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Canada $4.95 U.S. $3.95 




THE COLOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 



Putting the Pieces Together 

A step-by-step guide to computing 
A glossary of computer terms 

Lessons in BASIC, OS-9 
and disk operation 

Programs to: 

Generate job descriptions 
Organize tax records 
Track appointments 



Be sm 



testa 



e# 




Plus: games, graphics 
new product reviews 
and two easy-to-build 

hardware projects 









.^^WB*s? 



SEE SACK COVER 

FOB OTHER DIECOM G/WES 



From Computer Plus to YOU . . . 



T 



after 



T 



after 





Tandy 1 400 LTS 1239 
Tandy 102 24K $379 
Tandy 200 24K $429" 



Color Computer 3 
W/128K Ext. Basic $115' 




Tandy 1000 HX $519* 
Tandy 1000 TX $859* 








Color ComDuter Disk Drive 
Drive $199* Drivel $149 




DMP-106 $169 



BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Tandy 1000 EX 1 Drive 256K 429.00" 

Tandy 1000 SX 1 Drive 384K 649.00 

Tandy 3000 HI 1 Drive 512K 899.00" 

Tandy 4000 1 Drive 1 Meg. Ram1959.00 
Color Computer 2 W/64K Ext. Basic 89.00 

PRINTERS 

Radio Shack DMP-106 80 CPS 169.00 

Radio Shack DMP-130A 120 CPS 229.00* 

Radio Shack DMP-430 180 CPS 559.00 
Radio Shack DWP-230 Daisy Wheel339.00 

Star Micronics NP-10 100 CPS 169.00 

Star Micronics NX-10 120 CPS 199.00 

Star Micronics NX-15 120 CPS 359.00 

Panasonic P-10801 120 CPS 189.00 

Panasonic P-109H 160 CPS 210.00 

Panasonic P-10921 240 CPS 349.00 

Okldata 182 120 CPS 229.00 

Okidata 192+ 200 CPS 339.00 

Okldata 292 240 CPS 489.00 

MODEMS 

Radio Shack DCM-6 52.00 

Radio Shack DCM-7 85.00 

Radio Shack DCM-212 179.00 



Practical Peripheral 1200 Baud 149.00 

CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 
SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 



COLOR COMPUTER MISC. 

Radio Shack Drive Controller 99.00 
Extended Basic Rom Kit 14.95 

64K Ram Upgrade Kil 39.00 

Radio Shack Deluxe Keyboard Kit 24.95 
HI-RES Joystick Interlace 8.95 

Color Computer Deluxe Mouse 44.00 
Multi Pak Interface 89.00 

Multi Pak Pal Chip lor COCO 3 14.95 
CM-8 6' Extension Cable 19.95 

Serial to Parallel Conv. 59.95 

Radio Shack Deluxe Joystick 26.95 

Magnavox 8515 RGB Monitor 329.00 
Radio Shack CM-8 RGB Monitor 249.00 
Radio Shack VM-4 Green Monitor 99.00 
PBJ 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 99.00 

Tandy 512K COCO 3 Upgrade 129.00 
Mark Data Universal Video Driver 29.95 
COLOR COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

TAPE DISK 
The Wild West (CoCo3) 25.95 

Worlds Ot Flight 34.95 34.95 

Mustang P-51 Flight Simul. 34.95 34.95 
Flight 16 Flight Simul. 34.95 34.95 

Nuke the Love Boat (CoCo3) 34.95 



The Magic of Zanth (CoCo3) 34.95 

Sam Sleuth Private Eye 24.95 27.95 

Color Max 3 (CoCo3) 59.95 

COCO Utll II by Mark Data 39.95 

COCO Max by Colorware 69.95 

COCO Max II by Colorware 

AutoTermbyPXEComputing29.95 

TelePatch III by Spectrum 

C III Graphics by Spectrum (CoCo3)19.95 

Font Bonanza by Spectrum (CoCo3)29.95 

TW-80 by Spectrum (CoCo3) 39.95 

Telewriter 64 49.95 59.95 

Elite Word 80 

Elite Calc 3.0 

CoCo3 512K Ram Disk by CerComp 

OS-9 Level II by Tandy 

Inside OS-9 Level II Book by FHL 

VIP Writer (disk only) 

VIP Integrated Library (disk) 



79.95 
39.95 
29.95 



79.95 
69.95 
19.95 
71.95 
39.95 
69.95 
149.95 



"Sale prices through 12/31/87 

Prices are subject to change without 
notice. Please call for shipping charges. 
Prices in our retail store may be higher. 
Send for complete catalog. 



com 



^2 ^^ft 




P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 




Tabl e of Cont e n ts 



January 1988 
Vol. VII No. 6 



F e atur e s 



20 

Starting from 
Scratch 

Lauren Willoughby 
Tips for the new Color 
Computer user 

31 

Urchins from the ^ 
Black Lagoon 

Eric Tilenius 

A last, fun game with a really 

bizarre scenario 

37 

BASIC ^ 
for Beginners 

David W. Ostler 

A tutorial of BASIC for the 

new programmer 




44 

The Clown ofa^ 

Hundred Faces 

Bill Bernico & George 

Aftamonow 

Create over 100 different 

funny faces 

58 

Usetown Annex -5> 

Paul French 

Build a city from scratch 

85 

A Glossary of 
Computer Terms 

Lee Veal 

Get a handle on computer 

jargon 

100 

Appointment fy 
Calendar 

William J. Holdorf 
A monthly planner for 
organizing your time 

106 * 

Finding the Right 'W 
Person for the Job 

Larry M. Paroubek 

A management utility for 

minimizing personnel costs 



112 

Preparing for ^ 
Uncle Sam 

Robert S. Schlottmann 
Keep tax records in order 

142 

Childproofing 
the Co Co 

Ray Onley 

An easy-to-build. keyboard- 
locking device 

156 

Stalking the Fire- 
Breathing Dragon 

Nancy Ewart 

Tips for the OS-9 beginner 

166 

OS-9 — 
Catch the Wave 

Cray Augsburg 
Help for OS-9 users 

171 

Solitaire Upgrade 

Tudor Jones 

A modification to the 

Solitaire game 



72 

From Scales to Mozart 

Gip Wayne Plaster 

73 

Laying It on the Line 

Keiran Kenny 

73 

Flying Machine 

John Musumeci 

74 

Co Co Cuddler 

Bernice Shoobs 

74 

Back to Square One 

Louis Martinez 

76 

Hit Me If You Can 

Chris Gleason 

78 

Color Creator 

Adam Breindel 

78 

Smooth Operator 

John Blochowiak 

80 

Monitor Adjustments 

Ken Ostrer 

80 

Happy (Un)Birthday! 

J.T. Smiley 

82 

Typing Skills 

Brent Dingle 

82 

/ Owe, I Owe 

Bill Bernico 

84 

Financial Planning 

Paul Ruby, Jr. 

106 




THE RAINBOW January 1988 



96 

BASIC Training 

Joseph Kolar 

The Kolar Progression 

16 

Building January's 
Rainbow 

Jutta Kapfhammer 
Managing Editor's notes 

149 

CoCo Consultations 

Marty Goodman 

Just what the doctor ordered 

152 

Doctor ASCII 

Richard Esposito 
The question fixer 



k£^ The cassette tape/disk sym- 
"~*w bols beside (eatures and col- 
umns indicate that the program listings 
with those articles are on this month's 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAIN- 
BOW on disk. Those with only the 
disk symbol are not available on 
rainbow on tape. For details, 
check the rainbow on tape and 
rainbow on disk ad on Page 94, 



180 

Barden's Buffer '--^ 

William Barden, Jr. 
Delving into the CoCo disk 

160 

KISSable OS-9 Q 

Dale L. Puckett 

Back at the drawing board 

176 

OS-9 Programming 4} 

Peter Dibble 

Screen dumping revisited 



54 

Education Notes 

Steve Blyn 

The first of a two-part series 

on estimating expenses 

12 

PRINT#-2, 

Lawrence C. Falk 
Editor's notes 

144 

Turn of the Screw 

Tony DiStefano 
Beginners — add an LED to 
your controller 

90 

Wishing Well ~> 

Fred Scerbo 
Recognizing sentence 
fragments 



Advertisers Index 192 

Back Issue 

Information 187 

CoCo Gallery 18 

Corrections 138 

Letters to Rainbow 6 

Maxwell Mouse 41 

One-Liner Contest 
Information 

Racksellers 



_173 
_190 
_ 10 



Rainbow Info 

Received & Certified 140 

Scoreboard 

Pointers 48 

Submitting Material 
to Rainbow 



Subscription Info. 



.172 
_ 16 



Artificial Learning FWe/High Altitude Software 
Auto Dim/Lucas Industries 



CoCo 3 Turbo RAM/Performance Peripherals. 



.130 
-139 
-130 



Financial Time Conversions/Promef/ieus Software 136 

Iron Cross/Compuferware 131 

Mickey's Space Adventure/S/erra On-Line 135 

RAM Disk/Specfrum 1 38 

Wizard's Den/ Tom Mix Software 129 

Zone Runner/Tandy Corporation 131 



THE RAINBOW Is published every monlh of the year by FALSOFT, Inc., The 
Fnlsoll Building, 9509 U.S. Highway 42. P.O. Box 385, Prospecl, KY 40059. 

Bhone (502) 228-4492. THE RAINBOW, RAINBOWIesI and THE RAINBOW and 
AINBOWfest logotypes are registered * trademarks ol FALSOFT, Inc. • 
Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and additional offices. USPS N. 705- 
050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). POSTMASTER: Send address changes to THE 
RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385. Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding Postage Guaranteed. 
Authorized as second class postage paid from Hamilton, Ontario by Canada 
Post. Ottawa. Ontario, Canada. • Entire contents copyright * by FALSOFT, Inc., 
1987. the rainbow Is intended for the private use and pleasure ol Its subscribers 
and purchasers and reproduction by any means is prohibited. Use of 
information herein is for the single end use of purchasers and any other use 
is expressly prohibited. All programs herein are distributed in an "as is" basis, 
without warranty of any kind whatsoever. • Tandy, Color BASIC, Extended Color 
BASIC and Program Pak are registered * trademarks of the Tandy Corp. • 
Subscriptions to THE RAINBOW are S31 per year in the United States. Canadian 
rates are U.S. $38. Surface mail to other countries is U.S. $68, air mail U.S. $1 03. 
All subscriptions begin with next available issue. • Limited back issues are 
available. Please see notice for issues that are in print and their costs. Payment 
accepted by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, cash, check or money order 
in U.S. currency only. Full refund after mailing of one Issue. A refund of 10/ 
12ths the subscription amount after two issues are mailed. No refund after 
mailing of three or more magazines. 



The Rainbow 



Editor and Publisher 
Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 

Associate Editor Jody Gilbert 

Reviews Editor Judi Hutchinson 

Submissions Editor Angela Kapfhammer 

Copy Editor Lauren Willoughby 

Technical Editor Cray Augsburg 

Technical Assistants Ed Ellers, 
Joe Pierce 

Editorial Assistants Sue H Evans, 
Wendy Falk, Monica Wheat 

Contributing Editors 

William Barden, Jr., 
Steve Blyn, Tony DiStefano, 
Richard Esposito, 
Martin Goodman, M.D., 
Joseph Kolar, Dale Puckett, 
Fred Scerbo, Richard White 

Art Director Heidi Maxedon 

Designers Robert Hatfield, Jr., 
Rita Lawrence, Denise Webb 
Typesetter Jody Doyle 



Falsoft, Inc. 



President Lawrence C. Falk 
General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 
Asst. General Mgr. for Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Admin. Asst. to the Publisher 

Sarah Levin 
Executive Editor James E. Reed 
Editorial Coordinator Jutta Kapfhammer 
Senior Editor T. Kevin Nickols 
Production Coordinator 

Cynthia L Jones 
Chief Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Dealer Accounts Judy Quashnock 
Asst. General Manager For Administration 

Bonnie Frowenfeld 
Director of Fulfillment Sandy Apple 
Word Processor Manager 

Patricia Eaton 
Customer Service Representative 

Beverly Beardon 
Development Coordinator Ira Barsky 
Chief of Printing Services Melba Smith 
Director of Production Jim Cleveland 
Dispatch Sharon Smith 
Asst. Dispatch Tony Olive 
Business Assistant Laurie Falk 
Advertising Coordinator Doris Taylor 
Advertising Representative 

Belinda Kirby 
Advertising Representative 

Kim Vincent 
Advertising Assistant Debbie Baxter 
(502) 228-4492 

For RAINBOW Advertising and 
Marketing Office Information, 
see Page 192 

Cover Illustration copyright * 1987 
by Fred Crawford 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 5 




Hop on (he OS-9 Bandwagon 

Editor: 

Recently I note a great deal of "OS-9 
hostility" in the letters to the editor. While 
I am by no means an "OS-9 fanatic," I 
believe that some input is needed from a 
cooler head. 

I have had OS-9 for three years, the first 
of which was largely spent in "playing 
around" with the system when I had no other 
pressing projects pending on my CoCo. 
Admittedly, for one who cut his teeth on the 
BASIC in ROM of the CoCo, OS-9 presented 
obstacles to easy understanding. What was 
it for, anyway? But even in the early stages 
it was clear that there was an abundance of 
power in the system. Certainly, the original 
Radio Shack documentation was somewhat 
cryptic, but the rainbow came to the rescue 
with The Complete Rainbow Guide to 
OS-9. Try running dsave as shown in the 
Guide \( you want a demonstration of system 
power! Just watching one demonstration of 
dsave will convince the skeptic of the 
possibilities of this operating system. 

Most of the problems 1 read about in the 
letters to the editor involve the inability to 
understand that every time a new OS-9 disk 
is inserted in the drive, you must do a chd 
'd0 and chx /do/CriDS. Is it really too much 
to expect users to read the manual? No, you 
can't just sit down with OS-9 and start to 
"hack." This leads to the statement of 
Gordley's first law of learning: "The greater 
the power of the system, the more imperative 
it is to do some homework." 

Facts are facts, and the fact is that Radio 
Shack is marketing only software written for 
OS-9. Do you want to customize your 
system? Have several favorite games/ utili- 
ties on one disk? Port programs to and from 
Level I and Level II (i.e., use programs 
written for the CoCo 3 on the 3)? Then you'd 
better get on the OS-9 bandwagon, stop 
complaining and read the manual — includ- 
ing typing in and running examples until you 
understand that OS-9 is a "manager" of 
computer power and an incredibly versatile 
one. 

No, OS-9 is not easy. Few things worth- 
while are. But it is a system that makes this 
dirt-cheap computer stand up and dance. 
Radio Shack got a lot of bad press early on 
when it released the Model I without soft- 
ware support, etc., but the Color Computer 
has outlived the I, III, and IV, largely 
because Radio Shack has devoted a huge 
amount of development to make this little 
computer constantly competitive. OS-9 is 
one facet of this development. Which would 
you rather do, scrap your system every 
couple of years or learn new and more 
powerful operating systems to stay current 
with the possibilities of more expensive 
systems? 

Sure, PC Compatibles are the wave of 
"now," not to mention the future, but we 



now have in the CoCo 3 all the memory and 
other capabilities of PC clones — how long 
will it take for someone (probably not Radio 
Shack, since they have their own line of PC 
clones) to produce a board or program to 
make this "little" computer clone-like? 
Probably not too long as micro-history goes, 
and you can bet that because of the Shack's 
commitment to it, it will probably use 
OS-9 in some fashion. 

Yes, the CoCo in its original configuration 
was incredibly simple, and many learned 
BASIC with the CoCo's great manuals. And 
as the CoCo continues to evolve, the same 
possibilities exist. But serious computer 
users who remain doggedly faithful to the 
CoCo are going to have to do some learning. 
It just isn't realistic to expect this product, 
which has outlasted all its comparably 
priced competition, to grind along in a 1 970s 
mode. 

Radio Shack has given us a great learning 
opportunity — don't pass it up. 

Richard D. Gordley 
Castleton, IL 

Those of you who are experiencing 
problems with OS-9 should refer to 
Cray Augsburg's, "OS-9 — Catch the 
Wave, " Page 166 and Nancy Ewart's 
"Stalking the Fire- Breathing 
Dragon, " Page 156 for some addi- 
tional direction in your efforts. 

If you have read the manual and 
feel that you do, indeed, understand 
OS-9, but are still experiencing prob- 
lems, the following letter may be of 
some assistance. 



CoCo Gremlins 

Editor: 

For the last 18 months 1 have been 
plagued by gremlins in my CoCo 2 system. 
The first glitches were caused by inadequate 
house wiring and the fact that we live in the 
country on a ranch. So I moved — twice — 
until I got rid of that problem. My PIA chips 
went out — one at a time, and I got those 
replaced. 

Then I started in with OS-9. I got some 
of the weirdest errors that didn't make any 
sense. I could get a directory, but the system 
crashed every time I tried to initialize a disk. 
I got directories from my OS-9 disks, but got 
"pathname not found," even when I typed 
everything in correctly, and "no permission" 
no matter what I tried to do! 

I took the computer to Radio Shack ( 1 14- 
hour drive away) to the "local" repair center 
four times, but they didn't have any drives 
of their own to check that part of the 
computer. I sent my drives back to True 
Data, where they were cleaned and aligned, 
and HDS replaced my controller. Everyone 
said the problem was with a part of the 
system that wasn't theirs (a problem when 



your whole system doesn't all come from the 
same place). No one could find anything 
wrong, but it still didn't work when it was 
reassembled. 

I called BBSs all over the West, and wrote 
to several "experts." The experts didn't 
reply, and the people on the boards insisted 
I just didn't understand OS-9. Finally, I 
located the Sacramento CoCo Club, and 
made the three-hour drive down to see them. 
I took my whole system to their experts. In 
three hours, at a cost of $7 plus gas, they had 
the problem repaired, and I now have a 
computer that behaves itself. I also now 
belong to a CoCo Club at long last, even one 
three hours away, and the next lime I go to 
a meeting there are interested people from 
Redding willing to go with me. 

The cause of all the problems was not my 
lack of knowledge concerning OS-9, but the 
edge connectors on my drive cable. One pin 
out of 34 on the connector for Drive was 
not operating at all. My poor CoCo was 
trying to operate with an incomplete set of 
data coming in! 

Is there a lesson in all of this? Probably, 
but I'm not sure exactly what it is. I do know 
that the Sacramento CoCo Club was the 
only group able to figure out what was 
happening! 

Vicki Daubner 
Redding, CA 



Hooked on the CoCo 



Editor: 

When my older brother passed away two 
years ago, he left me his CoCo. There were 
no peripherals. I thought, "Right! Me with 
a computer! I'll play with it a while maybe 
and then sell it. I'm almost 50 and can see 
no use for it in my life." Hah! Boy, did I get 
hooked! I'm now lucky enough to have 
purchased a CoCo 3, DMP-I05 printer, two 
FD 501 disk drives, Multi-Pak interface and 
much software (a lot of which I bought at 
Radio Shack tent sales). 

The December 1 985 issue of rainbow was 
the first that I bought. That issue gave me 
the self-confidence to try to learn the CoCo 
and continue with it. You all have helped me 
through "pangs" of learning typing again, 
BASIC programming, using OS-9, getting an 
interest in assembly language and BASIC09. 
Right now I have OS-9 Level I with Version 
II upgrade. This past week Radio Shack had 
another tent sale and I came home with $626 
worth of stuff for only $36. Can you believe 
that? Some things I picked up were BASIC09, 
Deluxe RS-232 interface and a 300 baud 
modem (minus a power supply). So, as soon 
as I get a power supply transformer, I'll be 
in touch with rainbow and other CoCoists 
on Delphi and BBSs for the first time. I can 
hardly wait. 

This is the first time I've written to a 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 




AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLD'S f* 

SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 



EXTRA FEATURES ON COCO 3 DISK 

80 char, screen, 2400 baud thru serial port, 
95,000 to 475,000 character buffer. — — 



EASY COMMUNICATION 



Full prompting and error checking. 
Step-by-step manual has examples. 
Scroll text backward and forward. No 
split words on screen or printout. 
Save, load, delete files while on line. 
Print, save all or any part of text. 300 
or 1200 baud. All 128 ASCII 
characters. Works with D.C. Hayes or 
any modem. Screen widths of 32, 40, 
42, 51, 64. 

DISK VERSION SUPPORTS RS232 
PAK, XMODEM and SPLIT SCREEN 
FOR PACKET RADIO. 



ORD PROCESSING + TOTAL AUTOMATION 



Please hire Ihe menially retarded. 
They are sincere, hard working and 
appreciative. Thanks! p js 



Editing is super simple with the 
cursor. Find strings instantly too! 
Insert printer control codes. Specify 
page size and margins. Switch 
quickly between word processing 
and intelligent terminal action. Create 
text, correct your typing errors; then 
connect to the other computer, 
upload your text or files, download 
information, file it, and sign-off; then 
edit the receive data, print it in an 
attractive format, and/or save it on 
file. Compatible with TELEWRITER. 

CASSETTE S29.95 
DISKETTE S39.95 

Add $3 shipping and handling 
MC/VISA/C.O.D. 



Advanced system of keystroke 
macros lets you automate any 
activity, such as dial via modem, 
sign-on, interact, sign-off, print, save. 
Perform entire session. Act as 
message taker. At start-up, disk 
version can automatically set 
parameters, dial, sign-on, interact, 
read/write disk, sign-off, etc. Timed 
execution lets AUTOTERM work 
while you sleep or play. No other 
computer can match your COCO's 
intelligence as a terminal. 

PXE Computing 

11 Vicksburg Lane 
Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



magazine, but it doesn't feel strange, because 
I believe I'm writing to friends. I couldn't be 
at this point in my computing life without 
all of you. Thanks for everything! 

Evelyn C. "Chris" Gallagher 
China, CA 

HINTS & TIPS 

Editor: 

I recall a previous issue of THE RAINBOW 
advising a reader that he would be unable 
to print in bold type using Scripsil and a 
DMP-105 printer. However, with the fol- 
lowing revisions, this is possible. First, back 
up Scripsil on tape. Then insert the follow- 
ing command at the beginning of the pro- 
gram: 

PRINTH -2 , CHRS ( 27 ) ; CHRS ( 31 ) 

The result is an inexpensive word processing 
system with a higher quality printout. I hope 
this information will be as useful to other 
readers as it has been to me. I use my CoCo 
for college reports, letters, and even to print 
copies of my resume. 

Joe Jarvis 
Peoria, IL 

How Do You Spell Relief? 

Editor: 

What does a keyboard extender cable 
have to do with a bad back? 

Due to chronic back pain, I consulted an 
orthopedist (MD-type). After X-rays, pok- 
ing, etc., he concluded that my back prob- 
lems were posture related. He spoke of a 



significant rise in back problems since the 
advent of the personal computer. He said 
that sitting hunched over a keyboard was 
like carrying a 200-pound backpack. 

Well, the handy-dandy keyboard extender 
cable sold by Spectrum and designed and 
built by our own Marty Goodman, sure 
makes sitting back in a comfortable (and 
healthy) position easy. Just as welcome is 
freedom at last from having that "klunky" 
Multi-Pak sticking out the right side of the 
keyboard. I housed my keyboard in an 
empty CoCo 3 case, purchased through 
Tandy National Parts for $10. Marty's cable 
is well-designed and rugged. The connectors 
are the tricky part, but he's done a great job 
there. I'll be glad to answer any questions 
anyone has about my experience with this 
device. 

Richard H. Phillips 

91 Kingsgate 

Snyder. NY 14226 

Those of you who spend long hours 
at the keyboard should look for Dr. 
Larry Preble 's article in next month 's 
issue which will discuss various other 
ways to prevent back and neck pain. 



INFO PLEASE 

Editor: 

I would like to write a program to enable 
the CoCo to play the card game cribbage. 
Although 1 can program, I am not a good 
card player, so I am having difficulty de- 



vising effective strategies for discarding 
cards to the crib and for deciding what card 
to play. If there are any cribbage experts out 
there in CoColand, will you please write to 
me so we can discuss strategies that could 
be used in a computer program? Of course, 
whoever provides me with the strategy I 
adopt will receive a free copy of the cribbage 
program and equal credit for the program. 

Bruce Arsenault 

R.R. I Cleveland 

Nova Scotia 

Canada B0E 1J0 



Internally Speaking 

Editor: 

I have a 64K ECB CoCo 2. I am using a 
monitor without audio. How can I hook up 
an internal speaker inside the CoCo? 

Sean Stephenson 

11744 Pinecone Circle 

Grass Valley. CA 94545 



Can CoCo Count the Miles? 

Editor: 

I am a runner and would like to know if 
anyone in the CoCo Community could lead 
me to a program to log date, distance and 
time, and ideally calculate time per mile. 

Danny Mote 

P.O. Box 2782 

Demorest, GA 30535 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



AFastCGP-115Dump 

Editor: 

Can anyone help me? I need a machine 
language screen dump program for the 
CGP-115. With my present basic program, 
I do not think 1 will live long enough to print 
out some of the wonderful programs that 
appear in THE RAINBOW. 

Frederick Limn 

RR 1. 102 Claremont Cr. 

Orillia, Ontario 

Canada L3V6H1 



PALS 



• I have a CoCo 2 and 3, Multi-Pak, two 
Speech/ Sound Paks (would like to buy 
stereo pak), DMP-106 printer, DCM-3 
modem, two double-sided drives and enjoy 
computing very much — write and see! 

George Locker 

Rt. 9 Box 329 

Benton, KY 42025 

• I have a CoCo 2, a CoCo 3 (5I2K), two 
disk drives, a printer, a Smartmodem, a 
Multi-Pak and a deluxe RS-232. 1 would like 
to correspond with other CoCo owners 
around the world who are interested in OS- 
9 Level II, machine language and commu- 
nications. I also operate a BBS on my CoCo 
3, online from 8 p.m. to 6 a.m., 300/1200 
baud. Call 474-22-0229. 

Roberto Berg 

Rua Aquidaban, 700 

Caixa Postal 578 

CEP 89.200 

Joinville — SC — Brazil 

• I am 9 years old and would like to have 
a few pen pals in the Pennsylvania area. I 
have a CoCo 2, CCR-8 1 recorder, D MP- 105 
printer and a Tandy 2000 computer. I will 
accept all letters sent to me. 

Ed Schenck 

600A Creamerv Road 

Nazareth. PA 18064 

• I am 14 years old and looking for a pen 
pal somewhere in the Louisiana area. I have 
a CoCo 2 upgraded to 64K, FD 500 disk 
drive, and a DMP-105 dot-matrix printer. 

Chris Bastow 
503 Oak Ridge Dr. 
Leesville, LA 71446 

• I am 16 years old and an avid CoCo user. 
1 have a 64K ECB CoCo 2, gray drive, 
modem and cassette. I also love hardware 
hacking. Any letters I receive will get a reply. 

Jamin Taube 

Rd. 2 14 Fredonia Road 

Newton, NJ 07860 

• I have a CoCo 2 and 3 with three disk 
drives, a Multi-Pak, Ears, Supervoice, an 
Avatex 2400 modem and a DMP-130. I'm 
34 years old and looking for a pen pal. I will 
answer all letters. 

Ronald M. Koskovich 
Greenvalley Lot 60 
Jackson. Wl 53037 



• I am interested in having a computer pen 
pal, especially female. I just got a CoCo 2, 
disk drive, and a few games a couple of 
months ago. I'm 14 and in the process of 
making a video game. 

Mike Reyno 

Rt. 7 Box 422B 

Tucson, AZ 85747 

• I have a CoCo 2 and 3 with FD 501 disk 
drive. CCR-82 recorder, and a Star NX- 10 
printer. I am 15 years old and would like to 
hear from other people around my age. I'm 
interested in OS-9. 

Derrick Holmquist 

5842 N. Long Lake 

Traverse City, MI 49684 

• I would like to get to know some nice 
people who want to be my pen pals. I have 
a 64 K CoCo 2 with tape system. I am 15 
years old. 

Mohamed Hamid 

36. Marwa Street 

Dokki — Cairo 

Egypt 

• Our whole family is interested in having 
pen pals. We are: Patricia, age 40; Christine, 
14; Stacey, 16; Jennifer, 12; and Charles, II. 
So we welcome pen pals of any age. 

Patricia Bastian 
1205 Manor Drive 
Victoria, TX 77901 

• I am a collector of public domain CoCo 
2 and 3 pictures and would like to hear from 
those who have good pictures they would 
like to share. 1 am particularly interested in 
CoCo 3 pictures. 

Chris Sleeves 

P. O. Box Petitcodiac 

New Brunswick E0A 2H0 

Canada 

• I am 15 years old, and my system consists 
of a CoCo 2 with 64K. ECB, cassette re- 
corder, Orchestra 80, Speech/ Sound Pak, 
EDTASM+ and a modem. I would like to 
correspond with intelligent people around 
my age or any age who would like to swap 
thoughts and ideas. My main interests are 
science fiction, Adventures and music. 
Please write me. I'm a friendly person living 
in a small town where there's no one I can 
talk to about the CoCo. I'll do my best to 
answer every letter. 

Joey Vaughan 

Rt. 2 Box 130 

Bronson, TX 75930 

• I am 1 3 years old and looking for pen pals 
in the South Jersey and Philadelphia areas. 
I have a CoCo 2, disk drive and a DMP-130 
printer. 

Andrew Cooper 
311 Fern Drive 
At co, N J 08004 

• I am 1 6 years old and looking for pen pals 
anywhere in the world. I have a CoCo 2, a 
cassette recorder and disk drive. Anyone 
wanting a pen pal, please write to me. 

Carl Lindberg 

1 West St. 

Pawling, NY 12564 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 

• Come take a flight on the Balloon Port 
BBS, 24 hours, seven days a week, 300 and 
1200 baud. Please use 8/N/l. The system 
runs on six disk drives and a CoCo 2, has 
a great online game section, forums, and 
CoCo downloads! Online since January, 
1987. Call 717-273-8444. SysOp: Balloon 
Meister. Co-SysOp: Chip Hirsh. 

Rick V. Elyar 

1829 Ashton Drive 

Lebanon, PA 17042 

• The Top Gun BBS in Baton Rouge, 
Louisiana, is online 24 hours, seven days a 
week, 300/1200/2400 baud. We feature 
online games and over 20 message boards, 
and pride ourselves in being the only 2400 
CoBBS BBS in the world (that we know of). 
Call 504-774-8262. SysOp: Stinger. 

Justin Young 
3527 Hickorywood Ave. 
Baton Rouge, LA 70807 

• There is a new BBS online in Virginia, 
accepting 300 or 1200 baud, 7 or 8 bits. It 
is run on a Wang system and has 20 Mb of 
software for the CoCo. 24 hours, seven days 
a week. Call 703-483-3037. 

Ricky Sutphin 

Rt. 'l Box 020 

Henry, VA 24102 

• There is a new BBS here in Salt Lake 
Valley, the West Valley CoCoshop. It's run 
on Richard Duncan's CoBBS Version 1.2 
modified. Online 24 hours, 300 baud. We 
have online games, Xmodem, ASCII down- 
loads and a public message base. Call 801- 
250-1941. 

Dennis R. Gray 

3643 S. 6885 W. 

West Valley City, UT 84120 

• There is a new bulletin board in St. 
Petersburg, Florida, the Stylus BBS. There 
are a number of special sections, including 
three online trivia games, classified ads, 
music news, concert information, reviews of 
Box Office & VCR movies, albums, restau- 
rants, etc., as well as an extensive public 
domain library. Online 24 hours, seven days 
a week. Call 813-823-1490. 

Tim Jay 

141 22nd Ave. N. 

St. Petersburg, FL 33704 

the rainbow welcomes letters to the 
editor. Mail should be addressed to: 
Letters to Rainbow, The Falsoft Build- 
ing, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. 
Letters should include the writer's full 
name and address. Letters may be edited 
for purposes of clarity or to conserve 
space. 

Letters to the editor may also be sent 
to us through our Delphi CoCo SIG. 
From the CoCo SIG> prompt, type Rfll 
to take you into the Rainbow Magazine 
Services area of the SIG. At the RAIN- 
BOW> prompt, type LET to reach the 
I i: I ll.RS prompt and then select 
Letters for Publication. Be sure to in- 
clude your complete name and address. 



8 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



e* V _fc 






Word 
Power 3 



(The Ultimate Word Processor for the CoCo 3) 



Are you still using your CoCo2 word processor on the CoCo 3 with 
slip- shod patchwork? You don't have to any more. With Word 
Power3, Microcom answers the challenge of word processors for the 
CoCo 3. It bridges the gap between" what is" and "what should be" 
in word- processors. No other word processor offers such a 
wide array of features that are so easy to learn and use. Check 
out the impressive features: 

DISPLAY 

The 80-column display with true lowercase lets you view the full 
width ot a standard page. All the prompts are displayed in plain 
English in neat colored windows. The current column number, 
line number, page number and the percentage of memory remaining 
is displayed on the screen at all times. The program even displays the 
bottom margin perforation so you know where one page ends and 
the other begins. You can also change the foreground/background 
color of the screen to suit your needs' 

AVAILABLE MEMORY 

Unlike most other word processors, Word Power3 gives you 80K of 
memory with a 128K CoCo 3 and more than 460K with a 51 2K 
CoCo 3 to store text. 

TYPING/EDITING 

Word Power 3 has one of the most powerful and user- friendly full- 
screen editors with wordwrap. All you do is type; Word Power 3 
takes care of the text arrangement. It even has a built-in Auto- Save 
feature which saves the current text to disk at regular intervals; so 
you know that your latest version is saved on disk. Here are some of 
the editing features of Word Power 3: 

Auto- repeat; Key-Click; Cursor up, down, left, right, beginning of 
line, end of line, next word, previous word, top of text, end of text; 
page forward, backward; 4-way scrolling; block copy, move, delete; 



global search and replace (with wild- card search); line positioning 
(left, right or center); insert/ overstrike modes; delete to beginning/ 
end of line, next/ previous word; and tabs. You can also embed 
printer codes in text to take advantage of underlining, sub/ superscript 
and other printer functions. Define left, right, top and bottom 
margins, and page length. 

MAIL MERGE 

Ever try mailing out the same letter to 500 different persons? Could 
be quite a chore. Not with the Mail Merge feature of Word Power 3. 
Using this feature, you can type a letter, follow it through with a list ot 
addresses and have Word Power 3 print out personalized letters. It's 
that easy! 

LOADING/ SAVING FILES TO DISK 

Word Power 3 creates ASCII format files which are compatible wit h 
almost all terminal, spell- checking, and other word- processing 
programs. It allows you to load, save and kill files and also to create 
and edit Basic, Pascal, C and Assembly files. Supports double- sided 
drives and various drive step rates. 

PRINTING 

Word Power 3 drives almost any printer (DMP series, EPSON, 
GEMINI, OK1DATA, etc.). Allows print options such as different 
baud rates, line spacing, page pause, partial print, multi-line headers/ 
footers, page numbers, page number placement, and right justification. 
You can also change the values for these print options within the text 
by using embedded printer option codes. 

INSTRUCTION MANUAL 

Word Power 3 comes with a well- written and easy- to- comprehend 
instruction manual that makes writing with Word Power 3 a breeze. 

Word Power 3 comes on disk for only $69.95. 



>jyr 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 214 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (716) 223-1477 



Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 am-9 pm est7 days* week 

Except NY. Order Status, Information, Technical Information, NY Orders call 1-716-223-1477 

All orders shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air at no extra charge. Last minute shoppers can benefit. 

VISA. MC. AMEX. Check, MO. Please add $3.00 SScH (USA ck Canada), other countries $5.00 S&.H. 

NYS residents please add sales tax. 
Computerised processing & tracking of orders. Immediate shipment. 





How To Read Rainbow 



Please note that all the basic program listings in 
the rainbow are formatted for a 32-character 
screen — so they show up just as they do on your CoCo 
screen. One easy way to check on the accuracy of your 
typing is to compare what character "goes under" what. 
If the characters match — and your line endings come 
out the same — you have a pretty good way of knowing 
that your typing is accurate. 

We also have "key boxes" to show you the minimum 
system a program needs. But, do read the text before 
you start typing. 

Finally, the little disk and/or cassette symbols on the 
table of contents and at the beginning of articles 
indicate that the program is available through our 

RAINBOW ON DISK or RAINBOW ON TAPE Service. 

An order form for these services is on the insert card 
bound in the magazine. 



What's A CoCo? 



CoCo is an affectionate name that was first given to 
the Tandy Color Computer by its many fans, users and 
owners. 

However, when we use the term CoCo, we refer to 
both the Tandy Color Computer and the TOP System- 
100 Computer. (While many TDP-100s are still in 
service, the TDP Electronics division of Tandy no longer 
markets the CoCo look-alike.) It is easier than using 
both of the "given" names throughout the rainbow. 

In most cases, when a specific computer is men- 
tioned, the application is for that specific computer. 
However, since the TDP System-100 and Tandy Color 
are, for all purposes, the same computer in a different 
case, these terms are almost always interchangeable. 



and press enter to remove it from the area where the 
program you're typing in will go. 

Now, while keying in a listing from THE RAINBOW, 
whenever you press the down arrow key, your CoCo 
gives the check sum based on the length and content 
of the program in memory. This is to check against the 
numbers printed in the rainbow. If your number is 
different, check the listing carefully to be sure you typed 
in the correct basic program code. For more details 
on this helpful utility, refer to H. Allen Curtis' article on 
Page 21 of the February 1984 RAINBOW. 

Since Rainbow Check PLUS counts spaces and 
punctuation, be sure to type in the listing exactly the 
way it's given in the magazine. 

10 CLS:X=256*PEEI<(35)+178 

20 CLEAR 25.X-1 

30 X=25G*PEEI< (35) +178 

40 FOR Z=X TO X+77 

50 READ Y:W=U+Y:PRINT Z.Y;U 

G0 POKE Z,Y:NEXT 

70 IFW=7985THENB0ELSEPRINT 

"OfiTfi ERROR": STOP 
B0 EXECXrEND 

90 DATA 182, 1, 106, 1G7, 140. G0, 134 
100 DATA 12G, 1B3, 1, 10G, 190, 1, 107 
110 DATA 175, 140, 50, 48, 140, 4, 191 
120 DATA 1, 107, 57, 129, 10, 38, 38 
130 DATA 52, 22, 79, 158, 25, 230, 129 
140 DATA 39, 12, 171, 128, 171, 128 
150 DATA 230, 132, 38. 250, 4B, 1, 32 
1G0 DATA 240, 1B3, 2, 222, 48, 140, 14 
170 DATA 159, 16G, 1GG, 132, 28, 254 
1B0 DATA 1B9, 173, 198, 53, 22, 12G, 
190 DATA 0. 135, 255, 134, 40, 55 
200 DATA 51, 52, 41, 



OS-9 and RAINBOW ON DISK 



1) Type load dir list copy and press ENTER. 

2) If you have only one disk drive, remove the OS-9 
system disk from Drive and replace it with the OS- 
9 side of rainbow on disk. Then type chd'd0 
and press enter. If you have two disk drives, leave 
the sytem master in Drive and put the rainbow 
ON disk in Drive 1. Then type chd'dl and press 

ENTER, 

3) List the read . me . f i rs t file to the screen by typing 
list read . me . f i rs t and pressing ENTER. 

4) Entering dir will give you a directory of the OS-9 
side of rainbow on disk. To see what programs 
are in the CMDS directory, enter d i r cmds. Follow 
a similar method to see what source files are in the 
SOURCE directory. 

5) When you find a program you want to use, copy it 
to the CMD5 directory on your system disk with one 
of the following commands: 

One-drive system: copy'd0-'cmds-'Wename-'d0'' 
cmds^ filename -s 

The system will prompt you to alternately place the 
source disk (rainbow on disk) or the destination 
disk (system disk) in Drive 0. 
Two-drive system: copy 'dl'cmds'' filename 'dQ>/ 
cmds-' filename 

Once you have copied the program, you execute it 
from your system master by placing that disk in Drive 
and entering the name of the file. 



The Rainbow Seal 



RAINBOW 

CEHTinCATION 
SCAL 



Rainbow Check Plus 



GT 



The small box accompanying a program listing in 
the rainbow is a "check sum" system, which is 
designed to help you type in programs accurately. 

Rainbow Check PLUS counts the number and values 
of characters you type in. You can then compare the 
number you get to those printed in the rainbow. 
On longer programs, some benchmark lines are given. 
When you reach the end of one of those lines with your 
typing, simply check to see if the numbers match. 

To use Rainbow Check PLUS, type in the program 
and save it for later use, then type in the command run 
and press enter. Once the program has run, type NEW 



The OS-9 side of rainbow on disk contains two 
directories: CMOS and SOURCE. It also contains a file, 
read . me . f 1 rs t, which explains the division of the 
two directories. The CMDS directory contains executa- 
ble programs and the SOURCE directory contains the 
ASCII source code for these programs. BASIC09 
programs will only be offered in source form so they will 
only be found in the SOURCE directory. 

OS-9 is a very powerful operating system. Because 
of this, it is not easy to learn at first. However, while we 
can give specific instructions for using the OS-9 
programs, you will find that the OS-9 programs will be 
of little use unless you are familiar with the operating 
system. For this reason, if you haven't "learned" OS-9 
or are not comfortable with it, we suggest you read The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 by Dale Puckett and 
Peter Dibble. 

The following is not intended as a course in OS-9. It 
merely states how to get the OS-9 programs from 
rainbow on disk to your OS-9 system disk. Use 
the procedures appropriate for your system. Before 
doing so, however, boot the OS-9 operating system 
according to the documentation from Radio Shack. 



The Rainbow Certification Seal is our way of helping 
you, the consumer. The purpose of the Seal is to certify 
to you that any product that carries the Seal has actually 
been seen by us, that it does, indeed, exist and that we 
have a sample copy here at the rainbow. 

Manufacturers of products — hardware, software and 
firmware — are encouraged by us to submit their prod- 
ucts to the rainbow for certification. We ascertain 
that their products are, in actuality, what they purport 
to be and, upon such determination, award a Seal. 

The Seal, however, is not a "guarantee of satisfac- 
tion," The certification process is different from the 
review process. You are encouraged to read our reviews 
to determine whether the product is right for your 
needs. 

There is absolutely no relationship between advertis- 
ing in the rainbow and the certification process. 
Certification is open and available to any product per- 
taining to CoCo. A Seal will be awarded to any com- 
mercial product, regardless of whether the firm adver- 
tises or not. 

We will appreciate knowing ol instances of violation 
of Seal use. 



BOOKS & GRAPHICS 



500 

POKES, 

PEEKS, 

EXECs 

FOR THE TRS-80 COCO 




NEVER BErORE has this infor- 
mation of vital significance to a 
programmer been so readily 
available to everyone. This book 
will help you GET UNDERNEATH 
THE COVER' of the Color Com- 
puter and develop your own HI- 
QUALITY Basic and ML pro- 
grams. SO WHY WAIT?? 
This 80-page book includes 
POKEs. PEEKs and EXECs to: 

* Autostart your basic programs 

* Disable Color Baslc/ECB/Disk 
Basic commands like LIST, 
LLIST. POKE. EXEC. CSAVE(M), 
DEL, EDIT. TRON. TROFf, 
PCLEAR. DLOAD, RENUM. PRINT 
USIMQ, DIR, KILL, SAVE, LOAD, 
MERGE, RENAME. DSKINI. 
BACKUP. DSKIS. and DSKO$. 

* Disable BREAK KEY, CLEAR KEY 
and RESET BUTTON. 

* Generate a Repeat-key. 

* Transfer ROMPAKS to tape (For 
64K only). 

* Speed Up your programs. 

* Reset. MOTOR ON /OFF from 
keyboard. 

* Recover Basic programs lost by 
NEW. 

* Set 23 different 
ORAFHIC/SEMIORAPHIC modes 

* Merge two Basic programs. 

* AND MUCH MUCH MORFJ 1 1 

COMMANDS COMPATIBLE WITH 
16K/32K/64K/ COLOR BASIC/ CCB/ DISK 
BASIC SYSTEMS and CoCo 1. 2. « 3. 

ONLY $16.95 



SUPPLEMENT to 

500 POKES, 
PEEKS 'N EXECS 

ONLY$9.95 
L UU additional Pokes, Peeks 'n Execs to 
give you MORE PROGRAMMING POWER 
Includes commands for 

• Rompak Transler to disk 

• PAINT wilh 65000 styles! 

• Use ol40 track single/ double sided drives with variable 
step- rates 

• High-Speed Cassette Operation 

• Telewriter 64 s , Edtasm+® and CoCo Max" 
Enhancements 

• Graphics Dump (lor DMP printers) & Text Screen Dump 

• AND MUCH MUCH MOREI 

• 500 POKES, PEEKS 'N EXECS is a prerequisite 



^300 POKES 
PEEKS N EXECS 

FOR THE COCO III 

Get more POWER for your CoCo III. Includes 
commands for: 

• 40/80 Column Screen Text Dump 

• Save Text/Graphics Screens lo Disk 

• Command/Function Disables 

• Enhancements lor CoCo 3 Basic 

• 128K/512K Ram Test Program 

• HPRINT Character Modifier 

• AND MANY MORE COMMANDS ONLY SI 9.95 




< W*"MUST" BOOKS 

UNRAVELLED SERIES: These books provide a 
complete annotated listing of the 
BASIC/ECB and DISK ROMs. 

EXTENDED COLOR BASIC UNRAVELLED: S39.95 

DISK BASIC UNRAVELLED: SI9.95 

BOTH UNRAVELLED BOOKS: S49.95 

SUPER ECB |CoCo3| UNRAVELLED: $24.95 

ALL 3 UNRAVELLED BOOKS: S59.95 

COCO 3 SERVICE MANUAL S39.95 

COCO 2 SERVICE MANUAL: $29.95 

INSIDE 0S9 LEVEL II S39.95 

RAINBOW GUIDE TO 0S9 LEVEL II ON COCO 3: S 

RAINBOW GUIDE TO 0S9 II DISK: $19.95 

INSIDE 0S9 LEVEL II DISK. S?U (III 

COCO 3 SECRETS REVEALED: $19.95 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING*: S1B.00 

ADDENDUM FOR COCO 3: $12.00 
UTILITY ROUTINES VOL I BOOK: $19.95 



fJjJjE 



19.95 



AJF 




MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone(716) 223-1477 




COCO 
GRAPHICS DESIGNER 




Greeting Cards '" 

Signs 

Banners 



The CoCo Graphics Designer allows you 
to create beautifully designed Greeting 
Cards, Signs and Banners for holidays, 
birthdays, parties, anniversaries and other 
occasions Comes with a library of pre- 
drawn pictures. Also includes utilities 
which allow you to create your own 
character sets, borders and graphic 
pictures. Requires a TRS-80 COLOR 
COMPUTER I, II OR III OR TDP-100 with 
a MINIMUM 0F32K, ONE DISK DRIVE 
and a PRINTER compatible with DISK 
BASIC 1.0/1.1, ADOS 1.0/1.1 ANDJDOS 
Supports the following printers: DMP 
100/105/110/130/430, CGP 220, 
EPSON RX/FX, GEMINI 10X, SG-10, 
NX-10& OKIDATA 

DISK ONLY $29.95 

PICTURE DISK #1: 100 more pictures for 
CGD: S14.95 

FONT DISK #1: 10 extra fonts! SI 9.95 
COLORED PAPER PACKS $24.95 

COCO MAX III 

It's finally here! CoCo Max for the CoCo III. 
Includes all the features of the acclaimed CoCo 
Max II and more: CoCo III hi-res screen display of 
64 colors at a time, 50% larger editing window, 
special effects with animation and much much 
more! Comes with special hi-res interface, 
conversion utilities and a comprehensive manual. 
Disk only $79.95 Min Req: 128K CoCo III with 
a disk drive. 

COCO MAX II 

Disk $77.95: Tape $67.95 

MAX PATCH 
An excellent software patch to run COCO MAX II 
on COCO III. Req RS Hires Joystick Interface No 
chip replacements or soldering Disk only $24.95 
BOTH MAX PATCH & HI-RES INTERFACE: $34.95 




COLOR MAX III DELUXE >Sm 

This is the sequel to the popular Color Max 
Additional features include multiple screen editing, 
animation, etc Includes printer drivers for EPSON, 
GEMINI DMP& CGP-220 printers Disk only 
$69.95. Minimum Requirements: 51 2 K CoCo 3, RS 
Hi- Res Joystick Interface and Tandy Disk Controller. 



VISA MC, AMEX, Check, MO. Please add $3.00 S&H(USA& Canada), other 
countries $5.00 S&H. NYS residents please add sales tax Computerized 
processing & tracking ol ordera Immediate shipment Dealer inquiries invited 



VIS* 



Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm est 7 days a week 

Except NY. Order Status, Information Technical Information NY Orders call 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



Print#-2, 



Keeping in Touch 



I had a wonderful time last weekend. At the invitation of the Cincinnati TRS- 
80 Users Group, I attended their monthly meeting and spoke about two 
subjects very close to my heart — the Color Computer and computers in 
general. 

It was a real fun day. First of all, the weather was delightful, so 1 was able to 
fly myself to the meeting. That meant I was able to condense a one and one-half 
hour trip into about 45 minutes — including the time Air Traffic Control sent 
me scurrying around the sky to avoid the "big boys." 

Dick White and Don Dollberg met me, and Dick even found the right airport 
this time. The last time 1 went to Cincinnati to talk (Larry Preble flew me that 
time), Dick ended up at the wrong airport and had to drive across town to get 
me. 

1 was whisked from Blue Ash airport to the meeting site, spent about an hour 
talking and another answering questions, and then went out with a whole bunch 
of the UG members for pizza. Don and Dick drove me back to the airport, I started 
up the plane and was home in another 45 minutes! 

I like Users Group meetings. For one thing, it is always a good opportunity 
to bounce ideas off the heads of a wide variety of people. And, you get an instant 
response, as well. Here are some of the questions I was asked: 

• Are the major software companies writing programs for the CoCo, or was that 
"just some enthusiasm " in one of your columns? 

Well, of course, it was enthusiam, but it is true, too. Most of these programs 
are being written for Tandy, but they are being done all the same. Just look at 
the titles that are available — plus, of course, all the non-Tandy third-party 
software. 

• How long will the Color Computer last? 

Maybe forever. I know a few things — although not always as much as people 
always seem to infer — and it is pretty plain that the CoCo is very much alive 
and kicking. Look at this magazine, for instance. How many Apple magazines, 
how many Atari magazines, how many Amiga magazines do you see that have 
run right around 200 pages in the past year? People are not only buying Color 
Computers, they are using them every day. Lots of people. 

• Just how good is the CoCo, really? 

As long as you don't want to do monster spreadsheets, humongous databases 
(for instance, we don't do our subscriptions on it), write a novel or things of that 
sort, the Color Computer is probably the only computer you will ever need. And, 



12 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



COCO 3 UTILITIES GALORE 

(All utilities support 4 0/80 columns for CoCo3) 
(CoCo2 versions are available for most utilities) 



SUPER TAPE/DISK TRANSFER 

• Disk-to-Disk Copy (1-3 passes) • Tape- to- Disk Copy • Tape- to- Disk Aulomalic Relocate • Disk- 
lo- Tape Copy • Tape- lo-Tape Copy 

Copies Basic/ ML programs and DATA (ilea CoCo 1. 2 & 3. 32 K Disk System (Disk to Disk Copy requires 
64 K). Disk Only S24.95 



0S9 LEVEL II RAMDISK 

Lightning Fast Ramdisk with Auto Formatting A must lor any 0S9 Level II User. Req.512KS29.95. (Only 
S14.95 with the purchase ol 51 2 K Upgrades Ramdisk!!). 



HIRES JOYSTICK SOFTWARE 

Wish you could use the hi- res joystick interlace Irom Basic' You can now This program will let you access 
640 x640 pixels Irom your joystick for extra precision. CoCo3 Disk SI 4.95 



COCO NEWSROOM 

Now available (or the CoCo III! You can design your own newspaper with Banner Headlines/6 articles using 
sophisticated Graphics Fontsand Fill Patterns Comes with22 lonts&50 pictures! Over 140 Kol code Disk 
only S49.95 



MAILLIST PRO 

The ultimate mailing list program Allows you to add. edit view, delete change, sort(by zipcode or name) and 
ntim labels Us indispensible! Disk Only SI 9.95 (CoCo 2 version included) 



print 



DISK LABEL MAKER 

Allows you to design prolessional disk labels! Allows elongated, normal and condensed format lor texL 
double-strike, border creation and multiple- label printing Its a MUST lor any user with a disk drive Disk 
Only SI 9.95. Supports OMP 1 05/1 1 0/1 20/1 30/430, GEMINI, STAR EPSON and compatibles. (CoCo2 
version included) 



COMPUTERIZED CHECKBOOK 

Why bother with balancing your checkbook? Let the CoCo do it lor youl Allows you to add, view, search, edit 
change delete and printout (in a table or Individual entry format) checkbook entries Updates balance alter 
each entry. Allows files for checking saving and other accounts Disk Only SI 9.95 (CoCo 2 version 
included) 



BOWLING SCORE KEEPER 

An excellent utility to keep track of your bowling scores Allows you to save scores under individuals or 
learns You can edit change, delete and compare scores A must for anyone who wants to keep track of his or 
her bowling perlormance Disk S19.95 (CoCo2 version included). 



VCR TAPE ORGANIZER 

Organize your videocassettes with this program! Allows you to index cassettes by title, rating, type play 
lime and comments Also allows you to sort lilies alphabetically and view/print selected tapes If you own a 
VCR this program is a must Disk Only SI 9.95 ( CoCo 2 version included). 



ASTRO FORTUNE TELLER 

Receive answers to30 pre- defined questions on love, success marriage, etc This program is over 1 50 K long 
and ye! will run on a 32 K- 512 K systems due to modular approach Disk Only S24.95 (CoCo 2 version 
included) 



AD0S3 

Advanced Disk Operating System for CoCo 3. S34.95 ADOS: S27.95 



COCO UTIL II 

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S39.95 



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SPIT N IMAGE 



RGB PATCH 

Displays most games in color on RGB monitors For CoCo 3 Disk S24.95 



ALL SOFTWARE COMPATIBLE 

WITH COCO 1,2 &3 

WORD PROCESSORS 

TeleWriter-64: Best Word Processor For 
CoCo 1, 2 & 3. (Cas) S47.95 (Disk) S57.95 
TW-80: 80 Column Displays more features 
forTW-64. CoCo 3 Disk S39.95 
TELEFORM: Mail MergeS Form Letters for 
TW-64. $19.95 

DATABASE 

Pro Color File* Enhanced* 2.0: Multi-feature 
Database. S59.95 

COMMUNICATIONS 

Autoterm: Superb Terminal Program Works 
with any modem! (Cas) S29.95(Disk) S39.95 
Wiz: For 0S9 II. 300-19200 baud rate, 
windows! Req512K& RS232 Pak 
S79.95 

ASSEMBLERS/COMPILERS 

EOT/ ASM 640: Best Disk Based Editor- 
Assembler for CoCo. S59.95 (Specify CoCo 
1,2 or 3) 

THE SOURCE: Best Disassembler for CoCo. 
S34.95 (Specify CoCo 1,2 or 3) 
CBASIC: Most powerful Basic Program 
Compiler. SI 49.95 (Specify CoCo 1,2 or 3) 




GAMES 

(DISK ONLY) 'Q) 

IRON FOREST: S28.95 

LIGHT PHASER W/INTERFACE: S34.95 
MISSION! RUSH N ASSAULT: $28.95 
GRANDPRIX CHALLENGE: $28.95 
GANTELET II: $28.95 
GANTELET: $28.95 
MISSION F- 16 ASSAULT: $28.95 
MARBLE MAZE: $28.95 
PAPER ROUTE: $28.95 
KNOCK OUT: $28.95 
KARATE: $28.95 
WRESTLE MANIAC: $28.95 
BOUNCING BOULDERS: S28.95 
THE GATES OF DELIRIUM: $28.95 
CALADURIAL FLAME OF LIGHT: S28.95 
LANSFORD MANSION: $28.95 
P-51 MUSTANG SIMULATION: $34.95 
WORLDS OF FLIGHT: $34.95 
PYRAMIX Cubhc 8 lor CoCo 3: $24.95 
VEGAS SLOTS (CoCo III Only): $34.95 
FLIGHT 16: $34.95 




MJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box214 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (716) 223-1477 



All orders S50 & above shipped by UPS 2nd Day Air at no extra charge Last minute shippers can 
benfit VISA. MC. AMEK Check MO. Please addS3.00 S&H(USA& Canada), other countries [ 
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Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm est 7 days a week 

Except NY. Order Status, Information Technical Information NY Orders call 1 -71 6-223-1477 



when you see Multi- Vue, you'll even be 
able to stick up your nose at the Mac's 
user interface. 

• Is Tandy really committed to the 
Color Computer? 

Yes sir, yes sir, three bags full. The 
reason is simple: The CoCo is profitable 
for Tandy. Remember, it is a big corpo- 
ration, and big companies sometimes 
find it difficult to "express their appre- 
ciation" to a customer. I think Tandy 
does one heck of a job, though. For 
instance, they gave away 6,000 power 
controllers at RAINBOWfest in Prince- 
ton this year. "It was," an official told 
me, "one way we could say 'thanks'." 
Don't be surprised if something else 
comes down at the Chicago show. 

• How does Tandy support stack up? 

I know of no other computer manu- 
facturing company that has the network 
of free support Tandy does. Of course, 
they drop the ball on occasion. But at 
least there is a commitment to have a 
ball to drop. You have more avenues of 
free support from Tandy than from any 
other computer company in the world. 
And the same goes for their service. 
Ever try to get an Atari computer fixed? 
Forget about locally — anywhere. At 
least in your lifetime. 



• Given all the OS-9 systems Micro- 
ware has sold to us via Tandy, why don V 
they show us some support by at least 
doing some 'image ' advertising in THE 
RAIN BOH'? 

1 dunno. (I love questions like this.) 






"You have more 
avenues of free 
support from Tandy 
than from any other 
computer company 
in the world. " 




• Are we ever going to see program 
listings disappear from the magazine? I 
heard you were going to just print the 
instructions and let us buy the disks or 
tapes if we wanted the programs. 

No way. There will always be pro- 
grams listed in THE RAINBOW. 

• What is your favorite program? 
Telewriter. Not only is it a well-done 



program, but it opened a whole, vast 
new dimension in software with its high 
resolution screen for text. Hundreds of 
programmers use it now, but Howard 
Cohen was the first. Telewriter contrib- 
uted as much to the success of the Color 
Computer as anything else. 
• How is Delphi doing? 

Very well, thanks. The CoCo S1G is 
the most-used area of Delphi, with the 
other major S1G we offer, PC/ MS- 
DOS, pretty much the second. In fact, 
except for the original invitation (which 
was delivered in person), all the 
arrangements for my coming to this 
meeting were handled through Delphi 
Mail. 

That's about it, except for some other 
questions I want to discuss at length 
later. Thanks, CINTUG, for having me, 
and thanks, CINTUG members, for 
listening to me. 

And thanks to all of you, RAINBOW 
readers and members of the CoCo 
Community, for being with us last year. 
I look forward to being with you 
through this new year. To you and 
yours, a Happy and Healthy 1988! 

— Lonnie Falk 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Here's one for those of you who just like to clown 
around. If you are running it on a CoCo 3, you might 
want to enter PALETTE RGB first. 

The listing: 

1 PMODE 3, 1:PCLS:SCREEN1,0:M=90: 
K=160 : L=185 : CIRCLE (K, M) , 60 , , 1 . 5 
: CIRCLE ( 13 5 , 80 ) , 20 , jS , 1 . 5 : CIRCLE ( 
L,8j8) , 20,0, 1.5: CIRCLE (K, 110) ,20: 
PAINT (K, 110) ,0,0:CIRCLE(135,M) ,7 
:CIRCLE(L,M) ,7:PAINT(135,M) ,3,0: 
PAINT(L,M) , 3, 0: CIRCLE (K, 150) ,30, 
, . 5: PAINT (K, 160) ,3,0 

2 CIRCLE(98,M) ,15,0,1.5, .2, . 8 : CI 
RCLE(2 22,M) , 15 ,0 , 1 . 5 , . 7 , . 3 : PAINT 
(99, M) ,2,0:PAINT(222,M) ,2,0:PAIN 
T(K,40) ,2,0: CIRCLE (118, 30) ,15,, 2 
, .4, .9:PAINT(110,30) ,0,0:CIRCLE( 
200,30) ,15, ,2, .6, .l:PAINT(209,30 
) ,0,0:PAINT(135,M) ,RND(3) ,0:PAIN 
T(L,M) ,RND(3) ,0:GOTO2 

Rick Cooper 
Liberty, KY 

(For Ihis winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



Two- Liner Contest Winner . . . 

We often see frost on our windows, but what about 
on our monitors? This one is for your CoCo 3. If using 
an RGB monitor, enter PALETTE RGB before running. 

The listing: 

1 N=90 : DIMX ( 99 ) , Y ( 99 ) : HCOLOR8 , 2 : ' 
HSCREEN4 : FORZ=0TO1STEP0 : FORL=lTO 
N : X=X ( L) : Y=Y ( L) : A=X : B=Y : IFX=0AND 
Y=0THENX (L) =RND ( 63 8 ) : Y (L) =RND (19 
0) :NEXTL,Z ELSER=RND(4) : IFR=1AND 
X>1THENX=X-1ELSEIFR=2ANDX<638THE 
NX=X+1ELSEIFR=3ANDY>1THENY=Y-1EL 
SEIFY=4ANDY<190THENY=Y+1 

2 POKE65497,0:IFHPOINT(X+1,Y)=1O 
RHPOINT (X+l , Y+l) =10RHPOINT (X , Y+l 
) =10RHPOINT (X-l , Y) =10RHPOINT (X-l 
,Y-l)=10RHPOINT(X,Y-l)=10RHPOINT 
(X+1,Y-1)=10RHP0INT(X-1,Y-1)=1TH 
ENX(L)=X:Y(L)=Y:HSET(A,B,1) :NEXT 
L,Z ELSEHRESET(A,B) :HSET(X,Y,1) : 
NEXTL,Z 

B.J. Br y son 
Manahawkin, NJ 

(For this winning two-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 



14 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



ALL HARDWARE COMPATIBLE WITH COCO 1, 2 & 3 



DISK DRIVES. 



Double Sided, Double Density 360 K 40 track disk drives for the Color Computer 1, 2 and 3. Buy from 
someone else and all you get is a disk drive. Buy from us and not only do you get a quality disk drive, you also 
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DRIVE CABLES: 1 DRIVE CABLE: $19.95 2 DRIVE CABLE: $24.95 4 DRIVE CABLE: $39.95 

(For Drives, add $7.00 S&H in USA/CANADA) 





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15" MULTIPAK/ROMPAK EXTENDER 

CABLE: $29.95 

3- POSITION SWITCHER: Select any one of 

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from the serial port $37.95 

WICO TRACK BALL: $29.95 

WICO ADAPTER: Use Atari type Joysticks 

with your CoCo: $29.95 

RS HI-RES JOYSTICK INTERFACE: $1 1.99 

MAGNAV0X8505/8515/8CM643 Analog 

RGB Cable: $24.95 

CM-8 RGB Analog Ext. Cable $19.95 

SONY Monitor Cable: $39.95 



EPROM 



INTRONICS EPROM PROGRAMMER: Best 
EPROM Programmer for the CoCo 
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EPROM ERASER (Datarase): Fast erase of 
24/28 pin EPROMs $49.95 
EPROMS: 2764 -$8.00, 27128 -$9.00 
Call for other EPROMs 

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ROMPAK w/ Blank PC Board 27 xx Series: 

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VIDEO 



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monochrome or color monitor. $29.95 
VIDEO CLEAR: Reduce TV interference. 
$19.95 



KEYBOARDS/ACCESSORIES. 

KEYBOARD EXTENSION CABLE: Why 

break your back when typing on the 
CoCo? Our keyboard extender cable 
allows you to move your keyboard 
away from the computer and type with 
ease You can use your existing 
keyboard with this cable or leave your 
present keyboard intact and use a 
second keyboard A MUST tor all CoCo 
Users Only $39.95. Cable with CoCo II 
keyboard: $49.95 
COCO 3 KEYBOARD (includes FREE 
FUNCTION KEYS software value 
$19.95): $39.95 



CHIPS, ETC. 



_ PRINTER INTERFACES. 

SERIAL TO PARALLEL INTERFACE: With 6 
switch selectable baud rates(300-9600) 
Comes with all cables $44.95 



Disk Basic Rom 1.1 (Needed tor CoCo 

III): $14.95 

Multi-Pak PAL Chip (or CoCo3 (Specify 

Multipak Cat #): $19.95 

PAL Switcher: Now you can switch 

between the CoCo II and CoCo III 

modes when using the Multi-Pak You 

need the OLDER and NEW PAL chip tor 

the 26-3024 Multipak Only $29.95/ 

With NEW PAL Chip $39.95 



MJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone(716) 223-1477 



All orders$50 and above(except Disk Drives) shipped by UPS2nd Day Air at 
no EXTRA charge We accept VISA/MC/AMEX, Check or MO. Please add 
$3.00 S&H (USA/CANADA; other countries$5.00), except where otherwise 
mentioned. NYS Residents please add sales tas Prices are subject to 
change All products are covered by manufacturer's warranty. 



Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 am- 9 pm est 7 days a week 

Except NY. Order Status, Information, Technical Information, NY Orders call 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



About 

Your 

Subscription 



Your copy of the rainbow is 
sent second class mail. You 
must notify us of a new address 
when you move. Notification 
should reach us no later than 
the 15th of the month prior to 
the month in which you change 
youraddress. Sorry, we cannot 
be responsible for sending 
another copy when you fail to 
notify us. 

Your mailing label also 
shows an account number and 
the subscription expiration 
date. Please indicate this ac- 
count number when renewing 
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will help us help you better and 
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For Canadian and other no n- 
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applies to everyone except 
those whose subscriptions are 
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tralia. 



Bui ldi ng J a nuary's R a inb ow 




Our Beginners ff Boot 



T>*> 



Here il is, January, ihe beginning of a new year and a year of new beginnings. It's 
a lime when many of us resolve lo terminate bad habits and promise ourselves 
to achieve personal goals. And, just as personal objectives and challenges are 
established to enhance the year's opportunities, here at the rainbow, we are in the same 
frame of mind. I'm certain that this, our Beginners issue, can help launch what promises 
to be a successful year for you, us and the entire CoCo Community. 

If you're new to computing, we welcome you to the CoCo (that's our nickname for the 
Color Computer) Community and the rainbow, where an incredibly diverse group of 
Color Computer users — all with varying interests and levels of knowledge in computing 
— share ideas and experiences and learn from each other. 

This month, for the many new CoCo users, our Copy Editor, Lauren Willoughby, shares 
her first experiences as a CoCo beginner and hopes to make yours more enjoyable by 
showing you the ins and outs of computing in "Starting from Scratch." This special feature 
includes a staff collaboration of hints and tips, covers the basics of typing, loading and 
saving programs, and describes the general format of reading the magazine. 

To help you understand what you are reading, Lee Veal demystifies some of the jargon 
associated with computing in " A Glossary of Computer Terms." The coverage is broad 
and the definitions do not go into any great depth, but the information provided should 
boost your confidence and help you gel a good start in the CoCo world. 

Of course, getting started on the right foot is just as important to the advanced users 
breaking ground in new levels of computing. 

If you're interested in learning to program, David Ostler covers some of the most used 
commands in "BASIC for Beginners"; regular columnist, Joseph Kolar, tutors beginners 
in "BASIC Training"; and OS-9 guru, Dale Puckett, is back at the OS-9 drawing board 
with the KISSDraw project. 

For those who need a better understanding of using the OS-9 operating system, RAINBOW 
Technical Editor, Cray Augsburg, offers his advice in "OS-9 — Catch the Wave" and Nancy 
Ewart gives her assistance in "Stalking the Fire-Breathing Dragon." 

For the hardware buffs. Contributing Editor, Bill Barden, discusses disk basics — 
operation, tracks and sectors, file management, directories, etc. — in "Delving Into the 
CoCo Disk." Hardware specialist, Tony DiStefano, shows you how to add an LED (Light 
Emitting Diode) to the disk controller, and Ray Onley helps make the CoCo child-proof 
with a simple-to-build keyboard-locking device. 

The emphasis on new beginnings continues throughout this month's programs. To start 
an organized year, Robert Schlottmann's Tax Info helps CoCoists keep tax records in order, 
Bill Holdorf's Appointment Calendar tracks and prints out monthly schedules, and 
management consultant, Larry Paroubek assists you in "Finding the Right Person for the 
Job" with a program that creates detailed job descriptions. 

But beginning a new year cannot be all work and no play. Some of the fun includes 
Usetown Annex, a Simulation by Paul French that casts the player as a big-time land 
developer who must build a town from scratch while staying within a budget of $14 million; 
Clowns, by Bill Bernico and George Aftamonow, which allows you to mix and match facial 
features to create over I00 different clown faces; and Urchin, by Eric Tilenius, a short, 
fun game with an extremely bizarre scenario — giant sea urchins attacking helpless 
blackboard tetters. 

And, wrapping it all up is another splendid illustration by our cover artist Fred Crawford, 
who has been doing rainbow's wrapping for five years now! Fred's first cover was that 
great attacking dragon on our January 1983 issue. 

If you're an artist yourself, get ready for our CoCo Gallery competition for the Chicago 
RAINBOWfest, where the winning entries will be hung in a special exhibition for all 
RAINBOWfest attendees to view. Details will be announced in next month's issue, but 
basically, we'll be wanting framed printouts or screen photographs that are ready for display 
at the Test. 

So, a month for beginners and the CoCo enters its ninth calendar year, with the best 
yet to come. 

— Jutta Kapfhammer 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



SUPER MAX I INTERFACE 

Switch between 
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and ??? 

Use EXISTING 

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HI-RES 

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♦ Compatible with POPULAR CoCo III 
graphics software programs that use 
HARDWARE JOYSTICK interfaces ! Bring 
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51 2K 
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* Includes CoColll Software Bonanza 
package - a $150 plus value 1 1 ! 

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THE ULTIMATE 
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See pg.138 10/87 
Rainbow review 



COLORMAX DELUXE — better than coca max iii 

It's herel The CoColll BREAKTHROUGH PRODUCT everyone was waiting fori 320x200 graphics , pull down menus, icons 
the choice of any 16 colors from the CoCo Ill's 64 color palette plus RGB support ! Eleven (11) fonts are 
included for hundreds of lettering styles and painting is a breeze with 16 colors and 32 editable patterns!!! 
Color Max Deluxe requires a 512K CoCo III and Hi -Res Joystick interface ."~? Specif y printer !) $69.95. Color Max 
Deluxe Font Editor - create and modify fonts for use with 

FONT DISK #1 
$19.95 

lW""80 — SO COLUMNS FOR TW-64 ON COCO III 

It's finally here! An 80 column version of Telewriter-64 for the CoCo III with TELKPATCH features plus much, 
much morel Includes PRINT SPOOLER S (2) ultra-fast RAM DISKS for SiST users, plus changeable CHARACTER FOOTS S 
a setup CONFIG pgm. Req. TW-64 DISK & 128K CoCo III~559.95 / SPECIAL BONUS COMBO - TW-64 & TW-80 $99.95 

SUPER TALK 51 2 ~ DIGITAL voice FOR COCO III 

Turn your 512K CoColll into a Digital Voice Recorder ! Not synthesized speech, but 100% reproduction of your 
own voice! Create BIG MESSAGES , up to 32 blocks of 16K each. Reg. 512K~CoCoIII DISK . From Dr. Preble $39.95 

OS9 Lev.ll Ramdisk 
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erior design for a reliable upgrade. (*$49.95 when purchased with our 512K RSDOS 



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HI-RES JOYSTICK UTILITY SOFTWARE BONANZA ! 

New useful programs for the Tandy Hi-Res Joystick Interface I Get FULL 640X640 mouse & joystick resolution from 
BASIC or run CoCoMaxII on the CoColll w/o the CoCoMax cartridge $24.95~"w 7Hj-Res Interface $34.95 

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Did you buy an expensive RGB monitor ( CM-8 ) just so that you could see your Hi -Res artifacting CoCo 2 games in 
BLACK S WHITE ??? RGB PATCH converts most games to display in COLOR on an RGB monitor. 128K DISK $29.95 

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Compose your own " CoCo NEWSPAPER " w/ BANNER HEADLINES S 6 ARTICLES using a SOPHISTICATED graphics editor with 
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artifact colors unlike the CM-8! *$299.95 when purchased with a $24.95 CoColll cable - Add $14 shipping. 



CoCo III 512K RAM sticker $4.99 
Level II Quick Ref Guide $4.99 
Level II Basic09 binder ..$9.95 



300 CoColll POKES $19.95 

CoColll MultiPak PAL chip .$19.95 
Guide to CoColll Graphics .$21.95 



Better CoColll Graphics $24.95 

CoCo III Unraveled $29.95 

CoCo III Service Manual $39.95 



FASTflUPE 512 Format S Backup up to 4 single- /double-sided, 35/40 trk disks in 1 PASS! Even 0S9 Lev. Il l $19.95 
BIG BUFFER - 437,888 byte spooler for a 512K CoColll ! Print up to 200 text pages while using your CoCo! $19.95 




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See our other ads on pages 25 & 27 




The CoCo Gallery 





Circus 
J , m .sA.UPP«"" an 




_. h Hilde bra,ldt 
»CHU b eyan d TedH' 

9' a P h \ C « and Ted *es*" 



18 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 





SHOWCASE YOUR BESTI You are invited to nominate 
original work for inclusion in upcoming showings ol 
"CoCo Gallery." Share your creations with the CoCo 
Community! Be sure to send a cover letter with your 
name, address and phone number, detailing how you 
created yourpicture (what programs you used, etc.) and 
how to display it. Also, please include a few facts about 
yourself. 

Don't send us anything owned by someone else; this 
means no game screens, digitized images from TV 
programs or material that's already been submitted 
elsewhere. A digitized copy of a picture that appears in 
a book or magazine is not an original work. 

We will award two first prizes of $25, one for the CoCo 
3 and one for the CoCo 1 and 2; one second prize of 
$15 and one third prize of $1 0. Honorable Mentions may 
also be given. 

Please send your entry on either tape or disk to the 
CoCo Gallery, THE RAINBOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, 
KY 40059. Remember, this is a contest and your entry 
will not be returned. 



— Angela Kapfhammer, Curator 





Co I Or Mat r> 

Us ed S nf 5vvas 
e * tr *terZt U ri T rt ^ 

rac/ ^-£S g 




Mai*? 1 , ' toernp his T ° 9an Ward 









January 1988 THE RAINBOW 19 



1 Tutor raf 



Tips to get the new user up and running 

Starting From Scratch 

By Lauren Willoughby 



Since this is RAINBOW'S Beginners 
issue, we thought we would give 
CoCo newcomers a few handy 
pointers on dealing with their new 
Color Computers. I'm a beginner, too, 
new to THE rainbow and the CoCo. 

"Wait a minute!" you're saying. "If 
you're a beginner, what can you teach 
me?" Good question. True, I am an 
utter novice, and I make stupid mis- 
takes. I know what it is to be frustrated 
by the I/O Error, the OM Error, and 
all those other unspeakable nasties. 

But this is not exactly a case of the 
blind leading the blind — I have a 
distinct advantage. CoCo wizard Cray 
Augsburg and the rest of the RAINBOW 
editorial staff are just a wail away. They 
have become used to my howls of 
frustration and patiently point out my 
mistakes. 

In fact, my CoCo blunders are what 
inspired this article, I think. We're not 
sure exactly how it got started, but 
several editorial staff members had a 
hand in writing it. So, actually, I feel a 
little guilty having my name up there. 

This article is intended especially for 
those who are brand new to computing, 
covering the basics of formatting, sav- 
ing, loading, etc.. by taking the new user 
through the steps of typing in a RAIN- 
BOW program. But reading this is no 
substitute for studying your manual! 

It's Set Up - Now What? 

After you have taken your Color 
Computer, monitor, cassette recorder 
and /or disk drive from their packages 
and set them up, you are probably 
anxious to start "computing." But what 
is involved in "computing"? What 
exactly can your CoCo do? 

There is a world of programs out 
there that do amazing things. Your 

A recent graduate of Eastern Kentucky 
University, Lauren Willoughby works 
as Rainbow's copy editor. Even though 
she owns a Commodore, the rest of the 
staff manages to he nice to her. 



CoCo possesses fantastic capabilities — 
with software it can help you: organize 
your life (see Calendar, Page 100, Tax 
Info, Page 112, and Job Description, 
Page 106); perform fancy business 
calculations (see Payments, Page 82, 
and CoCo Saver, Page 84); write, by 
acting as a word processor; draw respec- 
table pictures, even if there's not an 
artistic bone in your body (see "CoCo 
Gallery," Page 18, and Clown Faces, 
Page 44); write and play music (check 
out MUSI and MUS2, Page 72); learn and 
teach — as an educational tool, the 
CoCo is peerless (see Typer, Page 82, 
Sentence Fragments, Page 90, and 
Fastfood, Page 54); use programs called 
utilities to help the computer in its own 
operation (see Smoothy, Page 78, and 
Color Tester, Page 80); plug into an 
international network (with a tele- 
phone, modem and membership in a 
BBS or online database (see Delphi Ad, 
Page 122, and the BBS listings. Page 8); 
and, of course, play games (see Urchin, 
Page 31, and Usetown Annex, Page 58)! 



But CoCo can do lots more. To get 
an idea of the possibilities, thumb 
through this issue and examine both our 
published programs and the many 
others available from our advertisers. 

The printed programs are for your 
personal use, just for buying THE RAIN- 
BOW But, first, you will have to decide 
whether to type them in or rely on our 
tape and disk services. 

Typing in programs has several ad- 
vantages, improved keyboarding skills 
and familiarity with BASIC among them. 
But if the idea of typing in program 
listings does not appeal to you, a solu- 
tion would be to purchase rainbow on 
TAPE or RAINBOW ON DISK, which in- 
clude all of the programs rainbow 
publishes each month, ready to load 
and run on your computer (see Page 94 
for more details). The typing time you 
save can be spent using your computer 
for things you enjoy. 

Preparation 

Before you begin typing in programs, 
there are a few things you'll need to 
know. If you own a CoCo 3, you will 
probably be able to run every program 
rainbow publishes. CoCo 1 and 2 
owners, however, won't be able to use 
the programs written specifically for the 
CoCo 3 on their machines. And some 
CoCo 2 programs won't run properly 
on the CoCo I. 



CoCo History 



There are three versions of the Color 
Computer, or CoCo: CoCo 1, CoCo 
2 and CoCo 3. The newer the model, the 
more power and capabilities it has avail- 
able. The CoCo 3 is the most powerful and 
versatile, with I28K (128 kilobytes of 
memory, but expandable to 5 1 2K) and the 
option of using OS-9 Level 11. (OS-9 is a 
sophisticated and powerful computer 
operating system). 

The first CoCo, which we now refer to 
as the CoCo 1, started with 4K RAM 
(Random Access Memory). It wasn't long 
before ways were found for these machines 
to access 64K, with 32K available to the 
user for BASIC programs. All CoCos con- 
tain ROM in addition to RAM. The ROM 
(Read-Only Memory) contains the basic 
language you can use for writing your 
programs, ROM interprets these programs 
by explaining to the computer what the 
program wants to do. 

The more recent CoCo 2 offers few 
capabilities over its older brother. The 



most notable differences include a smaller, 
sleeker case design and a completely 
revamped circuit board layout. A major 
difference is the lack of a 12-volt supply 
inside the machine. 

The CoCo 1 and 2 are able to use two 
different BASIC interpreters: Color basic 
and Extended Color basic. Extended 
Color basic offers several powerful fea- 
tures not included in the plain vanilla 
Color basic. These added features include 
math functions and, perhaps more impor- 
tant to many users, high resolution and 
graphics capabilities. 

The CoCo 3 uses only one ROM chip. 
This chip contains "patched" versions of 
Color basic and Extended Color basic, in 
addition to new programming for the 
many enhancements in the machine. This 
added programming for colors, graphics, 
etc., is often referred to as "Super" Ex- 
tended Color basic. It is because of these 
additions that most CoCo 3 programs 
won't operate on a CoCo 1 or 2. 



20 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



The Amazing A-BUS\& 







An A-BUS system with two Motherboards 
A-BUS adapter In foreground 

The A-BUS system works with the original CoCo, 
theCoCo2 and the CoCo 3. 

Aboutthe A-BUS system: 



• All Ihe A-BUS cards are very easy to use with any language lhal can 
read or wrile lo a Porl or Memory, In BASIC, use INPand OUT (or PEEK and 
POKE with Apples and Tandy Color Compulers) 

• They are all compatible with each other You can mix and match up lo 25 
cards to lit your application Card addresses are easily set with jumpers. 

• A-BUS cards are shipped with power supplies (except PD-123) and 
detailed manuals (including schematics and programming examples). 

Relay Card RE-140:$129 

Includes eight industrial relays. (3 amp contacts. SPST) individually 
controlled and latched. 8 LED's show status. Easy to use (OUT or POKE in 
BASIC) Card address is jumper selectable. 

Reed Relay Card re-i56.$99 

Same features as above, but uses 8 Reed Relays to switch low level signals 
(20mA max) Use as a channel selector, solid slate relay driver, etc. 

Analog Input Card ad-i42:$i29 

Eight analog inputs. to +5V range can be expanded to 1 00V by adding a 
resistor 8 bit resolution (20mV). Conversion time 120us. Perfect lo 
measure voltage, temperature, light levels, pressure, etc Very easy to use. 

1 2 Bit A/D Converter an-146: $139 

This analog to digital converter is accurate lo .025% Input range is -4 V lo 
+4V. Resolution 1 millivolt The on board amplilier boosts signals up lo 50 
times to read microvolts. Conversion time is 1 30ms. Ideal (or thermocouple 
strain gauge, etc. 1 channel. (Expand lo 8 channelsusing the RE-156 card) 

Digital Input Card in--i41:$59 

The eight inputs are optically isolated, so it's sale and easy to connect any 
"on/off" devices, such as switches, thermostats, alarm loops, etc. to your 
computer To read the eight inputs, simply use BASIC INP (or PEEK) 

24 Line TTL I/O dg-148: $65 

Connect 24 input or output signals (switches or any TTL device) to your 
computer The card can be set lor: input, latched output, strobed output, 
strobed input, and/or bidirectional strobed I/O. Uses the 8255A chip. 

Clock with Alarm cl-i44:$89 

Powerful clock/calendar with: battery backup lor Time, Date and Alarm 
setting (time and date); built in alarm relay, led and buzzer; timing to t /1 00 
second. Easy lo use decimal format Lithium battery Included. 

Touch Tone® Decoder ph-i45:$79 

Each tone is converted into a number which is stored on Ihe board Simply 
read the number with INP or POKE Use lor remote control projects, etc. 

A-BUS Prototyping Card pr-i52:sis 

3'A by 4 'A in with power and ground bus. Fits up to 10 I.C.s 




ST-143 



^HfrWftH 



Plug into the future 

With the A-BUS you can plug your PC (IBM, Apple, 
TRS-80) into a future of exciting new applications in the fields 
of control, monitoring, automation, sensing, robotics, etc. 

Alpha's modular A-BUS offers a proven method to build your 
"custom" system today. Tomorrow, when you are ready to take 
another step, you will be able to add more functions. This is ideal for 
first time experimenting and teaching. 

A-BUS control can be entirely done in simple BASIC or Pascal, 
and no knowledge of electronics is required! 

An A-BUS system consists of the A-BUS adapter plugged into 
your computer and a cable to connect the Adapter to 1 or 2 A-BUS 
cards. The same cable will also fit an A-BUS Motherboard for 
expansion up to 25 cards in any combination. 

The A-BUS is backed by Alpha's continuing support (our 11th 
year, 50000 customers in over 60 countries). 

The complete set of A-BUS User's Manuals is available for $10. 



Smart Stepper Controller sc-149: $299 

World's finest stepper controller. On board microprocessor controls 4 
motors simultaneously Incredibly, it accepts plain English commands like 
"Mnve arm 1 0.2 inches left" Many complex sequences can be delined as 
"macros" and stored In the on board memory For each axis, you can com rol 
coordinate (relative or absolute), ramping, speed, step type (hall. lull, wavel. 
scale laclor. units, holding power, etc. Many inputs: 8 limit & "wait until" 
switches, panic button, etc On the fly reporling ol position, speed, etc. On 
board drivers (350mA) lor small steppers (MO-1 03) Send lor SC-149 flyer 
Remote Control Keypad Option RC-1 21 : S49 

To control the 4 motors directly, and "teach" sequences ol motions 
Power Driver Board Option PD-1 23: $89 

Boost controller drive to 5 amps per phase For Iwo motors (eight drivers). 
Breakout Board Option BB-122:S19 

For easy connection ol 2 motors 3 ft. cable ends with screw terminal board. 

Stepper Motor Driver st-i43:$79 

Stepper motors are the ultimate in motion control The special package 
(below) includes everything you need lo gel familiar wllh them Each card 
drives two stepper motors (1 2V. bidirectional, 4 phase. 350mA per phasel 
SpecialPackage:2motors(M0-t03) + ST-143 PA-181: S99 

Stepper Motors mo- 1 03: si 5 or4 for 539 

Pancake type. 2'A" dia, 'A" shaft, 7.57steo, 4 phase bidirectional. 300 
step/sec, 1 2V, 36 phm, bipolar, 5 oz-in torque, same as Airpax K8270 1 -P2 

Current Developments 

Intelligent Voice Synthesizer, 1 4 Bit Analog to Digital converter. 4 Channel 
Digital to Analog converter. Counter Timer. Voice Recognition 

A-BUS Adapters for: 

IBM PC, XT, AT and compatibles. Uses one stioit slot 
Tandy 1 000. 1000 EX& SX, 1 200, 3000, Usesone short slot 
Apple II, II+. He. Uses any slol 
TRS-80 Model 102. 200 Plugs into 40 pin "system bus" 
Model 100 USO540 pin socket ISockcl Is duplicated on adantei) 
TRS-80 Mod3,4,4D. FttsSOolnbus (WiihiiarddiskuseY-cablel 
TRS-80 Model 4 P Includes cxlia cable (50ninbuslsrecessedl 
TRS-80 Model I. Plugs into 40 om 1/0 bus on KB or E/l 
Color Compulers (Tandyl.Fus ROM slol Muliinak or Y-cable 

A-BUS Cable (3 ft, 50 COnd.) CA-163: S24 

Connects the A-BUS adapter to one A-BUS card or lo first Motherboard. 
Special cable for two A-BUS cards: CA-1 62: S34 

A-BUS Motherboard mb-i20:S99 

Each Motherboard holds five A-BUS cards. A sixlh connector allows a 
second Motherboard to be added to the lirst (with connecting cable CA- 
1 6 1 : S 1 2). Up lo live Motherboards can be joined this way to a single A- 
BUS adapter. Sturdy aluminum frame and card guides included 
• The A-BUS is not a replacement lor the Multi-pak 




RE-140 




IN-141 




AR-133 S69 
AR-133..S69 
AR-I34...S49 
AR-136..S69 
AR-135...S69 
AR-132 S49 
AR-137..S62 
AR-131 S39 
AR-138. S49 



^rnTITfr^ 



wm 



AD-142 



Add 53.00 per order for shipping. 
Visa, MC, checks, M.O. welcomo. 
CT & NY residents add sales lax. 
C.O.O. add S3. oo extra. 
Canada: shipping Is S5 
Overseas add 10% 



Jffiy ALPHA tefefi 



■1 S-gma industries Company 



242- W West Avenue, Darien, CT 06820 



Technical inlo: (203) 656-1 806 

&M y 800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders: (203) 348-9436 

All lines open weekdays 9 lo 5 Eastern time 






CHRISTMAS 



SPECIAL 




Good through 
January 31, 1987 



FREE DEMO DISK 

AND COCOSHOW 

PROGRAM 



+ 



Your 
choice of: 



1 ) Free Font Disk a $24.95 value 

2) Free CGP-220 Color Driver 

the world's best: 125 colors a $19.95 value 

3) The complete Font library 

(4 disks) for only $29.95 (a $99 value) 



When you order CoCo Max III. Only $79.95 including the deluxe hi-res interface. 






must be the most enjoyable, useful, 
and awesome program you've ever 
seen or your money back. 



Instantly, 
no questions asked. 



CALL NOW TOLL FREE 1-800 221 



Mon-Frl 
9 to 5 EST 



AND LET THE FUN BEGIN 



A FEW QUOTES . 

almost wmsyoujCoU 8h 

TYrStres color, very easy 

!° F Sc-p e ^ g 



teS«pfee%°se. 

te^sTe^ov^etunewith 



as 



s5ssaȣ^2S 



re^£?c n a°n«a| 
ability like mysew j* spen t| 
presentable P>c.u r e e i ny 

all the things t . ng 
^°09%preJL 



Note: There is only one CoCo Max III. Do not confuse^ re's CoCo Max with similar sounding imitations. 



«&g? 





^pe^tfoo^ 



CO 



^° ^V* 



*°> 



"The best program ever written for the Color Computer" 



That's how thousands of enthusiastic users rated 
theCoCo Max II drawing program. With CoCo Max 
III we are ready to amaze them again. Instead of 
"patching" CoCo Max II, we rewrote it from scratch 
to take advantage of the CoCo Max III hardware. 
The results will knock your socks off ! Below is a 
brief list of some of the new features, but some, 
such asanimation, color sequencing, or theslide 
show, have to be seen. Send for the Demo Disk, and 
see for yourself. 

Everybody's favorite drawing package features: 

■ A 50% larger editing window. - Zoom area 400% 
larger. - New drawing tools: rays, 3D cubes, arcs,... - 
New editing tools: shadow.text size,... - Rotate by 1 .5° 
steps - Select any 1 6 of the 64 possible colors (all 64 
colors displayed at once!) - Powerful color mix: additive, 
subtractive, overlay,... - Full color editing of patterns 
and color changing patterns. - Incredible special eff- 
ects with color cycling up to 8 colors with variable 
speed. -Animation adds the dimension of motion to 
your image. (Must be seen.) - Sophisticated data com- 
pression saves up to 70% of disk space when saving 
pictures. 

In addition, there are dozens of enhancements to the 
multitude of features that made CoCo Max II a bestseller. 

More about CoCo Max III 

• CoCo Max III is not an upgrade of CoCo Max II. It is entirely 
rewritten to take advantage of the new CoCo 3 hardware 
(More memory, resolution, colors, speed,...) 

• The new CoCo Max III Hi-Res Interface and the CoCo Max II 
Hi-Res Pack are not interchangable. 

• The new interface plugs into the joystick connector. 

• The CoCo Max III disk is not copy protected. 

• CoCo Max III only works with the CoCo 3. 

• A Y-Cable or Multi-pak is not necessary. 

• Colors are printed in five shades of gray. 

• CoCo Max III can read CoCo Max il pictures. 



Note: CoCo Max II (for the CoCo 2) is still available on disk 
($79.95). CoCo Max I is still available on tape ($69.95). For 
details, refer to our double page ad in any Rainbow from 
January '86 to July '87 



Toll Free operators are for orders only. If you need precise answers, call 
the tech line. (Detained CoCo Max specs are included with the Demo Disk.] 

Add S3.00 par arriir for ihlpplng. 
Vln. MC. chockl. M.I) WDlcame. 
CT raildints idd sbIbs tix. 
C.O.D, idd $3.1)0 iitra. 
Cinidi: shipping It SS 
Ovariiu add 10% 



c 



Technical inlo (203) 656-1 806 

2&JVS ly 800 221-0916 

Connecticut orders: (203) 348-9436 

All lines open weekdays 9 to 5 Eastern time 




Imagine this picture in sixteen colors ! 



Guaranteed Satisfaction 

Ut« CoCo Max for a full month. 

If you are not delighted with It, 

we will refund every penny. 



System Requirements: 

Any CoCo 3 disk system with a Joystick or a Mouse. 

We apologize to tape users, CoCo Max III needs the flexibility of a disk. 
The CoCo Max III system includes: • The special Hi-Res 
interface(foryourmouseorjoystick) • The CoCo Max III disk • Many 
utilities: (ToconvertMaxiipictures, Max colors, etc.) • Adetailled User's 

Manual. Complete syslem; nothing else to buy. CoCo Max III: $79.95* 
• ■■■■iHaaaaaiiiB with COUPON ON IV laiBirBalalalBlHa 

| FREE DEMO DISK 

Name 
Street 
City 
State Zip 



I 

I 

I 
I 
I.. 



Printer used: 

Please include $2 to help defray Processing and Shipping 
costs. (Check, Money Order, etc. Sorry, no COD or Credit 
Cards). Coupon (or copy) must be mailled to: 



* Beware ol Interior Imitations that DO NOT include a Hl-Ras Interface 
or charoe extra tor each utility. 



(COLORWARE 



A division ol Sigma Industries. Inc. 



COLORWARE 

242-W West Avenue 
Darien, CT 06820 



Minimum system requirements are 
clear/)' marked at the top of the first 
page of each program's article, next to 
the tape/disk symbols. Before you 
begin typing in a program, be sure to 
check and see if the program will work 
on your computer system and how 
much memory the program requires. 
Make sure your machine has at least 
this much memory. Other things to 
verify are whether or not the program 
requires Extended Color BASIC (ECB) 
or Disk. 

Finally, before typing anything in, 
read the article that accompanies the 
program. Make sure you understand 
what the program does and that you 
won't be required to do anything 
beyond your present capabilities to 
make the program work. For example, 
many programs offer printer output as 
a feature. Some require a specific print- 
er. These requirements, along with 
possible changes for other printers, will 
appear only in the given article. By first 
reading the article, you can save your- 
self the frustration of spending a lot of 
time keying in a program only to find 
out it will not run on your system. 

Typing in rainbow's programs is 
very simple. What you'll be typing in is 
called the program listing. To see an 
example, turn to Page 32 for the listing 
of the program Urchin. Next to "The 
listing" the word URCHIN appears in a 
strange type style. We call this type style 
"digital," and use it to indicate comput- 
er commands throughout the magazine. 
In this case, we use the digital font to 
denote a filename, the name the com- 
puter uses to refer to the program. 

Programs are stored on disk or 
cassette as "files," and each file has a 
filename. Filenames are limited to eight 
characters. Often a program's name is 
longer than eight characters, like Use- 
town Annex, for example. The pro- 
gram's name contains 1 3 characters (the 
space counts, too), which is five too 
many. The problem is solved by short- 
ening the filename to USETDUN. 

If you are using a cassette-based 
system and have a blank computer tape 
for your cassette recorder, you are ready 
to begin typing in your program. But if 
you are using a disk-based system and 
plan to save your program to disk, you 
will first need to format one. Format- 
ting, or initializing, as it's also called, 
prepares a blank disk to accept data 
from the computer system. (See Wil- 
liam Barden's article, "Delving into the 
CoCo Disk," Page 180, which explains 
why formatting is necessary.) 



Formatting Your Disk 

Before formatting a disk, however, 
make certain the disk you plan to use 
is blank, unless you want to delete or kill 
the programs stored on it — the format- 
ting process erases everything on a disk. 
You can turn a "used" disk into a "new" 
blank disk by reformatting it, but 
remember, the formatting process 
"erases" the disk, and the programs on 
it will be lost. Also, don't attempt to 
format a disk with write-protect notches 
that have been taped over — it won't 
work; you'll get a WP Error. Such a disk 
is called a "write-protected" disk, and 
the notches are taped to prevent acci- 
dental erasure. A final word of caution 
is necessary here. The process of for- 
matting a disk will erase all contents 
from the computer's memory] Don't 
type in a program and then format a 
disk for saving it. Always make sure you 
have a formatted disk with plenty of 
space before you start typing. 

Formatting a disk is simple. All you 
have to do is put the disk in the drive, 
label-side up, close the drive gate, and 
type this command: D5KINI0 . Press the 
ENTER key. What the command means 
is that the disk in Drive (the only drive, 
if you have only one) is being initialized, 
or formatted, for your computer sys- 
tem. Don't worry if you hear strange 
whirs and clicks coming from your drive 
— it's normal. 

If you have a double, or dual, disk 
drive, you can format a disk in either 
drive. As you formatted the disk in 
Drive with the BASIC DSKINI0 com- 
mand, you can format a disk in Drive 
I (the second drive) with the DSKINI1 
command. Don't be confused by the 
second drive being called Drive 1; just 



remember that the first drive is always 
Drive 0. In a horizontal drive. Drive 
is on the bottom and Drive I is on the 
top. Insert your disk with the label 
facing up. In a vertical drive, the disk 
slots run up and down; Drive is the 
one on the left, and Drive 1 is the one 
on the right. Insert your disk with the 
label facing to the right. 

You need format a disk only once, 
and then you can store as many pro- 
grams on it as it will hold. After you 
have formatted a disk, you are ready to 
begin typing in a program. 

Typing In Programs 

You can use the following instruc- 
tions for typing in URCHIN or any other 
program listing in THE RAINBOW. Per- 
haps you should start with one of the 
program listings in "Novices Niche" 
(beginning on Page 72) for your first 
project, as they can be entered in a 
matter of minutes. But for examples 
we'll use Urchin, because it's a feature 
program. 

We realize the listings may look a 
little intimidating, especially to be- 
ginners, but we've made keying them in 
as easy as possible. One of the things 
we've done is print the listings on the 
page exactly as they should appear on 
the screen, in 32 columns. (If you've 
noticed, your screen is 32 columns wide, 
which means it can hold only 32 letters, 
numbers or spaces on one line.) Also, 
to help you in debugging your typing 
errors, we have a program that checks 
your typing for accuracy — the Rain- 
bow Check PLUS program, but we'll 
get to that later. 

Looking at the listing URCHIN, for 
example, you'll notice that each line 



write-protect notch 

/ 




write- 
protect 

notches 



pressure pad 



opaque tape 



The figures ubove indicate the locution of the write-protect notches on a cassette tape and 
a floppy disk. To write-protect a cassette, use a screwdriver to knock out the plastic tab on 
the left of the side of the tape you are using. If you want to reuse that side, cover the hole 
with a small piece of cellophane tape. The disk works the opposite way — as long as the notch 
is uncovered, the disk can be written to. If, however, you cover the notch with opaque (non- 
transparent) tape, the disk cannot be written to. 



24 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



WE SHOPPING LISTS 



COCO CABLES AND ... 

Tandy Hi -Res Joystick Interface $14.95 

Printer / Modem 10' Extender Cable $14.95 

TANDY CM-8 RGB Analog 6'Video Ext Cable ....$19.95 

Disk Drive Cable (34pin - 34pin) $19.95 

Modem Cable - 6ft (4pin-DB25) $19.95 

Modem Cable - 6ft (DB25-DB25) $19.95 

Joystick / Mouse 10' Ext Cable $19.95 

No more Deluxe RS-232 paks left to hook up ptr & 

modem ? Buy our RS-232 "Y" Cable (4 pin) $24.95 

Dual Disk Drive Cable (3-34pin) $24.95 

MAGNAVDX 8505 / 8515 / 8CM643 Analog RGB cable .$24.95 
Other Analog RGB monitor cable ( Specify !) ..$39.95 
15" Multi-Pak / Disk Pak Extender - Move your Multi- 
Disk Paks further away ;3*4»aa; Closeout $29.95 

40 Pin Dual "Y" Cable - Hook up a Disk with a 

Voice Pak, Word Pak, CoCo Max, etc $29.95 

CoCo RS232 Switcher - Now easily switch between a 
printer fi modem at the flick of a switch! ..$29.95 

OTHER GOOD STUFF ... 

5 1/4 " Diskettes in any quantity 49 cents 

C-10 tapes - Minimum quantity (20 pes) ...69 cents 

Rompak w/Blank PC Board 27xx series $9.95 

"D" Rev motherboard w/o socketed chips $16.95 

CC-THERM - Measure inside and outside temperatures 

with CoCo! Fahrenheit & Centigrade ! $19.95 

Warp Fighter 3-D - A CoCo III Space Fighter game 

with " 3-D GLASSES " 1 By Steve Bjork ! $39.95 

CoCo III keyboard - upgrade your CoCo II keyboard! 
" Package " deal w/FKEYS III{$24.95) software $39.95 

HDS Controller w/1.1 ROM (SAVE$20) $79.95 

MAGNAVOX TV tuner - Now you can watch TV with your 

Magnavox 8505/8515 RGB Analog monitor ! $99.95 

Sup er Controller - Up to 4 DOSs by a POKE ..$99.95 
Super Controller II - DMA "No Halt " disk controll- 
er. No type-ahead OS-9 problems! $129.95 

PBH-64 - A combo Parallel Printer interface & 64K 

Print Buffer! COMPOTE while you PRINT ! $149.95 

SONY KV-1311CR - ( CHEAPEST PRICE IN THE RAINBOW ) 1 ! 
$439.95 - Add $40.00 for cable (+ $20.00 shipping) 
Tandy LP-1000 Laser Printer (SAVE $200 ) - $1995.00 



Breaking your back 
typing on your 
CoCo??? 





Sit back and relax with 

a Spectrum keyboard 

extender cable. $39,95 

See 11/87 Rainbow review 

page 137 



SUPER CHIP -SALE- ... 

2764 EPROM $4.95 27128 EPRQM $6.95 

6821 Standard PIA :$»r9S: Closeout price! $6.95 

68764 EPROM :?3»y9g- Closeout price! $12.95 

6847 VDG Chip ~$&&5- Closeout price! $12.95 

6809E CPU Chip :$*9*33: Closeout price! $12.95 

CoCo III Multipak - "NEW" PAL chip (For Gray and 

White 26-3024 models ONLY) $19.95 

Basic ROM 1.3 ( Newest version) $19.95 

Disk ROM 1.1 - (Needed for CoCoIII ) $29.95 

Original SAM Chip (6883) $29.95 

Ext Basic 1.1 ROM - Closeout price! $29.95 

CoCo First Aid Kit - includes two PIA's, 6809E CPU 
and SAM Chips (BE PREPARED) Closeout price! $49.95 
NEW1 ' Upgraded ' CoCoIII " GIME " chip $79.95 

• EPROM Programmer - uses 2716s up to 27512 s! Super 
fast programming! - See April '86 review .$149.95 

COCO LIBRARY ... 

A History of the CoCo / 1980-1986 $6.95 

CoCo Memory Map Reg . :3±&»S5r Now only $9.95 

New! 200 MORE Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $9.95 

Basic Programming Tricks Revealed ;S±*t9^ ... .$9.95 

■ 500 Pokes, Peeks 'N Execs $16.95 

300 CoCoIII POKES - #1 CoCoIII bestseller! .$19.95 

Complete Rainbow Guide to OS9 Level II $19.95 

A Guide to CoCo III GRAPHICS (7/87 review) .$21.95 

■ Better Graphics on CoCo3 (8/87 review pgl43)$24.95 

CoCo II Service Manual (Specify Cat.#) $29.95 

CoCo III Unraveled - A best seller! 1 ! $29.95 

Inside OS-9 Level II (from Frank Hogg!) $39.95 

■ CoCo III Service Manual - Current version! .$39.95 
Color / Extended / Disk Basic Unraveled $49.95 

MORE GOOD STUFF ... 

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begins with a number. The first line 
reads: 10 GOTO 4G0. This is Line 10: The 
number on the left is the line number. 
A line number can be used only once — 
there can be only one Line 10. The next 
line is Line 20, then 30 and 40, etc. Line 
numbers don't have to follow each other 
in multiples of 10 (that decision is made 
by the programmer), but they do have 
to follow in numerical order (i.e.. Line 
40 always comes before 50). 

Notice that lines 10 and 20 are very 
short, taking up less than one row of 
space, while Line 90 takes up nearly five 
rows of space. The length of lines can 
vary from less than one row of screen 
space (up to 32 characters) to almost 
eight rows (248 characters). No more 
than 248 characters can be directly 
typed into one line. 

It's helpful to be able to determine the 
line numbers when typing in the listing, 
but sometimes it is difficult to distin- 
guish them from other numbers inside 
the line, especially when lines take up 
more than one row of screen space. If 
you're like me, you probably thought, 
at first glance, that the line number 
following Line 410 was Line 66. But 
Line 66 does not exist in this program; 
the GG is part of Line 410. As a guide, 
remember that line numbers follow 
each other numerically and that there is 
usually some sort of pattern or order in 
the way program lines are numbered, 
such as a progression of lines by 10. 

OK! Now it's almost time to get your 
fingers wet! But before you begin, you 
first must get rid of whatever is cur- 
rently in the computer's memory in 
order to make room for the program 
you are about to type in. 

Note: If you are using a disk system 
and have a disk in the drive, be sure to 
take it out of the drive before turning 
the drive or the computer off or on, as 
program data can be zapped from the 
disk. Also — and this is very important 
— never plug in or remove a program 
pack or disk controller while the com- 
puter is on, as it could damage the 
computer. 

If you have just turned on your 
computer, there is nothing in memory 
to get rid of, and you are ready to begin. 
However, if you have been noodling 
around, reset the computer by turning 
it off, waiting 15 seconds, and then 
turning it on again. This is called a cold 
start. Type NEW for good measure (this 
tells CoCo you are starting something 
new). 

Getting Your Fingers Wet 

Now type the first line of the pro- 
gram, making sure you type in each 



character and space exactly as it ap- 
pears on the page. If you make a mis- 
take, you can correct it by backing up 
using the left arrow key or simply 
retyping the line again. If you are keying 
in URCHIN, type 10 GOTO 4G0. When 
you reach the end of the line, press the 
ENTER key. You must always press 
ENTER for the computer to take any 
notice of your efforts when typing in a 
line. Whenever you are told to "enter" 
a command, type it and press the ENTER 
key. 

Notice that your listing flows from 
one row to the next without your having 
to press ENTER. Even though a line may 
be eight rows long, press ENTER only at 
the very end. 

Continue entering lines exactly as 
they appear, pressing ENTER after each, 
until you reach the end of the program 
or until you get tired of typing, which- 
ever comes first. You don't have to type 
in an entire program in one sitting — 
you can save what you have done and 
resume entering later. 

Saving Your Program 

When you have finished typing the 
entire listing or have reached a stopping 
place in the middle, you are ready to 
save the program. Even if you have 
typed in only the first few lines of a 
program listing, it is important to save 
it. If you were to turn off the computer 
without doing so, you'd have to enter it 
all again! And that, my fellow novice, 
is a bummer. I know. Also, don't be 
tempted to run your program before 
saving it to tape or disk — the computer 
could lock up and you would have to 
start over. 

To save a program on cassette, first 
set the recorder's volume level to 3 (the 
most commonly used setting for saving 
and loading) and make sure the tape is 
blank — you don't want to save over a 
program you intend to keep. Then 
rewind the tape, reset the counter 
number on the cassette recorder and 
remove the cassette with the side you're 
about to save your program on facing 
up. Advance the tape by putting your 
finger in the right hub and turning it 
counterclockwise until the beginning of 
the brown part of the tape goes slightly 
past the pressure pad (see Figure I). 

Put the tape back in the recorder. 
Now you are ready to save your pro- 
gram. Type CSRVE" filename" (simply 
enclose in quotes the name of the file 
you are saving), press ENTER, and then 
press the Play and Record buttons on 
the cassette recorder. Sticking with our 
earlier example, we would enter 
CSFIVE "URCHIN". The C in the com- 



mand stands for "cassette." When 
CoCo has finished the saving process, 
it will print "OK" on the screen, and the 
tape will stop winding. Turn off the 
cassette recorder (press the Stop but- 
ton) to prevent the tape from stretching. 
To save your program to disk, type 
SME"filename" and press ENTER. Your 
drive will whir as the file is being saved. 
When CoCo has finished saving the file, 
the message "OK" will be displayed. If 
you are conscientious and would like to 
verify the save, type DIR and press 
ENTER. DIR is the command for the disk 
directory, which should by now have 
popped up on the screen. If the file you 
just saved is the first thing you saved to 
the disk, its filename will be the only one 
you see (along with some other informa- 
tion). However, if formatting and sav- 
ing are old hat to you, and you have 
previously stored other programs on the 
disk, you will see a whole list of file- 
names. 

Backing Up Your Program 

Diamonds are forever, but disks 
aren't, and tapes are even more short- 
lived. Sooner or later, your precious 
data will be zapped, or entropy will take 
over. To prevent catastrophes, make 
several copies of your program and 
periodically back them up. A simple 
way to do this is to save the program 
one more time, particularly on a differ- 
ent tape or disk. 

To make a backup of a program on 
the same cassette or to save another 
program immediately following the first 
program on a cassette, press the Record 
and Play buttons, then type M0T0R0N, 
wait approximately five seconds and 
press any key followed by ENTER (to 
stop the MOTORON command). This is 
done to put blank space between two 
programs on a cassette, and to avoid 
getting I/O Errors when loading. This 
process of separating programs must be 
repeated between every cassette save. 
To save your program to another 
cassette, simply prepare it for saving (by 
advancing the transparent leader of the 
tape past the pressure pad), type 
CSflVE" 'filename" ', and press ENTER and 
the Record and Play buttons again, just 
as you did before. 

If you try to save a file to disk with 
the exact same filename you used be- 
fore, you will save over the first copy. 
To make backup copies of a program on 
the same disk, save the file under a 
different filename. For example, you 
might call a backup of the URCHIN 
listing URCHIN1. Remember not to let 
your filenames exceed eight characters! 

It is possible to save a file using the 



26 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 





R3in> w 

rt|(0|M ' 







l^fffn 




ro 



n n d 

f D) H- 




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NYS Residents add sales tax. 



same filename by changing the exten- 
sion, which is the invisible part of a 
filename used when loading or saving a 
file. If you have a disk system, call up 
the directory using the command DIR. 
if you have saved URCHIN, here is what 
you will see: 

URCHIN BAS B 1 

The filename in the first column is 
followed by .BAS, which denotes a 
BASIC file, and is the extension you 
saved URCHIN under, by default. When 
you don't give a BASIC file an extension, 
CoCo assigns one for you — . BflS. But 
an extension can be any combination of 
three other characters, or just one or 
two characters. 

To save URCHIN again under the same 
name, but using a different extension, 
type SAVE"URCHIN.ABC". We have 
changed the extension from the default, 
.BflS, to .ABC. Now you have two 
copies of URCHIN. You can make several 
more backups, if you wish. Many 
CoCoists use the extension .BKU, to 
indicate that the program is a backup. 

Also, it is a good idea to make several 
saves of a program while you are work- 
ing on it. If a huge power surge or a 
brownout comes along, you will lose all 
your work since the last save. In writing 
this article, 1 lost half an hour's work in 
my word processing file because of a 
one-second power surge. Retyping 
something you thought you had nailed 
down is not fun. So, please, please, 
make frequent saves! Cray Augsburg 
says he saves his programs to disk after 
every 10 lines. 

After you have saved your program 
to disk, remove the disk from the drive 
and reset the computer by turning it off, 
waiting 15 seconds and then turning it 
on again. Enter LIST to call up UR- 
CHIN'S listing. Uh oh, nothing happens! 
URCHIN'S file has disappeared from 
memory. Don't panic; we can call it 
back. Aren't you glad you saved your 
program? 
Loading Your Program 

From disk, the procedure you will use 
when loading any BASIC program saved 
with the default extension .BflS is to 
type LOAD' 'filename" or LORD" filename 
.BflS" and press ENTER. It is not neces- 
sary to type the extension, although 
.BflS will be accepted. If a program is 
saved with a different extension, how- 
ever, the extension must be included 
within the command. For example, if 
the filename is URCHIN and the exten- 
sion is .BKU, you must type LOAD 
"URCHIN. BKU" to load the file from 
disk. If you were to simply type 



LOAD"URCHIN", the computer would 
search for the extension .BAS. 

From cassette, the procedure to use 
when loading a BASIC program is to first 
rewind the tape to find the counter 
number you noted earlier (which marks 
the beginning of the program on tape), 
and then type CL0F\D"f ilename" and 
press ENTER and the Play button on the 
recorder. As the computer searches for 
the given filename on the tape, you will 
notice the letter S appears in the upper- 
left corner of the screen. When the 
computer finds the file in question, the 
S will change to an F. The F will alter- 
nate between normal and inverse video 
as the specified file is loaded. 

After you have loaded a file and the 
computer responds with the "OK" 
prompt, you are ready to list or run the 
program. Enter LIST. Tada! URCHIN is 
back. The LIST command scrolls 
through the listing until it reaches the 
last line. If you need to resume keying 
in the listing, this is where you pick up. 
Debugging Your Program 

When typing in an entire listing, it is 
most likely that you will make several 
mistakes. The most direct method of 
finding out if your program is correct 
is by giving it the "Run" test: Type RUN 
and press ENTER. If the program runs 
flawlessly, crown yourself the universe's 
supreme typist. But, if you're like me, 
your program will probably start fabu- 
lously -- only to stop with an error 
message. 

What you have to do is go back and 
match each line of the listing on the page 
against each line you see on the screen. 
To do so, type LIST followed by the first 
line number you want to check. For 
example, type LIST10 to check UR- 
CHIN'S first line. Just one colon, comma 
or period out of place is enough to make 
the program crash. 

How do you fix your mistakes once 
you find them? The Extended BASIC 
EDIT command invokes a line editor for 
making changes to your programs. To 
use it, type EDIT.v.v.v, where xxx is the 
line number of the line you want to edit. 
Now, after pressing ENTER, you will see 
a copy of the complete line printed on 
the screen just as you typed it. Just 
below that, you will find the cursor 
flashing after the specified line number. 
You are now in the Edit mode. You can 
advance through the existing line by 
pressing the space bar, or backspace 
with the left arrow key (your character 
will be erased from the screen, but not 
from memory). 

You can delete characters using the D 
key. Simply advance your cursor, using 



the space bar, so that the last character 
you want to keep is just to the left of 
the cursor. Pressing the D key now will 
delete the next "invisible" character. 
Press D for as many subsequent char- 
acters as you want to delete. For exam- 
ple, if you want to delete the word 
PRINT because you unintentionally 
typed it twice, simply press the D key 
five times. However, if you want to 
erase everything from the cursor to the 
end of the line, press H, which stands 
for "hack." If you want to enter more 
characters at this point, just start typ- 
ing. Using the hack command automat- 
ically puts you into the "insert" mode. 

To enter the insert mode otherwise, 
position your cursor again by using the 
space bar. When ready, press I. You can 
now enter any additional characters you 
might want. Caution: The left arrow key 
Joes erase when in the insert mode. To 
leave the insert mode, just hold the 
SHIFT key down and press the up arrow 
key one time. Press ENTER. The edited 
lines will now replace the original in the 
CoCo's memory. When you've finished 
debugging, be sure to save the corrected 
program to tape or disk. For more 
detailed information about the EDIT 
command, consult the manual that 
accompanied your CoCo. 

rainbow has another method of 
helping you debug your typing — the 
Rainbow Check PLUS program. See 
"Rainbow Info" on Page 10 for more 
explicit directions, but, in a nutshell, 
here is how the Rainbow Check pro- 
gram works: It calculates a "checksum" 
value based on the characters that 
appear in a given segment of the pro- 
gram, and it shows this number to you. 
You can then compare the number with 
the one we calculated and printed in the 
Rainbow Check PLUS box that ap- 
pears at the beginning of program 
listings. This is a big help, because it 
allows you to debug your program in 
sections. The only drawback is that you 
get only one chance to debug using 
Rainbow Check PLUS while typing a 
program in. Once you have gone past 
one of the checksum line numbers, you 
cannot go back and use the Check 
PL US program to compute a checksum 
for that line number. 

We call the Rainbow Check PLUS 
chart a Checksum. Here is what UR- 
CHIN'S looks like: 



rr 



130 110 

275 47 

410 201 

END 18 



The numbers on the left are actual 



28 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



line numbers within the program; the 
numbers on the right are the results of 
calculations the Rainbow Check pro- 
gram performs. 

To use the Rainbow Check PLUS 
program, key in and save its listing from 
"Rainbow Info" on Page 10. Type RUN 
and press ENTER. Then enter the com- 
mand NEW, and you are ready to start 
typing in a program. Start typing! 
When you have finished typing the 
listing through the entire line indicated 
by the first line number in the chart 
(Line 130, in the case of URCHIN), press 
ENTER, as you would normally, then 
press the down arrow key. CoCo then 
gives you the checksum value. This 
figure should match the one given in the 
chart, 1 10. If it doesn't, you need to go 
back and debug the program from its 
beginning to Line 130. 

The next line number on the chart is 
275. When you have typed in URCHIN up 
to the end of that line, stop and repeat 
the process. If your result doesn't equal 
47, then, again, you made a mistake. 
Fortunately, you don't have to go back 
to the beginning of the program to find 
your error, only back to the line follow- 
ing your last Rainbow Check, Line 140. 

Now that you know the basics of 



operating your CoCo on a day-to-day listing, debugging and running), it's 
basis (formatting, saving, loading, time for the fun stuff! 



HINTS, TIPS, PEEKS & POKES 



Cassette Input/Output 

If you suspect the file you are looking 
for is somewhere in the middle of a tape, 
and you don't want to wait as CoCo 
passes over all the programs from the 
beginning of the tape to where your 
program starts, you can use the com- 
mand HUDI00N:M0T0R0N to help you 
get there faster. Enter the command, 
and when CoCo says "OK," fast- 
forward or rewind your tape to the 
approximate location of the file. Do not 
type CLDRD. just press the Play button. 

Surprised? Where a program is re- 
corded on tape, you hear a high-pitched 
whine. A place of silence indicates 
where the tape is blank, between pro- 
grams. When you have found a few 
seconds of silence, quickly stop the tape 
(by pressing any key and ENTER), enter 
CLDHD, and press Play. CoCo will load 
the next program it comes to. 

However, if you try to do a CLOAD in 
the middle of a program (where there is 



noise), the computer will stop with an 
I/O Error. Make sure you start the 
loading process where the tape is silent. 
(See last month's "Novices Niche" for 
Bohdan Hrycaj's Call, a cassette utility 
that eliminates the need for using HU- 
DIDON.-MDTORDN.) For fun, sometime, 
use hUDI00N:M0T0R0N with one of 
your music tapes to see what the music 
sounds like coming through your com- 
puter's speaker. 

Magnetic Mayhem 

Disks and cassettes are delicate crea- 
tures; their innards are laced with 
magnetic patterns, so don't let them 
near a magnet! Also, keep cassettes, 
disks, cassette recorders and disk drives 
away from the left side of the TV, or at 
least a half a foot away, because the 
flyback transformer is located there: It 
puts out a lot of interference and can 
make your computing life a sea of I/O 
Errors. 



Model 101 
Interface $39.95 



Model 104 Deluxe 
Interface $51.95 



Model 102 
Switcher $35.95 



Model 105 
Switcher $14.95 




• Serial lo parallel interface 

• Works wilh any COCO 

• Compatible wilh "Centron 
ics" parallel input printers 

• 6 switch selectable baud 
rales 300-600-1200-2400 
4800-9600 

• Small size 

4.5" x 2.5" x 1.25" 

• Comes complete with 
cables to connect to your 
computer and printer 



Other Quality 
Items 

High quality 5 screw shell C- 
10 cassette tapes S7.50 
dozen 

Hard plastic storage boxes for 
cassette tapes S2.50 dozen 

Pin-Feed Cassette Labels 
White $3.00 100 
Colors S3.60100 (specily 
red. blue, yellow, tan) 



Same teatures as 101 plus 

• Built in serial port lor your 
modem or other serial device 

• Switch between parallel 
output and serial output 

• Size is 4.5" X 2.5" X 1 .25" 

• Comes complete with 
cables to connect to your 
computer and printer 



NEW! Cables for 
your COCO 

• U.L listed foil-shielded cable 

• 2 Types: male/female exten- 
sion cables (used between 
a serial device and existing 
cablel male male cables 
(used between two serial 
devices such as a modem 
and one of our switchers). 

• 3 It. S3.95, 6 ft. S4.49. 
10fl.S5.59 Specify MM 
or M F and length. 



• Connect to your COCO 
serial port and have 3 switch 
selectable serial ports 

• Color coded indicator lights 
show switch position 

• Lights also serve as a 
power on indicator for your 
COCO 

• Heavy guage blue anodized 
aluminum cabinet with non- 
slip rubber leet 

The 101 and 104 require 
power to operate Most print- 
ers can supply power to your 
interlace (Star. Radio Shack 
and Okidata are just a few that 
do - Epson and Seikosha do 
not). The interfaces can also 
be powered by an AC adap- 
tor; Radio Shack model 273- 
1431 plugs intoall models II 
you require a power supply, 
add a "P" to the model number 
and add $5.00 to the price. 
(Model 101PS44.95, Model 
104P $56.95). 



> Connects to your COCO 
lo give you 2 switch select- 
able serial ports 

> 3 loot cable to connect to 
your COCO'S serial port 

' The perlecl item to use to 
connect a printer and a 
modem to your COCO 

> Small in size, only 4. 5x2. 5 
x 1.25 



The Model 1 01 , 1 02. 1 04 and 
1 05 work wilh any COCO, any 
level basic and any memory 
size. These products are co- 
vered by a 1 year warranty. 

The Model 101 and 1 04 work 
with any standard parallel 
input printer including Gemini. 
Epson, Radio Shack, 
Okidata, C. loth, Seikosha, 
Panasonic and many others. 
They support BASIC print 
commands, word processors 
and graphic commands. 

We manufacture these 
products - dealer inquiries 
arp invited. 



Cassette Label 
Program $6.95 

• New Version - tape trans- 
lerrable to disk - save and 
load labels from tape to disk 

• Prints 5 lines ol information 
on pin-feed cassette labels 

• Menu driven, easy to use 

• Standard, expanded and 
condensed characters 

• Each line of texl auto- 
matically centered. 

• Label display on CRT, en- 
abling editing before printing 

• Program comes on tape 
and is supplied with 24 
labels to get you started 

• 16K ECB required 

Ordering 
Information 

Free shipping in the United 
Stales (except Alaska and 
Hawaii) on all orders over 
$50 00. Please add S2.50 lor 
shipping and handling on or- 
ders under S50.00. 
Ohio residents add 6% 
sales tax. 

Call (513) 677-0796 and use 
your VISA or MASTERCARD 
or request COD. (Please 
add $2.00 lor C.O.D. orders). 
II you prefer, send check or 
money order; payable in U S 
Funds to: 

Metric Industries 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, Ohio 
45242 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 29 



& 



Resetting the computer 

When you have finished with one 
program and want to load another, you 
can press the BREAK key or the reset 
button and the computer allows you to 
load another program into memory and 
run it. However, the program you were 
working with previously is still wander- 
ing around in memory. If you load a lot 
of programs this way, strange things can 
occur because of the "remnants" of the 
previous programs. To be safe, you need 
to turn your computer off for 15 se- 
conds and then on again to completely 
clear the memory (remember the cold 
start?). 

But frequently turning off and on 
your computer is not good for it. A 
solution is to enter POKE113.0 and 
press the reset button. This accom- 
plishes a cold start, as if we had turned 
the computer off and on. 

For those of us who would rather 
wiggle our fingers than exert ourselves 
to reach around the machine for the 
reset button, simply type and enter 
POKE113,0:EXEC40999. This poke 
gets a lot of use here at THE rainbow. 

PCLEAR1 Bug On CoCo 1 

Whenever CoCo I encounters a 
PCLEAR1 statement, a bug in its system 
prevents the program from running. 
When you try to run, you get an SN 
Error referencing the line containing the 
statement. The solution is simple —just 
type RUN again and press ENTER, or 
delete the PCLEAR1 statement. 

Directory Printouts 

Entering P0KE111,254 :DIR will 
print out your disk directory if a printer 
is hooked up. 

The CoCo printer port defaults to a 
rate of 600 baud. If your printer uses a 
different baud rate, you can change the 
CoCo's baud rate with a simple poke. 
To change the baud rate to 1200, enter 
POKE150 , 41. Many Radio Shack print- 
ers are capable of running at 1 200 baud. 
Some can even handle 2400 baud. To 
change CoCo for this value, enter 
POKE150,1B. If you own a serial to 
parallel converter for your CoCo and 
printer, it probably works at 9600 baud. 
Just use PQKE150.1. To change the 
CoCo back to 600 baud, use 
PDKE150,8?. 

Automatic Lowercase 

When your computer is in the com- 
mand mode (when not under the direc- 
tion of a program), you can toggle back 
and forth between uppercase and low- 
ercase by pressing SHlFT-0. Or you can 
enter POKE 282,0 to move into lower- 
case and POKE 282,1 to return to 



uppercase. You can use these pokes 
directly, or within a program. Re- 
member, though, that CoCo 1 and some 
CoCo 2s do not have true lowercase 
capability in the 32-column mode. 
What you see on the screen will be an 
inverse copy of the appropriate upper- 
case character. However, the machine 
will recognize the character's true low- 
ercase value internally. 

Accidentally Pressing BREAK 

If you accidentally press the BREAK 
key, all is not lost. Enter CONT and you 
will be returned to where you left off. 

The Speed-Up Poke 

Entering POKE 65495,0 allows you 
to double the computing speed of the 
newer CoCo Is and 2s. You can use the 
poke as a direct command or in a 
program. Older CoCos cannot handle 
it, however; so, if a program locks up 
or freezes on you, look for occurrences 
of this poke and delete them from the 
program listings. To slow down the 
speed-up poke, enter POKE 65494,0. 
The CoCo 3 speed-up poke is POKE 
65497,0. The "slow-down" counter- 
part is POKE 65496,0. Also, don't try 
to save or load programs from tape or 
disk while in the high-speed mode! 
Always slow the system down before 
performing any tape or disk operations. 

Saving in ASCII 

ASCII is sort of the universal stand- 
ard for the computing world. You can 
save your files in a format that other 
computers, like the Tandy PC and IBM 
Compatibles, can read. You can read 
word processing files from other word 
processors and from other computers if 
the saves are done in ASCII. 

Use the format SAVE "filename" , fl or 
CSflVE "filename" , A to save your files in 
ASCII. 

Editing in ASCII 

Wouldn't it be great to be able to edit 
your programs as you edit documents 
with a word processor? Well, you can! 
But first you have to save a copy of your 
program in ASCII format (see above). 
Merely load the program as you would 
any other document into your word 
processor, and you are ready to race all 
over the screen with your cursor, insert- 
ing and deleting at will. 

Disk Backups 

It is a good idea to back up, or make 
copies of, your programs. The BACKUP 
command copies the whole side of a 
disk to another formatted disk, and 
COPY copies just one file. To use BACKUP 



with a single-drive system, enter 
BACKUPS and follow the prompts in 
switching your source and destination 
disks. For a dual-drive system, type 
BACKUP0TO1 or BACKUP1TO0; the first 
number is the drive number of the drive 
holding your source or master disk. The 
second number is that of the drive 
holding the formatted destination disk, 
the one that will become your backup. 
(The commands are essentially the 
same, but BACKUP1TO0 is a little safer, 
because it places the destination disk in 
the default drive. If your master is in 
Drive 1, it shouldn't be written to by 
mistake.) 

Verifying Cassette Saves 

Cassette saves are not as reliable as 
disk saves — ordinary cassettes are 
often used instead of special computer 
ones, and the tape is prone to wear, tear 
and stretching. It is best to make mul- 
tiple saves of your program and then 
verify that they have been saved cor- 
rectly. To verify tape saves, rewind the 
tape to the beginning and enter 
SKIPF"at", where x is the last filename 
saved on the cassette, then press the 
Play button. If the saves are OK, your 
tape will wind uneventfully to the end. 
The SKIPF command will stop with an 
I/O Error if there were any recording 
errors. 

Verifying Disk Saves 

To make sure that what is written to 
a disk matches exactly what is in CoCo's 
memory, use the command VERIFYON. 
Merely type and enter the command 
before you attempt a save. Saving will 
take longer this way, but the extra time 
spent is worth the comfort of knowing 
that your save has been checked for 
accuracy. 

Don'ts and Don'ts 

Finally, to reiterate something you 
already know, never plug in or remove 
a pack from your computer when it is 
turned on, as you will damage the 
computer. And never turn your 
computer off or on when there is a disk 
in the drive, as you stand to lose your 
data. If you do either, you're asking for 
a zap. 

Welcome to the world of CoCoing! I 
hope this material has been helpful and 
will get you started on the right foot. 
Check out Lee Veal's dictionary of 
computer terms on Page 85 for addi- 
tional assistance. Finally and foremost, 
read and reread the manual supplied 
with your Color Computer, and keep 
following THE RAINBOW! /R\ 



30 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



Gam e 



16KECB 




A fast, fun game with a really bizarre scenario 



The Urchins 



from the 



By Eric W. Tilenius 



tell you the truth, I'm rather 
embarrassed by this game. 
No, not because Urchin is a 
bad game, or because it's slow, or any 
other reason like that. In fact, it's a great 
little game, and even the slowest of 
typists should be able to get it keyed in 
and running within half an hour. You 
won't spend hours and hours typing it 
in, and it has speed, adjustable skill 
levels, color, machine language screen 
scroll, and lots more! 

What's So Embarrassing? 

Well, 1 usually pride myself on my 
imaginative story lines. This being the 
case, 1 just couldn't write another 
"aliens are invading Earth" story for 
this game. So I tried to think of a 
scenario that hadn't been used before. 

That's when 1 came up with this 
embarrassing scenario, which (I think) 
has never been used before (and hope- 
fully will never be used again!). Ready 
for it? Well, here goes. . . . 



Eric Tilenius is a Huntington Station, 
New York resident, whose parents and 
girlfriend think he spends entirely too 
much time with his CoCo. However, 
Eric claims this is a ridiculous and 
biased account. Incidentally, he has 
never personally been attacked by a sea 
urchin. 



Once upon a time, there were 26 
letters of the alphabet that lived in a 
little red schoolhouse. Every day the 
teacher would put these letters on a 
polka-dotted blackboard so that all the 
students could gape and goggle at them. 
As far as the letters were concerned, that 
was all very well and good. But at night, 
it was a different story! Every, night, 
when the teacher left the building, giant 
sea urchins would break in through the 
window and pounce on the unsuspect- 
ing letters. 

That was not good at all. Just imag- 
ine, there they were — "Mr. A" (or "Mr. 
B" or "Mr. T") — sitting quietly on their 
blackboard when whooshl smashl 
they're squashed by a gigantic urchin. 
How undignified! To save themselves 
from this humiliation, the letters issued 
an interplanetary distress call. Guess 
who comes to their aid? Why, you, of 
course. (The worst is still to come). 

You are an extraterrestrial black- 
board eraser, and it is your job to erase 
the blackboard. Unfortunately, you 
haven't been cleaned in months, so 
when you move, a trail of yellow chalk 
is left behind. Your mission is to erase 
all the letters before the urchins get 
them. Of course, you have the standard 
problem of any extraterrestrial 
blackboard-letter-eraser: You can't run 
into your chalk trail. In addition, you 
can't run into an urchin, as they love to 



squash erasers, as well as letters. 

Now do you see why Urchin is so 
embarrassing? Blackboard erasers, sea 
urchins, alphabet letters — what a cast! 
Nonetheless, it's a neat little game. One 
of the best features is the way the whole 
screen scrolls as you move. I would like 
to thank T&D Subscription Software 
for these routines. 

Game Play 

To play Urchin, you need I6K Ex- 
tended Color BASIC. The game works 
on either disk or cassette systems, and 
requires no special loading instructions. 

Before typing in Urchin, turn your 
computer off, wait a few seconds, then 
turn it on again. Next, type in the 
program listing and save it to disk or 
cassette by typing SAVE "URCHIN" or 
CSflVE "URCHIN", respectively. Then 
run the program. If you mistype any of 
the DRTfl statements, the computer will 
display an error, so be very careful when 
typing these in. 

When you run the program, you are 
asked for a skill level from 1 to 9. Skill 
Level 1 is very slow and easy, while 
Level 9 is fast and extremely hard. I'd 
suggest starting with Level 4. 

When you select a skill level, the 
screen clears and the blackboard ap- 
pears, followed by the 26 letters of the 
alphabet. After a one-second pause, the 
computer beeps. You will then see a 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



T & D SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE CONTINUES ITS 



ISSUE #1, JULY 1982 




ISSUE #7, JANUARY 1983 


ISSUE #13, JULY 1983 


ISSUE #19, JANUARY 1984 


ISSUE #25, JULY 1984 


COVER 1 




NEW YEARS COVER 


THIRTEENTH COVER 


BANNER 




CLOCK 


RACETRACK 




LIST ENHANCER 


PUSH CARD 


PROBE 




COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PT. 3 


HANGMAN 




SUPER PRECISION DIV. 


ICE BLOCK 


DISK DIRECTORY PROTECTOR 


SKID ROW ADVENTURE 


MUSIC ALBUM 




BOMB DIFFUSE 


COSMIC FORTRESS 


OPTICAL CONFUSION 




MONEYMAKER 


LIFE EXPECTANCY 




SPACE STATION 


MAIL LIST 


WORD PROCESSOR 




PIN-HEAD CLEANING 


WORD TESTS 




ML TUTORIAL PT. 2 


OOLURS S CENTS 


WORD SEARCH 




LINE EDITOR INST. 


KILLER MANSION 




SHOOTOUT 


ML TUTORIAL PT. 8 


ASTRONAUT RESCUE 




LINE EDITOR 


BARTENDER 




FIND UTILITY 


SDSK COPY 


STAR TRAP 




BOOMERANG 


CALENDAR 




CYBORG INS. 


MUSIC SYNTHESIZER 


PIE CHART 




BUBBLE BUSTER 


ROBOT WAR 




CYBORG FACES 


CRAWLER 


FORCE FIELD 




RECOCHET 


ISSUE #2, AUGUST 1982 


ISSUE #8, FEBRUARY 1983 


ISSUE #14, AUGUST 1983 


ISSUE #20, FEBRUARY 1984 


ISSUE #26, AUGUST 1984 


UFO COVER PT. 1 




COVER 8 


MYSTERY COVER 


INTRODUCTION: 




PEEK, POLE 8 EXECUTE 


BIORHYTHM 




DEFEND 


ROW BOAT 


HINTS FOR YOUR COCO 




SAUCER RESCUE 


BOMBARDMENT 




3 DIMENSIONAL MAZE 


COMPUTER TUTL PT 1 


ESCAPE ADVENTURE 




YOUNG TYPER TUTOR 


BUCK JACK 




COCO CONCENTRATION 


INDEX DATABASE 


SEEKERS 




O-TEL-0 


COST OF LIVING 




AUTO LINE NUMBERING 


DISK ZAPPER 


MASTER BRAIN 




OLYMPIC EVENTS 


FRENZY 




ML TUTORIAL PT 3A 


COCO-MONITOR 


LIST CONTROLLER 




DOUBLE DICE 


BUSINESS LETTER 




ML TUTORIAL PT.3B 


COCO-ARTIST 


DISKETTE CERTIFIER 




COCO DATA8ASE 


QUICK THINK 




NUCLEAR POWER PUNT 


ROBOT COMMAND 


ROM COPY 




BATTLE STAR 


OUEST INSTRUCTIONS 




DUAL BARRIER 


TEST SCREEN PRINT 


BASIC RAM 




COCO-PIN BALL 


QUEST FOR LENORE 




BRICKS 


HIGH RESOLUTION TEXT 


SNAFUS 




MONTEZUMAS DUNGEONS 


ISSUE #3, SEPTEMBER 1982 


ISSUE #9, MARCH 1983 


ISSUE #15, SEPTEMBER 1983 


ISSUE #21, MARCH 1984 


ISSUE #27, SEPTEMBER 1984 


UFOCOVERPT2 




TIME MACHINE COVER 


MYSTERY COVER PT. 2 


BASIC CONVERSIONS 




COCO TO COM 64 


BASKETBALL 




TRIG DEMO 


GOLD VALUES 


FINANCIAL ADVISE 




GALACTIC SMUGGLER 


CHUCKLUCK 




PYRAMID OF CHEOPS 


TREK INSTRUCTIONS 


CASTLE STORM 




INDYRACE 


SLOT MACHINE 




PROGRAM PACKER 


TREK 


DOS HEAD CLEANER 




ACCOUNT MANAGER 


ALPHABETIZER 




BUDGET 


HIGH TEXT MODIFICATION 


COCO TERMINAL 




CASSETTE MERGE UTILITY 


NFL PREDICTIONS 




ELECTRONIC DATEBOOK 


ASTRO DODGE 


SNAKE CRAWLER 




STRING PACKING TUTORIAL 


FUG CAPTURE 




ML TUTORIAL PT. 4 


DR. COCO 


WAR CASTLE 




SPACE DUEL 


ROBOT BOMBER 




TAPE DIRECTORY 


PEG JUMP 


SKY FIRE 




BUGS 






BLOCK-STIR 


MORSE CODE 


EASY BASIC 




TRAP-BALL 


ISSUE #4, OCTOBER 1982 


COCO ADDING MACHINE 


PURGE UTILITY 


DOTS 3-D 




BALLOON FIRE 


UFO RESCUE 














TANK BATTLE 




ISSUE #10, APRIL 1983 


ISSUE #16, OCTOBER 1983 


ISSUE #22, APRIL 1984 


ISSUE #28, OCTOBER 1984 


DRIVEWAY 




TENTH COVER 


MYSTERY COVER 


HEALTH HINTS 




HANGING TREE 


SOUNDS 




PYRAMID OF DANGER 


BOPOTRON 


GLIBLIBS 




CHECKERS 


BALLOON DROP 




TYPING TUTOR 


DIRECTORY RECALL 


CLOTHER SLITHER 




FOOTBALL - 


MIND BOGGLE 




MLTUT0RIALPT.5 


VECTOR GRAPHICS INST 


BIBLE 1 & 2 




MORE PEEKS, POKES 


COCO-TERRESTRIAL AD\ 


, 


TINYCALC 


VECTOR GRAPHICS 


BIBLE 3 8 •'. 




SPELLING CHECKER 


CALORIE COUNTER 




STOCK MARKET COMP 


SKYDIVER 


CATCHALL 




SOUND DEVELOPMENT 


JACK-O-UNTERN 




YAH-HOO 


SWERVE AND DODGE 


INVADER 




WORD GAME 






MISSILE ATTACK 


NIMBO BATTLE 


ALIEN RAID 




SCREEN REVERSE 


ISSUE #5, NOVEMBER 19 


SCREEN PRINT 


TAPE ANALYSIS UTILITY 


MOON ROVER 




AUTO COPY 


CATALOG COVER 




BRIKPONG 


LIFE GENERATIONS 


10 ERROR IGNORER 




RAT ATTACK 


BOWLING 














PROGRAM INVENTORY 




ISSUE #11, MAY 1983 


ISSUE #17, NOVEMBER 1983 


ISSUE #23, MAY 1984 




ISSUE #29, NOVEMBER 1984 


PROMISSORY-LOANS 




ELEVENTH COVER 


THANKSGIVING COVER 


MONEY SAVERS U 2 




DISK ROLL OUT 


CHECKBOOK BALANCER 




ARCHERY 


3-DTIC-TAC-TOE 


STOCKS OR BOMBS 




ROBOT ON 


TRIGONOMETRY TUTOR 




FROG JUMP 


INOY500 


WALL AROUND 




MULTIPONG 


CONVOY 




ML TUTORIAL PT 6 


COLLEGE ADVENTURE 


COCO TECHNICAL LOOK PTI 


ADVENTURE GENERATOR 


BAG-IT 




MLT DICTIONARY 


MEMORY GAME 


NUCLEAR WAR INST. 




QUEST ADVENTURE 


SPECTRA SOUND 




BASIC SPEED UP TOT. 


DUNGEON MASTER 


THERMONUCLEAR WAR 




QUARTER BOUNCE 


CONVEYOR BELT 




METRIC CONVERTOR 


WEATHER FORECASTER 


CIRCUIT DRAWER 




DUAL OUTPUT 






GRAPHIC QUAD ANTENNA 


GRID FACTOR INST. 


MOUSE RACES 




KEY REPEAT 


ISSUE #6, DECEMBER 19 


GRAPHICS PROGRAM 


GRID FACTOR 


SUPER-SQUEEZE 




FULL EDITOR 


CHRISTMAS COVER 




CATERPILURCAVE 


DRAW 


DATA FALL 




METEOR 


RAINDROPS 














STOCK MARKET 




ISSUE #12, JUNE 1983 


ISSUE #18, DECEMBER 1983 


ISSUE #24, JUNE 1984 


ISSUE #30, DECEMBER 1984 


ADVANCED PONG 




TWELFTH COVER 


CHRISTMAS COVER 


DIR PACK 8 SORT 




MATH HELP 


DESTROY 




SHOOTING GALLERY 


CLIMBER 


BRICK OUT 




ZECTOR ADVENTURE 


SOUND ANALYZER 




BOMB STOPPER 


GAUCTIC CONQUEST 


C0COTECHNICALLOOKPT.2 


WORLD CONQUEST 


CREATIVITY TEST 




VALLEY BOMBER 


WARLORDS 


USA SLIDE PUZZLE 




DRAG RACE 


VOICE DATA 




STARFIGHTER 


STATES REVIEW 


51 '24 SCREEN EDITOR 




MINE FIELD 


ML TUTORIAL PT. 1 




WHEEL OF FORTUNE 


MATH TUTOR 


51 '24 SCREEN 




T-NOTES TUTORIAL 


LOONY UNDER 




ML TUTORIAL PT 7 


MACHINE UNGUAGE DATA 


CITY INVADERS 




TSD PROGRAM INDEXER 






MERGE UTILITY 


PRINTER UTILITY INST. 


PRINTER SPOOLER 




SYSTEM STATUS 






RAM TEST 


PRINTER UTILITY 


STEPS 




ERROR TRAP 






UNDER 


MUTANT WAFRES 


SNAKE 




DROLL ATTACK 




;/.'.\/s 




Sing 

2-5 

6-10 


SUPER SAVINGS 

le Issue $8.00 

ssues $6.00 


• Every Issue Contains 
10 or More Programs 

• Many Machine Language 
Programs 

ea - • Available for COCO 1. 1 1 and III 


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BACK ISSUE SALE OF OVER 640 PROGRAMS 



ISSUE #31, JANUARY 1985 

TREASURES OF BARS03M 

BATTLE GROUND 

STRUCTURED COMPILED LANGUAGE 

LIBRARY MODULE 

MINIATURE GOLF 

STAR DUEL 

ARITHMETIC FOOTBALL 

GRID RUN 

SPIRAL ATTACK 

FAST SORT 

MUNCHMAN 

ISSUE #32, FEBRUARY 1985 

DR SIGMUND 
ICE WORLD ADVENTURE 
LOTTERY ANALYST 
BASIC COMPILER 
MUSIC CREATOR 
MEANIE PATROL 
TRI-COLOR CARDS 
SHAPE RECOGNITION 
DISK BACKUP 
SPACE PROTECTOR 

ISSUE #33, MARCH 1985 

LIGHT CYCLE 

PAINT 

SKEET SHOOTING 

GUITAR NOTES 

ML DISK ANALYZER 

PERSONAL DIRECTORY 

NAUGHA ADVENTURE 

EGGS GAME 

DISK DIRECTORY PRINT 

SPEED KEY 

ISSUE #34, APRIL 1985 

HOVER 7 ANK 
POWER SWORD 
TERMITE INVASION 
SPELLING CHECKER 
DOS BOSS 
NINE CARD CHOICE 
MUSIC GENERATOR 
FYR-DRACA 
DRIVE TEST 
GRAPHIC TOUR 

ISSUE #35, MAY 1985 

SELECT A GAME 1 
TAPE PROBLEMS 
STROLL TRIVIA 
SOFTBALL MANAGER 
FONTS DEMO 
CLOWN DUNK MATH 
ALPHA MISSION 
DOS ENHANCER 
HAUNTED HOUSE 



ISSUE #38, AUGUST 1985 

GOLF PAR 3 
WIZARD ADVENTURE 
KITE DESIGN 
ROBOTS 
GOMOKU 

AMULET OF POWER 
LINE COPY UTILITY 
DISK PLUMBER 
SUPER RAM CHECKER 
GRAPHIC HORSE RACE 

ISSUE #39, SEPTEMBER 1985 

DRUNK DRIVING 
CAR MANAGER 
SQUEEZE PLAY 
SUPER BACKUP 
RECIPE MACHINE 
ANTI-AIRCRAFT 
UNREASON ADVENTURE 
TALKING ALPHABET 
SUPER VAOERS 
AUTOMATIC EDITOR 

ISSUE #40, OCTOBER 1985 

STAR TREK 
HAM RADIO LOG 
COCO-WAR 
DISK LABELER 
SHIP WAR 
ELECTRIC COST 
MULTIKEY BUFFER 
NUKE AVENGER 
CURSOR KING 
SAND ROVER 

ISSUE #41, NOVEMBER 1985 

GRUMPS 

DISK DRIVE SPEED TEST 

SOLAR CONQUEST 

GAS COST 

RIME WORLD MISSION 

WUMPUS 

CHARACTER EDITOR 

GRAPHIC TEST 

GRAPHIC LOOPY 

BOLD PRINT 

ISSUE #42, DECEMBER 1985 

HOME PRODUCT EVALUATION 

YAHTZEE 

DISK UTILITY 

MACHII 

ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD 

CAR CHASE 

SUPER MANSION ADVENTURE 

SLOT MACHINE GIVE AWAY 

TEXT BUFFER 

TUNNEL RUN 



ISSUE #45, MARCH 1986 

INCOME PROPERTY MGMT 
ELECTRONIC BILLBOARD 2 
MOUNTAIN BATTLE 
THE FIGHT 
COLO KEENO 
HOCKEY 

LOGICAL PATTERNS 
ON SCALE SCREEN 
LIBERTY SHIP 
SINGLE STEP RUN 

ISSUE #46. APRIL 1986 

SPECIAL EVENTS REMINDER 

DISK LOCK 

SMALL BUSINESS MANAGER 

BOMB RUN 

TANKS 

TAR PITS 

BASEBALL 

NUMBER RELATIONSHIPS 

ROULETTE 

GLOBAL EDITOR 

ISSUE #47, MAY 1986 

CHRISTMAS LIST 
BLACK HOLE 
PITCHING MANAGER 
SYMBOLIC DIFF 
BUG SPRAY 
OWARE CAPTURE 
EASY GRAPHICS 
DESERT JOURNEY 
SCREEN CONTROL 
FULL ERROR MESSAGE 

ISSUE #48, JUNE 1986 

CHESTER 
TV SCHEDULE 
BASE RACE 
ROMAN NUMERALS 
ASTRO DODGE 
HIRED AND FIRED 
MULTI COPY 
AUTO MATE 
SCROLL PROTECT 
NOISE GENERATOR 

ISSUE #49, JULY 1986 

COMPUTER I.O.U. 
DISK DISASSEMBLER 
BAKCHEK 
PACHINKO 
STOCK CHARTING 
HAUNTED STAIRCASE 
CANYON BOMBERS 
DRAGONS 1 & 2 
GRAPHIC SCROLL ROUTINE 
AUTO BORDER 



ISSUE #52, OCTOBER 1986 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

WORKMATE SERIES 

CALENDAR 

INVASION 

THE TRIP ADVENTURE 

FOOTRACE 

FLIPPY THE SEAL 

SCREEN CALCULATOR 

ABLE BUILDERS 

SUPER ERROR 2 

ISSUE #53, NOVEMBER 1986 

CORE KILL 
LUCKY MONEY 
COOKIES ADVENTURE 
NICE LIST 
SPANISH OUIZZES 
PAINT EDITOR 
CAVERN CRUISER 
SNAP SHOT 
MEGA RACE 
KICK GUY 

ISSUE #54, DECEMBER 1986 

JOB LOG 

PEGS 

DIGITAL SAMPLING 

JUNGLE ADVENTURE 

PAINT COCO 3 

CONVERT 3 

COMPUTER TYPE 

PANZER TANKS 

MRSPAC 

BIG NUM 

ISSUE #55, JANUARY 1987 

GRADE BOOK 
MAIL LIST 
DOWN HILL 
FIRE FOX 
JETS CONTROL 
GALLOWS 
DIR MANAGER 
FIRE RUNNER 
GRAPHICS BORDER 
COSMIC RAYS 

ISSUE #56. FEBRUARY 1987 

CALENDAR PRINT 
CRUSH 
GALACTA 
OCEAN DIVER 
CLUE SUSPECT 
WORD EDITOR 
ALIEN HUNT 
DEMON'S CASTLE 
PICTURE DRAW 
DIG 



ISSUE #59, MAY 1987 

GENEOLOGY 

HOME PLANT SELECTION 

CHECK WRITER 

HELIRESCUE 

KABOOM 

NEW PONG 

CROQUET 

FUNCTION KEYS 

ZOOM 

ELECTRONICS 2 

ISSUE #60, JUNE 1987 

JOB COSTING 
LABELS 
CATCH A CAKE 
COCO MATCH 
ROBOTS 
STREET RACERS 
BOWLING 3 
ELECTRONICS 3 
GRAFIX 
KRON 

ISSUE #61, JULY 1987 

EZ ORDER 

SUBMISSION WRITER 

KEYS ADVENTURE 

WALLPAPER 

CHOPPER COMMAND 

UNDERSTANDING OPPOSITES 

BIT CODE PLOTTING 

ELECTRONICS IV 

KING PEDE 

RAIDER 

ISSUE #62, AUGUST 1987 

PENSION MANAGEMENT 

HERB GROWING 

CATALOGER UTILITY 

RAIDERS 

ALPHABETIZING 

W.F.O. 

ELECTRONICS V 

RAMBO ADVENTURE 

BLOCKS 

MULTI SCREEN CAVES 

ISSUE #63, SEPTEMBER 1987 

GENEOLOGIST HELPER 
SMART COPY 

MAINTENANCE REPORTING 
COCO 3-COCO 2 HELPER 
DIRECTORY PICTURE 
SUB SHACK 
SAVE THE MAIDEN 
CAVIATOR 
ELECTRONICS VI 
MONKEY SHINE 



ISSUE #36, JUNE 1985 


ISSUE #43, JANUARY 1986 


ISSUE #50, AUGUST 1986 


ISSUE #57, MARCH 1987 


ISSUE #64, OCTOBER 1987 


SELECT A GAME 2 


DUELING CANNONS 


BUSINESS INVENTORY 


THE BAKERY 


GARDEN PUNTS 


VIDEO COMPUTIZER 


WATER COST 


D8D ARENA 


ENCHANTED VALLEY ADV 


FORT KNOX 


SPEECH SYNTHESIS 


ZIGMA EXPERIMENT 


DISK CLERK 


SAFE KEEPER 


ELECTRONICS FORMULAS 


SPEECH RECOGNITION 


MUSICAL CHORDS 


PC SURVEY 


WAR1 


SNAKE IN THE GRASS 


SPACE LAB 


SAFE PASSAGE 


TREASURE HUNT 


BOMB DISABLE 


CYCLE JUMP 


AUTO COMMAND 


PASSWORD SCRAMBLER 


SCREEN GENERATOR 


PIANO PLAYER 


GEOMETRY TUTOR 


COMPUTER MATCHMAKER 


GUNFIGHT 


ASTRO SMASH 


SPREAD SHEET 


SLOT RACERS 


KNIGHT AND THE LABYRINTH 


KEYPAD ENTRY 


NFL SCORES 


SLOT MANEUVER 


GAME OF LIFE 


STAR SIEGE 


STYX GAME 


BARN STORMING 


LIVING MAZE 


ELECTRONICS VII 


TALKING SPELLING QUIZ 


PRINTER DIVERT 


SMASH GAME 


GEM SEARCH 


FLIGHT SIMULATOR 


ISSUE #37, JULY 1985 


ISSUE #44, FEBRUARY 1986 


ISSUE #51, SEPTEMBER 1986 


ISSUE #58, APRIL 1987 




CHESS MASTER 


HOME INVENTORY 


ASSET MANAGER 


ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 




BIBLE 5-7 


NINE BALL 


MONEY CHASE 


PRINTER GRAPHICS 




SHIP WREK ADVENTURE 


PRINTER REVIEW 


FISHING CONTEST 


SIMON 




FILE TRANSFER 


EXPLORER ADVENTURE 


RIP OFF 


PANELING HELPER 




FOUR IN A ROW 


SPANISH LESSONS 


HAND OFF 


MULTI CAKES 




MARSHY 


CROSS FIRE 


BUDGET 51 


CAR RACE 




TAPE CONTROLLER 


RAM SAVER 


VAN GAR 


ELECTRONICS I 




CATACOMB 


GRAY LADY 


DOS EMULATOR 


BATTLE TANK 




AUTO TALK 


JOYSTICK INPUT 


MEM DISK 


DISKETTE VERIFY 




SGR8PAK 


COSMIC SWEEPER 


VARIABLE REFERENCE 


WEIRDO 








1 







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Holland, Michigan 49424 

(616) 399-9648 



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flashing square in the center of the 
screen — that's you. Quickly tap one of 
the four arrow keys to indicate the 
direction you would like to go (if you 
aren't quick, the game will end). 

Purple urchins start appearing on the 
screen. Try to run over all the letters by 
using the four arrow keys, without 
doubling back on yourself or hitting an 



urchin. When you go over a letter, you 
will hear a slight beep, which means you 
just scored another point. 

So hop to it! Stop making fun of the 
scenario and start typing in Urchin. 
You'll love it! 

Warning: The author advises that the 
player not eat "Alpha-bits" while play- 
ing Urchin, as some players have been 



known to become confused, ending up 
erasing their cereal and eating their TV 
sets. If this happens, unplug the TV 
immediately. 

(Questions may be directed to the 
author at P.O. Box 1729, Huntington 
Station, NY 1 1 746. Please enclose an 
SASE when writing for a reply.) □ 



Ft? 

V^ 130 1 



275 
410 . 
END 



10 

.47 

.201 

..18 



The listing: URCHIN 

10 GOTO 4 60 

2j3 CLS0:SS=0:EC=175 

30 IF CO=128 THEN SC=1 ELSE SC=6 

5 

40 FOR C=1024 TO 1535: POKE C,CO: 

NEXT 

50 FOR C=SC TO SC+25 

60 PO=RND (512) +1023 

70 IF PEEK(PO)=CO THEN POKE PO,C 

:NEXT ELSE 60 

80 C$=CHR$(10)+CHR$(94)+CHR$(8)+ 

CHR$(9) 

90 FORI=14000 TO 14151 :READD: POK 

EI,D:TM=TM+D:NEXT:IF TM016384 T 

HEN SOUND 1, 10 :CLS: PRINT"* DATA E 

NTRY ERROR*" :PRINT"RECHECK DATA 

STATEMENTS . " : END 

100 DEFUSR0=14000:DEFUSR1=14046 

110 DEFUSR2=14092:DEFUSR3=14123 

120 SOUND 1,1:K$=INKEY$ 

130 IF PEEK(12 64)=EC THEN 2 30 

140 IF PEEK( 1264) =159 AND TURNS> 

5 THEN 2 30 

150 IF PEEK(1264)<91 AND PEEK(12 

64)>64 THEN SOUND 87,1:SS=SS+1 

160 POKE 1264,191 

170 FOR C=l TO P:NEXT 

180 POKE 1264,159 

190 TURNS=TURNS+1 

200 IF RND(11-S)=2 THEN POKE RND 

(100) +102 4, EC 

210 IF SS=2 6 THEN 2 90 

220 GOTO 330 

230 FOR C=0 TO 8 

240 POKE 1264,128+16*0-1 

250 PLAY"O3L50CDEDC" 

260 NEXT: CLS 

270 PRINT"OOPS . . . BAD MOVE !",,," 

YOU SCORED :";SS:PRINT"ON SKILL L 

EVEL: " ; S : PRINT : PRINT" **TOTAL POI 

NTS**": PRINT" ";S+SS 

275 PRINT :PRINT"MAYBE NEXT TIME 

YOU'LL GET THEM ALL... (KEEP TRY 

ING!)" 



280 PLAY"01L2EEDCP1P1":RUN 

290 PRINT@295,"YOU GOT THEM ALL! 

n 

300 FOR C=l TO 20 
310 SOUND C* 10+1, 2: NEXT 
3 20 CLS: PRINT "CONGRATS! !", , " (NOW 
TRY A HIGHER SKILL LEVEL)": PLAY 
"CDEDC":RUN 

330 K$=INKEY$:IF K$=""GOTO350 
340 D=INSTR(C$,K$) 
350 ON D GOSUB 370,380,390,400 
3 60 IF D=0 THEN 330 ELSE 130 
370 U=USR0(0) : RETURN 
380 U=USR1(0) : RETURN 
390 U=USR2 (0) .'RETURN 
400 U=USR3(0) : RETURN 
410 DATA 142,4,0,16,142,58,152,1 
66,128,167,160,140,4,32,38,247,1 
42,4,0,166,13 6,32,167,128,140,5, 
224,3 8,24 6,142,5,224,16,142,58,1 
52,166,160,167,128,140,6,0,3 8,24 
7,57 

420 DATA 142,5,224,16,142,58,152 
,166,128,167,160,140,6,0,38,247, 
142,5,224,166,130,167,13 6,32,140 
,3,255,38,24 6,142,4,0,16,142,58, 
152,166,160,167,128,140,4,3 2,38, 
247,57 

430 DATA 142,5,255,230,132,16,14 
2,0,31,166,130,167,1,166,162,16, 
140,0,0,38,244,231,132,230,130,1 
40,3,255,38,229,57 

440 DATA 142,4,0,230,132,16,142, 
0,31,166,1,167,12 8,166,162,16,14 
0,0,0,38,244,231,128,140,6,0,38, 
231,57 
450 END 
460 PCLEAR1 
470 CLS 

480 PRINT " »URCHIN. . . A »NO FRIL 
LS 1 GAME<< BY ERIC W. TILEN 
IUS." 

490 PRINT: PRINT" *USE THE ARROW K 
EYS TO SAVE THE** LETTERS FROM DE 
STRUCTION! !!!!!* " 
500 INPUT"SKILL LEVEL (1-9) ";S 
510 IF S<1 OR S>9 THEN 470 ELSE 
P=200/S-20 
520 CO=180 
530 GOTO 20 /R\ 



36 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



16K ECB 







mw<& 



w 



a previous article [September 
1987, Page 26], 1 covered var- 
J iables and some of their uses 
in programming. This time I will cover 
more of the most used commands that 
will help you become good pro- 
grammers. 

Remember the old saying "Practice 
makes perfect"? It is even more true in 
programming. If you know about a 
command and do not practice it, you 
will probably forget about the com- 
mand when it's needed most. Therefore, 
try all of these commands at least 10 
times, to entrench them in your mind. 
Also, remember this series just covers 
some of the commands found in the 
Color Computer basic language, not 
the commands pertaining to drawing 
and graphics generation. Many pro- 
grammers do not program for graphics, 
so I concentrated on the commands 
common to many of the different BASIC 
languages. 

My son is able to translate programs 
for the Apple and Commodore comput- 
ers for use in his school work. Many of 
the commands translate directly, with 
few exceptions. 



REM () 

The apostrophe (') or REM symbol is 
the famous remark statement. It notifies 
the computer that all characters follow- 
ing the symbol are not commands and 
should be ignored by the computer's 
command interpreter. 

Use REM statements to place remarks 
within the program body itself to embed 
programming notes that explain the use 
or function of particular portions of a 
program. This helps when trying to 
debug a program, which is the act of 
finding the location of a problem (called 
a bug) that has made itself known by 
returning a wrong answer or causing the 



Da ve Ostler is an IC layout designer and 
the systems manager for a CAD main- 
frame system. He teaches CAD and 
electronics at Guilford Technical Com- 
munity College. Dave is married and 
has three children. Avis, Chuck and 
Erik. 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 37 



program to crash. It also allows a 
programmer to know where various 
parts of the program are stored within 
the body of the program. This is helpful 
when you have various loops within a 
program. 

This practice is useful for beginners 
and for expert programmers who are 
working with a very intricate program. 

Some programmers prefer to use the 
REM statement instead of the apostrophe 
symbol. The proper syntax for this 
command is 10 GOTO 5 'THIS LOOP 
STARTS THE PROGRAM OVER. The com- 
puter recognizes only the GOTO 5 com- 
mand and ignores the rest of the line. 

Remember that any character you 
place in a program will use up memory, 
whether it's a command or remark and 
text. So, use remarks only where you 
need them, but use them! 

CLEAR 

The CLEAR command notifies the 
command structure that you want to set 
up an area of memory reserved for 
variable storage. It is normally used as 
CLEAR xxxx, where xxxx is the amount 
of memory you want to reserve. Or it 
can be used as CLEAR xxxx, yyyy, 
where xxxx is still the amount of mem- 
ory you want to reserve, but yyyy is an 
area of memory you desire to protect 
from overwriting. The yyyy area is 
usually used to protect the basic mem- 
ory area from any variable storage. 

The xxxx figure is usually obtained 
by trial and error, until a satisfactory 
balance between variable storage and 
program area is reached. 

Also, when you clear memory within 
the body of a program, all variables are 
cleared out. All numeric variables will 
now equal zero, and all string variables 
will have nothing in them after a CLEAR 
command is issued. Therefore, it is 
normal practice to issue a CLEAR com- 
mand early in a program, unless you 
want to clear out all variables at a 
certain point in a program. 

PRINT® 

The PRINTS command makes a pro- 
gram appear professional. It orders the 
computer to print text or graphics 
characters to the screen at the location 
desired. For the screen locations that 
are available, see your manual for the 
PRINTS worksheet page. 

Proper syntax is PRINTS XXX,, where 
xxx is a numerical value between and 
511. This numerical value directly 
relates to the screen location as found 
in the PRINTS worksheet. The com- 
mand is usually used as 10 PRINTS 

38 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



128, "THIS TEXT WILL BE PRINTED". 
This would have been printed at 
screen location 128. and the text would 
have ended at screen location 152. 
Another enhancement of the PRINTS 
command is to use it with the CLS 
command and to use the semicolon 
delimiter. Try this line and see what 
result it has: 

10 CLS3:PRINT@ 227, "THIS 
TEXT WILL BE PRINTED"; 

The screen would be blue with nor- 
mal text starting at screen location 227 
and ending at screen location 251. The 
only difference between this line and the 
other one above is that the screen is blue 
with the text centered within the blue 
screen. Notice that blue is showing even 
after the last character of text is printed. 
Take out the semicolon and see what 
effect it has on how the line is printed. 

Here are tips that will help you center 
text on a line: 

1) Count the number of characters 
you want printed on the line. (Re- 
member, a line can be no longer 
than 32 characters.) 

2) Subtract that number from 32. 

3) Take the remainder from Step 2 
and divide by 2. 

4) Add the amount obtained in Step 
3 to whatever screen location line 
you want to print that text. 

STRINGS 

The STRINGS command is used to 
create a 1 to 255 character string made 
up of the same character. This is useful 
when trying to create a title page, 
border, etc., to enhance a program's 
appearance. 

Proper syntax for this command is 
STRINGS [xx,yy), where xx is the 
character desired. This character may 
be any of the ASCII characters, any of 
the graphics characters your computer 
can generate for screen use, or any 
characters your computer can send to 
various output devices, such as disk 
drives, printers, tape drives and mo- 
dems. The yy value is the number of 
characters that you want to create. 

SOUND 

The SOUND command produces a 
tone from the speaker of the television 
or monitor. It can be used to notify you 
when input is needed or an error has 
been detected or made. 

The proper syntax for this command 
is SOUND x,y, where x is a number 
between 1 and 255 and sets the pitch of 



the tone. Y is a number between 1 and 
255 and sets the length of the tone. 

GOSUB 

The GOSUB command forces the com- 
puter lo jump to a defined line, which 
contains the desired subroutine, within 
the program. This is an unconditional 
loop that usually contains conditional 
loops nested within it; therefore, they 
are also called nested loops. A GOSUB 
subroutine must always end with the 
RETURN command. This command will 
force the computer back to the next 
command directly following the GOSUB 
command. The only exception is when 
the RETURN command is superceded by 
a GOTO or IF/THEN command. 

The proper syntax for this command 
is GOSUBaw.yx, where XXXX is the line 
number where the subroutine starts. 

This command is useful when using 
a pause within a program, such as 
"Press any key to continue." You can 
place the GOSUB command at the end of 
the area where you want to pause the 
program. The program can then go to 
the subroutine and wait for the key 
press. After the key is pressed, it will 
return to the program command imme- 
diately after the GOSUB command. 

Look at Listing I for an example of 
the GOSUB command. 

CHRS 

The CHRS command converts a nu- 
merical value to a single character 
string. Use this when you want to send 
control codes to a software programma- 
ble printer or to print graphics charac- 
ters to the screen or printer. 

The proper syntax for this command 
is CHRS(.r.v.v), where xxx is the numer- 
ical value that is converted into a single 
character string. 

PRINTUSING 

The PRINTUSING command prints 
the text following it in the format that 
was selected. This format is specified by 
putting characters behind the PRINT- 
USING command. These characters can 
be found by looking in your manual 
under the PRINT command area. 

The proper syntax for this command 
is printusing "$aa«,aoH,ttaa.Btt" 
;B. Assume a value of one million for 
the integer variable B. This particular 
format will print the integer variable 
B in the format of $1,000,000.00. 
Or, for a value of 10,000 for B, it will 
print $10,000.00. Note that no matter 
what the value is, it will be printed with 
two decimal places to the right of the 
period, and the dollar sign printed 12 



spaces to the left. The commas will only 
be printed when the value is great 
enough to warrant it. 

This command is useful when you 
want to print a numerical value or 
character string in a particular fashion. 
One use for the PRINTUSING command 
would be in a program that prints values 
in dollars and cents. 

IF/THEN 

The IF-THEN command tests varia- 
bles to see if various conditions have 
been met. In standard BASIC the syntax 
is IF/THEN GOTO. But the Color Com- 
puter BASIC can shorten it by leaving off 
the GOTO command because it is as- 
sumed by the command interpreter. 

Proper syntax is IF X = Y THEN 1000; 
when variable .v equals the value of 
variable .»>, then the program will be 
forced to jump to Line 1000. 

When multiple comparisons are to be 
made, you can use the ELSE command. 
The proper syntax for this use is IF X 
= Y THEN 1000 ELSE 2000 or IF X = Y 
THEN 1000 ELSE IF Y = Z THEN 5000 
ELSE. . . . When .v equals the value of 
y, then force a jump to Line 1000, orelse 
force a jump to Line 2000. 

You can see that you can compare 



many different variables within a com- 
mand line and keep memory require- 
ments to a minimum. 

Looking at Listing 1 

Line 10 clears the screen, moves the 
cursor down two lines and prints the 
text. 

Line 15 forces the program to go to 
the subroutine located at Line 1000. 

At Line 1000, the cursor is moved 
down the screen four more lines, and the 
text "PRESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" is 
then printed. 

At Line 1010, string variable BS is set 
equal to the key pressed. Only in this 
instance we want a key to be pressed to 
continue the program, and we don't 
care which key. If no key is pressed, this 
line will be repeated by the IF'THEN, 
ELSE command directly following the 
INKEYS command. (Note that IF/ 
THEN, ELSE is a variation on the IF/ 
THEN command. The ELSE command 
helps shorten up the command line so 
that multiple comparisons can be made. 

Looking at Listing 2 

Line is a remarked line. 
Line 5 clears 1,000 bytes of memory 
for variable storage, clears the screen 



and prints the text at the specified 
locations. 

Line 10 prints text at the location, 
allows the input of variable A and 
sounds a tone. 

Line 20 prints a string of blanks at the 
location to clear out the previous text; 
then it prints new text at the same 
location, allows the input of variable B 
and sounds a tone. 

Line 30 forces the program to go to 
the subroutine located at Line 1000. 

Lines 100 to 130 all sound a tone, 
perform mathematical manipulation of 
variables R, B and C, then force a jump 
to Line 500. 

Line 140 sounds a tone and jumps to 
Line 700. 

Line 200 prints a string of blanks at 
the location to clear out the previous 
text, then prints new text at the same 
location, allows the input of variable B 
and sounds a tone. 

Line 305 forces the program to go to 
the subroutine located at Line 2000. 

Lines 310 to 340 all sound a tone, 
perform mathematical manipulation of 
variables fl, B and C, then force a jump 
to Line 500. 

Line 350 sounds a tone and forces a 
jump to Line 700. 



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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 39 



Line 500 clears the screen and prints 
text at the specified location. 

Line 510 sets up a FDR'NEXT com- 
mand loop and sets a value for Integer 
B. Note that the loop will count to five 
before going on to another part of the 
program. 

Lines 520 to 590 first print graphics 
characters at the locations specified, 
then set up a timing loop so the graphics 
character will be displayed for a desired 
amount of time before the next charac- 
ter. See your manual for the characters 
thai can be printed to the screen. 

Line 600 sounds a tone and informs 
the FOR/NEXT command set up in Line 
510 that the next value of B should be 
counted. 

Line 610 clears the screen, sounds a 
tone and prints text at the location; 
immediately following the text, the 
integer variable C is printed out in the 
format set up by the PRINTUSING com- 
mand. 

Line 620 forces the program to jump 
to Line 300. 

Line 700 clears the screen, prints text 
at the location, allows the input of 
variable A, sounds a tone and forces a 
jump to Line 20. 

Lines 1000 to 1070 comprise a sub- 
routine that prints text at various 
locations. They then use the INKEYS to 
determine which key has been pressed 
and send the program to the appro- 
priate line to perform the proper math- 
ematical manipulation. These lines are 
100 to 130. 



Lines 2000 to 2070 make up a subrou- 
tine that prints text at various locations, 
then uses the INKEYS to determine 
which key has been pressed and send the 
program to the appropriate line to 
perform the proper mathematical ma- 



Programming Exercises 

Utilizing the methods presented, 
write a program that allows you to enter 
your name, street address, city, stale 
and ZIP. This program should also 
allow you to call a subroutine that 
prints up a menu that lets you recall 
each variable entered in turn. 

Note: Use the commands found in 
this series to dress up your program any 
way you want. Feel free to experiment 
and have fun trying new things. A good 
way to learn new methods of program- 
ming is to find a program in which you 
like the way something is done, and 
examine the program to see how it is put 
together. 

(See Page 174 for a possible solution 
to this exercise.) 

Hints and Tips 

When you program, you will find 
shortcuts to entering loops and varia- 
bles. Each character within a program 
takes up memory in your computer, 
even the line numbers and spaces in the 
program. The overhead that the pro- 
gram uses cannot be eliminated. There- 
fore, you can minimize memory usage 



nipulation. These lines are 310 to 340. 

(Questions or comments regarding 
this tutorial may be directed to the 
author at 901 Ferndale Blvd., High 
Point, NC 27260. Please enclose an 
SASE when writing for a reply.) □ 

by combining lines. That will result in 
fewer line numbers and, therefore, a 
smaller program. 

When programming, always number 
your lines in increments of 10 or 100 so 
that if you need to edit the program you 
can do so without changing the pro- 
gram flow drastically. Nothing puts a 
damper on programming like having to 
rewrite a program because you num- 
bered the lines 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 instead 
of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50, which would 
allow plenty of room to make enhance- 
ments. 

When you want to print one charac- 
ter string or text immediately following 
another character string or text; you 
must place asemicolon directly after the 
string value or text. 

This short program will print the text 
in this manner: 



THIS IS 1, 2, 3 

10 CLS:PRINT"THIS IS 1,"; 
20 PRINT"2,~; 
30 PRINT"3." 
40 END 






□ 



Listing 1: GOSUB 

10 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 
AMPLE OF THE GOSUB 
ASE NOTE THAT THIS 
15 GOSUB1000 
20 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 
ECOND PART OF THE 

PLEASE NOTE THAT 
INE 20 . " 
25 GOSUB1000 
30 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 
HIRD PART OF THE 

PLEASE NOTE THAT 
INE 20. ALSO NOTE 
THE LAST PART OF 
O YOU MAY DO THIS 

MANY, MANY TIMES. 
E GOSUB AREA." 
35 GOSUB1000 
40 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 
RINT" THIS DEMO IS 
TING TO BASIC 



"THIS IS AN EX 
COMMAND . PLE 
IS LINE 10." 



"THIS 


IS 


THE S 


GOSUB COMMAND 


THIS 


IS 


NOW L 


"THIS 


IS 


THE T 


GOSUB COMMAND 


THIS 


IS 


NOW L 


THAT 


THIS IS 


THIS 


DEMO ALS 


TYPE 


OF 


THING 


USING THE SAM 



: PRINT: PRINT :P 
ENDED. REBOO 
AT THIS TIME. 



45 FORX=1TO1000STEP1 : NEXTX : CLS : E 

ND 

1000 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" P 

RESS ANY KEY TO CONTINUE" 

1010 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN1010EL 

SE1020 

1020 RETURN 



Listing 2: CDCDCfiLC 

'THE COCO CALCULATOR HAS BEEN 
WRITTEN TO DEMONSTRATE COMMANDS. 
THIS PROGRAM IS TO BE USED WITH 
THE BASIC PROGRAMMING COURSE 
WRITTEN BY DAVID W. OSTLER, COPY 
RIGHT 1987 

5 CLEAR1000 : CLS : PRINT@32 , "WELCOM 
E TO THE COCO CALCULATOR" : PRINT @ 
9 6," PLEASE ENTER AMOUNTS YOU WA 



40 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



NT THE CALCULATOR TO WORK ON 
ii 

10 PRINT@224 , "FIRST AMOUNT" ; : INP 

UTA:SOUND200,1 

20 PRINT@224,STRING$(20,32) : PRIN 

T@224,"NEXT AMOUNT"; :INPUTB:SOU 

ND200 , 1 

30 GOSUB1000 

100 SOUND200,2:C=A+B:GOTO500 

110 SOUND200,2:C=A-B:GOTO500 

120 SOUND200,2:C=A*B:GOTO500 

130 SOUND200,2:C=A/B:GOTO500 

140 SOUND200,2:GOTO700 

300 PRINT@224,STRING$(20,32) : PRI 

NT§224 , "NEXT AMOUNT" ; : INPUTB: SO 

UND200,1 

305 GOSUB2000 

310 SOUND200,2:C=C+B:GOTO500 

320 SOUND200,2:C=C-B:GOTO500 

3 30 SOUND200,2:C=C*B:GOTO500 

340 SOUND200,2:C=C/B:GOTO500 

350 SOUND200 , 2 : GOTO700 

500 CLS: PRINTS 141, "WORKING" 

510 F0RB=1T05STEP1 

520 PRINT@236,CHR$(162) ;:PRINT@2 

43,CHR$(161) 

530 FORX=1TO50STEP1:NEXT 

540 PRINT@236,CHR$(168) ;:PRINT@2 

43,CHR$(164) 

550 FORX=1TO50STEP1:NEXT 

560 PRINT@236,CHR$(164) ;:PRINT@2 

43,CHR$(168) 

570 FORX=1TO50STEP1:NEXT 

580 PRINT@236,CHR$(161) ;:PRINT@2 

43,CHR$(162) 

590 FORX=1TO50STEP1:NEXT 

600 SOUND199,l:NEXTB 

610 CLS : SOUND20 , 5 : PRINT@64 , "TOTA 

L EQUALS:"; :PRINTUSING" $###,###, 

###.##";c 



Mouse Tales By Logan Ward 



DODDtn^irJU 




l mc 




a 


u 

■~x A 

Q M 

a M? 
d m 
a w 
q m- 

Q Ma 
D 

m w 


r 


If EE-TTtS"! 
F1HQIH 

iLO L 


□ 
D 


t I , 


\ 




Aw 




H ^^m r .: ■. --^_- — 1 


Sod 


aBBoui 


3DDDDDC 




b^^mf /!■>■■■».') |.»v 




b 


D 



620 GOTO300 

700 CLS :PRINT@224, "FIRST AMOUNT" 

; : INPUTA : SOUND200 , 1 : GOTO20 

1000 PRINT@297,"DO YOU WANT TO" 

1010 PRINT@330," (A)DD" 

1020 PRINT@362,"(S)UBTRACT" 

1030 PRINT@394," (M)ULTIPLY" 

1040 PRINT@426,"(D)IVIDE" 

1050 PRINT@458," (E)ND" 

1060 G$=INKEY$ : IFG$=" "THEN1060EL 

SEIFG$="A"THEN100ELSEIFG$="S"THE 

N110ELSEIFG$="M"THEN120ELSEIFG$= 

"D"THEN130ELSEIFG$="E"THEN140ELS 

E1060 

1070 RETURN 

2000 PRINT@297,"DO YOU WANT TO" 

2010 PRINT@3 30,"(A)DD" 

2020 PRINT@3 62,"(S)UBTRACT" 

2030 PRINT@394,"(M)ULTIPLY" 

2040 PRINT@426,"(D)IVIDE" 

2050 PRINT@458,"(E)ND" 

2060 G$=INKEY$:IFG$=""THEN2060EL 

SEIFG$="A"THEN310ELSEIFG$="S"THE 

N320ELSEIFG$="M"THEN3 30ELSEIFG$= 

"D"THEN340ELSEIFG$="E"THEN350ELS 

E2060 

2070 RETURN /» 



"I cannot imagine the CoCo 3 without ADOS-3; 
it would not be a complete machine." 

The RAINBOW, July 1987 

You've moved up to a CoCo 3. A powerful new machine. Now. it's lime lo 
give BASIC a shol in the arm, wilh ADOS-3. Wouldn't II be nice lo lurn on your 
machine and be greeted by an 80-column display, in the colors ot your 
choice, wilh your own custom startup message? To run toullnely al 2 MHz 
(double speed) without having to slow down tor disk and printer operations? 
This and much, much more is possible with ADOS-3, our CoCo 3 adaptation 
ol the acclaimed original ADOS, which shares the original's virtual 100% 
compatibility with commercial software. After customizing ADOS-3 using the 
provided conllguring utility, you can have it burned into an EPROM that plugs 
into the Disk BASIC ROM socket, or |ust use il in RAM as a disk utility. (EPROM 
+ burning will cost S 15-20; we provide information concerning how you can 
have this done.) Supports double-sided drives (35. 40, or 80 tracks). FAST and 
SLOW commands, auto lire number prompts. RUNM command, keystroke 
macros, arrow-key scroll Ihrough BASIC programs, aulo-edlt ot error line, and 
many more valuable features. 

"ON A SCALE OF 1 TO 10, I RATE ADOS-3 A SOLID 15." RAINBOW, 7/87 
Disk . $34.95 Original ADOS (or CoCo 1 or 2 . . S27.95 (See 6/87 RAINBOW review) 
Original ADOS plus ADOS-3 S50.00 

THE PEEPER 

ML program tracer thai mullltosks with the target program An excellent 
learning tool for the ML novice: an invaluable debugging aid lor the expert. 
CoCo 1, 2. or 3 compatible. 
Disk $23.95 Assembler source listing Add S3 00 



MONITOR CABLES for CoCo 3 

Magnavox 8CM5 1 5/8CM505/BCM643 



519.95 



SonyKV1311CR 



• 1 1 1 1 1 N Kendall Drive. 
Suite A 108 
Miami, Florida 33176 
(305) 274-3899Dayor Ev 
No delay on personal checks •Please add S2 00 shipping • Sorry no crodil cards or COD s 



SPECTROSYSTEMS; 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



41 



Come to Radio Shack for the \ery 




Tandy Computers: 
Because there is 
no better value.™ 



Best in Color Computer Software 




What a selection! 

At Radio Shack, we're dedicated to 
making sure that you never run out of 
ways to use and enjoy your Color 
Computer. We've got a terrific line of 
software— here's just a sample! 

Games for the whole family 

Let your Color Computer open the 
door to an amazing world of fun and 
adventure. Radio Shack has a dazzling 
selection of all types of popular and 
challenging games. 

Explore a secret cave in Down/and. 
Challenge the evil wizard in Dun- 
geons of Daggorath. Avoid the Great 
White Bat of Cave Walker. Take part 
in a daring raid in Koronis Rife. Or 
enter the magical world of Rogue. 

Take off into the realism of the wild 
blue yonder of Flight Simlulator II. 
Or go even further as you transport 
supplies between two galaxies of Zone 
Runner. Marvel at the 3-D color 
graphics of Rescue on Fracralus and 
Sphngsrer. Get down to earth and 
play Color Baseball. Or play the 
3,000-year-old game of Mahjong in 
the smokey backrooms of Shanghai. 

Make learning fun 

One of the most valuable potentials 
of your Color Computer is giving your 
children a head start in education. 
We've got programs for kids of all ages 
that will give them hours of produc- 
tive fun. 

Younger children enjoy the chal- 
lenging fun of Color Math, Winnie 
the Pooh, Donald Duck's Playground 
and Mickey's Space Adventure. Get- 
ting Started With Extended Color 
BASIC and The Color Computer 
Artist help children realize computer 
skills at an early age. Older kids enjoy 
learning with Where in the World is 
Carmen Sandiego! and Microscopic 
Mission. 



Boost your productivity 

No matter what your personal 
needs, we've got programs that will 
put your Color Computer to work 
where you need it most. 

Pick up our easy-to-use Color 
SCRIPSIT® II and TSSPELL for per- 
fect letters, manuscripts and reports, 
or create complex charts and graphs 
with Phantomgraph. For the program- 
mer's delight we have OS-9 Level 
Two and the development system. 

Eliminate clutter by filing your re- 
cords electronically with Color File 
II. Get your household budget in or- 
der with Personal Finance. Spectacu- 
lator'" electronic spreadsheet is useful 
in forecasting financial projections. 
Chart your stock holdings and market 
trends using Investograph. 

And with DeskMate 3'" you get 
seven of the most popular productiv- 
ity applications— Text, Ledger, Index 
Cards, Paint, Telecom, Calendar and 
Calculator— all on one diskette. 

Come in today! 

Need more suggestions? Drop by to- 
day and pick up a copy of our new 
1988 Computer Catalog &. Software 
Reference Guide. Radio Shack is your 
one-stop software center. 

Send me a new 1988 computer catalog. 



Mail To: Radio Shack. Depl. 88-A-703 
300 One Tandy Center. Fori Worlh. TX 76102 



Name. 



Address . 



Cily. 



Phone. 



Koronis Rifll and Rescue on Fractalus/TM Lucaslilm Games. 
Rogue/TM Epyx. Flight Simulator II/TM subLOGIC Corp. Shanghai 
and Microscopic Mission/TM Aclivision. Where in the World is 
Carmen Sandlego?/TM Broderbund 0S-97TM Microware and 
Motorola. 



Radio /hack 



The Technology Store" 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 






\G& 



16K ECB 




Make up to 120 different faces 



THE CLOWN OF A 

HUNDRED 




By Bill Bernico and George Aftamonow 



Budding plastic surgeons, take note: With Clown 
Faces you can control facial features onscreen 
to create up to 120 different faces. 
When you run the program, you'll see the general 
outline of a face. The numbers I through 5 are 

Bill Bernico is a self-taught computerist who enjoys 
golf, music and programming. He is a drummer with 
a rock band and lives in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. 

George Aftamonow is a self-taught programmer living 
in Milford, Connecticut, who enjoys creating and 
designing graphics. 

44 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



displayed down the left side of the screen. To add or 
change a feature, press one of the keys from 1 to 5. 
Key Number 1 adds or changes the hair/ hat portion. 
Key Number 2 changes the eyebrows. Key 3 changes 
the eyes. Key 4 changes the nose, and Key 5 changes 
the mouth. 

Once you have the features on the screen, press any 
of those keys again for a different combination; there 
are four combinations of each of the five features, 
making quite a large number of possibilities. 

(Questions or comments may be directed to Bill at 
708 Michigan Ave., Sheboygan, WI 53081. Please 
enclose an SASE when requesting a reply.) □ 



•?- 




\ ' 10 .... 


...228 


25 


...110 


35 


...206 


END . 


63 



The listing: CLOWNS 

1 'CLOWNS by Bill Bernico 

amd George Aftamonow 

2 PMODE4,l:PCLSl:SCREENl,l: COLOR 
0,1: LINE (0,0) -(255, 191) ,PSET,B:D 
RAWBM10 , 25U8BM10 , 45R4D4L4D4R4BM 
10 , 78R4D4NL3D4L4BM10 , 120D4R4U4D8 
BM10 , 160R5U4L5U4R5" : CIRCLE (128,9 
6), 70, 0,2 

3 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN3 

4 I=VAL(I$) :IFK10R I>5THEN3 

5 ON I GOTO6,10,7,8,9 

6 LINE(50, 1) -(200,52) , PRESET, BF: 
GOSUB16:GOT03 

7 LINE(70, 66) -(170,90) , PRESET, BF 
:GOSUB29:GOT03 

8 LINE(70,89)-(170,132) ,PRESET,B 
F:GOSUB3 6:GOT03 

9 LINE (80, 130) -(180,186) , PRESET, 
BF:GOSUB4 2:GOT03 

10 LINE (70, 52) -(180,65) ; PRESET, B 
F:G0SUB2 3:G0T03 

11 CIRCLE(128,96) , 70 ,0 , 2 : CIRCLE ( 
210,78) ,12,0,2:CIRCLE(46,78) ,12, 
0,2: LINE (220, 90) -(250, 90) ,PSET:L 
INE-(194,148) ,PSET:LINE(38,90)-( 
5,90) ,PSET:LINE-(65,148) ,PSET 

12 POKE178,173:PAINT(200,100) , ,0 
: PAINT (30, 100) , ,0 : POKE17 8 ,0 :RETU 
RN 

13 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,70, 0,2 :RETURN 

14 CIRCLE (128, 96) , 70 ,0 , 2 : CIRCLE ( 
128,96) ,70,0,2:RETURN 

15 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,70, 0,2: RETURN 

16 F1=F1+1:IF F1=5THEN Fl=l 

17 ON Fl GOTO 18,19,21,22 

18 GOSUB11:DRAW"BM76,0F46R10E46" 
:POKE178,2:PAINT(8 5,5) , ,0:POKE17 
8,0: RETURN 

19 GOSUB13: CIRCLE (128,1) ,50,0, .7 
, .9, .6:PAINT(128,5) ,0,0: RETURN 

20 GOSUB13: CIRCLE (128,1) ,50,0, .7 
, . 9 , . 6 : RETURN 

21 GOSUB13 :DRAW"BM98,0S8ND4BR3ND 
6BR2ND8BR3ND10BR3ND10BR4ND12BR4N 
D10BR3ND10BR3ND8BR3ND6BR4ND4S4 " : 
RETURN 

22 GOSUB13 :DRAW"BM66,42R124":DRA 
W"BM126,0D30R4U30":POKE178,1:PAI 
NT(85,5) , ,0:POKE17 8,0:RETURN 

23 F2=F2+1:IF F2=5THENF2=1 

24 ONF2 GOT025,26,27,28 

25 GOSUBll: CIRCLE (108, 94) ,20, ,2, 



.65, .85: CIRCLE (158, 92) ,20, ,2, .65 
,.85: RETURN 

26 GOSUBll : DRAW" BM88 , 63E11R10F11 
BR22E11R10F11" :RETURN 

27 GOSUBll : DRAW"BM114 , 60NH8DNH6B 
R2 6NE8UNE6 " : RETURN 

28 GOSUBll: DRAW" BM9 4, 60R70DL70": 
RETURN 

29 F3=F3+1:IF F3=5THEN F3=l 

30 ON F3 GOTO 31,32,33,35 

31 G0SUB13:E1$="S8FRFNR4DNR4FNU2 
RNU2RNU2ERERED2GDGLGL3HLHUHU2S4 " 
: DRAWBM145 , 70"+El$ : DRAWBM98 , 70 
"+E1$: RETURN 

32 GOSUB13: CIRCLE (158, 78) ,8,0,1. 
5, 1,1: CIRCLE (108, 78) ,8,0,1.5,1,1 
: CIRCLE (108 ,76) ,8,0, .5,0, . 5 : CIRC 
LE( 158 ,76) ,8,0, .5,0, .5:CIRCLE(10 
8,80) ,2,0, 1,1: CIRCLE (158, 80) ,2,0 
,1,1: RETURN 

33 GOSUB13 :DRAW"BM150,66S8R4F5D3 
G2L2H2UHUHU2HU" : DRAW"BM113 , 66L4G 
5D3F2R2E2UEUEU2EUS4" 

34 CIRCLE(100, 82) ,4,0,1, 1:CIRCLE 
(162,82) ,4,0,1, 1: PAINT (100, 82) ,0 
,0:PAINT(162,82) ,0,0:RETURN 

35 GOSUB13 :E4$="S8RERER7F2D2GNGU 
2HLGD2FNRL4HLH3S4":DRAW"BM142,70 
"+E4$ : DRAW"BM98 , 70"+E4$ : PAINT ( 11 
8,72) ,0,0:PAINT(164,72) ,0,0:RETU 
RN 

3 6 F4=F4+l:IF F4=5THEN F4=l 

37 ON F4 GOTO 38,39,40,41 

38 GOSUB14: CIRCLE (130, 110) ,20,0, 
1,1: RETURN 

39 GOSUB14: CIRCLE (130, 110) ,14,0, 
1.5,1,1: RETURN 

40 GOSUB14: CIRCLE (130, 110) ,20,0, 
.5,1,1: RETURN 

41 GOSUB14: CIRCLE (125, 109) ,8,0,1 
, .1, .7: CIRCLE (13 5, 109) ,8,0,1, .9, 
. 4 :DRAW"BM130,119D8": RETURN 

42 F5=F5+1:IF F5=6THEN F5=l 

43 ON F5 GOTO 44,46,47,48,49 

44 GOSUB15: CIRCLE (128, 142) ,32,0, 
1,0, .5: CIRCLE (128, 142) ,30,0, .6, . 
99, .51:LINE(0,185)-(68,160) ,PSET 
: LINE (190, 160) -(255,185) ,PSET 

45 POKE178, 200: PAINT (60, 188) , ,0: 
PAINT(220,188) , ,0 : POKE178 ,0 :RETU 
RN 

46 GOSUB15: CIRCLE (128, 172) ,32,0, 
1, .5,0: CIRCLE (12 8, 170) ,34,0, .5, . 
48, .02: RETURN 

47 GOSUB15:DRAW"BM98, 150R60E8R8D 
20G15L61H15U20R8F8BD15R54":RETUR 
N 

48 GOSUB15:DRAW"BM9 8,14 5R60F8D18 
L16H8L2 8G8L16U18E8BF8R40": RETURN 

49 GOSUB15:DRAW"BM118,155E6R2F2N 
D2E2R2F6NRL21F7R7E7": RETURN /» 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 45 



CB ASIC- I I I 
The ULTIMATE Color Computer III Basic Compiler!!! 

If you want to write fast efficient Machine Language Programs and you don't want to spend the next few 
years trying to learn how to write them in Assembly language or with a cheap compiler, then CBASIC HI is the answer!!! 



CBASIC III is the only fully integrated Basic Compiler and Program Editing 
System available for the Color Computer 3. It will allow you to take full 
advantage of all the capabilities available in your CoCo-3 including 512K RAM. 
without having to spend years trying to learn assembly language programming. 
CBASIC III allows you to create, edit and convert programs from a language you 
are already familiar with Enhanced Disk Color Basic, into fast efficient machine 
language programs easily and quickly. CBASIC III supports all the enhanced 
hardware available in the CoCo-3. including Hi-Res Graphics. & Screen displays. 
Extended Memory and Interrupts (Keyboard. Timer, Serial & Clock). It is 99% 
syntax compatible with Enhanced Disk Color Basic, so most Basic programs can 
be loaded and compiled with little or no changes required. 

The compiler is an optomizing two-pass integer compiler thai converts 
programs written in Basic into 100% pure 6809 Machine Language programs 
which are written directly to disk in a LOADM compatible format. The programs 
generated by the compiler arc run as complete stand alone programs. A built in 
linker/editor will automatically select one and only one copy of each run-time 
library subroutine that is required and insert them directly in the program. This 
eliminates the need for cumbersome, often wasteful "run-time" packages. 

CBASIC HI is for both Beginning & Advanced Users 

CBASIC III is a Powerful tool for the Beginner or Novice programmer as well 
as the Advanced Basic or Machine Language programmer. You can write 
programs without having to worry about Stack Pointers. DP registers, memory 
allocation, and so on, because CBASIC III will handle it for you automatically. 
All you have to do is write programs using the standard Basic statements and 
syntax. For the Advanced Basic and Machine Language programmers, CBASIC 
III will let you take command and control every aspect of your program, even 
generating machine code directly in a program for specialized routines. 

CBASIC III adds many features not found in Color Basic, like Interrupt and 
Reset handling, to give you a level of control only available to very advanced 
Machine Language programmers. Plus, we made it exceptionally easy to use, not 
like some other compilers. CBASIC III is the friendliest and easiest compiler 
available for the Color Computer III. 

CBASIC HI has Full Command Support & Speed 

CBASIC III features well over 150 Basic Commands and Functions that fully 
support Disk Sequential and Direct access files. Tape. Printer and Screen I/O. It 
also supports ALL the High and Low Resolution Graphics. Sound, Play and 
String Operations available in Enhanced Color Basic, including Graphics 
H/GET. H/PUT. H/PLAY and H/DRAW. all with 99.9% syntax compatibility. 
CBASIC III also supports the built in Serial I/O port with separate programmable 
printer & serial I/O baud rates. You can send and receive data with easy to use 
PRINT, INPUT, INKEY , GETCHAR and PLTCHAR commands. 

CBASIC III is FAST. Not only will CBASIC III compiled programs execute 10 
to several 100 times faster than Basic, but the time it takes to develop a CBASIC 
III program verses writing a machine language program is much, much shorter. A 
machine language program that might take several months to write and debug 
could be created using CBASIC III in a matter of days or hours, even for a well 
experienced machine language programmer. We had a report from one CBASIC 
user that claimed "a Basic program that used to take 3 hours to run. now runs in 7 
to 8 minutes". Another user reported a program that took 1 to 1 & 1/2 hours to 
run in Basic, Now runs in 5 to 6 minutes!!!. 

CBASIC HI is more than just a Compiler 

CBASIC III has its own completely integrated Basic Program Editor, that can 
be used to create and/or Edit programs for the compiler. It is a full featured 
editor with functions designed specifically for writing and editing Basic programs. 
It has built in block Move and Copy functions with automatic program 
renumbering. Complete, easy to use inserting, deleting, extending and overtyping 
of existing program lines. It is also used for Loading, Saving, Appending 
(merging). Killing disk files and displaying a disk Directory. It also has automatic 
line number generation for use when creating programs or inserting sequential 
Vines between existing lines. You can set the printer baud rate and direct normal 
or compiled listings to the printer for hard copy. The built in editor makes 
program corrections and changes as easy as "falling off a log". If CBASIC III 
finds an error when compiling, it points to the place in the program line where the 
error occured. All you have to do is tell the editor what line you want to start 
editing and when it is displayed, move the cursor with the arrow keys to the place 
where the error is and correct it. Just like that, it's simple. 

Selectable 32/40/64/80 Column Displays in 192 or 225 Res. 

CBASIC III is the only Color Basic Compiler that includes it's own 32. 40. 64 
or 80 by 24 line display in 192 or 225 Resolution. All of these display formats are 
part of the standard CBASIC III compiler package. Not only can they be used for 
normal program editing and compiling, but can also be included in your compiled 
programs, with a single command, "HIRES"!! The run-time display package is 
not just a simple "WIDTH 80" display, but a full featured package, far more 
advanced than the "WIDTH 40 or 80" displays. It will let you do things you 
expect like "PRINT @" as well as X.Y positioning. You can select characters per 
line, underline, character highlight, erase to end of line or screen, home cursor, 
home & clear screen, protect screen lines, and much more. 



128K and 512K RAM Support 

CBASIC III makes full use of the powerful and flexible GIMI chip in the 
Color Computer 3. It will fully utilize the 128K of RAM available and install 2 
Ultra Fast Ramdisks if 512K is available, for program Creation Editing and 
Compilation. You can easily access all 512K of memory in a Compiled program 
thru several extended memory commands that can access it in 32K or 8K block 
and single or double bytes. CBASIC III also allows your program to use the 
upper 32K of RAM space automatically for variables or even program storage at 
run-time. It will automatically switch the RAMs in and out when needed. There 
arc also two other commands that allow you to control the upper 32K of RAM 
manually, under program control. No other Color Basic compiler directly 
supports the use of Extended RAM like CBASIC III. 

All Machine Language 

CBASIC III is completely written in fast efficient Machine Language, not 
Basic, like some other Color Basic compilers. Because of this, CBASIC III can 
edit and compile very large programs, even using the 80 column displays it can 
handle almost 40K of program. Some of the other Basic compilers can only 
work with 16K or about 200 lines. Even working with large programs. CBASIC 
III compiles programs with lightning fast speed. It will compile a 24K program 
to disk in less than 2 minutes! That's without a listing being generated. We've 
heard stories about some other compilers that take almost 10 minutes to 
compile a simple 2-3K program. You might inquire about this when you look at 
some of the other compilers available. 

Compare the Difference 

CBASIC III is not just another Color Basic Compiler. It is the only complete 
Basic Compiler System for the Color Computer. Compare CBASIC Ill's 
features to what other compilers offer and you'll see the difference. When 
comparing CBASIC III to other compilers you might want to keep some of these 
questions in mind. Does it support I/O functions? You can't write much of a 
program without PRINT, INPUT and so on. What about complex string 
statements, or strings statements at all? Can you compile a complex string like: 
MIDS(RIGHTS(DAS(VAL(INS),LEN(LES)).3.3)? How large of a programcan 
you write? Can you use two character variable names for string & numeric 
variables, like Basic? Does it support all the Hi-Res graphics statements 
including H/PLAY. H/DRAW, H/GET and H/PUT, using the same syntax as 
Basic? Do you ever have to use a separate Basic program? How long would it 
take to compile a 24K program? Can you take complete Basic programs an 
compile them without extensive changes? Will they work? How do you edit a 
program when it has errors compiling? 

The Finished Product 

Since CBASIC III contains statements to support ALL of the I/O devices 
(Disk. Tape. Screen & Printer), Hi-Res Graphics. Sound, and Enhanced Screen 
displays, it is well suited for a wide range of programming applications. When 
CBASIC III compiles a program, it generates a complete. Ready to Run 
machine language program. The finished product or program does not have to 
be interfaced to a Basic program to perform some of its functions or commands. 
This may seem obvious to you. but some of the other Color Basic compilers 
don't necessarily work this way. Some of their compiler commands need a 
separate Basic program in order for them to work. In some cases, they require 
that a separate Basic program be interfaced to the compiled program to perform 
I/O functions, like INPUT. PRINT and so on. CBASIC III doesn't do this. ALL 
of it's commands are compiled into a single machine language program, that 
docs not require any kind of Basic program to make it work. 
Price Verses Performance 

The price of CBASIC III is S149.00, ii is the most expensive Color Basic 
Compiler on the market, and well worth the investment. We spent over 3 years 
writing and refining CBASIC III, to make it the Best, most Compatible Color 
Basic compiler available. Most of our CBASIC III users already bought one or 
more of the other compilers on the market and have since discarded them. 
Before you buy a compiler, compare the performance of CBASIC III against any 
Color Basic compiler. Dollar for Dollar CBASIC III gives you more than any- 
other Color Basic compiler available. 

Requires 128K & Disk $149.00 

"Over the years, few products have impressed me 
as much as this one." The Rainbow, December 1987 

To order CBASIC III by mail, send check or money order for the amount of 

purchase, plus S3.00 for shipping & handling to the address below. 

To Order by VISA. MASTERCARD or COD call us at (702) 452-0632 

(Monday thru Saturday. 8am to Spm PST) 

CER-COMP LTD. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702) 452-0632 



TEXTPRO-IV 

The ULTIMATE Color Computer III Word Processing System" 



1 9 Hi-Res Displays from 58 to 212 columns by 24 lines in 225 Res. 
' Screen Display of Bold, Italic, Underline & Double Width print. 
' 9 Proportional Character Sets Supported with full Justification. 
' 80 Programmable Function Keys & Loadable Function key sets. 
' Three Programmable Headers and One Programmable Footer. 

* Automatic Footnote System places lines at the bottom of a page. 
' 7 Tab Commands, with: Center, Left, Right and Decimal align. 

1 Autoexecute Startup files for easy printer & system setup. 

' 8 Pre-Defined & 10 Programmable printer function commands. 

' Supports Library files for unlimited printing & configurations. 

* Disk file record access for Mail Merge & Boiler Plate printing. 

* Complete Automatic Justification, Centering, Flush left & right. 

* Change indents, margins, line length, etc. anytime in the text. 

* Create and Edit files larger than memory, up to a full disk. 

* Easily imbed any number of printer format and control codes. 
" Compatible with all printers including Laser printers. 

* Built in Ultra Fast 2 drive RAMDISK for 512K support. 

TEXTPRO IV is the most Powerful Word Processing System available for the 
ZOCO-3, designed for speed, flexability and extensive document processing. It is 
lot like most of the other word processing programs available for the Color 
Computer. If you arc looking for a simple word processor to write letters or other 
ihort documents, and never expect to use multiple fonts or proportional printing, 
:hen most likely you'll be better off with one of the other simple word processors. 
But, if you want a powerful word processor with extensive document formatting 
r eatures to handle large documents, term papers, manuals, complex formatting 
problems and letter writing, then TEXTPRO IV is the answer. It works in a 
otally different way than most word processing programs. It uses simple 2 
:haractcr abbreviations of words or phrases for commands and formatting 
information that you imbed directly in your text. There arc over 70 different 
Formatting commands you can use without ever leaving the text your working on. 
riiere are no time comsuming and frustrating menu chases, you are in total 
:ontrol at all times. You can display the formatted document on the screen before 
i single word is ever printed on your printer. Including margins, headers, footers, 
page numbers, page breaks, column formatting, justification, and Bold. Italic, 
Underline, Double Width. Superscript and Subscript characters. 

TEXTPRO IV can even support LASER PRINTERS with proportional fonts. 
:akea good look at this AD? It was done with TEXTPRO IV on an OKIDATA 
LASERLINE-6 laser printer!'.! All of the character sets used on this AD arc 
proportional, all centering, justification, font selection, and text printing was 
performed automatically by TEXTPRO IV. 

What you see is what you get! 

TEXTPRO IV has 9 Hi-Resolution screen fonts to choose from, with 58 to 212 
:haracters per line in 225 Resolution, for the best display possible. You can easily 
match the width of your printed page to the screen and you can have it 
automatically change display widths as you change printer fonts so you can even 
Jisplay the "fine print". All of the screen fonts can display. Bold, Italic, Underline, 
Superscript, Subscript and Double Width characters. When you you want to see 
ivhat your printed document will look like, TEXTPRO IV will let you see it on the 
screen in all its glory, so that, "What you see is what you get". 
Standard Commands 

TEXTPRO IV has all the document formatting commands you expect in a 
word processor and then some. The setup commands include: line length, top 
margin, bottom margin, page length, page numbering on/off, page format on/off, 
automatic word fill on/off and justification left, center, right or full. Some of the 
Vertical control features include: Test for a number of lines left on a page, skip to 
next page, set page number, page pause, single and multiple line spacing. 

TEXTPRO IV features 3 programmable Header lines that can be centered, left 
or right justified and one programmable Footer line. There are 3 commands for 
continious. single and paragraph indenting, Center Text, Center Line and Right 
lustify text with character fill. 

Printer & Special Commands 

TEXTPRO IV has 8 pre-defined printer & screen commands for Bold, Italic, 
Double Width, Underline, Subscript, Superscript. Condensed and Double Strike 
print. It also has 10 programmable functions that you can use to access intelligent 
printer features like: Graphics, variable line spacing, half line feed, horizontal & 
vertical positioning. There are also 3other printer commands that allow you to 
imbed control code sequences anywhere in the text. 

There is a Footnote command that will automatically place footnotes at the 
bottom of the page. Another command allows you to display a message on the 
screen and input text from the keyboard, to be included in your printed document. 
There is also a repeat command that allows you to repeat an entire document or 
part of one. up to 255 times. 

Tab Functions 

TEXTPRO IV features an elaborate system of tab commands for complete 
control over column formatting. There arc 10 programmable tab stops that can be 
defined and re-defined at any time. They can be used to: Center over Tab 
column. Right Justify to Tab column. Decimal Align over Tab column, Left 
lustify to Tab column (Normal Tab) and Horizontal Tab. They can also be used 
with a numeric column position for maximum flexibility. 



Proportional Fonts & Printing 

TEXTPRO IV is the only Color Computer III Word Processing system that 
gives you Justified Proportion Printing, which can give your documents and letters 
that professional touch that just isn't obtainable with fixed or mono spaced 
printing. And just about all printers today support proportional fonts, and with 
Laser Printers you can get typesetting quality output for just pennies a page. 
TEXTPRO IV supports up to 9 proportional fonts, with full justification. And. 
you can even mix mono spaced and proportional fonts for maximum flexability. 
Even if you don't use proportional printing, you can select between Pica, Elite and 
Condensed fixed width fonts to get fully justified printing. 

Mail Merge and Text Processing Disk Functions 

TEXTPRO IV supports several commands that allow you to import data or 
text from other disk files. They allow you to include information like names and 
addresses for Mail Merge capability, Import standard paragraphs or other 
information for Boiler Plate type functions and more. Some of the commands 
include: Open a file. Field a Record, Read a Record into fielded variables. Read 
single or multiple lines and Trim spaces from the trailing end of fielded variables. 

Another powerful disk function not to be overlooked is the "LIBRARY" 
command that allows you to include the entire contents of a file in your text. This 
can be very useful for a great many applications. You can use a Library command 
to automatically include a standard or optional printer setup command file, or to 
include standard paragraphs, headers or information created from a spread sheet 
or any other program. And, for printing very large documents that consist of 
several files linked together. 

Autoexec Startup Files 

TEXTPRO IV will automatically load and execute a command text file when it 
first executes. This allows you to customize the program configuration for your 
system and printer whenever you startup TEXTPRO IV. You can setup the 
screen display format, colors, adjust automatic key repeat, printer baud rate, load 
a set of function keys, load your printers control codes and more. 
80 Programmable Function Keys 

TEXTPRO IV allows you to have up to 80 function keys with just about any 
kind of information or command sequences you can imagine. Once programmed, 
you can have a command sequence execute using a single function key. You can 
also Save and Load function key sets at any time. So. you can have several sets for 
different writing tasks or projects, the possibilities are endless. Just think, with a 
single function key you could, load a disk file, search for and replace all the 
occurances of a phrase, save the file back to disk, have it processed and printed! 

Text Editing 

TEXITRO IV has a powerful, full featured, line oriented screen editor that is 
faster and more efficient then most editors you've ever worked with. It supports 
single or multiple line copy and move, global or local search and replace, word and 
character insert/delete, block delete and much more. It features adjustable 
automatic key repeat, selectable display foreground and background colors, screen 
line width and more. 

TEXTPRO IV uses fully compatible ASCII formatted files. You can even 
direct formatted output files to a standard ASCII disk file. It will Load. Save. 
Append. Kill. Text Process files from disk. Roll part of a file to disk. Get next 
portion of a file, display a Directory and Backup Ramdisk to & from Floppy disks. 

TEXTPRO IV's files are also compatible with spelling checker programs like 
Spell 'n Fix from Star Kits, a shareware program, available with TEXTPRO IV for 
your evaluation, just for the asking. 

Fully Buffered Keyboard 

While many word processing programs are slow and often lose keystrokes. 
TEXTPRO IV has a fully buffered keyboard that is virtually impossible to out 
type. Even when it's busy, it will still remember the keystrokes entered. You can 
enter in commands or whatever, even during insert mode you'll never lose a key. 
Professional Word Processing Power 

TEXTPRO IV is a powerful tool for both the Casual and Professional Word 
Processing user. It offers a wide range of features and functions that can satisfy 
even the most demanding writer. Even though you may not need all of 
TEXTPRO IV's power and flexability right now, its not a program that you can 
easily outgrow. As your needs and skills improve, you'll discover that you won't 
need to go out and buy another word processing program. TEXTPRO IV will 
already be ready and waiting. No Text Processing program available for the Color 
Computer HI gives you more Text Processing Power than TEXTPRO IV. It can 
make your writing appear more professional than you ever thought possible. 
Check around, see what other word processing programs have to offer in terms of 
power, speed and flexability. When your finished comparing them against 
TEXTPRO IV, you'll see that it's the only real choice for the Color Computer III. 

Requires 128K & Disk $89.95 

To order TEXTPRO IV by mail, send check or money order for the amount of 

purchase, plus S3.00 for shipping & handling to the address below. 

To Order by VISA. MASTERCARD or COD call us at (702) 452-0632 

(Monday thru Saturday. 8am to 5pm PST) 

CER-COMP LTD. 

5566 Ricochet Avenue 

Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 

(702) 452-0632 

Coming Soon: CoCo 1 & 2 versions of TEXTPRO IV 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••^i 



In conjunction with the rainbow's Scoreboard, which appears 
bimonthly, we offer this column of pointers for our game-playing 
readers' benefit. If you have some interesting hints, tips or responses 
to questions, or want help yourself, we encourage you to write to the 
Scoreboard, c/o the rainbow. . 



FEEDBACK 



In response to questions from: 

• Ron Smith: In Dungeons of Daggo- 
rath, you incant the Vulcan ring as Fire 
and you receive an iron sword from one 
of the two blobs on the first level. On the 
second level, three stone giants bearing 
axes instead of clubs carry flasks. On the 
third level, three evil knights hold them. 
Also on the third level, you must be 
burning a lunar torch to even see most 
of the creatures. 

You will receive a torch on the second 
level which you can't reveal. It is a solar 
torch and will enable you to see what's 
invisible with a pine torch. The creature 
that is killing you is the scorpion. Even 
with the lunar torch burning, the scor- 
pion is hard to see. You can see it per- 
fectly with the solar torch burning. If you 
have the lunar torch burning, you will 
find the scorpion in the bottom-left 
corner of the screen. One shot from the 
iron sword will kill it. 

• Mike Morrell: In CoCo Zone, you get 
the oxygen from the cabinet in the infir- 
mary. You get the key from the safe in the 
warden's office, but go into the warden's 
office by way of the panel. 

• Daniel Streidt: In Black Sanctum, 
there is a jug of wine in the room with 
the fireplace. Take this jug to the old man 
upstairs through the mirror. Find the old 
man when he leaves and get the jug again. 
The jug is used to hold the snow when 
it melts. Go outside and type GET SNOW. 

• Greg Barnes: In Shenanigans, you 
must move through the woods until you 
find the unicorn horn. Type BLOW HORN 
and a leprechaun drops the rope at your 
feet. 

• Shawn Bonning: In Dungeons of Dag- 
goraih, there are five levels of play. But 
what you are concerned about should be 
the third level. As soon as you climb 
down the hole to the third level, drop 
about 10 to 15 items as quickly as pos- 
sible. When an evil knight comes, he will 
start to pick up your items. Hit him until 



you faint, then let your heart calm down 
a little, then hit him once every four to 
five seconds. 

The scorpions take one shot from the 
iron sword, but they can kill you just as 
quickly. You can see them with a lunar 
torch, but only if they're right on lop of 
you. The solar torch works better, 
though. 

Wraiths are the floating faces you see 
on the fourth level. To kill them, let your 
heart calm down almost totally, drop one 
item and hit them until they die. A good 
defense against any fourth level monster 
is to find a medium-sized hall and move 
back and forth around him until your 
heart is settled enough to attack. 

James Siakelin 
Cynthiana, KY 



• Darren King: In Dungeons of Daggo- 
raih, you must first construct a map of 
levels 1 and 2. You are exerting too much 
energy on Level I. Follow a course 
covering the parameter of the level. As 
you hear the creature, stop, pull your 
shield and type AR if your sword is in the 
right hand. As soon as the monster enters 
your cell, press enter, type M and press 
ENTER again. Now type M and AR. It gives 
your heartbeat time to slow down and 
gives you a chance to look at your map. 
B. Keith Dougherty 
Altoona, PA 



• Russ Maede: In Sea Quest, as you are 
on the beach, continue East until you 
have passed the steps. Presuming you 
have the metal detector, type PUSH 
BUTTON. The detector will buzz loudly. 
Use the shovel to dig and you will find 
a mirror. Take this to the mermaid. Type 
GIVE MIRROR. When you do this, the 
mermaid will give you the key to the trap 
door in the beach house. 

In Zaxxon, how do all the scoreboard 
highs earn at least 1 million points? I can't 
manage to get more than 150,000 because 
of fuel loss. In Sea Quest, how do you 
successfully drop everything in the cave? 
Tim Everson 
Sandusky, OH 



• Ian Renauld: To get past the sheer wall 
in Martian Crypt, type 5AY MORE AND 
JUMP. 

• Neil Lehouillier: In Martian Crypt, 
throw the stalactite at the wraith which 
you find in the underground river en- 
trance. 

Dale Kaczmarek 
Oaklawn, IL 

• Nila Grose and Ian Renauld: In Sea 
Quest, you cannot get the speargun, and 
you get by the shark by using shark 
repellent. It is in a locked part of the 
house, and the mermaid will give you the 
key if you give her the right article. Try 
tying the balloon to the anchor and then 
inflating the balloon underwater. At the 
start of Bashan, go north and get the 
lamp, then go east to the crack, get what 
is in the crack and rub the lamp. Go north 
until you are in the city. 

• Louie Elliott: In Zork I, the key to 
unlock the grating can be found in the 
maze with the skeleton. The basket and 
the chain are to lower things to a lower 
level that you will need, such as a torch, 
coal and a screwdriver, but you cannot 
take it with you because the doorway is 
too narrow. 

Richard King 
Plymouth, IN 

• Mike Duvall: To get the scepter in 
Sands of Egypt, you must have the snake 
oil in the canteen. At the pool, type WALK 
TREE . Climb the tree and get the dates. 
Go down and then go east two times. 
Type FEED CAMEL, MOUNT CAMEL, RIDE 
CAMEL and DISMOUNT. Oil the scepter and 
pull it. Don't eat the dates yourself, they 
might be useful later. 

• Allen Bell: At the top of the cliff in 
Sands of Egypt, go down. Go west until 
you are in the sand and out of the base 
of the cliff. Go south, then east and you'll 
be at the pool. 

• Jason Mielke: In Sands of Egypt, with 
the ladder, just float down the river until 
you see a hole in the ceiling. Type DROP 
LADDER and CLIMB LADDER. 

Phil Derksen 
Hendersonville, NC 



i^i^i^i^kkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkkk^ 



48 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



^•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••* 

■■i^H^H^BBHBHMHHHHHHHHni 



• Scott Garling: In Vortex Factor, to 
open the safe, open the desk in the same 
room. On the documents you will find the 
numbers. 

How do you open the main door in the 
hall? Also, in Syzygy, what are the 
coordinates for the transporter? 

Robert Limoges 
Pincourt, Quebec 

• Michael Sargent: In Raaku-Tu do 
what I did — get mad. Kick the altar; it 
moves and opens to a secret passage. 

Zak Peloquin 
North Kingston. RI 

Scoreboard: 

Whenever you go to the third level in 
Dungeons of Daggorath, it's best you 
fight at least 10 or more creatures before 
going up against the wizard's image. The 
secret to beating the wizard's image is 
simple. When you hear him coming, have 
one ring in your left hand and a Hale 
flask in your right. Type AL and wait. As 
soon as he is in front of you press ENTER. 
As soon as you hear the ring fire, move 
forward as many times as possible. Don't 
wait for the ring to stop firing before you 
move or he will get his turn and kill you. 
After running, turn and use the Hale 
flask. Drop it and pull another Hale or 
Thews flask. Repeat these steps again. 

Remember: "Behold! Destiny awaits 
the hand of a new wizard!" 

Kevin Neil Shimp 
Woodstown, NJ 

Scoreboard: 

In Dungeons of Daggorath, how do 
you kill the real wizard in Level 6? 

In Sands of Egypt, how do you find the 
scepter and what is the purpose of the 
magnifier? 

Greg Fields 
Comanche, TX 

Scoreboard: 

In Dungeons of Daggorath, how do 
you kill the knights without the rings? On 
Level I, I have encountered a creature 
that fills the entire screen. What is this 
creature and how can it be destroyed? 

Jeff Moore 
Gaffney, SC 

Scoreboard: 

How do you defeat the wizard's image 
on the third level of Dungeons of Dag- 
gorathl I have used the rings to defeat the 
evil knights. Are they the secret? 

Bill Davis 
Vidalia. LA 

Scoreboard: 

Once I have killed the wizard's image 
in Dungeons of Daggorath, I am trans- 



ported to a different level, and everything 
that I have previously saved in my back- 
pack disappears. Just before I am trans- 
ported, the wizard's image leaves a scroll. 
How do you stop the contents in the 
backpack from disappearing and how do 
I gel back to my original level and get the 
scroll? 

Daniel Thickins 
Simoce, Ontario 

Scoreboard: 

In Dungeons of Daggorath, type IN- 
CANT FIRE to incant the Vulcan ring. 
There are no scrolls or flasks on the first 
level. The torches acquired on the first 
level that won't reveal are lunar torches. 
They will usually reveal after one or two 
knights on the second level have been 
killed. To defeat the knight on the second 
level, you must attack several times, 
move down the hall a few spaces and turn 
around. Repeat this process until he is 
dead. 

In Zork I, the cyclops can be scared 
away by typing ODYSSEUS. 

In Raaku-Tu, what do you do when 
you have safely exited the temple? 

Matthew Yarraus 
Easthampton, MA 

Scoreboard: 

In Pyramid 2000, how do I get out of 
the maze? Do I need any objects to get 
out? 

Jeff Remick 
Warren, MI 

Scoreboard: 

In Pyramid 2000, when you get to the 
west end of the Twopit room go down, 
type POUR WATER and the plant will grow. 
Climb the plant and you will get a key 
and the golden eggs. 

How do you get from the maze to the 
pharaoh's treasure chest? 

Peter Antonacopoulos 
Toa Baja, Puerto Rico 

Scoreboard: 

In Dallas Quest, how do I get the 
flashlight and the knapsack down the 
ladder at the trading post and still be able 
to turn the flashlight on? 

To get past the snake, examine the 
parrot. Pull the curtain to get the flash- 
light at the trading post. 

Robert Taylor 
Yuma, AZ 

Scoreboard: 

How do I get the flashlight in Dallas 
Questl Once I do find the flashlight, how 
do I get down the ladder with it and the 
knapsack? 

Rick Moore 
Greensburg, IN 



Scoreboard: 

In Sands of Egypt, the axe is on top 
of the pyramid. Keep the shovel through- 
out the game. Leave the water and dates 
outside of the pool before you go into the 
opening. The dates can be found up in the 
trees. 

When entering the treasure room, drop 
all items, except the torch. This way you 
have enough room to fit in the cracked 
wall. All you need is the ladder, and 
remember to go out the same way you 
came in. 

Remember to untie the rope from both 
the pole and the boat. When you reach 
the hole in the roof, type PLACE LADDER 
and CLIMB LADDER before you are swept 
over the falls. When done, just ride the 
camel home. 

Joe Boccia 
E. Northport. NY 

Scoreboard: 

How do you get the torch and the 
magnifying glass in Sands of Egypt! 

Brian Hill 
Crawfordsville, IN 

Scoreboard: 

In Bedlam, you must open the door of 
your cell in order to exit. Then, type a 
directional command. How do you get 
past the dog and how do you get the green 
key in the therapy room? 

In Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy, 
in order to get the plotter you must first 
have the babel fish and second, you must 
listen to Prostetnic Jeltz's poetry. Beware 
though, Jeltz's first poem is not his 
favorite. He won't read more unless you 
signify that you're enjoying it. 

Do you need a cutting tool in Sands 
of Egypt! If so, where can you get it? How 
do you get palm fronds? 

Graham Stinson 
Edmonton, Alberta 



To respond to other readers' inquiries 
and requests for assistance, reply to 
"Scoreboard Pointers," c/o THE RAIN- 
BOW, P.O. Box 385, Prospect, KY 
40059. We will immediately forward your 
letter to the original respondent and, just 
as importantly, well share your reply 
with all "Scoreboard" readers in an 
upcoming issue. 

For greater convenience, "Scoreboard 
Pointers" and requests for assistance may 
also be sent to us through the MAIL 
section of our Delphi CoCo SIG. From 
the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick MAIL, 
then type SEND and address to: EDITORS. 
Be sure to include your complete name 
and address. 



— Jody Doyle 



^••••••••••••••••••••••••************ 



January 198B THE RAINBOW 49 



'SUPER VOICE' 



COCO'S MOST ADVANCED 
SPEECH SYNTHESIZER. 

IT TALKS, SINGS AND 

MORE. 

only . . . $79.95 



WITH EARS PURCHASE 
only . . . $59.95 







:,-'.*: "v >.'•: *» 



SUPER VOICE is no ordinary speech synthesizer. It uses Silicon 
Systems, Inc. SSI-263, the most advanced speech/sound chip 
available. SUPER VOICE is not only capable of highly intelligible 
speech, sound effects, and singing over a 6 octave range, but now 
we have turned SUPER VOICE into a monophonic Super Music 
Synthesizer with our PIANO KEYBOARD. 

IT TALKS. A free TRANSLATOR text-to-speech program makes 
writing your own talking program as easy as SAYING "HELLO." 

SUPER VOICE works in any 32K or 64K computer. A disk system 
requires a Y-Cable or Multi-Pak. 

Here are the facts; 
the decision is yours. 






SUPER VOICE 


REAL TALKER 


RS SPEECH 
CARTRIDGE 


VOICE-PAK 


Synthesizer Device 


SSI-263 


SC-01 


SP-256 


SC-01 


Speaking Speeds 


16 


1 


1 


1 


Volume Levels 


16 


1 


1 


t 


Articulation Rales 


I 


1 


1 


l 


Vocal Tract 
Filler Settings 


255 


1 


1 


1 


Basic unit 
ol Speech 


64 phonemes 
4 durations each 


64 phonemes 


64 allophones 
5 pause lengths 


64 phonemes 


Pilch Variations 


4096 |32 absolute levels 
with B iniii-i-.si.ir-. speeds) 


4 


1 


4 



SUPER TALKING HEADS 

Paul and Pauline, our talking heads program is normally $24.95. Until 
Dec. 15 we will include them with each SUPER VOICE order. 





^ 



FREE 
BUNK DISK 

OR TAPE 
WITH EVERY 

ORDER 



^Hvyvw 



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VISA' 



fftoslsrCard 



Dealer Inquiries 
Invited 



>//> 



We accept CASH, CHECK, COD, VISA and MASTER CARD orders. 

Shipping and handling US and Canada $ 3.00 

Shipping and handling outside the US and Canada $5.00 

COD charge $2.00 

Illinois residents add 6'/l% sales tax 



Speech ^udf 



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38W 255 DEERPATH ROAD 

BATAVIA, ILLINOIS 60510 

(312) 879-6880 (TO ORDER) 



CALL ANY DAY TO ORDER. ALSO ORDER BY MAIL 




EARS 



Electronic 
Audio 
Recognition 
System 



$99.95 



• SPEECH 
RECOGNITION 

• HANDS OFF 
PROGRAMMING 

•HIGH 
QUALITY 
SPEECH 
REPRODUCTION 

EARS Does It All! 



«*' 



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o^ e 



Two Years In the Making. Speech Systems 
was formed to develop new and innova- 
tive speech products. After 2 years of in- 
tensive Research and Development, we 
have created a truely sophisticated 
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rates from 95% to 98% are typical. Until 
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EARS is trained by your voice and capable 
of recognizing any word or phrase. 
Training EARS to your particular voice 
print takes seconds. Up to 64 voice prints 
may be loaded into memory. You may 
then save on tape or disk as many as you 
like so that your total vocabulary is virtu- 
ally infinite. 

Speech and Sound Recognition. EARS is re- 
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ally doesn't matter whether you speak in 
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not have to speak at all, you can train 
EARS to understand sounds such as a 
musical note or a door slamming. 

Hands Off Programming. Imagine writing 
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touching the keyboard. Everything that 




you would normally do through a 
keyboard can now be done by just 
speaking. 

Programming EARS Is Easy. LISTEN, 
MATCH and other commands have been 
added to BASIC so that programming 
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line: 10 LISTEN: MATCH will instruct 
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Key pressure Control Change 

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* Low Level track editing. •" * d 'f able Ke * (Transposition, lor each " Melron °™ 

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v LYRA editing, (one voice per track). „ .. , . J , Includes MIDI hardware interface, 2 MIDI ca- 

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w Playback from any number of tracks editing. MK Cf)Co v _ Cab|e Qr ^m-V^. 

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Illinois residents add b'A% sates lax. 



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16KECB «B8»||J, 




The first of a two-part series on 
estimating expenses 



Can You Afford a Burger 

Attack? 



By Steve Blyn 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



This month's program is for kids 
who like to go shopping. And 
what kid doesn't? We will be 
concerned with the aspect of estimating 
expenses at a fast food restaurant. This 
program is the first of a two-part series, 
but each program can stand alone. 

The art of estimating expenses is too 
often overlooked in classrooms. It is 
truly important to know how to com- 
pute them; it is also important to be able 
to compute purchases. Methodology 
and compulation, however, are often 
taught to the exclusion of estimation. 
The truth of the matter is that when we 
go shopping, the skill of estimating 
expenses is the most crucial of the three. 

An increasing number of people carry 
calculators with them at all times. I am 
one of those who wears a calculator on 
the wrist. (Of course, one has to have 
Smurf-size fingers to operate it.) But 
most people do not feel comfortable 
pulling out their calculators in stores 
such as Burger King — people will 
stare! Thus, even armed with a calcula- 
tor, one still should be familiar with 
estimating expenses. 

Fastfood presents a list of four fast 
food items. Of course, there are many 
more items on the menu, but we have 
pared the list to four so that the items 
are easy to locate. The prices for each 
item vary from round to round. Each 
example chooses a random quantity of 
an item and a random amount of money 
for the student to spend. 



Steve Blyn leaches both exceptional 
and gifted children, holds two master's 
degrees and has won awards for the 
design of programs to aid the handi- 
capped. He owns Computer Island and 
lives in Staten Island, New York. 



The student is asked whether or not 
he has enough money for the purchase. 
For example, if chicken sandwiches cost 
$1.25 and the amount we have is $5.20, 
can we buy four of them? We hope the 
students find ways or are taught ways 
to estimate that they indeed would have 
enough money for this purchase. 

There are certainly many ways to 
perform the estimation. We hope you 
help your children learn one method 
that works for them. It helps to verbal- 
ize the methods. Being able to vocalize 
thoughts generally helps to clarify them. 
But no matter which method is used, 
encourage the students not to use pencil 
and paper. 

Program lines 50 through 1 10 set up 
the screen and present the four food 
items and their prices for each example. 
The prices are chosen randomly within 
the limits set by these lines. Line 140 
prints the variable 
M. which is the ran- 
domly selected 
amount of money 
that we have for 
each example. 

Line 150 contains 
the variable J, 
which is the amount 
of the particular 
food item we want 
to purchase. J is al- 
ways a random 
number chosen be- 
tween 3 and 6. NS 
represents the name 
of the particular 
food item selected. 
The variable flfl re- 
presents the cost of 
one of this item. 

The total cost of 
the items is there- 



fore J times flfl. The total amount of 
money we have at any given time is M 
times 100(cents). Lines 220 through 240 
compare these two values to determine 
whether or not we have enough money 
for the total purchase. The result is then 
compared to the student's response. 

After 10 examples, the program 
jumps to a report card. A scoreboard is 
presented on lines 370 through 430. The 
student may either end the program or 
go on to a new round of examples. 

We hope your children/ students are 
able to make good use of this program. 
We feel that the skill of estimating is an 
often overlooked, but essential, skill of 
daily adult living. Next month we will 
present Part 2, a similar program that 
actually tests the students in computing 
their fast food expenses. □ 



The listing: FflSTFODD 

10 REM" ESTIMATING EXPENSES" 

20 REM"STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER ISLAN 

D, STATEN ISLAND, NY, 1988" 

30 CLS5:IF CT=10 THEN 370 

40 J=RND(4)+2:D=RND(-TIMER) 

50 PRINT@3,"YOUR MENU";: IF CT=9 

THEN PRINT@28,CT+1; ELSE PRINT@2 

5,"#";CT+1; 

60 LA=0 : Z A=0 : F=0 : YE=1 : AA=0 : BB=0 

70 FOR T=1056TO1087:POKET,243:NE 

XT:SOUND100,3 

80 CH=120+RND(40) : PRINT@98 , "CHIC 

KEN-$"; :PRINTUSING"#.##";CH/100; 

90 SA=70+RND ( 20 ): PRINT© 162, "SALA 

D -$"; :PRINTUSING"#.##";SA/100; 

100 SD=32+RND(20) : PRINT@114 , "SOD 

A -$"; : PRINTUSING" #.##"; SD/ 1001 



54 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



110 C0=4j3+RND(2J3) : PRINT@178 , "COF 


GO ON "; 


FEE-$" ; :PRINTUSING"# . ##" ; CO/ Ipp ; 


300 EN$=INKEY$:IF EN$=CHR$(13) T 


120 FOR T=1248 TO 1279 


HEN 30 ELSE 300 


130 POKET,2 52:NEXTT:SOUND2j30,2 


310 RN=RND(4) 


140 M=70+RND(30) *10:M=M/100 


320 IF RN=1THEN N$="CHICKEN" : AA= 


150 GOSUB 3 10: PRINTS 2 8 8, "YOU WAN 


CH 


T TO BUY" ;J;N$;"S." 


330 IF RN=2 THEN N$= " SALAD " :AA=S 


160 PRINT@352,"IS $" ; 


A 


170 PRINTUSING"#.##";M; 


340 IF RN=3 THEN N$="SODA" : AA=SD 


180 PRINT" ENOUGH FOR THIS ? "; 


35j3 IF RN=4 THEN N$="COFFEE" : AA= 


190 Z$=INKEY$ 


CO 


200 IF Z$="Y" OR Z$="N" THEN 210 


3 60 RETURN 


ELSE 190 


370 CLS8-.FOR T=1024TO1055 : POKET, 


210 PRINTZ$:CT=CT+1 


214 : PLAY"L100 ;G" :NEXT: PRINT@3 7 , " 


220 IF Z$="Y"AND M*100>J*AA THEN 


HERE IS YOUR S CORE CARD " ; 


260 


380 FOR T=1119TO1088STEP-1: POKET 


2 30 IF Z$="Y" AND M*100=J*AA THE 


,214: PLAY"L100 ; A" : NEXTT 


N 260 


390 PRINT @ 20 2, "SCORE = ";10*RI;" 


240 IF Z$="N" AND M*100<J*AA THE 


%"; 


N 2 60 


400 FOR T=1344T01375: POKET, 214 :P 


250 GOTO 2 80 


LAY"L100;A":NEXT T 


260 RI=RI+1 : PRINT@428 , "CORRECT" ', 


410 PRINT§416," ":PRINT@448, " ": 


270 FOR T=200TO255STEP11:SOUNDT, 


PRINT@418,"DO YOU WANT TO PLAY A 


l:NEXTT:GOTO 290 


GAIN? "; 


280 PRINT§42 8, "SORRY";: SOUND 10, 


420 EN$=INKEY$ 


3 


430 IF EN$="Y" THEN RUN ELSE IF 


290 PRINT@484, "PRESS <ENTER> TO 


EN$="N" THEN END ELSE 420 /» 




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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 55 




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Disk directory 


G. 


Set the piraaelers | 


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a. 


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Set soreen hode 


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Access to help file 


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Exit to BftSIC ( 



"fun things to do"- with a 



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In addition to the features and quality Incorporated in the original Color 
Max 3, take a look at this partial list of impressive enhancements includ- 
ed in the new COLOR MAX DELUXE: 

EDIT MULTIPLE SCREENS ■ SIMUTANEOUSLY! 

STRETCH & SHRINK - ANY PROPORTION! 

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TILT! 

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MORE STYLES! " ytW W 

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ALL PRINT DRIVERS INCLUDED! 

COLOR CYCLING - UP TO 16 COLORS! 

COLOR MAX 3 AND DELUXE utilize the STANDARD "MGE" format for 
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EMPLOYING NONSTANDARD INTERFACES AS A FORM OF HARD- 
WARE PROTECTION. 

COLOR MAX DELUXE REQUIRES 512K RAM which provides for 
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Available for shipment AFTER October 1, 1987 

Cat. # 260MD Introductory Price . . . $69.95 

Upgrade for Registered Owners Only . . . 

Cat. # 261 CC (Send Original Disk) . . . $15.00 

MOUSE PADS $10.99 EA BLIP ARTCs* BORDER PICTURE DISKS 

Super High Quality Mouse Pads 

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Print in Color! With COLORSCAN, easy to use software for the CGP-220 and 
your 64K CoCo (I, II, III). This program is a must for anyone who owns a Radio 
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Part II, CoCo MAX, or any other program that produces a standard 6K binary pic- 
ture files. 

COLORSCAN will print program listings in blazing color, Help create colorful 
banners over four feet in length, produce 1x1/2x2 or poster printout of your 
favorite 6K graphic disk files. 
Order Catalog!* 184WD, See RAINBOW REVIEW (1/87 page 136) $29.95 

HARDCOPY is more that just a screen print utility, compare these features with 
any other graphic dump program on the market: Gray Scale or B&W printouts, 
1x1, 2x2, 3x3, Lables, posters, and greating cards with your graphics and much' 
much more! HARDCOPY requires a 64K CoCo (1,11, or III) and disk drive. Please 
specify printer and catalog H when ordering. 

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HARDCOPY DISK See RAINBOW REVIEW (10/85) on page 218) 



$29.95 




FO« toil MoQiHj comik special Font stgl« 




Fa« ECfal MOd if U Goodies Spctlfll Font SUJIe 

mWri 

Fai 




snaaoui 

Flip Honzontd 

Flip uertical 

Remap 

Tilt Horizontal 

Till uerticdl 

stretcn 

Rotate 

Bend Hori.-ontdi 

Bend Uertical 




- nra irfl i T:!T 





::••:: ::-•:: ::••:: __ :i"r 

h ■• £• •• •*•** •• •• 

iw « n •••!»•■ -« ••» 

.... ••■•• H ••• 






COLORSCAN HI-RES P RINT UTILITY 

EHUl 





©19B6 WMITESmiTH Uil.O 




nmniUVfllHIimmiiJ 



1 S im i 




Build a city from the 
ground up 



CoCo transforms you into a big- 
time developer with Usetown 
Annex, a Simulation that casts 
you as a city planner who must build a 
town from scratch — without over- 
shooting a budget of $14 million. 

The goal is to develop some recently 
annexed land into a housing project, 
shopping center, a waste disposal facil- 
ity and a park. Your budget is limited, 
and your job performance will be eval- 
uated at the end of the game based on 
the quality of your decisions. If the boss 
doesn't like what you've done — you're 
fired! 

In the game, as in life, it is possible 

(though not probable) that you could 

make all the right decisions and still not 

be successful. 

The decisions are difficult, often 

Paul French is a Co Co programmer and 
second grade teacher who lives in Bur- 
lington, Iowa. He is interested in corre- 
sponding with other educators who use 
Color Computers. 



^'~^T'**ffiR6mffii 



32K ECB [H 




Usetown Annex 



By Paul French 



forcing you to choose between cost- 
effectiveness and environmental protec- 
tion: Will you employ expensive soil 
conservation techniques or cut costs? 
Will you spend tens of thousands of 
dollars to preserve trees and endangered 
species? Will you pay almost SI 00,000 
for a device to control emissions from 
a waste facility's incinerator? Will you 
provide facilities for the handicapped? 
You must use responsibility in answer- 
ing these questions while always keep- 
ing in mind that your job is on the line. 

Usetown Annex employs graphics, 
memos and news flashes to increase its 
realism. It was inspired by the Iowa 4H 
program, Useburg Annex, which was 
developed for Apple computers. Use- 
town runs on a 32K Color Computer 
with Extended Color BASIC, and shares 
absolutely no coding with the Apple 
program that inspired it. 

Since I intended to use the game with 
children in classrooms, I included the 
following features: 

• Easy-to-read screens. 



• Disabled break and CLEAR keys to 
prevent disruption of the game. 

• Consistent keyboard response. The 
game always responds to one key- 
stroke with no requirement to press 
ENTER. Only appropriate keys will 
respond, and the program is pro- 
tected from someone changing the 
CoCo to lowercase (by pressing 
SHIFT-0), which could interfere with 
recognition of a pressed key. 

• Directions are presented at the bot- 
tom of the screen. Unless your CoCo 
has true lowercase instead of green 
on black lowercase characters, the 
directions will be in inverse video. 

• User-controlled program pace. De- 
lays caused by the program were held 
to a minimum. 

• A way to restart the game without 
playing it to its conclusion. Press 
shifted up arrow when the program 
prompts for Y (Yes) or N (No) to 
restart the game. (I added this fea- 
ture when I found that students were 



having to leave the game unfinished 
at the end of a class period and the 
new students coming in wanted to 
start their own games.) 

The graphics were added after the 
text portion of the game was completed. 
They were kept relatively simple to 
minimize delays and to keep the pro- 
gram within memory limitations. 

Programming style suffered a bit 
because I used multi-statement lines to 
conserve memory where 1 could. Vari- 
able names were reused to minimize the 
memory devoted to variable storage. 
Most of the options selected during 
development are recorded in the vari- 
able OT as individual bits. Despite its 
looks, there is structure to the program. 

In order to present the directions at 
the bottom of the screen in inverse 
video, I wrote RVSLINE, the short BASIC 
program shown in Listing 1. I am not 
an assembly language programmer, but 
the inverse video is achieved by replac- 
ing RVSLINE's last line with the machine 
language program when it is run, and 




o 



Mi 





January 1988 



RAINBOW 59 



then attaching the machine language 
program to the end of USETOWN. Com- 
plete instructions regarding how to do 
this are as follows: 

l)Type in RV5LINE exactly as it 
appears and save a copy before 
you run it. 

2) Run the program. (If you list the 
program after running it, all that 
should show up is Line 70. Line 80 
was replaced by the machine lan- 
guage program, which you can't 
see, and the other lines were de- 
leted.) 

3) Do not type NEW and do not delete 
Line 70 yet. If you do, you will lose 
the machine language program 
that is attached to the end of the 
BASIC program. Instead, start typ- 
ing in Listing 2, USETOWN. After 
you have typed in at least one line 
of USETOWN, you may delete Line 
70 (type DEL70). The machine 



language program will stay at- 
tached to the end of USETOWN when 
you save or load it and as you 
finish typing it in. Do not save the 
program in ASCII format or the 
machine language portion will be 
lost. 

You can also use RVSL INE with other 
programs. Follow the same steps, ex- 
cept type in the program you want to 
achieve inverse video on after running 
RVSL INE. And near the beginning of 
your program, insert the following line 
from Line 200 of USETOWN: 

DEFUSR9 = PEEK (27) * 25G + 
PEEK (28) - 2G 

When you want to reverse a line on the 
screen, PRINT the line, then place D = 
U5R9(*x>cx) in your program. The 
xxxx should be replaced with the mem- 
ory address of the first character of the 
line you want to reverse — 1024 for the 
first line, 1056 for the second line, etc. 



(An example is shown in Line 308 of 
USETOWN.) 

Listing 1:RVSLINE 

10 DATA00,00,00,00,BD,B3,ED,1F,0 

1 , C3 , 00 , 20 , DD , 00 , A6 , 8 4 , 80 , 40 , A7 , 

80,9C,00,26,F6,39 

20 AD=PEEK(27)*256+PEEK(28) 

30 FOR N=AD-28 TO AD-4 

40 READ MLS 

50 POKE N,VAL("&H"+ML$) 

60 NEXT 

65 DEI, 10-65 

70 'ML PROGRAM ATTACHED TO 

END OF BASIC 
80 REMABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRST 

I hope you enjoy Usetown Annex, 
learn something about the responsibil- 
ity and strategy of decision-making, and 
keep your job as city planner. 

(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 310 N. Gertrude, Burlington, 
I A 5260 1 . Please enclose an SA SE when 
writing for a response.) □ 



Editor's Note: RVSL INE, the machine language 
program will already be embedded into the USE- 
TOUN program on this month's RAINBOW ON TAPE 
and RAINBOW ON DISK. 




235 1864 58 

146 2010 122 

192 3020 6 

121 3045 64 

1352 201 3226 236 

1357 59 3555 100 



1424 
1709 



.212 END 251 

.137 



Listing 2: USETOWN 

GOT063999 

1 GOT03 

2 PCLEAR4:GOT01 

3 POKE248,50:POKE249,98:POKE250, 
28 : POKE251 , 175 : POKE2 52 , 12 6 : POKE2 
53 , 17 3 : POKE254 , 165 : POKE410 , 12 6 : P 
OKE411,0:POKE412,2 48:POKE113,87: 
POKE114 , 2 : POKE115 ,93 

200 DEFUSR9=PEEK(27) *256+PEEK(28 

)-26 

202 CLEAR450:DIMA(3) ,C(3) ,A$(3) , 

U$(3),D$(3) ,P$(3),C$(3) ,FP$(5,1) 

,FP(5),SP$(3,1),SP(3) 

204 CR$=CHR$(13) : S$="V15T4505B" : 

FM$="$$######,###» 

206 A$(0)="FOREST":A$(1)="FARMLA 

ND" : A$ ( 2 ) ="WETLAND" : A$ ( 3 ) ="AN UR 

BAN AREA" 



208 C$(0)="$150,000":C$(1)="$200 
,000":C$(2)="$60,000":C$(3)="$30 
0,000" :C(0) =150000 :C(1) =200000 :C 
( 2 ) =60000 : C C 3 ) =300000 
210 U$(0)="GRAZING OR PARK AREA. 
" :U$(1)="GRAZING OR GROWING CROP 
S.":U$ (2)=" FARMING OR A NATURAL 
AREA PARK. " :U$ (3) ="FACTORI 
ES AND STORES . " 

212 P$(0)="HOUSING DEVELOPMENT": 
P$(l)="SHOPPING CENTER" :P$ (2 )="P 
ARK":P$(3)="WASTE FACILITY" 
220 D=RND( -TIMER) 

2 98 GOTO1000 

300 D$=INKEY$:PRINT@482, "PRESS A 

NY KEY TO CONTINUE ...";: D=USR9 ( 1 

504) 

304 IF INKEY$=""THEN304ELSEPLAYS 

$ : CLS : RETURN 

308 D$=INKEY$:PRINT@481,"PRESS 

Y FOR YES, N FOR NO" ; : D=USR9 ( 

1504) 

310 POKE282,255:D$=INKEY$:IFD$=C 

HR$(95)THENCLS:RUNELSEIFD$o"Y"A 

NDD$<> "N"THEN3 10ELSEPLAYS$ : RETUR 

N 

314 D$=INKEY$:PRINT@480, "PRESS T 

HE NUMBER OF YOUR CHOICE" ;: D=USR 

9(1504) 

316 D$=INKEY$:IFD$=CHR$(95)THENC 

LS:RUNELSEIFD$=""THEN316 

318 D=VAL(D$) :IFD<10RD>MX THEN31 

6ELSEPLAYS $ : RETURN 

3 20 FORD=1TO600: NEXT: RETURN 

340 FORD=lTOLEN(D$) :PRINTMID$(D$ 
,D,1) ;:IFMID$(D$,D,1)>" "THENPLA 
Y"V15T25502D" 



60 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



342 F0RDE=1T03:NEXTDE,D: RETURN 
1000 CLS : PRINTSTRING$ (32,42) ; : PR 
INTQ7 2, "WELCOME TO THE" : PRINT@13 
7 , "USETOWN ANNEX" : PRINT@204 , "PRO 

JECT" : PRINT@256 , STRING$ (32 , 42) ; : 
PRINT@268,"V. 2.01"; :PRINT@289," 
COPR. (C) 1985 BY PAUL FRENCH": 
GOSUB3000 

1002 PRINTS 3 8 7, "WOULD YOU LIKE D 
IRECTIONS? " : GOSUB308 : IFD$=" Y"GOS 
UB4000 

1005 SCREEN1,0:GOSUB304 
100 6 PC=0 : FF=0 : MX=0 : FORD=0TO3 : D$ 
(D) =" " : NEXTD : FORD=0TO3 : IFA$ ( D) >" 
"THEND$ (MX) =A$ (D) :MX=MX+1 
1008 NEXTD 

1010 CLS: PRINTS 3 5, "WHICH AREA WO 
ULD YOU LIKE TO DEVELOP?": PR 
INT : FORD=lTOMX : PRINTTAB ( 6 ) ; STR$ ( 
D);") ";D$(D-1) :NEXTD 
1012 GOSUB314:FORDE=0TO3:IFA$(DE 
) =D$ ( D-l) THENA=DE : NEXT : ELSENEXT 
1016 D$=" TO: CITY PLANNER"+CR$ 
+" FROM: CITY ASSESSOR"+CR$+" S 
UBJECT: COST OF LAND M +CR$+CR$+" 
THE COST OF THE " : IFA<3THEND$ 
=D$+A$ (A) ELSED$=D$+RIGHT$ (A$ (A) , 
10) 

1018 GOSUB2030: PRINT :D$=" IS "+C 
$ (A) +" . " : GOSUB340 : GOSUB300 

1019 PC=PC+C(A) 

1020 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" YOU SHOU 
LD LOOK AT THE ZONING COD 
E (WHICH TELLS HOW THE LAND M 
AY BE USED) BEFORE DECIDING H 
OW TO DEVELOP " ; : IFA<3THENPRINT" 
THE "ELSEPRINT" " 

1022 PRINT" "A$(A) ".":GOSUB300 

1023 CLS:PRINT"********* ZONING 
CODE **********": PRINT" IN USE 
TOWN, ";A$(A) :PRINT" MAY BE USED 

EXCLUSIVELY FOR": PRINT" "U$ (A) 
102 4 PRINT: PRINT" 
ES ARE STRICTLY 
W. A ZONING 
ISSION TO USE 
THER PURPOSES) 
ED TO USE THE 
URPOSE BESIDES" 
1025 PRINT" "U$(A) :GOSUB300 

102 6 MX=0 : FORD=0TO3 : D$ (D) =" " :NEX 
TD: FORD=0TO3 : IFP$ (D) >" "THEND$ (MX 
)=P$(D) :MX=MX+1 

1028 NEXTD 

1030 CLS:PRINT@3 4,"WHAT ARE YOU 
GOING TO DEVELOP IN THE ";:IFA= 
3THENPRINTRIGHT$(A$(A) ,10) ;:ELSE 
PRINTA$ (A) ; 

103 2 PRINT " ? " : PRINT : FORD= 1TOMX : P 
RINTTAB(6) ;STR$(D) ;") ";D$(D-1) : 
NEXTD 



ALL OTHER US 
AGAINST THE LA 
VARIANCE (PERM 
THE LAND FOR 
MUST BE .OBTAIN 
LAND FOR ANY P 



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a special "grabber" utility is in- 
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Requirements: a Coco I, II or III 
with at least 32K, one disk drive, 
BASIC 1.0/1.1, ADOS 1.0/1.1 or 
JDOS. Printers supported in- 
clude: Epson RX/FX, Gemini 10X, 
SG10, NX10, C-ltoh 8510, DMP 



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WICO 

TRACKBALL 

Only $29.95 

Order CaWTBRSOl 
(Originally $69.95) 

WICO designed these trackballs 
specifically for the Radio Shack 
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WICO is the largest designer 
and manufacturer of control de- 
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an arcade video game, chances 
are you've used a WICO joystick 
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Includes one-year limited 




warranty. Phoenolic ball offers 
360-degree movement. Two opti- 
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response. Quick-action fire but- 
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computer connection. Heavy duty 
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Compatible with all color comput- 
er models. 

We also have trackballs for 
Atari, Atari ST, Commodore 64, 
Amiga, Macintosh, Apple ll/IIC, 
and TI99/4A computers. 



Ordering Instructions: All or- 
ders add $3.00 Shipping & Han- 
dling. UPS COD add $3.00. VI- 
SA/MC Accepted. NY residents 
add sales tax. 



Zebra Systems, Inc. 

78-06 Jamaica Avenue 

Woodhaven, NY 11421 

(718) 296-2385 



January 198B THE RAINBOW 61 



1034 GOSUB314:FORDE=0TO3:IFP$(DE 
) =D$ (D-l) THENP=DE : NEXT : ELSENEXT 
1038 IFA=2ANDP=2GOSUB2010 
1050 IFA=2ANDP=2ANDO1=2ORA=0ANDP 
=2ORA=3ANDP=1THEN1100 
1052 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" GETTING 
A ZONING VARIANCE WON'T BE E 
ASY. CHANCES OF GETTING TH 
E VARIANCE APPROVED MIGHT BE B 
ETTER IF YOU HIRE A LAWYER. ":P 
RINT: PRINT" DO YOU WISH TO HIR 
E ONE?":GOSUB308 
1054 L$=D$:IFL$="N"THEN1070 
1056 CLS: PRINTS 3 5, "LAWYERS NEED 
TIME TO PREPARE THEIR ARGUMENTS 
. YOUR HEARING HAS BEEN DELAYE 
D TWO WEEKS. ": PRINT :GOSUB20 14: GO 
SUB300 

1070 CLS :PRINT@ 3 6, "PROPOSAL - TO 
PERMIT A": PRINT" ZONING VARIAN 
CE SO THE" : PRINT" " ; : IFA=3THENP 
RINTRIGHT$(A$(A) ,10) ;ELSEPRINTA$ 
(A) ; 

1072 PRINT" MAY BE DEVELOPED" : PR 
INT" AS A ";:IFA=2ANDP=2THENPRI 
NT"SPORTS RECREATION AREA."ELSEP 
RINTP$(P) "." 

1074 FORDE=1TO4:GOSUB3 20:NEXT 
107 6 DATAWARREN PEASE, MARY LEE,R 
OBERT BARON, SOL LIGHT, FOREST H. 
GRUPE 

1078 PRINTS 19 4, "BOARD MEMBERS" :P 
RINTS218 , "VOTE" : PRINT@226 , STRING 
$(28,45) : FORDE=2 58T03 8 6STEP3 2 : RE 
ADD$ : PRINTSDE , D$ : NEXT : GOSUB3 20 : R 
ESTORE 

1080 V=0:FORDE=282TO410STEP32:GO 
SUB3 20 : D=RND ( 5 ) : PRINTSDE , ; : IFL$= 
"Y"ANDD>20RD>3THENV=V+1 : PRINT"YE 
S"ELSEPRINT" NO" 

1082 NEXT : GOSUB3 20 : PRINT : PRINT" 
RESULTS : VARIANCE " ? : IFVOTHEN 

PRINT"FAILS."ELSEPRINT"PASSES." 

1083 IFV<3THENFF=l:FP=FP+l 

1084 GOSUB300 

1086 IFL$="N"THEN1092ELSECLS:PRI 
NTS3 3,"DEAR CITY PLANNER ,": PRINT 
: PRINT" OUR BILL FOR LEGAL SER 
VICES IN THE USETOWN ANNEX ZON 
ING HEARING COMES TO";:DE=RN 
D(15)*1000+10000:PRINTUSING"$$## 

### . " ;DE 
1088 PRINT: PRINT" IT HAS BEEN 
A PLEASURE TO SERVE YOU.": PC 
=PC+DE 

1090 PRINT : PRINTTAB ( 13 ) ; "WILSON 
& WILSON": PRINTTAB (16) ;" (LAWYERS 
) "-.GOSUB300 
1092 IFFFO0THEN1700 



FILL AND LEVEL 
ENSURE PROPER B 
CONDITIONS. DO 
SPEND THE MONEY 



1100 IFAO2THEN1110 

1102 CLS: PRINT@ 3 5, "IT WOULD COST 

$200,000 TO 
THE WETLAND TO 
UILDING 

YOU WISH TO 
?":GOSUB308 

1104 IFD$=" Y"THENPC=PC+200000 : OT 
=OT OR1 
1106 CLS: PRINTS 3 5, "FLOOD CONTROL 

CONSTRUCTION WOULD COST $300 
,000. DO YOU WISH TO SPEND T 
HE MONEY FOR FLOOD CONTROL?" 
:GOSUB308 

1108 IFD$=" Y"THENPC=PC+300000 : OT 
=OT OR2 

1110 IFPO0THEN1130 
1112 CLS: PRINTS 3 5, "WHICH TYPE OF 

HOUSING WOULD YOU PREFE 

R TO BUILD?" : PRINTS131, "1) TWELV 
E SINGLE FAMILY HOMES 

FOR $780,000" :PRINTS227, "2) THR 
EE MULTI-FAMILY UNITS (12 

HOMES) FOR $540,000" :MX=2:GOSUB 
314 
1114 IFD=2THENPC=PC+540000:OT=OT 

OR4ELSEPC=PC+7 80000 
1130 IFPO1THEN1160 
1132 CLS: PRINT S3 5, "YOU CAN BUILD 
": PRINT: PRINT" 1) A LARGE SHOP 
PING CENTER": PRINTTAB (6) "FOR $6, 
000,000 WHICH WILL PROVIDE 

MORE JOBS AND" : PRINTTAB ( 6) "INCO 
ME, OR" 
113 4 PRINT: PRINT" 2) A SMALLER 

ONE FOR": PRINTTAB (6) "$3,500,000 
.":MX=2:GOSUB314 

113 6 IFD=1THENPC=PC+6000000:OT=O 
T OR8ELSEPC=PC+3500000 

1160 IFPO2THEN1190 

1161 IFAO2THENGOSUB2010 

1162 CLS: PRINT S3 5, "PARK FACILITI 
ES WITH CONVEN- TIONAL HEATING, 

COOLING, AND LIGHTING WILL C 
OST $90,000.": PRINT: PRINT" SOL 
AR FACILITIES MIGHT HELP KEEP 
UTILITY BILLS DOWN IN THE FUTUR 
E. DO YOU WANT TO SPEND" 
1164 PRINT" $40,000 FOR SUPPLEME 
NTAL SOLAR FACILITIES?" : GOSUB30 
8:PC=PC+90000 

1166 IFD$=" Y"THENPC=PC+40000 : OT= 
OT OR16 

1190 IFPO3THEN1220 
1192 CLS: PRINTS 3 5, "YOU CAN BUILD 
": PRINT: PRINT" 1) A LANDFILL F 
OR" : PRINTTAB ( 6 ) " $ 2 , 500 , 000 , OR" : 
PRINT: PRINT" 2) A WASTE RECYCL 
ING CENTER FOR $4,500,000 



62 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



.":MX=2:GOSUB314 

1193 IFAO20RDO1THEN1195ELSECLS 
:PRINT@3 5,"EVEN WITH THE VARIANC 
E YOU WILL NOT BE ALLOWED TO 
BUILD A LANDFILL IN THE WETLAND 
. DO YOU WANT TO" : PRINT: PRIN 
T" 1) CANCEL THIS DEVELOPMENT, 

OR": PRINT: PRINT" 2) BU 
ILD A RECYCLING PLANT?" 

1194 MX=2:GOSUB314:OT=OT OR2048: 
IFD=1THENFF=1 : FP=FP+1 : GOTO1700 

1195 IFD=lTHENPC=PC+2 500000 :OT=0 
T OR32ELSEPC=PC+4500000 

1198 IFOT AND3 2THEN1220ELSEGOSUB 

2020 : IFD$="Y"THENPC=PC+80000 : OT= 

OT OR512 

1220 IFAO0THEN1350 

1222 CLS:PRINT@35, "USING SPECIAL 



METHODS WOULD A 
SAVE MANY OF TH 
COST OF $80,000 
TO SAVE THE TRE 



CONSTRUCTION 
LLOW YOU TO 
E TREES AT A 
. DO YOU WANT 
ES?":GOSUB308 

12 2 4 IFD$="Y"THENPC=PC+80000:OT= 
OT OR64 
1350 IFP=3THEN1362 

1352 CLS:PRINT§ 3 5, "PROVISIONS FO 
R HANDICAPPED ACCESS WOULD AD 
D " ; :PRINTUSING"$$##, ###" ; ( .02*P 
C): PRINT" TO THE COST. WILL YOU 

PROVIDE HANDICAPPED ACCESS?" :G 
OSUB308 

1353 IFD$="Y"THENOT=OT OR128:PC= 
PC+(.02*PC) :GOTO13 62ELSEIFRND(10 
)>8THEN1362 

1354 CLS:PRINT@35,"THE STATE COM 
MISSION ON THE HANDICAPPED HAS 



TO APPEAR WITH 
THAT THEY CAN E 
FINER POINTS OF 
HANDICAPPED ACC 



REQUESTED YOU 
YOUR LAWYER SO 
XPLAIN THE 

THE STATE 
ESS LAW TO YOU." 

1355 GOSUB300:CLS:PRINT@35,"THE 
FINER POINTS INDICATE THAT Y 
OU DON'T HAVE A CHOICE. YOU WI 
LL PROVIDE HANDICAPPED ACCESS 

AT A COST OF " ; : PRINTUSING"$$## 
,###."; (.02*PC) :PC=PC+(.02*PC) :G 
OSUB300 

1356 CLS:PRINT@3 3,"DEAR CITY PLA 
NNER,": PRINT: PRINT" OUR BILL F 
OR LEGAL SERVICES IN THE HANDI 
CAPPED ACCESS MATTER COMES 

TO "; :DE=RND(5) *1000+10000:PRIN 
TUSING" $$#,###."; DE : PRINT : PRINT " 
IT HAS BEEN A PLEASURE TO 

SERVE YOU.":PC=PC+DE 
13 57 PRINT :PRINTTAB( 13) "WILSON & 

WILSON" :PRINTTAB( 16) " (LAWYERS) " 
:GOSUB300 




SUPER PRODUCTS 



DISTO SUPER CONTROLLER $99.95 




A superb controller. Along with 
the included C-DOS, plug-in 
three more software selectable 
2764 or 27 128 EPROMs burned 
to your liking. 

The internal Mini Expansion Bus 
lets you add some incredible 
features to the controller. Dislo 
Super Add-Ons were designed 
to fit neatly inside the controller 
case. 



DISTO 
SUPER 
RAM 



3 



ZeroK $29.95 



Full 512K$ 79.95 




Now is the time to upgrade your 
COCO 3 to 51 2K of memory. 
Available with or without mem- 
ory chips, Ihe Super Ram 3 
board is easily installed inside 
the COCO. It is fully compatible 
with OS-9 Level 2 and is deliv- 
ered with a software package (in 
BASIC) that includes: a printer 
spooler, a ramdisk, a memory 
test and an install/configure 
program for your system. 



DISTO SUPER ADD-ONS 



REAL TIME CLOCK AND PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE 
Have the Real Time, date and year displayed on your screen at a simple 
command using the included software drivers. $29.95 

MINI EPROM PROGRAMMER 

A low cost EPROM programmer that attaches directly to your Disto 

Super Controller to program those often used utilities. $54.95 

HARD DISK INTERFACE 

A hard disk interface fully compatible with S.A.S.I. that fits inside the 

Super Controller or Ramdisk. OS-9 Drivers are included. S49.95 



SUPER RAMDISK 512K 

Imagine having access to 51 2K of virtual disk 
memory in close to no time. 



S1 69.95 



The OS-9 operating system is rapidly becoming a best-seller. All Disto 
products are supported by OS-9 Level 1 and Level 2 software. We 
have drivers for: Parallel Printer Interface, Real Time Clock Adapter, 
Super Ramdisk, Hard Disk Adapter and Disto's Super Controller 2. 



SEND FOR FREE 87/88 WINTER CATALOG 



CRC COMPUTERS inc. 

10802 Lajeunesse, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, H3L 2E8 

1-514-383-5293 



MASTER CARD 
AND VISA 
ACCEPTED 



We accept phone orders. 

C.O.D. in Canada only. 

Shipping & Handling not included in prices. 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



63 



13 62 DE=RND(5) * 1000+4000 :CLS : PRI 
NT@35,"WILL YOU PAY " ; : PRINTUSIN 
G"$$,###" ;DE;:PRINT" TO":PRINT" 
CONSERVE AS MUCH SOIL AS 
POSSIBLE DURING CONSTRUCTION?" :G 
OSUB308 : IFD$=" Y"THENPC=PC+DE : OT= 
OT OR2 56 

13 72 D$=" TO: CITY PLANNER"+CR$ 
+" FROM: ACE CONSTRUCTION CO."+ 
CR$+" SUBJECT: PROJECT CONSTRUC 
TION"+CR$+CR$+" CONSTRUCTION 
HAS BEGUN"+CR$+" IN THE " :GOSUB2 
050 

1383 IFA=0THENDE=4000 

1384 IFA=1THENDE=12 50 

1385 IFA=2AND(OT AND1) THEN1402EL 
SEIFA=2THENDE=20000 

1386 IFA=3AND(OT AND32) THENDE=97 
000ELSEIFA=3THENDE=48000 

1389 CLS:PRINT@ 3 5, "CLEARING THE 
AREA FOR CONSTRUCTION CO 

STS "; :PRINTUSING"$$#,###.";DE:P 
C=PC+DE : GOSUB300 

1402 IFA=0ORA=2THENCLS:PRINT@3 5, 
"CONSTRUCTION IS DELAYED W 
HILE AN ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT S 
TUDY IS CONDUCTED . " : PRINT : GOSUB2 
014 : GOSUB300ELSEGOTO1422 
1404 IFRND(10)>5THEN1422ELSECLS: 
PRINT@35,"AN ENDANGERED SPECIES 
WAS FOUND AND CONSTRUCTION W 
ILL NOT CONTINUE UNTIL 

CONSTRUCTION METHODS ARE 
APPROVED WHICH WILL PROT 
ECT THE ENDANGERED SPECIES." 
: PRINT -.GOSUB20 14 

1406 GOSUB300:DE=PC*.05:CLS:PRIN 
T@ 3 5, "CONSTRUCTION MAY CONTINUE, 

BUT PROTECTING THE ENDANGERE 
D SPECIES INCREASES YOUR COSTS 

BY ";:PRINTUSING"$$##, ###.»; 
DE : PC=PC+DE : GOSUB300 

1422 DU=RND(10) *10:D$="USETOWN W 
EATHER REPORT"+CR$+CR$ : IFDU<60TH 
END$=D$+" MOSTLY SUNNY. " :GOSUB20 
40:GOTO1432ELSED$=D$+" CLOUDY WI 
TH A"+STR$((DU-55)*2)+"% CHANCE 
OF"+CR$+" RAIN.":GOSUB2040:D=RND 
(10)*10 

1423 IFD>(DU-55) *2THEND$="USETOW 
N WEATHER UPDATE"+CR$+CR$+" WE H 
AVE CLOUDY SKIES - NO"+CR$+" RAI 
N.":GOSUB2040:GOTO1432 

1424 D$="USETOWN WEATHER UPDATE" 
+CR$+CR$+" WE CURRENTLY HAVE HEA 
VY RAINS"+CR$+" IN USETOWN. . . " :G 
OSUB2040 : CLS : PRINTQ35 , "CONSTRUCT 
ION IS HALTED BY THE RAIN."+ 
CR$ : GOSUB2014 : GOSUB300 

1426 IFOT AND256THEN1428ELSED$=" 
TO: CITY PLANNER" +CR$+" FROM: 



STATE E.P.A."+CR$+" SUBJECT: S 
OIL EROSION"+CR$+CR$+" YOU ARE 
FINED $40,000 FOR FAILING T 
PREVENT SOIL EROSION." 

:PC=PC+40000:GOSUB2030:GOSUB300 
1428 IFAO2THEN1452ELSEIF0T AND2 
THEN14 3 2ELSED$="USETOWN WEATHER 
UPDATE"+CR$+CR$+" RAINS CAUSE FL 
OODING IN"+CR$+" WETLAND. CONST 
RUCTION PROJECT"+CR$+" DESTROYED 
. " : GOSUB2040 : FF=1 : FP=FP+1 : GOT017 
00 

1432 IFAO2THEN1452ELSEIF0T AND1 
THEN1452ELSEPC=PC*2:PRINT@35,"PR 
OBLEMS ENCOUNTERED WHILE TRYI 
NG TO BUILD ON MARSHY LAND DOUB 
LE THE COST OF THIS PROJ 

ECT TO ";:PRINTUSING"$$#####,### 
.";PC:GOSUB300 

1452 CLS :PRINT@35, "CONSTRUCTION 
IS IN ITS FINAL STAGES. WILL Y 
OU LANDSCAPE AT A COST OF " ; : PR 
INTUSING"$$###,##.";PC*.04:GOSUB 
308 : IFD$=" Y"THENPC=PC+PC* . 04 : OT= 
OT OR102 4 

1462 D$=" TO: CITY PLANNER"+CR$ 
+" FROM: ACE CONSTRUCTION CO."+ 
CR$+" SUBJECT: PROJECT CONSTRUC 
TION"+CR$+CR$+" CONSTRUCTION 
IS COMPLETE "+CR$+" IN THE ":GOSU 
B2050 

1472 IFP<30R(OT AND512)OR(OT AND 
32) THEN1482ELSECLS : PRINT@35 , "THE 
STATE E.P.A. WILL NOT ALLOW 
THE RECYCLING PLANT TO OPEN 
UNTIL STACK EMISSIONS ARE C 
ONTROLLED. "+CR$ :GOSUB2014 :GOSUB3 
00 : GOSUB2020 : IFD$="N"THEN1472ELS 
EPC=PC+80000 

1482 IFA=2ANDP<>2THENCLS:PRINT@3 
5, "SEEPAGE AND SETTLING HAS 
RESULTED IN A PENALTY TO YOU 
OF ";:PRINTUSING"$$####, ###.", «P 
C* . 1 : PC=PC+PC* . 1 : GOSUB300 
1492 IFOT AND256THENDE=153:D$="S 
OIL CONSERVATION" :DU$= "WORKING T 
SAVE SOIL":GOSUB2070 
1494 IFOT AND512THENDE=169:D$="C 
LEAN AIR":DU$="KEEPING OUR AIR C 
LEAN":GOSUB2070 

1496 IFOT AND1024THENDE=185:D$=" 
CITY BEAUTIFUL" :DU$="BEAUTIFUL P 
LANTINGS " : GOSUB2070 
1498 IFOT AND16THENDE=249:D$="EN 
ERGY EFFICIENCY" :DU$="HELPING CO 
NSERVE RESOURCES " : GOSUB2070 
1700 IFP=lANDA=2THENBR=BR-2 
1703 IFP=1ANDA=0THENBR=BR-1 
1706 IFOT AND204 8THENBR=BR-2 
1709 IFP=3ANDA=3AND(OT AND32)THE 
NBR=BR-2 



64 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



COMPUTER AIDED INSTRUCTION 

Educational Programs for Students Grade K-12 and Adult Self Studies 

NEW PROGRAMS FOR YOUR TANDY 1000 
AND TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

Compatible with Apple - Atari - Commodore - TRS 80 I, III, 4 - IBM PC Jr. 
16 New Programs now available in Basic Spanish 



• NEW! VIDEO CASSETTES FOR VHS! 

InnerActive'"'' Video Tutorials 
Complete with audio narration 
A cassettes with 8 programs in each of the 
following subject areas: 

• Basic Spanish Grammar 

• Basic Algebra 

• Reading by Phonics 

• Basic Fractions "" ■ 
2 programs per tape Running time: 45 minutes per tape. 

16 Programs on 8 VHS Tapes $159™ 



*E 



per/tape 




syllable adjectives 
d in L] usually just add 



CALL TOLL FREE 
FOR MORE INFORMATION 



Which has 



You nay bo able to 
reduce your taxes by 



tncoae 
a*jeray ln 9 




- Incoce 
spl itt iny 

- tax she I to 





M 



One-sy I \eb\c adjectives that 
end in M usually just add | M 



Uhich has one syllable' 
O icy 

I sly 



Interactive Tutorial Programs for Home or Classroom Use 

Over 1000 programs for your selection with 32 now available on disk for the Color 
Computer and 500 now available for the Tandy 1000. 



"We're Your Educational 
Software Source" 

Subject No. of Programs 

Reading Development 256 (4 on disk) 
Reading Comprehension 48 (4 on disk) 
Mathematics 128 

Algebra 16 (16 on disk) 

History 32 (4 on disk) 

Spelling 16 

Government 16 

Physics 16 (4 on disk) 

16 Programs in each 
of the following: 
Children's Tales • Carpentry - Electronics 
Health Services - Office Skills - Statistics 
First Aid/Safety - Economics - Business 
Accounting - Psychology • MUCH MORE! 

Send lot our free catalog ol over 1000 Dorseit educa 
lional programs lor Alan. TRS 80, Apple. IBM PC Jr . 
Commodore. Tandy 1000. eic 



Apple II, TRS 80 I. Ill, & 4, and 
Commodore 64 computers require 
respective conversion kits (plug-in board 
and stereo cassette player), $99.00. Atari 
400/600/800/1200 computers require the 
Atari cassette recorder and the Dorsett 
4001 Educational Master Cartridge, 
S9.95. For the IBM PC Jr. a cassette 
adapter cable and a good cassette 
recorder are required. The Tandy 1000 
requires the Dorsett M1001 speaker/PC 
board kit, $69.00, and a standard 
cassette recorder. A Radio Shack 
CCR-81 or CCR-82 is recommended. 

CASSETTES: S59.50 for an album con- 
taining a 16-program course (8 cassettes 
with 2 programs each); $9.95 for a 
2-program cassette. 

DISKS: $14.95 for a one-program disk; 
$28.95 for two disks; $48.95 for four 
disks. All disks come in a vinyl album. 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Dorsett Educational Software features: 

• Interactive Learning 

• User Friendly 

• Multiple Choice and Typed 

• Program Advance with Correct Response 

• Full-time audio narration (Cassette 
Programs Only) 

• Self-Paced Study 

• High Resolution Graphics 

• Easy Reading Text 

For more Information, or to order call: 

TOLL FREE 1-800-654-3871 

IN OKLAHOMA CALL (405) 288-2301 

iHort-eoidll VISA' I 

m DORSETT 

\mm^r Educational Systems, Inc. 
Box 1226, Norman, OK 73070 



Save $200 on Magnavox Monitors 
Magnavox 8CM643 RGB Analog only $385!! 




MONITORS 

ram 



1230 A 12" 

This 12" green screen high resolution 
monitor oilers 80 column capability, Zenith 
quality and a 90-day warranty valid at any 
ot Zenith's 1200 locations. 



$125 



122A Zenith 12" Amber Screen offers 
the same 640 dots x 200 lines reso- 
lution at 15MHz and a 90-day war- 
ranty valid at 1200 locations. 



$88 



('7 shipping) 

MASNAVDX 
8 CM 515 has 

analog RGB for CoCo 3, TTL RGB 
for Tandy 1000 or IBM PC's, and 
composite color lor CoCo 2 and 3. 
Built-in speaker. 14" screen with 
640 dot x 240 line resolution. Plus 
2 years parts and labor warranty. 

reg. list S499 

SAVE 
$200 



Retail «1 99 
Our price 
(S7 shipping) BRAND NEW 

All monitors require an amplifier cir- 
cuit to drive the monitor and are 
mounted Inside the color computer. 
They attach with spring connectors 
with two wires extending out of the 
computer, one for audio and one for 
video. CoCo 3 does not require an 
amplifier circuit. 

VA-1 for monochrome monitors only, 
fits all color computers 



$24.45 

>me or color, fits all 

$39. 45 



$298 






+ S14 Shipping 

CC-3 Magnavox RGB cable. 

only *19i90 with 
Magnavox Monitor order. 
$29.95 w/o monitor. 



( s 2 shipping) 

VC-4 lor monochrome or color, fits all 
color computers 
(S2 shipping) 

MAGNAVOX 

CM 8505 has analog RGB 
and TTL RGB and composite 
color input. Built in speaker. 13" 
screen with 390 dots x 240 reso- 
lution in RGB mode. Plus 1 year 
parts & labor warranty. 

reg. list «299 

SAVE 
*79 



$220 

+ S14 Shipping 




LfFllVE \J T» Howards Drive gives you a 
DD-3 MPI drive, a CA-1 cable and a J&M DC-4 Disk Controller 
for onlv Double sided double density 360H 

$17845 

(S5 shipping) 
Add S34 for a Disto DC-3. 



Double sided 
Double density 
360K 




GUARANTEE 

Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee is meant to eliminate the uncertalnty- 
of dealing with a company through the mail. Once you receive our hard- 
ware, try It out; test it for compatibility. If you're not happy with It for any 
reason, return It in 30 days and we'll give you your money back (less 
shipping.) 

Shipping charges are for 48 states. 
APO, Canada and Puerto Rico orders are higher. 



DISK CONTROLLER 




Includes controller and C-DOS 4.0 
ROM Chip. DISTO 

^98 DC-3 J± 
S2 shipping on all DISTO products 



ADD-ON BOARDS 



DC-38 includes 80 column capacity, 
parallel printer, real time clock, and all 
software $138 

DC-256 256K RAM Board Includes 
software to access all RAM $QQ 

DC512 512K RAM Board with 
software $125 

DC-3C Clock Calendar and parallel 
printer port Q $40 



DC-3P Mini Eprom programmer in- 
cludes all software to program 2764 
or 27128 chips g $55 

2764 8K Eptom 28 pin 

$8 50 each 

27128 16K Eprom 28 pin 

$8 50 each 
1 FREE Eprom W/DC-3P order 
effective thru 12/15/87 
C-DOS 3 28 pin Eprom makes Dlsto 
controller compatible with CoCo 3 

$20 



SOFTWARE SPECIALS 



Payrol/BAS T 



('2 shipping) 

• Nonprotected basic is modifiable 

• Tax tables built in lor automatic 
lederal calculation 

• Custom code lor each state ('25 option) 

• 4 pay periods 

• 7 deductions 

• Prints checks 

• 100 employees 

• 30 ledger numbers for checks 
other than payroll 

• Check register includes monthly 
or weekly federal deposit amount 

• Enter, update, delete employees, 
company and check Information 

• Print payroll and nonpayroll 
checks 



Payrol/BAS™ 
30 Day Trial 

$29.95 



VIP LIBRARY 

Softlaw's integrated package in- 
cludes VIP Writer Terminal Data 
Base, Calc and Disk Zap which 
can (ix a diskette that is giving I/ 
O errors 



$125 



reg. *149 ('2 shipping) 



MEMORY 

Memory lor CoCo 3 PC memory 
board plugs into the spare slots 
inside the computer and is pop- 
ulated with 256K ram chips. 
Completely solderless with com- 
plete easy to install instructions. 

$79.95 

PC Memory board without RAM 
'49.50 

Software spooler and RAM disk 

lor lightning quick response or no 
disk swapping drive backup for 1 
drive system and printer spooler to 
free computer during long listings. 
For CoCo 3 with S1Q AE\ 



512KRAM 

($2 shipping 

products) 



on Memory 



WE REPAIR 

DISK DRIVES 

MONITORS 

CONTROLLERS 



Send them UPS prepaid 
to Howard Medical with 
your daytime telephone 
number and we will call 
with a cost to repair. 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 60622 
■"J .(800) 443-1444 =(312) 278-1440 




Showroom Hours: 
8:00 - 5:00 Mon. - Fri. 
10:00 - 3:00 Sat. 



WE ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 
C.O.D. OR CHECKS • SCHOOL P.O.'S 



The Bigges 1 

The Best 

The indispensable 




THE RAINBOW is the biggest, best, brightest and 
most comprehensive publication a happy CoCo 
ever had! THE RAINBOW features more programs, 
more information and more in-depth treatment of 
the Tandy Color Computer than any other source. 

A monthly issue contains nearly 200 pages and 
up to two dozen programs, 14 regular columns and 
as many as 12 new product reviews. And advertise- 
ments: THE RAINBOW is known as the medium for 
advertisers — which means every month it has a 
wealth of information unavailable anywhere else 
about new products! Hundreds of programs are 
advertised in its pages each month. 

Every single issue of THE RAINBOW covers the 
wide spectrum of interests in the Tandy Color 
Computer — from beginners' tutorials and arcade 
games to telecommunications and business and 
finance programs. Helpful utilities and do-it- 
yourself hardware projects make it easy and fun to 
expand your CoCo's capabilities. And, monthly 
reviews by independent reader reviewers take the 
guesswork out of buying new software and hard- 
ware products. 

Join the tens of thousands who have found THE 
RAINBOW to be an absolute necessity for their 
CoCo. With all this going for it, is it surprising that 
more than 90 percent of THE RAINBOW subscrib- 
ers renew their subscriptions? We're willing to bet 
that, a year from now, you'll be doing the same. 



POSTAGE 
ECESSARY 
F MAILED 
IN THE 
ITED STATES 












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Rainbow On Tape 

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— great ways to bring THE RAINBOW into your life. 
Each month, all you do is pop the tape into your 
cassette player or the disk into your drive. No more 
lost weekends. As soon as you read an article about 
a program in THE RAINBOW, it's ready to load and 
run. No work. No wait. 

Just think how your software library will grow. 
With your first year's subscription, you'll get almost 
250 new programs: games, utilities, business 
programs, home applications. And, with RAINBOW 
ON DISK, you'll also get all the OS-9 programs. 

RAINBOW ON TAPE and RAINBOW ON DISK — 
they're the "meat" of THE RAINBOW at a price that's 
"small potatoes." And now you even have a choice 
about how it should be served up to you. 

To get your first heaping helping, just fill out and 
return the attached reply card. No postage neces- 
sary. 



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1710 

1712 

+ 5 

1715 

1718 

1721 

1724 

1727 

1730 

1733 

1736 

1739 



IFFF>0THENBR=BR-1 : GOTO1760 
IFP=2ANDA=2AND01=2THENBR=BR 



IFP=3ANDA=lTHENBR=BR+5 
IFP=0ANDA=0THENBR=BR+5 
IFP=lANDA=3THENBR=BR+5 
IFOT AND1THENBR=BR+1 
IFOT AND2THENBR=BR+1 
IFOT AND4THENBR=BR+1 
IFOT AND8THENBR=BR+1 
IFOT AND16THENBR=BR+1 
IFOT AND32THEN1742ELSEIFP=3 
THENBR=BR+1 

1742 IFOT AND64THENBR=BR+1 
1745 IFOT AND128THENBR=BR+1 
1748 IFOT AND2 56THENBR=BR+1 
1751 IFOT AND512THENBR=BR+1 
17 54 IFOT AND102 4THENBR=BR+1 
17 60 IFFF=1THENSCREEN1,0:GOSUB30 
4ELSEGOSUB3100 
1770 OT=0:O1=0 

1800 IFA=3THEND$=MID$(A$(A) ,4,5) 
ELSED$=A$(A) 

1801 IFP=0ORP=1THENDU$=LEFT$(P$( 
P) ,8)ELSEIFP=3THENDU$=LEFT$(P$(P 
) ,6)ELSEDU$=P$(P) 

1802 IFFF=1THENFP$(FP-1,0)=D$:FP 
$(FP-l,l)=DU$:FP(FP-l)=PC:GOT018 
06ELSESP=SP+1 : SP$ (SP-1 ,0) =D$ : SP$ 



(SP-1, 1) =DU$ : SP (SP-1) =PC: A$ (A) =" 
":P$(P)="" 
1806 IFFP=0THEN1856 
1808 CLS:PRINT@5,"USETOWN PROJEC 
T REPORT":PRINTSTRING$(3 2,61) ; : P 
RINT " INCOMPLETE PROJECTS : " : PRINT 
"region project cost" 
1810 IC=0:FORD=0TOFP-1:PRINTFP$( 
D,0) ;TAB(10)FP$(D,1) ;TAB(20) ; : PR 
INTUSINGFM$;FP(D) ; : IC=IC+FP (D) :N 
EXT 

1812 PRINT@320,STRING$(32,61) ; :P 
RINT0352, "TOTAL COST OF":PRINT@3 
84," INCOMPLETE PROJECTS : " ; : PRINT 
USINGFM$;IC 

1814 PRINTS 4 4 8, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
VIEW":D=USR9 (1472) : PRINT0480 , "T 
HE NEXT PAGE OF THIS REPORT..."; 
: D=USR9 ( 1504 ) : GOSUB304 

1856 CLS : PRINTS 5, "USETOWN PROJEC 
T REPORT" : PRINTSTRING$ (32 , 61) ; : P 
RINT "COMPLETED PROJECTS : " : PRINT" 
region project cost" 

1857 IFSP=0THEN1862 

1858 RT=0:FORD=0TOSP-1:PRINTSP$( 
D,0) ;TAB(10)SP$(D,1) ;TAB(20) ; : PR 
INTUSINGFM$;SP(D) ; :RT=RT+SP(D) :N 
EXT 

1862 PRINT@256, STRINGS (20, 61) :PR 



,,:,^S3 : :iv:; 




HOLIDAY 
SPECIALS 

from The Computer Center 




Hardware 



Software & Misc. 



2 Driue System(2 DSOD Oriues in one cast 
5329,95 



Oriue 1 UD9rade(l 



for your 26-3129,3131, 



or 3135) Specify Catalogs when ordering 

5119,95 

Driue 8-SSDD Full Height' 5199.95 

Oriue 1-SSOO Full Height 5125,95 

COCO 3 512K DpgradelNew tow Pricel-599,95 
COCO 3 Keyboard 531,95 



Epson 1X-800 

Printer 
.1: $209.95 



"ft 



160 C?E - OflfFI 

3C CP5 - PIO 

2K EJF c Efi 

RECWRES SERIAL TO 
PARALLEL INTERFACE 






ADDS 3 



Specify R,S. or Disto 
Controller, 



- 529,95 

COCO Graphics Designer 

Rrt Deli(440 Pix on IB disks) 

(lonitor Interface — —— — — — 

Serial to Parallel Conuerters 

FKEYS III - 519,95 Sixdriue - 
Telewriter 64 - 559.95 COCO-Util - 
Gauntlet - 528,95 Pyranix - 

Disto Super Controller 

COCO in Stitch (X-Stitch Patterns)- 



539.95 
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ALL DISK DRIUES 
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The Computer 

5512 Poplar Ave. Memphis, TN 

Add 54.90 for Shipping I Handling, UISR, Haster 
Rllew 3 Weeks for perspnal checks, NO COOS. Pri 



Center 

38119 901-761-4565 

Card, & Honey Orders Rccepted, 
ces nay change without notice, 



IF YDU DOMT SEE 
IT, ASK US I 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 67 



INTS288 , "INCOMPLETE PROJECTS : " ; : 
PRINTUSINGFM$ ; IC 

1864 PRINT@340,STRING$(12,45) ; : P 
RINT@361, "TOTAL COST:"; :PRINTUSI 

NGFM$; IC+RT 

1866 PRINT@3 9 6,"BALANCE:"; : PRINT 
USINGFM$ ; 14000000- ( IC+RT) 

1867 IFFP=0GOSUB300:GOTO1872 

1868 PRINT§448, "PRESS P TO VIE 
W PREVIOUS PAGE,"; :D=USR9( 1472) : 
PRINTS480," ANY OTHER KEY TO CO 
NTINUE ...";: D=USR9 ( 1504 ) 

1870 POKE282,255:D$=INKEY$:IFD$= 

""THEN1870ELSEIFD$=CHR$(95)THENC 

LS:RUNELSEIFD$="P"THENPLAYS$:GOT 

O1806ELSEPLAYS$ 

1872 IF14000000- (IC+RT) <0THEN192 

0ELSEIFFP=6THEN1930ELSEIFSP<4THE 

N1006 

1910 CLS:PRINT@37, "YOU HAVE DEVE 
LOPED ALL FOUR AREAS IN T 
HE USETOWN ANNEX. WE RATE 

YOUR JOB PERFORMANCE:":? 
RINT : FORDE=1TO3000 : NEXT 

1911 PRINTTAB(9) "EXCELLENT" : PRIN 
TTAB ( 14 ) "GOOD" : PRINTTAB (11) "AVER 
AGE" : PRINTTAB ( 14 ) "FAIR" : PRINTTAB 
(14) "POOR" 

1915 GOSUB320:SOUND89,1:PRINT@34 
, "* 11 ; : IFBR>9THENGOSUB320 : PRINT@ 
340, " "; :SOUND125,1:PRINT@308,"* 
"; :IFBR>18THENGOSUB3 20:PRINT@308 
," "; :SOUND147,l:PRINTS276,"*"; 

1916 IFBR>27THENGOSUB320:PRINT@2 
76, " "; :SOUND176,l:PRINT@244,"*" 
; : IFBR>3 5THENGOSUB3 20 : PRINT§244 , 
" " ; : SOUND189 , 1 : SOUND193 , 1 : PRINT 
§212,"*"; 

1917 IFBR<19THENFORDE=1TO2000:NE 
XT:PRINT@387,"YOUR SERVICES ARE 
NO LONGER REQUIRED. YOU'RE 
FIRED. " 

1918 GOSUB300:GOTO1950 

1920 CLS:PRINT@3 5,"YOU OVERSPENT 
YOUR BUDGET. IF YOU HAVE THE 
GOOD GRACE TO SEEK OTHER EMPL 
OYMENT, WE WON'T HINDER YO 
UR EFFORTS. WILL YOU LOOK F 
OR ANOTHER JOB?" :GOSUB308 : IFD$=" 
Y"THEN19 50ELSE1940 
193J3 CLS:PRINT@3 5, "TOO MANY PROJ 
ECTS HAVE FAILED.": PRINT: 
PRINT" EVEN THOUGH IT IS NOT A 
LL YOUR FAULT, SOMEONE MUST 
TAKE RESPONSIBILITY. DO YOU W 
ISH TO LOOK FOR A DIFFERENT J 
OB?" : GOSUB308 : IFD$="Y"THEN1950 
1940 PRINTS 3 57, "SORRY - YOU'RE F 
IRED! ":GOSUB300 

1950 CLS: PRINTS 2 5 9, "DO YOU WANT 
TO PLAY AGAIN?" :GOSUB308 : IFD$="Y 



"THENRUN202ELSE1950 

1999 END 

2010 CLS: PRINTS 6 6, "WHICH DO YOU 

PLAN TO BUILD?" : PRINTS 131, "1. A 

SPORTS RECREATION AREA" : PRINTS 16 

3 , " 2 . NATURAL AREA PARK" : MX=2 : GO 

SUB3 14 : 01=D : RETURN 

2014 DE=RND( 30)* 1000+10000 -.PRINT 

" DELAYS COST MONEY. THIS 

DELAY COSTS YOU" ; : PRINTUSING"$ 
$##,###•"; DE : PC=PC+DE : RETURN 
2020 CLS: PRINTS 3 5, "DO YOU WISH T 
O CONTROL THE EMISSIONS FROM 
THE INCINERATOR AT A COST OF $8 
, 000? " : GOSUB308 : RETURN 
2030 CLS:PRINTS64,STRING$(32,35) 
: PRINTS 3 5 2 , STRING$ (32,35) : PRINTS 
9 6," ":GOSUB3 40: RETURN 
2040 CLS :PRINTS96, STRING$ (32,42) 
: PRINTS 3 20 , STRING $ (32,42) : PRINTS 
165, ""; :GOSUB3 40 :GOSUB300: RETURN 
2050 IFA<3THEND$=D$+A$ (A) +" . "ELS 
ED$=D$+RIGHT$ (A$ (A) , 10) +" . " 
2052 CLS :PRINTS64,STRING$ (32,35) 
:PRINTS352, STRING$ (32 ,35) : PRINTS 
96," ":GOSUB3 40 :GOSUB300: RETURN 

2070 CLS:PRINTSTRING$(32,DE) :FOR 
D=32T0416STEP32:PRINTSD,CHR$(DE) 
: PRINTSD+3 1 , CHR$ ( DE ) ; : NEXT : PRINT 
@448,STRING$(32,DE) ; : PRINTSH2-L 
EN (D$) /2 , D$ ; : PRINTS173 , "AWARD" ; : 
PRINTS202,STRING$(11,45) ;: PRINTS 
292, "TO THE CITY PLANNER FOR"; 

2071 PRINTS3 68-LEN(DU$)/2,DU$;:G 
OSUB300: RETURN 

2100 END 

3000 DIMG1(4) ,L$(27) ,G2(3) ,G4(3) 

,G3(6) 

3005 RQ$="NU5R3BU2U2R1D2BD2R3U4R 

1D4R2NR4U4R5D4R3NU5E3U6G3L18E3R1 

7U6H1U5L2D5G1D5R1U5R1NU4ND5R1D5" 

3007 LQ$="R1E4F1E2NF3U1E2R2E1R2N 

F2H1U1E1R1F3R1F1R1E1R2F3F2F1D1NF 

3BD1BL1H1L2G1L1G1BE2BU1U1H1NE1L2 

G4NL2BE2U1H1L1H1L1G2NF1H1L1G2BH6 

R1BE3R1BE3BR6R1BF2BR3R1BF4R1" 

3010 MQ$="NU7R=QQ;NR7U4R2ND3R2ND 

3R2ND3R2D4R=QQ;NU7E7U8L=QQ;L8L=Q 

Q,-G7R1R=QR;D2NR21U7R2NR19BD2ND3F 

2E2D3BR2U1NR2U1E1R1F1D2BR2NU3R2B 

R2NU3R2BR2ND1NU4R2R=QR ; E7 " 

3015 PQ$="NU3R6BU2U2R1D2BD2R2U4R 

1D4R3NU4E5U3E1L1H1U6L1D5H1U1H1U1 

G5L1NE5G1L3G5R3E1R1E1R1E1U1E2D1F 

1D1F3E4" 

3018 WI$="BU2U2BU4U2R1D2BD4D2BD2 

R2":NQ$="NU11R2XWI$;XWI$;U4BU4U2 

R1D2BD4D4R2XWI$;XWI$;NU11E3U10E1 

L1H1L2H1L2H1L3G1L2G1L2G1L1G3R1E1 

R2E1R2E1R3F1R2F1R2F1R1E2" 

3020 PMODE3,1:PCLS4:DRAW"BM40,20 



68 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



;C2U2L3U1E3E1D1F4L3":PAINT(40,16 
) ,2, 2: GET (35, 11) -(46, 21) ,G2,G 

3021 PUT(3,19)-(14,29) ,G2,PSET:P 
UT(27,3)-(38,13) , G2 , PSET : PUT (47 , 
25) -(58, 35) ,G2,PSET:PUT(17,27)-( 
28,37) ,G2, PSET: PUT (51 ,15) -(62, 25 
) ,G2, PSET: PUT (55, 4) -(66, 14) ,G2,P 
SET: PUT (74, 2) -(85, 12) ,G2,PSET:PU 
T( 87 ,16) -(98, 26) ,G2 , PSET: PUT (41, 
42)-(52,52) ,G2,PSET 

3022 PUT(23,68)-(34,78) ,G2,PSET: 
PUT (33, 55) -(44, 65) ,G2 , PSET: PUT (6 
7, 65) -(78,75) ,G2 , PSET: PUT (83 , 53 ) 
-(94, 63), G2, PSET: PUT ( 100 , 4 1 ) - ( 1 1 
1,51) ,G2, PSET: PUT (3, 50) -(14,60) , 
G2,PSET 

3025 DRAW"BM11,15;U4L2H3U1E3R1E1 
F1D1F3G3L1" : PAINT ( 11 , 9 ) , 2 , 2 : GET ( 
7,3)-(16,15),G4,G 

3026 PUT(19,12)-(28,24) ,G4,PSET: 
PUT (15, 41) -(24,53) ,G4 , PSET: PUT (3 
5,29) -(44,41) , G4, PSET: PUT (45,2)- 
( 5 4 , 14 ) , G4 , PSET : PUT (71,12)-(80,2 
3) ,G4,PSET:PUT(93,4)-(102,15) ,G4 
, PSET: PUT (111, 16) -(120,27) ,G4,PS 
ET 

3027 PUT(19,55)-(28,67) , G4 , PSET : 
PUT (7, 67) -(16,78) , G4 , PSET: PUT (49 
,61) -(58, 72) ,G4, PSET: PUT (65, 39)- 



(74,50) ,G4, PSET: PUT (87, 29) -(96, 4 

0) ,G4, PSET: PUT (97, 66) -(106, 77) ,G 

4, PSET: PUT (89, 124) -(98, 135) ,G4,A 

ND 

3030 CIRCLE(165,36) ,14,3, . 4 : PAIN 

T(163,35) ,3, 3: CIRCLE (213, 44) ,16, 

3, .4:PAINT(221,45) , 3 , 3 : DRAW"C3BM 

180 ,36; R4F5R4F2 " : PM0DE4 , 1 

3035 COLOR 0,1:LINE(0,0)-(255,18 

0) , PSET, B: LINE (127,0) -(127, 180) , 

PSET: LINE (0,90) -(255, 90) , PSET 

3040 L$ (1) ="U3NR4U2E2F2D5" : L$ (2) 
="U7R3F1D1G1NL2F1D2G1L3":L$(3)=" 
BR4BU1G1L2H1U5E1R2F1" : L$ (4) ="U7R 
3F1D5G1L3" : L$ (5) ="NR4U4NR2U3R4" : 
L$(6)="U4NR3U3R4":L$(7)="BR4BU6H 
1L2G1D5F1R3U3L1":L$(8)="U7D3R4NU 
3D4":L$(9)="BR1R2L1U7NL1R1" :L$(1 
1)="U7D4NE4R1F3" 

3041 L$ ( 12 ) ="NU7R4 " : L$ ( 13 ) ="U7F2 
E2 D7 " : L$ ( 14 ) ="U7F4ND3U4 » : L$ ( 15 ) = 
I, U7R4D7L4":L$(16)= ,I U7R3F1D2G1L2 I, 
: L$ ( 18 ) ="U7R3F1D2G1L2F3 " : L$ ( 19 ) = 
"BU1F1R2E1U2H1L2H1U1E1R2F1":L$(2 
0) ="BR2U7L2R4" : L$ (21) ="BU1NU6F1R 
2E1U6":L$(22)="BU7D5F2E2U5" 

3042 L$(23)="NU7E2F2U7":L$(25)=" 
BR2U3H2U2D2F2E2U2":L$(26)="BR1R1 
" : L$ (0 ) =" " : L$ ( 27 ) =" BR1BU2E3 " 



Two-Liner Contest Winner . . . 

Upon running Frantic Fingers, you will be prompt- 
ed for the level at which you want to play. Enter a 
number from 1 to 400. Now, use the arrow keys to 
move around the screen and try to gather all the yellow 
blocks while avoiding the red ones. On a CoCo 3, you 
may need to enter PALETTE RGB before running. 

The listing: 

POKE65495,0:INPUTL:PMODE3,1:PC 
LS:SCREEN1: LINE (0,0) -(255, 191) ,P 
SET , B : FORI=lTOL*3 : COLOR4+2 * ( K=L 
) , 1:A=RND(60) *4 : B=RND(45) *4 : IFPP 
OINT(A,B)=2THENI=I-l:NEXTELSELIN 
E ( A , B ) - ( A+ 3 , B+ 3 ) , PS ET , BF : NEXT : X= 
128:Y=96:S=0:Z=0 

1 PRESET(X,Y) :PSET(X,Y,4) :A$=INK 
EY$ : Z=ASC ( A$+CHR$ ( Z ) ) : X=X+2 * ( Z=8 
) :X=X-2*(Z=9) :Y=Y+(Z=94) :Y=Y-(Z= 
10) :PM=PPOINT(X,Y) : IFPM=2THENA=I 
NT (X/4 ) *4 : B=INT ( Y/4 ) *4 : LINE (A, B) 
- ( A+3 , B+3 ) , PRESET , BF : S=S+1 : IFS=L 

THENPRINT"W" : GOTO0ELSE1ELSEIF-P 
M* (Z<>0) =4THEN0ELSE1 

Michael G. Toepke 
Oak Harbor, WA 

(For this winning iwo-liner contest entry, the author has been sent copies 
of both The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures and its companion The 
Third Rainbow Adventures Tape.) 




DISKMASTERq , INC. 

P.O. BOX 223- RNB 

SKOKIE, IL 60076 

(312) 679-DISK 

• DISKETTES • 

100% CERTIFIED ERROR-FREE 
LIFETIME GUARANTEED 

5% Inch BULK PRICES 

100 DS/DD - 56C/ea $ 56.00 

250 DS/DD - 540/ea $135.00 

500 DS/DD - 510/ea $255.00 

1000 DS/DD - 490/ea $490.00 

The above disks manufactured by BASF — but 

have no manufacturers labels. 

All 5V4 in. disks complete with Tyvek Sleeves. ID 

Labels, Write Prot. Tabs, and Reinforced Hub 

Rings 

Many other Items available 

3V2 in. disks SS/DD & DS/DD, 

High Cap AT type disks. 

Ribbons for most popular printers, printer stands. 

and much more. 

Call or write for latest prices or our latest 

catalog. 

Add 5% shipping & handling. Illinois residents 

add 7% tax. 

We accept, VISA MC. DISCOVER, Personal & 
Company Checks, Money Orders. & C.O.D. 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 69 



3045 LINE(0,180)-(255,192) ,PSET, 
BF:COLOR1,0:MS$="PRESS ANY KEY T 
CONTINUE. . .":MX=32:MY$="189":G 
OSUB3990 : COLORE , 1 

3050 MS$ = "FARMLAND":MX=5:MY$="17 
8 " : GOSUB3 9 90 : MS $="URBAN" : MX=13 2 : 
MY$="178":GOSUB3 990:MS$="WETLAND 
":MX=13 2:MY$="88":GOSUB3 990:MS$= 
"FOREST" :MX=5:MY$="88":GOSUB3990 

3055 DRAW"BM99,12 6":DRAW"NU4R2BU 
2U2R1D2BD2R2U4R1D4R2NU4E2U3NG1E1 
H5G2NG5F4":GET(97,126)-(111,114) 
,G1,G 

3056 DRAW"BM78,121":DRAW"NU4R4NR 
4U4R2BU4U1R1D1BD4R2D4R4NU4E3U3NG 
2E1H1U2NL1NH3U7H1L2G1D3L1H1NG2L1 
G4L1G3D1G1D1G1E1U1E1U1E3R1E1R1F1 
R1F3D1F1D1F1" 

3060 DRAWBM175 , 150" : DRAWU18E1R 
1E1F1R1F1R2F1D17L2NL6BU2U2BU4U2B 
U4U2L1D2BD4D2BD4D2BD1BL3U3BU4U2B 
U4U2L1D2BD4D2BD4D3BR8E1U17NG1L4" 
:GET(175,130)-(186,150) ,G3,G:PUT 
(184, 129) -(195, 149) , G3 , PSET: PUT ( 
193,132)-(204,152) ,G3,PSET 

3099 RETURN 

3100 CLS:PRINT@2 61,"ONE MOMENT P 
LEASE . . . ":IFA<>0THEN3140ELSEI 
FOT AND64THEN3115ELSELINE(l,l)-( 
126,80) , PRESET, BF:GOT03 200 

3115 IFP=3AND(OT AND32 ) GOTO3120E 

LSEIFP=30R01=2THENLINE(76,27)-(1 

14,53) , PRESET, BF:GOT03 200 

3120 LINE(12, 27)-(114, 53) , PRESET 

,BF 

312 5 IFP=1ORP=3THENLINE(1,50)-(1 

26,80) , PRESET, BF 

3140 IFA<>1THEN3160ELSELINE(77,1 

03)-(110,135) , PRESET, BF 

3160 IFAO3THEN3200ELSELINE(175, 

129) -(204,152) , PRESET, BF 

3 200 IFA=0THENX=1:Y=1ELSEIFA=1TH 

ENX=l:Y=91ELSEIFA=3THENX=128:Y=9 

1 

3 205 DRAW"BM=X;,=Y;" : IFPO0THEN3 

300ELSEIFOT AND4THEN3 2 50ELSEIFA= 

2THEN32 2 5ELSEX=X+10 : Y=Y+12 : FORD= 



Put away vour manuals! 



The 
Comprehensive 
Color Computer 
Anti-Clutter Kit 



is here! 

Two Books In One! 

• Information on CoCo 1. 2. 3commands \ 

• Keyboard templates and stickers 

• Space for writing program notes 

• ASCII tables • Graphic codes »Error 
messages 'Sound & Play tables »More! 

TO ORDER: Send S9.95 check or money order to: Eric Ackley, c/o Heritage 
House Lithographers. P. O. Box 629. Wharton, Texas 77488. (409) 532-4410 
Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. 




1T02 : FORD1=0TO5 : PUT (X+D1*18 , 10+ Y 

+15*D) -(X+D1*18+14, 10+Y+15*D-12) 

, Gl , AND : NEXTD1 : NEXTD 

3 215 IFOT AND102 4THENX=X-7:Y=Y+2 

3 : F0RD=1T07 : PUT (X, Y) - (X+9 , Y+12 ) , 

G4 , AND : X=X+18 : NEXTD : GOT03 300ELSE 

GOTO3300 

3225 PUT(133,40)-(147,28) ,G1,AND 
:PUT(234,48)-(248,36) ,G1,AND:PUT 
(144,53)-(158,41) , Gl, AND: PUT (163 
,55)-(177,43) ,G1,AND:PUT(182,58) 
-(196,46) ,G1,AND:PUT(201,63)-(21 
5,51) ,Gl,AND:PUT(220,61)-(234,49 
) ,G1, AND: PUT (150, 29) -(164,17) ,G1 
,AND 

3226 PUT(169,28)-(183,16) ,G1,AND 
: PUT ( 18 8 , 3 4 ) - ( 202 , 2 2 ) , Gl , AND : PUT 
(207,33)-(221,21) , Gl , AND: PUT (226 
,36)-(240,24) ,G1,AND 

3230 IFOT AND1024THENX=128:Y=7:G 

OTO3 555ELSEGOTO3 300 

3250 IFA=2THEN3255ELSEDRAW"BM+15 

, +43 ; XNQ$ ; BM+15 ,+21; XNQ$ ; BM+19 , + 

9;XNQ$;" 

3252 IFOT AND1024THENFORD=0TO3:P 

UT(X+D*36+3,Y+37)-(X+D*36+12,Y+4 

9 ) , G4 , PSET : NEXTD : GOT03 300ELSEGOT 

03300 

3255 DRAW"BM192,3 3;XNQ$;BM147,60 

; XNQ$ ; BM2 13 , 68 ; XNQ$ ; " 

3260 IFOT AND1024THENX=128:Y=9:G 

OT03555 

3300 IFPO1TKEN3400 

3 305 IFOT AND8THENQQ=3 8:QR=30:DR 

AW'BM+18 , +45 ; "ELSEQQ=18 : QR=10 : DR 

AW"BM+38,+45;" 

3310 IFA=2THENDRAW"BM+128,+23;XM 

Q$ ; " : IFOT AND1024THENX=128 : Y=9 : G 

OTO3555ELSE3400 

3 315 DRAW"XMQ$;" 

3320 IFOT AND1024THEN3555 

3400 IFP<2ORP>3THEN3700ELSEIFOT 

AND3 2THEN3 550ELSEIFA=0ORA=1THEND 

RAW"BM+83,+48"ELSEIFA=2ANDP=2THE 

NDRAW'BM+167 , +60 ; "ELSEIFA=2ANDP= 

3THENDRAW"BM+215,+30"ELSEIFA=3TH 

ENDRAW"BM+46,+70" 

3402 IFOT AND32THEN3550 

3425 IFP=2THENDRAWPQ$ELSEIFP=3TH 

ENDRAWRQ$ 

3430 IFOT AND102 4THENX=PEEK(200) 

: Y=PEEK ( 202 ) -2 : PUT (X+5 , Y) - (X+16 , 

Y+10 ) , G2 , PSET : GOT03 700ELSEGOTO3 7 

00 

3550 DRAW"BM+50,+50;XLQ$;" 

3555 IFOT AND102 4THENFORD=1TO6:P 

UT(X+16*D,Y+60)-(X+16*D+ll,Y+70) 

,G2, PSET: NEXTD 

3700 IFA=0THENMX=47:MY$="88"ELSE 

IFA=1THENMX=61:MY$="178"ELSEIFA= 

2THENMX=18 1 : MY$=" 8 8 " : ELSEIFA=3TH 



70 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



ENMX=167:MY$="178" 

27j35 IFP=^THENMS$="/HOUSING"ELSE 

IFP=1THENMS$="/SH0PPING"ELSEIFP= 

2THENMS$="/PARK"ELSEIFP=3THENMS$ 

="/WASTE" 

371j3 GOSUB 3 99j3 

3900 SCREEN1.0 

3901 GOSUB304:X=0:Y=,0: RETURN 

3990 FORDU=lTOLEN(MS$) :CH=ASC(MI 
D$ (MS$ , DU, 1) ) -64 : IFCH=-18THENCH= 
26ELSEIFCH=-17THENCH=27ELSEIFCH< 
0ORCH> 2 7 THENCH=0' 

3991 DRAW"BM"+STR$(MX)+","+MY$+" 
;XL$(CH) ;":MX=MX+7:NEXT DU:RETUR 
N 

4000 CLS:PRINT@35,"YOU ARE THE C 

ITY PLANNER FOR THE CITY OF 

USETOWN, IOWA. YOUR CITY HAS R 

ECENTLY ANNEXED, OR ADDED, A NEW 



WHICH INCLUDES 
LAND, WETLAND, 
RENEWAL AREA.": 



PARCEL OF LAND 
FOREST, FARM- 
AND AN URBAN 
PRINT 

4002 PRINT" YOU HAVE RECEIVED 
A GOVERN- MENT GRANT OF $14 MI 
LLION ($14,000,000) TO DEV 



YOU HAVE ONLY $14 
TO WORK WITH. THE C 
EACH TYPE OF DEVELOP 
DIFFER DEPENDING ON 
WANT TO PUT IT.":GOS 



ELOP THIS LAND.":GOSUB300 
4004 PRINT @ 3 5, "YOUR JOB IS TO DE 
VELOP HOUSING, A PARK, A 

SHOPPING CENTER, AND A SOLID 

WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY." 

: PRINT 
4006 PRINT" 
MILLION 
OST FOR 
MENT WILL 
WHERE YOU 
UB300 

4008 PRINT@35,"FOR EXAMPLE, BUIL 
DING HOUSES IN THE FOREST MIGHT 
THE SAME AS BUILDIN 
ON THE FARMLAND." :P 
ONCE YOU BEGIN TO 
AN AREA THERE IS NO 
BACK.": PRINT 

TRY TO STAY WITHIN 
BUDGET. PLANNERS WH 
THEIR BUDGETS OFTEN 
JOBS. GOOD LUCK!" 

: GOSUB 3 00 : RETURN 
63999 PMODE0 : PCLEAR1 : GOT02 



NOT COST 
G HOUSES 
RINT: PRINT" 
DEVELOP 
TURNING 
4010 PRINT" 

YOUR 
GO OVER 
LOSE THEIR 



/»v 



J&R ELECTRONICS 

Easy, Solderless Installation 
"JramR" 

51 2K COCO 3 Memory Expansion Board. Upgrades slock 128K COCO 3 to lull 
512K for 0S9 Level II. Similar to RS upgrade. 

Now pardner.. .reach for your 

SIXDRIVE! 

With purchase of a BANKER II or JramR 
you can have a #9008 SIXDRIVE 



for only 



$995 



SIXDRIVE is a machine language utility that 
modifies Disk Extended Basic 1.0, 1.1, or FKEYS III 
to allow the use of 3 double sided drives as 6 single 
side drives without AMY hardware modifications. 
FEATURES two different drive select assignments: 
(1) [0,2) [1,3] [4,5] (2) [0,1] [2,3] [4,51 

Ramdek is compatbte MM GIMMESOFTs SIXDRIVE 



Made in U.S.A. 




Complete Hardware 8 Software 



COCO 3 ONLY 

■ 1010 $39.95 JrnmR baio board plus connectors and software 

11011 $79.95 JramR kll includes all parts plus momoiy chips and sottwaro 

1 1012 $99.95 JramR assomblod and lasted plus memory chips and soflwaro 

11013 $19.95 JramR S/W deluxe customizable romdisk & spoolor. momory tosl. and 

ramdlsk utility programs. Compatible with all CoCo 3 512K. 

11014 $49.95 JramR 0K bytes (11012 loss momory chips) 

Readily available: User Replaceable Socketed Memor y Chips, no hard-to-find SIP memories. 

To place an order, wrlio 10 JAR Electronics. P.O. Boi 2572, Columbia. MO 2104S, OR call (301) 

987-9067— Jesse or (Ml) 788088I-R»y. 

HOURS: Weekdays 7 p.m. -9 p.m.; Sat. Noon-5 p.m. EASTERN TIME, usually. (I no answor try later. 

Add $4.00 shipping & handling (FOREIGN ORDERS $7.00). COD charge $3.00. Maryland rosidonis add 

5% stato i.i' Foreign orders must Includo payment on U.S. bank. 

CHECKS, MONEY ORDERS OR COD'S only pleaso (personal chock— 2 weeks for clearance). IMMEDIATE 

DELIVERY. Give COCO Radio Shack model »(i.e. 28-3136). Disk or Tape whon ordering. 

QUANTITY DISCOUNT AVAILABLE For information on shipping or previously placod orders coll (301) 

788-0881. COCO II 28-31 XX owners call (soldering eiperionco may bo roquirod). 

Refer to back Issues of RAINBOW for other products. 



R.A,E». Products 
194 Hotchkiss Street 
Jamestown, NY 14701 
(7 X 6 5 665-2124 



B.A-D. Products Pr.-t.inti TEXTFOPM 



Finally, a versitile lexi 
foreatler i* available Tar the Color 
Coaputer. TEXTFORH il coapatible with 
kll BOdels with it lull 64K. even the 
Color Coaputer III. Thu aachine 
language prograa will foraat ASCII 
taxi ft 1*1 into two column pages 
quickly and easily. Taxi may ba laft 
unaodified. or iiaply insert special 
foraalter coaaands for addad control. 
TEXTFOFN If a versitile anhancaaant to 
any word procamng system whether you 
ara a caiual or professional uaar. 

Software supports : 

- Oulpui to printer or disk 

- Hon popular printers. 

- Adjustable foraat parameters 

- Columnar data 

- Multiple page titles 

- Optional page numbering 

- Large files lup to a full disk) 



i with complete 
■ell as sample 



TEXTFOPM co 
documentation 
foraat examples. Onscreen parameter 
disolay takes the gueisworK out of 
format lettings. Customiced parameters 
may be saved to disk and reloaded for 
future use. thus eliminating aislaXes 
and configuration time. Special 
printer codes and baud rate settings 
are software selectable. TEXTFOPM n 
programmed in a high resolution 
environment which incorporates 
pull-down menus for ease of use. The 
software also supports auxilliary 
peripheral input from joysticks, 
aouso. louchpad. and high resolution 
input pack for added program control. 



This is not another ward 
processor. There are aany fine word 
processors on the aarcat for the Color 
Coaputer. TEXTFORH ls a user 
defineable two column text formatter. 
If you are looking for a prograa which 
will allow your Color Computer to 
craale professional looking documents 
without hours of tedious work, then 
TEXTFOPM is the answer. 

Ideal for: 

- 5chool newspapers 

- Club newsletters 

- Business reports 

- Bulletins 

- Advertisements 

- Program Ustinqs 

- And ouch oore. .. 



Systea roquirei 

- Color Computer 

- Disk drive 

- Printer 



TEXTFORM 134. SS 



P..A.D. Products 
194 Hotchkiss St. 
Jaaestown. HY 14701 
(719> 665-2124 

Terms: Check. Money Order. C.O.D. 
NY residents add 7% sales lax 
C.O.D. orders add 13.00 
All orders add 13.00 for shipping 
All orders shipped within 24-40 hours 
Express shipping available by request 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 71 





THE RAINBOW is a teaching environment and we realize that the 
majority of our readers will always be beginners. In our 
continuing effort to always keep the new user in mind, and in 
addition to the many beginner feature articles and programs 
published in every issue, "Novices Niche" contains shorter 
basic program listings that entertain as well as help the new 
user gain expertise in all aspects of the Color Computer: 
graphics, music, games, utilities, education, programming, etc. 



Beginners Blockbuster 




From Scales to Mozart 

By Gip Wayne Plaster 



16K 
ECB 



Using four major loops and three PLAY statements, you can 
make one short program produce almost three minutes of 
music. That's what I did with MUSI. But that's not all I wanted 
to do. 1 wanted to improve the program and give you some 
pointers on music programming at the same time. Thus. MUS2 
was born. 

Notice that in MUSI most of the lines are played at least 
twice. Here are some tips 1 used to make my program better. 
You should follow them in your music programs, too: 

1) Use loops. One line can be played as many times as you 
like, but listen to your music — if it sounds too 
repetitious, cut down the loop a bit. 

2) Use short lines. If a line is short, it is easier to edit, and 
easier for others to type without getting lost. 

3) Make sure to tic things in. If the last note of a line is 
D, try to make the next note the program plays either 
a D. C or E (unless you are branching out in experi- 
mental directions). 

4) Follow every PLAY statement with a semicolon to make 
the music sound smoother. 

5) Don't clutter the program with unnecessary things, as 
is true for any program. 

Sounds simple, doesn't it? It is. Now apply these tips and 
write your own music program. See how short and entertain- 
ing my second program is? It's a lot better than running up 
and down the scale as I did with MUSI. Music programs are 

72 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



the easiest kinds of programs to write — there are no real 
rules. Go ahead and try it. 

Listing 1:MUS1 

10 CLS0 

20 FORL=1TO1000:NEXTL 

30 PLAY"03;" 

40 F0RD=1T02 

50 F0RC=1T02 

60 IFC=1THENF0RA=1T02 

70 PLAY n T5;L4;CCCDDDEEEFFFGGGAAA 

BBBAGFEDCDEFGBAAABBCCDCDCDEDED ; L 

1;ED;" 

80 IFC=1THEN NEXTA 

90 IFC=2THENF0RB=1T02 

100 PLAY" LI ; CDEDC ; L2 ; DEDC ; L4 ; DED 

CDEDCDEDCDEDCDEDCDDDEEECCC ; « 

110 IFC=2THEN NEXTB 

120 NEXTC 

130 PLAY"CDDDDEEEEFFFFGGGGFEDCDE 

FGGGFFFGFGFGGGFFGGGGFFGG; " 

140 PLAY"01;" 

150 NEXTD 

Listing 2: MUS2 

10 CLS 

20 PRINT@204,"*MUSIC*" 

30 PRINT@2 27, "WRITTEN BY GIP W. 

PLASTER" 

40 FORL=1TO500:NEXTL 



50 PLAY"02 ;T5 ; LI 6 ; DDDDCCCCDDDDEE 

EEFFFFGGGGFFFFEEEEDDDDCCCCDDDDEE 

EEDDDDEEEEFFFFGGGGFFEEDDCC ; " 

60 PLAY"L8 ; DEFGFEDCDEFGFED ; L4 ; CD 

EFGFEDC ; L2 ; DEFG ; LI ; FEDCC ; " 

70 PLAY"T8 ; LI ; DDEEFFGGFFGGDDEECC 

FCDECCGGFDECCCDEFGGFCDECFGGGDECF 

G;" 

80 F0RA=1T02 

90 PLAY"T5 ; L2 J GGDDGGEEFFDDGGCC ; L 



4 ; GFEDCDEFGFEDCDFFGGDDCCEEFF J " 

ijajS NEXTA 

110 PLAY"L1;EDC;01;GFEDCBA;" 

120 PLAY"L4 ; CDEFGFEDCDEFGFDECCDE 

FGGFDECCDEFFFFDEFGCDEFFGFFCDEEFG 

CCDED;" 

130 PLAY"L2 ;DEFGFEDCDDEEFFGGFFFF 

EEEEDDDDCCCCDDDDEEEEFFFFGGGGFEDC 

CCDEFGFDECFFG;" 

140 PLAY M L1;FED;T2;EFGFFF" 



Gt#* 



Laying It on the Line 

By Keiran Kenny 



16K 
ECB 



Linedraw is a short graphics program that lets you draw 
lines anywhere on the screen, at any angle. 

You begin with a flashing cursor in the center of the screen. 
Press an arrow key (just once) and the cursor will move in 
the arrow direction. Press another arrow key to change 
direction, or any other key (except 1 or 2) to stop movement. 

Press 1 to set the beginning of a line. Move the cursor to 
where you want your line to end, and then press 2 to draw 
it. The flashing cursor will remain at the end of your line, 
waiting for your next move. 

The listing: LINEDRAW 

'TENLINER*: BY KEIRAN KENNY, 



THE HAGUE, 1987. 
10 PMODE4 , 1 : COLOR0 , 5 : PCLS : SCREEN 

1/1 

20 X=128:Y=96 

30 PSET(X,Y,0) :FORD=1TO30:NEXT:P 

SET(X,Y,5) :FORD=1TO30:NEXT 

40 IFP=94THENY=Y-1:IFY<0THENY=0 

50 IFP=10THENY=Y+1:IFY>191THENY= 

191 

60 IFP=8THENX=X-1 : IFX<0THENX=0 

70 IFP=9THENX=X+1:IFX>255THENX=2 

55 

80 IFP=49THENH=X:V=Y 

90 IFP=50THENCOLOR0:LINE(H,V)-(X 

,Y) ,PSET 

100 P=PEEK(135) :GOTO30 



16K 
ECB 



CoCo's Daring Flying Machine 

By John Musumeci 



Learn the secrets of flight and animation with Airplane. 
The program draws an airplane flying through the air with 
the greatest of ease. 

The listing: AIRPLANE 

10 PMODE 3 , 1 

20 SCREEN 1,0 

30 PCLS 

40 DRAW "BM35,80;E15;R185;G15;L1 

85" 

50 DRAW "BM40,110;R185;G8;L185;E 

8" 

60 DRAW "BM48,75;D35" 

70 DRAW "BM50,75;D35" 

80 DRAW "BM63,70;D40" 

90 DRAW M BM65,70;D40" 



100 DRAW "BM93 ,75/D35" 

110 DRAW "BM95,75;D35" 

120 DRAW "BM108,70;D40" 

130 DRAW "BM110,70;D40" 

140 DRAW "BM140,75;D35" 

150 DRAW "BM142,75;D35" 

160 DRAW "BM155,70;D40" 

170 DRAW "BM157,70;D40" 

180 DRAW "BM185,75;D35" 

190 DRAW "BM187,75;D35" 

200 DRAW "BM200,70;D40" 

210 DRAW "BM202,70;D40" 

220 DRAW "BM125,105;M68,108;U23; 

F13 ;BM68 , 102 ;M125 , 85" 

230 CIRCLE (125, 95), 10 

2 40 DRAW "BM117,90;D10;BR15;U10" 

250 DRAW "BM100,130;H15" 

2 60 DRAW "BM100, 130;E15" 

270 DRAW "BM150,130;H15" 

280 DRAW "BM150,130;E15" 

290 DRAW "BM100,130;R50;D2;L50;U 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 73 



2" 

300 CIRCLE (1/3/3,13/3) ,5 

31/3 CIRCLE (15/8,130) ,5 

320 P$="C3 ;BM125, 95 ;R2 ;D2 ;L2 ;U2 ; 

BL4 ;U25 ;R8 ; D50 ; L8 ;U2 5 " 

330 DRAW "A0"+P$ 

340 GOSUB 420 

350 DRAW "Al"+P$ 

3 60 GOSUB 420 

370 DRAW "A2"+P$ 



3 80 GOSUB 4 20 
390 DRAW "A3"+P$ 
400 GOSUB 420 
410 GOTO 3 20 

4 20 FOR 1=0 TO 5 
4 30 NEXT I 

440 DRAW "C1;BM125,95;R2;D2;L2;U 
2;BL4 ;U25;R8;D50;L8;U25" 
4 50 RETURN 



CoCo Cuddler 

By Bernice Shoobs 



CoCo3 



The cold is upon us, and winter storms can be tierce. Here 
is CoCo 3 to the rescue with a winter quilt and a cuddly 
companion to make your long January nights a little warmer. 

The listing: PLflID 

10 REM ***PLAID*** 

20 REM BY: BERNICE M. SHOOBS 

30 REM CLIFTON, NEW JERSEY 

40 'I'VE WOVEN A WARM PLAID BLAN 

KET FOR YOU 

50 'FOR THESE CHILLY WINTER EVEN 

INGS AHEAD 

60 'IF YOU DON'T LIKE TO CUDDLE 

UP ALONE 

70 'I'VE SENT MY VERY BEST FRIEN 

D TO KEEP YOU COMPANY. 

80 PMODE 3,1 

90 PCLS 

100 SCREEN 1,1 



110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
2 60 



270 

280 

06 

290 

5 

300 

310 

320 



FOR X=0 TO 250 STEP 4 

FOR Y=0 TO 2 50 STEP 6 

LINE (X,Y)-(Y,X) ,PSET,B 

NEXT Y,X 

PALETTE 11,56 

COLOR 7,6 

FOR X=64 TO 144 STEP 4 

FOR Y= 144 TO 64 STEP -6 

LINE (X,X)-(Y,Y) ,PSET ,B 

NEXT Y,X 

CIRCLE (108, 46) ,3, , .75 

CIRCLE (106,40) ,16, ,1 

CIRCLE (102, 38) ,5, ,1.5 

CIRCLE (112, 38) ,5, ,1.5 

CIRCLE (92, 28) ,9, , .75, .30, 



95 



CIRCLE (120, 28) , 9 , , . 75 , . 55 , . 3 

CIRCLE (108, 44) , 8 , , 1 , . 12 , . 40 
CIRCLE (120, 64) , 14 , , 1 . 3 , . 75 , . 

CIRCLE (92, 64) , 14 , , 1 . 3 , . 50 , . 7 

LINE (118, 58) -(122, 64) , PSET 
LINE(94,58)-(90,64) , PSET 
GOTO 3 20 




Back to Square One 

By Louis Martinez 



16K 
ECB 



Puzzle is like those plastic games you used to dig from the 
depths of the cereal box - the kind where the letters were 
scrambled and you had to perform all sorts of maneuvers to 
get that 'A' up there in Square One and the rest of the letters 
to fall into place. Usually everything went well until you 
reached 'P\ Then it seemed nothing would fit; to get V into 
place, you lost '0\ etc. 



Now that you are older and the proud owner of a keener 
mind and a Color Computer, this mental exercise should 
present no challenge, right? We'll see. Type in Puzzle, use the 
arrow keys to rearrange the letters, and see if you can get 
back to Square One. 



The listing: PUZZLE 

10 CLS0 

20 '***DEFINE 

30 A=65 

40 FOR R=l TO 



LETTER ARRAY*** 



74 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



DIGISECTOR 

DS-69B 

VIDEO 

IGITIZER 

FOR THE 

COCO 3 

(AND ALL OTHER COCOS . . .) 




vgbif* 



'.!'• 




COCO 3 SCREEN 



Terms: Visa, Mastercard, Check or C.O.D. 



USE YOUR COCO 3 TO ITS FULL POTENTIAL! 

Use The Micro Works' DIGISECTOR'" DS-69 or 
DS-69B and your COCO 3's high resolution graphics 
to capture and display television pictures from your 
VCR or video camera. The DIGISECTOR™ systems are 
the only COCO video digitizers available that 
accurately capture and reproduce the subtle shades of 
gray in TV pictures! 

• COLOR: Add color to your screen for dramatic 

special effects. 

• HIGH RESOLUTION: 256 by 256 spatial resolution. 

• PRECISION: 64 levels of grey scale. 

• SPEED! 8 images per second on DS-69B. 

2 images per second DS-69. 

• COMPACTNESS: Self contained in a plug-in 

Rompack. 

• EASY TO USE: Software on disk will get you up and 

running fast! 

• COMPATIBLE: Use with a black and white or color 

camera, a VCR or tuner. 

• INEXPENSIVE: Our low price puts this within 

everyone's reach. 

POWERFUL C-SEE 3.3 SOFTWARE 

This menu-driven software 

will provide 5 and 16 shades 

of gray to the screen and to 

the printer with simple 

joystick control of 

brightness and contrast. 

Pictures taken by the 

DIGISECTOR™ may be 

saved on disk by C-SEE 3.3 

and then edited by our 

optional MAGIGRAPH, or by COCO MAX or 

GRAPHICOM. This versatile new software is included 

in both DIGISECTORS™ 

DS-69B and C-SEE 3.3 $149.95 

DS-69 and C-SEE 3.3 $ 99.95 

TRADE IN YOUR OLD DIGISECTOR™ 

If you already have one of The Micro Works' DS-69 or 
DS-69A DIGISECTORS™, you may return it to us and 
we will upgrade your unit to a DS-69B. 




UPGRADE DS-69A to DS-69B 
UPGRADE DS-69 to DS-69B 



$49.95 
$69.95 



The DS-69B comes with a one year warranty. Cameras 
and other accessories are available from The Micro 
Works. 

NO RISK GUARANTEE 

If you are not completely satisfied with the performance of your new 
DS-69B. you may return it, undamaged, within ten days for a full 
refund of the purchase price. We'll even pay the return shipping. If 
you can get any of our competitors to give you the same guarantee, 
buy both and return the one you don't like. We know v/hich one 
you'll keep. 



TH mo©[j^o) 

Purveyors of Fine Video Digitizers Since 1977. ^©ux^^? 



P.O. Box 1110 Del Mar, CA 92014 (619) 942-2400 



50 FOR C=l TO 5 

60 L$(R,C)=CHR$(A) 

70 GOSUB 600 

80 A=A+1 

90 NEXT C,R 

100 R=5:C=5 

110 L$(R,C)=» " 

120 GOSUB 600 

130 F=l 

140 FOR N=l TO 100 

150 E=RND(4) 

160 ON E GOTO 230,280,390,440 

170 NEXT N 

180 F=0 

190 IF F=l THEN 170 

200 K$=INKEY$:IF K$="" GOTO 200 

210 '***MOVE LEFT*** 

220 IF K$<>CHR$(8) THEN 270 

230 IF C>=5 THEN 530 

240 T=C+1 

250 GOTO 310 

260 '***MOVE RIGHT*** 

270 IF K$OCHR$(9) THEN 380 

280 IF C<=1 THEN 530 

290 T=C-1 

300 • **MOVE LEFT/RIGHT ROUTINE** 

310 L$(R,C)=L$(R,T) 

320 GOSUB 600 

330 L$(R,T)=" " 

340 C=T 



3 50 GOSUB 600 

3 60 GOTO 190 

37 p '***MOVE DOWN*** 

3 80 IF K$OCHR$(10) THEN 4 30 

390 IF R<=1 THEN 530 

400 T=R-1 

410 GOTO 470 

420 "***MOVE UP*** 

430 IF K$<>" A " THEN 190 

440 IF R>=5 THEN 530 

450 T=R+1 

46^ '***MOVE UP/DOWN ROUTINE*** 

470 L$(R,C)=L$(T,C) 

480 GOSUB 600 

490 L$(T,C)=" " 

500 R=T 

510 GOSUB 600 

520 GOTO 190 

530 IF F=l THEN 150 

540 PRINT @40, "ILLEGAL MOVE"; 

550 FOR B=l TO 2 50 

560 NEXT B 

570 PRINT @40,STRING$(12,128) ; 

580 GOTO 190 

590 '***DISPLAY MOVE*** 

600 PRINT @68+R*64+C*3,L$(R,C)+" 
ii • 

610 SOUND 10*R*C,1 
620 RETURN 



Hit Me If You Can 

By Chris Gleason 



16K 
ECB 



You are a blinking dot, and your job is to move (using the 
right joystick) directly over a stationary red dot. When you 
think you have done so, press the firebutton. Don't dally, 
though; you're working under a time limit. Pretend you are 
a helicopter pilot who has just a few seconds to hover directly 
over your target and drop some explosives. If you don't get 
your job done fast, the forces on the ground will have time 
to rally and shoot you down. If both dots move and your 
score increases, you succeed and a new round starts. It's not 
as easy as it sounds. 



The listing: HITME 



5 CLS0 

10 E$=CHR$(128) :TIMER=0 



15 F0RI=1T075:T=INT( TIMER/ 60) :X= 
T*100 : Q=X/60*10 : G=Q/100 : G=G*5 
20 PRINT@0, "score" ;V; :PRINT@9,"t 
imer";FIX(G) ; 
23 IF I>1 THEN 26 

25 C=RND(63) :D=RND(31) 

26 SET (C,D,2) 

30 A=JOYSTK(0) :B=JOYSTK(l) 

35 IF B>31 THEN B=31 

40 SET (A,B,1) 

45 E=A:F=B 

48 RESET (E,F) 

50 IF PEEK(65280)=126 OR PEEK(65 

280) =253 THEN 100 

55 NEXT I 

60 PRINT§64,"you";E$;"did";E$;"n 

ot" ;E$ ; "hit" ;E$ ; "it" ;E$ ; "in" ;E$ ; 

"time" ; 

65 PRINT@96, "total" ;E$; "time"; IN 

T(H) ; :FORK=1TO1000: NEXT: RUN 

100 IF C=A AND D=B THEN V=V+1:H= 

H+G:GOTO 5 

105 GOTO 55 



76 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



Color Connection 

by BJ Chambless 



This is the most comprehensive modem package for the 
Color Computerl 

All are Protocols Supported including CompuServe Pro- 
tocol B, XMODEM protocol, and XON/XOFF. Auto dial fea- 
ture lor both Hayes compatible and some Radio Shack 
modems. You can use all baud rates when using the Radio 
Shack Deluxe RS232 program pack! Printer baud rates are 
selectable. 

You can print from the buffer and files bigger than the 
buffer can be uploaded and downloaded Download di- 
rect to disk with automatic XON/XOFF protocol! Single key 
macros allow easy entry of often-used passwords and ID'S. 

Hi-Res screens with a choice of colors are used. All print- 
able characters available and all control characters are 
supported. 

RSDOS Version includes two sets, one for CoCo I and 
CoCo II, the other for CoCo 3. 
OS-9 Connection 3.0: 

The package includes all of the features of the RSDOS ver- 
sion plus runs on OS-9! Versions for both Level I and Level 
II are included. RS232 pak is required. 

RSDOS Disk $49,95 

OS-9 Disk S49.95 

Also available from Radio Shack 
through Express Order Software 



H 



U 



Screen Star 

by Scott Cabit 




Data Master 

by BJ Chambless 

Simplify with pull-down menus 

All options are available from anywhere in the program 
To make it even simpler, each menu option can be invoked 
by a single character) 
Dialog boxes 

Pop-up windows display current settings and available 
choices. 
Unique LIST display format 

You view data in easy-to-read rows & columns. From this 
easy-to-read screen you may edit your data, without hav- 
ing to exit. Mass changes are a snap! 

For even more power, use an access key to selectively dis- 
play a subset of records and can change them right on the 
screen! 
Compatibility with OS-9 Profile & Data Bank 

You won't lose any of your valuable data! 
Easy Expansion 

with re-definition of records and transfer of files 
Elements & Records: 

Each record can contain up to 5 12 characters used within 
35 elements Elements are defined as: alphanumeric 
(descriptive data), math (real numbers including dollars & 
cents), date, and derived |formulas calculated from other ele- 
ments in the same record] You can store any type ol data 
using these field types! 



Also available from Radio Shack 
through Express Order Software 



Screen Star implements the popular WordStar editing 
capabilities. If you know WordStar you already know how 
to use Screen Starl 

■ Edit files larger than memory since Screen Star uses the 
disk as an extension of memory. 

• Block Commands - with a keystroke you can mark the 
start and end of a block, then move, copy, or delete the 
block. 

■ Cursor Movement is easy with an array ol commands to 
move left or right one character, or one word, or one line; 
scroll forward or back one line, one screen, one block; 
jump to the start or end of the line or the screen, block, 
or file. 

• Find & Find/Replace Commands make mass changes and 
searches a snap. 

• Pop-Up Help Menus are as close as a keystroke. 



call or write today for 



Requires OS-9 Disk 
With Text Formatter 



Call or Write to: 



Display 8 Entry Screens 

Design up to 9 different screen formats for data display 
and data entry for each data base. This is helpful for access- 
ing your data for different purposes. 
Sorts & Selections: 

Up to 9 different access keys can be defined These are 
used for displaying data on the screen or selecting data for 
printing. You may use several levels ol sorts as well as logi- 
cal operators to select just the right data. A powerful generic 
search is also available 
Reports: 

See your data any way you want by designing your own 
reports! Data Master offers easy-to-use tools to design pro- 
fessional reports including report headings, titles, column 
headings, automatic page numbers, column totals, and 
more Store up to 9 report formats for each data base. 
File Management 

Built-in file management capabilities allow easy file 
manipulation for transferring data files, renaming data files, 
expanding data files, and more 
Upload/Download 

Data Master can read and write standard sequential files 
which aids in data transfer between DynaCalc and many 
others. 
Full keyboard ease 

taking full advantage of the CoCo 3's cursor and function 
keys. 
OS-9 accessible 

Even while operating within Data Master 



Requires OS-9 Level I 
CoCo 3. 512K 



S64.95 



' Closing Commands let you exit the editor with or with- 
out save, and can import or export files whenever you 
need them. 

' Smart Speller is included. 

■ Parameter commands personalize your environment 

' Access the OS-9 Shell. 

' Up to 10 functions keys can be defined by CoCo 3 users 
for fast, repetitive functions. 

1 Use with the Text Formatter for a full word processing 
team. Simply imbed the Text Formatter commands in your 
Screen Star file and it will be printed in stylel 

1 Level I & Level 2 are supported and both versions are 
included. 



S49.95 
S74.95 




OS-9 Text 
Formatter 

Also available from Radio Shack 
through Express Order Software 



An easy way to get beautiful documents and letters with 
OS-9, Text Formatter interfaces with any editor that pro- 
duces standard ASCII text files. 

Features include left and right Justification, page breaks, 
special spacing, automatic pagination, automatic page 
numbering, centering, Indenting, tabs, and sending 
escape and control codes to your printer as well as sophis- 
ticated headers and footers. Special (unctions include 
macros for often used sequences, relative arguments, up- 
per and lower case modes, nonprintable remarks, and more! 



Requires OS-9 



S34.95 




COMPUTERWARE ' 6,9 » «*-»" 

^S^ Box 668 • Enclnltas, CA • 92024 



FREE Catalog 



512K COMBO Package 

We've put together a combination package of everything you need to expand to 
5I2K and priced it special to make it impossible to resistl The package includes: 

■ 5I2K Memory Board with prime, 120 ns memory chips and easy instructions. 
• 5I2K Ramdlsk 5 Diagnostics Software package for RSDOS 

■ Specifications on the important GIME chip (plus a number of additional pages 
of CoCo 3 technical details that we think you'll find interesting.! 



Name _ 

Address 

City 



State 



512K Combo Package 
OK Combo Package 
(no chips In board] 



SII4.95 
S 54.95 



Yeil Send me your FREE catalog I 

visa MasterCard 

Card tt 

Signature 



Zip. 



CoCo □ 



Exp 



Item 



Format 



Price 



Shippinrj 6% Oil' Sail I 

Surface — 52 minimum. COD Add 55 

2% lor orders over SIOO Shipping" . 

Air or Canada — SB minimum TOTAL . 

5% for orders over 5100 
Checks are delayed for Dank ciea'ance 



X0» 



Color Creator 

By Adam Breindel 



CoCo3 



When Tandy released the CoCo 3 with its 64 colors, most 
everyone celebrated, glad that graphics could be realistic 
without having to resort to artifacting and other complex 
graphics tricks. 

But some CoCo 3 owners, me included, felt that some 
colors were missing or insufficiently represented — brown, 
for instance. Greedily, we wanted yet more colors and shades. 
I began to wonder just what kinds of video tricks could be 
accomplished with the CoCo 3's 640-by-I92 graphics and an 
RGB monitor. 

Through experimentation I found that colors can literally 
be blended onscreen, as paint can be blended to produce 
different colors and shades. This is done very simply by 
alternating pixels of one color with pixels of another. In high 
resolution, it is difficult for your eye and brain to separate 
the alternating pixel patterns, so you begin to see a new color. 

My program, Colormix, blends colors and illustrates the 
programming of this process. Colormix requests two-digit 
codes for the colors you want to blend (e.g., enter '8' as "08"). 
It is helpful to have your color chart handy. This program 
works best with an RGB monitor. 

The listing: COLORMIX 

5 'Rainbow Color Mix 

6 "BY ADAM BREINDEL 

7 'COPYRIGHT (C) 1987 



9 ON BRK GOTO 1000 

10 HSCREEN 4: PALETTE 0,0: PALETTE 
l,63:HCOLOR 1,0:HCLS 

20 HPRINT (10,0) , "Rainbow Color 

Mix":HPRINT (12,1), "by Adam Brei 

ndel": HPRINT (14 , 2 ), "Copyright ( 

C) 1987": HPRINT (2 , 5) , "Backgroun 

d color (Mix color #1) ?":R=6 

30 FOR Q=l TO 2 

40 Q$=INKEY$:IF Q$="" THEN 40 EL 

SE AA$=AA$+Q$: HPRINT (9+Q,R),Q$ 

50 NEXT Q 

60 IF SBR=1 THEN RETURN 

70 B=VAL (AA$) :AA$="" 

80 HPRINT (2,7) /'Foreground colo 

r (Mix color #2) ?" :R=8:SBR=l:GO 

SUB 30:F=VAL (AA$) 

90 PALETTE 0,B: PALETTE 



1,F:HCLS 



HPRINT (31,0) , "Rainbow Color Mix 
":HPRINT (35,2) ,STR$(F)+" ON "+S 
TR$(B) 

95 FOR Y=40 TO 60 STEP 2 
100 FOR X=318 TO 3 30 STEP 2:HSET 
(X,Y,1):HSET (X+l, Y+l, 1) :NEXT X 
,Y 

110 HLINE (318,70)-(331,90) ,PSET 
,BF 

120 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 120 
ELSE RUN 
1000 HSCREEN : SCREEN0 : CLS : END 



A Smooth Operator 

By John Blochowiak 



CoCo 3 



Smoolhy gives your 128K CoCo 3 a screen scrolling 
capability in the 40-column mode, making scrolled listings 
easily readable. 

Run SMOOTHY, load a long BASIC program, and see the 
results when you list it. You shouldn't have any trouble 
reading the listing as it scrolls by. LIST, DIR and PRINT are 
the most useful BASIC commands that are affected by the 
program. If you want to return to normal operation, just 
press the reset button. 

It is difficult to read ordinary listings because of the way 
they are scrolled: The screen jumps up the length of one 
character (eight pixels) when the screen is full. If you were 
able to move the screen up by more gradual steps (one pixel 
at a time instead of eight), it would appear to scroll more 
smoothly and become easier to read. With the help of a few 
features on the CoCo 3, Smoolhy does just that. 



The secret to this program lies in memory locations 65,436 
to 65,438, which directly control the video display generator. 
Location 65,436 changes the scan-line offset register, while 
locations 65,437 (MSB) and 65,438 (LSB) change the screen 
start register. By poking the numbers through 7 at location 
65,436, you can offset the character screen from zero to seven 
scan lines (zero to seven pixels). 

The listing: SMODTHY 

1 • ******************* 

2 • * * 



3 
4 
5 
6 
7 



* SMOOTH Y/BAS * 

* By * 

* John Blochowiak * 

* * 
******************* 
COPYRIGHT (C) 1987 



100 WIDTH 80 : PALETTE 0,0 

110 CLS 1 : ATTR 3,0 : WIDTH 40 



78 



THE RAINBOW January 19B8 



XTEAM 

OS -9 




XTERM 

OS-9 Communications program. 

• Menu oriented • Definable macro keys 

• Upload/download. Ascii • Works wilh standard serial port, RS232 

or XMODEM protocol PAK, or PBJ 2SP Pack, Includes all drivers. 

• E*ecute OS-9 commands • Works wilh standard screen. XSCREEN, 

rom within XTERM WORDPAK or DISTO 80 column board. 



$49.95 



with source $89.95 



________ . 



XDIR & XCAL 

llierarchial directory OS-9 calculator 

• Full sorting ■ Decimal, Hex, Binary 

• Complete p_llcm matching • +, -, •, /, AND.OR, XOR. NOT 

$24.95 with source $49.95 






. ___. 



XDIS 

OS-9 disassembler 
$34.95 with source $54.95 



HARDWARE 

5 1 2k memory upgrade $80.00 

Printers 

Citizen 120D CALL 

StarNPIO CALL 






BOTH 

WINNERS! 



>r nor 






>S-9 productl} 

\-ork »llh: { 

> OS» xrilm I J 

OS-9 .,..!,.,. . E 

OS-» U.«l 2 J 



\\V«\«\*«NNN%\ *.\\ 



XWORD 

OS-9 word processing system 

- Works wilh standard text screen, XSCREEN, WORDPAK, or DISTO 

• True character oriented full screen editing 

■ Full block commands 

• Find and Replace commands 

• Execute OS-9 commands from within 

■ Proportional spacing supported 

• Full printer control, character size, emphasized, italics, 
overslrike, underline, super/sub- scripts 

• 10 header/footers 

• Page numbering in decimal or Roman numerals 

■ Margins and headers can be set different for even and odd pages 

$69.95 with source $124.95 

XMERGE 

Mail merge capabilities for XWORD 
5>-.4.y_l wilh source J 4 9. 9 5 

XSPELL 

OS-9 spelling checker, with 20000 and 40000 word dictionaries 

$39.95 
XTRIO 

XWORD/XMERGE/XSPELL 
$114.95 wilh X WORD/XMERGE sourc* 199.95 

XED 

OS-9 full screen editor 
$39.95 wilh source $79.95 



AND FOR RS DOS 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING 

This sales-based accounting package is designed 
for the non-accounting oriented businessman. It 
also contains the flexibility for the accounting ori- 
ented user to set up a double entry journal wilh an 
almost unlimited chart of accounts. Includes Sales 
Entry, transaction driven Accounts Receivable and 
Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, Payroll Disburse- 
ment, and Record Maintenance programs. System 
outputs include Balance Sheet, Income Statement, 
Customer and Vendor status Reports, Accounts 
Receivable and Payable Aging Reports, Check Reg- 
ister, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a 
Journal Posting list. $79 95 

INVENTORY CONTROL/SALES ANALYSIS 

This module is designed to handle inventory control, 
with user defined product codes, and produce a detailed 
analysis of the business' sales and the sales force. One 
may enter/update inventory data, enter sales, run five 
sales analysis reports, run five inventory reports, sel up 
product codes, enter/ update salesman records, and 
update the SB AP inventory. $59.95 



PAYROtt 

Designed for maintaining personnel and payroll 
data for up to 200 hourly and salaried employees 
with 8 deductions each. Calculates payroll and tax 
amounts, prints checks and maintains year-io-daie 
totals which can be automatically transferred lo the 
SBA package. Computes each pay period's totals 
for straight time, overtime and bonus pay and det- 
ermines taxes lo be withheld. Additional outputs 
include mailing list, listing of employees, ycar-to- 
dale federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of 
current misc. deductions. Suited for use in all stales 
except Oklahoma and Delaware. $59.95 



PERSONAL BOOKEEPING 2000 

Handles 45 accounts. Enters cash expenses as 
easily as checks. Handles 26 expense categories. 
Menu driven and user friendly. $39.95 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

Includes detailed audit trails and history reports 
for each customer, prepares invoices and monthly 
statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alpha- 
betized customer listing. The user can define net 
terms for commercial accounts or finance charges 
for revolving accounts. This package functions as a 
standalone A/R system or integrates with the Small 
Business Accounting package. $59.95 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

Designed for the maintenance of vendor and A/P 
invoice files. The system prinLs checks, voids 
checks, cancels checks, deletes cancelled checks, 
and deletes paid A/P invoices. The user can run a 
Vendor List, Vendor Status report, Vendor Aged 
report, and an A/P Check Register. This package 
can be used cither as a standalone A/P system or 
can be integrated with the Small Business 



Accounting Package. 



$59.95 



MICROTECH 
CONSULTANTS 

Ii. I /% 1906 Jerrold Avenue 
V\ V*r .St. Paul, MN 55112 




DtaUr Inquiries Invited 
Author Submission* aectplid 

OS-9 is n trademark of Micro* m <ir< . 



Ordering Information 

Add $3.00 shipping & handling, MN residents add 6% sales tax. 
Visa, Mastercard. COD (add 52.50), personal checks. 



(612) 633-6161 



120 FOR A = 449536 TO 449589 

130 READ B : LPOKE A,B : NEXT A 

140 FOR A = 63572 TO 63600 

150 READ B : POKE A,B : NEXT A 

160 CLEAR 200,32768 : NEW 

170 DATA 204,1,25,183,255,156,14 

2,32,0 

180 DATA 16,142,40,0,238,129,239 

,161 

190 DATA 140,39,208,37,247,76,25 

3,255 

200 DATA 156,129,7,38,232,142,32 

,0,238 



210 DATA 136,80,239,129,140,39,4 

8,37 

220 DATA 246,189,248,123,206,0,2 

4,255 

230 DATA 255,156,53,230 

240 DATA 52,102,182,254,4,129,80 

,16,38 

250 DATA 67,161,142,32,0,236,137 

,0,160 

260 DATA 237,129,140,46,96,37,24 

5,141 

270 DATA 12,53,230 



Adjusting Your Monitor 

By Ken Osirer 



16K 
ECB 



Color Tester lets you know if your color settings are 
adjusted properly. Colored bars are drawn on the screen and 
labeled as the color they are supposed to be. It is best to use 
this program with a color composite monitor or TV; with an 
RGB monitor, it tries to convince you that gray is red. 
The listing: COLRTEST 

10 CLS0:PRINT@8, "color tester";: 
E=5 : F0RW=1T08 : FORX=5T025 : FORY=E 



TO E+5:SET(Y,X,W) :NEXTY,X:E=E+7: 
PRINT@W+7,CHR$(PEEK(W+7+1024)+64 
) ; :NEXTW:PRINT@16,"STER"; :FORY=l 
T09:READA$(Y) : A$ (Y) =A$ (Y) +" "+S 
TRING$(3,Y-l+48) : NEXTY 
20 DATABLACK, GREEN, YELLOW, BLUE, R 
ED , BUFF , CYAN , MAGENTA , ORANGE : Y=64 
:FORQ=lT09:Y=Y-l*ABS(Q/2=INT(Q/2 
) ) : FORX=lTO LEN (A$ (Q) ) : PRINT§Y+3 
2*X,MID$(A$(Q) ,X,1) ; :NEXTX:Y=Y+4 
:NEXTQ 
30 GOTO30 



Hoiw^ 



16K 
ECB 



Happy (Un)Birthday to You! 

By J. T. Smiley 

Chances are 364 times out of 365 that this isn't your 
birthday. But do you know how old you really are? Don't 
look so smug. Birthday tells you how old you are right down 
to the second. Try not to feel uncomfortable when running 
this program — 504,576,000 seconds old, for instance, is just 
a drop in the bucket. According to American average life 
expectancy, a person of that age would have approximately 
1,892,160,000 seconds left to live. 
The listing: BIRTHDAY 

10 CLS : PRINT @ 8, "HAPPY BIRTHDAY'S 
ii 

20 DIM M(12) 

30 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT "ENTER TODA 

Y'S DATE:" 

40 PRINT " (MONTH, DAY, YEAR) " 

50 INPUT M,D,Y:GOSUB 180:N=T 

60 PRINT: PRINT "AND YOUR BIRTHDA 
yil 

70 INPUT M,D,Y:GOSUB 180:B=T 
80 K=N-B 



90 PRINT: PRINT "YOU ARE " ;K/3 65; 

" YEARS OLD" 

100 PRINT K" DAYS , " 

110 PRINT K*2 4" HOURS," 

120 PRINT K*24*60" MINUTES AND," 

1T0 PRTNT K*OA*f.0\*F.a" HTTPftMrifi CiT. 



110 PRINT K*2 4" HOURS," 

10 PRINT K*2 4*60" MINUTES AN 
PRINT K*24*60*60" SECONDS 
i i ii 



DIM" 



OL 

'i i I " 
140 RESTORE: FOR 1=1 TO 12: READ 

D$:NEXT 
150 LET X=B-7* (INT(B/7)) 
160 FOR Z=l TO X:READ D$ : NEXT 
170 PRINT "ALSO, ": PRINT "YOU WE 
RE BORN ON A " ; D$ ; "DAY ! " : END 
180 RESTORE : T=0 
190 X=Y-1901:A=INT(X/4) 
200 T=T+A+(3 65*X) 
210 FOR 1=0 TO M-l.'READ M(I) 
220 IF Y/4=INT(Y/4) THEN M(2)=29 
2 30 T=T+M(I) : NEXT I 
240 T=T+D: RETURN 
250 DATA 0,31,28,31,30,31 
2 60 DATA 30,31,31,30,31,30 
2 70 DATA TUES,WEDNES,THURS,FRI,S 
ATUR , SUN , MON 



80 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



<« GIWMESOFT >» 

A new generation of Color Computer products 



MULTI-LABEL III 

(CoCo III only) 
An easy to use, versatile label creating program including 
many new CoCo III features. Even if you already own a 
label program, this one's a must for the 3! 
(See July '87 review) Disk $16.95 

Custom Palette Designer 

(CoCo III only) 

Easily alter the contents of any palette without having to 
remember numbers or colors! Once configured, all sixteen 
palettes can be saved to disk as a single subroutine which 
may then be used in a basic program. 
(See Aug. '87 review) Disk $14.95 

CoCo Max III 

(CoCo III only) 

INTRODUCING the next generation: 
More resolution! / More power! / More color! 
Built in animation! / More speed! / More tools! 
More type styles! / Amazing color sequencing!!! 

Complete package $79.95 

MPI-CoCo Locking Plate 

(CoCo III only) 
Protects your CoCo III and Multi Pak Interface from 
destroying each other! Installs in seconds. MPI 26-3124 & 
CoCo III 26-3334 only. Just $9.95 



FKEYS III 

(CoCo l/ll/lll) 
A user friendly, user programmable function key utility 
that creates up to 20 function keys. Other features 
include an EDITOR, DOS mods, and DISABLE. Comes 
with an enhanced CoCo III version and it's EPROMable. 
(See April '87 review) Disk (latest version) $19.95 

SIXDRIVE 

(CoCo l/ll/lll) 
This machine language utility modifies DECB 1.0, 1.1, 
FKEYS III, or ADOS to allow the use of 3 double-sided 
drives (or 2 D/S drives and J&R's RAMDISKS) as 
single-sided drives without ANY hardware mods. Includes 
2 selectable drive assignments and it's EPROMable. 

Disk $16.95 

With purchase of FKEYS III $12.95 

With purchase of any JramR. $ 9.95 

JramR 512K Upgrade 

(CoCo III only) 
#1010 JramR bare board, connectors, and 

software $39.95 

#1014 JramR assembled and tested with software, 

without memory chips $49.95 

#1012 JramR assembled and tested with software, 

512K memory $99.95 

(See June '87 review) 



PYRAMIX 



(CoCo III only) 
This 100% machine language arcade game was written 
exclusively to take advantage of your CoCo 3. The colors 
are brilliant, the graphics are sharp, and the action is hot! 
You'll enjoy hopping Kubix around the pyramid as he 
changes the colors of the blocks, but you'll have to avoid 
Kaderf, Smack, Smuck, and the Death Square! 

Disk $19.95 



CHAMPION 



(CoCo l/ll/lll) 
Become a superhero in your fight to rid the world of the 
evil forces of Mr. Bigg in this action adventure. The 
combat is hot and heavy and requires a fast joystick! The 
graphics and sound effects are sensational! Defend the 
innocent and defeat the villainous; be a true Champion! 
(See May '87 review) Disk $19.95 



Winter Specials 

UTILITY PACKAGE 

FKEYS III, MULTI-LABE'- III. Custom Palette Designer, 
and SIXDRIVE. Save over $25! All 4 for.. $42.50 

GRAND SLAM DEAL 

FKEYS III, MULTI-LABEL III, Custom Palette Designer, 
SIXDRIVE, JramR #1012, CoCo Max III. PYRAMIX, 
Kung-Fu Dude, Champion, White Fire of Eternity, and 
MPI-COCO Locking Plate. Save over $80! 
Total regular price $343.45 - Grand Slam price.... $260 



Kung-Fu Dude 



(CoCo 

This is the long-awaited response to the huge demand for 
a Kung-Fu program for the CoCo. The graphics and 
sound effects are spectacular! The action and animation 
will please even the most die-hard arcade enthusiast. 
Destroy your opponents and evade obstacles as you grow 
even closer to your ultimate objective! 

Disk $24.95 

White Fire of Eternity 

(CoCo l/ll/lll) 
Enter the age of monsters, magic, and adventure. Here 
you will search for the legendary power of White Fire 
throughout the Forbidden Wood and dark caverns of the 
Mount. Discover what adventuring on the CoCo is all 
about! 
(See Dec. '86 review) Disk $19.95 



Pricing Guarantee 

If any of our products above are currently 
advertised in the Rainbow for a lower 
price we will match that pricel Please note 
that only prices for THE EXACT SAME 
PRODUCT apply. We are dedicated to 
providing Top-of-the-Line products, quality 
service, and the lowest prices. 



Teohnlcal assistance: 7pm to 9pm 

Orders: 9am to 9pm Eastern time 

On-line orders and up to date 

Information: Delphi's CoCo Slg 



GIMMES0FT 
P.O. Box 421 
Perry Hall, MD 21128 
301-256-7558 or 301-256-2953 



Add $2,50 for shipping and handling 
Add $2,00 for COD's 
MD residents add 5% sales tax 
VISA/MC/Check/Money Order/COD 



Improve Your Typing Skills 



By Brent Dingle 



4K 



Typer is a short program designed to improve your 
keyboarding skills. When you run the program, you are asked 
for the skill level you want to start with; however, this level 
goes up or down depending on how well you do. 

A model of your keyboard, complete with letters and 
numbers, appears on your screen. Each letter or number has 
a black box above it. Watch the screen carefully! If one of 
the black boxes turns red, you must press the appropriate 
key, and do it fast. It will stay red only a very short time, 
and the time gets shorter as the levels get higher. If you press 
the correct key in time, a beep sounds and 10 points are added 
to your score. If you miss, five points are subtracted. But 
don't despair, your score will never drop below zero! 

As you press more correct keys, letters will begin disap- 
pearing from the screen, but their boxes will remain. II the 
box above the missing letter turns red, you still must press 
the letter, or lose five points. The letters will return if you 
have difficulty. 

The listing: TYPER 

5 DIM L$(36) ,L(36) ,M$ (500) ,J(36) 

:B$=CHR$(12 8) 

10 CLS: INPUT" DIFFICULTY PLEASE. 

(0- EASY, 1J3- ALMOS 
T IMPOSSIBLE) " ;DF: PRINT: PRINT "PR 
ESS ANY KEY TO BEGIN." 
15 A$=INKEY$:IFA$=""THEN15 
20 FOR T=l TO 36:READ L$(T),L(T) 
:NEXT T 

30 CLS3:F0RT=1T03 6:PRINT@L(T) ,B$ 
;:PRINT@L(T)+3 2,L$(T) ; :NEXTT 
50 PRINT@458, "SCORE : ";SC;:S=RN 
D(36) :L$=L$(S) :L=L(S) 
55 IF DF>8 AND S<11 THEN S=S+10: 



J(S)>2 THEN PR 
;:J(S)=0 

50 ELSE DF=DF+ 



L$=L$(S) :L=L(S) 

60 PRINT@L,CHR$(191) ; 

70 FOR K=l TO 100-DF*5:A$=INKEY$ 

:IF A$=L$ THEN 90 ELSE IF A$=" A " 

THEN 150 ELSE NEXT K 
75 SC=SC-5:IFSC<0THEN SC=0 
80 PRINT@L, B$ ; : M=M+1 : M$ (M) =L$ ! NM 
=NM+1:IF NM>20 THEN DF=DF-1:NM=0 
82 J(S)=J(S)-1:IF J(S)<-2 THEN P 
RINT@L+32,L$; 
85 GOTO 50 

90 NM=NM-1:SOUND100, 1:SC=SC+10:P 
RINT@L,B$; 
92 J(S)=J(S)+1:IF 
INT§L+3 2,CHR$(17 5) 
95 IF NM>-30 THEN 
1:NM=0:GOTO 50 

100 DATA 1,33,2,36,3,39,4,42,5,4 
5,6,48,7,51,8,54,9,57,0,60 
110 DATA Q,129,W,132,E,135,R,138 
,T,141,Y,144,U,147,I,150,O,153,P 
,156 

120 DATA A, 226, S, 229, D, 232, F, 235 
, G, 238, H, 241, J, 244, K, 247, L, 250 
130 DATA Z, 323, X, 326, C, 329, V, 332 
,B,335,N,338,M,341 
150 CLS:PRINT"YOU MISSED ";M;" T 
IMES.": PRINT "YOU SCORED ";SC;" P 
OINTS . " : FORX=1TO500 : NEXTX : PRINT" 
HERE ARE THE LETTERS YOU MISSED. 
(PRESS <SHIFT> AND <@> KEYS TO 
STOP - IF NEEDED) " 
160 FOR T=l TO M: PRINT M$ (T) ; " " 
; : NEXTT 

170 PRINT: INPUT "PLAY AGAIN";Q$:I 
F LEFT$(Q$,1)="Y" THEN RESTORE :R 
UN ELSE END 



ftisuv 



rf\WKW* 



I Owe, I Owe 

By Bill Bernico 



16K 
ECB 



This short, efficient program helps you calculate your 
monthly payments, whether for a new house, a car, a college 
loan or that 10,000 Mb mainframe you've been dreaming 
about. 

All you have to do is answer the prompts, and the program 
will display the monthly payment amount. Press ENTER again 
at that point and the screen displays the payments broken 
down into three categories: interest amount each month, 
principal amount and total payment. 



The listing: PAYMENTS 

1 'PAYMENTS by Bill Bernico 

2 CLS: INPUT "AMOUNT BORROWED" ; A: I 
NPUT"MONTHS TO PAY" ; B: INPUT "INTE 
REST RATE" ;C: C=C* .01/12 : E= (A*C* ( 
1+C) A B)/( (1+C) A B-1) : D=0 : F=0 : G=0 : 
PRINT "MONTHLY PAYMENT=" ; : H=INT (E 
*100+ . 5) /1J30 : PRINTH: GOSUB7 : CLS : P 
RINT" MONTHLY PAYMENT WAS $";H:G 
OSUB8 : FORJ=lTOB 

3 IFJ/ll=INT(J/ll)THENGOSUB7:CLS 
: PRINT" MONTHLY PAYMENT WAS $" ;H 



82 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 

columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full-screen 

editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 

control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 

Menu-driven disk and 

cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 

required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply staled, Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
Tl, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing ftm. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 

Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



...one of the ben programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News. Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features thai give you toial control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telewriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telcwriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K, or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telcwriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get aboui 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don 'l need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
lo work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 51 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
time. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
lime and don'l even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the nill-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so llial "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exaci alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
lext, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate shorl lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can gel on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VIII. DMP-1007200, Epson, Okidala, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh. Smith-Corona. 
Tcrminct, etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) formal controls for: lop, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your printer at lop speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and muhi-linc he.-ders and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or an> section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of Hies from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format files — 
create and edit BASIC, Assembly, Pascal, and C 
programs. Smart Terminal Hies (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for su-e saves. Cassette aulo- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up, down, right, left, begin line, end line, top of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, labs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter. 
space left, current file name, default drive in effcel, 
set line length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum ease of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



. . . truly a state of the art word processor. . . 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW. Jan. 1982 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability, 

Telcwriter-64 costs S49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-stcp tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 

704 Nob Street 

Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 (weekdays, 
8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries invited. (Add 
$2 for shipping. Californians add 6% state tax.) 

Available at Radio /hack 

via express order 



/0% 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
51 AL 



Coming Soon 
Telewriter-128 

for the Color Computer 3 



:G0SUB8ELSEK=A*C:I=E-K:IFJ=B THE 
NI=A:K=E-I 

4 PRINTUSING"### ###,###•## ### 

#.## ####.##";J;A;K;I;:D=D+K:F= 
F+I+K : G=G+I : A=A-I : NEXTJ : PRINT : PR 
INT" (HIT ANY KEY TO CONTINUE) 
" ; -.EXEC44 53 9 -.PRINT: PRINT" total 
total total"CHR$(128) 
"of interest principal payme 
nts" ; :PRINTSTRING$(3 2,45) ; 

5 PRINTUSING"###, ###.## ###,###. 



## ###,###. ##";D;G;F:PRINTSTRING 
$ (32 ,"-"); :PRINT"RUN THIS PROGRA 
M AGAIN (Y/N)?"; 

6 A$=INKEY$ : IFA$="Y"THENRUNELSEI 
FA$="N"THENCLS : ENDELSE6 

7 PRINT@484,"HIT ANY KEY TO CONT 
INUE"; :EXEC4453 9: RETURN 

8 PRINT" mo. princpl interest 
princpl # owed payment 
payment" ; STRING $ (32,45);: RETURN 



16K 
ECB 



Financial Planning for Your Future 

By Paul Ruby, Jr. 



CoCo Saver is designed to help you create and analyze a 
savings plan lor your future. Just enter the initial deposit of 
a savings account you already have or one you are planning 
to start. 

To make a savings plan work, it is necessary to make 
regular deposits into the account. CoCo Saver is able to 
calculate weekly and monthly deposits. When you are 
prompted, enter the initial deposit, the amount of the regular 
deposits, how long you plan to keep your savings account 
and the current interest rale. The program presumes that the 
interest is compounded daily, meaning that the bank pays you 
interest for each day your money is in the bank. 

After you have answered all of CoCo Saver's questions, 
it will display the amount of money you will have saved for 
each of the years. Experiment with the interest rates and the 
payment amounts: you may find the results interesting. 
Remember, the time to save for the future is now. 



The listing: COCDSfiVR 

10 REM ************************ 

20 REM ** COCO SAVER ** 

30 REM ** PROGRAMMED BY: ** 

40 REM ** PAUL RUBY, JR. ** 

50 REM ** ** 

60 REM ** COPYRIGHT (C) 1987 ** 

70 REM ************************ 

80 CLS 

90 PRINT@7 5 , " COCO-SAVER" ; 

100 PRINTS 12 9, "PROGRAMMED BY: PA 

UL RUBY, JR."; 

110 PRINT@199, "COPYRIGHT (C) 198 

7" 

120 PRINT@490, "PRESS ANY KEY" ; 

130 IFINKEY$=""THEN130 

140 CLS: PRINT "INITIAL AMOUNT OF 

": INPUT" SAVINGS "; ST 

150 PRINT 

160 PRINT"MAKE <W>EEKLY OR <M>ON 

84 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



THLY":INPUT"DEPOSITS (W/M) ";DP$ 

170 IF DP$o"W"ANDDP$<>"M"THEN 1 

60 

180 IF DP$="W"THENDP=7 

190 IF DP$="M"THENDP=30 

200 INPUT"AMOUNT OF DEPOSIT" ;AD 

210 INPUT" # OF YEARS TO SAVE";YR 

220 INPUT"% EARNINGS (5% IS .05) 

" ; PC 

230 AM=ST:CT=1:CLS 

240 PRINT§ 4 80, "STARTING AT";:PRI 

NTUSING" #######.##"; ST :PRINT"DEP 

OSITS OF";:PRINTUSING"#######.## 

" ; AD : PRINT" A . P . R . OF" ; PC : PRINT" S 

AVE FOR ";STR$(YR) ; " YEARS" 

250 IF DP$="M"THENPRINT"MONTHLY 

DEPOSITS"ELSE IF DP$="W"THENPRIN 

T"WEEKLY DEPOSITS" 

2 60 FOR A=l TO YR 
270 FOR B=l TO 365 

280 PRINT@480 , "YR" ; A, : PRINTUSING 

"#######. ##";AM; 

290 IF CT=DP THEN AM=AM+AD: CT=1 

300 AM=AM+ (AM* (PC/3 65) ) 

310 CT=CT+1 

3 20 NEXT 

3 30 PRINT 
3 40 NEXT 



Submissions to "Novices Niche" are welcome from everyone. 
We like to run a variety of short programs that can be typed in 
at one sitting and are useful, educational and fun. Keep in mind, 
although the short programs are limited in scope, many novice 
programmers find it enjoyable and quite educational to improve 
the software written by others. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk. We're sorry, 
but wc cannot key in program listings. All programs should be 
supported by some editorial commentary, explaining how the 
program works. If your submission is accepted for publication, 
the payment rate will be established and agreed upon prior to 
publication. 




This glossary is intended as an aid 
to help bridge the gap between 
normal English and "comput- 
erese."All too often, "computer people" 
have been perceived as belonging to 
some kind of priesthood that spouts a 
litany of "secret words" and incanta- 
tions to appease some unknown being 
behind the computer-room door. But 
we are not a priesthood, we're simply 
folks. And computers are not gods, but 
tools. If you learn to speak the lingo, 
you'll find computers very friendly and 
helpful. 



ASCII (ask-ee) an acronym lhat stands for 
"American Standard Code for Information 
Interchange." It's a standard eight-bit informa- 
tion code used by most microcomputers and 
data terminals. Many systems use only seven 
of the eight bits, providing a total of 128 
possible characters, including upper- and 
lowercase letters, punctuation, numbers, 
spacing, and machine or control commands. 

Adventure a game that allows interaction 
between computer and player, usually a Dun- 
geons & Dragons type of game involving a 
quest. 

assembly a low-level programming language. 
(See formats, external) 

auto-answer/auto-dial modem features that 
take some of the tedium and bother out of a 

Lee Veal lives in Rowleli, Texas, and is 
employed by Texas Software Support 
Subdivision of Garland, Texas, where 
he oversees installation, implementa- 
tion and maintenance of system soft- 
ware/or Garland's NASI 6650. 



computer user's daily routine. Modems 
equipped with "auto-answer" automatically 
"pick up" the phone when it "hears" the phone 
ringing. The "auto-dial" feature allows the 
automatic dialing of phone numbers by the 
modem. A program can send all the necessary 
codes and numbers to the modem that will 
instruct it to dial the number. (See hand- 
shaking routine) 

auto baud detect a modem feature that auto- 
matically detects the speed at which data is 
being received from a sending modem. This 
feature is present only on modems lhat support 
more than one speed. (See Baud and BPS) 



BBS See bulletin board system 

BASIC (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic 
Instruction Code) an easy-to-use language 
that is likely the world's most popular pro- 
gramming language. Today, we have dialects 
("versions") of basic for each computer. The 
CoCo has several versions of basic: Color 
basic. Extended Color basic, CoCo 3 BASIC or 
"Super" Extended Color basic and BASIC09. 
BASIC is easy to learn, and many dialects are 
so flexible that some programmers never find 
it necessary to learn other programming 
languages. 

BASIC interpreter a collection of routines 
whose job it is to edit, enter and run a basic 
program. (See formats, internal) 



Baud and BPS (Bils Per Second) the rate at 
which bits (binary digits) are sent down a line. 
The terms "baud" and "bits per second" are 
nearly synonymous. The most common baud 
rates for home computers are 300 and 1200. 
The most common baud rates for commercial 
use are 2400. 4800. and 9600. At 300 baud a 
bit is transmitted every I /300th of a second, 
which translates to about 25 to 30 bytes per 



second. At 9600 baud a bit is transmitted every 
I 9600th of a second, and that translates to 
about 800 to 960 bytes per second. 

bit Sec byte 

bug any mechanical, electrical or electronic 
defect that interferes with the operation of the 
computer. A defect in a program's coding is 
also referred to as a "bug."There are some who 
would say that there are no "bugs" in pro- 
grams, only "undocumented features." Oh, 
well, a rose by any other name, . . 

bulletin board system (BBS) an online "mes- 
sage board" computer users can "sign onto" 
using a modem and communications software, 
which is generally formed by computer clubs 
and monitored by a SysOp. It is similar to an 
information network, but works on a smaller 
scale. 

burn the process of programming a ROM 
chip. The process is called "burning the chip" 
or "blowing the chip." There arc two types of 
programmable ROM chips readily available: 
PROMs (Programmable Read-Only Memory) 
and EPROMs (Erasable Programmable Read- 
Only Memory). The reason for burning code 
into ROM is to prevent users from accidentally 
or intentionally changing the canned code. 
Plus, it provides a very convenient and inex- 
pensive way to supply a computer user with a 
lot of useful software without the need for a 
disk drive or cassette recorder. 

byte the basic unit of computer memory. In 
"computcrese," a byte is the smallest address- 
able piece of information in a computer's 
memory. A byte is composed of eight binary 
digits (bits). A value fromO to 255 can be stored 
in one byte. These values may be interpreted 
as letters, or as part of a number: it all depends 
on how a program defines and uses data. A 
notation called "hexadecimal" is often used to 
express the values (alphabetic or numeric) of 
a byte's contents. And, yes, someone many 
years ago determined that half of a byte was 
a "nybble." Even though the term "nybble" 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 85 



appeared in a few computer textbooks, it never 
really caught on. (No teeth, 1 guess.) 



C a programming language. (See formats, 
external) 

CPU (Central-Processing Unit) extracts and 
executes machine language instructions that 
reside in ROM or RAM. The speed at which 
the CPU does its work is called the processor 
clock speed, and it is usually measured in 
megahertz (MHz). 

Centronics a printing standard quite prevalent 
in the computer industry. Many computers 
come standard with Centronics-compatible 
printer ports. This standard has been adopted 
almost universally in the computer industry. 
The Centronics standard entails, among other 
things, an eight-bit parallel data transfer from 
the computer to the printer. The cable that 
links the two devices is a 34-wire cable, so many 
other signals are being passed between the two 
devices. However, the main feature of the 
Centronics standard is the eight-bit parallel 
data transfer. (See parallel) 

COBOL a high-level programming language. 
(See formats, external) 

CoCo short for Tandy Color Computer. 

commands instructions to the computer, e.g., 
LIST, DIR, LOAD, RUN. SKIPF, PRINT, etc. 

compiler a special program that converts 
programs written in languages such as codol 
or Pascal to an executable form. Among other 
things, a compiler checks your source pro- 
grams for language syntax errors. Incidentally, 
correcting all of your program's syntax errors 
is not a guarantee that your program will work. 
The logic of your program determines that. 
(See formats, internal) 

Composite video a signal that includes both 
the actual video information and the synchro- 
nizing pulses. This is the type of signal used to 
drive most monochrome monitors and many 
color monitors; it's very similar to a broadcast 
TV signal, but the CoCo's output does not 
meet broadcast standards. 

CompuServe See information network. 

cursor a pointer or marker on a computer's 
video screen that marks where the next char- 
acter will be placed when a key is pressed by 
the user. A cursor can appear in many forms: 
solid block, underscore, wedge, or just about 
any other shape. A cursor can blink or it can 
be a steady display. On some of the new 
graphics generation programs, the cursor may 
be replaced by arrows that point to icons. (Sec 
icon) 



daisy wheel printer Sec printer 

Delphi See information network 

86 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



directory a "table of contents" of the pro- 
grams/files on a disk. 

disk Sec diskette 

disk drive controller a hardware device that 
routes and translates commands from a ma- 
chine language input/output (I/O) routine to 
an actual disk drive unit. 

disk drive a specialized device that reads and 
writes data to a disk and requires a very 
sophisticated routine to control its operation. 
Under the direction of a controller, a disk drive 
arranges disk data into sectors and tracks. The 
number of tracks per disk, number of sectors 
per track, and number of bytes per sector and 
track vary from system to system. (See SSDD, 
transfer rate, TPI) 

diskette a type of storage medium that consists 
of a magnetically coated diskette, or disk, 
housed in an envelope. The coating is similar 
to the coating used on standard recording 
tapes, which have been around for years. The 
disk has several distinguishing characteristics. 
The actual recording medium (the part inside 
the envelope) has a hole in the center to 
accommodate the disk drive hub and at least 
one small timing hole. 

Editor's Note: A disk drive spins the diskette 
at about 300 RPMs. Hard to believe, isn't it? 
(For more detailed information, see William 
Bardcn's "Delving Into the CoCo Disk" on 
Page 1 80 of this issue.) 

dot-matrix printer See printer 

download to receive files from another 
computer via modem or a hard-wired connec- 
tion. 



EPROM Erasable Programmable Read-Only 
Memory. (See burn) 



file another word for "program," or part of a 
program, stored on disk or cassette. 

floppy disk See diskette 

formats, external the formats in which the 
program appears to the programmer. If a 
programmer uses basic, the external formal 
looks like basic. The same is true for any other 
programming language. The term "external 
format" is synonymous with "programming 
language." Programming languages fall into 
one of three levels: low, intermediate and high. 

Low-level languages are very close to the 
internals of the machine for which it is de- 
signed, and are generally referred to as assem- 
bly languages. Assembly languages are very 
detailed languages, and, therefore, much 
harder to master. Generally speaking, assembly 
languages do not transport from one system to 
another very easily since they are so closely 
linked to the architecture of the host machine. 
Trying to transfer an assembly language 
program from one computer to another would 



be like trying to use gasoline in a diesel engine 
— it just won't work! Some similarities do exist 
among the different computers' assembly 
languages, but transportability is not their 
strong suit. 

Intermediate-level languages are often 
referred to as program generators. At this level, 
specifications that define the input, processing 
and output to be done must be provided by 
you, the user. dBASE III is an example of this 
type of "programming" language. Actually, 
many database managers probably fall into 
this category. 

High-level languages are distinguished by 
their transportability, standardization and 
case of use. These languages are far removed 
from the internal architecture of the host 
computer. Some popular high-level program- 
ming languages include COBOL (COmmon 
Business Oriented Language), FORTRAN 
(FORmula TRANslation), FASCAl.and FORTH. 

The only language I know of that seems to 
fall into both the low- and high-level categories 
is C. C has facilities that allow the programmer 
to access the machine-related information, if 
necessary. Il can be very far removed from the 
host machine, too. C's language syntax can be 
very detailed or very general. 

The relative performance (slowest to fastest) 
of programming languages is hard to gauge 
because of many variable factors. Generally, 
the friendlier the language, the slower it is. If 
a programmer codes only a few lines to 
produce a long list of formula iterations, 
chances are the language is relying on canned 
routines to do a lot of the work. The program- 
ming time is reduced, but the run time is 
probably increased. 

formats, internal the formats in which the 
program appears to the computer: lokenized 
(slowest), intermediate and machine language 
(fastest). 

Tokenized is the form in which basic pro- 
grams are held in a computer's RAM (Random 
Access Memory). In the hierarchy of internal 
formats, this is the simplest, but also the most 
removed from the actual machine language 
and, therefore, the slowest. The process of 
tokenizing what is "human-readable" is usually 
performed by routines in ROM (part of the 
basic interpreter). For instance, a PRINT 
command would be reduced to a one-character 
code followed by a literal (the stuff in quotes) 
or the variable names whose values are to be 
printed. While tokenizing may seem to be an 
unnecessary step, it is done in the interest of 
speed and memory economy. It would take 
longer for the basic interpreter to decipher the 
word PRINT than it would to decipher a one- 
character code. Also, it would take more space 
in your computer's memory to store PRINT 
than it would the corresponding character 
code. 

Il is very easy to misunderstand this process 
because all the programmer ever sees on the 
screen is nicely formatted basic statements, 
just as they were entered. That is merely an 
illusion, another function of the text editor. 
While the text editor tokenizes the BASIC 
statements you enter, it also detokenizes them 
back to "human-readable" form, as when you 
call up a list. 

Intermediate code is similar in some ways to 
tokenized code. Intermediate code still re- 
quires a run-lime interpreter, but interpreting 



intermediate code is much faster than inter- 
preting straight tokenized code, resulting in 
faster run times. 

A compiler is used to convert your source 
program to intermediate code. Some software 
vendors refer to intermediate as i-code or p- 
code. 

Machine language code, or object code is 
the fastest and most concise of all internal 
formats. Like intermediate, its code, too, must 
be created by a compiler. The source code 
(usually human-readable languages such as 
COBOL, pascal, basic, C, forth and As- 
sembler) is input to the compiler and converted 
to the corresponding machine language code. 
Some high-level language compilers produce 
machine language code and others produce 
intermediate code. 

formatting preparing a disk to be written to, 
establishing tracks and sectors. 

FORTH a high-level programming language. 
(See formats, external) 

FORTRAN a high-level programming lan- 
guage. (See formats, external) 



hand-shaking a routine used to determine if 
contact has been established between two 
communication points, such as computers 
connected by modems. 

hard disk drive inflexible and permanently 
mounted drives within the computer (or its 
own housing), which have many characteristics 
in common with disk drives on a mainframe. 
The capacity for this type of drive is measured 
in megabytes (a megabyte, or Mb, is one 
million bytes). Their capacities range from 
5Mb to 30Mb in 5Mb increments. These drives 
transfer data to the CPU much faster than any 
regular disk drive. The disk platters contained 
within the unit are coated with essentially the 
same type of coating used on floppy disks, 
magnetic tapes and other magnetic storage 
media. 

hardware the mechanical part of a computer 
system: the computer itself and all its peripher- 
als — disk drives, cassette recorder, printer, 
modem and monitor, etc. anything that is 
not software. 

Hertz one cycle per second. The cycle can be 
anything ranging from a power plant genera- 
tion cycle to a radio station broadcast fre- 
quency to a CPU processor rate. 

Heinrich R. Hertz, a German physicist 
invented a generator that produced current 
flow in one direction only. Another type of 
generator caused electric current to flow 
alternately in both directions. One is called 
direct current (DC); the other is called alter- 
nating current (AC). Most homes in the U.S. 
receive electrical power from a power plant 
that generates alternating current. The rate at 
which the current changes directions is meas- 
ured in hertz. The electric current flowing 
through a standard light bulb in your home 

changes directions 60 times every second 
(that's 60 Hz). The appliances in your home, 
such as microwaves, TVs, washers, dryers, etc.. 



should all have a plate bradded to them that 
tells you, among other things, that that piece 
of equipment operates at 60 Hz. 

AM radio stations broadcast in thekilohertz 
(kHz) range (kilo means thousand). FM radio 
stations broadcast their signals in the mega- 
hertz range (mega means million). That's a 
million cycles per second. 

A CPU's speed is measured in MHz. That 
means that if a CPU's speed is listed as 4.7 
MHz, then four million seven hundred- 
thousand CPU cycles occur in one second. 

hexadecimal the base 16 numbering system, 
which is used to express many computer- 
related values. Our base 10 numbering system 
ranges from through 9, but Hex ranges from 
through 15, Since we do not have single-digit 
numbers to represent the numbers 10 through 
15, the letters A through F arc used to depict 
these digits. Hex is a shorthand form of binary; 
therefore, the use of Hex is preferable to using 
long strings of zeros and ones as in binary. 



icon a picture on a menu bar depicting an 
object or procedure that can be selected with 
a mouse or joystick. 

information network a computer network that 
services many users, nationwide or even 
worldwide. At the heart of the network there 
is usually a complex of computers that stores 
information on a broad spectrum of topics, 
covering just about everything from human 
sexuality to movie reviews. Some of them even 
have a "CB" channel so that users can dial into 
online CB conversations. They also have 
Special Interest Groups (SIGs) for just about 
anything you could imagine. Programs can be 
uploaded to and downloaded from them. The 
most well-known information networks are 
Delphi (see Page 122). CompuServe and The 
Source. A user needs a modem, a telephone, 
communications software and a subscription. 

Input/Output commonly called I/O, a general 
term for equipment used to communicate with 
a computer. It can also refer to the act of 
transferring data to or from a computer. (See 
program) 



joystick an input device which, when attached 
to ttie computer system, can be polled to 
determine the stick's position. Joysticks have 
for many years been used with computer 
games. Recently, however, many "legitimate" 
applications have been implemented that make 
use of them for input to business-related 
programs. (See mouse) 



K a somewhat arcane symbol that simply 
means 1.000. In "computerese." however, it 
means 1,024. Therefore, a 64 K computer 
actually has 65,536 bytes of memory, not 
64.000. 

kermit communications protocol for upload- 
ing and downloading. 



leased line telephone lines that are for data 
communications only. 

laser printer See printer 

letter-quality printed text that looks as if it 
were produced on a typewriter. NLQ (Near 
Letter-Quality) usually refers to output pro- 
duced by dot matrix printers having very high 
dot resolution. Daisy wheel printers are usually 
referred to as being letter-quality. (See printer) 



machine language (ML) See formats, internal 

memory a computer's actual internal storage. 
All mathematical operations are performed 
with data that is held in memory. Data stored 
on disk must be brought into a computer's 
memory before it can be manipulated in any 
way. Generally, microcomputer memory is 
contained in chips called dynamic RAMs. The 
term "dynamic" means that the memory chips 
must have a constant source of power. When 
the micro is turned off, the power to the 
dynamic RAMs is eliminated, and all data in 
that memory is lost. Static RAMs are availa- 
ble, but they are more expensive than dynamic 
RAMs. (See RAM) 

modem a device that converts a computer's 
digital signals to audio signals. A modem is 
attached between a computer system and a 
telephone line. A modem modulates (converts 
to audio) and demodulates (converts to digital) 
signals. If a computer user needs to commu- 
nicate with another computer system across 
town or across the nation, a modem is essen- 
tial. 

Here is a simple explanation of what is going 
on when data is being transmitted down a 
telephone line: The sending computer sends a 
"start bit" down the line, which tells the 
receiving modem that more bits are about to 
be sent. Then the sender transmits each data 
bit contained in the byte that needs to be 
transmitted. The last data bit is followed by a 
"stop bit." Sometimes the sender transmits two 
"stop bits" instead of one. A bit called a "parity 
bit" may also be used. Both the sender and 
receiver must know what format is being used 
- otherwise, chaos reigns supreme. The 
number of bits sent for each byte of data varies 
from 10 to 12 bits (I start bit, 7 or 8 data bits, 
possibly I parity bit. and I or 2 stop bits). 

motherboard the main printed circuit board in 
a computer, the board from which all other 
"life" in the computer springs. 

mouse a high-precision input device that 
provides a way to move a pointer (cursor) 
around on a computer's screen. The device 
usually consists of a roller ball encased in a 
housing that contains the necessary circuitry to 
indicate the ball's position. The mouse may 
also have one or two push buttons. When 
pressed ("clicked"), these buttons may indicate 
to the program in memory that a certain 
function needs to be performed. If a computer 
can input data from an analog joystick, then 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 87 



a mouse will probably work, too. The "mov- 
ing" and "clicking" functions associated with 
the mouse cannot be done unless the program 
resident in memory is designed to accept input 
from a rnouse. A mouse is not a magic input 
device; it must be supported by the computer 
system as well as the resident program. If your 
computer and program are not designed to 
accept input from a mouse, then it will be quite 
useless. 



online database See information network 

OS-9 a multiuser, multitasking operating 
system designed to allow greater flexibility for 
the user. An operating system is a group of 
programs (software) which allows the user to 
communicate more easily with the computer 
and its associated peripherals. OS-9 allows 
more than one person to use a single computer 
at the same time. It also allows more than one 
process (program) to run at the same time. The 
major difference between OS-9 Level I and OS- 
9 Level II is in memory support. Level I is 
designed to operate on 64K systems while 
Level II, through the use of memory manage- 
ment techniques, can utilize much more mem- 
ory. An example would be Level II running on 
a5!2K CoCo3. 



parallel a method of data transfer. Parallel 
transfer impiies that more than one bit at a time 
is transferred. The most common width used 
in parallel transfers on micros is eight bits. 
That is. a data path eight bits wide is used to 
transfer data from one device to another. (See 
serial, transfer rate) 

PASCAL a programming language. (See 
formats, external) 

pixel a picture element of your screen. A 
computer's video display is broken down into 
a specific number of pixels, which are points 
on a video screen that can be controlled by the 
computer to be either off or on. The resolution 
of a computer's video output is expressed in 
pixels. If a computer is said to have a video 
resolution of 320 by 200, then it has 320 
horizontal pixels and 200 vertical pixels, and 
the entire screen has 64,000 pixels that can be 
used to build graphics displays. 

port circuitry within a device that is designed 
to handle some type of data or signal transfer. 

printer a device that turns video output into 
printed output. There are basically three types 
of printers: daisy wheel, dot matrix and laser. 
A daisy wheel printer is characterized by its 
ability to produce letter-quality output. The 
name "daisy wheel" comes from the print 
wheel's resemblance to a daisy. Each of the 100 
to 124 "petals" on the daisy has a printable 



character on the end of it. When the computer 
sends the printer an "x", the printer spins the 
daisy wheel until the 'x' is positioned in front 
of the print hammer. The hammer then Tires, 
slamming the "petal" against the printer's 
roller, thereby effecting a transfer of ink from 
the ribbon to the paper in the form of an 'x\ 

The dot-matrix printer is characterized by 
the somewhat "computer-looking" appearance 
of its text. Printing is accomplished by the 
controlled firing of a column of tiny wires. As 
the print head travels across the page, the wires 
are fired, thereby pressing their lips against the 
ribbon and paper. Each tiring produces only 
part of a character; rolling the paper up while 
a line is being printed illustrates this fact. Most 
dot-matrix printers have a nine-pin configura- 
tion although some have only seven or eight, 
and many newer models have 18 or 24 pins. 
Using more pins puts the dots closer together 
and increases resolution. 

Laser printers arc fairly new, but work on 
a similar principle. Instead of firing pins, 
however, they create an image by firing a laser 
beam at a light-sensitive drum or belt; this 
image is then transferred to paper as it would 
be in a copier. Laser printer text and graphics, 
with a typical resolution of 300 dots per inch, 
approaches the quality of that produced by 
more expensive typesetting systems; this has 
given rise to the newest computer trend of 
desktop publishing. 

program a computerized set of instructions, or 
the act of writing one. The act of programming 
is the process in which a "programmer" writes 
instructions that will ultimately cause a com- 
puter to execute a predetermined cycle that 
produces a product or performs a particular 
function. There are two major aspects to a 
program: its source (input) and object (out- 
put). 

A source program is a programmer's input 
to a compiler and is written in a language that 
lends itself to modification. Source programs 
are written in symbolic form. This symbolic 
form lends itself well to modifications that 
must be made to the program. Writing in a 
symbolic language (such as COBOL, pascal, 
etc.) frees the programmer to think about how 
to solve a problem rather than how to make 
the program communicate with the computer. 

An object program is the output produced 
by a compiler after a source program has been 
compiled. The object is considerably more 
compact and concise than the source program. 
This form of the program is usually in machine 
language, and it is this version of the program 
that actually runs on the computer. All data 
and instructions have been completely resolved 
as to their location in memory. 



RGB video the red, green and blue video 
signals in an RGB system thai are kept sepa- 
rate; the synchronizing pulses are usually 
separate from the video signals, as well (as in 
the case in the CoCo 3). RGB video provides 
much better quality than composite color 
systems because none of the detail information 
is lost in transmission. 

ROM (Read-Only Memory) a type of memory 
that contains canned routines provided by a 
computer manufacturer, a third-party soft- 
ware vendor, or a user who has "burned" his 
or her own ROMs. Some examples of the types 
of routines in ROM are BASIC language inter- 
preters; peripheral device drivers; complex 
mathematical routines; utility commands, such 
as directory displays, file copying, deleting, 
renaming functions, disk initialization and 
graphics commands (CIRCLE, LINE, PAINT, 
DRRW. etc.); memory: and machine diagnostics, 
(See burn) 

routine or subroutine specialized sequences of 
instructions within a program that perform a 
specific function. 

People use routines daily and so do comput- 
ers. Neither can function without them. For 
instance, "getting ready for work" is a routine, 
and shaving, showering and dressing are all 
subroutines within the whole process. It is very 
similar in a computer program. A program 
may have a routine to write a payroll check, 
which is supported by several subroutines that 
do things like calculate gross pay. Social 
Security deduction and withholding, and 
determine if insurance is to be deducted this 
pay period, etc. 

RS-232 a Recommended Standard for data 
communications. Basically, it has to do with 
pin or wire function designations within a 25- 
pin cable. Manufacturers of equipment that 
use the RS-232C standard are not compelled 
to adhere to the standard to the nth degree. It 
is for this reason that it is wise to purchase data 
communications equipment from a source that 
is knowledgeable about your computer and 
modem. 



RAM (Random Access Memory) a type of 
computer memory that may contain data, 
tokenized basic code, various types of inter- 
mediate code or actual machine language. 
Programs or data may be loaded from disk, 
tape or keyboard into RAM. The contents of 
RAM can be modified, whereas the contents 
of ROM cannot. 



SSSD, SSDD, DSDD the recording toleran- 
ces for a specific disk and/or drive. These 
initials represent several terms: SSSD, Single 
Sided, Single Density - used on some early 
Apple computers; SSDD. Single Sided, Dou- 
ble Density — used on the CoCo, Commodore 
and Atari; DSDD. Double Sided. Double 
Density - used by IBM PC/XTs. PC/ATs. 
and clones. 

"Sided" indicates the number of sides that 
a disk manufacturer guarantees to be usable. 
However, it has been my experience that many 
brands of SSDD disks work just fine for 
DSDD operations. I have heard and read 
several other testimonials bearing witness to 
the fact that, in most cases, SSDD disks will 
work in a DSDD drive. 

"Density" refers to the distance between the 
bits of data on the disk. The coating on a DD 
disk is good enough to tolerate a much closer 



88 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



fit. [Depending on their manufacture date, 
disks marked "SD" may not have a high 
enough quality coating to tolerate DD record- 
ing. (See TPI) 

sector the smallest addressable and transfer- 
able unit of data on a disk. 



rate. The most common stepping rates arc 6. 
12. 20 and 30 ms. 

SysOp someone who sets up and monitors a 
BBS. 



other peripheral device. Speeds vary depend- 
ing on many factors, but the primary factor is 
the simultaneity that is. how many bits are 
sent at a time. An eight-lane highway allows 
more cars to arrive at their destination in an 
hour than does a one-lane highway. 



Serial a method of data transfer. Serial data 
transfer implies a sequential data transfer one 
bit at a time. Modems transfer data serially 
down a telephone line. Many printers accept 
data from a computer serially, too. (See 
transfer rate) 

SIG Special Interest Group (See information 
network) 

software programs stored on disk, cassette, 
ROM chips, etc. 

standards conventions formed by a committee 
or by a manufacturer who has a clear market 
edge on a product everyone else simply must 
fall in line. Standards are not laws, but most 
computer manufacturers generally don't 
muddy the water by crossing up their systems. 
And if a manufacturer wants to sell to a wide 
consumer base, it will not usually deviate loo 
far from the standard. 



TPI a density designation of Tracks Per Inch. 
For disk drives it indicates the distance from 
one track to the next. For disks it indicates the 
density tolerance. A disk marked as 48 TPI is 
intended lor use on a 40-track drive. A disk 
marked as 96 TPI is intended for use on an 80- 
track drive. A 96 TPI disk could be used on 
a 40-track drive, as long as other drive and 
sector characteristics were compatible. 

third-party products purchased from someone 
other than your computer's manufacturer. If 
you have an Epson printer attached to your 
CoCo, then your printer is a third-party piece 
of hardware. If you run a copy of Telewriter 
on your CoCo, then you are running third- 
party software. 

tokeni/cd the process by which high-level 
languages are made understandable to the 
computer. (See formats, internal) 



upload to send files to another computer via 
modem or hard-wired connection. 



voice-grade line standard telephone lines that 
may also be used for data communications. 



Xmodem a communications protocol for 
uploading and downloading. 



stepping rate the lime expressed in millisec- 
onds (thousandths of a second) for how long 
it takes lo move a floppy disk drive's access 
mechanism from one track to an adjacent one. 
The lower the number, the faster the stepping 



track areas organized to hold data on a disk, 
arranged in concentric circles. 

transfer rate the speed at which data is trans- 
ferred from the CPU to a disk drive or any 



Ymodem a communications protocol for 



uploading and downloading. 



/R\ 





Tomb of Tien 



Legend and history. " is often 
hard to distinguish the two. 
Until tecentiy. you thought the tote o' the 
great Emporer T'ien was a myth, but ever 
since the sacred shrine of your village was 
stolen by a winged dragon, you have 
decided that there might be some truth to 
the old slories. Armed with a dull unite 
(probabiy good for nothing), you were 
chosen to retrieve the shrine and discover 
the secrets of fhe Tomb of T'ien. 
100%ML Graphics Adventure . . . . St 9.95 



Mr. Corey 

Place. Island In the Pacific. 
Time: 10 minutes Into the future. 
As a member of Athena, a top secret 
organization for the preservation ot human 
kind, you were sent to spy on the most 
lanous man alive. Mr. Corey. Unfor- 
tunately, you were discovered during a rou- 
tine transmission and placed In o room 
with a nuclear time bomb. It you die. 
hu manlty dies with you 
100% ML Graphics 



!i: | V- > 




PROGRAMS 
for PEOPLE 



CoCo CHECKBOOK 



More than a checkbook maintenance program. Handles budgeting, 

cash and teller machine transactions and automatic bank payments. 

Customizable with up to 64 expense accounts of your own choosing. 

Reconciles your checkbook with your bank statements; suiTmarizes transactions 
by account, month or YTD. and permits searches on every field. 

Up to 1.500 transactions on a single disk system. 

An easy to use menu driven program $25.00 plus $2.50 shipping and handling. 

See review In December 1987, Rainbow Magazine. 

. CoCo ADDRESS BOOK 



A mailing list manager, a personal phone book and an address book 

all In one program. 
The address book will store, sort, retrieve or print mail labels, either 

the whole file or one at a time, for friends, family or acquaintances, 
A year rourd help but especially helpful during holiday seasons. 
You can search the file on the last name, city, state/province, zip code, 

telephone area code or remarks. 
Up to 100 rame/flle and 78 files/disk. An easy to use menu driven program. 
A printer is reccrmendec but not required. 
$20.00 plus $2.50 shipping and handling. 

. MASTER DISK VERSION 2.1 



ft computerized catalog of program names and disk names. 

Each entry in the catalog has the program name. e»tension and a 9 character 

disk name. 
To find that special program look It up in the alphabetized listing on the 

screen or a printout or have your Co Co search for it by name. 
Program names can be loaded by the disk full or entered 1 at a time. 
Up to 250 program names per file and up to 18 files per disk. 
An easy to use menu driven program A printer is optional. 
$15.00 plus $2.50 shipping and handling 
See review in January 1988 Rainbow Magazine 

ALL PROGRAMS REQUIRE 32KCoCo 1.2or3 and 1 DISK DRIVE 



SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO: 

BOB'S SOFTWARE 

RO. BOX 391 CLEVELAND, OHIO 44107 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 89 



I W i sh i ng W ell 



16K ECB 




Know What I Mean? 



By Fred B. Scerbo 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Editor's Note: If you have an idea for 
the " Wishing Well, "submit it to Fred 
c/o THE RAINBOW. Remember, keep 
your ideas specific, and don 7 forget 
this is BASIC. All programs resulting 
from your wishes are for your use, 
but remain the property of the au- 
thor. 



While I sat there all confused. 
All by myself. Soon after I 
knew. 

Does anything make sense yet? Of 
course not. 1 just started this month's 
column with three sentence fragments. 
None of them form a complete thought 
by themselves, but with a little reword- 
ing, all of them could be made to make 
perfect sense. 

You would be amazed at the number 
of students who have difficulty recog- 
nizing sentences and sentence fragments 
- sometimes even my students have 
trouble distinguishing them. (I often 
find compositions full of fragments; 
however, this usually indicates the 
students have not proofread their 
work.) 

With the fragment problem in mind. 
I designed this month's program. Sen- 
tence Fragments. It is the combination 
of a number of requests from parents 
and a few tips from some of my fellow 
instructors. 

Fred Scerbo is a special needs instructor 
for the North Adams Public Schools in 
North Adams, Massachusetts. He holds 
a master's in education and has pub- 
lished some of the first software avail- 
able for the Color Computer through 
his software firm, Illustrated Memory 
Banks. 



Optional Speech 

The most frequent request I receive is 
for programs to work with the Tandy 
Speech/ Sound Pak. A number of CoCo 
users who own the Pak are quite upset 
about the lack of serious software for it. 
Therefore, in the past year I have tried 
to make as many of my programs as 
possible able to use the Pak. Besides, it 
gives you one more opportunity to show 
your friends what your CoCo is capable 
of doing. Sentence Fragments permits 
speech, but does not need it to operate. 
In fact, you may prefer not to have it 
talk. The voice can get on your nerves 
after a while. Still, it makes a nice 
option for younger students just learn- 
ing to read. 



The Program 

Written in Extended Color basic, 
this program should easily fit into a 1 6K 
machine. However, if you add your own 
data, you may need to do a PCLEAR1 in 
order to have enough free memory. 
Right now, with 50 short examples, the 
program has only a few bytes to spare 
without the PCLEfiR command. 

In a nutshell, the program presents a 
statement and asks the user whether it 
is a complete sentence or a sentence 
fragment. The user responds by press- 
ing C for Complete Sentence or S for 
Sentence Fragment. 

The screen then indicates whether the 
response is correct or incorrect. If the 
response is correct, the screen can be 
advanced to the next example by press- 
ing ENTER. 

If the statement is a complete sen- 
tence, then the program will simply 
show the next statement. However, if 
the statement is only a sentence frag- 
ment, the screen will give an example of 



how the fragment can be changed into 
a complete sentence and make a com- 
plete thought. This is probably the 
program's best feature. Students often 
cannot tell what is missing from a 
sentence fragment. Therefore, this 
feature helps to reinforce a better under- 
standing of sentence closure. 

Running the Program 

When you run the program, a famil- 
iar title screen appears. Press T for 
Talking or N for No Talking. The rest 
of the program is self-explanatory. 
Pressing the @ key shows your score. 
You may return to where you left off by 
pressing C for Continue. 

After the last problem has been pre- 
sented and answered, the scorecard 
appears. You may repeat the program 
by pressing Y for Yes or stop by pressing 
N for No. Each time the program is run, 
the material is presented in a different 
order. 

Meeting Your Needs 

You may put your own samples into 
DATA statements and resave the pro- 
gram in order to have different versions 
or levels of this material. The program 
will hold a maximum of 50 problem 
statements. To add your own data, first 
type DEL1000-4999 and press ENTER to 
dump the present data. The last DATA 
line should always be 5000 DATA 
END, END, END. 

Data is entered simply. First, you 
present the statement. Next, indicate 
whether it is a complete sentence (C) or 
a sentence fragment (S). The third piece 
of data in a line is the conclusion to a 
statement if it is a fragment or an "OK" 
if the statement is a complete sentence 
(no ending is needed to make it a 
complete thought). 



90 



THE RAINBOW 



January 1988 



The format should look like this: 

1000 DfiTfl statement, C or 
S, conclusion or OK 

Here is an example of a complete sen- 
tence: 

1000 DflTPI I AM VERY HflPPY,C,OI< 

Data entry for a fragment would look 
like this: 

1000 DRTR SINCE IT STfiRTED 
RAINING, S, I HAVE BEEN SAD 



Notice that you do not use periods at 
the end of the first statement. This is 
done to prevent giving away any clues 
or making it too difficult to tack some- 
thing onto the end of a fragment. Ques- 
tion marks may be used, however. 

Be sure to use quotes to surround any 
data that may have commas in it. Check 
Line 1300 for an example. Save your 
own data with different filenames. In 
time, you may have a very large library 
of custom software. 



Conclusion 

I would like to give a special thanks 
to fellow teacher Nancy Horsefall for 
coming up with the sample data for this 
program. Nancy is using this program 
with her own students now. In fact, it 
was partly her idea to use some of the 
lyrics and song titles you see in the data. 
That's part of what makes the program 
so much fun. Thanks, too, to all of you 
who keep sending your ideas. Thai's 
what makes this column possible. □ 





j/ 


9 CLEAR2j3j3j3 

1J3 CLS0:FORI=1TO64:PRINTCHR$ (17 2 




I X 




V 


45 30 1070 216 






icn to 10m Q/i 


) ; : NEXT 




270 197 1330 172 


15 F0RI=1T0192:READA:PRINTCHR$(A 




360 133 END 101 


+128) ; :NEXT 




440 139 


2j3 DATA94,92,92,88,53,6J3,60,53,6 




j3, 56, 59, 48, 58,60,61,60 ,56,62,6)3, 


The listing: SENTENCE 


53,50,53,53,60,60,53,60,56, ,94,9 


1 REM ************************ 


2,92 


2 REM * RECOGNIZING COMPLETE * 


25 DATA90, ,, ,52,60,61,53,56, ,58, 


3 REM * SENTENCES & FRAGMENTS* 


57,58, ,53, ,48,62,48,53,52,55,53, 


4 REM * BY FRED B.SCERBO * 


,,53,56, , ,90, , 


5 REM * 6p HARDING AVE. * 


30 DATA94, 92, 92, ,52,60,60,52,60, 


6 REM * NORTH ADAMS, MA 01247 * 


56,56, ,56, ,52, ,48,60,60,52,48,52 


7 REM * COPYRIGHT (C) 1987 * 


,52,60,60,52,60,56, ,92,92,93 


8 REM ************************ 


35 DATA90, ,94,92,93,85,92,92,93, 



Sculptor 

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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 91 



85,92,92,93,85,92,94,93,85,92,92 


:GOSUB110: PRINT 


,85,82, ,90,92, 92,94, 92,88, , ,85 


240 FORHH=1TO2000:NEXT 


40 DATA90,80,91,83,87,8 5,83,83,8 


245 JK$=A$(AO(P) ) :IF RIGHT$(JK$, 


7, 85,, 81, 83, 85,, 90, 85, 85, 92, 92, 8 


1)="?"THEN255 


5,84,82,90, ,,90, , , , , 85 


250 JK$=JK$+"." 


45 DATA90, ,90,84,83,85, , ,85,85,8 


255 GOSUB260:GOTO285 


3,83,87,85,80,80,85,85,83,83,85, 


260 IF LEN(JK$)<=SW THEN 280 


,84,90,, ,90, ,83,83,83,87 


265 FOR T= SW TO 0STEP-1:IF MID$ 


50 FORI=1T064:PRINTCHR$(163) ;:NE 


(JK$,T,1)=" "THEN275 


XT 


270 NEXT T:GOTO280 


55 PRINT@357," RECOGNIZING COMPL 


275 L$=LEFT$(JK$,T) : PRINT" ";L 


ETE "; : PRINT© 3 8 9," SENTENCES & 


$ : AA$=L$ : GOSUB1 10 : JK$=RIGHT$ ( JK$ 


FRAGMENTS " ; : PRINT @4 21 , " (T)ALKI 


, (LEN(JK$) ) -T) :GOTO260 


NG OR (N)OT ? "; 


280 PRINT" ";JK$:AA$=JK$:GOSUB 


60 PRINT@453," BY FRED B.SCERB 


110: RETURN 





285 PRINT 


65 PRINT@485," COPYRIGHT (C) 19 


290 PRINT" C) OMPLETE SENTEN 


87 " ; 


CE": PRINT" OR" 


70 X$=INKEY$:IFX$="T"THEN90 


295 PRINT" S)ENTENCE FRAGME 


75 IFX$="N"THEN85 


NT" 


80 GOTO70 


300 AA$="PRESS C FOR COMPLETE SE 


85 NT=1:GOTO150 


NTENCE OR S FOR SENTENCE FRAGMEN 


90 CLS0 


T":GOSUB110 


95 XX=&HFF00:YY=&HFF7E 


305 G$=INKEY$:IF G$=""THEN305 


100 POKEXX+l,52:POKEXX+3,63 


310 IF G$="C"THEN330 


105 POKEXX+3 5, 60:GOTO150 


315 IF G$="S"THEN330 


110 IFNT=1THENRETURN 


320 IF G$="@"THEN425 


115 FORII=lTOLEN(AA$) 


325 GOTO305 


120 IF PEEK(YY)AND 128=0 THEN120 


330 IF G$=B$(AO(P) ) THEN 345 


125 POKEYY,ASC(MID$(AA$,II,l) ) 


335 GOT0355 


130 NEXTII 


340 IF C(F(G) )<>AO(P) THEN355 


135 IFPEEK(YY)AND128=0THEN135 


345 PRINT :AA$=" YOU ARE CORREC 


140 POKEYY,13 


T!":PRINTAA$:GOSUB110 


145 RETURN 


350 CR=CR+l:GOT0375 


150 DIM AO(51) ,A$(51) ,B$(51) ,C$( 


355 PRINT: AA$=" WRONG! THIS ST 


51),N(51) 


ATEMENT IS A" : PRINTAA$ : GOSUB110 


155 CLS0:PRINT@2 64," PLEASE STAN 


360 IF B$(AO(P) )="S" THEN AA$=" 


D BY "; 


SENTENCE FRAGMENT. " : PRINTA 


160 SW=2 8:KZ=RND(-TIMER) 


A$:GOSUB110 


165 F0RJ=1T051 


365 IF B$(AO(P) )="C" THEN AA$=" 


170 READ A$(J) ,B$(J) ,C$(J) : IF A$ 


COMPLETE SENTENCE . " : PRINTAA 


(J)="END" THEN180 


$:GOSUB110 


175 NEXT J 


370 IR=IR+1 


180 J=J-1 


375 IFB$(AO(P) )="C"THEN405 


185 FORI=l TO J 


380 X$=INKEY$:IFX$<>CHR$(13)THEN 


190 AO(I)=RND(J) 


380 


195 IFN (AO (I) ) =1THEN190 


3 85 CLS: PRINT :JK$=" IN ORDER TO B 


200 N(AO(I) )=1:NEXTI 


E A COMPLETE SENTENCE, THIS STAT 


205 FOR Y=1TO1000:NEXTY 


EMENT COULD BE READ AS FOLLOWS:" 


210 CLS 


: GOSUB2 60 : PRINT : F0RH=1T02 500 : NEX 


215 FOR P=1T0J 


TH 


220 IF P>J THEN RUN 


390 JK$=A$(AO(P) )+" "+C$(AO(P)): 


225 CLS: PRINT" EXAMPLE NUMBER" 
.pii it 


GOSUB2 60 : PRINT : FORH=1TO2000 : NEXT 

H 

395 JK$="THIS EXPRESSES A COMPLE 


230 PRINT 


235 AA$=" IS THE FOLLOWING A C 


TE THOUGHT . " : GOSUB2 60 : FORH=1TO20 


OMPLETE SENTENCE OR A SENTEN 


00:NEXTH 


CE FRAGMENT ?" :PRINTAA$ 


400 PRINT :AA$=" «PRESS ENTER T 



92 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



CONTINUE . » " : PRINTAA$ : GOSUB1 10 

405 X$=INKEY$:IFX$=CHR$(13)THEN4 

20 

410 IFX$="@"THEN P=P+1 : GOT0425 

415 GOTO405 

420 NEXTP 

425 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

430 PQ=CR+IR:IF PQ=0THEN PQ=1 

435 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT = " 

CR 

440 PRINT 

445 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG = " 

IR 

450 PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 

E = ";INT(CR*100/PQ) ;"%" 

455 PRINT: PRINT" ANOTHER TRY 

(Y/N/C)"; 

460 W$=INKEY$:IF W$=""THEN460 

465 IF W$="C" THEN 220 

470 IF W$="Y" THEN RUN 

475 IF W$="N" THEN CLS : END 

480 GOTO4 60 

990 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 

1000 DATA THEY THREW A PARTY ON 

SUNDAY, C, OK 

1010 DATA AS THEY WERE LEAVING T 

HE PARTY,S,", IT STARTED TO RAIN 



1150 DATA WHERE WERE YOU STANDIN 

G?,C,OK 

1160 DATA PLEASE CARRY THIS UMBR 

ELLA FOR ME,C,OK 

1170 DATA THE GIRLS WERE WEARING 

BLUE JEANS, C, OK 
1180 DATA "WITHOUT LOOKING, JIMM 
Y STARTED FORWARD" , C, OK 
1190 DATA THE UNHAPPY OLD MAN SA 
T ALONE UNTIL DARK, C, OK 
1200 DATA I SHALL STAY HERE?,C,0 
K 
1210 DATA WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE 

BETWEEN PAINT AND SHELLAC? , C, OK 
1220 DATA THREE BOYS STUCK THEIR 

HEADS OUT OF THE WATER, C, OK 
12 30 DATA THE LITTLE DOG STOOD O 
BEDIENTLY BY HIS MASTER, C, OK 
1240 DATA MAY I DRIVE THE CAR? , C 
,OK 

1250 DATA THE MEETING WAS HELD I 
N LOS ANGELES, C, OK 

12 60 DATA THE BRIGHT SUNLIGHT SH 
INING THROUGH THE WINDOW, S , BLIND 
ED ME AS I GOT UP FROM BED. 
1270 DATA THE WAY THE GIANT LIFT 
ED THE WHOLE TREE, S , AMAZED THE L 



1020 DATA THE CHILDREN RACED TO 
THE CAR, C, OK 

1030 DATA SITTING ON A PILLOW, S, 
WAS A BIG BLACK SLEEPING CAT. 
1040 DATA THE ROCKET SHOT ACROSS 

THE SKY, C, OK 
1050 DATA HER BROTHER WHO LIVED 
IN KANSAS, S, WAS PLANNING TO VI SI 
T HER IN THE SPRING. 
1060 DATA HARVEY CRIED, C, OK 
1070 DATA THE SUN ALMOST HIDDEN 
BY THE CLOUDS , S , TRIED TO SHOW IT 
S FACE ALL DAY LONG. 
1080 DATA "AS THEY LEFT, SHE SLI 
PPED ON THE ICE", C, OK 
1090 DATA THE FIRE ENGINE SCREAM 
ING DOWN THE STREET, S , WOKE UP TH 
E SLEEPING BABY. 

1100 DATA THE OLD CAR SPUTTERED 
TO A HALT, C, OK 

1110 DATA AFTER THE LONG PARTY, S 
,WE ALL DECIDED TO GO HOME 
1120 DATA "AFTER THE FOOTBALL GA 
ME, THEY WENT OUT TO DINNER", C,0 
K 
1130 DATA WITH ALL HIS SUITCASES 

PACKED,S,", HE LEFT TOWN IN A H 
URRY . " 

1140 DATA HE WANTED TO JOIN OUR 
CAMERA CLUB, C, OK 



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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



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m that old &eyd<wtd? 



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ITTLE CHILDREN. 

1280 DATA TO PUT OUT THE FIRE,S, 

YOU SHOULD SMOTHER IT. 

1290 DATA AS THE PRESIDENT BOARD 

ED THE PLANE, S, THE CAMERA FOLLOW 

ED HIS EVERY MOVE. 

1300 DATA JUST IN CASE YOU DIDN 1 

T KNOW,S,", TODAY IS MY BIRTHDAY 

ii 

• 

1310 DATA COMING THROUGH THE TUN 

NEL AT 80 MPH,S,WAS THE BRIGHT N 

EW TRAIN 

1320 DATA ALL THE IMPORTANT PEOP 

LE COMING TO DINNER, S , WILL EXPEC 

T TO BE TREATED PROPERLY. 

1330 DATA HAVING TOO MUCH MONEY, 

S,IS THE LEAST OF MY PROBLEMS! 

1340 DATA THE ROOM ALMOST FILLED 

WITH SMOKE, C, OK 
1350 DATA WHEN THE OLD MAN DIED, 
S,HE WAS ALL ALONE. 
1360 DATA AS I WAS ON MY WAY TO 
THE STATE CAPITOL, S, I HEARD THE 
NEWS. 

1370 DATA SOMETHING IN THE WAY S 
HE MOVES , S , ATTRACTS ME LIKE NO 



THER LOVER 

13 80 DATA YOU GIVE LOVE A BAD NA 
ME , C , OK 

1390 DATA EVERYTIME YOU GO AWAY, 

S,", YOU TAKE AWAY A PART OF ME. 
it 

1400 DATA 'WANTED DEAD OR ALIVE 1 

,S,IS THE BEST SONG I KNOW! 

1410 DATA EVERBODY HAVE FUN TONI 

GHT , C , OK 

1420 DATA I WISH THEY ALL COULD 

BE CALIFORNIA GIRLS, C, OK 

1430 DATA 'LIVING ON A PRAYER ', S 

,IS ANOTHER SONG BY BON JOVI ! 

1440 DATA LET ME BE THE ONE, C, OK 

1450 DATA SINCE YOU'VE BEEN GONE 

,S,", THERE'S SOMETHING I WANT T 

SAY." 

14 60 DATA DON'T DREAM IT'S OVER, 
C,OK 

1470 DATA HERE I GO AGAIN, C, OK 

14 80 DATA I SHOULD HAVE KNOWN BE 

TTER,C,OK 

1490 DATA HAVE IT YOUR WAY, C, OK 

5000 DATA END, END, END 

/7t\ 



r 10 





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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



95 



16K ECB 



3T 



The Kolar Progression 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



What good are copious dollops 
of programming expertise if 
the spark of creativity is miss- 
ing? To me, it is better to be a beginner 
with a creative and open mind than an 
expert programmer locked into a box of 
mediocrity. 

This tutorial is addressed to the 
beginner who brings to CoColand an 
unstructured personal perspective that 
has room for inspiration. The goal 
should always be to create something 
new. This open-ended, inquiring per- 
spective means all the difference in the 
world to the newcomer. In fact, it makes 
the difference between feverish, late- 
night sessions at the keyboard to create 
a special vision or a dusty tombstone of 
a CoCo relegated to an obscure corner 
of a musty closet cemetery. 

The beginner is still king. Unlike the 
tired experts (myself included) who 
ultimately wind up with repetitious 
mediocrities, the novice possesses a 
fresh outlook and is willing and eager 
to wander down untrodden pathways. 

The beginner's unvoiced creed is, "All 
avenues are worth investigating. All 
lanes and byways are attractive pros- 
pects. No alley is presumed to be dead- 
ended." 

All beginners are urged to experiment 
on their own. They need not master all 
programming techniques, and can al- 
ways refer to manuals and old issues of 
THE RAINBOW. There is no rule engraved 
in concrete that stipulates they must 
memorize everything. 

Florida-based Joseph Kolar is a veter- 
an writer and programmer who special- 
izes in introducing beginners to the 
powers of the Color Computer. 

96 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



You never know where you will end 
up when you pursue a hot idea. Today 
we continue on a variation of a theme 
— developing an idea. 

Fire up your CoCo. Key in Listing 1 
and run. The five exhibits are odd, but 
that is the whole idea — to be unique. 
This display contains our raw material. 
From this mess we must create some- 
thing original. 

This tutorial was created because I 
wanted to prepare a small, impromptu 
graphics program to check out a screen 
dump program. Using DRAW, the first 
thing that came to mind was 
U10R10D10L10 — a box. Not exactly 
awe-inspiring, but just what a jaded 
programmer's mind would suggest. 

After some mental jogging, I decided 
to use URDL, DRAW directions, repeat 
them a few times and use ascending 
length values (10, 20, 30 and 40) and 
then descending values (30, 20 and 10). 
The plan was to use undulating values 
and see what happened. 

Look at Line 20. It wasn't planned, 
but il happened. It is the oblong shape, 
top-center of the display. Continuing 
the same sequence gets us nowhere 
because the pattern repeats. Check it 
out for yourself. 

Line 10 sets up the blackboard area. 
What kind of shape would appear if I 
used the EFGH directions, repeated 
twice, with ascending lengths 10, 20, 30 
and 40 repeated? The boring, rambling 
design in the upper-left corner was 
determined by Line 21. 

Back to the drawing board! I tried 
FGHEDLUR directions, repeated twice 
with the familiar undulating values, and 
produced the exhibit in the lower-right 
corner of the blackboard. It is formu- 



lated in Line 22 — interesting, but 
suggesting nothing! 

Line 23 creates the curious effect in 
the upper-right region of the display. 
Study Line 23 and you will note that 
DRULEFGH, repeated twice, was used 
with our undulating value scheme. This 
exhibit seems more intriguing. There is 
space in the lower-left area of the 
blackboard; Line 24 displayed the 
pattern there. 

Looking at the set of five exhibits 
evoked a "So what?" from me. I was 
aware that I used distorted and dis- 
guised box and diamond shapes; e.g., 
EFGH with any single value, repeated 
four times makes a diamond. RDLU are 
the hallmarks of a square or box shape. 

If you can't imagine it, key in: 

25 DRAW"BM20,20E10F10G10H10" 
2G DRAW"BM230,10R10D10L10U10" 

and run. Truly, we are laboring on a 
variation of a theme. Type DEL25-2G 
and press ENTER. 

Careful study of the two bottom 
exhibits carefully gave me a sense of 
deja vu. Inadvertently, both figures are 
identical except for a 90-degree rota- 
tion. Clang, clang, clang went the CoCo 
alarm in my head. 90-degree rotation? 
Shades of the DRAW, A option. Recall 
that it allows rotation around a point. 
The urge to experiment is too overpow- 
ering to resist. 

Type LIST and press ENTER. We shall 
use Line 22. In order to make a loop 
around Line 22, we have to make room 
by renumbering the listing. 

Key in RENUM 10,5,10 and then call 
up the listing. Line 22 is redesignated as 
Line 40. Mask lines 20, 30, 50 and 60 



with REM statments. Run. Move the 
design to center stage by changing the 
locating values; type 12B,9G and press 
ENTER, then run. 

Edit Line 40 to insert A=X; after the 
first quote mark, and add these lines: 

39 FDR X = TO 3 

41 NEXT X 

and run. No matter how mundane a 
design may be, if it is attractively 
centered, it emits a special aura. 

The design looks a little congested. 
No S size value was used, and CoCo 
reverted to the default size, 54. Edit 
Line 40 again, and after the first quote, 
insert either SG or 57. Run. Caution: 
Values of numbers that are not multi- 
ples of 4 are seldom used in graphics 
displays, as they are likely to distort a 
carefully worked-out design. 

Save our work as "0DDSEND5". Type 
NEW and press ENTER to clear CoCo's 
memory. 

Key in this mini-program: 

10 PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS : 5CREEN1 , 
20 DRAW "S16BP190, 100 BDNR19BU 

U5ER2FD3NCLD2 BR4UGR3FD2GLN 

L2F2 BR5UGHL2R2 
30 GOTO 30 

Run. and notice the height of the 
space between the bottom of the char- 
acters and the underline. 

In Line 20, change 1G to 14 and run. 

Size S15 makes the distortion even 
more pronounced. In a long word, these 
distortions are carried from letter to 
letter so that the word looks like a 
drunken sailor, wobbling upward or 
downward. 

If I am not mistaken, S1G makes a 
fine enlargement of SB. Again, multi- 
ples of 4, like S4, SB, S12, etc., are OK. 



Use other sizes warily! Type in NEW and 
press ENTER to clear memory. 

Key in Listing 2 from Line to Line 
60, and also Line 500. 

We are going to make four exhibits 
in our pseudo-art color show. To acti- 
vate each exhibit press keys I through 
4. If you press any other key, except 
SHIFT or BREAK, you will return to 
Exhibit 1. 

Now, Line 30 only calls Exhibit I. 
Using a basic octagon shape (ERFDGLHU 
repeated three times) and lines 10 
through 40, undulating, make a nice 
symmetrical design. Wouldn't you 
guesstimate that you would need four 
repeats to create the four-leaved goody? 
Do you see why you need only three 
repeats? 

Key in lines 70 through 1 10. This one 
is a mixed bag of directions. EHFGRDLU, 
repeated seven times in our undulating 
10 to 40 to 10 value progression is 
Exhibit 2. Run and press 2. This dud 
suggests nothing! 

Key in lines 120 through 160. Into 
string BS we pack HGFERDLU, repeated 
three times, in our by now familiar value 
progression. Line 130 gives us a double 
dose on the screen when we run and 
press 3. 

To demonstrate that this is an exact, 
replicating design, we unmask Line 140 
and key in C2, yellow, and obliterate our 
hard work. Easy come, easy go! 

Key in the rest of the program. Line 
170 packs into BS the same scoop as in 
Exhibit I , (lines 40 and 50). After keying 
in lines 170 and 180, run the program. 
Key in Line 190 and run again. 

Note that Line 190 is in size SG. It has 
to be recentered, but this is not perfect, 
as you will spot upon careful inspection. 
Look at the vertical pairs of lines. 
Horizontal 53 makes the left pair wider 
than the right pair. Horizontal 54 makes 



the right pair wider than the left pair. 
This is the distortion factor we have to 
learn to live with. 

As an aside, try masking Line 1 80 and 
enter G0 GOTO 1G0. Run and press I. If 
you want to restore Exhibit 4, unmask 
Line 180 and type G0 GDTD G0. 

We might as well color some of the 
inner blades green. 

Key in lines 200 and 210. A dot of 
color is located within the borders of the 
area we propose to color. Run. Key in 
Line 220; we paint the located area 
green. Run. 

Key in lines 230 and 240 and run. 
Ditto for lines 250 and 260, and then for 
Line 270. Key in Line 280 and run - 
the central box is colored. To accent the 
blades, key in lines 290 and 300 and run. 

In order, key in and run lines 310, 320 
and 330. To outline our work of art in 
green, key in Line 340 and run. 

Key in lines 341, 342 and 350 and 
follow instructions. Note: If you didn't 
mask Line 180, but used G0 GOTO 170, 
Line 30 will call this last exhibit with 
either 1 or 4. 

If you want to save this tutorial, mask 
Line 140 and save it as "ZIGZAG". 

The best part about creating these 
and similar designs is that, in all eter- 
nity, you may be the very first pioneer 
to create such a unique design. 

We haven't explored any of the innu- 
merable possibilities of using this sim- 
ple, undulating progression of square 
and diamond themes. You can use the 
techniques demonstrated in this tutorial 
to create I don't know what. 

Since 1 dreamed up this system, I 
think I'll call it the "Kolar Progression." 
If I know me, 1 will worry this topic to 
death in a following tutorial. 

You can have a lot of fun making up 
viable designs with DRAW, PSET and 
PAINT commands. You can while away 



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Q RAM Disk for RSDOS* 

Q Print Spooler* 

□ Sophisticated Memory Test Program 



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for your gray or while MULTI-PACK (26-3024) 



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$14.95 each 

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Q 640x640 Joystick Driver* 
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AII3(oronlyS39.95! 

PYRAMIX Arcade Game'— $19.95 

•Products developed by ColorVcnture 



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No-Halt DMC Floppy Disk 
Controller for your Cocol. 2, or 3 
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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 97 



the hours of your CoCo apprenticeship 
and become versed in creating interest- 
ing, if not spectacular, designs and 
shapes. You are encouraged to take the 
Kolar Progression to its very limits and 
bend it to your will. 

The beginner need not have logged in 
a zillion hours at the keyboard to 



understand how to make unique and 
satisfying graphics. You should aim to 
play with CoCo and drive it nuts in an 
effort to make that "something special" 
that reflects your personality. 

After all, you can be a hack, copying 
listings the rest of your computer life, 
or you can be an enterprising computer 



Picasso, creating original artwork. 

I think I know what your reply must 
be. Remember that every graphic you 
create, no matter how simple or com- 
plex, is honest-to-goodness art. Why 
not work up something neat to make 
Picasso turn over in his grave with 
envy? □ 



Listing 1:0D0SENDS 

'<ODDSENDS> 

1 CLEAR 500 

10 PMODE4,1:SCREEN1,0:PCLS 

20 DRAW"BM130,35U10R20D30L40U30R 
20D10L20U30R40D30L20" 

21 DRAW"BM122,75 E10F20G30H40R10 
D20L30U40E10F20G30H40R10D20L30U4 
0" 



22 DRAW"BM190,135F10G20H30E40D30 

L20U10R20F30G40H30E20D10L20U30R4 
0" 

23 DRAW"BM200,90D10R20U30L40E30F 
20G10H20D30R40U30L20E10F20G30H40 

24 DRAW"BM50,140 E10F20G30H40R30 
D20L10U20E30F40G30H20R10D20L30U4 

30 GOTO30 



Listing 2: ZIGZAG 

'<ZIGZAG> 

10 CLEAR500 

20 PMODE3,1:PCLS2:SCREEN1,0 

30 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" GOTO 30 EL 

SEON VAL(A$) GOTO 40, 70, 120, 1 

70 

40 DRAW"BM78,56 E10R20F30D40G30L 

20H10U20E30R40F30D20G10L20H30U40 
ii 

50 DRAWE30R20F10D20G30L40H30U20 
ii 

60 GOTO60 

70 DRAW"BM148,86 E10H20F30G40R30 

D20L10U20E30H40F30G20R10D20L30U4 

0" 

80 DRAWE30H20F10G20R30D40L30U20 

E10H20F30G40R30D20L10U20" 

90 DRAWE30H40F30G20R10D20L30U40 
ii 

100 DRAWE30H20F10G20R30D40L30U2 

0E10H20F30G40R30D20L10U20" 

110 GOTO110 

120 B$="H10G20F30E40R30D20L10U20 

H30G40F30E20R10D20L30U40H30G20F1 

0E20R30D40L30U20" 

130 DRAW"BM88,96"+B$+B$ 

140 ■ DRAW"C2"+B$+B$' DRAWS OVER D 

ISPLAY 3 

150 »***ADD ONE DIRECTION AT A 

TIME TO B$ AND <RUN> TO SEE THE 

DESIGN EXPAND AND ROTATE. IT 

MAY BE NECESSARY TO ADJUST <BM> 

160 GOTO160 

170 B$="E10R20F30D40G30L20H10U20 

E30R40F30D20G10L20H30U40E30R20F1 

0D20G30L40H30U20" 

180 DRAW"BM78,56"+B$ 



190 DRAW"BM54,36S6"+B$ 

200 '**** USE <PSET(X,Y,C)> TO 

LOCATE AREAS TO PAINT. 

210 PSET( 100, 50,1) 

220 PAINT(100,50) ,1,4 

230 PSET (100,140,1) 

240 PAINT (100/ 140) ,1,4 

250 PSET(150,50,1) 

2 60 PAINT ( 150 , 50 ) ,1,4 

2 70 PAINT (150, 140) ,1,4' LOCATION 

DEDUCED FROM OTHER THREE AREAS 

280 PAINT(128,96) ,1,4'MIGHT AS 

WELL GET THE CENTER AREA 

290 PSET(128,75, 1) 

300 PAINT(128,75) ,1,4 

310 PAINT (12 8, 117) ,1,4 "DEDUCED 

BY SUBTRACTING 9 6-75 AND ADDING 

THE RESULT TO 96 TO GET VERTICAL 

VALUE . 

320 PAINT (107, 96) ,1,4' DEDUCTED 

21 FROM 128 TO GET HORIZ. VALUE 

AND VERT. VALUE FIGURES TO BE IN 

MIDDLE. 
330 PAINT (149, 96) ,1,4 'THESE 
VALUES FOLLOW FROM REASONING. 

340 PAINT(0,0) ,1,4'BLOCK OUT 
BORDER SMOOTHLY IN ONE DIRECTION 
(DOWN) AS APPOSED TO (20,20) 
WHICH GIVES A SPLIT UP; THEN 
DOWN PAINT JOB. 

341 '***SUBSTITUTE (20,20) IN 
<340> TO SEE AWKWARD PAINT JOB. 

342 '** TEMPORARILY CHANGE THE 
PMODE TO <4> IN LINE <20> TO SEE 
FOUR <PSET> POINTS. 

350 "****NOW IS A GOOD TIME TO 
DELETE THE FOUR <PSET> LINES AT 
<210>, <230>, <250>, <290> 
500 GOTO500 /ss 



98 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 




HOW DO YOU GIVE A RAINBOW? 



It's simple — Give a rainbow gift certificate . . . 



Let a gift subscription to the 
rainbow carry the premier Color 
Computer magazine right to 
your friends' doorsteps, the 
rainbow is the information 
source for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. 

Each month, your friends will 
enjoy the intelligent programs, 
reviews and articles written ex- 
clusively for their CoCo. 

First, your gift will be an- 
nounced in a handsome card. 
Then, all year 'round, they'll re- 
member you and your thought- 
fulness when they get each edi- 
tion of the rainbow — more than 
200 pages loaded with as many 
as 24 programs, 15 regular col- 
umns and lots of helpful hints 
and tips. 

Generosity benefits the giver, 
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down borrowed copies of the 
rainbow. Your collection will be 
safe at home. 

Give a rainbow gift certificate 
and let your friends in on the fun. 
the rainbow is the perfect com- 
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Get your order to us by Janu- 
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March issue of rainbow. 



Please begin a one-year (12 issues) gift subscription to 

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Organ i zation 



16K Disk 




Appointment Calendar 



By William J. Holdorf 



Calculating calendar dates has 
fascinated me for years. Most of 
the computer-generated calen- 
dars I have found, however, were re- 
stricted to a certain group of years or 
just gave a monthly screen output for a 
set year. That is, until I came across one 
calendar calculation I really liked. 

I found the calendar calculation in a 
program in Sky and Telescope, July 
1985. According to its author, Robert 
S. Harrington, U.S. Naval Observa- 
tory, Washington, D.C., the calendar 
calculation was derived from a FOR- 
TRAN routine that does the same thing 
on an IBM 434 1. From all appearances, 
it truly represents a perpetual calendar. 

Since 1 am what you might call an 
amateur, my knowledge is limited con- 
cerning the computer and all its capa- 
bilities. However, having bought a 
Color Computer with Extended Disk 
BASIC and the DMP-130 printer, I 
thought the calendar calculation rou- 
tine would be a good program to start 
with. As printed, the program is in- 
tended for use with the DMP-130. You 
will need to alter the control codes if you 
are using another printer. 

Since I have a Color Computer, 1 feel 
any program I write should have some 
color in it — even if most activity is done 
within the computer and output is to a 
printer, as is the case with this calendar 
program. With that in mind, 1 have used 
CLS along with a variety of screen 
colors, as the screen changes for input 
or instruction data. This keeps the color 
coming no matter what is being done. 

The core of the calendar calculation 
is in lines 1870 through 2110. Every- 
thing else is just editing input and 

William Holdorf lives in Albuquerque. 
New Mexico. He is a retired business 
manager and lias recently begun learn- 
ing about the computer. 



output. Since 1 am not a professional 
mathematician, I can't completely ex- 
plain what goes on within the calendar 
calculation routine. I'll leave that to the 
professionals who understand. All I 
know is it works beautifully. 

The program prints out three calen- 
dars per 8^-by-l 1 page. Each page has 
the current month at the top-center, the 
previous month on the top-left, and at 
the top-right, the next month. After the 
three calendars are printed, there are 
three lines available for special-event 
dates chosen by the user such as bill 
payments, holidays, meeting dates, 
birthdays, etc. The remainder of the 
calendar page is graduated by three 
lines showing days of the month split in 
two columns from 1 though 31. This 
allows handwritten notes or appoint- 
ment dates. The program automatically 
moves to the next page and begins with 
the next sequence of three months until 
12 pages have been printed. 

This yearly appointment calendar 
makes it easy to plan activities for an 
entire year. Also, any future year can be 
set up, as well. 

As the program is initiated, a year is 
requested. Full year figures must be 
entered. Since the basic core for the 
calendar calculation is a perpetual 
calendar, actually any year -- past, 
present or future — can be used. 

Once the year has been entered, press 
ENTER, and the screen displays instruc- 
tions (lines 1220 to 1520) for any special 
event you might want for each calendar 
page of the year. Each calendar page can 
handle 12 special events. Only 19 char- 
acters can be entered for each special 
event. The screen shows the month 
number and the event number above a 
line of dashes. 

As events are entered, the characters 
are placed directly above each dash so 
there is no mistake in entering more 



than 19 characters. You can reverse a 
character or the whole line by using the 
left arrow. If more than 19 characters 
are entered, the program erases the data 
and prints out an error message. You 
can return to the input area without 
disturbing the month number or special 
event count by pressing ENTER. As each 
event is entered into array SPDS, the 
data is erased from the screen by GOSUB 
1450. The event count increases, and 
the screen is ready for the next entry. As 
you enter the 12th event, the program 
advances to the next month and the 
event count starts over. 

In case you do not want to use all 12 
event allocations for a particular cal- 
endar month, after entering the last 
event you want for the month, enter END 
and the program will advance to the 
next month number and the event count 
will start over. If you do not want to 
enter any event data or you do not want 
to continue with the remainder of the 
year, enter SKIP, and the screen will 
change to the next set of instructions. 

Once all event data has been entered 
or skipped, the screen displays instruc- 
tions to get the printer ready. Line up 
the top of the first page with the printer 
head. The program allows two blank 
lines before beginning to print on the 
third line. If not lined up properly, the 
page count might be off and the pro- 
gram will advance to the next page 
incorrectly. 

When the paper is lined up, press 
ENTER, and the computer reads in all 
data needed for calendar calculations. 
The screen changes to a reminder that 
the program is beginning to calculate 
each of the three calendars for the first 
page. There is a brief pause before the 
output begins. 

Since there are three different calen- 
dars for each page, I have used two 
loops to control all calculations for each 
month. The loop in Line 1760 controls 
the 12 pages. The loop in Line 1770 
controls the three-month variation on 
each page. 

Conditions as to what month is cal- 
culated are controlled by IF statements 
in lines 1780 to 1820. As each IF state- 
ment is read, month and year changes 
are made. The program then branches 
(GOSUB 1850) to begin entering, in array 



100 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



CALS, Ihe name of the calendar month 
and titles for the days of the week. This 
is followed by the calendar calculation 
routine (lines 1870 to 2110), as indexed 
by IND. 

Six lines for weeks are allowed for 
each month, even though not all will 
contain a full week of dates; it depends 
on the month/year being calculated. 
Some months with 31 days require six 
lines to complete the calendar. 

Another variation is the page for 
January, which requires December of 
the previous year. Line 1780 conditions 
the data accordingly. Also, another 
month/ year change occurs when the 
last page, December, is reached. The 
next month is January of the following 
year, and Line 1820 conditions the data 
followed by END after calendar page 
output. For all other months, the calcu- 
lations are controlled by lines 1790 to 
1810, representing the three months' 
variation on each page that are all 
within the same year. 

As the calculation data for each week 
of the three months is completed, array 
index IND is increased by one before 
returning to the month/year control 
(lines 1780 to 1820). After the third 
month has been completed for a page, 
the data in calendar array CflLS is ready 
to be printed. This is initiated by GOSUB 
2130 in Line \8\0 or, if it is the last page 
month of the year. Line 1820. 

With Line 2130, the output to the" 
printer begins. Since I have used 
condensed characters for the previous 
and next months, and elongated char- 
acters for the present page month, the 
TAB cannot be used when changing 
character styles back and forth on the 
same print line. Instead, I had to use 
more elaborate print head controls 
(lines 2290 and 2340) in order to posi- 
tion each calendar line correctly. This 
will vary with each printer, and the 
program will have to be revised accord- 
ing to the user's printer. The program 
is designed for the DM P- 130. 

I begin each page printout with the 
year (lines 2150 to 2180). Since the 
elongation of the year is only one 
character style change on the same line, 
I can use the TAB 2150 to position the 
year. Next it is followed by a block 
graphics border (lines 2190 to 2220). 

The output of the calendar lines from 
array CflLS is controlled by the loop in 
lines 2240 to 2370. The condensed 
character style is first initiated in Line 
2230 before entering the loop, since the 
first and third calendar lines will be in 
that style. Once \n the loop, the last 
calendar line (next month), will be in 




condensed style and ready for the pre- 
vious month on return of the carriage 
and line feed. Each output from array 
CALS is indexed by UU (lines 2260 and 
2320) and the loop control I on the basis 
of eight increments. The index is re- 
turned to zero after completing each full 
page line. Each calendar will always 
contain data for eight lines as it was 
entered. That is, name of month, (first 
line), name of days of the week, (second 
line), and six lines for calendar weekly 
dates. 

Once all three calendars have been 
printed, a block graphics border is again 
printed (lines 2390 to 2410). Next, the 
index control, IND, used to enter cal- 
endar calculations to array CALS, is 
restored in Line 2430. This sets the 
array/ index for the input of the next 
page of three calendars. 

After the block graphics border, the 



loop in lines 2460 to 2520 will print three 
lines of any special event dates in array 
SPDS. In order to determine if there are 
any. Line 2470 tests the first index of the 
month of the array for a blank, using 
page month number (MZ) and loop 
number (5E) as the first array index. If 
the first index is blank, there are none 
in the entire array for that month, and 
the program will advance four blank 
lines and skip the loop routine by 
branching to Line 2530. 

The reason for the four lines when 
there are no special event dates in array 
SPDS is that the block graphics border 
printout must be on the fourth line after 
the calendar output in order to keep the 
page count correct. When the array 
SPDS has data and the special event 
dates are printed, only three lines are 
used, but a carriage/ line feed (2510) is 
always executed after the last special 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 101 



event is printed. That puts the page in 
the proper line position for printing a 
line using the block graphics character, 
CHR$(241), on the fourth line in both 
situations. 

Once the block graphics line is 
printed (Line 2540), the remainder of 
the month page is printed with monthly 
dates from 1 to 31 on every third line, 
split in two columns, using loop 2560 to 
2610. Each line has two dates. The loop 
number is used for the first date (Line 
2580)and the loop number plus 16(Line 
2600) is used for the second date. After 
each date, a line is printed using block 
graphics characters, CHRS ( 241 ) . When 



the second date count reaches 32, no 
more dates are printed and the program 
branches to Line 2630. At Line 2640, 
two PRINTs move the paper to the end 
of the page, followed by RETURN, and 
the program is back to one of the five 
conditions that control the three-month 
calculations, lines 1780 to 1820. When 
the last page is printed, the RETURN will 
go to Line 1820 where the program is 
ended. 

There are many editing possibilities 
using the core calendar calculations. 
One variation is to print six months 
along the left side of computer paper, 
using dots across the page to separate 



each month and using two pages for the 
year. This allows random notes to be 
written opposite each month. 

I hope this program brings as much 
enjoyment and interest to the user as it 
has to me. Now that you can have a 
computer-generated, full-year appoint- 
ment calendar, there should be no 
excuse for missing important dates 
during the year. In fact, you can start 
planning years ahead. 

(Questions or comments may be 
directed to the author at 3501 Atrisco 
NW, #3-05, Albuquerque. NM 87120. 
Please enclose an SASE when writing 
for a reply.) D 





S 




1190 


PRINT0387 ." WHEN READY FOR 




1 ■,/ 






V 


1200 


....136 2090 229 


INPUT OF "; 






1350 


....186 2340 10 


1200 


PRINT@419," SPECIAL DATES F 




1550 


86 2500 147 


OR EACH "; 




1700 


128 END 169 


1210 


PRINT@448 : PRINT@452 , "MONTH- 




1870 


.. 103 


— PRESS <ENTER>"; : INPUT AN$ 






1220 


CLS8 






1230 


PRINT@34," 12 SPECIAL EVENT 






S PER MO. "; 


The listing: CftLENDfiR 




1240 


PRINT@66," 19 SPACES EA.SPE 






CIAL 


EVENT "; 


1000 CLS4 




1250 


PRINT@131," START WITH DATE 


1/31/3 CLEAR 2/3/3/3 




AND 


ADD " ; 


1/32J3 IND=1' INPUT 


INDEX 


1260 


PRINT@163 ," NAME OF SPECIAL 


1/33/3 UU=/3' OUTPUT 


INDEX 


EVENT " ; 


1/34/3 DIM C$(42) ,] 


D$(31) ,E(12) 'ARR 


1270 


PRINT@230," EXAMPLES 


AYS FOR CALENDAR 


CALCULATIONS 




ii . 


1045 DIM M$(12) 'ARRAY TO HOLD MO 


1280 


PRINT§262," 10-HARRY JOHNSO 


NTH NAMES 




N-BD 


ii • 


1050 DIM CAL$(288) 'ARRAY TO HOLD 


1290 


PRINT@294," 25-CHRISTMAS 


3 CALENDARS 






ii . 


1060 DIM SPD$(12 


,12) 'ARRAY FOR S 


1300 


PRINT@326," 30-CLUB PICNIC 


PECIAL EVENTS 






ii • 


1070 PRINT@37," APPOINTMENT CALE 


1310 


REM INPUT SPECIAL EVENTS 


NDAR "; 




FOR 


ALL MONTHS 


1080 PRINT@174," 


BY "; 


1320 


FOR MONl=l TO 12 


1090 PRINT@233," 


BILL HOLDORF " ; 


1330 


GOSUB 1450 


1100 PRINT§300," 


1-4-86 "; 


1340 


FOR SE=1 TO 12 


1110 FOR X=l TO 


2000: NEXT X 


1350 


PRINT@389," MONTH :";: PRINT 


1120 CLS3 




USING"##";MONl;: PRINT" S.E. 


1130 PRINT@37," APPOINTMENT CALE 


#";:] 


PRINT US ING" ##"; SE ;: PRINT" " 


NDAR »; 




} 




1140 PRINT@105," 


FOR ANY YEAR "J 


1360 


PRINT@421, ; : INPUT AN$ 


1150 PRINT@196," 


INPUT FULL YR F 


1370 


IF LEN(AN$)>19 THEN GOTO 14 


IGURES " ; 




80 




1160 PRINT@228," 


FOR BC USE MINU 


1380 


IF AN$="END"THEN 1430' IF SP 


S SIGN "; 




ECIAL EVENTS LESS THAN 12 GO TO 


1170 PRINT@260," 


E.G. 1986,1000 


NEXT 


MONTH 


,10,-50 "; 




1390 


IF AN$="SKIP" THEN 1530 'TO 


1180 PRINT@320:PRINT@328,"WHAT Y 


SKIP 


ALL OR REMAINDER OF MONTHS 


EAR" ; : INPUT Y 




1400 


SPD$(MONl,SE)=AN$ 



102 



THE RAINBOW January 1 988 



Mak ii-«o, the 



i MicroWorld 



J 



C=3 + 



CoCTo ' s Afl^F^OR G^BLEI . 



CoCo II 
CoColll 
Drive 
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CM-8 Monitor 
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Joysticks (pair) 


$248 
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$ 13 


Mouse 
MultiPak 


$40 
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Disk storage box (50) 
CCR-81 Cass. Rec. 


$ 8.50 

$42 



Disks (SS) 
Disks (DS) 



$7.50/box 
$8.00/box 



"Includes free library case 



DMP-106 Limited Quantities $145 
DMP-130A (120 CPS) $225 
DMP-440 $545 



Tandy 1000 EX 
Tandy 1000 SX 
Tandy 1000 HX 
Tandy 1000TX 



$429 
$625 
$535 
$885 



VM-4 Monitor 
CM-5 Monitor 
CM-11 Monitor 



99 
$225 
$325 



CoCo3 512K Upgrade 
MultiPak Upgrade (26-3024) 
MultiPak Upgrade (26-3124) 
OS-9 Level 2 



$130 
$ 12 
$ 12 
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Mi n imum Order $15 .00 



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ALL RRICES 



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(In Continental US) 



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1005B TANDY EQUIPMENT WITH FULL 
RADIO SHACK WARRANTY 



1410 GOSUB 1450 


17 60 


FOR MZ=1 TO 12 


1420 NEXT SE 


1770 


FOR CAL=1 TO 3 


1430 NEXT MON1 


1780 


IF CAL=1 AND MZ=1 THEN MZ=1 


1440 GOTO 1530 


2 : Y=Y-1 : GOSUB 1850 : MZ=1 : Y=Y+1 :NE 


1450 PRINT@416 


XT CAL 




1790 


IF CAL=1 AND MZ=>2 THEN MZ= 


mop fKxxi I @44o , ______ 




MZ-1: 


GOSUB 1850 :MZ=MZ+1: NEXT CAL 


1470 RETURN 


1800 


IF CAL=2 AND MZ=>1 THEN GOS 


1480 PRINT§417,"DATA OVER 19 — PR 


UB 18 50: NEXT CAL 


ESS <ENTER>"; 


1810 


IF CAL=3 AND MZ=<11 THEN MZ 


1490 INPUT AN2$ 


=MZ+l: GOSUB 1850 :MZ=MZ-l: GOSUB 2 


1500 GOSUB 1450 


130: NEXT MZ 


1510 GOTO 13 60 


1820 


IF CAL=3 AND MZ=12 THEN MZ= 


1520 REM END SPECIAL EVENTS 


l:Y=Y+l: GOSUB 1850 :MZ=12 : Y=Y-1 :G 


1530 CLS5 


OSUB 


2130:END 


1540 PRINT@261," INPUT DATA COMP 


1830 


REM END 3 MONTH CALENDAR 


LETED "; 


CONTROL 


1550 PRINT@3 87," MOVE PAPER TO F 


1840 


REM BEGINNING CALENDAR C 


IRST LINE " ; 


ALCULATION ROUTINE 


1560 PRINT§451," WHEN READY PRES 


1850 


CAL$(IND)=M$(MZ) :IND=IND+1' 


S <ENTER> »; 


NAME 


OF MONTH 


1570 AN$=INKEY$:IF AN$="" THEN 1 


1860 


CAL$(IND)=" SU MO TU WE TH 


570 


FR SA":IND=IND+1 


1580 FOR 1=1 TO 31 


1870 


J=367*Y-INT(7*(Y+INT( (MZ+9) 


1590 READ D$(I) 


/12) )/4)+INT(275*MZ/9)+1721031 


1600 NEXT I 


1880 


K=0 


1610 FOR 1=1 TO 12 


1890 


IF MZ<2 THEN K=-l 


1620 READ E(I) 


1900 


J=J-INT(3*(INT((Y+K)/100)+1 


1630 NEXT I 


)/4) 




1640 FOR 1=1 TO 12 


1910 


K=E(MZ) 


1650 READ M$(I) 


1920 


IF MZ<>2 THEN 1990 


1660 NEXT I 


1930 


W=INT(Y-100*INT(Y/100) ) 


1670 DATA " 1"," 2"," 3 " , " 4 


1940 


X=INT(Y-4*INT(Y/4) ) 


ii ii 511 11 gn 11 —11 11 g 11 11 g 11 


1950 


Z=INT(Y-400*INT(Y/400) ) 


" 10"," 11"," 12","' 13","' 14","' 


1960 


IF X<>0 THEN 1990 


15"," 16"," 17"," 18"," 19"," 20 


1970 


IF W=0 AND ZO0 THEN 1990 


"," 21"," 22"," 23"," 24"," 25", 


1980 


K=29 


" 26"," 27"," 28"," 29", " 30"," 


1990 


X=J-7*INT(J/7) 


31" 


2000 


FOR 1=1 TO 42 


1680 DATA 31,28,31,30,31,30,31,3 


2010 


C$(I)=" " 


1,30,31,30,31 


2020 


NEXT I 


1690 DATA " JANUARY"," 


2030 


FOR 1=1 TO K 


FEBRUARY" , " MARCH" , " 


2040 


C$(I+X)=D$(I) 


APRIL"," MAY", 


2050 


NEXT I 


" JUNE"," JULY", 


2060 


FOR 1=1 TO 6 


" AUGUST"," SEPTEMB 


2070 


J=7*I 


ER" 


2080 


REM WEEKLY DATES INPUTED 


1700 DATA " OCTOBER" , " 


TO ARRAY 


NOVEMBER" , " DECEMBER" 


2090 


CAL$ (IND) =C$ ( J-6) +C$ (J-5) +C 


1710 CLS6 


$ ( J-4) +C$ ( J-3) +C$ (J-2) +C$ (J-l) +C 


1720 PRINT@258," CALENDAR CALCUL 


$(J) 


IND=IND+1 


ATIONS AND " ; 


2100 


NEXT I 


1730 PRINT§358," OUTPUT TO PRINT 


2110 


RETURN 


ER "; 


2120 


REM END CALENDAR ROUTINE 


1740 REM BEGINNING CALENDAR R 


2130 


REM OUTPUT TO PRINTER 


OUTINE 


2140 


PRINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 


1750 REM BEGINNING 3 MONTH CA 


2150 


PRINT#-2,TAB(3 5) ; 


LENDAR CONTROL 


2160 


PRINT#-2,CHR$ (27) CHR$ (14) ; ' 



104 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



START ELONGATION 


2420 PRINT#-2 


217 PRINT#-2,Y 


2430 IND=1 


2180 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(15) ; ' 


2440 REM END CALENDAR OUTPUT 


END ELONGATION 


2450 REM OUTPUT MONTHLY SPECI 


2190 FOR 1=1 TO 40 


AL EVENTS 


2200 PRINT#-2,CHR$(253)CHR$(251) 


2460 FOR SE=1 TO 9 STEP 4 


/ 


2 470 IF SPD$(MZ,SE)=" "THEN PRIN 


2210 NEXT I 


T#-2 : PRINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 : PRINT#-2 : 


2220 PRINT#-2 


GOTO 2530 


2230 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(20) ; ' 


2480 PRINT#-2,SPD$(MZ,SE) ; 


CONDENSED 


2490 PRINT#-2,TAB(20) ?SPD$(MZ,SE 


2240 FOR 1=1 TO 8 


+D; 


2250 PRINT#-2,CAL$(I+UU) ; 


2500 PRINT#-2,TAB(40) ;SPD$(MZ,SE 


2260 UU=UU+8 


+ 2) ; 


2270 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(19) ', ' 


2510 PRINT#-2,TAB(60) ;SPD$(MZ,SE 


STANDARD 


+3) 


2280 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(14) ; ' 


2520 NEXT SE 


START ELONGATION 


2530 REM END SPECIAL EVENTS 


2290 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(16) } 


2540 PRINT#-2,STRING$(80, (CHR$(2 


CHR$(0) ;CHR$(110) ; 


41))) 


2300 PRINT#-2,CAL$(I+UU) ; 


2550 REM BEGINNING DATE/LINES 


2 310 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(15) ; ' 


OUTPUT 


END ELONGATION 


2560 FOR DT=1 TO 16 


2320 UU=UU+8 


2570 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2 


2330 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(20) ; ' 


2580 PRINT#-2,USING"##";DT;:PRIN 


CONDENSED 


T#-2,STRING$(37, (CHR$(241) )) ; 


2340 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27) ;CHR$(16) ; 


2590 IF DT+16=32 THEN 2630 


CHR$(3) ;CHR$(45) ; 


2600 PRINT#-2,TAB(40) ;:PRINT#-2, 


2 3 50 PRINT#-2,CAL$(I+UU) 


USING" ##";DT+16; : PRINT# -2 , STRING 


2 3 60 UU=0 


$(37,(CHR$(241))) 


2370 NEXT I 


2610 NEXT DT 


2 3 80 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)CHR$(19) ; ' 


2 620 REM END DATE/LINE OUTPUT 


STANDARD 


2 630 REM MOVE TO END OF PAGE 


2390 FOR G=l TO 40 


2640 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2 


2400 PRINT#-2,CHR$(2 52) ;CHR$(254 


2 650 RETURN' READY FOR NEXT PAGE 


) ; 


AND NEXT 3 MONTHS 


2410 NEXT G 


/R\ 



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R 



P.O. Box 293 
Raritan, NJ 08869 
(201)722-1055 

ENGINEERING 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 105 



Finding 
the Right 
Person 
for the 
Job 

Use this management 
program to minimize 
personnel costs 

By Larry M. Paroubek 





nyone who has been in business 
/\\ for any length of time realizes 
.that, above all else, employees 
tend to make or break a company. We 
often hear phrases such as, "They're a 
dime a dozen," or, "Anyone is replace- 
able" — but what is the real cost, in both 
money and time, of finding and keeping 
good employees? 

Job Description was created as a 
management tool to help in minimizing 
the various costs involved in hiring, 
training and, in many cases, firing 
personnel. 

After the title screen runs, you are 
asked if you want the speed-up poke or 
not; if you have any difficulties with the 
poke, press N. The poke does not make 
a substantial difference in the program's 
operating speed. 

You will then be asked to enter the 
title of the job you are creating the 
description for. Just type in the title. 
Whenever you are asked for input in the 
program, just type in an appropriate 
response. When dollar amounts are 
mentioned, type in just the whole 
number amounts (no dollar signs or 
decimal points). When hours are re- 
quested, enter whole numbers (no dec- 
imal points or fractional amounts). 

Next, you are asked for the number 
of primary responsibilities the job 
demands; just press a number. Then 
type in short descriptions of the respon- 
sibilities, pressing ENTER after each. 
Then you are prompted to rate the 
responsibilities on a scale of 1 to 9 (9 
being high), in order to establish prior- 
ities. 

Most positions have no more than 
five primary responsibilities. If you 
have a great many more than that, 
perhaps you are overloading the em- 
ployee or are listing secondary aspects 
of the prime responsibilities. I have 
intentionally left printer wrap-arounds 
out of this program — your responses 
should be short and specific. 

You will be asked to define the per- 
sonality type you feel is necessary for 
the position. Introverts and extroverts 
do not cover the spectrum of personal- 

Larry Paroubek is an Atlantic City, 
New Jersey, CoCoist who works in 
personnel administration and acts as a 
management consultant with M.I.S. 
Systems. 



106 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 




16K ECB 




ity types, but, as 
generalizations, 
they do help in defining the position's 
needs. Note that we all tend toward one 
personality type or the other. Being 
introverted is not bad — positions that 
warrant little supervision or positions 
such as in research and development 
need a more introspective, introverted 
type of personality. Customer service 
and sales positions tend toward a more 
extroverted type of personality. 

Three examples of more specific 
types of personalities (utilizing Carl 
Jung's personality breakdowns) are 
presented. Read the specifics on each 
and press the number that corresponds 
to what you feel is the primary person- 
ality requirement for the position of- 
fered (Thinker, Sensor, Intuitor or 
Feeler). Then list your second and third 
choices. Though we are a combination 
of all of the above, we tend more toward 
one type than another. And each posi- 
tion needs a slightly different type of 
personality. 

Next you are asked to list five pri- 
mary duties of the position and to 
estimate the number of hours it will take 
to accomplish each duty on a weekly 
basis. Notice there is a "trap" that tells 
us when we have made the position 
"undoable." It is undoable if you have 
90 hours of work to accomplish in 40 
hours. With such things, we have to be 
realistic. If all we create is frustration, 
the employee will not be with us for very 
long! 

Input to whom the employee will be 
directly reporting. Notice there is only 
one choice. An employee should be 
directly subordinate to only one person. 
The employee will avoid conflicting 
requirements and the supervisor will 
know exactly what is going on with the 
individual. (We all can remember when 
Father said "no" to something — so we 
went to ask Mother! 

You are then 
asked if your sub- 
ject is part of man- 
agement. If so, 
then list the 
number of people 
subordinate to 
that individual. 
Remember, it is 
normally sug- 
gested that no more than eight to 10 




people be directly subordinate to any 
one individual. Often, as in the case of 
retail management when the manager is 
also required to sell, it is best to have 
even less employees directly subordi- 
nate. If there are not enough hours in 
the day to allot time to each task and 
individual, the job will not get done! 



"Putting a 

person who 

doesn't 'fit 9 into a 

position is much 

like trying to 

hammer a nail 

with a saw!" 



Determine the salary range and 
whether or not it is flexible. Flexibility 
of salary is often a primary requirement 
to the most qualified individuals. 

After you answer yes or no to the 
question of flexibility, the program is 
printed out. Be sure to have your printer 
on and ready. If you have any specific 
printer codes for your printer, they go 
in lines 1000 through 1030. 

The space left open for printer codes 
is there for you to develop your own 
formal for the printout. Since there are 
a variety of printers set at various baud 
rates, it is best that you utilize your own 
special codes. If you developed notes 
before running the program, entering 
the data is much easier, and your pre- 
sentation will be much more organized. 

Outline of Management Success 

To maximize use of the printout, you 
should consider these factors: 

A) Did you search out as much infor- 
mation as possible from as many sourc- 
es as possible so that you have a concise 
and well-formulated job description? 



• Did you review the responsibilities of 
the person who formerly held the posi- 
tion, how well he or she accomplished 
the task, in what aspects he or she 
lacked the ability to perform the job and 
why, and, most importantly, what type 
of person (personality) he or she is? 

• Did you discuss with the supervisor 
exactly what the position requires? 

• If you have hired before for the po- 
sition and the individual was not well- 
suited for it, how did you learn from 
your mistakes? 

• When you were listing requirements, 
did you put too much of your own 
biased thoughts and personality into 
each requirement, or did you really try 
to maintain an objective viewpoint? 

• Did you fully research all possible 
aspects of the position? 

B) Did you review the company itself 
from both a reputation standpoint and 
from a company-needs, stage of devel- 
opment standpoint? 

• All companies are in some stage of 
development. Because of their organi- 
zational development, they have differ- 
ent needs at different stages. 

Start-up: To 
survive, a com- 
pany at this stage 
must have strong 
leadership and 
people with a high 
degree of flexibil- 
ity. 

Development: 
The company be- 
gins to define its 
operating mores, structure and roles of 
its employees. Product development 
and sales are emphasized. Crises are 
created because of individual loss of 
autonomy. 

Consolidation: A period in which the 
organization considers its gains and 
losses. It looks into further develop- 
ment while consolidating its present 
position. This period needs strong 
direction. 

Plateau: Little or no change is evi- 
dent. Perhaps no new ideas or proposals 
are generated, or skills are not available. 
If alternate strategies are not developed, 
the company may lose its edge in the 
market. 

Expansion: The company expands 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 107 




-JOB DESCRIPTION- 
POSITION : COPY EDITOR 
REPORTS TO : MANAGING EDITOR 
SALARY RANGE : FLEXIBLE 



STAFF SIZE 



PERSONS 



PARTICULAR DUTIES : 

EDIT SUBMISSIONS AND HAVE TYPESET 

20 HRS./WK. 
PROOFREAD EACH ARTICLE BEFORE PASTE-UP 

10 HRS./WK. 
WRITE INHOUSE COPY (ADS , HEADLINES, ETC.) 

5 HRS./WK. 
ANSWER CORRESPONDENCE/ CALLS 

5 HRS./WK. 
PROOFREAD ARTICLES AFTER PASTE-UP 

10 HRS./WK. 
* Job, as listed, is undoable at 50 hours per week total 

POSITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES : 

HIGH -> EDIT/WRITE COPY FOR EACH ISSUE 
HIGH -> DIRECT COPY THROUGH ALL STAGES OF PRODUCTION 
HIGH -> ENSURE ACCURACY AND STYLE CONFORMITY OF EACH ARTICLE 
MEDIUM -> ASSIST MANAGING EDITOR WITH PRODUCTION TASKS 

We are looking for someone that is most happy working alone 
and does not need a social environment in which to work. 

1 . We want a person that enjoys tackling problems with logic 

is strong on analysis, a methodical worker and good at research. 
Will be good with facts and figures; and, analysis. 

2 . We want someone that enjoys playing with ideas and theories, 
can see the overview, is creative and imaginative. 

Good with long-term planning, lateral thinking and is intuitive. 

3 . We want someone that is good at getting things done, 

enjoys routine work, has common sense, works hard and is practical. 
Good at initiating projects, negotiating, converts ideas/action. 



with development, introduction or 
modification of products, etc., or by 
acquisition. Direction, leadership and 
new ideas are beneficial. 

Declining: Rising costs, outdated 
products, etc., cause the company to 
decline. Flexibility, direction and firing 



excess personnel are imperative or the 
company will be forced out of business. 
• Attracting the highest quality appli- 
cants is imperative. A company's repu- 
tation will often determine the quality 
of its applicants for various positions. 
The better the reputation, the higher 



their quality. If the reputation is not so 
good, perhaps higher salaries or addi- 
tional benefits may bring quality appli- 
cants to your company. Of course, 
having a good reputation at the present 
is not a guarantee for the future. 

Keeping all these factors in mind and 
using them to your best advantage will 
help you build the best possible job 
description on your expectations for the 
position you want to fill. It seems no 
matter how good our systems for hiring 
are, we tend to do no better than about 
50 percent in our success-to-failurc 
ratios. Anything that increases the 
percentage of successes will be benefi- 
cial in time, money and satisfaction. 

Of course, realizing what you and 
your company actually need in a certain 
position is only a beginning. Interview- 
ing, training/developing, motivational 
factors, etc., all play their roles. Creat- 
ing job descriptions only helps you see 
what you need. You have to create your 
own paths. Putting a person who doesn't 
"fit" into a posi- 
tion is much like 
trying to hammer 
nails with a saw! 
Your success ra- 
tios won't be very 
good, there's too 
much effort in- 
volved and it's 
hard on the saw. 

(Questions or 
comments may be directed to the author 
at 42 South Windsor, Atlantic City, NJ 
08401. Please enclose an SASE when 
requesting a reply.) □ 




Editor's Note: This program is written on the Korean CoCo 3. Pokes are used that allow true lowercase 
letters, hut many of the older CoCos do not allow this. For I6K CoCos with Extended Color BASIC, type 
PCLEAR2 before running the program to eliminate difficulties. For the older CoCos, eliminate POKE 
65314,40 and PDKEG5314,4B in the following lines: 170, 280, 330. 500, 560, 910. 920, 1500, 1630, 1650. 
Line 1650 contains two of these pokes. 

Ifip CLS:TITLE$=" -CREATING JOB DE 

SCRIPTION-" : PRINT@2 , TITLE$ 

110 PRINT§96," WHAT IS THE JOB T 

ITLE" : PRINT: INPUT TT$ 

150 CLS:PRINT@2,TITLE$ 

160 PRINT© 12 9, "Overview the posi 

tion and input the number of res 

ponsibilities of the position." 

:PRINT@264, "<MAXIMUM OF NINE>":P 

RINT@384," Think of responsibili 

ty items that must be handled 

on a daily, weekly or mont 

hly basis, -positional-"; 

170 POKE65314,48:I$=INKEY$:IFI$= 



J 










y 


....60 1280 .. 


...184 


V 


170 




280 ... 


...138 1380 .. 


...230 




360 ... 


....77 1530 .. 


...219 




550 


...207 END .. 


...139 




1120 .. 


...132 





The listing: JOB DESC 

1 ' JOB-DESC 

2 ■ LARRY M. PAROUBEK 

3 ' COPYRIGHT (C) 1986 

4 ' ALL RIGHTS RESERVED 
10 CLS:GOSUB1600 
2jd CLEAR1000 



108 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



""THEN170 ELSE IF VAL(I$)<1 OR V 

AL(I$)>9 THEN170 

180 RESPONSIBLE=VAL(I$) 

190 FORX=l TO RE:CLS:PRINT@2 ; TIT 

LE$: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" LIST RESP 

ONSIBILITIES -BE SPECI 

FIC ! -" : PRINT : PRINT : LINEINPUTA$ (X 

) :NEXTX 

200 FORX=l TO RE:CLS:PRINT@34,"R 

ATE RESPONSIBILITIES 1 -9": PRINT 

@66,"9 IS HIGH, 1 IS LOW" :PRINT@ 

256,"* ";A$(X) 

210 PRINT@420,"<INPUT 1 - 9>" 

220 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN220 ELS 

EIF VAL(I$)<1 OR VAL(I$)>9 THENP 

RINT§352," OFF SCALE - TRY AGAIN 

. . . ":GOTO220 ELSE230 

230 A(X)=VAL(I$) :NEXTX 

250 CLS : PRINTS 1, "WHAT TYPE OF PE 

RSONALITY DO YOU FEEL YOU NEED?" 

260 PRINT@128,"1. INTROVERT - MO 

ST HAPPY BY THEMSELVES, DOING 

THEIR OWN THING. . . 
270 PRINT@256,"2. EXTROVERT - IN 
TERACTION WITH OTHERS GIVES THEI 
R LIFE MEANING." 

280 PRINT@420,"<INPUT 1 OR 2>":P 
OKE65314,48 



290 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN290ELSE 
IF VAL(I$)<1 OR VAL(I$)>2THEN2 90 

ELSE PERSON=VAL(I$) 
300 CLS:PRINT@1, "RATING INDIVIDU 
AL'S STRENGTH -WHERE DO YOU NE 
ED THE STRENGTH-" 
310 PRINT@96,"1. THINKER : Good 
with facts andfigures, researchi 
ng, analysis, accounting, etc.": 
PRINT"2. SENSOR : Good at initia 
ting projects, negotiating, con 
verts ideas into action." 
3 20 PRINT" 3. INTUITOR : Good at 
long-term planning, creative wri 
ting, lateral thinking, brai 
nstorming. " ; :PRINT"4. FEELER : G 
ood at cementing relationships 
, counseling, public relati 
ons.":PRINT@481,"<RATE MOST IMPO 
RTANT FIRST>" ; 
330 FORX=l T03:POKE65314,48 
340 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN340 ELS 
EIF VAL(I$)<1 OR VAL(I$)>4 THEN3 
40 ELSE350 

3 50 IF X=l THEN N1=VAL(I$) ELSE 
IFX=2 THEN N2=VAL(I$) ELSEIF X=3 

THEN N3=VAL(I$) 
360 IF X=l THEN390 ELSEIFX=2THEN 



Still keeping the books the way Granc^ajdid? 
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Looking for an easy way to 
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When you're through, Coco- 
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answer the three basic questions 
we all ask about our finances: 
Where did it come from? Where 
did it go? And what can I deduct 
from my taxes? 

Here's what it can do for you: 



o List and total expenses and in- 
come by month. 
& List and total expenses and 
income by account, for any 
month or the whole year. 
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income by payee or income 
source for any month or the 
whole year. 

=> Track, list and summarize tax- 
deductible expenses. 
o Track, list and summarize ex- 
penses subject to sales tax. Even 
calculates total sales tax you 
paid! 

<=• Produce a printed spreadsheet 
showing activity by month and 
account for the whole year! 
<=> Balance your checkbook, of 
course! 

<=• Sort entries by date and store 
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» Up to 900 entries in a single file, 
c Requires 64K CoCo or Coco 3. 




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on tape or disk. Be sure to 
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Federal Hill Software 8134 Scotts Level Rd. Baltimore, Md. 21208. Toll-free orders 800-628-2828 Ext. 850 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 109 



370 ELSE380 

370 IF N2=N1 THEN340 ELSE390 
380 IF N3=N1 OR N3=N2 THEN340 EL 
SE390 

390 TYPE(X)=VAL(I$) :FORY=1504 TO 
1535 : POKEY, 255 :NEXTY: IF X=l THEN 
PRINT@481,"<RATE SECOND MOST IM 
PORTANT>"; ELSEIF X=2 THEN PRINT 
@481,"<RATE THIRD MOST IMPORTANT 

>"; 

400 NEXTX 

450 CLS:PRINT@2,TITLE$:PRINT@72, 
" JOB DUTIES" :PRINT§416," LIST 5 
MAJOR DUTIES THAT YOU FEEL T 
HE POSITION ENTAILS."; :PRINT§103 
, "<maximum of 5>":FORX=l T05:PRI 
NT@162 , "NUMBER " ;X: PRINT: LINEINP 
UT DUTIES$(X) :FORY=1248 T01311:P 
OKEY,143:NEXTY,X 

460 CLS : PRINT@2 , TITLE$ : PRINT@64 , 
" ESTIMATE THE NUMBER OF HOURS 
PER WEEK THAT THE PARTICULAR 
DUTY SHOULD TAKE TO COMPLETE, 
input -integers-"; :FORX=l T05: 
PRINT@ 2 2 5 , DUTIES $ ( X ) : PRINT : INPUT 
DUTIES (X) :FORY= 124 8 T01311:POKE 
Y,143:POKEY+64,143:NEXTY,X 
470 TD=DU(1)+DU(2)+DU(3)+DU(4)+D 
U(5) 

500 CLS:PRINT@2,TITLE$:PRINT@100 
, "REPORTING ARRANGEMENTS" : PRINT@ 
13 2, "SHOULD REPORT TO WHOM?":PRI 
NT: INPUT SUPER$ : CLS : PRINT@2 ,TITL 
E$:PRINT@98, "Is person managemen 
t?":PRINT@134,"<Y>ES OR <N>0" : PO 
KE65314,48 

510 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN510 ELS 
EIFI$="Y"THEN520 ELSEIFI$="N"THE 
N550 ELSE510 

520 PRINT© 3 20, "OVER HOW MANY PEO 
PLE?": PRINT: INPUT MANAGE 
550 CLS:PRINT@2,TITLE$:PRINT@102 
/'SALARY RANGE" :PRINT@130,"<EXAM 
PLE : 25000 - 30000>":PRINT@194, 
"INPUT FIRST NUMBER -> NO $'S";: 
PRINT rlNPUTA: PRINT: PRINT" INPUT 
SECOND NUMBER -> NO $'S";: PRINT 
: INPUTB 

560 SALARY$="$"+STR$(A)+" -"+STR 
$(B) :PRINT@418, "FLEXIBLE ? : <Y> 
ES OR <N>0"; :POKE65314,48 
570 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN570 ELS 
EIF I$="Y" THEN FLEX$="FLEXIBLE 
- YES" ELSEIF I$="N" THEN FLEX$= 
"FLEXIBLE - NO" ELSE570 
900 CLS3:P=PEEK(65314) : IF P=4 OR 

P=48 THEN920 ELSE910 
910 PRINT@260, "please" ;CHR$ (128) 
; "prepare" ; CHR$ ( 128 ) ; "printer" ; : 



POKE653 14 , 48 : FORX=1TO200 : NEXTX: S 

OUND1,1:GOTO900 

920 FORX=l TO12:SOUND160,1: NEXTX 

: PRINT @ 2 60, "PRESS ANY KEY TO PRO 

CEED"; :POKE65314,40:EXEC44539 

1000 'LINES 1000 - 1030 IS SPACE 

PROVIDED FOR YOUR OWN 

PARTICULAR PRINTER CODES. 
1010 'PROGRAM IS WRITTEN FOR 

80 CHARACTER PER LINE 

PRINTOUT . . . 
1020 'USE THIS AREA FOR YOUR 

PRINTER • S BAUD RATE . . . 
1030 'USE THIS AREA FOR ANY 

SPECIAL PRINTER CODES... 
1100 CLS0:PRINT@426, "working"; :P 
OKE65494 ,0 : PRINT#-2 , " 

-JOB DESCRIPTION-" 
1110 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2," P 
OSITION : ";TT$:PRINT#-2:PRINT#- 
2," REPORTS TO : ";SUPER$: 
PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2," SALARY 
RANGE : " ;SALARY$ : PRINT#-2 , " 

";FLEX$ 
1120 IF MANAGE >0 THEN1130 ELSE1 
140 

1130 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2," S 
TAFF SIZE : ";MANAGE;" PERSONS" 
1140 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2," P 
ARTICULAR DUTIES : " 
1150 FORX=l T05:PRINT#-2," 

";DUTIES$(X) :PRIN 
T#-2 " " 

;DUTIES(X);" HRS./WK.": NEXTX 
1160 IF TD>40 THEN PRINT#-2," 

* Job, as listed 
, is undoable at ";TD;" hours pe 
r week total" ELSE1170 
1170 PRINT#-2:PRINT#-2," P 
OSITIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES : ":X 
=0 

1180 X=X+l:IF X>RE THEN1210 ELSE 
1190 
1190 IF A(X) >7 THEN1200 ELSE118 

1200 PRINT#-2," HIGH 

-> ";A$(X) :GOTO1180 
1210 X=0 

1220 X=X+1:IFX>RE THEN1250 ELSE1 
230 

1230 IF A(X) <=7 AND A(X) >4 THE 
N1240 ELSE1220 
1240 PRINT#-2," MEDIUM 

-> ";A$(X) :GOTO1220 
1250 X=0 

12 60 X=X+l:IFX>RE THEN1290 ELSE1 
270 

1270 IF A(X) <=4 AND A(X)>0 THEN 
1280 ELSE1260 



110 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



1280 PRINT#-2," LOW 

-> ";A$(X) :GOTO1260 
1290 X=0:PRINT#-2:IFPERSON=1 THE 
N1300ELSE1310 

1300 PRINT#-2," We are loo 
king for someone that is most ha 
ppy working alone" :PRINT#-2, " 

and does not need a social e 
nvironment in which to work.": PR 
INT#-2:GOTO1320 

1310 PRINT#-2," We are loo 
king for someone that is a peopl 
e person" :PRINT#-2, " whose 
challenge is inter-action with o 
ther people. ":PRINT#-2 
1320 X=X+l:IFX>3 THEN1500 
1330 IF TYPE(X)=1 THEN1340 ELSE1 
3 60 

1340 PRINT#-2," ";X;". We 
want a person that enjoys tackli 
ng problems with logic" :PRINT#-2 
, " is strong on analysis 
, a methodical worker and good a 
t research. ":PRINT#-2," 
Will be good with facts and figu 
res; and, analysis." 
1350 PRINT#-2:GOTO1320 
1360 IF TYPE (X) =2 THEN1370 ELSE1 
390 

1370 PRINT#-2," ";X;". We 
want someone that is good at get 
ting things done, ":PRINT#-2, " 

enjoys routine work, has c 
ommon sense, works hard and is p 
ractical.":PRINT#-2," Go 
od at initiating projects, negot 
iating, converts ideas/action. 
1380 PRINT#-2:GOTO1320 
1390 IF TYPE (X) =3 THEN1400 ELSE1 
420 

1400 PRINT#-2," ";X;". We 
want someone that enjoys playing 

with ideas and theories, ": PRINT 
#-2," can see the overvi 
ew, is creative and imaginative. 
":PRINT#-2," Good with 1 

ong-term planning, lateral think 
ing and is intuitive." 
1410 PRINT#-2:GOTO13 20 
1420 IF TYPE (X) =4 THEN1430 ELSE1 
320 

1430 PRINT* -2," ";X;". We 
want someone that is good at cem 
enting team relationships, " :PRIN 
T#-2," counseling, arbit 
rating, public relations and is 
perceptive . " : PRINT#-2 , " 
Enjoys social contact and can ea 
sily talk with anyone." 



1440 PRINT#-2:GOTO1320 

1500 CLS: PRINT© 65, "Do you wish t 

o print another Job Descripti 

on ?"; :PRINT§260,"<Y>es or <N> 

o"; :P0KE65314,48 

1510 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN1510 E 

LSEIFI$="Y"THEN20 ELSEIFI$="N"TH 

EN1520 ELSE1510 

1520 CLS:PRINT§ 100, "Thank you fo 

r using" :PRINT§164, "Creating a": 

PRINT@2 30 , "JOB DESCRIPTION" : PRIN 

T@330, "by" :PRINT@364, "Larry M. P 

aroubek" : P0KE65314 , 48 : F0RX=1 T08 

:PLAY"T1602V15P16L8AP16L3 2AP3 2FP 

3 2EDEP3 2CP3 2D":NEXTX:PLAY"T801L3 

2CDEGB02DFL1A" 

1530 POKE65494,0:CLS:END 

1600 CLS:FORX=1024 TO1055STEP2 : P 

OKEX ,191: POKEX+1 , 175 : POKEX+4 80 , 1 

75:POKEX+481,191:NEXTX 

1610 FORX=1056TO1472STEP64:POKEX 

, 175 : POKEX+32 , 191 : POKEX+31, 175 : P 

OKEX+63 ,191: NEXTX 

1620 PRINT@ 9 9, "CREATING A";: PRIN 

T@200, "job description" ; :PRINT@ 

295, "BY"; :PRINT@330, "LARRY M. PA 

ROUBEK" ; : PRINT§362 , "COPYRIGHT (C 

) 1986" ;:PRINT@394, "ALL RIGHTS R 

ESERVED" ; 

1630 POKE65314,40 

1640 PLAY"T302V12L8P4AP8AP8AL16D 

FEL8V6P8AP8AP8AL16DFE03V16L8P8AP 

8AP8AL16DFEO1V10L8P8AP8AP8AL16DF 

EP803V18L3 2AP3 2O2AP3 201AP16O3AP3 

202AP3 201AP8L16DF02V2 6L16EE-EE-E 

E-EE-L8.E" 

1650 PRINT@456,"speed poke? Y/N" 

; :POKE65314,48:FORX=l TO40:NEXTX 

:PRINT@456, "SPEED POKE? Y/N";:PO 

KE65314,48:FORX=l TO80:NEXTX 

1660 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=""THEN1650 E 

LSEIFI$="Y"THEN SP=65495 ELSEIF 

I$="N"THEN SP=65494 ELSE1650 

1670 POKESP,0:FORX=1024 T01151:P 

OKEX, 128 : NEXTX :F0RX=1152 T01535: 

A=RND (3)4-176: POKEX , A : NEXTX 

1680 POKE12 20,10:POKE12 21,15:POK 

E1222,2:POKE1225,4:POKE1226,5:PO 

KE1227 , 19 : POKE1228 , 3 : POKE1229 , 18 

: POKE12 30 , 9 : POKE12 3 1 , 16 : POKE1232 

,20:POKE1233,9:POKE1234,15:POKE1 

235,14:POKE1236,19 

1690 POKE1510,16:POKE1511,18:POK 

E1512 , 5 : POKE1513 , 19 : P0KE1514 , 19 : 

P0KE1516,1:P0KE1517,14:P0KE1518, 

25 : POKE1520 , 11 : POKE152 1 , 5 : P0KE15 

22,25:POKE1524,97:EXEC44539 

1700 RETURN 

rift 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 111 



Hom e H e lp 



Keep tax records in order 




y 






an 

By Robert S. Schlottmann 



$ome of you, if you are like me, know very little about 
filling out income tax forms. And what's more, you 
don't want to know very much about it. Trying to fill 
out those IRS forms is about as exciting as sitting in the 
woods and watching a log rot. 

Consequently, every year around tax time I used to gather 
all my cancelled checks, receipts and other pertinent 
information from the previous year and sort it all into 
categories. Then I figured the totals and entered them on 
the form my tax accountant sent me annually, and mailed 
it all to him. Two or three weeks later, he would send me 
the completed forms and I would sign them and send them 
to the IRS. 

This system worked very well for me and saved me a lot 
of mental anguish. All 1 needed to know were the categories 
to use in sorting my records. However, three years ago, to 
make things even easier. 1 started using my Color Computer 
and Tax Info to keep the records. Now I merely enter any 
tax-relevant items at the end of each month and am 
prepared for tax time. 

1 can look at entries by date, name or account, and 
determine what each entry was for. 1 can look at my monthly 
utility bills (since I have an office in the home, I need to 
keep these records, too) and graph them on the screen or 
dump the graph to the printer. I can also very easily retrieve 
the records from previous years for comparison. When tax 
time comes, 1 simply tell the computer that 1 want a printout 
of all accounts, and all the individual entries with their totals 
are printed for each account. I then send the printout to 
my tax accountant. If I am ever questioned by the IRS, I 
will have detailed information about each entry that goes 
into every account total. 

The Programs 

Four programs comprise Tax Info. TRX.BflS, shown in 
Listing 1, is a short BASIC program that sets up the title 
screen, loads in a machine language program, and asks you 
which year's data you want. TRXINFO.XX, Listing 2, is the 
main program, the one used for entering and retrieving data. 
To enter data, it uses a modification of a procedure 



Robert Schlottmann is a professor of psychology at 
Oklahoma Slate University. He uses his Co Co for word 
processing, communicating with a mainframe, and for 
scoring and interpreting psychological tests. 







112 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



32K Disk 




developed by Henry Grace (HOTCoCo, October 1983) that 
creates DATA lines in your program for you. 

SETUP . BflS, Listing 3, is a utility program that allows you 
to set up abbreviations for names, places, accounts and a 
number code (which 1 will explain later). Tax Info was 
designed to be used with REVFIELD.BIN, a machine 
language program developed by Ray Gauvreau (THE 
RAINBOW, August 1983) that provides inverse video (light 
characters on a dark screen). Ray's program also has other 
nice features not implemented by Tax Info that allow you 
to control printing speed and protect part of the screen from 
scrolling. You can avoid using REVFIELD.BIN altogether by 
deleting Line 1 10 in Listing 1 , all POKE 32544+54 statements, 
in Listing 2, and by changing all EXEC commands to CLS. 

System Requirements 

The programs require at least 32K, a disk drive and 
Extended Color BASIC. Although a monitor is not required, 
it displays inverse video better than a TV. You also need an 
Epson-compatible printer. 

To modify the printer control codes for other printers, 
you will need to change the following lines: 200 (UL$ defines 
Gemini's and Epson's underline start code), 2 10 (NU$ defines 
the underline stop code), and 220 (EES defines the ex- 
panded, or large, print code). You will also have to provide 
your own screen dump routine (lines 1640 through 1730) 
for the bar graph. 

Several screen dump programs for a variety of printers 
are available from past issues of THE RAINBOW, including 
one in the May 1985 issue that provides a full-page dump 
for the Gemini and Epson, but is painfully slow. The one 
included in Tax Info is no speed demon and produces a 
smaller graph, but it is several times faster. If you do not 
have an Epson-compatible printer, another alternative is to 
delete the screen dump routine altogether and simply 
replace it with a RETURN statement. 

Getting Set Up 

First, load TAXINFO.XX and edit Line 240 to read 240 
NF\S="???" where ??? is your name. Then save the program 
using 88 in place of XX. In other words, if you are planning 
to enter records for the year 1988, use the last two digits 
as the extension (i.e., TAXINFD.88). If you are entering rec- 
ords from 1987, use 87 as the extension. You should make 
a backup copy and keep a version of TAXINFO.XX as is, 
however, so you can repeat the process the following year 
when the new tax period begins. 




m 



.(.« 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 113 




The Complete RalnboW Guide to OS-9 



Authors Dale Puckett and Peter Dibble show how to 
take advantage of OS-9's multitasking and multiuser 
features. An easy-to-read, step-by-step guide packed 
with hints, tips, tutorials and free software in the form 
of program listings. 

Book $16.95, Disk Package $31 (2 disks, book not 
included) 



SAVE 27%! IllHsks only $36.95 



im 



)W 



Introductory Guide to Statistics 

Dr. Michael Plog and Dr. Norman Stenzel give a solid 
introduction to the realm of statistical processes and 
thinking for both the beginner and the professional. 
(80-column printer required.) 
Book $6.95, Tape or Disk $5.95, 



SAVE 31%! Book and tape or disk only $8.95 





The First Rainlijp;|piK of Adventures 

Contains 14 winning programs from our first Adven- 
ture contest. Includes Sir Randolph of the Moors, 
Horror House, One Room, Dr. Avaloe and more. Plus 
hints, tips on solving Adventures. 
Book $3.50, Tape $3.50 

SAVE 29%! Bpokandjape only $4.95 




The Second RairtfeowBook of Adventures 

Featuring 24 of the most challenging Adventure 
games ever compiled. Meet the Beatles and battle the 
Blue Meanies, find a hidden fortune, or win the heart 
of a mysterious princess. Ring Quest, Secret Agent 
Man, Dark Castle, Curse ot Karos and more! 
Book $13.95, Tape $13.95 

SAVE 36%! WfflgW only $17.95 




m 

The Rainbow Book of Simulations 

20 award-winning entries from THE RAINBOW'S first 
Simulations contest. You are a Civil War Commander, 
an air traffic controller, a civil defense coordinator, or 
a scientist on Mars . . . your wits are on the line. 
Book $9.95, Tape $9.95 

SAVE 40%! Bpokandtape only $11.95 



The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 

The 16 winners from our second Simulations contest. 
Fly through dense African jungle, bull your way down 
Wall Street, lead a bomb squad, or try your hand at 
Olympic events. Test your skills and talents. 
Book $9.95, Tape $9.95, Disk $10.95 

SAVE 35%! Book and tape only $12.95 
SAVE OTlllillsk only $13.95 



The Third Rainbow Book of Adventures 

The excitement continues with 19 new Adventures. 
Discover backstage intrigue at the London Theatre, 
attempt a daring space rescue, or defeat evil in the year 
2091 as a genetic android. Evil Crypt, Spymaster, Time 
Machine, The Amulet, and that's only the beginning! 
Book $11.95, Tape $9.95, Two-Disk Set $14.95 

SAVE 27%! jJM^ape only $15.95 
SAVE 37%! iiiilbk only $16.95 



Name _ 
Address 

City 

State _ 



ZIP 



□ Payment Enclosed, or □ Charge to: 
□ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

Account Number 

Card Expiration Date 

Signature 



S 9.95 _ 
S 9.95 . 
$11.95- 
S 9.95 _ 
$9.95- 
S 10.95 - 
$12.95- 
$13.95 - 
$16.95 S^S- 
$31.00- 
$36.95 - 



□ The Rainbow Book of Simulations (lirsi) 
D Rainbow Simulations Tape(fiisi) 
D First Simulations Package 
D The Second Rainbow Book of Simulations 
D Second Rainbow Simulations Tape 
D Second Rainbow Simulations Disk 
D Second Simulations Package with Tape 
D Second Simulations Package with Disk 

□ The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9 
D Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Disk Set (2 disks) 
D Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Package 

□ The Windows & Applications Disk for 
The Complete Rainbow Guide 
to OS-9 Level II, Vol. I 

D The Rainbow Book of Advenlures (lirst) 
D Rainbow Adventures Tape (lirst) 

□ First Adventure Package 
D The Second Rainbow Book of Adventures 

□ Second Rainbow Advenlures Tape 
D Second Adventure Package 
D The Third Rainbow Book of Advenlures 

□ Third Adventures Tape 

□ Third Adventures Disk Set (2 disks) 
D Third Adventure Package wilh Tape 
D Third Adventure Package wilh Disk 
D Introductory Guide to Statistics 
D Guide to Statistics Tape or Disk (indicate choice) 
D Guide to Statistics Package 

(indicate choice ol lape or disk) $8.95 

Add $1.50 per book Shipping and Handling in U.S. 
Outside U.S., add $4 per book 

Kentucky residents add 5% sales lax 

(Allow 6 to 8 weeks lor delivery) Total 

Mail to: Rainbow Bookshelf, The Falsoft Building, P.O. 
Box 385, Prospect, KY 40059. To order by phone {credit 
card orders only) call (800) 847-0309, 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. 
EST. For other Inquiries call (502) 228-4492. 

Please nole: The tapes and disks ottered by The Rainbow Bookshelf are not stand-alone 
products. That Is, they are Intended to be an adjunct and complement to the books. Even 
it you buy the tape or disk, you will still need the appropriate book. OS-9* is a registered 
trademark ot the Microware Systems Corporation. 



$19.95 _ 
$3.50 %J&- 
$3.50 $^9l_ 
$ 4.95 _ 
$13.95 _ 
$13.95 _ 
$17.95 _ 
$11.95 _ 
$ 9.95 _ 
$14.95 _ 
$15.95 _ 
$16.95 _ 
S 6.95 _ 
$ 5.95 _ 



Next, run SETUP. This program does 
nol use the inverse video procedure 
since you will be accessing disk files 
often. After running SETUP a menu 
appears that provides you with the 
following options: 

1 - Number codes 

2 — Names 

3 —Places 

4 — Accounts 

5 — Taxinfo 

First, select Option I, "Number 
codes," by pressing I and then ENTER. 
Number codes are used when making 
entries for which there is no check 
number. Another menu appears: 

1 — Enter new info 

2 — List entries 

3 — Modify 

To get set up, select Option I, "Enter 
new info." You will be asked for a code 



(respond with a number -- a check 
number, for example). After you enter 
one, you will be asked for the full entry, 
"new entry." For example, I use the 
following entry codes: 000 for deposits, 
001 for cash payment. 002 for travel, 
etc. When prompted for "new entry" I 
would enter "deposits," "cash payment" 
and "travel," etc. 

Let me explain. When entering data 
in Tax Info, the first thing asked for is 
a number. 1 use the code number 000 to 
indicate that the entry refers to a deposit 
that I made to my account from earn- 
ings 1 received from my private practice 
or other sources (such as income re- 
ceived for this article). You should also 
use 000 to indicate deposits since it is the 
only number code that will also give you 
a total. This is helpful in getting a total 
for all deposits regardless of account 
category. 

The code 001 tells me that I paid cash 
for something that is tax-deductible and 





1987 


TAX INFORMATION 






BILL WILLIAMS 




1548 


223 SCHRIB 20.00 


DOCS 


CO-PAYMT FOR PHYSICAL 


1581 


329 WILBUR 10.00 


DOCS 


CO-PAYMT ANNUAL DENTAL FOR BILL 


1713 


809 SCHRIB 5.23 


DOCS 


UNSETTLED 


INS FOR FLU - BILL 


TOTAL 


FOR DOCTORS & DENTISTS IS- 




$35.23 




1503 


115 TAYLOR 13.97 


MEDIC 


PRESC FOR 


BILL 


TOTAL 


FOR HOSPITALS IS- 




$13.97 




1559 


306 BOBC 500.00 


DONATE 


UNITED WAY 


5 


502 WSKY 50.00 


DONATE 


RADIO CONTRIBUTION 


TOTAL 


FOR DONATIONS IS- 




$550.00 




1496 


103 SUSAN 130.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN 


1534 


204 SUSAN 130.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


1557 


303 SUSAN 130.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


159? 


405 SUSAN 140.00 


DAY CAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN W/ INCREASE 


1614 


503 SUSAN 140.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


1647 


603 SUSAN 140.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


1683 


704 SUSAN 140.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


1705 


803 SUSAN 140.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


1761 


902 SUSAN 140.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


1803 


1003 SUSAN 140.00 


DAYCAR 


SALLY AND 


JOHN DAYCARE 


TOTAL 


FOR BIG BIRD DAYCARE IS- 




$1370.00 




3 


402 F-NAT 33.45 


INTINC 


SAVINGS 




3 


705 F-NAT 34.56 


INTINC 


SAVINGS 




3 


1007 F-NAT 37.23 


INTINC 


SAVINGS 




TOTAL 


FOR INTEREST INCOME IS- 




$105.24 




P 


416 UMC 300-00 


MISC 


INCOME FOR SEMINAR 


TOTAL 


FOR MISCELLANEOUS 18- 




$300.00 






Bun 












ma 


- 












liu 


1! 1 k h 


lllll 








h 1 □ tj t w 





that I should look for evidence of this 
transaction among my cash receipts 
instead of searching for a cancelled 
check. The code 002 tells me that the 
following information pertains to travel 
(I'll explain more about this later). The 
code 003 tells me that the following 
information is for reporting interest 
income. The code 004 is for interest 
expense. The code 005 tells me that I 
paid for something with a charge card 
and there is no check number or can- 
celled check for that entry. 

You should decide on your own 
number codes to use. The codes simply 
provide information on any entry for 
which you do not have a cancelled 
check. Note: The only requirement 
other than using 000 for deposits to 
your account is that the code number 
- 1 be reserved to exit from the data 
entry routine. The code -I tells the 
computer that no more entries are to 
follow. 

After each code and the full entry are 
entered, the prompt "Again" will ap- 
pear. You must respond by pressing 
either Y or N and then ENTER. If you 
press Y you can enter additional 
number codes. If you press N, your 
codes will be stored in a file called 
NUMBER. DAT and you will be returned 
to SETUP'S main menu. 

After returning to SETUP'S main 
menu, select Option 2, "Names." At the 
next menu, press I to enter new infor- 
mation. Then you are prompted to enter 
a six-digit maximum code for any 
person, store, company or whatever. 
For example, if you write a check to 
John Smith, you may want to code it 
as JOHNS or something similar. The 
reason for the codes is that Tax Info 
uses CoCo's standard 32-by-16 display, 
and there is only so much that can be 
shown on one line. Tax Info stores these 
codes and the full entry in a file called 
NAMES. DAT that will probably become 
quite lengthy after a couple of years' 
use. 

Option 3 in SETUP'S menu, "Places," 
is for creating code names for cities or 
places you visited that involve tax- 
deductible travel expenses. Your codes 
will be stored in a file called PLA- 
CES. DAT. Option 4, "Accounts," is for 
creating codes for various accounts. 
Some of the codes I use are UTIL for 
utilities, BUSINC for business income, 
INTINC for interest income, etc. If you 
plan to deduct travel expenses, you 
must use BUS. PROF TRAVEL as the full 
entry for your travel code. Type it in 
exactly as I have indicated here. You can 
store a maximum of 40 such codes. 



116 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



2ft TOM MIX COMPANIES 



FLIGHT 16"t • This is the very finesl flight simulation 
program on the market today. Flight 16 will work with 
all color computers. Flies very much like a Cessna 150. 
Is a full instrument aircraft with sound effects and out- 
the-window graphics. As a REAL bonus feature, you may 
design your own airports and flight areas. 

S34.95 

WORLDS OF FLIGHT't ■ A real-time flight simulation 
of a sophisticated ultra-light aircraft which generates 
panoramic 3-D views of ground features as you fly in any 
of nine different "worlds. ' The manual included explains 
the instrument panel, the basis of flight control, etc. For 
the serious simulation buff! 

S30.95 32K 

P51 MUSTANG ATTACK/FLIGHT SIMULATION ' t - The 

ultimate video experience! For the first time ever, two 
CoCo's can be linked together via cable modem. (If play- 
ing via modem, both computers require a copy of ihe 
program.) Or play alone and sharpen your skills against 
a non-combatant computer drone. 
S30.95 32K 

APPROACH CONTROL SIMULATION 1 - "Caught in a 
blinding snowstorm, two jet airliners are on a collision 
course. Hundreds of lives are at stake! A high-speed 
disaster is inevitable unless you act fast. . " This and 
many other scenarios await you as the Air Traffic Con- 
troller. Experience firsthand challenges, frustrations and 
pressures felt by all Air Traffic Controllers! 

S25.95 32K 

THE KING'f - This is a color computer classic! Looks 
and plays like the popular arcade game. Contains the 
same four screens as the original: barrels, pins, jacks, 
and conveyors. Super graphics! 

$25.95 32K 

TRAPFALL't - The "pitfalls" in this game are many. 
Fight your way through the jungle collecting hidden 
treasures as you go. 

S20.95 16K 

KATERPILLAR ll*t - The CoCo has needed a perfect 
centipede-type game since day one. You will throw all 
imitations aside when you see this. 
S20.95 16K 

BUZZARD BAIT't - We've done it again. Outstanding 
high resolution graphics and sound make this "joust" 
type game a must for your software collection. One or 
two players. 
S20.95 32K 

MS. MAZE't - Ms. Maze combines brilliant color, high 
resolution, detailed graphics and music to make it look 
and play like the arcade version. It is the closest thing 
to Ihe arcade Pac games that we've seen for the CoCo! 
Arcade Aces — this one's for you! 
$20.95 32K 

CUBER't - The hazards faced by Cuber are many! Help 
him change the colors of the pyramid while avoiding the 
many dangers always present. 

S20.95 32K 

FANGMAN"t - Based on the Dracula legend, you are 
Dracula, stalking, invading villagers. Several levels of dif- 
ficulty and a Bonus Clock make it fun! 

$20.95 16K 

DRAGON SLAYER* - Save the villagers of Pendor from 
Icarus, the bloodthirsty dragon! He lives in a cave way 
up in the mountains, which is a treasure chest full of gems 
and cashbags. Be on the lookout for enemies and bar- 
riers at all times! Ten levels with sixteen rooms per level; 
over 160 exciting screens. 
$20.95 32K Disk only 

THE SAILOR MAN't - Avoid the punches of the Bigfat- 
badguy and the flying bottles thrown by the Olduglysea- 
woman to rescue Elsie and win her heart! One or two 
players. More great sound and graphics from the author 
of "The King!" 

S25.95 64K 



GOLD FINDER *t - Here's the quality you have come 
to expect from TOM MIX! While avoiding enemies, pick 
up all the pieces of gold along the way; then ride, the 
elevator to the top to solve each level. Sixty-nine levels. 
PLUS now you can create your own levels. 
$20.95 32K Disk only 

DONUT DILEMMA' - Angry Angelo has raided Antonio's 
Donut Factory sending the entire complex into a frenzy! 
Donuts have come alive and all the machines are out 
of control. Hurry! Time is running out! 

S20.95 32K 

NEUTROIDS - Fast-paced action, super graphics and, 
above all else, sound from your CoCo like you've never 
heard before! Complete each grid quickly before the par- 
ticle vault reaches the meltdown state! 

$20.95 16K 

MONEYOPOLY'f - Now you can play the popular board 
game on your color computer! Probably the most realistic 
computer board game simulation ever. Contains all the 
features of the original game. Two to four players. 

$20.95 32K 

BATTLE STATIONS - Here is another realistic and fun 
remake of a popular board game! Place your ships for 
battle and pit your skill, strategy and luck against the cun- 
ning logic of the computer. 

$20.95 32K 



SPECIAL OFFER: 

Order two, take $5.00 off total 
Three or more, take $8.00 off total 



WAREHOUSE MUTANTS *t - Journey through the 
warehouse seeking oul the invading mutants who are 
out to destroy you. Watch out! They will break out of their 
crates and push them at you in the hopes of crushing you! 

$20.95 16K 

DRACONIAN't - Your mission is to destroy all of the 
enemy bases within each sector, rescue as many 
astronauts as possible and dock with the friendly base 
al Ihe top of the sector. Your spaceship can move in eight 
different directions. An exciting program with outstanding 
graphics and sound! 

$20.95 32K 

THE FROG* - Cross the busy highway to the safety of 
the median and rest a while before you set oul across 
the swollen river teaming with hidden hazards. Super 
graphics and sound. 

$20.95 16K 

THE MARTIAN CRYPT* - A graphic adventure with 
sound effects and over 30 screens of animated hi-res 
graphic's! Man discovers that life once existed on Mars! 

$20.95 32K 

VEGAS SLOTS - CoCo III Only - Seven ol the most 
popular slot machine games found in Vegas are yours 
for the price of one; MulliBars, Fruit MultiBars, Right- 
Left/Left-Right, Lucky Dollar, Melons and Bars, Fruit and 
Bar 5. Designed to be as real as being there. One of the 
most outstanding programs we have ever offered. 
$29.95 Disk only 

VIDEO CARDS & KENO - CoCo III Only - Play Video 
Poker, Jokers Wild, Blackjack, and Keno. These games 
are so real you expect to see Wayne Newton walk by! 
Outstanding graphics and movement. Wanna Bet? 

$29.95 Disk only 

VEGAS GAME PAK*t - Now you can bring Las Vegas 
home with you! This package contains six different 
games; Video Keno, Video Poker, and Video Blackjack, 
plus three slot machine lookalikes, Bar 5, 3 Line, and 
Right/Left. 

$24.95 16K 



elec'TRON't - Patterned after the popular arcade game, 
there are four men on your team and four subgames to 
complete. 

$20.95 16K 

THE WILD WEST - CoCo III Only - The notorious 
desperado Black Bart has escaped Irom jail and is on 
his way to Dry Gulch to recover his hidden fortune. Can 
you capture him? Four voice music and sound effects 
and a vocabulary of over 100 words! 
$20.95 Disk only 

WIZARD'S DEN* - Another of our outstanding graphic 
adventures! You must recover the Gem of Damocles, 
stolen by the Evil Wizard. His magic is strong and he 
can make you see things that don't exist! 
S20.95 64K Disk only 

LUNCHTIME't - Your chef, Peter Pepper, is surround- 
ed! Dodge pickles, hot dogs and eggs while building ham- 
burgers. Fast paced action for either one or two players. 

$19.95 32K 

BREWMASTER't - Move along the end of the bars ser- 
ving beers to your thirsty customers, but watch out for 
(ailing glasses and rowdy customers! 

$15.95 32K 

MAUI VICE*t - Step into the shoes of Crock and Bubbs 
in this graphic adventure and gather evidence. A new 
story generated each time you play! 

S20.95 64K extended basic, Disk only 

CHAMBERS *t - Loosely based on Cosmic Chasm, in 
each level you must destroy all of the evil creatures. In 
all there are 20 series of chambers with 20-35 intercon- 
nected rooms. 
$15.95 32K 

FOURCUBE't - Fourcube is a 3-dimensional extension 
of standard tictactoe. Be the first to get four cells of your 
color in a straight line. 

S15.95 32K 

QUIX't - Fashioned after a popular arcade game with 
a similar name, it is simply frustrating. Fill in the screen 
without the Quix's, sparklers or wicks touching you! 

$19.95 32K 

CO CO CROSSWORDS* - Attention all crossword puz- 
zle addicts! Now you can solve them on your color com- 
puter! Master set contains 27 puzzles with lour levels of 
difficulty. 

$19.95 32K Disk only 

Each additional set S9.95; Sets #2, #3, and #4 available. 

GOLD RUNNER" - Travel the maze in your never-ending 
search for gold, but be careful! Clear the first screen and 
32 more await youl 

S15.95 64K 

TEACHERS DATABASE II* - Allows teachers to keep 
computerized files of students. • Up to 100 students, 24 
items per student • Statistical analysis of scores • Grades 
can be weighed, averaged, percenfaged • Test resull 
graphs/grade distribution charts 
$59.95 64K TDBII Disk Only 

$42.95 32K TDB 

More educational software available. 

TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 201 

Ada, Michigan 49301 

616/676-8172 

• Specify tape or disk when ordering 

• Add $3.00 postage/handling 

• Ml residents add 4% sales tax 



1"^"""""/^ — ^M 


[master charge] 


^ '^ M 




• CoCo 1, 2, 3 compatible 
t Joystick required 

Write for free catalog 



These codes will be stored in a file called 
ACCOUNTS. DAT. Option 5, "Taxinfo," 
allows you to go straight from the 
SETUP menu to TAXINFO. 

Should you need to modify any of 
your codes, select the appropriate op- 
tion from SETUP'S main menu (e.g., 
"Accounts," if an account code is to be 
changed), and then select Option 2, 
"List entries," from SETUP'S second 
menu. Each entry you made previously 
was assigned a record number, and you 
need to list the entries to determine 
which record number you will need; 
these record numbers will be displayed 
with the listing. Press ENTER to scroll 
through the list. You will be returned to 
SETUP'S first menu when you have 
reached the end of the scroll and press 



ENTER again. Select the "Accounts" 
option again. Then select Option 3, 
"Modify," from SETUP'S second menu 
in order to change the record. Enter the 
record number you want. You will be 
told to enter the new code and the full 
entry, and the change will be made and 
stored on disk. 

Running TAXINFO 

With your disk in Drive 0, simply 
type RUN "TAX" and press ENTER. You 
will see a title screen displayed, which 
will disappear in a couple of seconds. 
You will then be asked to enter the year 
you want. Remember to enter the last 
two digits only (e.g., B7). As you will 
recall, you made some changes in TAX- 
INFO. XX and saved it as TAXINFO. 88 



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ABCDEFabcdef 0123 
QBCDEFabcdef 0X23 

ABCDEFabcdef 0123 
ABCDEFabcdef 0123 
iSmetf] 

ABCDEFabcdef 0123 
ABCDEF abcdef012Z 

ABCDEFabcdef 01 23 
ABCDEF abcdef 0! 23 

ABCDEFabcdef 0123 
ABCDEFabcdef 0? 23 




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SPECS: 144 cps Draft, 36 cps NLQ, Italics Sub & Superscript! 

Emphasized, Doubteslrike, Proportional. Condensed. 

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The NX-1000 gives you plenty ol print options lor attractive 
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SYSTEM INCLUDES: ^ 

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Software Support Trio CHMPl FTP 



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TYPE 

SELECTION/ 

TUTORIAL 

Online instructional program 
thai will select 24 special lealures 
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DAYTON ASSOCIATES ffi, INC. 

7201 CLAIRCREST, BLDG. D 

DAYTON, OHIO 45424 

OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX • C.O.D. ADD $2.00 



PERSONAL SERVICE 

(513)236-1454 

Visa & MasterCard 
within the continental U.S. 



118 



(or 87, depending on the year you are 
working on). You will then be asked to 
wait while the program reads in your 
codes from the account category you 
just created using SETUP (if you did not 
run SETUP first and create at least one 
account code, you will get an IE Error). 
Also, since SETUP stores all informa- 
tion as a direct access file, unnecessary 
spaces at the end of each string will be 
eliminated when Tax Info reads them 
in; this will make your later printouts 
look much nicer. After a few seconds, 
the main menu appears. Here are your 
options: 

1 —Add 

2 —Codes 

3 — Number 

4 —Date 

5 — Name 

6 — Account 

7 — Bar Graph 

8 — Search 

9 —Load 

10 — Setup 

If you select Option l, "Add," you 
will again be asked to wait, because 
BASIC will be moving the variable table 
into high memory to make room for 
DATA statements. It will also find the last 
line of the program, which is DATA-1 
(the number -I indicates the last data 
entry), and blank it out. The screen will 
then clear, and you will see at the top 
of the screen the statement "Space=2 1 2" 
indicating how many entries you will be 
able to make. If you need to make more 
than 212 entries, change the PCLEAR 4 
to PCLEAR 1 in Line 20. Everything 
should work as usual except that you 
will get an OM Error if you try to select 
the Bar Graph option — that's the 
tradeoff for more memory. However, it 
will allow you to make 285 entries 
instead of only 212. I have not found a 
need for more than 2 1 2 entries per year, 
but someone with a more complicated 
situation might appreciate the extra 
memory. 

You will also be asked to indicate the 
number for the entry. As mentioned 
earlier, this will usually be a check 
number, but it could be one of your 
code numbers. Next you will be asked 
for the date, which must be given as a 
four-digit number, such as 0106 for 
January 6, or 1017 for October 17, and 
so forth. Then you will be asked to enter 
a name. You should enter the code name 
for the person you paid (or who paid 
you, as the case may be). You will next 
be asked to indicate the amount (e.g., 
65.34 for $65.34) and then the account. 
Remember to enter your code for the 
account (e.g., DOCS for doctors and 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



dentists). Next, you will be asked for a 
comment. This can be anything you 
like; 1 usually enter some explanation of 
what the entry was for. The comment 
should not exceed 32 characters. Lastly, 
you will be asked whether you want to 
make changes. If you select Y you will 
be given the opportunity to start over 
on that entry. 

If you forget what your code is while 
you are entering numbers, names, plac- 
es, or accounts, just enter the word 
CODES. You will be presented with a 
Codes menu that asks you which code 
you want. If you select "Names," your 
codes and the full entries will appear on 
the screen. At the bottom of the screen, 
you will be asked to make your selection 
now that your memory has been re- 
freshed. You can do the same thing for 
number codes, accounts and places. 

After you have made all your entries, 
simply type -1 when you are asked to 
input a number and the last DATA line 
will once again be DATfl-1. You will be 
prompted to enter a two-digit number 
for year, and your changes will be saved 
to disk. You then will be returned to the 
main menu. 

If you select Option 2, "Codes," from 
the main menu, you will be presented 
with the Codes menu as mentioned 
above. It can be accessed either from the 
main menu or from within the Add 
routine. 

Selecting Option 3, "Number," from 
the main menu allows you to search for 
a specific check by number. It is the only 
way to list your comments for the entry, 
other than getting a hard copy on the 
printer. If you select one of your number 
codes instead of a check number, all 
entries with similar numbers will be 
listed. If you used 000, as I suggested 
earlier, to indicate deposits into your 
account, you will also get a total. 

Selecting Option 4, "Date," will allow 
you to list all entries within a time 
period. It will ask you for a beginning 
date and an ending date, and all entries 
with dates between the two will be 
listed. Remember that the format for 
entering dates is a four-digit number 
indicating month and day (e.g., 072 1 for 
July 21). 

Option 5, "Name," allows you to list 
all entries by name. If you want to see 
how much you paid your physician, Dr. 
Kuttum. simply enter your code for his 
name exactly. You will be asked whether 
money was received from or paid to 
him. After that, all entries and the total 
will be listed. 

Option 6, "Account," lets you get a 
listing of all entries by type of account 



and gives you a total. It also lets you 
print the results to your printer or to the 
screen. When the program asks for the 
account, enter your code for the ac- 
count you want. You may also enter 
ALL, and all of your entries for the year 
will be printed, either to the screen or 
to the printer, for each account. This is 
the routine you would use at tax time 
when you need all of your information 
to forward to your tax accountant. 

Incidentally, the printer routine as- 
sumes you will be printing at 600 baud. 
If you want to print at a faster rate, 
simply type POKE 150,. v, where x is 7 
for 4800 baud or I for 9600 baud, before 
you run the program. And your serial- 
to-parallel interface, if you have one, 
should be set accordingly. If you have 



the results printed to the screen instead 
of to the printer, each entry will be listed 
for the first account, a total will be 
given, and after a couple of seconds the 
screen will clear for the next account, 
and so on. 

The "Bar Graph" option, Option 7, 
allows you to see graphically any pay- 
ment that is made monthly. For exam- 
ple, if you want to see a plot of your 
monthly electricity bill, enter the code 
name for your electrical company. The 
program will not produce a graph of 
entries by account, only by name. If you 
enter the name of a company or person 
that you pay on pay periods other than 
a monthly basis, the label on the X axis, 
"month," will be inappropriate. Since 
the graph is intended only for bills paid 




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DAYTON ASSOCIATES ffi,INC. 

7201 CLAIRCREST, BLDG. D 

DAYTON, OHIO 45424 

OHIO RESIDENTS ADD 6% SALES TAX • C.O.D. ADD $2.00 



PERSONAL SERVICE 
(513)236-1454 

Visa & MaslcrCard 
within the conlinental U.S. 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 119 



monthly, it will plot only 12 entries 
without going completely off the graph. 
Also, entries greater than $300 will 
result in an "Entry Too Large" message. 

To proceed, press ENTER. You will be 
asked if you want a screen dump of the 
graph. If so, simply press Y. If the 
printer is not turned on, you will be 
prompted to turn it on. 

Option 8, "Search," enables you to 
find the line numbers where certain 
strings are located. You can use BASIC'S 
editing commands to make changes or 
correct errors. Note, however, that the 
Search routine assumes that DATA lines 
begin in Line 10001. If you renumber 
the program, it will not work properly. 

Option 9, "Load," allows you to 
reexamine data from previous years. 
Since I have been using the program for 
three years, I sometimes enter 84 or 85 
to review the data from those years for 
comparison. 

The last option, Option 10, "Setup," 
allows you to go directly to the SETUP 
program. This is useful if you have just 
entered new data and created new 
codes. You probably will want to store 
the new data and codes using SETUP so 
you can recall them at a later date. 

Travel 

If you deduct travel expenses, Tax 
Info will let you record your trips. After 
selecting "Add" from the main menu, 
you will be asked to enter a number. 
Simply enter your code number for 
travel. Then, when asked for the name, 
enter the code for the place you visited. 
When asked for the amount, enter miles 
driven. When asked for the account, use 
your code for travel. Remember, in 
setting things up, you must use BUS-' 
PROF TRAVEL as the full entry for your 
travel code. Type it in exactly as I have 
it. Do not use periods or change the way 
in which it is presented here. 



When I enter comments, I try to 
squeeze in odometer readings from 
before and after the trip as well as a very 
brief explanation of what the trip was 
for. Remember that the comments 
should not exceed 32 characters in 
length. 

Starting a New Year 

When you want to start over with a 
new year, simply run the TAX.BA5 
program. Enter XX for the year. Then, 
after you have entered data, save it 
(Option 8) with the appropriate two- 
digit number for the year. Another way 
of starting a new year is to edit TAX- 
INFO. 87 (or 8G) directly. Delete all 
entries from Line 10001 on (unless you 
renumber the program, all entries start 
at this line). If you edit the program 
directly, make absolutely certain that 
you enter a new Line 10001 that has 
DATA-1. This must always be the very 
last line of the program. The second 
method of starting a new year would be 
useful if you somehow deleted TAX- 
INFO. XX from the disk. 

If you have 40 or nearly 40 accounts, 
it is possible you may get an OM Error. 
To avoid this possibility, try to make 
your accounts (the full names) as short 
as possible. 

If you press BREAK while running 
Tax Info and then start the program 
over, you will get some strange results 
when printing out all the information. 
More specifically, the printout will say 
19DA TAX INFORMATION instead of 
using the proper two-digit number for 
year. This is because the program gets 
the year by peeking two locations to get 
the first two characters of the extension 
of the last file loaded (see Line 30). By 
breaking and reentering, the last file 
loaded will be the ACCOUNTS.DAT file, 
and the first two characters of the 



extension will be DA instead of the year. 

If you break from the program, you 
will see only IN 240 (or whatever line 
number was involved) instead of the 
usual message BREAK IN 240. REV- 
FIELD is responsible for this, and other- 
wise does no harm. 

If you list the directory, you will 
notice that Tax Info takes up nine 
granules of space whether entries have 
been made or not. The reason is that the 
program moves the variable table into 
high memory the first time it is run, 
making room for your DATA statements. 
Entries are simply made into the space 
that has already been created. 

Things to Remember 

At the risk of sounding repetitious, 
there are several things you need to 
remember: 

1. Use 000 as your code number for 
deposits. 

2. Use -I as your code number to exit 
from "Add." 

3. Use BUS'PROF TRAVEL as your full 
entry for your travel code. 

4. While making entries in the "Add" 
routine, type the word CODES if 
you need to review your codes for 
number, name, place or account. 

5. While in the "Accounts" routine, if 
you are asked what account you 
want, you may enter ALL to get a 
listing of all entries by account 
category. 

6. Save your entries immediately 
after exiting the "Add" routine to 
make sure you do not forget. 

7. The "Load" and "Setup" options 
in the Tax Info main menu are 
destructive and will wipe out your 



Ct-f 



€=omr-i-fc In-f oi-mat i on Sy* 



Manage your checking account(s) with CAIS . Keep track of deposits, checks, ATM 

withdrawals and other account transactions. Define up to 36 categories to monitor 

expenses. Set up automatic transactions -for such items as direct deposits cr 

pr e-author i red deductions. Balance your acCDUnt(s) in minutes! Dther features 

include multi-drive capability, display and print options, history purge and more. 



Requires 1 disk drive (f^TM 
Printer is optional RAINBOW 

CoCo 3 compatible 



CC*T*ICATIOh 



After Five Software 
P.O. Box 210975 
Columbia, BC 29221-0975 
(803) 7B8-5995 



Send check or M.0. for 

$34.95 plus $3.00 S/H. 

COD orders: add $1.00. 

(SC res. add 57. sales tax) 



Special ntw year's offer! Order before February 1, 1988 for only $24.95, 



120 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



entries if you have not saved them. 
You must have at least one entry 
in ACCOUNTS. DOT before running 
TflX.BRS or you will get an IE 
Error. 



9. 11 the program bombs, you may 
type GOTO 270 to return to the 
main menu without losing any 
entered data that has not yet been 
saved. 



(Questions or comments regarding 
this program may be directed to the 
author at 223 S. Edna St., Stillwater, 
OK 74075. Please enclose an SASE 
when requesting a reply.) □ 



Editor's Note: The program REVFIELD.BIN, from 
August 1983, will he included on this month's 
RAINBOW -ONTAPEand RAINBOW ON DISK. To transfer 
the file from tape to disk, first enter CLEAR 
200^32543, then enter CLOADfTREVFIELD". Then 
type 5AVEM"REVFIELD.BIN",&H?F20,&H?FDF, 
&H7F20. 

Listing IrTflX.BAS 

10 CLS 

20 FOR X=l TO 68 

30 READ YrPOKE 1024+Y,12 8 

40 NEXT X 

50 FOR X=1T07:READ Y: POKE1024+Y, 

139: NEXT 

60 FOR X=1T07: READY : POKE1024+Y, 1 

41:NEXT:POKE1132,142:POKE1225,14 

2:POKE1165,13 5:POKE12 58,135 

70 PRINT@332,"(C) 1985" ; : PRINT@3 

90 , "ROBERT S . SCHLOTTMANN" ; : PRIN 

T@424,"223 S. EDNA ST. " ; : PRINT§4 

54 /'STILLWATER, OK 74075"; 

80 FOR 1=1 TO 800:NEXTI 

100 CLEAR 200,32 543 

110 LOADM"REVFIELD/BIN" : EXEC 

120 PRINT@2 66, "ENTER YEAR" : PRINT 

@295,"(LAST 2 DIGITS)" 

130 INPUT A$ 

140 B$="TAXINFO"+CHR$(47)+A$ 

150 LOAD B$,R 

160 DATA97,98,99,101,102,103,105 

,124,125,126 

,109,111,113,117,119,120,121,12 3 



170 
145 
166 
184 
180 
209 
231 
252 
190 
244 
200 
205 



DATA130,13 3,13 5,138,140,143, 
,146,149,151,155,158,162,165, 
,167,171,175,177,179,181,183, 
,187,190 

DATA194 , 197 , 199 , 202 , 204 , 207 , 
,212,213,215,219,222,22 6,229, 
,233,237,239,241,245,247,251, 
,253,254 

DATA13 7,170,178,203,211,23 6, 

DATA106 , 114 , 139 , 147 , 172 , 180 , 



_/■ 






1 f 


...223 1390 .. 


...147 


\/fl40 ... 


1 350. 


...126 1560 .. 
...104 1800 .. 


62 
...176 


570 ... 


840 


....79 2040 .. 


....29 


1020 .. 


....74 2375 .. 


...136 


1190 


...216 END .-. 


.28 



Listing 2: TAXINF0.XX 

10 POKE 27, 118: POKE 28,00 

20 EXEC: CLEAR 1000 : PCLEAR4 : DIMC$ 

(80) 

30 EX$=CHR$(PEEK(2 388) )+CHR$(PEE 

K(2389) ) 

40 OPEN"D" , #1, "ACCOUNTS/DAT" , 32 : 

RN=0 

50 FIELD#1,10 AS A$ , 22 AS B$ 



DMC "No Halt" Disk Controller 



CoCo 3 ^^^B 




Did you know? 

. . .thai all Ihe older (loppy disk controllers lor the 
CoCo completely tie up land even halt) the 6809 pro- 
cessor during dish reads and writes? No wonder 
your keyboard is constantly "losing" characters! Or 
that your serial port otten gives you garbage. 



Unleash your CoCo's potential! 

Our new Dual Mode Controller (DMC) Implements a new 
"no hall" mode of operation so it can read Irom or wrile 
to disk all by itself. The 6809 is freed to process other 
tasks and respond to Interrupts. This Is how OS-9 was 
meant lo run! Bui the Radio Shack •halt" mode of 
operation is also retained to maintain lull compatibility 
with existing non-OS-9 software. 

Fr«»l Disk caching software included can speed up 
OS-9 disk accesses. 



W T£<HNOLOOI£< 

2261 East 11th Ave., Vancouver, B.C., Canada V5N 1Z7 



Other DMC features: 

• works with original CoCo, CoCo 2, or CoCo 3 
(Multi-Pak required) 

• no adjustments — all-digital data sepaiator and write 
precompensation 

• gold plated card-edge connectors tor reliability 

• ROM socket takes 24 pin or 28 pin chip; dual DOS capability 

• Radio Shack DOS 1.1 ROM installed 

• 8K bytes cache memory on board (32K optional) 

• D.P Johnson's SDISK package (specialty modified tor DMC! is 
included at no charge (S30 value) 

• aluminum case 

' fully assembled and tested; 120 day limited warranty 

To ord.r: DMC controller with RSDOS 1.1 and SDISK (specily 
OS-9 Level I or II) $149.50 plus $5 S/H ($12 overseas). Add $16 
lor 32K RAM option. Terms (prices in $US), check, money 
order, VISA. U.S.A. orders shippod via UPS Irom WA state. 



(Also ask aboul our ST-2900 
6809 based expandable 
single board computer) 

(604) 255-4485 (Pacitic Time) 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 121 



WE'RE BRINGING THE COCO 



RAINBOW'S 
BROADENING ITS 
SPECTRUM 

the rainbow and the Delphi Infor- 
mation Utility have joined together 
to allow CoCo owners all over the 
world to connect with one another! 

Delphi is a full-service information 
utility. It offers everything from up- 
to-the-minute news stories from Thi 
Associated Press to electronic mail 
services. But, best of all, it now has 
a special forum for Color Computer 
owners, and it's operated by the 
people who bring you the rainbow 
each month. 

The CoCo Special Interest Group 
(SIG) features a variety of services, 
including an open forum where you 
can send and receive messages 
from Color Computer owners all 
over the world. It also has several 
databases to which you can upload 
your favorite programs and from 
which you can download programs 
written by other CoCo enthusiasts. 
Some of these databases are basic 
programming, OS-9 and home ap- 
plications. 

When setting up your account with 
Delphi, if you do not have a credit 
card or prefer not to use it, Delphi 
requires that you send $25 to give 
your account a positive balance. 
This will be refunded after your first 
free hour if you choose to no longer 
use the system or it will be applied 
to future connect charges. If you do 
not maintain a positive balance, you 
will be charged $3.50 each month 
for direct billing. 



PEEK INTO THE 
RAINBOW 

The CoCo SIG's conference feature 
allows you to meet electronically 
with other members of the CoCo 
Community. You can join conferen- 
ces with notables such as Dale 
Puckett, Cray Augsburg, Marty 
Goodman, Don Hutchison, Jim 
Reed, Lonnie Falk and others — on 
a regular basis. Conference sched- 
ules will appear in the rainbow 
each month. Be sure to check online 
announcements for changes and 
additions. 

THE OTHER SIDE 
OF THE RAINBOW 

On Delphi, you also are able to buy 
rainbow on tape — order a whole 
set, or download an individual pro- 
gram immediately. You can also 
renew your rainbow subscription, 
make a fast and easy order for soft- 
ware or hardware from a multitude 
of vendors, or inquire about prod- 
ucts on the CoCo SIG. 

We also have a number of programs 
that you can download and use, just 
for the cost of the time you spend 
transferring them. There'll also be 
corrections for rainbow articles, 
helpful hints and many other useful 
features. 



FREE LIFETIME 
MEMBERSHIP 

the rainbow is offering subscribers 
a free lifetime subscription to Delphi 

— a $24.95 value — and a free hour 
of connect time — a $7.20 value at 
either 300, 1200 or 2400 Baud — so 
you can sample Delphi and the rain- 
bow CoCo SIG. That's right. Your 
subscription to the rainbow entitles 
you to this $32.15 value as a free 
bonus! 

If you're not a rainbow subscriber, 

just enter your order when you sign 
on with Delphi and you'll get the 
same great deal! For our $31 sub- 
scription fee, you'll get the finest 
Color Computer magazine ever, a 
free lifetime subscription to Delphi 
and a free hour of connect time. 

SAVE EVEN MORE 

Want to save even more? While 
you're online you can order, for only 
$29.95, a deluxe package which in- 
cludes the Delphi membership, the 
Delphi Handbook and Command 
Card ($21.95) and a total of three 
hours of connect time ($21.60). 

Delphi provides us all with 
Immediate CoCo Community. 

Check it out today. After all, you can 
sample it for free! 



Problems? Call Delphi: 
(800) 544-4005 
(617)491-3393 



DELPHI 



TYPE: 

GROUP COCO 



COMMUNITY TOGETHER 



How to reach RAINBOW'S Color Computer SIG . . . 



There are several ways to connect to Delphi and THE 
Rainbow's CoCo SIG. In most cities you will not even have 
to pay long distance charges; you can use special data 
communications networks like Telenet, Tymnet and the 
Canadian Datapac network. 

First, set your terminal program to operate at either 300 
or 1200 Baud (depending on the modem you have), and 
also select either 7 bits with even parity or 8 bits with no 
parity, and one stop bit. (If one combination doesn't work, 
try another.) 

Decide which network you should use. There is no 
surcharge for Telenet or Tymnet. Canadian residents using 
Datapac will be charged an additional $10.80 (U.S.) per 
hour. 

On Telenet: Uninet network has merged with Telenet. 
To get the Telenet number for your area, call (800) 336- 
0437. After you call the local access number and make 
connection, press ENTER twice. When the "TERMINAL=" 
prompt appears, press ENTER again. When the "@" prompt 
appears, type C DELPHI and press enter. 

On Tymnet: Call (800) 336-0149 to get the Tymnet 
number for your area. After you dial your designated 
number and connect, you will see either "garbage" or a 
message saying "please type your terminal identifier." At 
this point, even if the screen is garbled, simply press 'A'. 
When "please log in:" appears, type DELPHI and press 
ENTER. 

From Canada (on Datapac): Call Delphi Customer 
Service at (617) 491-3393 to get the Datapac number for 
your area. After you connect, press the period key (.) and 
ENTER (use two periods if you're using 1200 Baud). Type 
SET 2:1, 3:12G and press ENTER. Now type p 1 3106, 
DELPHI ; and press ENTER. Delphi's new rates indicate an 
additional $10.80 hourly surcharge for evening use of 
Datapac, which means a total of $18 (U.S.) for connect 
time. 

From other countries: Many countries have their own 
data networks that can connect to either Telenet or 
Tymnet. Check with the telephone authorities in your 
country for details on how to sign up for this service. When 
you have an account set up, you can reach Delphi with 
a "host code" of 3110 6170 3088 through Telenet, or 3106 
90 6015 through Tymnet. (You'll have to pay the toll 
charges for this connection.) 
Type in Your Username 

If you're already a subscriber to the rainbow, at the 



"USERNAME:" prompt, type JDINDELPHI and press 
ENTER. At the "PASSWORD:" prompt, type RAINBOW. 
Then, at the "NUMBER:" prompt, type your individual 
subscription number from the mailing label of your latest 
issue of THE rainbow. (If there are one or more zeros at 
the beginning of this number, include them.) 

If you don't already have a subscription, at the "USER- 
NAME:" prompt, type JDINDELPHI and press enter. At 
the"PASSWORD:"prompt, type SENDRAINBOW and press 
ENTER. Have your MasterCard, VISA or American 
Express card ready, because you'll be led through a series 
of questions that will enable us to put your RAINBOW and 
Delphi subscriptions into effect. In an effort to hold down 
non-editorial costs, we do not bill for subscriptions. 

If you make a typing error, just use Control-X and start 
over. Remember that at any point, when you're on Delphi, 
you can type HELP to get help on how to use the system. 
To get off the system just type BYE. 

If you find that you're unable to log on to Delphi and 
enter the CoCo SIG after following these instructions, call 
us during afternoon business hours at (502) 228-4492. We'll 
be glad to offer assistance. 

Come Visit Us! Type: GROUP COCO 

After you sign in, you'll be prompted to set up your own, 
personal "user name" — Delphi is a friendly service, no 
numbers to remember — and you'll be asked a number 
of questions so Delphi can set up your account. You'll also 
be assigned a temporary password. 

Delphi will tell you that your account will be ready after 
6 p.m. the same day if you sign up before noon (Eastern 
time zone.) If not, your account will be ready at 6 p.m. 
the next day. Once an account is verified and opened, each 
RAINBOW subscriber will be credited with an hour of free 
lime! 

When you log back in, use your chosen username and 
your temporary password to access the system. At that 
point, you will meet Max, who will help you configure 
things and will change your temporary password into your 
own personal password. This is the password you will use 
for subsequent sessions — or until you change it. 

After Max bids you goodbye, you'll wind up at the 
Delphi Main Menu; type in GROUP C0CD and join us on 
the CoCo SIG! 



60 FOR X=l TO 80 STEP2 : RN=RN+1 : G 

ET#1,RN:C$(X)=A$:C$(X+1)=B$ 

70 IF LOF(l)=RN THEN 90 

80 NEXTX 

90 CLOSE#l 

100 PRINT@266, "PLEASE WAIT"; 

lip FOR X=1T0 RN*2 

120 FOR Y=l TO 22 

130 A$=RIGHT$(C$(X) ,1) 

140 F=LEN(C$(X) )-l 

150 IF A$<>" " THEN 180 

160 IF A$=" " THEN C$ (X) =LEFT$ (C 

$(X),F) 

170 NEXT Y 

180 NEXT X 

200 UL$=CHR$(27)+CHR$(45)+CHR$(1 

) 

210 NU$=CHR$(27)+CHR$(45)+CHR$(0 

) 

220 EE$=CHR$(14) 

230 TA$="19"+EX$+" TAX INFORMATI 

ON" 

240 NA$="PUT YOUR NAME HERE ON L 

INE 240" 

250 GOTO 270 

2 60 INPUT "IF YOU WANT TO CONTIN 
UE, PRESS <ENTER>"; 
K 

270 POKE32544+54,0:EXEC 

280 PRINT@9,"*** MENU ***" 

290 PRINT@64,"1-ADD" 

300 PRINT@128,"2-CODES" 

310 PRINT §19 2, "3 -NUMBER" 

320 PRINT@256,"4-DATE" 

330 PRINT@3 20,"5-NAME" 

340 PRINT@85,"6-ACCOUNT" 

350 PRINT @ 14 9, "7 -BAR GRAPH" 

360 PRINT@213,"8-SEARCH" 

370 PRINT@277,"9-LOAD" 

3 80 PRINT? 3 40, "10 -SETUP" 

390 PRINT@421, "SELECTION (1-8)"; 

: INPUT N 

400 ON N GOSUB 2030,1800,420,580 

,700,870,12 70,24 60,2400,2440 

410 GOTO 2 60 

420 EXEC: INPUT "ENTER NUMBER" ;G 

4 30 T=0:L=0 
440 RESTORE 
450 READ C 

460 IF C=-l THEN 540 ELSE 470 

470 READ D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 

480 IF L>=448 THEN A$=INKEY$:IF 

A$="" THEN 480 

490 IF L>=448 THEN EXEC:L=0 

500 IF G=C THEN GOSUB 1780: PRINT 

CM$:L=L+32 

510 IF G<=5 AND G=C THEN T=T+A:L 



=L+32 

520 IF G>5 AND G=C THEN L=L+3 2 

530 GOTO 450 

540 PRINT 

550 IF G<=5 THEN PRINT "TOTAL=" ; 

T 

560 PRINT 

570 RETURN 

580 EXEC: INPUT "BEGINNING DATE"; 

W 

590 INPUT "ENDING DATE";Y 

600 EXEC:L=0 

610 RESTORE 

620 READ C 

630 IF C=-l THEN 690 ELSE 640 

640 READ D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 

650 IF L>=448 THEN A$=INKEY$:IF 

A$="» THEN 650 

660 IF L>=448 THEN EXEC:L=0 

670 IF W<=D AND Y>=D THEN GOSUB 

1780:L=L+32 

680 GOTO 620 

690 RETURN 

700 EXEC:INPUT"GIVE THE NAME OF 

THE PARTY PAID OR THE NAME OF TH 

E PARTY FROM WHOM MONEY WAS RE 

CEIVED";R$ 

710 PRINT 

720 INPUT "WAS MONEY RECEIVED FR 

OM (1) OR PAID TO (2) THIS PART 

Y";U 

730 ON U GOTO 740,1180 

740 EXEC:T=0:L=0 

750 RESTORE 

760 READ C 

770 IF C=-l THEN 830 ELSE 780 

780 READ D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 

790 IF L>=448 THEN A$=INKEY$ : IFA 

$="" THEN 790 

800 IF L>=44 8 THEN EXEC:L=0 

810 IF C=0 AND R$=P$ THEN GOSUB 

1780:T=T+A:L=L+3 2 

820 GOTO 7 60 

830 IF U=l THEN PRINT "TOTAL REC 

EIVED FROM "R$" IS-" : PRINTUSING" 

$$####. ##";T 

8 40 IF U=2 THEN PRINT "TOTAL PAI 
D TO "R$" IS-":PRINTUSING"$$#### 

.## M ;T 

8 50 PRINT 

8 60 RETURN 

870 EXEC: INPUT "WHAT ACCT. DO YO 

U WANT";M$ 

880 INPUT "OUTPUT TO PRINTER (Y/ 

N) ";YN$:IFYN$="Y" THEN POKE32544 

+54, 255: ELSE IF YN$="N" THEN 920 

890 PO=PEEK(65314) : IF PO/2<>INT( 



124 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



PO/2) THEN 9pjZ5 ELSE 915 

900 EXEC:PRINT@2 65,"TURN ON PRIN 

TER" ; 

910 A$=INKEY$:IF A$="" THEN 910 

915 L2=LEN(NA$) :L1=( (80-(2*L2) )/ 

2) 

920 IF YN$="Y"AND M$="ALL" THEN 

PRINT# -2 , TAB ( 20 ) EE$ ; TA$ : PRINT#-2 

: PRINT#-2 ,TAB (LI) EE$ ;NA$ : PRINT#- 

2:PRINT#-2 

930 IF M$="ALL" THEN 940 ELSE 95 

940 FOR 1=1 TO 80 STEP 2:M$=C$(I 

) : GOSUB 950:NEXTI 

950 IF M$="" THEN 1170 

960 EXEC:T=0:L=0 

970 RESTORE 

980 READ C 

990 IF C=-l THEN 1060 ELSE 1000 

1000 READ D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 

1010 IF L>=448 AND YN$<>"Y"THEN 

A$=INKEY$:IFA$="" THEN 1010 

1020 IF L>=448 THEN EXEC:L=0 

1030 IF T$=M$ THEN GOSUB 1780 :L= 

L+3 2:T=T+A 

1040 IFT$=M$ AND YN$="Y" GOSUB 1 

750 



1050 GOTO 980 

1060 FOR X=l TO 80 

1070 IF M$=C$(X) THEN M$=C$(X+lj 

:GOTO 1090 

1080 NEXT 

1090 PRINT 

1100 IF M$o"BUS/PROF TRAVEL" TH 

EN PRINT "TOTAL-"M$: PRINT USING 

"$$#####. ##";T 

1110 IF M$="BUS/PROF TRAVEL" THE 
N PRINT "TOTAL BUSINESS/PROFESSI 
ONAL MILEAGE IS-";T 

1120 IF M$="BUS/PROF TRAVEL" AND 
YN$="Y" THEN PRINT#-2 , "TOTAL "; 
UL$ ; "BUSINESS/PROFESSIONAL MILEA 
GE " ; NU$ ; " IS- " ; TAB ( 5 3 ) T ; "MILES " 
1130 IF M$<>" BUS/ PROF TRAVEL" AN 
D YN$="Y" THEN PRINT#-2 , "TOTAL F 
OR ";UL$;M$;NU$;" IS-" ;TAB (45) : P 
RINT#-2, USING "$$#####.##" ;T 
1140 IF YN$="Y" THEN PRINT#-2:PR 
INT#-2:GOTO 1170 
1150 FOR K=l TO 400:NEXTK 
1160 PRINT:POKE32544+54,0 
1170 RETURN 
1180 EXEC:T=0:L=0 
1190 RESTORE 



$$SSSSSSSSS$.SSSS$SSSSSSSSSSSSS$$SSSSS$S$$$SSS$$SS$SSSSS$!i55%!-l 




RAINBOW 

CtFTmCATXM 



If You Arc Serious About Stocks. . . 
This Program Is A Must! 



Stock Market portfolio for the color computer 
will keep track of all your current stock listings 
andkeepalistingofstocksyouhavesoldby the 
year, they were sold with all totals, profit and 
loss, and percentages. More than one person 
can use this program as long as the first three 
letters on both first and last name are not the 
same. The program is menu driven and will 
give you the option for cither screen print or 
information to be printed on printer. 



Rush Check for S22.00 plus S3.00 shipping & handling to: 
Paparis Enterprises 
700 York St. 

Williamsburg, VA 23185 
Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery 
Sorry no C.O.D.S 

VA residents add 4.5% sales tax. 



SSSSSSSSSSSSS-SSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSS 



ALL SOFTWARE COtlPATABLE WITH C0C03 
NO PATCHES REQUIRED 

COLOR BANKBOOK +3 * $19.95 

# BUSINESS BANKBOOK +3*549.95 

SPECIFY 1 OR 2 DISK DRIVES 

# TU BLACKOUT BINGO * ±19.95 



# VCR FILE 



$19.95 



SUPEROISK UTILITY +3**19.95 



NEW UPDATE OF AN OLD 
FAVORITE ! 

RROIULOG 

SEE REVIEW IN MAY '36 
RAINBOW PAGE £09 

CODE PRACTICE 

SEE REVIEW IN NOV '36 
RAINBOW PAGE 134 



S 9.95 
* 9.95 



ORDERS OR INFORMATION 

COLL 1-800-628-2828 
EXTENSION 552 

ALL PROGRAMS INCLUDE MANUALS , 
REQUIRE 32K AND 1 DISK DRIVE. 
ADD f£-00 SHIPPING 4 HANDLING 
FLORIDA RES. ADD SV. SALES TAX 



-Q 



SEFDEGES 



8901 NID 26 ST DEPT R 
SUNRISE, FL 33322 

* INCLUDES SPECIAL EDITION FOR C0C03 !!! 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 125 



1200 READ C 


1570 READ C 


1210 IF C=-l THEN 840 ELSE 1220 


1580 IF C=-l THEN 1640 


1220 READ D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 


1590 READ D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 


1230 IF L>=448 THEN A$=INKEY$:IF 


1600 IF P$=Z$ THEN 1610 ELSE 163 


A$="" THEN1230 





1240 IF L>=448 THEN EXEC:L=0 


1610 LINE (167,L)-(167-A/2,L-5) , 


1250 IF C>0 AND R$=P$ THEN GOSUB 


PSET,BF 


1780:T=T+A:L=L+32 


1620 L=L-10 


12 60 GOTO 1200 


1630 GOTO 1570 


1270 EXEC: INPUT "NAME" ;Z$ 


1640 X=0:Y=0:PRINT#-2,TAB(10)Z$ 


1280 PMODE4:PCLS:SCREENl,l 


1650 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)+"1" 


1290 DRAW "BM50,50 NR5D25NR5D25N 


1660 FOR X=3558 TO 3558+21 


R5D25NR5D25R130 


1670 PRINT#-2 , CHR$ (27 ) +"K"+CHR$ ( 


1300 DRAW "BM30,48 R4D2L4D2R4BU4 


191)+CHR$(0) ; 


BR2R4D4L4U4BR6R4D4L4U4" 


1680 FOR Y=X+(191*32) TO X STEP- 


1310 DRAW "BM32,102 U4BR2R4D4L4U 


32 


4BR6R4D4L4U4" 


1690 PRINT#-2,CHR$(PEEK(Y) ) ; 


1320 DRAW "BM93,165 U4F3E3D4BU4B 


1700 NEXT Y 


R3R4D4L4U4BR7ND4F4U4BR3R4BL2D4BU 


1710 PRINT#-2 


4BR5D4BR4U4BD2L4" 


1720 NEXT X 


1330 L=60 


1730 PRINT#-2,CHR$(27)+"2" 


1340 RESTORE 


1740 POKE32544+54,0:EXEC:RETURN 


13 50 READ C 


1750 'PRINT ROUTINE 


1360 IF C=-l THEN 1430 


1760 PRINT#-2,USING"#### #### 


1370 READ D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 


% % #####•## % % 


1380 IF P$=Z$ AND A>300 THEN PRI 


% 


NT@200, "ENTRY TOO LARGE" :V$=INKE 


%";C,D,P$,A,T$,CM$ 


Y$:IF V$="" THEN 13 80 ELSE 14 60 


1770 RETURN 


1390 IF P$=Z$ THEN 1400 ELSE 142 


1780 PRINTUSING"#### #### % % 


t 


####.## % %";C,D,P$,A,T$ 


1400 LINE (L,150)-(L+5,150-A/2) , 


17 90 RETURN 


PSET,BF 


1800 EXEC: PRINT@4 2, "CODES INFO" 


1410 L=L+10 


1810 PRINT @ 9 6, "1 -NUMBER CODES" 


1420 GOTO 1350 


1820 PRINT§160,"2-PLACES" 


1430 A$=INKEY$:IF A$=""THENGOT01 


18 30 PRINT© 2 2 4, "3 -NAMES" 


430 


1840 PRINT@288,"4-CATEGORY CODES 


1440 INPUT "DO Y0U WANT A SCREEN 


it 


DUMP";QY$ 


1850 INPUT CN 


1450 IF QY$="Y" THEN POKE32544+5 


1860 IF CN=1 THEN NM$="NUMBER" : G 


4,255:GOTO1470 ELSE 1460 


OSUB 1910 


1460 EXEC: RETURN 


1870 IF CN=2 THEN NM$="PLACES" : G 


1470 PO=PEEK(65314) :IF P0/2OINT 


OSUB 1910 


(PO/2) THEN EXEC: PRINT@2 65, "TURN 


1880 IF CN=3 THEN NM$="NAMES" : GO 


ON PRINTER"; : ELSE 1490 


SUB 1910 


1480 A$=INKEY$:IFA$="" THEN 1480 


1890 IF CN=4 THEN NM$="ACCOUNTS" 


1490 EXEC :PRINT@2 67, "PRINTING"; 


: GOSUB 1910 


1500 PMODE4:PCLS:SCREEN0,0 


1900 RETURN 


1510 DRAW "BM67,155 NU5R25NU5R25 


1910 EXEC 


NU5R2 5NU5R2 5U130 


1920 OPEN"D",#1,NM$,32:RN=0:L=0 


1520 DRAW "BM65,174 U4R2D4R2U4BL 


1930 FIELD #1,10 AS A$ , 22 AS B$ 


4BU2U4R4D4L4BU6U4R4D4L4" 


1940 RN=RN+1 


1530 DRAW "BM118,172 L4BU2U4R4D4 


1950 GET#1,RN 


L4BU6U4R4D4L4" 


1960 PRINT§L,A$;B$ 


1540 DRAW "BM200,122 L4E3H3R4BL4 


1970 L=L+32 


BU3U4R4D4L4BU7NR4E4L4BU3U4BD2R4B 


1980 IF INT(L/448)=L/448 THEN V$ 


L4BU5R4BU4L4BR2D4" 


=INKEY$:IF V$="" THEN 1980 


1550 L=145 


1990 IF L>=448 THEN EXEC:L=0 


1560 RESTORE 


2000 IF LOF(1)ORN THEN1940 



126 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



2010 CL0SE#1 


2210 IFA3$="CODES"GOSUB1800:GOTO 


2020 RETURN 


2200 


2030 EXEC :PRINT@233, "PLEASE WAIT 


2220 INPUT "AMT. /MILES" ;A4$ 


":A$="" 


2230 INPUT "ACCT.";A5$ 


2040 AA=PEEK(25)*256+PEEK(26) 


2240 IFA5$="CODES"GOSUB1800:GOTO 


2050 BB=PEEK(AA)*256+PEEK(AA+1) 


2230 


2060 CC=PEEK(AA+2)*2 56+PEEK(AA+3 


22 50 INPUT "COMMENT" ;A6$ 


) 


2 2 60 INPUT" DO YOU WANT TO MAKE C 


2070 IF BB=0 THEN 2090 


ORRECTIONS BEFORE CONTINUING? (Y 


2080 A1=AA:AA=BB:C1=CC:G0T0 2050 


/N)";B$:IF B$="Y" THEN 2160 


2090 FOR I=A1 TO Al+3:POKE 1,0 :N 


2270 A$=A1$+" , "+A2$+" , "+A3$+" , "+ 


EXT 


A4$+","+A5$+","+A6$ 


2100 LL=Al+3 


2280 GOTO2300) 


2110 VT=PEEK(27)*256+PEEK(28) 


2290 A$=A1$ 


2120 SP=INT( (VT-LL)/64) 


2300 AA=Al+4:FOR 1=1 TO 64: POKE 


2130 EXEC:PRINT TAB(1J3) "space=" ; 


AA , 3 2 : AA=AA+ 1 : NEXT 


SP 


2310 AA=Al+64:DD=INT(AA/256) :D1= 


2140 IF A$="-l" THEN 2370 


AA-(DD*256) : POKE Al,DD:POKE Al+1 


2150 PRINT" ***INPUT -1 FOR LAST 


,D1 


ENTRY***" 


2320 DD=INT(Cl/256) :D1=C1-(DD*25 


2160 INPUT "NUMBER" ;A1$ 


6): POKE Al+2,DD:POKE Al+3,Dl:POK 


2170 IF A1$= H -1" THEN Z=0:GOTO 2 


E Al+4,13 4:Al=Al+5 


290 


2330 FOR 1=1 TO PEEK(VARPTR(A$) ) 


2180 IF Al$="CODES" GOSUB 1800:G 


: BB=PEEK ( 2 56*PEEK ( VARPTR ( A$ ) +2 ) + 


OTO2160 


PEEK ( VARPTR ( A$ ) +3 ) +1-1) 


2190 INPUT "DATE";A2$ 


2 340 POKE A1,BB:A1=A1+1:NEXTI 


2200 INPUT " NAME/ PLACE"; A3 $ 


2350 FOR I=AA-1 TO AA+3:POKE 1,0 



TANDY COMPUTER 
DISCOUNTS 



COLOR COMPUTERS 



26-3127 64k color comp 

26-3334 CoCo 3 

26-3215 CM-8 color monitor 



PRINTERS 



26-2802 DMP 106 
26-1277 DMP-430 
26-1280 DMP-1 30 
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Ch«mistry Tutor 



A TWO DISK SET THAT IS DESIGNED 10 BE EXTREMELY USER 
FRIENDLY AND IS AN AID TO LEARNING HIGH SCHOOL OH 
COLLEGE LEVEL CHEMISTRY PRINCIPLES. TEXT LESSONS ARE 
COMBINED WITH HIGH RESOLUTION GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS. 

COMPREHENSIVE TESTIN6 SECTIONS COVER THE PRINIPLES 
NECESSARY FOR A FIRM BASE IN THE CHEMICAL FIELD. 

AN ELEMENT SECTION THAT ALLOWS THE STUDY OF ALL 106 
ELEMENTS THAT HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED AND CONFIRMED. 

ELEMENT DATABASE ALLOWS FINDING DATA ON THE ELEMENTS 
IF THE ATOMIC SYMBOL. NUMBER. OR ELEMENT NAME IS KNOWN. 



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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 127 



:NEXT 

2360 A1=AA:C1=C1+1:SP=SP-1:G0T0 

2130 

2370 EXEC:PRINT@11,"S-A-V-E" : PRI 

NT:INPUT"ENTER YEAR (LAST 2 DIGI 

TS) ";F2$ 

2375 IF VAL(F2$)<80 OR VAL(F2$)> 

99 THEN 2 370 

2380 Fl$="TAXINFO"+CHR$(47)+F2$ 

2390 SAVE Fl$: RETURN 

2400 EXEC:INPUT"SURE";S$:IF S$<> 

ii yn THEN RETURN 

2410 EXEC:PRINT@ll,"L-0-A-D" : PRI 

NT: INPUT "ENTER YEAR (LAST 2 DIGI 

TS) ";F2$ 

2420 Fl$="TAXINFO"+CHR$(47)+F2$ 

2430 LOAD F1$,R 

2440 EXEC:INPUT"SURE";S$:IF S$<> 

"Y" THEN RETURN 

2450 LOAD"SETUP",R 

2 4 60 EXEC : CT=0 : SN$=" " : RESTORE : PR 

INT@8,"S E A R C H" : LINEINPUT" 

ENTER TARGET STRING 
";SN$:LN=10001 
2470 READ C 

2480 IF C=-l THEN PRINT"SEARCH 
VER"ELSE GOTO 2490 
2485 ZZ$=INKEY$:IF ZZ$="" THEN 2 
485 

2487 RETURN 

2490 READ D, P$ , A,T$ , CM$ : IFVAL(SN 
$)=D OR SN$=P$ OR VAL(SN$)=A OR 
SN$=T$ OR SN$=MID$(CM$,1,LEN(SN$ 
)) THEN PRINT "LINE #" ;LN 
3000 LN=LN+1:GOTO2 470 
10001 DATA -1 



Listing 3: SE TUP. BflS 



V 170 18 

370 49 

END 230 



10 POKE 32544+54, 255 :CLS 

20 PRINT@108, "CODES" 

30 PRINT? 168, "1-NUMBER CODES" 

40 PRINT@2 32,"2-NAMES" 

50 PRINT@296,"3-PLACES" 

60 PRINT@ 3 60 , " 4 -ACCOUNTS " 

70 PRINT@424,"5-TAXINFO" 

80 INPUT NM 

90 IF NM=1 THEN NM$="NUMBER" 

100 IF NM=2 THEN NM$="NAMES" 

110 IF NM=3 THEN NM$="PLACES" 

120 IF NM=4 THEN NM$=" ACCOUNTS" 

130 IF NM=5 THEN CLS : Y1=PEEK( 157 

)*256+PEEK(158) : IF Yl=32544 THEN 

140 ELSE 150 ELSE 160 



140 PRINT@11 , "L-O-A-D" : PRINT: INP 

UT "ENTER YEAR (LAST 2 DIGITS)"; 

F2$:F1$="TAXINF0"+CHR$(47)+F2$:L 

OAD F1$,R 

150 LOAD "TAX",R 

160 IF NM<1 OR NM>5 THEN 80 

170 CLS 

180 PRINT@168,"1-ENTER NEW INFO 

190 PRINT@232,"2-LIST ENTRIES 

200 PRINT@2 9 6,"3-MODIFY 

210 INPUT N 

220 CLS: ON N GOTO 230,340,450 

230 OPEN"D",#l,NM$,32 

240 FIELD #1,10 AS AB$ , 22 AS EN 

$ 

250 RN=LOF(l)+l 

2 60 INPUT "CODE FOR NEW ENTRY 
(6 CHAR MAX)";A$ 

270 INPUT "NEW ENTRY 

(22 CHAR MAX)";B$ 

2 80 LSET AB$=A$ 
290 LSET EN$=B$ 
300 PUT #1,RN 

310 INPUT "AGAIN" ;YN$:IFYN$="Y" 
THEN 250 ELSE 320 
320 CLOSE#l 

3 30 GOTO 10 

340 OPEN"D",#1,NM$,32:RN=0 

350 FIELD #1,10 AS A$, 22 AS B$ 

3 60 RN=RN+1 
370 GET#1,RN 

380 PRINT"RECORD NUMBER ";RN 

390 PRINT A$;B$ 

400 IF INT(RN/5)=RN/5 THEN V$=IN 

KEY$:IF V$="" THEN 400 

410 IF LOF(1)ORN THEN 3 60 

420 CLOSE#l 

4 30 V$=INKEY$:IF V$="" THEN 4 30 
440 GOTO 10 

450 OPEN"D",#l,NM$,32 

460 FIELD #1, 10 AS AB$ , 22 AS E 

N$ 

470 INPUT "RECORD #";RN 

480 GET#1,RN 

490 PRINT"RECORD NUMBER ";RN 

500 PRINT AB$;EN$ 

510 INPUT "MODIFIED CODE 

(6 CHAR MAX)";A$ 
520 INPUT "MODIFIED ENTRY 

(22 CHAR MAX)";B$ 
530 LSET AB$=A$ 
540 LSET EN$=B$ 
550 PUT #1,RN 
560 PRINT"AGAIN?" 
570 INPUT YN$:IF YN$="Y" THEN 47 

580 CLOSE#l 

590 GOTO 10 /R\ 



128 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 





1 Softwar e^ 



CoCo 1. 2 & 3 



Wizard's Den — 

A World of Poultices, 

Potions and Poisons 



Cauldron boil and cauldron bubble 
. . . With that incantation, some luck, 
and a great deal of perseverance, the 
journey into another fantasy world 
begins. Over the years the CoCo com- 
munity has been the beneficiary of 
countless graphic Adventure games. 
The announcement of yet one more 
could reasonably be anticipated with a 
chorus of yawns. But, as the old saying 
goes, "It ain't over 'til it's over." Tom 
Mix Software (Novasoft) is known for 
quality software, and with the release of 



Wizard's Den, they have breathed a bit 
of new life into an old routine. 

Wizard's Den is based on the same 
concepts that have made other Adven- 
ture games so successful. A clever 
puzzle is wrapped in some very attrac- 
tive graphics, with a taste of animation 
and sound added to good effect. The 
Wizard's world consists of eight 
chambers, each characterized by a 
unique group of poultices, potions, 
poisons, and the requisite monsters that 
seem to have an insatiable hunger for 



CoCo owners. Miscellaneous objects 
that confer various powers upon the 
owner are encountered along the way. 
But, beware! As I was merrily romping 
through Level 3, grabbing everything in 
sight (if I found it, it must be good for 
me!), several jugs of poison made their 
way down my throat — end of journey. 
Ultimately, eight levels must be trav- 
ersed , and the Gem of Damocles found 
in order to win the game. 

Several features set Wizard's Den 
apart. Most notably, it is very user- 
friendly. After loading, a color test is 
performed and the player is greeted by 
the opening menu. From here the meth- 
od of play may be selected, either 
keyboard (the default) or joystick. If the 
joystick option is selected, all the key- 
board sequences remain intact. As the 
documentation points out, this can be 
quite handy when maneuvering through 
tight places. From here the user may 
view an information screen displaying 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 129 



all the animated horrors that lie within, 
or enter the Wizard's world. 

The combination of joystick and icon 
control allows the game to be played by 
anyone. Keyboard input, or anything 
else that resembles typing, is neither 
indicated or required. The Wizard 
welcomes children (of all ages). 




While the documentation is ade- 
quate, the information screen provides 
more than enough detail to fully enjoy 
the game. No hints are provided, aside 
from an opening clue on exiting from 
Level 1, and a recommendation to 
maintain a lifestyle devoid of conflict. 

Wizard's Den is supplied on a single 
unprotected disk, and requires a single 
disk drive and a minimum of 64K. The 
use of joysticks, while optional, greatly 
enhances the quality of play. 

(Tom Mix Software, P.O. Box 201, Ada, MI 
49301, 616-676-8172; $22.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Henry Holzgrefe 



Softw afe 



CoCo 1.2&3 



A rtificial Learning 
File — 
Simulates 
Artificial 
Intelligence 

Artificial Learning File from High 
Altitude Software is a program de- 
signed to respond to the user by asking 
a series of questions, evaluating the 
answers, and then guessing a solution. 
If this sounds complex, it can be sim- 
plified by an example: When ALF is 
run, it presents the user with a menu. 
From the menu, the user picks and then 
selects an -4Z.Ffile (for example, space- 
ships). /4LFthen loads the file and asks 
you to think of a spaceship. It then asks 
"yes" or "no" questions to determine 
which spaceship you are thinking of. 



Either A LF guesses right, in which case 
you can try another round, or ALF 
guesses wrong, in which case it asks you 
to enter a question to distinguish be- 
tween its incorrect guess and your 
answer. It then asks you the answer (yes 
or no) to your question and the thing 
(for example, the type of spaceship) you 
were thinking of. 

Now you are probably wondering, "Is 
this really artificial learning?" and 
"What can I do with it?" 

The answer to the first question is no, 
this is not real artificial learning. This 
is a BASIC implementation of an artifi- 
cial learning Simulation. In other 
words, the computer is not developing 
a knowledge base using a list processor, 
it is using BASIC and comparing re- 
sponses to the responses it has in mem- 
ory. It does look, however, to the user, 
particularly as the base of questions and 
answers grows, as though ALF is learn- 
ing. Perhaps it is, but this is not artificial 
intelligence in the true, conventional 
sense. 

As for what it can be used for, I would 
say two things. The first is entertain- 
ment, and the second is a demonstration 
of learning. Clearly the entertainment 
aspects are in watching the machine 
guess answers and evaluate questions. 
You can also see the learning process 
take place as you ask more and more 
questions. 

In the Edit Question and Edit Answer 
portions of the program, ALF does not 
look at the last five items in either 
questions or answers for editing. This 
drawback, however, is not a serious 
problem, rather an annoyance when 
running the program. As your list 
grows, you will be able to access the 
questions or answers to edit. 

Also, in scrolling through the answers 
or questions in search mode, the "shift- 
arrow" key combination does not scroll 
rapidly. While it is not exactly a prob- 
lem, it shows a good idea that I think 
requires more development on the part 
of the programmer. In its current state, 
ALF is best described as an entertain- 
ment product. With some careful con- 
sideration as to what the goals for a final 
product might be, it could become a 
very valuable educational tool. 

ALF comes with several files on the 
disk, including animals, cities, car parts, 
and more. There is room for 300 
answers in memory at one time, and you 
also have the option to save all your 
answers and questions, and to create 
new ALF files. It would be a nice option 
to include a printer driver to be able to 
print out questions and answers. The 



disk also comes with a "bonus" program 
that gives advice by randomly answer- 
ing yes/ no questions with "Yes," "No," 
or "I don't know." 

The documentation that accompa- 
nies ALFls relatively complete, consist- 
ing of three pages of menu explanations 
and some very good examples to get you 
started. I found these quite useful in 
gaining a basic understanding of the 
program and how to use it. Overall, 
ALF is entertaining and interesting. 

(High Altitude Software, 339 32'/ 2 Rd., 
Palisade, CO 81526; $8.95: First product 
review for this company appearing in the 

RAINBOW.) 

— Jeffrey S. Parker 



I Hardwar e 



CoCo3 



CoCo3 
Turbo Ram — 
512K Upgrade 

Performance Peripherals has released 
a new low-cost 512K upgrade for your 
CoCo 3. The upgrade, fully assembled 
and tested, is quite small, measuring VA 
by 3 inches. The high quality glass 
epoxy circuit board is well made, and 
simply plugs into your CoCo 3. I was 
impressed. The 16 D41256 120 ns Dram 
chips are all socketed and are NEC 
brand. 

The installation instructions are very 
easy to follow and, by far, the best I've 
seen for a CoCo 3 RAM upgrade. Every 
step is clearly detailed and illustrated 
with photographs so that even the 
novice can easily do the installation. No 
soldering is required, but as is the case 
with all RAM upgrade kits, you do have 
to clip two small capacitors on the 
CoCo 3 circuit board. This is not at all 
difficult since a small wire cutter will 
suffice, and the capacitors are well 
identified and illustrated in the photo- 
graphs. You also have to remove the 
four chips that comprise the existing 
128K RAM. Since these chips are sock- 
eted, you can simply unplug them and 
set them aside for safekeeping. 

Particular emphasis is placed on 
proper grounding during the installa- 
tion process so that the sensitive RAM 
chips are not damaged by static electri- 
cal charges at the work station. This is 
well documented, and common house- 
hold materials such as aluminum foil 
are used. 



130 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



In all there are eight steps to follow 
to install the board, and they can be 
completed in 10 to 30 minutes depend- 
ing on your familiarity with electronic 
circuits. Caution: If you install this 
upgrade yourself, you will void your 
computer's 90-day warranty. If you are 
timid about such things, take your 
computer to your local Radio Shack for 
installation. 

The kit also comes with a program on 
disk to check the operation of the newly 
acquired memory. An unusual feature 
of this particular program is that it 
relocates itself several times so that all 
of the memory is checked. 

I should also point out that you can 
purchase the new PAL chip ($9.95) from 
these folks, too. You'll need this replace- 
ment chip if you have the older Multi- 
Pak interface (#26-3024). The same high 
quality step-by-step instructions and 
photographs are provided for PAL 
installation, as well. If you don't have 
a Multi-Pak, there's no need for the new 
PAL chip. 

I highly recommend this 5I2K up- 
grade. Installation is easy, and it 
worked the first time. Its operation did 
not reveal any presence of unusual RF 
interference. If installation problems 
occur, a technical assistance phone 
number is provided, and the products 
are fully warranted for one year. 

(Performance Peripherals, 1 1432 Pena Way, 
Mira Loma, CA 91752, 714-681-3007; 
S79.95 plus $3 S/H) 

— Jerry Semones 



-Software 



CoCo 1.2&3 



Iron Cross: War in 

Russia — 

Tactical Simulation 

Close-up magicians such as myself 
sometimes pooh-pooh the extravagant 
shows of the stage magicians. "Sure," 
we say, "all those people and all that 
equipment. Try doing it at point-blank 
range, with only your wits, a deck of 
cards and two coins to work with." 

The same attitude sometimes applies 
when wargamers who have been used to 
squad-level tactical simulations get 
involved with a strategic level war game. 
"Big deal; 60,000 troops, 350 tanks and 
all that artillery. Try it with eleven men 



with rifles, one machine gun and a 
mortar that can't hit half the targets." 
That was also my opinion since most of 
my CoCo war games are at the tactical 
level — until I started in with Iron 
Cross: War in Russia from Computer- 
ware. 

This is simulation on a grand scale, 
with a corps being the smallest ma- 
neuver unit, set in the expanse of Russia 
in June of 1 94 1 . There is more to it than 
moving a panzer corps here and there, 
however. You have to keep an eye on the 
weather, as each game turn puts you one 
week closer to the muddy autumn and 
the dreaded Russian winter. You also 
have to keep track of the Soviet forces 
opposite you, and their relative 
strengths. The "inspection phase" al- 
lows you to examine strengths of both 
sides' units; the problem then is to 
remember them when you get into the 
movement phase. Note-taking isn't a 
bad idea. 

The three types of units (armor, 
infantry and cavalry) are easily distin- 
guished on a color screen (but not on 
an RGB monitor). Each unit can be 
given one of five different types of 
modes (e.g., standard, blitz, en- 
trenched) depending on the situation. 

Other factors to consider are sup- 
plies, the weather and air power. Air 
strikes are allowed in the top three of 
the five difficulty levels and are a real 
demonstration of their effectiveness on 
the battlefield. 

Both our sons play war games, tac- 
tical and strategic. They taught me a 
simplified one. We went through four 
hours of dice rolls and interminable 
references to various tables of factors. 
In many ways it was like a short, inten- 
sive course in statistics with a quiz every 
10 minutes. Iron Cross has removed the 
tables and the dice, replacing them with 
an interesting and highly playable 
game. It requires a CoCo I, 2 or 3 with 
at least 64K of Extended BASIC and a 
disk drive. 

The program, which is copy- 
protected, contains a save capability 
due to the possible length of any one 
game. The seven-page instruction book 
contains clear and concise rules that, 
while not absolutely simple, are easy to 
follow. 

At first, the need to scroll up and 
down across the western breadth of the 
USSR in order to find and move my 
units irritated me. Then it dawned on 
me that it was a piece of realism, since 
commanders don't always know exactly 
what all their units are doing. A bit of 
computer-generated "fog of war" there. 



So there I sat, likening myself to a von 
Rundstedt as my panzers slashed 
through the Russian lines, followed by 
the infantry corps nailing down the 
edges of the breakthrough. An imagi- 
nary aide brought me a cup of tea and 
a report from one of the army com- 
manders. Leaning down, I gazed 
fiercely at the situation map, then firmly 
issued the new orders. Panzer Corps 
will advance to take and hold 
Dromar. The Russians were mounting a 
counterattack in the vicinity of the 
Crimea, and there was only one dug-in 
panzer corps securing that flank. They 
needed reinforcements — fast! 

A drum roll interrupted my thoughts. 
1 glanced up and could have sworn I saw 
the ghost of Harry Blackstone, Sr., 
smiling at me. "See?" he said as he 
floated a light bulb out over the au- 
dience. "It's not all that easy, is it?" 

It certainly isn't, but it sure is fun. 
And you just might earn an Iron Cross. 

(Computerware, Box 668, F.ncinitas, CA 
92024, 619-436-3512; S24.95) 

— John Heberl 



Zone Runner — 
Futuristic Strategy 
Simulation 

Are you tired of the same old boring 
daily job? Do you seek the thrill of 
adventure? The lure of fast galactic 
bucks? Then you, too, can become a 
Zone Runner. Minimal equipment re- 
quired. 

You furnish the control guidance 
system (a Tandy Color Computer 3), the 
standard read-out display (a CM-8 or 
TV set), at least one data storage bank 
(one disk drive), and the system control 
device (color mouse/joystick or Hi-Res 
interface optional), and we will equip 
you with the latest in intergalactic 
space-going cargo haulers. 

With our super interga\acl\c Zone 
Runner spaceships, you can shuttle 
back and forth between a multitude of 
planets, buying and selling strange 
exotic goods. A wise trader like you can 
make big galactic bucks and at the same 
time provide a valuable service to the 
galaxies. Without a steady influx of new 
goods, many planets have been known 
to completely die off. And for the really 
daring and adventuresome, you can 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 131 



NEW 

DISK 
DRIVES 



Starting at 




New Low Price! 




89 



95 



with case & 

Power Supply 

129.95 



TANDON MPI TEAC 

Speed 6ms tk lo tk and up 
Capacity 250k unformatted 
Tracks 40 
Warranty now 1 Year 

SATISFACTION GUARANTEED!! 

ALL DRIVES FULLY TESTED AND WARRANTEED 

We carry only the finest quality disk drives 
no seconds • no surplus 



40 Tks 6Ms 
Double Sided 
Double Density 

40 or 80 Tracks 
'/2 Hght. Teac/Panasonic 




Free Software for Drive O Systems 



CoCo Checker.. .Test roms, rams, disk drives and & controller printer, keyboard cassette & more. 
Tape/Disk Utility. ..Transfers disk to tape and tape to disk. 



169 



95 



Drive 



189 



95 



Drive 



289 



95 



Drive & 1 



> Full Ht Drive 
< Single Case 

• Heavy Duty Power Supply 

• 2 Drive Cable 

> Gold plated contacts 

• Confroller & manuals 



1 Double Sided Slim Line Drive 
' Case holds 2 slim line drives 
> Heavy Duty Power Supply 
■ 2 Drive Cable 

• Gold plated contacts 

• Controller & Manuals 



1 2 Double Sided Slim Line Drive 
1 Case holds 2 slim line drives 
1 Heavy Duty Power Supply 
- 2 Drive Cable 

> Gold plated contacts 

> Controller & Manuals 



Other Drive Specials 
119 95 



Drives cleaned, aligned & tested, 29 



95 



2nd Drive 

for new Radio Shack 

includes: 

• Slim Line DS/DD Drive 

• Cabling & Instructions 

• Mounting Hardware 



Full Ht Drive 89 95 

Full Ht Drive Ps/Case 129 95 

Slim Line Drive 99 

Slim Line Drive Ps/Case... 139 

2 Slim Drives Ps/Case 239 

Disk Controller 59 95 



Single Ps & Case 

Dual '/aht Ps & Case 

Dual Full Ht. Ps & Case . 
Disk Controller 



10 Diskettes 

with free library case 



44 95 
54 95 
79 95 
59 95 

...9 95 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 
617-278-6555 




TRUE DATA PRODUCTS 



We welcome 

• Visa/Mastercard l-is^ESa 

• Checks (allow 2 weeks for clearing) 

• C.O.D. Add $2. 



9 South Main Street 
Uxbridge, MA 01569 
617-278-6555 

Hours: Mon.-Sat., 9-6 (EST) 



Call us today! 617-278-6555 
Order Toll Free 1-800-635-0300 



Software Included 

• Pc-Write word processor 

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• Print Spooler 

• Ram Disk 

• Runs all popular software 




IBM XT 
COMPATIBLE 



Complete 
system 



only 



699 



95 



PRINTER CABLES AND 
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Call for current pricing 




NX10(New120CPSNLQ80col.) 199"^ 
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PANASONIC PRINTER 

10801 (New 120CPS NLQ 80 col.) 



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Complete Packages 



10801 



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25995 



includes: includes: 

• Panasonic 10801 Printer • Star NX10 Printer 

• Interface • Interface 

• Screen Dump Program • Screen Dump Program 



TRUE DATA PRODUCTS 



Hardware Included 

• 4.77 mhz and 8mhz Turbo 

• 360k Floppy Disk Drive 

• Monochrome or Color Card 

• At style Case w/pwr light & key 

• Game, Printer and Serial Port 

• Real Time Clock 

• 150 watt power supply 
•640k memory 

• At keyboard optional expanded 

• Monochrome Monitor 

• Optional Hard Disk Drive 



L 




Serial to Parallel Interface 
for Color Computer I, II, II 

• 300-19,200 BAUD rates only 

• Exlernal to printer — No AC plugs — m -j. 

• Buill in modem/printer switch — S^l 
No need for Y-cables or plugging/ 
unplugging cables 



Power supply + 5.00 



64K Upgrades 
Video Driver 



19** 
2995 



Enables your ^^ 
instead of a television 



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Uxbridge, MA 01569 
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Screen Dump Program 19 95 

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Dealer Inquiries invited 
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Call us today! 617-278-6555 

Order Toll Free 1-800-635-0300 



make a dash across the neutral zone 
between ga/axies, avoiding the many 
patrol ships, and sell those rare exotic 
items, from one galaxy to the other, for 
mega-galactic bucks. 

Of course, if the patrol ships do catch 
you, they will only assess you a "small" 
fine, say, about half of your cash. It's 
the pirates you have to watch out for, 
because they'll take half of your cargo. 
But we do provide you with the latest 
in super hyper-drive engines, fast react- 
ing shields, and the very best photon 
energy space torpedoes. So if you can't 
outrun them, then outgun them. (Need- 
less to say, of course, it's your respon- 
sibility to keep these three key items in 
good working order by buying replace- 
ments out of the handsome profits we 
just know you will be making). So 
become a Zone Runner today. 

Zone Runner is one of the latest 
offerings in games from Tandy/ Radio 
Shack for the Color Computer 3. Like 
all of the new software from Tandy for 
the CoCo 3, it is written in OS-9 Level 
II and utilizes graphic windows. This is 
not one of your standard "point-and- 
click" arcade games. In fact, it is more 
of a futuristic strategy simulation type 
game with some arcade features. 

After booting up the familiar DOS 
command, you indicate the type of 
monitor you have by entering GW40 at 
the OS-9 prompt if you have an RGB 
monitor. Otherwise, you go directly into 
the game by entering the command 
ZONE. 

The program creates a graphic con- 
trol panel display on your screen and 
includes such items as a "Heading 
Control" and "Engine, Shield, and 
Weapons Controls." 

The first thing to do is configure the 
screen and system to your liking and 
hardware requirements. Press Fl, and a 
list of choices appears on the "Display 
Screen" in the center of the panel. Here 
you may change the foreground and 
background colors by scrolling through 
them until you get the combination you 
like best. Also, here you may indicate 
if you are using the Tandy Hi-Res 
Interface with your mouse or joystick. 
All control of the game is made in a 
"point-and-click" fashion with either a 
mouse or joystick. 

If you boot up with the Hi-Res Inter- 
face in place, you will almost certainly 
have trouble making the pointer re- 
spond properly, as the game starts up 
in the normal mode, (i.e., it is polling 
the normal joystick port). This may 
seem like a real problem at first as you 
need to set the "MOUSE TYPE" pa- 



rameter to "Hl-RES" from "NOR- 
MAL" but can't get the pointer to go 
anywhere near the command area to 
change it. Fortunately, there is a solu- 
tion. 

Part of the OS-9 mouse system is 
what is known as the "Keyboard 
Mouse." Simply press the CTRL-CLEAR 
combination and you will enter the 
keyboard mouse mode. Then you can 
move the pointer around with the arrow 
keys. This is also referred to in the 
instruction manual for Zone Runner. 
However, the manual does not mention 
that while in the keyboard mouse mode, 
you will need to use Fl as a substitute 
fire button. 




Move the pointer to the words HOUSE 
TYPE and press Fl. The word NORMAL 
changes to HI -RES. Next, press the key 
combination CTRL-CLEAR once again to 
exit the keyboard mouse mode, and you 
should have full control of your pointer. 

After you have made all the desired 
changes, pressing F2 starts the game. 
(You may go back at any time during 
the game and reconfigure the screen, as 
well.) 

I did not find any particular advan- 
tage to using the Hi-Res Interface over 
the normal joystick port in playing 
Zone Runner. And, in fact, I finally 
decided that the hassle in configuring 
the game for the interface wasn't even 
worth it. 

To set the "Heading Control," you 
are instructed to move the pointer to 
one of the direction hash marks around 
the perimeter of the compass circle and 
"lock it in with the press of a button." 
At first I tried moving the direction 
arrow, or compass needle, to the desired 
hash mark with the pointer, but soon 
found out that all 1 had to do was put 
the pointer on a hash mark, press the 
fire button and release, and the direc- 
tion arrow would reposition itself. 

Bach of the Engine, Shield and Wea- 
pons systems have a small graphic 
"slider-lever" control. The manual 
indicates that all you need to do is point 
the pointer (indicator beacon) to each 
lever, raise it, and then press the button. 



What you really have to do is place the 
pointer on the lever knob, press the fire 
button, raise it upward, and once you 
have it where you want it, release the fire 
button. 

To arm the Weapon system, simply 
put the pointer on the word ARM and 
press the fire button. 1 learned quickly 
that you have to re-arm the Weapon 
system for every torpedo you shoot. 

The Display Screen has six modes, 
three of which provide various levels of 
magnification of your location in space. 
The other three are commands for the 
printing of various data on your Dis- 
play Screen: a Buy list, a Sell list and 
a Status list. 

Once you make contact with a planet, 
you may buy or sell goods. You start 
with 100 monetary units and an empty 
cargo hold. It only accommodates eight 
items at a time. By selecting BUY, you 
learn what that particular planet has to 
sell in the way of goods and the prices 
you must pay in exchange for them. 
Some planets will also sell engines, 
shields and weapons. 

Selecting SELL with your pointer 
informs you how much the planet is 
willing to pay for the various items in 
your cargo hold. Sometimes the price 
will be even less than what you paid for 
the item, and at other times the profit 
margin will be tremendous. 

The Status command is used to check 
your current status in the game. You are 
in competition with all the other com- 
puter generated Zone Runners as well 
as several other cargo ships. Depending 
on the amount of monetary units you 
currently have, your position on this list 
will be displayed. The main object of the 
game is to reach the top of this list. But 
the higher you are on it, the more 
attractive a target you become for 
pirates. 

Now, this has its advantages, as the 
more pirates you attract, the more 
targets you have, and for each pirate 
you blow out of the space lanes, you are 
rewarded with additional monetary 
units. 

Pressing the BREAK key at any time 
provides you with three options: quit- 
ting the game, restarting the game or 
resuming the game. It makes a handy 
pause button. Having a pause button 
should be an absolute requirement in 
any game so that you don't lose that 
tremendous score you're working on if 
you are interrupted, or as in my usual 
case, have a need to refresh your mem- 
ory by frantically searching through the 
instruction manual for that command 
you forgot. 



134 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



Unfortunately (and 1 think it should 
be an absolute requirement of all games 
to have one). Zone Runner does not 
have a high score save feature. I like to 
compete against myself and others, so 
it is nice to have some sort of high score 
saving provision in a game. 

The game ends when you quit it, all 
the planets die out, or you achieve one 
of the ultimate rankings awarded by the 
game. 

Now for the undocumented tip of the 
day: If you really want to climb up the 
Status list fast, there is nothing to stop 
you from occasionally turning pirate 
yourself and blowing a few of your 
competitors out of the spaceways. 
You'll pick up some real mega-bucks; 
but shoot fast, they are speedy little 
devils. 

Zone Runner is well done, makes full 
use of the expanded features of the 
CoCo 3 and OS-9 Level II, and is very 
addictive. I highly recommend it. 

(Tandy Corporation, 1700 One Tandy 
Center, Ft. Worth, TX 76102, S29.95. 
Available in Radio Shack stores nation- 
wide.) 

— Kerry Armstrong 



Softw are 



CoCo 1 . 2 & 3 OS-9 



Mickey's Space 
Adventure — 
Travel the 
Solar System 

Where's Pluto? He's with Mickey, 
traveling our solar system in search of 
pieces from a valuable memory crystal. 
Mickey's Space Adventure combines 
the appeal of two popular Disney char- 
acters, an Adventure game, and facts 
about the solar system in an entertain- 
ing and educational package. 

As the game begins, Mickey and 
Pluto discover an alien spaceship has 
landed on Earth. After a little explora- 
tion, they find a computer inside the 
ship that explains its mission. The ship 
was sent to search for the remains of a 
lost crystal that contains the entire 
history of the planet Oron. It is up to 
Mickey, guided by the player, to recover 
all nine pieces of the crystal in the right 
order. To do this, the spaceship has to 
be flown to each of the planets of our 
solar system. 



This Adventure game is similar to 
others in which the players have to go 
to different locations, get objects, and 
examine their surroundings for clues. 
Two-word commands are created from 
two lists of words printed at the bottom 
of the screen. The player simply uses the 
arrow keys and ENTER to make choices. 
When the player lands on a new planet, 
important information about that 
planet can be obtained to help make 
decisions about where to travel next and 
what equipment is needed. 





m --"i^-^ 


E- / / \ \W 


gr i i i*i*i i i i i i i t 




AhA, 1 \£l <*M 


■y and Pluto gaze in 
it at a spaceship that 

anded i n the hills. 

lights circle around it 


JI^^V : T 

'nick. 

dfiazenei 
has 
F 1 ash i n9 



Walt Disney and Sierra On-Line 
cleverly disguised an impressive and 
accurate list of facts about our solar 



Hardware 

Special 



Communications 
Package 

300/1200 baud Fully Hayes 

compatible 
Modem - 2 Year Warranty 

$129.00 

[Modem & Cable] 

300/1200/2400 baud 

Fully Hayes 

Compatible Modem - CCITT 

2 Year Warranty 

SS49.00 

[Modem S. Cable] 



i 
I 

I 
I 

e 
I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 

I 



Software 




'KEEP-TRAK' General Ledger Reg. S69.95— Only S39.95 

"Double-Entry" General Ledger Accounting System for home or business: 16k, 
32k, 64k. User-friendly, menu-driven. Program features: balance sheet, income & 
expense statement (current & 'YTD'], journal, ledger. B99 accounts ( 2350 entries on 
32k & 64k [710 accounts Sentries on 16k) [disk only). Version 1.2 has screen printouts. 
Rainbow Review 1.1- 9/84 : 1 .2-4/85 

"OMEGA FILE" Reg. S69.95— ONLY 524.95 

Filing data base. File any information with Omega File. Records can have up to 16 fields 
with 255 characters per field [4080 characters/record]. Sort, match & print any field. 
User friendly menu driven. Manual included (32k/64k disk only] 

Rainbow Review 3/B5. Hot CoCo 10/85 

BOB'S MAGIC GRAPHIC MACHINE 

Can generate BASIC code to use in your programs. Easy drawing and manipulation of 
circles, elipses, boxes, lines and ARCS. Single joystick operation with on line HELPS at all 
times. Allows text on the graphics screen & movement of objects on the screen. Can be 
used as a stand-alone graphics editor. Instruction Manual. GRAPHICS EDITOR. REG. 
539.95— ONLY S24.95 for disk or tape. 64k ECB. 

Rainbow Review 7/85, Hot CoCo 9/85 "The graphics bargain of the year" 

'KEEP-TRAK' Accounts Receivable. 

Features: auto interest calculation, auto ageing of accounts, installment sales, total due 
sales, explanation space as long as you need, detailed statements, 'KEEP-TRAK' General 
Ledger tie in, account number checking, credit limit checking & more. User friendly/menu 
driven. Includes manual S39.95 or S49.95 General Ledger & Accounts Receivables. 
(Disk Only] 'COCO WINDOWS' 

With hi-res character display and window generator. Features an enhanced key board 
(klicks) and 10 programmable function keys. Allows the user to create multiple windows 
from basic. Includes menu driven printer setup and auto line numbering. Four function 
calculator, with memory. The above options can be called anytime while running or writing 
in BASIC. APPLE PULL YOUR ORAPES. YOU DON'T WANT TO SEE THIS. S24.9S [disk 
or tape] includes manual 



THE OTHER GUYS CoCo 

55 North Main Street 

Suite 3D1-D 

PO Box H 

Logan Utah 84321 



(BOD753-7BSO 'Veiv c 

CBOO] 94S-94QS ° AT A*!oa 

[Add S3-OQ for postage S handling) 

C.O.D., Money Order, Chock in U.S. Funds [PIqbbq opacify if JSM 

controller] 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 135 



inside this Adventure. It would 
lard to imagine a child coming 
5m the program without picking 
"up at least some information about the 
planets. In addition to covering facts 
about the solar system, the program 
reinforces skills such as problem- 
solving, decision-making, and map- 
ping. The 150 graphic scenes enhance 
the learning process by giving the player 
the illusion that he's really there. 

Parents and teachers should note the 
list of educational objectives in the 
manual, as well as a glossary of terms 
and facts about the planets. The rest of 
the manual, including operating in- 
structions and suggestions, is very well 
written. In addition, some enrichment 
activities are suggested for use after 
playing the game. Even though comput- 
ers can be very useful as instructional 
tools, it's necessary for some human 
interaction, too. 

Mickey's Space Adventure is adver- 
tised for ages 8 and up, but I feel that 
10- to 12-year-olds would receive the 
most benefit from using it. There was 
quite a bit of difference in how my 
second-grade son and one of my sixth-' 
grade students approached the pro-' 
gram. Both could operate the program 
without difficulty. However, it was 
obvious that the sixth-grader, having 
some background in using and making 
maps, had a much easier time. Younger 
children will need some guidance from 
an adult to help chart their journey. 

Unlike older Disney cassette-based 
games, Mickey's Space Adventure be- 
gins with a new game and different clues 
each time. This assures that it can be 
used over and over at home, or in 
school. Also, games can be saved and 
played later — a must for schools, since 
class time is limited. 

The program was designed primarily 
for the CoCo I or 2, and uses artifact 
colors, which don't show up on the 
CoCo 3 when used with an RGB mon- 
itor. CoCo 3 users need a TV or color 
composite monitor to take advantage of 
its color capabilities. This is a minor 
annoyance, but expected, since there 
are a lot more CoCo 1 and 2s than 3s 
in use right now. Hopefully, Sierra On- 
Line will consider adding an RGB/ 
composite option upon startup like 
some OS-9 programs that are currently 
on the market. 

Mickey's Space Adventure deserves 
an 'A' for both entertainment and 
educational value. The manual is well- 
written and the program educationally 
sound. It is obvious that the authors and 
designers took a lot of care in its prep- 



aration. I would certainly recommend it 
as a fine addition to your Color Com- 
puter educational library. 

(Sierra On-Line, Inc., Coarsegold, CA 
93614; $34.95. Available in Radio Shack 
stores nationwide.) 

— Mark llavcrstock 



Financial Time 
Conversions — 
Help With Financial 
Decisions 

Do you have a desire to try to figure 
out how much that credit card you love/ 
hate is really costing you? Thinking 
about buying a new house or car and 
need to figure out how much you can 
borrow? Want to know how much those 
mortgage payments are really going to 
be? It's quite possible you may need 
some help. Oh, sure, a calculator can 
make the job easier, but what if you 
want to juggle some of the numbers, like 
interest rates that seem to change daily, 
or to see what the house payments will 
be with different down payments? 

Financial Time Conversions is a 
BASIC program that has a series of 
menu-driven financial programs which 
can be used to figure out all the above 
problems and more. The program is 
geared to professionals and others 
interested in doing fairly sophisticated 
financial calculations. 

The program is on disk, and the use 
of a printer is optional. It is not copy- 



protected, so backups can be made for 
your own use. There is nothing partic- 
ularly difficult about using this pro- 
gram. Simply type RUN FINCON. The 
program asks if you'll be using a printer 
or not; a simple Y or N will do. 

The menu choices include Present 
Value, Uniform Series Value, Future 
Value, Interest Rate Conversions, and 
Exit From Program. 

The first choice offers a uniform 
series, a gradient series, a proportional 
series, or a future amount. The second 
and third selections offer uniform series 
values and future values, respectively. 
The fourth one allows conversion be- 
tween nominal annual and effective 
annual interest rates. 

Dale Tinklepaugh has informed me 
that he found an error in a portion of 
Financial Time Conversions that would 
effect the result of a conversion from a 
proportional series to a present value if 
the rate of increase were greater than the 
interest rate. The program will actually 
stop at a syntax error if this situation 
is encountered. The following change 
will make the program correct; for your 
original program disk and any backup 
copies, remove the write protect tab and 
type: 

LOAD'TINCON.BAS" 

1GG0 Fn=(((X+l) /N N)-l/X 

SAVE'TINCON.BAS" 

The program disk also has a backup 
file, F I NCON . BflK. You may want to type 
SAVE'TINCDN.BAK" to make sure all 
copies are correct. 

After you've gone through the menu 
selection process, the program prompts 
you for the pertinent information it 
needs to perform the calculations, such 
as interest rate, time periods, dollar 
amounts, etc. The program does its 



Hint . . . 



Cursory INKEY$ 



The INKEY$ function does not stop when it is called. Rather, you 
must lest the results of this function repeatedly with a comparison 
statement. When writing a program and testing this function, 1 find 
it is helpful to have a cursor appear when the computer is waiting for 
you to press a key. 

To have the INKEYS function display such a cursor, use POKE 
&HA5GA,&HB1. To restore this to its original state, use POKE 
8.HA5GA,&HC1. It is also possible to control the flashing of the cursor. 
To stop the cursor from flashing, use POKE&HA1AG.0. The "anti-poke" 
to restore the flashing cursor is P0KES.HA1AG,1G. 

Marc Gagnon 
Cap-de-la- Madeleine. Quebec 



136 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



u> 



Computer Island Educational Software 



ARROW GAMES 

32K Ext. - S21.95 tape/$26.95 disk 
Six menu driven games for young 
children (ages 3-6) to teach direc- 
tions. All games involve using the 
arrow keys ONLY. Games include: 
LADYBUG, BUTTERFLY, ARROW 
MATCH, KALEIDOSCOPE, RABBIT, 
and DOODLE. Colorful graphics. 

FIRST GAMES 

32K Ext. - $24.95 tape/$29.95 disk 
First Games contains 6 menu driven 
programs to delight and teach your 
early learners (ages 3-6). These 
games enrich the learning of colors, 
numbers, lower case letters, shapes, 
memory, visual discrimination and 
counting. 




CLOZE STORIES 

32K Ext. - $19.95 Tape/$24.95 Disk 
These programs give students prac- 
tice using the popular CLOZE read- 
ing technique. Each program contains 
grade appropriate short stories with 
key missing words to be deduced by 
the student. Available for grades 3, 4. 
5, 6, OR 7. Please specify. 

DRAWING CONCLUSIONS 

32K Ext. - tape $19.95/disk $24.95 
These programs contain short stories. 
Each story has two accompanying 
questions that ask the student to draw 
conclusions from the text. Available 
for grades 3-4 OR 5-6. Please specify. 



LOCATING STORY DETAILS 

32K Ext. - disk only - $24.95 
These programs contain short stories. 
Each has an accompanying picture. 
Questions about story details refer to 
either the text or pictures. The disk 
generated graphics are an integral 
part of these attractive programs. 
Available for grades 2-3 OR 4-5. 
Please specify. 




FOREIGN LANGUAGE GAMES 

32K Ext, - $19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 
(500 words) 
French or Spanish Baseball 
Score base hits or home runs for 
correct answers. You're out if wrong. 
Correct answers supplied. Fun way 
to learn and practice vocabulary. 
PLEASE SPECIFY LANGUAGE. 




PUNCTUATION PRACTICE 

32K Ext. - tape $19.95/disk S24.95 
On screen practice in proper usage 
of the familiar punctuation marks. 
Grades 3-7. 




MATH TUTOR SERIES 

16K Ext. 
These tutorials take the child through 
each step of the example. All pro- 
grams include HELP tables, cursor 
and graphic aids. All allow user to 
create the example, or let the com- 
puter choose. Multi-level. Great 
teaching programs. 

LONG DIVISION TUTOR 

$14.95 tape/$19.95 disk 

MULTIPLICATION TUTOR 

$14.95 tape/$19.95 disk 

FACTORS TUTOR 

$19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 

FRACTIONS TUTOR (addition) 

$19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 

FRACTIONS TUTOR (subtraction) 

$19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 

FRACTIONS TUTOR (mult.) 

$19.95 tape/$24.95 disk 

COMPUTER LITERACY 

32K Ext. - $19.95 tape/$29.95 disk 
A computer literacy quiz exclusively 
for the Color Computer. Tests and 
scores from over 60 questions on a 
Hi-res upper and lower case screen. 
Reviews computer literacy and 
beginning programming knowledge. 
Ages 10 and up. 




RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 



Computertrlsland 



(71 8) 948-2748 Evenings after 7:00 PM EST 

Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 
Please add S1 .00 per order for postage. N.Y. residents, please add proper tax. FREE set of BINARY DICE, including full directions, with 
orders of 2 or more items. 



Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



TRS-80 Color Computer 



All Payments in U.S. Funds. 



thing, displays the answer and then 
prompts for either more calculations or 
a return to the menu. 

Upon reading the manual that came 
with the program, 1 got the distinct 
impression I should have taken some 
finance courses. The terms used were 
not the everyday ones 1 was accustomed 
to. I thought maybe the nice people at 
the magazine made a mistake and sent 
this program to someone they thought 
was a businessman. But no, after read- 
ing il again, the examples were all 
concerned with things like mortgages 
and car maintenance cost tracking. 

If you recognize the terms in the 
menu, you'll have no problems. Fortu- 
nately, for those of us who don't know 
them, the author provides some very 
simple examples in the manual. I ran all 
of them and they functioned as de- 
scribed. 

1 tried to make the program crash. 
Since it is written in BASIC, it's pretty 
easy to fool. Just type in outrageous 
numbers and it stops with an error 
message. I was not able to find any 
problems with the program using rea- 
sonable numbers. The answers I verified 
with a calculator were correct (using the 
formula in the program). 



So, if you need some help solving 
those tough financial problems. Finan- 
cial Time Conversions may be for you. 

(Prometheus Software, 14684 Joshua Tree 
Ave., Moreno Valley, CA 92388, 714-247- 
3254; SI4: First product review for this 
company appearing in THE rainbow.) 

— C.L. Pilipauskas 



1 Softw 



are 



CoCo3 



RAMDisk - 

Speedy 

File-Handling 

RAMDisk is a machine language 
program written by Bill Vergona of 
Cercomp and supplied on disk for your 
512K CoCo 3. When installed, it pro- 
vides your computer with two addi- 
tional simulated disk drives. In my case, 
with drives and 1 actually connected, 
this program resulted in the addition of 
drives 2 and 3 in RAM. 
The program and its operation are 



totally compatible and transparent to 
Color BASIC, and the RAM disks added 
are treated just like any other physical 
disk drive as far as the computer is 
concerned. The big difference is that the 
RAM disks are lightning fast! 

There is also another major differ- 
ence. Unlike physical disks that can be 
removed from the drives and stored, 
any program, file or data stored in a 
RAM disk is lost when the computer is 
turned off or reset, so keep this in mind. 
The beauty of a RAM disk is in its data 
and file manipulation, but it should not 
be used for mass storage. 

RAMDisk is extremely easy to in- 
stall. Simply put the disk containing the 
program into Drive 0, type LOADM 
"RAMDISK" and press ENTER. When the 
program is loaded, it automatically 
installs itself and displays a copyright 
notice and the familiar OK prompt. 
RAM Disk automatically assigns drives 
2 and 3, so if you already have drives 
and I , as I do, you end up with a total 
of four drives when you're done. A 
DRIVE command is available in the 
program to allow you to select which 
drive designations you want. 

The supplied disk also contains a 
handy RAMTesi program that is useful 



Corrections 



"PCLEARO" (One-Liner Contest Winner, December 
1987, Page 14): Due to a typographical error, some 
of the parentheses in the listing were misplaced. The 
corrected line appears below. 

1/3 POKE182, 0:POKE183, PEEK (188) :P 
OKE184 , $ : POKE185 , 16 : POKE186 , PEEK 
(188) : POKE187 ,$ : POKE188 , PEEK ( 18 8 
) -6 : PCLEAR1 : POKE183 , PEEK (18 3)4-6: 
POKE188 ; PEEK(188)+6 

"A Desktop Publisher on a Shoestring" (October 
1987, Page 58): Several readers have been unable to 
get Desktop Low or Desktop High to work because 
of NE errors. These errors occur because the programs 
have been unable to find the needed font files. 
GENF0NT1 and GENF0NT2 must be run to create the 
files F0NT1 and F0NT2. In addition, a disk containing 
these generated font files must be in Drive before 
either version of the main program will run properly. 

"Caught Up in a Galactic Conflict" (November 1987, 
Page 78): These corrections to Galactic Conflict were 
submitted by the author, Paul Alger. The following 
lines need to be replaced or added as appropriate: 

1510 LINEINPUTZ$:IF LEN(Z$)>3 TH 
EN GOSUB1530: RETURN ELSE Z=VAL(Z 
$) : RETURN 



153/3 IF VAL(LEFT$(Z$,1) ) >/3 THEN 
FOR LC=1 TO LEN(Z$) ELSE RETURN 

1540 IF MID$(Z$,LC,1)="E" THENLC 
=LEN ( Z $ ) : Z $=" " : Z=0 : NEXTLC : RETURN 

155/3 NEXT: Z=VAL(Z$) : RETURN 

3715 IF Y(8)>1 THEN PRINT"Pay yo 
ur old loan first 1 " :GOT0363/3 

4405 IF X<1 OR X>SZ OR Y<1 OR Y> 
SZ THEN PRINT"There is no starga 
te here!":GOTO3,0/3 

4730 IFX2>0 AND X2<SZ AND Y2>0 A 
ND Y2<SZ THEN LC$=STR$ (G (X2 , Y2 ) ) 
ELSE PR$ = "*" :GOT0478/3 

In addition, all references to the variable Z should 
be changed to Z9 in lines 3470, 3472, 3475, 3477, 3480, 
3482, 3485 and 3487. 

For quicker reference, Corrections will be posted on 
Delphi as soon as they are available in the Info on 
Rainbow topic area of the database. Just type DATA 
at the CoCo SIG> prompt and INFO at the TOPIO 
prompt. 



138 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



to test your 512K memory expansion. 
This is somewhat redundant since most 
memory upgrades come with similar 
test programs. RAM Disk and RAM- 
Test are not copy-protected, so backup 
copies for your own use are no problem. 
If you have not yet explored the fun 
of using a RAM disk, then you are in 
for a pleasant surprise. RAM Disk- 
provides you with extra file-handling at 
incredible speed, at a price you can't 
ignore. 

(Spectrum Projects, Inc., P.O. Box 264, 
Howard Beach, NY 11414, 718-835-1344; 
S19.95 plus S3 S/H) 

— David Gerald 



ware- 



CoCo3 



LHafd 
Auto Dim — 
Protects Against 
Image Burn 



If you are the kind of CoCo nut who 
has to have everything for your comput- 
er, then Auto Dim will interest you. It's 
a hardware device you hook up to your 



CoCo 3 that darkens the screen or your 
TV, composite monitor, or RGB mon- 
itor after a few minutes of inactivity. 

Why would you need such a device? 
Well, it has been determined that if a 
high contrast image is left on the CRT 
(Cathode Ray Tube) screen for ex- 
tended periods of time, that image can 
be burnt into the tube's phosphor. 
While I have never seen this happen on 
any of my computer screens, I have seen 
it occur on oscilloscope CRTs due to the 
high intensity traces usually found on 
such equipment. The high degree of 
contrast and image sharpness found on 
the CoCo 3 makes image burn a possi- 
bility. 

Auto Dim hooks up to your CoCo 3 
in a matter of minutes. The device 
consists of two integrated circuit chips 
that have been encapsulated in a clear 
Lucite-looking material. The small 
cube, which measures only I '/i by I V* by 
Vi inches, looks like a half-melted ice 
cube with seven wires emanating from 
it. Each wire is terminated with a small 
connector clip so that solderless connec- 
tion can be made. A piece of double- 
sided tape on the bottom of the cube 
allows it to be attached on top of the 
CoCo 3's RF modulator. Hook-up is 



quite simple and the entire operation 
takes only about 10 minutes. A three- 
page illustrated instruction sheet is 
supplied and contains step-by-step 
instructions to make it easy. Keep in 
mind, though, that you void your com- 
puter's 90-day warranty if you add this 
gadget, so you might want to wait until 
it expires before you hook it up. 

You will never know you have Auto 
Dim hooked up until you leave your 
keyboard to answer the telephone or let 
out the cat. If no key is pressed, the 
screen will go blank after about 5 '/S 
minutes. On my CM-8 RGB monitor, 
the screen went black. The only indica- 
tion that the monitor was still on was 
the red power indicator. Pressing any 
key upon returning to the computer 
restores the screen image. 

Auto Dim is a nifty little package that 
is easy to install and has a useful pur- 
pose. I have one hooked up to my CoCo 
3 and find it very reliable. 

(Lucas Industries 2000, 14720 Cedar St. 
N.E., Alliance, OH 44601, 216-823-4221; 
S29.95: First product review for this com- 
pany appearing in the rainbow.) 

— David Gerald 



/5^\ 

RAINBOW 

CERTIFICATION 
SEAL 




■Software for your hom * sin " W83 " 



rH&flW/ttrf 







8mbr 



Reg. &« 1 Drive 
CoCo 1 2 3 Cospatible 
Using Hi-res+ 51 col 
NEH CoCo 3 .-ersion ! 
+ Mailer I Jacket PGH 



or 



"1 have seen countless "checkbook' programs lor ibe CoCo. 

1 snvt HLVLR seen a prograi for this purpose as goo<l as 

UH'tK.' Rush T. Calev Owner Eierson Coiputer Services 

Fast Check/Card is designed to take the "work" out of" 

bookwork with lightning fast entries oersonaly configured 

to you systei and account. Constant balance disolays and 

sorts for both checking and creditcard. $39.95 shipoed 

Try it, if you don't like it I'll give your noney back 1 

Specif v 51 or BO col (CC3 tt/R6B or lonochroie ion.) 

Ancestry, by Chris Meek $39.95 see 11/84 PainboH Rev 

Full line of Bob van der Poel software 
Magnavox 8CH515 CC3 R6B monitor $310,00 w/cable shipped 
Say vou saw it here, and take off $5,00 

Computer Villa. 132S 48th. DM. I A 50311 
Te.-rv Simons (515)279-2576 



Run V X Ion y 

CoCo3! 



on your 



VIP Integrated Library 

VIP Writer/Speller 

VIP Calc 

VIP Database 

VIP Terminal 

VIP Speller 

VIP Disk-Zap 

All products are RSDOS Disk 

• Available at Radio Shack stores throu 



*$149.95 

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$34.95 

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versions only 

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Upgrade your VIP Writer, Speller, Calc, Database or Term- 
inal to run on your CoCol , 2 or 3 for only $30.00 each! 
Send diskette only and check or money order tor $30. 



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Include $3 shipping. Checks allow 3 weeks for delivery. 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



139 



*p cce «ted ei4id 






^ L 



] »o N 



The following products have recently been received by 
THE RAINBOW, examined by our magazine staff and 
issued the Rainbow Seal of Certification, your assurance 
that we have seen the product and have ascertained that 
it is what it purports to be. 



Color Talk 3, a 64K. terminal pro- 
gram. Features include screen display 
options for all CoCos, Xmodem and 
Ymodem protocols, saving to buffer 
or disk, ASCII filtering, conference 
chat mode, etc. For the CoCo 1, 2 and 
3. Computize, P.O. Box 207, Lang- 
home, PA 19047, (215) 946-7200; 
$49.95. 

Data Master, a 512K database man- 
ager for OS-9 Level II utilizing win- 
dows. The features include pull-down 
menus, dialog boxes, a LIST display 
format, nine different display and 
entry screens, file management, up- 
load/download, etc. For the CoCo 3. 
Compuierware, 4403 Manchester 
Avenue, Suite 102, Box 668, Encini- 
tas, CA 92024, (619)436-3512; $64.95. 

The Director, a menu-driven anima- 
tion utility that allows you to display 
CoCo 3 graphics pictures with time 
delays, color changes and BASIC or 
prerecorded cassette music. For the 
CoCo 3. Seesof, P. O. Box 574, Beau- 
fort, SC 29901, (803) 524-0116; 
$49.95. 

V" Hard Disk Organizer, a utility 
that allows users to develop menu- 
driven pathlists so that application 
programs can be accessed from the 
hard drive with a single keystroke. 
Designed for application on an OS-9 
Level II operating system. For the 
CoCo 2 and 3. Robert Hengsteheck. 
408 Grandview Avenue, Feasterville. 
PA 19047, (215) 322-5455; $24.95. 

■4jfr LOT-PRO, a program to help select 
lotto numbers for any state or country 
"Pick-Six" lotto game. Includes an 

140 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



option for a randomized wheeling 
system. For the CoCo 1 , 2 and 3. CJN 
Enterprises, P.O. Box 40487, Bakers- 
field, CA 93384. (805) 836-1323; 
$25.95. 

PhantomGraph, a 5I2K graph and 
chart creation program that offers 
simplicity for beginning drafters and 
varied capabilities for those more 
advanced. DynaCalc and Sylk file 
programs can be converted to Phan- 
tomGraph files. For the CoCo 3. 
Tandy Corporation, 1700 One Tandy 
Center, Ft. Worth, TX 76102; $39.95. 
Available in Radio Shack stores na- 
tionwide. 

Springster, a 128K Hi-Res color 
graphics game. Maneuver through 32 
different mazes in search of the Maze 
Melon. Battle bad guys, collect treas- 
ures and race the clock during your 
perilous quest. Three skill levels for 



one or two players. For the CoCo 3. 
Tandy Corporation, 1700 One Tandy 
Center, Ft. Worth, TX 76102; $24.95. 
Available in Radio Shack stores na- 
tionwide. 

V Stylograph, a word processing system 
that allows you to type your file, 
modifying and correcting it as you go. 
and then print it out. For the CoCo 
3. Stylo Software, Inc.. 482 C Street, 
Idaho Falls, ID 83402, (208) 529- 
3210; $199.95. 

4} Traintown U.S.A., a 64 K Adventure 
game. Your vacation destination is a 
cozy little home in the country. How- 
ever, a summer adventure begins 
when you arrive in Traintown and 
discover you have no house key, and 
there are no people to be found. For 
the CoCo 1,2 and 3. Software Deluxe, 
HCR85 Box 292, Buffalo. MO 65622, 
(417) 345-8619; $15 plus $2 S/H. 



V First product received from this company 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products 
for the Tandy Color Computer, regardless of whether they advertise in 
THE RAINBOW. 

By awarding a Seal, the magazine certifies the product does exist — that 
we have examined it and have a sample copy — but this does not constitute 
any guarantee of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these hardware or 
software items will be forwarded to THE RAINBOW reviewers for 
evaluation. 

— Judi Hutchinson 



The Best Money Can Buy . . . 
HDS Floppy Drive Controller Board 




Reduce your I/O errors with the Hard Drive Specialist 
Floppy Drive Controller for the Color Computer. Gold edge 
card connectors, advanced design, and the absence of 
potentiometers make it the best available. Our newest ver- 
sion controller allows the use of either (two 24 pin ROMS), 
or (one 24 pin and one 28 pin ROM). Using this board 
with the standard Radio Shack ROM gives you 100% com- 
patibility with all Radio Shack software. 
Completed and Tested Board 

with Radio Shack ROM $99. 

(Includes Case, and DOS Instructions) 

Completed and Tested Board without ROM . . . $79. 

(Includes Case) 

Bare Board with Instruction manual $30. 

Parts Kit For Bare Board without ROM $30. 

Radio Shack ROM (current version) $20. 

Radio Shack ROM 1.0 $40. 



Ordering Information 

Use our WATS lino to place your older via Visa. MasterCard, or Wire Transfor Or 
mail your payment directly to us. Any non- certified funds will be hold until proper 
clearance is made. COD orders are accepted as well as purchase orders from 
governmon! agbncies. Most items are shipped off the shelf with the exception ol hard 
drive products that are custom built UPS ground is our standard means of shipping 
unless otherwise specified Shipping costs are available upon request 



Drive Complete v $199. 

Drive 1 Complete $129. 

Drive & 1 Dual Drive $319. 



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1-713-480-6000 
Order Line 1-800-231-6671 
16208 Hickory Knoll 
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'r oje ct 



A simple keyboard-locking switch 





czi 







0__ you have a young child 
(li) wno '" ces ,0 Dan 8 on tne 
\~s keyboard when you are 

out of the computer room for a short 
break? Or, maybe a child who likes to 
type in his or her spelling words in 
command mode and "new" happens to 
be one of them? Or, maybe you have a 
game on pause that can be reactivated 
by the pressing of any key, and someone 
comes while you are out of the room 
and presses a key for the heck of it? If 
you have these or similar problems, this 
very simple hardware project can help. 
What this project does is lock the 
keyboard by a flip of a switch. This does 
not require any internal wiring or 
getting into the computer in any way, 
so it will not void your warranty. It is 
very simple and anyone can do it. 

How It Works 

Have you ever noticed that pressing 
the firebutton on either joystick locks 
up the keyboard so that none of the keys 
do anything? Well, this project works on 
the same principle: It shorts the firebut- 
ton line to ground in the joystick port. 



Ray Onley is a freshman at Forest 
Park High School, who started 
out with a 4K MC-10 in 1985 and 
has worked his way up to a 512K 
Co Co 3. 



What You Need 

Be sure to obtain the exact six-pin 
jack and plug specified in the parts list. 
Even though you may notice that your 
joystick plug has only five pins, it is 
actually a modified six-pin DIN plug. 
(The cassette port and plug are exam- 
ples of the standand five-pin DIN 
configuration.) 

To complete the project you'll need 
the following tools and supplies: solder- 
ing iron, electrical tape, five lengths of 
about 22-gauge, 8-inch wire (in five 
colors), and a pair of needlenose pliers. 

How To Build It 

Now let's go through the project step- 
by-slep. Be sure to follow the instruc- 
tions carefully, because you will have 
trouble getting back into the canister 
later to fix an error. 

1) Drill, poke, or melt two holes in 
the film canister, one in the center 
of the lid and one in the center of 
the bottom. Make sure the holes 
are big enough to fit the five wires. 
Next, on the canister's side, near 
the center, drill a hole big enough 
to fit the switch into. 

2) The five wires will connect five of 
the six pins of the two DIN plugs. 
Pin 6 is ignored throughout this 
project, but you may wish to con- 
sider using an extra wire for this 
pin if you use a CoCo 3. Make a 
list or individual labels to identify 



the five colors as wire numbers I, 
2, 3, 4 and 5. 

3) Cut wires #3 and #4 in half. Then, 
take the two pieces of Wire #3 and 
strip about Vz inch off one end of 
each piece. Loop the two pieces 
onto the same post of the switch 
and make sure they extend in 
opposite directions. Solder this 
connection. Repeal the procedure 
for the two parts of Wire #4 on the 
switch's other terminal. 

4) Feed the five wires through the 
hole at the bottom of the canister, 
one at a time. Keep feeding them 
through the hole until the switch is 
even with the hole you made for it. 



DIN 
Plug 




142 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



Then poke the switch through the 
hole and secure it with the top nut. 
Feed the other set of wires through 
the hole in the film can lid. Secure 
the lid on the can, pulling the five 
wires gently. 

5) Take the jack and plug apart by 
inserting a small screwdriver tip 
into the locking slot, pulling it up 
and extracting the chrome part of 
the plug out of the black cover. 
Then take the chrome casing apart 
by just pulling it apart. 

6) Important: Slip the black covers 
from the jack and plug onto the 
two sets of wires coming from the 
switch canister. Do it now or you 
will be sorry! 

7) Follow your color code chart and 
solder wires I through 5 to pins 1 
through 5 of the plug. The pin 
numbers are marked on the plug 
body. Do the same for the other set 
of five wires and the jack. Again, 
I emphasize that you need strip 
only Vt. inch of insulation from the 
wire ends; that is all the bare wire 
needed for neat connections to the 
DIN plug and jack terminals. Too 
much bare wire could result in 
shorting. 

8) Make sure that none of the bare 
wires are touching each other. If 
they are not, replace the chrome 
covers on the plug, then slide the 
black cover back onto the rest of 
the plug. Make sure that the hole 
in the chrome casing is lined up 
with the locking slot on the black 
cover. This makes certain that the 
cover is properly locked onto the 
casing. Repeat the process for the 
jack. 



Parts List 

Qty. Description Price 

1 6-pin DIN plug $1.29 

1 6-pin DIN inline jack $1.29 

1 SubminiatureSPST toggle switch $1.59 

1 35mm plastic film canister $0.00 



Radio Shack Part # 

274-020 
274-021 
275-612 



Does It Work? 

You are now ready to test your 
keyboard-locking switch. Insert the 
plug into the left joystick port and plug 
a free-float joystick into the jack of your 
newest CoCo accessory. Type some- 
thing on the keyboard. If the letters do 
not appear on the screen, flip the switch 
and try typing again. If the letters 
appear on the screen, you know that the 
switch works as it should. If it is not 
working, skip the next two paragraphs 
and come back to this later. 

After you have confirmed that the 
keyboard properly freezes, you need to 
check and sec if the rest of the wires are 
connected as they should be. To do this, 
simply type in the following program: 

10 PR1NT@480, JOYSTI<(0) , 

JOYSTK(l); 
20 GOTO 10 

Run the program to see if the two 
numbers at the bottom of the screen 
change in accord with the X and Y 
movement of the joystick. If they do 
not, read on. 

If It Doesn't Work 

There is always a reason for some- 
thing not working as it should. And it 
is usually better in the long run to 
carefully take a project apart and find 
out what is wrong than to smash it 



against a wall or crush it with a hammer, 
even though these methods are widely 
used "cures." 

The following is a list of nearly 
everything that could be wrong with 
your project. If you have a multimeter 
or simple continuity tester, check all five 
lines in accord with the circuit diagram. 
Possible causes of project failure: 

1) Incorrect wiring of wires 3 and 4 
to switch 

2) Switch terminals are shorted out 
by excess bare wire or sloppy 
soldering 

3) Defective switch 

4) Broken wire 

5) Plug or jack terminals shorted by 
solder drop or stray wire strand 

6) Mix-up among wires 1, 2 and 5 
from plug to jack 

7) Defective joystick 

If you don't use or own joysticks, you 
can make a simple version of this proj- 
ect in just a few minutes. Use two short 
wires to connect pins 3 and 4 of a six- 
pin DIN plug to the terminals of the 
switch listed above or any other conven- 
ient SPST toggle or slide switch. Use 
creativity and some electrical tape to 
secure the switch neatly to the plug. 

(Questions may be directed to the 
author at 810 Cascade Road, Cincin- 
nati, OH 45240. Please enclose an 
SASE when writing for a reply.) /R\ 



DIN 
Jack 



X=Pin 6 not used 



S1 



c 




January 1988 THE RAINBOW 143 



*ew^ 



Light up the controller as it writes to disk 



Beginners — Add an LED 
to Your Controller 



Thinking about the Princeton 
RAINBOWfest still excites me. 
If this RAINBOWfest is any 
indication of how the CoCo is doing, 
then long live the CoCo! This show was 
one of the best I've been to in a long 
time. The CoCo 3 seems to be doing 
very well. There were lots of new things 
for the CoCo 3 — both hardware and 
software. Look forward to seeing a few 
projects from me for the CoCo 3. I 
talked to a lot of people who read this 
column, and 1 would like to thank all 
my readers for their support, without 
which 1 would have stopped writing a 
long time ago. 

Talking to RAINBOWfest goers gave 
me a few insights on the direction this 
column is heading. I received a lot of 
requests for "simple-to-do projects." 
Some people want to build something 
useful. Others say they want challenging 
projects. Well, why don't you send me 
your "Hardware Projects Wish List"? 
I'll look them over and make the ones 
I think other people might like. Send 
them to THE RAINBOW, with attention to 
me or "Turn of the Screw." 

This month, as I promised several 
readers, 1 am doing a beginners project. 
In the past, I have done LED (Light 
Emitting Diodes) projects that have lit 
up just about everything on the CoCo. 
I even did a project that lit up different 
colors on your disk drive when you 
accessed different sides of your drive. 
Well, I'm doing another LED project, 



Tony DiStefano is a well-known early 
specialist in computer hardware proj- 
ects. He lives in Laval Quest, Quebec. 



By Tony DiSlefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 

one I saw done on a disk controller a 
long time ago and have not seen since: 
an LED to indicate when the disk 
controller is writing to the disk. 

This is a simple project requiring a 
minimum amount of tools and parts. 
The parts are available at your local 
Radio Shack, and there are only two 
needed. The first, of course, is an LED. 
Radio Shack has lots of them. 1 suggest 
you buy one that comes with its own 
panel-mount holder, as it is easier to 
install. The other part is a resistor. 
That's it — a simple project that costs 
under a dollar. 

Before I get into the construction of 
the project, let's look into the theory of 
the LED. Figure I is the electrical 
diagram of an LED. An LED, as the 
name implies, is first a diode. A diode 
is an electronic component that lets 
current flow in only one direction; let's 
call it the positive direction, which is 
shown by the arrow in Figure 1. The 
diode presents little resistance to the 
current flow. When the diode is con- 
ducting, il is said to be "Forward Bi- 
ased." 

In the other direction, the negative 
direction, the diode presents a high 
resistance. Current does not flow 
through the diode in the negative direc- 
tion. When this happens, the diode is 
considered to be "Reversed Biased." 
When a light emitting diode is forward 
biased, it emits light. Quite simple, isn't 
it? 

When an LED is forward biased, it 
conducts current. If we were to put an 
LED, forward biased, across the 5 volts 
found in the CoCo, it would cause 
trouble. The diode would act like a 



short and cause the 5 volts to blow a 
fuse, as well as the LED itself. 




We need something to limit the 
amount of current flowing through the 
LED. This is where the resistor comes 
in. Current flow is measured in amps. 
A typical LED can handle up to 50ma. 
The term "ma" stands for "milliamp." 
It means 1/ 1,000th of an amp. To have 
50ma means to have 50/ l.OOOths of an 
amp, or .05 amp. Without getting into 
too many formulas, we want the LED 
to have about lOma. The formula for 
calculating resistance from voltage and 
current is R = V / I, where the voltage 
(V) is 5 volts and the current (I) is lOma. 
The resistance is 500 ohms. The closest 
value for this resistance that Radio 
Shack has is 470 ohms, which will do 
just fine. So, to recap the parts, you will 
need one LED with panel-mount holuer 
and one resistor, 470 ohms Vt watt. 

Next, you will need some tools. Not 
many are required, but check to make 
sure you have them all before you start. 
There is nothing more frustrating than 



144 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



PRINTER LIGHTNING 

A great print spooler which gives you 
44K print buffer from a 128K CoCo and 
up to 438K (200 pages!) from a 512K 
CoCo. With this spooler you can run a 
program while you are printing a file. 
The spooler does not slow down the 
computer to any noticeable extent while 
you are running a second program and 
no lost characters arise. Baud rates 
selectable. Printer Lightning can reside 
in memory along with RAMDISKl 



Proven Technology 
New CoCo 3 Utilities 

Great for 512K Systems! From Color Venture and OWL. WARE 



NEW NEW 



Using 512K CoCo 3 you have access to 
2 additional disk drives in RAM. All 
disk commands are supported, and the 
data are Reset button protected. You 
can now have up to 5 disk drive capa- 
cities on line at once and can assign the 
ram disks to any drive number. By 
making the ramdisk Drive 0, all pro- 
grams which require a lot of drive 
access will run much faster. You can 
have the RAMDISK in memory at the 
same time as the Printer Lightning'. 



BACKUP LIGHTNING 

This program is the fastest way to make 
backup copies of your files using a 512K 
CoCo. You can backup 35, 40, or 80 
track disks single or double sided. Both 
RS and OS-9 disks may be backed up. 
The original disk is saved to memory 
and a copy can be made on an 
unformatted disk every 45 seconds! The 
lightning read, write, format, and verify 
routines that were developed make this 
program much quicker that RSDOS or 
OS-9 for backups. This will become one 



of your most used programs! 

Only $1 9.95 each. 3 for $49.95. 
SPECIAL With our 512K Upgrade (Next page) only $2. each Or 3 for $5! 



Announcing: 



The fines) graphics/drawing program for ihc COCO 31 



Da Vinci 3 



I 16 colors on screen at one lime 
I Modify each color from 64 available colors 
I Use composite or RGB monitor 
i Draw with custom paintbrushes 
Full resolution 320 X 192 
Picture converter for conversion of 

COCO 2 pictures to COCO 3 
, Multiple text fonts 
I Accepts input from joystick, X-pad, 

mouse, or touch-pad 
I Boxes, circles, line, paint generation 
l Screen dump for Tandy mono and color ink-jet 

printers, (NX-I0 and others pending) 
I Sensible price 
I No additional hardware required because of 

course/fine joystick movement modes 
l Zoom mode for individual pixel editing 
I Great on screen menu which is removable at 

the touch of a kev to allow full screen edit 



128Kor5l2KCOC0 3 



$37.95 




Super I/O Board for OS-9 

Each Board Provides 2 Serial Ports and Centronics Parallel Port 

First Board has Real Time Clock and Beeper... With Second Board up to 5 Users 

2 Ssrtal PortB 



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Ads... 



The serial ports are usable up to 19,200 Baud, and 
Ihe parallel porl is a true Centronics standard. 
Plug into your multi-pak. On CoCo 3, multi-puk 
must be upgraded. You will have a multi-user 
system with additional computers or terminals 
plugged into the serial ports. An OWL hard drive 
and 512K upgrade are stronclv recommended for 
multi-user systems. 

Intro Price... 

BOARD 2. ..$139. 



(up to i 9,200 BAUD) 



$165. 



Pluos 
Into 

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CENTRONICS 

PARALLEL 

PORT 



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P.O. Box 116-A 

Mertztown, PA L9539 

— ORDER LINES (only) — 

(800) 245-6228 

(21 5) 682-6855 (PA) 



fill 



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starting a project and finding out that 
you are missing something. You need a 
soldering iron and solder, cutter/ 
strippers, screwdriver (to match the 
screws that open your controller), and 
a drill and bit (to match the size of the 
LED mounting hardware). You will 
also need a few pieces of thin wire and 
electrical tape or shrink tubing. 

Now we have all the parts and theory 
we need to start. It's time to get prac- 
tical. In the controller circuit, there is an 
output that tells the disk drive hardware 
to go into the record or write mode. 
Like other signals that control the disk 
drive, it must reach the drive itself. This 
is done by the 34-wire connecting rib- 
bon cable that plugs into the end of the 
controller. We will monitor this write 
signal with our LED. We want to hook 
up our LED so that it lights up when 
the controller is writing to the disk. The 
write signal is on Pin 24. This signal is 
available many places in the controller, 
but 1 chose this one because it is the only 
place common to all controllers, Disto, 
Radio Shack or any other. 

When the controller is idle or reading, 
the level on Pin 24 is high, about 5 volts. 
When the controller is writing, the pin 
is low, or ground-level. We want to 
hook up our LED and resistor in such 
a way that the LED is on when this 
signal is low. Before reading on. think 
about it and try to design it by yourself. 
Does your design look like the one in 
Figure 2? If it does, reward yourself with 
a visit to the fridge. If it doesn't, study 
the circuit and see where you went 
wrong. 

Here is the theory behind why I wired 
it up this way: As I stated previously, 
when the controller is reading, the 
signal is high (5 volts). The LED is also 
hooked up to 5 volts. Disregarding the 
resistor, if a diode (or our LED) has 5 



volts on both sides, it cannot have any 
current flow. Therefore, the LED is off. 



Pin 9 

Computer Side 






Pin 24 
Drive Side 

Figure 2 



When the controller is writing, the 
signal is low. When the diode has 5 volts 
on one side and ground on the other 
side, it becomes forward biased and 
conducts. Therefore, the LED is on and 
shines brightly. 

OK! Time to start constructing. Turn 
the computer off and remove the con- 
troller from the computer. Remove the 
controller's cover using the proper 
screwdriver. Locate Pin 24 on the con- 
nector that connects to the drives. 
Locating this pin may be a bit of a pain. 
On the top part of the connector are all 
the odd numbers. On the bottom part 
are all the even numbers. So, unless you 
can see where the pin leads, you will 
have to remove the controller from the 
bottom part of the case to get to Pin 24. 











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If you are looking at the bottom part 
of the connector, and the connector is 
pointing upward. Pin 2 of the connector 
is on your right. Count by two toward 
the left until you reach 24. Solder a piece 
of wire to that pin. Make sure you 
solder at the base of the pin and not at 
the tip. You will not be able to plug in 
the connector, otherwise. Run the wire 
out over the side of the controller and 
replace the bottom cover. Make sure the 
wire is long enough to reach the LED. 
Cut the ends of the resistor to leave just 
enough room to solder. Solder the wire 
to one end of the resistor. Solder the 
other end of the resistor to the short lead 
of the LED. Now solder another short 
piece of wire to the long end of the LED. 

At this point you must find 5 volts 
somewhere. One place where 1 know 
that all controllers must have 5 volts is 
at the connector that plugs into the 
controller: on Pin 9 of the connector. It 
is on the top this time. Pin 1 of the 
computer connector is on the same side 
as Pin I of the drive connector. Solder 
the wire that comes from the LED to 
this pin on the computer side of the 
connector. That is all the soldering you 
have to do. Use black tape or shrink 
tubing to hide all of the exposed wires, 
including the resistor. 

The only thing you have left to do is 
mount the LED. Find a suitable place 
on the cover to mount it. But you have 
to be able to see it when the controller 
is plugged into the computer, and the 
back side of the LED cannot touch the 
controller. If you have a Multi-Pak, you 
may want to make your hole on the end 
of the controller, so that the LED will 
be pointing up when it is plugged into 
the Multi-Pak. 

Now close up the cover, and test it 
out. Set up your system and turn it on. 
Make sure you get your normal mes- 
sage. Put a blank or otherwise "non- 
useful" disk in the drive. If this circuit 
doesn't work right, you don't want to 
destroy a good disk. If all is OK, try 
entering DIR. The LED should not 
come on. If all is OK, try using D5KINI 
to format the disk. The LED should go 
on and blink for every track the con- 
troller formats. If the controller formats 
the disk properly and the LED works, 
all is OK. If not, go back and check your 
work. If you cannot find anything 
wrong, try reversing the LED. It may be 
in backward. 

Enjoy your new LED. 1 hope you 
have learned a little more about the 
hardware in your computer. Till next 
time. Don't forget to send in that 
"Hardware Projects Wish List." /«\ 



148 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



:o nsultat i ons 



CoCo Powers the Amp 



By Marly Goodman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



/ am Irving to power a speaker am- 
plifier (R.S. Cat. No. 277-1008) off a 
Co Co 3 lo use as a source of sound with 
my monochrome monitor. Normally, it 
calls for a 9-volt battery. I hooked it to 
the output of IC36 (an 8-volt regulator) 
in the CoCo 3. but now occasionally my 
screen images disappear. Can you help? 

Mark C. Smith 

(MRMAJER) 

Greenville, TX 

That 8-volt regulator (IC 36) is used 
to produce regulated 8 volts for the 
video circuitry of the CoCo 3. It has a 
very tiny rated current output (100 
MA), and so it is not surprising that 
when you added the speaker amplifier 
to it, it got overloaded and went into 
thermal shutdown. 

The correct way to power that 
speaker amp unit from the CoCo 3 is to 
hook it up directly to the unregulated 
DC supply of the CoCo, which tends to 
be about 10 volts. This 10-volt unreg- 
ulated DC can be obtained from Pin 16 
of IC 8, or from the plus terminal of C 
29 (the 4,700 mfd main filter capacitor), 
or from the junction of D I and D2. 



Martin H. Goodman, M.D., a physi- 
cian trained in anesthesiology, is a 
longtime electronics tinkerer and out- 
spoken commentator — sort of the 
Howard Cosell of the CoCo world. On 
Delphi, Marty is the SIGop of RAIN- 
BOW'S CoCo SIG and database man- 
ager of OS-9 Online. His non-computer 
passions include running, mountaineer- 
ing and outdoor photography. Marty 
lives in San Pablo, California. 



Accessing the Back Side 

/ have a pair of double-sided drives, 
and normally can access each side of 
them using my system. However, some 
programs (Hickyterm and KDSK) 
don V seem to be able to access the back 
sides of these drives. The problem seems 
to be limited to those programs that do 
not use RS DOS calls, but rather have 
their own disk sector I/O routines 
(DSKCON.vJ in them. Can you help? 

Fred Ahlberg 

(FREDAHLBERG) 

Kingston, NH 

You are quite right in identifying the 
problem as being the failure of certain 
programs to use your Disk Basic's 
ROM routines. I would assume that 
your Disk BASIC (RS DOS, JDOS, 
ADOS, or whatever) has been modified 
in EPROM to define Drive 2 as the back 
of Drive and Drive 3 as the back of 
Drive 1. (This is the most common, and 
most sensible, arrangement.) 

When the programs in question cir- 
cumvent the DSKCDN routine in Disk 
BASIC they are unable to reach the back 
sides of your drives. In the case of 
Rickyterm, Don Hutchison has written 
some excellent modifications to it that 
will permit the sort of double-sided 
operation you desire. These should be 
available on Delphi now. In the case of 
KDSK, you would have to disassemble 
the program, find the DSKCON routine, 
locate the drive mask table there, and 
modify it. The drive mask table is 
usually located near the very end of the 
DSKCON routine. Check a disassembly of 
Disk BASIC (Disk Basic Unravelled, 
available from Microcom Software and 
Spectrum Projects) for details. 



A second approach would be to make 
a hardware modification of your drives. 
Using a bunch of diodes or a quad OR 
gate, the drives can be set up as two 
logical drives on each side. 

One approach would be to run the 
drive select and 2 lines from the 
controller into the two inputs of an OR 
gate, and feed the drive select line on the 
drive with the output of that OR gate. 
Then also run the incoming drive select 

2 line to the side select pin on that drive. 
(Do a similar thing for drive select 1 and 

3 lines with the other drive). After such 
a modification is installed, you merely 
use any standard DOS ROM that is not 
modified itself for double-sided opera- 
tion, and your two physical drives will 
work as if they are four logical drives, 
regardless of what RS DOS program 
you are using. This approach is won- 
derful for Disk Extended BASIC, but 
should never be done by users of OS- 
9, which requires that the drives be 
unmodified for proper use of double- 
sided drives. 



Degas to Color Max 

Is there a way to convert Atari Degas 
files to be viewed or modified on a 
CoCo 3 under Computize's Color Max? 

Dave Lucas 
Chicago. IL 

Greg Miller, one of the co-authors of 
Color Max, has provided a program to 
view Degas files, and I believe Comput- 
ize may have a utility for converting 
them. The viewing utility is available on 
Delphi in the Graphics section. I would 
suggest a call to Computize about the 
converter utility. 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 149 



CoCo 3 Questions 

1) Does the CoCo 3 work with 
JDOS? 

2) Is the J RAM 5I2K expansion 
hoard for use only as a RAM disk, or 
is it for the CoCo 3? 

3) Are there bugs in the CoCo 3's 
ROM? 

4) Does OS-9 Level 1 1 have icons and 
pull-down menus? I mean, is it "user- 
friendlv '? 

5) Is 5I2K of RAM needed for OS- 
9 Level II? 

6) Can OS-9 Level II take advantage 
of a double-sided drive? 

7) Is BAS1C09 included in OS-9 Level 
II? 

8) Is an editor assembler included 
with OS-9 Level II? 

9) What is involved in making a 
CoCo 3 5I2K upgrade board? 

Nicolaus Alber Borges Schrifcr 
Salvador. Brazil 

1 ) JDOS will not work properly with 
the CoCo 3. Of all previous patched 
DOS systems, only ADOS 3 (see Spec- 
tro Systems ad) will work properly on 
the CoCo 3, and that is because it was 
written from the ground up for the 
CoCo 3. I recommend it highly if you 
want an enhanced disk ROM for the 
CoCo 3. 

2) J&R made a 512K add-on for the 
CoCo 1 and 2. This worked only as a 
RAM disk (or printer spooler). J&R 
also makes a CoCo 3 512K memory 
upgrade board, though this is a different 
item. Note that many other companies 
(PB.I. Disto, Hemphill and Owlware) 
also make CoCo 3 5I2K upgrade 
boards. All of these are advertised in 
RAINBOW. 

3) The CoCo 3's ROM is riddled with 
minor bugs and badly thought-out 
design characteristics. A list of them 
would take up several pages. If you can 
log onto Delphi, we have lists of them 
posted there. None of these bugs are 
terribly serious, and all can be circum- 
vented. None have any significance if 
you are running OS-9. 

4-8) OS-9 itself is not at all user- 
friendly. It is a pure, ancient, prompt- 
oriented operating system, designed for 
programmers and not for users. This is 
as true of Level II as it is of Level I. Any 
user-friendliness about OS-9 software 
must be created by the individual pro- 
grammer. 

But Level II does provide for pro- 
grammers creating icons and windows, 
and. when Multi-Vue is available, will 



support creation of elaborate graphics 
interfaces with relative programming 
ease. But it does not come with its own 
standardized graphics interface of par- 
ticular icons, screen images, and the 
like. OS-9 Level II does come with 
BAS1C09 included. An editor assembler 
is not included. For that you would have 
to buy the "Developer's Kit." 

Although OS-9 Level II will run on 
a 128K CoCo, 512K is absolutely re- 
quired to make any use of most of its 
unique and desirable features. So, for 
virtually all intents and purposes, I 
would say there is no point in getting 
OS-9 Level II unless you also own a 
5I2K CoCo. All versions of OS-9, 
especially OS-9 Level II, support a wide 
variety of disk drives with great ease, 
including double-sided 40- and double- 
sided 80-track drives (360 and 720K 
type drives). 

9) CoCo 3 512K upgrade boards are 
electronically quite trivial, consisting 
only of sixteen 41256 memory chips and 
associated .33 mfd deglitching caps, and 
one 10 mfd filter cap. Some manufac- 
turers use 33 ohm anti-ringing resistors. 
Making up the board, however, is quite 
tedious. And a decent printed circuit 
board with proper layout of power and 
ground planes is required for the thing 
to run properly. Do not try to hand wire 
such a thing! Overall, I would say it is 
a waste of time to make one's own 5 1 2K 
board. Instead, I strongly recommend 
you order one of the half-dozen or so 
different varieties available via RAIN- 
BOW magazine ads. If you insist on 
doing it yourself, complete information 
about such boards is available in the 
service manual for the CoCo 3, which 
is available from Tandy National Parts 
(Cat. No. 26-3334). 

Choosing a Monitor 

What is the best low-cost monitor 
capable of 80-by-32 display? I want a 
true monitor, not a TV made to look 
like a monitor. And what about video 
drivers? 

Ernie Bennett 
Beck ley. WV 

I am sure you meant to write 80-by- 
24, not 80-by-32. because 80-by-32 is 
never used, while 80-by-24 is the indus- 
try standard. Anyway, no ordinary 
television is capable of displaying 80- 
by-24 character screens. Almost any 
composite video monochrome monitor 
will be excellent for your purpose. 
Many companies advertise such moni- 
tors in RAINBOW for S60 to $90 each. 



There is relatively little difference 
among makes and models. The main 
thing to consider is color (green vs. 
amber vs. white letters). Individual 
units vary in terms of anti-glare prop- 
erties and cabinet styling. Usually such 
variations are of minimal significance. 
Be sure not to get an "IBM-type" or 
"TTL monochrome" monitor. What 
you want is a composite video-type 
monochrome monitor. 

Note that the CoCo I and 2, which 
require a video driver in order to be used 
with a monitor, cannot display a read- 
able 80-column screen. Only the addi- 
tion of a Word Pak RS and a Multi-Pak 
Interface will solve that problem. Even 
then, very little software works with the 
Word Pak. Instead, if you need 80- 
column display, the only sensible ap- 
proach is to get a CoCo 3. Now, the 
CoCo 3 has its own composite video 
output, so no special video driver is 
needed. You will, however, need to use 
software that allows you to turn off the 
color burst signal, or select a white on 
black character set, in order for the 
image to be clearly readable on a mono- 
chrome monitor. 

Quest of the Memory Map 

/ need to know how the memory 
manager of the CoCo 3 works, and 
about what its memory map is like. 
Where can I get this information? 

Bob Toronchut 
Newbrook. Alberta. Canada 

The information you seek is available 
in the Tandy Service Manual for the 
CoCo 3. Merely ask your local Radio 
Shack store to order the "Service Man- 
ual" for the CoCo 3 (Cat. No. 26-3334), 
or call Tandy National Parts in Fort 
Worth and directly order it. The price 
is about SI4 (American). 

Your technical questions are wel- 
comed. Please address them to CoCo 
Consultations, the rainbow, P.O. Box 
385, Prospect, KY 40059. 

We reserve the right to publish only 
questions of general interest and to edit 
for brevity and clarity. Due to the large 
volume of mail we receive, we are unable 
to answer letters individually. 

Questions can also be sent to Marty 
through the Delphi CoCo SIG. From the 
CoCo SIG> prompt, pick Rainbow 
Magazine Services, then, at the RAIN- 
BOW> prompt, type RSK (for Ask the 
Experts) to arrive at the EXPERTS> 
prompt, where you can select the "CoCo 
Consultations" online form which has 
complete instructions. 



150 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



Education 
Breakthrough 

New interactive CoCo software 
makes learning easy, ++*&$* 
fun. Kids love it! ++?t* 




'M 



NEW LOW PRICE - 16 lessons for the price 
of 8! Educational Software for kids from 
6 to 18. 



Parents are depending more and more on 
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done one-to-one. Through individual attention 
and self-paced progress, students learn more 
and retain more. 

BETTER THAN A PRIVATE TUTOR 

The Compass Education Software LOOK/ 
LISTEN/LEARN approach is the next best 
thing to a private tutor. Unlike other educational 
software the Compass Library also lalks to the 
student — not in synthesized speech, but in a 
real human voice. With on-screen textual infor- 
mation and attention-getting graphics, stu- 
dents of all ages actually enjoy learning! 

SELF-PACED FOR BETTER RETENTION 

The lessons advance only after the stu- 
dent has correctly answered the questions 
throughout the programs assuring that the 
material has been thoroughly absorbed. 

SIMPLE EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS 

All you need is the TRS-80' Color Com- 
puter (any model), computer cassette recorder 
and TV set. Once the cassette is loaded you 
need only enter two simple commands . . . and 
then press any key to start the lesson. 

Of course you can stop the lesson at any 
point to study information on the screen. Just 
push the pause button on the cassette player. 
Push it again and lesson resumes. 

To answer questions throughout the les- 
son simply press the appropriate number on 
the computer keyboard, type in the correct 
answer, or follow other easy instructions. And 
to go back and review, just rewind the cassette. 
It's that simple. 

CHOOSE FROM 9 SUBJECTS 
There is not sufficient space in this adver- 
tisement to list all lesson titles, but here is a 
sample: 

MATHEMATICS 

In today's advanced, HiTech world, under- 
standing and working with numbers is essen- 
tial. Compass has developed three compre- 
hensive series of math programs. From basic 
numerals for the very young, to algebra and 
higher mathematics for the older child. In 
between, there are programs for everything 
from addition and subtraction to practical 
everyday percentage problems. 

'TRS-80 is a registered trademark dl The Tandy Cerperation. 




MM THE MAGIC OF SPELLING 

^^ Grades 4 to 8 

MS 1 — Plurals: branches, rodeos, valleys 
MS 2 — Plurals: houses, brushes, candies 
MS 3 — Plurals: babies, pianos, leaves 
.MS 4 — Suffixes: boxed, referred, writing 
W/IS 5 — Suffixes: paid, quickly, extremely 
MS 6 — Suffixes: said, confusion, school's 
MS 7 — Homonyms: two, too, to: their, there 
MS 8 — Homonyms: our, are, hour; ate, eight 
MS 9 — Homonyms: weight, wait; who's, whose 
MS 10 — Homonyms: scent, cent; sell, cell 
MS 11 -Homonyms: dew, due; course, coarse 
MS 12-Homonyms: cite, site, sight; by, buy 
MS 13- Homonyms: blue, blew, creek, creak 
MS 14-Homonyms: sale, sail; steel, steal 
MS 15- Spelling by Syllables: letter, color 
MS 16 -Doubling Consonant Letters: hollow 



O MATH/FRACTIONS 

Grades 4 to 8 

MF 1 — Numerator, denominator, bar 
MF 2 — Multiplication of fractions 
MF 3 — Factors and prime numbers 
MF 4 — Reducing fractions, reciprocals 
MF 5 — Reducing fractions, lowest terms 
MF 6 — Proper fractions, mixed numbers 
MF 7 — Multiplication-division of fractions 
MF 8 — Addition-subtraction of fractions 
MF 9 — Addition of mixed numbers 
MF 10 — Changing fractions to decimals 
MF 1 1 — Converting decimal numbers 
MF 12 — Word problems using percents 
MF 13 — Additional problems using percents 
MF 14 — Word problems using percents 
MF 15 — Finding circle area using pi 
MF 16 — Using a ruler to measure fractions 



O MATH/BASIC ALGEBRA 

For all grades 
Sixteen lessons: MBA-1 to 16 

O MATH/NUMBERS 

For grades 1 to 6 
Sixteen lessons: MN-1 to 16 

SELF DEVELOPMENT 

Writing effectively means communica- 
tiong effectively. Through the writing series of 
lesson students of all ages will develop basic 
skills needed to turn thoughts and ideas into 
expressive words and phrases. 



O RULES OF WRITING 

For all grades 
Sixteen lessons: RW-1 to 16 



LANGUAGE ARTS 

A practical education begins with good 
reading skills and is continued with increased 
vocabulary comprehension and, of course, 
spelling. Your child will learn that reading is fun 
while they are also learning when to use "to," 
"too," and "two," and how to spell when build- 
ing a vocabulary. 



© 



VOCABULARY COMPREHENSION 
Grades 3 to 5 
Sixteen lessons: VC-1 to 16 



O READING COMPREHENSION 
For all grades 
Sixteen lessons: DRC-1 to 16 



o 



SCIENCE 
SCIENCE/PHYSICS 

For all grades 
Sixteen lessons: SP-1 to 16 



©HISTORY 
AMERICAN HISTORY 

For grades 4 to 12 

Sixteen lessons: AH-1 to 16 

So there it is . . . no-nonsense subject 
matter presented in a way that maximizes 
understanding and retention. 

SPECIAL PRICING 
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To order, send your check or money order 
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Doctor ASCII 



The BASIC Versions 



By Richard E. Esposilo 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 

with Richard W. Libra 



/ have recently obtained a CoCo 2 
from a friend and am having a hard 
time trying to figure out what version 
of Color BASIC I have. Is there an easy 
way to obtain this information? 

Scott Peterson 
New London, CT 

T) Simply type EXEC 41175 and the 

/C start-up logo with the version 

number will be printed on your screen. 



Those Mysterious Keys 

What are the ALT, CTRL, Fl and F2 
keys used for on the Co Co 3? There 
is no mention in the instruction hook 
of these keys. 

Paul Scholz 
Cotati, CA 

I? The ALT and CTRL keys are pri- 
A > marily for OS-9 Level 11. These four 
keys were added to fill in the keyboard 
matrix, and all four can be used with 
custom software that directly accesses 
the keyboard rollover table. The HJL 
custom keyboard has supplied these 
keys for years, only HJL called them FI, 
F2, F3 and F4. 



Richard Esposito is a senior project 
engineer with Northrop Corp. He holds 
bachelor's, master's and doctorate 
degrees from Polytechnic Institute of 
Brooklyn. He has been writing about 
microcomputers since 1980. 

Richard Libra is a simulator test 
operator for Singer Link Simulation 
Systems Division. 




The Doctor Tells All 

p| What kind of hardware is included in 
Elt'ow/" personal computer setup? 
*&> James Sutton 

Brooklyn, NY 

ID I have a CoCo 3 with a JramR 
/L 5 1 2K upgrade, a down-under con- 
troller, two TEAC 55F 80-track, 
double-sided drives, a Radio Shack 
Line Printer VIII, a Radio Shack Direct 
Connect Modem I (300 baud), a Multi- 
Pak interface, a Magnavox 8CM5I5 
RGB monitor, a Speech/ Sound Pak 
and an RS-232 Pak. I also have a 64K 
CoCo 1 with the original Word-Pak. a 
Graphics Tablet, and a 40-track TEAC 
55BV drive with an old Radio Shack 1 2- 
volt controller. In addition to that, 1 



have an MC-10 with a tape recorder, a 
Model 100 laptop, and a Sharp PC- 
7000 (a portable Compatible). 

VDG Upgrade 

I have a CoCo 2 that I bought three 
years ago. I thought I read some- 
where that the newer CoCo 2s use a 
different or improved VDG. Is this true? 
Can I upgrade to it? If so, how difficult 
would it be? 

Donald G. Campbell 

(DONCAMPBELL) 

Greenwood, IN 

W, The newest CoCo 2s use the 6847- 
A Tl, but it is not a direct drop-in 
replacement. See Tony DiStefano's 
"Turn of the Screw," November 1986, 
Page 88, for information on mating this 
newer VDG to your old CoCo. 

A CoCo PC? 

I'm thinking about adding a hard 
drive to my system. I have a CoCo 
_ 3 with OS-9 Level II, Multi-Pak and 
a Radio Shack disk controller. If I 
change to a Disto controller and add on 
a hard drive controller, can I buy just 
a bare hard drive or do I need something 
else? How large a hard drive can we use? 
Why couldn't an MS-DOS be written 
for the CoCo, as everyone knows the 
6809 is far superior to the 6502 used in 
the Commie and Apple? 

Kenneth A. Barnett 
Anchorage, AK 



* 



The most popular hard drive 
CoCo system is one with the LR 



152 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 




INSTANT SOFTWARE" 

Pay only for what you want! 
Quality Utility Software at Unbelievable Prices! 




40K for Cassette Programs: 1100 
40K For Disk Basic Programs: 1101 
ALPHA-DIR: Alphabetize vour DIfts. 1102 
APPOINTMENT CALENDAR: 1103 
AUTOMATIC DISK BACKUP: Reo. 2 drives! 1101 
AUTOMATIC 5 Min . CASSETTE SAUE: 1105 
AUTOMATIC 5 Min. DISK SAUE: 1106 
AUTO DIR BACKUP: No nore FS Errors! 1107 
BANNER MAKER: V Hioh Letters! 1108 
BASIC PROGRAM AUTORUN FROM TAPE: 1109 
BASIC SEARCH: Search (or a string. 1110 
BORDER MAKER: 255 Border Styles! 1111 
CALENDAR MAKER: For DMP Printers, 1113 
CASSETTE LABEL MAKER: MP's Only. 1114 
CLOCK: Keeps tiie as you program. 1115 
COMMAND KEYS: Short Hand for Basic. lift 
COMMAND MAKER: Design your own coanands. f 1 17 
COMMAND SAUER: Saves/Recalls Connands. 1119 
CALCULATOR: On-screen calc. when programing. 1119 
CURSOR STYLES: 65535 cursor styles! 1121 
DISK CATALOGER:Puts DIRs into Master DIR. 1122 
DISK ENCRYPT: Password-protect Bas. Progs. 1123 
DMP CHARACTER SET EDITOR: 1125 
DMP SUPERSCRIPTS: Great for len-papers! 1126 
DOS COMMAND ENHANCER: 1127 
ENHANCED KILL: 1128 
ENHANCED LLIST: Beautiful Listings! 1129 
ERROR LOCATOR: CoCo locates your errors. 1130 
FAST SORT: 100 strings in 3 seconds!! 1131 
FILE SCRAMBLER: Hide your private files! 1132 
FULL ERRORS: English error »essages! 1133 
FUNCTION KEYS: Speeds prog, tiie, 1134 
GEMINI/EPSON GRAPHICS DUMP: 1135 
GRADEBOOK:6reat for teachers' 1136 
GRAPHICS SCREEN COMPRESSION: 1137 
GRAPHICS SCREEN DMP DUMP: 1138 
GRAPHICS SCREEN LARGE DMP DUMP: 1139 
GRAPHICS LETTERINGS sizes! 1140 
GRAPHICS MAGNIFY/EDIT:1141 
HOME BILL MANAGER: Keep track of bills. 1142 



KEY SAUER: Save/Recall your Keystrokes. 1145 

LAST COMMAND REPEATER: 1146 

LINE COPY: Copy Basic Lines. 1147 

LINE CROSS REFERENCE: 1148 

LIST/DIR PAUSE: No aore flybys 1 1149 

LOWERCASE COMMANDS: 1150 

MASS INITIALIZATION: 1152 

ML/BASIC MERGE: Merge hi \> Bas. Progs. 1153 

MESSAGE ANIMATOR: Great Billboard 1 1154 

ML TO DATA CONUERTOR: 1155 

MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST MAKER: 1156 

NUMERIC KEYPAD: 6reat for nuibers. 1157 

ON BREAK GOTO COMMAND: 1158 

ON ERROR GOTO COMMAND: 1159 

ON RESET GOTO COMMAND: 1160 

PHONE DIRECTORY: 1161 

PAUSE CONTROL: Put progracs on hold 1 1162 

PROGRAM PACKER: For Basic Prograns. 1163 

PURCHASE ORDER MAKER: Neat Invoices' 1164 

RAM DISK: In-uenory disk drive. 1165 

REPLACE: Find/replace strings. 1166 

REUERSE UIDED CGREEN) : Eliminates eyestrain, tl 

REUERSE UIDEO (RED) : Eliiinates eyestrain, 1168 

RAM TEST: Checks your RAM. 1169 

SIGN MAKER: RUNs on any printer' 1170 

SINGLE STEPPER: Great debugger' 1171 

SPEEDUP TUTORIAL: 1172 

SPOOLER : Speedup printouts! 1173 

SUPER INPUT/LINEINPUT:1I74 

SUPER COMMAND KEYS: 1175 

SUPER COPY: COPY aultiple files. 1176 

SUPER EDITOR: Scroll thru Bas. Progs, 11177 

SUPER PAINT: 65535 patterns' 1178 

SUPER REPEAT: Repeat Key. 1179 

SUPER SCROLLER: View Scrolled Lines, 1180 

TAB/SHIFT LOCK. KEYS: 1181 

TAPE ENCRYPT: Password protect Bas. Progs. 1182 

TEXT SCREEN DUMP: 1183 

TEXT SCREEN SCROLL LOCK: 1184 

TITLE SCREEN CREATOR: 1 385 

UNKILL:your KILLed disk progracs, 1186 

UARIABLE CROSS REFERENCE: 1187 



INPUT/OUTPUT DATA MONITOR: 1143 
KEY CLICKER: Ensures inout accuracy. 1144 

1 PROGRAM S9 Z PROGRAMS SIB 3 PROGRAMS $21 

4 PROGRAMS $24 5 OR MORE PROGRAMS $5 EACH 

ALL PROGRAMS OH DISK. MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM SENT ON THE SAME DISK. 

DOCUMENTATION INCLUDED. 



MJF 



MICROCOM SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 21 4 
Fairport, N.Y. 14450 
Phone (71 6) 223-1477 



All orders$50 & above (except CODs) shipped by UPS2nd Day Air al no extra charge. Last minute shoppers 
can benefit VISA MC. AMEX Check MO. Please add S3.00 S&HIUSA& Canada), other countries 
S5.00 S&H COD (US only) add S2.50 extra NYS residents please add sales lax 
Computerized processings tracking ol orders Immediate shipment Dealer inquiries invited 



Call Toll Free (For Orders) 1-800-654-5244 9 am -9 pm Monday- Saturday 

Except NY. Order Status, Information, Technical Information, NY Orders call 1 -71 6-223-1 477 



Tech interface. These systems and indi- 
vidual components are sold by Owl- 
Ware. P.O. Box I I6-D, Mertztown, PA 
19539, (800) 245-6228. In order to run 
MS-DOS on the CoCo, you would need 
an 8088 coprocessor board, and, since 
the CoCo's memory and hardware are 
mapped differently, it would require a 
significant amount of additional hard- 
ware for full PC-compatibility. Since 
this would most likely be a specialty 
item (spelled HIGH PRICE), I do not 
foresee such a device, especially in the 
light of cheap PC Compatibles. 

The Trying "Retry" 

/ keep gelling a "retry" (reposition- 
ing of disk heads) while formatting/ 
verifying all disks on OS-9 Level II. 
This "retry " occurs only on double- 
sided 80-track operations on Track 70/ 
71 (Hex). I've tried three different disk 
controllers and removal of the Multi- 
Pak. The "retry" occurs on both /dO 
and /dl, and does not occur under 
single-sided operation on Level II or 
Level I or with 80-track patches under 
RS-DOS. This "retry" doesn't seem to 
hurt anything, only occurs once, and 
always "gets by. " Is this a bug in OS- 
9 Level II software? 

Brad Zvonar 
Grand Ledge, MI 

O Tis only a minor inconvenience: 
/t Once formatted, I know of no one 
having problems with any of these 80- 
track, double-sided disks. However, 
many people have reported "strange" 
happenings when trying to use one of 
the older 12-volt disk controllers under 
Level 11. These controllers don't work 
correctly at Level IPs 2MHz. 

Poke Monochrome Fix 

~] / have just bought a VM-4 mono- 
~ chrome monitor to use with my 
■z CoCo 3. The display on power-up is 
not clear at all; however, using the 
following pokes from a previous RAIN- 
BOW issue, POKE S.HEE033,16-POKE 
S.HE03C19 and POKE &HE045,19, 
makes the display after changing the 
colors perfect. Is there another way of 
getting the same results permanently? 
When using program packs and my 
modem I can V use the pokes. 

Stuart T. Smith 
Cliffside Park, NJ 

JS,, If you have an EPROM made of 
/*" ADOS-3. you can customize it for 
monochrome before having it burned. 



/ have a CoCo 3. When I hook a 
monochrome monitor to the video 
connectors on the back, I notice 
about six diagonal lines on the screen. 
This happens when the border is any- 
thing hut black and when using either 
the PMODE or HSCREEN modes. Is this a 
common problem? If so, is there a 
solution? 

Peter R. Pankhurst 
Winnipeg, Manitoba 



^ 



See previous letter for pokes. 
Dirty Heads 



/ purchased the Tandy cassette re- 
corder CCR 81 and use only Tandy 
computer cassette tapes. Lately I 
have had great difficulty storing data on 
the cassettes. 

Marty Povondra 
Omaha. NE 

T) If you are a heavy user of 
/(■ cassettes, consider the possibility 
of dirty heads on your recorders. Head- 
cleaning kits are readily available and 
may very well solve your problem. 

McMillions of Control Codes 

[own a CoCo 2 and have a Star NX- 
10 printer. I would like to know what 
printers are compatible with other 
printers in control codes. 

Toby Bauer 
Gig Harbor, WA 

IP That's a tall order. Printers are like 
/£ McDonalds' hamburgers, mil- 
lions & millions. The ones to consider 
are those that are IBM Proprinter-, 
Epson-, or Tandy-compatible. 

Tracking CoCo (J til II 



In the September. 1987 column, you 
mentioned the program CoCo U til 
II. Where can I gel it? 

Andy Dater 
Boston. MA 



D CoCo Util II is sold by Spectrum 
1 X Projects, P.O. Box 264, Howard 
Beach, NY 1 1414. for S39.95. 

Hot CoCo 

My CoCo 3 seems to be overheating 
after about an hour of use. I have the 
DistO 5 12 K upgrade installed. After 
an hour's use, the system crashes; I have 
run several 512 MEM tests — they 
either crashed or gave a bad RA M at 



block SOE. location I COL The heat sink 
on the left-hand side of the mother- 
board was quite hot and the satellite 
MEM board was warm. After a shut- 
down of about I'/i hours, everything 
runs OK for about an hour, then the 
system crashes again. Any ideas? 

Franz C. Shattuck 
llillsboro, NH 

13 You have a fairly common prob- 
/C lem with CoCo 3s that can usually 
be easily solved by adding a small 
external muffin fan to cool your CoCo's 
interior. 

A Simple Cassette Merge 

Your method of merging cassette 
programs is admirable, but it is 
needlessly complex. A simple OPEN 
0-1, "FILENAME": P0KE111,255: 
EXEC&HAC7C merges FILENAME with the 
program in memory, exactly like the 
disk MERGE command. 

Note: The file to he merged must be 
saved in ASCII format, i.e.. CSflVE 
"FILE", A. 

Alan T. DeKok 
Kanala, Ontario 



^ 



Thanks for the information. 
OS-9 Hard Drivers 



BI recently acquired a Western Digital 
WD1000-TB1 disk controller and a 
Seagate ST-4I2 I0-Meg hard disk. 
Does anyone have an adapter and 
drivers for OS-9 Level II.' 

Robert B. Brogdon 
Watauga, TX 

D Yes, contact Owl-Ware regarding 
/C their LR Tech interface. Complete 
systems and individual components 
based on this interface arc sold by Owl- 
Ware, P.O. Box 1 16-D, Mertztown. PA 
19539,(800)245-6228. 

Disk EDTASM on CoCo 3 

BHow can I use disk EDTASM with 
my CoCo 3? 
Josh Abrams 
Brooklyn. NY 

JJ Thanks to Roger A. Krupski for 
)Cthe following patches for disk 
EDTASM, which will allow proper 
operation in 40-width and 80-width on 
the CoCo 3. To make EDTASM boot 
up automatically rather than having to 
type EDTASM, just add the following line 
to the DOS . BAS program: 1 REMEDTASM. 
Note there is no space after REM. Use the 



154 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



following program to make the neces- 
sary patches to EDTflSM.BIN: 

The listing: PATCH 

100 ' COPYRIGHT (C) 1987 BY: 

110 ' ROGER A. KRUPSKI 

12(3 ' 

260 AS=HEX$(PEEK(&HFFFE))+HEXS(P 

EEK(&HFFFF)) 

27(3 IF A$0"8C1B" THEN CLS : PRINT 

"ONLY FOR THE COCO-3!":END 

28(3 POKE &H9692.17 

290 PCLEAR 16 

3(3(3 POKE &H9692.9 

31J3 PALETTE 12,63 

32(3 PALETTE 13,(3 

330 WIDTH 32: CLS: VERIFY ON 

340 IF FREE ( PEEK (f<H95A))<7 THEN 

PRINT"DISK TOO FULL!":END 

350 PRINT" PATCHS FOR DISK EDTASM 

TO RUN" 
360 PRINT"ON THE COCO-3 IN 80 CO 
LUMNS" 
370 PRINT 

380 PRINT" INSERT A COPY (NOT ORI 
GINAL) " 

390 PRINT" OF YOUR DISK EDTASM AN 
D PRESS" 

400 PRINT "<ENTER> WHEN READY TO 
PATCH" 

410 A$=INKEYS 

420 IF A?=CHR$(13) THEN 440 
430 GOTO 410 



440 PRINT"LOADING EDTASM..." 

450 RENAME" EDTASM. BIN" TO "EDTAS 

M.OLD" 

460 LOADM" EDTASM. OLD" 

470 PRINT"PATCHING EDTASM..." 

480 READ AD$,DTS 

490 IF AD$="END" THEN 520 

500 POKE VAL("&H"+AD$),VAL("&H"+ 

DT$) 

510 GOTO 480 

520 PRINT"SAVING PATCHED VERSION 

530 SAVEM"EDTASM . BIN" , &H1600 , 6<H4 

A7F.&H1600 

540 PRINT"DONE!" 

550 PCLEAR 4: CLEAR 200,&H7FFF:NE 

W 

560 DATA 1617,84, 1643,31, 1D18, 

7F. 1D19.FF 

570 DATA 1D1A.DE, 1D1B.6E, 1D1C , 

9F, 1D1D.FF 

580 DATA 1D1E.FE, 1D1F.12, 

12, 1D21.12 

590 DATA 1D22.12, 



1D23.12, 



1D20, 
1D3F, 



BD, 1D40.A1 

600 DATA 1D41.B1, 
10, 23B8.31 



1D42.12, 1D7A, 



PRINTS Problems 

/ have always had trouble with the 
BASIC statement for PR INTO. If there 
are more than two items of data. I 



cannot use commas between them as 
shown in the instruction manual. It 
works on tape but not on disk. All of 
the data items are given to the first 
variable. To be able to use this state- 
ment. I must give each item of data its 
own PR I NTH. / am using the J&M 
controller with RS-DOSanda CoCo 3 
with I28K. 

Rob Cloud 
Detroit. MI 

IJ Each PRINT8 statement generates 
/£■ a record in your data file. If you 
have an INPUTB statement similarly 
configured, it can read in those values 
from your file. 



For a quicker response, your ques- 
tions may also be submitted through 
rainbow's CoCo SIG on Delphi. 
From the CoCo SIG> prompt, pick 
Rainbow Magazine Services, then, 
at the RAINBOW> prompt, type 
RSK for "Ask the Experts" to arrive 
at the EXPERTS> prompt, where 
you can select the "Doctor ASCII" 
online form which has complete 
instructions. 



DON'T PAY TOO MUCH FOR YOUR SOFTWARE! 



For as little as 50 cents a program you can get quality programs such as Word Processors, 
Basic Compilers, Budget Managers, Arcade Type Machine Language Games and much 
more! A subscription to T&D Subscription Software provides you with 10 ready-to-run 
programs on tape or disk delivered by first class mail every month. 

No! We are not the same as The Rainbow On Tape. In fact, many subscribers have written 
in and said that we are much better than Rainbow On Tape! 



* 16K-128K Color Computer 

* Over 5000 Sanslied Customers 

* Ail Programs Include 
Documentation 

* Available on COCO V 2. and 3 1 



RAINBOW 

amwKAixm 




PRICES 

"•'••" "-6 

OR DISK MONTH ONI* 

1 YEAR (12 issues) JJWrO' 60.00 
6 MO. (6 issues) ^Oifllf 35.00 
1 ISSUE ,-WJO 8.00 

Michigan Resitlenis Aad -i 
Overseas Add S'C lo SuDscnpIion Price 
Personal Checks Welcome 1 
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PUBLISHING QUALITY SOFTWARE. 



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T & D SUBSCRIPTION SOFTWARE, 2490 MILES STANDISH DR., HOLLAND, Ml 49424 (616) 399-9648 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 155 



Tutor ia l 



OS-9 



Tips for the OS-9 beginner 



Stalking the Fire-Breathing 

Dragon 



By Nancy Ewart 



*J& dventure gaming is no way near 
*7yVt as mentally invigorating as the 
JL JBL challenge of OS-9 program- 
ming. Once you have conquered the 
first puzzle of making a bootable system 
disk configured with the modules and 
commands you choose, you can use 
some of the many applications that are 
available under OS-9. You can put text 
editors, programming language compil- 
ers or games to work quite easily. 

The time comes, though, when you 
want to change things around a bit - 
to eliminate unnecessary steps, to make 
more things happen automatically, or 
to organize everything a bit differently. 
Now you have challenges again. You are 



Nancy Ewart is an OS-9 programmer 
who lives in Toms River, New Jersey. 
She serves as vice president of the 
Computer Club of Ocean County and 
is a member of C and OS-9 SIGs. 



dealing directly with the system, stalk- 
ing the fire-breathing dragon. 

You are in the middle of OS-9 king- 
dom and nothing works! You are get- 
ting errors right and left, north and 
south. Even pud gives you an error. You 
are truly a lost dog in high weeds. What 
has most likely happened is that you 
have changed your execution CMDS 
directory to a data directory or to a 
CMDS directory with limited commands. 

For a quick fix, find yourself by 
putting your system disk in Drive 0. 
Type chd 'd0; chx 'd0/cmds. Now, at 
least, you are back to the beginning, and 
everything should work again. 

The command mdir gives you a list 
of the modules/commands in memory. 
Think of the commands you have been 
trying that haven't worked because you 
did not have access to them. Type chd 
'dO'cnids. Now load a few essential 
additional commands, such as load 
pud pxd dir free. Since these com- 





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FREE UPS 2 DAY AIR SHIPPING ON OR- 
DERS OVER $100 DURING DECEMBER!!! 



NOTE: Unless otherwise noted, all the prod- 
ucts listed here require a CoCo 3 with 51 2K 
and OS9 Level II. 

Sculptor, the 4th genera- 
tion language. Reg $595 
Special $295 
Save $300! 



Inside OS9 Level II Kevin 
Darling's great book on Level 
II. The book on OS9 Level II 
for the CoCo 3. Reg $39.95 
Special $29.95 
Save $10.00! 



The WIZ, The terminal pro- 
gram for the CoCo 3 with 
windows and more, without 
question the best terminal 
program ever for the CoCo. 
Reguires a RS232 Pack or 
Disto RS232. Reg $79.95 
Special $69.95 
Save $10.00! 



DynaStar Word processor 
with mail merge, creates in- 
dex and table of contents. 
Comes with formatter, sup- 
ports windows and terminals 
at the same time! Reg $150 
Special $100.00 

Save $50.00 
DynaSpell Spelling check- 
er by Dale Puckett for Dyna- 
Star and other word proces- 
sors. Includes dictionary 
lookup utility. Reg $94.50 
Special $45.00 

Save $44.90 



OS9 Users Group Disks 

now available direct from 
FHL- NO WAITING!!! 
Membership in the UG is 
NOT Required!!! 
FHL Pays the UG a royalty for 
each disk sold, so you will 
still be helping the UG, and 
you'll get your disks faster! 
$10 each for disk #0 thru 
#56. $130 for the entire li- 
brary on 9 80 Track disks and 
1 40 Track. 3.5" also available. 
Send for complete list. 



Font Editor Create or modi- 
fy the font (characters) in 
OS9. Reg $29.95 

Special $24.95 
Save $5.00 



5 1/4" Disks Double sided 
Double density. 490 each in 
lots of 10.450 in lots of 50. 



FBU Backup your hard disk 
to floppy. Handles large files. 
Compresses to take less 
room. Fast! Reg $150 
Special $75 
Save $75 



Super Sleuth Disassemble 
OS9 code. Learn what's go- 
ing on inside OS9. Get the 
Inside OS9 Level II book 
to aid in your search. On sale 
in this ad. Sleuth Reg $101 
Special $86.00 
Save $15.00 



MEW FASTEST HARD 

DISK INTERFACE NOW 

AVAILABLE FROM FHL!!! 

Call for more information! 



eFORTH 

for RS DOS (Not OS9) 
eFORTH is the best, most 
complete FORTH ever done 
for the CoCo. We just discov- 
ered a case of them hidden 
in the back room. Grab one 
while they last. Reg $79.95 

Special ONLY $30 
Save $49.95 



IFIHIIL IMmm 



Keep up to date on the latest 
news about OS9 6809 and 
OSK/68000 and 68020. Get 
insider prices on new soft- 
ware and hardware. Mailed 
every few months or so. 
FHL Nows is for the serious 
OS9 user. Call or send for 
your FREE copy now! 



How to Order 
(Add $3.50 for S&H. 

after December) 
Visa, M/C and others 



Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 

770 James Street 

Syracuse, NY 13203 

Telex 646740 - FAX 315/474-8225 

315/474-7856 



mands are now in memory, they will be 
there no matter which directories you 
change. This problem does not crop up 
for Level II users as often. One of the 
reasons Level II has the reputation for 
being more friendly than Level I is that 
there are more commands loaded into 
memory when you boot up. 

For a long-term method of keeping 
track, build a new start-up file that will 
load a few extra, useful commands. 
Tandy's Gelling Started with OS-9 has 
excellent directions for changing 
Startup. Another approach is to be 
sure that any OS-9 commands on an 
OS-9 disk are actually placed in a CMDS 
directory, and then copy frequently 
used additional commands from the 
system disk to the application disk. 
Never ever do a chx to anything but 
CMDS. The BASIC09 Level I disk comes 
with the commands in the root directory 
rather than in a CMDS directory, with the 
idea that the user can transfer them to 
the CMDS directory of a system disk. 
This has caused no end of confusion in 
the CoCo world. 

BUILD and ECHO 

The concept of the build command 
is great — you can make files like 
Startup that are a collection of com- 
mands and messages to yourself to 
make life easier. Many of my best 
inventions are little one-command files 
with very short names, usually one to 
three letters, that save typing a long 
command line. A file named Red uses 
the display command to construct a 
large, red overlay window on a full- 
screen device window; Erase, also 
using the display command, erases 
any overlay window, window-by- 
window, each time you type it. Using 
build in this way leads to a better 
understanding of macros as you gain 
experience. 

There are some traps for the unwary 
in using build. If you include any 
command that asks the user to enter 
information, be sure to redirect that 
information from the terminal, as in 
setime <^term for the Level I "start- 
up" file. One of the first things you may 
want to build into Startup for Level 
1 are upper- and lowercase letters. The 
command to do that is tmode .1 -upc. 
Since spacing is critical, let me present 
that a different way: tmode(space) 
.l(as in number)(space)-upc. 

If you want the screen to print out any 
helpful messages during the running of 
the file, use the command echo. Once, 
with great enthusiasm for what build 
can do, I built an entire file of helpful 



things to remember from one OS-9 
session to another, ran the file and, of 
course, got absolutely nothing. I could 
list the file and see the information, but 
it wouldn't run. It took only a little hair- 
pulling to remember that I should have 
used echo. 

The biggest hassle with build is 
making mistakes and trying to correct 
them with edit. If you haven't learned 
how to use an editor or word processor 
yet, you might go ahead and take the 
lime to learn edit. When it finally 
dawned on me that I could use a famil- 
iar OS-9 word processor to build the 
files instead of laboring with build and 
edit, 1 cut down on misspent time a 
thousandfold. However it is executed, 
the idea of putting a collection of 
commands into a short file is still a very 
useful concept. 

Using DSAVE 

Putting a collection of commands 
into a file is what dsave is all about. 
dsave lets you copy all the contents of 
a disk to another disk, which may or 
may not be formatted with a different 
number of tracks. It also lets you copy 
the contents of a single directory to 
another, or the contents of a directory 
and all its subdirectories to a different 
place. You would need to use copy for 
moving individual files. However, it is 
simpler and quicker to use backup 
when transferring an entire disk's con- 
tents to a similarly formatted one. 

The first encounter with dsave oc- 
curs frequently after using the conf ig 
program to change the number of tracks 
on a disk. You get this beautiful capa- 
bility of formatting 40 tracks, double- 
sided, but your system disk stubbornly 
stays at 35, single-sided. 630 vs. 1,440 
remains just out of your grasp. But the 
answer is simple: dsave -b 'd0 'dl ! 
shell. Put your newly configured 35- 
track disk in Drive 0. Type forma t 'dl 
r "tliskname" and press ENTER. This 
formats the disk in Drive I the way you 
chose in the conf ig program. 

After formatting, do a free 'dl just 
to make sure it has the proper numbers 
on the new disk. Then enter the above 
command using the following spacing: 
dsave (space) -b (space) 'd0 (space) / 
dl (space) ! (space) shell. As dsaue 
scrolls down your screen, watch the 
construction of the commands that 
appear. Get a feel for what is happening. 
The -b in the command line makes a 
boolfile on the new disk; if you forget 
it, you'll have wasted a lot of time 
preparing a system disk that doesn't 
boot. 



The ! is a pipe. Do include all the 
pipes when using con f i g to make a new 
system if you want to use dsave in this 
fashion. It's the easiest way to use 
dsaue. 

Sometimes, however, you want to be 
more selective — to transfer only part 
of the contents and not the whole 
shebang. This is difficult for many 
beginners; let's see if it can be made 
more comprehensible. First, study the 
copy command, because the essence of 
dsave is copy. Let's say you have a file 
called Letter, to. Tandy in the root 
directory of Drive and you want to 
copy it to the Drive 1 directory called 
COCO. Every once in a while you have 
to gather all your scattered files and 
organize them into a system, or you will 
begin to lose items — and that's a real 
time waster. 

If Drive is to be the system disk, you 
can proceed; but if both disks are data 
disks, you will need to do a load copy 
before removing the system disk. Type 
chd 'dl/coco. It seems easier to copy 
into rather than out of your working 
directory, and this command positions 
you in the receiving directory. In our 
example, you would type copy /d0' 
letter. to. tandy letter. to. tandy . 
You need to give the complete pathlist 
for the file to be copied, because you are 
not in that directory. You need only the 
filename — not the pathlist — for the 
new file, because you are already in that 
location. You can rename the file in the 
process simply by substituting the new 
name for the second repetition. This 
means you can copy a file into the same 
directory by renaming it in the process: 
copy 020k 'dQ/ letter. to. tandy 
tandy .junB. 87, for example. The 
B20l< governs the amount of memory 
used during the transfer. 

The next step is to copy several files 
using the build concept. Suppose you 
need, as I did, to take several files with 
you into different directories so that 
your word processor will work cor- 
rectly. You could call the program you 
are building Word.pr and put it on the 
system disk in a directory called UTIL- 
ITIES. Here is an example of such a file: 

c 

trr.ode . 1 -pause 

load copy (remark - If needed) 

copy #2j)k /dp/OTILITIES/tapars tspars 

copy »2f!k /dfJ/UTILITIES/csvord csvord 

copy »2(Jk /dp/UTILITIES/foncccrl foncccrl 

copy »2pk /dp/UIILITIES/word.lcon word. Icon 

unlink copy 

tmode .1 pause 

When the occasion arises that you 
need these files in any directory, just 
change your working directory into the 
one you want using the chd command. 



158 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



Then type: (space) /dB^utili ties' 
word.pr. Since this is exactly the file 
that dsave builds when you use that 
command, you now have done what 
that command does. One small step 
further gets you into dsave. 

When you use dsave, it sets up all the 
conditions and commands for you so 
you won't have to do much typing. 
Remember, dsave will copy the entire 
directory you are in and all the direc- 
tories underneath it unless you use the 
-1 (that's an "el," for level) option, 
which limits it to just the level where you 
are. You must first do a chd inside the 
directory you want to copy, then dsave 
/d0 >/d0''copyl. This line presumes 
that the directory you want to copy is 
on Drive 0. Your working directory 
could be anywhere on that Drive disk; 
all you need for this pathlist is the drive 
number. The > redirects the output to 
the file copyl also on Drive 0. When 
you get this far, list copyl and you will 
see that it follows the same format as the 
file Word.pr above. 

Beware! Another pitfall is coming. If 
copy is already loaded into memory, 
you may get an error that may or may 
not abort the program. 1 solved this by 
editing out load copy and unlink 



copy before running the second part of 
dsave. Now, to finish everything up, do 
a chd to the drive and directory you 
want the files to be in and type (space) 
-'da-' directory. name'capyl just like 
you did for Word.pr above. This time 
you do need to use the entire pathlist to 
do a copyl. 

You have additional problems ll one 
directory is on a data disk in Drive I and 
the other is also on a data disk, but this 
time in Drive 0, and there is no system 
disk. You would leave the system disk 
in during the first part when dsave is 
making the transfer program. After 
that, load into memory all of the com- 
mands used in the transfer file before 
you remove the system disk, and insert 
the receiving data disk. 

DELDIR and ATTR 

If you load deldir into memory to 
take it with you for use in deleting 
directories on data disks, you run into 
the same kind of problem that you had 
with dsave. deldir calls attr to 
enable it to make the final deletion of 
the directory itself. If attr is not in 
memory also, the program will abort 
after deleting all the files and before 
scrubbing the directory name. 



CMDS and Pathlists 

Try pressing CTR1.-A, which dupli- 
cates the previous command to cut 
down on typing. If you want to type 
copy 020k -"dl'sources/pizza .c 
pizza. c followed by copy H20k 'dl' 
sources/getput4 .c getput4.c, use 
CTRL-A to print out the second line. 
Backspace to eliminate the two 
pizza.es, and substitute the two get- 
put4.es. If the pathlist is the same and 
the command is different, as in list / 
dl/sources-'oldsources''hello.c 
followed by chd -'dl/sources-'old- 
sources/hel lo.c, type (space) chd 
and press CTRL-A. You put the space 
before chd to give that command the 
same number of letters as list. For 
Level I you would use CLEAR-A instead 
of CTRL-A. 

Familiarity with these commands 
makes the OS-9 encounter easy and 
rather fun, and tames the programming 
dragons into purring house cats. 



(Questions or comments may be 
directed to the author at 1861 Skiff 
Court, Toms River, NJ 08753. Please 
enclose an SASE when requesting a 
reply.) □ 



MLBASIC 2.0 - BASIC Compiler 

The wait is over. WASATCHWARE announces the latest version 
of MLBASIC designed to allow more compatibility with existing BASIC 
programs than ever available before for the Color Computer. This 
version also allows full use of the capabilities and memory of the 
CoCo 3. Written in machine language, MLBASIC can compile programs as 
large as 64K bytes. Standard floating point (9 digit precision), 
INTEGER, and String type variables and arrays supported. "MLBASIC is 
a fine program for any serious programmer," said David Gerald, in the 
December 1987 Rainbow. 

COMMANDS SUPPORTED: 
1 . I/O commands 



CLOSE CLOADM 


CSAVEM 


DIR 


DRIVE 


DSKIS 


DSKOS 


FIELD 


FILES GET 


INPUT 


KILL 


LSET 


OPEN 


PRINT 


PUT 


RSET USING 


LINEINPUT 










2. Program control commands 










CALL DEFUSR 


END 


EXEC 


FOR 


NEXT 


GOSUB 


GOTO 


IF THEN 


ELSE 


ERROR 


ON 


RETURN 


STOP 


USR 


3. Functions 














ABS ASC 


ATN 


COS 


CVN 


EOF 


EXP 


FIX 


HPOINT INSTR 


INT 


LEN 


LOG 


LPEEK 


LOC 


LOF 


PEEK POINT 


PPOINT 


RND 


SGN 


SIN 


SQR 


TAN 


TIMER VAL 


VARPTR 












4. String functions 












CHRS INKEYS 


LEFTS 


MIDS 


MKNS 


RIGHTS 


STRS 


STRINGS 


5. Graphic/Screen commands 










ATTR COLOR 


CLS 


CIRCLE 


DRAW 


HCOLOR 


HSCREEh- 


HDRAW 


HLINE HPAINT 


HPRINT 


HRESET 


HCIRCLE 


HCLS 


HSET 


JOYSTK 


LINE LOCATE 


PALETTE 


PAINT 


PCLEAR 


PCLS 


PLAY 


PMODE 


PRESET PSET 


RESET 


SCREEN 


SET 


SOUND 


WIDTH 




6. Other commands 












DATA DIM 


MOTOR 


POKE 


LPOKE 


RESTORE 


READ 


REM 


TRON TROFF 


TAB 


VERIFY 











Plus many more commands not available with regular BASIC which allow 
nlerfacing with hardware registers and machinelonguage programs. 

0WT.Y*59 9B 



COCO 3 WITH DISK REQUIRED -Add S4.00 Postage. 

CHECK or MONEY ORDERS only. No C.O.D. or Bank cards. 

Foreign orders use U.S. MONEY ORDERS only. 



WASATCHWARE 

7350 Nutree Drive 

Salt Lake City, Utah 84121 

Phone (801) 943-1546 



OB mvkt & mvu 

n||J-- / p.o. Box 1283 Palatine, IL 60078-1283 (312) 



397-2898 



RAINBOW 



1988 - The Year of the Hard Disk! 

The CoCo XT hard disk Interlace trom Burke 8. Burke lets you 

connect up to 2 low cost, PC compatible 5 - 1 20 Meg hard drives 

to your CoCo. You buy the Western Digital WD1002-WX1 or 

WD1002-27X (RLL) controller, a case and a drive trom the PC 

dealer ol your choice. Just plug them into the CoCo XT, and you seal 

have a 20 Meg OS9 hard disk system tor under $4501 

CoCo XT (with anodized housing, 50 page user manual, hard disk back-up utility 
and drivers lor both OS9 S HYPER-IO) -- $69.95. CoCo XT-RTC (Includes 
real-time clock / calendar with battery backup) - $99.95 

NEWIIt XT-ROM - Installs In the ROM socket ol your CoCo XT hard disk controller. 
Boots OS9 trom your hard disk - $19.95. 

64K COCO OR COCO 3 & MULTI-PAK REQUIRED FOR ALL VERSIONS. 
HYPER-I/O REQUIRED FOR USE WITH RS-DOS. 

Make Tracks . . . 

Got the 35-track (loppy disk blues? Burke S Burke's HYPER-I/O program modilles 
the RS-DOS BASIC in your CoCo 1 , 2, or 3 to provide a "Dynamic Disk Interface" that 
works with the CoCo XT hard disk. It also lets you use any mix of single-sided and 
double-sided lloppy disk drives In your system - even those 720K lloppiesl 

HYPER-I/O (64K, includes 50 page user manual and utilities) - $24.95. 
H Y PE R-l II (RAM Disk and Print Spooler lor CoCo 3 HYPER-IAD) -$1 9.95 

Directory Assistants 

Here are two real time savers lor OS9 users. WILD lets you use wild cards with OS9's 
commands. MV rapidly moves tiles, and even entire directories, trom place to place 
on your hard or lloppy disks. WILD 8. MV -one disk, two great utilities, only $19,951 

OS9: wild tsm /dO/src/'.arc o-Zdl/abs/roleaae/Vaba 
OS9: -v /dl /aba /release /dl/relQAso 

ILLINOIS RESIDENTS PLEASE ADD 7% SALES TAX. COD'S add 

S2.00. Shipping (within tho USA) $2.00 per CoCo XT; S1 .SO per 

disk or ROM. Please allow 2 weeks lor delivery (overnight delivery 

also available lor in-stock items). Tolephone orders accepted. 



January IE 



THE RAINBOW 



159 




n 



CoCo 3 OS-9 Level II 



KISSable OS-9 



Back at the Drawing Board 



By Dale L. Puckett 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Last month, we gave you a sneak 
preview of KISSDrauPut and 
discussed several different ways 
to save the drawings we have been 
creating. We settled on a method that 
used graphic objects stored in a special 
data type. Each object became one 
element in an array that stored an entire 
picture. After you finished drawing 
your picture, you stored your entire 
picture on a disk with the BASIC09 PUT 
statement, "PUT HFilePath, Pic- 
ture". 

Because of the size of the KISS Draw 
project, we were unable to publish all of 
the details in one month. This month, 
we start the new year by providing those 
details. You'll find updated listings for 
KISSdMenu, KISSDrawFi 1 1, SetUp- 
flouse, WhichTool, DoEvent, and the 
routines you need to draw boxes, lines, 
circles, ellipses and bars. The heart of 
our new approach will be found in the 
tutorial that follows the subhead, 
"What is a line?" After you have these 
new procedures running, you will want 
to pack each of them into BASIC09 i-code 
modules and then merge them into one 
file. After you do this, you will be able 



Dale L. Puckett, who is author of The 
Official BAS1C09 Tour Guide and co- 
author, with Peter Dibble, of The 
Complete Rainbow Guide to OS-9, is a 
free-lance writer and programmer. He 
serves as director-at-large of the OS-9 
Users Group and is a member of the 
Computer Press Association. Dale is a 
U.S. Coast Guard lieutenant and lives 
in Rock vi lie, Maryland. 



to load them into your main OS-9 
memory — outside your BASIC09 work- 
space. This will free memory in your 
workspace so you can work with the 
new KISS Draw features we hope to 
present in future columns. 

We start by showing you a method of 
saving your work with an OS-9 pipeline 
in the procedure Pipelt and discussing 
the pros and cons of an approach that 
does not lend itself to the job at hand 
- saving graphics drawing commands 
on the fly — but is quite appropriate for 
many other tasks. 

Before this month's column is fin- 
ished, you'll find out how to pass infor- 
mation from one BASIC09 program to 
another through a pipeline, and we'll 
show you new ways data structures can 
make your programs faster and pro- 
gramming easier. 

Building a Pipeline 

Several years ago at a Microware 
seminar, Robert Doggett, one of BAS- 
lC09's authors, demonstrated how to 
create a pipeline from within a BASIC09 
program. We wanted to give it a try this 
month because we thought it might give 
us a handy way to send the drawing 
commands put out by gfx2 to the 
screen and a disk file at the same time. 
It worked, but it didn't work. We wound 
up with a file that could redraw our 
artwork, but the process slowed down 
the program. It also created a large file 
because all of the mouse movement and 
PUT cursor commands were being re- 
corded also. Additionally, because of 
the way OS-9 expands its files, we 
wound up with extra garbage at the end 



of the file that doesn't add any aesthetic 
appeal when you reload. We decided to 
take a different approach. 

We list the procedure Pipelt here, 
however, because we think you will find 
it handy in many other BASIC09 pro- 
grams you're writing. Pipelt requires 
four parameters — two of type byte 
and two of type string. The first byte 
holds the path number of the pipe it 
creates and the second holds the stand- 
ard path. The strings hold the name of 
the program module you want to pipe 
data to and any parameters required by 
that program. 

We called Pipelt with the lines 
shown below. Since essentially all of 
KISSDraw's output to the screen takes 
place in the procedure DoEvent, we ran 
Pipel t to open up a pipeline to the OS- 
9 utility program tee, redirected the 
output of our drawing routines to this 
pipeline and then ran DoEvent. After 
DoEvent draws a bar, box, etc., on the 
screen, it returns and we once again 
redirect KISSDraw's output to the 
screen. 

The tee process started by Pipelt 
opens up a file named testout to 
receive the drawing data. After you exit 
KISS Draw, you can redisplay your 
artwork by merging the file testout to 
the screen by typing merge testout. 

When we ran this test, we added a 
byte field named Pipe in the KISS- 
Draw data type named Stats and 
added a byte named OutPut in the data 
type named cursor. We also did a 
global edit of all gfx2 commands in 
KISSDraw so that each command 
contained the name of an output path. 



160 



THE RAINBOW January 19B8 



For example. Run gfx2( "clear" ) 
became Run gfx2( ButtonEvent . 
Pa inter.OutPut, "clear"). 

We also added the statements shown 
in Table 1 at the start of KISSDraw: 

File Pipelt away in your bag of 
BASIC09 tricks. 

If you decide to continue to use gfx2 
commands in your version of KISS- 
Draw instead of following us into the 
wonderful world of graphic objects, 
here's an alternative to Pipel t. Rewrite 
each of the procedures that output a 
graphic object, repeating the line that 
outputs the final object twice. We per- 
sonally don't like this approach since it 
violates the concept of consolidating all 
the output from a program in one place. 

If you use this approach, the first line 
will go to your screen on the standard 
output path like it does now. The second 
line uses the optional path number. You 
will also need to put the second line in 
an IF-THEN-ENDIF statement that 
sends the output only if the 
Event .Status. RecordOn flag is true. 
At the same time you set this flag — 
probably in a procedure named Save- 
Pix — you must also open an output 
file and store its path number in 
Event. Pointer.DutPut. Here's how 
the first and second lines would look: 

RUN gfx2("box",Horiz,Vert) 
If Event. Status. RecordOn THEN 

RUN gfx2(Event. Pointer. 

DutPut, "box ",Horiz, Vert) 
END IF 



We Call it KISSDrawPut 

During the testing we renamed the 
KISSDraw procedure and file so we 
could keep them separate from all other 
versions on our disks. The "Put" comes 
from the fact that we now use the 
BASIC09 PUT statement rather than the 
gfx2 command to display an object on 
the screen. 

There were several reasons we wanted 
to try this approach. First, we guessed 
that the program would run much 
faster. It did. We were pretty sure it 
would make the job of saving our 
drawings in a disk file easier and much 
faster. We also thought the increased 
speed would be impressive when we 
were ready to redisplay our work by 
loading a picture from disk. We were 
right! And finally, we thought it would 
allow us to edit objects in our drawings 
later. We haven't gotten that far yet, but 
we're sure it will. 

Much of the increased speed comes 
from the fact that when vou use the 



DIM My Program: STRING [4] 
DIM MyParams: STRING [8] 
DIM Pipeline: BYTE 
DIM StdPath:BYTE 
ButtonEvent . Pointer . OutPut : =1 
StdPath :=p 
MyProgram:="tee" 
MyParams : ="testout" 
Here is the calling code: 

Run Pipelt (Pipeline, StdPath, MyProgram, MyParams) 
ButtonEvent . Status . Pipe : =Pipeline 
Run DoEvent (ButtonEvent) 
ButtonEvent . Pointer . OutPut : =1 

Table 1 



Listing 1 


Pipelt 


PROCEDURE 


Pipelt 


0000 


(* Creates a pipe to send output of KISSDrav to a Tee filter 


003C 




003D 


TYPE rodent-Vld, Act. ToTm: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 




INTEGER; CBSA, CBSB , CC tA , CCtB , TTSA , TTSB , TLSA, TLSB : BYTE 




; X2,BDX,BDY: INTEGER; Stat , Res :BYTE; AcX , Ac Y , WRX , WRY : 




INTEGER 


00AE 




00AF 


TYPE stats-event , InWlndow, InToolBox, InHenuBar , line , box . circle 




.ellipse , bar . arc, fill, text .freehand, RecordOn: BOOLEAN; XXX 




,YYY:BYTE; ZZZ:STRING[4] ; WWW: STRING [40] 


010E 




010F 


TYPE cursor=OutPut .Scale , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow, pencil , cross 




.hourglass , Nolcon, Text Bar .Scross , Icon , IconBuff .pattern 




.horzline.vertline .slantright , slantlef t .dots : BYTE 


0162 




?163 


TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status :stats ; pointer : cursor 


0180 




0181 


TYPE REgisters=CC,A,B,DP:BYTE; X.Y.U: INTEGER 


01A6 




01A7 


PARAM Pipeline: BYTE 


JJ1AE 


PARAM StdPath: BYTE 


01B5 


PARAM Module: STRING [4] 


01C1 


PARAM Params: STRING [8] 


01CD 


DIM Regs:REgisters 


01D6 


DIM Program: STRING [4] 


01E2 


DIM Parameter: STRING [8] 


01EE 


DIM SavePath,SysDup,SysFork:BYTE 


01FD 




01FE 


Program : =Module+CHR$ (13) 


J32(3A 


Parameter : -Params+CHR$ (13) 


(3216 


SysFork=S03 


JJ21E 


SysDup=$82 


0226 


CREATE sPipeline, "/Pipe": UPDATE 


0236 


Regs.A:=StdPath 


0242 


RUN SysCall(SysDup.Regs) 


0251 


SavePa th : -Regs . A 


025C 


CLOSE #StdPath 


0262 


Regs . A:=Plpeline 


026E 


RUN SysCall(SysDup.Regs) 


027D 


Regs.A-0 


0288 


Regs.B-0 


0293 


Regs.X:-ADDR(Program) 


02A1 


Regs . Y=LEN( Parameter) 


02AE 


Regs . U : =ADDR( Parameter ) 


02BC 


RUN SysCall(SysFork.Regs) 


02CB 


CLOSE #StdPath 


02D1 


Regs . A:=SavePath 


02DD 


RUN SysCall(SysDup.Regs) 


02EC 


CLOSE ItSavePath 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 161 



IJASIC09 GET and PUT statements, no 
conversion of data is needed. An exact 
copy of the bytes that make up a data 
type in memory are sent to the output 
path. It doesn't make any difference 
what the data type looks like. Let's look 
at the data types in KISSDrauPut. If 
you're new to this approach, you may 
think it's magic. 

What Is a Line? 

Let's start with a line. To draw an 
object that looks like a line we need a 
tool — a pen perhaps. For now, we'll 
assume the line will start where the pen 
is resting. It will run to another location 
on the screen, which can be defined by 
a horizontal and vertical pixel address. 
The first thing we need, then, is a data 
type definition for this object we call a 
line. Since we know that we are going 
to want to do the same thing with bars, 
boxes and circles, etc., we'll keep our 
definition generic. We defined a data 
type named object: 

TYPE object=DCode, HorP, VerP: 
INTEGER 

With BASIC09, after we define a new 
data type, we must reserve a place in 
memory to store it. We use the DIN 
statement to do this. Let's call our new 
variable pen. That seems like a good 
metaphor since we often draw with a 
pen in the real world. 

DIM pen:object 

Wc now have a place to store a pen 
that we can use to draw a line. To use 
it we must define our line and initialize 
it in memory. Within OS-9 all of the 
drawing primitives are defined by the 
escape code, ASCII $1B, followed by an 
additional byte. To put a line on the 
screen, we must send $1B followed by 
$44. In OS-9 speak, that means $1B44 
is a line. It may not look like it, but it 
is. Let's proceed: 

pen.DCode:=$lB44 
pen.HorP:=100 
pen .VerP: =50 

We now have a line stored in a mem- 
ory variable named pen waiting to 
happen. To make it happen, we must 
put it on the screen: 

PUT HI, pen 

That's all there is to it. Now, what will 
we need if we want to redraw that same 
line later? It appears that the only thing 

162 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



Listing 2: KISSdMenu 



PROCEDURE 

0000 

0030 
0031 



00A2 
00A3 



00E2 
00E3 



J3136 

0137 



0172 
0173 
(3186 
J3187 
0198 
(3199 



01CE 

01CF 

01D8 

01D9 

01E0 

01F5 

0208 

0209 

0237 

0238 

024D 

025B 

0269 

0276 

0277 

028C 

029A 

02A8 

02B5 

02B6 

02E4 

02F9 

030E 

031C 

032B 

0338 

0339 

034E 

035C 

036B 

0378 

0383 

0384 

039E 

03C8 

03C9 

03DE 

03EC 

03FA 

0407 

04 1C 

042A 

0438 



KISSdMenu 
(* Procedure to draw ' cools ' menu bar on screen 

TYPE rodent=Vld,Act,ToTm:BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 

INTEGER; CBSA , CBSB , CCCA , CCtB , TTSA , TTSB , TLSA , TLSB : BYTE 

; X2.BDX.BDY: INTEGER; Stat, Res : BYTE; AcX , Ac Y . WRX , WRY : 

INTEGER 
TYPE stats=IsEvent , InWindow , InToolBox , InMenuBar , line , box , c lrcle 

.ellipse , bar , arc , f ill , text , freehand , RecordOn : BOOLEAN 
TYPE cursor-OutPut .Scale , ScreenType ,NoCur, arrow, pencil, cross 

.hourglass .NoIcon.TextBar .Scross , Icon.IconBuff .pattern 

.horzline , vertline , slantright , slantlef t , dots : BYTE 
TYPE codes-DArc , DBar , DBox , DCIrcle , DEllipse , DLIne , DPoint , DFill 

, DSe tPtr , DPutCur , DSe tCur , DLogic , DPattern : INTEGER 
TYPE ob j ect-DCode , HorP , VerP : INTEGER 
TYPE orgin=DPSCode,HanX,HanY 
TYPE packet=mouse : rodent ; status : stats ; pointer : cursor ; Code 

: codes; Pen: object; Handle :orgin 

PARAM Event : packet 

DIh vert: INTEGER 

RUN gfx2("pattern",0,|J) 

RUN gfx2("logic","off") 

(* We'll draw an outline of the menu bar first 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DSetPtr 
Event . Pen . HorP : =10 
Event . Pen . VerP : =10 
PUT #1 , Event . Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DBox 
Event. Pen. HorP: -40 
Event . Pen . VerP : =178 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 

(* Now we need to fill in the individual boxes 
FOR vert=22 TO 178 STEP 12 

Event . Pen . DCode :=Event . Code . DSetPtr 

Event . Pen . HorP : =10 

Event. Pen. VerP: -vert 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DLine 
Event . Pen . HorP : =40 
Event . Pen . VerP : -vert 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 
NEXT vert 

(* Now we'll add the icons 

(* First, an Icon that means 'Draw a Line' 

Event . Pen . DCode : =Event . Code . DSetPtr 

Event . Pen . HorP : =12 

Event . Pen . VerP : =20 

PUT #1. Event. Pen 

Even t . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DLine 

Event . Pen . HorP : =38 

Event . Pen . VerP : =12 

PUT #1. Event. Pen 



(3445 

0446 

045E 

13473 

0481 

048F 

049C 

04B1 

04BF 

04CD 

04 DA 

04DB 

04F7 

04F8 

J35J3D 

051B 

0529 

J3536 

054B 

?559 

0567 

0574 

0575 

0576 

059B 

05B0 

05BE 

05CC 

05D9 

05EE 

05FC 

060A 

0617 

0618 

0631 

0646 

0654 

0662 

066F 

0684 

0692 

06A0 

06AD 

06AE 

06CB 

06 F0 

06F1 

070E 

0725 

073C 

0754 

076C 

0784 

0785 

07AB 

07C6 

07D9 

07DF 

07E0 

0806 

0815 

083A 

085F 

0860 

087F 

0899 

08AC 

08C1 

08D3 

08F2 

0907 

0919 

0938 

094D 

095F 

0978 

098D 

099F 

09C1 

09D6 

09E8 



(* Now an Icon for a Box 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DSe tPtr 

Event . Fen . HorP : -14 

Event . Pen . VerP : -24 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DBox 

Event . Pen . HorP : -36 

Event. Pen. VerP: -32 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

(* A Circle Is our next Icon 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DSetPtr 

Event. Pen. HorP: =25 

Event . Pen . VerP : -40 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DClrcle 

Event . Pen . HorP : -8 

Event. Pen. VerP :-0 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 



(* Now we need an icon for an ellipse 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DSetPtr 

Event . Pen . HorP : -25 

Event . Pen . VerP : -52 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DEllipse 

Event . Pen . HorP :-12 

Event . Pen . VerP : -3 

PUT «1, Event. Pen 

(* Now, an Icon for a Bar 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DSetPtr 

Event . Pen . HorP : -14 

Event .Pen. VerP: -61 

PUT #1 , Event . Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DBar 

Event . Pen . HorP : -36 

Event. Pen. VerP:-67 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

(* An Icon for an Arc Is next 

RUN gfx2("arc" ,25 , 76 , 7 , 4, -14 , -8 , 18 , 14) 

(* Now we ' 11 fake a spray can 
RUN gfx2("box",21,86,29.93) 
RUN gfx2("bar".24,84,26,86) 
RUN gfx2("line",26.84.34,82) 
RUN gfx2("llne",26.84.38,84) 
RUN gfx2("line".26,84,34,85) 

(* We'll let the Letter 'T' be an icon 
(* to represent typing text 
RUN gfx2("curxy",3,12) 
PRINT "T"; 

(* For a freehand icon, we'll use two 
(* crossed arcs 

RUN gfx2 ( "arc" , 20 , 114 , 7 , 4 , - 14 , - 8 , 18 . 4) 
RUN gfx2 ("arc". 30, 110, 7, 4, 14, 8, -18, -4) 

(* Now we'll give you five fill 

(* patterns to choose from 

(* Large Dots First 

RUN gfx2( "pattern", 204, 8) 

RUN gfx2("fill",25.125) 

(* Followed by horizontal lines 

RUN gfx2( "pattern", 204, 3) 

RUN gfx2("fill",25,135) 

(* Now we'll use vertical lines 

RUN gfx2("pattern".204,2) 

RUN gfx2("fill",25.146) 

(* and left slanted lines 

RUN gfx2( "pattern", 204, 5) 

RUN gfx2("fill".25,156) 

(* and finally right slanted lines 

RUN gfx2("pattem",204,6) 

RUN gfx2("fill",25.172) 

(* You must always return to a solid pattern 



missing is the starting location. We'll 
name our new data type orgin. We'll 
name the memory location where we 
store it handle: 



TYPE orgin=DPSCode,HanX,HanY: 

INTEGER 

DIM Handle:orgin 

The data field named DPSCode holds 
the OS-9 code required to position the 
data pointer on your screen, S1B40. The 
fields, HanX and HanY store the starting 
location of our line. Let's define the 
starting point of a new line: 



Handle . DPSCode : =$1B40 
Handle. HanX:=0 
Handle. HanY:=0 



We can now redraw our line with two 
lines of code. 



PUT 01, Handle 
PUT 01, Pen 

But that's too complicated. Why 
don't we design a new data type to hold 
the starting location, the pen and the 
end point of our line. Since the two lines 
above drew a line on the screen when 
we ran them, Drawing seemed like a 
natural name for our new data type. 
Here's what it will look like: 



TYPE Drauing-Loc:orgin; tool: 
object 

We named the field containing the 
starting point Loc — short for location 
since that is what it contains. Likewise, 
we called the field that will hold our pen 
a tool. Think of it this way: a pen in 
motion — at least in the right hands — 
is a tool. 

Now that we have defined most of the 
objects we'll be drawing on the screen, 
we need a place to store our artwork. 
We'll exercise a small bit of artistic 
license and call it a Picture. In your 
Color Computer it is really an array of 
drawing(s). 



DIM Picture(100) :Drauilng 

This statement will reserve 1,200 
bytes of memory for a picture made up 
of up to 100 individual objects. Now, 
here's the magic. What do you think you 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 163 



will need to do to display your picture 
again? You guessed it — one line will do 
it: 

PUT Ml, Picture 

Likewise, you can save that same 
picture in a disk file with one statement: 

PUT HPixFile, Picture 

Therein lies the basis for the SavePix 
and LoadPix modules from last month. 
At this point in the KISSDraw evolu- 
tion, when you load a picture you have 
saved earlier, it is written into the array 
named Picture over the top of any 
drawings you may have already drawn 
during the session. 

The next step will be to cause the 
LoadPix routine to add the new objects 
from the file after the last object is 
already in the picture. To do this, we wil I 
need to get one drawing at a time from 
the file. We can then store it as the next 
"drawing" in our new combined "pic- 
ture" and put it on the screen. We are 
going to need to take this approach 
anyway because the data type drawing 
cannot hold all of the objects we pres- 
ently create with KISSDraw. 

We can store bars, boxes, circles, 
ellipses and lines. We cannot store arcs, 
text, our freehand drawings or a pat- 
terned fill. To store these additional 
objects permanently, we'll need to 
define a new data structure for each. 
Then, we'll place a flag in the DPSCode 
byte of the handle to each drawing 
object that cannot be completed with 
one of the standard tools. 

If that flag is set when we get the 
drawing out of a picture array or a file, 
we'll read an additional field in Handle 
that will tell us what to do to draw the 
oddball object. We'll put these addi- 
tional parts of the picture — objects 
defined with nonstandard data types — 



(* before you cry Co draw again 
RUN gfx2 ("pattern". 0, 0) 

(* Nov we'll draw a menu bar across the top of the screen 
(* Initially, we'll only put a 'file' menu on it. 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DSetPtr 

Event . Pen . HorP : -(/ 

Event . Pen . VerP : -JJ 

PUT #1. Event. Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DBar 

Event. Pen. HorP: -639 

Event . Pen . VerP : -8 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

RUN gfx2("curxy",l(J,jJ) 
RUN gfx2("revon") 
PRINT "File "; 
RUN gfx2("revoff") 
END 



0A14 
0A33 
JJA48 
JJA49 
JJA82 
0AB3 
(8AB4 
JJAC9 
0AD7 
0AE5 
JJAF2 
0B07 
JJB16 
0B24 
0B31 
JJB32 
f»B45 
0B52 
J3B5C 
0B6A 
0B6C 

Listing 3: KISSDrauFill 

PROCEDURE KISSDravFUl 

(* Procedure to fill an area of the 
(* screen with a pattern selected 
(* with the high resolution mouse 



JJ023 
PP4A 
P065 
PP66 



mi 

PJJD8 



(J117 
SU18 



JI16B 
JJ16C 



(J1A7 
?IA8 
P1BB 
JJ1BC 
JJ1CD 
PICE 



P2JJ3 
0204 
(J20D 
f»20E 



TYPE rodent-Vld. Act, ToTm: BYTE; XI: INTEGER: TTTo:BYTE; TSSc: 
INTEGER; CBSA , CBSB . CC tA . CCtB . TTSA , TTSB , TLSA . TLSB : BYTE 

; X2.BDX.BDY: INTEGER; Stat .RestBYTE; AcX , Ac Y . URX , WRY : 
INTEGER 
TYPE s tats-IsEvent , InWindov , InToolBox , InHenuBar , line , box .circle 

.ellipse , bar , arc . f 111 . text , freehand , RecordOn : BOOLEAN 
TYPE cursor-OutPut , Sea le , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow , penc 11 , cross 

, hourglass , Nolcon. Text Bar, Scros s , Icon , IconBuff .pattern 

, horz 1 lne, vert llne.slantrighc. slant left. dots: BYTE 
TYPE codes-DArc . DBar , DBox . DCircle , DElllpse . DLine . DPoint , DFill 

, DSetPtr , DPutCur , DSetCur . DLoglc , DPattern: INTEGER 
TYPE ob ject-DCode . HorP .VerP : INTEGER 
TYPE orgin-DPSCode.HanX.HanY 
TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status :stats; polnter:cursor; Code 

:codes; Pen:object; Handle:orgin 
PARAM Event: packet 
DIM pointers .patternset: BOOLEAN 



COCO 3 OS-9 
HARDWARE UPGRADES 




The PLUS 100 — The PREMIER 512K 
Memory Expansion for the COCO 3. 

Brochures and price list available on request. 



DISKMASTER Disk Drive Systems 
Absolutely Without Equal in the COCO World! 

• 20 MB SCSI Hard Drive 

• 1 MB High Speed Floppy Drive 

• Hardware Real Time Clock with Battery Backup 

• 3 Hardware Serial Ports 

• Bi-Directional Centronics Compatible Parallel Port 

• Sophisticated OS-9 Drivers by D. P. JOHNSON 

• RAM DISK options up to 1.5 MB 

• Expansion Port lor additional Floppy Drives 

• Single Cable Interface to COCO 3 

• A VERY HIGH PERFORMANCE, 4 Station, Multi-User System 
can easily be assembled using a DISKMASTER System. 

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4480 Shopping Lane 

Slmi Valley, CA 93063 

(805) 581-0885 

(Mon. thru Thurs., 1:30 to 4:30 PM Pacific Time) 



164 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



JS219 




02 LA 


pacternset: -FALSE 


0220 


pointers: -FALSE 


0226 




0227 


<* First, we must select the pattern we want to fill with 


0260 


(* This means we must point to it 


0281 




0282 


WHILE NOT(patternset) DO 


028C 


REPEAT 


028E 


RUN getKISSMouse(Event) 


0298 


IF Event. mouse. AcX<40 THEN 


02AA 


pointers: -TRUE 


02B0 


RUN g£x2 ( "gcset" , Event . pointer . IconBuf f , Event . pointer . arrow 


02D3 


J 

ELSE 


02D7 


pointers: -FALSE 


02DD 


RUN gfx2(" gcset" .Event. pointer. IconBuf £, Event .pointer -Nolcon 


0300 


> 

ENDIF 


0302 


UNTIL Event, mouse. CBSAO0 OR Event .mouse . CCtAO0 


0320 




0321 


IF pointers THEN 


032A 


IF Event, mouse. AcY>118 AND Event .mouse .AcY<130 THEN 


0349 


RUN gfx2<"pattem",204,8) \patternset :-TRUE \REH Large Dots 


0371 


ELSE IF Event. mouse. AcY>130 AND Event .mouse. AcY<142 THEN 


0393 


RUN gfx2("pattem",204,3) \patternset :-TRUE \REM Horizontal lines 


03C1 


ELSE 


03C5 


IF Event. mouse. AcY>142 AND Event .mouse. AcY<154 THEN 


03E4 


RUN gfx2("pattern",204,2) \patternset:-TRUE \REM Vertical lines 


0410 


ELSE 


0414 


I? Event. mouse. AcY>154 AND Event. mouse. AcY<166 THEN 


0433 


RUN gfx2("pattem",204,6) \pattemset:-TRUE \REM 




Right Slanted Lines 


0464 


ELSE 


0468 


IF Event. mouse. Ac Y>166 THEN 


047A 


RUN gfx2("pattern",204.5) \patternset:-TRUE \REM 




Left Slanted Lines 


04AA 


ELSE 


04AE 


RUN gfx2( "pattern" ,0.0) \REM make sure pattern is solid 


04 E0 


patternset: -FALSE 


04E6 


ENDIF 


04E8 


ENDIF 


04EA 


ENDIF 


04EC 


ENDIF 


04EE 


ENDIF 


04 F0 


ENDIF 


04F2 


ENDWHILE 


04F6 




04F7 


(* We have the pattern now 


0511 


C* Let's do actual fill 


0528 




0529 


REPEAT 


052B 


RUN getKISSMouse(Event) 


0535 





out to the file immediately after the 
main part of the picture. We should still 
be able to put all of our artwork in a 
file with one line of code. We'll just need 
to get it out one drawing at a time. At 
least that's the present theory. Hope- 
fully, the next brick wall wc run into 
won't be too strong. 

Other News 

We have received several care pack- 
ages from Steve Goldberg during the 
past month. Included was a slick direc- 
tory sorting utility. We'll try to get some 
more of his work published soon. 

Bob Rosen at Spectrum Projects, 
P.O. Box 264, Howard Beach, NY 
11414, also sent several disks. He's 
offering a new RAM disk package for 
a 5 1 2K Color Computer 3. The package 
was written by Denny Skala, who has 
contributed several programs to this 
column during the past several years, 
and includes drivers for both Level I 
and Level II OS-9. 

With Level II you can choose be- 
tween device descriptors that uive you 
64K, 128K, 192Kor256KofRAMdisk. 
It even includes an option that makes 
an attempt at recovering the informa- 
tion in your RAM disk after a system 
crash. That's handy! A Dup utility 
supplied with the RAM disk program 
is designed to replace the standard 
Microware/ Tandy Backup program - 
except the two disks do not need to be 
formatted identically with Rosen's 
package. Dup is provided to give you a 
quick way to transfer an entire RAM 
disk to a floppy disk and vice versa, 
regardless of the format of either. All in 
all, it's quite a bargain at $29.95. 

Rosen also has a handy Fastdupe 
program that can format and back up 
your OS-9 Level II disks — up to four 
drives at a lime — in less than five 
minutes. It's good to see companies like 
Spectrum supporting OS-9 Level II. □ 



OS-9 ™ SOFTWARE/HARDWARE 



SDISK— Standard disk driver module allows the full use of 35, 40 
or 80 track double sided disk drives with COCO OS-9 plus you 
can read/write/format the OS-9 formats used by other OS-9 
systems. (Note: you can read 35 or 40 track disks on an 80 track 
drive). Now updated for OS-9 ver. 02.00.00 $29.95 
SDISK + BOOTFIX— As above plus boot directly from a double 
sided diskette S35.95 

L1 UTILITY PAK— Contains all programs from Filter Kits Nos. 1 
& 2 plus Hacker's Kit #, plus several additional programs, Over 
35 utilities including "wild card" file cmds, MacGen command 
language, disassembler, disk sectoredit and others. Very useful, 
many of these you will find yourself using every time you run your 
system. These sold separately for over $85. $49.95 
SKIO— Hi res screen driver for 24 x 51 display; does key click, 
boldface, italics; supports upgraded keyboards and mouse. With 
graphics screen dump and other useful programs. Now UPDATED 
FOR OS-9 Ver 2.0 $29.95 



PC-XFER UTILITIES— Utilities to read/write and format ss MS- 
DOStm diskettes on CoCo under OS-9. $45.00 (requires SDISK) 

CCRD 512K Byte RAM DISK CARTRIDGE— Requires RS Multipak 
interface, two units may be used together for 1MB RAM disk. 
Addressing is switch selectable. OS-9 level 1 and 2 driver and test 
software included. $169.00 

All disk prices are for CoCo OS-9 format; for other formats, specify 
and add $2.00 each. Order prepaid or COD, VISA/MC accepted, add 
$1.50 S&H for software, $5.00 for CCRD; actual charges added for 
COD. 

D.P. Johnson, 7655 S.W. Cedarcrest St. 
Portland, OR 97223 (503) 244-8152 

(For best service call between 9-11 AM Pacific Time) 

OS-9 is a trademark ot Microware and Motorola Inc. 
MS-DOS is a trademark ol Mlcroaolt, Inc. 



January1988 THE RAINBOW 165 



0S-9- 
Catch the Wave 

(But Read the Manual!) 



By Cray Augsburg 
Rainbow Technical Editor 

Because of the recent emphasis on OS-9 
throughout the CoCo Community, 
many people have decided to "get their feet 
wet." But this decision has often yielded 
soggy results. 

Beginners become confused and feel quite 
overwhelmed by the intellectual "require- 
ments" OS-9 places on the user. Most of 
these people have used Disk basic with their 
CoCos for some lime and have become 
accustomed to the limited system control it 
allows. Many CoCoists have been able to 
sidestep these limitations and find unique 
ways to perform specific tasks. Others just 
accept what they see. 

Why has the need to learn about OS-9 
suddenly become a major force throughout 
the Community? The power and flexibility 
of OS-9 are often touted to non OS-9 users. 
Wherever you turn you hear that OS-9 is the 
wave of the future. People are jumping to 
learn all they can for fear of falling behind. 

Personally, I feel OS-9 presents a very 
important option for Color Computer 
owners as well as users of other systems. Call 
it a gateway to knowledge, if you will. 
However, such knowledge does not come 
about without some struggle. We receive 
many calls from OS-9 newcomers that bring 
this point home daily. 

The purpose of this article is to address 
some of the problems most frequently 
encountered by beginners in their attempts 
with OS-9 and to provide clarification to the 
new OS-9 user. Notice that I use the word 
"clarification." Although I understand OS- 
9, 1 realize the documentation that accom- 
panies it sometimes seems vague and is often 
difficult to follow. Yet, there is no substitu- 
tion for reading the manual. It bothers me 
to answer basic questions with, "Here is the 
answer, but you could have found it on Page 
such-and-such of the manual." Mind you, I 
am not saying you shouldn't ask questions. 
However, I sometimes feel that people try to 
take the easy way out. They avoid the 
manual and, therefore, avoid learning the 
process by which they can help themselves. 

I am not an OS-9 "expert." I am just 
someone who has opened his mind to learn- 
ing. In some ways, 1 will always consider 
myself a beginner. But I have surmounted 
each problem that has stood in my way. 
When I learned OS-9, I had no one to turn 



P536 
0555 



0578 
057C 



059F 
05A1 
JJ5A2 
05C0 
J35C1 
(J5D6 
05EB 



060D 
0622 
J3G3J3 
063E 
064B 
0673 



0698 
069A 



IF Event, mouse. AcX<40 OR Event, mouse .Ac Y<10 THEN 

RUN gfx2 ("gcset" , Event . pointer . IconBuf f , Event . pointer . arrow 

> 

ELSE 

RUN gf x2 ( "gcset" , Event . pointer . IconBuf f , Event . pointer . Scross 

) 

ENDIF 

UNTIL Event. mouse. CBSAO0 AND Event .mouse .AcX>40 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event , Code . DSe tP tr 

Event. Pen. HorP: -Event .mouse. AcX 

Event. Pen. VerP: -Event .mouse . AcY 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DFill 

Event. Pen. HorP :-0 

Event . Pen . VerP : -0 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

REM We must always reset to solid pattern 

RUN gfx2 ("pattern" , Event . pointer . NoCur , Event . pointer . NoCur) 



END 



Listing 4: SetUpMouse 

PROCEDURE SetUpMouse 

(* This procedure uses the program 'SysCall' to 

(* do a set status call which sets up OS-9 to treat 

(* the Color Computer Mouse as a high resolution device 

(* using the right joystick port. Because, this change is 

(* systemwide, another program using the mouse later would 

(* also need to know how to use the optional high 

(* resolution mouse adapter. 



002 F 
0062 
0099 
00D3 
010D 
013F 
015B 
015C 
0191 
01CA 
01F6 
01F7 
021C 
021D 
0226 
022D 
022E 
0250 
0251 
025C 
0268 
0274 
0280 
0288 
0289 
0298 
0299 
029B 
029C 



(* Since this set status call is also used to change the 
(* key repeat start constant and delay speed, it tells 
(* OS-9 to leave those parameters unchanged. 

TYPE registers=cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x,y,u: INTEGER 

DIM regs :registers 
DIM callcode:BYTE 

(* Now set up the mouse parameters 

regs.a:-0 

regs.b:-$94 

regs.x:-$0101 

regs.y:-$FFFF 

callcode:~$8E 

RUN syscall(callcode,regs) 

END 



Listing 5: WhichTool 



PROCEDURE WhichTool 

(* Procedure to determine which tool 
(* artist wants to draw with 



0024 
0040 
0041 



00B2 
00B3 



00F2 
00F3 



TYPE rodent-Vld, Act, ToTra: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 
INTEGER; CBSA.CBSB.CCtA, CCtB .TTSA.TTSB .TLSA.TLSB : BYTE 
; X2,BDX,BDY: INTEGER; Stat , Res : BYTE; AcX , AcY , WRX , WRY : 
INTEGER 

TYPE stats-IsEvent , InWindow , InToolBox , InMenuBar , line .box , circle 
, ellipse , bar , arc , fill , text , freehand , RecordOn : BOOLEAN 

TYPE cursor-Out Put , Scale , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow , pencil , cross 



166 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



FHL Introduces Two New 
OS9 Computers 




QT20xr 



The QT20xr is our new high capacity, high speed ser- 
ies of 68020 based computers. Housed in a rack mount- 
able heavy duty chassis, the QT 20xr series is built for 
speed. All systems feature the 16 Mhz MC 68020 with 
math coprocessor option. DMA on all drives. Expanda- 
ble to 14 1/2 Megabytes of RAM and more than 30 us- 
ers. All systems include the OS9 Professional Operating 
System with the 68020 C compiler, Basic plus backup 
and communications packages. 

System #1 features; 

85 Meg high speed drive 
2 1/2 Megabytes of RAM 
10 Serial ports (users) 
4 Terminals and all cables. 
$8,995.00 

System #2 features; 

280 Meg very high speed drive 

Streaming tape backup 

14 1/2 Megabytes of RAM 

30 Serial ports (users) 

20 Terminals and all cables 

$28,995.00 

The QT 20xr computers are custom made to 
order. Write or call for a quote on other config- 
urations. Terms prepaid, delivery is 4 to 6 
weeks average. 



QTOOx 



The QT OOx (double oh x) is our new 68000 based 
computer. The QTOOx has 8 serial ports (users), 3 par- 
allel ports, a 30 megabyte hard disk, a 720K floppy 
drive, 1024K RAM, and a real time battery backed clock. 
In addition to all this the case will support 4 Half Height 
drives and other new boards now available. All of the 
above for; 



only $2995! 



Lest we forget, we also include the OS9 Professional 
Operating System with umacs screen editor, assembler 
and all the utilities. If that's not enough, we also include 
the Unix V compatible C compiler and Basicl We also in- 
clude floppy disk backup and communications software. 

You have your choice of 3.5" or 5.25" drives. Other hard 
drive sizes are also available, as well as tape backup sys- 
tems. 

If you've been waiting for the right reason to move up to 
OS9/68000 and the MC68000 then this has got to be 
it. No other system offers so much for so little. Call to or- 
der or for more information TODAY!!! 



Frank Hogg Laboratory, Inc. 
770 James St., Syracuse, NY 13203 
Telex 646740 - FAX 31 5/474-8225 

315/474-7856 



to lor answers. I learned how and why OS- 
9 does what it does through a lot of head- 
scratching and, most of all. from reading the 
manual. 

OK. I'll get off my soapbox now and look 
at some common problems. I'll try to cover 
only the pertinent aspects of OS-9 as they 
relate to the CoCo and the CoCo Commu- 
nity. Keep in mind, however, that OS-9 is 
available for other computer systems. It was 
available for some of these systems before 
it was available for the CoCo. We are not 
the first people to utilize OS-9, and OS-9 was 
not written just for the Color Computer. 

OS-9 beginners are often confused about 
what OS-9 is, exactly. To set the record 
straight, OS-9 is an operating system. It is 
not a language. We write programs in 
languages such as assembly, BASIC and C. 
We do not write programs in OS-9. 

In general, OS-9 is a group of programs 
that allow us to communicate with the 
CoCo. These programs, which perform 
many other tasks, also allow the CoCo to 
communicate with its peripherals (disk 
drives, printers, etc.) in an effort to make our 
communication with the system easier and 
more productive and enjoyable. We can 
write programs in many computer languages 
while in this OS-9 environment, and compile 
and execute them there. But it is important 
to understand that OS-9 is the environment, 
not the language or compiler. 

There is still some confusion about which 
version/ level of OS-9 works on which 
CoCo. OS-9 is available for the CoCo in two 
different levels. Level I was the first level 
available for the CoCo Community. It was 
designed to run on the CoCo 1 and CoCo 
2. OS-9 Level II was designed to operate on 
the CoCo 3, and to take advantage of its 
enhanced abilities. The major differences 
between Level f and Level II are windows 
and memory management. 

OS-9 Level I has limited graphics support 
and does not include built-in windows. Level 
I is also designed for a computer system 
containing only 64K of addressable RAM. 
Level II includes enhanced support for 
graphics. It also allows the creation of 
windows, which enables the user to set up 
several "mini-terminals," each running a 
different task, all on the same screen. 
Finally, Level II on the CoCo 3 supports 
5I2K memory. This is accomplished via 
software/ hardware "trickery" and is not 
really all that complicated. While it may be 
wise to have some understanding of this 
process, it is not something the user must 
constantly be aware of. 

It is possible to use OS-9 Level I on the 
CoCo 3. However, the only version that will 
directly boot on the CoCo 3 is Version 
2.00.00. This version of Level I is available 
through Radio Shack Computer Centers as 
an upgrade to the OS-9 package and costs 
S24.95. It does not offer the windowing 
environment and will not support anything 
more than 64K of RAM in your CoCo 3. 

The aspect of OS-9 (levels 1 and II) that 
seems to trip up beginners most often is 
directory structure. OS-9 uses what is 

168 THE RAINBOW January 1988 





.hourglass , Nolcon , TextBar , Scross , Icon , IconBuf f .pattern 




.horzlinc . vertline , slantright , slantlef t , dots : BYTE 


0146 




0147 


TYPE codes-DArc , DBar , DBox .DCircle , DEllipse ,DLine .DFoint , DFill 




, DSetPtr , DPutCur , DSe tCur , DLogic , DPat tern : INTEGER 


0182 




0183 


TYPE ob ject-DCode , HorP , VerP : INTEGER 


0196 




0197 


TYPE orgln-DPSCode , HanX , HanY : INTEGER 


01AA 




01AB 


TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status : stats ; pointer : cursor ; Code 




: codes; Pen: object; Handle :orgin 


01E0 




01E1 


PARAM Event; packet 


01EA 




01EB 


IF Event, mouse. Ac Y>10 AND Event. mouse .Ac Y<2 2 THEN 


020A 


Event . status . line : -TRUE 


(3217 


END 


0219 


ELSE 


021D 


Event . status . line ;-FALSE 


022A 


ENDIF 


022C 




022D 


IF Event. mouse. AcY>22 AND Event .mouse. Ac Y<34 THEN 


024C 


Event .status . box : -TRUE 


0259 


END 


025B 


ELSE 


025F 


Event . status . box : -FALSE 


026C 


ENDIF 


SJ26E 




026F 


IF Event. mouse. Ac Y>34 AND Event .mouse. AcY<46 THEN 


028E 


Event .status . circle: -TRUE 


J329B 


END 


JJ29D 


ELSE 


02A1 


ENDIF 


02A3 




02A4 


IF Event. mouse. Ac Y>46 AND Event .mouse .Ac Y<58 THEN 


02C3 


Event .status .ellipse : -TRUE 


02D0 


END 


02D2 


ELSE 


02D6 


Event .status . ellipse : -FALSE 


32E3 


ENDIF 


02E5 




02E6 


IF Event .mouse. AcY>58 AND Event .mouse. AcY<70 THEN 


0305 


Event . status . bar : -TRUE 


0312 


END 


0314 


ELSE 


0318 


Event. status .bar : -FALSE 


0325 


ENDIF 


0327 




0328 


IF Event. mouse. AcY>70 AND Event .mouse .AcY<82 THEN 


0347 


Event . s tatus . ar c : -TRUE 


0354 


END 


0356 


ELSE 


035A 


Event .status . arc : -FALSE 


0367 


ENDIF 


0369 




036A 


IF Event .mouse. AcY>82 AND Event .mouse .Ac Y<94 THEN 


0389 


Event . status . fill : -TRUE 


0396 


END 


0398 


ELSE 


039C 


Event. status .fill : -FALSE 


03A9 


ENDIF 


03AB 




03AC 


IF Event. mouse. Ac Y>94 AND Event .mouse .AcY<106 THEN 


03CB 


Event . status . text : -TRUE 


03D8 


END 


03DA 


ELSE 


03DE 


Event . status . text : -FALSE 


03EB 


ENDIF 


03ED 




03EE 


IF Event .mouse. AcY>106 AND Event. mouse. AcY<118 THEN 


040D 


Event . status . freehand : -TRUE 


041A 


END 


041C 


ELSE 


0420 


Event . s tatus . freehand : -FALSE 


042D 


ENDIF 


042F 


END 


0431 





Listing 6 


DoEvent 


PROCEDURE 


DoEvent 


WW 


(* Procedure that runs Che proper tool program 


002E 




002F 


TYPE rodent-Vld, Act, ToTtn: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 




INTEGER; CBSA , CBSB , CCtA , CCtB , TTSA , TTSB , TLSA , TLSB : BYTE 




; X2.BDX.BDY: INTEGER; Stat, Res : BYTE; AcX.AcY.WRX.WRY: 




INTEGER 


00A0 




00A1 


TYPE s tats-IsEvent , InWindow , InToolBox , InMenuBar , line , box , c ircle 




, ellipse , bar , arc , f ill , text , freehand , RecordOn : BOOLEAN 


WE? 




WEI 


TYPE cursor=OutPut .Scale , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow , pencil , cross 




.hourglass .Nolcon, Text Bar , Scross , Icon, IconBuff .pattern 




.horzline , vertline , slantright , slanclef t , dots : BYTE 


0134 




(3135 


TYPE codes=DArc , DBar , DBox , DClrcle , DEllipse , DLine , DPoint , DFill 




, DSetPtr . DPutCur , DSetCur , DLogic , DPattern : INTEGER 


0170 




JJ171 


TYPE ob j ect-DCode , HorP , VerP : INTEGER 


0184 




0185 


TYPE orgin=DPSCode . HanX , HanY : INTEGER 


0198 




(3199 


TYPE packet-mouse: rodent; status: stats ; pointer : cursor ; Code 




:codes; Pen:object; Handle:orgin 


01CE 




01CF 


PARAM Event: packet 


(J1D8 




(31D9 


IF Event. status. line THEN 


01EB 


RUN KISSdrawline(Event) 


01F2 


Event, status. line: -FALSE 


01FF 


GOTO 100 


(32(33 


ENDIF 


(3205 




(32(36 


IF Event. status. box THEN 


0215 


RUN KISSDrawbox(Event) 


021F 


Event . status . box : -FALSE 


022C 


GOTO 100 


0230 


ENDIF 


0232 




0233 


IF Event. status. circle THEN 


0242 


RUN KISSDrawCircle(Event) 


024C 


Event . status . circle : -FALSE 


0259 


GOTO 100 


025D 


ENDIF 


025F 




0260 


IF Event. status. ellipse THEN 


026F 


RUN KISSDrawEllipse(Event) 


0279 


Event . status . ellipse : -FALSE 


0286 


GOTO 100 


028A 


ENDIF 


028C 




028D 


IF Event. status .bar THEN 


029C 


RUN KISSDrawBar(Event) 


02A6 


Event . s tatus . bar : -FALSE 


02B3 


GOTO 100 


02B7 


ENDIF 


02B9 




02BA 


IF Event. status. arc THEN 


02C9 


RUN KISSDravArc (Event) 


02D3 


Event. status .arc: -FALSE 


02E0 


GOTO 100 


02E4 


ENDIF 


02E6 




02E7 


IF Event. status. fill THEN 


02F6 


RUN KISSDrawFill(Event) 


0300 


Event . status . f ill : -FALSE 


030D 


GOTO 100 


0311 


ENDIF 


0313 





referred to as a hierarchical directory struc- 
ture. As many of you are aware, this type 
of structure resembles a tree that has been 
turned upside down. The root (main direc- 
tory) is at the top and the many branches 
(subdirectories and files) are below it. 

Aside from the use of shortcuts, which will 
take a little time to learn, you must use what 
is called a palhlist to access any given file in 
the structure. A full pathlist indicates the 
device on which the file is located. In most 
cases, this means, "What drive holds the disk 
on which the file resides?" The answer to this 
will usually be /dO or /dl. Following the 
device will be a complete list of all directories 
you must go through in order to reach the 
file. Finally, the pathlist includes the name 
of the actual file. 

One way to visualize the pathlist in terms 
of the tree is to imagine yourself "climbing" 
the upside-down tree from top to bottom. 
You start at the root (in nearly every case, 
the root directory is the same as the device) 
and include every branch you must grab 
onto in order to reach the file in question. 
All of the directory names and filenames in 
the pathlist must be separated with slashes. 
Also, the pathlist cannot contain any spaces. 
If it does, OS-9 will interpret the pathlist 
incorrectly and the attempt will result in an 
error. 

I am not going to give an example of the 
hierarchical directory structure concept. 1 
feel the manual contains more than enough 
examples. I will give you an example of a 
generic pathlist and point out its major 
components, though. 



subdirectories 




/ 


\ 




-"dl'-SUBDIRl 


<"SUBDIR2'myfile 


\ 
root directory 
or device 




t 

file in 

question 



One of the most difficult things for expe- 
rienced users of Disk basic to get used to 
is that entering dir under OS-9 yields only 
the files and subdirectories in the current 
directory, and not a listing of the entire disk. 
Each of the subdirectories within your 
current directory may contain several files. 
So, what you are really seeing when you 
enter dir may be only the tip of the iceberg 
as far as seeing the number of files that 
actually reside on the disk. 

To find out what files are in a subdirectory 
of your current directory, you can simply 
type dir, followed by a space, followed by 
a pathlist which ends in the name of the 
subdirectory in question. Note that you 
must include a space between a command 
and a pathlist. In the above example, we 
could get a directory of the contents of the 
subdirectory 5UBDIR2 by entering; 

dir /dl''SUBDIR1^5UBDIR2 
January 1988 THE RAINBOW 169 



Let's assume you have OS-9 up and 
running and you want to see what's in the 
SOURCE subdirectory on this month's RAIN- 
BOW on disk. You pull the OS-9 System 
Master backup out of Drive 0, pop in 
RAINBOW ON disk and enter dir 'd®/ 
SOURCE. After a few seconds of drive sounds 
you are greeted with the ever-present Error 
2 1 6. You run to the manual and discover that 
Error 216 (get used to it because you'll be 
seeing quite a few of these) translates to 
"Pathname not found." You immediately 
say, "But I typed in the correct pathlist!" 
Then you assume RAINBOW must somehow 
have forgotten to put the SOURCE subdirec- 
tory on the disk. 

What the error message is really telling 
you is one of two things: 1) OS-9 couldn't 
find the di r command; or 2) OS-9 couldn't 
find any one of the components in the 
pathlist. Either of these possibilities could be 
caused by a typographical error. They could 
also be caused by one of the items (command 
or pathlist component) not actually being 
there. 

1 will venture a wild guess. If your typing 
was absolutely correct, and all spaces and 
slashes were included, chances are OS-9 
couldn't find the original command — in 
this case, dir. Chances are pretty good that 
you are using OS-9 Level I, as well. Before 
OS-9 can execute a command, it looks to see 
if that command has been loaded into 
memory. If OS-9 can locate the command in 
memory, it will be executed. If the command 
isn't in memory, OS-9 will try to load it and 
execute it from the current execution direc- 
tory. If the system cannot find the command 
in the execution directory, one last attempt 
will be made. OS-9 will try to load and 
execute the command from the current data 
directory. If all of these attempts fail and OS- 
9 can't locate the command you entered, the 
system will report an Error 216. 

Unless you loaded the dir command into 
memory from disk before you replaced your 
system disk with rainbow on disk, you will 
get Error 216. What has happened is that 
OS-9 went looking on rainbow on disk for 
the dir command. I guarantee you OS-9 
won't ever find it there. Level II users won't 
have this problem with the dir command, 
since Level II loads several commands into 
memory when you first boot it. However, 
keep this in mind, as it can occur with any 
command. 

That's all I have room for this month, but 
I want to leave you with a few challenges 
before I go. Learn all you can about OS-9's 
directory structure, what the chd and chx 
commands are for, and discover how to use 
the two commands to your advantage. You 
might want to look into what is meant by 
current execution directory and current data 
directory. Discover the differences between 
them. If you take the time and learn to learn, 
you will quickly go beyond all those nasty 
errors and begin to see the true power of the 
system. And you can say you taught your- 
self. 



/R\ 



IF Event . status. text THEN 
RUN KISSHandleText (Event) 
Event .status . text : -FALSE 
GOTO 1)3? 

ENDIF 

IF Event. status. freehand THEN 
RUN KISSFreehand(Evenc) 
Event . status . freehand : -FALSE 

ENDIF 



0314 
0323 
032D 
033A 
033E 

S"40 

0341 

0350 

035A 

J3367 

0369 

036A 1^0 Event. status, IsEvent: -FALSE 

037A Event . status . InToolBox : -FALSE 

0387 Event .status . InMenuBar : -FALSE 

0394 END 

0396 

0397 

Listing 7: KISSDrauiBox 

PROCEDURE KISSDrawBox 

(* Program to draw a box at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 



002C 
004B 
004C 



00BD 
00BE 



00FD 
00FE 



0151 
0152 



018D 
018E 
01A1 
01A2 
01B5 
01B6 



01EB 
01EC 
01F5 
01F6 
0209 
020A 
021E 
021F 
0232 
0233 
0235 
023F 
025D 
025E 
026C 
027A 
0282 
028A 
028B 
029A 
02A9 
02B6 
02B7 
02C9 
02D3 
02EB 
0309 



TYPE rodent-Vld, Act, ToTm: BYTE: XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 
INTEGER; CBSA , CBSB , CCtA , CCtB , TTSA , TTSB , TLSA , TLSB : BYTE 

; X2,BDX,BDY: INTEGER; Stat, Res : BYTE; AcX.AcY.TOX.TOY: 

INTEGER 
TYPE stats-IsEvent.InWlndow, InToolBox, InMenuBar, line, box, circle 

.ellipse , bar , arc , f ill, text .freehand, RecordOn: BOOLEAN 
TYPE cursor-OutPut , Scale, ScreenType.NoCur, arrow, pencil .cross 

.hourglass , Nolcon, Text Bar, Scross .Icon, IconBuff .pattern 

,horzline,vertline , slantright .slantleft .dots : BYTE 
TYPE codes-DArc , DBar . DBox , DCircle . DEllipse . DLine , DPoint , DFill 

, DSetPtr , DPutCur , DSe tCur . DLogic , DPattern : INTEGER 
TYPE ob j ect-DCode , HorP , VerP : INTEGER 
TYPE or gin-DPSCode . HanX , HanY : INTEGER 
TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status : stats ; pointer : cursor ; Code 

: codes; Pen: object; Handle :orgin 

PARAM Event: packet 

DIM StartX , StartY . CurrX , CurrY : INTEGER 

(* Enable XOR logic 

RUN gf x2 ( " log ic » , " xor " ) 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse (Event) 
UNTIL Event, mouse. CBSAO0 AND Event .mouse .AcX>40 

StartX: -Event . mouse. BDX 
S tartY: -Event .mouse. BDY 
CurrX:-StartX 
CurrY: -StartY 

Event . Handle . HanX : -StartX 
Event . Handle . HanY : -StartY 
PUT #1. Event. Handle 

WHILE Event . mouse. CBSAO0 DO 
RUN getKISSmouse(Event) 
Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DBox 
IF CurrXOEvent. mouse. AcX OR CurrYOEvent .mouse. Ac Y THEN 



170 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



P3SJA 
JJ344 
$1362 
036F 
?37? 
JJ38B 
0399 
03A7 
JJ3A8 
J33C4 
(J3E2 
(J3EF 
)J3F1 
J33F5 
03F6 
JJ409 
0416 
JJ418 
0419 



Listing 8 

PROCEDURE 



002D 
004C 
JJ04D 



0JJBE 
(JpFBF 



00FE 
00FF 



0152 
0153 



018E 
018F 
01A2 
01A3 
01B6 
01B7 



(J1EC 
01ED 
01F6 
01F7 
020A 
020B 
021E 
021F 
0221 
022B 
(3249 
024A 
025F 
JJ274 
0281 
?282 
0290 
JS29E 
029F 
02B1 
02BB 
02D0 
(J2F1 



REM If box has changed erase Che old one by drawing over it 
Event . Pen . HorP : -CurrX \Event . Pen . VerP : -CurrY 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 

REM Save location of new box 
CurrX : =Event . mous e . AcX 
CurrY : -Event . mouse . AcY 

REM And put it on the screen 

Event . Pen . HorP : -CurrX \Event . Pen . VerP : -CurrY 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 
END IF 
ENDIffllLE 

RUN gfx2("logic"."off") 

PUT #1. Event. Pen 

END 



KISSDrauUna 

KISSdrawline 
(* Program to draw a line at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 

TYPE rodent-Vld, Act, ToTm: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 
INTEGER ; CBSA , CBSB , CCtA , CCtB , TTSA , TTSB , TLSA , TLSB : BYTE 
; X2.BDX.BDY: INTEGER; Stat , Res : BYTE; AcX , Ac Y , WRX , WRY : 
INTEGER 

TYPE stats-IsEvent.Intfindow, InToolBox, InMenuBar , line, box, circle 
, ellipse , bar , arc , fill , text , freehand , RecordOn : BOOLEAN 

TYPE cur sor=OutPut .Scale , ScreenType , NoCur, arrow, pencil .cross 
.hourglass .Nolcon, Text Bar .Scross , Icon, IconBuff .pattern 
.horzline , vertline , slantright , slantlef t , dots : BYTE 

TYPE codes-DArc , DBar , DBox , DCircle , DEllipse , DLine , DPoint , DFill 
, DSetPtr , DPutCur , DSetCur , DLogic . DPattern : INTEGER 

TYPE object-DCode, HorP, VerP: INTEGER 

TYPE orgin-DPSCode , HanX , HanY : INTEGER 

TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status : stats ; pointer : cursor ; Code 
: codes; Pen: object; Handle :orgin 

PARAM Event: packet 

DIM S tartX , Star tY . CurrX . CurrY : INTEGER 

RUN gfx2("logic"."xor") 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse (Event) 
UNTIL Event, mouse. CBSAO0 AND Event .mouse .AcX>40 

Event . Handle . HanX : -Event . mouse . BDX 
Event. Handle .HanY: -Event .mouse. BDY 
PUT »1. Event. Handle 

CurrX : -Event . mous e . AcX 
CurrY : -Event . mouse . AcY 

WHILE Event, mouse. CBSAO0 DO 
RUN getKISSmouse (Event) 
Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DLine 
IF CurrXoEvent .mouse. AcX OR CurrYoEvent . mouse .AcY THEN 



Modification . . . 

Solitaire Upgrade — 
Automatic Finish 

By Tudor Jones 

In reference to "The Solitary En- 
deavor" (December 1986, Page 76), 
please find a revision to Line 280 of 
the program listing, and additional 
lines 282, 285 and 288, and 1260 to 
1390. 



280 IF DECK(1)>0THEN288 

282 N=0:FORI=40TO262STEP37:IF PP 

OINT(I,43)=0THEN 1=262 :N=1 

285 NEXT: IF N=0THEN1260 

288 XC=165:YC=1:GOSUB130:IF STAC 

K(1)+STACK(2)+STACK(3)+STACK(4)= 

52THEN300ELSE XC=166 : YC=15 : GOSUB 

110 



1260 XC=165:YC=0:GOSUB130:FORF=1 

T07 : 1=20 

1270 IF COL(F,I)=0THEN 1=1-1 ELS 

E P(F)=I:GOTO1290 

1280 IF I>0THEN1270 

1290 NEXT 

1300 IF STACK(1)+STACK(2)+STACK( 

3) +STACK(4 ) =52THEN300 

1310 IF INKEY$="Q"THEN10 

1320 FOR F=1T07:I=P(F) :IF I=0THE 

N1390 

1330 CARD=COL(F,I) :N=CARD:GOSUB7 

0:IF RANKOSTACK(SUIT)+1THEN1390 

1340 XC=F*37-36:YC=YC(F) :GOSUB13 

? 

1350 COL(F,I)=0:IF YC(F)>45THEN 

YC(F)=YC(F)-9 

1360 IF COL(F,I)=0THEN YC=45:GOS 

UB130:GOTO1380 

1370 CARD=COL(F,I-l) :GOSUB70:YC= 

YC(F) :GOSUB140:P(F)=P(F)-1 

1380 CARD=N:GOSUB70:STACK(SUIT)= 

STACK (SUIT) +1:XC=SUIT*38-24:YC=0 

:GOSUB130:GOSUB140 

1390 NEXT: GOTO 13 00 

When all the cards at the top of 
columns 2 to 7 have been exposed, 
and no cards remain in the deck, this 
added routine automatically scans 
all seven columns in turn, moving the 
eligible cards to the top stacks until 
all the columns are empty. 

Be careful when typing in these 
extra lines. After all, you are not 
going to get too many chances to 
correct them! Also, do not renumber 
the program after keying in these 
additions. 

Many thanks to Mr. Vincent John- 
son, of St. Paul, Minnesota, for 
suggesting this enhancement. 



/R\ 



January 1988 THE RAINBOW 171 



Submitting 

Material 
To Rainbow 

Contributions to the rainbow 
are welcome from everyone. We 
like to run a variety of programs 
that are useful/helpful/fun for 
other CoCo owners. 

WHAT TO WRITE: We are inter- 
ested in what you may wish to tell 
our readers. We accept for consid- 
eration anything that is well- 
written and has a practical appli- 
cation for the Tandy Color Com- 
puter. If it interests you, it will 
probably interest lots of others. 
However, we vastly prefer articles 
with accompanying programs 
which can be entered and run. The 
more unique the idea, the more the 
appeal Wehaveacontinuing need 
for short articles with short list- 
ings. These are especially appeal- 
ing to our many beginners. 

FORMAT: Program submis- 
sions must be on tape or disk, and 
it is best to make several saves, at 
least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have 
time to key in programs and debug 
our typing errors. All programs 
should be supported by some ed- 
itorial commentary explaining 
how the program works. We also 
prefer that editorial copy be in- 
cluded on the tape or disk using 
any of the word processors cur- 
rently available for the Color Com- 
puter. Also, please include a 
double-spaced printout of your 
editorial material and program 
listing. Do not send text in all 
capital letters; use upper- and 
lowercase. 

COMPENSATION: We do pay 
for submissions, based on a 
number of criteria. Those wishing 
renumeration should so state 
when making submissions. 

For the benefit of those who 
wish more detailed information on 
making submissions, please send 
a self-addressed, stamped enve- 
lope (SASE) to: Submission 
Guidelines, the rainbow, The Fal- 
soft Building, P.O. Box 385, Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you 
comprehensive guidelines. 

Please do not submit material 
currently submitted to another 
publication. 



02F2 
0316 
0334 
0341 
0342 
0362 
037E 
037F 
03A0 
03BE 
03CB 
03CD 
03D1 
03E4 
03F1 



REM Erase old line by drawing over it 

Event . Pen . HorP : -CurrX \Event , Pen . VerP : -CurrY 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

REM Save position of current line 

CurrX : -Event . mouse . AcX \CurrY : -Event , mouse . AcY 

REM And, draw line in new position 
Event . Pen . HorP : -CurrX \Event . Pen . VerP : -CurrY 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 
ENDIF 

ENDWHILE 

RUN gfx2("logic","off") 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

END 



Listing 9: KISSDrawClrcle 

PROCEDURE 



002F 
004E 
004F 



00C0 
00C1 



0100 
0101 



0154 
0155 



0190 
0191 
01A4 
01A5 
01B8 
01B9 



01EE 
01EF 
01F8 
01F9 
020C 
020D 
0226 
0257 
0258 
026B 
026C 
026E 
0278 
0296 
0297 
02A5 
02B3 
02C1 
02CF 
02D0 
0307 
0325 
0332 
0333 
0345 
034F 
0364 



KISSDrawClrcle 
(* Program to draw a circle at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 

TYPE rodent-Vld, Act, ToTm: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 

INTEGER; CBSA,CBSB,CCtA,CCtB,TTSA,TTSB,TLSA,TLSB: BYTE 

; X2,BDX,BDY: INTEGER; Stat , Res : BYTE; AcX . AcY , WRX , WRY : 

INTEGER 
TYPE s tats-IsEvent , InWindow , InToolBox , InMenuBar .line , box .circle 

, ellipse , bar , arc , f ill , text , freehand . RecordOn : BOOLEAN 
TYPE cursor-Out Put , Scale , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow , pencil , cross 

.hourglass .Nolcon, Text Bar. Scross , Icon, IconBuff .pattern 

, horzline . vertline , slantright . slant left , dots : BYTE 
TYPE codes-DArc . DBar , DBox , DCircle , DEllipse , DLine , DPoint , DFill 

, DSetPtr , DPutCur , DSetCur , DLogic . DPattern : INTEGER 
TYPE ob ject-DCode , HorP , VerP : INTEGER 
TYPE orgin-DPSCode , HanX , HanY : INTEGER 
TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status : stats j pointer: cursor; Code 

:codes; Pen:object; Handle:orgin 

PARAM Event: packet 

DIM StartX.StartY, CurrX. CurrY: INTEGER 

(* Enable XOR logic, then 

(* let cursor follow mouse until button is pushed 

RUN gfx2("logic","xor") 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse(Event) 
UNTIL Event, mouse. CBSAO0 AND Event .mouse .AcX>40 

S tar tX : -Event . mouse . BDX 
S tar tY: -Event .mouse. BDY 
CurrX : -Event . mouse . AcX 
CurrY : -Event . mouse . AcY 

REM Create Handle and Set Data Pointer at mouse position 
Event . Handle . HanX ; -S tar tX \Event . Handle . HanY : -StartY 
PUT *1, Event. Handle 

WHILE Event. mouse. CBSAO0 DO 
RUN getKISSmouso (Event) 
Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DCircle 
Event . Pen . VerP : -0 



172 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



(3372 
(3393 
(3394 
(33BF 
J33D3 
(33E(3 
J33E1 

(34JJE 
J341C 
JJ41D 
(342F 
(3443 
(345? 
0452 
(3456 
(3457 
J346A 
(347E 
048B 



IF Cur rX-C- Event. mouse. AcX OR CurrYOEvent .mouse. Ac Y THEN 

REM Erase previous circle by drawing over it 
Event. Pen. HorP:-ABS(CurrX-StartX) 
PUT (ML, Event. Pen 

REM save current circle position 
CurrX:— Event .mouse , AcX 
CurrY: -Event .mouse . AcY 

REM draw new circle 
Event. Pen. HorP:-ABS(CurrX-StartX) 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 
ENDIF 
ENDUHILE 

RUN gfx2("logic","off") 

Event. Pen. HorP:-ABS(CurrX-StartX) 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

END 



Listing 10: KISSDrawEHipse 

PROCEDURE KISSDrawEllipse 
0(3(3(3 (* Program which allows more natural drawing of ellipse 
0037 
0038 TYPE rodent-Vld,Act.ToTm:BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 

INTEGER; CBSA , CBSB , CCtA . CCtB , TTSA , TTSB , TLSA , TLSB : BYTE 

; X2,BDX,BDY: INTEGER; Stat , Res : BYTE; AcX.AcY.URX.URY: 

INTEGER 
TYPE stats=IsEvent , InWindow, InToolBox , InMenuBar , line , box, circle 

, ellipse , bar , arc , fill , text , freehand , RecordOn : BOOLEAN 
TYPE cursor— OutPut , Scale , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow .pencil , cross 

.hourglass , Nolcon, Text Bar .Scross, Icon, IconBuff .pattern 

.horzline, vertline , slantright , slant left , dots : BYTE 
TYPE codes-DArc , DBar , DBox , DCircle , DEllipse , DLine . DFolnt . DFill 

. DSecPtr , DPutCur . DSetCur . DLogic . DPa ttern : INTEGER 
TYPE ob j ect=DCode , HorP , VerP : INTEGER 
TYPE orgin-DPSCode , HanX , HanY : INTEGER 
TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status : stats; pointer : cursor ; Code 

: codes; Pen: object; Handle :orgin 
PARAM Event: packet 
DIM S tartX , StartY , CurrX , CurrY : INTEGER 



00A9 
00AA 



00E9 
00EA 



013D 
(313E 



0179 
01 7 A 
018D 
018E 
01A1 
01A2 



01D7 
01D8 
01E1 
01E2 
01F5 
01F6 
020F 
0240 
0241 
(3254 
0255 
0257 
0261 
J327F 
0280 
028E 
(J29C 
02A4 
(32AC 
02AD 
J32DB 
(32EA 
J32F9 
03(36 



(* Enable XOR logic, then 

(* let cursor follow mouse until button is pushed 

RUN gfx2 (" logic" ,"xor") 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse(Event) 
UNTIL Event .mouse . CBSAOJ3 AND Event .mouse. AcX>4(3 

StartX:=Event .mouse. BDX 
StartY: -Event . mouse. BDY 
CurrX: -Star tX 
CurrY: -StartY 

REM Create Handle and set data pointer position 
Event . Handle . HanX: -StartX 
Event . Handle . HanY : =S tartY 
PUT #1, Event. Handle 



About 
The One-Liner 
Contest . . . 



the rainbow's One-Liner 
Contest has now been ex- 
panded to include programs 
of either one or two lines. 
This means a new dimen- 
sion and new opportunity 
for those who have "really 
neat' 1 programs that simply 
just won't fit in one line. 

Here are the guidelines: 
The program must work in 
Extended basic, have only 
one or two line numbers and 
be entirely self-contained — 
no loading other programs, 
no calling ROM routines, no 
poked-in machine language 
code. The program has to 
run when typed in directly 
(since that's how our read- 
ers will use it). Make sure 
your line, or lines, aren't 
packed so tightly that the 
program won't list com- 
pletely. Finally, any instruc- 
tions needed should be very 
short. 

Send your entry (prefera- 
bly on cassette or disk) to: 

THE RAINBOW 

One-Liner Contest 

P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 




January 1988 THE RAINBOW 173 



Simple Solutions 



By David W. Ostler 

Here is a possible answer to the 
exercise presented in "Basic for 
Beginners, Lesson II" on Page 36. 

The listing: SOLUTION 

10 CLS :SOUND200, 2: PRINT: PRINT" EN 
TER YOUR NAME: " : INPUTAS 
15 SOUND200,2:PRINT"ENTER YOUR A 
DDRESS:":INPUTBS 

20 SOUND200, 2: PRINT" ENTER YOUR C 
ITY' V :INPUTC1$ 

25 SOUND200,2:PRINT"ENTER YOUR S 
TATE:":INPUTC2$ 

30 SOUND200, 2: PRINT" ENTER YOUR Z 
IP:":INPUTC3S 

40 SOUND200,2:PRINT"ENTER YOUR T 
ELEPHONE NUMBER: ":INPUTD$ 
50 CLS4 :PRINTg230, "WORKING. . " ; 
55 SOUND200 , 2 : PRINT6239 , " . . " ; : SO 
UND100 , 5 : PRINT024 1 ,"..";: SOUND20 
0,2:SOUND100,5:PRINT@24 3, ". ." ; :S 
OUND200, 2 : PRINT@24 5, " . . " ; : SOUND1 
00 , 5 : PRINT§247 ,"..";: SOUND200 , 2 : 
PRINT? 2 4 9,"..";: SOUND100 , 5 
60 FORX=1TO500STEP1:NEXT 
70 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" 1. YOUR NAME: 
"•.PRINT" ";A$:PRINT"2. YOUR AD 
DRESS :": PRINT" " ;BS : PRINT" 3 . Y 
OUR CITY, ST, ZIP:": PRINT" ";C 
1$;", ";C2$;'\ ";C3S:PRINT"4. YO 
U PH. NO:": PRINT" ";D$ 
90 PRINT: PRINT" IS ALL DATA CORR 
ECT (Y/N)?" 

100 HS=INKEY$ : IFH$=" "THEN100ELSE 
IFH$="Y"THEN110ELSEIFH$="N"THEN1 
0ELSE100 

110 CLS: PRINT: PRINT" CHOOSE 
YOUR SELECTON" 

120 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 1. 
YOUR NAME:": PRINT" 2. YOUR ADDRE 
SS:":PRINT" 3. YOUR CITY, ST, ZI 
P:": PRINT" 4. YOU PH. NO:": PRINT 
" 5. ABORT THIS PROGRAM" :PRINT@4 
26, "[1/2/3/4/5] " 

130 H$=INKEY$:IFH$=""THEN130ELSE 
IFH$="1"THEN140ELSEIFH$="2"THEN1 
50ELSEIFHS="3"THEN160ELSEIFH$="4 
"THEN170ELSEIFH$="5"THEN180ELSE1 
30 

140 CLS: PRINT : PRINTAS 
14 3 GOSUB500 
145 GOTO110 
150 CLS: PRINT : PRINTBS 
153 GOSUB500 
155 GOTO110 

160 CLS:PRINT:PRINTC1S;", ";C2$; 
", » ;C3S 
163 GOSUB5PP 
165 GOTO110 
170 CLS: PRINT : PRINTDS 
173 GOSUB500 
175 GOTO110 

180 CLS3 :PRINT6230, "REBOOTING TO 
BASIC" ; : SOUND200 , 2 : SOUND100 , 5 : S 
OUND200 , 2 : SOUND100 , 5 : SOUND200 , 2 : 
SOUND100 , 5 : SOUND200 , 2 : SOUND100 , 5 
: FORX=1TO500STEP1 : NEXTX : CLS : END 
500 PRINTS420, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
CONTINUE" 

510 H$=INKEY$:IFH$=""THEN510 
520 RETURN 



/R\ 



0307 WHILE Event .mouse. CBSAO0 DO 

0319 RUN gecKISSmouse(Evenc) 

£323 Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DEllipse 

0338 IF CurrXOEvent.mouse.AcX OR CurrYOEvent .mouse .AcY THEN 

0359 Event. Pen. HorP:-ABS(CurrX-StartX) \Event.Pen. VerP:-ABS( 

CurrY-StartY) 

0381 PUT #1. Event. Pen 

038E CurrX:=Event .mouse .AcX 

039C CurrY: -Event. mouse .AcY 

03AA Event. Pen. HorP:-ABS(CurrX-StartX) \Event . Pen. VerP:-ABS( 

CurrY-StartY) 

03D2 PUT #1, Event. Pen 

03DF ENDIF 

03E1 ENDHHILE 

03E5 RUN gfx2("logic","off") 

03F8 Event . Pen . HorP : -ABS (CurrX-StartX) \Event . Pen . VerP : -ABS (CurrY 

-SiartY) 

0420 PUT #1, Event. Pen 

042D END 
042F 



Listing 11: KISSDrawBar 

PROCEDURE KISSdrawbar 

(# Program to draw a bar at location pointed 
(* to by high resolution mouse. 



002C 
004B 
004C 



00BE 



00FD 
00FE 



0151 
0152 



018D 
018E 
01A1 
01A2 
01B5 
01B6 



01EB 
01EC 
01F5 
01F6 
0209 
020A 
021E 
021F 
0232 
0233 
0235 
023F 
025D 
025E 
026C 
02 7 A 
0282 
028A 
028B 



TYPE rodent-Vld, Act, ToTm: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 
INTEGER; CBSA , CBSB , CCtA , CC tB , TTSA . TTSB , TLSA . TLSB : BYTE 

; X2.BDX.BDY: INTEGER: Stat. Res: BYTE; AcX . AcY , WRX , WRY : 

INTEGER 
TYPE s tats-IsEvent , InWindow , InToolBox , InMenuBar , line , box .circle 

, ellipse .bar .arc .fill , text , freehand .RecordOn: BOOLEAN 
TYPE cursor-Out Put .Scale , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow , pencil , cros s 

.hourglass , No Icon, Text Bar , Scross . Icon.IconBuf f .pattern 

.horzline . vertline , slantright , slant left , dots : BYTE 
TYPE codes-DArc , DBar . DBox , DCircle , DEllipse . DLine , DPoint , DFill 

. DSetPtr , DPutCur , DSetCur , DLogic , DPattern : INTEGER 
TYPE ob ject-DCode , HorP , VerP : INTEGER 
TYPE orgin-DPSCode , HanX , HanY : INTEGER 
TYPE packet-mouse : rodent ; status : stats ; pointer : cursor ; Code 

: codes; Pen; object; Handle :orgin 

PARAM Event: packet 

DIM Star tX , StartY , CurrX, CurrY : INTEGER 

(* Enable XOR logic 

RUN gfx2("logic","xor") 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSmouse(Event) 
UNTIL Event .mouse. CBSAO0 AND Event .mouse .AcX>40 

S tar tX: -Event .mouse . BDX 
StartY : -Event . mouse . BDY 
CurrX: -StartX 
CurrY: -StartY 

Event .Handle. HanX: -StartX 



174 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



(J29A 
(J2A9 
JS2B6 
02B7 
<32C9 
02D3 
JJ2E8 
jJ3?6 
(J313 
(.314 
JJ330 
JJ34E 
035B 
JJ35F 
JJ36JJ 
JJ373 
(J388 
0395 
JJ397 



Even t . Handle . HanY : -S tar tY 
PUT #1. Event. Handle 

WHILE Event .mouse. CBS AO? DO 
RUN getKISSmouse(Event) 
Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DBox 
Event . Pen . Hor P : -CurrX \Event . Pen . Ver P : -Cur rY 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 

CurrX : -Event . mous e . AcX \Cur rY : -Event . mouse . AcY 
Event . Pen . HorP : -CurrX \Event . Pen . Ver P : -CurrY 
PUT #1, Event. Pen 

ENDWHILE 

RUN gfx2("logic","off") 

Event . Pen . DCode : -Event . Code . DBar 

PUT #1, Event. Pen 

END 



Listing 12: KISSFreehand 

PROCEDURE KISSfreehand 

9999 (* Program to draw freehand with high resolution mouse 
9936 

9931 TYPE rodent-Vld, Act, ToTm: BYTE; XI: INTEGER; TTTo:BYTE; TSSt: 

INTEGER; CBSA,CBSB.CCtA,CCtB,TTSA,TTSB,TLSA,TLSB: BYTE 

; X2.BDX.BDY: INTEGER; Stat , Res : BYTE; AcX,AcY,tfRX,WRY: 

INTEGER 
TYPE s tats-IsEvent , Intf indow , InToolBox , InMenuBar .line , box .circle 

, ellipse , bar , arc , fill , text , freehand , RecordOn : BOOLEAN 
TYPE cursor-Out Put .Scale , ScreenType , NoCur , arrow , pencil , cross 

.hourglass , Nolcon, Text Bar .Scross , Icon, IconBuff .pattern 

.horzline , vertline , slantright , slantlef t , dots : BYTE 
TYPE codes-DArc , DBar , DBox , DCircle , DEllipse , DLine .DPoint , DFill 

, DSetPtr , DPutCur , DSe tCur , DLogic , DPattern : INTEGER 
TYPE ob j ect-DCode , HorP . VerP : INTEGER 
TYPE orgin-DPSCode , HanX , HanY : INTEGER 
TYPE packet-mouse: rodent; status : stats ; pointer : cursor ; Code 

: codes; Pen: object; Handle :orgin 

PARAM Event: packet 

DIM StartX.StartY.DLineM: INTEGER 
DLineM:=SlB46 

REPEAT 

RUN getKISSMouse(Event) 
UNTIL Event, mouse. CBSA-op AND Event .mouse. AcX>4fJ 



JJJJA8 
SJSJA9 



fl(3E8 
)J(JE9 



JJ13C 
JJL3D 



JJ178 
JJ179 
JJ18C 
018D 
91A? 
PLAl 



01D6 
01D7 
P1EJJ 
91E1 

9i?9 

(31F8 
01F9 
01FB 
9295 
(3223 
0224 
0239 
024E 
JJ25B 
J325C 
026E 
0278 
0287 
02B1 
02BE 
JJ2C2 
02C3 
02C5 
J32C6 



Event . Handle . HanX : -Event . mouse . AcX 
Event . Handle . HanY : -Event . mous e . AcY 
PUT #1, Event. Handle 

UHILE Event -mouse. CBSAO0 DO 

RUN getKISSMouse (Event) 

Event . Pen . DCode : -DLineH 

Event . Pen . HorP : -Event . mouse . AcX \Event . Pen . VerP :-Event . mouse . AcY 

PUT #1 , Event . Pen 
ENDUHILE 



END 



/R\ 



"•BUI 



-800 



!2A8- 



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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



175 




OS-9 Level II 




OS-9 Programming 



Polishing off the 
Screen Save /Dump Package 



The RLSqsh filter that was in my 
last article needs a mate, and the 
Getlmage BASIC09 program 
from several months ago now takes 
more than twice as long as the latest 
Savelmage. We'll tackle the RLExpnd 
(Run Length Expand) filter and the 
Getlmage speed enhancement the same 
way we did RLSqsh and Savelmage. 

The improved Getlmage takes less 
than a minute (compared to over three 
minutes for the old version), and it was 
easy to write. Everything in it is derived 
from something else. 

The Getlmage and PutBuffer 
BASIC09 procedures are taken directly 
from the original program. The un- 
press BAS1C09 procedure was derived 
from the original unpress procedure 
mostly by removing code. I removed 
about a page of code and added six or 
seven lines. 

Mal<Pipe2 is a revised version of 
MakPipe. Savelmage piped data to 
RLSqsh and directed the output of 
RLSqsh to a file. Getlmage directs the 
input of RLExpnd to a file and the 

Peter Dibble has a bachelor 's degree in 
chemistry and is currently a graduate 
student in computer science. He has 
worked as an applications programmer, 
systems programmer and as the user 
services assistant director for the Uni- 
versity of Rochester Computing Center. 
With Dale Puckett. he is co-author of 
The Complete Rainbow Guide to OS- 
9 and the first volume of The Complete 
Rainbow Guide to OS-9 Level II. 



By Peter Dibble 

output to a pipe. Most of the changes 
between MakPipe and MakPipe2 were 
to the comments, but it's important to 
pay close attention. I got the procedure 
wrong the first time and left the paths 
backwards. 

I kept most of the buffer management 
code from RLSqsh when I converted it 
to RLExpnd, but I threw out almost 
everything else. Even in the buffer 
management I made a change. I as- 
sumed that RLSqsh would deal more 
with input than output, so I used the X 
register as a pointer into the input 
buffer. RLExpnd should do more output 
than input, so I used memory for the 
input pointer and used X for the output 
pointer. 

After you have all the code for Get- 
lmage in your machine (four BASIC09 
procedures and the RLExpnd module 
from your assembler or the CSave file) 
you can restore a file saved by Savelm- 
age -by running Getlmage and giving it 
the name of the file Savelmage created. 
It will paint the new image on the screen 
in four sections starting at the top of the 
screen. 

I've frequently tried to run Getlmage 
or Savelmage on a text screen, but it 
doesn't work, and the program is a bit 
hostile about it. If you get an error right 
after you start running one of these 
programs, make sure that the current 
screen is a graphics window. 

You can amuse yourself and burn 
CPU time by piping the output of 
RLSqsh to RLExpnd. It is a way to verify 
that the filters are working; if they are, 



RLSqsh ! RLExpnd does nothing but 
work hard. 

What Have We Learned? 

I didn't make a big fuss about it, but 
it is much more difficult to write correct 
assembly language than it is to write 
correct BAS1C09. If the code isn't correct, 
it's much easier to find problems in 
BASIC09 procedures using the BASIC09 
debugging environment than it is de- 
bugging assembly language code. C 
programs fall between BASIC09 and 
assembly language in difficulty. 

Most of a program is not executed 
often enough for its speed to matter. It 
is best to write the whole program in 
your favorite language and debug it 
well. If it is not fast enough, improve the 
program without changing languages. 
If nothing else works, take some impor- 
tant parts of the program and code them 
in assembly language. 

But sometimes it does not make sense 
to write any part of a program in 
assembly: If the program is small 
enough and fast enough in BASIC09 or 
C, leave it alone! 

When you decide to resort to assem- 
bly, make it pay. RL5qsh and RLExpnd 
would be a little faster if they were 
subroutine modules instead of filters, 
but as filters they have more possible 
uses. The more possible uses a program 
has, the better I feel about working hard 
on it. 

All this talk about assembly language 
being a last resort might make you 
wonder, since I usually sound like I am 



176 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



especially fond of assembly. I am, but 
I've noticed something about my assem- 
bly language programs — they are small 
and fast, but not always as elaborate as 
they might be. I sometimes leave out 
error recovery routines or use hexade- 



7/ the program is 
small enough and 
fast enough in 
iSJC09or( 
leave it alone!" 



cimal numbers instead of decimal. I get 
excited about the parts where assembly 
language makes a big difference and go 
lightly when the extra work that assem- 
bly language requires doesn't pay. When 
I start with a high-level language pro- 
gram and recode only the most interest- 
ing parts, I can concentrate on the 
sections where speed counts. D 



Listing 


1: RLExpnd.CDump 




1 


87CD 00B7 000D 1181 9F00 


134490. 


2 


1508 D152 4C45 7870 6EE4 


50192. 


3 


010F 0030 499F 059F 0330 


13034. 


4 


C904 090F 070F 088D 2225 


107245. 


5 


0E1F 8954 5454 5484 0F97 


43429. 


6 


028D 0820 EE8D 625F 103F 


51323. 


7 


0696 028D 335A 2AF9 3943 


55337. 


8 


103F 0634 109E 059C 0326 


32164. 


9 


1486 0010 8E04 0030 4910 


50530. 


10: 3F89 250E 1F20 318B 109F 


75603. 


11: 034F A680 9F05 3590 3510 


57490. 


12: C1D3 26D3 4339 0D00 2609 


174445. 


13: 4848 4848 9701 0300 399A 


74260. 


14: 018D 0303 0039 109E 0710 


38886. 


15: 8C04 0026 028D 0BA7 8031 


78517. 


16: 2110 9F07 3910 9E07 3402 


45270. 


17: 30C9 0409 8601 103F 8A25 


82117. 


18: 9A10 8E00 0010 9F07 3582 


102912. 


19: 3684 46 


550. 


Listing 


2: Getlmage 




PROCEDURE Getlmage 




0000 DIM FileName: STRING [99] 




000C INPUT "Image file name: 


".FileName 


0025 RUN impress (FileName) 




J302F END 





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Listing 3: UnPress 


PROCEDURE 


impress 


9999 


PARAM FlleName: STRING [99] 


?m 


DIM Path, Pipe: BYTE 


0017 


DIM buffer(7680):BYTE 


0023 


DIM section: INTEGER 


00 2A 


DIM WinType.horiz, vert: INTEGER 


J3J239 




993k 


OPEN #Path, FlleName: READ 


0046 


section:— 1 


PJJ4D 


GET #Path,WinType 


0057 


GET #Path,horiz 


0061 


GET #Path,vert 


006B 


RUN MakPipe2("RLExpnd", Pipe, Path) 


0084 


ON ERROR GOTO 100 


J2fJ38A 


LOOP 


008C 


GET #Pipe, buffer 


PTJ396 


RUN Put Buffer (buffer, sect ion, WinType.horiz, vert/4) 


J2TJ2TB6 


section:— section+1 


00C1 


ENDLOOP 


00C5 100 


REM end loop (probably end of file) 


00EA 


CLOSE #Path,#Pipe 


00F5 


END 


Listing 4: PutBuf far 


PROCEDURE 


PutBuffer 


9999 


PARAM buffer (7680): BYTE 


999c 


PARAM section: INTEGER 


0013 


PARAM typecode : INTEGER 


001A 


PARAM horiz, vert: INTEGER 


0025 


TYPE registers-cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x.y.u: INTEGER 


004A 


DIM regs -.registers 


0053 


DIM i, group: INTEGER 


«T5E 




fI5?5F 


REM Get this process's process id 


J3JJ7F 


RUN syscall($0C,regs) 


008D 


group: -regs. a 


0098 


ON ERROR GOTO 100 


009E 


RUN gfx2 ("def buf f " , group , 1 , 7680) 


00B9 100 


REM The buffer is now defined 


00D8 


RUN gfx2 ("gpload" , group , 1 , typecode ,horiz-l , vert , 7680) 


0103 


PUT #1, buffer 


P1J3C 


RUN gfx2 ("put", group, 1 ,0,vert*(sect ion- 1)) 


012D 


RUN gf x2("killbuff", group, 1) 


0145 


END 


Listing 5: Mal<Pipe2 


PROCEDURE 


MakPipe2 


0000 


REM For a process with its standard input directed to 


0034 


REM a given path and its standard output to a pipe. 


0066 


PARAM Pgm: STRING 


006D 


PARAM OutPath:BYTE \(* output from the new program 


0092 


PARAM InPath:BYTE \REM Input for the new program 


00B5 


TYPE registers-cc,a,b,dp:BYTE; x,y,u: INTEGER 


00DA 


DIM regs : registers 


00E3 


DIM tmp,01dIn,01d0ut:BYTE 


00F2 




00F3 


REM Fix standard input 


0108 


regs . a-0 


0113 


RUN syscall($82,regs) \REM dup standard input 


0136 


01dln:-regs.a 


0141 


CLOSE #0 


0146 


regs ,a:-InPath 


0152 


RUN syscall($82,regs) \REM dup the input path into std in 


0181 




0182 


REM Fix standard output 



178 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



0198 


regs . a-1 




JJ1A3 


RUN syscall(582,regs) 




01B1 


01dOut:-regs.a 




JJIBC 


CLOSE #1 




01C1 


OPEN #tmp,"/pipe":UPDATE 




01D1 






JH.D2 


REM Now standard input and output are redirected as they 




J7209 


REM should be . Fork the program 




J7228 


regs.a:=0 




0233 


regs .b:=0 




J323E 


regs.x:=ADDR(Pgm) 




J324C 


regs.y:=0 




0257 


regs .u:=0 




0262 


RUN syscall($03,regs) \REM fork 




0277 






0278 


REM now the process is running. 




0296 


REM clean up after it 




02AA 


regs .a:— 1 




02B5 


RUN syscall($82,regs) \REM dup the new stdout 




02D8 


OutPath:=regs.a \REM save the pipe 




02F3 


CLOSE #1 




02F8 


regs.a:=01d0ut 




0304 


RUN syscall($82,regs) \REM dup to restore the old standard output 




033B 


CLOSE #01d0ut 




0341 






0342 


REM now restore the old standard input 




0367 


CLOSE #0 




036C 


regs .a :=-01dIn 




0378 


RUN syscall($82,regs) \REM dup 




038C 


CLOSE #01dln 




0392 


END 


/«\ 




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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 179 




16K Disk 




Barden's Buffer 



Delving Into the 
CoCo Disk 



By William Barden, Jr. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



I have to admit that I'm a little disconcerted by CoCo disks. 
There's really not much to work with in the way of disk 
system commands. I'm not talking about OS-9, now, 
where there are many commands related to disk files and 
directories, including a "tree" structure that allows you to 
build subdirectories. I'm talking about the Disk Extended 
Color BASIC commands. I feel like I never really know what's 
out there, where it is, how much space it takes, and how much 
space is left. In this column we'll look at Disk Extended Color 
basic system disk mysteries. Included will be a utility 
program to get a better directory listing and to list any file 
on the screen. 

Disk Basics 

If you're new to computers, you may be a bit dazzled by 
disk operation in general. The CoCo disks are standard disks 
similar to the ones used in such systems as the Tandy 1 000 
or IBM series. If you have a disk that is no longer any good, 
strip off the jacket and look at the actual disk inside. You'll 
see a circular piece of mylar coated with magnetic material, 
as shown in Figure I. The center hole allows the disk drive 
to spin the disk at the speed of about 5 revolutions per second. 
The tiny hole out from the center hole is an index hole. This 
hole is detected by a light beam sensor and provides a known 
point on the disk. Another type of disk has 10 or so of these 
index holes evenly spaced around the disk; this type of disk 
is called "hard-sectored," while the CoCo disk is called "soft- 
sectored," for reasons we'll get into. 

As the disk comes from the manufacturer, it contains 
nothing — it's just a jumble of magnetic oxide without any 
patterns, like an unused audio cassette. (Actually, there may 
be some patterns left over from disk testing at the manufac- 
turer's, but that's meaningless to the CoCo.) 

Data is written on the disk in tracks and sectors, as shown 
in Figure 2. Each track is defined by the action of the read/ 

Bill Barden has written 27 books and over 100 magazine 
articles on various computer topics. His 20 years' experience 
in the industry covers a wide background: programming, 
systems analysis and managing projects for computers 
ranging from mainframes to micros. 



write head in the disk drive. This is a recording head mounted 
on an arm, similar to an audio recording head. 

The arm can step a small amount in and out toward the 
center of the disk. Each time the arm steps an increment, the 
head moves over another track on the disk. The position of 
the track is determined by the position of the head and not 
by searching the disk for a magnetic pattern. If the head steps, 
it expects the data to be on the track underneath the head. 
The disk drive is manufactured with a set number of steps, 
defining a set number of tracks. For a CoCo disk, 35 tracks 
are used. 



Protective 
Jacket 




Center 
Hole 



Index Hole 



Figure 1: CoCo Disk 



At this point we have the disk spinning under the head and 
arm arrangement at 5 revolutions per second. How can we 
access data? One way to do this would be to look for a 
particular pattern of data to come by under the head and then 
read from that point. Another way would be to look for the 
index hole, since the computer can tell when the index hole 
appears by an index hole sensing bit. However, index hole 
sensing isn't quite precise enough to use for defining where 



180 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



«a* 




Typical Sector 
Width Exaggerated 



,^7 



\ 



Typical Track, 
Width Exaggerated 




Track 34 



Track 12 



Figure 2: Tracks and Sectors on a Disk 



data starts — there's some "slop" in the actual disk operation, 
a little bit of wobble in the disk, perhaps, and a slight 
variation in speed. As a result, the disk controller looks for 
the index hole to define the start of a new track and then 
looks for a certain bit pattern directly afterward to get in 
synchronization. 

The pattern that the disk controller writes is called a disk 
format pattern. Formatting is done by the DSKINI command 
in BASIC, which executes a machine language formatting 
program. The result is a kind of "skeleton" pattern on the 
disk that defines the track start and end, and sectors for each 
of the 35 tracks on a disk. The format is like painted lines 
in an empty parking lot. There are 35 rows in the parking 
lot, numbered to 34, and 18 spaces per row, numbered 1 
through 18. The rows correspond to tracks, while the spaces 
within the rows correspond to sectors. The cars (data) haven't 
yet arrived. 

Each sector on a track can hold 256 bytes of data. As you 
know, a byte corresponds to a character of data in a text, 
data, or BASIC file. Sector data is filled by BASIC commands 



such as PRINTn or PUTB or may be read or written by the 
special DSKIS or D5K0S commands. To read data, CoCo 
software must know the track number, the sector number, 
and the number of sectors to be read. 

Data can be read or written only in sector multiples. You 
can't, for example, read from the middle of the sector. The 
disk hardware positions the head to a desired track, waits for 
the proper sector to come around (by reading sector numbers 
from the formatting skeleton) and then reads the user data 
within the sector. 

Although it's possible to read one sector after another, 
sectors are usually numbered in an interleaved fashion, such 
as I, 12, 5. 16. 9, 2. 13, 6, 17, 10, 3, 14, 7, 18, 11,4, 15, and 
8. Interleaving sectors in this manner allows some processing 
to take place before the next sector shows up (remember, the 
disk doesn't stop spinning!). There's a slight gap between each 
sector on a track. Each sector appears at 1 1 / 1 ,000-second ( 1 1 
millisecond) intervals, not much time to do a lot of process- 
ing. 

File Management on Disk 

The tracks and special patterns for format data are about 
the only fixed factors in using disks. Sectors and other 
information are set by the formatting program or other 
software. A disk for a CoCo, for example, can be read on 
a Tandy 1000, assuming you have a smart enough program 
to send the proper commands to the disk controller hardware. 
Mark Data Products, for instance, has a CoCo utility 
program that allows a user to read and write CoCo data on 
MS-DOS computers. 

There are many advertisers in RAINBOW that offer alter- 
natives to the standard Radio Shack disk format. With the 
proper disk controller (the plug-in module that connects to 
your disk drives), it's possible to reliably use a 40-track, 
double-sided disk drive or even a hard drive of 20 megabytes! 
For the purposes of this column, though, we'll assume that 
you have a 35-track, single-sided drive and won't go into 
philosophical discussions about why Radio Shack decided to 
use only one side of a disk. 

Assuming that you have 35 tracks and 18 sectors of 256 
bytes per sector, the total disk space is 

# bytes =35 tracks * 18 sectors/track * 256 bytes/sector 
= 161,280 bytes. 

How is disk space allocated io files such as BASIC programs, 
collections of data, text files, or other things to be stored on 
disk? One way would be to treat the disk as a long cassette 



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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 181 







Track 17 








Sector 1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 

11 
12 

18 


FAT 

File Allocation 
Table 


Direclory J 
Unused s. 


s 

•* 


Firsl 

Direclory 

Seclor 








r- a 


9th 

Directory 
Sector 




f s\ 




Figui 


e3 


Disk Directory 


Track 



tape and just store files in sequence from the first track and 
sector to the last track and sector. However, a disk, unlike 
a tape, does not have to be a sequential device. A disk is a 
random access device, as the head may be quickly moved to 
any track, and a sector may be located just as rapidly. 

The time required to move to any track is about 14-second, 
on the average. The time required to locate a given sector 
on a track is about one-half the rotational time — 100/ 1,000- 
second or 100 milliseconds. The total time to locate any spot 
on the disk is therefore about 350/ 1,000-second (350 
milliseconds), on the average. For data on the same track or 
an adjacent track, the total time to locate the data is about 
a seventh of a second. 

Once the data is located on the track, it can be read out 
at a rate of about 23,000 bytes per second, which corresponds 
to a track full of data in a fifth of a second. 



Where Are the Files? 

How are files placed on the disk, and where are they? In 
the CoCo, and on many other computer systems, files are 
located by a reference table called a disk directory. The disk 



directory is located on Track 17 of the CoCo disk. Why Track 
1 7? One reason is that this is the midpoint of tracks on a disk, 
and it's faster to access the directory. 

The layout of the disk directory track is shown in Figure 
3. The second sector of this track is a table called the file 
allocation table. (In some systems it is called the granule 
allocation table.) Sectors 3 through 1 1 are the actual entries 
in the directory that list filenames, file particulars, and file 
locations on the disk. 

The file allocation table (FAT, for short) is used to allocate 
disk space. There are 35 * 18 = 630 sectors on a disk. These 
sectors could be allocated in units of one; that is, one sector 
for the first disk File, one sector for the next, and so forth. 
Additional space could then be allocated as required. 
However, almost all files use more than 256 bytes. A typical 
BASIC program file, for example, probably has a length of 
about 100 BASIC lines; at about 20 bytes per line, the total 
size of the file is about 2,000 bytes, or 7.8 sectors long. A 
mailing list of 100 names at 40 characters per line would be 
about 15.6 sectors long. Therefore, it's probably best to start 
with a larger chunk of the disk initially. The chunk that's used 
on the CoCo is one-half of a track, or nine sectors (2,304 
bytes), called a granule. 

There are 35 * 2 = 70 granules on the disk. However, two 
of these, in Track 17, are used for the directory and are not 
available for users. The total number of user granules is 
therefore 68. The FAT in Sector 2 uses one byte for each 
granule, making a total of 68 bytes in the table. 

Dumping a Typical Disk 

Enough cerebral discussion. Let's see what a disk really 
looks like. Please note that, while the programs I offer this 
month will work on a CoCo 1 or CoCo 2, they are really 
intended for operation on a CoCo 3 in the 80-column mode. 
The program in Listing 1 uses DSKIS to read in any disk sector 
and dump the data to the CoCo screen in both hexadecimal 
and ASCII. DSKIS reads from a given drive number (0 or 
1), track number (0-34), and sector number (I -1 8) into two 
strings, fl$ and BS. Two strings are used because the 
maximum length of a string is only 255 bytes, one less than 
the 256 bytes of data to be found on a disk sector. The 
program here just makes it easier to specify the track to be 
read and provides a convenient way to display the data. 

The code here uses an outer I loop to print 16 lines of data. 
Each line prints eight bytes of AS and eight bytes of BS. Within 
the I loop are two loops that use variable J. The first part 
of this loop prints the next eight bytes of AS, and the second 
part prints the next eight bytes of BS. The 256 values from 
the sector are printed both as hexadecimal values of 00 
through FF and as ASCII (text) characters. If the character 
from the sector is not an ASCII character, a period is printed 
instead. 

The display for this code is shown in Figure 4. Pressing 
ENTER after the sector data has been printed will print the 
next sector on the disk. Entering any other character than 
ENTER will cause a return back to the prompt message for 
a new sector of data. The program enables any sector of the 
630 sectors on disk to be printed. 

Using dumps from a typical disk, let's take a look at the 
directory and file allocation sectors. The format of the 
directory is shown in Figure 5. 

The directory is spread over sectors 3 through 1 1 of Track 
17. Each entry in the directory takes 32 bytes. Comparing 
the directory format with the typical dump in Figure 4, you 



182 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



D I S K II , 


TRACKS , 


5ECT0RI ? 


00 : 


50 


52 


4F 


50 


41 


4C 


20 


08: 


54 


58 


54 


03 


00 


33 


00 


10: 


00 


06 


D7 


00 


00 


00 


00 


18 : 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


20: 


53 


43 


52 


20 


20 


20 


20 


28 : 


42 


49 


4E 


02 


00 


OD 


00 


30: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


38: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


40: 


43 


52 


41 


49 


47 


31 


20 


48: 


54 


58 


54 


01 


FF 


3A 


00 


50: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


58: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


60 : 


43 


52 


41 


49 


47 


32 


20 


68 : 


54 


58 


54 


01 


FF 


3B 


00 


70: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


78 : 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


PRESS <ENTER> FOR NEXT, 



1.17.7 

20 PROPAL 80 

D7 TXT. .3.X 88 

00 . .W 90 

00 98 

20 SCR AO 

43 BIN .... C A8 

00 BO 

00 B8 

20 CRAIG1 CO 

96 TXT C8 

00 DO 

00 D8 

20 CRAIG2 EO 

1 TXT. . ; . . E8 

00 FO 

00 F8 

ANY OTHER KEY FOR 

Figure 4: Dump Program Display 



: 50 


52 


4F 


20 


20 


20 


20 


20 


PRO 


: 42 


49 


4E 


02 


00 


35 


00 


7E 


BIN. . 5 ,~ 


: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




: 48 


45 


52 


54 


5A 


43 


56 


20 


HERTZCV 


: 42 


49 


4E 


02 


00 


3C 


00 


49 


BIN. . < . I 


: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




: 48 


53 


50 


52 


4F 


20 


20 


20 


HSPRO 


: 42 


4 1 


53 


00 


00 


3D 


00 


7 1 


BAS . . - .q 


: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




: 42 


41 


55 


44 


4F 


54 


32 


20 


BAUDOT2 


: 54 


58 


54 


01 


FF 


3F 


00 


B6 


TXT. . ? .6 


: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




: 00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 




NEW 



















can see that the 32 bytes take four display lines. The first line 
is the filename, padded with blanks to the right. The first 
name here is PROPhL.TXT. The next three bytes are the file 
extension, again padded to the right with blanks. The next 
byte, Byte 11, is a 00 for a BASIC program, 01 for a basic 
data file, 02 for a machine language program, and 03 for a 
text editor source file. The next byte. Byte 12, is a 00 if the 
file is in binary format and an FF if the file is in ASCII format. 
Remember that BASIC files can either be in binary format or 
ASCII format (they're in ASCII format if they are saved with 
the ,fl option.) 

The next byte, Byte 13, is the number of the first granule 
in the file. The last two bytes, bytes 14 and 15, are the number 
of bytes in the last sector of the file. These three bytes, bytes 
13 through 15, relate to the file allocation table in Sector 2. 
The file allocation table lists all 68 granules on the disk, one 
byte per granule. Each of these bytes contains a code that 
links one granule to another to define where a particular file 
is located. Remember that the directory entry pointed to the 
first granule. The byte for this granule in the file allocation 
table points to the next granule by number. When this granule 
is found in the file allocation table, it points to the next 
granule. This chain continues until the last granule is found. 

Let's take a concrete example for this. The file BflU- 
D0T2.TXT in the directory of Figure 4 points to the first 
granule in the file at Granule 3F hexadecimal (63 decimal). 



1 


f T 


Disk Directory 
> Sector 
256 Bytes 

File Name 
8 Bytes 

Extension (3 Bytes) 

File Type (1 Byte) 
ASCII/Binary Flag (1 Byte) 
Pointer to 1st Granule (1 Byte) 
tt Bytes in Last Sector (2 Bytes) 

1 


Entry 1 


32 Byles 

t 



7 

8 
10 

11 
12 
Byte « 13 
14 
15 

31 

Figure 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


* **> 
















Not 
' Used f 


5: Disk Directory Format 



o 

R 



FILESORT 



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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 183 



Looking at the file allocation table (see Figure 6), we see that 
this granule points to Granule 40. The granule at 40 is a C8, 
marking it as the last granule. 

The least significant five bits in the last granule byte tell 
how many sectors, 1 through 9, are in the file. In this case, 
eight sectors are in the last granule of the file. The "chaining" 
of granules can go on for many granules in a long file; 
however, the last granule is always a CX-type granule. The 
directory bytes 14 and 1 5 tell how many bytes of the last sector 
are used in the file. 

If a granule byte in the file allocation table is set to FF, 



it is free and can be used for a new file. There are none free 
in the example of Figure 6. 

Although the granule chaining scheme seems complicated, 
it is necessary. When files are deleted, all granules associated 
with the file are deleted by setting their bytes in the file 
allocation table to FF. The directory entry in the disk 
directory is also deleted by FFs, which fill up the filename. 
This leaves "holes" in the disk space that can be used for 
segments of other files. When granules are allocated, a search 
is made of the file allocation table to find available space. 
For an often used disk, this space may not be contiguous — 



DISK// . 


TRACK//, SECTOR//? 1 


00 : 


C5 


C4 


03 


00 


C4 


02 


07 


08: 


09 


06 


05 


08 


OA 


CI 


OF 


10: 


01 


3E 


CI 


11 


1 5 


C4 


C5 


18: 


C4 


C3 


C9 


C3 


ID 


C6 


IF 


20: 


C4 


22 


C4 


C3 


C5 


C3 


C2 


28 : 


29 


2A 


C2 


C3 


C3 


C4 


C3 


30: 


CI 


C2 


C3 


C7 


36 


CI 


C8 


38: 


CI 


C2 


C9 


C5 


C3 


C5 


C2 


40: 


40 


C2 


CI 


C5 


00 


00 


00 


48: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


50: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


58: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


60: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


68 : 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


70: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


78: 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


PRESS 


CENTER> FOR NEXT. A 



.17.2 

04 ED..D... 80: 00 00 00 

CI A. A 88 : 00 00 00 

C8 .>A..DEH 90: 00 00 00 

1C DCIC.F-. 98: 00 00 00 

28 D"DCECB( AO: 00 00 00 

C5 )*BCCDCE A8: 00 00 00 

C2 ABCG6AHB BO: 00 00 00 

40 ABIECEBG B8 : 00 00 00 

00 HBAE.... CO: 00 00 00 

00 C8 : 00 00 00 

00 DO : 00 00 00 

00 D8 : 00 00 00 

00 EO : 00 00 00 

00 E8 : 00 00 00 

00 FO : 00 00 00 

00 F8 : 00 00 00 

NY OTHER KEY FOR NEW 

Figure 6: Typical FAT Dump 



00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 

00 00 00 00 00 



^String Array 



N$(0) 



N$(71) 



F(0) 



F(71) 



A(0) 



A(71 



G(0) 



G(71] 



B(0) 












B(71) 





FA(0) 



FA(67) 



Numeric 
Array 
>■ Holds 
FAT 
Data 



"V 



Figure 7: Arrays in Directory Program 



184 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



the granules won't be right next to each other. Chaining is 
one way to link the "fragmented" granules of a file together 
and make full use of a limited amount of storage on disk. 



A Directory Program 

We now know everything necessary to write a directory 
program that will list more data about disk files than we get 
with the BASIC DIR command. The program is shown in 
Listing 2 and has two main functions: listing the files on disk 
in first-in order, in screen segments (eliminating the annoying 
scroll-off-screen of DIR), giving the number of bytes taken 
by each file; and listing any file on the screen — something 
that can't be done from BASIC, short of reading in a program 
with BASIC or a text editor and listing it. 



Directory Listing 

This part of the program first reads in the file allocation 
table and all directory entries from Track 17 into memory 
as entries in a series of arrays, as shown in Figure 7. This 
"stripping" of the directory is done by a subroutine, which 
is executed completely one time only. After the first time, the 
body of the subroutine is bypassed. The allocation table is 
read into array Ffl( ), a 68-entry numeric array. Directory 
entries are broken up into an N$() array (name and 
extension), F( ) array (file type), fl(] array (ASCII flag), G( ) 
array (first granule), and B( ) array (bytes in last granule). 
The directory entry arrays are 72 entries long, the maximum 
number of entries in a disk directory. 

The directory is listed to the screen in first-in order with 
the file type, ASCII/ binary information and the number of 
bytes required for each file. Also listed are the number of 
fragments of the file. A fragment is a block of one or more 
granules. The fragment information is useful to see how a 
file is distributed over a disk. Disk accesses can be sped up 
greatly by reformatting a new disk and copying long files in 
sequence so that disk space is allocated in one block — this 
avoids a lot of time-consuming head movement. 

A final summation lists the number of bytes used, the 
number of bytes remaining, and the number of granules 
inaccessible. The inaccessible bytes may occur if the granules 
in the FAT are not properly released to disk use. In one of 
my disks, there were six granules unaccounted for; whether 
this was an error in BASIC'S file processing or my own 
operator error is debatable. 

Figure 8 shows the new directory listing for a typical disk. 



NAME 




TYPE 


FORMAT 


BYTES SEG 
2304 1 




ED 


.BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 




ED 7. 


. BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


4608 1 




AS 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




ASZ 


. BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


92 16 2 




DCBUG 


.BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


2304 1 




XFER 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




FILELIST 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




HLPZ 


• 


BASICDATA 


ASCI I 


92 16 1 




DISPLAY 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCII 


2304 1 




EXSQR 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCII 


2304 I 




BLKUHT 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCI I 


2304 1 




EXSCROLL 


.TXT 


BAS ICDATA 


ASCI I 


2304 1 




TOWERS 


.TXT 


BAS ICDATA 


ASCII 


2304 1 




TEXTOUT 


.TXT 


BAS ICDATA 


ASCII 


2304 1 




DRAWLINE 


.TXT 


BAS ICDATA 


ASCII 


2304 1 




ASP 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




SVNBY9 


. BAS 


BASICPROC 


BINARY 


2304 1 




GENCHLP 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


4608 1 




BAUDOT1 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCI I 


6912 3 




EIGHTBY9 


. BAS 


BAS ICPROC 


BINARY 


2304 1 




PROPOR 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




BASPR2 


. BAS 


BAS ICPROC 


BINARY 


2304 1 




FIC207 1 9 


.TXT 


TEXTEDITR 


BINARY 


2304 1 




DOS 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


4608 1 




DOS 


.BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


4608 2 




SCRIP 


.BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


13824 5 




XF 


. BAS 


BAS ICPROC 


B INARY 


2304 I 




LIST 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




AXS 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




BAUDOT 


. BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


2304 1 




GRAPHICS 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


4608 2 




GETF 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCII 


2304 I 




PROPAL 


.TXT 


TEXTEDITR 


BINARY 


2304 1 




SCR 


.BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


2304 1 




CRAIG1 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCI I 


2304 1 




CRAIG2 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCII 


2304 1 




PRO 


.BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


2304 1 




HERTZCV 


.BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


2304 1 




HSPRO 


. BAS 


BAS ICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




BAUD0T2 


.TXT 


BASICDATA 


ASCI I 


4608 1 




BAUD0T2 


. BIN 


MACHINELA 


BINARY 


2304 1 




BI0NUM 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


BINARY 


2304 1 




DUMP 


. BAS 


BASICPROG 


ASCII 


2304 1 




TOTAL BYTES- 


142848 BYTES LEFT 


- 




6 CRANULES INACCESSIBLE ( 13824 


BYTES) 




43 TOTAL FILES 








Figure 8: Typical Directory Listing 





Listing Files 

The listing portion of the program also first reads in the 
directory into the arrays listed above unless previously done 
by a directory function. The code then uses the filename 



RTR Development Systems 

Post Office Box 72, Peaster, Texas 76074 
Phone: (817)5990871 



Teac 40 Track DSDD Drives (Bare) $115.00 

StarNX-10 Printer $262.50 

2 Drive Cable $ 24.95 

Dislo Super Controller w/CDOS or CDOS 3 $ 95.00 

Avatex 1200 he (With 5 Free Hours on CIS) $129.95 

512KCoco III Upgrade w/OK $ 34.95 

The Sector Wizard (Disk Zap) $ 14.95 

DriveO & 1 System (2 DS Drives) $362.50 

Coco III ECB Unravelled $ 24.95 

Magnavox 8CM515/505 Monitor Cable $ 12.95 

Pyramix (Coco III Action Game) $ 22.95 



Mitsubishi 80 Track DSDD Drives (Bare) $125.00 

Mitsumi 40 Track DSDD Drives (Bare) $95.00 

Case& Power Supply (Dual '/j Height) $ 49.95 

4 Drive Cable $29.95 

Magnavox 8CM515 Coco III Monitor $290.00 

PBH-64 Parallel-Serial & 64K Buffer $ 99.95 

Avatex 2400 (With 5 Free Hours on CIS) $249.95 

512K Coco III Upgrade w/512K $ 96.25 

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Distributors for: Ark Royal, Cer-Comp, Computerware, Diecom, Disto, Prickly Pear, and Speech Systems 

Offering Discounts on Software from 10% to 20%. Write or call for a complete Catalog. Payment Terms: Personal Check (allow 2 
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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 185 



entered by the operator to search the in-memory directory. 
Some reformatting is required here as the in-memory name 
is padded with blanks and contains no period between name 
and extension. 

If the file is found, the first granule location is picked up 
from the G array. The chain of granules is followed until the 
end granule. Each granule located is converted to a track and 
sector number and used in a DSKIS statement to read in the 
appropriate sector as AS and B$. These strings are then 
printed. 

Most granules use all nine sectors, and a loop prints the 
entire granule with nine successive reads. However, end 
granules result in reads of only the required number of sectors 
(found from the CX granule) and a print of only the first 
portion of the last sector (found from the 8 array — the 
number of bytes in the last sector). Figure 9 shows a typical 
listing for the list function. Any ASCII file will print out 
properly formatted, and even non-ASCII files may contain 
useful information for identification purposes. 

Next month we'll have more on CoCo topics. Til then, 
watch those inaccessible granules! □ 



ORG S3EOO 

* BAUDOT (MURRAY) TELETYPE SUBROUTINE 

" READS RADIO TELETYPE CHARACTER THROUGH CAS- 

" ETTE PORT AND SENDS TO SCREEN DRIVER 

LETS EOU S1F LETTERS CODE 

FIGS EOU SIB FIGURES CODE 

" WORKING STORAGE 

DELCNT FDB 1000 1/2 BIT TIME DELAY 

BIT1 FDB ONE BIT COUNT 

INVERT FCB 0-NORMAL, 1-INVERTED 

LETFIG FCB 0-LETTERS, 32-FIGURES 

SCREEN FDB SCREEN PNTR 

BAUDOT ORCC BS50 RESET INTRPTS 

JSR CLRSCN CLEAR SCREEN 

CLRA 

STA S6F DEVNO FOR DISPLAY 

LDX KS400 START OF SCREEN 

STX SCREEN INITIALIZE 
BAU002 JSR LOOKST WAIT TIL STARTCHAR 

JSR HBIT DELAY 1/2 BIT TIME 

JSR HBIT DELAY 1/2 BIT TIME 

Figure 9: Typical Listing 



Listing 1: DISKDUMP 

100 < =========================== 

110 ' 

120 * DISK DUMP PROGRAM 
130 CLEAR 1000 
140 CLS 

150 INPUT "DISK#, TRACK#, SECTOR 
#"; DN, TN, SN 

160 DSKI$ DN, TN, SN, A$ , B$ 

17 i 

180 FOR 1=0 TO 15 

190 PRINT RIGHT$( "0" + HEX$ ( I 

* 8 ) , 2 ) + » : 
200 FOR J=0 TO 7 

210 i 

220 C$=MID$(A$, (I)*8 + J + 1, 1 

) 
230 C$=HEX$( ASC( C$ ) ) 
240 PRINT RIGHT$( "0" + C$, 2 ) 

2 50 NEXT J 

260 ' 

2 70 FOR J = TO 7 

280 C$=MID$( A$, 1*8 + J + 1, 1) 

290 IF C$<" " THEN PRINT "."; EL 

SE PRINT C$; 

300 NEXT J 

31 i 

3 20 PRINT " "; 

3 30 PRINT RIGHT$( "0" + HEX$ ( I 

* 8 + 128 ) , 2 ) + ": "; 
340 • 



3 50 FOR J=0 TO 7 
360 C$=MID$(B$, (i; 



*8 + J + 1, 1 



370 
3 80 
+ " 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
SE 



C$=HEX$( ASC( 
PRINT RIGHT$( 



C$ ) ; 
»0 » + 



C$, 2 ) 



i i 
NEXT 
i . 



FOR J = TO 7 
C$=MID$( B$, 1*8 + J 
IF C$<" " THEN PRINT 
PRINT C$; 



1, 
ii . 



1) 

EL 



NEXT 
< — — — . 



440 

450 

460 PRINT 

470 NEXT I 

480 . 

490 PRINT "PRESS <ENTER> FOR NEX 
T, ANY OTHER KEY FOR NEW" 
500 A$=INKEY$: IF A$="" THEN 500 
510 IF A$OCHR$(13) THEN GOTO 14 

520 SN=SN+1: IF SN=19 THEN SN=1: 

TN=TN+1: IF TN=3 5 THEN TN=0 
530 PRINT USING "DISK NO: # TRAC 
K NO: ## SECTOR NO: ##"; DN, TN, 
SN 

540 GOTO 160 

550 ' 

560 '=========================== 



186 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



V 340 . . 


....14 


880 .. . 


...145 




510 ... 


...158 


1140 .. 


...180 


710 


210 


END 


2 



Listing 2: DISKDIR 

110 ' DISK DIR/LIST UTILITY 

12)3 ' LISTS DIRECTORY IN FIRST-I 

N ORDER, LISTS ANY FILE ON SCREE 

N. 

130 CLEAR 2000 

140 DIM FA( 67 ) 

150 DIM N$( 71 ) 

160 DIM F( 71 ) 

170 DIM A( 71 ) 

180 DIM G( 71 ) 

190 DIM B( 71 ) 

200 FT = 

210 CLS 

220 PRINT "DIR/LIST UTILITY" 

230 PRINT 

240 PRINT " 1. DIR" 

250 PRINT " 2. LIST" 

260 PRINT 

270 INPUT "SELECTION (1-2)"; RE 

2 80 IF RE < 1 OR RE > 2 THEN 2 70 
290 ON RE GOTO 320,630 

300 ■ 

320 ■ DIR FUNCTION 

330 CLS 

340 PRINT " NAME TYPE 

FORMAT BYTES SEG" 

350 PRINT " 

3 60 GOSUB 970 

370 TB = 0: TL = 0: NF = 

3 80 FOR I = TO 71 

390 IF N$( I ) = STRING$( 11, CH 

R$( 255 ) ) THEN GOTO 550 

400 NF = NF + 1 

410 A$ = LEFT$( N$( I ), 8 ) + " 

." + MID$( N$( I ) , 9, 3 ) 

420 A$ = A$ + " " + MID$( "BASIC 

PROGBASICDATAMACHINELATEXTEDITR" 

F( I ) 
* 9 + 1, 9 ) 

430 IF A ( I ) =0 THEN A$ = A$ + 
" BINARY " ELSE A$ = A$ + " ASC 



f~" 



The 




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January 1988 THE RAINBOW 187 



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1984. is printed In the July 1984 issue. Separate copies are available for $2.50 D 

The Fourth and Fifth Year Indexes including RAINBOW ON TAPE are in the July 
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issue. 



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II " 

440 BY = 0: NG = 1 

450 HD = G( I ) 

4 60 IF FA( HD ) > 67 THEN GOTO 5 

1J8 

470 BY = BY + 2304 

48J3 IF FA( HD ) - HD <> 1 THEN N 

G = NG + 1 

490 HD = FA( HD ) 

500 GOTO 4 60 

510 BY = BY + 2304 

520 PRINT A$;: PRINT USING " ### 

### ##"; BY, NG 

530 TL = TL + 1: IF TL = 20 THEN 

TL = 0: GOSUB 1280 
540 TB = TB + BY 
550 NEXT I 

560 PRINT "TOTAL BYTES=" ; TB;"# 
BYTES LEFT="; 2304*FG 
570 PRINT 68 - TB/2 304 - FG ; "GR 
ANULES INACCESSIBLE ( " ; 156672 - 

TB - FG*2304; "BYTES)" 

580 PRINT NF; "TOTAL FILES" 
590 GOSUB 1280 
600 GOTO 210 
610 ' 
620 • =========================== 

630 ' LIST FUNCTION 

640 GOSUB 970 

650 CLS 

660 INPUT "FILE TO LIST"; RE$ 

670 IF LEN( RE$ ) = THEN GOTO 

940 ELSE IF LEN ( RE$ ) <= 12 THE 

N GOTO 690 

680 GOTO 650 

690 FOR L = 1 TO LEN ( RE$ ) 

700 IF ( MID$( RE$, L, 1 ) = " " 

) OR ( MID$( RE$, L, 1 ) = "." 
) THEN GOTO 720 
710 NEXT L 

7 20 C$ = LEFT$( LEFT$ ( RE$, L - 
1 ) + " ", 8 ) 
730 C$ = C$ + LEFT$( MID$ ( RE$, 
L + 1, 3 ) + " ", 3 ) 
740 FOR 1=0 TO 71 
750 IF N$( I ) = C$ THEN 790 
7 60 NEXT I 

770 PRINT "FILE "; RE$; " NOT FO 
UND" 

780 GOTO 9 30 
790 HD = G( I ) 

800 IF HD > 33 THEN TK = INT ( ( 
HD + 2 ) / 2 ) ELSE TK = INT ( HD 

/ 2 ) 
810 SC = ( ( HD AND 1 ) * 9 ) + 
1 



188 



THE RAINBOW January 1988 



820 IF FA(HD) <= 67 THEN J = 9 E 

LSE J = FA( HD ) AND 31 

830 FOR L = 1 TO J 

840 DSKI$ jt, TK, SC, A$ , B$ 

850 IF FA( HD ) <= 67 THEN PRINT 

A$; B$; : GOTO 890 
860 IF L <> J THEN PRINT A$ ; B$ ; 
: GOTO 890 

870 IF B( I ) <= 128 THEN PRINT 
LEFT$( A$, B( I ) ) 

880 IF B( I ) > 128 THEN PRINT A 
$;: PRINT LEFT$( B$, B( I ) - 12 

8 ); 

890 SC=SC + 1 

900 NEXT L 

910 IF FA( HD ) > 

SE HD = FA ( HD ) : 

920 PRINT 

930 GOSUB 1280 

9 40 GOTO 210 
950 ' 
9 60 '============= 



67 THEN 920 EL 
GOTO 800 



970 ' READ IN AND STRIP DIRECTOR 

Y 

980 IF FT = 1 THEN GOTO 12 50 

990 DSKI$ 0, 17, 2, A$ , B$ 

1000 FG = 

1010 FOR I = TO 67 

1020 FA(I) = ASC( MID$( A$ , I + 

1, 1 ) ) 

1030 IF FA(I) = 255 THEN FG = FG 

+ 1 

1040 NEXT I 

1050 K = 

1060 FOR I = 3 TO 11 

1070 DSKI$ 0, 17, I, A$, B$ 

1080 FOR J = TO 3 

1090 N$( J + K ) = MID$( A$, J * 

32 + 1, 11 ) 

1100 F( J + K ) = ASC( MID$( A$ , 

J * 32 + 12, 1 ) ) 



1110 A( J + K ) = ASC( MID$( A$, 

J * 32 + 13, 1 ) ) 

1120 G( J + K ) = ASC( MID$( A$, 

J * 32 + 14, 1 ) ) 

1130 B( J + K ) = ASC( MID$( A$ , 

J * 32 + 15, 1 ) ) * 256 + 

ASC( MID$( A$, J * 32 + 16, 1 

) ) 

1140 NEXT J 

1150 FOR J = TO 3 

1160 N$( J + K + 4 ) = MID$( B$, 

J * 32 + 1, 11 ) 
1170 F( J + K + 4 ) = ASC( MID$( 

B$, J * 32 + 12, 1 ) ) 
1180 A( J + K + 4 ) = ASC( MID$( 

B$, J * 32 + 13, 1 ) ) 
1190 G( J + K + 4 ) = ASC( MID$( 

B$, J * 32 + 14, 1 ) ) 
1200 B( J + K + 4 ) = ASC( MID$( 

A$, J * 32 + 15, 1 ) ) * 256 + 

ASC( MID$( B$, J * 32 + 16 
, 1 ) ) 
1210 NEXT J 
1220 K = K + 8 
12 30 NEXT I 
1240 FT = 1 
1250 RETURN 
1260 ' 



12 80 ' MORE SUBROUTINE 

1290 PRINT "PRESS ANY KEY TO CON 

TINUE" 

1300 D$=INKEY$: IF D$="" THEN 13 

00 

1310 RETURN 

13 20 ■ ========================== 




January 1988 THE RAINBOW 



189 



Racksellers 

The retail stores listed below carry THE RAINBOW on a regular basis and 
may have other products of interest to Tandy Color Computer users. We 
suggest you patronize those in your area. 



AlABAMA 




Birmingham 


Jelferson News Co. 


Brewton 


McDowell Electronics 


Florence 


Anderson News Co. 


Greenville 


M & B Electronics 


Madison 


Madison Books 


Montgomery 


Trade N' Books 


Tuscaloosa 


ln)un John's. Inc. 


ALASKA 




Fairbanks 


Electronic World 


ARIZONA 




Cottonwood 


A &W Graphics Co. 


Lake Hovasu 




City 


Book Nook 


Phoenix 


TRI-TEK Computers 


Sierra Vsto 


Livingston's Books 


Tempe 


Books, Etc. 




Computet Library 


Tucson 


Anderson News Co. 


ARKANSAS 




Fayetteville 


Vaughn Electronics/Radio Shack 


Ft. Smith 


Hot Ott the Press Newsstand 


Little Rock 


Anderson News Co. 


CALIFORNIA 




Berkeley 


Lyon Enterprises 


Citius Heights 


Software Plus 


Grass Valley 


Advance Radio. Inc. 


Halt Moon Bay 


Strawttower Electronics 


Hollywood 


Levity Distributors 




Stet-Jen, Inc. 


La Jolla 


Butler & Mayes Booksellers 


Los Angeles 


Circus of Books (2 Locations) 


Marysvllle 


Bookland 


Napa 


Bookends Bookstore 


Oakland 


DeLauers News Agency 


Sacramento 


Delbert's Readerama 




Tower Magazine 


San Francisco 


Booksmith 




Bookworks 




Castro Kiosk 


Santa Monica 


Midnight Special Bookstore 


San Jose 


Computer Literacy Bookshops 


Santa Rosa 


Sawyer's News. Inc. 


Stockton 


Harding Way News 




Paperbacks Unlimited 


Sunnyvale 


Computer Literacy 


Torrance 


El Camlno College Bookstore 


COLORADO 




Aurora 


Aurora Newsstand 


Colorado 




Springs 


Hathaway's 


Denver 


News Gallery 


Glenwood 




Springs 


The Book Train 


Grand 




Junction 


Readmore Book & Magazine 


Longmont 


City Newsstand 


DELAWARE 




Mlddletown 


Delmar Co. 


Milford 


Milford News Stand 


Newark 


Newark Newsstand 


Wilmington 


Normar. Inc.— The Smoke Shop 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 


Washington. 




DC 


Chronlchles 




News Room 




World News, Inc. 


FLORIDA 




Boca Raton 


Great American Book Co. 




Software, Software, Inc. 


Clearwater 


The Avid Reader 


Cocoa 


The Open Door 


Dania 


Dania News & Books 


Davie 


Software Plus More 


Ft. Lauderdale 


Bob's News & Book-Store 




Clarks Out of Town News 




Miko'c Eloctronlcri Distributor 


Gainesville 


Paper Chase 


Jacksonville 


Book Co. 




The Book Nook 




White's of Downtown Bookstore 


North Miami 




Beach 


Almar Bookstore 


Panama City 


Boyd-Ebert Corp. 


Pensacola 


Anderson News Co. 


Pinellas Park 


Wolf's Newsstand 


South 




Pasadena 


Poling Place Bookstore 


Starke 


Record Junction. Inc. 




Radio Shack Dealer 


Sunrise 


Sunn/s at Sunset 


190 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



FLORIDA (cont'd! 


I 


Tallahassee 


Anderson News Co. 




DuBs/s News Center 


Titusvllle 


Computrac 


GEORGIA 




Atlanta 


Border's 


Bremen 


Bremen Bectronics/Radlo Shack 


Forest Park 


Ellers News Center 


Jesup 


Radio Shack 


Marietta 


Act One Video 


Thomasvllle 


Smokehouse Newsstand 


Toccoa 


Martin Music Radio Shack 


IDAHO 




Boise 


Book Shelf. Inc. 


Moscow 


Johnson News Agency 


ILLINOIS 




Belleville 


Software or Systems 


Champaign 


Bookmatk 


Chicago 


B. Dalton Booksellers 


Decatur 


Book Emporium 




K-Mart Plaza 




Northgate Mall 


East Moline 


Book Emporium 


Evanston 


Norris Center Bookstore 


Kewanee 


Book Emporium 


Lisle 


Book Nook 


Lombard 


Empire Periodicals 


Newton 


Bill's TV Radio Shack 


Paris 


Book Emporium 


Peoria 


Book Emporium 




Sheridan Village 




Westlake Shopping Center 




Illinois News Service 


Springfield 


Book Emporium 




Sangamon Center North 




Town & Country Shopping Ctr. 


Sunnyland 


Book Emporium 


WesT Frankfort 


Paper Place 


Wheeling 


North Shore Distributors 


INDIANA 




Angola 


D & D Electronics 




Radio Shack 


Berne 


White Cottoge Electronics 


Bloomlngton 


Book Corner 


Columbus 


Micro Computer Systems, Inc. 


Crawfordsvllle 


Koch's Books 


Dyer 


Miles Books 


Franklin 


Gallery Book Shop 


Garrett 


Finn News Agency. Inc. 


Indianapolis 


Bookland. Inc. 




Borders Bookshop 




Delmar News 




Indiana News 




Southslde News 


Lebanon 


Gallery Book Shop 


Martinsville 


Radio Shack 


Wabash 


Milling's Electronics 


IOWA 




Davenport 


Interstate Book Store 


Des Moines 


Thackery's Books. Inc. 


Fairfield 


Kramers Books & Gifts 


Ottumwa 


Southslde Drug 


KANSAS 




Hutchinson 


Crossroads. Inc. 


Topeka 


Palmer News, Inc. 




Town Crier of Topeka Inc. 


Wellington 


Dandy's/Radio Shack Dealer 


Wichita 


Amateur Radio Equipment Co. 




Lloyd's Radio 


KENTUCKY 




Hazatd 


Daniel Boone Gulf Mart 


Henderson 


Mart's News & Gifts 


Hopklnsvllle 


Hobby Shop 


Louisville 


Hawley-Cooke Booksellers (2 Locc 


Paducah 


Radio Shack 


LOUISIANA 




Baton Rouge 


City News Stand 


New Orleans 


Sidney's News Stand Uptown 


Monroe 


The Book Rack 


MAINE 




Bangor 


Magazines, Inc. 


Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 


Caribou 


Radio Shack 


Oxford 


Books-N-Thlngs 


Sanford 


Radio Shack 


MARYLAND 




College Park 


University Bookstore 


MASSACHUSETTS 




Boston 


Eastern Newsstand 


Brockton 


Voyager Bookstore 



Cambridge 


Out Of Town News 


Ipswich 


Ipswich News 


Littleton 


Computer Plus 


Lynn 


North Shore News Co. 


Swansea 


Newsbreak. Inc. 


MICHIGAN 




Allen Park 


Book Nook, Inc. 


Birmingham 


Borders Book Shop 


Durand 


Robblns Electronics 


E. Detroit 


Merit Book Center 


Harrison 


Harrison Radio Shack 


Hillsdale 


Electronics Express/Radio Shack 


Holland 


Fris News Company 


Howell 


Howell Auto Parts 


Lowell 


Curl's Sound & Home Arcade Center 


Muskegon 


The Eight Bit Corner 


Perry 


Perry Computers 


Riverview 


Rrvervlew Book Store 


Roseville 


New Horizons Book Shop 


MINNESOTA 




Bumsville 


ShlndeTs Bumsville 


Crystal 


Shlnder's Crystal Gallery 


Duluth 


Carlson Books 


Edlna 


Shlnder's Leisure Lane 


Minneapolis 


Shlnder's (2 Locations) 


Minnetonka 


Shlnder's Ridge Square 


Roseville 


Shlnder's Roseville 


St. Paul 


ShlndeTs Annex 




Shlnder's Maplewood 




Shlnder's St. Pauls 


Willmor 


The Photo Shop 


MISSOURI 




Farmlngton 


Rays TV & Radio Shack 


Flat River 


Ray's TV & Radio Shack 


Florissant 


Book Brokers Unlimited 


Jefferson City 


Cowley Distributing 


Kirksvllle 


T&R Electronics 


Moberly 


Audio Hut 


SI. Louis 


Book Emporium 


St. Robert 


Bailey's TV 8c Radio 


MONTANA 




Whiteflsh 


Consumer Electronics of Whiteflsh 


NEBRA5KA 




Lincoln 


Nebraska Bookstore 


Omaha 


Nelson News 


NEVADA 




Carson City 


Bookcellar 


Las Vegas 


Hurley Electronics 




Sieve's Books & Magazines 


NEW HAMPSHIRE 




Manchester 


Bookwrights 


West Lebanon 


Verham News Corp, 


NEW JERSEY 




Atlantic City 


Atlantic City News Agency 


Cedar Knolls 


Village Computer & Software 


Clinton 


Micro World II 


Marmora 


Outpost Radio Shack 


Pennsvllle 


Dave's Elect. Radio Shack 


Rockoway 


Software Station 


NEW MEXICO 




Alamogordo 


New Horizons Computer Systems 


Albuquerque 


Front Page Newsstand 




Poge One Newsstand 


Santa Fe 


Downtown Subscription 


NEW YORK 




Amherst 


Village Green-Buffalo Books 


Brockport 


Lift Bridge Book Shop. Inc. 


Brooklyn 


Cromlond. Inc. 


Elmira Heights 


Southern Tier News Co.. Inc. 


Fredonia 


On Line: Computer Access Center 


Hudson Falls 


GA West & Co. 


Huntington 


Oscars Bookshop 


Johnson City 


Unicom Electronics 


New York 


Barnes & Noble— Sales Annex 



Collsoum Booko 
Eostern Newsstand 

Grand Central Station, Track 37 

200 Park Ave., (Pan Am #1) 

55 Water Street 

World Trade Center *2 
First Stop News 
Idle Houts Bookstore 
International Smoke Shop 
Jonll Smoke 
PennBook 
Software City 
State News 
Walden Books 
World Wide Medio Services 



NEW YORK (cont'd) 

Pawling Unlveisal Computer Service 

Rochester Village Green 

World Wide News 
Woodhaven Spectrum Projects 



IENNESSEE (cont'd) 
Smymo Delker Electronics 



NORTH CAROLINA 


Cary 


News Center In Cary Village 


Chapel Hill 


University News & Sundry 


Charlotte 


Newsstand Int'l 




Papers & Paperback 


Havlock 


Computer Plus 


Hickory 


C ! Books & Comics 


Jacksonville 


Mlchele's. Inc. 


Kernersvllle 


K & S Newsstand 


Marion 


Boomers Rhythm Center 


Winston-Salem 


K & S Newsstand (3 Locations) 




Rainbow News Ltd. 


OHIO 




Akron 


Churchill News 6c Tobacco 


Blanchester 


JR Computer Control 


Canton 


Little Professor Book Center 


Chaidon 


Thrasher Radio & IV 


Cincinnati 


Clnsolt 


Cleveland 


Erievlew News 


Columbiana 


Fidelity Sound & Electronics 


Columbus 


B5 Software 




Micro Center 




The Newsstand 


Dayton 


Books & Co. 




Huber Heights Book & Card 




Wilke News 




Wright News & Books 


Dublin 


Book Bam 


Fairborn 


News-Readers 




Wllke's University Shoppe 


Flndley 


Open Book 


Kent 


The News Shop 


Lakewood 


Lakewood International News 


Lima 


Edu-Caterers 


Mlamisburg 


Wilke News 


Parma 


Bookmark Newscenter 


Toledo 


Leo's Book & Wine Shop 


Warren 


Book Nook. Inc. 


Xenia 


Fine Print Books 


Youngstown 


Plaza Book & Smoke Shop 


OKLAHOMA 




Oklahoma 




City 


Merit Micro Software 


Takleauah 


Thomas Sales. Inc. dba Radio Shack 


Tulsa 


Steve's Book Store 


OREGON 




Eugene 


Ubra Books — Book Mark 


Portland 


Fifth Avenue News 



Rich Cigar Store, Inc. 
Sixth & Washington News 
Capitol News Center 
Checkmate Book 

Owl Services 

Newborn Enterprises 

Btyn Mowr News 

Global Books 

Gene's Books 

Personal Software 

Stevens Radio Shack 

Smith's News & Card Center 

Software Corner 

Chester County 8ook Co. 

Micro World 

The Computer Center of York 

Tollgate Bookstore 

Bellevue News 
Software Connection 



Salem 

PENNSYLVANIA 

Allentown 
Altoona 
Bryn Mawr 
Feasterville 
King of Prussia 
Malvern 
Phoenbcvllle 
Reading 
Temple 
West Chester 
Wind Gap 
York 

RHODE ISLAND 

Newport 
Warwick 

SOUTH CAROLINA 

Charleston Hts. Software Haus, Inc. 



Clemson 

Florence 

Greenville 

Spartanburg 

Union 

TENNESSEE 
Brentwood 
Chattanooga 

Dickson 
Knoxville 

Memphis 
Nashville 



Clemson Newsstand 
Ray's #1 

Palmetto News Co. 
Software City 
Fleming's Electronics 

Bookworld #5 
Anderson News Co. 
Guild Books & Periodicals 
Highland Electronics 
Anderson News Co. 
Davts-Kidd Bookseller 
Computer Center 
Davls-Kidd Booksellers 
Mosko's Race 
R.M. Mills Bookstore 



TEXAS 




Big Spring 


Poncho's News 


Brenham 


Moore's Electronics 


Desoto 


Maxwell Books 


Elgin 


The Homing Pigeon 


Harllngton 


Book Mark 


UTAH 




Provo 


Valley Book Center 


VIRGINIA 




Danville 


K & S Newsstand 


Hampton 


Benders 


Norfolk 


l-O Computers 




Turn The Page 


Richmond 


Volume I Bookstore 


WASHINGTON 




Port Angeles 


Port Book & News 


Seattle 


Adams News Co. Inc. 




Bulldog News 


Tacoma 


B & I Magazines & Books 




Nybbles 'N Bytes 


WEST VIRGINIA 




Huntington 


Nick's News 


Logan 


Stan's Electronics & Radio Shack 


Madison 


Communications. LTD 


Parkersburg 


Valley News Service 


South 




Charleston 


Spring Hill News 


WISCONSIN 




Appleton 


Badger Periodicals 


Cudahy 


Cudahy News & Hobby 


Kenosha 


R.K. News. Inc. 


Madison 


Pic A Book 




University Bookstore 


Milwaukee 


Juneau Village Reader 


Racine 


Utile Professor Book Center 


Waukesha 


Holt Variety 


ARGENTINA 




Cordoba 


Information Telecommunications 


AUSTRALIA 




Blaxland 


Blaxland Computers 


Kingsford 


Porls Radio Electronics 


CANADA: 




ALBERTA 




Banff 


Banff Radio Shack 


Blairmote 


L & K Sports & Music 


Bonnyville 


Paul Tercier 


Brooks 


Double "D" A.S.C. Radio Shack 


Calgary 


Billy's News 


Oaresholm 


Radio Shack Associated Stores 


Drayton Valley 


Langard Electronics 


Edmonton 


CMD Micro 


Edson 


Radio Shack, asd 


Falrvlew 


D.N.R. Furniture & TV 


Fox Creek 


Fox City Color & Sound 




A.S.C. Radio Shack 


Ft. Saskatche- 




wan 


Ft. Mall Radio Shack. ASC 


Grande 




Cache 


The Stereo Hut 


Grande 




Centre 


The Book Nook 


Hlnton 


Jim Cooper 


Innisfall 


L & S Stereo 


Lecombe 


Brian's Electronics 


Leduc 


Radio Shack Associated Stores 


Lelhbrldge 


Datalron 


Lloydmlnstet 


Uoyd Radio Shack 


Okotoks 


Okotoks Radio Shack 


Peace River 


Radio Shack Associated Stores 




Tavener Software 


Sf. Paul 


Waller's Electronics 


Stettler 


Stettler Radio Shack 


Strathmore 


Wheatland Electronics 



ALBERTA (cont'd) 

Tabei Pynewood Sight & Sound 

Westlock Westlock Stereo 

Wetaskiwin Radio Shack 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 


Burnaby 


Compulil 


Burns Lake 


VT. Video Works 


Campbell 




River 


TRS Electronics 


Chllliwack 


Charles Parker 


Coortenay 


Rick's Music & Stereo 


Dawson Creek 


Bell Radio & TV 


Golden 


Taks Home Furnishings 


Kelowna 


Telesofl Marketing 


Lang ley 


Langley Radio Shack 


N. Vancouver 


Microwest Distributors 


Nelson 


Oliver's Books 


Parksvllle 


ParksvilleTV 


Penticton 


DJ.'s 




Four Comer Grocery 


Sidney 


Sidney Electronics 


Smithers 


Wall's Home Furniture 


Squamish 


Kotyk Electronics 


100 Mile 




House 


Tip Top Radio & TV 


MANITOBA 




Altona 


LA Wlebr Ltd. 


Lundar 


Goranson Elec. 


Morden 


Central Sound 


The Pas 


Jodi's Sight & Sound 


Selkirk 


G.L Enns Elec. 


Vlrden 


Archer Enterprises 


Winnipeg 


J & J Electronics Ltd. 


NEW BRUNSWICK 




Moncton 


Jeffries Enterprises 


Sussex 


Dewltt Elec. 


NEWFOUNDLAND 


i 


Botwood 


Seaport Elec. 


Carbonear 


Slade Realties 


NOVA SCOTIA 




Halifax 


Atlantic News 


ONTARIO 




Angus 


Micro Computer Services 


Aurora 


Compu Vision 


Concord 


Ingram Software 


Exceter 


J. Macleane & Sons 


Hanover 


Modem Appliance Centre 


Huntsville 


Huntsville Elec. 


Kenora 


Donny "B" 


Kingston 


T.M. Computers 


Listowel 


Modern Appliance Centre 


South River 


Max TV 




Dennis TV 



QUEBEC 

LaSalle Messageries de Presse Benjamin Enr. 

Pont. Rouge Boutique Bruno Laroche 

Ville St. Gabriel Gilles Comeau Enr/Radlo Shack 



SASKATCHEWAN 




Asslnlboia 


Telstor News 


Estevan 


Kotyk Electronics 


Moose Jaw 


D&S Computer Place 


Nlplwan 


Cornerstone Sound 


Reglna 


Reglna CoCo Club 




Software Supermarket 


Saskatoon 


Everybody's Software Library 


Shellbtooke 


Gee. Laberge Rodlo Shack 


Tisdale 


Paul's Service 


Unity 


Grant's House of Sound 


YUKON 




Whltehorse 


H & O Holdings 


JAPAN 




Tokyo 


America Ado. Inc. 


PUERTO RICO 




Son Juan 


Software City 



Also available at all B. Dalton Booksellers, and 
selected Coles — in Canada, Waldenbooks, Pickwick 
Books, Encore Books, Barnes & Noble, Little 
Professors, Tower Book & Records, Kroch's & 
Brentano's, and Community Newscenters. 

January 1988 THE RAINBOW 191 



Advertisers Index 



IVe encourage you to patronize our advertisers — all of whom support the Tandy Color 
Computer. We will appreciate your mentioning the rainbow when you contact these firms. 



A to Z Unlimited 127 

After Five Software 1 20 

Alpha Products 21 

Bob's Software 89 

Burke & Burke 159 

Cer-Comp 46,47 

Cinsoft 55 

Clearbrook Software 

Group 39 

CNR Engineering 105 

Cognitec 83 

Colorware 22, 23 

Computer Center 67 

Computer Island 137 

Computer Plus 3 

Computer Villa 139 

Computerware 77 

Computize 56, 57 

CY-BURNET-ICS 95 

D.P. Johnson 165 

Dayton Associates of 

W. R. Hall, Inc 118, 119 

Delphi 122, 123 

Diecom IFC, IBC 

DISKMASTER, INC 69 

Disto 63 

Dorsett Education 

Systems 65 

E.Z. Friendly Software 95 

Eric Ackley 70 

Federal Hill Software 109 

Frank Hogg Laboratory91, 157, 167 

Gimmesoft 81 

Hard Drive Specialists 141 

Hawkes Research 

Services 55 

Howard Medical 66, 194 

ICR Futuresoft 35 

J & R Electronics 71 

Kelly Software 

Distributors 177 

Metric Industries 29 

Micro Works, The 75 

Microcom Software ... 9, 11, 13, 15, 

153 

Microtech Consultants 

Inc 79 

192 THE RAINBOW January 1988 



MicroWorld 103 

Other Guys Software, The 135 

Owl-Ware 145,146,147 

Paparis Enterprises 125 

Performance Peripherals 97 

Perry Computers 175 

Preble's Programs, Dr BC 

Public Domain 148 

PXE Computing 7 

R.A.D. Products 71 

Rainbow Binder 34 

Rainbow Bookshelf 114, 115 

Rainbow Gift Subscription 99 

Rainbow on Tape and Disk 94 

RTR Development Systems 1 85 

Sardis Technologies 121 

SD Enterprises 139 

Seibyte Software 183 

Softbyte 91 

Software House, The 93 



Call: 

Belinda Kirby 
Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 
(502) 228-4497 



□ Call: 

Kim Vincent 

Advertising Representative 

The Falsoft Building 
9509 U.S. Highway 42 
P.O. Box 385 
Prospect, KY 40059 

(502) 228-4492 



SpectroSystems 41 

Spectrum Projects Inc 17, 25, 27 

Speech Systems 50, 51, 52, 53 

Sugar Software 1 93 

Sundog Systems 179 

Sunrise Software 125 

T & D Software 32, 33, 155 

Tandy/Radio Shack 42, 43 

Tepco 189 

TMM/Hemphill Electronics 164 

Tom Mix Software 117 

True Data Products 1 32, 1 33 

Try-O-Byte 177 

Valkyrie 89 

Vidicom Corporation 181 

Wasatchware 159 

Woodstown Electronics 1 27 

York10 151 

Zebra Systems 61 





BT- 



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i ■:,-:■:•■'■■!:■■ 'V-! |»Ki 

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volume 1 Issue 1 




OS9 
Cal 11 graph er 

Turn your iColCo into a 
caffi'grapner s q u f 1 1 • 
ifflalse oeauiifuf 
inuftatfons, ai'plomas, 
certificates, f o u e 
fetters ant) fafiefs. (Use 
your (CoCo for aesktop 
p u d f inning to print 
newsfetters, ffijers ana* 
atls* Iflff ints is possiofe 
w f £ n t n e 5 9 
iCafffgrapher. 

The 059 (Caff.gra- 
pher is a lezi fornat- 
ting program for 059* 
li read's a stanaard 1 file 
wfjfcn contains ie*i and* 
formatting cooes. 



Calllgrapher 
Type Styles 

Calf i" uses n a n y, 
different type styles in 
Both naff ant) quarter 
inch size uihi'ch are 
printed on a dot— natrfx 
printer. Iror example, 
this ad" was formatted" 
ano printed using trie 
059 iCafr.-grapn, 



ier. 



fne 059 iCaffigrapner 
cones witn three 
haff-fnch fonts' 

COW ^nsli^h 

Gey Nineties 

Cartoon 

ifTlany other fonts are 
auaiTahfe. 



CoCo 
Calllgrapher 

Ine IColCo (Caf fi'grapher 
prints the sane fonts 
as tne 059 iCaffi- 
grapher. Though not as 
powerfuf as the 059 
Cafff, tne ColCo Cafff 
is an easy to use, nenu 
dViuen progran for those 
of you that clon't use 
059. It can print 
fines feft justified or 
centered and" can print 
in condensed* node on 
sone printers. 

Cither iCafffgrapher nay 
Be purchased" with aff 
Sty fonts as a iConho 
Package. 



The Calllgrapher Fonts - Requires 0S9 
or CoCo Calligrapher. Each scion tape or 
disk; $14.05 each. Set #1 - (9 fonts) Re- 
duced, reversed and reduced-reversed 
versions of Gay Nineties, Old English 
and Cartoon; Set #2 - (8 fonts) Old Style 
and Broadway; Set #3 - (8 fonts) An : 
tique and Business; Set #-1 - (8 fonts" 



The Economy Font Packages on disk; 
20.05: Font Package #1 - Above font 
sets 1, 2 and 3 (25 fonts) on one disk. 
Font Package #2 - Above font sets 4, 6 
and 6 (26 fonts') on one disk. Both Pack- 
ages #1 and #2 (51 fonts); Disk only; 
40.05. 



The Calllgrapher Programs - Both the 
0S9 and CoCo Calligrapher corne with 
three 14-inch fonts: Old English, Gay 
Nineties and Cartoon. Both come with 
support for Epson, Gemini, Radio Shack, 
Okidata 92A, Banana and Prowriter 
printers. Both print the same fonts. 

CoCo Calllgrapher - (Hybrid BASIC/ML) 
Tape or Disk; $24.05. 

OSO Calligrapher - (c) Requires 0S9 
Level I or II; Disk only; $24.05. 

This ad was composed using K-inoh Reversed Old English for the headline, '/i-inch Block for headers and K-inch Checks for the 
body. A 2V4-inch column was printed and cut to three columns. The sample fonts shown above are 'A-inch although the K-inch ver- 
sions are included with the Calligrapher programs. Specify OSS or CoCo (RSDOSj when ordering. 



Wild West and Checkers; Set #5 - (10 
fonts) Stars, Hebrew and Victorian; Set 
#5- (8 fonts) Block and Computer; 



The Calligrapher Combo - Everything!; 
Our most popular package includes the 
Calligrapher and both Font Packages (51 
fonts); Disk only; $00.05. 



A complete catalog of other sweet 
Sugar Software products is available. 



RAINBOW 

CCRtirtCATKM 
BfM 




'TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



V; 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 7446 

Hollywood, Florida 33081 

(305) 981-1241 



All program* run on the CoCo 1, 2 and 3, 3SK 
Eitcnded Basic, unless otherwise noted. Add 
Si. 60 per tape or disk for postage and handling. 
Florida residents add b% sales tax. COD orders 
add $4. Dealer inquiries invited. Orders generally 
shipped in 24-48 hours. No refunds or exchanges 
without prior authorization. 



Star NX-10 Printer Only $238 
NOW WITH FREE SP-C ($68.45 value) 

EPSON 



disk NEW FROM J&M 

CONTROLLER 

The DC-4 is a scaled-down version of the popular DC-2 
without a parallel port. It includes a switch with 2 ROM 
sockets, JDOS. manual and such features as gold connec- 
tors and metal box. It accesses double sided drives and ac- 
cepts RSDOS 1.1 for Radio Shack compatability. 

DC-4 with memory minder 
($2 shipping) 

RS DOS ROM CHIP 

ROM chip fits inside disk controller. 24 pin fits both J&M 
and RS controller Release 1.1. For CoCo 3 Compatability. 




$20 



each 



Reg. S40 
($2 shipping) 



DISK DRIVE SPECIALS 



liniVC V T Howards Drive gives you a 

DD-3 MPI drive, a CA-1 cable and a J&M DC-4 Disk Controller 
for only. Add $34 for a Disto DC-3 replacement, t ss .hippi ng) 

DOUBLE SIDED WM ^. 

DOUBLE DENSITY -rjltf ... 

360K W^' m ^ - 



$178 45 



Separate Disk Drive Components 

DD-3 An MPI 52 double-sided, double density, 360K disk 
drive in a full height case and heavy-duty power supply. 

(S2 shipping) DRIVE ONE 




TEAC T-3 '/? height, double sided, double density, 720K 
bare drive, includes all mounting hardware. 



NEW $159 



(52 shipping) 



TEAC 55B bare drive, V4 height, double-sided, double density with 
all mounting hardware, needs CA-2 below to fit R.S. 501. 



$118 



(*2 shipping) 



BARE 



SP-C 

Serial to parallel converter converts the CoCo 4 pin serial output to run 
a parallel printer like Star or Epson. Includes all cables. Add $10 lor 



modem attachment. 



($2 shipping) 



$68. 45 



CA-1 



Cable that connects the disk controller to the drive. 

CA-2 



$2495 

One Drive 



$9995 

Two Drive 



GUARANTEE — Howard Medical's 30-day guarantee 
is meant to eliminate the uncertainty of dealing with a com- 
pany through the mail. Once you receive our hardware, try 
it out, test it for compatibility. If you're not happy with it for 
any reason, return it in 30 days and we'll give you your 
money back (less shipping). 



LX-800 $239 

Friction and tractor teed included 

1 60 CPS 

3K Butter 

NLQ on Iront buttons 

Package includes tree SP-C serial to 

parallel converter and Epson tutorial 

on disk. 




Star NX-10 Only $238 

^^^FRE^Sr^r^erjanooaralleUonverte^hilesuppI^ 



WORD PACK RS 
BASIC SCREEN EDITOR 



• Full documentation 

• Works on CoCo 1 , 2 & 3 

• Add lines without renumbering 



MYDOS 



by Chris Hawks 



• Simplify your directory 

• Accesses double sided drives 

• Use J&M on CoCo 3 



CoCo MAX 



by Colorware 



• Specify II or III 

• Includes high res interface 

• Animation 

• Printers supported include. R.S. 105, 106, 130 Star a Epson 



$49 

$19.95 

$15 
$78.« 

('2 shipping on lollwsro) 



MONITORS 

Sony KV-1311CR $449 



Regular '625 
*15 shipping) 



• Vivid Color 

• Vertically flat 13" screen 

• Monitor/Trinitron TV with remote control 

• 640 X 240 resolution at 15MHZ .37 mm Dot 
pitch 

• RGB analog & digital; TTL; and composite 
inputs 

• VCR inputs 

• Cable to CoCo 3 $36 

SONYCPD-1310 $375 

Regular '550 

• Monitors versions of KV-1311CR, above without 

TV («1 5 shipping) 

• Cable to CoCo 3 $36 



HARD DRIVE 



20,000.000 Bytes 

equivalent to 125 R.S. 501 's on line 

micro stepping heads have 1 5 position per track 

automatic temperature compensation realigns head every five minutes for 

Irouble free reads and writes 

will also work with IBM & clones 

complete package includes 20 meg drive, case & power supply, controller, 

and interface that plugs into slot «3 of multipack interface. Amqq qq 

1 year warranty ^O*/!/. 

(5 ship) 
BASIC driver lets you access this hard drive without need tor OS-9 $49.95. 



I 



Howard Medical Computers 1690 N. Elston Chicago, IL 60622 




ORDERS 



(800) 443-1444 



INQUIRIES AND ORDER STATUS 

(312) 278-1440 



Showroom Hours: 
8:00- 5:00 Mon. - Fri. 
10:00 - 3:00 Sat. 



WE ACCEPT: VISA • MASTERCARD • AMERICAN EXPRESS 

C.O.D. OR CHECKS • SCHOOL P.O.'S !£!K pln 2 ? ""Hf "? ' or ,* 8 „f,T * h 

APO and Canada order slightly higher. 







&& 1 






*« H 



S^ 



.9^ 




litf^ 



vsfl 



£tf 



**§» 



*^sft«*r 






*eA 



WW 



S££ FRONT COVER 

FOR OTHER DIECOM GAMES 



'&**» 



m 

i 



5*«j ®j>y ia/ --*' 1-^ ',>-;.t, r -'---' ' .^% ■ ..^> 



DR. PREBLE'S 
PROGRAMS 






M$¥ 






Introducing PYRAMIX 

For nour Color Computer 5 ! 

PfKAHU U a 100! machine lao«uu s e 8"~ vrltteo exclualvely to take advaotnge of all the po»or Ui your 128K 
CoCo 3. The colora are brilliant, the graphics sharp, the action hot. 

mum tcato-ea the flaoat la animation, graphlcn, aoond effects and game play available today. It hna all 
the extras you vent, too, such as a pause option. ROB and OiP .odea, keyboard or joystick ploy, help screen. 
Multiple skill level, nnd the abiltty to backup your dink. 

Best of all la the lou price! available today, for only (24.95 on disk f a/h! 



Product of 
ColorVenture 



And Luifitmnq Strides! 



UarmiHC BAH DISC la the moat versatile RaH dlak for your 512C Color Computer 3! LIGHTSINC R*H 
DISK will allow you to uso up to a mechanical drives and 2 RAH drives simultaneously for a total of 
Drives! This RAM DISC Hill also work simultaneously with our omailng LIGHTNING PSINTER SPOOLER.! 
$19.95 on dlak « a/h. 



l.iarTKIHG PRINTER SPOOLER for the 128C or 512K Color Computer 3. 
more than 400C of ten to the spooler "instantly." Then, conti 
prints out! Also compatible with 



Hultttaak your computer! Dump 
le your keyboard work while it all 
LIGHTNING RAH DISC above. J14.95 on diak ♦ a/h. 



LIGHTNING HACXUP utility for your 5121 Color Computer 3 reoda your master disk once aad then makes 
superfast multiple disk backups on all your drives! No need to format blank disks. Supports 35, 40 



or 80 tracks, double u 



Blngle sided disks and adjustable stop rate. $14.95 on diak ♦ a/h. 

Oirfci nil 5 |iii (mill 1-H15 ■ s-'ti 





nc wants to be chained down. And 
In BASIC programs, you have been 
Involuntary aorvltudol The culprit? 
BASIC'S limited EDIT command. 



BASIC r-RKKDOHl So 
yet, if you type 
subject 




off 



Demand Your BASIC HOSDOHI Programmed by Chrla BabCock for ColorVeoture. this softworo gives you 
full screen editor for typing In and editing BASIC programs! Hove the cursor anywhere on th 
Insert, delete or odd te«. It's the same coocept as in a word proceoaor, except you never hi 
leave BASIC! BASIC FREEDOM Is nn Invisible machine language progrom which you can turn oa oad 
will. Even preanlng RESET will not hurt your BASIC FREEDDOM! Simple, yet powerful with an easy to 
read manual. Hnny extra "nice touches" Included, like CEI REPEAT nnd LOWERCASE INTtRPRf.rER which 
lets you type BASIC commaads la upper or lower cose for easo of programming. Translation to 
uppercaae la automatic for commando. Text In quotes Is aot affected. fm £ otn ( 2 or 5 I 

SPECIAL COCO 3 VERSION lets you work In 32, 40, or 80 column display modes. A oeporule version Is 

available for the C0C0 1 and 2. Available oa disk for S24.95 t fl/h. 
HENTAL FREEDOM by Dr. Preble! IMAGINE! Same day, a computer so advanced that it renpoads to your 

very thoughtn and omatloas. Imagine, some day, thought-controlled grophlcs: levltatloo ana 
materlallzatloa! PLUG I" TOUR HIND and tlHHOOC YOUR JOYSTICKS— that day is now! The Radio Shack 
Color Computer hoa many advanced capabilities. Just waiting to lie lopped. Dr. Preble a Programs 
combines the advanced technology of the C0C0 with the amazing Radio Shack Biofeedback Monitor to 

brlag yuu "Mealnl Freedom." f„, r r„ / „ j 

TIKXiarr-COIfniOIJjiD VIDEO CHALLENGE? Unlike any video game you novo ever played, our I'™"'!';'""'" 
tests your ability to hondle stress, to remain calm under Idvorme circumstances. LIGHTNING FASf 
reflexes will do you no good here, unless you first tame the fickle dragon of your mind. Are ypo the 
oecretely nervous type? Many people coa keep a "Poker Face" evea wliea they ore worried sc 
othora may aot notice; but can you really stop the worry Itself? Flad out with Hcatnl rrcedi 




■ I 



AND IT TALCS! Did you know that the C0C0 can produce incredibly realistic digital speech 
special speech synthesizer? The voice quality Is ao good, it aounds human! Honest. Best 
extra hardware la needed for speech, Just aomo clover programming by Dr. Preble. 

HENTAL FREEDDH - Next time your friends ask what your computer cm do, ahow 
them Dr Preble's Thoughtwarcl Requires Radio Shock's Biofeedback Monitor 
Catalogue 163-675. Hentnl Freedom - DISC only J24.95 t a/h 



without 
of all, 



Voca/ 



5L?ir bifiia: Vo.ce 
Recorder for yvur 
Coco I. 2.0' 3 i 



Vmsi (Pm&sm fers ya. . . . 



* Record voice or any sound Into RAM 

* Record unii playback at 2 speeds 

* Save and Load voice to disk 

* Select normal or high Fidelity 

8 Record more than 2 minutes of speech It 

you hnve n 512K CoCo 3 
f foil) compatible with CoCo 1 and 2 

* Feature;. Sound Activated Playback. 
Messages will playback automatically for 
your Tamily when any noise i ■MO, 
Could also scare off prowlers. 



Vocal Freedom 
Requires only H 
C«, -"277- I0M) 



includes 

low cost amp I 1 1 ii 

nnd -any microphone 



:■ la, 
i (RS 



$39.95 * s/h 

iigitally recorded 
your own programs. BoqiltP 

Vocal Freedom, utiovo. 



On Disk, c.nh 
Incorporate 



r 3ave multiple graph lr pic 

il programs or nrnphlc3. 

3 of machine loaguage prugr 

Requires 64K CoCo 1 or 2. 

For CoCo 1 or 2 

VDUHP, for the UnDISK: Backup all jour UnDISK flies to a single tape file for easy reloading A must for VU0S 
»ri. •!■■.! On tape for SK..95 • shipping/handling. 



VD0S, the UnDISK: Save Multiple programs in memory. I 
or without a disk. Lot's you SAVE, LOAD and KILL ston 
(Ilea, nl*""* the start, end nnd elocution address: 
remaining. Own a RAH dlak without buying a disk drive 
for $24.°-5 » shipping/handling. ^_ f-f ^^^ 



res In memory. Uork» witli 
DIRECTORY function Usta 
i'i and number of free byton 
Available on tape or disk 



VI'KIHT. far thr UnDISK: Paper printout for UnDISK Directory 

Cheat, money order. Mastercard 

Visa or COA For Stopping 

in 05 fi or Canada add t?.S0. 

to ofber Countries, add tS 00 



On tape, $9.95 ♦ shJ pping/hnndllng. 



VISA 



m 



(iicri, Moncii Oidci or 
COO 




Order from 

Dr. Preble's Programs 

b540 Outer Loop 

Louisville, KY 40228 

(502) 959-18/8 



tor co'-'o . 



"Il-I 



On.dlsk, only $IA.95 * s/h 



S a 2 a II © a 1 

Dress up ii'-'tn L'r.r-. r< : . i rr tot t 
mill coieilul inrv-ancri nurf 
boidcrs r.irntr useful help 

niGfiSncm Afiit rlini pro 
;l'--mijiiuI toiirh xv i|Oiu nr 

Qhonsl Ontu WW 



for ItiMcckol St'mlalm 
toto Program, HI 



CoCoBraille 



Emboss Grado 1 or Grnile 2 
Drailli' using your CoCo I, Z 
or 3 and a Brother Dal3y Vhoel 
printer! Fast Print to 

Braille conversion algorithm 
converts word processor files, 
program listings and data 
fil"'t Into touch rifadnhln 
Braille. For use by the blind 
or the sighted. Ho knowledge 
of the Braille code la 
necessary. Just sand print, to 
the program and out amen 
Brallla! Note: The complex 
Grade 2 conversion is very 
goad and though not always 
perfecti quite readable. 

Requires 6i£ or xire. Bruther 
HE aeries printer or the IF- 50 
interface series required. 
Low Cost I Similar software 
r.ostti 3 tinea as much. Only 

338)29 » a©