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Z€fllRND'S WRSONfit -GOMPUTisn MRGflBNC 




November 1983: SI. 25 




irdware reviews 

^ P roteus 

Casio PB 1 00 

^| hand-held 

Cromepbo C-10 



/ 



Micro mouse 
competition 




Reader survey 




;•■ 



.V* 



s*» 






o«^\© 




CREATIVE COMPUTER 
Why your family will want one 
. . . or two! 



No hidden costs! $775 buys you EVERYTHING including carrying case to connect the M5 to your std TV 
and cassette recorder. Included are BASIC-G and FALC Cartridges to start you off in the computer world 

For the first time, sophisticated 1 6-colour animation and sound-effects are EASILY accessible via SORD's unique BASIC-G- 

32 User-definable shapes (^sprites") allow you to create complex animation and games, complete with sound-effects and 

music from a 3-channel, 6-octa\re sound generator. The BASIC-G cartridge includes 4K of additional user memory. 

Homework, budgeting and record-keeping can be done with the FALC information processor cartridge. Use single-key 
commands to enter, sort, search, calculate and graph any information you wish — withoul programming! 

Numerous games cartridges instantly provide arcade-style entertainment — even more 1un with the optional foypads! 
Game tapes are tremendous value wilh a wide variety of full colour/sound games available - two per tape! 

As your needs grow, so will the M5. Other programming languages, games cartridges and tapes can be added, as can 32K 
of memory, an RS-232 interface, a fully-supported graphics printer and 1 60K microfloppy disk drives. 

The SORD M5 Creative Computer has unmatched features and maximum flexibility at an affordable price! 





M5 STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS 


CPU: 


ZBQA (3.6MHz) wilh Z80ACTC 


Colour TV Onlpiit: 


16 Colour PAL Video & Sound 


Video Controller: 


TMS9916A{256x 192 resolution; A screen 


BJW Video Output: 


For B/W TV or monitor 




modes Including -10 x 24 text mode; 32 


Audio Output: 


For optional speaker 


Sound Generator 


User-deli nable spritos) 
SN76489A 3 channel, 6 octave wilh 


Cassette Recorder 
Interface: 


2000 bils'second with remote conlrol 




"enveloping" and noise generation 


Printer Interface: 


Centronics-lype parallel 


ROM: 


SK monitor (up to 1 6K extra lr cartridges) 


Joypad Interfaces: 


2 Joypsds available separately 


Video RAM: 


iGK(User addressable) 


Cartridge Socket: 


For plug-in software (ROM & RAM) 


User RAM: 


4K (Up lo 32K exlra in cartridges) 




cartridges, and expansion Options 


Keyboard: 


55 key typewrite' layout. 8 shift modes 











• vezgr 



;o<k^ 



ORDER NOW 

FOR 

CHRISTMAS 



„^>?> 






c^>S** 



^ 




BITS 6 BVTES 



November, 1 983 Vol.2, No.3 



ISSN 01 1 1 982C 



FEATURES 



Which portable to buy? 

A round up, complete with comparison chart, of some of the portable 
microcomputers on sale in (Mew Zealand: the Osborne, Access, 
Attache, Kaypro2. and Pied Piper. 

Hardware reviews: 

The first review of the New Zealand made Proteus 

The Casio PB100 hand-held 

The Cromomco C-10. a small business machine with an attractive 

price lag 

Mousing around: 

Wellington microcomputer enthusiasts am sending out the challenge 

to find the fastest micromouse in the land. 

Family: 

Pat Churchill tolls how her young children take to having a micro in 

the home. 

Japan: 

Our new correspondent in Tokyo reports on a computer bun s 

shopping dream - Akihabara. 



12 
16 

18 



33 



54 



34 



Conference: 24 and 26 

Shaync Doyle and Pat Churchill report items ol interest to the 
microcomputer world from the Computer Society's National 

Conference. 



Education: 

Larry Nelson on literacy versus awareness and the washing machine 

argument. 



COLUMNS 



The IBM in New Zealand 

BBC — the sound envelope 

VIC coping with the POKE instruction 

Commodore 64 the IEEE bus 

2X81 - programs 

TRS80/System 80 Cassette word processors 

Spectrum - Graphics and a game 

Apple — The Arcade Machine 



20 



REGULARS 


Advertiser index 


60 


Glossary 


Book reviews 


57 


Letters 


Book Club 


47 


Micronews 


Classifieds 


60 




Club contacts 


58 





59 



Win a hand-held! 

Help us, and perhaps win a prize. 

The middle four pages of this issue contain a questionnaire. If you 
take a few minutes to fill it in and return it you'll help us improve Bits & 
Bvtos, and your name will po put in a draw to decide rhe winner of a 
531 1 Hewlett-Packard financial calculator. 




Portable computers . 



, 8 



lii 


UUBO 
DDDD 
DDOi 
DDOD 


.vi -i^ ju ju ■_ n, Li, 
3 :i ^^juuJUJkiJrVis 
©cp<5 SrSiiJivjEEuid; 



Casio PB 100 16 




Proteus 



.- 12 




Cromemco C-10 18 

BITS & BYTES - NovemtHi. 1983 - 1 



BITS &-BYTES is published monthly, 
Qxcepi January, by Weill Birss. Dion 
Crooks and Paul Crooks. 

Head office - first floor. Dominion 
Building, 91 Cathedral Square, 
Chrisichuich. Postal address: P.O. 
Box 827, Christchiirch. N.Z. 

Telephone: 66-666. 



Advertising 

Coordinator — Paul Crorxs. telephone 

66-566, Christchiirch. 

Representatives — 

Auckland: Wendy Whiicheao. telephone 

50*649 Iwi, 545-328 lh>. Box S34, 

Auckland. 

Wellington: Marc Hevniimn. telephone. 

858-481 or 721-644.. P.O. Box 27 205. 

Wc-lingion. 



Editorial 

Editor — Neill Birss. P.O Box 827, 

Cif stchurch 

Representatives — 

Auckland: - Cathy and Sc-lvuyn Arrow. 

30A Bracken Ave., TokapunB. 

Wollinylon: 

■Shay no Doyle, 18 Hoidswoilli Ave., Upner 

Hull, Toiophono 280-333 exr. 892 <w), 

278-545 lh>. 

Pal Churchill, 5 Luck now Torraco, 

Klumrioltnli. tolop-hono 797-193 (hj. 



Merchandise 

Book club iir<! soltwwo mnnaanr. oon Crooks 



Subscription 



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Distribution 

Inquiries: Hookatinps Gordon .iikI Gotcn. LlO. 
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Disclaimers 

OPINIONS: Tho views of reviov.ers ond otier 
carunbutois are not nocsMflnly st>aied bv I l)o 

publitharc. 

COPYRIGHT: All article* and picgmms printed In 
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Production 

Pioducftlon Manager: 0>on Crooks. 

Assistants: Roae> B'owning, Grniniu.- PBltQlBon, 

Cover and jjt aphics: Sally Williams 

Technical editor: Chi'w O'DonuyKue. 

Tyaitsettiny: hOCfll Point. 

Printed in DuiKKin i t:v .Ml vJ P<- >■ . 



MICRO N€UJS 



::-■■ ■.:■■ ::'". \-. r >- '-- ■■ 



Tax crumbs 
from the 
Government 



Tho changes to the computer 
sales tax, announced on the eve of 
this edition of Bits & Bytes going to 
press, are, or the face ol it, 
disappointing for microcomputer 
users. 

Farmers wil now gel their 

machines with a tax of 10 per cent 

rather lhan 40 per cent. Others to 
benefit include businesses in 
manufacturing, fishing, building, 
transport, communications, and 
research and scientific instjlutuos. 
Because tha sales tax is applied 

at wholesale level, the effect is 
hard to predict, but one distributor 
has said (hat a system selling for 
S65O0 might now soil to a farmer 
for $5300. 

The change does show that Mr 
Hugh Templelon, Ihe Minister of 
Trade Industry, has at least 
wrenched one concession out of a 
Cabinet that is said to have told 
him there wo.ild be no reduction in 
the computer tax unless he came 
up with an alternative, acceptable 
way of raising The foregone 

revenue. 

The bright spot for 0rrs & Bytes 
readers who do not fit into the new 
low-tax categories is that the 
classifications are fuzzy al the 
edges and wil provide many 
headaches fc the administering 
Customs Department. There will be 

increased pressure for an over-all 

reduction in the 40 per cent tax. 

What happens when a firm 
making wooden letter boxes 
decides to run its business package 
on a low-tax nicrocomputer? 
Should the la:ter-hox maker pay 
less tax on the micro that runs his 
spreadsheet iirograrn than his 
accountant does for a machine to 
run the same program? Should the 
letter-box ma<er*s children get a 
cheaper machine than the 

employee's children next door? 

Users, enthusiasts, parents, and 
everyone who sees how imperative 
it is to have £ broad computer 
literacy in the country, must keep 

battering awcy, with Mr Templeton, 
against the rrental wall of old 
politicians who are holding the 
nation back. 

- The editor 



Osborne's problem 

Sirius- Systems, the New Zealand 
distributor of tho Osborne, is 
undertaking to provide on-going 

service and support for Osborne 
users, wifh news of Osborne's 
financial problems in America. 

Auckland sources suggest that 
Osborne has taken an Americar 
option of filing a petition for 
bankruptcy hut still hoping to trade 

its way out of trouble. There are also 

suggestions that the Osborne may 

be made under licence in another 
country. 

Meanwhile, Sirius Systems 
emphasises that support in New 
Zealand will not be affected. 

Sega from Japan 

Grandstand Leisure, previously 
mainly in the arcade-games 
business, seems set to become a 
force in microcomputer distribution 
in New Zealand. 

As welt as Texas Instruments, it is 
handling the Soya, from Japan. 

Soga is the brand name of a 
Japanese firm big in world arcade 
games, and one of the main sales 
points for the Sega soon going on 
sate is that many of the parent firms' 
arcade games hove been or will be 
transcribed tor it. 

The basic machine has good 
colour graphics and will be a 
competitor in the VIC-20 and 
VZ-200 range. The Sega's New 
Zealand selling price is $399. The 
machine is Z80>based. 



Franklin 

The New Zealand distributor, 
Hitech Micro, disputes the report 
tMicfonows, Bits St Bytes, October! 
that Apple has nearly won an 

injuction against Franklin. In fact, the 

position is that the United States 

Federal Appeal Court lias required a 

lower court to again review certain 
points of law, Franklin has told its 
distributors in a telex message. 
Franklin says its business has not 

been affected in any way. It says it 
had record sales in September. 

Franklin now employs more than 
500 people and has more than 1000 
dealers throughout tha United 
States. 

Sinclair printers 

The moist days of an English 
summer have brought to light one 
particular shortcoming of the cheap 

Sinclair printer ... its paper is highly 

sensitive to humidity. High humidity 
fades the printout. Sinclair's advice: 
photo-copy anything important. 



2 - November, 1983 - HITS 6t BYTES 



NOW N 
* WGCT \ 



DON'T BUY A 
COMPUTER 

until you 
see the 
Incredible 

VZ200 

Been tempted by acis for personal computers but turned off when you 
looked at the price? Loo-< no further! Dick Smith introduces the most 
important breakthrough h computer technology ever in the history of 
New Zealand. The Dick Smith VZ 200 . . . 




Cat X-7200 



DICK 
SMITH 



Full Function 
Colour vvvtf 

Computer &f 
for only . 



*k 



% 




Your whole family will be enjoying 
computing from the very first minute. 
And because the VZ 200 uses the world 
famous Microsoft BASIC language, It's 
easyto understand and makes learning 
computing fun. 



PP $5.50 



CM W% lor Mail OideK) 



If you're tempted 

by features 

look at these: 

• nil BE memory tnDullt 
r*ceedlC"0 vaiuo 'c irvo'»ev wtion 
com(XJied to olhor compXGK 

• Jus) plug tf in 

worts with any standard IV sot No 
oxpensiwa monilo* to buy. 

• Easylouso, easy to understand 
ineludec in Iho low. low pnce are 
two mci'iuals. o <j!omonstfa--Dr 

tyagranns! 

Look at these options: 

16K Memory Col X ??0i> 

Expansion Module , . . . S1 1 9' ' 'SL 
was s4-ra-5Qv Ji >j0'-0* 

Printer Interface Col X 7210 

Moavrto . SB9 ~ •< 

WA.5 t9» Sjye S3Q.QO 

Data Coisetw itrxmr 

S99' '• '.!»m 

was Haw eo Savc.>3i>.oo_ 



Atempting range 
of software. 

Games 

Matchbox ... .. Col X- 7231 

Pokei Cat X- 7232 

Blockjack Cat X- 7235 

Hangman Cat X- 7233 

Slol Machine-Knock oil' Russian 
Roulolto CalX- 7234 

Circus CalX- 7236 

BiorhyShnvPoIr Mclcfiing. 
Coiondai . Co" X- 7237 



Educational 

Statistics 1: 

Statistics II: ... 
MctriX 

tennis losson'Goti 
lesso*** , 



. Cat X 7251 

. Cat X- 7252 

Cat x-7253 

. Cat X ?25d 



DICK SMITH Electronics 



WW 



Financial 

Portfolio Manaqemen? 

... CatX-7261 

Discounted Casn Flow 

Analysis Cat X- 7702 

Financial Rolk> 

Analysis Gal X- 7263 

all one price 
jDnlvi'jO 50 

SAW was each 

$ 10 "* 



Newmarket: 98 Canton Gore Ra 1 Telephone* 504 409 
Avof>dale:-1795 Great North Rd. Telephone: 88a 69a 
Papatoeroe: 26 East Kafnoki Rd. HEW ST0M 
Telephone 278 2355 HOW OPHff 

Mail Orders: Private Bag. Newmarket. osc.woac'WA 



Spoedy Moil Ordor Service 

J ml iil'on* Autki.mil fiO-1 409, ■■> fq 

VUI Or<1or& and quota Minor yew 

BanMCiirdui VisaceM N<-. tf iiuniK*orwi 
'-t< live i mined i.i h: ladmilion 
tCaltecl calls ""J »«'-("<■<'» 




BITS & R v ~n$ N0'."-?i'^--r. \$P3 



MICRO N€UJS 



■•'«"■ i'*.t,t'f,t. 



International 
chain still 
coming to N.Z. 

The big international computer 
chain, Computerland, still intends to 
open three stores in New Zealand 
early next year, reports Paul Crooks 
after a recent visit to Australia. 

The managing director o 
Computerland Australia, Mr Darryl 
Rudolph confirmed that the stores 
would "delinitely" be established 
before the middle of next year, 
probably in Auckland, Wellington 
and Chrisichurch. 

The long-term plan is to open six 
stores, concentrating on selling 
business computers, including such 
well-known brands as IBM, Digital 
and Apple. 

With more than 500 stores world- 
wide, including 18 in Australia. 
Computerland has considerable 
purchasing power, and Mr Rudolph 
indicated thai the computers it will 
sell in New Zealand will ho 
"competitively priced" 

The entry of Computerland to the 
New Zealand market seems certain 

to shake-up existing business 
computer dealers. 

Mr Rudolph reported a number of 
inquiries from New Zealawlcrs 

wishing to acquire o franchise (all 
Computerland stores are 

independently owned, and a 
franchise is reported to cost 
$35,000, plus 8 per cent ol profits). 
But home-computer dealers may 

also be allected later as 
Computerland last year began 
opening home- computer stores 

called Computerland Satellites in the 
United States. 

VZ200 price reduction 
The retail price for the Dick 

Smith VZ200 has been officially 

lowered to $299 (previously 

$349) from this month, although 
this has been the ruling price in 
Christchurch at least for several 
weeks. 




' The Texas InstnuTiernii TI-99 



Tl agent 

Texas Instruments Australia has 
appointed Grardsland Leisure (P.O. 
Box 2353, Auckland) to distribute 
the TI-99/4A. home computer in New 
Zealand. 

It will be available from this month 
and cost $895 

Probably tlie most intriguing 

aspect of the Tl 99 is its 16-bit 

processor (Texas Instruments' own 

chip). It was o'iginally introduced in 
late 1979 although it has 

undergone several changes since 
then. 

However, tne most significanl 
aspect of the TI-99 is thai, unlike 
most other computers now 
appearing in New Zealand, a large 
range of software is already available 

for it. 

More than 2000 programs am on 

cartridge, cassette or disk. Some 
games cartridges (cartridges plug 
into a slot noxt to the keyboard!! will 
noi be available in New Zealand, a I 
least initially because of customs 
regulations. 

Also included in the base unii are 

cassette {plus cables! and video 

ports, 16K of till user RAM and 26K 
of ROM containing Tl BASIC and 
interpreter, etc. 

Expansion is by way of a 
peripheral expansion box which can 
house up to soven peripheral cards 
including memory expansion card 
(adds 32K ol RAM). RS 232 
interface card for a printer or 
modem, and a disk controller card 
which can run three disk drives 
(room for one is included in the 
expansion box!. 



l 



COMPUTER OWNERS 

WE WILL MARKET YO UR SOFTWARE IN N.Z.. AUSTRALIA AND THE USA 

ANY ORIGINAL APPLICATION OH GAMES PROGRAM WILL BE 

CONSIDERED. 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION WRITE TO: 

THE REMARKABLE SOFTWARE COMPANY LIMITED. 

P.O. BOX 9535, HAMILTON. N.Z. 



Microdrives 

Further details ol tho microdrtv© 
for the Sinclair Spectrum are to 
hand. While most reviewers rale 
them good value lor money one 
shortcoming to emerge is the limited 
life of a drive. The quoted life for the 
•floppy-tape component is 5000 
access cycles. Thai may be fine for 
saving time in loading your favourite 
game, but any activity that saves 
and accesses data frequently (like 
word-processing, spreadsheets, or 
advanced adventure games) will run 
through that quite quickly. Maybe 
potential buyers should wait. 

Shugarrt has announced that it will 
bo demonstrating (note 

demonstrating . . . not producing, or 
selling) a laser- disk prototype at the 

start ol 1984 with virtually unlimited 

planer life and a capacity ol 1.5 
Gigabytes. A Gigabyte is a thousand 
Megabytes. The cost is exported to 
be somewhat in excess of the 

Sinclair device. 

Hitachi is also in the raco aiming 
for April, 1984, production and a 

250 milliseconds access speed- If 

1 .5 Gb is too small try its proposed 

multi-disk cluster: 32 disks 
accessible totalling more than 
41,000,000.000 bytes- 



System 80 
A new System 80 computer is 

now almost impossible to obtain in 

Australia and a similar situation is 

likely to apply in New Zealand soon, 
as Dick Smith Electronics has 

stopped importing them. 

Dick Smith himself no longer owns 
Dick Smith Electronics, and the new 
owner, Woolworths. concentrated 
on mass-market computers such os 
the Wlzzard and VZ2G0. 

Nevertheless, the word from 
Australia is that more computer 
models are in the pipeline- 
System 80 owners in New Zealand 
should be able to pick up some 
attractively priced software in the 
next few monihs as Dick Smith 

Electronics clears stock. 



4 November. 1983 BITS & DYTCS 



& 



« 



as 



CHRISTCHURCH 

COMPUTER 

SHOW 




LIMES ROOM, CHRISTCHURCH TOWN HALL 

Friday. December 2, 9am to 9pm 
Saturday, December 3, 9am to 5pm 
ADMISSION S1 (Children accompanied by an adult 50 cents) 

WIN A COMPUTER! 

One show visitor will win a Dick Smith VZ200 computer and 
accessories to the value of $500. 

Entry forms and full show details in the show catalogue 
included in the December issue of BITS & BYTES and 
available at the show. 

A MUST FOR ALL SOUTH ISLAND COMPUTER FANS!! 

Organised by 




BITS.. 6. 



N€W ZGRLAND'S 
P€RSONAl COMPUTER MAGAZINE 




SWP*. . BVTES 



first floor Dominion BulWIrtg. 

91 Colhodrol Squorc, 

P.O. Box 827, 

ChrijtdiuTch. 

Tclephonc [03) 66-566 



UUS & BYTES - November. 1983 - 5 



MICRO News 



■ • "■'*• ~»T<j»M«coraaMt i :tm >*■••-*>■*■- ^-w*—»m--.v~^. < >■" "-n~.™imi*^~w 



wtwh"*wt ?*».-xa->-< ?.airafrw> »<■>»;- :<i^g»? 



■ «"»«•»•» 



Voice-response business micro 



A computer 10 watch for in New Zealand next year is functions typically found in a "smart telephone", 

the Texas Instruments Professional Computer, reports dictating machine, and a telephone-answering machine 

Paul Crooks after seeing a demonstration in Australia in a single unit that fits inside the Professional Computer, 

recently. For example, the system provides telephone answering, 

This 16-bit machine has all the capabilities that have speed-dialling o( commonly used telephone numbers, 

come to be expected from the latest 16-bil offerings: recording of voice messages to be celivared to other 

128K RAM (expandable to 256KJ, built in floppy-disk Professional Computers in a network or lo a central 

drive <with room for another drive or for a hard disk), database, and recognition response to spoken 

detachable keyboard, high-resolution colour graphics, commands. The latter, according to Tl. means programs 

network communications, and support for operating such as Multiplan (spreadsheet) and Easvwrker (word 

systems (MS/DOS, CP/M 86. Concurrent CP/M 86, and processor) will respond to spoken commands and inputs. 

UCSD p-system). With the addition of a card it car. also The natural language capability is a user interface. 

run CP/M 80 soil ware. derived from Tl's research in artificial intelligence that 

But the two features that set this computer apart and allows the user to construct easily a valid English 

point the way to the future are voice management and language query or command that the computer 

natural language, as Texas Instruments gall them, unclerstands.New Zealand agents are Southern Business! 

The voice-management system combines the Machines. Box 3323, Auckland. 



ZX81 rival 

A competitor for the Sinclair 2X8 1 
at the bottom end of the computer 

market has been released in New 
Zealand by David Wells Ltd (Box 
2823, Christchurchl. 

The Polybrain, with 2K of RAM. 
will soil here for $199.50 (plus $20 

for the power supply! and according 

to the distributors will run most 
ZX81 programs (programs 

containing PEEKs and POKEs require 
simple modifications. Sixty programs 

written for the Polybrain are already 
available. 

A monochrome computer, the 
Polybrain has a more spacious 
keyboard than the ZX81, with 42 

rubber keys. It is expandable to 16K 
or 32K with plug in memory 
cartridges and displays 24 rows by 

32 characters, using either a home 

television or monitor, with a 

resolution of 64 x 44 pixels. 

Video, cassette, printer, and 

ioystick interfaces are included in ihe 
standard unit. 

U.K. hardware charts 

Ai the end of August ihe long reign 
of the ACT Sirius as ion British 1 6-bit 




compute' was rudely broken by lihe 
IBM PC takhg top slot, The triumph 
was short lived, however. By early 

September Sirius was back in its 
accustomed position at Mo. 1 with 
ihe price-slashed Applo III coming up 
to challenge for second slot. In the 
eight-bit league only the Commodore 
64 made any significant gain on the 
top three regulars: Spectrum. BBC 

and Dragon 



DISC DRIVE ALIGNMENT MEDIA 

* OYSAN Precision Certified Analogue Alignment Discs 

* l>YSAN Digital Diagnostic Discs [DDD's] 

(permit fmj; checking without disassembly) 

* Available for all 5 l /i" and 8" formats 
Contaci DYSAN's exclusive distributor — 

solstat® industries limited 




an 



' :.t,7MV L i' M,\ 



P.O. Box 13-183. Armagh. Christchurch 
Phone (03) S88-202 Telex NZ4774 



6 - Novembw. ;fl83 - ens & BYTES 



Apricot 

The Sirius manufacturer. ACT, has 

announced details of its new semi' 
portable, the Apricot. The machine 
will he based on an 8086 processor 
and feature useful enhancements 
such ns a bau«ry*poworcd LED clock 
in the keyboard (which also doubles 
as a system clock), LEDs on the 
special-function keys (so you can 
display custom-made functions 
directly on the keys under program 
control] and 3V» in, high-density 

mini -floppies. The machine will be 
software compatible with the Sirius 
and support the same 400 hy 800 

graphics. 

The machine is small and oortable 
. . . apart from the screen. The 
concept is that most users will have 
two screens, maybe one at work and 
one at home, or struggle a bit. 

At a price some 20 per cent bulow 
present Sirius prices the Apricot 
looks very impressive. The release ol 
its specifications almost certainly 
implies thai the Sinus specifications! 
will be enhanced to keep it up- 
market of its new sibling. 



BRiEFCflSE CDfTlPUTER 




The most incredible value for money of any desk top micro-computer I've seen in the world 

•even the Japanese and Americans arc buying them, not in hundreds, but in thousands!" — 
Jim Bulloch, Managing Director - COMPUTER WAREHOUSES LIMITED 

AMUST EXECUTIVE 816 
THE PROFESSIONAL COMPUTER 

Z80A processor with 64K memory; a unique multi-level menu driven CP/M operating 
system which means you ^^n use the cursor for one keystroke entry steps to any one of 

your programs or files, nothing complicated and truly very very easy to use. 

A mammoth 1.6MB of on line diskette storage (2 to 4 times bigger than CANON, IBM, 

WANG, DEC, COMMODORE. APPLE and other PC's, which often cost up to twice as 

much!) A very clear to read 80 x 24 lines on a 5" Screen folds neatly into the case. 

Ports for printers; extra disks (2.4MB aid 10MB) accoustic coupler (excellent for 

salespeople to "dial up" their orders) or p'.ug in an extra 12" full si/.e screen, even your 

memory-typewriter or a Daisy Wheel printer. 

* PROGRAMS INCLUDED 

• Inventory - integrated stock management • Debtors • Creditors • General Ledger - Willi 

Profit & Loss and Balance Sheet • Data Base - programing tool • Membership System • 

Project Costing System * Communications System 

• SUPERCALC • WORD PROCESSING • TIME cV COST 

OPTIONS 

A full size screen is a good idea, costs $425. leave it in your office and lake the computer 

to your home or even to your car, boat, caravan or tractor (the 12V battery option will 

cost SI 35) then just plug ii into your cigarette lighter If vou haven't got a printer then you 

can select from the wide range of AMUST, PACESETTER, CWL, C1TOH, EPSON 

printers we have in stock from $685 or Daisywhecl printers from $2000. 

Lindsay Sittelijfe — M964 - Tony f'rarnor 

COMPUTER WAREHOUSES LIMITED 

10 OUmnell Street* Box 5933, Telex 60753, Auckland. 



PORTABLES 

'■ — ■:■•■■:.:::::::, ■ - ■:■— ■-■-■■■ ■■ ■ 

Portables 

A round-up 
of the 
current 
offering 

By JOHN WIGLEY 

This is a review of five portable 
machines. Looking at them or trying 
them has been quite an experience. 
Lei me start off bv saving that this is 
rtOt a "which portable is better" 
article, but a review of the features 

of each. 

The granddaddy ©* the portables is 
the Osborne. It is the original and the 
standard lhat everyone tries to beat. 
For those that don't know the 
Osborno, ii looks like the case of a 
portable sewing machine. Open it up 
and the base detaches to form the 
keyboard; the rest houses two disk 
drives, an RS-232 interlace, an IEEE 
488 interface, a couple of storage 
areas, and a small screen. The 
keyboard can be used to support the 
main part and this tilts the screen up 
at art easy angle for viewing. 

The keyboard is connected by a 
coiled cable plugging into the front, 
and there is also a monitor interface 
connector, just to the side of the 
screen controls. The RESET button is 
on the front. The case is grey plastic 
and the weight is 1 2kg. The Osborne 
or Osborne 1 as it's now called, 
stores about 94 K on each double- 
density disk drive. This double- 
density option is available for owners 
of ihe earlier single-density version, 

A Z80A is the CPU and il has 64 K 

of RAM (60K available)- It runs CP/rV) 
2.2. You read this on a five-inch 
(125mm) {measured diagonally) 
screen. 

The display is 52 characters of 24 
rows in a window on a 1 28 character 
line, and the machine has automatic 
horizontal scrolling. 

I found that seated directly in front 
of tho screen the characters were 
readable. Certainly it would he nil 
right for short sessions, but tho 
optional 250mm monitor is needed 
for extended viewing. 

The character set used is 
sometimes difficult to read. The 
specifications are not very exciting, 
but then Adam Osborne set out to 

prove that being first on the market 

8 - Novembar. 1983 - SITS & BYTES 



was more important than having 
exotic specifications, the concept of 
the true potable being exotic 
enough. 

This is the machine lhat set the 
market on its ear only two years ago. 

Obviously, the hardware, while 
different, was not enough. What 
Osborne did was to price the 
hardware very competitively: 
SUS17 00 anc then include about 
SUS2000 of software without any 
extra charge, "his did the trick. Any 
competitor has to do the same. The 
same sort of package of software 
and hardware in a normal size 
machine sole for 5US3000 to 
$4000. Americans rushed to buy 
ihem and due to the aggressive 
pricing policy here so have Kiwis. 

The software is quite a package; 
CP/M2.2. CBASIC, and MBASIC, 
WordStar, including Mailmerge and 
Supercalc. For those who are not 
familiar with this software, CP.'M is 
the operating system, now an 
industry standard. The rest 
comprises programs that run on 

CP.'M, with CBASIC the compiled 

BASIC and M3ASIC the interpretive 
basic. WordStar is a word processor 
(Mailmerge lets vou produce form 
letters, etc.) and Supercalc is a 
spreadsheet program. 

As these computers are generally 
bought for business purposes, most 
users would use WordStar for 
correspondence. The letter is typed 
in and then spelling mistakes 
corrected. The layout is set up and 
then the letter printed. If you want to 
alter anything it's just a matter of 
calling up the file, making alterations 
using the special WordStar editing 
facility and thsn printing again. Once 
you got used to it, it is a renl time and 
effort saver. 

Supercalc is used lor anything 

involving calculations. It is ideal for 
creating those interminable reports 
that large organisations thrive on. 
Imagine a large sheet of paper with 
lettered columns along the top and 

numbered rows down the side. Each 

row/column is called a cell . Into each 
cell you can put numbers (data)) or 
text. Each cell can be referenced by 
any other, as can rows and columns. 

Anything from a balance sheet to 
an audit repcrt, to Mum's favourite 
recipe can be constructed. Learning 
all thfi features can take quite a 
while, but models are available to 
assist the beginner. 

By having CP/M as its operating 
system a wide variety of programs is 
available off :he shelf. 

Osborne has chosen to include 
BASIC as the language for this 




ORIC-1 

64k = $699 

COMPARE THE FEATURES 

• 64K • 60 Programs 

• Full coiourS sounds 

• High res. graphics 

• Centro/ifcs Interface 

• Hard keys • Monthly mag. 

FOR ORJC IfiFO PACKt 
BARRBROS. COMPUTORS, 
P.O. BOX 1 7 7, PAPAKURrX 
AUCKLAfiD. PH 2989161. 





THIS IS THE COMMODORE 64 *** 



litis is ihc new Commodore 64 Personal Computer. 

It com* S995 . Not hail for j brilliant piece of technology with »64< memory. 

But then, ifta Commodore. 

And asoneof ihc woild's leading high-performance microcomputer companies, 
we're not exactly unknown when ii amies U)oiiLsrandhig achievements. 

LOOK A r THESE 1-tiA TVRES l-OR EXAMPLE 

1. A total memory capacity of 64K, MK directly available to BASIC. When not 
using BASIC a full 54K is available for machine code programs. 

2. Interface adaptors will allow the use «f a complete range of hardware peripherals 
including disk units, plotter, dot matrix ami daisy wheel printers, networking and much, 
much more. 

y A complete range of busities- software including word processing, information 
handling, financial modelling, accounli ng and ma ny more specific appltcalhn packages 

■I. Other computer languages such as LOGO. UCSD PASCAL. COMA L and 
ASSEMBLER are being developed. Existing VIC and 40 column PHI BASIC 
programs can be easily converted. 

5. I'lte powe rful sound chip gives 3 totally independent voices each with a range of 
!1 octaves, user control over music envelope, pitch and pulse shapes provides the ability 
to make your Commodore 64 sound like a variety of in usical instruments, M)lo or in 
luirmnny. 

6. hi predefined graphic characters plus full alpha numerics with upper and lower 
case letters, all available directly from the keyboard ami displayahfe in uorrnal or reverse 
Vnleo in any of 16 colours. 

7. 40 column by 25 lines colour display. In high resolution graphics nude, a bit 

mapped screen gives 320 x M) individually addressable: pixels. 

H. Tlie dedicated video chip allows the use of high resolution multi-cobured 
Sprites (moveable object blocks*. Sprites a n he moved pixel hy pixel independent I v of 
anything else in llic screen. 

t. Sprites can also be se tup in 8 "layers" giving full .1 dimensional effects with, if 
required, automatic collision detection between sprites and any other screen object. 

10. Machine bus jxtrt will accept ROM cartridges for many a pplicatiois. including 
business, educational. Iiomc and leisure software. 

1 1 . A second processor oplioo using the 7M) gives the Commodore! 64 the ability 
to support CP/M * 



HOW THE COMMODORE 64 LINES UP 
FEATURES 



lla.se Price 

ADVANCED FEATURES 



S995 



lluiltin user memory 

Programmable 

Real ijfpcwr iter kcvlxwril 

Ciraphics characters 

(from keyboard) 
Upper & lower case letters 
Function keys 
Maximum SVS" floppy 

•Ji&k capacity per drive 

AUDIO FEATURES 



G4K 
YES 

YES (6dkcyyi 

YES 
YES 
YES 

I70K.B. to 
I M.B. 



Sound Generator 
Music Synthesizer 

H-Fi Outran 

VI DEO OUTPUT 



YES 
YES 
YES 



Monitor Output YES 

TV. Output YES 

INPUT/OUTPUT FEATURES 



Cassette Port 
Intelligent Peripherals 
Serial Peripheral Bus 



YES 
YES 
YES 



ADDITIONAL SOFTWAKE FEATURES 



CP.'M* OpliOrt 

(over I IXK) packages) 
hx tenia! ROM cartridge 

slot 



YES 
YES 



O 



COMMODORE COMPUTER (N.Z.) LTD 

P.O. BOX 33-847, Takapuna r Auckland 

Telephone 49 7-06 1 



or 



Contact your 
local dealer 



BITS & BYTES - NovembPi, 1983-9 



POATflBl€S 




W^.VAV.W.V(WilV.WxW.WAVA t-.AftTrufl'Wl ^MAridVAkA....«.. ,<.IUVJ 


amwert «*« **„**««*«*« 




Five portable computers compared 


* 




Osborne 


Access Attache 


Kaypro2 


Pied Piper 


Z80A CPU 


■+ 


M * 


■ 


» 


User RAM 


60K 


62K 56K 


60K 


56K 


Disk capacity 


102Kx2 


184Kx2 320Kx2 


195Kx2 


800Kx1 


High res graphics 




# » 


— 


— 


Printer interface 


Serial 


Parallel Serial 


ParalleJ 


Parallel 


Weight in kg 


12 


15 9 


13 


N/A 


'Agent or 


Sirius 


Access Century 


Microsystems 


Archive 


distributor 


Systems Ltd 


Data Corp 21 


' Research Ltd 


Computers 


CP/M 


* 


■ * 


■ 


» 


BASIC 


M+C 


M+C BASIC-80 


S 


_ 


Word processor 


WordStar 


Perfect Writer WordStar-plus 


Perfect Writer 


Perfecl WritGr 


Calc sheet 


Supercalc 


Perfect Calc 


Perfect Calc 


Perfect Calc 


Prices (si 


3815 


5800 5300 


4377 


3750 
(excludes 

monitor) 


Special features 


5MS Hard 


Printer and 16 bit IBM PC 


10- MB 


Second 800K 




disk extra 


modem included compatible 


Hard disk 


available at 




S4920 




complete S7640 


S1 199 



machine. Different languages are 
available under CP/M, 

Operating The Osborne is a breeze. 
Set it up, plug it in, turn it on and 
follow the instructions on the screen. 

It really is that easy. 

Sirius Systoms, Ltd., the 
distributor, gives each customer a 
run through on "how to do it" and 
then follows up as needed. It seems 
really keen to help and make sure 
■you are not left floundering. It has 1 4 
dealers, 

Servicing is token care of easily, 
thanks to the modular construction. 
Send the machine by courier, and il 
is fixed and sent back the next day. 
Owners say they find it reliable and 
are happy with their purchase- 

The Osborne has been covered in 
detail to give you the picture ol what 
a typical portable is, Now we look at 
another variation on the theme, the 
Kay pro. 

The Kaypro 

The Kaypro has a metal case and 
looks like a piece of amateur radio 

gear. It feels substantial, but weighs 

only a kilogram more than the 
Osborne 1 . The corners are square 
and it is an attractive blue. The 
keyboard detaches and props up the 
front. It has a 225mm green screen 
which is on the left of the front 
panel. Two disk drives, one above 
the other, are on the right. The 

display is 80 characters, 40 lines and 
very readable. 

Once again it is very easy to get 
going. CP/M is the operating system 
with the Perfect suite of software. 
There is Perfect Writer similar to 
WordStar, Perfectcalc similar so 

Supercalc, Perfect Speller to correct 

your spelling. Perfect Filer, a small 
10 - November, 1883 - BITS & BYTES 



filing system that really does work, 
{ideal for the club), and Pjofit Plan, a 
pre-defined calc sheet. 

The great thing about the Perfect 
range is that data can be swapped 
between programs in the range. This 
is a feature that you have to use lo 
appreciate. 

Microsystems Research, Ltd., 
supplied the review model and it 
offers excellent installation and 

servicing. 

The Attache 

For a complete change we look at 
the Otrona Attache. This is the 
neatest. The case has squared off 
corners and is an attractive grey with 
brown highlighting. It weighs a scant 
9kg. The keyboard detaches and a 
small plastic covered wire plugs in to 
join it up. The handle folds 
underneath ic support the machine 
at a convenient viewing angle. Two 
angles are available. On the left is the 
235mm green screen and die two 
drives are on the right. There is a 
built-in clock ; or date/time. This can 
be called up anytime, Every 
computer should have one- 
Programs are BASIC-80, Wordstar- 
Plus, Charton, and Valet. The 
operating sys*em is CP/M. 

The style of Attache is 
tremendous. Every executive should 
have one on his desk just for 1he 
visual effect. 

The Attache has graphics 
capabilities. A demonstration of a 
map of the world with local time 
zones is most impressive, but the 
screen is tard to read. It Is 
acceptable for short checking, but 
this is one computer you need a 
monitor with. The keyboard has the 
commands for WordStar-Plus and 
the set-up mode market! on the top 



of the keyboard. This is another good 
idea and makes learning so much 
easier. 

Basic- 80 is another BASIC with 
the extension of graphics. I spent 
some time playing with these, It is 
quite unusual to find graphics on a 
CP/M machine. They were easy to 
use and could be worth while. A 
large range of programs is available 
as an extra, 



The Access 



The Access is a large box. The side 
drops down to form the keyboard, 
well laid out and nice to use. The 
keyboard is connected by a long 
cable, The amber, 178mm screen is 
to the left of the two vertical disk 
drives, each of 184K capacity. 
CBASIC and MBASIC and the 
PERFECT suite ol soltware are 
included. You also get two other 
important programs. Fancy Font, 
which allows changing the size and 
style of type and communications 
support. 

There is a built-in printer (Epson) 
and a built in modem. The printer is a 
80 characters-per second, dot- 
matrix type. The modem is to be to 
CCIT (MZ) standards. 

The disk controller will support 

8-inch drives. 

As I sit surrounded by computer, 
monitor, printer and cables I would 
like one very much to write this 
review on. The Access is another 
easy machine to use, and having a 
built-in printer makes it easy to keep 
hard copies of work. An adjustable 
support allows tilting for best 
viewing. 



PORTflBLCS 



MfWMfgKMXttwcttwuttxrm* '.v. ■ /-"■ *-■-*.— ——t-tr-w 



-.,— =<«"~tm.««.»-™»' 



Pied Piper 

The Pied Piper is a new machine on 
The market. It is portable in a 
different way. No screen is included, 
but one disk drive is in the package. 
This is a high-densiiy drive, 800K 
capacity. 

Put a lot of files on the disk, check 
the remaining capacity, and you find 
you have 250K left, mote than the 
empty capacity of other machines. It 
will drive a TV, as well as a monitor 
so you can take il home and use your 
TV set in an emergency. The power 
supply will run another drive and for 
business applications it is needed. 

CP/M is the operating system and 

the Perfect suite goes with this 

machine. Because of the single disk 
some special programs are included 
to allow disk copying using the one 
drive. 

The machine starts and operates 
with no problem, except that the 
density of the disk means il can be 
difficult to format disks. There is no 
using 40 track single-density disks 
on this machine. Use high quality, 80 
track double-density disks. 



Summary 

I would be haopy to hove any of 
these machines. 

The Attache scores for its 
incredible size and portability. 

The Access is a complete 
machine. Although heavier, you 
have ono self-contained package. 

The Kaypro has a very readable 



Since this article was prepared the 
Osborne company in America has 
filed for bankruptcy. But there are 
suggestions this will not he the end 
of this popular brand of portable 
computer. See Micro News item. 



screen, was very easy to use, and for 
under S7900 comes with a 10M 
hard disk. 

The Osborne is the original, is 
proven, and is the cheapest. It has 
the biggest range of accessories. 

The Pied Piper has terrific disk 
storage making it economical. 

The chart sets out whiit each 
machine offers. 



My advice is to try them out 
AFTER sitting down and deciding 

what you noed. 

Before ending this, reluctantly I 
have to mention the instruction 
manuals. Tho computers set up all 
right and then the fun began. Terse 
comments, sometimes no examples, 
no index or an incomplete one. error 
messages that were not explained. A 
first-time user could run into all sorts 

of problems. Fortunately all the 
dealers seemed keen to give a 
purchaser some instruction and) 
assistance to get them going. 

Reviewer's note: The Osborne is 
given more spsce in this article 
because it was the machine thar 
started rt alt. Most of the features 
mentioned about it also occur in tha 
other machines. 



Don't miss 
next month's 
L mper issue 



They Don't Call It SuperBrain 

For Nothing. 

In a single, intelligent 

terminakSuperBrain gives you 
l he capabilities of an entire 
system. That is, SuperBrain 
\ includes 1.5 megabytes of 
disk storage. 64 kilobytes of 
\ internal memory, a CP/M* 
t\ disk operatinu system, 
W and Microsoft BASIC 
all standard— making il the industry's test desktop value. 
And we can show you how SupcrBraiirs ability to add 
peripherals and storage make il the small-business computer 
you never have to outgrow. 




For further information contact 



solstat" industries limited 

32 Sheffield Cres P.O. Box 1 3-1 83, Armagh CHRISTCHURCH 
Telephone (03) 588-202 Telex NZ4774 



BUS & BYTES - Novemlw, '983 11 



HARDWflft€ R€VI€UI 



Polvcoro's 
Proteus : 

A good 
machine, but 
why another? 

By BEVAN CLARKE 



What's this? Another "made- 
in-N.Z." computer! 

Why would anyone offer yet 
another new machine to New 
Zealand's small markel for desktop 
offiee-or-laboralory micros? Why a 
system with two CPU's — a Z80 and 
a 6809? And why with three 
operating systems: standard CP.'M 
for the Z80. standard (but not so 
well known) FLEX for the 6809. and 
something called POLYSYS? 

Why? Because the vendor and 
manufacturer is Polycorp NZ, Ltd, 
and at the helm is Progeni Systems, 
Ltd. Both Polycorp and Progeni are 
renowned for their ability lo innovate 
and to design and sell quality 
products. So this Prot&us will surely 
not be yet another "plain vanilla" 
desk-top micro. 

We shall try the standard lest, 
beloved of both reviewers and users. 

This is called, "Switch on and sen 
how far we can get without reading 
the manual". 

Power on . . , ahal Two switches! 
One behind the neat flat-pack 
computer itself and one — fumble, 
stretch, fumble behind the 

terminal. Now why don't they plug 
the terminal into a switched outlet on 
the back of the processor? 

Still, they are both tidy units. 




finished in a matching rich cream 
textured surface. I would like lo put 
the computer out of sight under the 
desk but then it would be harder to 
insert the 8in floppies into the two 
front slots. And - let's try it — the 
computor is too high at 400mm to 
use as a base for the terminal. So it 
takes up a lot of desk. How noisy the 
fan is. 

Disk into Drive A. Wow! This 

computer loads CP/M fast! The 
screen is showing the familiar 
prompt undei a sign-on banner 
which reveals that the BIOS (the 
machine-dependent part of CP/M; 
the "Basic Input Output System") 
reads 512 byta sectors off the disk. 
With 512 bytes per read instead o1 
128 bytes all disk operations should 
hurtle along. 

The VDU's >ypo face is uLirociivu 
and the green colour is easy on the 
eyes but something seems to be 
wrong! I can sense what I can only 
call "o 50-CYcle" shimmer to the 
characters. Worse, there is a 
voltage- fluctuation type of roll and 
wobble to the screen. It must be our 



The Progerri/Polycotp Proteus 

Educational Department power 
supply! I realise lhat H is a lixablo 
fault, and it will only be a fault of this 
particular machine, but it is a fault 
nonetheless. 

Progeni's service was prompt and 
friendly. Twice during the review 
period they sold my machine out 
from under me. Onco I came back Jo 
find a computor which just would noi 
boot. Whal was impressive was the 
speed with which Progeni got thai 
machine working again! 

I'll Ity a DIRectory command. 
What's on this disk? The usual CP.'M 
utilities; STAT, DDT. SUBMIT 
they're all there. ASM, [he entry- 
level Digital Research absolute 8080 
Assembler and ED, the wodd's very 
worst editor. 

By now, I've broken the reviewer's 
oalh and dipped into the manuals! I 
find that Polycorp agrees with me. Il 
advises users to edit with a real 
editor like WordStar. 

And WordStar is on the disk! Bliss! 

Away we gol Ah yes. This is dear old 

reliable standard WordStar, The 



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12 - November, 1 982 BIS & BYTES 




PROTEUS Incorporates two processors — Z80A 
and 6809 — as standard. It automatically 

recognises whether Hie control program (in any disk 
you insert is CP/M or FLEX and loads and executes 
the program using the appropriate processor. The 

result — a greatly Increased range of off-the-shelf 

application programs can be run on the one 
machine at high speed, substantial]}' lowering the 

system cost. 

PROTEUS is a new, high performance, price 
competitive micro computer designed primarily for 

commercial, professional and industrial applications. 
applications: All kinds of accountinfl operations, 

hire purchase, business analysis and forecasting, 
word processing, data base, sort, etc PROTEUS 



readily Interfaces a wide selection of peripherals 
through six ports — serial and parallel printers. 

loysUc&padtile, scientific instruments, M) converter. 

modem for mainframe access, extra disk drives to 
extend on-line memory to 1A Mbytes. 

LANGUAGES: PROTEUS successfully handles various 
BASICS, COBOL, PASCAL, FORTRAN, PL1. 

BUILT-IN DISK DRIVES: One or two 8" slimline 
(loppy drives. Capacity-: CP/M 630 Kbytes. FLEX 5811 
Kbytes per disk. 

TERMINAL: LearSieglerADM23. 30.5cm non-glare, 
green phosphor screen. 8? keys, numeric keypad. 

cursor controls, function and edit keys. 



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HflRDiunRe rcvi 

Proteus 

review 

(continued) 

ProLGus screen is pleasantly fast, 
too. Tho keyboard has a good type- 
ahead buffer. Yech* The arrow 
cursor keys on the ADM 23 terminal 
are set in an error -causing straight 
line, not an ergo nam ically sensible 
diamond. 

Helpl Suddenly I'm stuck in a 
software/hardware lock) I was just 
resetting WordStar's HELP level and 
WS/'PROTEUS will not accept my 
"2", nor any other keystroke, for 
that matter. 

Later: Re -booting was the only 
cure. IThe RESET button is safely oul 
of the way at the back, yet 
reachable.) Fortunately. I could not 
make Proteus repeat the fault, no 
matter what I tried. In fact it 
performed very well on my hardest 
WordStar speed test. (This is to 
"black copy" a panel, repeatedly 
doubling it until disk noise tells me 
that RAM is full, then re-format and 
search from the beginning for a 
string which happens to be right at 
the end.) I have tried this test on 
many machines and in the 
comparison the Proteus stands out 
as a most acceptable word 
processor. 

Great range 

of software 



™-..™v>w*™-m**>mn*** M **x^mm'im«to^^ »« » >^ ) MMtcrerttt«w»«w W Mtt««i>-**^>-.~~. *--^^-». 



Microcomputer summary 



Compatibility and access to a wide 
range of software is the main reason 
lor buying a CP/M system. How does 
the Proteus score? In a word: 
perfectly. I could not find an Sin 
CP/M disk it could not both read and 
run. The CRTL-C warm re-start 
command causes the disk controller 
to shift to single density thus giving 
access to the industry-compatible 
SS/SD disks. 

The summary box quotes the 
manual's list of run nab lo programs. 
To this list I can add: Nevada Pilot, 
SuperCalc and a bi-lingual Adventure 
game. 

A disk was provided with a FLEX 
OS on it together with a- quite 
adequat e accounts-receivable 

packago. No documentation was 
provided for FLEX and only one page 
for the package, which was written 
by university students and 
"massaged" by tho vendor and an 
accountant into a useful product. 
Since without a printer connected 
many of the menu selections cause 
the package to hang up I could not 

14 Moverobor, 19B3 - BITS &. BYTfis 



Name 
Processors: 

RAM: 
ROM: 
Operating 
Systens: 



I/O: 



Kayboard: 



Languages and 
packages: 



Terminal: 



Sourd: 

Options: 



Character sot: 
Price: 



Reviewer's 
ratirgs: 



really give this loneJy FLEX product a 
fair work out. 

What about FLEX itself as an 
operating svstem? The accounts 
receivable disk was an "auto-Loot" 

disk which leapt straight from boot- 
Up into the tunning of the package. I 
have been assured (by a would-be 

vendor) that there is a significant 
supply of business software for 
FL£X and the 6809 processor. (I 



Proeafti/PoIyCOrp PROTEUS 

Two: Zilog Z80A and Motorola 6809, both 

4MHz. 

64 Kb all available to the user. 

4 Kb system ROM. 

CP/M using the Z80A, FLEX and POLYSYS. 
using the 6809. The boot ROM detects 
which OS is on tho disk and passes control 
from the default processor, the 6809. to the 
Z80. 

Two DS/SD 8in stimiime (loppy disk drives 
(can be used as SS/SD drives) offering 630 
Kb per disk under CP/M or 580 Kb per disk 
un<Jer FLEX and POLYSYS. 
Up to six ports are provided: 

• Terminal, modem (up to 3600 baud) nnd 
serial primer (RS-2321. 

• Parallel (Contronicsl printor, and nclwork. 
This Is a 5-pin socket provided for connection 
to the Polycorp Poly network. 

• A connector labelled 'extension disk'. 
The te*minal provided is o Lear Siegtet ADM 
23 green-screen terminal with logic and 
memory 'or self-testing and customisation. 
Ttve keyboard of the ADM 23 supplied was 
not detachable. 

The range of operating systems says it all! 
Under CP/M the following have been tostod: 
MBASIC, Macro-80 Assembler and Link, 
ZSiD (symbolic debugger), WordStar and 
WoidMostor. Multiplan and dBase II. 
31 cm green screen ADM 23 terminal, 80 * 
24. with half Intensity. Inverse video, blinking 
underlining and protected fields. The 
keyboard's 87 keys (ire in a conventional 
layout, with numeric keypad. 
Presumably just a beep. 
Having ihrao opera ling systems- and six I/O 
ports surely reduces the demand for options. 
Proteus comos with two 8in drives. It is 
available with just one disk drive, or (through 
the extension port} it can address two more 
8in floppies, drives C and D. It can Interface 
to joystick/paddles, AD convener and 
scientific instruments. 

Softworo has been used to -connect the 
Protous directly to both Prime and Burroughs 
mainframes and can probably be readily 
adapted to other computers. 
1 28 standard ASCII chnraaeis. 
For tho Proteus CPU with twin drives, 
S5710. For the ADM23 terminal. $1947. A 
total of $7657 including 40 per cent sales 
tax. Extension disk drives cost $4125. 

(on a scalo of 1 to 51 Documentation 3: oase 
of use 4; language 5; expansion 2; value for 
money 3. 

must reed all the wiong journals.} 
Alas several phono calls to my 

FLEXiblc friends failed to make 
contact so I can report nothing more] 
to you on this score. 

And POLYSYS? This. too. was not 

able to be tested since it is tie 

operating system for networking 
Proteus to several of those lovely I 
Polycorp computers. Talking to the 
company about this, however, 



HRTOWffiK iflgJKJU 

revealed a little of the genesis of the 
machine. Polycotp's dolphin- 
strcamiined teaching computers use 
the 6809 processor. 
The Proteus has a dual function as 

a CP/M office machine and as a file 
server for a network of Polys. Since 
FLEX was already the de facto 
standard for business software on 

the 6809 ii made splendid sense to 

design Proteus to provide FLEX as an 

extra service. The marginal cost of 
an extra processor and operating 
system is very low. Hence the three 
operating systems. If you think you 
can live happily ever after with CFVM 
alone you can simply ignore FLEX 
and POLYSYS. But ihey are there if 
you can use tnem. 
Manuals provided are: Proteus 

user's manual, technical manual, and 
a comprehensive manual for the 
VDU. Although the Proteus manuals 
are not fat they are quite complete, 
and are clearly printed in clear 
language. 

Although clear, I would not call the 
manuals friendly, A computer buff 
would not even notice that they are 
solid EDP jargon from stern to stern. 

But a first time user, unpacking the 
shining Proteus, would soon be 
seeking help. 
For example, ihe user manual 



worlds shortest 



contains one o 1 the 

CP/M manuals. It occupies six: 

pages. Almost everything essential 

is there but would the rank 

beginner assimilate it when 
presented in such concise form? 
There is neither a FLEX Manual nor a 
Polysys manual. 

The technics! manual is also the 
maintenance rrgnual. Thus the user 
who wants to climb into such 
reasonable "smart user" issues as, 
say port addresses (which are nearly 
tabulated! is also faced with notes 
for ihe real experts on issues such as 
disk head alignment and test 
equipment settings. 

A look at what's 
missing 

What she Proteus does it does 
well. But are we entitled to expect 
more of a desk-lop business micro in 
1983? Several goodies which the 
machines of the 80's have led us to 
expect are not provided; 

• There is no option for colour. 

• Because the Proteus is designed 

to mate with any standard 
terminal there are no function 
keys, nor provisions for 
assigning strings to any keys. 



There is no 25th line. 

• There is no frequency controllable 

sound generator. 

• There are no graphics, but for 

$200 you can add chunky 
character graphics. 

• There is no standard bus, nor any 

slots for add-in boards {though 
there are the disk extension and 
Polynei connectors on the back 

panel). 

Over all then, what do we have? 
Well-made New Zealand and well- 
made Potycorp? The Proteus is a nice 
piece of engineering, which 
capitalises sensibly on the Polycorp 

experience. It is neat, clean-looking 
and robust. It offers the novelty of 
Iwo processors and three operating 
systems, of which CP/M opens the 
world's largest software box. How 
nice a Z-80/8088 (CPM/MS-DOSl 
combination would have been! 

If you have no need for FLEX and 
POLYSYS then you will rate the 
Proteus on the scale of Z-80, CP/M 
desktop micros. And this is a 
crowded market into which the 

Proteus seems to bring good value 
for money but nothing new. 

Bevan Clarke is a professor of 
accountancy at the University of 
Canterbury. 




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BITS & BYTES - November, 1983 - 15 



HflRDUJfifi€ ft€VI6UJ 



ThePB/100 
hand-held 



By Ron van Lindt 



TheCasioPB 100 should not really 
be regarded as a pocket computer 
alone. Having got that off my chest, I 
shall attempt to elaborate. 

When I first saw this unit. I 
thought. "Oh, yeah another glorified 
programmable calculator." But now I 
feel a lot more positive about this 
little gem. 

With the BASIC tutorial book and 
operating manual, thePB 100 makes 
a very affordable way of getting into 

computing. The manual is written in 
a very friendly, understandable 
manner, some-thing not always 
found irs the bigger-league 
computing manual. 

It didn't take very long to come to 
grips with the operation of the unit, 

which goes to prove how easy it is to 
operate. Admittedly only the vory 
basic functions were present. 
Notably missing were keywords like 
AND and OR, but on the whole this 
did not present any problems. 

The keys are typical calculator 
keys, which have up to three 
functions, not counting upper and 
lower case characters, which are 
available. 




GOTO PS- 108 




PB-IO0 
nl t 



BU3ETQ: 



gg rjj G3 cp tzj CD a uj s lj 

cp~cb s uj a a ggg o 



The keyboard of the PB/WO handheld 



The PB 100 is I he only pocket 
computer in the Casio line that 
incorporates an extended graphics 
set. suitable for use in games, for 
instance. This is something I hope to 
demonstrate in a subsequent article. 
At present it is not really practicable 
to incorporate as a feature a user 
definable graphics set, as the 
memory size is only 554 bytes 
(unexpandedl. 

A memory pack is available for a 
small price. This, fitting inside the 
computer, upgrades the machine to 
1.5K RAM. A cassette interface and 
a printer are now also available 
through the noimal outlets. 

An interesting feature is the 10 

totally separate program memories 
thai are accessible through the 
numeric keys. These programs can 
be used as each other's sub- 
routines. IThePB 100 will not permit 
sub-routines beyond 8 levels or FOR- 
NEXT loops beyond 4 levels.! 

Without memory expansion, only 
26 variable nanes are allowed. Of 
theee you are only permitted to use 
the name once 



i.e- A 'AS is not 



Hand-held summary 



Nome: 


PB100 


Manufacturer: 


Casio 


RAM; 


544 Bytes unexpanded 




expandable to 1 .5K 


Keyboard: 


Calculator type 


Display; 


Liquid Crystal Display 




12 characters 


Language: 


BASIC 


Graphics: 


Custom graphics set 


Cost: 


S1 1 9 


Options: 


I/O port for cassette interface and printer. Internal 




socket for 1 K RAM pack 


Peripherals; 


Cassette. interface $50, 




Printer $150 




RAM pack $50 


Reviewer's ratings 


(from 1 to 51: Documentation, 5 ease of use. 4; 




language, 3; value for money, 4; expansion, 4: 




support, 3. 



Review unit supplied by 
Computer Ccnttc, Cfit istchurch, 

16 - November. 1983 BITS & BYTES 



possihle, A"BS is. But anyone 
buying this unit is not likely to 
demand the performance of a 
Commodore, a Tandy, or an Atari 
from it. 

The display is LCD, which can 
show up to 12 characters. I thought 

thai this would prove annoying, hut 
you learn to live with it, 

When listing any programs, the 
listing speed is quite good. 

The operating system comes with 
nine error codes, which, by 
consulting the operating manual, tell 
you where you went wrong and 
whal to do about it. 

This machine is a worth while 
investment, especially if you are just 
starling out in computing and do not 
have the money for a bigger system. 
Even for the more experienced 
programmer it provides a lot of fun. 

A complete system, including 
cassette interface, memory pack and 
printer need not cost more than 
$350, pretty good value. 

Smalltalk gossip 

Xerox is low-key in the computer 
world but has one fabled, and as yet 
largely unreleased product: 

Smalltalk. Smalltalk is a language 
designed to be user-friendly. It is 
credited with inspiring the Lisa 
operating system but until recently 
needed a costly Xerox work station 
to operate it. Smalltalk now looks set 
to emerge from its long hibernation. 
A sub-set of Smalltalk is now 
available for the Apple II (if it has 
RAM cards to bring its memory to 
256K) under the trade name 
Smalltalk-80. Although authored 
outside Xerox it is reported to have 
close links with the original. 

Meanwhile, Xerox is reported to 
be licensing Smalltalk to companies 
and universities. Appfo, DEC, and 
Hewlett-Packard are rumoured to be 
among the first interested parlies. It 
has been reported several times that 
a version of Smalltalk is already 
prototyping on the Lisa. 



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BITS & BYTES - November, 1983 - 17 






HRRDUJflfl€ R€VI€W 

Cr omem co 
C-10 

Good small 

business 

machine 

By Peter Fearnley 



A microcomputer, among other 

things, is a small computer. 
Compared with the monsters of 
yesteryear today's micro is often 
more capable than Us huge 
predecessors. 

The Cromemco C-tO is a compact 
business computer. The three 
component configuration 
keyboard, monitor and disk drive - 
is light and reasonably portable. 

The high speed Z-80A 
microprocessor and the 12in, high- 
resolution screen are housed in a 
small moulded plastic case, which is 
designed to sii on top of a fully 
adjustable swivel stand for 
comfortable viewing. 

The compact, economically 
designed, 61 -key, keyboard has all 
the usual control and character keys 
but no numeric key pad. The 
keyboard is attached lo the back of 
the cathode- ray-tubo cabinet with a 
plug-in cable. 

The single double-density disk 
drive has 390K storage capacity and 
hooks up through a stacking 
connector which allows for op to 
three additional drives to be added 
with oase. 

There are two additional ports, one 
for a modem or another computer. 




The 

Crom&nco 

C-10 



and the other is a DB-2 5. which can 

be configured for connection of a 

printer, plot ter, or another peripheral. 
The CRT displays 25 lines with a 
full 80 characters on each line and is 
clear and easy to read. It features 
inverse video, half intensity and 
underlining. There are also special 



symbols <ind box and line yidphiCa. 

The CPU has a 4MHz clock and as 
there is no bus the 64K of onboard 
RAM memory is not expandable. 
There is 24K of ROM, 4K of which is 
used for four character sets including 
graphics. 

Switch-on and the C-10 goes 



Microcomputer summary 



Name: 


Cromemco C-10 


Microprocessor: 


Z80A 


Clock speed: 


4 MHz 


RAM: 


64 K bytes 


ROM: 


24K bytes 


Input/output: 


1 parallel, 1 serial port 


Keyboard: 


Sculpted QWERTY, cursor, function, soft 




touch 


Display: 


80 x 25, green phosphor, high resolution 


Language: 


Cromemco Structured BASIC. CP/M 


Graphics: 


Chunky and line graphics 


Disk operating 




system: 


Cromemco CDOS 


Disk capacty: 


390K bytes 


Peripherals: 


Printer, modem, C-net 


Extras included: 


WriteM aster. PlaniVlaster, structured BASIC 


Price: 


34855.00 



Reviewer's ratings (out of 5): documentation, 4; ease of use, 5* 
language, 4; expansion. 3; support. 4; value lor money, 4. 

Review unit supplied by: McLean Information Technology, 459 Khyber 
Pass Roxd, Newmarket. Auckland. 



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18 



«bci. 1983 - SITS & ftYTKS 



HfifiDUJflR€ ft€VI€W 



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through a diagnostic routine before 
booting ofl disk the operating 
system, Crornemco's own CDOS 
which is an upswept modified 
version of CP/M 1.4. This user 
friendly system immediately brings 
up a menu program which invites the 
operator to select the next step. 
Applications software supplied with 
the C-10 package includes Plan 
Master. Write Mast or. and Structured 
BASIC. 

plan Master, like Visicalc, is an 
electronic spreadsheet, with some 
significant differences. The 

spreadsheet is not as largo: there are 
10 pages, each with 30 rows of 12 
columns, with row and column 
lotals. Rows and columns may be 
labelled, labels appearing in 
formulae. 

Equations are not specified on the 
spreadsheet proper, but on its 
associated "define page". This 
operates similarly to a programming 
language and includes IF, ENDIF and 
ELSE statements. 

WritsMaster is on impressive and 
easy to use word processor. A good 
foaturo is thai the top row of keys 

can be used as function keys and 
they are referenced from the top of 
the keyboard. This facility aids the 
teaming process and saves referring 
to the manual as often as is usual. I 
found it easier to use than WordStar. 
Crornemco's structured BASIC is 
the programming language supplied 
with the C-10. It is supported by 
excellent documentation and should 
present few problems, even for the 
beginner. 

Being used to an Apple II plus, I 
found the C-10 system a little 
claustrophobic. One feels locked into 
the menu. It is not a hobbyist's 
computer, but is ideal for the small 
business owner or for the 
professional person. 

Advantages: Compact, robust and 
reliable. Good screen clarity. Good 
disk capacity. Excellent 

documentation. Wide range of 
business software supported. User 
friendly. 

Disadvantages: 

CDOS limits 

transportability of CP/M. 

Comments: Cromemco is one of 
the longest-established micro- 
computer companies in the United 
States and has a reputation for 
Keeping up with the state of the art 

The C-10 represents good value lor 
money. 

Typical User: The C 10 would 
appeal to the small businessman or 

professional person who requires a 
database, financial modeller and 
word processor. 



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BITS & BYTES - November, 1983 19 



CDUCATION 

Literacy 

versus 

awareness 



By LARRY R. NELSON, of the 
education department. University 
of Otago 

In September an article appeared 
in Bits & Bytes wherein my good 
(riend and colleague, Ken Ryba, of 
Massey University, made favourable 
reference to somo of the work we 
have been undertaking at the 
University of Otago. However, he 
referred lo it as an effort to 
contribute to computer literacy in 
New Zealand. 

I have never been convinced of the 
need to mount courses, seminars, 
and workshops specifically designed 
to promote computer literacy. Those 
who argue for them cite a perceived 
need to prepare students for a micro- 
processor-dominated future. That 
we (or our children) will have such a 
future is certainly of little doubt. The 
problem, as I see it, is to assume that 
this means that we should rush 
about exposing as many students as 
possible, as quickly as possible, to 
present day microcomputer 

hardware and software. 

Last year I attended a special 



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meeting of the Mew Zealand 
Computer Society. It led to the 
formation of a new interest group for 
encouraging and co-ordinating 
computer applications in education. 
The guest speaker was from the big 
town a few hours up the main road 
north. In stressing the need for iho 
formation of such a group, he used 
the old washing-machine argument. 
I*f you haven't heard it before, it is 
this: even washing machines now 
have microprocessors! That's it, The 
"argument" itself is often followed 
by a bit of at explanation, just in 
case the implication is at first not 
apparent to the listener. That is, if 
washing machines are becoming 
computerised, what won't? If we 
don't teach our kids about this new 
technology, where will we end up? 
Noi with dirty clothes. Those 
computerised washing machines are 
chip transparent; one can use thorn 
without even having to know that a 
microprocessor lurks just behind the 
front control panel. That is how it 
should be. In fact, one mighs wonder 
if sales would increase c decrease if 
more people were aware of the 
number of chips going into washing- 
machine control circuitry. 

The washing-machine argument 
doesn't hold water. Sure we will see 
chips all over - thank God they're 
now being used to control the heat 
cycle on soma new toaster. But we 
will not need crash courses on 
elementary programming and 
software running to prepare us to 
use them. 

How man/ readers feel that 
knowing how an internal combustion 
engine works is an essential 
prerequisite for operating a motor- 
vehicle? 

Now, we could certainly make ihe 
distinction between a chip- 
dominated and a computer- 
dominated future. If we tighten the 
view of the futura somewhat, by 
agreeing thai the washing machines 



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and toasters need not concern us 
unduly, should! we still be bothered 
with worrying about getting us ready 
lor a true computer in every room 
and office? 1 

II we have to go by the standards 
of today's hardware and software, 
yos. It does indeed take at least a 
small amount of intensive 
preparation to use them. The point 
is, though, that what we see today 
just can't last. If we are talking about 
machines which will be used by 
everyone, not just those with infinite 
patience and IQs greater than 115, 
we have got to expect better design. 
We might expect, for example, 
touch-sensitive screens, obviating 
the need for hunt-and-peck keying, 
and circumventing the problems 
inherent in light pens. We should 
certainly expect easier to use, more 
reliable software. 

We should, in other words, have 
reason to think what we have today 
will not necessarily bear close 
resemblance to the absolutely police, 
easy-to-use machines of the very 
near future. 

Some readers will say that we 
should still be getting a head start, 
that even though we might bo 
working with tomorrow's relics, 

learning the new stuff will be easier if 
we have ondured a 1983 class or 
two on computer literacy. Does that 
mean that our Otago students now 
doing data preparation on menu 
driven, key-to-disk software, would 
pick it up easier if years back they 
had learned to punch cards on an 
026 or 029 card holder? 

Quantity is not 
necessarily the 
same as quality 

These thoughts sum up my 
personal feelings on computer 
literacy. I find ii quite difficult indeed 
to support efforts to put as many 
computers into as many places as 
wo can, thinking that we will be 
falling behind the rest of the 
developed world if we do not. Of 
course, if we don't we wilt be falling 
further behind North America In 
terms of number of computers 
situated in seemingly relevant 
places. What I want to say is that 
falling behind in a quantitative sense 
is not the same as coming last in the 
qualitative dimension. 

Rest assured that I have lew 
illusions as to the effect of my words 
regarding computer literacy. It is, 
now a tremendous bandwagon with | 

an awful lot of steam in its boilers. | 
So much steam is seeping from this | 
behemoth that even John and Jane I 



20 - Novombsr. 1983 - BITS A BYTES 




PC-1401 

Pocket 

computer with 
4.2K-byteRAM 
and 16-digit display. 

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The PC-1401 incorporates 59 preprogrammed scientitic 

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for an experienced professional, yet simple enough for a beginner. In your office, classroom, 

laboratory, or home—the couple power of the PC-1401 helps you enjoy limitless applications. 

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f 



BITS & BYTES - November, 1983 21 



EDUCATION 



iM»«mv,..v;;s:;:'::;:';';'- ■::■;■;;■■.,.■ ,■,.;,,. ,..,;.;, ,..■.,■.. ■...,.. ;..■-,,.,,, ,,■- ■^'^^^-;'-.v^v>.w^.-.;^;;^;'^^™;Mr*«Mnrt'nV.vMrtv^vw(,«i 



Doe, as they say in North America, 
are sweating a bit from the 
apprehension generally induced in 
people who see ihe bandwagon bui 
■have not yet jumped onto it. 

Perhaps by now you have sensed 
that computer literacy, per se. is not 
our primary interest at Otago. This is 
not to say that we are not into 
computers. We most definitely are. 
We have been for more lhan two 
years. 

Next year we will olfer three 
papers in the area. Instructional Uses 
of Computers I and II, and Research 
and Administrative Applications of 
Computers. In the first course we do 
in fact pass the initial term immersed 
in CAL (or CA!> literacy. Students 
have a fair go at drill and practice 
programs, at instructional games, 
tutorials, and simulations. They see 
some of the best and worst of each 
area. We start them out with the 
best, see the gleam in their eyes 
(confirmed by heavy bookings on our 
machines), and then woan thenri intp 



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reality by getting out iho average 
stuff now available. We bring in local 
elementary and secondary teachers 
who have been using small 
computers in classrooms, and we 
have a good time. By the end of Term 
I, however, initial enthusiasm has 
generally tempered considerably. 
Almost all students are still koen, but 
I think it accurate to say that they 
have seen that CAL is not the pie in 
the sky for c/ery subject area. 

In Term II, students team up and 
begin the creation of a CAL mgdule, 
due by the middle of the last term. 
They pick their subject area. We 
provide examples of the amount of 
work we're looking for. They use a 
very swept-up version of Pilot, one" 
with a superbly complete operating 
system, to do their programming. 
Wo provide solid CAL modules on 
Pilot which are locally-made, and 
others which have been imported. 

About 85 per cent of the students 
have had no previous computer 
experience. Yet no-one fails to 
complete their module, and some of 
the modules turn out to bo quite 
good. They 3re not supposed to be 
programs cf immediate use to 
schools; our focus is on a short, 
single-purpose module with a sound 
pedagogic base, reflective of the 
concerns lo- good CAL developed 
during the first term. 

I like to think that students come 
out of our first course computer 
wise. Aware of both the capabilities 
and limitations of present day 
hardware and CAL software, 
knowing what to look for should they 
have need for a machine in the 
future, cognsant of the time needed 
to develop instructional software, 
and decided as lo whether or not 
they should delve further into 
computers. 

Our second paper on instructional 

uses is, of course, for those who 
want to paddle into the deep end of 



■ ....,■ .,-.■ ■ ■-'■.-.,.,,,.. ■ 

the pool. Approximately half these 
students have had quite a bit of prior 
computing experience. Some ol 
them get into areas beyond the 
experience of our own staff. We 
have, for example, a couple of 
students trying to merge graphics 
support routines written in machine 
code with standard Pascal and Pilot 
authoring tools. A co-opted 
colleague has developed an easier 
to-use Logo system. One student ii 
putting Forth-based tools into i 
standard suitable for CAL authoring 
This work takes time, but already it 
looks very promising. 

Our paper on research anc 
administrative applications is 
chance for students to learn how to 
use pre-developed software for dats 
analysis, word processing, and data 
management. In these areas there 
some excellent, mature software 
already available. The paper will be 
offered for the first time next year 

Upon completing it, students will bi 

able to use a small computer fo 

grading, processing tests anc 
surveys, initiating and maintaining a 
data bank of student-class records 
and word processing. 

If asked to put a concise label on 
what we are about at Otago, the 
term computer comprehensior 
would be infinitely better than 
computer literacy. With regard 
again, to the literacy issue, my 
comment would be that we have go 
Ihe telescope lurned backwards. The 
literacy effort, if we are to have one 
should be to make compute 
softwaro, and hardware too, mucr 
more people literate, rather than the 
other way around- When it becomes 
so we will not have to worry abou 
students and teachors taking to it 
that will be a natural outcome, if h 
worth its salt. Shake much of the 

stuff around now; if anything at all 

emerges it is most probable that 
something quite different to salt. 



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22 November. 1903 BITS & BVTES 



L6TT6RS 

Working with 
children 

Dear Sir, 
I was inierested in the comments 

made by Lyndon McEntee in a letter 
in the September issue of Bits & 
Byres. While I feel that it is admirable 
that Mr McEntee's school is offering 

young children access to computers 
as part of their daily routine. I cannot 
agree that the keyboard does not 
have an important place in 
introducing v° un 9 children to 
computers. 

I am working on a master's thesis 
at Waikato University whereby I am 
using a Compu color II to provide pre- 
school children with games involving 
concept learning, problem solving, 
and memory skills. I have designed 
the games specifically for pre- 
schoolers, on the basis of gomes and 
puzzles they are likely to encounter 
at kindergarten. 

Because the games stress the use 
of thinking-problem solving skills 
rather than manipulative skills, speed 
of input into the computet is not a 
crucial factor in either the operation 
or successful completion of the 
game. Children control the games in 
much the same way as many 
"traditional" computer games are 
controlled, lliat is, by pressing 
specified keys to obtain specified 
results. In some cases the 
identification of keys is aided by 
small pieces of coloured tape, but 
this is not always necessary, as even 
pre-school children it seems are 
quick to learn which keys have 
which effect. 

Although there has been some 
variability in the speed of learning 



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control sequences all the children I 
have worked w th to date (about 20! 
have learni 10 control the games 
through the kevboard input system. 
Most have developed considerable 
sophistication in this area and can 

work rapidly; keying in becomes 

secondary to the main task at hand. 
Also, even at this age, some 61 the 
children have learnt to control the 
computer input system and disk 
drive and can select games they 
wish to play. These children have 
been able 10 (ind their way about the 
"QWERTY" system, have been able 
to find letters when asked to type in 
simple words, and have noi been 
contused by usper and lower case 

letters. 

Generally then, my observations 
suggest that much can be done 
within the realm of conventional 
hardware and programming 

techniques to provide useful and 
workable computer-based material 
for young children to work with. 

I would be willing to provide more 
details of the programs I am 
developing tc anyone who is 
interested. I would also be interested 
to hear from anyone else who is 
interested in writing programs for 
pre-school children. 

D. Yeo, 

R.D. 3 

Cambridge 

Pilot in schools 

Dear Sir, 

After a year's research we have 
completed a term using Atari Pilot 
with a group of primary school 
children in a week-end hobby class. 
It's been exciting! 

Our resources have been Conlan & 
Deliman's Ataii Pilot for Beginners, 
David Thornburg's Picture This! 
(available in New Zealand for a year: 
the importers wondered why nobody 
was buying it). The Computing 

Teacher from the University of 

Oregon (tremendous, value for all 
computer education, especially Pilot 
and Logo), and the Young People's 
Logo Association material including 
their program exchange. 

Is there an> network of people 
using Atari D ilot with younger 
children in fMtiw Zealand? Or of 
people using Pilot and Logo at 
primary sehoo level? If not, who 
would like to share experiences and 
swap programs? And particularly, 
who could help organise? Because 
with two jobs and a family I'm kept 
pretty busy. 

Jenny Chisholm 

13 Arden Way. 

Wilton, 

Wellington 5. 



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A watch on 
the Big 
Brothers 

By Shayne Doyle 



Each year the New Zealand 
Computer Society annual conference 
and computer exhibition provides a 
venue (or suppliers lo show their hot 
new hardware and software 

offerings for the year. At this year's 
exhibition (in Wellington from 
September 13 to 161 I thought the 
most noticeable areas wore 
computer assisted design. (CAD) and 
computer assisted instruction (CAI). 
with videotex! systems also very 
high profile. 

CDC showed the sophisticated 
PLATO CAI system, using touch 
sensitive screens and very high- 
resolution, printed screen dumps. 
Progeni was there with the Poly of 
course, a circular tower o1 Polys 
making all sorts of noise and running 
many different demonstration 
programs. 

Some very high-tech CAD 
hardware and software was being 
demonstrated, particularly on the 
large, warren-like Prime stand. and_ 



also on Walker Scientific's stand. 
Colour VDU s were everywhere, 
showing off very high-resolution 
displays front all the new 16-b»t 
machines with their appropriately 
large video RAM areas. I had great 
difficulty deciding whether a display 
I saw on a DEC micro was a TV 
image or a computer display I'm 
still not sure. 

Plenty of neat compact Sony 
videotext terminals were around, 
and I spent a half hour paging 
through Databank Systems 

demonstration system. I must admit 
that after a short while I got fed up 
with the slow screen display time 
and low resolution graphics. 

Honeywell was showing a micro 
system sporting the most amazing 
n.ulti-function keyboard I have seen. 
Beautifully designed, and a dream to 
the touch, ClivG Sinclair would go 
green to see how many functions are 
on this one . 

IBM had ts interesting looking 
3290 Plasma Display on display. I'm 
not quite sure what one would use it 
for perhaps classroom 

demonstrations? Burroughs had only 
its B20 series micros on the stand; 
there was no sign of tho new 
ET1100 terminals, although since 
then I have had the opportunity of 
using an evaluation unit at work. 

Those strangely shaped Televideo 
terminals were on show, and I must 



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say I quite like the look ot them alter 
the initial feeling that ihey look 
lopsided. The local Apple retailer, 
Microshop. had Lisa there, of course, 
and also a Mitsubishi RM101 robot 
arm waving around all over tlie 
place. Speaking of robots, tha 
"robot" fronting Prime's advertising 
campai-gns, Albert Einprime, wai 
there charming the girls. Perhaps 
should call him a biologically 
activated exoskeleton to be quite 
correct? 

The personal computing market 
was not really represented, and this 
is probably fair enough, as this 
exhibition seems to lie aimed 
primarily at the business user. A few 
Hewlett-Packard ultra-program 

mables, Apple lie. and one 
newcomer to the New Zealand 
.market, the Pencil - a product of 
ColecoVision of Hong Kong. This 
appears to be a quite sophisticated 
product offering a lot of features for 
a very realistic price. The 
demonstration cartridges I saw 

running foaturod very high quality 
graphics animation and resolution. 

I expect to be able to present a 
review of this machine early next 
year. 

One new printer of Interest to 
home-computer users: AWA is 
handling the Amusi-80DT, 80 
column dot-matrix printer. This has 
been available in Australia lor some 
time and is again similar to a number 
of oihor printers uoming on lo our 
market; it will sell lor aboul $840. 

To sum up. t his show is not for t he 
personal computing enthusiast, 
rather for the big brothers of 

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Towards 
computer 

literacy 

By PAT CHURCHILL 

We need to be literate to go about 
our daily lives. There are those who 
say we will also need to be computer 
Iherate to get by in the future- 
Computer literacy was the topic of 
one of the more general interest 
papers presented at the recent Sth 
New Zealand Computer Conference 
in Wellington. 

Dr John F. Barren, lecturer in 
education at Macquarie University's 
School of Education in North Ryrie. 
Australia, took the need for 
computer literacy in society as a 
basic assumption and discussed the 
development of a curriculum to meet 
the need. 

While Dr Barrett's paper was 
aimed more at the development of 
computer literacy programs in formal 
education at school level, the general 
model suggested was applicable to 
school courses, courses in teacher 
education, and traininu programs in 
business, industry. Government 
departments, and the armed forces. 
He said the first obstacle to be 
avoided was centring the course on 
hardware. While equipment, 
composition and functions might be 



valid at the introductory level, "there 
is very little to be gained by giving 
detailed descripton o* ROM and RAM 
to raw beginners." 

Presentation laden with jargon 
would only help reinforce the notion 
that only those possessing special 

magic (and who could converse 

about peeks aid pokes! "would be 
the rightful anc chosen ones to enter 
the kingdom of the computer 
literates." Dr Barrett warned. 

While terminology had its 
importance, the ability to match 
terms and definitions did not 
necessarily make one computer 
literate. 

Dr Barrett said the approach that 
put correct learning before practical 
experience hoc to be questioned. 

"Well structured learning 

experiences are unquestionably 
important, but this should not 
exclude the integration of the 
theoretical and the practical." 

Research indicatod people liked 
using computers- "It is ludicrous to 
frustrate this initial motivation." 

Also, he said, trie ' 'why not try it" 
approach to learning could 
encourage problem solving skills of 
hypothesis construction, analysis, 
testing and verification. 

While a minimal level of 
manipulative skills associated with 
the keyboard were valuable, the 
need for this skill might diminish 
within a few years wiih 
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through voice recognition, menu 

driven programs or devices such as 
the Apple Lisa. 

Touching on the psychological 
process of modelling or imitation, Dr 
Barren said strong influences on a 
student's attitudes, values, and 
knowledge could well occur through 
observation of teachers" behaviours 
and of computer applications within 
schools. II teachers were 
uncomfortable with computers and 
had little access to or use of 
computers, the impact of the literacy 
program would be greally 
diminished. And how could a student 
begin to believe computers wore 
useful when timetabling was done 
with coloured pins and bits of card? 
Dr Barrett asked. 

He also mentioned the use of 
experience in computer based 
learning programs in adding to a 
user's awareness of computers. 

Generally, he said, computer 
literacy curricula included these topic 
areas: 

• History of calculators and 
computers 

• Application of computers in 
society 

• Hardware 

• Problem solving techniques 

• Software 

• Programming 

• Computers and society 

Dr Barrett said criiicism of many 
current courses could be made on 
the ground Ihere was no over-all 
sense of purpose or coherence. 

"We are now at a point where an 
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and organise the main ideas upon 
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computer literate. 

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For a closer loak nl HP's personal com- 
puters, and a copy of our 20 -pane booklet 
Choosing the Wight Tool fur the fob, visil 
your local f lewklt-l'nckard sales office or 
.authorized IIP computer dcidcf. 1*01' tnO 
location nearest you. call Ell' in Melbourne. 
896351: Sydney. 887-1611 ; Adelaide, 
272 -5911: Brisbane. 30-4133: Canberra, 
80-424-1; Perl li. 383-2188; Wellington, 
877199: Auckland. 687-159. 



HEWLETT 
PACKARD 



28 November, 1963 BITS & B*i 



Mawa mo 



^^ BITS & BVT6S R€fiD€R SURV6V 



Dear Reader 

Would you please help us to serve you better? 

We are constantly trying to improve our offering but to do this we need TO KNOW WHAT YOU 
WANT. 

So please take a lew minutes to complete the questions on the following pages. Any 
additional suggestions or criticism you may wish to offer will also be very much appreciated. 
Naturally, your responses will remain in strictest confidence. 

Alter completing the questions just follow the instructions below on folding and slip the 
Questionnaire into a mailbox. No stamps or envelopes are required. 

Please note this information is very important for the luture of BITS & BYTES. 

Thank you 



First Fold 



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NO STAMP 

REQUIRED 



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BITS & BYTES 

P.O. BOX 827 

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Second Fold 



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Remove the lour page questionnaire from the centre of the magazine. 
Fold along the First Fold line above. 

Then lold alonq the Second Fold line above. 
Tuck i.n al the bacK or seal with sellotape. 

To be in the draw for an HP 12 Financial Calculator complete the following: 

NAME 

ADDRESS 

BITS & BYTES - Novemoer. 1983 - 29 



Pleaso tick the alternative that best describes the level of your proficiency with computers: 

Adapt or write my own programs in languages such as BASIC. 

Use packaged software purchased off (he shelf with little or no attempt to do my own program writing. 

Adapt or write my own programs in machine code. 

Read computer magazines but do not vet get much hands-on experience with the computer. 

Oilier, please indicate: 



2. Indicoto the PRIMARY type of access you have to a computer: (Pleaso tick ONLY ONE) 

Have my own 

Use rny friend's computer. 

Use the computer at School, Polytechnic. University. ole. 

Use the one a\ my place of work. 

Don't have much access lo a computer. 

Don't know enough to tts>e one. 

Other, please indicate: 



3. If you do use computers, indicate tho brand of computer that you access predominantly: 
Name ol Brand: 

4. It yet' do riot own a Computer do you intend to pirchaso one: 



Don't use L 






Within three months. 
Within six months. 
Within one year. 



5. Ploaso tick the statcmo-nt that BEST do scribes your interest in computors: 

Hobby. 

Small business applicotion. 

Farming application. 

Professional. 

Educational. Headier, leciurer. etc) 

Other: . 



6. How did you FIRST lind out about BITS AND BYTES? (Please tick ONLY ONE). 

From a friend. 

Saw in a bookshop. 

Saw in a compu tor/hobby shop. 

Received a complimentary copy. 

Saw an advertisement about )1. 

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Other, please indicate; ^ 



7. How do you obtain your copy now? 






Subscribe lo I;. 

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From bookshop. 

From computer /hobby shop. 

Library. 

Complimentary copy. 

Other, pleaso indicate: 



8. How frequently do you read BITS fit BYTES? 



Every issue. 
[_] Every other issue. 
- Other: 



9. Approximately how much time do you spend reading a typical issue of BITS & BYTES? 

10. What do you do with your copy of BITS & BYTES after you haw finished reading it? 
Please specify: 



11. Apptoximately how many individuals, other than yourself, read your copy of BITS & BYTES? 

30 - November. 19&3 BITS & BYTES 



12. Please indicate how useful you find EACH of the following types of articles by placing a tick under the heading that bust 
■describes your view: 

Nol 
Don't Very Not Useful 

know Useful Useful So-so Useful at all 

(81 



|a} Computer Programs 

jb) Book reviews IW 

|c) Farming topics tc) 

Id) Glossary <dj 

|e| Hardware reviews * G 1 

(f) Micro news "* 

(fll Classified adverts 19' 

(hi Display adverts (h* 

lil Club contacts w 

(jl Software reviews 'V 

(k) Feature articles such as "Word Processing" (k) 

(1} Education topics f'l 

|m| Articles on busirtoss/professions ^1 

(n) "Be-ginners" articles 1°' 

13. How many timos have you sought additional information DIRECTLY from any advertiser in BITS & BYTES? 

_ None 

_ Once or twice. 

_ Three or four times 

_ Five times or more, 

14. (n| Now much have you spent on computer hooks during the past twelve months? 

None 

Up to $9.99 
$10 to $19.99 
$20 lo 529.99 
S30 to $49.99 
$50 to $99.99 
$1 00 or more 

1b) Some of these were bought from BITS & BYTES book club? 

□ Yes D No 

15. How much have you spent on computet software during the past twelve months? 

None 
Up to $20 
$20 to $49.99 
$50 to $99.99 
$100coS149.99 
1_1 $1 50 or more 



16 For each of the statements below, please indicate I ho degree of your agreement by placing a tick under the appropriate 
column: 



(a) I would seek more inloimation irom advertisers it a 
dutachabla roadot inquiry card were available. 

(b) I intend lo purchase books from BITS & BYTES BOOK 
CLUB during the next 12 months. 

(cf I would lie intaiested in mail order software sinvlar to mail 
order hooks now offered by BITS & BYTES. 

I<ll I would like lo see increased coverage of "general news on 
micro computers" rather than specilic machines or brands. 

(e) Adverts in BITS & BYTES have prompted me to seek 
additional information regarding these products. 

(fl I like the present siylo of writing in BITS & BYTES 

!gi I like the u-xisting pago formal of BITS & BYTES. 



Strongly 
Agiree 


Agree 


Neither 
Agree nor 
Disagree 


Disagree 


Strongly 
Disagree 


□ 


: i 


D 


□ 


n 


D 


□ 


P 


□ 


D 


□ 


a 


D 


a 


□ 


□ 


a 


D 


a 


D 


n 


a 


D 


□ 


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D 


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a 


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1 1 


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a 


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November, 1983 - BITS & BYTES 31 



17. For which of Iho brands listed helow would you like to sio more coverage ol computer programs and.'or programming 
hints? You may tick more than ONE, 



ZXS1 

BBC 

Apple 

VIC20 

So-rd 

Hand-held 

Spectrum 



HX20 
ISM PC 

TRS80 - Sys80 
Micro Bee 

Commodore G4 

Osborne 

Other: 



If you ticked moro than ONE. which is the MOST Important to you? 



18. Has the purchose of a computer product or service boon influenced by an advert you have seen during the past 12 
months? 

J Yes I No J Haven't purchased anything during (he past 12 months 

19. For each of rha products listed, pleaso indicate whotl'or or not you own one by licking the appropriate box: 

(8) Disk rJrivo □ Own D Do not own □ Intend to buy 

within a year 

(br Printer LJ Own D Do not own LJ Intond to buy 

within a year 

(C) Colour monitor I Own D Do not own H Intend to buy 

.within a year 

(d) Other, specify: iZJ Own U Do not own CI Intend to buy 

within a year 



20. Pfoase list tho nomas of any other computer magazines or journals you read regularly: 



! l 



Don't road others regularly. 
Name ol magazinels): 



PERSONAL INFORMATION 

Tho following will romain strictly confidential, We need this information to help us analyse tho above responses. 

Your age: Sex: \J Mole D Female 

City or town where living: 

Your occupation: , . 

Highest level of educational qualification; 

_ Less than Secondary School 

_ Secondary School Qualilicaiion 

_ Tortlory Qualification or highor 

_ Trado Qualilicaiion 

._ Other, specify: 

Level ol personal income: 

Under S4999 
85000 to S9999 
S10.000 to $14,999 
|_J 515.000 to $19,999 
$20,000 to S 24,999 
S25.000 to 529,999 
More than 530.000 

Spaco fof general comments or siatementslo.g. style o1 wilting, page format etc): 



32 - November. 1983 - BITS & byus 



COMP€TITION 

- ..■.■./. vv../-yv'-vV'v-.V.'V.V..V.. - 

A-mazing: 
Challenge 
to micromice 

By Pat Churchill 



The Wellington Micro Computer 
Society is on the look out for 
micfi micromice. 

The society is hoping to stage the 
first New Zealand micromice contest 
in Wellington next year. 

A micrornouse isn't of much 
interest to the domestic cat. It is, in 
■fact, a miniature self-contained 
robot, usually controlled by a 
microprocessor. The robotic rodent 
is designed to find the quickest path 
through a specially constructed 
maze from the bottom left hand 
corner to the centre. 

For the contest, consideration is 
also being given to a second class of 
micrornouse to be controlled 
remotelv by pre-programmed 
personal computers. 

While micfoiYiousing is new to 
New Zealand, readers of overseas 
computer magazines will be familiar 
with micrornouse maze contests 
held, abroad. Typically* the maze 
consists of 16 by 16 squares. The 
starting square is at the bottom left 

with the target post at the centre. 
Each mouse is allowed a maximum 
total of 15 minutes to perform 
although if the mouse becomes 
boring or demonstrates erratic 
behaviour which could endanger the 
state ol the maze, the judges can 
request an early retirement o( the 
mouse. 

If a mouse gets to the centre of the 
maze it can be restarted so it can 
profit from any learning ability in 
making a second run. Within the time 
limitation it can make a number of 
runs and be credited with the 
shortest successful tun. 

Within reason, battery changes 

and minor repairs can be undertaken, 
though the clock is left running. 

With a New Zealand contest in 
mind, the Wellington Micro 
Computer Society is inviting 
companies, othor organisations and 
individuals to register their interest 
in: 

Sponsorship, particularly 

regarding prizes and publicity. 

• Micrornouse kit design, 
manufacture and/or marketing. 

* Design. manufacture and.'or 
marketing of a mouse/personal 
computer interface. 



• The inclusion of a micrornouse 
competition in a wider exhibition or 
other public occasion, preferably one 
involving relatec technologies. 

• Being added to the society's 
mailing list for future 'competition 
news. 

• Entering a team, or themselves, in 
the contest. 

Interested parties can contact the 
society at P.O. Box 1581, 
Wellington. 

Ross's nous 
for mouse 



There is at least one mouse 
interested in the New Zealand 
Micrornouse Contest. It is the work 
of Ross Parkes, a senior engineer 
with Wang in Wellington- 
Ross's micrornouse, although still 
with a lew bugs (fleas?), went 
through some of its paces on the 
Wellington Micro Computer 

Society's stand at the recent 
computer confe'ence in Wellington. 

The mouse took a couple of 
month's constiuction, plus about 
$100. 

"The mechanics weren't a big 
deal," according to Ross, although 
he said it was difficult for people in 
Mew leatand to get parts. He was 
fortunate in being able to get a bit of 
scrap equipment from work, 
although he thought with the number 
ol radio-controlled model cars 
around, parts ate probably there 
somewhere. 

He said the only information he 
had to work on w/as Irom the British 
Practical Computing magazine plus a 

sample program* He adopted the 
technique and rewrote the program 
lii had bugs in t|. The gadgets and 
electronics were his own work. 

Ross used his Texas Instruments 
computer to do a maze on screen and 



used the some logic for his 
micomouse, The mouse's program 

is written in Z80 assembler. Ross 
used just over 2 K of the mo use 's 4K 
of Eprom. There is also 1K of static 
RAM to keep track of where the 
mouse is. The unit is totally self 
contained and has two six volt 
batteries. 

Ross's mouse weights each 

square with the value of times it has 
been there, It stows away valid 
squares as it progresses; towards the 
centre, flagging culs-de-sac as not to 
be entered. It saves and reads 
information for a second run. 

Ross is still working on his mouse. 

Will it be a robot in mouse's 
clothing when complete? Ross isn't 
anxious to weigh his micromouse 
down with sartorial elegance 
although he has toyed with the idea 

of a Mickey Mouse hat. 



Computer 
Books 

At Special 
Prices 

Send SAE for listing 



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BITS & BYTES - November. 1983 33 



JAPAN IKPORT 



largest source 
ofTRS-80 

Software in 
Australasia 




And rf you think thats 
impressive, waft till 
you see the catalogue 

COLOUR CATALOGUE 
BBC Micro 
NEW colour Genie 
TRS-80 Colour 



As we publish new software we 
send you an update. Our otter is 
to keep you abreast of new pro- 
ducts, new services and our 
regular special prices. 
Fill in the coupon and return it to; 

Molymerx Ltd. 

B P.O. Box 50152 
Titirangl, 
AUCKLAND 
NEW ZEALAND 



Moli|merx 



Tel.: {81 7} 4372 



Please send LI copies of the 
Molymerx Software Catalogue, 

Ploaso JM BLOCK CAPIT MS 
Name/Company 



Address ... 

. . . Zone . 

OficWse S Colour <ft S3. 00 \>v> coi>> 

oncloseS 'RS 80 Ql $4 50 per 

cow 

AlltiabtKHtinUtDtfrt V^W *wrn. fl*jrw.C*U , 
WeioSyW-nbSa»-i'H MuTrfcr:! l&:m SjCbtw. 



Where NEC 
rules 
the roost 

"When you get to Japan", the 

man from fJfts & Bytes said, "try to 

get on a few mailing lists from the 

lea-ding companies - lhal way you 
get up-to-date information on new 
products. . . " which is all very well 
but first I have to get an idea who the 
"leading companies" are, So, what 
better way to start a series of articles 
on the Japanese computer market 
than by reporting on the latest 
survey on market shares held by the 
various computer manufacturers? 
There are a few surprises, I promise 
you! 

The survey I found was taken by 
the prestigious "Japan Economic 
Journal" and wds reported early this 
year. The results are shown in Table 
One, ll is worth while now to analyse 
why the best companies have 
achieved such sales (remember, the 
Japanese computer market is worth 
more than S7O0 million every year, 
and is still growing). 

The besi placa to go to learn aboul 

the computer market in Japan is the 
Akihabara dist'ict of Tokyo a 
veritable Mecca for computer and 
electronics fanatics. In Akihabara 
there are blocks followed by blocks 
of shops all stocking a huge range of 
computers, calculators, radios, 
stereos, VCRs, television sets and 
innumerable other electronic 
gadgets. So, to Akihabara I went, 
notebook and wallet in hand! 

NEC models gan be found in 
almost every store which slocks 
computers. It is a very large 
company with a long-standing good' 
reputation for producing electrical 

and electronic products of almost 
every kind imaginable. It has very 
good distribution because most 
shops already stocked large 

quantities of NEC goods before the 
computers were introduced. NEC 
also has manv of its own stores, 
called "Bit Inrs". These aro large 
walk-in showrooms crammed with 
the latest mod?ls, lined with books 
and software and. logically, packed 
with people, 

A wide range of computers is 
offered by NEC compared with those 
of American or British manufacturers 
leg: Apple, Sinclair). This is a very 
common phenomenon: Japanese 
companies do not restrict 
themselves to one- market. Although 
NEC does export its computers, it 



tends to concentrate its efforts on 
the home market, both in service and 
product design. This probably 
accounts for most of its popularity in 

Japan. 

The SORD Computer Corporation 
is a relatively small and new 
company among the giants in this 
survey. Despite this, it has held 
second ranking for two years, and Is 
well known as the fastest-growing 
company in Japan over the last six 

years. It has a reputation for high- 
technology products with innovative 
soltware. Much of their success has 
been due to PIPS (Personal 
^Information Processing System) 
powerful but simple software which 
makes it possible for a novice to use 
computers without programming. 
SORD is concentrating on 

networking its computers, using a 
low-cost system known as S-Net. 




"Bits & Bytes" now has a reporter in 
Japan, Peter Hyde, who has written 
Sord articles for the magazine, 
(pictured), has taken up a position with 
Soid Computers in Tokyo. But his 
reports will not he confined to the latest 
Sord releases. He will keep readers up 
to date with all the latest developments 
and releases from Japanese 
manufacturers. This is his first ort'iGle, 

SORD also has a large range of 
computers, from a 32-bit desktop 

under development to the new M5 - 
SORD's first home computer, which 
can be found on sale in every 
Akihabara shop. Apart from the 
electronics stores, SORD has 
network of dealers and PIPS-lnns 
display and training centres where 
customers can review the new 
models and be trained in the use oj 
PIPS. These are very effective foi 
business users. It is also notable thai 
SORD has the highest brand -loyaltj 
(ie: percentage of existing customer; 
who return for additional machines 

- 58 per cent as against -32 per cef) 
for its nearest rival, NEC. 

Fujitsu is a large company ^ 
known for its production 
mainframe and mini- computers 
the FACOM M and V seriesl. wfnfl 
run IBM software while cost 
much less than the United Stall 
counterparts. Fujitsu's entry intoij 



34 - NovemDiif. 1983 - BITS & 8YTES 



JflPAN R6PORT 



IBM 



microcomputer market has been 
most successful with both 8-bit and 
16-bit models on offer. Its next 
model is likely to bo a 32-bit machine 
rather than a home computer. 

Oktdala is better known in New 
Zealand for its printers (eg: rte 
Microline 80). However, it has 
business computors on sale in Tokyo 

with very good software. I could not 
find any English manuals or 
brochures 'or the Okidata models so 
t could not gauge how well they 
would do on the New Zealand 
market. 

TABLE 1 

Table of market shares held by leading 
brands in Japan 

Manufacturer Percentage of 

total market 



amNOMmeawmt *w*jcaxaom--» w n-M— »»■«*— —.— ■— .-- -. Hmwn -.—-. mm * ,w™,™«*>i><™t-» e»» <-> o *i « m i p w g' M — M 



SORO 
Fujitsu 



35.1 ; 
i3;i 

12.5 

7.5 

5.2 

3.8 

3.! 

3.0 

1.6 

1.5 

13.5 

share has fallen 

surge in 



;hc 



Sharp 

Hewltti Packard 

Hitachi 

Aopte 

Tandy 

Commodore 

Others 

Sharp's market 
dramaiically with 
competition, from models such as 
Fujitsu and Okidata. It is likely that is 
will need to concentrate more on 
software and new technology to 
improve its standing in future. 

It is most interesting to note that 
Hcwlitt Packard, the most popular 
overseas model, is only sixth in 
ranking with a very low market 
share. H.P. probably defeated the 
other United Slates contenders 
because its products have a 
reputation as specialist scientific and 
engineering tools, and thus displace 
some Japanese brands in these 
markets. 

The remaining United States 
brands no longer do well in Japan 
(Commodore used to hold nearly 80 
per cent of tho market!) since they 
do not cater for specific Japanese 
needs such as Katakana characters 

or operating systems. 

In future articles. I will take a 
closer look at some of the most 
popular new models available in 
Japan, and discuss their Chances in 
overseas and Now Zealand markets. 
Concurrent with the survey of 

hardware sales, ihe "Japan 
Economic Journal" did a survey of 
sales of user friendly information 
processing spreadsheet software. I 
will deal with the results of this 
survey in my next article. Until then, 
sayonara. . . 



The PC in 
New Zealand 

By Shayne Doyle 



At the recent Computer Society 
conference In Woltngton, IBM INZI. Ltd. 
held u press seminar as a statement of 
current and future progress with the 
Personal Computer in New Zealand. 

Mr Noel Cohen, marketing stall 
manager. IBM Proouct Development 
Centre, presenter! some signidcum 
figures from overseas that point to an 
increasing share cl the market lor the 
PC. Introduced in August 1981, tho PC 
has jjiabbed 26 per cent of sales, 
dislodging Apple 'rom the number one 
spot. The PC was voted 1 982 Pioduct of 
tho Year by "Infoworld", "Time", and 
tho "Wall Street Journal". It is tho 
official computer for the 1984 Olympics. 
ThOSO accolades, with IBM's name and 
mainframe dominaico havo combinod lo 
make the IBM PC the industry's 
standard. 

According to one industry analyst, 
ahou: 2700 software programs exist lor 
tho PC or Ihe PC XT, it>ese comprising 
throe categories of program IBM 

Logocd programs lhal aftoi strmgcni 
testing to standard are acquired and 
maiketec by IBM 

More than 100 products are in this 
category ns compared with 1 4 iwo years 
ago. 

Vendor Logo products are externally 
written and may be marketod by l"3M 
provided they meet the standards. 

TI'Q llwd category is non-IBM 
software and you take your chances 
with that. IBM PC users now have a 
choice of six independently publisi'Wd 
mii(|ii7ines centrec almost solely on the 
PC. 

Ol total microcomputer market 
iGvemte. in Now Zealand, snayllhusiness 
users represent Sc per cent, large users 
32 per com. Distribution in New Zealand 
is latjjoly a threo-prongjed thrust, 
authorised dealers handling 70 pet com 
ol sains, the Product Distribution Centre 
1& [>sr cent, and representatives another 
10 pe' cent. 

Mr Noel Cheer, Market Suppo.'l 
Manager, presented a summary of 
software availability and structure. 



Elaborating on the three tiered progam 
supply structure. Mr Cheer mentioned 
thai several products in the Vendor Logo 
category are currently under evaluation 
in New Zealand. These products are still 
owned and supporteo oy the vendors. 
One of the most useful references lor Ihe 
PC user is a copy of The List ■■ a 
summary of all known software and 
hardware products lor the PC. Tho copy 
made available at the seminar contained 
14 pages of references, and copies may 
be had by contacting the Product Centre. 

The IBM PC is backed up threo-fold by 
ihe Hotline. Problem Determination 
Database, and the Customer Support 
System. Mr Roger Souden, Gaoler 
Service Manager. outlined the 
sophisticated customer support system 
from its development in Boca Raton, to 
1000 installed in United States dealers' 
6ysiems. 

With a further 30 to 40 installed in 
Canada, the system has not had one 
crash to date. 

The CSS provides a hord disk based 
datiibase of recent announcements, 
demonstrations, product directory 
information. PC configurations, warranty 
claims history, electronic mail between 
dealers or between IBM and deaJe-s, 
technical support for problem solving by 
program o* hardware unit, hotline facility 
end up to dale diagnostic techniques. 
The diskette version is here now. and the 
hard disk version was to bo available in 
Octot>er 

IBM NZ is evDluulirg ihe online version 
ol the CSS for an early 1964 decision. 
IBM ai pr-usenl uses tlio VNET system 
hookup lo Boca Raton, Florida, lor 24 
hour turnaround on problems unsolvablc 
.locally. 

Summing up, Mr Cohen emphasised 
that IBM was "getting its act together" 
and was definitely "on plan for Its 
targets" as lar as the IBM Personal 
Compute was concerned. 



Don't miss 
next month's 
bumper issue 



THE GADGETS COMPANY 

DOES 

In Home Demonstrations 



Box 52-081. Auckland. Phono M2-260 



Microcompuier 

Sale by Tender 

The Universi.y of Waikato invites lenders for a IMS 99013 microcom- 
puier system including 32K bytes RAM. dual 8" floppy disk, and printer. 

Tender closes 5 December. Conditions of tender, including reserve price, 
arc available on application lo the 

Registrar, University of Walkaco, Private liny. Hamilton. 

For appointment to view the equipment v ptease telephone 
Hamilton 62-889, cxlcnsion 4129, 



BUS & BYTES - MovcmBPr 1983 35 



BBC 



Level 2 sound is louder lhan Level 1 . I his 
is why both Attack and Decay rate can 
have positive or negative values. After 
Level 2 has boon reached Sustain comes 
in. This is rnoro of a decay in loudness 



Exploring the 
envelope 



By Pip Forer 



In September, wo started a short 

review of sound on the BBC and covered 
the SOUND command. This month's 
column deals with ihe count erpa it ai 
that command: ENVELOPE. With 14 
parameters attached to it this command 
is not among tho friendliest, The 
terminology used by tho writers of 
documentation is also rather confusing. 
All o-l which makes ENVELOPE rothei 
imposing to the first-time user, albeit 
bettor than the POKEs and PEEKs 
required by some other machines. 

Tho earliest of the: 14 parameters 
ippeai simple. The first is the envelope 
number (called by SOUND), and the 
second porameter is the base time period 
on which all ihc other parameters should 
operate. This is in 1/lOOths of a second 
. . . not 1/20ths os in tho note duration 
defined in SOUND. The top bit has a 
special significance de-senbod later. 

The remaining parameters aro mora 
confusing. This is becauso tho 
ENVELOPE command is in fact defining 
two envelopes, one related to the 
amplitude of the sound Ihow its loudness 
will vary over time) and one related to its 
frequency (how the pitch of the not« 



varies from the base level' established in 
the counterpart SOUND command!. It 
may be best to sort these two out 
separately. 

Envelope parameters 

ENVELOPE E. 7. PI . P2. P3. D 1 . 02. D3. A A. 

AD, AS. AR. LI. 12. 

Wumhur Timo Pitch Amplnudo 

Siep Envelope £-rtvck»pe 

The AMPLITLDE onvelopo ctelines the 
changing loudness of the nolo. It 
requires six parameters lo sei It. These 
relato to four distinct phases in the note. 
As a user you n&ed to dofine the actual 
level of sound n two points In the note. 
We could call '.nose level 1 arid level 2. 
(L1 and L2 in the parameter list. I You 
also heed to deline the rate ol change in 
volume getting to these levels and 
dropping down again afler Ihey have 
been reached. In fact four rates of 
change ere needed: Ihe Attack. Decay, 
Sustain and Release !AA. AD). AS, and 
ARK 

In the history of any note these rales 
havo a simple funclion. Attack says how 
quickly the note will rise Irom silence to 
Level 1 loudness. Clearly the slower the 
rate and tho higher Level 1 the longer in 
time terms wil be the attack phase. Its 
duration is defined by these two 
parameters, not directly. The second 
rato controls the movement towards 
Level 2. It is callea Decay phase, which 
is very misleading to the less musically 
knowledgeable since in fucL a decay' 
phase can mean a rise in amplitude if 



since il must be cithtu £thc Sound does 
not die away) or negative. Sustain 
continues until the sound dies away or i 
the duration of sound defined in the p 
SOUND command has been reached. If 1 
the sound is still audible at this point 
Release simply describes ihe rate at! 
which il drops away to zero. 

Vou can see that the combination c 
these six parameters and information! 
from the SOUND command together 
allow the amplitude lo be controlled with 
some, accuracy throughout the note. 
Notes which die away rapidly (like a 1 
snaro dium) ot resonate (like an organ! 
can be produced by a suitable choice olj 
parameters. 

Tho remaining six parameters control 
tha PITCH ENVELOPE for Ihe nolo. Tta 
initial pitch is set by SOUND so what 
ENVELOPE requires is another 301 of 
rates of change. In this case, however, 
the amount ol change is controlled by* 
duration parameter, not by defining; 
some desired end state as will 
amplitude. The BBC offers three phase! 
of pitch change in amy one note, Thest 
are totally unrelated lo the section! 
controlled by ihe amplitude commands 
You con, of courso, co-ordinate tlio [w<*J 
In some way but that is is ihe user's 
responsibility In the actual ENVELOPE 



mm 



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36 - November. 1983 BITS & BYTES 



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TRS-80 COLOR COMMODORE 64 VIC-20 SINCLAIR/TIMEX TI99/4A 

PYRAMID (by Rodger Olwnl 
This it our most challenging ADVENTURE. 
I( i| 3 treasure hum in 9 pyramid fyll of 
iirotiliinv Exciting and toughl 



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'.'ur.:; i ■ A Nl ■'■ IDEA IN ADVENTURE 
GAMES! Dillorunt from ail tno others. 
Quest it ployed ot\ a computer generated 
map ol Alesia. Vour Job is to gather men 
and supplies by combat, bargaining, enplor- 
otion of ruins and temples and outfight 
banditry- When your lores is strong enough. 
you attack rho Cmidei ol Moorioek in a 
life o' death ba(«c to the finish. Playable 
in 2 lo 5 huwit, thii one is dillirrcnt every 
t m-< TRS-80 Colur. and Sinclair. 13K VIC- 
20. Extended) BASIC requited (or TRS80 
Color and TI99/A. 

32K TRS 80 COLOR Version 
Add; >i second lever wilh ihmueoni and 
more Cuetit'iq, 



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Tower <^\ 

WIZARDS TOWER This Ik vary similar to 
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dragons, and dungeons to come up with a 
Quost wilh u O&O lliivor It roquiros 16k 
extended color BASIC. 13k VIC. Commo- 
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TI99/A extended BASIC. 



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ZEUS — It's fast and luriousasyou become 
the WIZARD lighiiag oft the Thurderbolts 
ol an ano/y ZEUS, four Cone of Cold will 
destroy 6 thunderbolt and your shield will 
protect you - lot * while. This is the best 
and ii i]hr:,[ speed arcade action .;* havo 
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wove, providing hours o* challenging lun 
and a ganw thnt you may never completely 
mavtiir. Commodore 64. V>c20 116k ex- 
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pal terns of torpedoes a head of the allocking 
PT boats, Requites Joysticks, at least 13k 
RAM, and fast refluxes. Lots of Color and 
Sound. A fun game. Tape o* Disk lor Vil'i). 
Commodore 64. and TRS-80 Color. NOTE I 
tap-tiwill not transfer to disk I 




ADVENTURES!!! 

The A(fv«niur«t below are wtcen m BASIC, 
ore full featured, fas) action, full plotted ad- 
ventures Hi.:- take 30-50 hours to play. (Ad- 
ventures are interactive fantasies. It's like 
reading a book except thai vou are the mom 
character as you nr/e the computer, com- 
mands like "Look in the Co'f in" and "Liflht 
iho loreh.") 

Advoniunng requires 16k on Sncloir. 
and TRS8Q Color, They require Bk on OSI 
and 1 3k on VIC-20. Now available (or TI99. 
Any Commodore 64. 



ESCAPE FROM MARS 
(by Rocker Olsenl 
This ADVENTURE rakes place on the RED 
PLANET. You'll ha«v 10 explore a Martian 
cty and deal with passibly hostile alknt to 
survive mis one. A good first adventure. 



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players to go on a Dragon Hunilnfl, Monster 
Killing. Dungeon Exploring Quest. Ployeir 
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BBC 



ENVELOPE 
,1, -6.6,0,10,10.0. 
1.0,0.190.0.0. 
36,-36,0,20.20,0. 

80,-13,-13.10,20.20. 

70,6,0,31,10.0, 

-1.1.0.20,20,0. 



..•v^.v=im«mYnii,««<~~>^«-^'»^»--~"*™v^.;.v.''/^M-'-v*B>wM^^ 



SOUND 
1,1,140,45 

1,1,0.40 1,1, 

1,1,160,100 1,1. 

1,1,90,20 1,4, 

1,1,100,200 1,1, 

1,1,200.100 1,4. 

command the throe rales of change 
come first (PI. P2 and P3I, ihen ihe 
three respective duration parameters 
ID1. 02 and D3). These define the 
duration m terms of ihe units set by 
parameter 2 of ENVELOPE (T in 

centiseconds). 

From this you can see that any sound 
you produce is defined by the interpl-ay o1 
a variety of parameters and the possible 
combinations are almost endless. The 
relationships between ihc duration of the 
note and each of the two envolopes is 
clearly central to what sound is produced 
and has many variations. The program 
listing below cffers a way to experiment 
with different aspects of (ho ENVELOPE 
statement to see how different settings 
interact. There is one point you should 
note before trying this, however. 

The second parameter (duration) has a 
range 1-127. For value between 129 
and 2 55 the duration acts as the value 
minus 128. The difference is thai the 
ENVELOPE will not auto-repoai. You can 
see that an envelope enn have one 
duration Idefined by tho sum of ihc 
durations of each amplitude phase 
bofoto the sound dies) and Ihe SOUND 
command another. Normally the SOUND 
duration takes precedence and lhi> 
envelope will repeat itsel* os mnny times 
as needed lo complete the SOUND'S 
duration. This is how warbling effects 
enn be created. The higher values of 
parameter 2 do not autoropeat and in 
effect the note's duration is controlled by 
ENVELOPE and not SOUND. 

The listing below may prove helpful In 
experimenting. It allows you to defino a 
SOUND with a standard envelope set up 
and then modify aspects of the 
amplitude and frequency envelopes. In 
the meantime, or for thoso with less 
time, try the sound effects in Task_1 . 

As lor the program there is nothing of 



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38 November. V983 - BITS & BYTES 



125.0,0. 125.125.125 
125.0,0.-125,125.126 
155.0,0.-125.120.120 

156,0,0,-126,126,126 
125,0,0,-125,125,125 
155.0,0,-125,125,125 

any originality in it, but it docs, provide an 
easy way lo experimenting and tinkering 
with the ENVELOPE command. It 
prompts the Lscr to establish a standard 
set of SOUND and ENVELOPE 
paramut-ors. The note defined by these is 
then played . The user can then replay i he 
note or access procedures to modify 
either ihe amplitude or pitch envelopes 
or the time units used. This provides 
easier experimentation than just keying 
in direct commands and listening. 
Inevitably the program is mainly prompts 
and print statements although the VDU 
28 (text window! statement is used to 
control Che screen layout. What it needs 
is a little graph ol Ihe envelopes in the 
bottom riqht of the screen. Over to you. 
L6H0DE 8:JHJ 3J ,2S,i iPRlHT* :■:> = >> 
:» ENVELOPE 2GIWD KPERJMEHT •>''.-: 

12 UDL* 31,9.18 

26 INPUT ' ENTER ChlMti-cElMlHi 
NuMwr. Fitch and D ur a t i Of- * : C*; , A'/. , P*'. , DX 

25 JFffl« 0Hfl'/.)31HBr 29 

26 IF M OR M THEN 28 
28COL0UR (iCOLOUR 12? 
3M0DE 9!V0U3l,2»,l:?Rm; 

»» ENVELOPE SOWD EXPERIMENT 
U(«':VDU 29,2,8,35,2 

34C0L0UR 1 iCOLOUR 126 

35 Ctf:PR|NT 

46 PPWTMENT. EXPERIMENT or. GH 
nul ■{« 

56 PRINT jffiJrfT "EnVaO p E = 'ifvi 



')■>■)] ■ 



= " |PV, 

= *m/tt\ 



238." 



& PRINT'Mch 
n PRINT 'Ogratton 

Sets" 
*5 PREDEFINE 
169PLOT U,4B8:PLQT<S, 
181 PROCDISPLAV 
164 PPOCEDiKHOICE 
185 IF MUTTON CLSsINPUT' WAT H 
EU TIME PERIOD 1 'jSTPLS-C'. 

118 IF At='A'THEN PROCPNPLTOE 
115 IFM^P'THEN PROCPITCH 
126 IF AM'G'THEN MODE 4: BID 
121 IF A*='N' THEN SQlM' a,*M,fl 

J2<f GOTO 181 



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125 DEF PROCPITCH 

126 INPUT* FITCH CHWGE IN SECTION 

1 M28-12?) \FIM 

127 INPUT "NWBER OF STEPS IN SEIT10 
N I (8 - 255)":NSTPIK 

138 INPUT" PITCH CUM IN SECT1 OH 

2 (-128-127) -jPIK 

135 IKPUT'NINBEft OF S'EPS IN SEC7IQ 
N 2 (8 - 253)" iNSTPffi 

148 INPUT' PITCH CHANGE IN SECTION 

3 (-128-127) '!Pi3X 

145 INPUT 'NU1BER OF STEPS IN SECT10 
I* 3 < 6 - 255) ' ;NSTP& 

158 ENDPROC 

1698 OEF PROCOEFINE 

1905 yDU 28,2,3B,78,i2;CL$ 

1619 COLOUR SiCQLQuR l29:PRtMT* HOI 
DEFINE VO-UR BWELOPE'iCOLOUR 1 iCQLGUR 
!2SiPRlNT 

IfllSINPiiT' UMTNENTIME PERIOD' ';$ 
TPLBK 

J 825 PROCPITCH 

1838PR0CAHPL I7UDE 

1A48 COLOUR 1:C0L0UR 128:CIS 

1876 ENDPROC 

26B8 DEF PROCOISPLAY 

212ft WU 26,^,16,78,3:00101111 liCOU 
UR 128:CLS 

2025 PRINT' »»> CURRB-fT EIWEL&PE 
STATUS «««' 

2936 PRINT 'PARAMETERS. ...EtWElOPE ' 
|«Ci n STEPLENGTH 'iSTPLENV. 

2649 PRINT :PRINT'(WLnUDE BJYELOPE' 
iPRIMT'Level 1 = *;ALA2j' level 2 = ' 
;ALD£ 

2658 PRINT'AtUck Rale 'jATTCHXiTM 
26);' Decay Rate ';DECCrK 

2669 PRlNTSustam Rate ";SUST«;Tfl 
B(20)i'Rtlease Rale ';ftELCrK 

2e7flPRlMT:PRlNT' FREQUENCY ENVELOPE' 

28S8 PRINT 'Period' iTAB<!2>i'l'iTAfc 
24);"2-;TAB(3^); - 3* 

28YBPR1NT 'Change Rate';TAB<l2>;Pil) 
jTAB(24)jP!2XiTAB<34);PI3X 

2188PRJNT *L*ngtr. •;TA8(12»:«STPIZ i 
AB(24)|NSTP2XjTAB$36);NSTP37. 

2183 EW ELOPE AX I STPLEM,PW'/.,P12XF 
1 3X ,N STP17. ( NS1P2X 1 NSTP3'/. ,ATTCH>:,DECC»! 
jSUSTCW.RELCrTX.AlAMLM 

2185 SOUND C.AX.PX.DX 

2119 ENDPROC 

3898 DEF PR0C60ITCHQ1CE 

3816 UDU 23,18 l 2B,78.22:COL0UR 8:C0| 
OUR 129:CLS 

3814 VDU 28, 38,28 ,78,22 

391C PRINT 

3826 PRINT'ENTER P to edit PITCH' 

3836 PRINT-ENTER A to eoit WITH 
* Turn to page 59 



VIC 

POKEing 
around 

By Tony and Paul Graham 



Budding computer enthusiasts are 

usually confused by the POKE 
instruction. Hopefully the following 
snort programs will holp you to 
understand what happens. POKE is 
probably best described as a BASIC 
command lot a non-BASIC function. 
It allows the programmer to escape 
from the restrictions of BASIC, but in 
doing so BASIC'S error-trapping 
routines are also eluded. 

In other words, a wrong POKE may 
lock up your computer, leaving no 
alternative but to switch off and start 
again; or it may remain hidden for 
hours just to trip you up when you 

try and save* your program. It all 
depends on where you POKEd. Don't 
be scared of POKE'S; just be careful. 
Initially we will only POKE to the 
screen which on a standard VIC (no 
expansion memory*, occupies 
memory addresses from 7680 to 

8135, and the colour memory. 
which occupies from 38400 to 
38905. By doing so we cannot 
cause problems and we can see 
what we are doing. 

Type in and run the program 
"Alphabet Soup", see what 
happens? The screen should become 
filled up with changing characters 
and colours. 

1 REM ALPHABET SOUP 
JO PRIHT ,, 3" 
2© ft-IHTs'RH0<i>*5ee> 
30 X= I NT • RNQ < 1 > #2 56 > 

4© C»aMT<RWD<l>*e.> 

39 POKE ?S80+fVH 

e® POKE 38400+1=1,0 

?0 GOTO20 

How the program works: Line 20 
sets A. with a random value between 
and 505. Lino 30 gives X a value 



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between and 255 to provide us 
with random characters to POKE to 
the screen. Line 40 gives a random 
colour for the character. In line 50 
tlie POKEing begins. A when added 
:o 7680 gives an address 
somewhere on the screen, which we 
poke with X, "some character", Line 

60 POKEs the corresponding colour 

memory withC, "some colour". And 
of course line 70 sends the program 

back to repeat the whole process. 

I REM DRAW BORDER 
M3 POKE36e79-5S' 
28 PRINT M a" 

39 X«42 

40 FOR fl«OTG22 

sa poke reeehflj-M 

ki-i POKE 768&Kfl#a;2>,X 
79 POKE ?701«--<fl*22>^X 
88 POKE 8164*fl,X 

9tt NEXT 

jigna qjoroiee 

The BORDER p'ogram ( simply 
draws a border around the screen. X 
is the character which makos up the 
border. Look up screen character 
codes on page 141 of your VIC 20 
manual, choose a new character and 
make X= the code of that character. 
The POKE in line 10 of the program 
sets the colour of the screen, or we 
would have white characters on a 



white background. It would be 
possible to POKE in a colour for your 

character. Remember that the colour 
memory starts at 38400 and 1 must 
be kept in step with the screen 
memory. T!ie colour is determined by 
a number between and 7. 

The wrong POKE: To show the 
effect of a POKE to the wrong 
address LIST one of the programs. 
Now type POKE 4100.255 then 
press RETURN. Again LIST the 
program. The first line number will 
now be 65290 if it was 1 0, or 65300 
if it was 20. POKE 41O0.0 to restore 
the program. What happened? We 
POKEd into the address where 

'BASIC stores its first line number 
thereby corrupting Ihe program. Try 
POKEing any address between 4096 
and about 4150; that's the section 
of memory where our BASIC 
program is stored, with a value 

between and 255. LIST and see 
the havoc you cart create- It's a hit 
like trying to LIST all those protected 
programs. 

Get yourself a memory map So you 
can learn just where to POKE. 



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VIC 20 & 64 SOFTWARE 

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BITS & BYTES - Novcmbet, 1983 - 39 



COMMODORC 64 

Mtamm m*mmamm — ww w f( K»l w*"~ • 

Riding 
the IEEE 
Express 

By STEVEN DARNOLD 



In the beginning, all Commodore 
computers used the IEEE-488 bus io 
attach printers, disk drives, and their 
peripherals, This IEEE standard <s widely 
usecl on scientific instruments and on 
several other microcomputers, notably 
Hewlott Packard. While not as widely 
used as the RS-232 and Centronics 
standards, Mil 488 is superior to bath, 
It sends data a byte at a time - so it is 
much (aster than RS-232. which sends 
data a bit at a time. Moreover, it has a 
two-way capability which the Centronics 
standard lacks. 

Commodore produces six different 
IEEE disK drives. These range from a 
single disk drive, with the same 
spocilica lions as the 154-1, to a mulii- 
megabyio hard disk <)riva. Commodore 
also produces four IEEE printers. In 
addition, many printer manufacturers 
supply IEEE versions as an option. An 
Adtor IEEE daisy-wheel printer, for 
example, sells lor M895 in New 
Zealand. 

With such o solid base of IEEE 
peripherals, it is surprising that 
Commodoro swiichod to a new serial 
standard on the VIC- 20 and 6-1. 
However, the reason is simple: the serial 
port is cheaper to implement than an 
IEEE bus. This reduces the cost of VIC 
and 64 peripherals by about S2O0. 

Cheaper peripherals aro nice, but there 
is a price to pay: the serial standard is 
much slower ihan the IEEE. An IEEE disk 
drive, for example, is more than twice as 
fast as the 1 54 1 . 

To gauge the loading speeds of the 
disk drives, I chose a 26K program as my 
standard. I used the same disk in all of 
the drives, and I reset my 64 before each 
trial. 

First, as a point of reference. I loaded 

the program on casselta. It took 488 

seconds. Than 1 loaded it on the 1 541 : it 

took 67 seconds. This makes the 154 1 

about seven times faster Ihan cassette. 
Next, 1 i > - ■ ■ an IEEE interface into my 

64 and loadod the program on a 2051 

drive. This drive is the exact equivalent 

of the 1541 drive, the only difference 

boing that it uses IEEE and costs $300 

more. The 2031 drivo loaded the 

program in 26 seconds, This is more than 

twice as fast us the 1 541 , Then, for my 

last trial. I loaded the program on a 404 

dual disk drive. This IEEE drive loaded the 



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prorjrnm in 16 seconds. 

Most Commodore 64 owners will lie 
quite happy with die loading speed ol Ihe 
1541. It may not be lightning fast, but 
it's reasonably priced and it docs t he job. 
Some users, however, will want 
something faster. Business users, in 
particular, should consider the speed 
advantages of "ha IEEE drives. In 
addition, the larger IEEE drives offer 
considerably more storage capacity and 
onable backups to be mnde quickly and 
easily. 

[ ■:■: light business use. the 1541 is all 
the Commodore 64 needs. It will happily 
perform some wordprocessing, prepare a 
payroll, or print on an updated price list. 
Backups are awkward to do on a single 
1 541 . but if they don't have lo bo made 
loo often, there should be no problem. 
However, if a business wants to use the 
Commodore 64 heavily, particularly if it 
needs to maintain a lot of records, the 
4040 dual drive Is bettor. It is lour times 
faster than a 1541, i has twice the 
storage capacity, and it has a built-in 
backup command. Moreover, the 4040 
can teed and write 1 541 disks. 

At S2595 the 4040 costs much more 
than a 1 54 1 , but for some applications it 
will be worth it. The bigger IEEE drives 
aro even mote expensive, and they can 
not read 1 54 1 disks. Nevertheless, some 
users may want to consider them. 

Before you rush out to buy an IEEE disk 
drive for your Commodore 64. beware ol 
tho fish book. IVany dis* programs foi 
the 64 aro espacially protected from 
copying. Unfortinatcly, this protection 
may block the program from loading on 
an IEEE drive. "Easy Script", for 
example, will not load on some IEEE 
interfaces. Talk this over with your 
dealer. Don't buy an IEEE drive unless he 
will let you return any programs which 
don't work. 

II you decide to use IEEE peripheials on 
your 64. you wll need to plug an IEEE 
interface in your cartridge port. In New 
Zealand there are- throe IEEE interfaces to 
choose from; the C-64 LINK, tho DAMS 
IEEE, and the "vISO CIE. Commodore 
kindly provided me with samples of the 
first two; Viscount Erectronics sent me a 
copy of the instructions lor tho third. 

At $350 Ihe C-64 LINK is the most 
expensive of the three, but it is much' 
moro than just an IEEE interface. It also 
provides a machine language monitor, a 
parallel printer driver, a terminal 
program, and the BASIC 4.0 disk 
commands. Somehow it manages to 
squeeze all q' this into a tiny cartridge 
which hardly protrudes Irom ihe back of 
Ihe 64. 

II you want all these extras. I ho LINK is 
o nice piece of work. However, it is a bit 
too obtrusive for my likin-g. It gobbles up 
BK at the top o : memory, and alters the 
operating system in lols of little ways. 
One big advantigo of Ihe LINK is thai it 
comes with a r3tocation program which 
permits you to shift the coding to ton 
alternate locations. The manual claims 
that one of these locations will load 
"Easy Script", bui I couldn't try this out 
because the LINK I received was 
malfunctioning. 



Tho LINK'S extra features are 
irnprcssivn, but I w-ns disappointed with 
their limitations. The machino language 
monitor is. only n simple load-save- 
display monitor. The put>lic domain 
monitor. 'Supermen', is far more 
capable. Similarly, the printer driver and 
teiminal program aro rather 
unsophisticated. 

At $288. the MSD CIE is nearly as 
expensive as the C-64 LINK. However, 
the CIE is just an IEEE interface and it has 
no fancy extras- The CIE Is larger than 
the LINK, and it includes a socket for 
other cartridges. It is supported by two 
adjustable feet. 

Whereas the* LINK takes over the 
operating system as soon os the 64 is 
turned on, the CIE is surprisingly shy. In 
fact, the CIE isn't there until a SYS is 
executed, and then it disappears 
whenever there is a RUN/STOP 
RESTORE. This is an undesirable feature. 
The interface should stay on until the 
user decides otherwise. 

The CIE comes with program listings 
to relocate its code to two alternate 
locations and to permit il lo use specified 
serial and IEEE devices at the same tine 

At SI 90 the DAMS is both tho 
cheapest and the biggest IEEE intorfoco. 
It produces 1 5 cm out the back of the 64 
and has no support feet- This is its worst 
feature. Not only did I have to be careful 
not to damage tho board. I had to push 
my monitor bock to an uncomfortable 
viewing distance. In tho and I solvod 
both problems by getting a plastic 
platform for my monitor and cutting a 
hole in tho front sido. I then pushed the 
64 up to the platform so that Ihe DAMS 
slid through the hole under the monitor. 

Tho reason for tho size of this DAMS 
IEEE is that space has been left on ono 
ervl of tho boa*d to attach a socket for ' 
oit\or cartridges, and on the other end of j 
ihe board lor a networking connector I 
wouki have prelerrod a smaller board, 
but some people may find those options 
useful. 

The DAMS has many ottractivo 
features. Unlike tho other two interfaces, 
it uses no BASIC RAM in its normal 
position. Thus, it is less likely to need 
relocating. Furthermore, if you do want 
to relocate it, it is not necessary to load 
and run a special program: a single SYS 
shifts the code. 

The DAMS is automatically enabled 
when the 64 is turned on, and it 
integrates itself well into the system. 
Unlike the other two IEEE interfaces, the 
DAMS- polls both the serial and IEEE 
buses. Thus, a serial printer and an IEEE 
disk drive can easily be used together. 

The DAMS manual claims that it will 
load "Easy Script". However, l wa$ 
unable to do so. Porhaus the now 
manual, due out soon, wit' toll me howl 
"Zork" and "Doadline", on the othfltl 
hand, both loadod easily. 

Whichever IEEE interlace you choosd 
you will need a PET-IEEE cable, This wff 
cost you an extra 51 10. Plug tl 
interface into tho 6*4, plug one end of 
cable into the interface, and plug 
other end into ihe disk drive. Nov/ you'i 
ready to ride tho IEEE Express. 



40 - November. 1983 - BITS & BYTES 




trtC 



i-M V W i t' V '1 T T B > • - It *H* 

• ■"'... - . - .l : ,T * | 1 - 




"Give me — — === _ 

one good reason why I should 
choose a VIC 20 home computer." 



1. VIC ts outstanding value 
for money. No other colour 
home computer can give so 
much for only $495 

2. Toial standard memorv 25K 
made upof20KROM and *5K 
RAM 

3. Fully expandable to 32K of 
user RAM, 

4. Microsoft Basic interpreter as 
standard, 

5. Accessible machine language 
as standard. 

6. Connects direct to monitor or 
standard television. 

7. Full size typewriter-style 

keyboard. 

8. Full colour and sound. 

9. All colours directly 
controllable from the keyboard. 

10. 62 predefined graphic 
characters direct from the 

keyboard. 



1 1. Full set of upper and lower 

case characters. 

12. 512 displayable characters 
direct from the keyboard. 

13. High resolution graphics 
capability bui H into the 
machine, 

14. Programmable function 
keys. 

15. Automatic repeat on 
cursor func.ion keys. 

16. User definable 

input/output port. 

17. Machine bus port for 

memory expansion and ROM 
software. 

18. Standard interfaces for 
hardware peripherals. 

19. VIC 20 is truly expandable 
into a highly' sophisticated 
computer system with a 
comprehensive list of accessories 
(see panel below), 



Accessories mclgilo 
■ Cii^si'llu Inpeunit. 

• St'Kifo drive 5 1 /." floppy disk unit '170K bytes eopac'lvi 

• flO-coluirti <Ioi Ttaill* |tiuw>i 

• 3K. SK. vd '■ 6K. BAM OKpivwion cartridges. 

• Programming aid (tarts machine code riionriorcamidgB, 
ptocitarnmyrs' aid cartrdge, high resolution graiUMcs cartridge. 



• ROM Exaansion canndijcv 

• RS?3JCcoriiTiur"i;aiioncaM'itlqe 
< Mororvc*paiW^bDfl'd 

• lEEf '488 initrlace cartridge. 

• JoyaiicKfii I'll 1 '' pons, paddlBSBfldBTOiffl controllers, 



20. Full range of software I'or 
home, education, business and 
entertainment on disk, cassette 
and cartridge. 

21. Books, manuals and learn- 
ing aids from Teach Yourself 
Basic to the VIC programmers' 
reference guide (a must for 
advanced programmers). 

22. National dealer network 
providing full service and sup- 
port to VIC owners. 

23. Expertise and experience 
— Commodore arc world 
leaders in microcomputer and 
silicon chip technology. 

24. Commodore is the leading 
supplier of micro-computers in 
New Zealand to business, 
schools, industry and the home. 

25. VIC 20 as the best-selling 

colour home computer in the 
world. 

How many reasons was il 
you wanted? 

commodore 
VIC 20 

The be.sl home computer 
in the world. 



t 



COMMODORE COMPUTER (N.Z.) LTD 

P.O. Box 33-847, Takapuna, Auckland 

Telephone 4-97-081 



Contact your 
local dealer 



BUS & BYTES November. 1983 - 41 



ZX81 

10 LET fi = 24- 

11 LET B=8 

12 LET 5=0 
20 FOR N=10 TO II 



4-P NEXT N 

50 LET X = INT IRND*J.O0> 

60 IF *;-S© THErf LET 6=B#-i W*> 

<: 70 IF X<50 THEN LET B«B-1 AND 

& a00 PRINT AT 10,tt;"B t'.'flT 9,R 

"SEE", pit 8,R; "*■■ »" _ __ 

TlB PRINT RT 10 . B; "■ ■ 

113 FOR X=l TO 5 

114 NEXT X 



120 IF B=P OR fi=B+9 THEN GO TO 

£30 
13® print RT 9jA; M "j.flT s,n;" 
i ■ 

0.4-0 LET S=S+10 . 

150 LET R=R+ ( INKEY$="L"J - ( INKEY 

•t ~ ■ " Q " 1 

160 IF B=R OR fl=B+9 THEN GO TO 
250 

200 GO TO 5© 

S5@ PRINT RT 10.R; "' 
"aas"; RT S,R, "IB ft" 

3S0 PRINT RT 11 , 10; " SCORE= "; 5 

Not*?: In line 30, insert 30 graphic spaces inside tht/ quotes. In 
lino 100, insert oite space, in line 1 10 insert nine spaces. In line 
J 30 insert three spaces inside each of tha pairs of quotes. In line 
250, insert one space. 



";hT 9,R. 



THE GADGETS COMPANY 

' us 

SPECTRUM RAM UPGRADES 

Wfiiii on PHWB f')H OUflFWI WOCHUflt 
Box 32-081. Auckland. Phono B62-260 



THE HOME 
COMPUTER CENTRE 

Auckland's most comprehensive 

home compuler specialists 

Education — Utilities — Ehtertafnment 



Tele phone: Auckland (09) 734-1 1 1 
P,Q,Bo*5128 



Jeep: stay on 
road 

This game from Jamos Gerbich. ol 
Auckland fi'.s IK. The object is to 
siay on *hfl road without crashing 
into ihe side of the bank. 



THE GADGETS COMPANY 

ZX SPECTRUM 

FREE SOFTWARE! 

Wilh each 48K Spectrum (S699)wo will giw 

you MflZEMAN , WIZARDS WARRIOR * THE 

KNIGHTS QUEST. Totiil value: $74.65! 

SPECTRUM SOFTWARE 

.'.Hi: I .".II WOMI (•<( <'.*! fntl lAIALOGUE 

Box 52081 Auckland. PhOno 862-380 















:■■■' 




T— 




■ 






















■ ■: : 



Your mar should took tike this, 3 
spacas wide, and 3 spaces deep. 

You stay between the at/owed graphic 

tines. It yau crash your jeep turns upside 
down onct a $cote is given. Note that A = 
Left, and L = Right. 



THE GADGETS COMPANY 

ZX81S0FTWEAR 

ARIIL "HI I "CHI I IU'11 l HI | [,AtALO(V.i| 

Box 52QBI, AucWano, Phone BB2-260 



Day-of-week 
finder 



Which cloy ol Hie weeK wure you 
born? Here's a simple program from 
Keith Paintin, modified slightly by 
John Mitchell our new ZX81 editor, 
which wilt identify the day of a given 
week this century. 

It fits into 1 K . Note thai, in line 70 
the last two digits only ol the yea' 
are entered. 

LET EiIHT fRND*7)»3 

i_er cqimt (RNr<*6) +* 

PRINT C, "X"i C 
LET C"C»E 

LET E"IUT iRHDltWHa 
©o for p»J to s 

13© LET C»JNT (RND^7a» .10 

xao ir G*: TntM c-c to cope b 

JPO JF F-E THf-l PRINT ■'■",c; 

leo PRINT "■", &i 

17P MBXT r 

LET f=UOL "IS" 

F<?R CtJS TO 3 STEP -1 

PRINT RT C.r; " 1" 

314 FOR O-l TO 30 

21 S HBXT O 

aa-o let f -f. i XHKers -•■«-.» -urixi 



71 



1O0 



330 N.EXT C 
54.0 1^ F=3*E-a 
*nTNT "CORRECT" 
24.S FOR 0»I TO OOO 

2f0 NEXT O 

^&p nun 



on r-E*j-i Tuci 



WE DON'T JUST SELL COMPUTERS 

WE GIVE YOU ALL THE INFORMATION YOU NEED _ 



SinclairZX81 + Sirius + Access + Spectrum 



Commodore 64 + VIC 20 + Atari + BBC 

Patrick Dunphy has over 15 years' computer pro;jramrnincj experience and is now combining this with TV and 
video technology. He can talk to you in English about your compuler requirements. We also have a large 






stock of cheap colour TVs and monitors. 



Programs available include: 

Chess 

Galaxians 

Pilot 

Moon Lander 

Aucklands largest selection Ol pioamms, hooks, games, programming courses, paper, all accesses, cassettes, cartridges, etc 
Business sysioms also available. Mai orders and all crodt cards acceptod. Hire purchase availaWo. 





SUROTCH aECTRONICS 



130 MT. EDEN ROAD, MT. EDfcN 



"ELEPr-ONE6Cf)-2l6 



PO. BOX 2600 AUCKLAND 



42 NouomlxH. 1983 - flITS ft BYTES 



ZX81 

•'W.7.V.-.V.V -,.-. . . ■.-•■ . | ■ -—■ - :■ ■ ■ 

Fun with 
animation 

By PAUL KINLEY 

This program is an example o( 
ZX81 animation. 2X81 users may 
like to experimenl with movements 
or add more robots, 



i.^mi-ft»w~-v-— «—«•*•"-•. vi».. ■■. • :iift!i>iximii(iH«»ij 



X 


LET R« = " 1 I 




■ 




tf 


LET B*=" JU 


L 






3 


let c$=" Ag- 


I 


■ 




4. 


let d*=- 3dh 


IL 






5 


LET E* = ,, ^fl 


% 


* 




6 


LET F*=" "^ 


r 






7 


LET G«=" 




■ 




* 


LET M*=" J 


■ 




Sr 


LET X-0 






10 


IF X=© THEN 


GOTO 


3.00 


20 


IF X=l THEN 


GOTO 


I3Q 


30 


IF X=2 THEN 


GOTO 


T"Q© 


4.0 


IF X=3 THEN 


GOTO 


a I© 


SO 


IF X=4 THEN 


GOTO 


9T9 


60 


IF X=5 THEN 


GOTO 


7*4-0 


70 


IF X=© THEN 


GOTO 


ct 7 9 


*<* 


rF X=7 THEN 


GOTO 


100 


as 


IF X=8 THEN 
IF X^=9 THEN 


GOTO 


4-00 


GOTO 


JOO 


^6 


IF X = 10 THEN GOTO 14-0 


'~*V> 


IF X=ll THEN GOTO 1 


ii?0 


LET R*=" | j 


" 




1 10 


LET B$ = '" JU 








let c$=- mn 


b - 




li-'W 


goto iaoa 






13© 


LET C$=" U 


^B 




1 ttM 


GOTO 10GQ 






La.0 


LET F* = " imi 







3y3 


GOTO 10QQ 


4-oa 


LET ft$ = " . . 


^2© 


LET B*s" AA " 


M-4-0 


let c*=- igi ■ 


4.44 


LET E$="^TB% 


45G 


LET F*^" 1 M B " 


^30 


GOTO 1000 


-::0^ 


LET R$=" o . 


C1Q 


LET B$ = " .^A. ■ 


e2© 


LET C*=" WX ' 


63Q 


LET C-$=" -U- " 


560 


LET F*=" ^^^ 


eso 


GOTO 10O0 


?fifi 


LET fiS = -| 1 " 


7^2 


LET B*=" L^a 


704. 


LET C$=" n '* 


70S 


LET D$ = " ^k 


750 


GOTO 10 ©3 


74.0 


LET fl$=" 1 
LET e$ = " JLh, 

let cs= • JDHB 


O00 


GOTO 1000 


810 


LET R*=" ll" 


550 


LET 2S = " jli ' 


S30 


LET G$ = " «0* " 


ed-e 


L^T D$=" ■& ' 


93© 


GOTO 1O00 


979 


LET B$ = " | 
LET 6$=' ,^m 

let cs = ' '—m n 

LET D* = - J. „ H ,_ _,,. 


98 3 

' : -1 


xeoo 


PPINT RT 5,10^Rt,PT S,1©;B<£ 


; RT 


lO^lS.FS.fiT ii,io.;Gj;fit 12, 


^T 


3 H - 


a 3.0 


LET X*X+1 


:0v) 


GOTO 10 



PROFIT 

FROM YOUR 

HOBBY 



Write programs for the new 

DICK SMITH 

COLOUR COMPUTER 



The incredible now Dick Smith vz 200 
Computer looks like becoming Iho 

personal computer success story of 
the S-O's 

with many thousands of these $300 
units already in Australian and New 
Zealand homes, demand lor additional 
software programs ts growing ll .t- 
alarming rate. Here is an outst.ri tm<: 
opportunity tw enterprising cornoulcr 
buflft lo earn extra money in your 
spare time and gain recognition by 
■ai' n ip- - i • ■ '. I i :.■■ ■ VZ 200 

Contact: 

Peter Traill 

Dick Smith Electronics 

Private Bag 

Newmarket 

Phone (09) 504-409 



SUPER DISK DRIVES 


Ian 

5V4" FLOPPIES 


dan 


51A" WINCHESTERS 


TM100-1 SS -18 Tp| 20OK 


TM 602-S 6.4 Meg 


TM10D-2 DS -18 TPI 500K 


TM603-S 9.6 Mag 


TM 103-3 SS96 TPI 500K 


TM 603-E 14.4 Meg 


TM10D-4DS96TPI 100OK 




8" FLOPPIES 


WINCHESTER 


THIN LINE TW 


CONTROLLERS 


TM843-1 SS <1B TPI 80OK 


for Apple II 


T M8^3-2 DS 48 TPI 1600K 


O Bus 




Multibus 


Give us a call? 


S-100 




IBM PC 


LriDVANCED ^ONTROL 


Electronic Business Equirnenl 


Sales Service 


16 Si Marks Rd, Newmarket 


Phone 504-690 


P.O. Box 37- 180. Auckland 1 . 


504-691 



B'TS & BYTES November, 1983 43 



TRS80/SYST€M 80 



■■ '-"■-■■- ■ * x ; 



^J^««<WK««<'*W<W>><^( »>tM/^^.^AV.w*^' ■' - WVVWVWy W^HrtimvXvAfrJft / r wAV*JV*^ - -v w w_w, . 



Cassette 
system word 
processors 



This is the first of two articles by 

BRIAN SULLIVAN on word 

processors for cassette-based 
TRSSO/System 80 microcomputers* 

Microprocessors can do a myriad ■■■■ 
tasks; most of us know this and are 
hooked! Bui to stop short of using your 
micro's wotdprocessing potential is like 
pushing a bicycle down hill. 

Of course I hear you say tho cost of a 
piintcr will hold you back- Lately. 
however, there aro appearing on the 
market some very adequaio machines 
for use at more reasonable prices. If yon 
do write reports, type assignments, or 
just write a lot of letters then word 
processing Is, I guarantee, going to be a 
delight for you. Especially if you wani 
one more reason for having a computer 
around tho place. 

For those who requiro a lirst- class 
presentation of script then the ideal 
wouk! be a daisy-whee> printer or an 
interfaco with an electric typewriter. For 



us lesser mortals the dot-matrix printer 
can do a more than adequate job. In fact, 
some printers have an enhancing 
capability (extra dots* fot clearer 
resolution and darker print-out. Most 
primers now will have different, script 
sizes and shades. Make sure if you are 
purchasing a piinior that you got all the 
options you can expect for your money. 
Shop around and find out whal oach 
model offers. Th'oe very important 
nnccssities if you 'ire going lu us.e your 
printer for word processing are: 

First, don't buy less than an 
80-column piinior. 

Socond. m*o sure you can feed in one 
sheet of paper (usually termed friction 
laodi as well as sprockets (usually 
termed pin feoa). You should really have 
both optiens, the lirst for 
wordprocessing and the second for 
listing programs. 

Third, chc:k the printer has true 
descenders (fcurvs such as g and p and 
so on that go below the line) for you may 
not care about sucK niceties until your 
uninitiated friends start saying. "Ohl But 
the g's and p's and things are up in the 
oirl*' 

Enough sin:) about lite hardware, you 
will need to make your own choice and 
finally hve with it, so do it carefully. 
Things to loot for and inquire about are: 

t. Choice and variety of print sizes and 
stylos. 



THE N.Z. 

COMPUTER 

GAMES CLUB 



^ 



CALLING ALL HOME 
COMPUTER and 
HOME VIDEO GAMES 
SYSTEM OWNERS 



MEMBERSHIP OF THE N.Z. COMPUTER GAMES 
CLUB MEANS YOU CAN: 



Hire computer and video games to try i n your home 
before purchasing. 

Hire games on a weekly basis at a fract on of their cost 
and exchange for different games when you wish. 
Purchase games by mail from the largest selection in 
N.Z. at discount prices. 



Fill In The Form Below For Details Of Cost. THIes Available Etc. 

Post to: THE N.Z. COMPUTER GAMES CLUB. 

P.O. Box 93, Rangiora. Phone 6200 Rangiora. 



Name 
Address 



ATARI 

-to oaoo 



ATARI 

CX260Q PET 



APPLE CJ 

SYS 80 
TRS 80 



VIC2C 

zxai 
FOUNTAIN 



C64 
VZ 200 
SPEC'PUM 



WZ2ARO 

rUNIX 

BBC 



2. Ribbon cassette: is it standard and 
readily available. 

3. Pnnrmg speed characters per second 
<C.p,S.r 

4. Uni II) ofbi \2\ directional printing 
head. 

5. Memory buffer size. 

6. Software commands io printer: ate 
these accessible. 

7. Compatible graphics printout lor 
your 80 are? on board or can be fitted. 

8. Underlining capability Inot usually 
availablo on 80s unless commended 
through software). 

9. friction and/or pin leed (already 
dscussed I. 

This is by no means an absolutely 
definitive article but I hope a briel 
discussion will orm you before you head 
to your favourite computer salesman, To 
co-nnect the printer to a System 80 you 
will need a parallel interface, unless you 

have tho expansion i on board. People 

who are lucky enough to have the 
TRS-80. of course, have no problem; ihe 
printer inteiface is built in. 

One Inst thought about printers in 
general is the fact that you may in fact 
up-grocO your microprocessor ait some 
later stage. Bearing Ihis in mind will 
mean you need to have o standardised 
link up such as RS-232-C. or Centronics 
{parallel} connections, oi boticr still both 
options available. 

When you have finally made your 
choice end lugged thfl thing hdrne (they 
are inclined to be quite weighty) you can 

actually gal printing. 

Bad news for the 
people who make 

Twink 

The firs: word-processing package 
thai I tiled was the Dick Smiih W0RP-' 
simply because it was leadily available to 
me at a reasonable cost. 

For an old) tip, tap, thump typist like me 
the wordprocessor was a dream come 
true. Tho amount of Twink or that other 
white carbon-copy stuff I used to go 
through was phenomenal plus the 
walling) time while ii driodf Now. Hoy 
prestol Suddenly I can jus) back space! 
and remove or replace the of lending 
alpha-numeric digit [letter). 

The automatic wrap-around of let tori] 
also makes for easy pleasant typing, si 
for the aclual keying in this is quit<| 
gentle- compared to my old portable. 

WORP-1 is a BASJC language progmrtj 
and the presentation comes completf 
will a 30- page manual that descrih 
clearly the instructions for editing ar 
saving the information you have writter 

One big problem, however, is lt>f] 
gaibagc collection routine In BASIC 
presume that WORP opens gp a s|rip| 
lino I255 characters,) and then open 

It is disconcertint) to be typing a.va| 
and find when you look up ot the scr 
thai nothing is happening' The cur; 
has stopped blinking and every thing 
locked up. A dor a few secoix 
everything will suddenly start up .c.i.«| 

Turn to page 58 



44 - Novum lw. 1983 - BITS & BYTES 



COMPUTER WORLD (1982) LTD 

Announce the Completion of our Showroom 

and Seminai" Rooms 

Seminars Held On 

Introductory Course To Computers 
Personal Computers in Business 



Introducing Children to Computers 



We stock 

• Complete Business and Personal Systems * 

Computer Magazines * Wordprocessing * 

Monitors • Printers + Computer Stationery * 

Books • Off the Shelf Software 

APPLE II, APPLE ffl, and APPLE LISA 

SINCLAIR 
SPECTRAVIDEO 



COMPUTER WORLD (1982) LTD 

Cnr Victoria St East and Lome St, Auckland. 

P.O. Box 967, Auckland. Phone 31 -394, 399-216 



BITS & BYTES - Movomlicr, 1983 - 45 



SP6CTRUM 



.-,».-:.: dh»m ■■■-.--:: 



.^^v^"v^^<M^^^a9w»»«w^^<^> w t«8K>«ro^^ ?;?»>><<»>■*« -^v.-.^'^^ 



Graphics and 
a game 

By Steven Cragg 



The Spectrum has 21 user defined 
graphics which can be assigned to 
the keys a-u in graphics mode, These 
are programmed using the line 
POKE USR "a"+n, BIN' X 
where n is the row number (see 
diagram) the a is the letter of the key 
that the graphic is being assigned to 
and X is the binary number 
corresponding to thai row. The BIN 
command is to convert binary to 
decimal and is extremely useful for 

the U.D.G. 

To see bow ihis works see 



HOW NUMBER 



THE GADGETS COMPANY 

SELuS 

SPECTRUM RAM UPGRADES 

vmn on "HOVt row oun mil linoo-<UR£ 
Box 52-08 1 Auckland Phore 862-260 



SPECTRUM 62X81 SOFTWARE 



only 



50 



$2.3U lorlnight 
with 

Sinclair Software Club {N.Z.) 



including tapes not available in N.Z, 

Full details from: S.S.C. (N.Z.) 
P.O. Box 1743, Christchurch. 



CAMPBELLSYSTEMSSOFTWARE 
SPECTRUM and ZX81 



now available in New Zealand at nearer 1o 
ENGLISH PRICES 
than efer be /ore 



GULPMAN 16K/48K spectrum 



ohas Pncman. 1 5 mazos. 9 speods. fi*/ 

m.'coded, joystick compatible. 

Bast value al only SI 9.95 



GULP 2 ZXB1 16K 514.95 



Spectrum Gulprnnn wil tten tor 2X8 1 

Unbollovable valua al S 14.95 

Or if you are tired o/ games — put your 

Spectrum to work with 

MASTERFILE 48K spectrum $39.95 
MASTERFILE 16K spectrum $24.95 
DLAM (display language) 

1 6K/4 8K spcclrum S24.95 

DRAWMASTER 4SK sneclrum S24.95 
SPOE (A&ossembter.'editor) 

1 6K/48K Spectrum S1 9.95 

THE FAST OWE 1 8K 2X8 1 S34.9S 

Enclose clicquo-'posinlofder to: 

Software Supplies, P.O. Bon 885, Chtistehurch 

orwrltsforfullcatnkDgufl.AUoavfiilablo at 

leading retailer*. 









..... 










>■ ■ 




























'. ; **■; 






—i 


















is 








■-■:■ 
















■ 




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CORRESPONDING 

BINARY NUMBER 

00 1 I " 100 
O I I 1 1 1 I 
O 1 1 1 1 o 
0) I I 1 » 1 1 o 
OO I 1 1 I 00 
I 000 I 
O 1 000 t 
aOOOQQQQ 





I 

2 
3 

4 
5 
6 

? 

figure I 

PROGRAM 

10 FOR N =Oto 7 

20 READ A : POKE USR "c" + N. A 

30 MEXT N 

40 DATA BIN 00111 100. 

BIN 01111110. BINO101 1010. 
BIN] 01 i Ml 10. BIN OOl 1 1 100, 
BIN 01000010, BIN 01000010, 

diagram 1 and the accompanying 
program for pulling it into memory 

(assigning ii to the 'c' keyl. 11 is 
possible to re-deline the whole 
character set and I will cover this in a 
later article. 

A game 

1 BORDER 0: PAPER 0; INK 2 

20GOSUB 1000: LET s=0 

30 LET X=100: LET Y=100: LET 

MS = "p" 

40LETIS=IMKEY$ 

45 IF ISO" "THEN LET M$=IS 

50 LET X=X + (M$ = "p")HM3 = "o"l 

60 LET Y=Y+(M$ = "q")-|MS="o ) 'l 

70 IF POINT !X,YI=1 THEN GOTO 100 

75 PLOT X,Y 

80 LET S=S-f 1: PRIMT AT 10,0; 

"0000" |T0 4 LENlSTR$ilNT<S/10)m; 

|NT(S/101 

90 GOTO 35 

100 PRIMT AT 15.8;FLASH 1 .-PAPER 

0;1NK 7; GAME OVER : GOTO 

200O 

1Q0O PLOT 7,7: DRAW 242 r O : DRAW 

0,-162: DRAW -242.0: DRAW 

0,-162 

1010 FOR K=1 to 30: PRINT AT 

RND'19+1 I RND'29+1; INK 

0;'>":NEXT K 

1020 RETURN 

2000 PRINT AT 6,4;INK 7;PAPER 

1;"Any koy lor another game"; PAUSE 

0:RUN 

The game of Worm. This is not a 
brilliant game but serves only to 
'show off some of the features of 
the Spectrum. 

The keys for playing are: 
p - Righl 
o - Lefl 
q - up 
a — down 

Be sure that you are in lower case 
mode befcre running the program. 

Line 1 sets up the global colours. 

Line 2C calls the subroutine lo 
draw the oorrier of the playing area 



and put in the invisible 'mines' (OK t 
signs to you with no imagination! 
and sets ihe score to zero. 

Line 30 sets- the initial plot position 
coordinates and sets ihe initial movo 
direction to the righl. 

Lines 40 — 60 arc the lines to 
change the direction if the relevant 
key has been pressed. 

Lines 70 - 75 check to see if you 
have hit anything and if not keep 
'plotting your line, 

Line 80 updates the score. 

Line 100 is the crash routine. 

The object of this game is to last as 
long as possible. If you go into the 
same chaTacter cell as a 'mine' 
turns rod and if you are quick you can 
swerve to avoid them. Also you 
musi be careful not to run into your 

path. 

BBC disk systems 

At least two companies have now 
leapl into the vacuum left by Acorn's 

failure to produce enough disk 
operating systems for the BBC. The 
PACE system from Bradford offori 
users a ROM that can switch 
between complete emulation of thi 
BBC DOS or an enhanced versior 
allowing more and longer file names 
per disk. The ROM also includes a 

disk formatting program. Other 

software- coni reliable functions offer 
an extended DOS that can 

required, work just like an Acorn 
version. The other system from LVL, 
of Nottingham. also offers 
compatibility and extensions. In this 
case the major extension is tho 
virtual doubling of disk capacities. 
An 800K disk system is now capable] 
of 1.4 Mb. These systems will be 
reviewed in full in a forthcoming BBC 
column. 



THE HOME 
COMPUTER CENTRE 



Considering purchasing a home computer? 
Unsure which brand suits you besl? 
For comprehensive free ad vice — 



Telephone: Auckland (09) 734-1 11 
answered 24 hours 



THE GADGETS COMPANY! 

ZX SPECTRUM 

FREE SOFTWARE! 

With encli 4 8K Spectrum (9099) wcwillgiit| 

you MAZfcMAN, WIZARDS WARWOR & llt£[ 

KNIGHTS QUEST. Totnl value: S74.85! 

SPECTRUM SOFTWARE] 

'At' It CH tfONf c <-t CHI '"Ft CAT4L0GU 
Box 5208 1 , Auckland Phone 86?-2< 




46 - November, 19B3 - BITS & BYTES 



The BITS B BVTES Computer 

Booh Club 




■. ■ i ■■■■■■ ti .- 

. . ,. in .. ■ i' i 



Tho Easy Gtwlo to Yoiif Applo ll 

Josuph Kasomor 

. . All! i .1 

■ ,,,-n n I .■ . .Ii .1 

■■ 'i I- "i I > 

. | t ■ H.lll 

. ' ■ ". 1.1 ■ I . . . ,1, ■ • Ml li«l I ivi ■ 

nil i ... ti *■< 1 1" ■ ■ i " r '" • 

. n .< i i ■ ■> ■ 

, Our normal pitco 320.85 



Graphics Cookbook loi Urn Applo 

N*t Woid&wonh 

t, ,,,,, . .,,„, . ,...■,'.. i i um .i -.. 

, ,. , -i. , . ■> i *m ' ■■ ■ ■;■■■' 
i. i. , ■. i ■ ■ » " '"■ , ' ' 

i . .11 i Iim.t'i|ill I '".'I ■ " 

II III I ■ ' III" ' <• » • ' ■ '■ ' 

I , , rug . ■ , i . ■. i m« Mi. !■ > '■ I" 

. . i . .i i I.. i - •"' ■ ■■ " 

... i ■ 

Out normal pric« 323.25 

Apple II: Basic Programs in Minnies 

Siuivtov R- Tfost 

...■.,. I'mlil* i ... I' ■■ ' l! 

. ' ■ ' I ■ h 

HI, , i 'I ■ l-MXl "■' I " '■ ■'" 

i. , , ,, i ■ . ... ■■ I . ■ tw.1 •■■ ■ 
I...- ,,„,.,.■■■■ t ■ . . ■•■■-■■■■- f ■ 

. , i ,i i . I. In i I mi i II x,|i 

Our nomisil price $20.85 

Pascal Programming, lor the Apple 



Use 1 bonus point 
per book and save $2. 

• Use 2 bonus points 

per book and save 
$4.50 

• Use 3 bonus points 
per book and save 
S7.00 



Byte a 



Offer closes: 
25, 1983. 



November 




■ . 
I. . i 
i' in 



I.G. Lewis 

i i .. .i i 
• i. .i iii ii 
i i il 



ii 






- l( i , i . .i I. . 1 1" i i 

■ i I- i"ui|i'.'- 
i , . , . i i ■ i. ii. i:«r| 
■ ■ 



• < 
i ' litfl 



Ow norm ;il price $20.35 



Our new selection 



Slniciiiiml fruyr annul ng Wi1h Pi*C BASIC 

Roy Alhorton 

■ , , .|. .. . . ...i. iiny i • i .-.:*■ i g i ■ - ■ ii 

. . .. ,1 i, i 1 1. mil ■■■ i ■ mill i i 

n-jllii .i i . . .-■. .i> in I n i.%n. vw -ii- 

. , iii . I . i . .i m i -. | 'i 1 1 i ii ibun in ■■ 

■ 'i- i IlKOdliu n i .i..| i ■ i. i ■ i l ■ !■ 

. , . . m ■■ ,,| I . . . i,-. • i ■■■ii. ■■ ■ ru t .in " 
.. . . i .. i . . . . i .. .. •• ." um i.r 

I . I .. | 'll ! 

„.. , Ourprico $31.30. Save $1.66 

and uurn 3 bonus points 
Compuiitirs: Information mill Data 

Barbara & John Jaworski 

I, . ■ 1 mi " III "l " ■ ■ 'I' " ■ ' I' ' ' '" ' " 

f Hull :' u. H . Ml l| .- ! "■ I I' -i «l ll I.' I ■' 

. 1 . ■ ■ , 1 .'. hi .. . ■ "■. ■"' r in ii ■ ■'- 

. 1 ■ .1 ■ . All ll II I-. .v 



HOW TO 
BUILD A 
ROGRAM 

•Jack (iinmcnchs-I 



' 1 



Our price $ 1 9. 70. Savo S 1 .06 
and earn 1 bonus paint. 



How it works 

Once you've bought 3 book, vou're in 
the club. So just pick out the books you 
want, fill in the coupon and post it in. 

We are offering savings on the cash 
you pay for each book PLUS we give 
credit bonus points on each purchase. 
These are stored to your credit. 



Computer Peripheral; 

Barry Wilkinson & David Hor rocks 

. 1 . 1. , ■ 1 .. 1 .»i 11 ■ ■ 1 . ii ""ii 

1. . .1 . :i| .:■ . ill . I"'. " ■ I" ■ ■'■■ Hi 

■■.'"' .■•■!■• 1 i.ii- . ■ I 

..... I. ■ Ill 11 -■ til-l ll 

Ovr price 628 25. Save $1.60 
will earn 2 honiib point;;. 



1 -. 



11 1 



P'aciicnl W-ordstar Uses 



Julirt Annn Ar<:» 




How to Build a Ptogram 



I . ■ .'1 .. ■. I , ■ ■ ■■■:■., ll — ■.... |l 

.; .1 I I, .'■.'■ ■ 'I ■ ' ' " ' 

.1 ID. "i I* ■'.. 'I n ■ ■ "-V- ■ • ■ .ill ■■ ■ . 1 

Ii I ,1,'. ... 11 1 1 . 1. .. 11 .I > ll ..■ . • ' •'-■ " !l. . . ., , 

I11 in ■. 



1 I. i. 1 . ■ ■ 

. tin , it.. ... 
.in. 



Jock (-miner ichs 



. .: ll 'I ■ 
I h, l| ■ ■ 

I I I 'I ( -.■ I'- 



;. ■ 1 .in.. 



! 



Our price $28.45. Save $1.50 
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BITS & BYTES - November, 19&3 47 



THE BUS & 0VTCS BOOK O.UB 



Comp 



uter books to read and use 






Introductory 



Tim Crawford 






Computing 
ACompIotoCouise 

PlDvVtni ■> l»|>ml liawtC iilrodoclian lo 
and data pioM-vairtQ omlafelo 1 01 a varlnty ol io»«"a '" 
sc»»sta. taWnMtlitw w rtdjsHK Begi™. «i'.i « Bues'i&m 

Gv*i MUM covwas* ol corvoW aatauag*"*. 

[.orj-antriwo. WDfliMii au»:l.iao, lojp'C- •«""* 

04hmiwiM«G'«<«~imi Out price 526.10. Save 31.40 
and 04«n 2 bonus points. 

Mastering Computers G.G.L. Wright 

A oaod imiWtiCtioi 'o- ilw <iiiliimtl. oi l(* nae no n 10*1 •■> o 
ro «.| lll Hnopi>i<'i'Wt»«wi». Cwo-«llwl l «'Wlion-lUli«.l 
ol mBirvtiaroea, «*ou;|li »ocl> avoayaln or»r»lie«icv» as fai 
toe"»j lo il* i»".\«M«» or v4cot«> a**l an iMCfon* 
nuHttn'm V#0" wtiltiW. COBKat*. ■nj-ftti*«i*l<*(fd. 
MkMa-i Man*. S«<*i Ow piieo 89 45. Sawc SO* 
and cofo 1 bonus point. 

Mlcaocomputeas In Plain English (or 
Now Zenlanilors. Bria n Suong 

'l-o (trot comnuiai boo* foi Wow ZoviiihIoo, ami Ha bcol 
lot Mm UiVWimi IWIWUMk UdB'B Cloiw. |iroci>n noa otle« 

homCOttiirl'OlfutliBn'.iJlli'^odOd^i^" I* '•iifi'.p'Jtna >w 

|>irWn»L poop*. ti»ir ai liomo. lai-noia and ;oach*is, 
•n&,»irWt.wla>WB«BBnetc«*laadrai«-il'B:*vi AwiuiO'io 

ptf&n fc f»OiV»\Ji»o Ol <onaJiu tl>» au!N>* c«|'aat "4 

oi'uuf. lvi ii'f-e«c<a" | ipvw. ir-r .v*i ; vrc**. !tt*|f£f;d 
. I -I .r' i ■•-, .ir~l *»r -.imcui fQUpnianl u"4 iMuui»nit 
avatabb. 

•-igflila Our price 3 7.50. Savu<1 5c 

iimlimrii 1 bonus po«tt. 



General 



Security Dictionary 

Richard A. Hofrncistar a David J. Prince 

,i. •■■■ - , .. . 

.'■.-. , • | 0» ■ ■<■ i- :i 

■•■ I || i - . : . . I|,. I. I: ■• .. il, 

i. i. .!..■>(', i.|r. : -.-, . iinnonicKhenMlan-rftb 

and mni h ■ it'ifli ■ " i 

Sni Out price 6 IC.flB. Save 41 .95 

and nam 1 bonus point 

Crash Couno In Microcomputers (2nd odl 

Loud I ln'iviii. Jr 



-i ,. ■ 



■i '■■■■■ » i. 



Computer Studios: A Practical Approach 

G-M 
»yoit« feeling coninuinm »m rim tli»i 



Baiie BASIC £nc,i«.hDlci(onan, Larrypjoonan 

SptiO»i<'*« 'c u-i<- "I thfl Aoplo. PS T. sad TRS-flO «.tu> 
hovo found ("oqfomn *n rn.tBufioiw or Oooki mat wom 
...i. ii, mm tr«v -ivmukI, Ijui ow* mnlle" 'A' sortli Mrwi 

WnhNim^tu Ouiprlco82O.80. Sava»1.15 

nnd ea*n 2 bonus points. 

Pastti 'o' I*"' Apr 10 «h>g > '* 9 lU&h I 

lain MacCalirm 

PitmdCS o«i idUeduclK-' lo P*«.l .» n l»il c*"*-"*fr 

iMdua^r. U3« yeur «Ml* Id hslp V". V>jin n<r>] .. I I i 
1...11 Jwt fi'oal-ict utioooivclv :o niton-" otv*4» 

,. .[„■■ i, in. if- .1 -1I.I. '• ! '■ I'll IN.- '.-11... 1 - [n ;". ■ 

oln'oyiamcdwifuriiin Winian ai a Mil-wai:hiinj u'«dn ftw 
lhoi» Aoitu-j oIdih and loi MuOflrii. No prnvtoud 

■l-|"l"l'l>!" 1-1M.-T ■ ■ 1' . 

Pnmloe-H-U OdrpricoSbS^B. Sftv*»B2.80 

ntiil earn 5 bonus poinis 

The 68000: Priniiplos and Program rhinfl 

l«0 J. Sconlon 

rtn trimihiciion ac I dill iWicrijlor o( iw niflnhr ton-phn 
•nd .i.uliliil PW» 10-rm nicicprs<0«i">". *«1 •«" » 
proptom n Sutii wiui •t-irnr-tciilnl ntulodnl aril «|mlti.«oy 
ini'odiKVK i'"(ii jiiv;l»oii tonics in n odmly niiininit 



(■rail 

4o4JM !. 



Oil If 



{(worm 



1 -,. 1, 



anguage/prog ramming 



Lournlnyi LOGO in lliu A|ipl» II 

LOOO'n a Plo-juMMaMd «W» n>1 
omttrlo Uiigunpp Nvi-lffhnh al. lot 

faMtM'Maii 



I • . I I ... . I ' I ' 

- ■ . II » 

'* ■-■" ■ ii ■ ^ I. . I. .1 . 1 !.. r.ihal Iffl «-,vl'' 

,|. ■■.!,. 

OHir prica 843.80. Savo S2.30 
und own A bonus points. 
User's Guide 10 iVIicrocompuloi Bu.r/woids 

David Dasenbrock 
■ • "VVi Jtna i: 1 ii ,v >i' 1 ;i ■ " (■cl>jf lo 
1 1 ■ ■ ti P 1 ? i;> .',1 h 1 ■ I 
cm *'-. '.i._.. i 

1 ■ ■ ■...-. 1 

OW prica S 19.86. Save 81.06 
and onrn 1 bonus point. 

The Mi(!ioprox«SBor Mnildbook Elmer Poo 

llOIWV. '"• ■■ -mr. " 'il • 11 1 1 ' '!'■■ ■■ in '. t" il •, Ii . 

■ 1 .• -. ■ - I. (■■ ■ irdwoi . ■■-■ Holiwam 

*.- .. ■ ■ ■ 11 I . .. ' .. . . .... .1 I ..,(, I) I I. ■,![, 

• ' '■■ ' ■ ■ ■■ 

.KllU- . Hi 1 i| 

Our pric« 429.80. Save S1.60 
and onrn 3 bonus points. 



Crolt 



F01 anvoiK T«Btlng corrtnutBis lor iho tli»i linKi. 

empliaMna ilal* piocmung nnn litd limtcllii>3. M al«0 loko* 

ifilo wcmint Vn rupiil axlvinftn in 1 i"vuitii mi.) tin! > iit.-ntl 



I'olivf 'le'licvv 



Out prlca.lG.10. Save 86c 

andaoir* 1 bonus point. 



McDougall. etal 

>mmnii*a A miHII 

tnltal. lo*nlnQ Ii, I. n 
Our pi.ee 818.05. Save £1 
''"!■■."" 1 bonus points. 

Microsoft Ba»ic (2nd edition) Kan Knecht 

Shawo *•«* i 1 "'! ii ii 10 !•* n l« r"»0*n" AeontpronoMAit 
uwml on (iinurai>.TWrtg ttnfl MkroMtt wsioni 'j.O *iti' 
II" tHSSO'Syatiin 80 iio cihor onrflmriaad CPM bono« 
tvantrW H* n**Tol?a *l"= au.lion has a ivjw r*uoto' oi> llw 
Mii:iaai>ltOASIC«iM|Jr«. 

dHntanP'eu Ourprica A33.70. Save $1.80 

and emn 3 boraus pcints. 






Our piaco S22.75. Savo 8 1 .20 
ond otnn 2 honun points. 

Go si inn 
i, ■■•• «.'-( 



P.t. 



■-i IwCx, 

.. . 



MastoiintiCompulOi Proai«ninilng 

.. • i i i . i i .i • 1 ■ -. ■ i i 
■ i«iw or <o in* * KM ■ ■ 
#tir«iM' 'fc'ooraaor it raarr proa/an i 

UWBMrsBASIC I "- .'liiii*-' i.ri-.HLi»ajif«np(»IH»i|. 

inn .i cemputtr vof'ii»« ronBony. 

» tl .W.iU. MaaMrSftan Our price S9.-15 Sovo 50c 
nnil cam I lioum poini 



P.E.Gos«lny 
It-ianvUaMI * 



■,'."■ 



BMJ nning Basic 

bra iniioaluniDii >* Via Hi'-jub^ lor ii 
bat Wa ol i»«*e*nro aiuiraaln^a MDoul Buoti esvlcov 

-.. . OufprrceSll-35 SavoCOc 

and earn 1 bonus point. 



nuLtf.i* > Aim TATdlit 



Atari 



BBC 



Basic Pruaramnsintj on Ida BBC 

Noil ii nd Pat Cryor 
Yuu'vu Boo-n «w i'iBC'ilr-9 on nitcvlMHi, and iw» lo ilia »ook 
pi*iw*d io p" "I'' 1 i>iou-an»ne. lit doalo-ted lot die row 
66C. Tflac'io* ho™ lo m-i-ir pmginiia tliBV ond wirain 
t>k'tre i aian coolies « In" (otoi». <Jtvi»i loiate ofr««ts anfl 
a* (•!•««• 9*r o» Dm alril jlovi*-v 

P. M i.c*f-*a Our |ir.< .: MM .".. Save 81.05 

uiid cum 2 bonus iioints. 



Pronramniing for tlvo BBC 
Ian Birnbaurn 
ii 



Assembly lonnuugc 
Mkraconipuwr 

A culiio rva Imw lo yul (ho naoit I'Oin ytiui BBC Cawit 
aiMilian aid BulilincKin. 0«iown mdKi"u ond loos ■'" "'i" 
m aucmUly ihi^ikbu". nnJanci adiffiiioa. mult qillcA lion arifl 
4iv<bon. Ih« aior*. auteoailnca and iionupit Otle-a tar* 
_i t.f, ['ai)>anu (fan p^jv-lea «.i«imi ('■ axOM i« 
'.'■v . Our price 833.20. Sove-Sl 75 

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CP/M 






101 

a 



Ma ii wim 



CP.'M nnd the Porsonal Computor 

Thotnos A. Dwyer a Mmao CrrtchlicW 

i . . ,,i.i n (now i ■ • ■ ' i - >•■ • i ■"!■ an ■ ' 
. , . . . . , ' ... i. 

... . . i .. . . . f . ^ ■ -• .'.-■ 

....-■. •■■..! '" : ■ .. ■■ ■ 

i i ■ ■ . • a ' >• ■ !• 

.KM if 1 i - f |l i . . .,. .■ 

.... i 

Ourprlco 339.20. Savo 82 

mad earn 3 bonus points. 

Osbornu CP/M User Guide 

Thona Hogan 

i- .. . ■ . .i ■ 

i . ,.i ■ i . ... . . i . . 

. . .. I •. ■ il r.. t'W • ... 

lit. . I i. | I l '■' . I.i i' l" ' !1 '''I 

■■■: I ■■ Ii tva . I i- ' lh ■■■ ' ' • ■'•".>— 
..■1 m I .. . i .. ■ , .If 11 < • M ■ I 

, ... i „ i . ,i i(M tor piog iiB ii lopt i 

'.-. insi i 

:■ i i .1 i 1 Qua i 



Ourprlco 531. 60 Savo 91.05 
and earn 3 b>onus iwlnia 



CP'M Piirilet 



Ii F ,.. 

. . , I 

.. .'V.I I ■ 



. ■ . 



Stepraon Mortha & Mitchei Walte 

, ... I V I i ■ • ii" 'I 

i ■ ' 

Our price 633.80. Save- 81,80 
and earn 3 bonus points. 



CP,M MMi 

Mltchoal Waite & John Angormeyer 

I ■ . . . , .'■ ...... i ■ - wd t 

i ■ ■ . . . i ■-..•. 
■ "■ ; ■■■ ■ ■ -'■ '■•-'• i:i"' ii i 

I I • ■'■ i • I . i '. ' i ' ■ I. ,!■. 

i ib f.,|,., s . 

Our prico S39.80. Savo $2.10 
and oarn 3 bonus pom is 



Soul ol CP/M 



Mitchell W.olo & Robert i.dor 



BASIC Exercises loe Iho Atari J.P. Lomol Her 

A pf.*r.:«H nnd meiMrmo «y» M Morr m-jummiBg vmn 
Aran BASIC tnrou*n aloptrystop o- jmcle* >oi, lonrn Dm Kno 
ponln ol Ir* bnpj^iK ^»n l.»v lutt.-ilo yaxMOwi rfo^rnm* tils 
.» whM "Intnrioco ana' ontd: Ihs OxGetenl oco« ii..:l—, 
tl". <: wlllioiil vimtij do*n lo iln> roMor " llw 0>oroaea,nan «> 
IrioAWrUCO WaiiUOO on3 llxnow I200KL 

Gybca Our prico S29.90. save S 1.60 

ond earn 2 bonirs points. 

Soma Common BASIC Programs: Atari trillion 

I. on Poole pI ill 

SeverUv-m a'en" VdoranfltoatynhDvcui Jhm4UJer8CC 
jvWQ^uiiPowarriicolesimnorrr.nciJ.alarsrKa, andMOn 
procnuns. Eacn pOEftim • ecmnle-/u *ni aomco latug 
<lro.itTioi.bl ... iiii.1 vrek |i»ncir(on 
OWionwVcOia* mi Our price S29.90. Save 81 .60 
ond earn 2 bonus points. 

Kids and the Alan 

Edw.vdH. Carlson 

. . .. .... ■ i . - 

. - i. -•; !j.;i« •*>"' ." i ' •'" I"- I ■cm I "l* ' -•*" 

■ ■ -.' ■ ' Ii ... , ii i • ■ n- ■ 

I t 1. .-• DCilM '.I ■ ' > IT -" I' '■ it" • '. ' i ■■■ 

on to i .. .... icad i ■ MVAwaleemrrjii ■ ind'Uiolrf 

i ..i ■■ pBi '■:■ itti ' '■"■'I Bud - IH '■ ■' 

lobuoa i ■ m ■ ''''i " "' ■' ■i , ."i , "if j 

. ..... Our price 439.80. Savo 62.10 

and ROrn 3 bonun points. 



• ■'.■ . |b : 

■ ...■■■ n 



. . . 

... .I 
i 
■ > 



i . ■ i .. 
..... ■. ' • d i . ■ 

|. I- | F. | 

II | .1 | I i . i n; .'• 1 . 

. . "\l i I '.•■iC-l-Ch- 



Our prico 837.85. Save $2 
and earn 3 lionus poini 



Keyboarding 



VonrWe Aloarander 

<n» l-j jidir-i an 6 tlaiifa". a'm loot. 



Quick Koyboniding 
SubiiVI 'Cometh 
tv Ke%v 7*ormvl Vjnn^ At*«jnrK' ru"v J unmaf MMfllierl ft 
inacrvvomioll eerroeteiii ksybo Jidir.i. A nnii cKirl il t.iigB' 
piMi'iiij'i'. i* iii.li.li-l 

Moihuon Our price 86.GO. Save 46c 

andearnl bonus point 

Keyboarding lor Information Processing 

Robcit Hanson 
Fa.aMria a |maon la ev"*ov baiic (o»<f> -«-.r>™- ■•.-. .■! 
j ru«i irtim i«r« If* p-r*m «rn<a«tlavi i"" b0<* »-i n 
at*, id key «n aapjaabelic m^"«« oftd »r>(<^ inlmrrwaci' 
intvil rumhori on a aaparnia 'Okoy b*J. aavboan 
Vrionnannri qi.Kkli- and occuidCOly. nriloraiar-l unro ol I* 
ObVc voeobuloiy uj*d "ai koylKkirdmg. C*i bo ustwl lo 
clnHoinomor ndnridual, d^MnrtruGllOti 
Ot*oino'M<Giowl« Our price 88.95. Save 57c 

andpornl bonu spout 



4S - November. 1983 - 3I1S & BYTES 



the bus a avTes book ciub 



Our new 
selection 

Youi Flist Basic Program 



■ '■ 
■ ■( i ■■- 



.1 || ■ i 



Rr.vin.v, /..!--. 

II* a ■■' '• iiX ■ - •' ■ ■" i I ■ ' 

in.-- -ii - i >i ;'''■" i ' • " " i i fttin* ■ 

,.(),'■' . ... 'aii . i . i o ii n i ■ •• il' il' HI ■ 

i, ...I. ii ii ■ al (i iu No • ' ii iUi ■• : • ■■ iced 

."■ ii i . .'])■. ii i il i g ■■ ill i n I -■ I July pi Mil i lv.' 

i | . . ,.■ .Il'-i IU II | |i H ■■ 

Svtoi Our pflf.ii &20.85 Save 41.10 

and onrn 2 bonus points.. 

How to Uso the Timo* -Sinclair Computer 

Jonv & Dcrtxwah Wfllis 

■ ■ . . ' ■ ■ | " '■'■■< 

, . || . :.|l .1 »(■■ .1 I I i-i | i| i ' Ii . .. ■ . 

■ , H. i| . i ■ n i i r ii<li M -in I. now '"""■• -"'' " ' 

.,,, | , ,i . ' ■■■ al ir -i ii h . ■■ .'■ I ■■ i '■- i i-i* 
,., i i| : ,, || ... . ii . ii >' ii i 'i ■ ■■■ 



p r 
; ."hi 



i- 



Ii "ii il.. 



ZHO Applications 



■, ... ... i ti - 



Out piico S8.9&. Save 66o 
on (I earn 1 bonus point. 

Jamas W. Coifrwi 

■ 'i • ' ■' ' '■ 
., . i . i II Sin H' ■ '""'"■' " 

I , . ,i I ..•■ i„ i. . - . ■ ■ i 1/ 

i .1 ■ ..hi. • • ■' ■ TOM ■'•' ■■ " W»< "'rJ'i 

, ,,. iii,i '-..I IS; .1,., Ill l'«W« '""I' 1 ' ' ■ '■ ' 

■i ■■ iicii ao-si i 

. i, , Our piico $31.30. Save*1.C6 

and urn 3 ho mis points. 

M<H* Xfyti ft- Your TlmoxrSiiicFaii 1O00. 
Astronomy on you* Computer 

E'ic Br Howard J. Buigoss 

i ■ i ii . '■ In "< i ■ ■ i ■!.■■■ "' i 

I !■■ " -I ' . i. . Will IM ii <i i ■ ,'. i 

.■ ,.|i ,i ..,ii i .. ■■ .i i-i. i.in ■ i ■ ■ .,,',. n( C r !'>■■ 
i .■ i> i. ■ .,, ' , i . in... .i i .. ■ 

Our pilce S 18.9 5. Save 51 
an<l earn 1 bonus point. 
Bin. Bylo* and Buzzwords: Untie island inn, 
Smol Business Computers 

Maih OorOtl 
iii. i i| ii. i .. ml | | pi ii 

■ . . it -,.,!!, i ..,.»■■ u n i'. i • . i, (■■ ' "' i ' ■ .i' 
.(.fill ,i i..'i| .1 .■ i'. .l.ii :■ »" I 'l .in.it •■ ' .ml din "''■'■ 



- .'■ ' 1. | . . I ITI > iBl ..' 

Our priGo 318.95. Save $1 
and earn 1 bonus point 

CP/M RnvoahKl Jaclc 0. Ottmion 

. .,!.. | - >| •'. -'I.', i ..'ii. i . i 'i'.. i' ■"C"'i!ut 

l : I '. .. ■ ■ i II ■ ii.irdi i.-i ItH'C ll'J '" !■• ' !■• 

. , ■ .r i ■ lalll il - 1i« ■' 

. v . ... i . . to .).i. i ,n .■ . i.i :•' '.• 

... i ■ I «... 

i ■ | 'p. <ojj*'i •« . ... - ■ ii . . ■.. .I ^ w«j iii<« 

. i i. • ii.ii.i. i .. -j ■ ' .. it 

i Our piice $28.45. Save 51.40 

and oarn 2 bonus points 

The TimoK'Sindfiif 1000 Basle Handbook 

Oouylns Horaert 

i i ■ .■ i i. ti i 

. .-. . ... i .,:„..,.. 
'...■, . .... i -. i .. ' i 

i r ■ ■ '• • ;< 

■ fiii* 

5vtp« Oui price 1-17 05 Sn vo 90c 

and mim 1 Iidiuib point. 

VisiColc ton Scrimai nnd Engiiiuering 

Slonl»y B. Trost S Charies Pumernackl 

A mln >■ ■■ ■ 

•C' -1ITIJ 3" 

. I ■ . ■ ' i i . i . 

■ sua . : .i . , .i..i.. 
■ . . . ■ . . . . i . ... . ■ 

■ > ■ ■ i ■ "■ ■ 

i- Our piico 62B.4& Savo SV&O 

and cam 2 bonus points. 

Tim Foolproof Gtililo to Scitnsli Word 
Procassinoj 

Jalf Bonier 

■ ■.....'■• i :>■ ■ i i i . 

I I | ■ b . ■ i y . h . I. . | ■ .... I 

. . I 

■ 

&if piico S2&.00. Snvfl SI. 35 
and tin n 2 bonus points 
Inuoiluclny Gunipinois 

Polo i Bishop 

■ i . . , ■ in 1. 1 i ■ . I :. i .- i . ii . 

,i . ,1. > , . .1 .. . ., . 

i .1 ,. .. ii • i . iii 

. i ten ..... . . . ■ , 

... . . ■ . . - i ■ . ■ i ' .1 . 4 i 

.... 



■ "'I I' - < 'I ■ ■ . 'Q *IIVi 

it i. ■ : I . ■ • ■ . i -I i 



*.. .■ 



Out print' <■ 1 / GO Savo 90c 
and corn 2 bonus points 



Word processing 



Useful BASIC Pfogiumv lot tho IBM PC 

St:inlny R. TmM 

■ < I- .V I |"-1 '.(.I- . 

| . . I . ...■!.. ll 1. - i 

, i ,i. I III . , . . . Ii • ||1. |.-»- ■ • ■'• ■ ' "I- '' 

inn hiilita '— • ' '■- "-" , ' ' '» >] * Bl1 !" i 

.... i . , 'i..-. i ■ . ■ 

i Our price $1896 Savo $1.00 

mid oarn I bonus point. 

u .i ■■■! I'" ii IBM P«» sonol i :....... i. ■ Lot) Poolo 

A |. - ■- ii Ujmi ...■ H H ••■vi O*o htlpi v " • 
«*■ t'l ilw uml faBgiMm. *fl itio*i <oi l-~" ta »4c W-c 
Iti %>«im» m. I . **il> 3*o. iliuaUy iciat<». •)■« *iv»». «"I 
(iiiMc-i Pjhi lvn»ie»ti»p« vouiopioaKni-rtPCOAS ; . i 

ito*ct ol fia-nple* 10 t«»lp VOU '*a< H( Fj 

D>plaiiatiO<i» on all eomniiii"v nni"> I'C It ASIC c"iii>niMn. 

in. ii- it 'lini' t.n .i'.-'l ■■■. ii i'n '..nii-i' Hi'.'"". ...ii' 

Ourpricv 533.75. Savo $2.00 
mill t;.im 2 bonus points, 



LowCosi Word Pioce«in9 

LauiiHico Press 

• ■ ■ ■ ' ■ ■■■I ■ ' i •■ i t 

I. I . ,i I , I. . i, . . ., i ... I II v . . I ."|l- 

li i i .,.■ i- . i... . |q ■ i . ii n .in -. "ii i ■ 

, ,i ,.. || ..... . . .v"il ii ■■...... . I ill. 

, ,1... .. ■' | ■ . ...I' ...'■.-■■ ..■ ■.,. ■ I .1 I. I ■ 

,11, I ..• i . Oui pricu $22.40 Snvo 51 .20 

und earn 2 bonus points. 

Wordmnr Mad« Easy Waller EltKn 

"t 14 oli. :-..*. il il,,-, > ... . ,i>. ,(--. iU •*— 

i- •• ' i . i -I ■ V J ■.'.'. - ... i - j 

t<IW*i*' .1- •.'< •• i-iln.j bla|-.|f !>sO HI Iii' | . ..I 

1 >•' i'l '' - .".I' -II ■•(, I il .- ■: ... S| ■ '■• 

Hi.-,, i ■ . . .vt.'l- n.nl. .., , i |l„- i..,....,,, 
U'-iioimiMcG-.-i.. iiiii Ourpi;ce3238!>.S«vo $1.25 
and tjum 2 liomiH points 




Hardware 



Tho- AIkim. NiiinbCfcalc and olli.t ProDdHl . i" 
Persona) Computers Willi Noiui on How Tlioy 
Woie vYltttM John Race 

r> Race »i« atviBed mnv iiiioiMtmu and uiwtual 
Diouionm 'ni Urn \ Oinrffl If' PET ?0OI UK. Ha lioi UbIcJ ibn 

IHU1I I. "im, But, ninifl iipK^il. 11,11 1 iJ"T.iil»0 Dili v/Of ihn 

Dregrarna woia dtvabvi t, pniniadoui the i«r»w]i --. d 
pitltilh. ur<l .(orarnlly fnwded n iOiind butln Im inr ii ■ -. 
'.(-iia" n"l' «"i< y«iiiiin .ii»t ■""•' pnqaan <ii hmssH. A 
i-»a «oi Ui* c™ih-i-*m mr*" i».vt ma vi-j ■•<• vi ■ 
wlaticKMCniiiwMgirtH 

MixnAM Ou* pr*c« $ 1 2-32. Savo 65c 

and cam 1 bonus point 

P6T Fun itnii Games .Inltrins and Fifchnr 

SalaOli i Cv '■■■ Piagn - 

l/cxn Hmn 30 Uttm-sinrl ...inli-v «*'l (M'OI I ■" 

iimo yomn ""'1°* °' "*-"'""' "" '" ' , '' 11 ' '" '''' ' 

ir «i Conrnrodcr* °tr ..« CBM i hi i- • •-. - '■•it '■'•• 

Shirt, O-r-in. Mtus. I9ura«on, Vtcurui M*d n 

ircluiK rlMWI, 6j.. d".l Mb I 

0>MX4ftUcC/Mt«l Cu*p«ice $23.85. Save $1.25 

and oarn 2 bontis points. 



Fiom Chips to Sy-icns An 
Introduction lo Mice oconputers 



Rodney Zaks 



A .iffiD lowlinrw |3Jr<^ ICi it . ' " Hi ' ■■. 
mciccKoccAKiB <h& iniaoptoepM^i " i Itotl • i ■■ 

minpar^'ii? BnUtMdaslpno'WiBEUulii ■"- iimI.- iyslitin 
vou H ins out i«ot mlcioprocaHon «er* dovgtapadtiy w ■ ■ 
niTiar man daaigrv "'"' "'"!« nln^tunl kiiOii liiivo uccan« 
Rdoy'R Malumi Una", mo>l mpOrt»r*li) itiw nutty i ^ lo 
uriMialund iri«foejnm;M'i'c 

Dur pitce 537.95. Save 1 52 
and earn 3 bonus points. 



Microcomputer Design and Troubleshooting 

Eugene M.Zumcriak 

Coiii.]' 1 • .'.-'..■ i .'i 10I ituiiMompiiw ^i-'. 1 !" 'linn W KlM 

IC t^l" lVL.ll" , ',-.!i- II i' lljll." I> ll.llH'"!. " I.' Il . '■ ill - " i' 

SfHtern, ".- i: .v- ".■ ■ i-'i i ■■' liardvusB .-■■-■vk "'•< wnputai 

'.yHvm, 'iiJv.il' ■ ■ ■ . i I 'Oi.lii ■ i" utrti; iml II t " il" 

ewes o' *!*i'fr*-wt 'J* '-''j" iccjrcnlitoi. B'^Wtiipiv -tW 

tocrtMOA 

S^m Ou price $30.75. Save S3.3S 

and e-arn 3 bonus points. 



Buy now 



MEX-SINe™ 

M* r/WPfJTRR ***v 




lorry Willis and Dofaorrah "Will 



i'. 




BITS & BYTES - NflVftmbw. 1983 49 



TH€ GITS 5 OVTfS BOOK ClU-fl 



Books for the buff 



.... .,.„. . ..v., ■-.- 



Business 




Tho Business Guida lo Small Computes 

Low-tonce Calmus 
i. i i'--. Cewit 

i- i .... 

i . .■ . ■'■•..■ ' 

...■■. ,._-.<! 

I \ . . 1,1 <l I 

r • | Our ptlco 1-38.50 Save 32.00 

BikI i»aei» 3 bonus points 

Dam Base Muntigamgnt System*: A Guide w 
Microcomputer Software Dnvlcl Kruglinski 

Ilrlpi. nol ittnGhuuuk t. atwiv.i iii,> vn'-r-i v "I 'Mia liiiao 
pack ope* - delir** ilw caiwiMhtlim nl 'ite, inliinonal and 
r.i,."'i 1i-oi*irJ-<3l wtno^i ol nam unin rnanBUBimiml 
mi •""<■: prm-aes t"i«i-a '<" nvnlwti ■*<« iliti.i iw*t3 »om\ pro; 
fiamincg un*'* iwligei, >ot* ot minrlt Ml undoi lt» 
WM «v*:cp. *» r !.«**■ 'onif* Medod- IH •' 

Ov3r--t-r.MrG.rt.Hai OurpilcoS33.80. Save 11-80 
.mil oam 3 bonus points. 

Executive VlsiCalc lot tho AnplB Comp.tiiui 

Ronntt.CI.itk 

■ :..-.■ i i i ■ ii i i I '■ ■ 'i ■ ■ ■ ' : ■ ■ ■ 

, II. I- ., Il , .■ ■ I'll '.'l' ' Ml" ) ■ '■ • - ill 

■ . iVi'lulv l»i ••>• I ■■ ii 

!:■ ■! I II " . "i ' I ■ ' ■ * ' '*' 

I . ii - ii I I ill ■-..ii >l , ' i 

... t Ow plflat 330.00, Snvo 91 .60 

And obni 3 bonus poinis. 

Wa&teilng Vi&iCalc Doufllss Her-goM 

wMlr-fi bo*- Kr i*«rft">»» In a* t»c*<**tMwl (ac-jijin -in 
lo* f bate *?■> "f- tti*M< ■ ■ ' ■'" ' ' ''■'-' 

.,„ .,.'.,-,'. '--./ ■, '-.■-. -I • -• 'i ■ ■ •; ■■ •-' • 

Our ptlco $25.65. Save 5 1.30 
and earn 2 bonus potnli. 

Doing Businaus with VislColc Stanley R. Trosl 
Aa«uir*» t lr*odus)ory-low)| unrJoribndiia. •■' vatCafo. 
'-i i ihol < ■ a qmoK ami osbv ojho ii lias irvua iruvi so 

atanrtng iirto ioiolhsIiiii nn i ■ ilktna Infixing Irani in i I 
ill ii • nU lo rtu*im Ixiilonia ond p ■ "' fTOdi Miofnvi In* i 1 
Ifrnlooir'. I p . 1 1 > ■ ■ il •' miii ifvMiliml •idr'litl i*id n coi*ir'i)lii 
piojiam tm •'■'■• ■ < ■ i< l <)■• tin ■> ." Vi'.Cnc B iiiMod 

Our price S25.65. Save S 1.30 
and oam ? bonus points. 

VisiCalc: Homo and Ollico Companion 

OavidCnsllowil/.etal 

rr»iH's r i n?> w* f .~viij« a l WW* \«ovpv|n .»»a 

■«J oy H»© nciko «w ■■■! ..-■ F l» lln owes. (I 

i ■•■!*•» ll.u (.ifiwuwillirfr»oi'Jilnn'o'ir"»U)iiiiiiiiii 

Uismss apcflsatunii. Fo( ire c *ac( .f M •■ tuu'i:o o' r> ".' I 00 

m*l toernc»»s. vVw'i conlacl *ltti A00U S ? wrao-i ■ ■- 1 

padonn W*1 1» "wh en irwicnmift *iih cw^ winkyis 

QfbB[M v. :;i:i--HII Out pilco S31 .88. 

S«W 51.86 
and earn 3 bonus polnls. 



I'.-iifl 1 I I II. ..1.1 I i' -All ( I i — -■ I'— |>" -11 

actiiovo If^n olijiiiivc tiitil «»■ inil-"|i- . . R| "i l« V 1 *" 

Otf.1 IVOli'fllli 

Jonn Mc.ihom & Rnr* TntUoli W. H P m,.^^ Om pneo S9.4S. Sava &0c 

anilosnillioiiuspoinl 



Vic £V U&or i»uios 

IXihinnMlolidl* v»i *"(OV XWi " 'I iWltHW v.'lieltir' l^i 

*iWeft*m"i't«i* 1" itiiKUcil a|>cilii*iton*. S<MWk lie«» In 
OpHjN* inc VIC 1*0 end ab "ii im«|4».i«li. oiDO)a" <r> VIC 
aai-C. *•*> kh 'i-jei«w'* fit *ano« «l cototd t> •€*•■*-* *>1 

iM>*K«d — n.««umj* prw 1 

in. 1 . ■v.'i'.i.vi- Out ptlfie 529.80" .Save si. €0 
iinil oam ? Iiuiitir- |ii>"< Is. 

Sl.ttC wlthi BASIC oi» tho 

Commodoio VI C20 Oon Monro 

Don Mowo m nttettl l*v M'.uiiuti!,! motl NUtWOul and 
ii ■■ ■ 1 h> idling wrl:etB '„■-■ OOfliiwinfl corni: ninn fhli UbOk 
nHih m* wdikimh OillUy. n on aMilianiouidd loi VIC 
?fl BWtlMI. Ihe lOijIlf Btsif'iwt Jm! IM d'DWlPDI Iflikfl 

111 " Ourptico 519. 2&. SnvoSl.05 

and oam 2 lionus points. 



Vout Time-" Sinclair 1000 and ZX81 

Douglas Harg*ft 

MMiiraMra '■ ■• • ■'■ '< iw-™; ■*' 

i . ■>'.tTp«.i-,w>iliyUf'^K>ffiWW(r-))ixr A3' to 

5yw- Our ptic©Sl5.1S. Save 80c 

andoarn 1 bonus po4nl 



TRS-80 



Commodore 64 



Cunvnodote 64 Jset's Guklo 

1 i.-t ttaiM" hi ccmounu; IWI 1 10 ■ ""' 

1 , umipuliw bitota ClBW. *l*0 >l* "l"t 1* '" 1 

pO«lriu*i install in ci" HAM 1 •>-..- 

I , ■ ; if 11 irwiud oi u«»s F01 iUw» ilfdanlv 

tiin»lii" will truer* «dvane»d proB»*r"nil»'B »* , "" t " '■ mo 
niirtii^liCM o.plnlit ha lj>r*or«ijntotl hutumt mil how w 
fl|l i - ftwHl llOtrUhBiB e«p.lMliwl c*|ialnlil>»». 

Our prJco 323.4D. Suva 1 . 20 
nndoarn2 botiua points. 



Sinclair 



Z80 Assembly Lancjuago Progrnmming 

L.A. Lavonlhol 

Cd-HHWrtnc io.«-*flf al ■« JM 

lOWmiv 1 '■ ii.-' ■ >■* ■■■■- .i.i'- ..i'- #. 
v*"ic«oi3 *■' '<rlii* twerWy vrquui,' 1 -> ■ " •••• ■ 

I . 1 I, ■ I, . ■ 1.,. in ,.|.i UI-..I ■',;.. 11 'i 1 . 1 ■ 
nnrnp-ti [«ojiin<nrit ri-emwin flp pooklm'V Wiluliixin 1- - 1 1 
coo* and ncvlsoD - ■ ■ ■ .' ■ ■ ■ ■ i> «\ »• ihl 11 
Onl-iiirl/xw." hi Our price 533.95. Sn vo S 1 .78 

find cnin 3 IranuK polnls. 

Advnncod Proflrnmming lor llio I8K ZXU1 

MiKo COBlollO 

vvt-nw !•* ii.i- ■ ■.*! i 11- 1 !'• iii 1 ii.iid 10 Uini* U81 

1 • *.«v iinknglii in ' 1 1 ■ .i 1 li 1 1 1 01 1 1 r I ■.■< 11 H 

II ■■ !i 1 ., . ', . 11. ■ ■ ■ 11 1 . I ., 1, 1 
ol OASK i.ulro*i** wo loai™a,3ii ■■ion -1 • nrat* '.->3i> of 
[<itt«*"i ••tludi^j lMfc»w« •poM»iaii» •-•i o*"' »io*^«c 

OAS*C •«■ (TtKlMC COOC 

►/ . ».i m Out ptlco S25.60. s.i.c SI .35 

ond oatn 2 bonus polnls. 

Two Dorcn 1 '<.! tini'i PiO(|iams tor your IK /\S I 

i.W. HompsQod A G.R. Paikor 

II111 iiiithiiis, ;m|ii omiUieiH ol inn CtvlMC'lUlCh tilnclnii 

Uiliif fltniiii nlini Mial rjmupdi* 1 "! Willi U IK iii- - " ilKJ 

ol'iii itlciiy □' htmi .ma him Indu'lun !'■;)'. (jaiPM, in wing 

flippNcs, Ion i'"i • r ""' "i 1 " *' Ml ■- ""' ond uialul 



Interlace Ptojacts tor tho IRS-80 <Mod III) 

R.eha'dC.H«llgr*n 

fo- 'I- inn «m. ."!«■■ !■•'■(■ 1 1 iptnaaoa » ann ■' 

■I ■"■ '■ ■ :i ' 1 EO) <*»rW'io 'w Os»t»i^ 01 int 

roTvaWi's CJOBl'ltcv WiyH.lv '"'* SO ■• \;.-.- 

t":icci^ ntfadng n-.i-* ol OMa a*n.i« UfmMi «nn>fl-i& 
ctftj* tt »'■ > •>••■• ' ■ 1 ■ ■ .i...j . >i;>!) 

rl..-.- ■ -t . 
■ k -• Our priceS23.2S.SaveS1.2S 

.irid earn 1 bonus polnls. 

Making tho Monl of Your TRS-80 Color Computer 

Pater Vomon 
tfVil ti-lp yui, iii'iiiii iiv*' cn:i:'nrg visual uijilnvs 

■ ■ 1 - 1 ii - 1 1 Hi.) 1 '.1 11 ■ •i.Hii' . .'..ii* ■- 11 ■ i-i ... I. 

their "Ail'i not" "I umi ntuaai 'mm lha t-omput m Von <iiii a**i) 
pipit}' e pm||i,»n iiiiiksnKd ii vntiniy ol oitif 1 '• i i «rhli 1 

tiaixlonn llm IKStlO inlo Ik vrot'J iiiocdsiio. I i," 1 

plannaii 'vtilofl ""vkiuu™. ganvts macliliiD. 

nnvdM "ii Our piico 622.30. SaVa 91.20 

and com 2 bonus ptiinif. 

IRS80 For Kid!. Iiom 8 10 80 Vol I 

Michael Zubmski 
Etisv*jV, ••** 10 V>lo# ard ««-y ««i«i*w Sj'.** ta« 
!.■(««•« iftShO ftcr-wi <* "■• **■ ' 1 "'■ 
..... I ten rv>scc-:i«Cu':»ow-"^i'"«v l »(i b*« i ■ ■ 
i,v*c .11 ire Amancar lavlar.ilCnirpulC gji-">Kilpyii>iai*»» 
hin('i-Ai|IPTijciiirojl*j'i»oy»i"i"i'l , - , i , cjir,iri«yuii' :' ) " "' 

t >.i-mi*(.'*. FO' Svs'pii" 60. "w al ctun* 

Snm-i Our price SI 0.B5. Save $1 

and Bam I bonus ponU 

Inltoductlon lo TRS-00 Graphics Don Inman 

Cr» hjl Ml |t» 80 uwilai AMfrnWle BiKflOVDlKrii li> •"D MUCl 

Ol gmp'IOti |;n!Ui.unniiij m I'm TIISCO i*t»i) iJnrinfk Ol 

....;!■ iiin'ii wi'i Iho mou baric 001100041 1 1 ■ Vtvtna 
rr-J i-jis 10 ownWSG llwpfll itWW 1 llptari p« anwi, ma 

. 1. ..... adamod HfHQi 

.; i.i-i- OuipticoSlfl.95. Savoit 

snd/i.vit 1 bonus point. 
119 Practical Ptogt.-wii.i Int id, IRS 80 Pockol 
Com pu let 

John Ctnlg 
,1 . ,1 , ■ .. ■ • 1 . 1 . 1 . p . 1 , 
.1 1 11 ... in 1. ■ ■ 1 . . 

■ 1 , . . . ' - 1 ' 1 . it 1 11 ■ .. 'i.i 
• 1 « 

Our price S 1S.96. Suva 8 1 .00 
■nd oam 1 bonua point. 



A 



PROFITS ~^W 




S how us your requirements 

We will show you the computer 
system which answers your needs. 

• Inventory • Production Control 

• Pay Roll "Retail Point ol Sale 

• Debtors, Creditors & General Ledgers 

P.S. See us at the Computer Show. Town Hall Dec 2 & 3 
For further information; 



Post 
To 



MicroAge (N.Z.) Ltd 



Box 13-054 Christchurch. Ph, 891-109 



Your Name 



Your Coy. 



Address 



Ph. No. 



50 - KTov-vribBi, 1983 - 3ITScV BYTES 



flppie 



~;m»fl wxs<oc*e»Meww»H , »»» w»««*m*im ■— —j-**.™*— - 



A game 

writing 

program 

By Stephen MacGibbon 
{age 12) 

Garros tor tho Apple It have been 
around a long timo: ospocially shoot 'em 
ups witti wonderful animation, coloui 
graphics, and nail-biting suspense. 

From the rime wo got our Apple and 
watched those games Hashing up on the 
screen I had thought, "Ciee I wish I could 
do something like that'" I learned la 
create animation, and draw pictures, but 
never managed to (use everything 
together into something usable. When I 
heard about the Arcade Machino I 
thought. "This is lor mo!" (Arcado 
Machine is a high- resolution game- 
writing program lor iho Apple II Plus.'lle.) 

I had expectod tha program lo produce 
any type ol game. It didn't. It produces 
Space Invader-typo games. However, I 
wasn't disappointed. 

The program is divided in sections and 
is monu driven lor maximum 
convenience. 

With tho shapo creator you draw 
shapes that appem on tho sc*een. They 
can be the Utile moanies dial try to kill 
you, or the good guy who moves along 
the bottom ol tho screen and shoots up 
nl the meanies. 

All shoot 'om ups hove explosions. 
The Arcade Machine hpsn't forgoiten 
that- You draw explosions for meanies 
being hit. or yourself being blown to 
smithereens. 

Trie path creator controls where the 
moanies move on the screen. You can 
make your iv.oauios dive-oomb you, 
pause, go fast or slow and many; other 
things. Each mennie can move a different 
way, 

Game options lot you choose all soils 
of things. For example, how lost 
meanies bomb, the sound o' you getting 
blown up. or of you blowing the meanies 
up. Game options lot you set the score 
for killing a meanio. And lots ol other 

COMPUTER SOUTH CHCH 




things. 

Level options Allow ono lo choose 
things like how many slats should be in 
the sky. Or ihev can moke the slnrs fall 
and flicker to give the impression of 
being in space. They can dotoimine how 
fasi bombs fall, how fast the good yuy 
moves along, how accurnto his shot 
needs to be to kill an alien, where ihe 
aliens appear on the screen, and .1 lot lot 
moio. 
LTD 78 Oxford Teirace P.O. Box 22713 



A background/title creator allows you 
to create a background: for example a 
moon surface, a cilyscepe or whatever 
suits you. You put a title on your game 
wilh the title creator: "Stampeding 
Chickens" by A. A Birdbram, or 
whatever. You can also put piciu'es on 
the title pogo. 

The gomes you create can bo loaded, 

saved and catalogued. Up to five 

diffcroni games can be saved on one 

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disk. 

When your gams and title page is 
linished you can create o special game 
disk. Just press Y lor "yes', and (he 
Arcade Machine does ii all (or you. The 
new di$k. which is protected {even 
against Locksmith), boots up showing 
your title;. P'Oss the space bar and away 
you go. playing your own qome just like a 
bought one. 

The finished product of your 
imagination can look as good and play as 
well as Apple classics such as "Alien 

Rain/' and "Space Eons". 

01 course, you don't hove lo be' 
shooting space aliens. You could shoot 
pola* bears, submarines, spacemen, 
parrots or you could even outwit 
Superman. Ttie good guy doesn't have 
to slay at the bottom ol the screen: he 
can go everywhere vou want him to. 
You' game tan bo completely different 
Irom Space Invaders or Gataxians. 

The Arcade Machine Is surprisingly 
easy to use. You don' I liavo lo know 
how to program, al lens! not in the 
normal way - machino language and all 
that gobbledyyook. However, you do 
need to do a lot of experimenting and a 
little bit of figuring out. 

I found the drawing program had some 
drawbacks. It doesn't do circles aod 
some other geometric figures very 
accurately. Somorlmos when you press 
l ho space bar to create a dot. you need 
to press i: twice. Bui the drawing 
program isn't all bad. Apart from those 



drawbacks it's easy to use, and similar in 
operation to E-Z DRAW. 

The program is quite expensive. We 
bought ours when we lived In Australia 
for SAust.80. It would be -well over SI 00 
here. In America it's SUS59.95. 8ut 
think of all those separate games you 
might buy at S5D or more each and 
quickly get tired of. With Arcade 
Machino you can create as many as you 
tike ~ for nothing! Because of that I think 
it's excollont value for money. 



Footnote: according to his father.- 
Stephen has spont countless hours glueC 
to Hie Arcade Machine. His "Interstellar 
Blobs" and "Ocean Voyage" are already 
family classics, while his helicopter 
enhanced Western opic is in the works. 

If Arcade Machine is not available 

from your local Apple Dealer, write 
to Broderbunef Software, inc., 1938 
Fourth St, San Rafael, CA 94901, 
U.S.A. 



Electron 

A review of tie Electron may be 
some lime off. but British reaction is 
already well orchestrated. It appears 
to have all the hallmarks ol an Acorn 
product: late, dearer than originally 
leaked but technically good. It is 
sufficiently down-graded from the 
BBC model B to avoid direct 
competition with 
compatible enough 
buyers wanting to 
software. 

Features that differ from the BBC 
include a different keyboard and loss 
of Che Teletext mode. The keyboard 
has no dedicated function keys. 
Instead a "function" shift key allows 
the numeric keys to be used as 
function keys. It also lets the user 



verbs from other keys: 
enters DRAW for 



it ... but 
to encourage 
access Been 



enter BASIC 

Functton/D 

instance. 

The main reported shortcomings 
are that interface requirements are 
poorly met and the machine is 
slower. Interfacing provides a socket 
for an expansion box. but little else. 
The most serious omission is a 
printer port. Speed is sacrificed by 
both using cheaper (and slower 
access) RAM and by incorporating 
video handling into the ULA. Almost 
all the attractions of the BBC (like the 
on -board word processors) will 
depend on further expansion 
options. 

For all 
machine , 
user may 
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Toddlers 
at the 
keyboard 

By PAT CHURCHILL 

Our elder son was just over three 
when we bought our computer. He 
took to it like a hungry man to a pork 
chop. 



.■■. ■ .-.■-■■ ■ 1M(-™ i~w,i~~v~~y».y 1^ ^ 



The day alter we look delivery of 
our PET I called young Ben to come 
and get his breakfast. As usual, no 
response. I went through the house 
looking for him. There ho was in the 
dining-room, sitting at the keyboard 
"making pictures, Mummy." 

He had removed the safety guard 
from the power point, plugged in the 
computer, turned or* the wall switch 
and the computer switch, and was 
filling the screen with pi designs - 
"little doggies." 



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Eighteen months later he is a 
veteran. His 2/j-year-old brother. 
Jamie, isn't far behind. 

Providing I load the program for 
them, they can usually get it to run. 
They know their way round tho 
various editing keys, shift and return. 
Cm gradually putting together an 
alphabet program for them with 
pictures and noises for each letter. I 
wasn't too surprised, thorefore, to 
find Ben, now 4 % „ knew most of his 
alphabet and could find the various 
letters on the keyboard, h gave me 
something, of a joll to discover his 
little brother did, too. 

I'm always on the look-out lor a 
simple program the boys can use. 
One favourite is How Many? from 
PET Games and Recreations (Reston 
Publishing Company). The screen * 
fills up with planes. How many? The , 
hoys count thorn and key in their 
answer. A correct answer is 
rewarded with a screenful ol happy 

faces. A wrong response and they 
are urged to try again. This game has 
helped their counting skills and 
taught thorn the numeric keypad, 
too. 

Another well-used program is one I 
copied out of Compute! magazine. 
When run. it shows a list of people 
the boys know - Mummy, Daddy, 
various relatives and friends. They 
choose one name by its number and 
it is shown on the screen by itscll. 
They can then copy it. The computer 
accepts only correct responses, so 
spelling is perfect! Once the name 
has been copied there is an option to 
print it out via the printer by pressing 
the % key. We change the names 
from time to time depending on 
current TV heroes or new friends. 

The alphabet program I'm writing 
is also a kind of record of my 
programming skills, as I learn new 
things, and also experiment with the 
computer's sound. I recently 
invested in the Supergraphics III 
package which has made it a piece of j 
cake to move a space ship up the 
screen for tho letter S, or have a skier 
zig-zag down ihe screen for Z. 

The hoys have a little friend who is 
a TV addict. When he gets within 1C 
metres of a TV, his eyes take on a 
glazed look and his brain screens out 
everything else. I've even seen him 
desert a birthday party in mid 
festivities to seek out and turn on the 
TV. The other day when he canw 
over to play, my sons had theirj 
alphabet program running. I don'l 
know il it was the built-in monitw 
that fooled) him, but he actually spent 
a good 20 minutes at the keyboard 

Turn to page 60 



64 - November, 1983 BITS & BYTES 



cnmpuTflSHDP. 



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56 - Novornboi. ^983 



BITS 5 BYTES 



BOOKS 



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Some "prior 

knowledge" 

necessary 

"The HP-It System: An introductory 
guide to the Hewlett Packard 
interface hop". By Gerry Kane, 
Steve Harper and David Ushijirna. 
Published by Osborne /McGraw-Hill. 
106 pages, paperback- $35.70. 
Reviewed t>y Miko Thomson 

The Hewleii Packard interface 
loop (HP II.: is a bit serial interface 
designed for low tost, battery 
operable systems such as 



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programmable, calculators such os 
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computer. 

The circuit enables these devices 
to bo Interfaced to other computers, 

low cost peripheral devices and test 
equipment while maintaining its 
portability and low power attributes. 

The first part >f this book is given 
to an overall view and discussion of 
the concept and) principles of the 
interface loop. Basic configurations 
and putting the loop together are 
then discussed, leading to ways in 
which various instruments, not 
initially designed for the loop, might 
be interfaced. 

From chapter three on, the reader 
Is given more detail on the principles, 
protocols, message structure, loop 
sequences and interface functions 
all required knowledge if you are 
going to use a calculator or portable 
computer lo control tesf gear and 
monitor laboratcry equipment. 

Thoro are many schematic 
drawings, pun no circui? diagrams. 
This is therefore a book that 
describes principles rather than a 

detailed manual of circuits. 

If you are an "off the shelf" user 
and choose just .o plug in readymade 
peripherals according to the 
instruction manual, this book might 
not be your best buy. It requires a bit 
of "prior knowledge". You rually 
should know whai bits, bytes and 
data are all about as well as having 
some programming experience. 

To the novicfr, this book might 
become somewhat arcane beyond 
the first fow chapters. On the ether 
hand, if you are already into a bit ol 
interfacing with the HP-IL. or you are 
considering using the system and 
want a thorough introductory text. I 
would say you will find it between 

these covers. 

Browsing for 
beginners 

"What to do When You Got 
Your Hands on a 
Microcomputer. " By Charles 
P. Holtzman. Published by 
TAB. 188 pp. $21.95. 
Reviewed by Miko Wall. 
I picked up this book and felt 

excited without even opening it. 
The title is ceichy, the cover 
design is catchy, and the 
American price printed on the 
from ($US1 0.951 is great. The 
local price bought me down to 
earth pretty fast and the contents 
tablQ revealed That, rather than 
being the ultimate micro user's 
book, it is really another 

Turn to page 60 



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lino! polishing errors, ougs 8t alL 
Examples h both Microsoft 3ASIC fc 
PASCAL. 



HOW TO USE TIMEX 

SINCLAIR 

DIUTHiUM 



$9.50 



1 or the beginner, how to star! . sel up. 
and make il work. Accessories and 
software-. Whal fo expeel and how fo 
handle software. A good beginners 
guide." 

BASIC FOR APPLE II 

WILEY $3195 

Arolher famojs Wlev Seff leaching 
Se»ies explains everything needed lo 
develop prcgiorriniina $J*s Clear non- 
technical rangcage step by step to 
quite odvancec areas, scores of 
programming examples and self lests 
lo chart your piorjess. Leatn lo exploll 
your Apple II. 

Available from your local 
bookseller. 



TO: AUSTRALIA & NKW 

ZEALAND BOOK GO PTV 
PO Bi»\ 33-106 AUCKLAND 9. 

Pics*.' me your regular newsletter on 
computer books. 

Books may be ordered direct if you 
have difficulty finding honk-; you 
wain. Add S1.50P/Packing. 



NAME; 



ADURliSS: 



BITS & BYTES November. 1383 57 



CLUB CONTHCTS 



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58 Novcirbor, 1083 - BITS S. BYTES 



WAIIII IWJ^IER INTIIUSWin. C<.M«i: oc 
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TRS80/SVST€M 80 



From piicje 44 

and tl'i:; 'ip|ii>ms 10 hjippon icgulorlv. 'I'^ci 
as you lypo in more lext the ^aiba-ge 
collection 'online gels longer. 

The other niajoi bug is this: two pages 
ol witlcin wards ond sud<leTilv 

evttrytMng bombs out! Naughiy Mi 

Smith 1 Ronlly ai S99 to have to s;art de- 

hii i;iii.| is lOO l-.rl 

The hiio is in line 250. Apparently the 
p'ogram was converted from disk 3ASIC 
and this lina was 101 changed Irc-m 97b 
to 700. The offending line should! rood: 

250 IR>*00 THEN CuS:MW\T tf(-576, "THIS 
DOG JMENT I S NOW FULL. SAVE IT ON DI SK 
BEFORE EOITIMG-" 
:F0RA= 1TO2500NEXTA G0TO70. 

Theoihor major concern withWOFP-l 
is in the gorbage collection rout no when 
saving your document to tape. Two 
payjes lakes approximately 1 hour to 
dump. This is an inordinate length ol 
iui |. .mi 1 oinpleii lv u 1. ci epl .liili* :o me, 
ahhougli I must stale here thai reloading 
only tokos a low minutes. What happens 
is 1 hut avoiythinfl again completely shuts 
down, 

I now use WORP- 1 lor short letters 
and simply prim an extra copy lor liling 

.mil .11 ll'r:, li-vf.'l 11 :. |ii-li":' illhm i;|'. lln- 

EDIT mode doesn't always do what it is 
supposed to c"o easily. This doesn't 
always mailoi lor shon letters; alter all I 
can easily type «hcm in again. 

The ptogiarn docs liavo o-ne 
advuntogc:. F01 those pooi i.nloriunatos 
who don't have uppei ond lowei case 
fitted it will prim to the punier in lower 
case il v<»i so desire, hut it will not show 
ol course on the screen, where il will all 
he upper case. 

Final comments: Useful but not 
suitable m cassette version for any 
lengthy documentation rJu« to the- saving 
time liang-ups and certainly not a 
piu<ir,nri wilh an degree ol sophistication 
such as page numbering, headers and 
looters, or easy ways to masi? i( you 
have pnsKixl the 256 string ox«epi in 
EDIT ui 11I ii'tai F.OIT mode is Iiaught wilh 
all sons o^ Killy problems. Why they 
ditln't look ai combining wilh the 
excellent edit modes already in the ROM 
I'll never know. 



THE GADGET3 COMPANY 



Ihj 



COLOUR GENIE 

I^IWVJIIIAIC:) N VOl.H <";WN MC*« (AIK.KI ANI)> 

Box G2-08 I.Auckland. Phono 862-260 



GLOSSARY 



■■■■■■■ ■ ■ ■-■ :■■■-■ ■ 



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fWOCOS** &IOJ* 1>V alii- 

fl^tfcdilions piiHjrnm A piofl'fltn Written tOCMy Mil 
a upon in job. lor omAjDIo an accounting o> word 
[ir»H,'fiS5inii erogium 

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Ml i. ii •■. ^i3*«) >ii v cooikiuihis MocK oi mcmmv, 
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BASIC: Bogtfiner*' Ml-puipwo Symbolic natructran 

Coilo I"o irKMI .vi<!i:ty UfOtJ, iml DWCIl id 

1...1.1 ■" I''- loqwiwiWMj LuvjamJ" '« 

ii»c OC'C n nu Mf S 
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ini looondi 
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liy nil digital COffVUloe* "'i I'H iinil 0'-. u» 

r epftnoinnl Mi I'*' toropntoi liy dccto^il inJw*. 

imMH'I till <* «!' 

Bit: !■ * My oiflfl. Cacl. bit lOptflMnU u ChatttOW «n » 
lilnniy numin-i. ■*>■>■ Isottbar n 1 niO inn mi nboi 
7 itoimrt iq n bmnry and is iwo luis. 

Bool: ra bod ibo opwotinfl ftyatam m:o the 
OOmpUHf flOttl ■' IW o* lBtw» Usually oik- ■• i ■ 
Inii st*ps ■- atananng Iho ■ «jtnt"'tei lo» u--- 

Biitii-i Ar ,m>.i isf nonccy Mtiad Soi lonvonwy 

sioi-i'i- wMli in "■ ■'"•«': din w oi i -i 

ponphoral *uch Ml a printer oi <i «lf«k dilvo, 

(tug An i'fi" in fl plOQ'l 

Byt* Li-|h' bill A tollOf "' 'MilUw UB U U I I 
ranii-stf r too mi • nmtvtol l*V * -w.fi cs ot ogltl 
txtcaflttl iSiym nndlhoeonipulni hindhuliMn 
.1- mil' unrt oi "ivoiii". 

cad/cam; Compuior Bidod dttoian. u»ci Cemowioi 
.mint! iraiiiiliirlurK A iiii«i<t(:r<ui(j 'iiriil of 

r. OlllfiiatUh). irn'kn or ,. lli.l! il Ml .'■ p pi 

tuttmr. and ttw - i • ' ■ .f> U ■ Ton 

dV nuoois to l»> ubhI i— m«ititiictiiiing. 

CAI: CoffljpuWr milort niMnintitin. 

cai. Compuur rti'i»'i Ua'nlnfl GAL praoniita ,«$ 

wiltlon i-i («ks dllleront whom ■■" tJUfwonl 

Chios (ii r ■- • > i. ii .-.; Hi- > !-.■ m trammon 

ol ujitxtsito Ivih> ,bc ivto lOffOtlMr 
Comimlii l,intiiiiifl«: Anyiimut) nl lotlMS. nuinbaiS. 

lymliolf .in'l cunciuot on mnrki lhai ■• •■ > 

UMI '<> i»*jl"lil »i ' mi mi. urn ..!'■. .villi B 

a neuu '"»• itao PiooraaipiinQ Imi.) ■■ «|.- .m<i 

M.kI' IM' L." l.|,M|>- 

CauOfWam: 1-«n»- Imh im-m 1 ! ni ..umr. umiI n 

i " " ■ i ipnlN H ••. 

Cpl: Mi'.ni'. ili.ii.KiH" |mi I'i.Ii. A commDn *n* > nl 

i|."Mii(»mi| i 'i.ii.h ■!•! il'-i". I v l" l'<iw CWU 

toBMhw chwHIdKB "■' nB#**iif, 
CP'M Anopc/aingifiteini'ot/BOin;'. ImiBetilnoa 

it ■« »v la* '•«■ n»o*i (vMMy 'W nos i«' tno 

l.;iV"l 111." III''', .mini h< •<■ 1. in (IKlrOmON I I" 

software II"." lai •< Son alw diA Dpcmling 
ivmi'ii ■ 
GDI ChWMjIOta |ii*l IKOtU rt UtirailOtl AUV Ol 

.i ucfita ■ j spood i ,-•"•■■ '•■ 

CPU: Ci9ili.il procos&lito unit. A tciii Irmn ilm 

•i.»n'ra"io dnyn nl old. MiciopmciMioi, 
c out 'O Ik" 
CRT. C«hOrJo-fBV hiliit.Uiiiitlly iisynotiym lutVDU. 
Cmmh: A rnort <■« « mdw thai iniUovio* wnwi '■ 

ii* ■! i -.•„(. .v ' I lie Slvw.h. M wltcra.l i ' 

c^m n*»i m tnodOi 
Onia A* ■> iir ■imiiKHi used Uy die Damputm ailhai 
I/O oi mii-rnnl BllonitiUiOn Al mioiriiil 

Hiliimi<i!toii IS "i ■«' "■>•■:■ ■: in imil'v. 
DisK' A 11 •■ -.nl ii i....| .. n. ■. ,.'.i. k on mI 1 1 :ii" 

>!■ in ilow "-I 'ulm-vt iblvi nod 

tMoqtjinv A lickiiif 0* HOPOV " " ' ■' '•' r 'lll>i 1 

. '.'. inflnli.1. ul 'li.-.ilil.. ,,.:i...i. p| I Hi 

.in onviopi- a hnrt •"•. ii an imsoinbiy ol 
s4ivoi.ii >i ■..:: iii ■ •.■>> : i iii.fi ■■ ..ii---i.il mounied 

im«' .iIhivii :i"-r -i .i . ' ..- ■..■)■..■ fflanrJtH rhtluVd 
> k he >iii in »"irrfiio«i» of «ti>m]i« nl liyiov 

«"»*«> llOfqav '**k\ lyfara'ly IxJil 

1 40,000 : ihtoi m* on ■*!.■■ 

Dl%k ililvo. Ilii' i in - ItaniDBl :•' 'i' >' Wll I h ml.i|i» Ilm 

dlflh unci POSWOna i" 1 in.iil'.VfiTO •»'.': D 

i ilnnumon can boiaiiiovpih > wmtoilunllnp by 

II ■ torapuur. 
o*v«"^« fctathn "ii-- iw > G . nch Hoppy ili»i. 
Oi*k ofHi'^iinii «v«tem: A mi A Dtafamn lint 

•wniW o cariioi miu m inorp diskdiivni, Sea 

i cm i. if diw i..ni|ii.> Othffi oxnnialw am 
Cfl8005(on IRS «o; arndDOS S.3 Kw Appbu*} 
DOS : Sfp ^"-- i '-'Hi, ..-r.ii 

Dol >imIiib Alni'.i! (I'm! -il'.hI r il-...l.n Mil* 

i»i pm». it.g 9«e W'»c"i a cin*. t'-i it In 
i>tnni'ii ihe .i|i|ir: tm lit pim pt ■ • om oiwl «inka 
tint ribbon tf> uopci Ipimino ilo ■ hatacnj# 
Dol qiiBMtf: "■ | .|. i 'ii.' .iii ''ill - ■ :ii ■• .-.I. 

I i. I'll. USOillr,' ii'- -ii. . i ■ Of Oil M jii ii I 

Double d*mily: l Dflpy dri«V9 »l- H '.Ion- l-,:»v Ht 

*.Mii'f*i!l .■■-inn. I D< :fe«ta ' llM I" 1'-"'' ■ 



hat tNx« oofc- itctiiai* tiv »lv .«'«•» i" »l« 
maulun and i"a ditwH 
Dump: PopulM 'ii'i '<" .1 ■ ilin.i ili-.i Sinn a 

oomputof io ontasaaiorugodovicosuch pi disks 

l.f lilOC. 
tfHOM: C'J^atc. iif>ci |if'M|r.ifti(fuibi'i'. ■0>l<t-onl-.- 

aieaiofy 
C'<iooon*ics: Hw Killy »' ll»' iclot-C''>r>l»ic> bptwee 

wo-krir. nr.c) thcrii c-.wlniiirn-iii. 
fcKIIUHl? A ci>ll'|i|-1M< Ihel |i>|b I cmrpuwi 10 ff.ifiy 

nut a usoi 'n insi'.iri .in-. Of iir.igr.im 
Fll«. A a nl in ■ ' uitciu:" o' chaiacH'iB. lot hy'cs' 

WW ihc u4C- c-!%sta*n* -i <■■! Urn rKiwrpIo on 

account!. rccaitfaMolticP. unicdon j tape o* disk 

Id lotfll UMi 
Fiimwuie Pioonwns lixod in u computoi'o ROM 

ii-i ;nl OnW Mi'i-i'iv*. " ' "i*!'-""'! ■■> lOtlwaio 

imoo».iiii^ mid cMriWtotHa compuioi. 
ftopt>*« lli'M'ni" dfl"U wi:n j nhigrclic co-jllng 

iHMf h" *\onwj mioini.uiim Cilli'ii tiiijimir. 

bOCflUSa iliov IfS llnKibln 
Filciion leeii: A lyi:t nf i - (bodlftn iiyimm (or 

prinlsts; nwnuil j;ipcji In a coniiruon'i ttiOVl •-• 

.jii-.'.i ii.i'Avooii iv. o •'!" lion follt'tft as ur a 

rrpewiiiH. 

il.ii>ltvjrr: "I" •>»':>n;'i if-ni .iiitl pcinthri.il 

II, .n. In -■ '. I.. > '.■ .ifii, 1 1 Mil il() -. .mil |i|i(lll(l i. I 

inlpanatlarv 

rin: A blirnvmnon 'oi hBXBduCimol notuilon, n 
IhlPF l(J niKiMVvinj 5vhic*» coxvoniBii! :o nso 
v>ih eomfiulflO. 

HK(ti InvBl lm.flu»oa: Any Fnrfiiltl *.<t l,-«i*..i||i>. WiCl 
H BASIC, ihlil (!• v.-i'lfi. M'.ii'i IKO lin ,.«t» Jinpd 
pingrtin-ntmi;. Tkit'it n«i nn»v ifinnv such 
languaon and dioaclnol Hwsanu>lafiiju«gailoi 
,<,.,„ v \. vv,..ha;<: i-ni/HAyc: -i, > 

liHim '*-iiy Imd ft* «if«rniji-n. v ■ . in? i 

eompuui 

liitiinctivn Rorarai io ll'« "COOVOtMSOfi" Oi 

communiDMion uuirtuon i> rompui™ and itw 

ni'I'lllOI. 

InNnaM: Any biidw*o.*Mfi*waM mm* <"'" IWw 

1 irvctacnri^niKef #ml any mlmf OQviCV. 
IiO "bimitomcHit" 

lnvtns<i^iiloo:WI"'niliol>flr»i»ii"iiiiti'.i pldini J -i g, 
on n blnoh and fthlla Mircn wlilfp lw«omos 
iw.kfliounil jmO ci.wjicIdih in v.iilli»n m Wnck. 

K Mir iMmhcr 102-1. CotlWinOnly '«!?'" t" '!>7-l 
byio* Mm ««ce>tion i* capacKy "' ■wli-^^it.il 
fj-i.:.. -.*-■ ."• K mean* i0?4 His. 

Kiumvif it>i Hi; novMantl I0M HvUK. foi 
unarnpla ■>►: il ET20 by IE • 1024). 

tirm ii'nii a com '"• ■"<" cliorflceer laund » mo 
ASCh cioMctO' fel Its 'ioim.nl pn'Oomi i* to 
movo ll"» CutsOf lo«n o*w '>••■* Ion ■«:««i«»nl O' 
i ..-.■ : ■:'■■! .: i*i i - i' 'iki'i I) DOOI 'i"': 
rMu*n ""' ■"'! ■"■ i" I'n'lo'l lt.ii>tlinjii|ii» 

rVlnchln*) Innaiinijo I in- IHnWV c -<*« l-'i'll-.""!'" lhat it 
compulfi* i:tiii.iii-:ilv "iiniloisi.inii", 

Miiinliiimo: Tho voty l»i(l« COnBpulBia ihot liwiku .inr 

olhf" 'I" :>.siiiu»M"ji u*f UK calloc 
rnaintiarnoa "i ;• n lI•:loco■ll|■ulI•^ the immll 
loinouwaa »wd io ni'*iiim ilw eon ** 1 n« 
n ,i 'inn-, i iv tho fii*li pkil rnomon 
M.i*B sto'ogc: A n ri: m a Inch batga amounts nl 
i I i r ri i.i- on r • .hi- WCll .i:iiH:.'ivi»IWUtpc>(ir 
IW:ii|iv di-.k. 

UvBlbyla li« Mttl H.| ■■ ■-- ■ ll I million bvtus 
Vi'iimiy ■ ■ i'.i' ol ll"? mi ^:n ii iieniTri llial Stores 

i-twv'Mikiii and 'iitnuiii'iis. tiicii p'uco ■?' 
kiiafrnniKM oi maiiweiion boi . uokrua locnion 

.r,M»linil "i i- withh .1 'lU'itioiy riio'u <a filmnjl 

■■ ■ i*».i.Sf.H*i|r..l.'l ilMl» »-" 

DKWmal rnornort irirotl an * po'mi>e>al dtamco 

Hi,rH iii. it ii..-, nf i.ijii'. 
Mninnry c.i|>.icllv: Ani.iunt ol .iv:nlnl»lii i.louye 

ipaoe, i» Kbyttj 
M*mi: i i*t g i .-.in ma wm an i piogiam thai afeom 

I ha (^peoiii* Ui dnOMI WWCh pail to jiIixjcI 
..i ■ . ■ i|.'.-|i^-» 'Ij- iiplifiiR ,ii«- <hi|itavr^ 

.in . i-i'iii ;mi| I'm oporaiM DhOOfOS '•'"* 

Menus allOn iiBni th uaslly und mm Hv uni mto 

piaqiawi wiiiioiit Wowing aw loohincal 

ii iihnda 
IVkiacanipuim A smll COmpuiM H«nd <m a 

in .-in.., ■ . 
Minoo'oces&ni: Rw ecnlial procossMfi ' " ■" 
.li:li...nr ' pari Of ii IP ClOCOiUpHMli H ifi 

i t.im.-ii i i ii Hflgochia ii' .iii^n iinii controls 

nil one *i- 1 in ■ . ..-ii i.ii n!.>'ii>iia. 
Modar^: V-,,*..,'.. .■,.,. I, I,-.. • AninlVurtMAl AM 

COIIikacIS • ' ■*•■••••■ n- ••-■ io a leW'onw a^il 

I f.w I i ii ii"ii.i--..'i- wni annoyoi <:<>n»|Mjic- 

hi pio totaptwno lines, 
Nalwo'h: An ii-ipiconrtt n-il Qioup t>' COmBUlors of 

lUlfninsK iii«t'(l inijii'fim Id' KOOCiliO 

COM nunicoOOno 
Output. The ■ifiHUt.il't* i <oi"n«iln d-?P"v*. minis 

m tfansnuUalUi » h.i:. cocossoc :t»? rtnul 5« 



input and bO 

Pa'*Bi4 miorlMe' A lypo ol canmiKiuciitlono 

mtorfaco useil moaih/ '"• pilntoili Ii sendo fi 
wdole clWf.ioiet' nl data down right icomnicnlyl 
IIOfldiOAO DiUlOwn OKI' I|P C. T7i( i"i*-- Co wnon 
i>pf ol p.wa>el iittwface Io* imnuti-i is tho 

riTnt'WBOS KllCtllKO. 

Pascal A lnolilpwsi lanflHiUja ihal miy Owliltialv 
rival BASIC in pupulniliv- 

peek A - ■; Mm in.? thai OKiminett * spOBiflc mamoty 

Memo" i-nii glvai tho epoiatar lha "•> ua th&o. 
Pdipherali: Al oxtainaJ MpU) Ol oulpiu: i|»'vi<:((* - 

nnrlci, ToiiiH'iJf. ikniDl Die. 
Pi.ei; Pcti.ii- olamonl, Tha poiti on .1 sec ■■ 

yi.*|ililC9. 
POKE: A cotiinantl ihfll iiiM-tr *« .1 vi'iuemtii .mpoci'tC 

memo'v loc.iliiin, 

P'oyiam: Ar .i;t n- Dolgcoor oilawrucnorawriiuri •■ 
a phut CuAH iMi>«(f»r»iivi9 LinjiuaQc thm Oj^% p 

ow»p\ilot 10 cacv ">ii "i i^ccuic fl ; . 

opfullnn 
QWERTY; 1 h« »l(intl.-iid. iriKhliono. kcylioiud Jay-oiil 
ol typcWAlorai. 

RAM '"Liiulfif accaSB i»e/T|OfV is in- v'y '.<:! 

r -.•noiy ifuk yov' conaputri Iltn *ui( liowi 

Ut .my %•»•> 1 i' the '.nf- Vovf promain Oi It 

lamooacaMa usually Ko*od m dam. 
MEM suieitMni: A niniii/K niaifmnnl in IIASIC. It 

aaivi'i U 1 mono 10 pfOQiantnuira, unit plays no 

11. tit 111 mo miiiMiy DiOQttVn 
Rum'tit on: A IMHSUIO n' I'wt "kbiiIioi ot ikwiI* 

limols'/ -1-1 .i cotr-putm scioon . 
ROM: UiMtl nr'v niDitiiifv, Anv mommy «' ixln'\ 

ii-liiini;i:mn or initlUCOOm h.'ivo biMtn 

pi-im.iiiiirllv li>i'il 
S*i ill into'lwcfl; A(*(ipiil cnmnHWUcainn .1111-1.11 1 

used <n* .1 wice viB-ety nl jji|h.%^k inamica. 

tnnranalii. ttfcphmwi roi iff.liii-i rtc.l n inf.* a 

ir- ntrnuoi Ol two tvi"". -mcl Mtncn 1I10 nim ono 

hi: in .1 tuiMi down ono v.iio. TIip ihohi common 

IvpooI Hiial iui«-l.>roin HS232C. 
Simuliitinn CnKMtOfi ol .1 rnMhomaliCOl modal on 

cofliputon lidi fclhrci? a "t-Amk: »r 
Soliwani: Any no;'.*"* Hied in ono«fl1o ,t 

connputoi 
Sy*lom; A f.OlloctiOb ol linid*3'(l unfl wiluvnn. 

whom tim whole i-i i|ii,n:c thai !ho '..iiih. ol lino 

VCD Vkj0O-caS**ll"iriri»iU'i. 

*/bu: V' , ii draplav jttit. A dovieo t"ai ihov/s 

caiiKMiici output 11*1 ii to!..- -.i-;'i EC n 

Won I A group of !»tn Ihal in nrocainod WooWhii l»v 

iho conipniii Moil ifypooomputBrniMOlofltO' 
IR bn wo'ilv 



BBC 



From piiye 38 



■ 1 vv— V-- ™i~^v~. 



to Hit HHitif 



3942PRINTB4TER N tc play NOTE" 

3W5 fRI«T'9iTER »0 QUIT* 

3D52<FX21,8 

3851 A$=INKEW2888> 

3fl52X=INSTSC'NP4T3 , ,M; 

36o8 If X-J THGJ CIS:60T03BU 

3678 B.DPR0C 

•1686 OEF PROWNPUTUOE 

4919 INPUT-LEVEL ! should ftp (l-i2ol 

4826 INPUT'LBJEL 2 should be (8-l?o) 
''AW. 

483« INPUT'ATTACK rate shojld b» C- 
l2?-i27)"|flnCrCi 

4343 INPUT'DECAY rate should be (- 
127-127)" iDECCrK 

WW INPUT'SUSTAIH rate should be (- 
127-8) ' jSUSTCH!^ 

4flo8 INPUT-RELEASE rate should be i- 
127-8) 'jRELQa 

4978 ENDPROC 



BITS & BVTES Movomber. '983 59 



anssifieos 



BOOKS 



. ■ . 

INFORMATION WANTED: For upgrading 
System SO 16k lo 4SK. Have tome ir.fo bui 
require more Dave Kji**v, i'» Sonnic Ptlc 
WaiiMiitii. PJiuiic S3 100 «i. 

/Mil: 16K RAM, powa pack, prima uikI spare 
toll. iaisc«l «cyl*o.n«1. ju&oricd upci. SJOH. n. 
SkfaUKf, »6 I'aiktlak l>r, Tukoio;i. pliem 1 
69485. 

SINCLAIR XXVI; IftK KAM power pud and 
lead*. Manual wwl SBRHS book. Virtue nl S.MJ0 
ono. Cojiucl Mark [ones, v/n I. .A, Ihiio, 
Taw-anaa \S-»i\. 

ritK-M HOOKS: l'4ii safe S4<.rt> foouthi -in 
Apple) rRS-SO mtcila.-iiij! I. III. IKS-.SO 
assembly Ijnvuan:. Microsoft BASK" decoded. 
Phone Au.'klami 606-129. 

MK KUPKOIKSSOKII: Mk KAM. colou: end 
muiiJ. A|»|'li>nll io:n'M'iblt. DWk HUvtfilW" ttlld 
Ion ol sofiivnic. SUM) ,»r iwap for App>le disk 
drive Md controili'i. I'lioiie 8?2-.»67 WclliitjUoji. 

INI OHMA I HIN W AVI II): ( >n In:* <o expand 
memory wi INry-t^U' NKrocompuici horn 4K lo 

IdK -plii-.. ;iho m\li lit borrow copy ol yrophta 
manual fot above. Phone 8I8-73S6 (Aucfc). 
evenings. 

BBC PROGRAMMERS; Good rwallMH paid 
(«r all (>i M ' x "i oriafwal Mflv/airea PC Software. 
I'd BWI WA, WdUslrv Si. Aurkbml. 

SPKCTK1M l«V4Sk SOIIWaMI: Wiainrs 

I". ' ■■in. in. i Inn colour high u .-.liiii.n -.inn ». 
ObI> Sfl.'tS iiiu l |i f. pi. All painifnu in ("ni* 
Simmons. Hl>5. Dannrvlrkc 

/.XRI SOI IWAHl: (l.llll: Jo: into wm SAI" 
io: D. (filbert. Main Kd.l oSur:t. R.D.2, 
Riitttiioia- 



'•<*>*— Mmmmmavmnmnmmimmimu\ni\\i\ iimn i n ■«—■ 
From page 57 

introduction lo BASIC 

programming. 

This is one ol those- gen-whizz. 
high-energy, "I want lo be your 
best friend" woks that only 
Americans can write without 
embarrassment. Every chapter 
has a "cutesy" sub-lit le and there 
are about a dozen full-page, 
"cutesy" drawings scattered 
through. 

Each of the common BASIC 

FOR SAIK- Speeiiim fame* — Time GHC, 
Mtiivtcr. Space IMnoVn, McteuriJct. Up 10 
S.W undci roiail price. $20 each. Plu>r.c 
(liii.lclmrcli 217-ISI 

t OMI'I (111 OU II: KCi-li iikiihum , dill! (WW, 
printer, (3000. l'RS-W «'(X"o. koh monlior. 

r.imf fiinr«l>vs, Sl*n> Writ "Con-put en", 2(> 
Itolton St, \Vc3liiirui». 

FOB SAI.F: Games I >r IKS 80, System BO IAK. 
Temple <■! Apviai, I ism: . Mission liripouJbki 

t'tie < iMiiil, Shotvtlowr. , I '>■ i .1'iiriJ ol Doom. 
Advcniiireltuul, Cars.' ol" Cowlv Manor. Write 

a. LniKc. ion Seven me ku RuBanja. PhoM 

Ruran>M iUA. 

CUSTOM souwari roe Stuff*/' jUn lui*! 
hckl compulcrs and pri^ummabte cakrulaiurv 

Contaa J.W. viincid. 17 lioMct Si. <ikii i 

(i.irjtcs. bu%ines\. mkhIiIk, jii)lliiii£? 

< ItKrll IKI H'RIMKH: loi mIc. IlK lltdcil .'II 
nn liiimp opiotMil-ilu! drivci lo ]>:otcv: voir 
compmcTi (nil! oon^ae liiiiiniciiiincf manual 
Sofl ware loi I'RS-fo «m svmciii-Wi Aicii lo 



SUPFR W): I2K RAM. all nwima^ nlin tapn 
jiiiI ptociaiitN 1 ape Kim.. S-II5. I'lionc 

WdhlorrJ5l22, 


-"•' •iinninii .ii.m.iii >■ ui-tniu iiiim-\ 

prima vim lane ouipM povih Contact Joy Maim, 

HO <ctiiauiu& Roid. ("hriMcliincI;. |'|K«ih' 

325* 652. 


ADVERTISER INDEX 




Accost UjI;i 


b;c 


Hocv ConvHitai Contis 


20. 38. 39. 12. 


Advanced Coni«ol 


43 




46. 67 


A'pinc CwimiiiiMj 


17. 37 






AMZBodta 


57 


KLwvl Software 


33 


As'ibY Cocrpvtori 


18 






Ashlo-0 


12 


Jj-iu's flpcir ernes 


55 


AWA 


25 






Auckland Univoisilv llooksliup 


67 


K'Rd CnmiM-turs 


23 


AVM Eloci'onics 


65 










Loll Sft'tw.il*> 


23 


Byle SI- op 


33 










Micrr>A(|0 


50. 55 


Canie'bt«v Univuislly Boo'-iBrtop 


57 


Mirt'omart 


27 


Check Pornt Conpulcrs 


56 


Mlcowaro 


V 


Cornmodora 


9. 41 


Micro '0 1 


?0 


Compiulni.i Mrxlin Sysinms 


l-B 


Mir .i(|0 Wholusaler- 


39 


CompUtW Cnnlro 


24 


Molyinorx 


26. 34 


CornpuTO'fiorp 


52 






Compuloi G»mo!i 


44 


U? Fine Chains 


28 


Co-nputor Plutt 


50, 55 






Commit' P«iH 


54 


Pro-u^vi 


13 


Coinpuler South 


51 






Coirpuier Wltna-'iousi; 


1 


Rnkrn Computers 


13 


Ccmptiier Woi'i; 


45 


Hcin.rl.ih r* Sol I wire 


4 


Control Micioconiputurb 


19 










Scnrpto Books 


56 


David Wei ;. 


36 


Si<w;l.iii Sollv\arH Cluh 


40 


Dirl; Smith EtOClrOrtfcS 


3. 43 


SoltvvAiii Supplies 


46 






Sol'itJt indusuies 


6. 11 


EirhBium SctCMilic 


22 


SoidCowp.itorfi 


Iff 


Elocl'ic Aoplo 


55 


Si'.TfilK Soliwaic 


24 


Exce'ski' 


21 


SuiMtitch Flectroni:s 


42 


r-wj Sl.-ir Aar.tlon* 


15 


Vision Computes 


:ni 


Gadaot 3S. 39. 40. 4? 


. 44, 46 


Wniktt'r- Univorsilv 


35 


Hswleit Packard 


28 


vi««-id Syatanvs 


22 


60 - November. 1383 BITS & 


BYTES 







staierrents is explained and) an 
example urogram is provided 
These are quite well annotated 
and each program builds nicely on 
whai has gone before. The 
programs are an interesting 
mixture and numeric techniques 
are presented, not so much as an 
end in themselves, but as a 
mechanism lor doing more 
interesting things. There, are no 
reader exorcises. 

Any BASIC book which is not 
machine specific is bound to run 
into problems and this one is no 
exception. It discusses what the 
RETURN key might be labelled, 
different commands toi clearing 
the screen and whatever "ready" 
prompts might he provided. 
However, it assumes that all 

micros use the same syntax tor 

random numbers and teaches thai 
the size of the RND argument 
influences the size of the 
generated result. Screen 

formatting is wisely ignored. 

For a hook with such simple 
programs. I found an upsetting 
number oi typographical errors. 

The book is an interesting 
browse if you are a beginnor. It is 
also good value loi students ot 
psychology because its uuihor is 
seemingly obsessed by what he 
calls "overload" and "burnout". 
At noarly $22 there are better 

books around. 
From page 54 

in spice o1 the counter-attraction of 
ihe TV. 

And t can see one very big 
advantage of having a computer 
around to assist them with their 
learning it has unlimited patience. 



full (as 
micro 



Bumper holiday 
issue 

As well as our tegular features 
the December/ January issue of 
BITS & BYTES will include: 
Microcomputer survey ;i 
pOSSibtel listing of 
computers currently available in 
New Zealand including features 

and wrices. A not lo be missed 
g.uido for Christmas computer 
buyers. 

Program special — pages full of 
listings loi those who already own 
a computer. We hope there will be 
plenty to keep you busy duiing the 
holiday break. 

Show catalogue a complete lift 
out catalogue to the Cbristchure/i 
Computer Show, including 

companies participating and what 
will be on display. 



rbailm Cwj, 



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