spare minute 
creating at the CoCo keyboard, even 
late into the night. 

This month's program is the result of 
just such an inspiration. Opposites Vol. 
1 is a rather long listing designed for the 
younger, elementary school-aged CoCo 
user. It is also the basis for a new 
"Wishing Well"game that will appear in 
next month's RAINBOW as well as a few 
new programming techniques I will 
introduce to you. 

The Motivation 

Several months ago I put out a re- 
quest for old gray CoCos that were 
gathering dust in people's closets. Since 
that time, over a dozen kind souls have 
donated CoCos, disks or disk drives to 
our special needs program here at 
Drury High School. As a result, our 
resource room is now using the Color 
Computers every single period of the 
day with either word processing or skills 
reviews. We are never without a free 
machine for a student who needs to use 
one. That is great! 

That was not the end of my effort, 
however. In recent weeks I have been 

Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



Basic vocabulary for 
elementary students 



Matching 
Opposites 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



able to patch together three more com- 
plete systems, using cassettes and some 
old black-and-white TV sets. (We can 
always still find good homes for other 
retired CoCos!) With the three systems 
in hand, I went to our city's oldest 
elementary school, originally built 
around the turn of the century. It is one 
of our few truly "neighborhood" 
schools left; in fact, 1 was there as a 
student back in the late '50s. 

We have three special needs classes at 
that school, dealing with students who 
have simple learning disabilities to 
those with severe emotional and phys- 
ical handicaps. Among the three classes 
there was only one computer, an old 
Atari 800 with only about a dozen or so 
working programs. In other words, 
these three classes had no real computer 
contact at all. 

This school was the perfect location 
for three of these donated CoCos. 
Without going into great detail, I can 
now say that just a few weeks later, the 
Color Computers have become an inte- 
gral part of each classroom, in use 
almost every period of the day. All the 
software used is coming directly from 
the pages of THE RAINBOW, either from 
past "Wishing Well" programs or other 
authors' submissions. 

The Inspiration 

Naturally, these three teachers are 
just thrilled to have this added resource 
in their classes. However, I have not 
written much software for very young 



students, especially those with special 
needs; I normally work with high school 
students. I was wide open for any 
suggestions for programs. 

After about a week one of the 
teachers commented, "These programs 
are just great, but do you have anything 
on opposites?" 

Opposites! That may seem like too 
simple a category to cover in a computer 
program, but keep in mind that special 
needs students have a real conceptual 
blockage at times. They may know that 
hot and cold are similar, but they do not 
really understand what opposite means. 
This seemed like a good challenge. 
Besides, mainstream youngsters could 
use it, too. 

The closest I had come to a program 
on opposites was my old Homonyms 
program, which could be used with 
antonyms, as well. However, what the 
teacher seemed to need was something 
quite different. Some of her students 
were only 5 or 6 years old. A text 
program didn't seem to fit the bill. 

She needed something that would 
really emphasize the opposite nature of 
two terms, such as over and under, up 
and down, or happy and sad. The only 
way to accomplish this in a way that 
would be useful to the really young 
required the use of graphics. 

The Graphics 

At last I had a valid excuse to get back 
into some exciting graphics creations. 
As you will recall, it has been some time 
since creations like Rockfesl or Foot- 
ball Fever showed how to construct 
impressive CoCo graphics from BASIC. 
This would be a good opportunity to 
incorporate simple graphics with con- 
cepts. However, some concepts would 
be harder to represent than others, as 1 
would soon find. 

I felt the most effective graphics 
would be both easily recognizable and 
large. To accommodate the size, I chose 
to work in PMODE0. 

PMODE0? Don't get excited. There are 
four very logical reasons for using our 
lowest-grade high resolution. First, the 
pixels for PMODE0 are perfect squares 
only slightly larger than in PM0DE4. 
Second, one screen in PMODE0 occupies 
only one graphics page; in a regular 
power-up there are automatically four 
graphics pages to use, allowing the 
rapid use of PCOPY in creating screens. 

Third, drawing large graphics in 



92 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



PMDDE0 will lend itself perfectly to 
reduction using the S (size) command in 
our DRAW statement. (Sometimes when 
you enlarge or reduce using S, you will 
get a distorted graphic, especially when 
using diagonals E, F, G and H. This 
eliminates the problem.) 

Finally, using PMDDE0 allows a sharp 
black-and-white image without color 
distortion found in the thin lines drawn 
in PHDDE4. Since 1 want to easily convey 
a concept in a graphic, straight black 
and white is the best route to go. Be- 
sides, all three CoCo stations 1 set up 
were with black-and-white TV sets! 

The Program 

I do not want to go to great length 
in explaining the listing, since it is very 
long due to the amount of data used. 
Instead, let's simply take a quick look 
at what the program involves. 

There are 40 graphics strings for 
drawing concepts and text. This makes 
20 sets of two opposite matches: up and 
down, left and right, etc. I chose not to 
create a graphics set of alphanumeric 
characters this time, so each string is 
self-contained with all the information 
it needs to draw a complete graphic. 
This may seem the long way of doing 



things, but it speeds up execution of the 
drawing. 

In a review section the user can run 
through each of the 20 sets on the screen 
alone. There is also a quiz that will 
highlight a graphic and ask the user to 
choose the correct opposite match by 
moving the flashing cursor with the 
space bar. All the choices are presented 
randomly, so the program is fairly 
unlimited in its variety. 

A third option is a quiz involving the 
words only. This allows a good test of 
whether the concepts have been related 
to the correct terms. 

Using the Program 

After the titlecard comes a menu of 
three choices. The first choice allows 
review of terms and graphics. Use the 
ENTER key to advance to each of the 
next graphics. At the end of the review, 
the program will rerun itself. 

Both quiz sections allow you to check 
your score by pressing the @ key. You 
may continue with either quiz by press- 
ing C to continue. 

In the graphics quiz, pressing the 
space bar moves the cursor around the 
screen. Press ENTER when you are on 
the correct match. If you are incorrect, 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 93 



the screen will flash and let you try 
again. If you are correct, the screen will 
show the correct pair and then move on 
to the next choice after you press the 
ENTER key. 

In the text-only quiz, you must select 



the correct response — 1, 2 or 3. You 
will get only one try on each term. The 
screen will indicate if you are correct or 
incorrect. 

As you can tell from the program's 
title, there will be an Opposites Vol. 2 



very soon. It will cover somewhat more 
difficult concepts than this first version. 
However, next month I'll have the game 
I have been promising you for months, 
and it will have a great deal to do with 
what we have covered this month. □ 





s 








1 


x 


...153 


575 ... 


...68 


v 


'« 




fm 


152 


610 


157 


145 .. 


...60 


655 


...109 


215 .. 


....36 


705 .. 


2 


325 .. 


....81 


750 .. . 


...201 


390 .. 


....65 


835 ... 


....73 


450 .. 


...180 


940 


....15 


490 .. 


...176 


END . . 


...213 


530 


140 







The listing: 0P05 1 TE1 



REM* ************************** 
REM* OPPOSITE CONCEPTS VOL.1 * 
REM* COPYRIGHT (C) 1988 
BY FRED B. SCERBO 
60 HARDING AVENUE 
NORTH ADAMS, MA 01247 



REM* 
REM* 
REM* 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 

6 

7 REM*************************** 

10 CLEAR3000 

15 CLS0:PRINTSTRING$(3 2,18 8) ;STR 

ING$(32,156) ; :FORI=lTO 256 :READ 

A:PRINTCHR$(A+128) ; : NEXT 
2)3 PRINTSTRING$(32,195) ;STRING$( 
32,179) ; 

25 PRINT? 4 2 2," BY FRED B. SCERBO 
"; :PRINT@454," COPYRIGHT (C) 1 
988 " ; 

30 DATA126, 124, 124, 125, 117, 124,1 
24,122,126,124,125,117,124,124,1 
25,117,124,124,124,116,12 6,117,1 
24,126,125,117,124,124,117,124,1 
24,124 

35 DATA122, , ,117,117,115,115,122 
,123,115,119,117, , ,117,117,115,1 
15,115, ,122, , ,122, ,117,115,114,1 
17,115,115,115 

40 DATA122, , ,117,117, ,, ,122, , ,11 
7, ,,117, ,,,117, ,122, ,,122, ,117,, 
,,,,117 

45 DATA124,124,124,124,116, , ,32, 
120, , ,116,124,12 4,124,116,124,12 
4,124,116,124, ,116,124, ,116,124, 
124,116,124,124,124 
50 DATA46,44,44,45,37, , ,32,42, , , 
37,44,44,45,3 6,44,44,45,3 6,46, ,3 
6,46,32,37,44,44,3 6,44,44,45 
55 DATA42, , ,37,37,35,35,34,43,35 

,35, 37,,, 37, 33, 35, 35, 39,, 42,,, 42 

, ,37,35,34,33,35,35,39 

60 DATA42, , ,37,37, , ,42,42, ,37,37 

,,,37, 37, 32, ,,,42, 33, 32, 42, 33, 37 

i i i 3 ' i i i 



65 DATA44,44,44,44,36,44,44,40,4 

36,44 
,44,44 



4,44,44 



36,44,44,44, 
36,44,36,44,44,44,36 
,44,44 



44,44, 
36,44 



70 

$ 

75 
20 
(4 

80 



X$=INKEY$ : IFX$OCHR$ ( 13 ) THEN7 



DIM P$(20,2),A$(6) ,B$(20),C$( 

,A(20),N(20),B(4),C(4),D(4),E 

,F(4) ,AO(20) 

FORI=lT03:READ C (I) , D (I) ,E (I) 
,F(I) :NEXT:FORI=lT06:READA$(I) :N 
EXT : FORI=1TO20 : READP$ ( I , 1) , B$ ( I ) 
,P$(I,2) ,C$(I) :NEXT 
85 COLOR1,0:P$(8,2)=P$(8,1) :P$(8 
, 1) =P$ (8 , 1) +"BU28BR4F6NU16NE6U2N 
H4NE4BD3 6BL6NR10D4NR10D6BR18NU10 
BR8U10R10D4L10R4F6BR6R10U6L10U4R 
10BR6R6ND10R6" 

90 P$(8,2)=P$(8,2)+"BU24BR74F6NU 
16NE6U2NH4NE4BD42BL74NU10R8BR6U6 
NR10U4R10D10BR6R10U6L10U4R10BR6R 
6ND10R6" 

95 CLS:PRINTSTRING$(3 2,"=") ; : PRI 
NT@68, "OPPOSITE CONCEPTS VOL.l": 
PRINT@13 4,"A) REVIEW ALL TERMS": 
PRINT§198,"B) QUIZ GRAPHICS" : PRI 
NT@262,"C) QUIZ TERMS ONLY" 
100 PRINTQ324, "<«SELECT YOUR CH 
OICE>»" 

105 PRINT :PRINTSTRING$ (32,"=") ; : 
PRINT@420, "DEDICATED TO THE STUD 
ENTS":PRINTTAB(8)"OF JOHNSON SCH 
OOL" 

110 X$=INKEY$ :X=RND (-TIMER) :IFX$ 
= ,, A"THEN3 65ELSEIFX$="B"THEN115EL 
SEIFX$="C"THEN795ELSE110 
115 CLS0:PMODE0,1:PCLS1 

LINE(0,0)-(254,170) , PRESET, B 
LINE (6, 4) -(122,82) , PRESET, BF 
LINE(128,4)-(248,82) , PRESET, 



120 

125 

130 

B 

135 



LINE (6, 8 6) -(12 2, 164) , PRESET, 



B 

140 LINE(128,86)-(248,164) , PRESE 

T,B 

145 DRAW"BM26,188C0NU10R10NU10BR 

6R10U6L10U4R10BR6NR10D4NR10D6R10 

BR12BU6NE4D2F4BR6R10U6L10U4R10BR 

6ND10R10D4NL10BR6NR10D6U10R10D10 

BR6NR10U10R10BR6NR10D4NR10D6R10B 

R10U10NL4R10D4NL10D6NL14BR6U10R1 

0D4NL10D6BR6U10R10D4L10R4F6BR6E4 

U2H4" 

150 DATA130,6,246,80,6,86,120,16 



94 



THE RAINBOW August 1 988 



2,130,86,246,162 

155 PAINT(2,2) ,0, : PC0PY1T03 

16j3 PM0DEp,4:PCLSl 

165 LINE(p, 0)-(254, 170) , PRESET, B 

F 

170 LINE (8, 6) -(120, 80) ,PSET,BF 

175 PCOPY4TO2:PMODE0,1:SCREEN1,1 

180 DATA"BM2 , 8C1" , "BM130 , 8C0" , "B 

M2 , 90C0" , "BM130 , 90C0" , "BM2 , 48C0" 

,"BM130,48C0" 

185 FORI=1TO20 

190 A(I)=RND(20) :IFN(A(I) )=1THEN 

190 

195 N(A(I) )=1:NEXTI:FORY=1TO20:C 

OLOR1,0 

200 FORI=2T04 

205 B(I)=RND(3)+1:IFN(B(I) )=0THE 

N205 

210 N(B(I) )=0:NEXTI:FORI=1TO4:N( 

I) =1: NEXT 

215 B=RND(20) : IFB=A( (Y) ) THEN215 

220 C=RND(20) :IFC=B OR C=A((Y))T 

HEN220 

225 DRAW A$(l) :DRAWP$(A(Y) ,1) 

230 DRAW A$(B(2)) :DRAWP$(B,2) 

235 DRAW A$(B(3) ) :DRAWP$(C,2) 

240 DRAW A$(B(4) ) :DRAWP$(A(Y) ,2) 

245 COLOR1,0 

250 Z=0 



255 PMODE0,4 

260 DRAW A$(1)+"C0":DRAWP$(A(Y) , 

1) 

265 DRAW A$(B(2) )+"Cl":DRAWP$(B, 

2) 

270 DRAW A$(B(3))+"C1":DRAWP$(C, 

2) 

275 DRAW A$(B(4) )+"Cl":DRAWP$(A( 
Y),2) 

2 80 PMODE0,1:SCREEN1,1 

285 LINE(8, 6) -(120,80) ,PSET,B 

290 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=" "THEN300ELS 

EIFX$="@"THEN965 

295 COLOR1,0:LINE(8,6)-(120,80) , 

PRESET,B:GOT02 85 

300 Z=Z+1:IFZ=4THENZ=1 

305 COLOR1,0:LINE(C(Z) ,D(Z) ) -(E( 

Z) ,F(Z) ) ,PSET,B 

310 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=" "THEN300ELS 

EIFX$=CHR$(13)THEN3 20ELSEIFX$="@ 

"THEN9 65 

315 COLOR1,0:LINE(C(Z) ,D(Z) ) -(E( 

Z) ,F(Z) ) , PRESET, B:GOTO305 

320 IFZ+1=B(4)THEN330 

325 NW=NW+1:FORK=1TO5:PMODE,0,4:S 

CREEN1 , 1 : SOUND10 , 3 : PMODE0 , 1 : SCRE 

EN1 , 1 : SOUND1 , 3 : NEXTK: GOTO305 

3 30 NC=NC+1 : PMODE0 , 4 : PCLS 1 : LINE ( 
0,40) -(256,126) , PRESET, B: LINE (6, 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 95 



44) -(124, 122) , PRESET, B: LINE (130, 

44) -(248, 122) , PRESET, B: PAINT (2 , 4 

2)/0,j3 

335 DRAW A$(5) :DRAWP$(A(Y) ,1) 

340 DRAW A$(6) :DRAWP$(A(Y) ,2) 

345 SCREEN1,1 

350 X$=INKEY$:IFX$<>CHR$(13)THEN 

3 50 

3 55 PMODE0,1 

3 60 PC0PY3T01:SCREEN1, 1:PC0PY2T0 

4:NEXTY:GOT09 65 

365 PMODE0 , 2 : PCLS 1 : SCREEN1 , 1 : LIN 

E (0,40) -(256,126) , PRESET, B: LINE ( 

6, 44) -(124, 122) , PRESET, B: LINE (13 

0,44) -(248, 122) , PRESET, B: PAINT (2 

42) 
370 FORI=1TO20 : DRAW A$(5):DRAWP$ 

(1,1) 

375 DRAW A$(6) :DRAWP$(I,2) 

380 X$=INKEY$:IFX$OCHR$(13)THEN 

380 

385 COLOR1,0:LINE(8,46)-(122,120 

) ,PSET,BF:LINE(132,46)-(246,120) 

,PSET,BF:NEXTI 

3 90 RUN 

3 95 DATA"BR60BD4F20L10D2 4L20U2 4L 

10E20BD52BL14D10R10U10BR8ND10R10 

D6L10" 

400 DATA UP 

405 DATA M BR60BD4L10D24L10F20E20L 

10U24L10BD52BL32R4ND10R10D10L14B 

R20U10R10D10NL10BR6NU10R6NU8R6NU 

10BR6U10F10U10" 

410 DATA DOWN 

415 DATA"BR16BD20R80M-4,+20L36M- 

4,-18NL36BR12BU4E4UH4UE4BR10G4DF 

4DG4BR10E4UH4UE4BD50BL50D10U6R10 

U4D10BR8U10R10D10NL10BR12U10L6R1 

2" 

420 DATA HOT 

425 DATA"BR60BD20L4ND6L6ND2L4ND4 

L2M+16,+3 2M+16,-3 2L16R4ND8R6ND4R 

6L2U4H2U2H2L2H2L12G2L2G2D2G2D4BD 

3 6BL10L10D10R10BR8U10R10D10NL10B 
R8NU10R10BR6R14U10L14R4D10" 

4 30 DATA COLD 

435 DATA"BR10BD14R26F4D16G4L22NU 

2 4D24L4R2 6E4U16H4BR12U2 4NL4NR4D4 

8NL4R4BR10H4U40E4R16F4D10BD10NL1 

6D20G4L14BR2 4R4U30R4U10R2U10E2U6 

RD6F2D10R2D10R4D30R4L2 2BR8BU2U24 

BR4D24" 

440 DATA BIG 

445 DATA M BR3 8BD56D8R4BR4U8BR4R2N 

D8R2BR4R2ND8R2BR4D8R4BR4NR4U4NR4 

U4NR4BU6BL6H4L4U2NR4D2L4NUND4L4U 

2L4D2R4NH6L2G4" 

450 DATA LITTLE 

455 DATA"BR24BD3 6E12G6F20R20E20F 

6H12BL14H2G4L4H4G2BU10BL4NU4L2U6 

E4R2BR2 6L2G4D6L2U4BD56BL4 6U10D4R 



10U4D10BR6U10NR10D4R10U4D10BR6U1 

0R10D4L10D6BR16U10R10D4L10BR18BD 

6U6NH4NE4" 

4 60 DATA HAPPY 

4 65 DATA"BR3 4BD50H12F6E12R3 6F12G 

6E12BU16BL2 8H2G4L4H4G2BU10BL4NU4 

L2U6E4R2BR2 6L2G4D6L2U4BD58BL3 4R1 

0U6L10U4R10BR6NR10D4NR10D6BR10NU 

10BR6R4U10L4R14D10L10" 

470 DATA SAD 

475 DATA"BR20BD22D20M+30,+10NU20 

R50U20NL50M-30 , -10ND8L50M+30 , +10 

M-30 , -10E20R50G20L10NE20L10NE20L 

10NE20L10NE20BD34BR6NR10D10R10NU 

10BR6U10R6D4L6D6BR12NR6U6NR6U4R6 

BR6ND10F10U10" 

480 DATA OPEN 

485 DATA"BR12BD16D20M+30,+10NU20 

R60U20NL60M-30 , -10L60M+30 , +10R12 

M-30 , -10R12M+30 , +10R12M-30 , -10R1 

2M+30 , +10BD40BL78NR10U10R10BD10B 

R6NU10R8BR6U10R10D10NL10BR6R10U6 

L10U4R10BR6NR6D4NR6D6R6BR6R4NU10 

R10U10L14" 

490 DATA CLOSED 

495 DATA"BR90BD52U2E8U3 2H4L4G2D1 

0F2R4E4BL12U12H4L4G4D12F4R4E4BL1 

2U12H4L4G4D12F4R4E4BL12U12H4L4G4 

D12F4R4E4BL12D2G4L4M-10 , -6M-10 , - 

2L2G4D4M+8 , +4D2M+20 , +12F10M+6 , +2 

F2BE10H10M-8 , -3BD3 6BL20NU10R10BR 

6NR8U6NR8U4R8BR6NR10D4NR10D6BR22 

U10L6R12" 

500 DATA LEFT 

505 DATA"BR28BD52U2H8U3 2E4R4F2D1 

0G2L4H4BR12U12E4R4F4D12G4L4H4BR1 

2U12E4R4F4D12G4L4H4BR12U12E4R4F4 

D12G4L4H4BR12D2F4R4M+10,-6M+10,- 

2R2F4D4M-8,+4D2M-20,+12G14G2BH10 

E10M+8 , -3BD24BL40ND10R10D4L10R4F 

6BR6NU10BR6U10NR10D10R10U6NL4BR6 

NU4ND6R10U4D10BR10U10L6R1 

510 DATA RIGHT 

515 DATA"BR30BD6D3 4R4E2U10R12F4R 

12E4R12F4D12R10U20H8L18H4L4U8R12 

U4L28D4R12D8L4G4L12U8H2L4BM+60,+ 

40F4D4G2L4H2U4E4BL54BD10D10R6NU8 

R6NU10BR6NR8U6NR8U4R8BR6R6ND10R6 
ii 

520 DATA WET 

525 DATA"BR30BD6D3 4R4E2U10R12F4R 

12E4R12F4D12R10U20H8L18H4L4U8R12 

U4L2 8D4R12D8L4G4L12U8H2L4BD50BR8 

R4ND10R10D10NL14BR6U10R10D4L10R4 

F6BR10U6NH4E4" 

530 DATA DRY 

535 DATA"BR10BD40R102L8E10M-8,+4 

L6U4H2L2G4R4D4F4L20E10M-8 , +4L6U4 

H2L2G4R4D4F4L20E10M-8 , +4L6U4H2L2 

G4R4D4F4L20E20M-16,+8L12U8H4L4G8 

R8BE4NLBG4D8F8" 



96 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



540 DATA FIRST 

545 DATA BR2 

550 DATA LAST 

555 DATA"BR56BD26M+18,+5F8LH2L2G 

2H2L2G2H2L2G2H2L2G3D11GLNHREU11H 

3L2G2H2L2G2H2L2G2H2L2G2E8M+18 , -5 

BU10R10E4NH4R6E4U2H4L10G4L12NG4H 

6L8G4D6F4R6F4R4E2R2R6R4BR16NE6NR 

20NF6BD50BL50U10R10D10NL10BR6BU4 

NU6F4E4U6BR6NR10D4NR10D6R10BR6U1 

0R8D4L6F6" 

560 DATA OVER 

565 DATA"BR56BD2M+18,+5F8LH2L2G2 

H2L2G2H2L2G2H2L2G3D9GLNHREU9H3L2 

G2H2L2G2H2L2G2H2L2G2E8M+18 , -5BD3 

6NE6NH6NG6NF6BR16NE6NF6R22BD28BL 

74NU10R10NU10BR6U10F10NU10BR6R4U 

10L4R14D10NL10BR6NR10U6NR10U4R10 

BR6ND10R8D4L8R2F6" 

570 DATA UNDER 

575 DATA"BR16BD20E2NR80R16E8R6NG 

4R6NG4R6NG4R6NG4R6NG4R6NG4NG4R6N 

G4R6NG4R6NG4R6NG4F8D2G8NH4L6NH4L 

6NH4L6NH4L6NH4L6NH4L6NH4L6NH4L6N 

H4L6NH4L6H8L16NR80BD4 6BR10NU10R8 

BR6NU10BR6U10R10BD4NL4D6NL10BR6U 

6NU4R10U4D10BR12U10L6R12 11 

580 DATA LIGHT 

585 DATA"BR26BD46R68M-14,-30L10U 

6H4L12G4D6L10M-14,+30BR18BU8U12B 

R6NR6D12R6NU12BR6U12R6D12NL6BR4N 

U6BR4NU6U4R4D4L4BU22BL14L4U4R4D4 

BD50BL3 6U10D4R10U4D10BR6NR10U6NR 

10U4R10BR6ND10R10D4NL10D6BR6BU4N 

U6F4E4U6BR6F4ND6E4" 

590 DATA HEAVY 

595 DATA"BR60BD4 8R8E4U10R4U6L4U6 

H4L16G4D6L4D6R4D10F4R8BU6NE4NH4B 

U8NLNR2BU6BL4NR2BR6R2BU16R6E2H2L 

20G2F2R12BD20BL20H16D16F16R3 6E16 

U16G16BD34BL50U10R10BD4NL4D6NL10 

BR6U10R10D10NL10BR6U10R10D10NL10 

BR6R4NR10U10L4R14D10" 

600 DATA GOOD 

605 DATA"BR60BD48R8E4U10R4U6L4U6 

H4L16G4D6L4D6R4D10F4R8BU10NG4NF4 

BU4NLNR2BU6BL4NR2BR6R2BU12E6D8L2 

0U8F6BL20D6G4L6NU10ND20L6H4U6BR7 

8NG4NF4D20G10BD20BL48U10R10D4NL1 

0D6NL10BR6U6NR10U4R10D10BR6R4NR1 

0U10L4R14D10" 

610 DATA BAD 

615 DATA"BR20BD16D30NR56U30R6U16 

R10F4G4L10D8R10D6R10D6R10D6R10D6 

R10D6R2 6BU42BL30L20NE4NF4BD52BL2 

0D10U6R10U4D10BR8NU10BR8NR10U10R 

10BD4NL4D6BR6U10D4R10U4D10" 

620 DATA HIGH 

625 DATA"BR20BD16D30NR56U30R16D6 

R10D6R10D6R10D6R10D6R2 6L16U16R10 

F4G4L10D8BU2 6BR6NU16NH4NE4BD4 6BL 



50NU10R8BR6U10R10D10NL10BR6NU10R 

6NU8R6U10" 

630 DATA LOW 

63 5 DATA"BR3 2BD2 6NR50D2NR50D2R50 

D6L2D4R14U4L2U12H2U4H2U2H4L6D2F2 

D2F2D8BL50BD30D4ND6R10D6U10BR6ND 

10R10D4NL10D6BR6U10R10D4L10R4F6B 

R6R4NU10R10U10L14 " 

640 DATA HARD 

645 DATA"BR3 6BD18H8U8R8F8E4R20F4 

E8R8D8G8D10G4D2G8L2G4L8H4L2H8U2H 

4U10BR10BD4R4NU2ND2NR4NE2NH2BR12 

R4NU2ND2NR4NE2NH2BG8BD4NE4NH4D6N 

F4NG4U6BR6NR20BL12NL20BR6D4BF4NF 

10BH4BG4G10BL14BD14R10U6L10U4R10 

BR6ND10R10D10NL10BR6U6NR10U4R10B 

R6R6ND10R6" 

650 DATA SOFT 

655 DATA"BR30BD2D10NR30D4NR30L2D 

4L2D4L2D4L2D12NR88D6R8NU6R8NU6R8 

NU6R8NU6R8NU6R8NU6R8NU6R8NU6R8NU 

6R8NU6R8U6U4H4M-10,-4L4ND10M-30, 

-10NU16NE6D4M+30 , +10BL58ND8NH8BD 

22BR16ND10R10D10NL10BR6U10F10U10 
ii 

660 DATA ON 

665 DATA"BR2 6BD2D14L2D4L2D4L2D4L 

2D12F6R20E2R30F2R14E2F2R10E2U6H2 

L10H2L8M-30 , -10H4U18BL18BD20G4D4 

F4BD20D10R10U10NL10BR6NR10D4NR10 

D6BR16U6NR10U4R10" 

670 DATA OFF 

675 DATA"BR20BD6ND20R80G10NL50M+ 

10 , +30G4L62H4M+10 , -30H4L8D14L6BD 

30BR16NR10D4NR10D6BR16NU10R10NU1 

0BR6NU10R8BR4NU10R8 " 

680 DATA FULL 

685 DATA"BR20BD6ND20R80G10M+10,+ 

30G4L62H4M+10 , -30H4L8D14L6BD30NR 

10D4NR10D6R10BR6U10R6ND6R6D10BR6 

U10R10D4NL10BR6BU4R6ND10R6BR6F4N 

D6E4" 

690 DATA EMPTY 

695 DATA"BR50BD14ND20R12D10NL12N 

D10BR8R6NU6ND6R6BR10U18L60D3 6R60 

U18BD30BL60NL4ND10R10D4NL10D6NL1 

4BR6NR10U6NR10U4R10BR6BD10R10U6L 



PREMIUM COC03 512K UPGRADE 

•Made in USA by J&R Electronics 'Memory chips socketed, user replaceable 

•Rugged, long life construction «Top mounted Memory lor cooling 

•Heavy duty POWER and GROUND planes lo minimize memory errors due lo noise 
•High performance design, permits use or less expensive 150ns memory chips 
•We supply Prime memory chips, not inferior pulls or fallouts' 
•Includes RAMOISK, Spooler and Memory Test software on disk with 28 page User's 
Manual (We set the standard (or 512K support software. We believe our sollware 
Is uniquely powerful, as opposed to tnose "Me, too' companies that charge extra 
for software with much less power)) 

SPECIAL PRICES 

81010-29.95 JramR bare board plus connectors and software 

S 1014-39.95 JramR assembled & tested 0K (No memory chips) and software 

"CALL (for latest price of A1014 with memory chips and other products) 

To place an order, write to: J&R Electronics, P.O. Box 2572, Columbia, MD 21045, 

OR call (301) 987-9067-Jesse or (301) 788-0861 -Ray 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 97 



10U4R10BR6R6ND10R6" 

700 DATA BEST 

705 DATA"BR50BD14ND20R12BD10NL12 

BR8R12BR10U18L60D3 6R60U18BD30BL7 

0D10R6NU8R6U10BR6ND10R10D10NL10B 

R6U10R10D4L10R4F6BR6R10U6L10U4R1 

0BR6R6ND10R6" 

710 DATA WORST 

715 DATA"BR30BD4ND6R60D6NL60D4L6 

0NU4G4D28F4R60E4U28H4BL20BD3 2H4L 

4U2NR4D2L4NUND4L4U2L4D2R4NH6L2G4 

BD10BL2 6ND10BR6ND10F10U10BR6BD10 

R10U6L10U4R10BR6ND10BR6R4ND10R10 

D10NL14BR6NR10U6NR10U4R10" 

72J3 DATA INSIDE 

725 DATA"BR12BD4ND6R60D6NL60D4L6 

0NU4G4D2 8F4R60E4U28H4BR3 6BD3 2H4L 

4U2NR4D2L4NUND4L4U2L4D2R4NH6L2G4 

BD10BL7 6ND10R10D10NL10BR6NU10R10 

U10BR6R6ND10R6BR6BD10R10U6L10U4R 

10BR6ND10BR6R4ND10R10D10NL14BR6N 

R8U6NR8U4R8" 

7 3 DATA OUTSIDE 

735 DATA"BR16BD30NR30U2NR30U2R18 

BR4R2BR4R2BL30U2R90G12M-48,+4U10 

BD3 6BL2 2R10U6L10U4R10BR6D10U6R10 

U4D10BR6U10R10D4NL10D6BR6U10R10D 

4L10R4F6BR6U10R10D4L10" 

740 DATA SHARP 

745 DATA"BR16BD30NR40H2U4E2R40ND 

8R48F2D2G2L2G2L2G2L3 6H2BD3 6BL2 8R 

4NU10R10U10NL14BR6D10R10U10BR6D1 

0R8BR6NU10R8" 

750 DATA DULL 

755 DATA"BR2 2BD6R30D6F4R8E4U6R30 

D16L8NU16L8D2 6L2 2NU30L2 2U2 6L8NU1 

6L8U16BD60NR10U10R10BR6D10R8BR6N 

R10U6NR10U4R10BR6ND10R10D4NL10D6 

BR6U10F10U10" 

7 60 DATA CLEAN 

765 DATA"BR2 2BD6R30D6F4R8E4U6R30 

D16L8NU16L8D2 6L8NU12L4NU20L2NU8L 

4NU6L4NU30L8NU12L4NU20L2NU8L4NU6 

L2NU18L2U2 6L8NU16L8U16BD50R4ND10 

R10D10NL14BR8NU10BR8U10R10D4L10R 

4F6BR6BU10R6ND10R6BR6F4ND6E4" 

770 DATA DIRTY 

775 DATA"BR20BD30NR8 4BD3 6BL6R10U 

6L10U4R10BR6ND10R6ND8R6D10BR6U10 

R10D10NL10BR6U10R10D10NL10BR6BU1 

0R6ND10R6BR6D10U6R10U4D10 " 

7 80 DATA SMOOTH 

785 DATA"BR14BD30BRE4R4F4R4E4R4F 

4R4E4R4F4R4E4R4F4R4E4R4F4R4E4R4F 

4BL84BD3 6U10R10D4L10R4F6BR6U10R1 

0D10NL10BR6NU10R10NU10BR6U10R10B 

D4NL4D6NL10BR6U10D4R10U4D10" 

790 DATA ROUGH 

795 CLS:V=1 

800 FORI=1TO20 



805 AO(I)=RND(20) 

810 IF N(AO(I))=l THEN 805 

815 N(AO(I) )=1:NEXTI 

8 20 FOR P=1TO20 

825 CLS 

830 PRINT§68,"WHAT IS THE OPPOSI 

TE OF" 

835 PRINT@132,C$(AO(P) )+" ?" 

840 FOR Q=1T02 

845 C(Q)=RND(20) : IF C(Q)=AO(P) T 

HEN845 

850 FOR K=Q-1 TO 0STEP-1:IF C(K) 

=C(Q) THEN845 

855 NEXTK 

860 NEXTQ:C(3)=AO(P) 

865 FOR E=1T03 

870 F(E)=RND(3) 

875 FOR K=E-1 TO STEP-1:IF F(K 

)=F(E) THEN870 

880 NEXTK: NEXTE 

88 5 PRINT 

890 PRINTTAB(8) "l-"+B$ (C (F (1) ) ) 

PRINT 

895 PRINTTAB(8) "2-"+B$ (C(F (2 ) ) ) 

PRINT 

900 PRINTTAB(8) "3-"+B$ (C (F (3 ) ) ) 

PRINT 

905 G$=INKEY$:IFG$="@"THEN965 

910 IF G$=""THEN905 

915 G=VAL(G$) 

920 IF G<1 THEN 905 

925 IF G>5 THEN 905 

930 IF C(F(G) )<>AO(P) THEN945 

93 5 PRINT: PRINT" RIGHT! THE ANS 

WER IS: "+B$(AO(P)) 

940 NC=NC+l:GOT0955 

945 PRINT: PRINT" SORRY! THE AN 

SWER IS: "+B$(AO(P) ) 

950 NW=NW+1 

955 X$=INKEY$:IFX$<>CHR$(13)THEN 

955 

960 NEXT P 

965 CLS: PRINT (3101, "YOU TRIED"NC+ 

NW"TIMES &" : PRINT@165 , "ANSWERED" 

NC'CORRECTLY" 

970 PRINTQ2 29, "WHILE DOING"NW"WR 

ONG . " 

975 NQ=NC+NW:IF NQ=0THEN NQ=1 

980 MS=INT(NC/NQ*100) 

985 PRINT® 2 9 3, "YOUR SCORE IS"MS" 



990 PRINT@357, "ANOTHER TRY (Y/N/ 

c) ?"; 

995 X$=INKEY$:IFX$="Y"THEN RUN 

1000 IFX$="N"THENCLS:END 

1005 IFX$="C"THEN1015 

1010 GOT0995 

1015 IFV=1THEN825 

1020 IFV=0THEN2 80 



/R\ 



98 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Now from NRI comes the first course of its kind . . . anywhere! 



Learn to use, program, and service today's 

digital electronic music equipment as you 

^ build your own computer-controlled 

music center 




Now NRI puts 
you at the heart of 
the most exciting application 
of digital technology to date! With 
NRI's new at-home training in Electronic 
Music Technology, you get hands-on 
experience with the equipment that's 
revolutionizing the music industry — Atari 
ST Series computer with built-in MIDI 
ports, Casio CZ101 digital synthesizer with 
advanced MIDI capabilities, and ingenious 
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to train with and keep. 

This year, over $1.5 billion worth of digital elec- 
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Something called MIDI (Musical Instrument 
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. . . and opened up a whole new world of opportunity 
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Now NRI's breakthrough Electronic Music 
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Dynamic New Technology Opens Up New 
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The opportunities are unlimited for the person 
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Only NRI Gives You an Atari ST Computer, 
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The Atari ST Series computer included in your 
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The Casio CZ101 digital synthesizer, also included 
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which stores up to 32 voices internally— "commu- 
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bringing life to virtually any sound you can imagine. 

Plus, you get ingeniously designed MIDI software 
that opens up amazing new creative 
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to take advantage of today's opportunities 
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WiUi your experienced NRI instructor always 
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Send Today for Your FREE Catalog 

For all the details about NRI's innovative new train- 
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If the coupon is missing, write to NRI School of 
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Center, 3939 Wisconsin Avenue, Washington, DC 

2(1016. 

■-- — School of Electronics - 



actually build your own 4-input 
audio mixer/amplifier. . . and you 
test the electronic circuits at the 
core of today's new-tech equipment J 
with the hand-held digital multi- 
meter included in your course. 

No previous experience 
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or music! 

No matter what your background, 



McGraw-Hill Continuing Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Avenue - . •— 
Washington. DC 20016 psffi 



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□ check for details 



Sf CHECK ONE FREE CATALOG ONLY 

□ Electronic Music Technology □ Computers and Microprocessors 

□ TVfViuWAuuh! Servicing □ Basic Electronics 



ABC 



Zip 



NRI gives you the skills you need ' ;:_^'^J* '^^|^^j^'^^ 



F e ature 



16K Disk 




A routine to convert a machine 
language program into BASIC 




Mb DATA 

By Stephen Miller 



|T^U71 any times I gel programs that 

kkl^fl tr ^' ' n va ' n l0 ' oac * a macmne 
L^^_^LJ language subroutine pro- 
gram, or my favorite picture needs two 
or three disks in order to dump it to the 
printer. 

1 worked out a routine to take an M L 
program in memory and convert it into 
basic DATA lines that can be added to 
a program and keep the entire kit 
together. I was doing some experiments 
with the saving of ASCII files when it 
became apparent that this mixing of 
apples and oranges could in fact be 
done. 

Before loading the program, type in 
and enter CLEAR size and address for the 
ML program. Then load ML- Data and 
run it. The opening prompts will again 
ask you for the CLEAR parameters and 
the filename for the M L subroutine you 
want to transfer. Remember to use &H 
for the address. You will also be asked 
for the "line number to return to." After 
the BASIC program created by ML- Data 
pokes in its ML code, it has to know 
where to go in your BASIC program. 
Then the program will load the ML 
package and ask you for the start and 
end addresses for the ML program. The 



Stephen Miller is an electronics hobby- 
ist who enjoys hardware-hacking on his 
Co Co 2 and 3. He was one of the first 
Co Co 3 owners in Canada. 



program will open a data file on disk, 
then send out to the disk the READ and 
POKE information to reconstruct your 
ML routine later. Sit back and watch 
the fun. 

The program will look in memory at 
the ML program and assign the HEX 
notation found to AS. Once 70 bytes 
have been accumulated, AS will be 
dumped to the disk and reset, and the 
program will continue to build the next 
DATA line number. All along, you will be 
able to view the complete line number 
and present addresses flashing by. Once 
it reaches the end address, the program 
will close the file and indicate that the 
job is done. •> 

Now load in your BASIC program 
where you want the ML-Data package 
to go. Make sure you have room above 
Line 10000. Now enter MERGE"DATA- 
FILE". This program will then create a 
new Line to clear the memory for the 
ML routine. When this is done, call up 
a list. When you're ready to use your 
ML package, use the EXEC&HArjrjrjr 
command where needed. You could also 
use the DEFU5R command if informa- 
tion is needed between BASIC and ML. 

A simple little routine to save a lot of 
time, fingers, eyes and late hours! 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this program may be directed to the 
author at P. O. Box 5000, Penetangui- 
shene. Ontario, Canada L0K 1P0. 
Please enclose an SASE when request- 
ing a reply.) □ 



100 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



The listing: ML-DATfl 

1 ****************************** 

2 '* STEPHEN MILLER * 

3 •* P.O.BOX 5^)3J3 * 

4 '* PENETANGUISHENE , ONTARIO * 

5 '* CANADA L0K 1PJ3 * 

6 • ***************************** 

10 CLEAR700 

20 CLS: PRINT" THIS PROGRAM WILL 
TAKE A M/L PROGRAM IN MEMORY, 
AND CREATE A BASIC 'DATA' FILE F 
OR A LOADER ROUTINE YOU CAN ADD 

INTO A BASICPROGRAM. THE DATA 
FILE WILL USELINE '0',AND LINES 
10000 AND UP. 

30 INPUT"HOW MUCH STRING SPACE T 
CLEAR ";CL:PRINT"USE HEX VALUE 
S AND USE 'fiH'": INPUT "CLEAR AT W 
HAT ADDRESS " ;CL$ : INPUT "WHAT LIN 
E NUMBER TO RETURN TO ";LN 
40 INPUT"enter M/L FILENAME: ";N 
$:LOADMN$ 

50 PRINT: INPUT "enter START ADDRE 
SS OF M/L IN MEMORY: ";ST:PRIN 
T:INPUT"enter ENDING ADDRESS OF 
M/L IN MEMORY: ";EN 
60 Y=10001 



70 OPEN"0 ,, ,#1,"DATAFILE.BAS" 

80 CLS:A$="0 CLEAR"+STR$(CL)+"," 

+CL$+" : GOTO10000" : PRINTA$ : PRINT# 

1,A$:A$=" 10000 FORADD=&H"+HEX$(S 

T) +" TO&H"+HEX$ (EN) +" : READINF$ : P 

OKEADD,VAL("+CHR$(34)+"&H"+CHR$( 

34)+"+INF$) :NEXT:GOTO"+STR$(LN) : 

PRINTA$ : PRINT # 1 , A$ 

90 A$="DATA " 

100 FORT=ST TOEN:Z=Z+l:IFZ=>70TH 

ENGOSUB130 

110 D$=HEX$(PEEK(T) ) :A$=A$+D$+", 

":NEXT:GOSUB130 

120 CLOSE: PRINT© 3 9 2," finished: & 

H"HEX$(T-1) :END 

130 A$=LEFT$(A$,LEN(A$)-1) :A$=ST 

R$ ( Y) +" "+A$ : A$=RIGHT$ (A$ , LEN (A$ 

)-l) :Y=Y+1 

140 CLS:PRINT@32,A$:PRINT@392,"a 

ddress: &H"HEX$(T) 

150 PRINT#1,A$ 

160 Z=0:A$="DATA ": RETURN 



/R\ 



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August 1988 



THE RAINBOW 



101 



F e atur e 



32KECB | „«-»., 




Create great games and Simulations 
in CoCo's own language 




The Little 
Graphics Library 



By Kevin Dowd 




There's nothing like the speed of 
machine language graphics! In 
this article I'll show you building 
blocks and a method for creating fast, 
high-quality assembly language games 
and Simulations. 

Think of the screen as a stage. Wc will 

Kevin Dowd is a technical support 
analyst with Multiflow Computer, Inc. 
He bought his first Color Computer in 
1982 and hasn't gone to bed on time 
since. 

























































B 

//yyy/A'. 




















fH 


i 


fill 
MM 




















x' 




























































Figur 


e I: Deir 


onstrati 


on of Lit 


tic Grap 


hies Lan 


guage 







decide who the players will be, perhaps 
meteors and spaceships or mice in a 
maze. We'll decide how they should 
interact (i.e. what happens if a mouse 
encounters a spaceship). In general, 
however, we'll keep loose control, 
allowing our players to move freely 
within the restrictions we choose. We 
could even play, too. The important 
thing is that we are going to let the 
players drive the program, rather than 
let the program drive the players. 

You'll need an assembler and famil- 
iarity with the 6809 assembly language, 
the machine language of your Color 
Computer. We'll explore a number of 
programs and incrementally build on a 
library of subroutines. I will tell you 
about the new routines as we use them, 
so you needn't have them all keyed in 
to get started. 

To write any graphics game we'll need 
to be able to move and monitor objects 
on the screen. Let's start at the very 
beginning with a method for drawing a 
picture, independent of giving it move- 
ment. 

Statics 

Let me introduce something I call 
The Little Graphics Language (LGL). 
Picture the screen as a piece of graph 
paper: imagine that you are going to 
draw something in a pattern of neigh- 
boring squares, one at a time. In each 
step you are allowed to color in the 
square where you are and/or move to 
another, vertically, horizontally or 
diagonally. This completely describes 
the procedure for programming with 



102 THE RAINBOW August 1£ 



LGL. The drawing in Figure 1 and the 
following example show how to con- 
struct a blue plus sign three pixels wide 
and three pixels high: 

BLUEUP write a blue pixel, move 

cursor up 
BLUEUP write a blue pixel, move 

cursor up 
BLUEDL write a blue pixel, move 

down and left 
BLUERT write a blue pixel, move 

right 
RIGHT move right 
BLUE write a blue pixel 
DONE 

We drew three blue pixels vertically, 
moved down and to the left and drew 
another, and then moved right two 
pixels and drew a final blue pixel. Be 
sure to note that first we draw and then 
we move. 1 will be referring to pictures 
we have drawn with LGL as "shapes." 



upper left of the screen and progressing 
to the right until they wrap around on 
the next line. 



PR0G1 $6800 S6E71 


$6800 


PR0G2 $G800 SGE9D 


£6800 


PRDG3 SGB00 SGEA8 


SG800 


PR0G4 SG800 $?1A0 


£6800 


Table 1: Final Start, End and 
Execute addresses for PR0G1 
through PR0G4 when assembled 
with LIBRARY. 



Having described how it's con- 
structed, we can draw this shape on the 
screen; first, however, we have to 
choose where it will be drawn. Any 
screen location will suffice as long as it's 
between the first possible location 
(Pixel 0) and the last (Pixel 12287 for 
the graphics mode I've chosen). Pixels 
are numbered starting with at the 



"To write any 
graphics game 
well need to be 
able to move and 
monitor objects 
on the screen. " 



The program shown in Listing I is for 
drawing the plus sign. It uses the sub- 
routines VIDEO, VRAMCO, WRTSHP, 
NXTSET. At a minimum these routines 
must be included with PR0G1, along 
with the tables listed at the end of the 
library (Listing 5). First, enter and save 
the code for Listing 5. Use the filename 
LIBRARY. ASM. Then type in Listing 1, 
and merge in LIBRARY. ASM according 
to your assembler, assembling the pro- 
grams together. You will need to resave 
the binary file with the addresses shown 
in Table I. Each of the listings I through 
4 must be assembled with Listing 5 or 
parts of it, at least. You will need to 
leave out comments for Listing 4. 

With PRDG1 we make a major ac- 
complishment: drawing our first 
"static" picture, following these impor- 
tant steps: 

I) Pick a screen location and store it 
into SCRLOC (screen location), a varia- 



ble representing the number of the pixel 
where the shape will be drawn. 

2) Translate SCRLOC into actual video 
RAM coordinates with a call to 
VRAMCO. The CoCo allows you to re- 
serve any part of memory for use as 
video RAM, the memory containing the 
picture on the screen. I've chosen to 
locate our video RAM starting at Lo- 
cation 29696, so whenever we talk about 
Screen Location we are actually 
referring to Memory Location 29696. In 
fact, the first four pixels are packed into 
that first video RAM location. 

VRAMCO generates two values called 
VLOC and VBIT. VLOC describes the 
pixel's address in RAM; since there is 
more than one pixel per byte, VBIT is 
used to describe which of the four 
possible pixels to use. 

3) Put the address of PLSSGN into 
5TSH (start of shape). STSH is read in the 
next step. 

4) Call WRTSHP to draw the plus-sign 
on the screen. WRTSHP reads LGL in- 
structions starting from the address 
stored in STSH until it reaches the DONE 
instruction. 

5) Loop forever. Press the reset but- 
ton to return control of your CoCo. 

Dynamics 

We could move the plus sign the way 
a cartoonist does, by repeatedly draw- 
ing it farther and farther off in one 
direction. But in our case we had better 
erase the character from its old location, 
lest we produce a smear. To this end, 
PR0G1 can be modified to loop with a 
continously changing value of SCRLDC. 
To move right, add a value of one each 
iteration. To move up or down, add or 
subtract a whole line at a time — 128 
pixels. Perhaps we want a continuous 
diagonal movement. This quantity of 
movement is called a "vector", one of 











Draws a picture according lo 




Su 


ibroutine Si 


immary 




the LGL inlruelions at the 
memory address contained in 
STSH. The value of STSH is 
either set by hand or by a call 




VIDEO - 


INPUTS: none 


programmer. The outputs. 




lo 5HPHDR. The placement of 






MODIFIES: CC.A.X. 


VLOC and VBIT, give the video 




the shape on the screen is 






OUTPUTS: none 


RAM address and pixel 




determined by the values in 






For setting up video parame- 


number (0 lo 3) at that ad- 




VLOC and VBIT, 1 hese are 






ters, erasing the screen and the 


dress. These are never set by 




either sei by VRAMCO or ex- 






C-lisl. 


hand. 1 his routine must be 
ealled before adding a charac- 




tracted Irom the C-list by 

GETLOC. 




VRAMCO 


— INPUTS: SCRLOC 


ter to the C'-list or drawing a 










MODIFIES: CC,D 


static shape on the screen. 


NXTSET 


—used internally. Updates the 






OUTPUTS: VLOC, VBIT 






cursor position accord ing to 






Translates ;i screen location WRTSHP -INPUTS: STSH, VLOC, VBIT 




the LGL instructions. 






(pixel number) into actual 


MODIFIES: CC.D.Y, video 










video RAM coordinates. 


RAM, TLOC, TBIT 


ADDCHL 


-INPUTS: SHAPE. SCRLOC, 






SCRLOC is usually set by the 


OUTPUTS: none 




AUX, VLOC, VBIT, VOUT 





August 1988 THE RAINBOW 103 



the qualities a "character" possesses in 
addition to its shape. Here's a sample 
vector for moving two pixels right and 
one pixel down: 

right + right + down =1 + 1+128 
= 130 



ByteK 


Also known as 


Purpose 





XSHfiPE 


byte number 
identifying what 
type of charac- 
ter this is (i.e. 
mouse or 
spaceship?). It 
must be an even 
number. 


1-2 


XSCLOC 


screen location 
where the char- 
acter last 
moved. 


3 


XAUX 


User-defined 
purpose. 


4-5 


XVLDC 


Video RAM lo- 
cation corre- 
sponding to 
XSCLOC. It was 
generated by a 
call to VRfltlCD. 


6 


xbit 


Pixel offset in 
XVLDC. Also 
generated by 

VRAMCO. 


7-8 


XVECT 


Character's 






vector. 


Figure 2 



A character's new location can be 
calculated from its old location by 
adding the old location and the vector 
together. 

If we set off hard-coding a loop to 
guide the movements of 100 characters, 
we'd soon find ourselves short on pa- 



tience — not to mention program mem- 
ory! More desirable is having some kind 
of method for handling a large number 
of characters in a uniform way. For that 
purpose I propose a character list, or C- 
list. The C-list is an area of memory 
we've reserved and divided into 100 
little compartments, each containing 
information about the state of one 
active character. Updating the screen 
will be done by passing through the C- 
list and updating each entry. (Imagine 
this as a nursery with 100 cribs. The 
nurse looks into each in turn, skips the 
empty ones and attends to those with 
babies inside. In each of the programs 
we construct, we will include one "main 
loop" to pass through the C-list the 
same way the nurse checks over the 
cribs.) 

The information stored in the C-list 
is necessary for tracking characters, i.e. 
vectors and video RAM locations. A list 
of the contents of each of the nine bytes 
of a single C-list entry is shown in 
Figure 2. 

As a convention, any slot with a 
character number (XSHAPE) of zero is 
considered empty and can be subse- 
quently filled in. Similarly, if we want 
to delete a character from the game, we 
simply set its C-list entry (XSHflPE) to 
zero. 

It is very useful to have the addresses 
for the LGL routines all gathered into 
one area called a "shape table." That 
way, when we are stepping through the 
C-list and come across a character/ 
shape number of 12, for example, we 



can quickly look in the twelfth shape 
table entry to find out how Character 
12 is drawn. In the next program the 
address of the LGL instructions for 
drawing the plus sign will live in the 
shape table at Location 2. (See Figure 
3.) 

The new routines required for PRDG2 
are ADDCHL, SHPflDR, ANTISH, NEULOC 
and PUTLDC. See the subroutine sum- 
maries for more information about 
what these routines do and what resour- 
ces they use. 

In PR0G2 we used the C-list even 
though we were keeping track of only 
one character. With the framework 
we've already built, it is simple to add 
more characters — in fact, it requires 
only three lines! 

00412 LDD8128 Vector for 
' ' down' ' 

00414 STDVOUT 

0041GJSR RDDCHL Add another 
character 
to the list. 

The plus signs are interesting, but you 
may have already noticed a serious 
shortcoming: They are oblivious to one 
another. What good is a game if the 
players don't interact? Furthermore, 
they are blind to their surroundings. If 
we drew a brick wall on the screen, 
they'd pass right through it! At the very 
least we want them to bump into each 
other. We might also want them to 
explode or wiggle a little. 

How do we detect that we have 



MODIFIES: CCD.Y and the 
C-list. 

OUTPUTS: none 
This routine is for adding a 
character to the C-list. It steps 
through, looking for the first 
empty slot. If there are no 
empty slots nothing is added. 
SHAPE, usually set by the pro- 
grammer, identifies the char- 
acter by number. SCRLOC, set 
by program or programmer, 
is the screen location where 
the character is to appear 
initially. The use and value ol" 
AUX is defined on a character- 
by-character basis. VLQC and 
VBIT arc created by a call to 
VRAMCO. VRAMCO must be 
called after setting SCRLOC 
and before calling RDDCHL. 
VOUT is the vector the charac- 
ter will have initially. It is set 
by the programmer or by 
RNDVECorDIRVEC. 
After RDDCHL has placed these 
values in the C-list, they can 
be retrieved by referring to 



offsets from the X register. 
This table shows how the var- 
iables read by RDDCHL are 
associated with the C-list: 

SHAPE — 

XSHflPE , X shape or character 
number 

SCRLDC — 

XSCLOC, X screen location or 
pixel number 

RUX — 

XRUX.X user defined 

VLOC 

XVLDC, X video RAM loca- 
tion 

VBIT — 

XVB1T.X video RAM pixel 
offset 

VOUT 

XVECT, X vector 



SHPflDR —INPUTS: A 

MODIFIES: CC,Y,D 
OUTPUTS: STSH 



Takes the value in the A reg- 
ister as an offset into the shape 
table. The value of A must be 
even, and there must be a 
shape table entry correspond- 
ing to A. The output STSH is 
set to the address retrieved 
from the shape table. WRTSHP, 
flNTISH and DKMOV use STSH 
for drawing, erasing and 
checking for occurrences of 
other objects on the screen. 

RNTISH —INPUTS: STSH, C-list values 
XVLOC.Xand XVBIT.X 
MODIFIES: CC,D.Y. video 
RAM, TLOC, TBIT 
OUTPUTS: none 
Erases a character from the 
screen. As a general rule, 
characters must always be 
erased before they are moved. 
When this routine is called, 
the X register must point into 
the C-list 10 the character you 
want to erase. STSH must have 
been set already with a call to 
SHPflDR. The values XVLDC, X 



104 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



bumped into something? Recall our 
algorithm for moving the plus signs: 

1 ) Erase the old plus sign from screen 

2) Calculate the new location for the 
plus sign by adding the vector to 
the old location 

3) Write plus sign at the new location 

4) Store the new location into the C- 
list 

I propose we add some new opera- 
tions between steps 2 and 3. Instead of 
immediately drawing the character at 
the new location, what if we first check 
the pixels where the shape is about to 
be written to see if anything is there 
already? If there is, we can skip this 
character and continue on to the next 
C-list entry. We might also want to 
generate a new — probably random — 
vector for the character, so that next 
time it heads in a different direction. 
Now we: 

1) Erase the old plus sign from 
screen. 

2) Calculate the new location for the 
plus sign by adding the vector to 
the old location. 

2a) Check the new location to see if 

it's already occupied. 
2b) If not occupied go to 3. 
2c) Generate a random vector. 
2d) Get the old location from the C- 

list. 
2e) Redraw the character where it was 

before. 
20 Go to 5. 




3) Write plus sign at the new loca- 
tion. 

4) Store the new location into the C- 
list. 

5) Continue stepping through C-list. 

The program shown in Listing 3 
illustrates these steps. It completely fills 
the C-list with swirling little white dots. 
The new routines we'll be using are 
0KM0V, RNDVEC and GETLDC. 

Here are some interesting variations 
to PRDG3: 

I) Put up obstructions. First define a 



barrier shape with LGL instructions 
(maybe bricks?), and place them about 
the screen the same way we drew the 
"static" plus sign in PRDG1. 

2) Fill the C-list with an assortment 
of objects. (Notice that if the shapes are 
too complex, they'll slow down the 
program, in which case you might want 
to half-fill the C-list.) 

3) Multiply some of the vectors by 
two. (Shift the D register to the left.) 

The next program makes full use of 
the subroutine library. First we'll draw 
a mountain range. Then we'll place one 



and XVBIT,X are automati- OKMOV — INPUTS: STSH, VLOC, VBIT 


GETLOC —INPUTS: none 


cally retrieved. 


MODIFIES: CC,D.Y, TBIT, 


MODIFIES: CC,D 




TLOC 


OUTPUTS: VBIT, VLOC 


NEWLOC —INPUTS: C-list values 


OUTPUTS: the Z nag in the 


Retrieves video RAM address 


XSCLOC,XandXVECT,X 


condition code. 


where a character is drawn 


MODIFIES: CC,D 


Traces out the LGL shape 


from the C-list. Usually called 


OUTPUTS: VLOC, VBIT, 


instructions whose address 


just after OKMOV has failed and 


5CRLDC 


appears in STSH at the loca- 


before WRTSHP is called to 


Calculates new screen loca- 


tion given by VLOC and VBIT. 


restore the character to the 


tion and video RAM address 


II no pixels are found to be set 


screen. 


for the C-list character cur- 


(i.e. there is nothing there 




rently pointed to by the X 


already) the Z flag is set, oth- 


BSTATE —INPUTS: none 


register by adding the charac- 


erwise cleared. (If the Z flag is 


MODIFIES: CC,A 


ter's vector to its old location. 


set, tests for zero will be true; 


OUTPUTS: BUTTON 




for instance, a Branch On 


Checks to see if the fire button 


PUTLOC —INPUTS: VLOC. VBIT, 


Equal (BED) instruction will 


is pushed. Sets BUTTON if it is. 


SCRLOC 


branch.) 


clears it otherwise. 


MODIFIES: CC,D 






OUTPUTS: C-list values 




DIRVEC —INPUTS: TARGET, C-list 


XVL0C,X, XVBIT,X, 




XSCLOCX 


XSCLOCX RNDVEC —INPUTS: none 


MODIFIES: CC,D, TVEC 


Stores screen location and 


MODIFIES: CC.D, RND1, 


OUTPUTS: VOUT 


video RAM address values 


TVEC 


Generates a vector toward the 


into C-list entry pointed to X 


OUTPUTS: VOUT 


screen location that has been 


register. Usually done to up- 


Generates a random vector 


previously stored in TARGET. 


date C-list after calling NEW- 


with a maximum displace- 


This is the routine used to 


LOC and successfully moving a 


ment of one pixel in any direc- 


guide the birds to the bird- 


character. 


tion. 


seed. 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 105 



little man (controlled by the joystick) 
and four birds into the C-list. The object 
of the game will be for the man to jump 
onto one of the birds and fly to the top 
of the screen. The fire button will enable 
you to throw grains of bird seed, which 
are actually characters dynamically 
added and deleted from the C-list. The 
birds will swoop down toward the seed. 
Other new features include use of the 
XflUX byte of each character's C-list 
entry. XflUX will control the flapping of 
the birds' wings. As for the little man 
and the bird seed, XflUX will play a part 
in simulating gravity. 

Yes, you can lose this game too! If the 
man falls from the back of one of the 



birds, he can perish upon hitting the 
ground, depending on the height of the 
bird's flight. 1 haven't given too much 
thought to rewarding the player of the 
game, so anyone interested is welcome 
to finish it up. New subroutines this 
time are BSTflTE and DIRVEC. 

Loading and Assembling Files 

For those with source on disk or tape: 
Since the four programs each use the 
same library of subroutines, the most 
efficient way to store the source is to 
keep it in five pieces. When you want 
to load the source, start first by loading 
one of the main routines and then 
appending the library. For Disk ED- 



TASM users this is done with the LDfl 
command. For those using the ED- 
TASM+ ROM pack, two loads with the 
L command will append files automat- 
ically. 

Disk EDTASM users will find that 
the first three programs can be as- 
sembled in memory with the /AO/IM 
switches if EDTflSMOV is used. The 
fourth must be assembled to disk. ROM 
pack users can assemble any of the four 
programs directly in memory. 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this tutorial may be directed to the 
author at 84 Round Hill Road, We- 
thers/ield. CT 06109. Please enclose an 
SASE when requesting a reply.) □ 



Listing 1 


: PR0G1 








99269 




JSR WRTSHP 


Write the shape 


99919 


* 








99219 


LOOP 


BRA LOOP 


busy loop 


00012 


* Progl 


demonstrates how to choose 


992B9 


it 






w» 


* a screen add 


ress and 


draw a 


99299 


* END 


OF MAN PROGRAM 




99916 


* shape 








99399 


* 






00018 


* 








99392 


* START OF SHAPE TABLE 




99199 


DPVAL 


EQU 


567 


Using D.P. for speed 


99291* 


* 






99^9 


STACK 


EQU 


DPVAL*256-1 


99296 


SHTBL 


FDB 9 




991W 




SETDP 


DPVAL 




99296- 


* 






991^9 




ORG 


DPVAL*256+256 


99219 


* START OF SHAPE DEFS 




0014? 


START 


IDA 


•DPVAL 




99229 


* 






99159 




TFR 


A, DP 


Set D.P. register 


99229 


PLSSGN FCB BLUEUP 




99169 




LDS 


#STACK 


Move stack 


9921*9 




FCB BLUEDP 




mn 




JSR 


VIDEO 


Init vid params 


99259 




FCB BLUEDL 




99169 


* 








99369 




FCB BLUERT 




99199 


* CHOSE 


WHERE 


TO DRAW 




99219 




FCB RIGHT 




99299 


* 








99269 




FCB BLUE 




99219 




LDD 


#6299 


Center of screen 


99299 




FCB DONE 




99229 




STD 


SCRLOC 


Store for VRAMCO 


991*99 


* 






992^9 




JSR 


VRAMCO 


Create ram addr 


991,19 


* END 


OF CUSTOM CODE. 




992*9 




LDD 


#PLSSGN 


Get addr of + 


991*29 


* THE 


REST OF THIS STAYS 


99259 




STD 


STSH 


Store for WRTSHP 


99*29 


* THE 


SAME. 





Listing 2: PRDG2 






















00380 


* 










99199 * 






99299 






LDD 


#130 




99119 * 


Prog2 


demonstrates animation 


99*99 






STD 


VOUT 


Vector for addchl 


99129 * 


and use of the c-list for tracking 


99*19 






JSR 


ADDCHL 


Add to c-list 


99129 * 


animated characters . 


99*29 


* 










991*9 * 






99*29 


LOOP 


LDX 


#IXSTRT 


Point to c-list 


99159 DPVAL 


EQU $67 


99**9 


C0NT1 


LEAX 


XNEXT.X 


Pt. next slot 


99169 STACK 


EQU DPVAL*256-1 


99*59 






CMPX 


#CLEND 


End of clist? 


99119 




SETDP DPVAL 


99*69 






BHS 


LOOP 




99169 




ORG DPVAL*256+256 


99*19 


* 










99199 START 


LDA #DPVAL 


99*69 


* 


Ste 


aping through c-list now. 


99299 




TFR A, DP 


99*82 


* 


We 


(NOW that 


there is 


only 1 


99219 




LDS #STACK 


99*8* 


W 


entry being used in the c-list 


99229 




JSR VIDEO 


99*86 


* 


but 


I wanted 


to show 


you how to 


99239 * 






99*88 


* 


set 


up the loop anyway. 


992*9 * 


Going 


to add just one character 


99*99 


* 


Get 


character's shape 


number. 


99259 * 


to the c-list. First set up params 


99599 


* 










99269 * 


for call to ADDCHL. 


99519 






LDA 


XSHAPE, 


X 


99219 * 






99529 






BEQ 


C0NT1 


Skip empties 


99269 




LDD #6299 Center of screen 


99529 






CMPA 


#PLUS 




99299 




STD SCRLOC Store for VRAMCO 


995*9 






BNE 


C0NT1 


Skip if not + 


99299 




JSR VRAMCO generate ram adr 


99559 


* 










99219 




LDA #PLUS character # for + 


99569 






JSR 


SHPADR 


Get +'s shape 


99229 




STA SHAPE store for addchl 


99519 






JSR 


ANTISH 


Erase + 


99229 * 






99589 






JSR 


NEWLOC 


Add vctr to loc 


993*9 * 


the value "130" is the vector we 


99599 






JSR 


WRTSHP 


Draw at new loc. 


99359 * 


chose 


to make the characcer move 


99699 






JSR 


PUTLOC 


Put in c-list 


99369 * 


right 


2 pixels and down one in 


996\9 






BRA 


CONT1 




99319 * 


each 


pass through the c-list. 


99629 


* 











106 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



mw 


* 


END OF MAN PROGRAM 


00720 


* 








0064(3 


* 




00730 


PLSSGN FCB 


BLOEOP 


WW 


* 


START OF SHAPE TABLE 


00740 






FCB 


BLDEOP 


JSJJ652 


* 


Note how the shape number for 


00750 






FCB 


BLOEDL 


00654 


* 


"plus" has been symbolicly 


00760 






FCB 


BLOERT 


00656 


* 


defined. 


00770 






FCB 


RIGHT 


00660 


* 




00780 






FCB 


BLOE 


00670 


SHTBL FDB 


00790 






FCB 


DONE 


00680 


PLUS EQU *- SHTBL 


00800 


* 








00690 




FDB PLSSGN 


00810 


* 


END 


OF COSTOM CODE. 


00700 


* 




00820 


* 


THE 


REST OF 


rHIS STAYS 


00710 


* 


START OF SHAPE DEFS 


00830 


* 


THE 


SAME. 






Listing 3: PRDG3 












00100 


* 




00500 






JSR 


SHPADR 


00110 


* 


Prog3 demonstrates how to make 


00510 






JSR 


ANTISH erase char 


00120 


* 


objects on the screen Interact 


00520 






JSR 


NEWLOC Gen new loc 


00130 


* 


with one another. 


00530 






JSR 


OKMOV Ok to move? 


00150 


* 




00540 






BEQ 


ITSOK 


00160 


DPVAL EQO $67 


00550 


* 








00170 


STACK EQO DPVAL*256-1 


00560 


* 


If something 


is already at the 


00180 




SETDP DPVAL 


00570 


* 


place on the 


screen where we 


00190 




ORG DPVAL*256+256 


00580 


* 


want 


to go then pick a new 


00200 


START LDA #DPVAL 


00590 


* 


vector for next time and give up. 


00210 




TFR A. DP 


00600 


# 








00220 




LDS #STACK 


00610 






JSR 


RNDVEC random vctr 


00230 




JSR VIDEO 


00620 






LDD 


VOOT get result 


00240 




LDA #DOT Dot ' s shape # 


00630 






STD 


XVECT.X put in c-list 


00250 




STA SHAPE For ADDCHL 


00640 






JSR 


GETLOC get old loc 


00260 


L00P1 LDD #6200 Screen center 


00650 






JSR 


WRTSHP redraw there 


00270 




STD SCRLOC For VRAMCO 


00660 






BRA 


L00P2 Go do next 


00280 




JSR VRAMCO Gen ram loc 


00670 


* 








00290 




JSR RNDVEC Random vectr 


00680 


* 


If it was ok 


to move to the new 


00300 




JSR ADDCHL add to c-list 


00690 


* 


location then 


do it. 


00310 


* 




00700 


* 








00320 


* 


Note we are continually trying 


00710 


ITSOK 


JSR 


WRTSHP Draw at new 


00330 


* 


to add new characters to the 


00720 






JSR 


POTLOC update c-list 


00340 


* 


c-list even though it'll be 


00730 






BRA 


LO0P2 


00350 


* 


stuffed full after the 1st 100. 


00740 


* 








00360 


* 




00750 


* 


END 


OF MAIN PROGRAM 


00370 


C0NT1 LDX #IXSTRT pt Co c-list 


00760 


* 








00380 


L00P2 LEAX XNEXT.X pc next slot 


00770 


* 


START OF SHAPE TABLE 


00390 




CMPX #CLEND end of clist? 


00780 


* 








00400 




BHS L00P1 


00790 


SHTBL 


FDB 


9 


00410 


* 




00800 


DOT 


EQO 


*- SHTBL 


00420 


* 


Step through c-list 


00810 






FDB 


WHTDOT 


00430 


* 




00820 


* 








00440 




LDA XSHAPE.X 


00830 


* 


START OF SHAPE DEFS 


00450 




BEQ LO0P2 Skip empties 


00840 


* 








00460 


A 




00850 


WHTDOT 


FCB 


WHITE 


00470 


•k 


All characters will be handled the 


00860 






FCB 


DONE 


00480 


* 


same. You could fill the c-list with 


00870 


* 








00490 


* 


any combination of dots, dashes. 


00880 


* 


END 


OF COSTOM 


CODE. 


00492 


* 


or whatever. . . 


00890 


* 


THE 


REST OF THIS STAYS 


00494 


* 




00900 


* 


THE 


SAME. 




Listing 4: PR0G4 


















00240 






SETDP 


DPVAL 


00100 


* 




00250 






ORG 


DPVAL*25 6+256 


00110 


* 


Prog4 demostrates full use of 


00260 


START 


LDA 


#DPVAL 


00120 


* 


the subroutine library. 


00270 






TFR 


A, DP 


00130 


* 


The object of the game is tc fly 


00280 






LDS 


#STACK 


00140 


* 


to the top of the screen on the 


00290 






JSR 


VIDEO 


00150 


* 


back of one of the birds. If 


00300 


* 








00160 


* 


you fall you may die. The joystick 


00310 


* 


A mountain range will be created 


00170 


* 


fire button will cause you to 


00320 


# 


by repeatedly 


drawing the shape 


00180 


* 


throw bird seed. This attracts 


00330 


it 


"MOUNTN" at the locations in the 


00190 


it 


the birds so you can jump on 


00340 


* 


list 


"MTLIST" 




00200 


* 


them. 


00350 


* 








00210 


•k 


- Kevin Dowd 


00360 






LDD 


#MOONTN 


00220 


DPVAL EQO $67 


00370 






STD 


STSH 


00230 


STACK EQO DPVAL*256-1 


00380 






LDX 


#MTLIST 



August 1988 



THE RAINBOW 



107 



. 



W390 


LOOP1 


LDD 


,X++ 




?115? 






JSR 


VRAMCO 


00400 






BLT 


C0NT1 




3116? 






CLR 


AUX 


WW 






STD 


SCRLOC 




?117? 






JSR 


ADDCHL add seed 


Vfbty 






JSR 


VRAMCO 




?118? 


C0NT2 


LEAX 


XNEXT.X 


??43? 






JSR 


WRTSHP 




?119? 






CMPX 


#CLEND end c-list? 


??44? 






BRA 


LOOP1 




01200 






BHS 


L00P2 


??45? 


* 










?121? 






LDA 


XSHAPE.X 


??46? 


* 


Now 


we will 


add the players to 


?122? 






BEQ 


C0NT2 skip empties 


0?47? 


* 


Che 


c-list, 


1 man and 


4 birds. 


?123? 






CMPA 


#MAN 


??48? 


* 










?124? 






LBGT 


C0NT3 


??49? 


C0NT1 


LDD 


#63?? 




?125? 


* 








WSff 






STD 


SCRLOC 




?126? 


* 


The 


man is constantly running. 


00510 






JSR 


VRAMCO 




0127? 


* 


This 


is a function of the 


P?52? 


* 


ADD 


MAN 






?128? 


•k 


value in cmp3 




??53? 






CLR 


AUX 




?129? 


* 


The 


old and new shape number 


JJ?54? 






LDA 


#MAN 




?13?? 


* 


being used tc 


draw che man is 


??55? 






STA 


SHAPE 




?131? 


* 


calculate from it. 


??56? 






CLR 


VOUT 




?132? 


* 








??57? 






CLR 


VOU2 




?133? 






LDA 


TMP3 


00580 






CLR 


TMP3 




0134? 






ANDA 


#?1 


0?59? 






JSR 


ADDCHL 




?135? 






LSLA 




WW 


* 


ADD 


BIRDS 






?136? 






ADDA 


XSHAPE.X 


??61? 






LDA 


#BIRD 




?137? 






JSR 


SHPADR 


??62? 






STA 


SHAPE 




?138? 






JSR 


ANTISH 


??63? 






LDD 


#63?? 




?139? 


* 








??64? 






STD 


SCRLOC 




?14?? 


* 


Man 


erased, g 


ec joystk. 


W«5P 






JSR 


VRAMCO 




?141? 


* 


Will 


generate 


a vector for the 


3?66? 






JSR 


RNDVEC 




?142? 


* 


man 


based on 


the pot values. 


??67? 






LDA 


#?4 




?143? 


* 








33680 






STA 


AUX 




01440 






CLR 


VOUT 


0069? 






STA 


TMP2 




?145? 






CLR 


V0U2 


??7?? 


L00P3 


DEC 


TMP2 




?146? 






LDA 


S15B 


0071? 






BLT 


LOOP2 




?147? 






CMPA 


#S?C 


00720 






JSR 


ADDCHL 




?148? 






BGT 


J01 


??73? 






BRA 


L00P3 




?149? 






LDD 


#SFF8? 


00740 


* 










?15?? 






STD 


VOUT 


0075? 


* 


This 


is the 


start of che main 


01510 






BRA 


J?2 


0076? 


* 


loop 


. We'll 


check the 


joyscick 


?152? J?l 


CMPA 


#33 


00770 


* 


and 


fire buttons. From the joy- 


?153? 






BLT 


J?2 


0?78? 


* 


stic 


we'll 


make up a vector for 


?154? 






LDD 


#S8? 


0079? 


* 


Che 


little 


man Co run 


along 


0155? 






STD 


VOUT 


00800 


* 


the 


mountains . 




0156? J?2 


LDA 


S15A 


00810 


* 










?157? 






CMPA 


#5?C 


0?82? 


L00P2 


JSR 


[SA??A] 


chk joysck 


?158? 






BGT 


J?3 


P5»83JJ 






JSR 


BSTATE 


chk buccon 


?159? 






LDD 


VOUT 


??84? 






LDX 


#IXSTRT 


pc c-lisc 


?16?? 






SUBD 


#?1 


0085? 






TST 


BUTTON 


buccon set? 


?161? 






STD 


VOUT 


??86? 






BEQ 


C0NT2 




?162? 






BRA 


J?4 


0087? 


* 


If t 


utton was pushed will add 


?163? 


J?3 


CMPA 


#33 


3088? 


* 


a grain of 


bird seed Co the 


?164? 






BLT 


J?4 


jj?89? 


* 


clist. 






?165? 






LDD 


VOUT 


009?? 


* 










?166? 






ADDD 


#?1 


0091? 






LDA 


•SEED 




?167? 






STD 


VOUT 


??92? 






STA 


SHAPE 




?168? 


* 








??93? 


* 










?169? 


it 


Next 


will use 


okraov to test to 


??94? 


* 


The 


vector 


for the bird seed will 


?17?? 


* 


see 


if the man could fall. 


0095? 


* 


come 


from RNDVEC. Then we'll add 


?171? 


it 


If h 


e can will increase the 


??96? 


* 


an upward displacement so 


?172? 


it 


value in X.AUX, a counter to 


00970 


* 


it'll be as 


if the man threw it 


?173? 


* 


tell 


how long 


his feet have 


??98? 


* 


over 


his head. 




?1731 


* 


been 


off che 


ground. From this 


??99? 


* 










?1732 


* 


we'll generate a number by 


0100? 






JSR 


RNDVEC 




?1733 


* 


whic 


h we can 


bias his vector 


01010 






LDD 


VOUT 




?1734 


* 


and 


simulate 


gravity . 


01020 






ADDD 


#SFF8? 




?1735 


* 








?1?3? 






STD 


VOUT 




?175? J?4 


LDD 


#S8? 


01040 


* 










?176? 






STD 


XVECT.X 


?1?5? 


* 


CH1L0C is a 


kludge. It's the 


0177? 






JSR 


NEWXOC 


?1?6? 


* 


address of 


che screen 


loc of the 


?1780 






JSR 


OKMOV Can he fall? 


01070 


* 


first character in the c-list 


?179? 






BEQ 


C0NT4 


?1?8? 


* 


(in 


this case, the little man). 


?18?? 


* 








0109? 


* 


Bird seed will start 


ust 


?181? 


* 


Man 


can fall. 


so he will. 


01100 


* 


above Che man's head. 




?182? 


* 








?111? 


* 










?183? 






CLR 


XAUX.X 


?112? 






LDD 


CH1LOC 




?184? 






CLRA 




?113? 






ADDD 


#SFF8? 




?185? 






CLRB 




?114? 






STD 


SCRLOC 




(11851 


* 









108 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



01852 


* 


GRWEC will 


generate a gravity 


02400 






BEQ 


BD4 


01853 


* 


vector based 


on the value of 


02410 






DECA 




{11854 


* 


X.AUX. If th 


a man had his feet 


02420 






ANDA 


#02 


(11855 


* 


on something 


then we have just 


02430 


BD4 


ADDA 


XSHAPE.X 


(31856 


* 


reset X.AUX 


tnd GRWEC will 


02440 






JSR 


SHPADR 


01857 


* 


return a gravity bias of 0. 


02450 






TST 


BUTTON Pushed? 


01858 


* 








02460 






BEQ 


BD1 


0186(3 


C0NT4 


JSR 


GRWEC 


02461 


* 








01870 






ADDD 


VOUT 


02462 


# 


If the fire 


button was pushed 


01880 






STD 


XVECT.X 


02463 


* 


then 


the bird will head for 


01890 






JSR 


NEWLOC 


02464 


* 


the 


Last grain of bird seed 


01900 






JSR 


OKHOV 


02465 


* 


thrown. DIRVEC generates a 


01910 






BEQ 


CONT6 


02466 


* 


vector towards the screen loc 


01920 


* 








02467 


* 


stored in TARGET. 


01930 


* 


Killed by a 


fall? If the man 


02468 


* 








01931 


* 


had 


been abl 


e to move then 


02470 






JSR 


DIRVEC 


01932 


* 


we wouldn't 


be here. 


02480 






LDD 


VOUT 


01933 


* 








02490 






STD 


XVECT.X 


01950 






LDA 


XAUX.X 


02500 


BD1 


JSR 


NEWLOC 


01960 






CMPA 


#25 


02510 






JSR 


OKMOV 


01970 






LBGT 


YOUDIE 


02520 






BEQ 


BD2 


01980 


* 








02521 


* 








01990 


* 


It could that he wasn't fall- 


02522 


* 


If the bird 


bumps into some- 


01991 


* 


all 


that long, so we'll just 


02523 


H 


thing 


we'll 


not only generate 


01992 


* 


make him bounce a little by 


02524 


* 


a new vector for it, we'll 


01993 


* 


generating a 


new vector for 


02525 


* 


also 


modify 


X.AUX so the wings 


01994 


* 


him 






02526 


* 


flap 


for a while. 


02000 


* 








02527 


* 








02010 






LDD 


*9 


02530 






JSR 


RNDVEC 


02020 






STD 


GRAVTY 


02540 






LDD 


VOUT 


02030 






CLR 


XAUX.X 


02550 






STD 


XVECT.X 


02040 






JSR 


RNDVEC 


02560 






JSR 


NEWLOC 


02050 






LDD 


VODT 


02570 






JSR 


OKMOV 


02060 






STD 


XVECT.X 


02580 






BEQ 


BD3 


02070 






JSR 


NEWLOC 


02590 






JSR 


GETLOC 


02080 






JSR 


OKMOV 


02600 






LDA 


XAUX.X 


02090 






BEQ 


CONT6 


02610 






ANDA 


#02 


02100 


* 








02620 






ADDA 


XSHAPE.X 


02110 


* 


Giv 


i up if couldn't move him. 


02630 






JSR 


SHPADR 


02120 


* 








02640 






JSR 


WRTSHP 


02130 






JSR 


GETLOC 


02650 






LBRA 


C0NT2 


02140 






JSR 


WRTSHP 


02660 


BD3 


LDA 


XAUX.X 


02150 






LBRA 


C0NT2 


02670 






BEQ 


BD5 


02160 


* 








02680 






ORA 


#32 


02161 


* 


We were able 


to move the little 


02690 






STA 


XAUX.X Flap 


02162 


* 


man 


by some 


path. Check his 


02700 






BRA 


BD2 


02163 


* 


screen location to see if we 


02710 


BD5 


LDA 


#33 


02164 


* 


won 


the game 


yet. 


02720 






STA 


XAUX.X 


02165 


* 








02730 


BD2 


JSR 


WRTSHP 


02170 


C0NT6 


LDD 


SCRLOC 


02740 






JSR 


PUTLOC 


02180 






CMPD 


#$280 


02750 






LDA 


XAUX.X 


02190 






LBLE 


YOOWIN 


02760 






LBEQ 


C0NT2 


02200 


* 








02770 






DEC 


XAUX.X 


02210 






INC 


TMP3 


02780 






LBRA 


C0NT2 


02220 






LDA 


TMP3 


02790 


* 








02230 






ANDA 


#01 


02800 


* 


Bird 


seed 




02240 






LSLA 




02810 


* 








02250 






ADDA 


XSHAPE.X 


02820 


C0NT8 


CMPA 


#SEED 


02260 






JSR 


SHPADR 


02830 






LBNE 


C0NT2 


02270 






JSR 


WRTSHP 


02840 






LDA 


XAUX.X 


02280 






JSR 


PDTLOC 


02850 






ANDA 


#01 


02281 


* 








02860 






LSLA 




02282 


* 


Now 


for the 


birds. 


02870 






ADDA 


XSHAPE.X 


02283 


* 








02880 






JSR 


SHPADR 


02290 


C0NT3 


CMPA 


#BIRD 


02890 






JSR 


ANTISH 


02300 






LBNE 


C0NT8 


02891 


* 


bird 


seed is also subject to 


02301 


* 








02892 


* 


gravity. Whenever a grain of 


02302 


* 


The 


birds flap their wings 


02893 


* 


bird 


seed bumps into something 


02303 


* 


bas 


sd on the 


value of X.ADX. 


02894 


* 


it will be deleted from the 


02304 


* 








02895 


* 


c-list 




02340 






LDA 


XAUX.X 


02896 


* 








02350 






ANDA 


#02 


02900 






LDD 


XVECT.X 


02360 






ADDA 


XSHAPE.X 


02910 






PSHS 


D 


02370 






JSR 


SHPADR 


02920 






JSR 


GRWEC 


02380 






JSR 


ANTISH 


02930 






ADDD 


XVECT.X 


02390 






LDA 


XAUX.X 


02940 






STD 


XVECT.X 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 109 



5(295? 


LDA 


XAUX.X 


03620 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04330 


FDB 


11706 


fZ96fl 


ANDA 


#01 


03630 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04340 


FDB 


11840 


02970 


LSLA 




03640 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04350 


FDB 


12227 


(1298)1 


ADDA 


XSHAPE.X 


03650 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04360 


FDB 


12236 


13299(3 


JSR 


SHPADR 


03660 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04370 


FDB 


12242 


93999 


JSR 


NEWLOC 


03670 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04380 


FDB 


1L861 


am? 


JSR 


OKMOV 


03680 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04390 


FDB 


12248 


92929 


BEQ 


SD1 


03690 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04400 


FDB 


L2253 


93939 


PULS 


D 


03700 


FCB 


WHTUL 


04410 


FDB 


L2257 


(J3040 


CLR 


XSHAPE.X 


03710 


FCB 


WHTLF 


04420 


FDB 


11750 


93959 


LBRA 


CONT2 


03720 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04430 


FDB 


12265 


03060 SDL 


JSR 


WRTSHP 


03730 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04440 


FDB 


12276 


03070 


JSR 


PUTLOC 


03740 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04450 


FDB 


10559 


i?3^8(3 


POLS 


D 


03750 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04460 


FDB 


10946 


93999 


STD 


XVECT.X 


03760 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04470 


FDB 


11462 


93199 


LDD 


XSCLOC.X 


03770 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04480 


FDB 


12176 


93119 


STD 


TARGET 


03780 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04490 


FDB 


12L66 


93129 


LBRA 


CONT2 


03790 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04500 


FDB 


11779 


03130 YOUDIE 


NOP 




03800 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04510 


FDB 


12160 


03140 YOUWIN 


JSR 


BSTATE 


03810 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04520 


FDB 


SFFFF 


03150 


LDA 


#200 


03820 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04530 MAN1 


FCB 


WHTDN 


03160 


STA 


65314 


03830 


FCB 


WHTUR 


04540 


FCB 


BLUELF 


0317? 


TST 


BDTTON 


03840 


FCB 


WHTRT 


04550 


FCB 


REDDR 


03180 


BEQ 


YOUUIN 


03850 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04560 


FCB 


BLUEDL 


(33190 


LBRA 


START 


03860 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04570 


FCB 


REDRT 


03191 * 






03870 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04580 


FCB 


BLKRT 


03192 * GRRVEC Is a 


helper function 


03880 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04590 


FCB 


REDUP 


03193 * for this program only. Ic 


03890 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04600 


FCB 


UP 


03194 * generates a 


number based on 


03900 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04610 


FCB 


RED 


03195 * X.AUX which 


when added to a 


03910 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04620 


FCB 


DONE 


03196 * character's 


vector will sim- 


03920 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04630 MAN2 


FCB 


WHTDN 


03197 * ulate 


gravity. 


03930 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04640 


FCB 


BLUELF 


03198 * 






03940 


FCB 


WHTUL 


04650 


FCB 


BLKDR 


03200 GRWEC 


LDA 


XAUX.X 


03950 


FCB 


WHTLF 


04660 


FCB 


REDDL 


03210 


CMPA 


#100 


03960 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04670 


FCB 


BLKRT 


03220 


BGT 


G03 


03970 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04680 


FCB 


REDRT 


03230 


INC 


XAUX.X 


03980 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04690 


FCB 


BLKUP 


03240 


CMPA 


#03 


03990 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04700 


FCB 


DP 


03250 


BGT 


G01 


04000 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04710 


FCB 


BLACK 


03260 


LDD 


#0 


04010 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04720 


FCB 


DONE 


03270 


BRA 


G04 


04020 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04730 BIRD1 


FCB 


WHTUL 


03280 G01 


CMPA 


#05 


04030 


FCB 


WHTUR 


04740 


FCB 


LEFT 


03290 


BGT 


G02 


04040 


FCB 


WHTRT 


04750 


FCB 


LEFT 


03300 


LDD 


#$80 


04050 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04760 


FCB 


LEFT 


03310 


BRA 


G04 


04060 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04770 


FCB 


WHTDR 


03320 G02 


CMPA 


#07 


04070 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04780 


FCB 


WHTDR 


03330 


BGT 


G03 


04080 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04790 


FCB 


REDRT 


03340 


LDD 


#5100 


04090 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04800 


FCB 


REDRT 


03350 


BRA 


G04 


04100 


FCB 


WHTUL 


04810 


FCB 


RIGHT 


03360 G03 


LDD 


#$180 


04110 


FCB 


WHTLF 


04820 


FCB 


REDRT 


03370 G04 


RTS 




04120 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04830 


FCB 


REDUR 


03380 * 






04130 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04840 


FCB 


WHTUR 


03390 * END OF MAIN 


PROGRAM 


04140 


FCB 


BLUELF 


04850 


FC3 


WHITE 


03400 * 






04150 


FCB 


WHTUR 


04860 


FCB 


DONE 


03410 * STAR1 


OF SHAPE TABLE 


04160 


FCB 


WHTRT 


04870 BIRD2 


FCB 


WHTDL 


03420 * 






04170 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04880 


FCB 


LEFT 


03430 SHTBL 


FDB 


9 


04180 


FCB 


WHTUL 


04890 


FCB 


LEFT 


03440 MAN 


EQU 


*- SHTBL 


04190 


FCB 


WHITE 


04900 


FCB 


LEFT 


03450 


FDB 


HANI 


04200 


FCB 


DONE 


04910 


FCB 


WHTRT 


03460 


FDB 


MAN2 


04210 * 






04920 


FCB 


WHTRT 


03470 BIRD 


EQU 


*- SHTBL 


04211 * This 


is a 


List of screen 


04930 


FCB 


REDRT 


03480 


FDB 


BIRD2 


04212 * loca 


cions 


uhere mountains 


04940 


FCB 


REDRT 


03490 


FDB 


BIRD1 


04213 * are 


drawn. 




04950 


FCB 


RIGHT 


03500 SEED 


EQD 


*- SHTBL 


04214 * 






04960 


FCB 


REDRT 


03510 


FDB 


SEED1 


04220 MTLIST 


FDB 


12180 


04970 


FCB 


REDRT 


03520 


FDB 


SEED2 


04230 


FDB 


11164 


04980 


FCB 


WHTRT 


03530 * 






04240 


FDB 


11672 


04990 


FCB 


WHTRT 


03540 * START OF SHAPE DEFS 


04250 


FDB 


12188 


05000 


FCB 


DONE 


03550 * 






04260 


FDB 


11676 


05010 SEEDL 


FCB 


RED 


03560 MOUNTN 


FCB 


WHTRT 


04270 


FDB 


11809 


05020 


FCB 


DONE 


03570 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04280 


FDB 


12199 


05030 SEED2 


FCB 


BLUE 


03580 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04290 


FDB 


12210 


05040 


FCB 


DONE 


03590 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04300 


FDB 


11194 


05050 * END 


OF CUSTOM CODE 


03600 


FCB 


BLOERT 


04310 


FDB 


11702 


05060 * THE 


REST OF 


THIS STAYS 


03610 


FCB 


BLUERT 


04320 


FDB 


12218 


05070 * THE 


SAME. 





110 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Listing 5: 






06730 


ADDB 


#$80 










06740 CC2 


ADDD 


#SCREEN 


9WV 


VIDEO 


EQU 


* 


06750 


STD 


VLOC 


06010 


* 






06760 


RTS 




06020 


* THIS 


ROUTINE 


HAS REALLY 


06770 * 






06030 


* HARD 


FARAMETRS. 


06780 NXTSET 


LDA 


#$20 


06040 


* 






06790 


ANDA 


,Y 


JJf6J?5JJ 


SCREEN 


EQU 


29696 


06800 


BEQ 


C07 


P6J36JJ 


SCREND 


EQU 


32767 


06810 


DEC 


TBIT 


06070 




STA 


65478 


06820 


BGE 


C10 


9638? 




STA 


65481 


06830 


LDA 


#03 


06090 




STA 


65482 


06840 


STA 


TBIT 


?61W 




STA 


65485 


06850 


LDD 


TLOC 


06110 




STA 


65487 


06860 


SUBD 


#01 


0612? 




STA 


65489 


06870 


STD 


TLOC 


0613? 




STA 


65472 


06880 


BRA 


C10 


06140 




STA 


65474 


06890 C07 


LDA 


#$10 


J36155J 




STA 


65477 


06900 


ANDA 


,Y 


06169 




LDA 


#255 


06910 


BEQ 


C10 


06173 




STA 


65314 


06920 


INC 


TBIT 


06180 


* CLEAR SREEN 


AND CLIST 


06930 


LDA 


#04 


06193 




LDX 


#SCREEN 


06940 


ANDA 


TBIT 


06200 


XXI 


CMPX 


#SCREND 


06950 


BEQ 


C10 


06210 




BHI 


XX2 


06960 


CLR 


TBIT 


06220 




CLR 


,x+ 


06970 


LDD 


TLOC 


06230 




BRA 


XXI 


06980 


ADDD 


#01 


06240 


XX2 


LDX 


#CLIST 


06990 


STD 


TLOC 


06250 


XX3 


CMPX 


#CLEND 


07000 C10 


LDA 


#$08 


06260 




BGT 


XX4 


07010 


ANDA 


,Y 


06270 




CLR 


,X+ 


07020 


BEQ 


Cll 


06280 




BRA 


XX3 


07030 


LDD 


TLOC 


06290 


XX4 


RTS 




07040 


SUBD 


#32 


06300 


ADDCHL 


LDY 


#IXSTRT 


07050 


CMPD 


#SCREEN 


06310 C90 


LEAY 


XNEXT.Y 


07060 


BGE 


C14 


06320 




CMPY 


#CLEND 


07070 


ADDD 


#3072 


06330 




BGE 


C91 


07080 


BRA 


C14 


06340 




TST 


XSHAPE , Y 


07090 Cll 


LDA 


#$04 


06350 




BNE 


C90 


07100 


ANDA 


,Y 


06360 




LDA 


SHAPE 


07110 


BEQ 


C09 


06370 




STA 


XSHAPE. Y 


07120 


LDD 


TLOC 


06380 




LDD 


SCRLOC 


07130 


ADDD 


#32 


06390 




STD 


XSCLOC , Y 


07140 


CMPD 


#SCREND 


06400 




LDA 


AUX 


07150 


BLE 


C14 


06410 




STA 


XAUX.Y 


07160 


SUBD 


#3072 


06420 




LDD 


VLOC 


07170 C14 


STD 


TLOC 


06430 




STD 


XVLOC.Y 


07180 C09 


LEAY 


l.Y 


06440 




LDA 


VBIT 


07190 


RTS 




06450 




STA 


XVBIT.Y 


07200 * 






06460 




LDD 


VOUT 


07210 NEWLOC 


LDD 


XSCLOC, X 


06470 




STD 


XVECT.Y 


07220 


ADDD 


XVECT.X 


06480 


C91 


RTS 




07230 


BGE 


C15 


06490 


* 






07240 


ADDD 


#12288 


06500 


GETLOC 


LDA 


XVBIT.X 


07250 


BRA 


C16 


06510 




STA 


VBIT 


07260 C15 


CMPD 


#12287 


06520 




LDD 


XVLOC.X 


07270 


BLE 


C16 


06530 




STD 


VLOC 


07280 


SUBD 


#12288 


06540 




RTS 




07290 C16 


STD 


SCRLOC 


06550 


PUTLOC 


LDA 


VBIT 


07300 


JSR 


VRAMCO 


06560 




STA 


XVBIT.X 


07310 


RTS 




06570 




LDD 


VLOC 


07320 * 






06580 




STD 


XVLOC.X 


07330 HRTSHP 


LDD 


VLOC 


06590 




LDD 


SCRLOC 


07340 


STD 


TLOC 


06600 




STD 


XSCLOC, X 


07350 


LDA 


VBIT 


06610 




RTS 




07360 


STA 


TBIT 


06620 


VBAMCO 


LDB 


SCRL02 


07370 


LDY 


STSH 


06630 




ANDB 


#03 


07380 C22 


LDA 


,Y 


06640 




STB 


VBIT 


07390 


BGE 


C23 


06650 




LDD 


SCRLOC 


07400 


RTS 




06660 




LSRB 




07410 C23 


TFR 


A.B 


06670 




LSRA 




07420 


ANDA 


#$40 


06680 




BCC 


CC1 


07430 


BEQ 


C24 


06690 




ADDB 


#$80 


07440 


ANDB 


#03 


06700 


3C1 


LSRB 




07450 


LDA 


#03 


06710 




LSRA 




07460 


SUBA 


TBIT 


06720 




BCC 


CC2 


07470 


STA 


TMP2 



iail!ffil 



V80° 



.248- 



3&2 3 



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Tandy 1000-TX640K 1 Drive 
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MONITORS & BOARDS 

VM-4 Monochrome Green 
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Tandy Dual Display Card 
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DRIVES 

Color Computer Drive 
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155.00 



95.00 
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145.00 
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135.00 

72.00 



225.00 
180.00 
200.00 
509.00 
679.00 
435.00 
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80.00 



Zucker Serial Board 45.00 

Zucker OK Memory Board 1000 47.00 

Zucker MFB OK for 1 000 1 06.00 

Zucker 1200 Baud Modem Card 72.00 

PRINTERS 

DMP-106 Dot-Matrix 165.00 

DMP- 130 Dot-Matrix 255.00 

DWP-230 Daisy Wheel 349.00 

Epson LX-800 Dot-Matrix 205.00 

Epson FX-86E Dot-Matrix 375.00 

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Epson LQ-500 Dot-Matrix 375.00 

Epson LQ-850 Dot-Matrix 579.00 

Please write for complete price list. 
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Monday Ihru Friday 9am - 5pm EST. 



uunao M l 
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CALL 1-517-625-4161 or TOLL-FREE 

1-800-248-3823 



AugusM988 THE RAINBOW 111 



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END 


/R\ 





112 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 




The COCO hardware store 



CRC COMPUTERS 




ier 
Controller 



i 




$99.95 



Fantastic — 

Super Controller 11 

1 Radio Shack/Tandy controller compatible. 

• Works on all COCOs - 1 , 2 or 3 with or without Multi-Pak Interface. 

• One 24/28 pin socket for 8K ROM, 2764, or 27128 EPROM. 

• Internal MINI-EXPANSION-BUS connector for one DISTO Super Add-On. 

• Low Power draw; within COCO's requirements. 

• Gold Plated edge connectors. 

• Under OS-9: 

• Buffered Read/Write sector achieved without halting the CPU. 

• Continual use of keyboard even while reading or writing to disk. 

• System's clock no longer looses time during Read & Write. 

• NTvll is blocked and transferred to IRQ in software for low CPU overhead 

• Completely Interrupt driven for fast & smooth Multi-Tasking operations. 

• Drivers written by KEVIN DARLING 



A Superb Controller. Along with the included C-DOS, plug-in 
three more software selectable DOSes or 2764 or 27128 EPROMs 
burned to your liking. 

The Internal Mini-Expansion-Bus lets you add some 
incredible features to the controller. Disto Super Add-Ons 
were designed to fit neatly inside the controller case. 




$130. 



UPER ADD-ONS 





flffZ* 




$59.95 



Real Time Clock & Printer Interface 

Have the Real Time, Date and Year displayed 
on your screen at a simple command. 



$54.95, 



ulti-Board Adapter 



This Muti-Board is an adapter that plugs in any Disto Super Controller, 
Ramdisk or MEB Adapter. 

It includes a new and improved Printer Port (Centronics compatible), a faster 
Real Time Clock (works at 2MHz.) and a true RS-232 Serial Port (external 
12 volt AC adapter required). DB25 cable included. 
It fits neatly inside the metal case and is still within Tandy's power 
limits. It also works with or without a Multi-Pak. 



$49.95 



| Mini EPROM Programmer 

A LOW COST EPROM Programmer that attaches 
directly to any Disto Super Controller or MEB 
adapter to program those often used utilities*, 

1 Hard Disk Interface 

A Hard Disk Interface fully compatible with 
SASI controller. Fits inside the Super 
Controller, Ramdisk or MEB Adapter. 
OS-9 drivers included. Also available 
with RS-232 Serial Port. 





Super RAM 3 ZeroK Board 

Now is the time to upgrade your COCO 3 to 
51 2K of memory. Just add the memory chips 
and install in your COCO 3. 



!32 SuperPack 

• A Stand-Alone (Multi-Pak required) adapter 
that gives the user a true RS-232 Serial Port. 

• Completely compatible with OS9's ACIA software. 
1 Compatible with software that requires 

the Tandy Deluxe RS-232 Pack. _ _ _ 

■DB-25 cable included. CRC 

COMPUTERS 



$2 4.95 




MEB Adapter 

A Stand-Alone Mini-Expansion-Bus in which 
you can plug any other Disto Adapter directly 
in a Multi-Pak without the need for a Super 
Controller or Ramdisk. 



1 -51 4-383-5293 



10802 Lajeunesse, Montreal, 
Quebec, Canada H3L 2E8 

We accept phone orders • Call for Canadian Prices 
nclude S&H of $4 or $8 if order exceeds $75 



Super Board 



Coming this fall to a dealer near you 



Real Time Clock, Printer Port, 

RS-232 & Hard Disk Interface 

all in one neat package 



Master Card and Visa Accepted 



Sorry: No personal cheques 



Featur e 



Simplify and organize Adventure 
playing without ruining the fun 



Adventure Game Mapping 

Techniques 

By John Dillon 



Adventure games can perhaps be 
defined as logical puzzles in- 
volving people in unusual situa- 
tions. Using this definition, it is fair to 
say that Adventures have been with us 
for generations. Over a hundred years 
ago Sam Loyd was delighting readers 
with hundreds of situations that re- 
quired careful thought and mapmaking 
ability. Even a traditional detective 
story is an adventure — the reader 
wanders through an assortment of 
rooms, finding clues and trying to figure 
out "who done it" and where the treas- 
ure is hidden. 

However, in a novel the reader has no 
control over the detective's words or 
action — the reader is a purely passive 
player. (The term "player" was chosen 
over "spectator" because a well-written 
novel will get the reader more involved 
than merely spectating.) 

Our current concept of Adventure 
games overcomes the passivity of liter- 
ary adventures. No longer must a player 
watch in frustration as the hero drinks 
a fluid that everyone knows is poison — 
now the player can shatter the vial 
instead, realizing too late that the fluid 
is nitro-glycerin! 

Because the players are now in con- 
trol of the action, it becomes imperative 
that they understand their surroundings 

John Dillon is an engineer for Rockwell 
International, designing automatic test 
equipment and writing control code for 
the instruments. He is also a songwriter 
and a student. His hobbies include 
reading and travelling by motorcycle. 



and position amidst them. As in the 
days of yore, the best way to know 
where you are is to make and use a map. 
While there are a variety of techniques 
available, this article will focus on a 
method that has been personally suc- 
cessful. First, a couple of comments are 
in order. One: Let us define a "room" 
as any unique position in the game, 
whether it is an actual room, a pathway 
or corridor, or even a section of a single 
chamber. Two: Use a pencil! Though 
this is intuitively obvious, it is still 
frequently overlooked. Cartography is 
a detailed process that usually requires 
many changes before an acceptable 
final product is obtained. 



Mapmaking Tools 

It has been said that a sign of man's 
intelligence is his ability to make and 
use tools. A useful tool for Adventurers 
is a mapsheet devised to ease the chore 
of Adventure mapping. [See Neil 
Haupt's Mapper program (August '87, 
Page 90), which prints a blank mapsheet 
on an 80-column printer.] While it is 
quite simple to use, it can contain a lot 
of information. Here is the procedure, 
using Figure 1 as an example. 

First, arbitrarily select and label a 
box as the game's starting point. Then 
indicate the obvious exits with short 
labeled stubs. In this example, the game 
starts with "You are in front of a castle. 
Obvious exits are North and East. You 
see nothing special." Figure la shows 
this starting room (labeled "Front of 
Castle") and the possible exits ('N' and 



'E'). Note that north doesn't have to be 
up as on a regular map. Just be sure to 
label the map such that there is no 
confusion. 

Next, try to discover where each of 
the exits go. In this game, going east 
would put you on a drawbridge, while 
north plants you firmly in the forest. 
When you enter a new room, repeat the 
process of Step 1, e.g., label the room 
and show possible exits as shown in 
Figure lb. 

Now that you have explored the 
obvious exits for the starting room, go 
back (if you can) and try unmarked 
directions, since sometimes you can 
travel in directions not explicitly de- 
scribed. For example, in trying "down" 
from the front of the castle, you dis- 
cover that "You are now wading in the 
moat. Several crocodiles are eyeing you 
hungrily." This means that you need to 
add a room, as shown in Figure lc. 

Sometimes a passage is unidirec- 
tional (Figure Id). Indicate this with an 
arrowhead to show that you can't get 
back. For example, after trying all other 
directions while in the moat, you dis- 
cover that you can't return to the front 
of the castle because "The banks are too 
steep and slippery; you keep falling 
back into the water." 

After exploring all possible exits 
(including Climb, Jump, Run, etc., if 
appropriate) for a particular room, it's 
useful to mark the map so that you 
know that all exits have been exhausted. 
One way is to put an 'X' in the lower 
left corner, as shown in Figure lc. 

Figure If shows some other useful 



114 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



GAME 



MAP VERSION PAGE 









Fronl 

of 
Castle 


E 








N 












] 


? igure la 















Front 

ot 
Castle 


E 


Draw- 
bridge 


E 










N 










Forest 










Figure lb 









Front 

of 
Castle 


E 


E 
Draw- 
bridge 


D 




N 


\ 




Forest 




Wad- 
ing in 
Moat 


Figure lc 













Front 

of 
Castle 


E 


Draw- 
bridge 


E 




D 






N 










Forest 




Wad- 
ing in 
Moat 










Figure 1< 


1 





Front 

of 
Castle 



ZL 



Draw- 
bridge 



Forest 



Wad- 
ing in 
Moat 



Figure le 



























/ 




DeadX 








Pool 




Bath- 
room 




Back 
Yard 




^Barbe-N 
cue 


End 


Bridle 
Path 




/steeple-\ 

chase 
\ Maze / 






^ 






Overlap 
undesirable 


Y 




/ 




Multiple 
Directions 

i \ 

D.S \ 




Special 
Command 

\ 

Mirror 




Maze 






All 

Exits 

Explored 

-». 


Kitch- 
en 

*1 


o— o 


Closet 
(broom) 


Object 


Dining 
Room 


Living 
Room 


Master 

Bed- 
room 




Hwy. 

91 


N.U 














\ 

1 


7 igure 11 


/ 













Figure 1 



mapping notations. A small circle on a 
box indicates that a door has to be 
opened before 'you can exit in that 
direction. Parentheses can identify the 
objects found in a room, such as a 



broom in the closet. If multiple direc- 
tions take you to the same room, you 
can indicate both on a single line, such 
as in the living room. 
After a while the map may gel con- 



voluted, with one path crossing another 
a dozen times. When this happens, 
carefully redraw the map on a new 
mapsheet. Often, with judicious layout, 
you can eliminate crossovers. 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 115 



WCflDan 


E 


"Cande- 

labra" 

















Figure 2a 



















WoftOan 


E 


•Cande- 
labra' 


















8 
N 














"Qolden 

Egg" 












Figure 2b 























WUbOm 


E 


"Cande- 
labra* 


E W 


"Broom" 
















s 

N 














"Qoldan 
Egg" 












Figure 2c 







Remember, too, that exits are not 
always reversible. For example, going 
south from the back yard takes you to 
the bridle path, but north from the 
bridle path does not return you to the 
back yard: rather you must go east to 
return, so be sure to note it on your 
map. 

Another useful notation is to indicate 
dead ends like the barbecue pit with 
circles inscribed in (or replacing) the 
boxes. You can "replace" the boxes with 
circles or hexagons by using a white-out 
product like Liquid Paper. If there is a 
maze in the middle of your map, you 
may want to show it as a hexagon, then 
map the maze on a separate page. 
However, it is usually better to include 
the maze as an integral part of your 
map; this helps improve your percep- 
tion of the area. (More on mapping 
mazes in a moment.) 



WofaDtn 


E 


"Cande- 


E 


W 


■Broom" 




labra" 












s 

N 


/ 


/ 


S 







"Golden 
Egg" 







Figure 2d 



If a special command is required to 
use an exit, simply write it on the map. 
For example, if you push the mirror in 
the living room, you will be instantly 
transported to the master bedroom, so 
the map shows "Mirror" as a reminder. 

As these examples show, the basic 
procedure for creating useful maps is 



quite simple. Some games, however, 
make things more difficult by changing 
the terrain as you go. For example, an 
earthquake may seal off some exits or 
open new passages. You may also en- 
counter one-shot magical doorways — 
once you go through them, they seal 
behind you forever. Nonetheless, these 
map sheets are still quite useful. 

Mazes 

But what about mazes? Mazes are 
trickier to map than regular rooms, but 
only marginally so. The key is to be 
smarter than the game you're playing. 

Before entering the maze, grab as 
much stuff as you possibly can. Then in 
each room of the maze, drop one of 
these items to serve as a landmark. In 
Figure 2a, we enter the maze from the 
Wolf's Den; to identify this room, we 
drop the candelabra. 



N 



M7 



NW 




|\j f£ BRINK 
OF 
PIT 



M 



N 



\ 





|w,s 




Ml 3 


E j 


w' 



M2 



M 



M8 



w 




u 



M9 



w 



M3 



D 



W N 



Nf 



M10 



V 



w 



w 



Ml 



Figure 3 





V 

[D.END) 




116 THE RAINBOW AugusM988 



As we wander around the maze, we 
continue to drop stuff behind us, mark- 
ing the items we left on our map. (By 
the way, it is important to wander 
through the maze in a logical fashion, 
using the same techniques discussed 
earlier.) In our example, going south 
from "candelabra" (Figure 2b) put us in 
another maze-room, so we drop 
another item, this time the golden egg. 
Our inquisitive minds want to check the 
backward path, so we go north from 
"golden egg," and voila! we are indeed 
back in the "candelabra" room. Next we 
try east, ending up in "broom" (Figure 
2c). West from "broom" puts us back at 
"golden egg," and we have already 
established some order to what once 
seemed to be a formidable labyrinth 
(Figure 2d). 

As you get deeper into the maze, you 
must go back to the beginning portion 
to retrieve and reuse your landmark 
objects. If your game has a Save feature, 
using it can expedite this process. 

After the maze has been solved, 
identify these rooms on your map as 
M I, M2, M3, etc., where 'M' stands for 
"maze." Figure 3 shows a portion of the 



"By using 

mapmaking tools, 

solving A dventures 

becomes a simpler, 

more organized task 

— without depriving 

you of any of the 
fun and challenge. " 



maze in one of Radio Shack's more 
popular Adventures. 

Sometimes a game may have more 
than one maze, rainbow's Rescue on 
Alpha II, for example, has both the 
caverns and botanical gardens. As a 
result, my map shows rooms BG I , BG2, 



etc., and CI. C2, C3, etc., thereby 
keeping them distinct. 

For more information on mapping 
mazes (and on Adventure games in 
general) refer to Computers Guide to 
Adventure Gaming. It is also an excel- 
lent reference source for people who 
want to write their own games. It was 
this book that first taught me the key 
to maze mapping. 

Though Adventure games are excit- 
ing and challenging, they are also relax- 
ing. Upon solving a good Adventure, 
you arc left with a feeling of satisfaction 
knowing that you are clever enough to 
outwit a computer. By using mapmak- 
ing tools such as those described in this 
article, solving Adventures becomes a 
simpler, more organized task — with- 
out depriving you of any of the fun and 
challenge. Good luck, and may you 
always be smarter than the games you 
play! 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this tutorial may he directed to the 
author at P.O. Box 6026. Fuller/on, CA 
92634. Please enclose an SASE when 
requesting a reply.) /R\ 



One- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

1 read with interest Dennis Weide's article in the 
February '88 issue (Page 126) concerning reversing the 
PMODE screen in BASIC and Pascal. His BASIC program 
took one hour, and his Pascal program took one 
minute. My one-liner uses some of CoCo Basic's 
built-in commands to perform the same task in 30 
seconds! By using GET, PUT and PCOPY, CoCo can do 
the job quickly and efficiently — without peeks, pokes 
or Pascal! 

The listing: 

1 PCLEAR8:PM0DE4,5:PCLS:SCREEN1, 
1:DIMIN(256) :Y=2 55:FORX=j3T02 55:P 
MODE4,1:GET(Y,0)-(Y,191) ,IN,G:PM 
ODE4,5:PUT(X,0)-(X,191) ,IN,PSET: 
Y=Y-1 : NEXTX : F0RJ=1T04 : PCOPYJ+4TO 
J: NEXT J 



John Collicott 
Inman, KS 



(For this winning one-liner contest entry; the author has been sent copies 
of both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion Thv 
Third Ramhtm Adventures Tape.) 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Here is a CoCo 3 expression of a sentiment most 
undoubtedly felt by all CoCo owners! 

The listing: 

1J3 PMODE3,1:PCLS3:SCREEN1,0:CIRC 
LE(128,99) ,90,4, . 95 : PAINT (128 , 99 
) ,4,4: COLOR2 : DRAW"BM128 , 40R9L18R 
9D20R9L18":DRAW"BM60,70D20R18BM8 
8 , 7j3D20R18U20L18BM117 , 70D20R18U2 
0BM146 , 70D20R18L18U1J3R18L18U10R1 
8BM146 , 100D2.0U20R9D10U10R9D20BM1 
75,100D20R18U20D40" 

20 POKE65495,0:DRAW"BM80,130D20R 
18L18U20R18BM108 , 130D20R18U20L18 
BM136,130D20R18L18U20R18BM164,13 
0D20R18U20L18" : PAINT (0 , J3) , 1 , 4 : PA 
INT (0 , S3 ) , 2 , 4 : PAINT (0 , j3 ) , 3 , 4 : PMOD 
E3, 1:SCREEN1,1: PAINT (0,0) ,2, 4: PA 
INT (0 , ) ,1,4: PAINT (J3 , ) , 3 , 4 : PMOD 
E3 , 1 : SCREEN1 , : RUN 

Doug Fingliss (Age 9) 
Tiverton. Rf 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 117 



WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOW'S 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from Thi 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account with 
Delphi, if you do not have a credit 
card or prefer not to use it, Delphi 
requires that you send $25 to give 
your account a positive balance. 
This will be refunded after your first 
free hour if you choose to no longer 
use the system or it will be applied 
to future connect charges. If you do 
not maintain a positive balance, you 
will be charged $3.50 each month 
for direct billing. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — on 
a regular basis. Conference sched- 
ules will appear in the rainbow 
each month. Be sure to check online 
announcements for changes and 
additions. 

THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 

rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32.15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save even more? While 
you're online you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxe package which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21 .95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21 .60). 

Delphi provides us all with 
Immediate CoCo Community. 

Check it out today. After all, you can 
sample it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 
(800) 544-4005 
(617)491-3393 



DELPHI 



TYPE: 

GROUP COCO 



COMMUNITY TOGETHER 



How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and the 
rainbow's CoCo SIG. In most cities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Telenet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 7 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Telenet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $10.80 (U.S.) per 
hour. 

On Telenet: Uninet network has merged with Telenet. 
To get the Telenet number for your area, call (800) 336- 
0437. After you call the local access number and make 
connection, press ENTER twice. When the "TERMINAL=" 
prompt appears, press ENTER again. When the "@" prompt 
appears, type C DELPHI and press ENTER. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press 'A'. 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 

ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (.) and 
ENTER (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:126 and press ENTER. Now type p 1 310G, 
DELPHI ; and press ENTER. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $10.80 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Telenet or 
Tymnet. Check with the telephone authorities in your 
country for details on how to sign up for this service. When 
you have an account set up, you can reach Delphi with 
a "host code" of 3 1 1 6 1 70 3088 through Telenet, or 3 1 06 
90 6015 through Tymnet. (You'll have to pay the loll 
charges for this connection.) 
Type in Your Usemame 

If you're already a subscriber to the rainbow, at the 



"USERNAME:" prompt, type JDINDELPHI and press 
ENTER. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type RAINBOW. 
Then, at the "NUMBER:" prompt, type your individual 
subscription number from the mailing label of your latest 
issue of THE RAINBOW. (If there are one or more zeros at 
the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you don't already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type JOINDELPHI and press ENTER. At 
the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type SENDRHINBOW and press 
ENTER. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because you'll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your rainbow and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just use Control-X and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. We'll 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you'll be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and you'll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. You'll also 
be assigned a temporary password. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is verified and opened, each 
rainbow subscriber will be credited with an hour of free 
lime! 

When you log back in, use your chosen usemame and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into your 
own personal password. This is the password you will use 
for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 

After Max bids you goodbye, you'll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; tvpe in GROUP COCO and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 



rcciiui t 








w 




I*--- 





A hardware project to handle the switching 
of the joystick and cassette ports. 




e Old 
witcheroo 







Mark Haverstock 



n the August '86 RAINBOW [Page 
108], I presented a hardware project 
designed to switch among joysticks, 
trackballs, mice and other devices that 
use the joystick ports. It was designed 
to save CoCo owners the hassle of 
plugging and unplugging these items by 
allowing one joystick port to accommo- 
date more than one device. 

Willi the introduction of Tandy's Hi- 
Res Joystick Interface, another prob- 
lem appears. Both the joystick port and 
cassette port must now be shared with 
the Hi-Res Interface. Enter the Old 
Switcheroo II. This switchbox will 
handle the switching of both the joy- 
stick and cassette ports. Armed with a 
few inexpensive parts and tools, you can 
build this convenient accessory for your 
CoCo 2 or 3. 

The Joystick Switcher 

Based on comments from several 
readers who wrote to me about the 
joystick switcher, I learned that most 
use the project to switch only two items, 
such as a mouse and ajoystick. The new 
version is set up to switch two items. It 
also has a center OFF position to disable 
both devices. The OFF position is par- 
ticularly important for programs that 

Mark Haverstock leaches computer 
applications for the Boardman schools 
in Youngstown. OH. His hobbies in- 
clude computing, photography and 
amateur radio. 



are adversely affected by having joy- 
sticks plugged in during operation. A 
double-pole, double-throw switch has 
been substituted for the rotary switch 
that appeared in the original version 
because it is easier to wire. The switcher 
can be used with either joystick port, or 
with external devices such as the CoCo 
Max Hi- Res Pak. 




The Cassette Port Switcher 

The Hi-Res Joystick Interface (Cat. 
No. 26-3028) uses both the joystick and 
cassette ports. This, of course, presents 
a problem for cassette recorder users 
who will need to plug and unplug the 
recorder. The Switcheroo II utilizes a 
double-pole, double-throw switch also 
to activate either the cassette recorder 
or the Hi-Res Interface. 

You will need the following parts: 
One six-pin DIN plug (Cat. No. 274- 



120 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



020); two six-pin inline DIN jacks (Cat. No. 274-02 1 ); a five- 
pin DIN plug (Cat. No. 274-003); two five-pin inline DIN 
jacks (Cat. No. 274-005); an experimenter box (Cat. No. 270- 
2301); a DPDT switch with a center OFF position (Cat. No. 
275-664); a DPDT switch (Cat. No. 275-663); 4 feet of five- 
conductor wire; dry-transfer lettering; epoxy; and electrical 
tape or heat-shrink tubing. 

The required tools include the following: a drill, '/1-inch 
drill bit, flat metal file, small screwdriver, small Phillips 
screwdriver, wire strippers, pliers, soldering iron and solder. 

Construction 

Construction of the Switcheroo 1 1 will be described in three 
parts: the preparation of the project box, wiring the joystick 
port switch, and wiring the cassette port switch. Do each in 
order to avoid wiring errors. 

First, take the metal cover off the project box, removing 
the four Phillips screws at each corner. Mark the positions 
of the holes to be drilled in the plastic portion of the box 
(see Figure I). Then drill these holes using the '/4-inch drill 
bit. Use the file to remove any burrs from the inside of the 
box. 

Mark the positions of the switch mounting holes on the 
metal cover. Drill these holes with the '4-inch drill bit. Again, 
remove any burrs from the rear of the cover. Find the 
positions for SWI and SW2 as shown in Figure 1, and apply 
dry transfer lettering at these positions. 

Switch 1 -Joystick Port 

The next step is to wire SWI for the joystick port. If you 
cannot obtain five-conductor cable, substitute five #22-gauge 





BACK 




LEFT SIDE 






+ + 4- + 


1/2" 


+ 


1/2- 


1/2 ■ | 




|l/Z" 




1- 1 




1 1/4" 




1 1/4 ■ 






COVER 




RIGHT SIDE 






+ + 




+ 


1/2' 


f 1 




3/4" | | 3/4 ■ 


1 " 


Drill each hole as 
narked with a 1/4" 




1 


drill bit. 


Figure 1: Preparation of The Switcheroo Enclosure. 



TURBO RAM 
BOARD 




$39.95 



ZEROK 



$119.95 

512 K 



■ Fast 120 nsec RAM chips 

■ Easy-to-follow instructions 

■ No soldering 

■ Includes RAM Board Utilities 



PYRAMIX Arcade Game $1 9.95 



BACKUP LIGHTNING (disk duplicator) $14.95 



RAM BOARD UTILITIES 

• RAM Disk tor RSDOS 

• Print Spooler 

• Sophisticated MEMORY TEST Program 



DUAL-MODE 
CONTROLLER 




PAL UPGRADE 
$7.95 

for grey or white 
MULTI-PACK (26-3024) 



$19.95 



$99.95' 



'ROM ml indudetj (AS DOS 
1.1 ROM-$19.95).32K 
SRAM— $16.95. 



100% Compatible with existing H/W & SAW 

No MULTI-PACK required (low power draw) 

8K Cache memory (expandable to 32K) 

Track Reads(programs load up to 2x faster) 

Two Switched Sockets (supports 8K ROM, 

2764/27128/27256 EPROMs) 

Gold Contacts for reliability 

Easy Installation (no cutting, soldering, jumpers or 

external wires) 

Runs under OS-9 with: 

• no-halt read/write 

• interrupts and multi-tasking enabled 

• reliable clock and type-ahead 



SSH: S3.50 U.S. and Canada (S1 5 foreign) 

COO: S2.25 U.S. only 

2ND Day Air: S1.50 (contiguous U.S. only) 

Tax: inside California add 6% 

VISA or MC accepted 



30 DAY MONEY-BACK 
GUARANTEE PLUS FULL 1 YEAR 
WARRANTY ON ALL PRODUCTS! 



Prices subject to change without notice 



Send check or money-order to: 
erformance 
eripherals 

11432PenaWay 
MiraLoma. CA 91752 
Or Call (714) 681-3007 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 121 



f f 



14 ±n do w Ma st-er 



MM 



A Point & Click Uindow System 

for the rest of us fff 

Fully Compatible with ff.S. Dos 

Enhanced Basics it does not need 

or use 0S-3 S and you don ' t haue to 

be a Rocket Scientist or a P.H.D. 



to use Iflindowss 
Buttons s Icons f 
House Functions 



mnMuumi Fke-js 



Pull Down Menus i 
Edit fields or 
in your Programs! 



e 



kAilktlM&HM 
lelele Key 
Display Keys 

Save Keys 
Load Keys 



ojpoi Keys Used 
OPEN:?CHRJM^ 



I 01 T 0: 



BUTTON 
OPEN 255,7 



r.insr (,$-.■> 



__ DRIVE 1 
0NNENU1 BflS B a 
CONFIG BflS 6 B 2 
CHECK BflS OBI 
AUTOEXEC BflS OBI 
COIIFIG SYS 1 A 1 



DRIVE 3 



Uindow /faster 
Finder V1.0 

Uritten by Bill Very on a 
Copyright (c) 1388 by Cei — Comp Ltd 



Screen Display Fonts 



Window Master supports up to 54 different character sizes on 
the screen with 5 different character styles. You can have Bold, 
Italic, Underlined, Super-Script, Sub-script or Plain character 
styles or any combination of them in any character size. You 
can also change the text color and background at any time to get 
really colorful displays. 

Fully Basic Compatible 

Window Master is fully compatible with Enhanced Color 
Disk basic with over 50 Commands & functions added to fully 
support the Point & Click Window System. Window Master 
does not take any memory away from Basic, so you still have all 
the Basic Program memory available. 

Hi-Resolution Displays 

Window Master uses the full potential of the Color 
Computer 3 display by using the 225 vertical resolution display 
modes instead of the 192 or 200 resolution modes like most 
other programs. It uses either the 320/16 color mode or the 
640/4 color display to give you the best display resolution 
possible, and can be switched to either mode at any time. 



Window Master Features 

Multiple Windows 

Window Master supports multiple window displays with up to 
a maximum of 31 windows on the screen. Overlapping windows 
arc supported, and any window can be made active or brought to 
(he top of the screen. Windows can be picked up and moved 
anywhere on the screen with the mouse. There arc 6 different 
Window styles to choose from and the window text, border and 
background color is selectable. 

Pull Down Menus 

Menus are completely programmable with up to 16 menus 
available. They can be added or deleted at any time in a 
program. Menu items can be enabled, disabled, checked or 
cleared easily under program control. Menu selection is 
automatically handled by Window Master & all you have to do 
is read a function variable to find out which menu was selected. 

Buttons, Icons & Edit Fields 

Each Window can have up to 128 buttons. Icons or Edit fields 
active, if you can fit that many. Buttons, Icons and Edit field 
selection is handled automatically by Window Master when the 
mouse is clicked on one. All you have to do is read a Dialog 
function to find out which Button. Icon, or Edit field was 
selected, its very simple. 

Mouse & Keyboard Functions 

Window Master automatically handles the Mouse pointer 
movement, display and button clicks. It will tell you the current 
screen coordinate, the local window coordinate, window number 
the mouse is in, the number of times the button was pressed, 
which window number it was clicked in and more. The 
Keyboard is completely buffered, and supports up to 80 
programmable Function keys that can contain any kind of 
information or command sequences you can imagine. You can 
load and save function key sets at any time. So. you can have 
special sets of function keys for different tasks. The "Ctrl" key is 
supported so that you have a full control code keyboard 
available. 



OPTIONS 




CLEAR SCREEN 

DOTS 

BOX 

CIRCLE 

LINE 

QUIT 

LOAD 



SAVE 



16, 1 ,08, 1 



IPHIC6 DEMO 

IONS" , "CLEAR SCR 
" , "CIRCLE" , "LINE 
OAD", "SAVE" 



30 WINDOW OPEN 1,44,16,1,00,1, 

3, 2, 0, "WINDOW GRAPHICS DEMO" 

40 MU=1 ■ ' MY WINDOW #=1 

50 ON MENU GOSUB 540 

70 MENU ON 

80 PROTECT 3 

30 OH DIALOG GOSUB 630: DIALOG 

N 







BREAK 

OK 

RUH 



FOREGROUND 
COLOR 



JhsS^V 



ENTER FILE TO SAVE 



SAVE FILE 



GFXTEST.PIC2 



Mixed Text & Graphics 



Window Master fully supports both Text & Graphics displays 
and even has a Graphics Pen that can be used with HLINE, 
HCIRCLE, HSET and more. You can change the Pen width & 
depth and turn it on or off with simple commands. We also 
added Enhanced Graphics Attributes that allow graphics 
statements to use And, Or, Xor and Copy modes to display 
graphic information. With the Graphics enhancements added 
by Window Master, you could write a "COCOMAX" type 
program in Basic! In fact we provide a small graphics demo 
program written in Basic. 



Event Processing 



Window Master adds a powerful new programming feature to 
Basic that enables you to do "Real Time" Programming in Basic. 
It's called Event Trapping, and it allows a program to detect and 
respond to certain "events" as they occur. You can trap Dialog 
activity, Time passage, Menu Selections, Keyboard activity and 
Mouse Activity with simple On Gosub statements, and when the 
specified event occurs, program control is automatically routed 
to the event handling routine, just like a Basic Gosub. After 
servicing the event, the sub-routine executes a Return statement 
and the program resumes execution at the statement where the 
event occured. 

Enhanced Editing Features 

Window Master adds an enhanced editor to Basic that allows 
you to see what you edit. It allows you to insert & delete by 
character or word, move left or right a word or character at a 
lime, move to begin or end of line, toggle automatic insert 
on/off or just type over to replace characters. The editor can 
also recall the last line entered or edited with a single key Stroke. 
You can even change the line number in line to copy it to a new 
location in the program. 



Window Master Applications 

Window Master pushs the Color Computer 3 far beyond its 
normal capabilities, into the world of a "User Friendly" 
operating enviornment. We are already planning several new 
programs for use with Window Master. So you don't have to 
worry about having to write all your own programs. And don't 
forget that many existing Basic and M.L. programs will run 
under Window Master with little or no changes. The 
Possibilities for Application programs are endless: Spread 
Sheets, Word Processing, Communications, Education, Games, 
Graphic Design, DeskTop Publishing and on and on. 

Hardware Requirements 

Window Master requires 512K of memory, at least 1 Disk 
Drive, a Hi-Res Joystick Interface and a Mouse or Joystick. 

Technical Assistance 

If you run into difficulty trying to use some of Window 
Master's features, we will be happy to assist you in any way 
possible. You can write to us at the address below or call us 
between 10am and 2pm Pacific Standard Time for a more timely 
response. Sorry, no collect calls will be accepted. 

Ordering Information 

To order WINDOW MASTER by mail, send check or money 

order for S69.95. plus S3.00 for shipping & handling to the 

address below. To order by VISA, MASTERCARD or COD 

call us at (702)452-0632 

(Monday thru Saturday, 8am to 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP Ltd. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702)-452-0632 



r 


ILES 
New 

llDPn 


m i III 1 3M 




.== CALENDER V 2.9 == 
May 1988 








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3 


4 


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Call for availability of 128K version! 




J1-J2 





J3-J4 



3 3 

JOYSTICK SWITCH 




2 2 

CASSETTE PORT SWITCH 



Figure 2: Plugs/ Jacks Pinouts 



stranded wires twisted together (preferably assorted colors), 
or use the wiring from an old, broken joystick. Prepare one 
1 2-inch cable and two 6-inch cables by removing I inch of 
the outer jacket and stripping '4-inch of insulation from each 
individual wire at both ends. Remove the covers from the 
jacks (Jl,J2) and plug (PI), then solder these wires, one to 
each pin, as shown in Figure 2. Before replacing the covers, 
be sure to inspect the solder connections for shorts. 

Insert the remaining ends of the wires into the three holes 
located on the left portion of the project box. The wires from 
J I and J2 use the two holes at the rear of the box; the hole 
on the left side is for PI. Wire the switch (SWl) according 
to the schematic in Figure 3. Note that only two of these lines 
are switched: the +5V and ground lines. The others will be 
matched, soldered together and covered with electrical tape 
or shrink tubing. 

Switch 2-Cassette Port 

Prepare three pieces of five-conductor cable: one 12 inches 



Note: All jacks and plugs are 
pictured from the rear. 





Match remaining wires from pins 1, 2 and 4 of J1, 
J2 and P1. Twist each group together. Solder and 
insulate with electrical tape or shrink tubing. 



Figure 3: Joystick Port Connections 



long, the others 6 inches long, as described previously. 
Remove the covers from the jacks (J3.J4) and plug (P2). Next, 
solder these wires as shown in Figure 2, one wire to each pin. 
Inspect the wiring for possible shorts before replacing the 
covers. 

Insert the remaining ends of the wires on the right side of 
the project box. The hole on the right side of the box is for 
P2, the remaining two in the rear are for J3 and J4. Wire 
the switch (SW2) according to Figure 4. Notice that as in the 
joystick switch, only two lines are switched. The others will 
be matched together, soldered and covered with electrical 
tape or shrink tubing. Mount both SI and S2 on the metal 
cover, aligning the handle with the marked switch positions. 

To secure the wires attached to the jacks and plugs, and 
to keep them from pulling out of the box, apply a small 
amount of epoxy to the point where these wires enter the 
inside of the box. Allow the epoxy to dry thoroughly before 
continuing. 

Finally, reassemble the box, tucking the wires carefully 



Note: All jacks and plugs are 
pictured from the rear. 





Match remaining wires from pins 1, 4 and 3 of J3, 
J4 and P2. Twist each group together. Solder and 
insulate with electrical tape or shrink tubing. 



Figure 4: Cassette Port Connections 



124 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



TO COMPUTER 
JOYSTICK PORT 



JOYSTICK 



OFF 



CASS 



HRI 



TO COMPUTER 
CASSETTE PORT 




HI - RES 
JOYSTICK 
INTERFACE 



MOUSE 



TO CASSETTE RECORDER 



O 



#1 - Switch between Hl-Res and regular positions for mouse and joystick. (Ex.: Use mouse for drawing tool, 
use joystick for games ) 



OFF 



CASS 



HRI 



TO COMPUTER 
CASSETTE PORT 



TO JOYSTICKS, 
MOUSE, ETC. 



HI - RES 
JOYSTICK 
INTERFACE 



TO COMPUTER 
JOYSTICK PORT 



TO CASSETTE RECORDER 



# 2 - Use both devices for Hl-Res drawing. (Ex.: both mouse and joystick used for hl-res drawing tools ) 



Figure 5: Setup Diagrams 



inside. As a finishing touch, cover the dry-transfer letters with 
clear nail polish to prevent them from rubbing off. To test 
it out, configure your Hi-Res Interface, cassette recorder and 
joysticks or other control devices as shown in Figure 5. Be 
sure to orient your accessories to match the marked switch 
positions. Now you can enjoy the convenience of switching 



both cassette and joystick ports without unplugging. 

(Questions or comments about this hardware project may 
be directed to the author at 6835 Colleen Drive, Youngstown, 
OH 44512. Please enclose an SASE when writing for a 
reply.) f^ 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



125 





Software 



CoCo3 



War game Designer — 
A Tactical Breakthrough 



The Texas sun was unmercifully hoi, 
beating down like a physical presence 
on attacker and defender alike. Santa 
Anna's troops looked across the open 
area leading to the Alamo and swore; 
it looked so simple and yet the dusty 
ground was littered with their com- 
rades' bodies. 

The defenders peered wearily over the 
Alamo's walls, knowing they could not 
withstand another attack. Powder and 
shot were low, casualties were high. A 
collective sigh of resignation arose as 
they saw the Mexican troops begin to 
move forward one more time, most 
likely the last. 



"What is that sound?" Santa Anna 
asked as an ominous whup-whup-whup 
filled the air, drowning out the thump- 
ing cannon and hissing rifle balls. His 
question was quickly answered as a 
troop of assault helicopters surged over 
the trees and began riddling his now- 
panicky troops with 2.75-inch rocket 
explosions and mini-gun bursts. 

Science fiction? A movie with an 
exceptionally inept prop man? Every 
Texan's dream? Maybe. Wargame De- 
signer from SPORTSware allows you 
to adjust the forces or terrain on the 
four provided scenarios, or design your 
own war game completely from scratch. 



using either the troop and map icons 
from the program modules or tailored 
ones you devise. 

"What if Napoleon had had more 
artillery at Waterloo?" Give him some 
more. "What if von Paulus had been 
able to link up with von Manstein's 
relief column?" Give him the troops and 
equipment and see if you can make it 
happen. If it doesn't happen, subtract a 
Soviet corps or two and try it again. 

You virtually have a free hand to 
design the war game you desire, adjust- 
ing the forces by type and strength as 
you like and drawing the map to suit 
your own ideas. As the rule book cau- 
tions, though, you should make the 
opposing forces relatively equal unless 
history demands otherwise; designing a 
game to commit slaughter is hardly fair, 
no matter what mission you remember. 

This double-sided, two-disk set is 
designed specifically and only for the 
CoCo 3, using its 128K. and advanced 



126 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



graphics capabilities to the fullest. The 
first question after loading is whether 
you have a composite or RGB monitor; 
the graphics look ever so much better 
on an RGB. 




Since 1 have only a color TV, 1 wan- 
dered up to my local Radio Shack and 
asked to use one of their CoCo 3s 
hooked up to an RGB. Friendly and 
helpful people that they are, I was given 
free rein. Dave the salesman hung 
around to watch and was as impressed 
with the graphics as myself. While good 
enough on a TV set, they're truly spec- 
tacular on an RGB, and can be en- 
hanced even further by the PALETTE 
command built into the system, allow- 
ing you to choose from among 64 
colors. 

The 23-page instruction/ rule book 
comes in a folding plastic case along 
with two disks that are ready to be 
backed up. The instructions in fact 
suggest it. You'll have to do it anyway 
to design your own war games. 



SPORTSware: Designer's Designers 



SPORTSware, an 8-year-old, Toledo 
family-owned software company, 
stresses the word strategy in most of its 
products, being primarily interested in 
the strategic aspects of sports, science 
fiction, adventure and wars. 

After designing a laserdisc football 
strategy game called Live Action Foot- 
ball (endorsed by the NFL) for arcades, 
they turned their talents to the CoCo. 
Their Football Strategy software was the 
arcade game without the laserdisc foot- 
age. Currently available software con- 
sists of Gridiron Strategy and Weekly 
Winner (lor choosing lottery numbers), 
plus several separate war game scenarios 
not requiring Wurgame Designer( WGD) 
to run. 

Paul Olmstead programmed WGD 
specifically for the CoCo 3, inspired by 
its capabilities and some things he said he 
found unsatisfying about many current 
computerized war games: "Once you had 
played it through, there wasn't much else 
you could do with it; the graphics weren't 
appealing; many were for only one player 
and scenarios couldn't be changed." (He 
might also have added the lack of a game- 
saving option.) He stays with the CoCo 
3 for the company's programs, feeling 
that every CoCo owner's secret desire is 
to own a CoCo 3. 

A wargamer himself, Olmstead stated 
that he might have been one of the first 
people in the country to buy Tactics in 
1964. Two years later, he was officially 
invited to participate in what has some- 



times euphemistically been called the 
"Southeast Asia War Games." Instead, 
he enlisted, went to Officer Candidate 
School, served on the XVI 1 1 Airborne 
Corps' Commanding General's staff and 
found himself in Vietnam in 1968. 

When asked about current projects, he 
obviously remembered his security clear- 
ance, responding, "We're not telling." 
Military and business experience taught 
him that you don't let the enemy or the 
competition know what you're doing 
until you've done it. 

As a family businessman, Olmstead 
says that he relies a lot on his wife, Kathy, 
and daughter, Ashley, for support and 
understanding. The suspicion arises that 
the distaff side of the family may be the 
most severe and critical playtesters he has 
found. From my own experience, if I can 
get a new magic trick past my wife, it'll 
get by anybody. 

SPORTSware encourages WGD 
owners to submit new scenarios for 
possible future use. Olmstead recently 
received a letter from a gentleman in 
Quebec who plans to create some addi- 
tional WGD scenarios for his history 
classes and then share them with 
SPORTSware. 

Considering the rampant imagination 
of CoCo owners. SPORTSware could 
become deluged with suggested battles, 
historical and speculative. Although 
nobody at the company has yet read Red 
Storm Rising, they might have to in order 
to understand some of the letters. □ 



War Games as History, or Vice Versa 



Nobody knows for sure when com- 
manders first began playing "What if?" 
games, trying to figure out what to do if 
their opponent did this or that. However, 
Wellington's remark "The Battle of 
Waterloo was won on the playing fields 
of Eton" could well have referred to a war 
same of some sort. 

As weaponry becomes more precise 
and lethal, so must war games become 
more complex — which may explain why 
wargamcs dealing with Napoleonic times 
may be the most popular: The weapons 
were sufficiently advanced to prevent all 
but the most inept commander from 
moving his forces in a single mass, yet 
uncomplicated enough to allow the rules 
to be relatively easy. 

The first professional war game may 
have been Kriegspiel, developed by the 
Prussian general staff and perhaps par- 
tially responsible for their victory in the 



Franco-Prussian War. H.G. Wells (yes, 
that one) is credited with inventing the 
first war game for amateurs — Little 
Wars, which used model soldiers. 

We've come a long way since then: 
Modern military services use computers 
and other exotic devices to simulate the 
forces opposing each other. Artillery, air 
strikes and the like are still important but 
are complicated by acronyms such as 
EMP, EW, FLOT, ECM, ECCM, ASW 
and ALOC. All of these Simulations are 
designed to train the staff, lest the current 
plans and inject just the right amount of 
confusion and lack of information to 
make it seem real. 

Bookshelves and toy stores are filled 
with war games ranging from Greek 
Hoplites to 21st century space marines, 
all for us amateurs. Many of them be- 
come quite confusing in their complexity 
caused by the quest for realism. Comput- 



erized games are much easier; the "com- 
manders" make the decisions, the com- 
puter figures the results. 

One vital point to remember, for both 
professional and amateur wargamers: 
Learn from the game and try not to 
repeat the dumb mistakes. A story has it 
that the Japanese naval staff war gamed 
an attack on Midway. The players por- 
traying the Americans caught the other 
players while they were refueling and 
rearming their carrier planes, sinking two 
carriers. The chief umpire would have no 
part of that, since that might lead to an 
imperial defeat, and allowed only one 
carrier sunk. 

A few years later, the same basic thing 
happened, this time for real. Many 
historians consider the Battle of Midway 
the turning point in the Pacific. 

Did the U.S. Navy war game that one 
in advance? □ 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 127 



The system consists of five modules: 
unit icon design, map icon design, map 
design, unit attributes and the game 
module. The instructions walk you 
carefully through each of the first four 
modules, so it's almost impossible to 
mess it up if English is your primary 
language. However, when you design 
your own war game, make absolutely 
sure that you assign objectives for each 
army, man them and assign a Terrain 
Modifier of 8 to at least the Red army's 
town or fortress, even if you're re- 
enacting the Battle of Cannae as I was. 
Without objectives, the program checks 
to see if the Red forces occupy any 
objectives; finding none, it automati- 
cally declares the Blue forces the winner. 
This can be disconcerting when you've 
spent some time setting up the Order of 
Battle for each army and reviewed your 
notes on Hannibal. You can, by the way, 
design either one- or two-player war 
games; equally important is the capabil- 
ity to save a game in progress. 

If you don't want to design your own 
from scratch, you can adjust various 
things on the four different games on 
the disks: Invasion North, Attack on 
Moscow, Robot Command and Dun- 
geon Warrior. (These in themselves 
seem to be worth the price.) For exam- 
ple, you can change terrain features on 
the map, adjust movement points 
needed to cross terrain features, have 
reinforcements arrive earlier or later, 
and make a unit stronger or weaker. In 
addition, the entire thing is written in 
BASIC, so the hackers can play with that 
aspect also. 



it arrow leas to draw eon 
■ pen up. D"pen down 
:=ehan9e color 
'"Edit an icon fro" boltoa 
l=H*w (erase design box) 
l»Save icon to bottom row 
'■Save icons to disk 
(•Return to main menu 




My only suggestion would be to 
install a default value when assigning 
movement costs and combat modifiers; 
you could then use the cursor to lake 
care of the exceptions. 

The scenarios provided aren't that 
easy, either. After slashing my way 
through the border defenses in Attack 
on Moscow (and feeling pretty smug 
about it, too), my troops started getting 
fire from the Soviet Katyusha rocket 
launchers. This continued all the way to 



the Moscow suburbs, where my last 
bedraggled infantry unit perished under 
a rain of rockets. 

The programs take up all but five 
granules on a disk, so you'll need to use 
a separate disk side for each game you 
design or modify. Difficult games can 
either be altered further or reformatted, 
backed up from the master copy and 
begun again. The only real limitation is 
your imagination. 

In short, fanatical wargamers who 
have been waiting to fight some obscure 
battle from the War of the Roses don't 
have to wait any longer. Drag out the 
history books, lock and load a disk into 
your trusty CoCo 3 and have at it! 

(SPORTSware, 1251 S. Reynolds Road, 
Suite 414, Toledo, OH 43615, 419-389-1515; 

$29) 

— John M. Hebert 



Softw afe^ 



CoCo 1.2&3 



Fraze Craze — 
Wheel-Watching 
on the CoCo 

Fraze Craze, a fun-to-play word 
game similar to the popular Wheel Of 
Fortune TV game show, was written for 
the 64K. CoCo 1 or 2 but also works on 
the CoCo 3. 

Fraze Craze is supplied on an unpro- 
tected disk, so a backup copy for your 
own protection is not a problem. The 
program is written in BASIC, and the 
instruction booklet contains directions 
on adding your own custom game data 
covering people, places, things and 
events. 

The right joystick is used to move the 
onscreen cursor left or right to select the 
letter of your choice. When you press 
the firebutton, the "spinner" is acti- 
vated; a highlighted cursor moves from 
left to right across the screen and stops 
on a number. This number represents 
the dollar amount to be played on a 
particular turn and will be multiplied by 
the number of correct letters that show 
up when you make your guess. 

Just like on the TV show, you can 
also buy vowels; but because the game 
is written for one player, you compete 
with five "men." If you choose a letter 
that is not in the phrase, you lose one 
man — you will also lose one man if the 
built-in timer counts down to zero 
before you select a letter. 



Letters are blocked out after each 
choice, so you can keep track of the ones 
already used. As soon as you think you 
know the answer to the puzzle, you can 
select the question mark and then type 
in the answer. If you are correct, you 
win the round and go on to a new 
puzzle; otherwise, you lose two men and 
continue the game. 

1 liked Fraze Craze. It's fun to play 
and educational, as well. Although the 
price is very reasonable, the program 
has one glaring flaw. Not once do you 
get a chance to see Vanna! 

(RAM Electronics, 814 Josephine St., 
Monmouth, OR 97361, 503-838-4144; 
S12.95) 

— David Gerald 



^Softwar e 



CoCo 1,2 &3 



I H ardw afe- 



Syntrax 2.0 — 
CoCo MIDI Package 

There you are, a record producer, 
sweating bullets, surrounded by mil- 
lions of dollars of electronic recording 
gear at a major recording studio. The 
equipment and musicians are costing 
you hundreds of dollars per hour. Your 
master tape must be mixed and ready 
to go tomorrow and the client is there 
breathing down your back and even 
more nervous than you are. (No 
wonder. By the time it's all done, you 
may have spent over $25,000 of the 
client's money recording the album!) 

Suppose, in the middle of the session, 
I stopped you and said, "Hold on. 
Relax. 1 can get you the same quality 
product for the cost of a CoCo, a few 
synthesizers and Syntrax 2.0 from 
lntercomp Sound. You'll save hours in 
costly studio time, and have more 
control at every step of the production." 

You'd probably make an appoint- 
ment with me first thing the next morn- 
ing, wouldn't you? 

I know just what I'm talking about, 
because I have had my own copy of 
Syntrax for a couple of years, and it has 
already saved me thousands of dollars 
in recording costs. (I am a pianist/ 
synthesist/ producer and have just fin- 
ished producing one album in Nash- 
ville. I own five synthesizers, two M1D1- 
capable digital reverberation units, a 
drum machine and --of course - 
several CoCos.) 



128 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



If you don't know what a MIDI 
synthesizer is, here is a brief explana- 
tion. (For more details, go to your local 
professional music store and ask for a 
demonstration of MIDI.) 

MIDI is short for Musical Instru- 
ment Digital Interface and refers to a 
standard format for data transfer be- 
tween electronic synthesizers. The data 
includes information such as how 
quickly a key on a synth was depressed, 
which note it was, how long it was held 
down, and so on. 

MIDl's capability to quickly transmit 
the status of electronic devices (of which 
synths are only one example) is making 
it a de facto standard for the electronics- 
dependent recording industry. MIDI is 
such a developed protocol that it allows 
the musical imagination to go into 
territory unimagined just a few years 
ago. 

Syntrax arrives with a thick manual 
and software. However, it requires the 
Color MIDI Connection, a hardware 
MIDI interface that connects between 
the computer and the disk controller. 
An extender ribbon connector is part of 
the interface, so I recommend a Multi- 
Pak to reduce those occasional I/O 
errors. 



You install Syntrax by turning off 
your system and attaching the Color 
MIDI Connection. Then you attach 
your MIDI cables from the CMC to 
your synth, power up and type RUN 
"SYNTRAX". 

The Channel mode prompt (CH>) 
Hashes, waiting for commands; a so- 
phisticated parsing routine interprets 
them. All available commands are 
presented onscreen. 

Let's run through a sample session. 
Suppose we want to create a music file 
with the built-in editor. This uses the 
Insert mode, so we press I. 

The screen clears, leaving us with the 
Channel mode prompt and a line 
number. At the cursor we type our 
musical data in letter form. Using the 
usual RS-DOS SHIFT-O combination as 
necessary, we enter the following: CH> 
lc:d:e:f:g:a:b:C:D:E:F:G:fl:B. 
This is two octaves of a C major scale. 

Why do we mix uppercase and low- 
ercase? Syntrax starts out with a default 
two-octave range, with the lower octave 
being represented by CoCo lowercase 
(reverse video) letters, and the upper 
octave with uppercase. Also, the default 
note duration is a quarter note. Notes 
are separated by a colon. 



When you press ENTER, Syntrax 
compiles your text into MIDI data 
(compilation is incredibly fast), and you 
are brought automatically to the Play 
menu. Begin to play the line above by 
pressing B for Begin, and vo/7a! Your 
MIDI keyboard plays what you typed! 
To continue with the rest of a compo- 
sition, you simply add more text lines 
with the editor, compile them, and play 
them back to check them one at a time. 

That was easy. What else is there? 
Flats and sharps are handled easily. 
Simply use the plus sign (+) for sharps 
and the minus sign or hypen (-) for Hats. 
One way to write an E-flat major scale 
would be CH> 1 e- : f : g: a- :b- : C 
:D:E-. The notation may seem hard to 
master, but it isn't — I got accustomed 
to the system in minutes. 

Chords are easy, too. For a C major 
chord (which has the notes C, E and G), 
simply type CH> 1 cma j . And for minor, 
type crnin. Diminished chords and 
chords with sevenths are implemented, 
too. 

You can also specify each note in a 
chord, for that special voicing or for 
that "weird"sound not covered by usual 
chord notation. To make the notes 
sound simultaneously, don't separate 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 129 



them with colons: CH> 1 d e- g- b- F. 

Duration of the notes can be manip- 
ulated, too. Here is a funk bass line in 
Syntrax notation: 

CH>1 ? r/lS:d-:e-:r/B:d- 
/"1G : r : e- : r : d- : e-'B : c— 

Rests are denoted by r and the duration 
of a note is specified by a slash followed 
by the duration required. In the exam- 
ple above, ciG means a 16th-note rest, 
e-'B means an E-flat in the bass clef for 
an eighth note duration. If no duration 
is specified, the previous duration is 
implied. 

Several lines of this kind of text, when 
listed to the screen or printer, can be 
difficult to interpret months (even 
hours) later. Luckily, Syntrax allows 
you to fully comment your data. Simply 



type in a line of music, type a semicolon 
to signal that what follows is a com- 
ment, and then enter your comment. 
For example: 

CH> 1 I D-maj E-'l:E-maj 

F/*l; Rhodes chords, measures 1 

and two 

The compiling step, initiated with 
ENTER, will ignore all text followed by 
the semicolon. Note that the question 
mark (?) and the ampersand (&) denote 
bass and treble clef, respectively. 

Other features of Syntrax Channel 
mode insertion include transposing by 
any number of half-steps; sending out 
specific MIDI bytes such as program 
change, attack velocity, pitch-bend, and 
MIDI channel data; easy implementa- 
tion of repeats, even with nested re- 




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peats; memory conservation by chain- 
ing to other files. 

After you have entered a file, you will 
want to hear it. Go to the Play menu 
(from the main menu), where you can 
choose to begin playing ( B), to slop play 
in the middle (S) or to continue playing 
(C). You can fast forward with the clever 
view feature (V) and you can interac- 
tively change the tempo during play- 
back with the tempo option (T). 

Is that all for the Play menu'? Hardly. 

Play's "More" option (M) brings up 
a whole new screen, which allows you 
to do the following: choose your syn- 
chronization source, either the comput- 
er itself or an external sync device, such 
as another sequencer or a drum ma- 
chine; send out a MIDI "tune" com- 
mand to all your synlhs to make sure 
they all tune their internal oscillators, a 
gieat feature for initializing an exten- 
sive MIDI setup "at the gig"; select your 
clock resolution (24, 48 or 96 pulses per 
quarter note); choose to display note 
names as the sequence is playing; 
"mute" (de-select) any of the Channel 
files you have created (essential for 
recording studio applications). 

The Channel files you create are 
combined to play simultaneously. But 
when I go into the studio, 1 don't want 
all the files to play at once. I typically 
record my music one track at a time 
with only one synlh, so 1 need to mute 
all parts but the one 1 am currently 
recording. 

Are you starting to get the feeling that 
Syntrax 2.0 is feature-packed? Believe 
me, it is. 

In addition to the Channel mode, 
Syntrax offers System mode. You 
change to System mode after saving 
your Channel mode files to disk (which 
Syntrax reminds you to do with an "Are 
You Sure?" message). 

In System mode, you assemble indi- 
vidual Channel mode files into a System 
mode file. This System mode file spec- 
ifies the Channel mode files you want 
to include, determines the tempo and 
any tempo changes within the song if 
necessary (called "Global Track"), and 
provides access to a Play menu similar 
to that available in Channel mode. 

In addition to using the Channel 
mode editor to input notes, Syntrax 
offers two more input methods, Step- 
Time Recording and Real-Time Re- 
cording. 

Step-Time Recording allows the user 
to hook up his or her MIDI-equipped 
synth to the MIDI-ln port of the Color 
MIDI Connection and insert (I) notes 
from the synth keyboard instead of 



130 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



from the CoCo keyboard. First, tell 
Syntrax that your synth is on from the 
main menu. Next, choose Insert. In- 
stead of being brought to the Channel 
mode editor, you are now in a new 
screen full of a host of new options. Just 
start playing, and your notes will go into 
the buffer. Durations are not recorded, 
but are easily added by tapping the 
space bar. 

Step-Time Recording mode offers 
several crucial editing functions, which 
may either be activated by the CoCo or 
assigned to several "spare" notes of your 
synth keyboard. Activating editing 
from your synth allows you to spend 
less time going back and forth between 
synth and CoCo. 

Step-Time Recording provides the 
ability to do the following: 

• alter note durations 

• loop playback so you can hear your 
sequence over and over 

• enable and disable triplet note dura- 
tion 

• interactively change playback tempo 

• fast-forward and rewind through 
your sequence 

• switch over to Real-Time Recording. 

Real-Time Recording is the final 
input mode offered by Syntrax and is 
particularly useful for more capable 
keyboard players. Real-Time Record- 
ing records notes and their durations. 

Let's take a quick look. Real-Time 
Recording provides a great built-in 
metronome and quantization. Quanti- 
zation is like the grade-school process 
of rounding off fractions to whole 
numbers, except you are rounding off 
your sloppy playing to the nearest 16th 
note or eighth note, or whatever unit 
you need to clean up the slop. 

A song-position pointer is also imple- 
mented. MIDI pros will be glad for this, 
as SPP allows the CoCo and a drum 
machine to keep tabs on each other's 
place in a composition. 

This is only an overview of the struc- 
ture and sense of operation of Syntrax. 
There are dozens more features, includ- 
ing some not documented (like MIDI 
delay and track-shifting for that really 
relaxed drum feel) and some rather 
esoteric (like telecommunicating se- 
quences and controlling light rigs with 
MIDI signals). 

It might be best to conclude with my 
overall impression of the product from 
the professional point of view. 

Syntrax provides an easy way to get 
at the "byte level" of MIDI data. It is 
so memory-efficient that I will eat my 



hat if you can compose a piece with it 
and use up the memory. The drum 
machine interface is the most reliable of 
any MIDI program for the CoCo. The 
manual is complete. Syntrax is fairly 
easy to learn; the more you know about 
music, the better. It has never failed me 
in the studio. 

Syntrax, for now, is my MIDI se- 
quencer of choice for the Color Com- 
puter. However, it lacks chiefly in two 
areas. 

One, the user interface, while well- 
designed, has problems. Channel mode 
is somewhat like programming in BASIC 
at times. Input from the Real-Time 
mode needs the ability to record poly- 
phonically. And the program never 
shows a musical staff. This is enough to 
make educators balk at using this other- 
wise powerful tool. Many musicians, 



too, would rather see a staff than be 
caught dead learning "programming." 

Two, the manual — which comes 
well-bound and professional-looking — 
does not read as professionally as the 
program operates. It is largely com- 
plete, but not entirely clear and contains 
a few grammatical errors. 

But these are small criticisms. The 
manual is improving with each revision, 
and there are other enhancements, too, 
including changes to the Color MIDI 
Connection that make it safer to add 
and remove MIDI cables while powered 
up. 

Syntrax 2.0 provides features not 
found in many — if not most — other 
MIDI software packages. (In fact, I 
know no other RS-DOS program of 
any kind that offers more features.) And 
I hear the folks at Intercomp Sound are 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 131 



working on a CoCo 3 version that will 
knock our socks off. 

All in all, I would say that Synirax 
2.0 is the one to buy if you plan on 
getting into professional performance 
and recording. If you have a CoCo 3, 
however, I suggest you wait until the 
guys at Intercomp get the new Synirax 
out. 

(Intercomp Sound, 129 Loyalist Ave., 
Rochester, NY 14624, 716-247-8056; Syn- 
irax, $95; Color MIDI Connection, $98: 
First product review for this company 
appearing in the rainbow.) 

— Paul Ward 



ioftwa re 



Flight 

Simulator II — 
Realistic Flight 
Simulator for the 
CoCo 3 

If you enjoy flying, either as pilot or 
passenger, you will like this entry into 
the CoCo 3 market from SubLOGIC 
Corporation — Flight Simulator II, or 
CC-FS2, which simulates the instru- 
ments and flight characteristics of a 
Piper P-28-181 Archer II. 

The program, written in OS-9 Level 
II, boots using the familiar DOS com- 
mand with RS-DOS 2.1 or later. If you 
have an earlier version of RS-DOS, a 
short program is provided in the docu- 
mentation to allow you to boot the 
program from BASIC. 

The Piper Archer II is a single-engine, 
148 mph, non-retractable gear aircraft 
equipped with a good set of avionics. 
The author chose to simulate the Archer 
II because of its overall good perform- 
ance, simplicity and ease of flying. 

This simulator is well-packaged and 
is sure to catch your eye on your dealer's 
shelf. The package consists of a single 
non-protected disk and flight maps of 
the Los Angeles, Chicago, New York, 
Boston and Seattle areas. Also included 
are two soft-cover books: Pilot 's Oper- 
ating Handbook and Airplane Flight 
Manual, which will help you figure out 
how to fly the simulator; and Flight 
Physics & Aircraft Control, a 92-page, 
informative mini-manual that explains 
the dynamics of flight and aircraft 
control. Inside Pilot's Operating Hand- 



book is a handy "Flight Reference 
Card" that shows at a glance the keys 
that control the aircraft's elevators, 
throttle, trim, rudder and brakes. It also 
provides information on selecting views 
out of the cabin window. You will find 
yourself using this card frequently. 

Although the graphics look best on 
an RGB monitor, provisions are made 
to run the program on both composite 
monitors and TV sets. I used the key- 
board to control the program, although 
joysticks can be used. The CC-FS2 disk 
contains a war game and several scenery 
files for the Chicago, Los Angeles, New 
York and Seattle areas. 

A "Quick Test-Flight" mode is avail- 
able and will allow you to start flying 
as soon as you boot the program. I 
preferred to watch the demo mode for 
a while to get a feel for what was out 
there and to see the controls operating. 
The screen is split horizontally. The top 
part of the screen displays what you, the 
pilot, see when you look out the win- 
dow. This view is adjustable for side, 
back and forward views. 

The bottom part of the screen dis- 
plays the instrument panel, which is 
really "loaded." Space does not allow 
me to detail each and every control, 
knob, indicator, etc. But suffice it to say 
that the panel is jam-packed with such 
items as an airspeed indicator, altitude 
indicator (horizon), altimeter, heading, 
trim, stall warning, elevator, rudder and 
flap position. Also monitored is oil 
pressure, fuel, the magneto, COM and 
NAV radios, tachometer, carb heat, 
omni bearing, course deviation and 
glide slope. 




One or two joysticks can be used to 
control flight. The left joystick controls 
the aileron in the left-right direction and 
the elevator in the forward-back direc- 
tion. The button is used to select the 
cabin view. The right joystick, if used, 
controls the flaps in the left-right direc- 
tion and the throttle in the forward- 
back direction. The right joystick but- 
ton controls the brakes while on the 



ground and guns while in the War Game 
mode. If you don't have joysticks or 
don't want to use them, you can still fly 
with CC-FS2. 

Clusters of keys on the CoCo's key- 
board are used for the various phases of 
flight control. For example, the ailerons 
are controlled with the F, G and H keys, 
representing the left, center and right 
ailerons. The elevators are controlled 
with the T key (down) and the B key 
(up). Elevator trim and flaps are simi- 
larly controlled. The rudder moves 
from left to right using the C and M 
keys, and your brakes are activated by 
the space bar. 

Although CC-FS2 is easy to fly, I 
found the hard part to be in the landing. 
In fact, flying was all I accomplished 
during this review. After several crashes, 
I concluded that I wasn't cut out to be 
a pilot anyway. I was able to "buzz" the 
Sears Tower in Chicago a couple of 
times. The realism is really apparent to 
you when you fly low and change the 
view out the window as you pass build- 
ings, mountains, etc. The colors are 
great, but the motion, while a little 
jerky, is no worse than that found on the 
IBM version of Flight Simulator. In 
fact, the program looks a whole lot like 
the IBM product to me. 

The author of the program, Bruce 
Artwick, has done an excellent job in 
adding realism to CC-FS2. Everything 
from cloud formations, night flying 
(dark outside with instrument lights 
only) and wind are user-controlled from 
a setup screen activated by the Fi key. 
You can even fly on instruments if you 
are so inclined. 

The War Game option is a lot of fun, 
too. You will see the gun site in front of 
you as you take off and declare war on 
the enemy. Be prepared for some dog- 
fighting fun as you shoot your dual 
machine guns and drop bombs on 
enemy territory. 

Flight Simulator II is a fine program 
for the CoCo 3. Not only does it provide 
some serious diversion from the usual 
game fare, but it challenges and edu- 
cates, as well. I recommend CC-FS2 for 
your CoCo 3. Whether you are a pilot 
or just interested in flying, CC-FS2 will 
give you the chance to fly without 
suffering some serious consequences. 

(SubLOGIC Corporation, 713 Edgebrook 
Drive, Champaign, IL 61820, 217-359-8482; 
$24.95: Available in Radio Shack stores 
nationwide.) 

— Jerry Semones 



132 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



- Software 



CoCol, 2&3 



Mini Database — 
A 32K Database 
for Little Lists 

While more and more of what I 
consider "serious software" is becoming 
available for our powerful Color Com- 
puter, I am glad to see companies 
bringing out good productive software 
for those people and purposes that do 
not require complicated and expensive 
software. Mini Database by Tothian 
Software is such a program. It is not a 
large and full-featured database pro- 
gram, yet that is not what it is supposed 
to be. It is what its name implies — a 
32K. mini database. It will handle a lot 
of the jobs most people use an expensive 
database for, and it does it very well. 

If you have jobs that honestly do not 
require the special abilities of an expen- 
sive database program, but do require 
some data manipulation, you may be 
looking for a program just like Mini 
Database. It allows you to create files 
for friends or club members, addresses, 
phone numbers, home inventory, main- 
tenance schedules, collections, etc. 

Mini Database is available on both 
disk and cassette. If you purchase the 
tape version, you'll still be able to use 
the program when you upgrade to disk. 
The program is written in BASIC, which 
gives it some distinct advantages. 

Once the program is loaded and run 
you are guided by very simple menus. 
The program is very user-friendly, but 
it is not "idiot proof." Being written in 
BASIC helps, though. For example, you 
can accidentally exit the program with- 
out saving your data (there is no "Are 
you sure?" feature), but this is no 
problem in BASIC — all of your data is 
still in memory; just typing GOTO 7000 
gets you back to the main menu with all 
your data intact. If you accidentally 
press the BREAK key, typing CONT or the 
GOTO statement will get you to the main 
menu. 

The program does not check for 
memory area. If you try to create a 
database too large, you will get an OM 
Error. This just means you will have to 
create a number of smaller databases or 
revise the original. I am not pointing 
these things out because l think they are 
problems, I am pointing them out 
because they are easy to get around with 
a little thinking. Being written in BASIC 



makes the program easy to recover from 
mistakes. 

BASIC also makes Mini Database 
compatible with all three CoCos. I am 
very impressed with a company that 
keeps coming out with inexpensive, 
easily expandable software the average 
C0C0 owner can buy for small jobs. Do 
people really need a database program 
that is going to run anywhere from $80 
to $250 just to keep track of club 
mailing lists? I believe there is a lot of 
work out there that can be done very 
well with smaller, less complicated 
programs. You may even find Mini 
Database a whole lot easier to use than 
the expensive database programs that 
do all those things you don't really care 
about, anyway. 

(Tothian Software Inc., Box 663 Rimers- 
burg, PA 16248; S14.95) 

- Dale Shell 



Sof twar e 



CoCo3 



In Quest of the 
Star Lord — 
Seeking the Phoenix 
Crossbow 

As the son of an internationally 
famous scientist, you have been impris- 
oned in a research work camp following 
a 12-year interworld war. Your father, 
who was killed during the war, had 
provided you with a scientific education 
and a bright future. In your research 
you come across passages referring to 
the prewar empire of the Star Lord and 
his ultimate weapon — the Phoenix 
Crossbow. You decide to escape from 
your prison and search for the Phoenix 
Crossbow. You know that if you find it, 
your freedom will be ensured forever. 

//; Quest of the Star Lord is an ani- 
mated action Adventure written for the 
C0C0 3 and one disk drive. The package 
includes two flippy disks so that the 
Adventure will fit on two disks rather 
than four. The graphics are superior and 
without a doubt the best I've seen to 
date on the C0C0 3; the 320-by-200 
resolution is razor-sharp on my Tandy 
CM-8 RGB monitor. The program 
works on composite color monitors and 
TV sets, as well. 

The program is copy-protected and 
warranted for one year, and will be 
replaced during that period free of 
charge if needed. 



Starting the Adventure is as simple as 
typing LOflDM "BOOT" and pressing 
ENTER. After selecting monitor type, a 
colorful and rather dramatic title screen 
appears, complete with flashing light- 
ning and a musical interlude. 




The program responds to standard 
two-word commands at the prompt. 
These commands must consist of a verb 
followed by a noun — GET ROCK, for 
example. Abbreviations are also ac- 
cepted, such as I instead of INVENTORY. 
Also, as is customary, direction is 
controlled by commands such as GO 
NORTH, or simply N. If you are serious 
about solving this Adventure, it's wise 
to make a map of your travels. 

The ability to save your progress is 
provided so that you don't have to keep 
repeating each command as you move 
on to different locations and screens. 
Simply typing SAVE and pressing ENTER 
provides a prompt that allows you to 
save your last six attempts. 

I found In Quest of the Star Lord 
extremely challenging and fun to play. 
Whenever I get a chance to review 
graphics Adventure games, my 1 1 -year- 
old daughter sits for hours fascinated 
with the endless possibilities and often 
surprising results. The two of us work- 
ing together have made a lot of progress 
in this Adventure, but at the time of this 
writing have not even come close to the 
solution. As with most Adventures, part 
of the fun is trying to figure out the right 
commands. We found that while seem- 
ingly simple commands are often ap- 
propriate, it sometimes takes a while to 
come up with them. 

The animation often manifests itself 
in the form of moving cloud formations, 
lightning and flashing lights. The use of 
shadows provides a realistic and often 
striking effect — you have to see it to 
believe it is being generated on your 
little old C0C0 3. 

In my opinion, In Quest of the Star 
Lord is quite simply a dynamite pro- 
gram. It's not a fast-paced game by any 
stretch of the imagination, but rather a 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 133 



strategy-filled exercise sure to provide 
hours of excitement and enjoyment. 

(Sundog Systems, 21 Edinburg Drive, Pitts- 
burgh, PA 15235, 412-372-5674; S34.95 plus 
S2.50 S/H) 

— Robert Gray 



L_C./vf*-i»i 
OUIIW 



CoCo3 



are 



Power Stones 
of Ard — 
The Quest for the 
Spirit Stone 

The popular "dungeons and dragons" 
type games lend themselves particularly 
well to the computer. And since the first 
home computers began to gain in popu- 
larity, this type of game has amassed a 
large and loyal following. Three C's 
Power Stones of Ard now brings the 
challenge of swords and sorcery to 
CoCo 3 users. 

Millenia ago, when the forces of 
Good and Evil battled each other for 
control of the world, three magical 
stones were created. Among them, they 
contained all the magic and power of 
the forces of Good. Alas, they were 
stolen by the Evil Ones, and now each 
is protected in a separate fortified 
stronghold — tempting treasure for a 
resourceful Adventurer. This is where 
you come in! You must try to find that 
particular stone called the "Spirit 
Stone" and take it away from the Evil 
Ones. . . . 




Bill Cleveland, the program's author, 
has created an attractive screen to 
display all the necessary status reports 
(wealth, character information, etc.) for 
game play. The lower-right section of 
the screen is used for scrolling graphics 
scenes, featuring overhead views of the 

134 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



traveler's locale; these are attractively 
done and well-executed. 

At start-up, the user can elect to 
create a character, load a previously 
created one or opt to use the default 
character. The traits of strength, intel- 
lect, dexterity and constitution are user- 
definable. Based on the character se- 
lected, the computer then generates 
starting amounts of gold and health 
points (necessary for success). 

Most commands are performed by a 
single key press. Movement about the 
world is accomplished by use of the 
arrow keys. Other examples are <A>t- 
tack, <B>uy, <G>et, etc. Use of the 
CTRL key and function keys is sup- 
ported. 

I found the game both fun and chal- 
lenging enough to provide hours of 
entertainment. The program comes on 
a single unprotected disk for user con- 
venience. A booklet contains loading 
instructions, documentation for all 
commands and a handy quick-reference 
guide. Another plus for the program is 
price. Power Stones of Ard should find 
its way into many CoCo 3 software 
collections. 



(Three C's Projects, P.O. Box 1323, Hamlet, 
NC 28345, 919-582-5121; $18) 



— Leonard Hyre 



I Crtft 



CoCo 3 



ware 



Thexder — 

From the Folks Who 

Brought You GoBots 

Americans seem to have a love affair 
with things "Made in Japan." Toyota 
cars arrive by the boatload; Noritake 
dinnerware graces the table of many a 
U.S. household; Panasonic consumer 
electronics of all kinds are sold in ever- 
increasing numbers. Americans are 
even developing a taste for thinly sliced 
raw fish served on rice. 

With the exception of the sashimi, 
these products have earned their niche 
in the marketplace due to their high 
quality and reasonable prices. 

Now another Japanese import is 
claiming our attention — Thexder has 
arrived. What is Thexder? Well, it's a 
"robot" that comes to you via the very 
American computer company in 



Coarsegold, California — Sierra On- 
Line. 

The Thexder "Super Assault Vehicle" 
is supplied on a ROM pack and comes 
alive with a little help from your CoCo 
3. In the game, you are the pilot of the 
Thexder Super Assault Vehicle. Your 
mission is to destroy the central 
computer, which creates evil creatures 
and turns them loose on the world. 




As you proceed, you are faced with 
various challenges. There are more than 
20 types of aliens to do battle with, and 
the game gets more difficult the further 
you advance. Caves, vast cargo holds 
and spaceship interiors are all turned 
into battlefields. 

A variety of armament and shields 
are available to assist Thexder, includ- 
ing a very unique ability — Thexder can 
change from a robot to a jet fighter. Yes, 
just like on the GoBoi TV show, you can 
"transform" back and forth at the touch 
of a button. 

Unlike simpler arcade games, 
Thexder uses multiple screens, music 
and excellent animation. Shields, differ- 
ing energy levels, hidden traps and a 
seemingly endless variety of scenarios 
all combine to make this a game you will 
be drawn to. Like the more familiar 
Sierra Adventure-type games, Thexder 
gives you a lot of play time for your 
money. 

How good is Thexderl Well, it's the 
best-selling arcade game in Japan. Over 
500,000 units have been sold there. 
While arcade games are passe' here, the 
fury continues in Japan. To be the best 
in Japan, an arcade game has to be very 
good. And Thexder is! 

Thexder sends you on a perilous 
journey. But if you have a CoCo 3, it's 
quite a trip. 



(Sierra On-I.ine, Inc., Coarsegold, CA 
93614; S24.95: Available in Radio Shack 
stores nationwide.) 



— Bruce Rothermel 



CoCo1,2&3 



RS-232 Switcher — 
Making the 
Connections 

A new vendor in the CoCo market, 
Radcomp is making its presence known 
by offering quality construction at a 
very reasonable price. 

The product in question is an RS-232 
switch. While the unit I received was of 
the two-position variety, a more useful 
three-position switch is also available. 
Both switches are offered for retail sale 
at approximately one-third the usual 
cost for such devices. 

A top-mounted two- or three- 
position rotary switch indicates which 
port is currently active. Input is via a 
standard male CoCo four-pin serial 
connector attached to a 2-foot length of 
cable. Two (or three) female serial 
outputs, which are mounted along the 
4-inch length of the case, complete the 



assembly. Overall finish and construc- 
tion are excellent, and the unit should 
provide reliable, trouble-free service. 

If you are an old hand at plumbing 
countless devices into your CoCo, no 
doubt you already own one, if not 
several, RS-232 switching devices. On 
the other hand, if you are new to the 
world of CoCo computing, you will 
very soon encounter the need for mul- 
tiple RS-232 connections. While a 
switching device can't provide you with 
multiple active inputs, it does away with 
the never-ending cable swapping that 
accompanies the single-port, multiple 
accessory setup that most of us eventu- 
ally construct. 

Incredibly, this simple product is 
accompanied by four pages of installa- 
tion instruction, and includes several 
paragraphs on hints and operation — 
all this for a simple switch. While I feel 
that documentation is absolutely essen- 
tial, this effort probably constitutes a bit 
of overkill. 

Radcomp obviously has our best 
interests at heart, as evidenced by a 30- 
day, money-back guarantee and the 
inclusion of a lifetime warranty on their 



products, and that commitment is ac- 
knowledged. But I would suggest the 
people at Radcomp retain a bit more 
profit from their enterprise by curtailing 
(excessive) printing expenses and de- 
vote the difference to additional prod- 
uct offerings. The CoCo Community 
always welcomes quality. Welcome 
aboard, Radcomp! 



(Radcomp Computers, 1865 E. Broadway 
#420, Tempe, AZ 85282, 602-894-6489; two- 
way Switcher, S10; three-way Switcher, 
SI 1.50: First product review for this com- 
pany appearing in the rainbow.) 



— Henry Holzgrefe 




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THE RAINBOW 



135 



• s-r^ n n n n n 



The following products have recently been received by 
THE RAINBOW, examined by our magazine staff and 
issued the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance 
that we have seen the product and have ascertained that 
it is what it purports to be. 



SUA? °" 



EZC.en, a disk-based boot editor for OS-9 
thai allows 0S-9 programmers to edit 0S- 
9 modules or data blocks contained in a 
specified file. For all CoCos and OS-9 Level 
I or 1 1: 5 1 2K required on the CoCo 3 for OS- 
9 Level II. Burke & Burke, P.O. Box 1283. 
Palatine. I L 60078. 312-397-2898; $19.95. 



<wp Home Bingo, a program that lets 
you play bingo at home. The numbers are 
as large as your monitor display, and ran- 
domly selected numbers are never repeated 
during any game. Requires 32K; for the 
CoCo I, 2 and 3. Williams Enterprises, 53 
Old Deny Road. Box 7. Hudson. NH 03051, 
603-883-2859: tape. $9.95; disk. $11.95. Plus 
$2S/H. 



Math Games, a children's educational math 
package that consists of four basic pro- 
grams: Raceway. Pyramid. Go to the Top 
and Math Word Problems. Raceway pits the 
player against the computer in a race of 
mathematical problem solving. Pyramid is 
a three-level speed drill. Go to the Top helps 
students with multiplication. Math Word 
Problems presents problems that require 
addition, subtraction, multiplication and 
division. For the CoCo I, 2 and 3. Uses the 
high-speed poke. E.Z. Friendly. Hut ton & 
Orchard Streets, Rhinecliff. NY 12574, 914- 
876-3935: $19.95 plus $1.50 S/H. 



A Mazing World of Malcolm Mortar, a 

bricklayer's nightmare as you, an apprentice 
bricklayer, become lost in the mazes of a 
mansion gone mad. Your foreman has been 
transformed into the evil Malcolm Mortar, 
Master of the Mansion Maze and all its 
creepy creatures. Can you brick up the 
monsters and find your way through? For 
the CoCo 3. Tandy Corporation, 1700 One 
Tandy Center. Fort Worth. TX 76102; 
$29.95: Available in Radio Shack stores 
nationwide. 



▼ Moon Runner, an arcade game in 
which the Trigan forces have overtaken the 
moon system surrounding your planet. 
Assigned to the Moon Runner, an amphi- 
bian surface palroller armed with lasers and 
missiles, you attempt to destroy the Trigan 
base. Requires a joystick, 32K and one disk 



drive. For the CoCo I, 2 and 3. Nick Brad- 
bury. 10500 Sandpiper Lane, Knoxville, TN 
37922, 615-966-0172: $15. 

Multi-Menu, a Multi-Vue compatible menu 
utility that allows you to define your own 
menus for use in the Mulli- Vue environ- 
ment, designed so that anyone can use it, not 
just programmers. For the 5I2K CoCo 3, 
OS-9 Level II. at least one disk drive and 
Multi-Vue. Alpha Software Technologies, 
2810 Buff on St.. Chalmette. LA 70043, 504- 
279-1653: $19.95. 

Quest for the Ring, a sequel to Labyrinth in 
which your character, even though he has 
destroyed the evil wizard Zarth, must suffer 
the consequences of spells Zarth cast before 
he died. To undo the effects of the spells, you 
must find the ring he used to make them. 
Requires 64K Disk ECB; for the CoCo I or 
2. RTB Software. P.O. Box 777, W. Acton, 
MA 01720, 508-263-0563; $34.95 plus $3 
S/H. 

TX Mail, a mailing list program that allows 
entry and editing of addresses. All entries are 
automatically in edit mode; the cursor is 
always nondestructive. For the CoCo I, 2 
and 3. Kolesar B/S. 7 Ladd Ave., West field. 
PA 16950. 814-367-5384; $26.95 plus $2 
S/H. 

Teddy Bears, an educational quiz program 
that employs teddy bears in the learning 
process. If a child gives a correct response, 
the bears dance. Teachers or parents can use 
the program to create various types of 



quizzes: short answer, fill-in-the-blank. 
true/ false, etc. Joystick and mice supported. 
Requires 64K ECB and uses the high-speed 
poke. E.Z. Friendly, Hut ton & Orchard 
Streets. Rhinecliff, NY 12574. 914-876-3935; 
$19.95 plus $1.50 S/H. 

Vocal Freedom, a program that turns your 
CoCo into a digital voice recorder, letting 
you record your voice or any other sound 
directly into the computer's memory. Fea- 
tures include sound-activated playback, disk 
save and load and voice-activated recording. 
Requires 64K CoCo, Radio Shack Audio 
Amplifier with built-in speaker (Cat. No. 
277-1008), and a microphone. Dr. Preble's 
Programs. 6450 Outer Loop, Louisville, K Y 
40228. 502-969-1818; $34.95. 



The Zapper, a utility that allows you to 
patch files, as well as entire disks, directly. 
It displays your file or disk in a format 
similar to the dump command that comes 
with OS-9. Requires a 64K CoCo, one disk 
drive and OS-9 Level I or II. Alpha Software 
Technologies, 2810 Buff on St., Chalmette, 
LA 70043. 504-279-1653; $19.95. 

Zoomdump, a PMODE A and PMODE: 3 graph- 
ics screen dump that allows custom printout 
sizing to within a fraction of an inch. It 
works with Extended basic and a D MP- 1 05 
or compatible printer. Codis Enterprises, 
230 1 -C Central Drive. Suite 684. Bedford. 
TX 76021. 817-283-8571; $14. 



First product received from this company 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products 
for the Tandy Color Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in 
THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the product does exist — that 
we have examined it and have a sample copy — but this does not constitute 
any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these hardware or 
software items will be forwarded to THE RAINBOW reviewers for 
evaluation. 

— Lauren Willoughby 



136 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



F o atur o 



16K ECB 



The second in a series of tutorials for the beginner 
to intermediate machine language programmer 



Machine Language Made BASIC 

Part II: High Finances 



By William P. Nee 



First, let's review the SDRT pro- 
gram from last month's article. 
(See Listing I.) In the random 
number portion, we used LDY 8S400 to 
indicate the upper left corner, but in the 
sort portion we used LDX BS400 for the 
same location. This was necessary 
because the random routine at SBF1F 
uses Register X for its own computa- 
tions. We could have used Register X if 
we had saved it prior to executing 
SBF1F and recalled it afterwards; it was 
easier to use Register Y instead, since it 
was unchanged. It is a good idea to 
check any ROM routines for the regis- 
ters they use prior to putting them in 
your program. If you have a choice 
between using Register X or Register Y, 
use Register X as it takes less memory 
and executes faster. 

In the random portion of our pro- 
gram we checked to see if we had 
reached the end of the text screen, but 
in the sort portion we had to check to 
see if we were one space before the end. 
This was necessary because loading 
Register D with the contents of X 
actually loads Register A with the 
contents of X and loads Register B with 
the contents of X+l. If we allowed X to 
go to the end of the text screen, X+l 

Bill Nee bucked the "snowbird" trend 
by retiring to Wisconsin from a banking 
career in Florida. He spends the long, 
cold winters writing programs for his 
Co Co. 



would move into the beginnings of 
graphics and really start to make a 
mess! 

Line 260 uses a branch (BLS) to see 
if one number is less than or the same 
as another number. Some branches 
compare signed numbers and some 
compare unsigned numbers. Figure I 
shows a comparison of branches for 
signed and unsigned numbers and what 
these branches check for. 

So far, we've been using whole 
numbers generally between -32,000 and 
+32,000, but what about larger numbers 
or decimals? There is a way to input and 
save any number within the computer's 
range; however, it is only accurate to 
nine digits. 

The routine at SA390 is the equiva- 
lent of LINE INPUT in BASIC. Whatever 
you input is stored in memory at S2DD 
in ASCII format. After executing 
SA390, S2DC will contain a zero, S2DD+ 
will be the ASCI I numbers, and the end 
will be a zero. Register B will be the 
length of the input plus one, and Reg- 
ister X will be BS2DC. Any number you 
input can be preceded by +, -. &H 
(Hex), or O (Base 8). 

The routine at S9F reads whatever is 
in a buffer whose location is stored in 
$RS/R7 and continues to read the buffer 
one byte at a time into Register A until 
a zero is reached. 

Finally, the routine at SBD12 will 
change the ASCII numbers in Register 
A to floating point format in FPL 



Putting all of these routines together 
gives us a SAVE subroutine. (See Listing 
2.) Check your result by using the print 
subroutine from last month's article, 
Example 1 3 A. (See Listing 3.) 

Once a number is in FP1, it usually 
then has to be stored in some location. 
The easiest way to do this is to use the 
routine at SBC35 to transfer a number 
in FP1 to the location in Register X 
using either its name or location. It will 
take five bytes to completely store the 
number in floating point format, so 
reserve five bytes for each number you 
will be saving in your program. 

Let's try the simple program shown 
in Listing 4 that will take any number, 
store it and then print it. Our print 
routine is good only for printing 
numbers, but BASIC has a PRINT USING 
command that gives you much more 
flexibility and lets you use the $, com- 
mas, +, -, etc. The routine at SBFfil is 
the PRINT USING command for ma- 
chine language; however, some setup is 
required. 

First, determine the number of char- 
acters that will be to the right of the 
decimal, add one, and load this into 
Register A. Then determine the number 
of characters you will need to the left of 
the decimal (including the $ sign, com- 
mas, number signs, etc.) and load this 
into Register B. Register D is then 
stored in Location $DB'D9. The two 
numbers in $DB'D9 cannot total more 
than 17. If they do, you will gel either 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 137 



a wrong answer or a Function Call error 
message. 

Location SDR must contain a number 
indicating which format to use. The 
more common numbers are: 



$Dfl 


FORMAT 


B$2 


(-) number 


B$4 


number ( - ) 


B$B 


(+/- ) number 


B$C 


number(+''-) 


BS10 


floating $ 


B$40 


floating , 


B$50 


floating $/, 



Adding the numbers together will com- 
bine the results. Adding one to the 
number will print the result in exponen- 
tial format. 

If you need a PRINT @, load Register 
D with the @ location (+05400) and 
store it in Location $88 (cursor loca- 
tion). Then you can load Register X 
with a message location minus one, and 
JSR SB99C will print the message. Try 
the program shown in Listing 5. 

Note that there is a space before the 
actual message. This space does not 
appear when the message is printed at 
Location $420. Without the space we 
would have had to change the message 
location line to LDX 8MSG-1. The mes- 
sage must end with a zero (FCB 0) to 
indicate the end of the message. Instead 
of FCB we could have used FDB $0D00 
and eliminated the JSR SB958, since 
either will print the carriage return 
(H$0O). 

The comparison programs (listings 6 
and 7) for this article are simple finan- 
cial calculators. Each program asks for 
the annual interest rate, the number of 
months of the loan (term) and the 
amount borrowed (financed). The pro- 





Shifts 


BCC 


Branch if carry clear (=0) 


BCS 


Branch if carry set (=1) 




Unsigned Numbers 


BHI 


Branch if higher 


BHS 


Branch if higher or same 


BLO 


Branch if lower 


BLS 


Branch if lower or same 


BEQ 


Branch if equal (is 0) 


BNE 


Branch if not equal (is not 0) 




Signed Numbers 


BGE 


Branch if greater than or equal (to 0) 


BGT 


Branch if greater (than 0) 


BLE 


Branch if less than or eual (to 0) 


BLT 


Branch if less (than 0) 


BMI 


Branch if minus 


BPL 


Branch if plus 


BEQ 


Branch if equal (is 0) 


BNE 


Branch if not equal (is not 0) 




Figure 1: Assembly Language Branches 



grams compute the monthly payment 
and print the answer in the PRINT 
USING ~$H,tt«a.tt«" format. You then 
have the option of inputting any new 
amount, term, or interest rate. If you 
run the machine language program 
from basic clear sufficient memory first 
(CLERR 200, S.H3000-1). 

As a project, try to modify the pro- 
gram so it will compute the amount, 
term or monthly payments depending 
on what you input. Don't try to com- 
pute the rate — there is no exact for- 



mula for doing so. The basic formulas 
used in this program are: 

rate = annual rate,' 1200 
pv = ((l+r)**term)-l/r((l+r)**term) 
monthly payment = amount/ pv 
(** is used as a symbol for exponen- 
tial) 

(Questions or comments concerning 
this tutorial may be directed to the 
author at Route 2, Box 216 C, Mason, 
Wl 54846-9302. Please enclose an 
SA SE when requesting a reply.) □ 



Listing 1: 





ORG 


$3000 


START 


JSR 


$A928 




LDY 


#$400 


LOOP1 


LDD 


#255 




JSR 


$B4F4 




JSR 


$BF1F 




JSR 


$B3ED 




STB 


,Y+ 




CMPY 


#$5FF 




BLS 


L00P1 


SORT 


LDA 


#1 




STA 


FLAG 




LDX 


#$400 


L00P2 


LDD 


,x+ 




PSHS 


B 



clear the text screen 

top left of text screen 

load register D with 255 

convert to a FP1 number 

get RND(255) 

put it in register D 

put the CHR$ in register Y, move to next space 

check to see if at bottom right of text screen 

if not, branch back to L00P1 

create a 

test "flag" 

top left of text screen 

load register D with $400/401. move to $401 

save the contents of $401 



138 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 





CMPA 


,s+ 


compare what's in $400 to what's in $401 




BLS 


CONT 


branch if it's less or equal to what's in $400 




EXG 


A,B 


if not, exchange the contents of $400 and $401 




STD 


-i,x 


put them back in $400 and $401 




CLR 


FLAG 


set the "flag" to zero 


CONT 


CMPX 


#$5FE 


one away from bottom right of text screen? 




BLS 


LOOP 2 


if not, branch back to L00P2 




TST 


FLAG 


check the "flag" 




BEQ 


SORT 


if it's zero, sort again 




JSR 


$ADFB 


if not, wait for any input 




SWI 




end the program (use RTS if in Basic) 


FLAG 


RMB 


1 


reserve one byte and call it "flag" 




END 


START 





Listing 2: 


SAVE 


JSR 


$A390 


input any number 






STX 


$A6 


put #$2DC in $A6/A7 (buffer location) 






JSR 


$9F 


increase the buffer location, store ASCII in "A" 






JSR 


$BD12 


make it a floating point number until reaches 






RTS 




end the subroutine 



Listing 3: 



PRINT JSR $BDD9 

LEAX -1,X 

JSR $B99C 

JSR $B958 



transfer FP1 to buffer at $3DA 
decrease location for sign 
print buffer contents 
print a carriage return 



Listing 4: 




ORG 


$3000 






SAVE 


JSR 


$A390 


what ' s the number? 






STX 


$A6 


buffer starts at $2DC 






JSR 


$9F 


increase buffer, load "A" with first number 






JSR 


$BD12 


convert to floating point in FP1 






LDX 


#NUMBER 


where to store it 






JSR 


$BC35 


move the number in FP1 to (X) 




PRINT 


LDX 


#NUMBER 


where it is 






JSR 


$BC14 


move the number in (X) to FP1 






JSR 


$BDD9 


FP1 to ASCII format at $3DA 






LEAX 


-1,X 


decrease buffer location 






JSR 


$B99C 


print buffer contents 






JSR 


$B958 


print a carriage return 






SWI 




end of program 




NUMBER 


RMB 
END 


5 
SAVE 





Listing 5: 




ORG 


$3000 






PRINT 


LDD 


#$420 


print @ location $420 (second line down) 






STD 


$88 


store in cursor location 






LDX 


#MSG 


message location 






JSR 


$B99C 


print message 






JSR 


$B958 


print carriage return 






SWI 








MSG 


FCC 
FCB 

END 


* THIS 



PRINT 


IS A SAMPLE MESSAGE* 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 139 



Listing 6: FINANBAS 


100 


IF A$="Y" 


THEN 40 




10 CLS 


110 


PRINT"ANY 


NEW TERM 


(Y/N) » 


20 INPUT"ANNUAL RATE" ;R:GOSUB 18 


120 


A$=INKEY$ 


.'IF A$="" 


THEN 120 


9> 


130 


IF A$="Y" 


THEN 30 




30 INPUT"MONTHLY TERM" ;T:GOSUB 2 


140 


PRINT"ANY 


NEW RATE 


(Y/N) » 


W 


150 


A$=INKEY$ 


:IF A$="" 


THEN 150 


40 INPUT"AMOUNT FINANCED" ; AMOUNT 


160 


IF A$="Y" 


THEN 20 




5 p PMT=AMOUNT/PV 


170 


END 






60 PRINT"MONTHLY PAYMENT IS - " ; 


180 


R=R/1200 






70 PRINT USING"$#, ###.##", -PMT 


190 


RETURN 






80 PRINT"ANY NEW AMOUNT (Y/N) " 


200 


PV=((1+R)- 


^T-1)/(R*(1+R) A T) 


90 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 90 


210 


RETURN 







Listing 7: FINflNBIN 














3000 




00100 




ORG 


53000 




3000 BD 


A928 


00110 


START 


JSR 


SA928 


CLEAR SCREEN 


3J3J33 8E 


3110 


00120 


INTR 


LDX 


#MSG1 


FIND THE FIRST MESSAGE 


3006 BD 


B99C 


00130 




JSR 


$B99C 


PRINT IT 


309 17 


00D8 


00140 




LBSR 


SAVE 




300C 8E 


30F7 


00150 




LDX 


#RATE 




300F BD 


BC35 


00160 




JSR 


$BC35 


SAVE THE RATE 


3J2T12 8D 


66 


00170 




BSR 


CONV1 




3)314 8E 


3120 


00180 


MONTHS 


LDX 


#MSG2 


FIND MESSAGE 2 


3017 BD 


B99C 


00190 




JSR 


$B99C 


PRINT IT 


3JJ1A 17 


00C7 


00200 




LBSR 


SAVE 




3JJ1D 8E 


30FC 


00210 




LDX 


#TERM 




3020 BD 


BC35 


00220 




JSR 


$BC35 


SAVE THE TERM 


3023 8D 


68 


00230 




BSR 


CONV2 




3(325 8E 


3131 


00240 


AMOUNT 


LDX 


#MSG3 


FIND MESSAGE 3 


3028 BD 


B99C 


00250 




JSR 


$B99C 


PRINT IT 


302B 17 


00B6 


00260 




LBSR 


SAVE 




302E 8E 


310B 


00270 




LDX 


#AMNT 




3031 BD 


BC35 


00280 




JSR 


5BC35 


SAVE THE AMOUNT 


3034 8E 


3145 


00290 




LDX 


#MSG4 


FIND MESSAGE 4 


3037 BD 


B99C 


00300 




JSR 


SB99C 


PRINT IT 


303A 8E 


3106 


00310 




LDX 


#VARPV 




303D BD 


BC14 


00320 




JSR 


$BC14 


VARPV TO FP1 


3040 8E 


310B 


00330 




LDX 


#AMNT 




3043 BD 


BB8F 


00340 




JSR 


$BB8F 


AMOUNT*FPl 


3046 17 


008 B 


00350 




LBSR 


PUSING 




3049 8E 


315C 


00360 


MORE 


LDX 


#MSG5 


FIND MESSAGE 5 


304C BD 


B99C 


00370 




JSR 


$B99C 


PRINT IT 


304F AD 


9F A000 


00380 


LOOP 5 


JSR 


[$A000] 


WAIT FOR INPUT 


3053 27 


FA 


00390 




BEQ 


LOOP 5 




3055 81 


59 


00400 




CMPA 


#'Y 




3057 27 


CC 


00410 




BEQ 


AMOUNT 




3059 8E 


3173 


00420 




LDX 


#MSG6 


FIND MESSAGE 6 


305C BD 


B99C 


00430 




JSR 


$B99C 


PRINT IT 


305F AD 


9F A000 


00440 


LOOP 6 


JSR 


[$A000] 


WAIT FOR INPUT 


3063 27 


FA 


00450 




BEQ 


LOOP6 




3065 81 


59 


00460 




CMPA 


#'Y 




3067 27 


AB 


00470 




BEQ 


MONTHS 




3069 8E 


3188 


00480 




LDX 


#MSG7 


FIND MESSAGE 7 


306C BD 


B99C 


00490 




JSR 


$B99C 


PRINT IT 


306F AD 


9F A000 


00500 


LOOP7 


JSR 


[$A000] 


WAIT FOR INPUT 


3073 27 


FA 


00510 




BEQ 


LOOP7 




3075 81 


59 


00520 




CMPA 


#'Y 




3077 27 


87 


00530 




BEQ 


START 




3079 3F 




00540 




SWI 




USE RTS IF RUN FROM BASIC 


307A CC 


04B0 


00550 


CONV1 


LDD 


#1200 




307D BD 


B4F4 


00560 




JSR 


SB4F4 


REGISTER D TO FP1 


3080 8E 


30F7 


00570 




LDX 


#RATE 




3083 BD 


BB8F 


00580 




JSR 


$BB8F 


RATE*FP1 



140 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



3086 8E 


30F7 


00590 


3(289 BD 


BC35 


00600 


308C 39 




00610 


308D 8E 


30F7 


00620 


3)290 BD 


BC14 


00630 


3093 C6 


01 


00640 


3095 BD 


BD99 


00650 


3(298 BD 


8446 


00660 


309B 8E 


30FC 


00670 


3(29E BD 


BACA 


00680 


3J2A1 BD 


84F2 


00690 


30A4 8E 


3101 


00700 


3J2A7 BD 


BC35 


00710 


3(2AA C6 


FF 


00720 


3 (2 AC BD 


BD99 


00730 


3J2AF BD 


BC5F 


00740 


3J2B2 8E 


30F7 


00750 


3J3B5 BD 


BB88 


00760 


30B8 BD 


BC5F 


00770 


3J2BB 8E 


3101 


00780 


30BE BD 


BB88 


00790 


3J2C1 8E 


3106 


00800 


3J2C4 BD 


BC35 


00810 


3(2C7 39 




00820 


30C8 BD 


BDD9 


00830 


3J2CB 30 


IF 


00840 


30CD BD 


B99C 


00850 


3J3DJ3 BD 


B958 


00860 


3J2D3 39 




00870 


30D4 CC 


0306 


00880 


3J2D7 DD 


D8 


00890 


3J2D9 86 


50 


00900 


3(2DB 97 


DA 


00910 


30DD BD 


8FA1 


00920 


30E0 BD 


B958 


00930 


3(2E3 39 




00940 


30E4 9E 


A6 


00950 


30E6 34 


10 


00960 


30E8 BD 


A3 90 


00970 


30EB 9F 


A6 


00980 


30ED 9D 


9F 


00990 


30EF BD 


BD12 


01000 


3$3F2 35 


10 


01010 


30F4 9F 


A6 


01020 


30F6 39 




01030 


30F7 




01040 


30FC 




01050 


31(31 




01060 


31(26 




01070 


310B 




01080 


3110 




01090 


311F 


00 


01100 


3120 


20 


01110 


3130 


00 


01120 


3131 


20 


01130 


3144 


00 


01140 


3145 


20 


01150 


315B 


00 


01160 


315C 


20 


01170 


3171 


0D00 


01180 


3173 


20 


01190 


3186 


0D00 


01200 


3188 


20 


01210 


319B 


0D00 


01220 




3000 


01230 



C0NV2 



LOG 



EXP 



PRINT 



PUSING 



SAVE 



RATE 

TERM 

VARA 

VARPV 

AMNT 

MSG1 

MSG2 

MSG3 

MSG4 

MSG5 

MSG6 

MSG7 



LDX 

JSR 

RTS 

LDX 

JSR 

LDB 

JSR 

JSR 

LDX 

JSR 

JSR 

LDX 

JSR 

LDB 

JSR 

JSR 

LDX 

JSR 

JSR 

LDX 

JSR 

LDX 

JSR 

RTS 

JSR 

LEAX 

JSR 

JSR 

RTS 

LDD 

STD 

LDA 

STA 

JSR 

JSR 

RTS 

LDX 

PSHS 

JSR 

STX 

JSR 

JSR 

PULS 

STX 

RTS 

RMB 

RMB 

RMB 

RMB 

RMB 

FCC 

FCB 

FCC 

FCB 

FCC 

FCB 

FCC 

FCB 

FCC 

FDB 

FCC 

FDB 

FCC 

FDB 

END 



#RATE 
$BC35 

#RATE 

SBC14 

#1 

$BD99 

$8446 

#TERM 

SBACA 

S84F2 

#VARA 

SBC35 

#-1 

SBD99 

SBC5F 

#RATE 

SBB88 

$BC5F 

#VARA 

SBB88 

#VARPV 

SBC35 



#$0306 

$D8 

#$50 

$DA 

$8FA1 

$B958 

$A6 

X 

$A390 

$A6 

$9F 

$BD12 

X 

$A6 



FP1 TO RATE 



RATE TO FP1 

REGISTER B+FP1 
COMPUTE THE LOG 

TERM*FP1 

COMPUTE THE EXPONENT 

FP1 TO VARA 

FP1-1 

FP1 TO FP2 

FP2/RATE 
FP1 TO FP2 

FP2/VARA 

FP1 TO VARPV 



$BDD9 CHR$ TO BUFFER 

-1,X BUFFER LOCATION -1 

$B99C PRINT BUFFER 

$B958 PRINT A CARRIAGE RETURN 



PRINT USING $#,###.## 



PRINT THE NUMBER 

PRINT A CARRIAGE RETURN 



GET CURRENT POINTER 
SAVE IT 

GET INPUT (NO ", 
OUR NEW POINTER 
GET NEXT CHR$ 
CONVERT TO FP1 
GET OLD POINTER 
BACK IN LOCATION 



OR "$") 



ANNUAL RATE - * 
MONTHLY TERM - * 
AMOUNT FINANCED - * 



* MONTHLY PAYMENT IS - * 



* ANY NEW AMOUNT (Y/N)* 
$0D00 

* ANY NEW TERM (Y/N)* 
$0D00 

* ANY NEW RATE (Y/N)* 
$0D00 

START 



/R\ 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 141 



w*e- 



Using control codes to enhance 
your printer's capability 

Printer Diversions 
and Conversions 



By Cray Augsburg 

Rainbow Technical Editor 



Many computer users report a 
great deal of confusion about 
just what their printers are 
capable of doing and how to make them 
do those things. And in most cases the 
manuals offer little or no help to even 
the intermediate users. "How do I make 
it do italics?" is a typical question. A 
more common query here at THE RAIN- 
BOW is, "How can I make this program 
work with my Brand X printer, even 
though it was written for the Brand Y 
printer?" 

To make a printer perform various 
tasks — to alter its printing modes and 
features -- we must send it certain 
control codes. These codes are usually 
simple series of numbers and other 
characters that the printer understands 
and interprets via its built-in ROM. For 
example, to tell the Radio Shack DMP- 
130 printer to print in italics, we would 
send the following line from BASIC: 

PRINTH-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(GG) 
CHR$(1) 



Cray Augsburg is rainbow's technical 
editor and has an associate 's degree in 
electrical engineering. He and his wife, 
Ruth Ann, have two children and live 
in Louisville, Kentucky. His usemame 
on Delphi is CR.-t Y. 







Table 1: The ASCII Table 









NUL 


32 Space 


64 @ 


96 


? 


1 


SOH 


33 ! 


65 A 


97 


a 


2 


STX 


34 " 


66 B 


98 


b 


3 


EXT 


35 # 


67 C 


99 


c 


4 


EOT 


36 $ 


68 D 


100 


d 


5 


ENQ 


37 % 


69 E 


101 


e 


6 


ACK 


38 & 


70 F 


102 


f 


7 


BEL 


39 ' 


71 G 


103 


g 


8 


BS 


40 ( 


72 H 


104 


h 


9 


HT 


41 ) 


73 I 


105 


i 


10 


LF 


42 * 


74 J 


106 


J 


11 


VT 


43 + 


75 K 


107 


k 


12 


FF 


44 , 


76 L 


108 


1 


13 


CR 


45 - 


77 M 


109 


m 


14 


SO 


46 . 


78 N 


110 


n 


15 


SI 


47 / 


79 


111 


o 


16 


DLE 


48 


80 P 


112 


P 


17 


DC1 


49 1 


81 Q 


113 


q 


18 


DC2 


50 2 


82 R 


114 


r 


19 


DC3 


51 3 


83 S 


115 


s 


20 


DC4 


52 4 


84 T 


116 


t 


21 


NAK 


53 5 


85 U 


117 


u 


22 


SYN 


54 6 


86 V 


118 


V 


23 


ETB 


55 7 


87 W 


119 


w 


24 


CAN 


56 8 


88 X 


120 


X 


25 


EM 


57 9 


89 Y 


121 


y 


26 


SUB 


58 : 


90 Z 


122 


z 


27 


ESC 


59 ; 


91 [ 


123 


{ 


28 


FS 


60 < 


92 \ 


124 


1 


29 


GS 


61 = 


93 ] 


125 


} 


30 


RS 


62 > 


94 A 


126 


~ 


31 


US 


63 ? 


95 


127 


rubout 



142 



THE RAINBOW Ajgusl 1988 













Table 2 


: Hexadecimal/Decimal Conversions 












00 





20 


32 


40 


64 


60 


96 


80 


128 


AO 


160 


CO 


192 


EO 


224 


01 


1 


21 


33 


41 


65 


61 


97 


81 


129 


Al 


161 


CI 


193 


El 


225 


02 


2 


22 


34 


42 


66 


62 


98 


82 


130 


A2 


162 


C2 


194 


E2 


226 


03 


3 


23 


35 


43 


67 


63 


99 


83 


131 


A3 


163 


C3 


195 


E3 


227 


04 


4 


24 


36 


44 


68 


64 


100 


84 


132 


A4 


164 


C4 


196 1 


E4 


228 


05 


5 


25 


37 


45 


69 


65 


101 


85 


133 


A5 


165 


C5 


197 


E5 


229 


06 


6 


26 


38 


46 


70 


66 


102 


86 


134 


A6 


166 


C6 


198 


E6 


230 


07 


7 


27 


39 


47 


71 


67 


103 


87 


135 


A7 


167 


C7 


199 


E7 


231 


08 


8 


28 


40 


48 


72 


68 


104 


88 


136 


A8 


168 


C8 


200 


E8 


232 


09 


9 


29 


41 


49 


73 


69 


105 


89 


137 


A9 


169 


C9 


201 


E9 


233 


0A 


10 


2A 


42 


4A 


74 


6A 


106 


8A 


138 


AA 


170 


CA 


202 


EA 


234 


OB 


11 


2B 


43 


4B 


75 


6B 


107 


8B 


139 


AB 


171 


CB 


203 


EB 


235 


OC 


12 


2C 


44 


4C 


76 


6C 


108 


8C 


140 


AC 


172 


CC 


204 


EC 


236 


OD 


13 


2D 


45 


4D 


77 


6D 


109 


8D 


141 


AD 


173 


CD 


205 


ED 


237 


OE 


14 


2E 


46 


4E 


78 


6E 


110 


8E 


142 


AE 


174 


CE 


206 


EE 


238 


OF 


15 


2F 


47 


4F 


79 


6F 


111 


8F 


143 


AF 


175 


CF 


207 


EF 


239 


10 


16 


30 


48 


50 


80 


70 


112 


90 


144 


BO 


176 


DO 


208 


FO 


240 


11 


17 


31 


49 


51 


81 


71 


113 


91 


145 


Bl 


177 


Dl 


209 


Fl 


241 


12 


18 


32 


50 


52 


82 


72 


114 


92 


146 


B2 


178 


D2 


210 


F2 


242 


13 


19 


33 


51 


53 


83 


73 


115 


93 


147 


B3 


179 


D3 


211 


F3 


243 


14 


20 


34 


52 


54 


84 


74 


116 


94 


148 


B4 


180 


D4 


212 


F4 


244 


15 


21 


35 


53 


55 


85 


75 


117 


95 


149 


B5 


181 


D5 


213 


F5 


245 


16 


22 


36 


54 


56 


86 


76 


118 


96 


150 


B6 


182 


D6 


214 


F6 


246 


17 


23 


37 


55 


57 


87 


77 


119 


97 


151 


B7 


183 


D7 


215 


F7 


247 


18 


24 


38 


56 


58 


88 


78 


120 


98 


152 


B8 


184 


D8 


216 


F8 


248 


19 


25 


39 


57 


59 


89 


79 


121 


99 


153 


B9 


185 


D9 


217 


F9 


249 


1A 


26 


3A 


58 


5A 


90 


7A 


122 


9A 


154 


BA 


186 


DA 


218 


FA 


250 


IB 


27 


3B 


59 


5B 


91 


7B 


123 


9B 


155 


BB 


187 


DB 


219 


FB 


251 


1C 


28 


3C 


60 


5C 


92 


7C 


124 


9C 


156 


BC 


188 


DC 


220 


FC 


252 


ID 


29 


3D 


61 


5D 


93 


7D 


125 


9D 


157 


BD 


189 


DD 


221 


FD 


253 


IE 


30 


3E 


62 


5E 


94 


7E 


126 


9E 


158 


BE 


190 


DE 


222 


FE 


254 


IF 


31 


3F 


63 


5F 


95 


7F 


127 


9F 


159 


BF 


191 


DF 


223 


FF 


255 



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it x €3i-i Sy • 



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CoCo 3 compa 
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on any •field, edit and delete capability and more, 



Rai nbow 
8 pg. 133 
tible 
onal 



RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 



After Five Software 
P.O. Box 210975 
Columbia, SC 29221-0975 
(803) 7B8-5995 



(SC 



Send check or M.O. for 
$34.95 plus $3.00 S/H. 
COD orders: add $2.00. 
res. add 5'/. sales tax) 



Summer special! Order be-fore September 1, 1988 -for only S29.95. 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 143 



The first code sent to the printer in 
this case is CHRS(27). This stands for 
escape (ESC) and tells the printer a 
control code is to follow. (Note: Some 
control codes do not require the escape 
code to be sent first.) The CHRS(GS) 
code addresses the printer's italics 
function, and the CHRS(l) tells the 
printer to turn this feature on. If we 
substitute a zero for the one in this last 
code, we tell the printer to turn its italics 
mode off. 



"Control codes are 

usually a simple series 

of numbers and other 

characters that the 

printer understands and 

interprets via its built-in 

ROM." 



One confusing aspect of printer codes 
is that they can be sent to the printer in 
many different forms. For example, we 
could have sent ASCII character desig- 
nations in the above example. The 
following line does this: 

PRINT0-2,CHR$(27);"B;"CHR$ 
(1) 

Some printers go a step further and 
allow the user to enter 

PRINTa-2,CHR$(27);"Bl" 

to accomplish the same task. The 
ASCII table shown in Table 1 shows 
that the number 66 can be represented 
by the uppercase letter B. On the other 
hand, the ASCII character 1 translates 
to a numeric value of 49. A little exper- 
imentation is usually necessary before 
you begin to understand these differen- 
ces and how your printer interprets 
them. 

The control codes used to access the 
various features of your printer are 
found in the manual accompanying the 
printer. They are usually presented in 
tabular form near the back. In addition, 
I have provided in tables 3 and 4 sum- 
marized lists of some of the more com- 
monly used codes. Their presentation 
allows you to cross-reference codes for 



Table 3: Epson codes 

Y - code is supported 
N - code not supported 
D - different code used 

Function Codes 


o 
.-t 

z 

13 

co 


o 
o 
o 

iH 
1 

X 

z 

u 
IS 

co 


o 

CO 

1 

X 

S 

c 
o 

a 
a 


o 

cc 
1 

X 

C 

o 
o. 

a 


o 

CO 

c 
o 

a 


+ 

o 
o> 

+ 
O 
Ol 
r-l 

a 
a 

ja 
O 


o 
o 

•-H 

■a 
a 

a 

s 

CO 

o 
u 

"5 

o 
a 

c 
a 

a, 


Q 
o 

cs 

C 


< 
o 
o 
o 

0. 

CO 

a 
iB 

o 

M 

3 

CO 


Underline On 


27 45 1 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Underline Off 


27 45 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Italics On 


27 52 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


D 3 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Italics Off 


27 53 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


D 3 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Draft/Normal 


27 120 


Y 


Y 


N 


N 


N 


D* 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Cor respondence/ NLQ 


27 120 1 


Y 


Y 


N 


N 


N 


D 5 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Pica Pitch 


27 80 


Y 


Y 


N 


Y 


Y 


D 6 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Elite Pitch 


27 77 


Y 


Y 


N 


Y 


Y 


D 7 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Condensed 


15 (on) 18 (off) 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Elongated On 


27 87 1 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Elongated Off 


27 87 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Bold On 2 


27 69 (27 71) 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Bold Off z 


27 70 (27 72) 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Unidirectional On 


27 85 1 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Unidirectional Off 


27 85 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Right Margin Set 


27 81 n 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


D 8 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Left Margin Set 


27 108 n 


Y 


Y 


N 


Y 


Y 


D 8 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Page Length (Lines) 


27 67 n 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Paper-Out On 


27 57 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Paper-Out Off 


27 56 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


6 Lines Per Inch 


27 50 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


8 Lines Per Inch 


27 48 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Superscript On 


27 83 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Subscript On 


27 83 1 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Super/Subscript Off 


27 84 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 


Y 



1) Okidata 190+ and 290+ series using IBM Personality Modules. 

2) Some printer manuals indicate the user should use emphasized while 

others suggest enhanced. 

3) Italics on = 27 37 71, Italics off = 27 37 72 

4) Draft speed = 27 35 49 

5) NLQ mode = 27 73 51 

6) Pica pitch = 18 

7) Elite pitch = 27 58 

8) Left and right margins are set simultaneously: 27 88 1 r 



144 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



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than 3 years. This is the longest history 
in the CoCo market of any system. 
Some other advertisers are staling that 
they have one of the most reliable sys- 
tems for the CoCo with all of 4 months 
history in the CoCo hard drive market'. 
We have reached our position in the 
hard drive market by providing our cus- 
tomers with a quality product that they 
(and we) can be proud to own and use. 



10 Meg. 20 Meg. 40 Meg. 80 Meg. 

(2X40 Meg.) 
System Prices: (Includes Hard Drive, Controller, LR Tech Interface, 
Software. Fully assembled and tested.) 

S469. $599. $725. $1,069. 




Kit Prices: (LR Tech System as above but not assembled or tested.) 



$419. 



$549. $659. $ 999. 



Kit Prices: (As above but using Burke & Burke bus adapter) 
(na) $489. $609. (lower prices) 

30 Meg Kit: $539. (Lowest prices anywhere) 





OWL Hard Drive BASIC 3 

There have been several ads in this 
magazine about BASIC for Color 
Computer hard drive systems. These 
ads sometimes only tell a part of the 
story. Our BASIC system price in- 
cludes assembly, testing, and 3-day 
burn-in period. We do not require a 
Multi-pak to operate. 

Our hard drive systems are fast, reli- 
able, and reasonable in price. This has 
been proven by hundreds of users over 
the past 3 years. We do not have to turn 
off error checking for speed. We 
achieve high speed BASIC from a uni- 
que indexing method. 

The table below will summarize some 
of the key points about our BASIC hard 
drive system and two other systems. We 
believe that we have the best BASIC in- 
terface for CoCo hard drives available. 



BASIC Hard Drive Systems 

Feature OWL B&B RGB 


Drive Portion 
Available 


Entire 


Entire (?) 


Entire 


User Sets 

BASIC/OS-9 

Partitions 


YES 


Yes 


No 


Add to Exist- 
ing OS-9 
Drive Without 
Reformat 


YES 


Yes(?) 


No 


Drives 0-3 
Hard/Floppy 


YES 


No 


Yes 


Built in Park 


YES 


No 


Yes 


Speed' 


FAST 


Fast 


Fast 



All feature details are believed lo be 
true at time of writing and are subject 
to change. We believe that our BASIC 
hard drives are the fastest due lo our in- 
dexing method, but all three systems 
are fast. On ours all BASIC commands 
work including DSKINI, DSKIS, and 
DSKOS. 



Prices: With/Without Hard 



five 



$35./$79. 



Technology 



the Color Computer Frontier 





Floppy Drive Systems 

The Highest Quality for Service Now and tor Years to 

Come 
Use our WHISPER DRIVE for the finest, quietist drive 

Drive Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) $21 9. 

Drive systems complete with drive, controller, legal DOS, 
cable, case, power supply, and manual 

Drive 1 Systems (Half Height, Double Sided, Direct 

Drives) $ I 29a 

New 3.5", 720K Drives for OS-9 with case& 

Power Supply $ I #57. 

Drive 1 Systems have drive, case, power supply. (You may 
require optional cable and/or DOS chip to use) 

Special for 0/1 Combos (Drives 0,1,2,3) $315. 



HALF- HEIGHT DRIVE 

UPGRADES FOR RS 

HORIZONTAL CASES 

Why onlydoubie the capacity of your 
system whenyou can triple in the same 
case? Kit includes: double-sided to fit 
your case, chip to run both sides of new 
dnve, hardware, and detailed instruc- 
tions. Easy! Takes only 5 minutes! 

Model $119. Model $129. 
500 501 or 502 



_ 



All drives are new and fully assembled. 
We ship only FULLY TESTED and 
CERTIFIED at these low prices. We 
use Fuji, YE Data, and other fine 
brands. No drives are used or surplus 
unless otherwise stated to you when 
you order. We appear to be the one of 
the few advertisers in Rainbow who 
can truly make this claim. We have 5 
years experience in the CoCo disk 
drive market! We are able to provide 
support when you have a problem. 



OWL Phones 

Order Numbers (only) 

1-800-245-6228 
1-215-682-6855 

Technical Help ill 
1-215-837-1917 



OWL WARE Software Bundle 



Disk Tutorial/Utilities/Games 
DISK TUTOR Ver 1.1 

Learn how to use your disk drive from 
this multi-lesson, machine language 
program. This tutor takes you through 
your lessons and corrects your mistakes 
for a quick, painless disk drive introduc- 
tion. (This professionally written tutor 
is easily worth the bundle's total price.) 

OWL DOS 

An operating system that gives faster 
disk access and allows the use of 
double-sided drives. Corrects a floating 
point number error on early CoCo sys- 
tems. 

COPY-IT 

Quickly copies selected programs be- 
tween disks. A wild card option selects 
groups of programs to copy. 

VERIFY 

Verifies reading of each sector. Bad 
sectors are listed on the screen. 

2 GAMES 

We will select 2 games from our stock. 
These sold for more than $20 each. 

If sold separately this is more than $125 
worth of software! ! 

Do not mistake this software with 
cheap, non-professional "Public 
Domain" software which is being of- 
fered by others. All of this software is 
copyrighted and professional in quality. 
The tutor is unique with us and has 
helped thousands of new users learn 
their disk drive. 

only $27.95 

(or even better) 

only $6.95 with 

any Disk Drive Purchase!! 

g>ur .prices, include a. discount for cash 
ut do not include shipping. 

OWL-WARE has a liberal warranty policy. During the warran- 
ty period, all defective items will be repaired or replaced at our 
option at no cost to the buyer except tor shipping costs. Call 
our tech number for return. Return of non-defective or un- 
authorized returns are subject to a service charge. 



Drives 1 Year Warranty 



OWL-WARE 

P.O. BOX 116 
Mertztown, PA 19539 



your printer to others. Armed with this 
information, a little common sense and 
a moderate amount of time, you can 
modify BASIC programs from THE RAIN- 
BOW that were written for other print- 
ers, as well. 

Not counting LaserJets and certain 
other printers, we come into contact 
with three basic types of control codes 
used by printer manufacturers: Epson 
Standard codes, IBM codes and Tandy 
codes. For the most part, the Epson and 
IBM codes are identical. To see some of 
the differences, however, compare the 
Okidata(lBM mode) codes presented in 
Table 3 with those for the other printers. 
The largest schism we see is between the 
Tandy-type codes and the other two. 
More work is usually required in con- 
verting between these types. 



"One confusing aspect 

of printer codes is that 

they can be sent to the 

printer in many 

different forms. " 



To convert a BASIC program for your 
printer, first go through the listing line 
by line and determine which lines con- 
tain control codes and what those codes 
are. 1 find the best way to do this is to 
look for lines that contain PRINT8-2. In 
some cases the program may send 
character strings (CHR$) that are not 
control codes, but simply print data. 
For example, instead of using PRINT8- 
2,"*" to print an asterisk, the pro- 
grammer might have chosen to use 
PRINTB-2,CHR$(42). Watch for this 
situation, and experiment to find the 
differences between control codes and 
data to be printed. 

If you know for which printer the 
program was written, you can compare 
the codes you find and quickly replace 
the codes with those for your own print- 
er. Keep in mind that you may have to 
refer to the ASCII and Hex tables 
(tables 1 and 2) in correctly determining 
the proper codes and their correspond- 
ing functions. 

If you don't know which printer the 
author used, your work will be a little 
harder. You can compare the codes you 
find with those given in these tables to 
determine what function is being used. 
Then cross-reference the code for your 
printer. 



In addition to information about 
various dot matrix printers, I have 
included the codes for the Radio Shack 
DWP-2I0 and DWP-230 printers 
(Table 5). As expected, these daisy- 
wheel printers don't offer as much 
control to the user. Also, Table 6 shows 
the various codes used for the Radio 
Shack CGP-220 Inkjet printer. 



Some control codes are standard for 
nearly every printer made. These codes 
control basic printhead and platen 
movement and are listed below. 



CHR$(8) 
CHR$(10) 
CHRS(12) 
CHRS(13) 



backspace 
forward linefeed 
formfeed 
carriage return 



Table 4: Radio Shack DMP codes 

Y - code is supported 
N - code not supported 
D - different code used 

Function Codes 


o 

CO 

1 

a. 
S 

Q 

■ 1} 
3 
J= 
CO 

o 

■3 

a 
Bi 


o 

r-i 

in 
O 
*-t 

0, 

S 

Q 

M 
o 

a 

.c 

CO 

o 

•3 

(B 

oi 


Underline On 


15 


Y 


Y 


Underline Off 


14 


Y 


Y 


I talics On 


27 66 1 


Y 


N 


Italics Off 


27 66 


Y 


N 


Draft/Normal 


27 19 


Y 


N 


Correspondence/NLQ 


27 18 


Y 


N 


Pica (10 CPI) 


27 19 


Y 


Y 


Elite (12 CPI)' 


27 23 (27 29) 


Y 


Y 


Condensed (16.7 CPI) 


27 20 


Y 


Y 


E longated On 


27 14 


Y 


Y 


E longated Off 


27 15 


Y 


Y 


Bold On 


27 31 


Y 


Y 


Bold Off 


27 32 


Y 


Y 


Unidirectional On 


27 85 1 


Y 


Y 


Unidirectional Off 


27 85 


Y 


Y 


Right Margin Set 


27 82 n 


Y 


N 


Left Margin Set 


27 81 n 


Y 


N 


Page Length (inches) 


27 52 n 


Y 


N 


Paper -Out On 




N 


N 


Paper-Out Off 




N 


N 


6 Lines Per Inch 


27 54 


Y 


Y 


S Lines Per Inch 


27 56 


Y 


Y 


Superscript On 2 


27 83 


Y 


Y 


Subscript On 2 


27 83 1 


Y 


Y 


Super/Subscript Off 2 


27 88 


Y 


Y 



1) Second code shown is for NLQ Elite pitch. 

2) Super- and subscripts not supported on the DMP-105 



148 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Table 5: Radio Shack DWP printers 



Function Codes 


o 


o 

CO 
cs 

Q 


Underline On 15 


Y 


Y 


Underline Off 14 


Y 


Y 


Pica (10 Pitch) 27 15 


Y 


Y 


Elite (12 Pitch) 27 14 


Y 


Y 


Bold On 27 31 


Y 


Y 


Bold Off 27 32 


Y 


Y 



As a final note, you will undoubtedly 
encounter some codes for which your 
printer offers no direct equivalent. For 
example, your particular printer may 
not support super- and subscript print- 
ing. However, if it supports half-reverse 
and half-forward linefeeds, you will find 
these codes can be combined to emulate 
super- and subscripts. Trial and error is 
often helpful in altering programs. 
There may also be times when your 
printer cannot duplicate a particular 
function. In these cases it is up to you 
to determine whether you leave the code 
out altogether or try a different ap- 
proach. 

Based on the difficulties often en- 
countered in converting codes for var- 
ious printers, I ask that all programmers 
who submit material to THE RAINBOW 
follow certain guidelines. Please include 
a table with your submission detailing 
the printer control codes used by your 
program, the functions they perform 
and in which lines they appear. Finally, 



Table 6: Codes for the CGP-220 


CHR$(8) 


Backspace in text mode . 


CHR$(11) 


Reverse Line Feed in text mode . 


CHR$(17) 


Select Text Mode. 


CHR$(18) 


Select Graphic Mode. 


CHR$(29) 


Change color in Text Mode. 


A 


Reset 


Cnumber 


Change color, number from 0-3. 


^destination 


Draw from current coordinate to specified 
position. 


H 


Move pen to current origin w/o drawing. 


I 


Sets new origin. 


Jdestination 


Draw a line from current pen location 
x steps to the right and y steps up. 


Ltype 


Change line type (0-15). is a solid 
line. 1-15 draw dashed lines. 


Mx.y 


Move without drawing to location x steps 
right (left) and y steps up (down) of 
present origin. Absolute. 


^characters 


Print characters in Graphic Mode. 


(^direction 


Change print direction, direction is 0-3. 
0-normal , left-to-right; l«=top-to-bottom; 
2— upside-down ; 3«bottom-to-top. 


Rx.y 


Move without drawing from present location 
to location x steps to the right (left) and 
y steps up (down). Relative . 


Ssize 


Specifies size of printed characters drawn 
with P command. 


Xaxis ,step , 
intervals 


Draw a coordinate axis from present location 
in direction specified by axis using incre- 
ments of step and marking intervals of them. 



let the reader know exactly which 
printer your program is designed for. 
With this information and the printer 
manual, RAINBOW readers should be 
able to make quick work of deleting 
your codes and replacing them with 
those for their system. 



Due to the complexities and differ- 
ences involved, I have avoided discus- 
sion of graphics control codes and the 
transfer of graphics data. This informa- 
tion can be used as a stepping stone, 
however, if you are interested in learn- 
ing more about printers. /R\ 



Lyra 

Lyra is the premier music composition program that lets your CoCo talk to your MIDI synthesizer. You can 't find a program that is easier 
to use! It is as simple as "pick up a note and put it on the staff". Lyra is also very powerful. Individual notes can easily be changed or 
blocks of music may be copied or deleted. Create full sounding music with 8 parts using a range of note values from whole to 64ths 
with any combination of dots, triplets, or ties. Change volume, tempo, and instruments anywhere in the music. Set synthesizer 
configurations or even upload new instrument patches from the score! Now includes LyraPrint, which will print your masterpiece on a 
dot matrix printer (Epson, Gemini, Radio Shack, and Oki Data 92), and a cable to connect the CoCo to a MIDI synthesizer. Requires a 
disk drive, a mouse and any version of the Color Computer. $59.95 

Lyra Lybrary 

Here'sa collection of musicthat will please any taste! Over 11 disks packed with a variety of music that will exercise your MIDI synthesizer. 
Enjoy music from Bach to the Beatles. Edit the music on Lyra or just play it using the "jukebox" type program included. Requiresadisk 
drive, a mouse, and a Lyra MIDI cable. Send a SASE for a complete listing of available titles. Each disk $14.95 

We're a new company here to give you the best in music products for the Color Computer. 
We think you will like what we have to offer. If you have a new music program or ideas or 
comments, let us know! Inquire about our other products. 



Rulaford Research 

P.O. Box 143 

Imperial Beach, CA 92032 

(619)690-1181 (evenings 6-10 PT) 



Ordering information: Send a check or money order; sorry, no credit cards. COD is OK. 
Shipping and handling within continental USA included in price. CA residents add 6% tax. 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 149 



_' ■ — — — ■ — 

>atiii*p 

Isolating and repairing keyboard problems 



Ar_ Y_u 

Missi_g 

S_m_thi_g? 



I like to experiment with many 
hardware modifications and do all 
of my own repairs on my Color 
Computer. This normally involves re- 
moving and re-inserting the keyboard, 
causing a lot of wear and tear on the 
delicate keyboard connector. 

The keyboards (CoCo 1 'F' Board 
and later) for Radio Shack's Color 
Computers are made of a very fragile 
plastic membrane, with thin conductor 
runs on one side. The conductor runs 
are easily damaged if scratched or over- 
flexed. Once damaged, the runs cannot 
be repaired by soldering, as the heat 
from the soldering iron melts the plas- 
tic. Replacement keyboards can be 
purchased for between $5 and $50, 
although the $5 keyboards that were 
discontinued by Radio Shack a year or 
two ago are getting more difficult to 
find. 

The procedures described in this 
article require that some tests be per- 
formed with the computer's cover re- 
moved and the power on. Hazardous 
and potentially lethal voltages exist 
inside the computer around the power 
supply and on-off power switch. Be 
extremely careful around this area of 
the computer. The rest of the computer 
contains very low voltages, but rela- 

Roger Dowd (WA4QAS) is an electronics 
technician and an advanced class ama- 
teur radio operator. His hobbies include 
packet radio, computers, and building 
.,y,\,' tuiymmeriting with all types of 
electronic projects. 

150 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



By Roger D. Dowd 



tively high current. Remove any jewelry 
from your wrists and hands to avoid 
personal injury from shock or burns 
and possible damage to the computer. 
Every effort has been made to provide 
accurate information and safe proce- 
dures. Neither the author or the pub- 
lisher will be held liable for any injuries 
to person or damage to equipment. Be 
aware that removal of the computer 
cover and subsequent modification or 
repairs will void any existing warran- 
ties. 

Before I explain how to repair the 
keyboard, it is important to first explain 
that keyboard problems can appear 
from different sources. The first, as 
mentioned above, is due to stress and 
abuse of the keyboard connector. The 
other is from a faulty Peripheral Inter- 
face Adapter (PIA). If you have never 
taken your computer apart or it has 
been some time since you had it apart, 
and you suddenly develop keyboard 
trouble, suspect a faulty PIA. 

PIA trouble can cause such symp- 
toms as missing characters, erroneous 
characters appearing from seemingly 
nowhere, intermittent key bounce or a 
dead keyboard. The easiest way to 
check for a defective PIA is to simply 
replace the suspect PIA with a known 
good one. You will need to refer to the 
technical reference manual for your 
particular model CoCo to find which 
PIA to replace. Always use an exact 
replacement. 

On the newer model CoCos (CoCo 
2B, CoCo 3s), the PIA chips are sol- 



dered directly to the board. To remove 
the PIA chips from the later model 
CoCos, you will have to carefully de- 
solder the chips with a desoldering tool 
and desolder wick. (Note: This is a job 
for someone who is skilled in soldering 
and desoldering integrated circuits.) 
Before reinstalling the PIA chip, solder 
in a socket first, then plug in the PIA 
chip. Any time you do any modification 
or repair where you must desolder a 
chip, solder in a socket first before you 
reinstall the chip. This will save you a 
lot of aggravation later, as well as wear 
and tear on the computer circuit board. 

To determine which run or line is 
open, type in the following jingle ex- 
actly as it is written: The quick brown 
fox jumped over the lazy dog's 
back 012345G789. This jingle will test 
the entire keyboard matrix. Make note 
of all the characters that are missing. 
Looking at Figure I, you will see 16 
lines coming from the keyboard matrix. 
Find the line that all of the missing 
characters have in common. For exam- 
ple, on my keyboard the G, O, W, space 
bar and 7 characters were missing. All 
of these keys have Line 16 in common. 
Ifthe letters P, Q, R, S, T, etc., had been 
missing, then Line 4 would have been 
defective. 

To repair a damaged connector you 
will need to purchase Loctite's "Quick 
Grid" Rear Window Defogger Repair 
Kit, Part No. 15067, available for about 
$7 at most hardware and auto parts 
stores. The heart of this kit is a very tiny 
bottle of highly conductive paint. Be- 



(SHI)'IRO- 




(SH2) ( SH2) 
RSW LS W 



OKB-nc 



• JOYIN (SH2) 
•HS (SH2) 
SEL 1 (SH2) 

■ -FS(SH 2) 

• SEL 2 (SH 2) 



Figure 1 




j E3X33- 



fore you use the paint, shake the bottle 
very vigorously to get the conductive 
material to mix with the liquid medium. 
The paint dries extremely fast, so keep 
the lid on the bottle whenever you are 
not actually using it. Because the tiny 
bottle is so expensive I recommend not 
using the brush normally supplied with 
the kit, but straightening a paper clip 
and using that instead. This will prevent 
too much of the precious paint from 
being wasted on the brush. Carefully 
dip one end of the paper clip into the 
paint until a small amount of paint has 
collected on the end of the clip. Dot the 
paint gently onto the break in the run, 
making sure to overlap both sides of the 
break. It will take only a minute or two 
to dry. Once it has dried, repeat the 
process two or three more times to get 
a good coat built up and to ensure good 
conductivity. Try not to get any of the 
paint on any of the neighboring runs. 
After the final coat has been applied, 
wait about five or 10 minutes for the 
paint to completely dry. Gently scrape 
any excess paint from each side of the 
run with an X-acto knife. 

Measure the repaired run for conduc- 
tivity. If you don't have good conduc- 
tivity, you will have to scrape off the old 
paint and repeat the entire process. 
Failure to get good conductivity is most 
likely due to not shaking the paint well 



NOTE PIN 1 . 


12 3 4 5 6 r 8 B 10 11 12 13 14 15 1 




J 




































































RIBBON CONNECTOR 


1 KEYBOARD \ 

Figure 2 



enough. You must shake the paint bottle 
vigorously] One of my keyboards had 
excessive run damage, with one run 
almost entirely destroyed. 1 repainted 
nearly the entire run and restored the 
keyboard to full use. Although the price 
of the repair kit may seem expensive, 
remember that it can have other uses 
around the home or shop. This is espe- 
cially true if you etch and build many 
of your own electronic projects, as 1 do. 
If a break or tear in the run is not 
obvious, determine if the problem is a 
spread pin by turning the computer on. 
With a small, blunt metallic probe, such 
as a probe of an ohmeter, gently touch 
the suspect socket pin and keyboard 
connector run at the point (in the first 
example. Pin 16) where the two meet. 



At the same time, type in one of the 
characters that was missing. If the key 
suddenly begins to work but then just 
as suddenly quits working when the 
probe is removed, your problem is most 
likely a spread pin inside the mother- 
board socket. This may be fixed by 
removing the keyboard and gently and 
carefully squeezing the socket together 
with a pair of pliers. If that doesn't 
work, the socket may have to be re- 
placed. A replacement socket may be 
ordered from Tandy National Parts 
Center. 

(Questions or comments regarding 
this project may be directed to the 
author at 205 Williams Drive, Bonaire, 
GA 31005. Please enclose an SASE 
when requesting a reply.) /Rv 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 151 



1 D e lphi Bur e au 



Recently we have been getting a 
lot of requests for help in using 
various aspects of the CoCo 
SIG. While we don't mind offering help 
when we can. it is time-consuming and 
occasionally somewhat frustrating, 
especially when the information re- 
quested is already available to all users 
in the Help section of the SIG. 

At the CoCo SIG menu, simply enter 
HELP; you will be taken to a special SIG 
section that contains several user help 
files. To see what files are there, enter 
SCAN or SC. You will see a list containing 
many help files. These are duplicated in 
Figure I. To read a specific file just enter 
its number at the Help> prompt. For 
example, to learn how to download 
files, enter a 40 at the Help> prompt. 

Handling of the help files is done by 
Jim Reed (JIMRliED). Jim has created 
most of the files during his tenure as 
SIG Manager, and he is continually 
adding more files to the list. 

Using the Help section of the SIG will 
eliminate sometimes time-consuming 
correspondence back and forth with the 
SIG staff. In many cases, a simple 
question can turn into 10 or 12 letters 
in Mail. Obviously, we would like to 
avoid this if at all possible. We under- 
stand that it isn't always possible, 
though. 

If your question is still unanswered 
after checking the Help files, contact 
Marty Goodman (MARTYGOODMAN), 
Don Hutchison (DONHUTCHISON), Jim 
Reed or me (CRAY) via Mail or Forum. 
We will do our best to help you solve 
the problem. 

Workplace in Workspace 

One of the most useful and powerful 
areas of Delphi is the Workspace area. 
At the same time, it is often the most 
unused area. Many users, especially 
newer ones, are easily intimidated by 
Workspace — or they just don't under- 
stand all the power it gives them. It 
doesn't take an interested user long to 
find out that in order to upload a file, 
it must be done from within this area. 

Every Delphi user has a personal 
storage area set aside on Delphi's com- 

Cray Augsburg is RAINBOW'S technical 
editor and has an associate 's degree in 
electrical engineering. He and his wife, 
Ruth Ann, have two children and live 
in Louisville, Kentucky. His username 
on Delphi is CRA >'. 



Finding online help and 

creating a workplace in the 

database 



A Place of 
Your Own 



By Cray Augsburg 
Rainbow Technical Editor 



puters. This area can be used to store 
private messages and files. In fact, when 
you receive Mail and file it online, it is 
stored in a special mail file in your own 
Workspace. Other users cannot get into 
your Workspace unless they use your 
username and password. 

You can get to Workspace from two 
different places in the CoCo SIG (or any 
SIG for that matter). Just enter WORK- 



SPACE or WO at the CoCo SIG prompt 
or at any database prompt. When you 
see the WS> prompt on your screen, 
enter a question mark; you will see the 
commands available to you in this area. 
These commands are listed in Figure 2. 

To find out what files are presently 
stored in your Workspace, enter DIREC- 
TORY or CATALOG. Just as with abbre- 
viations elsewhere on Delphi, these 
commands can be shortened to DIR or 
CAT, respectively. While the DIR com- 
mand doesn't appear in the list of 
available commands, it is there for those 
who are more comfortable using it. 

If you have used the CoCo SIG for 
a while and have filed much Mail, you 
may have several files ending with an 
extension of .MAI when you do a direc- 
tory of your Workspace. Most likely, 
you won't be doing any manipulation of 
these files from within Workspace — 
and they do tend to get in the way in 
the directory listing. To get a better- 
looking directory output, enter DIR / 
EXCLUDE=*.MAI at the WS> prompt. 

Files in Workspace each have a file- 
name, a three-character extension and 
a version number. The filename and 
extension should be self-explanatory to 
most users. The version number, how- 
ever, may cause some confusion for 



Database Report 

By Don Hutchison 



Rainbow CoCo SIG Database Manager 



This has been a very busy month for the 
CoCo SIG, with the greatest amount 
of action occurring in the Graphics and 
Utilities and Applications topics of the 
database. 
OS-9 Online 

In ihe General topic of the database, 
Kevin Darling (KDARLING)posted a text 
file describing a method for running Suh 
Battle under Multi-Vue. The method is 
also applicable to other programs that 
require a VDG screen to operate. 

In the Applications topic of the data- 
base, Dennis Weldy (OS9F.R) uploaded 
SCREEN PAINTER, a utility for setting up 
the screen form to your liking with Sculp- 
tor. Steve Clark (steveclark) posted a 
revised text search and find utility that 
reads filenames from the standard input 
rather than from a fixed filename. Steve 
also uploaded a menu choice application 
program for Level II that allows the 
creation of mouse- or joystick-controlled 
applications. 



In the Utilities topic of the database, 
Brian Wrighl (POLTERGEIST) posted a 
utility using English-language variables 
and decimal numbers that is a replacement 
for the DISPLAY command. Kevin Dar- 
ling, with the kind permission of Ron 
Lammardo, posted Shell+( Version 1 .2) for 
OS-9 Level II. Shell* is designed as a 
replacement for the current shell on Level 
II CoCo 3s. It features some fixes for the 
previous version, a programmable 
prompt, shell scripts in the current execu- 
tion directory and a lew other neat things. 
Bruce Terry (THEMAGE) uploaded both an 
Icon and a font editor to run under Wind- 
Int. 

In the Device Drivers topic of the data- 
base, Greg Law (gregl) gave us five VDG 
device descriptors, called V0 through V4. 
which can be used along with Term 
_Win and windows. Ken Schunk (KEN- 
SCHUNK) posted a driver that cures a 
problem in the VDG driver supplied with 
the developer's pack. The driver was 



152 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



written by Volney Larowe of Saratoga 
Springs, NY. Brian Wright sent us a device 
driver that partitions a CoCo 3's 512K 
memory into a fast RAM disk. 

In the Patches topic of the database, 
Michael Washburn (COMPZAP) posted 
PGPATCH, a text file describing how to 
patch PHANTOMGRAPH to work with Star 
Gemini printers (I Ox, 15x and possibly 
others), using a MODPATCH script (in- 
cluded) or by using a IPATCH. 

In the Graphics and Music topic of the 
database, Mark O'Pella (MDODELPHI) 
uploaded an original composition done 
using Umuse. 

CoCo SIG 

In the General Information topic of the 
database, I (DONHUTCHISON) uploaded a 



humorous document concerning some of 
the not-too-obvious benefits of going to 
RAINBOWfest, while Marty Goodman 
(martygoodman) posted two informa- 
tive reports about the Chicago RAIN- 
BOWfest as it was happening. Roger 
Bouchard (harbie) posted a text file 
describing the various alternatives for 
phone users in accessing the information 
services. Roger also uploaded several 
comic files for the amusement of SIG 
members, as well as some interesting 
commentaries concerning a pirate BBS 
and the effect of plastics on the environ- 
ment. 1 also posted some humorous files 
passed to me by Rick Adams from UseNet 
concerning hotel soap and more of the 
light bulb trivia. 

In the CoCo 3 Graphics topic of the 



database, Orman Beckles (ORMAN) up- 
loaded his utility called Supsr XL25G Mach 
I, which is a new version of Roger Bou- 
chard's XL25G. Orman's version allows the 
user to load a digitized picture, alter the 
horizontal and vertical position, change 
the colors and then save the resulting 
picture in CoCoMax 3 format. Heath 
Dingwell (OS9KID) uploaded several nudes 
in CM3 format, his favorite CM3 picture 
viewer, some CM3 pictures from popular 
James Bond films and some detailed 
pictures of sports cars. Donald Ricketts 
(STEVEPDX) uploaded a palette changer 
utility for digitized CM3 images. Roger 
Bouchard posted an upgrade for his pop- 
ular XL25G utility for converting digitized 
images to CM3 format, as well as a revised 
version of his demo program for MGE 



serious users unless they learn to under- 
stand them. We will hold off discussion 
of version numbers until we have some 
files to work with. 

Creating a File 

To write or build a text file in your 
Workspace, you will use the CREATE 
command. Enter CREATE filename at 
the WS> prompt. For this example, use 
TEST1.TXT as the filename. When 
Delphi is ready for you to write the text 



file, it will tell you to enter your text. 
It also explains your options of using 
CTRL-Z to save the file or CTRL-C to 
abort the creation process. Now type 
the following lines, pressing ENTER after 
each: 

THIS IS MY FIRST LINE. 
THIS IS MY SECOND LINE. 
THIS IS THE FINAL LINE. 

When you have pressed ENTER after 



the last line, press CTRL-Z and your file 
will be saved. Now when you enter DIR, 
you should see TEST1.TXT; 1 as one of 
the entries. Let's go ahead and create a 
second file. Call this one TEST2.TXT. 
Enter each of the following lines in this 
new file: 

SECOND FILE, FIRST LINE. 
SECOND FILE, SECOND LINE. 
SECOND FILE, FINAL LINE. 



Figure 1: List of help files available in Help section of CoCo SIG. 



1 APPOINTMENT CALENDAR 

2 AUTO-HANGUP ON TELENET 

3 CHANGING YOUR PASSWORD 

4 COCO COMPOSER HELP 

5 CONFERENCE HELP 

6 CONFERENCE HINT 

7 CONFERENCE: /DIR & /DISPLAY 

8 CONTROL CODES 

9 CONTROL-0 RESPONSIVENESS 

10 CONTROL-Z IS HANDY. 

11 DATABASE HINT, LEADING SPACES 

12 DATABASE STANDARDS 

13 DATABASE UPDATE 9-15-87 

14 DECEMBER DELPHI NEWSLETTER 

15 DEFAULTING INTO THE COCO SIG 

16 DELPHI COMMAND CARD 

17 DELPHI: THE OFFICIAL GUIDE 

18 DISABLING CALL WAITING 

19 DOT COMMANDS IN FORUM 

20 ECHO CAUSES DOUBLE LETTERS 

21 EDIT MODE 

22 EDITING IN FORUM HINT 

23 EDITOR: PICK FROM TWO 

24 EDITOR:OLDIE COMMANDS 

25 ELIM. MAIL IN WORKSPACE DIR 

26 ENT: TO SEE LAST ENTRY 

27 FOLDERS ENHANCE MAIL FACILITY 

28 FORUM CHANGES, 11/8/86 

29 FORUM CHANGES, 12/29/86 

30 FORUM COMMAND LIST 

31 FORUM EDITING HINT 

32 FORUM ENHANCEMENT, 1/5/86 

33 FORUM HELP 

34 FORUM READING NONSTOP 

35 FREE UPLOAD TIME AVAILABLE 

36 GETTING INTO MAIL QUICKLY 

37 GO COMMAND 

38 HANDLES ARE HANDY 

39 HELP IS ALWAYS AVAILABLE 



40 HOW TO DOWNLOAD FILES 

41 LINEFEEDS 

42 MENUS CAN BE ELIMINATED 

43 MORE? PROMPT CAN BE ALTERED 

44 NEW DELPHI BOOK OUT 

45 NEW SIGWARE, 12/15/86 

46 NEW SIGWARE, 8/1/87 

47 NO SUCH USER 

48 PAGERS ARE TOO IMPATIENT 

49 PROFILE NEEDED FROM YOU! 

50 QUICK (TRUE! BREAK 

51 QUIT COMMAND IN FORUM 

52 RAINBOW DATABASE & CASSETTE US 

53 RAINBOW ON TAPE DATABASE 

54 RAINBOW ON TAPE DOWNLOADING 

55 RAINBOW ON TAPE ORDERS 

56 RAINBOW SUBSCRIPTION PROBLEM 

57 READING NONSTOP OVER RANGE 

58 ROLL THEM BONES 

59 SETTING SETTINGS 

60 SUBMISSIONS FOR RAINBOW PUBLIC 

61 SUBMITTING A FILE 

62 SURCHARGED DOWNLOADS 

63 SURCHARGED FILES EXPLAINED 

64 TELENET LOGON PROCEDURE 

65 THE /NAME COMMAND IN CONFERENC 

66 TIMEOUT CAN BE VARIED 

67 TIP FOR PRINTOUTS 

68 TO SKIP A SECTION 

69 TO STOP OUTPUT 

70 TRY /TIME 

71 UNWARRANTED "NO SUCH USER" MES 

72 USERNAME CAN BE CHANGED 

73 USING THE MEMBER DIRECTORY 

74 VOTE IN OUR POLLS 

75 WHEN YOU ARE PAGED 

76 XMODEM DOWNLOADING 

77 XMODEM UPLOADING 

78 YOUR OWN NAME NEEDED 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 153 



pictures. The CoCo Gallery pictures for 
the months of February through July 1988 
are now available, also. (NOTE: The 
Gallery pictures are now available online 
at approximately the same time as the 
rainbow ON TAPE and disk programs 
from each monthly issue of the rainbow. 
They are posted in the appropriate lopic 
of [he database, either CoCo 3 Graphics or 
Classic Graphics.) Mike Stute (GRIDBUG) 
sent us a clever basic picture of a cat as 
he tears up his owner's curtains! Billy 
Hambric (snooi'YDOG) sent us some dig- 
itized scenes from the motion picture 
Beauty and the Beast and a digitized shot 
from Star Trek. Mike Andrews (man- 
DREWS) sent us a text file containing the 
file specifications for the MacPaint pic- 
tures. David Brown (nasai) sent us a 
utility called PICUP for moving a picture 
upward on the Hi-Res screen. 

In the Utilities and Applications lopic of 
the database. Dave Stampe. author of 
CoCo Max 3 and other fine programs, has 
placed Colour Key in the database of the 
CoCo SIG! Dave gave us the programs 
while attending the Chicago RA1NBOW- 
fest. Colour Key is a powerful basic 
programmer's utility for the Color Com- 
puter I and 2 that incorporates many 
useful programming tools such as full 
screen editing, repeating keys, user- 
definable keys, automatic line number 
generation, full error and break key trap- 
ping, reverse video option, compatibility 
with the CoCo 3 in CoCo 2 mode and 
dozens of other handy features that no 



CoCo programmer should be without. A 
version of Colour Key is available for the 
CoCos I and 2 and the CoCo 3. Dave also 
provided us with FFT, a program designed 
to perform FFTs and IFFTs on a set of 256 
data points. An FFT turns a waveform 
into a frequency/ power graph, and an 
I FFT does the opposite. You could use the 
FFT to sample sounds, get the response of 
a filter from its impulse response or syn- 
thesize the response of a filter or a wave- 
form from a set of frequencies and phases 
with the 1 FFT. Richard Ortman (RAO) sent 
us a filing system for comic book collec- 
tions that also features a sort routine. Ken 
Halter (kenhalter) uploaded a set of 
programs that may be used to sort multiple 
arrays. David Mills (DAVTDMILLS) up- 
loaded an encryption utility for scrambling 
any or all of the files on a disk using a user- 
supplied code, as well as a 5I2K disk 
backup utility. John Barrett (JBARRETT) 
sent us his Deed Checker program for 
realtors, and Alan DcKok (alandekok) 
posted his Fastdrivc utility that enables the 
CoCo 3 to work at double speed during all 
disk access. Alan included the FDTASM + 
source code as well as versions for both 1 .0 
and I.I disk ROMs. 

In the Hardware Hacking topic of the 
database. I posted a lengthy treatise on the 
subject of lightning protection as discussed 
on another SIG. SIGop Marty Goodman 
was also involved in this roundtable dis- 
cussion. Kevin Darling uploaded a text file 
that describes a fix for the problems 
involved with the Tandy FD 502 second 



drive kit. 

In the Games topic of the database, Zack 
Sessions (ZACKS) uploaded an Othello 
game for the CoCo 3, a Blackjack game, 
and a Hammurabi game. Zack also posted 
Mike Ward's routines for putting the ROM 
pack game Springster on disk. John Bar- 
rett posted a Star Frontiers character sheet 
utility. 

In the Classic Graphics topic of the 
database, Mark Garbarini (FI9) sent us his 
original drawings called Pentagram and 
Tiger. Andy Duplay (KB8BMN) uploaded a 
Hi-Res picture of a Bengal tiger, a conver- 
sion utility for Macintosh pictures to 
CoCo Max formal and several digitized 
female nudes. 

In the Music and Sound topic of the 
database, Mike Stute sent us The CoCo 
Cat Shuffle, Rainbow in the Dark, and a 
short article about getting a better electric 
guitar sound from your synthesizer. Tony 
Zamora (TONYZAMORA) uploaded his 
Musica 2 file converter, which produces 
stand-alone files from Musica's MUS files. 
George Hoffman (HOFFBERGER) sent us 
three Pink Floyd songs for Lyra. 

In the Product Reviews and Announce- 
ments topic of the database. Eddie Kuns 
(EDD1EKUNS) uploaded his review of Data- 
Pack versus V-Term from Gimmesoft. Jim 
Goettig (.KiMG) posted an announcement 
about the CoBBS system for the CoCo 3. 

That's it for this month. As you can see, 
there's plenty of good material available on 
the Rainbow CoCo SIG. Hope to see you 
all online! □ 



Make sure to press CTRL-z after the 
last line to save the file. Great! Now we 
have two files in Workspace. And we 
can gel down to learning a little more 
about how to manipulate files in Work- 
space. 

Moving Files Around 

First, let's try copying files with the 
COPY command. Enter COPY TEST1 
.TXT TESTCOPY.TXT. When you do a 
directory, you will see the new file 
TESTCOPY.TXT as an entry. The COPY 
command makes an exact duplicate of 
the first filename listed in the command 
line and calls this new file by the second 
filename listed. Note that the command 
and each of the filenames are separated 
with spaces. Play around with this if you 
want before we move on to the APPEND 
command. 



Putting 'em Together 

There is a very quick way to combine 
(wo files in Workspace. Simply enter 
APPEND filename I filename!. This com- 
mand adds the text from filename I to 
the end of the text \n filename!. When 



this is done, filename I is unharmed 
it has been neither deleted nor changed. 
The contents of filename!, however, 
have been changed. Not to worry, 
though. The original filename! is still 
intact. What happens is that Delphi 
makes a copy oi filename! and adds the 
text from filename 1 to it. This new file 
has the same name asfilename2, but a 
new version number. Let's give it a try. 



Figure 2: Work 


space Commands 


APPEND to File 


PUBLISH File 


CATALOG Files 


PURGE Old Versions 


COPY File 


RENAME File 


COUNT Words 


SETTINGS 


CREATE File 


SUBMIT File 


DELETE File 


UNPROTECT File 


DOWNLOAD File 


UPLOAD File 


EDIT File 


KERMIT-Server 


EXIT 


Other Commands 


HELP 


New Features 


LIST File 





Enter APPEND TEST2.TXT TEST- 
COPY.TXT. After Delphi finishes its 
work, do a directory. You should see 



that the following files are now in your 
Workspace: 

TEST1.TXT;1 

TEST2.TXT;1 

TE5TC0PY.TXT;1 

TE5TC0PY.TXT;2 

To find out what is in these files, we 
can use the list command. Simply enter 
LIST, followed by the name of the file 
you want listed. You don't have to 
include the version number if the file 
you want listed is the latest version. II. 
however, you want to see the contents 
of TESTC0PY.TXT;1, the original file, 
you will have to enter the version 
number. Commands in Workspace al- 
ways default to the most recent version, 
i.e., the one with the highest version 
number. 

That's about ail we can cover this 
month. Next month I hope to give some 
coverage to some of the uses of files in 
Workspace. Can you imagine sending 
one letter to hundreds of people on 
Delphi at the same time without having 
to retype it every time? It's actually very 
easy to do, and we'll be discussing thai 
next time. See you then! *W\ 



154 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



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Two utilities to help you download programs 
using Radio Shack 's Direct Connect Modem Pak 



Working Together: 

Delphi and Tape I/O 



By Don Hutchison 

Rainbow CoCo SIG Database Manager 



You've got a Radio Shack Direct 
Connect Modem Pak, and you 
want to know how to use it to 
download programs from the CoCo 
SIG on Delphi? Great! Let's see what's 
involved. 

It's a good idea to be familiar with 
some of the terminology that we'll be 
using. Refer to the article "Getting 
Started with Delphi" in the November 
'87 issue of THE RAINBOW for a be- 
ginner's tour of Delphi. For continuing 
information about Delphi, Cray Augs- 
burg's monthly column "Delphi Bu- 
reau" is virtually required reading. 

To sign up with Delphi, locate the 
directions in the Delphi ad in RAINBOW 
for finding your local Telenet or Tymnet 
access number, then call Delphi 
through one of these services, using 
your CoCo and your Modem Pak. 
(Refer to your Modem Pak's manual for 
instructions on how to connect with 
these services.) Follow the easy prompts 
and messages to sign up. 

Don Hutchison is an electrical engineer 
and lives in Atlanta, Georgia. He works 
as a senior project engineer involved in 
the design of industrial control systems. 
On Delphi, Don is the Database Man- 
ager of the RAINBOW CoCo SIG. His 
Delphi username is DONHUTCH/SON. 



156 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



After your Delphi account is ap- 
proved (this can take less than 24 hours 
if you have an approved credit card), 
you're ready to enjoy the goodies in the 
CoCo SIG's databases. Sign on to 
Delphi, and then type GROUPS CDCD to 
get to the Rainbow CoCo S1G. Your 
Delphi Guide will give you instructions 
about how to get to the databases in the 
CoCo SIC. 

The terminal program in the Modem 
Pak is capable of transferring any 
standard CoCo file between your CoCo 
and other CoCos or mainframe 
computers using the Xmodem protocol. 
For our purposes, we'll assume you are 
using a cassette system, although the 
Modem Pak can also be used with a 
disk-based system if you use a Multi- 
Pak. Version 2.0 and higher of OS-9 also 
have special drivers furnished for use 
with the Modem Pak. 

Since Xmodem is an 8-bit protocol, 
the Modem Pak's communications 
parameters must be set up for 8 bits, no 
parity, and one stop bit before a file 
transfer is initiated. It is recommended 
that you use these parameters to call 
Delphi, since the Modem Pak doesn't 
automatically adjust to these parame- 
ters when it starts an Xmodem transfer. 
While it is possible to access Delphi at 
7 bits and even parity, you'll have to 
change your communications parame- 
ters manually before starting a down- 
load. 

After you have looked through the 
database (using the DIR and READ 
commands) for programs or files that 
you may be interested in downloading, 
it's time to do an actual Xmodem 
download. Don't let it frighten you, 
because most of the process is auto- 
matic — the hard part is waiting to gel 
the program so you can use it! 

Enter the READ command to start 
things moving. Suppose you want to 
download a game called Yahizee. At the 
main prompt, CoCo SIG>, enter DATA 
GAMES. This will place you in the Games 
topic of the database. Now type READ 
YAHTZEE. You'll be given a description 
of the program, and then the screen will 
display the ACTION> prompt and wait 
for you to tell it what to do. Since you 
have decided to download the program, 
just enter Xfl for Xmodem Download. 
When Delphi has the information ready 
for you, it will send a message saying, 
"OK, receive!" At this point, press the 
@ and I keys together; and the file 
transfer (download) will start. Delphi 
will notify you when the transfer is 
completed, at which point you should 
save your new download to tape. Didn't 



hurt at all, did it? Wasn't it easy! 

The databases on the CoCo SIG 
contain many different types of pro- 
grams: machine language programs, 
tokenized BASIC programs, graphics 
files and more. However, the Modem 
Pak's terminal program was designed 
for downloading ASCII BASIC pro- 
grams only, and it doesn't provide for 
creating any other file type. This makes 
it impossible for a Modem Pak user to 
download and successfully use machine 
language programs without some help 
from elsewhere. Additionally, many 
users desire features that simply weren't 
included in the software for the Modem 
Pak. What to do? 



"When we say a 
program is 'tokenized' 
or 'compressed* BASIC, 
we mean that it's in the 
same form that would 
be created if you typed 

in a BASIC program 
from the keyboard and 

then entered CSRVE 
"filename". " 



No problem! Mike Ward has pro- 
vided optional support for the Modem 
Pak when it's used with his popular 
terminal program, MikeyTerm. All 
that's needed is to run the companion 
program called MTPAK, which will 
adjust MikeyTerm to communicate 
with the Modem Pak. This step only 
needs to be done once. 

What really happens is that Mikey- 
Term uses the modem portion of the 
Modem Pak only, bypassing the termi- 
nal software. This approach adds many 
useful and desirable features to a user's 
system; a CoCo 3 user will be especially 
pleased, because he will be able to access 
the 80-column mode of the CoCo 3 with 
MikeyTerm] 

MikeyTerm features full buffer con- 
trol for reviewing what you have read 
online. A search feature is also provided 
for quickly locating a selected string in 
the buffer. A block of the buffer may be 
marked and then saved to tape or 
printed. The most common default 
settings are configurable and are saved 
for fast startup. (No more setting up 
everything when you first execute the 



program.) MikeyTerm can a 
configured to support a I 
compatible modem should you a 
one of those. Printer support is pro- 
vided through the CoCo's standard 
serial port. Finally, forum or mail 
messages may be typed into the buffer 
of MikeyTerm and then uploaded when 
you're online. This will save you con- 
nect time charges, since you won't have 
to type everything while you're online. 
MikeyTerm (in ASCII BASIC form) is 
available for downloading from the 
CoCo SIG's database using your 
Modem Pak, or it may be obtained 
directly from its author for the cost of 
media and handling. For MikeyTerm 
and full documentation, send SIO to: 

Mike Ward 

1 807 Cortez 

Coral Gables, FL 33134 

(Please specify the tape version.) Mi- 
keyTerm supports all versions of the 
CoCo, and includes provisions for 
Xmodem file transfers. If you decide to 
upgrade to disk operation in the future, 
MikeyTerm also supports disk I/O in 
the same program. 

The Xmodem protocol is in wide- 
spread usage these days on virtually all 
information services and BBSs. In 
addition, several terminal programs for 
the CoCo are available that support 
Xmodem for cassette users. Inherent in 
the Xmodem protocol is the ability to 
transfer binary files, and this created a 
rather severe problem for cassette users 
who attempted to download machine 
language programs or compressed (to- 
kenized) BASIC programs created on a 
disk system. This is due to a simple 
incompatibility between the tape and 
disk file formats. Microsoft, the authors 
of the BASIC used by the CoCo, only 
provided for the free exchange of 
ASCII programs between tape and disk 
systems. The solution is simply a bit of 
specialized processing in order to get 
around the problem. Just for back- 
ground, let's examine each of the file 
types. 

Machine Language Programs 

Specifically, machine language files 
on disk contain embedded control 
information that is not part of the actual 
program. This makes such files incom- 
patible with cassette systems unless that 
control information is removed. 
Cassette users who have downloaded 
and tried to execute binary music files 
have experienced this problem. 

A machine language file on disk is 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 157 



stored as one large block, and looks 
something like this: 

Preamble 

Zero Byte 

8 of Bytes to load 

Loading address 

Data 

Program body 

Postamble 

S.HFF Byte 

2 Zero Bytes 

Execution address 

However, a machine language program 
on tape contains a "namefile" block that 
precedes the machine language pro- 
gram, and it also contains the loading 
and execution addresses for the pro- 
gram. (BASIC determines the ending 
address of the machine language pro- 
gram by counting the number of bytes 
ii loads.) The problem is that terminal 
programs only load the data blocks 
following the namefile block, so the 
receiving terminal program has no way 
of determining these addresses when it 
saves the received program to tape. To 
further compound the problem, the 
Xmodem protocol was never designed 
to handle this situation, so the tape user 
was in need of some specialized help. 
That help arrived over three years ago 
in the form of a program called TAPCNV. 

TAPCNV is a machine language utility 
written by Mike Ward that will read a 
machine language cassette file created 
on a disk system and remove the disk 
control information. Once that is done, 
the file may be saved just like any other 
machine language file. 

To create the machine language pro- 
gram TflPCNV, carefully type in and then 
run Listing 1. (Be sure to save the 
program first.) The machine language 
program will be poked into memory, 
and some checking is done to try to 
detect any typing errors. Then the 
program will ask you for a cassette, and 
it will save the machine language pro- 
gram for you. 

To use the TflPCNV program, just load 
and execute it. It will prompt you to 
ready the cassette with the tape contain- 
ing the binary file that you downloaded 
and wish to convert. When you strike 
a key, TflPCNV will read the cassette file 
and remove the disk control informa- 
tion. The converted file will be moved 
to its proper place in RAM. When the 
file has been converted, the start, end 
and execute addresses are displayed. At 



this point you may save the converted 
program to cassette by entering a com- 
mand such as CSAVEM "filename" , 
WStart, IHEnd, &HExec. 

Naturally, machine language pro- 
grams that utilize disk functions will not 
work on a cassette system, but pro- 
grams such as music files will now 
function as intended. 

There are some files that TflPCNV 
simply can't handle, such as "seg- 
mented" files. For purposes of simplic- 
ity, consider segmented files to be 
program segments that must be loaded 
into different areas of memory. A tape 
format doesn't exist for segmented files, 
nor is it possible to create such files from 
BASIC. Segmented files occur regularly 
on disk systems, however; Disk BASIC 
can handle them efficiently. 

The BASIC version of the TflPCNV 
program may also be downloaded from 
the Utilities topic of the CoCo SIG's 
database on Delphi, and the assembly 
language source code for TflPCNV may 
be found in the Source code topic of the 
database. 

Now, since you have TflPCNV but not 
MikeyTerm (yet), can you use the 
Modem Pak to download machine 
language programs from Delphi? Sure! 
We'll have to modify TflPCNV first, in 
order to remove some checking that 
"TflPCNV" does to make sure that it is 
"fixing" a machine language file. 

A simple modification to TflPCNV will 
disable the checking. Just enter CLOADM 
"TflPCNV", then enter from the key- 
board: 

POKE &HGDE,8.H21 : POKE 
&HGE5,&H21 

These pokes make TflPCNV ignore the 
file type of the source program. Nor- 
mally, TflPCNV requires a binary file and 
will cease execution if the filetype isn't 
binary. These pokes modify some of the 
"error trapping" features of the pro- 
gram, so they are provided on a "use at 
your own risk" basis. 

Tokenized BASIC 

When we say a program is "token- 
ized" or "compressed" BASIC, we mean 
that it's in the same form that would be 
created if you typed in a BASIC program 
from the keyboard and then entered 
CSflVE "filename". What BASIC will do 
is replace keywords like PRINT or 
PAINT with one character, or "token." 
Since several characters are replaced 
with a single character, the term "com- 
pressed" BASIC was born. The word 
"tokenized" is probably more approp- 
riate. 



BASIC does this in order to save space 
and to make program execution faster. 
Every time BASIC encounters a token, it 
executes code that already exists in your 
computer. Whenever you have a BASIC 
program in your computer, it exists in 
tokenized format. 

The only other way to store a BASIC 
program is in ASCII format, which you 
can do by typing CSflVE "filename" , A. 
The A at the end of that line is what tells 
your computer to save the program to 
tape in ASCII (or "text") format. When 
we say ASCII and/or text, we mean the 
type of characters you see on the screen 
when you tell BASIC to list a program. 

You might experiment with a few of 
your programs. Take a BASIC program 
you've saved to tape, and load it into 
MikeyTerm's buffer. Then view the 
buffer — you'll see all sorts of colored 
blocks and some characters mixed in, 
too. Then take a BASIC program that's 
been saved in ASCII format (CSflVE 
"filename" , A) and load it into the 
buffer. When you view the buffer this 
time, you'll be able to read everything 
there. 

A problem similar to the one involv- 
ing machine language files causes to- 
kenized BASIC files originating on a disk 
system to be incompatible with tape 
systems, basic programs saved on disk 
contain a 3-byte preamble that is not 
part of the actual program. (Disk BASIC 
uses this information to determine the 
size of the basic program before load- 
ing.) This preamble is not present on 
BASIC programs on cassette, and it 
makes such files incompatible with 
cassette systems unless it is removed. 
Cassette users who have downloaded 
and tried to use compressed basic files 
created on a disk system (such as those 
in the Rainbow topic of the CoCo SIG's 
database) have repeatedly encountered 
this problem. 

Following Mike Ward's lead, I wrote 
a utility program to assist tape users 
with tokenized BASIC programs. BflS- 
FIX is a utility that will read a tokenized 
BASIC cassette file originating on a disk 
system and remove the control informa- 
tion. It will then prompt the user to save 
the program to cassette. 

BASIC programs utilizing disk func- 
tions will still not work on a cassette 
system, but programs such as the RAIN- 
BOW ON TAPE files in the CoCo SIG's 
database will now be accessible to tape 
users. In fact, BA5FIX was originally 
written for use with MikeyTerm in 
order to get around the problem of 
tokenized BASIC programs and cassette 
users. 



158 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



BflSFIX is compatible with the CoCo 
1, 2 and 3. If a CoCo 3 is in use, the 
screen will default to the 32-column 
mode automatically, and the processor 
speed will be adjusted to the normal 
0.89-M Hz clock rate so that the file may 
be loaded correctly from tape. 

To create the machine language pro- 
gram BRSF I X, carefully type in and then 
run Listing 2. (Be sure to save the 
program first.) The machine language 
program will be poked into memory, 
and some checking is done to try to 
detect any typing errors. Then the 
program will ask you for a cassette, and 
it will save the machine language pro- 
gram for you. 

To use the BASF I X program from that 
point on, simply load and execute it. It 
will prompt you to ready your cassette 
player with the tape containing the 
binary file you downloaded and wish to 
convert. When you strike a key, BRSFIX 
will read the cassette file and remove the 
preamble. The converted file will be 
moved into RAM just as if you had 
entered PCLEflR 1 and then CLDfiDed the 



program. At this point, you will be 
prompted to CSflVE the converted pro- 
gram to cassette. From then on, the 
program may be treated just as any 
other BASIC program from tape. 

Note that BflSFIX requires that the 
cassette file containing the BASIC pro- 
gram has been saved in binary format. 
This is a technical limitation; it was 
done to prevent several problems that 
might occur with an ASCII save of the 
file, since BASIC actually does a LIST to 
tape when the ASCII option is used. 
This procedure could result in ex- 
tremely long program lines being trun- 
cated. 

If you are using AfikeyTerm, simply 
choose Option 2 (Binary save) from the 
cassette menu. When prompted for the 
start and execution addresses, you may 
simply press ENTER in response to the 
prompts. 

BflSFIX is entirely position-inde- 
pendent and may be loaded anywhere 
in RAM. However, it is strongly recom- 
mended that the program be executed 
at its intended location in order to 



provide maximum memory for the 
converted BASIC program. 

The BflSFIX utility program (in 
ASCII BASIC form) may be downloaded 
from the Utilities topic of the CoCo 
SIG's database. The assembly language 
source code for BflSFIX may be found 
in the Source topic of the database. The 
source code is written for the MACRO 
80C assembler and is listed under the 
name of BflSFIX. SRC. 

The TAPCNV and the BflSFIX pro- 
grams, their source code files, and their 
documentation files are copyrighted by 
their respective authors. However, they 
may be freely shared with any and all 
CoCo users and included in club librar- 
ies as long as no fee is charged for the 
program(s). (A small charge [or the 
media and/ or xeroxing fee for the 
documentation is perfectly OK.) 

Feel free to contact either me (Delphi 
username DONHUTCH1SON) or Mike 
Ward (Delphi username mikeward) 
with any questions you may have con- 
cerning these two utilities. See you on 
Delphi, and enjoy downloading! □ 



Listing 1: TflPCNV 

1 CLS 

2 IF PEEK(&HC000)=68 THEN PRINT" 
DO NOT RUN THIS ON A DISK SYSTEM 
":END 

3 PRINT § 19 4, "GENERATING MACHINE 
LANGUAGE" 

4 FOR X=&H600 TO &H92C 

5 READ H$:POKE X, VAL("&H"+H$) 

6 NEXT 

7 PRINT: PRINT "PREPARE CASSETTE T 
SAVE TAPCNV" 

8 PRINT"PRESS ANY KEY WHEN READY 
ii 

9 IF INKEY$="" THEN 9 

10 CSAVEM"TAPCNV",&H600,&H92C,&H 
600 

11 PRINT: PRINT "TAPCNV SAVED!": PR 
INT 

12 END 

13 DATA 7F,FF,4J8,6F,8D,3,29,6F,8 
D,3,24,8E,0,0,AF,8D,3,1F,30,8C,E 
B,3J8,89 f FD,FF,AF,8D,3,16,30 

14 DATA 8D,4,16,AF,8D,3,10,BD,A9 
,28,8E,4,45,9F,88,17,2,B6,54,41, 
50, 45, 20, 43, 4F,4E, 56, 45, 52, 54 

15 DATA 20,55,54,49,40,49,54,59, 
0, 8E, 4, 82, 9F, 88, 17, 2, 99, 52, 45, 41 
,44, 59, 20, 54, 41, 50, 45, 20, 54, 4F 

16 DATA 20,42,45,20,43,4F,4E,56, 
45,52,54,45,44,0,8E,4,C9,9F,88,1 
7, 2, 76, 50, 52, 45, 53, 53, 20, 41, 4E 



17 DATA 59,20,4B,45,59,20,0,BD,A 
1,B1,81,3,26,1,39,BD,A9,28,96,68 
,A7,8D,2,9D,86,FF,97,68,C6,1 

18 DATA BD,A9,9E,CC,0,F,8E,1,DA, 
A7 , 80 , 5A , 2 6 , FB , 30 , 8D , 2 , 83 , 17 , 2 , 4 
8,8E,1,DA,9F,7E,BD,A7,1,DA 

19 DATA 7C,26,F9,86,46,B7,4,0,B6 
,1,E2,A7,8D,2,6B,86,80,B7,1,E2,8 
E,1,DA,17,2,25,A6,8D,2,5C 

20 DATA B7,1,E2,BD,A7,E9,B6,1,E2 
,81,2,10,26,1,E8,7D,1,E3,10,26,1 
,E1,30,8D,2,4B,3 4,10,BD,A7 

21 DATA 7C,35,10,9F,7E,BD,A7,B,1 
0,26,1,B0,6D,8D,2,2F,27,E,AC,8D, 
2, 2F, 22, 8, AC, 8D, 2, 27, 10, 22 

22 DATA 1,30,D6,7D,6D,8D,2,19,26 
,39,63,8D,2,13,6D,8D,2,17,10,26, 
1,52,33,8D,2,F,10,AE,43,10 

23 DATA AC,8D,2,3,25,9,10,AC,8D, 
1,FE,10,25,1,5,10,BF,1,E7,33,45, 
34,4,C0,5,1F,21,3A,A6,C0 

24 DATA A7,A0,5A,26,F9,35,4,34,1 
0,AE,8D,1,DA,3A,AF,8D,1,D5,35,10 
,96,7C,81,FF,2 6,8F,34,10,BD,A7 

25 DATA E9,BD,A9,74,35,10,6D,8D, 
1,BE,26,52,C6,FF,1F,12,EE,3B,11, 
83,FF,0,27,3D,EE,8D,1,AD,33,5F 

26 DATA EF,8D,1,A7,31,3F,5A,26,E 
9,17,1,54,D,D,55,4E,41,42,4C,45, 
20, 54, 4F, 20, 44, 45, 54, 45, 52, 4D 

27 DATA 49, 4E, 45, D, 45, 58, 45, 43, 2 
0, 41, 44, 44, 52, 45, 53, 53,0, 86, FF, A 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 159 



7,8D,1,75,20,9,6D,3D,26,BF,AE 

28 DATA 3E,BF,1,E5,A6,8D,1,63,97 
,68,6D,8D,1,60,27,1,39,31,8D,0,4 
8 , F6 , 1 , E7 , 17 , 1 , 22 , F6 , 1 , E8 

29 DATA 17,1,1C,31,8D,0,52,F6,1, 
E5,17,1,12,F6,1,E6,17,1,C,EC,8D, 
1,3A,83,0,A,FE,1,E7,33 

30 DATA CB, 33, 5F, IF, 30, 34, 4, IF, 8 
9,31,8D,0,22,17,0,F1,35,4,17,0,E 
C,17,0,D0,D,D,53,54,41,52 

31 DATA 54,20,24,20,20,20,20,20, 
2)3 , D, 45 , 4E , 44 , 20 , 20 , 20 , 24 , 20 , 20 , 
20 , 20 , D, 45 , 58 , 45 , 43 , 20 , 20 , 24 , 20 

32 DATA 20, 20, 20, D, 0,39, 17,0, A3, 
D,4E,45,58,54,20,42,4C,4F,43,4B, 
20,57,49,4C,4C,20,4F,56,45,52 

33 DATA 2D, 57, 52, 49, 54, 45, D, 54, 4 
8, 49, 53, 20, 50, 52, 4F, 47, 52, 41, 4D, 
D,0,86,FF,A7,8D,0,BD,16,FE,EE 



34 DATA 17 
,44,49,44, 
9,47,49,4E 

35 DATA 41 
59,53,54,4 
,87,16,FE, 

36 DATA 50 
52,52,4F,5 
,16,FE,9B, 

37 DATA 20 
49,4C,45,D 
,FE,7E,35, 

38 DATA A, 
F,BD,A3,A, 
0,8D,0,16, 

39 DATA 9, 
9,A6,85,A7 
35,36,37,3 

40 DATA 46 



,0,6D,D, 46,49,40,45,20 

20,4E,4F,54,20,4F,52,4 

,41,54,45,D,4F,4E,20 

, 20, 44, 49, 53, 4B, 20, 53, 

5,4D,D,0,86,FF,A7,8D,0 

B8, 17,0, 37, D, 54, 41 

,45,20,49,2F,4F,20,45, 

2,D,0,86,FF,A7,8D,0,6A 

17,0,1A,D,4E,4F,54 

,41,20,4D,2F,4C,20,46, 

,0,86,FF,A7,8D,0,4D,16 

10,A6,80,27,5,BD,A3 

20,F7,6E,84,A6,84,84,7 

6D,80,2A,F5,39,34,10,3 

34, 4, 54, 54, 54, 54, 8D 

35,4,C4,F,8D,3,35,10,3 

,A0, 39, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 

8,39,41,42,43,44,45 

,53,A0 



Listing 2: BRSFIX 



1 CLEAR 200,&H7FFE:CLS 

2 IF PEEK(&HC000)=68 THEN PRINT 
"DO NOT RUN THIS ON A DISK SYSTE 
M" : END 

3 PRINT@105, "LOADING basfix":L=l 
7 : SA=&H600 

4 CK=0:L=L+1 

5 FOR 1=1 TO 32 

6 READ H$:IF H$="X" THEN 15 

7 PRINT@206,HEX$(SA) 

8 X=VAL("&H"+H$) :POKE SA,X 

9 CK=CK+X:SA=SA+1 

10 NEXT I 

11 READ I 

12 IF I=CK THEN 4 

13 PRINT: PRINT" CHECKSUM ERROR 
IN LINE";L 

14 STOP 

15 PRINT: PRINT "BASFIX IS LOADED. 
READY CASSETTEAND PRESS < enter > 

16 LINEINPUT A$:CSAVEM"BASFIX I, ,& 
H600, &H98E,&H600 

17 PRINT: PRINT "ALL FINISHED! " :E 
ND 

18 DATA 6F,8D,2,88,6F,8D,2,83,BE 
, FF , FE , 8C , A0 , 27 , 27 , 9 , 7F , FF , D8 , F , 
E7,AD,9F,E0,2,17,2,5F,17,2,41,20 
,3505 

19 DATA 20,20,20,42,41,53,49,43, 
20,43,4F,4E,56,45,52,53,49,4F,4E 
,20,55,54,49,4C,49,54,59,D,D,D,5 
2,45,2042 

20 DATA 41,44,59,20,54,41,50,45, 
20,54,4F,20,42,45,20,43,4F,4E,56 
, 45, 52, 54, 45, 44 ,D, 41, 4E, 44, 20, 50 
,52,45,2115 



21 DATA 53, 53, 20, 41, 4E, 59, 20, 4B, 
45,59,20,0,BD,A1,B1,81,3,26,1,39 
,17,2,4,86,53,B7,4,0,96,68,A7,8D 
,2477 

22 DATA 2, 8, 86, FF, 97, 68, 17, 1,24, 
30,8D,2,2,9F,7E,CC,0,F,A7,80,5A, 
26,FB,AD,9F,A0,4,AD,9F,A0,6,17,3 
102 

23 DATA 0,FD,D6,81,DA,7C,26,EF,1 
7,1,B5,46,20,0,A6,8D,1,E5,34,2,8 
6 , 80 , A7 , 8D , 1 , DD , 30 , 8D , 1 , Dl , 17 , 1 , 
3328 

24 DATA AD,35,2,A7,8D,1,D0,17,0, 
D5,A6,8D,1,C9,81,2,10,26,1,3C,6D 
,8D,1,C0,10,26,1,34,AD,9F,A0,4,2 
782 

25 DATA 30,8D,1,AB,9F,7E,AD,9F,A 
0,6,10,26,1,12,6D,8D,1,99,26,36, 
63,8D,1,93,31,8D,1,93,63,A4,6D,A 
0,2971 

26 DATA 10,26,0,CD,EC,A1,ED,8D,1 
,83,C3,C,0,9E,17,30,89,FF,0,34,1 
0,10,A3,E1,10,22,1,C,D6,7D,C0,3, 
3063 

27 DATA 8E,C,1,A6,A0,A7,80,5A,26 
,F9,96,7C,81,FF,26,B4,8D,6D,8D,7 
6,A6,8D,1,52,97,68,6D,8D,1,4E,27 
,1,3552 

28 DATA 39,7F,C,0,CC,C,1,DD,19,E 
3,8D,1,40,83,0,1,DD,1B,9E,19,EC, 
84,27,C,3 3,4,A6,C0,26,FC,EF,84,3 
148 

29 DATA AE,84,20,F0,9E,27,9F,23, 
9E,19,30,1F,9F,33,9E,1B,9F,1D,9F 
,1F,8E,1,A9,9F,B,F,2D,F,2E,F,8,1 
7,2653 

30 DATA 0,DE,D,D,53,41,56,45,20, 



160 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



50,52,4F,47,52,41,4D,20,54,4F,20 
,54,41,50,45,20,4E,4F,57,D,0,39, 
1C,2018 

31 DATA AF,B6,FF,21,84,F7,B7,FF, 
21,39,4F,20,6,C6,1,8D,F,86,8,A7, 
E2,B6,FF,23,84,F7,AA,E0,B7,FF,23 
,39,4334 

32 DATA CE,FF,1,8D,0,A6,C4,84,F7 
,57,24,2,8A,8,A7,C1,39,17,0,8C,D 
, 46, 49, 4C, 45, 20, 44, 49, 44, 20, 4E, 4 
F,2926 

33 DATA 54, 20, 4F, 52, 49, 47, 49, 4E, 
41, 54, 45, 20,4F,4E,D, 41, 20,44,49, 
53,4B,20,53,59,53,54,45,4D,D,0,2 
0,58,2038 

34 DATA 8D,5E,D,49,2F,4F,20,45,5 
2,52,4F,52,D,0,20,48,8D,4E,D,4E, 
4F, 54, 20, 41, 20, 42, 49, 4E, 41, 52, 59 
,20,2077 

35 DATA 46,49,4C,45,D,0,20,30,8D 
,36,D,4E,4F,54,20,45,4E,4F,55,47 
,48,20,4D,45,4D,4F,52,59,2E,2E,2 
E,D,1972 

36 DATA 43,4F,4C,44,2D,53,54,41, 
52,54,20,26,20,54,52,59,20,41,47 
,41,49,4E,D,0,86,FF,A7,8C,2F,16, 
FE,D0,2714 

37 DATA 35, 10, A6, 80, 27, 6, AD, 9F, A 
0,2,20,F6,6E,84,A6,84,84,7F,AD,9 



F,A0,2,6D,80,2A,F4,39,C6,60,8E,4 

,0,3493 

38 DATA 



,39,0,0 

0/0,0,0 

39 DATA 

0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 

40 DATA 

0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 

41 DATA 

0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 

42 DATA 

0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 

43 DATA 

0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 

44 DATA 

0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 

45 DATA 

0,0,0,0 
0,0,0,0 

46 DATA 

0,0,0,0 

47 DATA 



9F,88 
,0,0,0 
,0,0,0 

0,0,0 
,0,0,0 
,0 

0,0,0 
,0,0,0 
,0 

0,0,0 
,0,0,0 
,0 

0,0,0 
,0,0,0 
,0 

0,0,0 
,0,0,0 
,0 

0,0,0 
,0,0,0 
,0 

0,0,0 
,0,0,0 
,0 

0,0,0 



,E7,80,8C,6,0,25,F9 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,1143 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 
,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 

,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0, 



/Yaraf D/s/r Mania Sweeps America! 

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This year, 1988, may go down In CoCo history as The Year ol the Hard Disk". Burke 8 
Burke has provided hundreds ol low-cost, high performance hard disk interfaces to a 
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Some people say that they "hate" OS9. Many people who buy OS9 don't use it, because 
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^ 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 161 



iltat i on s 



^ 



~W this and in future 

M Jf^f "CoCo Consultations," 
-M. M %/ I will be trying some- 
thing new. In addition to the 
familiar Q&A column, 1 will also 
include tidbits of information 
contributed by various folks and, 
in some cases, comment on the 
information. Thus, even if you 
don '/ have a question, / invite you 
to send in any little hints or de- 
scriptions of experiences you have 
had with the CoCo that you think 
might be of interest to the CoCo- 
owning public in general. 



t* n r* 



I've 
thepr 
when 
OS-9. 
what . 
cure? 



'Sparklie' Solutions 

been following your discussion of 
oblem of"sparklies"on the screen 
using a Color Computer 3 under 

What can you say to summarize 
vou know of the problem and its 

Daivd Barns 
(GLENSIDE) 
Glenside. IL 



It is true that some CoCo 3s show tiny 
Hashes on the screen, especially under 
OS-9 and during disk I/O. The "spark- 
lie" problem varies considerably from 
machine to machine. Some do not seem 
to have it; others are seriously plagued 
by it — to the point that the sparklies 
occur even during Disk BASIC. Some- 
times the problem develops after instal- 
lation of a given brand of 512K up- 
grade. The sparklie problem appears to 
be a very subtle timing problem in 
dynamic RAM addressing. It also ap- 
pears to vary with the particular issue 
of GIME chip in the machine, the 
particular make and model of DRAM 
chip used for the 512K upgrade, and the 
heal of the machine. Sometimes the 
sparklie problem appears only after 20 

Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cosell of the CoCo world. On 
Delphi. Marty is the SIGop of RAIN- 
BOW'S CoCo SIG and database man- 
ager of OS-9 Online. His non-computer 
passions include running, mountaineer- 
ing and outdoor photography. Marty 
lives in San Pablo, California. 




CONSULTATIONS 



By Marty Goodman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

minutes or more, when the machine has 
warmed up. 

There are primarily two routes to try 
to fix the problem. Both involve signif- 
icant expense and/ or hardware effort. 
First, several folks have reported that 
the sparklie problem is cured by replac- 
ing the 68B09 chip in the CoCo 3 with 
its CMOS cousin, the Hitachi 6309 
chip. Unfortunately, this option is 
limited to skilled hardware hackers. The 
68B09 is soldered into the CoCo 3, so 
you must carefully desolder that 40-pin 
chip, install a socket, and then obtain 
and insert the 6309 chip. Such desolder- 
ing is rather delicate, and you run the 
risk of damaging traces to the 68B09 on 
both sides of the PC board. 

The second fix is to replace your 
GIME chip with a newer model. The 
older GIME chips are marked copy- 
right 1986. The newer ones are marked 
copyright 1987. Also, the new GIMF. 
chip is named TCC I014A, whereas the 
old one is named TCC 1014. Replacing 
the GIME chip is a delicate process 
unless you have very specialized tools. 
It is easy to damage the contacts on the 
GIME chip or on the socket, or to 
damage the socket itself. Attempt this 
replacement only if you know what you 
are doing, and proceed with great care. 
Tandy is currently asking $50 for a new 
GIME chip, which 1 think is unreason- 
ably high. 



Customized Layout for the CoCo 

/ am considering putting a CoCo 
system in an IBM PC-type case. I am 
contemplating building an expansion 
board and manually switching +5 volts 
to each of the various ROMs that might 
be in cartridges. What do you think of 
this plan? 

F.G. Swygert 
A PO Armed Forces 

Don't try it! A Multi-Pak interface is 
essential for proper operation of a 
multislot system, for reasons entirely 
unrelated to slot selection. First of all, 
if you put more than half an inch of 40 
conductor ribbon cable on the CoCo 
system bus, your machine will either not 
run at all or be unreliable. 

In addition to slot selection, the 
Multi-Pak provides TTL buffers on all 
address and data lines. Those buffers 
are needed, for the naked output lines 
of the 6809 cannot be fanned out unam- 
plified to three or four extra cards 
without causing the machine to either 
crash or operate very unreliably. Your 
plan to fan out the bus of the CoCo 
without using buffers would not work. 

Finally, an IBM PC-type box is a 
relatively poor choice for repackaging a 
custom CoCo because it is the wrong 
shape. In order to shoehorn an exten- 
sive CoCo system into such a box, you'd 
have to use signficant lengths of ribbon 
cable on the 40 conductor system bus. 
That, as I noted above, is unacceptable. 
Frankly, having done such a repackag- 
ing job several times myself, I really 
urge you to abandon the idea entirely. 
It is not in my opinion worth the effort. 

The same effect can be achieved far 
more easily by merely mounting a CoCo 
and Multi-Pak off to the side of, above, 
or below your work area, and then 
putting the keyboard at the end of an 
extender cable and into a case for 
placement on your work area or (for the 
sake of your back) on your lap. I make 
such a cable for use by tinkerers and do- 
it-yourselfers; it is sold by Microcom 
Software. It also has provisions for a 
remote reset and power-on light. For 
about twice the price, HJL sells what 
appears to be an excellent package that 
includes a plug-in keyboard cable, an 
extremely well-designed remote key- 
board case, and one of its excellent 
CoCo replacement keyboards. I'd re- 
commend my system to those who want 



162 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



to save a little by making their own 
keyboard case, and HJL's to those who 
prefer to buy something that plugs right 
in and can be immediately used. 

In any case, whether you buy my 
cable, HJL's system, or make up your 
own extension keyboard cable, leave 
the CoCo + Multi-Pak + plugged-in 
cards setup alone, and put it out of the 
way via an extension keyboard. In my 
opinion, this is by far the best approach 
to customizing your CoCo's physical 
layout for more convenient operation. 

^-Related OS-9 Crashes 

The FD Soil-series drive is wired up 
in a peculiar way, rather differently 
from any of the preceding drive units 
from Tandy for the Co Co. With all 
other drive systems from Tandy, when 
you accessed any one drive, all the drive 
motors were turned on. With the FD 
502 system, if you have two drives, when 
you access any one of them the other 
drive motor is not turned on. In this 
respect, the FD 502 works like the 
drives on an IBM PC. But this causes 
serious problems with OS-9 in opera- 
tions where a user is copying from one 
drive to another. OS-9 's driver software 
does not wait for the second drive to 
come up to speed because ii "thinks" 
that the drive's motor was already 
turned on at the time the first drive was 
accessed. The result is occasional 
crashed disks due to the drive starting 
to write before the head has come up to 
speed. I understand Tandy may release 
patches for the OS-9 disk drivers to 
correct this problem. The patches 
would contain code that pauses for a 
fraction of a second each time a new 
drive is selected to wait for the motor 
on that drive to come up to speed. 

Kevin Darling 
(KDARL1NG) 
Raleigh, NC 

Thanks for alerting us to this poten- 
tial problem, Kevin. Note that knowl- 
edgeable hardware hackers should be 
able to carefully check out the wiring of 
the motor-on and drive select lines in 
the FD 502 and redo the wiring so that 
all motors in the system do go on when 
any one drive is accessed. Though I have 
not looked much inside the FD 502, I 
would imagine the problem is that, as 
delivered, the motor-on line and the 
drive select line are tied to the same pin, 
or linked logically so that the motor-on 
signal will only be seen as valid if the 
drive in question is also selected. A bit 



of hacking should be able to cure this, 
if the hackers know what they are doing. 

Note, also, that the FD 502 will also 
have similar problems with Disk Ex- 
tended basic: Programs that do two- 
drive operation, particularly disk 
backup operation, will result in occa- 
sional crashed sectors on an unmodified 
FD 502 drive system, for the same 
reasons there are problems with it under 
OS-9. These problems will be disas- 
trous, but sufficiently infrequent as to 
be maddening to someone looking for 
the cause. 

It is also interesting to me that this 
very subtle problem is extremely similar 
to an equally subtle problem that I 
christened the "head settle bug," which 
plagues owners of drives that have head 
solenoids. Many years ago I described 
this bug and a patch to the Disk BASIC 
ROM for it in the magazine HOTCoCo 
— one of the first CoCo articles 1 ever 
wrote. I now recommend that any 
owners of older head solenoid drives 
disable that function by merely selecting 
the HM options, which keeps the head 
down all the time. 

From ROM Pack to Disk 

How can I put the ROM packs 
Thexder and Shanghai on disk? I am 
tired of plugging and unplugging my 
disk controller whenever I want to play 
the games, and all the available slots in 
my Multi-Pak are used up with OS-9- 
related hardware. 

Dennis McMillian 
Pittsburg, CA 

First, you need to know how to 
transfer the "raw file" from the ROM 
pack to tape. This is accomplished by 
first putting a tiny piece of tape only 
over Trace 8 on the ROM pack. Trace 
8 will be the first pin you encounter on 
the underside of the ROM pack, near 
(but on the opposite surface of the edge 
connector) that one slightly shortened 
trace. Note that traces 2, 4 and 6 are 
missing on these ROM packs, so Trace 
8 is the first one you encounter. Cover 
this and only this trace with a bit of 
frosted "magic tape." 

Now, with the power off, plug in the 
ROM pack and then turn the power on. 
The pack will now not autoexecute 
because of the covered trace, so you will 
be greeted by the ordinary Extended 
BASIC sign-on message. Now type POKE 
&HFFDE,0 and press ENTER. Connect 
your cassette tape recorder and save 
contents of the the ROM pack to disk 
using the command CSAVEfl "file- 



name" , &HC000, &HFEFF, S.HA827. 
The filename can be THEXDER or 
SHANGHAI, whichever one you are 
working on. 

Now turn the power off, remove the 
ROM pack, and replace it with the disk 
controller. Power up again. 

For Shanghai, load the tape into your 
Disk BASIC system using the command 
CLOADPTSHANGHAI", &H7000 and 
press ENTER (assuming you named the 
cassette file as SHANGHAI, of course). 
This command will offset-load the data 
into lower RAM memory. Now modify 
the data by entering this: 

POKE &H303C, &H7E 
POKE &H303D, &H30 
POKE &H303E, &H5G 

Now save the data to disk as follows: 

SAVEM "SHANGHAI", &H3000, 
S.HGEFF, S.H3000 

You'll now have a disk file of 
Shanghai that you can load and exe- 
cute. 

For Thexder, load the tape using the 
command CLOADM "THEXDER", 
S.H6000 (assuming you named the 
cassette file as THEXDER when you saved 
it to cassette). Modify the data by 
entering the following: 

POKE &H20BF, &H20 
POKE &H20C0, &H0F 
POKE &H2102, &HDF 
POKE &H2104, 8.H20 
POKE 8.H4BB5, &H50 
POKE 8.H4BE3, &HAF 

Now save the modified data to disk with 
the command SAVEM "THEXDER", 
&H2000, &H5EFF, &H2000. 



Your technical questions are wel- 
comed. Please address them to CoCo 
Consultations, the rainbow, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit 
for brevity and clarity. Due to the large 
volume of mail we receive, we are unable 
to answer letters individually. 

Questions can also be sent to Marty 
through the Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo S1G> prompt, pick Rainbow 
Magazine Services, then, at the RAIN- 
BOWS prompt, type ASK (for Ask the 
Experts) to arrive at the EXPERTS> 
prompt, where you can select the "CoCo 
Consultations" online form which bas 
complete instructions. 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 163 




ari 



ftware 



EF Calligrapher Combo Special - Save $14.95 "O 

Order either the 0S9 or RSDOS CoCo Calligrapher Combo, which 
includes the Calligrapher and the two Economy Font Packages, and you 
will receive the small Font Set #7 free! A total of 59 fonts for only 
$09.95.! This special offer is available through September 30 , 1988. 



CALLIGRAPHER 

CoCo Calligrapher - (Hybrid 
BASIC/ML) Turn your CoCo and 
dot-matrix printer into a 
calligrapher's quill. Make beauti- 
ful invitations, flyers, certificates, 
labels and more. Includes 3 
fonts: Gay Nineties, Old English 
and Cartoon. The letters are V4 
inch high and variably spaced. 
Works with many printers includ- 
ing Epson, Gemini, Radio Shack, 
Okidata 92 A, Banana and Pro- 
writer. Additional fonts are avail- 
able (see below). Tape /Disk; 
$24.96. 

OS9 Calligrapher - (C) Although 
a different program from the 
CoCo Calligrapher, the OS9 Cal- 
ligrapher prints all the same 
fonts. It reads a standard text file 
which contains text and formatr 
ting directives. You may specify 
the font to use, change fonts at 
anv time, centering, left, right or 
full justification, line fill, margin, 
line width, page size, page break 
and indentation. Similar to troff 
on UNIX systems. Includes Gay 
Nineties, Old English and Car- 
toon fonts. Additional fonts are 
available (see below). Disk only; 
OS9 Level I or II; $24.95. 

Calligrapher Fonts - Requires 
Calligrapner above. Each set on 
tape or disk; specify RSDOS or 
OS9 version; $14.95 each. Set 
#1 - (9 fonts) Reduced, reversed 
and reduced-reversed versions of 
Gay Nineties, Old English and 
Cartoon; Set #2 - (8 fonts) Old 
Style and Broadway; Set #3 - (8 
fonts) Antique ana Business; Set 
#4 - (8 fonts) Wild West and 
Checkers- Set #5 - (10 fonts) 
Stars, Hebrew and Victorian; Set 
#6 - (8 fonts) Block and Com- 
puter; Set #7 - (5 small fonts) 
Roman, Italics, Cubes, Digital 
and Old World. 

Economy Font Packages on 

disk; specify RSDOS or OS9; 
29.95: Font Package #1 - 
Above font sets 1, 2 and 3 (25 
fonts) on one disk. Font Pack- 
age #2 - Above font sets 4, 5 
and 6 (26 fonts) on one disk. 
Both Packages #1 and #2 (51 
fonts) on one disk; 49.95. 



Calligrapher Combo Package - Includes the Calligrapher 
and both Economy Font Packages, 54 fonts in all; speci- 
fv RSDOS or OS9; $69.95. See syecial offer above. 



tantu caiiforatoer fmw 



TheCoGd-Callidrlpheri? 



INFORMATION MGT. 

TIMS (The Information Man- 
agement System) - (Hybrid 
BASIC/ML) Tape or disk, fast and 
simple general data base pro- 
gram. Create files of records that 
can be quickly sorted, searched, 
deleted and updated. Powerful 

Srinter formatting. Up to 8 user 
elds, sort on up to 3 fields. 
Tape/Disk; $19.95. 

TIMS Mail - (Hybrid BASIC/ML) 
Tape or Disk based mailing list 
management program. Files are 
compatible with TIMS. Fast and 
simple to use. Supports labels 1, 
2 or 3 across, 2V4 to 4 inches 
wide. Tape/Disk; $19.95. 

TIMS Utility - (Hybrid BASIC/ML) 
Utility companion for TIMS and 
TIMS Mail for multi-term search 
(AND and OR logic), global 
change and delete, split large files 
and more! Tape /Disk; $14.95. 



EDUCATIONAL 

Trig Attack - (100% ML) Ages 9 
and up. In this educational arcade 
game, enemy trigs travel along 
math curves. Players learn im- 
portant mathematical concepts as 
they play. Sound effects, colorful 
graphics. Excellent manual in- 
cludes an introduction to tri- 
fonometry. Tape 16K CB/Disk 
2K ECB; CoCo 1, 2, 3; $19.95. 



TIMS Combo Package - All 

three of the above programs: 
TIMS, TIMS Mail and TIMS 
Utility on one disk - $34.95. 



The Educational Combo - The 

Combo includes these educa- 
tional (and entertaining) games: 
Silly Syntax (ages 5 and up) 
tory creation game with 2 
stories 



sto 



Galactic Hangman (ages 7 and 

up) animated graphics, with a 

700 word vocabulary 

The Presidents of the USA 

(ages 10 and up) a presidential 

teivia game 

The Great USA (ages 9 and 

up) a trivia game of the states 

Trig Attack (ages 9 and up) 

Zap those Trigs 

All five programs on one disk; 

$49.95. 



UTILITIES 

OS9 Patcher - (C) Display and 
modify the contents of a file or 
memory module. Search for 
value or string. Calculates 
module CRCs; Disk only; OS9 
Level I or II; $19.95. 

Color Disk Manager - (100% ML) 
Disk utility with these features: 
Disk repair, selective track ini- 
tialization, verify sectors, back- 
ups, tape to disk transfer, ROM 
Pak execution from disk, much 
more! Tape/Disk; CoCo 1, 2. 3 
(except for 64K mode); $24.95. 



SPECIAL INTEREST 

Rental Property Income and Ex- 
pense Management Package - 

Maintain your rental property in- 
come and expense records. Print 
output supported. 28 expense 
categories. This program may be 
tax deductible. Disk only; $29.95. 

CoCo Knitter - Easy to use pro- 
gram to display or print instruc- 
tions to knit a sweater: Cardigan 
or Pullover; Round or V-neck; 
Raglan or Setrin Sleeve: 3 
weights or yarn; 8 sizes from 
baby to man. Tape /Disk; $19.95. 



RAINBOW 

:(K'"'C*ii'."( 
SCAl 





"TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 

Hollywood, Florida 33081 

(305) 981-1241 



All programs run on the CoCo J, 8 and S, S8K 
Extended Basic, unlets otherwise noted. Add 
Si. 50 per tape or disk for shipping and han- 
dling. Florida residents add 6% sales tax. COD 
orders add $6. Dealer inquiries invited. Orders 
generally shipped in 24-48 hours. No refunds 
or exchanges without prior authorization. 



/ am looking fur techniques or pro- 
grams that allow BASIC programs to 
be transferred from CoCo to IBM. I 
realize that most programs will have to 
be edited, but that is belter than keying 
them in. Would saving the BASIC pro- 
grams as ASCI I files on the Co Co, then 
making the transfer by a null modem 
cable or the phone lines work? 

David Johnstone 
Torrington, CT 

T2 As you suggested, saving the pro- 
/C grams in ASCII is the first step. 
Making the transfer with a null modem 
and a communications program on 
each would work (e.g., Mikeyterm on 
the CoCo, ProComm on the IBM). The 
commercial program CoCoUtil allows 
the IBM to read, write and format 
Color Disk BASIC files. Marty Good- 
man published programs to transfer 
files between IBM and CoCo disks in 
"The Great Transformation" in the 
June 1986 rainbow and "Transfer 
CoCo Files To MS-DOS Disks" in the 
July 1987 issue. Using D.P. Johnson's 
SDisk3, you can add Clearbrook Soft- 
ware's MS-DOS driver to OS-9 Level 
II. Using files from the OS-9 SIG on 
DELPHI — GREGL's flR and 
IPhTCH.RR, and BRUCElSTED's 
PCDD5.flR,RSD0S.flRandCC3DISK.flR 
— you can enable OS-9 Level II to read 
and write disks in the IBM-PC and Disk 
Color BASIC formats. 

A Bug in BASIC? 

Happily pecking away at my 
computer the other day, I decided to 
enter a program from THE RA IN BO W. 
After typing it in, I tried to run it. The 
computer gave me an "FC Error in Line 
15." That line contained PM0DE4,1. / 
tried every combination of PMODE / 
could think of always with the same 
results: "FC Error. " I closed the com- 
puter and then reopened it; after that it 
accepted PMODE quite happily. What 
happened? I have a CoCo 3 and BASIC 



Richard Esposito is the principal engi- 
neer for BDM Corporation. He holds 
bachelor's, master's and doctorate 
degrees from Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn. He has been writing about 
microcomputers since 1980. 

Richard Libra is a simulator test 
operator for Singer Link Simulation 
Systems Division. 




By Richard E. Esposito 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

with Richard W. Libra 



2.1, and I never had that problem before. 

Should I bundle up my CoCo and head 

to Radio Shack? Is it a bug in BASIC? 

Christiane Tom 

Quebec, Canada 

O On power-up the CoCo 3 copies 
A X al1 ils ROMs into RAM — includ- 
ing basic. If you load and run a BASIC 
program that contains pokes and typo- 
graphical errors, BASIC can be altered so 
thai it malfunctions. Even after you fix 
your BASIC program, the CoCo's BASIC 
interpreter may still contain poked bugs 
that will remain in effect until you 
power down and reboot the machine. 
Since the problem has not recurred, this 
seems like a logical explanation. 

Changing Characters 

//; the March '88 issue of THE RAIN- 
BOW, Bill Burden had an article 
locating the CoCo 3's HPRINT char- 
acter table in memory and telling how 
characters can be changed to your taste. 
Where is the table for the regular text 
screen characters, and can they be 
changed also? 

Tim Fultz 
Bonneau, SC 



* 



The "regular" text characters were 
in the SAM chip on the earlier 



CoCos and are in the GIME chip on (he 
CoCo 3. In both cases, they are not in 
RAM and therefore cannot be altered 
with software. 

Paint and Printer Don't Mix 

I have Tandy's Desk Mate 3 Version 
1.00 and am unable to print a pic- 
ture I drew on the screen using Desk- 
Matelv Paint feature. All I get is gar- 
bage. The other features of Desk Mate 
print out without any problems and 
with no modifications to the program or 
printer. I have a I28K CoCo 3, Multi- 
Pak Interface (modified by Radio 
Shack), Tandy CM-8 color monitor, 
Tandy FD 501 disk drive and a Star 
NX- 10 dot matrix printer. 

George Masek 
Maryville, TN 

D With the exception of Desk Mate 
/C 3's Paint feature, the other fea- 
tures perform only ASCII text printing, 
which is pretty much a standard across 
all printer lines. The Paint feature, on 
the other hand, was written by Tandy 
to use the 7-dot graphics drivers built 
into its own LP and later DMP printer 
lines. The Star printer you have uses 
IBM's 8-dot graphics and is incompat- 
ible with Tandy's graphics driver. 

Memory Locations and Dual Speed 

The I28K CoCo 3 has memory loca- 
tions S.H70000 to &H7FFFF. Why, 
then, is it possible to access memory 
locations below &H70000? For instance, 
with the high speed poke I discovered 
another location by poking values into 
locations &H400 through &H5FF, which 
caused characters to appear on the Lo- 
Res text screen, although the Lo-Res 
text screen memory location is &H70400 
through &H705FF." 

Also, when OS-9 Level II is initialized 
on the CoCo 3, at what speed is the 
CoCo 3 running, 0.894 or 1.788 MHz? 
How do you switch speeds in OS-9 
Level II? Radio Shack's catalog says 
OS-9 Level II supports dual speed on 
the CoCo 3, so both speeds should be 
available. 

Bruce Arsenault 
Nova Scotia, Canada 

I? On the CoCos I and 2, the address 
^L space was 64K ranging from 
$0000 to SFFFF. Direct access to mem- 
August 1988 THE RAINBOW 165 



\ 



ory addresses was accomplished in 
BASIC with peeks and pokes. To main- 
tain compatibility with programs writ- 
ten for earlier machines, peeks and 
pokes on the CoCo 3 access the 64K 
addresses $78000 to S7FFFF "normally 
accessible" to BASIC by using CoCo 3 
extended addressing terminology. If 
you prefer using extended addresses, 
the CoCo 3 has the additional functions 
LPEEK and LPOKE. To give an example, 
POKF.&H0500 is the same thing as 
LPOKE&H70500. 

OS-9 Level II normally operates at 
1.788 MHz. You can switch speeds by 
writing to the GIME registers at SFFFDB 
(slow) and SFFFD9 (fast). 

Logon Problems 

/ am having problems logging on to 
Delphi — or any other BBS system, 
for that matter. I am working with 
a CoCo 2 64 K ECB disk and tape. I 
recently ordered Autoterm 3.2T, which 
is no help either. I have the Deluxe RS- 
232 Program Pak, and I'm using the 
TRS-80 Modem IB (Part Number 
1175). My problem is that every time I 
connect, everything from the host com- 
puter comes back to my screen so 
garbled I can 't understand it. I recently 
had a new telephone line put in my den 
just for computer communications, and 
I got the "no-frills" service: no call 
waiting, rotary line service, etc. Could 
that be the problem? Would logging on 
work better with digital service? 

Cardell Stevenson 
Philadelphia, PA 

D Unless the quality on rotary dial 
}C lines in Philadelphia is much 
worse than elsewhere, I don't think 
(hat's the problem; I use rotary dial lines 
at 2400 baud with no problem. Your 
problems are more likely the wrong 
baud rate, type of parity or number of 
stop bits set with your communication 
software or hardware. 

Colorless CoCo 3? 

Now that 1 have a CoCo 3 with an 
RGB monitor, many of the programs 
1 keyed in from THE RAINBOW on my 
old CoCo 2 with a color TV screen no 
longer give a color display, appearing 
instead in black and white. A friend told 
me that this is because the RGB monitor 
does not show the artifact colors you get 
with the color TV. Is this the case, and 
is there any kind of a routine I can key- 
in on the CoCo 3 that will let me run 
these old programs and gel the colors 



1 got with the CoCo 2 and the color TV? 

Also, I would like to try out the BBS 
program I keyed in from the November 
1987 issue of THE rainbow, making the 
CoCo 3 the answering terminal and the 
CoCo 2 the originating terminal so that 
I can observe the operation of the BBS 
program on both screens. Do 1 just 
conned the serial port of one CoCo to 
the serial port of the other, (i.e., discon- 
nect the modem)? The March 1987 
"CoCo Consultations" column gave 
some rather cryptic instructions for 
making a null modem cable. It is my 
understanding that you need two 4-pin 
DIN connectors and a length of 3-wire 
cable. Pin 3 of Plug I is then connected 
to Pin 3 of Plug 2; Pin 2 of Plug I is 
connected to Pin 4 of Plug 2; and Pin 
4 of Plug I is connected to Pin 2 of Plug 
2. Can you please confirm that this is 
the correct procedure? 

Please note that J do not have a Radio 
Shack RGB monitor. I have a Mag- 
na vox Model 8CM5I5, which can be 
used in RGB or composite mode. I've 
been using it in RG B mode. 

Charles Roman 
Skokie, IL 

X) With your Magnavox 8CM515 
/L you also need to make the compos- 
ite video connection, using a cable with 
phono jacks at both ends. Then when 
you want to view artifacting colors, 
push the CVBS button under the flip 
panel on the front of your monitor. 

Your description of the null modem 
cable is fine. 



An Address and an 80-track Drive 

Do you know the address for M ikey- 
term so I can get it on OS-9? 

Also, what kinds of 80-track S'fa- 
inch drives are available? 

Allen Martin 
Holbrook, MA 

IP Mikeyterm author Mike Ward's 
7C address is 1807 Cortez, Coral 
Gables, FL 33134. Incidentally, Mikey- 
term runs only under Disk BASIC. It is 
not designed to work with OS-9. 

The only 80-track drive I would 
consider is the TEAC 55E The older 
ones have a jumper marked DS that can 
be set for 40- or 80-track operation. 1 
prefer to replace the DS jumper with a 
DPST switch, giving me hardware 
selection of 40- or 80-track operation. 
The newer TEAC can be similarly 
configured by adding a resistor (10 
ohm) in line with an SPST switch to the 



solder pads marked "R15." I recently 
found out there is yet a newer version 
of these drives with two large square 
ICs. (The older drives had only one.) 
The newer drives require a 100 ohm 
resistor with a switch connected to the 
solder pads marked "R19." 

Replacement Generator 

B I've been told that the 6847- Tl VDG 
L mentioned in your January 1988 
B column has been discontinued. Is 
this true? If not. where can /purchase 
one, and how much can /expect to pay? 
If it is true, can another type be substi- 
tuted? 

T. Anthony En I 
Colbert, WA 

IP Although it is no longer manufac- 
/Ctured or readily available, I be- 
lieve you can still order one as a replace- 
ment part for a Korean CoCo 2. The 
price is approximately $15 from Radio 
Shack National Parts. 

Shifted Display 

/ am using my new Magnavox 
8CM515 monitor with Greg-E-Term 
to write this letter. lam using a CoCo 
3 in 80-column mode; for some reason 
my display is shifted all the way to the 
left so that the characters on the ex- 
treme left are barely legible, yet there is 
almost three-quarters of an inch avail- 
able on the right. Why is that? Is there 
an adjustment I can make to correct this 
situation? 

Dennis Wood 
Indianapolis, IN 



^ 



Adjust the "horizontal centering" 
at the left rear of your monitor. 



For a quicker response, your ques- 
tions may also be submitted through 
RAINBOW'S CoCo SIG on Delphi. 
From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick 
Rainbow Magazine Services, then, 
at the RAINBOW> prompt, type 
ASK for "Ask the Experts" to arrive 
at the EXPERTS> prompt, where 
you can select the "Doctor ASCII" 
online form which has complete 
instructions. 



166 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



1 Turn of th e Scr e w ^ 



Communication is important in 
today's world. We understand 
what other people are saying 
because we all know the rules of com- 
munication. This set of rules is a sort of 
English protocol. When we hear the 
word "apple" (perhaps a bad example!) 
we immediately think of a red, ball-like 
object that can be eaten. If you say the 
word to anyone who knows the English 
protocol, he or she too will think of a 
red, ball-like object that can be eaten. 
This is a form of communication. 

A set of rules has to be followed in 
communicating with a computer, too. 
This time you cannot use the English 
protocol, because the computer does 
not understand that — yet! To com- 
municate with most computers, you 
have to press a number of switches 
arranged in a way that is familiar in 
human communications: the keyboard. 
We press these switches in an order that 
makes sense to us, but to the computer 
this is just a sequence of pressed 
switches. It compares this sequence to 
a known sequence in its memory banks. 
If a match is found, the computer then 
proceeds according to its programming. 

The keyboard is an interface between 
a person and a computer, but there are 
times when we want one computer to 
communicate with another computer in 
order to transfer some kind of informa- 
tion the user needs or is sending. This 
computer-to-computer communication 
also has to follow a certain protocol. 

There are many of these, ranging 
from simple serial communications to 
high-speed networks to parallel main- 
frame workstations. The protocol most 
used in the CoCo is serial. In this case, 
serial means to transfer data one bit at 
a time. The CoCo's internal memory is 
organized in eight-bit chunks called 
bytes. To transfer one byte of data from 
one computer to the other serially 
requires eight bit transfers. But that is 
just the data. In order to keep errors at 
a minimum, a start bit and a parity bit 
must also be included. 

The CoCo has no special hardware to 
communicate in a serial fashion. In- 
stead, it has a few bits on a PIA that is 
used by the CPU to simulate a real serial 



Tony DiStefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware proj- 
ects. He lives in Laval Ouest, Quebec. 
Tony s username on Delphi is DISTO. 



Communicating 
computer-to-computer 



All About 
Serial 
Packs 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 









3 




S 
7 

A 

5 

|26_ 

1 

1 2 

8 

9 
17 


CS1 XT1 
CSO XT2 
A1 


2 


1 A 


13 


AO RES 

E RXC 
R/W 


27 


28 


18 


IRQ 
DO 

D1 TXD 
D2 RXD 
D3 RTS 


18 


2D 


21 


22 


D4 CTS 


23 


D5 DSR 
D6 DCD 


24 


1 6 


25 


1 1 


D7 DTR 








RS551 

Figure 1 





port. This makeshift port is limited in 
speed and performance. Also, with the 
exception of the CoCo 3, there doesn't 
seem to be any good software that 
supports this "bit banger," especially if 
you want to communicate at 1200 baud. 
The CPU simply does not have enough 
time to take care of the serial I/O and 
still do the rest of its chores. This led 
Tandy to introduce the Deluxe RS-232 
Pak. 

Inside it lies the hardware for a real 
serial port and true RS-232 protocol. At 
its heart is the Rockwell R6551 ACIA 



(Asynchronous Communication Inter- 
face Adapter) chip. This chip has all the 
necessary circuitry to interface the 
parallel data of the CoCo's CPU to the 
standard RS-232 serial protocol and is 
capable of baud rates of 50 to 19,200. 
(Baud rate is the speed at which the bits 
are transferred.) It is also capable of 
word lengths from five to nine and has 
a programmable number of stop bits 
and parity detection. In fact, it is a great 
chip for our use. Figure 1 shows the pin- 
out of the R6551; a pin-by-pin descrip- 
tion of this 28-pin chip appears in 
Figure 3 on the next page. 















Lbsi_ 




_B£Q 
a 


HRITE 


READ 




Xrnlt Dntn 
Roalotor- 


Hut it Data 

Roalotor- 


a 


1 


Roaot 


S to tut. 


1 


o 


Cpmrpctnq , Rof) 1 atnr 






Car»fc*-e»1 Rpalstor 




Figure 2 



From Figure 2, we see that the R655 1 
has four registers. The first is the data 
register. This is data going to and from 
the different computers. The next reg- 
ister is the Control Register. Bits 
through 3 control the baud rate of the 
ACIA. Here is a list of the baud rates: 



Bits 


Baud Rate 


32 1 


Generated 


0000 


EXTERNAL 


000 1 


50 


00 1 


75 


00 1 1 


109.92 


100 


134.58 


I 1 


150 


110 


300 


111 


600 


1 000 


1200 


1 00 I 


1800 


10 10 


2400 


I 1 00 


3600 


110 1 


4800 


1110 


9600 


1111 


19200 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 167 



\ 



Bit 4 controls the external clock, with 
1 being baud rate and being external. 
Bits 5 and 6 are word length. 00 is 8, 01 



is 7, 10 is 6 and 11 is 5. Bit 7 high is two 

stop bits, and Bit 7 low is one stop bit. 

The next register, the command reg- 



ister, is used to control the specific 
transmit and receive functions shown in 
Figure 4. 



Pin No. Name 

1 GND 

2 CSO 

3 CS1 

4 RES 

5 RSC 

6 Xtall 



Xtal2 
RTS 



CTS 



TXD 



11 



DTR 



Description 

Signal and power ground. 
All signals are referenced to 
this pin. 

Active low-input chip selects 
the device. When this pin is 
low and CS 1 is high, the chip 
is selected. 

Active high-input chip se- 
lects the device. 

Active low input resets and 
initializes internal registers 
to zero. 

Receive clock pin is bi- 
directional; serves as the 
receiver of 16X clock input 
or output. 

This pin and Xtal2 are nor- 
mally directly connected to 
an external crystal to derive 
various baud rates. Crystal 
frequency for these baud 
rates must be 1.8432 MHz. 

Connected to other side of 
the crystal. 

Request to send output used 
to control the modem from 
the processor. Output of this 
pin is determined by con- 
tents of the command regis- 
ter. 

Clear to send input pin used 
to control transmitter oper- 
ation. Transmitter section of 
the chip is automatically 
disabled if CTS is high. 

Transmit data output pin 
used to transfer serial data 
to the external device. The 
least significant bit is trans- 
mitted first, with rate deter- 
mined by baud rate selected. 

Data terminal ready outpin 
pin used to indicate status of 
the chip. A low on DTR 
indicates the chip is enabled. 
This bit is controlled via Bit 
in the command register. 



13 



14 

15 



Pin No. Name Description 



RXD Receive data input pin used 

to transfer data from the 
external device. 

RSO First of two register select 

lines connected to CPU ad- 
dress lines. Used to select 
various internal registers. 
See Figure 2. 

RS 1 Second of two register select 

lines. See Figure 2. 

Vcc Input is connected to +5 

volts. It powers the chip's 
internal circuits. 

DCD Data carrier detect input pin 

used to indicate to the chip 
the status of carrier detect 
output of the external de- 
vice. 

DSR Data set ready input pin 

used to indicate readiness 
state of the external device. 
A low indicates a "ready." 

Data bits DO through D7, 
respectively; bi-directional 
lines used to transfer data to 
and from the CPU to the 
chip. 

IRQ Interrupt request pin is an 

open collector (drain) out- 
put used to flag the CPU 
when the chip has finished 
using data. IRQ status bit 
allows many pins to be con- 
nected to the same IRQ line 
to the CPU. 

E E clock input to this pin used 

to gate all data transfers to 
and from the CPU. 

R/W Read/ write input pin used 

to control direction of data 
transfers between the CPU 
and the chip. A low on the 
R/W pin allows a write to 
the chip. 



17 



18-25 



26 



27 



28 



Figure 3 






168 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Bits 




Description 

Hi= Enabled DTR 
Lo= Disabled DTR 


1 


Hi= IRQ Disabled 
Lo= IRQ Enabled 


3 2 


Xmit IRQ RTS Other 


00 

1 

1 

1 1 


Disabled Hi - 

Enabled Lo 

Disabled Lo 

Disabled Lo Xmit BRK 


4 


Hi= Echo 
Lo= Normal 


765 


Operation 


XXO 

00 1 

1 1 

1 1 

1 1 1 


Parity Disabled 

Odd Parity 

Even Parity 

Mark Parity Xmit Check 

Disabled. 

Space Parity Xmit Check 

Disabled. 




Figure 4 



Bit 


Low 


Hi 





No parity error 


Parity error delected 


1 


No framing error 


Framing error detected 


2 


No Overrun error 


Overrun error detected 


3 


Receive buffer 


Receive buffer 




-Not full 


-full 


4 


Transmit buffer 


Transmit buffer 




-Not empty 


-empty 


5 


DCD detect 


DCD not detected 


6 


DSR ready 


DSR not ready 


7 


No IRQ 

Figure 5 


IRQ has occurred 



The final register is the status register. 
These bits in the status register indicate 
to the processor the status of the various 



R6551 functions as outlined in Figure 
5. 

The R6551 is the heart of the pack, 
but not the only part. Its job is to take 
the eight-bit data to and from the CPU 
and transmit it at the right baud rate 
and parity, but that is not all. This chip 
has a high level of 5 volts and a low level 
of ground, orO, volts. RS-232 standards 
require that the voltage for serial com- 
munications be a high of + 12 volts and 
a low of - 1 2 volts. This is done through 
two chips known as level shifters. The 
first, the MCI488, is a shifter that 
changes 5/0 volt levels to 12/ -12 volt 
levels. The other, the MCI489, does the 
opposite: It shifts the 12/- 12 volt inputs 
to 5/0 volt. 



Other parts include decoders and 
buffers, resisters and capacitors. Soft- 
ware in a ROM is also included. This 
software gives the CoCo the ability to 
communicate with other computers. It 
is OK as far as "dumb terminals"go, but 
it lacks the power for good data 
transfers. Most people use other third- 
party software to drive this pack. 

I have designed an equivalent to the 
above-described RS-232. It functions 
the same except that it has no built-in 
software — no great loss, since most 
people do not use it. If you are using 
OS-9, the software driver is already 
included and is compatible with my 
pack. For prices and delivery, call CRC 
at (514) 383-5293. /R\ 



Him . . . 

Cobble the Step Rate 

You can use the Cobbler command to tailor what 
you get in memory when the system disk boots. For 
instance, if you want a faster step rate as a permanent 
feature, first make sure that both Modpatch and 
Cobbler are on your disk in the commands directory. 
Then use the Edit or Build command to create this 
short program called Steprate, which is to be stored 
in the root directory: 

L d0 

c 14 00 02 

V 
(See Dale Puckett's column in the May '87 issue of 
THE RAINBOW. Page 201, for various step rate values.) 

Play it safe and make a backup copy of the whole 
disk once you have the step rate file in place. (Caution: 
A fragmented boot file cannot be cobbled, yet it might 
not reveal itself until you start the Cobbler action. 
This destroys the disk contents.) Use the backup copy 
to cobble things into memory. At the OS-9 prompt, 
call the step rate action by entering modpatch 
steprate. Then with the faster rate in place (you will 
hear your disk action change), cobble the change into 
permanency at the OS-9 prompt by entering cobbler 
/d0. You can now delete the step rate file, and know 
that next time you boot OS-9 it will come online with 
the change in place. 

Del Turner 
Kamloops, BC 



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OFARD 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 169 






RAINBOWTECH 




CoCo3 




Can You Survive This 

Column? 



By William Barden, Jr. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



What three terms thrust most fear and loathing into 
the hearts of CoCo aficionados? No, the answer is 
not "MS-DOS, IBM and OS-9!" I was thinking 
more along the lines of assembly language, interrupts and 
BASIC "internals." 

If you can bear with me through this column, I'll reveal 
some of the secrets of these topics. In addition, I'll show you 
an elegant program that I haven't seen before (although it's 
undoubtedly been done by someone). As you might guess, 
the program gets into all three areas. As Nietzsche (or was 
it G. Gordon Liddy?) might have said, those CoCo topics that 
don't confound you make you stronger. This column will 
certainly test your mettle! 

The Program 

What I have in mind was prompted by a column I read 
in Communications of the ACM. The shining light in this 
professional magazine is written by Jon Bentley and called 
"Programming Pearls" — an interesting look at program- 
ming problems and topics. Bentley, reminiscent of Martin 
Gardner and his "Mathematical Games" column in the old 
Scientific American, has the ability to make things simple. 
In one of his columns Bentley mentions a program that times 
the component parts of a program so that the user can see 
how efficient his code is. Although a simple example is given, 
it got me to thinking: It should be possible to display an entire 
program graphically, with the speed of various parts 
indicated on the graph. A sample is shown in Figure 1. 

How can this be done? One way might be to incorporate 
a liming routine in each subroutine of the program. The 
subroutine might be called at entry and exit to record the 
elapsed time from the CoCo TIMER function. This is kind of 
messy, though, and doesn't allow you to get any finer 
resolution than a subroutine, which may consist of many 
lines. 

Bill Barden has written 27 books and over 100 magazine 
articles on various computer topics. His 20 years' experience 
in the industry covers a wide background: programming, 
systems analysis and managing projects for computers 
ranging from mainframes to micros. 



A better idea would be to time each BASIC statement or 
line. A BASIC statement takes a certain amount of time to 
execute, of course — on the order of milliseconds (thou- 
sandths of a second). The following program takes about 2.5 
seconds to execute on a CoCo 3 in slow speed, making each 
of the 1,000 times through the loop about 2.5 milliseconds. 

100 FDR I = 1 TO 1000 
110 NEXT I 

How this time is divided between Line 100 and Line NO, 
though, is anyone's guess. Longer lines and those involving 
mixed number calculations, division and exponentiation may 
be dozens of limes slower. 

One way to time the execution of a BASIC line would be 



Time 



X 



Program Lines 



Figure 1: Graphic Display of a Program's Speed 



170 



THE RAINBOW August 198B 



to record the time at the beginning and end of the line. To 
do that, though, we'd need some hooks in the "internals" of 
the BASIC interpreter. Another approach is to periodically 
sample the execution of a program. If the program could be 
tested every few milliseconds, we could examine which line 
was executing and tally a mark for that line, as shown in 
Figure 2. At the end of the program execution, we'd have 
a tally of the times that each line had executed. Some lines 
might be missed, but in the long run we'd have a pretty good 
idea of which program lines took the longest. 

It probably won't surprise you to learn that there is a way 
to perform this sampling. The CoCo has a real-time clock 
interrupt that occurs 60 times per second. One-sixtieth of a 
second is about 16.7 milliseconds, which is not fine enough 
to catch all lines, but over many iterations of a program 
should represent the relative elapsed times of each line. 

What's an (Oops, There's the Doorbell!) Interrupt? 

An interrupt is a temporary suspense of the program's 
operation in order to perform some other important task. The 
important task is another program, but usually a short one. 
Once this task is performed, the interrupted task is picked 
up once again from the interruption point. Interrupts can be 
catastrophic or non-catastrophic. 

Older computers with non-volatile core memory, which 
retained data even after power was turned off, had a "power 
fail" interrupt. In the space of a few milliseconds before the 
power disappeared completely, the status of the machine 
would be saved in core memory. When power was again 
restored, the program picked up again from the interrupted 
point. You could literally yank the power cord, wait a minute 
and plug it in again — the computer would continue typing 
a listing as if there had been no interruption! 

A non-catastrophic interrupt is one that is more or less 
expected. Pressing a key on the keyboard generates an 
interrupt for some computers. If the computer is displaying 
data on the screen, the display might be interrupted for a few 
milliseconds while the keyboard character is read into a 
buffer. The user probably isn't even aware that the interrupt 
has occurred. 

There are a number of different interrupts in the CoCo. 
The 60-Hertz (60 times per second) interrupt, though, is 



Tost 



1 2 3456 7 89 10 11 



Periodic, Regular 
Interval 



Line 



100 
110 
120 
121 
130 
140 
145 
150 
160 
170 



I 
I 

ittr i 
i 
i 
mm-m 

i 
i 

in 
i 



Each Tally Mark = 
Times Line Found 
To Be Executing 



Figure 2: Testing and Tallying a Program 



handled through the IRQ interrupt, which is usually the main 
interrupt in a microprocessor such as the 6809. 

The IRQ interrupt is used mainly to increment a counter 
for the TIMER function. If you look up the TIMER function 
in the basic manual, you'll see that it returns a count of the 
elapsed time in one-sixtieth-second increments. 

When an IRQ occurs, the 6809 microprocessor automat- 
ically transfers control to an interrupt subroutine in BASIC 
ROM. This interrupt subroutine contains a few dozen 
machine language instructions to increment the counter for 
the TIMER. 

If we could sneak in a few lines of our own code, we could 
examine BASIC to see which line was executing, make a tally, 
and then let BASIC continue with the TIMER update function. 
Sounds easy enough. . . . 

Which Line is Executing? 

However, that's another problem. How do we know which 
line is being executed? 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 171 



&H19 &H1A 



Pointer To First Line 

Two-Byte Pointer To Next Line, Binary 
Binary Line # 



TEXT 




1540 



TEXT 



Last Line Has Pointer 



Figure 3: CoCo BASIC Program Line Format 



Think about a BASIC interpreter. Obviously it has to record 
the current number of the line being executed, in addition 
to other things such as the current position of the basic 
statement in the line, the link to the next line, and so forth. 

How do you go about finding out how BASIC operates? The 
best way is to get a disassembly of BASIC. CoCo BASIC is 
written in assembly language, a low-level language that the 
6809 microprocessor understands. Microsoft, as secretive as 
the next billion-dollar company, doesn't freely distribute 
copies of the assembly language code for any system's BASIC. 
However, various people have disassembled the Microsoft 
code and published disassemblies with comments. By looking 
at these listings, you can see what is going on in BASIC. I've 
even been known to disassemble parts of BASIC myself, using 
the disassembly capability of EDTASM+, the CoCo editor/ 
assembler/debugger. (However, I haven't published any 
disassemblies, so please don't ask me for one — I use the 
superlative Spectral Associates publications.) 

In looking at the BASIC disassembly, it's easy to see that 
the start of the BASIC program is stored in locations &H19 
and 8.H1A — the S.H prefix indicates a hexadecimal constant. 
Addresses in the CoCo are stored in two bytes, with the first 
byte being the most significant and the second, the least. 
Together they make up a 1 6-bit number representing a 
memory address of through 65535. (CoCo 3's extended 
memory still uses this scheme for the 64K. memory space of 
BASIC.) 

BASIC program lines have the rigid format shown in Figure 
3. They are stored contiguously in memory, one following 
the other. They may be from six to 254 bytes long, depending 
upon what's in them. The first two bytes of each line, 
however, are the memory address, in binary, of the next BASIC 



program line. The next two bytes are the memory address, 
also in binary, of the line number. The text of the line follows, 
with the end of the line marked with a zero byte. BASIC text 
is "lokenized" — converted to one- or two-byte codes instead 
of ASCII characters — for efficiency in storage. The last line 
of the BASIC program has a zero value for the memory pointer. 
The program shown in Listing 1 starts al the beginning of 
the BASIC program and follows the lines through to the end. 
The line number is displayed for each line, and the program 
stops when the last line is reached. As you can see, there's 
nothing too magical about this process. The two bytes of the 
memory pointer and line number are converted to a 16-bit 
unsigned integer (values from through 65535) by multi- 
plying the first byte by 256 and adding the second byte, as 
shown in Figure 4. 

Recording the Lines 

If we're to examine the program 60 times per second and 
tally which line is being executed, we'll need a table of line 
numbers and a place to put the count. Each 60 counts 
represents one second's worth of time. Since we might be 
waiting several seconds in some lines (for example, INPUT 
lines that are waiting on user input data), we'll need at least 
two bytes to hold a count value. One byte for a count value 
can hold only 255 counts, but two bytes can hold 65,535 
counts, representing 1,092 seconds. 

We want to hold these counts in memory, since writing to 
disk would be too slow. But where in memory? One option 
is to reserve an area of memory using the CLEAR statement. 
The CLEAR statement in the CoCo reserves a stack area (for 
BASIC'S internal calls) and a protected memory area. The 
format of CLEAR is 100 CLEAR 800, 8.H6FAE. 

Here every location from &H6FAF onward has been 
protected from use by BASIC — it's like setting aside a reserved 
area to do anything we want with. CoCo BASIC RAM 
memory extends from &H0000 (decimal 0) to &H7FFF (32,767 
decimal). We also set aside 800 bytes above for the stack; this 
is just an arbitrary figure. In case you're wondering about 
the odd figure, &HGFAE, it'll be explained shortly. 

&H7000 is a nice round figure at which to start a table. The 
table must hold every line number and a 16-bit count. Since 
line numbers are also 16 bits, we'll need four bytes for each 
entry, as shown in Figure 5. The area from &H7000 to &H7FFF 
is 4,096 bytes long, large enough to hold 4,096/4 = 1,024 
entries. We'll actually hold 640 entries, however, due to 



MS Bytes Of Pointer 
LS Byte of 
Pointer 



f 



MS Byte Of Line # 
S~* LS Byte Of Line # 



Basic Line 



232 



\ 



3x256= 768 
+232' 



1000 = Line* 



Figure 4: Conversion of Line Number and Pointer 
to 16-Bit Integer Values 



172 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



display limitations. Still, 640 BASIC lines is a long program. 

The program shown in Listing 2 scans the BASIC program 
in memory and lists all line numbers less than 10000. For each 
line number, an entry is made in the table at &H7008: two 
bytes of the line number and two bytes of the count, which 
is initialized to zero (there's garbage in the count if it is not 
cleared). The last line number of the table is marked as Line 
Number 0, a nonexistent line number. 

The BASIC program to do this starts with Line Number 
10000. We don't want to record the execution times of this 
program, but rather the execution time of another program 
to be tested; for this reason the Time Analyzer lines are 
ignored. 











&H7000 - 
&H7004 - 
&H7008 - 


LINE #1 




Entry #1 

f (4 Bytes) 

. Entry #2 
f ( 4 Bytes ) 

. Entry #3 
[ (4 Bytes) 


COUNT #1 


LINE #2 


COUNT #2 


V LINE #3 


COUNT #3 


r"* — I 




1 


figure 5: &H700 Table Foi 


•m 


at 



The Program Display 

Let's move ahead a little bit and see what kind of display 
we need. Assume that we have initialized the table, and the 
counts have been magically made during execution of the 
program we're testing. The next step is display the data in 
some coherent form. One way is shown in Figure 6. 

Figure 6 uses the 640-by-192 mode of the CoCo 3 to display 
line numbers. Since there may be hundreds of them, they are 
displayed by position. Each dot position represents another 
line number; and the display goes from left to right, 
equivalent to BASIC program lines from beginning to end. The 
number of counts (one-sixtieth second) is displayed as a 
vertical line. The higher the line, the more times an interrupt 
occurred while that line was being executed and the more time 
that line takes. 

However, we also want to be able to read out the actual 
count for each line. We've accomplished that by moving a 
"line cursor" along the X axis. As the line cursor is moved. 



TOTAL TIME =162 



Total 

Program 

Time 

In 1/60 Sees 



Line* 
For Cursor 




Graph Of Line # 

Verses Counts 

( Fixed ) 



Count For 
Line* 



Cursor ( Moves To 
Select Line # ) 



PROGRAM TIME MAPPING 



Figure 6: Displaying the Data 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 173 



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the line number is displayed, along with the count for that 
line number. This gives us a way to read out the line number 
for interesting lines. 

The program to display the table after execution is shown 
in Listing 3. It scans the &H7000 table by moving four bytes 
at a time. For each move the line number is read from the 
first two table bytes and the count from the next two. The 
count is used to draw a vertical line whose length represents 
the size of the count. 

Cursor movement is handled by reading in a key press with 
an INKEY5 statement. If the right arrow (Code 9) has been 
pressed, the cursor is moved to the right and the line number 
and count displayed. If the left arrow (Code 8) has been 
pressed, the cursor is moved to the left and the line number 
and count displayed. All other key presses are ignored. 



The (Shudder) Assembly Language Code 

So far we have a BASIC program to initialize the table and 
to display the graph after program execution. The only thing 
missing is the program to increment the counts. Since the 
interrupts occur every 16.7 milliseconds, this program must 
be in assembly language, the only language fast enough to 
handle the interrupts. 

Assembly language is tedious to learn and difficult in which 
to program. On the other hand, it's fasti Radio Shack 
currently puts its faith in the OS-9 assembler, discontinuing 
the excellent EDTASM+ assembler that runs without OS- 
9. If you're not an OS-9 fanatic, I'd suggest getting a copy 
of EDTASM+ — it's a great package on which to cut your 
assembly language teeth. 

Every one-sixtieth of a second, an IRQ interrupt comes in. 
The assembly language code must get the current BASIC line 
number being executed, scan the table for that line number, 
and then bump by one the count for that line number entry. 
If a zero line number is encountered, the line number is 
assumed not to be in the table; the program doesn't do an 
increment. Line numbers equal to or greater than 10000 are 
also not incremented. After this action the assembly language 
code transfers control to the normal IRQ code. 

The listing for this assembly language code is shown in 
Listing 4. The 6809 microprocessor has four registers that are 
used here. The Y register holds only a zero value, which is 
loaded in the first instruction. This value is used to test for 
the Line and cause an exit. 

The X register points to the next entry in the table. The 
table starts at &H7000, but the X register is initialized to 
&H6FFC, four bytes less. This is because the increment is made 
before the test. 

The D register — the 16-bit equivalent of the eight-bit A 
and B registers joined together - hold the current line 
number. The current line number is picked up from one of 
those mysterious BASIC variables found in locations &HG8 and 
&HG9. 

Each time through the LOOP, an LEAX +4,X instruction is 
executed. This adds four to the X register. The line number 
in D is then compared to the location pointed to by the X 
register. If the two values are not equal, the instruction at 
NFND tests the value in Y (0) against the location pointed to 
by X. If these are not equal, the end of the table has not been 
reached; the LOOP is reexecuted. 

If the line number is found, the count at locations +2 and 
+3 from the location pointed to by the X register is bumped 
by one count. This must be done by loading the count into 
the D register (remember that the count is 16 bits), adding 



one to the D register (ADDD 81) and storing the D register 
back to the table. 

After the increment of the count (or if the line is not found) 
a JMP SD8AF transfers control to the normal IRQ interrupt 
routine. 

When 640 lines are in the program to be tested, the table 
search takes about 8 milliseconds, leaving half the time left 
over for program execution. This is a "worst-case scenario," 
as typical programs will be less than 640 lines. 



Relocation 

The assembly language program consists of 32 bytes of 
machine language code on the left (10BE . . . DB). This 
code is the executable form of the assembly language listing. 
It must be transferred to the protected memory area, starting 
at Location &H6FAF. The final program shown in Listing 5 
does this by using pokes for each value. (Normally this would 
be done with DATA statements and a READ/POKE loop, but 
we don't want to have the program interfere with DATA 
statements in the program to be tested.) Each poked value 
corresponds to a machine language byte, transferred during 
the initialization portion of the program. Once in the protected 
memory area, they stay there until power is turned off. 



Please Break This Chain! 

The interrupt vector for the IRQ interrupt processing 
subroutine is found in the three bytes at &H10C. These three 
bytes are a machine language JMP instruction, with the last 
two bytes indicating the jump address. 

The normal way to break an interrupt vector like this is 
to disable interrupts and put the new address into the second 
and third bytes of the JMP. Interrupts are disabled by the 
machine language TFR instruction that resets an interrupt bit 
in the Condition Codes register. Because this is tedious to do 
from basic, we made certain that the machine language 
program started at a location matching the second address 
byte of the normal interrupt processing subroutine. 

The normal interrupt subroutine in the CoCo 3 starts at 
S.HDBAF. By making our routine start at &.HGFAF, only the first 
byte has to be changed. (Consider what would happen if this 
were not done: Assuming the new interrupt routine is at 
&HGFA0, the BASIC program changes the second byte of the 
JMP SDBAF to S.HGF. Now an IRQ interrupt comes in. The 
microprocessor executes the JMP, which is now a JMP S.HGF AF, 
15 bytes into the new routine. Disaster ensues.) In most cases 
BASIC may be able to change both bytes without an IRQ 
interrupt coming in, but this approach is better programming 
practice. 

The code in Listing 5 breaks the normal interrupt link by 
putting the new address of &HGFAF into Location &H10D. The 
last instruction of our new routine, don't forget, transfers 
control to Location &HDBAF, the original routine. We were 
able to sneak our processing in before the normal routine, 
which still works. 



Using the Program 

To use the program, merge the program to be tested with 
the code from Line 10000 onward. Also change or add a 
CLEAR statement to the program to be tested: 100 CLEAR 
800, &HGFAE. At the end of the program to be tested, add 
a GOTO 10000. 

After the two programs have been merged, RUN 10000. 



176 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Total 
Tlme = 
1674 
(About 
4.6 
Mlns. ) 



Line 160 452 Counts 

(Input Height-User Response) 



Line 1 80 93 Counts ( Another Input ) 



/ 



Line 380 Area ( Heavy Computation Here ) 



\ 



Line 610 68 Counts (Loop] 



Line 700 Area 

* (More Computation) 



100 



Line 500 Area ( Printing ] 




PROGRAM TIME MAPPING 



Figure 7: Typical Analysis Display 



Choose I in response to the prompt "Initialize or Analyze (I 
or A)." The Time Analyzer program will scan all lines below 
10000 and build a table in the 8.H7000 area. Break the 
program after the next prompt, and run the program to be 
tested as usual. 

If you have added a GOTO 10000 at the end of the program 
to be tested, the program will automatically jump to the 
prompt message again. This time select A for Analyze. At 
this point all the counts during program execution have been 
accumulated. The Analyze function now displays the results. 
Move the cursor to investigate individual line counts. The 
total program time in one-sixtieth-second increments is 
displayed on the left of the screen. 

When using the program for inputs, try to avoid long 
delays in entering data. The program scales the Y plot lines 
based upon the maximum counts, and INPUT statements with 
long user inputs diminish the plot of the other lines. 

Summation 

It's fascinating to see how long it takes to test different lines 
in the program. The display is perfect for finding critical 
timing problems. You can see which lines are taking the 
longest and take steps to correct the problem. Figure 7 shows 
a typical analysis display; this one is for the Findmaze 
program in my February 1988 RAINBOW column (Page 171). 
This is an 84-line program with a good mix of different types 
of statements. Note that user input and printing take a 
relatively long time compared to computation. 

That's it! That wasn't so bad, was it? Did you survive? Hey. 
are you listening? YOU OUT THERE. ... See you next 
month with more CoCo topics. □ 



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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 177 



Listing 1: PRNTLINE 


10380 FOR I = &H7000 TO &H7FFE S 




TEP 4 


100 ' PRINT LINE NUMBERS 


10390 NO = PEEK( I ) * 256 + PEE 


110 TC = 


K( I + 1 ) 


120 I = PEEK ( &H19 ) * 256 + PE 


10400 CT = PEEK( I + 2 ) * 256 + 


EK( &H1A ) 


PEEK( I + 3 ) 


130 L = PEEK( I ) * 256 + PEEK( 


10410 IF NO = THEN GOTO 10470 


I + 1 ) 


10420 TC = TC + 1 


140 NO = PEEK( I+2)*2 56+P 


10430 TT = TT + CT 


EEK( I + 3 ) 


10440 IF CT > MC THEN MC = CT 


150 IF L = THEN GOTO 200 


10450 NEXT I 


160 PRINT NO, 


104 60 ' DRAW GRAPH 


170 I = L 


10470 HSCREEN 4 


180 TC = TC + 1 


10480 HCLS 


190 GOTO 130 


10490 HPRINT ( 2, 5 ), "TOTAL TI 


200 PRINT: PRINT TC; "LINES" 


ME=" + STR$( TT ) 


210 END 


10500 HGET ( 0, ) - ( 160, 7 ) 

, 1 

10510 D = ( 640 - TC ) / 2 






10520 IF MC = THEN YS = ELSE 


Listing 2: LINETABL 


YS = 150 / MC 




10530 HPRINT ( 30,23 ), "PROGRAM 


100 ' FIND LINE NUMBERS AND PUT 


TIME MAPPING" 


IN TABLE 


10540 FOR I = 1 TO TC 


110 CLEAR 800, &H6FAE 


10550 Y = PEEK( &H7002 + ( I - 1 


120 J = &H7000 


) * 4 ) * 256 + PEEK( &H7003 + 


130 I = PEEK ( &H19 ) * 256 + PE 


( I - 1 ) * 4 ) 


EK( &H1A ) 


10560 HLINE ( D + I, 160 ) - ( D 


140 L = PEEK( I ) * 256 + PEEK( 


+ I, 160 - INT( Y * YS ) ), PSE 


I + 1 ) 


T 


150 NO = PEEK( I + 2 ) * 256 + P 


10570 NEXT I 


EEK( I + 3 ) 


10580 ■ MOVE CURSOR AND PRINT LI 


160 IF ( L <> ) AND ( NO < 100 


NE AND COUNT 


00 ) THEN GOTO 200 


10590 X = D + 1: Y = 162: 1=1: 


170 POKE J, 0: POKE J + 1, 


C = 


180 PRINT: PRINT ( J - &H7000 ) 


10600 HLINE (X, 162 ) - ( X, 170 


/ 4; "LINES" 


) , PSET 


190 END 


10610 HPUT ( 272, 176 ) - ( 432, 


200 PRINT NO, 


183 ) , 1, PSET 


210 POKE J, PEEK( I + 2 ): POKE 


10620 HPRINT (34 , 22) , PEEK( &H7000 


J + 1, PEEK( I + 3 ) 


+(I-1)*4)*256 + PEEK(&H7001+(I-1 


220 POKE J + 2, 0: POKE J + 3, 


)*4) 


230 J=J+4: IF J > &H7000 + 2 


10630 HPRINT (42 , 22) , PEEK (&H7002 


560 THEN PRINT "PROGRAM > 640 LI 


+(I-1)*4)*256 + PEEK(&H7003+(I-1 


NES": STOP 


)*4) 


240 I = L 


10640 A$ = INKEY$: IF A$ = "" TH 


250 GOTO 140 


EN GOTO 10640 




10650 IF A$ = CHR$( 8 ) THEN X = 




X-l: 1=1-1: IF I<1 THEN 




X = X + 1: I = 1+1 ELSE 




HLINE ( X + 1, 162 ) - ( X + 1, 


Listing 3: ANALYZE 


170 ) , PRESET 




10660 IF A$ = CHR$( 9 ) THEN X = 


103 40 ■ ANALYZE PORTION 


X+l: 1=1+1: IF I > TC THE 


10350 HBUFF 1, 400 


NX = X-1: 1 = 1-1 


103 60 TC = 0: MC - 0: TT = 


ELSE HLINE ( X-l, 162 ) - ( X - 


103 70 ' COUNT LINES AND FIND MAX 


1, 170 ) , PRESET 


VALUE IN TABLE 


10670 GOTO 10600 



178 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Listing 4: 














6FAF 




00100 




ORG 


$6FAF 




6FAF 108E WW 


00110 


START 


LDY 


#0 


TERMINATOR 


6FB3 8E 


6FFC 


00120 




LDX 


#$6FFC 


START OF TABLE -4 


6FB6 DC 


68 


00130 




LDD 


$68 


GET CURRENT LINE # 


6FB8 30 


04 


00140 


LOOP 


LEAX 


+4,X 


BUMP TO NEXT ENTRY 


6FBA 10A3 


84 


00150 




CMPD 


,x 


COMPARE LINE #S 


6FBD 26 


09 


00160 




BNE 


NFND 


GO IF NOT EQUAL 


6FBF EC 


02 


00170 




LDD 


+2,X 


BUMP COUNT 


6FC1 C3 


0001 


00180 




ADDD 


#1 




6FC4 ED 


02 


00190 




STD 


+2,X 




6FC6 20 


05 


00200 




BRA 


OUT 


ON TO REST OF INT 


6FC8 10AC 


84 


00210 


NFND 


CMPY 


,x 


END? 


6FCB 26 


EB 


00220 




BNE 


LOOP 


GO IF NO 


6FCD 7E 


D8AF 


00230 


OUT 


JMP 


$D8AF 


OUT TO INT PROCESSING 




6FD0 


00240 


LAST 


EQU 


* 






0000 


00250 




END 






Listing 5: TIMEFIND 












lj3W ' PROGRAM 


TIME ANALYZER 


10030 


INPUT "INITIALIZE OR ANALY 


10^10 CLS 








ZE (I 


OR A) " ; RE$ 


10020 PRINT "PROGRAM TIME ANALYZ 


10040 


IF RE$ = "A" THEN GOTO 103 


ER" 










50 





NEW FOR OS-9 ™: FORTH09 

from D. P. JOHNSON 

FORTH09 is a FORTH-83 Standard implementation specially taylored for OS-9. Includes the double number extension 
word set, system extension word set, complete forth 6809 assembler and more. Programs written in forth can instantly be 
saved as compact executable machine language modules. The FORTH09 system runs on any level I or level II OS-9 (6809) ma- 
chine with at least 32k of available memory and one disk drive. Saved Forth09 application code is romable, reentrant and fully 
position independent, requiring as little as 3k for a small program. Where maximum speed is required the user can force small 
code words to be automatically compiled as in line code rather than subroutines. Supplied with complete printed documenta- 
tion. $150.00 (+$3S&H) Specify disk format if other than CoCo OS-9 format desired. 

Other OS-9 SOFTWARE from D. P. JOHNSON 

L1 UTILITY PAK - Contains 40 useful utilities that run under both level I and II OS-9. Included are a complete set of "wild card" file handling 
utilities, a disassembler, a disk sector editor, and the MacGen command language compiler. MacGen will allow you to generate many useful com- 
mand macros in minutes, much more useful than procedure files. Macro source is included for a macro to implement an archival backup type 
function. $49.95 

L2 UTILITY PAK - Contains a Level II "printerr" function that also shows the pathname being searched for when "not found" or per- 
mission type errors occur. Also contains level II software ram disk driver. Ten other utilities included, some useful for level I also . $39.95 
L1+L2 COMBINATION PAK both of above together for $75.00 

SDISK - Standard disk driver module replacement allows full use of 40 or 80 track double sided drives with OS-9 Level I. Full compatibility with 
CoCo 35 track format and access all other OS-9 non-CoCo formats. Easy installation. $29.95 
SDISK+BOOTFIX - As above plus boot directly from a double sided diskette. $35.95 

SDISK3 - Level II version of SDISK driver. Same features as level I (except bootfix not required to boot from double sided). $29.95 
PC-XFER UTILITIES - Programs to format and transfer files to/from MS-DOS lm diskettes on CoCo under OS-9. (Requires either SDISK or 
SDISK3 to run depending on which level of OS-9 you are using) $45.00 

MSF - MS-DOS disk format file manager. More complete file transfer capabiltites for level II only. (Requires SDISK3 to operate). $45.00 
CCRD 51 2K byte RAM DISK CARTRIDGE - Operates faster than similar device sold by others. Requires RS Multipak interface, two units 
may be used together for 1 MB. OS-9 Level I & II drivers and test software included. $CALL 

All diskettes are in CoCo OS-9 format unless otherwise requested; other OS-9 formats can be supplied for $2.00 additional charge. All orders must be prepaid or 
COD, VISA/MC accepted, add $1 .75 S&H for first software item, + .25 for each additional item, $5.00 for CCRD. additional charge for COD. 
D. P. Johnson, 7655 S.W. Cedarcrest St., Portland, OR 97223 (503) 244-8152 (For best service can between 9-11 am 

Pacific Time. Mon.-Fri.) 

OS-9 is a Irademark of Microware and Motorola Inc.. MS-DOS is a trademark ot Microsoft. Inc. 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



179 



10050 ' INITIALIZE PORTION 


VALUE IN TABLE 


10060 CLEAR 800,&H6FAE 


10380 FOR I = &H7000 TO &H7FFE S 


10070 ' MOVE ML CODE 


TEP 4 


10080 POKE &H6FAF,&H10:POKE &H6F 


10390 NO = PEEK( I ) * 256 + PEE 


B0,&H8E:POKE &H6FB1, &H00 : POKE &H 


K( I + 1 ) 


6FB2,&H00 


10400 CT - PEEK( I + 2 ) * 256 + 


10090 POKE &H6FB3,&H8E:POKE &H6F 


PEEK( I + 3 ) 


B4,&H6F:POKE &H6FB5 , &HFC: POKE &H 


10410 IF NO = THEN GOTO 10470 


6FB6,&HDC 


10420 TC = TC + 1 


10100 POKE &H6FB7,&H68:POKE &H6F 


10430 TT = TT + CT 


B8,SH30:POKE &H6FB9 , &H04 : POKE &H 


10440 IF CT > MC THEN MC = CT 


6FBA,&H10 


104 50 NEXT I 


10110 POKE &H6FBB,&HA3:POKE &H6F 


10460 ' DRAW GRAPH 


BC,&H84:POKE &H6FBD, &H26 : POKE &H 


10470 HSCREEN 4 


6FBE,&H09 


10480 HCLS 


10120 POKE &H6FBF,&HEC:POKE &H6F 


10490 HPRINT ( 2, 5 ), "TOTAL TI 


C0,&H02:POKE &H6FC1, &HC3 : POKE &H 


ME=" + STR$( TT ) 


6FC2,&H00 


10500 HGET ( 0, ) - ( 160, 7 ) 


10130 POKE &H6FC3,&H01:POKE &H6F 


, 1 


C4,&HED:POKE &H6FC5 , &H02 : POKE &H 


10510 D = ( 640 - TC ) / 2 


6FC6,&H20 


10520 IF MC = THEN YS = ELSE 


10140 POKE &H6FC7,&H05:POKE &H6F 


YS = 150 / MC 


C8,&H10:POKE &H6FC9,&HAC:POKE &H 


10530 HPRINT ( 30,23 ), "PROGRAM 


6FCA,&H84 


TIME MAPPING" 


10150 POKE &H6FCB,&H2 6:POKE &H6F 


10540 FOR I = 1 TO TC 


CC,&HEB:POKE &H6FCD, &H7E: POKE &H 


10550 Y = PEEK( &H7002 + ( I - 1 


6FCE,&HD8 


) * 4 ) * 256 + PEEK( &H7003 + 


10160 POKE &H6FCF,&HAF 


( I - 1 ) * 4 ) 


10170 ' CHANGE THE LS BYTE OF NM 


10560 HLINE ( D + I, 160 ) - ( D 


I INTERRUPT VECTOR 


+ I, 160 - INT( Y * YS ) ), PSE 


10180 POKE &H10D, &H6F 


T 


10190 ■ FIND LINES NUMBERS AND P 


10570 NEXT I 


UT IN TABLE 


10580 ' MOVE CURSOR AND PRINT LI 


10200 J = &H7000 


NE AND COUNT 


10210 I = PEEK ( &H19 ) * 256 + 


10590 X = D + 1: Y = 162: 1=1: 


PEEK( &H1A ) 


C = 


10220 L = PEEK( I ) * 256 + PEEK 


10600 HLINE (X, 162 ) - ( X, 170 


( I + 1 ) 


) , PSET 


10230 NO = PEEK( I + 2 ) * 256 + 


10610 HPUT ( 272, 176 ) - ( 432, 


PEEK( I + 3 ) 


18 3 ), 1, PSET 


10240 IF ( L <> ) AND ( NO < 1 


10620 HPRINT (34,22) ,PEEK(&H7000 


0000 ) THEN GOTO 102 80 


+(I-1)*4)*256 + PEEK(&H7001+(I-1 


10250 POKE J, 0: POKE J + 1, 


)*4) 


102 60 PRINT: PRINT ( J - &H7000 


10630 HPRINT (42 , 22) , PEEK(&H7002 


) / 4; "LINES" 


+(1-1) *4) *256 + PEEK(&H7003+(I-1 


10270 GOTO 10030 


)*4) 


102 80 PRINT NO, 


10640 A$ = INKEYS: IF A$ = "" TH 


102 90 POKE J, PEEK( I + 2 ) : POK 


EN GOTO 10640 


E J + 1, PEEK( I + 3 ) 


10650 IF A$ = CHR$ ( 8 ) THEN X = 


10300 POKE J + 2, 0: POKE J + 3, 


X-l: 1=1-1: IF I < 1 THEN 





X = X + 1: I = I+l ELSE 


10310 J=J+4: IFJ> &H7000 + 


HLINE ( X + 1, 162 ) - ( X + 1, 


2560 THEN PRINT "PROGRAM > 640 


170 ) , PRESET 


LINES": STOP 


10660 IF A$ = CHR$( 9 ) THEN X = 


10320 I = L 


X+l: 1=1+1: IF I > TC THE 


10330 GOTO 10220 


NX=X-1: 1=1-1 


103 40 ' ANALYZE PORTION 


ELSE HLINE ( X - 1, 162 ) - ( X - 


103 50 HBUFF 1, 400 


1, 170 ) , PRESET 


103 60 TC = 0: MC = 0: TT = 


10670 GOTO 10600 


103 70 ■ COUNT LINES AND FIND MAX 


/K\ 



180 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



XTE^ M 



wmm 



B 






rift 




BOTH 

WINNERS 



All of our OS-9 products 

work with: 

OS-9 version 1 
OS-9 version 2 
OS-9 Level 2 



i Menu oriented 
Upload/download Ascii 
or XMODEM protocol 
Fxccutc OS-9 commands 
from within XTERM 



XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program 



Definable macro keys 
Works with standard serial port, RS232 
Pak, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers 
Works with standard screen, Xscrcen 
WORDPAK or DISTO 80 column board 



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Hicrarchlal directory OS-9 calculator 

■ Full sorting • Decimal, Hex, Binary 

■ Complete pattern matching • +,-,ViAND,OR,XOR,NOT 

$24.95 with source $49.95 







XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 
$34.95 with source $54.95 



HARDWARE 



512k memory upgrade 

Ram Software 
Ram Disk 
Print Spooler 
Quick Backup 



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XWORD 
OS-9 word processing system 

Works with standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or DISTO 

True character oriented full screen editing 

Full block commands 

Find and Replace commands 

Execute OS-9 commands from within 

Proportional spacing supported 

Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, overstrikc, 

underline, supcr/sub-scripts 

10 header/footers 

Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

Margins and headers can be set different Tor even and odd pages 

1.95 with source $124.95 



$69. 



XMERGE 



Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 
$24.95 with source $49.95 

XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 40000 word dictionaries 

$39.95 

XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/XSPELL 
$114.95 with source $199.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 
$39.95 with source $79.95 



% 



AND FOR RS DOS 




SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUTING 

This sales-based accounting package is de- 
signed for the non-accountant oriented busi- 
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of accounts. Includes Sales Entry, transaction 
driven Accounts Receivable and Accounts Pay- 
able, Journal Entry, Payroll Disbursement, 
and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income State- 
ment, Customer and Vender status Reports, 
Accounts Receivable and Payable Aging Re- 
ports, Check Register, Sales Reports, Account 
Status Lists, and a Journal Posting List. 

$79.95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory 
control, with user defined product codes, and 
produce a detailed analysis of the business' 
sales and the sales force. One may enter/update 
inventory data, enter sales, run five sales anal- 
ysis reports, run five inventory reports, set up 
product codes, enter/update salesman records, 
and update the SBAP inventory. 

>9.95 



ma'.wr.YiY.y.-i 



PAYROLL 



Designed for maintaining personnel and 
payroll data for up to 200 hourly and salar- 
ied employees with 8 deductions each. Cal- 
culates payroll and tax amounts, prints 
checks and maintains ycar-to-datc totals 
which can be automatically transferred to 
the SBA package. Computes each pay peri- 
od's totals for straight time, overtime and 
bonus pay and determines taxes to be with- 
held. Aditional outputs Include mailing list, 
listing of employees, year-to-date federal 
and/or state tax listing, and a listing of cur- 
rent misc. deductions. Suited for use in all 
states except Oklahoma and Delaware 

$59.95 



$51 



PERSONAL BOOKKEEPING 2000 
Handles 45 accounts. Enters cash expenses as 
easily as checks. Handles 26 expense catego- 
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$39.95 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history 
reports for each customer, perparcs in- 
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terms for commercial accounts or finance 
charges for revolving accounts. This pack- 
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integrates with the Small Business Accting 
package. 

$59.95 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for the maintenance of vendor 
and A/P invoice files. The system prints 
checks, voids checks, cancels checks, de- 
letes cancelled checks, and deletes paid A/P 
invoices. The user can run a Vendor List, 
Vendor Status report, Vendor Aged report, 
and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used either as a standalone A/P sys- 
tem or can be Integrated with the Small 
Business Accounting Package 

$59.95 



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Ordering Information 

Add $3.00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa, Masicrcard. COD (add S3. 50), personal check* 



Dealer Inauirits Invited 
Author Submissions accepted 
OS-9 is a trademark uf Micropore 



(612) 633-6161 



RAINBOWTECH 





OS-9 



Volunteers Build a Better 

Mousetrap 



By Dale L. Puckett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The OS-9 wizards stole the show 
at our RAINBOWfest Chicago 
seminar. Two products demon- 
strated by Kevin Darling, Mark Grif- 
fith, Ron Lammardo and Kent Meyers 
redefined ease of use for Color Comput- 
er OS-9. Several others were spectacu- 
lar and brought oohs and ahhs from the 
crowd. Most importantly, however, 
these OS-9 Users Group members have 
released their work into the public 
domain and were distributing it to Users 
Group members at RAINBOWfest 
Chicago. 

We were also fortunate enough to 
interview a rising young star in the 
Color Computer OS-9 community. 
We'll share Chris Burke's views with you 
this month and then move on to get you 
started with a few lines of code that may 
soon become Gfx3. 

During our seminar. Darling and 
Lammardo put the new Kent Meyers 
GShell through its paces. The new 
addition to the OS-9 Users Group 
Software Library contains six files as 
well as the ar and ipatch utilities you 



Dale L. Puckett. a freelance writer and 
programmer, serves as director-at-large 
of the OS-9 Users Group and is a 
member of the Computer Press Associ- 
ation. His username on Delphi is 
DALEP: on packet-radio, KOHYD @ 
N4QQ; on GEnie, D. PUCKETT2; and 
on CIS. 71446.736. 



need to install them. They include: 



GShell. ipc 

CC3io. Ipc 
Scf . ipc 
Gsort 

MenuCopy 

Free 



an Ipatch file 
an Ipatch file 
an Ipatch file 
a new command for 
the file 

a replacement for Tan- 
dy's copy command 
a replacement for Tan- 
dy's free command 



You must purchase OS-9 Level II and 
Multi- Vue from Tandy to get the orig- 
inal GShell. CC3io and Scf files you'll 
be patching. These programs have been 
copyrighted by Microware and Tandy, 
and you may not distribute them. The 
ipatch files are in the public domain, 
however, and may be passed around 
freely as long as no files from OS-9 
Level II or Multi-Vue are included. The 
three new utility commands are all in 
the public domain. 

Here are some of the new features the 
crowd saw at our OS-9 seminar. Typing 
S when the GShell window is active 
pops up an overlay window and starts 
a standard OS-9 Shell. You can then run 
OS-9 from the command line to your 
heart's content. Return to GShell by 
holding down the CTRL key and striking 
the BREAK key. 

If you select any file or directory on 
the GShell screen by pointing to it and 
clicking once, you can delete it by 



moving the mouse pointer to the trash 
can icon and clicking again. The new 
GShell deletes the file immediately 
without asking you if you are sure. It 
uses the OS-9 Del utility to delete a file 
and the Deldir utility to delete a 
directory. 

If you double click on any text file 
icon, GShell .assumes it is a valid OS- 
9 procedure file and attempts to execute 
it as a shell script. If you try to execute 
a file that does not contain a shell script. 
OS-9 will print an error message. 

If you double click on any program 
icon, GShell will run the program for 
you after asking for any parameters. 
GShell knows a file is a program when 
it finds the execute attributes set. 
Additionally, you may now list and 
print anflIF file by selecting it and using 
the appropriate command in the Files 
menu. 

You'll find a new command in the 
Files menu now. Sort causes all files in 
the directory displayed to be sorted in 
ASCII order. This means your flIF files 
always move to the beginning of a 
directory and appear in the first screen. 

You'll notice another convenience 
when you need to answer the infamous 
"Are you sure?" prompt. The "sure" box 
is now displayed on the screen very close 
to the last position of the mouse pointer. 
Before, it was always displayed near the 
center. This Kent Meyers addition will 
help you keep your mouse movements 
to a minimum. 



182 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



If all of these new features aren't 
enough, hang on to your hat — there's 
more! Directory names longer than the 
directory bar now scroll to the left. 
Graphics Put buffers in use are now 
killed on entry and exit. A black border 
has been added to all GShell and Tandy 
menu shells. You may also select a 16- 
color 40-by-24 window from the View 
menu. 

Since Meyers is a stickler for detail, 
all GShell prompts now start with 
capital letters. This makes them look 
more professional. Adding a question 
mark in the second line of an AIF file 
now causes GShell to prompt you for 
parameters before executing the pro- 
gram. And if you find a prompt on your 
screen and don't have an answer, click- 
ing the mouse will cause the prompt to 
go away and the function you were 
running to be aborted. 

When you do have something to say, 
you'll have more room. Meyers has 
expanded the size of the "Parameters 
for" box by 10 spaces. If you click on 
a file icon that has an AIF file associated 
with it. the program name, parameters 
and finally the filename are sent to the 
shell. 

Clicking first on any program file 
icon and then clicking on the question 
mark in the upper right corner of the 
menu bar, or selecting the Help com- 
mand from the Tandy menu, gives you 
help for that program — if it's available 
in the help file in your system directory. 

Additionally, programs that run in 
G Shell's overlay window now run with 
the mouse and the graphics pointer 
turned off. This makes them much 
faster. When a display scrolling in the 
GShell overlay window pauses, it can be 
restarted by clicking the mouse. To use 
this option you must patch the CC3io 
and Scf modules with the files on the 
disk. The bug that once caused your 
window to disappear when you quit 
GShell after starting it with Multi - 
start or HutoEx has been fixed. 

While he was adding these new fea- 
tures, Meyers optimized GShell* and 
removed all the bugs he could find. 
GShell* is far more reliable than the 
original version and much faster. The 
CC3io and Scf patch files on the disk 
give you the following features and 
fixes: 

CoCo 3 defaults to montype RGB 
when you boot OS-9. 
A palette register problem has been 
fixed. 

Condemned processes are killed au- 
tomatically. 



The mouse button can be used to un- 
pause a screen. 

The un-pause feature also works 
outside of GShell in any OS-9 win- 
dow or SCF-type device. 

Following the GShell demonstration 
Ron Lammardo answered questions 
about the new Shell* he masterminded 
and helped develop. The Users Group 
distributed Version 1.3a on the GShell 
disk at RAINBOWfest. 

After Lammardo spoke, Kevin Dar- 
ling stole the show by playing an audio 
cut from Star Trek. He then held the 
microphone to the CoCo 3 speaker 
while he played an additional dozen 
sounds, including the infamous blurb 
that describes more than one writer on 
deadline: "I'm trying to think, but 
nothing happens!" 

Darling also awed the crowd with a 
few animated high-resolution graphics 
screens. In one, a waterfall lulls you 
with its serenity. In another, a jet flies 
over the earth's surface at varying 
speeds. The player program doing the 
work was named Veflo. Darling played 
back the images by double clicking on 
Multi- Vue icons. 

Mark Griffith wrote the new Copy 
command distributed by the Users 
Group at Chicago. It is a direct replace- 
ment for the standard copy utility. 
However, it works only with Multi- Vue. 
Run Griffith's Copy by selecting a file 
and then choosing Copy on the Files 
menu. The first thing you'll see is a pop- 
up overlay window. If you are copying 
a file to the same directory, you need 
only type a filename. If you want to 
make a copy in another directory or on 
another disk, you type just the device 
name and directory. You no longer need 
to retype the filename you selected 
earlier with the mouse. If the new name 
you type already exists, an overlay 
window will pop up, and you'll be asked 
if you want to overwrite the existing file. 

While the OS-9 wizards were wowing 
the seminar crowd, Tony DiStefano was 
doing the same with his new Super 
Controller II at the CRC booth. This 
board does not halt the 6809 processor 
while it is reading from or writing to the 
disk. This returns OS-9's type-ahead 
feature to the Color Computer. 

Kevin Darling wrote the OS-9 drivers 
for CRC. We picked up a final produc- 
tion copy of Darling's drivers at Chi- 
cago and while reading the manual on 
the flight back to Washington, came 
across a discussion of the infamous 
"OS-9 Boot file order problem." Here's 
a common problem: Your new disk 



won't boot under Level II. Before you 
blame your new controller or your 
Color Computer, answer the following 
questions: 

Have you remembered to include a 
CMDS directory on your boot disk? 

Does it contain a Shell file and 
Grfdrv? 

Are the execution permissions set: 
attr /d0-'cmds''shel 1 e pe? 

This is a pretty common problem, 
even among the oldtimers. If you an- 
swered the questions above correctly, 
you may have stumbled into the infa- 
mous "boot order" failure. Here are the 
symptoms: Your disk fails to boot at all, 
or — more often — when you format 
a disk you wind up with many Read 
Errors. 

All the major Level II third-party 
software and hardware makers are 
aware of this problem, but so far, no one 
has come up with a satisfactory expla- 
nation. It happens most often when you 
add a new module to your boot list or 
Conf ig list. Theoretically, since all OS- 
9 code is position-independent, it 
shouldn't matter where a driver module 
ends up. There are many theories about 
what causes this failure, but the only 
known "fix" is to rearrange the order of 
the modules in your 05-9 Boot file. 

CRC distributes one of Darling's 
programs, DirM, to help you determine 
a possible boot order if you run into 
trouble. DirM is similar to Mdir, except 
it reports the actual RAM block 
numbers that hold your modules. The 
prevailing theory is that RBF, CC3Disk, 
DD, D0, Dl, as well as other RBF drivers 
and descriptors, should all end up with 
the same block number when you boot 
up. 

If you have a problem but can boot 
up, run DirM. Note the first number on 
the lines for those modules. If they 
differ, you may have found the trouble. 
Try another 0s9gen boot list order by 
using your editor to move a module 
name or two in your boot list file — 
either from before the RBF modules to 
after them or vice versa. Remember, 
your goal is to make those RBF-type 
modules wind up in the same 8K block 
of memory. 

A common first try is to simply move 
the Ini t module to the end of the list. 
This has worked for many people. 
Because no one actually knows what 
causes this problem, Darling recom- 
mends that you do not make backups 
of important disks until you've tried out 
the drivers for a couple of days. How- 
August 1988 THE RAINBOW 183 



RSDos 


-cmd [-mod] device-name [DOS-path] [0S9-path] 


Sui tches 


-dir 


for a directory listing of an RS-DOS disk 




-get 


to import a file from an RS-DOS disk 




-del 


to delete a file from an RS-DOS disk 




-put 


to export a file to an RS-DOS disk 




Modi f 


iers 




-b 


for type 0: BASIC binary type program 




-d 


for type I : BASIC data file 




-m 


for type 2: executable machine language program 




-t 


for type 3: text editor source file 




-a 


for ASCII format (default is binary) 




-f=n 


sets the file type to n (n = 0-255) 
Figure 1 





ever, if you can format new disks with 
no difficulty and can copy large files 
such as OSSboot to another disk with- 
out errors, you are most likely in good 
shape. 

When you buy the Super Controller 
II, you get several extra utilities. RS- 
DOS from Ipatch author Bob Santy is 
one that is sure to please. This import/ 
export utility displays directories, 
transfers files to and from a Color 
Computer RS-DOS diskette and de- 
letes files from RS-DOS diskettes. 

The syntax and a list of switches and 
modifiers accepted by RSDos. osS are 
shown in Figure 1. 

Tony DiStefano plans to add a com- 
bination clock, parallel port and serial 
port card to the Disto lineup soon. This 
card can be installed inside the SC-11 
and means you may no longer need to 
use the Multi-Pak Interface. Rumor 
control has it that another board with 
four devices will be available from CRC 
in the not-too-distant future. 

FD 502 Double-Sided 40-trfekfc, ^ v 
Secondary Drive Fix A^\C 

When I read Kevin Darling's descrip- 
tion of the boot list order problem in the 
Disto Super Controller II driver docu- 
mentation, it reminded me of another 
problem he mentioned. The Color 
Computer normally turns on both drive 
motors, even though it selects only one 
drive for access at a time. This ensures 
that when you are running a copy utility 
to move files between drives, you need 
not wait for a drive to spin up to 300 
rpm each time your program switches 
from Drive to Drive 1. Because of this 
convention, all disk drivers for the 
Color Computer assume that all drives 
are ready to use if the motor line is on. 
In the past this has been true. 



Now for the "gotcha!" The second 
disk drive used in the two-drive FD 502 
cases has a jumper inadvertently mis- 
placed. These drives ignore the motor 
line and spin only when selected. This 
means that every time you see your 
Drive 1 light go on, it takes a fraction 
of a second for it to get up to speed. 
When the light goes out, the drive stops. 
This makes disk operations unreliable. 

You may not have a problem while 
running RS-DOS programs because 
they normally run at 1 MHz. If you are 
using OS-9 with the vanilla Level II 
CC3Disl< module, you may have occa- 
sional problems — especially when 
copying from ■'D0 to 'Dl. If you are 
using the new Disto Super Controller 1 1 
with the no-halt drivers, you must fix 
the jumper. 

To see if your drive acts this way, 
loosen the four outside screws that hold 
the case together. Observe the top of 
Drive 1 while trying POKE S.HFF40,2. If 
the motor and light come on, you need 
to change the jumper. To do this, re- 
move the top drive. Remove the two 
screws holding the fan and lay it back 
out of the way. Now, pull off the black/ 
yellow/ red power cable and the main 
34-wire control cable. Slide the drive 
out, being careful to hold it up so it 
doesn't fall on the bottom drive. Re- 
move the two flat plastic head/sensor 
cables that connect to the circuit board 
by lifting up on the top of the plastic 
block they plug into. This releases the 
tension lock on the cables so that they 
will pull out easily. 

Also, remove the four-pin cable that 
leads forward to the index-hole and 
write-protect sensors. Flip the drive 
over and remove the three screws that 
hold the circuit board. Remove the two 
cables attached to the motors. Look at 



the top of the circuit board, and note 
where the cable to the controller plugs 
in. You should see two small bare-wire 
jumpers soldered to the board; ignore 
the one near Pin 34. On the side nearest 
Pin 2 of the 34-pin edge card, in one of 
two sets of holes marked '5' you'll find 
another. Remove or clip it, then run a 
wire between the other marked set of 
holes. Be careful when you solder in the 
new jumper. 

Put everything back together and 
type POKE &HFF40,2. The light should 
come on, but the motor will not be 
running. Now type POKE &HFF40,8. 
The motor should come on but the light 
should slay out. Try POKE &HFF40,10. 
The motor and light should both come 
on. Finally, type POKE &HFF40,0. Both 
the motor and light should go off — you 
passed the test! 

Chris Burke — A Rising OS-9 Star 

Chris Burke and his wife, Trisha, sell 
OS-9 and RS-DOS hard disks and OS- 
9 utilities. They live in Schaumburg, 111., 
only two miles from the site of RAIN- 
BOWfest Chicago. Their Color 
Computer adventure began in 1982 
when thev bought a Color Computer 
with Level I OS-9 for $500. They bought 
it because it was the least expensive 
graphics-based computer available at 
the time and because the 6809 is a good 
processor. "I couldn't find a better value 
anywhere," Burke said. 

Burke started out writing programs 
in Extended Color BASIC, but he soon 
added OS-9 and discovered that he 
really liked it. "OS-9 was like UNIX, 
and I was familiar with UNIX. OS-9 
made a lot of sense because of its 
modular structure. 

"Before long, I set up some quad 
density drives and got involved with the 
local OS-9 Users Group. I made a 
presentation one evening to show them 
how to put these big drives on the 
CoCo. A lot of people went out and did 
it. 1 wrote a lot of 'fun' OS-9 stuff 
device drivers, etc. — and added a lot 
of hardware. I even built something like 
the Super Board. But 1 still wasn't in 
business," Burke said. 

Burke thought the quad density 
drives were nice but decided he needed 
something more. "1 saw a few hard 
drives advertised in RAINBOW for about 
$900," he said. "Unfortunately, that was 
out of the question — I didn't have that 
kind of money. Luckily, I noticed a few 
drives advertised in Byte magazine for 
$450 a few months later. I knew a little 
bit about the drives, so I went to work 
and got OS-9 Level I running on a hard 



184 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



drive. Then I got OS-9 Level II and 
wrote another driver. 

"This was about two years ago and we 
still weren't in business, but about that 
time, Trisha and I noticed one of Marty 
Goodman's columns in RAINBOW. He 
was telling why Color Computer hard 
drives were so expensive, while IBM 
hard drives were cheap. We were al- 
ready using an IBM drive on our Color 
Computer, so the 'light' went on and we 
decided to go in business. Our only 
product was an OS-9 hard disk interface 
called the CoCo-XT." 

Burke still doesn't sell the drives — 
just the interface and the software. He 
hasn't jumped into this arena because he 
believes everyone knows you can still 
get a better deal on an IBM drive 
through one of the large discount 
houses. Later Burke added a real-time 
clock with battery backup to his XT and 
called it the XT-RTC. 

He showed both interfaces at local 
computer clubs and RAINBOWfest 
Princeton. "That was our first public 
offering, and our products were well- 
received. A few people were hesitant 
because they had never heard of us 
before; when they saw our $450 price, 
they thought we were setting them up. 
Then people started calling and asking 
if they could sell for us — Sugar Soft- 
ware, Howard Medical, FHL all 
wanted to sell Burke's hard disk inter- 
face. 

"Before we came along, hard disks 
had been a closed market. For a long 
time there was only Owl-Ware. Then 
Disto added a hard disk interface to its 
line. Ours was something dealers could 
sell, so we put it in distribution imme- 
diately." 

After this initial success, Chris and 



Trisha started expanding their product 
line. They added Hyper-IO, a program 
that lets you use a hard drive under 
BASIC. It is OS-9 compatible and stores 
an entire floppy image as one OS-9 file. 
You can delete or add a whole floppy 
at the same time. This means you can 
run OS-9 and RS-DOS programs from 
the same hard drive, although not 
concurrently. Hyper-IO gives RS-DOS 
users the advantage of making their 
floppy images any size. 

The floppy on your hard disk can 
look like a double-sided 80-track, a 3- 
megabyte drive, or whatever. Another 
nice thing about Hyper-IO is the fact 
that it gives you the ability to add 
utilities to transfer files from OS-9 to 
RS-DOS — on a hard drive or a floppy. 
Burke also gives you a patch that lets 
the OS-9 assembler create RS-DOS 
programs. After you assemble them, 
you can copy them to an RS-DOS 
directory. 

Yet, for Burke, Hyper-IO was only a 
beginning. Before long, he found him- 
self designing RSB, which stands for 
Radio Shack BASIC. "People say they 
don't like OS-9 because it's hard to use 
and hard to learn," Burke said. "I don't 
believe it is hard to use. I believe it's 
different from what they have learned. 
What they mean when they say OS-9 is 
hard to use is that when they type run 
game it doesn't work." 

RSB uses the same command syntax 
as Hyper-IO, but it runs in an OS-9 
shell. All of the Radio Shack Basic 
graphics commands have been modified 
to use OS-9 Level II system calls. 
"When you run RSB the first time, we 
take the BASIC code in ROM and move 
it to your hard disk," Burke said. "Then 
we patch the I/O drivers to make system 



calls and patch the code to make it 
relocatable. Since we only had to 
change about 10 percent of code, RSB 
was a reasonable project." 

Burke's goal is to make OS-9 appear 
friendly to people who use RS-DOS 
regularly. He believes that once they 
start using RSB, they will become 
familiar with OS-9's features — the 
spoolers, hard drives, additional serial 
ports, etc. — because RSB uses OS-9 
drivers. "At the same time they are 
running RSB, they will be able to flip 
over to another window and use an OS- 
9 application program. In fact, because 
of OS-9 RSB users will even be able to 
run several different RS-DOS pro- 
grams in different windows at the same 
time. All of this will be going on con- 
currently!" Burke said. 

Burke is presently working on 
MUSE, an Scf driver for music that 
will play a string from RSB. Since he 
is writing it as a device driver and device 
descriptor named 'MU, you will be able 
to use it with your Radio Shack Sound 
Pack or the Super Voice cartridge from 
Speech Systems. In fact, you will have 
a no-halt music device in a sense, be- 
cause the two boards take a siring and 
play it. The Level II internals will 
generate the sounds. 

Another OS-9 utility marketed by 
Burke & Burke is EZGen, a boot file 
editor similar to the Sugar Software 
Patcher utility. With it, when you get 
an upgrade of a device driver, you need 
only type EZGen /ti® /os9boot, link to 
Cc3disl< and then type u, followed by 
a path list to the new driver. EZGen will 
pull out the old driver and put the new 
one in your boot file, making sure your 
boot file stays contiguous. 

Burke & Burke also markets a utili- 




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covered are PIAs, VDG, SAM, kybd, 
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cassette and disk. $18.00 + $1.50 s/h. 



THE ADDENDUM - Picks up 
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save money - buy I trLU 

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August 1988 THE RAINBOW 185 



ties disk that features Wild and Mv. 
Wild has a recursive option and can 
handle commands like wild -kp asm 
*.src d* or wild del c.temp*. Mw 
will move a directory entry from one 
point on the tree to another. When it 
runs, it moves the directory entry to a 
different directory, leaving the files in 
the same directory. 

All Burke & Burke utilities are writ- 
ten in C, while all device drivers are 
written in assembly. Why does Chris 
Burke use OS-9? "Because like UNIX 
it's modular," he said. "When you add 
something, you don't need to learn a 
whole bunch of stuff over again. When 
you add a hard drive, it acts just like a 
floppy drive. Besides, it does multi- 
tasking and uses windows. 

"The OS-9 windows are far better 
than MS-DOS windows because they 
are true multitasking windows," Burke 
said. "MS Windows is merely a 'kluge' 
on top of MS-DOS. Besides, if you time 
the Color Computer 3 running OS-9 
Level II against an IBM XT, you'll find 
the CoCo is faster in most applica- 
tions." 

What does Burke see in the future for 
OS-9? "I think we need to get a lot of 
people writing OS-9 software. We need 
to get some good programs that will 
attract users. Once more users are 
attracted, more people will want to 
write programs. I think OS-9 has a 
really good future because it's a really 
good operating system. The 68K ver- 
sion is the standard for compact disk 
interaction, and someday there will be 
software running on OS-9 that is just as 
good as any running on MS-DOS." 

Our Listing 

This month we give you the frame- 
work of Gfx3. Feel free to tailor it to 
meet your desires. Once you type this 
subroutine package in and pack it, you 
can merge it with Gfx2 and tap the 
functionality built into OS-9's Windlnt 
manager interactively from within your 
BASIC09 programs — just like you use 
the graphics primitives with Gfx2 now. 

The day I started this month's col- 
umn, I received an E-mail letter with 
WizPro attached from author Bill 
Brady. You won't believe your eyes. 
WizPro is not only the first 128K pro- 
gram for the Color Computer 3 — it's 
the first extendable communications 
program for the CoCo 3. Digest that 
thought for a while, and I'll be back to 
tell you more about this fantastic prod- 
uct next month. Until then, keep on 
hacking.' □ 



The listing: Gfx3 


PROCEDURE 


gfx3 


0000 


(* Add Basic09 functions to use Windlnt functionality 


0035 


(* Syntax: run gfx3([path, ]"Action" .params) 


0060 




0061 


PARAM path: BYTE 


0068 


PARAM action:STRING[12] 


0074 


PARAM one , two , three , four : INTEGER 


0087 




0088 


TYPE Registers-cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x,y ,u:INTEGER 


00AD 


DIM Regs: Registers 


00B6 




00B7 


DIM T_Icpt,F_Sleep:BYTE 


00C2 


DIM I Getstt.SS MnSel:BYTE 


00CD 


DIM I_SetStt , SS_MsSig , Stdln , SS_GIP , SS_Mouse : BYTE 


00E4 


DIM ss_sbar ,ss_wnset ,ss umbar.gs mouse: BYTE 


00F7 


DIM gs_opt , ss_ssig , ss_rel , ss_scsiz ,gs_palt : BYTE 


010E 


DIM gs kysns.ss styp.ss fbrg.ss mtyp:BYTE 


0121 


DIM MouseSig, Follow: INTEGER 


012C 


DIM Grp_Ptr , Ptr_Arr : BYTE 


0137 




0138 


Grp_Ptr:-202 


013F 


Ptr_Arr : -1 


0146 


F_Icpt:-$09 


014E 


F_Sleep:-$0A 


0156 


I_Getstt :-S8D 


015E 


I_SetStt:-$8E 




0166 


SS_MsSig:-$8A 




016E 


SS MnSel:-S87 




0176 


SS_GIP:-$94 


017E 


SS~Mouse:-S89 


0186 


ss_sbar :-$88 


018E 


ss_wnset :-S86 


0196 


ss_umbar : — S95 


019E 


gs_opt:-S00 


01A6 


ss_ssig:-$lA 


01AE 


ss_rel:«SlB 


01B6 


ss_scsiz :-$26 


01BE 


gs_palt:-$91 


01C6 


gs_kysns:-S27 


01CE 


ss_styp:-$93 


01D6 


ss_fbrg:-$96 


01DE 


ss mtyp:-$92 


01E6 


FolLow:-l 


01ED 


MouseSig:-10 


01F4 




01F5 


DIM EndStr: STRING [1] 


0201 


DIM Null. CallCode.FunCode: BYTE 


0210 


NulL:-0 


0217 


EndStr :-CHR$ (Null) 


0220 


StdOut:-l \StdIn:-0 


022F 




0230 


(* End definitions 


0242 




0243 




0244 




0245 


IF LEFTS (action, 1)-" " THEN G0SUB 10000 


0258 


ON act GOSUB 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000, 6Q00, 7000, 8000, 9000 


0284 


END 


0286 


ENDIF 


0288 




0289 


IF action-"ss.sbar" THEN act:-100 


02A3 


ELSE IF action-"ss.wnset" THEN act:-200 


02C1 


ELSE IF action-"ss.umbar'' THEN act:-300 


02E0 


ELSE IF action-"ss .mnsel" THEN act:-400 


02FF 


ELSE IF action-"ss.msig" THEN act:-500 


031D 


ELSE IF action-"ss.mous" THEN act:-600 


033B 


ELSE IF action-"gs.mous" THEN act:-700 


0359 


ELSE IF action-"ss.gip" THEN act:-800 


0376 


ENDIF 


0378 


ENDIF 


037A 


ENDIF 


037C 


ENDIF 


037E 


ENDIF 



186 



THE RAINBOW August 1988 



0380 




ENDIF 


0382 




ENDIF 


0384 




ENDIF 


0386 






0387 




ON act GOSDB 100,200,300,400,500,600,700,800 


03AF 




END 


03B1 






03B2 


100 


CallCode : -I_SetStt 


03BD 




Regs . a :-path 


03C9 




Regs.b:-ss_sbar 


03D5 




Regs. i : -one \(* contains horiz position 


03FB 




Regs.y:-two \(* contains vertical postion 


0423 




RETURN 


0425 






0426 


200 


CallCode :-I_SetStt \(* Set Status Code 


0443 




Regs .a:-path 


044F 




Regs .b:-ss_wnset 


045B 




Regs.x:-one \(* address of window structure 


0485 




Regs.y:-two \(* window type code 


04A4 




RUN SysCall (CallCode, Regs) 


04B3 




RETURN 


04B5 






04B6 


300 


CallCode :-I_SetStt \(* Set Status Code 


04D3 




Regs. a: -path 


04DF 




Regs.b:-ss umbar 


04EB 




RETURN 


04ED 






04EE 


400 


Regs .a:-path 


04FD 




Regs.b:-SS_MnSel 


0509 




CallCode : -I_Getstt 


05X1 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 


0520 




one:-Regs.a \(* contains Menu ID Number 


0545 




two:-Regs.b \(* contains Menu Item Number 


056C 




RETURN 


056E 






056F 


500 


Regs .a :— path 


057E 




Regs.b:-SS_MsSig 


058A 




Regs.x:-one \(* contains requested signal code 


05B7 




CallCode: -I SetStt 


05BF 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 


05CE 




RETURN 


05D0 






05D1 


600 


Regs . a : -path 


05E0 




Regs.b:-SS_Mouse 


05EC 




Regs. x: -one \(* Update / timeout info 


0610 




Regs.y:-two \(* Follow-1, NoFollow-0 


0633 




CallCode: -I SetStt 


063B 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 


064A 




RETURN 


064C 






064D 


700 


Regs. a: -path 


065C 




Regs.b:-SS_Mouse 


0668 




Regs. x: -one \(* address of mouse packet 


068E 




CallCode :-I_Getstt 


0696 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 


06A5 




one: -Regs .x \(* address of mouse packet 


06CA 




RETURN 


06CC 






06CD 


800 


Regs .a: -path 


06DC 




Regs.b:-SS_GIP 


06E8 




Regs.x:-one \(* Resolution, Port Location 


0710 




Regs.y:-two \(* Repeat start, repeat delay 


0739 




CallCode :-I_SetStt 


0741 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 


0750 




RETURN 


0752 






0753 


100C 


CallCode : -I_Getstt 


075E 




Regs .a:— path 


076A 




Regs . b : -gs_opt 


0776 




Regs. x: -one \(* packet address of options 


079E 




RUN SysCall(CallCode.Regs) 


07AD 




RETURN 


07AF 






07B0 


2000 CallCode:-I_SetStt 


07BB 




Regs . a : -path 



Submitting 

Material 
To Rainbow 



Contributions to the rainbow 
are welcome from everyone. We 
like to run a variety of programs 
that are useful/helpful/fun for 
other CoCo owners. 

WHAT TO WRITE: We are inter- 
ested in what you may wish to tell 
our readers. We accept for consid- 
eration anything that is well- 
written and has a practical appli- 
cation for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. If it interests you, it will 
probably interest lots of others. 
However, we vastly prefer articles 
with accompanying programs 
which can be entered and run. The 
more unique the idea, the more the 
appeal. Wehaveacontinuing need 
for short articles with short list- 
ings. These are especially appeal- 
ing to our many beginners. 

FORMAT: Program submis- 
sions must be on tape or disk, and 
it is best to make several saves, at 
least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have 
time to key in programs and debug 
our typing errors. All programs 
should be supported by some ed- 
itorial commentary explaining 
how the program works. We also 
prefer that editorial copy be in- 
cluded on the tape or disk using 
any of the word processors cur- 
rently available for the Color Com- 
puter. Also, please include a 
double-spaced printout of your 
editorial material and program 
listing. Do not send text in all 
capital letters; use upper- and 
lowercase. 

COMPENSATION: We do pay 
for submissions, based on a 
number of criteria. Those wishing 
remuneration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who 
wish more detailed information on 
making submissions, please send 
a self-addressed, stamped enve- 
lope (SASE) to: Submission 
Guidelines, the rainbow, The Fal- 
soft Building, P.O. Box 385, Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit material 
currently submitted to another 
publication. 



August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



187 



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the rainbow is a vital resource to be referred to 
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These attractive red vinyl binders showcase your 
collection and ensure your rainbows are in mint 
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bossed with the magazine's name in gold on the front 
and spine. They make a handsome addition to any 
room. 

Put an End to Clutter 

Organize your workspace with these tasteful bind- 
ers. Spend more time with your CoCo and eliminate 
those frustrating searches for misplaced magazines. 

A set of two binders, which holds a full 12 issues of 
the rainbow, is only $13.50 (plus $2.50 shipping and 
handling). 

Special Discounts on Past Issues 

To help you complete your collection of the rain- 
bow, we're offering a special discount on past issues 

of the magazine. 

When you place an order for six or more back issues 
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you are entitled to $1 off the regular back issue price. 
To order, please see the "Back Issue Information" 
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Know Where to Look 

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All other inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 



07C7 




Regs.b:-ss_ssig 




07D3 




Regs.x:-one \(* contains requested signal code 




0800 




RUN SysCall(CallCode.Regs) 




080F 




RETURN 




0811 








0812 


3000 


CallCode : -I_SetStt 




081D 




Regs . a : -path 




0829 




Regs.b:-ss_rel 




0835 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 




0844 




RETURN 




0846 








0847 


4000 


CallCode : -I_SetStt 




0852 




Regs. a: -path 




085E 




Regs.b:-ss scsiz 




086A 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 




0879 




one:— Regs. x \(* contains number of columns 




08A1 




two: -Regs. y \(* contains number of rows 




08C6 




RETURN 




08C8 








08C9 


5000 


CallCode :-I_Getstt 




08D4 




Regs .a:-path 




08E0 




Regs . b : -gs_palt 




08EC 




RUN SysCall(CallCode.Regs) 




08FB 




RETURN 




08FD 








08FE 


6000 


CallCode :-I_Getstt 




0909 




Regs .a:-path 




0915 




Regs.b:-gs kysns 




0921 




RUN SysCall(CallCode,Regs) 




0930 




one: -Regs. a \(* contains keyboard scan info 




0959 




RETURN 




095B 








095C 


7000 


CallCode :-I_Getstt 




0967 




Regs .a:-path 




0973 




Regs .b:-ss_styp 




097F 




RUN SysCall(CallCode.Regs) 




098E 




one: -Regs. a \(* contains screen type code 




09B5 




RETURN 




09B7 








09B8 


8000 


CallCode :-I_Getstt 




09C3 




Regs .a:-path 




09CF 




Regs.b:-ss_fbrg 




09DB 




RUN SysCalK CallCode, Regs) 




09EA 




one: -Regs. a \(* contains foreground palette reg. no. 




0A1C 




two:-Regs.b \(* contains background palette reg. no. 




0A4E 




three.'-Regs .x \(* least sig. byte of border palette no. 




0A81 




RETURN 




0A83 








0A84 


9000 


CallCode : -I_SetStt 




0A8F 




Regs . a:-path 




0A9B 




Regs.b:-ss_mtyp 




0AA7 




Regs.x:-one \(* contains monitor type 




OACB 




RUN SysCall(CallCode.Regs) 




OADA 




RETURN 




OADC 








OADD 


10000 IF action-"_gs_opt" THEN act: -1000 




OAFB 




ELSE IF action-"_ss_ssig" THEN act:-2000 




0B1A 




ELSE IF action-"_ss_rel" THEN act: -3000 




0B38 




ELSE IF action-"_ss_scsiz" THEN act:-4000 




0B58 




ELSE IF action-"_gs_palt" THEN act: -5000 




0B77 




ELSE IF action-"_mgpb" THEN act: -6000 




0B93 




ELSE IF action-"_styp" THEN act: -7000 




OBAF 




ELSE IF action-"_fbrg" THEN act: -8000 




OBCB 




ELSE IF action-"_mtyp" THEN act: -9000 




0BE7 




END IF 




0BE9 




ENDIF 




OBEB 




ENDIF 




OBED 




ENDIF 




OBEF 




ENDIF 




0BF1 




ENDIF 




0BF3 




ENDIF 




0BF5 




ENDIF 




0BF7 




ENDIF 




0BF9 




RETURN 




OBFB 






/R\ 



About 

Your 

Subscription 



Your copy of the rainbow is 
sent second class mail. You 
must notify us of a new address 
when you move. Notification 
should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to 
the month in which you change 
youraddress. Sorry, we cannot 
be responsible for sending 
another copy when you fail to 
notify us. 

Your mailing label also 
shows an account number and 
the subscription expiration 
date. Please indicate this ac- 
count number when renewing 
or corresponding with us. It 
will help us help you better and 
faster. 

For Canadian and other non- 
U.S. subscribers, there may be 
a mailing address shown that is 
different from our editorial of- 
fice address. Do not send any 
correspondence to that mail- 
ing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at Falsoft, Inc., 
The Falsoft Building, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. This 
applies to everyone except 
those whose subscriptions are 
through our distributor in Aus- 
tralia. 




August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



189 



The retail stores listed below carry THE RAINBOW on a regular basis and 
may have other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We 
suggest you patronize those in your area. 



ALABAMA 




Birmingham 


Jefferson News Co. 


Btewton 


McDowell Electronics 


Florence 


Anderson News Co. 


Greenville 


M & B Electronics 


Madison 


Madison Books 


Montgomery 


Trade 'N' Books 


Tuscaloosa 


ln|un John's. Inc 


ALASKA 




Fairbanks 


Arrow Appliance/Radio Shack 




Electronic World 


ARIZONA 




Cottonwood 


A &W Graphics Co. 


Lake Havasu 




City 


Book Nook 


Phoenix 


TRI-TEK Computers 


Tempe 


Books. Etc. 




Computer Library 


Tucson 


Anderson News Co. 


ARKANSAS 




Fayerteyllle 


Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 


Ft. Smith 


Hot OR the Press Newsstand 


Utile Rock 


Anderson News Co. 


CALIFORNIA 




Berkeley 


Lyon Enterprises 


Citrus Heights 


Software Plus 


Grass Valley 


Advance Radio, Inc. 


Hollywood 


Levity Distributors 




Stef-Jen. Inc. 


La Jolla 


Butler & Mayes Booksellers 


Los Angeles 


Circus of Books (2 Locations) 


Maiysville 


Bookland 


Napa 


Bookends Bookstore 


Oakland 


Delauer's News Agency 


Rancho 




Murieta 


Software Plus 


Sacramento 


Deibert's Readerama 




Tower Magazine 


San Francisco 


Booksmlth 




Bookworks 




Castro Kiosk 


Santa Monica 


Midnight Special Bookstore 


San Jose 


Computer Literacy Bookshops 


Santa Rosa 


Sawyer's News. Inc. 


Stockton 


Harding Way News 




Paperbacks Unlimited 


Sunnyvale 


Computer Literacy 


Torrance 


El Camino College Bookstore 


COLORADO 




Aurora 


Aurora Newsstand 


Colorado 




Springs 


Hathaway's 


Denver 


News Gallery 


Glenwood 




Springs 


The Book Train 


Grand 




Junction 


Readmore Book & Magazine 


Longmont 


City Newsstand 


DELAWARE 




Middlelown 


Delmar Co. 


Newark 


Newark Newsstand 


Wilmington 


Normar. Inc.— The Smoke Shop 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 


Washington, 




DC 


Chronichles 




News Room 




World News. Inc. 


FLORIDA 




Boca Raton 


Great American Book Co. 


Clearwater 


The Avid Reader 


Cocoa 


The Open Door 


Dania 


Dania News & Books 


Davie 


Software Plus More 


Ft. Lauderdale 


Bob's News & Book-Store 




Clarks Out of Town News 




Mike's Electronics Distributor 


Gainesville 


Paper Chase 


Jacksonville 


Book Co. 


North Miami 




Beach 


Almar Bookstore 


Panama City 


Boyd-Ebert Corp. 


Pensacola 


Anderson News Co. 


Pinellas Park 


Wolf's Newsstand 


South 




Pasadena 


Poling Place Bookstore 


Starke 


Record Junction. Inc. 




Radio Shack Dealer 


Sunrise 


Sunn/s at Sunset 


Tallahassee 


Anderson News Co. 




DuBe/s News Center 


Titusvllle 


Computrac 


190 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



GEORGIA 




MASSACHUSETTS (cont'd) 


Atlanta 
Bremen 
Forest Park 


Border's 

Bremen Electronics/Radio Shack 

Ellers News Center 


Ipswich 
Littleton 
Lynn 
Swansea 


Ipswich News 
Computer Plus 
North Shore News Co. 


Jesup 
Thomasvllle 


Radio Shack 
Smokehouse Newsstand 


Newsbreak. Inc. 


Toccoa 


Martin Music Radio Shack 


MICHIGAN 








Allen Park 


Book Nook, Inc. 


IDAHO 




Birmingham 


Border's Book Shop 


Boise 


Book Shelf. Inc. 


Durand 


Robblns Electronics 


Moscow 


Johnson News Agency 


E. Detroit 


Merit Book Center 






Harrison 


Harrison Radio Shack 


ILLINOIS 




Hillsdale 


Electronics Express/Radio Shack 


Belleville 


Software or Systems 


Holland 


Fris News Company 


Champaign 


Bookmark 


Lowell 


Lowell Electronics 


Chicago 


B. Dalton Booksellers 


Muskegon 


The Eight Bit Comer 


Decalur 


Book Emporium 


Niles 


Michiana News Service 




K-Mort Plaza 


Perry 


Perry Computers 




Northgate Mall 


RrveMew 


Rivervlew Book Store 


East Mollne 


Book Emporium 


Roseville 


New Horizons Book Shop 


Evanston 


Norris Center Bookstore 


MINNESOTA 

Burnsville 




Kewanee 


Book Emporium 


Shlnder's Burnsville 


Lisle 

Lombard 

Newton 

Paris 

Peoria 

Springfield 


Book Nook 
Empire Periodicals 
Bill's TV Radio Shack 
Book Emporium 
Book Emporium 

Sheridan Village 

Wesllake Shopping Center 
Illinois News Service 
Book Emporium 

Sangamon Center North 


Crystal 

Edlna 

Minneapolis 

Minnetonka 

Roseville 

SI. Paul 

Willmar 


Shlnder's Crystal Gallery 
Shlnder's Leisure Lane 
Shlnder's (2 Locations) 
Shlnder's Ridge Square 
Shlnder's Roseville 
Shlnder's Annex 
Shlnder's Maplewood 
Shlnder's St. Pauls 
The Photo Shop 




Town & Country Shopping Ctr. 


MISSOURI 




Sunnyland 


Book Emporium 


Farmlngton 


Ray's TV & Radio Shack 


West Frankfort 


Paper Place 


Flat River 


Ray's TV & Radio Shack 


Wheeling 


North Shore Distributors 


Florissant 


Book Brokers Unlimited 






Jefferson City 


Cowley Distributing 


INDIANA 




Klrksvllle 


T&R Electronics 


Angola 


D & D Electronics 


St. Louis 


Book Emporium 




Radio Shack 


St. Robert 


Bailey's TV & Radio 


Berne 


White Cottage Electronics 


MONTANA 




Btoomlnglon 


Book Coiner 


Butte 


Plaza Books 


Columbus 


Micro Computer Systems. Inc. 






Crawfordsville 


Koch's Books 


NEBRASKA 




Dyer 


Miles Books 


Uncoln 


Nebraska Bookstore 


Franklin 


Gallery Book Shop 


Omaha 


Nelson News 


Ft. Wayne 


Michiana News Service 


NEVADA 




Garrett 


Rnn News Agency. Inc, 


Carson City 


Book cellar 


Indianapolis 


Bookland. Inc. 
Borders Bookshop 
Delmar News 


Las Vegas 


Hurley Electronics 
Steve's Books & Magazines 




Indiana News 


NEW HAMPSHIRE 






Southside News 


Keene 


Radio Shack Associate Store 


Lebanon 


Gallery Book Shop 


Manchester 


Bookwrlghts 


Martinsville 


Radio Shack 


West Lebanon 


Verham Mews Corp. 


Richmond 


Voyles News Agency. Inc. 


NEW JERSEY 




Wabash 


Mltting's Electronics 


Atlantic City 


Atlantic City News Agency 


IOWA 




Cedar Knolls 


Village Computer & Software 


Davenporl 


Interstate Book Store 


Clinton 


Micro Woild II 


Des Moines 


Thacker/s Books. Inc. 


Pennsville 


Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 


Fairfield 


Kramers Books & Gifts 


Rockaway 


Software Station 


KANSAS 




NEW MEXICO 




Hutchinson 


Crossroads, Inc 


Alamogordo 


New Horizons Computer Systems 


Topeka 


Palmer News. Inc. 


Albuquerque 


Page One Newsstand 




Town Crier of Topeka, Inc. 


Santa Fe 


Downtown Subscription 


Wellington 


Dandy's/Radio Shack Dealer 


NEW YORK 

Amherst 




Wichita 


Lloyd's Radio 


Village Green-Buffalo Books 


KENTUCKY 




Brockport 


Lift Bridge Book Shop, Inc. 


Hazard 


Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 


Brooklyn 


Cromland, Inc. 


Henderson 


Mart's News & Gifts 


Elmlra Heights 


Southern Tier News Co., Inc. 


Hopkinsville 


Hobby Shop 


Fredonla 


On Line: Computer Access Center 


Louisville 


Hawley-Cooke Booksellers (2 Locations) 


Hudson Falls 


G.A. West & Co. 


Middletown 


Software City 


Hunlington 


Oscars Bookshop 


Paducah 


Radio Shack 


Johnson City 


Unicorn Electronics 


1 At IIPI fcftlk 




New York 


Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 


LOUISIANA 
Balon Rouge 


City News Stand 




Coliseum Books 

Eastern Newsstand 
Grand Central Station. Track 37 
200 Park Ave.. (Pan Am #1 ) 
55 Water Street 


Lock port 
New Orleans 
Monroe 


TV Doctor/Radio Shack 
Sidney's News Stand Uptown 
The Book Rack 




MAINE 






World Trade Center #2 


Bangor 


Magazines, Inc. 




First Slop News 


Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 




Idle Hours Bookstore 


Caribou 


Radio Shack 




International Smoke Shop 


Oxford 


Books-N-Thlngs 




Jonll Smoke 


Sanford 


Radio Shack 




PennBook 


MARYLAND 

College Park 


University Bookstore 




Software City 
State News 
Walden Books 


MASSACHUSETTS 






World Wide Media Services 


Boston 


Eastern Newsstand 


Pawling 


Universal Computer Service 


Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 


Rochester 


Village Green 


Cambridge 


Out Of Town News 




World Wide News 



NORTH CAROLINA 

Caiy 

Chapel Hill 

Charlotte 

Hickory 

Jacksonville 

Kemersvllle 

Marion 

Winston-Salem 



News Center in Cary Village 
University News & Sundry 
Newsstand Inf I 
C Books & Comics 
Mlchele's. Inc. 
K & S Newsstand 
Boomers Rhythm Center 
K 8: S Newsstand (3 Locations) 
Rainbow News Ltd. 



OHIO 

Akron 

Canton 

Chardon 

Cincinnati 

Cleveland 

Columbiana 

Columbus 



Dayton 



Dublin 
Falrbom 

Findley 

Kent 

Lakewcod 

Lima 

Mlamisburg 

Parma 

Toledo 

Warren 

Xenia 

Youngslown 



Churchill News & Tobacco 

Little Professor Book Center 

Thrasher Radio & TV 

Clnsott 

Erievlew News 

Fidelity Sound & Electronics 

B5 Software 

Micro Center 

The Newsstond 

Books & Co. 

Huber Heights Book & Cord 

Wilke News 

Wright News & Books 

Book Barn 

News-Readers 

Wllke's University Shoppe 

Open Book 

The News Shop 

Lakewood International News 

Edu-Caterers 

Wllke News 

Bookmark Newscenter 

Leo's Book & Wine Shop 

Book Nook, Inc. 

Fine Print Books 

Plaza Book & Smoke Shop 



OKLAHOMA 




Oklahoma 




City 


Merit Micro Software 


Taklequah 


Thomas Sales. Inc. dba Radio Shack 


Tulsa 


Steve's Book Store 


OREGON 




Eugene 


Libra Books — Book Mark 


Portland 


Fifth Avenue News 




Rich Cigar Store. Inc. 




Sixth & Washington News 


Salem 


Capitol News Center 




Checkmate Book 


PENNSYLVANIA 




Ailentown 


Owl Services 


Altoona 


Newborn Enterprises 


Bryn Mawr 


Bryn Mawr News 


Cony 


Cony Books & Cards 


Danville 


Mclndoe's Stationery & Radio Shock 


Feaslerville 


Global Books 


King of Prussia 


Gene's Books 


Malvern 


Personal Software 


Reading 


Smith's News & Card Center 


Temple 


Software Comer 


West Chester 


Chester County Book Co. 


Wind Gap 


Micro World 


York 


The Computer Center of York 




Tollgote Bookstore 


RHODE ISLAND 




Newport 


Bellevue News 


SOUTH CAROLINA 


Charleston Hts. 


Software Haus, Inc. 


Clemson 


Clemson Newsstand 


Florence 


Ray's #1 


Greenville 


Palmetto News Co, 


Spartanburg 


Software City 


TENNESSEE 




Brentwood 


Bookworld #5 


Chattanooga 


Anderson News Co 




Guild Books & Periodicals 


Dickson 


Highland Electronics 


Knoxville 


Anderson News Co 




Davis-KIdd Bookseller 


Memphis 


Computer Center 


Nashville 


Davis-KIdd Booksellers 




Mosko's Place 




R.M. Mills Bookstore 


Smyrna 


Delker Electronics 


TEXAS 




Big Spring 


Poncho's News 


Desoto 


Maxwell Books 


Elgin 


The Homing Pigeon 


Harllngton 


Book Mark 



UTAH 
Provo 

VIRGINIA 

Danville 

Hampton 

Norfolk 

Richmond 

WASHINGTON 

Port Angeles 
Seattle 

Tacoma 

WEST VIRGINIA 

Huntington 
Logan 
Madison 
Parkersburg 
South 
Charleston 

WISCONSIN 

Appleton 
Cudahy 
Kenosha 
Madison 

Milwaukee 
Waukesha 

ARGENTINA 

Cordoba 

AUSTRALIA 

Blaxland 
Kingsford 

CANADA: 
ALBERTA 

Banff 

Bonnyvllle 

Brooks 

Calgary 

Claresholm 

Drayton Valley 

Edmonton 

Edson 

Falrview 

Fox Creek 

Ft. Saskatche- 
wan 
Grande 

Cache 
Grande 

Centre 
Hlnton 
Innisfall 
Lecombe 
Leduc 
Lethbrldge 
Lloydmlnster 
Okotoks 
Peace River 

SI. Paul 

Stettler 

Strathmore 

Taber 

Westlock 

Wetaskiwin 



Valley Book Center 

K & S Newsstand 

Benders 

l-O Computers 

Turn The Poge 

Volume I Bookstore 

Port Book & News 
Adams News Co,. Inc. 
Bulldog News 
B & I Magazines & Books 
Nybbles 'N Bytes 

Nick's News 

Stan's Eleclronics & Radio Shock 
Communications, LTD 
Valley News Service 

Spring Hill News 

Badger Periodicals 
Cudahy News & Hobby 
R.K. News. Inc. 
Pic A Book 
University Bookstore 
Juneau Village Reader 
Holt Variety 



Information Telecommunicationes 

Blaxland Computers 
Paris Radio Electronics 



Banff Radio Shack 
Paul Tercler 

Double "D" A.S.C. Radio Shack 
Billy's News 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 
Langard Electronics 
CMD Micro 
Radio Shack, asd 
D.N.R. Furniture & TV 
Fox City Color & Sound 
AS.C Radio Shack 

Ft. Mall Radio Shack. ASC 

The Stereo Hut 

The Book Nook 

Jim Cooper 

L & S Stereo 

Brian's Eleclronics 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 

Datatron 

Lloyd Radio Shack 

Okotoks Radio Shack 

Radio Shack Associated Stores 

Tavener Software 

Walter's Electronics 

Stettler Radio Shack 

Wheatland Electronics 

Pynewood Sight & Sound 

Westlock Stereo 

Radio Shack 



BRITISH COLUMBIA (conl'd) 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 
Burnaby Compullt 

Burns Lake VT. Video Works 

Campbell 

River TRS Electronics 

Chllllwack Charles Parker 



Coquitlam 


Cody Books LTD 


Coortenay 


Rick's Music & Stereo 


Dawson Creek 


Bell Radio & TV 


Golden 


Taks Home Furnishings 


Kelowna 


Telesoft Marketing 


Lang ley 


Langley Radio Shack 


Nelson 


Oliver's Books 


New West- 




minster 


Cody Books LTD 


Parksvllle 


Porksville TV 


Penticton 


DJ.'s 




Four Corner Grocery 


Sidney 


Sidney Electronics 


Smithers 


Wall's Home Furniture 


Squamish 


Kotyk Electronics 


Vancouver 


Active Components 




Friendtyware Computers 




Granville Book Co. 




Slliconnections Books LTD 


100 Mile 




House 


Tip Top Radio & TV 


MANITOBA 




Altona 


LAWiebrLtd. 


Lundar 


Goranson Elec. 


Morden 


Central Sound 


The Pas 


Jodl's Sight & Sound 


Selkirk 


G.L Enns Elec. 


Virden 


Archer Enterprises 


Winnipeg 


J & J Electronics Ltd. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 




Moncton 


Jeftries Enterprises 


Sussex 


Dewitt Elec. 


NEWFOUNDLAND 


I 


Botwood 


Seaport Elec. 


Carbonear 


Slade Realties 


NOVA SCOTIA 




Halifax 


Atlantic News 


ONTARIO 




Angus 


Micro Computer Services 


Aurora 


Compu Vision 


Concord 


Ingram Software 


Exceter 


J. Macleane & Sons 


Hanover 


Modern Appliance Centre 


Huntsvllle 


Huntsville Elec. 


Kenora 


Donny "B" 


Kingston 


T.M. Computers 


Listowel 


Modern Appliance Centre 


South River 


Max TV 




Dennis TV 


Toronto 


Goidon and Gotch 


QUEBEC 




LaSalle 


Messogeries de Presse Benja 


Pont. Rouge 


Boutique Bruno Laroche 


VllleSI Gabriel 


Gilles Comeau Enr/Radlo Sr\ 


SASKATCHEWAN 




Assinlboia 


Telstar News 


Estevan 


Kotyk Electronics 


Moose Jaw 


D&S Computer Place 


Nlpiwan 


Cornerstone Sound 


Regina 


Regina CoCo Club 




Software Supermarket 


Saskatoon 


Everybody's Software Library 


Shellbrooke 


Gee Laberge Radio Shack 


Tlsdale 


Paul's Service 


Unity 


Grant's House of Sound 


YUKON 




Whitehorse 


H&O Holdings 


JAPAN 




Tokyo 


America Ado. Inc. 



PUERTO RICO 

San Juan Software City 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and 
selected Coles and W.H. Smith in Canada, 
Waldenbooks, Pickwick Books, Encore Books, 
Barnes & Noble, Little Professors, Tower Book & 
Records, Kroch's & Brentano's, and Community 
Newscenters. 

August 1988 THE RAINBOW 



191 



Advertisers Index 



We encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the Tandy Color 
Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning THE rainbow when you contact these firms. 



4-TECHS 129 

Adventure Novel 67 

After Five Software 1 43 

Alpha Products 21 

Bob's Software 45 

Burke & Burke 161 

Cer-Comp 122, 123 

Cinsoft 39 

CoCo Cat Anti-Drug 12 

CocoTech 41 

Codis Enterprises 81 

Cognitec 29 

Colorware 18, 19, 22, 23 

Computer Center 93 

Computer Island 69 

Computer Plus 3 

D.P. Johnson 179 

DATAMATCH, INC 75 

Dayton Associates of 

W. R. Hall, Inc 130, 131 

Delphi 118, 119 

Diecom IFC 

Disto/CRC 113 

Dr. Preble's Programs IBC 

E-Z Friendly Software 177 

Easy Street Data Systems 171 

Federal Hill 101 

FoxWare 95 

Frank Hogg Laboratory 46, 47 

GEnie 43 

Gimmesoft 61 

Granite Computer Systems 45 

Hard Drive Specialist 1 55 

Hawkes Research 

Services 101 

HawkSoft, Inc 49 

Howard Medical 66, 94 

J & R Electronics 97 

Metric Industries 55 

Micro Works, The 63 

Microcom Software 9, 11, 13, 15, 17 
Microtech Consultants 

Inc 181 

MicroWorld 57 

NRI Schools 99 

Owl-Ware 145, 146, 147 

192 THE RAINBOW August 1988 



Performance Peripherals 121 

Perry Computers 111 

Public Domain 73 

PXE Computing 7 

Rainbow Binder 188 

Rainbowfest 50, 51 

Rainbow Introductory Guide 

to Statistics 74 

Rainbow on Tape and Disk 52 

RAM Electronics 81 

RTB Software 129 

Rulaford Research 149 

Sardis Technologies 173 

SD Enterprises 25 



Call: 
Belinda Kirby 

Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4497 



□ Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4492 



Second City Software 193 

SpectroSystems 75 

SPORTSWARE 95 

Sugar Software 164 

Sundog Systems 27 

T & D Software 30,31, 135 

Tandy/Radio Shack BC 

Tepco 185 

Three C's Projects 169 

True Data Products 174, 175 

Vidicom Corporation 177 

Wasatchware 49 

Woodstown Electronics 39 

Zebra Systems 65 




Second City Software 

'your FIRST choice for CoCo software...' 



P.O.Box72956 Roselle, IL 60172 
Order: 312-653-5610 BBS: 312-307-1519 



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HOWARD MEDICAL COMPUTERS 

1690 N. Elston • Chicago, IL 60622 • orders (800) 443-1444* inquiries and order status (312) 278-1440 



* 5 STAR FINAL 



AUGUST '88 



CLEAR 



HD-1 Sale Ends 9/3 



DC-5 CONTROLLER 

from Hard Drive Specialist gives 
great Radio Shack compatability 
and double sided access to DSDD 
Drives like Howard's DD-3. Two 
ROM sockets, one 24 pin and one 
28 pin allows use of RS 1.1 ROM 
by jumper selection. Gold plated 
contacts reduce I/O Errors. 
$75 ($2 Shipping) 




RS DOS ROM CHIP 

ROM chip fits inside disk controller. 
24 pin fits bothJ&M and RS controller 
Release LL For CoCo 3 Compatibility. 
$ 25 each Reg. $40 ($2 shipping) 
NEW FROM DISTO *129 DC6 
($2 Stripping) Super Controller II 
works with CoCo \ 2 & 3. It buffers 
keyboard input so that no keystrokes 



are lost when disk is reading or writ- 
ing. Especially useful with OS-9, but 
also works with BASIC. 

MONITOR 

Sony KV-1311CR *499 

Regular $625 ($15 shipping) 

• Vivid Color • Vertically flat 13" 
screen • Monitor/Trinitron TV with 
remote control • 640 x 240 reso- 
lution at 15MHZ .37 mm Dot pitch 

• RGB analog & digital; TTL; and 
composite inputs • VCR inputs 

• Cable to CoCo 3 $36 




WORD PACK RS s 49 

CoCo Max $ 78' 5 
Basic Screen Editor s 19 95 
MYDOS *15 
Payrol/BAS »29 95 
VIP Library $ 125 
VIP Writer «65 



"Guarantee" As good as Gold. 



Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty 
of dealing with a company through 
the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try it out; test it for compat- 
ibility. If you're not happy with it for 



any reason, return it in 30 days and 
we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) Shipping charges are for 
48 states. APO, Canada and Puerto 
Rico orders are higher. 







Hard Drive— Ready to Run! 

20,000,000 Bytes or the equivalent to a 
125 R.S. SOL'S on line are packed into 
this hard drive, pre installed and ready 
to run. All you need to do is plug it in 
and go! This complete easy to use 
package includes a Seagate 20 Meg 
Hard Drive, a Western Digital WD 
1002-WX 1 Controller and interface 
that plugs into slot #3 of multipack 
interface, plus the case & power supply. 
You even get a 1 year warranty. This 20 
meg Hard Drive will work with IBM & 
clone. Basic driver, $49.95, lets you 
access this hard drive without need for 
OS-9. Howard's low price is aimed to 
get as many units as possible into the 
hands of "evaluators" to spread the 
word on it's quality. 

HD-1 $499 ($9 Shipping) 

Sale ends September 3 



hotline 
number 

D0NT MISS OUT, ORDER TODAY! 
800 / 443-1444 





Dear Friends, 

Thank you 1988 marks our 
fifth year of providing quality 
software for ttie Color computer 
Only your support has made it 
possible So, from, our hearts. Peg 
and I thank you And remember our 
promise --If you buy it from U3, we 
support it If you are unhappy for 
any reason. 3end it back for a full 
refund within 30 day3 of purchase 



Pyramix 



This facinating CoCo 3 game 
continues to be on* of our best- 
sellers Pyramix is 100% machine 
language written exclusively to take 
advantage of all the power in your 
128K CoCo 3 The Colors are 
brilliant, the graphics sharp, the 
action fast Written by Jordon 
T3vetkoff and a product of Color - 
Venture. 

The Freedom Series 
Vocal Freedom 

I've got to admit, this 13 one 
nifty computer program Vocal 
Freedom turiu your computer into a 
digital voice or sound recorder. 
The optional Hackers PaC lets 
you incorporate voice3 or 30unda 
that you record into your own 
BASIC or ML programs Thi3 13 not 
a synthesizer Sounds are digitized 
directly into computer memory 30 
tliat voices or sound effects sound 
very natural One "off-the-shelf " 
application for Vocal Freedom is an 
automatic message -minder Record 
a message for your family into 
memory. Set Vocal Freedom on 
automatic. When Vocal Freedom 
"hears" any noise in the room, it 



IBr. ifethle'* $TO0rant0 



l ift fa 



For Color Computer Software 
Since 1383 



plays the pre-recorded message! 
Disk operations are supported VF 
also tests memory to take advantage 
of from 64K up to a full 51 2K Re- 
quires low cost amplifiler (RS cat. 
"277-1008) 3nd 3ny microphone 

Mental Freedom 

Would your fnend3 be impressed 
if youi computer could re3d their 
minds? Mental Freedom U3e3 the 
techniques of Biofeedback to 
control video game action on the 
3creen. Telekinesis Ye3. you con- 
trol the action with your thoughts 
and emotions And. oh ye3, it t3lk3 
in a perfectly natural voice without 
using 3 speech synthesizer 1 
Requires Radio Shack'3 low cost 
Biofeedback monitor. Cat «*63~6?5 

BASIC Freedom 

Do you ever type in BASIC 
programs- -manually, I mean. If you 
do, you know it can be a real chore. 
Ba3ic Freedom changes all th3t It 
gives you a full screen editor ju3t 
like 3 word processor, but for 
BASIC programs Once loaded in. it 
13 aiway3 on-line It hides invis- 
ibly until you call it forth with a 
3ingle keypress 1 This program 13 a 
must for programed or anyone who 
type3 in programs. By Chri3 
Babcock and a product of Color - 
Venture. 

Lightning Series 

The3e three utilities give real 
power to your CoCo 3 

Ramdisk Lightning 

This is the best Ramdi3k 
available. It let3 you have up to 4 
mechanical di3k drives and 2 Ram 
dnve3 on-line and 13 fully compat- 
ible with our printer spooler below. 

Printer Lightning 

Load it and forget it --except for 
the versatility it give3 you Never 
wait for your printer again 1 Printer 
runa at high 3peed while you 
continue to work at the keyboard! 

Backup Lightning 

This utility requires 51 2K Reads 
your master di3k once and then 



m3ke3 3uperfast multiple dt3k 
backup3 on all your dirves 1 No 
need to format blank disk3 fir3t! 
Supports 35. 40 or 80 track drives. 

Prices 
CoCo 3 only 

Ram Disk Lightning, Disk ..$1995 

Printer Lightning Di3k $19 95 

Backup Lightning, Disk $1995 

All three. Disk $4995 

Pyramix, Di3k $24. 95 

CoCo 1,2, or 3 

Vocal Freedom. Di3k $34.95 

Vocal Freedom Hackers Pac . $14. 9 5 

CoCo 2 or 3 only 

Mental Freedom Di3k $24 95 

Basic Freedom. Di3k $24 95 

CoCo 1 or 2 only 

VDOS. The Undi3k, r3mdi3k for the 
CoCo 1 or 2 only. Tape . ... $24 95 
VDUMP. backup Undisk files to 
single tape file. Tape $14 95 
VPRINT. Print Undisk directory. 
Tape $9 95 

Everyone 

Add $2.50 shipping/handling 
in USA or CANADA 
Add $5.00 to ship to other 
c o un tries 

Dr Preble s Programs 

6540 Outer Loop 
Louisville, KY 40228 



24 Hour Hot Line 
(502) 969-1610 



Visa, MC, COD, Check 




The Best in Color Computer Software 



We've got the selection! 

At Radio Shack, we're dedicated 
to making sure that you never run 
out of ways to use and enjoy your 
Color Computer. We've got a ter- 
rific line of software of all types. 

Games for the whole family 

Let your Color Computer open 
the door to a world of fun and ad- 
venture. Choose from a dazzling 
selection of popular and challeng- 
ing games. 

Make learning fun 

One of the most valuable poten- 
tials of your Color Computer is in 
providing your children a head 
start in their education. We've got 



learning programs for children of 
all ages that will provide hours of 
productive fun! With this selec- 
tion, you'll find programs that help 
develop hundreds of useful skills. 

Boost your productivity 

No matter what your personal 
needs, we've got programs that'll 
put your Color Computer to work 
where you need it most— like per- 
sonal filing, word processing, 
spreadsheets and communications. 

Need more suggestions? 

Send in the coupon for a free 
copy of our 1989 Software Refer- 
ence Guide. Radio Shack is your 
one-stop software center. 



Radio /haek 

The Technology Store™ 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 

Send me a new 1989 Software Guide. 

■ Mail to: Radio Shack, Oepl. B9-A-318 

300 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102 



Name. 



I 
I 
I 



Address _ 



Cily _ 
Slate . 
ZIP_