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April 1984 



$3.95 U K £3.35 



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THE COtOR COMPUTER MONTHLY MAGAZINE 

GAM/M 



S57 




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ROULETT 



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fiFISTICS GRAPHICS UTILITII 
AND MORE THAN 30 PRODUCT REVIEWS 



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TMV DRMC IS OVtll 



32K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 
DISK S30.95 




By Rugby Circle 



We've done it again! You thought The 
King was great? Wait 'til you see this!! 
Outstanding high resolution graphics, 
tremendous sound make this "Joust" 
type game a must for your software col- 
lection. As you fly from cloud to cloud 
you will enjoy sky high excitement deal- 
ing with the challenges presented to you 
by this newest release by Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. 



TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

4285 BRADFORD N E 

GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 

(616)957-0444 



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•MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX* 

LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 



ARCADE ACTION GAMES 



rom Computer Plus to YOU . . . 



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after 



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ModeM00 8K$679 
Mod©M00 24K$835 





|Color Computer II 16K $135| 
W/16K Ext. Basic $165 
W/64K Ext. Basic $210 



Model 4 16K $849 

Model 4 64K 

2 Disk & RS232 $1699 




BIG SAVINGS ON A FULL COMPLEMENT OF RADIO SHACK COMPUTER PRODUCTS 



COMPUTERS 

Model 4 Portable 

64K w/2 Drives 1525 

Pocket Computer 2 165 

Model 2000 2Dr 2299 

Model 12 1 Drive 2360 

Model 16B 1Dr 256K 3965 
MODEMS 

Hayes Smartmodem II 225 

AC-3 129 

DC Modem I 89 

DC Modem II 160 
PRINTERS 

Silver Reed EXP500 D.W. Ser. 455 
Silver Reed EXP550 D.W. Par. 575 

CGP115 159 

CGP220 Ink Jet 545 

DMP110 305 

DMP420 735 

Gemini 10X 300 

Gemini 15X 405 

CITOH Prowriter 359 

Okidata CALL 

Epson CALL 



ETC. 

Disk Drive Controller 139 

Extended Basic Kit 35.95 

Botek Ser/Par Conv. 69 

64K Ram Chips 62.95 

Deluxe Keyboard 35.95 

Superpro Keyboard 69.95 

HJL Keyboard 79.95 

CCR-81 Recorder 52 

Deluxe Joystick (each) 35.95 

Joysticks (pair) 22 

Video Plus (monitor adapter) 24.95 

Video Plus MM 26.95 

Amdek Color 1 + Monitor 299 

BMC Color Monitor 259 
BMC Green Monochrome MonitorlOS 

Taxan Green Mono. Monitor 130 

Taxam Amber Mono. Monitor 139 



SOFTWARE 

Zaxxon 
The King 
Trap Fall 
Buzzard Bait 
Devil Assault 



(Tape Version) 
34.95 
26.95 
27.95 
27.95 
27.95 



Colorpede 29.95 

Juniors Revenge 28.95 

Pac Attack 24.95 

Block Head 26.95 

Froggie 24.95 

Lunar Rover Patrol 24.95 

Lancer 24,95 

Typing Tutor 23.95 

Galagon 24.95 

Scott Adams Adventures 19.95 

Sea Dragon 34.95 

Colorcome 49.95 

Telewriter 64 49 95 

O-Pak (disk) 34.95 

Key-264K 35.95 

Ellte-Calc 59 95 

VIP Writer 59.95 

VIP Calc 59.95 

VIP Terminal 49.95 

VIP Database (disk) 59.95 

Order any 2 software pieces listed 
and take 10% off their listed price. 
All Radio Shack software 10% off list. 
Send for complete list. 



CALL TOLL FREE 
1-800-343-8124 

• LOWEST POSSIBLE PRICES 

• BEST POSSIBLE WARRANTY 

• KNOWLEDGEABLE SALES STAFF 

• TIMELY DELIVERY 

• SHOPPING CONVENIENCE 






com 



P.O. Box 1094 
480 King Street 
Littleton, MA 01460 



SINCE 1973 



IN MASSACHUSETTS CALL (617) 486-3193 



TRS-80 Is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 



Under the Rainbow 



FEATURE ARTICLES 






Giving The Little Guy A Break/ Sam Sherrill, Ph.D 20 

Statistics Feasible Microcomputer- Assisted 

Survey Research 
Oh, Oh, Double Zero!/ Gerry. Schechter 25 

Gambling We bet you'll enjoy this roulette 

game 
More Adventure In Every Byte/ Eric W. Tilenius 34 

Tutorial Completing your a-mazing Adventure 
A Rainbow Wish/ Fred B. Scerbo 52 

Rainbow Wishing Well A screen quiz usually 

"not given" in school 
Seven Come Eleven l/Dan Drouillard 67 

Game Shooting craps with Mr. Big 
Win, Show Or Place Your Bet!/ George Bodiroga 82 

Game And we're off to the races 
B #1 With Bingo!/7o<? Hadley 89 

Game Your luck is in the cards 
Hit, Or Stand Patl/Steve Kincade 97 

Game How about a game of blackjack? 
Peeking Around In ROM//1. V. Reinhart 119 

Utility Exploring CoCo's memory 
Slots 'O Luck/ Barry Furman 131 

Gambling Save your quarters with this home 

slot machine 
Give This One A Spin/ Harold Schneider 138 

Game A rotary "Hangman" for up to eight 

players 
Who Says Little Cant Stand Up To Big?///. Allen Curtis . . 170 

Programming Utility An "e"asy, important 

command 
The Serious Spreadsheet/ Barry Spencer 186 

Spreadsheet MiniCalc's big brother comes to 

town 
Odds-On Favorite/ Kenneth Hall 195 

Gambling A pari-mutuel wagering system for 

your Derby party 
The CoCo Woman/Susan P. Davis 215 

Commentary A look at women and their status 

in the CoCo community 



COVER art © by Fred Crawford 



DEPARTMENTS 

Advertiser Index 32i 

Back Issue Information 3H 

Basic Training/ Joseph Kolar 182 

Making appending part of your program repertoire 
Bits And Bytes Of BASIC / Richard White 64 

Sophisticated printing techniques 
Building April's Rainbow/y/m Reed 16 

A many-hued preview to this month's issue 
CoCo Counsel/ Tom Nelson 156 

Finding the best type of business organization for you 

Corrections 294 

Education Notes/ Steve Blyn 43 

Square facts about areas and perimeters in Hi-Res 
Education Overview//)/-. Michael Plog 129 

CoCo in the non-traditional education setting 
GameMaster's Apprentice/ Bob Alhrecht 115 

A lesson on RND numbers 
Greetings From Uncle Bert/ Dale Peterson 202 

Frost on the CoCo 

Letters To Rainbow/ Our Readers 6 

The Pipeline/ Staff 152 

PRINT #-1,1 Lawrence C. Falk 14 

Editor's Notes 

RAINBOW Info 293 

Rainbow Scoreboard 146 

Received And Certified 218 

Reviewing Reviews 220 

School Is In The Heart Of A Child/ Fran Saito. Boh Albrecht 162 

Mining more of Rainbow gold 

Submitting Material To Rainbow 66 

Subscription Information 160 

These Fine Stores 318 

Turn Of The Screw/ Tony DiStefano 149 

Building a 12-volt power supply for your CoCo 2 
Using Graphics/ Don Inman 210 

Developing your own gambling game 
Dennis Lewandowski, Bill Nolan and Frank Hogg will return next month. 



RAINBOWTECH 

Downloads/ Dan Downard 296 

Answers to your technical questions 
Design And Development Of 
Application Software — Part 11/ Paul Searby 298 

Delving into theory 

KISSable OS-9/Dale L. Puckett 306 

Some technical potpourri 



PRODUCT REVIEWS 



Product Review Contents 217 




April 1984 



Vol. Ill No. 9 



NtXT MONTH: Our Mas issue will Icalurc primer, anil primer capabilities, lot Instance, well h»c a lulnnal on dot graphic 
prinlinp.il very hands mailing label program, u poslCatd priming program lor your home or husincss.and a lesson on Spring cleaning 
your primer heads. And. speaking ol Spring cleaning, siell esen hasc the perleel garage sale program lor sou! 

Ml) "ill have the usual abundance ol ihc bc.l games, ulrlines. home helpers and cducalional programs, plus some Ihree dozen 
software and hardware rcsicws more inlormalion on tout Color Computer Ihan is available anywhere else! 



Edllor and Publisher 
Lawrence C. Falk 

Managing Editor James E. Reed 
Senior Editor Courtney Noe 
Technical Editor Dan Downard 
Copy Editor Susan Remint 
Submissions Editor Jutta Kapfhammer 
Editorial Assistants Valarie Edwards, 

Wendy Falk, Suzanne Kurowsky, 

Lynn Miller, Shirley Morgan. 

Noreen Morrison, Kevin Nickols 
Technical Assistant Ed Ellers 

Contributing Editors Bob Albrecht. Steve Blyn, 
Tony DiStefano. Frank Hogg. Don Inman. Joseph 
Kolar, Dennis Lewandowski, Tom Nelson, Bill 
Nolan, Dale Peterson, Michael Plog, Dale Puckett, 
Fran Saito, Paul Searby, Fred Scerbo, Richard 
White 

Art Director Sally Nichols 

Assistant Art Director Jerry McKiernan 

Designers Peggy Henry. Neal C. Lauron 

Advertising Manager Charlotte Ford 
Advertising Assistant Lynda Wilson 
(502) 228-4492 

General Manager Patricia H. Hirsch 
Assistant General Manager for Finance 

Donna Shuck 
Bookkeeper Diane Moore 
Bookkeeping Assistant Doris Taylor 
Dealer Sales Judy Quashnock 
Administrative Assistant to the Publisher 

Marianne Booth 

Director of Fulfillment Services Bonnie Shepard 
Customer Service Representative Sandy Apple 
Assistant Customer Service Representative 
Deidra Henry 

Rainbow On Tape Subscriptions 

Monica Wheat 
Research Assistants Laurie Falk, 

Wanda Perry. Loretta Varda, Kara Voit 
Dispatch Mark Herndon 
Production Assistant Melba Smith 

Advertising and Marketing Oltlce tor the weslern slater, 
and provinces: Cindy Shackleford, dlraclor, 121 10 Meridian 
South. Suite 8. P.O. Boa 73-578. Puyallup, WA 98373-0578. 
Phone (206) 848-7766 

Garland Associates. Inc.. is the advertising representative 
tor The RAINBOW In the eastern United States. Advertisers 
east of the Mississippi may contact them tor further informa- 
tion Garland Associates, Inc., P.O. Box 314. S.H.S.. Dux- 
bury. MA 02331, (617) 934-6464 or 934-6546. 

The RAINBOW is published every month of the year 
by FALSOFT. Inc.. 9529 U.S. Highway 42, P O Box 209. 
Prospect. KY, 40059 Phone (502) 228-4492. The RAIN- 
BOW and The RAINBOW logolypes are * Irademarksot 
FALSOFT, Inc 

Second class postage paid Prospect, KY and addi- 
tional oltices. USPS N 705-050 (ISSN No. 0746-4797). 
POSTMASTER: Send address changes to The RAIN- 
BOW. P.O. Box 209. Prospect, KY 40059. Forwarding 
Postage Guaranteed. Authorized as second class post- 
age paid from Hamilton. Ontario by Canada Post. 
Ottawa. Ontario, Canada 

Enure conlenis • by FALSOFT, Inc., 1984 The RAIN- 
BOW is intended tor the privale use and pleasure of Its 
subscribers and purchasers and reproduction by any 
means is prohibited Useof information herein is for the 
single end use of purchasers and any other use is 
expressly prohibited All programs herein are distrib- 
uted in an "as is" basis, without warranty of any kind 
whatsoever. 

TRS-80, Color basic, Extended Color basic, Scripsit 
and Program Pak are > trademarks of the Tandy Corp. 
CompuServe Is a • Irademark of CompuServe Inc. 

Subscriptions to The RAINBOW are S28 per year in 
the United Slates. Canadian and Mexican rates are U.S. 
S35 Surface mail lo other countries is U.S. S65. air mail 
U.S. SI00. All subscnpltons begin with next available 
issue. 

Limited back issues are available Please see notice 
lor issues which are in print and costs Payment 
accepled by VISA, MasterCard, American Express, 
Cash, Check or Money Order in U S currency only 



letters to 



RAINBOW 



ARTS AND LETTERS 




INFORMATION, PLEASE 

Editor: 

I know thai you have heard these words 
time and time again, but I really enjoy your 
magazine and look forward lo it every 
month. 

I mustered up the eourage to upgrade my 
I6K Extended CoCo to 64K. Some pro- 
grams seem to lose color and show black and 
white. Could this be caused by my upgrading 
the CoCo? 

W. Stokes 
Philadelphia. PA 

Editor's Note: Try adjusting the clock 
trimmer capacitor on your board. 



FRENCH CONNECTION 

Editor: 

Could you help me find French CoCo 
programs? If none are available, how could I 
obtain the right to translate and duplicate 
English written programs, so that thousands 
of French CoCo owners could enjoy them? 

A. Lefebvre 
St. Michel, Que. Canada 



DISK DIFFICULTY 

Editor: 

I have just bought drive and am having a 
bad time transferring my tapes to disk. Some 
ML programs just won't go at all (I have a 
tape to disk program) and even some of the 
BASIC programs will not run when put on the 
disk. Is there any chance you arc planning an 
article for new disk owners, or can you 
recommend a tape to disk program that 
really works? 

Denis Henderson 
Hunisville. Oni. Canada 



ASK AND YOU SHALL RECEIVE 

Editor: 

Do you have any back issue of the Rain- 
bow that has a program in it of a slot 
machine? I have I6K mem but would buy a 



64K if I could find a good slot machine 

game. 

Ray H. Merwin 
Ml. Vernon, IA 

Editors Note: Look no further Ray, 
and youll find just what you're look- 
ing for in this issue. 



HAM INFO 



Editor: 

In a recent issue of CompuServe's maga- 
zine Today, I read about Ham Networking 
with home computers and a receiver. Is there 
any information anyone has regarding these 
"Airwave BBS's"? 

Craig Stalnaker 
Glendale, CA 

Editor: 

This letter concerns a January 1984 article 
"A Bigger Byte For BASIC." In the article the 
author mentions saving ROM packs to disk 
using the 32K mode. I can't seem to gel it to 
read back from cassette. I am using CLOA DM 
"ROM". &HC000. &HDFFF. &HC000 to 
CSA VE. and CLOAD also to READ. Do 
you know how to save to disk using this 



program:' 



Jack Mesick 
Key Colony Beach, FL 



Editor's Note: You have to be in the 
64K mode before you can reload the 
ROM packs from cassette. 



CHILLY COCO 

Editor: 

I have a TRS-80 Color Computer, and I 
keep it in a room where a lot of people go by. 
1 am worried that one day someone will go 
by and I will find it on the floor. 

Well. I have a solution. But I don't know if 
it would work. The room the computer is in 
now is 68°-70°. I want to prepare a room in 
the basement, but the basement is some 20° 
below what it is up here. 

II I move it downstairs, would the sudden 
cold damage the computer or the hardware 
attached to the computer? Would the com- 
puter get accustomed to the cold? What 
should I do? 

Marc Labbe 
Biddefurd. ME 



Editor: 

I really enjoy your magazine. I'm particu- 
larly impressed with your "Letters to Rain- 
bow" section. So far you've answered every 
question that's been asked, but here's a hard 
one: I'm trying to write a security access 



system, and the only problem is the [BREAK] 
key. Do you have some way to override the 
key? 

James C. Hsu 
Ripon. Wl 



Editor's Note: See "Downloads" 
the March "84 Rainbow. 



in 



RUNNER'S REQUEST 

Editor: 

I am interested in obtaining some infor- 
mation, which I have not seen published in 
any computer magazine to date. 

I own a Radio Shack TRS-80 I6K CoCo 
which I will upgrade to 64K eventually. 

I would like to obtain some running- 
related software that is compatible with my 
system. For example. I'd like a daily running 
log. which keeps track of mileage, com- 
ments, etc.. with an ongoing file to cassette. 
Also a program thai will set up a training 
schedule, and again keep track of the results 
on an open file to cassette, and print results 
to a serial printer. 

I would greatly appreciate any info you 
could give me. or refer me to other sources. 
My address is: 714 15th Ave. SW. Apt. #17. 
T2R-0R6. Alberta. 

Chris Lisztes 
Calgary, Canada 



BULLETIN BOARD SYSTEMS 

Editor: 

Please put my BBS number in your maga- 
zine. It is on line Monday and Thursday 
from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. only, lis purpose is to 
get CoCo users to learn more on computer 
subjects and other subjects of common in- 
terest. The telephone number is: 1-716- 
283-8633. 

Ken Carpenter 
Niagara Falls, NY 
Editor: 

I would like to announce a 24-hour BBS in 
Port Arthur, Texas for the TRS-80. 300 
Baud. It features downloading, text files and 
general message base. The telephone number 
is: 1-409-983-2383. 

David Scott 
Port Arthur. TX 



AN UPTOWN SYSOP 

Editor: 

There's a new BBS for the CoCo (and 
others) in New Orleans. "Uptown Dave" is 
the SYSOP. and he and his staff invite vou 
to call. The number is 1-504-891-2262. 

David Durio 
New Orleans. LA 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



Editor: 

1 would like to take this opportunity to 
announce the operation of a bulletin board. 

The name of the BBS is "CAREERS"and 
is run out of Dallas, Texas. The supporting 
hardware includes a 64K CoCo with three 
disk drives and a 300 Baud Hayes Smart- 
modem. 

This BBS is run 24 hours and its theme is 
career enhancement through education and 
information. The number to call is 214-692- 
0513. The board is sponsored by Elkins Inst, 
in Dallas. Inc. and is run privately by me. 

It would be greatly appreciated if an 
announcement of this BBS could be made in 
an upcoming issue of Rainbow. 

John Novocilsk v. Jr. 
Dallas, TX 



AN INTERESTING SELLING POINT 

Editor: 

I am writing this in the hope that some of 
the manufacturers of soft- and hardware 
read this column to get a feel of consumer 
needs. Like many other CoCo owners. I 
have bought programs that came with key- 
board overlays. And like many other CoCo 
owners. 1 have changed my keyboard to a 
full stroke type. I bought the HJI.-S7. The 
lull stroke keys make it so much easier to 
type, but now I cannot use my overlays. 
Now, I just keep an overlay on standby for 
quick reference. Granted, it's no big deal, 
especially if you are familiar with the keys 
and functions; however, with more pro- 



grams coming out with the overlays, some 
new method for labeling keys could be 
handy, and for me would be a selling point 
that could persuade me to one product 
rather than another. 

Joey Chevere 
Waukegan. IL 



KLDOS 



Editor 

Kids on our block love war games includ- 
ing me. WarGame (Nov. 1983 issue) was 
nothing less than great. We would like to see 
a war game contest soon. 

T.C. Taulli 
Monrovia. CA 

Editor: 

In no other magazine have I found the 
satisfaction and pleasure I derive from the 
Rainbow. The programs are a pleasure to 
type into action and seldom do 1 have errors, 
but many times there are multitudes of 
enjoyment. 

M.L. Braun 
Bellevue, OH 



AN ENCORE FOR JOHN 

Editor: 

1 have read, with much interest, the var- 
ious well-deserved Kudos for John Fraysse. 
a fine programmer and gentleman of Virgi- 
nia. I. too. look forward to more of his pro- 



grams. Your readers should know that Mr. 
Fraysse has programs on the market through 
Tom Mix and DSL. If they enjoyed Roach 
and Marathon, they would probably also 
like Air Traffic Controller, Space Shuttle. 
and Solo Pool, by Tom Mix and an educa- 
tional program. Speller, by DSL. If you 
want an excellent program, then get one or 
more of these to enjoy while John prepares 
his next submission. 

R.E. Jackson 
Knoxville. TN 



THANKFUL BEGINNER 

Editor: 

I enjoyed the Beginners Issue of Jan. "84. 1 
havea I6K CoCoand you helped me getting 
into the usage of my CoCo. Please give us 
more of the general information on how to 
get more out of our CoCo. 

Andrew D. Gloster 
Santa Maria, CA 



GAMES, GAMES, GAMES 

Editor: 

I would like some information on solving 
the chromasette adventures Blacard's Castle 
and Treasure Island. Specifically, I would 
like to know; In Blacard's Castle: where the 
sword is and how to get out/ into the castle; 
and in Treasure Island: where the treasure is 
and what to do to get off the oil rig. 

Rogers George IV 
Terrace, MN 



SAM' 



& 



FOR YOUNG CHItDWf 

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Mow Available Ton TR5-80 Color (!omputer- 
16K disk or cassette and TR5-80 Models 
I-32K disk or 16K cassette 



Mine fun educational games for children ages 2V2 to 6 



counterpoint software, inc. 

4005 West Sixty-Fifth Street 
Minneapolis. Minnesota 55435 



Please rush me Early Games for Young Children 



J Circle one: 

Model I Disk 

Model III Disk 

name 



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Color Computer Disk Model 
Color Computer Cassette 



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Phone Orders: 800-528-1223 
Minnesota: 612-926-7888 

Educators Endorse: "Early Games can help children 
learn new concepts, information and skills, and 
also introduces them to thejoys and benefits of 
home computers." 

Peter Clark, Faculty 

Institute of Child Development 

University of Minnesota 

Mo adult supervision required. The Picture Menu 
gives children control. They can: 



Address 



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City 



5tate 



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□ My check for S29 95 cs enclosed (Minnesota residents add 6% sales tax) 

□ Charge to VI5A □ Charge to Mastercard 



Acct. no 



Expiration Date 



\ 

\ 
1 



Match (lumbers 
Count Colorful 
Blocks 

• Add5tacksof 
Blocks 

• Subtract Stacks 
of Blocks 

Draw and 

Save 

Colorful 

Pictures 



• Match Letters 

■ Learn the Alphabet 

• 5pell their flames 

• Compare 5hapes 




April 1984 the RAINBOW 



POOH ON PLUGH 

Editor: 

My name is Harry Lee Perkins. HI and 
I'm 1 6 years old. I think your magazine is the 
best CoCo magazine there is. 

About a week ago 1 wrote a letter to 
Tandy Corporation in Fort Worth. Texas. 1 
asked them where the Mummy's Treasure 
Chest (in Pyramid by Radio Shack) was at in 
the Maze, today (Jan. 19) 1 received a phone 
call from Fort Worth. I was told how to get 
the Mummy's Treasure Chest. 1 was also 
informed that PLUGH does nothing on the 
Color Computer. PLUGH only works on 
the Model 3. Anyone wishing to know how 
to find the Mummy's Treasure Chest can 
write to 1450 Picadilly St. Also send a self- 
addressed stamped envelope (SASE). 

Harry L. Perkins. Ill 
Norfolk. VA 
Editor: 

Does anybody out there know how to get 
past the spiked pit or the Gargoyle in Raaka- 
tu! How many objects are there outside of 
the temple? Also, where can 1 find the poi- 
sonous candle? 

For those of you trying to find your way 
out of the ship in Beyond Tlie Cimeeon 
Moon — use the crosses on the floor as 
elevators. Green crosses allow you to go 
down, blue ones allow you to go up. On the 
level that you start out on. the cross goes 
both up and down. Also, the disks are used 
to open the locked doors. If anyone knows 
how to get past the trap door on the third 
level, please let me know. 

If anyone can help me with any of my 
questions please send the information to: 
RR2Box 137.57101 

Robert Lee 
Sioux Falls. SD 

Editor: 

On the game Marathon, the person who 
got the top score in the February "84 issue 
should look in the December '83 issue under 
"Corrections" on Page 334! 

David Dean 
West Mansfield. OH 
Editor: 

1 love Adventure games but I'm sure that 
they would be a lot more fun if I could 
sometimes figure one or two of them out. 
But of all of them 1 have now, I can't solve 
one of them. If anyone can help me on 
Pyramid. Bedlam. Calixto Island. Black 
Sanctum, or Sands of Egypt. I would appre- 
ciate it greatly. Please send the whole solu- 
tion if possible. My address is 7976 W. 1 14 
Terr.. 66210. 

Kvle Keller 
Overland Park. KS 



MODEM PAL 



THE MC-10 EXCHANGE 

Editor: 

As an owner of the MC-10. 1 am interested 
in contacting other users to exchange pro- 
grams, ideas, and applications. My address 
is 2915 Baseline Rd.. Apt. 220, 80303. 1 can 
also be reached at (303) 444-4437 after 2 p.m. 

Jim Robinson 
Boulder. CO 



HINTS AND TIPS 

Editor: 

Concerning the "Spell It Out" article in 
your January issue. Page 169, 1 had trouble 
assembling the program with my EDTASM+ 
and finally discovered that if, when assem- 
bling the program, you will use the "AO" 
(absolute origin) mode, it works okay. 1 have 
a I6K machine and 1 kept getting a "Bad 
Memory" Error. 

Thanks for a great magazine, keep up the 
good work. 

John Mc Million. Jr. 
Merryville. LA 

Editor: 

For readers that have Radio Shack's 
Graphic Pac. there is a small problem of 
drawing a circle in the EDIT mode. If you 
draw a circle for a logo or the like, you will 
end up with the radius line in the finished 
circle. This is not very useful if you are print- 
ing for a finished product. I found if you 
draw a circle and then draw a separate line 
over the radius line, and change the color to 
EX. (3). the background color. You now 
have a circle to use without unwanted lines. 

Michael Hoyt 
Apple Valley, CA 

Editor: 

In response to Paul Wylic's question in the 
January '84 issue of Rainbow regarding the 
appropriate poke (i.e.,XM IT RATE) for 96 
Baud to get his Olivetti Praxis 41 typewri- 
ter/ printer working, he should do the fol- 
lowing: First. POKE a XMIT rate of 570: 
this should give a Baud rate of about 96. 
Since his typewriter, printer probably oper- 
ates within a narrow range centered on 96 
Baud, he should then reduce the value of the 
pokes in increments of one until the typewri- 
ter; printer no longer operates properly. Use 
the last lowest poke value that allowed the 
typewriter; printer to operate properly. This 
poke value should allow the typewriter/ 
printer to operate at its highest Baud rate, 
hopefully slightly higher than 96 Baud (from 
my experience probably 98 Baud). Good 
luck. 

Clint Cox 
Cincinnati. OH 



Editor: 

I have a modem and would like to know if 
anyone in the Evansville, Ind.. area needs a 
"modem pal." You see, my modem and I are 
very lonely. 1 am a 14-year-old high school 
freshman. My number is 812-422-8565. 

Chuck Alvey 
Evansville. IN 



DRAGON CONVERSION 

Editor: 

A couple of days ago 1 bought a program 
made for the Dragon 32 and I thought that 
would run on my Color Computer. To my 
extreme disappointment, this program. El 
Diablero. hung up after showing the title 
and describing the location. 

Altera couple of sleepless nights of disas- 



sembling I found where the program got 
stuck and replaced the instruction (by com- 
paring Dragon's basic ROM with my CoCo's 
basic ROM). 

So, to make the Dragon 32 version of El 
Diablero run on Color Computer, do this 
after CLOADing: POKE &H27SC.&HA3 
and POKE &H278D.&H93. This changes 
the JSR SB5C9 instruction at S278B-S278D 
to a JSR SA393. After doing this, EXECute 
and the program will work correctly. 

If anyone has similar experiences in con- 
verting programs from the Dragon 32 to the 
Color Computer (or vice versa), would you 
please write to the Rainbow, or directly to 
me. My address is Eljaksentie 5A. 00370 
Helsinki, 37. 

Timo Talasmaa 
Helsinki, Finland 

Editor: 

Here is a tip you might want to pass on to 
your readers. In your June 1983 issue (Page 
247). Steve Good published a wonderful 
program called SPOOLER but I could not 
get it to work with my new disk drive (1.1 
Disk ROM). After awhile I realized that the 
new ROMs have a different location for 
both the IRQ vector and the Disk BASIC 
print routine (console out). The best way to 
get those new locations is to ask our best 
friend (CoCo itself)- So if you are not sure of 
those locations use the following commands; 
to get the IRQ vector use PRINT HEXS 
(PEEK(&H010D)):HEX$(PEEK(&H010E)). 
I got D8AF so I changed Steve Good's line 
480 to J M P SD8AF. For the /WATroutine 
1 used PRINT HEX$(PEEK(&H0I68)): 
HEX$(PEEK(&H0169)j. This time I got 
CCIC so I changed Steve Good's line 640 to 
J M P SCC I C. Having a 1 200 Baud printer 1 
also changed Steve's line 1 70 to LDA #S29 to 
avoid doing a POKE 150.41 each time I 
wanted to use the program. 

Jacques Labonte 
Quebec. Canada 



BOUQUETS AND BRICKBATS 

Editor: 

I would like to commend one of your 
advertisers. Custom Software Engineering. 
Inc.. of Cocoa Beach Florida. After reading 
the reviews on Disk Double Entry in the 
Rainbow. I purchased a copy. However. I 
found it to be unsuitable for my needs. True 
to their advertisement, they refunded the 
purchase price without hesitation. Perhaps 
if more software vendors would follow their 
lead, the problem of pirated software could 
be reduced. The purchaser of software should 
have the opportunity to see the program in 
operation before purchasing: but as most 
items are available only via mail order, it is 
difficult to see a demonstration prior to pur- 
chase. Again a big hurrah for Custom Soft- 
ware Engineering. 

Jack O. Hall. Jr. 
Bowling Green. KY 

Editor: 

I was highly impressed by a recent pur- 
chase of Spectrum Projects 64K chips. I'm 
the kind of person who usually fumbles the 
easiest of electronic projects, but not this 



8 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



Give up on Word Processors for 
Fosf Letter Writing & Moiling Labels 



Instead use the 



Reg. 



$59.95 



DATABASE/MAILER 2.0 

& 
LETTER WRITER 2.0 



for FAST single page letters or 
1 000' s of form letters and labels 




See excellent reviews in"Rainbow" magazine 1 2/83 and "Things to do 
with your Color Computer," in paperback by Dilithium Press. 



/^ 



plus 
shipping 

& 
handling 



SALE ENDS ! 
June 15, 1984 



NO WORD PROCESSING EXPERIENCE NECESSARY 






— CC-DBM2/LW2 USES — 



°/„ 



Accounts 
Insurance 
Proposals 
Bulk Mail 



Dental Recall 
Lost Card Reporting 
Change of Address 
Christmas Lists/Labels 



Churches 
Club Membership 
Realtor Listings 
Sales Records 









•*. 



- BIG SYSTEM FEATURES - 



• Active menus guide you to valid operations 

• 32K system allows 68 to 454 records per die 

• 1 6K system allows 1 3 to 95 records per file. 

• 4 - 1 fields. 5 - 27 field widths. 20 - 270 char/record 

• All user definable with default values - simple. 

• Memory sense adjusts files to system size. 

• FAST key index sort by any field you choose. 

• Adjusts for empty address lines * no gaps. 



• Up to 9 line labels with up to 500 copies each 

> Master two column printout with field names. 

• Master printout includes date, paging & filename 

► Selective printing by any field or field range. 

> Accepts alpha or numeric zip codes up to 9 digits, 
i Partial or whole item search by any chosen field. 

► Single screen 10 record display by any field. 

i Single key entry lor hard copy of screen data. 



• Fast single page letter writing with wordwrap 

• Embedded commands center, tab and line ship. 

• Full screen edit allows delete, insert 8, change 

• Headings and closings are tabbed, spaced and printed ■ all automatically. 

• No "Database Adventure" - over 40 page manual 

• Manual includes program operation llowcharts 

• No! needed, but included is user modification section 

• And many more features - too numerous to list 



We ship 1 st Class Mail within 24 hours 



When ordering please provide: 
NAME 
ADDRESS 
CITY/STATE 
ZIP CODE 
PHONE 
TAPE or DISK 
CREDIT CARD NO. 
EXP. DATE 

Master Card holders — 
include interbank no. 



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Call our 24 hour orderline 

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or 61 9-566-601 3, 9 — 5 p.m. PST weekdays 
or send check or money order to: 

EUS EMGJMEERJMG 

9528 Suite 35, Miramar Road 
San Diego, CA 921 26 

"Serving the Defense and Space Industry since 1979" 



Please include the following: 
$3 postage and handling 
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CA residents add 6% tax 
COD orders add $2 
Amdek disk add $2 

Dealer inquiries invited 

Personal checks - OK 
we won't make you wait. 



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ORDERING INFORMATION Phone your order for speedy delivery use your MasterCard or Visa. We also accept checks and money orders. ALL ORDERS: Please add $2.00 shipping and 
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time! The instructions were very clear and 
made the job so easy. Of course. I have to 
give credit to the newest Radio Shack "F" 
board which is very easy to work with, but I 
am most impressed with the service I received 
through Spectrum Projects. The chips arrived 
within a week of mail order purchase. If I 
decide to do any further hardware pur- 
chases. I definitely know where to go. 

David Damico 
Alexandria. LA 



THREE HOOTS FOR THE OWL 

Editor: 

Based on your November 1983 review, I 
purchased Label III from Owls Nest Soft- 
ware in Ooltcwah. Tenn. As a beginner with 
a CoCo and a Gemini-10 supported by a 
cassette. I found the program easy to use and 
very worthwhile. 

I could not, however, get the program to 
print in certain modes without dropping a 
letter. The program was not useful unless I 
could gel it to work. I called Norman Shel- 
ton. the software writer and owner of Owls 
Nest. He expressed regret and offered to 
attempt to get it to work with my system. 
After Mr. Shelion prepared at least two 
updates, wrote two letters, and made three 
longdistance phone calls, the program works. 

I believe that people, who conduct busi- 
ness the way Norman Shclton did with me. 
need to be recognized. 

Apparently, my problem was that the 
printer buffer was not prepared to receive 
data after a return signal. Another label pro- 
gram, purchased from a different software 
company had a similar problem. In this case, 
however, the company offered no help. If 
anyone has a solution, write me at 5 Aspen 
Drive. 07930. 

Adding my name to many others. 1 find 
the Rainbow most helpful each month. 

Luther Bigbv 
Chester, NJ 



Editor: 

In going over my just-arrived February 
Rainbow. I noticed in tfae "Reviews" section 
a letter from J.G. Hardy of Md.. a note of 
appreciation for EVS Engineering, and their 
prompt response in providing their new CC- 
DBMI LW program. 

I had the same quick response in ordering 
it. and found it to be exactly as advertised, 
(and more, actually), but I ran into a prob- 
lem with it. The program kept dumping all 
my records when it reached a certain point. 
A letter to EVS explaining my problem 
brought unexpected results. 

Charlie Krautblatt called by phone and 
talked to me for about 20 minutes trying to 
find the problem. We didn't locate it. but he 
suggested some other things for me to try. I 
responded with a second letter, and he re- 
turned with another 30-minutc call, at which 
time we worked together on our respective 
computers. The problem still wasn't solved, 
until the next day I discovered I was making 
an error in the entry method (I'm not as 
perfect as I thought I was!) . . . and since 
then the program has worked perfectly! 



There was no fault in the program, but I 
was impressed with Charlie's interest in per- 
fecting a possibly faulty program, and the 
time and expense he invested to make me a 
happy customer. It's great knowing that 
somebody out there cares about their pro- 
duct! 

R.G. Miller 
Br a i nerd, MN 



If you would like to join our club and 
receive our newsletter, then please make 
checks payable to: Silicon Valley Color 
Computer Club. Thank you for your interest! 

Shawn Jipp 
Sunnyvale. CA 94088 



CLUBS 



Editor: 

There are a few changes to be made to our 
club listing in your magazine (Pcnn-.lerscy 
Color Computer Club). In your February 
'84 issue, our BBS number was misprinted. 
It should be (215) 253-1236, The gentleman 
at the incorrect phone number was very 
understanding. 

See you at RAlNBOWfesl in New Bruns- 
wick. 

Jerry Behler 
Allenlown. PA 

Editor: 

We would like to inform readers that a 
TRS-80 TDPIO0 Color Computer Club is 
now being formed in Salinas. Calif. We need 
more members very much. For further in- 
formation contact me at (408) 422-9475. 

Larry Livingston 
Salinas. CA 



Editor- 
Anyone in the Athens. Georgia area who 
is interested in visiting or joining a Color 
Computer Club there is a group that meets 
the first and third Tuesday at 7:30 p.m. in 
Room 38 1 of the Science Library at the Uni- 
versity of Georgia. If you need more infor- 
mation you can write to me at Route 2. Box 
165. or simply come to the meetings. 

Robert Hendrix 
Watkinsville. GA 



Editor: 

We are a growing, non-profit club which 
currently consists ofapproximately 125 mem- 
bers. We meet on the first Tuesday night of 
each month at Dysan Corporation (the ones 
that make diskettes) in Santa Clara, Cali- 
fornia. Meeting times are from 7:30-10 p.m. 
Santa Clara is located in the San Francisco 
Bay area next to San Jose. The purpose of 
our club is to promote information ex- 
change between Color Computer owners. 
Our members own computers which range 
from 4K to 16K. cassette to multi-disk. 
Some of our members are just learning how 
to progam in basic, while others are profi- 
cient in forth, pascal, and Assembly lan- 
guage. Our club has both book and software 
libraries (non-copyrighted software), that 
are available for local members to check out. 
We also publish a small newsletter that has 
CoCo pokes, rumors, hints, and articles. A 
list of current members' addresses and tele- 
phone numbers is included regularly. 

Club membership cost is as follows: A one 
time joining fee of $5 and a membership fee 
of either $12 yearly ... or $6 per each six 
month period. 



RAVING REVIEW 

Editor: 

Yes, this is another raving review for your 
super magazine. Of all the magazines avail- 
able for the CoCo. yours stands head and 
shoulders above the others. The quality of 
the material is far superior to the others. 
And. as others have already stated, this sub- 
scriber consumes it from cover to cover and 
eagerly anticipates the next issue. 

I hank you again for your excellent mag- 
azine. 

7.7'. Minger 
Joneshoro. GA 



HUCKLEBERRY COMPUTERIST 

Editor: 

I am looking for CoCo users in the Bergen 
Countyarea. My address is 553 Huckleberry 
Lane. 07417. 

Joel Makowsky 
Franklin Ijtkes, NJ 

Editor: 

I'd like to start or join a users group in the 
Stockton. San Joaquin Valley. Anyone in- 
terested can call me at (209) 951-3938 or 
write: P.O. Box 99024. 95209. 

Also, keep up the good work at the Rain- 
bow. It's a wealth of information for such a 
low price! 

Steven Paul Moreno 
Stockton. CA 

Editor: 

1 would like to hear from anyone in this 
area interested in forming a CoCo User's 
Group. Please call me at (203) 795-621 1 or 
write to me at 320 Old Silo Road. 06477. 

James J. Pino 
Orange. CT 

Editor: 

We are proud to announce the formation 
of The South Cook County Color Computer 
Club in Chicago. III. Our meetings include 
tutorials in basic OS-9 and machine lan- 
guage, product reviews, demonstrations of 
new hardware, etc. The meetings are held in 
Dalton Public Library once a month. For 
more information contact Tim Powers, (3 1 2) 
747-7062. 1633 Fifth Ave.. Chicago Heights. 
6041 I. President David Smith. 

Tim Powers 
Chicago. IL 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR are always 
welcome. Please keep them short if possible 
and we will try to answer some of the ques- 
tions in this column. Others may be left open 
for solutions by other users. In order to 
make space for as many letters as possible, 
we reserve the right to edit submissions. 

Letters can be sent to the RAINBOW, 
P.O. Box 209. Prospect. KY 40059. 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 13 



PRINT #-2, 




W: 



r hat a wonderful, enthusiastic, happy weekend! 
RAINBOWfest in Long Beach was a super success 
from all points — attendance was over 8,300. the 
seminars were just super, all exhibitors had a great time and 
— as a bonus - Bob Albrecht, our keynote speaker Satur- 
day, celebrated his birthday with us. 

It was a great outpouring of the CoCo Community! And 
people came from all over — San Francisco, the LA area. San 
Diego. Sacramento. Fresno. Washington State. Oregon. 
Nevada. Arizona. Utah and a number of CoCoists from 
Canada, too. Farthest south was a CoCo owner from the 
Republic of Panama: farthest east: two gentlemen from 
England. 

It was just a super, super weekend! And. we're gearing up 
now to do it again in New Brunswick. N.J. (and. later, in 
Chicago). To think: A year ago 1 could number the CoCo 
Community members I had met on the fingers of my hand. 
Now. I've had the good fortune to meet so many of you! And. 
1 can't wait to see so many more of you in New Brunswick. 
That's what I consider to be one of the nicest things about 
RAINBOWfest — the opportunity to meet people. 1 do hope 
that every one of you will take out just a moment from the exhibits, the seminars, our CoCo 
Community Breakfast and the rest to just say "hello." 

I hope you noticed the new feature that we started in last month's issue and that we are asking you to 
help us keep moving along. It is called "Rainbow Wishing Well" and is by Fred Scerbo. who. to my 
mind, is one of the most talented BASIC programmers to ever walk down the pike. That Fred has 
consented to handle this feature for us is a real plus for the Rainbow, and for you. too. 

Essentially, "Rainbow Wishing Well" is kind of like the old TV show that was called "You Asked 
For It." In that show, people wrote in asking the producers to show them certain things on TV and the 
producers went out and filmed — or dug up old films of — those things. 

"Rainbow Wishing Well" is going to be a lot like that. What we're asking you to do is to give Fred 
some ideas for programs that you would like to see. We'll sift through them and Fred will write them. 
And we'll print them in the Rainbow. 

I read a lot of computer magazines, but I have never seen a feature of this sort offered by anyone. 
Yes. I have seen columnists ask for ideas of "things you'd like to see." but never a feature completely 
devoted to your requests. 

Probably one of the reasons we have not seen one before is because very few people in this world are 
as talented as Fred Scerbo. I have been fortunate to have known and worked with Fred for more than a 
couple of years now. and I have enjoyed every minute of it. That he is willing to offer this "You Asked 
For It" feature in the Rainbow is a real plus for all of us. I am certain you will enjoy "Rainbow Wishing 
Well" and invite you to make suggestions to Fred. 

It seems like we are always up to somethingaround here, and the last month has been no exception. 
We just opened up a west coast advertising and marketing office in Puyallup, Wash., which is a suburb 
of Tacoma. You'll be able to find the address and telephone number of the new office on the masthead. 

Cindy Shaekleford heads the office, which will be responsible for our advertising sales and 
marketing activities in the western states and provinces. Please do not call or write the office for 
anything pertaining to subscriptions, as that will only delay your getting a response. But, if you are 
interested in advertising a program or other product you have written, and you live in the western U.S. 
or Canada, then please contact our new office. 

The office's responsibilities also involve dealer sales contacts, marketing of Rainbow Books and 
RAINBOWfest activities. So, if you are interested in any of these areas as well, please contact Cindy. 

And. while on the subject, advertisers and potential advertisers east of the Mississippi River are 
urged to use our advertising representative. Jack Garland of Garland Associates, in Duxbury. Mass. 
Jack handles only advertising — so dealers and those interested in RAINBOWfests should continue to 
call or write our main office. 

Why a west coast office and / or an advertising representative? For one thing, the job became just too 
massive for us to handle here. And. for another, while most contact must, of necessity, be by letter and 
telephone, we do try to make personal contacts as much as possible. While we're lucky to be situated in 
the middle part of the country, we do think it to our advantage to have people closer at hand who can 
call on advertisers personally whenever possible. (continued on Page 194) 



14 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



the Color Computer Word Processor 



3 display formats: 51/64/85 

columns x 24 lines 

True lower case characters 

User-friendly full-screen 

editor 

Right justification 

Easy hyphenation 

Drives any printer 

Embedded format and 
control codes 

Runs in 16K, 32K, or 64K 
Menu-driven disk and 
cassette I/O 

No hardware modifications 
required 



THE ORIGINAL 



Simply stated. Telewriter is the most powerful 
word processor you can buy for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. The original Telewriter has 
received rave reviews in every major Color 
Computer and TRS-80 magazine, as well as 
enthusiastic praise from thousands of satisfied 
owners. And rightly so. 
The standard Color Computer display of 32 
characters by 16 lines without lower case is 
simply inadequate for serious word processing. 
The checkerboard letters and tiny lines give you 
no feel for how your writing looks or reads. 
Telewriter gives the Color Computer a 51 
column by 24 line screen display with true 
lower case characters. So a Telewriter screen 
looks like a printed page, with a good chunk of 
text on screen at one time. In fact, more on 
screen text than you'd get with Apple II, Atari, 
Tl, Vic or TRS-80 Model III. 

On top of that, the sophisticated Telewriter 
full-screen editor is so simple to use, it makes 
writing fun. With single-letter mnemonic 
commands, and menu-driven I/O and 
formatting, Telewriter surpasses all others for 
user friendliness and pure power. 
Telewriter's chain printing feature means that 
the size of your text is never limited by the 
amount of memory you have, and Telewriter's 
advanced cassette handler gives you a powerful 
word processor without the major additional 
cost of a disk. 



. . .one of the best programs for the Color 
Computer I have seen... 

— Color Computer News, Jan. 1982 



TELEWRITER-64 



But now we've added more power to 
Telewriter. Not just bells and whistles, but 
major features that give you total control over 
your writing. We call this new supercharged 
version Telcwriter-64. For two reasons. 



64K COMPATIBLE 



Telewriter-64 runs fully in any Color Computer 
— 16K, 32K. or 64K, with or without Extended 
Basic, with disk or cassette or both. It 
automatically configures itself to take optimum 
advantage of all available memory. That means 
that when you upgrade your memory, the 
Telewriter-64 text buffer grows accordingly. In 
a 64K cassette based system, for example, you 
get about 40K of memory to store text. So you 
don't need disk or FLEX to put all your 64K 
to work immediately. 



64 COLUMNS (AND 85!) 



Besides the original 51 column screen, 
Telewriter-64 now gives you 2 additional high- 
density displays: 64 x 24 and 85 x 24!! Both 
high density modes provide all the standard 
Telewriter editing capabilities, and you can 
switch instantly to any of the 3 formats with a 
single control key command. 
The 5 1 x 24 display is clear and crisp on the 
screen. The two high density modes are more 
crowded and less easily readable, but they are 
perfect for showing you the exact layout of 
your printed page, all on the screen at one 
lime. Compare this with cumbersome 
"windows" that show you only fragments at a 
time and don't even allow editing. 



RIGHT JUSTIFICATION & 
HYPHENATION 



One outstanding advantage of the full-width 
screen display is that you can now set the 
screen width to match the width of your 
printed page, so that "what you see is what 
you get." This makes exact alignment of 
columns possible and it makes hyphenation 
simple. 

Since short lines are the reason for the large 
spaces often found in standard right justified 
text, and since hyphenation is the most 
effective way to eliminate short lines, 
Telewriter-64 can now promise you some of the 
best looking right justification you can get on 
the Color Computer. 



FEATURES & SPECIFICATIONS: 



Printing and formatting: Drives any printer 
(LPVII/VUI, DMP-100/200, Epson. Okidata, 
Centronics, NEC, C. Itoh, Smith-Corona. 
Terminct. etc). 

Embedded control codes give full dynamic access to 
intelligent printer features like: underlining, 
subscript, superscript, variable font and type size, dot- 
graphics, etc. 

Dynamic (embedded) formal controls for: top, 
bottom, and left margins; line length, lines per page, 
line spacing, new page, change page numbering, 
conditional new page, enable/disable justification. 
Menu-driven control of these parameters, as well as: 
pause at page bottom, page numbering, baud rate (so 
you can run your primer at top speed), and Epson 
font. "Typewriter" feature sends typed lines directly 
to your printer, and Direct mode sends control codes 
right from the keyboard. Special Epson driver 
simplifies use with MX-80. 

Supports single and multi-line headers and automatic 
centering. Print or save all or any section of the text 
buffer. Chain print any number of Tiles from cassette 
or disk. 



File and I/O Features: ASCII format (lies — 
create and edit BASIC. Assembly. Pascal, and C 
programs, Smart Terminal files (for uploading or 
downloading), even text files from other word 
processors. Compatible with spelling checkers (like 
Spell 'n Fix). 

Cassette verify command for sure saves. Cassette auto- 
retry means you type a load command only once no 
matter where you are in the tape. 
Read in, save, partial save, and append files with disk 
and/or cassette. For disk: print directory with free 
space to screen or printer, kill and rename files, set 
default drive. Easily customized to the number of 
drives in the system. 

Editing features: Fast, full-screen editor with 
wordwrap, block copy, block move, block delete, line 
delete, global search and replace (or delete), wild card 
search, fast auto-repeat cursor, fast scrolling, cursor 
up. down, right, left, begin line, end line, lop of text, 
bottom of text; page forward, page backward, align 
text, tabs, choice of buff or green background, 
complete error protection, line counter, word counter, 
space left, current file name, default drive in effect, 
set tine length on screen. 

Insert or delete text anywhere on the screen without 
changing "modes." This fast "free-form" editor 
provides maximum case of use. Everything you do 
appears immediately on the screen in front of you. 
Commands require only a single key or a single key 
plus CLEAR. 



...truly a state of the art word processor... 
outstanding in every respect. 

— The RAINBOW, Jan. 1982 



RAINBOW 

CtfttlftCATiON 

SEAL 



PROFESSIONAL 
WORD PROCESSING 



You can no longer afford to be without the 
power and efficiency word processing brings to 
everything you write. The TRS-80 Color 
Computer is the lowest priced micro with the 
capability for serious word processing. And 
only Telewriter-64 fully unleashes that 
capability. 

Telewriter-64 costs $49.95 on cassette, $59.95 
on disk, and comes complete with over 70 
pages of well-written documentation. (The step- 
by-step tutorial will have your writing with 
Telewriter-64 in a matter of minutes.) 
To order, send check or money order to: 

Cognitec 
704 Nob Street 
Del Mar, CA 92014 

Or check your local software store. If you have 
questions, or would like to order by Visa or 
Mastercard, call us at (619) 755-1258 
(weekdays, 8AM-4PM PST). Dealer inquiries 
invited. 

(Add S2 tor shipping. California™ add 6*» slate tax. Allow 2 
weeks Tor personal checks. Send self-addressed stamped 
envelope for Telewriter reviews from CCN. RAINBOW'. 
80-Miero. 80-U.S. Telewriter owners: send SASE or call for 
information on upgrading to Tclewriter-M. Telewriter- 
compatible spelling checker (Spell 'n Fix) and Smart Terminal 
program (Colorcom/E) also available. Call or write for more 
information.) 

Apple 11 is a trademark of Apple Computer. Inc.: Atari is a 
trademark of Atari, Inc.; TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy 
Corp; MX-80 is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 




CONNECTION 
SOFTWARE 

1060 Buddiu Dr.. Sandy. Ulan M070 (B01) 571-5023 
*■••••••••••••• 

MEGAMUNK *S? 

A fantastic new Hi-res strategic ar- 
cade game with animated movement! 
As a soldier/monkey of fortune, you 
have been commissioned by the king 
to save the forest from its enemies. 
Fulfill the assignment and be knighted 
a monkey of the round table. 

32k cas $21.95 32k disk $23.95 ^=^ 

COLOR DESIGNER WS 

The ultimate Hi-Res Graphics Pro- 
cessor 1 " Great for doodling, sketching, 
and most of all, creating entire graphics 
screens. Options include. 8 key cursor 
control with key repeat. Draw command 
that follows your cursor, FILL command 
that "PAINTS" the screen with more than 
1000 different color/texture combinations, 
and much much more! ' 

1 6/32K cas $26.95 disk $28.95. _^ 

r^ 
QUIZ ALL WW 

A versatile quiz program Has study and 
lest formats and allows printing of quiz. 
Even includes an option lor the computer 
to generate multiple choice answers ' 

cas $18.95 disk $20 95 

COMPU SCRIBE B.S.A. 

Need some help with scout records? 
Compu Scribe keeps tabs on the whole 
troop and creates printouts by scout, 
by rank, or alphabetically. Requires a 
printer with 132 character mode, 
availabe on disk only - $26.95 

OKI DUMP 

Eight bit screen dump from CoCo lo an 
Okidata printer without dot addressable 
graphics! Includes hints on printing pic- 
tures of game screens, etc ("The King" 
by Tom Mix, is the example) a steal at 

l6Kcas$8 95 16K disk $10.95 

Call or write tor our tret newsletter. 

'Juxii can luu mane 

you J^og-tixta. 
J3ack to Int Itttfboaxa 

fox iomt itxLoui 
CJ\tlaxatlon . 

All cassette orders include disk version on cassette 
with insiructions lo iransler lo disk Unless other- 
wise specified, programs require I6K extended tor 
cssseue or 32K extended lor disk Add S2.00 snipp 
ing and handling Utah residents add 5''.°.. sales 
lax Orders paid Dy personal check *liow 1-2 weeks. 
all others shipped within 48 hours No COD 

To order, call 24 hours a day or write 

COLOR CONNECTION SOFTWARE 

1060 Buddlea Drive, Sandy, Utah 84070 

For information: 

Call Weekdays between 6:30 pm and 10 pm MST 

. (801)571-5023 




Our Electronic Gambler Issue . . . 

A New Series on Women and the CoCo . . . 
Plus, 'Little E' and 'Icing on the Cake' . . . 

Though the moment is ever so fleeting, the eyes and ears of the world turn 
toward Louisville on the first Saturday in May each year for what has 
been called the most exciting two minutes in sports, the annual Run for 
the Roses, the Kentucky Derby. It's a magic time for Louisvillians; for many of 
us it's like the carnival has come to town. We call the crescendo of activity which 
builds throughout April "Derby Fever." 

Yes, Louisville is the home of the Kentucky Derby; it's always held at world- 
famed Churchill Downs. Yet, the cast of players is drawn from around the 
world, from the fancy high rollers in the plush "Millionaire's Row"section to the 
college-age Frisbie players in the track infield, they come from all over. And. 
when it's all over, when the fever has broken and a new thoroughbred champion 
wears the Derby crown, the carnival crowd moves on. the same cast of thousands 
never to assemble again. 

Oh, there'll be a new crowd next year and. at a glance, it'll seem much the same 
as last year's. There'll be a new crop of colts — and perhaps even a filly — to vie 
for horsedom's most coveted crown. And the home folks will have developed no 
immunity to Derby Fever; the excitement will reach epidemic proportions, for 
we cherish the tradition that surrounds the Kentucky Derby. In this hustle- 
bustle world, few things remain as unchanged as the Kentucky Derby. 

Though the old ways die hard in Kentucky, the forces of change are irrepressi- 
ble. On a balmy. 73-degree Sunday afternoon in mid-February, with the front 
doors propped open to let the promise of spring sweep through the office, we 
ruminated on the recollection that this very site where the Rainbow is now 
produced was just a short while ago Bluegrass pastureland. Where playful colts 
oncegottheir"first legs"awkwardly lopingalongat mother's side, where Derby 
hopefuls were born and raised, we now have one of the largest computer 
magazines in the world, the Rainbow. 

Building the Rainbow, in a way, is like hosting the Kentucky Derby. The 
Rainbow comes together here in Prospect, a few miles down the road from the 
Derby site, but it's the people from all over that provide the broad spectrum that 
is the Rainbow each month. This month we've assembled the CoCo communi- 
ty's gambling crowd: computer handicappers. system players, card counters and 
even a shifty-eyed blackjack dealer. 

As Senior Editor Courtney Noe puts it in one of his carefully crafted titles, 
welcome to.the "Casino CoCo." In addition to "A Day at the Races," we have 
games such as Roulette and the Wheel of Fortune. You can go for broke playing 
Craps against Mr. Big oryou can run yourown game witha Bingo program that 
even prints its own cards and markers. You can court Lady Luck with Home 
Slot Machine or you can create your own house odds with Paribet. which is not a 
game at all. but a serious parimutuel wagering program. 

As always, our favorite across-the-board combination is the field, our Rain- 
bow columnists, definitely an odds-on bet. but if you're playing a hunch, first 
check our reviews, including Harness/ Thoroughbred Handicapper. a serious 
bettor's survival plan, and Horse Race, a game that relies on plain old "horse 
sense." 

April's Rainbow is not all a gambler's gambol. Dr. Sam Sherrill introduces us 
to color computer based survey research. In "Little E." H. Allen Curtis creates 
an edit command for those without Extended BASIC. Susan Davis begins a 
special series on Women and the Color Computer while Eric W. Tilenius' 
Adventure writing tutorial series on "how to get more Adventure in every byte" 
ends with "The Icing on the Cake." Our Adventure contest deadline is May I. 

So. welcome to the Casino CoCo and. pssst. here's a hot tip: If you're still 
gambling on finding the Rainbow at your corner newsstand each month, we'd 
like to tout the advantages of a subscription, it's a sure thing to give you the 
winningest place in the show! _ jj m Reed 



16 



the RAINBOW April 1984 




(IncludH 



AMDISK YOUR 
COLOR COMPUTER 



Get 31 2 Kbytes' ot on-line, lormatted storage capacity for your Color Computer 
with the Amdisk-lll The Amdisk-lll is a disk drive system that combines the capacity 
and convertibility ot 5'/* " tloppies with the convenient size and ruggedness ol the 
state-of-the-art in technology — the 3 " microfloppy cartridge 

Join the move to maximize your Color Computer's power and "Amdisk" it Many 
software vendors have |oined, and will be providing software on Amdek's 3" cat 
tndge upon request. These software suppliers are. Cognitec, Computerware. Frank 
Hogg Laboratories; The MicroWorks: Tom Mix Software; Moreton Bay Software; 
Nelson Software Systems, Petrocci Freelance Associates, Prickly Pear Software. 
Saguaro Software; Skyline Marketing; The Software Station; Spectrum Protects. 
Star-Kits and Sugar Software. 

• An additional 31 2 Kbytes may be accessed by manually flipping the media over 
'-'Color Computer is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation 



Single Drive Version 
Available — s 379 00 



You can purchase the Amdisk-lll trom 
any of these fine dealers 
Computerware: (619) 436-35 1 2 
DATAMAN:(416)529 1319 
Delker Electronics: (615) 459 2636 
Emerald Computer: (800) 468 4606 
Saguaro Software: (602) 885-6508 
Skyline Marketing: (312) 286 0762 
The Software Station: (3 13) 532-2550 
Spectrum Projects: (212)44 1 2807 
or ask for the Amdisk-lll at your local 
computer dealer 






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CUBIX 

By Spectral Associates. Very 
much like the arcade smash! 
lump little Cubix around the 3D 
maze trying to change the color 
of all the squares. With Death 
Globes, Discs, Snakes, etc. 32K 
Tape: $24.95 



ZAKSUND 

From Elite Software comes this 
fantastic arcade style space 
action game with 3 different 
stages of moving 3-D graphics. 
You've never seen anything like 
this on your CoCo! Great sound 
too! 32K Tape: $24.95 





THE KING 

Previously called Donkey King', 
you simply cannot buy a more 
impressive game for your CoCo. 
With 4 different screens and 
loads of fun! From Tom Mix Soft- 
ware. 32K Tape: $25.95 



GHOST GOBBLER 

From Spectral Assoc. This 
"PAC" theme game has been 
improved several times. It is 
definitely the best of its type. Bril- 
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SUPER IOYSTICK MODULE 



Y $19.95 



IOYSTICK INTERFACE/RAPID FIRE/6 FT. EXTENDER ALL /N ONE! The 
Colorcade allows connection or any Atari type joystick to your CoCo 
(including the Wico Red Ball). These switch type slicks are extremely 
rugged and have a laster and more positive response. They will improve the 
play ol almost any action game. 

An adiuslable speed rapid tire circuit i> built in. Press your fire button and 
gel a K'eal burst ol lire instead of lust a single shot! You get a real advantage 
in shooting games that do not have repeat fire. 



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ROM/ PROJECT/ 
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Give a prolesiiontl look to your project 
or product! High quality 3 piece in|ection 
molded plastic with spring loaded door. 
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PC. board lor 27XX EPROMS. . . $4.00 Ea. 



COLORWARE 
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WITH SIX FREE 
PROGRAMS ON 
CASSETTE! 



The Colorware Light Pen plugs directly into your joystick port and 
comes with six fun & useful programs on cassette. Easy instruc- 
tions show how to use it with Basic and it's compatible with light 
pen software such as Computer Island's "Fun Pack.'' Order yours 
today. Only $19.95 complete. 



TELEWRITER-64 



mm in fittn tt-t *r?iv r r W x '■*_ 
tM4 cnir*t« in otftc Cclor to»vt«- «ww. 

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v^istiiilrJ ■*« tt«HK* *« tm R tor G? 
Cfllor cowtr or DKH* !'"««• *."■•"** 
a art WWH of wttiwi on*; *" r«llir tfnrid 
not bt .ttnouf thu *rtm. Itlwntr tmju 
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Color forutir cowatiMl rrlntv. 

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L 



J 



DISK $59.95 

CASSETTE... $49.95 



Colorware researched ihe word 
P'ocessors available tor ihe Color 
Computer. This is the best. Tele- 
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It works with any I6K, 32K or 64K 
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ORDERS ONI Y. N. Y. « INFO CAU 12121 647-2864 



'REAL TALKER 

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NEWfrom 

COLORWARE.. 
only... $59.95 

THINKING OF BUYING A 
COCO VOICE SYNTHESIZER? 

READ THIS.... 



/ 




Making your computer talk couldn't be any easier! 
'Real Talker' is a full featured, ready to use, HARDWARE 
voice synthesizer system in a cartridge pak. It uses the 
Votrax SC-01 phoneme synthesizer chip to produce a 
clear, crisp voice. 

FREE TEXT-TO-SPEECH 

Included free with 'Real Talker' is Colorware's 
remarkable Text-to-Speech program. This is a truly 
powerful machine language utility. What it does is 
automatically convert plain English to speech. And it has 
an unlimited vocabulary! For example, use it in the direct 
mode: Type in a sentence or a paragraph, even mix in 
numbers, dollar signs, etc., then press enter. The text is 
spoken. At the same time a phoneme string is generated 
which can be saved to cassette or disk, modified or used 
in a Basic program. 

We originally planned to sell this major piece of 
programming for about $40.00 but decided it was so 
useful that no 'Real Talker' user should be without it. 
Besides, it really shows off the capability of 'Real Talker'. 

Also included with 'Real Talker' is our unique Phoneme 
Editor program. It allows you to explore and create 
artificial speech at the phoneme level. Phenomes are the 
fundimental sounds or building blocks of word 
pronunciation. There are 64 different phenomes, as well 
as 4 inflection levels at your disposal. Creating and 
modifying speech at the phenome level is both fascinating 
and educational. The Phenome Editor may also be used to 
customize the pronunciation of speech produced by the 
Text-to-Speech program. 



You don't have to use any of our utility programs 
though. If you write your own Basic Programs, you will 
find the pocket sized Votrax Dictionary (included free) is 
all you need to make your own Basic programs talk. This 
dictionary gives you quick access to the phenome 
sequences used to create approximately 1 400 of the most 
used words in the English language. 

How about compatibility? 'Real Talker' is compatible 
with any 16K, 32K, 64K, Extended or non-extended Color 
Computer. It works with any cassette or disk based 
system, with or without the Radio Shack Multi-slot 
expander. No other synthesizer under $100 can make this 
claim. Most other CoCo voice synthesizers require an 
expensive Multi-slot expander in order to work with the 
disk system. 'Real Talker' requires only an inexpensive Y- 
adapter. This is an important consideration if you plan on 
adding a disk or have one already. 

'Real Talker' comes completely assembled, tested and 
ready to use. It is powered by the CoCo and talks through 
your T.V. speaker so there is nothing else to add. Price 
includes Text-to-Speech and other programs on cassette 
(may be transferred to disk), User Manual and Votrax 
Dictionary. ONLY $59.95 

'Y-BRANCHING CABLE' For disk systems. This 40-pin, 3 
connector cable allows 'Real Talker' to be used with any 
disk system $29.95 

YOU DECIDE.... 

Order yours today on our Toll-Free Order Line. If you are 
not delighted with your 'Real Talker' system, simply 
return it within 30 days for a prompt, courteous refund. 



[COLORWARE 



COLORWARE INC. 
78-03F Jamaica Ave. 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(212)647-2864 




* * • ORDERING INFORMATION * * * 



ADD S2.00 PtD ORDCk FOR SHIPPING & HANDLING. 
C.O.D. 'S. ADD $3.00 EXTRA. 
SHIPPING A HANDLING FOR CANADA IS S4.00 
Wt ACCEPT VISA. MASTER CARD. M.O. '$. CHICKS. 
N.Y. RESIDEN TS MUST ADD SAl FS TAX. 



STATISTICS 








Affordable survey data collection and analy- 
sis is possible for the small company with a 
Color Computer and the right software. 



With the proper software, a microcomputer makes 
modest-to-medium size survey research projects 
financially feasible for small organizations that 
could not otherwise afford this kind of research. Small 
companies could conduct their own market research among 
current and potential customers. Small governmental and 
private, non-profit social service agencies could evaluate 
their own policies and programs using data from surveys 
they conducted among their own clients. (Organizations can 
pool their limited resources to jointly conduct a survey of 
common interest.) 

Survey research is now financially feasible for these 
organizations because the software developed for the Color 
Computer drastically reduces the cost for gathering, storing, 
processing, and analyzing survey data. The use of the Color 
Computer to store, process, and analyze data is hardly 
novel; however, using it to collect data via sample surveys is 
new. We can call this "MASUR," Microcomputer-Assisted 
Survey Research (equivalent to CAT1, Computer-Assisted 
Telephone Interviewing). 

Understanding how the Color Computer can be used in 
survey research requires a basic understanding of how sur- 
veys are conducted. A typical survey consists of the follow- 
ing seven distinct though overlapping steps: 

1) identifying project objectives 

2) designing the sample 

3) writing the questionnaire 

4) conducting interviews 

5) data processing 

6) data analysis 

7) reporting project findings 

Steps 2 through 7 are bundled together and offered as a 
package by organizations specializing in survey research. 
Sponsors of surveys determine the objectives of the project, 
identify the population to be sampled, and approve the 



content of the questionnaire. They rarely write their own 
questionnaires, do their own interviewing, data processing, 
or write their own reports on study findings. Sponsors pay 
the research organizations — in most cases, substantial 
amounts — to carry out these steps. 

Interviewing, data processing, and data analysis together 
typically account for the largest share of the total project 
budget. Thus, when survey research is purchased as a pack- 
age, the sponsor participates least in those project steps that 
account for the bulk of the project cost. 

The Color Computer allows organizations to do their 
own interviewing and data processing. Interviewing can be 
done with a questionnaire written and run as a program. 
Data processing is done with separate programs that place 
the data from each interview into a single file and then prints 
the results on the screen and to a printer. Thus, small organi- 
zations that cannot otherwise afford survey projects can 
conduct their own in-house, selectively using the help of 
outside consultants to design the sample, write the ques- 
tionnaire, train interviewers, and analyze the data. In effect, 
the Color Computer "unbundles" survey research, allowing 
each organization to do as much or as little of a survey as 
they have the time, personnel, equipment, and interest to do. 
The more that organizations are willing to do in-house, the 
less they must pay others to do for them. 

Questionnaires 

Open-ended and closed-ended questions are used in sur- 
veys. The difference between these types is important in 



(Dr. Sherrill is on the faculty of the school of planning 
at the University of Cincinnati. He teaches courses in 
survey research, evaluation research, statistics and 
economics.) 



20 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



APRIL SUPER SPECIALS 

64K RAMS 49 95 

W/PURCHASE OF VIP PROGRAMS 44.95 

ALL EDUCATIONAL PIECES 
2S% OFF INCLUDING TOM MIX, PRICKLY PEAR & COMPUTER WARE 

GAMES ARE 20% OFF 



TOM MIX 

TAPE DISK 

ELECTRON 19.95*22.35 

KATAPILLAR II 19 95 NA 

BUZZARD BAIT 22.35- NA 

CU'BER 22.35-24.95 

DEVILS ASSAULT 22 35 NA 

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL 22.35* NA 

JOURNEY TO MT. DOOM NA 22.35* 

COMPUTERWARE 

JR'S REVENGE 23.15* NA 

BLOC HEAD 21.55 NA 

MOON HOPPER 19 95* NA 

TIME PATROL 21.55* NA 

DOODLEBUG 21.55 NA 

64K SCREEN EXPANDER 19.95 NA 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

LAN CER 19.95*23.15* 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN 19 95*23 15* 

GALAGON 19.95*23.15* 

FROGGIE 19.95*23.15* 

LUNAR ROVER PATROL 19.95*23.15* 

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COLORQUEST 

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DISCOUNTS TO 78% 

TOM MIX 
SCREEN PRINT OKI 15.95 



THESE SPECIAL PRICES 
Good Through 
April 15, 1984 



BUSINESS & UTILITIES 
PRICKLY PEAR 

TAPE DISK 

CLONE MASTER (For Disk) NA 29.95* 

OMNI TAPE CLONE (For Tapes). 23.95 NA 

VARALYZER 21 . 97 Nfl 

MAILING LIST 39.95- NA 

DISK ZAPPER 27.95* NA 

DISK MASTER 19.95* NA 

DISK. MANAGER 23.95* N A 

For AMDEK Disks add 5.00 
ELITE 

TAPE DISK 

ELITE'CALC 50.95 50.95 

ELITE'WORD-lncludes Mail Merge!! 47.95 47.95 

ELITE-FILE NA 64.95 

ALL THREE ELITE PROGRAMS 150.00 

0S-9 CONVERTER 20.95 

SOFTLAW CORP 

Vip Programs are Disk/Tape Combos Only 

DISK 

VIP WRITER 47.95 

VIP CALC. (available 2/28) 50.95 

VIP DATABASE 50.95 

VIP TERMINAL 42.45 

VIP SPELLER 33.95 

VIP DISK ZAP 33.95 

THE WHOLE LIBRARY (DISK) 250.00 

THE BUSINESS LIBRARY 184.95 
(Wriler, Calc, Database, Speller on DISK) 

RAINBOW CONNECTION SOFTWARE 
SUPER SCREEN MACHINE TAPE DISK 

(The Best Screen Utility around) 38.20 40.75 



For Complete COCO Support call: 



DAVID COFFMAN 




It UA U n UNNER computer products 



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AVAILABILITY AND PRICE SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE 

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Color Computer-based interviewing. A closed-ended ques- 
tion requires the respondent to simply pick an answer (usu- 
ally just one. and question design must provide for single 
choices) from a set of answers matched with the question. 
Answers can be as simple as "yes" or "no" or more involved 
as in the selection of a particular income range from a set of 
given income ranges that includes the respondent's own 
income. Numerical response codes are selected in advance 
for the answers to closed-ended questions; for example, " I '* 
could be used to represent "yes" and "5" to represent "no." 
Non-response codes must be available for respondents who 
cannot answer a question because they do not know the 
answer, who refuse to answer (not uncommon for questions 
on income), or those for whom the question is inappro- 
priate. The following codes are an example: 

(1) Yes 
(5) No 

(7) Don't Know(DK) 

(8) Refusal 

(9) Inappropriate 

By contrast, open-ended questions give each respondent 
the opportunity to answer in his or her own words; there are 
no preselected answers. For example, respondents might be 
asked to express their opinions on the quality of goods they 
purchased from a company or the quality of assistance they 
received from a social service agency. Since open-ended 
responses cannot be accurately predicted in advance, nu- 
merical codes cannot be selected to represent specific 
answers. 

With current software, interviewers will have to manually 
record answers with pencil and paper. Later, these responses 



SOFTWARE 

PRODUCTS FOR THE 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 



T.M. 



EDITTRON 

Full-Screen BASIC Program Editor 
SAVES YOU TIME! 



Let EDITTRON cut your programming time in half! 
You will appreciate the absolute ease at which this 
Full-Screen Editor allows you to INPUT, EDIT, and DEBUG 
your BASIC programs. EDITTRON performs these functions: 



CURSOR-CONTROL 

Directional Movement 
Screen Scrolling 
Home the Cursor 
Limit the Cursor 
Down Page 
Up Page 
Search a Line 
Call a Line 
Find a String 
Repeat Find 



SCREEN-EDITING 

Change Characters 
Extend a Line 
Kill a Line 
Insert Characters 
Delete Characters 
Move a Line 
Split a Line 
Copy a Line 
Merge Two Lines 
Auto-Numbering 



Other features include: Auto-Repeating keys, Key Tone, 
user-friendly Prompts and Error Messages, and 24 pages 
of comprehensive, easy-to-read Documentation. 



EDITTRON is a 3K, fully position-independent Machine 
Language program that requires a minimum 16K of RAM, 
and Extended Color BASIC. 

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can be examined and grouped by similar content. Once 
grouped, numerical codes can be selected and assigned to 
each group and the new codes entered where they belong in 
the survey data set. (Entry of text responses directly into the 
computer is certainly possible, but was not tried for the first 
survey.) A standard numerical code was entered for each 
open-ended question to advance the program to the next 
question (open-ended questions still require non-response 
codes). Replacing the code number used to advance the 
questionnaire program with the new codes requires a small 
editing program which was written (or it can be done with 
the ASCII option in Telewriter or other word processor). 

Numerical responses to open-ended questions (on age or 
family income, for example) can be entered directly, just as 
response codes are entered for closed-ended questions. 
However, tabulations of numerical responses must be 
grouped by intervals to make the results readable. The inter- 
viewing program can be made to select the group code 
number for questions requiring a numerical response. 

Interviewing 

Questionnaires filled out by respondents in a survey are 
self-administered. Interviewers can administer a question- 
naire either in person or by telephone. Personal interviewing 
is the most expensive of the three ways to administer a 
questionnaire and. for this reason, is not often used. The 
quality of the responses from self-administered question- 
naires tends to be very uneven; people will answer some 
questions, but not others, and will often answer questions 
out of sequence. In addition, self-administered question- 
naires are generally mailed to respondents. Only about one 
out of five typically return completed forms. The appeal of 
this method is that it is the cheapest of the three. 

Telephone interviewing is probably the most common 
way to administer a questionnaire. This method tends to 
produce responses about equal to the high quality of per- 
sonal interviews, but at a much lower cost per completed 
interview. Though more expensive than self-administered 
questionnaires, telephone interviews produce results of 
much higher and more even quality. 

The Color Computer can be used in either personal or 
telephone interviewing or to self-administer a questionnaire. 
The only realistic way to use the machine to self-administer a 
questionnaire is to set up interview ing stations in convenient 
locations so that respondents can enter their answers 
directly into the machine as each question appears on the 
screen. This might work at a gathering of respondents, such 
as a professional convention, but would not work when the 
respondents are geographically spread out. (Though the 
responses on questionnaires returned by mail could be 
entered and saved using an interviewing program, more 
efficient ways to record the data could be devised.) 

Radio Shack's Model 1 00 could be used in personal inter- 
views. Questions would appear one by one on the machine's 
liquid crystal display: the interviewer would then enter the 
respondent's answer in the form of a numerical code (e.g., 
" I " for "yes," "5" for "no"). After the interview is over, the 
interviewer could quickly save the data on a cassette and 
then move on to the next respondent. The data would 
remain in the machine until the end of the interviewing day. 
backed up by cassette copies. At the conclusion of each day's . 
work, the interviewer would send the data accumulated in 
the machine over the telephone (via the Model 100's built-in 
modem) to a central place where all interview data are being 
collected. Only a careful comparison of costs can establish 
whether the Model I00 is a more efficient choice than the 



22 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



-standard paper questionnaires ordinarily used in personal 
interviews. The Model 100. with a maximum memory of 
32 K. costs about $1,000 per machine, certainly far more 
than the cost per paper questionnaire. However, data writ- 
ten on a paper questionnaire must be converted to a 
computer-usable form, an expensive and time-consuming 
task inevitably containing human error that must be cor- 
rected. By contrast, since data recorded in the Model 100 arc 
in computer usable form, no conversion is needed and no 
human errors must be corrected. The savings in time and 
money might more than offset the leasing or purchase cost 
of these machines. 

The Color Computer and the Model 100 are used essen- 
tially the same way to conduct interviews. Once the res- 
pondent has been reached by telephone, the interviewer asks 
each question as it appears on the screen. The interviewer 
enters the appropriate codes as answers and the machine 
records this information in computer-usable form. The 
entire body of survey data is immediately available for analy- 
sis at the conclusion of interviews: no coding and keypunch- 
ing or direct entry of data from questionnaires is required. 
Survey projects take less time and less money and can be 
done by any organization having access to a Color Compu- 
ter, someone to write the questionnaire as a program, and 
someone to conduct the interviews. 

Data Processing 

Using the Color Computer with one disk drive, each 
respondent's answers can be saved on a diskette as a separate 
file. Each of the separate files will occupy one granule on the 
diskette as long as each file is not more than 2304 bytes long. 
Each diskette can hold a maximum of 68 completed inter- 
views. Storing this many interviews on one diskette is not 
prudent unless backup copies are made each time another 
completed interview is added. All the data would be lost if 
the diskette was damaged or lost, and the interviews would 
have to be conducted over. Given the low cost of diskettes 
and the expense of reconducting interviews, the more effi- 
cient procedure is to save only about a do/en interviews per 
diskette. At the end of the day's interviewing, a backup 
diskette copy and a hard copy can be made of the data 
collected that day. While the risk of data loss is not elimi- 
nated, no more than a do/en could be lost at once. The risk 
of loss due to directory crashes could be substantially 
reduced by using a program that copies the directory on 
another track (two have recently appeared in the Rainbow- 
one uses track 0. the other initializes and uses track 36). 

Each of the files saved on diskette consists of numbers 
generated by the basic language interviewing program. For 
data analysis, a program is needed that will read all of the 
separate files into a single file (the APPEND option in 
Telewriter will merge all these files). Another program is 
needed to edit these files to correct interviewer mistakes and 
to replace numerical codes that cause the interviewing pro- 
gram to advance from an open-ended question with the 
codes for the open-ended responses to that question (Tele- 
writer can be used here as well). For example, I's used to 
advance the program would have to be replaced with the 
numerical codes representing the various most frequent 
answers to the open-ended questions. 

A tabulation program is needed to generate frequency 
distributions for each or all of the questions asked in a 
survey. A friendly tabulation program should create distri- 
butions in both absolute numbers and in percentages (often 
called straightruns and marginals, respectively). It should 
allow the user to select response codes for tabulation (for 



example, the user should be able to eliminate non-response 
codes). And. it should allow the user to cross-tabulate the 
answers to one question by the answers to a second question 
(for example, to sec separately how men and women an- 
swered one or more questions). 

Writing a Questionnaire Program 

I recently completed a survey research project for the 
Comprehensive Sickle Cell Center at Children's Hospital 
Medical Center in Cincinnati. Ohio. Approximately 100 
people tested for sickle cell trait were interviewed by tele- 
phone using a questionnaire programmed to run on the 
Color Computer. Two interviewers were trained to adminis- 
ter the questionnaire and to operate Color Computers: both 
conducted interviews from their homes on machines I pro- 
vided. The following points about writing a questionnaire 
program and related examples are drawn from this study. 

Altera brief explanation of the purpose of the survey and 
a statement assuring the respondent that his or her answers 
will be kept completely confidential, the program should 
offer the option of beginning the interview, calling back 
another time, or recording a refusal to be interviewed. If the 
interview can be conducted, the interview number should be 
entered next. This number serves as the filename of the 
interview on the diskette. It is also stored as the first number 
of an array used to store all the numbers generated in each 
interview. A GOSUB statement is used in each question to 
send the program to a one-line subroutine that stores all 
numerical responses in the array. (At the end of the inter- 
view, this array is read to the diskette.) Care should be taken 
that the interview number is used only once, otherwise the 
second of two interviews using the same number will be read 



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April 1984 the RAINBOW 23 



over the first one on the diskette. 

Though the content varies, the form of the following 
question can be used I or closed-ended questions throughout 
a questionnaire program. 

230 CLS : PR1NT"Q.4 THINKING IN TERMS OF 
A PERSONS HEALTH. WOULD YOU SAY 
THAT HAVING SICKLE CELL TRAIT IS:" 

235 PRINT"( I ) A VERY SERIOUS HEALTH PROB- 
LEM" 

240 PRINT"(2) A SOMEWHATSERIOUS HEALTH 
PROBLEM" 

245 PRINT"(3) NOT A VERY SERIOUS HEALTH 
PROBLEM 

250 PRINT"(4) NOT A SERIOUS HEALTH PROB- 
LEM AT ALL" 

255 PR!NT"(7) DONT KNOW" 

260 PRINT'(X) REFUSAL TO ANSWER" 

265 PRINT@4l6."ENTERCODE HERE": INPUT A 

270 IF A=>! AND A=<4 THEN GOSUB 3850 
:GOTO3l0 

280 IF A=7 OR A=8 THEN GOSUB 3850 :GOTO310 

290 PRlNT@4l6."YOU HAVE USED AN ILLEGAL 
CODE FOR THIS QUESTION" 

300 PRINT"PLEASE RE-ENTER USING LEGAL 
CODE." : INPUT A :GOTO270 

310 (next question) 

3850 V(N)=A :N=N+I :RETURN 

Line 230 prints the question. Lines 235 through 260 print 
the response options and their respective codes: I through 4 
are the response codes and 7 and 8 are non-response codes. 
The program pauses at line 265 for the interviewer to enter 
the appropriate code. Lines 270 and 280 check for valid 
entries. I to 4. 7 and 8 and sends the program to line 3850 to 
insert valid entries into the array. If an illegal code is entered 
the program falls through to line 290 where an error message 
is given and the interviewer is prompted for a reentry. This 
substantially reduces a source of errors that are expensive to 
correct after the survey is over. As long as interviewers know 
to use only integer codes, not decimal codes, there should be 
no problem. To be foolproof, tne following line could be 
used instead: 

270 IF A=l OR A=2 OR A=3 OR A=4 THEN 3850 : 
GOTO 315 

An open-ended question would be written the same way. 
the only difference being the use of a single code number 
(such as "I"). in place of response codes, to advance the 
questionnaire. 

The other major task in writing a questionnaire program 
is handling skip patterns. In my Sickle Cell project, res- 
pondents were asked whether they had returned for counsel- 
ing after being tested for sickle cell and how they felt about 
the information they received from the counselors. Res- 
pondents' reactions to counseling is an important issue in 
this study. However, not all respondents returned for coun- 
seling. Questions concerning reactions are inappropriate for 
those who did not return and must be skipped in the inter- 
view. Skip patterns can be difficult to follow on paper 
questionnaires and are often the source of interviewer 
errors. However, skip patterns can be built in to the ques- 
tionnaire program, making the interviewers' job easier and 
eliminating skips as a source of error. The following ques- 
tions illustrate how skip patterns can be built into the ques- 



tionnaire program (the pattern is partially presented to save 
space): 

2975 CLS:PRINT"Q37/ DID YOU RETURN FOR 
COUNSELING AFTER YOU HADTHE SICKLE 
CELL TEST?" 

2980 PRINT'-(I) YES" 

2985 PRINT"(2) NOT SURE" 

2990 PRINT"(3) NO" 

2995 PRINT"(7) DONT KNOW" 

3000 PRINT"(8) REFUSAL" 

3005 PRINT@4I6."ENTER CODE HERE":: INPUT A 

3010 IF A=>l AND A=<3 THEN GOSUB 3850: 
GOTO 3030 

30 1 5 I F A=7 OR A=8 THEN GOSU B 3850:GOTO 3030 

3020 PRINT@4l6."YOU HAVE USED AN ILLEGAL 
CODE FOR THIS QUESTION" 

3025 PRINT"PLEASE RE-ENTER USING LEGAL 
CODE." INPUT A: GOTO 3010 

3030 IF A=l THEN A=9:GOSUB 3850:GOTO 3135 

3035 IF A=3THEN 3045 

3040 IF A=2 OR A=7 OR A=8 THEN FOR X=l TO 3 
:GOSUB3850:NEX"I :GOTO 3350 

3045 CLS:PRINT"Q38, WHY DID YOU NOT RE- 
TURN FOR COUNSELING?" 



3135 CLS:PR1NT"Q39 DO YOU FEEL COUNSEL- 
ING WAS" 
3140 PRINT"(1)VERY HELPFUL" 
3145 PR1NT"(2) SOMEWHAT HELPFUL" 
3150 PRINT"(3) NOT VERY HELPFUL" 
3155 PRINT"(4) NOT HELPFUL AT ALL" 
3160 PRINT"(7) DONT KNOW" 
3165 PRINT"(8) REFUSAL" 
3170 PR1NT@416."ENTER CODE HERE": INPUT A 



3850 V(N)=A :N=N+I :RETURN 

If the respondent answered "yes" to question 37 then line 
3030 inserts a "9"code( representing "inappropriate." mean- 
ing question 38 is inappropriate for those who did return for 
counseling) into the V array in line 3850. After the return 
from 3850. line 3030 then causes the program to skip ques- 
tion 38 and go to question 39. As a general rule, every 
question must be represented by either a response code, a 
non-response code, or a code indicating that the question 
was skipped because it was inappropriate. You can see more 
clearly now why a tabulation program should allow users to 
select response codes: non-response and inappropriate 
codes can be eliminated, leav ing only responses for analysis 
and interpretation. 

The ability to write a questionnaire program does not 
automatically carry with it the ability to compose a ques- 
tionnaire. Questionnaire construction is a separate endea- 
vor, still much of an art that requires experience to be well 
done. Those who have never composed a questionnaire 
before will certainly need experienced help (usually obtain- 
able from a nearby university). Help with sampling may also 
be needed (again, obtainable from a nearby university). 
With this assistance and CoCo. it is feasible for small organ- 
izations to collect their own data without spending large 
sums of money. ^ 



24 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 




PICK YOUR NUMBER . . . 
'ROUND AND 'ROUND IT GOES 



Roulette: going 'round 
with lady luck 









Gambling game simulations 
have been popular for a long 
_ time on computers. I can recall 
seeing a primitive blackjack game, on a 
computer at work, over 10 years ago. 
Browsing through the Rainbow, I have 
seen ads for several games of this type, 
which proves that they are still popular. 

A while back, I decided to write one 
of these games. My first effort was a slot 
machine game, which I sold to T & D 
Software. I enjoyed writing as well as 
playing the game, so I thought that I 
would write another. This time, how- 
ever, I wanted to write a game that was 
not available from any of the commer- 
cial software firms. I also wanted to 
take advantage of my recent 32K up- 
grade. 

Roulette is the result of that effort. It 
is easy to play, and it provides a break 
from the arcade shoot-'em-up type 






By Gerry Schechter 



(Gerry Schechter has over 10 years 
of data processing experience. He 
is currently employed at the New 
York Hospital, where his respon- 
sibilities include the installa- 
tion and maintenance of software 
in a large scale IBM mainframe 
environment.) 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 25 



^gffisg 




NEW BRUNSWICK 



The (un and excitement of RAINBOW- 
fest is coming your way . . . and now there 
will be a RAINBOWfest near you! 

For the 1983-84 season, we scheduled 
four RAINBOWfests in four parts of the 
country. If you missed the RAINBOWfests 
in Fort Worth on Oct. 14-16 and at Long 
Beach on Feb. 17-19, you still have time to 
make plans now to attend our New Bruns- 
wick and Chicago shows! Each one will 
offer fun, excitement, new products, sem- 
inars and information for your CoCo! And 
for those who (perish the thought) don't 

New Brunswick, New Jersey — 
March 30-April 1 

RAINBOWfest comes to the populous north- 
east! It's a close drive from New York, Bos- 
ton, Philadelphia, Washington, Baltimore 
and Long Island. 

RAINBOWfest-New Brunswick, N.J. 
DATES: March 30-April 1 
HOTEL: Hyatt Regency New Brunswick 
ROOMS: S59 per night single/double 
KEYNOTE: To Be Announced 

Advance Ticket Deadline: 

March 23. 1984 



like CoCo as much as you, we've sched- 
uled each RAINBOWfest in an area that 
will provide fun and enjoyment for the 
whole family. 

Both shows will be held at Hyatt Regency 
Hotels which offer special rates for RAIN- 
BOWfest. Every show will open at 7-10 
p.m. Friday, run 10 a.m. -6 p.m. Saturday 
and close with an 11 a.m. -4 p.m. session 
Sunday. Each will have a CoCo Commun- 
ity Breakfast featuring an outstanding na- 
tional speaker from the Color Computer 
World. And each exhibition will be inter- 
spaced with a number of seminar sessions 

Chicago — June 22-24 

Come to RAINBOWfest — the site of Co- 
Co's very first show this spring. And right 
next to the world's largest indoor shopping 
mall. 

RAINBOWfesl-Chicago 

DATES: June 22-24 

HOTEL: Hyatt Regency Woodfield 

ROOMS: $46 per night single/double 

KEYNOTE: To Be Announced 

Advance Ticket Deadline: 

June 18, 1984 



on all aspects of CoCo — from writing in 
machine language to making your basic 
work better. 

But most of all. there will be exhibitors 
Lots of them. All ready to demonstrate 
products of every kind. Some with special 
programs and hardware items to intro- 
duce. Others with show specials. 

Tickets can be secured directly from the 
Rainbow. We'll also send you a special 
reservation form so you can get your spe- 
cial room rate. 

Come to RAINBOWfest . . . help us all 
celebrate CoCo Community at its finest. 



Discount Air Fares 



UJJ 



UniTED 



United Airlines and fhe Rainbow have 
joined together to offer a special discount- 
ed fare to attendees of RAINBOWfest. New 
Brunswick. Simply by calling United at the 
toll free number listed below and identify- 
ing our meeting, with account number 
2425, you will be eligible for a special 
"super saver" fare. This could mean as 
much as a 50 percent discount off that reg- 
ular coach fare 

(800)521-4041 
Account Number 2425 



PWfes* 




FREE RAINBOW 

poster for 

first 500 tickets ordered. 

FREE T-shirt to first 5 people 

from each state who 

buy tickets. 

Make checks payable to: 
lha Rainbow 

MAIL TO: 
RAINBOWfest 
P.O. BOX 209 
Pro$pect. KY 40059 



D — New Brunswick 



YES, I'm coming to RAINBOWfest in 

Please send me: 

.three day tickets at $8 each total 

. one day tickets at $6 each total — 

(Specify day) 

. breakfast tickets at $1 1 each total — 

TOTAL ENCLOSED (U.S FUNDS ONLY. PLEASE) $ 

—Also send me a hotel reservation card for: 

D — New Brunswick D— Chicago 



D— Chicago. 



Handling Charge Si. 00 



NAME (please print) . 
STREET & NUMBER- 
CITY & STATE 

TELEPHONE 

COMPANY 



_ZIP CODE. 



Orders received less than two weeks prior to show opening will be held for you at the door. 
VISA, MasterCharge, American Express accepted. 

My Account * Ex. Date: 

Signature 



RAINBOWfest New Brunswick 

Seminar Program And Speakers 



Frank Hogg Advanced Operating Systems 

Frank is the president of Frank Hogg Laboratory 
and a forerunner in Flex and OS-9 systems. 

Steve Blyn New Trends In Education 

Steve, an award-winning Rainbow columnist and 
teacher, has written many educational programs 
for Computer Island. 

Susan Davis Women And Computers 

Susan, co-owner of Sugar Software, will lead a 
panel discussion on women's involvement in the 
world of the Color Computer. 

Gary Davis Peripherals — Printers, 

Disk Drives And Modems 

Co-owner of Sugar Software, Gary has been pro- 
gramming for 15 years and specializes in assem- 
bly language. 

Bob Rosen Bulletin Boards 

Bob, president of Spectrum Projects, has been 
running a successful CoCo mail-order business 
and a bulletin board system for two years. 

Dale Puckett Beginners Tour Of 

BASIC09/OS-9 

A free-lance writer and programmer, Dale has 
worked with microprocessors since 1976 and has 
just completed his first book, The Official basico9 
Tour Guide. 

Gordon Monnier Demonstration 

On Graphicom 

Gordon is the owner of MichTron (formerly Com- 
puter Shack) and has been publishing programs 
for Radio Shack computers for four years. 



Bruce M. Cook Bringing High Performance 

Software To The CoCo 

Bruce, an associate with Elite Software, is the 
author of Elite'Calc and Elite'File. 

Frank Thompson and Structured 

Dan Eastham Programming In pascal 

Frank and Dan, owners and developers of the 
Colour Software Workbench, will discuss soft- 
ware development tools and pascal language — 
its program structure and relationship in the 
school environment. 

Peter Stark Introduction To Machine 

Language Programming 
For The Beginner 

What Makes The CoCo Different 
From Other Computers 

Peter is a professor of electrical and computer 
engineering technology in the City University of 
New York and is president of Star-Kits Software 
Systems Corp. 



Richard R. Parry 



Speech Synthesis 



Richard is the founder and owner of Speech Sys- 
tems and is the designer of music and speech 
synthesizers. 

Fred Scerbo basic Programming 

And Coaches' Playbook 

Fred has published some of the first software 
available for the CoCo through his software firm, 
Illustrated Memory Banks. Particularly, he will be 
discussing The Coaches' Playbook program for 
"The Rainbook Wishing Well." See Page 82 
March 1984. 



PLUS . . . RAINBOWfest's "CoCo Community Breakfast" — Speaker to be announced 
COME TO RAINBOWfest NEW BRUNSWICK 



Additional seminars are planned as well. Admission to all seminars is at no charge. See registration form for 
admission prices to exhibit area and breakfast. 

COME TO RAINBOWfest 




games. While typing it in, you can elim- 
inate all of the comment lines without 
worrying about UL Errors when you 
run the program. The first time you run 
it, you will get an SN Error, unless you 
[ENTER] PCLEAR8 from the key- 
board. 

If you have any problems with this 
program, or any suggestions on im- 
proving it, please feel free to write to me 
at 75 Midland Terrace. Yonkers, N.Y.. 



10704. If you don't have the time to type 
it in. I will send you a free copy if you 
send me a tape containing a program 
you have written. 

Roulette is played as follows. A large 
wheel shaped like a dish, containing the 
numbers I through 36. and and 00, is 
spun. A small ball similar to a marble is 
spun in the opposite direction of the 
wheel. Each number has a small notch 



below it. into which the ball can come to 
rest. 

When you place your bets, you are 
betting that a particular number or 
group of numbers will come up on each 
spin of the wheel. 

Each number on the wheel is assigned 
its numerical equivalent of odd or even, 
and is also assigned a color which is 
either red or black. The and 00 are the 
exception to this rule, and give the 
house an edge in the odds. 

When placing your bets, you have 
many options. You can bet that a par- 
ticular number will come up (the highest 
payoff), or you can bet that the number 
will be odd. You could also bet the 
number will be in the range of 1-12. or 
that it will be in the upper column of 
numbers (by placing your bet in the 
upper right-hand corner). In addition, 
you can bet that the number will be red, 
or that it will be in the range of 1 9-36 (by 
placing your bet in the lower right-hand 
corner). 

There is no limit as to how many bets 
you can place on each spin of the wheel, 
and you can even place more than one 
chip on the same bet. One final word. 
When placing your bets, your chip must 
be exactly centered (both horizontally 
and vertically) within the area you wish 
your bet to be made. This is the only 
way the program can be sure of the bet 
you are trying to make. 



■^ 



170 111 1200 91 

380 87 1360 116 

530 130 1520 245 

700 218 1660 128 

880 75 1770 168 

1050 129 END 107 



L 



The listing: 

1 » »***************»#*** 

2 ' ROULETTE VERSION 1.5 

3 * (C) APRIL 1983 

4 » GERRY SCHECHTER 

5 ■ 75 MIDLAND TERRACE 

6 ' YONKERS, NY 10704 

7 * »###*#**#*****#**#*** 
10 GOTO 1840 

20 CLEAR200: PMODE3, 1 : C0L0R2, 1 
30 DIMB<49,3),BP<7,7>,N*<9):M-50 

O 

40 G0SUB650 : GOSUB 1 380 : G0SUB570 : S 



CREENlpO 

50 ■ MOVE CHIP 

60 X-128IY-180 

70 0ET<X-4,Y-4)-<X+4,Y+4>,BP:LIN 

E<X-4,Y-4>-<X+4 f Y+4>,PSET,BF 

80 PLAY H 2" : PUT (X-4, Y-4> - < X+4, Y+4 

),8P 

90 IFY-180THEN120 

100 IFPEEK(344)-247THENX-X+4 

110 IFPEEK(343)-247THENX-X-4 

1 20 I FPEEK ( 342 ) -247THENY-Y+4 

1 30 I FPEEK < 34 1 ) -247THENY-Y-4 

140 IFX<24THENX-24ELSEIFX>232THE 

NX-232 

150 IFY<32THENY«32ELSEIFY>14BAND 

YO180THENY-148 

160 ■ CHECK TO DROP CHIP 

170 1 FPEEK ( 339 ) = 1 9 1 THEN 1 90ELSE70 

180 * CHECK TO SPIN 

190 IFX-12BANDY-1B0THEN270 

200 ' CHECK PLACEMENT OF CHIP 

210 J0=0:F0RJ1=0T049 



28 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



220 IFB(J1,1)»X ANDB<J1,2>-Y THE 

NJ0-1 : B ( Jl , 3) -B ( Jl , 3) +1 : M-M-l 

230 NEXT:IFJ0=0THENS0UND50,3:60T 

070 

240 ' PUT DOWN CHIP 

250 LINE(X-4,Y-4)-(X+4,Y+4),PSET 

, BF : SOUND 1 00 , 2 : G0SUB570 : G0T060 

260 * SPIN WHEEL 

270 N=RND<38)-2 

280 ■ DRAW NUMBER 

290 D*« " " : S*-STR* < N ) : I FN— 1 THENS 

»= » 00 " ELSE I FN< 1 OTHENS*= " " +STR* C 

N) : IFN=0THEND*="BR4U8R8D8L8":G0T 

0320 

300 F0RZ=2T03:D««D*+N»(VAL(MID*( 
S*, Z, 1 ) ) ) +"BR4" : NEXT: I FN— 1THEN3 
20 

310 COLORPPOINT(B(N, l),B(N,2)+6) 

, 1:LINE(66, 174) -(90, 186),PSET,BF 

:C0L0R2,1 

320 DRAW " BM68 , 1 84 » " +D* : PLAY " 2 ; 2 1 

4;4;6|6" 

330 ' PAYOFF 

340 I FN— 1THENN-40 

350 IFB(N,3)>0THENM-M+36*B(N,3): 

G0SUBS70 : B < N , 3 ) =0 

360 IFN=40THEN500 

370 F0RX-37T039 

380 IFB(X,3)>0ANDB(X,2)=B(N,2)TH 

ENM=M+3*B < X , 3 ) : G0SUB570 : B < X , 3 ) -O 

390 NEXT 

400 I FN >OANDN< 1 3THEN I FB ( 4 1 , 3 ) >0T 

HENM=M+3*B (41,3): 80SUB570 : B ( 4 1 , 3 

)=0 

410 IFN>12ANDN<25THENIFB(42,3)>0 

THENM»M+3*B <42, 3) : G0SUB570: B (42, 

3)=0 

420 I FN >24ANDN< 37THEN I FB < 43 , 3 ) >0 

THENM=M+3*B (43, 3) : G0SUB570: B (43, 

3)=0 

430 I FN >OANDN< 1 9THEN I FB ( 44 , 3 ) >0T 

HENM=M+2*B (44,3): G0SUB570 : B ( 44 , 3 

)=0 

440 I FN > 1 8ANDN< 37THEN I FB ( 49 , 3 ) >0 

THENM=M+2*B (49, 3) : G0SUB570: B (49, 

3)=0 

450 IFN/2=INT(N/2)THENIFB(45,3)> 

0THENM=M+2*B (45, 3) : G0SUB570: B (45 

,3)=0 

460 IFN/2<>INT(N/2)THENIFB(48,3) 

>0THENM=M+2*B (48, 3) : G0SUB570: B (4 

8,3)=0 

470 IFPPOINT(B(N, 1 ) , B (N,2)+6) -4T 

HENIFB (46, 3) >0THENM=M+2*B (46, 3) : 

60SUB570: B (46, 3) =0 

480 IFPPOINT(B(N, 1 ) , B(N, 2) +6)=3T 

HEN I FB ( 47 , 3 ) >0THENM=M+2*B ( 47 , 3 ) : 

G0SUB570 : B ( 47 , 3 ) =0 

490 ' REMOVE LOSING BETS 



500 F0RZ-0T049: IFB ( Z , 3) -0THEN530 

510 IFZ>0ANDZ<37THENPAINT(B(Z,1) 

,B(Z,2)),PP0INT(B(Z,l),B(Z,2)+5) 

,1ELSEC0L0R1,1:LINE(B(Z,1)-3,B(Z 

,2)-3)-(B(Z,l)+4,B(Z,2)+3),PSET, 
BF:C0L0R2,1 

520 S0UND75,3:B(Z,3)-0 

530 NEXT 

540 I FPEEK ( 339 ) <> 1 9 1 THEN540 

550 PCOP Y5T0 1 : PCOP Y6T02 : PCOP Y7T0 

3: PC0PY8T04: G0SUB570: G0T060 

560 ' DRAW * 

570 D«=" " : S»-STR* ( INT (M) ) : IFLEN ( 

S« ) < 3THENS«= " O " +STR* ( I NT ( M ) ) 

580 FOR Z -2T0LEN ( S* ) : D*=DH +N* ( VAL 

(MID» (S*, Z, 1 ) ) ) +"BR4" : NEXT 

590 COLORl,l: LINE (152, 174) -(224, 

186) , PSET, BF: C0L0R2, 1 

600 IFM<0THENDRAW"BU6R4" 

610 DRAWBM172, 176;L12D4R12D4L12 

R4D2U12BR4D12" 

620 PLAY" 12; 1 1 | 10; 9; 8; 7" : DRAW'BM 

1 80 , 1 84 " +D* : RETURN 

630 ' DRAW TABLE 

640 * LINES 

650 PCLS:F0RY-16T0112STEP32:LINE 

(32, Y)- (240, Y), PSET: NEXT 

660 F0RX=32T0240STEP 1 6 : L I NE ( X , 1 6 

)-(X, 112), PSET: NEXT 

670 F0RX-32T0240STEP64: LINE ( X , 1 1 

2) - (X , 160) , PSET: NEXT 

680 LINE (32, 136)- (224,136), PSET: 

LINE (32, 160) - (224, 160) , PSET 

690 LINE(64,136)-(64,160),PSET:L 

INE(192, 136) -(192, 160) , PSET 

700 * O tt OO AREA 

710 DRAW"C2;BM32, 16; L8G24F24NR8G 

24F24R6" 

720 • BOXES 

730 F0RX=36T0212STEP16:LINE(X,24 
) - ( X+8, 40) , PSET, B: LINE ( X, 56) - ( X+ 

8,72),PSET,B:LINE(X,88)-(X+8, 104 
), PSET, B: NEXT 

740 F0RY-20T084STEP32 : L I NE ( 228 , Y 
) - (236, Y+24) , PSET, B: NEXT 



_5" 



dL 



COLOR CABLES 

RS-232 Printer Cables 10 ft $15.00 

3 ft Disk cables 
1 -drive S27.95 2-drives S35.O0 

3-dnves S40.95 4-drives S45.95 

Disk or Game Cartridge Ext.. 3 ft $27.95 

Gold Plated Disk l/F solder plug $1 1 .95 

Custom Cables upon request 
Extra length of any cables at SI OO/ft 

Add $1 .75 for shipping and handling 

Kansas residents add 3% tax 

C & C Engineering 

P.O. Box 8320 , .Wichita. Ks 67208 



^ 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 



29 



MASTER DESIGN 

rcj 1984 By Oerrineer Software. Inc. 



DOES MORE THAN JUST DRAW PICTURES 

IT'S A TEXT DESIGNER 

Master Desien has the ability to generate lettering In the graphics mode from 
sizes 2 to 32 and In a wide range or styles. Size 2 offers a 42 k 22 line format 
while size 32 creates letters that take up over half the screen. Lettering can be 
skinny, bold, textured, tall, drop shadow, raised shadow and in different 
thickness. There's nine different settings for thickness and nine different set- 
tings for creating open lettering. 

ITS A GRAPHICS EDITOR 

Take full advantage of hires commands Including CET. PUT. CIRCLE. PCOPV. 
PMOOE. LINE. BOX. BOX FILL. POINT and other special features available only 
with Master Design. Master Design utilizes a "two cursor" concept to allow 
Quick formatting of boxes, lines and special patterns such as dot patterns for 
shading and diagonal, vertical or horizontal lines for creative backgrounds. Vou 
can create designs and use the TEXT designer to label areas or place titles. Vou 
can also create mirror Images of the display. 

COMES WITH A SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE 

Master Design comes with a 7 bit and 8 bit version of a hires screen print 
routine so no matter what your printer is. we have it covered. Works in any 
pmode and can print normal or reversed images. 

DISK and CASSETTE I/O 

Save and load your creations to and from disk or cassette. Vou can even load 
hires displays created by other programs to make changes. 

INTERFACES WITH TELEWRITER-64 

Wouldn't it be nice if you could desien your own letter head in hires graphics 
and then print it out while using Telewrtter-64? Master Design offers iust that 
capability! The Letter Head Utility will let you convert any hires display so that 
it can be accessed while using Telewriter-64! The BASIC program modules are 
provided with step by step Instructions. These BASIC modules can also be used 
in your own BASIC programs for printing displays without having to use the 
graphic pages. Vou can have upto 88 pages of graphics linked together for 
printing! 



ABC 

'(ifypr^ 

XYZ 




THIS IS A 
SMALL EXAMPLE 
OF WHAT YOU 
GET FOR JUST: 




34,95 




DERRINGER 

SOFTWARE 

INC, 




Send Check or Money Order to: 

Oerrineer Software. Inc.. 

P. 0. Box S300 

Florence. S. C. 29502-2300 

Ulsa/MC customers can call: 1803) 665-5676 - 9:00 - 5:00 edt 

Requires 32K with at least one disk drive 
(Include S2.00 for shipping and handling) 

Telewrlter-64 fCJ 1983 by Coenitec 



750 F0RX=42T0170STEP64:LINE(X,12 

0)-(X+44, 128) , PSET, B: NEXT 

760 F0RX*36T0196STEP32:LINE(X,14 

4) - (X+24, 152) , P3ET, B: NEXT 

770 LINE (20, 28) -(28, 52), PSET, B:L 

INE (20, 76) - (28, 100) , PSET, B 

780 ' DOTS 

790 F0RX-64T0 1 92STEP64 : PSET ( X , 1 2 

4): NEXT 

800 ■ SLASHES 

810 LINE (36, 144) - (60, 152) , PSET: L 

INE (60, 144) - (36, 152) , PSET: LINE ( 1 

96, 152) - (220, 144) , PSET: LINE ( 196, 

144) -(220, 152), PSET 

820 F0RY-20T084STEP32 : L I NE ( 228 , Y 

)-(236,Y+24),PSET:LINE(236,Y)-(2 

28, Y+24) , PSET: NEXT 

830 ' RED 8c BLACK BETS 

840 PAINT (112, 148), 4, 2: PAINT (144 

,148), 3, 2 

850 ' E Se O 

860 DRAW " BMB2 , 1 46 J L4D2NR3D2R4BR9 

2R4U4L4D4" 

870 '1-12 

880 DRAW " BM56 , 1 22 ; D4BR 1 4U4BR6R4D 

2L4D2R4" 

890 * 13-24 

900 DRAW " BM 1 1 4 , 1 22 | D4BR6R4U2NL2U 

2L4BR 1 2R4D2L4D2R4BR8U2NU2NR2L3U2 

it 

910 ■ 25-36 

920 DRAW " BM 1 77 , 1 22 ; R4D2L4D2R4BR4 

R4U2L4U2R4BR7R4D2NL2D2L4BRBR4U2L 

4ND2U2" 

930 ' Se 00 

940 DRAW " BM22 , 86 \ D4R4U4L4 " : DRAW " 

BM22, 34; D4R4U4L4BDBD4R4U4L4" 

950 * PAINT BOXES 8c DRAW NUMBERS 

960 PAINT(40,96),4,2:DRAW"BM40, 1 

06; D4" 

970 PAINT (40, 64) , 3,2: DRAWBM38, 7 

4JR4D2L4D2R4" 

980 PAINT(40,32),4,2:DRAW"BM38,4 

2;R4D2NL2D2L4" 

990 PAINT (56, 96) ,3,2:DRAW"BM54, 1 

06| D2R4NU2NR2D2" 

1000 PAINT (56, 64) ,4,2: DRAWBM58, 

74;L4D2R4D2L4" 

1010 PAINT (56, 32) ,3,2: DRAWBM54, 

42;D4R4U2L4" 

1020 PAINT (72, 96) ,4, 2:DRAW"BM70, 

106;R4D4" 

1030 PAINT (72, 64) ,3, 2: DRAWBM70, 

74; R4D2L4NU2D2R4U2" 

1040 PAINT (72, 32) ,4, 2: DRAWBM74, 

44;L4U2R4D4" 

1050 PAINT (88, 96) , 3, 2: DRAWBM88, 

82; D4BD20L2D4R4U4L2" 

1060 PAINT (88, 64) , 3, 2:DRAW"BM88, 

50;D4BD20D4" 



30 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



1070 PAINT (88, 32) , 4, 2: DRAWBM88, 

18? D4BD20L2R4D2L4D2R4" 

1080 PAINT < 104, 96) , 3, 2: DRAWBMIO 

4, 82? D4BD20L2R4D2NL2D2L4" 

1090 PAINT < 104, 64) ,4, 2: DRAWBMIO 

4, 50; D4BD20BL2D2R4NU2NR2D2" 

1 100 PAINT < 104, 32) ,3, 2: DRAWBMIO 

4, 18;D4BD20R2L4D2R4D2L4" 

1 1 10 PAINT (120, 96) , 4, 2: DRAWBM12 

0, 825 D4BD20BL2D4R4U2L2" 

1 120 PAINT ( 120, 64) , 3, 2: DRAWBM12 

O, 505 D4BD20BL2R4D4" 

1 130 PAINT ( 120, 32) ,4, 2: DRAWBM12 

0, 185D4BD20L2D4R4U2NL4U2L2" 

1 140 PAINT ( 136, 96) , 4, 2: DRAWBM13 

6, 825 D4BD20L2D2R4ND2U2" 

1 150 PAINT ( 136, 64) , 3, 2: DRAWBM13 

4, 505 R4D2L4D2R4BD20L4D4R4U4" 

1 160 PAINT ( 136, 32) , 4, 2: DRAWBM13 

4, 185R4D2L4D2R4BD20BL2D4" 

1 170 PAINT ( 152, 96) ,3,2: DRAWBM15 

O, 825 R4D2L4D2R4BD20NL4D2L4D2R4" 

1 180 PAINT ( 152, 64) , 4, 2: DRAWBM15 

O, 505 R4D2L4D2R4BD20NL4D2NL2D2L4" 

1190 PAINT(152,32),3,2:DRAW"BM15 

0,185 R4D2L4D2R4BD20BL4D2R4NU2NR2 

D2" 

1200 PAINT(168,96),4,2:DRAW"BM16 
6, 825 R4D2L4D2R4BD20BL2R2L4D2R4D2 



UPLOAD $16.95 

This is the UPLOAD side of DLOAD and 
DLOADM in Extended Color Basic. Send a 
basic or machine program to another ECB 
Color Computer. Programs can be passed 
directly or by phone if both computers are 
hooked to modems.(not supplied). Uploaded 
program arrives at the receiving end ready to 
save, run, or execute. Patch to correct the 
flaw in DLOADM is supplied in public domain. 

INDEXER $14,95 

Program produces a sorted list of variables 
and line numbers used in your basic program. 
Following each variable or line number will 
be a listing of the numbers of the basic lines 
which contain the variable or line number. 
RUNning the basic program is not required. 
Bonus! Global search of basic program for a 
variable, a text string, or a basic keyword. 

Fast machine language 

16K/32K EXTENDED BASIC, Tape or RS Disk 

Add $2.00 for shipping and handling 



fl^§\ ML-US'R SOFTWARE 
1 15 RISING SUN, DeptR 
FORT MITCHELL, KY 41017 



RAINBOW 

centiKc*T(o«i 

SI At 



RAINBOW 

CCHTlMCAIlON 
SCAt 



L4" 

1210 PAINT (168, 64) , 3, 2: DRAWBM16 

6, 505 R4D2L4D2R4BD20BL4D4R4U2L4" 

1220 PAINT ( 168, 32) ,4, 2: DRAWBM16 

6, 185R4D2L4D2R4BD20NL4D4" 

1230 PAINT ( 184, 96) , 3, 2: DRAWBM18 

2, 825 R4D2L4D2R4BD20L4D4R4U2NL4U2 

•I 

1240 PAINT(184,64),3,2:DRAW"BM18 
2, 505 R4D2L4D2R4BD20L4D2R4NU2D2" 
1250 PAINT (184, 32) ,4,2: DRAWBM18 
2,185 R4D2NL2D2L4BD20D4R4U4L4 ■ 
1260 PAINT (200, 96) ,3,2: DRAWBM19 
8, 825 R4D2NL2D2L4BD20BR2D4" 
1270 PAINT(200,64),4,2:DRAW"BM19 
8, 505 R4D2NL2D2L4BD20R4D2L4D2R4" 
1280 PAINT(200,32),3,2:DRAW"BM19 
8,185 R4D2NL2D2L4BD20R4D2NL2D2L4" 
1290 PAINT (216, 96) ,4,2: DRAWBM21 
4, 825 R4D2NL2D2L4BD20D2R4NU2NR2D2 

II 

1300 PAINT (216, 64) ,3,2: DRAWBM21 
4, 505 R4D2NL2D2L4BD20NR4D2R4D2L4" 
1310 PAINT(216,32),4,2:DRAW"BM21 
4, 185R4D2NL2D2L4BD20D4R4U2L4" 
1320 ' BET BOX 

1330 LINE (108, 172) - ( 148, 188) , PSE 
T,B 

1 340 DRAW " BM 1 1 2 , 1 76 5 R8D8L8R2U4R6 



Data Communication 

is easy with 



AUTOCOMM 2.0 

FOR SWTP/FLEX-9 

AND 

AUTOCOMM 2.0C 

FOR RS COCO W/FLEX 



SEND / RECEIVE TO: 

OTHER FLEX SYSTEMS. 
OR RS COCO. IBM PC. 
CPM SYSTEMS, PDP11, 
VAX, UNIVAC. NCR, 
HONEYWELL, IBM 



FEATURES: 

• AUTODIAL WITH SMART MODEMS OR USE 

WITH INEXPENSIVE MODEMS OR DIRECT CONNECT 

• MENU DRIVEN - 25 COMMANDS u '™«". 

• TEXT TRANSFER MODES INCLUDE 

• AUTOMATIC XON/XOFF RECOGNITION 

' t#if; i ? UFyFULL DUP; CHARACTER VERIFY MODES 

• KEYBOARD MACRO MESSAGES 

• ADVANCED PRINTER CONTROL 

• DISK FILE SEND/RECEIVE 

• MAINFRAME EDITOR INTERFACE MODE 

• SPEED FROM 110 BAUD TO 19.2K 
[COLOR COMP MAX = 1200 BAUD 1 

• BINARY FILE TRANSFER WITH BLOCK CRC 

B£ANDED 21 PAGE MANUAL [SEPARATELY: $3 951 
VERSION 2.0 £75. VERSION 2.0C S55 SOURCE CODE AVAIL 



VISA 

MASTERCARD 

WELCOME 



-designjunre-* 



8-5 MON - FRI 
SAT TIL 2 PM 



|6712 E. PRESIDIO • SCOTTSDALE, AZ B5254 • 602/991-1657 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 31 



L6U4BR 1 8L8D4R4L4D4RBBRBUBL4RB " 

1 350 PCOPY 1 T05 : PC0PY2T06 : PC0PY3T 

07:PC0PY4T08 

1360 RETURN 

1370 ' SHOW TABLE 

1380 F0RX=lT05:S0UNDRND<2OO>,2:S 

creen1 , 1 : soundrnd ( 175) , 2: screen 1 

,o:next 

1390 ' initialize bet matrix 

1400 z=0:f0rx=40t0232step16:f0ry 

=96T032STEP-32 

1410 Z»Z+l:B(Z,l)=X:B(Z,2)=Y:NEX 

TY X 

1420 F0RZ=40T049:F0RX=1T02:READB 

(Z,X):NEXTX,Z 

1430 B(0, 1>»24:B(0,2)=88 

1440 F0RZ=0T049:B(Z,3)-0:NEXT 

1 450 F0RX-0T09: READN* < X ) : NEXT 

1460 » INSTRUCTIONS 

1470 CLSO : PR I NTS38, "WELCOME TO R 

OULETTE"; 

1480 PR I NTS 195, "DO YOU NEED INST 

RUCTIONS?"; 

1490 I*-IMKEY«: IFI*=""THENX=RND< 

T I MER ) : BOTO 1 490ELSE I F I *= " Y " THEN 1 

500ELSECLS: RETURN 

1500 CLSO: PRINT" IN THIS GAME OF 

CHANCE, YOU WILLBE BETTIN8 ON TH 

E 'BIG WHEEL' .." 

1510 PR I NT "EACH SPIN OF THE WHEE 

L WILL YIELD A NUMBER, WHICH 

CAN BE ODDOR EVEN, AND RED OR B 
LACK EXCEPTFOR ZERO AND DOUBLE Z 
ERO. " 

1520 PRINT"YOU WILL BE BETTING 
N THE OUTCOME OF EACH SPIN 
OF THE WHEEL. " 

1530 PRINT"YOU WILL BE GIVEN *50 
TO START OUT WITH. 
1540 PRINT"THIS GAME WILL ONLY A 
LLOW STRAIGHT BETS <E.G. N 
CORNER ORSPLIT BETS. " 
1550 G0SUB1740: CLSO: PRINT" 

PLACING YOUR BET — ":PRINT 
1560 PR I NT "USE THE ARROW KEYS TO 

MOVE THE FLASHING CHIP AROUND. 

■I 

1570 PRINT"THE CHIP WILL MOVE IN 
ALL DIRECTIONS DEPENDING 

ON WHICH ARROW KEYS ARE HELD D 

OWN. " 

1580 PRINT"WHEN THE CHIP IS EXAC 

TLY CENTERED ON THE BET Y 

OU WISH TO MAKE, PRESS THE CLEAR 
KEY. " 

1590 PR I NT "EACH CHIP IS WORTH *1 

.","YOU MAY PLACE MORE THAN ONE 

CHI PON ANY BET." 

1 600 GOSUB 1 740 : CLSO : PR I NTT AB ( 9 ) " 



— PAYOFFS — ":PRINT 

1610 PR I NT "STRAIGHT - 35 TO 1" 

, "ALL NUMBERS, & 00" 

1620 PR I NT "COLUMN - 2 TO 1" 

,"ANY 12 NUMBERS IN COLUMN" 

1630 PRINT"DOZEN - 2 TO 1" 

,"1-12, 13-24, 25-36" 

1640 PR I NT "RED /BLACK - 1 TO 1" 

, "COLOR SPUN EQUALS COLOR BET" 

1650 PR I NT "ODD /EVEN - 1 TO 1 " 

, "NUMBER CORRESPONDS TO BET" 

1660 PRINT"HALF - 1 TO 1" 

,"1-18 OR 19-36" 

1670 GOSUB 1 740 : CLSO : PR I NTT AB < 6 ) " 

— MISCELLANEOUS — ":PRINT 

1680 PR I NT "TO SPIN THE WHEEL, PR 

ESS THE CLEAR KEY WHILE IN TH 

E BET BOX." 

1690 PR I NT "THE NUMBER SPUN WILL 

APPEAR TO THE LEFT OF THE BET B 

OX." 

1700 PR I NT "AFTER EACH SPIN, YOUR 
MONEY WILLBE UPDATED, AND ALL L 
0SIN6 BETS WILL BE REMOVED FROM 
THE BOARD. " 

1710 PR I NT "TO START ANOTHER ROUN 
D, PRESS THE CLEAR KEY.": PRINT 

1720 PRINT"800D LUCK AND HAVE FU 
N. . . " 

1730 GOSUB 1740: RETURN 

1740 PRINTQ4B3, "HIT <ent«r> TO C 

ONTINUE. ."; 

1750 I «= I NKE Y« : I F I *<> " " THENCLS : R 

ETURN 

1 760 X=RND < T I MER ) : PR I NTS488 , " ENT 

ER " ; : GOSUB 1 830 : SOTO 1 740 

1770 DATA 24,40,64,124,128,124,1 

92, 124,48, 148,80, 148, 1 12, 148, 144 

, 148, 176, 148,208, 148 

1780 DATA U8R8D8L8R8,BR4UBD8BR4 

1790 DATA R8L8U4RBU4L8BR8BDB,R8U 

4L4R4U4LBBR8BD8 

1800 DATA BR4U8D4R4L8U4BR8BD8,R8 

U4L8U4R8BD8 

1810 DATA R8U4L8U4D8BR8,BR8U8L8R 

8D8 

1820 DATA U8R8D8L8U4R8D4 , BRBU8L8 

D4R8D4 

1830 F0RX=1T070: NEXT: RETURN 

1840 PCLEAR8 

1850 ' DRAW LOBO 

1 860 PM0DE3 , 5 : PCLS : C0L0R2 

1 870 DRAW " BM32 , 44 * U20R 1 6D 1 2L 1 6R8 

F8BR8U20R 1 6D20L 1 6BR24U20D20R 1 6U2 

0BR8D20R 1 6BR8R 1 6L 1 6U 1 ONR 1 2U 1 OR 1 6 

BR8R 1 6L8D20BR24U20L8R 1 6BR8R 1 6L 1 6 

D10NR12D10R16" 

1 880 PLAY " T32L320 1 V30 " : SCREEN 1 , 1 

: G0T020 



^ 



32 



(he RAINBOW April 1984 



CoCo HEADQUARTERS 

Looking to unlock the capacity of your Color Computer? 

Search no more 





FEATURING. . . . 

Discounted Hardware 
Accessories for your every need 
Qual ity software by MSI 



HARDWARE SPECIALS 



Extended Basic w/fck $ 39.95 

64c (DEI) Menory Upg § 59.95 

Amdek Disk Drives $ 499.95 

26-3029 CoCo Drive § 349.95 

26-3023 CoCo Drive 1 § 239.95 

HJL Keyboard (D,E,F) $ 79.95 

Super Pro Keybd. (D,E) $ 64.95 



26-3026e 16k Extended CoCo2 $ 189.95 

26-3026e64 64k Extended CoCo 2 $ 249.95 

26-1261 TP-10 Thermal Printer $ 89.95 

26-1192 CGP-115 Printer/Plotter $ 179.95 

C. Itoh Banana Serial 50 cps $ 249.95 

26-3024 RS Multi-Pac Interface $ 149.95 

Botek Ser/Par Interface $ 69.95 



ACCESSORIES 



RS D.C. Modem IB 
Novation J-Cat Modem 
RS D.C. Modem II 
Hayes SM 300 Modem 
CoCo Switcher 
Elephant Disks ssdd 



$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 
$ 



89.95 

129.95 

179.95 

239.95 

39.95 

22.95 



"Software 



MSI DISKUTIL 

Display or change 
data In any record. 
Maintain extra copy 
of disk directory 
for easy error 
recovery plus more. 

A must for every 
disk owner. 



26-3030 OS-9 (64k) ? 64.95 

Basic-09 (req. OS-9) $ 87.95 

PHL O-Pak (req. OS-9) $ 34.95 

Elite Word $ 59.95 

Elite Calc $ 59.95 

Color Term Plus $ 29.95 

SOFTWARE (Dealer inquiries invited) 
that works when you've finished playing games." 

COLOR FINANCE 1 COLOR FINANCE II MSI NAMEFILE HSI CALENDAR 



(disk) 

(disk) 

(disk) 

(d&c) 

(d&c) 

(cass) 



MS 



4 



Let your CoCo man- 
age your financial 
records. Handles 
multiple checking 
accounts, loans, 
expenses, budgets, 
etc. Print monthly 
and year to date 
reports. More... 



!5X % 19.95 



Gk% 



Same as COLOR 
FINANCE I plus 
checkwrlter, auto 
reconciliation and 
MSI CALENDAR. Per- 
fect for Home or 
Business. 

$ 69.95 



Maintain over 600 
name and addresses 
with direct access 
to each name. Up 
to 15 user defined 
fields. Print name 
list or labels. 



"£*«? $ 24.95 



Print or display 
any month for years 
1900-1999. Maintain 
special dates, ap- 
pointments, recurring 
payments and more... 

4 

S 19.95 



All MSI Software Requires 32k Disk/Extended Basic (Printer Recoomended for Finance Programs) 

TOLL **************************************************************** to 1 1 

FREE Cal1 f ° r prices and availability of your other favorite software rprr 
TCMMCCCCC A11 advertised items subject to availability FREE 

:NNE Prices do not include shipping & handling 1-800-251-5008 



1-800-545-2502 

All of the above units covered by our 120 
day carry in warranty. 

TRS-80 Trademark Tandy Corporation. 
Prices subject to change without notice. 

Write for our FREE newsletter! 



FACTORY DIRECT 

PURE RADIO SHACK EQUIPMENT 

'THE COCO PROFESSIONALS" 





ffl--..vv>;^ 


.... 0..- 



DELKER ELECTRONICS, INC. 
P.O. BOX 897 DEPT D 
SMYRNA, TN 37167 
800-251-5008 



800-545-2502 
615-459-2636 

615-254-0088 



[TENNESSEE 
TENNESSEE 
NASHVILLE 



. 



TUTORIAL 



16K 



f 



msG' 



TL 



3 



Writing Adventure Programs, Part III 



The Icing On The Cake 



By Eric W. Tilenius 




In this last of my three articles on 
Adventure programming techniques, 
1 will show you how you can make 
your Adventure program very profes- 
sional looking — perhaps even good 
enough to be sold by a big software 
house! 

Imagine that you are a judge of the 
prestigous Rainbow Adventure Contest 
and on your desk is a pile of close to a 



(Eric W. Tilenius is a sophomore 
at Walt Whitman High School in 
Huntington. Long Island. New 
York, and has been programming 
and working with computers for 
several years. He is currently serv- 
ing as an advisor and consultant 
to people new to the computer 
field. During his freshman year. 
Eric was editor of The Stimson 
Stylus, a school newspaper.) 



thousand entries. (Actually you wouldn't 
have them piled all on your desk at once 
unless you were some kind of nut, but 
just suppose for now that they are all 
there.) You have wearily plodded through 
about 300 of the entries already and you 
look tiredly at the stack of 700 Adven- 
tures sitting in your "IN" box. 

So far, the Adventures you have tried 
have just been of the same old boring 
type. You wearily reach for another 
(hoping your pile doesn't crash to the 
floor in the meantime) and stuff it into 
your tape recorder. The program loads 
and you type RUN the same way you 
have for the last 300 boring times — 
only this time there is a difference. The 
Adventure you are playing is enjoyable 
. . .professional. . .fun. . .and it even 
has a game save feature (so you can go 
out for pizza without worrying about 
someone shutting your computer off)- 
This program has made your day! You 
mark it "possible winner" and hand it 
over to another judge for evaluation. 



34 the RAINBOW April 1984 



CASHMAN 

By Doug Frayer and Bill Dunlevy 



The screen is exploding with colorful, fast moving animation like you've 
never seen. The speaker is alive with every kind of sound imaginable! 
Best of all. the player's eyes are glowing with fascination and wonder of 
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less! a 



Dozens of levels and screens (more 
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V — ■■■■ ^ 



Play by yourself or invite the ulti- 
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Y//////////A 




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CASHMAN's classical play is so original and so much fun that no arcader 
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MUDPIES 



rnrnmat tp 'n?^' 15 £ n °' a COpv ? an arcade game! Mudpies shows you ,hat excellent 9 ames are P oss| b'e on the 

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A reviewer in Hot CoCo who plays a 
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1 le-'rl l_ . rqbm i % . 3 





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Invited 




This article will show you how you 
can create the kind of professional Ad- 
venture described above. We will explore 
how to make a game save feature, create 
creatures that will appear at unan- 
nounced moments to help make the 
Adventurer's life one of danger, ran- 
domize the position of objects, create 
mazes, and get more Adventure in every 
byte. To top it off, I'll also present a 
subroutine that will end your woes of 
having words split when the printing 
runs off the edge of the screen, as well as 
some good tips for a winning Adven- 
ture. So read on. and discover how to 
make your Adventure a real winner'. 

Save The Game 

One of the most important extras you 
can put in your Adventure is a game 
save feature that allows the player to 
save his current position to tape or disk. 
Surprisingly, however, only about half 
of the people who write Adventures 
include this feature in their games. Add- 
ing a game save feature greatly enhances 
your Adventure, since the player won't 
have to start at the beginning of the 
Adventure every time he wants to take a 
coffee break. 

Allowing the player to save his posi- 
tion is not all that difficult a task. All it 
requires is PRINTing to tape or disk the 
variables which change during the Adven- 
ture. These include the current room the 
Adventurer is in, the locations of the 
various objects, and the status of obsta- 
cles. If you remember, in February's 
Rainbow we used the variable L to 
represent the current location of the 
player: O(C) to stand for the room that 
object number C is in; DOOR to stand 
for the current status of a door; and 
ALTAR to represent the status of an 
altar. If the player types the word 
"SAVE," we will now send the compu- 
ter to a subroutine that will save these 
variables on tape. If we have line 1 100 
INPUT" WHAT NOW";A$ we can 
send the computer to the subroutine for 
saving a game by adding line 1 102 IF 
LEFT$(A$,2)="SA" THEN GOSUB 
20000. The following subroutine will 
take care of the saving. 

20000 ' GAME SAVE SUBROU- 
TINE 

20010 lNPUT"TAPEORDISK";DS 
20020 DI$=LEFT$(D$,2) 
20030 IF D1$="TA" THEN D=-l 
ELSE IF D1$="D1" THEN D=l 
ELSE 20010 

20040 INPUT"FILENAME";F$ 
20050 OPEN"0",D,F$ 
20060 FOR C=l TO Y:REM -RE- 
PLACE Y WITH THE NUMBER 



OF OBJECTS IN YOUR ADVEN- 
TURE 

20070 PRINT ffD.O(C):NEXTC 
20080 PRINT #D,DOOR,ALTAR 
20090 CLOSE #D:PRINT"FILE 
"F$" IS SAVED" 
20100 RETURN 

If the player said he wanted to save to 
disk, the variable D, which is the device 
to which the information is to be printed 
(- 1 for cassette or 1 for disk), would be 
I. If he chose to save the game to 
cassette, D would be -I. Line 20050 
then OPENs the specified device for 
output (as seen by the "O" which stands 
for Output) and assigns it whatever file- 
name the player told it to in line 20040. 
The subroutine then proceeds to PRINT 
to that device the current rooms each 
object is in (accomplished by lines 20060- 
20070). Line 20080 then prints the vari- 
ables representing the status of various 
obstacles — such as whether a door is 
closed or open. You can easily add to 
this line or change it to meet your needs. 
For example, if you have three obstacles 



The Same Old Game 

The Adventure should ask the player 
at the beginning whether he or she 
would like to play a previously saved 
game or not. If the player does, the pro- 
gram asks him for the filename and 
whether it is on tape or disk. It then 
proceeds to load in the old game. It is 
important, however, that this be done 
after the program has read in its DA TA. 
I'll say more on this in a minute. 

Here is a subroutine that will load 
back in the game which was saved with 
the game save subroutine above. When 
using it in your programs, make any 
changes in variable names so that you 
INPUT the same variables you OUT- 
PUT \x\ the same order; i.e., if you have 
the game save subroutine PR/NTto the 
disk the variables 01, 02, 03 in that 
order, make sure that in the subroutine 
listed below you INPUT them in the 
same order. 

29999 ' LOAD OLD GAME ROU- 
TINE 

30000 INPUT'TAPE OR DISK";D$ 



"What's an Adventure without spooky monsters, 
creepy aliens, or some other sort of creature that 
lurks behind every door with the sole purpose of 
making the Adventurer's life a dangerous one!" 



represented by the variables 01, 02, and 
03, you would replace line 20080 with 
20080 PRINT #D,01,02,03. Line 20090 
CLOSEs the file and PRINTs that the 
file is saved. Line 20 100 then RETURNS 
to the main program. Note: if you just 
have Color BASIC, you may need to 
change line 20050 to: 20050 OPEN 
"0",#D,F$. This is due to a slightly 
more restrictive tape filing format in 
Color BASIC. If you have Extended or 
Disk BASIC, don't worry about it. 

Now that the player is able to save the 
current game, we obviously should pro- 
vide him with a way of loading his posi- 
tion and continuing from where he left 
off; otherwise, saving the game is no 
good, is it? 



30010 DI$=LEFT$(D$,2) 

30020 IF D1S-TA" THEN D=-l 

ELSE IF D1$="DI" THEN D=l 

ELSE 30000 

30030 INPUT "FILENAME";F$ 

30040 OPEN"I".D,F$ 

30050 FOR C=l TO Y: REM 

-CHANGE Y TO # OF OBJECTS 

30060 INPUT #D.O(C):NEXT C 

30070 INPUT #D,DOOR,ALTAR 

30080 CLOSE #D:PRINT' GAME 

LOADED. PROCEED TO PLAY." 

30090 RETURN 

You will notice that in line 30040 we 
use an "I" in the OPEN command 
instead of an "C'This opens the file for 
INPUT instead of OUTPUT. You will 
also notice that we changed the PRINT 



36 



the RAINBOW April 19B4 



#D statements to INPUT ttD statements. 
These are about the only major differ- 
ences between the game save and the 
game load options. Again, note that if 
you just have Color basic, change line 
30040 to read: 30040 OPEN "I".#D.F$. 
I mentioned before that you should 
only call this subroutine after the pro- 
gram has read its DATA. Otherwise, 
the data which you inputted with the 
game load routine would be changed 
when the computer reads its data. Thus, 
if you have your DA TA in lines 100-400 
and the statements to READihal DA TA 
in lines 400-500, ask the player if he 
wants to continue an old game after line 
500. but before the game actually starts. 
For example: 

502 INPUT'TLAY PREVIOUS 
GAME(Y/N)";P$ 
504 IF LEFTS(P$.I)-'Y" THEN 
GOSUB 30000 

600 PRINT"LET THE GAME BE- 
GIN . . ." 

If the player doesn't want to play a 
previous game, the computer goes on to 
line 600 and PRINTs "Let the game 
begin." If the player does want to load 
an old game, the computer goes to the 
game load routine then RETURNS to 
line 600. From there you can start the 
actual game (printing room descriptions, 
asking the player what to do. etc.). 

Now that we have all of this laborious 
work of saving and "unsaving" out of 
the way let's get down to something 
more fun. It's time for . . . 

Monsters And Mazes 

What's an Adventure without spooky 
monsters, creepy aliens, or some other 
sort of creature that lurks behind every 
door with the sole purpose of making 
the Adventurer's life a dangerous one! 
Or, what is an Adventure without a 
maze of twisty, twiny passages'? (Per- 
sonally, I hate getting caught in a maze 
while playing Adventures, but what can 
you do?) 

There are basically two types of mon- 
sters in an Adventure — stationary ones 
and the kind that move around and 
show up just when you don't want them 
to. The stationary ones can be treated 
just like any other stationary obstacle, 
except that if you go in their direction 
you are killed. See my article in Febru- 
ary's Rainbow to see how to put such an 
obstacle in. If you missed February's 
Rainbow you can still get it. See "Back 
Issue Information" in this month's Rain- 
bow. 

The other type of monster, which will 
strike at the Adventurer (perhaps scat- 



TIME BANDIT 

This month is the first month that the entire top ten panel had copies of Time Bandit and 
they overwhelmingly voted it into first place. Never before has a game received so many 
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LUU 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 37 



tering his objects) until something is 
done to stop it, is not really that hard to 
nut in an Adventure. Have a variable 
That keeps track of whether the monster 
has been killed or otherwise taken care 
of For example, you could have the 
variable M equal to if the monster is 
on the prowl and set it to 1 when the 
Adventurer effectively disposes of it. 
The following routine has a monster 
attack the Adventurer at random inter- 
vals and scatter his belongings. 

1080 IF RND(50)=1 AND M=0 



O(C) represents the room that object 
number C is in. If it is 1000 that means 

that the Adventurer is carrying it. 1 hus, 
in line 1084, if the monster attacks the 
Adventurer, the computer distributes 
any objects that he has to one of 10 
rooms. Make sure you place the above 
routine, or any version of it that you 
create, just after the point in your 
Adventure where the computer describes 
the player's surroundings, but before 
the point where the computer asks the 
player what he would like to do. This 
will make sure that the routine is ' acti- 



imagination. Just remember, however, 
to set the variable you are using to keep 
track of the monster to 1 when the 
player manages to defeat the monster 

Now that we can besiege the Ad- 
venturer with ferocious monsters, let's 
get him lost in a maze. Mazes are much 
simpler to do than most people think. A 
good maze may only take up three or 
four rooms, but because of one way pas- 
sages and passages leading back into the 
same room, the player gets totally con- 
fused. See Diagram 1 to see what 1 
mean. 



Diagram 1 



A sample of how a maze 
works in an Adventure. 
The arrows indicate the 
direction in which the 
player may travel. Some 
passages, like the one be- 
tween rooms 3 and 1 are 
one-way passages — the 
player can go from room 
3 to room 1, but not from 
room 1 into room 3. The 
arrows which are going 
out of a room and then 
back into it indicate that 
when the player goes in 
that direction he merely 
winds up back in the same 
room. 



« l • 

START » * 

=>,>-> « MAZE •<" 

• * 

««*tttttttttt«tt«tt 



#3 * 

tt * 

ft MAZE »<- 

tt * 

•#»tttt»tttttt»tt« 



MIIII I IHW 

tt 5 * 

tt • 

tt EXIT • 

« • 



##»tt»tt»»»tttttt» 

tt 2 ****i 

-> • MAZE •»♦* 

tt * 

ft#«ftftftfttttt*»tttt 



•ftftftfttttttttttttttttt 

tt 4 ***** 

• * 1 
-># MAZE *-*" 

• • 

«ft«»ft«ft*tttt**tt 



► ►► ■ 



THEN PRINT'A BIG UGLY MON- 
STER JUST CAME AND SCAT- 
TERED ALL YOUR EARTHLY 
POSSESSIONS": GOTO 1082 ELSE 



vated" whenever the player enters a new 

room. , . . ... 

Now no Adventurer worth his weight 

in salt would put up with a humiliation 



"Having the locations of certain objects in an 
Adventure randomize each time the game .splayed 
can be of great value to some Adventures. 



GOTO 1100 

1082 FOR C=l TO Y: REM 

OF OBJECTS 

1084 IF 0(0=1000 THEN 

=RND(10) 

1086 NEXT C 

U00 1NPUT-WHAT WILL 

DO NOW'.AS 



such as having some low-down monster 
-Y=ff scatter all his earthly possessions. It, 

therefore, stands to logic that the Adven- 
O(C) turer will do something to make the 

creature wish it had never laid eyes (or 

whatever it uses instead of eyes) on him. 
YOU Just what the Adventurer must do to 

accomplish this, I will leave up to your 



The above diagram shows how a 
small maze can easily deceive the Adven- 
turer by giving the illusion of size. This 
is accomplished by allowing the player 
to wander endlessly in any direction. 
For instance, if the player were to go 
either east or south while in room 4 ol 
the maze, he would still be in room 4. 
The unwary player will not know that, 
however, since the program will just tell 
him "YOU ARE IN A MAZE" in each 
of the four rooms of the maze, thus 
leaving him to wonder whether he actu- 
ally accomplished anything by moving 
in that direction. Once you have mapped 
out your maze, you can enter it in the 
travel table just as you would for any 
other room. For example, the entries in 
the travel table for the four rooms of the 
maze in Diagram 1 would look like this: 

200 DATA 0,0,2,0: REM DATA FOR 

ROOM ' -T- . r-^D 

210 DATA 0,4.2.1: REM DATA FOR 

ROOM 2 ,.*«*„ 

220 DATA 1.5.4.0: REM DATA FOR 

ROOM 3 < _ nn 

230 DATA 2,4,4,3: REM DATA FOR 
ROOM 4 



38 the RAINBOW April 1984 



Remember that the data in the travel 
table is arranged in the format NORTH. 
SOUTH, EAST. WEST for each room; 
NORTH being the room number the 
player would get to if he went north, etc. 
A zero represents that the player cannot 
go in that direction. 

Now that you can successfully make 
an Adventurer go crazy inside a maze, 
it's time for a little change. In fact, now 
we get to something that changes every 
game. 

Unpredictable Objects 

If you have ever played Madness and 
the Minotaur or Keys of the Wizard. 
you know that they randomize the loca- 
tion of objects at the beginning of each 
game so that you never quite know 
where an object will turn up. Having the 
locations of certain objects in an Adven- 
ture randomize each time the game is 
played can be of great value to some 
Adventures. The technique for doing 
this is presented here. You. however, 
must judge whether your Adventure 
lends itself to having the objects in it 
randomized. 

When we typed in the object data 
before, you had three entries for each 
object — the "long object name" (a 
short description of the object), the 
"object name" (a one-word name for the 
object), and then the "object number" 
(the room which the object is in at the 
start of the game). To specify that an 
object should be placed randomly in the 
Adventure, put a -I for the object 
number. For example: 

300 DATA AN OLD WOODEN 
BOAT.BOAT.I2 

310 DATA A HUNTER'S CROSS- 
BOW, CROSSBOW,- 1 

When the computer reads the above 
data, it will put the boat in room 
number 12 and the crossbow in room 
-1. Wait a minute! There is no room I. 
Thus, after reading all the object data, 
we tell the computer to go to a subrou- 
tine that will take all the objects in 
"room -1 "and randomly distribute them 
through the Adventure. 

700 FOR C=l TO Y :' REPLACE Y 
WITH THE tt OF OBJECTS IN 
YOUR ADVENTURE 
710 READ LO$(C),0$(C),0(C) : ' 
THESE LINES READTHE DATA 
720 NEXT CiGOSUB 40000 

39999 'SUBROUTINE TO RAND- 
OMIZE OBJECTS 

40000 FOR C=l TO Y 

40010 IF 0(C)=-1 THEN O(C) = 



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Your ship and the planet are under 
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alien foe, and destroy them. Then, the 
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INTERCEPT, you must battle and destroy the 
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play. Each screen scrolls in all four directions. A 
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Requires two joysticks. 
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April 1984 the RAINBOW 39 



RND(R) : 'REPLACE R WITH THE 
NUMBER OF ROOMS YOU HAVE 
IN YOUR ADVENTURE 
40020 NEXT C: RETURN 

Et voila! The objects which you speci- 
fied to be randomized are now scattered 
throughout the Adventure. A little note, 
however. If you have Extended or Disk 
BASIC, add the statement X=RND (- 
TIMER) at the very beginning of your 
Adventure. This will reseed the random 
generator so that each time you RUN 
the Adventure you get truly unpredic- 
table results. Otherwise, the RND com- 
mand tends to give results that will be 
predictable after playing the Adventure 
for a while. 

Print It Neatly 

Sometimes the PRINTing in an Ad- 
venture looks rather unprofessional since 
words get cut in two on the screen as the 
program goes off the end of one line and 
on to another. This is not the program's 
fault per se, but it does look rather 
messy. The short subroutine below takes 
care of that problem. It checks to see if a 
word is cut in two, and if so, fixes the 
problem. To use it, do the same as you 
did to use my Graphics Screen Print in 
March's Rainbow: type N$="WHAT 
YOU WANT TO SAY":GOSUB 50000. 
This takes the place of a PRINT state- 
ment, but, of course, you can switch 



back and forth between the two and use 
a /^/ATstatement whenever you want 



"A good Adventure 
not only should 
have good puzzles, 
but it also should 
be eye-appealing 
and fun to play" 



to. Feel free to incorporate this subrou- 
ine in your program. 

49999 ' NEAT PRINT SUBROU- 
TINE BY ERIC TILENIUS 

50000 CX$=CHR$(32):LL=32 
50008 CL=INT(LEN(N$)/32):CRS= 
RIGHT$(N$,CL) 

50010 IFLEN(N$KLLTHEN51000 
50020 IF MID$(N$,LL,1)=CXS 
THEN 51000 

50030 FOR CX=LLTO 1 STEP- 1 
50040 IF MID$(N$,CX,1)=CXS 



THEN CC=CX:GOTO 50060 
50050 NEXT CX:GOTO 51000 
50060 PRINT LEFT$(N$.CC-1):N$ 
= M IDS(NS,CC+ 1 ,LEN(N$)-CC- 1 ) 
50070 IF LEN(N$)>32 THEN 50030 
51000 PRINT N$:RETURN 



This subroutine can be used in any 
type of basic program — not just 
Adventures. Program Listing 1 is a list- 
ing of this routine along with a dem- 
onstration. 

Save Those Memories 

Here are a few suggestions for saving 
memory when typing in your Adven- 
ture: 

1) Leave out all REMark statements 
and try to put in as few spaces as 
possible. 

2) When typing in your travel table, you 
may condense it by leaving out the zeros 
and putting more than one room entry 
per program line. For example, a travel 
table looking like this: 

400 DATA 4,0,0,3 
410 DATA 3.1.0,0 
420 DATA 0,2,4,1 
430 DATA 2, 1,0,3 

may be condensed into one line: 

400 DATA 4,„3,3,1„„2,4,1,2,1„3 




The listing: 

1 ' ***»#*♦####***************** 

2 '**NEAT PRINTING SUBROUTINE** 

#»*#BY ERIC W. TILENIUS***** 
******* JANUARY 1984********* 
*#*»*#***»#»**************** 

3 ' THIS SUBROUTINE WILL 

— ARRANGE YOUR TEXT SO 

THAT NO WORDS ARE 

SPLIT ON THE SCREEN 

— FOLLOW ON SCREEN DIRECTIONS 

10 CLEAR 500 

20 CLS4:PRINT"NEAT PRINTING DEMO 
": PR I NTS 128, "DESIGNED TO BE USED 
AFTER READING THE TUTOR I A 
L ON ADDING FINAL TOUCHES TO YO 
UR ADVENTURE. TO USE THIS SUBROUT 
INE, DELETE ALL THE LINES UP TO 
49999 AND THEN FROM YOUR PROG 
RAM, HAVE N*='WHAT YOU 
30 PRINT" WANT TO SAY' THEN TYP 



E 'GOSUB 50000' THE SUBROUT I NEW I L 

L TAKE CARE OF THE REST. " 

40 PRINT 

100 INPUT "PHRASE TO BE PRINTED " 

;N$ 

150 PRINT: PRINT 
200 GOSUB 50000 
300 PRINT: PRINT: GOTO 100 

49999 ' NEAT PRINT SUBROUTINE 

BY... 

ERIC TILENIUS 

50000 CX»=CHR*<32) :LL=32 

50008 CL=INT(LEN(N»)/32):CR*=RIG 

HT*(N*,CL) 

50010 IF LEN(N*XLL THEN 51000 

50020 IF MID*(N*,LL,1)=CX* THEN 

51000 
50030 FOR CX=LL TO 1 STEP -1 
50040 IF MID*<N*,CX, 1)=CX* THEN 
CC=CX:GOTO 50060 
50050 NEXT CX:GOTO 51000 
50060 PR I NT LEFT* < N* , CC- 1 ) : N*=M I 
D*(N*,CC+1,LEN(N*)-CC-1) 
50070 IF LEN<N*)>32 THEN 50030 

51000 PRINT N*;CR*: RETURN 

51001 END 



40 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



This can help save a lot of memory in 
an Adventure. 

3) If you are using Extended BASIC, it is 
nice to use words as variables, but each 
character in the variable name takes up 
memory. The computer only recognizes 
the first two letters of the variable 
anyway. 

4) Using low line numbers and multiple 
statement lines saves memory. 

5) Leaving out the variable name in the 
NEXT statement of a FOR . . . NEXT 
loop sa-ves both time (the computer can 
process it faster) and memory. Thus, a 
loop such as FOR T=l TO 100:READ 
L(C):NEXT would be better for time 
and memory considerations than the 
loop FOR T=l TO !00:READ L(T): 
NEXTT. 

Keeping memory considerations in 
mind will help you to put a lot of Adven- 
ture in a little space. 

Some Final Tips 

Feel free to use any of the techniques, 
subroutines, etc. in this article to improve 
your Adventure. A good Adventure not 
only should have good puzzles, but it 
also should be eye-appealing and fun to 
play. If the player has to struggle through 
the Adventure, he is not going to enjoy 
it as much as he otherwise would. With 
that in mind, here are some final tips for 
a good Adventure. 

1) Have a large list of verbs which the 
computer will recognize. It is much 
more fun for the player if he doesn't 
have to spend a long time thinking up 
the right command to use in a situation. 

2) Make all puzzles logical. The solu- 
tion to a puzzle in an Adventure should 
make sense — even if it isn't something 
the player would think of right away. 

3) Always have title and instructions. 
Even if you supply good documenta- 
tion, it is still a nice feature to let the 
player "type and RUN" rather than hav- 
ing to read the instructions on paper. 

4) If you are submitting your Adven- 
ture to a magazine, always make several 
saves of it to insure that at least one 
loads. Have at least one copy in ASCII 
format. This can be done by typing: 
CSAVE"PROGRAM",A for cassette 
or SAVE"PROGRAM",A for disk. 

5) Appropriate sound effects enhance 
the Adventure but don't overdo it. 

So start computing away at your 
Adventure and make it the best ! If you 
are entering the Rainbow's Adventure 
Contest, be sure to get your entry in the 
mail before May 1. There are loads of 
great prizes and winning the contest is a 
very high honor. But whatever you do, 
good luck and Happy Adventuring! 



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April 1984 the RAINBOW 41 




THE 
INTRONICS 
EPROM 
PROGRAMMER 

Price: $140. 




Newly Designed Unit 

NEW VERSION 2.4 

□ Plugs into ROM pack port. 

□ Now programs 8K X 8 EPROM in 15 Seconds. 

□ On board firmware included. 

J No personality modules required. 

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O High quality zero insertion force EPROM socket. 

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Finding Areas 

And 
Perimeters 

In Hi-Res 



By Steve Blyn 

Rainbow Contributing Editor 



It is widely acknowledged that the powerful graphic cap- 
ability of the CoCo is one of its strongest features. We 
can easily observe this in many of the popular arcade 
games and in many geometric graphic demonstration pro- 
grams published in this magazine. 

1 have enjoyed keying in and learning lrom several ol 
these geometric simulators. Keying in good programs from 
magazines is one of the best ways that 1 have found to learn 
and teach BAS.C programming ideas. By carefully observing 
exactlv what you are typing, you often , '"advertently d. - 
cover ihe programming techniques used by the author. Th 
type of unexpected learning is often referred to by educators 
as incidental learning. 

My students and 1 especially enjoyed the program by 
R W. Odlin in the December. 1983 issue of the Rambow. 
This type of program is very entertaining to all but really 
only the brighter students can truly abstract and learn the 
concepts used in such programs. 

There are very few available programs that help the aver- 
age or slow students to learn more about geometric shapes. 
This is especially sad in light of the strong graphics ol our 
computer. This month's program will help to bring to the 
average beginner's level the concept of area and perimeter of 

rectangular objects. 

Usually. 1 am satisfied to publish low resolution programs 
in this column. They are generally much shorter lor the 
readers to key in and they don't exclude those without 
Extended BASIC. Although this program could certainly be 
written in low resolution. 1 feel that much of the appeal in 
this case would be lost without high resolution graphics. 

Writing this type of program in Hi-Res required drawing 
all of the letters and numbers needed for display. Several 
programs previously published in the pages of the Rambow 
contain such alphabet utilities. It is a good idea to examine 
and save the ones that you prefer. Then you can append or 
merge them to your own programs. 

Once you have an alphabet and number string set 
included in your program, you don't have to redraw them 
each time they are used. Our method is to create them once 
and to assign a string name to each. Then they can be used 
over and over again by calling up the string name. 



(Steve Blyn teaches both excep- 
tional and gifted children, holds 
two master's degrees and has won 
awards for the design of programs 
to aid the handicapped. He and 
his wife. Cheryl, own Computer 
Island.) 



April 1984 



Ihe RAINBOW 43 



The letter strings are created on lines 180-430. They are 
done individually by name of letter lor you to observe or 
alter. Lines 450-460 set these strings into an array called RS. 
This is done to make it easier to manipulate the letters within 
the program. Lines 470-560 create the numerals 0-9 in an 
array called N$. 

A rectangle is computed and drawn on Lines 650-680. 
Line 680 ends with the letters BF. This uses two powerful 
options ol the line command. The "B" tells the computer to 
draw a box and t he "F" tells the computer to color it in. Try 
to do that in one line on almost any other computer: It can't 
be done! 

Lines 690-880 compute and draw the values of the height 
and base of the rectangle. This is slightly involved because 
the CHRS values for the numbers begin at 48 rather than 
zero. Our NS values, however, only go from to 9. This 
problem is solved by having lines 730 and 800 subtract 48 
from the true values. SD and SE become the correct values 
for the height and base on line 880. 

The remainder of the program contains many REMs to 
keep you aware of the various routines used to create the 
action. First, the perimeter is to be computed by the student. 
His answer is converted into Hi-Res numerals. Then a cor- 
rect or a wrong message is given. If incorrect, the correct 
answer is displayed underneath. The same procedures are 
then repeated for finding the area of the same rectangle. 

This program illustrates techniques used to teach the area 
and perimeter of rectangles and squares. Squares are really 
no more than a special form of rectangle. The program, of 
course, does not cover the entire area and perimeter field. 
We encourage you to modify this program for other geomet- 
ric shapes such as triangles, parallelograms, trapezoids and 
even circles. The ideas employed here would be applicable to 
other shapes. 

We ordinarily do not promote Computer Island products 
or products from other companies in this column. There is, 
however, an exceptional product for sale that is worth men- 
tioning here. This product, which comes from Radio Shack, 
is called Color Pilot. It is a relatively easy way to learn high 
resolution authoring systems. It is ideal for programs such 
as the one 1 have illustrated here. Using Color Pilot, a 
similar program could be created using probably 75 percent 
fewer lines. It is well worth looking into Color Pilot at your 
local Radio Shack Computer Center. 













160 ... 


.... 65 


910.... 


. . . 148 




450 .. . 


... 243 


1110... 


. . . . 40 




510... 


... 235 


1310... 


. .. 163 




700 .. . 


... 184 


END... 


. . . . 35 









The listing: 

10 REM "AREA AND PERIMETER OF SQU 

ARES AND RECTANGLES" 

20 REM"<C> STEVE BLYN, COMPUTER I 

SLAND,NY, 1984" 

30 PCLS : SCREEN 1,1: PMODE3 , 1 : C I RCL 

E(130,50) , 10: PCLS 

40 CLEAR 1000 

50 SOTO 170:REM"**GO READ THE ST 

RINGS FOR THE LETTERS AND NUMBER 

S" 



60 REM"#*DRAW THE OPENING SCREEN 

■I 

70 PCLS : SCREEN 1,1: PM0DE3 , 1 

80 DRAW " C2S8BM70 , 50 " +A*+R*+E*+A* 

90 DRAW " C3S4BM 1 00 , 75 " +A*+N*+D* 

1 00 DRAW " C2SBBM20 ,110" +P»+E*+R*+ 

I *+M«+E*+T*+E*+R* 

110 DRAW " C4S4BM20 , 1 70 " +B*+Y*+SP* 

+C*+0»+M*+P*+U»+T*+E*+R* : DRAW+SP 

*+ I *+S*+L*+A»+N*+D* 

120 COLOR3:LINE<10, 10)-<240, 150) 

,PSET,B 

130 LINE (5, 5) -(245, 155),PSET,B 

140 EN*=INKEY*:FORT=1TO50:NEXTT 

150 IF EN*="" THEN 140 ELSE 590 

160 REM"*»*THE PICTURES OF THE N 

UMBERS AND LETTERS ARE CONTAINED 

IN STRINGS HERE" 
170 DIM R*(26) ,NN*(6) ,N*(10) 
180 A*="U8R8D4L8BR8D4BR4" 
1 90 B*= " U8R6F2D2L8BR8D2G2L6BR 12" 
200 C*="U8R8BD8L8BR12" 
210 D*="U8R6F2D4G2L6BR12" 
220 E*="U8R8BD4L8BD4R8BR4" 
230 F*="U8R8BD4L8BD4BR12" 
240 G*="U8R8BD4L4BR4D4L8BR12" 
250 H»="U8BR8D8BU4L8BD4BR12" 
260 I*="BU8R8BL4D8BL4R8BR4" 
270 J*="U4BU4BR8D8L8BR12" 
280 K*="U8BR8G4L4BR4F4BR4" 
290 L*="U8BD8R8BR4" 
300 M*="U8F4E4D8BR4" 
310 N*="U8F8U8BD8BR4" 
320 0»-"U8R8DSL8BR12" 
330 P*="U8R8D4L8BD4BR12" 
340 Q«="U8R8D8H4BG4R8BR4" 
350 R$="U8R8D4L8BR4F4BR4" 
360 S*= " BU4U4R8BD4L8BR8D4L8BR 12" 
370 T*="BU8R8BL4D8BR8" 
380 U*="U8BR8D8L8BR12" 
390 V«="BU8D4F4E4U4BD8BR4" 
400 W*="U8BR8D8H4G4BR12" 
410 X*="E8BL8F8BR4" 
420 Y*="BU8F4E4BG4D4BR8" 
430 Z*="BU8R8G8R8BR4" 
440 SP*="BR12" 

450 R*(0)=SP*:R*(1)=A*:R*(2)=B*: 
R* (3) =C*: R* (4) =D*: R* <5> =E*: R* (6) 
=F«: R* (7) =G»: R* (8) =H*: R* (9) =1*: R 
* ( 10) =J«: R* (li) =k«: R* ( 12) =L*: R* ( 
13) =M* 

460 R*(14)=N*:R*(15)=0*:R*(16)=P 

*: R* ( 17) =q«: r* ( 18) =R»: r* ( 19) =s«: 

R* (20) =T«: R* (21 ) =U*: R* (22) =V*: R* 

(23) =W*: R* (24) =X«: R* (25) =Y*: R* (2 

6)=Z* 

470 N* ( ) = " BU 1 U4R3D4L3R3BD 1 BL 1 " 

480 N* ( 1 ) ■ " BE2NU3DEBFBGBL9 " 

490 N* ( 2 ) = " BENR3HER3U2L4BG5BL " 

500 N* ( 3 ) = " BENR3HENR2HER3BG5BL5 " 



44 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



ANNOUNCING 

The VIP Library™ 
With a Terrific Sale! 



Nelson Software Systems is now Softlaw Corporation, under 
new management. Our Super "Color" Library programs have 
also undergone a name change. All programs are the same 
unbeatable Super "Color" Library programs you've heard so 
much about, but with new VIP names. To introduce our VIP 
Library we are having a special sale on the following pages. Our 
low prices for such high quality can't be beat so get started today! 



Official Library of Software for the TANO Dragon 

(Sold (or ihe TANO Dragon only by TANO Microcomputer Products, Corp. and its distributors) 



The Library Concept 

State of the Art, Quality. Integrity, 
Compatibility and Affordability. Five 
things good software must possess. 
Five things that epitomize the VIP 
Library'". Each program is the 
diamond of its class, true excellence. 
These programs are first in features, 
first in power, first in memory, and 
all are affordably priced. And for 
your convenience all disk programs 
can be backed up. 



State Of The Art 

All Library programs are written in 
machine code specifically for the 
Color Computer, to work without 
the interference of a separate 
operating system such as FLEX. From 
this comes speed and more work- 
space for you. Unlike other programs 
for the Color Computer which are 
said to be 64K compatible, VIP 
Library'" programs are not limited to 
between 24 and 30K of workspace in 
64K. Library programs have Memory 
Sense with BANK SWITCHING to 
fully use all 64K, thus giving up to 
51 K with a disk version and up to 
53K with a tape version. 

Easy To Use 

Each Library program was carefully 
designed to be extremely easy to 
use. Built-in on-screen help tables 
are at your fingertips, as are menus 
of all kinds. Every effort is made to 
use logical, intuitive and easy-to- 
remember commands. The manuals 
have been thoughtfully prepared to 
cover every aspect of the program, 
and they have complete tutorials to 
get you going right away. We set the 
standard! 



Lowercase Displays 

State-of-the-Art graphics allow 
instant use of four display colors, and 
eight lowercase displays featuring 
descending lowercase letters. You 
can select from 51, 64 or 85 columns 
by 21 or 24 lines per screen, with 
wide or narrow characters in the 64 
display. These screens provide a 
pleasant and relaxing way to perform 
your tasks, with as much text on the 



". . . PICTURE getting your 
instantaneous investment report 
over the phone, using it in your 
spreadsheet calculation, 
generating a report, and writing 
a memo including that report 
and data from your database with 
your word processor, and all this 
with VIP Library" programs ..." 



screen as is possible. Each program is 
easy to learn and a joy to use. We 
take pride in the stringent testing 
done to make these programs per- 
form flawlessly. Every feature, every 
convenience, sleek, simple and 
elegant. 

Total Compatibility 

All Library programs are 
compatible. Transfer and use of files 
between programs is easy and 
carefree. What's better, when you 
have learned one program the others 
will come easy. And every program is 
the best of its kind available. 



The Library Programs 

For your writing needs is the VIP 
Writer'", and its spelling checker, the 
VIP Speller'". For financial planning 
and mathematical calculations you 
can use the VIP Calc'". To manage 
your information and send multiple 
mailings there is the VIP Database". 
For sending all these files to and 
from home or the office and for 
talking to your friends you can have 
the VIP Terminal'". Finally, to fix 
disks to keep all your Library files in 
good repair we offer the VIP Disk- 
ZAP". 

Mini Disk Operating System 

The Disk versions each have a Mini 
Disk Operating System which will 
masterfully handle from 1 to 4 drives. 
It offers smooth operation for such 
features as the ability to read a 
directory, display free space on the 
disk, kill files, save and automatically 
verify files, and load, rename and 
append files. Library programs simply 
do not have the limitations of BASIC. 

Professionalism 

The Library comes handsomely 
bound in gold-embossed, padded 
leatherette binders to grace your 
work area with the professionalism it 
deserves. Welcome the VIP Library" 
into your home and office. 

A description of each of the 
Library programs, with the 
special sale price, is contained 
in the following pages. Please 
indulge! 

*'1983 by Sottlaw Corporation 



VIP Writer™ 

(Formerly Super "Color' Writer III 

By Tim Nelson 

RATED TOPS IN RAINIOW, HOT COCO. COLOR 

COMPUTER MAGAZINE ft COLOR COMPUTER WETKLY 

The Official Dragon Microcomputer Word Processor! 

The most powerful and easy-to-use word processor is available in ihe 
showpiece and workhorse of the Library: The VIP Writer'". Because of its 
undisputed superiority over all Color Computer word processors, it was 
selected by Dragon Data Ltd. of England and TAIMO in the U.S., to be the 
Official Word Processor for their line of Dragon microcomputers. 

The result of two years of research, the VIP Writer'" offers every 
leature you could desire from a word processor. It is the most 
powerful, fastest, most dependable and most versatile. With the hi-res 
display, workspace and compatibility features built into the Library the 
Writer is also the most usable. 

". . . Nearly every feature and option possible to implement on the 
Color Computer. The design oi the program is excellent; the 
programming is flawless . . . Features lor the professional, yet it is easy 
enough (or newcomers (o master . . . Certainly one of the best word 
processors available for any computer ..." October 1983 "Rainbow" 

"Word processing with VIP Writer is like driving a high-performance 
vehicle . . This ferarri of a package has more features than Telewriter, 
Basywriter (for the IBM PC), or Applewriter." October 1983 "Hot CoCo" 

The Writer will work with you and your printer to do things you 
always wanted to do. Every feature of your printer can be put to use, 
every character set. every graphics capability at any baud rate, EVEN 
PROPORTIONAL SPACING. All this with simplicity and elegance. You 
can even automatically print multiple copies. 

Although all versions feature tape save and load, the disk version 
provides the Mini Disk Operating System common to the whole 
Library, plus disk file linking for continous printing. 

Professional features of particular note: 

■ Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to fully utilize 64K. giving 
not just 24 or 30K, but up to 61 K of workspace with the rompak version 
and 50K with the disk version. 

■ TRUE FORMAT WINDOW allowing you to preview the printed page 
ON THE SCREEN BEFORE PRINTING, showing centered lines, headers, 
FOOTNOTES, page breaks, page numbers, & margins in line lengths of 
up to 240 characters. It makes HYPHENATION a snap. 

■ A TRUE EDITING WINDOW in all 9 display modes for those extra 
wide reports and graphs (up to 240 columns!). 

■ FREEDOM to imbed any number of PRINTER CONTROL CODES 
anywhere, EVEN WITHIN JUSTIFIED TEXT. 

■ Full 4-way cursor control, sophisticated edit commands, the ability 
to edit any BASIC program or ASCII textfile. SEVEN DELETE 
FUNCTIONS, LINE INSERT. LOCATE AND CHANGE, wild card locate, 
up to TEN SIMULTANEOUS block manipulations, word wrap around, 
programmable tabs, display memory used and left, non-breakable 
space, and headers, footers and FOOTNOTES. 



automatic flush right, underlining, superscripts, subscripts, pause 
print, single-sheet pause, and print comments. 

■ Type-ahead, typamatic key repeat and key beep for the pros. ERROR 
DETECTION and UNDO MISTAKE features, 3 PROGRAMMABLE func- 
tions, auto column creation, and an instant on-screen HELP TABLE. 

32K (Comes with tape & disk) $59.95 

tSold as the Dragon Writer'" ONLY by Dragon Data Ltd. and its distributors. 

^VIP Speller™ 

ITH A 60,000 WORD INDEXED DICTIONARY! 

By Bill Argyros 
Gone are the eyestrain, boredom and fatigue from endless prool- 



Library'" files and files from Scripsit 



r '" It automatically 



even added to the dictionary. You can even view the word in context. 



60.000 word dictionary which, unlike other spellers for the CoCo, is 
indexed for the greatest speed. The shorter your file, the quicker the 
checking time. And words can be added to or deleted from the 
dictionary or you can create one of your own. VIP Speller'" also comes 
with the Library's mini disk operating system for easy disk 
manipulation. 

32K DISK ONLY $39.95 

Lowercase displays not available with this program. 




VIP Calc 

(Formerly Super "Color" Calc) 

TRUE VISICALC" POWER! 

By Kevin Herrboldt 



• UP TO 5 TIMES THE SCREEN DISPLAY AREA OF OTHER 
SPREADSHEETS! 

• STATE OF THE ART LOWERCASE DISPLAYS 

• MEMORY SENSE 

• EXCLUSIVE VIDEO DISPLAY WINDOWS — EVEN UP TO 16! 

• USER-DEFINABLE WORKSHEET — UP TO 512 COLUMNS BY 
1024 ROWS 

• WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER, EVEN LETTER QUALITY! 

• LOCATE COMMAND TO FIND SPECIFIC NUMBERS. LABELS OR 
FORMULAS 

• SORT COMMAND FOR EASY RANKING OF RESULTS 

• ALMOST UNLIMITED PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTIONS 

VIP Calc" is truly the finest and easily the most powerful electronic 
worksheet and financial modeling program available for the Color 
Computer. Now every Color Computer owner has access to a 
calculating and planning tool better than VisiCalc'", containing all its 
features and commands and then some, WITH USABLE DISPLAYS. Use 
Visicalc templates with VIP Calc'"! 

There's nothing left out of VIP Calc'", Every feature you've come to 
rely on with VisiCalc" is there, and then some. You get up to 5 TIMES 
the screen display area ol other spreadsheets for the Color Computer 
and Memory-Sense with BANK SWITCHING to give not just 24, or 30, 
but UP TO 33KOF WORKSPACE IN 64K!!! This display and memoty 
allow you the FULL SIZE, USABLE WORKSHEETS you require. You also 
get: User definable worksheet size, up to 512 columns by 1024 rows! • 
Up to SIXTEEN VIDEO DISPLAY WINDOWS to compare and contrast 
results of changes * 15 DIGIT PRECISION • Sine, Cosine and other 
trigonometric functions. Averaging. Exponents, Algebraic functions, 
and BASE 2, 8, 10 or 16 entry * Column and Row, Ascending and 
Descending SORTS for comparison of results • LOCATE FORMULAS 
OR TITLES IN CELLS • Easy entry, replication and block moving oi 

fr.imoc • r.lr>kal nr I nr^t rnlumn ,.,:,I|U .„„.,„l .....711 _l . 



documents to create ledgers, projections, statistical and financial 
reports and budgets. 

Both versions feature Tape save and load, but the disk version also 
has the Mini Disk Operating System of the entire Library. 

32K (Comes with tape & disk) $59.95 

32K does have lu-res displays, sort or edit. 



NEW SALE PRICES! VIP Database 



Check These Library Features: 
Fully CoCo 2 Compatible 

■ Nine Display Formats: 32 by 16 
51, 64, 85 by 21 or 24 

■ True Lowercase & Descenders 

■ Four Different Display Colors 
32 & 64K Compatible 
Memory Sense - Bank Switching 
Up to 51 K Disk, 53 K Tape 

Mini Disk Operating System 
Compatible With All Printers 

A SPECIAL OFFER ON THE 
WHOLE LIBRARY — 

The entire Library, all six great disk 
programs, can be purchased for only$269! 

VIP Terminal™ 

I Formerly Super "Color" Terminal) 

RATED BEST IN JANUARY TO4 "RAINBOW" 

By Dan Nelson 

From your home or office you can join the communication 
revolution. The VIP Terminal'" opens the world to you. You can 
monitor your investments with the Dow Jones Information Service, or 
broaden your horizons with The Source or CompuServe, bulletin 
boards, other computers, even the mainframe at work, 

For your important communication needs you've got to go 
beyond software that only lets you chat. You need a smart termnal so 
that you can send and receive programs, messages, even other VIP 
Library'" files. VIP Terminal" has " more features than communications 
software for CP/M, IBM and CP/M 86 computers." Herb Friedman, 
Radio Electronics, February 1984. 

FEATURES: Choice of 8 hi-res lowercase diplays * Memory-Sense with 
BANK SWITCHING for full use of workspace • Selectively print data at 
baud rates from 110 to 9600 • Full 128 character ASCII keyboard • 
Automatic graphic mode * Word mode (word wrap) for unbroken 
words * Send and receive Library files, Machine Language & BASIC 
programs * Set communications baud rate from 110 to 9600, Duplex: 
Half/Full/Echo, Word length: 7 or 8, Parity: Odd/Even or None, Stop 
Bits: 1-9 * Local linefeeds to screen • Save and load ASCII files, Machine 
Code & BASIC programs • Lowercase masking * 10 Keystroke 
Multiplier (MACRO) buffers to perform repetitive pre-entry log-on 
tasks and send short messages • Programmable prompt or delay for 
send next line * Selectable character trapping * Send up to ten short 
messages (KSMs), each up to 255 characters long, automatically, to save 
money when calling long distance. 

All versions allow tape load and save of files and KSMs, but the disk 
version also has the Mini Disk Operating System common to the 
Library. 

32K (Comes with tape & disk) $49.95 

(Tape comes in 16K but without hi-res displays) 




•072 Lyndll* Av«nu» So. «12/M1-2777 

Minn. ■poll.. Mlnnatot* 55420 U. S. A. 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. VisiCalc Is a trademark ot VisiCorp. 

AUTHOR'S SUBMISSIONS 
ARE ENCOURAGED. 



(Formerly Super "Color" Database) 

INCIUDES MAIL MERGE CAPABILITIES TOO! 

By Tim Nelson 

This high speed MACHINE LANGUAGE program fills all your 
information management needs, be they for your business or home. 
And it does so better than any other database program for the Color 
Computer, featuring machine code, lowercase screens and mailmerge 
capabilities. Inventory, accounts, mailing lists, family histories, you 
name it, the VIP Database'" will keep track ofall your data, and it will 
merge VIP Writer'" files. 

The VIP Database" features the Library Memory Sense with BANK 
SWITCHING and selectable lowercase displays for maximum utility. It 
will handle as many records as fit on your disk or disks. It is structured in 
a simple and easy to understand menu system with full prompting for 
easy operation. Your data is stored in records of your own design. All 
files are fully indexed for speed and efficiency. Full sort of records is 
provided for easy listing of names, figures, addresses, etc., in ascending 
or descending alphabetic or numeric order. Records can be searched 
for specific entries, using multiple search criteria. With database form 
merge you may also combine files, sort and print mailing lists, print 
"boiler plate" documents, address envelopes - the list is endless. The 
math package even performs arithmetic operations and updates other 
fields. Create files compatible with the VIP Writer'"and VIP Terminal". 
Unlimited print format and report generation with the ability to imbed 
control codes for use with all printers. 

As with all other Library programs, the Database features the 
powerful Mini Disk Operating System. 

32K DISK $59.95 

64K Required for math package & mail merge 



VIP Disk-ZAP 

(Formerly Super "Color" Disk-ZAP) 

RAVED ABOUT IN THE APRIL 1983 "RAINBOW!" 

By Tim Nelson 
Your database file disk, form letter disk, or BASIC program disk 
goes bad. An I/O error stops loading, or even backing up of the disk. 
Weeks, even months of work sit on the disk, irretrievable. Now 
catastrophic disk errors are repairable, quickly and with confidence, 
using the VIP Disk-ZAP'". It is the ultimate repair utility for simple and 
quick repair of all disk errors. Designed with the non-programmer in 
mind, the VIP Disk-ZAP" will let you retrieve all types of bashed files, 
BASIC and Machine Code programs. 

This high-speed machine code disk utility has a special dual cursor 
screen display to look at the data on your disk. You are able to: Verify or 
modify disk sectors at will * Type right onto the disk to change 
unwanted program names or prompts • Send sector contents to the 
printer * Search the entire disk for any grouping of characters • Copy 
sectors • Backup tracks or entire disks * Repair directory tracks and 
smashed disks * Full prompting to help you every step of the way • 50- 
plus page Operators Manual which teaches disk structure and repair. 

16K DISK $39.95 

Lowercase displays not available with this program. 



For Orders ONLY 
— Call Toll Free — L 

1-800-328-2737 

Order Status and Software Support call (612) 881-2777 

Available at Dealers everywhere. 

If your Dealer is out of stock ORDER DIRECT! 

In Canada distributed by Kelly Software Distributors, LTD. 
P.O. Box 11932, Edmonton, Alberta T5) 3L1 (403) 421-8003 
MAIL ORDERS: $3.00 U.S. Shipping ($5.00 CANADA: $10.00 OVER- 
SEAS). Personal checks allow 3 weeks. 

All Disk Programs are also available on 3" Diskettes for the 
Amdek Color AMDISK-III Micro-Floppy Disk System for an 



additional $3.00 each. 



\'ISi by Soil law Corporation 



510 N*(4)="BENU4E3L4BG4BL2" 
520 N* ( 5 ) ■ " BER4U2L3HER3BG5BL5 " 
530 N* ( 6 ) = " BU2FR2EU2NHGL2HER2BG5 
BL4" 

540 N* ( 7 ) = " BUNR4UE3BG5BL4 " 
550 N* ( G ) = " BER2EHEHL2GFNR2GFBGBL 
6" 
560 
L6" 
570 
580 
OF 



N* (9) -"BER2EHL2GNFU2ER2FBG4B 



GOTO 70 

REM"*** A BRIEF EXPLANATION 

HOW TO COMPUTE THE AREA AND 

PERIMETER" 

590 CLS8 : PR I NT@6," SQUARES & RECT 

ANGLES"; 

600 PRINT696, "YOU FIND THE PERIM 

ETER BY ADDINGUP THE TOTAL OF TH 

E 4 SIDES. "; 

610 PRINTQ256, "YOU FIND THE AREA 
BY MULTIPLYINGTHE BASE BY THE H 

EIGHT. "; 

620 PRINT64B6, "press enter to be 

gin' 

630 EN* 

640 

650 

660 

670 

680 

690 REM"***COMPUTE AND DRAW THE 



EN*= I NKE Y* : I F EN*= " " THEN 
PCLS: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM0DE3, 1 
A=50 : B= 1 50+RND ( 90 ) 
C=10: D=60+RND (60) 
REM"*** DRAW THE FIGURE" 
LINE(A,C)-(B,D) ,PSET,BF 
REM"***COMPUTE AND DRAW 



CANADIANS! 

AVOID CUSTOMS DELAYS & CHARGES 

ORDER YOUR SOFTWARE IN CANADA 
WE HANDLE THE FOLLOWING PRODUCTS. ALL ON TAPE EXCEPT FLEXI-FILER 



COMPUTERWARE 



SPECTRAL ASSOC. 



ADDRESS FACTORY 


2495 


ALPHA SEARCH 


1795 


BLOCKHEAD 


36 95 


ANDROID ATTACK 


29 95 


COLOR CONNECTION 


39 95 


INVADERS 


24.95 


DOODLE BUG 


36 95 


CUBIX 


29 95 


ELDIABLERO 


26 95 


DEFENSE 


29 95 


FLEXI-FILER (DISCI 


87.95 


GALAX ATTACK 


29.95 


HOME MONEY MANAGER 


26.95 


GHOST GOBBLER 


26 95 


MEGAPEDE 


29.95 


KEYS OF THE WIZARD 


26 95 


MOON HOPPER 


33 95 


LANCER 


29 95 


NERBLE FORCE 


33.95 


MAGIC BOX 


3195 


PAC ATTACK 


33 95 


MS. GOBBLER 


29 95 


RAIL RUNNER 


33 95 


PLANET INVASION 


29.95 


SEMI DRAW 


29.95 


SPACE RACE 


29 95 


SHARK TREASURE 


29 95 


SPACE WAR 


29 95 


SPACE AMBUSH 


29.95 


STORM ARROWS 


29 95 


SYNTHER 7 


29 95 


TRILOGY 


67 95 






WHIRLYBIRO RUN 


29 95 


TOM MIX 




PRICKLY PEAR 




PROTECTORS 


33.95 






SPACE SHUTTLE 


39.95 


ANCIENT WISDOM TRILOGY 


53 95 


TAPE DUPE 


29.95 


ASTROLOGY 


47 95 


TAPE TO DISK 


24 95 


8-BIT BARTENDER 


26 95 


THE FROG 


37.95 


FLIGHT 


26 95 


THE KING 


34 95 


GANGBUSTERS 


26 95 


TRAPFALL 


37.95 


TEEEOFF 


33 95 






HOUSEHOLD HELPER 


26 95 


MARK DATA 




JUNGLE 


26 95 


COSMIC CLONES 


33 95 


MONSTERS & MAGIC 


26 95 


GLAXXONS 


33.95 


SHAFT 


33 95 


EL BANOITO 


33 95 


SONGBOOK 


39 95 


SUPER SCREEN 


37.95 


VIKINGS 


26 95 



ALL ITEMS INCLUDE SHIPPING AND HANDLING - ALL PRICES 

IN CANADIAN DOLLARS 

10% DISC. ON 2 ITEMS - 15% ON 3 OR MORE ITEMS 

ONT RESIDENTS ADD 7% TAX 

VISA - MASTERCARD ACCEPTED 

FOR CA TALOG SEND $2 (REFUNDED FIRST ORDER} TO: 

T & S SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 583 ORLEANS. ONT. K1C 1S9 

SOME ITEMS ALSO AVAILABLE AT COTS MICROSYSTEMS, 
1396 STARTOP ROAD. OTTAWA 



HEIGHT AND BASE" 

700 HT*-STR*(<D-C)/2) 

710 HU*=RIGHT*(HT*,1> 

720 PO-ASC<HU*> 

730 P0-P0-4B 

740 HV*=MID*(HT*,2,1) 

750 PT=ASC(HV«) 

760 PT=PT-48 

770 RT*=STR*((B-A)/2) 

780 RU*=R I GHT* ( RT* , 1 ) 

790 RO=ASC(RU*> 

800 R0=R0-48 

810 RV*=MID* (RT*, 2, 1 ) 

820 RT=»ASC(RV*) 

830 RT=RT-48 

840 DRAW " A2C2S8BM20 , 50 " +N* ( PO > +S 

P*+N*(PT) 

850 DRAW " BM 1 20 , 1 20 " +N* ( RO ) +SP*+N 

*(RT) 

860 COLOR3:LINE(0,140)-(255,140) 

,PSET 

870 REM" 'SD' AND 'PO' ARE THE C 

ORRECT NUMERICAL VALUES FOR THE 

HEIGHT AND BASE" 

SG0 SD= ( 1 0*PT ) +PO : SE= ( 1 0*RT ) +RO 

890 J=0:DRAW"A0S4C3BM1, 160"+T*+H 

*+E*+SP* : DRAW+P*+E*+R*+ I *+M*+E*+ 

T*+E*+R*: DRAW+SP*+I*+S* 

900 COLOR 2: LINE (200, 165) -(240, 1 

65),PSET 

910 DRAW"A2S8C4BM210, 150" 

920 REM"*** ACCECPT AND DRAW UP 

TO FIVE NUMERALS FOR THE ANSWER 

TO THE PERIMETER QUESTION" 

930 FOR J=l TO 4 

940 NN*(J)=INKEY*:FORT=1TO50:NEX 

TT 

950 

960 

970 

980 

990 

1000 



IF NN*(J)="" THEN 940 
IF NN*(J)=CHR*(13) THEN 1000 
NK=VAL(NN*(J) ) 
DRAW+N*(NK) 
NEXT J 
NN* (5) =NN* ( 1 ) +NN* (2) +NN* (3) 



+NN*(4) 

1010 DF=VAL(NN*(5) ) 
1020 REM" **** CHECK 
THE STUDENT'S ANSWER ' 
THE SUM OF THE SIDES 
SE' 
1030 


1040 
DRAW 
1050 



TO SEE IF 
DF' EQUALS 
' SD+SE+SD+ 



IF DF=SD+SE+SD+SE THEN 117 



REM"*** IF INCORRECT, THEN 

THE CORRECT ANSWER" 

DRAW"A0S4C3BM1, 175"+S*+0*+R 
*+R*+Y*+SP* 

1 060 DRAW+ " BU 1 " : DRAW " BM80 , 1 65 " 
1 070 SD*=STR* ( SD+SE+SD+SE ) 
1080 FOR KL=1T0 LEN(SD*) 
1090 00=ASC(MID*(SD*,KL, 1) ) 
1100 00=00-48: IF OO<0 THEN 00=0 



48 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



1110 DRAW " S8 A2C2 " +N* ( 00 ) 

1120 NEXT KL : KL=0 

1130 IF LEFT*(SD*,1)=" " THEN DR 

AW "C1BM80,165"+N«<0> : REM" *#* 

ERASE A POSSIBLE LEADING ZERO" 

1 1 40 DRAW " A0S4C3BM 1 40 , 1 75 " + I *+S« 

+SP*+C*+0*+R*+R*+E«+C*+T* 

1150 GOTO 1180 

1160 REM"*** CORRECT MESSAGE" 

1 1 70 DRAW " A0S4C2BM80 , 1 75 " +C*+0*+ 

R*+R*+E*+C*+T* 

1180 EN»=INKEY*:FORT=1TO10:NEXTT 

1190 REM"*** ERASE MESSAGES" 

1200 IF EN*="" THEN 1180 

1210 PAINTU, 160), 3, 3 

1220 PAINT<1,190),1,1 

1230 C0L0R3: LINE (0, 140) - (255, 140 

) , PSET 

1240 REM"*** REPEAT THE SAME PRO 

CEDURES FOR THE AREA QUESTION" 

1 250 J =0 : DRAW " A0S4C3BM 1 , 1 60 " -t-T*+ 

H*+E*+SP*+A*+R*+E*+A* : DRAW+SP*+ I 

*+S* 

1260 C0L0R2: LINE (200, 165) -(240,1 

65) ,PSET 

1270 DRAWA2S8C4BM210, 150" 

1280 C0L0R3 

1290 FOR J= 1 TO 4 

1300 NN*(J)=INKEY*:FORT=1TO50:NE 



XTT 

1310 

1320 



1330 

1340 

1350 



IF NN«(J)=""THEN 1300 
IF NN*(J)=CHR*(13) THEN 



135 



NK=VAL(NN»(J) ) 

DRAW+N$(NK):NEXT J 

NN* (6) =NN» ( 1 ) +NN* (2) +NN» (3) 
+NN*(4) 

1 360 DF= VAL ( NN» ( 6 ) ) 
1370 IF DF=SD*SE THEN 1490 
1 380 DRAW " A0S4C3BM 1 , 1 75 " +S*+0«+R 
*+R*+Y*+SP* 

1 390 DRAW+ " BU 1 " : DRAW " BM80 , 1 65 " 
1400 SD*=STR*(SD*SE) 
1410 FOR KL-1 TO LEN(SD«) 
1420 00=ASC(MID*(SD*,KL,D) 
1430 00=00-48: IF OO<0THEN 00=0 
1 440 DRAW " S8A2C2 " +N* ( 00 ) 
1450 NEXT KL:KL=0 

1460 IF LEFT*(SD«, 1)=" " THEN DR 
AWC1BM80, 165"+N«(0) 
1 470 DRAW " A0S4C3BM 1 40 , 1 75 " + I *+S* 
+SP*+C»+0*+R*+R*+E*+C*+T* 
1480 GOTO 1500 

1490 DRAWA0S4C2BM80, 175"+C*+0»+ 
R*+R*+E*+C*+T* 

1500 EN»=INKEY*:FORT=1TO50:NEXTT 
1510 IF EN*=""THEN 1500 
1520 GOTO 640 



Talk is Cheap! 



You want your color computer to talk, 
but how much will it cost? 
$50 . . . $100 . . . $200 ... NO! 

HOW ABOUT $29"? 

SPEAK UP!™ is a machine language 
Voice Synthesizer program for your 
TRS-80 Color Computer/ It is 
100% software. Nothing else to buy. 
Best of all, YOU can make 
basic programs talk! 



16K and 32K versions on one cassette. 
Has text to speech capability. 



*T.M. Tandy Corp. 



16k minimum 



It's easy to use, and will say 
virtually anything! 

Talk really is cheap! 



RAINBOW 

CEBTIMCATIO* 
51 AL 



Reviewed in the April 1983 issue of RAINBOW. 

COD orders, checks accepted - NO DELAY 
WE PAY POSTAGE 

1-800-334-0854, ext. 890 
Except North Carolina 



VISA 


r£Q 




P.O. Box 3318 
Chapel Hill, NC 27515 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 49 



E-X-P-L-O-R-E PROGRAMMING 
with the Finest Tools from 




PASCAL 



COLOR PASCAL 

Now you can learn about and program in one ot the 
mosl popular new languages available withoul investing 
in a large computer system. Although our Dynasoft 
PASCAL is not an extended' version, the user will Iind 
that virtually any task can be accomplished using the 
commands available plus external calls to your own 
routines. 

What do you get? THE WHOLE THING: COMPILER, 
P CODE. INTERPRETER. SUPERVISOR. SAMPLE PRO- 
GRAMS, plus a complete instruction manual with 
examples. Based on a subset of standard PASCAL, it 
includes most of the standard control structures but 
omits some of the more sophisticated data structures and 
floating point arithmetic The result is a complete high- 
level language system which retains most of the flavor 
and structure of standard PASCAL but will run on a 
system with as little as 32K memory and a cassette. 
Below is a summary of Color PASCAL'S features: 






Reserved Words 




AND 


ARRAY BEGIN CASE CONST 


DIV 


DO 


DOWNTO ELSE END EXTERN FOR 


FORWARD FUNCTION IF MOD NOT 


OF 


OR 


OTHERWISE PROCEDURE PROGRAM READ 


REPEAT 


THEN 


TO TYPE UNTIL VAR 


WHILE 


WRITE 


WRITELN NEW MARK 

Supervisor Commands 




Load 


Save Edit Compile Go 


Gp 


Move 


Oun 






64K SCREEN EXPANDER 

1 64 x 24 or 51 x 24 screen display, upper/lower case with 
true decenders. 

• Allows mixing of text and hi-res graphics on the same 
screen easily 

• Character set editor allows you to create your own 
characters. 

■ Auto Repeat — hold down any key longer than normal 
and it will begin repeating. 

• Type Ahead means that while the screen is displaying 
you can type a command. Then when the display is 



DISK PASCAL 




Disk PASCAL includes these added features: 

• The compiler requires less than 16K, allowing for larger 
programs. In fact, source programs can be larger than 
memory as code is compiled from the disk. 

• Directed I/O allows channeling of the input and output 
to the screen, printer, or disk. One of the example files 
provided outputs a file to the screen, printer, or disk at 
your choice! This means the same program can display, 
print, or copy files to disk. 

• The entire PASCAL system is contained in two files, 
leaving plenty of disk space for the program 
development 

• An editor is required to create the Pascal source files 
(ASCII files). Computerware's Color Editor is available 
with the Pascal package at a discount. 



DISK FILE ACCESS 

CREATE CLOSE FREAD FWRITE 
RENAME DSIO" 



OPEN 
DELETE 

DSIO allows reading & writing directly to a specific 
sector anywhere on the disk! 

GRAPHICS & JOYSTICK 

PROCEDURE GMODE(MODE) - Enter one of three 
graphics modes or return to the text mode. All 
graphics modes have a resolution of 127 x 191. 
Artifact colors are supported. 

PROCEDURE LINE (X1.Y1.X2.Y2.COLOR) - Draw a 
line from (X1.Y1) to (X2.Y2) in the specified COLOR 

PROCEDURE PSETIX.Y. COLOR) - Turns on the 
pixel at (X.Y.I to specified color. 

PROCEDURE PCLS(COLOR) - Clear the graphics 
screen to COLOR. 

FUNCTION PPOINT(X.Y) - Returns the color code 
ol the specified pixel. 

FUNCTION JOYSTICK(NUMBER) — Returns the 
value of any of the |oysticks or the buttons 

PROCEDURE SOUNDiTONE, DURATION) - Plays a 
note on the TV speaker of the specified TONE for 
the specified duration 

32K Cassette $49.95 32K Disk $69.95 
32K Disk w/Editor $89.95 



OMPUTERWARE 



P O. Boi 668 ■ 
(619)436 3612 



Enclnilas. CA 92024 



finished what you typed has already been accepted as 
input. 

• Both PRINT Hi formats — the standard BASIC format or 
one using standard X.Y coordinates. 

• ON ERROR to make error trapping possible. No more 
program crashes! 

• AUTO LINE numbering while entering a program. 

• Enhanced PMODE command allows you to specify page 
as the start page. 

• Very FAST hi-res display! BM 

• Works with most BASIC and assembly language pro- 
grams (those using the standard BASIC I/O routines) 

64K cassette $24.95 64K disk $27.95 




Computerware is a federally registered trademark ot ComputerwacE. 



COMPUTERWARE® 




THESOURCERER 
Now on OS-9, FLEX, & RSDOS! 

The Sourcerer is a menu driven SYMBOLIC 6809 
disassembler that produces symbolic source code that 
can be assembled. It is compatible with most editor/ 
assemblers including Tandy's EDITASM + . Micro Works 
Macro 80C. and Computerware "s Macro Assembler. The 
Sourcerer runs in a minimum 16K. 

• Three modes of operation: Zap (ASCII dump), Long 
(no labels), and Full Symbolic. 

• Automatic equate generation for labels and symbols 
outside of disassembly range. 

• FCC. FCB, and FDB generation (multiple or single FCB 
and FDB). 

• Written entirely in 6809 machine language for extreme 
speed. Disassembles any size program in seconds. 

• Position independent code is relocatable to any area of 
memory. Leaves room for object program. Can be 
located in memory above $8000 if 64K available. 

• User defined symbol/label buffer area for maximum 
flexibility. 

• Produces files with or without line numbers. 

• FLEX version has nearly 100 built-in labels. 

• Included 'APPRENTICE" program finds start and end of 
machine language programs. Disk version also includes 
FIND and binary COMPARE utilities. 

• Disassemble lo disk or cassette, printer, or screen. 

16K Cassette $34.95 16K Disk $39.95 

COLOR BASIC COMPILER 

; you have ever written a BASIC program only lo find 
that it runs too slow to provide any action and haven't had 
the courage to learn assembler, then the Color Compiler'" 
is the answer. It lets you write your program in easy 
BASIC and then converts it info fast machine language. 
After you run your compiled program, you may find it 
necessary to add some delays because the Color 
Compiler'" will make your program run an average of 40 
times faster. 

The Color Compiler'" features a lolal of 46 commands 
and functions. Most of these are a subset of Extended 
Color BASIC. The Color Computer is limited fo integer 
variables. All floating point handling can be 
done in a BASIC program which calls the compiled pro- 
gram. Passing information from BASIC to compiled pro- 
grams is very easy. The Color Computer'" generates posi- 
tion independent code so that you may put the compiled 
program anywhere in memory, including into a ROM-pack! 
It requires 32K and a disk drive, leaving 16K of user work 
space. 



I lo: COMPUTERWARE ■ 
P.O. Box 668 ■ Dept 
Encinilas, CA 92024 



A02 

' (613) 436-3512 



DESCRIPTION 


QUANT 


PRICE 


TOTAL 


































'SHIP & TAX 






TOTAL 
VISA MASTERCARD CHECK 











Compulerware introduces 

BASIC PROGRAMMING 
UTILITIES and PRINT SPOOLER 

on cassette and disk for the Radio Shack Color Computer. 

This is a real aid to the serious Basic programmer! 
Following are brief descriptions of the very powerful 
utilities included in this package. 

SPRINT — this printer spooler sets up a print buffer in 
upper memory (2K in a 32K system or 32K buffer in a 64K 
system), so you can be printing while other computer 
operations continue unaffected! 

BASREF — this utility prints a complete variable and line 
number cross reference list for Basic programs. This is 
really helpful on longer programs! 

VDUMP — the values of all the variables in your Basic 
program are printed by this utility. 

CCEXPAND — if you have 64K of memory you can use 
this combo of the SPRINT utility with a 51 x 24 hi-res 
screen, a 25K printer buffer, and only use 287 bytes of 
user memory! Also included is CHAREDIT which is a 
Basic program that allows you to change CCEXPAND's 
character set. 

FIXDIR — this is a DISK ONLY utility that helps you clean 
up Basic's disk directory. It gives you an alphabetized 
directory, program information, and a complete disk map. 

$19.95 Cassette $24.95 Disk 

Requires at least 32K of memory. 




upported: 
INKEYS 

RND 



JOYSTK 
SON 

AND 



PEEK 
SQR 

I 
OR 



PEEK* 
TIMER 

NOT 



EXEC 
GOTO 



Instructions Supported: 

CIRCLE CLS COLOR 

DIM END 

GET GOSUB 

LET LINE 

PAINT PCLS 

POKE POKE/* 

PSET PUT 

RESTORE RETURN 




DATA 

FOR-STEP-NEXT 

IF-THEN-ELSE 

MOTOR (ON/OFF) ON n GOTO or GOSUE 

PCOPY PMODE 

PRESET PRINT 

READ REM 



SCREEN SOUND UFR 

Great new features added to Color Basic Computer 

Now our popular Color Basic Compiler has STRINGS! You 
can now enter, manipulate, and compare string values 
directly from your compiled program. 

— New Commands: 
MIDS LEN CHRS STRS 

— Commands changed to work with strings: 
DATA READ INKEYS DIM 
IF-THEN PRINT PRINT® 

— All for the same LOW PRICE of $39.95! 



ig values 



CARD* 
NAME 



ADDRESS i 

CITY ■ 



802 



'Slipping Under $100 — add 12 SU'lace $5 iK/Canada 
Over $100 - add 2' > surface. 5'. ainCanada 



Calif resrdenis add 6=, sales ta» 



RAINBOW WISHING WELL 



32K 
ECB 



RAINBOW 



Add educational power to your computer with . . . 

The Screen Quizzes 



By Fred B. Scerbo 



Editor's Note: This month marks 
the second installment of a new 
regular feature by Rainbow con- 
tributing editor and programmer. 
Fred B. Scerbo. titled "the Rain- 
bow Wishing Well. "In this column. 
Fred will introduce specialized pro- 
grams for the Co Co which he has 
developed for his friends who have 
had specific problems or tasks 
that they would like their CoCo to 
do for them. If any of you have 
suggestions for tasks you would 
like your CoCo to perform, espe- 
cially if they are educational in 
nature, you may forward them to 
Fred, c/o the Rainbow. We are 
not promising that any such "wish " 
will be granted, but if a task looks 
especially interesting or challeng- 
ing to Fred, he may list a program 
in these columns to accomplish 
your task. Please remember that 
any programs resultingfrom these 
suggestions become the property 
of the author. Here is the second 
such program that resulted from 
someone's "wish. " 

During the last three years, my 
Color Computers have played a 
major role in my classroom 
preparations. The students 1 teach at the 
high school level arc often special needs 
students who need supportive help in 
one or more of their regular education 
subjects. In these cases, students will 
bring assignments from their regular 
classes such as history or science, and 1 
will help them review notes and read- 
ings in preparation for tests. When 1 
first started using my CoCo for these 



classes, I found that I was spending four 
or five hours writing "student specific" 
programs, which could only be used by 
one or two students for a few minutes 
each day. When that subject or chapter 
was completed, my finished program 
was of little value to me until the follow- 
ing year, and consequently, would be 
put on the shelf to collect dust. 

At that point I decided to work on 
some type of review program which I 
could spend a "few minutes" updating, 
yet students could use for hours, rather 
than vice versa. 

One such program actually did appear 
in the May 1982 issue of the Rainbow. 
The name of the program was Testem 
and it was written by Jorge Mir. On 
receiving my Rainbow. 1 quickly keyed 
in Testem and used it quite often with 
some of my students. Testem was quite 
an interesting program in that it allowed 
the user to pick two categories (i.e., term 
and definition, date and event, etc.) and 
enter into memory groups of informa- 
tion to be used for a quiz. The program 
would then create a multiple choice or 
fill-in quiz. 

What was unique about Testem is 
that it would create multiple choice 
questions in which the "wrong choices" 
would actually be the correct choices to 
other terms or questions. Gone were the 
days when teachers would have to create 
multiple choice questions such as: 

1) Columbus discovered the New World 
in: 

a) 1942 

b) 1492 

c) 1493 

d) 1934 



Take my word for it. A teacher can quite 
often drive himself crazy thinking up 
"wrong choices. "This idea from Testem 
was quite good! 

However, there were a few features to 
Testem which I did not particularly 
need or wish to use. 

First, while the program was designed 
to be user friendly, there were much too 
many questions to be answered before 
the students could get to the quiz, (i.e., 
"Would you like multiple choice or fill- 
in ?" "Do you want the TERM first ?" 
etc.) This menu could prove to be too 
confusing for my students who often 
had below grade level reading abilities. 
What was needed was a quiz that once 
organized, would quickly get down to 
business. 

Secondly, Testem required the use of 
eitherdisk or tape loaded files. I am one 
who absolutely avoids loading files at 
all costs. When dealing with an educa- 
tional program, 1 have found the best 
formula to be "load it once and let it 
roll." Since tape loaded files are the easi- 
est to mess up when reloading, the last 
thing an instructor needs is to have a 
student sitting in front of the machine 
waiting while the instructor fumbles 
around trying to get the information 
into the machine. If the same informa- 
tion were in DA TA statements, it could 



(Fred Scerbo is a special needs instruc- 
tor for the North Adams Public Schools. 
He holds a master's in education and 
published some of the first software 
available for the Color Computer 
through his software firm, Illustrated 
Memory Banks.) 



52 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



be edited or added to without too much 
trouble. Thus, when the program is 
saved, everything that is needed for 
instruction is in the loaded program. A 
simple RUN statement and the student 
is off and running. 

Thirdly, the manner in which the fill- 
in section was designed required that 
the person using the program type in the 
answer, letter for letter, correctly. There- 
fore, if the answer to a fill-in was George 
Washington and the student typed in G. 
Washington, the program would say the 
answer was incorrect. This would happen 
because the program would compare 
the two strings. Thus, what might be a 
logically correct answer would be marked 
wrong, only further confusing my stu- 
dents. 

Since 1 have been putting on teacher 
training workshops in various New Eng- 
land school systems, 1 was also con- 
fronted with similar needs by the teach- 
ers I worked with. Their "wish" was to 
also have software tools which would 



widths. (The variable SW in both pro- 
grams thus stands for one less than the 
maximum screen width.) I have made 
listings or translations for these pro- 
grams, but the translations are not 
included in these listings. 

Secondly, Testem only had four choi- 
ces and kept repeating problems which 
had been missed. I did not want to 
repeat missed material, so that feature 
was not included. However, at the sug- 
gestion of fourth grade math instructor 
Jack Lamoureaux, a fellow CoCo user 
at East School in North Adams, I 
included a fifth choice, "not given." 
Jack's rationale was that since his stu- 
dents had to take the California Achieve- 
ment Tests, a standardized multiple 
choice test which included a "not given" 
category, using my program would help 
them prepare for the concept of noticing 
that the correct answer was not always 
there. Therefore, both listings here in- 
clude a "not given" which is actually the 
choice on some problems. (In either 



"This [program] becomes a powerful tool for study 
. . . You could use it to study vocabulary, a foreign 
language, history or any subject . . . The possibilities 
are unlimited ..." 



allow them to spend just a little time 
updating programs which would relate 
to the material their students were work- 
ing on. Too often these teachers would 
not fully utilize their computers because 
they did not have the finances to pur- 
chase specific educational software. 
What was needed was a way to effi- 
ciently and effectively make use of these 
microcomputers. 

Thus, my new task was to come up 
with a program(s) which would accom- 
plish what Testem was capable of doing 
as well as the needs expressed by my 
colleagues. The two programs presented 
here were thus designed to meet these 
needs. Here are some additional things 
which 1 included in my quiz programs. 

First, my program would include 
routines which would prevent the break- 
up of words in sentences. Testem had 
this feature as well, but since I would be 
translating this program for school sys- 
tems unfortunate enough to have been 
saddled with Apples or Pets or, worse 
yet. Atari 800s. 1 needed to make my 
program statements include variables 
which would allow for varying screen 



case, the screen would always display 
the actual answer after the student made 
his or her selection. What good was it to 
know the answer was "not given" with- 
out showing the correct answer?) 

Thirdly, Jack is also one who is big on 
having some type of graphic reward 
presented if the student gets a perfect 
score. (This feature isn't so important at 
the high school level, but for fourth 
grade it is okay.) Therefore, the first 
listing includes a REM statement as to 
where to include your graphic reward if 
desired. I will spend more time on that 
later. 

Thus, the result of these wishes are 
the two program listings shown here. 
The first version requires at least 16K 
Extended BASIC since it uses graphics, 
while the second listing will work in 
Color BASIC and can even be keyed into 
the MC-10 (although the memory ex- 
pansion is probably needed). 

The advantage to the first listing is 
that it includes my high resolution gra- 
phic text characters that 1 developed for 
the 1MB word processor, Wordclone. 
This basic screen text generator uses 



PMODE 4 with the green screen and 
will allow up to 42 characters by 22 lines 
in true upper- and lowercase with des- 
cenders. Some educators had pointed 
out to me that rarely does an elementary 
teacher use all uppercase in any kind of 
writing for students, so why do it that 
way on the computer? I think you will 
find that the characters are very read- 
able and fold out onto the screen in a 
smooth fashion. This expanded screen 
is extremely valuable when it is neces- 
sary to display more text on the screen 
than the CoCo normally allows. This is 
helpful when using long definitions, or 
paragraphs. 

Even if you have Extended BASIC, 
you will probably want to key in the 
Color BASIC version because it has some 
advantages over the extended version. 
Say, for example, you are going to pre- 
pare terms and definitions for study. If 
we are using single word definitions and 
use the graphic version, then most of 
our text will be crammed into the upper 
left-hand corner of the screen. In a case 
such as this, our screen would have too 
much blank space which could prove to 
be distracting. Also, since the program 
does not have to translate our string 
data to graphic characters, the program 
executes more quickly. 

Using The Programs 

Key in both programs taking care to 
make no entry errors. (Thank heaven 
for Rainbow On Tape'.) If you make an 
error in the DA TA statements, such as 
leaving out a comma, you will get an 
?OD Error. Since all of the information 
for our test is placed in DA TA state- 
ments at the end of the listing, we have 
to take great care in the DA TA state- 
ments in the beginning of the Hi-Res 
version (Listing I) since this informa- 
tion stores our character set. Also, be 
sure to press [SHIFT] to get into 
upper- and lowercase when typing in the 
DATA statements which are in lower- 
case letters. You will get reversed lower- 
case when typing it in, but get real low- 
ercase when the program is RUN. 

In the Hi-Res version, each string 
which is to be displayed is called as W$ 
and is analyzed character by character 
using the MIDS function. When the 
ASC value of each character is deter- 
mined, the corresponding graphic string 
is displayed using the DRA W state- 
ment. This routine is found in line 95. 
The variable Y stands for our screen 
height is and usually increased by values 
of 8. If we generate too much text, the 
screen will not scroll. The data found in 
listing one will create a fill-in quiz on 
commands of the Color Computer. I 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 53 




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have designed each statement so it is not 
so long as to fill the entire screen. Look 
at the data starting in line 1000. You will 
notice that each data line includes a first 
statement followed by a comma and the 
corresponding answer, (i.e., fill-in sent- 
ence, correct word.) This is the manner 
in which all of our data is structured. 

Check the data in the second listing as 
well. You will notice that the data here is 
arranged in the same way, only in this 
case, the first statement is a question, 
rather than a fill-in sentence. Thus, 
either program can be used with two 
pieces of information which you wish to 
match such as a term and definition, a 
fill-in sentence and a term, or even a 
synonym and antonym. 

Once you have each program saved to 
tape or disk, /?t/jV them. You will notice 
that a name for the quiz appears on the 



I have found that 20 sets of data are 
usually the most you would want in a 
program even though both programs 
can handle up to 50. We do not want our 
program to take a whole class period to 
run. Therefore, pressing the letter S at 
any time will stop the program and dis- 
play the student score. 

Once all the questions have been 
answered, the screen will display the 
number correct, number wrong, and 
student score, based on the number of 
problems tried. The screen will also 
print, "ANOTHERTRY(Y/N)?" Press- 
ing N will end the program and clear the 
screen. Pressing Y will completely rerun 
the program and, thus, re-sort the data 
again. When the student takes the quiz 
again, it will have become a different 
quiz. This becomes a powerful tool for 
study. Just imagine. You could use it to 



". . . I hope [this article] will be of value to those of 
you who want to have your youngsters or students 
use the Co Co for some educational uses. " 



screen. Look at line 5000 in both pro- 
grams and you will notice that each 
reads: 

5000 DATA END.Quiz Title 

When the data is read, the word end 
serves as our flag to stop reading data. 
The next string after end. which is read 
at the same time, becomes our quiz title 
and is displayed at the beginning of the 
program. There is also a routine included 
which will center it in our screen layout. 

Both quizzes will ask you if you wish 
to reverse the data. Thus, if you had 
entered your information as term and 
definition, answering yes would change 
them to definition and term instead. 
You should try each quiz both ways to 
see how useful they can really be. 

Also, each time you RUN the pro- 
grams, the order of the questions will be 
different. (We also keep resetting the 
random number generator while the 
program asks you the first question.) In 
order for the program to work, how- 
ever, there must be at least five sets of 
data to sort. The variable AO(n) stands 
for Answer Order and is re-sorted 
with each run. 



study vocabulary, a foreign language, 
history, or any subject where you can 
identify two matching groups of infor- 
mation. The possibilities are unlimited 
and your CoCo becomes a completely 
flexible educational tool. 



Making Changes 

Let's say you have now saved other 
versions to tape or disk and you want to 
put your own information in one of the 
programs to study. Once loaded, your 
first step is to type: 

DEL 1000 

and press [ENTER]. This is the delete 
command and by typing 1000 followed 
by a dash, we are telling our CoCo to 
delete every line from 1000 on. This will 
remove all of my data and prepare the 
"shell" of the program for your infor- 
mation. (These instructions remain the 
same for either program.) 

Let's say you wish to create a test on 
opposites. Type: 

5000 DATA END, WORDS THAT 
ARE OPPOSITES 



Since we have put the end flag at line 
5000, it will not interfere with any 
information which we type in starting 
with line 1000. The words following end 
will appear as our title when the pro- 
gram is run. 

Now let's make up some data. Try 
these lines: 

1000 DATA HOT,COLD 
1010 DATA UP.DOWN 
1020 DATA YES.NO 
1030 DATA GIVE/TAKE 
1040 DATA NIGHT.DAY 
1050 DATA NEVER.ALWAYS 
1060 DATA LOUD,QUIET 
1070 DATA FAR.NEAR 
1080 DATA LIGHT.DARK 
1090 DATA WON,LOST 

We have just entered 10 sets of matching 
pieces of information. Remember, we 
must have at least five sets to make the 
program work. Now RUN your pro- 
gram. If you have not added an extra 
comma someplace, then the program 
should work. 

If it is necessary for you to use com- 
mas, then simply surround each piece of 
data with quotes and use the commas 
inside the quotes. For example: 

1000 DATA "MOE, LARRY. AND 

CURLY 

.".'THE THREE STOOGES" 

Now when this data is read, the commas 
inside the quotes will not confuse the 
program, since we normally use the 
comma to separate pieces of data. 

You could also make a fill-in the sent- 
ence quiz in this fashion. 

1000 DATA The first on th 

e moon was Neil Armstrong. , man 

Use a strip of periods to form your 
blank in a sentence and then make your 
second piece of information after the 
comma the word that goes in the blank. 
Remember to make at least five senten- 
ces and to use quotes if you need to use 
commas in your sentences. Also remem- 
ber to get into lowercase if you wish to 
use it in your DA TA statements. 

As you can see, the possibilities are 
unlimited. (If some of you think up 
some new uses for these shell programs, 
drop me a line and let me know.) 



Graphic Reward 

As 1 mentioned earlier, some of you 
may want to use a graphic reward if a 
perfect score is achieved. Here is a short 
example you can try which would have 
to appear directly after the REMark in 



56 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



line 850 and before the RETURN com- 
mand. 

860PMODE3,1:PCLSI:SCREENI,0 

862 COLOR 2,4 

864C1RCLE(I28,96),80,0,.9 

866PAINT(I28,32),2,4 

868 CIRCLE( I28,92),55,0,.9,.05,.45 

870 FOR L=0 TO 56 STEP 56 

872 CIRCLE(I00+L,80), 10,0, 1.4 

874PAINT(I00+L,70),4,4 

876 NEXT L 

878 SOUND200.4 

880 FOR L=l TO 3000:NEXT L 



These lines will create a large smile 
face. You may increase the value of the 
counting loop in line 880 if you wish to 
keep it on the screen longer. After the 
screen clears, your score will appear on 
the screen. 

Even though this is just a simple gra- 
phic. I have prepared many more elabo- 
rate graphics (Remember DRA W-EZa 
few months ago?) which I have included 
in some versions for Jack to use with his 
elementary students. We have different 
graphics for different seasons and holi- 



days. Maybe those graphics will appear 
in a later issue. 

I know this has turned into a rather 
lengthy article but I hope it will be of 
value to those of you who want to have 
your youngsters or students use the 
CoCo for some serious educational uses. 
Remember to forward some of your 
wishes to the Rainbow so I can see if we 
can come up with some solutions to 
your problems. Next month, I'll present 
another useful program which will util- 
ize your CoCo in a way you may never 
have imagined. 



<$^SO 



Listing 1: 



60 42 

115 185 

220 190 

315 50 

800 189 

1090 130 

END 153 



10 '******#*»»*****»*♦#»♦**#**#* 

15 '*HI-RES SCREEN QUIZ PROGRAM* 

20 '# BY FRED B.SCERBO (C) 1984 * 

25 '* ILLUSTRATED MEMORY BANKS * 



30 * #***»***»**♦*♦**#»**♦*****.** 

35 CLEAR2000:PCLS:DIMAA*(90),X(5 
1 ) , R (51 ) , AO (50) , A* (50) , B* (50) , NP 

(50) :cls0:d=i:y=8:m*=", •• 

40 for i =0to250step6 : k=k+ 1 : x ( k ) = i 

: NEXT: FORP=1TO90: READC*: AA* (P) =C 

*:next:gotoi00 

45 DATA BR2UBU2U2,BU5NDBR3D,BRUN 
LU3NLNURNUNRD3NLNRD , BRUNLREHL2UR 
NUR2, BR3NUBL3UE3UBL3D, BRNHRU3FND 
2HLNGHERFS, BU5BRRDG, BR2HU3E, BREU 
3H, BU5BRFNLNGNENRNF, BU3BR2DNLNRD 
, BRUNRDRDG , BRBU2R2 , BRRUL , UE3U , BR 
HNE3U3ERFD3GL, R2U5NLD5R 



FINALLY 



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-PRINT): VERTICALLY 
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50 DATA NR3UEREUHLG,BUFREUHNLEUL 

3, BR3U5D3L3UE2R, BUFREUHL2U2R3, BU 

FREUHLGU2ER, BU4UR3D2G3, BUFREUHLN 

BHERFG, BRREU3HLGDFRE, BR2UBU2U, BR 

2NEUBU2URDLBD3RDG, BR2H2UE2, BRBUN 

R2BU2R2, BRE2UH2, BR2UBU2REHL2, , U2 

NR3U2ERFD4 

55 DATA U3NR2U2R2FGFDGL2,BUU3ERF 

BD3GLH, U5RF2DG2L, NR3U3NR2U2R3, U3 

NR2U2R3, BUU3ERBRBD3NLDGLH, U3NU2R 

3NU2D3, BRU5, BUFEU4NRL2, U5D2RE2G2 

F2D, NU5R3, U5FDRUED5, U5F3U3D5, U5R 

3D5L3, U5R2FDGL2, BUU3ERFD3NHNFGLH 

, U5R2FGL2F3, BUFREUHL2UERF 

60 DATA BRU5LR3,NU5R3U5,BU5D3FDR 

UEU3, NU5EU2RD2FU5, UE2H2BR3DGNLFD 

2,BU5D2FRD2NLU2EU2,NR3UE3UL3, , , , 

, , , U2R3U2NL2D4L3, NU5R3U4L3, NR2U4 

R2, R3NU5U4L3D4, U4R3D2L3D2R3, BRU2 

NLNR2U2ER, U4R3D4NL3D2L2, U4NUR2FD 

3,BR2U3BU2RL2 

65 DATA BR2U3BU2UBD4D2GL,NU5U3NR 

2F3, RU5NLD5R2, U4FDRUED4 , U4DERFD3 

, U4R3D4L3, U4R3D4L3D2, U4R3D4NL3D2 

, BRU4D2ER, R3U2L3U2R3, BRNR2U4NR2N 

LU, NU4R3U4, BU4D2FDRUEU2, NU4EURDF 

U4, UEHUBR3DGNLFD, BU4D3FR2NU4DGL , 

NR3UE3L3 

70 IF LEN<JK*X=42THEN90 

75 FOR T=42TO0STEP-l:IF MID*(JK* 

,T,1>=" "THEN85 

80 NEXT T:GOTO90 

85 L*=LEFT* < J K« , T > : W*=L* : Y= Y+8 : G 

0SUB95 : J K*= " " +R I GHT* ( JK* , ( LE 

N(JK*))-T):6OTO70 

90 w*= j k* : y= y+8 : g0sub95 : return 
95 sl=len<w*):draw cc*:fori=ltos 
l:b*=mid*(W«, i,d:c=ASC(B*)-32:: 
draw"bm"+str* ( x < i > ) +" , "+str* ( y) : 
draw aa*(c):nexti: return 
100 pmode 4,1: color0, 1 : pcls 
105 forj<=1to40:read a*<j),b*<j>: 
if a»(j)="end" then115 
110 nextj:gosub120:got( 



140 W*=STRIN6*(DQ-2,32)+B*(J):Y= 
1 8 : G0SUB95 : CC*= " C0 " : J K*= " SHELL 
WRITTEN BY FRED B. SCERBO (C) 19 
84 " : Y= Y+ 1 6 : : GOSUB70 : GOSUB 1 45 : GOT 
0150145 W*=" WOULD YOU LIKE TO R 
E VERSE THE DATA <Y/N) ?" : Y=50: 60S 
UB95: RETURN 



1 50 T*= I NKEY* : UH=RND < -T I MER ) : I F 

T*= " N " THEN 1 70ELSE IF T*= " Y " THEN 1 5 

5ELSE150 

1 55 CC*= "CI": GOSUB 1 45 

160 FOR Q=l TO J-1:TEM*=A*(Q> : A* 

<Q>*B*<Q>:B*<Q>«TEM*:NEXT Q:CC«= 

»C0" 

165 GOTO 175 

1 70 CC*= "CI": GOSUB 1 45 : CC*= " C0 " 

175 J=J-1 

180 F0RI=1 TO J 

185 AO<I)=RND(J) 

190 IF NP(A0(I)>=1 THEN 185 

195 NP<A0(I)>«1 

200 NEXT I 

205 FOR Y-1TO1000:NEXTY 

210 G0SUB355 

215 COLOR0, l:LINE<4,4)-<252,18), 

PSET BF " CC$ = "CI" 

220 W*=" WHICH NUMBER GOES WIT 

H THE FOLLOWING?" :Y= 14: G0SUB95:C 

C*="C0" 

225 FOR P=1T0J 

230 JK*= " " +A* < AO < P ) > : Y=26 : GO 

SUB70:Y=Y+5 

235 FOR Q=1T04 

240 C(Q)=RND(J):IF C(Q)=AO(P) TH 

EN240 

245 FOR K=Q-1 TO 0STEP-1:IF C(K> 

=C(Q) THEN240 

250 NEXTK 

255 NEXTQ:C<5)=A0(P) 

260 FOR E=1T05 

265 F(E)=RND<5) 

270 FOR K=E-1 TO STEP-l:IF F(K 

)=F(E) THEN265 

275 NEXTK: NEXTE 

280 JK*«" 1) "+B*(C(F<1))):G0SUB 

70:Y=Y+3 

285 JK*=" 2) "+B*(C(F(2) ) ): GOSUB 

70: Y=Y+3 

290 JK«=" 3) "+B*(C(F(3))):G0SUB 

70:Y=Y+3 

295 JK«=" 4) "+B*(C(F(4))):G0SUB 

70:Y=Y+3 

300 W*=" 5) not given":Y=Y+8:G0S 

UB95:Y=Y+3 

305 G*= I NKEY* : I FG*= " S " THEN370ELS 

EIFG*=""THEN305 

310 G=VAL(G*) 

315 IF G<1 THEN 305 

320 IF G>5 THEN 305 

325 IF C(F(G))OA0<P) THEN340 

330 JK*=" YOU ARE CORRECT! TH 

E ANSWER IS: "+B*(A0(P)):Y=Y+6:G 

OSUB70 

335 CR=CR+l:GOTO350 

340 JK*=" WRONG! THE CORRECT 

ANSWER IS:" +B* < AO < P ) ) : Y=Y+6 : GOSU 

B70 



58 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORD PROCESSOR * 




THE SECOND GENERATION WORD PROCESSOR 
IS NOW.. . ELITE* WORD has many new features 
not found in other word processors for the Color 
Computer. ELITE'WORD is an all machine 
language, high performance. Full Screen Editor 
MAJOR Features include: 

• ALL Machine Language for speed 

• Handsome Vinyl Binder 

• Comprehensive Manual Included 

• User Friendly (really) 

• Top screen line reserved for 
command prompts, HELP 
messages, and status information 

• Two text entry modes: Insert and 
Exchange 



which offers an ease of use that is simply incredi- 
ble. ELITE* WORD also offers a printed output flex- 
ibility that can handle your sophisticated home 
and business applications. ELITE* WORD is wait- 
ing to work for you. 



' Edit 2 files simultaneously (OS-9 Only) 
1 Delete character under cursor 
1 Backspace and delete one 

character 
1 Delete entire screen line 
1 Rewrite entire screen 
1 Page Forward through text 
1 Page Backward through text 
1 Mark present line for automatic 

centering on output 
' Insert new text (Insert mode) 
1 Type over old text (Exchange mode) 
i Screen Display is 32x19 in normal 

text editing modes 
' Screen Display is High-Res 64x19 

when used to display final text; 

including page breaks and 

justification 
' Screen Display in all modes is true 

Upper/Lower case characters with 

descenders 
i Over 13.5K file size in 32K 

machines 
1 Continuous memory display 
| Save text file (disk or tape) 
1 Load text file (disk or taDe) 

All I/O errors trapped and 

recoverable 

Jump to beginning or end of text 

Find any string of characters in text 

Global replacement of one string in 

text for another 

2-lite Software 



• True block-text Move command 

• Smooth cursor movement over 
text in any direction (including 
vertical) 

• Smooth screen scroll for easier 
proof reading 

• Auto Key-Repeat will auto- 
matically repeat any key that is 
held down 

• Easy generation of ASCII files 

• VIEW function permits high-res 
screen display of final text before 
it's printed; including right-side 
justification and page breaks 

• VARIABLE TEXT MERGE allows 
for generation of standard form 
type letters that appear to be 
personally prepared for each 
reader 

• INCLUDE feature (disk only) 
permits the inclusion of many 
other files within one large 
document. Total document will 
have sequential page numbering 

• From the same minds that brought 
yo u ELITE* CALC 

THE BEST FOR ONLY 

Specify 

Tape $59.95 
RS Disk $59.95 
OS-9 Disk $79.95 
OS-9 & RS Disk $109.95 

- Shipping from stock NOW 

— Dealer Inquiries Invited. 
Add $2 Postage & Handling 
PA residents add 6 sales tax 



IB 



» Type ahead keyboard buffer 

NEVER misses a character 
» Optional screen display of all 

carriage returns <cr> 
» Fast Disk I/O . . . No loading of 

overlay files to slow program 

operation 
> User HELP display available 
» Automatic screen Word-Wrap; 

even while inserting new text 
■ Block-text move, copy or delete 

' Display/Change default disk drive 

number (disk only) 
1 Display disk directory (disk only) 
' Display Free disk space available 
| Software remembers last file name 

Saved or Loaded and will write to 

that file by default if desired 
' Dynamic margin changes within text 
' Select Top margin, Bottom margin, 

and Page length 

Choose number of duplicate copies 
Page Pause, for single sheet users, 
if desired 

Optional page numbering begins 
with any selected page number 
Printer Font codes are user 
definable 

All printer format options may be 
changed dynamically within text 
Any string of HEX characters may 
be imbedded within text to send any 
special control codes to your 
printer 

An Eject (top of form) command 
may be inserted within text 
Variable Text Merge symbols may 
be inserted anywhere within text 
All machine language; 32K and 
Extended Basic required for ROM- 
call routines 



Box 11 224 « Pittsburgh, PA 15238 » (412)795-8492 



Excellent for Program Editing 
and Word Processing 



345 IR-IR+1 

350 FOR Y=1TO1000:NEXTY:GOSUB355 

: GOTO360 

355 COLORl,l: LINE (0,24) -(256, 48) 

, PRESET, BF: PMODE0, 2: PCLS1 : PMODE0 

, 3: PCLS1 : PMODE0, 4: PCLS1 : PM0DE4, 1 

:COLOR0,0: RETURN 

360 NEXT P 

365 IFCR=J THEN QOSUB 800 

370 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 

375 J=CR+IR: IF J=0 THEN J=l 

380 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT - " 

CR 

385 PRINT 

390 PRINT" NUMBER WRONG = " 

IR 

395 PR I NT: PR I NT" STUDENT SCOR 

E = ";INT(CR*100/J);"7." 

400 PR I NT: PR I NT" ANOTHER TRY 

(Y/N)"; 

405 W»= I NKEY* : I FW*= " " THEN405 

410 IF W»="Y" THEN RUN 

415 IF W*="N" THEN 425 

420 GOTO405 

425 CLS: END 

800 REM STORE YOUR OWN GRAPHIC 

REWARD HERE 

980 RETURN 

990 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 

1000 DATA The term means 

'RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY.', RAM 
1010 DATA We cannot change the c 

ontents o-f although we c 

an move it to RAM and examine it 

there. , ROM 

1020 DATA The statement 

would give us a random number no 

greater then ten. , RND < 10) 
1030 DATA BASIC is actually a .. 
programming language. , high 

level 
1040 DATA ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE is a 

n example of programm 

ing. , low level 

1050 DATA The 6809 is your COLOR 

COMPUTER' S , centra 

1 processing unit 

1060 DATA The command w 

ill display the amount of free R 

AM left. , PRINT MEM 

1070 DATA If we wish to use more 

or fewer graphics pages then we 

must additional pages., 

PCLEAR 

1080 DATA The command sta 

rts a counting loop ended by the 

command ' NEXT' . , FOR 
1090 DATA The command ...... end 

s a counting loop started by the 

command ' FOR' . , NEXT 

60 the RAINBOW April 1984 



1100 DATA Any information found 

in quotes is called a an 

d is designated as a variable wi 
th a dollar sign., STRING 

1110 DATA A is called 

by the command 'GOSUB' . , subrotin 
e 

1 120 DATA The command 

ends a subroutine. , RETURN 

1130 DATA The command wil 

1 generate a random number no gr 
eater than 100. , RND < 100) 

1140 DATA The command wil 

1 display the program we have wr 
itten on the screen., LIST 

1 150 DATA An statement 

compares two or more pieces of 
information. , IF. . .THEN 

1160 DATA The command mak 

es the program leave sequence an 
d branch to another line., GOTO 

1 170 DATA An is a storag 

e area reserved for either strin 
g or numeric inf or mat ion. , ARRAY 

1 180 DATA scans the key 

board for a key being pushed., IN 

KEY* 

1190 DATA To reserve additional 

string space in memory you must 

use the command followed 

by a digit., CLEAR 
5000 DATA END, SAMPLE TEST USING 
FILL-IN SENTENCES 




Listing 2: 



10 ' **************************** 

20 '* TEXT SCREEN QUIZ PROGRAM * 

30 '* BY FRED B.SCERBO <C) 1984 ♦ 

40 '* 149 BARBOUR ST. N.ADAMS * 

50 '* ILLUSTRATED MEMORY BANKS * 

60 ' **»****»**#****»***»»**»**** 

70 CLEAR3000 

80 SW=31 

90 CLS0 

100 DIMAO<50),A*(50),B«<50),NP<5 

0) 

110 CLS0: GOTO 180 

120 IF LEN(JK*K=SW THEN160 

130 FOR T=SW TO 0STEP-1:IF MID*< 

JK*,T,1)=" "THEN150 

140 NEXT T: GOTO 160 

1 50 L*=LEFT* ( JK* , T ) : W*=L* : GOSUB 1 

70:JK*=" m +RIGHT*(JK*, <LEN(JK* 



* COLOR COMPUTER WORKSHEET * 




NOW . . . The worksheet calculator program you've 
been waiting for is waiting to work for you. 
ELITE'CALC is a powerful, full featured worksheet 
calculator designed especially for the Color Com- 
puter. Answer "what if" questions, prepare reports. 



maintain records and perform other tasks that, until 
now. required sophisticated business computers. 
ELITE* CALC is a serious tool for those who want to 
do more than play games with their Color Computer. 



Features include: 

■ Single character commands 

■ Help Displays 

■ Enter text or formulas to 255 
characters iong 

■ Repeat text entries 

■ 255 maximum rows 

■ 255 maximum columns 

■ Available memory always displayed 

■ Rapid Entry modes for text and 
data 

■ Selectable Automatic Cursor 
movement 

■ Insert, Delete, Move entire rows or 
columns 

■ Replicate one cell to fill a row or 
column with selectable formula 
adjustment 

■ All machine language for speed 

■ Extended BASIC required for ROM 
routine calls 

■ Automatic memory size detection 
for 16K. 32Kor 64K 

• >20K bytes, storage available in 
32K systems 

» BASIC style formulas 

■ Math Operators. +,-.X,/.l,(,),= 

• Relation Operators: 
= .>.<.< >■■> =.<> 

■ Logic Operations AND, OR, NOT 

■ Conditional Formula IF 
THEN . ELSE 

■ Trig Functions SIN. COS, TAN 
ATN 



ilute Software 



i EASY TO USE 

> INDIVIDUAL CELL FORMULAS 

■ COPY BLOCKS OF CELLS 

i FULL CELL-EDIT CAPABILITY 

i COMPATIBLE WITH ALL PRINTERS 

EASY 132 COLUMN PAGE WIDTH 
• CHANGEABLE BAUD RATES 

GRAPH FORMAT FOR BAR CHARTS 

SORT IN ASCENDING OR DESCENDING 

ORDER 

COMPREHENSIVE MANUAL INCLUDED 

NATIONWIDE USER GROUP 

HANDSOME VINYL BINDER 

THE BEST FOR ONLY 

$5995 

Specify: Disk or Tape 

— Shipping from stock NOW 

- Dealer Inquiries Invited 
Add $2 Postage & Handling 
PA residents add 6 sales tax 



1 Log Functions LOG. EXP, SQR. 

1 Misc. Functions: INT. FX, ABS, 
SGN. 

1 Range Functions: SUM. AVERAGE. 

COUNT, MIN, MAX, LOOKUP 
1 Nine digit precision 
1 Definable constant table 
1 User definable printer set-up 

commands 

Individual column width settings 
Adjustable row height to insert 
blank lines without wasting 
memory 

Hide columns or rows 

Alternate print font selectable on 

cell by cell basis 

Display/Print formats set by cell, 

row, or column 

Dollar format, comma grouping, 

prefix or postfix sign 

Scientific notation, fixed point and 

integer formats 

Left and Right cell contents 

justification 

Full page formatting 

All formats stored with worksheet 

on disk(tape) 

Save & Load Disk(tape) files in 
compact memory form 

Scan disk directories 
Output ASCII file for word 
processor input compatibility 
Memory resident code . . no 
repeated disk calls 

Sample worksheets included 



Box 11224 • Pittsburgh. PA 15238 • (412)795-8492 







HfcliCjU; 


s 







"Elite » Calc is a great spread- 
sheet program ! This profes- 
sional quality program has the 
performance required for seri- 
ous home applications as well 
as small businesses. " 

Stuart Hawkinson, Rainbow 



"Truly one of the best 
programs I have seen. " 

John Steiner, Micro 



"Elite" Calc is an ex- 
tremely powerful work- 
sheet ..." 
Jack Lane, Color Micro Journal 



Bruce Cook's Elite "Calc 
is a very fine program in- 
deed; potentially one of 
the great Color Computer 
Programs. " "... a very 
impressive product. " 

Scott L. Norman, Hot C0C0 



))-T):SOTO120 

1 60 W*= J K* : PR I NT W* : RETURN 

170 PR I NTW*: RETURN 

180 FORJ=1TO50:READ A*(J),B*(J): 

IF A* < J) -"END" THEN200 

190 NEXTJ:GOTO210 

200 FOR I -32T095 : PR I NTfl I , CHR* ( 1 75 

) ; : NEXT 

210 PRINT: PRINT" MULTIPLE CHOI 

CE QUIZ ON:" 

220 EM-LEN<B*<J)):IF EM>30 THEN 

B* < J ) -LEFT* <B* < J ) , 30) 

230 DQ-INT < (30-EM) /2> 

240 PRINTTAB <DQ);B*< J) 

250 PRINTTAB < 14) "BY" : PRINTTAB (8) 

"FRED B . SCERBO " : PR I NTT AB ( 6 ) " COP 

YRIGHT (C) 1983" 

260 PRINT: PR I NT "WANT TO REVERSE 

THE DATA (Y/N) ?" 

270 FOR I -384T0447 : PR I NTS I , CHR* < 1 

75) j:NEXTI 

280 T*=INKEY*:UH-RND<6666):IF T* 

="N"THEN 320 

290 IF T*="Y" THEN310 

300 BOTO280 

310 CLS0:FOR Q=l TO J-1:TEM*=A*< 

Q):A*<Q)=B*(Q):B*(Q)=TEM*:NEXT Q 

320 CLS0:J=J-1 

330 FORI-1 TO J 

340 AO(I)=RND<J) 

350 IF NP(AO(I))-l THEN 340 

360 NP<AO(I))=l:NEXTI 

370 FOR Y=1TO1000:NEXTY 

380 FOR P=1T0J 

390 CLS 

400 PRINT: JK*=" "+A*<AO<P)) :BO 

SUB 120 

410 FOR Q=1T04 

420 C(Q)=RND(J):IF C(Q)=AO(P) TH 

EN420 

430 FOR K=Q-1 TO 0STEP-1:IF C<K) 

=C(Q) THEN420 

440 NEXTK 

450 NEXTQ:C(5)=A0(P) 

460 FOR E=1T05 

470 F(E)=RND<5) 

480 FOR K=E-1 TO STEP- 1: IF F(K 

)-F(E) THEN470 

490 NEXTK: NEXTE 

500 PRINT 

510 JK*=" l-"+B*<C<F<l))):60SUBl 

20 

520 JK*=" 2-"+B*<C<F<2))):B0SUBl 

20 

530 JK*-" 3-"+B*(C(F(3))):80SUBl 

20 

540 JK*=" 4-"+B* (C(F<4) ) ) : GOSUB1 

20 

550 W*=" 5-NOT BIVEN":BOSUB170 

560 8*= I NKE Y* : I FB*= " S " THEN680 



570 IF 6*=""THEN560 

580 B=VAL(B*) 

590 IF 6<1 THEN 560 

600 IF B>5 THEN 560 

610 IF C<F(B))OAO(P) THEN640 

620 PRINT: JK*-" YOU ARE CORREC 

T! THE ANSWER IS: "+B* <AO<P) > :BO 

SUB 120 

630 CR=CR+l: GOT 0660 

640 PRINT: JK*-" WR0N6! THE COR 

RECT ANSWER IS: " +B* ( AO ( P ) ) : BOSU 

B120 

650 IR-IR+1 

660 FOR Y=1TO2000:NEXTY 

670 NEXT P 

680 CLS: PRINT: PRINT 

690 J-CR+IR: IF J=0 THEN J=l 

700 PRINT" NUMBER CORRECT - " 

CR 

710 PRINT 

720 PRINT" NUMBER WRONB = " 

IR 

730 PRINT: PRINT" STUDENT SCOR 

E = "JINT<CR*100/J);"X" 

740 PR I NT: PR I NT" ANOTHER TRY 
(Y/N)"; 

750 W*= I NKEY* : I FW*= " ■ THEN750 

760 IF W*="Y" THEN RUN 

770 IF W*="N" THEN END 

780 BOTO750 

990 REM ENTER DATA AT LINE 1000 
1000 DATA WHAT IS THE NAME OF TH 

E LANBUASE IN OUR COLOR COMPUTER 
?, BASIC 
1010 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL CLE 

AR THE SCREEN FOR US ?,CLS 

1020 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL PIC 

K A RANDOM NUMBER FROM ONE TO TE 

N ?,RND<10) 

1030 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL PIC 

K A RANDOM NUMBER FROM ONE TO FI 

FTY ?,RND(50) 

1040 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL PIC 

K A RANDOM NUMBER FROM ONE TO ON 

E HUNDRED ?,RND<100) 

1050 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL ST A 

RT A COUNT I NB LOOP ?,FOR 

1060 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL END 

A COUNT I NB LOOP ?,NEXT 
1070 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL SEN 
D THE PROSRAM TO A SUBROUTINE ?, 
60SUB 

1080 DATA WHICH COMMAND WILL SHO 
W US THE PROBRAM WHICH WE HAVE T 
YPED INTO OUR MEMORY ?,LIST 
1090 DATA WHAT DO WE CALL A LETT 
ER WHICH STANDS FOR A NUMBER OR 
A STRIN6 ?, VARIABLE 
5000 DATA END, SAMPLE SCREEN QUIZ 



62 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



• COLOR COMPUTER DATA BASE MANAGER • 




THIS IS IT! EUTE'FILE is the lull featured, all machine 
language, Data Base Manager, that Color Computer 
users have been waiting for. From the same author that 
brought you ELITE'CALC. ELITE'FILE is for everyone who 
needs to store and recall information. You specify what to 
store, and what to retrieve. ELITE'FILE gives you total 
flexibility. ELITE»FILE is a relational Data Base Manager 

Features include: 



with all the editing and repeat formatting features that 
are typically found only on much larger computer 
systems, but priced for Color Computer users. It's "user 
friendly" command structure makes it simple to use even 
for those who don't write computer programs. ELITE»FILE 
is waiting to work for you. 



■ Compatible with ELITE'CALC and 
ELITE-WORD ASCII tiles 

■ Use' (nendly combination of Menu 
driven input and single key commands 

' Up to 255 named fields per record 
' Up to 255 characlers per field 
' Up to 2000 characters per record 
" Up to 4000 records per file 
> Supports multiple drives 
' Nested subfield definitions 
' Up to eight fields in primary key 
1 Copy record definition from file to file 
' View record definition 

' Input records with easy lo use field 
name format display 

i Edit records with lull screen "type over" 
editor 

i Copy records to repeat identical data 

i Scan mode for quick dala retrieval 

i Locale any record by field contents 

Load ELITE'CALC spread sheets into 
random access data files 
User setable pnnl formats 

TAB, VTAB, CR. PAGE, text, hex print 
controls 

Join up to four subfile records to extend 
dafa record for print 

Create "Variable Tex! Insert" files for 
ELITE* WORD 

Produce repetitive reports with Retrieval 
Programs wriften on ELITE* WORD 

i Relile data into new record structures 



* ALL MACHINE LANGUAGE 

* FLEXIBLE, USER DEFINED DATA 
RECORD STRUCTURES 

* 1 6 FILES CAN BE HANDLED AT THE 
SAME TIME FOR 64K RECORD 
CAPACITYI 

* EDIT, SCAN, SORT, SELECT 
RECORDS 

* OUTPUT REPORTS TO SCREEN 
PRINTER, OR ASCII DISK FILE 

* PLACE DATA BY FIELD NAME, WITH 
CUSTOM TEXT, ANYWHERE ON THE 
PRINTED PAGE 

* COMPATIBLE WITH ALL PRINTERS 

* COMPREHENSIVE MANUAL 

* HANDSOME VINYL BINDER 

THE BEST FOR ONLY 



m 



so 



Disk Only 

Shipping NOW 

Add S2.50 Shipping 

PA residents add 6% sales tax 

Dealer inquiries invited 



■ Thousands of applications: 
—Mailing List 

— Inventory 

— Record Collection Index 
—Phone Number Reference 
—Order Entry/Invoice 

— Expense Records 

— Recipe Files 
—Study Note Retrieval 
—Customer Files 
-Check Book Register 

— Library Catalog 

— Appointment Calendar 
—Yours 

' Data, field definilions, indices stored on 

a single file 
' Lis! disk directories, change default 

drive and "kill" files without leaving 

ELITE'FILE 

i Memory resident, no program overlays 
from disk 

i Minimum 32K, Disk Basic required 

1 Single program performs all features 

Data files accessible from BASIC 

programs 

i Proiect any subset of fields in any order 
for the printed output 

' Select specific records by held content 
with full logic combination capabilities 

i Sort records in ascending or descending 
order by any field 

Calculate values from combinations of 
field contents 

Math operators: +, — . *, /, (, ) 

Display or print column totals 



£life ^ofjturate 



Box 11 224 • Pittsburgh, PA 15238 • (412)795-8492 



From the creators Of ZAKSUND • COLOR TEXTSET I . COLOR TEXTSET II 

GALACTIC FORCE ' TEXT EDITOR • PARTY PAK •• COLOR MONITOR • TREK 16 • WARH 

DISK&TAPECOPY • ANIMALS • BODYPARTS • TAPE COPY and many oWerhnep>og>am S 



s/rs two svtes of srsic 



Gaining Sophistication 
With Printing Techniques 



By Richard A. White 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



As you advance to more complicated programs that 
are giving more data to the user and requesting more 
in return, you will feel a need to clean up the screen. 
Things like words cut in half at the right edge will hopefully 
already have been conquered. Now. let's say you are work- 
ing on man's most prolific program, the one that balances 
the checkbook. It sure would be nice to start at the left 
margin with the check number, and then on the same line 
enter the date, and still on the same line enter the amount, 
etc. And while we are at it. if the amount entry is 21.35, let's 
reprint it right now as S 2 1 .35 so it lines up neatly with the 
entry for the check before that was reprinted as S 1872.99. 
Consider these entries to be in a publisher's checkbook and 
not in the impoverished author's. 

And while you arc at it. how about getting a neatly for- 
matted check listing off the printer for comparison with the 
bank statement that just came. Sound tough for a beginner? 
Well, it does take some learning, but what doesn't? Every- 
thing needed except PRINT USING is in Color BASIC. 
While PRINT USING is indeed nice to have, we can do 
quite a bit without it. You can also write subroutines in 
Color basic to do tasks that would be done with commands 
in Extended BASIC. 

It took me some time and not a little sweat to learn how to 
format the screen. But when the printer came. I found that 
most of what 1 knew about printing to the screen worked on 
the printer with only modest differences. One does not 
PRINT@ 416. to a printer. Likewise, the printer line may 
range from 32 to 132 or more characters depending on your 
printer. But. these differences are not a problem once you 
are aware of them. 

(Richard While has a long background with micro- 
computers and specializes in BASIC programming. 
With Don Dollherg. he is the author of the TIMS data 
base management program.) 



Print position control lies at the heart of print formatting. 
PRINTcnuses the first character to be printed at the current 
print position. There is an analogous position on a line at the 
printer. When printing, you don't see the print position 
moving, but you can think of it as doing so. When printing is 
complete, where is the print position? If you do nothing to 
control it, it will go to the first character position on the next 
line on the screen. Most, not all. printers advance to the next 
line on the page. 



"A semicolon, immediately following a 
string in a PRINT statement, will sup- 
press the carriage return and hold the 
print position at the location . . . follow- 
ing the last . . . string . . ." 



At the risk of breaking the How. be aware that some 
printers need to be sent a line feed character CHR$( 10) since 
they will not automatically line Iced after a carriage return. 
Fortunately, these are a small minority. But. if some guy 
catches you in an alley and offers to sell you a QPGZY 6.5 
character per second typesetter and billboard painter for 
S 1 00, know that you have been warned. Know also that some 
printers, including some Radio Shack models, will do an 
automatic line feed if they do not get a carriage return within 
about one second after the last character is received. This is 
generally not a problem, but 1 would not call it a feature, 
either. 

Color BASIC provides two cursor control characters, the 
semicolon ";"and the comma ".". A semicolon, immediately 
following a siring in a PRINT statement, will suppress the 
carriage return and hold the print position at the location 
immediately following the last printed character of the 



64 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



string. What about numbers? A printed number is sent as a 
string of characters to either the screen or the printer. So. it 
makes no difference what is in your PRINT ot PRINTti-2. 
statements, if the last character is a ";" the next print posi- 
tion will be immediately following the last character printed. 

If you use a comma in place of the semicolon, the print 
position will be tabbed to the beginning of the next "print 
zone." In the "Extended Color BASIC Manual, "a print /one 
is called a "comma field width." The default value of a 
comma field width is 16 characters. You can change the 
printer comma field width by POKEing whatever width you 
wish into memory location 153, e.g., POKE 153. 10. My 
tests show that you cannot change the screen's comma field 
width. There is a memory location that holds this value, but 
Basic resets it to 1 6 each time a /WATstatement is encoun- 
tered. This is not really a problem, but again, not a feature, 
either. 

I use the comma when printing menus on the screen. Try 
the following code. 

10 CLS :PRINT :PRINT :PRINT" I FIRST MENU 
CHOICE"." 2 SECOND MENU CHOICE",.," 3 
THIRD MENU CHOICE" 

Since each string ends past position 1 7 on the screen line, 
the comma causes a carriage return and starts the next string 
on a new line. The three commas after " 2 SECOND 
MENU CHOICE" causes the print position to move to the 
next line, then to the 1 7th character position and then to the 
second line down. This is a neat way to double space text 
with minimum typing. If your text ends before position 17. 
you will need an extra comma. 

Since you can POKE a different comma field width for 
the printer, you can set up tables of equal width columns 
fairly easily. 

10 FORX=!TO4:PRINT#-2." " :NEXT :POKE 
153.10 : PRINT#-2." "."COLUMN ("."COLUMN 

2"."COLUMN3"."COLUMN4","COLUMN 5" "COL- 
UMN 6","COLUMN 7" 

15 PRINTf, 2.STRINGS (80,"-") :PRINT #-2," " 

20 FOR X= I TO 20 :PRINTfl- 2. ST$(X),:FOR Y= I TO 

7:PRINT#-2.VL(X,Y),:NEXT:PRINT#-2." ":NEXT 

This code will print four blank lines, then 10 spaces (we set 
the comma field width at 10 with POKE 153.10). and then 
the headings column I through column 7 at 10-space incre- 
ments. In line 1 5. we dress things up with a row of dashesand 
a blank line. Line 20 prints a 20-line by seven-column array 
of numbers with an identifier, STS(X), for each row in 
column I. We discussed arrays last month and showed one 
example of their power and ease of use. Here is another 
where they permit accomplishment of a good amount of 
work with minimum code. 

Since we can get only two columns on the screen using the 
comma width field, we need a different tool to get more 
columns. TABQ to the rescue. PRINT TAB(20)X tells 
basic to print X starting at the 20th position on the line. 
PR1NTU 2,TAB(20)X is the equivalent statement for the 
printer. 

PRINT@ X. is only usable when printing to the screen. It 
is used to set the print location to any position on the screen 
directly. Even if your cursor is in line 16. you can print at the 
top left of the screen by using PR1NT@0. "XYZ"; without 
otherwise changing what is on the screen. Screen positions 
are numbered sequentially starting at and going to 51 1. 
The end of line one is 3 1 . the start of line two is 32. etc. There 



are screen numbering diagrams in your manuals that are 
worth study. In fact, these are designed so you can copy 
them and use them as worksheets. It is good practice to use 
the semicolon with your PR1NT@ X. statements so you 
always have full control of the screen position. 

The INPUTand LlNE/NPUTsiaiemcnts are a pain since 
they always send a carriage return when you hit [ENTER] to 
complete the data entry. Say you wanted to enter data at a 
number of locations on the same line on a form that you had 
previously printed on the screen. Some data management 
programs allow the user to make up a form that displays on 
the screen with blank areas where data is to be entered. Say 
field three wants a two-character number to be entered at 
line positions 8 and 9 on line 5 while field four needs up to 10 
characters entered starting at line position 21 on line 5. As 
soon as the number is entered using INPUT, the remainder 
of line five is wiped out. including the name for field four and 
the new print position ends up at the beginning of line six. 
IN KEYS gives us a tool to do it right, but there will need to 
be more than just an AS=1NKEYS statement to make it 
work. Let's develop a general IN KEYS subroutine that can 
be used in place of INPUTand LINElNPUTand which will 
provide some performance features those commands lack. 

Let's think about what those features might be. This is 
really writing a specification of what we want. 

1 ) Have an option to limit the number of characters to be 
entered. 

2) Print each character as it is typed. 

3) Test for a carriage return to terminate data entry, but 
leave the print position where it is. 

4) Automatically terminate data entrv when the specified 
limit is reached. 



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April 1984 the RAINBOW 65 



5) Return a string. The string can be easily converted to a 
number if a number was to be entered. You can even build in 
a test to be sure that only numerals or a period are entered if 
a number is expected. 

We will need some variables to carry information to and 
from the subroutine and for intermediate storage within the 
subroutine. Let's send the character count limit in LM. 
Within the subroutine. AS will be an temporary storage 
variable and CT will be the character count variable. BS will 
carry the resultant string back to the calling routine. Below 
is the subroutine. 

10 B$=STRINGS(LM.32) :CT=I 

12 A$=INKEY$ :1F A$OCHRS(13) THEN PRINT 

AS; :MID$(BS.CT.I)=AS :CT=CT+I :IF CT<LM 

THEN 12 

14 RETURN 



". . . Why not join those with 
Color BASIC in writing your own 
[routine]." 



You can POKE to the screen as well as PRINT to it. 
However, there a few tricks BASIC pulls of which you should 
be aware. Here is a short BASIC program that demonstrates 
these tricks. Enter and RUN it, then resume reading. 

10 CLS :FORX=0TO255 :POKEI024+X.X :NEXT 
20FORX=0TO254:PRlNT@256+X.CHRS(X);:NEXT 
30 GOTO30 

The top half of your screen has been POKEed sequen- 
tially with values from to 255 while these same values 
(except 255) were printed to the lower half of the screen. 
Most obviously, basic changes some values from the nor- 
mal ASCII ones for characters when it loads the screen 
memory. The inverse video characters start at I, 96 less than 
their ASCII values. Next the characters whose ASCII values 
are normally 32 to 63 are moved into the 97 to 127 area. 
Third, we have a whole new set of reverse characters includ- 
ing reverse video numbers that can be obtained by poking to 
the screen. In line 1 of the program above note that we start 
POKEingzX the beginning of screen memory 1024. Add the 
screen location number that you would use with PRINT@ 
to 1 024 and you have the location to PO KE. You can PEEK 
a location as well and now that you know how BASIC 
switches things around, you can make some sense out of 
what you PEEK. 

Now for those waiting for instructions on how to format 
numbers neatly and aligned like we spoke of above. Bad 
news — that's your assignment. Those with Extended BASIC 
can use PRINT USING, of course, but why not join those 
with Color BASIC in writing your own? All you have to lose is 
some ignorance and maybe a little hair. I will be happy to 
publish any good routines sent me through the Rainbow. 



This subroutine is really a substitute for LINEINPUT 
with the additional features described above. It requires 
Extended BASIC (a revision for Color BASIC is shown 
below). On entry in line 10. BS is defined as a string of spaces 
LM long. Be sure to give LM some value before calling the 
subroutine. The count variable is set to 1. A character is 
obtained in AS and checked to be sure it is not a carriage 
return (CHR$(13)). If it is, the program goes to line 14 for 
the return. Otherwise, AS is printed with the semicolon to 
hold the print position and put into BS with the MID$ 
command. This saves generation of string garbage and gar- 
bage collections delays. Finally, CT is incremented and 
tested. If CT=LM the program goes to 14. otherwise it goes 
to line 12 to get the next character. The routine will return 
BS with some extra spaces whenever fewer than LM charac- 
ters are entered before the carriage return. This can be 
corrected in the calling routine as follows: GOSUBI0 
:BS=LEFT$ (BS.CT). 

For those with Color BASIC, the following subroutine 
works. 

I0BS="":CT=I 

12 A$=INKEY$ :IF A$OCHR$(I3) THEN PRINT 
AS; :BS=BS+AS :CT=CT+1 :IFCT<LM THEN 12 
14 RETURN 

This avoids the use of MIDS on the left, which is not in 
Color BASIC. It has the merit of sending back BS whose 
length is exactly the number of characters entered so 
BS=LEFTS( BS.CT) is unneeded. Note that in both cases, 
the code is written to avoid using ELSE which slows 
execution. 



Submitting Material 
To the Rainbow 

Contributions to the RAINBOW arc welcome from eve- 
ryone. We like to run a variety of programs which will be 
useful/ helpful/ fun for other CoCo owners. 

Program submissions must be on tape or disk and it is best 
to make several saves, at least one of them in ASCII format. 
We're sorry, but we do not have time to key in programs. All 
programs should be supported by some editorial commen- 
tary, explaining how the program works. We're much more 
interested in how your submission works and runs than how 
you developed it. Programs should be learning experiences. 

We do pay for submissions, based on a number of criteria. 
Those wishing remuneration should so slate when making 
submissions. 

For the benefit of those who wish more detailed infor- 
mation on making submissions, please send a SASE to: 
Submissions Editor, the RAINBOW, P.O. Box 209. Pros- 
pect, KY 40059. We will send you some more comprehensive 
guidelines. 

Please do not submit programs or articles currently sub- 
mitted to another publication. 



66 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 







ft 



18 




As It's Played 



Program By Dan Drou 



urn 






(''\"t'' : ':'- 



"■frit 



.- 1 



&1 







The croupier smiled his twenty- 
dollar smile. He rolled his 
head back just a bit to speak 
to the crowd beyond those close 
around him at the craps table, caus- 
ing a brilliant reflection from the 
overhead lights to emanate from 
the faceted moon of a diamond 
embedded in a front tooth. His 
voice rolled across the layers of blue 
smoke, "PC LEA R2 before CLOA D- 
ing" he said. 

Craps has always been a favorite 
among gamblers, and has been 
played by high rollers in private 
parlors for thousands of dollars, by 
grub-fisted hopefuls in dingy hall- 
ways for sometimes more, and by 
folks like you and me for usually 
much less. The common factor that 
ties us all together, it seems, is the 
thrill of laying it all on the line in the 
hope that the tumbling fates will 
perform their final transformation 
in our favor, thereby blessing us 
with a sudden increase in our mate- 
rial holdings. Also, adrenaline may 
be an addictive drug. 

Now, a brief explanation of Craps 
rules as the game is played here at 
Casino CoCo. Following the croup- 
ier's advice to PCLEAR2 and 
CLOAD, you next must type RUN 
and wait for the graphics to appear 
on screen. At this point, press the 
"P" key to begin play. 

After entering your name and the 
names of one or two other players, 
the dice will be offered to the first 
person entered, who will have the 



Casino 
CoCo 




April 1984 Ihe RAINBOW 67 



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option of rolling or passing the dice. 

At this time, the first bet is made; the roller can bet any 
amount of $1 or more. The second player can bet any 
amount up to the first player's bet. and the third player can 
bet any or all of the remaining amount. 

Press the spacebar to roll your dice. Rolling a seven or 1 1 
on first roll wins, and a two, three or 12 on your first roll 
loses. Any other number which comes up on first roll is 
known as your "point. "(At this time you may make a second 
bet.) You must roll this number again before rolling a seven 
in order to win. This is called making your point. The 
computer will keep track of the money in the pot. the bets on 
each turn, and each player's win and loss totals. 

If you enter only one name at the outset of play, you'll be 
rolling against Mr. Big. Casino CoCo's public relations 
officer and chief debt collector. A prudent self restraint is 
advised when betting against Mr. Big. 

The last lines of the program have been added for your 
convenience in making extra saves; just type RUN 10000 
and [ENTER], making sure your cassette system is ready, of 
course. 

So, that's all there is to it. Welcome to Casino CoCo, 
where the drinks are free, the company lovely, and compli- 
mentary chips are waiting for you at the hospitality booth. 
Relax and enjoy, and if you need anything, just ask for Mr. 
Big. He won't be hard to find; he has his eye on you already. 

— Courtney Noe 



V/140 . 



CLS1 



140 ... 


. ... 64 


2230 . . . 


.... 79 


490 ... 


. . . 112 


2570 . . . 


33 


870 ... 


. ... 91 


2960 . . . 


... 234 


1300 . . 


. . . 228 


3320 . . . 


... 229 


1640 . . 


. ... 90 


END . . . 


... 103 


1930 


. . 211 









1 

2 PR I NT© 170," *COPYR I GHTED* " 

3 PRINTQ231, "**DAN DROUILLARD**" 
5 GOSUB3120 

10 P=0 

20 GOTO710 

30 CLS3 

40 PRINT© 128," HOW MANY PL 

A YERS? " : I NPUT X X : CLS3 

50 IFXX>3THENPRINT@193,"SORRY, O 

NLY THREE OR LESS CAN PLAY 

"IBOSUB 3120:CLS3:GOTO 40 

60 PRINT© 128," WHAT'S YOUR 

NAME?" 
70 PR I NT© 192," PLAYER 1":I 
NPUT A* 

80 IFXX=1THENPRINT@256," P 
LAYER 2 MR. BIG ":GOSUB3120: B*=" 
MR. BIG":GOTO120 

90 PRINTQ256 ," PLAYER 2": 
INPUT B* 

100 IFXX=2THENGOTO120 
110 PRINT@320," PLAYER 3": 
INPUT C* 

120 PRINT©416, " VERY GO 

OD ! ! " 
130 GOSUB3120 



140 CLS3:PRINT©128," OKAY, "A*", 

": PR I NT© 160," THE DICE ARE YOURS 

.":IF A*="MR. BIG" THEN GOSUB 33 

00 : T=0 : G0SUB3 1 20 : GOTO260 

150 PRINT@352, " DO YOU WANT TO P 

ASS THE DICE? Y/N" 

160 Z*=INKEY* 

170 IF Z«="Y" AND XX=1 THEN GOSU 

B 2970: GOTO 140 

180 IF Z*="Y" AND XX=2 THEN GOSU 

B 2970: GOTO 140 

190 IF Z*="Y" AND XX=3 THEN GOSU 

B 2880: GOTO 140 

200 IF Z*="N" THEN GOTO 220 

210 GOTO 160 

220 T«0 

230 CLS3 

240 PR I NT© 192, " MAKE YOU 

R BET" 

250 INPUTA(l) 

260 CLS3 

265 IF A(1X1 ANDA<1)>.01 THEN P 

RINTQ192," MINIMUM BET «1. 

00": FOR RY=1TO700:NEXT RY:GOTO 2 

40 

270 PRINT@128," THERE'S "A<1>" D 

OLLARS" 

280 PR I NT© 160, " IN THE POT — " B* 

290 PRINT©256, " MAKE YOUR 

BET" 

300 IFA«="MR. BIG"THENGOTO320 

310 IFXX=1THENGOSUB3340:PRINT@35 

2," I'LL COVER "B<1> "DOLLA 

RS" : FORX=1TO1200: NEXTX: GOTO330 

320 INPUTB(l) 

330 I FB < 1 > >A < 1 ) THENG0SUB3 1 30 : GOT 

0270 

340 D=A(1)-B(1) 

350 CLS3 

360 IFXX=<2THENGOTO430 

370 PR I NT© 128," THERE'S "D" DOLL 

ARS" 

380 PR I NT© 160, " IN THE POT — "C*" 

390 PRINTS256, " MAKE YOUR BET 



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April 1984 the RAINBOW 69 



400 INPUTC(1):IF C(1)>D Q0SUB313 

0I80T0370 

410 D-D-C(l) 

420 CLS3 

430 PRINTei92," OKAY, "A*", RO 

LL THE DICE" 

440 PRINT@384, " — PRESS SP 

ACE BAR — ":FOR X«l TO 1200: NEXT 

X:80T0 705 

450 B0T0430 

460 G0T0470 

470 CLS3 

480 PRINT&96, " OKAY, "A*", YOU H 

LAYER 2 MR. BIB " :B0SUB3120: B*»" 

MR. BIB":S0T0120 

90 PRINTQ256 ," PLAYER 2": 

INPUT B* 

100 IFXX-2THEN00T0120 

110 PRINT@320," PLAYER 3": 

INPUT C* 

120 PRINT9416, " VERY 00 

OD ! ! " 

130 G0SUB3120 

AVE TO MAKE " 

490 PRINTS 128, " YOUR POINT" 

500 PR I NTS 192, " YOUR POINT IS- 

-"L<1>" — " 

510 PRINTQ256, " MAKE YOU 

R BET" 

520 IFA«="MR. BIG"THENG0SUB3120: 

B0SUB3430: CLS3: PRINTQ256, " 

I BET— " A ( 2 ) " — DOLLARS " : S0SUB3 1 
20:G0T0540 
530 INPUTA<2) 
540 DD=D+A(2) 
550 CLS3 

560 PRINTei28," THERE'S "DD" D 
OLLARS" 
570 PRINT6160, "IN THE POT "B* 

580 PRINTQ256, " MAKE YOUR 

BET" 
590 IFB»="MR. BIS"THENB0SUB3370: 
B0SUB3 1 20 : PR I NT6352 , " I ' LL C 
OVER — " B ( 2 ) " DOLLARS " : B0SUB3 1 20 : 
B0T0610 

600 INPUTB<2) : IFB<2)>DD THENBOSU 
B3130:B0T0560 
6 1 O DD=DD-B ( 2 ) : CLS3 
620 IFXX=20RXX=1THENB0T0690 
630 PR I NTS 128," THERE'S "DD" D 
OLLARS" 
640 PRINT@160," IN THE POT — "C*" 

650 PRINTe256," MAKE YOUR 

BET" 

660 INPUTC<2) 

670 I FC ( 2 ) >DD THENS0SUB3 1 30 : BOTO 

630 

680 CLS3 



OKAY, "A«", RO 



— PRESS SP 



690 PRINT6192," 

LL THE DICE" 

700 PRINT8384, " 

ACE BAR — ":60SUB3120 

705 ZP-0 

710 PM0DE2, 1 

720 PCLS 

730 SCREEN 1,1 

740 IFP=0THEN60SUB2340 

750 T=T+1 

760 LINE <0,140>-<80,100),PSET 

770 LINE -<168, 100),PSET 

780 LINE -(255, 140),PSET 

790 LINE (O, 152)-(80, 104),PSET 

800 LINE -<164,104>,PSET 

810 LINE -(255, 152) , PSET 

820 LINE (0,156) -(80, 106), PSET 

830 LINE -(164, 106), PSET 

840 LINE -(255, 156), PSET 

850 DRAW'BM 1 18, 64; D10; F2; RIO; E2 

;U12;H2;L10;62;D2;R14;D2;S2;L10; 

H2;U2" 

860 DRAW "BM122,73;R6" 

870 DRAW'BM 124,71;R2" 

880 DRAW'BM 121 , 79; L8; Dl ; L4;D1 ; L 

4;D1;B13;R6;D2;L4;R4?D2;L4;R4;D2 
;L6;U9" 

890 DRAW'BM 108, 91 5 68" 
900 DRAW'BM 106, 91 J D9" 
910 DRAW "BM 128,79; R6; Dl ; R4; Dl ; 

R4;Di;Fi4;L6;D2;R4;L4;D2;R4;L4;D 
2;R6;U9" 

920 DRAW'BM 142,91;F10" 

930 DRAW'BM 142,91jD9" 

940 DRAW"BM120,76|D3" 

950 DRAW " BM 1 28 , 76 i D3 " 

960 DRAW "BM 124, 82; D2; G2; D14; R6 

; U14; H2; L2; R2; U2; E2; S2; L2; H2; F2" 

970 DRAW"BM118,68;L2;D4;R2 

980 DRAW'BM 132, 68;R2;D4;L2" 

985 IF ZP=1 THEN D1=RND (6) : D2=RN 

D (6): BOTO 1050 

990 S*=INKEY* 

1000 D1=RND(6> 

1010 D2=RND(6) 

1020 IFS*=" "THENB0T01050 

1030 IFP=0THEN60T01050 

1040 B0T0990 

1050 F0RX-1T0200:NEXTX 

1060 DRAW "CO; BM105,82;B13;R6;D 

2; L4; R4; D2; L4; R4; D2; L6; U9" 

1070 DRAW'BM 108, 91; BIO" 

1080 DRAW"Cl;BM 105, 81 ; D10;R8; U4 

; L4; D3; U3; L3; D3; U3; L3; D3; U3; " 

1090 DRAW H C1 IBM 115,90;D9" 

llOO F0RX=1T0200:NEXTX 

1110 F0RX=1T03 

1120 DRAW"Cl;BM 102, 86; D5; R8; U4; 

L4; D3; U3; L3; D3; U3; L3; D3; U3" 

1130 S0UND130, 1 



70 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



SEND 
FOR FREE 
CATALOG 




Dealer 

inquiries 

invited 



ABC'S IN COLOR 



In ihe ABC program, all 26 letters spring up in 
color to the familiar ABC tune. Then, colorful 
detailed pictures depicting each individual letter 
of the alphabet appear one by one. Your child's 
fascination will mount as he or she correctly 
presses the letter on the keyboard and is 
rewarded with a musical tune before the next 
detailed picture is drawn line by line onto the 
screen: AIRPLANE for A, BUS for B. CLOWN 
for C and so on to ZEBRA for Z. Truly a must 
program for the preschool to first grade age 
groupl 
CoCo 1 6K ECB Tape: S 1 9.95 Disk: $25.95 




CRISS-CROSS MATH 



As the program begins, your child is presented with a nine square 
playing board. It is your choice as to which square you choose. After a 
choice is made, a MATH PROBLEM appears in the square. You score 
your first X by answering the problem correctly. If your answer is 
incorrect, the square clears and your opponent is allowed his choice of 
squares. The game is over when three squares vertically, horizontally, or 
diagonally are won by the same player. When playing against the 
computer, every answer you get wrong is won by the computer. Multi- 
level ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION program. 
C0C0I6K Tape: $12.95 



FRACTIONS 



SIDE ONE: Fraction Lessons, explains fractions with the aid of graphics. 
Child studies the different ways fractions can be represented. Lessons 
include: 

IMPROPER FRACTIONS 

MIXED FRACTIONS 

PROPER FRACTIONS 
Many educators have praised the use of motion and color to display the 
fractional equivalents. 

SIDE TWO: Fraction practice, offers a random computer generated quiz. 

Ataril6k Tape: $19.95 

CoCo16k Tape: $19.95 



JOYSTICK DRAW 



Joystick Draw is the simple way to explore your artistic talents! Program 
operation is easy enough for a child to use, but effective enough that 
TCE uses it to design many sophisticated high-resolution graphic 
screens. Joystick Draw's design allows you or your child to save those 
masterpieces for future revisions or for use in other programs 
(instructions included). Your child will spend many hours enjoying this 
program and at the same time improving his or her eye hand 
coordination! You will find Joystick Draw to be an easy way to design 
those more sophisticated graphics for your own programs! 
C0C0I6 ECB Tape: $16.95 



SPELL BOMBER 



As captain of your ship, you must destroy the enemy bomber by spelling 
the mystery word. In this exciting and educational game the bomber gets 
closer with each inaccurate letter. You have only EIGHT tries to guess 
the mystery word or your ship will be bombed! If you guess the word 
correctly. GENERAL QUARTERS will sound and your ship will fire a 
missile to destroy the bomber, Three levels are available: EASY, 
MEDIUM, and HARD. Challenging for all ages! 

Atari16K Tape: $18.95 

CoCo 16k ECB Tape: $18.95 Disk: $22.95 

Vic 20 13k Tape: $18.95 



SPELLING BEE 



The word is pronounced vocally and it is up to you to type in the correct 
spelling. If wrong, the computer will be your friend and flash the word on 
the screen for just an instant. OK! Try typing the word in again. STILL 
WRONG! The computer wants success and allows you to see the word 
again this time a little longer. If you just can't spell the word, the 
computer realizes you need to learn to spell the word and leaves the 
word on the screen for you to copy. Try your best and the computer has 
a surprise for your reward! 

SPELLING BEE I . . GRADE 1 & 2 SPELLING BEE III . . . GRADE 5 & 6 
SPELLING BEE II GRADE 3 &4 SPELLING BEE IV GRADE 7 &8 
CoCo 16k ECB TAPE: $16.95 Each 



TC-INVENTORY 



Many insurance companies offer a discount for policy holders which 
have complete inventories on file. TC - Inventory is designed to help 
you organize, maintain, and compile the personal belongings of your 
home. Program is user friendly and menu driven. TC - Inventory allows 
input for location of item, price of item, serial number of item, date of 
purchase, and a text written description of the item. Don't put off 
recording your personal belongings until its too late. Requires printer for 
hard copy. 
CoCo 32k ECB Tape: $16.95 



TEACHING CLOCK 



Torn between teaching time on a digital or a 
conventional Iface and hands! clock? Well, this 
program combines the two using high 
resolution graphics and prompts! Your child will 
learn to tell time with the aid of a specially 
designed CLOCK! Child enters the time, if 
wrong, the center of the clock displays a 
graphic aid. If the child is correct a musical 
reward is heard. Program offers three levels: 
hours, quarter hours, and five minute intervals. 

Apple 48k Disk: $19.95 

Atari 32k Tape: $16.95 

CoCo 16k ECB . . Disk: $19.95 Tape: $16.95 




Additional Educational Software available 

for Color Computer, TDP 100, Atari " , 
Apple " , Commodore 64 " , and VIC 20 " 



WS4' 



P.O. Box 2477 Gaithersburg, Maryland 20879 (301)963-3848 



1140 SOUND 150,1 

1 130 DRAW "COS BM102, 81 ; D10; R8; U4; 

L4; D3; U3; L3; D3; U3; L3; D3; U3" 

1160 S0UND130, 1 

1170 NEXT X 

1 180 DRAW "CO; BM105, 81 ; D10; R8; U4; 

L4» D3J U3; L3» D3; U3» L3S D3; U3" 

1190 DRAW "CO;BM 108, 91; BIO" 

1200 DRAW "CI ; BM107, 81 ; D30; R8; U20 

■l 

1210 DRAWCO; BM108, 100; R7" 

1220 DRAW "C0;BM108, 104;R7" 

1230 DRAW"C05BM108, 106;R7" 

1240 DRAW"Cl;BM 108, 1 1 1 ; B7; Fl ; E5 

; D5; R2; D2; R5; U2; R2; U6; H2" 

1250 DRAW"Cl;BM108, 1 13; R3; D3; L3; 

U3" 

1260 DRAW" CI ; BM1 13,115; R3; D3; L3; 

U3" 

1270 FOR X=l TOlOOrNEXTX 

1280 DRAW "C0;BM10B,113;R3;D3;L3 

;U3" 

1290 DRAW "CO I BM1 13,115; R3; L3; D3; 

R3" 

1300 DRAW "CI ; BM102, 130; E4; F4; B4; 

H4" 

1310 DRAW "CI ; BM1 18, 130; E4; F4; G4; 

H4" 

1320 FOR X=l TOIOOZNEXTX 

1330 DRAW "CO 3 BM102, 130; E4; F4; G4; 

H4" 

1340 DRAWCO; BM1 18, 130; E4; F4; 84; 

H4" 

1350 DRAW "CI ; BM95, 145; R5; D5; L5; U 

5" 

1360 DRAWBM125, 145; R5;D5; L5; U5" 

1370 F0RX=1T050:NEXTX 

1380 DRAW"C0;BM95, 145; R5; D5; L5; U 

5" 

1390 DRAWBM125, 145; R5; D5; L5; U5" 

1400 DRAW"C1;BM135, 160; R8; D8; L8; 

U8" 

1410 DRAW"Cl;BM85, 160; R8; D8; L8» U 

8" 

1420 F0RX=1T0200:NEXTX 

1430 DRAWCO; BM 85, 160; R8; D8; L8; 

U8" 

1440 DRAWCO; BM135, 160; R8; D8; L8; 

U8" 

1450 F0RX=40T090STEP10 

1460 SOUNDX, 1 

1470 NEXTX 

1480 DRAW"Cl;BM48, 184; U48; E4; R48 

; F4; D48; 04; L48; H4" 

1490 DRAWBM140, 184; U48; E4; R48; F 

4;D48;G4;L48;H4" 

1500 IFD1=1THENG0SUB1590 

1510 IFD1=2THEN60SUB1570:G0SUB15 

80 

1520 IFDl=3THEN60SUB1570:SOSUB15 



80:B0SUB1590 

1 530 I FD 1 =4 T HENGOSUB 1 570 : GOSUB 1 5 

80 : 80SUB 1 600 : GOSUB 1610 

1 540 I FD 1 =5THENG0SUB 1 570 : GOSUB 1 5 

80 : GOSUB 1 590 : GOSUB 1 600 : GOSUB 1610 

1 550 I FD 1 =6THENG0SUB 1 570 : GOSUB 1 5 

80 : GOSUB 1 600 : GOSUB 1610: GOSUB 1 620 

: GOSUB 1630 

1560 G0T01640 

1570 DRAWBM56, 140; R8; DB; L8;U8" : 

RETURN 

1580 DRAWBM88, 172; R8; D8; L8; U8" : 

RETURN 

1590 DRAW"BM72,156;R8;D8;L8;U8": 

RETURN 

1600 DRAWBM88, 140; R8; D8; L8; U8" : 

RETURN 

1610 DRAWBM56, 172; R8;D8; L8; U8": 

RETURN 

1620 DRAWBM56, 156; R8;D8; L8;U8": 

RETURN 

1630 DRAWBM88, 156;R8;DB;l_8;U8": 

RETURN 

1640 IFD2-1THENB0SUB1780 

1 650 I FD2=2THENB0SUB 1 760 : BOSUB 1 7 

70 

1 660 I FD2-3THENB0SUB 1 760 : BOSUB 1 7 

70: BOSUB 1780 

1 670 I FD2»4THENB0SUB 1 760 : BOSUB 1 7 

70 : BOSUB 1 790 : BOSUB 1 800 

1 680 I FD2=5THENB0SUB 1 760 : BOSUB 1 7 

70 : BOSUB 1 780 : BOSUB 1 790 : BOSUB 1 800 

1 690 I FD2=6THENB0SUB 1 760 : BOSUB 1 7 

70 : BOSUB 1 790 : BOSUB 1 800 : BOSUB 1810 

: BOSUB 1820 

1 700 I FD2=6THENS0SUB 1 760 : BOSUB 1 7 

70: BOSUB 1790: BOSUB 1800: BOSUB 1 

81 O: BOSUB 1820 

1710 S0SUB3120 

1720 M*=INKEY* 

1 730 I FM*= " P " THENP- 1 : 60T030 

1740 I FP=0THENS0SUB2340 : S0SUB3 1 2 

0:B0T0710 

1750 B0T01830 

1760 DRAWBM148, 140; R8;D8; L8; U8" 

: RETURN 

1770 DRAWBM180, 172; R8; D8; L8; U8" 

: RETURN 

1780 DRAWBM164, 156; R8," D8; L8; U8" 

: RETURN 

1790 DRAW"BM180,140;R8;D8;l_8;U8" 

: RETURN 

1800 DRAWBM148, 172; R8; D8; L8; U8" 

: RETURN 

1810 DRAWBM148, 156; R8;D8;L8; U8" 

: RETURN 

1820 DRAWBM180, 156; R8; D8; L8; U8" 

: RETURN 

1 830 I FT= >2THENL ( 2 ) =D 1 +D2 : BOTO 1 9 

70 



72 the RAINBOW April 1984 



T.A.G. 

THE ADVENTURE GENERATOR 

by Bill Cook 

HEBE IT IS — THE FIBST COMMEBCIALLY AVAILABLE 
ADVENTUBE GENEBATOB FOB THE COLOB COMPUTER. 

Now you can create your own exciting ADVENTURES without the hassle and bother of hours of tedious 
programming. Each ADVENTURE will be a stand-alone, ready to run program with up to 1 00 different and 
distinct rooms or locations and as many of 60 objects to be picked up. examined, or used by the player. 
Your devious mind can use up to 30 command words and 9 conditional flags in creating your mind 
boggling ADVENTURE. When finished, the ADVENTURE GENERATOR will output your ADVENTURE to 
either disk or cassette, as you desire. 

With the ADVENTURE GENERATOR you can create and exchange ADVENTURES with your friends, or 
even sell them if you want without any fear of royalty requirements or other obligations. Start a club to 
exchange ADVENTURES, or make a few dollars by sending your best ones to a magazine for 
publication! 

While you do not need to be an expert programmer to use the ADVENTURE GENERATOR, you should 
have a working knowledge of program syntax and format to use it most effectively. The ADVENTURE 
GENERATOR is fully compatible with all models of the Color Computer with the exception of the MC-10. 

FEATURES 

Creates stand-alone programs 

Up to 100 rooms, 60 objects, 30 command words, and 9 conditional flags 

Supports tape and disk output 

Optional printer output of important sections during creation of ADVENTURE 

Complete documentation 

Includes sample ADVENTURE 

Works with all models of the CoCo except MC-10 

Requires 32K Extended Color BASIC 

Cassette $34.95 

Disk/Amdisk $39.95 

COD orders accepted, no charge cards please. 

Shipping and handling $3.00 

California residents please add 6% sales tax 



DOUBLE 

INTERFACE 

(Morelon Bay) 

Allows i he composite video signal lo be 
interfaced directly to a B/W or color 
monitor, I V and monitor can be used 
simultaneously. Complete with com- 
prehensive insiruciions and all parts, in- 
cluding an external sound output. 
Only $24.95 



JARB 



SOFTWARE 



HARDWARE 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C 

National City, CA 92050 

BBS (619) 474-8981 

VOICE (619) 474-8982 



WHERE'S-IT 

by C.E. Laldlaw 

What programs are on this disk? Which disk is my WIDGET program? 
WHERE'S-IT will answer these questions for you and maintain disk 
directory index files with up to 948 programs in each. Completely user- 
friendly, just run WHERE'S-IT and follow the prompts to: 

Create index files holding up to 948 programs 

Load or save existing index files 

Add. delete or update Index files for a specific disk 

Sort index files alphabetically with a machine language sort 

List index files to screen 

Print index out with 162 programs to the page 

Disk/Amdisk $19.95 

(32K Extended Color BASIC) 






D@ubl@ ©@n/ita §©lfi!w©if@ 



COLOR TERM + PLUS + 



If you're looking for the finest terminal software you can buy, look no further! And now we've added a high- 
res screen display that gives you 32 by 16, 42, 51 , or 64 by 24 lines. * And you can switch between the high- 
res screen and the normal screen without destroying what you have in the buffer! + PLUS + we have a 
buffer editor, complete up and down load support, on-line cassette or disk reads and writes, off-line and on- 
line scrolling, pre-entry of data before calling, word wrap, buffer printing, selective printing, change any 
parameter so you can communicate with any other computer. You can send and receive Basic programs, 
ASCII file, as well as machine code, + PLUS + you can save your buffer to tape (Tape or Rom version) or 
disk (Disk version). You can communicate with the local BBS, CompuServe™, The Source™, the main 
frame at work or school, other color computers. Apples, IBM PC's, TRS-80 Model I. II. III. IV, 12, 16, 100, or 
any other computer via RS-232. 

Compare these features with any ol her terminal program: 



32 x 16,42.51, 64x24 Screen 

Communications BAUD Rate: 110-19200 

Printer Baud Rate: 600-9600 

Select Half or Full Duplex. 

Select Odd, Even, or No Parity. 

Select 7 or 8 Bit Words. 

Send Control Characters. 

Send a True Line Break. 

Separate Keys for Escape and Rubout 

i All Caps If Needed. 
Word Wrap - Eliminate Split Words, 
character Mode) 
i table Reverse or Normal Video. 
(32 Character M< 




Scroll Protect Up to 9 Lines. 

Automatic Capture of Incoming Files, Send One 

Line At a Time From Your Buffer. 
Has Programmable Prompt for "Send Next Line!! 
Buffer Size Indicator. 
Complete Up and Down Load Support. 
Improved Buffer Editor. 

I iff Line Scrolling of Buffer. 
On/Off Cassette or Disk Reads and Writes. 
Pre-Enter Data Before Going On-Line. 
Save/Load Machine Code, Basic Programs or Files. 
Select Prinler Line Feeds If Needed or Ignore All 

Line Feeds in Buffer. 



•Disk and Rom Pack only (not on tape). PRICE: $29.95 (TAPE) 

DOUBLE SPOOLER fa 



Tii.-<1 of waiting for ynui listings" printouts? eti " Thin Is THE Spooling 

Pniitram" '■ mr programs In asi ii you can also spool 

ipnol ANYTHING you prim on the screen while a 

im is running)! Requires a minimum of 'I2K AND the 64K computer 

nnl really LARUE files!! Plus n 
PRICE $iu ■ I 95(Dlsk) 



$39.95 (ROM PACK) $39.95 (DISK) 



DOUBLE MEM-DISK 



# 



DOUBLE SWITCH 

Now you can switch between two different devices AND you gel 
an on/off Indicator at the same time. Switch your Modem & 
Printer or two printers eti 
PRICE; $29,95 



i riK unused mew H4K computer for something 

grams In memory and recall them anytime you n I 

them" Mere la ■ IM nf the new command* you can enter right from the 

MSAVE - Savi the program In memory 
MLOAD — Load a named program, 
mkill — Kill a program stored m memory 
MDIR — i.isi all programs stored In memory 

WILE — Merge a program in high mem with current program In low 

memory 

Those of you with will have several programs in memory at 

I Ion i have to wan ,.n thai SLOW lape system AND those of 

■ h disk systems will he able to use that extra space that Is going to 

PRK'K 124 98 (Tape) S26.9B (Disk) 

DOUBLE CABLE 
riling cables everytlme you use your modem and printer' 1 
This Is the fix" Hook your modem and prinler up at the same time' No 
moie switching, 
PRICE: »U.95 

hipping and handling nn all ordi 0,0 orders, 

an] ami visa accepted Texas residents arid 6 Allow 

eka for pergonal checks 

Double Den/itu Software 
920 Baldwin Street 






MasterCard 



Denton, Texas 76201 
Phone 817/566-2004. 




DOUBLE DOS BASIC 

364,000 BYTES! 

That's right! Using your 64K Color Computer, and an 80 
track drive, you too can have more than TWICE as much 
storage on your disk drive system. DOUBLE DOS BASIC 
allows you to use 35, 40 or 80 track (double or single sid- 
ed) drives all on one system, all at the same time! Your 
system could consist of a 35 track drive, a I wo drive 
AMDEK system, and an 80 track drive, all working, and 
hooked up to your system! (The AMDEK drives are 40 
track drives.) ALL commands are supported in DOUBLE 
DOS BASIC. The DOS is totally transparent to your 
BASIC programs! If your system selection is 80 tracks, a 
PRINT FREE command will return 158 granules! Com- 
pare this to the 68 granules your system now returns! The 
40 track drives would return 78 granules, 10 more than 
the 35 track system. EVERY command in BASIC is sup- 
ported by DOUBLE DOS BASIC. If you haven't already 
upgraded to 64K, now is the time! Use your system to its 
FULLEST! DOUBLE DOS BASIC also gives you RESET 
PROTECTION, unlike most of the other 64K programs. 
AND, used with our ROM MOVE program, you can also 
get another 8000 bytes of BASIC addressable memory! 
DOUBLE DOS BASIC - $24.95 
DOUBLE DOS & ROM MOVE - $24.95 



PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL 
P P 

* REAL EIGHTY-COLUMN DISPLAY! £ 



E 





N 
A 
L 



ULTRA TERM + 



# 



# 



E 



O 

N 
A 
L 



PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL PROFESSIONAL 



This program is the ultimate m coco 
communicating!! Ultra Term + is 
with a plug-in 80 column hoard" that 
gives you True HI I columns, nol the 

graphics display thai is unreadable 

columns This is truly a Professional 

Package thai is so easj to use thai once 
you have used n you'll wonder why 
oilier packages are so difficult tn use 
cepi for Color Term - Plus • thai is!) 
After using a terminal program thai ■ -;» n- 
not give you True mainframe terminal 
emulation, you will find Ultra Term + 
Indispensable! Ultra Term + even has ;■ 
hosi mode thai allows you to echo 
characters like Full duplex mainframes 
do! There an also 10 macro keys which 

will allOW you to save passwords, phone 

numbers, modem programming Informs 

non. i'O . pus - you can save them to 
tape (Rom Pack, Tape Versions) 01 disk 
ihisk Version) Also, like all Professional 
terminal programs you ran save your cur- 
rent parameters. This saves you set up 
lime when moving from one system to 
another - Plus - when used with the 

parallel printer port** sou can print 
either whai is coming in or prim what 
you saved in your span' Indlei (64K 

systems only suppori the space buff 
lion) if you like. And what about 
documentation? Everj feature is px 
plained In detail and indexed for fasi look 
up! There is also a comprehensive help 

section to aid those unfamiliar Willi 

telecommunications Although this pro- 
gram was designed for the Professional a 
total no\ ice can use il with e ■ 
all the features listed below and then you 
decide who has the world's smartest 
terminal! 

Baud Rates 110 4800 (command 
600-9600 (print. 

Screen Formal HI) x 25 w Hue uppi 

lower ca 

Select half, full duplex or echo 



n mark, space or no pal il J 

Send all 12H characters from keyboard. 
Select 7 or 8 Ml words 

Select I or 2 slop hits. 

Send a true line break 

Selei t all caps ii needed 

Automatic capture of incoming files 

X on X off capabilities. 

Merge t.ext or programs in buffer 

ifl character buffer (64K) 
spin buffer option (64K) 
10 macro keys 

four buffer send modes (dump 
prompted, manual ^ time delay] 

Buffer size indicators (bytes used & 

maining) 
Buffer editor w auto ke\ repeat 

Scroll forward & reverse lo view huflii 

i* prim viewed screen option 
Selectable printer formats (line i 

Selectable trapping of incoming 

rtia 
Prim while receiving data* 

Spool received data while receiving 

moretolKl. 
Buffer editor has i hese features 
Move forward and reverse through 
buffer Insert, type over, delete lines 
or characters 
Block del. 'Hon ,n start to end of buffer 

deli 

Saw.' and load macros 
Save and load parameters 

i se i i disk drive (w SAVE LOAD, I'lR 

& granule display!. 
Easj to use MENU driven format 
Comprehensive users manual 

. with ALL Radio Shack™ Disk 

Systems and all models of color 

computers 

Still noi convinced? How about a 15 
day, money back guarantee? II you don't 
like ii!,. package for any reason, we will 

refund your monej upon return of a like 

new package + Who oul there is offering 



you this kind of deaP And customer sup- 
pori was never better Simply fill nut 

registration card and send It i 
and you will he notified when new 
features, improvements, etc become 
available bi ! registered ov 

will receive Kree upgrades for a I 
shipping and handling fee). 

with all good Professional programs. 
Ultra Term * is all machine code. Tins 
program has been tested h\ those both 
familiar and unfamiliar with communica- 
tions programs, And when you call for 

some technical support you won't get an 
answering machine during our business 

hours 1 10-5 CST M Sat I under normal cir 

eumstances Technical help is usually 
available all 

in - I'l.l S . -Mould have 
all of the same , apabilities 

by the time you read lliis ad, bul 
cajl first to make sure Ultra Term 
leach to ship now. 
PRICK: Ultra Term + - $55 

(Dl 
Color Term + Plus + (V5.0) 

145 95 (Disk i 
Word-Pak (Includes .> soft** 

drivi 

programs with no modifii 

in mosi cases' i S 139.95 + 

sa.oos&t* 

Y-Cahle $29.95 (Requlri 

expansion port not used with 

disk dn 

Complete Package ultra Term + . 

Word Pak g V ('able [subl 

nol needed] is only S210.00 

'tltra Term + supports the 80 column 

hoard made by PBJ tilt II von ,dn 

have the hoard simply orde 

gram, but those of you who don'l can gel 

a good deal. 
"Parallel Primer Pori horn PB.I hie 

+ l.css .$ in mi restocking charge. 



'Canadians' 
Kellj So'tware Distributors Ltd 

I'll Hex I 
Edmnnii.il -Ml".-mi 
MM) 421 - 



ir ▼ •€ 


iMailerCatd] 


W -^ <J 



Double Ocn/itij Software 
920 Baldwin Street 
Denton, Texas 76201 
Phone 817/566-2004. 




THE COLORSOFT™ BUSINESS SYSTEM 



INTEGRATED BUSINESS SOFTWARE DESIGNED FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER 

WRITTEN FOR USE BY THE NON-ACCOUNTING ORIENTED BUSINESSMAN 

CONCISE USERS MANUAL WITH SAMPLE TRANSACTIONS TUTORIAL 

PROFESSIONALLY WRITTEN AND FULLY TESTED 

HIGHLY USER FRIENDLY AND MENU DRIVEN 

AFTER THE SALE SUPPORT 



This sales-based 



SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING (Version 2.0) 

accounting package is designed (or the non-accounting oriented businessman. It also contains the flexibility for 
the accounting oriented user to set up a double entry journal with an almost unlimited chart of accounts. This 
package includes Sales Entry, transaction driven Accounts Receivable and Accounts Payable, Journal Entry, 
Payroll Disbursement, and Record Maintenance programs. Screen and hardcopy system outputs include 
Balance Sheet, Income Statement, Customer and Vendor Status Reports, Accounts Receivable and Payable 
Aging Reports, Check Register, Sales Reports, Account Status Lists, and a Journal Posting List. The number of 
accounts is limited only by the number of disk drives $89.95 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE (Version 2.0) This package is designed to meet 

the requirements of most small business users. The system includes detailed audit trails and history reports for 
each customer, prepares invoices and monthly statements, mailing labels, aging lists, and an alphabetized 
customer listing. The user can define net terms for commercial accounts or finance charges for revolving 
accounts. This package functions as a standalone A/R system or integrates with the Small Business Accounting 
package to build a complete accounting/receivables system $59.95 

rAYHULL (Version 2.0) This integratable package is designed for maintaining personnel and 
payroll data for up to 200 hourly and salaried employees with 8 deductions each. This system calculates payroll 
and tax amounts, prints checks and maintains year-to-date totals. These amounts can be automatically trans- 
ferred to the SBA package for financial reporting. It computes each pay period's totals for straight time, overtime, 
and bonus pay and determines taxes to be withheld. Additional outputs include mailing list, listing of employees, 
year-to-date federal and/or state tax listing, and a listing of current misc. deductions. This system is suited for use 
In all states except Oklahoma and Delaware $69.95 



All programs require a minimum of 32K and 1 disk drive but will take advantage of 64K and 
multiple drives. Each package features a hi-res 51 x 24 black on green screen. 16K versions 
available without hi-res screen. Specify 16K or 32K versions when ordering. Future inte- 
grated packages will include: Inventory Control, Sales Analysis, Accounts Payable. 



INCLUDE $5.00 Shipping/Handling Per Order 



Write for Free Catalog 



BRANTEX, INC. 

COLOR SOFTWARE SERVICES DIV. 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE GROUP 
P.O. BOX 1708 
GREENVILLE, TEXAS 75401 



^ant3} 



TELEPHONE ORDERS 

(214) 454-3674 

COD/VISA/MASTERCARD 



ATTENTION DEALERS: WE OFFER THE BEST DEALER PLANS AVAILABLE 



1840 L(1)=D1+D2 

1B50 IFL(1)=40R L ( 1 )=50RL ( 1 ) =60R 

L ( 1 > =80RL < 1 ) =90RL ( 1 ) =10THEN60T04 

60 

1 860 I FL ( 1 ) =2THENB0SUB2050 : SBSUB 

2140: 60SUB2 1 90 : S0SUB2390 : B0SUB24 

50 : B0SUB3 1 20 : G0SUB27 40 : I NPUT Z Z : B 

0SUB2630: INPUTZZ 

1870 IFL(l)=2ANDXX=3THENSOSUB288 
0:B0T0140 

1 880 I FL < 1 > =2THENB0SUB2970 : B0T0 1 
40 

1 890 I FL < 1 ) =3THENB0SUB2050 : SOSUB 
2230 : B0SUB2 1 90 : 60SUB2390 : BBSUB24 
50 : 6BSUB3 1 20 : B0SUB2740 : I NPUT Z Z : B 
BSUB2630: INPUTZZ 

1900 IFL(1)-3ANDXX«3THENS0SUB288 

0:B0T0140 

1910 IFL(1>=3THENB0SUB2970:B0T01 

40 

1 920 I FL < 1 ) =70RL ( 1 ) - 1 1 THENB0SUB2 

050: B0SUB2270: B0SUB2390: B0SUB242 

O : B0SUB3 1 20 : B0SUB2490 : I NPUTZ Z : SO 

SUB2630 : I NPUT Z Z : SOTO 1 40 

1930 IFL<1)=12THEN B0SUB2050:S0S 

UB2060: S0SUB2090: S0SUB2390: SOSUB 

2450 : 60SUB3 1 20 : S0SUB2740 : I NPUT Z Z 

:B0SUB2630: INPUTZZ 

1940 IFL(1)=12ANDXX=3THENB0SUB2B 

80:B0T0140 

1950 IFL(1)=12THENS0SUB2970:S0T0 

140 

1960 S0SUB3120:B0T0140 

1 970 I FL ( 2 ) =7THENS0SUB2050 : SOSUB 

2340: S0SUB2390: B0SUB2450: B0SUB31 

20 : B0SUB2740 : I NPUT Z Z : S0SUB2630 

: INPUTZZ 

1980 IFL(2)=7AND XX=3THENB0SUB2B 

80: SOTO 140 

1990 IFL(2)=7THENS0SUB2970:B0T01 

40 

2000 I FL < 2 ) -L < 1 ) THENB0T02030 

2010 IFT=>1THENL(3)=*LU> 

2020 S0T03040 

2030 I FL < 2 ) =L < 1 ) THENS0SUB2390 : SO 

SUB2420: S0SUB3120: BOSUB2490: INPU 

T Z Z : 60SUB2630 : I NPUT Z Z : SOTO 140 

2040 ZP=l:60T0 710 

2050 DRAW"Cl;BM16,4;R116;D24;Lll 

6; U24": RETURN 

2060 DRAW"BM18, 8; R8; F2; D4; S2; L6; 

U8; D16; L2; R8; E2; U4; H2" 

2070 DRAWBM36, 8; R4; F2; D12; S2; L4 

;H2;U12;E2" 

2080 LINE (48,8) -(56, 24), PSET: LIN 

E (56, 8) - (48, 24) , PSET: RETURN 

2090 DRAW "BM74, 10;H2;L4;62;D12; 

F2jR4;E2" 

2100 DRAWBMBO, 24; U14; E2; R4; F2; D 

6;L8;R8;D8" 



2110 DRAWBM94, 24; U16; R6; F2; D4; 6 

2;L6;R4;F4;D4" 

2120 DRAW"BM108,22;F2;R4;E2;U4;H 

2; L4; H2; U4; E2; R4; F2" 

2130 RETURN 

2140 DRAW "BM20,22;F2;R4;E2;U4; 

H2;L4;H2;U4;E2;R4;F2" 

2150 LINE (32, 24) -(32, 8), PSET: LIN 
E- (40, 24) , PSET: LINE- (40, 8) , PSET 
2160 DRAW "BM44,24;U14;E2;R4;F2; 

D6;L8;R8;DB" 

2170 DRAW "BM56,24;U16;D8;E8;B8; 

F8" 

2180 DRAWBM76, 8; L8; D8; R4; L4; D8; 

R8": RETURN 

2190 DRAWBM92, 8; L8; D8; R4; L4; D8; 

R8" 

2200 DRAWBM96, 8; D8; R4; D8; UB; R4; 

U8" 

2210 DRAW'BMl 16,8; L8; D8; R4; L4; D8 

;R8" 

2220 DRAWBM120, 22; F2; R4; E2; U4; H 

2; L4; H2; U4; E2; R4; F2" : RETURN 

2230 DRAW "BM28, 10;H2;L4; S2; D12; 

F21R4JE2" 

2240 DRAWBM36, 8; L2; B2; D12; F2; R4 

;E2;ui2;H2;L2" 

2250 DRAWBM50, 8; L2; S2; D12; F2; R4 

;E2;U2" 

2260 DRAWBM58, 24; U16; D8; E8; 68; F 
8": RETURN 

2270 LINE (20, 24) -(20, 8), PSET: LIN 
E- (28, 24) , PSET: LINE- (28, 8) , PSET 
2280 DRAWBM34, 24; U14; E2; R4; F2; D 

6;L8;R8;D8" 

2290 DRAW"BM50,24;U16|L4|RB" 

2300 DRAWBM58, 8; D14; F2; R4; E2; Ul 

4" 

2310 DRAWBM72, 24; U16; R6; F2; D4; S 

2;L6;F8" 

2320 DRAWBM86, 24; U14; E2; R4; F2; D 

6;L8;R8;D8" 

2330 DRAW " BM 1 02 , 8 ; D 1 6 ; R8 " : RETURN 

2340 DRAWBM34, 10; H2; L4; 62; D12;F 

2;R4;E2" 

2350 DRAWBM40, 24; U16; R6; F2; D4; 6 

2;L6;F8" 

2360 DRAW "BM54, 24; U14; E2; R4; F2; 

D6;L8;R8;DB" 

2370 DRAW"BM70,24;U16;R6;F2;D4;S 

2;L6" 

2380 DRAW " BM84 , 22 ; F2 » R4 ; E2 ; U4 ; H2 

; L4; H2; U4; E2; R4; F2" : return 

2390 DRAWBM160, 28; D6; F2; R2; D8; U 

8;R2;E2;U6" 

2400 DRAWBM178, 28; L2; 62; D12; F2; 

R4;E2;U12;H2;L2" 

2410 DRAW"BM188.28;D14;F2;R4;E2; 

U14": RETURN 

2420 DRAWBM206, 2B; D16; E4; F4; U16 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 77 



2430 DRAW " BM220 , 28 ; D 1 6 " 

2440 LINE (226, 44) -(226, 28), PSET: 

LINE- (234, 44) , PSET: LINE- (234, 28) 

, PSET: RETURN 

2450 DRAW"BM204,28;D16;R8" 

2460 DRAW"BM220, 28; L2; 82; D12; F2; 

R2;E2;U12;H2;L2" 

2470 DRAW "BM228, 42; F2; R4; E2; U4; 

H2; L4; H2; U4; E2; R4; F2" 

2480 DRAW " BM250 , 28 ; L8 ; D8 ; R4 ; L4 ; D 

8; RB": RETURN 

2490 A(4)=A(4)+( (B(l)+B(2) )+(C(l 

)+C(2) ) ) 

2500 B(4)=B(4)-(B(1)+B(2) ) 

2510 C(4)=C(4)-(C(1)+C(2) ) 

2520 CLS3 

2530 PRINT© 128," "B*", YOU OWE 

"A* 

2540 PRINTH160," "B(1)+B(2) M DO 

LLARS" 

2550 IFXX=2THENG0T02590 

2560 IFXX=1THENG0T02590 

2570 PRINT@224," "C*", YOU OWE 

"A* 

2580 PRINTQ256, " 

LLARS" 

2590 PRINT@320, " 

OLKS ! ! " 

2600 PRINTQ448, " 



"C(l)+C(2)" DO 
PAY UP F 
PRESS 



See Page 137 




■ a lot of software for a little sliver 



ENTER" 

2610 A(2)=0:B(2)=0:C(2)=0 

2620 RETURN 

2630 CLS3 

2640 IFA(4)<0. 1THENPRINT6128, " 

"A*", YOU'RE BEHIND"ELSEPRINT@12 

8," "A*", YOU'RE AHEAD" 

2650 PRINT© 160," "A (4)" DOLLARS 

II 

2660 I FB ( 4 X O . 1 THENPR I NT@224 , " 
"B*", YOU'RE BEHIND "ELSE PRINT@2 
24," "B*", YOU'RE AHEAD" 
2670 PRINT@256," "B(4)" DOLLARS 

II 

2680 IFXX=2THENG0T02720 

2690 IFXX=lTHENGOT02720 

2700 I FC ( 4 X . 1 THENPR I NTS320 , " 

"C*'\ YOU'RE BEHIND" ELSE PRINT© 

320," " C*", YOU'RE AHEAD" 

2710 PRINT© 352," "C(4>" DOLLAR 

S" 

2720 PRINT©448," PRESS 

ENTER" 

2730 RETURN 

2740 A(4)=A(4)-( (B( 1 ) +B (2) ) + (C ( 1 

)+C(2))) 

2750 B(4)=B(4)+(B(1)+B(2) ) 

2760 C(4)=C(4)+(C(1)+C(2)> 

2770 CLS3 

2780 PR I NT© 128," "A* ", YOU OWE 

2790 PR I NT© 160, " "B*B ( 1 ) +B (2) " 

DOLLARS" 

2800 IFXX=1THENG0T02850 

2810 IFXX=2THENG0T02850 

2820 PRINT@224," "A*", YOU OWE 



2830 PRINT6256, " 


'C* C(l>+C(2>" 


DOLLARS" 




2840 PRINT@320, " 


PAY UP 


, "A* 




2850 PRINTQ448, " 


PRESS 


ENTER" 




2860 A(2)=0:B(2)=0 


C(2)=0 


2870 RETURN 




2880 F*=A* 




2890 A*=B* 




2900 B%=C* 




2910 C*=F* 




2920 F(4)=A(4) 




2930 A(4)=B(4) 




2940 B(4)=C(4) 




2950 C(4)=F(4) 




2960 RETURN 




2970 F*=A* 




2980 A*=B* 




2990 B*=F* 




3000 F(4)=A(4) 




3010 A(4)=B(4) 




3020 B(4)=F(4) 





78 the RAINBOW April 1984 







W I c 



CO 
CO N T 



COMMAND 
CONTROL 
ADAPTOR 

Use one or two 

joysticks. WICO 

Adaptor need for an 

Joysticks , 19>95 



POINT 
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Fast and Rugged 
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•29.95 



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Controller Retractable 

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•19.95 ea./ 
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WICO 
FAMOUS 
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Instant-action dual 

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TRIGA 
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Adult Size Joystick 

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♦24.95 



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Deluxe Joystick 

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Rubber Suction Cup 

Footing. 

'19.95 ea./ 
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'o„, ''a n , 



TRACKBALL FOR 

RADIO SHACK* TRS80* 

COLOR COMPUTER 

RETAIL 
69.95 




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USA Orders under $50 - Add $2.50 

OTHER Orders Add $5.00 ship/hnd. 

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Visa/MC Add 5% 

NO C.O.D. ORDERS 



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ORDER LINE 10 AM TO 9 PM 1(305) 282-6907 

SOFTWARE AUTHORS AFTER 6 PM 1(305) 275-8490 



SALE SPECIAL* SALE SPECIAL 

10 DISKSIfgO 

frefl 16K Adv. *Mb $60.00 onto 




PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

QUALITY PROGRAMS FOR YOUR COCO & TDP-1 00 

PROGRAMS REQUIRE 1 6K EXTENDED BASIC FOR TAPE, AND 32K DISK UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED. 




Adventure in 
Wonderland 

Simply the best adventure 
ever written for the color computer. 
This adventure puts you in the character of 
Alice as you roam through the many puzzles and perils of 
Wonderland. To win you must become a queen on the 
chessboard, eliminate the menace of the Snark, and 
escape from Wonderland. The program uses a full in- 
telligence simulator so you can enter commands and 
questions as whole sentences, not a stingy word or two. 
Also, there are at least three ways out of every trap. (You 
may think there is no way out at all. but there are always 
three ways!) Some people have so much fun talking to the 
various inhabitants of wonderland that they forget about 
solving the adventure completely. With a vocabulary of 
hundreds and hundreds of words you will never run out of 
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best of adventures, this is it. 100% ML Needs 32K of 
memory. Tape — $24.95; Disk — $29.95 




Clone Master 

This is the ultimate disk backup utility, and who else but 
Prickly-Pear, originators of Omni-Clone, could bring it to 
you. If you are tired of waiting for your BACKUP command 
to finish, you'll like the speed of CLONE MASTER. This 
program checks the computer memory size, and if you 
have a 64K machine it will do a backup on a full disk in 
about 7 minutes — including formatting the destination 
disk — with only TH REE swaps, not the seven you are used 
to, and if you are running multiple dirves, CLON E-MASTER 
will handle up to 4 double-sided drives. In addition, al- 
though we can't guarantee that CLONE MASTER will back 
up any disk, it can handle backups of most non-standard 
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Computer, but on Model III and IV, IBM PC, Kaypro, 
and Osborne. It handles up to 256 tracks, single and 
double density — even on the same track, CRC errors, and 
lots more. It even checks the speed of your drives for you! If 
you are using a disk drive, you know how disks will crash, 
so don't leave your valuable software unprotected any 
longer. Back it up or lose it! CLONE MASTER will adjust to 
any memory size and works with any version of the ROM's 
— including the JVC controller. $39.95 



Your personal check is welcome - no delay. Include 
$1.50 shipping for each program ordered. (Shipping free 
on $50.00 or larger orders). AZ residents add 7% sales 
tax. Orders shipped within two days. 




Colorkit 

What can we say about the absolute best state-of-the-art 
programmer's utility. This program adds 35 commands to 
BASIC that should have been there all along and no short 
description will do it justice. Summary - light or dark 
screen, keyclick, screen editor, 
programmable keys, a super 
memory tool, variable listing, echo 
to printer, BREAK disable, con- 
vert machine language to DATA, 
global search, single step thru 
program run, double space print- 
outs of program listings - that's 
less than half of what it will do. It 
takes about 6K of space, and if 
you have 64K you can put it up 
high and lose no BASIC space at 
all. 100% ML. Fully relocatable. 
See the great reviews in Nov. '83 

ST\ issu © s of Hot Cocoa and Color 
j* A | ] Computer magazine. Tape — 
f *.f J $34.95; Disk - $39.95 



Tape Omni Clone 

In the tradition of our famous Omni Clone for disk, we are 
proud to offer the fantastic Omni Clone for TAPE. As you 
know, good computer practice requires the making of 
backup copies of software to prevent loss. In the past that 
has often been difficult or impossible to do, even using 
some of the other tape backup programs available. This 
easy to use backup utility is suitable for any size Coco from 
1 6 to 64K, and it automatically adjusts to the size memory 
you have. On a 64K system you can load about 62,500 
bytes of various programs (about 6 to 8 average programs) 
before dumping them to a new tape. It easily handles 
programs with auto loaders, no headers, no EOF markers, 
unusual size data blocks, and many other unusual situa- 
tions. As with our disk Omni Clone, we can't guarantee that 
this will back up any tape, but we haven't found many it 
won't handle, and we've tried dozens, including the tough- 
est ones we could find. If you have any tapes in your 
collection you haven't backed up, now is the time to get 
your software collection protected — against loss. On 
tape, but works on disk systems — $29.95 



Dealer and author inquiries are always welcome. 
Canadian dealers should contact Kelly Software 
Distributors, Ltd., P. O. Box 1 1 932. Edmonton, Alberta 
T5J-3L1 (403)421-8003 



Stocked by Quality Dealers, or 

Send Order To PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

8532 E. 24th Street 




Tucson, Arizona 85710 
(602)886-1505 



RETURN 

BOSUB 3140 

I FL < 3 ) -4THENG0SUB3230 

IFL <3> -5THENGOSUB3240 

I FL ( 3 > -6 THENG0SUB3250 

I FL < 3 ) -8THENG0SUB3260 

IFL (3> -9THENG0SUB3270 

I FL ( 3 ) - 1 0THEN60SUB3280 

G0SUB3120: GOT 02030 

F0RX-1T01000: NEXTX: CLS3: RET 



3030 
3040 
3050 
3060 
3070 
3080 
3090 
3100 
3110 
3120 
URN 

3130 PRINT3416, " SORRY, THERE' 
S NOT THAT MUCH IN 

THE POT" :F0RX-1T0600: NEXT X:CLS 
3: RETURN 

3140 DRAW"BM40,12;D8;R4;D8?U8;R4 
JUS" 

3150 DRAW'BM 56, 12|L2|62|D12|F2| 
R4|E2|U12|H2|L2" 

3160 DRAW'BM 64, 12| D14|F2|R4|E2| 
U14 M 

3170 DRAW "BM 76,28jU16|R6fF2j D4 
;B2{L6|F8" 

3180 DRAW'BM 92, 28» U16; R6; F2» D4; 
82; L6" 

3190 DRAW"BM108,12|L2»S2JD12JF2» 
R4;E2;U12;H2;L2" 
3200 DRAW'BM 116,28;U16" 
3210 LINE<120,28)-<120,12),P3ET: 
LINE- ( 128, 28) , PSET: LINE- ( 128, 12) 
,PSET 

3220 DRAW "BM136, 28;U16»L4;R6":R 
ETURN 

3230 DRAWBM156, 12;D8;R10;L2;U8; 
D16": RETURN 

3240 DRAW"BM164,12|L8)D8fR6|F2|D 
4 I 82 | L4 I H2 " : RETURN 

3250 DRAWBM164, 14;H2;L4;B2?D12; 
F2; R4; E2; U4; H2; L4; G2" : RETURN 
3260 DRAWBM160, 12; L2; G2; D4; F2J G 
2; D4| F2| R4| E2; U4; H2; L4| R4» E2; U4; 
H2JL2": RETURN 

3270 DRAW"BM156,26|F2|R4|E2|U12| 
H2| L4! 82) D4; F2| R6" : RETURN 
3280 DRAW"BM160,28»U16" 
3290 DRAWBM172, 12;L2;B2lD12$F2| 
R4) E2; U12I H2| L2" : RETURN 
3300 0-RND(6)*.l 
3310 A(1)=A(4)*0 
3315 A(1)=FIX(A(1) ) 
3320 IF A(4)=<0 THEN A(l)=25 
3322 IF A(l)<5 THEN A(l)=5 
3330 RETURN 
3340 0-RND(6)#. 1 
3350 B(1)-A<1)*0 

3355 B<1)-FIX(B(D) 

3356 IFB(1)=0 THEN B<1)-A<1) 
3360 RETURN 

3370 IFL(1)=6THENB(2)=. 1*DD 
3380 IFL(1)=50RL(1)=8THENB<2)=.2 



MODEM 




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Rt. 3, Box 147 • Brodle Rd. _, __ M _ „-..- 
Leesvllle, S.C. 29070 Ph . 803-532"58 1 2 



*DD 

3390 IFL(1)=40RL(1)-9THENB(2)=.5 

*DD 
3400 IF L<1)»3 OR L(l)-10 THEN B 
(2)=.8*DD 

3410 IFL<1)=20RL<1)=12THENB(2)»D 
D 

3420 B(2)-FIX(B(2)) : RETURN 
3430 IFL(1)=6THENA<2)=.4*A(4):IF 
A (2) >A (4) THEN A<2)=.4*A<1) 
3440 IF L(l)-5 OR L(1)-8THEN A<2 
)».3#A<4):IF A(2)>A(4) THEN A<2) 
«.3*A<1) 

3450 IFL<l)-40RL(l)-9THENA<2)-.2 
*A<4> : IFA(2) >A(4)THENA(2)=. 2*A ( 1 
) 

3460 IFL(1)-30RL(1)«10THENA<2)-. 
1*A(4) : IFA<2) >A(4)THENA(2)-. 1*A( 
1) 

3470 ifl<1)=-20rl(1)«12thena(2)»0 
3480 a (2) -fix (a (2)): return 
10000 csave" craps" 
10005 motoron: for x - 1 to looo 

:next 

10010 csave " craps 1" 

10015 motoron: for x » 1 to 1000: 

NEXT 
10020 CSAVE "CRAPS2" 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 81 



L/l 




': 



A Day at the Races is a I6K Extended Color BASIC 
program that simulates horse racing. The program 
allows up to eight players (more if you have 32K), 
and the more players you have, the more fun it is. After 
LOA Ding and RUNning you will be asked to [ENTER] the 
number of players and all their names. After this is done the 
starting odds for the first race are displayed and the game 
begins. 

Along with the odds, the race number, track condition 
and a comment for each horse are also displayed. Each 
player is then asked to enter the number of the horse that 
player wishes to bet on, the amount of the bet, and if it is a 
win, place, or show bet (you only need to enter a w, p, or s). 
Everybody starts out with $75 and the object is to have the 
most money at the end of 10 races. 

After all the bets are entered, the final odds will be dis- 
played. You will be paid off at these odds or more. For 
example, the real odds are 6.5 to I but it will show 6 to I on 
the screen. Now just press any key (except [BREAK]) and 
the horses will go to the starting gate. Horse number I is at 
the top and number 7 at the bottom. If it is the first race of 
the day, track music will play. And then "they're off." The 






f 







horses stop when ihe first one breaks the finish line, and 
photo finishes are handled by the computer. The speedup 
POKE\s used in line 61. Though it doesn't ask you to do so 
on the screen, you'll have to press a key to sec the results of 
the race. 

The result screen shows the first three finishers and how 
much they paid; it also shows the players' financial status. 
Before you question your money total I'll tell you that the 
amount you bet is subtracted from your total right after you 
bet. So, if you have S 100. bet S25, and win $50 your total will 
be SI 25. Now. just press a key lor the next race. 

The program is set for 10 races, but you can keep going if 
you want ~ the race number and track conditions will 
merely start over. The program is based on a national statis- 
tic that says the favorite wins approximately 33 percent of 
the time. Also, as the track condition gets slower, the chance 
a longshot has ol winning improves. So pay attention to the 
track condition and the comment next to each horse. I 
someone runs out of money they can still play, if you make a 
"house rule" for how much they can bet. There are REM 
statements throughout the program, so you can change it to 
your satisfaction. 1 hope that you will have as much fun as 
my family did playing it. 



._ . 



16K 
ECB 



I I RAINBOW 





Five Easy Ways 
To Clean Up Your Finances 





actual screen diaplay •Indicates function bslng shown 



Chart of Accounts 
* Checkbook Maintenance 
Check Search 
Prints Checks 



'Detail Budget Analysis 
Summary Budget 

Analysis 
Income/Expense 

Statements 
Net Worth Statement 



Appointments Calendar 
Payments Calendar 
•Color Chart Package 
Mailing List 



•Spreadsheet 
Compatible with 
Finance 1, 2 and 5 



'Income Tax 
Prints forms 
Most schedules 
Uses Finance 1, 2 and 4 



t* C . 



Complete Personal Accountant 




-^ 



Whc ther you're cleaning up at home or around the office, 
there's NOW a COMPLETE line of money management soft- 
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whole financial picture. The Complete Personal Accountant's 
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investor a quick and dependable way to control finances and 
plan for the future. 

FINANCE 1 gets you organized with a standard chart of ac- 
counts adaptable to any situation. The Checkbook 
Maintenance program with full screen editing and 
special 'Help' commands let you find any check by 
any field. You can flag tax deductibles, reconcile 
your bank statement, print checks and more. 

FINANCE 2 tells you where your_ 
money is, where it's going and where 
it's coming from. The Detail and Sum- 
mary Budget programs show exactly 
where you're spending your money. The 
Income/ Expense and Net Worth pro- 
grams provide professional-looking 
statements that can be printed with any 80 
column printer. 



Com 64 Atari" Color" VIC 20 



Financa 1 



•Atari version disk only 



Finance 2 4 


• < 


► • 


29.95 


Finance 3 • 


• 


» • 


29.95 


Financa 4 e 


• 


> 29.95 


Finance 5 < 


• 


i 59.95 


Complete Set (1-3) < 


• 


• 


79.95 


Complete Set 0-5) I 


• 


> 149 95 




FINANCE 3 separates the CPA from the competition. No other 
finance package for the home or small business gives you 
Appointments and Payments Calendars for scheduling your 
time and money. Few packages offer the ability to chart each 
account in color. And only the CPA includes a mailing list with 
1200 name capacity*. All reports are printable with most 80 
column printers. 

FINANCE 4 lets you determine the "what if's" of your financial 
future. With this easy to leam spreadsheet you'll spend 
more time making decisions and less time crunching 
«w numbers. 

FINANCE 5, The Tax Handler™, uses your 
files from Finance 1, 2 and 4 to complete 
your taxes in a fraction of the normal time. 

The Complete Personal Accountant™ line 

of money management software is simply 

.the most comprehensive, easy to use 

financial software available anywhere. 

•Varies according to computer. 




P.O. Box 3470 Department R, 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27S14 



inance 5 on TRS-80 color requires 32K 



Prices subject to change without notice. Add S3.00 lor postage and handling. Please specify computer, format, and memory capacity when ordering. 

See your local dealer or order direct 1-800 334SOFT. 



Alan Commodore 6i/Vic20. TRS 80 Color are trademarks ol Atari. Inc Commodore Electronics. Lid and Tandy Corp respectively 



,^ 



Y/ 


-. 


22 


... 225 


42 


.... 59 


60 


.... 79 


81 


... 133 


101 .... 


.... 41 


124.... 


.... 15 


137... 


... 149 


END 


149 





The listing: 



1 'A DAY AT THE RACES 

2 'BY GEORGE BODIROGA 

3 ■ (C) JAN. 1984 

4 CLEAR100:PCLEAR 4: W=l : FF*="##. 
##" :QQ*=" ####.##" 

6 DIM HI (0,5) ,H2<0,5),H3<0.5) , CO 
* (8), DA* (21), OS (7) 

8 PMODE 4,1: SCREEN 0.0:PCUS 

9 DRAW "BM19,19;NG2;R3;D4;ND5;NG 
5; R7; ND5; NF5; E2; Rl ; F2" 

10 GET(16, 19)-(33,30>,H1,G 

11 GET(100,100)-<118,111),H2,G 

12 FOR I=1T021:READ DA* (I): NEXT 

13 DRAWBM19, 19; NG2; R3; D4; ND5; NF 
5; R7; ND5; NG5; E2; Rl ; F2" 

14 GETU6, 19)-(33,30) ,H3,G 

15 GOTO 57 

16 FOR I=1T03 

17 PO(I, 1)=2*0D(W(I))+2:IF PO(I, 
1X4THEN P0(I,1)=4 

18 P0(I,2)=P0(I, 1)*.52:IF P0(I,2 
X2.2THEN P0(I,2)=2.2 

19 P0(I,3)=P0(I,1)*.31:IF P0(I,3 
X2.2THEN P0(I,3)=2.2 

20 NEXT 

21 '** LINES 22-31 FIGURE WHICH 
PLAYERS WIN 

22 FOR I=1T0 P 

23 IF PH(I)OW(l) AND PH(I)OW(2 
) AND PH(I)OW(3) THEN PH ( I ) =0 

24 IF PH(I)=W(1) AND PT*(I)="W" 
THEN PH ( I ) =PO (1,1) *PB ( I ) /2 

25 IF PH(I)=W(1) AND PT*(I)="P" 
THEN PH(I)=P0(l,2)*PB(I>/2 

26 IF PH(I)=W(1) AND PT*(I)="S" 
THEN PH(I)=P0(l,3)*PB(I)/2 

27 IF PH(I)=W(2) AND PT*(I)="P" 
THEN PH(I)=P0(2,2)*PB(I)/2 

28 IF PH(I)=W(2) AND PT*(I)="S" 
THEN PH(I)=P0(2,3)*PB(I)/2 

29 IF PH(I)=W(3) AND PT*(I)="S" 
THEN PH(I)=P0(3,3)*PB(I)/2 

30 IF PT*(I)="W" AND PH(I)=W(2)T 
HEN PH(I)=0ELSE IF PT*(I)="W" AN 
D PH(I)=W(3)THEN PH ( I ) =0ELSE IF 
PT*(I)="P" AND PH(I)=W(3)THEN PH 



(I)=0 

31 NEXT I 

32 RETURN 

34 DIM PN* (P) , PO (3, 3) , PT* (P) , PH ( 

P),PB(P),PM(P),0D(7),FA(7),W(3), 
LO( 7): RETURN 

35 CLSrPRINT" RACE NO. " ; W;TAB( 17 
) "TRACK: "; CO* (8): PRINT 

36 FOR I=1T0 P 

37 FOR J=1T07 

38 IF J=PH(I)THEN OD ( J) =OD ( J) -1 . 
4ELSE 0D(J)=OD(J)+.5 

39 IF 0D(JX1THEN OD(J)=l 

40 NEXT J 

41 NEXT I 

42 print" horse final odds 

43 for i=1t07:print " " ; i ; tab 
(16);:printusing "##"; int(od(d) 
;:print"-i":next 

44 RETURN 

45 '*» LINES 46-56 GIVE TRACK CO 
NDITION ADVANTAGES 

46 FOR 1=1 T07 

47 IFW=50RW=6THEN FA ( I ) =FA < I ) -. 2 

48 IFW=70RW=8THEN FA ( I ) =FA ( I ) -. 3 

49 IFW>8THEN FA ( I ) =FA ( I ) -. 4 

50 IFCO*(I)=DA*(2)ORCO*(I)=DA*(4 
)0RC0*(I)=DA*(16)THEN FA ( I ) =FA ( I 
)+.2 

51 IFC0*(I)=DA*(21)THEN FA ( I ) =FA 
(D+.35 

52 IFW>4ANDC0*(I)=DA*(12)THEN FA 
(I)=FA(I)+.2 

53 IFW>4ANDC0*(I)=DA*(15)THEN FA 
(I)=FA(I)+.2 

54 IFW>4ANDC0*(I)=DA*(18)THEN FA 
(I)=FA(I)+.2 

55 IFW>4ANDCO*(I)=DA*(20)THEN FA 
(I)=FA(I)+.2 

56 RETURN 

57 CLS: INPUT "ENTER NUMBER OF PL A 
YERS";P:CLS:GOSUB 34 

58 FOR 1=1 TO P: PR I NT "ENTER NAME 
OF PLAYER#";l;:LINEINPUT PN* ( I ) : 
NEXT 

60 FOR I=1T0 P:PM(I)=75:NEXT I 

61 POKE 65495.0 

62 '*# LINES 63-67 SET TRACK CON 
DITION 

63 IF W<3THEN CO* (8) ="FAST" 

64 IF W>2THEN CO* (8) ="GOOD" 

65 IF W>4THEN CO* (8) ="SLOW" 

66 IF W>6THEN CO* (8) =" MUDDY" 

67 IF W>8 THEN CO* (8) =" SLOPPY" 

68 '** LINE 69 SET STARTING ODDS 

69 FOR I=1T0 7:0D(I)=RND(18) :NEX 
T 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 85 



70 GOSUB 141 

71 CLS: PR I NT "RACE NO. " ; W| TAB( 17) 
"TRACK: ";C0*(8) 

72 PRINT: PR I NT "HORSE ODDS 
COMMENTS" 

73 FOR I=1T07:PRINTTAB<1);I;" 

"5 :PRINTUSING "##";OD(I> ; : PRINT" 
-1";TAB<13) CO*(I):NEXT 

74 PRINT8384, " 

":FOR I=1T0 P:PRINT@384,P 
N*(I);:INPUT" ENTER HORSE # " ; PH 
(I): INPUT" ENTER AMOUNT OF BET " ; 
PB < I ) : PM ( I ) =PM ( I ) -PB ( I ) : INPUT"WI 
N PLACE OR SHOW ";PT*(I) 

75 PRINTQ384, " 
":PRINT@416, " 

":PRINT@448," 
":NEXT 

76 GOSUB 35 

77 FOR 1=1 T07 

78 IF 0D(I)>14THEN FA ( I ) "5.531 

79 IF 0D<IX15THEN FA(I)=5.605 

80 IF 0D(IX12THEN FA(I)=5.744 

81 IF 0D<IX9THEN FA(I)=5.895 

82 IF 0D(IX7THEN FA(I)=6.055 

83 IF 0D<IX5THEN FA(I)«6.223 

84 IF 0DUX3THEN FA(I)«6.405 

86 NEXT I 

87 GOSUB 46 

88 PR I NT: PR I NT" PRESS ANY KEY 
TO RACE" 

89 A*= I NKEY« : I F A*< > " " THEN 9 1 ELSE 
89 

90 '** LINES 91-97 DRAW HORSES A 
T STARTING GATE 

91 X=235:XX=252:Y=4:YY=15 

92 PCLS:PMODE 4,1: SCREEN 1,1 

93 DRAW"BM255, 1 ; NL25; D16; NL25; Dl 
6; NL25; D16; NL25; D16; NL25; D16? NL2 
5;D16;NL25;D16;NL25":LINE(230, 1) 
-(230, 112),PSET,B 

94 LINE(10,1)-(10,150),PSET,B 

95 FOR I=1T07 

96 PUT(X,Y)-(XX,YY),H1,PSET 

97 Y=Y+16:YY=YY+16:NEXT 

98 FOR I=1T07:LO(I)=235:NEXT I 

99 IFW=1THEN PLAY"02;T5; L4; FB-; O 

3; df; L8; FF; L4; fd; L8; dd; L4; D; 02; B 
-5 03; d; 02; B-; Li ; F; L4; FB-; 03; df; l 
8; FF; L4; fd; L8; DD; L4; D; 02; FFF; Ll i 

B-" 

100 FORI=1TO1600:NEXT:LINE(230,1 
) - (230, 112), PRESET, B: PLAY"L16; Tl 

2;V23;O5;l0; 10; ll; 111 10; 111 " 

101 TIMER=0 

102 '** LINES 103-109 MOVE HORSE 
S 

103 N=RND(7) 



104 PUT(L0(N),16*N-12)-(L0(N)+17 
,16*N-1),H3,PSET 

105 PUT(L0(N),16*N-12)-(L0(N)+17 
,16*N-1),H2,PSET 

106 LO(N)=LO(N)-FA(N):IF LO(NX = 
11THEN LO(N)=10 

107 PUT (LO (N) , 16*N-12) - (LO (N) +17 
, 16#N-1 ) , HI , PSET: TI=TIMER 

108 IF LO(N)=10 THEN 110 

109 GOTO 103 

110 A*=INKEY*:IF A*<>""THEN 112 
ELSE 110 

111 '#* LINES 112-119 SORT FOR 1 
ST, 2ND, 3RD 

112 FOR I=1T03 

113 SM=1000 

114 FOR J=1T07 

115 IF LO(JXSM THEN SM=LO(J) EL 
SE 117 

116 W(I)=J 

117 NEXT J 

118 LO(W(I) )=1000 

119 NEXT I 

120 GOSUB 16 

121 '** LINES 122-132 SHOW WINNE 
RS St PLAYERS STANDINGS 

122 CLS: PRINT" RACE" ;W; TAB ( 1 1 ) " 
WIN" ; TAB (18) "PLACE" ; TAB (25) "SHOW 

ll 

123 PRINT"HORSE #" ; W ( 1 ) ; : PRINTTA 
B ( 12) ; "" ; : PRINTUSING FF*5 PO (1,1) 
; : PRINTTAB ( 18) ; " " ; : PRINTUSING FF 
*; PO ( 1 . 2) ; : PRINTTAB (25) ; " " ; : PRIN 
TUSING FF*;P0(1,3> 

124 PRINT"HORSE #" ; W (2) ; TAB ( 18) ; 
: PRINTUSING FF«;P0(2,2); : PRINTTA 
B (25);: PRINTUSING FF*;P0(2,3) 

125 PRINT"HORSE #" ; W(3) ; TAB (25) " 
";:PRINTUSING FF*;P0(3,3) 

126 PRINTTAB(8) "OFFICIAL TIME " i 
:PRINT USING"##.##";TI/60 

127 IF P<9THEN 129ELSE PRINT: PR I 
NT@ 160, "PRESS ANY KEY FOR PLAYER 

RESULTS"; 

128 A*=INKEY*:IF A*<>""THEN 129 
ELSE 128 

129 PRINT: PR I NT "PLAYER AMT.WO 
N TOTAL" 

130 FOR I=1T0 P 

131 PM(I)=PM(I)+PH(I) 

132 PRINT PN*(I);TAB(10);:PRINTU 

sing QQ*;PH(I); :printtab(20)""j: 

PRINTUSING QQ*;PM(I) :NEXT 

133 POKE 65494,0 

134 PR I NT "PRESS ANY KEY TO RACE 
AGAIN"; 

135 A*=INKEY*:IF A*<>""THEN 136 
ELSE 135 



86 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



136 


W=W+l:IF WM0THEN W=l 


137 


GOTO 61 


138 


DATA WON ROUTER, WON 2 OF LAS 


T 3 


, SPEED TO LEAD, SURE TO SHOW,R 


ACED WITH BETTER, JOCK SWITCH, CAN 


STEAL IT, WHIPPED FAVORITE, CLASS 


DIP CAN WIN, CHANGE OF BOY, DROP 


IN CLASS, WON IN MUD 


139 


DATA BROKE LATE, LED TO STRET 


CH,2ND IN SLOP, BEST CHANCE PLAY, 


CLOSED FAST, BETTER IF WET, FADED 


QUICKLY, SLOP CHOICE, NOT IMPOSSIB 


LE 




140 


'** LINES 141- MAKE SURE ODD 


S ARE OF A GOOD RANGE AND GIVE H 


ORSES A COMMENT 


141 


FOR I=1T0 7:0S(I)=0D(I):NEXT 


142 


FOR I=1T07 


143 


SM=100 


144 


FOR J=1T07 


145 


IF OS(JXSM THEN SM=OS(J)ELS 


E 147 


146 


V=J 


147 


NEXT J 


148 
)=2 
149 
)=3 
150 


IFI=1THEN IF OS<V) >2THEN0D(V 


IFI=2THEN IF OS (VX3THEN0D (V 


IFI=7THEN IF OS<V)< 15THEN0D ( 


V)=15 


151 


IFI=3THEN IF OS(V) >9THEN0D (V 


)=7 




152 


CO* (V) =DA* (RND <3) +R) 


153 


OS (V) =100 


154 


R=R+3 


155 


NEXT I 


156 


R=0 


157 


RESTORE 


158 


RETURN 




— ,. "^ 



RAINBOW 

CWfiCATiOi. 

SEAL 



TIME SAVER 



UTILITY 

With MENUWRTR you can design up to 9 lext screens simply by silling down al me 
KeyPoard and typing tnem in Once completed . your screens can Be called in a llasn trom 
your Basic Program wrin MENUWRTRs last Macnme Language Screen Onvec Frees up 
more user memory and gives you more lime to develop the computational pan ol your 
Basic Program Requires mm 16K EC8 Comes on Tape 

• Menu Dnven • Edit Mode • BREAK/RESET Killer 

• Accesses lull Alphanumeric set (met rev 0-9. 'rt.elcl plus lull Semi-Graphic 
set in all 8 colors |9 w/black) 

PRICE S24.95 — Check or Money Order - (803) 859-3414 

GLASBY SOFTWARE, P.O. Box 977, Easley. S.C. 29641-0977 

"No! for use with Basic Programs which use High Res Graphics" 







WLS NEST 

SOFTWARE 



WE GIVE A HOOT 



FILE CABINET - Data Management System 
v \\ With FILE CABINET you can create and maintain re- 
^- cords on anything you choose. Recipes, coupons, house 

hold inventory, financial records - you name it. You create 
records containing up to live (ields you define. You can 
search, sort, modify, delete, save on tape and display on 
the screen or send to the printer. The program is user 
friendly and user proof. Error trapping and prompting 
are extensive. A comparable program would cost you much 
more. Cassette I6K EXT - Postpaid $19.95 

. LABELIII (Reviewed in Nov. 83 Rainbow) 

//rSJV\ With LABELIII you can develop and maintain a mailing 
°.*'*" !' list. Display on screen or printer. Print lists or labels in 
your choice of 1, 2, or 3 wide. Supports 3 or 4 line ad- 
dresses with phone optional. Fast machine language sort 
on last name, first name, or zip code. 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $19.95 

_^ ATLANTIS ADVENTURE 
«5^S\ This one is toughl We challenge you to complete this in 
*SSS£ 30 days. If you can we will send you any cassette program 
we sell at no charge. (We will even pay the postage.) You 
start on a disabled sub, near the lost city of Atlantis. Your 
object is to get the sub and yourself safely to the surface. 
Cassette I6K EXT - Postpaid $21.95 

^~~ ADVENTURE STARTER (Reviewed in Feb. 84 Rainbow) 
flr^ Learn to play those adventures the painless way. You start 
bainbo'* with a simple adventure and then move into an intermediate. 
We also include hints and tips on adventuring. Your 16K 
EXT cassette includes both "MYHOUSE" and "PIRATES" 
adventures. Finish this and you are ready for "ATLANTIS." 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $17.95 

^-^ FOUR MILE ISLAND ADVENTURE 
//r>V\ You are trapped inside a disabled nuclear Power Plant. The 
R .*'??.°? reactor is running away. You must bring the reactor to a 
cold shutdown and prevent the "China Syndrome." Can 
you save the plant (and yourself)? It's not easy! 
Cassette I6K EXT - Postpaid $17.95 

._. ESPIONAGE ISLAND ADVENTURE 
ww You have been dropped off on a deserted island by a sub 
"**■"* marine. You must recover a top secret microlilm and signal 

the sub to pick you up. Problems abound in this 32K text 

adventure. 

Cassette 32K EXT - Postpaid $17.95 



/^\ 



PROGRAM FILE (Reviewed in Oct. 83 Rainbow) 
^~^\ Organize your cassette programs. Let your computer find 
".""•"I that program for you. Create and maintain a lour field file. 
You can search, sort, modify, delete and display on screen 
or printer. Sorting may be done by name, type or location. 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $14.95 

^^^ OWLS EYE INDICATOR LIGHT 

ff^§\ Don't leave your coco on and fry your chips! The OWLS 

Mnam eye plugs into either joystick port and may be mounted 

beside the keyboard where it is easily visible. Simple 10 

second installation! 

OWLS EYE -Postpaid $ 8.95 



r*' 



SPORTS CAR ADVENTURE 
c\f|\ v - * n eas V to intermediate text adventure thai requires you 
to fix that "old Junker" in the garage. You don't have 
to be a mechanic but you are going to have to "fine tune" 
your wits. 
Cassette 16K EXT - Postpaid $12.95 

CASSETTE TAPES C-06 S7.50 dozen/ S9.50 dozen with hard 
boxes. Please add SI .50 per dozen shipping and handling. 

•C.O.D. orders please add SI .50 
'No delay for personal checks 



VISA' OWLS NEST SOFTWARE 

P.O. BOX 579. OOLTEWAH. TN 37363 



MasterCard 



April 1984 Ihe RAINBOW 87 



"CD SORT" e 

Optimized Machine Language Disk File Sen Utility 

V-E-R-Y F--A--S--T" 

Ideal tor swtmg your Database Files. Mailing List Files, etc etc 

Can handle disk files laiger than compute' memory. 

Capable of dealing with varying data record sizes and sequencing requirements 

Ascending or descending sorts 

Can sort multiple "Key" Fields |IE - by zip codes last names within zip. first names in zip. 

purchase info . age. etc etc ) 

Includes "Key-Extra" as delmed below 

"LOSE YOUR DATA BASE BLUES. ... 
WITH CD SORT FROM COMPUTIZE" 

REQUIRES 32K EXT. COCO AND 1 OR MORE DRIVES 
SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICE - ON DISK - $34.95 



KEY-EXTRA 



B 



Key-Enlra is a highly sophisticated basic program designed to allow the extraction ol key fields 
from data or data base type tiles 

# FEATURES * 

• Has the ability to include only specified keys in the extraction by means ol 10 possible 
"Logical and" compares specified by user 

• Becomes an even more powerful utility when used In coniunctwn with a "Sod" such as our 
Compsort* or "Cdsort" lis supplied when you purchase Cdsorti 

' Can be used 10 extract the entire record from an input tile Copylheentirelileoronlyaportion 
depending on selected parameters 

— The perfecl enhancement to your existing data base ■ or a mapr component ot your own 
programts)' 

REQUIRES 32 OR 64K EXT. COCO ■ 1 OR MORE DRIVES 

SUPPLIED ON DISK $1 9.95 



SPIT-N-IMAGE (C) 



/^ 



M/L Disk Back-Up Utility 
G-U-A-R-A-N-T-E-E-D lo back-up any diskette advertised in this issue 1 There is no need to 
sutler the heartbreak ol crashed disks any longer Spit-N-lmage will create a mirror image ol 
your valuable disk programs which do not respond to normal back-up functions Will also 
initialize and back-up in one pass Data processing experts always insist on having a back-up ■ 
It's good practice - Don't waif 

REQUIRES 32K CC AND 1 OR MORE DRIVES 
CASSETTE $29.95 DISKETTE $34.95 



T.T.U. -TRIPLE TRANSFER UTILITY (C) 

M/l For Cassette & Disk Program Transter 
Transler contents ol disk to tape ' Transter content ot tapetodisk ■ "Select" or "All" Option • Will 
automatically relocate those cassette programs that conflict with the disk operating systemi ■ 
Will display machine language program address • Copies ASCII. Basic. & Machine Language 
Programs ' All contained in 1 menu driven program' ' • /^^v 

REQUIRES 32K CC EXT. «S» 

Cassette $1 9.95 Disk $24.95 



TAPE SPOOLER 



c 



Re-direct punter output to cassette for later printing or archival 

Uses 310 byte machine language driver which is appended to basic programs 

After 1 call, all pnm»-2 baSK statements redirect all printer output to cassette 

Can be turned on and olt while your basic program is running 

Can write to cassette and printer a) same time 

Absolutely no change to printer formats 

All control codes normally sent to printer will be captured lo the cassette with printed data 

Supplied utility will pnn! from tape, conver t the tape toa disk file, print the convened disk file, 

and print multiple copies of either fhe tape or disk (multiple copy function cannot process dies 

greater than 14790 characters) 

Great for generating 2 seperate reports from the same lile on a single pass 
1 Use as a "printing press" for generating multiple copies of meeting notices, ads circulars. 

you name it! 
1 Share a printer 1 " Take your "Saved Printout" on tape to a friend that has a printer* 

REQUIRES 32K EXT. COCO A CASSETTE 
(DISK - PRINTER OPTIONAL) 



CASSETTE 



$21.95 



GRAPHICOM 

Simply stated ■ the finest graphics program 
written for the COCO (or any other computer)! 



FEATURES 



/*$% 



U-S-E-R F-R-l-E-N-D-L-Y ' "** 

4 Mode (Including Hi-Res Artifact) 

Animate Mode 

Color Palate with over 15 color patterns lor use with Hi-Res Artifact 

Send/Receive pictures over standard modem at 300. 600 or 1 200 baud 

Supplied utility allows capturing Hi-Res Screens trom most COCO arcade type games 

I Even protected ones! 

Multiple Hi-Res character tonts (user changaote & delinable) 

Supplied utility (or transferring graphicom screens to basic or other M/L Programs 

Supplied utility tor loading screens trcr. ta€ic or other sources 

Built in Screen pnnt (Pre-defined lor Epson, C-ltoh. RS LP VII LP VIII. DMP 100. OMP 200. 

DMP 1 20 GCP 1 1 5. GEMINI 1 0. and OKI) 1 1 to 9600 baud 

Slow scan television send/receive options 

Many additional leatures. operating hints hardware mods and suggestions, etc elc ' 



rlftKE 

STHHF' 



SThMF 
SET 



C 



3 



DISK 
F' H S E S 

3 




CIF-HijUE 

J L 

COUUti SCREEN 

nntiE 



F-F:I*T 



nznu 



• EASY TO LEARN GRAPHIC MENU • 

REQUIRES 64K COCO - 1 DRIVE - JOYSTICKS 
INTRODUCTORY PRICE FROM COMPUTIZE 

$21.95 



Introducing .... 

TREK-TRIV 

The Star Trek Almost Impossible Super Tnvia Quiz 
For serious "Trekies" onlyi All others need not apply 1 

■ Four programs on one cassette 

• Trek. Trek II, Oui* and Qui; II 

• Sound Effects 

• Advance through various sections and receive promotions up lo fleet admiral' But il you miss 

well you'll find out* 

• Receive a print-out of your rating rank, and intelligence description (sometimes a bit harsh - 
but only il you deserve it) 

• Fun - but V-E-R-Y Challenging 

REQUIRES 32K COCO. CASSETTE RECORDER 
(PRINTER OPTIONAL) 

SUPPLIED ON CASSETTE • ALL FOR $19.95 



* * * MORE SUPER TRIVIA GAMES COMING - STAY TUNED * * * I 
I I 



c 



OMPUTI 



5 



INC 



P.O. BOX 207 
UN6H0RNE. PA 19047 



Check or MO 



•Add $2 00 Shipping 
PA Res add 6% sales tax 



21 5-946-7260 

SEE YOU AT RAINBOWFEST - NEW BRUNSWICK, NJ MARCH 30-APRIL \ 



GAME 



16K 
ECB 



■ f .he J 

n «■» r 

RAINBOW I 

J' i- ..\!L 



Simply Load And. . . Bingo! 



Instant Fun! 



By Joe Hadley 



i ii i 



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* 4 * 4 4 , 
4- 6 * 24 * 43 * 55 * 73 > 
4**4 4 4 
l il l ll I i i i i l li i t l i l l . l l l . I l i i i i i l l l l l l l , i l l. , , , , ,,, , :,,,, i , l , , 

* * • * * 4 

* 18 * S9 * 44 * 46 * H. ii 4 

* 4***4 
llllllllliili I'tiiiu I Iliiiiitiliiii 



If you have ever had pieces of a Favorite game lost, 
spindled or mutilated, then this one is for you. Bingo vv ill 
do live major things: I) It will print as many different 
bingo cards as one could use. two per page. 2 1 Next to the 
cards arc markers that can he colored and cut out. ( My kid- 
like that part.) 3) It will call the numbers on the screen. A 
tone and screen color change accompanies each call. 4) It 
will display all the calls in the order called. 5) It will cheek the 
winner's numbers to avoid differences ol opinion. 

Bingo was written lor a I6K ECB CoCo and a Radio 
Shack DMP-100 printer. Any printer that has line feed and 
double width commands will work. The line feed command 
for the DM P- 100 is 13 and the double width command is 3 I . 
(30 is normal print.) Onl\ seven lines would need modifi- 
cation. 

Here are a couple other helpful notes. II a key is pressed 
while calls arc being made, calling will stop and then the 
winning numbers can be checked. To increase or decrease 
the lime that calls a re displayed, change 1 500 in line 920 to a 
higher oi lower number. 

V with any program. Bingo could have been written any 
ofa thousand different ways. I chose two ways ol determining 
numbers. The numbers on i he cards a re subscripted variables 
that are randomly choosen and then set to a specific number 
lo avoid repetition. The alphanumeries displayed on the 
screen are pulled from a set oi DA TA statements. These arc 
then assigned a subscripted number which is stored and 
retrieved later to check the winner's numbers. 

I hope that you enjoy Bingo as much as my kids do. As for 
myself, well . . . could anybody use 200 bingo cards? 



1 

1 


1 1 
1 I 


1 
1 
1 


1 1 

1 1 

1 1 


I 
1 


1 1 
1 1 


1 1 1 I 
1111 
■ 111 


1111 
1 1 I 1 
1111 



1 1 1 1 
1111 

1111 


1 1 1 1 
1111 
1111 


1111 
1111 
1111 

1 1 1 1 
1111 
1111 


till 
1 1 1 I 
■ 111 


1111 
1111 
1111 



(Sta// Sergeant Joe Hadley works ai Hays Army Hos- 
pital at Ft. OrJ. Calif., as a bio-medical electronic 

technician. He holds n bachelor S degree in music edu- 
cation and an associate oj science degree in medical 
equipment maintenance. As a single parent oj three 
daughters, he keeps his sanity by programming the 
CoCo as a hobby.) 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 89 



:■-:::-.■ . ■-■■ .-■■■■ ■■ . ■■■■ 



RAINBOW 
SCREEN MACHINE 




The Rolls Royce of hi-res text utilities. 
—more features than all others com- 
bined! Adds a whole new dimension to 
your programs. 

• Replace that ugly 32 x 16 screen with a 
professional display of up to 24 lines of 
64 lowercase characters. Combine with 
graphics for 3 times the information on 
one screen! 

• Adds underline, subscript, superscript, 
reverse video, top and bottom scroll 
protect, double-width bold and colored 
lettering with easy to use commands 
from within your program or control 
key input direct from keyboard. Even a 
built in help screen of commands/ sta- 
tus. 

• Machine language extension of BASIC 
fully interfaced with ALL keys, com- 
mands and PMODES including PRINT. 
PRINT @. TAB and comma fields. 

• 12 switchable character sizes (most 
colored) of crisp, clear, true lowercase 
letters from 64 x 24 to 1 2 x 8 for VCR title 
screens, education, and visually 
impaired. An additional 128 useful fig- 
ures of Greek, cars, tanks, planes, etc. 

Includes character editor and demo pro- 
gram. 16K Ext BASIC required - 32K/64K 
[supported. 



"Now I automatically reach for Screen 
Machine when I power up . . . Screen 
Machine is what Radio Shack should 
have put in the computer in the first place 

— G. Cummings - Concord, CA 

Screen Machine enables YOU to do tasks 
which were never before possible due to 
limited screen capacity. Now YOU can 
label your hi-res pictures and graphs with 
ease. Now YOU can write professional 
programs that feature high density text 
and lowercase displays. Now YOU can 
easily create large, colored lettering for 
VCR title screens and educational uses. 
And Screen Machine is so easy to use it 
quickly becomes second nature. 

"(Screen Machine) is excellent. I am 
highly impressed with what you have 
accomplished ..." 

— L. Bass - Traverse City, Ml 

You can find dozens of uses for the addi- 
tional 128 useful graphic figures built 
right in. And because you can modify 
Screen Machine's character set using the 
supplied character editor program you 
can easily customize Screen Machine to 
your needs. And with the free Demo pro- 
gram you see and learn all of Screen 
Machine's powerful features quickly. 

"(Screen Machine) is certainly the finest 
and the most frequently used program in 
my software library. " 

— N. Cuong - N. Palm Beach, FL 



"... .. ... ..■— ■; ■ ■ " ' " ' ■ !! . 




SUPER 

SCREEN 

MACHINE 

Revolutionary — heralded as the most 
useful, powerful and versatile state-of- 
the-art utility ever developed for the Color 
Computer! 

All the features of Screen Machine and more 

• Variable SMOOTH Scroll, Key Click 
and Break Key Disable for professional 
displays, listings, business use. 

• EDTASM+ Command for instant com- 
patibility with R.S. editor-assembler 
cartridge. Superpatch+ Command for 
disk users. 

• Dynamic Screen Dump Command for 

use with Custom Software Engineer- 
ing's Graphic Screen Print program for 
simple printer "Snapshots" of your 
screen. 

• The New Standard — Upgradeable at 
any time from previous Rainbow-Writer 
or Screen Machine purchase. Return 
old program, manual, plus cost differ- 
ence and $7.00 shipping and handling, 

Publishers/Authors: contact the hi-res text 
experts for custom displays in your software. 




I 
I 

I 
I 
I 
I 






RAINBOW 
CONNECTION 
.SOFTWARE 

RAINBOW CONNECTION 
SOFTWARE 

3514 6th Place NW. Suite D 
Rochester, MN 55901 
507-288-4424 



YES. I wan! to easily create dazzling displays with the Best 
SCREEN Enhancer tor my Color Computer Please RUSH 
me the incredible SCREEN MACHINE at the altordable 
price Of: 

Rainbow S.M. S29 95 Tape • $32.95 Disk 

Super S.M. $44 95 Cass - S47 95 Disk 
Shipping 

Minnesota residents add 6% Sales Tax 

Visa & Mastercard add 3% 

* Exp 

TOTAL 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



S2.00 



STATE 



ZIP 



Personal checks welcome - no delay 
Send SASE tor catalog 
Not affiliated with 
THE RAINBOW 



Available in fine stores everywhere, the Dataman and Kelly Software in Canada 



The listing: 



220 ... . 


9 


270 ... . 


. . 1000 


500 ... . 


.... 74 


650 ... . 


.... 72 


800 ... . 


.... 95 


1060... 


.... 59 


END... 


26 





10 'BINOO GAME BY JOE HADLEY 

20 'JANUARY 1984 

30 GOTO600 

40 CLS: PR I NT "POST I ON PAPER IN PR 

INTER THEN PRESS <P>"'STA 

RT OF DETERMINING NUMBERS ON CAR 

DS 

50 PRINT 

60 PR I NT "PRESS < BREAK > TO STOP P 

RINTING" 

70 PRINT 

80 PR I NT "AFTER PRESSING < BREAK > 

TYPE 'RUN' THEN PRESS < ENTER >. " 

90 P*=INKEY*:IF P*=""THEN 90 

100 IF P»="P"THEN 110 ELSE 40 

110 CLEAR 

120 DIM B(15) 

130 DIM K30) 

140 DIM N<45) 

150 DIM G(60) 

160 DIM 0(75) 

170 PRINT#-2,CHR*(13)CHR*(13)CHR 

*(13) 

1 80 PR I NT#-2 , CHR* ( 30 ) " ********** 

******************************** 

******************** 

"'TOP LINE 

190 PRINT#-2,CHR*(31)"» * 

♦ * * »";CHR*(30>" 
1 1 1 1"'SKIP 1 AFTER 

TOP LINE 
200 PRINT#-2,CHR*(31)"» B ♦ I 

# N * G * O *";CHR*(30>" 
1 1 1 1" 

210 PRINT#-2.CHR*(31)"« * 

* * * *";CHR*<30>" 
111 1"'SKIP 1 AFTER 

BINGO 
220 PRINT#-2,CHR*(30) "#**#*#**»» 
******************************** 

******************** — 

"'BOTTOM LINE UNDER BINGO 

230 'DETERMINE NUMBERS ON CARDS 
240 B(1)=1:B(2)=2:B(3)=3:B(4)=4: 



B(5)=5:B(6)=6:B(7)=7:B(B)=8:B(9) 

=9:B(i0)=l0:B(ll)=ii:B(i2)*i2:B( 

13)=13:B(14)=14:B(15)=15:I(1)=16 

: I <2)=17: I (3)=18: I <4)-l9: I (5)=20 

: I (6>=21: I <7)=22: I <8)=23: I <9)=24 

:M10)=25:l(ll)=26:I(12)=27:l(l3 

) =28: I < 14) =29: I ( 15) =30 

250 N(1)=31:N(2)=32:N<3)=33:N(4) 

=34: N (5) =35: N (6) =36: N (7) =37: N (8) 

=38: N (9) =39: N ( 10) =40: N ( 1 1 ) =41 : N ( 

12)=42:N(13)=43:N(14)=44:N(15)=4 

5:G(1)=46:G(2)=47:G(3)=48:G(4)=4 

9:G(5)=50:G(6)=51:G(7)=52:G(8)=5 

3:G(9)=54:G(10)=55:G(11)=56:G(12 

)=57:G(13)=58:G(14)=59 

260 G(15)=60:O(1)=61:O(2)=62:O(3 

) =63: O (4) =64: O (5) =65: 0(6) =66: 0(7 

) =67: 0(8) =68: 0(9) =69: 0(10) =70: 0( 

11)=71:0(12>=72:0(13>=73:0(14)=7 

4:0(15)=75 

270 FOR L=l TO 5 

280 PRINT#-2,CHR*(31)"» * 

» * * *";CHR*(30>" 

1 1 1 1" 
290 BB=RND(15) 
300 BB=B(BB) 
310 IF B(BB)=0 THEN 290 
320 B(BB)=0 
330 II=RND(15) 
340 II=I(II) 
350 IF I(II)=1 THEN 330 
360 I(II)=1 
370 NN=RND(15) 
380 NN=N(NN) 
390 IF N(NN)=1THEN 370 
400 N(NN)=1 
410 GG=RND(15) 
420 GG=G(GG) 
430 IF G(GG)=1 THEN 410 
440 G(GG)=1 
450 00=RND(15> 
460 00=0(00) 
470 IF 0(00)=1 THEN 450 
480 0(00)=1 

490 IF BB=>10 AND LOS THEN 540 
500 'PRINT NUMBERS ON CARDS 
510 IF BB<10 AND L<>3 THEN PRINT 

#-2,CHR*(3l)"» ";BB;" * ";ll"* " 
;NN"» ";GG"* ";OO"*";CHR*(30)" 
111 1":GOTO550 
520 IF BB>10 AND L=3 THEN PRINT# 
-2,CHR*(31)"* ";BB"# "5 II"* FREE 
* "|GG"# "JOO"»"!CHR«(30)" 1 

1 1 1 " : GOTO550 
530 IF BB<10 AND L=3 THEN PRINT# 
-2,CHR*(31)"» ";BB;" * ";II"* FR 
EE* ";GG"* ";OO"*";CHR*(30) " 1 

1 1 1 " : GOTO550 
540 PRINT#-2,CHR*(31)"* ";BB"» " 
;II"» ";NN"* ";GG"* ";00"*";CHR* 



92 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



There ain't much more to know about your microcomputer when you own a NANOS SYSTEMS CARD 



This is the standard! 




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You can order direct from England 

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NANOS SYSTEMS REFERENCE CARDS - QUICK REFERENCE FOR YOJR MICROCOMPUTER 



OVER 125,000 SOLD WORLD WIDE 

The most popular auicK rele'ence eve' produced lor microcomputers* 
Th.* is the lines! most comprehensive complete ant] most truthful document you may eve- find 'or your m.crocomputer 




/0% 

RAINBOW 

cl*nricr.iio«. 



it .5 an accordion-loid document printed on 80-lb Beckett cove, slock to- durability prepared by large-scale compute, professionals who have over 20 years e.penence and it .s 
made the way Ihey need it lor iheir own usage 

Each item of information on me card is expressed in its simplest terms so that even the beginner can understand what is being said 

TheNANOSSVSTEMSCARDisnolafulonal bul H is not a technical document e.ine. it s.moly presents nearly everything you might need to Know about using operating and 
programming your microcomputer in plain words so that you can Quickly grasp every concept 

NANOS SYSTEMS CARDS are used ,n many homes businesses grammar and high schools technical schools maior colleges and universities and would you believe the U S 

NANOS SYSTE MS CARDS are not lust another Quickly-produced bunch ol publications tor the purpose of grabbing sales while the public is still contused about the proper 
literature to buy On the contrary they are me.pensive and can represent information which you might otherwise spend t'om twenty to one hundred dollars to gel because not 
only do ihey summarise the manuals bul NANOS researches each computer and inserts inlormalion not readily available anywrhere else 

Fore«ampie one very large publisher has been marketing whal Ihey call a Quick Reference card It is oversize and awkward to handle and transport II contains 8 page* Jot 
which contain nothing about you' compute, at all' The other 6 pages are spread out to fill the rest ol the card wilh as much as possible with nol much information it sells for 2 95 
The NANOS SYSTEMS CARD lor me same microcomputer has 16 pages all used and packed lull ol inlormalion The enure contents ol the 2 95 card above are contained in about 
3 pages ol the NANOS CARD The NANOS CARD .s 4 95 and it Ins in your pocket' 

Another publisher puts out a large lull-sued plastic sheet which is so technical that even NANOS himseil cannot understand ,1 all 

And linaiiy mere are some who are publishing little mini-books and calling mem Ouick Relerences The idea of a Quick relerence is to get away Irom the book lotmat If is" 
archaic and time-consuming 

The NANOS SYSTEMS CARD is the hue OUICK REFERENCE lor today s users Nol only does it make an original presentation but it is organized so that you can identity your 
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NANOS SYSTEMS CORP 
P BOX 24344 
SPEEDWAY IN 46224 
(317| 244-4078 



"Thonls for the card." 
T.N., Park Ridga, Illinois 



(30)" 1 1 1 1" 

550 PRINT#-2,CHR*<31)"» * 

* * * *";CHR*<30)" 

111 1"'SKIP 1 AFTER 

NUMBERS 
560 PR I NT#-2 , CHR* ( 30 ) " ********** 
******************************** 

******************** 

"'LINE UNDER NUMBERS 

570 NEXT L 

580 GOTO110 

600 CLS: PRINT" BIN 

Q 0": 'TITLE AND BEGINNING OF 

PROGRAM 

610 play "l8;03;g»04*c»c;c5 03)g; 

a;a;L4;03;g;L8;04;c;c;d;d;L4;e;e 

;E;e;L8;f;F;L4;F;D;D;L8;E;E;L4;E 

;C;C;L8;D;D;D;Cs03;B;G;a;B;L4;04 

;c;L2;C 

620 print8448, "press any key to 

continue" 

630 z*=inkey*:if z*=""then 630 

640 cls: line input "do you need bi 

ngo cards ";y* 

650 IFLEFT*(Y«, 1)="Y"THEN 40 ELS 

E IF LEFT*<Y*,1)="N"THEN 670 

660 GOTO640 

670 'START OF NUMBER CALLING 

680 CLS: PR I NT "PRESS ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE" 

690 X*=INKEY«: IFX*=""THEN 690 

700 DIM H*(75):DIM N*<75):DIM E< 

75) 

710 DATA B01,B02,B03,B04,B05,B06 

,607,808,609,810,611,812,613,614 

,615 

720 DATA 116.117,118,119,120,121 

, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129 

, 130 

730 DATA N31,N32,N33,N34,N35,N36 

, N37, N38, N39, N40, N41 , N42, N43, N44 

,N45 

740 DATA G46,G47,G48,G49,G50,651 

, G52 , G53 , 654 , G55 , G56 , G57 , G58 , G59 

,G60 

750 DATA 061,062,063,064,065,066 

, 067, 068, 069, 070, 071 , 072, 073, 074 

,075 

760 C=0: CLS: PR I NT "GET READY TO 6 

IN-GO" : FORT=1TO800: NEXTT 

770 FOR X=l TO 75 

780 E<X)=E 

790 NEXT X 

800 FOR 6=1 TO 75 

810 X=RND(75):IFX<1THEN810 

820 IF E(X)=76 THEN 810 

830 E<X>=76 

840 C=C+1 

850 FOR N=l TO X 

860 READN* 



870 NEXTN 

880 H*(C)=N* 

890 V=RND(8) 

900 CLS ( V ) : PR I NTS239 , N* ; 

910 S0UND225, 1 

920 FORK=1TO1500:NEXTK' TIMER FOR 

NUMBERS ON SCREEN 
930 RESTORE 
940 L»»INKEY»:IFL*=""THEN NEXT B 

ELSE 950 
950 CLS:PRINT@143,"A"; 
960 PRINT8202, "W I N N E R"; 
970 FOR X=1T0255 STEP5: SOUND X,l 
:NEXT 

980 CLS: PR I NT "DO YOU WANT TO" 
990 INPUT" 1) PLAY ANOTHER GAME 

2) SEE ALL THE CALLS 

3) CHECK THE WINNERS 
NUMBERS 4) END";Q 

1000 ON Q GOTO 760, 1010, 1050, 127 


1010 cls:forb=itoc:printh*<6)" " 
;:NEXT6 

1020 PRINT6448, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE" 
1 030 W*= I NKEY* : I FW*= " " THEN 1 030 
1040 GOTO980 

1050 CLS: LINE INPUT" TYPE IN THE W 
INNER'S NUM8ERS <HIT < ENTER > 
AFTER EACH ENTRY) 1 ) " ! A* 
1060 LINEINPUT"2)";6* 
1070 LINEINPUT"3)";C$ 
1080 LINEINPUT"4)";D* 
1090 LINEINPUT"5) " ; E* 
1100 FOR 6=1 TOC 

1110 IF H*(8)=A* THEN A*=A*+" CA 
LLED" 

1120 IF H*<8>=8* THEN 8*=8*+" CA 
LLED" 

1130 IF H«(8)=C* THEN C*=C*+" CA 
LLED" 

1140 IF H«(8)=D* THEN D*=D*+" CA 
LLED" 

1150 IF H*(6)=E* THEN E*=E*+" CA 
LLED" 

1160 NEXT8 

1170 CLS: PR I NT "ALL NUM8ERS CHECK 
ED" 

1180 PRINT"#1 ";A* 
1190 PRINT"#2 ";e* 
1200 PR I NT" #3 ";C* 
1210 PRINT"#4 ";D* 
1220 PRINT"#5 ";E* 
1230 PRINT@448, "PRESS ANY KEY TO 

CONTINUE" 
1 240 S*= I NKE Y* : I FS*= " " THEN 1 240 
1250 GOTO 980 
1260 END 
1270 END 



^ 



94 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



The HJL-5 7 Keyboard 




££&&?' 

.o 



Compare it with the rest. 
Then, buy the best. 



If you've been thinking about 
spending good money on a new 
keyboard for your Color Computer, 
why not get a good keyboard for 
your money? 

Designed from scratch, the 
HJL-57 Professional Keyboard 
is built to unlock ALL the 
potential performance of your 
Color Computer. Now, you can 
do real word processing and sail 
through lengthy listings...with 
maximum speed; minimum errors. 

At $79.95, the HJL-57 Is reason- 
ably priced, but you can find 
other CoCo keyboards for a few 
dollars less. So, before you buy, 
we suggest that you compare. 

Compare Design. 

The ergonomically-superlor 
HJL-57 has sculptured, low 
profile keycaps; and the three- 
color layout is identical to 
the original CoCo keyboard. 

Compare Construction. 

The HJL-57 has a rlgidized 
aluminum baseplate for solid, 
no-flex mounting. Switch contacts 
are rated for 100 million cycles 
minimum, and covered by a spill- 
proof membrane. 



Compare Performance. 

Offering more than full-travel, 
bounce-proof keyswltches, the 
HJL-57 has RFI/EMI shielding that 
eliminates irritating noise on 
displays; and four user-definable 
function keys (one latchable), 
specially-positioned to avoid 
inadvertent actuation. 



Free Function Key Program 

Your HJL-57 kit Includes usage 
instructions and decimal codes 
produced by the function keys, 
plus a free sample program 
that defines the function 
keys as follows: F1 = Screen 
dump to printer. F2 = Repeat 
key (latching). F3 = Lowercase 
upper case flip (if you have 
lower case capability). F4 = 
Control key; subtracts 64 from 
the ASCII value of any key 
pressed. Runs on disc or tape; 
extended or standard Basic. 



Compare Installation. 

Carefully engineered for easy 
installation, the HJL-57 requires 
no soldering, drilling or gluing. 
Simply plug it in and drop it 
right on the original CoCo 



Ordering Information: Specify model (Original, F-version, or CoCo 2). Payment by C D check 
MasterCard or visa . Credit card customers Include complete card number and expiration date Add 
$2.00 tor shipping ($3.50 for Canada). New York state residents add 7% sales tax. 
Dealer Inquiries Invited. For dealer information In Eastern U.S. and Canada, call collect: 
617-586-7614, Advanced Computer Services (distributor), 74 Plain Street, Brockton, MA 02401. 



mounting posts. Kit includes a 
new bezel for a totally finished 
conversion. 

Compare Warranties. 

The HJL-57 Is built so well, it 
carries a full, one-year warranty. 
And, it is sold with an exclusive 
15-day money-back guarantee. 

Compare Value. 

You know that a bargain is a 
bargain only so long as it lasts. 
If you shop carefully, we think 
you will agree...The HJL-57 Is 
the last keyboard your CoCo will 
ever need. And that's real value. 

Order Today. 

Only $79.95, the HJL-57 Is 
available for Immediate shipment 
for either the original Color 
Computer (sold prior to October, 
1982) or the F-version and TDP-100 
(Introduced in October, 1982), 
and the new 64K CoCo. Now also 
available for CoCo 2. 

Order by Phone Anytime 

716-235-8358 

24 hours, 7 days a week 




PRODUCTS INC. 

955 Buffalo Road • P.O. Box 24954 
Rochester, New York 14624 




Top Performance 
Demands Proper Tools! 



JBM's MIDWARE line of quality software, is available 
on either five and one-quarter or eight inch diskettes. 
All of JBM's software packages come complete with 
comprehensive user's manuals. 



© 



JBM'S MIDWARE 

for OS9 



For more information, contact: 
Dcpt RB4 

The J BM Group. Inc. 
Continental Business Center 
Front & Ford Sis. 
Bridgeport. PA 1940S 
TEL: 215-337-3138 
TWX: 510-660-3999 



an 



group 



OS!) is u registered trademark <>f Microwarc Corporation. 



VISA and MASTERCARD accepted. 



It's a safe bet this will be popular with the '21 and under' crowd. 

Try Your Hand At Blackjak 



By Steve Kincade 



~rylackjak starts with a color test. This program uses 

A"V he false colors of PMODE4 and to be sure that the 
-X-#cards are red and black, and not blue and black, this 
was necessary. Next, there is the title page and credits fol- 
lowed by a graphic scene in which the computer will give you 
your chips. Now you are ready to play Blackjak. You can 
play with either the right joystick or, for one player, you can 
use the arrow keys. The format is quite simple — move the 
joystick down to bet and then up to play. If more than one 
are playing, then any player can skip his turn by playing with 
no bet made. 

You move the joystick left or right to "hit" or to "stay" 
with the cards up on the table. Once you stay, the computer 
then plays its cards and you will win. lose or tie. 

If you win on a 21. or blackjack, or a five-card hand, the 



payoff is triple. If you win on less than 2 1 , then the payoff is 
double. You get money back on a tic (after all, this is just a 
social game) and you lose your money on a bust or if you 
lose the hand. 

If you would prefer to lose on a tie. change Z=3 in line 
3070 to Z=4. There is one way that you can lose on a 21 
hand. This will happen if the computer can get a five-card 
hand. 

U you press "S" before you place a bet, you can see the 
score. You will also see the score when someone runs out of 
money. The computer will lend that player more money, but 
will also keep running tabs. This is so that no one is left out 
and at the same time keeps things even. 

Oh yes, one more thing; keep close watch on the dealer 
— he has shifty eyes. 



Variable Directory 

C(2,6) 

A = Color (blue/ red) D(I,I0) 

B = Bet for player up E(2,7) 

C = Color (red/ blue) F(2,8) 

D = Value of card G(2,8) 

E = Bet placed -- flag H(5.5) 

F = Money bet — flag T(I0) 

G = Total of players' hand W(l-4) 

H = Total of house's hand W(5-8) 

1 = Random function AS 

J = Joystick (0) A5S 

K = Joystick (I) OS(26) 

L = Length of string R$ 

M = Letter in string \y 

N = Color of suit WVV 

NG = Flag for second game x 

P = Number of players XX 

R = Number to be printed y 

T = The card in play 2 

U = Number to be printed A(2,6) 

V = Number to be printed B(2.6) 



Suit card 

Down card 

Suit card 

Suit card 

Suit card 

Chip 

Value of cards 

Money per player 

Money owed to bank 

IN KEYS 

Joystick or keyboard 

Letters 

String to be printed 

Winnings for player up 

Counter 

Counter 

Counter 

Counter 

Flag for end of play 

Flip card 

Flip card 



^fe 



(Sieve Kincade is currently studying computer science 
in business at De Vry Institute of Technology. He is a 
member of the Toronto Colour Computer Club and 
has, with his wife Sharon, run a software company — 
Kincade (Computer) Software Ltd. — for the past 
year.) 



The listing: 



188 
. 53 
. 50 
.. 2 
.. 2 



360 
430. 
610 . 
800. 

1270 214 

1460 184 

1640 48 

1800 215 

1970 210 

2170 22 

2350 202 

2510 68 



2760 138 

2910 172 

3070 62 

3290 31 

3430 178 

3600 250 

3760 202 

3840 77 

3920 38 

4080 101 

4190 219 

4380 79 

END 158 



90 ' #******#*♦*♦***»♦**»**»**** 

91 '# * 
100 REM BLACKJAK (C) 1983 BY 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 



97 



MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 



DOUBLE DRIVER 

The BEST monitor driver available, unlike some monitor 
drivers the Double Driver provides TRUE monochrome 
and color composite output. Audio Output. Solderless 
installation. $24.95 



MERCEDES 




THE COCO SWITCHER 

Hook up three peripherals to your RS-232 jack. Connect 
your modem, printer or any RS-232 device to the CoCo 
switcher. Select among your peripherals by turning a 
switch. LED power on light. 

Dimensions 2V2" (64 mm) x 4" (102mm( x 5 7/8" (150 
mm) $39.95 




64K UPGRADES 

Instantly access 64K via M/L Totally solderless kit to 

upgrade E Boards. Kit includes eight 4164 prime chips 

and chips U29 and U11 already soldered. E Board Kit 

$69.95 

Color Computer II kit requires soldering. $69.95 



MERCEDES 






Write programs with mnemonic labels 
Automatic generaton of data lines from Machint 
Automatic line numbering 
Merge Basic Lines 
Split Basic Lines 
Full Screen Edit 

Delete ^^tffll 

Overtype 

More! ^ *"^fl 


Code 




i^t <^tfH P^^TJ ftfciisa 






'"^-■jsBps 


^5^^H 




y "^^^rf^^S 


m 








^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H^^^^^^^^^ 







*A M/L utility for the BASIC programmer. Automatic 
conversion of M/L routines to data statements, automatic 
line numbering, write MNEMONIC line labels and compile 
it to a running program. Requirements: MERCEDES 1 6K, 
TOOLKIT 16K. MERCEDES alone $19.95. MERCEDES 
with TOOLKIT $32.95 

•COCO WRITER II - an excellent word processor at an 
affordable price, characters per line: 32, 51, 64, 85, justify 
right, left, center, insert, delete, move blocks, MENU 
driven printing, tabs, etc. $34.95 Tape 16K EXB 
Disk Version - menu driven, tape and diskfile management 
system included * $44.95 32K EXB /^\ 



"With either program you get a FREE copy of 
SPOOL 64 which allows you to use the upper 32K 
of a 64K machine. 




MORETON BAY SOFTWARE 

A Division of Moreton Bay Laboratory 



316 CASTILLO STREET 

SANTA BARBARA, 

CALIFORNIA 93101 

(805) 962-3127 




/f^ 



GRAPHICOM 



The Ultimate Graphic Utility 
You must see this program to believe it! Create pictures 
and text on the same screen. Now you can create pictures 
as good as any graphic you have seen on the color com- 
puter. Write graphic adventures or educational programs. 
Requires 64K EXB, Disk Drive and Joy Sticks $29.95 



Ordering Information 



VISA' 



Add $2.00 shipping and handling per order. We ship within 
24 hours on receipt of order. Blue Label Service available. 
California residents add 6% sales tax. 






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the Rainbow 9529 U.S. Highway 42 
502/228-4492 P.O. Box 209 

Prospect. Ky. 40059 

I would like to send a gift certificate for a one year (12 months) 
subscription to: 

Name . 

Address . 

City State Zip 



From: 

Name __^ 

Address 

City 



■¥: 



m 



State. 



Zip 



□ Payment Enclosed 

Charge □ VISA □ MasterCard □ American Express 

MyAccount# lnterbank# (MC only) 

Signature _ Card Expiration Date 






l 




___ _ _ 

. um .ii — m -am iitti mi 11 i ii m. . . ,, . i ,m i n m i * 4.* i i ■ 



— 




KINCADE < COMPUTER) SOFTWARE LTD. 

102 ** * 

103 **#***********************» 
110 PCLEAR4 

120 REM INITAL SET-UP 
130 CLS0:PRINT@192," HOW MAN 
Y PLAYERS (1/4) "; 
1 40 A*= I NKE Y* : I FA*- " " THEN 1 40ELSE 
I f A*= " 1 " THEN P= 1 ELSE I F A*= " 2 " THEN 
P=2ELSE I F A*= " 3 " THEN P=3ELSE I F A* 
="4 "THEN P=4ELSEP-1 
150 :FORX=lTO P:W(X)=4:W<X+4)=-4 

:next 

1 60 I FVAL < A* ) > 1 THENPR I NT " al 1 PLA 
YERS WILL USE THE right JOYSTIC 
K WHEN PLAYING";: PRINT: PRINT: FOR 
X-1TO1000: NEXT: A5*-" " : GOTO 180 
170 PRINT: PRINT"YOU MAY USE EITH 
ER THE right JOYSTICK OR THE 
ARROW KEYS TO PLAY. PLEASE 
SAY WHICH YOU WILL USE (jOYSTI 
CK/kEYBOARD) ": INPUT A5» 
1S0 I=RND (-TIMER) 

190 CLS0:PRINT@64, " DO YOU WANT 
I NSTRUCT I ONS ( Y / N ) " : I NPUT A* : I F A 
*= " Y " THENSOSUB3720 
200 CLS0 : PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS : SCREEN 1 , 1 
: PM0DE3 

210 IF N6-1THEN NG=0:GOTO230 
220 DIM0*<26):DIMA(2,6),B<2,6),C 
(2,6),E(2,7) ,F(2,8),B(2,8),D(1,1 
0),T(10),H(5,5) ,CC(10) 
230 A=3:C=2 

240 REM DRAW CARDS AND SUITS 
250 COLORC : DRAW " S4BM20 , 1 0R 1 4G 1 6L 
14E16":PAINT(22,12),C,C 
260 COLOR0: LINE (64, 10) -(84,40), P 
SET,BF 

270 DRAW " BM74 , 25C 1 G8D2F2R4E2ND4F 
2R4E2U2H8C0" : PAINT (74, 27) , 1 , 1 



280 LINE(96,10)-(116,40),PSET,BF 

290 COLOR C:DRAW"BM106,27H2L4G2D 

2F8E8U2H2L4G2C0 " : PA I NT ( 1 06 , 32 ) , C 

,C 

300 LINE (128, 10)-(148,40),PSET,B 

F 

310 DRAW " BM 1 38 , 26C 1 L2G2D2F2L2G2D 

1 F2R2E2ND4F2R2E2U 1 H2L2E2U2H2C0 " : 

PAINT (138, 28), 1,1 

320 LINE(15B,10)-(178,40),PSET,B 

F 

330 COLOR C:DRAW"BM168,26F6G6H6E 

6":PAINT(168,30),C,C 

340 COLORC : DRAW " BM2 1 , 1 0R 1 4F 1 6L 1 

4H16":PAINT(214,12),C,C 

350 PM0DE4, 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM0DE3 

355 REM ALPHABET 

360 DATA U4E4F4L8R8D4BR4,U8R6F2G 

2NL6F2G2NL6BR6, U8R8L8D8R8BR4, U8R 

7FD6GL7R7BR5 , U8R8L8D4R6L6D4R8BR4 

, U8R8L8D4R6L6D4BR12, U8R8D2U2L8D8 

R8U4L4R4D4BR4, U8D4R8U4D8BR4 , R4U8 

NL4NR4D8R4BR4, U2D2R8NUBBR4, U8D4R 

4E4S4F4BR4 , NUBR6BR6 , U8F4E4D8BR4 , 

U8F8NU8BR4 

370 DATA U8R8D8L8R8BR4,U8R8D4L8D 

4BR12, U8R8D8L8R6H2F4H2BR6, U8R8D4 

L8R4F4BR4 , R8U4L8U4R8BD8BR4 , BR4U8 

L4R8BD8BR4, NU8R8NU8BR4, BR4H4NU4F 

4E4U4BD8BR4, NU8E4F4NU8BR4 , E8G4H4 

F8BR4, BR4U4NH4E4BDSBR4, E8L8BD8RB 

BR4 

380 COLORC 

390 REM GET RIGHT COLOR ON CARDS 

400 RESTORE :F0RT=1T026: RE ADO* (T) 

: NEXTT: DRAWBM40, 60S4" : R»=" IF CA 

RDS ARE BLUE" :GOSUB650: DRAW "BM30 

, 90" :RK=" PRESS C ELSE PRESS ":GOS 

UB650: DRAW"BM30, 130S12" : R*="ENTE 

R":GOSUB650 




NEVER UNDERSOLD 

"We'll Meet or Beat ANY Comparible Offers!! 




AGFA 
PE611 



Qty. 



Retail 



Sale 



40-Track 
Single Sided 
Double Density 
With Hub Rings 



10 pak 


«3 M 


J 1" ea. 


20 pak 


«3 M 


*1" ea. 


ly 50 pak 


«2*9 


s 1" ea. 


gs 100 pak 


*2 ; ■ 


J 1" ea. 


10 pak case 


S499 


5 3 5 ° ea. 




Cassettes 


12-Pak 24-Pak 


250-Case" 


500-Case^l 


C-5 


65C 


55C 


4ie 


36C 


C-10 


69C 


59C 


49c 


39C 


C-15 


79C 


69C 


59« 


49C 


C-20 


896 


79C 


69€ 


59C 


Hard Box 


26C 


21 C 


16C 


13C 


* 250/500 Bulk Quantities 


Labels 4« Extra 





UPS Shipping (48 States) *3 00 Per Pak, H8 00 Per Case-^ 



[f^|Q@lP©=©® n 




m 



2665 Busby Rural Road 
Oak Harbor, Wash., 98277 



MastwCard 



IMMEDIATE SHIPMENT 

l-(206)-675-6143 



100 



the RAINBOW April 1984 





NEW 



for your 
COLOR 
COMPUTER 



Switchable Expansion Is Here 



CoCo HAS A COMPANION!! 

GOOD NEWS Switch over to more versatility with the new 
BT -200(1 COMPANION. Save CoCo's connector with the best 
COMPANION it will ever have 

• Load 5 cartridges into the COMPANION and avoid the hassles 
while enjoyinn the benefits ill push-button selection. 

• Push a Button or select from your keyboard to turn on one of your 
5 selections Handy indicator lights let you know at a glance which 

cartridge is connected. 

• No More I urn -Of fs. JilSI switch to the next cartridge in your 
COMPANION. I'u si i a hiiiiou in Restart without turning off t he- 
power 

• Plug-in. Fill one to five slots tor flexible programming, game 
playing or both (.boose R( >M I'.ukv si i i.il ports, parallel pons, or 
disk drives Then do what you like to do best The most powerful 
and COSI effective expansion you will find for just S225.00 

FOR THE ADVANCED USER OR 
EXPERIMENTER 

• The utmost in expansion power and versatility is the BT-1000 
Expansion Interface Unit. $250.00 

• Large Built-in power supply w~w 
to power your peripherals 
and experimenter circuits. 

• Space lor your ML utilities with optional SK ol RAM. $275.00 



RAINBOW 
HU 



kdSiC De P'- ° P0 - Box 511 Ortonville, Ml 48462 

Technology"" 



13131 627-6146 



ALSO NEW FROM BASIC TECHNOLOGY!! 

• BT-1010 PPI Parallel Printer Interface. Free-up CoCo s serial 
port. Run your primer at top speed. Five foot cable with Centronics 
compatible connector and machine language printer driver are 
included. S7<J. l ;5. 

• BT-1020 Real Time Clock/Calendar. Let CoCo keep the time and 
date tor your programs and files. Day-light savings time and leap 
year keep vou on time Save data or program memory even when 
power is off with 50 bytes of battery backed memory. Alarm 
capability io turn on the cottee pot. All for only SI09.00. rfF§\ 

• BT-I030 VIP Versatile Interface Port. Connect CoCo to the 
outside world with two 8-bit parallel ports, two 16-bit 
timer counters and a serial shift register. All user programmable. 
S6<>.»5. 

• WRITE FOR FREE BROCHURE. 

For years of trouble-free enjoyment all Basic Technology products use 
top quality components and are backed by a full 180 day parts and 
labor warranty. We service what we sell!!! 

Add S5 shipping & handling for BT-1000, S2.50 for BT-1020. 
Muhigan residents add -V', sales tax. Shipping & handling for 
residents of Canada, Hawaii, Alaska is S 10. Overseas orders add 15%. 
Check, money order, VISA, MC (give account no., expiration date, 
phone no. I. Personal checks allow 2-3 weeks to clear. COD charge $2 
(requires certified check or money order). 

"Watch for more peripherals from 
Basic Technology. " 



500 
510 
520 
530 
540 



HOUSE 



A 1 I FPEEK < 339 ) =254THEN430ELSE I F 

A=2THEN430ELSE A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " T 

HEN4 1 0ELSE I F A*= " C " THENA=2 : C=3 : GO 

TO250 

420 REM STING SONG 

430 FORX=1TO200:NEXT:PLAY"T1V20O 

4L 1 6DL 1 6EL 1 6C03L8 AL 1 6BL8GV 1 5L 1 6D 

L 1 6EL 1 6C02L8AL 1 6BL8GV 1 2L 1 6DL 1 6EL 

1 6C0 1 L8 AL 1 6BL 1 6 AL 1 6A- V 1 0L8GO3L8G 

V902L 1 6DL 1 6D+L 1 6E03L8C02L 1 6E03L8 

C02L 1 6E03L4CV 1 0O4L 1 6C V 1 2L 1 6DV 1 5L 

1 6D+V20L 1 6EL 1 6CL 1 6DL8E03L 1 6B04L8 

D04L4CL 1 603C " : COLORC 

440 COLORC ■---«• 

450 LINE (0, 48) -<255, 191), PRESET, 

BF : DRAW " S6BM50 , 60 " : R*= " BLACK J ACK 
•••6OSUB650: CIRCLE (230, 55) , 10, A: D 
RAW " S3BM228 , 58 " : R*= " C " : GOSUB650 
460 DRAW"BM40,80S4":R*="BY STEV 
E KINCADE":GOSUB650 
470 REM SAVE CARDS AND SUITS 
480 GET(4, 10)-(40,30),A 
490 GET(210,10)-<246,30) ,B 
GET(66, 10)-(86,40),C 
GET (96, 10) -(116, 40) ,E 
GET(128, 10)-(148,40) ,F 
GET(160,10>-<180» 40) ' G 
DRAW " BM20 ,110": R*= " THE 
LIMIT IS":GOSUB650 
550 DRAW " BM20 , 1 30 " : R*= " TEN THOUS 
AND DOLLARS" : GOSUB650 
560 DRAWBM20, 1 55 ":R*=" PRESS ENT 
ER TO " : GOSUB650 : DRAW " BM20 , 1 74 " : R 
*=•• START THE GAME" : GOSUB650 
570 I FPEEK (339) =254THEN580ELSEA* 
=INKEY*: IFA*=""THEN570 
580 FORX=100TO50STEP-2: SOUNDX , 1 : 

NEXT 

585 REM COVER CARDS 

590 COLORC: LINE (64, 10) -(84, 40), P 

SET.BF:GET(64. 10) - (84, 40) , D 

600 LINE (96,10) -(116,40),PSET,BF 

: LINE ( 128, 10) - ( 148, 40) , PSET. BF:L 

INE ( 158. 10) - ( 178, 40) ,PSET, BF 

610 REM TAKE CARDS AWAY 

620 LINE(64.10)-<84, 40), PRESET, B 

F- LINE (96, 10) - ( 1 16, 40) , PRESET, BF 
• LINE (128. 10) - ( 148, 40) , PRESET, BF 
: LINE ( 158, 10) - ( 178, 40) , PRESET, BF 
630 GOTO660 
640 REM SUBROUTINE TO PUT 

LETTERS ON GRAPHIC SCREEN 
650 L=LEN(R*>:FORTY=lTO L:M=ASC( 
MID*(R*.TY,1))-64:IF M=-32THEN D 
RAW " BR 10":NEXTTY: RETURN ELSE DRA 
WO* (M) : PLAY" V10L1 10CO4L255A" : NEX 
TTY: RETURN 

660 FORX=1TO500:NEXT 
670 REM BLANK SCREEN WHILE 



SETTING UP NEXT SCREEN 
680 CLS0 : SCREEN0 , : G0SUB4 1 70 : PMO 

DE4 , 1 : PM0DE3 

690 FORX=50TO100: SOUNDX, l: NEXT 

700 REM BLANK SCREEN WHILE 
SETTING UP NEXT SCREEN 
710 CLS0:SCREEN0,0:PCLS:W=4 
720 CIRCLE (60, 40), 25, 4, 1.1 
730 CIRCLE(45,10).20,4,1,.07,.25 
740 CIRCLE (80, 14), 20, 4, 1,-25, .50 
750 PAINT (60. 60), 4, 4 
760 DRAW"BM48,36C1R6BR10R6 
770 DRAW " BM58 , 40F4D3L8U3E4 
780 LINE (56, 56) -(66, 52), PSET 
790 DRAW"BM66,52H2F4 
800 CIRCLE (42, 74), 14, 3,1,. 55,. 85 
810 DRAW"BM48,65C3R24 
820 CIRCLE (78, 74), 14, 3,1,. 65,. 8 
830 DRAWBM30, 108R54U28F12R26U10 

L18H20 

840 DRAW " BM30 , 68G20F20 

850 PAINT (80, 80), 3, 3 

860 DRAW"BM36,78C1G10F20 

870 DRAW " BM 1 22 , 90C4U6R2D6R2U6R2C 

2NU4D 1 0R8U 1 4L8BR 1 0BD4C4D6 

880 PAINT (130, 86), 2, 2 

890 LINE (220,0) "(220, 48), PSET: LI 

NE (220, 48) - ( 160, 48) , PSET: LINE- ( 1 

60, 68) , PSET". LINE- (220, 68) , PSET: L 

INE-(220, 112) , PSET: LINE- (160, 112 

), PSET: LINE- (160, 132), PSET: LINE- 

(220. 132) , PSET: LINE- (220, 176) , PS 

900 LINE (0.176) -(220, 176), PSET: L 

INE (220, 48) -(256, 48). PSET: LINE (2 

20, 68) -(256. 68) , PSET 

910 PM0DE4,l: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM0DE3 

920 REM GO PLACE BET 

930 GOSUB1690 

940 REM FIND WHICH PLAYER 

950 GOSUB3960 

960 PM0DE4: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM0DE3 

970 REM START OF MAIN LOOP 

980 GOSUB1710'PLACE BET 

990 REM DEAL FIRST TWO CARDS 

1000 F0RT=1T02:G0SUB 1020: GOTO 109 



1010 REM MAKE EYES MOVE 

1020 F0RY=1T02 

1030 PSET(48,37,1):PSET(64,37,1) 

1040 FORX-1TO200:NEXTX 

1050 PSET (48, 37, 4): PSET (54, 37,1) 

: PSET (64, 37, 4) : PSET (70, 37, 1 ) 

1060 FORX*1TO200:NEXT 

1070 PSET (54, 37, 4): PSET (70, 37, 4) 

: NEXTY 

1080 RETURN 

1090 GOSUB1110:GOTO1190 

1100 REM THE FLIP CARDS 



102 



the RAINBOW April 1984 




The joystick that sets your ree! 



The one-hand operation of this fantastic new 
joystick will truly set you free and increase the 
pleasure of playing your favorite video games. 
The smoothness and responsiveness of this 
unique joystick that operates completely 



without a base is something to be experienc- 
ed. Available direct from us or from your inde- 
pendent computer retail store. (See below) 

§49.95 suggested retail 



STOP changing Printer and Modem cables! our 
Parallel Printer interface provides Switch sel- 
ectable printer or Modem operations for both 
Coco and MC10. it features switchable baud rates 
from 300 to 9600. It comes complete with power 
supply, modem cable and "Centronics" type print- 
er cable. For Basic 1.1 and later revisions. 

Available direct from us or from your independent 
computer retail store. (See below) 



Only $89.95 



suggested retai 



^|^|* Computer P. 0. Drawer 55868 

PWfl Products, Inc. Houston, Texas 77055 

713/956-0207 
When ordering direct from PBH please enclose 
$3.00 per item for shipping. 




Endicott computer software & Accesories 
Huntsville, Alabama 35801 

Chips, incorporated 
Atlanta, Georgia 30340 

The Computer Store 
jasper, Indiana 47456 

Computer Associates 
west Fargo, North Dakota 58078 



AUTHORIZED DEALERS 



Spectrum Products 
Woodhaven , New York 11 421 

TRS TECH Computer services 
Houston, Texas 77033 

Computers & More 
Huntsville, Texas 77340 

The software connection 
Ft. Lauderdale, Florida 33319 



CoCo 

Serial /Parallel 
Interface 




,i* 



RAINBOW 



Compukit, inc. 
Houston, Texas 77059 

Computers, Etc. 
Austin, Texas 78745 

Cinsoft 
Cincinatti, Ohio 45237 

The Photo shop 
Wilmer, Minnesota 56201 



1110 PUT < 108, 108) -(146, 128), A 

1120 GOSUB3440 

1130 FORX=1TO70: NEXT: LINE (108, 10 

8) -(148, 128) , PRESET, BF 

1140 PUT (100, 120) -(136, 136) ,B 

1150 BOSUB3440 

1160 FORX=1TO100:NEXT:LINE(96,12 

0) -(136, 136), PRESET, BF 

1170 RETURN 

1180 REM GET SUIT OF CARD 

1 1 90 6OSUB3050 : GOSUB3700 : G0SUB29 

00: IFT=2THEN1210 

1200 ON HH GOTO1220, 1230, 1240, 12 

50 

1210 ON HH GOTO1280, 1290, 1300, 13 

10 

1220 PUT (36, 144) -(56, 174) ,C: GOTO 

1270 

1230 PUT (36, 144) -(56, 174) ,E: GOTO 

1270 

1240 PUT (36, 144) -(56, 174) ,F: GOTO 

1270 

1250 PUT (36, 144) -(56, 174) ,G: GOTO 

1270 

1260 REM GO PUT NUMBER OF CARD 

1270 GOSUB2930:GOSUB3440:NEXT 

1280 PUT (71, 144) -(91, 174), C: GOTO 

1330 

1290 PUT(71, 144)-(91. 174),E:G0T0 



1330 
1300 
1330 
1310 
1330 
1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 
1360 



PUT(71, 144)-(91, 174) ,F:GOTO 
PUT (71, 144)-(91, 174) ,G:GOTO 

CARD 



REM GO PUT NUMBER OF 
GOSUB2930: GOSUB3440 
G0SUB2 100 'HOUSE DOWN CARD 
REM WANT MORE CARDS??? 
LINE (8, 180) - (252, 191 ) , PRESE 

T , BF : DRAW " BM 1 , 1 90C4S6 " : R*= " STAY 
HIT":GOSUB650 

1370 IFA5*="K"THEN1400 

1380 J=JOYSTK(0) 

1390 IF J<30THEN J=80ELSE J=140: 

GOTO1410 

1 400 A*= I NKEY* : I FA*=CHR* ( 9 ) THEN J 

=140ELSEJ=80 

1410 COLOR A 

1420 LINE(J, 180)-(J+10,190).PSET 

,BF 

1430 LINE(J, 180)-(J+10, 190) , PRES 

ET,BF 

1440 IF(A*=CHR*(9)0R A*=CHR$ ( 8 > 

R PEEK (339) =254) THEN A*="":GOT01 

450ELSE I F A5*= " K " THEN 1 400ELSE 1 380 

1450 IFJ=80THEN F=1:GOTO2100 

1460 GOSUB1020:T=T+l:GOSUB1110 

1470 REM IS IT A BUST??? 



Metric Industries 



For the color computer and TDP100 
Model 101 Interface $54.95 

• Serial to Parallel Interlace 

• Works with any Centronics Compatible 
Printer including Radio Shack. TDP. 
Gemini. Epson. Gorillia and 
many others 

• Six switch selectable baud rates (300 
to 9600) 

• 90 day warranty 

• Power Supply included 

Model 102 RS-232-C Switcher 

• Switches all three data lines 

• Indicator lights let you know computer 
is on 

• 3 position switch has silver plated 
contacts tor high reliability 

• Color coded lights indicate switch 
position 

• Color coded labels lor your printer, 
modem etc . supplied 

Cassette Label Program s 6. 95 




Prints live lines ot information on pin- 
feed cassette labels 
Menu driven — easy to use 



• ' 



• Uses special features of your printer for 
standard, expanded and condensed 
characters 

• 24 tree labels included with program 

• Auto centering features for each line of 
text 

• 16K ECB required 

General Items 

• Gemini 10X Printer $319.00 

• Special Save — Printer & Interface 
$360.00 

• C-1 Cassettes $7.50/dozen 

• Hard plastic boxes $2.50/dozen 

• Pin-feed Cassette labels $3.00 per 100 

• Free shipping on all orders over $50.00 

• Add $3 00 for shipping on orders under 
$50.00 

• Ohio residents add 5.5% sales tax 

• Phone order line for VISA and 
MASTERCARD open from 700 p m. to 
10.00 p.m. EST 513-677-0796 

or send check or money order to: 
Metric Industries 
Department R 
P.O. Box 42396 
Cincinnati, OH 45242 

Dealer Inquiries Invited 



104 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



1480 IFT(1)+T(2)+T(3)+T(4)+T(5)> 

21 THEN Z=l:GOTO2480 

1 490 GOSUB3050 : GOSUB3700 : G0SUB29 

00 : I FT=4THEN 151 0ELSE I FT=5THEN 1 5 

20 

1500 ON HH GOTO1530, 1540, 1550, 15 

60 

1510 ON HH GOTO1570, 1580, 1590, 16 

00 

1520 ON HH GOTO1610, 1620, 1630, 16 

40 

1530 PUT (98, 144) -(118, 174) ,C:GOT 

01660 

1540 PUT (98, 144) -(118, 174) ,E: GOT 

01660 

1550 PUT (98, 144)-(118,174),F:G0T 

01660 

1560 PUT (98, 144)-(118, 174), G: GOT 

01660 

1570 PUT (130, 144) -(150, 174) ,C: GO 

TO 1660 

1580 PUT(130, 144)-(150,174).E:GO 
TO 1660 

1590 PUT (130, 144) -(150, 174) ,F: GO 

TO 1660 

1600 PUT(130,144)-(150,174).G:GO 

TO 1660 

1610 PUT(160, 144)-(180, 174) ,C:GO 

TO 1660 



1620 PUT(160,144)-(180,174),E:GO 

TO 1660 

1630 PUT (160, 144) -(180, 174) ,F:GO 

TO 1660 

1640 PUT ( 160, 144) -(180, 174), G 

1650 REM GO PUT NUMBER OF CARD 

AND MAKE SURE THAT IT IS LEGAL 
1660 GOSUB2930:GOSUB3440 
1670 IFT(1)+T(2)+T(3)+T(4)+T(5)> 
21 THEN Z=l:GOTO2480ELSE IFT=5THE 
N F=l:GOTO2100ELSE1380 
1680 REM SUBROUTINE TO SET SCREE 
N TO PLACE BET 

1 690 DRAW " BM228 , 86S6 " : R*= " W" : GOS 
UB650 : DRAW " BM228 , 1 50 " : R*= " B " : GOS 
UB650: DRAW"BM228, 18" : R*="P" : GOSU 
B650: DRAWBM225, 52" : GOSUB3520: GO 
SUB3630 : DRAW " BM2 10,116": G0SUB363 
0: RETURN 

1700 REM SUBROUTINE TO PLACE BET 
1710 LINE (0, 178) -(220, 191), PRESE 
T,BF: DRAW"BM10, 190C4S4" : R*="P F 
OR PLAY B FOR BET" : GOSUB650 
1720 IFA5*="K"THEN1730ELSE1750 
1730 A*=INKEY*:IFA*=CHR*(10)THEN 
K=155ELSEK=30 
1740 GOTO 1760 

1750 J=JOYSTK(0):K=JOYSTK(1>:IF 
K<30THEN K=30ELSE K=155 




112 W. WISCONSIN AV. 
KAUKAUNA, Wl 54130 
(414) 766-1851 
STOCK ITEMS SHIPPED SAME DAY! 



THE COSMOS 

CONNECTION IS 

A COMPLETE SERIAL 

TO PARALLEL INTERFACE 

FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER TO 

THE GEMINI — 10and15 

PRINTERS. 



THE COMPLETE TRS-80* LINE 

• COLOR COMPUTER 

• MODEL 100 

• MODEL 4 

• MODEL 16 

• MODEL 12 
ACCESSORIES 



WARNING: 

MaKe sure the 
interface you buy 
does not void 
any factory 
warranties or 
alter the standard 
operation of your punier' 
The Cosmos Connection 
meels these requirements 



• NO AC REQUIRED 

• SWITCHABLE 
BAUD RATE 
AT: 600 

1200 
2400 

• HIGH QUALITY 
CONSTRUCTION 

■ COMPACT 
. 90 DAY 

WARRANTY 

■ WORD SELECT 




CALL FOR THE BEST DISCOUNT PRICE 
ON TRS-80* FULLY WARRANTEED 
MICROCOMPUTER EQUIPMENT. 

'plus S10.00 Shipping and Handling 
TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANOV COHP PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE 



rn^rn 



GEMINI-1 

PACKAGE 

READY TO PLUG IN 

TO YOUR COLOR COMPUTER 

ONLY* ^4bilil>4ii><^ 

jf $339.00 % 

GEMINI — 10X # || 



THE 

GEMINI— 10X 

PRINTER 

AND 

THE 

COSMOS 

CONNECTION. 

IT'S A 

WINNING 

PRINTING 

COMBINATION. 



M 



PACKAGE 




micronni-int 

THE POWER BEHIND THE PRINTED WORD. 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 105 



1760 C0L0R4 

1770 REM WANT TO LOOK AT 

STANDINGS 
1780 QQ*=INKEY*: IFQQ*="S"THENGOS 
UB3350 
1790 LINE(228,K)-(238.K+10> , PSET 

,BF 

1800 REM PLAY OR BET 

1810 LINE(228,K)-(238,K+10) , PRES 

ET,BF 

1820 IF(A*=CHR*(10)OR A*=CHR*(94 

)OR PEEK (339) =254) THEN A*="":GOT 

01840 

1 830 I F A5*= " K " THEN 1 730ELSE6OTO 1 7 

50 

1840 1FK=30AND E=l THEN PLAY"04L 

200T200DL 1 00GL200DL 1 00GL200DL 1 00 

GP1": RETURN ELSE IF K=30AND E=0 T 

HEN950 

1850 E=l:IF W=0THEN RETURN 

1860 C0L0R1 : LINE ( 162, 50) - (235, 66 

) ,PSET,BF 

1 870 FOR X = 1 T05 : PLAY " T250L250O5BL 

250G 

1880 NEXT 

1890 W=W-1 

1900 IF W>9THEN1960 

1910 DRAW " BM225 , 52C4S6 " : I FW=*0THE 

N 1 920ELSE X=W : GOSUB3470 

1920 C0L0R1 : LINE (162, 114) -(208, 1 

30) ,PSET,BF 

1930 B=B+l:IF B>9THEN2000 

1 940 DRAW " BM 1 96 , 1 1 6C4S6 " : X=B : GOS 

UB3470 

1950 GOTO 1750 

1960 IFW>99THEN1980ELSE U=INT(W/ 

10) : V= (W-U*10) : DRAWBM21 1 , 52C4S6 

" : X=U: GOSUB3470: X=V: GOSUB3470 

1970 GOTO 1920 

1980 R=INT(W/100):U=INT((W-R*100 

) / 10) : V=W- (R*100) - (U*10) : DRAWBM 

196, 52C4S6" : X=R: GOSUB3470: X=U: GO 

SUB3470: X=V: GOSUB3470 

1990 GOTO 1920 

2000 U=INT(B/10) :V=B-(U*10) :DRAW 

"BM180, 1 16C4S6" : X=U: GOSUB3470: X= 

V:GOSUB3470 

2010 IFB=99THEN1000ELSEGOTO1750 

2020 RETURN 

2030 REM HOUSE FLIP CARDS 

2040 GOSUB1020:PUT(124,60)-(162, 

B0),B 

2050 GOSUB3440 

2060 FORX=1TO70: NEXT: LINE (120, 50 

D - ( 156, 80) , PRESET, BF 

2070 PUT (116, 40) -(154, 60), A 

2080 GOSUB3440 

2090 FORX=1TO70! NEXT: LINE (116, 40 

) - ( 1 54 , 60 ) , PRESET , BF : RETURN 



2100 IF F=1THEN2150 

2110 REM DEAL HOUSE DOWN CARD 

2120 GOSUB2040:PUT(94,4)-(114,34 

) , D: GOSUB3440: RETURN 

2130 GOSUB3440 

2140 REM DEAL THE HOUSE UP CARDS 

2150 FORX=1TO500:NEXT:FORT=6TO10 

: GOSUB3050: GOSUB3700: IFT=6THENGD 

SUB3 1 80 : G0T02 1 60ELSE GOSUB2040 : G 

0SUB3 180:1 FT=7THEN2 1 70ELSE I FT=8T 

HEN2 1 80ELSE I FT=9THEN2 1 90ELSE I FT= 

10THEN2200 

2160 ON HH GOTO2220, 2230, 2240, 22 

50 

2170 ON HH GOTO2270, 2280, 2290. 23 

00 

2180 ON HH GOTO2320, 2330, 2340, 23 

50 

2190 ON HH GOTO2370, 2380, 2390, 24 

00 

2200 ON HH GOTO2420, 2430, 2440, 24 

50 

2210 REM FIRST CARD 

2220 PUT (94,4)- (114, 34),C:G0T024 

60 

2230 PUT (94,4) -(1 14,34) ,E:G0T024 

60 

2240 PUT (94, 4) -( 1 14,34) ,F:G0T024 

60 

2250 PUT (94,4)-(l 14,34) ,G:G0T024 

60 

2260 REM SECOND CARD 

2270 PUT(122,4)-(142,34),C:G0T02 

460 

2280 PUT (120, 4) -(140, 34) ,E:G0T02 

460 

2290 PUT(120,4)-(140,34),F:GOTO2 

460 

2300 PUT (120, 4) -(140, 34) ,G:G0T02 

460 

2310 REM THIRD CARD 

2320 PUT (150, 4) -(170, 34) ,C:G0T02 

460 

2330 PUT (150, 4) -(170, 34) ,E:G0T02 

460 

2340 PUT (150, 4) -(170, 34) ,F:G0T02 

460 

2350 PUT (150. 4) -(170. 34) ,G:G0T02 

460 

2360 REM FORTH CARD 

2370 PUT (175, 4) -(195, 34) ,C:G0T02 

460 

2380 PUT (175, 4) -(195, 34) ,E:G0T02 

460 

2390 PUT (175, 4) -(195, 34) ,F:G0T02 

460 

2400 PUT (175. 4) -(195. 34) ,G:G0T02 

460 

2410 REM FIFTH CARD 



106 



the RAINBOW April 1984 








frat 



HI -RES SCREEN U T I L 1 7 !■' 
utmi ^ r Jouble Heisht cr ' - f ' cl " - ' 

Bell C h a r 1 ■: 1 •> r T ... n r «<-n«-r ilor 
Ichable Full $crtfn F «* v «■ r s * Uid*o 
Lj£M*r • i •• >:!iir a>:tet irl 

m urn minimi 

raHaM* line leriath. FroH ^> t.. 255 chanctei 

:S Ch l tr4CttT1 f e* r lir. .- 

3 > ':haract*rs f «- r line 

-'»• Characters »er line 

H J Characters per Itne 

51 Characters per line 

t-*t Char *r* er-s per I i ne 

i ne lensths of dS»128 b 235 are unr*«d#bl« 

can be ver - usvpul »or seeing 1)1 rp I a ' » ■ ■ <»• 

furiclionj are ea» . I ► r u»r aMaM e thru [:H : |I 

i LB_il _iJjnria_ir iL L " !i.-' L ... PI in'. 



i fULLV BASIC COMPATIBLE 
. DISP.AV FORMATS Of 28 'o 255 
CHARACTERS PER LINE 

• FUU 96 UPPER LOWER CASE CHARACTERS 
i MIXED GRAPHICS & TEXT OR SEPARATE 

GRAPHIC & TEXT SCREENS 
' INDIVIDUAL CHARACTER HIGHLIGHTING 
i REVERSE CHARACTER HIGHLIGHT MODE 
■ WRITTEN IN f AST MACHINE LANGUAGE 

• AUTOMATIC RELOCATES TO TOP Of 16 32K 
i AUTOMATICALLV SUPPORTS MK ol RAM 

WITH RESET CONTROL 
i REVERSE SCREEN 
' ON SCREEN UNDERLINE 



• DOUBLE SIZE CHARACTERS 

• ERASE TO END Of LINE 

• ERASE TO END Of SCREEN 

• HOME CURSOR 

• BELL TONE CHARACTER 

• HOME CURSOR S CLEAR SCREEN 

• REQUIRES ONLV 2K Of RAM 

• COMPATIBLE WITH ALL TAPE & 

DISK SYSTEMS 

$19.95 



/*£* A 



INTRODUCING 

TEXTPRO III 

The Professionals" Word Processing System 






*f* 






\r+* 



or, 



* 9 Hi-Resolution Display Formats: from 
28 to 255 Columns by 24 lines 

* True Upper/ Lower Case Display 

* Three Programmable Headers 

* Programmable Footer 

* Automatic Footnote System 

* Automatic Memory Sense 1 6-6-1 K 

* Up to 18k or Workspace on 64K 

* 10 Programmable Tab Stops 

* 7 Tab Function Commands 

* Automatic Justification 

* On Screen Underlining and Double 
Size Characters 

* Change Formatting at Any Time 

* Edit Files Larger Than Memory 

* Compatible with All Printers 

* Easily Imbed Any Number of Format 
and Control Codes 

* Typist Friendly Line and Command 
Format Entry 

* Automatic Key Repeat 

TEXTPRO III is tin mm! advanced Text Editing and 
Word Processing System available (or the Color Com- 
puter. One of the reasons for this is. Textpro works in a 
totally different way than the other Color Computer 
Word Processing programs. It uses simple 2 charactei 
abbreviations Of words or phrases for commands These 
commands are used at the beginning of a line and are 
preceeded by a *," period. Several commands ran be 
chained together on the same line for ease of use. Thru 
these commands you tell the Word Processor how you 
want the margins set. line length, indenting information, 
and so on. You can change the way you wan I a docu- 
ment formatted at any point in the document. You also 
have the freedom to write without worrying about how 
long the line is or where the margins are and so on. The 
Word Processor automatically takes words from one line 
to the next and fills out the printed line to the desired 
length. You can even use the command to Input Text 
from the Keyboard while a document is being processed, 
and use that information to change the formatting or 
enter any other valid text Processor command. With this 
kind of flexibility and an extensive set of commands and 
functions available, its no wonder that TEXTPRO III is 
the most advanced Word Processing System. 



5566 Ricochet Avenue 
Las Vegas, Nevada 89110 



Screen Formatting 

Textpro III has 9 Hi-Resolution Upper l.owei case 
display formats available, from 28 to 255 characters per 
line by 24 lines You also have advanced screen com- 
mands such as double sue characters and on screen 
underlining. You can also use the standard 32 hy lb 
display for systems having lower case hardware kits in- 
stalled. The displav defaults to a 51 by 24 format that is 
easily switched to any other format available. Along with 
the Hi-Resolution screen we added automatic repeating 
keys "Typomatir." The rate is fully adjustable from ultra 
fast 10 super slow or ran he turned off entirely lor your 
convenience. 

64K Support 

Textpro III fully supports the use of 64K on the Color 
Computer It has fast automatic rnemorv sensing and 
configures itself accordingly. Textpro III does nol require 
Extended Basic or Flex to take hill advantage of a 64K 
RAM system On a 64K Disk System there is over 64K of 
workspace available and files larger than memory are 
fully supported Tape based systems have up lo 48K 
available for workspace 

Text Editor 

Textpro 111 has a hill featured, line oriented screen editor 
ll supporls single or multiple line cupy and move, global 
or local search and replace of any character string, 
character insert and delete, block delete, adjustable 
speed automatic key repeat, single and automatic line 
edit, programmable underline and double u nidi control 
coded, change screen background color and line 
lengths, automatic line numbering, line resequences 
and insert •nut delete line numbers. 

Disk & Tape I/O 

Textpro III uses hilly compatible ASCII formatted files 
that do not have to be converted like some of the other 
Word Processing Systems It will load, save and verify 
basic ASCII formatted tape files. The disk version sup- 
ports Load. Save. Directory. Kill. Append. Text Process 
file horn Disk. Roll pan of file to disk and get next portion 
of file horn disk 



DISK $59.95 



TAPE $49.95 



CGR 

CDI71P 
(702) 452-0632 



Standard Commands 

Textpro III features a whole host of Document Format- 
ting commands. The setup command section includes: 
Line Length, Top. Left, and Bottom Margins. Page 
Length. Page Numbering oil off and Automatic Word 
Fill and Justification on off 

Some of the vertical control features include: test for 
numher of lines left on the page, skip to next page, set 
page number, wait at top of page, single and multi line 
spacing, and skip blank lines. 

Textpro III features 3 programmable header lines thai 
can be centered, left or right Justified. It also has one pro- 
grammable footer line 3 commands for continues, 
single and paragraph indenting, center text, underline 
and double width print commands. 

Footnotes and Special Commands 

Some of the special features allow imbedded control 
codes lu access intelligent printer features like; 
superscript, subscript, change type font and even 
graphics. You can even imbed control codes within 
Justified text. There is a command that automatically 
places footnotes at the bottom of the page, which can be 
very handy for term papers, etc. Another command 
allows you lo display a message on the screen and inpui 
text from the keyboard. This text is then printed as if it 
has been part of the original text, thus you can produce 
things like a personalized form letter There is also a 
repeat command thai allows you to repeat an entire 
document or a part of one as many limes as needed up to 
255 limes. This can be used lo produce mailing labels or 
combined wilh the previous command to produce a 
selected number of personalized form letters. 

Tab Functions 

Textpro III features an 'elaborate system of lab com- 
mands for complete control over column formatting. 
There are 10 programmable lab slops that can be de- 
fined 01 re-defined at any time in the text file. They can be 
used with (he following lab commands; Center Over Tab 
Column, Right Justify to Tab Column, Decimal Align 
Over Tab Column. Left Justify lo Tab Column (Normal 
Tab) and Horizontal Tah. Tab functions may also be 
used with a numeric tab column position for maximum 
flexibility. You can also define the Tab Fill Character to 
any printable character to fill in the blanks wilh dots, 
dashes, etc 



All orders Shipped From Stock 
Add S2 so Postage 



2420 PUT(197,4)-(217,34),C:G0T02 

460 

2430 PUT(197,4)-(217,34),E:G0T02 

460 

2440 PUT(197,4)-(217,34) ,F:G0T02 

460 

2450 PUT < 197, 4) -(217, 34) ,B:G0T02 

460 

2460 GOSUB3200 : GOSUB3440 : GOSUB30 

70: IFZ=0THENNEXT 

2470 REM *** RESULTS *** 

2480 DRAWBM32, 126C4S6" : IFZ=1 TH 

EN R*="BUST":GOSUB650ELSE IFZ=2 

THEN R*="WIN":GOSUB650ELSE IFZ=3 

THEN R*="TIE":GOSUB650ELSE IFZ= 
4THEN R*="LOSE":GOSUB650 
2490 IFZ=1THEN2500ELSE IFZ=2THEN 
2520ELSEIFZ=3THEN2540ELSE IFZ=4 
THEN2500 

2500 FORX= 1 T05 : PLAY " L 1 00T50O2AL 1 
50GL 1 00AL 1 50DO 1 L 1 DDD " 
2510 NEXT:GOTO2560 

2520 FORX= 1 T03 : PLAY "LI 00O4DADADA 
DADAO2L50ADADO5L50DFG 
2530 NEXT:GDTO2560 

2540 FORX=1TO4:PLAY"T250L250BDBD 
BDBDBDBDBDBD" 
2550 NEXT 

2560 FORX=1TO1000: NEXT: LINE < 162, 
114) -(208, 130), PRESET, BF 
2570 LINE (162, 50) -(235, 66) . PRESE 
T,BF: IF(Z=10R Z=4)THEN2630ELSEIF 
W<0THEN2830 

2580 IFZ=2THEN2590ELSE IFZ=3THEN 
2610 
2590 IFG=210R T (5) >0THEN2600ELSE 

W=W+ (B*2) : GOTO2630 
2600 W=W+(B»3) :GOTO2630 
2610 W=W+B 

2620 REM ADD WINNINGS 
2630 IFW>9THEN2650 

2640 DRAW"BM225,52S6":0N W GOSUB 
3620 , 3500 ,3510, 3520 , 3530 , 3540 , 35 
50, 3560, 3570: GOTO2830 
2650 IF W>99THEN2700 
2660 U=INT(W/10) :V=W-(U*10) : DRAW 
"BM210,52" 
2670 X=U:GOSUB3470 
2680 X=V:GOSUB3470 
2690 GOTO2830 
2700 IFW>999THEN2770 
2710 R=INT(W/100):U=INT( (W-R*100 
)/10> : V=W-(R*100)-(U*10) :DRAW"BM 
196.52" 

2720 X=R:GOSUB3470 
2730 X=U:GOSUB3470 
2740 X=V:GOSUB3470 
2750 GOTO2830 
2760 REM BANK LOST ALL MONEY 



YOU WIN THE COMPUTER. 
2770 FORX=1TO500: NEXT: PCLS: DRAW" 
BM32 , 1 1 6S6C3 " : R*= " BANK BUSTED " : G 
OSUB650 

2780 FORX=1TO4000: NEXT: PCLS: DRAW 
"BM32,20S4":R*="FOR A NEW GAME": 
GOSUB650 : DRAW " BM32 , 60 " : R*= " PRESS 
Y" : GOSUB650: DRAWBM32, 100" : R*=" 
ANY OTHER KEY" : GOSUB650: DRAW" BM3 
2,140":R*="TO EXIT":GOSUB650 
2790 REM ANOYHER GAME??? 
2800 A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " THEN2800 
2810 IFA*O"Y"THEN4410 
2820 NG=l:W=4:Z=2:GOTO200 
2830 I FW=0THEN33 1 0ELSE L I NE ( 30 , 1 
12) - ( 100, 140) , PRESET, BF 
2840 LINE (88, 2) -(216, 36), PRESET, 
BF 

2850 LINE (30, 142) -(182, 174) , PRES 
ET,BF 

2860 FORX=1TO10:T(X)=0:NEXT 
2870 B=0:F=0:E=0 
2880 GOTO950 
2890 REM GET READY TO DRAW 

NUMBERS 
2900 DRAW"S4":IF T=1THEN DRAW'BM 
40, 148 "ELSE IF T=2THEN DRAWBM72 
,148 "ELSE IF T=3THEN DRAW'BM 102, 
148 "ELSE IF T=4THEN DRAW'BM 134, 1 
48"ELSE IF T=5THEN DRAWBM167, 14 
8" 

2910 D=RND( 13) :GOSUB4390: RETURN 
2920 REM DRAW NUMBER 
2930 ON D GOSUB3490, 3500, 3510, 35 
20, 3530, 3540, 3550, 3560, 3570, 3580 
,3590,3600.3610 

2940 IFD=110R D=120R D=13THEN D= 
10 

2950 IFD=1 AND T ( 1 ) +T (2) +T (3) +T ( 
4)+T(5)+lK22THEN D=ll 
2960 IF T=1THEN T ( 1 ) =D 
2970 IFT=2THEN T(2)=D 
2980 IFT=3THEN T(3)=D 
2990 IFT=4THEN T(4)=D 
3000 IFT=5THEN T(5)=D 
3010 REM WILL ACE BE 1 OR 1 1 
3020 F0RX=1T05: IFT(X)=11AND T(l) 
+T(2)+T(3)+T(4)+T(5) >21THEN T(X) 
= 1 

3030 NEXT: RETURN 
3040 REM COLOUR OF CARD 
3050 X=RND(100): IF X>50THEN COLO 
R C:N=l:RETURNELSE COLOR 1 : N=0: RE 
TURN 

3060 REM WIN OR LOSE 
3070 G=T(1)+T(2)+T(3)+T(4)+T(5) : 
H=T(6)+T(7)+T(8)+T(9)+T(10) : IF G 
<H AND H>16 AND H<22 THEN Z=4 EL 
SE IF G>H AND H>16 THEN Z=2 ELSE 



108 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



fclVfHCO?? 

COMPUTER SOFTWARE AND ACCESSORIES 



PRINTERS 

(SEE PRINTER INTERFACE BELOWI 

SPIRIT (SAME AS MX80) 1366.00 

OKIDATA 8 2A J430 00 

GORILLA/BANANA $24500 

-(SERIAL WITH CABLE I J265 00 

-(PARALLEL WITH INTERFACEI S305 00 



MONITORS 

8VAMDEK 

(SEE MONITOR INTERFACE BELOWI 

ALL WITH NONGLARE SCREEN 



COLOR 1 + I-NEWPRICJ^I 



VIDEO 30OGI 
VIDEO 300(A| 



$160 00 
J175 00 



ENDICOTT JOYSTICK 

$19 95 EACH 137 95 FOR TWO 

In use. we found the ENDICOTT JOYSTICK to be amooBi 
and responsive built to last, the Endicott model is a 
solid buy the RAINBOW. October 1982 

provided the best feel ot all the loysncks tested 
(al rugged unit at an affordable once 
■BO micro. March 1983 



PRINTER INTERFACE 

pbh SERIAL/PARALLEL 

SWITCHABLE 300 TO 9600 BAUD 
PRINTER AND MODEM CONNECTIONS 
NOTHING ELSE REQUIRED 

JS8-GS- $7995 
PURCHASED WITH PRINTER J64 00 



MONITOR INTERFACE 

VIDEO PLUS $24 95 

(COLOR OR MONOCHROME! 
PURCHASED WITH MONITOR $20 95 

VIDEO PLUS MM $26 95 

(MONOCHROME FOR COLOR II 
COMPUTERI 

PURCHASED WITH MONITOR $22 95 

VIDEO PLUS MC (AVAILABLE SOON) 
(COLOR FOR COLOR II COMPUTERI 







MEDIA STORAGE 




BLANK MEDIA 




TAPE 




ELEPHANT SSSD 


$20 95 


TAPE CAROUSEL (HOLDS 25) 


$1300 


ELEPHANT SSDD 


$23 95 






ELEPHANT DSDD 


$28 95 


DISKETT 




C-10 CASSETTES (10 FOR) 


$ 750 










FLIPNFILE 10 


$5 45 






FLIPNFILE 25 


$24 95 






FLIPNFILE 50 


$33 95 



SUPER-PRO KEYBOARD 

BY MARK DATA 

ADAPTER REQUIRED ON 

COMPUTER BOUGHT AFTER 10/82 

KEYBOARD ja&*gr $69 95 ADOT $4 95 



VOLKSMODEM 

8Y ANCHOR AUTOMATION 

300 BAUD. DIRECT CONNECT 

MANUAL ANSWER. 

MANUAL DIAL 

INCLUDES CABLE $74 95 



SURGE/SPIKE SUPPRESSOR & EMI/RFI FILTER 

BY KALGLO 



DELUX 8 SWITCHED SOCKETS FUSE LIGHT 8 CORD 
MINI 2 SOCKETS. LIGHT PLUG IN 



_lB4M*r $79 95 
4*4-95" $40 95 



Look at These Discounts and Compare.. .Remember WE PAY SHIPPING! 

SOFTWARE PRICES SHOWN ARE 20% OFF LIST PRICE! 



CUSTOM SOFTWARE ENGINEERING 

DISK DATA HANDLER (Data Basel $43 95 

(Supplied On Tape) 

SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 

T D 

>CUBIX $1995 $23 15 

>LANCER $19.95 $23 15 

[» MS GOBBLER $1995 $23 15 

WHIRLYBIRD RUN $1995 $23 15 

STORM ARROWS ... $19 95 $23 15 

LUNAR ROVER PATROL $19 95 $23 15 

SPACE RACE $1995 $23 15 

SPACE SENTRY $15 15 $18 35 

PLANET INVASION $1995 $23 15 

ALPHA SEARCH . . $1995 $23 15 

COMPUTERWARE 

T D 

> JUNIORS REVENGE .... $23 15 $25 55 

> TIME PATROL $19 95 $22 35 

> HYPER ZONE $2155 $23 95 
>COLOR BASIC COMPILER $3195 

64K SCREEN EXPANDER (64K) $1996 $22 35 

♦ THE SOURCERER $27 95 $3195 

> DISK MACRO ASSEMBLER * XREF $39 95 
>COLOR EDITOR $19 95 $23 95 

> COLOR MONITOR $19 95 $22 35 

> MOON HOPPER .. . $19 95 $22 35 
BLOC HEAD $2165 $2395 
DOODLEBUG .., $19 95 $22 35 
SHARK TREASURE $19 95 $22 35 

SOFT LAW 

T4D INCLUDED 

VIP WRITER $47 96 

VIP SPELLER $3195 

VIPCALC $47 95 

VIP TERMINAL $39 95 

VIP OATA BASE $47 95 (DISK) 

VIP DISK-ZAP $3196 (DISKl 



ELITE SOFTWARE 

T D 

ELITE-WORD $47 95 $47 95 

ELITE-CALC $47 95 $47 95 

ELITE-FILE $59 60 

PROGRAMMERS INSTITUTE 



> COMPLETE PERSONAL 
ACCOUNTANT- n.2.4 3) 



T 

$59 95 $63 95 



COGNITEC 

T O 

TELEWRITER 64 $39 95 $47 95 

PRICKLY-PEAR SOFTWARE 

T D 

ADVENTURE IN WONDERLAND $19 95 $23 95 

THE DISK MANAGER $23 95 

THE DISK MASTER $19 95 

• VIKING $15 95 $19 95 

• GANGBUSTERS $1595 $1995 

COLORKIT $27 95 $3195 

SHAFT $19 95 $23 95 

JUNGLE $15 95 $19 95 

FLIGHT $15 95 $19 95 



TOM MIX 

> SR-71 

> CU'BER 

> BUZZARD BAIT 

> AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER 
THE FROG 

> SPACE SHUTTLE 

> THE KING 

> COLOR GOLF 

TRAP FALL 

TAPE TO DISK 
DISK TO TAPE 



T 
$23 15 
$22 35 
$22 35 
$23 15 
$2235 
$23 15 
$21 55 
$1435 
$22 35 
$1435 
$14 35 



D 

$25 55 
$24 75 
$24 75 
$25 55 
$24 75 
$25 55 
$2395 

$24 75 



ANTECO SOFTWARE 

T BOMPK 
8-BALL (POOLI $23 96 

PINBALL $19 95 $2395 



DATASOFT 



ZAXXON 



D 

$3195 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 



• FIRE COPTER 

• SAIGON THE FINAL DAYS 

• EARTHQUAKE 

• AIRLINE 

> SEA DRAGON 

> TRIAD 

> DISKEY i Disk Access 4 Repair Kit and 
Computer Diagnostics) 



T 
$1996 
$1995 
$1995 
$1995 
$27 95 
$27 95 



$39 95 



ARCADE ANIMATION 

T O 

FOOD WAR 120 75 $22 35 

ICEMASTER ..41995 $2156 

MARK DATA 

T D 

GLAXXONS H9 96 $23 95 

ELBANDITO $19 95 $23 95 

COSMIC CLONES $19 95 $23 95 

HAYWIRE $19 95 $23 95 

B5 SOFTWARE 

T O 

MONEY $1596 

BORROW $15 95 

CARRY ...... $15 95 

MATH FACT . $13.55 

ABC S $795 



NOTE: ALL 8ALE8 FINAL NO RETURNS UNLES8 DEFECTIVE. ADDITIONAL LISTINGS IN OUR FREE CATALOG - CALL OR WRITE 
• Require* 16K Ert. Basic Minimum. > Requires 32K Eit Basic Minimum. Othsra 16K Ext 8td Bale Minimum. 



WE PAY SHIPPING TO U S A . CANADA, AND MEXICO 
COD ADD $2 00 (USA ONLY) ALLOW 2 WEEKS FOR 
CHECKS TO CLEAR NO P O BOXES' MUST HAVE STREET 
ADORESS SHIPPING - OTHER COUNTRIES ADO $2 00 
EACH SOFTWARE ITEM AND EACH JOYSTICK ADD 
$5 00 EACH ALL OTHER ITEMS (NO MONITORS OR 
PRINTERS SHIPPED OUTSIDE U SA ) ITEMS TO BE 
SHIPPED AIR MAIL 



£Wf>IC0?7 

Computer Software And Accessories 

2806-A S. MEMORIAL PARKWAY 
HUNTSVILLE. ALABAMA 35801 

VISIT OUR STORE 

PRICES IN AD ARE MAIL ORDER ONLY 



PHONE ORDERS 
205/536-4400 

(PHONE OPEN 7 DAYS A WEEK) 
'CkP WE PAY SHIPPING! ^ 



IF Q-H AND H>16 THEN Z«3 ELSE I 
F H>21 THEN Z-2 ELSE Z=0 
3080 I FT < 5 > >0THENQOSUB3 1 1 
3090 IFT=10AND T(5)=0 AND H<22TH 
EN Z-4 
3100 RETURN 

3110 IFH>21THEN Z=2: RETURN 
3120 IFH<22AND T(10)=0THEN Z=0:R 
ETURN 

3130 IFB<H AND H<22THEN Z-l 
3140 IFB>H THEN Z»2 
3150 IFO-H THEN Z=3 
3160 RETURN 
3170 REM POS. NUMBER FOR CARD 

AT PROPER LOCATION ON SCREEN 
3180 DRAW"S4":IFT=6THEN DRAW"BM9 
4 , 6 " ELSE I FT=*7THENDR AW " BM 1 24 , 6 " E 
LSE IFT=8THEN DRAW "BM 152, 6 "ELSE 
IFT=9THEN DRAWBM171 ,6 "ELSE IFT= 
10THEN DRAW "BM20 1,6" 
3 1 90 D=RND (13): 8OSUB4390 : RETURN 
3200 ON D 8OSUB3490, 3500, 3510, 35 
20, 3530, 3540, 3550, 3560, 3570, 3580 
,3590,3600,3610 

3210 IFD=110R D=120R D=13THEN D= 
10 

3220 IFD=1 AND T <6> +T (7) +T <8> +T ( 
9>+T(10)+lK22THEN D=ll 

3230 IFT=6THEN T(6)=D 
3240 IFT=»7THEN T<7)»D 

3250 IFT=8THEN T(8)=D 

3260 IFT=9THEN T(9)=D 

3270 IFT-10THEN T<10)=D 

3280 FORX=6TO10:IFT(X)=11AND T<6 

)+T(7)+T(8>+T(9)+T(10)>21THEN T( 

X>=1 

3290 RETURN 

3300 REM MORE MONEY???? 

3310 W(P1)=W:CLS3:PRINT@64,"PLAY 

ER"Pl"YOU ARE OUT OF MONEY. PR 

ESS <Y> FOR FORTY MORE DO 

LLARS FROM THE BANK EL 

SE PRESS <N> FOR NO MO 

RE MONEY ! ! 

3320 A*=INKEY*: IFA*="Y"OR A*=*"N" 

THEN3330ELSE3320 

3330 I F A*= " N " THEN3350ELSEW ( P 1 +4 ) 

=W(Pl+4)-4:W=4:W<Pl)=W 

3340 I F A*= " Y " THENPM0DE4 : PM0DE3 

3350 FORX=lTO P: Z (X) =W(X+4) +W(X> 

:NEXT 

3360 IFA*="N"THEN W(Pl+4)=0 

3370 REM SCORE 

3380 CLS:PRINT@64, "IF YOU CASHED 

IN AT THIS POINT HERE IS WHAT 

YOU WOULD END UP WITH ...", 

,,,"PLAYER ONE, YOU ARE AT"Z(1>* 

10" ! ": IFP<2THEN3400ELSEPRINT"PLA 



YER TWO, YOU ARE AT"Z (2) *10" ! ": I 
FP< 3THEN3400ELSEPR I NT " PLAYER THR 
EE, YOU ARE AT"Z <3>*10" ! " 
3390 I FP< 4THEN3400ELSEPR I NT " PLAY 
ER FOUR, YOU ARE AT"Z (4) *10" ! " 
3400 PR I NT: PR I NT: PR I NT "PRESS ANY 

KEY TO CONTUINE" 
34 1 I FPEEK < 339 > < >255THEN3420ELS 
EQ««INKEY*: IFQ*-""THEN3410 
3420 I FQQ*= " S " THENQQ*= "" : PM0DE4 : 
SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM0DE3: RETURNELSEIFA*= 
" N " THEN W=-4 : B=0 : Z =2 : PM0DE4 : SCRE 
EN1 , 1 : PM0DE3: 6OTO2570 
3430 B=0: Z=2: PM0DE4: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM 
ODE3-.BOTO2570 

3440 PLAY "VI 0O2L 1 50AL 1 00DL 1 50A " 
3450 RETURN 
3460 REM DRAW NUMBERS 
3470 ON X 6OSUB3620, 3500, 3510, 35 
20, 3530, 3540, 3550, 3560, 3570: IFX= 
0THEN6OSUB3630 
3480 RETURN 

3490 DRAW " BD8U3NR6U2E3F3D5BU8BR4 
" : RETURN 

3500 DRAW " BD2E2R2F262L262D2R6BR4 
BUB": RETURN 

35 1 DRAW " R6D4NL3D4NL6BU8BR4 " : RE 
TURN 

3520 DRAW " BR4ND6B4D2R6L2D2BR6BU8 
" : RETURN 

3530 DRAW " NR6D2R4F2D2S2NL4BR6BU8 
" : RETURN 

3540 DRAW " NR6D4NR6D4R6U4BU4BR4 " : 
RETURN 

3550 DRAW " R6D2B4D2BR8BU8 " : RETURN 
3560 DRAW " ND8R6D4NL6D4NL6BR4BU8 " 
: RETURN 

3570 DRAW " NR6D4NR6BD4R6U8BR4 " : RE 
TURN 

3580 DRAW " D8BR4NR4U8R4ND8BR4 " : RE 
TURN 

3590 DRAW " BR2R4L2D6B2H2BD2BR 1 0BU 
8": RETURN 

3600 DRAW " BD2ND4E2R2F2D4B 1 NH2NF2 
6 1 L2H2BD2BR 1 0BU8 " : RETURN 
36 1 DRAW " D8U4NE4F4BR4BU8 " : RETUR 
N 

3620 DRAW " BD2E2D8L2R4BR4BU8 " : RET 
URN 

3630 DRAW " BR2R2F2D4B2L2H2U4E2BR8 
" : RETURN 

3650 DRAW " BU8BR4 " : RETURN 
3690 REM SUIT OF CARD 
3700 I=RND(2>:IF N=0 AND I = 1 THEN H 
H=1ELSEIF N=0AND I=2THEN HH-3ELS 
EIF N=1AND I=1THEN HH=2 ELSE IF 
N=l AND 1=2 THEN HH=4 
3710 RETURN 



110 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



3720 REM **»** rules »*** 
3730 CLS:PRINT@74, "BLACKJACK" 
3740 PRINT" THE DEAL. THE COMPUT 
ER SHUFFLES THE CARDS. CARDS ARE 
DEALT TWO TO THE PLAYER AND ON 
E TO THE DEALER. THE PLAYER M 
AY TAKE MORE CARDS AT THIS T 
I ME. WHEN THE PLAYER STAYS THE 
DEALER TAKES HIS CARDS.",,, 
, "PRESS ANY KEY . . 
3750 GOSUB3940 

3760 PRINT" THE BET. IN ORDER 
TO PLACE A BET PRESS THE DOWN AR 
ROW KEY IF USING THE KEY BOARD, 
OR USE THE RIGHT JOYSTICK. IF US 
ING THE JOYSTICK PULL THE ST I 
CK DOWN AND PRESS THE BUTTON. 
ONCE A BET IS PLACED ON THE 
TABLE IT" 

3770 PRINT" IS FINAL. ALL BETS WI 
LL BE MADE IN AMOUNTS OF TEN DOL 
LARS. YOU MAY BET UP TO THE AMO 
UNT OF MONEY THAT YOU HAVE 
R NINE HUNDRED AND NINETY DO 
LLARS WHICH EVER IS THE GRE 
ATER", "PRESS ANY KEY ..." 
3780 GOSUB3940 

3790 PRINT" YOU MAY AT ANY TIME 
PASS ON YOUR TURN BEFORE YOU 
PLACE A BET. TO DO THIS PRESS 
THE UP ARROW FOR PLAY OR MOV 
E THE JOYSTICK UP AND PRESS 
THE BUTTONBEFORE YOU PLACE A BE 
T. AFTER YOU PLACE A BET FOLLO 
W THE SAME" 

3800 PRINT" INSTRUCTIONS TO START 
THE PLAY. THE COMPUTER WILL PL A 
Y WITH EACH PERSON IN TURN." 
,,," PRESS ANY KEY ..." 
3810 GOSUB3940 

3820 PRINT" THE PLAY. THE VALUES 
OF THE CARDS ARE: ACE 1 OR 1 
1, WHICH EVER WILL BRING YOU C 
LOSER TO 21, KING, QUEEN, JACK 
, TEN, 10 EACH, ALL OTHER CA 
RDS FACE VALUE. ",, "THE OBJECT 
OF THE GAME IS TO HOLD TWO OR 

MORE" 
3830 PR I NT "CARDS THAT TOTAL TWEN 
TY-ONE OR AS CLOSE TO TWENTY 
-ONE AS POSSIBLE WITHOUT GO IN 
G OVER. ",,, "PRESS ANY KEY ... 
3840 GOSUB3940 

3850 PRINT" SETTLEMENT. IF DURIN 
G THE DEAL THE PLAYER GOES OVER 
TWENTY-ONE THEY HAVE BUSTED AND 
LOSE THEIR BET.",, "IF A PLAYER S 
TAYS ON THERE CARDS AND THE 
HOUSE HAS MORE THEN THE PLAY 



ER LOSES AND THEY LOSE THE BET. 

ll 

3860 PRINT: PR I NT "PRESS ANY KEY": 

GOSUB3940 

3870 PRINT" IF PLAY ENDS IN A TIE 

THE HOUSE GIVES BACK THE BET.", 
"IF PLAY ENDS WITH THE PLAYER 

BEING CLOSER TO TWENTY-ONE THAN 

THE DEALER THEN THE PLAYER WINS 
.THE HOUSE WILL PAY BACK THE 

AMOUNT BET AND THAT AMOUNT OVER 

AGAIN OR 'DOUBLE' THE BET" 
3880 PR I NT: PR I NT "PRESS ANY KEY": 
GOSUB3940 

3890 PRINT" IF THE PLAYER WINS AN 
D HAS TWENTY-ONE SHOWING OR 
THE PLAYER HAS WON AN 
D HAS FIVE CARDS SHOWING TH 
EN THE HOUSE WILL PAY TRIPLE 

THE AMOUNTBET. " , , , , "PRESS 

ANY KEY 
3900 GOSUB3940 

3910 PRINT" IF A PLAYER HAS NO MO 
NEY LEFT THAT PLAYER MAY BORRO 
W MORE MONEY FROM THE BANK. 
FULL TABS ARE KEPT AND MAY BE S 
EEN AT ANY TIME BY PRESSING 
<S>CORE", ,,, ,,"GOOD LUCK!", , , , "P 
RESS ANY KEY . 
3920 GOSUB3940 
3930 RETURN 

3940 A*= I NKEY* : I F A*= " " THEN3940EL 
SE CLS:PRINT@64, ""; : RETURN 
3950 REM NEXT PLAYER 
3960 Pl=Pl+l:IF P1>P THEN Pl=l 
3970 LINE (0.0) -(95, 10) , PRESET, BF 
3980 DRAW " BM2 , 1 0S4 " : R*= " PLAYER " : 
GOSUB650:GOSUB3650:ON PI G0SUB36 
20,3500,3510,3520 

3990 LINE (162, 50) -(235, 66) , PRESE 
T,BF 

4000 IF P1=1THEN W(P)=W ELSE W(P 
1-1)=W 

4010 W=W(P1) 

4020 IFW<1THEN WW=WW+1:IF WW=P T 
HEN4 1 00ELSE3960 
4030 WW=0 

4040 IFW>99THEN4070ELSEIFW>9THEN 
4060 

4050 DRAW " BM225 , 52C4S6 " : X=W : GOSU 
B3470: RETURN 

4060 U=INT(W/10) :V=(W-U*10) :DRAW 
"BM21 1 , 52C4S6" : X=U: GOSUB3470: X=V 
: GOSUB3470: RETURN 
4070 R=INT(W/100) :U=INT( (W-R»100 

>/10) : V=W-(R*100)-(U*10) :DRAW"BM 
196, 52C4S6" : X=R: GOSUB3470: X=U: GO 
SUB3470: X=V."GOSUB3470: RETURN 
4080 RETURN 



112 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



TDP SYSTEM 100* / QUALITY DISCOUNT PRODUCTS / COLOR COMPUTER* 
DISCOUNT PRICES / COMPARE / WE'RE FAST 

FLASH!! If you use TW64 you need KRT's new TSpool program. 
Special Introductory Price $19.95 



TOM MIX 






KRT SOFTWARE 


SOFTWARE 






F - 1 6 FLT. 


KataPiller Attack 


$21.95 


$19.75 


SIMULATOR* $19.95 $17.95 


The King 32K 


$26.95 


$24.25 


•Please Slate 16K or 32K 


The Frog 32K 


$27.95 


$25.15 




Trap Fall 32K 


$27.95 


$25.15 




Space Shuttle 32K 


$28.95 


$26.05 




SR-71 (32K) 


$28.95 


$26.05 


^ 64K RAMS^/ 7 

N. STILL ONLY ~^ 


Buzzard Bait (32K) 
CU-BER(32K) 


$27.95 
$27.95 


$25.15 
$25.15 








J^ $49.95 C" 


We take 15% off on Prickly Pear Software 




PRICKLY-PEAR 








SOFTWARE 








Magic 


$19.95 


$16.95 




Viking 


$19.95 


$16.95 


McM 


Super Astrology 


$24.95 


$21.95 


DIRECT VIDEO 


Trilogy (I Ching. 






OUTPUT $12.95 


Numeralogy, Tarot) 


$39.95 


$33.95 


ROM DUMP $12.95 


Colorkit 


$29.95 


$25.95 


Dumps All ROM 


Math Pack 1 


$19.95 


$16.95 


Pks to Disk!! 32K 


Fantasy 








Games Pack 32K 


$24.95 


$21.95 


ILUME DESIGN 

Geneology $33.95 $27.95 


EIGEN SYSTEMS 






32K Disk 


Basic Aid (cart.) 


$34.95 


$31.45 




Stripper 


$ 7.95 


$ 7.15 




Ccead 


$ 6.95 


$ 6.25 




COLORCOM/E 


$49.95 


$44.95 


SPECIAL BONUS WITH 
EVERY ORDER WE RECEIVE 


CLASSICAL COMPUTING, INC. 


BEFORE JUNE 1, 1984! 


Speak Up! 








Voice Synthesizer 


$29.95 


$26.95 




DSL COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

Copy Cat $19.95 $17.95 


SAGUARO 
SOFTWARE 

Move It $15.95 $13.95 








Tape to Disk 


COGNITEC 








TELEWRITER/64 








Disk 


$59.95 


$49.95 




Tape 


$49.95 


$44.95 





SKYLINE SOFTWARE 

Page Plus (64K) $27.95 $25.95 
MDISK(64K) $27.95 $25.95 



WE NOW PAY SHIPPING 

ON ALL PRE-PAID ORDERS 

U.S. AND CANADA. 



PETROCCI 

FREELANCE ASSOCIATES 

Inspector 

CLUEseau32K $19.95 

Stress $19.95 

Weather Watch 32K $1 9.95 

Forecaster & 

Weather Watch $49.95 

Stagecoach $19.95 

Heart - Lung Circu. 

Sys." $34.95 

Bowling Secretary" $24.95 

Astrology 



Chart Print 
Medical 
Terminology* 
Patti Pac* 
Pre-School 

•THIS IS A 32K 
PROGRAM ONLY 
"DISC ONLY 



$19.95 
$21.95 
$24.95 



SPECTRAL ASSOCIATES 



Space War 
Ghost Gobbler 
Robot Attack 
Galax Attack 
Lancer 

Whirlybird Run 
Ms. Gobbler 
Donkey King 



$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$24.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 



$17.95 
$17.95 
$17.95 

$44.95 
$17.95 

$31.45 
$22.45 



$21.95 $19.75 



$17.95 
$19.95 
$22.45 



$19.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 
$21.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 
$19.95 



SUGAR SOFTWARE 

Auto Run $14.95 $13.45 

TIMS(32K) $24.95 $22.45 

TIMS MAIL (32K) $19.95 $17.95 



DATA SOFT, INC. 

"ZAXXON" By Sega $34.95 $31 .95 



B5 SOFTWARE COMPANY 

Clock $24.95 $22.45 

Money $19.95 $17.95 

Math Fact $16.95 $15.25 

ABC's $ 9.95 $ 8.95 



AMDEC 

DISK 

DRIVE 

$475.00 



Terms: Cash. Money Order, or your personal checks welcome. Please allow two 
weeks to clear your check. Arizona residents please add 5% sales tax. All programs 
— 16K ext. cassette only, except where noted. We reserve the right to change 
prices without notice. 

VISA / MasterCard for hardware items only 



Box of 10 

AM 

DISKS 

$45.00 



4321 W. Jupiter • 



DESERT SOFTWARE 

Tucson, Arizona 85741 



(602) 744-1252 



4090 REM NEW SAME? 

4100 CLS: PRINT" IF NOBODY HAS ANY 

MONEY THEN STEP ASIDE A 

ND LET SOME NEW MONEY AT 

THE TABLE! PRESS <Y> FOR A N 
EW SET UP. 

4110 A*= I NKE Y* : I FA*= " " THEN4 1 1 0EL 
SE I F A*= " Y " THEN4 1 30 

4120 CLS: PR I NT "READY FOR INPUT": 
END 

4130 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" WE 
LL I SEE THAT NOBODY HAS AN 
Y MONEY LEFT, SO I THINK WE 

NEED SOME NEW PLAYERS. " : PRINT: P 
R I NT: PR I NT" HOW MANY PLAYERS ( 1 
/4) 

4 1 40 A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " THEN4 1 40EL 
SE I FA* > " 4 " ORA*< " 1 " THEN4 1 30ELSEP= 
VAL<A*> 

4150 FORX=lTO P:W(X)=4:W(X+4)=-4 
: NEXT: P1=P: W=4: PM0DE4: SCREEN1 , 1 : 
PMODE3:GOTO2570 
4160 REM BANK SCREEN 
4170 PM0DE4:PCLS:PM0DE3 
4180 COLORA: LINE <0,0> -(255,20) ,P 
SET,BF:LINE<0, 171)-<255, 191) , PSE 
T.BF 
4190 DRAW "BM 16, 16C0S6" :R*="CHIPS 

ARE TEN " : GOSUB650 : DRAW " BM 1 6 , 1 88 



49 Brookland Ave., Aurora, Ontario Canada L4G 2H6 
FAMILY GAMES 

The popular STOCKBROKER and CRIBBAGE 32K 

$14.95 each. 

ADVENTURE GAMES: Sea Quest and Shenanigans from 
MARK DATA only $24.95(C); $27 95(D) each 

From BRANTEX, PIRATE TREASURE 16K $13.95 

SCAVENGER HUNT 16K $18.95 

EDUCATIONAL GAMES 

COLORMIND, CONCEN - improve your memory and logical 
thinking - 16K $10.95 each 

A • • 

Also Irom BRANTEX 
EDU-COMBO (Math Derby. Peek 'N' Spell Metric Converter) 

16K only $29.95 

BUSINESS: HOUSEHOLD EXPENSE MANAGER 16K$19 95 

LOAN ANALYSIS 16K $20.95 

• • • 

NEW from MARK DATA 

The amazing TIME FIGHTER 16K $24.95(C) 

32K $27.95(D) 

Also the ever popular GLAXXONS 16K $24.95(C) 

32K $27.95(D) 

• • • 

UTILITIES: ROMDISK: Run your rom pack games from a disk! 

16K $15.95 

MR. COPY - make up to 99 copies of one program at once! 
16K $15.95 



" : R»= " DOLLARS EACH " : GOSUB650 

4200 COLOR0 : DRAW " BM 1 40 , 40S8 " : R»= 

"BANK":GOSUB650 

4210 COLORC:LINE(128,45)-(240,4B 

),PSET,BF 

4220 FORX=128TO240STEP16:LINE<X, 

48) -<X, 100),PSET:NEXT 

4230 LINE < 123, 100) -<245, 110) , PSE 

T,BF 

4240 IF SE=1THEN4260ELSECIRCLE<2 

24, 150), 12:PAINT(224, 150), C,C 

4250 BET (214, 138) -(246, 168), H 

4260 LINE (70, 112) -(255, 170), PRES 

ET,BF: LINE (0,22) -(60, 150) , PRESET 

, BF: PM0DE4: SCREEN 1 , 1 : PM0DE3 

4270 F0RY=1T04 

4280 ON Y GOSUB4300, 4310, 4320, 43 

30 

4290 nexty:goto4350 
4300 f0rx=136t022step-2:g0sub434 
0:nextx: return 

4310 forx=136to50step-2:gosub434 
0:nextx: return 

4320 forx= 1 36to80step-2 : g0sub434 
0:nextx: return 

4330 forx=136to110step-2:gosub43 
40: nextx: return 

4340 put (20, x) - (52, x+30) , h: play" 
l255t255c" : return 
4350 color0 : draw " bm80 , 1 24s4 " : r*= 
"the bank will" : gosub650 
4360 draw " bm80 , 1 38 " : r*= " lend you 
forty " : gosub650 : draw " bm70 , 1 52 " : 
r*=" dollars to start" : gosub650 
4370 if se>0then draw"bm80, 166" : 
r*= " aga in": gosub650 : forx= 1 to 1 000 

:NEXT 

4380 SE=l: RETURN 

4390 FORX=lTO(T-l): IFCC (X) = (D*HH 

) THEN4400ELSENEXT: CC (T) =D*HH: RET 

URN 

4400 I FD= 1 3THEND= 1 : GOTO4400ELSED 

=D+l:GOTO4390 

4410 CLS: PR I NT "READY FOR INPUT": 

END 

4420 

4430 ' ************************ 

4440 ' ************************ 

4450 '***** BLACK-JACK ***** 

4460 '***** (C) 1983 BY ***** 

4470 '*****STEVE KINCADE ***** 

4480 '***** PRODUCED FOR ***** 

4490 '***** KINCADE ***** 

4500 '***** (COMPUTER) ***** 

4510 '***** SOFTWARE LTD.***** 

4520 ' ************************ 

4530 ' ************************ 

4540 ' 

4550 ' ^ 



114 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



GameMaster's Apprentice 



The Mysterious & 
Unpredictable RND 



By Bob Albrecht & George Firedrake 
Rainbow Contributing Editors 



One of the nicest things about the CoCo is the way the 
RND function works. It gives integer random 
numbers in a way that is easy to understand and use 
by people who are not math wi/ards. Most other BASICS give 
a random number between and I. We really can*t under- 
stand why — most applications (especially games!) require 
integer random numbers. In most basics, much mind bog- 
gling math is required to get the desired integer random 
numers. 

To get random numbers, I or 2: 

CoCo: RND(2) 

Most others: INT(2*RND(0))+I 

Random numbers I, 2. 3. 4. 5. or 6: 

CoCo: RND(6) 

Most others: INT(6*RND(0))+I 

Try to explain to a nine year old child what INT(6* 
RND(O)) + I means and you will really appreciate RND(6) 
on your CoCo. 

If N is a positive integer, then RND(N) is a "random" 
integer from I to N. Well, mathematicians might call these 
numbers quasi-random Or pseudo-random numbers. In def- 
erence to the professors, we will call a number produced by 
the RND function an RND number. We will propose exper- 
iments for you to try so you can learn more about the 
mysterious and unpredictable behavior of RND numbers. 



(Boh Albrecht and George Firedrake are two of the 
most prolific authors in the microcomputer world 
today. Specialists in writing for beginners, they are 
authors of numerous hooks, including TRS-80 Color 
BASIC.) 



EXPERIMENT! 

Tell the computer to print an RND number. 

• Type PRINT RND(I )and press [ENTER]. You will get I 
every time. 

• Type PRINT RND(2) and press [ENTER]. You will get 
either I or 2. unpredictably. 

• Type PRINT RND( I ()()()()'()()) and press [ENTER]. You 
will get an RND number in the range 1 to 1,000.000. 

• Type PRINT RND(O) and press [ENTER]. Bonus! 

RND(0) gives RND numbers between and I. just like 
the other computers. The CoCo gives you the best of both 
worlds. 

• Try RND(-l) or RND(-2) or RND with any negative 

number. Try the same negative number several times to 
see what happens. 

• Try RND(.8) or RND(l.S) or RND(2.7) or RND(3.2), 
and so on. Experiment and draw your own conclusions. 

In this episode of "GameMaster"s Apprentice." we will 
stick to integer RND numbers. 

SIMPLE SIMULATIONS 

You can use RND numbers to simulate, or imitate, real 
life events. Here are some little examples. 



100 REM#*COIN FLIPPER GMA 16-1 




110 CLS 




200 REM#»TELL WHAT TO DO 




210 PRINT "PRESS A KEY & I'LL FL 




IP A COIN." 




220 IF INKEY*="" THEN 220 




300 REM*»FLIP & TELL 8< GO AROUND 




310 COIN = RND(2) 





April 1984 Ihe RAINBOW 115 



320 IF C0IN=1 THEN PRINT 
330 IF C0IN=2 THEN PRINT 
340 PRINT 
350 BOTO 210 



■HEADS" 
•TAILS" 



Enter and RUN the program. When the CoCo tells you 
PRESS A KEY & I'LL FLIP A COIN, press most any key 
(except [BREAK] or [SHIFT] to get a simulated coin flip. 

Next, simulate rolling a single six-sided die. Change a few 
lines in COIN FLIPPER to get DIE ROLLER. 



100 REM»»DIE ROLLER BMA 16-2 

110 CLS 

200 REM**TELL WHAT TO DO 

210 PRINT "PRESS A KEY & I'LL RO 

LL A DIE." 

220 IF INKEY*-"" THEN 220 

REM**ROLL «c TELL «c GO AROUND 

DIE = RND<6> 

PRINT "THE ROLL IS" DIE 



300 
310 
320 
330 
340 



PRINT 
BOTO 210 



-. v 



Lots of games use spinners to generate "random num- 
bers." Here is a spinner simulator. It simulates random 
decimal digits. 



100 REM**SP INNER GMA 16-3 




110 CLS 




200 REM»*TELL WHAT TO DO 




210 PRINT "PRESS A KEY & I'LL SP 




IN A DIBIT" 




220 IF INKEY*="" THEN 220 




300 REM*»SPIN & TELL St SO AROUND 




310 SPIN = RND<10) - 1 




320 PRINT "WHIRRR! I SPIN" SPIN 




330 PRINT 




340 BOTO 210 






Of course, the big spinner is the roulette wheel. It spins 
numbers 00.0. and I to 36. Hmmm ... a little trickier than 
the previous simulations. Aha! We know a way. 



100 


REM**ROULETTE WHEEL BMA 16-4 


110 


CLS 


200 


REM**TELL WHAT TO DO 



210 PRINT "PRESS A KEY — I'LL SPI 

N THE WHEEL" 

220 IF INKEY*="" THEN 220 

REM**SPIN *e TELL Sc BO AROUND 
SPIN ■ RND<38) - 2 
PRINT "AROUND SHE BOES!" 
PRINT "AND STOPS ON" I 
IF SPIN=-1 THEN PRINT " 00" 
PRINT SPIN 



300 

310 

320 

330 

340 

ELSE 

350 PRINT 

360 SOTO 210 



Perhaps a little explanation is in order. In line 310. the 
value of SPIN will be a number from -I to 36. 

RND(38) is a number from I to 38. 
RND(38) 2 is a number from 1 to 36. 

Line 340 checks for -I. If SPIN is -I. the CoCo prints 
double zero (00). Otherwise (ELSE), it prints the value of 
SPIN. IISPINisnot-I.it must be to 36. 

UNFAIR! UNFAIR! 

If you flip a fair coin, you get heads about hall the lime 
and tails about hall the time. If you roll a fair die. you get a 
number from I to 6. Each possible number has the same 
chance, or probability, of occurrence. If not — beware! - 
maybe the die is "loaded." 



-t' 




Here are some ways to load the die in our Die Roller 
program. Rewrite block 300 in one of these ways. 



300 


REM«*ROLL & TELL 


& 


GO 


AROUND 


310 


DIE = RND(7) 










320 


PRINT "THE ROLL 


IS" 








330 


IF DIE<7 THEN PRINT 


DIE 


ELSE 


PRINT 2 










340 


GOTO 210 











Using the above block 300. what is the probability of 
getting I, 3. 5. 6. or 7? What is the probability of getting 2? 



300 


REM**ROLL Sc TELL S< BO AROUND 


310 


DIE - RND(8) 


320 


PRINT "THE ROLL IS"; 


330 


IF DIE<7 THEN PRINT DIE 


340 


IF DIE=7 THEN PRINT 2 


350 


IF DIE=8 THEN PRINT 5 


360 


BOTO 210 



What is the probability of getting 1 . 3, 4. or 6? What is the 
probability of getting 2 or 5? 

Now. instead of an unfair die. how about a lopsided coin. 
In this program, we assign a percentage probability from 
to 100 percent to HEADS. The CoCo uses this probability 
when Hipping the coin. 



116 



(he RAINBOW April 1984 



100 REM**UNFAIR COIN GMA 16-5 

110 PH = 60 

120 CLS 

200 REM##TELL WHAT TO DO 

210 PRINT "PRESS A KEY 8c I'LL FL 

IP A COIN." 

220 IF INKEY*="" THEN 220 

300 REM**FLIP & TELL 8c QO AROUND 

310 C = RND (100) 

320 IF C<-PH THEN PRINT "HEADS" 

ELSE PRINT "TAILS" 

330 PRINT 

340 GOTO 210 



In line 1 10, we set the probability of getting HEADS (PH) 
to 60 percent. Change line 1 10 to suit yourself. Here is 
another way. Change only lines 1 10 and 310 as follows: 

I10PH = .6 
310 C= RND(O) 

Inline 1 10, we assign a probability of .6forHEADS. Line 
310 assigns a "random" decimal fraction between and I to 
C. We think the first method, using integer RND numbers, 
is easier for most people to understand. 

COUNT THE OUTCOMES 

If you flip a fair coin 1000 times, you expect to get near 
500 heads, the rest tails. If you roll a fair six-sided die 6000 
times, you expect to get each possible number, 1 to 6, about 
1000 times, give or take a few. 

• Forfaircoin, the probability of HEADS occurring is 1/2; 
the probability of TAILS occurring is also 1/2. 

• For a fair six-sided die, the probability of any possible 
occurrence (1 to 6) is 1/6. 

For an ideal RND function, one of the characteristics is 
that every possible number has the same probability of 
occurrence as any other possible number. If the CoCo has an 
ideal RND function, then: 

• For RND(2), the probability of getting 1 is I / 2; the prob- 
ability of getting 2 is also 1/2. 

• For RND(3), the probability of getting I is 1/3; the prob- 
ability of getting 2 is 1/3; the probability of getting 3 is 

• And so on. For RND(N), the probability of getting any 
number from I to N is 1/N. 

So, if we tell the CoCo to crank out lots of RND numbers, 
and count how many times each possible number occurs, we 
might expect to get roughly the same number of occurrences 
for each possible number. Let's do it. 



100 REM**COUNT OUTCOMES GMA 


16-6 


110 DIM COUNT (14) 




200 REM**TALK TO USER 




210 CLS 




220 INPUT "FOR RND(N), WHAT 


IS N 


"; N 





230 INPUT "HOW MANY RND NUMBERS" 

; SAMPLES I ZE 

300 REM##SET COUNTS TO ZERO 

310 FOR K=l TO N 

320 : COUNT (K) - 

330 NEXT K 

400 REM**COUNT THE RND NUMBERS 

410 FOR K=l TO SAMPLES I ZE 

420 : RN - RND(N) 

430 : COUNT (RN) ■ COUNT (RN) + 1 

440 NEXT K 

500 REM#*TELL WHAT HAPPENED 

510 PRINT 

520 PRINT "OUTCOME", "FREQUENCY" 

530 FOR K=l TO h! 

540 : PRINT K, COUNT (K) 

550 NEXT K 

600 REM**TELL HOW TO DO AGAIN 

610 PRINT "FOR NEW SAMPLE, PRESS 

ANY KEY"J 
620 IF INKEY*="" THEN 620 ELSE 2 
10 



Enter the program and RUN it. First you see: 

FOR RND(N), WHAT IS N? 

We want RND(6) numbers, so we type the number 6 and 
press [ENTER]. 

FOR RND(N), WHAT IS N? 6 
HOW MANY RND NUMBERS? 

Let's ask for 600RND numbers. This is the SAMPLE- 
SIZE. We type 600, press [ENTER], wait a little while, and 
see: 

FOR RND(N). WHAT IS N? 6 
HOW MANY RND NUMBERS? 600 



OUTCOME 


FREQUENCY 


1 


106 


2 


97 


3 


100 


4 


96 


5 


99 


6 


102 



FOR NEW SAMPLE, PRESS ANY KEY; 

Well, that seems reasonable. Each possible outcome ( I to 
6) occurred about 100 times. The wordfrequency is from the 
jargon of probability and statistics books. The frequency of 
occurrence is simply the number of times each possible 
outcome occurred. 

Try other samples of N=6 and try other values of N, up to 
14. The DIM statement in line 1 10 sets a limit of 14 for the 
array COUNT. Try 12, 13, and 14 as values of N. Then 
change line 1 10 and try values of N larger than 14. You will 
see some of your results scroll off the top of the screen! 

Your turn: Write a program to roll an unfair die a bunch 
of times and count the number of occurrences of each possi- 
ble outcome, 1 to 6. Use one of our unfair die methods, or 
invent your own. 

Next time we will continue playing with RND numbers 
and also resume cassette files. 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 117 



FANTASY ROLE PLAYING GAMES 

Millions of young people, and many noi-so-young, are playing fantasy 
role playing games. A role playing game is a game in which one or more 
players create and control characters (adventurers) who live their imagi- 
nary lives in a specially made game world. The game world is created, 
managed, and operated by a Game Master (GM), also called a referee, 
adventure master, or dungeon master (DM). 

Most people who play role playing games use a formal rule system. Some 
of the best known are shown below. 

Champions. From Hero Games, 92 A 2 1 si Avenue, San Mateo. CA 
94402. 

Dungeons & Dragons (D&D). From TSR. P.O. Box 756. Lake 
Geneva. Wl 53147. 

RuneQuest (RQJ. From Chaosium. P.O. Box 6302. Albany. CA 
94706. 

Tunnels & Trolls (T&T). From Blade. Box 1467. Scollsdale. AZ 
85252. 

Worlds of Wonder (WOW). From Chaosium. P.O. Box 6302. 
Albany. CA 94706. 

Most programs in "Game Master's Apprentice" are based on the game 
system used in RuneQuest, Worlds of Wonder, and Adventurer's Hand- 
book. If you are a beginner, we suggest you try the following books. 

Adventurer's Handbook: A Guide to Role Playing Games by Bob 
Albrechl & Greg Stafford. 

Through Dungeons Deep by Robert Plamondon. 

Both are available from Reston Publishing Company, 1 1480 Sunset Hills 
Road. Reston. VA 22090. 

Copyright" 1984 by DragonQuesi. P.O. Box 310. Menlo Park. CA 94026. 



Helpful Hint . . . 

Goin' Steady On BBS 

Here is a short program to demonstrate how someone 
may get their messages to print evenly on a BBS. 

1 REM RICHARD BECK 

2 REM K1SSIMMEE.FL 
10 CLS:CLEAR 1000 

20 LINEINPUTAS:CLS 

30 GOSUB50 

40 1F1NKEY$=-THEN40ELSE20 

50 FORP=ITOLEN(A$):PRlNTMID$(A$.P.I): 

60 X=X+l:IFX>26ANDMIDS(AS.P.l)-' "THEN 

PR1NT:X=0 

70 IF X=30THENPR1NT"-":X=0 

80 NEXT:X=0:PR1NT:RETURN 

Richard Beck. IV 
Kissimmee, FL 



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RAINBOWfest 

New Brunswick 
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the RAINBOW April 1984 



ME MS CAN 



A Utility 
For The 
Memory 
Explorer 



By A. V. Reinhart 



(Alan Reinhart is a .self-taught programmer currently 
working a.s a .senior .software engineer with Digi/og, 
Inc. He says that working with OS-9 and the CoCo is a 
relief from the tedium o/CP/M.) 



So there it was — a super map of all the secrets inside 
the Color Computer's ROMs. Eagerly, I jumped to 
the keyboard to begin learning all the internal 
wonders. . . . 



PRINT HEX$(PEEK(26)) 
12 
OK 



(Whew!) 



Ouch! That was a lot of typing to see only one lousy byte! 
Very quickly I realized there was a need for a utility which 
would allow a fast and easy access to memory, with controls 
that allow one to concentrate on learning about the system 
and not fight the utility which was supposed to be helping 
you. My answer to that need is MEMSCAN, a simple, easy 
to use utility which will allow you to move through memory 
with a single key, see data displayed in Hex or decimal, word 
or byte or even binary! 

MEMSCA N is designed to be very easy to use, but a brief 
rundown of its major features should prove instructive. First 
on the list is ease of use. Studying memory needs no aid in 
being difficult and a utility for this purpose should be as 
transparent to the user as possible. Once you have entered 
an address and it is displayed, you can move along, a byte or 
word at a time, by usingan up or down arrow key. Changing 
to the other modes requires only one or two further 
keystrokes. 

The next important feature in memory exploration is 
perspective. In the above example of the PR/NT-PEEK 
technique, you only ever see one byte at a time, but I've 
found that being able to see memory a certain "distance"on 
either side of a location being examined gives a much better 
feeling for what I'm seeing. MEMSCAN displays memory 
through a "window" whose width is variable. The address 
you enter is placed at its center, and the span or window- 
width can be changed in fixed widths of 3, 5, 7, 9, or 1 1 bytes 
(or words, depending on the data display mode). The scan in 
MEMSCA N comes from the fact that as you are looking at 
a particular window of memory, the program has nothing to 
do but await the next keystroke. Consequently, between 
keystrokes, MEMSCA N keeps re-peeking and re-displaying 
the current window. This way, when you are viewing a part 
of memory (try looking around Hex 26) which is dynamic, 
the actual changes appear on the screen as they occur. 

Another necessary feature is radix control. I happen to 
prefer hexadecimal, but there are times when decimal is 
more useful. With MEMSCAN, you can switch between 
Hex and decimal at the stroke of a key! Beginners will 
appreciate this feature — it may help them to become more 
comfortable with Hex and enjoy its convenience. 

Data interpretation: One of the most confusing aspects of 
computer work, even for professionals. For example, if a 
location in memory contains a decimal value of 70, it could 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 119 



be taken as just that an unsigned integer with a magnitude 
d! 70. However, it could also be taken as the 2"s complement 
ol 130960. or it could be the character F. It could also be 
taken as the high byte ol an address, in which case it would 
really represent 70*256 or 17920. If the computer were exe- 
cuting a program from this area of memory, this byte 
becomes a ROtate Right, accumulator A (RORA) instruc- 
tion. MEMSCAN firms the intrepid memory explorer with 
just the tools to tame this tangle. You will be able to see the 
contents ol a gi\ en location as a word, a byte, a character or 
as a binar\ value. Note technically, binary is really 
another radix (base 2). but lo simplify the program design I 
chose to consider it as a variation of the data display. 

Finally, there is indirection. Olten when the computer 
opens a location in memory in the process of executing 
instructions, the data extracted is not the data needed (not 
the operand), but the address of the needed data. The origi- 
nal address is said to hold what is called a pointer to the 
operand. Another way of saving this is that the original 
address is the "address ol the address of the data." Welcome 
to indirection! An example: Location 25-6 decimal contains 
the start address ol the first line ol a BASIC program. Loca- 
tion 25-6 is the address of the address of the first line of the 
program. With MEMSCAN, studying indirection will be a 
snap. Just place the address of the data you'd like to use as 
an address in the center of the display (it will be showing in 
the ADRS window), and press the right arrow key! 



Using MEMSCAN 



MEMSCA N has two primary modes ol operation: Con- 
figuration mode and Display mode. In Configuration you 



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select w hat address you wish to examine, what radix to use. 
etc. Once the parameters have been selected and [ENTER] 
has been hit. you go to Display mode. In Display you can 
move forward or backward through memory, move down 
some level of indirection, or return to Configuration. Hit- 
ting the [CLEAR] key in display will exit the utility to 
basic Note — the [BREAK] key is not disabled. If you 
break out of MEMSCAN. be aware that it has POKEdlhc 
computer lo run at double speed, and should you attempt to 
SA VE anything without resetting the computer you will 
have saved garbage! Exiting cleanly through the [CLEAR] 
key restores the CPU to its normal "half-speed" operation. 

Alter you type "RUN MEM SCAN. "the first thing seen is 
a blue background with the MEMSCAN version number 
displayed. Altera short set-up delay, the five green Configu- 
ration fields should appear. The blinking colon in the field 
marked ADRS is the prompt indicating that is the field to he 
modified. 

Lei's go through a Configuration sequence. With the 
cursor in the ADRS field, enter any four Hex characters. 
Try the [CLEAR] key as a ruboui. If you move on to 
another field at this point, or exit to Display mode, without 
entering any address. MEMSCAN will default to zero. If a 
pre\ ious address had been entered, and you return to Con- 
figuration in the ADRS field, but then changed your mind, 
moving to another field (or exiting back to Display) without 
entering a new address, you will continue w ith the pre\ ious 
address. Use the right arrow, and move to the RADIX field. 
When the cursor appears, use the up and down arrows and 
notice how you can toggle between HEX and DEC radix 
modes. Select your preference, and hit the right arrow again. 
You will be changing the DMODE parameter, and there are 
four choices in this field: WORD. BYTE. CHAR. and BIN. 



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the RAINBOW April 1984 



Again, the up or down arrows allow you lo scroll through 
Ihc choices, slopping at Ihe one you wish. The next field. 
WDO. controls the window width, and the choices are 3, 5. 
7. 9 and II. 

Alter you are satisfied with the Configuration, bit 
[ENTER] and go lo Display mode. Now the up arrow will 
move you "up" or ahead by one byte or word, depending 
upon the current DMODE. Likewise, the down arrow will 
move you "down" or back one word or byte. Note that the 
wider the window, the slower the response. This is an unfor- 
tunate result of the FOR loop, and only going to ML will 
remedy it! 

If yQU use the indirection feature with the display in byte 
mode, the new address will be formed by taking the data 
from the address in the ADRS field as Ihe high byte, and the 
data from ADRS+ 1 as the low byte. In word mode, you can 
be misaligned by a byte, when attempting indirect referen- 
ces. If this happens, just go back lo Configuration and 
reenter ihe address on the correct byte boundary . 



cumbersome scheme of RIG H I S( )s was used to produce the 
necessary three, four or five character displays, complete 
with leading zeros. This technique, incidentally, is probably 
responsible for a goodly portion of ihe slow response, espe- 
cially during decimal word display when ihe most lengthy 
formatting is done. After these requirements, the balance of 
the program consists of the usual keyboard input process- 
ing, start-up initialization and support activities. 

With the included Symbol Table and Index of Line 
Numbers, only a brief outline ol the program should he 
necessary to supply enough information for those wishing to 
customize MEMSCAN. or to just follow it through. There 
are three major sections to MEMSCAN: The Display sec- 
tion (60K series lines), the Configuration section (61 K series 
lines), and the one-time initialization section (62K series 
lines). Here follows a brief outline of the primary functions 
ol each ol these sections. 



Program Design Notes 



Display Section 



This utility is a fairly simplistic program with only two 
major jobs. One is to make sure the displayed address range 
appears to be circular. That is. address follows address 
65535 and vice versa. The second task is to present the data 
neatly formatted to create the "window-into-memory" look. 

The range cheeking requirement isa result ol the fact that 
RS BASIC has no integer variables, only live-byte floating 
point numerics. Ihe second task is made more difficult by 
the fact that the formatting services of PRINT USING 
would not meet the needs of this program. Instead, a rather 



Display is controlled from line 60030 where INKEYS 
monitors the keyboard. If nothing is seen, a display scan is 
done. When a key is struck, its ASCII value is used as the 
index into a 128-nodc array (IX) to dispatch to the correct 
line to handle that key. Lor a recognized kcv. the contents ol 
its node in IX() is set equal to Ihe positional value of the 
kcv -handlers line number in a companion ON . . . GOTO 
statement. Illegal keys have a node-entry ol zero and fall 
through as il nothing were struck. 

I he dispatch to the selected display loop is based on the 
value of variables set during Configuration. A simple tree 
Structure exists in that, first, the radix (CX) is used to branch 



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121 



down one of two possible paths. Alter this, the data mode 
(DM) is used to select one of two paths, one way lor byte, 
one way for word mode. If the mode is byte, yet another 
branch can be made for cither binary or character data 
display. 

I here are eight display loops, one for each possible dis- 
play combination. It was felt this would provide a speed 
advantage over a single loop with a variety ol conditional 
cheeks within. Once in a particular display loop, the process- 
ing is essentially the same. Il consists of entering a FOR 
loop, range-checking the address and printing the display. 
During the display. Al. represents the lowest address(based 
on window width) to be displayed, and AC is the "center" 
address maintained for the indirection feature. 

To handle indirection, the center address must first be 
checked. If it is 65535. the address of the data to make up the 
new address will be taken from location 0. Otherwise, the 
data for the new address will be taken from AC and AC+I. 
Old AC is saved in the array IN( ) with the indirection level 
counter (II.) as the index. AC is then set to the new address, 
and control is returned to Display. To return to a previous 
"level." it is only necessary to set AC equal to IN(IL) and 
decrement IL. II either indirection level limit is reached (0 or 
5). further requests to go up or down are simply ignored. 

One feature of the display code is the assembly language 
routine to convert a byte of data to a string of eight ASCII 
ones and /eros. Al the end of the Ml code is a one-byte 
buffer (Bf-). Any data to be converted to a binary string is 
poked into 111-. I hen a string is set to "00000000"+" " (see 
Page 1 50 ol "Going Ahead With Color BASK" for the "why" 
of the null-terminator on that string). This string is then used 
in a call to the M I. subroutine v ia a reference to USR0( DS). 
The ML code takes the data from the buffer, loads it into a 
register, and performs a series ol left-shifts upon il. At the 
end ol each shift, if carry is set. a bit with a value ol one had 
been shifted out of the register, and the byte in DS corres- 
ponding to that bit gets one added to it. making it an ASCI I 
I . If carry was not set altera shift, that bit was zero, and the 
corresponding byte in DS is left alone. 

Finally, to return lo Configuration mode, the Index array 
(IX) has entries for the first letter ol each of the Configura- 
tion parameters (A. R. Dand W). Thus, typing any of these 
characters while in Display mode will cause the appropriate 
colon lo begin blinking, indicating that that parameter can 
now he altered. 



Configuration Section 



I he Display code performs its task by using the various 
configuration variables to decide which lines of code to 
GOTO to produce a display. Since there are only a few 
parameters and their options are all preset, the simplest 
Configuration scheme is to increment through the possible 
fields and options. To accomplish this, a general purpose 
"get-arrow " subroutine is used. I his routine monitors the 
keyboard via INKEYS and recognizes only the four arrow 
keys and the [ENTER] key. 1 he up down arrows are 
returned to the caller as variable X. set lo a value of plus or 
minus one. The right and left arrows and the [ENTER] key 
are returned in TES as the termination character. On return 
from get-arrow, if TES is null ("'*). the caller adds X lo the 
variable being altered, does a range check, displays the 
current value of the parameter, and returns to get-arrow. 
This process continues until a terminator is received. The 
display of (he selected parameters is done by keeping an 



array for each, containing a string describing the possible 
options. The control variable is then used as the index into 
the companion array to display the meaning of its value. For 
example, if the current radix is hexadecimal. CX will equal 
one. and node I of the radix arrav(RXS) contains the string 
"Hex." 

When get-arrow is in its INKEYS loop, if nothing has 
been received, before looping back for another INKEYS 
scan, it calls the Configuration prompt subroutine. Each 
caller to get-arrow supplies a screen address for the blinking 
colon prompt. Each call to the prompt subroutine alternates 
the prompt between a colon and a blank character. To 
ensure there is always a colon displayed, before returning to 
the caller, a final colon is printed at the current cursor 
address. 

Upon return from get-arrow, il a terminator character has 
been received, the handler sets NX equal to its positional 
value in the display screen ( ADRS=I , R AD1X=2. etc.) and 
jumps to the next-step handler. This routine performs some 
conditional display updating and then evaluates TES. If it 
was a left or right arrow, NX is incremented or decremented 
and used as the argument for an ON. . . GOTO statement. 
If the terminator was an [EN ITER] key. control is returned 
to Display at line 60020. 

Lastly. Configuration has a "clear screen" routine which 
eases the problem of changing display formats. On each call 
to this routine the screen is cleared (CLS3). and the configu- 
ration windows are rewritten. The indirection flag (an 
orange block) is set if the indirection level is greater than 
zero, and cleared if equal to zero. 

M EMSCA N was written for a specific purpose: To make 
studying memory as simple and efficient as possible. While 
there are many forms ol memory examination programs. 1 
feel this isan optimum approach, For example, EDTASM+ 
allows you easy access to memory, even to disassemble it 
into mnemonics. But that is a different environment with 
controls and displays suited to debugging. Al EMSCA X is 
meant to be used along with your favorite ROM map, to 
assist you in peeking around and learning. You could even 
merge it with an existing program and study its components. 

M EMSCA N does run a bit on the gummy side, with the 
delays being most noticeable in the wide (seven and above) 
window w idths. However. I feel its case of use and transpar- 
ent nature should lar outweigh this limitation. 

So. grab those maps, jump to the keyboard, and RUN 
M EMSCA Nl 

Configuration Mode Command Keys 

— Go to previous Parameter Field 

— Go to next Parameter Field 
Go lo next Parameter Option 

I Go to previous Parameter Option 

[ENTER] key terminates Configuration mode — enter 

Display mode. 
[CLEAR] key acts as "rubout" key during address input. 
Blinking colon indicates Parameter Field to be altered. 

Display Mode Command Keys 

Advance to next byte word 
I Advance to previous byte word 

— Go down one level of indirection 

— Come up one level of indirection 

[CLEAR] key exils MEM SCAN, returns to RS BASIC. 

To reenter Configuration mode, the first letter (A. R. D 
or W) will terminate Display mode and enter Configu- 
ration mode. 



122 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



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CIKTlFtCATlOH 

seal 



Arrays 

1X027) 

IN(5) 

WWS(5) 

MF)S(4) 

RX$(2) 



MEMSCAN Symbol Table - i 

Index ;n i ii > lor key processing in Display loop. 
Records previous center address lor Indirection. 
Text ol window width options. 
Text ol data display options. 
Text lor current radix indication. 



Fixed Screen Locations 



AF 
RF 
NF 

MF 

WF 

A I 

Rl 

Nl 

Wl 

AA 

DD 



Major V 
A.D 
AC 
AL- 
BS 



Address title field (ADRS:) 
Radix title field (RADIX:) 
Indirect level title field (IND:) 
Data mode title field (DMODE:) 
Window width title field (WDO:) 
Input address data field 
Radix Displa\ Field 
Indirect level Display Field 
Window width Display Field 
Start ol displayed address 
Start ol displayed data 

MEMSCAN Symbol Table - ii 



CF 
CX 

CG 

DS 

DM 

F 

I 

KS 

LP 

Ml 

Ml. 

MM 

NX 
SB 

TES 

Wl 

WW 



ariables 

Address and Data temp variables in display loop 

Current center address 

Current low address; based on window width 

Siring of spaces, used to erase the Address-input 

Held 

Cursor field: used by "get-arrow" subroutine 

Current radix (Hex— I, Dec=2) 

Change flag: indicates a Configuration parameter 

has changed 

Data in string form: used in display loops 

Current data display mode (Byte=l. Word=2) 

Added to AC forms AL 

loop counter, used in all display loops 

Raw input from INKEYS 

Terminal value for display FOR loops 

Mode Index ( 1-4): derives DM & SB 

Maximum indirect level (5) 

Start address of Ml. subroutine which makes 

binary strings 

Next Configuration field to alter 

Special byte d isplay ( Binary= I . Charactcr=2. Not 

in use=0) 

Terminator character returned from "get-arrow" 

Window width index: used to display current width 

Current window width (WW=WI*2+I) 



Miscellaneous Constants 

MX =65536 
CI.C2. 
CU= Blinking cursor components 
C3 Indirection "on" Hag 
C4 Erase Indirection Flag Character 
UA ASCII value for up arrow 
DA ASCII value for down arrow 
LA ASCII value for left arrow 
RA ASCII value for right arrow 
CR ASCII value lor[ENTER] key (carriage return) 
String Constants 
ADS "ADRS:" 
RDS "RADIX:" 
NNS "IND:" 
MOS "DMODE:" 
WD.S "WDO:" 



MEMSCAN Line Numbers - i 
60000 - Display Section 

-010 Display loop: key processing: inc dec address 

- 1 10 Hex word mode display loop 
140 Hex byte mode display loop 
180 Hex address. Binary data display loop 

-210 Hex address. Character data display loop 

-250 Decimal word mode display loop 
290 Decimal byte display loop 

-330 Decimal address. Binary data display loop 

-360 Decimal address. Character data display loop 

-400 Center address display subroutine 

-450 Go up one level of indirection 

-470 (Jo down one level of indirection 
61000 - Configuration Section 

-010 Address input handler 

-170 Radix handler 

-210 Mode handler 

-250 Window width handler 

-290 Next step handler 

-380 Screen rewrite subroutine 

-420 "Get-arrow" subroutine 
62000 - Initialization Section 

-010 Speed-up poke 

-020 Define address for M I. subroutine ( M M=&H7900) 

-090 Most start-up Configuration parameters defined 
on this line 

- 120 Exit code for [CLEAR] key 



*fz 



60130 127 

60270 17 

60390 191 

61030 240 

61220 64 

61400 232 

62030 121 

END 135 



The listing: 



60000 CLEAR250,&H7900:G0SUB62000 

:G0T061010:REM MEMSCAN U 

TILITY VI. O 

60010 REM DISPLAY LOOP 

60020 LP=WW-l:LP=LP*DM 

60030 K*=INKEY*:IFK*<>""THEN ONI 

X(ASC(K*>) GOTO 62120,60060,6104 

O, 61220, 61 180, 61260, 60050, 60450, 



124 



the RAINBOW April 1981 



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60470 

60040 AX-AA:DX*DD:0NCX G0SUB6009 

, 60250 : I FPEEK < 8cH 1 55 > -&HF7 THEN6 

0050 ELSEIFPEEK(ScH156>=ScHF7 THEN 

60060 ELSE60030 

60050 AL-AL+DM:G0T060070 

60060 AL-AL-DM 

60070 IF AL>65535THEN AL-AL-MX E 

LSEIF AL<0THEN AL-MX+AL 

60080 G0SUB60400:G0T060030 

60090 REM HEX DISPLAY SECTION 

60100 IFDM-1 THEN 60140 

60110 REM HEX-WORD DISPLAY 

60120 FOR I -OTOLP STEP2: ZO-I+AL: I 

F Z0>65535THENZ0=Z0-MX: Z 1-ZO+l :E 

LSE IF Z 0-65535 THEN Zl-0 ELSE Z 

1-ZO+l 

60 1 30 D-PEEK ( ZO ) *256+PEEK < Z 1 ) : PR 

INTQAX, RIGHT* < "000"+HEX* ( ZO) , 4) i 

: PRINTSDX , RIGHT* ( "000"+HEX* <D> , 4 

) | : AX-AX+32: DX-DX+32: NEXTI : RETUR 

N 

60140 REM BYTE-MODE HEX DISPLAY 

60150 ON SB GOTO 60180,60210 

60 1 60 FOR I =OTOLP : A= I +AL : I F A >6553 

5THENA=A-MX 

60170 D-PEEK <A>: PR I NT@ AX, RIGHT* < 

»000"+HEX*(A) ,4) SIPRINTQDX, RIGHT 

* ( "0"+HEX* (D) , 2) ; : AX-AX+32: DX-DX 

+32: NEXTI : RETURN 



60180 REM BINARY BYTES 

60 1 90 FOR I -OTOLP : A= I +AL : I F A >6553 

5THENA-A-MX 

60200 PRINT8AX, RIGHT* ("000"+HEX* 

( A) , 4) J : D-PEEK (A) : POKEBF, D: D*="0 

OOOOOOO " + " " : PR I NTSDX , USRO ( D* ) ; : A 

X=AX+32: DX-DX+32: NEXTI : RETURN 

60210 REM CHAR BYTES-HEX ADRS 

60220 FOR I -OTOLP : A- 1 +AL : I FA >6553 

5THENA-A-MX 

60230 D-PEEK < A): IFD<8cH20 THEN D* 

»"^"+CHR*<D+8tH40)+" " ELSE D*=" 

'■+CHR*(D)+" " 

60240 PRINTQAX, RIGHT* ("000"+HEX* 

( A) , 4) ; : PRINTSDX, D«; : AX-AX+32: DX 

-DX+32: NEXTI : RETURN 

60250 REM DECIMAL HANDLER 

60260 IF DM-1 THEN 60290 

60270 FOR I -OTOLP STEP2: ZO-I+AL: I 

F Z0>65535THENZ0=Z0-MX:Z1=Z0+1:E 

LSE IF ZO-65535 THEN Zl-0 ELSE Z 

1-ZO+l 

60280 A*=STR*(ZO): PRINTQAX, RIGHT 

* ( "0000"+RIGHT* <A*, LEN (A*) -1 > , 5) 

; : D-PEEK < ZO) *256+PEEK < Z 1 ) : D*=STR 

* (D) : PRINTQDX , RIGHT* ( "0000"+RIGH 

T* <p*, LEN (D*) -1 ) , 5) ; : AX-AX+32: DX 

-DX+32: NEXTI : RETURN 

60290 REM DECIMAL BYTE MODE 

60300 ON SB GOTO 60330,60360 



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126 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



603 1 FOR I =OTOLP : A- 1 +AL : I FA >6553 

5THENA«A-MX 

60320 A*«STR* < A > : PR I NT@A X , R I QHT* 

<"00O0"+RIGHT*<A*,LEN<A*>-l),5>J 

: D*=STR* ( PEEK ( A ) > : PR I NTeDX , R I GHT 

* ( "000"+RIGHT* <D*, LEN <D*> -1 > , 3) ; 

: AX=AX+32: DX=DX+32: NEXTI : RETURN 

60330 REM DEC-ADRS, BINARY DATA 

60340 FOR I =OTOLP : A= I +AL : I FA >6553 

5THEN A=A-MX 

60350 A*=STR* < A ) : PR I NTS A X , R I GHT* 

( "0000"+RIQHT* (A*, LEN ( A*) -1 ) , 5) 5 

: D=PEEK < A) : P0KE8eH7916, D: D*=»"0000 

0000"+"":PRINT@DX,USRO<D*> ; : AX=A 

X+32: DX=DX+32: NEXTI : RETURN 

60360 REM DEC ADRS, CHAR BYTES 

60370 FOR I =OTOLP : A«= I +AL : I FA >6553 

5THEN A=A-MX 

60380 D=PEEK(A):IFD<&H20 THEN D* 

= "-"+CHR*(D+8cH40>+" " ELSE D*=" 

"+CHR*<D>+" " 

60390 A*=STR* ( A ) : PR I NTSA X , R I GHT* 

( "0000"+RIGHT* (A*, LEN <A*> -1 ) , 5) ; 

: PRlNTeDX , D*; : ax=ax+32: dx=dx+32: 

NEXTI: RETURN 

60400 REM CENTER ADDRESS DISPLAY 

604 lO IFCG THEN AL=AC-F: IFAL<OTH 

ENAL=AL+MX 

60420 AC=AL+F: IF A065535THEN AC 

=AC-MX 



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Available now from: 
ROBOTIC>^MICROSYSTEMS 



Box 30807 Seattle, WA 98103 



60430 I FC X - 1 THEND A*=R I GHT* < ■ OOO " 

+HEX*(AC),4) ELSEDA*=STR*<AC):DA 

*=R I GHT* ( " 0000 " +R I GHT* ( DA* , LEN < D 

A*>-1>,5> 

60440 PR I NT6A 1 , DA* J : RETURN 

60450 REM MOVE UP 1 LEVEL OF IND 

60460 IFIL=OTHEN G0T060030 ELSE 

AC=IN<IL> : IL=IL-l:G0T060500 

60470 REM MOVE DOWN 1 LEVEL 

60480 IFIL=ML THEN G0T060030 ELS 

E IL=IL+1 : ZO=AC: IFZ0>65535THENZ0 

=Z0-MX:Zl=Z0+l:ELSEIFZ0=65535THE 

NZ1=0ELSEZ1=Z0+1 

60490 Z0»PEEK(Z0)*256:Z1=PEEK(Z1 

) : IN ( ID =AC: AC=ZO+Z 1 

60500 G0SUB60430:AL=AC-F:IFAL<0T 

HENAL=MX+AL 

605 1 O G0SUB6 1 3B0 : G0T060030 

61000 REM CONFIGURA 

TION LOOP 

61010 G0SUB6 1380: REM ADDRESS INP 

UT HANDLER 

61020 SF-Al:IF CX=1THEN MC«4ELSE 

MC=5 

61030 B*=" ":IFCX=2THENB*»B*+ 

II II 

61040 CF=A1-1 : CT=0: Kl*=" " : TE*=" " 
: CU=C1 : F1=A1 : PRINT8A1 , B*; 
6 1 050 K*= I NKE Y* : I FK*< > " « THEN6 1 06 
O ELSE G0SUB6 1 470 :G0T06 1050 





.t— 



U 



V Software <r 

C^KEEP-TRACK^ 

"Double-Entry" General Ledger Accounting System 

for Home or Business on 16K, 32K or 64K. 

This user-friendly MENU driven system comes complete 
with operator's manual and sample printouts. 
*** PROGRAM FEATURES *•* 
•Balance Sheet • Income & Expense Statement (current year-to- 
dale categories "YTO") • General Journal & General Ledger • 
This system handles 2400 ' 'Journal Entries' ' on ihe 32K & 64K 
versions. The 16K version can handle up to 740 records. 

1 diskdrive, printer & at least 16K with ECB required. 
COMPARE FEATURES & PRICE, then BUY "THE OTHER GUY'S" 

INTRODUCTORY OFFER $69.95 
Manual with sample printouts $10.00 (can apply toward purchase) 

WE ARE ''THE OTHER GUY'S SOFTware"! 

AMT • Full Featured Amortization Program 
* * * This one does it all — Look at these leatures * * * 
This program will compute monthly, bi-monthly, quarterly, semi- 
annual, or annual payments using positive or negative amortizations 
(useful for calculating new loans such as FHA 245. GPARM & ARM). 
II will also calculate BALLOON PAYMENTS. Up to 1 2 months can be 
viewed on the screen including: payment number, interest, principle, 
and Balance Printing will produce the above output PLUS title block, 
total interest to date, total principle to dale. & total amount paid to date 
(Instruction book Included) This program is fully "MENU" driven 
and user-friendly Requires 16K ECB - Tape or Disk 
INTRODUCTORY OFFER $29.95 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 
(add $1 .50 for postage and handling) 
Send check or money order , US funds to 
THE OTHER GUY'S SOFTware • 875 S. Main • Logan, UT 84321 
Phone:(801)753-7620 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 127 



61060 IFASC<K*)-LA THEN61090 ELS 

EIF ASC<K*)-RA THEN61090 ELSE I FA 

SC<K*)=CL THEN6U10ELSEIFASC<K*> 

=CR THEN61090 

61070 CT=CT+1:IFCT>MC THEN61050 

61080 PRINTeFl,K*;:Kl*=Kl*+K*:Fl 

=F1+1:60T061050 

61090 TE*=K*: IFCX=1THEN K1*="S<H" 

+K1* 

6HOO ID=VAL<K1*> :PRINTSCF, " : "5 : 

IF CT THEN G0T061150 ELSE ID=AC: 

G0T061150 

61110 Fl=Fl-l:IF FKA1 THEN F1=A 

1 

6 1 1 20 CT=CT- 1 : I FCT< 0THENCT=0 

61130 K1*=LEFT*(K1*,CT> 

61140 PRINT8F1," ";:Q0T061050 

6 1 1 50 F= WW- 1 : I FDM= 1 THENF=F / 2 

61160 AC=ID:NX=l:CS«l:B0T061290 

61170 REM RADIX INPUT HANDLER 

611 80 CF=Rl-l: G0SUB6 1 420 : I FTE*<> 

""THEN NX=2:B0T061290 

61190 CX=CX+X:IF CX<1THENCX=2ELS 

EIFCX>2THENCX=1 

61200 PRINTQRl,RX*<CX)5:CG-l:S0T 

061180 

61210 REM MODE INPUT HANDLER 

6 1 220 CF=M 1 - 1 : G0SUB6 1 420 : I FTE*< > 

" "THENNX=3: G0T061290 

61230 MI=MI+X:IFMK1THENMI=4ELSE 

IFMI>4THENMI=1 

61240 PRINT@M1,MD*(MI>5:C6=1:60T 

061220 

61250 REM WINDOW SPAN INPUT HAND 

LER 

6 1 260 CF=W 1 - 1 : B0SUB6 1 420 : I FTE*< > 

" " THENNX=4 : B0T06 1 290 

61270 WI=WI+X: IFWK1THENWI=5ELSE 

IFWI>5THENWI=1 

61280 PRINT@W1,WW*<WI> ; :WW=WI*2+ 

l:CB=l:B0T061260 

61290 REM NEXT-STEP HANDLER 

61300 IFMI>2THENDM=1:SB=MI-2:ELS 

EDM=MI:SB=0 

61310 IFCS THEN F=WW-1 : IFDM=1THE 

NF=F/2 

61320 IF CB THEN B0SUB60400: SOSU 

B61380:CB=0 

61330 IFASC(TE*)=LA THEN61340ELS 

EIFASC(TE*)=RA THEN61350ELSE BOT 

060020 

61340 NX=NX-l:B0T061360 

61350 NX=NX+1 

61360 IFNX<1THENNX=4ELSEIFNX>4TH 

ENNX-1 

61370 ON NX BOTO 61010,61170,612 

10,61250 

61380 REM SCREEN RE /WRITE 

6 1 390 CLS3 : PR I NTS AF , AD*+D A* | : PR I 

NTSRF , RD*+R X * < C X > ; : PR I NTQNF , NN*+ 



RIBHT* (STR* ( ID , 1 ) ; : PRINTttlF, MO* 
+MD* (MI ) ; : PRINT@WF, WD*+WW* (WI ) I 
61400 IF IL THEN PRINTGAF-1 ,CHR* 
<C3>; ELSE PRINTeAF-l,CHR*(C4); 
61410 RETURN 

61420 REM 'BET- ARROW* INPUT 
6 1 430 TE*= " " : X =0 : CU=C 1 
6 1 440 K*= I NKE Y* : I FK*< > " " THEN6 1 45 
0ELSEB0SUB6 1 470 : 60T06 1440 
61450 IFASC(K*)=UA THENX=1ELSE I 
FASC<K*>=DA THENX=-1 ELSE IFASC( 
K*)=LA THENTE*=K* ELSE IFASC<K«) 
»RA THENTE*-K« ELSE IFASC(K*)-CR 

THENTE*=K* ELSEB0T061440 
6 1 460 PR I NTQCF , " : " 5 : RETURN 
61470 REM BLINKINB COLON SUB 
6 1 480 PR I NTSCF , CHR* ( CU > ; 
61490 FOR I=1T020:NEXTI 
61500 IFCU=C1 THENCU=C2 ELSE CU= 
CI 

61510 RETURN 
62000 REM ONE-TIME 

INIT CODE 
62010 POKE 65495,0 

62020 CLS3:PRINTei68,"MEMSCAN VI 
. O " ; : MM=8cH7900 : BF=MM+&H 1 6 : D I M IX 
(127) ,RX*(2) , IN (5) ,WW*<5> ,MD*<4) 
: DEFUSRO=MM: MX =65536 
62030 MD* ( 1 ) ■ " BYTE " : MD* ( 2 ) - " WORD 
" : MD* (3) ="BIN " : MD« (4) ="CHAR" : RX 
$ ( 1 ) ="HEX " : RX* <2> ="DEC" : WW* ( 1 ) =" 
03" : WW* (2) ="05" : WW* (3) ="07" : WW* < 
4> =»09" : WW* (5) =" 11" 
62040 DATA &H 1 2 , 8cH30 , &H98 , 02 , &HE 
6 , &HBC , ScHOF , &H86 , 08 , &H58 , 8cH24 , 04 
, &H6C , &H80 , &H20 , 02 , «cH30 ,01, &H4 A , 
«eH26 , &HF4 , 8.H39 , 00 
62050 AD*= " ADRS : " : RD*= " RAD I X : " : N 

N*=" ind: " : MO*="DMODE: " : WD*-"WDO: 

" : UA=ScH5E : DA=&HOA : LA=8 : RA=9 : CR=& 

HOD 

62060 AF=34 : RF= AF+ 1 2 : NF=RF+ 1 O : MF 

=101 : WF=MF+13: A1=AF+LEN ( AD*) : Rl= 

RF+LEN ( RD* ) : N 1 =NF+LEN < NN* ) : M 1 =MF 

+LEN < MO* ) : W 1 =WF+LEN ( WD* ) 

62070 FOR A=MM TOMM+8cH16:READ D: 

POKEA,D:NEXT A 

62080 C1=58:C2=143:C3=255:C4=175 

: CL=&HOC 

62090 ac=o:sb=0:cx=i:dm=i:mi=i:w 
1=3: ww=7 : a a= 1 68 : dd= a a+6 : i l=0 : da* 

":ML=5 
62100 FOR I=0T0127:IX(I)=0:NEXTI 

62110 IX(8)=B:IX(9)=9:IX<12)=1:I 

X<10)=2:IX<65)=3:IX<68>=4:IX(82) 
=5:IX(87)=6:IX(94)=7:RETURN 
62120 P0KE65494,0:CLS:END 
62200 REM FOR 16K SYSTEMS CHANBE 
LINE 60000 AND 62020: FROM &H790 
O TO «cH3900 ^ 



128 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



EDUCATION OVERVIEW 



Education Outside 
The School 



By Michael Plog, Ph.D. 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



When mosi people think about education, the major 
image that comes to mind is the traditional school 
system. This includes the elementary, middle (or 
junior high), and high school. 

There are educational settings other than traditional 
schools. Opportunities exist for educational use of micro- 
computers in these institutions — as much as in traditional 
schools. There has been a tremendous growth in the alterna- 
tive educational settings in the past lew years, and most signs 
indicate that the growth will continue in the next lew years. 
I am not talking about private, church supported schools 
here. In general, these schools are about the same as public- 
schools. Oh, the students may weara uniform (as well as the 
teachers), and you may find religious pictures and icons 
spread around the buildings. But generally, the courses 
taught in church supported schools are similar to those 
taught in the public schools. 

Nor am I talking about secular private elementary and. 
secondary schools. Again, these schools arc very similar to 
public schools in course offerings and programs. 

mere are a whole host of institutions called "proprietary 
schools." These are institutions that offer a specialized 
course of study, often to adults. Some familiar examples 
might be real estate courses, computer training schools, 
business (even if no more than typing) schools, and institu- 
tions that train truck drivers. A proprietary school is oper- 
ated for profit. The owners have a skill they are selling. 
Graduates from these institutions obtain employment based 
on the reputation ol the school. 

The microcomputer explosion has had an effect on prop- 
rietary education. I have a Iriend who offers a course in word 
processing using microcomputers. It is possible to receive 

(Michael Plug received his Ph. D. degree from the 
University of Illinois. In addition to his work as an 
educational researcher, he is a major partner in the 
Center for Opinion Research, a firm conducting state- 
wide polling in Illinois. The Color Computer is used in 
all phases of the polling work.) 



instruction (by mail order) in microcomputer repair from a 
proprietary school. Naturally, many places now offercourses 
in basic, just to satisfy the demand resulting from sales of 
microcomputers to people who have either no computer 
backgrounds or very limited ones. 

Microcomputers, and especially the Color Computer, can 
play a role in the proprietary schools. In addition to teaching 
about computers, the machines can be used for many educa- 
tional purposes. For example, there is a nationwide depart- 
ment store chain that is considering a management course 
using computer assisted instruction. Simulations and spe- 
cific problems could thus be presented to the trainees. In the 
popular real estate courses, microcomputers could be used 
to store data for "real life" examples for students. 

For any microcomputer application in a traditional 
school setting, a similar application can be used in a proprie- 
tary school. Because most of the students are adults, the 
application may have to be altered somewhat. (I doubt that 
many adults would be willing to pay their own money to 
learn LOGO, for example.) 

The range of educational institutions is much wider than 
proprietary schools. Almost all churches have a religious 
education program for children (and sometimes adults). 
Microcomputers can be used in such "Sunday schools" to 
great advantage. True, many churches may not have used 
microcomputers in this manner, but the possibilities are- 
vast. While churches are beginning to get microcomputers 
for data management ol their members, the inclusion of 
micros in the religious education program is a natural next 
step. Two national religious organizations the Church of 
Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons) and Unitarian Uni- 
versalists — have agreements with Tandy for price reduc- 
tions on hardware. Other religious organizations may be in 
the negotiating stage (or have completed negotiating) for 
similar discounts. 

The use of microcomputers in RE (religious education) 
programs may be similar to use in regular schools. We are 
talking about learning, which is a constant applied to all 
educational activities. An RE director may use a Color 

April 1984 the RAINBOW 129 



riR* 




RAINBOW 



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* SAC For those against nuclear disarmament - pilot a B52 to any 
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* HERE COME DE PREZ Are you fed up with the State of 
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* PRIVATE INVESTIGATOR Murder! Could Sherlock Holmes 

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ISLE OF FORTUNE You are a fisherman in a waterfront bar. 
The old salt just told you a tale of treasure on an island, before 

the poison dart struck Sail your ship to dangerous adventure 

awaiting you on the Isle of Fortune S19.95 

SCAVANGE HUNT Find the items on the list and return them 
to Hickory Ridge to free your niece Rebecca from the hermit 
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* BOMB SCARE A terrorist group has planted 8 bombs in a city. 
Your mission: locate and disarm all 8 before time runs out. 
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* DARK CASTLE Monsters-magic-myths. King Lothar of 
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MANSION OF DOOM Destroy the Vampire, rescue Princess 
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ENO You inherited a million dollars. Just one catch - first 

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Computer to prepare simulations for students, keep traek ol 
progress of students, prepare materials, etc. It would even be 
possible to have some of the older students program lessons 
lor younger ones. 

This idea is not new with me: I have seen advertisements 
lor Bible studies on computer, as well as research materials 
available on diskette. I am more familiar with materials lor 
traditional Christian studies, but I assume similar materials 
exist lor the Jewish faith and others. II thej do not exist 
presently, it will not be long before someone creates them. 
It is a rare church that does not have some of its members 
owning microcomputers. Many micro owners ha\e deve- 
loped (or used commercial) databases to store information 
about members. For those of you who have done this. I 
suggest you expand your horizon and talk with your RE 
director' You would not have to take your own microcom- 
puter to church: you could prepare materials for the classes. 
Things like word find puzzles, mazes, line drawings (lor 
coloring) could be used in the church classes. 

Of course, the opportunity exists to use microcomputers 
for direct student interaction. Many churches own micro- 
computers, mostly used for business activities in the church 
office. Well, there is very little business going on during 
church school and worship service. Instead of turning off the 
machine, put it to educational use. 

Besides these two types of educational institutions (pro- 
prietarv schools and 'religious education), there are other 
organizations which include education in their purpose. 
Youth groups, such as scouting, are common in almost 
every corner of America. These groups are established for 
educational purposes, and can contribute greatly to the 
personal development of an individual. When considering 
education, such groups cannot be ignored: and the potential 
for microcomputer use among these groups is almost 
unlimited. 

By the way. is it possible for a boy or girl scout to get a 
merit badge in microcomputing'.' I do not know, but il it is 
not offered now. then I suggest the scout leaders start mov- 
ing on it. (Another interesting thought — the money from 
the sale of all that candy and cookies could be used to 
purchase a microcomputer.) 

When considering youth groups, we should not ignore the 
youth component ol adult service organizations. It is possi- 
ble for such groups as Rotary. Lions. Junior Chamber ol 
Commerce. Women's League to have youth attachments. 
Service and fraternal organizations tend to have an interest 
in education, and sometimes have special programs estab- 
lished with education as the major purpose. 

The list could go on. Trade unions and organizations have 
youth components, and have education for members as an 
important component in their structure and purpose. (J he 
concept ol progression toward mastery of a craft is one ol 
the historical purposes of trade unions and organizations.) 
Instead of trying to list all the possibilities, let's stop here. 
My space is about up anyway. Do you belong to some group 
that has education as one goal'.' II so. how is your microcom- 
puter used with that group? Could you discuss your 
thoughts with the leaders of that group? II you do decide to 
go in this direction. I would appreciate hearing Irom you 
about it. My address is 829 Evergreen. Chatham. IL 62629. 
Until next month, take Care of yoursell and your machine. 
II v ou are getting a big tax refund, try to spend some of it on 
your Color Computer. You deserve il. 



<^s> 



130 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



GAME 

A real money saver for the 



TIE HOM 
SLOT MA 



ly Barry Furman 



c*l t . I Huron 




p^^^^t^w^wpj 



slot machines, but hale to lose all those quarters! Heme 

Slot Machine will entertain you. but not leave your pockets empty. 

Ii «ill run on a I6K Extended Color BASK ( omputer. 

I feel thai Home Slat Machine reallj shows offCoCo's ability to do graphics 

using ( l INS. 
The screen will ask if yon need instructions. If yon reply with " V then the game "ill 
immediately begin; if "V," then a set of instructions will appear. After you read the instructions. 

the name will automatically start. 
At that point, you will he asked how many dollars (in quarters) you will he playing with. \ ou may enter 
any amount you wish. I hen the screen clears and a slot machine is drawn (using Color l» \M( s graphics) with 

windows, handle, money slot and all. 
At the lower right side of the screen, your "wad" will appear; i.e., the amount of money you elected to start with. 

This will he updated with ever) hel and with every win. 

Aptll 1984 Hie RAINBOW 13 



A prompt will then appear next to the money slot: "Pull or 
1-4 quarters." This means that you may press any key to 
"pull the handle" to bet one quarter ([ENTER] " 1 " or even a 
joystick button are recommended) or you may press keys 2 
through 4 to bet two, three, or four quarters. At this point, 
the value of your wad will be reduced by the amount of your 
bet. Winnings will double, triple or quadruple, depending 
on the bet. 

BASIC'S SOUND command is used liberally. You'll see 
and hear each quarter drop ("clunk") into the slot. You'll 
then hear the whirring of the wheels as you watch cherries, 
oranges, lemons, plums, pears, 7s, S's. clocks, bells and bars 
appear to whiz past the windows. Finally, the wheels slow 
down and the result appears as in a real slot machine . . . one 
wheel stops at a time. 

The status of your spin will appear on the screen ("You 
Lose," "Two of a Kind," etc.). Two of a Kind will pay five 
times your bet. Three of a Kind will pay 10 times unless three 
bars appear (a jackpot) for which the entire contents of the 
slot machine are paid out. At initialization, the machine has 
$500 in it. 

When you win. the correct amount of quarters will 
"clunk" as they drop out of the machine. Your wad will be 
updated accordingly. 

Slot Machine was designed using Color BASIC'S SET 
command in FOR-NEXT loops (lines 260-302). The cher- 
ries, lemons, etc., are made up of character strings in DA TA 
statements (5 10-548), and portions of these print quickly to 
give the appearance that they "whir" by. When they appear 
to slow down, the full array of character strings make the full 
characters (550-600). 

If your machine is Color BASIC, eliminate PRINTUSING 
in Line 3 10. A POKE65495.0 will create an interesting speed- 



up, also. 

Anyone who wishes a copy of the program on tape may 
send $5 to Barry Furman, 2 1 Sunset Lane. Levittown. N.Y., 
11756. 

Good luck playing, but play with your head, not over it! 



(Barry Furman is a banking assislanl vice president 
who works with his computer as a hobby. He plans to 
start his own software business.) 



The listing: 



// 




Y 234.... 


. . . 164 


262 ... . 


... 125 


308 ... . 


... 240 


348 ... . 


.... 80 


402 ... . 


.... 81 


456 ... . 


...145 


494 ... . 


.... 30 


534 ... . 


. . . 190 


566 ... . 


... 112 


END... 


.... 89 


— 



1 ' 

2 ' 

3 * 

4 ' 

5 ■ 
h ' 



HOME SLOT MACHINE 
BY BARRY R. FURMAN 



»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»»'» »»»»»»» 



H©N'. 



For Your TRS-80 Color Computer 

128 Full-time Audio Talk/Tutor Programs! 



You way be able to 
reduce your taxes b*j 




- incone 
evcra«j inq 

- tncoie 
spl itt in«j 

td* shelter 




(fofr-f*ftlabl« adjectives that 
•«d in U usually just add 



has one syllable' 



We're Your Educational 
Software Source 



LANGUAGE ARTS 

Spelling 
Level 3-4 

(words in context with 
definitions and synonyms) 

Phonics 
English as a 
Second Language 

MATHEMATICS 

Levels 1-6 Numbers 
Basic Algebra 
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY 

Physics (16 programs) 



(16 programs) 
(16 programs) 



(16 programs) 
(32 programs) 

(16 programs) 
(16 programs) 



In Color, with Pictures and Text! 

All of our TRS-80 Color programs have easy to understand profes- 
sional announcer narration, not synthesized, robotic voices. All text 
is displayed in easy to read upper- and lower-case characters. Video 
clearly illustrates key concepts in each frame of the program. 

Only $4.40 per program. ($8.80 for 2, one on each side of a half -hour 
cassette). $59.00 for 16 programs (8 cassettes) in an album. Send for a 
catalog of over 1000 programs for Atari, TRS-80, Apple, etc. 

For more Information, or to order call: 




TOLL FREE 1-800-654-3871 

DORSETT 

Educational Systems, Inc. 
Box 1226. Norman, OK 73070 



132 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



10 DIM A (240) 

100 S-300 

110 DD-30 'DETERMINES SPEED OF 

COINS DROPPING. 
120 B«0 
200 CLS3 

220 PRINT8228, "3 LOT M A C H 
I N E"; 

230 FORN-lT03:BOSUB604:NEXTN 

231 F0RX-1T01200:NEXT:PRINT«362, 
"DO YOU NEED" | : PR INT 9389, "INSTRU 
CTIONS <Y/N) H |: INPUT INST*: IF IN 
3T»-"Y"THEN 232 ELSE 250 

232 CLS:PRINT@3, "SLOT MACHINE IN 
STRUCT IONS" : PRINT835, " *»#####»## 
#»*######»#####» ZPRI NT" (1) THE 8 
LOT MACHINE WILL DIS- PLAY CHER 
RIES, ORANGES, LEMONS, PLUMS, PE 
ARS, 7'S, *'S, CLOCKS, BELLS AND 

BARS.": PRINT" <2> THE MINIMUM BE 
T IS 25 CENTS, "| 

233 PR I NT "BUT YOU MAY BET FROM 
NE TO FOURQUARTERS IN EACH BET. 

WINNINGS WILL DOUBLE, TRIPLE OR 
QUADRUPLEDEPENDING UPON THE BET 

II 

■ 

234 PRINT" (3) TWO OF A KIND WILL 
PAY FIVE TIMES THE BET. THREE 

OF A KIND WILL PAY 10 TIMES THE 
BET, EX- CEPT IN THE CASE OF 3 
BARS. " : F0RX-1T012000: NEXT: CLS: PR 
I NT "THE 3 BARS REPRESENT A JACKP 
OT FOR WHICH THE ENTIRE CONTENT 
S OFTHE SLOT MACHINE ARE PAID 
236 PR I NT "OUT. (THE MACHINE STAR 
TS WITH «500 IN IT ! ) ": PRINT" (4 
) TO BET ONE QUARTER, PRESS TH 
E < ENTER > OR <1> KEY, OR PRESSTH 
E JOYSTICK BUTTON FOR REMOTE OP 



< 



$ *** COCO - BINGO *** 

FOR THE COCO, TDP100, AND DRACON 



* UNLIMITED NUMBER OF PLAYERS 

* COLOR GRAPHICS & SOUND 

* BALL COUNT (. PAUSE FEATURE 

* BINCO CARDS & CHIPS INCLUDED 

* DISK COMPATABLE 

* 16K EXT. CASSETTE 



RAINBOW 

$12.95 



INCLUDE $1.50 P/H 
OHIO RES. ADD 6.5X TAX 



COLORTECH SYSTEMS 
17401 DARTMOUTH. AVE. 
CLEVELAND, OHIO 44111 



ERATION. TO BET 2, 3, OR 4 QU 
ARTERS, PRESS THE <2>, <3> , 0R<4 
) KEY." 

238 PRINT: PRINT" *## GOOD 
LUCK! ###":FORX-1T09000:NEXT 
250 CL83: PR I NT« 162, "HOW MANY DOL 
LARS IN QUARTERS"! : PRINT* 195, "AR 
E YOU PLAYING WITH" | : INPUT P 
252 IFP-0THENP-25 
254 P-INT(P) 
256 OLD-P 

258 » #######*###***##########»»# 
CREATING THE SLOT MACHINE 

260 CLS3:PRINT«40, "SLOT MACHINE" 

I 

262 F0RH-58T063:F0RV-0T031 

264 RESET (H,V) 

266 NEXTV,H 

268 PRINTe93,CHR*(143+32>; 

270 F0RH-60T06 1 : FORV-4T02 1 

272 8ET(H,V,3) 

274 NEXTV,H 

276 F0RV-18T021 

278 SET (59, V, 3) : SET (62, V, 3) 

280 NEXTV 

282 F0RH-6T017 

284 F0RV-6T015 

286 SET(H,V,5):SET(H+16,V,5):SET 

(H+32,V,5> 



COMPUT6R FORMS 

Continuous forms, labels, paper, 
checks, invoices, statements— with 
your imprint. Continuous letterhead 
with a perf so fine that you need a 
magnifying glass to tell it's a fan 
fold sheet. Matching envelopes. 

Regular letterhead, business forms 
and cards also. 

Send sample for quote. 

Computer/Printer supplies and 
furniture. 

Send $3.00 (refundable on first 
order) for our 76 page full color 
catalog. 

D€S€RT PRCSS, INC. 

P.O. Box 15128 
las Vegas, Nevada 89114 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 133 



288 NE X T V , H : I FBL ANK >OTHENRETURN 

290 F0RH-22T037 : F0RV-26T029 : RE9E 

T(H,V):NEXTV,H 

292 PR I NT«342 , CHR* < 1 72 ) +CHR* ( 1 72 

>l 

294 PRINTG440, "YOUR WAD" I : PR I NT« 

472,"* "» 

296 FORX-lTOiOOO:NEXT 

298 bosub 606: print 

300 pr i nt8352 , " " i : forx- 1 t022 : pr i 

ntchr* ( 175) ; : next 

302 print8289, "pull/or 1-4 quart 

ers " | : e*= i nkey* : j j -peek (6s280) : i 

fjj=1250rjj=2530rjj=2540rjj=126 

ore«< >" "then304else302 

304 bet-1:ife*-"2"then bet-2 

306 ife*»"3"thenbet=3 

308 ife*«"4"then bet-4 

309 if bet*. 23 > p thenpr i nt8289 
, "you bet too much! ! ! ! "i :f0rx-1t 
oi50o:nextx:boto30o 

310 old-p : p-p- . 23*bet : pr i nt8473 , 
" " i : pr i ntusing" ###. ##" ; p: print93 
55-66 , " " i : forx- 1 t022 : pr i ntchr* ( 1 

75) | : NEXT 

312 F0RX-1T0BET:PRINT«310, "25"»: 
F0RY-1T0400: NEXTY: PRINT8310, CHR* 
< 175) +CHR* < 175) J :PRINT8342,CHR*< 
140) +CHR* ( 140) ; :F0RY-1T020:NEXTY 
: S0UND238, 1 : PRINT8342, CHR* < 172) + 
CHR* ( 1 72 ) % : FORY- 1 T0200: NEXTY : : NE 
XTX 

314 f0rz-1t0520:nextz 

316 f0rx-205t0195step-1 : soundx, 1 

:nextx 

318 I-I+l 

320 J-RNDUO) 

322 K-RNDUO) 

324 L-RNDUO) 

326 S-S+.25#BET 

328 * SP INN I NO THE WHEELS 

330 RESTORE 

332 BLANK- 1 'USED TO RETURN FROM 

LINE 332 
334 60SUB2B2 
336 FORX- 1 TO 10 
338 F0RY-1T06 
340 READA(Y) 
342 NEXTY 
344 PRINT8179,""; 
346 F0RY-1T06 
348 PRINTCHR*(A<Y))| 
350 NEXT 

352 PRINT9179, ""; 
354 F0RY-1T06 
356 PR I NTCHR* < 207) I 
358 NEXT 
360 F0RY-1T06 
362 READA(Y) 
364 NEXTY 



366 PRINT«171,""f 

368 F0RY-1T06 

370 PRINTCHR*(A(Y))» 

372 NEXT 

374 PRINT«171,""> 

376 FORY- 1 T06 : PR I NTCHR* ( 207 ) i : NE 

XT 

378 FORY-lT06:READA<Y) 

380 NEXTY 

382 PRINT9163, ""» 

384 F0RY-1T06 

386 PRINTCHR*(A(Y))| 

388 NEXT 

390 PRINTai63,""| 

392 FORY- 1 T06 : PR I NTCHR* ( 207 ) I : NE 

XT 

394 NEXTX 

396 IFJ-5ANDK-5ANDL-5THEN400 

398 B0T0428 

400 G0SUB550 

402 PRINT«361,"J A C K P O T"|SF 

0RX-1T020: S0UND228, 2: NEXTX : FORX- 

1T0200:NEXTX:PRINT9360, ""i :forx- 

1T014: PRINTCHR* < 175) ; : NEXTX 

404 V-0 

406 IFCH0ICE-2THEN80T0406 

408 80SUB604 

410 OLD-P: P- P + S:S=250:P-P-B:B 

-O 

412 DD-l:0OSUB494 

414 DD-30 

416 BOSUB 1 487 : G05UB604 

418 GOTO 1020 

420 80SUB550 

422 OOSUB 14B7:60SUB604 

424 G0T01020 

426 OLD-P :P- P-B: B-0: GOT0422 

428 IFJ-K ANDJ-L THEN462 

430 IFJ-K ORJ-L THEN482 

432 IFJ-K ORK-L THEN482 

434 IFJ-L ORK-L THEN482 

436 B0SUB550:G0SUB604 

438 PRINT9363, "YOU LOSE" ; : S0UND8 
0,7 

439 F0RX-1T0600: NEXTX :PRINT«362, 
" " \ : F0RX-1T09: PRINTCHR* < 175) % : NE 
XTX 

440 T-T+l 

442 BOSUB 606: BOSUB 604 
444 IFP-<0THEN448 
446 B0T0302 

448 FORN- 1 T05 : B0SUB604 : NE X TN : PR I 
NT9353,"WANT TO BORROW <Y/N) ?" I 

449 A*- I NKEY* : I FA*- " " THEN449 

452 PRINTS352, "" J :F0RX-1T026: PRI 
NTCHR* (175);: NEXTX 

453 IFA*-"Y"THEN45B 

456 PRINT6362, "BAME OVER"? 

457 SOUND 1 60 , 1 O : CHO I CE-2 : FORX- 1 T 
02000 : NE X T : B0T0608 



134 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



FACTORY CLEARANCE SALE! 



campuTER lmT™$ 



n B n L Li S DB™ijTa as m 



Wholesale distributors of tandy "computer systems 




TANDY SYSTEM 100 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 

(By The Makers Of Radio Shack'" Computers) 



LAST CHANCE TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF 
CLEARANCE PRICES TOO GOOD TO BE TRUE!! 



Tandy* Systems 100; 16K Extended Color Computer with 
14 titles of Tandy Software, two joysticks, computer dust 
cover, instruction books, and interface cable. 

Your Complete Cost . . . $249. 95 

+ $4. S0 Shipping 

(as above except with 64K EXTENDED Model $309. 95 ) 

Package includes Tandy software titles like Learning Lab, 
Videotex, Chess, Color Scripsit, Spectaculator, Color File, 
Personal Finance, Shooting Gallery, Microbes, Micropaint- 
er, Polaris, Project Nebula, Space Assault, and Super Bust- 
Out (Software Retail Value $454. 30 ). 

SPECIAL: Line Printer I $184. 50 

/^ Graphic Printer $115. 50 

SKK? Modem I $ 74. 00 

64K Up-Grade Kit $56. 00 

+ $3.00 shipping 

Send check, money order or — use your MasterCard, 
VISA or American Express. Add UPS charges to order. 

16012 South Cottage Grove Ave., South Holland, IL 60473 
Division of Union Electronics, Inc. 

312-339-2777 

■Radio Shack is a trade name of Tandy Corp. 



458 'BORROWING: 

460 OLD-P: P- P+2.5 

462 G0SUB606:Q0T0300 

464 U-U+i 

466 PRINT8359, "THREE OF A KIND"! 

: F0RX-180T0232 STEP2: SOUNDX , 1 : NE 

XTX:PRINT«358, ""I :F0RX-1T016:PRI 

NTCHR* < 175) ; : NEXTX 

468 80SUB604 

470 S-S-2 . 5#BET : OLD-P : P-P+2 . 5*BE 

T 

472 DD-15:80SUB494 

474 DD-30 

476 IF P - B > 2.5*BET THEN480 

478 80SUB606:80T0300 

480 OLD-P : P-P-B : B-0 : Q0T0478 

482 OLD-P: P- P+1.25*BET:S-S-1.25 

*BET 

484 80SUB550:80SUB604 

486 W-W+l 

488 PRINT8361, "TWO OF A KIND" I 

490 F0RX-189T0213STEP2: SOUNDX, 1: 

NEXTX :G0SUB494 

492 G0T0502 

494 if p-oldmothen old- p-10 el 
se for x = 1 to ( p-old ) *4 : pr i ntq430 , ■ 
25"; :fory-ito dd:nexty:prints430 
, chr* ( 128) ; : print8431 , chr* < 128) ; 
: pr i nts462 , " 25 " ; : for y= 1 to dd : ne x 
t y : pr i nt8462 , chr* ( 1 28 ) j : pr i nt@46 

3, CHR* (128); 

496 PR I NTQ494 , " 25 " ; : FOR Y» 1 TODD : N 

EXTY:PRINT9494, CHR* (175)?: PRINTS 

495, CHR* (175); 

498 S0UND228 , 1 : FORZ - 1 TO 1 20 : NE X T Z 

: NEXTX 

500 RETURN 

502 G0SUB606:G0SUB604 

504 IF P - B >2.5*BET THEN508 

506 G0T0300 

508 OLD-P : P-P-B : B-0 : G0T0300 

510 'DATA" BELL ■ 

512 DATA207, 206, 128, 128, 205, 207, 

207, 128, 128, 128, 128,207,207, 195, 

194,195, 195,207 

514 'DATA FOR CHERRY: 

5 1 6 DAT A207 , 207 , 205 , 207 , 207 , 207 , 

207, 191, 191, 191, 191,207,207, 191, 

191,191,191,207 

518 'DATA FOR "*": 

520 DATA207 , 207 , 200 , 200 , 204 , 207 , 

207, 203, 200, 200, 205, 207, 207, 206, 

200,200,201,207 

522 'DATA" ORANGE " 

524 DAT A207 , 207 , 207 , 205 , 207 , 207 , 

207, 255, 255, 255, 255, 207, 207, 255, 

255,255,255,207 

526 'DATA FOR JACKPOT (BAR): 

528 DATA207, 207,207, 207, 207, 207, 

128,98,97, 114, 128, 128,207,207,20 



7,207,207,207 

530 'DATA" PEAR " 

532 D ATA207 , 207 , 206 , 207 , 207 , 207 , 

207,207,143,143,207,207,207,143, 

143,143,143,207 

534 'DATA FOR CLOCK: 

536 DATA 202,195,195,195,195,197 

, 202, 207, 204, 197, 207, 197, 202, 204 

,204,204,204,197 

538 'DATA" PLUM " 

540 DAT A207 , 207 , 206 , 207 , 207 , 207 , 

207 , 239 , 239 , 239 , 207 , 207 , 207 , 239 , 

239,239,207,207 

542 'DATA FOR "7": 

544 DAT A207 , 1 95 , 1 95 , 1 94 , 207 , 207 , 

207, 207, 206, 199, 207, 207, 207, 206, 

199,207,207,207 

546 'DATA" LEMON " 

548 D AT A207 , 207 , 207 , 205 , 207 , 207 , 

207, 207, 159, 159, 159, 207, 207, 207, 

159,159,159,207 

550 RESTORE 

552 F0RN-1T0L 

554 F0RX-1T03 

556 F0RY-1T06 

558 READA 

560 I FY- 1 THENPR I NT9 1 1 5+X »32 , " " | 

562 PRINTCHR*(A); 

564 NEXTY: NEXTX 

566 NEXTN: RESTORE 

568 S0UND215, 1 

570 F0RN-1T0K 

572 FOR X - 1 T03 : FOR Y- 1 T06 : READA 

574 I FY- 1 THENPR I NT8 1 07+X *32 , " " ; 

576 PRINT CHR* (A)» 

578 NEXTY, X 

580 NEXTN: RESTORE 

582 S0UND220, 1 

584 FORN- 1 TO J 

586 FORX- 1 T03 : FORY- 1 T06 

588 READA 

590 I FY- 1 THENPR I NTS99+ X *32 , " " ; 

592 PRINT CHR* (A); 

594 NEXTY, X 

596 NEXTN: RESTORE 

598 S0UND225, 1 

600 F0RX-1T0300:NEXT 

602 RETURN 

604 F0RZ=1T0500:NEXTZ: RETURN 

606 I F WAD >999 . 99THEN456ELSEPR I NT 

6473, ""; :PRINTUSING"###.##";P; 

608 IF CH0ICE=2THENCLS:PRINT"HER 

E'S HOW YOU did:":print:print h no 
of tries:"»i:print"losses: 
";t:print"3 of a kind: ";u:pri 
nt"2 of a kind: ";w:end 
610 foryy- 1t01800:nextyy 

612 IFP-0THEN448 
614 RETURN 



^ 



136 



the RAINBOW April 1984 




& 



N N 



ANY PACKAGE s 18.95 



($21.95 on Disk) 



1. EDUCATIONAL #1 

These even run on Non- Extended CoCos 
- Words funscramble the words). Spel- 
llt (spelling helper). Learn Notes 
Iwith graphic piano keys). Sorts (ex- 
plained and demonstrated). Base 
Guess Igame to learn other number 
basest. Morse Quiz (learn Morse 
Code), and Equations (solves systems 
of equations). 

2. EDUCATIONAL #2 

Only for Extended Basic - Mathvaders 
(shoot the right answer). Scrambler 
(put lists in order|. Language Drill 
(help with foreign word lists). Factors 
(factoring game), Typing Tutor. 
Manybody (demostrates gravitational 
forces). Maximum (pick the largest 
number game). Chemlab (simulated 
experiments), and How Far (places and 
distances). 

3. UTILITIES #1 

Programming is simpler when you use 
Lister. LI st mod Newtrace (a better 
TRON), Lazkey (define keys as phrases). 
Append (easily combine two BASIC 
programs). BASIC Map. Varmap, De- 
leter, and CK Monitor |look at and 
modify memory). 

4. DISK UTILITIES #1 

Harness the hidden powers of your disk 
system with Disk Edit (change things 
on disk directly). Disk Aid. Offset 
(EXECs most tape-only programs), 
Track Lock. DIR Save/Get (foil I/O 
errors), Cataloger. Master Catalog 
(keep track of your program library), and 
File Copy (a better BACKUP). 



5. GAMES #1 

Action-packed, logical, and colorful 
ones I Flyby (shoot ducks, planes, and 
faces), Blackjack. Motorcycle. 
Germ Istop the waves of nasties). 
Blockade. Life. Dlggem. Robot 
Run. Stellar Empire (control the 
heavens - 1 to 4 players), and Zero G for 
your fun and pleasure I 

6. ADVENTURES #1 

Trips to far-off and dangerous places. On 
the agenda are Jerusalem Adven- 
ture. Ultimate Adventure. Wil- 
liamsburg Adventure. House 
Adventure Andrea Dorla Ad- 
venture. Blackard's Castle (1500 
rooms), and Realm of Nauga (in real- 
time) I 

7. PRACTICALS #1 

Our most popular package with prog- 
rams for text editing, maillists. budgeting, 
filing, etc. including Keeptext (simple 
text editor). Keep Address. Keepllst 
(shopping list database), Keepcheck 
(checkbook balancer). Keep Budget 
(reports from Keepcheck). Flies (disk- 
based database), and Tape Inven- 
tory. 

8. GRAPHS & CHARTS #1 

For data manipulation and display! Do it 
with Pie Chart, Bar Chart. XY 
Graph. Curve Fit (predict trends), and 
TWo Dates (see monthly calendars for 
any two dates). 



9. GRAPHICS #1 

Displays and text delightfully manipu- 
lated! Watch and use First Cover, 
Drawer (often called the best). 
Graphtext (puts text on the graphics 
screen), Smalltext, Rotate (create 
and spin 3D objects in real time). World 
Map 3D World. Star Map, String 
Art, Kaleidoscope, and Display 
Demo (text screen wizardry) I 

10. NON-EXTENDED #1 

Five Standard BASIC programs including 
House Adventure (find twenty ob- 
jects or die), Stellar Empire (a 2 to 4 
person strategy game). Tape Inven- 
tory (keep track of your tapes). Space 
Ace (shoot'em up), and Lazkey [de- 
fine keys as words or phrases). 

11. NON-EXTENDED #2 

Five more Standard BASIC programs in- 
cluding Williamsburg Adventure 
[a humorous one). TWo Dates |show 
monthly calendars). Box Shoot (two- 
player face-off). Flyby (shoot ducks, 
faces, and planes), and Deleter (delete 
needless REM's and spaces from prog- 
rams). 



- a lot of software for a little silver 

P.O. Box 21101 

Santa Barbara, CA 93101 



See your dealer or 

order direct 1-800-621-6240 or in Calif. 1-805-966-1449. 

Overseas add S2 to orders Calif add 6% tax to orders. Money Orders, checks in U.S. Funds, MasterCard/Visa accepted. CO-D add 52 50 



A dvfclon or aOAD FuOKmom Inc 




Almost everyone with a computer has played some 
form of "Hangman." This popular letter-guessing 
game is great fun, but it does have its limitations. 
Most versions of the game only allow a single word in the 
puzzle to be guessed. Also, "Hangman" is a game for a single 
player at a time. 

Wheel of Fortune is loosely based on the television show 
of the same name. It is a competitive version of "Hangman," 
and the puzzle can be a phrase of several words. Up to eight 
people can play at once, but three or four players make the 
best game. It can be played by one player alone, but since no 
limit on the number of guesses is provided, some limit 
should be used. 

The Game 

First, the computer prompts you for the number of play- 
ers and their names. Before playing a round of the game, a 
phrase must be chosen as the puzzle to be guessed. When the 



run of the program begins, a choice is offered. Either the 
phrase can be input from the keyboard, or one can be chosen 
from the data at the end of the program. Whatever choice is 
made will be used until the program is RUN the next time. 

If puzzles are input from the keyboard, the players, of 
course, must not look at the screen while they are typed in. 
Each phrase can be up to 30 characters long (including 
spaces) and up to seven words. A single space should be used 
between words. Only letters, no number or punctuation 
marks, may be used. There must be at least one consonant, 
since otherwise the puzzle can never be guessed. 

A category describing the phrase must also be given as a 
clue. The allowed categories are: Title, Fictional Character. 
Person, Event, Place and Thing. 

After the puzzle has been chosen, the screen clears and the 
category and dashes for each letter of the phrase are dis- 
played. Each word is displayed on a separate line. 



138 



KM RAINBOW April 1984 



fjfaamcbettE 
vs. 

the other guy 



We were the first people to offer you and your Color Computer a tape or 
disk full of quality software on a subscription basis, and we are still the best I 
And to prove it. we make the following offers: 

Free trial - Buy a subscription to Chromasette If you are not satisfied with 
the software on first tape or disk you receive, just return it for a FULL refund. 

With your newsubscription to Chromasette |tape or disk), we'll sendyou a 
free copy of 'the other guy' (on tape - he does not offer his on disk). 
Compare us to him. Even if you decide to cancel yoursubscription. keep his as 
a consolation prize. 

Chromasette delivers 6 to 8 educational, fun. practical, and utilitarian 
programs to your mailbox every month by First Class Mail. We have supplied 
over 700 programs for the Radio Shack* computers, so our editors know how 
to select and groom programs to teach, entertain, and help you. And these 
programs can cost less than a dollar each I Such a deal I 

"Trademark of Tandy Corp. 




/> 





Tape 


Disk 


Single issues 


9.95 


12.95 


4 month subscription 


29.95 


38.95 


8 month subscription 


53.95 


69.95 


1 year subscription 


74.95 


96 95 (Save S58I) 



Some of our past programs include (Practical) Keep Address. 
Keep Budget. Files. (Educational) Spell It, Language Drill. Fac- 
tors. (Games) Stellar Empire. Radiation Run, Blockade. 
(Utilities) Disk to Disk. Deleter, and Lazkey. 



For brochures or 

orders call 1-800-621-6240 of in Calif. 1-805-963-1066 

Exiended BASIC and occasionally Disk BASIC required Overseas add 52 10 single issues and S 1 5 dollars 10 suBscnpnons Calif add 6% to single issue orders. Money Orders, checks in US. Funds. 
MasterCard/Visa accepted COD add 52 50. Back issues available from July 1981 on 




PO Box 1087 

Santa Barbara, CA 93 1 02 



A division of CLOAO Publications Inc 



Lines 60- 100 gel the player names and determine whether 
phrases will be input from the keyboard or read from data. 
Keyboard input is handled in lines 1 10- 150. and data is read 
by the subroutine in lines 210-230. Lines 240-270 break the 
phrase up into words and characters, and set up the display 
array. 

Lines 170-190 call the subroutines that comprise each 
player's turn. The subroutine in 290-330 checks the guess of 
a letter. Lines 340-380 show the phrase if it is not guessed. 
Line 390 handles the spin of "Bankrupt." line 400 "Lose 
Turn." line 430 "Free Spin. "and lines 4 10-420 offer another 
spin if a player has a free spin from an earlier spin. Lines 
440-630 handle the spin of a money amount. These lines 
include getting a letter guess, reporting the result, giving the 
resulting menu, checking guesses oft he puzzle, and buying a 
vowel. 

Lines 650 660 pass the turn to the next player. If no 
consonants arc left to be guessed, lines 710-770 give each 
player one chance to guess the puzzle. The wheel is spun in 
lines 820-890. Lines 9 10-970 handle the end ofa round. Line 
980 determines screen color. Lines 1030-1050 display the 
blanks and correctly-guessed letters of the puzzle, while 
1070-1080 display any incorrect guesses. Lines 1090-1 120 
take care of IN KEYS input. 

Customizing The Program 

The DA TA statements in lines 1 140- 1230 consist of 100 
pairs of phrases and category numbers. The ones included 
are ones appropriate for my family. You can customize the 
program by replacing them with ones more appropriate to 
your audience. 

The program can serve as an educational tool. Simply 
choose phrases appropriate to the subject being taught. You 
don't need 100 phrases. Any number 20 or greater can be 
used. The new number of phrases must replace the "100" in 
line 210. If fewer than 20 phrases are to be used, change line 
210 and change the "20" in line 930 to the new number of 
phrases. The categories in line 50 can also be changed. 

If you want only input from DATA statements, change 
line 100 to: 

IOOCC=2:GOSUB2IO:GOTO 170 

and delete lines 90 and 1 10-150. If you only want phrases 
input from the keyboard, change line 100 to: 

I00CC=I 

and delete lines 90 and 200-230. 



w 



^ 





760 ... . 


...118 


100... 


.... 53 930 ... . 


...152 


200 .. . 


... 195 1040... 


. .. 176 


320 .. . 


...240 1160... 


. .. 122 


430 .. . 


...241 1200... 


. . . 238 


610... 


6 END... 


...115 





The listing: 

10 'WHEEL OF FORTUNE BY HAROLD S 

CHNEIDER 

20 CLS RND(7)+1:PRINT«173,"WHEEL 

" I : PR I NTQ238 , " OF " ; : PR I NT9300 , " FO 

RTUNE";: CLEAR 500 

30 DIM WH* (20), A* (40), H* (40), PL* 

(8) ,PM(8) ,PS(8) ,C*(6) ,P*(10) ,FT( 



8) , BL* (8) , U (20) , ZG* (25) 

40 FOR 1-1 TO 20: READ WH» ( I ) : NEX 

T I : restore : vv- l : z w-o : tn-o : gosub 

1000 
50 C*(1)-"TITLE":C*(2)-"FICTI0NA 
L CHARACTER " : C* ( 3 ) - " PERSON " : C* ( 4 
) -"EVENT" : C* (5) -"PLACE" : C* (6) -"T 
HING" 

60 CLS RND (7) +i: PRINT" NOW WE AR 
E 80INQ TO PLAY ' WHEEL OF FORTUNE 
'. HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE PLAY IN 
Q? "| 
70 GOSUB 1 090 : NP- A : PN-RND ( NP ) : I F 

NP<1 OR NP>8 THEN PRINT: PRINT" 

I'M SORRY, ONLY 1 TO 8 PLAYERSC 
AN PL AY.": PR I NT "HOW MANY PLAYERS 
?":GOTO 70 

80 FOR 1-1 TO NP: PR I NT "WHAT IS T 
HE NAME OF PLAYER #"I»: INPUT PL* 
(I):NEXT 

90 PRINT" EITHER THE COMPUTER C 
AN CHOOSETHE PHRASE WHICH YOU HA 
VE TO GUESS, OR SOMEONE WHO I 
S NOT PLAYING CAN CHOOSE IT. 
": PR I NT "DO YOU WANT THE COMPUTER 

TO CHOOSE IT?" J : GOSUB 1110 
100 IF B*-"Y" THEN CC-2: GOSUB 21 
0:GOTO 170 ELSE CC-1 
110 CLS RND(7>+1: PRINT" ANYONE 
WHO IS GOING TO PLAY THE GAME 
SHOULD NOT LOOK AT THE SCREEN." 
120 PRINT" ENTER A WORD OR PHRA 
SE, CHOSEN IN ONE OF THE FOLLOW IN 
G CATEGORIES:": FOR 1-1 T 

O &:PRINTI"."C*(I):NEXT I 
130 PRINT" DO NOT USE ANY PUNCT 
UATION MARKS OR NUMERALS. ": IN 
PUT " WHAT IS YOUR PHRASE "»S*:W 
*-S*:IF LEN(S*)>30 THEN CLS: PR IN 
T"YOUR PHRASE IS TOO LONG.": GOTO 

120 
140 PR I NT "WHAT IS THEN NUMBER OF 

THE CATEGORY THIS IS IN?"! 
: GOSUB 1090:CN-A:IF CN<1 OR CN>6 

THEN PRINT: PRINT" YOUR CATEGOR 
Y MUST HAVE NUMBERFROM 1 TO 6.": 
FOR 1=1 TO 6: PRINT I ". "C* ( I ) :NEX 
T I: GOTO 140 
GOSUB 240 
•TAKE TURN 

GOSUB 1030:PRINT8352 f "IT IS 
"PL* (PN) "' S TURN. " I : PRINT83Q4, "H 
IT ANY KEY TO SPIN" » : PRINT9416, " 
THE WHEEL. " I : A*-INKEY* 
180 A*-INKEY*:A-RND(0):IF A*-""T 
HEN 180 

190 GOSUB 820: GOSUB 980:PRINTS35 
2, BL* (CO) ; : PRINTQ3B4, BL* (CO) ; : PR 
INT8416,BL*(C0);:0N RX GOTO 390, 
400,430,440 



150 
160 
170 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 141 



Lines 60- 100 gel the player names and determine whether 
phrases will be input from the keyboard or read from data. 
Keyboard input is handled in lines 1 10- 150. and data is read 
by the subroutine in lines 210-230. Lines 240-270 break the 
phrase up into words and characters, and set up the display 
array. 

Lines 170-190 call the subroutines that comprise each 
player's turn. The subroutine in 290-330 checks the guess of 
a letter. Lines 340-380 show the phrase if it is not guessed. 
Line 390 handles the spin of "Bankrupt." line 400 "Lose 
Turn." line 430 "Free Spin. "and lines 4 10-420 offer another 
spin if a player has a free spin from an earlier spin. Lines 
440-630 handle the spin of a money amount. These lines 
include getting a letter guess, reporting the result, giving the 
resulting menu, checking guesses oft he puzzle, and buying a 
vowel. 

Lines 650 660 pass the turn to the next player. If no 
consonants arc left to be guessed, lines 710-770 give each 
player one chance to guess the puzzle. The wheel is spun in 
lines 820-890. Lines 9 10-970 handle the end ofa round. Line 
980 determines screen color. Lines 1030-1050 display the 
blanks and correctly-guessed letters of the puzzle, while 
1070-1080 display any incorrect guesses. Lines 1090-1 120 
take care of IN KEYS input. 

Customizing The Program 

The DA TA statements in lines 1 140- 1230 consist of 100 
pairs of phrases and category numbers. The ones included 
are ones appropriate for my family. You can customize the 
program by replacing them with ones more appropriate to 
your audience. 

The program can serve as an educational tool. Simply 
choose phrases appropriate to the subject being taught. You 
don't need 100 phrases. Any number 20 or greater can be 
used. The new number of phrases must replace the "100" in 
line 210. If fewer than 20 phrases are to be used, change line 
210 and change the "20" in line 930 to the new number of 
phrases. The categories in line 50 can also be changed. 

If you want only input from DATA statements, change 
line 100 to: 

IOOCC=2:GOSUB2IO:GOTO 170 

and delete lines 90 and 1 10-150. If you only want phrases 
input from the keyboard, change line 100 to: 

I00CC=I 

and delete lines 90 and 200-230. 



w 



^ 





760 ... . 


...118 


100... 


.... 53 930 ... . 


...152 


200 .. . 


... 195 1040... 


. .. 176 


320 .. . 


...240 1160... 


. .. 122 


430 .. . 


...241 1200... 


. . . 238 


610... 


6 END... 


...115 





The listing: 

10 'WHEEL OF FORTUNE BY HAROLD S 

CHNEIDER 

20 CLS RND(7)+1:PRINT«173,"WHEEL 

" I : PR I NTQ238 , " OF " ; : PR I NT9300 , " FO 

RTUNE";: CLEAR 500 

30 DIM WH* (20), A* (40), H* (40), PL* 

(8) ,PM(8) ,PS(8) ,C*(6) ,P*(10) ,FT( 



8) , BL* (8) , U (20) , ZG* (25) 

40 FOR 1-1 TO 20: READ WH» ( I ) : NEX 

T I : restore : vv- l : z w-o : tn-o : gosub 

1000 
50 C*(1)-"TITLE":C*(2)-"FICTI0NA 
L CHARACTER " : C* ( 3 ) - " PERSON " : C* ( 4 
) -"EVENT" : C* (5) -"PLACE" : C* (6) -"T 
HING" 

60 CLS RND (7) +i: PRINT" NOW WE AR 
E 80INQ TO PLAY ' WHEEL OF FORTUNE 
'. HOW MANY PEOPLE ARE PLAY IN 
Q? "| 
70 GOSUB 1 090 : NP- A : PN-RND ( NP ) : I F 

NP<1 OR NP>8 THEN PRINT: PRINT" 

I'M SORRY, ONLY 1 TO 8 PLAYERSC 
AN PL AY.": PR I NT "HOW MANY PLAYERS 
?":GOTO 70 

80 FOR 1-1 TO NP: PR I NT "WHAT IS T 
HE NAME OF PLAYER #"I»: INPUT PL* 
(I):NEXT 

90 PRINT" EITHER THE COMPUTER C 
AN CHOOSETHE PHRASE WHICH YOU HA 
VE TO GUESS, OR SOMEONE WHO I 
S NOT PLAYING CAN CHOOSE IT. 
": PR I NT "DO YOU WANT THE COMPUTER 

TO CHOOSE IT?" J : GOSUB 1110 
100 IF B*-"Y" THEN CC-2: GOSUB 21 
0:GOTO 170 ELSE CC-1 
110 CLS RND(7>+1: PRINT" ANYONE 
WHO IS GOING TO PLAY THE GAME 
SHOULD NOT LOOK AT THE SCREEN." 
120 PRINT" ENTER A WORD OR PHRA 
SE, CHOSEN IN ONE OF THE FOLLOW IN 
G CATEGORIES:": FOR 1-1 T 

O &:PRINTI"."C*(I):NEXT I 
130 PRINT" DO NOT USE ANY PUNCT 
UATION MARKS OR NUMERALS. ": IN 
PUT " WHAT IS YOUR PHRASE "»S*:W 
*-S*:IF LEN(S*)>30 THEN CLS: PR IN 
T"YOUR PHRASE IS TOO LONG.": GOTO 

120 
140 PR I NT "WHAT IS THEN NUMBER OF 

THE CATEGORY THIS IS IN?"! 
: GOSUB 1090:CN-A:IF CN<1 OR CN>6 

THEN PRINT: PRINT" YOUR CATEGOR 
Y MUST HAVE NUMBERFROM 1 TO 6.": 
FOR 1=1 TO 6: PRINT I ". "C* ( I ) :NEX 
T I: GOTO 140 
GOSUB 240 
•TAKE TURN 

GOSUB 1030:PRINT8352 f "IT IS 
"PL* (PN) "' S TURN. " I : PRINT83Q4, "H 
IT ANY KEY TO SPIN" » : PRINT9416, " 
THE WHEEL. " I : A*-INKEY* 
180 A*-INKEY*:A-RND(0):IF A*-""T 
HEN 180 

190 GOSUB 820: GOSUB 980:PRINTS35 
2, BL* (CO) ; : PRINTQ3B4, BL* (CO) ; : PR 
INT8416,BL*(C0);:0N RX GOTO 390, 
400,430,440 



150 
160 
170 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 141 



200 'CHOOSE PHRASE 
210 TN-TN+l: RESTORE: FOR I-1T0 20 
:READ A*:NEXT:W*-"":N-RND<100> 
220 FOR J-l TO TN-l:IF U(J)-N TH 
EN TN-TN-l:Q0T0210 ELSE NEXT J:U 
(TN)-N 

230 FOR 1-1 TO N:READ S*,CIM:NEXT 
: W*-S* 

240 nv-o:tl-len<w*>:sp-o:for 1-1 
to 30:a*<i>- m,, :next 
250 for 1-1 to tl:a*<i>=mid*<w*, 

1,1): IF A*(I>- M "THEN SP-SP+l:SL 
(SP)-I ELSE IF A* (I)-" A" OR A* (I 
)-"E" OR A*<I>-"I" OR A*<I>- M 0" 
OR A*<I)-"U" THEN NV-NV+1 
260 NEXT I:SL<0>-0:SL<SP+1)-TL+1 

:w*- for i-i to 7:p*<i>-"":nex 

T i: for i-o to 7:p»<i>-"":for j- 

SL<I)+1 TO SL<I+1)-1:P*<I>-P*<I> 

+A*(J>:NEXT J, I: for 1-0 TO SP+l: 

W*-W*+P* < I ) : NEXT I 

270 NL-LEN<W*>:FOR 1-1 TO NL:A*( 

I > -MID* <W*, I , 1 > : H* < I > -"-" : NEXT I 

:c-o: RETURN 

260 'CHECK GUESS 

290 IF ASC<LB*>>64 AND ASC<LB*>< 

91 THEN 310 ELSE PR I NT90 , BL* < CO > 

I : PRINT92, "LETTERS ONLY ! ! " I : PR IN 

T«4B0,"WHAT IS YOUR GUESS?"; : LQ* 

-INKEY* 



CPP 
Color Picture Plotter 

Capture that PMODE 3 picture on paper using the CGP-1 1 5 
Color Graphic Printer. Easy to use • High speed machine 
language • Auto start from cassette • Works with Micro 
Painter • Prints pictures from cassette or memory • In- 
cludes sample picture (American Flag). 
/25\ "CPP is a great urt/ily ..." RAINBOW July 83 

™2SS still iust 14.95 +r3ng 



Banners Banners Banners 

This program makes them on the CGP-1 1 5 Color Graphic 
Printer. Up to 250 letters per Banner with variable sized 
letters in any of the 4 colors on the CGP. Change colors 
and size within the Banner. Great for parties, advertising 
or greeting cards. 

rf^\ NIW NEW HEW only 9 . 95 + StaSng 

RAINBOW 



ALL-AMERICAN ULTRALIGHT IND. (AUI) 
1144 Kingston Ln. 
Ventura, CA 93001 

Please include $1.50 for postage and handling 



300 LG*-INKEY»: IF LB*-"" THEN 30 
ELSE 290 

310 PRINT«448,BL*p:IF W-0 THEN 
320 ELSE IF LB*-" A" OR LQ*-"E" O 
R LQ»-"I" OR LQ*-"0" OR LS*-"U" 
THEN PRINT9416, "NO VOWELS ! " I : LQ* 
-".":BOTO 290 

320 D-0:FOR 1-1 TO NL:IF A* < I ) -L 
G* AND H» ( I X >LG* THEN C-C+W:H* 
(I)=A*(I) : SOUND 170,8 ELSE D-D-t-1 
330 NEXT I:BOSUB 1030: RETURN 
340 FOR 1-1 TO NL 
350 H»(I)=A*(I) 
360 NEXT I 
370 BOSUB 1030 
380 RETURN 
390 PRINTfi352, "YOU ARE BANKRUPT! 

";: sound 20, s: sound 1,15:pm<pn>- 
o : ft (pn)-o: bosub 780:b0t0 650 
400 print9352, "you lose your tur 
n!";:sound 20, 5: sound 1,15: if ft 
(pn)-o then bosub 780:b0t0 650 
410 print9384, "you have"ft(pn) "f 
ree turn";: if ft(pn>-1 then prin 
T"."»:else print"S."; 
420 print9416, "do you want to sp 
in" ; : printq448, " abain?" ; : bosub 1 
110: if b*-"y" then ft (pn)-ft <pn) 

-l:BOTO 680 ELSE 650 

430 PRINT1352, "YOU WIN A FREE SP 

IN! "| : SOUND 170,8:FT<PN>-FT<PN)+ 

l: BOSUB 780:PRINTfc480,BL*<C0>|:P 

R I NT9483 , BL* ( CO ) I : BOTO 1 90 

440 PRINT9352, "BUESS A LETTER."! 

: BOSUB 1070:LB*«INKEY* 

450 LB*-INKEY*: IF LG*-""THEN450 

ELSE IF LB*-" A" OR LB*-"E" OR LB 

»-"I" OR LB*-"0" OR LB*-"U" THEN 

PRINTG384, "DO NOT BUESS A VOWEL 
. " ; : BOTO 450 

460 BOSUB 290: IF D-NL THEN PRINT 
8352, "THERE ARE NO "LG*"*S. " i : SO 
UND 20, 5: SOUND 1 , 15: ZW-ZW+1 : ZB* < 
ZW)-LB*:IF FT(PN)>0 THEN 410 ELS 
E BOSUB 780: BOTO 650 
470 X-WH*<NL-D>:PRINT@352,"Y0U W 
IN *"X".";:PM<PN)=PM(PN)+X: PRINT 
8384," YOU NOW HAVE *"PM(PN)"."J 
480 BOSUB 780: BOSUB 1030: IF NL-C 
<-NV THEN 710 

490 PRINT8352, "DO YOU WANT TO: "J 
:PRINT93B4," 1. BUESS THE AN8W 
ER."i:PRINT9416," 2. BUY A VOW 
EL. "I :PRINT944B," 3. SPIN 

ABAIN. ?";:GOSUB 1090 
500 IF A<1 OR A>3 THEN PRINT8320 
," CHOOSE A NUMBER FROM 1 TO 3.": 
GOTO 490 

510 ON A BOTO 520,540,670 
520 GOSUB 1030:PRINT«352,"WHAT I 



142 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



INPUT GS*:IF 03*- 



I*M SORRY, BUT YO 
INCORRECT. ":QOSUB 



S YOUR QUESS"! 
S* THEN 910 
530 PRINT©416, 
UR ANSWER IS 

780: GOTO 630 
540 GOSUB 1030: IF PM<PN)<250 THE 
N PRINTG320, "YOU DO NOT HAVE ENO 
UGH MONEY TO BUY A VOWEL.": GOTO 
610 

550 PRINT6320, "A VOWEL COSTS *25 
O. " : PM (PN) =PM (PN) -250: PRINT"YOU 
HAVE * " PM ( PN ) " LEFT . " 
560 PRINTe384,"WHAT VOWEL DO YOU 

WANT TO BUY?";:LG«=INKEY* 
570 LG*=INKEY*:IF LG*=""THEN 570 
580 IF LG*<>"A" AND LG*<>"E" AND 

LG*<>"I" AND L6*<>"0" AND LG*<> 
"U" THEN GOSUB 1030:PRINT9320, "Y 
OU MUST CHOOSE A, E, 1,0, OR U.":GO 
TO 560 

590 IF ASC(LG*><65 OR ASC(LG«>>9 
THEN GOSUB 1030:PRINTQ3,BL* (CO 
) ; :PRINTQ3, "LETTERS ONLY! ! "| :PRI 
NT«480"WHAT IS YOUR GUES8?"|:G0T 
570 

600 VV-O: GOSUB 290:VV-1 
610 PRINT93S4, "DO YOU WANT T0:"» 
:PRINT9416," 1. GUESS THE ANSWE 
R."S:PRINTe448, " 2. SPIN AGAIN. 

?"»: GOSUB 1090 
620 IF A<1 OR A>2 THEN GOSUB 102 
0:PRINTS320"PLEASE ANSWER 1 OR 2 
.":GOTO 610 
630 ON A GOTO 520,660 
640 'NEXT PLAYER 

650 PN=PN+l:IF PN>NP THEN PN=1 
660 GOTO 170 
670 'SPIN AGAIN 

680 GOSUB 1030:PRINTQ352,"HIT AN 
Y KEY TO"; :PRINT@3B4,"SPIN THE W 
HEEL ! " ; 
690 GOTO 180 
700 'NO MORE CONSONANTS 
710 D-0:FOR 11=1 TO NL: IF H* ( I I ) 
-"-"THEN D-l 



720 NEXT II: IF D-0 THEN 910 

730 PRINT8320, "THERE ARE NO MORE 

CONSONANTS IN THE PUZZLE. EACH 
PLAYER WILL NOWGET ONE CHANCE TO 

GUESS THE ANSWER. "PL*(PN>" 

GOES FIR8T. ": INPUT" WHAT 18 YO 
UR GUESS"|GS»:IF G84-8* THEN 910 
740 IF NP-1 THEN 760 EL8E FOR II 
-1 TO NP-l:A-PN+II:IF PN+II>NP T 
HEN A-A-NP 

730 GOSUB 1030:PRINT9320,"IT IS 
NOW "PL*(A)"'S":PRINT"TURN TO GU 
ESS.": INPUT" WHAT IS YOUR GUESS"! 
GS*:IF GS»-S* THEN PN-A:GOTO 910 

ELSE NEXT II 
760 GOSUB 340 
770 PRINT«2,"THE ANSWER WAS:"»:F 

or i-i to np:pm<i>-o:next i:goto 

930 
780 PRINTC480, "HIT ANY KEY TO CO 
NTINUE. "» : A4-INKEY* 
790 A*- I NKE Y * : A-RND ( O ) : I F A«- " " 
THEN 790 ELSE RETURN 
810 'SPIN WHEEL 

820 PRINT9244, "«>"; :ST-K-14:IF S 
T<1 THEN ST-ST+20 

830 FOR I — 1+ST TO ST+6+RND (20) : 
SOUND 200, 2: FOR J-l TO 15:K-J+I 
840 IF K>20 THEN K-K-20:G0T0 840 
850 PRINT«22+(J-1)*32,WH«<K):NEX 
T J, I 

860 IF K<8 THEN K-K+20 
870 WH*-WH*(K-7) 

880 IF WH*-" BANKRUPT" THEN RX-1: 
RETURN: ELSE IF WH*«"LOSE TURN"TH 
EN RX -2: RETURN ELSE IF WH*-"FREE 

SPIN"THEN RX-3: RETURN: ELSE RX-4 
890 WH= VAL ( R I GHT* < WH* , 3 ) ) : RETURN 
900 'WINNER! 

910 FOR 1-0 TO G:CLS I : SOUND 170 
,6: NEXT I:CLS RND(9)-l:IF PM(PN) 
<100 THEN PM(PN)=100 
920 PRINT9169, "YOU'RE RIGHT!!!"* 
:PRINT@264,"Y0U WIN •"PM (PN) " ! "| 
:PS(PN)-PS(PN)+PM(PN) :FOR 1-1 TO 




LOCKING DISKETTE STORAGE SYSTEM 

HOLDS 70 MINI-DISKETTES 
A LOCKING STORAGE SYSTEM FOR 5 1/4" 
DISKETTES, INCLUDES A HIN6ED LID, TWO 
BUILT-IN CARRYING HANDLES. COMPLETE WITH 
INTERIOR DIVIDERS, TWO KEYS. INJECTION 
MOLDED OF HIGH IMPACT PLASTIC. 

*24.95 + *2.00 S/H 

MARYLAND RESIDENTS ADD 5Z SALES TAX 

DISK-HAVEN PRODUCTS 
P.O. BOX 443 
COCKEYSVILLE, MD 21030 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 143 



NP:PM<I)-o:NEXT I 

930 IF TN>-20 THEN B*-"N" ELSE P 
RINT9388, "DO YOU WANT TO CONTINU 
E?"s:GOSUB 1110 

940 CLS RND<9)-1:PRINT9200,"SC0R 
ES:"j:FOR 1=1 TO NP:PRINT«202+32 
*I , PL* < I ) J TAB (23) ,, *"PS < I > f : NEXT 
I 

950 0O9UB78O:CLS RND<9)-l:IF B»< 
>"Y" THEN END 

960 ZW-0:W-l:PN-PN+l:IF PN>NP T 
HEN PN-1 

970 CLS RND<7)+l:IF CC-2 THEN 80 
SUB 210: GOTO 170 ELSE 110 
980 CO- ABS < PO I NT < 60 , 3 1 ) ) : RETURN 
990 'SET ERASING CHARACTERS 
1000 BL*(0)-CHRf(128):F0R I-1T02 
1 :BL*(0)-BL»<0)+CHR*< 128) : NEXT I 
1010 FOR C0-1T0B:BL*(C0>-CHR*<12 
7+16*C0):F0R I-1T021:BL*(C0)-BL* 
(C0)+CHR*(127+16»C0):NEXT I: NEXT 
CO: RETURN 
1020 'DISPLAY PHRASE SUBROUTINE 
1030 FOR 1-0 TO 7:D»(I)- H,, :NEXT 
I: FOR 1-1 TO LEN(P«<0>):D«<0)-Dt 
<0)+H*<I>:NEXT i: IF SP-O THEN 10 
50 
1040 LG-LEN(P*<0)):FOR J-l to sp 

:for i-lg+i to lg+len<p*<j)>:d*( 
J)-d«<j)+h*<I):next i:lg-lg+len< 
p*<J)>:next j 

1050 CLS RND(7)+l:PRINT«2,C*<CN> 
j:FOR 1-0 TO SP:PRINT865+32»I,Dt 

<im:next i: return 
1060 'display wrong guesses 
1070 if zw-0 then return else pr 
i nt94 1 6 , " i ncorrect guesses : " ; : pr 

INTa448,""i:F0R ZI-1 TO ZW: PRINT 

ZG*<ZI)i:IF ZIOZW THEN PRINT", 
"I 

1080 NEXT Zl: RETURN 
1090 A*«INKEY» 

1100 A»-INKEY*:IF A*-"" THEN 110 
O ELSE A-VAL<A*>: RETURN 
1110 B*=INKEY* 

1120 B*-INKEY*:IF B*<>"Y" AND B* 
<>"N" THEN 1120 ELSE RETURN 
1130 DATA »150,«200,*300,L0SE TU 
RN,»300,*500,« 150, FREE SPIN,* 100 
, *250, «400, BANKRUPT, *500, #100, «2 
00 , LOSE TURN , *400 , * 1 00 , »350 , FREE 

SPIN 
1140 DATA ALICE IN WONDERLAND , 1 , 
WHEEL OF FORTUNE, 1, DIFFERENT STR 
0KES,1,ALL IN THE FAMILY, 1 , HAPPY 

DAYS, 1, THE SWORD IN THE STONE, 1 
,THE FOX AND THE HOUND, 1, MY FAIR 

LADY, 1, THE MUSIC MAN, 1, FAMILY F 
EUD,1 
1150 DATA MARY POPPINS, 2, MICKEY 



MOUSE, 2, OLIVER TWIST, 2, LITTLE OR 
PHAN ANNIE, 2, DENNIS THE MENACE, 2 
,DICK TRACY, 2, DADDY WARBUCKS,2,D 
OCTOR D0LITTLE,2,CLARK KENT,2,SN 
OW WHITE, 2 

1160 DATA WALT DISNEY, 3, MARK TWA 
IN, 3, QUEEN ELIZABETH, 3, ANN LANDE 
RS, 3, JOHNNY CARSON, 3, BOB HOPE, 3, 
JOHN PAUL JONES, 3, ADAM AND EVE, 3 
.BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, 3, RONALD RE AG 
AN, 3 

1170 DATA SINGING A S0NG,4,PRESI 
DENTIAL ELECTION, 4, DISCOVERY OF 
AMERICA, 4, CALIFORNIA GOLD RUSH, 4 
, COLLEGE GRADUATION, 4, SPELLING B 
EE, 4, RECEIVING THE TEN COMMANDME 
NTS, 4, INVENTING THE TELEPHONE, 4, 
FALLING ASLEEP, 4, GOING TO SCHOOL 
,4 
1180 DATA NEW YORK CITY, 5, UNITED 

STATES OF AMERICA, 5, STATE OF IL 
LIN0IS,5,WALT DISNEY WORLD, 5, THE 

EN8LISH CHANNEL, 5, CITY OF CHICA 
80, 5, ATLANTIC OCEAN, 5, MOUNT RUSH 
MORE, 5, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION, 5 
.YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK, 5 
1190 DATA PHONOGRAPH RECORD, 6, CO 
LOR COMPUTER, 6, TELEVISION SET, 6, 
BARBIE DOLL, 6, THEATER TICKET, 6, L 
IBHTNING BUG, 6, MAGAZINE SUBSCRIP 
TI0N,6,DECK OF CARDS , 6 , L I BRARY B 
OOK, 6, AIRPLANE TICKET, 6 
1200 DATA HUCKLEBERRY FINN, 2, WOO 
DY WOODPECKER, 2, ANNE FRANK, 3, THE 

THREE MUSKETEERS, 1, THE PRINCE 
AND THE PAUPER, 1 , 8C00BY D00,2,S0 
NG OF THE SOUTH, 1, SEWING BASKET, 
6, THE PHANTOM TOLLBOOTH, 1 , THE TH 
REE LITTLE PIGS, 2 
1210 DATA COUNT DRACULA, 2, MOTHER 

GOOSE, 2, LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD, 
2, HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSON, 3, THOM 
AS ELVA EDISON, 3, GEORGE WASHINBT 
ON, 3, PAUL REVERE, 3, CHRISTOPHER C 
OLUMBUS , 3 , CHARL I E BROWN , 2 , BEETLE 

BAILEY, 2 
1220 DATA BEDKNOBS AND BROOMSTIC 
KS,1, ESCAPE TO WITCH MOUNTAIN, 1, 
HAUNTED MANSION, 5, THE LOVE BUS, 1 
, SING A SONG OF SIXPENCE, 1, A CHR 
ISTMAS CAROL, 1, DONALD DUCK, 2, HAL 
L0WEEN,4,NANCY DREW, 2, PECOS BILL 
,2 

1230 DATA JACK AND THE BEANSTALK 
, 1 , SPACE MOUNT A I N , 5 , N I AGARA FALL 
S, 5, JACK AND JILL, 1, THE WIZARD O 
F 0Z,1,WHEN YOU WISH UPON A STAR 
, 1 , SEVENTY SIX TROMBONES, 1 , RAGGE 
DY ANN, 2, STRAWBERRY SHORTCAKE, 2, 
ICE CREAM CONE, 6 



144 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



SUPER PRO KEYBOARD 



• Only $69.95 

• Original key layout. 

• No special software required. 

• Fast, simple installation — no soldering. 

• Individually boxed with full instructions. 

• Professional, low profile, finished appearance. 

• U.S. made — high quality, quad gold contacts. 

• Smooth "Touch Typist" feel— no sagging. 




BSH 


■3 W & / 

V w J 

V w * 

W m °^ 

W Jr // 

WJjf 

r// 







Rainbow, April '83 

A fine piece of hardware from Mark Data Products. . .It is 
super and it is professional too. ..If you are searching 
for a replacement keyboard, it is an excellent buy. . . 

Hot CoCo, August '83 

Like putting leather upholstery in your Volkswagen. . .Very 
impressed with the appearance and performance. . .Could 
easily pass as original equipment. . .Installation is very 
simple. . . 

Color Computer Magazine, June '83 

The installation procedure is well detailed and quite 
simple. . .Has a professional feel, reacts well to the touch. . . 
has held up to some purposeful pounding. . . 

Color Computer News, June '83 

Mark Data Products is well known to us "longumers"... 
Every bit as finished as if Tandy had done it. ..The 
Mark Data Super-Pro is your best buy. . The one that 
is in my CoCo to stay. . . 



Great Computer Software Also 

i Adventure Games • Arcade Games and Utility Software 



Mark Data Products 



24001 ALICIA PKWY.. NO. 207 • MISSION VIEJO, CA 92691 • (714) 768-1551 

All Orders: Please add $2.00 shipping and handling in the continental U.S. All others, add air shipping and S3. 00 handling. California 
residents add 6% sales tax. Foreign orders please remit U.S. funds. Software authors— contact us for exciting program marketing details. 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••' 

RAINBOW 

Give us your best: Join the ranks of these courageous CoCoists in showing the Color Computer world 
your high score at your favorite micro-diversion. We want to put your best effort on record in the Rainbow's 
Scoreboard column. All entries must be received by the first of the month to be eligible for the following 
month's Scoreboard. They must include your full name, address, game title, company name and, of course, 
your high score. Each individual is limited to three score entries per month. Send your entries to Score- 
board, c/o the Rainbow. * New Number One • Last Month's Number One 



ALCATRAZ II /Spectral Associates! 

9.820 wSteve Manderschied. Cincinnati, OH 
ASSAULT /MichTron) 

2.520 *Laura Sandman. Louisville. KY 
AREX t Adventure International! 

33.170 *Steve Ons. Graham. WA 
ASTRO BLAST (Mar* Data) 

158.000 WLarry Plaxlon. Medley. Alberta 
157.000 Scolt Drake. Pine City, NY 

104.464 Jim Baker Florissant, MO 

98.000 Tim Warr. Bellmgham. WA 

97.000 Bernard Parenl, Ste-Foy, Quebec 

92.000 Harry Sawyer. Watchung, NJ 

18.000 Michel Hengartner. Ste-Foy. Quebec 

3.375 Kevin Zacks. Houslon. TX 

BASEBALL {Radio Shack) 

33-0 *Dan Bovey, Wheaton, IL 
BERSERK 'Mar* Data) 

3.100 *Edward Liroff 
BLACKJACK {Radio Shack) 

7.725 "Michael Rosenberg. Prestonsburg, KY 
BLOC HEAD ICompulerware) 
1,008.200 *Lmdi Wolf. Fairbanks. AK 
781.350 *Joe Golkosky, Portage. Ml 
444.525 Brian Spek. Keswick. Ontario 

387.800 Tim Ellis. Overland Park, KS 

358.575 Maurice Parenl, Ste-Foy, Quebec 

306.800 Daniel Belisle. Montreal. Quebec 

286.900 Ron Moore, Greensburg, PA 

268.650 Brad McRae Ft Francis. Ontario 

178.075 Geno Beniek, Rice. MN 

BUSTOUT /Radio Shack) 

42,000 *Dernck Kardos. Colonia. NJ 
34.700 Sara Hennessey. Golden Valley. MN 

28,720 Perry Denton, New Baden. IL 

27.880 Mike Wells. Pittsburgh, PA 

18,403 Brad Widdup. Dundas. Ontario 

8UZZARD BAIT (Tom Mix) 

412.600 *Michael Lynn. Chicago. IL 
390,250 Richard Bultermore. Grand Rapids. Ml 

360.650 Chris Alexander, Grand Rapids. Ml 

360.600 Robert Z . Sultan, WA 

312,850 Doreen Bultermore. Grand Rapids, Ml 

308.800 David Gee. Arena. Wl 

268.650 Sieve Manderschied, Cincinnati, OH 

266,100 Aaron Sentell, Maryvllle. TN 

201.100 Brian Manderschied, Cincinnati, OH 

157.750 Rusty Fuller, Atlanta. GA 

143.350 Martin Jones. Jasper, AL 

103.300 Mike Earwood 

CANYON CLIMBER /Radio Shack) 
1,400.200 *James Stevenson, Marshall. TX 
999.900 *Andre Wagner, Bangor, PA 
615.500 Randy Hankins, Tabor, FL 

251,100 Beverly Herbors. Placentia. CA 

191.300 Kyle Keller. Overland Park, KS 

1 61 .300 Denise Monssette. Sherbrooke, 

Quebec 
125.500 Doug Schwartz. Glendale. AZ 

119.800 Linda Herbers. Placentia. CA 

CASHMAN'M.tnTVorv 

19.650 *Perry Denton. New Baden, IL 
CATCH-EM /Aardvark) 

79.773 *Marsha Smith, North Vernon, IN 
CATERPILLAR/Aardvar*; 

180.627 WBrian Panepinto. Spencerport. NY 
86,304 Lawrence McElligolt, Lancaster. CA 

75.861 Michael McClure. Goose Creek, SC 

63,100 Todd Byington, N Salt Lake, UT 

44,000 Scott Santatone. Tallahassee, FL 



CHOPPER STRIKE IMichTron) 

63.000 *Andrew Figel, Sardis. OH 
47,400 David Figel. Sardis, OH 

42,100 Brian Peterson, Muskegon, Ml 

29,900 Bobby Figel. Sardis. OH 

CLOWNS & BALLOONS (fladio Shack) 

89.430 *Perry Denton, New Baden. IL 
85.680 •Teresa Stutsman. N. Little Rock. AR 
83.710 Don Fraser, Shakope. MN 

82.730 Jeffrey A. Groves. Hooksett. NH 

79.920 Tim Wiechmann, Marblehead. MA 

77,910 Dan James, Clearwater, FL 

74.920 Sal Barlett. Mesa, AZ 

72.360 Mark Welte. Baxter, TN 

COLOR OUTHOUSE IMichTron) 

42.276 *Perek Mall. Long Grove. IL 
35.908 Ron Rhead. Ontario. Canada 

COLORPEDE (Intracolor) 
3.355.248 *Scott Drake, Pine City, NY 
2,547.299 Rich McGervey. Morgantown, WV 

2.471.342 Vincent Lok, Ontario. Canada 

1,317.729 Michel Hengartner, Ste-Foy. Quebec 

847.356 John Bondeller. Perrysburg. OH 

693.683 Matt Bondelier. Perrysburg. OH 

606.345 Maurice Parent. Ste-Foy. Ouebec 

459.458 Janice Elkes, Toledo. OH 

255,166 Kevin Marsh, Bokeelia. FL 

248.513 Douglas Pardon, Ogden. UT 

164,051 Shane McClure. Omaha, NE 

113.508 Ellen Ballinger. Uxbridge. Ontario 

107.861 Francois Lebel. Ste-Foy. Quebec 

88.388 Janice Elkes. Toledo, OH 

69,451 Mark Raphael. Englishlown. NJ 

COLOR ZAP /Spectral Associates) 

146.510 WBernard Parent. Ste-Foy. Ouebec 
139.630 Pierre Rousseau. Cap-Rouge. Ouebec 

CU-BERf Tom Mix) 

196.090 #Randall F Edwards. Dunlap. KS 
49.510 Doug Kleir, Grand Rapids, Ml 

CUBIX /Spectral Associates) 

26.240 *Perry Denton. New Baden, IL 
19.719 Philip Daulton, Louisville, KY 

13.660 Daniel Milbraih. Ann Arbor, Ml 

13.260 Deb Steele. New Baden, IL 

9,980 •Jet! Morris. Seattle. WA 
DANGER RANGER 

732 *Rick Arthur. Ballston Lake. NY 
DEATH TRAP rSofl Sector) 

89.035 +Keith Philabaum. Coschocton. OH 
84.672 Jell Willard, Chiceno. TX 

78.234 Richard Grondln. Flint. Ml 

56.520 Phillip Perry. Edmonton, Alberta 

DEFENSE ISpec/ral Associates) 

99,485 *Mitchell Dombrowski. Detroit. Ml 
75.870 Terry Morgar, Sr , Thomaston. GA 

68.750 M. A Brickler. Allen Park, Ml 

58,900 Greg Scott, Orlando, FL 

DEVIL ASSAULT fTom Mix) 

289.300 *Michael Rosenberg. Prestonsburg. KY 
69.300 «Rick Arthur. Ballston Lake, NY 
DOODLE BUG [Computerware) 
1,767,630 wPerry Denton, New Baden. IL 
DOUBLE BACK {Radio Shack) 
1,125,000 *Mark Hurst, Sheridan. OR 
1.080.000 •Phillipe Duplanties. St Jerome, 
Quebec 
605,890 Peter Sherburne. Highland. CA 

474.040 Paul Morilz. Butle. MT 

435.570 Philllppe Morsan, St. Jerome. Quebec 

429.000 Steve Damm. Phoenix, AZ 

304.910 Alfredo Santos. New York. NY 

228,120 Darrin Filand. Milton. WA 



ELECTRON 'Torn Mix) 

26.900 *Michael Rosenberg, Prestonsburg, KY 
22.990 »Alan Morris. Chicopee. MA 
19.500 Robby Presson, Florissant. MO 

4,515 Mark Raphael. Englishlown, NJ 

FAST LANE I Ace Sol/ Computer Products! 
23.782 *Philip Deen. Enterprise. FL 
93 Marie Love. Columbia. SC 

FIRECOPTER /Adventure International) 
160.370 *Alan Morris, Chicopee. MA 
113.880 •Steve Skrzyniarz, Tacoma. WA 
89,260 Robbie Black. Winnipeg. Manitoba 

74.640 Cameron Amick, Reisterstown. MD 

65.280 Eric Lund. Millington. NJ 

FLYBY /Chromaseltel 

104,980 +David Finberg, Annandale. VA 
28.910 »Ron Suedersky. Universal City. TX 
20.110 Rick Mansell, Calgary, Alberta 

5.405 Norma Nielo. Butler, PA 

4,820 Michael Foley, N. Quincy, MA 

4.640 Jeff Morris, Seattle. WA 

4.480 Jim Partridge. Clinton. CT 

3.875 Darren Edumura. Kamloops B C 

THE FROG I Tom Mix) 

89.910 +James Baker. Salt Lake City. UT 
79,240 Jeanne Hawkins. Deltona, FL 

73.350 Evelyn Gagnon, Ontario. Canada 

51.600 Alex Gotovsky, Toronto. Ontario 

46.560 Eileen Kaakee, Royal Oak, Ml 

38.950 Vadim Gotovsky. Toronto, Ontario 

FROG TREK /Oelrich Publications) 

16,480 Sara Aliff. Northeast. MD 

FROGGER I The Cornsolt Group) 

63,800 *Carmen Thew, Surrey, B.C. 
53.965 Ian Clark. Albion, Ml 

32.010 Laura Schooley, Richmond. VA 

27.940 Perry Denton, New Baden. IL 

25.425 Kanti Dinda. Kingston. Ontario 

20,745 Felicia Schooley. Richmond, VA 

FROGGIE /Spectral Associates) 

68.680 *Carmen Thew, Surrey. B.C. 
FURY IMichTron! 

83.500 'A'Hans Haimberger. Freewaler. Ontario 
71,500 Darrin Filand, Milton, WA 

68,800 Derek Mall, Long Grove, IL 

59,700 RoBby Presson. Florissant, MO 

GALACTIC ATTACK /Radio Shack) 

67,750 *Chuck Gaudette. Monroe. CT 
58.000 Terry Steen. San Bernadino. CA 

55.360 Donald Thompson, Lubbock. TX 

54.200 Mike Hughey, King George, VA 

54.000 Craig Edelheit. W Bloomfield. Ml 

36.400 Michael Sartori. Notre Dame. IN 

36.000 Ron Suedersky, Universal Cily. TX 

19.410 Mark Welte. Baxter, TN 

14,460 Jeffrey A Groves, Hooksett. NH 

GALAX ATTAX /Spectra/ Associates) 

253,900 *Shawn McAlpin, Louisville. KY 
113,650 •Damn Filand, WA 
104,550 Milch Hayden, Univ of MN 

82.650 Steve Hargis, Tucson, AZ 

75.950 Richard Lachante. Sherbrooke. 

Quebec 
73.000 Wes Hill, Vashon. WA 

66.750 Jim Wolf, South Bend, IN 

63,200 Francois Label. Ste-Foy, Quebec 

35,650 Kenton G. Filield, Fort Francis. Ontario 



••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••: 



146 the RAINBOW April 1984 



:•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 




GHOST GOBBLER t Spectral Associates) 
1.007.430 *Todd Brannam, Charleston His., SC 
825.250 Randy Gerber. Wilmette. IL 

423,390 Rich McGervey. Morgantown, WV 

255.000 John Osborne. Kincardine. Ontario 

228,290 Patricia Lau. York, PA 

110.190 Jett Morns. Seattle, WA 

62,520 Bill Pollack, Sherburne. NY 

32.400 Marc Brisson, Earllon. Ontario 

25.890 Bruce Burleson, Nashua. NH 

GRABBER i Tom Mix; 



440.000 
79.850 
60.600 
49.000 

42.850 



*Casey Stein. Bmghamton. NY 
Blossom Mayor, East Greenbush, NY 
Doug Rodger, Harvard. MA 
Curtis Boyle. Saskatoon. 

Saskatchewan 
Eric Lund. Milllngton, NJ 
GRAPHIC MATH ADVENTURE (Software Factory) 

7.020 *Nlkki Knowles 
GUARDIAN (Quasar Animations} 

24.105 *BHI Pollack. Sherburne. NY 
INTERGALACTIC FORCE (Microdeal) 

113.600 *Alex Taylor Manchester, England 
JOWST 

85,270 *Matt Grittiths, Stilwell. KS 
JUNIOR'S REVENGE tCompulerwarei 
2,099.300 *Shawn McAlpin, Louisville. KY 

•Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Ml 
Doug Kieir. Grand Rapids, Ml 
Brad Gaucher. Hinton, Alberta 
Rich Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Ml 
Johnny Fritsch. Whitehall, PA 
KATERPILLAR ATTACK (Tom Mi,) 

18.949 *Vadim Golovsky, Toronto. Ontario 
15.821 Alex Gotovsky, Toronto, Ontario 

KEYS OF THE WIZARD /Spectral Associates) 

486 *Susan Ballinger, Uxbndge, Ontario 
THE KINO Tom Mi,) 
4,040,300 *Andy Truesdale. Ferguson. MO 

Corey Friedman, Minnetonka. MN 
Candy Harden, Birmingham, AL 
Richard Lacharile, Sherbrooke, 

Quebec 
James Ouadarella, Brooklyn. NY 
Brad Gaucher. Hinton, Alberta 
Doug Kleir, Grand Rapids. Ml 
James Maynard. Edlnburg. TX 
Robert Conyer. Willingboro. NJ 
Dan Sobczak, Mesa. AZ 
Paschal Wilson. Kentwood. LA 
KLENDATHU (Radio Shack) 
1.182.685 *David L Ferris. Shickshinny. PA 
LADY BUGGY 

35,570 *Steve Otis, Graham. WA 
LANCER (Spectral Associates) 
2.354,000 *Alex State, Las Vegas. NV 
Mike Rausch. Denver. CO 
Jett Jackson, Littleton, CO 
Scott Jackson. Littleton, CO 
Deb Steele, New Baden, IL 
Larry Sandhaas, Springfield, IL 
Perry Denton, New Baden. IL 
Jimmy Oliver. Hants County, Nova 

Scotia 
Brad Gaucher. Hinton, Alberta 
LASERWORM I FIREFLY (the Rainbow) 

54,672 *Micnaei Rosenberg. Prestonsburg KY 
LUNAR ROVER PATROL (Spectral Associates) 
162.100 *Sara AMI. Norlheast, MD 

•Tom Alifl, Jr.. Northeast, MD 
Wayne Johansen, Rocanville. 
Saskatchewan 
65.350 Gary Jones. Dale. TX 

62.850 Randall R Edwards, Dunlap. KS 

58.800 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 

57.850 James Jones. Dale, TX 

56,550 Kevin P Esser, Waukesha. Wl 

55.350 Daniel Belisle, Montreal, Quebec 



1.115.300 
229.100 
205.500 
144.200 
96.200 



3.343.000 
2.410.200 
2.367.900 

2.213.000 
1.281.600 
500.300 
415.500 
250.100 
179.900 
103,00 



474,250 
469.400 
462,100 
184.400 
183.050 
177.650 
115.200 

43.150 



154.650 
66.900 



MARATHON (the Rainbow) 

101.520 *David Dean, West Mansfield. OH 
15.750 •Craig Geisl 
15,110 Chris Farrell 

12.600 Andrew R Mown, Hollywood, FL 

MEGA-BUG /Radio Shack) 

60,000 *Robin Worthem. Milwaukee. Wl 
17.892 John Tiffany, Washington, DC 

15,999 Ed Mitchell, Ragged Mountain, CO 

14,297 Aleisha Hemphill, Los Angeles, CA 

13.852 Ryan Van Manen, Grand Rapids, Ml 

10.800 Michael Sarton. Notre Dame. IN 

8.787 Jeff Laustsen. Scotia, NY 

8.220 Susan Ballinger. Uxbndge. Ontario 

5.513 Denise Monssette, Sherbrooke, 

Quebec 
680 Kevin Zacks, Houston, TX 

MICROBES (Radio Shack) 

406,350 +Greg C Strother. Madison. Wl 

MONSTER MAZE (Radio Shack) 

533.450 *John Hankerd. Gaines. Ml 
300.000 James Stevenson. Marshall, TX 

MOON HOPPER (Computerware) 

956,470 *Shawn McAlpin, Louisville. KY 
MUDPIESfMichTron; 

91,600 *Pal Downard, Louisville. KY 
NINJA WARRIOR (Programmers Guild) 

46,400 *Daniel Milbrath, Ann Arbor, Ml 
26,000 Wib Mernthew. Oshawa. Ontario 

PAC-ATTACK II (Computerware) 

56.014 *Lisa Welte. Baxter. TN 
PAC 'EM (the Rainbow) 

301 *David Dean. West Mansfield, OH 
PAC-TACfTomMix; 

100.630 *David Dean. West Manslield. OH 
PHANTOM SLAYER (Med Systems) 

2.488 *Troy Messer. Joplin. MO 
1.852 Curtis Boyle. Saskatoon. 

Saskatchewan 
1.306 Marc Hassler 

652 Michael Brooks. Glade Spring, VA 

604 J Powell. Bournemouth, England 

PINBALL (Radio Shack) 

8,287,000 *Ron Suedersky, Universal City, TX 
6.000.000 Jimmy Oliver. Hants County. Nova 

Scotia 
4,000.000 Keith Seifned. Greenville. OH 

2.111.900 Dale Westmoreland. Lannon, Wl 

PIPELINE (the Rainbow) 

671 *Edward Liroff, Hollywood. FL 
PLANET INVASION (Spectral Associates) 
483,250 *Chns Sweet. Harvard. MA 
286.075 Larry Plaxton. Medley. Alberta 

257.900 Ron Rhead, WHIowdale. Ontario 

221.350 John Cole. King City, Ontario 

215.000 Tom Settles. Tallahassee, FL 

117.850 Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 

PLANET RAIDERS (Aardiark) 
16,770.300 *Michael Moruzi. Sudbury. Ontario 
3.547,800 Philip Mornssey, Gilbon. NY 

3.297,050 Steven Guiles, Agoura, CA 

1,070.700 David Holland, Tofino, B.C. 

14,900 Chuck Senescall. Minneapolis. MN 

POLARIS (Radio Shack) 

256.018 *Michael Popovich, Sr.. Nashua, NH 
218.450 Allen Roth, Dayton. TX 

212,746 Hwan Joo. Weston, Ontario 

170,100 Steve Johnson, Santa Ana, CA 

151,154 Brian Austin, Rotterdam, NY 

63,153 Paschal Wilson, Kentwood, LA 

POLTERGEIST (Radio Shack) 

6,455 *Rich Van Manen, Grand Rapids. Ml 
4.995 Ken Mahaffey, Erie. IL 

4.970 Tim Warr, Bellingham, WA 

4.960 Doug Schwartz, Glendale, AZ 

4.950 Mark Dowling, San Bruno. CA 

4.865 John Osborne. Kincardine, Ontario 



POOY AN (Darasott) 

165.150 *Wib Merrithew. Oshawa. Ontario 
Ronny Ong. Arlington. TX 
Daniel Belisle. Montreal. Quebec 
Frederic Daoud, St-Jean, Quebec 
Michael Rosenberg. Prestonsburg, KY 
Robby Presson, Florissant. MO 
Steven Bruening, Ridgeville. SC 
POPCORN (Radio Shack) 

32.000 *Lisa Welte. Baxter. TN 
PROJECT NEBULA (Radio Shack) 

995 *Dan Bovey. Wheaton IL 
•lan Clark. Albion. Ml 
John Oliver, WHIiamstown. WV 
Joyce Isbeii. Toccoa. GA 
Jean-Claude Taliana. Brossard. 

Canada 
Dale Westmoreland, Lannon, Wl 
PROTECTORS (Tom Mi,) 

594.610 wRoland Hendel. Mississauga. Ontario 
Cameron Amick, Reisterstown, MD 
Derek Mall, Long Grove. IL 
Julian Bond. Berkeley. CA 
Douglas Hug, Roseville. CA 



164.950 
156.300 
105 100 
56.850 
47.800 
27.950 



960 
885 
650 
500 



430 



358.514 
347.873 
275,810 
272.000 



PYRAMID (Radio Shack) 

220 *Harry L Perkins. III. Norfolk. VA 
200 •Chris Cope. Central. SC 
200 •Greg Burke, Kenora, Ontano 
200 Kenton G. Fifield, Fort Francis. Ontario 

180 Dan Burner. Fowler. FL 

180 W Knight, Mt Hermon, CA 

180 Lee Perkins. Norfolk. VA 

Q-MAN (Genesis Soltware) 

39.200 *Michael Sarton. Notre Dame. IN 
QUASAR COMMANDER (Radio Shack; 

1.290 *Cliff Turnbull, Ellsworth, Wl 
REACTOIDS (Radio Shack ) 

88.615 *Robbie Anderson. Monrovia. CA 
26.275 Jell Loeb. Mobile. AL 

24.225 Doug Feinsteln, Mobile. AL 

RETURN OF THE JET-I (ThunderVisiOn) 
365.934 *Roger Buzard. Lima. OH 
148.112 Matt Grilliths, Stilwell, KS 

ROBOTTACK (IntraCOlor) 
2.216,950 *Randy Hankins. Tabor, IA 
1.512.200 Robert Kiser, Monlicello, MS 

1.424,300 John Osborne, Kincardine. Ontario 

1.219.810 Steve Skrzynlarz. Tacoma. WA 

815,000 Philip Perry, Edmonton, Alberla 

614.500 Mark Pettigrew, Cranston, Rl 

SANDS OF EGYPT (Radio Shack; 

87 *Kim Van Camp. State Center. IA 
SCARFMAN (Cornsolt) 

495,440 *Woody Farmer, Alberta, Canada 
371,540 Stanley Sneed. Erwin, TN 

342.510 Jean Rett. San Mateo. CA 

308.640 John J Goodwin. Toronto, Ontario 

198,068 Amber Bates. Tunnel Hill. GA 

SEA DRAGON (Adventure International) 

75.750 WSteve Schweitzer. Sewell, NJ 
60.430 Steve Skrzyniarz. Tacoma, WA 

56.760 Alan Morris. Chicopee. MA 

50.300 Remi Riess, Val Caron. Ontario 

SHARK TREASURE (Computerware) 

245,000 *Manon Bertrand, Haulerive. Quebec 
SHOOTING GALLERY (Radio Shack) 

120.640 *Robert J Wallace. Waldorl. MD 
54.930 Vernell Peterson. Radclill, KY 

44.870 Mark Nichols, Birsay. Saskatchewan 

44.480 R Duguay. Si Bruno. Quebec 

26.150 Kannon Shanmugam. Lawrence. KS 

SKIING (Radio Shack) 

12:08 +Kelly Kerr, Wentzville, MO 
21:35 Jean-Claude Taliana. Brossard, 

Canada 



•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 147 



'••••■ 




■ ■■ 




SLAY THE NER1US (Radio Shack) 

102 414 *Jim Herbers. Placenlia. CA 

Beverly Herbe's. Placenlia. CA 
Nancy Hetbers. Placenlia. CA 
Doug Schwartz. Glendale. AZ 
Linda Herbers. Placenlia. CA 
SNAILS REVENGE lihe Rainbow) 

34.860 *Michael Rosenburg. Prestonsburg. KY 
Varunee Turner. Kamloops. B C 
Alan Sadler. Norlhwood. ND 
David Holland, Tolino, B.C 
Greg Cullison, Phoenix, AZ 
Jimmy Oliver. Hants County. Nova 

Scoiia 
Bernard Parent. Ste-Foy, Ouebec 
Bill Partridge, Clinton. CT 
Manon Parent. Ste-Foy, Quebec 
Francois Lebel, Ste-Foy, Quebec 
John McCallum. Woodburn. OH 
Kerry McClure, Scott Depot. WV 
Vincenl Cameron. Ste-Foy. Ouebec 
Andy Hotman. Meriden, KS 
SOLO POKER (Radio Shack) 

850 *Granville Bonyala, Tallahasse, FL 
SPACE ACE (Spectral Associates) 

1 364 *Perry Denton, New Baden, IL 
SPACE ASSAULT (Radio Shack) 
1 632 450 *Walter Brokx, Granisle. BC 

Mike Snelgrove. Oshawa. Ontario 
John Cole. King City. Ontario 
Derrick Kardos. Colonia, NJ 
Steve Johnson. Santa Ana, CA 
Karl Pollack. Sherburne. NY 
SPACE INVADERS (Spectral Associates) 
4 862 040 *F U Ingham, Clyde. Wl 
SPACE SHUTTLE (Tom Mix) 

595 *Steve Schweitzer. Sewell, NJ 

Randall F Edwards, Dunlap, KS 
Fred Weissman. Brookline, MA 
Ted McDonald. Summerville. SC 
Tim Smith, San Rafael, CA 
SPACE WAR (Spectral Associates) 

400 190 WMark Felps, Bedford. TX 

Peier Niessen, Carlisle. MA 
Jim Baker. Florissant, MO 
Chris Leek, Martintown, Ontario 
David Iverson. Dorval. Ouebec 
Corey Friedman. Minnetonka, MN 



87,251 
86.861 
63,535 

56.834 



11,380 
6,150 
5.320 
5,240 
5,100 

4.820 
4.800 
2.830 
2.750 
2.330 
1.510 
1.330 
900 



358.660 
238.580 
224.130 
221.130 
117,500 



585 
575 
571 
566 



116.000 
52,380 
16.500 
11.540 
10.250 



STARBLAZE(fladio Shack) 

6 250 +Mark Welte. Baxter, TN 
5 500 •Beverly Herbers. Placenlia. CA 
5350 Nancy Herbers, Placenlia. CA 

STARFIRE (tntetlectromcs) ,,i.„„„„ 

10 000 050 *David T.llery. University of Minnesota 
3 444 500 "John DeMuth, Prairie de Chien. Wl 
2102.450 Dean Bouchard. Kingston, NS 

1 420 000 Steve Schweitzer. Sewell. NJ 

1 000.050 Chuck Ladig. Sulsun City. CA 

131 450 Chuck Senescall. Minneapolis. MN 

STARTREK (Adventure International) 

90 *Sco1t Santarone. Tallahassee, f-l 
STORM ARROWS (Spectra/ Associates) 

68 400 *Jim Irvine. Sudbury. Ontario 
TIME BANDIT (MichTron) 

74,800 *Oaniel Milbralh. Ann Arbor. Ml 
19 200 Chris Smith, Cincinnati, OH 

TRAILIN' TAIL (the Rainbow) „„,,,„„ 

24,415 *Kentong Fifield, Fort Frances. Ontario 

TRAPFALL(TornM)x) ... 

113 408 *Rich Trawick, N Adams. Ml 
104456 Robert Cattral. Oltawa. Ontario 

John Osborne. Kincardine. Ontario 
Dan Burch, Louisville, KY 
Bruce March. Barrie, Ontario 
Alex Gotovsky. Toronto, Ontario 
Vadim Gotovsky. Toronto. Ontario 
Andrea Mane Kuduk, Minneapolis. MN 
TUBE FRENZY (Aardvark) 

544.560 *Perry Denton. New Baden, IL 
98 640 •David Hogue. Mercer. PA 
71360 Bruce W Goshorn. Alameda. CA 

VENTURER (Aardvark) 
6 718 200 *Kyle Keller. Overland Park. KS 
•Greg Scott. Orlando. FL 
Mike Sitzer. Roslyn. NY 
Brian Panepinto. Spencerport. NY 
Todd Hauschildt, Red Wing. MN 
WHIRLYBIRD RUN (Spectral Associates) 

516 450 *Oan Shargel. Arroyo Grande, CA 
103.900 Dann Fabian. Crestview. FL 

98 400 Dave Lubnow. Sussex. NJ 

87 350 Philip Daulton, Louisville. KY 

50 800 Daniel Milbralh. Ann Arbor. Ml 



104.368 
98.588 
96.800 
86.014 
30.600 
20,476 



4,126,200 
2.291,100 
2,657350 
1,769.400 



Todd Brannam. Charleston His., SC 
Jimmy Oliver. Hants County, Nova 

Scotia 
Darren Noranyan, Oswego. NY 
Ellen Bellinger. Uxbndge. Ontario 
Kelly Kerr, Wentzville. MO 
Pat Wilmes, Wentzville. MO 
Lisa Ballinger. Uxbndge. Ontario 
Kevin Zacks, Houston. TX 
Marc Brlsson, Earlton, Ontario 
Mark Raphael. Englishtown, NJ 
WILDCATTING (Radio Shack) 

63 723 *Michael Rosenberg, Presionsburg, *» 
David Rodgers. Carbondale, IL 
Ellen Ballinger, Uxbndge. Ontario 
Gary Jones, Dale. TX 
Matt Buist. Bangor, PA 
ZAKSUND (Elite Software) 
l 2% 000 *Robert Conyer. Wlllingboro. NJ 

•Richard Minton, West Frankfort, IL 
Andy Mickolson. Granville. OH 
Michael Rothman, Solon. OH 
Steve Schweitzer. Sewell. NJ 
John Osborne. Kincardine. Ontario 
ZAXXON (Datasolt) 
1 510 000 *James Quadrella. Brooklyn. NY 
Mike Hughey. King George. VA 
Chris Coyle. Selden, NY 
Rich McGervey. Morgantown, WV 
F.U. Ingham, Clyde, Wl 
Mik Norgaard. Dallas. TX 
Philip Daulton, Louisville, KY 
Jeff Weeks, Hinton. Alberta 
Kerry McClure, Scott Depot, WV 
Shane Haphey. Salol, MN 
Jon Laustsen, Scotia, NY 
Marc A Brisson, Earlton. Ontario 
Mike Magana. Jr.. Fullerton, CA 
James Gilchrist, Greenwoord. SC 
Chris Smith, Cincinnati, OH 
Eric Lauslsen. Scoiia, NY 
James Stevenson, Marshall, TX 
Paschal Wilson, Kentwood. LA 
Richard Lacharite. Sherbrooke, 
Quebec 



48.000 
47.200 

38.600 
27.950 
27,750 
25,550 
24,600 
24.400 
23,700 
21.550 



48.682 
38,318 
30.555 
29,854 



1,128,050 

1,008.100 

950.500 

910.000 

876.200 



401 .900 

370,400 

235.200 

196.500 

121.800 

104.800 

104.800 

99.500 

94.800 

92.900 

85.300 

82.400 

82,100 

80,600 

80.500 

80.000 

71.000 

64,800 




— Kevin Nickols 




148 the RAINBOW April 1984 



TURN OF THE SCREW 



A 12- Volt 
Power Sup 
For The C 



By Tony DiStefano 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 




When Radio Shack came out with the CoCo 2. they 
made it as close as possible to the old Color Com- 
puter as they could. Nevertheless, there arc some 
minor differences. First of all. the physical size of the case is 
different. It is a lot smaller. All the other differences are not 
very obvious. You cannot see them from the outside and 
most are invisible to the user. That means that even though 
they are different, it will function the same. For example: 
The RS-232 circuit is completely different, different ICs are 
used, they are placed in a different part of the computer. But. 
when you use the RS-232. it will work with all the old 
software. Another difference is the RF modulator. It is a 
completely different modulator. The circuit is all changed, 
yet it works. So what is all this coming to? Why am I telling 
you all this if it is all the same? There is one change Radio 
Shack did that will affect the user. It is in the power supply. 
In the Color Computer, there are four voltages coming 
from the power supply. Five volts. 12 volts, -5 volts, and -12 
volts. In the CoCo 2 there is just one voltage. That is 5 volts. 
A small negative voltage is produced on board for the RS- 
232. which requires negative voltage to work. It does not 
have 12 volts. Most people would say. "So what!" Well, if 
you don't have a disk system or a graphics tablet, you 
wouldn't know the difference. But. if you have the old Radio 
Shack controller (the ones sold with the gray drives) or a 
graphics tablet, you will find that neither of them work with 
your CoCo 2. Why? This is where the 12 volts come in. Both 
of these accessories (and probably many more) need 1 2 volts 
to function. The CoCo 2 does not have 12 volts. One way to 
solve this problem is to get the Multi-Pak Interface from 
Radio Shack. Not a bad idea, it has the 12 volts and is quite 
handy if you have many things to plug into it. On the other 
hand, it is expensive if all you have is a disk drive. Well, there 
is another solution, build a small 12 volt power supply. I'll 
show you how. 



This power supply is small enough that it will fit under the 
keyboard of the CoCo 2. The ICthat I used can supply up to 
150 milliamps or .15 amps. The reference manual for the 
regular Color Computer says that the 1 2 volts can supply up 
to 300 milliamps. I don't think that you need that much 
current, seeing that the Radio Shack controller needs only 
about 25 milliamps. Another reason that I used this chip is 
that it has the capability of shutdown. This means that under 
certain circumstances the 1C will stop to output voltage. 
This is very important when you want to turn the CoCo 2 
off. At first I thought of just adding a switch. But then that 
would mean that every time you wanted to turn the compu- 
ter on, you would have to first turn on the 12 volt switch and 
then the five. In the case of the WD-1 793 (which, by the way, 
is the FDC or Floppy Disk Controller used in the Radio 
Shack Disk Color System), the 1 2 volt supply must go on at 
the same time or before the 5 volt. The 12 volt must also be 
shut off before the 5 volt. That is a lot to ask for. just to turn 
the computer on and off. Next. I tried a relay to switch the 1 2 
volt on and off. but that was just not fast enough. Well, that 
is why the LM-723 chip suited this case so well. It can be 
switched on and off by an external source and was fast 
enough to boot! 

The first thing you must do (like always) is to get parts. 
There arc not a lot of parts and are all available at your local 
Radio Shack store. Here is a list of parts you will need: 

Quantity ID Description RS# 

I IC-I LM-723 (voltage regular) 276-1740 
I TI 12 volt transformer 273-1385 



(Tony DiStefano is well known as an early specialist in 
Color Computer hardware projects. He is one of the 
acknowledged experts on the "insides" of CoCo.) 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 149 



1 
1 
1 


Dl 
C3 


1 


CI 


1 


C2 


1 


Ql 


3 


RI.2. 


2 


R3.4 


1 





50v bridge rectifier 276-1151 

Perl" board 276-158 

lOOOul" @ capacitor @ 35v 272-1019 

lOuf @ capacitor @ 35v 272-1013 

lOOpf capacitor @ 25v 272-123 

2N2222 transistor 276-1617 

4.7 ohm '/ : w resistor 271-8019 

15k ohm '/ 2 w resistor 271-8036 

14 pin socket 276-1999 



There is also the regular paraphernalia like wire, screws, 
and solder, etc.. that you must get. I'll leave that for you to 
figure out. Next, mount all the components (except the IC) 
on the perl board according to the photo of my prototype. 
The component layout is not too important since you are 
doing point-to-point wiring. Wire the components accord- 
ing to the schematic in Figure I. The two 15k resistors in 
parallel are there because I needed a 7.5k resistor and Radio 
Shack did not have one. The only problem you will have is 
with the power transformer. The pins do not quite lit in the 
holes. Make a mark on the board where the pins sit. Use a 
small drill and widen the holes so that the transformer will fit 
in. Check the wiring carefully. Now it is lime to test it. Please 
do not install this power supply before you test it. Putting 
more than 12 volts on the controller will cause many dollars 
of repair. Plug the IC in the socket. Make sure that pin I of 
the IC is pin I of the socket. 




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transformer to the AC line of the CoCo 2. The polarity is not 
important in this case. The two points to solder are the 
center one and the right side one. That puts our circuit on the 
side of the fuse. It saves us from putting in another one. Plug 
the CoCo 2 in and measure the voltage at the output. It 
should be zero volts. Now take the control wire and touch it 
to the plus side of the lOOOuf capacitor. The output voltage 
should jump up to 12 volts. If it does, it is okay and time to 
install it into your CoCo 2. 1 f not. back to the drawing board 
and check the wiring again. The output voltage should not 
vary more than five percent. If it does, try changing the 
voltage divider resistors. The three resistors that control the 
output voltage arc R-2. R-3 and R-4. Do not change these 
values by much, just try another of the same value; it might 
have enough difference. 

The final thing to do is to mount the board properly and 
make the rest of the connections. Again, make sure that the 
CoCo 2 is unplugged when soldering to the computer. The 
transformer just fits under the keyboard. Use four screws to 
secure it to the base. Solder the ground wire of the power 
supply to the ground on the main board. The base of two 
diodes that are on the bottom left is just fine. The control 
input can go to any 5 volt location on the main board. I put it 
on the top side of C-28. The only wire left to connect is the 
output. Thai connects to pin 2 on the cartridge connector. 
When you solder to it, make sure that you don't short out 
any other pin. The last test to do is to check the 12 volt pin. 
Plug the CoCo 2 in and leave it off. Measure the voltage at 
pin 2 and ground. It should be zero volts. If not. check your 
work again. Now turn the computer on and the voltage 
should jump to 12. If so. turn it off and plug the controller 
(or other) into the computer. Turn it back on and measure 
the voltage. If it is 12 volts, turn everything off and close it 
up. That is all there is to it. 

A lot of people have been calling me about the CoCo 2 
64K article. It seems that there is a revision "B"on the CoCo 
2 and that they could not get it to recognize the 64K. I have 
not seen this revision myself, but from what I hear through 
the grapevine, it should work anyway. If anyone can tell me 
for sure, send me a line. 

The article "ROM Switcher" has a bug in it. The two 
resistors that solder to pin I of the chip do not go to pin I . I 
took a photo of the wrong chip and therefore made an error 
on the pinout. They should go to pin 24. II you tried this out 
and found that it didn't work, that is the problem. Just do 
the modification and all will work okay. It should not have 
caused any damage to the chips or the computer. Till next 
time. 

Figure 1 




150 the RAINBOW April 1984 



dee 



,TM 



Systems, Inc. 
Colour Software Workbench 



TM 



RAINBOW 

HM 



The Colour Software Workbench (CSW) is a system of machine language programs that run on a 32K or 64K TRS-80 Color Computer Extended 
Disk Basic System. It lets you develop machine language programs in a combination of Pascal and 6809 Assembler source languages. The 240 + 
page CSW User's Guide that is included explains the fundamentals of the languages as well as how to use the package. 

Part TWO of the CSW User's Guide provides you with the 
background information needed to write programs using the Colour 
Software Workbench. 




Part ONE of the 
CSW User's Guide 
tells you how to use 
all of the programs 
in the Workbench. 
This first part 
contains one section 
for each program. 



TEXT EDITOR 

• Screen Mode Editing 

• Entering Text 

• Finding Strings 

• Changing Multiple String Occurrences 

• Moving, Copying and Deleting Blocks of Text 

• Reading. Writing and Merging Files From Tape and Disk 

PASCAL COMPILER 

• Specifying: 

o Source from Tape, Disk or Keyboard 

o Ob|ect and Listing to Tape, Disk. Screen or Printer 

• Optional Symbol Table in the Object File for use by the Symbolic 
Debugger 

• Explanation of Source Listing Formal 

MACRO ASSEMBLER 

• Specifying: 

o Source from Tape or Disk 

o Object and Listing to Tape, Disk, Screen or Printer 

• Explanation of Source Listing Format 

OBJECT LINKER 

• Specifying: 

o The Machine Language ORIGIN 

o Listing to Tape. Disk, Screen or Printer 

o Binary File on Disk 

o Whether to use Pascal Runtime Library 

o Whether to use Symbolic Debugger 

SYMBOLIC DEBUGGER 

• Setting and Clearing Breakpoints 

• Displaying and Modifying 6809 and Graphics Registers 

• Displaying and Modifying Memory 

• Using Pascal Symbols 

• Tracing Pascal Procedure Activations 

• Viewing the User's (Graphic) Screen 

• Using Symbols, Registers & Constants in Expressions 




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Shipped UPS as soon as your check clears, sooner if you charge, 
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"TRS-80" and "Color Compuier" ore Trademarks o( TANDY Corporation 



LEARNING EXERCISE 

• Complete Pascal and Assembler Language Source 

• Uses All Parts Of the Workbench 

• Resulting Program is a Text Processor 

PASCAL 

• Describes Standard Language Elements Supported 

• Constants Include Decimal and Hexadecimal Integers, ASCII 
characters and strings 

• Types Include: 

o Integer, Char. Boolean, Enumerated. Subrange 
o Multi-Dimensioned Arrays 
o Records and Variant Records 
o Sets of Up to 256 Elements 
o Files 

• PROCEDURES and FUNCTIONS with FORWARD 

• Variables and LABELs 

• Arithmetic, Boolean, and Set Expressions 

• Statements: IF, WHILE, REPEAT, CASE, GOTO, EXIT, FOR. 

BEGIN, assignment (: = ) 

• Input/Output: RESET, REWRITE. READLN, EOF. WRITE, 

WRITELN, CLOSE. PAGE 

• Built-in Functions and Procedures: ABS, CHR. CURSOR, ODD, 

ORD, PRED, SUCC 

ADVANCED PASCAL 

• Strings Support: Assignment, Comparing, Concatenation 

• String Procedures and Functions: STRINGCOPY, STRINGDELETE, 
STRINGINSERT. STRINGPOS, HEX, ENCODE, DECODE 

• Type Extensions for Structured Type Breaking 

• Absolute Memory Access via Built-in WORD and BYTE Arrays 

• ROM Routine Access via CALL Built-in Function 

• Static and Public Variable Allocation 

• Separate Compilation and Assembler Interface via INTERFACE, 
EXTERNAL, and PUBLIC 

• Listing and Multiple Source File Directives 

• Explanation of Error Messages 

6809 MACRO ASSEMBLER 

• Motorola Compatible Source Conventions 

• Macro Facility With up to 9 Macro Parameters 

• Separate Compilation and Pascal Interface via PUBLIC and EXT 
Directives 

• Listing Control Directives 

• Explanation of Error Messages 

TECHNICAL NOTES 

• CoCo ROM Compatibility 

• Pascal Runtime Library Assembler Interface 

• CSW Obiect File Format 



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RADIO SHACK'S NEW electronic Ex- 
press Order Software program is up and 
running. In order to meet the needs of 
customers requiring specific market- 
proven or special application programs 
not available through their regular pro- 
duct line. Radio Shack is now offering 
their customers software from a broad 
spectrum of nationally recognized ven- 
dors. We feel that this is an extraordi- 
nary service for users of TRS-80 com- 
puters in that they (we) can walk into 
any Radio Shack Computer Center or 
store and have orders electronically 
transmitted to Tandy's Fort Worth 
warehouse, where they will be filled and 
shipped by the following day. The mar- 
vels of computerized shopping! 

By the way. any of you software 
authors and vendors who wish to have 
your products considered for inclusion 
in this program should write to Express 
Order Software Program. 1300 Tandy 
Center. Fort Worth. TX 76102. 



ONE DUMP, OR TWO? Something 
you might think of ordering via their 
new express ordering system is Radio 
Shack's just-released Hi-Res Screen 
Print utilities program, it's actually two 
programs in one package, which will 
allow you to perform both black and 
white and color screen dumps. 

The color dump program works es- 
pecially well with Micropainier, we're 
told, and gives the option of selecting a 
color set for printing. You'll need a 
CGP-220 ink-jet printer to take advan- 
tage of the color program, while most 
any of Radio Shack's dot matrix print- 
ers will handle the black and white. 
You'll also need a minimum I6K Ex- 
tended system for both. An excellent 
buy at S9.95; the catalong number is 
#26-3121. 



SADDLESORE HE AIN'T; it's just 
not that far on horseback. But. never- 
theless, Tom Mix has corralled Cu*ber, 
The King. Junior and all the other soft- 
ware critters from the Tom Mix ranch 
and moved to a new address: 4285 Brad- 
ford N.E., Grand Rapids. Ml 49506. If 
he hasn't been caught in a Trap/all on a 
Journey lo Ml. Doom and become Buz- 
zard Bail, you can reach him by phone 
at his new number: (616) 957-0444. 



SPIDERMAN, THE HULK and all 

the other Marvel comic book brood of 
super heroes met recently with Scott 
Adams, emerging with an announce- 
ment of a multi-million dollar licensing 
agreement between Adventure Interna- 
tional and Marvel Entertainment Group. 

The terms specify that Scott Adams' 
Adventure International, the Long- 
wood. Florida, software company, will 
market a series of at least 12 graphic 
Adventures featuring the entire cast of 
Marvel super personalities. Marvel, on 
the other hand, will create a special ser- 
ies of companion comic books — tenta- 
tively called Quest Probe — which will 
tie into these programs. 

If our experience with these groups 
individually is any indication, this com- 
bined effort ought to be a real block- 
buster. The initial product release is due 
to hit (bam! oof!) dealer shelves by late 
Spring. 



WHERE'S THE BEEF? "With just a 
small investment of time and effort, you 
can be on the road to an independent 
business and an extra income without 
giving up the security of a full-time job." 
reads the promotional material accom- 
panying Moonlighting With Your Per- 
sonal Computer, a World Almanac Pub- 
lications book by Robert J. Waxman. 
Under the heading of "How To Make 
Extra Money In As Few As Two Hours 
A Week." the press release says that the 
major portion of the book features step- 
by-step breakdowns on "the six most 
accessible areas for the computer free- 
lancer: consulting, writing, system hous- 
es, software packaging, contract pro- 
gramming and service bureau specialist." 
The 1 60-page book is said to be the first 
to provide "a blueprint for transforming 
a home computer from a piece of furni- 
ture that plays space games into a valu- 
able source of freelance income." 

While Moonlighting is billed as "An 
Insider's Advice On How You Can Earn 
Thousands of Extra Dollars," we found 
it to be a rather cursory overview, short 
on details and long on such gems as "It 
doesn't hurt to have an impressive sig- 
nature," and the advice that business 
cards are "an absolute must," so "collect 
a lot of them." 



Our favorite topic in Moonlighting 

— and the only one we saw treated twice 

— is "Good Luck." 

When it comes down to providing 
solid, professional advice on how the 
home computer user can make a little 
extra moolah with his machine, this 
book leaves us feeling like the little old 
lady at the hamburger counter: We 
don't think there's anybody back there! 

* * * 

SORRY, WRONG NUMBER. Last 
month, when we were listing the phone 
numbers for Bob Rosen's growing sys- 
tem of bulletin boards, one of the num- 
bers we gave you was incorrect. Let's 
start over with a complete list of all 
correct numbers. First, for Bob's new 
Canadian boards (in Montreal), call 
(514) 845-5452. This number will con- 
nect you to any open board among the 
four recently installed there. The num- 
bers for the Rainbow Connection, in 
New York, all share area code "212," 
and are as follows: 441-3755; 441-3766; 
441-5719; and 441-5907. 



HERE'S A GREAT OFFER if you're 
in the market for a proofreader pro- 
gram. Star-Kits Software Systems Cor- 
poration has released Spell 'N Fix II, 
which will be sent at no charge to 
anyone who sends Star-Kits a blank 
disk and a self-addressed stamped disk 
mailer. The program, as well as all doc- 
umentation, will be on the disk, and 
users may print their own manual from 
the disk. 

Star-Kits' president Peter Stark says 
that Spell 'N Fix II users are encouraged 
to provide free copies to friends, and the 
program is accompanied by a request 
that satisfied users make their own 
estimate of the program's worth to them 
and send a proportionate contribution 
to Star-Kits to encourage the further 
development of such programs. 

He said that the decision to provide 
Spell 'N Fix II, previously advertised at 
S69.29, was a difficult one, but he felt it 
was a better alternative than strong 
copy protection that would impose too 
much of a burden on legitimate pur- 
chasers. "Based on our experience with 
the original Spell TV Fix, we're con- 
vinced that many CoCo owners will get 
copies of the new Spell TV Fix in a rela- 
tively short time. We're sure they will 
love it, and only hope that enough of 
them will actually send us a contri- 
bution." 

We do, too, Peter. That's a very 
generous offer. 



152 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



It's 
here! 




The Rainbow Book of Adventures 

is in stock and ready for immediate 
delivery. This 1 1 2-page special edi- 
tion contains top contest winners 
and a dozen more selected Adven- 
tures, ready for you to type in 
and run. 

If you're just getting started 
in Adventures, here's a collection 
of 14 Adventure games ready to test 
your wits. 

If you're considering entering your own Adventure 
creation in the Rainbow's Adventure contest, The Rainbow Book 
of Adventures is a must to see how the last year's top contestants 
became winners. All of the award winners in the Rainbow's first Adventure 
contest have their entries reproduced in their entirety in The Rainbow Book 
of Adventures — plus there are hints to authors and comments from the 
chief judge of last year's contest to help you hit the ground running in this 
year's Adventure writing competition. 

The Rainbow Book of Adventures is just $7.95. 

The RAINBOW Tape of Adventures is just $7.95 



*•** 



Please send 
Please send. 



. copies of The Rainbow Book of Adventures @ $7.95 each. 
copies of The Rainbow Book of Adventures Tape @ $7.95 each. 



Name (please print) 

Street Address 

City & State 



ZIP 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-15 86th DRIVE 

P.O. Box 21272 

WOODHAVEN, N.Y. 11421 



CALL 212-441-2807 

ALL ORDERS PLUS $3.00 S/H 
N.Y. RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



********•• 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

SOFT AND HARD WARES FOR 
COLORFUL COMPUTING 



I' 



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Direct Connect - $79.95 
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auto/ansuier modem - $129.95 
HAYES Auto Dial/Ansuier $239.95 
Prices include Plodem cable. 



KEYBOARDS 



PREMIUM (micronix) $59.95" 
SUPER-PRO (Wark Data) $69.95 
HJL57 Keyboard - $79. 95" 
" - Includes free software for 
4 function keys. Specify Model 
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Y/////////////M 






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PRINTERS 



GEMINI 10X" - 120 cps, 9X9 dot 
tractor/friction feed $299.95 
EPSON RX-80* - Faster than the 
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80X24 screen monitors : 
Green- $99.95 Amber- $119.95 
AMDEK Color Monitor - $299.95 
VIDEO PLUS - v/ideo interface 
for above monitors - $24.95 
U/P CoCo II Version - $29.95 



I 




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DISK DRIVES 






DRIVE System - 40 trks, Gold 
Platted Connectors - $349.95 
ANDEK System - 624K Bytes with 
3" Disk Cartridge - $599.00 
DISK CONTROLLER - $139.95 
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UIIC0 Command Adaptor - Hookup 
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W////////////////////////M^ 



Add $3.00 S/H 
NY Res Add Tax 



Order Line 
212-441-2807 



Spectrum Projects 
93-15 86th Drive 
PO Box 21272, Woodhaven. NY 11421 



CoCo COUNSEL 



Starting Your Own 
Computer Business 
— The First Steps 



By Tom Nelson 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Y 



oil? 



bu're ready for the leap into your own computer 
business. You know what you want to do and 
everyone is behind you 100 percent. So how do you 



The path is different for every person, but the basic con- 
siderations are the same. You have to consider location, 
financing, product or service development, packaging, mar- 
keting and organization, Some of these are only of para- 
mount concern when you are just starting; others are a 
constant worry. Let's talk about the basics of forming your 

rusiness organization. 
Of course, financing is bound to be one of your first 
thoughts. If you are starting your own software company, 
you might be able to sell out of your house, maybe only part 
time at first. The financial requirements for this are not that 
great. There's advertising, media, packaging, the phone bills 
and other minor considerations. On the other hand, if you're 
starting a computer software or hardware store, the finan- 
cial requirements are considerably greater. There's rent, 
stock, utilities, shelving, employees and on and on. 

Financing is not easy to obtain if you need it. When just 
starting, the usual avenues are open to you: your savings, a 
second mortgage on your house, maybe even a bank loan. 
After you've established yourself you can look into bigger 



(Tom Nelson was formerly a special assistant attorney 
general for the State of Minnesota. He currently is 
general counsel for Soft law Corporation, makers of 
the VIP Library" ami of ColorQuesl™ games.) 






bank loans, venture capital, maybe even a public stock 
offering. 

Once you've got your finances straightened out, it's time 
to consider under what form you wish to run your business. 
This decision, like almost every decision you are going to 
make, has great tax implications. You'll find that business 
decisions are almost always tax decisions. It is, therefore, 
important that you make the right decisions when you start 
out. Otherwise, you might find that your decisions have cost 
you thousands of dollars later. 

There are several different types of business organiza- 
tions. The most common are the sole proprietorship, the 
partnership, a subchapter S corporation and a regular cor- 
poration. Of course, there are many variations even within 
these. 

So, which should you choose? It depends on your needs, 
abilities, finances, and so forth. Let's take a look at each of 
these forms of business organizations. 

A sole proprietorship is a business run by one person. 
That's pretty simple. You can hire as many people as you 
like and still be a sole proprietorship. A sole proprietorship 
has no special tax advantages, or other advantages for that 
matter. The profits are all attributed as the personal income 
of the owner: there is no separate business entity. The owner 
is also liable to the full extent of his or her assets for any 
injury or liability arising from the business. Your other 
investment property can be taken to pay for a liability 
arising from your separate business. As you can see, in- 
surance is very important to a sole proprietor. 

A partnership is a business run by two or more persons 
who agree to share the losses, the profits and all liabilities. It 
usually is organized by a formal agreement to take care of all 
contingencies. Partnerships are not separate entities under 
the law for tax purposes. At the end of the year, the profits 



156 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



A CoCo voice synthesizer that is a complete phoneme based voice 
system that uses the famous VOTRAX SC01 chip in a cartridge style 
pak. It provides an unlimited vocabulary with text to speech software 
and a Word Manager that constructs and edits custom user dictionaries. 
Fully assembled, and ready to plug in and talk, talk, talk! $69.95 



TALKING SOFTWARE 



Talking Final Countdown - You must stop the mad general from 
launching a missle at the Russians and causing WW HI ! Has multiple 
voices for added realism. 32K EXT $24.95 

Educational Software - Computer Island's educational programs turn 
your CoCo into a true teaching machine. Reinforce basic Iessions with 
the aid of voice. Three/pak special includes Math Drill, Spelling Tester 
and Foreign Languages. 16K EXT $24.95 

Talking Score E-Z - An excellent adaptation of a Yahtzee type program 
with added speech. Up to 6 players can compete at a time, and all 
scoring and record keeping is done by the computer. 32K EXT $24.95 

Term Talk - A speaking smart terminal program for your CoCo. It 
contains all the features of an intelligent communications package, plus 
it talks! (Shades of War Games) 16K EXT Tape $39.95 Disk $49.95 



All orders plus $3.00 S/H 

NY Residents add sales tax 

CoCo 3T Owners please specify 



SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
93-15 86th Drive 
PO Box 21272, Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(212)441-2807 



COLORFUL UTILITIES 

************************************* 



" 



DOUBLE DOS - Now access 10 more granules from your 40 track drive and still be 
compatible with RS DOS! Also works with double-sided and 80 track drives! DISK $24.95 

MULTI-PAK CRAK - Save ROMPAKs to your 64K Disk system using the RS Multi-Pak 
Interface. Eliminate constant plugging in of ROMPAKs now by keeping all your PAK 
software on disk. DISK $24.95 

*********************** 

TAPE OMNI CLONE - Easily handles programs with auto loaders, no headers, no EOF 
markers, unusual size blocks and more! Now is the time to get your tape software 
collection protected against loss. TAPE $24.95 

************************* 

DISK OMNI CLONE - Back everything up! This amazing program handles "non standard" 
disks with ease. We haven't found any disk yet that it can't handle. Lowest price 
too! 32K DISK $29.95 

*************************** 

DISK MANAGER - Rescue crashed disks, date files on the disk directory, print a Super 
directory with ML addresses, maintain and sort a catalog of up to 300 files from a 
collection of disks! 16K DISK $29.95 

***************************** 

BASIC AID - Speed program entry by single key input of 43 common BASIC commands. 
Redefine any or all keys. Merge, move and renumber any part of your program. Comes 
with a plastic keyboard overlay. R0MPAK $34.95/DISK $49.95 

***************************** 

MASTER DESIGN - Attention Telewriter 64 owners. Now you can create stunning block 
letter heads while text processing with Master Design. Full range of character sizes 
and graphic commands! DISK $34.95 

*************************** 

BASIC COMPILER - Convert your BASIC programs into fast efficient machine language. 
Produces code more compact and up to 50Xs faster than original BASIC. Integer 
compiler with no Extended BASIC needed. 16K-64K versions included. TAPE $39.95 

************************* 

SCHEMATIC DRAFTING - Save hours of work and design professional looking electronic 
diagrams using a 480X540 pixel worksheet with 6 viewing windows. Over 30 electronic 
symbols with 10 user definable symbols are provided. Dump hard copy to the printer 
and save the created schematics to disk. 64K DISK $49.95 

*********************** 

CCEAD - Color Computer Editor Assembler Debugger is a cost effective machine language 
development tool. Ideal for learning the basics of Assembly Language. TAPE $6.95 

********************* 

THE STRIPPER - A machine language utility designed to cut the size of BASIC programs 
for run-time efficiency. Delete REMARKs, pack statement lines and remove spaces. Get 
more performance for only $7.95 

<c^F <c^F <c^F 



COLORFUL UTILITIES 

************************************* 

FAST DUPE - The fastest Disk copier ever! Will format and backup a diskette in only 
one pass and can make up to 4 Disk copies at once! The must utility for every Disk 
owner. 64K DISK $19.95 

******************************* 
HIDDEN BASIC - A protection feature for your BASIC P^ra^. Modify your code so 
CLOAD, CSAVE, LIST, EDIT, DEL and LLIST will not function. TAPE $19.95 

***************************** 

64 COLUMN MOD I/III EMULATOR - Give your CoCo a 64X16 screer , Run Mode J I I/III BASIC 
graphic routines without retyping the graphics statements. 64K DISK $iy.yo 

*************************** 

64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE - Take advantage of an expanded 64 Jf ""*I n » "^SPOOL 

additional 8K of RAM available. Copy ROM cartridges to disk and create a 32K SPOOL 

buffer for printing. DISK $21.95 

************************* 

TAPE UTILITY - A powerful package that transfers tape to disk and ■ disk to tape 

Somatically. Does' an automatic copy of an entire disk of programs and data to tape. 
TAPE/DISK $24.95 

*********************** 

E _ X _T-E-N-D-E-D DISK BASIC - Add new powerful commands to your 64 £ Disk system. 
Inverse Video (GREAT for monitors!), Wild Card Directory, Double POKE and PEEK, 
NSAVE, NLOAD, LDIR, OLD and TYPE. DISK $24.95 

********************* 
GRAPHICOM - The ultimate CoCo graphics development system with sophisticated graphics 
editing, preview animation, telecommunications and printer support, ni 
graphics for only $24.95. W/Spectrum's Menu Foot Switch $34.95. 64K DISK 



COLORFUL UTILITY CHECK LIST: 

( ) DOUBLE DOS 

( ) MULTI-PAK CRAK 

( ) TAPE OMNI CLONE 

( ) DISK OMNI CLONE 

( ) DISK MANAGER 

( ) BASIC AID 

( ) MASTER DESIGN 

( ) BASIC COMPILER 

( ) SCHEMATIC DRAFTING 



) CCEAD 

) THE STRIPPER 

) FAST DUPE 

) HIDDEN BASIC 

) 64 COL MOD I/IH EMULATOR 

) 64K DISK UTILITY PACKAGE 

) TAPE UTILITY 

) E-X-T-E-N-D-E-D DISK BASIC 

) GRAPHICOM 




SHIPPING S3.00 - IMY RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 





S3- 15 BSTH DRIVE 
PO BOX 21272. WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 

212-441-2807 



are shared among the partners and are considered their 
personal income for tax purposes; of course, losses may also 
be attributed to the partners' individual incomes for tax 
purposes. If there is any injury or liability arising from the 
partnership, each partner is liable to the full extent of his or 
her personal assets. Again, insurance is very important. 

A corporation is a state-granted charter to run a business 
with limited liability. A corporation is a separate entity, 
almost a person, in the eyes of the state. The major advan- 
tage of forming a corporation is that liability of the share- 
holders is restricted to their interests in the corporation. If 
someone falls down an elevator shaft and sues the corpora- 
tion, the shareholders will only be liable for the amount they 
own in the corporation. Thus, your other investment prop- 
erty cannot be taken to pay any judgment. 

Because of this nifty "corporate veil." the corporate form 
of business organization has become the most popular by 
far. With the rise in popularity of the corporation has come 
tax laws specially geared for the corporation. Since the 
corporation is a separate entity, it is also separately taxed. 
Profits made by the corporation are taxed before they are 
divided, as dividends, to the shareholders. This is the infam- 
ous double tax. 

Congress felt that the double tax created for the corpora- 
tion was too great a hindrance to small businesses, which 
also need the "corporate veil" provided by the corporate 
form of business. In response, a special subchapter S corpo- 
rate form was created to provide tax relief. The subchapter S 
form gets its name from the subchapter of the tax code 
which created it. 

The subchapter S corporation is essentially a partnership 
within a corporation. The corporation is treated as a separ- 
ate entity for liability and many other purposes, but it is not 
separately taxed. Instead, the shareholders are taxed on all 
profits attributable to the corporation, whether or not the 
shareholders receive a dividend, here called a distribution. 
Thus, if your subchapter S corporation made S50.000 and 
you are the sole shareholder, you are individually taxed on 
$50,000 even if you do not take it out of the corporation. 

This is just like the partnership arrangement. The advan- 
tages are that you have the protection from liability, and the 
business can be run more like a partnership. 

There are several stringent requirements to be met to 
attain subchapter S status. This was done to limit flight from 
the double tax of the regular corporate form- 
Back to regular corporations. Corporations can be classi- 
fied as privately held corporations and public corporations. 
The shares of privately held corporations are not offered to 
the general public for sale, and do not appear on a stock 
exchange. Usually, the shares of privately held corporations 
are owned entirely by working shareholders who occupy the 
board of directors and the officer positions. The financial 
affairs of privately held corporations are not subject to 
public scrutiny, except for the IRS. 

On the other hand, shares of public corporations have 
been offered to and bought by the general public. They are 
traded on stock exchanges. Because the public is able to buy 
the slock, public corporations are subject to many disclo- 
sure rules so that the public can be adequately informed 
before they buy stock. 

When the time comes for you to choose, which should you 
select? The more complex the organization, the more the 
paperwork and planning. To take advantage of the tax laws 
you will have to be prepared to pay for the expertise to 
adequately prepare and plan. 



Still, you shouldn't let some initial expense and a little 
extra paperwork stand in the way of the proper organiza- 
tion. In many states you can create a corporation even if you 
will have only one shareholder, only one director and one 
officer, i.e., a sole proprietorship. 

1 recommend the corporate form of business if at all 
possible. This is because there are significant legal liabilities 
to which you could become subject. Although you could 
protect yourself with insurance in the other form of organi- 
zations, and although you will want to insure yourself even if 
you have a corporation, it is better to have that built-in 
statutory protection. The question then becomes which 
form of corporation you should select. Despite this advan- 
tage, your state may not allow sole proprietor-type corpora- 
tions. You'll have to look into your state laws. 

In return for this protection you'll have to hold periodic 
shareholder meetings and board of director meetings, keep 
minute books, and keep up appearances. You also will have 
to do some special tax and other planning that H & R Block 
might not be able to do alone. 

Okay, so the corporate form may be best. Which is best 
—the subchapter S corporation or the regular corporation? 
Quite frankly, the considerations are much too complex and 
individualized to be dealt with here. 

In fact, the whole area of business organization is rife with 
pitfalls. Whatever your decision, you cannot do it alone. As 
1 said before, any decision will have significant tax and legal 
consequences. It is imperative that you get yourself a good 
attorney and accountant who can work together to help you. 
This will cost money, no kidding. The alternative is equival- 
ent to cutting off your head. Literally thousands of dollars 
rest in the balance, and your decisions now will greatly affect 
your ability to use certain tax shelters and loopholes in the 
near and distant future. The investment in the professions 
will be well worth it. 

Once you've got your business on a sound legal and tax 
basis, you can begin to run it with security. You know you 
have a solid business plan, whatever you plan to do. 



About Your Subscription 

Your copy of the RAINBOW is sent second class 
mail and, for subscribers in the United States, the date 
of mailing is printed on the label. If you do not receive 
your copy by the 25th of any month, send us a card and 
we will mail another immediately via first class mail. 

You must notify us of a new address when you 
move. Notification should reach us no later than the 
ISth of the month prior to the month in which you 
change your address. Sorry, we cannot be responsible 
for sending another copy when you fail to notify us. 

Your mailing label also shows an "account number" 
and the subscription expiration date. Please indicate 
this account number when renewing or corresponding 
with us. It will help us help you better and faster. 

For Canadian and other non-U.S. subscribers, there 
may be a mailing address shown that is different from 
our editorial office address. Do not send any corres- 
pondence to that mailing address. Send it to our edi- 
torial offices at P.O. Box 209, Prospect, KY 40059. 
This applies to everyone except those whose subscrip- 
tions are through our distributor in Australia. 



160 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



A 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 
SHOPPING LIST 



A Chip Off The Old... CoCo Cables And... 



6821 Standard PIA $9.95 

6822 Industrial Grade PIA $14.95 

6847 VDC Chip $17.95 

68764 (Fits Ext Basic Skt) Eprom .$24.95 

64K RAM Checker (ROMPAK) $24.95 

16K-32K Upgrade Kit* $25.95 

6883 SAM Chip w/heat sink $29.95 

6809E CPU Chip $29.95 

Basic ROM 1.2 Chip $39.95 

Disk ROM 1.1 (New DOS Command) ..$39.95 
64K RAM Chips (Spectrum Special) .$49.95 

Extended Basic 1.1 ROM $69.95 

CoCo First Aid Kit (Be Prepared) 

(2 682I's, 6809E & 6883) $69.95 

Eprom Programmer - (2716, 2732, 2764 & 

68764) - NO PM's needed ! $139.95 

* NOT compatible with CoCo II 

CoCo Library... 

Color Computer Tech Manual $7.95 

The World Connection - All about Bulletin 
Boards, Modems and the World's Most 

Famous Sysop (Bob Rosen)! $9.95 

CoCo Memory Map $12.00 

Your Color Computer $12.95 

Color Computer Graphics (Inman) ..$12.95 

CoCo Secrets Revealed $14.95 

Color Computer Interfacing $14.95 

RS DISK Owner's Manual $19.95 

More Good Stuff... 

Lowercase Board* $59.95 

Botek Printer Interface $69.95 

The Spectrum Switcher - Have your Disk 
& Cartridge too! Dual Slot System $69.95 
Colorama - The BEST CoCo BBS! ....$99.95 
Disk Interface (Spectrum Special)$139.95 

RS Multi-Pak Interface $159.95 

64 K CoCo II $269.95 

Banana Printer w/CoCo Interface .$299.95 
5 Meg CoCo HARD Disk System ....$1295.00 

All orders plus $3.00 S/H 
NY Residents add sales tax 



F our Pin M ale to F our Pin Fe male 
Extension - 15 feet. Move your printer or 

modem to another location $14.95 

Tired of plugging and unplugging devices 
from the RS232 port? Make your life 
easier. Try our RS232 "Y" cable ..$19.95 
OS-9 Null Modem Cable - Now timeshare 

with another CoCo or MC-10 $19.95 

S pectru m Light Pen $19.95 

Disk Interface/Rom Pak Extender - Move 
your disks and ROM Paks where you want 

them (3 feet) $29.95 

Triple RS232 Switcher - Now select one 
of any three RS232 peripherals ...$29.95 
Tw o Drive Disk Cable $29.95 

Other Good Stuff... 

C-10 tapes in any quantity 49 cents 

5 1/4 Diskettes in any quantity ...$1.99 

Joystick plug $3.99 

64K RAM Button $4.99 

GEMINI 10X Ribbon $4.99 

Epson MX/RX 80 Cartridge $6.99 

Rompak w/Blank PC Board $9.95 

The Spectrum Remote Reset $12.95 

The Disk Doubler - Doubleside your 5 1/4 

diskettes '....$ 14.95 

Video Clear - Cleanup TVI!!! $14.95 

Cassette Recorder Stand- Put your CTR80 

CCR81 at a 45 degree angle $19.95 

The Data Defender - Store 75 diskettes in 
a hard plastic case w/key lock ...$29.95 

Epson Printer Interface $49.95 

CoCo Cooler (D & E Rev. boards) ..$49.95 
New! CoCo Cooler II (CoCo II) ....$49.95 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

93-15 86th DRIVE 

PO Box 21272 

WOODHAVEN, NY 11421 



(212)441-2807 



SCHOOL IS IN THE HEART OF A CHILD 



"In asphodelian fields we sang 
Like birdsong ours were blended, 
Rewards so sweetly gam 'rd when 
Through ancient caves we wended ..." 

— anon 



'Through Ancient 
Caves We Wended' 



By Fran Saito & Bob Albrecht 
Rainbow Contributing Editors 




School Is in the Heart ol a Child" is lor parents ol quite young 
ihildrcn. Wc want to help you work and pla> with your three- to 
ight-year-old child and learn to use computers as a joyful family 
xperience We want to suggest ways to incorporate the home 
computet as another means to encourage your child's independ- 
ence, growth, and control OVer his own life See the pride on her 
as she directs the computer to do what she with deliberation 
selects See her head gears switch to "on" as she progresses step by 
step with your presence and caring direction. 

We will explore (we hope, with vuur help) the following: 

• Specific "teaching" techniques so that the discovery can be 
the child's own. 

• Critical evaluation ol software based on extensive playtesting 
in family and related environments 

• Additional resources to consult: books, magazines, soltware 
publishers, networks, etc 

• Suggestions lor interludes and Inn times awas from the 
computer (a must!): call the librarian lor specific infor 
mation: watch a TV program together and discuss it 
work together as volunteers in a community project: take 
a fall (or spring or winter or summer) awareness walk 

• Whatever we learn Irorn families we work with in Menlo Park 
or from you. our readers Let's pool our knowledge. Let's 

hare our experiences as we all learn from our children. 





Wo 



We will also provide many small programs you can type in anc 

right now. 



use rig 






Copyright© 1983 by Dragon Quest, P.O. Box 310. 
Menlo Park. CA 94026 



The most effective learning environment is the 
family unit, parents and children playing, work- 
ing, learning together. Computers can bring peo- 
ple together in a joyful learning experience. 

— Laran Stardrake 

Mining Rainbow Gold 

We continue prospecting in the caves of the Rainbow. 
Again our search yields nuggets from past issues. This time, 
we present some of our discoveries in wandering from July 
through September, 1983. Here are snippets from reviews of 
educational software designed for kids three to eight years 
old. We encourage you to dig out your back issues (or get the 
back issues) and read the entire review. 

July 1983 

This cave was relatively barren — no reviews of educa- 
tional software appropriate for our interest, three- to eight- 
year-old kids. 

August 1983 

Page 24. "Mathwar Offers Skill Drill Plus Game." Review 
by Stephanie Snyder, who really likes this game. Mathwar 
helps kids learn simple addition and subtraction with four 
levels of difficulty. Sounds like it has some staying powerl 

(Fran Saito holds a degree in education from the Uni- 
versity of Hawaii and has taught preschool and ele- 
mentary students. She feels her inspiration comes 
from Mariko, her five-year-old daughter. Well-known 
author Bob Albrecht also writes the "Game Master's 
Apprentice" feature for the Rainbow each month.) 



162 



the RAINBOW April 1964 



Ms. Snyder says, "In my estimation, Mathwar is a terrific 
program for kids of all ages." 

From: Harmonycs, P.O. Box 1573. Salt Lake City, UT 
84110. 

Page 232. "Two 'Bumbles' Make Learning Enjoyable." 
Review by Michael F. Garozzo. Again, in the Rainbow, a 
reviewer has given a favorable review of Bumble Games and 
Bumble Plot. 

We have also seen favorable reviews of these games from 
other computer publications. Michael Garozzo says, "The 
Follett Library Book Company has developed, through The 
Learning Company, two programs for teaching children 
how to locate positions on arrays and grids. According to 
the introduction, students . . . will need this skill to find 
streets on maps, to build charts and graphs and to design 
computer graphics. This reviewer would add latitude and 
longitude." 

We believe that learning to read maps and find your way 
from place to place is an important basic skill, perhaps more 
important than number-crunching. Hmmm . . . suppose 
you play Bumble Games, then go to the playground and 
map it, or make a map of your neighborhood, or use a map 
of your neighborhood to go from place to place, or . . . and 
so on. Let's blend computer learning with real-life learning. 
We would love to hear from people who do this with their 
own kids. 

Bumble Games and Bumble Plot from: Follett Library 
Book Company. 4506 Northwest Highway, Crystal Lake. 
IL 60014. 

September 1983 

This issue focuses on education, so it is extra-rich in 
reviews of educational software. There are also several arti- 
cles you might like to read. Here are our snips from selected 
reviews. 

Page 120. "A Good Program With One Sour Note." 
Review by Mark Williams. Music Drill is a "drill and prac- 
tice" program to help you or your child practice sightread- 
ing. It runs on I6K ECB. Mr. Williams likes the program, 
except for the scoring system, and he recommends the 
program. 

From: Computer Island. Dept. R, 227 Hampton Green 
Staten Island. NY 10312. 

Page 128. "The Tooth Of Time, Byte By Byte." Review by 
James Ventling. Time Teacher helps a kid learn to tell time 
with either a traditional or digital clock. James Ventling 
concludes. "All in all. this is an excellent program for the 
home or classroom. Sound is used effectively throughout, 
neither overpowering the material, nor making wrong 
answers entertaining. Graphics are clear and the program is 
easy to use. Some adult guidance may be needed at first, but 
kids will quickly learn to use this program without help." 

From: Crystal Software. 6591 Dawsey Road. Rock 
Creek. OH 44084. 

Pages 136 and 137. -Vocabulary Builder Gets Construc- 
tive Criticism." This is a long review (most of two pages) by 
Dr. Charles H. Santee. He does not recommend the pro- 
gram and, in his review, is very specific about his objections 
to the program. He offers several constructive criticisms for 
improving the program. We disagree with a couple of criti- 
cisms in principle, but have not tried the game. We would 
like to playtest this game. We would also like to hear from 
you people out there who have used this game with your own 
kids. 

From: Computer Island. 227 Hampton Green, Staten 
Island, NY 10312. 



Page 138. "Match & Spell Sparks Enthusiasm For Learn- 
ing." Review by Kenneth D. Peters. We especially like these 
paragraphs: 

"I think Match & Spell is an excellent program and pro- 
vides a well-balanced and effective intermingling of play 
time with spelling drills, in contrast to some spelling/ math 
drills which require you to reach a certain performance 
before being rewarded with play. 

"The program runs well and is very easy to use. (My wife 
wanted me to be sure and say that, as she has commented 
that Match & Spell is one of the easiest programs she has 
had to help the younger kids with when I'm not home.) 
Younger children, around age six and under, may need some 
help and guidance to read the prompts, etc.. at first, but they 
catch on fast! The word list can be changed readily to 
accommodate appropriate vocabulary. For my youngest 
daughter, age four, we use words like family members' 
names, her name, dog, cat, etc." 

From: Harmonycs. P.O. Box 1573. Salt Lake City UT 
84110. 

Page 170. "Old MacDonald's Farm Vowels A-E-I-O-U." 
Review by Michael Hunt. This program works with the 
cassette recorder to help kids learn the sound of long and 
short vowels. Michael Hunt says, "Correct responses are 
rewarded by a smiling face and "Old McDonald's Farm" is 
heard. If a response is incorrect, the student is given a clue 
and prompted to try again. Once the correct response is 
given a smiling face is seen. Negative reinforcement is never 
used. Scoring is kept at the bottom of the screen. The scoring 
format is handled nicely and allows the parent or teacher to 
easily determine which items were missed on the initial try." 
He recommends the program for you, your child, and 
your I6K CoCo with ECB. 

From: Teksym Corp.. 14504 County Road 15. Minneapo- 
lis, MN 55441. 

Page 242. "Bibbits and Gribbits in Moptown Hotel." 
Review by Pat, Don, and Chris Dollberg. We love this 
review by a family — mama, papa, and 1 1-year-old daugh- 
ter. More reviews like this, please! Here arc a couple of 
snippets from this delightful review. 

"Ever since the Moptown Hotel arrived for review, our 
family has "adopted" a number of strange but wonderful 
critters known as the moppets, which 'inhabit Moptown. 
Moppets, which come in two kinds — Bibbits and Gribbits 
— are a real way of teaching children (ages six to 13) the 
concepts of similarities and differences. Moptown Hotel is 
part of a series of educational programs from the Follett 
Library Book Co. which includes Moptown Twin and Mop- 
town Parade — all three packages are available on cassette 
or disk and require a 1 6K Extended basic Color Computer. 
The disk version of Moptown Hotel is the subject of this 
review, which we decided to make a family review. Being an 
educational package, what better way to review the program 
than to have our 1 1-year-old program tester (Chris) put the 
package through its paces. 

"The documentation is sufficient since the instructions are 
included in each program as noted above. However, there 
might have been more discussion for parents on the concepts 
of logical thinking. This would help parents to provide 
guidance to their children. For example, the manual sug- 
gests making a deck of moppet cards with some possible 
games. This is an excellent idea which allows the learning 
process to continue while mom and dad use the CoCo to 
blow up space nasties. Overall, we rate the Moptown Series 
as excellent — you can tell your child you're buying a game 
and he, she will never know it's really an educational game." 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 163 



From: Follett Library Book Company. 4506 Northwest 
Highway. Crystal Lake, IL 60014. 

Page 245. "Beyond Words Is Beyond Words." Review by 
Stephanie Snyder. Beyond Words consists of three language 
arts tutors for people eight years old and older — all the way 
through high school! Ms. Snyder reports. "We had many 
children of all different ages use the program that was suited 
to their particular age group. The reactions and comments 
about the programs were all very favorable. All of the child- 
ren, especially the younger ones, enjoyed the amount of 
interaction that they had with the computer. My daughter, 
Shari, who is in the eighth grade, found the subtests for her 
level very challenging. Very often she complains that 'educa- 
tional' software written for her age group is too easy." 

We want to try this with children younger than eight years 
old. We think a parent and a child working together can 
effectively use software supposedly designed for older kids. 

From: Computer Island. 227 Hampton Green. Staten 
Island. NY 10312. 

There is still more in the September issue. It's a good back 
issue to buy if you don't already have it. 

Playtesting, First Impressions 

ComputerKid, USA! puts computers in the hands of kids 
in youth organizations, alternative schools, and at home in 
order to playtest and evaluate educational software in places 
that are learner-centered, instead of teacher-centered. We 
now have the following sites. 

Herbert Hoover Boys' Club in East Menlo Park. Calif. 
Boys and girls of many ages. 

A Montessori school in Menlo Park. Kids from three to 
six years old. 

Our own playtest room. Kids and their parents come 
after school to try out educational software. 
Greene Community School. Greene, Iowa. A CoCo in 
the elementary school library can be checked out for 
home use. Greene is a rural community of about 1300 
people. 

Roving CoCos go out on loan to Menlo Park families 
who will playtest software and report on their ex- 
periences. 

Roving Software goes out on loan to Menlo Park fami- 
lies who have their own CoCos. 

Tim Finger is Director of ComputerKid. USA! He has 
been doing this full time for two years. He begins by trying 
programs himself to get the "feel" of the software. Then, he 
uses the programs with a bunch of kids and learns more by 
watching them. Finally, the software goes to other playtest 
supervisors who work with kids and fill out formal evalua- 
tion forms. Below is the story of Tim's first playtest of two 
games from Radio Shack. 

Monday, Jan. 23, at the Montessori school. 1 :30 p.m. Age 
Group — upper fours to six. 

GAME: Ernie's Magic Shapes (Radio Shack). 

Tim explains and shows how to load the cassette. He tries 
to have them type in CLOAD. sounding the letters instead 
of saying them. They seek out the keys on the keyboard and 
together, slowly, type the word in. Because the loading time 
is a few minutes, he goes through the accompanying booklet 
briefly showing characters (Ernie, et al) and the objective of 
the game. The children respond enthusiastically and are 
eager. 

Child: Why do they use arrows for yes and no. Tim? 



Tim: The person who wrote the program decided to do 
it like that. 

Always, in addition to the assigned children, others, one. 
two, three, gather 'round. Repeatedly, a teacher comes to 
remind them where they should be. this occurred four or 
five times with the same kid. How, indeed, do we keep 'em 
down on the farm after they've seen Paree?! 

Tim likes this game and the children respond well, match- 
ing colors and shapes. Ernie's nodding to mean yes and 
shaking his head to mean no seemed to confuse adults, but 
seemingly not the children. Tim thinks highly of the logo: 
the wand as a pointer and the rabbit feedback for fruition, 
well-done. Tim notes and praises the children for working as 
a team, as together the three work, agree on an answer, and 
depress a key. 

Tim: Why does loading time have to be so long? 
Can directions be simplified, even for an adult? 
The Montessori School hopes to use the computer simply 
as another Montessori teaching aid. The child goes to it at 
will and puts it away after completion. A selection of games 
is available. For now, it is the teacher who must do the 
loading, but it is the aim that children will become adept 
enough to do it themselves. 

GAME: Peanut Butter Panic, a.k.a. Peanut Butter Sand- 
wich (Radio Shack). 

Tim, realizing the children are beginning to sound letters 
and words, goes through the title with his second group of 
children. They get to "Butter" and after that, guess "Sand- 
wich." 

Tim: I didn't like the work "Panic" and thought myself 
that "Sandwich" was a much better title, so that's what it 
became. 

Tim and children go through a spirited practice of identi- 
fying left, right, middle, and up. The children respond to 
Tim's commands. "Raise your right hand. Raise your left 
hand. Raise one finger." They respond eagerly, concentrat- 
ing, thinking hard. 

Tim brings the commands back to the computer and plays 
the left-right game further. Now, instead of four there are 
eight heads gathered 'round. 

The objective of the game, to see how many stars nutniks 
can eat, requires eye-motor coordination and dexterity with 
the joystick and button. Also, cooperation at a more 
advanced stage. The nutnik is rewarded with a peanut butter 
sandwich when he makes a catch. 

The children like this game. too. Tim does not like the 
concept of "eating" stars, so substitutes "catches" through- 
out the game. 

Florence: Tim, you're a good computer teacher. 
Tim: Thank you. And you're a good computer student. 
Florence: I'm not a student. 
Tim: What are you then? 
Florence: I'm a kid! 

Help! Are you using educational software with your own 
three- to eight-year-old kid? If yes, would you help us by 
filling out some evaluation forms? Send us a self-addressed, 
stamped envelope and we will send you some forms. Fran & 
Bob, P.O. Box 310, Menlo Park. CA 94026. 

Guess And Learn 

Here are a couple of guessing games. The first is from 
TRS-80 Color BASIC by Bob Albrecht.* The other is new, 
we think. 

♦Albrecht, Bob. TRS-80 Color Basic. John Wiley and 
Sons. Inc.. 605 Third Avenue, New York. NY 10158. 



164 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



100 REM**GUESS MY TONE SCH 3-1 

200 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY 

210 CLS 

220 PRINT "I'LL PLAY A TONE. YOU 

GUESS" 
230 PRINT "MY TONE NUMBER, 1 TO 
255. ■ 

300 REM**PLAY RANDOM TONE 
310 T - RND(255) 
320 PRINT 

330 PRINT "SUESS THIS TONE" 
400 REM**SOUND TONE & GET GUESS 
410 PRINT: 80UND T, 20 
420 INPUT "YOUR GUESS"; G 
500 REM** IF INCORRECT, GIVE HINT 
510 IF G<T THEN PRINT "TRY A BIG 
QER NUMBER": GOTO 410 
520 IF G>T THEN PRINT "TRY A SMA 
LLER NUMBER": GOTO 410 
600 REM** WINNER! 

610 PRINT "THAT'S IT! YOU GUESSE 
D MY TONE." 
620 SOUND T, 120 
700 REM**GO PLAY AGAIN 
710 GOTO 210 



This, of course, looks like the traditional "guess my 
number" game, except that the number being guessed is the 
number of a musical tone on the CoCo. 

Next, here is our Cosmic Guess game. You guess which 
planet the CoCo is "thinking of." If you miss, the CoCo tells 
you to go closer to the sun or farther from the sun. 



100 REM**COSMIC GUESS SCH 3-2 

200 REM**PUT PLANETS IN ARRAY 

210 FOR P=l TO 9 

220 : READ PLANET* (P) 

230 NEXT P 

240 DATA MERCURY, VENUS, EARTH 

250 DATA MARS, JUPITER, SATURN 

260 DATA URANUS, NEPTUNE, PLUTO 

300 REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY 

310 CL8 

320 PRINT "I'LL THINK OF A PLANE 

T. GUESS" 

330 PRINT "WHAT PLANET I'M THINK 

ING ABOUT." 

400 REM**SELECT A PLANET 

410 P ■ RND(9) 

500 REM**GET A GUESS 

510 PRINT 

520 INPUT "WHAT PLANET"; G* 

600 REM**LOOK FOR G* 

610 FOR K-l TO 9 

620 : IF G*=PLANET*(K) THEN 710 



630 


NEXT K 




640 


PRINT "I DON'T KNOW " 


G* 


650 


SOTO 510 




700 


REM**G4 IS A PLANET 




710 


IF G*«PLANET*<P) THEN 


G10 


720 


IF K>P THEN PRINT "TRY CLOSE 


R TO THE SUN." 




730 


IF K<P THEN PRINT "TRY FARTH 


ER FROM THE SUN." 




740 


GOTO 510 




800 


REM**GUESS IS CORRECT 




810 


PRINT 




820 


PRINT "GOOD FOR YOU! YOU GOT 


MY 


PLANET. " 




900 


REM**TELL HOW TO PLAY 


AGAIN 


910 


PRINT 




920 


PRINT "TO PLAY AGAIN, 


PRESS 


ANY 


KEY. "| 




930 


IF INKEY*="" THEN 930 




940 


GOTO 310 





Gamblers Beware! 

Since much that happens in life is a gamble, and this is our 
gamblers' issue, perhaps it is good to learn how to learn by 
experience. Here is a simple game that might provide some 
surprises. The first game simply flips a coin and lets the 
player guess H#(heads) or T#(Tails). You can make the coin 
fair or unfair. 



STOCK & FUND INVESTING 

with the 

TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER 

USE FUNDGRAF AND FUNDFILE 

FUNDGRAF is a slock market analysis program that not only graphs and 
analyzes funds or stocks, but also makes decisions on when to BUY and SELL 
Improve market timing using your COCO. 

T 



Tnr 



i 



T 



FUNDGRAF-A STOCK 

MARKET ANALYSIS 

PROGRAM FOR 16K EX 

TRS40 COLOR COMPUTER . 




TBS-80 COLOR COMPUTER - Tu T*HO» CORP 



GRAPHS fund's progress (up to 200 
weeks). SUPERIMPOSES forcomparison: 
a line of constant percent growth or a 
graph of any other fund (or stock). 
CALCULATES over any time span: the 
percent price change and the moving 
average (any span). INDICATES BUY 
and SELL signals. FUNDGRAFrequires 
16KECBmin. 

16/32 K Tape »49.95 

16/32 K 5 in. Disk S69.8S 

ADD S2 handling on all orders. 

FUNDFILE is a portfolio and account management program for securities. 
Manage single or multiple portfolios of stocks, mutual funds, bonds, money 
market funds, etc. FUNDFILE allows easy maintenance of all your records for 
accurate portfolio evaluation. NEW 32 K VERSION of Fl'NDFI LE summarizes 
all transactions (dividends, interest, purchases and sales) between any two 
dates of your choice - weekly, yearly, etc. Categorizes interest and dividends paid 
as to tax liability (tax free, etc.) and capital gains as long or short term. Great for 
tax reports. 

FUNDFILE REQUIRES 16 K ECB min. and 80-COL PRINTER. 

5-in. Diskette only for 16 K ECB f 27.96 

5-in. Diskette only for 32 K ECB $37.96 

ADD S2 handling on all orders. 

Write for free brochure for details. Dealer inquiries invited. 

PARSONS SOFTWARE, DEPT. G 

118 WOODSHIRE DRIVE 

PARKERSBURG, WV 26101 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 165 



d§5 



SPELL 'N FIX II 




Hat 



j 



WOW! WHAT A PROGRAM! 



SPELL 'N FIX II is not just for 
spelling mistakes — it catches 
typos too. It really makes sure 
that your word processing output 
is perfect. Easy to use too. Reads 
your text, fixes your mistakes, 
lets you look up the spelling of 
bad words in its dictionary file, 
even lets you add words to the 
dictionary. Color Computer 
Magazine called the original 
SPELL - N FIX "a top-drawer 
piece of software" ... and SPELL 
'N FIX II is even better! Originally 
advertised for $69.29, it beats the 
$200 — $300 dictionary programs 
for other computers — hands 
down! 



Nowadays, when you go to the theatre, you first pay 
your money and then go to the show ... and hope you 
enjoy it. But it wasn't always like that. Centuries ago it 
was the other way around. First you saw the show. 
Then the performers passed their hats around. If you 
enjoyed the show, you put money in the hat. The more 
you enjoyed it, the more you put in. 

We're going to try the same approach with 
software. 

INTRODUCING 

PASS-THE-HAT 

SOFTWARE 

It works like this. Send us a formatted disk along with a 
stamped, self-addressed mailer. We will use it to send you a 
copy of SPELL'N FIX II. We also give you permission to 
copy the disk as much as you want and give copies to all 
your friends. 

After you've had a chance to use it. that's where the hat 
comes in. We want you to decide for yourself what the 
program is worth to you, and send us a contribution. (Hint: 
send a LOT if you really like it!) 




COMPARISON CHART 






Radio Shack 


Oliylllai 


New 




Color 


SPELL N 


SPELL N 




Dictionary 


FIX 


FIX II 


Checks SCRIPSIT (R) tiles 


26 3265 






YES 


YES 


YES 


Checks oiher lext processor liles 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Checks Basic daia hies 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Checks files larger than memory 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Full upper and lower case display 


NO 


NO 


YES 


Add words Irom dictionary 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Deieie words from dictionary 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Custom dictionaries possible 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Comes with error tree dictionary 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Usable lor loreign languages 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Checks and fixed in one pass 


NO 


NO 


YES 


Shows suspect words in context 


YES 


YES 


YES 


Usable wiih just one diskette 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Looks up words in dictu marv 


YES 


NO 


YES 


Looks up words while correcting 


NO 


NO 


YES 


DIR command allowed during run 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Uses standard Basic file lormat 


NO 


YES 


YES 


Price 


359-95 


549 .it 


FREE 


tNote: SCRIPSIT - ,i iMcfciiurk i 


l T.iikIv. Coipo 


.itn •in 





TAR-KITS" 

SOFTWARE SYSTEMS CORPORATION 



, 



PO BOX 209 R MT K1SCO NY 10549 (914) 2410287 



STAR — KIBBITS 

This month I have some good news and some not 
so-good news. First the not -so-good news. 

This is my last Star — Kibbits column. I have really 
enjoyed the chance to sound off on my favorite little 
computer each month, but the pressures of meeting a 
monthly deadline are getting to me (as you've 
probably noticed from my missing last month's.) I've 
gotten some very encouraging comments from some 
of you readers about this column, but I am afraid that 
the time has come to say goodbye. 

Now for the good news. 

PASS-THE-HAT SOFTWARE 

A few months ago I tried an experiment. Instead of 
selling our Commterm communications program for 
the CoCo and MC 10, I decided to give it away free, 
but ask users to send us some money if they liked the 
program and used it. In reviewing the program for 
HOT CoCo Magazine, Douglas Swank called that the 
"Passthe Hat" sales method. 1 hope he doesn't mind if 
I borrow the name and extend the idea to SPELL 'N 
FIX II as well. 

It's too early to tell whether we're going to lose our 
shirts on this idea, but my hope is that enough people 
will send us a contribution to make it possible for us to 
continue. It is a gamble and only time will tell whether 
we are making the right decision or not. but with 
today's high cost of doing business it is clear that we 
must change our marketing methods if Star Kits is to 
survive. 

If you would like to get your free copy of SPELL 'N 
FIX II, send us a disk with a stamped mailer. (Send a 
cassette for Commterm). We will return the disk with 
the program. The operations manual is also on the 
disk, and you can print it out yourself. We also give 
you permission to make copies and pass them out to 
your friends. 

In return, we ask that each user decide what the 
program is worth and send us a contribution. 
Hopefully, you'll think it's worth a lot, but even a small 
contribution is better than nothing. 

WHAT DO YOU THINK? 

What's your opinion of this hare-brained scheme? 
Do you think we're ready for the loony bin? Should we 
do it for our other software as well? I'd love to hear 
from you! 

DOUBLE - SIDED DISKS 

We are selling a complete disk system with a disk 
controller, a double-sided 40 track drive, cabinet, 
power supply and all cables, all for $400. The 
advangtage, of course, is that the double sided drive 
gives you the capacity of two regular drives lor just 
slightly more than only one. 

If you currently have a double sided drive, send us a 
large self addressed stamped envelope and we will 
send you free details on how to use it with your CoCo. 

That's it for this month see you next time. 




SPELL N FIX II 

Regardless of whose text processor you use. let SPELL 'N 
FIX find and fix your spelling and typing mistakes. It reads 
text faster than you can, and spots and corrects errors even 
experienced proofreaders miss. It is compatible with all 
Color Computer lexi processors. Part of our Pass the Hal 
program. Send a disk and stamped mailer for your free 
copy. Older SPELL 'N FIX I is now priced at $49.39 tape or 
disk. Both include a 20.000 word dictionary. 

HUMBUG " — THE SUPER MONITOR 
A complete monitor and debugging system which lets you 
input programs and data into memory, list memory 
contents, insert multiple breakpoints, single step. lest, 
checksum, and compare memory contents, find data in 
memory, slart and slop programs, upload and download. 
save to tape, Connect the Color Computer to a terminal, 
printer, or remote computer, and more. HUMBUG on disk 
or cassette costs just $39.95. special 64K version for FLEX 
or STAR DOS 64 costs $59.95. MC 10 version $29.95. 

STAR— DOS 
A Disk Operating System specially designed for the Color 
Computer. STAR DOS is fully compatible with your 
present Color Computer disk format - it reads disks 
written by Extended Disk Basic and vice versa. STAR DOS 
lor 16K through 64K systems costs $49 90 
DBLS for Data Bases 
DBLS stands for Dala Base Lookup System. A super fast 
system (or searching lor a selected record in a sequential 
disk file. Supplied with SPELL 'N FIX's 20,000 word 
dictionary as a sample dala file lets you look up the 
spelling ol .my word in under FOUR seconds. Priced at 
$29.95. Requires STAR DOS. 

CHECK N TAX 
Home accounting package combines checkbook mainte 
nance and income lax data collection Wrillen in Basic lor 
either RS Disk or Flex. $50. 

REMOTERM 
RLMOTERM makes your CoCo into a host computer. 
operated from a remote terminal. $19.95. disk or cassette. 

COMMTERM 
A terminal program lor your CoCo oi MC 10. Part of our 
Pass- 1 he Hal software program. Send a cassette and 
si .imped envelope for your tree copy 
NEWTALK 
NhWTALK a memory examine utility for machine 

language programmers which reads out memory contents 
through the TV set speaker. $20. disk or cassette. 

SHRINK 
SHRINK oui version ol Eliza, in machine language and 
extremely last $15. disk or cassette. 

EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE 
Introduction to Numerical Methods college level course 
on computer math. $75.00. disk or casette. 
We accept cash, check. COD. Visa, or Master Card. NY 
Slate residents please add appropriate sales tax. Add $3 to 
above price foi AMDEK 3" disk versions. 
(FLF.X is a trademark ol Technical Sysiems Consultants. 
Inc. Everything else in this ad is a trademark ol Star Kits.) 



TAR-KlTS- 

SOFTWARE SYSTEMS CORPORATION 



PO BOX 209R MT KISCO NY 10549 (914)241-0287 



"I'LL FLIP A COIN." 
"TO GUESS HEADS, PRESS 

"TO GUESS TAILS, PRESS 



ELSE 



100 REM**COIN GUESS SCH 3-3 

110 PH = 50 

200 REM**TELL WHAT TO DO 

210 CLS 

220 PRINT 

230 PRINT 

'H' " 
240 PRINT 

»T»" 
300 REM**FLIP THE COIN 
310 FLIP = RND(100) 
320 IF FLIP<=PH THEN C*="H" 

C*="T" 
400 REM**GET GUESS 
410 PRINT: PRINT "H OR 
420 G*=INKEY$:IF G*="" 
430 IF 6»="H" THEN 450 
440 IF G*="T" THEN 450 ELSE 420 
450 PRINT G* 

500 REM**COMPARE G* WITH C* 
510 IF G*=C* THEN 520 ELSE 530 
520 PRINT "THAT'S IT! MY COIN IS 

" C*: GOTO 310 
530 PRINT "SORRY, 
*: GOTO 310 



T? "J 
THEN 420 



MY COIN IS 



Enter and RUN the program. The CoCo will "flip" a coin 
with about an equal chance of heads or tails. We expect the 
player will win about half the time. Keep track of the wins 
and losses — also keep track of the number of heads and 
tails. 

Then change line 1 10, which controls the chance of getting 
heads. For example: 1 10 PH =70 will cause the CoCo to get 
heads about 70 percent of the time. How long will it take the 
player to discover that the CoCo's coin isn't like an ordinary 
coin? Encourage kids to keep a written record of heads and 
tails, perhaps like this: 

HHHHHHHHH 
TTTT 

Looks like H 
is ahead. 



Try other values of PH until everyone gets the idea of 
keeping records and figuring out whether H or T is the better 
guess. 

Hmmmm . . . can a computer lie? Suppose the computer 
tells a kid that it will choose CAT or DOG with the same 
chance of occurring, then actually selects CAT 70 percent of 
the time? Beware, kids! Learn to be skeptical about compu- 
ters. People can use computers to help you or hinder you, to 
give you more freedom, or reduce your freedom. 

,0% 




WORD PROCESSOR 

for your Color Computer 



Yes! That's right, because we want to create some excitement with 
an offer you can't pass up — a professional quality full screen 
oriented word processor that would be a bargain at S50. It's a good 
one too. Take a look at what you get. 

MASTER WRITER'S FULLSCREEN-ORIENTED EDITOR allows 
you to move the cursor anywhere in your text using the up, down, 
right and left arrows. Do this one character at a time or by line or 
page. Insert, delete or replace text at the cursor watching your 
changes as you make them. Delete or move blocks of text from one 
place to another. Merge in text from other files. 

AUTOMATIC CARRIAGE RETURN after last complete word on 
each line, with this and AUTOMATIC PAGE FEEDyou don't have to 
worry about where a line or page ends — just type! 

MASTER WRITER runs on a 16K, 32K, or 64K COLOR COM- 
PUTER, taking advantage of all available memory. Use it with DISK 
OR CASSETTE based systems. EXTENDED BASIC IS NOT 
REQUIRED. 

EASY TO UNDERSTAND MANUAL has you comfortably using 
MASTER WRITER in minutes. It is a USER-FRIENDLY MENU- 
DRIVEN SYSTEM with single letter commands. Check any com- 
mand without having to refer to the manual with the HELP 
SCREEN. 

1 PROGRAMMABLE FUNCTION KEYS allow easy insertion of 
frequently used words or phrases. 




WORKS WITH ANY PRINTER. Take full advantage of your 
printer's special functions such as variable charcter size and 
emphzsized characters with EASY EMBEDDING OF PRINTER 
CONTROL CODES. 

GLOBAL SEARCH function lets you quickly locate specific 
strings for replacement or deletion. 

Customize form letters or standard text with MASTER WRITER'S 
EMBEDDED PAUSE feature. Just "fill in the blanks" when your 
printer pauses for a personalized appearance. 

LIMITED MULTI-TASKING feature lets you print one file while 
editing another. 

In addition to regular text you can use MASTER WRITER to 
CREATE BASIC PROGRAMS with the convenience of full-screen 
editing. 

OTHER FEATURES include easy setting of left, right, top and 
bottom margin, printer line width, and lines per page. Also auto 
repeat keys, auto line centering, auto page numbering and choice of 
display color formats. 

And, perhaps one of the best features, is MASTER WRITER'S 
SUPER LOW PRICE OF $1 4.95. At this price you can't go wrong. 
Buy it todayl 

TO ORDER send S 1 4.95 for cassette version or S 1 9.95 for disk 
version plus S2.50 shipping (Calif, residents add 6 % sales tax) to: 
PYRAMID DISTRIBUTORS, 527 HILL ST., SANTAMONICA, CA 
90405 (213)399-2222. 



MASTER WRITER 



$14.95 Cassette 
$19.95 Disk 



168 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



" TPB-BO COLOR COMPUTER P RODUCTS" 
■■^MPrp ..«■_»■ pdpom PROGRAMMER" " THF CK4 SERIES PROM /RAM CARDS 



The list o. directly compatible M' 1 ™^."^ 
including: 2508s. 2758-0/Vs. B51Bs. 2716s. 2532s, E7V* 
68732-0/ Vs. 68764s. and 68765s. 



NEW FEATURES INCLUDE; 



1) Intelligent algonThrrThaTreduces programming time to as little 
£ K^,Stt«raE~ EPROMs. or locate 

if MeaWe that guards against EPROM type entry errors. 

4, Diagnostic routines that prevent keyboard entry errors from 

causing disastrous consequences. 



nRMWAflEFEATUHES 

■ncoaniuiFHASEO' " 4) BYTE PROGRAMMING' 

P COMPARE EPROM TO RAM'5, DUMP EPROM TO RAM' 
3] BLOCK PROGRAMMING! 61 JUMP' 

r _ «= ,e 'crark-nnpnted" "position independent", and "menu 
d;r e : a 1uPPlied a ,n anE PROM, it'can also be stored on disc or tape 
tor execution from RAM it desired 

STANDARD ^RJ£\NAR_E_FEATURES 

1) It has its"wn "on-board" 25 ^^^'"?^ 

2) A quality textool "zero insertion force IZIF) socket. 

3) Socket for firmware on-board 
A piA oort is also available on the programmer This 8 bit parallel 

printer interface a're included in the instruction manual 

ne^blfor'was an EP P R0 9 M programmer so easy to use. and 

feature packed as is the 1 248-EP 

The enhanced 1 248-EP costs only $189.95. 

F.rmware upgrades are avai^ble to our previous 1 248-EP custom- 

ers. m EPROM. for |ust S29.95. 




The CK4 cards work with 2K. 4K. and 8K ROMs or EPROMs of the 
5 volt only variety in 24 p,n packages. The CK4 can also wor with 
static RAMs, and increase your available memory by as much as 
16.128 bytes. 

The CK4-1 is specifically designed for use in computers with "F" 
series boards, o? those machines that are "write : protec ted in the 
address range of SCOOO through SFEFF. The CK4-1 therefore 
does not ^corporate features designed in the CK4 for use with 
RAM 

The CK4-2 is the unpopulated version of the CK4 series board Buy 
[his version and configure to meet your specific requirements, and 
stretch the value of your dollar 



FEATURE SSUM MARY 



II MIX RDM AND RAM' 

21 EXPAND RAM FROM 2- 1610 

31 YOU WRI'E PROTECT RAM' 



al EXTREMELY FLEXIBLE DECODING' 
51 PROVIDES FOR BATTERY BACKUP' 
61 LOW COST' 



PRICES 



_„„„■= rua 1 >S?7 95 ea CK-2S15 95ea 

CK-4 S29.95 ea CKfl-1 Si/ sa « 

MEW PROD UCT OFFERING 

A/D-80C ANALOG TO DIGITAL CONVERTER BOARD 

The A/D-80C is a 1 6+ channel analog to dig.tal converter with two 
8 bit PIA ports plus handshake lines 

^Implement closed-loop control of analog processes! 

•iRJse it to control your homes environment 

-^-Computerize your laboratory or darkroom' 

-::-Build a multi-channel voltmeter! 

-::-Use it for waveform generation! 

-::-For robotics! 

Tk . , n onr ■<; software programmable up to a maximum of 1 

z&SSSbssssssssi 

selectable 

The A/D-80C performs nearly 9K A/D conversions per second 

aid to software development, and a socxet is p u 
EPRQM for user developed software drivers 

CONSULT FACTORY FOR AVAILABILITY AND PRICE INFORMA- 
TION ON NEW PRODUCTS 

cnnTOnY FRESH COMPONENTS: 



ITEM 

9716 EPROM 
2532 EPROM 
6B21P 
74LS156 
Socket 



nFSCRIPTION 

2K by 8 Bit. 
4K by 8 bit. 
PIA 

Open collector decoder 
Textool "Zero Insertion Force" 
Minimum component order $25.00 



PRICE 

$4 50 ea 
S6.50 ea 
$3 50 ea 
$1 70 ea 
$9.00 ea 



rmncPiniq; INFORMATION: 

/\H rt msinn to all orders to cover shipping and handling. Canadian 
SSSSU SS cover ^«^S^ 
^erfpr^s^^t^c^^hrn^r 



Make checks payable to. 



tt; 



* TRS-BO .5 a trademark of TA N° V CORP 
**■ SOSBOC is a trademark ot Che MICRO WORKS 



5801 E. VOLTAIRE DRIVE 

SCOTTSDALE, ARIZONA 85254 

(602) 998-7569 



PROGRAMMING UTILITY 




(H.Allen Curtis, who earned degrees from the College 
of William anil Mary. M.I.T., and Harvard, recently 
won an award for meritorious service from the IEEE 
Computer Society. He has had published a college 
reference hook in the computer science field, as well as 
many papers and articles.) 




ou've heard of "Big D." Well, Little E could be as 

important to MC-10 and CoCo users as Big D is to 

Texas. Little £ is a programming aid to ease and 

simplify the keyboard entry, modification or correction of 

BASIC programs. 

The motivation for the development of Little E was a 
decided deficiency in both the MC-10 computer and the 
Color Computer with Color BASIC alone. Neither of these 
computers has an £D/7" command! Most people who make 
regular use of their computer's EDIT command would 
probably agree that it is one of the most important com- 
mands in the BASIC repertoire. 

The running of Little f does the following. It allows the 
basic interpreter to recognize lowercase E as a new com- 
mand word. It also allows the execution of the new com- 
mand upon demand, that is. whenever the lowercase E 
command is issued. 

Henceforth, the new command will be referred to as the e 
command. The e command is both simple to learn and 
convenient to use. Furthermore, it does not require much 
memory (about .25 K bytes, that is. about two-thirds that 
employed by CoCo's Extended Color BASIC EDIT com- 
mand). Those having Extended Color BASIC may prefer the 
e command to their own EDIT command because of the e 
command's simplicity, convenience and ability to move lines 
of BASIC programming. 

The e command will presently be described in general 
terms. Next, Little £will be presented and discussed briefly. 
Once you have keyed in Little £ correctly and saved it, you 
will be ready to go through some specific examples illustrat- 
ing the workings of the e command. 
The format of the e command is as follows: 

e line number 

where the line number is any program line number from to 
63999 inclusive. Remember, in order to type a lowercase e 
you must have switched to the upper-/ lowercase option 
mode by pressing [Shift][0]. 

After you have typed e and the desired line number as well 
as pressed [ENTER], the designated line of programming 
will be displayed at the top of the screen. The cursor will be 
flashing at the top left position of the screen. 

Three arrow keys are used to locate the cursor where you 
want it: 

(RIGHT): Pressing the right arrow key moves the cursor 
one position right without changing the character it covers. 



170 the RAINBOW April 1984 



(DOWN): Pressing the down arrow key moves the cursor 
one position down without changing the character it covers. 

(LEFT): Pressing the left arrow key moves the cursor one 
position left without changing the character it covers. 

In the MC-IO the cursor is constrained to move within the 
first 128 positions of the screen. In the CoCo the cursor may 
move within the first 253 positions. 

Characters can be deleted from the displayed program 
line by pressing the MC-IO's [L.DEL] key or the CoCo's 
[CLEAR] key. Spaces over which new characters may be 
typed can be inserted by means of the [SHIFT][@] key. 
Typing a character key will cause that character to be dis- 
played at the current cursor position and then the cursor will 
advance one position right. Cursor movement, deletion, 
insertion and overtyping not only allow you to make 
changes in a designated line, but they permit changing the 
line number itself. Thus, you may use the e command to 
write a replica of all or part of a program line at a new 
location in the program. 

Pressing [ENTER] twice will terminate editing and cause 
the changed line to be included in your program. Before 
termination if you decide that you do not want the line 
edited after all, you may "break out" of the e command by 
pressing the [BREAK] key. The designated line will remain 
unchanged. 

Little E. the program that adds the e command to your 
computer's BASIC" repetoire. is shown in Listings I and 2. 

Each value in the DA TA statements starting at line 90 is a 
byte of the machine language program that executes the e 
command. BASIC lines 10 through 80 do the following: They 
reserve and protect the highest RAM area for the e com- 
mand's program into the reserved area. Then they check to 
see whether or not you have typed the DATA statements 
correctly. If you have made a mistake, you will receive an 
error message and the program will stop lor you to find and 
correct your error. Finally, when the program is correct, it 
will cause the execution of the part of the machine language 
program that adds the e command to the computer's BASIC 
repertoire. 

If you are using Rainbow Check Plus to aid you in the 
accurate typing of Little £, do not run Little E until you are 
certain that it has been typed correctly. Otherwise, you 
might overwrite Rainbow Check Plus which also resides in 
the high RAM. 

Little E, as presented in Listings I and 2, cannot be used 
when you are keying in programs with the assistance of 
Rainbow Check Plus. A version of Little E that is compati- 
ble with Rainbow Check Plus usage is easily derived from 
the Little E version of Listings 1 and 2. 

After you have typed Little £ correctly and saved it, you 
can obtain a Rainbow Check Plus compatible Little E as 
follows: 

Replace lines 10 and 30 of Listing I with: 

10 CLS:X=256*PEEK( 16976)-102 
30X=256*PEEK(I6976)-I0I 

Replace lines 10 and 30 of Listing 2 with: 

IOCLS:X=256*PEEK(ll6)-60 
30X=256»PEEK(ll6)-59 

When these changes have been made, save the new version 
of Little E. When using Rainbow Check Plus and Little E 
together, load and run Rainbow Check Plus before loading 
and running Little E. Then Rainbow Check Plus will reside 
in the highest RAM area and the e command's machine 



*\\o 



&* 






\0*' 






language program will be in the next highest RAM area. 

There is a special comment for those of you having CoCos 
with Radio Shack disk systems. The disk system initializes 
addresses 383 through 385 to a 6809E JMP instruction to 
make entry to a ROM routine that disables the [BREAK] 
key during disk output. The e command uses addresses 383 
through 385 for another prupose. Therefore, if you use the e 
command, it will be at the sacrifice of the aforementioned 
[BREAK] key disable. Moreover, before you type Little E, 
you should type and [ENTER] POKE 383.57. Also, after 
you have correctly typed LITTLE E include the additional 
line 5 POKE 383.57. 

In preparation for the examples illustrating how the 
command works do the following: Turn your computer off 
and then turn it on again. Load Little E. RUN it. Ordinarily 
after running Little E you would want to load a program 
whose lines needed some editing or else you would "erase" 
Little £via a NEW command before keying in a program. 
However, some of the lines of Little E will be used in the 
examples, so do not erase it. 

Example 1: With the [SHIFT] key depressed, hit the 
key. Then type e32U and press [ENTER]. On the top line of 
the screen should be displayed the DA TA statement of line 
320 along with the line number itself. The 3 of 320 will not be 
visible because of the presence of the cursor over it. 

1 ) Press the [— ] nine times, that is. until the cursor covers 
3. the first digit of the initial value in the DA TA statement 
list. 

2) With the [S H I FT] key held down, press the [@] key five 
times. You will have inserted live spaces. 

3) Type over the inserted spaces 

RAIN, 
to add a string to the value list. Notice that the e command 
has switched back to the all-capitals mode. 

4) Press the [— ] key ten times (until the cursor covers D of 
DATA. 

5) Press the [I] key once. Now. you have positioned the 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 171 



cursor to add the following: 

.BOW. 

Make the addition. 

6) Terminate the e command by pressing [ENTER] twice. 
The cursor will move to the beginning of the next screen line, 
but no OK prompt will appear. This is normal for the correct 
termination of the e command. 

7) Type and enter LIST 320 to check that the editing 
changes have, indeed, been incorporated in line 320. 

Example 2: As in Example 1. type and enter e 320. 

1) Change the line number to 820 by pressing the 8 key. 

2) Using the [— ] key. position the cursor over the first 
comma. 

3) Press the MC- 1 [L. DEL.] key or the CoCo [CLEAR] 
key as many times as it is necessary to delete all characters 
separating the words RAIN and BOW. 

4) Using the [— ] key. move the cursor just beyond W of 
BOW. 

5) Press [ENTER] twice. 

6) LIST 820 to verify that you have added line 820 to the 
program. Also. LIST320 to see that the changes made in the 
present example did not affect line 320. 

Example 3: Type and [ENTER] e 820. 

1) Use the [— ] key to position the cursor over D. 

2) Type 

'.'"THE 
and then use [SHIFT] [@] to insert a space. 

3) With the [— ] key, position the cursor just beyond W 
and tvpe a quotation mark. 

4) Press [ENTER] twice. 

5) LIST 820 to see the results of your changes. 



Example 4: Type and enter e 820. 

1) Use the right arrow key to move the cursor over B. 

2) Press [ENTER] twice. 

3) LIST 820 and note that BOW has been chopped off the 
previous line 820. In general, only that part of the program- 
ming line to the left of the final cursor position will be 
incorporated into the program as the result of the e com- 
mand execution. This property affords you an easy means of 
chopping off unwanted characters at the end of a program 
line. 

Example 5: Type and [ENTER] e 400. 

1) Use [SHIFT][@] to insert a space at the first position 
on the screen. 

2) Type the number 6 over the inserted space. 

3) Move the cursor to the space between the line number 
and Dof DATA. 

4) Use [SH 1 FT] [@] to insert a space. Overwrite the space 
by typing the number 0. 

5) Move the cursor to the end of the program line (use the 
down arrow key for part of the cursor move). 

6) Press [ENTER]. 

You will have received an SN Error message because you 
tried to use an illegal line number; 64000 is a line number 
higher than the maximum allowed by the BASIC interpreter. 

Example 6: Type and [ENTER] e 65. 

Because there is no line 65 in the resident BASlCprogram. 
the e command terminates immediately. The OK prompt 
appears in this case. 

Example 7: Type and [ENTER] e 70. 

1) Move the cursor so that it is positioned at the space 
between DA TA and ERROR. 

2) Use [SHIFT] [@] to insert 10 spaces. 



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172 



(he RAINBOW April 1984 



3) Then suppose you change your mind about editing line 
70. Therefore, hit the [BREAK] key. 

4) The [BREAK] key termination yields an OK prompt. 
LIST 70 to verify that nothing was inserted between the 
words DATA and ERROR in line 70. 

Example 8: This example applies to the MC- 1 only. Type 
and [ENTER] e 820. 

1 ) Press the [— ] key four times. 

2) Use [SHIFT] [@] to insert four spaces. 

3) Use the CLS key (CONTROL 8) to insert the command 
word CLS. Instead of the expected CLS you got a graphics 
character! This illustrated the fact that the e command is 
restricted to typing one character per key depression. Hence, 
to type CLS you must press the keys C, L and S in 
succession. 

4) Press the [— ] key. Then type 

CLS 

to make the desired command insertion. 

5) Move the cursor just bevond N in RAIN and press 
[ENTER] twice. 

6) LIST 820 to see that the insertion was made correctly. 
There may be some additional features that you would 



like incorporated into the e command. For instance, rather 
than having to press an arrow key one time for each position 
the cursor moves, it would be more convenient to have the 
cursor continue to move until you released the arrow key. 

Tables I and 2 are now presented for those of you with 
assembly language experience and an inclination to make e 
command modifications. Tables I and 2 show assembly 
listings of the e command program for the MC-10 and the 
CoCo, respectively. 

In both tables the addresses are in hexadecimal and are 
those associated with 4K RAM systems. Those with 20K 
MC-IOs should mentally add 4000 Hex to each of the 
addresses. Similarly, those with I6K or 32K CoCos should 
add 3000 or 7000. respectively, to each of the given 
addresses. The <> command program is relocatable, thus, the 
precise addresses are not of vital concern. 

Usually in the assembly language representation of an 
instruction, the symbol "$" is used to indicate that an 
address or number is in hexadecimal. Since all addresses and 
numbers in the tables are in hexadecimal, using "$" becomes 
superfluous and hence was omitted. 

Rather than having a detailed, instruction-by-instruction 
description of what the program does, a description in nar- 




RDDRESS M-L INSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTION 



4EF6 


C6 


12 




LDR 


B #12 




4F6S 


4EF8 


3fl 






RBX 






4F6B 


4EF9 


FF 


42 


98 


STX 


4293 


M 


4F6D 


4EFC 


96 


7E 




LDR 


R #7E 




4F6F 


4EFE 


B7 


42 


97 


STR 


R 4297 


M 


4F71 


4F01 


C6 


23 




LDR 


B #23 




4F72 


4F03 


3fl 






RBX 






4F74 


4F04 


FF 


42 


Rfl 


STX 


42RR 


M 


4F77 


4F9? 


39 






RTS 






4F79 


4F03 


BD 


00 


F3 


JSR 


00F3 


M 


4F7B 


4F0B 


81 


63 




CMP 


fl #63 




4F7D 


4F0D 


26 


F6 




BNE 


4F07 




4F7F 


4F0F 


7R 


42 


1C 


DEC 


421C 


M 


4F82 


4F12 


BD 


FB 


D4 


JSR 


FBD4 


M 


4F84 


4F15 


86 


7E 




LDR 


R #7E 




4F86 


4F17 


B7 


42 


R9 


STR 


R 42R9 


M 


4F37 


4F1R 


7F 


00 


B3 


CLR 


00B5 


M- 


4F39 


4F1D 


BD 


00 


EB 


JSR 


00EB 


M 


4F8B 


4F20 


7E 


E4 


0D 


JMP 


E40D 


M 


4F8D 


4F23 


FE 


42 


80 


LDX 


4230 


M 


4F8F 


4F26 


96 


06 




LDR 


R R6 


M- 


4F92 


4F28 


R7 


00 




STR 


R 8>X 




4F94 


4F2B 


39 






RTS 






4F95 


4F2B 


7D 


60 


B5 


TST 


00BS 


M- 


4F97 


4F2E 


26 


11 




BNE 


4F41 




4F99 


4F30 


7C 


00 


B3 


INC 


00B3 


M- 


4F9B 


4F33 


EC 


02 




LDD 


2,X 




4F9E 


4F33 


93 


A3 




SUB 


D R5 


M- 


4FR1 


4F37 


27 


01 




BEQ 


4F3A 




4FR3 


4F39 


86 


39 




LDR 


R #39 




4FR4 


4F3B 


B7 


42 


R9 


STR 


R 42R9 


M 


4FR6 


4F3E 


7E 


E2 


71 


JMP 


E271 


M 


4FR8 


4F41 


86 


39 




LDR 


R #39 




4FRR 


4F43 


B7 


42 


R9 


STR 


R 42R9 


M 


4FRC 


4F46 


CE 


40 


00 


LDX 


#4000 


M 


4FRE 


4F49 


FF 


42 


80 


STX 


4230 


M 


4FB0 


4F4C 


R6 


00 




LDR 


R 0,X 




4FB2 


4F4E 


97 


06 




STR 


R R6 


M- 


4FB4 


4F50 


BD 


F3 


63 


JSR 


F868 


M 


4FB6 


4F53 


81 


09 




CMP 


R #9 




4FB8 


4F33 


26 


OR 




BNE 


4F61 




4FBR 


4F37 


8D 


cr 




BSR 


4F23 




4FBD 


4F59 


8C 


49 


7F 


CPX 


#407F 


M 


4FC0 


4F3C 


24 


F2 




BCC 


4F30 




4FC2 


4F5E 


08 






I NX 






4FC3 


4F5F 


20 


E3 




BRR 


4F49 




4FC5 


4F61 


31 


13 




CMP 


R #13 




4FC8 


4F63 


26 


14 




BNE 


4F79 




4FCR 


4F63 


FE 


42 


80 


LDX 


4280 


M 


4FCB 



RDDRESS M-L INSTRUCTION ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTION 



3C 40 


80 


24 07 




R6 01 




R7 00 




08 




20 F4 




FE 42 


80 


20 D3 




81 0R 




26 0C 




6D R4 




8C 40 


60 


24 CC 




C6 20 




3R 




26 C0 




81 08 




26 0R 




3D 94 




8C 40 


00 


27 BC 




09 




20 B2 




81 13 




26 17 




CE 40 


?F 


BC 42 


60 


27 07 




09 




R6 00 




R7 01 




20 F4 




96 R6 




R7 01 




86 60 




20 9C 




81 33 




27 88 




81 OD 




27 OB 




BD F9 


C9 


SC 40 


7F 


27 01 




08 




20 9fl 




CE 42 


Bl 


DF F4 




08 




DF B3 





CPX #4030 


M 


BCC 4F74 




LDR fl 1,X 




STR R 0.X 




I NX 




BRR 4F68 




LDX 4280 


M 


BRR 4F4C 




CMP fl #0fl 




BNE 4FB9 




BSR 4F23 




CPX #4860 


M 


BCC 4F30 




LDR B #20 




RBX 




BRR 4F49 




CMP fl #8 




BNE 4F97 




BSR 4F23 




CPX #4000 


M 


BEG 4F50 




DEX 




BRH 4F49 




CMP fl #13 




BNE 4FB2 




LDX #407F 


M 


CPX 4260 


M 


BEQ 4Fflfl 




DEX 




LDfl fl 0,X 




STR fl 1,X 




BNE 4F9E 




LDfl fl A6 


M 


STfl R 1,X 




LDfl R #60 




BRA 4F4E 




CMP fl #3 




BEQ 4F3E 




CMP fl #0D 




BEQ 4FC3 




JSR F9C9 


M 


CPX #407F 


M 


BEQ 4FC3 




I NX 




BRR 4F3F 




LDX #42B1 


M 


STX F4 


M 


I NX 




STX B3 


M- 


April 1984 the RAINBOW 



173 



Table 1 continued 


ADDRESS 


M-L INSTRUCTION 


ASSEMBLY 


INSTRUCTION 


4FCD 


CE 


48 


08 


LDX 


#4000 


M 


4FD0 


DF 


B7 




STX 


B7 


M- 


4FD2 


A6 


00 




LDfl 


A 0-X 




4FD4 


28 


22 




BMI 


4FF8 




4FD6 


81 


40 




CMP 


A #40 




4FD8 


23 


06 




BLO 


4FE0 




4FDA 


81 


60 




CMP 


A #60 




4FDC 


23 


04 




BLO 


4FE2 




4FDE 


8B 


60 




ADD 


A #60 




4FE0 


SB 


60 




ADD 


A #60 




4FE2 


DE 


B3 




LDX 


B3 


M- 


4FE4 


A7 


00 




STA 


A 0-X 




4FE6 


88 






I NX 






4FE7 


DF 


B3 




STX 


83 


M- 


4FE9 


DE 


87 




LDX 


87 


M- 


4FE8 


88 






I NX 






4FEC 


BC 


42 


80 


CPX 


4288 


M 


4FEF 


26 


DF 




BNE 


4FD0 




4FF1 


DE 


B3 




LDX 


B3 


M- 


4FF3 


6F 


00 




CLR 


0,X 




4FF5 


7E 


E2 


86 


JMP 


E206 


M- 


4FF8 


F6 


42 


82 


LDA 


B 4282 


M- 


4FFB 


C4 


70 




AND 


B #70 





4FFD 
4FFE 



IB 
20 E2 



ABA 

BRA 4FE2 





Table 2 




ADDRESS 


M-L INSTRUCTION 


ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTION 






0F13 


30 8C 0F 


LEAX 8F,PC 








0F16 


BF 01 8F 


STX 018F 


MJ 






0F19 


86 7E 


LDA #7E 








0F1B 


B7 01 8E 


STA 018E 


MJ 






0F1E 


30 8C 1C 


LEAX 1CPC 








0F21 


BF 01 80 


STX 0180 


MJ 






0F24 


39 


RTS 








0F25 


9D A3 


JSR A3 


MJ 






0F27 


81 63 


CMPP #63 








0F29 


26 F9 


BNE 8F24 








0F2B 


7A 01 1A 


DEC 01 1A 


MJ 






0F2E 


BD A9 28 


JSR A928 


MA 






0F31 


86 7E 


LDA #7E 








0F33 


B7 81 7F 


STA 017F 


MJ 






0F36 


0F 3B 


CLR 3B 


M- 






0F39 


9D 9F 


JSR 9F 


MJ 






0F3A 


7E B7 64 


JMP B764 


MA 






0F3D 


0D 3B 


TST 3B 


M- 






0F3F 


26 11 


BNE 0F32 








0F41 


0C 3B 


INC 3B 


M- 






0F43 


EC 02 


LDD 2,X 








0F45 


10 93 2B 


CMPD 2B 


M- 






0F49 


27 01 


BEQ 0F4B 








0F4A 


86 39 


LDA #39 








0F4C 


B7 01 7F 


STA 017F 








0F4F 


7E AC 73 


JMP AC73 


MA 






0F52 


86 39 


LDA #39 








8F54 


B7 01 7F 


STfi 817F 


MJ 






0F57 


8E 04 08 


LDX #0400 


MJ 






0FSA 


9F 88 


STX 88 


MJ 






0F5C 


A6 84 


LDA ,X 








0F3E 


97 2C 


STA 2C 


M- 






0F60 


BD Al 81 


JSR A1B1 


MA 






0F63 


81 09 


CMPA #9 








0F63 


26 12 


BNE 0F79 








0F67 


8D 89 


BSR 8F72 








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174 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



RDDRESS 


M-L IN 


STRUCT 


0F69 


8C 


04 FC 


8F6C 


24 


F2 


0F6E 


30 


01 


0F70 


20 


E8 


0F72 


9E 


88 


0F74 


96 


2C 


0F76 


R7 


84 


0F78 


39 




0F79 


81 


0C 


0F7B 


26 


11 


0F7D 


9E 


88 


0F7F 


8C 


04 FD 


0F92 


24 


06 


0F84 


R6 


01 


0F86 


R7 


80 


0F88 


20 


F3 


0F8R 


9E 


88 


0F8C 


20 


CE 


0F8E 


ei 


0R 


OF90 


26 


0C 


0F92 


9D 


DE 


0F94 


8C 


04 DD 


0F97 


24 


C7 


0F99 


30 


88 20 


0F9C 


20 


BC 


0F9E 


81 


08 


0FR0 


26 


0B 


0FR2 


8D 


CE 


0FR4 


ec 


04 00 


0FR7 


27 


B7 


0FR9 


30 


IF 


0FRB 


20 


RD 


0FRD 


81 


13 


0FRF 


26 


13 


0FB1 


8E 


04 FC 


0FB4 


9C 


88 



ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTION 



CMPX #04FC 


MJ 


BCC 0F60 




LERX 1/X 




8RR 0F3R 




LDX 88 


MJ 


LDR 2C 


M- 


STR ,H 




RTS 




CMPR #8C 




BNE 0F8E 




LDX 88 


MJ 


CMPX #04FD 


MJ 


BCC 0F8R 




LDR 1/X 




STR /X+ 




BRR 0F7F 




LDX 88 


MJ 


BRR 0F5C 




CMPR #0fi 




BNE 0F9E 




BSR 0F72 




CMPX #04DD 


MJ 


BCC 0F60 




LERX 20 ,X 




BRR 0F5R 




CMPR #8 




BNE 0FRD 




BSR 0F72 




CMPX #0400 


MJ 


BEG 0F60 




LERX -1/X 




BRR 0F3R 




CMPR #13 




BNE 0FC6 




LDX #04FC 


MJ 


CMPX 88 


MJ 



RDDRESS 


M-L IN 


STRUCT 


0FB6 


27 


06 


0FB8 


R6 


82 


0FBR 


R7 


01 


0FBC 


20 


F6 


0FBE 


96 


2C 


0FC0 


R7 


01 


0FC2 


86 


60 


0FC4 


20 


98 


0FC6 


81 


03 


0FC8 


27 


83 


0FCR 


81 


0D 


0FCC 


27 


0C 


0FCE 


BD 


R2 83 


0FDI 


ec 


04 FC 


0FD4 


27 


02 


0FD6 


30 


01 


0FD8 


20 


96 


0FDR 


8E 


02 DC 


0FDD 


9F 


R6 


0FDF 


30 


01 


0FE1 


CE 


04 00 


0FE4 


R6 


C0 


0FE6 


2B 


0C 


0FE8 


81 


40 


0FER 


23 


06 


0FEC 


81 


60 


0FEE 


23 


04 


0FF0 


8B 


60 


0FF2 


8B 


60 


0FF4 


R7 


80 


0FF6 


11 


93 88 


0FF9 


26 


E9 


0FFB 


6F 


04 


0FPD 


7E 


RC 8E 



RSSEMBLY INSTRUCTION 



BEQ 8F8E 
LDR ,-X 
STR 1,X 
BRR 0FB4 
LDR 2C 
STR 1/X 
LDR #60 
BRR 0F3E 
CMPR #3 
BEQ 0F4F 
CMPR #0D 
BEQ 0FDR 
JSR R283 
CMPX #04FC 
BEQ 0FD8 
LERX 1/X 
BRR 0F70 
LDX #02DC 
8TX R6 
LERX 1/X 
LDU #0400 
LDR ,U+ 
BMI 0FF4 
CMPR #40 
BLO 0FF2 
CMPR #60 
BLO 0FF4 
RDDR #60 
RDDR #60 
STR /X+ 
CMPU 88 
BNE 0FE4 
CLR /X 
JMP RC8E 



M- 



MR 
MJ 



MJ 
MJ 

MJ 



MJ 



M- 



SOFTWARE FOR THE TRS-80* COLOR COMPUTER! 




REVOLUTION! 

You accelerate hard down a long straightaway, braking heavily at the end 
for a sharp corner. You slice smoothly through the esses, and then boldly 
keep the power on for a fast sweeper. The Ferrari drifts dangerously near 
the edge, but you make a tiny correction in the steering, and you are 
through. 

The finish line flashes by, and suddenly you are in the pits. The car falls 
silent. You see your lap times being held up. Your final lap was a new lap 
record! At last, you permit yourself a small smile. 

You have mastered this powerful car on a difficult track, driving with the 
assurance and precision that comes only from long hours of practice. 

You are driving an authentic race car. You are playing REVOLUTION! 




MATHMENU 



MATHMENU is a powerful menu-driven system to turn your Color 
Computer into an intelligent, flexible tool for mathematics and engineer- 
ing. MATHMENU takes the tedium out of math, leaving your full brain 
power to attack the "meat" of your problems. By rapidly performing 
integration and differentiation, solving quadratic equations, plotting user 
defined functions and much more, MATHMENU can help simplify the 
most complex problems. Whether you are a student or a professional, if 
you use math, you need MATHMENU. 



REVOLUTION! For 32K Disk $24.95 Requires Joysticks 

For 16/32K Cassette $21 .95 & Extended Basic 

Or write for more info. 

NOTE: graphic* on I6K MdM are slightjy dnTerenl. I6K And }2K vrnioos included on ill cauena. 



MATHMKMI 



For32KDisk $49.95 

For I6K Cassette $44.95 

Documentation only $5.00 

Or write for free brochure. 



Plotting Requires 
Extended Basic 



SOFTWARE AUTHORS! 

Inter + Action is looking for new software to market. We are 
especially interested in disk-based software for the TRS-80 
Color Computer. 

For more information, contact Inter + Action's Software 
Review Manager. 



Ncu York residents add 7<; sales lax. 

Allow 2 to 3 weeks for delivery. 

•TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



,o 



Inter OJ> eviction 



3 1 Rose Court 



Amherst, NY 14226 



(716)839-0943 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 175 




CHROMA 



EUCHRE! 



A Hi-Res version of the card game Your partner is 
he computer, the opponent team is played by the computer Allows 
any of the four players lo GO alone 

(ECB, 32k) *-««r 

Cassette $1 9.95 




DSKMON! 



Examine and fix sector data also includes disk read, 
write tile information display, and selective disk backup 
(ML, 16k or 32k) „.., 

Disk (With Source) $24.95 



MORE CSG PROGRAMS! 



UTILITIES 



CCADS — A lull 6809 machine language monitor with line assembler 
and disassembler All you need to debug machine language programs 
(ML. 16k or 32k) ^ 
Cassette $19.95 or Disk (With Source) 6s S23.95 

UNLOCK — A complete disk backup utility Features included are 

inilializalion of any track, copy any track and correct I O errors or leave 

Ihem intact and verily any track Track numbers up to Hack 80 may be used 

at any time 

(ML, 16k or 32k) £t 

Disk (With Source) ags 524.95 

CHROMA-KEYS — Define lunction keys and save them to disk or 

cassette 

(ML. 16k or 32k) .— 

Cassette S9.95 or Disk (With Source) Sp $13.95 

SPOOLER — Print ASCII files from disk without waiting 

(ML. 16k. 32k. or 64k only) 

Cassette $11.95 or Disk (With Source) $15.95 

COMMAND — Add machine language programs as commands to 

BASIC 

(ML, 16k or 32k) 

Cassette $15.95 or Disk (With Source) $19.95 



GAMES 



MISCELLANEOUS 



PROSPECTOR — An ECB Hi-Res graphics game Can you get the gold 

out of the mine 7 .«, 

(ECB, 16k or 32k) "^ 

Cassette $7.95 

JUMP-A-PEG — A Hi-Res version of an ancient strategy game 

(ECB, 16k or 32k) ^ 

Cassette ."" $7.95 



CLOCK — A software real-time clock program for the CoCo Warning 
The clock will stop during tape I/O 

(ML, 16k or 32k) .«. 

Cassette $9.95 or Disk (With Source) 3ps $13.95 

DARKROOM DATABASE — Throw away your Photo-Lab index Let 

CoCo look up the tacts Darkroom Data-Base with timer 

(Disk, 16k or 32k) 

Disk $19.95 



^^qJjJjNGSOO — ^ MC . 10 SOFTWARE! Write for more details 

CHROMA- SYSTEMS GROUP 

PO Box 366 
Dayton, Ohio 45420 

Please include S1 for shipping and handling per item Ohio residents please 
add 6% sales tax 



rative form will be given. Augmenting this description will 
be references to the "MC-IO Memory Map" (see the Janu- 
ary, 1 984 issue of the Rainbow and to the "Color Computer 
Memory Map" (July and August. I983 issues). In Table I 
those references are made by the appearance of the letter M 
at the right of each assembly language instruction that uses a 
basic ROM routine or a BASIC system location or locations 
described in "MC-IO Memory Map." In Table 2 the referen- 
ces are made similarly using the letters M J and M A where J 
and A designate July and August, respectively. The nota- 
tion, M-, is used in both tables to indicate that the instruc- 
tion employs a BASIC system location not described in the 
memory map articles. The use of the M, MJ, and MA 
notation effectively supplies the detailed description where 
it is needed most. 

In the narrative that follows when two different sets of 
addresses are referred to together, one set will be enclosed in 
parentheses. The enclosed set will be associated with the 
CoCo and the other set of addresses with the MC-IO. 

The £A"£C command entry to thee command program is 
4EF6(0F13). Ordinarily, using a lowercase letter as a BASIC 
command will result in an SN Error. The routine at 
addresses 4EF6-4F07 (0FI3-0F24) provides the means of 
bypassing the ROM's error processing routine when e is 
issued as a command. The routine also begins the process of 
preventing the LIST command from returning to BASIC 
upon its completion. The LIST command is employed by 
the e command program to display the specified line of 
BASIC programming. 

The routine at 4F08-4F22 (0F25-0F3C) is entered when 
the BASIC interpreter detects any error. If the error is not the 
result of issuing e as a command, the routine is terminated 
with a return to BASIC'S error processing routine. Otherwise, 
the routine switches from the upper-/ lowercase mode to all 
capitals. It clears the screen and completes the process of 
changing the LIST command sequence. Finally, the LIST 
command routine is initiated. 

The LIST command sequence reaches the routine at 
4F2B-4F40 (0F3D-0F5I) twice. During the first time the 
routine checks to see whether the specified line number is 
valid. If the line is not valid, the routine prevents a second 
entry and then finishes the e command prematurely by 
returning immediately to BASIC. However, if the line 
number is found to be valid, a return is made to the LIST 
command sequence. The second time through the routine 
results in a jump to the routine at addresses 4F4I-4F56 
(0F52-OF66). 

The latter routine initializes the cursor to the top left 
position of the screen and saves the character at that posi- 
tion. Finally, it waits for and acts upon the next key you 
press. 

The routine at 4F57-4F60 (0F67-0F7 1) moves the cursor 
right one position when the right arrow key has been 
pressed. 

At the addresses 4F65-4F78 (0F7D-0F8D) is the routine 
that deletes a character when you press the MC-IO [L. 
DEL.] key or the CoCo [CLEAR] key. 

The routine that moves the cursor one position down 
when you press the down arrow key is at addresses 4F7D- 
4F88 (0F92-0F9D). 

The routine at 4F8D-4F96 (0FA2-0FAC) moves the cur- 
sor left one position when the [— ] key is depressed. 

When you press [SHI FT] [@], the routine at 4F9B-4FB I 
(OFB 1 -0FC5) inserts a space into the line of BASIC program- 
ming. 



176 



the RAINBOW April 1984 




* * * MORE THAN JUST A DATABASE * * * 



Turn your TRS-80 Color Computer into a powerful business machine. Create and manage 
customized records for innumerable home and office applications. HOMEBASE™ data 
management system goes beyond just storing, sorting and retrieving your business 
records. It allows you to use the same data records in calculations and in printing form 
letters and reports. The HOMEBASE™ text processing system is both a word processor 
and a complete filing system. Store 250 screens of text as data records and then use any 
portion of a record for searching, sorting, or for printing form letters and special reports. 

HOMEBASE™ is an invaluable tool for managing a business involving insurance sales, real 
estate sales, property rentals/management, mail-order sales, or any comparable business. 
Using HOMEBASE™, both accounting and non-accounting applications are easily 
automated to save you time and provide better information about your business. Create 
customized ledgers or extend your payable and receivable records to include descriptive 
data important to the daily operation of your business as well as its continuing success. 
HOMEBASE™ is a menu driven system and does not require programming. The system 
documentation includes descriptions of every menu option and is uniquely designed for 
quick referencing. System documentation includes a tutorial and demonstration program. 



DATA MANAGEMENT 

• 50 data fields • Formatted dates, time 
of day, phone numbers, & dollar amounts 

• 24 scratchpad data fields not stored 
within any data record • Variable-length 
alpha/text data fields • Reorganize 
records using move or ascending 
descending sort on any data field • 
Manage files using search/select, delete, 
clear, duplicate or list • Perform calcula- 
tions on any numeric data using add, 
subtract, multiply, & divide • Print using 
automatic formatting with options to print 
report titles, page numbers, record 
names and data names • File Utilities 
include generate, merge, duplicate, sum- 
marize, cassette backup/reload, rename, 
delete, directory display 'print and moving 
data between files. 



CUSTOM REPORTING 

• Merge data management tiles with text 
tiles • Create and store torm letters and 
report formats • Print each data record 
as one letter or report • Print selected 
records as a single report list • Change 
the print field size for any data field • Use 
a single report for different files • Print 
multiple copies. 



SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 

TRS-80 Color Computer with 32K; Disk 
Basic: and one disk drive 2 Disk drive 
option is included - NO EQUIPMENT 
MODIFICATIONS REQUIRED. 



TEXT/WORD PROCESSING 

• 250 screens ot text • Reorganize text 
records using move. copy, or ascending 
descending sort • Manage text files 
using search/ select, delete, clear, dupli- 
cate, move or list • Print text record 
appearing on the screen to review before 
final printing or print all of a selected 
group of records • Format using 
embeded printer controls for paging, 
skipping lines, and changing fonts • Pro- 
gram printer controls include right & left 
margins, lines per page, page width, 
horizontal tabs, page heading, page 
numbering, line spacing, and multiple 
copies • File Utilities include generate, 
merge, duplicate, synchronize, cassette 
backup'reload. delete, rename, and 
directory display'print 



TURN YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO A POWERFUL BUSINESS MACHINE TODAY. 



ORDER TOLL FREE 800-334-0854 



Credit card holders call toll free: 800-334-0854. extension 

887 In North Carolina call: 800-672-0101, extension 887 

or send check or money order to: 



HOMEBASE™ is a trademark ol HOMEBASE™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS, a 

subsidiary ol Small Business Systems. Durham. NC (91 B) 544-5408 TRS-80 

is a trademark ot Tandy Corp 



HOMEBASE™ COMPUTER SYSTEMS 
P.O. Box 3448, Durham, N.C, 27702 



90 day warranty 



NC residents add 4% for sales tax. Allow 1 to 
3 weeks delivery. 



#1 TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

~» FOR THF P.ni OR ("lOMPl ITFR ft TDP 1(1(1 • 4985 RRAnFDRn N F RRANin RAPinc: Ml dOAflfi (filSt 



TELEX 
706139 



• FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 4285 BRADFORD N.E., GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 (616) 957-0444 • 



■ 



CITBER 

32K Mach. Lang. 

$27.95 TAPE 

S30.95 DISK 

Approaches the excite- 
ment and challenges ol 
any Video Arcade. The 

hazards of CU'BER are many. Help CU'BER 
change the colors on the pyramid while avoiding 
many ol the dangers always present. Vipers, the 
Nurd, the Dork, bonus points all add up to another 
exciting release trom Tom Mix Software 



DEVIL 
ASSAULT 

16K Machine 

Language 

$27.95 TAPE 

$30.95 DISK 



Devil Assault Is a multi-level multi-screen game 
in which bird-like creatures, robots and the devil 
himsell assault your home base which you must 
defend 





s& 



Arcade Action. Method of play you are the Grabber. 
The object is to grab the 8 treasures and store them 
in the center boxes. You start with 3 Grabbers and 
get extra ones at 20,000 points. Watch out for the 
googlies! Super high resolution graphics. 

32K Machine Language 

$27.95 TAPE $30.95 DISK 



BUZZARD BAIT 

By RUGBY CIRCLE 

32K Machine Language 

$27.95 Tape $30.95 Disk 

We've done it again! You 
thought the King was great? 
wait '1111 you see this!! 
Outstanding high resolution graphics, tremendous 
sound make this "Joust" type game a must for 
your software collection, As you fly from cloud to 
cloud you will enjoy sky high excitement dealing 
with the challenges presented to you by this 
newest release by Tom Mix Software. 




"THE FROG" 

•"ARCADE ACTION*" 

This one will give you 
hours Of exciting play. . 
Cross the busy highway 
to the safety ol the me- 
dian and rest awhile 
before you set out across 
the swollen river team- 
ing with hidden hazards. 
Outstanding sound and 
graphics. 




A\*S9wr% AIR TRAFFIC 
^«$t '"V^CONTROLLER 



32K Ext. Basic 
$28.95 TAPE 
$31.95 DISK 



Air Traffic Controller is a computer model of an 
air traffic control situation In which Remotely 
Piloted Vehicles (RPV's) are operated by the con 
lioller In landing on and taking off trom 
designated runways 



JOURNEY 

TO 
MT. DOOM 

32K Mach. Lang. 

$27.95 DISK ONLY 

The Necromancer is 

about to wage war on 

earth. He needs his lost gold ring to acquire the I 

power to do so You must find the ring, take il to Ml 

Doom and destroy it in the flames from which It I 

came, thus eliminating the Necromancer's evil | 

powers. 




IJMK* A-i4-U*tt3W 
16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
$27.95 TAPE 
$30.95 DISK 




16K MACHINE LANGUAGE 
TAPE $27.95 
DISK $30.95 



"TRAPFALL" 

By KEN KALISH 

•"ARCADE ACTION" - 
The "Pitfalls" in this 
game are many. Hidden 
treasures, |ump over the 
pits, swing on the vine, 
watch out for alligators, 
beware of the scorpion. 
Another game for the 
Color Computer with the 
same high resolution 
graphics as "The King." 




THE 
KING 



32K Machine Language 
$28.95 TAPE 
$29.95 DISK 



ARCADE ACTION - How high can you climb? Four full graphic screens. 
Exciting Sound - Realistic graphics. Never before has the color com- 
puter seen a game like this. Early reviews say: Just like the arcade 
Simply outstanding! 



VISA' 



JUNIOR'S REVENGE 

Climb vines, avoid obstacles & creatures 
to save your father from Luigi. 

32K CASS $28.95 
32KDISK $31.95 



SPACE 





SHUTTLE 



32K Ext. Basic 




$28.95 TAPE 
$31.95 DISK 



This program gives you the real teeling 
ol flight. Full Instrumentation complete 
to the max. Actual simulation of space j 
Might. 32K Extended Basic 



OTHER GREAT GAMES 

PROTECTORS - Exciting fast paced arcade game that looks and plays 
like the popular arcade game "DEFENDER" 

32K Machine Code Taps $24.95 Disk $27.95 

COLOR GOLF • Now sit at your computer and play nine or eighteen 
holes. Outstanding graphics In the fairway or on the green Helps your 
game.32K Extended Basic $1 7 95 

'YAAZEE" (C) 1983 - Yaazee is a 2 player game using five dice to get the 
best poker hand. After game Is loaded flashing digit below player 
number determines which player rolls dice at the start of the game. 16K 
Machine Language Ext. Basic $19.95 

BIRD ATTACK - A fast paced machine language arcade game. Shoot the 
birdmen before they descend upon you. Watch out lor their bombs! 16K 
Machine Language $21.95 

MAZE RACE Maze race is a one or two player game. Play either against 
the built In timer or against your favorite opponent. 16K Machine 
Cods $17.95 



ADD $1.00 POSTAGE & HANDLING 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX 



TOP ROYALTIES PAID 
LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE I 




TOM MIX SOFTWARE 

• FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER & TDP 100 • 4285 BRADFORD N.E., GRAND RAPIDS, Ml 49506 (616) 957-0444 



TELEX 
706139 



SR-71 



32K Extended Basic 
528.95 TAPE S31.9S DISK 

SR-71 is a fast action game in which you 
are the pilot on a mission to take 
photographs of missile sites In Russia and 
deliver them to our processing laboratory 
in Japan. 




THE KING 
T-SHIRTS 

Limited Edition 

Yellow Shirt with Blue Print 

ADULTS $7.95 

M - 15 to 15V4 L-16tOl6V2 

CHILDREN $7.25 

S-6to8 M-10to12 L14to16 

$2.00 Postage & Handling per order 




UTILITIES 



COLOR MONITOR-Written in position independent code. (May 
be located in any free memory). Very compact. Only occupies 
1174 bytes of memory. Full Featured. Includes Break-Pointing 
of machine language programs, register display and modify, 
memory display and modify, and block memory move com- 
mands. Displays memory In hex and ascii format on one line 8 
bytes long. MACHINE LANGUAGE $24.95 

SCREEN PRINT ROUTINE-Screen Print Routine Prints con- 
tents of your screen to an Epson, Mlcroline or Radio Shack 
DMP Printers. Prints positive or reverse format. Horizontal or 
vertical, small and large printout. Print left, right or center of 
page. $19.95 



DISK TO TAPE-Dump the contents of most disks to tape 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

TAPE TO DISK • Load the contents of most tapes to disk 
automatically. Machine Language. $17.95 

MAIL LIST-Maintain a complete mailing list with phone 
numbers etc. Ext. Basic. DISK BASED $17.95 

PROGRAM PRINTER UTILITY-This program will list basic pro- 
grams to your printer in two column format. Saves paper and 
makes your listing look professional. Disk based. $17.95 






EDUCATIONAL SOFTWARE For The Color Computer and TDP 100 



STORY PROBLEMS is a program mat is designed to give practice In 
solving STORY PROBLEMS (sometimes called STATEMENT, THOUGHT 
or WORD PROBLEMS) on the COLOR COMPUTER. It is suitable for use 
in either a home or school environment. It is also a tool that will allow 
you to create new story problems to suit your children's needs and abili- 
ty levels. It has many features that make It particularly attractive: Story 
problems Involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, division or a 
combination ot the tour are presented to the student by slowly scrolling 
each letter ot each problem onto the screen. Up to 5 students may use 
the program at the same time. There are 4, user modlflabale, skill levels. 
16K Ext. Basic TAPE $19.95 

SPELLING TEST is designed to give a standard oral spelling test using 
the audio track ot the computer's tape recorder to dictate test words and 
sample sentences. Student responses are typed on the keyboard and 
checked by the computer. Results are displayed on the screen and (it 
connected) on a printer. REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

MATH DRILL Is a program designed to help children to practice addi- 
tion, subtraction, multiplication, and division skills on the COLOR COM- 
PUTER. It has several features that make its use particularly attractive. 

•Up to 6 students may use the program at the same time. 

•Answers tor addition, subtraction and multiplication are entered 
Irom right to left, just as they are written on paper. 

•Commas may be included in the answers 

• Partial products tor the multiplication problems may be com- 

Sjted on the screen. 
Ivision answers that have a remainder are entered as a whole 
number lollowed by the letter "R" and the remainder. 
•There are ten. user modifiable, skill levels. 

•A "SMILEY FACE" is used tor motivation and reward. Its size In- 
creases relative to the skill level. 

•Skill levels automatically adjust to the student's ability. 
•A timer measures the time used to answer each problem and the 
total time used tor a series of problems. 

• Alter a problem has been answered Incorrectly the correct answer 
appears under (above in division! the incorrect answer. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT BASIC $19.95 

WORD DRILL is designed to give a multiple choice vocabulary quiz 
Words and delinitions are entered Into the program from the keyboard or 
from a tape file. The computer displays a randomly chosen definition 
and eight word choices. The student must enter his response before a 
built In timer reaches zero. 

REQUIRES 16K EXT. BASIC *19.95 



EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE - SPELLING TEST - 

WORD DRILL — MATH DRILL — ESTIMATE — 
. ALL FOR - $69.95 



WS4' 



ESTIMATE is a program designed to help children to practice estimating 
the answers to addition, subtraction, multiplication and division 
problems on the COLOR COMPUTER It has many features that make Its 
use particularly attractive: 

•Up to 5 students may use the program at the same time. 

•There are 5. user modifiable, skill levels 

•The acceptable percent error may be changed as a student's skill 
improves. 

•A timer measures the number ot seconds used to answer each 
problem and the total time used for a series of problems. 

•If a problem has been answered incorrectly, the student Is told the 

fiercent error and asked to try again. 
I a problem is answered incorrectly a second time, the student Is 
told the correct answer and the range ot acceptable answers is 
displayed. 

•A report is given at the end of each set ot problems that includes the 
number of problems done, the number ot problems answered cor- 
rectly on the first try and the average percent error. 
•The (BREAK) key has been disabled so that a child will not In- 
advertently stop the program Irom running. 

16K EXT. BASIC $19.95 

TEACHERS' DATABASE is a program designed to allow a teacher to 
keep a computerized file of information about his/her students. There 
are many features that make this program particularly attractive. 

• Information on as many as 100 students (or more) may be in the 
computer at one time. 

• Each studenl may have as many as 20 (or more) Individual 
items of data in his/her record. 

• The program will run from cassette or disk 

• Cassette and disk tiles are completely compatable. 

• The program Is menu driven. 

• Records may be easily changed, deleted, combined or 
added. 

• Information about students may be numerical or text. 

• Records may be quickly alphabetized 

• Records may be sorted by various criteria. 

• Records may be reordered (ranked) based on test scores or 
other data. 

• Data displayed during a sort may be printed on a printer or 
saved on disk or cassette as a new file. 

• A full statistical analysis of data may be done and sent to the 
printer. 

• Student test scores may be weighted. 32K EXT BASIC TAPE $39.95 

DISC $41$* 



• ADD $1.00 POSTAGE 4 HANDLING • TOP ROYALTIES PAIO • 
MICHIGAN RESIDENTS ADD 4% SALES TAX • LOOKING FOR NEW SOFTWARE 



At 4FB2-4FB5 (0FC6-0FC9) is the routine that allows 
you to break out of the e command by pressing the 
[BREAK] key. 

The routine that prints the character you type is located at 
addresses 4FBA-4FC4 (0FCE-OFD9). 

The pressing of the [ENTER] key causes a jump to the 
routine at 4FC5-4FFF (OFDA-OFFF). That routine trans- 
lates and transfers the information displayed on the screen 
to the INPUT buffer area of the BASIC interpreter. The e 
command program is completed by jumping to the ROM 
routine that tokenizes BASIC command words and inserts 
the specified line into the BASIC program. 



160 


101 

80 




7 







MC-10 
Listing 1 



1 O CLS : X=256*PEEK ( 1 6976 ) - 1 1 

20 CLEAR25,X 

30 X=256*PEEK< 16976) -10 

40 forz=x to x +265 

50 ready: w=w+y:printz,y;w 

60 pokez,y:next 

70 ifw<>29479thenprint"data erro 

R":STOP 

80 EXECXIEND 



90 DATA 1 
100 DATA 
110 DATA 
120 DATA 
130 DATA 
140 DATA 
150 DATA 
160 DATA 
170 DATA 
180 DATA 
190 DATA 
200 DATA 
210 DATA 
220 DATA 
230 DATA 
240 DATA 
250 DATA 
260 DATA 
270 DATA 
280 DATA 
290 DATA 
300 DATA 
310 DATA 
320 DATA 
330 DATA 
340 DATA 
350 DATA 
360 DATA 
370 DATA 
380 DATA 





AUTOTERM 

TURNS YOUR COLOR COMPUTER INTO THE 

WORLDS 
SMARTEST TERMINAL! 

YOU'LL ALSO USE AUTOTERM FOR SIMPLE 
WORD PROCESSING & RECORD KEEPING 



EASY TO USE 

ON-SCREEN EDITING via cursor. 
Full prompting and error checking. 
Key Beep and Error Beebop. Scroll 
bkwd/fwd while on line. Save/load 
files while on line. Maintain a disk 
copy of session. Automatic graph- 
ics. True lower case. Screen widths 
of 32, 40, 42, 50, 64. No split words 
on screen/printer. Print all or part of 
text. Search for strings. Well written 
manual goes step-by-step and has 
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EASY UPGRADE 

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PLEASANTLY POWERFUL 

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KSMs automate almost any activ- 
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Richardson, Texas 75080 

214/699-7273 



180 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



390 DATA 249,201,140,64,127,39,1 
400 DATA 8,32,154,206,66,177,223 
410 DATA 244,8,223,181,206,64,0 
420 DATA 223,183,166,0,43,34,129 
430 DATA 64,37,6,129,96,37,4,139 




CoCo 
Listing 2 



150 190 

300 90 

END 81 



m 



1 O CLS : X=256*PEEK < 35 > + 1 8 

20 CLEAR25,X 

30 X=256»PEEK<35>+19 

40 forz=x tox+236 

50 ready: w=w+y:printz,y;w 

60 pokez,y:next 

70 ifwo23170thenprint"data erro 

R":STOP 
80 EXECXrEND 

90 DATA 48,140,15,191,1,143,134 
100 DATA 126,183,1,142,48,140,28 
110 DATA 191,1,128,57,157,165 
120 DATA 129,101,38,249,122,1,26 
130 DATA 189,169,40,134,126,183 
140 DATA 1,127,15,59,157,159 
150 DATA 126,183,100,13,59,38,17 
160 DATA 12,59,236,2,16,147,43 
170 DATA 39,1,134,57,183,1,127 
180 DATA 126,172,115,134,57,183 
190 DATA 1,127,142,4,0,159,136 
200 DATA 166,132,151,44,189,161 
210 DATA 177,129,9,38,18,141,9 
220 DATA 140,4,252,36,242,48,1 
230 DATA 32,232,158,136,150,44 
240 DATA 167,132,57,129,12,38,17 
250 DATA 158,136,140,4,253,36,6 
260 DATA 166,1,167,128,32,245 
270 DATA 158,136,32,206,129,10 
280 DATA 38,12,141,222,140,4 
290 DATA 221,36,199,48,136,32 
300 DATA 32,188,129,8,38,11,141 
310 DATA 206,140,4,0,39,183,48 
320 DATA 31,32,173,129,19,38,21 
330 DATA 142,4,252,156,136,39,6 
340 DATA 166,130,167,1,32,246 
350 DATA 150,44,167,1,134,96,32 
360 DATA 152,129,3,39,133,129,13 
370 DATA 39,12,189,162,133,140,4 
380 DATA 252,39,2,48,1,32,150 
390 DATA 142,2,220,159,166,48,1 
400 DATA 206,4,0,166,192,43,12 
410 DATA 129,64,37,6,129,96,37 
420 DATA 4,139,96,139,96,167 
430 DATA 128,17,147,136,38,233 
440 DATA 111,132,126,172,142 



Tax 
Relief 



With Coco-Accountant II 



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month, account or payee, provide a year-to-date summary by 
account and figure your net cash flow. Better yet, it provides a 
printed spreadsheet showing your year at a glance. 

The program sorts entries by date, lists most functions to 
screen or printer and saves files to tape or disk. A special 
feature flags tax deductible expenses and expenses subject 
to state sales tax. It even computes the sales tax you paid! In 
addition, COCO-ACCOUNTANT II will balance your check- 
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tape or disk. All this for only S24.95 on tape, $27.95 on disk. 



The Handicapper 



Now available for all Color Computers, MC-1 0's and 
Model 100's! Use the power of your computer to impr- 
ove your performance at the track! The Handicapper is 
two separate programs for thoroughbred and harness 
horses that apply sound handicapping techniques to 
rank the horses in each race. Factors include speed, 
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performance, jockey or driver ability and other attri- 
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Complete instructions and betting guide. State com- 
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Add S1.50 for shipping and send orders to: 

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825 William SI. 
Baltimore, MD 21230 



_x 



301-685-6254 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 181 




16K 
ECB 



the 

MMK9 : 

RAINBOW 
I 



ZH 



Program Appending 
For Fun and Profit 



By Joseph Kolar 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



Recently, you considered how to append programs. 
This is a very important skill that you will utilize on 
innumerable occasions. 

So, what do you say to a little practice session? What do 
you say to having some fun experimenting and do enough 
appending so that it will be reinforced as a skill that will be a 
part of our repertoire of useful programming tools? 

We will create a nonsense program step by step. Put a 
blank cassette in your recorder and if you have Extended 
Color BASIC, read on! Use the appropriate POKE and 
PEEK values if you have Color BASIC when using your 
append routine. Did you make a reference card? The ECB 
values will be used in the following demonstration. 

You have a choice of using cither the NUMBERS listing 
or the COLORS listing. The demo will use NUMBERS 
because that is the kind ol material you are going to append 
in reality. However, since you have a Color Computer, why 
not use a bit of color? 

Key in either the NUMBERS listing or the alternate 
listing. COLORS. 

CSAVE-N UMBERS- 
DEL 100-150 
RENUM 100.160.10 LIST 
CSAVE"NI" LIST NEW 
CLOAD'N UMBERS" LIST 
DEL 100-120 
DEL 1 60- 1 SO 

RENUM 100.130.10 LIST 
CSAVE"N2" LIST NEW 
CLOAD-NUMBERS" LIST 



(Joseph Kolar is a free-lance writer and programmer 
dedicated to proselytizing for computers in general, 
and the CoCo specifically.) 



DEL 130-180 LIST 

CSAVE"N3"LIST 

It is not necessary to CSA VE"N3"in this case. You may 
wonder why save it. if you don't have to? The more you get 
into programming, the more you have a tendency to save all 
your original work to keep all bases covered. The demo 
routine suggests how you might stop in the middle of a 
creative session at the keyboard, save your results to the 
moment on a temporary storage tape and later on return to 
work knowing that none of your work has to be repeated 
because you have copies of everything. This is an easy, 
almost effortless procedure to follow. It eliminates the frus- 
tration of loss of much creative effort in the event you 
accidentally zap your program or if you are shut down by an 
electrical outage. 

Note the countless LISTs in the above and also the follow- 
ing procedures. They are added, not to insult your intelli- 
gence, but as pointers to cause you to pause and look over 
your handiwork. Always a good practice! Especially when 
there is a tendency to race onward in a frenzy of creative 
activity. (Another cute way of saying haste makes waste.) 

Back to the drawing board! You still have N3 in memory. 

POKE25.PEEK(27) 

POKE26.PEEK(28)-2 

CLOAD"N2" 

POKE25.30POKE26.I LIST 

POKE25.PEEK(27) 

POKE26.PEEK(28)-2 

CLOAD'N I" 

POKE25.30 POKE 26. 1 LIST 

If you are using the NUMBERS listing, add the following 
two lines: 

I PMODE4.I:PCLS:SCREENI.O 

2000 DRAW"s8BM 1 H).I00"+L3$+L6S+L9S 



182 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



Federal Hill Software 

FINE PRODUCTS FOR THE COLOR COMPUTER, DRAGON AND MC-10 



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Fun With Math! 

KOKOMATH— Koko The Math Clown is suspended over a tub of 
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KOKO or ROBO. $16.95 on tape. Both programs only $29.95. 



Play Blackjaq! 



This is as close as you can come to the real thing without losing your 
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out the results of every hand if a printer is on line! Nothing else like this 
available in 16K. Great for the beginner or experienced player. Re- 
quires 16K Ext. Bas Only $24.95 on tape. $27.95 on disk. 



Programmer's Helper 



Every programmer can use a little help, and this 
unbelievable utility provides lots of it! There are 34 
useful subroutines, ready to access from your Basic 
program. Input subroutines, output subroutines, cen- 
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screen protects, sound prompts, screen borders, 
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more! You'll wonder how you ever got along without 
it. Requires 16K Ext. Bas. Only $21.95 on tape, $24.95 
on disk. 



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825 William St. 

Baltimore, MD 21230 

301-685-6254 



Use All 64K! 

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$28.95 on 16K tape, $31.95 on 32K disk. Requires Ext. Bas. 



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By Dale L. Puckett 



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Use any standard word processor to edit files and transfer to OS-9. 
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II you'd rather use the COLORS listing, then add these 
two lines: 

I Cl.S 

2000 PR I NT@268.a$+b$+c$+d$+e$+fS+g$+h$+i$ 

In either case, add: 

3000 GOTO 3000 RUN BREAK LIST 

CSAVE"RESULT"LIST 

DEL 1-120 

RENUM 100.2000.10 LIST 

CSAVE "REVISED" NEW 

CLOAD "RESULT" LIST 

DEL 2000- 

POKE25.PEEK(27) 

POKE26.PEEK(28)-2 

CLOAD "REVISED" 

POKE25.30 POKE26. 

CSAVE "FINAL" RU 

DEL I LIST 

CSAVE "BALANCE" NEW 



I RUN BREAK LIST 
N BREAK LIST 



Key in the following line: 

10()PMODE4.I:PCLS:SCREEN 1.0 

POKE25.PEEK(27) 

POKE26.PEEK(28)-2 

CLOAD "BALANCE" 

POKE25.30 POKE26.I RUN BREAK LIST 

CSAVE "NONSENSE" 

Note that once you get more than 14 lines of print on the 
screen, even your game-sharpened hand is not quick enough 



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to [SHIFT] [@] to stop the listing as you list it to catch the 
beginning of the listing. 

Try LIST-120 and note the result. Try LIST-IIO. Try 
cither LIST 100 or LIST-100. 

Question! What lines can you edit when you call a particu- 
lar line with an EDIT command? Try it and see! 

Suppose you had an error in line 1 20 (the line ^((contain- 
ing L6S or F$. as the case may be). How could you correct it? 
Fool around! 

What comes to mind is merely to RENUM 100.100,10. 
Now the result is a regular, run of the mill program. Note 
that it will run even though you have 210 GOTO 120. 

Why? If you have ECB and use TRON, you will observe 
that in this simple, straightforward program, an infinite 
loop is created. If you used any line number except 100. you 
would get the same satisfactory result. 

Now. try 210 GOTO 100. Whoops! Well, if you want it 
Hashing, you got it! What happened? 

I'll leave you to experiment further. You can see where 
this program is heading: only line 100s! If you have the time 
or inclination, you might want to try it. One cautionary! 
Keep all your GOTOs at the end of the program. So long as 
it is a simple, linear program, it can be done. Ah. puzzles! 

The big question is — "Did we learn anything?" Sure! We 
taught ourselves how to take selected segments of a pro- 
gram, extract parts and renumber them, to save and have 
them ready to append to another program. We did enough 
appending to feel confident to use this procedure. 

A listing with all line 1 00s was not included in this article 
because if you keyed it in. it wouldn't work. Since there is 
more than one way to skin a cat. can you think of another 
way to duplicate NONSENSE? 

From what vou learned in this session, how would you go 
about changing line 1 10 GOTO 1 10 to 100 GOTO 1 00? Try 
to make this program contain only line 100s. If you fail to 
pu/zle it out and simply must have the answer, drop a postal 
card to my home address and I'll send you a solution — but 
you should be able to figure it out. My address is 1709 
Dickinson St. Inverness, FL 32650. 

Experimentation may lead to a dead end, as it often does, 
but the learning process goes on. We had fun fooling around 
and got a lot of appending under our belts. At worst, you can 
always show your listing of NONSENSE\o other beginners 
and flabbergast them by calling ail oddly, and I mean oddly, 
numbered program that will run. 

Finally, we proved that the newcomer to computing can 
have a lot of light-hearted relaxation and recreation with his 
trusty CoCo. 



Listing 1: 



» 

100 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

R3" 

160 

170 

R4" 

180 



< NUMBERS > LISTING1 

L 1 *= " BRU6NGBD6BR3 " 

L2*= " BU6R3FD2GL3D2R4BR3" 

L3*= " BU6R3FDGNL2FDGNL3BR4 " 

L4*= " BU6D4R3NU4NRD2BR4 " 

L5*= " R3EU2HL3U2R4BD6BR3 " 

L6$= " BUNUFR2EUHL2GU3ER2FBD5B 

L7*= " BU&R4D3GD2BR4 " 

L8*= " BRHUEHUER2FDGNL2FDGNL2B 

L9*= " BUFR2EU4HL2GDFR2EBD4BR3 



184 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



Listing 2: 



'< COLORS > ALTERNATE LISTING 

100 A*=CHR*U2B> 

110 B*=CHR*<143) 

120 C*=CHR*<159) 

130 D*=CHR*<175) 

140 E*=CHR*(191) 

150 F*=CHR*<207) 

160 G*=CHR*<223) 

170 H*=CHR*<239) 

1S0 I*=CHR*(255) 



Listing 3: 




1 'EVIL-EYE 

2 PRINT: PRINTTAB( 12) "EVIL EYE" 

3 PRINT TAB < 10) "JOSEPH KOLAR" 

4 PRINT TAB (7) "INVERNESS, FLORID 
A" 

5 PRINT: PRINT" HERE IS A LITTLE 
DESIGN THAT YOU ARE INVITED TO 
ALTER AND SEEWHAT YOU CAN COME 

UP WITH! 

TRY CHANGING THE 

VARIABLES, THE LOCATIONS OR T 
HE SIZES. ADDOR DROP ROUTINES. 

YOU ARE THE BOSS! 

6 PRINT: PRINT" PRESS <EN 
TER>";: INPUT T 

10 PMODE 4, l:PCLS: SCREEN 1,1 

20 FOR Y».l TO .05 STEP-. 05 

30 FOR X= 1 TO .5 STEP- Y 

40 CIRCLE (120, 96), 20, 1,X 

50 CIRCLE (137, 96), 20, 1,X 

60 CIRCLE (128, 96) ,30, 1 , Y*3 

70 NEXT X,Y 

100 FOR Y= .05 TO .1 STEP .05 

110 FOR X=l TO .5 STEP-Y 

120 CIRCLE (120, 96) ,20,2, X 

130 CIRCLE (137, 96), 20, 2, X 

140 NEXT X,Y 

200 FOR Y= 1 TO .2 STEP-. 1 

210 CIRCLE (128,30), 15,1, Y 

220 NEXT Y 

300 FOR Y= 1 TO .2 STEP-. 1 

310 CIRCLE(128,160),15,1,Y 

320 NEXT Y 

400 FOR Y=l TO .2 STEP-. 1 

410 CIRCLE (40, 96), 15, 1,Y 

420 CIRCLE (215, 96), 15, 1,Y 

430 NEXT Y 

1000 GOTO 20 



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April 1984 the RAINBOW 185 



SPREADSHEET 



16K 
ECB 



RAINBOW 



ill 



MoCalc — MiniCalc 
Gets A Big Brother 



By Barry Spencer 



The electronic spreadsheet has become a software sta- 
ple for most home and business microcomputer users. 
It seems that every serious user needs a spreadsheet 
program as well as a word processor and a filing or data 
management system. MoCalc gives you the opportunity to 
add a useful spreadsheet program to your software reper- 
toire. 

MoCalc is big brother to the MiniCalc program that 
appeared in the October 1982 issue of the Rainbow. It is 
basically the same program that Jim Ebbert wrote, with 
some features added to make it mo' versatile and mo' 
powerful. 

Features and improvements of the spreadsheet program 
include: 

— increase of maximum size from 3 x 13 to 9 x 43. 

— disk capability is added to save/ load functions. 

— multiple cell entries are more convenient using the 
new four-way cursor control. 

— a print routine allows the full spreadsheet to be 
printed on printers with a width of 80 characters. 

— a function view command allows you to inspect the 
function or formula assigned to any cell. (This is 
non-destructive.) 

— column and row addition functions are featured as 
well as the previously available +, -, *, / , A. integer, 
and absolute functions. 

— 16 different but overlapping areas of the spreadsheet 
can be displayed using the four move commands that 
are part of MoCalc. 

Let's define some terms before we dive into the program 
operation. 

Cell — a location on the spreadsheet that is defined by a 
row number and a column number. Columns are vertical, 
rows horizontal. The column numbers appear across the top 
of the display, row numbers along the left side. When 
explaining general operations, x will be used to represent a 
column number, y the row number. Each cell is capable of 
displaying a maximum of eight numbers. 

Command — a series of alphanumeric characters used to 
initiate a specific routine in the spreadsheet program. The 



valid commands (separated by a slash) are: Gx,y / Fx,y/ Vx,y/ 
MD/MU/ML/MR/S/L/U/P. 

Function — a mathematical function or formula assigned 
to a specific cell. The function is used to calculate the value 
of the number displayed in the cell. 

Commands — can be entered whenever the command 
prompt (>) appears in the upper left-hand corner of the 
screen. 

The cell entry command syntax is: Gx.y [ENTER], A 
cursor appears in the cell location addressed. Enter a maxi- 
mum of eight characters using the [— ] key to correct mis- 
takes. Be forwarned, do not use more than eight characters 
(I know it's tempting! But are you willing to pay the conse- 
quences?) You can place the cell data in memory and return 
to the command prompt by depressing [ENTER] or if you 
wish to continue making cell entries you may depress up 
arrow, down arrow, right arrow, or shift left arrow to move 
the cursor to an adjacent cell. Only cells on the display can 
be entered by the cell entry command and/ or use of the 
arrow keys. Note that when using the arrows to go to 
another cell, the contents of the cell as stored in memory are 
replaced by what is in the cell when you hit an arrow key or 
[ENTER]. I n other words, cursor movement in the cell entry 
command is destructive. 

Hints: In addition to the obvious entering of numbers, the 
cell entry command can be used to enter column and row 
headings. Eight hyphens in a cell work well to show the end 
of a column of numbers to be added. Eight equal signs work 
well when placed below a total to represent that all impor- 
tant bottom line. 

The function entry syntax is: Fx.y [ENTER]. An orange 
prompt appears at the cell location x,y. A blinking prompt 
occurs in the upper left-hand corner. Use the keyboard to 
enter the function or formula for the cell. The function 
appears on the upper portion of the screen as you type. Use 



(Barry Spencer is a supervisor and editor in a technical 
writing department for a major electronics corpora- 
tion. He holds a master's degree in electrical 
engineering.) 



186 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



CHECK* EARNINGS FED W/H STAT W/H SOC SEC 



NAME- 

PERIOD 

MID JAN 

END JAN 
MID FEB 

END FEB 
MID MAR 

END MAR 
MID APR 

END APR 
MID MAY 

END MAY 
MID JUNE 

END JUNE 
MID JULY 

END JULY 
MID AUG 

END AUG 
MID SEPT 

END SEPT 
MID OCT 

END OCT 
MID NOV 

END NOV 
MID DEC 

END DEC 



1ST QTR TOTALS- C4.9 

2ND QTR TOTALS- CI0.I5 

3RD QTR TOTALS- CI 6.2 1 

4TH QTR TOTALS- C22.27 



C4.9 

CI0.I5 

CI6.2I 

C22.27 



C4.9 
CI0.I5 
CI6.2I 
C22.27 



C4.9 

CI0.I5 

CI6.2I 

C22.27 



NET PAY 

R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 
R3.6 

C4.9 
CI0.I5 
CI6.2I 
C22.27 



YEAR 



TOTALS- C30.36 



C30.36 C30.36 C30.36 C30.36 



Sample 1. Cell Entries and 
Formulas for Payroll Shell 



NAME- REV ROBTDOE 



Sample 2. Application of 
Payroll Shell 



PERIOD 


CHECK » 


MID JAN 


1001 


END JAN 


1008 


MID FEB 


1022 


END FEB 


1030 


MID MAR 


1044 


END MAR 


1056 


MID APR 


1080 


END APR 


1099 


MID MAY 


1118 


END MAY 


1123 


MID JUNE 


1144 


END JUNE 


1160 


MID JULY 


1171 


END JULY 


1179 


MID AUG 


1189 


END AUG 


1201 


MID SEPT 


1222 


END SEPT 


1231 


MID OCT 


1245 


END OCT 


1254 


MID NOV 


1260 


END NOV 


1282 


MID DEC 


1293 


END DEC 


1302 


1ST QTR 


TOTALS- 


2ND QTR 


TOTALS- 


3RD QTR 


TOTALS- 


4TH QTR 


TOTALS- 



EARNINGS 

400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 
400 
500 

2700 
2700 
2700 
2700 



FED W/H STAT W/H SOC SEC 



-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 
-100 
-120 

-660 
-660 
-660 
-660 



-4 
-5 
-4 
-5 
■A 
-5 
-4 
-5 
-4 
-5 
■A 
-5 
-4 
-5 
-4 
-5 
-4 
-5 
-4 
-5 
-4 
-5 
-4 
-5 

-27 
-27 
-27 
-27 



-6 

-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 
-6 
-7 

-39 
-39 
-39 
-39 



YEAR 



TOTALS- 



10800 



-2640 



-108 



-156 



NET PAY 

290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 
290 
368 

1974 
1974 
1974 
1974 

7896 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 187 



the left arrow to backspace. Avoid entering formulas more 
than two lines in length. 
The following functions may be used: 

— Ca.b gives the sum of values appearing in the column 
from row a to row b. 

— Ra,b gives the sum of values appearing in a row from 
column a to column b. 

In formulas the following operators may be used: 

— mathematical operators +, -,*,/, A. 

— the letter A at the front or end of a formula takes the 
absolute value of the result. 

— the letter 1 at the front or end of a formula takes the 
integer value of the result. 

In formulas, the following operands may be used: [x,y] a 
cell location with brackets represents the value in a cell 
location. A left bracket is entered with shift down arrow. A 
right bracket with shift right arrow, [a] a number (to be used 
as a constant in a calculation) must be enclosed by the less 
than and greater than symbols. 

The function view syntax is: Vx.y [ENTER]. The function 
or formula is cell x,y is displayed on the second line of the 
screen. If the formula length is greater than one line, depress 
the right arrow to view the remainder of the formula. 
Depress [ENTER] to return to the command prompt. 

The four move commands are Mil (move up toward the 
top of the spreadsheet), MD (move down), MR (move 
right), M L ( move left). The two letter command is followed 
by [ENTER]. The commands allow you to view sixteen 3 x 
13 portions of the spreadsheet. 



RETIREMENT PLANNING 
MODEL 

••••••••••• 

pENS,0N L^ ? ^j 5AV,NGS? 



INC OME TAXES? ".NFtA" ^ 

After first helping you organize your present 
assets, the model projects these assets to their 
value at the retirement age you select. Using 
your assets at retirement as a base, a detailed 
cash flow analysis is conducted for each year 
of your retirement. 

The variables shown above are considered 
in all calculations. Each analysis stops when 
you either run out of funds or reach the age of 
100. The model is designed for "what if" 
analysis and optional printer output. A vital tool 
for comprehensive retirement planning. Fully 
documented. 



Requires 16K ext. 
basic. Specify il 
for32KCoCo. II. 

• • • 

III. residents 
add 8% sales tax 



Tape $34.95 
Disc $39.95 

A&P SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 202 

Glenview, IL 

60025 



The save command is initiated with: S [ENTER]. This 
command saves the spreadsheet to tape or disk. 

The load command is initiated with: L [ENTER]. This 
command loads a file from tape or disk into the computer 
memory. 

The update command is initiated with: U [ENTER]. The 
value of cells containing formulas are calculated (or recalcu- 
lated). Calculations take place from top to bottom so if a 
formula contains a reference to a cell below it, you must 
update two times. 

The print command is initiated with: P [ENTER]. You 
are prompted for the starting and ending rows for printing. 
All columns are printed. 





Command Summary 


Description 




Syntax 


Comment 


Cell Entry 




Gx,y 


Use arrow keys for mul- 
tiple cell entries 


Function Entry 




Fx,y 


Row and column addition 

+, -.*,/. A'. I. A 


Function View 




Vx.y 


Use right arrow for sec- 
ond line 


Move Left 




ML 




Move Right 




MR 




Move Up 




MU 




Move Down 




MD 




Update 




U 


Performed top to bottom 


Save to Tape/ Disk 


S 




Load from Tape/ 


Disk 


L 




Print 




P 





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NAME 



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Mail to: Color Computer Buyers Club 



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P.O. Box 241 

Eaton Rapids, Ml 48827 



188 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



I have found MoCalc extremely useful for household 
record keeping and for doing bookkeeping for my church. 1 
recently used the spreadsheet to prepare an itemized list of 
charitable deductions to be declared on my income tax 
return. 1 have also been using it to keep payroll records for 
church employees. I have included an example of how to use 
MoCalc for keeping payroll records. This example can give 
you a good idea of how useful MoCalc is and can show you 
how to apply the program features to the specific task of 
recording a payroll. 

When you are planning to use a spreadsheet to do some 
record keeping, it is a good idea to prepare a "shell." A shell 
is a predesigned data display that contains column and row 
headings and formulas for a specific application or use. A 
good description of shells and their uses is contained in 
"Building Spectaculator Shells" by Robert W. Ericson in the 
April 1983 issue of the Rainbow. 



"It seems that every serious user 
needs a spreadsheet program as 
well as a word processor and a fil- 
ing or data management system. 
MoCalc gives you the opportunity 
to add a useful spreadsheet pro- 
gram to your software repertoire." 



Sample I shows a shell that was prepared for keeping 
payroll records. All of the row and column headings as well 
as the dashes and equal signs were entered using the cell 
entry command and the cursor keys. It is important to stress 
here that you must enter no more than eight characters in a 
cell. When the row heading 1ST QTR TOTALS- was 
entered, two cell entries were required. The easiest way to do 
this is to enter 1ST QTR, [RIGHT ARROW], TOTAL-. 
You must hit [ENTER] or [RIGHT ARROW] after enter- 
ing 1ST QTR. 

While Sample I shows the functions as well as the head- 
ings, you do not see these functions on the screen display 
cells or on a printout of the shell. This is a special printout to 
show you the formulas and the cells into which they are 
inserted. You can however view the formulas you have 
entered using the function view command. In the NET PAY 
column the formula R3.6 appears for each pay period. R3.6 
is a row addition function that calculates the sum of entries 
in the row from column 3 (EARNINGS) through column 6 
(SOC SEC). Similarly, column functions are used to per- 
form the TOTALS calculations at the bottom of the sheet. 
C4.9 calculates the sum of numbers in the column from rows 
4 through 9. After the shell is created it should be saved to 
disk or tape. 

Sample 2 shows how the shell can be used to maintain a 
payroll. I'll warn you one more time about cell entry. When 
entering the name REV ROBT DOE, I had to make two cell 
entries, because the name exceeds eight characters in length. 
Note the use of negative numbers for payroll deductions. All 
entries were made using the cell entry command. Calcula- 
tions are made by using the update command. 



#f 



v/ 

200 ... . 


. . . . 38 




350 ... . 


. . . 244 




480 ... . 


....44 




680 ... . 


. . . 221 




910.... 


. ... 60 




1020... 


. . . . 82 




1200... 


... 152 




END 


220 









The listing: 



10 * ##**MOCALC**** 

20 *a spreadsheet program 

30 'by BARRY SPENCER 

35 'SCHAUMBURG, ILLINOIS 

40 ' 

50 ' based on 

60 'MINICALC by JIM EBBERT in 

70 'RAINBOW MAGAZINE OCTOBER 198 

2 

75 ' ^x4~& 

80 TROFF : PCLEAR 1 : CLEAR7000 : D I ML* 

(9,43) ,V<40> , I*(9,43) 

90 CLS 

1 00 F0RT= 1 088T0 1119: POKET , 32 : NE X 

T: POKE1 101 , 50: P0KE1 111,51: POKE10 

91,49:PRINT@96," ,, J 

110 F0RT=1T012:PRINTRIGHT*(STR*< 

T), 2): NEXT 

120 PRINT" 13"; 

130 F0RT=1121T01506STEP32:P=PEEK 

<T> : IFP>63THENP0KET,P-64 

1 40 NE X T : F0RT= 1 1 20T0 1 505STEP32 : P 

=PEEK(T) : IFP>63THENP0KET,P-64 

150 NEXT 

160 XS=0:YS=0 

170 PRINTSO, ">": PRINT: P=2:A*="": 

C*="":PRINT@P, ""; 

1 80 A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " THENPR I NT@P 

, CHR* ( 255 ) ; : GOTO 1 80 

1 90 PR I NTSP , CHR* < 32 ) ; : I FA*=CHR* ( 

13)THEN230 

200 IFA*=CHR*(8) AND LEN(C*)>OTH 

ENP=P-1 : C*=LEFT* <C*, P-2) : GOTO 180 

21 O C*=C*+A* 

220 PR I NTQP , A* ; : P=P+ 1 : GOTO 1 80 

230 L*=LEFT*<C*, 1) 

240 I FL*= " G " THENF=0 : G0T0330 

250 I FL*= " F " THENF= 1 : G0T0330 

260 IFL*="V" THEN F=2:G0T0 330 

270 IFL*="U"THEN940 

280 IFL*="S"THEN970 

290 IFL*="L"THEN1060 

300 IFL*="M" THEN 1170 

310 IFL*="P" GOSUB 1320 

320 GOTO 170 

330 L*= " " : F0RT=2T0 LEN ( C* ) : M*=M I 

D* (C*, T, 1 ) : IFM*=" , "THEN360 

340 L*=L*+M* 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 189 



350 NEXT:G0T0170 

360 L*=RIGHT*(L*,1):X=VAL(L*)-XS 

: IFX+XS>9THEN170 

370 L*=RIGHT*(C*,LEN(C*)-T> 

380 Y=VAL(L*)-YS: IFYM4THEN170 

390 IF F<>2 GOTO 430 

400 IF LEN (I* (X+XS, Y+YS) )=0 GOTO 

170 ELSE 11=1 
410 PRINTS32, STRING* (32, 32) ; :PRI 
NT@32, MID* ( I* ( X+XS, Y+YS) , 1+32* ( I 
1-1) ,32) ; 

420 I1*=INKEY*:IF 11*="" GOTO 42 
ELSE IF LEN(I*(X+XS, Y+YS) ) >32* 
II THEN I 1=11+1: GOTO 410 ELSE GO 
TO 170 
430 IF X<1 OR X>3 OR Y< 1 OR Y>13 

THEN 170 ELSE PRINT@32, STRING* ( 
32,32); 
440 P=Y*32+X*10+57:PRINT@P, " 

"; : :L*(X+XS, Y+YS)="": IFF=1TH 
ENG0SUB5 1 O : GOTO 1 70 

450 A*= I NKE Y* : I F A*= " " THENPR I NT@P 
, CHR* ( 255 ) ; : G0T0450 
460 PRINTSP," ";:IFA*=CHR*(13)TH 
EN500 ELSE IF A*=CHR*(10) THEN Y 
=Y+l: GOTO 430 ELSE IF A*=CHR*(9 
) THEN X=X+l:GOTO 430 
470 IF A*=CHR*(94) THEN Y=Y-1:G0 
TO 430 ELSE IF A*=CHR*<21) THEN 
X=X-l:GOTO 430 

480 IFA*=CHR*(8) AND LEN(L*(X+XS 
, Y+YS) ) >0THENP=P-1 : L* < X+XS, Y+YS) 
=LEFT*<L*( X+XS, Y+YS) ,LEN(L*(X+XS 
, Y+YS) ) -1 ) : G0T0450 

490 L*<X+XS, Y+YS) =L*< X+XS, Y+YS) + 
A*:PRINT@P,A*;:P=P+l:IF P=511 GO 
T0170 ELSE G0T0450 
500 GOTO 170 
510 PRINT@P,CHR*(255) ; 
520 PRINTdO, I*<X+XS, Y+YS) 
530 PRINT80, " " ; : LINEINPUTI*: GOSU 
B1150:0=0: I*(X+XS, Y+YS)=I*: XA=X+ 
XS:YA=Y+YS 

540 0=0:V(0)=0:F0RT=1T0 LEN<I*) 
550 M*=MID*(I*,T, 1) 
560 IFM*=" C "THENX*=" " : Y*=" " : GOTO 
880 

570 IFM*="< "THENX*=" " : Y*=" " : GOTO 
1110 

580 IF M*="R" GOTO 750 
590 IFM*="C" GOTO 750 
600 NEXT 

610 I=0:V=V(0):0=l:FORT=lTO LEN( 
I*) 

620 M*=MID*<I*,T, 1) 
630 I FM*= " * " THENV=V*V ( ) : G0T0930 
640 I FM*= " + " THENV= V+ V < O ) : G0T0930 
650 IFM*="/"THENV=V/V(0) : G0T0930 
660 I FM*= " - " THENV= V- V ( O ) : G0T0930 
670 IFM*="I"THENI=I+1 



680 IFM*="A"THENI=I+2 
690 I FM*= " A " THENV= V~V < ) : G0T0930 
700 NEXT 

710 IFI=1THEN V=INT(V> 
720 IFI=2THEN V=ABS(V> 
730 IFI=3THEN V=INT (ABS (V) > 
740 GOTO 860 
750 FOR T=2 TO LEN<I*) 
760 IF MID*(I*,T,1)="," THEN Tl* 
=MID* < I*, 2, T-2) : LL=LEN ( I*) -T: T2* 
=MID* ( I*, T+l , LL) : G0T0780 
770 NEXT T 
780 V=0 

790 IFM*="C" GOTO 830 
800 FOR T=VAL(T1«) TO VAL(T2*) 
810 V=V+VAL(L*(T, YA) ) 
820 NEXT T:G0T0860 
830 FOR T=VAL(T1«) TO VAL(T2*> 
840 V=V+VAL(L*(XA,T) ) 
850 NEXT T 

860 PRINTQP-1," ";:PRINT 

@P.V;:L*<XA,YA)=STR*<V) : IF LEFT* 
(L*(XA,YA) , 1)=" " THEN L*(XA,YA) 
=RIGHT* <L* ( XA, YA) , LEN (L* (XA, YA) ) 
-1) 

870 RETURN 

880 T=T+l:M*=MID*(I*,T, 1) : IFM*=" 
, "THEN900 

890 X*=X*+M*:G0T0880 
900 T=T+1 : M*=MID* ( I*, T, 1 ) : IFM*=" 
3"THEN920 

910 Y*=Y*+M*:G0T0900 
920 X1=VAL(X*) :Y1=VAL(Y*) :V(0)=V 
AL(L*(X1, YD ) : 0=0+1 :G0T0600 
930 0=0+1: NEXT: GOTO 170 
940 F0RY=1T043:F0RX=1T09: IFI*(X, 
Y)=""THEN960 

950 i*=i*(X,Y) :x*="":y*="":xa=x: 

ya=y:gosub540 

960 nextx,y:gosub 1240:f0r0=98t0 

480step32 : pr i nt@0 , str i ng* ( 30 , 32 ) 

; : next: printq482, string* (29, 32) ; 

: poke 1 535 , 96 : fqrx= 1tq3: fqry=1t01 

_3: PRINT@Y*32+X*lO+57, L* (X+XS, Y+Y 

S) ; .-NEXTY, X:G0T0170 

970 RF=0: INPUT "TAPE OR DISK (T/ 

D)";BB*:IF BB*="T" THEN AA=-1:G0 

TO 1000 ELSE IF BB*="D" THEN AA= 

1 ELSE GOTO 970 

980 PRINTQO, " ";: INPUT "NEW FIL 

E OR REPLACE EXISTING FILE(N/ 

R)";BB*:IF BB*="N" THEN printqo, 

■1 

"j:PRINT@0, ""; :I 
NPUT " F I LEN AME " ; NA* : T A*=NA* : GOTO 

1010 
990 NA*=T A* : TA*= " TEMP " : RF= 1 : GOTO 

1010 
1000 INPUT "FILENAME" ; TA* 
1010 OPEN "0",#AA,TA* 



190 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



WE CHALLENGE YOU! 




BOMBER COMMAND 16K EXT CASSETTE $22.95 



ARK ROYAL provides three types of game: The Strategy Wargame. Strategy Arcade and Arcade games. 
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GALACTIC TAIPAN 32K EXT Battle storms, 
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MISSION EMPIRE 32K EXT cass or disk 
Starting with one planet, incomplete intelli- 
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STARBLAZER 32K EXT During your ab- 
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LASER SUBS 16K (Suited for kids, 12 and 
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before they blast you apart Joysticks 
CASSETTE (SPECIAL) $10.00 

CRYSLON — 32K 3-D graphics, joysticks. 
Player commands the remote-controlled de- 
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CASSETTE (SPECIAL) $10.00 



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Prices on All games 
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Orders are shipped the day Ihey are received regardless of check or money order Send no cash 
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All games strategy oriented, graphically portrayed and guaranteed trom detect and boredom For 
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All Programs require Color 
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TOP System 100 ComPuter™ 
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Genesis Software 

presents 
Arcade Action 



*Q*Man 

This Is the challenging one! Fast-paced with hi-res graphics. 
Jump onto the cubes, ride the spinning discs and avoid nasty 
characters. Requires joystick and 32K machine language 
arcade game. 
Tape cassette I postage paid) $26. 95 

DESIGNER'S CHAU.ENCE: The first three 
players who reach level 9 on Q'Man will 
receive S25 from Genesis Software. 

Adventure 

* The Enchanted Forest 

The BIC adventure in hi-res graphics. Move through more 
than 50 scenes on a quest to rescue the captive princess. 
Decisions are made according to visual clues, not test. There 
are man\ inhabitants in the Enchanted Forest — some are 
friendly, some are not. This is a sophisticated computer 
adventure — a real challenge. A must for your adventure 
library. (Enchanted Forest was reviewed in the Dec. 11)82 
issue of Rainbow I. Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette /postage paid) $21.95 

it Secret Of The Crypt 

The BIG adventure continues. The seipiel to the popular 
"Enchanted Forest " is here! You'll mow in more than 50 hi- 
res. 3-D graphic scenes searching for clues in an attempt to 
enter the crypt. Rut beware, the trail to the crypt is lieset 
with puzzlements. In fact, the crypt's secret will remain a 
mysterv to all but the most adventuresome. Rei/uires 32K 
extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.05 

+ Bigfoot 

Hunt Rigfoot in a hidden maze of caverns and twisting 
tunnels that are displayed in hi-res graphics as you move. 
Seek out the lair of Bigfoot while avoiding perils along the 
u at . Features multiple levels and many options of play. 
Each hunt takes place in a new. randomly generated maze. 
Challenging and fun. (Rigfoot was reviewed in the March 
1983 issue of Rainbow ). Requires 32K extended basic. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $21.95 

Family Fun 



it The Game Show 



Sow a liveh party game where two teams compete against 
the clock to name several items in a category. Includes 60 
rounds with color graphics and sound. Machine language 
routine for fast response. (Came Show was reviewed in the 
Jan. 1983 issue of Rainbow ). Requires I6K extended basic 
and joysticks. 
Tape cassette (postage paid) $1-1.95 



Personal checks welcome no delay. 
Missouri residents add 5,625 percent sales lax. 

Genesis Software 

P.O. Box 936 

Manchester, Mo. 6301 1 



^ 



NA*+"/DAT": ! 
'/DAT" :TA*=NA 



DISK <T/D>"; 
AA=-1 ELSE I 
ELSE GOTO 10 



1020 F0RT=1T09:F0RY=1T043: !#AA,L 
*(T,Y): !#AA, I*(T,Y):NEXTY,T 
1030 CLOSE #AA 
1040 IF RF=1 THEN ! 
TA*+"/DAT" TO NA*+ 
*:GOTO 170 
1050 GOTO 170 
1060 INPUT "TAPE OR 
AA*: IF AA*="T" THEN 
F AA*="D" THEN AA=1 
60 

1070 input "filename" ; ta* 
1080 open "i",#aa,ta* 
1 070 fort= 1 t09 : fory= 1 t043 : i nput# 
aa,l*(t, y) : input#aa, i*<t,y) :next 
y,t:close#aa 

1100 gosub 1240:f0rt=1t03:f0ry=1 
to 1 3 : p=y*32+t* 1 0+57 : pr i ntqp , l* ( t 
+xs, y+ys) ; : nexty, t: g0t0170 

1110 11*="" 

1120 T=T+l:M*=MID*(I*,T,l>: IFM*= 

">"THEN1140 

1130 I1*=I1*+M*:G0T01120 

V(0)=VAL(I1*) :0=0+l:G0T0600 

IFI*="N"THEN 170 

RETURN 

L*=MID*<C*,2, 1) 



IFL*="L" AND XSOO THEN XS= 



IFL*="R" AND XS<6 THEN XS= 



IFL*="U" AND YSOO THEN YS= 



AND YS<30 THEN YS= 



1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

XS-2 

1190 

XS+2 

1200 

YS-10 

1210 IFL*="D' 

YS+IO 

1220 GOSUB 1240: GOSUB 1290 

1230 P0KEil01,50+XS:P0KEllll,51+ 

XS: P0KE1091 , 49+XS: F0RX=1T03: FORY 

=1T013:PRINT@Y*32+X*10+57,L*<X+X 

S,Y+YS)5 : NEXTY, X:G0T0170 

1240 FOR Y=1T013:F0R X=1T03:PRIN 

T@Y*32+X* 10+57, " ";:NEXTX 

,Y 

1250 FOR A =1131 TO 1515 STEP 32 

1260 P0KEA,96:P0KEA+1,96:P0KEA+1 

, 96 : P0KEA+ 1 1 , 96 : POKEA+20 , 96 

1270 NEXTA 

1280 RETURN 

1290 FOR Y=l TO 9 : P=1088+Y*32: T 

=YS/ 10- 1 +49 : POKEP , T : NEXTY 

1300 FOR Y=10 TO 13: P=1088+Y*32: 

T=YS/ 10+49: POKEP, T: NEXTY 

1310 RETURN 

PRINTQO, "START ROW": INPUT A 
PRINT60, "LAST ROW": INPUT B 
FOR Y=A TO B:FOR X=l TO 9 
PRINT#-2,TAB< (X-l ) *9) L* (X, Y 



1320 
1330 
1340 
1350 

>; 

1360 



NEXTX:PRINT#-2,CHR*(13) ; : NE 



XTY: RETURN 



<^> 



192 



theHAINBOW April 1984 



The best in software for kids? 



THE MONET SERIES 
■T STEfE ILTI 

DOLLARS I SENSE lid ECS SM.95 
Player buys familiar items using dollars 
and coins Id practice using mane? correctly. 

MoCOCO't MENU 16KECI *U« 
Learn to buy and add up your pur- 
chases from a typical fast-food 
restaurant manu. 

HfMEY-MK 32KECI $22.15 

A combined and menu driven version 
of the above programs. Includes play 
money. Reviewed - Rainbow 7/13 

THE QUIZ MAKER by Divfd Stanley 
32K EB. tip* $24.95 dick $27.95 

A program that enables a teacher 
to create tests or a student to 
study lor tests in any sub|ect area. 
Your questions and answers may 
be saved for future use. Short 
answer, true-false, fill-In and 
other quiz formats are supported. 
Printer option for hard copy test 
generation. Program randomizes 
questions, keeps track of score 
and provides a variety of testing 
formats. 

G0LM8RME 12KEDI $21.16 

A pat aid to teachers. Records and 
calculates grades for up to 6 classes of 
up to 40 students each. Uses number 
or letter grades, named or numerical 
periods and gives a weighted average. 
Easy to use. Full directions. DISK 
ONLY. By David Lengyel. 




BEIOND WORDS 32K ECI $18.85 Eaeh 
These Language Arts programs cover 
common misspellings, and synonyms/- 
antonyms on each level. Additionally, 
Level 1 tests contractions and abbrevia- 
tions, Level 2 tests homonyms, and Level 
3 tests analogies. Each program has 3 
parts and contains over 400 questions 
and uses over 800 words. All tests are 
grade appropriate. User modifiable 
(directions included). Printer option. 

Level 1 Grades 3-5 

Level 2 Grades 6-8 

Level 3 Grades 9-12 

DISK VERSION Each $23.95 



IKE MATH TUTOR SERIES HKEit, 

These tutorials take the child through 
each step of the example. All programs 
include HELP tables, cursor and 
graphic aids. All allow user to create 
the example, or let the computer 
choose. Multi-level. Great teaching pro- 
grams. By Ed Guy. 

LONG DIVISION TUTOR 
MULTIPLICATION TUTOR 
FACTORS TUTOR 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Addition) 
FRACTIONS TUTOR (Subtraction) 



*» 



!* 



$14.95 

$14.95 

$19.95 

$19.95 

$19.95 

FRACTIONS TUTOR |Muraplication)$19.95 

Any 2 FRACTIONS programs $29.95 



KING AUTHOR'S TALES bySImBlyn 

32K EB.dlskor16KEB.t»pe$29.95 

An exciting hew program that 
allows users to create and save 
original stories on files. Saves op- 
tional questions and answers for 
each page, and title page picture, 
too. Kids can write compositions, 
teachers/parents can create 
reading comprehension material. 
Rewrite, correction, review, and 
printer features. Includes a selec- 
tion of stories and pictures. 

FIRST GAMES by Penny Bryan 
32KEB. tape $24.95 disk $27.95 
First Games contains 6 menu- 
driven programs to delight and 
teach your early learners (ages 
3-6). These games enrich the lear- 
ning of colors, numbers, lower- 
case letters, shapes, memory, 
visual discrimination and coun- 
ting. 

MATH INVADERS by David Steele 
16K EB. S17.95 

A multi-level 'Space Invaders' 
type game to reinforce the 4 basic 
math operations (addition, sub- 
traction, multiplication and divi- 
sion). Problems become more dif- 
ficult as you progress. Hi-res. 
graphics, joystick required. 



MORE LEARNINGWARE 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 16-K EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED) 

CONTEXT CLUES - by Steve Bfyn - Multiple choice reading 

programs. Specify grade 4,5,6 or 7. etch $17.95 

VOCABULARY BUILDERS - 32K - Great for test preparations. 
200 questions, multiple choice, modifiable, printer option. 
I (grades 3-5), II (64) or III (9-12) each S19.95 

READING AIDS 4-PAK - Child creates own reading material. $19.95 

GRAPH-IT • by D.Steele • Graph sets of algebraic equations. $14.95 

HISTORY G AME-32X-by ). Keellng-"Jeopardy" type US facts game $14.95 

KNOW YOUR STATES-32K b ( J.Keeling-Name all hi-res. states $19.9$ 

MUSIC DRILL - by D.SIeele - Identify notes of many scales. $19.95 

GRAPH TUTOR • 32K - by C. Phillips - Create, use line, bar, pie 

pictographs. Hi-res $19.95 

PRESCHOOL SERIES ■ By 1. Koiar. each $11.95 

Pre. 1-Counting, number recognition; Pre. 2 ■ Simple Addition; 
Alphabet Recognition. 




FRENCH OR SPANISH BASEBALL - By S. Blyn each $1 1 .95 

Vocabulary practice. 200 words. Modifiable. Specify language. 
Mm is 32K (500 words) $19.95 

HEBREW BULLETIN BOARD-by J.Kolar-utilitj to print words. $15.95 

HEBREW ALPHABET • Learn the letters of this alphabet $11.95 

•••A BYTE OF COLOR BASIC • Beginner's manual & exercises $ 4.95 

FUN and GAMES 

(ALL PROGRAMS IN 16-K EXTENDED EXCEPT WHERE NOTED) 

CIRCUS ADVENTURE-by Steve Bfyn 16K-K ids adventure game. $1 1.95 

SCHOOL MAZE - by Steve Blyn 16K • Kids graphic adventure. $11.95 

HAMSTER HUNT ■ by LiO Weston 32K - Beautiful graphics in 

this charming new kids adventure pme. $19.95 

MR. COCOHEAD • by Steve Blyn - Create over 10.000 funny faces. 
Surprise commands. Very creative. $16.95 

TALKING WIZARD • voice by Classical Computing - Child-sized 

Eliza-Freud game. Computer speaks to you. $19.95 

HORSERACE -by RAP Armstrong -Hhss. rate for all ages. $11.95 




RAINBOW 

certification 

SEAL 
Dealers Inquiries Invited. 




FOR YOUR CONVENIENCE 

Blank Cassettes with Labels 3For$ 2.00 

Popular Brand Diskettes 3 For $10.00 

Disk Head Cleaner Kit each $25.00 

Looseleaf Diskette File (hold 4 1 2 For $ 3.00 



Picas* add SI .00 par order for post 



(212)948-2748 
Dept. R 227 Hampton Green, Staten Island, N.Y. 10312 

Send for catalog with complete descriptions. 

r far poetage. N.Y. residents, pleise add proper tax. FREE eat of BINArVdICE, Including full directions, with orders of 2 or mora Hems 
Authors : We ire seeking quality children's software for leisure or learning. Write for details. Top Royalties. 
TRS-80 Color Computer. TD pSystem 100. 



PRINT#-2, (continued from Page 14) 



And, especially in the case of the west coast, what with the 
difference in time (Louisville/ Prospect is on Eastern time), 
it sometimes makes it hard to contact us and for us to 
contact people. 

We never forget that we started as a "kitchen table" opera- 
tion. And, as you are well aware, most of the people who sell 
software and hardware for the CoCo also started that way. 
We need to work around their "other work" schedules and 
the like, and having people in different time zones makes 
that easier to do. 

By the way, one of the things we have always tried to do at 
the Rainbow is to encourage new people who are starting 
out to get involved in the CoCo business. We have special 
introductory advertising rates for people who are just start- 
ing. One of the reasons we do this is because we really believe 
that there are a lot of good ideas out there that just need a 
little help to get a start. So, if you are one of these people, 
please get in touch with us. Your program or product may 
well be the next best-seller in the industry! 

You read in the "Pipeline" recently that Color Computer 
News had ceased publication and that Hot CoCo was going 
to pick up the subscriptions still outstanding by CCN. 

As it turns out, this is not so, although at the time we 
printed the information, we had the information "checked 
out" by both sides. My understanding is that a tentative 



LINE PRINTERS 



• H 4 D.'- 5 



CENTRONICS 588 (used) serial 600 
Baud, 88 CPS with 4 pin DIN plug 

All prices F.O.B. Henderson, Tx. 
Terms: Cash, check or COD 
Tx. residents add 4% sales tax 

LEADER SALES CORPORATION 

P.O. Box 1220, Henderson, Tx. 75652 

214/657-7800 after 6:00 P.M. 

• • ^■i'* • • 
Discounts available to CC clubs 
and volume buyers. 



agreement fell through at the last minute. So, no, Hot CoCo 
will not fulfill subscriptions for CCN. And, really, that is all 
we know at this point. I am sorry for any inconvenience that 
the earlier report may have caused you, or the people 
involved. 

You may notice that our subscription label looks just a 
little bit different this month. It is not what we put on it, but 
how we put it on it. (Does that make sense? No? Well, now 
you know why they won't let me write anything but this 
column every month.) 

One of the biggest problems we have had with the Rain- 
bow has been the printing of subscription labels and lists 
each month. And, every time we think we have it licked, the 
subscription list swells up again and we seem to be right back 
where we started. 

For the purposes of history, the very first subscription 
labels were done on a Line Printer VII that ran at 50 charac- 
ters per second. Having previously dealt with a Quick Prin- 
ter II, on which I did not try to run labels (it used aluminum 
paper), I really thought we had moved uptown at that stage. 

But we experienced some growth, and it took a couple of 
hours to run out the subscription list before too long. So, 1 
moved to an Epson MX-80, which featured 80 cps and 
bidirectional printing. Thought I was in hog heaven, too. 

Ah, but. Our list kept growing. At one point, it took 12 
hours to print out the subscription list from the MX-80. Just 
too long. So, next, I invested in a 220 cps DMP 500, which is 
also bidirectional. This is about the fastest general purpose 
line printer you can buy. But, still, new subscriptions kept 
coming in. During the printing of December's issue, it actu- 
ally took almost 24 hours to run out the subscription list. 
And, there was another 24-hour period involved in the 
printing of the subscription list that we use here for reference 
and to answer questions when you call or write. 

For a change, I concentrated on the problem and realized 
that, what with the way we are growing (we added almost 
4,000 new subscribers in December, for instance) no general 
purpose printer would ever solve the problem for us com- 
pletely. So, with the help of Gordon Monnierat MichTron. 1 
scoured COMDEX in Las Vegas for a printer that might get 
us out of this jam once and for all. 

Enter our Mannesman-Tally 660. This gem (I can't call it 
a little gem because it isn't little) prints 600 lines per minute. 
Yes, that is lines, not characters. All of a sudden, a job that 
had taken a whole day to do became one that can be done in 
less than eight hours. And, because we don't have to tie up 
the computer for another day, we can get more frequent 
updates of our subscription lists to help when you call or 
write us with questions. 

This one is fast, and designed to do the kind of job that we 
need done. Because of the way it works, the dots in its matrix 
print heads look a little different — so that's why you might 
see a change in your label. 

Finally, I am pleased to be able to say that Bonnie Shep- 
ard has been named Director of Fulfillment Services for all 
of our publications. Bonnie comes to us with an excellent 
background in customer service and computers — some- 
thing that is needed to keep the "business" computers work- 
ing properly. 

We're glad to have Bonnie with us and believe she will be 
able to help you with any problems you might have concern- 
ing your subscription or delivery of your Rainbow. 

— Lonnie Falk 



194 th« RAINBOW April 1984 



GAMBLING 





-'^^ you 

f\W\Mfo<\ n kL n M> T. , 8 Form f° r some cl »e you might have 

UWlOOKea - Q bloodline, a Strong finish that didn't show up in the winnings, a longshot 
who 's done well under similar track conditions — something, anything to give you an edge; 
but you 'd better hurry, the horses have now reached the starting gate and the windows are 
about to close. There's no more time to deliberate. You swallow hard, force the warring 
factions of your mind to instant armistice, unfurl the two limp one-dollar bills you were 
unconsciously strangling in your sweaty grip and, announcing to the teller your final, 
irrevocable choice, you . . . 



PLACE YOUR serf 



Sy Kenneth Hall 




P,aribet duplicates a parimutuel wagering system used 
at race tracks. It was conceived after a friend asked if 
a parimutuel wagering system could be written for a 
"Derby Party" he was planning for the first Saturday in 
May. (When else?) 

The program contains a wagering window which can be 
opened for 1 1 races. It can also be closed prior to the start of 
the race. 

At any time, the wager pools can be displayed as well as 
the odds board. When the window is closed, a call to the post 
is sounded and you are asked to input the winning horses. 
The screen then flashes "unofficial" until a "Y" is pressed. 
Then the race is official and the payoffs are displayed. 

As at the track a percent of each wager can be retained to 
cover party costs or to contribute to charity. Also a min- 
imum payoff per one dollar bet can be set if desired. 

At the bottom of the payoff screen A+ or A- is shown 
indicating how the house made out on its percent take. If 
you want to change these parameters press F for fix. 

In order to set the percent take and minimum payoff, a 
code word is entered. It is KNH as line 1 5 dictates but can be 
changed. 

If a printer is used tickets can be printed and a copy of the 
wager screen, odds screen and payoff screen can be ob- 



( Kenneth Hall is a plam controller for Joseph E. Sea- 
gram & Sons, Inc. He is also responsible for a Data 
point Arcnet system and has been programming on the 
Color Computer for over two years.) 



tained. Paribet requires a Line Printer VII or DMP-100 
printer to print the tickets. 

All options are displayed at the bottom of each screen. 
Several of the screens flash the first letter of the option as an 
attention getter. This was achieved simply through PRINT@ 
statements inside IN KEY loops and is impressive to those 
unfamiliar with the power of the CoCo. 

The flashing borders around several of the screens were 
created by a program which appeared in the April 1983 
Rainbow which 1 placed in an IN KEY loop. 

This is not a game and is intended for use with non-illegal 
activities. There are many groups who use video tapes of 
races to raise money for worthwhile causes who could 
benefit from this program. 



The listing: 




5 CLE AR200 , 32704 : GOSUB 1010:' SET 
UP BORDER 

April 1984 the RAINBOW 195 



HARDWARE & PROGRAMS 



MONITORS 

BMC MEDIUM-RES 

12" Green Screen $ 89.95 

1 3" color w/ sound $303.95 

COMREX HI-RES 

12" Green Screen 164.95 

12" Yellow Screen 169.95 

12" Amber Screen 174.95 

VIDEO PLUS 

thy Computerwarel 

This unii will allow you io bring ihe com- 
posite video signal out of I he computer 10 
any monitor, color or monochrome. 
Sound output is also provided. No solder- 
ing or holes to cut. Easy installation in- 
structions are provided $24.95 

SHIPPING \M) HANDLING: 
monitors add 3"V 

JARB DISK DOUBLER 

Why spend twice as much as you need to 
for double sided diskettes? With our 
doubler. you can make your own and pay 
for it with the first box you double. A 
must for disk drive users. 
5'/4"sizeonly 12.95 

BASF DATA CASSETTES 
COS C-IO 

I -10 .60 ea. .65 ea. 

11-20 .55 ea. .60 ea. 

Soft Poly Cases la. $.20 

Hard Shelled Cases Fa. $.22 

Cassette Labels (1 2) Sh. $.36 

Cassette Labels Tractor (1000) .... $2 1 .95 



MEMORY I Pf.KUM. KI'IS 



1»K RAM CHIPS 1.50ea. 

1»K 3ZK 

Eighl 200 NS Factory Prime Chips with 
Piggy Backed Sockets, Sam Socket, Bus 
Wire. Comprehensive Instructions. 
Recommended for "D" or earlier, but ma> 
be used on "E". Only 9 simple solder con- 
nections to kit. None to computer. $25.95 
NOT FOR CoCo 2 

•64K RAM CHIPS 

Eight 200 NS Factory Prime 64K RAM 
Chips. Allows you to upgrade "E" board 

easily. No soldering needed $69.95 

NOW A CoCo 2 VERSION 



N ANOS COLOR BASIC 

AND EXTENDED 

SYSTEM REFERENCE 

CARD 

"The New Industry Standard" 
$4.95 

ADVENTURKS 

MANSION OF DOOM 

(by PAL Creations) 

32KEXT $14.95 

S.S. POSEIDON 
(by Bill & Debbie Cook J 

I6KEXT $14.95 

EVASION 

(by PAL Creations) 

32KEXT $19.95 

CARIBBEAN ODYSSEY 

You arc stranded on a Caribbean island 
once used by pirates to store their 
treasures. While searching over 70 distinct 
locations, can you find your one chance 
for rescue? 
32KEXT $19.95 



JUNGLE TREK 

I ost in a jungle with wild animals lurking; 
your only survival is to find a safe com- 
pound before you are lunch for lions; 
high resolution; multi-color. 
I6KEXT $1495 



BIORHYTHM PSYCHIC APT. 

1) Prints biorhylhm charts of nearly 
unlimited length; attractively formatted 
tor use on Line Printer VII. I6K 

2) Your psychic ability is determined 
through questions evaluating your psychic 
experiences 

16k Ixi Both lor $15.95 



FOR SERIOUS APPLICATIONS: 

IcIewriicr-MKognitct) 49.95 Cass 59.95 Disk 

toco-Writer (Morcton Bay) 34.93 

MlrC'abnci (Morcion Bay) 29.95 

Kcpuri (Moreion Bay) 24.95 

Color Diagnosis (Compulcrwarc) 17.95 

Programmers Toolkit (Morcion Bay) 28.95 



PROGRAMS FOR THE 

SPECTRUM PROJECTS 

VOICE-PA K 

OR 

SPEECH SYSTEMS VOICE 



TALKING 
FINAL COUNTDOWN 

(by Bill Cook) 

For32KEXT $24.95 

Standard cassette 

FINAL COUNTDOWN $14.95 



TALKING 
SPELL-A-TRON 

The program allows the user to build a 
dictionary of words. During testing, the 
words are spoken. If an incorrect 
response is given, the word is spoken 
again and spelled. Tape (32K EXT) $28.95 



TALKINC 
SCORE E-Z 

A yahtzee type program. Up to six players 
can compete. All scoring and record keep- 
ing is done by the computer. Tape (32K 

EXT) $24.95 

Standard SCORE E-Z $15.95 



TALKINC 
COLOR MATH 

The perfect educational game to aid the 
student in learning addition, subtraction, 
multiplication and division. Allows one to 
specify difficulty level. 
Tape (32K EXT) $32.95 



SCHEMATIC DRAFTING PROCESSOR 
(disk) can draw large scale schematics in 
hi-res (has six overlapping screens) and 
then print them out to any of several 
popular printers, fast!! A must for serious 
hardware computerist. 
Now only $49.95 

CoCo Chi pa 

Sam, Pia, CPU, Ext, Basic 



SHIPPING AND HANDLING: Unless 
otherwise specified, all orders $3.00 per 
order. California Residents add 6^o sales 
tax. 



U.S FUNDS ONLY 

C.O.D. ORDERS ACCEPTED 

Sorry, no C.O.D. on primers and 

monitors. 

NO CREDIT CARD ORDERS 



We carry products 

from many manufacturers. 

If you don't see it, ask. 



JARB 






HAKDWAkf- 



1636 D Avenue, Suite C BBS (619) 474-8981 

National City, CA 92050 VOICE (619) 474-8982 



10 POKE149,0:POKE150,41:DIMHP<11 
, 16, 3> , WP < 1 1 , 3> , WN < 1 1 ) , PL ( 1 1 > , SH 
( 1 1 ) , B < 1 1 , 16, 3) : B*="####. ##" : C*= 
"####": '1200 BAUD POKE 
12 'SETS PARAMETER FOR HOUSE PER 
CENT ABE, MINIMUM PAYOFF AND WHETH 
ER OR NOT TICKETS WILL BE PRINTE 
D 

15 CLS: INPUT "WHAT IS YOUR CODE"; 
CW» : I FCW*< > " KNH " THEN IB ELSE I NPUT 
" WHAT WILL MINIMUM PAYOFFS PER 

DOLLAR BET BE"jPO 

16 CLS0: I NPUT "WHAT PERCENTAGE OF 
THE WAGER WILL THE HOUSE RE 

TAIN TO COVER COST OR TO GIVE TO 
CHARITY"|HK 

17 IFHK<1 THENPRINT"ENTER A WHOL 
E NUMBER NOT DEC I MAL " : I NPUTHK 

IB HK«<100-HK>/100 

20 CLS: PR I NT" ARE YOU USING A 

PRINTER FOR TICKETS Y/N" 
25 Q*=INKEY*: IFQ*-"N" THENP -1EL 
SEIFQ*«"Y" THENP=0 ELSEIFQ*-" "TH 
EN25 

30 CLS: I NPUT "WHAT RACE IS THIS"; 
R:IFR<1 ORRM1 THEN30 

34 'START OF WAGER ROUTINE 

35 CLS3:PRINT875, "DERBY DAY"; 
40 PRINT8140, "RACE";R; 

45 PR I NTS 165, "PLACE YOUR BETS HE 

RE."; 

50 PRINTe228," <> ANNOUNCE YOUR 

HORSE "» 

55 PRINTS260, " <> ORDER OF FINIS 

H "! 

60 PRINT6292, " <> AMOUNT OF YOUR 

WAGER"; 
62 X-USR0<198> 

65 PR I NT8450 , " pOOL " ; : PR I NT8464 , " 
CHANGE RACE"| 

70 PR I NT8386 , " < X X > YOUR HORSE " ; 
: INPUTH* 

75 IFH*-"P"THEN135 ELSE I FH*« " C " T 
HEN30 ELSEH-VAL(H*> 

76 IFHM6 THEN70 

G0 PRINT8386, STRING* (20, 32) 

85 PRINTe386," ORDER OF FINISH"; 

: INPUTF 

90 IFF<1 0RF>3THEN85 

95 PRINTQ386, " AMOUNT OF WAGER" 

; : INPUTW 

100 PRINTS386, STRING* (23, 32) ; 

105 WP<R,F)=WP<R,F)+W 

110 HP(R,H,F)=HP(R,H,F)+W 

115 IFP=0 THENGOSUB260 

1 20 PR I NTS450 , " pOOL " ; : PR I NT8458 , 

"bET"; :Q*=INKEY$: IFQ*=""THEN120 

125 PRINT@458," "; 

130 IFQ*="B"THEN70 ELSEIFQ*="P"T 



HEN 135 ELSEIFQ*="C"THEN30 ELSEGO 
TO 120 

134 'BETTING POOL SCREEN 

135 CLS8 : PR I NTQ36, "BETTING POOL" 
; :PRINT855, "RACE"R; 

145 PRINTe67, "WIN" ; : PRINT875, "PL 

ACE" ; : PRINT8B7, "SHOW" ; 

150 PRINT898,USINGC*; <WP(R, 1 ) *HK 

) | : PRINT8108, USINGC*; <WP (R, 2) *HK 

) ; : PRINT81 19, USINGC*; (WP (R, 3) *HK 

>l 

155 PRINT8128, STRING* (32, 204); 

160 PRINT" # W P S # W 

P S" 
165 Z-192 

170 F0RX-lT016:PRINT8Z,X;:Z-Z+3: 
F0RY=1T03: PRINT8Z, USINGC*; HP (R, X 

,Y); :z=z+4:nexty:z=z+i:nextx 

180 IFTR=1THENRETURN 

1 85 X =USR0 ( 1 69 ) : PR I NT8449 , " oDDS " 

; :forx»1to20:nextx:print8454, "be 

t"; :forx=1to20:nextx:print8458, " 

close"; :forx-ito20:nextx 

1 90 x =usr0 ( 1 66 ) : q*- i nke y* : pr i nt8 

449, "0" ; : f0rx-1t025: nextx : prints 

454,"b";:f0rx=1t025:nextx:print8 

458, "c"; :f0rx»1t025: nextx : ifq*=" 

"THEN 185 

195 IFQ*-"B"THEN35 ELSEIFQ*-"0"T 



ing $17.95 



Here's a program to help you increase your reading speed 
dramatically. Reading material appears on the TV screen at 
the speed you select, training you to read faster than you 
normally would. You can even vary the speed while reading. 
Complete with six different text selections. Plus a drill to 
improve visual span and perception Instructions describe 
speed improvement techniques. 

Speeding your reading takes dedicated effort. With this 
unique program, your effort will be more efficient, convenient 
and productive. 



wild party mm. $27.95 

A naughty, sexy computer game for 2 to 6 couples. 
RAINBOW: "would definitely liven up most parties." 



29 monsters 



$14.95 



A text-adventure game that does not require you to guess 
words from its hidden collection. To escape the evil wizard's 
castle, you must pass through 29 rooms, each guarded by a 
hideous monster who will only let you pass if you can devise 
the correct password based on the clues it gives you. 



All programs on cassette tape for 16K Color Computer. 
Extended BASIC not required. Send SASE for instructions 
for any program. Prices include postage (PA resid. add 6%). 
Send check to P.O. Box 210, Jenkintown, PA 19046. 

b&b software £0) 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 197 



HEN200 ELSEIFQ*="C"THEN310 ELSE1 
90 

199 'ODDS SCREEN 

200 CLS2 : PR I NTS46 , " ODDS " ; 
205 PRINTS64, STRING* (32, 191) 
207 PRINT977, "RACE H R| 

210 PRINTS96, TAB (2> "HORSE"; TAB <9 

) " ODDS " ; T AB ( 20 ) " HORSE " ; T AB ( 27 ) " O 

DDS"; 

215 PRINT«128,STRIN9*(32,252)| 

220 Z=164 

223 F0RX»JT016:PRINT«2,X»:Z*Z+6: 

IFHP(R,X,1>>0 THENPRINTSZ,USING" 

###"; <(WP(R, l)*HK)/HP(R,X,t)>; E 

LSEPRINTSZ,0; 

226 1FHP(R,X,1>=0 THEN230ELSEIF< 

(WP(R, 1)*HK)/HP(R,X, 1) )-<l AND(( 

WP (R, I ) *HK> /HP (R, X, 1 ) ) >0THENPRIN 

T8Z, "EVEV'l 

230 Z=Z+10: NEXTX 

235 PRINTS416, STRING* (64, 255); 

240 IFTR=1THENRETURN 

245 X=USR0(230) :PRINT8450, "bET"; 

: FORX=1TO20: NEXTX :PRINT8454,"p00 

L";:FORX=1TO20:NEXTX:PRINT6459," 

cLOSE";:FORX=lTO20:NEXTX:PRINTS4 

65, "OPEN" ; : FORX=1TO20: NEXTX 

250 X =USR0 < 233 ) : Q*= I NKE Y* : PR I NT@ 

450, "B" ; : F0RX=1T025: NEXTX: PRINT© 

454, "P" ; : F0RX=1T025: NEXTX: PRINT© 

459, "C"; :F0RX=1T025: NEXTX: PRINTS 

465, "O"; :F0RX=1T025: NEXTX : IFQ*=" 

"THEN245 

255 IFQ*="B"THEN35 ELSE I FQ*= " P " T 

HEN 135 ELSEIFQ*="C"THEN310 ELSE I 

FQ*-"O"THEN30 ELSE250 

259 'PRINT ROUTINE FOR TICKETS D 
MP 100 USED 

260 F0RX=lT015:PRINT#-2, "KY"; : NE 
XTX: 

265 PRINT#-2, "RACE"R 

270 PR I NT#-2 , " * " ; CHR* (31)" HORSE 

" ; H; CHR* (30) ; CHR* ( 16) ; "35" ; "*" 

275 PRINT#-2, "*" ; CHR* ( 16) ; "35" ; " 

#" 

280 IFF=lTHENPRINT#-2,"* 

; CHR* ( 3 1 ) " W I N " ; ELSE I FF=2 THENPR I 

NT#-2 , " * " ; CHR* (31)" PLACE " 

; ELSEPR I NT#-2 , " # " CHR* ( 3 1 

)"SHOW"; 

285 print#-2,chr*(30);:print#-2, 

chr* ( 16) ; "35" ; "*" : print#-2, chr* ( 

30) ; "*" ; : print#-2, chr* ( 16) ; "35" ; 

"*" 

290 PRINT#-2, "* ";CHR*(31> 

; :PRINT#-2,USING"***###.##";W; :P 

R I NT#-2 , CHR* ( 30 > ; : PR I NT#-2 , CHR* ( 

16); "35" J"*" 

295 PRINT#-2,CHR*(30) ; "#";: PRINT 

#-2, CHR* (16) ; "35"; "*":F0RX=1T018 



: PRINT#-2, "KY" ; : NEXTX 

300 F0RX=lT05:PRINT#-2: NEXTX 

305 RETURN 

309 'CLOSE WINDOW ROUTINE AND EN 
TER WINNERS OF THE RACE 

310 PLAY " L4T502CF A03L8CT7P8CP64C 
P64CP802T5L8AT7P8AP64AP64AP8T5L8 
. F03C02FL 1 CL4P2CFA03L8CT7P8CP64C 
P64CPB02T5L8AT7P8AP64AP64AP8T5L8 
. CP64CP64CL IF": CLS0 : PR I NT872 , " W I 
NDOW IS CLOSED"; 

315 PR I NTS 108, "RACE "R; 

320 PRINTS224, "THE WINNER OF RAC 

E";R" is:";: line inputwn*:wn(R)= 

VAL(WN«) 

325 PRINTS2BB, "THE PLACE HORSE I 
S: " ; : LINEINPUTPL*: PL (R) =VAL (PL*) 
330 PRINTS352, "THE SHOW HORSE IS 
: " ; : LINEINPUTSH*: SH (R) =VAL (SH*) 

334 'SHOWS RACE AS UNOFFICIAL UN 
TIL A 'Y' IS ENTERED 

335 PRINT8427, STRING* (10, 169) ;:F 
ORX=1TO50: NEXTX: Q*=INKEY*: PRINTS 
427, "UNOFFICIAL"; :FORX=1TO100:NE 
XTX: IFQ*=""THEN335 

340 IFQ*="Y"THENPRINTS427," offi 
cial "; ELSE320 

345 FORX-1TO30:PRINT9427," OFFIC 
I AL " ; : FORY= 1 T075 : NE X T Y : PR I NTS42 
7, STRIN8* ( 10, 255) I : FORY-1TO60: NE 
XTY:SOUNDX+7*X, 1 : NEXTX: F0RX=1T02 
0: SOUNDRND (255) , 1 : NEXTX 

349 'PAYOFF SCREEN BEGINS 

350 CLS8:PRINT85, STRING* (22, 214) 
; : PRINTS32, STRING* (5,214);: PRINT 
644, "WINNERS" ; : PRINTS59, STRING* ( 
5,214); 

355 PRINTQ69, STRING* (7,214); "RAC 

E"R; string* (8,214); 

360 PR I NTS97 , " HORSE " ; : PR I NTS 1 06 , 
"WIN" ; : PRINTS1 14, "PLACE" ; : PRINTS 
123, "SHOW"; 

364 'COMPUTE PAYOFF AND LIST TO 
SCREEN 

365 PN=HP(R,WN(R) , 2) +HP (R, PL (R) , 
2) : IFPN=0 THENPN=1 

370 SN=HP(R,WN(R),3)+HP(R,PL(R), 
3) +HP (R, SH (R) , 3) : IFSN=0THENSN=1 
375 A*= "##.#"+" ": ' ROUNDS PAYOFF 

FOR DISPLAY TO NEAREST *. 10 
380 PRINTS163,WN(R) ; : IFHP(R,WN(R 
) , 1 ) >0THENB (R, WN (R) , 1 ) - ( (WP (R, 1 ) 
*HK) /HP (R, WN (R) , 1 ) ) : IFB (R, WN (R) , 
1)>0 ANDB(R,WN(R), 1XPO THENB(R, 
WN(R) , l)=PO 
385 PRINT@170,USINGA*;B(R,WN(R), 

i); 

390 IFHP(R,WN(R),2)>0ORHP(R,PL(R 
),2)>0 THENA=HP(R,WN(R),2)/PN EL 
SEPRINT9178,0; 



198 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



"fSUJ."? LANGUAGE MIX ED W/I6k EXTENDED BASIC EQUALS BARGAIN PRICES^ 
(NOT 1 BAD REVIEW IN OVER 4 YEARS, INFACT 'BARGAIN' IS THE ECHO) 



vrQ£S 



BE A DETECTIVE FOR ONLY 



FOR REALISTIC. CRIMEBUSTING, ADVENTEROUS FUN 

ENTER THE 20 ROOM McDERMOTT MANSION AND FIND OUT WHO KILLED Mrs. McDERMOTT, CATCH THE CA1 
AND SLAY THE KILLER, YOU SEE, THEY ALL MOVE IN THIS CLUE TYPE THRILLER. WILL YOU SOLVE THE 
CRIME, WILL YOU GET THE KILLER BEFORE HE GETS YOU, WILL YOU FIND THE GERITOL BEFORE YOU. 
.RUN OUT OF STRENGTH, WILL YOU 



lENTER THE HEART THROBBING MONSTER HUNT WITH 

IT'S TOP SHELF ARCADE ACTION IN THE 
MONSTERS LAIR. WITH THE JOYSTICK, MOVE 
DIGGER SAM UP AND DOWN THE LADDERS AND 
THRU THE LAIR. DIG HOLES AND WHEN THE 
MONSTERS FALL IN, RUSH OVER AND BURY 
EM. SOMETIMES THE MONSTERS COME AFTER 
YOU, SOMETIMES YOU GO AFTER THEM. THE 
INTRO IS IN BASIC, THE ACTION IS IN 
MACHINE LANGUAGE. SIX DIFFERENT SCREENS WITH 
[LEVELS OF DIFFICULTY WILL MAKE EKG A BIG HIT 



COUSTANTLY INCREASING^ 
WITH ALL AGES l<+,95j 




g£ r 



ANOTHER TOP SHELF ARCADE GAME. YOU ARE ALIL BUG WHO! 
HAS FALLEN INTO A LARGE SPIDER WEB. BE CAREFUL, THE 
WEB IS INHABITED BY 6 LARGE SPIDERS, EACH WITH IT'S 
OWN PERSONALITY. USING THE ARROWS ON YOUR KEYBOARD, ' 
YOU MUST MOVE THRU THE WEB EATING ALL THE TIDBITS ' 
AND AVOIDING ALL THE WEB WEAVERS. 14.95 



Jt- 



&' 



ti 



UllIM 



i'f/j 



jM< 



LEARNING, FUN AND COMPUTER GAMES ALL MIX TOGETHER IN . . . 

THIS IS A UNIQUE, 3 PROGRAM TAPE, WHERE YOU CONTROL THE 
DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY. 

1. JAIL - ONE OR TWO PLAYERS TRY TO LOGICALLY DETERMINE THE GIVEN 
WORD. IF YOU FAIL, THEN ITS 'OFF TO JAIL' . 

2. SCRAMBELED EGGS - GIVEN A WORD IN A SCRAMBELED SEQUENCE, THE 
PLAYER TRIES TO CORRECT THE ORDER AND HENCE DETERMINE 
THE CORRECT WORD. (HINTS ARE GIVEN IF REQUIRED) 

J. WORDLIST - A PROGRAM TO ENABLE THE USER TO CREATE WORD LISTS 
FOR 'JAIL' or 'SCRAMBELED EGGS'. 

16.9J 

PILOT A COLORFUL BALLOON OVER THE MOUNTAIN AND LAND SAFELY 
BETWEEN THE TREES, IT ALL LOOKS EASY IN . . __ 

2 r tH 

WIND, GRAVITY AND MOTHER NATURE ARE FACTORS TO CONSIDER. 
A FUN PROGRAM FOR ALL AGES. PLUS, COPY-CAT, A SIMOI- 
TYPE GAME, HOW LONG CAN YOU LASTJLJfEg-^. 9.9^ 



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OR SEND CHECK OR MONEY ORDER TO 



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'labels, add it • Shipping $17 '500 
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Disk? (y/n) 



395 IF<HP(R,WN<R>,2>/PN>=1 OR<HP 

<R,PL<R),2)/PN)=1 THENA-0 

400 IFHP(R,WN(R),2)>0 THENB(R,WN 

<R> ,2>=»< ( <1-A>#WP<R,2>*HK>/HP<R, 

WN(R),2)):IFB(R,WN(R>,2)>0 ANDB ( 

R,WN<R),2XP0 THENB<R,WN(R),2)-P 



405 PRINT@178,USINGA$;B(R,WN(R) , 

2>;:AS=l:M=l:IFHP(R,WN(R),3)>0 A 

NDHP(R,PL<R),3)>0 ANDHP <R, SH <R> , 

3) >0THENM=. 5ELSEIFHP (R, WN (R) , 3) > 

THENAS=HP<R,WN(R> ,3)/SN 

410 BOSUB505 

415 IFASO0 ANDHP <R,WN(R),3X>0 

THENAS=HP <R, WN (R) , 3) /SN 
420 IFHP<R,WN<R>,3>>0 THENB<R,WN 

<R) ,3)=( < (M)*(1-AS>*(WP(R,3)#HK> 

)/HP<R,WN<R>,3>> :IFB(R,WN(R),3) 
>0 ANDB<R,WN<R),3XP0 THENB(R,WN 

<R),3)=P0 

425 PRINT@186,USIN6A*;B<R,WN<R>, 

3); 

430 PRINTe227,PL(R);:IFHP(R,WN<R 

>,2) ORHP(R,PL<R>,2)>0 THENA-HP< 

R,PL(R),2)/PN ELSEPRINT@242,0; 

435 IF<HP(R,WN<R>,2)/PN)»1 OR (HP 

(R,PL(R).2)/PN)=1 THENA=0 
440 IFHP(R,PL(R),2)>0 THENB(R,PL 

<R) , 2) = < ( < 1-A) *WP <R, 2) *HK> /HP <R, 

PL(R),2)):IFB(R,PL(R),2)>0 ANDB ( 

R,PL<R),2XP0 THENB(R,PL(R>,2)=P 



445 PRINT@242,USINGA*;B<R,PL<R>, 

2); 

450 IFASO0 ANDHP (R, PL (R) ,3)<>0 

THENAS=HP <R, PL <R) , 3) /SN 

455 IFHP<R,PL(R),3)>0 THENB<R,PL 

(R),3)=< (<M>*(1-AS)*(WP(R,3)*HK) 

)/HP(R,PL(R),3)) :IFB<R,PL(R),3>> 

ANDB(R,PL(R),3XPO THENB(R,PL( 

R),3)=P0 

460 PRINT@250,USINGA*;B<R,PL(R>, 

3); 

465 PRINTQ291 , SH (R) ; : IFAS< >0THEN 

AS=HP (R, SH (R) , 3) /SN 

470 IFHP<R,SH(R),3) >0 THENB(R,SH 

(R),3)=<((M)*<1-AS)*(WP(R,3)*HK) 

>/HP<R,SH<R),3>) :IFB(R,SH(R),3)> 

ANDB<R,SH(R),3XP0 THENB(R,SH< 

R>,3)=P0 

475 PRINT@314,USINGA*;B(R,SH(R), 

3); 

480 

"i 

485 

486 

490 



PRINTQ360, "PER DOLLAR PAYOFF 



I FTR= 1 THENRETURN 

OC=l:BOSUB605 

X=USR0 < 1 98 ) : OC=0 : PR I NTQ450 , " 
pOOL" ; : F0RX=1T025: NEXTX: PRINTS45 
5, "oPEN"; :FORX=1T025: NEXTX: PRINT 
■3460, "cOPY" ! : F0RX=1T025: NEXTX: PR 



200 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



INTS465, "f IX";:FORX=1TO20:NEXTX 

492 IFNT>0 THENPRINT@475,"+"- EL 

SEPRINTS475, "-"• 

495 X=USR0 ( 20 1 ) : Q*= I NKEY* : PR I NT® 

450, "P"; :FORX=1TO20:NEXTX: PRINTS 

455, "0"; :FORX=lTO20:NEXTX:PRINTe 

460, "C" ; : FORX=1TO20: NEXTX: PRINT© 

465, "F"; :FORX=1TO20:NEXTX: IFQ*=" 

"THEN490 

500 IFQ»="P"THEN135 ELSEIFQ*="0" 

THEN30 ELSEIFQ*="C"THEN515 ELSE I 

FQ*="F"THEN15 ELSE495 

505 IFHP<R,WN(R),3)/SN-1 0RHP(R, 

PL<R),3)/SN=1 0RHP<R,SH<R),3)/SN 

=1 THENAS=0 

510 RETURN 

514 'PRINTS A HARD COPY OF WABER 
POOL, ODDS SCREEN, PAYOFF SCREEN 

515 TR=1:GOSUB135:GOSUB520:GOSUB 
200: GOSUB520: GOSUB350: GOSUB520: G 
OTO600 

520 FORX»0TO14:FORY=1TO32:Q=PEEK 

( ( <X*32)+Y)+1023> 

525 I FQ= > 1 27THENQ=32 : G0T0535 

530 IFQ=>96THENQ=Q-64 

535 PRINT#-2, CHR* (Q) ; : NEXTY: PRIN 

T#-2,"":NEXTX 

540 RETURN 

600 TR=0:PRINT#-2,"NET TAKE FOR 

RACE"R 

604 'COMPUTE HOUSE TAKE OR LOSS 

605 NT=<WP(R, 1)+WP(R,2)+WP(R,3)> 
-(<B(R,WN(R),l)*HP<R,WN<R>,l))+( 
B(R,WN(R),2)»HP(R,WN(R),2))+(B<R 
,WN(R),3)*HP<R,WN(R),3))+(B(R,PL 
<R>,2)*HP(R,PL<R),2))+<B(R,PL(R) 
,3)*HP(R,PL(R>,3))+<B(R,SH(R),3) 
*HP<R,SH(R>,3>>) 

606 IF0C=1 THEN RETURN 

610 PRINT#-2,USING ,, ###.##"5NT:GO 
TO350 

1009 'screen border routine #ray 
gauvreau april 1983 rainbow* 

1010 forcc=32704to32732 : re adc : po 
kecc,c:nextcc 

1020 DEFUSR0=32704 

1030 DATA189, 179,237,31,152,142, 

4, 0, 16, 142, 4, 31 , 237, 137, 1 , 224, 23 

7, 164, 49, 168, 32, 237, 129, 140, 4, 32 

,38.240,57 

1040 RETURN 

1049 END 

1050 'VARIABLES**PO-MINIMUM PAYO 

ff:hk-house take %: NT-NET take:w 

N-W INNING HORSE: PL-PLACE HORSE: S 
H-SHOW HORSE :R-R ACE #:H-HORSE #: 
F-ORDER OF FINISH: W-WAGER: WP-WAG 
ER POOL: HP-HORSE POOL: B-DISPLAYE 
D PAYOFF 
/^\ 



PRO-COLOR-SERIES 



the best just got 
better 



PRO-COLOR-FILE 'ENHANCED 1 



$79.95 



PRO-COLOR-FILE has become one of the most respected data- 
base programs ever developed for the Color Computer. Whether 
it's for home or business, PRO-COLOR-FILE lets you design your 
own sophisticated database tailored to your needs. 

60 DATA FIELDS available for each record to store information 

1020 BYTES for each record can be used if needed 

1 - 4 DISK DRIVES can be used to maximize storage capacity 

4 COLOR DATA ENTRY screens can be custom designed 

28 MATH EQUATIONS can be setup to perform calculations 

POST ACCOUNTS routine performs calculations on an entire file 

DUPLICATE RECORDS or FIELDS from previous entries 

SORT ENTIRE FILE on 3 fields at one time 

SORT ANY SIZE FILE whether it's 200 or 2000 records 

SELECT SUB-SETS of file for sorting or reporting 

SCAN FILES alphabetical by any field 

SUMMARIZE FILES to find totals, averages, low and hi values 

8 REPORT FORMATS for obtaining hard or soft copy reports 

6 LABEL FORMATS for 1 to 10 across labels & 1 to 30 lines/label 

PASSWORD PROTECTION for limited access to data and reports 

PRO-COLOR-FILE was so well received that over 70% of the 
owners of the original version ordered the PRO-COLOR-FILE 
•ENHANCED* upgrade in the first 2 weeks of its introduction. 
Find out for yourself why people in almost every state, Canada. 
South America, and even the Far East and Europe have turned to 
PRO-COLOR-FILE "ENHANCED* for their information manage- 
ment needs. 



PRO-COLOR-FORMS 



This application software allows data which is stored using 
PRO-COLOR-FILE to be printed anywhere on a full sheet of 
paper. Use it to print data on pre-printed forms or use it to design 
your own forms. Use PRO-COLOR-FORMS to create letters for 
mass mail-outs that have a personal touch by being able to insert 
names and addresses anywhere within the letter. Design and 
redesign up to 6 forms with user defined parameters such as 
printer width and lines per page. Supports embedded printer 
control codes from ASCII to 31. 



PRO-COLORDIR 



Tired of not knowing which diskette has that program you're 
looking for? PRO-COl.OR-D I Rectory will create a data file of all 
your disk directories that can be used by PRO-COLOR-FILE to 
generate alphabetized reports for easy reference. 
PRO-COLOR-DIR will store a diskette ID name, filename, 
extension, file type, number of grans allocated, number of sectors 
allocated, number of sectors used, machine language addresses and 
length, d8te it was created and date it was updated. 1000 entries 
are easily stored on one diskettel 



All programs require a 32k Disk with at least one disk 
drive. PRO-COLOR-FORMS and PRO-COLOR-DIR require 
PRO-COLOR-FILE to be used. All programs (c) 1983 by 
Derringer Software, Inc. 



See your local dealer or send check or money order to: 
DERRINGER SOFTWARE, INC., P.O. Box 5300, Florence, 
South Carolina 29502. Visa/MC customers call (803)665-5676 
Add $3.50 S&H - Available on AMDISK (Add $5.00). 
S.C. residents add required sales tax. 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 



201 




Greetings! 

It's been snowing for umpteen days now. This ought 
to be the last storm of the season, I keep telling myself. 
Spring is here, right? Sometimes it stops snowing, and I 
go outside and shovel a path to the barn. Then the wind 
starts up and moves the path over several feet so that I get 
lost. I shovel another path and the wind moves that one 
over, too. I shovel another path and try to anchor it in place 
with icicles and iceballs, and then the wind stops blowing 
and it starts snowing again. Weather can be a problem. It's 
one of those things humanity has not yet learned to control 
— like baldness and Bertha. Fortunately, the pigs are warm, 
all snug in their house. 1 have an automatic feeder out there, 
so I don't necessarily have to go visit them every day. Me — I 
spend a lot of time indoors practicing my meditation, read- 
ing the newspaper, and playing with my Color Computer. 
One day as I was playing with my Color Computer, I 
happened to look out my window. What did 1 see? Nothing! 
i couldn't see out my window — it was covered with frost. 
The frost looked like this: 




(W. Bert Woofensburger ["Uncle Bert"] manages a 
hog and corn farm near Ypsilanti, Mich. He has 
recently acquired a Color Computer and is learning 
LOGO. Woofensburger's editor and assistant, Dale 
Peterson, writes for a living. His recent books include 
"Genesis II: Creation and Recreation With Comput- 
ers" and "Intelligent Schoolhouse: Readings On 
Computers and Learning. " He is currently working on 
a book about Color LOGO with Don Inman and 
Ramon Zamora, to be published in 1984.) 



1 saw that when nature does graphics, he or she tends to 
repeat himself or herself. Is nature boring or what? Not 
much imagination, that nature. Just the same pattern over 
and over, only sometimes the pattern is changed a little with 
each repeat. For example, sometimes the pattern is repeated 
only smaller. Look at how the frost tends to grow one big 
basic pattern, but each part of the big basic pattern grows its 
own mini basic patterns of the same type, and so on, over 
and over. I said to myself, "If I can't get my Color Computer 
to repeat itself over and over again, my name isn't William 
Bertrand Woofensburger. " Glancing at the frost on my win- 
dow, I first thought about drawing a "Y." A Y would mean 
moving forward along a stem, branching to the right and 
making a small stem, then branching to the left with another 
small stem, then moving back. Like this: 

TO Y:N 

FD :N 

RT 15 

FD :N/2BK:N/2 

LT 30 

FD :N/2BK:N/2 

RT 15 

BK :N 

END 

Already, 1 was sort of repeating myself — each of the 
smaller stems was just a repetition (at half size) of the main 
stem. Now, if 1 really wanted to repeat the pattern, I figured I 
could try this: 

TOY :N 

FD :N 
RT 15 

Y (:N/2) 
LT 30 

Y (:N/2) 
RT 15 
BK :N 
END 

The plan was to have the computer draw a Y, and stop to 
draw a half-sized Y at the two ends; and stop to draw a 
half-sized Y at the ends of those ends; and so on. It didn't 
work. It never began forking the way a good Y should. Why? 
Y? I thought, and looked at the screen, and looked then at 
my procedure. I began to think that maybe the procedure 
was stuck repeating itself infinitely, forever dividing the first 
shrinking :N value by 2, and never getting a chance to 
complete the rest of the procedure. Thus, I decided 1 would 
try to stop the infinite shrinking of the value for :N. How? 
Common sense and a friend told me that I could tell the 
computer, "If :N becomes less than 2, stop shrinking :N, and 
get on with the rest of the procedure." In LOGO terms: 

IF :N<2 (STOP) 

The conditional IF statement was new to me, as was the 
STOP, but I remembered from high school that "<" meant 
"less than." I inserted that instruction in my procedure. 

TOY :N 

IF :N<2 (STOP) 
FD :N 
RT 15 

Y (:N/2) 
LT 30 



202 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



Y (:N/2) 
RT 15 
BK :N 
END 

Well, that looked a little more like the frost I was trying to 
make, but 1 thought the value of :N was shrinking too fast. If 
:N shrank more slowly, wouldn't it branch better? So I 
decided to shrink the procedure by 3/4 with each repetition. 
I also thought I might expand the angle of the branching a 
little. 1 came up with the following: 

TO FROST :N 

IF :N<2(STOP) 

FD :N 

RT 35 

FROST (3*:N/4) 

LT 70 

FROST (3*:N/4) 

RT 35 

BK :N 

END 

1 should mention that I also tried to make it even more like 
frost by telling the BG to be and the PC to be 3, but that 
didn't work. Why? 1 get the impression that STOP erases 
color. Anyhow, that was neat. And 1 experimented with 
frost for awhile before 1 got tired of it. 1 wiped the frost away 
from my window to see if 1 could be inspired by anything 
else. What did I see? A snowstorm. I quickly wrote a good 
snowstorm procedure. 

TO SNOW 

TURN OFF COMPUTER 
WITH TV STILL ON 
END 

That was not entirely satisfactory to me, however. I 
wanted to get a sky-sized screen, for one thing, for greater 
realism. Then 1 thought about my FROST procedure, and it 
suddenly occurred to me that snow was merely frost without 
a windowpane. What happens when you don't have a win- 
dowpane? The frost tends to grow equally in all directions, 
producing circles. So, 1 tried making my frost into a circle. 

TO FROST2 :N 

IF :N<2(STOP) 

FD :N 

RT 45 

FROST2 (3*:N/4) 

LT 90 

FROST2 (3*:N/4) 

RT 45 

BK :N 

END 

TOSNOWFLAKE :N 

REPEAT 8 (FROST2 :N RT 45) 
END 

I tried that out, and then I decided to get fancy and make 
the angle into a variable. The result was: 

TO FROST3 :N :ANGLE 

IF :N<2(STOP) 
FD :N 



RT :ANGLE 

FROST3 (3*:N/4) :ANGLE 

LT 2*:ANGLE 

FROST3 (3*:N/4) :ANGLE 

RT :ANGLE 

BK :N 

END 

TO SNOWFLAKE2 :N :ANGLE 

REPEAT 360/: ANGLE 

(FROST3 :N :ANGLE RT :ANGLE) 

END 

I tried a number of values for :N and : ANGLE. Generally 
I kept :N to about 25. For : ANGLE, 1 tried such things as 45. 
90, 30 and so on. I got some right nice snowflakes out of that. 

I worked on some other ways to make snowflakes, some- 
times with the help of my Color Computer manual. For 
example, I learned about the bump on a log procedure. The 
idea is to have the turtle draw a straight line with a bump on 
it, like so: 



y\ 



Now this "straight line with a bump on it" is really four 
lines. So it would be easy to make a self-referring procedure 
that would turn those four lines into bumpy lines them- 
selves, and so on forever. Needless to say, we should also 
give the computer a limit, so it doesn't try to go on forever 
with one part of the procedure before it gets to the other 
parts. 

TO BUMPONBUMP :N 

IF:N<I0(FD:N STOP) 
BUMPONBUMP (:N/3) 
LT 60 

BUMPONBUMP (:N/3) 
RT 120 

BUMPONBUMP (:N/3) 
LT 60 

BUMPONBUMP (:N/3) 
END 

That gives you a nice and very bumpy line. To turn that 
into a snowflake, you just make the "line" into sides of a 
manysideagon. 

TOSFLAKE :N 

REPEAT 6 (BUMPONBUMP :N RT 60) 
END 

To take it further, try this (with values for :N around 25 to 
45): 

TO MORE :N 

BG PC 3 

REPEAT 6 (SFLAKE :N RT 60) 

END 

Other snowflake procedures also make use of this self- 
referring principle. For instance, you could tell the turtle to 
draw a certain line and angle, and then have the turtle 
enlarge that line by a little bit. over and over again. Like so: 



TO FLAKE :LINE:ANG :EXTRA 

April 1984 the RAINBOW 



203 




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FD :LINE 

RT :ANG 

FLAKE (:LINE + :EXTRA) 

:ANG:EXTRA 

END 

Oops! 1 forgot to tell it to stop. Try again. 

TO FLAKE :LINE :ANG :EXTRA 

IF :LINE>45 (STOP) 

FD :LINE 

RT :ANG 

FLAKE (:LINE + :EXTRA) 

:ANG :EXTRA 

END 

Then I tried various values for :LINE and :ANG and 
:EXTRA.suchas I |44 Land I 120 3; and so on. You do, 
too. 

This snowflake nonsense could go on forever, and I was 
expecting it to when all of a sudden outside of my window I 
heard the creak-creak-creak crunch-crunch-crunch sounds 
of someone walking in the snow. In the middle of a blizzard! 
Who? Who would be foolish enough? As you already know, 
our little farm is so far away from anything even the mailper- 
son never comes near; she sends her trusty mailpooch. I 
heard a rapping sound at the door. Rap! Rap! Rap! I opened 
the door, snow poured in. and along with it entered a long, 
tall wraith, covered with snow and ice from head to foot. 
This creature took off a hat snow plopped to the floor, 
and a mass of dark hair appeared. The creature began 
unbuttoning an overcoat, a sheet of ice covering the coat 
cracked, and crashed to the floor. Then the creature — no, it 
was human! - began brushing ice and snow away from his 
face, icicles fell away from a broad walrus mustache and 
tinkled down, revealing the gaunt, yet handsome visage of 
my good old friend Don Inman! 

"Welcome!" 1 said, and Don explained that he had come 
all the way from California to experience real weather. 

"How do you like it?" 1 asked, but by then his lips had 
frozen shut. I took him into the kitchen and gave him 
something warm to drink. A few minutes later, we went 
down to my den. and 1 showed Don my snowflakes. He said 
he was very impressed, and he called them "recursions." 
Apparently, when a procedure refers to itself (like a snake 
eating its tail), it's called a "recursion." Next Don showed me 
a few computer games he had been thinking about. [Foot- 
note: The following games are based upon material de- 
veloped by Don lnman for his "Color LOGO Teachers' 
Manual #2."] 

Don told me he had been reading my letters in Rainbow, 
and had decided that I needed to give my readers a chance to 
practice guessing X and Y coordinates. He also scolded me 
for not demonstrating the /'fl/ATstatement. I said I didn't 
know much about PRINT, so he explained that PRJNTwiW 
both print text onto the screen, and display "hidden" mate- 
rial (a variable, a number, a function, or a combination 
thereof). Then he typed in the following on the keyboard of 
my Color Computer: 

TOGAMEI 

CLEAR 

MAKE :COL RANDOM 245+5 
MAKE .ROW RANDOM 150+30 
HI SX :COL SY :ROW 



PRINT "O" 
END 

Don explained that when PRINTvtoS followed by some- 
thing inside of quote marks, the computer would display on 
the screen whatever that something is. Thus, because we are 
randomizing X and Y values, the result of the GAM El 
procedure was to place or "print " the letter "O" randomly on 
the screen. Next. Don typed in the following: 

TO GUESS :X:Y 

CLEAR 

HT PU SH 90 

SX4SY 18 

PRINT "GUESS" 

SX60SY 18 

PRINT :X FD 32 PRINT :Y 

COMPARE 

END 

Don pointed out that the second way of using the PRINT 
statement — when PR/ NT is followed by something (such 
as a variable) without quote marks- instructed the compu- 
ter to show the actual value for that something. Here, for 
instance, Don has just told the computer to display the word 
"guess, "and the values for X and Y. 1 asked Don why he had 
instructed the turtle to move FORWARD 32 units after 
printing the value for X. and he explained that printing a 
value does not move the turtle; if we don't move the turtle 
ourselves, it will write the value for Y over the value for X. 
Altogether, this procedure does nothing but make the com- 
puter display precisely what we've typed in, in the first place. 
For instance, if I type in GUESS 45 90. the computer will 
CLEAR that away and then display (in the same position) 
GUESS 45 90. Doesn't that seem a waste? 1 asked Don, and 
he just mumbled and muttered beneath his drooping must- 
ache, then typed in the following procedure: 

TO COMPARE 

SX 4 SY 8 

PRINT "TURTLE" 

SX 60 SY 8 

PRINT :COL FD 32 PRINT :ROW 

SX : COL SY :ROW PRINT "O" 

END 

At last the game began to make sense. The COMPARE 
procedure, which is merely a subprocedure in the GUESS :X 
:Y procedure, instructs the computer to print the word 
"turtle" followed by the X and Y values of the original 
randomized position of the O, and then to place an O right 
back up where it was originally. Yep! It was a guessing game, 
all right, and it allowed us to guess the actual location of a 
randomly placed dot. We played that for a while, but I kept 
losing, so I soon became bored. Don tried to revive my 
interest with another version of the game. He typed in the 
following procedures: 

TOGAME2 

CLEAR 

MAKE :COL RANDOM 245+5 

MAKE :ROW RANDOM 150+30 

HTSX :COLSY :ROW 

PRINT "J" 

SX 128 SY 96 ST 

END 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 205 



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TO J :X :Y 

SX :XSY:Y 
END 

That game placed the letter J randomly on the screen. 
Then we fired the turtle with the J :X :Y procedure. (Typing 
J. followed by our guesses for X and Y values for the 
randomly placed J. moved the turtle to our guessed spot.) 
We took turns and competed to see who could hit the J on 
the nose first. I liked that game better. Still, after a while 1 
was ready to move on. Without saying a word, laconic Don 
typed in a not her game for playing with theSETHEADING 
function: 

TO TARGET 

CO LOR SET I 

MAKE COL RANDOM 175+20 

MAKE :ROW RANDOM 110+20 

HTSX:COLSY:ROW 

PC 2 REPEAT 20 (FD 5 RT 18) 

SX :COL-10 

PC I REPEAT 20 (FD 9 RT 18) 

SX :COL 20 

PC REPEAT 20 (FD 12 RT 18) 

HOME ST 

END 

TO HIT :HEAD:DIST 

PC2SH :HEADFD:D!ST 
END 

1 thought that was neat, and we played that one for about 
a half hour, but I (being me) wanted a fancier target. So I 
pushed Don out of the way. and began experimenting on my 
own. Like so: 

TO CIRCLE :RADiUS 

REPEAT 360 (PU FD :RADIUS 

DOT 

BK :RAD1US RT I) 

END 

TO DOT 

PD RT 90 
FD 1 BK I 
LT 90 PU 
END 

TOF1LLCIRCLE :RADIUS 

REPEAT :RADIUS/2 
(CIRCLE .RADIUS 
MAKE :RADIUS:RAD1US-1) 
END 

TO BU ELSE YE 

HT PC2 

MAKE :X RANDOM 210+20 

MAKE :Y RANDOM 150+20 

SX :X SY :Y 

F1LLCIRCLE8 

PC I C1RCLE2 16 CIRCLE2 24 

CIRCLE2 32 

PC0C1RCLE2 40 

END 



Naturally. Don began complaining about my game. "The 
circle takes too darn long!" he grumbled. I thought about 
that (yes, 1 can take criticism just as well as the next guy!), 
and came up with a faster circle, which 1 then inserted into 
the rest of the game procedures. 

TOC1RCLE2 :RAD 

REPEAT 180 

(PU FD:RAD 

DOT 

BK :RAD RT 2) 

END 

Eventually, I decided the game needed more realism. 
Thus. I turned it into a spider and fly game, like so: 

TO SPIDER 

MAKE :X RANDOM 230+10 

MAKE :Y RANDOM 160+12 

SX :XSY :Y 

HT 

MAKE :RAD3 

REPEAT 6 

(CIRCLE2 :RAD 

MAKE :RAD:RAD+5) 

PD REPEAT 12(FD28 

BK 28 RT 30) 

SX 128 SY96ST 

END 

TO FLY :X :Y 

SX :XSY :Y 
END 

Or. 

TO FLY :HEAD :DIST 

SH :HEAD FD :D1ST 
END 

Why a fly should deliberately and with malice afore- 
thought seek out a spiderweb is something neither Don nor I 
could figure out right away. When we do figure it out, you'll 
be the first to know. Anyhow, Don and I played these games 
until about midnight. Then we talked about the weather, 
and 1 explained to him how when you're surrounded by ice 
and snow for a long time you get tired of it. and begin to wish 
for summer to come. 

Well, that was about the extent of our visit. Don is a very 
quiet person, but he became even quiter than usual as he 
dozed off, with Ben sleeping across his feet. Next day, the 
weather paused for a minute, and Don set his heading for 
California. I have more to say. but it'll have to wait till next 
month. I remain, 

— Uncle Bert 

P.S. You can send your cards and letters to me in care of my 
good friend Dale Peterson. Just address them like this: 

Uncle Bert Woofensburger 

c/o Dale Peterson 

I he Rainbow 

9529 U.S. Highway 42 

P.O. Box 209 

Prospect, KY 40059 



208 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



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the 

RAINBOW 
J- S 



77re Beginning Game 



By Don Inman 
Rainbow Contributing Editor 



The pie graph has been the subject of "Using Graphics" 
in the past two Rainbow issues. The pie graph is 
based on the division of a circle into sections to 
emphasize size relationships. Many populargamblinggames 
are also based on the circle and its division into sectors. 
Rather than discuss one of the many popular circle-based 
gambling games. I'll demonstrate the beginnings of an 
original game this month. You can change and expand it 
until you find a version that you think is entertaining, profitable, 
or both. 

The Game will be played in PMODE 3 to provide a 
colorful yellow background with a green border. The game 
wheel consists of three concentric circles. The area between 
the two outer circles is divided into eight sections which are 
painted either green, yellow, blue, or red. The movable game 
"ball" is placed in the area between the two inner circles. 




green 



yellow 



blue 




(Don Inman is the acknowledged master of micro- 
computer graphics and the author of a large number of 
books, including TRS-80 Color Computer Graphics 
and Assembly Language Graphics for the TRS-80 
Color Computer with Kurt Inman.) 



The playing field is placed at the upper-left corner leaving 
three-quarters of the screen for instructions winning/losing 
information, and for whatever else you may want to add to 
the display. 

When The Game is played, the ball will travel in a 
counter-clockwise, circular path, lis motion starts at high 
speed, but gradually slows until it finally comes to a stop 
adjacent to one of the eight colored sections. The program 
consists of the following modules. 

1 ) Set the screen and dimension arrays 

2) Load position array for ball and DRA W movements 
for text 

3) Draw the game wheel 

4) Section and paint the game wheel 

5) Initialize the spin and subroutine control 

6) Display instructions subroutine 

7) Spin the wheel subroutine 

8) Display results subroutine 

Set the Screen and Dimension Arrays 

This section of the program selects PMODE3 ilhc highest 
resolution with four colors). It clears the screen with a 
yellow background and green border (PCLS2)and turns on 
the graphics screen using color set (SCREEN 1.0). Space is 
reserved for many text strings (CLEA R300). and arrays are 
dimensioned for text character strings (L$(20)) and PUT/ 
GET areas. 



100 


REM ** SET 


SCREEN 


AND 


D I MENS 


ION 


** 








110 


PMODE 3 








120 


PCLS 2 








130 


SCREEN 1.0 








140 


CLEAR 300 








150 


DIM L*<20> 


E<24> 






160 


» 









210 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



Load Positon Array for Ball and DRA W Movements for 
Text 

The simplest way to position the ball is to provide one X,Y 
position adjacent to each of the eight colored sections of the 
game wheel. The X and Y coordinates for each of the eight 
positions are read into separate arrays (X(N) and Y(N))bya 
FOR/NEXT\oop (lines 210-230). The coordinates are read 
in from the DA TA statements in lines 240 and 250. DRA W 
movements that form text characters on the graphics screen 
are assigned in lines 260 through 430. 



200 REM *♦ LOAD ARRAY ** 

210 FOR N=l TO 8 

220 READ X<N),Y<N) 

230 NEXT N 

240 DATA 76, 24, 54, 24, 40, 36, 40. 60 

250 DATA 54,72,76,72,88,60,88,36 

260 L*(1)="U8R8D4LBBD4BR12" 'P 

270 L*(2)="U8R8D4LBBR4F4BR4" 'R 

280 L*(3)="U8R8BD4L8BD4R8BR4" *E 

290 L* ( 4 ) = " BU4U4R8BD4L8BR8D4L8BR 

12" 'S 

300 L*(5)="U8R8D4L8BR8D4BR4" 'A 

310 L*(6)="U8F8U8BD8BR4" 'N 

320 L*(7)="BU8F4E4BG4D4BR8" *Y 

330 L*(8)="U8BR8G4L4BR4F4BR4" 'K 

340 L*(9)="BU8R8BL4D8BR8" »T 

350 L*(10)="U8R8D8L8BR12" 'O 

360 L* ( 1 1 > = " BU8R8BL4D8BL4R8BR4 " 

' I 

370 L*(12)="U8BR8D8H4G4BR12" 'W 

380 L* < 1 3 ) = " U8BR8D8BU4L8BD4BR 1 2 " 

'H 
390 L*(14)="U8BD8R8BR4" 'L 
400 L$ ( 1 5 > = " U8R8BD4L4BR4D4L8BR 1 2 

II ,Q 

A 10 L* ( 1 6 ) = " U8R6F2D2L8BR8D262L6B 
R12" 'B 

420 L*(17)="U8BR8D8L8BR12" 'U 
430 L*(18)="U8R6F2D4G2L6BR12" 'D 
440 ' 



Draw the Game Wheel 

The three circles that form the game wheel arc drawn with 
radii of 24. 32. and 40 units by lines 510 through 530. The 
centers of all circles arc located in the upper-left quarter of 
the screen at position 64. 48. 



500 


REM ** DRAW CIRCLES ** 




510 


CIRCLE (64, 48) ,24 




520 


CIRCLE (64. 48) ,32 




530 


CIRCLE(64,48),40 




540 


9 





Section and Paint the Game Wheel 

This section uses the same techniques of my two previous 
articles on pie graphs to divide the area enclosed by the two 
outer circles into eight parts. Since a complete circle is 



measured by two radians (equal to 360 degrees), each divi- 
sion consists of two divided by eight or approximately 
0.7854 radians. The X.Y positions for the eight divisions are 
calculated using the sine and cosine functions and the 
position of the circles' centers. 



600 REM *♦ DRAW SECTORS *♦ 

610 LINE (96, 48) -(104, 48), PSET 

620 FOR Z=l TO 8 

630 A=Z*.7854: B=Z*.75 

640 X=64+32*C0S(A) 

650 Y=48+32*SIN(A) 

660 XA=64+40*COS(A) 

670 YA=48+40*SIN(A> 

680 LINE(X,Y)-<XA,YA),PSET 

690 PAINT (64+36*C0S(B),48+36*SIN 

(B)),Z,4 

700 NEXT Z 

710 • 




X = 64+32*SIN(A) 
Y = 48+32*COS(A) 



XA = 64+40*SIN(A) 
YA = 48+40*COS(A) 



Line 680 draws a line between the two calculated points, 
and line 690 paints the area the appropriate color using the Z 
variable of the FORI NEXT \oop. 



z 


Color 


1 


green 


2 


yellow 


3 


blue 


4 


red 


5 


green 


6 


yellow 


7 


blue 


8 


red 



Initialize the Spin and Subroutine Control 

The ball, which will later be put into motion, is drawn by 
line 8I0. It looks like a + sign on the screen due to its small 
radius. Line 820 then calls a subroutine (at line I0I0) that 
displays the starting instruction at the bottom of the screen. 
Line 830 waits for a key press. When a key has been pressed, 
old results are erased by lines 840 through 860. A subroutine 
(at line 20 10) is called to spin the wheel by line 870. When the 
wheel comes to a stop, line 870 calls another subroutine (at 

April 1984 the RAINBOW 211 



line 30 1 0) to display the results of the spin. Line 880 waits for 
a key press before starting another spin. 



800 


REM *» INITIALIZE 


SPIN ** 


810 


CIRCLE (76, 24), 3, 4 




820 


GOSUB 1010 






830 


I*=INKEY*: 


IF I*= 


'" THEN 830 


ELSE N=l 






840 


BET (140, 64) 


- (250, 72), E, 8 


850 


PUT (140,8) - 


(250,16),E,PSET 


860 


PUT (140, 24) 


-(250,32),E,PSET 


870 


GOSUB 2010: 


GOSUB 


3010 


880 


I*=INKEY»: 


IF I*= 


'" THEN 880 


ELSE 850 






890 


END 






900 


> 






910 


» 







Display Instructions Subroutine 

This section draws the message "PRESS ANY KEY TO 
SPIN WHEEL" at the bottom of the screen so that the 
player knows how to start the game. The message stays on 
the screen. If you wish, you can add some lines to erase the 
message when the wheel spin is started. 



1000 


REM ** INSTRUCTIONS ** 


1010 


DRAW 


"BM4, 166"+L* ( 1 ) +L* (2) + 


L* (3) +L* (4) +L* (4) +"BR12" 


1020 

2" 

1030 

2" 

1040 


DRAW 


L» (5) +L* (6) +L* (7) +"BR1 


DRAW 


L« (8) +L* (3) +L» (7) +"BR1 


DRAW 


"BM4, 180"+L*(9)+L*(10) 


+"BR12" 




1050 


DRAW 


L* ( 4 ) +L* ( 1 ) +L» (11) +L« ( 


6)+"BR12" 




1060 


DRAW 


L* ( 12) +L* ( 13) +L* (3) +L* 


(3)+L*(14) 




1070 


RETURN 


1080 


9 





Spin the Wheel Subroutine 

The Color Computer's timer is used to control the speed 
of the ball's movement around the wheel. As the time gets 
larger, the time delay (line 2070) between movements of the 
ball gets larger. A random time limit is chosen at line 2010 
and is checked at line 2080. This makes the length of each 
spin a random quantity. When the limit is exceeded, the 
motion of the ball stops. At this time, the RETURN state- 
ment returns control to the main program at line 870. 

The ball moves in a counter-clockwise direction around 
its circular path slowing down as it goes. It comes to a stop 
adjacent to one of the colored areas. That color is the 
winner. Notice that the last position of the ball (line 2060) is 
at X(N+I),Y(N+I). The value. N+l, is used to select the 
correct subroutine to display the winning color in the next 
section. 



2000 


REM ** SPIN** 




2010 


F=RND<600)+400 




2020 


TIMER=0 






2030 


CIRCLE (X(N) 


,Y(N)),3. 


2 


2040 


FOR W-l TO 


50: NEXT 


W 


2050 


IF N«=8 THEh 


N=0 




2060 


CIRCLE(X(N+1),Y(N+1)),3,4 


2070 


FOR W=l TO 


TIMER/3: 


NEXT W 


2080 


IF TIMER>F 


THEN RETURN ELSE 


N=N+1 






2090 


BOTO 2030 






2100 


9 







Display Results Subroutine 

The text display of the winning color is selected by the ON 
N+l GOSt/B statement at line 3010. When the appropriate 
message has been displayed, a RETURN to the main pro- 
gram is made at line 3020. The subroutine at lines 3100 
through 3120 draw the word "BLUE." Lines 3200 through 
3220 draw the word "YELLOW." Lines 3300 through 3320 
draw the word "GREEN, "and lines 3400 through 3420 draw 
the word "RED." Each one of these subroutines calls 
another subroutine (at line 3500) which adds the word 
"WINS. "These are the messages that are erased at lines 840 
through 860 when a new spin starts. 



3000 


REM ** DISPLAY RESULTS ** 


3010 


ON N+l 60SUB 3100,3200,3300 


,3400,3100,3200, 


3300,3400 


3020 


RETURN 






3030 


9 






3100 


DRAW "BM 140, 


16' 


+L*(16)+L*(14 


)+L»(17)+L*(3) 






3110 


GOSUB 3500 






3120 


RETURN 






3130 


9 






3200 


DRAW "BM 140, 


16' 


+L*(7)+L*(3)+ 


L* ( 14) +L* ( 14) +L* (10) +L* (12) 


3210 


GOSUB 3500 






3220 


RETURN 






3230 


9 






3300 


DRAW "BM 140, 


16"+L*(15)+L»(2) 


+L* (3) +L* (3) +L* (6) 




3310 


GOSUB 3500 






3320 


RETURN 






3330 


9 






3400 


DRAW "BM 140, 


16"+L* 


L»(18) 






3410 


GOSUB 3500 






3420 


RETURN 






3430 


9 






3500 


DRAW "BM 140, 


32 


'-H_*(12)+L*(ll 


>+L»(6)+L*(4) 






3510 


RETURN 







General Comments 

In the present form of 77;e Beginning Game, the odds are 
even that the ball will come to rest adjacent to any of the four 



212 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



colors. This could be easily changed by changing the size of 
one or more colored areas. You could also change (he odds 
by changing colors of some of the areas so that there were 
more areas of some colors than others. The purpose of the 
program is to give you a starting point for developing a 
gambling game of your own. The complete program follows. 



\r 400 



The listing: 
100 REM 



f 400 




800 

2000 . . . 
END . . . 


. . .159 
211 
217 





*♦ 



SET SCREEN AND D I MENS 

ION 

110 

120 

130 

140 

150 

160 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 

270 

280 

290 

12" 

300 

310 

320 

330 

340 

350 

360 

'I 

370 

380 

'H 

390 

400 
■i , B 

410 L* ( 1 6 ) = " U8R6F2D2L8BR8D2G2L6B 

R12" 'B 

420 L*(17)="U8BR8D8L8BR12" 'U 

430 L*(18)="U8R6F2D4G2L6BR12" 'D 

440 ' 

500 

510 

520 

530 

540 

600 

610 

620 



** 
#* 

PMODE 3 

PCLS 2 

SCREEN 1.0 

CLEAR 300 

DIM L*(20),E(24> 

9 

REM *# LOAD ARRAY 

FOR N=l TO 8 

READ X(N),Y(N) 

NEXT N 

DATA 76,24,54,24.40.36,40,60 

DATA 54,72,76,72,88,60,88,36 

L*(1>="U8R8D4L8BD4BR12" 'P 

L* ( 2 > = " U8R8D4L8BR4F4BR4 " ' R 

L* ( 3 ) = " U8R8BD4L8BD4R8BR4 " ' E 

L* ( 4 ) = " BU4U4R8BD4L8BR8D4L8BR 

'S 

L* ( 5 ) = " U8R8D4L8BR8D4BR4 " ' A 

L*(6)="U8F8U8BDBBR4" 'N 

L*(7)="BU8F4E4BG4D4BR8" 'Y 

L* ( 8 ) = " U8BR8G4L4BR4F4BR4 " ' K 

L« < 9 ) = " BU8R8BL4D8BR8 " ' T 

L*(10)="U8R8D8L8BR12" 'O 

L* ( 1 1 ) ="BU8R8BL4D8BL4R8BR4" 

L*(12)="U8BR8D8H4G4BR12" 'W 
L* < 1 3 ) » " U8BR8D8BU4L8BD4BR 12" 

L«(14)="U8BDSR8BR4" 'L 

L* ( 1 5 ) = " U8R8BD4L4BR4D4L8BR 1 2 



REM ** DRAW CIRCLES 
CIRCLE (64, 48), 24 
CIRCLE (64, 48) ,32 
CIRCLE (64, 48), 40 



»* 



REM ** DRAW SECTORS ** 
LINE (96, 48) - ( 104, 48) . PSET 
FOR Z=l TO 8 



630 


A=Z*.7854: B«Z*.75 


640 


X=64+32*C0S(A) 


650 


Y=48+32*SIN(A> 


660 


XA=64+40*COS(A) 


670 


YA=48+40*SIN(A> 


680 


LINE (X,Y)-(XA,YA), PSET 


690 


PAINT (64+36»C0S (B) , 48+36*SIN 


(B) 1 


,Z,4 


700 


NEXT Z 


710 


3> 


800 


REM ** INITIALIZE SPIN ** 


810 


CIRCLE (76, 24), 3. 4 


820 


GOSUB 1010 


830 


I*=INKEY*: IF 1*="" THEN 830 


ELSE N=l 


840 


GET ( 140, 64) - (250, 72) . E, G 


850 


PUT (140, 8) - (250, 16) , E, PSET 


860 


PUT ( 140, 24) - (250, 32) , E, PSET 


870 


GOSUB 2010: GOSUB 3010 


880 


I*=INKEY*: IF 1*="" THEN 880 


ELSE 850 


890 


END 


900 


* 


910 


9 


1000 REM #* INSTRUCTIONS *» 


1010 DRAW "BM4, 166"+L*(1)+L*<2)+ 


L« (3) +L* (4) +L* (4) +"BR12" 


1020 DRAW L*(5)+L*(6)+L*(7)+"BR1 


2" 





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1030 

2" 

1040 


DRAW L*(8)+L*(3)-H_*(7)+"BR1 


DRAW "BM4,180"+L*(9)+L*(10) 


+-BR12" 


1050 


DRAW L*(4)+L*(l)+L*(ll)-H_*( 


6)+"BR12" 


1060 


DRAW L*(12)+L*(13)+L*(3)-H_* 


(3)+L*(14) 


1070 


RETURN 


1080 


J 


2000 


REM ** SPIN** 


2010 


F=RND(600)+400 


2020 


TIMER=0 


2030 


CIRCLE(X(N),Y(N)),3,2 


2040 


FOR W=l TO 50: NEXT W 


2050 


IF N«8 THEN N-0 


2060 


CIRCLE(X(N+1),Y<N+1)),3,4 


2070 


FOR W=l TO TIMER/3: NEXT W 


2080 


IF TIMER>F THEN RETURN ELSE 


IM=N+1 


2090 


SOTO 2030 


2100 


9 


3000 


REM ** DISPLAY RESULTS ** 


3010 


ON N+l 60SUB 3100,3200,3300 


, 3400, 3100, 3200, 3300, 3400 


3020 


RETURN 


3030 


9 


3100 


DRAWBM140, 16"-H_« ( 16) -H_* ( 14 


)+L*(17)+L*(3) 


3110 


60SUB 3500 


3120 


RETURN 


3130 


9 


3200 


DRAWBM140, 16"+L*(7)-H_*(3) + 


L* ( 14) +L* (14) +L* < 10) +L* ( 12) 


3210 


GOSUB 3500 


3220 


RETURN 


3230 


9 


3300 


DRAWBM140, 16"+L* ( 15) +L* (2) 


+L*(3)+L*(3)-H_*(6) 


3310 


GOSUB 3500 


3320 


RETURN 


3330 


r 


3400 


DRAWBM140, 16"+L*(2)+L*(3>+ 


L*(18> 


3410 


GOSUB 3500 


3420 


RETURN 


3430 


9 


3500 


DRAWBM140, 32"+L* (12) +L* ( 1 1 


)+L*(6)+L*(4> 


3510 


RETURN _ 

r^\ 



See You At 
RAINBOWfest 

New Brunswick 
March 30-April 1 



214 



Ihe RAINBOW April 1984 



COMMENTARY 



Women And The 
Color Computer 



By Susan P. Davis 



In this series of articles, we will examine women and their 
status in the Color Computer world. This month, wc will 
diseuss why so many potential CoCo users and pro- 
grammers arc left out. In the next lew articles, we'll sympa- 
thize with the CoCo widow and oiler some useful tips for 
her. sec how mothers and teachers arc evaluating and using 
educational programs, and profile women who are using the 
Color Computer in their own husincsses. 

The world of the home computer in general, and the Color 
Computer specifically, seems to be a male-dominated, ma Ic- 
oricntcd world. The publishers of the CoCo magazines are 
men: the authors of the books on how to use your Color 
Computerare men. the people who submit articles on graph- 
ics. BASIC, assembly language and helpful hints arc mostly 
men; Rainbow's contributing editors are all men; and the 
technicians who tell us how to open up our Color Compu- 
ters and make hardware modifications are men. Admittedly, 
there arc some women submitting articles and writing pro- 
grams, but not many. Most of the CoCo experts are men. 
They are the computer pioneers and they are reaping the 
benefit of this marvelous new world. 

Why is the CoCo world so male-dominated? What has 
made so many women feel unwilling, unable or too apa- 
thetic to participate? 

The same cultural forces that make auto mechanics, elec- 
tronics, and higher mathematics "for men," and sewing, 
cookingand shopping "forwomen"seem to beat play. Due 
to this arbitrary environmental conditioning, men of all 
generations are using their CoCos. The women do not feel as 
welcome to experiment. Yet some women are fighting to 
overcome the cultural and psychological blocks and getting 
to know their Color Computers. 



(Gary and Susan Davis are co-owners of Sugar Soft- 
ware in Reynoldshurg. Ohio. Susan is a novice and 
Gary has been professionally programming for nearly 
20 years.) 



Relatively lew women make unassisted computer pur- 
chases. The purchase of a computer and its peripherals is 
considered to be a technically-oriented decision. Therefore, 
the women still defer to the men in their lives. 



". . . if we want more women to use 
the Color Computer, we have to 
examine those things of particular 
interest to women and computerize 
them." 



Women seem to have more of a participatory than an 
independent role in the purchase of a computer. Sally Bax- 
ter ol the Home Computer Store in Westcrville. Ohio, said 
that only one woman has independently purchased a Color 
Computer in her store. The woman wanted a small compu- 
ter to take away to college. Otherwise, the CoCo purchases 
were made by men alone, couples or families. The manager 
of one Columbus. Ohio. Radio Shack Store, a woman, 
agreed that the purchase of a Color Computerseems to bca 
family decision: The husband convinces the wife regarding 
the purchase and she okays the finances. It was her opinion 
that more Radio Shack home computers are purchased for 
families with boys than for families with only girls. She 
noted that women customers still like to talk to male sales- 
people regarding the computer. Her husband, assistant 
manager ol a Radio Shack Computer Center, felt that 
school-age children were permitted to choose u hieh compu- 
ter to buy once the decision to purchase a computer had 

April 1984 the RAINBOW 215 



been made. He noted that women's 
secondary role in the Color Computer 
market could be generational, as enroll- 
ment in the "computer camps" seems to 
be 50 50 boys and girls. 

Doug Smelt/, who uses a network ol 
15 CoCos to teach computer program- 
ming at Northland High School, says 
his class composition is hall male, hall 
female. He does not find the girls reluc- 
tant to get hands-on experience on the 
CoCo. but has not seen a similar eager- 
ness in women (teachers) one or two 
generations older. 

The manager of another Radio Shack 
Computer Center told me that less than 
50 percent of the Color Computers pur- 
chased in his store are purchased by 
women. When the women do buy. they 
have a clearly defined idea of what they 
want. They often purchase software at 
the time they get the computer. These 



women use the computer as a tool to 
perform a specific task (e.g.. word pro- 
cessing). Male customers, he felt, are 
more interested in the "bells and whis- 
tles." First, they buy the Color Compu- 
ter; then they find things to do with it. 
Once the Color Computer is in the 
home, school or office, do the women 
use it? Do they buy the software for it'.' 
Larry Reitz of Reitz Electronics feels 
that more women arc taking a serious 
look at what is available and that some 
are buying. Word processing programs 
and educational programs for the child- 
ren seem to be the principal software 
packages purchased by women at Lar- 
ry's store. Tommy Fetternian of Delker 
Electronics said the same is happening 
there. He has several teachers who have 
CoCosat home and in school coming in 
to purchase educational software. Tom- 
mv said "two or three" women arc into 



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word processing and purchase those 
programs from him. The female as- 
sistant-manager of one program store 
has found that women are buying more 
programs as gifts for their husbands and 
children. If they are buying programs 
for their own use. they tend to be word 
processing programs and not business- 
oriented (databases, mailing list man- 
agers, spread sheets, etc.) or arcade type 
games. She noted that female customers 
asked her for help or advice: the male 
customers wait for a male salesperson. 
At Sugar Software, we find that our 
customers are about 80 percent male. 20 
percent female overall, with very few 
women purchasing our utilities like Auto 
Run. Pi ra wet or and Semigraf. 



". . .we hope that more 
women will takean in- 
terest in the CoCo." 



Perhaps there need to be more pro- 
grams on the market that are of interest 
to women. Moreton Bay's File Cabinet 
(database) has a recipe file as a sample. 
Fetterman thinks that women are more 
attracted to this particular file manager 
because they sec what it can do for 
them. "The idea of "women's programs'* 
docs sound fairly sexist, but if we want 
more women to use the Color Compu- 
ter, we have to examine those things of 
particular interest to women and com- 
puterize them. We also need to show 
women how "general interest" programs 
can be used for their specific needs: data- 
base managers, mailing list managers, 
word processors, graphing programs, 
music programs, bowling secretaries and 
spread sheets can all be "personalized. " 
Your retail store manager and mail - 
phone order personnel should be able 
and willing to lake the time to show all 
customers how to adapt their programs 
for their customers' individual needs 
and likes. 

As time goes on and the home com- 
puter becomes more the rule than the 
exception, we hope that more women 
will lake an interest in the CoCo. And 
you women who are reading this article 
and thinking: "l have written programs." 
let us hear from you. Submit articles to 
Rainbow. Submit your programs for 
publication. Call the bulletin boards. 
Set an example for your daughters 
and your sons. And for you women who 
are reading this article because your 
husband, father, son or boss insisted, 
we'll discuss CoCo widows next month. 



216 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



RAINBOW REVIEWS 




247 



Air Traflic Controller 

A Fun, Realistic Simulation/Tom Mix Software. 
The Answer 

A Most Unusual Device/Midwest CoCo Systems 260 

Calixto Island 

Outstanding Graphic Adventure//Warfc Data Products 246 

The Color Compiler 

Convert basic To Machine Language/Compuferware 286 

Color Designer 

Makes Drawing Easy/Color Connection Software 245 

Colortac 

Checks Speedy Disk Drives/Sunshine Software 236 

Cubix 

A Pyramid Of Fun/Specfra/ Associates 248 

Decision Maker 

There's No Alternative/Armad///o International Software 270 

Finance-5 

A Five-Way Financial Aid/Sigma Software 274 

Graphicom 

The Cat's Meow/Cheshire Cat Computer Creations 225 

Harness/Thoroughbred Handicapper 

A Good Trainer/ Federal Hill Software 240 

Horse Race 

You're In The Money/Computer Island 294 

Investigations In Integral Calculus 

Introduces Important Concepts/flad/o Shack 242 

JFD CoCo Disk System 

A Good Buy/J & M Systems. Ltd 230 

Kingshield 

A Challenge/Jade Products 278 

MagiGraph 

Design A Window Away/The Micro Works 222 

More Business 

Means Business/More/on Bay Software 262 

Microdis 

Peek Into The MC-10/M/cro Ten Software Co 238 

Mudpies 

Relive Messy Childhood Fun/MtchTron 253 

NEWERROR 

Understands Old Errors/Trie Dataman 268 

Ocky Woky 

Get Smart And Come In Out Of The Co\dlPnckly Pear Software 272 

Oik Disk Extended Color basic 

Offers New Commands. Functions/Specfrum Projects 282 

Oracle II 

Works Monitor Majic/M/cro Majic 280 

Programmer's Worksheet 

A Good Documentation Header/CoCo Dafa Enterprises 264 

Q'MAN 

A Bouncing, Challenging Clone/Genes/s Software . 254 

Recall 

Amnesia Insurance/Time Software 251 

Return Ot The Jet-Eye 

A Direct Hit With Young Children/T/iunderV/s/'on 
Screen Machine ^^^^^^^^^ 

Take Command Of Your CoCo/Rainbow Connection Software 
Skip Counting 

Practice Makes Perfect/B5 Software 

Spooler ^^ifl ^i^- 

Multi-tasking Without OS-9/CAiroma Systems Group 
Starbiazer ^M 

Beam On Board A Starship/Arfc Royal Games 
Three Game Pack #2 jM 

A Good Bible Drill/Qua//fy Christian Software 
Tic-Tac-Toe Math 

Math Drill Is Fun/Harmonycs 

Your Color Computer 

A Perfect Introduction To The CoCo/SYBEX 254 




April 1984 the RAINBOW 217 



RECEIVED & CERTIFIED 



The following products recently have been received by the Rainbow, 
examined by our magazine staff and approved for the Rainbow Seal of 
Certification, your assurance that we have seen the product and have 
ascertained that it is what it purports to be. 
This month the Seal of Certification has been issued to: 



Air Traffic Control, a simulator game lor 
the Dragon 32 requiring one joystick. You 
are in charge of RPVs (remotely piloted ve- 
hicles) and must contain the RPVs within 
your radar area. Avoid mid-air collisions. 
while guiding in the aircraft on "finals." 
Points scoring makes this a competitive 
game for all age groups. Microdcal. 41 
Truro Rd.. St. Austell. Cornwall PL25 5JE. 
tape $28.95. disk $31.95 

Bible Stories Adventure, a I6K ECB ML 
Adventure game. This is an adaptation of 
some of the best loved stories from the Old 
Testament such as Adam and Eve. Noah's 
Ark. Abraham and Isaac. Moses and the 
Exodus, and David and Goliath. Recom- 
mended lor ages 10 and above. Sugar Soft- 
ware. 2153 Leah Lane. Reynoldsburg. OH 
43068. $19.95 tape. $24.95 disk 

Black Sanctum, an Adventure. The object of 
this spooky Adventure is to destroy the evil 
forces of black magic lurking in an old 18th 
century monastery. Mark Data. 24001 Ali- 
cia Pkwy.. No. 207. Mission Viejo. CA 
92691. tape $24.95. disk $27.95 

Buying The Right Computer The First Time. 

by Pablo E. Silverio. a complete guide to 
selecting a small business computer. It asks 
questions, you fill in the answers, and the 
guide will direct you to the exact computer 
sv siem lo meet your needs. Also, it is a valu- 
able tool for less experienced computer 
salespeople Silma Data Research. Inc.. 3647 
W. Flagler St.. Miami. FL 33135. available 
at computer stores and book stores. It is 
nationally distributed by Ingram Book Co. 
and The Distributors. $9.95 

Color 80 BBS. a bulletin board program. It 
includes two diskettes (disk and disk I). 
v >l iware documentation, technical documen- 
tation, and hardware documentation. Sil- 
icon Rainbow Products & Logical Compu- 
ter Products, 1 1 1 1 W. ElCamino Real. Suite 
109. Sunnyvale. CA 94087. $150 

Color Profile, a I6K program in which you 
can store nearly any type of data and retries c 
it with a lew quick strokes. You can design 
the waj the screen displass your data and 
create reports that show you any informa- 
tion you choose, includes up to 26 user- 
defined formats available for displaying 
data; 26 user-definable indexes per file: 10 
lc\els of sequences available lor record sort- 
ing, etc. Cat. no. 26-3253. Radio Shack 
Mna-s nationwide. S59.95 



Color Math Practice, designed to improve 
your basic math skills with the use of a 32K 
Extended basic computer. You have the 
choice of doing addition and subtraction 
problems or multiplication and division prob- 
lems. All numbers and answers will be posi- 
tive whole numbers. You will have up to 
three chances to get the correct answer for 
each problem. After three wrong answers, 
the computer will give you the correct an- 
swer. Jarb Software. 1636 D Ave.. Suite C. 
National City. CA 92050. $28.95 

Computer Cassette C-10. a blank C- 1 length 
cassette with a five screw shell and free labels 
for the TRS-80 CoCo. MC-10. TI-99/4A. 
VIC-20. orC-64. Parallel Svstems, Box 772. 
Dcpt. R. Blackwood. NJ 08012. 58c plus $2 
S H. any quantity (Canadian orders $4 
S H). Storage box. add 12c each 

Computer Monopoly, a 32K program like 
the popular board game. The instructions 
assume a person is already acquainted with 
the rules and objectives of the game. Roll the 
dice, buy the property, try to own the whole 
board and make your opponent(s) bank- 
rupt. Doug Keating. 6728 Mackcv. Over- 
land Park. KS66204. S2I 

COMTEX. a menu-driven text compression 
utility program requiring approximately 24K 
and at least one disk drive. You must boot 
Flex before running the program. Gil Good- 
ridge. P.O. Box 21. Merrimack. NH 03054. 
$29.95 plus $3 S/ H 

DISKUTIL. an assembly language program 
designed lo make everyday use of your disk 
system much easier than using BASIC, along 
with additional features for your disk sys- 
tem. Silicon Rainbow Products & Logical 
Computer Products. 1 1 1 1 W. El Camino 
Real. Suite 109. Sunnyvale. CA 94087. $35 

Early Letter Recognition, a program written 
primarily for preschool children. It is neither 
a drill, nor a game, although an adult helper 
(parent or teacher) can make it into a game 
by prompting for specific letters by name, 
color, keyboard location, etc. The program 
is comprised of 26 graphic displays, one for 
each letter of the alphabet. The child can 
"call up" any display at will simply by press- 
ing the corresponding letter key. Software 
Specialists. P.O. Box 2029. Princeton. NJ 
08540. S 12.95 or $19.95 for this and Kids' 
Choice 



E-X-T-E-N-D-E-D Disk basic, an exten- 
sion to RS-Disk Extended Color BASIC 
whose primary function is to add a new 
command line interpreter (CL1) which runs 
in parallel to Basic's. This allows basic 
commands to work as before while allowing 
new commands to reside on disk. In addition 
to the CLI. 1 1 new commands, three new 
functions and a new directory command 
have been added to Basic's built-in com- 
mands. Spectrum Projects. 93-15 86th Dr.. 
Woodhaven. NY 1 1421. 64K disk $24.95 
plus$3S/H 

The Final Countdown, a 32 K. ECB one- 
player talking Adventure game that must be 
used with an SC-01 based speech unit and 
the Del Software translations program TRNS- 
LA TE. You are outside a missile base, which 
has been evacuated because a berserk general 
has started the countdown on a missile. You 
must stop the nuclear missile from being 
launched and starting World War III. This 
program incorporates a special scroll rou- 
tine which allows descriptions of rooms, 
objects and exit directions to be shown at the 
top of the screen and prevents this informa- 
tion from scrolling out of view as user com- 
mands are entered. Jarb Software. 1636 D 
Ave.. Suite C, National City. CA 92050, 32K 
ECB, $24.95, standard cassette. $14.95 

Froggie, a 32K raccagainst lime to get your 
"froggie" home. Get across the busy high- 
way and then the river using logs, turtles and 
crocodiles to get you there. Escort the lady 
frog or gobble up the fly for extra points, but 
look out for the otter, he's your enemy. 
Spectral Associates. 3416 South 90th St.. 
Tacoma. WA 98409. $24.95. diskette $28.95 
GRAPHICOM, a graphics screen editor 
and communication package. It lets you 
create and edii graphic screens and send or 
receive ihcm across phone lines or by ama- 
leu i radio (SSTV). as well as dump them to a 
graphic printer. Cheshire Cat Computer 
Creations. P.O. Box 115. Lafayette. CA 
94549. $30 

Kids' Choice, a number recognition pro- 
gram. Three displays are associated with 
number key (except zero — the wild card 
number). For example, if the child presses 2. 
any of the following graphics might appear 
at random: a large number 2. two winking 
faces, or two American Hags. There is an 
element of chance every time the child 
presses a number kev. Software Specialists. 
P.O. Box 2029. Princeton. N J 08540. $ 1 2.95 
or $19.95 for this and Early Lener Recog- 
nition 



218 



the RAINBOW April 1964 



Lancer, .1 32K "joust" game. Your goal is 10 
destroy all of your enemies as your bird 
maneuvers and flies around lava, dragons 
and deadly Iocs. Spectral Associates. 3416 
South 90th St.. Tacoma. WA 98409. tape 
$24.95. diskette $28.95 

Learning Games, three I6K ECB educa- 
tional programs suitable for pre-school to 
elementary grade school children (ages three 
to eight). Shape Test makes recognizing 
basic shapes fun using voice, color, sound, 
music and graphics animation. Word Test 
matches ihecomputerspoken word with the 
displayed word. A correct response is re- 
warded with graphics and a song. Count 
Test — count the magic beeping marbles and 
see the surprise at the end. DD Software. 10 
Simonne Lane. Pepperell. MA 01463. tape 
$24.95 

MDCOPY. a utility for the disk owner who 
has moved up from a tape environment. 
1 ape-based ML programs can be saved to 
disk with a minimum amount of effort from 
the user. While MDCOPY eases the first 
transition to disk, the second program in this 
package. NODISK, eases the long-term prob- 
lem ol program incompatibility. Sadre Soft- 
ware. P.O. Box 3891. Gaithersburg. MD 
20878. $9.95 

Ms. Gobbler, a 32K ML ECB maze-type 
game which includes four distinct mazes on 
a black background with moving bonus 
shapes. Ghosts of different colors and per- 
sonalities all their own chase you around 
each maze and are deadly. Spectral Asso- 
ciates. 3418 South 90th St., Tacoma. WA 
98409. cassette $24.95. diskette $28.95 

Newbasic. a M L program that is lapped into 
the basic interpreter in a transparent fash- 
ion in order to enhance it. It requires an R/S 
disk controller. 64K. I.I Color BASIC. 1.0 
Extended basic, and 1.0 Disk basic. New- 
basic also requires an understanding ol disk 
ECB and some programming experience. It 
is in semigraphics 24. This lets you use New- 
basic commands to underline words in eight 
colors. Silicon Rainbow Products & Logical 
Computer Products. 1 1 1 1 W. El Camino 
Real. Suite 109. Sunnyvale. CA 94087. $25 

NEWERROR, a I6K ML program that 
provides four extra functions and abilities 
for your C0C0. It will: give you an audible 
error warning: provide full-English error 
messages: provide a means of bra nching to a 
specific line in your basic program should 



an error occur: and allow you to simulate 
errors in BASIC for debugging purposes when 
using the "ON ERROR GOTO" feature. 
The Dataman. Box 431, Sta. B. Hamilton. 
Ontario. L8L 7W2. tape $19.95 Canada. 
S 1 6.95 U.S. 

Remote Terminal Driver 3.0,allowsa remote 
user to call up their TRS-80 home computer 
and operate it as if they were sitting at the 
computers keyboard. It may also be used as 
a front end RS-232 driver for a bulletin 
board program written in basic. Silicon 
Rainbow Products & Logical Computer 
Products. 1 1 1 1 W. El Camino Real. Suite 
109. CA 94807. $30 in assembly language 
disk or tape 

SEMIGRAF. a I6K graphics editor that 
you can use to create or modify a picture. 
You can create a picture just for fun. to use 
as the title screen for a program, or you can 
design a series of pictures to create a slide 
show lor a business or educational presenta- 
tion. It is written primarily in machine lan- 
guage, though the menu routine, including 
disk and tape I/O. is written in basic. Uses 
all eight available colors and supports semi- 
graphic modes 8. 12. and 24. Sugar Soft- 
ware. 2153 Leah Lane. Revnoldsburg. OH 
43068. $19.95 tape. $24.95 disk 

Score-EZ, a one- to six-player game based 
on the popular Yahtzee game which requires 
32K ECB and a Spectrum Speaker Speech 
synthesizer with translate software. The com- 
puter will take care of all score keeping, it 
will roll the dice and allow you to choose 
where you wish to place the scores you 
obtain. All prompts the computer gives are 
printed to the screen and spoken out loud. 
Jarb Software. 1636 D Ave.. Suite C. Nation- 
al City. CA 92050. cassette $24.95. standard 
cassette $15.95 

Space Shuttle, a night simulator space Ad- 
venture lor the Dragon 32. Your mission is 
to successfully pilot the shuttle through each 
stage of the "launch." "fetch." and "finals." 
Alter a brief weather report your shuttle is 
launched into space. You control the shuttle 
and attempt to maneuver into position to 
receive the malfunctioning satellite using the 
remote arm. 

You must guide the shuttle down into the 
landing zone and attempt to land the shuttle 
without the use of engines in the While 
Sands Desert, using the radar assisted plot 
board. Microdeal. 41 Truro Rd.. St. Austell, 
Cornwall PL25 5JE. tape $28.95. disk $3 1.95 



Speed Reading, a I6K program designed to 
help you increase your reading speed by 
presenting reading material on your TV 
screen at speeds which train you to read 
lastcr. forcing you to push to' keep up as 
material is displayed and removed from the 
screen. In addition to reading exercises using 
text material, a drill is provided which 
Hashes numbers on a portion of the TV 
screen as an exercise to improve peripheral 
vision. This program will run with either 
non-Extended basic or Extended basic. 
B&B Software. P.O. Box 210. Jcnkinlown. 
PA 19046. $17.95 

SPELL-A-TRON, a program designed to 
assist in teaching children how to spell with 
the useofa32K ECB computer and a voice 
synthesizer using a Votrax SC-OI chip and 
Del Softwares TRNSLA TE program. The 
program allows the user to build a diction- 
ary of words, with proper pronunciation as 
well as spelling, and then the test mode can 
be entered for use by the child. The program 
will both spell the word and say the word if 
the child is not correct. Uses only positive 
reinforcement and is user friendly. Jarb 
Software, 1636 D Ave.. Suite C, National 
City, CA 92050. cassette with documenta- 
tion $28.95 

Storm Arrows, a I6K ML maze game. 
Maneuver your land skimmer though treach- 
erous streets in an effort to evade and de- 
stroy deadly Storm Arrows and the relent- 
less Pursuit Cruiser. Spectral Associates, 
3418 South 90th St.. Tacoma. WA 98409. 
tape $24.95. diskette $28.95 

Swiss Army Knife, a M I. general disk utility 
program. Its purpose is to allow you to ana- 
lyze and change the content of any RS Color 
Computer Disk formatted in COLOR-DOS 
format. The Dataman. P.O. Box 43 1 . St. B, 
Hamilton, Ontario LBL7W2. five-inch disk 
U.S. $25.50. Canadian $29.95. three-inch 
disk U.S. $27.95. Canadian $32.95 

Type Assault, a I6K ECB typing game based 
on the popular Missile Command arcade 
game. Stop falling letters before they hit 
your planet"s surface. There are nine skill 
levels to choose from. As your score increases, 
so does your typing ability. Spectral Asso- 
ciates. 3418 South 90th St.. Tacoma. WA 
98409. cassette $23.95 



The Seal of Certification program is open to all manufacturers of products 

for the TRS-80 Color Computer, the TDP-100, or the Dragon-32, regardless 

of whether they advertise in the Rainbow. By awarding a Seal, the magazine 

certifies the program does exist, but this does not constitute any guarantee 

of satisfaction. As soon as possible, these hardware or software items will 

be forwarded to the Rainbow's reviewers for evaluation. 

— Susan Remini 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 219 



reviewing. 



REVIEWS 



VALHALLA 

Editor: 

We here at H YCOM P would like to thank 
the Rainbow and Tom Roginski for the fine 
review our program Valhalla received in the 
February 1984 issue. Mr. Roginski did men- 
tion what he called "the game's only flaw" 
concerning the use of more than two armies 
in battle. With games of the size and scope 
that we produce, wc know there are bound 
to be differences of opinion concerning var- 
ious aspects, such as the way battles are 
fought, etc.. but I did want to state our view 
on the point he raised. 

In all of our games we carefully consider 
such things as the way battles are won and 
lost, movement, and other mechanical as- 
pects. We also strive to keep the playability 
and realism of the games intact while weigh- 
ing all the different aspects of the game. 

Another important limitation we have to 
work around is, of course, the memory re- 
strictions, as Mr. Roginski mentioned at the 
end of the review. (The 285 bytes he said 
were left is more than most of our other 
games!) He stated that the principle of bring- 
ing all possible force to bear against a single 
point is of prime importance in war. 

Although we agree with his basic premise, 
wcalso realize that simply throwing all your 
forces into battle to outnumber the oppo- 
nent often results in disaster rather than vic- 
tory. Instead of using the "brute force" 
method he suggests, we decided to employ a 
more strategy-oriented method for bringing 
force to bear against a single army. By plac- 
ing your armies carefully and realizing the 
order of battle, it is possible to attack an 
enemy several times with different armies. 
Our method also gives an outnumbered 
opponent a fighting chance, which is neces- 
sary in any game of this type. Mr. Roginski 
used the history of war to back up his opin- 
ion but who can forget the few brave men in 
the Alamo who held off an overwhelming 
force or. more in the flavor of Valhalla, the 
300 Spartans who defended Greece at 
Thermopolye against a horde of invading 
Persians under Xerxes. 

Again, thank you for the fine review and 
keep up the good work! 

Phil Hvmer 
H YCOM P Software 



LOWRCASE 

Editor: 

Among the many instructions in the check- 
list the Rainbow gives its independent re- 
viewers is the following: 

"Be thorough and honest. Take a hard 
look at the program and if it's a dog, let's tell 



the world. But be lair, too. Just because it 
doesn't appeal to you, don't immediately 
condemn it. . .constructive criticism is best. 
How could it be improved?" 

To my mind, that basically tasks us with 
trying to maintain objectivity at all times. 
That's not always an easy task, especially if 
one of your guiding philosophies as a re- 
viewer is to assume the buying public's role. 

"I know, I'll probably be accused of not 
giving this package a fair shake. So be it." So 
was it! 

Judging by some of your reactions, at 
least as reflected in these pages in the last two 
months, that's just what happened after my 
review, of KRT Software's Lowrcase pack- 
age for the LP VI land DM P- 1 00 (December 
1983, Page 262). I said, apparently too 
bluntly for many and for the first time since 
I've been doing reviews for this magazine 
(almost a year now), that the package wasn't 
"worth the money or the effort considering 
the product delivered." And that's where the 
disagreement comes in. Those of you who 
have taken the time to defend the product 
have done so fairly and knowledgeably. And 
I'm delighted to see that. Reviewers are 
not — and should not be expected to be — 
infallible. Our task is to try to let you know 
whether a product works, and then make a 
recommendation. Mine was based solely on 
my opinion of this product's worth to me 
while trying to project that feeling to others. 
Perhaps those of you who have chastised the 
Rainbow for printing the review do not 
understand our relationship with this superb 
magazine. In short, we arc not employees of 
the magazine in any way. Yes, we are paid to 
do the reviews — barely just enough to cover 
postage and long distance phone calls in 
most cases — and. no. we do not end up with 
all kinds of free software. We are, in essence, 
volunteers given very short deadlines to tell 
you what we think. Our input is usually 
accepted for publication without any editing. 
For those of you who either stated or 
implied that you now will look distrustfully 
on any review appearing in these pages, you 
are making a mistake. Tlie Rainbow and its 
reviewers work hard to bring this service to 
you. The number of reviews carried herein 
has grown tremendously over the past few 
months reflecting the ever-increasing avail- 
ability of software for our CoCo. But if every 
review were a mere trumpet (read "hype") 
for the product, then the reviewers and the 
magazine might as well be paid by the soft- 
ware company. Some magazines will not 
even publish negative reviews for fear of los- 
ing advertising revenue. In my opinion (a- 
gain). those who can't stand the criticism 
should either clean up their product or bow 
out. 



I have a feeling that something good 
has come out of all of this: The folks at KRT 
Software have gotten more advertising for 
their product than they paid for. and you. 
the consumer, have had a chance to hear 
opposing evaluations. I think that's good 
and healthy. As always with the software 
business, it still comes down to the same 
bottom line: if the product will do the job for 
you, then it's right lor you. It wasn't and still 
isn't right lor me. 

I've gone on too long and this is starting to 
look and sound like an apology rather than 
an apologia. The Rainbow is the best maga- 
zine of its kind around. Its reviewers (includ- 
ing this one) try to be honest, objective, and 
informative in all cases. If. and when, we 
miss the boat, we'll expect you to let us 
know. 

To Parsons Software: 1 agree, in retro- 
spect, with your observation (Reviewing 
Reviews. January 1984) and disqualified 
myself from personally doing the followup 
review of your enhanced version of Fundfile. 
To the gentlemen at KRT Software: per- 
haps you need to take a good hard look at 
the few words you use to explain your pro- 
duct's benefits. You obviously think very 
highly of it. If I. as some implied, missed the 
main point, how many others will? Think 
about it. 

Edward Lowe 
Gary Court. SC 



ASTRO BLAST 
AND COLOR HAYWIRE 

Editor: 

In your Dcccember issue, I was quoted as 
saying our software is not protected. Mr. 
Marlin Simmons rightly took exception to 
my comments in this column in the February 
issue. Mr. Simmons stated that our Astro 
Blast and Color Haywire cassettes are equip- 
ped with "auto-loaders" making them impos- 
sible to backup or convert to disk. 

Actually, our auto-loader is so simple in 
concept that most people are not challenged 
by its presence and find making copies very 
easy indeed. I guess I never thought of this as 
a protective device. Its purpose was to pro- 
vide auto-execution, not protection. 1 regret 
to say. however, since my statement ap- 
peared in the December issue we have found 
it necessary to add protection to our game 
software. Utilities and business programs 
are still sold without protection. 

Ron Krebs 
Mark Data Products 



220 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



MICRONIX 
PREMIUM KEYBOARD 

Editor: 

1 would like to comment on the terrible 
review Mr. Ed Ellers did on the Micronix 
"Premium" Keyboard. First. Mr. Ellers states 
in his opinion that the keys are a bit too high, 
but also states prior to this comment that the 
installation procedure is a definite plus. I'm 
sorry to say you can't have both. The center 
post in the middle of the keycase would have 
to be removed in order to make the keys any 
lower. We decided the easy installation 
would be more of a bonus, rather than hav- 
ing to tear the computer apart, just in order 
to get a new keyboard. 

Secondly. I would like to correct the 
statement Mr. Ellers made concerning the 
ALPS keyswitches in our keyboard. The PC 
board is indeed made by Oak. but the key- 
switches and keycaps are made by ALPS as 
stated in many of our ads. Mr. Ellers would 
have had no way of knowing this; unless of 
course, he had taken the keyboard apart, or 
contacted us. The ALPS keyswitches are 
great for our premium keyboard; it gives the 
keyboard that electric typewriter feel and 
smoother touch. 

Thirdly, I would like to state that Mr. 
Ellers made a totally false statement when he 
said. "You can't save your redefined key 
codes, despite the instructions in the man- 
ual." Mr. Ellers was not using the software 
correctly because you can save your rede- 
fined keycodes. If Mr. Ellers [was] having 
problems, he should have contacted us and 
we would have gladly told him what he was 
doing wrong. 

I have taken this opportunity to list a few 
statements made by some of our customers 
taken from letters received after purchase or 
from "The Comment" section of our war- 
ranty card. 

—Fine product — great feel — pleased 
with it 

—Far superior to regular type keyboard 

— Excellent piece of hardware 

-Both keyboard and software easy to 

install — works well 
- Love everything - especially software 

— Feel and appearance are great 

— Keyboard feel — allowing for increased 
typing speed 

Color scheme, texture of keys 

—Quality 

—Expected performance without main- 
tenance 

— Low profile 

— It's outstanding 

Eva Banh 
Micronix Systems 

Editor's Note: The key code save 
problem was due to a misunderstand- 
ing of the instructions. We agree that 
our reviewer should have contacted 
Micronix. The keys are. indeed, made 
by ALPS. 



JOURNEY TO MT. DOOM 

Editor: 

Alter reading Mr. Schechter's review of 
Journey to Mi. Doom, I felt I had to write 
and give my own viewpoint of this program. 
Unlike Mr. Schechtcr. I did not consider this 
program a "very good Adventure." 

Compared to every other Color Compu- 
ter graphics Adventure I have, this one 
stinks. Mark Data Products has just put out 
Shenanigans and a graphics version of Calix- 
to Island: Radio Shack has carried Sands of 
Egypt for more than a year now. The Mark 
Data programs may not have been available 
to the reviewer, but certainly Sands of Egypt 
should have been known to anyone review- 
ing a graphics Adventure program. 
My first criticism of Journey is that the 
pictures are crudely drawn. They look like 
someone fiddled around with LINEs and 
CIRCLES until some kind of rough sketch 
came about. There is no perspective what- 
soever, and indeed, were it not for the text 
description, it would be impossible to tell 
that this passage was filled with holes, or 
that room had mushrooms in it. Even a pic- 
ture as simple as a passageway came out 
looking like some kind of modern art. The 
only room I could distinguish with any cer- 
tainty was the picture of a stable. 

Granted, pictures do not necessarily make 
or break an Adventure. The Scott Adams 
Adventures that have recently been released 
are excellent Adventures because they are 
well-plotted. They don't need graphics to 
catch and hold your attention. Infocom's 
Zork scries are the best Adventures ever 
written, not for their graphics but for the 
lively prose and complex vocabulary. 

But Journey to Mount Doom has none of 
these other saving virtues. Its plot is at times 
derivative, the descriptions, depending as 
they do upon the graphics lor support. Hat 
and uninteresting. 

In addition to its other faults. Journey is 
slow. It is not (and this irritates me as much 
as anything else) the 32K machine language 
Adventure Tom Mix has advertised; instead, 
it is (as Mr. Schechtcr pointed out) a notice- 
ably slow basic Adventure with a few ma- 
chine language subroutines thrown in. Could 
you call the winning simulation. WurGame. 
a 32K machine language Adventure just 
because it used a machine language Hi-Res 
graphics character print routine and a cou- 
ple ol other routines? Of course not! In my 
opinion, this makes the "32K Machine Lan- 
guage" in the advertising extremely mis- 
leading. 

Perhaps I am being too harsh on Journey. 
However, comparing it to other graphics 
Adventures available for the Color Compu- 
ter. I have to conclude that it is a waste of 



money. Go buy Calixto Island. Shenani- 
gans, or Sands of Egypt if you want a good 
graphics Adventure. Perhaps this will en- 
courage the producers of The King. Buzzard 
Bail, and other excellent arcade games to 
either produce good Adventures or get out 
of that particular segment of the market. 

This particular review has been only one 
of many reviews that have cropped up in the 
Rainbow recently written by someone who 
has little or no experience with the type of 
program they are reviewing. The most ob- 
vious recent examples I can think of are 
several arcade game reviews by people who 
have little arcade experience. 

In many cases, however, you seem to stick 
a reviewer with a product and expect him to 
sink or sw im regardless of his experience (or 
lack thereof) in the area in question. This 
may be most noticeable in the Rainbow 
because of the sheer volume of reviews you 
publish; even so. I would most strongly urge 
you to please, please, please take more care 
in who reviews what. While there is some- 
thing to be said for the philosophy of letting 
an inexperienced user attack a program, in 
most cases, someone with more experience 
will be able to more accurately review the 
program. Even if a program is supposed to 
be used by an inexperienced person, user- 
friendliness and many excellent features 
cannot excuse errors in fact, poor operation, 
or cost completely out of line with the rest of 
the market, all of which has little chance of 
being caught or praised by a casual reviewer. 
William L Harris. Jr. 
Bourhonnais. IL 



FILEBOX 16 



Editor: 

The documentation for Filebox 16 refers 
to a problem of hanging up for no apparent 
reason. Therefore, when I experienced exact- 
ly that problem while reviewing the program 
[the Rainbow. 3 X4). I referred to it in a 
critical manner. 

The problem may not lie in the program at 
all. however. Two or three weeks alter finish- 
ing the review. I experienced problems with 
my disk drive operation which required sig- 
nificant realignment to correct. I subsequent- 
ly used Filebox 1 6 several times and realized 
that there had been no reoccurrence of the 
hangups. 

Therefore, it may be that the author of the 
program has a disk drive that is starting to 
go out of alignment. If so. the program 
deserves higher marks than it got. 

This letter can also serve as a reminder to 
all of us have your disk drives checked out 
periodically. Is there anyone out there who 
can tell us how to do this so we don't have to 
run out to our local RS computer center'.' 
Warren S. Napier 
Denver. CO 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 221 



Software Revlewi 



T/7S 



Design A Window Away 
With MagiGraph 

The Micro Works has released a new graphic develop- 
ment program for experienced BASIC and assembly lan- 
guage programmers. It is called MagiGraph, and is well 
worth taking a look at if you use graphics within your 
programs and want an easy way to develop, test, alter and 
record them. This is especially true for the creation of game 
characters. 

MagiGraph opens with a very attractive high resolution 
display which demonstrates convincingly the capabilities of 
the program (and the artistic capabilities of Kevin Dooley, 
the programmer). Pressing any key will access the "design 
screen." which works in the standard low resolution text- 
and-block-graphics mode. You have a "window" on the left 
of the screen which represents a solid color block. The area 
represented is four bytes across and 16 bytes down. A 
number of single-stroke keyboard commands move a cursor 
in the design-screen window and set the corresponding pixel 
in any color. Pressing [ENTER] will toggle the display to the 
graphics screen, where you can review the precise effect of 
your design screen work. This is necessary because the 
design screen's Lo-Res graphics can represent a number of 
different configurations on the graphics display, depending 
on the mode you select. 

The program allows display in any of four graphics 
modes: G2C (2K color graphics — not implemented in 



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Extended Color BASIC), G3C (3K color graphics — PMODE 
I), G6C (6K color graphics —PMODE 3), and G6R (6K 
resolution graphics — PMODE 4). On the graphic screen, 
the design window you were working with appears as a 
rectangle, which can be moved around the screen so that you 
can "pick up" and alter any portion of the graphic screen 
contents. Any window-sized hunk ol the screen can also be 
grabbed into a buffer and put back on the screen in another 
place. There are a total of 10 such buffers (one general 
purpose, and then nine numbered "animation buffers" 
designed specifically to store variations on a character for 
complicated game animations). 

In the G2C mode, your design window represents a rec- 
tangle taller than it is wide, of roughly the same proportions 
as the representation on the design screen. When you switch 
to G3C, the window will be a square, so your design screen 
display will get squished in the vertical direction when dis- 
played on the graphics screen. This effect is even more 
pronounced when you display your work in mode G6C or 
G6R, since then your window represents only '/i: the height 
of the screen while it was V* the height of a G2C screen. 

Besides being able to set individual pixels in the design 
window, there is a very complete graphics editor for manipu- 
lating the window contents. There are commands for mov- 
ing the contents of an entire row or column, or part of a row 
or column; rotating the entire window contents 90 degrees; 
and inverting the window to its left-to-right mirror image. 
The ease with which you could create a running-jumping- 
pounding-falling Mario (a la "Donkey Kong") in all his 
variations, is phenomenal! It's also very easy to check the 
smoothness of your planned animation by switching to the 
graphic screen and displaying the animation buffers one 



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the RAINBOW April 1984 



after another by pressing the number keys in quick sequence. 
The program will not automatically cycle between the 
buffers — the actual animation has to be up to your final 
application program. Whether your program will be in 
BASIC or assembly language, the author provides some work- 
able examples of animated applications. These sample pro- 
grams are presented in the manual, and thus serve as a good 
lesson to the beginner — the assembly language example, 
while workable, is certainly not the snappiest animation 
routine in the world, but if you're just getting into assembly 
language animations, it's a beginning. 

When you are displaying the graphic screen, there is a 
complete set of logical operations you can perform on the 
contents of the design window or the general purpose buffer 
in relation to the window area: you can AND. OR. or EOR 
(Exclusive OR) the window contents with the current back- 
ground color; likewise all three operations can be performed 
between the buffer contents and the window, or you can 
NOT either the window or the buffer (as it's put in the 
window). If you're concerned about checking the results of 
these operations before messing something up. Mr. Dooley 
provides a complete set of tables detailing the effects of each 
operation on each color. 

One of the most useful features for the assembly language 
programmer is the printing routine. Given the proper com- 
mand, the program will dump to a printer a depiction of the 
design window (using initials for color names - G.Y.R. 
B.W.C.M or O) and the corresponding hexadecimal numbers 
for each byte! This means that a numerical table to describe 
a character or figure can simply be transposed from the 
printout to your application program. 

MagiGraph is available on cassette, disk or Amdisk and 



complete instructions are included for upgrading from 
cassette to disk. One absolutely excellent feature of the 
program is that it automatically recognizes whether a disk 
controller is attached, altering the memory placement of the 
graphics area accordingly. This means that a graphic created 
using other programs (particularly BASIC programs or cer- 
tain machine language programs such as Micropaimer) can 
be looked at and manipulated by MagiGraph. And you 
don't need to worry about whether the picture was recorded 
with or without the disk attached, since MagiGraph auto- 
matically loads pictures from tape into the current picture 
area! 

The only frustration I have with MagiGraph is that you 
are limited to working in the design window area, then 
moving it to work on another area of the screen. This is not u 
difficulty if you have other graphics programs with which to 
do your large scale drawing. I like to "rough-in" a drawing 
with the X-Pad. which has a tendency to be a bit inaccurate 
for doing fine details. I used to use Micropaimer to "clean 
up" the drawing — it has a "magnification" mode which 
makes pixel-by-pixel corrections a cinch. Now I have the 
option of doing "clean-ups" with MagiGraph, with the par- 
ticular advantage of the hexadecimal-dump printout. 

The price may seem a bit stiff, but for a utility program of 
this power, it's a great buy for the serious graphics pro- 
grammer. 

(The Micro Works. P.O. Box 1110. Del Mar, CA 92014, 
cassette $34.95, disk $39.95, Amdisk $44.95) 

— Paul S. Hoffman 



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April 1984 the RAINBOW 223 



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Software Review! 



Cheshire's Graphicom 
Is The Cat's Meow 

By Paul S. Hoffman 

l*d been looking lor a good excuse to upgrade to 64K 
when I received the request from the Rainbow to review 
Cheshire Cat Computer Creations' Graphicom. As an artist 
and graphics programmer. I like to have on hand as many 
tools as I can: X-pad. Micropainier, Art Gallery. Semi- 
draw; Magigraph. MPP, Chromasette's Drawer, etc. Every 
program for creating on-screen graphics has its own ad- 
vantages and features, and Graphicom is no exception. 

First, a quick description: Graphicom is a disk-based 
program for creating graphics. You need a 64 K Color Com- 
puter, one disk drive, and joysticks. Special features: 
"Rubber stamp" (for repeat drawing) any portion of a pic- 
ture — as small as one pixel or as large as the whole page; a 
complete set of logical functions to manipulate the "stamp": 
built-in printer dump and communication protocols; four 
6K workspaces; graphic menu and graphic disk directory; 
easy formatting of picture disks without returning to BASIC; 
double cursor system (a keyboard-controlled block for text 
and a joystick-controlled cross for graphics); user pro- 
grammable text characters — just draw them on a copy of 
the "Fonts" formatting page. 

Although pictures are saved on a specially formatted disk 
that can't be read directly by other programs, special BASIC 
programs are included for transferring pictures between 
Graphicom format and standard SA VEM format. In other 
words, you can use Graphicom to create pictures for any 
application: BASIC programs and games, machine language 
programs and games, animations, etc. One program on the 
disk. "B1N>ASC." will create a BASIC program that builds a 
picture from a data file. BIN>ASC was written by Mike 
Ward and is in public domain (free). It can be read or 
downloaded from the Color Computer SIG on Compu- 
Serve. (Go PCS- 1 26 and then enter the XA2 database, 
which the SYSOP. Wayne Day, has set aside for graphics 
— a lot of Graphicom examples are there, too.) 



Listing I is a sample of what BIN>ASC will do. It will 
create on your screen, ready to be stored to disk, a copy of 
Figure I , a graphic I created usingjust Graphicom. (NOTE: 
Don't try typing in Listing I, you'll have a lot of trouble 
converting the stuff after line 168 to keyboard characters. 
The best thing would be to get it from the Rainbow On Tape 
this month or download it from the Color SIG on Compu- 
Serve — if I can get it uploaded before you read this.) 

BIN>ASC differs from Fred Scerbo's "Graphic Screen 
Data Compiler" (the Rainbow. November 1983. p. 160) by 
being much faster — avoiding DRA W statements — and 
actually compressing the binary information. (It also differs 
in not being easily typed in on the keyboard.) The most 
detailed picture will compress to less than 6.000 bytes, 
although it might use more than one screen in its converted 
form prior to final display. 

The controls for Graphicom could be extremely hard to 
use and frustrating, especially if your hardware configura- 
tion isn't just right. Let me elaborate: The program uses both 
joystick buttons, and just the stick on the right controller. 
There are a number of functions which require the left 
button to be kepi pressed while manipulating the right stick, 
then momentarily press the right button. 1 can't fathom how 
I'd manage this if I wanted to use the superior Deluxe 
(Kraft) Joystick which demands to be used with both hands. 
The owner's manual suggests mounting your two joy- 
sticks on a board with double-faced tape, or investing in a 
simple foot switch to replace the left button. The board 
would definitely work with "standard"joysticks. but I'd still 
have the dilemma of the left-handed button position on the 
Deluxe stick. 

The best solution, by far, is the foot switch. Such a switch 
is supplied by Spectrum Projects, but must be purchased as 
part of its package ( Graphicom and footswitch) and really is 
a necessary adjunct to this program. (I'd advocate saving 
some money by buying a Radio Shack cassette recorder foot 
switch for $8.50 and attaching your own five-pin DIN plug.) 
I was initially skeptical about doing freehand drawing 
with this program, because the line-drawing technique is 
"rubber-band" style. You tap the joystick button to set a 
starting point for a line, then can see the line "stretch" from 
that point as you move the joystick. A second tap of the 
button "sets" the line. Obviously, this is great for all sorts of 
straight lines, at any conceivable angle, but a smooth, curv- 
ing line must be done with many tiny segments: "tap, move a 




Figure 1; 
"Spice Battle" drawn completely *im Qrtphlcom 





Figure 3: 

Encoded version ol Figure 1 

(Every byle of Figure 1 It XOAetf 

wllh corresponding byte ol Figure 2) 




Figure 2: 
Complex Graphic used lo encode other plctu 



Figure 4: 
Sample ol colore possible In PHODE 4 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 225 



little, tap again, then tap to start a new line where the old left 
off, stretch a little, tap. . . . etc." 

Well, it's better than going pixel-by-pixel, as in Micro- 
painter. In fact, with some of the other features, it's really 
not as tedious as it sounds. 1 did the "Space Battle" graphic 
just to see how it did. and was quite pleased with the ease 
with which everything came together. 

The lines you draw with are either light on dark ordark on 
light — as in PMODE 4. There's no direct provision for 
drawing in two-pixel wide hunks to create the artifacted blue 
or red colors (or. for that matter, to create single-color lines 
in either of the PMODE 3 color sets), but you can do it 
indirectly by creating a "pen nib" and "drawing" with that. 
The problem with that approach is that your pen point will 
move one pixel at a time rather than the two-at-a-time 
needed to maintain one color; the block you're drawing will 
alternate between the two colors as it moves across the 
screen. A better approach I developed for producing colored 
lines was to draw them first as thin, multicolored lines, and 
then overlay them with a logically manipulated "stamp" to 
adjust the colors. 

The "Rubber stamp" is one of the major features of Gra- 
phicom. You can select any portion of any picture in your 
four workspaces as a stamp, and then select one of four 
"modes" for placing it on the screen. The area copied can be 
ANDed with the background, it can replace the back- 
ground, it can be ORed or "exclusive ORed. " This gives an 
amazingly large range of possibilities. 

The operation is graphically illustrated by flashing its 
effect prior to setting it with the button. This way, you can 
see the results before committing yourself to something 
irrevocable. 



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the RAINBOW April 1984 



An interesting suggestion is made in the manual that the 
"Reverse stamp can even be employed to encrypt a picture. 
One merely Reverse stamps some very dense, random patt- 
ern over the picture one wants to hide. This pattern becomes 
the key. Anyone having this key can Reverse stamp it over 
an encoded picture and (after lining up the key stamp prop- 
erly) cause the decoded picture to appear." I tried this out by 
creating the extremely complicated jumble shown in Figure 
2 as the encoding pattern. When that is Reverse (XOR) 
stamped over the "Space Battle" scene (Figure I), you get 
Figure 3. 

Decoding is tricky (it takes some fine control to get the 
coding stamp lined up properly), but really spectacular 
when this confusing jumble on the screen suddenly breaks 
forth into a glorious graphic! 

One of the four workspaces is available also as a storage 
space for a "Stamp Set." If you pre-define a stamp SIZE. 
you can have a full screen of stamps which can be selected 
quickly from this page. The drawback is that all of the 
stamps on a single page have to be the same size. 

Any individual stamp can be rotated in 90-degree incre- 
ments or mirrored top-to-bottom at any time. When you 
consider that the stamp size is completely flexible, this 
makes the possibilities practically infinite. The kind of 
color-effect patterns possible with ovcrstamping (using var- 
ious modes) is depicted in Figure 4. 

The second outstanding feature of Graphicom is the scries 
of functions referred to by the "com" in the title Communica- 
tion. Although the BASIC programs that convert pictures to 
binary or ASCII format are not strictly a part of Graphi- 
com, they are supplied on the program disk, and certainly do 
increase the user's ability to communicate graphic material. 
In Graphicom itself are three communication routines, one 
for RS-232 link-ups over a simple modem, one for Slow- 
Scan TV over short wave radio and the third for taping or 
communicating through an experimental "cassette modem." 
Both the SSTV signal and the cassette signal can be taped, 
but neither coding of a picture is loadable in other programs. 
They do function quite well within the Graphicom envi- 
ronment. 

I haven't tested the RS-232 routine, since I haven't been 
able to link-up with another Graphicom user, especially 
within the short time 1 had to crank out this review. One 
caution: the RS-232 routine will not work with a "smart" 
modem such as the Hayes. You need a simple "on. off. 
originate"switchable modem such as Radio Shack's Direct 
Connect Modem I. 

You are always working within a 64 by 64 pixel "fine 
control" area which corresponds to the resolution of the 
joystick. This is not a drawback, as the area moves across the 
page when the cursor hits a border. There is a limitation if 
you are continuously stamping something (using it as a pen 
nib or paintbrush). In those cases, you cannot shove the fine 
control area when you reach a border. This makes large- 
scale brush strokes hard to do. 

The only things missing in Graphicom area magnification 
mode for fine detail work, a "clear screen" routine and a 
"paint"(area fill) routine. You can effectively "fill" irregular 
areas by stamping a pattern into the area and using repeats 
of smaller and smaller portions of the pattern to reach the 
edges. Similarly, large blocks can be stamped over a picture 
to wipe it out. 

1 do rely on the magnification mode in Micropaintera lot, 
and would suggest you use Disk Micropainter (see last 
month's Rainbow) to do any really fine, pixel-by-pixel work 
on pictures created with Graphicom. 



II you're goihg to move pictures back and forth from 
program to program, you're going to have to create Binary 
saves of Graphicom pictures with the "GOB1N" program 
on the disk, since the Graphicom workspaces don't coincide 
with the usual BASIC or Micropainter graphics memory. 

The 32-page manual seems to be "quick-copy" printed on 
standard 8 '/:"x 1 1" paper and is stapled at the top corner. It 
could really benefit from a simple binder and some addi- 
tional proofreading for misspellings. Other than that, it docs 
an excellent job of explaining the program's features. 

All in all, Marty Goodman at Cheshire Cat has come up 
with an outstanding piece of software — Bravo! It's availa- 
ble from a number of distributors, including Spectrum 
Projects. MichTron. Moreton Bay Software. Shooting Star 
Software. Bee Color, and Radware. 

(Cheshire Cat Computer Creations, P.O. Box 115. Lafayette. 
CA 94549; Spectrum Projects. 93-15 86th Drive. Wood- 
haven, NY 11421; MichTron, 1691 Eason, Pohtiac. MI 
48054; Moreton Bay Software, 316 Castillo Street, Santa 
Barbara, CA 93101; Computize, Inc., P.O. Box 207, Lang- 
home, PA 19407) 



The listing: 

10 GOTO 10000 

40 CLEAR200,*<H5DFF 

100 FOR X=«cH7E00 TO &H7E28 

101 READ H*:POKE X,VAL("&H"+HS> 

102 NEXT 

103 DATA 8E,5E,0, 10, 8E,E, 0, A6, 80 
,A7,8D,0, 1D,A6,80,A1,8D,0 

104 DATA 17,26,B,E6,B0,A6,B0,A7, 
A0, 5A, 26, FB, 20, 2, A7, A0 

105 DATA 10»8C,26,0,25,E5,39 

106 FOR X=8cH7E60 TO &H7EC3 

107 READ HS:POKE X, VAL ( "&H"+H*> 

108 NEXT 

109 DATA BD,B3,ED,1F,3,33,41,EF, 
8D,0,5C,8E,E,0, 10,8E 

110 DATA 5E,0,86,8,A7,8D,0,4D,86 
,6,A7,BD,0,46,6F,8D 

111 DATA 0, 44, A6, 80, 80, 30, 48, 48, 
48, 59, 6A, 8D, 0, 36, 27, 1C 

112 DATA 6A,8D,0,31,26,F2,E7,A0, 
C6, 8, E7, 8D, 0, 27, 6D, BD 

113 DATA 0,24,27,E4,31,3F,1F,20, 
BD, B4, F4, 39, 86, 6, A7, 8D 

114 DATA 0, 12, A6, 80, 80, 30, 48, 48, 
AC,8D,0,B,25,D2,63,8D 

115 DATA 0,4,20,CC 

1 1 6 PM0DE4 , 1 : PCLS 1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 : AD= 
&HE00 

140 READ A*: IF A«=» ! " THEN GOTOl 
60 

141 FOR 1=1 TO LEN<A*> 

142 POKE AD,ASC<MID*<A*,I,1)> 

143 AD=AD+l:NEXT I 

144 GOTO 140 

1 60 DEFUSR0=&H7E60 : E=USR0 ( AD ) 



161 
162 
163 

164 

■i - 

» 

165 
166 
167 
168 



PM0DE4, 1 : PCLS1 : SCREEN 1 , 1 

EXEC&H7E00 

FOR 1-1 TO 5000: NEXT I:CLS 

PRINT "FILENAME FOR PICTURE: 



LINEINPUTF* 

FS-F*+"/BIN" 

SA VEM F* , &HE00 , &H25FF , &HA027 

END 

169 DATA"mW'l I_H8013f 280<mP803?H 
506 1 V I _H900c f 390< mPD0 1 SQn mQd 00 " 

1 70 DATA " 1 a VmQ * 046 1 V I PKf 3P30mPd0 
H3a V 1 _H80 1 3f DP0HmTh0< ?H >063f 10" 

171 DATA " 030 '06mPd00H3f 201 PmPD00 
oH?0063mQ 1 00oHC033-f 700 1 P7H40 IS" 

1 72 DATA " f 3P0HmP80H?H80 1 Si 380 * mQ 
' 00OH J006000000h3f 680 1 P000007* " 

1 73 DATA "1*1 PmQ< 00oH ; 063f 4 * 03mP8 
00oHO00?f 9 '0<mPh0H?HC00?f 2 * lPm" 

1 74 DATA " PL04?H9063f >0 1 0000HmQ ' 
60006 ?H 1 00 ' 4mQd04?H700c -f 8006mP " 

1 75 DATA " \ ■ ?H9063f 5830mPH00H00H 
7HF00 J 000060060mQ40< 7H600 J 0000 " 

176 DATA"6mPh03?H<00: 'n»Qh00X3f 18 
' 0000H?HK0300033f 5P08mQl 027HC " 

177 DATA " 00c f 2 ' 07P7H 1 0040 1 P00043 
f 2 ' 030000 ' ?H9007f 1 ©20000 1 4006m " 

1 78 DATA " PP08< 3f 3 " 280007 ' 0060000 
'?HE0>0003T 'n»PD0 '?HG007<B?Ha00" 

1 79 DATA " H00004mPP00Q4HmQ8080000 
0800100?XolmQP01000kalSVOc-f2P0" 

1 80 DAT A " 1 P000033* 1 * 1 0000 1 4 1 1 W< L 
i f 2 '300000<?H7009000MC4QHoa_H6" 

181 DATA " 00400 lS*40094UiOoi of 1P0 
lmQ<02G< ■ CoolP0K0mQL02IYU_onDP" 

1 82 DATA " NP1 mPl 00H3f 1 P08?OUool n2 
00?0mPh00a06mPD03 : 1 4Coa " > R000< ? " 

1 83 DATA " HF001 QTD X i PP0000PmQH0n 
a 'o6LHB0000^000063f 4P24nCoaO> ' " 

1 84 DATA " 0002h0000H?H40< 1 P?H ; 09 
EP4010-"No00» Sf 5P2-0> 'CT>rLH00P" 

1 85 DATA " mQH0oD2h742i 5B00800 1 P?H 
a00400042kndAkEk *00040H3f 4 '04B" 

1 86 DATA " I j h3Tf C2000 1 7H5063* 2830 
000@00O00~_\L ' I6C?H<007f 183000" 

1 87 DATA " 00 1 QPh28 j hQ4 : : V?H< 007f 2 
80 J82LPRnnSobKl mQH0 > j 00RRk \ i Wn " 

1 88 DATA " N47HD00O ' 8?bRf B2i o7BW i ? 



TEST-AID 



EMHnnCED 



'tern 6 enercCi on ona monagement 
for multiple ChO'ce Tests 



^3*EATE, CD! I AND BTORE/LOAG TAP* Ok DISK- 
OUESTIONS FOR MULTIPLE-CHOICE TEBTB 

SELECT AND ORDER ITEMS FROM VOUB OMN FILES 
AND PRIMT fORHATTED EXAM 

"ENU-DRIVE COMMANDS t ' AS' -tNTLf. SCREENS 

REQUIRES 92 OR M-K AND EXTENDED BASIC 

SPECIFY QUESTION FORMAT. 4 OR S ALTERNATIVES 

MEDIA: TAFE (Ml. OO) OR DISK <«3.00> 
ADD M.OO FOR SHIPPINB/MANDLINB 



CHECK OR nONEV ORDER TO: 

» NFO TOOLS 

111 COUNTRY CLUB LANE 

OIFORD, OHIO 43006 

'3131 S23-B473 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 227 



HD01308_hcQR33oW2>400000?f400m" 

1 89 DATA " 1 2b 76Lb0< _mg a 500000 1 mP 1 
00O0HOR< ' 'P08o98UN?H; 013f 1 '06 '" 

1 90 DATA " 0B I o ' R6 >PonmBA4mQ< 00 ' 00 
\ _ ' 02 Z h8R 1 h Q5000 1 _H >00L03000P_ " 

1 9 1 DATA " hPn C X Z ; YgTA000 1 _H803P00 
8SlRBZ~ZXRI0Bcf 2 ' 10mPL020017oh" 

192 DATA"R: CXZ81T087HC02P00KH8R: 
ZXZXXhPA3f 4 '2P008XXR: CYFXPn83f ' 

1 93 DATA " 4 ' 1 PP0028P0B Z ~_8 X oR0mPh 
08?H701<~P0:i:_ A 8;n83f 1806mP'0L" 

194 DATA"0X000Hn20RZ j lR3n8000006 
00Cf 380 : P03 k >28 1 j k k H0o_ f 300 >P0 " 

1 95 DATA " 3=< >b > > C 9VPo7f 5006003E< 
|XGr_~h0:7f3 , 2Al' s b>K_kVP0|f5 , 3 ,, 

1 96 DATA " BL C XGT _-"h8Q C f 5 ' 2A7 A bBK_ 
kjR| Jf3 , l«8P8SZo>nX?cf3 , 0AENR8" 

197 DATA"ZnInR~Sf5<0?408SCiRnX0W 
' mQ4 00OH 504902 ; mP_ X Z 947HB0 1 028 " 

1 98 DATA " C n J ~R544?HB0488P?QP~83e 
j ?HE03000082hR: j 8< 3TmP80080H00" 

1 99 DATA " 30mP\0< 00028 : 0R7R0 1 4Cf 1 
001P004mQ000iXR8WP4H5kf6001Z8P" 

200 DATA " : N 1 \ >oOH 1 : 0P8 C 0F3TB-f 1 
0<mQ<00Z2BOS07i56*6002P212n02E" 

201 DATA"6oHH00X00HVc7oahmQP0: 00 
1 2k 1 45A00007* 582P0033_1 A6D0004 " 

202 DATA"?HD00: P0033_OP7h?HB00Z0 
00 1 j _oSf 3 ' 0HmPT0 : P8000 ; m4?H 1 06 " 

203 DATA " P00002m53f 2P04mPh0X 0000 
0K8H7HH00 : P00000\n0mPX0e?H=00Z " 

204 DATA"000000X03P00087HD02Cf 10 
02P7H40400 '?HB0>P000 '02X3*6002 " 

205 DATA" X000300: P7HH00: PmP802X3 
f 600: P?H400Z0mQP0:_H501Cf 6001 Z" 

206 DATA " 7H50 1 C f 6002 X 7HS00 C -f 400© 
mPL02Z3f 180CmQP0: h3f ie0CmQP0j _" 

207 DATA"H602[:f5ei0002XmPH0:PlPm 
PT0E7H ; 00 J ' mPH0 : _HB0 1 Z 0mPH0 : _H " 

208 DATA"B02Z0mPH0Z_HB0: Cf 1 '2ZmP 
\0EE48mPP00jcf 1 '2XmP\0EOH:00ZP" 

209 DATA"mPL0Z?H?0148mPD0> A 3f 1P0 
lZ?H;053f2803jX3f 1 '2\mP\0EDA5E" 

210 DATA"?H601oZmPL00Ccf 2 ' 1ED001 
ED0 1 1 400mnc f 1 ' 07 W?H ; 05EEEECf 19" 

2 1 1 DATA " 03 ' B3f 1 ' 0< 9_H7040000 1 gE 
EE 1 EED8000?of 3f 1 ' 0=8_H ? 0=g MEEC " 

212 DATA " f 1 @0mM600000 1 000062 ; f 2 ' 
lgMgMeEEE8003anN3f 1 '0J8P0hmPT0" 

213 DATA " mPCMe@05EE?7 A >E4mPH0=aK 
f 2 <3f 17MEEE003eo< '?H703AFmPX08" 

2 1 4 DATA " ?H4gOMeEE01 M830mPL0 I =Kf 
2 * 3-f 1 7MMeEE0mOhCP0004 A0000 1 mE_ " 

2 1 5 DATA " H ; 0? H4 g OMraeE OCE0K f 203B 3 
_H;0?coMgMMegMOCo5MEDA0mPD0geC" 

216 DATA " f 2 * 1 _oogMoggMO3e06?H700 
6@Q?H< >ogmgBBMo6oQ6EEEEE00000 " 

217 DATA " 0EE< mP\0893Yommmgm >E4 >E 
EmPD04 A< SC7H ; 1 408 1 0eggm?0P7Em " 

2 1 8 DATA " PAE4 A800RE< mPd0A4GoooPM 



DEMeEOH600 1 cG?H >0 1 4G4N5o 1 8GMeE " 

219 DATA " EED00000 A4C7H » 04Cf 1 007« 
GE5BgM <ookf 100=O3cf lP08mP80g3f " 

220 DATA"aDA4>lmlD7Mg6om0f 15EHA0 
cf 2 ' 0Wo_P0A7UOm5 1 gMgOE0eE0000M " 

22 1 DATA " oYSf 2 ' 08OP * 00?AYFEBooMo 
nEeEEEE88Q AT AmP X A4Mf A4N 1 oo5 Id" 

222 DATA " AmgEEOM£D00< UaHmP * 04 A0 1 
7U0EAE: 4AookEgM»EEE«5ASf 2 ' 14A4" 

223 DATA " 00?@1 oU8 I P45EEEmgME@ 1 1 n 
aSf 2 ' 0A0048h7EEE 1 eFeOoUEg MeEEE " 

224 DATA " 64 Ae@0DCf 280480 >EooaE6o 
okm8E7oooooX| k6?H»014A4Ah00018" 

225 DATA " 7oomof E 1 mPCoe55h mP \ 0800 
0CP00053oonmDAEGf 171 4mgeED?H90 " 

226 DATA " 1 0A4 A 3 EEA8ABodMoEE5mPAE 
1EQ '00EEA43* lP3gO488802DeoooO»" 

227 DATA " 5D7oH4oe_eMEEE8?H808h60 
F <EEE87EBCei e8EBoooDPe0?M6f 2 * 1 " 

228 DATA " UK 70000 1 _ooWoEE AooooomE 
o 1 MeEEE?H80 1 000m0000 1 eEeOo 3 E I E " 

229 DATA " mEEEE 1 E0?OMED0A5DA7f 1 1 
01 lmELoH4onoEED7f 17om01 lgBEEEE" 

230 DATA"EC-f 1 <0A?EA5EEgoeAonmD5E 
EEEMD000OoOgmPT0807eD I of 1 ? mmDE " 

23 1 DATA " E7mPCok ' 00MOgMEE3f 1 8300 
1 4CeD6f 1 5EDBoOE9EOoooE5005 3 OoO " 

232 DATA " L00 1 4 A?H504mE5?H4ooWe AE 
EBmPCo ' ?dEH ' 7MMEEEA7H50 1 1 mE57f " 

233 DATA" lESBgEDEmPEEDAATW000ME3 
f 1 ©0H8?EEKoH4onoa5EEomPBon 1 AP0 " 

234 DATA " GUeeEEE@040000CeE4EmPAE 
70i mD5Gf 180A5?A4Comm '?H604m5AG" 

235 DATA "3fl01oEEEEo_H501LD1808O 
MMEE?H503aE54EEAEEDMO_EFE80005 " 

236 DATA " EE 1 D8h0A4 AgggmPH0mEACWo 
n J Z Z \00ED7o : Z Z Z OohU»C«400f Oa»D " 

237 DATA " ??H40< E AAEED800 1 D5SEQE0 
0005EFPAE I 000AOogg6 1 1 73 ' 1 EDDLo " 

238 DATA " od Z Z Z UEE ADO X SEEEooa J UE3 
HCLa7med >6H6H6 1 EEE5ED000 1 EEEE 1 " 

239 DATA " EAEEE5EDm4EDAN0N45om ' L I 
Si PO5DDkooP0006EED0BnOf l?o\K5B" 

240 DATA " A4N0OTEmd I V I VH6 1 DDAEEEE 
D015EEE=M5mPAEDEAA '0ALaH01g3al " 

24 1 DATA " ?S ' 1 DFmomPCo_UEE0OoOmPC 
ok 3 aE ' 800040000 1 P0000AACf 1 EED0" 

242 DATA " 1 AB 1 Gf 1 5E8DE74 A4A6A480 
0600000EN?H50?i E00Oo7oH4ol Ri Dl " 

243 DATA " 000A0P07 ' 0< 30h05Cf 1 UED0 
03EmPME4E748004000V?7Qh63aCmPW" 

244 DATA " oOokf 1801 ^E7SdA4A4A01 IS 
'66I5mPUEeGH7EE5EP3 '4A0009Sh • " 

245 DATA"< 1Q1 WoHAog5ETA?03H009VH 
171 QPmP 3 EeOH6EE5 1 3 4 Ad A7a4B3hH6 " 

246 DATA "3 <lmQ7oo- > EEX00148N0mPH0 
mQ5EE4E 1 3 4 A4 A4 1 PmPH00 " 

247 DATA"!" 

10000 PCLEAR6:BOTO40 
/^ 



228 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



Custom Software Engineering, Inc 



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C4 

CO 

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807 Minutemen Causeway (D-2), Cocoa Beach, Florida 32931 

(305) 783-1083 



For information or technical support, please 
call between 5 30 and 8:30 PM Eastern time 



DISK DOUBLE ENTRY - If you have spent hours 
trying to balance your Debits and Credits, this program is 
for you! Designed for small business, club, and personal 
use. Enter transactions in a journal type format. Program 
will maintain current account balances, produce Trial Bal- 
ance, Income, and Balance Sheet reports and complete 
Account Ledgers. Will handle up to 300 accounts including 
report headings and totals. Up to 1 400 average transactions 
on a diskette. Summary reports and four levels of subtotals 
available. REQUIRES 32K and a user understanding of 
standard double entry accounting concepts - S44.95 in 
BASIC with Machine Language subroutines. 

STATEMENT WRITER - For use with (and re 
quires) Disk Double Entry. Produces statements suitable 
for billing from your Receivable accounts. Provides mailing 
labels to use with your statements and account summaries. 
Designed and documented to allow you to change formats 
to accommodate your own special needs. S34.95. 

DISK DATA HANDLER - 64K - Designed to use 
the full 64K RAM, but may also be configured for 32 K. Uses 
standard ROM's - No special operating system required! 
Allows you to design disk data files for your specific needs. 
You define a basic record of up to 14 fields and 246 
characters. Provides fast selection and sorting based on 
any field or combination of fields in this record. Powerful on 
screen input and update. User defined output of reports to 
screen, printer, or disk files which may be read by your 
BASIC programs for any computational or special format- 
ting requirements. Printer reports allow headings, page 
breaks, and page numbering, and let you pass control 
codes to drive your printer's special features. Maximum 
number of records you may work with at one time will 
depend on RAM configuration and record size - 64K (32 K) 
1850(500) -21 char records, 179 (49) - 246 char records. 
An optional Extended record linked to the basic record may 
also be defined. The size of this Extended record is not a 
factor in determining maximum number of records. Will 
provide the growth capability needed for your increasingly 
sophisticated applications. NOW - also includes a listing of 
a short program to read directory information from your 
disks and produce a combined file index. S54.95 in BASIC 
with Machine Language subroutines. 

DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR -Puts you in charge 

of your schedule! Graphically displays any monthly calendar 
between 1700 and 2099. You put in up to twelve 28 
character memos per day - calendar shows where the 
memos are -call up of day shows details. Use for appoint- 
ments and a log of past activity. Study the chronology of the 
American Revolution or note the day your mortgage will be 
paid off. Search capability allows you to list or print all 
memos between two specified dates or only ones meeting 
key word criteria. Date computation shows elapsed time 
between two dates in days, weeks, months, and years. 
REQUIRES 32K irj BASIC. 

TAPE DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - S16.95 - (max. 400 
memos/tape file). 

DISK DATE-O-BASE CALENDAR - S1 9.95 - (over 4,000 
memos/disk - max. 300 memos/month). 



COMMAND STREAM PROCESSOR - Adds a 
new dimension to the power of your Color Computer! A 
program to run your other programs. Will allow you to 
prepackage a stream of direct system commands as well as 
INPUT and LINE INPUT to your BASIC program. This 
results in a totally automated stream of activity. If you 
understand your computer and the flow of activity required 
for your total operation, you are ready for the power of 
Command Stream Programming. In completely relocatable 
Machine Language - S19.95. 

That's INTEREST-ing - Time to let yourcomputer 
do some real computation! This program will help you solve 
problems dealing with time, money, and INTEREST. Calcu- 
lates present value, future value, and capital recovery for 
any combination of payments you specify. Rate of Return 
computation to predict how hard your money will be working. 
Special section to compute bond yields (current and to 
redemption). Amortization schedules about any way you 
want them - even allows you to change terms in mid 
schedule! All answers available on screen or printer. S29.95 
in BASIC. 

MATH TUTOR - Five programs that go from math fact 
(+. -, X, /) drill to full addition, subtraction, multiplication, 
and division at four levels of difficulty. Provides a step by 
step approach with error correction and rewards for good 
performance. - S13.95 in BASIC. 

SPELLING TEACHER - Up to 200 of their spelling 
words stored on tape or disk are presented in four lively 
study modes including a scrambled word game. - S 1 2.95 in 
BASIC. 

ALPHA-DRAW - A subroutine designed to let you 
easily add characters to your graphic displays. You define X 
and Y coordinates and a string variable of one or more 
characters and Alpha-Draw will do the rest. Includes all 
keyboard characters. Comes with instructions for a true 
line numbered merge of tape files. Works great with the 
Screen Print program! - S8.95 in BASIC. 

GRAPHIC SCREEN PRINT PROGRAM - 

Works in ALL PMODES and lets you shift screen image 
anywhere on the printed page. Relocatable code lets you 
use all of your 16K or 32K machine. Available for Color 
Basic 1.0 and 1.1/1.2. Use EXEC 41 175 to see which you 
have and SPECIFY with order. In Machine Language. 

SPECIFY PRINTER TYPE 
S7.95 - For TRS-80' LP-VII/VIII & DMP 100/200/400/420. 

S9.95 - For Epson GRAFTRAX', NEC PC 8023 A-C, 
IDS-440/445, Paper Tiger' 460/560, Micro Prism' 480, 
Prism' 80/1 32 (with dot plotting),TRS-80' DMP-1 20, TDP- 1 . 
Micro Peripherals, Inc 88G/99G, PROWRITER', Centronics 739, 
Mircoline' 82A/83A (with OKIGRAPH I) /84/92/93, 
Star Micronics, Inc. GEMIN1 1 0/1 0X/15 and Gorilla Banana. 
(Trademarks of Tandy Corp., Epson America. Inc., C-ltoh, 
NEC America, Okidata Corp., Integral Data Systems, Inc.) 



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ALL PROGRAMS require Extended Color Basic and are 
delivered on cassette. All, except Tape Date-O-Base Calen- 
dar, are DISK System compatible. 



For VISA and Master Card orders: 
Include type, account number, expiration 
date, signature and phone number. 
Sorry' No COD's. 



U.S. and CANADA add $1.00 per order for shipping. 
Overseas S2.50 per order. All prices in U.S. dollars. 
Florida residents add 5% sales tax. Return within two 
weeks if not completely satisfied. 



RAINBOW 

CtKTmCATIOM 
MAI 

ALL LISTED 

PROGRAMS 



Hardware Review! 



T/7& 



JFD-COCO Disk System 

A Good Buy 

But It Is Different 

By Ed Filers 

The first accessory that a new CoCo owner decides to buy 
is very often a disk system — when and if one can afford it. 
The people who buy IBM PC and Apple II systems take it 
for granted that they will be using disks and disks alone, but 
with low-cost computers like the CoCo one often decides 
that a tape recorder will do just fine. Until the first few I/O 
Errors, that is. That's when the disk bug strikes with a bite 
that's almost as painful as the cassette problems. 

Radio Shack wisely decided not to freeze out the outside 
suppliers of disk systems and other goodies for its compu- 
ters; the various TRS-80 models are quite amenable to use of 
non-Tandy equipment. While I won't name names here, 
some other computers' inability to accept disk drives from 
"aftermarket" firms has left many owners of those machines 
quite angry. 

Like a number of other companies. J & M Systems has 
marketed a controller package to add disk drives to a 
cassette-based Model III or 4. J & M has more recently 
introduced a disk controller pack for the CoCo, as well as 
several different disk drive units. I should note that, 
although controllers and drives are usually sold as a pack- 
age, the J & M controller will work with Radio Shack's 



(Duality 
(Eljnstimt 
Softumre 



RAINBOW 

CtKti'-CAIiO* 
U'l 



TWO NEW PROGRAMS I ! ! I I I ! ! ! ! ! I ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 

PILCRIM'S PROGRESS : This is what you've been waiting for. 
Our first Christian Adventure Came is written by Richard 
Hcwko, and is an adaptation of Pilgrim's Progress. Your 
progress is directed away from the city of destruction 
and towards the Celestial City. Important Biblical Doc- 
trines are comprehended as the player proceeds. 
Requires 16K E.CB. - $17.99 Cassette version only. 

BIBLE REFERENCE PROGRAM : Topographical Bible Refererence 
Program covering 27 Topics with 60 Biblical References. 
16K - E.CB. not required - 10.99 Cassette Version 

I I ! 1 1 ! t ! 1 1 I ! ! 1 ! 1 ! ! I ! ! I I ! ! ! ! ! 

JUDE :*'a Cenesis of a Cood Idea." See the review In the 
December 1983 Issue of RAINBOW. Par-.e 286. 
Requires 32K E.CB.. Cassette $13.99 ulsk $16.99 
3-CAME PACK 01 : Books of the Bible Came, Bible Char- 
acter Word Scramble game (. "Who Said That" Bible quote 
game. Req. 16K E.CB. Cassette $10.99 

3-CAHE PACK 12 : Reversed Sword Drill game, "Who Did 
That" game & Bible Places Word Scramble game. 
Req. 16K E.CB. Cassette Version $10.99 

CHRISTMAS QUIZ : How much do your children, and you, 
know about the First Christmas? Educational 6 Lots of 
Fun. Cassette Version Only $9.99 



Please Add $2.00 for freight 
C. 0. D.'s add $4.00 
Overseas add $6.00 



^?E3 



Q C S 
P. 0. Box 1899 

24 Hour Phone Service Duncan, OK 73533 

405/255/5696 



CoCo drive units, and the R/ S controller will work with the 
drive units that J & M sells. 

The Drive Unit 

The disk drive unit that came in the package 1 received for 
review is a single disk drive in an aluminum case. The drive 
itself is a Tandon Magnetics TM 100-1, which is the drive 
that Radio Shack used to sell for the Model I and 111 and is 
used in many other computers as well. J & M has nicely 
installed this "bare"drive in a sturdy case along with a power 
supply called a Trans Power I. J & M also carries what is 
called a half-height drive, which lets you put two disk drives 
in the same case that is used for a single drive. The Trans 
Power 1 has holes on the board for power and data/ control 
lines to a second drive. (To convert an existing one-drive 
unit to two half-height drives you must remove the old drive, 
and you then have no way to power both it and the new 
drives off the single power supply.) 

The Tandon drive differs from the older Radio Shack 
drive (made by Tokyo Electric Company, a division of 
Toshiba) in that it is a 40-track drive and has a faster 
stepping rate. Radio Shack's earlier drives were said to be 
35-track units, but were actually capable of 37 tracks. (The 
Tandon drive can really handle up to 43 tracks.) The step- 
ping rate (the time it takes for the head to move to an 
adjacent track in either direction) is given as 30 milliseconds 
for the R/S drives; Tandon's unit has a much faster 5 ms 
time, which speeds up disk operation considerably. (Al- 
though Radio Shack obviously won't service the J & M 
drive, they do sell pans for Tandon drives as well as a service 
manual; ask for the manual for 26-1 160/ 1/2/3/4 and spec- 
ify the Tandon version.) 

The Trans Power I circuit board, in addition to having an 



+ FIRST AID + 

TROUBLE FORMATTING PROGRAMS? 
Rx: REUSABLE, DOUBLE-SIDED 

PRINT (5) LOCATION FINDER 



Now it's a breeze to locate any X,Y 
location at a glance . . . without leaving 
your program. 

Each location clearly numbered on 
erasable laminate. Use it and reuse it 
for years of accurate word processing 
and graphics formatting. Instructions in- 
cluded, q 

PRICE ONLY $0? 

(shipping included) 

Caiil Res. add 6% Sales Tax) 



Call for low prices on drive cables. 




REDCREST, CALIFORNIA 95569, (707) 722-4280 



230 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



on-board power supply, also extends the drive's edge con- 
nector to the back of the case. Some aftermarket drive units 
force you to take the cover off the case to insert or remove 
the drive cable, but the J & M does not. 

An unusual feature is that the drive selection function is 
done by a jumper in the drive unit instead of by leaving out 
pins in the cable as Radio Shack does. The drive comes with 
a cable that has all the pins in place on both ends and doesn't 
have to be inserted only one way. (This cable has a connector 
for only one drive unit; if you get a dual-drive system, only 
one connector is needed because both drives share the con- 
nector on the board.) 

Instead of being mounted vertically as Radio Shack's 
CoCo drives are, the drive unit has the drive mounted horiz- 
ontally, so you insert a diskette with the label side facing up. 

The Disk Controller 

J & M's package includes their own disk controller pack, 
which plugs into the cartridge slot on the CoCo in the same 
way that Radio Shack's controller does. The controller will 
work on the Color Computer 2 as well as the earlier Color 
Computer and TDP System 100. It is well made, with gold 
contact fingers and an aluminum case. The controller even 
has four arrows to show which way to plug it in, a white line 
to show how far to insert it and a notice telling you to turn 
off the computer before unplugging or plugging the con- 
troller into the CoCo. It has no internal adjustments (unlike 
Radio Shack's controller, which has a few trimmers that 
require an oscilloscope for proper adjustment). 

JDOS — The Disk basic ROM 

Understandably, Radio Shack does not sell large quanti- 
ties of Disk BASIC ROM chips to other controller manufac- 
turers. Because J & M could not count on a steady supply of 



the R/ S ROMs, they decided to write their own Disk BASIC; 
while they were at it, they added a number of new 
commands: 

AUTO: This command (which is available on the Model I, 
III and 4 lets you enter BASIC program lines at a specified 
interval without having to type a line number each time. 
After you enter a line, the computer will go to the next line 
number automatically. 

DOS: This command (which Radio Shack included in the 
Disk BASIC I.I ROM. but not the 1.0) boots OS-9 from the 
system disk without having to run the boot program and 
change disks. 

DSKINI: This command was changed to let you format a 
disk in either Radio Shack's format or in a special format 
used by JDOS. For the JDOS format, you would type 
DSK INln.s.t, where n is the drive number, s is the number of 
sides ( I for a normal drive or 2 for a double-sided drive) and 
l is the number of tracks (35 or 40) that you want to use. You 
can't use a non-standard number like 37 or 43. however. 
ERL, ERR, ERROR: These functions (also inspired by the 
Model I / III/ 4) let you perform error trapping in a BASIC 
program, somthing that the CoCo normally can't do. ERL 
gives the line number in which the last error occurred; ERR 
returns a code that tells what the error was, and ER ROR lets 
you set up a branch to an error-handling routine. 

FLEX: This command boots FLEX directly, just as DOS 
boots OS-9. 

RAM: This command (which only works if you have a 64K 
computer) copies the BASIC ROMs into the second bank of 
RAM and switches to the 64K mode. 

RATE: Since J & M's drives (and others on the market) are 



TRS-80 COMPUTER DISCOUNTS 





COLOR COMPUTERS 

26-3026 16k color II 139.95 

26-3027 16k ext color II 189.95 

26-3127 64k color comp 210.00 

26-3022 1 st disk drive 329.95 

26-3023 2nd disk drive 229.95 

PRINTERS 

26-1271 DMP-110 299.95 

26-1254 DMP-200 510.00 

26-1255 DMP- 120 395.00 

26-1257DWP-210 629 95 

MODEL4andl00's 

26- 1067 mod 4 16k 829.95 
26-1069 mod 4 64k 2 dr. 1695.00 

26-3801 mod 1008k 699.95 

26-3802 mod 1 00 24k 839.95 



We Carry the Complete Line of TRS-80 
Computer Products at Discount Prices 

CALL FOR A FREE PRICE LIST 800-257-5556 
IN N.J. CALL 609-769-0551 

WOODSTOWN ELECTRONICS 

Rt. 40 E. WOODSTOWN, N.J. 08098 



April 1984 the RAINBOW 231 



capable of a faster head stepping rate, this command will let 
you change the step time to match your drives. The options 
are 30 ms (for Radio Shack drives). 20 ms. 12 ms and 6 ms 
(which works with the Tandon drive I mentioned). You can't 
set different step rates for each drive, so if you are using, say, 
one Radio Shack drive and one Tandon unit you can only 
use 30 ms. 

RUNM: This very nice feature lets you load and execute a 
machine language program from disk with one command; 
you can now RUNM"ZAXXON" instead of having to 
LOA DM"ZA XXONI BIN "■.EXEC. 

J DOS was originally written to provide the same BASIC 
commands as Disk BASIC 1. 1., using the Color Computer 
Disk System manual as a guide to the forms of the various 
commands. After J DOS 1.06 was released, a number of 
users told J & M that it would not accept a number of 
command forms that were not in the manual, but that Disk 
BASIC would accept anyway. J & M has released J DOS 1.07 
as a version that accepts all known Disk BASIC commands; 
as with all such guesswork, it's entirely possible that there 
are things about Radio Shack Disk basic that .1 & M hasn't 
found out about yet, so if you find that your favorite trick 
doesn't work, this may be the reason why. 

The most controversial aspect of JDOS is that it is an 
entirely new program, not merely a modified version of 
Radio Shack Disk BASIC. J & M says that programs using 
the DSKCON routine in ROM (which is patterned after the 



WANTED! 

Young men and women seeking adven- 
ture, excitement and thrill-a-minute ac- 
tion. No experience necessary— just you 
and your Color Computer. See below: 



FOR THE 32K TH 

ZAXXON, Disk or Cass. 
PROTECTOR II. Cass. 
DESERT PATROL, Cass. 
ICEMASTER, Cass. 
FOODWAR, Cass. 
WACKY FOOD, Cass. 
CASHMAN, Cass. 
CHOPPER STRIKE, Cass. 



RILLSEEKER 

DataSoft 
Synapse 
Arcade Anim. 
Arcade Anim. 
Arcade Anim. 
Arcade Anim. 
Comp. Shack 
Comp. Shack 



$29.95 
$29.95 
$21.95 
$21.95 
$22.95 
$19.95 
$24.95 
$24.95 



LOTS OF PLAY FOR 16K 

MOONSHUTTLE, Cass. DataSoft $26.95 

SHAMUS, Cass. Synapse $29.95 

FROG TREK, Cass. Oelrich $14.95 

3-D TIC-TAC-TOE, Cass. Oelrich $16.95 

Interested applicants send check or m/o to: 

OELRICH PUBLICATIONS 
4040 N. NASHVILLE 
CHICAGO, IL 60634 

Credit card orders, call: 800-621-0105 
(In Illinois: 312-545-9286) 



one in the R/S version) for all disk I/O calls will work. 
Programs that try to access undocumented machine lan- 
guage routines in Disk BASIC will not work because the 
routines are completely different. 

One program that just plain won't work, interestingly 
enough, is Telewriter-64. Even the new version (which uses 
DSKCON for all disk 1/ O) simply will not start up at all. 
When I called J & M, they told me that they and Cognitec 
had determined that the problem was in the way that 
Telewriter-64 is loaded into memory and set up for your 
particular machine's configuration; it seems to overwrite 
memory locations that JDOS uses internally. Since Cog- 
nitec and J & M could not overcome the problem, J & M has 
come up with another answer; they have arranged with 
Softlaw to include VIP Writer free with the purchase of a 
drive system (a drive unit, controller and JDOS). 

If you don't think that you can put up with the minor 
problems of JDOS. you can put something else in the con- 
troller's ROM socket. J & M told mc that the JFD-COCO 
controller will accept Radio Shack's disk ROM without any 
problems, and that they will sell their system with it in place 
of J DOS. You can even "burn" your own disk I / O program 
into an EPROM (a Motorola MCM68766 is the one that 
JDOS comes on) if you are proficient in 6809 assembly 
language and have access to a PROM programmer; if you 
are so inclined. J & M will sell you the system without JDOS 
for $20 less. 

The final question is whether the J & M system is a better 
buy than Radio Shack's drive system. That depends on a 
number of things. Radio Shack is now selling its drive 
system for S399.95. J & M sells its system (with one Tandon 
drive, JDOS and VIP Writer ) for S449. At first glance, it 
would appear that the J & M system costs about S50 more. J 
& M's system is capable of higher performance than Radio 
Shack's — if you use JDOS (or something else other than 
R/S Disk BASIC) as your operating system. With Disk 
BASIC, you will gel exactly the same operation from the J & 
M system as you would if you had a Radio Shack system to 
begin with. If you don't want a complete drive system, but 
only want a controller pack (to use with drives that you 
obtained separately), the J & M controller (with a Radio 
Shack ROM or with JDOS) may be easier to get than a 
Radio Shack controller by itself. 

It boils down to this: J & M's JFD-COCO with JDOS has 
more features, more disk space and faster operation; Radio 
Shack's package runs everything and is S50 cheaper (if you 
leave VIP Writer out of the equation). Everyone's needs are 
different, so what I would pick may be entirely wrong for 
another. With that, I leave the decision to you. 

(J & M Systems, 137 Utah N.E., Albuquerque. NM 87108. 
drive package, S449 including VIP Writer) 



DELUXE LEAPFROG 

Spectacular sound & graphics 
[j High score & reset features 
* Only 821.95 plus S2 shipping 

FREE 

BROCHURE! 

Just send a postcard with 
your name and address to: 

PHOTOGRAPHICS SOFTWARE 
114-41 Queens Blvd. 
16K tape. Uses joysticks. Forest Hills, NY 11375 




232 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



B 5 Software 



BS believes the Computer is a unique teaching tool and 
deserves quality software. Our programs are based on 
sound learning principles and moke learning fun. 



EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS 

c 0r l/Olir TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER* &TDP-100* 



ft 



CLOCK 






t 



with Extended Basic 




Grades 1-4. Helps children produce ratling lime, 
skill lavali: hour, qoorrer hour, 5 mmuie ond 1 minui 
IfltarvaU* Option* include reading hours ond mmuii 
separately on (ha lorga graphic rloc- wi rh synchri 
nued honds. Alrer 10 cofract onswa's o smoll mou* 
ascends le rha tuna ol Hrckory, Diekory, Dock. 
16K Coss $24.95 32K D> sk $26.95 



MONEY 



G 


oda 2-4 


. Pro.. da* 


en 


oppor 


unity 


to 


count coins 




5 


skill lavals ronga f 


om 


cOuni 


ng o 


"'r 


dimes, nick* 


s 


ond pann 
coins whi 


as to coun 
ch eon toio 


ing vorio 
mora the 


t* e 


>mb 

e d 


notion, ol C 
alio'. The pr 


II 


9' 


cm usas 


grophic CO 


ns. 


1' sariat 


of 


3 problems o 


• 




Iwirtd 


eorracrly o 


rockal oscend 


10 


the moon. II 


1 


16K Cass 


a meorrecr, 
$19.95 


(ha 

I6K 


rocbe 
Disk 


sfi" 


shes msteod. 
95 





BORROW 



t 



Grodas 2-4. A 

kills. Probl 



lamiorca sub'roc- 
imar- 



imi oppaor in lorge graph 
als. Small bo.es abowa (he numeroli oliow (or regrou- 
ping procodures. 7 skill (aval*. A hoppy race appears 
on (he screen -or eoch cOrrec* answer. Arte* 10 com- 
pleted problems, a Pac-Mon-type creotu 
numeral down. 
UK Con $19.95 32K Disk $21.95 



unthes o 



CARRY t 



Grades 2-4. A program designed (o help itudenit to 

procdce addition. Uses same loimat as Borrow. 4 skill 

levels. 

16K Coss $19.95 32K D- sk $21.95 



? ? 
QUESTION 1. 



Grade* 1-B. Asks questions wt(h multiple choice or 
true ond foise answers. Firs ony curriculum because 
you can input the questions ond answers. Graphic re- 
word is a blinking robot. Also designed (or use wi rh 
data topes. Printer use optional. 

16K Coss $19.95 32K D>sk $21.95 



MATHFACT 

Grade 1-5. Mot. 
4 moth operations 
(ho desired operoti 
hend. factor or di. 

presentation wirhir 
drills nmed and se 
• Ctty , students cor 
word. 

16K Coss $16.95 



t 



ores students to learn (heir lac(». All 
is are in the progrom. Student selects 
or ion then the desired addend. Subiro- 
sot, or then con request o miked 
eoch operorion. 2 skill levals, oil 
red. H all facts ore onswerad corf 
ploy o quick number game as a re- 

32K Disk $18.95 



HANGWORD & SCRAMBLE 

Grades 1*8. Presents 2 word games. Hangword is simi- 
lar to the old favorire, Hongmon. Blanks appear and 
studenrs guess leirers for the blanks. Wrong guesses 
build (he grophic disploy of (he word 'Sorry'. Scramble 
displays (he word wi(h (he letters scrambled. Student* 
guess (he word and spell it correctly. Input own words 
with (his progrom c purchase do(c (apes. See do(o 
(ape listing. Printer use optional. 
UK Coss $14.95 32K D.sb $U.95 



SPELLING 

Grades 1-8- Vary flexible os it allows you to input 
your own choice of words ond store (hem on rape files. 
You may also purchose dara tope* for (his program. 
See data tope listing. Weds flosh on the screen from 
.1 to 10 seconds, then student types the word. The 
score is given ofter each entry and (he s(uden( is 
reworded with a graphic display of words and o song. 
Pr.n(er use optional. 
UK Cass $16.95 32K D.sk $18.95 



KEYBOARD 



iiiiiimp 

1 ■■■■■■■■>■!] 



Grade* 1-6. Helps fam.l.anie student w* (h keyboard. 
A grophic keyboard enables utet ro locate keys quick- 
ly. Home keys are identified and proper fingering may 
be taught. Lessons ore built around olphobet, finger, 
word and sen(ence drills. At (he end a graphic reward 
ts given. 32K version has lengthiet dmed drills. Bo(h 
UK ond 32K versions can use data (apes for forth*' 
practice. See data tape listings. 
UK Cass $19.95 32K Coss $24.95 32K D- sk $26.95 



ABC'S 



..-;;-: K-l. The child types the letters in ».. olpho 
bet to the tun* ol the alphabet long. The reward it i 
graphic ond sound display. 
IllCt- $9.95 16K ,. SI). 95 



SKIP COUNTING 

Grades 1-4. Helps the child learn to count by l's, 2*1, 
5's. 10's. 100's, or an, number desired. The user sel- 
ects the parameters by giving the number lo count by 

id the beginning and ending number of each sequence. 

he student con practice ot whatever level needed. 
- grophic reword. 



Th 

ond eoch lesson - 

16K Coss $16.95 




Use with Keyboard Progrom 
KEYBOARD PHONIC DRILL - Lett.t. woro and sen- 
tence finger drills using common vowel ond consonant 
combinations. $8.95 

Use with Keyboard. Spelling oi Hongword Programs 
DOLCH WORDS - 373 words used most often ,n begin- 
ning reoders. SB. 95 

GRADE LEVEL SPELLING - Over 300 words on each 
tope. Eoch lesson lollows a phonic rule. Avoi labia in 
Grades 2.3.4,5 or 6 levels. $8.95 per grade level 

SPACE WORDS - Over 300 words to challenge and mo- 
tivote the superior speller. Grades 4-6. $8.95 



ADULT WORDS - Most c 
challenging. $8.95 

Use with Ouestioi 
NOUNS AND VERBS - 4 Ian 
verbs. Grades 3-5. $8.95 



READING COMPREHENSION - 
simple to complex. Grades 2-4. 

Mam Idea $10.95 

Sequencing $10.95 

Fact & Opinion $10.95 

Comr & Elfect $10.95 

Complete Series of 4 $39.95 



• sspelled words. Highly 

, Program 

r.s on nouns and 4 on 

Lessons build from 



rf^\ Ask your Dealer for a Demonstration today! 

BROCHURES UPON REQUEST 



RAINBOW 

CtflrifCATrO*. 
«Al 



"TRS-80 and COLOR COMPUTER 
are Trademarks of Tandy Corp 

1 * > ^ •♦♦■»a«oie>ee»oi*e- ■»♦■»♦ 



(614) 276-2752 



If unovoiloble locally, send check or money order to: 

B5 Software 

1024 BAINBRIDGE PLACE 
COLUMBUS. OHIO 43228 



Free Shipping in U.S.A. & Canada 

TOMI l\l! .'.I I 



ADDRESS . 

CM . 



. StATE . 



lOH Residents ado 5';'. Sales To. 



CLOCK 



MATHFACT . 
QUESTIONS 
MONEY 



SKIP COUNTING . 

HANGWORD 

SCRAMBLE 

CARRY 



KEYBOARD 

BORROW 

ABC's 



DATA TAPES 
KEYBOARD PHONIC DRILL 
DOLCH WORDS . 



nMl 



GRADE LEVEL SPELLING 

GRADE 2 • GRADE 3 • GRADE 4 
GRADE 5 • GRADE 6 

SPACE WORDS 

ADULT WORDS 



NOUNS AND VERBS 



READING COMPREHENSION 



SPELLING 



■ Mi- r an 



1 1 Al ORPI-r 




The only 
microcomputer 
synthesizer on the 
market that a user can 
PLAY! 



Hundreds of different 
voices! 



Turn your Color Computer into a musical instrument with no special hardware required except a 
TV or video monitor with an audio amplifier. Synther 77 is a complete digital Synthesizer in software! 
You can collect a whole library of music by saving your musical creations on cassette or disk. 

• Stored music may be edited. Change or delete 



Two octave keyboard with twelve octaves to 

choose from. 

User controls vibrato, bender, boing factor and 

volume level. 

User controls vibrato pattern, bender rate and 

attack mode. 

User modifiable attack, sustain, decay and 

release rates allow virtually any ASDR envelope. 

Fifty stops available. 
• Can be fine-tuned to match other instruments or 

other Color Computers. You could start a band! 
i Record music into memory as you play it. Nearly 

2000 individual notes may be stored in 32K. 

Autorecord allows you to play music until you 

like it and be sure that it is in memory. Standard 

record stores music until the buffer is full. 
■ Play your stored music back. Songs may be 

played once or continuously. 
> LOAD or SAVE stored music to cassette or disk 

for later playback. 



any note and single step through the music to 

find any mistakes made while recording. 

For the novice, play the keyboard like a piano. 

For the musician, control nearly every aspect of 

the sound! 

Solo synthesizer — optimized for one voice 

(just like most instruments and the Moog 

synthesizer). 

32K cassette s 27 95 32K disk 5 30 95 



, 



CoCo Cookbook 



• Can be used for 
ANY free- format 
filing system 
(not ]ust recipes). 
Try it for periodicals 
and article synopsis, 
product reviews, real 
estate descriptions,. 

• Store & retrieve a large number of recipes. 

• Up to 270 recipes on a single disk using a special 
compression technique. 

• Up to 3040 characters per recipe including title, 
ingredients, & instructions — all in easy to use 
"free form'" format. 

• Access each recipe by title, number, or with 
special keyword search (like all the recipes using 
"chicken"!). List on the screen or printer. 

• 50 recipes included FREE ! 

• Requires 32K and a disk drive. 

32K disk s 27 95 




THE COLOR CONNECTION 

Converts the Color Computer into 
a smart terminal. You can access multi-user 
systems like CompuServe. Videotext, and the 
Source — or single-user bulletin board systems 
— or just connect two CoCo's together. 

• 300 baud. 

• Supports auto-dial. 

• Full and half duplex. 

• Choice of 51 x 24 or 32 x 24 screen displays. 

• Menu driven — easy to use. 

• Buffer size (for uploading and downloading) is shown 
on the screen. 

• Reads and writes standard ASCII text files. 

• Upload and download protocol is user defineable. 

• Single key "macros" (often called programmed 
function keys) allow you to enter often used things 
like passwords and IDs with a single key. 

• All printable characters available at the keyboard 
and all control characters are supported including 
ESCape, RUB. DEL. etc. 

• User selectable anti-truncation features which will 
not allow a word to be broken when wrapping from 
one line to the next. 

• User selectable inverted screen — for either black 
letters on a light screen or light letters on a black 
screen. 

• Includes our "Introduction to Data Communications" 
tutorial at no additional charge. 

16K cassette s 34 95 32K disk 5 39 95 



■*^~V# ■ IWI MVVVll V WC Largest selection of CoCo Products from One Company! 
We also carry: Mark Data. Tom Mix. Frank Hogg. Botek, 
Kraft. WICO. Star Kits. Duggers Growing System. Amdek. A A AMM,/H^«M| AM >fc4f^4*% I 

Signalman, C. Itoh CompuServe. Comrex. Taxan, Gorilla. ^%\ .1 .HN Nl II lr^^ I ill 1 " 
Elite Software. Arcade Animation 8. More 1 Books Galore! **^ ^^ ^^ ^^ *^ ^^ ^^ ■ , »W »V»#^^ ■ 





DISK SYSTEMS 

Half-size drives at no additional charge! 

Our disk system uses top duality drives plus cable. 

controller, & manuall 

single drive, single-sided s 425°° 

single drive, double-sided s 475 00 

dual diives, single-sided s 650 00 

dual drives, double-sided s 750 00 
Amdisl; — new 3Vj" dual drives 

drives only s 499°° 

complete system s 665 00 

J + M SYSTEMS CONTROLLER BOARD 

for moie reliability & gold connectors! 
with J [OS s 135 00 

supports double-sided drives and 40 Iracks 

with RJJDOS s 155 00 



PRINTERS 




Gemini 10x 

w/interface s 419 95 
C. Itoh 8510 

w/interface s 459" 
Letter Quality Juki Printer 

w/interface s 595 00 
Botek Interface 

(parallel to serial interface) 



KRAFT JOYSTICK 

high performance with 
linear pots & switch selec- 
tion between self-centering 
or free-floating 



s 369 95 
s 409 00 

554500 

S 64 95 




WICO joystick adapter S 18 9 

(interface Atari type joysticks 
to the Color Computer) 



BUMPER STICKERS!! 



s 1 00 each 



ifMy CoCo 



$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ 

ATTRACTIVE AUTHORSHIP PROGRAM 

for independent programmers who want to turn 
software into cash! Call or write for details. 



VIDEO PLUS s 24 « 

interface for original CoCo and either a 
monochrome or color composite video monitor 



VIDEO PLUS II M 

interface for CoCo II and a monochrome 
composite video monitor 

VIDEO PLUS II C 



i monochi 



interface for CoCo II and a color composite 
video monitor 



s 26 fl 



S39 95 



VIDEO CLEAR for TV output 

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MONITORS 



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DISKETTES — Nashua brand — double-density 

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beginner to experts! Excellent ideas, hints, & reviews 

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Software Review! 



7S\ 



Colortac Checks 
Speedy Disk Drives 

Colortac is a rather straightforward program that per- 
forms exactly as advertised. This neat utility is a disk speed 
checker for the 32K Extended Color basic CoCo. You will 
remember from the disk drive specifications sheet that the 
drive is designed to rotate at 300 rotations per minute 
(RPM), plus or minus a small tolerance. So what? Well, 
depending on how much "out of whack" your drive is, you 
might not be able to initialize a disk, or in extreme cases, you 
might not be able to read from or write to the drive. Unless 
you take it to the repair center right away you may go crazy 
trying to figure out the problem. That is. unless you have a 
program like this one to pinpoint the problem. 

Obviously, a program like Colortac is only a diagnostic 
utility that is designed to allow you to catch any drive speed 
problem before it reaches the point where the drive is not 
usable. The name of the program is derived from Color 
Tachometer. 

When you run this BASIC" program, you are presented with 
the usual "title" page and then, after a brief pause, each letter 
on the title page is changed rapidly so that it displays all of 
the alpha, numeric and graphic characters, creating quite a 
display that lasts only a few seconds. Then you are asked 
which drive you want to check. You may choose drives zero 
through three. Once you have made a choice, you see why 
the tachometer variation is appropriate. The screen displays 
the drive that is being checked, displays a line graph with an 



FILEBOX/16 HOME FILING SYSTEM 

RID YOURSELF OF THOSE NUMEROUS PAPER FILES 
AROUND THE HOUSE. ENTER THE INFORMATION AGE 
WITH FILEBOX/16. THE HOME FILING SYSTEM FOR THE 16K 
COLOR COMPUTER. 

Create, change, update, delete, search, sort and list files you 
define. You don't have to be a programmer to use this system. 
For the TRS-80 Color Computer with 16K Extended BASIC and 
one disk drive. 

Applications are virtually unlimited. Use for address lists, car 
repair records, household inventories, book and record 
collections, tax records, etc. You can use FILEBOX/16 to print 
mailing labels This use alone is worth your purchase price. 

Each file you create can contain any number of records. Each 
record can contain up to 10 fields and 256 characters. Print 
records to screen or printer. 

FILEBOX/16 IS EASY TO USE. This is NOT a system which 
requires that you learn special keys and operations. It is 
completely menu-driven Has built-in lessons lo supplement the 
20 page loose-leaf User Guide 

FILEBOX/16 is written in BASIC with a machine language sort 
It uses efficient formatted direct access file logic contained in 8 
programs you control from a menu 

SPECIAL PRICE— Now only $29.90 

was S39.90 Plus S2.00 shipping 



New Jersey residents please add S1 80 lor sales tax 

Mail check or money order to 

CIRCLING STAR SOFTWARE CO 

PO Box 1218 

Freehold. NJ 07728 

Phone (201| 431-3660 alter 6 pm 

FILEBOX/16 1983 by Luke Watson 
TRS-80 is a trademark of the Tandy Corp 



/0% 

RAINBOW 



arrow pointing to the current speed, the current RPM. the 
average RPM. the highest RPM. the lowest RPM. the per- 
centage of error (compared to 300), the number of times the 
speed has been checked, a message telling you whether the 
speed is okay and a message that you can go back to the 
beginning and start on another drive by pressing [ENTER] 
or exit the program by pressing [SPACE BAR]. That 
sounds like a lot to be on the screen at one time, and it is. but 
it is displayed very neatly. Here's an example of how the 
screen looks: 

********COLORTAC******** 

DRIVE # I BEING CHECKED 



290 



295 



300 



305 



3I0 



RPM NOW 
AVG RPM 
HIGHEST 



299.52 
299.19 
299.56 



%ERROR 

ffCHECKS 

LOWEST 



0.16 
255 
298.35 



SPEED IS CORRECT 

HIT [ENTER] FOR PROMPT. 

HIT [SPACE BAR] TO QUIT. 

Each of the items is rewritten after each check so that it 
really does give the appearance of a tachometer. It appears 
that the program will continue to check the speed indeli- 
nitely; however, you are warned not to let the program run 
too long or the head and or disk may receive more than the 
usual amount of wear. This warning also applies to using 
[BREAK]. This will allow the drive to continue running and 



5^*ew 



TRS-80 COLOR BASIC 

by BOB ALBRECHT 

This entertaining self-instructional book is packed with 
games, experiments, scores of intriguing challenges, and 
activities related to fantasy role-playing games. The 
ideal introductory aid for kids, parents and teachers 
using the Color Computer. 

John Wiley & Sons $9.95 

605 Third Ave., New York, NY 10158 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER GRAPHICS 



(&W&^ 



by DON INMAN 

Explore the creative and imaginative blending of computers 
and color. This exciting book will enable you to explore 
all the graphics capabilities of Extended Color BASIC. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 

1 1480 Sunset Hills Rd., Reston. VA 22090 



ponced 



. 



ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE GRAPHICS 

FOR THE TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 

by DON INMAN and KURT INMAN 

This book is specific to the TRS-80 Color Computer with 
applications using sound and graphics to illustrate how an 
assembler can be used to perform feats that would be quite 
difficult, if not impossible in the BASIC language. 

Reston Publishing Company $14.95 



DYMAX, P.O. 310, MENLO PARK.CA 94025 

Dy max orders must be prepaid via check, money order, Visa 
or Mastercard. Sorry, no Purchase Orders or COD orders. 
Please add $2.00 shipping and handling. California residents ^^ 
add 6% sales tax. O? 



236 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



cause undue wear. To end the program, hit the [SPACE 
BAR] or just press the reset button. If the speed is greater 
than 298 but less than 302. you are told that the speed is 
correct; greater than 295.5 but less than 298 = speed too 
slow; less that 295.5 = much too slow; greater than 302 but 
less than 304.5 = speed too fast; and greater than 304.5 = 
much too fast. 

How useful is a program like Colorlac'! I must confess 
that I do not have a Radio Shack disk drive (mine are BASF 
6106 drives), so 1 called a Radio Shack repair center and 
asked about the incidence of drive failure due to speed 
problems. 1 was informed that it is a very rare occurrence but 
that it does happen. The technician told me that the RPM 
check is the first one that is performed when they calibrate a 
drive. How far off can the RPM be before you have read/ 
write errors? He said that the tolerance is almost 10 RPMs 
either side of 300. If you do find that the speed of your drive 
needs to be adjusted, what do you do? Colorrac ^distributor 
tells you to "refer to a service manual or find someone who is 
qualified to work with live electronics. "The advice is timely 
because the drive must be adjusted while it is running and 
the cover is off. Not only might you ruin your drive, you 
might also harm yourself from electrical shock. For those 
who are experienced, daring or just foolish, there is a picture 
on Page 294 of the November 1983 Rainbow of the Radio 
Shack drive with the cover removed and a diagram pointing 
out the location of the potentiometer that must be adjusted 
until the spinning register marks appear to stand still (the 
location of the register marks is pointed out also). All that is 
required is a small screwdriver, a fluorescent lamp and some 
patterns. 

The documentation for Co/or/ar consists of one8'/:"x 1 1" 



page that was typed on a RS Line Printer VI I. It's somewhat 
confusing initially because you are told to either run Color- 
lac in the normal manner or by using Menu. A directory 
check showed that, indeed, there was another program on 
the disk, entitled "Menu." No further mention is made of 
this program in the documentation and it was a real chore to 
figure it out. I finally listed the program and found that it is 
another utility program that reads the directory of a disk, 
displays up to 42 filenames on the screen and allows you to 
run, copy, rename, offset, kill, execute and find the address 
of ML programs by moving an indicator with the arrow keys 
and then hitting the first letter of the operation that you 
want to perform on that file. Later 1 found this program 
advertised for $24.95. So you can run Colorlac by running 
"MENU" first, then selecting Colorlac to run. I'm not sure 
why a sane person would want to do this, though. 

The documentation informs the user to check drives right 
after they are turned on (before they heat up). It is also 
suggested that the AVG RPM is the most accurate indicator 
of RPM. You are also told that you can change the drive 
being checked while the program is running simply by press- 
ing the number of the drive to be checked. If you select a 
drive that is not on-line, the program tells you "DRIVE #n 
IS NOT AVAILABLE." 

Colonac is an excellent disk drive speed checker. I feel it is 
modestly overpriced, but may be worth the cost to the 
hacker who will actually calibrate the drive if it needs it. 

(Sunshine Software, P.O. Box 15686. Panama Citv, FL 
32406, 32K Disk Extended BASIC $14.95) 

— A. Buddy Hogan 



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April 1984 the RAINBOW 237 



Software Reviewi 



r/xs 



MASTER DIRECTORY V2 

Can you find that program you saved last month? 
Do you have many diskettes with multiple copies 
and need to organize your life? MASTER 
DIRECTORY V2 to the rescue! In only seconds 
add each diskette to MASTER DIRECTORY V2. 
Now ask MASTER DIRECTORY to find that lost 
program. Can't remember the filename? Ask for 
all the files that begin with the letter "C" or ask for 
all files with an extension of BAS. 

What! Two files with the name CATS? Drats! Wait! 
The file on disk #5 was added on Oct. 5 and the 
file on disk #9 was added on Nov. 10. Hey 
fantastic! 

Now let's get back to work. Let's see DIR. Hey! 
How did the filenames get in sequence? Yes, 
MASTER DIRECTORY V2 will sort the directory 
and remove the null directory entries. It also saves 
a copy of the allocator and the directory to protect 
against those nasty disk errors. Listing may be 
directed to the TV or the printer. Over 100 
diskettes and 3000 filenames can be contained in 
one master directory. 

Buy MASTER DIRECTORY V2 for only $29 pp. 
Requires 32K DOS (1.0 or 1.1) 

DUAL CASSETTE COPY SYSTEM 

Allows the use of two cassette recorders. Only $49 pp. 

DISPLAY NOISE ELIMINATOR 

Easy to install. Does not violate COCO warranty. $14pp. 

SCRUNCH 

Removes spaces from basic programs. Saves 
memory and inproves speed. Only $3.00pp or 
FREE with any order. 

FREE CATALOG with order or send self addressed 
stamped envelope. 

Send check or money-order to: 

COCOPRO 

P.O. BOX 37022 

ST. LOUIS, MO 63141 

Postage paid on all pre-paid orders in U.S. 
Missouri residents add 5.625 percent sales tax. 

DEALER INQUIRES INVITED. 



Peek Into The MC-10 
With Microdis 



One way to look inside a computer without removing the 
cover is to use a disassembler. A disassembler is a program 
designed to examine the code stored in the computer's 
memory and decode it into the instruction called mnemonics 
used by assembly language programmers. It can all be very 
confusing if your only experience with microcomputers is 
limited to BASIC, but a disassembler can be a tool which 
helps break that barrier into the mysteries of machine code. 

Microdis is a disassembler written specifically for the 
MC-10 Micro Color Computer. The MC-10 requires a 
unique tool for disassembly because it uses a 6803 micropro- 
cessor which has a somewhat different instruction set (and 
capability) than that used with the 6809 found in the CoCo. 
Microdis is written in machine language and loads into the 
MC-10 using the undocumented CLOADM command. 
After typing EXEC, you are asked if you would like the 
disassembled output to go to the screen or to a printer. You 
must then provide the starting memory address for the 
disassembly. This is required in hexadecimal notation. 

The output of the disassembly, whether to screen or print- 
er, is several tabular columns of code. The first is the hex 
address, followed by hex data or instructions stored in that 
address, then the mnemonic instruction followed by the 
operand associated with the instruction. This output comes 
13 lines at a time to the screen, then pauses until you hit a 
key. Being written in machine language, Microdis does its 
work very quickly. 

Small size was an obvious design requirement for this 
program; Microdis achieves this admirably by occupying 
less than 2K of memory. Of course, with this small size, 
features which can be helpful in decoding a program have 
been left out. One useful feature missing is an ASCI I column 
which can be used to identify tables of text and data strings 
embedded in the code. 

The instructions for Microdis are somewhat sparse, par- 
ticularly considering that many of the potential users will 
likely be beginners. There is no description of the output 
format nor is there mention of where Microdis loads into 
memory (4400 to 4BFF). This is important to know to 
minimize conflicts with programs being disassembled. It 
also would have been useful to include a brief description of 
the 6803 instruction set and mnemonics. 

In summary. Microdis is a compact and fast program that 
provides BASIC disassembly of machine code for the Micro 
Color Computer. The very limited instructions, important 
for a program of this type, distracts somewhat from it's 
usefulness for beginners. This should not discourage a vete- 
ran programmer who may be looking fora small, fast BASIC 
disassembler for the MC-10. 

(Micro Ten Software Co., 496 Amboy Ave., Perth Ambov, 
NJ 08861, available on cassette for 4K MC-10, $19.95) 

— Tom Szlucha 



238 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



MASTER CONTROL II 

from Soft Secfor Marketing 

Cut Your Programming Time 50% - Improve Accuracy 




Master Control II 15 a machine language program designed to increase the speed in which tt takes to write basic programs 
by providing the most commonly used program statements with two keystrokes rather than having to type the entire com- 
mand The program is relocateable and can be placed anywhere n menory. normally the top 1616 bytes 0* RAM. it will work 
on 16K and 32K ststems 

• 51 preprogrammed command keys ol standard and extended 
basic commands 



| Direct control ol motor, trace and audio functions 

1 Relocatable machine code, now works with disc systems 

1 Automatic line numbering, starting point and increment are 

alterable 
1 Programmable custom «ey. you con select your own special 

function 



• Direct run key. run the program as you wnte <t 

• Plastic keyboard overlay for easy program use 

• Easy entry of commands into 
program statements 

• New complete, easy to understand 



instruction manual 



Only 



$ ig .95 



E.T.T. 

ELECTRONIC 

TYPING 

TEACHER 

by 

CHERRYSoft 




Learning to type the right way can save you hours of tedious 
work when entering programs into your CoCo, and this is |ust 
what ETT was designed to do. Devote a little time every day 
practicing with ETT and before you know it you will be typing with 
confidence. Entenng those programs will no longer be the chore 
it used to be. 

ETT's viedo keyboard lets you practice with all the keys labeled, 
all the keys blank or only the "home" keys labeled. The visual cues 
guide you while you learn to type without watching your fingers. 
ETT shows your accuracy, response time, and words per minute. 
You will quickly see that you are improving with practice. 

With the sentences provided by ETT learning to type can be 
fun, over 1000 variations, chosen because they include every 
letter in the alphabet You can also create your own practice 
sets. This outstanding program was written by a certified 
teacher and professional programmer and comes with a ten page 
student manual-study guide. Requires 1BK Extented Basic. 



ELITE-CALC 
Th • Color Computar Workahaot 
Calculator Program You Hava 
■aan Waiting For!! 

EUTE-CALC is a powerful, lull featured 
worksheet calculator for your Color 
Computer The all machine language 
program wiH help you answer "what r 
questions, prepare reports, maintain 
records and perform other tasks. Has 
all the features you want. Individual cell 
formulas. Copy blocks of cells. Full cel- 
edit capability. Sorts. Graphs. Easy to 
use Works with all printers Compre- 
hensive manual and sample worksheets 
included. A serious tool for those who 
want to do more than play games. 



Available on 
• D 
for only 

ELITE Software available ■ 



Tape or Disc $EQ 95 



Dealer Inquiries Invited - Cassette 



•21.91 



Tl MS by Sugar Software 

Tape information Management System 

A powerful, personal database manager 
that is easy and enjoyable to use Just 
drop the cassette into your tape re- 
corder and toad into your computer 
TIMS starts up automatically with 
prompts that will have you up and run- 
mng in minutes without any uncertain- 
ties about what to do next. Here is an 
electronic hie box with 1 toSuserdehne- 
able categories. Great tor maintaining 
mailing lists, rosters, stamp or coin col- 
lections, etc. The documentation in- 
cluded with TIMS is excellent. On the re- 
verse side of the cassette you get 
another copy which allows you to modify 
the program to suit your special require- 
ments or modify for disc operation 
Order your copy of TIMS today and get 
things organized the easy way. you'll love 
al Requires Extended Basic. 
32K Recommended. 
Cassette S24.95 



**CqjCo 
^Waiehouse 

Where Shopping By Mail is "USER FRIENDLY" 

500 N. DOBSON - WESTI.AND, Ml 48185 

Phone (313) 722-7957 



WRITE FOR OUR 

FREE CATALOG 

HOWTO ORDER BY MAIL; For prompt and courteous 
shipment SEND MONEY ORDER. CERTIFIED CHECK 
CASHIERSCHECKMASTERCARD/VISAOncludecard 
number. Inter-bank No., exptrarton date and signature) 
PERSONAL AND BUSINESS CHECKS MUST CLEAR 
OUR BANK BEFORE PROCESSING Shipping and pack- 
aging charge of $2 50 minimum must be added to all 
orders tn continental US (Canadian orders $5.00 mini- 
mum). Michigan residents Include 4% sales tax 10% 
deposit required on CO D orders 

NO REFUNDS ON SOFTWARE 




O CD 

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BLOC HEAD 



Q-BERT never looked so good! 
You guide Bloc Head from cube 
to cube, changing the brightly 
colored surfaces while dodging 
the despicable characters they 
try to push hirn off. He must clear 
the cubes to go to the next skill 
level. Requires 1 6K. 

Caaaatt. "SB. 98 




JUNIOR'S REVENGE 

The same Junior you've seen in 
the Kong arcade series. This 
young but tireless little ape must 
overcome four screens of 
obstacles to rescue his father. 
The King, from mean old Luigi. He 
will traverse the jungle & the 
swamp, climb vines, avoid vine 
gators, dodge Zuzu birds, open 
locks & finally conquer Luigi's 
hideout before he finally frees his 
daddy. Requires 32K. 

Caaaatt. «28. 95 



ADVENTURES IN 

WONDERLAND 

from Prioklv-Paar Software 
A fantasy world peopled with the crea- 
tures of Lewis Carroll's imagination 
"Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". 
"Through the Looking Glass', and "The 
Hunting of the Snerk" have been blended 
into a delightful landscape You will play 
the role of Ahce as you wander through 
the garden of live flowers, the treacher- 
ous Tugley Wood, the chessboard land- 
scape, the wabe and all the other familiar 
Wonderland scenes 
The program has a vocabulary o* hun- 
dreds of words and uses a full ELIZA type 
intelligence. Machine Language 32K 

Cassette S24.95 

Diao S29.95 

All PRICKLY-PEAR Software available 



THE FACTS 

For Tha Color Computar 

A must book for the Color computer owner! 
The first document to provide information 
that will allow the user to take advantage of 
all the features of the Color Computer 
Aimed at the machine language user 
The FACTS attempts to explain, and de- 
scribes is detail, how the user can make 
use of the computers internal features. 
Divided into two sections. Hardware and 
software, the pnmery emphasis is on hard- 
ware capabilities and crcuits Provides de- 
tailed explanations of all the internal large 
scale integrated circuits Includes sche - 
mauc and spec sheets. 166 pages Order 
your copy today) - - _ .. 

ONLY 1 2" 



Software Review! 



r7£\ 



Harness/ Thoroughbred 
Handicapper Is Good Trainer 

I have long been a person who would be willing to make a 
bet almost any time — especially when 1 thought I would 
have the advantage. I reviewed all three programs in Rain- 
bow on blackjack, a specialty of mine. I play blackjack and 
poker as often as possible. One of the reasons that 1 did not 
usually bet on the horses is that 1 did not know what to do to 
get the maximum opportunity of winning. Like their Black- 
jaq program, the two Handicapper programs from Federal 
Hill Software give the novice in a "game of chance"a chance 
of survival. 

The Handicapper programs are two separate programs, 
one of which has the means to rate the horses in a harness 
race and the other in a thoroughbred race. These two pro- 
grams are similar and require the I6K CoCo. There is a 
version on one side of each tape for the Standard basic 
version and on the other side for the Extended BASIC ver- 
sion. The only difference between the sides is the Extended 
BASIC version has a little graphics and music at the start up. 
After I had used these programs for a few times. I tended to 
use the Standard BASIC version which starts up a little 
quicker without this introduction. 

The documentation for these programs is above average 
for appearance and clarity. When 1 first started to read 
them. 1 found that I knew even less about racing than 1 
thought 1 did. To find the data required by these programs 
you need a paper like the racing form for the thoroughbred 
version. Some of the big city papers may also have sufficient 



OUR 



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JUST FOR KIDS 



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Color Computtr (1SK Exfndtd Color Bailc). 

■ FOftGEJUE-NOT MAIL MYNOCA Nmr toraat a Mand. HWi Mil 
Myndar you can update Your marling M quickly, feu'* MM M abkt to 
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"data." The papers for the harness version were not avail- 
able in my town, therefore, most of the results obtained to 
date are for the thoroughbred races. 

Being rather naive about this game. I thought that all you 
had to do for a racing form was go down to the local 
newsstand and pick one up. That might be true in your town, 
but in Reading, Pa., it ain't so easy. I started out one 
Christmas vacation day about 1 1 a.m. on my quest. After 
going from one suggested place to another (and getting 
deeper and deeper into the seamier side of Reading) I con- 
cluded that this was a popular sport! Perhaps not the sport 
of kings, but very popular. The racing forms get to most of 
the newsstands about 9 a.m. and are all sold out by about 
10:30 a.m. There is obviously a story here waiting to be 
written which is outside of this review. 1 took to leaving 
money in advance for my papers rather than get up almost at 
dawn (which is 9 a.m. during a vacation). 

When you are armed with your first set of "data, "you are 
ready to begin. At first glance I was a little confused as to 
how to enter some of the items. The solution to this was 
simple. 1 read the documentation. This tells you not only 
how to bet but when not to. 

There is a total of 13 items to be entered in order for the 
program to score a horse's rating in the next race. Included 
in these are: time at the half mile of the last race for this 
horse; the time at the finish; and, if this horse did not win, the 
distance behind the winner. After a little practice, it took less 
than 10 minutes to enter these data on the most promising 
horses. When you are finished, the computer quickly lists 
the horses and their rating. While what you will do about 
these data is left up to you, it is suggested that you bet the 
highest scoring horse to win and place (that is for first and 
second positions). If your horse wins, you win both bets: and 
if your horse comes in second, you win the second bet which 
will about break you even. 

Now the results! For the 42 races which 1 handicapped. I 
ended up with a modest win. In addition. 1 ended up much 
better than my own picks or a random pick of the races. The 
random pick was better than my effort because it picked one 
long shot, but did much worse than this program. Remem- 
ber, the law of averages is a long war. indeed. The 42 races I 
used for this test is much too small a sample to determine the 
actual odds using these programs. Unlike blackjack, where 
the actual odds are possible to calculate (although the calcu- 
lation is a very long one), there are too many variables in 
racing to ever calculate the true odds. It docs appear that 
these programs are a useful aid to the racing fan. I know that 
I will use them in the future and will be going to more races 
in the future and not just on paper like these were. 

One of the good features of this program is the listing of 
clues of when not to bet. Several examples: don't bet on 
horses in low-priced races or any horse on a wet track. If you 
eliminate as many of the races as you should, you will be 
betting only about half of the races. This will take will 
power. It would be easier if you can bet in some of these 
horse parlors — either some of those legal ones called OTB 
in New York or some of the other kinds. If you know of such 
a place near Reading. Pa., please write me with an address. 
All of those missing racing forms must be going somewhere! 

Federal Hill Software, 825 William St., Baltimore, MD 
21230, 16K bask for either the Harness Handicapper or the 
Thoroughbred Handicapper, $24.95 tape, S29.95 disk. Both 
programs $30.95 tape or disk) 

— Tom Roginski 



240 



the RAINBOW April 1984 



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Software Review! 



r/s\ 



Investigate Higher Math Skills 
With Integral Calculus 

Radio Shack's newest entry in its "Secondary Level Math 
& Science" series. Investigations in Integral Calculus, does 
an excellent job of introducing important concepts of inte- 
gration. For those of you who have forgotten your calculus, 
or perhaps never took it. the integral of a function f(x) from 
A to B is the area under the graph of y = f(x) above the 
x-axis. from x = A to x = B. 

Investigations in Integral Calculus is an innovative ap- 
proach to teaching calculus. Guided by a set of carefully 
prepared worksheets, students run a computer program, 
and discover important facts about calculus. 

The program is of the high quality we have come to expect 
from Radio Shack. The student starts by entering the func- 
tion to be analyzed. To do this, he or she types a BASlc-style 
function definition, like Y = SIN(SQR(X12-8)). For stu- 
dents who don't know BASIC, the manual gives complete 
explanations of how to write function definitions, and 
numerous examples. For beginners, this can be a useful first 
step in learning BASIC. 

After entering the function, the student selects the lower 
and upper limits of integration and the number of intervals. 
This last determines the accuracy of the calculations. After a 
pause for calculations, the program displays a high resolu- 
tion graph of the function, and the approximate value of the 
integral. The program then displays a menu, offering the 
choice of changing the limits of integration, changing the 
function to he analyzed, re-drawing the graph, or terminat- 
ing the program. 

The program calculates the approximate value of the 
integral by using the Trapezoid Rule. With this method, the 
area to be approximated is filled in with trapezoids (rectan- 
gles with triangles on top). Since the area of a trapezoid is 
easy to calculate, it's relatively easy to calculate the areas of 
all the trapezoids, and so the approximate value of the area. 
The number of trapezoids used is the same as the number of 
intervals selected by the student, and naturally the larger the 
number of intervals the more accurate the approximation. 

The program works very well, and is well-documented 
and easy to use. The trapezoid rule calculations can be time 
consuming, however. The calculations for one example in 
the manual required over two minutes. Fortunately, a blink- 
ing cursor lets you know your calculation is progressing 
during these long program runs. 

There are two minor problems with the program that 
should be corrected in the next version. First, one of the 
worksheets asks the student to calculate an integral repeat- 
edly, just varying the number of intervals. Unfortunately, 
the program menu doesn't offer "change the number of 
intervals" as one of the choices. The choice "change the 
domain"allows the student to select the number of intervals; 
this should have been explained in the manual. The second 
problem occurs if the student makes a syntax error in defin- 
ing the function to be analyzed. When this happens, the 
program stops and gives an appropriate error message. 
Unfortunately, the computer is now in lowercase mode, so 
the student must type [SHIFT] [O] before typing RUN to 
restart the program. This isn't explained anywhere in the 
documentation, and it really should be, since failure to shift 
can lead to a frustrating series of SN Errors. 

242 the RAINBOW April 1984 



Along with the program you get a notebook with instruc- 
tions for running the program, and a set of 14 investigations, 
in worksheet form, which use the program to explain impor- 
tant concepts of integral calculus. The first investigation 
explains the idea of integration, and explains how the 
Trapezoid Rule is used to approximate areas. The program 
is used to demonstrate the effect of increasing the number of 
intervals. The next 1 1 investigations lead the student to 
discover the basic rules for evaluating integrals: integrating 
powers of x. sines, cosines, exponentials, and linear combi- 
nations. The two final investigations give a summary of the