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DAVID  AND  SYLVIA  STEINER  YIZKOR  BOOK  COLLECTION 


STEVEN  SPIELBERG  DIGITAL  YIDDISH  LIBRARY 

NO.  02744 


Czestochowa  Memorial  Book 

Czenstochov,  our  legacy 


THE  NEW  YORK  PUBLIC  LIBRARY  - NATIONAL  YIDDISH  BOOK  CENTER 

YIZKOR  BOOK  PROJECT 


NEW  YORK,  NEW  YORK  AND  AMHERST,  MASSACHUSETTS 


THE  STEVEN  SPIELBERG  DIGITAL  YIDDISH  LIBRARY  PROVIDES 


ON-DEMAND  REPRINTS  OF  MODERN  YIDDISH  LITERATURE 

©2003  THE  NEW  YORK  PUBLIC  LIBRARY  AND 
THE  NATIONAL  YIDDISH  BOOK  CENTER 


MAJOR  FUNDING  FOR  THE 
YIZKOR  BOOK  PROJECT  WAS  PROVIDED  BY: 

Harry  and  Lillian  Freedman  Fund 
David  and  Barbara  B.  Hirschhorn  Foundation 
David  and  Barbara  Margulies 
The  Nash  Family  Foundation 
Harris  Rosen 
David  and  Sylvia  Steiner 
Ruth  Taubman 


Original  publication  data 


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Czenstochov,  our  legacy  / [edited  by]  Harry  Klein. 
Montreal,  Canada  : H.  Klein,  1993. 
xxiv,  360, 117  p.  : ill. ; 26  cm. 

Jews  --  Poland  --  Czestochowa. 

Czestochowa  (Poland)  — Ethnic  relations. 

Holocaust,  Jewish  (1939-1945)  — Poland  — Czestochowa. 
Klein,  Harry,  1918- 

Tshenstokhoy  : artiklen  un  bilder  fun  alte  tsaytn 


THIS  BOOK  MEETS  A.N.S.I.  STANDARDS  FOR 
PAPER  PERMANENCE  AND  LIBRARY  BINDING. 


PRINTED  IN  THE  U.S.A. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


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.^]^2  oyi  iiB  33i3”iyiyi 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


1992  ,15;3KDp>K  pIK’  VI 

5?3n:is’ik 

l”ii3yTKn  ’ax  :iis 

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.D2y'7yj3nn  pnin  nyi  pxn  oxn  p’x  n ps 

lyiyn’x  nyo’vu  nyn  iis  yp’oxoi^sx  .p’x  nD’'7Dn  nnxa^  ysni  y3”'?p  n ,Ta 
yomj  n ^n  I’x  pxnx2”x  rvat  n oxnyj  ixi  laxn  y3'7yii  .iixoxooiya^D  px  n'7’np 
ps  nnxix  iy'?oxn”x  px’  nyonyni’n  ps  piyn  nioVip  yomi  n .namin’  yp’DO’n 
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.nxsxDOiya^D  I’x  py'?-op'?xD  la^n’x 

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nynix  pnwyj-ana  nynx  .nioxionx  nyv  px  pya’n  n isVxnyia’o  nynx  axn 
nyn  px  Vxa  laarny  ais  .pnixiiynx  nix  ^nx  ^sxn  nymya  ya^om  n piiasnixs 
*)nx  ,’iTX  ni  ,pni  ]iy''jx'7xa3yB  iix  p’Vosxa'iyoni  pmj  nyv  .yas’a^yj  ny3’'?a'3yB 

.yoxn^x  I’x  p^xs  ya^’n’x  yxixi  oxn  piiynnixoix  pix  pa^’oo’nxo  x 

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yaoBXTnni  n pynis  piiyi  pjyi  nyoVx’jyD’a  t>x  ]n’x  'I’lx  mn’sn  ya^o^n  n ,p'7XD 
oxn  lyjxae^aax  vx  ntx  px  .px'joix  anxn  iis  pjyt  p’x  ’n  tn  yos’atyj  nyn  I’x 

.ysxn”x  nnta  I’x  aiaayn’x 

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nyjyaxnsatyionx  ix  inxnyj  vx  oT’D’Byo''DJX  nyn  .ot’D’oyo’Oix  ps  a”n  n 
nysjxj  nyn  nys’x  inya^naisonx  oaynaatyj  '7xyn''x  ayn  axn  n .Vxyn’x  nyanata^n 
T’X  oy  t’3  ,p^xs  lenn’x  pxaxi  ps  niaxno’ix  aVyn  x nxs  inxa  ayn  ]0”njis  iix  B'7yn 
oxn  ny  .y’nxya  yetB”n  ya^x  ’n  ar’apxns  p’saninx  lyanyj  axn  px  ny'jB’n  lyaipyi 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legracy 


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•IxDyj 

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pw  oyn  lyn  tx  i”x  Ti  pyi  oxn  ii’x  .pyjixs  oxn  p’x  ,j3i:''’iy*iy  yab’yr  n ni’n 
^y^^?■>^t?t5•>'>^  nyts'jx  IX  fx  oy  .lypiynyj  iniyoc?  lysx  pin  rn  ,]yK?yj  D\y’3  oyDy'?ytx 
ps  nnnVn  ■iyp’a”x  ix  t’x  oy  .pVxs  pn’x  po  fiio  oyn  pt  is  Vxyi’x  ny'7X3X’sx3 
B(7’3  nyn  in’x  laxo  opaisiJXBit^  pnxBO’n  i'7X3X''SX3  x iio  ]ix  .p’K  oyT  liyp  PP'^^y 

.»]’nyT  iJ’ix  ’T  pxmxD 

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pyjo’nx  IIS  jJuayaBB'ix  iix  ’n  yo’ni  i”t  ixs  (ynxixp  ,'7xyao3XD  px  p’Vp  ’lyn 
ps  iBS’ix  p’l  t’x  j’BS’ii  oayaaiTxa  ,b?’1’x  I’x  px  c?’'7J3y  ]’x  "nia"  ayiixaoayi^B  nyi 
oya  BayVyjaya’x  pxn  0x11  la’x  ayiixaoiys^B  "an  ib”iis"  nya  p’oyayoi’xaxs 

•lia  nya  is  I'^x’aBXD  B’n  iay”Bms”a  .pain 

.pVxB  X oVx  la’Bt’opy  ayB”ii  iV’ii  p’x  a’n  a’lx  tx  pxn  lyi’t  ]’x  isaxa  a’n 
aian  laxn  pB”a  ’a  0x11  nya  is  Jiiiyaax  jxb  laya’x  p’jaya’ax  BKt’i  a’n  payp 
’a  B’n  patvn  iJ’Bi'?a  px  yiax"?  x ix3  pxn  a’n  ,yDxa”x  px  py"?  yKt’a’X  oxa  oaxnyi 
layii  BVxsxa  B«t’3  pp  pVxs  aytaix  is  pnyj  laxn  pB”a  ’a  0x11  oxa  .ayaayn  yBtD”a 
aya  piiyj  t’x  pain  nya  oaxnyjB’n  oxn  0x11  an  aya  "ayo'pyj  uiaxnBuaya’ii"  B’n 
B’n  BStttn  payayj  x pyaxs  payp  is  ixiw  is  Kt’t’s  lyiiyj  t’x  0x111  an  x Viann  an 
pVxs  Kt’a’x  X p’BO’tpy  oyn  oy  a’lx  .la’x  man  yp’ajynip  ’a  tx  pxn  a’n  ,iKtB”a  ’a 

•pyb  py’a’x  oyayaxiiya  aian  nya  axs  paa^n  x pyaxs  oyn 


C2ENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 

D*?Kna’N 

1942  -nifl’D  Dr  “|N3  3KD  « 

iiNSKDonytyD  ]3"rn 

7 tno  H \7t/‘ivn  H\7y>  •^yf  pn  no'^v) 

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21 )H*i*>yTy6  i V'l 

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41 y^at  iiTi^aH  '1  am 

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17  daNi’^a  dioN  V l^mymi  >aa 

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61 d>vi*Tp  yayniM  pyii«;aMd  \7v>i  pHd  am  p>ii»b  n 

64 >pdimp>t/taHa  )>»>)a  aan 

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09 naatn  ayo  - 3$  aya  ia  .p.n 

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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legate 


NJNii  nn7iu 

— nns  H ndi;a  nn  ]’k 


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px  tn’iynxo  i^xn  jVxiDpyVyorx  y^y^3K  yVx  ]ik  loxpxmx  .nyny"?  n 
ynynix  yVx  .nyxyVs'oyanx  yiy’n  ix  jyVDpx  n nyanyn  ca  ]y’n 
jDxVyjDnn  ono  ya’i  o’a  jyiyi  .loyanx  ix  ni  Dxnyi  nxi  jaxn  oxn  ,p” 
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’n  .o:yn  n ”3  jnxiy  t*!  p'?xu\yyj  ]yiyi  jya  axn  a^x^  ]ix  xt  n’7n 
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•lyiyiixT  D”2  jxa  ixixi  x ]n”’?mxD  ix  unxn  na  .j’nx  iViiy  n px 
lyjyt  oy  .ayaax  jx  ]Dyiyj  yoaxxa  n jyiyi  "Dxn-]ir''  ]id  oxava  ’i  ]’x 
ui’DaxDDxn  nyaaxxa  x ny3”x  .iDixcyiyarx  p’p  ]yaipyj  oiya  a3”n 
Ijyii  aV”xayT  d’x  axn  ny  .'ryxiyiD  ayn  ^yiy  pyc’n  la’a  oyiaiy  x 
."jnVriD’ix"  ]x  jyaipaxD  ayn  ay  ix  .it”  ’’a  otynyn  oxn  .xna  lyn 
.pxnyj  apmya  y*?}):  a”i  n’X"  : a ixtyj  jix  aiyi^ayiix  in  axn  Vyxiyno 
annxoyVya  Vyxiyio  axn  jaaxxa  ]id  ya’a  nyn  inx  ."nxs  aaan  aaxp  ay 
Dinxn  .]yBipnxD  aiymxj  ayn  ay  ix  .anyamxa  ]ix  nyany  yay'?ay  I’lx 
nyn  u ]axn  inxn  ay  axn  .pyaiya  nyanna  n ]yay3  ny  ayn  piximo 

?ayanx 

IX  aamyj  laxn  V^a  .ina’aiy-nns  x xayj  px  aiynynyi  axn  ixn  nyax 
nxaxaajyiya  px  xn  ayn  .nyaayasya  ]aa-22  ayn  .awnxaix  ix  .jV^xnyn 

X ]yaipyj3x  nx  a’n  "nyiynx"  nyn  ]ia  ."jnVnnanx'inv"  n jyaipnxa 
yaVyn  .nyi’xnpix  I’x  py’axV  axau?  I’x  jniy  in  lyj’ayj  ay  ix  .ny’i’ 
a’B  pxa  iia  x lympyj  nynx  jyiyt  'n  ix  .aanxa  pany  in  jaxn 
,aV”xnyn  axn  ixnxaayn  x iia  ]'>nya'’aj3”x  ix  .nna  yiyVna  x .p”  n 
yaVyn  .jiyaxV  jix  nyi’xnpix  ar’siyxa  jnyn  jxnxaayn  I’x  n’x  ”a  tx 
lyjyt  ”1 IX  .axtyj  n’x  jaxn  ’n  .yu?nxn  jia  ]yaipyi  nyna  ixa  x a’a  piyt 
axn  ’n  ]Vyn  ax’x  .in”  n an’nnip’V  px  xayi  px  a’li^nn  ”nx  piiyi  anxn 

.p”  nynxaxaajyiya  a’a  pa  ya*?yT 
’n  px  xayj  pya’x  pxnayiamn  ainraymaiy  x m in  axn  ny’n’  n 

.an’D  IX  an’B  pa  lapxnyj  rx  na’x 

1942  nysttyusyo  ]oo-22  pD  si’JtpK"  ’T 

.pynp  ynynjx  yVx  pa  ]ix  aaxa  nyn  pa  ."axn-inv"  pa  pmnyannxa  n 
yaayW  piiyi  payt  aPa  ix  .p”  yVx  ip'xinxa  aixpyi  aiyn  ixn  pxn 
t’x  tnn-nypnyna3?<n  I’x  .yanypnxa  axn  ajxtyjjx  pxn  axn  .ana’a 
IX  ."axn-jn”"  jia  lyiy-y’xxtnxjnx  nyn  .yVnxnxa  axpxnnx  nyn  paipyj 
ynyan  pa  aa”n  ny  ix  .anyannxa  axn  px  .lyajya  nyp’naiyna  nynya'ry 
lix  pnxa  ayn  ay  — ipyniy  ix  pt  axn  nxa  xauin  nx  ay  tx  .pynp 

.piyyj  lyannxj  VVaa  ayn  ay  nxa  ,pnxa  nxa  aiyn 
.pxViyyi  aiy’a  ma’a  an  ’xxia  pa  aaxa  n nyanyn  payi  pyaaya  ixax 
pxVnxa  piiya  iaaxV*ia!<i  ’n  pa’n  .paaiann  yny”t  px  aaxnyj  nxa 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


8 


.pKiisi  jyjyi  ]tt?D3y!3  yp’njyDxn  n “ivas  ."pwoDiV"  a’Vis 

laxn  ]9aKV  sipnopsVv  v'?h  tk  ,*iyDDJ»D  n pn  jj’VsiVb  p’njsytnyT 
]”K  cn  .nanVa  n ikd  Vsax  nw  ’ii  ]DD’i*?yaD’iK  Vvn  ’itk  ^Kaxo’a 
lip’oxou;  Dvn  iid  nyojxa  k .p’OD’naix  ]nKnya  "fwoDiV"  n vh  Vxa 

D^’VK■^03Kp  jiK  Koy3  ]iD  ]Di<3  ’T  inKDy3Dnn  t’K  D'7KU«;3i<*o»o’xnopyW 

,]»333D’'V  sVs 

]iD  is'niyya  iix  ly’nsD’u?  oismyT  I’a  ]3xn  3KD3xd  “lyA^tK  5 onx 

jiK  ,]nKiiy3  3X0  T’x  D»  t’3  ony’n»3  ]3xn  mVip  iix  ly’nyo’a?  n .iu^o”t 
D»s”V9  n 'I’lx  pVpys  o’a  yojja  »o’n3 1<  i»t“iyn  n’a  i3xn  Vxa?<o'a 
loVxny39x  ]3xn  iyonx33Xtt;i  n =m  ,fxV9  dix  i\yo”T  inn  ]3no»3  jnsn 

.33ioxnx3  ns’n 

T • 

]3'ixy3  ’iTX  1’t  oxn  ,mVip  jix  iv’nyo’tt^  o’a  0”V3X3  ."y’xpx"  n 
I’X  i'”33’nx  03X’X’W9  ju^n”  X ]yinyn  n’o  ]3xn  Vxaxo’a  ,nw  ysyVov 
ssvVoy  .’ino  i”i  D’3np  "3  OTxVy3nv3’x  ]03y3  xn  oxn  ns  ,T’in'  nstn33x 
.pnx  t’x  ns  I’mn  33i3’ni  nsn  I’x  D’x  is  ]DxVs39xnx  is3ST  in3ix  iid 
n3ix  oxn  ns  .n3’p  ]”Vp  x ’ii  is3”n  ]ix  i”o\s  jsnsn  O’x  i3xn  n’o 
SB;n'’  n isii  :xos3  I’x  ]3XT  sssVnsn’ns  nx9  ]saip  os  tx  ,oV”snsn 
isaipx3  ”1  ]3xn  .i”nx  oxnxo’axp  px  ]saips3  3Xonx9  is3si  ]03X’S’’7X9 
on’9  nsoVsn  ,onnxn3S3sn  ixo'09’in"snsonxn3Xtt>T  osn  ii9  Vsdxo  s 

,]S331t”113X  n in’DD’IX  ’13S3  iVXT  ’’T  IX  ."S’SpX"  nSX3X3  nsn  O’O  ]X 

osn  ,PsDX3  Dsn  is  ]dx91s  oisn  yi  osn  os  nsn  isaipxn  iVsn  ’n  oxn 
oxn  '»’S'»Vx9  sisn”  n oxn  ,s3X3Dnx  soisns  n .psn  jDxisnsn  onx  i9nx 
ssVsn  ,]0X3  n I’x  .]S33i3’m  stt;n”  sVx  I'x  i”3  is  isns3  I’x  ,]saipx3 
.nsni’p  ]ix  |snnD  ns3sa  ,in”  s’???  i3xt3x  px  ,psn  ]tniS33x  osn  os 
psn3x  insoi’n  ns3”x  ]S”n  I’x  I’n  ]ix  0X3 1’X  onnx  nnios9in3  j*???!  ’n  t?< 
lDn?<n  ]S33i3nn  n .is’7ps9  s3”Vp  isasio’o  in’73  )3So  ”t  .pnxa  ds”3  dis 
osn  ,]o’7xnx30’ix  yt  osn  os  nsn  ,n’o  ]’X  ]s*70’'7u;  n o’a  .jdx  13«'73 

.]nsn  joxisnsn 

0x11  ,iox’S’’7X9  s?sn”  n |saips33X  ]S3St  3X0’03X3  ns3”ix  ”nn  oinx 
]STS3onx  pxn  ’n  .tnn'nspnsnoixn  osn  I’x  niix  o’o  jsaxns  03nns3  pxn 
tn3ix  "1  pxn  ,op’xin?<3  Vo’3X  in  ]3xn  ’n  ni  osnoxi  ,]3xn3ss  px  n’o 

.X0S3  ]’x  isaips3nx9  nx  os  0x11  ,]’?'”snsn  ]3nns33x 
onsn  jsa  .]03nVx3  ’7sn  onsn  xos3  oxn  ns3X  .snsooi’o  pisi  03S3  n 
lVxDS3  nx  n”  x ix  ,0”nx3  oxs?  nsns’  tx  ,pw  lom  to  px  .is’nso’ts 
|'S3ns  psosVp  ”3  ,nsno  x pisos  D”3  ,0x3  n ]”3ns3’nx  ]Vsn  d"3 
00S3  nsi^p  ,ns3”p  otsn  09x’?tt?  xos3  ]’x  .]3”V3  oxn  jix  onV9  x ns3’x 
,t’'9ts  jVsDonx  jx  03”n  os  .lox^ts  ois  nsn«Vp  n pi  jio  9xnx  otsn 
ntx  .ts93  no3s  nxo  ps  oisn  VV33  jxp  pa  ,]0”ns  osn  09’?sn  ns3”x 

.ns3oso9so  ]00'25  Dsn  p’O’no  n3  os  onsnn 

S isoipx3  loiX’S’Vxo  sisn«  n i3j<n  "S’spx"  nso’nis  nsn  nxo  3x0  x 
.oxnxo’oxp  psn”  I’x  3xonx9  ns3’nx  n’o  O33nxois  pVso  is  in  Vs9X3 
n .sottns  n 'ii  .ni??  op3i9  ]nxns3  on’DS33nin  t’x  "S’spx"  so«ns  n 
ts  .nnnss  n jn”  n J3xt3X  ]S33i3nn  n j’x  iS33X3S3  is3st  ]03X’S’Vx9  stsn’’ 
.nst”n  n jio  ]nsno  n px  isVpso  sns’n  o’o  i’7Sounsnnx  in  itio  ”1 
]ix  i03X’S’Vx9  sts’Vno  ,ns3’xnpix  .jsonxnixan  isoips33x  ]S3St  i?<3nsn 

.onn?<  pnxa  pnx  psno  n p9  i3nos3 


9 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeacy 


]DKu;nyT  spaxij?  px  iwjsa  ynsoVv  ivjyt  Vx!3  dxt  ’ii  opjis 

D’nxn  ’T  ’n  ,'7'sw  ’its  i”i  o:xpyj  ottT’j  ]3xn  ”t  *?”tt  .otx  id’ix  pxnw 

.oVxnw  ]3xn 

X ]»aTp»nxD  "y’Spx"  lyn  ”3  ’ii  nyi’n  t’x  p3X?3  jd’tx 

yp’ooynp  ^’ix  yVypyoTy  ]D’o  iT’nyjJx  oxn  isaos’in  ^y^  ."y’xpyVyo" 
IxiTyn  ”T  ’ns  .)TxVny3’x  iD”nyi  oxn  ny  yoVyn  .ly’iiD  yaav  iix  nyjyo 
yp’njyyiD’Tx  oaiiyi  ’n  lyjyt  tjdx  fjxi  .oy3nx'iDxVpa7  ix  jTDixpynx 
nyp’nopyVy  .nyViy’D  .nyoxVTy  .‘itix3  “iy”t  ‘I’lx  jnxnyj  oiynsya  nyTyo 
.p”V3nxD  DTX  D”T  nyD’’nx  nyn  i’tx  inxnyi  p’nuyny3’nx  bsw  jyjyi 
.yojyxj  ]n”57“Tyn3X3TD  D”3  oyTyxo  yty’Txnu  oV’STpyjsx  ^’^  I3xn  nyn’ii  ]tx 

yp’my’SD  oxn  ’n  jyjyT  Dy3nx-]Dx'?pTy  tx  "y3y3’VpyjD’TX"  Vxx  y3’’'?p ’t 
Ip’iy’inx  DTX  yosTymxD  nyojT’iD  ’n  jix  .sxip  ]’x  ]nxnyj  OToyasx  Vxd 
.]y3XJST>  ’T  I’K  ]Tvn  IX  onxVnxD  ’ns  ,’d  ’tt  inxnyj  p’noyj  jyjyt 

Ktjyj  ]’K  nyriann 

p’XTxnx  ]Tx  i3’D  jS’VsnxD  ^X3  xuyj  I’x  jyjyT  "y’xpx"  nya”TTX  nyn  ixj 

.Vmi  jon’DttTxsmx  ny”T  f^’ix  onxnyj  ]3xn  oxn  ,in”'D3T’TD 
DsyVya  cxn  oxn  .jjTnypVysxs  yjj’nx  ’n  .nyDnxur  jnxnyj  t’x  nywin  nyn 
jS’Tx  nVxs  oxn  .]TTnyTyn  mu;  ]”p  oxnyj  tju;’3  jix  ]DDrnnxD-jxo  ’n  jtd 

.]Dy  TX  DXTT  oxnyj  ou>’:  "y’xpx"  nyn  ix:  ixo  io”nx 

onypjia 

nynyn’TS  “I’lx  onypiis  usxoyj  I’t  jsxn  oxn  ,]n”  lynyj  lyjyT  xoyj  ]’X 
]3xn  onypTTs  Vxx  nyo’ini  x ]td  .nyony  ysyViya  yVx  fj’ix  ]tx  .onyVyp  jix 
ly’ino  .nyjya  loVxnxs  loytyj  onxn  lyjyt  oy  .iu;D3ya  ynynyo  oomyi 
.pojya  Dnynjin  ix  I’lx  ]tx  .p’xms  .p’xjxnx  .lyx  .tirD  ix  nynrp  itx 
P’n3yj”n  .jyo  ysyVuy  'I’lx  iDpTnxns-T”su;  o’a  DinxtnxD  ^’T  jsxn  ”t 
]”jp’mx  lyjyp  ixn  ]VyTT  ”t  ]tx  imnx  yy  oyn  ''D”X‘yDsyVu;"  ’n  tx 
]3”noD’Tnx  1SX3  TX  .os’nya  du;’3  i’t  oxn  nyr’p  .jyjjiT’TTT  yns”T  I’x 
]tt>o”n  nynx  ]o:x’X’Vx9  iVyou;pyTTX  ]ya  oyn  nyT”n  yny”T  jis  in”  ’n 
pTiyi  T’X  onypjTs  ’n  ]’x  p”  ’n  jis  Vmi  nyn  .lyjjTT’m  ’n  jo’n  tx 

.nyp’nny’ino  x ny”T 


vu’*n  n 

ysVyn  ."y’xps"  vo’nn  ’n  lympyjnxs  t’x  1942  nysoyosyo  iod'28  oyn 

.yp’nnyns  ”ttx  ’n  ’ti  ’ttx  DV’9u;yj9x  pT  Oxn 
P’TX  pxnyj  OTDyjD’Tnx  jyjyT  pxj'xoyj  ysyVoy  itd  ny3’TTT3”x  ’n 
.nysVyno’a  y3”T  o’a  oV33’ny3aTnx  ,onnxn3y3yn  ixaD9’Tn  nyn  ttt  ,pnxa 
iy3yT  ysVyn  ,o”Vsxd  px  itt;o3ya  y33T’  po  a”Vp9x  x osxavi  oxn 
oy  .mnsura  yny”T  itd  pxTTya  on”tt;yx  oTnx  ’ttx  px  pxTTy3  OTxVy3ny3’x 
yp’nnyns  ’n  ”3  ’tt  .oyTyxo  yp’n3D”nxnxn  yo3xpx3  ’n  paTpyanxD  ]y3yT 
■’9  ’n  I’X  psVy3D’TX  in”  03T’to  ysyVoy  ’n  oxn  pa  nyn”x  ."oy’xpx" 

.pTXSXTT 


"ov’itpK"  ’t 

ysVyTT  "y’xpx"  yonyo  ’n  paTpinxD  t’x  1942  nyaxopx  p-i  oyn 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


10 


I’lx  Dsn  "S’xp'X''  sp’TNT  ’T  .yp’'nv’nD  n is  lyVis  dV’swjsx  i’t  dkh 
nysVyn  ,"D»K“i’onxnp"  px  ]y3iDyj  yi  ]3xn  oxn  ,p«  s’??  lyaiiyjons 
]xnDS’in  nvT  .]xoos’irTOXDu?  ]id  yw  ]'iyo3ix  ivjxoiyyi  ou^noiVa  t’x 
1X3  ott?'‘3  ,pixa  iD’ix  01X1  11D  ]3'”io3SD'»iix  ^Vioxs  oxH  oiixn3y3yi 
lis’ia  ]3’ipiy3nx  im  n3333  ]yoipj<33'”ix  oixi  yt  i3|<n  oxn  yVs  n 
oiixn3y3yi  ixoos’in  i»i  oxn  oxi  ,o”’73XD'i»oy3is  'i  iX3  .jO’iVs  13X 

•ixaos’in'oxou;  d»i  O’ssnV  is  “I’lx  pow 
X injnyj  os^tasi  vp’iiv’iD  n «3  ’n  t’x  "y’spx"  i»oi»d  'i  "a 
y3»i’iyixD  is  ]ixii»3  op’tyy3pynx  lyosss;  iS3»i  os  px  "y’spvVvo" 
oV”o»ais  ]»aipx3  a3ioVxnixD'Oxou7v<y'’'7’i9>i  oxn  ’itx  .oy3ix*]9xVpiy 
.]DX3  ]i''pii3  IS  ]ix  oy3ix'”DXtt?  IS  "yoi’3X’spyVyD"  yp’ixi  n iio  V”0  x 
yai’D  iyi  ]id  pnaxs-ys’iiax  iyi  ]’x  iixnyi  0TDy3pynx  ]y3yt  yiyi3X 

,3xoxn" 
•»  «• 

,nxpb:i  yoin-]f’x  iyi  ]’x  ]ixny3  op’iyyapynx  fx  n3no  yom  x 
]3xn  oy  =111  jix  "3XDxn''  yni’D  lyaVyi  iyi  is  oiyny3  yix  oxn  yaVyii 

.p'i3SD-y’S’3inx  iyi  ]’x  ’ii  ]y33i33’i?<3  yaVyt  n oiyiynyi 
a3i3yiixixD  X lynipxa  oxn  ”S'’'7xs-iyu;'n”  iyi  po  iyo”Viy<y’VnDiyi 
p’SDiD  iiD  no’ipi  X i^yoiyiyaxTis  "px!  iy  ix  ,oiixn3y3yi  ixaos’in  ]id 
n iix  D30DX9  yiy’n  I’lx  jo^Vaixo  ]Vyii  yaVyii  .ioix’S’Vxd  yipn” 
jiyii  op’iyyipyiix  iVyii  ,oiyi3in  ”iis  yy  jx  jid  Vxs  x ]’x  .ypnya’x 

.01X303X10  ]OD3yx3  oyi  o’a  ii”  yiyiix  yVx  O’a  lyaxns 
D1S  ]Dx’?y3  rx  lyiy’  ,p'’3XD  x ]ixiiy3  rx  ”S’Vx3  lyu^’i”  iyi  ”3 
IS  n’3i  n iVyisisD’ix  no  ,iyo”’7-DD*7’n  py’i”  ois  ]ix  lyo”"?  i«;’X”S’’7XD 
oyi  oxn  iy3«x  .iiyii  oixVyaiya’x  ]dixi  oxn  .p’SDiD  ’i  py’iis  13”*731XD 
]yiiyoxi  IS  yt  ■>i3  .oyaio'oVya  yo’ii3  o’a  ja^oiyisiyanx  oonya  )iyi3X 

.lyoniixa  x ]y3X3xir’D  ’i  I’x  jiyii  is  op’iyyApynx  iid 
X oVyoiyyaoniis  oxn  •’’S’Vxs  lyu^’i”  iyi  ]id  iyo”V  lyiy'Vno' iyi 
na’iyi  ’i  iVyoiyiyaxtis  d”3  ix  .yi  o”os;ixd  — jyayi  p’ssio  iio  na’ipi 
oiypyaoxn  is  oxn  ,yaio*o'7y3  isi  o’a  03Dyiy3  yt  iso”*?  isi  oxn 

.Dy3”x  ]iy’  ]iD  ]oixniyi 

.joix’S’Vxs  suni”  tx  .iixiisa  otxpxa  rx  1942  isaxopx  10-4  oyi 
iyi  IS  3X01XD  033ixais  yix  ]ixnyi  o'psotsxa  isist  .yisa’VaixD  ’i 

."S’spx"  yoD3’D  ’I  — ]yaipixD  Vxt  0x11  ."S’spx" 
iVxa  lyax  .ypnisno  n ni  ntx  lannsoix  yt  oxn  "S’spx"  sodi’d  n 
•IxVs  lyVs’Ssso  u pxnya  0”iiyiis  I’x  is  rx  os  t^<  .opisaxa  isa  oxn 
,3X01X3  .sp'ny’iD  yVx  ni  xsaso  iisVyits  x ]’x  ]y33X3y3is  n rx  Vo  aiip 
.pnx  pi^a  Dy”3  I’X  ]ixny3  ]3’ioy3  ]i”  n isist  .VxasVx  ni  is’Id 
yp’uynD  n nsa  ni  ji”  isa  iixny3  joxutisi  ]0X3  n I’x  jyiyt  Vxao^ji 
jix  lytsmyiy  omnn  sVspyoty  ]”t  o’a  oxn  ixao3nn  isi  ."os’sps" 
isa’x  ]Vssy3  lyoDX  isist  oisan  yisooxVsya  ]ix  oipsots  n px  isiVni 
]Vyotttis3x  ^n  DS3”p  oanVisi  otsn  ]3xn  isoVsnis  n .syp  yttri”  'i 
ni  lynD  pxns3  oV’Dsasx  isiyi  ]y3X3xn  'i  .nnani  josa  ]ix  jxaosnn  d«3 
ppxiisaDnx  lyan  isist  I’u;  ixs  isonno  n px  "os’spx"  ypnisno  n ’'a 
]y3X3?<ii  ’1  IS  ]i”  iso3rio  ’i  po  U7ixa  osi  ipnisixD  ]0X3  .3i^<a  ]’x 

lyosaixo’a  y3«T  o’a  D’x  Vxt  is  .isoxts  pn  iVnoxa  ixaosnn  isi  oxn 
•^nx  isaxV'Vaxt  osi  ooitxa  Vo  oiip  is  oxn  oixi  .xosa  px  iTspsiis 
.]y3X3xn  '1  IS  i3’no  01x1  ]id  ii”  yVx  jo^nsa  px  0x3  ytVxiisoxp  isi 
yis'n  O’a  ]03X’S’Vx3  styn”  ’i  ]i’DiS3’nx  01x1  iVnDxa  is  oxn  dsioxi 


11 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


•Vw  I’x  tJTt5D»^K  ]»nj7a  jyjyt  VD’?»n  .nvnrp  jix  ]V’nD 
liK  V^D’s®  iijrn”  I’K  psnx  D’mwo  srn  o’n  iKDOS’in  nyi  t’x  *]id  qis 
Dxnyj  i»3»T  wVvn  ,nyoDyiny-]p3Xip  )ik  on’iopKT  n yt  ix  jon  otxVyi 
."oy’xpx"  yp’orx  ra  yVx  n jid  ^^yn3  djddks  yny”T  fi’is  is’VanxD 
.jV’iDKa  nyoDyiW]p3ijnp  px  on’iopxT  yoVax^xs  n oxn  ixjaos’in  nyn 
,]ya3isnsiy3”x*DD  jayj  ,’?xo’9iy  I’x  ^’T  ]y3’Dyi  oxn  ,yp3Xip  yVx  iVxt  ”i 
lynyos"!  oiwByJ  laxn  o’TiopxT  n .laxa  ix  ^id  x “lya’i  oxn  ’n  o’o  no 
,iyMix’9iy3”x  ypnynyi  n owa  jaxn  ’n  tx  .iT>nD’ix  o’a  y’sxiD’O  n 
«ny  ]iD  ^^ya  j’x  oyn  pVx  a’lx  ix  .anyDoiyyi  jxaos’in  nyn  oxn  'I’nyn 
lastly  ypixnp  n lO’tynyn  is  iVyoxa  ly  oyn  .opn^ViyT  i”t  aty’j  nyty 

.'?x3KDiyD-*7XO'>9iy  1X3X1  p’a 

]ok'7V^2  an’iopxT  n pxn  33iaxixa  lyayVi^s  px  iy33xV  x 1X3 

.iyi3iy’“i9ty3”x  pn  yp3xnp  ’“i  iyi3yiaiyaix 
pD  — Vxo'sty  nyn3x  ix  px  D’t’ii  x DDxayi  ixaoD’in  nyn  oxn  ■ix3nyT 
I’t  oxn  .ix3xp  n''n  .'rxD’sut  ayn  po  nyo”'?  lyT  .io”np3xnp  yty’ayi’sy 
ony’nyi  pxn  ay  pn  D”y  nyT  px  ypixip  n d’d ’t  ^’ix  iVyoty  ix  o’axa 
yp3xnp  yVx  1X3X1  ."X’Xpx"  nyoD3’D  nxT  ”a  ,ox’x  -lyax  .''DX’xpx"  ’t 
’T  IX  pxiixa  ap’tyyapyiix  '7X3XDny9‘'7XD’sty  pD  '7”o  1x00x11  axi  o’a 
.poixixp  px  pxnxi  ovDXisx  I’x  Vxixdixd  po  '7”o  X I’l'ia  .ixixixn 
px  pxnx  ixDVxno’a  xoixxi  px  lyoxty  O’a  ixaus’in  nxi  I’x  iio  aix  ixi 
VaiD  p’Tii  s oaxaxi  anp  ”t  pxn  oixi  .14  ixaii  xx’ix  t’lrT'ixpnynoixn 
pnx  9X1X  pi  iVxT  "iy3'>m”x  xiyi”  x^x  ix  ,oynyi'7Knyi  px  pin  p’lx 
px  ix’iiD  ynx”!  O’a  lypixnoixn  ’i  .ixini’in  ’i  px  px*?  px  pin 
iV’iDxa  pxn  o”V  ’n  .oixn  px  p’sxs  xi”!  O’a  "ixnx’  pxnx  pixt  nxni’p 
p’t  O’a  nxoD”a  nxnx’  .loxoixpnxii  x3Vx3”x  ’n  O’l"?  iVxoixixo’ix  I’l 
lxao9’in*oxoix  pa  Voxx  p’lx  poixa  xixa’nixnxD  X3”t  px  x’V’axD 
.p’9X9  ’1  pix  opipxi  oix’3  oxn  ixaos’in  nxn  nxax  .nxniiixa  pixoixyi  I’x 
X131’  nxi  ’n  ,rx  tiiixa  p’t  oxii  px  I’x  nx  oVx  ’ii  px’  oixnoxi  oxn  nx 
xnxo'^x  ’n  px  .nxniiixa  pxoix  pt  p’laxa  nx  oxn  p’lna  px  nxixa 
.lynno  ”nn  px  ni’p  px  ’ino  p’a  o’a  px  .nxniiixa  pix  nxni’p  ’n  O’a 
.paxiix  1X3X01XX1  1X3X1  .Voxx  nxiniix  px  p’nixnxa  piixi  pixt  oxii 
px  axn  .p’xnxD  — pa  px  oVx  ’ii  oixiaxi  pa  oxn  ixaos’in  nxn 
poxi  pij?  X nx  oxn  pn  .nxoD”a'p’naxD  pnxa  po  :onxD03xxi  O’x 
.''P”ix  pi  011a  n’X" : poxi  1X1  X px  .ni’p  px  ’ina  pa  pix 
poxi  1x1  s oxn  xoVx  px  X131’  p’onxoo’ix  px  iixnao’ix  pxi 
,n’x  mix  nxixV  px  ixaxp  xo’!*?  xoVx  ’n  iixii  oaxp  n’x  — :xVx  ix 
mix  ”nxn”nx  nx’ix  ”a  xnxnxi  oa’3  ooia  n’x  .io”anx  nn’ii  .xnxii”  ’n 
•ixixp  10D”V  0”anx  xnxmx  nn’ii  n’x  .p’l  op’oaxixxa  ’’nxoonx 

NOm  V’n  DNT 

T T 

PSiixi  Dp’ipxipxiis  1X3X1  OX  xaVxii  imn  ."ox’xpx"  ^ii’a  ’n  1x3 
P’Vaxi  xoxi  oxn  px  .p”  03i’io  p’D”nn  px  p’a  oxoix  nxin3ix  ps 
P’B  pa  .iDxVixxi  loaxixxi  ’n  .ooia  p’Vaxi  1x3x1  nxi”n  ’n  .op’n’’VxiD’ix 
P’lainx  ^xll  s pixi  px  axn  nn'nxpnxiioixn  pa  ixp'rxa  p’ln  pxoix  ”iix 
Vxi  i3inxpVxaxa  xix’V’ia  ’n  tx  .p’nxi  pa  oxn  oxn  .pxrxoxi  ’n  nxa’x 
1X3  p’Vaxi  I’X  0X11 ,0011  px  axn  x3xa’’7axinxa’x  oxn  ixiixasnxx  oix’3 

.p”  xop’ixxipxiix  ’n 

Dnx3xVp  s ."xoxi  ”3"  X pxix  IX  iVnaxa  oxn  Dnnxn3xixn  ixaoa’in  nxn 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 12 

^K3  p’Va»j  1X3 1»3»i  0X11  .p”  n '??<t  oxii  .ypmyno  oxi  'ii 

IX  D3;T»n9  "oxTp”"  D»33?T»iiva  DXT  i3»A3;3ny3’x  *oxn  ny  ."oy’spx"  n 
"iV’nya  dvt  px  ,]p’mynD  dst  ]id  ]n»3y*?p  x "0XT]ni’"  d»”3  x jdxx; 
jiD  oxnxD’axp''”S’Vx9  x ]9xiy  ix  iV’ioxa  nx  axn  ”X’Vx9  “i»t  ]id  ixo”*? 

.p3X'X’V?<9  xtxn”  p’xoiD  xixa’Vaxnxn’x  n 
xV^j:  inxii  ttToxAixa’x  oonsnxa  ]axn  xdxa  ]nx3xVp  ,dx”3  oxn  px 
]X3iDxa  in  laijn  oxn  ,’t  xV's  inx  ]ix  ]pn3^^;9 ’t  ]19  nxoxanx-iDsVpx; 
.onxDoxinx'pisnp  n iix  ox’V’aijo  x*ix”i  o’a  onnapxT  n — I’oixixp  I’x 

.lVxB’9\x  n 119  Vx3xonx9  xixa'Vaxnxa’x  oxn  px 
IX  .xp’xiaix  ,ixVox3  xVija®  ”nn  ixiidxao’ix  oxn  ixaoonn  nxn 
nx®’n”  nxDn’r3X3nx-«3  nxn  iVnoxa  px  ,iVx3xp  pj  px  ,33iD”V'nxoxii 

.XDX3  x”3  oxn  pxx;  ix  "pxoixixnoxn" 

nxaxanx  nxtx’n”  pxn  ’’X’Vxd  nxix’n”  po  aononx  nxn  nxaiix 
nxoxa  n’D^^nn  ,ixVox3*xdx3  ”nn  n onx  nxxxVp  xonn  pxn3X33”x 
ox  .axnn-Vaxax;  o’a  ’n  aanxxAainx  px  .pxnix  po  px'pp  p’X  opinxAox 

.nxno  X I’lx  naix  nxnxD’na  x pxiixi  aixVxanxo’x  rx 

."XDXA  X”3"  oxn  pXllXA  ]DX\XX3  T’X  ’ITX 

I'x  pxDixa  03{<  IX  ]ix  opxi  IX  ix33i3’iii  oV”oxAix  DXH  "oxn']n«"  nxn 
oV«axx  I’lx  oxn  pa  .pxiix  nxpVxD-nxo  n’D  px  'nn  ix  nxnx  .nxa’x  x 
oxn  0X11  oxn  *?”ii  pxVpixa  px  px’o  xixoxnaxx  xuVx  — "Vaxa" 
pinxAxa  xnx’n  ]’x  on’DXi'onnx  ]tt>o”n  ’n  ]3xn  .oa’ioxa  ox9x  ix  ix3 

.pnx 

lxao9’in  nxn  oxn  n’x  nx9  lopinxng  .I’p  x pxiiXA  03nnxx33”x  t’x  ox 
jnxiixa  onnnxanx  nxnni  rx  mx  px  ,33io’7XiinxD*oxou;  nxn  pD  oa’otxxa 

.pxV  xp’n3X3X3  x«3  oxn 


-anK3  nV!?D0ipnK?3  pnjyn 
^KD’»9H7  1*13  iyco7Tic7'i7p3N"ip  px  Dn^irpxT  lynxrxDDjyc^o  lyir’P’  lyo 

yiTT’mTlKT  *T»1X  TIXDKDD3VC7C  ]’X  SKlClXb’D  pX  iyiC*‘7bD 


13 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


nV'’nj?  x pD  pmn  nvi 


03»Vyn»a’K  ]3Kn  oxn  ’n  iis  .ji’x  nD’Vsn  nnxtt>  n ]id  jay*?  dxt 
jiD  nyiV’a  n n’O  jVT  wax:  ]ix  ixo  jaxnwxp  d’o  dV’dvjjx  I’x  .jamn  dvt 

.mpmx 

]y3’n  mann  n ]yn  nx’  ]id  lyo  n .jyo  0”xnx’  n ix  lyaip  dv  ivn  nvax 
W’DpKD  ]ayV  n’J3  ,=n3ix  ]ny’inyjaix  ix  ps  Diyiynxa  I’a  jnyn  ,)yoipyjixD 
1X3  ]V’D  a’a  ,Day3  ]ix  ayo  yp’V’Tia  ynyDD3’D  y3y’  nya’x  Vxnx  •]X3 
]yn3yn3ynnK  yVx  icna  dvt  ]id  axu”n  ]ix  ]”d  ja^’ansvaix  dvt  Vxox 

.]amn 

oxn  .Vxnty’a  dxi  n’y  ]x  jvnya  I’x  ya’7yn  .nV’np  nynaxaxuoayiyo  n 
29  anp  oVvn  iD’^iis  jaxD  o'?'”yya  oxn  jix  .nx’  300  m nya  on’oonpy 
yp’anx  n ]id  in’x  n lyVaxTa^x  ]ax3  anp  iid  D”y  I’x  .nwoa  oayniD 
.miyaa  oayt’io  48  nxaxoD3yu>o  px  nV’np  viy’n’x  n ^y’?oyo^y  va^Vp 
^’l  laxno  .larnn  ]om  jo’na  iid  ]yn’x  yava’Vayanya’x  Vxs  y3”*7p  n 
]ayV  la’Vava  I’x  I’a  DxmxD  .jayV  ja^Va  ]id  V’Dva  n'rw  x o’a  anx  odx 

•lyaipyaaix  rx  jV’ia  px  pVxD  y^yn’x  yyaxa  oxn  ]yn 
]Vyn  ]iD  ODs'?  vnynnyaaix  yoma  n ^ix  n’a  nxDnyn 
taix  fx  Dxn  ^x^a  loma  dvt  "jn  ]id  jya’mD’ix  ."jn  pa  ly’niyo’nx 
.nyonyn ’t  .ixnsu;  ’t  I’a  jya’sya  ’ii  ,mma  n I’a  jay:  m nyax  .jnyiyya 
layp  iVxT  yaVyn  nyonyn  ,axo”n  px  nyy  nymx  ipmo’ix  jayp  iVxt  yaVyn 
oy  tx  .jD’naxa  va  V”n  .oVyn  n jnyo’sanx  px  lyVa’n  n jD^xaty 
t’K  oy  Dxn  ayn  pxno)  inxnya  uaaynayaomx  oiy’a  os’x  I’a  ixa  t’x 
aaia  ayanxa  nyp’oVxnya  nyn  damn  ]ayn  inxnya  ]a'>nu7ya  V’a  ’iix  j’lu; 
pa  aaioVxotyya  yp’oaaipiy  n f^nx  jamn  aa’a  aaipn’no’ix  m px  d^iin 

.anaa  pVxa  ]\y>n’X  ]ia  ]ix  o«nu703ya  nyn 
jia  ayn  iViaa^a  pmama’  jD’na  ayn  |y3”nD’ix  ay  ]yp  nyn  x nyii 
Dyooya  yttro^n  n ]ia  ^ynxaa’nx  ayn  oan  ]ia  nV’np  yiyn’x  nyo’ina  nytaix 
nyoyas;  axo  x I’la;  nyax  ,1939  nyaayaayo  10-3  ayn  axoa;  nytaix  j’x 
X p’x  oy’ooya  y^yo^n  n lyannx  1939  nyaayoaya  10-4  ayn  .axoaxa 
Dxn  oxn  aainypVyaxa  nyiyn’x  nytxVxny  nyn  nya’x  VpxopyaD  ip’oiVa 

.nyna’p  px  jy’ina  .nyaya  nyonynain  ]ia  ]ayV  oxn  oaxpya 
oVx  in’x  nynxDXDD3y\yD  n pa  inxnya  D3D'>'>yxa'i''x  axo  nyanxn  nyn 
0”p  yaaxV  x in  o’s  ix  axoaxa  ip’oiVa  ipnxn  ayn  jia  "axoaxa  nya’Di*7a'' 
nyu^'TX  nyn  *)nx  jtxVaaxnx  t>t  laxn  oxn  .oaya  ]ix  ayo  ya’oiVa  iia 
IID  dyVnuy  n ]y3ynanxa  ]ia  ayo  yp’oiVa  ^ymya  ]y3”T  ay  .aainypVyaxa 
laxVptt^  ’’VnyVx  jn^aixanx  laa’nx  iia  ,aoia  px  axn  ly’n’x  ]a’inpymx 
ya’Voayai’  y^yn’x  ]p’iynxa  ]ia  .nyia  ya’VoaxiyVyiya  ip’tynx'a  ,p»3nx 

.axmnxa  x pj  laaia’^ynyn  pa  ]ix  pyaxV  aaioa’anxa  I’x 
ojjn  i^’D  yw’i’a  ]ix  lyaainyn’anyn  yiy’Vxnxa  ]ia  D”p  yaaxV  yanxn  ’n 
IP'®  laa  ''a33t”V  ya’oV’aoay"  'n  la’inyaax  I’t  oxn  ay  fa  p’isya 
ODxayaainx  ixn  fx  aainyp’ryaxa  y®'n'X  'n  .aayn'ix  ixa  'n  I’x  in’x  'n 
o®oynpya3”nK  oV’aya  pi  laxn  n’a  .p’axa  jix  ®ix”  la'o  x jia  jnxmya 
n’x  ,oaxi  .aanoyn  pix  oa’ia’ix  fx  ay  yaVyn  ix  nyaxp  lo’io  x I’x 
48  iia  nny  ix  lyiya  *?xax  I’l®  n’x  oxn  .lyaxixV’a  jix  nyVoaa’p 
'f  ^"0®  iyo®oympya3”nx  ix  px  ."ayaaxnya  no'aa  x I’x  o’®inp  03fio 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesacy 


14 


• pDJJX  ’1  ]1D  JJir’VD’IN  n l”t  l»p  O’lD  “IST  nK3 
lynjK  j;3*7»n  n»nx  ixnstt;  n ]»3’D»a  is  t’k  ds  ]»n  juijSDxn  k xt  I’x 

.IJXDIt’IS  DUn’J  IP’IXT  DST  ]pmiSD’1X  onxD 
DV  1X3  31XD  X 1942  p'22  C:3?T  T’3  OnS’inyi  ’11X  oxn  DXT 

.nD’3 

n pD  a3iV«ODX  ]x  '’i  o’a  jynxns  px  ]y3XJxn  yoavVxpyjo’ix  n 
pDa3n’D3x  i»T  n»D3’x  ]3xn  ysVvii  ,Dxn3xaxp  DJ3^ox^D'lx  »«;’3’X'’npix 
“iiD’3  DV  iyaipya3x  ]y3”i  .V’spx  Di3iD3’3nxD  n on’Dyionn  .o.o  y(yD’n  n 

.JXO”3 

HD’3  DV  1X3  inxa  I’lX  ]»3”T  nX3XDD3yiPD  jlD  ]TX  03T’10  8 3?U1P1»  'T 

]'x  ]nxnyj  op’u;yjDX  jix  ]y3xixn  yop’oiynxD  n ]’X  ]nxn»j  DD’aa3ya3«nx 
liD  iy3'*’T  mm  nnau;  iix  HD’a  dv  ]u;’nx  ,yp3’V3ynD  iis  D3yivix  txa ’t 
.]T>x  03yT’ia  42  ]nxnyj  op’iyyjDmx  xova  ‘iynx3XDD3WD  n»n 
,T3ix  pa  I’t  DiynxD  .yp’oc”!  ]ix  yiynm  .mma  yp'DVxnva  yaVsn 
]ix  iV’D  ‘iyi3ix  ]’x  p’avi  iyi3ix  ]’x  ]jx“ioisd’ix  ]n’x  no’Vsn  nnxu; 

loss’?  DST  I’X  ,03S3  jlX  ISO  SOSS"?  ’T  jlD  nsn'?’3  *7’™  Sp’TXT  ’T  ,lp3Sn 

.S03X3  SnST31X  ]1D  a31D3’3nXD  IS  J3P 

D3n’i  S3’’7DS  I’lx  pa’ins  ox  -.isisi  laxn  ji’ix  snsT3ix  oxn  t3ix  is  mi 
pxT  11X  ^s^m  stsn’x  n nsa’x  anx  is’i*?  O”*?  '’S’’7xd  sis’i’x  n ,nsn’?’a 
Isa  "rxi  03’m  jix  ,a3i’?n’TD’ix  isn  is  jiixa  I’lx  loma  in  ’?xi  ]sa  tx  ,ix 
“iST”n  s'?x  ]iD  .oixnix'iD  stm  ©"px  ”o  I’x  oma  s’snxa  n isasiax  ]”i 
soxa  S3snxiisi  n*?’!!  oisnn  iix  nsiiin  jia  .soaisaiXD  o’lo  dis  ’I  in  laxn 
“isaiin  11D  saxiw  ,pnxa  lo'rx  joix  op3iD  oa3ias'7DnxD  ois  lan"?  itx’?si 
.onxTsi  ou?’3  ”1  1JS11  in  oxn  isi^p  isax  ,i’7xdsj  asn  lanx  iS3’n 
siixnxo  ,x3isostt>nx3  .sponxsinxa  is’rDsa  n jia  jn’x  iDx’?sa  is3’n  os 
X O’a  is3’n  jn’x  n sa'7sii  iid  idxj  sp’anx  n jio  ,pnxa  io'?x  iix 
opsinsT  px  ,0”pODiD  X osmisa  oxn  iixnsa  o’rsnnsaonx  nsns  axo 
'T  is3’n  ni  :iaxnD  n onsaassa  axp  I’x  ]axn  os  .paxnsa  psnts  ono 
os’x  ’T  Ta  ]’7Sii  ’ll  11X.  ?]siisa  xn  pasa  is3”t  oxii  loxa  ’n  iia  jn’x 
".O.O"  nsn  ]iD  0D3’n  j’x  nsmsa  nsis’3”npix  ]x  ? pnxa  i”i  p’X  snasD’i’? 
]nxiisa  onsDoasnxD  is3’n  O’axn  px  soxa  nsnasa’i’?  nsn  j’x  pxissa  oxn 
paaiaasnoisax  sa’’?iso3sansa’X  O’a  in  oxn  ’7”0  •is3”’?p  x ,]axnD  sVx 
]S3’n  0X11  ,”o  js’aosp  px  o’lna  o’a  sanxDox’ao  nsn  is  oaaasmsais 
p9  soVsoissaax  sd’’?os  ’ii  pnxa  io’?x  I’x  nsoo’i’ap  D”a  03X3  jsaxoisya 
.”0  isVdso  ]ik  o’lna  os’snxo  sp’oaio  ’n  oV”osaD’ix  laxn  oxrpv 
snsaaxa  ”a  px  o”V  xaxoosa  sasosnosaix  isaxoissa  pa’n  o’n  nsn  I’x 

.isaxao’ix  sis’oxnaxoxo  oaxasa  oa’*? 

I ••  T T - 

.psiiVxiisn  11D  ]y”nsD’tt;  o’a  o”l?aji;a  js”ntt7sa  nsn’ii  in  jnsn  os 
os  ,nsT”n  sns’n  I’x  la’nosa  p’ms  jnsii  ]n’x  soxa  sonsaainsaonx  ’n 
]9axV  ’T  O’lx  I’t  pssV  os  .osasTO  Dns’7X  ’n  iis  jd”d  oxn  in  onsmsn 

.s’spx  oaaioxno’ix  nsn  a’Vis  pa’iVsa  laxn  oxn  pxa  ’n  I’x 
pssnsn  sonso’anxD  ’n  I’x  aaiaoxn  iio  ’?xno«?  s I’lx  in  oann  os 
oVsii  ’n  oxn  nisox  ?03  x jsissa  oia’a  nsoss*?  nsn  ]’k  ii<n  osn  ,n«?9x 
n i^sii  niSDX  ?i’7’nis  taix  jsaip  jix  p’Vaaix  nstaix  ]asii  oo’iinsn  in 

?]asnanxo  ns’n  in’oiso’ix  ir’iixa  ois’a  ]S3xn’o  ’sxa 
pxn  nsn’11  jix  ]nxiisa  joinsaox  nsosou?  Vo’ag  rx  anxVx  odiV  nsn 
oasnsa  in  pxn  oxn  osnxoaxo  ’n  p’nasnsosaisis  js”nso’is  onsnsa  in 
p9  ]Vi<D  IS  nsaxa  osn  op’nnsaonx  oi<n  ns3”x  ois’a  ,ninia  s«?’n’x  I’x 


15 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lee&cy 


txj  ’T  I’x  i”,?  jiyn  ODv'r^yyjpynx  iyn”x  .yaaxD  x 

.D:yivix 

Tx  .oV^nyT  px  jD’in  y^y^3x  ]id  ji’x  ]yDipyj3x  ]yrn  lyyyT  ^nn 
■]nn  ]ix  ly’ryDorD  n oyjyjo’ix  jn’x  ]3xn  dixVx  jin  ^y^  ]’x 
jaxn  nyynpix  n .O'”!  nyiynx  nyT  *]’ix  idxVdjx  ’’t  jyrn  nyayi  n 
IS  larVyi  ixT  t’x  ynynax  nyax  .d’iu  i^xcyi  jyrn  V”d  x ,]DX\yyj3X3 

.JD’lVoJX 

I’x  ]”x  DpxD  ]ix  pjxiiy  nyn  jid  jdxt  yiyoya  yrx  ciix  onya  nyoin  x 
onx  oayna  ]ix  ]«;nynx3  du?’3  n jyp  ”myT  ]ix  lyirp  yn’x  po  pytpn 
tjix  jiD  'n  ]V’ii  Dxn  ,t3ix  ]id  nymy» ’t  i'?’!!  dxiv'  ]”nyi  nyo’a  x ]’x 

''?]Dxa 

yoxy’?  n V”n  ,aioiy  ]id  ]”jD’nx  Vxt  ly  tx  itt  ]”t  oya  nyuxD  x 

.jvnxnx  D’x  O’a  i”!  ny  '7’tt  oaxT 
op''’7a  ]TX  o”oiz;  nya^yn  .nyoxa  pyn’on  juVx  D”a  t>t  oya  ]tt  x 
P’nTyV’TT  ,Daxrn:a'?  ly’ryn  nyonyoTyyjD’ix  nvi  ]’x  ]1’tx  yonyiDixo  yj”! 
X I’TX  px^iy  11”'?  T’T  "^xt  ny  tx  .mpoix  pa  no  p’Vpyuy  oyi  jp’VanyT 
"lyaVyn  D’q  ]yp3xnyj  yn:yD’nj  ^i’d ’t  ]’''tJTyiXD  lyTT  lyn  jyp  .nviy  nxa 

Toiynynxa  oVxnxi  lynyi  t’x  n’x  'ly^y’^’D^  nyoVx  lyT 

T’X  ,03X3  yoV’Dy33X  “lynV’a  ixoiyxp  o’o  yVTaDD3yDiyy3  vdxt’ttj ’t 

1X0  ]p’n3y”iD’Tx’pvoxT’nj  ^xi  x jtd  imyoyT ’t  ,n:y  n’x  tx  ]yi3xiyi 

]0-29  DyT  1X03XQ  VOXT  lyT  O’Q  03ya”yxa  T’X  IXO  IVT  .pOTpVl  T’X 

.1942  nyaoyoayo 

DTX  moiyi  yp’*?”:!  nyoivT’io  n “iyp’a”x  nyn  is  o”*?ixa  oxn  ixo  nyT 
yniyn’iynxa  lyn  loxyV  “iy”T  I’x ’t  ]td  is’*?  ’t  '^’tx  .ypi’Vayno  ]”p  oipoix 
pT  nyn  tj’Tx  jix  .lyoiyo  px  o^yn  i’tx  nVVp  x pmo’ix  dts  lympyi  t’x 

.ODxiD  lyVia  T’x  px  03”iyyi  d'ixoxt  oxn  yaVyn 


pnriK2  D’'’*n  jy’pK  lyi  i'k  I’ln  oypjKiD 


-ly’i  -lyi 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


16 


]’X  OySKDINDyT  'T  IID  DyDK^ 


1942  — i"ipn  nis’D  Di’  nui  ii<o  N .nc7n  I’K  >!Jo  nyoii  — y’SpK  yui 

yii{jni<i2;ij:p>  — idni  n 

-ypon? 

yl'?!jt^UDD 

ynxp 

44  r3  28  11D  — 43  i’3  15  I’D  3ynytt?PUn 
yijy  t’3  37  iiD  yiay  t’3  48  tid  ypmxxnKi 
yi:y  t’a  43  iid  yiay  t’d  44  po  yaii^oyc^nKj 

ijay>i'7X3ni<A 

niDiD  3iy  I’x  jyu  14  — y’SpS  J?t32 

pyiNSD  — 10X1  ’7 
yponxoxiyo 
y"Txp 
ynxtiDijtfi 
P7XD  nyo'jx 

37  fa  27  IIS  ‘46  T’a  26  11D  ypoaxsnxi 
41  fa  23  11D  ,44  fa  30  IIS  yjtt^oyii^nxj 

maiD  lyia.T'iin  ixd  nyoi  ‘nivn  rx  lyo  n — J7133 

(0X1  ypDX’)  ynxnxD  — loxi  n 

(■’po'nxo’o  yoaijis) 

24  T’a  2 iTD  ,25  fa  1 ITS  ypD7xxnx> 

30  T’a  2 iTD  ,21  fa  1 iTD  yiiptiyipnsi 

(T’ln  nyi’^nya)  ypixii^xnDD 

nan  niyipin  ixd  itjo  x ,’7ipn  px  lyo  20  — V’SpK  yD4 
yinj'^o’tty^^ns  — 10x1  ’i 
xnyTpypTtyD’^tX 
17  fa  7 ps  ,12  fa  4 ps  yi'?xmyDxp 

11  fa  1 pD  — y”'?x  yoi 
14  T’a  10  PD  — ppxa  py”! 

min  nnaip  ,’nTpn  px  lyo  24  — J705 

XTPti’ny'jyox’  xppya  — loxi  ’7 
6 T’a  2 ps  — p7xa  7y”i 
26  T’a  2 PD  ,13  T’a  1 ITD  — 7yPyiP7XT1 

12  T’a  2 ps  — y”'7X  yoi 


17 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Lci 


iviD  ycywn  '^>1  D']k?2T^d  d'’'7’’d  i"i 


‘aiiunuj  ,y^H^^  i"i]  U'7,iNn^^^j  i’n  u., 

--  .h’lMil  lU'HD 

U DM1  IMQJ  \?m]H  ID’M  D7^ 

.1UDM1UJ 

nuin'j  |^^'  i^M  ivy^H  'i'^] 

lig 

/'DIUD^^IND  7^Dm  11N  imUJDlN 

innj  D^-’n 

,"\\)r]vm  11M 
.67  ,1935  ,i79^^^~ri 


‘]n"T,n  Myi  I'c  lyi  lyv.y:^  t^x  n^y  ix^^inD  d*’*?*’^ 

nyi  lyToy'^nKiD  yiz;"i^^  n ]rMKD  l)"?d  i:p*'DDyiyNn  in  dkh  ny  .yDNDy 
"'’lixa  "lyi  ]iiD  uiTN'd^Myn  -iyi  *iyL::ix  ysKiucKOKp  My‘?K:x*’XK:  nyi  ]id 
liy^DK^i^xy.''  ]"'^<  Mi  Diiyry'i:^^:!  in  ]3Kn  ]yii:nz;*n:J:D  yrn  .y>:N“n’D 

■’1  inn  iiNv.y.i  un^sipK  ]yrn  cxn  nyrry'?  y‘?K  ]y?3ijy:\^nx  ]nxn  n^:  -unyn 


liK  y^'yNnTDiyjDpy  ]id  p'>unxD  y^'n'in  n^K  *on"Ny:^DnN  iix  ly^^T^nx  yi^^'^i^N: 

n^n  OKH  L)"v^^^PMy?DDnK  ynyTjnNn  nK:\  n ii’’’’  n n:\i  n^nxry:; 
Dyn  D‘7yDi:;y:\nxD  in  ‘o''?3  oxn  oxn.  -nvon^^  DXi  Dy^iniyA  iXDinD 

■‘:’yTy^  i‘?xix*’yx:  lyyvopy'i^yorx  ]>::  Dvon^''  rvy’xy2XT'’X  ]*!D  hd*’  DDn.n 


TX  lyny.A  dii:;  oxn  dx“u  .opiiDiixoi^'  lPX'':iXD  ]ix  |i:?'»u'’‘:?xd  iDyPoDxu; 
lynip  PxT  ,n‘?Mnp  yiyn^^  V*joyn:i  y^n  nyn  unH  yuDX  n ,TiXDXDD:iyii;D  inx 


.pmonx  Dn  idik  ]pnyny:\  x qnx 

‘?nDX  inxny^  ]nnny:\  n*’**  nyiL?nnD  x lyny^  t‘'X  ix^Dins  d''‘7*’d  I'n 

nyi  ]^x  :\nynDy7  ]"x  iDy"?  y^yn^**  oxi  .:nyn?2y‘?  ]'’X  ,1901  >21 


]1D  cy^iixpo^saxp  ,xoy:\  .nx^xoD^yiyo  r'd  ni  ly’Ojyy’X  ]yny:\  t'>x 

/Unj  ny:^:in  -oynnnDixp  i:iyD"ixD  ]Dy‘7:\yr,xn  iix  ]Dy‘7:\y'nx3mx  ]iyn’’'» 
iyn:voD^nxD‘]Dx^  iy^:iD^*3nyn  iy?Dxn:ix.»D  .uynnx-D:\:ix'nx  ,D'’'’pDy‘73nyDu; 

.:ix*j  ivD  D^'’pnyDn?3ix  n ]ix  ]ny:^x‘?'y’xxno:iy>i:xp 
p'^xnxnonx  ]yny:i  ]x?D*7nD  yn  t-^x  urnD  yp'’‘?xx‘7''D  yrn  p:xn  x 
n lyrn  lynyn  r.x  nyr-'o’^  nyn  m ,bm  oyny’  iiy>ayt)‘7y,ixa  iyp:n  ]*»x 
T^i  ‘?x?3y‘?x  ]Dn  t3ri?2y:^  ny  Dxn  nynnyi  ]ix  inxny:^  oxnnxn  ]u?‘»ayDpynxn 
yDy^Dy  onyprn  n i-’x  rn  oxi  .‘?x?d  p^'i^axini  ly'^y:^  oy  t*»x  nrx  .onypjin 
yDD''''D  ,yupxp  ]‘'x  nxDy:i-*ono  ]id  ^^ixxnxn  nypnmoD  x nyuaix  ix’’ 
X D'’x  ]'’X  o^^pmo^x  ‘7D’’nnj  nny  ]x  Dxn  ,c?2yTnn  yp'^D^^n  iix  oiy'^yp 


Monu  ip^i:^'’ijnD  rn  ddxtiixixd  uijn  oxi  rx  D'^npaxip 
]^'’xyDxi^'>x  Dyn  d-'d  ])jmm  DDXDy:iDnnx  D^n  iXDnns  s'»‘7'»d  m 
rs  ‘?>Jxny:\  x ]yi'iy:^  T'^x  dxt  .iuxny:i  ]iyn*>D  iix  ]P‘'dd'>'»:\  oyi  DiDn'’** 
o^MTnD  ny^'n^^  nxD  iDxp  rs  nniD  ]Dnx  .niynp  ]ix  iDxp  ny»'»D 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


18 


•■j’s  nytsoyiw  iis  ^y^n3•Dp'?lJ^  ,nyT''7JD’n  y'j’nKO  VDODjyjj::  yr’T  lyr’i 
pnyn  y'jiDonyn  iix  yi?’'?ux'7''s  yr’t  I’m  ’n  ,mT>a'7n  .D’T>a‘?n  yi?’'?!ji 

"oiN  nyi  T'lK  opipyi  .inijnyA  ann  iik  oayiaiijs  ny”s  i\'t 

IP'-dd”!  p’I  ny  Bijn  isixn  p’t  i’k  DnyuxVsyj  Dijn  djjii  njm  ^y^Ka'?•”^ 
•''nuns  yi£>''‘?'>iB  ’t  Di’anuD  I’l  Dijn  oy  iijj  ’ii  .n’i'?nss  dwi  DB’nyw”*?! 
T>’^i  tnyn  ny  im  lyaipm^J  d’k  px  j^nnyi  yu^niji 

PK  oiaynmxD  yc^D”!  ’i  iirnijiQ  ii  y’D’aijp'DiinnyT  nyi  I’x  D^’a''au:l 

s’'?’'D  n"T  Dav  ps  inuiiyi  innmxs  lyrn  d’iki  n nija  ’n 

IP’^’^ND  11  D’V’ciyD  yiroiyDi’x  x dPp’hdix  iin  p’p  isatns 

■cn  y’jxnaiys  n oyimi  ay  .yoD’^yi  aya  I’x  y’liji'jjja’tjaxa  yu^n”  n 
.ayayi'iUD  ayp’DO”!  px  aijupyan  a’x  oayn  iix  y’D’aup  yiy’ajjo 
■ayii’px'DAiia’jya  px  yoa’ii^yi  axs  axoysijias  iid  cox  oya  ay  uayiaxs 
P’l  ayuaix  taijn  ©tax'?  px  y’O’axP  aytt^nxDO’n  ay'?xaoiyi  aya  px  .oyan 
Ijyn  niay-nrni  iynuyiD'>ix  ; loix'ixpxox'is  aynayajin  ayaaxyA  jpa’Dix 
oxn  DX11  t"?*?  Pi<  isaxp'ayixt’Daxs  ,iay‘?-ayix‘?  -iBaxp-xoyi  /py'j'uoyj 

aya  p>x  nu;iap  px  mpaix  -aoxp  ,i3y‘7  pi^’a”  lO’a  mD’''iy  x 

P’P  non’iQ'uVyn  aya’an  aya  nx^  lyapyi  -attain  ay'jxyaojx’s  lyt 

a"a  pyn  axfsy  ip’dd’h  x pyjyiaya’x  oxn  .’pi’iixaitt^i  .x  ai”as  -yaxixp 
lynx'?  p’p  lyaipyiix  1945  ax’  I’x  t’x  ’psaixaiiyt  .x  ]yii  .ixoano  s'>‘?’3 
yiy’axi^D’n  y‘7xaDiyi  x oxoty  I’x  ua’ao’tiy  oy  tx  -uoinaya  ^’T  ay  ux-a 
P’T  iiytaiya  ayoayapn  ’ii  lynya  ]ix  pynx  oaxa  i”*?!  I’x  ay  .y’O’axp 
yp’CD’n  D’a  lo’ioiy  yxixA  P’'?  oy  px  nnynvaj  n’lx  lyaya  ,p”aiy  px 
ny'?r'>iiyiayD'’ix  xix  D’a  ix  oy  i^a’o  ayn  .DjyaoyA  an  ay  ax^ 
aysajy  aya  ? imx‘?XPi<i3xa5  n Dy>xpiaD03’'x  an  px  ypia’aoi’x  ayp’asm 
aya’sax  ayp^acn  iix  axaxtnxjax  aya  am  ^lya  ayjy’  ’’a  aaxa  tx  aynyi  t’x 
^xnans  S’'7'’d  a"a  fx  tyaxt  pn  ]ix  y’o’axp  aytynxaona  ay‘?xaaiys  aya  iis 
aya'ryn  -ixaanD  s’‘?’d  a"a  ii  tp’Vn  yrn  ayaiynyi  ax.a  ’pimxsnyi  arns 
’n  niynp  ayp’’?”?!  x a’a  iix  t'?x’ayaxa  yomyi  px  as’aaxs  pytyj  fx 

X 11  lyaipypi  ay  t’x  ayaax  P’t  a’a  pxityi  p’aaxo  t’x  ay  iyii  .a:y'>'>‘?yi 

% 

px  ana  ]is  aynyaxayj  an  ,iytax‘?  p’p  lyaipyitx  OU''''  t’K  dij:''''  -ystai 
ayn  I’s  oy  ayn  ai”"  :aayayi  ’n  axs  axn  iix  oipaix 

PAapy‘?aya’x  yi’n  p’niyix  PX  iiyipynx  a’t  piiy  ‘7Xt  as’iiy^  !<  sxn  oy 

."aaynyi  iix  ptyi  ax.a  ay  axn  -p'?x  ]ix 
asyiyaya  lyn^D  -aaxayjonx  yayajx  y'?x  ni  tynyi  nx  Txaa’as  s'>'7’d  an 
a^ppcn  X sxn  p'’a”iD’'''?i  ayax  .a”i-’ixj  aya  I’x  lyipay^aya’x  n iis 
ayay’  ap’‘?'''>n  x tis  piaai^x  aya  aaxDyi  axn  ay  .aanyj  pn  iid  ap’iyyj 
axn  ,yaixpxa  px  yaaaiyxi  ’a  taitanx  :a’i  s’a  lyanaxs  iyiiy:i  nx  ayr’x 
sxp  oya  111  aax  ix  pa’Dy:!  ,ana  ps  aynyaxayi  si ’d  ‘?y  awsx  a’l  PUii 
X a’l  P’axaanx  ,ayiiin  oya  'i‘?''aiy  ii  ‘?a’»oiay‘?  pxiy  a’l  aP’^Ppyi’'!? 
— lyiiyi  nx  ayayarx-aann  s'txaa’aD  b’'?’s  an  px  pyami  ^n  oya  i!?ia'?a 

•laain  pD  yas’inyi  n 

niaaa  aya  ii  lannaya  ^n  inay'rpaya  pn  ap  axn  ixaanD  b'''?’d  rn 
axoysxas  rx  aixpxs  ni  .nxiaia  pyair  axcyoxas  aya’aaxa  px  imap  ]id 
px  ,1941  ,8  ayaayiya  spxi  n laia  laxiiyi.  aaxaayiaix  nxiaia  pyair 
: iDiayianx  ay  axn  .aunap  aytm”  iid  nata  an  lyn  pnx  .yin  pyi  ’^laaia 
axoysxis  ps  iix‘?pdx  aya  pnyi  nx  axn  ."aa’niitaxs  px  aa’nir  la”-. 


19 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  La 


I'll  rn  ]*»K  on^niz;  □>!  ? hkiix  onx^nn  ]r>Di:^ 

rx  ]nni:?y:\  T’D  ]nxn,,  ;(19  ‘c^n)  "d'p^ix  ]ix  qnxp  px  xd*’':’! 

lix  ]:ii<T"n’ny  ]ix  lyi  *1^  nr.D*'  i^.x  v'^'  \3'>^^  ny'Ty’  ^^■^’’*ox: 

-i-«7  :^:x‘?pDX  lyi  ]yv.>:i  t-’x  dxv.  /qpxnyux^  ivd^x  ]y‘:’?2XT 

nytD:T*>iD  ,]y:\:ny‘7pnyi  nny-nv:}:^  nyuar^vo  nyp'^piry^i  ?:^r.Ty‘:5pny“7  c'lx^-rnD 
.nyD'»n  "iyt)*ny“T3in  ,iyDiyi3\"i  I'x  nyD^n'i^TDxr  -]PX3nv^T  ,]y33vo'’'’X  ]’’x  ]y^p'’Dix 

rn  D^'^'i'^nyi  XT  ‘^xi)  lyiiyA  i:?ip?D  ]x?3inD  2'»P'’d  I'n  uxn  oy^ix  nyi 
yDy3nxny3D‘’'ix  oxi,,  (yy^xDy  |^^*  ]id  ‘7D‘’l)  o'jxo'^yaynixp  ]xi3X3 

/^‘^XD  yiyn*’*’ 


i^xn  ]D‘’*ix  ]y3XL)wy3  T*'X  Dxvi  ,r,xDXDD3yiz;D  nnx^  '’i  lym  1945  -ix*»  ]‘’X 
yD*»iD'a‘7xn  ,yoDyii:;ny"r"i:7'»T’'D  ly^iy^  y^^x  ly^^n  -inxiiy^  D*>nDxn  t'’x  /D’»'iu  ]id 
.Dy’^ixp'^’^mD  yDy*?tjD’’ii^y3  ]3yn  ]*odx-)D  lyiiy^  pyp^y^  px:  t'^x  oy  ]ix 
■i<DDM  •)y‘?x*ni33y:s  lyi  pnn  i3Dy‘7D3DypxD  ]x;:)"TnD  in  Dxn  u'^x^yi 

n 7*7'>D  I'^x  1XD  tj'^yniy  oxn  opyi  i^’x  □i3‘?x  |x  y’’D’’?3xp  nyiz;n 

86  O*'’’!  D‘'n‘?X  Dyi  l^’X  T'S  ySXIDDXDXp  y‘?X3X'’XX3 

l^^yuiy  DX-n  ,215  ]ix  2i4  -2i3  inyoi^  n *0^^  i33D*'^:ixn  nyip^n  '•m  in  ]y3*»Dy3 
Dyi  ]''X  .nxDXDDayiyu  I'^x  "3xcxn,,  ]iy3.x‘?'y'’^xiL)ryx3xp  n ixd  in  U’'r3 
lyiiy^  Du;'»3  iX3  va  o^^Sdtjx'?  nynxDXoojyiyu  ]id  ny3'’V  lyn  ,’)X*’  in^^yr 
IXDinD  S’’‘7'>D  I"!  112  ]y3"i:?*iyi  r^x  ]ix  i^dx^id  ^'^  13Xdil^?d'’X  iz;n'»2 

'H'^Po'^XD  iiiT’i:^!  xix‘73XT,,  :5u'>o  ]ny*03ix  ixiB*:;  -iy‘j;^Pn2  "lyi  i^x  iwiiii  x 
“XDD  9 Bn  nnx  D33y"in  ny  nyD^^yii  ]^x  (□vo3i^'’  ]U"‘?n2  ]i2  oip^ix  nyi) 
lyi  px  .iiXDXDD^yiTD  ]i2  nyD’^n  •jx"tod''3x?3  y‘^y’ii*'2X  n ]i2  niy^’T’  yu;'»DD'‘*j 
ly^yn  ]i2  y^x^D  n ix?D‘m2  .2*’‘?"2  in  u-)n"‘:^X3X  it  o^n  inx  iitoib  "iyn‘7yT 


'y'»:iX'n33y^3xp  ]i2  ix  i^ix  ny  un  , 


yjyiiy’cxiy^  o:  '’b  ‘py  n ly’^’Di^xB  cy 


.iixBXD33y*^u  ]\x  ''3XDxn,,  ny^x'^ 


up*’u;y3  xuy3  iynxBxaD3yi:;o  nyn^np  iix  lom^  ]ib  ]y3’’n  ,u3xpxn  ni 
lymi  Dixi  ]iB  ]ix  x::y^?3xp  xpo^iynxpo  iix  r^svn  -Pd?3X*7Xp  pv  nxnyn 
'onx  iix  D']x?2mB  B'^^^b  in  .fnn^’^ix  v^P  nxiiy^  Di'’xipxny 

ywtj'’’’!  n iix  Dip^six  ,i?2xp  ,pyp  l^yii  /'□'•lyo^ynnyx,,  im  iy‘7")'’B 

DDX1DXB  inx  *021X1  ,iy3X‘7'U"'0  11X?3'1DX?3  Oyi  ]'’X  P*’0'»‘?XB  T’'’DX3y3 

.DioiT**  iyiiXBXDD3yi:?u  ]ib  yoB*>i:'y3  lyi  ]ib  ‘?’’*'ui3Xoirx3  x ni  ]iyii 


pny  T''X  "iixBi<OD3yiL?o  lonn,,  iio  ]ixb  *0Bnpci3x?D  lyi  lyii  ,i947  yiay 
iynxBXOD3yiro  n ]ib  3310*7x111x2 -pxioryii  n ox.i  ipiii  Dili  o^’’i3  ]yiiy3 
Dyi  py3y3iyB'»x  i3x‘70*o^''i  px  y3XT  iy3xpnyox  lyi  ]’x  ]obxo?3X?3d13x*7 
pxTonix  *7X1  n ,]D3''0  px  ii**’’  yiyp'^iB  pb  y^xxiyiyB  lyi  ix  oanpoux^ 
IXDinB  D'’‘7'’B  i"i  ]yiiy3  t^x  y^D*>oxp  lyi  ]ib  lyxnixB  lyi  .3313'’-’^  i*'X 
Dimoopinx  ox.i  ly  ni  □yiBX3  .(i3X‘7iro*'^i  px  ]yiiy3  o‘7X.oyi  pio?  t’’x  ly) 
im  Di<i  Tx  ,0'’0XB  in  ]yPo'»o  yDyp3yo  y‘7X  0^0  ly  oxn  ,02npDi3X^  ayi 
IP  nix  DixiiiXB  X p'»io'y33X  inx  ox.i  ly  .]y3^^i:;iyi  iy‘7y30^  oxn  *7x1 
PD  ynx3Dnx  iyp'»‘7xn3'''»x  lyi  ]'>x  yn3yxyi  x 0By‘703Byix2  □yiDX3  px 
iyn3ix„  ioBXO?3xnDi3X*7  iyiiXBxoD3yo*o  n p.B  3310*7x111x2  ‘7xi03yx  lyi 

.1948  lynxopx  -ix**  ]B*7yT  ]^x  ]y3’»u;iyi  ,"0'’PiX'» 
‘7ij:T  ly  0'»P33y‘7y3  p’’X  pp  OTX*7y3Biiix  oo;p  oxn  ixmnB  b'’*7P  in 

-JlIX  .llXDXDD3yil70  ]'2  yOD'>'^y3  lyi  p.B  pXTPy  ll'»0'»X  0Ii?'’3 
,1949  piyn  ,"0B3ipix)  "no'»*7Dn  nnxiz;  lyi  •'P  iioxiyo’’*?  p„  ;'»py  pn  ]'»x 
IP  pyii  33i3ypiy3X  iyoDyi3  lyi  op  pPv:;y3  ly  oxn  ,(1952  op  ,3  iyoi3 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  legacy 


20 


i-iioy  ip’DD’Ti  nxj  I’n  I’x  ibnd’S  Dijn  ly  /'n!<3;j;DDiyii;D  p^n,, 

•pxi  nyT  I’K  ysijnDDNDxp  nynjix  iis  lyay^ajjns  y'^K’Sijo  iik  yu^’uy,. 
I’K  .(54 — 58  iu”T  ,1950  ,8  nysoyosyo  ,869  ,'nysayp  ^yl:7'’T^,)  "d^x 
nij’  I’x  isnsu;  ^y^:;•'Ky■l3y^  lyi  i’k  iyri:;iyT  ,"dwi  i’„  112  y’xxp’^^is  lyi 
"nxiiyn  nsipn  npna  m'’n5'nin''m  niDipio  nryn.,  5u’d  inyujix  102  D”i  ,1958 

.ynyijs  I’x  px 

,Dxmxs  iD’ni  px  111  yp’D’''T‘340  oxt  ly^’u^iyi  fx  i958  ix’  l’*< 
IDyiDixs  ixaipD  s’^’s  T’x  111  nyi  I’X  ."nxiXDO^yii^u,,  : '^d’d  ]nyDjix 

n”  nyTiX3!<DD3yi:7D  iis  3:xowiyi’n  px  mpaiK,,  : uo”n  oxn  .oynx  18  D’)3 

liy’DX'P8’'73’3  8 po  n”t3iy8i  Dyn8 ’t  /'y’X83iP8'’S8J  ^y^  lio  d’*x  lyT  P8 
Dyi  T’l  iy:’’iyiyi  lyr’i  oxn  .idp’n  yw’Qxux’'?^’’!  107  lyi’x  p’Vnyi’x 
.w’PixJXis  P8  iy’'?’is  .ly’^ijy  .ly’T”  .iff’^yniyn  : pxistt'  Hi’s  P8  1957  ix’ 

pyn  nicxtyo’^  pnn  lyi  iiyn  y’3xni8'’'?3'’i  yr’ayi^x  yuii^ny  ’i  t’x  dxi 
pyVixt  8 u'78“u:8  y’S8U8’'?3P  ’i  .ixo  iP’ur’n  nyi  t’i  nxixoo^yii^o 
luynx  yi5yn  px  px  lyny^ixis  yny7:iTxi  ’t  'I’lx  ix  u,”n  oxn  .opyij’x 
nxs  py'70D8^£?:D’ii  nxo  iddpx  nycni  x t'x  dxt  .lya’Eyj  ’’t  lyp  pa 
lyp’Di’n  X yp8ii8'’'?3’3  ’1  px  p’ayi5x  px  .pjpiyixs  yipoxiysox? 

.nxixuDjyiyD  pnn  ps  J3Vi:;nx3‘Dt:i'’iyyj  lyi  is  jxid”i 

yp^iiu’^ix^  0X1  pyn  uyai’iiyi  osixi  o^paxpiyosPN  ypyxyso  x 
,"pippnyD3ix-’sx3  lyi  lyujix  yoi’i^yi  lyiii’i”  lyi  is  iyr”n-jyii„  ; piyn 
lyp’T  piyn  pyuaxi’s  oyi  I’x  .ix?31’ib  s'b's  i"i  px  ixoj’ixi  ipy  i"i  iio 
•i’’^!  px  nxi80op'ii7D  ijyn  iy:’7;nyi  lyrn  oxn  -Piyn  os’n  n pyiyjjx 
.lyayPixis  ’i  nxi'^y:!  a^iyiyio’ix  lyrn  396  a^’i  n’'8  opyipx  px  p’o^s 
■X’'70’’i  ,y’DX'PX’‘?2''i  :iy5ay3  px  pxnyi  D5iix-xi  piyn  ’i  px  lyp’t  oxn 

.lyi’niy  .po’Dix  ; iu”piy'73ynys  yu;’!”  iis  cy’sxiJX’o  .ixP’opy^  lyiypxu 
■iy:5yi  ,myio  yiy5DDXtt?'7VTyj  .iDopjyi  .D’ipdpxi  .lysayp'xoyi  .px^Xiys 
ps  oysxo  -xoyi  pyn  ypxojyoipxi  -y’lx'PXjXio  .ly^mx  yoi’X’^x  ’i  px 
paxP  px  lysayp'xuyj  yayaipyjaix  px  xoyj  ps  px  nxixooayu^D  uxo'p  ly 
nin  pxnyi  pyiyiD’Tix  px  px  yuoinpn  ’i  iic  yr’x  t’x  piyn  oxi 
•IP  px  oiO’DDPX  iiy5DDX®3D’n  py’i”  oyi  im  px  D’^isn’  I’x  "Dii/i  i’„ 
nii’iyn  px  ipd’pxi  lyiy’inyjaix  ps  px  piyn  oxi  .1960  ix’  Px  pix’ 
"imn  po  ijiiynxo'ooi’tt^yj  lyi  is  ixau^i  lyoop’DiPi  lyi  p''d'”si”5j  px 

.nxixoojyiPD 

D’^six’  yuopyi  ’1  DPX  a^xs  oy  pyn  a”X  lyi  px  iinciya  t’x  ”Dy  lyi 
S’‘?’D  T'l  .yixsyimn  lyi  ps  lywixs'Di’i,-  px  nyp’-ix'oo’n  idpia  ps 
uxn  ixams  D’^’D  i"i  TX  ,nyii  aix'yp  8i  asixi  lymyi  ]ix  ,“"y  ixai’is 
'aix  I’t  nxixoDjyitia  pnn  ps  piyixs'oai’ipyi  lyi  is  pxiD”a  yj”T  a’.a 
ps  ivpixiyi  px  mnia  ’i  I’x  pyp  ly  ayii  p’s^x  iix  Dixays  ly^nyam 
nyi  px  I’an-i:  x pi  ]0S'i5  ny  oyii  pnyii  yr’i  o’a  .Dian”  lynxixoojyiPB 

.p'?X3  pff’t”  ps  yoi’ipys 

yayxs  dv’^x’I  pn:  D”n  ps  ypsxiao  ■>1  inyii  Di’Txisxnxs  81  ‘?8t 

:”Dy  lyi  IX  IP  oipn  oy  yi5yii  ca  "ni^ix,, 
pp’nxn  118  iB’no  ppiiui  on  lusion  uiyniix  u-pnxnxg  lori'D 
PUD'DUJ  uiuiiuj  px  lusiun  uunuPpiNg  o’d  ,ij’ix  uDP’inxg  d'o 
pupiu  px  iui3's  ip’p”n  px  pnnn  n'lxto  ’i  oxir'x  Da”P3nxg 
,D3UU'‘S3xg  igp  p O'lx  np’gn  x D’n  .uagxiuixg  q’o  .iJ”nuiP'i3aj  px 


21 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


r’lDiuJUi^^  rn^ja  i''i 


IsanyTys  '7Kdi 


•’taorK  IK  113  fimsn  on  lopKnyjo’iK  t’K  iKmyiyD  'jkdt  lynija  nyn 
nmiiia  D1S  .DiD3T>’  aynijDijuDay^a  iid  vaKtaayiyasyT  ps  DPiji’o  k is  ,y’siD 
113  B”P'>><aT’33an  ayi  px  na’Pir  njiaK  pK  d’ik  i'i  opni  oijii  ,paKD 
'7N3T  .y’TKD:K3  K ’11  D’lK  oy  H’T  DDiT  yayiiK  1K3  Dijii  nyiyps  y3yi’waK3 
ayopK  I’T  oayj  ly  dijii  ,iki  lyiy’  is  pK  oxd  p3  lyuayn  nyn  t’k  iXK)nyay3 
.njiax  PK  la’i*?!  ,u”pj3yiyny3’K  -oBijiya’'?  o’a  out  ny  did  n’3is3Tni< 

P3  pPKn  I’K  11!}3Ut30i5?®t3  PK  ,1892  ,24  PTyD  ITlJIlyl  H’^yi  t’K  Ty 
yTKai’TuaaiK  t’k  DKnyi  idtut  uun  D’la  pK  ni'?T  .D”payTU  ayiy’T”  ayi 
onin  ip’DO”a  k Di”‘7yi  i3u?i  nu^iJtiDiywD  px  ps’jyyiyyj  ’t  .^”^J’Jyp 
P’TaK3  K PK  n3Tiy  x lyiiyi  t’x  out  .nu’‘T5na’P  oaxoTyTyo  '?K3t  h’ik 
w’ayytt^ya ’t  .lypT’a'TyoyaTU  yw’T”  opyt  lyaipyiaix  iya”T  oy  ayaPyii  px 
lyVTayDWTKODoa'ayT  n’lx  px  aiu?’  iw’T”  isau^  dvt  t3'?o”TDyjo’ix  dhi;3  duh 
I’K  px  lyiiyi  I’x  iiuauuDiSiPO  .luaTyTyo  "jkot  ip’tu’  lys  B'?uayT  oyT 
TyT  IS  lyaip  pyPo  iya’Ti‘?’3  ayoai’iD  .duo®  y®’'?’iDKp  Jayoo®  x TyD”ii 
D'?’3yiiu  lynyi  DUD®  ’T  T’X  p’0”sa”'?i  .D’oa  »i’ix  loya  is  "ktii  uidx’„ 
"IT”  ayp’T'nniT  Tyaax'?  u o’a  I’lx  tui  ,ni‘7’3n  y®’‘?’iDUp  o’a  I’lVa  ®d’: 

•lyauTaus  I’x  iw  loyiopy  px  DT’Tu'asopy  Dun  ouii  ,oun-iT”  ,nxi® 
TyoyaTU  ’t  p3  na’ao  nya  px  nunya  lopuiiyaa’ix  t’x  luaayTyo  "axoT 
TyT  IS  nuiiy^  D‘?”inyT  ay  t’x  loua  ya'ayt  ’t  ^^1T  px  ioxo-Dp'?u3  px 
P3  oau  oyT  p’TayayjTUQ  ,dutdud®  px  px  aaio'axinus'.T'j’np  Ty®’T” 
TX3  oypxDX  y'ju  ps  Tyoays  TyT  lyiiya  ay  t’x  dxt'duo®  px  .Tuoyapyo 
*l’iu  iy:xD®yi  p’aaya®  iix  loayay'ay  y®’T”-’Diu  ’t  liyp  D”pDxtDxii  p’l 
ps  y’sxDisya  px  lynu  lyi  .loyayDa’K  y®’T”  ’t  ip’T”dtus  ii  ixn  aya 
px  loax  y:yT’®axD  lyaiaauo  oun  ay  .lopuiiya  aaoa  iyi”T  ixaayays  "axoa 
.iiuaUDOiy®D  px  lay"?  I’jyaio'aip  px  i®’D’'?us  ,iay'?Dsu®'?ytya  ,iPxs’S’:ia 
8 lyiiyi  luaayTys  "axsa  I’x  nanPa-D'jyii  ayD”iis  aya  ps  aiaao’ix  dis  I’a 

•lay'?  i®’D’'?us  px  iay'7DDX®'?yTyi  px  aii’s  yPuaoays 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeacy 


22 


PUn  nypayiT’SKi  n pn  -non'7a-t3‘?5;n  ^y^  iid  inno’w  lo’a 

I’lu;  Djjn  niji  “lyT  px  mt)3T’  iu;’y.3ijT>’K  po  no’nn^  nyn  is  o’nivi  i't 

ywnxii  iTjj'?nxD  is  c’s  I’X  lyjxonyiyo  -d’d  n ^yaa1X  Dl25^ayl 

■nxs  D'lsmyays  pjxn  x .Dyaion^'riD’mz?  pjyaipax  QyT  iT’aiso’ix  px 
ytjp’mxs  n ps  p’sxs  ivaipxa  is  iyip'7yi  d’x  fx  ,iyijn3'’mxD  yuviis 
-poj’a  ; PI  pyiiaix  px  pyii  ypT’ipaxs  nan  oaxT  Po  rx  ya'?Pi  pp  pxoc^ 
-iiyiyapp  .xa’ipo  -pooipi’x  ,‘?xp”a  .pmx’x^Dxip  ,pDiix’?aiyiiD  -yiipoxa 
•xnysx'nan'?a  n a’Vis  ,]iyiiaix  yiyaix  yn  ysixi  x lan  iix  ^xtt?^’a•x^’^ 
ayaXPB?*?  pxau;  ypapp’nxs  n po  ynxonya  ayi  hpx  lyaipisix  -oy’S 

.1940  ,31 

oyaax  ayn  nxipi  ixaayayD  ‘jndt  fx  aiyraix?  lyixpnyax  iqpx 
ps  a”s  ayn  px  apx  .a'?yii  nyi  I’x  a’Pcnix'?  ayiiXPXciDiyiz^o  n ]io 
nyiixaxt^wyipa  iid  ayaynoaxo  nyi  lyiiyj  ny  I’x  aian‘7a'B‘?yii  ya”a  ib;pis 
,iiXaxt3D3yiPD  DXt3i2?'D”n  aya  px  aaya  nyp  axs  ODapypyi  axn  oxii  Dian” 
px  oaPs  yi2?'''7xaxa  x a’j’Dyi  ly  axn  nan'ja'a'jyii  nyo’Pis  nya  nxi  fx 
wap  IS  -p^paxipai  yi:;’sxj  n ps  -loxa  yiyaipyiaix  n ’ai'?  yaxxspx 
ixoyi  B^ayi  oya  'ipx  ay  axn  ni’anx  ayopaj  ax^  Ps  x ap  .aiat’  px 
yap’rnxD  n px  laDxu^ixaoaax'?  n aa’ipi’apx  axn  ay  .pxr  yopan  ax^ 
ayiixaX“0Pi2^t3  yVx  a’a  apxaixp  I’x  lyaxaii^yi  -yaxixp  I’x  iix  laxau; 
yjyaxpyi  "jisp  di  ’s  ‘7y  ’a  a’a  ipx  pi  px  a'?yii  aya  I’x  lasxwixaoaax'? 
"n'’  ayuxaxooP'Pt),,  •.  aya’a  yp’aapi  axi  ’pis  pyiyxopax  iix  a”‘?Daix'? 
yi’p  ix  TS  <PTX  oy  I’X  iP’apxs  ,5p3”a  yr’ayi'jx  n ."nxaxDopiz^tJ"  px 
aya’a  ’a  p'?xii  ,a”piaypnya’x  ay'7iD'nranx  px  lyjiiaD”'?  ,iyipx’axa 

•lyr’ipaya  aiypyj  aipp 

PPJSaass  IS  ID  X T’x  lyixaayays,,  :TX  -aay'rpaya  ax.a  ppiayrxa  ’as 
"iixaxoDiywJ3"  IIP  D>JT  px  "p»”  aynxaxDo^yc^a,,  iia  po  iyj”i2;aya  oxa 

.(229  a”!  "iixaxt30jyii^t3„  lia) 

: p’awyi  axn  ixoayays  pyii  p’aonyapxaxa  ayp’ayi'jx  p’t  px  ‘aaaa’p 
aya  I’x  p’ax  I’t  ay  asaxii  laxau?  yap’rnxD  ’a  px  lyaipix  P’*  IXJ  T’'?i„ 
pD  aya  n I’x  pia  au;p  pp  ay  .a”‘?aaix'?  ayiixaxaDjyi:;a  yrn  axo  ayaax 
,ia”  ya”aDxa  ’a  pii  ,nan'?a  aya  ps  yap  aya  is  in  aaxiiaya  ay  pa  .laain 
.n'?’n  1X3  lajyii  is  ix  I’t  p’in  ,Dsayp  'S'-'a  n px  ,iay3X‘?  ywa^a  n I’x 
yiP’T’  ayajTPa  ps  oyaax  aya  ipppxs  aayii  .ayaax  ay  iii  ,d’sx  wxaayays 
ayT’"??  ,P’BiP  iy‘?pys  ,D'?y3  a'?»XT  ay  ,as’?y.a  ay  .aix'?tPD”a  px  d’d’^b 
lia)  ."pyax^  ’S’’a  ’a  ps  a”‘?Da3x‘?  yrp  lyiiyaxaisopax  p'?x  aia  ay  px 

.(227  D”T  ,"iixaxaD3yipa„ 

"P”  ayiiX3XB03yiPB„  aya’a  ya^a  tx  -p’aipyA  ax^i  ixaop’^i  l^xn 
lyiiys  PX  ixmyiys  Vxsa  oxii  ,]iDaya  exa'?iTya  x iy3”t  ."nxaxDoiyiPU,,  ]ix 

.33iayjayD3ix  aya  iis  o^nn  nia  aya 


23 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


nyonyn  yi3i‘?uo  rs  lyjKanynys  Vndi  ind3P'>'?i  .m  Diyn'?’i:?  l”ayA'?t<  I’x 
11D  r’c^'inija  D”3  tt^Bjya  t’t  is  iis  oxi  *iytt7''T’  ^y^  tyaipyi  i’K  ny., 
pn  lynyi  t’k  oy  .l3XJ^yBi1l<  pn  fa  d’s  B’a  lyaxoiyyi  iw  DiDaT”  iu;'''?'>i9 
oyn  lyt  is  yayiiino  pn  lynyi  a’is  t’S  oy  iis  n'’tt;ma  n”a  p'bb;  is  n’Dt 
ytjoya  ’1  I’t  px  oaysaypaxD  ixaayays  '7Xqi  .hid  p^?nx^D  px  iiyo’a 
niu'?ip-)  ."Dion”  itt7’'7’is  DyjyD’jirnxD  ip’jxnu  iix  iay'?ayn  oya  ps  oy’snxao 

.(8  B”!  .1962  ayaaynii:i  ,6  .a:  .paij’-fj  ."jrx’saya  iix 

yBaxn  ps  p”B  n ”3,,  : iia  iid  aana  aya  I’lx  t’x  ixaayays  'rxsa 
Bijn  ay  .aana  ps  y’Dxai!j’3UB''ix  ix  lyVBif’x  fx  oijn  ."ayiva  bcx  px 
,"nu;Di!;BD:ytt;B„  a’V  x iis  B^oi^xa  oijn  .aaupya  aiaf  x pyiyso’iax  I’lx 
aya’"?  ya^a  .ir’ap  oyiyo’nij'jxjyD  .t  px  ixaayays  Vxsa  ps  yaya  aiaf  x 
a’xa  ay'?B03Vayirt  nya  lan  lyiptyi  lyr’i  "a^np,.  iix  "injauBoiyarB., 
auB’tusaup  aya  isxwyii  Bijn  ayap  ya”a  is  oysnusaup  ’a  ./ysaijiir’Ba’ 
.ayap  n lana^pya  Q'-’a  uix's  ’a  B'j’siryj  Bij.a  aya‘7yii  ,Baxa‘?yi  .a 

aaupya  aiaf  nya  i’x„  :Dyaii'?!js  '?y’p  pn  Ba”air  aaupya  nya  iiyn 
.ly’joyi  y'j’Ba;  ’a  .nPn  ayn^ii  x fi  iixsxBOiywB  a;’a”  ayranx  n’lx  bs’ib 
,D’a?aaa'’na  px  i'?w  ’a  .ipaxs  PX  iy”'?x  ymi  ypx'?  ’a  .paxa  ayaVx  aya 
yByiiyaxnaxs  px  yBiaxn,xs  yaynnx  ,Dya”t  yw’iaa'?  .yaias  yaynpx 
p’B’ns  px  BaPtt^Biya  'a  ”3  oyaxa  yp’'7'”n  yayniix  iis  m'7’sn  ’a  : oyBXB 
aypnap©  .ayasyayi  x axs  ^axp  pn  ,aia  ny’p  ps  pxiyi  o^a  .OBaxjis 
."□’’n  ayayan  x px  la’i*?!  px  liiiysxn  B’a  Vis  a’sPn  ps  aixiyi  oxa  ,B'7yii 

p’aya'?x  I’X  aaxpya  pyii  lanwyi  Bx.a  ,1960  ,3  ayaayiixi  ps  "jxb„  aya 
D’P  ayaayii  ’a,,  tx  .yaya  aiaf  oixaayays  "rxsa  pyii  '?ysysD  px 

."l‘7'’is  I’x  n*?’.-?  ayn^’a”  x ps  nx^yi  I’K  oy  oxii  ’ix  .isaxn 

Ba’f'jxiX  Bxn  .1960  .2  ayaaysya  iis  "OBayiiaxs..  px  .xappyo  ni"?!!; 
■jxsa  BannyBpxaxa  p’o^sa”'?!  px  BppsajxBW  iw’Vxp’tia  ps  aaxpya  nya 
nya  B’a  iixioyiaxo  aayii  px  yaian  h’b  x px  yaya  ’a..  : yaya  oaxnayays 
px  ywByBXs  BTx'jyiaya’x  Bxn  b^bw  ’a  lyayii  axs  pi^Biya  x po  dxbxs 

."ppiaat  yp’Ba’'?  p’B”sa''’'7i 

isxtt?  .py"?  oxa  lynyj  irapa  iByBppBpx  yrn  B’a  Bxn  ixaayays  "rKsa 


.QiBn”  ayiixsxoo^yi^B  iis  nipaix  px 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


24 


2in  ]is  in  .yu^nsn  I’x  n’lnyi 
.Ki’Qu?  D”:!  lyi  11D  ,miss  ps  nTy’'7X 
•K  ly  T’N  ,]Djj;-iayjD’W  t’x  nan'ra  n lyn 
,1939  ,26  ny^Dyosyo  iis  .ywnxn  ]i3  pyn 
1943  ,22  1N13X’  T’n  1942  ,28  '?nSX  113  .pSljniOiJ  I’X  lyiiyi  1942  ,27  “jnSK  I’3 
lyv.yi  .nxDXUDiyuiD  i”p  id!j'?d:x  D^iJ^  iid  iik  "nyaiuisp,  ,iyisi>  px  lyv.yi 
px  "inpxTJXDxn,,  I’x  oymxyi  Dunyix  .ijoyi  oyi”'??  lyiiijaijiDDiyirD  px 
•‘lys'ixoxn,,  px  piijnyi  OT’-ixii’xp  25  pv  ."pys'ryD  'JXDxri,,  p.x  ayisip 

.DIXT  pD  px  7'7X1Py312  P'P  PXliyJ  U1’D3!j!Syi  1945  ,15  IXIIX’  .'']iys 
P’P  1945  ,2  Pnsx  nijnyj  UT’xipxny  oyisx:  in  "xixn,,  p’p  1945  ,24  nxpx’ 
jnx”53X3  nyi  iijj  .1945  ,15  “mBX  u'nDXB  uiiji  px  iyTi’yn‘iyj3y3 

X px  royiDiKB  lyny^  ..nyroxB  Dipo':;  lyi  I’x  7ix'7Eiu”T33yD  px  ormyi 

■yi  lyT  ps  3xupyT>i  lynyp  .ra’^Dn  nnxtti  3yT  P3  isixuorx  yn  ysip 
1X3  iixijtB  pxiuiys  p3  iijopy'?  ,ipjx-i3  I’x  yo’Dijp  lyipnijoDM  iy'?}?jij;p 
•yj  u'7'”myi  t’x  ly  .yoyi.B  lyi  px  Dya-it<yjo’n  pk  iPX’XpyT  px  no'pp 
n P3  :ipd‘?xt'ii<o  '7XPC3yx  lyi  ps  Dyo’axP'iio'jip  ps  lyx’nijB  o'?x  pxn 
px  iix'^yu”!  px  yixT  iy.ixp''iyax  ^y7  px  i33XB;axaD7ix‘?  ■iynx3Xt33jyiPD 
•laiin,.  113  P3  lano  lyi  px  ly  .oy’ayixpx  yVxioayx  y'?x  I’lx  icyioyjB’ix 
"D”six’  iyn:ix„  yaxio’ix  iyp’'7xai’'X  lyi  ps  ixopxiyi  ,"nx3X'3Djy'i^t3 
•28  lyax^PiJ  yixixp  i^p  lyoipypx  •Dy’xpp’'?2i3  yiyiix  y^i  ysixJ  x px 

"DUX'?  lyuxBX'^siywD  lyi  p3  iys''nxs  lyouny  o'?:?  pxnyi  op’inyT  .1948 
•yipyo‘'?xiyiyi  oVx  oax  ayi  lyamxs  nyiDX^  PX  '^xyio^XQ  T’X  osxitpxa 
X aD'’'?u:3yix3  yixixp  PX  .ixu  iP’or'-n  oyi  I’a  aaypx3  ly  pVyn  ,ixu 
I’lx  px  iyay’?axis  yr’ayi'?x  pyii  iyin‘7i3xn3X  px  pic/xi^  y”''  yxixi 

.PXPiJtJDiyttia  pyn 


25 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


lymO’IK  OKH  ’*1TN 

iiKDxuoawo  ]’’X  pyV  dkt 

nyn 

"osp^nis"  o’a  owjsasa  ]yn»j  inK’  'soir  say’  I’x  i’k  ]*7’19 
]iD  “lyaiya  yoDyni ’t  lynyj  lya’n  ”t  .(•"onxs  ytt’'’OxnpNoyT  yVwx’yxa) 
tjxn  .jTK  iiD  D’KJW  yDoao’mxD  n ixkt  )ik  "onxD  "y’xxaKD"  o'^ponioV’D 
.iiK3KDD3yiyo  0X087  nyT  ]’x  opxoiynxD  onynaitxo  "noja"  ypnxn ’t  in 
DXT  o«paynx  ]ix  0”p3”n  dxt  iVid  I’x  oxn  manVa  oVyii  yn”a  iiy’iiy 
n px  ,0’n  ]”x  ]iD  ]ayV  jtyn’x  ai’x  yVynmna’x  oxn  ]ix  ypn'mDmtt>3 
o’na  X onynxsyj  o”t  “iyo«ny  ^y^  jid  p’O’Vxd  laiviyn  yiyn’x-'oax 
yn”a  .pyoonpy  vx  oaxayi  pnayno’ia  jix  nV’np  nyn  nxo  o’ayj'Doyaix 
n’X  oa’OB^xa  ]ix  y’sxnaxnx'nV’np  “lyT  oVxni’x  ]ayjyj  ]axn  jopyoox 
lDX87ya  oxn  nxaxooayu^o  ]’x  jayV  yiyn’x  oxn  .nyopxnxa  py’axaxo’ix 
osnxnxa  oxn  oxn  nVys  ooymx  o’na  x y’xxnxnx-nV’np  nyn  nxs 

.nxDXODjywo  ]’x  jayV  iiyn’x  iio  aaxi  oyn  ]ya’0iyx3 
’ll  ,]y«oty  p’lx  yj’n  nxs  .oy'ax  oxn  t’x  jnat  px  oynpyia^x  I’o 
nyonynnn  n .oxow  nyn  jid  ]dxi  n jytyj  ]3xn  joaya  08;ny  ooVxn  n 
•O’layiD’ix  ]3xn  v’nyjy  ]ix  n’ox’X’a’x  ytt^n’x  ys'ryn  ,nyi«n  yiyn’X 
,ni3’8;’  ]ix  ]oVxo8703x  Djaix’xnyn  ,D’tt;ma->n3  ]ix  jVw  ]ynyj  ]y3’n  onxn 
yu7’ax3xpy  .ly’oixo  yu^’O’VxD  px  lya^xnxD  y’ayax’DysxnD  ly^ooxiyonm 

•loVxoiyax  y’ry’saxa’D  .oy’xio’ODa’x  yVx’xxo  px 
yTX  o’a  OD’njyj  i’t  nxaxooayiyo  yiyn’x  oxn  oxn  onynanxa  nxi 
n 3nn  jixj  ]D’ni  ayn  pn  x ,]n  iiy’j’Vyn  ]’x  nyn’o  y8;’n’x  yp’oc”! 
X ojxanxD  I’lx  nxaxooaytyo  oxn  ,oxou7  n OTXxa  oxn  oxn  .vh  mna 
ysVyn  .nyanyV  ono  ’iix  I’lx  iix  aa’n  ]ix  D'nxnn*nma  po  y’n  ysaxi 
Vu7a^  ’n  ,”i  ]iD  nxs  x lyaxanyn  xn  V’n  I’x  .]yax3  lO’ni  x oxnyi  pxn 
oxn  .("tt^xpxns  y'ayox’"  ]Dnyi  O’x  oxn  jya  m nynx)  nyn’p  y^yox’  n 
pnjyour  ^n  oxn  an  nyn  laVyii  V''><  o'nxmn'nma  n iid  nya^x  jynyj  rx 
n .nVysani  am)  n i«n  ayn  px  na’rn-nma  nyn  nynx  .pxVnxa  oaypyj 
.(ayn«x  D'mni’ax  n ’an  ayn)  ]’3in  pa’aa  n ]ix  px*7Di”Vp  y^yax’ 
’n  ]iD  iDxn  yoxyV  ’n  pyn  ia”n87  ix  oa”V  ’itx  ou7’3  rx  ay 
,03”aya  laxn  yVx  — .nanVa'oVyn  nyo”ny  nyn  any  ,]n’x  nyaaxaxoD3ytt>o 

•P’Viaix  aiiy  pp  pyno  ou7’3  a’x  ixp'o  ix 
1939  nyaayoDvo  ]o*i  ayn  p’O’na 

ayn  pw  px  .iV’ia  jVxsxa  nax^wo”!  ’sxa  rx  ]nytt7  iinxa’na  ’n  ]’x 
’n  ]axn  ’no  nyn  px  nya’’tx  ]”a  .nyaayooyo  p’nn  ayn  p’oaat  ,jxo  ]0’nn 
11X  nxaxoDayB7o  i’’p  jyaa’nna’nx  p’lnyaax  io’’na”x  yon’rnoxa  yu7’870”n 
]yoapxa  oxn  oxn  .no’n®  yoiyny  ’n  la’inyiax  I’t  oxn  nyoyao?  ixo  p’x 

tjyaxa  ayn 
."P’oaxB  nvp’oa^a  nyn" 

prya  rx  iixaxooaywo  px  oaxtt^nyn  nyw’xxa  jaa  lyo  ”nn  youny  ’n 
layV  yayVosxo’on’ii  yw’n’x  oxn  .a’ln  ]ix  nnxa  ]p’oiVa  jia  p”y  ]nyoaix 
jxoyj  0X87  X I’T  oxn  Vixn  x ’ll  .jnxiiyj  on’rVxnxa  p’nayowVip  rx 
Dxn  ]p’08nyn  ax  87’Vxnxa  oV’xyi  jaxn  oxaa  ]y3iaaaynxnxD  lax  oy’oynsyn 

•layV  yw’n’x 

,aaxaxooay87o  osyaxa  pxn  ]870”n  ’n  ’aa  aynaxa  o’u^nn  n’D  o’ap  lyaayj 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


]3Kn  ,1939  ]0-25  ID’IX  10-24  pS  03X3  ISn  I'X  l»n 

a3n»i?V»Dxa  nsiip’ViD  ist  po  losyasVs;  ynsioxs’D  po  *1^3  iin  o’»  loonp 
•p’x  n pyj?  iix3XOD3»oo  px  pxo  yoD3»Vn3»s7  n»’n  ps  ys^x  ixoyaox 
X (pynxDD  nyj?’Vxax)  ,dxi  'iVxanxi  lyn  ti^x  as’VsiVD  in  onymyn  oy 
IDino’ix  yiyo^’T  o’o  oo'ayaonx  ya’Vosyai’  y^'V'io  jio  'nipya  “ly'tV’ii 
n po  “lyoysys  n px  ny3”oo  lonxn  oxn  p’lnyisx  ^'T  oxn  ^'’Va  px 
.DoayV^y  oyoy  pa  ixtsx  lyoony  lyn  pnya  rx  oxn  .lyMis’ixn  ytyn’x 
yiy’ViD  px  y?yo”n  m .pt  osypya  po  pa  oxn  lyoyso  pia’o  yp’a^’x  px 
Dxa  xaxoV’n  «i'ix  pnx  Vio  nyoo'n  lyn  I’x  oyaaxa-na’s  pnxn  oyaxa'Via 

.n^xanxa  px 

nyn  pa  paaioana^x  yoop’3«ny3’x  »i  paiayaanx  Vyao  oxn  ny'’a  oxn 
yiynax  yVx  px  mian  nao  n o’a  omp-pix  oxn  .pVo  nyn  .paya  n .Vio 
oxn  oxn  .ny'a  jia  pxnya  oyoD’anxa  pa”!  .nV’ann  n’a  oyn  pa  iV”o 
ny^a  oxn  i’t  oxn  oaxa^a  ’nn  oanx  oony  .o’naonxa  nya  Vxax  oxn  in 
.Vio  nyonna  nyp’Vxax  nyn  po  lyVooyn  ’n  oaynanxo  px  pyx^yaa^x 
po  o^pDyVnyn  nyp’Vxax  nyn  po  paynax  oiy  pyna  yn’x  p”oo  oa”n 

.nV’np  nynxaxooayoo  nyn 

px  pia’p  pyn’x  p’’nVxx  jio  pyV  yVion’Vxp  ypnan’oVio  oxn 
pxnayaonx  rx  oy  pn  oayaxa  p’o  pxnya  onyooay  t’x  nxaxooayoo 
px  on’onxaa’nx  pxn  mV«n  yo’oonyVo’n  ’n  px  no’no-oVyn  yo«ny  n 
1942  nx’  I’x  7T  oxn  oxn  p’Vaaix  yonna  oxn  pnnyaax  I’t  oxn'o  .oxoo 
nxaxooayoo  px  aio’  p’n’x  jxaxa  po  yoxnooxoxp  nyn  o’o  op’naynxo 
.Doo  no’  .D’nxin  o’oonyVo’n  n po  jnxnya  lononxo  nx  oxn 


yD‘?K  '>1 

; ' ■?: . . . *»»»«  _ 

TIKDKDOiyttnD  I’K  ^TKTpKTI  lyT 

J5'rrirr!  ■ 




« «*•  ■*’»  <»\ 


1946  IK’  ^'HKDKODiyr::  I’K  DV'iy'n’a  ny^iycryx  lyT  lyiyso’^K  ckh  ptk 


27 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


r’'?P  .n 

]’x  pi?V  ]id  ]i33i7ttaxnD 

nttnVa  uVyii  n^n  any 

(mJlIDT  Vc’DXp  s) 

oVx  ]03’n’n  Vd  i’k  ^yan  oaypya  oxn  nwxDoayiPD  va^’n’x  dxt 
O’a  ’’D  ]ix  Dy'>xiD’DD)'>x  yTx  D’a  ”d  .pvV  u^’n’x  i”u?  x po  nyooia 
oxn  nxDxoDavtyo  yu^n’x  oxn  .’n  ]id  ]’x  ]»3XD\yyi  ]y3”t  oxn  n 
IX  B’ni  pnavDtt;  ]ynyj  ]y3”T  oxn  ]0”p3y'7aynyD  ’n  yxaxj  x oaxanxs 
ynyay  px  o^x  ny”i  jayiyiox  nnoa  ]3xn  ’n  .VVsn  nmoV  oyoy  ixo 
px  "lyo’ni  nypnxT  nyn  ps  inyV  yu;•>^’x  dxt  laoynnx  iy3nnxix3'”x  ^I’lx 

.oxaiy  nyiyn’x  nyayytyiax 

T 

]iD  lanypVyDxa  x oxnyi  ]0”x  yVxanxa  yi’x  j’x  oxn  nxsxoDaywo 
ypnxn  n oxn  .^x^  nyax  .pya  oat’io  35  nxa  p’X  pDiyi  .onna  135 
jayV  ]D’’70DX\yo'i’n  ]’x  jx  ]3’ix  oyi  lyaianxo  D'”my^a■'a  yVxax’xxa" 
V’D  "ixD  oyaix  pxu^yi  nDona’x  n D’rp’noax  laxn  itx  n .DXD\y  iid 

.nyoyaix  y3’'7DDnp  lyoatnu 

lyT  px  yVxT  yp’oixar’x  ]x  oV’D^yyi  oxn  nxaxDoayu^o  oxo^y  n 
pxnyj  DDXioxa  I’x  uxDtt>  yp’ixT  n jyn  ,id”x  jynyi  .yoD’tyyj  "iyu;’'7’is 
n ]’x  .mxmxD  Dxn  iV’iD'oynaaxp  oxn  iyDDp'’'7”n  nyaxo  lyn  ixd 
nxDXODjyiyo  ]yas3  nyn  rx  i'p’id  ipnayo^yoaVya  ip’Vxox  oyn  iid  ]U”x 
nxD  fj^xp  pynxoD’n  ]id  joayaxn  I’x  unaa  .DayVnyrrixD  I’an  ]ynya 
ynayns  ]yn  .nianVa  nya  an ’d  Vy  jynya  rx  dxt  .Di’p  i^xax’xxa  x 
^v^  lynyj  rx  oxn  .nxaxoDayiyo  aaioDyo  n oanoiyya  ]axn  m'7”n 
manVo  ya^iyax  ]yii  nyax  .yc>nxn  ]'7r3  iid  pnxn  dxt  uaay  oxn  nyro 
oyn  ]ya  aiyVo  p’aix  ayu;’*?’is  iyi  nxa  jinxa  x o’a  jpnay  yt  layVo 
03’Dyi  Dxn  nV’a'ynxa  ayp’^’n  nyi  iid  "mat"  oyn  ]a'”iu;ix  "DJ"  ipnxT 
oy  cxn  jya  ri  anyaaynxVp  nyix  "xnj'xaDX'’"  ]id  n’ooxaxa  ayi  ]’x  yi 
.lyrrrjyn  ]ix  Dy’DxiJxyi  y!y’xyDxi«x‘anya  yVx  oyaa  px  janyi 
oanxa  rix  lynyi  tj”x  ayn  o’a  I’x  a’ooxaxa  nynxaxuDaya/o  aya 
yix  axa  nV’on  ]xo  axa  own  laxoyj  j’nx  rx  ]ya  ix  iVna  paxa  ]’x 
11X  .jDpxnyj  ]ya”t  ayoonVp  aya  axa  mana  n .]xo  yryaxa  x Vo’ax 
Dxia  ,aVxa  ]id  maxax  n layn  o^nawaxa  yi  pxn  jyaaxVp  yw’ooxoaxa 
ID’ix  jVxoyaax  yoaxVw  yw’V’iD  laa  yaaxa  x t’x  143o  I’X  .joaxa  yi  oa’sya 
ODyVwyapynx  iVsx  jix  ]axi  yViDoayii  n jid  V”d  x lyaiayaax  p’ooxaxa 

."a*?’a  yp’^’H"  oxa 

pa  p’axaa  ayopiaayi  own  aya  ]’x  janwaxa  rx  oxr  yaayayV  n 
,aV’a  Dxa  lyaiayaonax  jaxn  ayana  n lyn  tx  .oV^yaya  p’ooxaxa  oya 
liD  iix  ipxawaya  jaxn  ayana  n ."jya’m"  jannyaax  aVa  oxa  oxn 
.IDxVoax  lax  aaynw  x o'a  aV’a  oxa  ]a«aw  lannyaax  ana  ayax  oya 
’a  ."xaaa  xaax'**  aya  ]ia  O’m  own  a'?’a  jyonwyy  oxa  pnaaxVaya’x 
.ono  D1X  oawaaxa  lax  oaxaya  ]ya  oxn  niaxax  n ]ia  ayana 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


28 


V’Vp  nyn 

]iK  Dxoyri  '»'7  pi? 

ua^n  p’Vpn’in  ovn  w’»  Vk^n  ip’wsva  ayn  ly  p’Va  x 

iva’n  .sn’nsVyo  ^’ix  inxnsi  ]i’n»a  rx  "ODXpxVxn"  dV’d  n»T  ]»n 

11X  la’ix  ]’X  insno  o’o  ]ix  aaiaxD®  d’»  lostyi  HP03»a  ]y3X’’7’a 
snyo’a  ,]saaiaVxDnxD  iix  in”V  sD’Vpyitt;  pD  nynV’a  n ix  yt  opipyaix 
.ODXtt?n»n  ’sxa  isp’oiVa  n»n  nyoaix  3?n»axno  n»tt?’n’x  ]id  joasaxo 

Tx  .naxVaas  I’x  iix  ypnsax  I’x  lonox  siP’Dnp  oxnsa  oxn  d’t’d  "wi 
p«*?  »u;’T>x  n iiD  ]yMnyn'?’iy  n j’x  ppyoyn  lo  x oxn  "UoxpxVxn" 
“ixD  Jiaya  oaxava  nxVp  O’a  axn  n — .oaivix  txa  iix  ipnaxo  a’la  n px 
ypnxT  ’T  iix  ,]n’Dxs  oaypyi  vnyaxno  xtx  oxn  "’nx  ’iv'  "iv’HPis  ovn 
]axn  DxmxD  .aa^n  ]ay“iD  .ovayso  vasVa’iVaaax  o’a  an’pxu^  ny’Wix 
ivDXD  ^a’^aya  ’n  ]ya”T  oxmxD  ,naxDB;nyTn  j^p  uVyaiyya  aa  ]tx  n 

.Vma  "ly”!  ix 

pxT  lyayp  in”*?  ]ix  ]”o  ]id  rmy  ypnyayV  n na’Von  nnxu?  n Ta 
’T  ."I’Vaya  ]ynya  ay  ’n  ]ix  ]yn  aVyaiyyaaayp  in  jaxn  jn’x  tx  .oynayaVxD 
Vxaa«p  ]yayp  .ayavDai”’?  ]pnxT  ayn  aaxayaain  an  laxn  yaVyn  ^yaaya 
nya  ixa  aaaynaya  ]aVxn  yaVyn  jaVxo  n jix  ]iayaiyaix  n jD’naxa  an 
DxmxD  yaxiD  n .]n’x  yaymxanyn  n nxo  amo’  yayVa^a  ]ix  ynyoyia 
yaxna  yap’a’niyaax  ix  ny’n  t’x  naxau;nynm  ]”p  aVya^yya  atyn  ]axn  p’X 
]yaipyanxD  x’  I’w  rx  ay  )yn  .payatyaax  n is  va  jyaip  nynm  px  — 
an  ”1  ]axn  ]DnVaax  V’m  ,]nxnya  ap’atynyn  i”’7a  ny  rx  naxaiynyim  x 
X ni"  ,iV’n  layaya  ’n  jaVxn  ]yayn  ”a  ]ix  jDxVya  ’n  ]aVxn  m .aaypya 
iV’DX  a^n^na  ]id  pyna  yVx  jynya  pa’n  apxmxa  tx  ."I’n  I’X  Vxt  ]■>:! 
ap’iyyapms  inx  jya  axn  ]ynyaxT  aaypya  x’  in  ia*?xn  yaVyn  n ixd 
py’a’ayo’aax  a’a  ayaayanxa  )ynya  rx  anx  nysaxa  nyi  V’m  .aipaix  aix 
tt>nity  nyn  ]ix  iraxa  aana  nyn  jynya  t’x  oxn  iix  p’x  aya^x  iiy’  is  aan 

.]a“iin  ]Dma  nyiaix  is  avaiyi  axn  nyaVyn 
an  pxn  D’d  ra  axp  pa  aasxnxa  .yaxT’x  ]’x  ]y”anx  yaayia  n 
yiynya’V’a  ytyaanyVam  n ]id  niainsa  ]id  pm  ayn  laVxnanx  aaypya 
X iVyaty  aanxnxa  axaya  n ]’X  jTx  yanyaxayaonx  n laxn  ,ninia 
nyayVpnni  nyn  .’’aix  y^’sxa  n ]anxa  Vxt  oxn  nynya  a’a  naxamynni 
]tt;’xxnyn  ip’aa’n  x paxaiynynni  x aVyau^ya  x’  ]axn  p’x  ix  ,t’x  apxa 
rx  in’x  yayVp’Vaaix  ypnxn  n jia  jaxn  nya^nya  “lyn  jix  .laxaiynyTn 

."linaa"  nyn  jyiiya 

.pyaxV  ]ix  axaya  ais  p’niyV’aiy  ais  a’snny  ]yiiya  n’a  lya’n  inx’ 
lyn  a’a  naipn  laiy  na’  ‘lyVa’n  “lyn  ]’x  arxx^y^  pyn’x  laaxaya  laxn  Ta 
IS  aysaay  nytaix  .jaVxT  jap’a  yany«DyaDX  ]ix  .ayaaxa  yayanyaanx  Vxs 
nyayanmyn  pa  .iVxnp  ya’Vayiyonxaix  n jya’n  ,]”Vx  in  ixa  iix  jyayVx 

.]*iyaxV  I’X  axaya  yVx  I’x  miaa  nyp’aa”a 
yya  ya”nayais  x jynya  rx  axaya  ’n  px  p’X  ■n  p”‘iaa”nx  axn 
nyn  jix  mana  ytt?a”n  ’n  jynya  jya’n  axn  .y’sxn’iip’V  is  Vaxaiy  x jix 
’n  ann’wta’x  ’n  jaxn  .ay’spyVya  pm  .aair’V  yp’a’a’aaay  is  V’s  nay 
nyp’n'Vnia  nypnxn  nyn  j’x  — .aiaan’x  jtt;’xyaxn”x  nnia  jia  aaiaxna’ix 
jVyax’S’nxna  ayn  pm  jyaipya  naxaiynyn’ii  nyn  rx  .axaya  ’n  j’x  a”S 
,axa  nyny’  .jnayaiyaix  y*7X  nyaaix  jay*?  axn  ja’’?’’n  jia  ayn  jiy’TX 
aya’^xa’n  nyn  jia  y’sxnaaaxnyn  x jynya  rx  ,nyiy  yanyaay'rnxa  yny’ 


29 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


K "1VD31X  DXT  ]U?n'»X  ]1D 

DVT  ]1D  V'’DU?’*»3  nyU^nKUD’H  X T’X  »lI}yV  yVDDXU?V5?Ti?i 
ny031X  pD  .JO****:!?  i?Vx  px  DVp  ]U?n'»X  JID  IVOXD  .1VOXD  J’DXtt  ’»3X 
o’*a  axt''  lyjtrTVJLD’ix  itx  n ]3xn  .dxovji  ‘’t  ]‘’X  ox'll  n 

.p'n'?!  D»T  I’X  onvax'^pya  yi  ."isn  loxv*?  dst  cd”i  n tk  Vxar’p 

SD”^^^^X  ’T  ]1D  ^S"I’D  ’T  ]1K  .D^Vll  SU^’DD’^yVO’^'’D3^<  ’T  TX 

.^n  ddV’h  n»”i  ]nym»T  jV^n  oVsn  n»T  iis  D’sia’p 
]jKno  D’tt^np  ’T  .iJxVpDK  ]”p  mV’Dn  yn»”T  ]3xn  lyroya  w>i 
nXT  ]S3K1  DVT  D’D  — .VXJ’D  DVT  TKD  11K  ,D”pil’DXD  TV’M  TKD  .tVhV  l«p 

wnVvn  ]ix  nnpi  tvdjdxhxd  is  ]vnvj  hdit  ]Dxn  vdVvii ’t  is  tiddh 

P''’V3TXD  DXT  t’X  .pVXD  ]\V’TX  11D  T13D  ]TXD  TVTTVa*'’SX3  ’T  D’D  DOavpVJ 

o’lV  ,s;’XXTvn  Tvp’3”n  txtj  j^x  ]”p  O’a  ivnvi  d^v’j  .dxdvj  I’X 

•Dsaxp  IT’T’JXnX  DXT  ’n  ,D’''plV’T’X  TV*7V3X’S’TXT0  11D  Dp31DT3XD\V  DVT 

.TVTVvn  ’T  I’X  ]DnA 

11D  miDJ  ]1X  "^XT  VtV’D’SVDD  ’T  ]V:xaTVT  IS  JDV3TXD  DW’3  yiX  ITXO  T’D 

TV3  ,Di’7aVvj3n  Vxijav  .TVpnxDO’n ’t  oxn  ,dxdv3 ’t  i’x  ’itd  tvw’T’x  tvt 
.pTvn  VTV”T  I’x  dtvtV’C’vi  ]3xn  tt>u’nx3X3xp  niva  ixpdtxd  tvt  ]ix  pTxa 

^axp  D31D  ]VaTXD  VJVT’IVTXD  ’T  J’X  lI’OpX  ]VnVl  T’X  ’ITD  VTV’T’X  ’T 
TVT  pVp  J’T  1P’D'7’JD3V  DVT  ]’X  3XTD”3  IP’DD’TT  X DDXaVJ  DXT  ITX 

TVD’TTi  i”x  nDn'?a  jtd  d”s  tvt  ]’x  ivttvj  t’x  vdxt”x  I'TXi  .n’n  tviv’sxt 

13V1V1  ]3xn  ]lV’:VD'7VnX3  itx  DXDVJ  .ITViX*?  ’T  I’X  jT’X  ]3’7VTT  ]’X  pTTTV’TX 
.13V’7TV3’X  D’X  ITX  pvV  TS  ^axp  TV”T  pTT  X3TU7  ’SX3  DVT  TJXDTVTVT’TT  X 
DDVTTtVTXD  ,]VTTV3  DTV’3  pTXT  ]VTVT  VD'^VTT  ’T  TS  ]V”TTVD’TX  T’D  iV’TT 
]V3”T  .TVDDVTTTV  ITX  TVT’T3  VTVT3TX  .D’TVTTp  VTVT3TX  ]TD  TT3D  DVT  OTV’T 
DXTT  ’T  ”D  ,D”pD’'71VU3VD  ITX  VTT’TT  TVTV’T’X  TXD  ^axp  I’X  Dp’3”XTXD  1VTTV3 
DP’3”DTXD  ]V:”T  DXTT  JVJX’V’D  ’T  ”D  pX  ,D3Xn  j’X  TVTTVJ  D’D  iVXDVJ  1V3”T 
.VDVTTVOXTVJ  ’T  ”3  ]3’'73VJ  T’X  pOTVatV  TVT  .JTT’n  VTV’SXJ  ’T  ]TD  ITXTTVJ 
ITD  nTpV  JDXa  ’T  ITTDT  TV”T  ]’X  ]3XTD  DXTT  TTTTV  Vp’TVDVV  ’T  ]V3”T  ”T 
D”pTV’T’X  ITX  IT’X  ]TD  ]D’D  TVTV’  ’TT  .nOTplT  VTVDDJ’D  X ,J’Tp  oVVTT  ]D”TTS 

•ITXTTVl  Da’TTVJD’TX  '7XDTT3  ’TTX  T’X  DXTT 
VDD’TVVa  ’T  T’X  .DDXTVTVT  TVU7’TX3TX3  TVTV’SXJ  TVT  ]TD  TX’  'IJ’D  ’T  pX 
]D3VJXaTVD  pTT  ]TXTTVJ  Dp’'7”nVJ  DXDVl  ’T  pX  TJXDTVTVT’TT  ]TV’T’X  ]TD 
Vp’TXT  ’T  ]TX  .VlJXTVJ  pT’Opv’^Xp  IP’TTTTTTVpV  D’D  DWH  TVTT’p  ]D’'7JVD 
iV’TT  DXTT  ’T  .TVIVTXD  ]3TTn  vVx  ITD  ]TVTT  DT’TTDTV  jDTXT  IDXtJV  DIT”*? 
]ivp  DDVaTXD  X ]’X  DV’S’TXD  DDDXp  ]”T  DTVpVJ  pxn  DXDVl  ’T  TX  .1TVT3”X 
DDTXT  TJXDTVTVT’TT  ]’’p  ]VVDU?  DTV’3  ]TD  »”pTT’DXD  ’T  .TVVXD  1V3”T  DT’SXJ 
IVa  ’TT  OpTpVlTS  IT  pX  ”TD  pTTVJ  T’X  VdVvTT  .dVvTT  TVT  TS  pVTT  DT’DVTTX 
na’  TVVO’n  TVTVDDJ’D  px  TVTVD’3  TVp’TXT  tvt  ]’X  TVTJ’P  VTVn’X  D3VT3 

.nDTpn  TauT 


30 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


WRITERS  OF  THE  t)  H ^ ^ ''  1 

JEWISH  MEDIA  y VJ  ^ I -J  ^ W I 


lyiiKSKuaiuulU 

^a3a^^ 


-<mtt«si®tiR. -uinsh', 


R.  Ftederman 

."I 


W.  Levenhoff  A.  Chroblowsky 


:'l'iK7«2N‘12  .H 


31 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


\m 

|TK  K I’K 

]yivT  djkVij  stt^’on  px  inrix*?  n ]id  y3y3’'?3»J33y’7  ^yVt^^^y^  n ]yn 
I’t  «T  laxn  ,^s*7D»l^^P  px  osDtt^'iTiasa  ya^’V’is  »ns”i  I’x  ivmpyj  pmx 
•lyn^n  ”3  jss’sw  ]ix  ]3xnD9(<  yi  ivsn  oxii  jna  ’n  is  D3”x'iy3’x  Vysiy 
D’a  lui’3»ay3X3  n ,3sa  ypn'nan'7a''ix3  sonny  y3y’  ]yp3yny3  n’a 
1X3  ]3yV'D  IS  t33ny3  Diy''3  in  I3xn  oxn  .anais  yssVoonp  ynyn3ix 
mn’ST  n ,iy3S3  n I’x  o^piyDnaix  n joyansQ  13?n  n’a  jp’x 
n ,1946  .noD  fVyp  ]’x  axnass  lyyy'pnyTini  nsn  .D”’7"'.xp.s''  n po 
o’nasa  in  i3xn  ra  .nx3XDD3yn;o  I’X  D’0''’79  n iio  xna  ]ix  n*?n3 
“lyn  *iyo3’n  oVis  nn  nsn  iyny3  t’X  I3'>*73y3  rx'O  oxm  pVs  .3yn  ]’x 
.onap  n U’a  ]y3y3yiy3  in  iix  ]”3iy3'’ns  n33D  s iyny3  t’x'd  =ixn  .oxois 
■>n  ,]yny3  on^n  onxn  isisi  ^yoD’n^yy3  ]ix  insoVs  .mnsisa  ynstiix 

.yp3’'?3yno  ]’X  isaipssaix  jsi’n 

nx’  100  nsa’x  jynsa  oVs  I’x  ,piin  p’3  ,oViy  n’3  nynxsxoDiyiyo  ist 
n I’X  33S33«x  D«3 .1313X3  yny>’o  osny3  onxn  ]3xn  osasa  ]ik  DyT>n  y3”a 
pnx’  ]T>nnyoVy  ]”a  ]id  naxa  n pnisstix  ]yny3  t’x  ,]y«Vx  yoisiynxD 
yiynxanso  n jypiynsa  I’a  .nV’np  “isn  iid  isix’d  x ,’pDnxV3’n;D’7y’p  unsn 
]ix  D”3n  11D  D’Vmx  .idxioixVd  iix  iDD’VsnDOT;;';;  ’i  ]id  loiyanxa 
yisaipyaaix  — on’m  jix  pyoiya'op'rxD  .yoinyVsa  ]id  maxa  :D’33n 
px  D’3nn  .onap'iynna  soma  ]yny3  onxT  jyisi'D  .Disn  isn’p  I’lx 
nsT  po  anap  josa  y”3  ]yaipy3ix  jsi’n  o”x  ]anin  px  .1919-dxi3sd 
y’xpy'rsD'asDsn  n .oViyn’a  ]D’ix  yisoxiyys  y>x3y3''VyD3’x  .y’xps'iyni’p 

.nap'nyisi’oixs  nsn  ]ix 

]n’x  03no  ’nix  ]id  nap  josa  s ISiks  I’x  dsa'Shsp  nsn  I’lx 

n3ix  I’X  Dxn  |'’?s  t’x  oxn  ,1942  ]’x  s’xps  nyD’n3  ]id  o”x  I’x  sisaipsAaix 
,nxaxDD3yn?D  sis’n’x  oxn  .oxois  nyay'^nyniixn  nyn  ]id  ]ya’Vay3nya’x 
.nyisa  ,in’x  aina  so  ]yny3 1x3  iy3’n  xosa  ]D’n3  ]id  d”x  nsn  I’x  oxn 
.iViis  ”nx  D’a  lasV  w’n’x  p’n^nnsn;  nyn3ix  ]id  .•iyn3’p  px  0331’  .ismo 
,pxa  ,Dy’xsr3S3nx  ,DnsD*]onx3  sui’xiVn  s Dy’iso’3i  siyn’x  2 .o’nnna  ’na 
,yVwDpVxD-p9  s .I’ln  yis’an  iix  isVa’oiy-D’n’on  ,]S’’t3ns9  .jpsos’Va’a 
.nxnsn  ’a’a  inxnsa  ap’Disnsn  rx  oxn  ,]nyV  p’n'nn’ai’is’n’x  p’nsasV  s 
Diy’3  o’3  Dxn  .D^iyn’a  nyotxVnxmsD  s ]3’V3y3  rx  asVs  osn  iio 
]’X  iy3nxn  oxn  nn  ia’’nx  pD  ’n  Vy’xy9D  ,'i’y’33  ynyn3ix  n ]”p 
laiT  iix  maxnap  I’lx  ”t  ]yaip  .•iyn3y'7  ynyn3S  Jix  Vxnis’  ]’x  .yp’nsas 
D3’ixny3  pxn'D  ixn  nyT”n  px  isVasi  ’t  .inx’-nsn3’p  iid  ]m9iy  ’n 
nyn  po  anx  jonx  aiVp  asn  ,]y”'7S  .i<W3i3  asn  .inyoVs  yns’n 

DS3''n*2S3ix3  nsT  inx  nnpa  y’’3  ’n  .Vw  nyp’ons'O’na  ny3yDny3D’ix 
nnDisa  yiy’V’i9  s lansa  paip  ynyn3s  .ps’?9*nyn’cnsn  ip’nsmo  osn  ]ix 
.•iyp3ia  s px  jaVsnsaonx  ixsas  nynx  ,n3’p  is’n’x  s aynyas‘iy3  axn  oxn 
•1S3  y’’3  .Dsain  ,]p’nas9  .nyf’n  y3nynxa  yo’ni  jasn  iV’’xnyn  ”1 
sis’n’x  ’T  nss  nsax  ,iy3ypnyn  ix  aiy’3  t’x  nxaxaD3yiya  — os’xisao 
maxa  y3’’t  a’a  oVis  n’a  nsn  t’lVa  .axam  snasiD  s 'i  I’k  .onya’i’ii 
S IPSS  I’X  D^iy  n’a  inya3’n  .p’x  aas^sa  xn  pxn'o  is  ,a3sa“isn 
“ISO  "onx  sail*  oxn  ]D“isn  i“iy’3’ttn3’x  ’n  .aDswiyn’o’  ’i  iix  yain-]t”x 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


32 


Dxn  H3"P>’D’Vd  yp’siatt?  ]id  oxnairsK  pxs  np’y  nvT  ;]p»n5r  «Vn»VK 
psasj  1^’DK  ojjn  OKioD’agn  lyn  •D’ik  oV^o  soin  n 

sns’n  iiD  ‘i»3''a  n ]tdixiv3’k  in’x  voTovnyoj’xixD  n ikd  ]’on»D  x 

.ixiiE^nsnax  nsix  Vxntt>’'pK  ]'7  D’anp 
snsnjK  n O’a  ]»a  aw  o?<n  ^»aK  .ixayi  spsa  os  axn  ^»3’’K  wi 
]n9ii»a  ]Vi»T  ID  s WD^D  .maxa  lyDnvnain  ]3'Vaya  ^K3  lyjyt'o  ? onap 
o^Vonj^V  snynnx  »pxa  pxn  .ipxVxs  iix  n ]id  lonyjo’nx 

Dix  inaijiwa  ^n  ;p'tj  yVs  ]’k  osgVpya  .oi'asVs  laxn  »’t 
DU7»3  “isa^j  o^<n'o  .»»npi  ]’x  ixjxDDa'x  ynvayn  n ix  ,D3»^’^v^9*t^9o«^ 

•IDV^nyj 


4!  4i  :|e 

pjpw  iD’iK  lyaipya  naix  t’x  ,pmx  nx’  43  aw  iV’id  pnjTxVnxD 
H^x  Dnn  pp  anyVpnvT  au^’j  iV’dx  i»a  axn  a”x  nytnaix  ]’x  .raxsa; 
^’x  .]»Vn3xn  iy  ’itx  ni  aa’aiyxa  i”V^<  ^n  "a  axn  ivny’  .wxVtpa’n 
Dp  asxT»i3’’x  axn  Dpi  my ’t  layiaxa  iy  a’3  aaxayisx  pi  ”a  axn 
iy  lyjxa  i«p  axnya  aiy’j  Vxa3”p  axn  yx  .mnsu^a  ynynaix  iid  aiVa 
nyna’p  n px  ynyaav  n VywysD  ,’itx  ]V’d  yVx  a’3  lyax  .]’7’i9  pitxa 

.lyVsnxirns;!^  ynyw  lan  dxii  .na’Vsn  nnxty  “lyn  iid 
Vxw'  pD  nyaaxa  i”a  ]3«x'iya’x  aaypya  aiy’3  jdix  Dwa  axn  yx 
in'iaya  rx ’t  nxn  t’ln  Dp  ]yT  is  ]3’isy3  ’i  a?<n'D  .^V’id  laiT^a  is  a\y’3 
,a33yii3Xp’Dwin’  iix  xaya  oyn  ,]nyaVy  yiynaix  iid  iaii’ixii  n .jnpiyi 
ma  oyn  — “ip’y  lyn  .ni’p  p'^aDnp  x ’ii  ayiiyaxnyj  I’l  axn ’t  ixii 
anynV’iyyj ’t  axn  "Vxnx"  Vxnwi  Vxniy’  px  .iixDxaD3yu;a  I’x  o^iy 
; Dnap  yayDppixa-nV’ii  ]ix  yap’aownxD  n ."anx  yaia"  yanpDnnxD  dxt 
p’p  ]yiiyi  aty’i  t’x  Dyn’n  y3«a  pD  “lyax  .niasa  aTDxnaxaxD  axn  n 

•la’D 

pyam  n ix  ,tx  ixd  aaxVpya  I’t  axn  aayayj  nyay’  jiD  ’nD  yw’V’io  x 
...yaDJ’V’a  n aixVyanya’x  px  niasa  yaaya  n aa’nyais  ]axn 
rx  as’x  .1989  Dwnn  yasyV  n iw  laVxnyaax  axn  naxaiyis  nymax 
yaaxga  yVspxV  iix  aaimyn  lyn  iid  aaix'sxa  n .aanynay  ix  ^yaipyanxD 
aiy’3  .niaya  iix  niViiy  yaapw^iiyaix  ywn’x  m is  lyiva’DiyD  pxnya  rx 
ipyn  IS  a^Ti  px  p»DV’n«a  lyayt  nx3  .lyDyVaamD  pijiiya  ”1  lyayt  nVa 
]V”snyn'D  'ii  .nagVD’ix  jid  ‘iyny'’aiy«3  yiyn’x  n aw  ^yaxns  nixsin  n 
IIX  lawyjDX  .apamyiDx  iixDxaDiyiya  px  oViynw  nyn  aa^n  rx  aamD 

.niasa  n is  lyaipis  jyp  jya 

,pnx'*r3 1’X  nyiiijDxaDayiya  n ]id  aaiVagnxDmiar  nyasyV  nyn  ‘I’lx 
.ypa’Vayna  iid  oyayDx^aax  p<  pD  pi  x .anxDSDp  nyn  aimD  axn 
lyiiyap  is  a'’VDnaxV  ]id  lyaaixw^ja  jix  Vj3?<nya  oyn  ijyii  a^”snyn 
aw  lyaxns  ayanx  ny  'ii  DxaxD  yama  pniya  axn  ny  .oViynw  oyn 
, niasa  yaynwnijD  iix  anap'nynna  n j oViynw  prx  nyayanx  yw’V'iD 
S lyaioya  px  axn  ny  .inw  ]’n  pD  nap  jDrx  ly^np  aaxt  ny  ni  ]ix 
.nmn-nDD  ^D  x ’.pnx'-va  i'’p  aainaya  w jix  nnin  nDD  Vxs  yD’ina 
nyn  axn  nnpa  nyn  I’x  .la’Vaya  anp  ^X3  lyayi  .yaynnys  px  yaia 
D^DD  jyaiDya  pnp^va  px  wy^axa  nynxapnayiya  nyn  iid  npynpya 
IID  iniDiy  ]DiT  paip  dxii  yp’sa^x  ’n  \3Vi  lyayi  w .nyaw  ywn’x  ]ix 
.ninDwa  yayaipyaaix  iid  niyin’-niaVip  n .a^nayaaxanxD  ny«T 


33 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


r’lijuTNi 

Oi73K*7S  ]X  ]1D 


j’K  ,iV”xn»n  KT  V’li  yx  jdVsii  .nxt’sy  nyn  in  oxn  jannsux 

’ .nwxDDjywD  I’x  xoya  Dsr’Vp  d»t  ]’x  ,1942  nsanynxj 

ixn  ,oxBtt^  nsomi  n»T  ]id  wiVnnonx  nvT  1x3  iVxa  ]yny3  t’x  ov 

p’X  n»nX3XBD3»tt>t3  B3»nO  40  nVa’X  1V3”T  O^X  ^»X^^l7  X ]1D  1^0  I’X 

,p’x  B3»tnB  6 “ixsyjBix  .xpnxa’x  n .»p3’’?3ynD  ]”p  jnxnyj  op’tt^nso 
X3w»u?nx3  ]iD  i»Vd»3  »i:y  n po  V«d  x i’x  ]ixny3  BsiDiy»33«nx  jvs’n 

,ypDnxx3nx3  ]ix 

oy  .B3”iD  px  nnsiyn  jinVnxD  Bxny3  oxn  y3ya’'7ay37ya’X  n ]id  nyny’ 

IID  lyasin’Biy  iix  jyV’Dyj  n .nyonyn  I’x  ]yi3ynaixDmx  nyiw  ny’n  t>x 
Dy3”Vp  Dyn  ]x  iDxnDy3  oVxayT  I’o  axn  px  lyayn  B’o  ]t>x  ypnxT  n 

.xByj 

T 

ITnVnxD  ]axn  jiD  33iVD'>mxnxD  nyooD’o  nyi  ]id  33io’o\y  x jynyj  t’x  oy 
jynyj  t>x  oy  .7ynna  ]ix  “lyoDyniy  ,nyn3’p  .inyoVy  ,D”n  n :QyVx  ]ix  pVx 
pxn  I’a  .jin'nxD  oV’sya  pT  jaxn  t>o  .0'”pnx*7D33i3Dxn  jio  33in’B\y  x 
oxnyj'xnia  laxn  n’O  ]ix  .yoV^xya  jy:”!  3yo  y7yT3ix  ix  .ooixnyj 
]x  ]iD  D30Xtt;  .p’xxTon  ]yiy3Dnx  oxn  yVx  .D3BX\y  y3y3”x  ynyT3ix  nxD 
,pxa\yxp  yyyVpynty  o’o  D*?’Dy33x  lynyj  iy3’n  0Dy3  n .oVyn  yiyn3x 
lypjno  ]’x  BTX*?y33’'nx  vbmvi  pi  ]3xn  V’d  .^xViy  ]id  ]y’niyyj  o’D 

.py"?  ipnnoa”'?  x jtd  j’X  jix  '?xnxpVx 
.oy’xxinxnx  ; D33v  yiy’-xiVn  n jio  onan  y3ya’'7ay3nya'>x  ysni  x .i’d 
px  ]xo  IX  7yB’ni  oxn  .joaxiB  ianny33X  ]ix  ]Dxnoy3  oVKoyi  in  laxn 

.y3x’7  nyiKV3ynDnx  lyn 

• T 

pyVy3  my’Vx  ]yny3  n3Tyn3x  pix  oVxayT  I’x  3310x1x3  lypnxi  iyi  ”3 
i3xoiyDnx  Dxuya  lymyunxn  I'nya  oxn  lyaVyn)  yiyixn  jid  x 
onan  ”nx  1x3  o’o  px  ix  .px’nyyanxo  oxn  iy  jix  .(y'rxi  yi3T'D3x  x Dxny3 
S BToonpy  DVxayi  1x3  oxn  oy  ixn  ,]’i3y3  p’p  ]y^3iaiyDmx  pt  jVxt 
pny  in  laxn  oipaix  pD  D3Dxiy  n lyax  .nV’np  yiy’i’x  yivopx  ]ix  yoniA 

•ipiya  DtxVya 

I’X  psVxs  i<  po  oynx  ix  iay3y3  oVxayi  t31x  oxn  lyVya  iiy’Vx 
nxpxi  ,33n3’3ixD  ]’X  ]y3XBB7y3  I’x  iy  ]yayn  o’a  .lyViia®  x .nxpxi 
po  nxpxi  i”p  ]yaipiX3X  ]ix  nx3XBD3yiyD  jio  oxDiyixs  x lynys  t’x 

.la^iT  yD3”V  ’1  pD  iyny3  b’3  oVxayi  t’x  xoya  Dy3”*7p  oyi 
Bxn  xoya  Dy3’’Vp  ayi  )id  d”!  lyip’ix  iyi  I’lx  jyaipixo’iix  ’i3 
IX  iyny3  I’x  iy3*?yn  ,i4  yyVx  inx  nn  oyi  ]”33mx  osixiya  pa 

.D”T  iy«3’ix  iyi  IX  xoy3  Dy3’’Vp  ayi  po  nn-D33X33mx 
pxnya  pyoyaox  iiyD”i  ’i  pn  t’x  i4  yyVx  I’lx  inn  ypnxn  oxi 
yiyn’x  yon  03’lxny3  oixi  pxn  oy  ."p’x  y3yVxi3''  y3yDiiy3''nTg  ’i  ixd 

.n3xVa'’Vy3  yon  yiyi3x  iix  D3’iyi’’3iy  p’lio  ,iyi’’3\y 
yoxi”nixDBix  ’mx  ’i  ni’i  y3’’Vp  u oxny3  jaxn  nin  ipnxn  oyn  px 
i(<3  yiyt3ix  pny3  nanVa  iyi  igs  iy3’n  yaVyn  ,i*7ys30Di’D  lyooyiny 

.0X3  ypDixx3ix3  iyi  pix  ,Q’33iy  yo3yx3 
pa  ”1  pxn  ,m’i  ly’n  px  iyaipy33”ix  03nx  ip’X”3iy  oyi  pa  I’x  pn 
03nx  ip’03”n  p’3  o’3  *?xi  px  IX  ,1’a  ”3  10x3x3  pi  px  iixio  o’o  iDX3xa 
iXDy3*D3ayV  x ixo  oxn  I’a  p’lixixn  , nxpxi  px  iyV3iaiy  iB;’X'n3  oix 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


34 


iny’  I’K  jns’iV  ipxVxs  ]ik  ’t  ixn  oxi  I’x  pmso’nx  t’x  d» 

.n’x  X 1DX3  IX  Vprn 

|V3«t  'n  tt?ox3  .DiVtPxa  ]id  ]nynsx  oixVxi  d’J  nsax  ^’a  axn  yx 
]iD  .naiD  ]”a  or’avj  oa’wu^xa  laxn  ”1  ]ix  n’a  ]id  nyaV»  V’d  iyn»j 
D»  Tx  .aaxnsa  l»n»i  lyooyiw  ”nx ’t  jsrn  apaisnaxau?  iVsJX’sxn  ]!»’ 
“lyax  ,03X3  ny:»’  j’x  nxpxn  i”|?  pa  ix  3’a  nxo  nxDsa-O’io  x jynxa  t’x 

.]'>'>a  IS  X’  lanosa  I’a  axn  ma  ny^xsx’sxnaix  ]x 
Dis  isaipsaax  oiVipa  ^’x  pa  ,a»n  js’ix  ]ya3iVD''i“iDiP  sV’d  n fxna 
a’a  anan  '’iis  ynsnax  ss^a  ]Dxna»a  pu;  ^’x  axn  anxn  .tnn  onyVaiaiy 
11D  O’nx  aavpsa  d’3  pxn  ra  nsax  .ivVaias;  o^xisa  ^’T  axn  ^x  i»ayn 

•IsaxTis  nxDxaoaytya 

“isns’  Dxn  .a»a  sasVay  ia«VanxD  atiava  n’a  jaxn  onyVaiau;  n ”3 
]Vyn  ’n  tx  .jpxntysa  I’t  ]axn  t’a  ,a'”j?’a’'>x  ]x  ’it  t3tx  nxo  i»nya  t’x  axa 
T’x  a»tt  nsn  ix  .oaxtsa  moa  ttix  laxn  "t  ,]tya”n  n is  insD’Vo’tx  tatx 

.nsan  a’3 

,Dmau;'”3u;  “lypnxau?  x jvtiya  t’x  oy  lyn  .atttx  i”x  I’x  ^y'7^3y  t’a 
.p’nyao’inx  ypxa  "]n  axn  oy  ’ii  .'n  a’a  |”aa’a  ]D’’nya  t3tx  ”t  jaxn 
,]y3”t  “I’a  ]ytt  V”n  .yt  lyVatatyisannx  a”s  yp’aa’n  ’n  pitya  oxn  t’x 
'T  ]yay3  ts  ]”a3”ix  aonxnya  laxn  t’a  txn  fxVa  Dts  ]yatpya3X  ,^y’?^3y 
IS’t  y’ssxao'ixa  nyn  ^’ix  t’tn  x I’x  tx  .lyiya  n’a  ]axn  .pntya  i”p  ]X3 
]”T  IS  D’tx'yt  ^’x  tx  ,]a”iis  ms  it’ityaax  axn  ny3”x  iix  nya”n  ”iis 
nyp’myaa’it  nyp’txn  nyn  px  iDxViynxD  aVxn  ,nya”iis  nyn  nyax  ,n’x  x 
lix  .ia”as73”x  ]txV  taix  Vxt  ny  tx  .atxn  nyn  a’a  ]xaya"]xa  x axn  .aaxs 

■I’ntya  p’p  lyaipyatx  aaxt  nyn  ja’a  px  I’a  iy3”t  anx  ’tix 
nysy’  ]’x  I’ntya  ]’x  nV’np  lyty’n’x  nyo’na  nyn  ]tD  a”p’aya  tyn  ]ayii 
.Vxa  nyntx  ix  ]'7”snyn  ts  lyatpo’ix  niysx  Ta  ayii  ,a”s  nyty’axna 
ats  )DX*7u;ya3x  ]yiiya  t’x  aaaya  y’aay'7axt  ystxa  ’n  jtx  p’ii:xDXD  I’ntya 
pnin  “lyn  tx  .p’myoxn  jytiya  ixt  jyf’t  jn’x  yp’anxn  ’n  itx  "[’’n  ]a’m 

•IT’aD’tx  ”t  aytt 

a’a  .nV’np  yw’TX  yaynxit  jix  yo’na  x an’ao’tpy  lanxn  axn  ay 
ynytttx  lyaityao’ix  tsix  jaxn  aynxtt  onynsttxa  .naat  jix  pnxn  ixox 
’ll  yt  iV^jt  Ta  tx  .a’asa  pnsaty  ^’t  laxn  yaVyii  ."n’amia"  pa  a3”nD 
.D’njj:  ]y3”t  Ta  iny”D  yaVyii  ]id  ’itya  p’nto’ii  .piymxT’X  t’X'oy 
px  tPtnxV  .ytynxii  iid  a’nan  yiynax  ]yiiya  yix  I’niya  j’x  ]y3”t  oy 
.axajjnya  px  •iya”Ty  nyai^jpsa  x ,py  ini  .m  yix  ”t  jty’iis  ,y“iyn3x 
’T  lyiiya  p’nayaty  t’x  oy  ]ix  VxayVaix  I’ntya  ]’x  lyaioya  ^’t  laxn  Ta 

.aiyn  ys;a”n  ’n  ]’x  iVxD3”nx  iid  nxDya 
p’a®  aaypya  I’nsya  I’x  itx  ’T  laxn  ,pn  pya”n  ais  pynya  ]3’Vis 
jyiiya  a’3  iy3”t  yaVyii  ,nyn3yV  y’?xna”3  a’a  a3n3’anxD  nyayVao’nty  I’x 
,pn3ya  j’X  a’nan  ynyt3ix  asi3yaD’ix  laxn  oxn  .n3xVaa”n  a’a  a’np  px 
in3  .p’lity  “lyn  px  nan  nyt3ix  a’a  a3n3’3‘ixD  j’x  iy3XDtyya  iy3”t  yaVyii 

.yaV?<iw 

aVxayn  t’x  .p’lity  nyn  j’x  yaVxiity  ]n3  a’a  ]’nyVn3’anxD  yp’n3yaty  ’n 
,pn3ya  iid  p’aty3nxa  xp3xn  y3yayayanya’x  px  yii’apx  ny’’t  ’n  jyiiya 
,pn3ya  ]’x  d’O’Vd  yp’naVxayn  ’n  .t3ix  is  jnxDis  jyaipya  ]xn  t’x ’t 
lyaipxais  ]a”payVaya  iDxtyya  ^’t  jaxn  oy  tx  ,an’anxD3’x  t3ix  px 
jxn  a!<n  ’t  .a’nan  ynytiix  pa  yayVay  ixd  ]tdx9  nytxp’nyas'om 
oxn  px  oy’sxatxDt’x  yayViytnys  yo’iiya  jix  nynV’a  aatsVnxD  t3ix  ]id 


35 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


.V^2'7V^W  im  TV 

|vaii7»33K  n^^!<SDK^  nyjKp’ivJDX'Dm  ’T  |V3’n  o”s  yo’nvj  k 

,«s’*?KD  nvn  ]id  J310”'7JK3  ]’k  .to  ]y3”T  1943  Vnsx  ]’k  ]ik 

.iny’^a  m’jko’d  i’k  nyjxV'Dunmyoi’x  dvt  ]’s  ]y»ipy33i< 
n’o  yDVvn  .oavn  n dxi3»jd’ix  idix  jii’opx  nv’n  x t^’ix  ]3xn  to 
»nyn:x  ]ix  y^niy  nyn  o’o  pnjxsojnxp  ix  .yoTJiyoj’X  oVx  uxnvi  i3xn 
.IpxVxD  o’la  .jjnj’mxD  ]’x  ]y3xoiyyi  I’o  i»3”t  o’o  iVdx  px  .iiniy'? 
.]n»ixV  yp^x^anyT  n I’x  ]tx  is  ]2yiynya’x  ivia  snvTnx  jaxn  yDV»n 

.nsijnxa  la^niz;  ix  t'x  ^xn  pyjxV'DJ3n’3nyo3'’X  oxt  I’x  layV  dxt  iivn 
]»nyi  ivi’n  I’a  oxn  a”x  »x3xi  n ix  .i»3xmyT  ix  ’xia  *i»ax  rx  ox 
n TX  ,p»nu;  I’x  oaxVxi  pnaxoix  T’o  pxn  'ixjxV'omit’JIxoj’x  dxt  I’x 

.f’lwix  i”p  ip’U79x  tJix  Jxo  iD’nxj  X I’x  i^yn  ]iyo”T 

.’I’npjxnD'Di'n  .Vxo’n  ]’x  .lyjx*?  ]Dy’73y  ]x  o’o  jyixyj  ypxo  rx  oy  ’n 
”T  py’nx  11X  ,]DaxsDX9  nyjxpnyax'Oin  o’a  ji’X  173  |ynyj  lya”!  ox  =ixn 
Dxn  11X  ,’ax  .in  pooVy  pn  o’a  ixD’7y)yxxp  pnx’  lyjiaxi  I’lx  in  oxn 
o”V'DyDy  yiyD”T  O’a  aViinxianx  ’n  po”!  n jaxn  1944  ’7’'i9x  p"!? 

,’D3xm  px  ayjxV  y’xxaoixxixp  dxt  ix  laxnxi  tn’Dyj9X  ixj’n  ’n  px 
p’p  inxnxj  Dp’iyyj9X  anx9D3xnu  nxxip  nxT  I’x  onxT  iia  px  .ynpjxna 

.onynxi  an  ’n  pa  pa  oxn  nxa  ]’x  .iVna 

]DixV  px  nyaxaix  px  .iiaxa’c  ]’x  lyaxV  dxi  px  va  pxn  .Djxanyi  m 
yaVxi  DXT  TX  .pxniyano  px  aaxVyj  .pTiaxi  ayoxaiy  T’t  pxn  n’a  ixn 
.pTiyoxn  TX  ^n  mx  m .ijxti  oaTixi  pxn  n’a  px  .p’Dxa  tttx  a’a  i’tx  ixp 
T3TX  pjyp  ’’T  ’TTx  ’IT  03X10X1  i3xn  p’nny  ixn  px  orno  yiytnx  inx 

■IDVxn 

p'lxmxn  3xn  I’x  pVxTi  .nna  x pxTT  i^^xiyn  ix  "I’x  dtp  xn  px 
.m  .onno  pixxi  nyn  i^a  ]td  .d^Vixti’  ]td  pnTx  ioxtt  yax^ox  o’a 

■DllTTnXOl’X  pVXT  Dxn  I’X  IXTTXl  p3  "j’X  IXaXTT  O’a  ,00X19  pxaix 
T’X  00X19  pxaix  .11)  .1945  ’Xa  P'8  DXl  .13TX”1DX3  1X1  TX  T’D  IXIXV 
Ol’TXTT  03”n  .plX’'T’3  pX  lTXTT'*7Tiyp’l’X  I’X  TT’OpX  ]1X’  XlXlXa  jXTTXl 

.(D’VlXTl’  I’X  ,’1X9  ,’TID  P’t  O’a  IX 

DXl  px  ,3’3X'Vn  I’X  IXTTXl  T’X  IX  TX  .pxatt;  I’a  oa”iTX  tt’id  dxi  I’x 
1X1  119  OIO’OOI’X'TPIXD  px  OXO’TlXll’llX  Op'lXD  pa  X)  OlO’OOl’X'paV 
xaVxiTix  pi  pD  Ti’3ix  1X1  ox’x  I’T  ol’Dxi  01X1  px  .(”01X9'lX0XaiX 

.(D’’?Txii’  px  1X0  IX  03”n  oi’ixTi  ixdVxtt) 

IP’ii’iipixa  s 1X119X1  01X1  00X19  pxaix  oxn  ,ii’3ix  dxi  px  p’lion 
1943  ixaaxxxi  px  ,pxn  ra  xo’ixii  ,XDixp"'DxaoD’ip''x  .oixaipxi 
pi”!  xoi{f:p'"DyaoD’ip''  ixi  ix  px  .xaVxinx  pi  ix  p’lnx  p’p  op’ixxi 
.00X19  pxaTx  p9  px  I’a  p9  ,oxox9'oix9dx9  ”iix  oVxoixxiix  piixi 
oVxiTxi  xaVpiix  pi  oxn  .pVxn  ix  titx  ’ttx  ’ii  ixii  x o'lxaxi  p’liDiT 

P’P  pSp’OOlXD  ”11X  .IXllxV  px  IIOIXIX  IXTX’l’X  1X1  1111  .IP’IXIX  TllX 

xiXTiix  pxn  091S1X1 IX  oxn  dxi  D’^tx  ,(xi’odxVx9  ioVxaxi)  Vxiix’'px 

.DX’9DX11X0XD'01X9DX9 

• T T T •• 

1”131T1X  pia  XOVxil  ,DX’9X11X0X9'01X9DX9  IXa’lX  I’a  IP’IX  ’TTX  ’ll 
pilXl  Opll9  T’X  ox  ’ll  ’TTX  ,1^XDX11”X  TllX  T’X  ,1111XX'X9X00X1  ’1 
oxaoo’ip  1X1  o’apaxTTX  ox’9Xiixox9  xixTiix  ip’»  ix  .oxaoo’ip  ix9 
’1  ^”11  ,DXi  TX  paipix  091X1X1  o’l  I’a  pxn  “iio  dtx  txoxo  ,xoixp 

XIXTIIX  1’IX  IXlX^-Ollll’llXOl’X  DXl  pX  P”'l3  pX^Xl  TllX  pxn  pO”l 

.I’lp  119  XllX  1X1  IX  1’3  piX9DX9  IXlXp’lXaX'Dlll 

"vV  Tt!7’iix  Viixiyi  iXTiix  nxn  oixsipKi  ixix’oixo’ix  p ixax  t’x  ox 


CZliiNSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


36 


■’RDIlN^nNID  .N 

"iisDKDD:j;irt3„  iin-niDT''  ps 

yo’nj  f’x  iiji  Uijn  ,i3nyii  iir;nuoD''n  r’^  pn  ,”njj3iji3D35?tt>D„  nia  oijn 
StDynyoxayj  .nya^nu;  y^p3^’  yoasixa  P’l  x I’t  p’^^oxa  d’k  I’ji  jn^ya 
f’b'X  rp’na  yu^’xxi  s‘?x  oapynya’s  r’’?^  PX^  ojjn  -pmnpy^o’n  rs 
n B’a  px  iD’m  iio  yirnxaix^  n o’a  nax?  p^sxo  op  aa’sp 
-p’la  ps  D’px  ?''^y3y'?  D’dj  ^^n  p?!’’!  ”1  -,  p’3”ny3’x  ps  ay'?BX‘i3Pi' 

ypnyax  P’P  1’t  P^jn;  ,py3x'?"px‘7?w  ’n  t3ia«xxa  iy»  dxp  -^xb 

pyn”  px  11X  iaDXi2?3xaDn3x’?  y^y”T  I’X  p’Dya  iy'?t3Dxi2^'?yTyi  nyi'n  lya^r  px 
pyanx  yny^’t  ’n  y’n  nyi  dm'?  lyi”!  •’’t  .iay'?'aia‘?ip  px  py^Bsxw^ytyi 
’as  -p’Bwayax  I’a’ia  .an  — "iix3Xbd35712^b„  iia  px  eay^ajoyaxs  P3”t 
pn  ,ixaDp’'?3  fi'?x''>  -n  -yaaxa  •'?  -x  ,’pdxd  .a  ,x3xn  na*?!:?  .p’naytxT 

.lyB’^^xp^y3  '?t3xa  -"ry’p 

yw’i”  ynypv  yaynaix  oxn  -oyaya  ^a^^^  p’ly  oxn  tx  .o”n  Ti< 
pD’a  ms  Hiix  DTxP  (1  tnnx  ”a  lya  baxt  -uayVaisyaxs  pxn  ^y3”^^y 
oyaya  ’t  pa  lo  x (2  ipiP  aijyj  pis^  laxn  I’a  .tay"?  njix  atxP  .pmn 
^’a  lypjyiyi  — ? lay’paioynxs  ■iy3’ii  ”t  oxn  — a3y”‘?y3  I’lw  n’a  laxn 
la’a  i”Pnxs  p’p  au?’3  t’x  oxn  -nan'7a‘Dpyn  ^yB^:;^y  ayi  ixa  tx  Pyax 
]iQ  ny3’itt;  oyn  loynxs  a’rxnyi  I’tx  lya  axn  aVxayT  tx  — pain  p’a” 
-D’-ix  iy3”T  paiya  ni  .'inyjx'j'y’sxnajysjxp  ’t  T>3  PX  .nanPa'a'?yti  nyi 
pyAnxa  ’itx  lya  axn  .n’x*a’3  D3aD”ais  a'jxayT  -P’Ps  ’n  iaaxaB7yA 
nyn  lynyi  oxa  ayo’nj  x px  fx  oxn  ,pmn-ny'7D’n  lyn  lyaipya  t’X'o  ra 

.n.an'?a-a'7yn  ayat:;ay  ^y^  ps  axa'?iiyT 
yw’T’  px  p”  rrnn  pxn  moa  nx’  aat’ia  yayPuy  ix  -I’lx  io”n  a’a 
nX’  oyty’  Itx  u?ipan  n’a  ]aain  p’lx  p3”n  is  a^y^y3D’^x  a’j  nyaa’T 
T’X'D  0X11  ax3  ptyiyi-  : "na’x„  iio  3’‘?‘3x‘?P  IB’a  ay’na  ay”i  pxiyio’ix 
lyiaxiyiiy^’x  t’x ’t  -nVm  nyniix  Pixty  ayniix  yt  iix  pip  ,naix  is  lystya 
lyaxTis  p”  pxn  nai:?  py’  iix  ,"ynyn3X  is  ayt”n  yayniix  -yiayas  is 
’T  piiyj  ^’^ta  px  "D’amn  ax-,  ayT  oixtyi  ni'7’sn  yp’i'jiaiz?  ’t  a’a 
yaa’'?yi ’t  -own  atn’p  h’ix  piiyi  uto3  aoia  I’l  pxn  oxii  -tyaipn  niV’np- 
."a’la  ny”T  a’a  aa”iyys  aw’i  I’l  pxn  oxn  -py'?  3y”t  ”a  y”aayj  px 
-yiyaipyiaix  lyax’'?'’^  ’f  Ps  "^xx ’t  lynyi  fx  d’pj  ’ii  x -o’m  ’ii  as’x  )ix 
nxs  0X11  11X  ,aa”2;ys  ai:?’a  Paix  a’a  ”i  axn  nipaix  nyn  -a’la  nyt  oxii 
iiyixmyt  ty  ’’t  p’tiyaw  p’a”x  Piix  nxs  rx'o  am  nyp’‘?”n  x 
H’lX  px  iya”T  nya”niy  ynyiii’  ’i  nyii  iy3ya”snxo  ms’pa  xt  n’ax"? 

•p’niyyi  pxn  ”t  oyaya  x nxs  oxii 
•y’S’iiax  iX  I’X  oyanxyi  n’wtyT’sxJ  pyojix  axn  p’awaynx  pa’ja  .m 
nyn  px  axn  ny  .iixaxoD3y2;a  px  piiyj  ypxa  t’x  oxii  -"ixoxn-  nyax^ 
P’lwnxo  oxn  -nyix'?  I’x  Jiin’ST’sx3  ’n  pyii  ‘?x’'iyaxa  aPaxiyi  a”s 
j3ix”nDxa  nyn  IXJ  .p’layty’naiy  x px  laPxnxa  px  n’sxs  ^y'?p’a^y  *i’ix 
ni’Dix  yt2;’3”axP  a’a  iia  x aay'jaisynxo  ny  oxn  -piyix'?  yw’iya”n  ’n  ps 
^xn  yp’aa’11  x a'?’styyi  axn  nia  yp’ixn  oxn  ."iixaxooiyiya  pnm-  I'x 
•inxiiyi  astttayi  iy3”t  nynnya  yuta”n  ’n  in  ,n3X'?tyB’P  px  pysxns  ’n  ]’x 
nyiixaxaojywB-  (i  : layanx  HJ’o  o’a  laxnanxo  ny  fx  "iixaxoojyirtB,,  iia  I’x 


37 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Dsasp  ’S"’!  rs  “•'’Voiax'?  (2  ; "ystjsy’sxj  nyi  H” 

•vi,,  (4  ;"B”S">sw  nyT  rx  nx‘?p*?xs  (3  px 

’x,  (5  11X  "nxsiJoDjyi^^o  I’x  pP’  •>!  113  yDD’ipyi  nyT  is  ixno”3  o'vsxi!?  ^?V 
DsiXT  lya  .'?xyiD3xa  px  asxwjxamjK'?  lyiujDijtjojya^B  3yT  ps  B’V’oyB 
X nxi  P’aipjynx  pa’33  3"t  ]id  iBymx  ’t  tx  ,'ip3yaxa  XT 

pyT  IS  1X3  -iiX3XOD3yi!;B  pun  ps  yBB’ipyj  nyi  is  ixnB”3  nyu?'>Dx‘?p 

.piBXTyB’'?-pTin  Tyxixi 

p>x  iBDpi’s‘’'?yi.s  yBDii’Bpx  ’1  ps  nya^’x  lyiiyi  I’x  p’liayixn  ps 
■pyByanx  lya’pyi  I’X  p’ByB  lyiiyi  ny  fx  y’sxsipX'PXi  nyi  nya  .Bxoiy 
ly'jBPXP  y^’T  px  .nyByanx'lsxPpiP  p ps  isaxp  p o’a  Bn’syijx  px  bxt 
px  BXTTyoyanx  pyii  /'xoyi  ■iynxsXBD3yi:;B  p>x  p’PBOPyuin  iyi„ 
b'?p  iix  'inxa^  iy3y3”sx3  SX''’'  -lOiyaipxT  ysyVBD’wyj  lyj’n  ,iix3XSD3yii;B 
Oi’Piyaix  px  py’jBXnjyni’  p o’a  nyBymx'pxVptt^  yiyp”  p iid  naxp  oyr 

.■>’1  nnx  "IDS'’®  yBP’AyV’iiPs,,  BixPJ 
yann  p ps  lypnyi’j’iy  o'XJxn  na'jw  lyayanxs  Bax  lyTJifxa  x 
p px  Bn’syio’nx  P”  p sxn  lya  ’ii  oyn  iX3  pxi  iix  lyr’n  yiyp” 
pxn  P’lx  “jT-’a  nyu^P”  nya’iB  nyi  ps  nVa  oxt  : ojivix'ixi  lypjPayaB 
ysnxii®  p B’a  .oaynx  yi’x  iis  lyaixs  yiy’ixsnxn,,  p B’a  D’jnn  p B’a 
.‘j’la  Dyjysx  lix  '?ty3  p''iay30’iX‘DD'”P-u^P'”  .iBs’iiyyiO’ix  ,p’iK  yjysx 
0X11  >Bix’S’Pxs  IWP”  iB’a  piyP'DiBiya’iB  n’ls  iinx  in  onya  oxn 
ay'7D03’p  X TX  pn  oya  oxn  pPp  pPmi  xix  fx  — pxn  syT  o”’?3xa 

.0311”'?  lo’ix  ip'a''’xaxD  oy  "jxt 

.b  .X  : "y’sxTp’axa  p,.  : ’poxo  .'>  po  laain  i3yii  ly'rB’sxp  yaya3X  p 
px  B”pTyp'?yn  P n’D3yaipxa  — "yp3'’‘?ayaB  ps  iDn'7B3X  p’a,,  :yaaxa 
.Dipaix  iix  B’lB  113  iBxi:^  px  B331’  ayip’a”  ayi  ps  BD”3'DD.axp  oya 

laain  iB’a  iay3issx  I’t  ayp’3”ii  Bayaxoy3  ta3ix  ps  Bayivo  'js’ii  I’lx 
Dy3yB  .X)  ni'j’np  yBaxaaysaix  yayTa3ix  ps  isxir  px  py'?  p’a  aya  px 
1B"30  Dya  "OBayiiaxs,,  px  aaxa  x BaypB33yaxs  yaya  aya  inx  Bx>a 
yay33’''  yayta3ix  sx  uit^P  t>ix  Bpyj  oya  inx  iy”BU?  — (.’  .s  ayaayiiX3 
:"oxi  ayiixsxBD3yirB„  ’a  ia’att;xa  Bx-a  oxn  ,ixaDp’'73  'i‘7xii  -aa  .aya’piy 
'?isB3X'?XB  Bxn  ,iixaXB03yTi?B  px  '7ittT  pas  .b  .•>  ps  a’a‘?n  x -i^B’iixpaya  Vaxa 
X ps  a'j’a  ppyay"?  x t’x  oxa  ."iixaXBD3ytt?B  px  fin  wa”,,  x oaya'j’tt^yi 
.pxw  px  Ba’"?  na”"?  px  la’ps  yayn  B’a  ,D’3aiy  ya’x  B’a  t’ln  ly’a” 
Da’'?y-Di'?i2?  ’a  ps  ayay"?  x -'?y’P  pn  layii  B3xaaya  naxa  ayaiitxa  ax3 
ay  T’x  iia  px  .aya3’p  axs  pays  px  ly'^nu^ya  y3y33i'?y3  Ba”a®  oxn  i'jib; 
I’X,.  (3  ! "bw  yB'?X  P„  (2  ; "ysaxn  aya  is„  (i  : oyayxs  ”aa  B’a  pxaoaxB 
"oya’s,,  :is’B  ayiix3XBD3yu;B  yB3Xpxa  ps  iy33iaya'?’B;  ”iix  B’a  px  ,"iii 
’’oy  y3ya’ai2/y3-Bn  ayax  ysaip  ’a  iy3xaaya  I’lx  a’ax'?  ."y'?yii’a„  px 

."p’lnaya  I’a  Bxn  yp’ayax-,  :Dxaiwta  ’ayn  ps 
-BBXw'?yty3  ayB3Xpxa  aya  iia  px  in  ip’'7”Bxa  y3yaipy3-”3  ’a  ps 

,pyB”B  aax3aya  ,ayio  ayay? 

yp’Ba’ii  ax3  n layii  Bpayaxa  aiaan  nxa’  layaiitxa  x B’a  xt  '?«t 
»l’ix  n"y  ixaa’as  s’'?’s  a"a  yaxsypain  aya  ps  ayu?axs-BS’in  ps  ayaax 
a3XBTraya’n  px  nipaix,,  pyii  p’aaaya’x  ayu7’sxa3X’‘7a’a  x :yayB  aya 
."y’sxsipx  ayiy’sx3  aya  ps  b”s  aya  px  it’  ayiixaXBD3yirB  ps 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


38 


T»i  inijn  Djjn  /njr'jyowoD’nc?  "jUS  ynyoyni  8 lojjnonHis  iy3”t  T3 

I’s  moNnyo’'?  iw  i?’t3D’K>''Dy  nyniis  rs  bi<j  lawn  niji  x lanxinyi 

. lyr’T  ’’T  -lyaya  yiy”t  lyayDyno’ix  p’a  nxa  lyayaiaxn  I’a  "ryn 

/pasa”a  nn  .opia  3”'?  D”n  n2;a  /imc?’  n’sy’  /ins  ns  an 

.b  .’  i"T  /ayii’i  ,1  .V  ,r’aE;a''’n  u;ny3  ,fnyn  .v  ,iixp3ia  .t  ,^i<^a  ’dx^* 

.IxanyT’iw  .v  ,('?k312?’')  xponxaxoo^ywa  naiyis;  /nyai’nw 

Dp’'?’''>ax3  ^’T  i3xn  ’’T  IIS  no  X ,a”'?mix‘?  ny'i'i^s^vayvo  ynya^y  n iib 

113  ]’x  iya”t  — ,ypnyax  px  iix3X'3Diyi:?B  iis  yoyaa  nys^’T”  ayi  I’x 

: iBxaaaxs 

ixanyiy*?  r\Tvn  nyayna  -nya’’?  wBa’ii  .x  -ixaB’"?  nm3X  ixaaynya 
nyBw  onxa  ,n"y  pnxiw  b”"?  n^n  ,{nx3Xt)DJy®o  !’*<  os’x  I’t  Ba’aya) 
nn  -Crxni:;’)  B'bBxa  Dm3X  -(B’x^Byi)  opi'?  .t  -nyBibixa  .a  ixaa’ip  lov 
nyi’‘?3y3  box’  -ixaixni  .n  -p’Bway  biyayn  .(yamynx)  ny3  yiay  ,’po2>?B 
,’PDiix'?sx3n  in  .(Dy'?yu;nax  ex'?)  ’po'i'iX’^saxia  .x  -I'lxnu?  nx*?  ,’na  yay' 

.(tnX9)  iax‘?iip  m 

ms  axiB”3  iyayT>’irx3  nyaya^x  p’a  pyn  Baxanyi  I’lx  xf 
pa’aa  nn  oxn  -lyBiyn  n an  i^'rxBir  in  I’x  ."iixaxtJOiyiz^B,,  in 
yny’X,,  : 1958  ,25  lyaaynxa  bi’bxt  nns  x px  pniirya  m Bxn  pnu^ayix 

ax  ly'janir;  ”i  ‘?”ii  -Biyn  i'?iaDaaiB'>nx3  ix^  po  iy^”f  liXiayaTnanat 

."laxp  px  lay"?  laxu?  pvopx  prn”  pa  yBxay  ix 

pa  B3nx3  lyiyaay'j  x B3y'?uaayixa  I’lx  t’x  m:)^DOi]3V!u  in  px 
n pa  nya”x  ,B”p3y'?jy’'iys  ypna’"?  x ,pnp  lor  m pa  "ibi’  ipnx’no 
op''‘?”BX3  BS’x  ,nx3Xt5Diy'i^o  PX  aaiaynxB  lyw’BO’^x’SXO  “lyi  pa  pyaxn 
P’T  pa  B3nx3  "lyi  .'7Xiir’  px  yoyia  lywn”  ]ix  lyTT’xyiayn  lyi  px 
px  iB”p3y‘?3yny3  yBoayyryaax  n Bp'^’nxB  in  nxi  oy  P’^yn  PX  '"^bi’ 
X nx  — ,T'y  pa’aB  n in  ns'p  BayinyianBPa  pa  ,'7Xiw'>  pa  nyin 
•lyaypXB  in  Ban"?  oy  la'ayii  an  .aayaipxi  lyiz^nxaon  aypnam 

X B’B  "payiax  ipn”x  ms-  lyaaP’nax  I’lx  in  lyanya  in  px 
lyina  -yaxa’yaxa  nnnp  yayaipyaaix  pa  lyaya  px  iyi‘?n  "rxs  ayoma 
pyn  Dxn  lyaya  n pa  opyia’x  px  "dxb^x  lyayVaynya-  nyBoyniy  px 
p’?X  ."nxBXooays^B,,  in  px  px  "it”  lyiixBXooayn^B,,  in  px  Baxaiyi 
X px  ^y^n■^nT''  yBOi?''BBm  n is  pynya  is  in  oxi  bbxb  lyaxtis 

.piyii  wnxiyB''‘?‘ii^nXBon:  pnani 

y’D’BXP-y’spxiyi  lyi  px  nyaan  n .v  t’x  in  pa  ixapxiyi  lyi 
.pniayTxi  ns  ,'>pd'>''x‘?X3><'>3  nap'jx  ixaiyiye  '?xan  :BpP''’Bxa  in  pxn 

.oxin  nyn  px  p’B»aynx  pa’aB  m 


39 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le. 


b"::r  aim  n ]iK:in  am 


n’K  B’o  rx  y3*?sn 

-Dsa  “isp’mxsV’s  px  nsomi 

'Vxnw’a  Dxn  n’s*  is  i»nvj  unspVs 

-3X  0X11  ,pst  V’D  IX  i»n»j  riDH  oxn 

]V’i9  I’x  osotp  SB^n”  VD’ni  vixt 
:panS3  ojxpyj  D’j  D’m»T  pxn 
*»ni  svK  I’x  IX  ,i»n»a  naii  m oxn  ’iis 

“IXT  pxnsj  pXB^SJ  T’X  ]X»3 
t’X  nX3XOD3»tt?D  I’X  ; nXJ’OSD  D’Jin" 

ojxaxnaiD  i»t  pxnsi  Di”'?yi  I’lx 
nsT  I’x  n3S33XD-D’3m  ioB;n»  dxt  nss 
ps  D«p’D»D  nvn  ,»n«3  .oVvn 
n nyVoDJ’p’na’M  iix  pinsVyi  lO’ni 
oxn  Dxn  V''T  o’lan’a  n»3  omnx 

T T 

dxob;  nxT  ]’x  osnyVsi  iix  oavVya 
^^ya3  "bw  ny”a"  lyn  iid  nxoaxp  oVs 


nyi  px  DyoB?  yoB;ny  n iid  yr’x  pnya  t>ix  t>x  nxsxDDaywD  iix’  20  iid 
pxB7ya  onynaimx’  ip’ox’x  px  no  ny^T  I’x  oy  ixn  .pa’nxns  nyB^’V’iD 
yoV”xya  n pD  ya^x  pnya  I’lx  t’x ’t  ;aaio”S'axD  yB;n”  s pxnya 


px  ’ll  no  ’nx  ixa  .y’lxao’a  yB;''T’  x ]nxnya  pxB;ya  rx'O  ixii  pyoBr 
rx  .oxnya  oxn  iixsxooayB^D  ywn”  dxt  dxii  nv3T  yVx  iid  ny3X  .1917  nx’ 
px  pxa  p’na  oyn  ,3t  dxob;  tx  dVx  ]3xn  ix  pnya  yooyna  n nysn 
IDixn  pytya  rx  3y3Vyn  V"t  vk  ’3X  nn  n3  Dina  n 3nn  .BaoayD  piVp 
.(1936  T>3  1889  pD)  unynaimx’  i3'7xn  x ix  oayxa  ma3nn  xdd  Vy 


,’3X  nn  n .lycxQ  pn  .Dim  px  DpaiDyaa«x  pnya  rx  b?x  Dina  n 3nn 
ixnyn  px  poa’nxna  j’x  iniD  nyayyiyaax  is  px  poV  nymna  s pn»a  rx 
“i’3a  pansD  pD  nyaxiw  s pnya  rx  ny  n’on  “lypxxp  nyoayiDnso  S 
D’x  ”3  pa”!  oy  B?oxD  ,Dxn  nyaVyii  pnssnVxa  ’ny3  n ,D”X  oyay’  px 
pyii  ynayayV  n pnya  I’x  ntx)  pVnayT  yayn^a  d’d  pVoyD  pasoB^ya 
paasayaans  nx  ,t)”p3”n  pt  po  pxn  nxan  pp  o*7xnya  on  ^x^  .(D’x 
pasa  pt  px  nyosii  D’a  ama  ^nx  waa  pyV  aayVs  px  Dyn’'>’7pya  Dynx 
nyoma  nyn  pnxyaDnx  inx  Dxn  rin  Dyay  px  .npnx  nsD  oV^cyx  aVya 
pxnya  oaspss  nyays®  rx  nysVyn  ,nVn  *?x’n’  n’xa  n pnx  px  pxa 
oaspsa  pnya  rx  ’an  nyxnxnoDx  nyn  .’an  px  an  nyxnxnDox  nyn  dVx 
pn  pD  .naiy  I’a  naiy  po  .ixn  yxasa  s D’mayn  ya'n  pin  iVns  pasa  px 
nyn  .nnaxV  nnim  n pxa  po  oasaiyya  Dina  n an  nyn  oxn  nx  onyoia 
nVaa"  nso  ps  nana  nyn  ,pxa  pD  yta  nyn  pD  px  "nnin’a  ynia"  ps  nana 

."nipiay 

Dxn  ny  .n*?y  oVs  oaspsa  pnya  px’  yaar  nxa  n px  pB;  rx  Dina  n ann 
an  nyn  .VsoaynyV  B^ia^V  nina’ax  n pD  na’B?’  nyn  px  nx’  yayVoy  oanyVya 
IS  pxnya  ny  rx  ,nx’  15  pp  pnya  oVs  O’a  ixa  rx  ny  pn  .Vip  pD 
nyn  .Bi’Vsp  ps  an  nyn  .p’OB^aynx  iwa®  'n  pxa  pansa  pD  Dyn”X 
na’ao  pyaya  inx  paina  n oxn  nyaVyii  ."iwaiy  nnxsn"  noo  po  nana 


CZ^NSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


40 


i3xV  o’3  n»aK  »nK3’U7  ]'K  an  i”t  ix  inxiiss  ]3;^xV»33”x  nVi<a  t’s  "13; 
l»o»3ixn»a’K  n?<axt3D3»iPt3  ps  nV’np  n ini<V»a3”K  d'S  oxn  ix3iyn 
]’x  i3;n»3  T’x  DXT  .'"ns  oVxz33?n  pxnsa  rx  oxn  ,m3a‘in  xoa  n ion?<T 
ppn”  pD  I'VxDw  13;t  ]»3i3;a  rx  )xt  0”t  px  ,(1889)  D^om  nx’ 

.o’lB  i”i  ]iD  3X0  D1X  1'a  nxai<t3033;tt;o 

I'T  laxn  D’3an  V’o  iix  ]y3n»V  I’x  jixa  as^o’ina  s i»n3?3  t’x  Din3  n am 
3?om3;3  p3;n  33i3«n  pi  jnsin  ix  niawn  jix  mVxip  o'o  0'i33niy3  D'X  ix 
a»  o^n  ,33r  i^a  isnsa  ']X3  rx  ax  ixn  is  .ip’ocnsopsiss  o»  (.maVn 
]yn»3  rx  ox  oxp  .o^aan  oix  ]X33ipnxaxa  ]ix  mnan  ]a'Vpxa3x  oxnxa  piix 
,rx  osa  ."min  n3tt;a''  o'a''aaa  jid  o’pVn  a’s  n po  ^lo  aix  opmxasx 
a’lnix  n ]’X)  ixnxa  oVxaxn  ^X3  rx  ax  m isaiair  sis  ass  pxVa’osi 
S I’x  onas  mnan  n ]X3”i  axoxsix  .aiaa  axoraa  s ivuva  (axp’xisrx 

.'']''ana  ’irx"  ]xax3  ]axo3ix  aso  axaiiisa 
9X  yi  p’a  oxn  ,D’3aa  X3X’  jis  ]xnx3  0’3  axax  rx  oini  n aan 
•lom  on  ixaxais  oxsx  po  ]Vm  iix  "naVn  Vix  max  n"  n o’a  ax3 
jix  33iaV’a  axaxVoVxii  o’a  V’d  ax”i  oa’oxaxoi’x  yi  oxn  ax  .oaxpasD 
axanxa  ,o”x  ax^i  axa  iid  paiiaxaxs  n ass  axnx  js  osnxa  oxn 
px  jamoix  IX  ixaiiaxaoix  xaxm  I’X  axai’p  X3”i  oaxoixxa  on  ax  oxn 
on  rx  ax  ixoxa  ]ix  opxaxoax  ax33xaoix  s pnxa  axax  rx  ax  .]X3axV 
axa  IS  .oaxaxDxa  o’miaxVxa  axax’  ”a  ixa  axax  ax  oxn  .ix’osiss  ixnxa 
.''^^ax  inViX"  ]iD  oaxn  ]oxxV  lon^  laxn  lomxasx  Vxi  na  axix’a” 
yx  ixn  ,inn  oixs  ^an  j’X  ax”33”x  axoDX  ]S  ]”i  ix  nm  'a  osnx3  axn  ^’X 
3X  ,]xivoxa  .a  .axaxaonas  axrxaxooixixo  oxa  ]i9  iaxnx3  ]asVx33”X  pa 
."os^axaso  axnxaxooixixo"  33id”X  ]«i  iid  axopsaxa  axa  i”! 
•oVxn  axoixax  axa  jid  o”x  axa  ]’x  ,1915  axaii  j’x  ixnxa  rx  oxa 
|X3”i  m ixn  .ixiasV  j’x  ixnx3  jnix  oVxaxa  ]X3”i  itt;o”a  ’a  .nanVa 
ix3’ixaxa  oVxaxa  rx  ixiaxV  I’x  .1914  axaaxxxa  ]06  oxa  ^X3  ]”as 
lX33S3X3Dnas  pasa  rx  xaVxn  ."osVaxaso  axixiaxV"  33iO”X  x»’a”  ’a 
.ax3ix  n’Xtt?’  oo’bs3awi  ip’xxo  oxa  iio  x’xpsaxa  axa  axo3ix  1909  o’n 
axanxa  ]ix  X’Xpsaxa  i”i  o’a  janmx  ]xnx3  on  ]X3”i  ]ixo’n  axax 
axttnaxV"  iio  X’Xpsaxa  'a  ixaiixaaxa’x  1915  nos  1x3  aVsa  yx  axn 
axax  ,a’o  ix  aV’o  axa  jxnxa  ]«;o”a  'a  ix3’'»i  ann3x  I’x  ."osVax3so 
axa  .ixaxa3s  oxsx  i3xn  ,3x0  lax’  ixsxixo  ixai3X3  ^’l  m pxn  axoxsix 
]’x  "Os’?ax3SO  axixiaxV"  33iO”x  'a  m pxn  nr  xa3X  is  ,ixrx3  rx  iio 

.0’?X0tt;X3SX  ]X3S3 

oVsaxa  ^X3  I’x  xixasr  .oxaas  is  ia’’7ax3  pa  ^’X  is  pn  o^oixaso 

ixrx3  rx  ixiaxV  px  xixasr  pxmx  px  pia  n jis  03xn  n px  ]xiix3 
,33io”X  x’’3  s lX33S3X3onas  ixiax^  I’x  rx  0”x  ax3X’  px  .aVxso3’ap  s 
1x11  .isnsp  asis^  Jis  x’xpsaxa  axa  axo3ix  "os^aopVxs  axwiax^  oxa" 
px3X3onas  rx  33io«x  n axax  .ossixaxoxaaso’a  pa  oaiix3  oxn  ax 
joxaasixo’a  xaia  s ixnx3  rx  ox  px  .oaso  axix’ixo’n  axa  ps  ]axrx3 
oxaasx30’o  oxn  pa  is  .pm  ox  oxr  pia  n pmx  paip  axaxo  .a’x  px 

pxo”a  n o’a 

axpiaa  axrxaxoo3xixo  axa  ixiaxV  p’p  ixaipx3  rx  0”x  ax3X’  px 
.a  ,"oxVax3So  axrxaxooixixo  ,33io«x  axp’oaxa  axa  ps  axax3onas  px 
V3X  ^n  oxn  xa’7xr  ,33io«x  pn  ass  axopsaxa  s pit  ix  ’aa  .istt^ox^ 
oVa3snaxo3ix  psn  a’o  .a’a  ^nx  ]imx33x  O’x  oxn  jxa  .oVxoixx3sx  osnx3 


41 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


S’xpsnsT  n ]»a»3n»a’x  Vxt  I’K  tx  ,opn3»ott>nxD  ^n  n’n  jynxn  ^vV^3»  iix 

I’n  ps 

^lo  ]»n»a  t’x  o»  .'nxaxDDjyw  i”i?  inxDsnsnnx  osnaxi  nVxa  I’a  yx 
IX  la’injx  pmx  Vxt  mio^x  n tx  .oixnvisx  ]axn  ^’o  .nyoit 
.n3»n*«;xT  ngD  iso  4 ,’?i*?x  ra  jxnxj  rx  dxt  .1915  nvaayosxo  ]D15  dxt 
.nsiy^V  'T  IX  "apysDxns"  x jnxnvi  OTxVvio’nx  fx  p:  d»t  ]’x 
can  DST  I’o  IX  ixoipyj  I’x  nxaxoojywo  pp  ivaipyi  I’a'a  ’n  n^i<a 
px  oyanxyjo’a  Vo’ax  axn»i  j’liy  oxn  n»aV»n  ,w  Vnjxa  ,jit  ayaou” 
I’x  .D’K  IX  ixaip  ^xi'a  tx  .V’tt  an  nvn  tx  oixTyj  n’a  ]tx  ,a3iD”x  nyn 
V”n  ,a3inj<V3”x  nyn  jtd  innsix  aoayn  pa  ^’x  tx  .anvsojyyi  d'k  axn 
n’a  Dx  D»Ti  njBTn’UTxn  nxD  nxax  .an  lO’a  i»t  i’t  yix  V’n  i”Vx 
n’D  ixa  jnx’  .p’Vx  ny3”x  j3Ta”x  n jaxa  Tiao  V^n  ,^yVlvaa^x  ]«t 
Dxn  "D  ]ix  ,Dy”3  ’n  ”d  lyVp’anx'O”'?  ’n  ”d  i^Vx  la’nu;  ]tx  .jc’n 
VsTT  T>K  DXTT  ,]D’n  6 i”iD’Tnx  osTT  nJTxn'Txxn  maa*?  .Vxnxoxa  xnynax 
DV)  xo’j  ]y3”T  nya’nuT  snxnjx  ]'”p  V”n  .iV’dd’tx  jTia  ]”Vx  nxn’Ti 
axn  laxT  snyn  nyax  .mma  yurnxnya’’?  s'rxpx’?  vax’pax  lynyj  lyj’n 
pnxauT  axn  txx  nyxn’  nyn  .(p’lxnvn  nxnx  ia«nTynya’x  aDnjTnxa  i^a 
T’x  .aVxTTyj  a’3 1’x  axn  oxn  nvax  .aia-m’  ’n  "a  jox  "rxT'a  tx  aVxnxj 

.DTnx  jxa  nxa  x ]’x  ’n  tx  jxaTp  VxT'a  tx  ]a'>Vayi 
X ixnxi  ^yVpn’TT  n’a  nxD  t’x  .T’ln  can  I’x  lyaipyjD’Tnx  I’a'a  jXTT 
nv  .an  lO’Tni  avn  iia  a'rxau^ya  yp'-aa’’?  n in  nxa  ]yT  tx  nTn  nnj 
aVxaxn  isttvi  i’ttp  t’x  nnxa  ]”t  .50  nx’  x isttvi  aVx  aVxaxn  t’x 
a3”u;yiD’Tnx  axn  ij’tx  siT^p  yj’n  jtd  nvax  .pxTTU?  a’a  d^tt  auT’avi 
JTX  nya”nT!7  x T’TVa  j’a'a  tx  .a3”a»i  a”n3x  j’x  axn  ny  .naan  yo’a  x 
TX  .aoTXTTnyn  in  axn  ny  jyTT  nyax  .nT’nTX  yr’Vp  n j’x  p’3”TT  jyp 
JDTX  iTya”n  nya  x px  acyTauryi  jnur  n’a  a’a  ny  axn  .’ttx  an  T’x  oy 

.ajyxT  ny’n  jnxTTyj  nVxa  jyj’n  n’a  jtx 
DTX  jayjyinya’x  pnxaw  t’x  ny  tx  .aV’xnyn  n^xa  n’a  axn  an  nyn 
VxnTy  pnx  j’x  jn”  ’n  nxD  D”n  x jynaTXDnx  pnTX  jtd  Vxyn’x  jiy’aonT’x 
.ypUTTD  n3XD*^j<3X’xx3  j<  pynynp  nyn  jtd  jyaTjyionnx  ’’anyn  axn  jtx 

:j'Dn  s a’a  aixTyj  axn  ny  ,nVyj  a’a  Vtd  jyTTyj  t’x  dxtt 
a’a  jya  aTa  dxtt  ? j”a\ynxD  aur’j  oxn  jV’tt  dxtt  jn”  ’n  a’a  jya  aTa  dxtt" 
a’a  aVsn  I’x  tj<  ,n’a  i’tx  jjxt  jtx  .nTjya  n’a  tx  jaxn  dxtt  .o’n’Dn  nynya  ’n 
yaDyni  ’n  tj<  .jTnTXi  j’T2>  ”t  axn  I’x  .D’DnTp’Dx  ’n  jtx  jdd’jt’x  ’n 
JTD  p3j<nya  jnjjiD  aixTyjD’Tnx  nnaa  in  jaxn  a’’x  nyaxy"?  nyn  jtd  d’itki 
;nyTTyV’nj<a  VxTaar  n ann  jnyiy’Vxp  urn’n  ’ax  n ,'7U7a'7  ’tt  ,jt’x  na’® 
nx3  jD’nT  ”T  nyax  .ynynjx  V’d  jtx  p’ttd’V  VxpTn’  'n  an  nyiy’Vxp  nyn 

''?’’T  TX  jn’’n  I’X  jyp  dxtt  — jjjyp  t’x  ’an  nyn"  :D3”x 
ja’a  jyaTinxD  nya  j'Vs  ixn  T”TTayVD’a  I’T  axn  ax  dtht  n ann  nyax 
TX  I’TX  ’a  JTX  a’’x  id  x jayjyjpyTTX  axn’ jtx  jt’x  na’a  jtd  pjxnyj 
”a  jxayj  Dj<n  axn  ny  .(njxD  Vsjx’xxi)  "na’p  jnp"  jnxD  nynVyj  jyVajjT 
T’X  Dy  jyTT  .nyayaa  .jnxb’yi  jyTTyj  t’x  ny  txtt  ,nTxa  Va  nnTya  nyny’ 
y’lnyjy  nya  1x3  a’a  in  ny  axn  ."nTD’n  jnp"  jtd  pTxnya  nyn  jyaTpyaD’TX 

.ayanx  ny”3  nyn  j’x  jDnxTTy33”nx 

-3yaa  J’X  ann’3pnx  jyTTya  jy3’’T  dxtt  ,Dyp’3nnT3x  ’n  Dy  axn  ’xnTTX 
jaxn  ’n  .apyaaya  a’3  Dxn  ,"nnn  ’p’Tna"  y’xxT’3xinx  nyn  j’x  TTxaxaa 
nyanyya  nyn  dxtt  jtd  ,a”n3iyVyi  nyny’  ”a  d’x  jayp  aDaypya  nya’nyn 
t TT  T TT  ”a  Vxa  Dyny’  nyax  .ja’’3ya  p’3”tt  a’3  axn  an 


C2ENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legate 


42 


.pXT 

p”V  Vd’3k  Vkt  ]»o  tk  ’xna  t’x  Vxntt>’-px  so’ix  o’j  oaxo  d»  — 
pxt  ’ll  .Vxn®’'px  3’Vijr  p»V  pxa  nsnjix  p”V  ji”  to  n’x  a’Vis 
13'T  snstnjix  a’Vix  — "uxnxa  ii’Va  u'xon  'isar  :i»3»nxT  D"a  I’a 
I’a  laxn  ijn  n a’Vis  naxV  ^3?n3^x  ]id  jnxnyi  lanaixo  I’a  pi’n 
.IT'V  px  aniD’  V’D  ]Dxaann  Ta  ]na  os’x  jix  naxV  nynnx  ii’ixiwux 

...  ! pmx  jaxn  nasV  op  jVvn  n’a  I’a 
an  |D’ina  aix  maso  oxnyi  laxn  DspxainD  'n  iix  0”V"nm5x  n u;oxa 
rx  n»  Tj{  ,p!  nma  onaw  ^p  n»a|<  ”i  laxn  ,iv»n'x  yiP’ooai’S  »3”t  nxD 
IS  ,nxaxoD3»tt;o  ]’x  ]xa»i  V'd  axn  n»  tx  .osss  ^xa  jix  isansV  ]’x  ]ixj  jj 
po  aD«a  px  oaai’  n js’snsn  is  jix  nmnn  ma’V  asn  ipnpu;nsD 
an  o^x  nxapD3»«?o  ]”p  jsaipya  I’x  aina  n ann  ’ii  asnaxa  ^”^a 
no’ox  jx  |Din»iD'iais  n»  oxn  .nV’np  nys^'n”  nvo’ina  nyp’ixn  n»n  ]id 
IDjjiy  ]a»ii  in’’msa’inx  ’n  o’a  na  ,D’nan"»Vya  sooasyiyaax  n jid 

.oa^VyanxD  'n  nxo  oxn  oxn  .Dy’Sio’ooa’x  y'n  ysajjia  x 
na’tt?’  I’a  x jyiiya  t’x  pxtt?  is  Da”VyanxD  oxn  ny  oxii  yoiyny  oxn 
1’ix  ]a^n  )ix  ^'an  ]’x  aaix’snyn  u lanp  V?<t  oaav  ywn’'  n ixii  ,naop 
nxD  Vny  i<  iDXB>  oVxiiya  ny  oxn  p’0”sa’Va  nyax  ,niaVn  px  nyn’  x 
o”sVxa  lyaynxii  x ]aya  I’lx  «t  Vxt  jya  ixii  pyVnyna’p  yiyn”  yaynx 

.DmaV  n pn  x ,axo  ]ny’ 

yVy’S’DX  n joVxnya  nx’  x ”aix  oxn  V"t  oina  'n  an  nyn 
.loy  ]axa  .Vinan  nas;  pyVaya  .]oVxn  inx^  3n  x oxii  ,Viiy  I’x  nwnn 
IS  oViy  oyn  ]pyii  is  nawn  na\y  x px  .nos  ]is  aa’ay  n jayii 
nyanyn  nyo’ina  x l»nya  ny  rx  .nwnn  yVy’S’ox  n pn  x issx  .nawn 
nyn  nxo  aainVa  ]ayii  .Vxniy’-px  pyii  V’o  px  oox  ny”i  onynya  oxn  iix 
nin’o  yoia  laxn  tia  .n’’  nyny’  .u^oaya  nyny’  ix  .oyn  jayii  VVaa  iix  oaav 

.]tt?03ya  py’iis  j^aisax  ’iix  ’ii  icii  ]ix 


43 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


V"T  'n  ^31  ny’nxDKOoavtyD  nrn 

T T 

(sVs  ]iD  i»n»j  I’X  oxn  .'']^”  loii"  x jiD  osnotxsx) 


oxn  nx3xoD3yu;o  ssrnanxD  dxt 
ISMIVS’D’DxVp  sVx  IID  ^»V0’2^X  OJXmXD 
i»®n«  nsp’Vxox  nvn  j’x  iviisi  iva^t  oy  oxn 
ixsjsni  »TX  I’x  yi  I3xn  d»  .iV’ib  ]id  o'ryn 
: Dionn”  itt>''nan'’Vya  po  ]a'>'ms  yVx  jyjiDVJ 
I'lx  ]ix  .lor®  yVxjX’sxj  ’T  ps  joixo  »Vx 
l»rn  oy  j Vj’Vd  iVxpnxi  jid  lywiV’Dsx  y’7x 
oy  Dxn  — ]ix  D’ra  yVx  ]id  p”  jonxT  jynyi 
y<yn?<D{<Vo’D{<  |s  •"  i’k 

lympyj  t’x  nyioynn  x pn  ix  ’itx  .ysni 
X lUIXT  DDXISISS  11X  nXSXDDjyC^O  ]”P 
X pxn  ojypyi  ny  oxn  ,o”x  Vp’Du? 


!?"t  mrnK  n 2in 


p«  «3  ]yiiyj  lyrn  oy  oxn  oyDina  ]x  ]od’u?  yVx  livn  JJiVyutynxo  y’ljyj 


.onynaimx’  ip’os’x  ]id  ao^yn  nyoiyiy  nyn  ]’x 


Dxn  .D’n’on  pn  x oxnyi  ■nxaxoojyu^o  oxn  pVa  dxt  ixJxnvT 
ly'iyiJXDpy'rx  P’n’on  nynya  ViyaV  m .o^an  ynynjx  is  pxsyi  pr’i 


iixaxDDjyiyD  ]id ’m  x Dy3yi”x  ix  Jis  an’cn  ^’ix  ..xn.x  on’on 
MiTD  ]’n  ]’x  ]ynya  t’x  nyaVyn  ]ix  .oin’  jonni  iid  aaxott^yj  oxn  oxn 

.D”an  yVx  iid  u^nyi^x 

,nxDXDD3yu;o  I’x  jjxV'J'ix’  anxnyi  oxn  lyaVyn  .’an  nyp’ixn  nyn 
lya  axn  ,yn”fnya'7y  ]ix  nyrn  pyoxD  j’n  onxnya  I’lx  axn  oy  =txn 
Vtt>aV  ’ll)  "’an  nynxaxDDiywD"  axDiy  nvn  ]id  jyaxj  jd’ix  lanvi  o’j 


Dxn  ly  Dxn  idd  x po  poxi  ]d’ix  oa  I’lx  ]ix  .(Q”an  ynyijx  ’t 
Dyjyr’x  p’l  o’a  nVa  axj  ,("nax  naw"  nyn  ,Wr:>b  ’n)  layjyjomx 
DXT  D’x  axn  .x^’sx^y  invax  n iD«nyj  axn  ly  .ji’iynxs  Vo’ax  ix3  jyaxj 
Bxn  jina  x “ly^x  pyVo’np  jyaijyi  axn  ly  ."Vnnrax  n"  janya  pVxa 
axn  iiyojya  yaynx  ”a  pyViyanxs  i’k  oxn  .ayr’x  ’’a  jyaijyj  nx:  ny 
,oynx  ^xa  pnyi  jyrn  oxn  yaVyix  lix  .jyayi  oVxiiyj  d’j  iiyxnj  p’p  ny 

.D^rnyVoiy  "ivid"  x inyjyj  i^Vx  iV’ax  ny  axn 
ay3«x  lyayjann  aiyVa  ny  ]ix  .aaa  nmn  x t>xnyi  axn  'an  nyi  ox 
Vxt  pa  IX  .o'rxnya  oa  oxn  ’ai  nyn  nyax  .ivix  yp’nayjjmann  o’a 
•D’x  IX  03yx3  I’n  Vxt  lya  ix  ,o^yp^XD  iw  .jaxn  xma  d’x  nxo 
ony’VxDD  .onyoDW  ,Dnyn«3c>  .niDxVa-’Vya  iia  aViy  jx  oxnyi  oxn  ny 

:”t  IX  ]jxi  DjyVo  ny  .oaypya  jix 

! aymx  lyT  pa  a«j  tx  ’n  ’itx  I’a  ix  lyaip  oVxi  n’x  tx  V’n  ^’X''  — 
yj^’T  yny«x  “lyp’oam  ]y3«t  Ta  n’a  nxo  ^xiaonx  oa  yt  ddixt  “'’k 

."nyn”Vp  yoDjyu?  n ’n  max;3 

Vxax  opmyjD’ix  yt  pxn  yaVyn  n ^’ix  ly’nwax  thx  oayVa  ’an  nyn 
iV’DX  lynx  pna  ’itx  pnyi  O’j  rx  oxn  .jn”  x I’lx  oikti  aay*?!!^  x O’a 

tjJXt  ojxVd  ny  .'ni  x yix 


.pyay  03”d  oxn  ]ya  a’lx  s axa  iia  pxnyi  jaxx^yj  iy3”T  pyojya  yVx" 


! ixtt^sa  ODXJ  03”a  Dxn  oxn 

yaVyn  pynj’p  y3”Vp  O’a  pijynanxs  ix  jaxn  a’V  ny  oiyVa  onynaiixa 
11D  nyni’p  ’n  yt  ix  jana’inx  iD’’n  oiy’7a  ny  ^lyVa’axVa"  janax  oiyVa  ny 
anx  pyt  yt  lyVnynj’p  ’n  p”n  pyna’niyj  oxn  ny  oxn  .min-maVn  nyn 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


44 


oi<n  11X  snsnaj?  iix  ospispis  iV^o  ”t  ojsVs  ns  ]ik  d’k 

nstJDSTi  ]«t  )»nsa  t’x  dkt  .]dix  iipnynj'p  x I’lx  '”t  O’a  aijynaigo 

.p’jyanjjs 

nsD’TU  n»T  ,]vn“i»oV»  ]’n  I’x  loxnyj  ]»n3;a  ny  t’x  oanj’n  “ist  i’k 
amx"  nso’na  isi  oVx  oowiixa  lynw  t’x  .nsnsVsV  *nn  n pnx 

..."VX'HP’ 


% aK 

ia»V  ,sVs’3  *1191  px  1746  ix’  ]’x  ]“)xn»a  iTiasa  nx  nsnwVsV  n 

,p»V  nsD'ina  ]»wa  t’x  pax  naVu^  n ,n»Bxs  pn  .nsV^V  x^a® 

Vnn  pn  iix  nsoam  lyaipsa  rx  os  .ixan^j:  nso’na  s yix  iinsn  nsa? 
IS  aVsa  i”p  Bxnsa  o’j  oxn  ns  nsax  ,tt>iaVa  Dsnxn  s ]axn  aD^x^»J  axn 
^»an»^  -\y  oxn  .sVxoVxs  six  d’x  ixd  pxa  iixV  is  na  isn^ain  ais  i”a 
.p’nansT  oxn  jsjxp  is  ,]ttixna  is  ]iiixna  nons  ‘isisr’x  ]”t  po  tnxBiPsaDX 
l»ai3»a  D’X  ”a  axn  nsaVsii  ,“ivn”3tti  ois  V'ln  1”t  paiisa  ns  axn  isVnjs 
]»aipsa  rx  V'ln  ]»ii  .naa  xix  D’x  nxo  D”asaD’ix  ^X3‘1S^  jix  ,oxa ’t 
^aa”  s os’i  D»  ’ll  isTsa  ns  oxn  ,p’nx  nnn  I’x  ^xii  nsnsnas  “lyi 
p’T  ]XDsao’ix  oxn  px  .aDxnasa  V’d  d’3  ns  axn  .osaxais  I’x  ]xasa3x 
]saipsaa’’nx  I’x  ns  ]sii  .Vaa”  Dsas’  is  lasasapsiix  os  iix  ,naa  ds”3 
axn  .isiaVa  ds”3  i”t  jxasaa’nx  oxn  ns  ’ii  oasnosa  saxa  p’l  d’x  oxn 

.nax  Dsn  jaxa  nsn  oaxisao’ix  V'nin 
nainn  nsoxo  ]”T  D’k  oxn  .nisana  ]nxiisa  rx  ns  isii  ,nx’  is”nn  is 
X jiD  nsoaxo  x is  .o”s  nsas’  I’x  anaa  nsn  ]siisa  rx  os  ’ii  .obxasa 
par  Dsn  oxn  isa  .isiisa  rx  ]”Vx  ns  ’ii  jxasnx  xix  nsax  .]na*?  x n” 
ID’ipnsD  oVxiisa  o’a  oxn  Vnin  'n  nsax  ,t”9is  ]id  Dxnp  x oaxasa  ]s» 
l”p  isasaisis  o’a  ’na  .narn  n’lx  oonxnsa  oxn  ns  V’O’ii  nsa  axo  ps’ 

•Vosois  ]iD  D’nniD  snsnax  ’n  ”a  D’aip 
nsn  IX  .ODixiisn  I’l  ]sa  oxn  Vosois  I’x  iix  ons’insa  aaxV  O’a  oxn  os 
isaipsa  rx  jsa  jix  .p’ns  nsasoVxnxa  x ,n”  nsp’V”n  s rx  Vnin  n nsaav 
.nns  nsnax  ]s  psii  nsnx  nspaxnp  s joVsn  is  nwpa  o’a  D’x  is 
Dsn  ]asii  iT”np  sis’n’on  ’n  px  Dinx  o’’a  snasasV  soaxosnsoa’x  ns”T  x 
X IX  ,isnsn  oaxnasa  axi  i”x  O’a  oxn  nsiisVsV  V'nin  n ’an  nsn  ’itx  ’ii 
naiisn-Vsa  s insii  Vxi  ,0”pis’n”  is  nasno  jsiisa  rx  oxii  .nsopxn  nso’ina 

.p”  ”a  ’an  s I’lx  nsosDis  ]ix 

nsoVs  ]’x  (1814)  n-'spn  oais  'i  inxiisa  nooa  rx  nsiisVsV  nn  n 
n iix  n’ana  n ,nisa  n :]’i  ”nn  oixVsansa’x  oxn  ns  .nx’  68  ]id 
n”  Dsn  O’a  jsiisa  inisa  oxnsa  71  oxn  nsiisVsV  Vnin  n .nina’ax 
.Dsn”x  O'n”  Dsn  inxiisa  rx  ,nisa  n pi  nsn  px  .xao’iss  jio  isinpn 
rx  ns  jsii  ]ix  .nipVnon  oVnin  n ^xa  is’o  "on’osa"  oxn  nisa  n 
oasVsa  o^n  ns  1x11  ,Vxnis’*px  p’p  inxosa  ns  rx  nx’  70  pxiisa  oVx 
sopasissa  jaxnpsa  oxn  ns  i?):  .jaxi  D’n’on  ’n  .aso  70  ’ii  nsa  o’a 
''xiioo'’an''  on’Dsa  oxn  n’ana  n ^’lx  .psV  pi  po  nx’  ps’  nxo  aso 
D”a  oa’Vxa  onsnaiixa  .d’x  is  inxosa  rx  0x11  dVis  ix  oxnsa  oxn  ]ix 
n pinsa  oxn  oVis  nsn  ]aVsii  , nina’ax  n jii  i”t  ]siisa  nsax  rx  dVis 
ni<a  inxDsa  rx  d’x ’s  iix  ,aaxV  ]nx’  xiioo'’an  on’osa  oxn  ns  .Vnina’ax 

.dVis  nsD’ina  x 

^xa  ]asasa  jsaxa  x oxn  ns  ]aVsii  jii  i<  oxnsa  oxn  V'nina’ag:  n 
oxn  rx  111  D'nin  n ran  piisa  ^’lx  rx  nsaVsii  .nin  n nsoxo  i”! 
laVsii  ]ix  ]’x  ]siisa  rx  oxn  .Vnina’ax  n ’an  nsn  isiisa 

•in”!  i’’i  ixa  ]asasa  jsaxa  x oxn  jsa 


45 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


.(1937)  t"xnn  IK’  ]’K  .“iK’  52  ]iD  nsoVs  ]’K  jnKnyj  noDi  t’x  Vnni’aN  n 

i»130dV»  isn  5n»i33»D ’m  jix  jn ’m  — “isnrp  6 otKVsnya’K  Dxn 

pK  n33V  ,»V»n»9  ;12?D3»0  ’T  pK  pHX’  SpS’  'T  ‘IDV)  »^»DX’ 

n .D’13Vd’’d  Vkv  ]’3t  nynxoDKD  oix  0Kn”mKD  t'n  soxyV  n .»Vya”D 

.vpi’Vayno  ]’k  paipsaaiK  »Vx  i^rn  .nnsuro  nsn  ]id  ypnya’x 


^^K:3Hoci^;’Do  ^'KnS’Hp  yty'jioy’i  'T 

-’n  .7  .k  ,"iyi:NT  .k  : ots^yn  i^C  ]v»t 

-nn  .n  .y  inn  ,;nyainx:  .o  ,ttD’nyny  .:  ,ny2 

.ny^’Dty  .2  jiK  nynKB^/y’jKp  .n  ,py:Knj  .ly  ,]yf3 


1’p  yry’ji^yn  yt^n^  n 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


46 


ruiDJUiN  I"! 

13*75711  “157357731p571Q1«  % pD  lU'?l?Dtt^57>  PK  ID'ta 


■p-HT  [DNpHig  quT'  nm 


,-)5?p’t3D''''i  lyi  rs  '7!<3a'’D  X ia'>‘?3*)XD  T’K  11K  ivnyi  t’x  lyxpx^^  'idt*  a^l^ 

.DiDai”  nynijDijDDiywo  pn  yu’Vy  3yty’j''‘?yT  iix  aywnai'? 
DpyQDyT  11X  ynx'Tn  cn.!  iT’nyio’nx  Dijn  didji”  aynii;DUOD3yi:?o  dijt 
DV?3ix  I’n  niji  njjDjjDDjyu^u  nnxc?  ’t  px  pyV  p’t  '>•’3  wxpms  *idi’  aan  is 

.Dyn  lynp  '?yi  oi:?n  wnp  '?y 

yp^tsD'i’A  OUT  oa’DayTyisyT  aij’  p''7ijys  I’s  ujjn  ir^xpKiD  noi’  aan 

■mp’riD  nyD:a”syiD’ix  ix  lyv.yi  .Ta’s  n'>‘7iy  .nxain  mia  d'7X  nijajjoDjywD 

.nna  px  pn  ,n'?’sn  "rya  aypn 

px  1872  iij’  px  y''s'>'7Xi  I’x  nUTiy^  in’iayj  fx  lyijpijns  'lor  ann 
n ’ll  nvn  .p-iai  px^ynijiyD  x op  ’■i'?’y  ix  d'?x  oau^yi  ay  oxn  arp  o^x 
ay  rx  lO’n  lO’in  p’t  is  ooxsyjis  -ynyi  uiz;’:  I’lu;  lyra  y’S'''?x^  I’k  ma’w 
Dxn  ay  m aixocax  I’x  na’w  ayoanxa  o'jyn  o'?xaya  aya  is  pxsyi 
PD  ayoDXD  n „aaiaa  op  oxnyi  njinn  ay  oxn  iixoddx  I’x  .napo  paipxa 
P’p  p’lsy^aya’x  in  ay  oxn  nnnn  aya  ax^  .Dxaayooax  ^xr  u^ay.a  a'a 

.as^in  ayppiyos^  X nx^yi  ]oaxa  px  iixaxoojyiz^o 
paxow  iixaxoDjys70  ]’x  nxain  naia  d‘?x  I’l  oxn  tt?xpxa3  aoi’  aan 
lyjypoQ  a’p  ,‘7'>p  pn  ps  .ii^’nyisx  paxos^  lynyj  I’x  ay  tix  oaxayi  oa’'?xa 
."noao,,  oaxii  oxa  ]axiiy:i  ojiyaayio’iax  oii;’a  oyaa  T’x  -nibxtt? 

.na’p  y'?yDX'’  'a  lyaxns  x op  laxuyi  lypax^^xa  t’x  i:7xpxas  aop  aan 
.n  .p  : i‘?XP'’3’x  ’a  113  o’pii^xa  ay  px  tt^popyopxaxa  ay”i  t’x  lyaxais  aya 
nop  aan  oxn  -poaya  an  oayj  lyaxi  aya  ."lain  aia’  at’p„  o’pxa  px 
aya  pD  'j’pajxos^xa  x lynyi  t’x  oxn  -y’S'''7X:i  po  oaxou^ya  oxn  wxpxas 
•axD  i'7'”saya  ]ya  oiy‘?D  aytx’  paxaD  ayr’p  pyn  px  I’lap  ayu?p''’aoDy 
Dxoipsx  Dva  ’p  oanpyopxaxa  lyaxi  aya  oxn  ayapya  ,ioxo  you  yiyr'ip 
yo’iai  axi  x ix  -opxs  x I’x  oy  .i27xpxa9  aop  aan  ps  loxo  you  p ”d 
ax3  lyxpxas  aoi’  ^an  lyaxJ  oya  owu  lyjyp  o’'>‘?Da:x‘?  ayuxaxoojywo  '?xs 
11X  apna  lo’iaa  oya  ,na'>p  y^yox’  'a  iiyn  iV^saya  is  aiys?  x ix  1D”ii 

.naio-'aya  ayopaa 

•laxpsy  yay^oy  layn  layiyiaya’X  axJ  X7  1^X7 
ayou  Pin  oxa  ty'nys;  yoyow  n I’x  lyAaxwaanx  axA  px  oy  ayii 


47 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


nynypunp  is  fin  oijxjsnns  ix  lynyj  fx  oxn  -oxi  vnX'uj'iJX  ist  11°  27 
va'jyT  DXT  -ivny"?  o'mv  ybyox’  't  po  pi’i  QSt  nyn  Diybs  -14  nyaii  oxi 
y'^yox’  'T  lyn  Domyj  Diy’jnxs  dX'I  lyo  -I'iiyty  ixoixs ’t  rx  lynyj  I’lx  t’x 
yo'?XP  ’T  I’x  .^y3^y‘1  rx  ixonxs  lynyi  ^y  f>x  p’liyoip  '7”n  .odx'^b'  nn’? 
I’x  ‘?”n  T'^ys  1?  I’N  lijoyijx  ly'  ix’i  iy  osyj  yp’Doxno 
1”'??  X lyixoyyi  I’K  v.~im  P’t  py^  .DS”nx2  diz;’i  .d^xp  iynyi  I’x  aiDiy 
.03X1  1°  P’P  lSinX3  IS  DWI  ’733  yj’lip  yp’l’TlJIT  X tl’O  bsnv'^  DDX.1 

uxn  ty  w 'ixoynx  nyo’Tu  xtx  lynyi  m’p  y'^yox’  '~\  ypxa  fx  ’s 
? m’7  ’7  iS”riX3  IS  '7D’3  X rx  30X2  DDXi  yo’n.i  X iyi’nx3  oiypyi  oiy’i  i’T 
rxin  377  112  n7’D3  7y7  1X1  rx  7X71-  X7ia  DXUir  7V7  lyiiyi  IXT  1’X  7y 

Dixti3y!y73y7  7y‘7y’S’3X  7y7  lynyi  t’n  7y  ,37  dxdi:^  lynyi  7y  t’x  w Dim  '7 
ys'iyii  ,iix3xuoiyi2;D  px  i03’7yi  yw’DXu'i'  ’7  ”3  7aiQX  7ym’7”  7y7  112 
X iysy:3x  7717  ip’7”'77y7  is  D’i’iy  y”7  ysixi  x ip’u;7y3’x  D’x  is  py'iD 
'iiy'iyiiX  yiy7”iy7X3  rx  7713  rx  r’7  lynyi  7x7  t’x  7y  .7yi3ui  yiy’i’'7y7 
7X7  DX7  f'lx  3X7  .DyDUl  yiy7”i:i7X3  112  lyaipyi  iyi”T  iiyuiyo  0x11  -13”7 
7’T  U7y'7p7y7  0x11  O’D  XU  .713137  yC’171  7X1  iyiiy731”7X  337X7X3  D’X 
7y7X  .33X1  ‘l0’3  X 13’l'77y7  Oiypyi  DC’I  7’T  0X7  U1XPN73  7D1’  377  TX  .3X7 

? 77’7  ’7  '?D’3  X 1S”7X3  IS 

IS  rx'i'iyT  3U7’3  Diy'73  77’p  y'7y3X’  '7  .7y7ji7X3  I’x  7y3t:iy  7y7 
iyi”I  3X7  .DP’Uiyl  D’X  IS  DX^  33’7yi  3X7  0X11  .D’77S  ’7  pS  7yi30l  1”3 
7S  i”x  0X11  .7y‘77yi”T  px  7y'7yD”p  nymi’o  pyii  D’i’iy  '7”D:D07yo  lynyi 
yiy7'?xi  X DO’ipyi  7yi”x  dx7  oy  'i’Da'”0  dis  .1l)”iis  Dy7  D7xiyi3x  3X7 
7X01”X  IX  I’X  oy  TX  .lT’1iyiO’17X  7’T  3X7  oy  lix  T”73  iVy’S’DX  Dy7  7X3  D”7 
7yo’ix  IX  .lyiyi  3X7  77’p  y'lyox’  '7  .'?X3yo  ix‘i37yii  'ip’oo;  o'7’iyi7yo’x 
oysx7s  i'7yi’Q’7p  X 13X7  7’ix  7X1  7yo5x‘ipyiix  7y7  lyp  oysx75  i'?’ii’s  Dy7 
Diy'73  7y3’7y7  .17”'?  iiD7y7  lyp  7133  7yu;’7”  7y7  px  70’3n  px  i”i  i37X7  px 
.I”7S  17X3  '?X3yn  yiX'7D7yi1  'ip’Diy  0x7  SX  OO’ip  7y  IX  .11X'2'yHJ3  1”‘7X  7y 
13X7  .I’X  7yi”Diy  7y7  ’11  .D’77S  ’7  .D'7XSX3  3X7  7yiX'?p1Ji;  7y7  0X11 
IDXn  11X  33”‘717X3  7’T  13X7  ”I  IX  .U0’7yj  DIS  7’SXS  X 13’7ir?yi7y311X 
17’'?iiX  IS  D3’7yi  0X7  iDy3  px  i7y7:x  DIS  7yi”X  miyu  dw  p’p  7ya  dei’i 

.BySX73  Dy7 

,is’ii  yp’D7xi7”ffi’7XD  7X3  yoyo  X lynyi  I’x  oxn  .‘?X3  xix  Dyi”x  pyn 
Dyiy7'7Xi  X po  iyixuiyx3  I’x  p’oix  7y7  .p’oix  IX  pyn  yoD’wyi  x lynyi  I’x 
,3i”S7y3’x  7’i  3X7  7y3’ip  7y7  ’11  Dy73xi  .y‘iyo’'?tti  X o’n  iy”77isix  7yi”T 
3”7i  7y  T’X  ."ybyD’s..  yix'?37yn  x 7X3  .p’oix  7yiy7'7xi  X 3o;’i  rx  0X7  ix 
no’oiy  i7”aiso’ix  ’733  .nx’  7X3  7D’3n  px  isyiisi”X  731301  7s  Dy7  lynyi 
"p’33X..  Dy7  33’ipyi3x  77’p  y'lyox’  '7  3X7  isiynpyoixP  y33yi>u;  px  D’a7 
.oyox'?!  P’S313  px  37y7117  ’’IIS  113  yOlO  7y0’171  7X1  D”S  7yiy’  IS  7y7  7X3 
.D'jyoiyyio’ix  7y  3X7  .i'?xsx3  is  yaio  y'ixox'iXP  xik  uxnyi  ooi’i  7y3x  3X-7  7y 
77’P  y'lyox’  '7  .13X11  yay'joy  n’lx  '7opyn  x .py'?  p’l  px  Vxa  I3iy7y  dis 
l'?’37y7  na  px  'jopyii  x p’aiyyiayoiix  oxn  ay  .pia  Diypyi  3e?’i  7y3x  3X7 
u‘?yi  117X3  IS  nxnyi  37’i’'?’3xa  rx  aj’tyinn  ysixi  3X7  .ni3’nn7  p’l 
3X7  71X11*77  yiy7’B;7XD  1717  I’X  OIIIX  pVyi  Dy7  .'lOpyil  0X7  l‘7XSX3  IS 

.nxnyi  3D’ipyiD’ix  rx  'lopyn  ox7  px  nxnyi  pxoixo  oVyi 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Lesucy 


48 


Dijn  .D’ny  ybx  m ,'i''’t5wnH;o  Du;’a'!uji  diji  iiy‘?D  oDnyi  iid  nyoan  n 
ci?'’T’'?nyT  ”i  inn  tsaypyj  Du;’a  lajjn  iis  ,ytDT>x’'?sajjp  n!j;i  lynyi  lyrn 
lyanyi  .c/xpxns  idt'  ann  inn  injjTiyA  oa’'''7ayiD''iK  VNtjjynija  lyr’i  inyn 
ny‘?N''3yi  x t’x  irxpxns  ann)  "Dyu^'.’jyi  coy’  ir^xpxns  I’axi-  : HXf  ’’t  py'?s 

.(2?Djya 

iwa  o‘?x  nnm’?  yoDyni  n iis  nxnyi  Daxioxa  t’x  ^?xpxns  ion  ann 
■yj  lya  o'jxn  1X^3  is  t33”n  .nnix  "jya  x lynyi  ny  nx  nya'jy:  nyn  is 
yp>n‘?nys  ,ypn:aynDi2703X  px  i'?'>s©”a  ynn  d’d  .DD''nx'?p'7XS  x 

.oynyorx  iix  t3”pnyD”n  iDinyio''inx  *iy  ox-n  nyonyn 

nya’x  layi  Diy'?s  px  npns  ‘?ya  nyonni  x lypyi  t’x  nn’p  y‘?yDX''  n 
’TXa^’V  PJjn  nyr’p  nyax  -Dy:y’  o^nxo  ny  tx  -oy  oxn  lo^nyi  .mma  yp’t 
laxn  DXP  /ny'?niy,nr’‘7p  lynyj  oxn  lyrn  '7”DDJDDnyo  .DVxsyapms  oip’j 
oox  iny>’t)iy  yny’i,ny:iaix  n iio  inxnyJ  Dpnnyi  layV  p’p  Daxoyi 
inxnyi  oyoapnxo  px  unyoiyys  Dy:!xa’‘?ia  yw"?’!©  inn  lyaxi?  yny”T  lypn 
,Di'7iPi  on  ,Dyn’p  oxn  ny  iix  nxii"?;:  x 1X3  lyxpxns  ann  nis  lyaip  i^yVo  n 
i3jy'7D  oy  tx  -]ix  oxnyi  ottnj  ‘jx^^^p  ny  oxn  o'jyj  lo  p’p  .ojx^otx  oipp 
uyii  oy  TX  -ma’ana  iixt  ly  03y'7D  -oyox"?!  p^soio  toya  iix  lyaip  nysyay 
pnxo  nx3  nn  I’x  “^yn  nyanyn  ,yaio  xtx  pypssx  nynui  is  pn  nn  ixn 
’’t  pyVo  ,ooiiiy5  op  pm;  oxn  toxn  onyinxo  nnan  n .oyox"?!  25  oo^yn  x 
1D1X  xtx  I’lX  tix  Donxnxa  ot’opxo  taxn  ■’n  5d’ii  yoVsxn  oxn  pnjyou;  pxt 

.op’D’pyi  I’T  pxn  ’’T  nya'7yii  px  yaio  n tyaipxa  ”t  iiy^o 


on’Bipx  PX!3  no’  O’sxi  ’n  .laxnayio’ix  fx  nonip  D'?yii  ye”iis  ’n 
nyoipny  ’n  px  lyp’t  I’tpxo  nnxo  nytP’sx:  nyn  iio  ]'?”d  ’n  .nxaxoojytpo 
yp’n'nnoa  ’n  I’lx  opipyi  otp’3  in”  yTy’i’'?yn  pyp  oynaynyti  lynyi  y”n 
po  lyAaioa’inxo  .ni‘?’Dn  ’na  iio  ly-pinyowys  ,oy’oynsyn  tix  tyjpi'jxonxD 
nya  o’o  .oyanx  nyp’'?”n  p’t  iio  ox  utxpxns  ion  ann  D”Dtt;  ,o;nip  ’5a 
nyiixaxoojyttto  lo’o  t??  ny  on’o  ,ninia  yo;’t’3  yr’t  nya’x  pm;  ,y’jnyjy 
losynp  yooya  ’n  on’t’^’axo  ny  .nnn  pit’n  nxo  5.i:xny3  x on’o  tix  oxi’axn 
nxoynpyo  tynyj  t’x  m ann  tixi  topni  tis  Pt  nyn  tx  -opxo  nyn  of’iixa  oxn 
nya’X  otz;’!  oo”n  wxpxns  lor  ann  .yoaxx^  36  tis  nxDu;  x ts’o  oxt’oxn  ps 
.t2;pyi  naip  ps  ty»y'?3xns  ’n  t’x  I’t  os’onxo  ny  .n5’5i  oai’  ty3ny5  oxn 
.02yx3  ’itx  px  D’lnj  ’1TX  T’X  p’52aix  oxn  tx  i5yoipnxo  oi!;’2  I’t  typ  ny 
00x5  nynyniz;  nyn  nyoiix  p’x  I’t  oayna  ny  tx  ,D’tr;in  yf’t  o’a  o5’d  ny 
.ayno’ix  oitz;  p’P  tyj’oyi  oip’t  typ  ny  ya5yii  nxo  i”s  tix  runs  ytr’n”  po 
0X11  inyotp  nya’in  p’t  inxiiyi  nyo”n  1x2  fx  nnxo  yo”ii  y5xonx’noxe  t”t 
opynxo  iu;o”2p  yo’o  o’o  t’x  npixa  tix  naan  on’02yTyneyn  I’t  o’a  oxn 
•Xoy22”x  tix  nya”5a  nya  1x2  t’X  oa’tya  o5n”xy20’ix  ,i”5a  p’t  .tnxiiy2 
’n  o’B  tyoxtis  02ynay2  iy5ny”D  ’ii  toxn  t^’ix  y’i5a  y2”T  .tnxiiy2  ny2y5 
P2xnp  T’X  tpxpxno  ann  .n2iBX  px  to’i52  to’o  p’n2p’nnoix  ,pnxn  tio  t^’oya 


49 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Ijr’i  oyn  I’S  .‘jjjD’siz;  iipn”  t>x  ojy’sxs  n inijnyj  t’k  iw  l^!J:nyl 

.WKpins'jnyai'jjj:!  '?^3y3a  ’nD  y3”K  :irxpsi£3  ain  ps  nycDyo  ”nx  lynyi 
tjjjn  ojjn  nnoK  — yt)”ns  n px  inyu’^xnaia  d'?x  oymxyi  imijT  ojjn  oijtn 
yiy’XKJ  ’T  iT’aiS'D’iK  isix  xts  n’ls  p'’i:a”i'?i  ,'7{<D’Siy  I’s  laVNnNao’ix  i’t 

.mD’nE^ 

’Sk:  lyT  /Dion”  nynjjajjmoiyiyD  iid  ayiaya-us’in  ayi  oijn  ,03KpK3  ’n 

yp’UDn  CO  yp3Xip  y'7K  lyaonNS  is  '?ysKa  n layjyjo’ns  .onsnjyjyT  nsn 

.iyijisn.siyj”x 

o’l  pj<  I’T  orsyi  Dijn  ,d’'?o’''o  Niy'^yri  ayDoyiwpiNap  ’t  ’h 

lyoipyAois  Vuo’siy  ]’K  ypAsap  y^y^3K  y'is  ’ii  wpsns  aan  t’n  nya’x 

'?^3y3A  nyoayo  ’’ns ’t  lyoipyjoix  i’ik  lyi”?  oy  .jns’aDtt’3”K  nyp’DD’i  x 

.nnox  iiK 

il’T  ”ns  nyii’p  cpy;  iis  lyAXoirsa  t’x  ^:7Npx^D  am  iis  y’Voxa  ’t 
miaT  ’ns  ’t  .run  px  '7m  -anox  .'jaiyiA  nyoayD  a’s  iix  Vxiow  ]ix  Vxv 

.1935  aijt’  rx  laijuu^yi  fx  lyxpxna 

'7X1’  pt  pyi  .lyxpxns  non  aan  :iy3”T  o’nsn-’sxi  ’i  lyoipyioix 

.5m  px  anox  .5i:y3A  .ayDayo  ”aT  px 
iz7XpKas'’pDiixanX3  '"'Jn  PX  u^xpxas  bxioif  :ia’5ayj  lyi’n  iay5  D”a 

.5xyaa:XQ  I’x  lyi’iii  ”t  px 

lyaipyAOix  t’X  oyn  irn’p  iix  own  lyn’p  .nnox  ayu^n”  iis  nato  id’ix 
Dion”  iTy’.A’5yT  aynxaxooiywD  pa  5”i  osnn  ayn  pxa’jxp  ’sxi  ’t  inn 
.nnswD  p’T  11Q  5”o  luoyaA  oyi  u’o  naaap  p’ls  aai  u^xpxis  non  am 


,D7iyn’3  lynNSKDOiytro  ps  ixpiKD  ^y”l  lyi 
■iyp7!<’‘i’j  ps  3yT  d’s  ,piin  i:><i  o’lDyjDPK 
Dyo’aKp>''i’7yT  lyiiKaKOoiywc 


y’yilK  px  ICD’Oiyi  .D’TIOPXI  ps  33p-lD>!D  lyi 
1943  ,nni9  .yiyaipyjms  .pxix’oysxns 


.’psKrp  ,Vkbo  ,ya)2t«3  .k  ,''3wc  .0*112  ,’3iKtPD  .an  »bKCD  nyuV’c  aya  apy’  ,pTi3yTKa  ’as  : p^uy^rs? 

.IKnop’ba  Kjn  ,DKnKr  .aya^ya  .i^aaKii  Vs^jp  ^iKnayayo  VKsa  ,Vy’p  lan  .wo’nKpnyb  ,a  : p’us’T 


51 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


r^i?  tunHQjn 

pyuVj;  ,y3yz2ipj;jais  Dtt^n  -^3”^  iid  piyr^x  rx 

T'N  4''?i?  CUTINUJTT  ,?i?’DlN  Dl)7  119  “linn  1H7 
■D97’n  lUllNDNDDlUQJQ  119  7U7]’1J  '1  119  7UJ”N 
■’T1179"11U  im  IDllDJ  I'N  lU  .'?NU7DJP  I’N  r'lN9 
■71)9’N  U’n  7D  UNH  D”':J  PlilNJ  '7  .1”7N9  119  UJU7 
IIN  lDJ]U]U7Dm]N  ,’n  ,D”S  l9i;JWi7Dll«  U”i?331)JDJ 
■D71N7  7DllN9NaDJl)U}Q  7U7  179107  lU^U'O  U?U’;j]Nr9 

.09N[Ulf!in 

17111791  D9”7UJ  7990  797  DNll  ,0i71i?lJJ  DUl’l 
■11J7N  IN  7i?’07N  DN7  07N70  7N7  ,1790711  9]”!  1J911 
'I’N  199709NU179T9J  119  PN  IIN  790i7N7N9  D9J”n 
I’N  ai'199U19J  N 7177D'1N  Dili  ODlp  D9  7’'11  ,09790 
DONrnj  ■'7  — D’gniui  77U  i9r’T  97N  7997911 
.01017”  7911N9,N0D19U1D  119  DlpOlN  119  lOl’lDOOlDJ 
,7900  797  IN  ,17911  01NDN9  Og7N7  7'0”li9”7J 
7NJ  N 77'07N  097  Q'O  07’9797  ,1”7|7  UJI7NUin 
."ION  ONI  1’9N  ON  799„  119  nUiO  N ,i711in  9D'17J 

.7N0i?N797  797 

."lynyi  uu;''!  loonji..  DinNiiNa  lui’SNi  iic  nij’  voNT’nj  ’i  i’n  pa  9’n 
px  lypiNiyi  ,m3i9na  vi”o  o’a  .'^Njnuiijn  I’x  .jnxixp  I’x  lynyi  pa  T’x 
■’sx:  ’7  pyp  DT’nayi  oxn  foxn  p’a  ."lyoyi  Jj’  luoxi,,  I’x  pa  naiy: 
.pyo'^y  yiy’o  yr’a  ps  '7711  iiyo  oayD’syi  uxn  nawi  p’a  iix  D’n’nuia 
.'7X719’  ‘7a  pD  '7711  oyi  pyii  px  yoixpxa  ,t3i”7s  ,7yDDyni9  ,7y7’7a 


n'll  791”7p  0797  1770  O'D  791”77  '9770  OUIO  9'7 

’3770  nwo  '7  ;pytj'7y  y:”0  lyi  naainaa  I’x  iy'7S  iypjX7yi  yi”o  i7i7 
.Di'7i9n  n’'7y  ,v^!:i97ya'7’t  d”.7  7y7  ps  ,np37  pyoio  p’o  px  n"y  7yj”'7p 
’7  ? 7yDi!:s  P’O  pyioxs  oii’o  p’x  I’lX  I’x  aijn  ’x  px  uiypyi  I’x  aijn  ’x 
yi9’B0’7yDpX7XD  7^1  t’3  X lynsi  I’N  7S  TK  /io”n  Biypyi  D’x  laijn  oijn 
.7yny'7  s 7”  ,7’on  7y73xopy'7X  ix  .7”  7yTy’i’'7y7  i:y7Bi9  x .B”p3y'73yT7ys 

lynyi  ay  t’x  p’B”xa”'7i  px  nan  7’o'7n  iix  aso  yav  x .ayiyp  ayo’iai  x 
yiayauo  iix  ByB’ty’i’'7y7  yiiyaoir  Ba’Biyryasya  I’t  b’o  Bijn  ay  .'I’anio  x 


C2ENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


52 


-•p’s  lyT  ta’a  tj’is'rmrT  p’T  iw  Dp>m'7t3''a  iis  lynyj  t’x  ny  .D”pDy^D'?yn 
.opysoyn  px  o’ni  isnyicnK  bX'I  yDayp^x^  yoaxjy'jy 

t33iy'?D  "js’ey^z;!  yiyiss"?*?  oxt  lix  D3Niy'?y  lyiiyi  pnayon;  fx  ny 

«l’ix  ,t3nlx^yJ  Bijn  ny  in  ,‘?n'’oiy  nynixDpy'?x  oyi  I’x  .^yr’l^sx^8  o’x  iis 
nyD3XJy'?y  lyT"  isnyi  Q’x  lya  cxn  ,tnn  D’poiyt’w  I’x  ,dxi  ^ynypx^? 
yiy’''?'>Diya  lya’syi  aaypyi  I’lx  lya  oxn  onao  a’a  pjyir?  yj’n  rx  ."n’on 

nyp’a 

ay  fx  -lom  nya”ay3'7X  iix  oya’Ty’3’'?yT  nys’D  -px^y'^y  T’t 
,y’'7’axD  T'Siyiya'?'’!  lyayyiyiix  “lyaiwn  nya  iis  oya^x  “lyn  laxiiys 
ijiayionxs  S lyaipxa  laxn  pyo'^y  yi”a  •r^iyya'j’t  npaa  c’a  axnyj  nnnn 
nx3Xt3D3y'yt3  “isD  pax'jon)  ipxa  ps  ya'i’s  asxj  ix3xp  .n  ayomi  nya  pa 

•inX’  ■'noa  oya  px  iyny.3  lyrn  ”1  px 

lDy‘?aaxir;'?yTyj  ]’x  iyax3  pii  ayn  x pax^pyr  I’t  axn  ayoxa  P’a 
pa  ia”pDy'73ynya  yp’oc”!  n lynyi  lyrn  w>is  yaiyxJ  y3'’T  .py^ 
,iyx  ntt;a  T3'’’?3kp  "jxiaiz;  p I’la  lyi  ny'^aya  iix  majT”  nynxaxaojyiya 
.ayVopyn  n^n  .yayaax  y’n  ys3xi  x px  *iya'?xn  mi?a  p .aTcxan?  pa  lit  ayn 
D’a  lyiyiyjxa  t>t  uax  ay”t  py'ja  p’oiztDPa  pyaw  apy’  px  p’au?i'?x3  "rxiaut 
"’mta„  aya  px  loPu^tx  1’t  "JXt  ly  tx  ,o'7Xiiy3  pxn  ’n  '7”ii  nyaxs  P’a 
yoD’‘?-pxa’a3xp  aya  anx  lami’a  "jxt  ay  tx  ,u'?xnyi  Ptjn  ’’t  px  liiiyiixa 
Biya  Dxn  ayaxa  p’a  .n‘?'np  ayu^’a”  aya  px  ixaoxa  d'?x  layii  is  a‘?”iiaya 

.aiaa  laxa  upixayj  px  i3x‘?axa  ay”t  capayapx 

Dxn  ay  px  D’Dioao  p”‘?iiXDnx  DD’'?xpyQD  ayonai  x lynyi  t’x  ay 
an  Dxn  ay  aya”x  .uxaw  aya  px  anaia  yaojyytyiax  ’t  tiaynyj 
,p”ai£?ayt)3ix  aaaxayi  I’t  D’aax  ya^a  pxn  aioao  x paxaaxa  one  lyauyj 
lyji’aai’-'ax  ntx  ay  aiy'7a  D”P’PTaaxw  p’;  o’a  .poa  nya  la’aonx  I'lyii  ”r  tx 
.poD  nya  pa  lanaix  pn  py'?a  nnax  ya^a  tx  .pp  oytyayiyi  aya  px 
aa’ayiJX  l^X^  oyxnxaxt  ’a  px  oypyaiy  n lyn  px’  ayp’o’na  ’a  px 
P”  i'?xaxa  ,33iayp'?yaxa  ayw’a”  aya  pyp  p’anxp  lu^’o’ayo’ojx  ix  ap 
■TXaP’?  ojjn  Dxn  -n"y  ayaxs  P’a  ax.a  ,ayaaxayi  px  aanayi  ,ps‘?t:?yi 
axa  ,n'?’np  aya  is  layii  ix  a'j’niaya  oyao’'?  tpix  lapp’a  a'jxnya  ap 
IS  D’a’on  pa  y’sxjy'?y't  » ap  la’aistx  a.apu;y33'''>x  '?xa  oxa  ay  axn 
t’K  ay  -lyiiya  oxa  t’x  ntx  .ayaopp-aypyaa  ptf'jna  n’P  lapynayai’x 
iy3”t  p px  ywaxn  P’P  laxayi  n’apn  pa  y’sxjy'?ya  x ap  a'?x:aya 
’xiix'?D  "jxayjyj  ayaopp-aypyaa  pybna  aya  laia  nxnyj  lyapyjanx 
*ya  'a  aaynyjo’ix  axtpayaanx  axn  ayaopp  aypyaa  aya  .’ponxpax'rpD 
n aoi’a  is  p’t  px  ispxa  ayn  ay  tx  -aay'jpaya  ”t  axn  ay  px  y'sxiS^ 
lyaipyjp’ais  rx  n"y  ayoxs  P’a  IS'n  '?’»ti'?D  yajyn  ycnixi  X’)  .IT” 
ay  px  vjyiiayai’x  aya  pa  aayao’pxa  paxao?  lyiiyi  ay  t’x  -yataxn  pa 
."Q’a’an  o’a’on  ywx’paxaaix.,  pyax^  layajix  y’sxi’ixiax  ix  laxatyj  oxn 
ay®’'?na  aya  px  laiayi  ^’t  oxn  oxn  ,”aaxa  X c^ppxa  oxa  t’x  lyiiyj 
-onax  i'?’ax  px  ,"ysD'7X9'tt  ma’wt  ^ppax^tya  x’xxt’jxjax-  tTxaaot 

.D’p  pa  I'jxii  ’a  IS  yao'''7*iaxa''a3XP  y3yi”x  ix  a'?yDtt7y3 
ya'x  a’pawaxa  axn  naast  a'?yii  ya’nis  ’a  lyn  .ayayaw  ax’  yaybay 
IS  lyopyi  n't  axn  at’sxj  aya  px  yaxa^x  pixi  aya’x  iyox'?s  yp'^nai 
oxa  d‘?x  i‘7P9  p’'?pyiD’ix  yairay  oxa  ”t  pxn  p’wyo  yntnxaaxa  yayp 


53 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


nxsnsT  t’N  OUT  -ipnoKs  d’id  px  iTyii('7-y’SXTDjyxauP  ’t  lis  tJTij 
ru  .Di''t3'’D5D’o:x  px  nxiu;  ,Dxn  is’o  o’s  lyipTiysoinx  lynyi  I’x  iV’is 
Tu  ,i3pyBun  n .iTyixa  px  lya’no  y'?x  Tyjnyx  lyp’t  nyn 

I'jyn  pu'?us  w 'PK  Jrp’iayDiyTXS  yiy'>T”-ir’'7ns  x n’DO’tpy  ]yp  oy 
nxs  P’nyiD’nx  I’t  bu<i  'Ci^yn  ytt;nynya'iy’sx:  n pQ  it”  n ix’ipxo 

.Tu'jDTyi'i  pnayoiy'^is 

,y’xxsipu  Tyw’xxi  TST  Tyojix  iis’jyyiryi ’t  tis  jub  lOB^ny  oyi  px  t’"?! 
Ip''i5i‘?3„  Dyjysnyi  ’itx  oyi  I’x  nvts’a  oyi  oV’STyT  i”*?!  it’  ]au<i 
Ta’Toyij’nx  it”  ypyT^x  "jux  aycni  x o’o  n"y  ayous  Pa  t’X  /'P’b^Uo 
inuiiJi  lo'jxnyi  btut  t’x  px  pixo  oy”:  oyi  ^I’lx  yoi’p  lyi  px  itu^W 
yiy’xxj  n ]is  nn’XT  n ddtxwtxs  I’t  Dijn  ny’  o’s  .I'nyu?  y:ijx^  txd 
P’inyiiu  1’T  PXn  D‘7U»yT  d”!  .1942  tis’d-dv  lyaipw  t’x  oy  T’a  ponxo 
y''xpx'0ip'7T'T0’'ix  TyT  px  .Dion”  TyTixaxoD3Si27t3  ps  ysxT’np’'?  y'^xeuw ’t 
P’P  iTunSJ  op’wyipynx  pyoPy  yj”a  lyr’t  1942  moio  lyianPin  ps 
tJDXiayiD'ix  o’sxi  yiynxanxa  ’i  inn  ’’t  lyj”?  idtut  Px  ypa’Vayno 
own  wn’p  b'}  mpoix  iu?’T”  iis  naio  is’ix  pmpyjaix  lyrn  ’’t  .iTxns' 

.Dyn  isn’p  lyi 

■>1  iiQ  o’^s  lyi  px  .lyiiyj  pa”?  ,'?x'>n’  px  apy’  -lyina  ’•’•ns  yr’a 
.0x1  yponp  "lya  h’ix  /'x’niVxoyo..  p’naxo  ayr  I’K  OT’Txyx?  lyirVi’To’ix 
Bp’iryjpynx  iotut  Pb  ”t  iix  y’spy'^yo  x lyoipyjnxs  t’x  paxT 
yip’  yiy”t  ni  ,ypi’VaynD  ayix'^'D’iD  ia‘?yT  oyi  ]’x  Dipaix  nis  pixiiyi 

•PXPyi  pyx'^yiops  P’a”x  ^’IX  lyp’r  oiay? 

nyTna  p’a  pin  pxpyi  layiynya’x  n’a  lyp’t  iDpxs  yp’ny’na  ’t 
I’x  yaVyp  ,i-iyapx“i  X'wnxa  iix  ’ponxixi?  X’JXo  :pyoDypy  ”ps  pix  ’ayn 
px  pain  po  may  yp’ayay*?  ’a  lypyi  iyj”T  0x11  -yaxix?  l”P  oaxaays  ax-a 

.y’lxa’D  ’sxi  aya  po  D”S  aya  I’x  Dipaix 

yiyaipyiaix  yp’a  po  piyaix  aya  p’l  a’a  axs  p’ajyotp  oyp  p’^”,a 
X ps  "jan  ia'?yt  oya  D‘?”Byi  laxn  oxp  ,aya’aa  yip’  ”ps  px  pyD'?y 
ay'jxix’xxi  px  ayty’i’'?ya  I’x  lyaipyiaix  t’x  0x11  -pVxs  aytapx  ]is  Po’aa 
-oy’Doya  ’sx:  ’a  p’T  Vma  toir’:  '?xaP’P  I’n  Sai  o”s  aya'?yT  aya  I’x  .niyiap 

.D’y-iap  yc^’a”  ]X’'?’a  opyt  oaxaayiaix  pxa  oxp 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


54 


riiJUTNi 


n-j?  npj?’ 

tju?’3  '?'»n  nsT  lyn  -ly’jnyosi’D  ”iyp’D3S3'’n  ^yD5;^^£?  nyn  t’K 

nyoiiji  njJT  tijj  Si?’'?”n  n ii'ix  yj^a  ^SD  lya^iynyT  .lyaii? 

n’8  yt  nun  11K  m'?n  iiyms  ny’sxj’yi'jun  ya'r’ByiiU  D’a  n rs 
.lya’Diy  yny^t  I’s  nyn  /oyau  ny”T  i’k  ^’s  nyaanyi  yp’aa’^?  yiy”: 
^’s  "ipynus  aB?’3  niw  ao'rui  n,,  iiy’^wyions  yp>n'?SKS  yaxy^  yny”t 
,Dn3p  ypnyay'?  ypn^T  n ‘?'”n  -laynuD  aw’a  nyau  ^ayy"?  pa  t’a  ’’t  '?yn 
n’a  ”a  n’a  lay"?  '’y”T  Py"?  -opy"?  yjya’awynya’u  p^a^ynD  n 

.■ixasn  rs 

a’a  .auawa^n  ay^yaipyiaw  r’a  iio  wnp  ]w  ]ik3  pan  x Dy3”x  pyn 
ai”n  I’X  'rm  ,asuiyaa'’ns  ypnu’Aix'?  u n^Pixs  1’a  t^un  ay  lyayn 

.la’nu? 

• * * 

Dun  ,"mn  ’p’tna,,  ps  ain  ]’x  lannyiiu  i’t  aun  asxiz/aan  aynaix 
nyn  m -oxVp  ayaopyt  ayi  px  -dsj  Xiiz^ayiyTaixa  ^nx  ly^isya  n’t  aun 
-onx  asu  ay”T  aijn  oijn  ,]Dya  x i”  U /'pny  ayau'?-.  aya  lynyi  t’x  aa'?a 
n pD  iy‘?aysayp  yaxniy  ’a  aya’x  -p’i:;a3xp  lonai  x a’a  oya  pn  Tiu'?yj 


. j ivy''?i?  2i?v' 


ayawi”  aya  ]ynyA  I’a  n’x  '?’'>n  -ajn^yyi  bca  x ay  axn  I’a  .ayaa’p  yvT' 
pax.a  oxa  a’a  ’’a  ,ayax  -axn  ay  .ax'jp  aya  px  ayaapj’axnu?  aya  px 
”ny  X lynyi  fx  aya'jyn  ,ay3'''''?p  '?p3X'’  a'0''''aw  ay  m pnayy:  aaya’yyi 
’a  aaay'jyj  a'rxaya  laxn  a’a  .ays’ai:;  x 1X3  lyaya  ]ix  a’a  pa  ayaVy  ax’ 
aax  -tP’ay’  lO  aya  -a’a  aa'jyn:  "jpax’  px  ]'a  la’a  B’aaj  xaaa  yaynip 

.nnna  yaync;  ’a  px  O’nx 

* * * 

a”i  ay3”'7p  "rpiX’  •a”x  aya’nyi  x axs  i’i  iy”jyx  pyn  yaytajix 
’a  a’a  apyawyux  Jii’  ayn  I’x  ."nain  ana-  na’®’  aya  I’x  aan  pX3 
ayayso?  ayax  I’t  isyaa  a’a  .lay"?  iiy’a”  I’x  a^xoya  itx'?a  yabyn  laa’n  y”3 
nxaxaojyiya  px  lay"?  iay'?asxu^'?yiyi  py’a”  ]’x  oy’X’txs  y:ya”tyaxB  Tix 


55 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


nyin’Diij  ix  t’x  ny  .nn  oD’DnsD  ]is  t>t  BiyD’nanKD  DSKwomD  nynaix  px 
nypnjytjir?  8 I’lx  ’ii  ,J3iiynx3  ojiv  ^yt2?''DO’mTa  ^yty''l’‘?y^  lyi  iid  nan 
/'jyn  nytjix,,  nyc^’oo’ivs  nyn  ps  nyoyansca  lyjyyTyu^ 

■^BDjyiPB  nyn  ps  nyoyanxB’a  x nyn  t>x  .pnya  nn  po  y’xpxnyn  nyn  nyojix 
,nyr'''?p  ^pjs’  nya’nu;  pjv  ps  nuixi  n Bnynjmxa  nyny’  .ijib”s  nyn^a 
n8’  16  D’v  T’X  ny  ]yn  ynynxp  yipnya’nip  p’t  la’inyji^  tJiJn  nya'?yii 

•lynyi  b'js 

yaxtr’ayi  px  iDynBiyaxtix'OJir  yjyT’B^nxs  n’lx  bd8  I’t  loyna  nra 
*BPi8  SBysu?  px  ayDVD’T  ’n  n^s  bb8  n'a  ixyt  lyipsn  n .lyjrs’T 
•psBiya  pD  Bp’T’'?yiD''ix  nyi  low ’t  •low  nyn^oiJBOjywB  n n’lx  inyw 
px  BD'BnxD  iyj”t  n’a  .Btr’a  ayaa  oy  ipnyaxa  n’a  nya^  n’t  ic'?!:;  iny’ic  n 
,Dfny‘?B’n  ps  J”bu?d’18  nyn  -yt^’aniBir  x t’x  b^x  n .Dyovo’T  ynynpx 
DSPji’sw  pyii  n’t  inysas  I’a  nya^  : last'?  nyn  I’x  Bijyn  Vtaa  nyp’Bi‘7a  nyi 
nxj  px  nyp’a’t'?!  nyn  p’njyBB?  Ba”'?a  ny  .o’aiaj  nma  a'aaan  ]ix  p’ay 
IB'jxst:?  ’1  n’lx  B'78ayn  Ba”ntt;  nyaVyti  BO’a’oys  nypn^Btz?  x pa  I’x  ,‘?xntt?’ 
*l’ix  Bsnxn  0811  /'iJxnyBaix  its  ib8b^  px„  i]ib”s  nyn808B03yu;B  nyn  ps 
"'781'iya  P’t  ■I8S  lynya  xipa  p’n:yB2?  nya8  D’x  a8n  I’x  .na’x  i8  18  ivay‘?8 

.pnaa  p’B 

•lyiixiys  nyn’tt  n’t  iiyn  ynytipx  iyt”t  n8’'>"ian'7a  yayVpyniit  n i’k 
px  ‘?nii'op'?8S  iw’ixiB  iB’8  Bnya’sys  n’s  08tt  .nt’a’cys  id’b  p’a  P8^B 
-i8P  ’T  B’a  n’l  P’tiyiyayn  Bttt’t  oy’s’t8s  yBoay’jnysyi  ’i  n’tx  tynyi 
px  ny3”'7p  'jpjx’  iD8iByi  in8’'’5i8nyi  yw’  px  a8n  n’K  -isiytipyo 
t8  'lytyi  a8n  n'’8  .layB’n’Bpx  yay‘?BD8u?'?ytyj  ix  pytixa  d’x  annsyi 
D’x  B8n  ya'jyii  ,i2i'?s”mn8s  nyjyn’i'?nxD  x its  Bii^nynxa  isax^i’x  t’x  ny 

.B”nD8a  Bttt’j  nya  n’t  B8n  ny  nyaVyn  ps  px  Butnynxa 

’mi  "ja  pp’ixnB  I’x  lynyi  t’x  lytyj  o’x  a8n  n’x  0811  '?8a  yBsyV  D8n 
1”B?  P’t  I’x  Bpipyjr’x  n’B  n’t  a8n  n’x  •2at'?n’tD’ix  nyn  n8o  -1942  .Baxi”a 
p’njyBtt?  yr’t  .I’C’npr’x  I’a  px  p’a”X  n’lx  i'?yn  ay  b'?8'ii  n’8  ’it  -BS’tyj  Vyn 
yi”t  ,B0238  b’ib  B’a  B'?’Dy238  isityi'  '?8aD8T  iyi”t  p’tx  yp’niy'?a”aiy 
."inP^n8s  iy:”t  n’a  -n’t^n8o  iy”t  n’a„  : Bytyasyatyi  n’a  is  ia8n  is’P 

* * • 

’n  ^8a8B8i  ^VBtr  n’K  •nil’'''  SP’Bi'ia  B’a  B‘?’Dyi38  I’s  fi8n  P’a 
’it8  D’PXi  yjii’  ’T  ]yi”t  08m8S  8 i D8in8s  : yixno  yBnyBBi8n8oaix 
lyaipyiaix  n’i8  iy3”t  lamn  lyaxt’inj  oyn  px  ’n8iiSJ  Baxnayjaix  Dxt’ni 
nyn  ps  ,nyi”'7p  npan  nyBia  p’t  ,n''y  nyr’V  ’ana  nttta  'n  :nyB'7y  yj”t 

.n"y  "jx’n’  -nymna  nynyji”  p’t  px  n"y  pxwnya'j’t  a”n 
inyn  l'?8i  iB‘?8t2tn8s  t8  .Ba8i  nynyasi’B  nyn  I’X  n'?‘?p  yB’iB  8 nnxn  n’i< 

.BiVa  t2?’i”  p’n'?itt;aix  iD8n8s  P8n  08n  -nynnya  ytrB”n  ’t 
’T  n8B  ,ny38a  8 px  nypyn  x ’ii  iy:’n  bbixt  Dipaix  D'-iyi”'7p  apyi 
’T  0811  -lanin  lo’ni  oyn  p8  pynxo  is  Bct’i  -Baypyi  D’x  ia8n  d8ii  .y'?8 

.Baxtnixnxs  P8'i  Pinnya  yE>B”i 


•piynax  P’l  ^13^ 


]^d  lt2DnN3  yen;  ^ 

,:5-iy2!<nyn  : ’u  ]iynn 

Kpiytayn^  ]1K 


M.  Asz 

VM  .0 


J.  Pesachson 
l^rnoa 


PB  .7  j np  ]TD  ttyis'DKp-pyts^y  “ip 
,u’t2m«pny3  .?  ,]tto?yD’n  ntyn  : Dp:o  iy  Dti3y"i  ]ib  p’t 

yiyi:(<  pK  onnSy 


piK?:  1C7K  TiD  b'»'‘D  K uyra  .p^Kr:  ny’i  lyi  nyosyb  lyi  /nyaytp  apy» 

PD  bnp.TB^K"» 
TiKaK::03yrt! 


• » 


67 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  JLegacy 


ODSr'’! 

■j’ni  IIS  nyn'r’a ’t  pjxap  ns  na  r’a  PS  n’ls  lyam®  "jsy:  s iis  ’n 

.DpaiK  iw 

.lSi3i3D{jn  yuasayxsjj:  iis  n'j’a  s I’s  yi  ojj; 
*ons  aya  ns  lijo  lyom  nyi  ,1942  ,25  nyaayusyo  ,?''Biz7ayiuT  I’s  oy 
■ay  ’T  ,pa8a  it)‘?s  ns  Tf”  ’a  o’ls  dix  m’syi  lya  oijn  aija  oya  i’k  .i3i‘7a'>t 
•ayVoyi  yaji’’?  layjaya  •'t  iis  iis  s:aywnsa  ,ypoassnsi  no  yoiy 
la”,,  iiy’ns^yaD’W  py’is  Diyay"?}?  is  iiijauaya  an  laijn  d”S  iijo’a 
ys'7yn  ,ioki  ’a  no  n”  ’a  oms:  is’i'?  oy  ."oj  s lyii^yi  t’s  oy  n”„  ,"3ib  "jia 
'na  ns  ayp’.a  ’a  ]is  oms  lyav  ■'’t  .B'7T'tyiD’is  nunyi  aija  iya”t 
ayoa’tyi  ya'''>‘?a  uno  o’a  •la'isnyis’is  BoiiS'B’io  I’s  i’t  laijn  ”1  m .oayp 
yjy'junwyi  -uay:  yTij;5s{<'7ii7  iis  layato  iis  ,yt)’n  D’a  .ayinn  ns  pyau?  no 
yVs  no  .ay‘?oyj  yjay  n i’k  i’t  lyPasr  ]is  aijn  ynayanwys  aPm  ,pns 
lya  ns  aynpyn  ’a  ans  a’’  b'jss  lya  ,"aiD  Pia,,  a’t  ni^oi’ii  oija  lya  oayn 
IT’iisa  Bijn  ayoipaya’iN  aya  oijn  ,oa  aya  lya  nyt  Bij  .a^ns  iis  a’l  o®ip 

.BU'a  ayBsyP  aya  I’x 

ysiai  ayayoyai  s ass  "di„  aya  ’nyi  Bp^saya  ayr’s  ’n  lya  Bayn  bij 
P’ais  la”  iy>’i  oy  ,"ia!jiiyi  BpyBU^yjsif:  t’s  ysps  ’a„  .n”  yaiy^Bwaias 
,D’is  ByT  oy  aayn  Bp’iyyipynx  BPijiyi  las.a  ”1  yaPyn  I’x  lyiijisn  ’a  iis 
ITS  y’sps  ’a  iPyBirissij  Pysxa  s lyaipyj  I’s  oy  tx  ,ia”  yayaix  la’Bjyaijp 
Btt?’Byjn’as  a’l  oijn  Bpyn  ’a  aiji  ©ayajx  bi£;’j  tx  ,'ia’B:ya!j;?  yayaax  a*J3 

iuiBonaxs  ’a  iPyBii^issu  D’nxia  ’xsi  ’a  iyijr,isyi  ns 
ayarp  ns  ayiya  ,iy’iao  lyaipiij  aPsa  lya  Byi  B^payPpam  aya  ns 
iPxs  IIS  ijiayB’ipaya  ayospiai  iis  ayaP’a  ayam  .Dys”Ps  ’a  ans  pys  d’b 
’a  I’x  n’^nnx  lass  is  ,iP’''xaya  ”1  .a”as  no  lyrni  ]is  aytaPyn  ’a  a’is  an 
.ijByj  ns  n’ip’T's  iPijT  ”1  TX  ,Pysxa  aya  lympyiiu  I'x  lyjijjsn 
ns  iiaaonx  ,inPs’msax3  ayBOS’B  aya  no  ,iaPni  aya  no  iB’a  ns 
,yBXB„  nyBijs  n’T  ”a  a’l  oya  iix  in  s ayo’S  lyasTr’x  is  ns  B’^du?  /a^as 
."H”  yPs  b’b  lyasns  ly’ns  ans  a’T  lya  Pjjt  ,dsi  aya  anx  sijas  anx  nip 
paia  onax  Bp’Pa  ns  av'^isnsaais  b”bii;  ayBijs  ayaias  ,ayBpx  aya 
yiyaijnyj  aPm  n’O  ns  ia”P  no  ,nsii27  no  ayaP’a  ’a  Byi  lya  m ,ayBDays 
no  B’s  a’T  1D’>  nvo  ns  -OXJ  aya  a’ls  lyPav  yaPyn  ,iByPypo  ,iiyB3ya 

.pns  ’a 

ns  iiyaynsa  Biy:  a’T  IVP  isb^s  aya  ra  in  no  loya  oija  pxP  Bayna  oy 
iBoyi  ,nynp  losa  ns  aP’a  yastnai  oija  bipp  iBoyr  !03«a  ai’p,,  :BaysD:y 
nw  lyrn  la”  lyiu’p’a  lyn  iy«as  a’T  to  lyayp  m ’aijs  Baip  ija  oijn  bwp 
no  laijinyj  Bp^a^Pyions  in®  lyj’n  ByBii?  yPx  Byaa  lyn  .laifrnyJ  Byaapass 
T’s  oy  ’layp  nifp  lans  Byn  lya  0!<:n  ,Dya  B’a  ijrns  a’T  a’a  lyjyp  ni  ?n” 
aya  iP”b  ina  a’a  ,iayp  injp  lajix  Byn  lya  is  ,a”as  yxjsi  n ippxs  a«a 

."la”  yPs  no  Pap  laPyt 

^ayo’c;  X Baynaya  a’T  oxn  ayi’sapis  yp''a3y'>''B®  asiT  aya  ans  ’a  no 
.yiysxaByi  iPnp  ’a  no  ly’nipyi  no’oa  yBsyP  ’a  oyaaxa  t’^i  ns  lop’a  no 
.oaypjia  ns  iit^’ayBpynxa  yairn  ns  p’ais  n”  ’a  lyj’n  np.aa  ns  pyaa?  ns 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legaay 


58 


s ps  iiiis^n  sD’jNiac^yiD’iK  yoxy'?  ’t  n^iwaxs  fK  oy 
n ps  IT’  n ip’wpmx  D^in  ts  -njjnyi  iij:'??  ]yoy'?x  ixs  iipayT  t’x  oy 
■■’S  lynyi  t’k  jijb  oyn  ps  "oiyia’cajjii?,,  ayn  '7'>’n  -nxsnyT  lynyi  t’k  ly^uisn 

.aVisnya 


* * • 

*i’a  ixs  ar'’«;ay  u^’aayooi’s  ayoDnyj  nyi  ps 
Diyayn  ,'jy:jjixn  yas{|;DB;yjJij;  it’  D’a  yDa’mtjsjjaij'ra  n iis  oyr’X  t’k 
dVsn  ay  .ayaijs  ayc‘?x  aya  c’cu?  ,ypa’‘?ayaB  I’x  layaxp  txi  n is  t’k  ayn 
‘r’li  .oynasa  c’aiy  ay  .yosa  iu?aaya  aya  ps  apnayis’iiis  t’x  ay  .D’lp  n’t 
p’la’nx  lass  ps'?*t3?3’N  px  isocix  lyaamsya  D’x  nr?a«a  ’a  psn  ^ivac?  n 
oaya  ay  .pas‘?a  px  paa  -asxtt^aay  ps  n'?xn  px  O’X  affair?  oy  .isixn  px 
.□■jiy  ‘?iy  liiaa  ms  n'?''sn  x lyii^asyiz?  issy"?  ya”T  px  nina  yosy"?  ya’n  n’liis 
ayaa’p  ya”!  ps  layb  osa  ,y’>‘7’axs  pa  ps  lay'?  o^a  payu?  vvifs  '?ifi  ay  tx 
.oa”wys  '?xDiaa  px  iy‘?ayaaya  aix  -osn  asa  P’x  ds>i  iva  ya^yn  ps 
px  lyns  ,ayaya  iis  u?axa*a’ia  payiaxa  urnxaa  aya  aya”ii  I’x  yi  ajj 
•aya  ’sxa  ’a  aaia  lanoya  layn  iix  layaxp  txa  ’a  I’x  pna^ax  laxs  ayaap 

.oyp’nxa  yir^nya 

oya  I’lx  ioy'?ypD  — pi^uaya  yaaa’i^axa  yaypxa  n pz^’iis  "px  yt  as: 

■aya  ’a  naia  lyaamsya  aayn  ay  px  ay  say  i?  pa  ps  can  ai‘?a  .ayass  io‘?x 
•sy"?  ’a  px  .p’Tia  yaa'?’Stt^  ’’aaya  ’a  iis  apxa  ms  o’s  ’a  o’a  layiixa  is  aya 
.asi  IX  aysya  x is’'?  ya”T  lyu^asyi:;  ,a'7yii  aya  a’a  in  ia”i!;  ps  laia’a  ya 

.ayaav  ya”!  ps  py'?  pxs  ayaya  xx 
^ ^ ^ 

,aya'?''a  aoaysir^ya  iix  V’laa  ’a  I’l  ps  p^amspyux  ix  I’a  aayaou?  I’X 
.oaasu?  y”a  a’a  axs  lya^iyay  ly’aayaoa’s  ayoo’aya  dsx^  "lyi  ps 
ly’axa  px  ayaap  ly^ow  oy  ..aai’aaao'ix  ix  axs  iis  a'a’s  x T'X  yt  os 
"aypaP”  px  p’a  “as’  'S  -ayoia  ypaxap  px  ya'as  la^sayap  is  I’l 
ayaa’p  ’a  ’ii  I’x  yt  os  px  ts'^s  iy”as  s u'ayisyao’ix  a’x  ass  psn  ’’i  m 
oa’sya  oy  iii  ,aay  aya  ayoaix  ayVyp  psa  ,iayooa’s  ms  ayoio  n io”‘?aS3 
ya’x  o’lx  opyaow ’t  ’ii  ,a’x  op  i’t  lyayayrya  osa  yt  I’x  .aypaia  aya  "pt 
ps  iD’'?s  ’paya  ,ayaaiTsa  aa’p  oyay’  oiyip  px  oay.a  ypasap  yoasayAO’ix 
ppx  yaasastawo’ias  pyaiy  ps  yoasyys  o^aa  ya’x  yr  T'X  .pyao  p’lx  ya’x 

."aya’X  I’o  a’x  ots'?  ’h  ayaa’p-  :oayasya  lo^sn  ”i  ’n 

•pnao’ix  isasiy  yay'awoayo  p’p  px  — yop’oiyaya  i’t  ,px  a’X  yr  n’x 
.aypaia  oais  iP’iaa  yp’aayo’ai  ’a  px  i^ix  a’x  yi  I’x  .aaiPs”iisaxs — yass 
T'X  .osi'?  px  ‘?aas»  aya  t'ix  px  ayoxii  px  "jaaso  aya  .loy  px  ^aaxo  aya 
.yosyiyao’ias  ya’x  .ayoio  ypaxap  ’a  ps  iway'jaaxa  .aopa  yaas"?  n yr 
'aya  ayosy"?  a’x  .oayn  yaasia  isa  yopyaox^yamix  ya’x  .la’ix  yaayaso 
.o’lo  lass  lyi  I'ayii  ps  ’nwya  ayoio  ayoaynaya  ou;''a  oya’p  ps  ayop’oa? 

.ayaa’p  ya’x  .bsoa^x  lyosa 

-yaoix  IS  px  mix  p’lx  ayoio  ’a  lopxii  w’aayooa’s  ayoa’aya  aya  px 
yoasayao’ix  ypasap  ya’x  a’o  is  I’l  lys  oy  px  oass  ayoayoyaaass  ay’in 

.oayn 

* « « 

loVsii  oy  ’11  woo  I’o  o’aa  oy  .aysayp  p’O  oo’asa  o”iiw  ayoVs?  s 


59 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


f’a  ps  sijnN  n’".?  i’k  p’o  ly-oj-s 

yw’iD  "^D’a  s iyayD!<isr’>»  'laa  nyuojyD  oxi  n’ls  isy  iih  ua’'?  ’i  ]}<:  ij’s 
n!<3  n 11D  JiisyTDiijs  k dijt  t’x  ’i’k  oi'^n  kt  tjaip  oijii  -lyaij  .ddi'? 
n’K  i]”:  .lyax  .ij’ik  yr’a  d’in  w’n  I’K  ?ayi‘’’a  Doaysiyyj  yjyyiyj  oijn 
,iann  ]ib  jyo  y:y’  iis  jas'jpsij:  rp  f’s  os’n  lyn  p’s  oijn  ,oi<t  .pNn  pa 
iya”T  iDXJ  lyayara  n ps  aya’S  p’a  is  I’t  DJijaaaya  0!<n  .uNryj  oijn  a!<j 
ps  Biba  ni’  0X1  iyn„  ,,i’'?  '7oyn  doiX'I-  iid  lyjyo  yojxpsa  pny’iio  ’i 
■ixa  pD  iDxa  lyjyaj’B  ’i  t'ix  lyi’ii  orvi  oy  ^’x  lyn  ox  ."osnsir  lyoya 
oaip  oy  .10X1  lyjyara  ’i  q’lx  ”t  ii’wixa  lyoji’iD  .lynyo  lyipp  yiji’ty 
I’X  ox  IIS  -lyt)  "DipwxD..  ’i  ”T  ’’a  or’n  ]yr’i  oy  tx  .pjxiyj  is’ix  i”‘?j 
lo’a  pB  .J3nyp‘?yBX3  ysJXJ  ’i  '?'”03X  oayj  oy  la'^yn  px  jis  Da:’iPXD  lyi 
i'?X3  IIS  1’“?  '?oyn  ooiX'T  ojjt  IVirt  is  la’inyi^x  ivo  cixn  Jis  aiu  or  oyi 
I’w  lya  Diyn  ox  Ps  yiiy^Diyanx  lyujt’io  ’i  po  hxVbx  lyi  lyaipyi  rx 
•ya  lyjjx'?  lis  oax:..  pb  i’'?  oxi  JjnyDD”jxa  u’a  oipt  yoxa  yxjxi  ’i  ’ii 

."lyo 

■as’j’in  ’1  ix^  I’S  lyn  jjx'?  ivax  .lyocjyB  oxi  pms  pxaixs  I’s 

."DS’istti  lyoya  iib  oi'ia  iiv  oxi  lyn-  nyjyu  yp’i 


px  DD’iyj  pxg  gxp  Di)]yixPUJ9xix  ix  D'n  D”Duj  idPdui?  nsn  'sxj  idi 
lyDPuii  .NRQjDUPix  innx  nnu  lui  d”duj  ,DDaui  ,d’x  pu]  .iixdxddjuuju 
•lujjun  Tin  D'tD  Dis  u?”uiix'ix9  nu?DUi7  nmiyn-px]  dpt  uxn  dd'iuj  dnt 

^ T 

.IIXDXODIPUIU  px  pxnuj  tPPPJD’IX  PX  7'’ipnx  ipi 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legate 


60 

bKvnujKW  .n 


hv^'\  IDVAnKiD 
bvvvvj  yi  yi< 

Vuvuu;  |’'o  ^yo  NUiy'j 
.pJy^ya  yn  oxn 
D”n  ny»  Kuiyo 
.pjy3  T’N  yoVyn  ikj 

mjnDT  I'N  UD’UIKD 

,]”u;  '1TN  Vkwk  ]>yn 

yDKO'yuKU  D'o  I’D'D  |yn 

.|yny>  Vuyou;  |■'’o  ]’K 

]p3Knyj  yv’o  id’iV  'itk 
,OTlK  I|7'’'7KOK  oyi 
i3y  Dis  uDKtyp}y3  u’o 
DiuyniK  .UD’O  y7y’ 

yoKo  p'o  I’K  yi  UN 
.u'7Nuu;yj  p’UD’V  I’N  U'n 
V3”nu>  n’K  u'o  ukh  okii 
.u'7K7uiyN3  pN'''7ynrp  yvo 

U>’U  D”D  .'yUNU  ]'”0  pN 

.UDN7UTKD  IDD  N I'K 

lyoyjDnx  udk  ujyVo  dnh' 
.uDxVyj  uDKiya’V  u’w  ]in 

nnw:  i”n  rx  up’o^nyy  'itx 

.*7x»x  Dvr'iy  oyT  1X3 
yon  moiVn  u'd 
.Vxniy  pVxD  oyn  nxD 

jyu  ynyu’iV  j’x 
.ujypyj  D”n  p’o  in  yx  3xn 
.pjixniyiXD  DiVn  x ’n 
.ujyn  ytt^’yxj  yp''ui'7a  pn 

Vuyuvy  p'’u  nyax  n’O  ”3 
.lynyj  ’n  id’V^vj  uud 
jpjyiva  '?Hn  v'7H  |yn  I’x 

11X  pnjypa 

pTxn  i”o  px  T'o  px 

.5^D'7X  ]pX3yj)”X  ’T  UI’3 

joynxD '^xD3’'’p  yn  Vyn  ^’x 
.nyniu;  fx  jpavnyj  7X) 


61 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


ij’ii”'?  .n 

pmiynND  pxa 

p”  VD’mj  pD  puiVniKH  11D  lopKS  VD’Vr’D  n 
pvisV  y’XK^tJys3K,?  yu?’XKi  n ]’k 

px  psn  Dxn  ,]nx’'nvVD'>n  n ]’x  ]V’nj  n po  oyp’jxna 't  px 
n»3sVp»nw'x  piT  osx  ,d3bx»V  opmsi  V’d  ’iti;?  yo^no  nsTn3ix 

n I’x  ]«'?x  in”  yp’3”X  pD  a3n’DD’ix  viynvoymxD  n ! t’x  dxt  iix  .ons 
1’ix  n3ix  nxD  oV’xnyn  oxn  ovn  ]iyn  .pyixV'p’iD  n px  px  dkdvi 
innx  po  p’3xn3  nyn  px  i^x  ,DDXT3yTxn  .piVya'isiiyn  po  n’Viy  ivn 
"Txa  *ixD  X 'iyDy'?3’'>o  ^v^  dx  onyn  ."ixo”  px  opimyi  .’ponyntj 

.pxnDtt7ynyo3ix 

.*]yVn3yDwnxD  n’a  oy  I’x  ,“iyD3nx  oy  iD’nou;  ’ponynD  px  DDXT3yTxn  tx 
ynyn3ix  ny^’niy  yp'>3”x  pix  pn  .to  oy  onyn  .nynx  iy’7n3yuu>nKD  0’3 

.oy  jyiD  ’n  po 

:onxn  pnya  pVx  iy3yt  ”t  *i’nyn  Doyn  x pxn  •’po'iyno  px  ODXT3yix'' 
nyn  I’lx  px  pip  lyn  .p’ODn  03D'”xx3  P’'7!<  pJJ'i  ”i 

iy3XOtyyj  Vxa  i”X  d'’3  pVx  jynyj  p’Vx  pjyt  ”t  .nny 

yVx  “1K3  o’3  DDxayi^'m  i^Vx  pxn  ’n  .jivix'ixi  ps  '7V^w  nyn  “i^x 
yVx  px  m3i’D3  yVx  .ny’3nyDxa  yiy’D’oo  yVx  I’lx  1X3  .D”i3y  yu?’i’D 

IDl  Vd  PX3  oVdXX  1113  ]”T  jOT  Vd  ,pn  ODXO  l^lp  l<  DX11  .Hy’3iyD3X'7D 

.Hyx'7y3D'>ix  o’l  1X3  rx  33i3yDxn  yoyyV  n 
Dyn  px  paipD’ix  D3ypy3 1X3  pxn'o  ]y33i3yDxn  x ixd  dxii  •>'>ii  jix  ix 
iy33i3yDxn  n ix  ’n  nya  1X3  .pnx  pi’ix‘X3 1’x  cn  oxn  .Dyi^x  jio  pxn 
1’t  ]3xn  piDX3  yiyanxmxD  nynx  yaxnii^  yaVyii  px  ,niyw>  n ix  px 

.pxD3x  inyaxV'D’io ’t  jix  Dxoya  n px  t33ypy3 
DX11  ,io”n3”ny3  n pyii  33i’?D”nDD’ix  nyn3iix3  x o’o  iy3y”V  'I’o 
nVii  ,py3x'7  n I’x  px  oxDya  ’n  px  iy33X3X3  iy3yi  ]”Vx  p”  yo’iiya 
,D''3''Vn*''xx3  n IX  D’snuy  ]nyii  jbiyii  ”i  jyii  ix  .y’lp’xnyn  jid  oDxonxs 

.ninsiya  yny’n  px  I’t  cno  po  piiyoxn  csyn  inn  ”1  iVyn 
n3ix  o”t3®  oy  .tnyn’nyyao’ix  pyii  I’a  px  oyn  pyii  piy^V  I’a 
VxT  Diyn  lyn’p  pn”  iid  nV’a  oxn  ix  .]Vyii  *in  uVxii  niix  ,ix  O’l 
IX  ir'niD’nx  p *7xi  ix  pn  oV’ii  mix  .opyVsxa  ci  ,pxi  l^^Va 
P’P  ,0”p3''aia3”’7p  nyVxix’xxi  ps  i*7'’dx  Vxd  l”x  i”p  pnya  ci  t’X'o 
.DxnxD  ayiy^x  iid  — 1X3  onyn  nyii  .nwns  “iyVx3X'xx3  po  Vxd  p’x 
,nyn3'>x'pi'>ix  po  .■iyp’3’'>D  jid  ,D’3''Vn  ]id  yVxn  n pn  I’lx  iyay3  po 
,a3ypy3  pxn  ]n”  ix  ,p3xny3  ayn  pxVix  d'>3  nx3  jyp  nynyn3ix  nia  nyn 
.pynVxiiyn  iix  o’a  yaiaxiixa  px  ]nn3ia->xx3  px  yayn^^pya 

n px  ”1  la’no  jix  O’lnx  ny’3yoVynxa  ”1  iid  nynna  y3y3”x  layV® 
ma  nyn  .Dnyp3yn">xx3  ’n  dxii  y3y3”x  oxn  ”t  D’a  lyio  .pnx  py”D 
.pi  IX  p>3xny3  nyn  ix  oa  oixV  ,pxn  oxn  nx3  d’3  pynyniix 
n n’a  pia  ,ix  oy  oixV  nia  nyn  0’3  px  pxn  oxn  0'3  oxn  nxonyn  px 
px  pnDD’3ynx3  .P’*7X  nny-mianj?  n iid  DDXiDSiD’nx'inyii  oxn  lapxD 
pnoonynxD  .113*3X0  iyVx3X’XX3  pn'na’x  nyniix  pD  Vpi’ii  pyn3iTX3  x 
px  ino®  ip’oiyp  X D’o  oy  paxxanx  .’^pJ’ii  I’x  oy  pxVnyn’x  px 
liyaiyaxiix  o’l  own  pa^  .i*7xnyDxa*DD’in  ynynix  y'^x  pD  oy  paxxDx 
own  paV  ,Dirn  lynp  px  ODxunyn’onxo  nyiyn”  pD  nVa  p3X3  p’a  oy 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


62 


IST  ]1D  nSDTU  K ’n  ,]'”’7S  I’T  IX  S7’0DnKD  injll  O’J 

]OpK  sp’3”x  'T  a’Vix  jVxT  I’o  tx .iVsn  oVxn  o'rsn 

sam”  SS3X1  n isynu^nxD  B”ptt;nxD»nxD  iix  D’'>p3’7XD»a  nsipn”  pD 

5X3X1  n ]ix  Din’  pp’n”  ]X3X3  dxt  ]Dxa  o’7»i3”'?p  IX  .ODKT^nyi’oixa 
.D’lo  D1X  m33'ip  5C7n”  ]53X’V’D  n D^Vixa  ]3xn  Dxn  .nnoi 
O’D  Tn33x  ip50i2;3x  ]’75n  oVxn  oVsn  nytt^’X'ni  ixt  ]id  nxo'ni  x x’ 
n’D  TX  I’rxn  oVxn  .oVxn  xpnxT ’t  ’n  .»'"pD'7’''m5nD’ix  nxwn”  ix  ^id’3 

153X’yO  n ]3D  D’lD  j’X  D'"P’V”n  DH5  ]”p  XD’3  ,05  ! IX  pXT  jVXT  pVx 
jix  ,5T5n3X  ]1D  ]5n51  35053  D’3  ]535T  ]3”  535aip5amx  ]53X’^’a  n ,]3’’  - 
0505  pD  ,p’3X30  35t5’3«  351311X3  0505  ]1D  ]T511  ]”p  0’3  D3Xa  — 

]1X  O’lO  jlD  D3’15a3X  I’X  ]53”1  ,|3«  ’3  .’’I  .DipaiX  1515’3«  p5331TX3  X 
5p’3'”X  ,051  .35135  "]X3  315DX  ]1X  ,5Vx  ’ll  D’33nD  5p’3'751  ’3  151151  3330 
03’D51D’1X  0XO53-35Vo’n  ’3  pX  in  pXH  ]3”  — p X 30DX  IIX  — 
13”  500350  ’3  1511  ,05''13X  05111{<3D51  ,05’Vin53  pX  1053051  ,p'3''?3130 
,135”D'1X1  pX  pX  P’D  pX  .I'lOU^  pX  ,351313  pX  pOipXlOlX  ’3  D13X 

13X3  13”  ,10  X 315DX  pX  . 5p’3”X  051  .piX  535’’n  35031X  pOipXlOlX 
353531  po  ,350”015  po  ,3503511  po  1^X3  ’3  13  'I’lX  1501351  p’bx 
o'?!!!!  0^511  3515’X'’11  353  pO  '7'>33  IXO’!!!  X ,X’  .X’  ...353531X3  pX 
0*7511  3515’X'31  353  0*7X11  0X3  ,13”  11511  103X30  ’IIX  1*7X1  p”  IX  ,1*7511  35”! 
*7X01X  *1X3  on  0X11  ,p350'>1151  5*75D''3  DJ<3  p5OX113X0  IX  D3XD51  3503”*7 
pX  0353  53’X  pXllXOX  10*7X351  3’X  oVxil  0X3  ,3’X  ”3  p3X3  pX  DIX  X 
pO  ''■15*73X1’05''  535013513X  0’3  5*7X  ’3  OX  10513X0  35*7530  0X11  3’X  pxV 
po  13103X*700’1X  •n  ,351”0O  X ’ll  ,'15*73X1’05  'H  OX  ,303*70*0*7511  353 
...100X30X’305’3''  53533X  1X3  pX  p”  1*753X’*7’0  5p’0O’3  0p51 
3’X  10*7531X  pX  0*7511  353  pO  003111  1P’1X3  D53  l”1315p03X  3’0  103X3 

? D03  013’p  lO'H”  po  3*7’3  0X3  p535*7p3X0  IX  1X3 
.1331X  lO’llX  po  353”30  5p’3”X  pil  ,15*7335003X0  0’3  3’0  I’X  3X0353 
-5’XX3035X3Xp  ’3  pX  ,p5DXp-lXl  ’3  pX  151151  0’3  1”*7X  153”!  0X11  .’3  pO 
1511  353X  ,1’1  10’11353  ”1  1511  ,0’350”00*3X33  pO  X pX  1”3X  1*7X0  ,p51X*7 
p”  50’1151  0X11  ,10”p05*7”ODX  n p’lX  5351”X  ’3  O’O  1*7’0X  151353  ”1 
’IIX  ,O3X0'0’10  10’133  pX  ,p’*7101X  10’131  pO  150  ”1  pX  1XO510X  pX3 
po  15053*30p3  po  {<  0505  O’O  10”005X  p’Vx  1’T  1*7511  10*7X11  ”1  ’ll 
03X3  05  0X11  ,053  1515p  1’T  151150313D’1X  pO  X 0505  O’O  353X  .1”*7X  1’T 
5350ip5101X  0’3  ,T331X  pO  pOOH  153X0  P’X  pX  10*7X3  ni333p  ’3  TX  ”T  1’T 

.50533X0353  0’3 

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103X3  3’0  TX  ,11X1  IX  0’3  p’O  1'X  l”OO3X0  035*70  0’3  I’O  pO  *7XT 
5’XX3035X3Xp  ’3  pX  1X0510X  pXH  p”  50’1151  0X11  31*733  ’3  1’T  pO  10*7X3X3 
I’K  5’351X30  35T331X  piDO’lX  103X3  3’0  TX  ,0X051  ’3  pX  pX  p51X*7 
,D53”X  T’3  5*7X  ,p”  5*7X  IX  pOlpO’lX  *7X1  05  ’33  ,15*7p5*71'3013p  50*7X0 
.030  pX  31330  po  1'350  ’3  pX  133  350’3”  353  1’IX  153X0051  153”T 
’3  po  D53”X  l”p  1535p”*73XD  0’3  103X3  3’0  ,0’3  ’X311X  0X3  p’O  I’X 
3’0  ,1031  ”T  po  103X3  3’D  ,13511  Op535103X  1X3  1*7511  0X11  1'30X 
350’3”  353  1511  ,03X3  1XO530X  13  0 X3  05  0X11  pVx  .P'^X  P’^  piX3 
53’K  pX  0Vl3X351 13  0X3  30T53  50’3”  ’3  pil  ,1513X15131<  t’X  03X0*030 
1031  I’lX  103X3  3’0  pX  ,ni’^5  5Vx  11511  p’ll  103X3  3’0  .IDOllX'O’lO 
,1X0’31  SO’3”  X *1535n31X  I’X  n3’3’  50’3”  X “'SSX  ,ni3’3’  5Vx  pyu 
n 3X0  — ’3  3X0  p3’n  35p’3'3nOO  l”p  O’l  piX  0103  T’X  3 353X 
,D’n513  50’X'31  ’3  — ”T  153’3  5p’3’710  5'nOX  ’3  pX  .5p’3*710  5'nOX 
3X0  P’3'710  13X  153”T  ’3  .350X0  150X31X30  ’3  pX  351153*303*70  ’3 


63 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


I »3xs»'»i73’V2»no  ■i»p'»D3«n  ]’x  D’ywT  n jid  ]i3”n3”oyj  n 

,]KD»Jsx  jaxn  DKDSJ  n I’K  lOJK’X’Vxs  DKii  jO’yayVovn  yVs 

IS  ]nyjxV  n ]’K  jT’nviD’nx  ]axn  jiydivn-oaxo  Dxn  nimDX  yVx 
f:xa  ]iD  sxp  iD’ix  .tj’sxi 't  iid  0yp  n I’lx  I'rxo  .nynnn  y3yi”x  ynv”) 
•oVyn  ny'Vsty  nvxjxa  n»T  iid  sxp  ]d’ix  ,n3ii;VDi'7a'n3x’?u?D’n 
isnyiaiTijia  nvT  ix  ix  ^n  onn  t»x  ivn  .lynns  .D’nyl^^<  o^i  “lynnyn 
pj  I’x  ]DXDi'''nx  D’a  yi  otxV  .nssnyp  nyn”  iDp’3”ssx  oxn  I’lx  njixn 
.nsova  D’3  ]»:”T  ]T”  ts  nx3  ’n  ®nyn:x  D’J  jV’n  oxn  n iis 

O’j  ’n  cm  nvsx  ,]DxmxD  yVjj;  .nan  vc^’T"  s’??  vpxo  Dcntt^nxs 

nsnjix  IX  ]xoya  uxn  o^yn  n oxn  .oyn  oyVx  d’o  V’i:p  ]”x  I’x  ivDxnx 
,r3  D!3xxyasx  ]«t  ”t  ]Vxt  jix  "yp^’n  lynjnxa  x ]’x  sx  ’n  dqxx  .pVxs 
•>n  e«x  n |ympyi  I’x  oy  ix  jV^snyi  jVyn  ~\'q  tn  .nyoysiy  oyn  t’s 
n — ’n  D’3  11X  .]3np  nyn  — n’D  .c’pnynjiixn  ny”)  ps  ]yay3ixD’nx 

.nyjjym'imp 


aiyniyiV’T)  -iyii'7-’D 


D”n  ]iD  lit  .nx^xuDWu^a  px  in’iayj 
■yj  .xponyiyxDD  D^n  ^y^  iid  .x’jxa  iix 
iy3”ayi‘?x  nyi  I’x  ]ik  px  Dnyb 
yxxt’ixnx  12331’  nyi  ix  D^y^y3  .y7ii!; 
y’xxt’3K3ix  "H’po,,  -ijT  11D  3:ix”uiz;aax  nyT  ix  Dpn’nyjo’a  ]ix  "usaipix,, 
li^syipyo  ]ix  "1313,,  11D  oyD’oxp-DXDiti  px  3’'73tj’a  lyiiyj  .iixsxuojyiyu  px 

•t’axs  p’p  PXS9*J  ms  t’3  p’nxQ-D33n”'7pX3  ps 


P’P  iyaipy33X  y’'7’axD  p’l  a’a  33y33y3'7’T  nnaw  I’x  1955  ax’  PX 
y‘7X  I’X  '7”D3X  111’opx  ix  ’ns  ]”i  ]ix  ny  Day3  a'jxsyT  t2”T  iix  '7Xypu3X?3 
■D33x'7  ^y^  ps  axDyapyo  t’x  ayiiV’o  nnau;  .uDXi:73xaDi3x'7  pyi  pa  iay33X 
.’ay'j’ipx  O’l”'?  ayi  I’x  p’oyu  t’x  ’ns  p’;  .ayo’axp  in  ps  px  aDXt:i3xa 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


64 


.91  ,24  ’Vv  ,p>''dV  ,aK  r’  ,n''3 

! ’"3  ]’«Vp  ]mp  pK  us’nD  "ii?nv'''>u 

tmnT'iiuj  Dpu'i<i3  ini’TiNii  r’l  pun  but  lo^^iimuT  d^iu’  i’n 
113  1U11^DNBD1UU)D  UCUIIUBNIUJ  ’T  113  INtD’nUlUJ  TllpUD  ’T  lU 

r'7  7(<3  ,riJ<'in  onu  D'H  UIUTI’IIJ^B  P'TIUDUJ  m I'M  .DIIPJ;?'?  '^ 
,UDD3’21U11  D^IT  luit)  IS  UmUlU  D’H  213  UBNin’I)  UN  UD’2nnu 

• U2N  M nn  niijtD^DDIUtUD  ONDIU  DDIUUJ  lUnilN  IP''3”N7N9  'T33 

’■•D  ,2NlnD1^:!n  tn  ddniiuidiit  donh  n dnii  d”s  inunui  t’t  o’ni  i’n 
D^N  TN  niOlin  iiN  DiiniJ  7’7  QJDi’ii  I'N  .Diiruj  in’ii  I'lN  '11  .Qi’^u’nuBNn 
D’H  Dpu’tin3  ip’tuii)'  Din  ipniu  luiup  m as’imuD’N  iin  .d’hidd  udu  urn 

JN^SIUT  D'nj 


I’O’aa  ]’n 


'’poiiKp’nKa  ]''tt'>32  ann 

'niun  ms  ]”0  .45  .16  iniik’  d”~idkd  jik  .iiKDKDDiuttiD  I’x  inniui  i’K 
]’N  pniyn  .JKU  jaVui  I’x  inuiVvD  iKOKn  i’k  0”nDi<3  .yV’s  ]’k  imaui  I’x 

niKO"  na’ui’  yDnnxD  n ouirnya  i^xn  i’q  m .ix’  5 oyau  u’Vxu’x  om 
’Vr  ]’x  .riD’Vsn  nnxiu  n ]id  nuirp  yiyD’Vaynya’x  n nxD  "nVnn 
yoiynv  n jiD  ]ynyj  rx  ’ponxp’nxa  niD  .Vxynoixa  ]'”p  ]yQipyi  1949 
.yViiy  apy  n'a  yaanxa  n ]id  i^uiunma  dvt  ]yi”V  ]ix  lyna  ix  ]nyix’D 
liy’DpxTxuix  I’x  ]XDyjmx  ix’  45  yoyyV  n pn  ]yny3  ]yr’i  yn”a  I’a 
I’D  ."DiVn  ny  nxaniy  'n  ina"  ]3xi  I’a  juiyp  ,pmy  injypip  .]Tyn  iirn 
jiun’X  pxmynrn  ]id  naonx  dix  iixn  x ui”'7ynx  ]ix  iDVxnyi  jaxn 
IX  ,]yrT  ip’UD’n  ]’x  dqiu  aaia  x oVyiixiTixo  ]ix  .VxynojxQ  I’x  na’x 

.mx'ax  'n  ana  lajyn’Va  x 

Dy'7axns  iip’dxixVd  ]ix  jyiyn’Vya  oyi  j’x  i”M'>nN  pnjVyn  oiun 
n iiD  upysDX  jp’xy’x  x lyjjynaDmx  nVa  xi  px  Vm  .nxiiy  n iid 
VT'n  lymm  ix  inp’xnya’x  nyi  ix  ojiynayi  pa  ]axn  yaVyn  .ypo 
]Dmi  oya  p’DnxD  jix  .nn  ]iyn’x  ]'nax  x pmx  iVyaiuanx  nxa  mma 

•lamn  laxi  la’Vayj  rx  oxn  rPa 

•pDoxaxi  ]”p  lya’x  500  ]id  y’xxonxDyi  n nyiua  ,43  ,4  nxrx’ 
tjysiy  ]aipyjD’nx  "DnyuDuy"  ]id  yam  yxixa  n a’a  ]yr’i  .yprVayao 
niix  ayiyya’x  lymix  xoyj  ayiuD’n  nya  oxn  axanyi  ]ix  .Vysx  dix 
n ]yn  .poaxnxi  ]”p  uaxaDixau  dix  uVyoiyynx  n^ix  ]ix  DDxnuiyxa 
ny3”D  xiurx  onysayp  ’mx  n iid  inD’iynya  n D’d  jy^xuiuix  rx  naina 
lar'nyanx  oansyi  yay’roy  ^xj  d’o  px  pa  .iPDmyVyiyD  'niya  jix 
px  ,]y3XDiyy3  lyrn  ]iya3ya  ya’nya  o'oyanx  n m ,d”t  ynyaix  n ix 
lyax  .ayanx  DiViua  t>o  lyi’n  ,nnx  pix  loxipyi  aaoa  uxn'a  luuxn 
a’?xa  pxn  pxaixiui  n .sxp  pa  Vo’n  axa  p’Paxa  I’x  axn  pnjyarV 
axux’  yonai  n ]’x  ’ro’n  ]”p  on  Dixao  oxn  ]xa  oya  jan  ]a’iniix 
ay  ]yp  aiuax  ,iaiy  1”D  ’’a  I’x  oya  ,j’aypri'7a  mx  p’>a3y”uiy  .Doyaa 
]Diy  aya  pn  lynyi  px  I’a  dinoiyay  m .jynyDxa  ix  pa  jyiD  oyay 
IX  iDxViPxa  Dxn  ay  Pm  .pn'Via  ypxD  j’a  px  oxa  ,a’a  ix  Dixi 
oayj  ay  ,Dyaya  x pi  ca  ]yaiiy3D’o  oxn  ay  ]ix  .ayax"?  ]id  janVuix 
,Djypaya  oa  pa  Dxn'a  .axp  jarx  a’a  ax  oy  did  jix  Dyaya  oya  orax 
yayaix  V’a  D’d  Vxaix  aya’^'p’Va  ayp’ixa  aya  ,]axiiya  Vixn  ]’a  px  jix 
axD  nVa  Da  laPayj  I’a  px  oxa  inr’xaya’x  aya  ix  Dijyaayj  pa  ]axn 

.aia  ayiaiix  ]ia  Danpix  n axa  jyiD  ix  axi  ,a’a 


65 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Legacy 


] m 3 y T X n n s 

-v:\D'’iN  T’’x  •’nx  ly^Kj  lyi 

nyi  iiD  1^2  ‘?Nn^‘’D  x i:;  ]::pxn 

nyi  ]‘’x  D*’^T>n’^:ix:i  pyp  nyw'‘>T-» 

.>DXDy  l^pin  nyT  11D 

l-’X  nx'ny:\  ]*T>iny:\  t'’x  iy 
Dxn  ,r,xDi<DDr>i:'D  uxoii?  nvi  ]*’x  I9i8 
yoDvn:^  yoDx  d*'i‘7  ]>'ny:\  t'^x 

X IlD  D?3XDU  IV  ]*’X  ^P^“lP  V^n*''» 

]nxn  invtJ^^v  .v'’‘:’'’^xd  iv^''’Dpx‘7x*o*ix  c'^-'Dn  nvTv*’^'’S'"i 
^:iX'’2jnV"T  VTV*’:^'’PV'^  vr‘'?:v^‘:’X  IX  lv^^p^<n  ^xt  ]it  tx  ,]umv:^  PPXdi:? 
nvtJ?3nx3  iix  lyoaxpxn  d‘7x?dvi  "iv“t  op^i^'V^  d'»x  •’n  i^xn  nxDnv'r  ]ix 
nv^yp  xi^:\  ,n?Dp  nyn  Dp‘’O^V‘nv:^  oxn  oy  I'l'i  .nmn-‘Ti^‘?n  "nin  •’pnn^D,, 
lyjnyp  ]l)'»?3  ‘?y‘:^x*ixD  ."pm'>  lynxp,,  lyi  iDny:\  Dxn  ]yn  iv^yn  ^pnx*'  'n 
lyuiix  D^v  Dxn  ,r‘?x  mnnn  lyn'^yr  nyi  d-»?3  ny  ,n‘7np  ]ix  xi^,:\ 

py-’^iyQD  .yi^'*’*0D"‘7X''xxD  yi:"’DD'’:r}i  .moxiyD***?  yj*'-’Dy:\‘?x  ^■’D  : Djxn  lyi 

^IXTix:^  .1  .X  iiD  ]i:Dn^  n I'x  lyyT’X  n iid  inxny:^  DDi‘?Dr‘’xxn  ny  t'’x 

]^x  ]nyrm‘7:i  Io-'d  ]D^m:!inyn''x  ojav  yw'’T‘'  ■’‘t  ]Dny:\  oxn  nyD‘?y'i'i 

.y’’:\X‘7XD'’DD 

yssf:}?!!!?  nyu^’si'jn  nyi  rs  ]Dy^DyA^•’^}<  ^y  t’k  1932  ^!<’  j’k 

nyoysiy  nij’  x .layV  isy’^asxtt’Vytyj  I’x  ii”Diy  is  iij  oa’in  iix  ''n’^nni,, 
isaynysiup  iix  isaxoorx  y:yT'’iyixD  px  ysxi’ixnij  ’t  p>to  iy  toynonxs 
IS  .cyayD  yw’DD’'7X’suD  px  yiy’DD''3i'’S  'I’lx  oy’spy'?  b’d  ^’ix  By^B  iix 

■oiyiyo,,  : DE’niyjsijn  lyi  I’x  "lyuyanxB’a  x "ly  uiyn  ,1938  nx’  r«  -iiJ’  20 
."ijxnyD:ix  iiD  iDXiy  pX"  : Di'ixp  X B3’niy  ay  iD'?yii  I’x  "J31b”s  aynxaxt^ 
Dony  aya  n’lx  piaap’x  I'lxox'iXP  X oDxayi  laxn  ly’jp’Dax  ps  y’ayo  ’a 
’a  px  lay'?  pya”  pyn  iyp:xayi  yu;'’DD'’a'’DyQ  ’a  a’'7is  D:n’  ayaiDaxao 
cayaa  ,1939  ,i  ayaayusyo  -ayaysu;  ax’  x .ni'jj  px  duv  aya  pa  tJDPpis 
I'jXDxa  aix’iiPD’n  ay'iu’n  t’x  ’asayai’x  p’D^aa  .nDawD'7yii  yD’^ns  ’a  O’lx 
yua’i’axDxa  ywDa’ay'iDaa  ’a  piu;  pxn  ’aaayai’x  ayi’nx  9 p’Biit  ]ix  I'l’is 
I’X  ,4  ayaayosyo  p’oiXQ  -opaxaisa’ix  ■i”'m  .nxaxDoayipo  oa’sipx  iD”rai”x 
.pyD”a  ’a  n’lx  iDxi:;yj  laxn  n”  tx  ,'?ia'7a  layonx  Dxaaxa  x lyaipyiaxD 
ayp’Di'ia  aya„  ; o'lx  nxsx'^o^y'iTD  pc  yua’iiiya  aya  I’x  D3a”sxa  t’x  ixo  lyT 

."P’DJXO 

DIB  Dxn  ,p’Di  iw’axBD’n  x axs  laxnyj  B'lyDiyyj  I’x  p’lpyixa  ’as 
IS  pya  DID  Dxn  t y’sxt’ixiax  ’a  ayD”n  n’lx  lya  D'?xn  ’irx  ’ii  ? ayD”ii  lya 
lD”np:xap  yin’aya’sy  DaxTaixaxs  Dxn  oxn  ,d’ij  px  ayajin  Dya  layaa’'? 
yp’ax’wx'?  ’a  la’i’ixiaxya  is  lyiiyj  I’x  yai^ay  oxa  .D”pay‘7aayDiy  iix 
py’iis  I’lx  px  D”p’DyD  y'?XJy'7aix  ix  n’2  loaxa  px  Daxs  nawan  yu;’si'?n 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


66 


pynysjjjp  v'jKiyVmK  ix  nunyi  lonyA  fx  oy  .cxotz?  nyT  rs  t)wi’  nyi 
iy:xoi2;xa  lyrn  o^n  -yiyixn  px  P3  iy'>'>DU?nxs  PS  wip’'7”Bxa  nyi  c’q 
t3jD'>'>xyj:!U:  fx  paynyoiXP  ivt  I’’'^  -IkVsxp  nor  px  I’pDym'?  n’2s  : ps 
px  p’lpyTjjT  px  u”p’t3yo  ny’jyax’xxpjxnjj;  iix  lya’^oan  y’p  'i  iPijipyi 

.PX3>Jt3DjyT2;D  I’x  ysxpjxnij:  nyi  iis  ^y^’3:x  us’in  n po  lyp’X  njjmya 
nVT  p:;’Ps  ta'i’p’^ya  ywny''xnyT‘?ypiD‘?ip  x it>q  ix  lynyi  px  yaxjspx  pn 
njjiQ  lyKiip  oy  .y’sxT’^xnx  pyf  PS  t3”p^3J<i  ’i  ici‘?xn:x  P»<  nywxibn 
tipx  ixauVyp  nD‘?Q  ]id  lyippm ’t  p>x  iyip‘?axnxD  y'?xiy'?aix  ypmioa 
-IxmnQ  n’n  -dxa  nynywnxn  21  .na  ,pxp  y'?yx  ,0x1  xtt?DPiy‘?yDX’  xpnya  1 
tipx  .Dx:i  ypD3’ii?nyp  14  .ij  .xiwtiytyD  x’jxa  px  dxj  xponxi^ixi  5 nyap 
Dipmyi  ,tnyDiia  iix  opyii  -p’nayixi  n’lx  oyno  iyi3i'?axnxQ  y'?x  ’i 

.naxp  px  Din  ny’HDPX  is  yDy'iDiiP  n ps  dd'’'>:i  oyi 
laijn  '?iDa  x pi  .xsayo  ip’u;xt  x px  d'7ppid2X  i’t  laxn  TWPyyu^yA  n 
yt3U7-)y  n po  yi’-’X  .■|D”p»i<Pn^  ya^’sxi  iix  lyiiipp^s  -nns  ixoyi  DXiy  x i’t 
-Dymx-D22xiis  nyD2’i'7X3aix  is  ii”  isxd  oxt  lyiiyi  px  px'?5  mjii'^xo'ixd 
.Dymx-D22Xiis  nyi  ’’i  nxiiyj  Dp->2-”sy2  iix  px'2ir7yi  ii”  n lyi”!  ’•’inyn 
lyiiyi  n’lx  ly^’n  ^y1D  yay'iDDXty'iytyj  yiir  ynynix  iix  I’pnyrxi  ’ns 
pyT  px  ,'7‘>s  X PXD  DVynwyj  pn  pxn  ’’t  .pyDymx'OAixiis  ’i  pr’iis 
pyn'>’ny2  pyp  x I’x  pyoyanx'Diaxus  n ip’ipxipx  ,y’n  pyDi:;py 
n pypswDix  i'jxt  dxii  -lymxs  yD'7yTX  lynyiix  oijn  ,ysxP2xnx 
pyiiyj  P2”T  PXDXP2XJPX  Pf<  pyiD'DS’in  n iii^pis  .d”S  pyi  po  piaiiinxn 
px  Dix3‘?yi2xn  min’  -tt^TX’iixV  Dmnx  -tt^u’iiy'iini:;  ’x'7xn  -p’lpyrxn  ’2S 
pimo’ix  D1S  pnipyj  px  Dymx  p’pjxnx  nm  Ps  opjisD’in  nyn  .ynymx 
•D12X11S  ’T  iy2”T  2x^5  Dyp  ]’N  .1940  ,12  ’xa  yoxT  nyiP’ixDD’n  nyn  I’x 

H”"?!  nxi  ,D”nx  iyi2X2yj  tJii^’2  nysy’iS'ODymx  y^n  nys2X2  x iis  nycyanx 
paipyjpxs  PX  DX11  ,2PD’n-pxn  i‘?x2y‘?Dix  ix  is  lyjixjyj  cymx  pvp  7iq 
DsyTX3  px  ‘7XPX'?  ayp  DsxDnxD  ,22  yy'?x  n’lx  ?2xa‘Dp'?xs  nyi7’'?x«7?  pyi  7'’*< 
D2P1D  ’1  nxD  .DynyTDDDX?  yp’my”3  d’d  .22y22”nx  px  ijyjo’ix  y'?x 

Vxniy’  /P’liayTxn  ’as  : iDynoyiD’nx  iy2”T  -nyDyanx'OJJXns  yo'jaxtpxs 
2aiK”DiyD2s  pyp  pis  ytJSa  ’p  lypyi  t’k  oijp  .iPD’py'jioiP  ’x'?xa  iix  pxmb’iy 
•02JXPX  y'?x  lyapyjanx  tjxn  dxp  -y’sxPJXJnu  ny'?X2y'?aix  py”a  nyn  tis 
pyoysc;  aynV’aya  iix  D”p’nyny23X  nyiy’X”Dnxs  pa  P’wnyDPX  ix  nytsyanx 
•XDyj  nyi”*??  px  y’sxPixmx'osaxp  nyi^^’n”  nyD23xiixa  nyn  p3  nio’  oyn 
lyiiyi  PX  7”ii2ytxn  ’as  px  "uxTiyDyanx,,  pnyi  i’T  Dxn  y’sxpjxanx  ’p 
pyp’S2”x  nyn  .y’sxpjxmx  pvp  P's  ni’n’tyns  I’x  i2n’32X  pspp  pyp  l'’i< 
PX  DXP  ,22’D’a-pxa  ]‘?x2y'?Qix  7ii?’nxoD’n  nyn  ^’ix  .nyjnyp  ”m  ’i  t''s 
.nX’  yoiiTyi  y22x'?  ,y22XP  is  p’lpytxp  ’as  px  pyV  D”a  ia’‘7ay2 

nyp  lyixapyp  is  piyi  px  "oxp'pytiyanx,,  p3  D”p’Da’ii  nyn  pyii 
pyn  Dyap’iiyi  ly'^D’sxp  ”iis  lyi”!  "nxaxtJOjytt'D'iapin,,  iia  I’x  tx  .upxs 
,n"y  7XDP’n3  .s’V’a  n"n  ,yaxsy-pmn  nyn  71s  nyi:>nx3-DS’in  pyn  .y’sxT’ixinx 
y’SiD’DOi’x  yjyn'iyT  x„  na’nwyj  oynjiVxa  "DXP'pyoyanx,,  iiyii  dx.p 
ipyaaxa  ,"d”spx’  nynpx,,  uyt)  ."y’2XP’D-’sx2  nyn  p3  naipn  nyp  ]’x 
■’Dpx  ’n  tx  ,p’ni:ty2  dx<p  nyVnxa  "jxan  n"n  nyp’nxDO’.n  nyn  .(lo  d”t  ,1948 
nyp  7’x  ‘jxnDty'Da’'?  nyo’ini  p’x  ’ii  lyiiyi  px  "Dxn'nyDyanx,,  p3  loya’ii 
PX  oy  .(4  .n2  ,1949  pnx’'P2  /'niD‘?ip  ytiPP”,,  :7yT)  .iy’2nyDS2’3  ny2”ay2'?x 
,25  nxinayo  p3  ."oxVajaxP  nypnx’’‘P2„  px  tx  .nynpii  p’p  oizpa  nya’nyp 


67 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


■jj’s  n IIS  nyr’N  t’x  r’nJStljn  ’as,,  im''ni:;xa  vaw'?Jj:s  I’t  ui’syi  ,1949 
,yiP’SUn57n  ,5nat''na  x .nxauoojyiyo  rs  ajwynxa'cnjXDti^ain’n  aya  ps  laya 
.Daxa'’SXJ  aya  py?  ossypyi  oxn  oxn  .mm  yayjx’si‘’xnya  ,yw’ayDayp 
n nan  laxnyi  Di'7XS5'i3U3  T'ax'lTi  loayai  oya  D’a  t’x  a”p'’DyD  rn 
-IDVxnyi  px^  ’■’T  liK  aynyiraxn  T’x  a^xoirsax  p’xxay.a  iis  aya’s^X 
yayaax  I’X  I’lx  lyaa  py^X’si'PXipa  PH  D’ppyu  rn  iD’nsiyaxD  iia  ay  tx 
ayp’oc”!  aya  ay  aayn  aaxa  iix  pa^ya  I’p  Dp’u^yipyaix  aayn  ay  .ayaiy 

".apiyTixa-Da3Xt3iyaya''n  aya  ps  aya’sjx  ayiy’Dpxas  px 

sayp  "''S">a„  px  lynyi  I’auyrxa  ’as  t’x  aaxa-’SXJ  aya  ps  I'^xs  lax^ 
/Xaojys  aya  px  a’V^u’a  x iiynyi  .ajx':’iyo''’a  px  yjx'  yif’JXP’ayax  ,A3’a:”x 
aya  ps  a’'7JD’a  x PX  psxiy^xaoajx'?  aynxsxtJO^y'i^t^  ’i  PS  iJiu':’Xnaxs 
lia  Dxa  layjo’iax  D”a  '’xojyaiaaoa’x  ay”T  lynyi  I’x  ay  .y’O’axp'aiaVv 
ps  y’jy'^xp'S’spxaya  aya  ps  a’'?jD’a  x lyiiy^  px  "nxaxt>D:ywD  laain,, 
■yj:X  P’npiXi  I’s  1949  px  /'D”sax’  aytaaix,,  yaxJO’ix  ayp’Vxar’X  aya 
■yapyD'a'7yn  ps  axcyapyo  nxiiys  t’x  ay  .pax’-r:  ,yp’ayax  P’P  paip 
ay  nyr’axs  px  d’U''’dxd  ,iasxii7:xi3Da3x'?  aynxaxwoayiya  ’a  ]id  ax’axc 
aya  ps  axapxayao’a  lynyi  I’ax  t’x  ay  .]’Dy'’ia  x oa’ixaya  I’lx  sx^ 
T’X  px  1958  px  pax’'i’T  I’X  p^’waya  t’x  dxtt  ,"TixaxuDTyiyD„  nia  p’lai 
lynyi  ay  t’x  ,1958  ,ax’  p^yt  aya  px  .pyaax  y”a  aysTXJ  X o’a  layaaaxs 
aipaix  ps  ayay'ra,,  ; ysx:iD’ix  aya  px  ly  ^p’aax  y4”D  axi  a’a  Dp’5”DxaD’a 
ly^p’aax  y”a  ysjx^  x oay^DTsyaxs  p’njyrxa  ’as  axn  aya  ayo’ix  ."naxp  px 
.p’as  T’X  a’^xaiiyos  ayi2;’axayD’'7  p’T  .]‘?XJaiwT  iix  iyiTTO”s  y^ya^iyaxs  I’X 
■ayay"?  pp’r’axs  px  apaiDD  x o^xaa’as  s’Vs  a"a  lynyi  v’x  p’HTyTxa  ’as 

.pax’'i’3  px  axi’oyo 

aya  px  iD”pay'7PTays  yDo'7isa’'?xP  ’a  is  aaynyA  p’lijyTxa  ’as 
.aT’SKJ  pyp  naxp  P’xayn  x oa’syj  pxn  oxn  ,nxDxt)Djyi27D  ps  yas’i^yi 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


68 


r’'?i7  ’lun 


Vkok  11D  □■’■’n  rvj 

.D'no  ]iK  UKDu;  nKDKDOjyu;u 

.uDKiu  ]iK  pjya  nn  *1HJ 

Vn?dk  oo’*D 

.DDK-)D  ]iK  y^nby  oiyD'»'ixyi 

oyiyD  nyuji'^iu  ]DKn  oy 

.]i3iD‘iKD  yn 

D'\‘nrp  l'*?5  UDKu;pjyD  K ukh  oy 

.pj'i>iy>3K  yi 

nM^ry  ]in  ]ODKu;jr’'H  yr'*! 
nVD  ]'»K  U^3K‘7Dyjr''K  lOOKH 

lUD  K nHD  oy  D^KH  ‘1\K  ]1K 

K Dj'^n  I'M  IX 

lyi'iyi  PN  jjiuoyD  min  k '»n 
.bnm  ]iD  i'ihpNDD3yu;u  yu;n*''»  oni 

onv  U1N1  y}  UKH  UT»nu;y:ionK 

.'?Kna;'»3  DN1  n^'y  n ]>k 

.oKuu;  r'»n  ]1D  IDT  pp  KOu;'‘j 
.]*lVn  IKJ  ]1D  vVk  TM  U*?'!!  nKi 
V?  «i’»i}nKD  T’K  UDKO^pjyD  j^K  |yii 
.]“iynu  ]riK  yr^n  ]id  ]yjn 

ny^'u  T>K  u'^KH  nxiK  ik 
.]Dnir;yi  nn  i>yii  hid  oiji 
nyoVtit  11D  >ji3N?Dnyi  k 

.]a'‘?3y:i  UDnu^  I^'k  pk  okii 

.uNOu;"D'*m  ]’’'n  nn  yn  vVnuu; 
.i)X'*u;y5  unNT  dj.m''  ]''v^  uKn  okh 

*1V3  udk\i;d'»'7  n PK 
.uxnpyi3'»''K  ixiKn  I'K  yiy 


69 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


1980  “li;3Xt5{?X"19  Dl?l  .mSTH  ni?U’38  “IVT  IS 

IKU  -IK’  DVT  ]yi?3ynvi  is  t’K  .UJnK  TOt’  K pD  tJ”i?’U3’n  ’T 

D’tt'np  viVoipyaaiK  ’i  ]is 
pi'jp  .n 

ID’n  S0bv^^  ]ODKW3KnDn3KV  ’T  11D  y^KlD’IK  Sp’DD’n  K nnK3  I’K  oy 

nyy^yn  .jkd  k ]yo’D®K3  jik  .sokt  vp’ny’no  ’n  Diy’i  loynxD  iik  sx 

• D’lynp  ’1  1X3  D”X1X’  ’T  TXD  ]”T  VXT 

‘I’lX  1”1  IX  D’X^^3  D’D’  ’T  IKD  flip  3n3Q  X P”  ]D”n  ^’n  ’ll 

t3iy’3  '7xn3’’p  ^’D  jviyp  3XD”n  icms  ^y^3^x  ix  ^y^”’7  — .niDX  iDp 
DDXi^ii^-unx  ]y3”i  yoVyii  ,yD3yx3  D3yoyVx  'yi3?i3iK  ix  niax  iDp  'I’lx  ]ny3 
.mia-ip  ]y3X’'7’a ’t  D’o  T’x  ’iix  .Diymya  yu^’OD’nvVo’n ’t  pin  pixny: 
]’x  ]yoipy3aix  iy3"T  yaVyii  — o’lpi  ]ix  nyni’p  .js’ins  .nvivn  xu^’t” 
]ix  i^mn  D’’Ty3  ]3xn  iixanKa  y3”i  O’a  nxVo’n  ixn  ,D”X“iyVD’n  nvT 

.y3X1”K  I’K  331DD’mXD 

lix  D’U7np  ’T  IX  max  lap  'I’lx  ]ny3  ix  n3XDB7a’K  Diy’3  iv3”i  n’O 
]Dnxnyx  isi”!  ivVDiyvT  sny”T  .onap  i”p  oiy’3  jaxn  ”t  V”ii  .avi’Dixa 

.yDxa”K  ]iD  iV”D  yVx  I’x  .dixt  diuvdik  ]nxny3 

rx  ,]07U3yQ  yen”  yoDxnay30ix  lyix’Va  n ]id  lyx  dxt  px  ny3”a  ’i 
px  ]ix  pye’rya  .xiaVya  ,py3xi’xa  .ypi’Vavio  .f’lieix  px  D’noiyyao’ix 
ixn  ,oaxT  ]y3”T  "Dnap”  yniyr’DD’ipy  oei  y^y”^  .lyDiy  yayViy  y■ly^3X 
laxn  Dxn  .oy’nxoxaynp ’t  px  onya’iivi  Dax3”a  iix  3xu”a  ]axn  ay 

.mianp  yiy’i”  ]y3K’'7’a  yoixanxc ’t  ]y33iWnxD 

]3’invi3x  pi  ay  oxn  ’iix  ax 

33XD3X  ayT  .nanVa  a'^yn  nya”nx  ayn  ]id  inaa’ix  ayi  ai’i  nx’  4i 
leVia  110  oyp ’t  pix  ayaaxa  yaiyay ’t  ,p’'33aix  iaaaxrn3  lyiiix  po 

•Diaii” 

iy”aiy  p”  .aaxi  maV  yp’i'ViVx  x I’x  *?a’n  nyanyDiyy3a’ix  lyp’ao’V  x 
yaoxnayV  I’x  ixanxo  piyi  px  .lyr’n  yny”i  ixo  aypona  ]’x  ]a’m  I’x 
]y33i3”a  y3yi”Bnxo  anyn  ]ya  px  ,ya3nxnxD  pnxaiy  lya’iD  ’i  .ay’aipan 
ayii  axil  jnynix  ayi  ayao  ■iy3”x  .]n”  ixo  nniiya  yau  p’p  aiy’3  nyax 
.laVxniK  nanVa  xix  ]yp  33x'7  ’ii  .aoiipix  y-iva’iaix  n a3XT  axii  ?]”t 
aya’T  iVyii  yai’xVx  yi’x  px  iV’io  — ?”iix  .lyiin  x ’ii  “iva  aiy’3  tya’i 
iy”n\y  ’t  — .Vi’^o  ’t  jpxriDX  iipu’n  ’t  ayii  jya  .iixV  aiy’3 

ay’aipan  n ix  iy”3  ’iix  .']ay3pyiix  ae3  Voyip  i”p  i^yii  ra*  ^K^ 
•iV’io  px  Vayaw  px  axaiy  nyny’  px  ax3  nyny’  ^nx  nyna  py’  nxo 
IK  33KaD’ix  pt  X jx  aaxT  pyaiyiyaixa  nyn  .ayno’ix  ]k  p a’X  aax3 ’t 
B”pnya’taix  n px  "rD’H  ny’iVa  x nonyi  px  .aixi’nxn  p’lx  VnipVxii  x 
’ll  ipyiaxD  axil  lyixVsxay  yiya’n  ai’VxiVo  pi  ]i”iiKa  ax  px  .aapxii 
]a”i  yVx  po  .jyVa’n  y’lVa  iix  ynya’iV  n ynxaa  ysaxiiiy  yaanya  x 
yp’i’T  px  aVnixinxD  jiyii  pVayaiy  jix  ayaar  yw’V’io ’t  , ayaaxa  iVxo 

.nianin  px  lyr’n ’t  .jyVpxo  ypniyiyaa 

ya”iix  n pii  ,1939  nyaayasya  laiyay  ayT  iyiy3a’ix  axn  ’iix  ax  i x’ 

•pniy  nx’  50  a’a  ]ax'iay3a’iK  axn  nan’ra  a*7yii 
nyaayaoya  p'l  ayn  pxn  ’’aix  yiynxanxa  ]”!  a’a  nyVa’n  ai’i  jio 
axn  ,yDKn”x  px  nyniyV  ynynix  ’n  px  .iV’io  I’lx  iTiynxa  ia’iny33X  1939 

.p”  yp’aixn  ixo  p’o  px  p”"?  ’n  la’inyiix  •i”'73  pi 
ya’ina  jVxxxa  iVxi  p”  ix  .oinvixo  ’n  ]yaipy3  I’x  a’lnix  px  nVxa 
'aoKaya'  axn'a  .jixiiyi  ap’3”Dy3  px  aax’ya  ]3”i  p”  .''ay’xianaixp" 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


70 


=iKn  ,DKt3»i  yoa’isyisK  spnymo  ]’K  jn”  Dixott^nKo  ]ya  .ayans  ^’ix 
p’DD’nx  DXT  jiK  ,i»a3iVnnD’ix  ]ix  "DV’spx"  ovDvaann  pyn  oy 

]!”  n nxD  t’x  D’nxn  yiy’sw  n ”3  — .jnyaxV'D’iD  ynxt’na  I’x  jT”  n 
,]”D  .iT’V  ]iD  X ]ynyj  lyVT^mxsmx  t’x  oy  .nn  ]”p  pnyj  wiyj 
pyn  eay^Vyj  ]ix  onynyi  ux’x  t’3  j’w  jnxn  T’a  V’D'ii  .mpaix  jix  ]3nin 
IDxno  jj:  ’ll  lyax  fVx  dxt  t’x  .D’sxj ’t  ”3  in”  n ]id  oipmx  ]ix  ]T"V  n 
yiyn”  D’a  mVnp  ysjxa  .B’■'pD''Vp^m  nyaxT’na  ‘lyay*  ca  p’VanjjD  px  d’ 
yjyoxViyyjDX  n ]id  d’xxj  n pn  ]nxnyj  DT’Dyao’nx  jyj’n  jtt^ojya 
^’1X  'll  ,1942  O’xma  D’a’  n jid  jya  n px  nxni  .uiasanxD  ‘I’lx  Dxayi 

]ya3xaya3x  moa  rx  oy  .1943  a’lnix  f>3  ]y3axjya3x  t’x  dxt  ,*iy’D”n 
]''X  oapi  ]ix  nyjya  .ayirp  .ly’no  yiy’T”  jio  anosaiKD  ypnxaia  x 
.p’wyi  oxn  aVyii  yoma 't  ,aVyn ’t  i'x  jt”  ixd  jyo  yaDp'»V”n  n 
,p’DV'»a3'’''Vi  oyVx  oyn  ix  jynya  t’x  y’sxt’’7''ivx  ]ix  muVip  po  aVyn  n 

.lyVa’n  n ii’miyyj  pix  jaxn  oy  jix 
.pjyaxa  yiy’  .joiyaxa  yayVpyiiy  n joynxD  n’a  piyp  ou;a  b’xar’p 
]DynxD  T>a  jyjyp  oiya  Vxa3”p  .]3^l^  ]ix  o’id  iid  riDipn  yp’V’nj  n 
]3iT  mnDiya  yiypxniynyn  o’id  yuiyixnxo  ]yn  lajyaxa  yayVpyaiy  n 
y3«Vp  yny«T  I’x  ,]D’iV  lynrp  .xuyj  ]id  inyVyp  n I’x  aVpa  aipa  x 
jy^n  yiJxV  .O’Tia  ypiyxnp  x .Voxoixp  '’nx  .rrnxix  ’n  jjxno  ^yVaiyn 
]ixT  ’n  .anap  loxa  n ix  lyn  id’ix  inyj  jy’iiD  ]ix  nyjya  yaiau;  ]id 
■jyV'riDiy  yny”!  ]ix  oyaxa  .Dn’aVn  yiy”!  jix  nyiyV  .j^Vx  pt  ^xi  lynp 
.D’xtxn  oy  jix  caan  n’a*?!!  .yaynx  ]ix  ya’n  .on’ori  yiy’T  ]ix  D'’3n 
na  yaxD  — .jaxo  i”!  uiyio  nrp  x ]ix  ,D’id  dix  janayi  ]nyn  yVx 
.waynix  oysy  pyn  aaxiD  or'a  nrp  ly^a  — ?]3nxDu;  jjt*  ntx  I’x 

...]anKa  jiyii  aaxno  .ayaxa  ayn  anyaaiy 
X ]ynDyj  ]yp  lyn  .oiyj  fVx  ixj  ]D”n  I’a  ]ix  ODixnyi  oiy)  ]3xn  T>a 
V’s'iix  ]'”DiyiKD  ]yp  ayn  .oynxa  xix  ]id  niyiya  ‘^nx  iyo”unxD  x tymo 
lyp  .DD’xyox  lynx  ayp’anVa  .ty’j’Vyn  uiya  nynx  Tyu’Vya  .Dmo’  ]ix  ayx 
fmiynx  .“ixixa  jix  yprVayiu  j^oiyaxa  aiyn  ]ya  pp  ,pn  I’lya  aiya  jya 
o«ou?nxD  m 7Dn’DXD  xt  oxn  oxn  .fyiyiVya  iix  pyjxn’xa  .nx’-’axa  ]ix 

7pmn  ayn  jya 

yx^’Damaxp  iid  oiynynxa  ax’x  oxn  yoxT^’x  mta  pa  ayniyV ’t  J’x 
.p’aya  yVx  fjnx  ]3yV  yiyn”  yapmxnxD  wna  x ]ynyj  Vxax  nx  .lya^tytyi 
.o^payamnyT  ayp’DO’n  ]ix  ]D'”p’ayo  ytt^nyayiy  yny^t  d’b  ]T”  yp’oaxT 
ayn  ]id  yaa’iyyj  “lyjnynxa  lyn  j’x  Va’axp  yaoiyiy  oxt  janiyyannx  jaxn 
yin'xaia  x rx  oy  ,ddid  px  pnyma  onxT  t'x  dx’x  ayax  — .pVxa  py''i« 
rx  ayony  yiy’  j’x  tx  ,D3a«x  ]«p  jxaxo  D5?n  iV’dx  jniy  nx  oy  .0”pV’’0U7 
yaVyn  .nynjyV  yjy'  px  nnn  yn  n .layV  yiyn”  x jynyj  Vxax 
.nanVa  aVyn  nyo’nix  ayn  1x3  ]nxnya  ]3nx^y^  px  pnayj  ]niy  ]y3”t 

.3”  T’X  oy  03’TT1<  oxn  0’3  iV’DX  ]D”n 

■D’TD  ya7’xx3  >3  ]’x  jaxnya  oaxnayaaix  ]n”  ]y3’’T  V”d  poaya  ]’x 
pxny3i  oyjaxnyao’Tx  ]tx  lyaipyaaix  I’tx  iy3”T  ]3”  V’s  "lyax  .]iyjxV 
mia  px  B”na  px  wyV  I’x  oayVyj  ny’no  )3xn  ”i  =ixn  nyany  ’n  ^nx 
0’3  tV’dx  jO”!!  a’a  nyax  .o’aap  ]oxa  ]’x  ]y3”T  lyVoiyyn  yny”!  .ysxn”x 

.T’X  oxT  ixn 

pxnyj  iTxVixD  i’’Vx  lyT”!  DyD’a3y^’x  ay”T  jtd  aa’nxa  m3aap  yiy’n” 

’n  oxn  oyT  axo  du;’3  inxnyj  ooiyanxD  iy3”T  ”t  .aVyn  lyyTxi  nyn  ]td 
nyaayo  jtx  itt  ,]ynya  ]y3”T  ”t  oxn  oyi  axo  3x3  ,]xayj  nynx  aaxTyj  jaxn 
yoTDipx  ony’  .o’nxa  nx’y  d3’t  op’DiVaya  jix  jo’Vya  oxn  oxn  pVxo  x po 


71 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legncy 


IKDii’c^xn  .ikiikV  ]id  fiV’;!  ]vmpx3  Dxn  uiiviixa  d3Tii"ivd31k  yiv’  ,13kV 
D1X  ]ynsi  I’pDQ  ”T  ]yo  Dxn  okt^’k  dikVikd  ,]^” ’t  .ynpoxa  ^»^x 

.i:iD3’nxD 

Dny*;  yD3’C7ya ’t  lynx  .Dt’D’oyo’DW  ]id  nump  yoa^nv ’t  ]yj”i  p” 
inmx  11X  yyiyj  joy’nxD  ]ix  inyoa^yx  is  ntsa  t’x  Di’U’ayo’Dix  ,t:ix 
]3xn  TD  — .n’b'XD  ]ix  pnijtuiy  ]y3”i  yaVyn  jDD^ttyVyiyi  ]ix  mina  j’x  iVdx 
iwnj’oyo’uix  d’o  ]a’inyiix  I’t  oxn  oy  jotojcs  0)<n  oxn  loynicD  Dty’3 
DtyTyn  owi  oy  did  jya  a’lx  .sxp  oyi  ipsnsx  ]ya  na  iixViy  g — .“ixnyD 
IX  rx  ixT  jix  Dtaxnx  ]X3i<J  d2?t  ip^DD’anjiD  ayn  usb'ty  n ti<  .■n^ayi  i< 

.jyiD  IX  oysy  ays® 

Diya  jyj’T  ’’i  .tyix’  aiya  ]ix  jinaa  ix  ]DTiyj  axn  na’VDn  rinxc?  ’t 
la’iVpiXD’ix  Dxaa^jx  ,nap3  jiD  anya’mxD  .nx2?y  ]id  D'aoixD  rmy  j^p 
jyna  .ayaa?  jyjyna  axaa^ix  .D’piVx  dVx  dvi  I’x  in  ”t  jnvaxVp  .yaix^x 
]^’’7p^’^^^XD  pynx  T’X  D”mya  ’i  .■iya’Dp’'7”n  ”1  ]Dxa7  mamn  itd  ,y”T  "t 
1X3  lya  ITS  ’las’Tx  aya  ]’x  ]DVyn  ]td  — jvx  na’Ty  ]td  — aPn  laVx  |x 

.nT’iD  lyaT’T”  nyiyTxawaix  dxtt 

ayn  1X3  tx  .anvVyi  laxn  td  .ay’xpyV  yo'myi  DTny'ryi  laxn  n’a 
Diy’3 1’a  jyjxp  ,D’’pD’'7pn’n  lyaxi’ni  ayjy’  itd  aipaix  ]tx  ]ann 
TX  DDTXTTyj  pxH  n’a  p’3”TT  ’TT  .ia”x  yiy’D'np  I’X  '?xaa”3  p’aV’ia”’?! 
.p”  ix’V’a  DpyT  yavTixanyT ’t  ]td  a’mo’  ]td  D’a’  ix3  ,iya  vryTTix  ]’X 
nyTy’T"  lyT  tx  a'aonxa  .oy’ixya  ]dxt  y”3  .manVa  y”3  jyvT  I’a  jVyn 

•DT’ia 

]TX  ]a’?xnyiD’Tx  pVxo  ytyn”  dxt  I’t  axn  dixit  ayn  a’a  nx: 
anaaiy  mTn  ’n  .yTya’niyyj  aiy’3  axn  px  y^ya’iiyyi  axn  .an’X’D’DTyn’X 
.D’?Ty  nTD’  nTOT  nyn  ,]TnaT  nyn  pay  ayn  lypjynyi  .no  biyaiy  nnTn  jtx 

.anxTT  jaixTyi  ayn  nx:  nyVyapjyn  pTn  aa^’i  — 
axn  axTT  axn  tx  .dVxtt  nyn  ]y3xanyn  tx  pyTT  n’a  aiy’i  iVxtt  n’a 
TX  ]TX  ]nyn  tx  ]nyTT  n’a  aa?’:  ]'7yTT  n’a  .jnyTT  layinxa  aa?’:  nxa  an’axD 
pa  nx:  a®’:  i:Taa’:nxD  ’n  dVxtt  nyn  ]y:xanyn  Vxt  dxtt  .ayn  jixtt  ]a”na^ 
.DTay"?  ya^T”  ix’Va  apy:  itd  ]yj:ynaaTx  axn  nx:  .mV’np  ya^’n”  y:’7x:”x 

.yDxn”x  nnTa  ]’x  ]Dxa?  ar’n”  jy’Ta  ar’n” 

nyn:’p  px  nyn’na  .nyaayTTa?  .ayaxa  ]tx  ayaxa  ynyTTTX  ip:ynyi  ra 
]TD  a’nTai  ’n  ip:3nyj  n’a  .TTxaxaD:ya7a  ya^’n”  axn  , axaaTa”n  nyT:TX  itd 
■nT  ,xayi  ]a’’n’’  nyTjya^nxTT  pD  jnVyn  ’n  ]tx  pxaa’Vx’a  px  TTXDxaD:yaTD 
.ypT’Vayna  ]td  nyn’anxa  ’n  .axayi  yar’n”  ynyn:x  yVx  ]td  a’nTa:  ’n  I’tx 
jyTTyi  iy:”T  ”t  '7”tt  nx:  .paTpyiaTX  jy:”:  yaVyTT  .pnTar’TX  ]td  nyn:’p  ’n 

.p” 

^x:  a’’xnx’  n nxD  ixa  x p’:a’DX  axn  ptdt’  ]p’a:’’n  dtx  ]yaTp  axn 
apyT  n p’T’V^jaa’a  yaVyTT  .Day*:  apyr  n ]yn:’x:!<  D^<n  .D’a7Tnp  ynyT:TX 
p’nTX  t:tx  auyna  apxD  ny:’Txn  nyn  .D:y3y’?  y:ya’:aTnxD  ya^’n”  ix’V’a 
nyn  ts  aVyTT  nyn  i:T:xanyn  x pnx  t’x  itx  .laay:  ia’'7pynaT  ayn  tx 

.jayinxD  ]nyTT  aa?’:  Vxa:’’p  ayn  ]ik  Vxa:”p  jyp  janTn 

• ]DyinKD  uiy’a  Vk»3’’|?  t»o 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


72 


I”'?!?  nun 


•T’tt;  ■'•'3  f’lwix  nyjK’j'D’iu  i’k  uymKyi 
IT’unxD  IS  □’nsn  oyoy  inn  pnuyi 
•l^u?  u’X)  nya  ya’in  ypn'ns)'’X 
.I’u^  “IK.9  nyu:fit3  ]ik  nyDjfio  .yp’^KSn'.K 

iKO  nyDJfiu  .nyuji’iD  yii’nD  lyVjyunxu 
.T’C'  v'n  nya  .i^u;  d-o  jnya  ya^’W  lyVjyD'iwu 
1 1’u?  nKQ  ■iyu3T'’iu  n ’'i  lyrn  iy>3yn  ]iD 
’ I’ty  inya  ynpynu;  i^a  udjjn  uin  iin  yn’in  n 

.'lyT’H’Dp'rND  yr'?D  — IT”  iid  lyrn  I’u;  n 
-lynna  .nyuoynu;  .lyn^p  im  i3hnDy.i  iDDyj  inj 
oyrn  11K  oyaxa  im  .oyusu  px  oy^xsi  inn 
.nny  oVx  I'^yDir’uoyD  ’uyi  v'?k  lyp  I’n  PK 

■lyr’i  ’•’t  lybyn  ]id  I’l!;  n lypnyn  i’k 
.l'''’nyj  px  Di'pn  -iNii  I’X  n’o  n it”')  '”1 
.n^np  X n”  po  T’K  Jixa  nyny 
.nV’Dn  y'?’’uu;  x jix  rnp  I’x  jxi 

yayonxiiyi  nyusjyo  im  ]id  ly^^i  lyVa’ir  y:'”‘rp 
yuymxDnyn  inyia  px  lyVoyp  — nynjv 
.u:yn  ’sxi  yirnymyD  yix'rsnxn  yin 
.Djyn  n p’lx  ipy’ro  uiVa  n lyr’t  — ifmxa  n 

-yDJx'TDnxD  11X  yuix’yp  ]id  i^ir  iJ’’':’  ijn 

.yu.p<’’y.\  ]yjijtx{<iri':jxp  upd  i’n  n iid 
VDTXj-nitD  nynxpp^itA  ypn'na’X  px 
.yojyiaiKD  oynjjoxoyip  ny”D  px  iix 

.t3i'?3  u’D  yjyoxJxa  nya  p’’?  x^ 

uia  wa  lycayp  yir'xxayn  yiyn” 
lay'?  0X1  n’i'?nxo  P^sxp  lunyo’anxo  X px  laxn 
•laynou,’  nyn  lynyj  I’x  oi’sx:  p’Txa  is 

.oyaxa  px  oyaxa  po  I’ty  D^a  nya  p’'?  xi 
.oyT’t  px  oyDXD  po  I’w  U'a  anya  pn  lunxi  — 

.aat  ]”p  XDt!?'!  — lOPii’axD  lyj’n  nnn 
.nap  pv  px  la’O  p’p  rx  y'laya  vm': 

•I’tt’  "a  p'nc’ix  ny.ix'?  u’lo  I'x  oyaaxya 
.I’tt’  p'unxD  IS  D’nsn  oyoy  inn  lanuya 

•I'lL'  u’a  nya  ya’in  ypn'na'x 
.I’u;  nxQ  nyoifiu  px  nyuifiu  .vv'axsaix 


73 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


luiuia  nija’7 

(1956—  1945) 

•rnp  ]u;’T”  nyjytvmvi  nns  iVsnyuKO  vVx’ivsnK ’t  ]id  ino  id’ik  uyaiitNa 

nK3Nt3D3ytt>t3  pK  ^3to■lKD  ^syVuDKtyVym’muVi,?  liyoy’N  i^s  px  .ovti’oxp 

DuniDQ)  Tfit  ,t)nDU)(i!a  rx'o  tix  o’na  cn  iD’Jijjt  in  jixt ’t  dnii' 

?yi<7ujmT  i'n  rx  du  7(:!t 

DUJ'']  rx  I’n  TIN  ,DDng  D’n  ODiint)  vn  oiuDiuauj  D^jiJ  t)i<n  ojjiii  ih 

'?pij;imDT  DU  7^1'D  lunuj  Diuoj^ea 

]3X3  '’px’'7X  .V  ivDDn  “iyu?n”  lyi  nyy  o’a  "riD  d’ik  ’iix 
nyyyn  n — ^’a  inxn  V’uyi  ]3’?yT  x dvt  d’d  .jann  iD’iu 
liyiKV'nyVD’n  n iid  nxDxoojviyo  I’x  omox  yoynyaxnyjsx  ,in”  aanu 

.’’ID  lyT  I’lx  ]ayb>  y”3  dxt  jyaijyiD’ix  — 
1X3  iy3”i'p  ixn  ,i*7’i9  ]’x  axDiy  yp’y3”x  n lynyi  rx  nx3XDD3yiyD 
]y33Dy3 1’T  ]3xn'D  yyVyn  ]’x  ,]ny3x'7  n’o  inxny3  ]DXU7y3  iy33iVT>TD'>ix  yVx 

px  3.490  — XD13  11”  ■|ynXDXDD3yU7D  — VXX  iyi  jlD  .jl”  10.990 
nxDxuD3yu70  .7.500  — iV’iD  I’K  lyVcyoiy  px  oyoiy  yiyiix  ’i  po 
dynyuxiy3sx  ]y3”t'D  nxn  ,i'7’is  I’x  dxou;  yp’y3”x  ’i  jynya  i’ix  rx 
pxiiy3  D’nsxD  1945  ,'ixi3X’  ]D'i6  Dyi  iy3”i  yyVyn  .p”  5.194  pxny3 

.i3xmxD3tJxi  pyiiD  ”Dnx  iyD’'n3’T  iyi  im 
]x  ixp’opy'?  iDyViyD3yo  px  iy3’Dyi  ix  ly^iaynaix  rx'o  ’n  up3n3 
T’x  ’iTX  pyy  iVx3X’yx3  ]D''n3  nyn3ix  ]y3yD”xx3  jyiyp  Vxt  oxn  .pmo’ix 
I'r’Dya  ynyn3ix  iy3y3”yx3  iy3yp  Vxt  oxn  pmD'’ix  ix  iy3'>Dy3  ix  nyniy 
IcVxnyi  I’l  oxn  n3ix  po  nyiy*  .33ix”nDX3  iyi  jiD  3yD  yoiyny  n px 
,nxn  oy  I’x  ?B;D3yn  ly’nD  x piiy  ]’□  px  ix  ,nxn  oy  rx"  :pyiD  i”x  px 
oVyDiyyaD’ix  ott7'>3  pi®  rx  pn  ix  ,nxn  oy  rx  7i3ynxa  ”id  pt  pp  px  ix 
l^x  ? i”9  iyp’DD”3  px  lyip’i’D  lyyyVpyiu;  pix  ,33ipnyT’3iyi  lys’D  I’lx 
?pyii  IX  iDXttnyi  ix3  lyix  oynyoxpya  .pirixD'x  ix  jix  DxinxD-x']x 

’ ’ -71X11  ypXOr'TKDK'll’K 

03X3'D  ! Dwi  pysy  pp'D  px  ,0”n”iD  iyi  d’o  p”iD  ii  pa  V’li  ox 
ayi  ]iD  p’D  X oysy  oyira  px  anx  in  oiyoixVo'a  .’?’Dy3  lyiiiy  x 
iy3”i*7xx  iyi  pii  .-Vxax-  ayi  pa  ...Vxax  pyViynys  jix  oy3”ay3'7X 
ViDi’Vxp  .p’lp  X o’a  oViiisiyy3  oxn  nxaxooiyiyo  px  aw*  lyiy’i” 
DX11  ,iyx  ]D’o  ayi  pnoixa  oVxiiya  ”ii  iiyn’o  im  py3  oVxii  pa  .py"? 
pjayiaD’iix  ipayayiya  px  iV’sx  jyiyp  oiya  pa  lyx  ayi  ;Op’3”a  iix  03X3 
pa  .yop’V’oixa  px  yiyonyaonx  n3ix  iia  lynxio'^nx  ’i  pa  lyiV’a  ’i 
.ixaiy3x  ]”p  ]y3’ayj  oiy’3  pp'a  px  ly’oxax  aiix  in  oiyoix’ra 
pyV  DX1  Vxra  lyax  oai’iix  0”pay’7pT*ii  ya’V3yo'3xo  yiy’opxia  n 
i”iiDyVD’a  oa”n  y’oxax  ’i  .pyoiya  yVxaixi  n payiarx  p”n3x 
IX  ’13  Tx  .i”ioDixiix3  iyi  D’lx  oVa  01X  I’X  px  ,]i3’iiiyixa  ix  p 
O’a  .pyV  ay3ia  jo’ayi  yVx  I’lx  — dxi  ]ix  joymx  pa  na  .pyV 
pin?  pyV  X .pyV  y”3  oxn  ly’ia  p’iny33x  pa  oxn  V’aya  ay”3  x-ayi 
1X3  ,iynya  yiy’oonyxs  ps  mxiix  iiyo3ix  oiy’3  .pxVpiy  oVx  oiy’3 
,op’*?3y3ax  oxn  pyay  aix  .i3’p  jix  ’iia  ixa  px  .p’Vx  pi  ixa  .p>’V’ii”ia 
yVxDxVxp  fj’x  jx  lyax  pn  oo’io®  pa  .pyii  oyiiyoxiyaax  iVxi  yaVyix  ix 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


74 


ypn'nanVa  ixa  n no  k li^rn  oxn 

.J-MSrtilSMT  !« 

•“iKD  "I’lx  m yipmsnsDJiK  .yistsnyj  x .uoa’iix  »axV  sasaxott^as"”!  ’t 
ina»V  n ]o^laax  jVxt  ,^»^o  a;3vVoDXu;V»tva  jix  »tt;'>o’Vx9  spn'nonVa 
a''x  DDXwnssnyp  x D«Dtt;ax  oy  .lyDsVaxns  yayaipyaD’ix  sVx  ]i”V  px 
pn’axanx  dix  ix  'i3'»n  dsid  nysVyaa  .nax^xoDayayo  ]’x  oyo’oxp  nyiyn”* 
lax  yVxaanxp  yp’onx  n fiV’n  ax  ]yaap  oyo’axp  pyT’  oyn  .lay*?  y”a  dxt 

.]V'a9  ay^a  DyaM  lyaxanx'aaxa  yiynxaayxaa  n ^’ax 
pyn”  in?<D  oVyDu;ya  pxn  .pxao’ax  ynyaaay  lyVo^naxaaax  .ynyaau? 
;py^  aax  ly^o’a  oax;  jx  ]ax  sxp  pya'x  ixn  x ix  ji”  ‘lyaaT’ao  toyo’axp 
DaDoa'^a)  ys’Voaaa’  200  “ayyyn  .o’DsanaaDX  ix  ^y^a’p  onynaan  ^y^y^ 
laD  pa  {<  I’x  iVxDa’nx  jyayp  ]ax  “axstt^ax  i”p  oiy’a  pxn  yyVyaa 
]ax  ypaxnp-nyaax;  nyaiynaan  lax  in’Vxaaa’x  “ayaa’Vnayx  ; y'xxfVxnxanyT 

.yaayiyyao’ax  ay’t’D 

y’aynyaxa  ya^xp  n a’a  ,iyaxanx-D3xa  n ]aD  yx’ou;  ^yDDa^y  nyn  o’a 
■^aya  ^yaDyaatt;  lax  “ayn'na  yaynaax  jao  laau^n  ]D’ax  yuanxaya  ,]yVo’a 
D’x  nxD  pa’n  oxaa  .lyayVaxna  ja^V  ax  ]axnayaax  aya’axp  "ayn  fx  .d’V 
pyaxaay  I’x  ODxayiy«att>"ixD  x pax  aaapxa  uyo’axp  nyn  .lyaxaayya 
.oyyVayanyn  dxt  .y’O’axp  oaaaa’axaa  nyiy’uxuay  nyT  I’x  ]ax  ox'i'Vxax’xxa 
.axoay  I’x  nan'o  ^XD  yaxnDDaaaa’axaa  ynyaaay  n ]a”V  ax  .Vyanap 
I’x  pa  ip’O^’a  Dxaa  n “axo  a”Day  ax  yx'oiy  y^ynyoxa  a’7”anxD  anyaa'D 
yp’nanynaxaaanan  ixd  I’annyayVoaxa  x oT'f’axaix  onyaa'o  .iDDa'”aax  ayn 
: yaxV3XTp'’V”aanyT  nxD  apaasDaVxnD’ax  jx  pnyaixV  yayT^iyaxa  jaa  ]n” 
]ax  .yyyVaayaa’  ^XD  upaaD'aVxraD’ax  jax  oaaaa’axaa  nyaa’apyVxp  x 
]aD  ayanxD’a  ■ayaa’opx  nyi  ”3  .yayVoayaa’  )ax  “lyiap  ixs  ’7au;-aaax’xnyT 
aya’aaxayaxn  .a  ]ax  'pDaaxn’ays  .a  tan’aDpxT  “ayaaxsxaDayayD  yaaa’  "aax 
p’D’aVnxD  jayaa  a’aan’  n .apaasoaV’n  lyya’xnya  x aaayya  pax  anyaa 
jax  aaaa’rxno’ax  yVao  ]yaapx3  ”1  oxaa  .oy’V’axD  yoxaana  ”3  033nxya3’''x 

.03’aD’ax  yp’VyDynxa 

jnaxD'oVyj  ynyoyai  lyaapxa  ax  la^nyiax  ayo’axp  nyn  oxn  io’JJ’X 
axnyj  ^X3  aVxayT  oxn  D?<aa  .iV'as  ]’x  aya’axp'Wnojyx  ]ay’3”  ayjaa 
nyaaxsxoDayaya  n jao  'iV’n  ypn'raaayaa  pax  lax  ;]’V3aV  I’x  anx-pa  i«a 
I’x  .pax’-a’j  ]'>x  "pVyT  ayaaxaxaDiyaa"  avaao  onynaaaxa  .a’^-naya 
aya’axp  jaa  a«p’aya  n .yj’aaynx  ,Dy3’'’x-DX3ya3  11a  pax  lax  y'aVyaxV’a 
”3  pxT  {a  I'x  .]nya«33D’ax  i”x  ]’x  laVxnyi  ayi  paxT  x pa  axn 
px  laiyxD’Vxaajxpya  axa  ann-anax  ]x  aana^nx  anyaa  aaxDxaoayaya 
ayVaa  a’a  pan  x .anxaxa  ]3yaa  ]n’Vxaa3’x  n ; yaayayyaonx  ayn’a  axa 
px  aiyn  yp’a":  a^a  lax  ayaxya  ,X3’p  .yoyna  a’a  pax  .aaaaVxnonx 
ipnynya  j<  ,]a”p’xyD  y3«a  a’aV  .-jn  a3nyV  'n  jaa  ayny’  .iiyaxaa-D’D 
n .iaVxaay3”x~ayV  yV^aaxa  ]’x  a3ymxy33'”x  jnyaa  yayVaaia’  V’d  .^XD 
a3mxy3a«x  a’x  oxaa  ,a’an‘*ayn3’p  aanyia^x  aa3  ]ax  i”ay  {<  jyaapxa  a’aan’ 

.Vaa-pa  .V  .’  lyayayaaya  lyi  laa  ]’3a  j’x 
.ayn  nyo’ax  .lyna’p  pa  yapa  ’t  ]yaay3  t’x  ayVaxna  lyaaa  3xa 
]D’apD’ax  ixanyi  px  ^ya’aya  ]ax  ]3aa  aanpxa  ”a  jaa  V’d  axn'a  oxaa 
la’D’oa  ]ax  ]p’aD”i  .py’t’a  3y’’a  jiyaa  yaxna ’t  lyajaaayyj  pax  t’x  ,”3 
yay’V’aa  ]aD  yayaaayaax  3yn3’p  .onypaaa  pa  ,]nyixV  ]ia  nyna’p  .naxaaax 
dVj<  aayVynya’x  ]axn  opa  pyna’p  ; ia’7Kaay3’’X'3yaD’a’7p  .a’oaanaiax 
a^y^3^<11yl  oyjx’npa  ’aa  ]axn  opa  .“lyna’p  ]ax  ,3yD3yT ’t  ]’x  nysaaoxa 
.anynanyx'ay’xyaanya  ]yaaya  ]y3”T  ”a  laa  yp’3”x  .lyaiyn  jax  ayaay  nya’x 


75 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


:swn'"  dVk  ]siyp“iy3i<  tsw’i  in  ]Vm  ; y3ypKnB7»n3?D’K  yp'’3”K 

.D«pB?'nr>  px  p«  bds^133'>'>d  Dmx  iVdk  iT”n  oxn  .SDVyix  I’ik  ]ix 
■©’VnoKp  ^»^J•>p  inx  m .ruu  iik  mipDn  ix  ]yi3U”3  spnxou?  o’o  nsnj’p 
,l”j  idkW  jnxD  in  ■•n  iVyos?  inn-iyni’p  px  iV’dx  pu?  oxn  ,^s^v'v'7^s^\ 
isp’’7”n'  nsT  ]iD  n’m  dix  ]ds3  jix  np  n inx  ,]«DC7Dnx  iny  1X3  jix 
nyin:;  x t’K'o  .“ix’xnyT  vny’n  ]id  inx  ]nxD  onx  loVxnxn  'n  dkii  .'nsoiD 
SDop’xyD  jix  iixixnxB  XDDom’Dn  n ixd  i't’dx  ]T”'?  dix  Dy^Dxns 
n inxiiyi  onn’V’axa  ixi’n  it^V  ix  DsVaxis  xpnxi  dxt  na  .iixdx’D’db 
nsni’p  sixasivnsa’x  ]ix  lyxnsT  SDODm'>Dn  n .mms  yDDD3ya'’'7XD3’x 
nyi  ”3  t3”p33yny3'’X  px  D''’p’X'ixn  V’d  ]TmyiDmx  i3xn  yyVyn 
yop’D’niyiix  mx  »pnxT  dxt  .ynxionx  ny’nD-mnnx  )ix  nynyiny  nypnxT 
.pxnyi  Di^Vyj  fniV^o  oyanx  nyViD  d’o  o’lynn  V’d  ix3  t>x  Dy'73xnD 

oynoDnx  nyayVoiDy  nyowny  nyi  nxD  ooip  ,1945  .nr  ]0'i3  oyi  jniy 
.nx’  ]3’7yT  pD  "lyaxopx  ]D'20  oyT  .'7Xi“iyiyy’7iy”D  ]’x  lyni’p  n ]id 
py’DXDiy  poyni  px  onDDnx'nyni’p  3yB”nx  lyn  ixd  i’ix  I’W  oaip 
y3'7yii  .nyniyix  yiy’Vns  ]ix  yiyn”  d’d  u'^ionya’x  rx  Dxn  .'rxinyoxyo 
11X  ]yDi'?3  B’a  3y33’p  n ]Dnxnx3  ]ix  ,]yin3’ni-iyT  n inyi3ixnx3 
lonyjomx  jVJ’n  nynj’p  n tx  .y’xpxDD’oxD  d’q  jyiypnyix  yVx  .nxVxpxiy 
pxn  Dxn  .nynrp  'i  tx  ; py'7-Vxa'ix:  x ix  oinn  jDyVpyny  x ps  iixryi 
yaxmi  ]id  ix’  ]3yiny  oyT  jiKioyionx  jyVopx  vaxriy  ynyn  px 
ly’n  ]3xn  ,pyny3y'7ny3'’x  yiynxno  ]’x  onpi  lyax  .]ix’  I’x  ny33’p  ,]3”V 
lynDyjonx  ti”x  nyn  O’q  ]3xn  ’n  jid  V’d  .lyn  1x3  lynDya  pmx 
iVns  px  in  .DynxD  nynx  .oyoxo  iV’dx  — ypn”x  jix  ,D’3np  yD3yx3 
n33B'?  Dy33x  xViDnvnnx  n inx  .jVns  ]id  ]xy3yi3  n lyonx  ]n  ,xdi3 
oy  laVyn  inx  ,i3i3ypny3x  nyVis  d’q  ]3xny3  B3mpy3  I’X  in’'7xn3'>x  n 
ly’n  nxs  li’'7xn3’x  n po  oyo’Qxp  dix  nn3'D33i3iyiy3  x nny  D3xt 

:nX3Xt)D3yiyD  ]TXV3XD 

in  1X3X31X1X3  .DnyoxD  y3’'7 ' — .p’Vxni’x  n p’nix  — .'i^x  iVnn’a...' 
D”p33y3ny3’x  px  D'”poxi3nxT  ixT  nxD  px  jypixT  iix  ixVdd’hx  px  d’d 
oxn  TX  .ono  3'7xn  piixa  1x3  jy3’’i  tq  ]yn  ,]x  d^x  ■iyDi273y  ixi  ]id 
.33iB’7xnDnx  ixViD  px  iD”pDyVoynpx3  yVx  d’o  aiDui  x D3Tixy33'”x  i3ix 
.'...■1X13^  XDxVp’Vaaix  xix’n  ixd  ]nxuVx  ]3ixi  ox  m mx  Dp3i9 
.03XD’'n3X3Dnx  03X11  xp’ODnxixaoni  •n  nxa  iV’n  xo3X3xa3X9  n inx 
ix’pxoiw  ps  pxn  .1945  .Vnsx  )0’i4  iid  oxo’axp  dx3id  oxnxa  jon*? 
■dVx3  X3”Vp  ]xaipx3  I3xn  xxVxn  .pa  2440  pxixi  i^’n  nxxx’^ixnin 
2000  IX  — D’ann  xpmxoxDtx  n px)  Dxp  x px  pVn  50  ix  dxx’dix 
1X11X3  lX3’n  lX33l’7’'>01X'T"91X  ’T  .]X33lV'”DlXn['”SlX  pX  (9Xp  X 1’IK  P*?’! 

:Xpn33’7XD 

.3p  .05  3XpiX  .3p  0.7  ; Dm3  .3p  4 — DniDX  X3X1X11X3  X031TX3  3XD  ( 1 

:3xVxanxo  .3p  1 px  pVxi 

3XD’*7  15  ,3X”X  30  ,0m3  .3p  15  — DniDX  X3X1X11X3  Xp3X3p  3X5  (2 

;3XpiX  .3p  0.8  ,3XD19  .3p  0.4  .l^a 

,3XD19  .3p  0.25  ,3X”X  16  ,Dn33  .3p  16  — pXoVx  ”3  3X33’p  3X9  (3 

.iV’a  3X0’'?  15  px  ,3XpiX  .3p  0.8 

IDT"  ps  iV’HD’a  3X3  D’a  oVxaxi  ix3’n  D3nx3  pVxT  lonV 
,3Xp’33XDX3Dpx'7X  ,3XVxa  .3X3n’3D  pD  pVOX3X9XXp  1X3XDC73X  DXD’aXp 
piD  1X3”!  p''aX3Vx  px  .X'X  0X01X3X11 3XlX’3X3Xa  3XirDX3X9XXp  X 
I’X  3XOX91X  D’lX3n  Xp’3’’X  O’D  -IXa  936  1X11X3  Op’ODXa7X3  DVxaX3 
X px  n’OX3X9XXp  3X3"31X  X OXO’OXp  p313  13X11X3  0'7X01XX39’1X  px 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


76 


SDKIVIS  V’D  ]3;3l<Dtt73S  ]»rn  DJ7T  nyO’IX  .IVDKnVSXXpnyODW 

sosnns  ]nKnyj  03D»»i  "I’ik  lyi’n'o  .onsViP’o  iis  onsoDitt^  ,D^»^”3^7  ]id 
inn  inKiisa  otdsi  pi’n  dkii  isVpnaxo  ynsjsVp  iV’dx  iik  nsa^ynya 

.nwxDDJStt^o  ]’x  ]D3xp’i3XD  yjyiynyj  iid 

yivDJVoi’x  ]x  DT>D»i  onyn  d’svj  ny’cVxD  ]ix  i^smoVip  jd’ix  *]’ix 
BT’DsaDnn  eyo’axp  nyn  oxn  ,1945  ,^x^^3yD  wnin  I’x  ]’ny  .o«p’Dyt3 
yw’T”  yaytynyj  yVs  ]id  ij’D’o  p’na  ]ua7^»  dvt  "p’DWa"  xi’p  ]’x 
onvn  — '■HD  “lyT  »)’ix  nos  ps;ny  ovn  ,1945  ^x’  po  nos  .Qmox 
DS’VvDiVu?  {<  oannxyi3”x  I’lx  onyn  nyovsiy  .yavnxps'ps  1?  oi'Dyio'm 

IX  11X  y’a»n;<px  y^y*7^y''■'D  {<  a3mx»i3”x  onyn  ,1945  Vnsx  I’x  .uanx 
.xayj  lynyTynxn  I’X  naxowD'ix  dvi  ninsV  y^xuDVDaxa  VDJXTXsa’x 
^»nx^xDD3yu;a  j’x  d5dxt  yayVaa’tyyi  ]id  lya'pjynyj  D3iTxyja''’x  pyivo 
ay3^x■^lo’7^p  ysy’jayu'JXD  yVxanxi  x on’Dya  ^’^x  oiyu'o  jix  xaya 

.nxDxoDjywu  I’x  aanypVyDxa  nyiyn”  ^y^  ]u;’ny 
]u;'nr.  pin  oToya  onyn  oxn  .ayaix'nioVip  nyaxu^aya  nyn  nyonx 
Dxn  .ly^D'ijja  yiyo’Vxs  yVx  t>t  ]op''’7’'>ox3  oy  jD’ryn  I’x  .ayo’axp 
n T'lx  IT'D  pixDxaDayiyo  I’X  aanypVyDxa  nyu^n”  3yT  ]u;'‘ny  ipi’n 
a''''p’ayD  yVymoVip  jix  ywa’Vxs  yo’nya  x jy^oixs  y3y3anxa 

.nyp’uxDa’D  px  ‘iyT''7ao'’a  yiy’i 

."D’xia’p"  yp''V'''mD’''y  aanxyayx  ]3xn  Dy’xxT’Jxanx  yu^’oo’JT'y  n 
y^’T'''  'T  .ya’DDyVxD  p’p  jnna’ay  oiy  yDy'rDaai’  a’nayaiy  laxn  ”i  nxn 
oyaix  y^yiynyVpD’ix  px  yiyny’xnyn  yivDiyaa’x  ix  aToya  axn  .ts.d 
13yDyia  x axnya  axn  njia  nyT  .aaav  nyn  jiynx  ■iy’73yioD''in 

]ix  ]yaaiTyVnxD  yoDx  oaTixyaa^x  t’X'o  ixn  ,Dxa  xjxVxnnyaxp  •p'lx  Vxpx*? 
VxpxV  px  IT  '’■'3  oi’cya  ]ix  oynanaya  I’lx  axn  3313  nyn  .]ya3i'7’''i33XD 
yix  axn  3333  3y3  .Dy3ya  .11  iid  ]yax3  idtx  pyux’V3’3  y3yDy3a  x 
]3xn  DX3i.]tt?D3ya  yTxV3y'’’7’axD  yVx  3x11  ]X3X0Dy3'3yDy33x  jx  a3’Dya 

X 3XD  ]3xn  ,ODX3yD3'n3  y3ya”x  x ]3’d  iy  o^payVaya  i^p  uxnya  ca 
3yi3X3XDD3y®a  13d  3y3’VaD''a  "ax  .aaioVxnD’ix  ]yaipx3  Vxxdx  aya^Vp 
.3333  pD  Dyu''axp'’7X3D3yx  ]’x  ]ax3U3XD  ]y33ya  lya’n  3333  13d  oya’axp 

33X3XOD3y3yO  I’X  a333yp'7yDX3  3yu?’3'«  3y3  ]\y'’33X  Dy33X  y33'>D3yU3'’X  I’T 

]V’3D  I’x  ]y"D3XD'3yDy33x  ’3  ]y33  .oayaxa  p'’3  a3’Dya  3333  3y3  axn 

.op’3”X3{!;D  I’t  pxn 

ca  33\y»  3y3”Vp  x ,33i&’  3ywn'»'»  x 33XDxaD3yiyo  ]’x  jyaxatyDax  t’X'o 

CDxa, 0*733X3  ,Dy33x  a333yp’7yDX3  yu^n”  n .13333303  i3x  n3'7ya  ya^t  y*?!? 

.]3yV  i^’x  I’T  0333X  13X  o’aa  ,]ODytt>ya 
D’a  o*7''Dya3x  i3y’  i3xn  ]ya333’na3y3  yo33y3yaD’3X']3’3X  ypnx3  '3 
]'X  pa’p  ]®'3«  Dy3y3X0O03X*'»’3  Dy3'”*7p  Dy33D  ]3y*7  0X3  .13’3*7a 

]Vxa3X3  ]3x  i0333ya  x ]ya3px3  3ya  p’ax  3yD”33  0x33  oy33  33  X 3XD03y’yo 
n pD  oy’xpx  n .i3y33y  3X  3y3X  I’t  D3”n  y’xx3D’o  n .inyaoTx 
■n  pD  33XOS73X  3ytP’3'»DD  3y3  ,33XV  pX  33333  y3yOX3’D  y3y3X''Xp?<y3 
'jTx  iya3303'3  y^y'O’VxD  yo’33ya  ]3D  a33*7yo©3''''X  ’3  i’3x  '33  ,xD3a  ]3’' 
3y3  ]3"n3x  I'T  *7X3  OX  a3303'3  3y3  ]'x  ]p3’33  jx  p'’n,oxa  Tytyn"  Dy3 

D3''n  33X3XO03y3yO  ]'X  33®’  3y3  .0X0®  3yt3a3X  px  ]3'’  '3  ]3D  ''D33X3py" 
]3X  ]33’OX3yDXXp  ,]OXO®3X33,3y3*7y33ya  p ]3'3’33p’*7  Oy  .isa33®3”x  IX 

axo  3S  03’’n  .Tyay^p  axo  3X  axo  13d  03y33 13”  *7xx  '3  .io*7XO®3x  y3y33x 

.]3”  400  py  ]x  T’3*73  33X3xoo3y®o  I'x  i'3®  pT  lya’Dya 
3’a  ]*7y33  Dy3  p3x  ? a33sa33®3’'x  yp'3X3  '3  oyo*7XO®ya  I’t  oxn  '33 

:13yD’s  yp’33a*7XD  '3  I’x  3yD03y  ix  ^ya'oya 


77 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


— DST  pS  5,194  pVlKV  ’T  jlD  D’nX  JUJ”!  1945  3”n31< 

px  OSDttl  »33n”tt>nXD  11D  — OU^in  ’T  ]1X  ,2,758  — nynXDXDDlim^D 

■pjio  ]’x  in  ]3xn  17”  nynxaxtJDJSiPD  W'i  an'o  .iV’is  px  ivVuvdu^ 
pD  "luio  px  .oyDtt>'D”n  3nv”i  px  Dnspsinix  D’unn  3 »du77V  ’t  iid 
px  punyi  u”nDxa  p’avi  snsoyna  prn  d”x  7»3’?yT  lyn 

1,195  lyoipyjjx  ,1945  ,p7yo  it)-2i  D»n  pj”!  invJxV  yp’onxT  n po 

.nynjyV  siP''xysx7”x  y3yn”unxD  jid  ooxoiyya  ]2xn  oxn  ,p”  yo’nDxa 

• 30  — »iy'n’''X3X7D ; 197  — yu?’3nn;4io  — yiysvipo ; 490  — yiynxinx 
yiyn^ya  ;17  — yiy’nxVoxiv  ;19  — yiy’a’nooy  :26  — yiymyVxn 

”1  pxn  ,nxDXDD3yiyu  px  i”t  pxn  yp'3”x  nxi  -i  — yiyoni  px  ,5  — 

.^yniyV'D^n  ynyn  px  onypyiaix  in 

P7  lyoipyjjx  pyaxV  y3y7”iy7XD  po  pj”!  ,1945  ,’3v  V2  Vnsx  po 

■n  :652  — nynxsxoDiyiyo  — oyn  I’x  jp”  yiy’V’is  2,679  nxDXDDiyiyo 
ywT”  '7  .p’nD  1064  px  7y3yo  i,6i5  po  pixDiyxa  pm  ]xnys  2,679 
,miyD3  6,143  t?’7”xyj  D*7xnx7  pw  Dxn  ,nx3XDD3y2;o  I’x  imypVyoxD 

pypniaVxD  pnyi  I’x  73XDiyx3-7y7rp  7y7  .143  — 7y7rp  — Dy7  px 
,D’oin’  yp^iDyV^p  53  :7yi”rTD'>i3in’  yiy’V’io  px  2 ,ipx'''7xs  ”3  D’lain’  8 
px  ;D''ow  3'7xn  — 38  jnn'D’ain’  px  pxnyj  omxyjr’x  ]y3”T  oxn 
DV”xyj  p®  3iiy’  7y7  oxn  ,1945  ,7y3nyyy7  px  .pyoVy  ”3  — 42 
pD  yDyVDJiv  :5i  — nn'D’QW  px  7y73'>p  Dy7  jix  pWDi  2,051  n’73 

.lD*7XUiy3X'7y'?  DDnX3  81  pxn  ”T  pD  ,88  — 7X’  18  r3  14 
1,235  n'73  pnoyi  pw  nxDXDDiyiyD  px  in  pxn  1946  7y3Dysy7  I’x 
yj’73y^”p;Dy7  ps  .783  — lyiyo  j 452  — ]y’nD  — oyn  ]’x  ,miyD3  ywn” 
ypnx7  ’7  .pyoVy  yaynx  po  15  iix  :15  — o’oin’  3*7xn  :22  — Q’ain’ 

.tjyo’oxp  pyn”  ]iD  I’ln'D’mn’  px  lynsyj  ]3xn  7y7ri7 
pD : p”  69  piiDyj  nxDXODiyiyo  ”3  lyb’Dyoiy  px  in  i3xn  Dy7  pin  x 

:Dy7 

!(5  — pmo  — 7 nyiyn)  12  — pyi3xVp  j’x 
;(4  lyms  — 3 nyjya)  7 — p’oyiyip  px 
.(17  lyrno  — 33  7y:y»)  50  — ynxiyDiyxVn  px 
yiyi^x  OT>Dyj  132  D’?xax7  pxn  xdu  nxDxooiytt^D  px  i7”  n po 
:7yDy37X'n’DX7ysxxp  — 30  ; 7yDy37X'OXDiy7xn  — 84  jpxoiynxn 
ysyVoDxiyVyTyj  jix  yiynDiVa  px  yooxx3  — 247  ; 7yDy37x-p'73XD  24 
.35  — ]yi7D  ,212  — nyiya  piiyi  pm-o  yaVyn  pa  ,Dy’xiD’DDrx 
.p”  862  riVa  iixajjiowyiyB  px  piiyi  piy  lym  1947  nyaayyyn  px 

.(364  — iymD:498  — 7y:ya) 

.(65  — lyVn^a  ,56  — p'rji”)  121  — nx’  14  t’3  nyni’p  -.ayn  px 
piiyi  ,1947  ,7y3ayyy7  j’x  pm  nxaxowyiyo  anx  lyVoyaiy  ’7  px 

: 17”  49 

j(5  — p’i7D  j7  — 7y:ya)  12  — pxiaxVp  px 
; (7  — p’na  ; 3 7y3ya)  7 — p’syiyip  px 
.(8  — p’na  ; 32  — 7y:ya)  30  — ynxiyoiyi^Vn  px 
ps  p’lxynya’x  p”  250  pxn  1949  nyaayyyn  I’a  1947  nyaayyyn  pa 
nxaxoDjywD  px  ix  ’itx  .yiynxn  px  lynx^  ,pnyViy7y7’3  p’p  nxaxaojyiyo 
■»7  .(294  — pma  j3i8  — nyjya)  p”  6 12  p’Vayi  aVxayn  p3”T 
,1954-1953  px’  ”1  px  .1953  7X’  p’a  pVxnyiix  Dxn  612  Vxy  yoixanyn 
in  oxn  317  'D  yaVyii  pa  ,p”  208  iixoxoDiyiyD  pa  iJ’ixyaDmx  I’l  pxn 

.I’p’ia  px  oyoiy  ynyayni  ynynjx  px  0377xyi3”x 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 

0?<T  .nWD3  404  nK3^<l3D3»®D  3W’  IST  JKO  IX  D3”n 

K I'lK  pm»3»*13«ns  ,l3»3nx  ”3  Op’OD»U?X3  T’K  ”T  ]1D  3n 

.]»’nD  Vkx  somya 

]”s;  IIK  »n’)D3»D3’X  *1’1K  Ol’S  p3'»p  n3?3'’^p  nsp'TXT  3»T 

13»VDD{<u;V3?T»a-niDVip  ip’onx  jonn  t3n’s»3i3x  onsn  d?<ii  ,i3yV'niD^ip 
D»”3  g H<S  p?  ‘13?031T»a  s I’K  p3’p  ■l»3’'Vp  ISp'l^l  nST  ’X  .n3Jj:3‘l{<S 
.t3D3ipiX  St3D03»W  n lT«n  tn31K  D»11  BKOWD^n  3»n31K  I’K  31®’ 

.1956  ODll’lN  .uan^!!^l 


1’T  i:Nn'D  ikp  ,17  -n"i 


79 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


TlNa^UJ  .N 

— T T 

]iK  i53»”V  ipmoa  ps  pKiwa  josnyT  ppDjya  ]’i®  pk  nv'7D3»j'"x 

•DKDJJ  ]iD  isaim’np’V  px  injxowD’ix'XDSJ  jayp  pyn 
jasn  .onynsj  oV»n  ysjxi  n Dxn  .yc^nxn  ]i»n  ixa  iso  xV^o 

DDsn  VD»V®0JS0  1X3  pQsp  ipn'iz7D3-m’DO  px  n:xDiSD’ix  itt^’XTsn  osn 
.«loxp  D1X  ©’’pD^nj  I’x  isnsa  p’xp’x  o’j  px  swnxn  u^x  pios  psn”  ]ix 
DST  innpip’V  po  ixonx’  ]D'3  dix  pxdxodwisd  isixoi^i 

.XDSi 

▼ 

ppnsjox  07’opxD  "jn  oxn  nxsKOD^siso  px  osmx  sis’Tisnsopx  n 

pspix  non*70  n tx  .p’ojsnx  o:spyi  piu;  i’i  dxh'o  jsp  ,i94i  VnDX  I’x 
I’O  ,1s’7T«0nXD01X  PX  llxVlSD’p-lsVD’n  HP’DD’U7XD  ]1X  ^:X3^XD'1UX^ 
ID’JDPX  DS’ODSD  SJP'O  n ]'7Sn  pKX  ISODSnX  DST  :x  .ISTSlDPXnXD  pxn 

.]Dxo  sisn”  n nsD’x 

pVsn  .OSO’OXp  ^S^S’T^S■^SDPK  IX  pXPSl  ]DXtt>Sl  p’Vl  T’X'O  px 
I’l  pxn  T>a  .is^uixs  px  isjposn  sVx  ]id  ns”ui£’ixD  ioxidixd  pxn'o 
.C’piPDpx  is  iDxo  SPT"  ’T  ]pyn  ]iD  saxiDPX  ’T  dVsdissi 

nsDVsn  .nsDSonx  sb^’Vps  d’o  jmpmxD  I’x  dVsdissi  pix  i’i  jDxn  I’n 
PX  XDSJ  ]1D  D”X  px  .OT’iaXjnX  ISIISJ  oa  psxipx  D”S  nSIS’  I’X  T’X 
P’P  ]snsi  D’J  nsDSonx  ps’V’iD  p’o  i’i  ]DsnuD’ins  nsnnx  isViisdisixd 
Dixpyj  jDxn  ipxVxD ’t  .D’Tix  uixdsj  d’i  i^xn  xdsj  po  I’o  .sddx  ■is”t 

.]D”p’isins  D’o  iinmxD  ]snsa  nsax  px'd  .xusi  I’x  pmp 

”1  TX  pSDSOnX  pS’VlB  DST  OpSIIXl  ^^D^  I’O  pXH  t3’’S  nX’  X ’11  TSO 

iVxi  p’U’ix  i”T  Dsiro  pn  ]ix  .'jiisa  idxisp’x  oVs:  ^sn11x  nxD  iVxi 
bsil  .DSD’OXp  piI'msnSDIIX  po  '71’’X  ob’X  I’X  .'loxp  D1S  0”ni  P’T  ”1 
isu^noixp  snsn:ix  iid  nsp’x  ^px  px'd  dxii  .ixVs  dst  ]asiis3’x  i”x 

•IDxVisxa  pxiisj 

IsirsnsDXix  psosonx  sis’Vps ’t  ]!nxT  ,xdsi  p’lx  ‘I’lJix  x ]id  Vxd  px 
pD  P’O  px  ,XDSJ  pSD’IX  p’:X9  X jDnDPPX  px  .DXDtS  jlD  l'?”D  sVx 
’T  px  ,XUS1  po  ]Op319  S3SVdS  lixViSSPn  nsiisi  D’O  iVsil  ,p’3’’11S:’X 
pxVnxD  pVx  Disns  dspdxi  jix  .ispi’p  ]ix  jS’ino  ]siisdxt  ’•n  soisns 
pn  o”Pisaix  ,]0p3i9  sispiisa:x  ’t  i’ix  iVsdis  yi  px  xdsj  dst 

.”1 

’T  onsDJiosj  11X  Dpsnsj  pno’ix  sip’DXpaxDpyn  pn  p’o  pxn  ’iix 
I'tsow  is  pi  tj’’"u  i”!  sVx  ]VxT  ,piix  ix  ]iD  "rxD  I’X  IX  ,pxo  yiy’T" 

•iVyoxa  yp'nsnyi ’t  ii’ddpx  px  jopiiD  yiypusoix  ’n  pix 
,1942  lynasosyD  ]0*22  iid  ixd  isi  iDxnoyi  mix  oxn  nsin  x ’ii 
isi”!  ynxiiiy  ’n  ix  nVno  x lixiui  px  xosi  px  .H93‘  dp  piiya  px'o 
Dsn  oVii’Tyjonx  pxn  px  .osnix^  sip’p’xnpix  isiisi  isi”!  oxn  .isoipsa 
.mix  pix  snxoa  nsxnxiw  ist  po  isoipix  oxn  oV’Dyj  pxn  n’o  .xosi 
Djyoxo  nin  I’x  ox’x  ix  .O’nan  S57’V’19  n is  n’'?®  x op’isyi  *l3’n  ]ix 

.D”pDXI3XH  ps 

^X3  pj”!  ”1  IX  .nsDoiy  IX  D’o  isoipyjp’nis  n’Vo  nsmix  px  nsn”*? 
lixVsiD’ix  pi  oxn  nsisVa  sVx  ps  ix  *1’t  o”oiynxs  .'loxp  ms  D’’'a  o’: 

.IX^n-JD”!  X 

yasVisojso  n oxn  yoDoxPiu  oxn  poipyjnxD  B;’opxD  px'd  jix 
ainypVsDx^  nyp’ojpio  60  ’n  ]ic  .pasiD’ix  mspsi  o’l  oxn  s’ixoixd 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


80 


."I^VDSa  S13S  4 jlD  Kt?va  ^J7r’’7l7  K I’K  .OlT’lt)  5 TK  .KDSl  ]’K 

V’'o  ^SDD»*^J  lyn  V'”!!  ,]D'’“i»j“iy3''K  pxnvj  yVx  t’k  c’s  nvsnip  x ^nx 
]nxnyj  Dp’tt?yii?ynx  t’x  y’s^i’^xinx  lytt^mviyDJix  nvT  jiD  nyn’ViD’a 

.y)?r'72ynD  ]’7 

D’a  ]DxnD»a  osmx  nyn  «3  "jn  *i’x  axn  .yprVayna  I’x  lya  lo  pn3y«i 
•j’lx  ]ix  .asD’axp  isnijDXDDjytt^D  ]E>mynyonx  po  ivn’Via’a  ypa”x 
.pxnsj  ]DxVtt?X2  oy  ]ik  .’pnarnD  ]wni  p’y'Vyio  aynxaxDOjyiyD  lO’a 
ijnamjiiQ  px  iVyow  3yD'’'>'j  i’t  ]ix  yprVayno  iid  o’ns  tia  ^’x  is 

•xayj  “lyr’Vp  nyjya’Vayjnya’x  nyn  a^a 
1942  lyaaynxj  ja-8  ayn  ]yj3iVya  ^’a  t’x  ,jyn  jnyiw  ]ix  ViD'niiao  s IXJ 
I'DiVnV  .ly’Vxnxa  lyn’D  ,xaya  ayr’Vp  ^y^lx^xDD3y1ya  ]’x  ]yaipiypmx 
lyVa’a  lyroyaixD’ix  on’ins  jix  UTnxnx  ^yD”^^  ^n  I’a  laxn  .jyxnayy 
.oynyoxnyj  p’V”na”y  ixi  axn  oxn  yVyo’a  dxt  ipn^anxc  ix  ’ii 
puy  oy’aaya  ^ laxn  .I’l  ix  ]yaip  ix  ji’iisa  pxn  n’a  nxT’x  nyax 
p«  VD”n  y3”Vp  DXT  ]aVxn  ix  ns  ,nnx  ]ix  ]'”d  )id  idix  jiyno  x a’niynx 
anya’VDyiyx  I’x  yiya’Vaynya’x  VD”n  yj^Vp  oxn  .pyiu?  lyp’mnoD  px 
yjyn’iynxD  ^’ix  ]-ixnyj  ap’iyyjnynjxjiD  ]ix  .Dyana  yj^Vp  ^’ix  iixnyj 
jaxn  .ayans  ^yiiyi  lyj”!  xaya  ]id  V”a  ^yaDy^a  nyn  jyn  .payanx 
“lynj’P  Vo’a  ayn  ii'ix  y’xpyVya  x a'l’Dyiann  ayi’n  ^x^3X’  ia'4  ayn  "i 
DXT  “lyax  -lynyaxT  ix  a’joix  yiyn’iynxa  I’lx  jyiaiVyi  txj  t’x  ay  oxn 
in”  yapa”DyjD’ix  iix  yaVD”nx'iXD  n ix  aV’onyn  nymya  n pxn  Vxa 
aa’p’nyasx  axn'o  ]ix  .na’my  nyn  ix  psyu;  ’ii  p’a  px"?  a’j  nya  yt  iVyn 
.ypj’Vayna  ]id  nyayaipyjpmx  x ynx  .lya’iiyVyiy’o  'n  jia  .oxu;  nyaiyny  nyn 
^X3  .’’X’VxD-piy  nyn  pa  ]xn  a3X3ya”’7'iya’ix  ayn  ayni’inxa  axn  ny 
apn^’ansa  yxxrixjnx'oaaxp  nyn  iia  anan  n pxn  .iV’ip  ’n  lO’iyD’ix 
lynVyn  px  po’ia  n a’a  pixiiya  I’l  ‘iiaV  px  pyiiya  ya'pxp  a’a 
piiyi  rx  oy’aaya  yj’na  n pa  aaxanya’x  ’n  ix  lyVmyaiyixa  .aaaypyj 
lyamyVyiy’a  'n  a’a  anan  26  iVxayi  mix  ]i3  iy3”t'o  px  .pnxaiy  ix 
ayn  jynyaxn  ix  nx3  .pa'iiya  payii  lyjjxjyj  a’3  rx  iiaxp  nyn  .lyxna 

! p3yn3x  ny”T  niaa  ! pVxa  pyn”  pa  niaa 
yaVx  ]ix  nyn3’p  D3aDnya  p”  300  nynn  ]y3”i  y’xpx  ypnxn  nyn  ”a 
.pxiiya  pyayaarx  a'a  nyax  rx  “loxp  nyn  .naix  pa  pxiiya  pnyaD’nx 
lya  aaxV  n pyar  a3xV  'iix  pa’n  yaya’Vayanya’x  n ix  aamya  pxn  I’a 
•Vnia  "lyaVyi  nyn  pyna  pay^x  ayn  ixanyn  .ayanx  nyn  ix  1x3  ”i  ^ixn 
yu7’V’i3  ”i  I’lx  pxVnxa  an  I’l  nynya  iaxiy3”x  p’a  n’a  pxn  Vxa  oxn 
,iax3xna  panx-onx  p’inya3x  .ninia  y3ya”x  a’a  pxn  n'a  nx3  panan" 
px  aya’Bxp  ny’mynya3ix  p’a  a3n3’anxa  px  aVyaiyya  71  pxn  T»a  px 
,xaya  I’x  aVaiBiyya3”nx  rx  ay  px  nynya  pnipsa  pxn  n’a  111  .yipnxn 
.pxnaya  j'^Vx  aaya  yxaxa  inin  pxn  n’a  oxn  .iVxaxp  yiy’nnynyaaix  pm 
nyiy’V’ia  nyn  a’a  paaix’xxa  aa’apyaax  n’a  ]axn  a”x  nyn  pm 
a”payVaya  ’n  ]yaipxa  pxn  n’a  px  (Armia  Ludowa)  .V  .x  ”anx 
yVx  pnxn  nwax  niyn-’piVn  a”aiya3x  oy  ,nVxn  px  a’nan  p’lyixo’inx 
jyaiayaax  ^xn  rx  oy  nyax  .xaya  ayn  ip’n”anxa  a”a  p”'7a  nyoya 
,nVxn  px  a’nan  oyama  ap’iyyao’ins  pxn  n’a  px  DiVwxa  x jnxnya 
yiy’n”  nxa  oaaiyny  ia”p’nyiny  yayn’iynxa  fj-nx  pxnayaax  pxn  n’a  px 
“I’a  ’11X  px  lyaaynaaix  p’Vx  anaya  ”i  pxn  n’a  oxn  .pxaxpxnxna 
”1  pxn  n’a  ]ix  ipyaumyn  a’a  ”i  iVxi  aa’nm’ain  ytt>a”n  ’n  ’na  .pxnaxa 
,n*3xn  pa  pina  yaayViy  paipxa  p’inaax  n’a  pxn  03a”nx  .an’n’np’'? 
’11X  .ipx’Vxa  "a’nan*  ynyinaix  pa  an’axp’o;  I’lx  anxn  pyn  p”  n’a  ix 


81 CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 

•IDinj  yjyv’x  1ik  ]V”ds;<  onn»i  t>t  n’a  ]3i<n  onj? 

]ix  iDvans  s’cnsivT  ]ix  ii;ixdk2sd  yjyn’iynxs  OTsyiDin  ]ai<n 
ynyiw  ly^T  oxnyi  oxn  axoiy  nynnx  .onan ’t  DynV’nyiD’ix  tt;nyD''V''a 
jD'nx  onx  i«x  ]id  loni  imxmyanx  D”x  is  o^s  ]id  ’ii  pxiD’ix 
(Armia’p  .x  ,”anx  lynyjx’xpxyn  nyn  ]id  laVxnxmxD’ix  Tn  ’lo  ,iD«nx 
I’x  iix  .xoyj  ]0’a  ijnimxD  nyp’nayos?  px  ]”db;  "]’ix  Krajowa) 
]yj3iVyj  naix  rx  xn  I’lx  fiV’;!  ix  lyaip  lyiyp  ”t  oiyaxa  ]pnynyj 
loVsnixo’ix  Tnx  •m  .lyjjiiynxa  y^myiyoaix  o’a  apxojxp  pj’a’xjx 
l^’n  y^ynyaxa  n ^yD’^x  pVifiii  I’X  ]Dni  yiynjix  o’a  wnranxD  n 
ypnmoa  dxt  ,'1'7’n  yu;’Vxixo  ]yaipx3  ,Dxa  nyomi  ^ ]’x  n’a  laxn 
liD  ^’t  pyojyrnyn  dxt  .idjxid ’t  iid  myn’  n py’no’ix  aix  nnx  ]pyn 
pyVnyn  is  oia  ]ix  ny  ayn  jayjya  ypxo  tiiix  laxn  .■'’anx'iyo’n  nyn 

•oynjxa  yE^ns’VxD  yonyayatt^yx  n tyapxo  jvt  jix 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


82 


’nKSKuoayu^w  iVisskid  Ds;n  pD  D’a^ni?  n 1X3  msTx 

.n 

]T!<V  Du;’3  jiD  3in  Q»T  HO’Vsn  nnx«7  n oisno  nx’  i?’V^3yx  “I’s  ^»^nx 

.]amn  loxyV  d»t  po  D’lpnp  soDKiayaaix  n pynxo 
D’O’  .nxw  ’Vis’)  n inn  pxnyj  js^yi  t’k  moxnsD’V  jis  oVsn  x 
n p'>ntt;x3  n pxnya  dxijsjd’ix  t’x  i’dxs  iid  ]»3xo  ]’x  oj’o  ]id 
’ll  .nys’n  *i»i33t’iD  nvonsnan  sopmsisx  n ]’x  ]”d  px  in”*?  ,nns 
IS  nD  .pxnsi  apmsi  isi'”!  oxn  ]3xjd’ix  snsnax  y3ST»''ipnxD  ]’X  I’lx 
D’^^np  sjsaipvjaix  n ixj  pjsnjx  osn  onxn  iD’VDDnu^  I’x  ip’3«x”ixD 

.y=«W  p-nn  ps 

tt;nxa  osn  DDxasiD’a  ]axn  oxn  nns  spntosV  ’n  ,no’'7sn  nnxu?  n 
nssn  i3xn  .ovnyoxnsa 'in  dj ’d  Vs  iix  .Dipmx  jio  "mps"  nsn  is 
]ix  i^nsn  IS  onxn  oaitsi  jix  .snsixno  sisn’x  n Du^nxDSi  ]ix  03S”Vsj 
p’oiVaoVxp  ntx  laxn  oxn  .nsmsa  loxo  n ]id  V’s  ]'nax  dsi  ]nnD’tt?yms 
’n  V’m  xon  ip^si^x  dst  nxo  pVxD  x oixnxo  ]ix  dstixosj  opn”ssj 

.]n”  ]»nsa  ]S3’n 

TiixonsD’V  ]3nn  nspnxn  nsn  O’a  inxnsi  rx  oxn  pn  ojvnD  os’x 
■”3  ]S3'»n  ssVsn  nsnrp  snsniix  nn  ns’n  nsn  pix  tx  .ixdsj  I’a  13xn  oxn 
n Dsii  ,]D«p3’Vnsi’ni;  sVx  n ]yTsais  w'i  ]ix  jsixDissj  Dtt?n  "mps"  nsn 
? nsii’p  snsnnx  is  is’nnyn  yix  nioxnsu’V  sopmsi  y3sru;"isT  spnxn 
lix  ipsDX’V3’3  n I’x  DSS’Vxs  n I’lx  ji^V  ny3'>3  ]3nn  n jVsii  nsnx 
pnsmo  n ipsmxD  tjsii  3nDU?  nsn  jix  ds’sid’ddi’x  ss’Vddxisid’h  ]'’x 
D’o  tjp''0iV3sa  pnxDis  nix  oxn  oxn  pVxo  x ]id  D”n3S33xi‘ixD  s3sV3”d 

.D’unnp  sttin’x  jX’V’a  opsi  jiD  oipaix  asn 

pD  nssnsn  n I’x  ]“isii  iixnDSi  nso’ni  iia  •»ns;v3'”ii  nspnxn  nsn 
jixV  Disn  ]iD  as3nx  n ]siu  os’x  iia  nn  ns’n  nsn  .nsni’p  snsniix 
.lynsa’Ott;  x iyai3»M”x  ]ix  p'>oVn3”Vi  isixaissi  rx  oxn  oVsii ’t  ]DvnxD 
]iD  n”DX3sa  Dis  .jrnxa  ]Dxa  n is  ]sii»3  D’soa  ’n  ]3xn  u^rnyV’Dis 
wip’asoisx3  X isiivj  rx  irnw  ivn  ."nxnins  np’ms"  .pVxD  ]isn’x 
]n»T  IS  rx  s3XJDnx  nsniix  .nD'’n\s  joxa  nspnxn  nsn  is  wiD^nuii  x 
sp^oDiipis  n i“in  psii  ]3xnasi  nsD’ni  Vxi  aosoxnD  ]id  Vip  nsi  ix 
Vxa3«p  nsa  osii  ]ix  nsa  nxo  dsdVsix  tx  .oVsii  nsn  isaxansn  ]ix  nnn 

•in’Dxs  oisn 

D3xn3»aaix  isi’n  saVsii  .o’lsnp  sisn’x  sVx  n ipasnsi  jsnxn  I’a 
.iijsa  auri  rx  sono  oVs  riVa  ’n  ispjsnsi  is  ns3x  .O’sxa  n ”3  inxiisa 
I’x  njxDttnsTii  ]ix  Vaaxnsa  ns’n  ,D3y3sV  sns’n  jspisnsa  pix  lonxn  I’a 
]3nVa  ns’n  ]p3snya  inx  pia  n’a  .s’sxoipx  “isiso’n  nsn  ns3  oxusa  n 
.nnn  spnsaip  n is  psii  is3Si“iS3’x  tia  osVx  oxn  .o'^povVisoasa  ]’x 
px’  1X3  .Dsnxasnss  »n3snn  i!<3  ,is33iVaxnxD  msix  loxa  pD  inx’  1X3 
nnsm  px  oynsn  “isma  »Vx  ix3  .D’lsnp  n ixs  niV’on  mar  soTinxnx  ]id 
D»3nx  sp’BDni  n p”n3x  os’x  pi  iia  ,i3nin  osn  ix3  ,px’  s3Si3xnxD  iis 
loma  jisn’x  osn  ]id  sos’issa  n m ds”3  dst  D’a  ."paV  mani"  ]id 
]“ixii»a  Dnsnxa“i»n  p’oiVaVxp  ]y3«T  ]n’x  ]X’V’a  opsi  ni  .ssxt’x  i'x  ]3nin 
I’lx  pxiisa  ]xosj  an’ni  ns’n  os’x  r3  rx  •isn«V  .onyn3in‘ix’  ]D'20  i’x 
p3»n3x  nsn  ,]3nin  ]id  soDnssi  n nn  isi3v  asn  i3S3n»3’x  ps  0’3S3  asn 
.03sai''  nsttin’x  nsn  jis  o'ni  ]ix  nasns  nsa  ]ix  nsa  mos  onsii 


83 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


?mT  ]U'’D  pVxn  n*! 

:V3yp  pyonx  Vp’onx  ix  pnipyi  T’X  nxn  ,pmx  ^x’  ]3’t  m lyn  d’o 

.(1984  .21  nyDQyxyi  .''VxjmiyT'ny3”ayj'7K'')  'nn  nyp’niy’npynii: 

Dxn  lyDVyn  nn  nyn  .in  nymx  ix  .opxD  ipny’nD  oyn  nnx3  px  wn 

.pynx  D”J  .pnn  oyn  onyVyjynnx 

nyp’TXT  nyi  rx  .nyoysiy  nx’  ]3’t  ’n  nya  d’o  .or’n  ix  .pt  D’’DiynxD 
nnxiy  lyT  pn  ]t>x  loyn  jo”!  yVx  ]id  Dioxy*?  pyn  n’a  .oVin  nyo  opxD 

.mx  ]iD  sx  I’l  iT”iy  yyVyn  .no’Vsn 
nyoyytyyayin  nymx  ]2n\yya  pix  DiDxyV  Dxn  yayo  nyp’ixT  lyn  “^’ix 
px  ."nvn'?  iy  d”!  lyn"  Vp’Dix'D'”'?  x .ixo^py  ]wii  .nxDpxiyTfiyii^ 
Dxn  ."DQ^D  pnp'vr'  lyn  ]id  pyn’niy  yo3Xpx3  n .nyV’n  o'miyn  pix 
.nyoVyriD’D  yny”i  ]ix  jiyD’H  n txd  uy^nx  D”y  ’i  ix  .j^niyyi  oioyyV 
X iDxn  IX  D'”x  yoDsyn  n I’lir  I’x  Vnxp  oinVyn  lyVxixp  u’lV  V”!! 
ly'jiiy  iDixT  pD”T  n ix  jix  .D”n:yuxanxD  ^y^  ny3’x  pnDiymViy" 
pVxD  y\y>Tx  DXT  iviy'nno’ix  inxD  V’oyi'iViiy  oyT  pi  ]id  jDixnsxix 

.y9xn'"x  I’x 

n jiD  ]anxt:iyD’ix  dxt  ix  .opxD  oyi  Dy’^uanyDiix  nyVo  omiyn 
]xyn  ]DynxD  oVyn  n jDxa  is  iiyo”!  O’nx  DoVyri  p’x  no’VDn  nnxu; 
•>T  iixV  yyVyn  ’t  iyi”i  jvx  riD’Vsn  nnxiy  ’i  V”!!  .)ann  id’iu  oyn 

.HyD'”T  n pD  lynyTiya  n ijyn  ]DynxD  uir’i  uVyn 
]iD  ny^nyT  rx  ,]i’x  nD’VDn'rTnxiy  yiy3’V3yj:3y'7'']xi  ’t  ,mx  ixd 
jiD  in  nyom  ]ix  nyD”nx  lyn  o’lX'jyyi  oy  ’ii  lo’n  ix  Dp’D^’ii  d’iu 
oyn  ixynxD  ]Vyn  ”i  ix  .iDixmyT  T>n  jyiyp  ix  .jn’x  nu’Vsn  n’nxiy  n 

?)3-nn  ]D’ni  oyn  ]DynxD  oVyn  n iixV  oiy’i  jiD  pm 
.in  lypmy’jpynx  -lyi  .tq  V^n  .imyniy  yo’m  x paip  oyn  nyyi 
p'jXD  pymx  ip’ipV’O'V’D  jO’D  ipi’ii  Iik  l^yV  ix  n’yi  n uxnyj  ixi  pxn 
’T  Dxnyj  pxn  to  .lyniyV  yiy>xysx'i”X'mTD  ynynix  px  )ix  jVis  I’X 
yiyn’x  yiy’miDiy  ]ix  ypn'7ninDiy  .yiynyoyiy  oxn  pn  I’x  jDxnxr’x  n’3i 
.DDi*?  ’T  lyayox  ix  n’si  yomi ’t  oxnyj  jaxn  “I’o  .jV’iD  I’x  inyV'opVxD 
nyoD”!  yo’na  ’n  jid  nyDoxaox  n ]ix  oxaxnx  oyn  pi  I’x  laxiixi’^x 
•pyiyjD’inx  pi  ]id  dxh  )V’19  ]’x  ]ny'?'op'7XD  yiyn’x  oxn  oxn  .lypiyn  jix 
jwT'x  iD’n  ip’VxQx  oyn  ]id  pi’j  nyyyVmyuiyQix  nyn  nix  ]’x  unn  oy 
.IxiDiy  yiy’xynnyn  iix  yiyn'x  n .pnio  ’n  .nxb’p'jxD  nyn  .inyV'opVxo 
nyn  nix  I’x  Diin  oy  .ly’xynyn  j’x  ]ix  lyn’x  I’x  nioxiyo’'?  yy>n  n 
pVxD  nynix  tJ’D  jyiiyi  lyyi  n’o  .inyV  lynyoyiy  ly’T'x  ix’  dipid  ]id  ]iin 
nyDiix'Dp'?XD  Dyn  ]id  oyy:  ]ix  lyo  yDop’V’iu  iix  yDDiynxno  ym  ]’x 
’T  .oniD’  px  ]'>'>D  ’T  .iyii“iynyn  ]xixi  oyn  ODxnyio’n  ]3xn  n’a  .nxi 
’T  po  py^D  ’T  jyiyj  ]3xn  t>o  .lympmmyn  iix  pnipT>’’7xa 't  .pioixo 
onyynyp  ypmyiyna  n jyiyj  jaxn  n’Q  .D’ttnna'Tia  ]ix  iVniiy  yp’niyiyia 
yDVD”iixnxD  n pynx  ynynix  ]’x  p<3  jyirVp  oy  .nynrp  ]ix  lymo  ]id 
d®’:  ]ix  .]DynxD  oiyn  o'?xi  tx”  ••inyob’y  ynynix  iid  lyniyyi-ooVn 

."pynxD 

lyn’x  pxj  X .Dipaix  ]id  oyyi  ]ix  jyo  yiy’  an  onyniyyi  pi  oxn  V’d 
DjymxD  jyrn  lyVoyaiy  ]ix  oyoiy  yxixa  .inxnyj  CDxnayjaix  I’x  pVxo 
wn’X  nx’  Dino  ]id  y’xxnxV’ivx  yxixi  x .Dy’?x  ]ix  pVx  D’a  jnxiiyi 
rx  Di^n  pxn  T>a  oxn  .ixVpVxD  px  niaVip  .ixnsiy  o’a  .]Dxiy  px  jayV 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


84 


.i?’?KD  i”f>  oip’j  ,iop»D  : pyV'opVKD  i”p  0tt;'>3  ,it>x  ]id  ]9nyj 
,»n»K9  iia  K DTxVmya’K  oxn  p’lV’V  .n  ayuan  ^y3y3^KDtt;^XD  lyn 
^^’T  o’axa  "ly  ixn  ."lynyj  ou;'a  I’x  I’a  ypa’Vayno  ]’X"  pax:  ]ayD:ix 
]B;n’x  Dy:yD’:tt;axD  ]id  aVyiripaxayj  aya  j’x  jayVisa’nx  paxoa? 
ya*?yn  n V”n  .pVaya  aiya  d’x  axs  t’x  oxa  tx  ,mia  ayax  t’x  ay  ,pVxD 
oaxa  Dxn  i^otyaxa  aa?’:  Vxa:'’p  i’?yn  ,]ynyj  a®’:  ypa’^ayaa  I’x  iy:«t 

•lyaipyjaxo  t’x 

ayax  aya«ns  aya  .ayaa’p  yayraix  tx  .paxinya  u;a’:  a’a  ]y:yp  xV’aa 
oy  laxn  a’a  ’ii  ]aain  aya  f^^ix  la’ixya  iix  ]”aB;axD  jVxt  ,aia  ayana 
]x  ]axn  yaVyn  .D’a’n'  ixaxo  ]y3«T  ay  \yaxD  .aa’ixya  jix  jyaxaiyaxD 

•paipyjaxo  t’x  aaxa  oxn  iy3'’DyjiyD’ix  oyayaa’x 
X aaxayi  axn  ayaVyn  ,("Dixa")  "T”a"  .^la  x jya’iyaya  rx  caasy"? 
yaVyn  ,ia’x  y2;’V’ia  jiD  pi  x t’x  .jxaVa’siy  anx  ,aana  aya  .oiyaa  lo’iaa 

•layV  la’Vaya  jix  aiann  pya”a  ixaxa  aya  asxayaaaaa  ]axn 
pyaiap'nxp  .j^yanax  ]x  I’lx  laniyyj  I’x  .ayaaya  rx  ,iia  oxa 
.r’a  ra  ]a’x  n ,pyp  ’ii  aVya^yyaaxD  jayn  ]tt^a”a  n .(op’axp)  laax 
lax’  V’D  ^la  ayaiD  aano  aya  ]y»aaya  axn  oy  .annn  ’n  ipx'rxs  n ]ix 
]iyn  ia”nVya”x  yVx  ,]xaVa’Du;  pyaxVn  ,ayaxD  ]«t  ]aD  ]ympxaayD’aax 
.^^a  oxa  laniyyjax  axn  ay  T’a  ]ayaxV  'a  px  oxaya  ’a  ]’x  jayV  ]”t 
.yaaayaaiyyaax  ]ynya  p’aayau?  lya’n  jat  jax  ayaxa  pynx  jyaaax’yxa  ’a 
oxa  ]ix  ,pwrx  px  ]ympyamx  rx  aana  ayaao  ayaaaa  ayayaVy  ]x 
1’ix  axn  yaVyn  .ayaio  I’n  .irn  I’x  ayraa  ip’a”x  jx  atxVyaaya’x  axn 
rx  .aayVyaaya’x  axn  lax  .o'mann  yaya^a  lax  may  yVx  aaxoyaaaaa 
axn  ^la  oxa  .aaxaaoaVyt  lyiaxaxa  .ypnyax  I’x  p’aay’n  ayoysiy 

.I’ns-ayx’Via  ]ViDu;T’aDyas  ay’n  aya  pmpxa 
ayaaya  ]ix  ]n  ]id  ]Vxd  ixaxo  ]y3”i  a^yox  ,Vxd  ayaVya^x  ix  rx  oxa 
layV  oxa  jayn  jan^yyi  jix  aiyaxoyi  jaxn  yaVyr  .la’x  na’Vsn'nnx^y  jia 

.yaVyax  jayn  aiy’a  t»x  o’m  aya”*?  .layaVy  yay”t  jaa 
•nnxa;  jid  ayaaya  ]ax  ]’t  .oysiaa  yoraa  ixaxo  rx  oy  ax  .oma  T'x 
aVxn  I’X  ayax  ,]r’ap  yty’a’Vya  I’x  ivapx  ]ya”t  ya^yn  ,ia’x  na’Vsn 
.oy’yxraxaax  y^^’a’x  yVxax’yxa  ’a  iid  aaxiyaya’Dax  ’a  ]’x  pt  aVxnya 
’a  I’x  ]yaa’aaa”ax  Vxa  aaVa  u^’a’x  aai’  ax  ,a”y  yaoayn  ’a  I’lay  t’x  oy 

.yp’ayax  ]’x  jayV  ]a’a’x  jis  layax 

1992  ,3  r*?!’  jNm’ag 

▼ 


85 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


1980  '>Kn  I’X  nvri  i:k3  Vxn^’’  k 

nxu-Duman  ipny’  so  dvt  naaV 
lyu’iixaip’N’’  yi?a’”V  ]id 

VKVIDJKa  J’K 

nnnic-’rya  .pxT  .ia  odkj  nvoivvi  nnvT  ,]'”'7i7  nrno  nymxD  yaiiipn 
.irno  ]’K  d^Vdi^kV  ya’V  ,DV^'>Ty^D  ]id  ^y^’’7aD’0  .c;D’nK3ipX’  yp3”V 
]3iu>n  lymx  jivn  ]nyi  is  1133  ]ik  jriynyD  yonviyjix  dxt  3xn  I’X 
O’lV  rx  ixnvD  x ]jyn  oiixxiyDx  ]x  ]3VJ  is  ,WD’iix3ipx’  yp3”V  .Diyn’tyno 
jivii  isioyi  ^nxi  dv  ix  ix:  isivi  ,v3xaD’ix  yD3”V  ]'”p  i3i3”n  ]”a 
nyVvD  nyomi  is  ]”p  ]iyii»a  ’-ny>:  dVxii  ds  .\yux3  ,]Dnuiy  ysiip  I’x 
n ]iD  jopyDDX  viyi’iynxD  ]jyii  ]iyi  )ix  .nvjisV  Vdoh  I’t  ]b>yD\yiSDX 

.yp3'”'7  lyDSD  JID  ]D”pi’DyD 

]iD  ]ynxn  ’t  px  ivVi’Diyisox  ]yax3  T’t  Vvii  I’x  .irns  yiy’'’o 
Dxn  B7D3ya  x iid  iDnDiy-iyupxnxa  ya’Vuy  .]D”pj’nyD  yD’Visa  v:”a 
DVT  px  ,a”ni3VnV3’X  ]1X  D'”P3’'7TV  ,U”p3’'7\VD3Va  I’l  ]’X  UTVDTVpnVD 

.p’Disannx  vaxiD’ix  ]x  txd  t>t  dVvuw  ]ix  .ua’iVa  iv  dxii 
inn  X . 1900  nnx’  px  p’uva  vpa”"?  tvdvd  t’x  bixpxa  i^x  pw  rx  dv  ’ii 
D’X  pvanx  jx  tv  djixd  thx’  n is  .nnoiva  viv’t”  vpmaoa  x ]id 

1”1  U”S  V’nD  ’T  I’X  TV  DSIVITVT  l’D'”S3”’?:i  .HDITD  U’D  IDVvn’SD’ITX 

•DDXIVID’H  VD’VdVvH  pX  VW'l" 

UDVTD  TV  ’11  ,”aTX  TVU^’V’ID  TVT  ]’X  IDITVJ  TV  DTV11  THX’  20  IS 
’T  pD  paivn  p’lx  ,iiin’sx3  VD’VivDvaiix  ]ix  ]vi:ia’T”Vx3  I’ix  ]X  I’t 
”3  px  .iixDxawvivu  1X1  p’Tis  uaip  tv  .VVaa  it’--  ]ix  idxtVxo  viv’*”' 

3xn  I’X  DX11  ]V’1TD  VDD1”D  ’T  ]1D  V1”X  D’a  Hlinn  TV  uxn  Tnx’  25 
DT’aTXD  DV  ]1X  TVTi’p  VTV”D  2 D’a  ]p1XlVX3  pVII  ”1  .UIVpVI  I’X  DV  jVII 
lD”pl’nVD  V1”1  D’lTX  OT”11  TV  .D”n  VlV’n3''73  ]X  VaVIVIIX  .VaVTXII  X I’T 
V3’VDi”TD  Vi”T  pITTD’IX  D1S  jVaip  DV  .DDVIVVJ  pX  UV3TX  ]1D  D’3V1  p’lX 
nanVa  oVvn  vd-2 ’t  .t”  is  t”  jid  px  iVDiva  is  ivoiva  ]id  ]viiin’SX3 
113  T’ln  px  .DS’lVTjxa  UTvn  inivnxa  pD  D”n”TD ’t  px  ,d’ix  ddvtd 
D’iDTV  .nnsiva  po  pDiipivaxps  vddx  txd  paip  ivD’iipipx’  vpa”*? 

TVT  VTVTiX  pv’lis  ,pXTD  VIVT’WTVD  U'7T1XnX3  pVII  DV  .VUIXpxa  pX 
Vpa”"?  DTV11  1942  px  -I’T  IVI’DVl  p”  TVvVvil  pX  VJXV  ’T  pX  .I’Tp  pO  11X1 
DV3TX'D11X11S  px  DT’DVl  .X’TTXI  TVD3XD  V1V3’’J3V1'13V'7  l’S1”X  p’T  O’a 
TVT  po  D”S  TV’IXTD  pX  Va’VTVT’nV  ’T  1T1TX  U”1  DV  ."IXDXH"  TVlxV 
px  inx”TDX3’T  pvVTVT  p” ' Vnxs  vi”^p  X 1X1  D’a  ”T  px  nanVa 

.1945  TX11X’ 

px  X’TTXI  TVD3XU  P’T  D’a  Vp3”V  Daip  1V111TVT1X11  VIVT’IVTVD  1X1 
paip  px  TlxV  DXT  ”T  pxVTVD  ni3’D  VIVT’TVTVD  3’V’S  .VXTTV’  1X1  1948 

.VxvTDixa  1X1 

px  .TV11X3XDD1VTVD  ’T  D’a  111T1’3TVD  pX  I”"?!  I’T  dVvDTV  Vp3”V 
D’a  P’TX  I’T  DTxV  TV  .DDXTVIXaDTIxV  TVT  pX  T’VlD’a  TVII’Dpx  p DTV11 
dV”iivid’ix  TVD’lixaipx’  vpa”V  dtvii  1959  px  .Dvanx  tvt  px  pna  iV’D 
DTV11  TV  .VxVTDIXa  pX  DOXlVIXaDTIX*?  TV11XDD1VTVD  TVT  pD  DIVT’TVTD 
•DDXTvVVTVl  TVT11X  pX  TVD”3TXD’a  VDVD’VT’aTVTIIX  ’T  pD  TV1”X 
DlXTVl  V’D  ]Vp  DV  TX  T’D1”TX  P’a  pX  DpTVaxa  pilV  axn  I’X  ’11 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesrac 


86 


Dyi  jvajynDO’TiK  t’x  ]V’nKD  k’  I’i  V’n  I’k  osn  jivn  jiim 

]1D  J3Tiy”D  vj’Dr’n  ’i  tj’D  j3sn:voNTn’  J'n’  ]ix  iV’dvi  .ud”! 

.uiynnviD  piii’n  jid  axu'p’i^vj  ]P"inv’'80 
n ]iD  DU7’:  T’x  vpD”V  tk  iD”n  yK  ]id  V’d  I’lx  ’n  I’x  .nmo  ynv”D 
UDKU^JKODnjKV  nyT  ]id  yivu’pyTpv  n .I’n  .m3?  ix:  ]D’i'7  oxn  jv^xtivd 
ypur’n  n ivmxiyp’x  diVu>x3  dvi  lyamvpx  ]V3xn  nv'7’Tpx'Dn”V  m ]ix 
pmypnujx  ipmo’ix  .mas  lasmx  ]ix  I’nDD’nxa  jV’d  jca  amnynvupx 
in’Dsmnx  ]DVyn  ]ix  osaix  i”t  ixd  .ujvnnviD  svtjix  ixd  p3XT  x ]ix 
.tt^o’mxaipx’  vpa”*?  Djynnyno  nvatu^n  .jaxao’ix  ]ix  jV’s  vnvtjix 
•Dn”V  jix  DDXtt^JxoDajxV  nvnxaxoojwo  n jin  ]yaxj  j’x  n’a  aanVav 
]ix  p’Vi  ]iD  Jinx’  V’D  n^urm  .vuVoxnvD  vVx  ]id  i’ix  mi  nxVnpx 
jVvm  T>o  Tx  ]Dxn  I’a  jvVxi  .nnou^a  iva’V  iv”X  px  ."j^x  ixd  a”nn’iDix 

.]Vj:riv”D  yaVsix  iva  jraxn 

DPaiumi  ■ptuiun 


Israel  Bond  Drive  Dinner  in  honour  of  Mr.  Leibke  Jakubovitch, 
on  the  occasion  of  his  80th  birthday  — Sunday,  May  4th,  1980, 
at  the  Beth  Israel  Congregation,  Montreal. 

Standing  from  left:  L.  Jakubowitch,  H.  Klein,  H.  Rosenblum,  T.  Zilbert 


87 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legate 


trravD  nan 

,*i»Tiya  n iid  V’lp  x iid  jVxDya  rx  no’Dn  iyoB75?Dxii3  I’x 

siP’T”  SMV  DXT  .DJ’iVyn  ivno  ytyn”  yDop’DDyno ’t  iio  y3”x 
ypn'’7X3iy’*px  nyn  oxn  .□’n’b'c;  yjv’  ]id  sj^x  ]ynya  rx ’t  .tyvivo  nin 
]nn’:xj“ix  ,in”  ’t  jnvDJia  =ix  aijn’i  ju^’xdxt’x  I’x  ap’c;yiD’Tix  oxn  miy’ 
yp’TXT  n ]iD  V’D  atxV  oxn  ,Dp  jynyaxn  "jx:  ]ix  naxatyiynm  iy”i 
.tt^yjyo  nan  .ivaipyipmx  a’3  mn’Viy  ny’n  ]id  jym  inVyn 

y^n-i  «3  Du^ysxnia  ]’x  1921  nx’  ]’x  ]nxnyj  jn’inyi  t’x  lyyiyo 
X jiyn  tjyn  y^yn^a  dxt  ix  .ODpoyi  ua  axn  nyr’p  .iiyuVy  yun’V’a’ox 
jyaipaix  jix  lUD’oiiyxnxD  yiyn”  yaiyny  n ]nyn  ayn  .pa  nViy  .nxiVn 

.lynna  yrx  lynyaxi  D^a 

’T  pyn  myn’  ]ix  ]nxanx  I’x  nyax  Dro’ayo’oix  nyapnxaiyiXD  lya 
I’x  I’X  ly’iynypnya’x  ]x  ODxaya  Dxn  .aVyn  nyxixi  "lyi  I’x  in”*?  yiy’n” 

.poD’ivy  X inxnyj  rx ’t  .jypiya  ]yy3xi 
l”p  ly’iD  Dxn  ]”T  nViy  — vws  lyixoiynxo  ’t  axn  nrivy  ayn 
11X  D”n  yD”i  “I’X  Dtx*nxo  ’i  .n’Dy'7Xp  ]’x  jayaix  aixi  jix  Vxny’-px 
.nix'?  ]’x  I’liy  ’1  T’X  1939  “lyaayoDyD  px  nx’  18  tx  jtx  y’'7’axD 
]’x  iy'?n”a  txd  '?ti2;  tJDXtt>D“i’n  nix'?  lyn  I’x ’t  any*?  a”y  yo’nyi  x 
I’X  .(H’lD’p  ”3)  "D’  miu;"  nxT3p  “lyn  ]’x  i”“ix ’t  ayna  nyaysiy  ;'?'?n3 
amx  “lyn  aaip  .]j”ny-aDXTya“i’n  y'?x  ]’x  “lyniy  ’t  ayanx  nsiap  nyt 
lyiy”*?  .lyny*?  dtx  a”y ’t  aroyi  ip  lix  .lapayy  px  “I’a  aox ’t  t’x 
yi’x  .lyi’’?  yp’aDXT  .yymp ’t  a3”ny  laira  y”“iD  ’i  jix  ,]3”"ii!?  aiy  ]ix 

.lay"?  a’a  "ris  p’a”xa”'7J  jtx  anxy  ]yi”T  "lyn’*? 

.nann  tyaiyn  nx  ’nanx" 
."D’l’y  ITT  hw  piy’i  .“I’lyn  .mxn 
,]TT  yaynxn  ’n  a’V  axn'a) 
.(]i’ix  “iXD  X pD  p’u;  ’n  .tV  op  .aa’*?  oxn 
ayaix  “lyn’oiyai’x  ]’x  pa  lyiynu?  ]’x  nx’  yay'?ay  ”a“ixD  iy”a  oy 
px  ’riaa-ai'ra  id’tii  ]’x  y'rynrx  iDy'7p’'?j  jd’tx  jya’Tia  iix  yi  nya’x 
]“i”  lyix’Va  ."lyaiT’ia  nyaiyinn  .a’l  an  pixn  oxn  nyax  .'7xny’-p“ix 
Dysy  na  ay  .ja'ryn  ”t  ]ya  na  — aiyianxD  .aixiixa  paaxtyya  ]iyn 
I’X  p’lx  ayna  ’t  ."mn’'7u;"  px  px'?  I’t  aD’'?iyx3  nin  .pyn  jiayi 
ayi'?’ay3D’TX  anyn ’t  .d’’'?d  jtx  aia  I’x  a’a  o’lx  y^  aia”y ’t  m ,“iya’'?’a 

.aixnii’S’DX  |x  aaipp  jix  .paD’awxnxD  d'?x 
]yaxns  ,px'?yj"iya:nx ’t  anyn  ina”UTX  yp’iynyi  ’n  lyaipxa  jaxi 
iyj3’n=is3”ix  anp  pa  ’la  ,y’nx'?DpT’  px  laiiyxixD  a’a  a’lan  ixi  a’a 

.]“ixjnx  p’p 

py’ixa’a  x an’o  p'?xD  «;’n'?yn  x m .nix'?  px  ,y’nx'?Dxn’  px 
I’X  nynyj  a’a  oi’nyaayp  ly’na  m .nyii’Tisxa  yp’aaxa  ’n  pyp  «|axp 
n’x  a’a  o’tx  nin  p aia”y  ,ini”iz?nyn  yDy'?i”nyii  x iyi”T  aiyn  ’n 
px  .laaxVty  yp’Vxy'7’D  px  '?’’aix  aayi ’t  .a”pD’’nn  nyay'?i”nyiinyD’ix 
]y”a  iyiinV”xnyn  yiyn’TinxD  .ny’TTx'?DpT’  ’n  ”a  ]’n'?yn  ynxniyjy'?  x anyn 
yi”ayjVx  O’nii  pn  px  ixinya  n’x  pyn  px  iaxain'?yn  yn’x  pyn  anx 

.ni'?yDnn 

pxTyya  anyn  oy  .pxinx  payinya’x  pya’’n  ’n  ]yn  .up  nyn  aaip'o 
pa  Jiiaa’inxa  yTyn’a  ypniyaiy-Via  n nxa  a’’aT!7  ay  .mn’iyn  ’axVxa  ’n 
xn  ,]nxanx  pp  nya’nx  p”!  o’nan  yay'?ay  a’a  nin  .aiain”  py’nxonx 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  legacy 


oxnsa  I’t  OKn  n pV»n  ”3  .Donj?  {<  iid  m’oa  x 3’Vis  oi’Doyn^j:  't  onyn 

.oVyott^siBX 

T 

KSKDoya  ivT  I’T  D’l  .poyjjK  I’K  jnyn  oxn  ,D”i3y  »Vx  *i’ix  opipyj  O’j 
]yMW3XD0’ix  n ny3  ,my’n’  t’x  o’j  ysVyn  I’x  jid  lympxsisD’nx  ]”x  »’3 
iXD  ’n  OJXT  ]ix  ,iyuipnVwx3  yDonyiny  n nypayn  yn’x  n osnxn 

•110  lOIX’O 

11X  wnynjinxa  y3”aya’?x  ajioVxn  vx  o’o  o’nx  ■>!  osn  ymio  I’x 
iy«;n«  nynxnynjw  lyn  ]iyii  nyns’ix  ]x  ]n”n  yD3’DDynx  n .mtosx 
11D  ]y«3DX3  Djypya  o’l  ]3xn  nyosyiryonw  jix  nyiynxo’ix  n iV’dx 

•D’^payVaynys  n’x  ]39  lys'is 

nyn  i”3x  oaip  yVyy  O'nan  ]’x  .1944  nyaaynxj  3ya-7  nyn  oaip'o 
pya  IX  oayn  axn  px  p’la  aix  aotyaixo  rx  n twnVya  x o'a  “i?<n=ipx“i9 
po  D’j’Vn  n 11D  non  )”p  o'j  V’li  .pjo  ix  oy  ^n  oaxtaijj:  n .jjipnywxa 
.o^’DyJO’lx  ]ixnyi  V”Dnix  ^y^  rx  anx  nyiy  x I’x  .pV?<D  vx 
.anan  ,nyD’'n  o'”!"  :]3nx;ya ’t  oxn  ,anan  n ix  d’ib  jaxa  nna  x ]ix 
."pVxD  aynaix  ]id  ]ins3  nyi  ,]inx3  ]id  axa  lyn  paip  ayn'o  I’a  ,iyn  ny”x 
aya’uixa"  j'x  Vxniy’  lap  ix  ]ixny3  oaxnayi  ix3nyT  rx  nysiyp  n’x 
T'x  .iioyj  axn  oy  nyn  jix  rtx  n .aViy  n’a  pn”  nyott^yoxnia  iio  ''Vp3’r 
,Da’Dn?<9yT  ]yny3  ixn  jriy  ]y3’n  p”  nyDtt?y9xnia  .D3xpx3  a'3  ai'n  ny 
IX  pt  irx  Dxn  VxT  .]yny3  D’3  I’n  i”p  jxn  ]’x  xiynp  man  s pyr 
a«payV3yny9  ^y^y'>x^y^  I’x  ]i9  33ip'Tmo’ix  ]x  ,]xny9  ^’x  ]39  J33pTiio’ix 

.ora  iax3  ]’ny 


.DS^j;-n'3  Djriis  t::i?D;:Kn£3  h 


R.  Federman  W.  Levenhoff  A.  Chroblowsky 


89 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


(i3nDn‘?'’T)  VN[unun‘?^T 

SDnn  p72y  pD 

-KP  "inn^  "ivt  W'l  tk  x 

pXDvny'i'’:K  *’1  ]yrn  ,dx:\  nyi  IP'^iixa  im  i3:\y‘7D 

Ni,,  1:2  p'»i::\xT  yny’*’!  inpnDPx  ]:\y‘7D  lypiD  n iix  '’:ip  n 

/'D^:!^*’:\  ]’»x  ]y*ny:\  OKn  ,i:;Djy»  nyi  d*’'>a 
in  ]ni<n  om  *’i  ,nu‘’‘7Dn  nnxt:^  n nnx  ]nyn  ]Tmy:\ax  ddiki  nrx  m 
]1D  ]"iy:\K*7-y’XX-iD2y:2a^p  ]ix  oxioy:;  n ]‘'K  dpi:  iny*? 

p.ny  ]i:?*’XKa 

* * # 

-iNoyDKns  ny-i*>D"iy^  lix  unp  nypnKiDOM  lom:;  Dyi  t)xn  jyn  lyn 
yp'’Dnx  •’T  iDinyrioPK  ny  dnh  ,:\y'ii  □'ip^i^<  dix  Dn-^Dy:^  nx^nn  iiyn^y 
oxn  nypnNioD\T  iDm:^  PD  nKnis  n pk  dxi  /'tDn*’niy'ixD  pK  Dn*’m:;,,  :]'T"*’ 
PK  .KDnn  pDy  ayi  t:ny‘?y:\:DinN  Dxn  dkp  n-’*’  py*’  Dyt)D'»/D‘iKD 

IDpxD  ]iN  'I'lKVBv  yDy'^oy  ]ny:\pyn'’x  !'’><  nKnx  nyi  ps  :\p‘7*’D-iy'7 

.nny  "lypnyny*?  x ]‘’3  i*'x  yD'^yn  ]id 


.1942  ,u''jni2NDDn 

DXT  P’X  ,Dy‘»^KDnKDy'T  px  ]y^PD'’iL7iyi  ^oy’^cpybyo  ]dx;o  •’I  1K3 
]ni<Tiy:^  Dpn'’*’*7y:\Dnx  t*’X  XDy:\  dxt  .]-ix‘ny:\  mnp  nnn  Diun*’*’  ^y'nxrxuo 
rDDis  px  Dom  rDTjj*7‘ix*mxD  ]y7XDiyy:\  ]y7*’n  •^y^^’^  n .]ny^  ]id  ];2'’d  x ]x 
yD*i'»Dpy‘?yDDnx  ,^X2J  yr'’*?p  •’i  .tj^yn  yw^ynm  yw’^jx^  n ixd  '»nD  ]ix  ]dx 
px  pymx  yp‘>DX*7piy  •’•’n  ipnnxs  ooymx  *’i  ]'’X  onnxiyxp  ]y*nyA  lyrn 
-yn  n nnx  ]Dx‘?ii:;y:^  lyrn  *’n  .□‘’n^n  n ]id  pnQxp  n inx  iTniy:\7x  lyny:^ 
yDDixn‘?yuiz;*7i<D7ix  yooriny  n ]''x  Dy‘?xn"pn3XD  n pD  yayjxD 

♦DPi  px  mpm  ,-|y^:'l^  pD  ]i:Py:\  "•’myi  iy:\apnxn  ynxD’’7XD  ‘»Drx 
ypunp  nyi  inx  ynn’^xioy^  pnnxD  nyi  ]*’x  ]yny:\  D'^x^yi  pn  ‘t>*’x 
""lyn^’X  tjxn  ny  iix  ]Dny:\  ‘p'lo  oxn  '^pDVBi^p  ixy*?  nyxnnxD  nyi  .dx:\ 
lynyri  inx  ]yrn  itj-ixi  ]ix  ]x?3DDixn"DDXPi:?  D->*’n  ]yny:\  vk  ny  tx  iny:\y:i 
]nxn  •’n  .xDy:i  Dyr*’‘?p  x nxny:\  lox^wxn  t'’x  oy  iix  yiy"T:x 

i<Dy^  yr'’‘7p  oxi  ‘?xt  ]a*ix*7  ]ix  ly'^oyA  y‘?xnw  yDy'^oy  ]id  ]x‘7S  x D’’n:\yAi}c 
yixix’?  ii<a  .p^’^i^p  7ynyA  nyni^:  t-'x  noii?  nyD‘7‘’'’Dy:\‘ix  nyi  iiyn  Dnnxy:\r'’x 
y’7yDya  inx  tx  I'^yis  tx  'lyriaT'^y^  n^x  p’x  iDyny:\  ]tx  Dm:nn  4u^'»ay:\ri 
Di<n  ■’pD7*’Dxp  ixy*?  oyryns  lyi  ix'^s  nyi  ]'’x  pyn  ]Dx‘7iyy:\r*’X  ‘^xt  x*’irTXp 
yr'’‘?p  o^<T  iy7'ni<r*’X  yD*nA“0'’>*?DXD  o*’?:  Pxt  •p’x  tx  , D:\xiDDnxx3  i\>: 

py*?T•’^^  yayD^^nnyx  ,yay‘?XDy:^r*’X‘nPxn  ^ypSx  ]td  lyjXDiyxn  t’^x  dxtt  ,XDy:\ 
■yr^ynrnx  dti;’’:  oy  tx  loDnxD  ly‘?T•>^'^  n t)Dnx*7y:\  ]y?3  tJxn  yoiriy 

]Di<p  tx  pn  “nxD^?2*’x  ‘^xt  dj<tt  pp  x lynns'^TX  ^nyDyi  y^yD^jinyx  n ps  ]y: 
:tDy'>XTD’»t)Da*»x  yDOpnayTTOPj  n lyn-ixr-’x  iiyoay^  unnD  yDy’^ioy  nxD 
t:ti;n  lyrn  I'^xnyiox^’nn  pv  4yxTT‘’n  ]tx  ynxDx'^Tn^x  ^p’»Dti;  x 

r72  px  D^’»‘?DXD  ]TX  lyTTyA  l^x  T^’x  I’^xnyoxD  IDPP  TX  Bbvy  4yTTy:i 

oay^ay'^x  ip^yiy::^  lyp  I’^x  .yD*7^'’xy:\  y^y'^uy  ivpn  ysTTA'ODyaix 

■r'’X  in  ]ni<n  iy?Dy7  y‘iy*’n  dj<tt  pt  lyay^yionx  *Ti<7  I’^x  ‘ryTT  Ty3'’"Ty‘7  ly^ay^ 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


90 


ivnyi  ujNpxa  .ixa’nB  'rc^iyn  iIiidt  p’d  I’x  osnpyA 

•'?’a  :0'”'7DHD  yDT>x’Q'>‘?Knp  lynyj  lyrn  ’’tix  ’t  ."ikc^tkd,.  lyaxj  ^^yD3^x 
nyn  ny'^n^’D  x -ixaw'yn  nyojj'Pc’  nyoii  nyr  x .o’ns  nypiju  x -poty 
-sxn  mpx’  nytybi  x t’x  nypni  x nxD  po  lynyj  t^x  dxh  P’'?? 

•p’Diy  X laxnyA  fx  -T^axD  iid  anio  x lynyi  nan'7a  tyi  nxs  t’x  dxii  ,ix?i 
•sy  pyux:  nyoDn  mpx’  -lyD’nxpaxa  pyix'^i'i  -p’Diyiyabn  ppjya  ny'7x?3 
t’x  ,uxnyi  Dxn  ysn.:i  n oxn  ,int  ayp’sr’X  ayi  .yiyux  ]ix  pxnto’’?  ,pDiy 
■yapyo  ’t  .lynxp  lyax^  P’Ja  ypxi?  PS  IXOiyiiT’  lyiyT-on  aypD  x ^yny.^ 
Dxas  .oaa  or’n  .poiysy  anox  I’Dxpxmx  n ]ynyi  I’x  ysni  ayi  ii£3  inxD 

.Dy‘?yiynjx-Dx‘7  I’X  a:’m  px 

'XS'Jix  D’a  ypDxnx^  id3X'’S’'7X3  yu?’‘?’is  iid  uidxtix^  ayi  ayopx 

lD:xP9yi  nyi  iid  D’nyi  nix  pynx  ys'nj'U”'73X3  “ivi  o’o  I’x  I’l  .iDp’a  yayi 

ay’  113  iD’a  rx  DT-Dyi  nnx  pxn  idjxp'’‘7X3  yty’‘?’is  n .XDyj  oyr’"?? 
•pyaiy  x pnyi  t’x  oy  .laxmxs  lynyj  p”  ax3  lyrn  pxiDxau  n 'j-’-’ii  ,dxi 
.n:ypyj  I’x  aX'i  ny  DiJi'  'low  ’t  ps  lu’a^’x  pn  dxt  '?’syA  ly'p 
lyuaya  ip’iyny'?  p’p  ,D'?iyn’a  ayp’iyay'?  x ’n  lyTyjo’ix  dxp  max 
D’aD  y^yr’x  ■’i  pd  .i3x'7pdx  nya  Daynyi  ax:i  oxn  lya  ,iytyj  aiy:  lya  axn 
•yjaiax  I’t  iixn  ya’iD  .p’o  iix  ayuDiys  yaysxi^ys  ’a  iid  is’apo  n px 
px  yD‘7xnx3D'’ix  I’t  pxn  oxn  .ayry  yDTx'?axnax3  ’a  px  aayi'^xn 
aypin  ps  paxaiyyi  ly^’^i  px  oysxoaxsya  px  oyppy'ryD  ’a  pD  D’P  aya 
-’’T  Dxaaiy  ayui’acpy'^y  aya  -”0  px  di'idis  ayoxn  aya  ■>•>0  ,niyan  px 
yiy’xxj  ’a  pa  ypoxiyaya  lynyi  lyra  □■>na  yayaix  .o'pyDiyy.isx  lynyi  lyj 
a”  oyayDxaDyiix  nv’  P»?  ayi’^n  ’a  p’lao’ix  lyaipyi  lypn  oxn  .D’nxia 

•IDXiyaya  ■>■>1  pxn 

■ NIDUJ  IID  u-’npj 

IXy'?  uxn  xuyi  y3”‘?p  oxa  iD^mix  p’lnyAix  PijtP  uyaax  ’a  pn 
■yaiaxD  '^x^  I’X  ,Day'7paya  T>'?’iaDaxQ  a’a  ay'?DP  in’aa’  px  ’poPDxp 
aa’Tpxjax  I’t  PX'i  -DPi'?n  y’P  yxwi  x D’a  y.Diai’DDyaax  n pyo 
•ynx^'Dajxoii^aya’n  x pnpxjax  is  I’x  yaxiD’ix  px  '?’s  ay’n  .pi^V  n PX 
ayanya  I’x  oy  .aDXO'PW  aya  pyp  naxp  ais  y’SXTPXiax'ODaxp  x 
T’X  .iDyo’ii’Dpx  yayn  iD-”aiis  px  p’lx'^s  is  lyaxns  p’t  i‘?xi  ’’t  tx  .p^dd’h 
ayn  o’a  px-a  oxii  ,'”t  po  '?'”d  x ayax  -payi  opayVx  lypjyayj  oiyj  pp 
px  paDT  p’a  I’x  Dxnpyir’X  in  D-’piya'pyn  px  lysa-na’Da  -D’pDJxnyj 
.wa’iixpiiy'?  PXOJXP  /lyo’iiy'^yiy’D  .ayr’D  xiyfx  :p:‘”T  ’a 

.paxuiD  Dxanx  ,ppayn  ,ay'7Dyaa  .poi’sxp  pyaxVii  ,ayj’Txa  /lya’iiyiyyaxs 
,p'?XD  ,D'”a  ,ixaDp'>‘7A  ,iyaxpytyDiy  ,tt;D'”iiy'7iaty  ajpon  px  ayp’P  ayana  p 
pyay  ,Dix3‘7ya3xa  -ixasixp  aix.aapiy  -ixaaya"?'!  .jaynaya'^n  ,DX'?3jyi'>'>D  .a 

.yaya:x  yp  yswi  x px  pa’nyi  py‘?X3  -ayjp'7’n  ppb 

aya'>‘?iD’a  n pnyj  pra  y’SXTPXiax'ooaxp  aya  pD  laxox’SP’x  ’a 
D^psiyaxs  PX^  P ly^X  /OypxtPXPX'tJii’'’  yiypoprs  yp’Vxax  ’a  pa 
onaya  oyaaopy  pa  ppiaan  y‘?x  p:xus;yns  pra  a’x  is  tx  .a^ppyo  aya 
IX  iaxiiy:i  I’x  y’sxfPXPX  p .yi^’x^oaxsaix  nax  px  opj’'?  Dyaaopy  tp 
:iy‘?aa  px  px  "y’sxtPXPX'D3?iXP  yiyp’a.  :i3iayn  la  axn  px  yr’»yj‘?x 

.'pxiyi,,  pisa’paxs  px  ayax  "xnX’X^  X’SXTpx^pX  XPdiixi’is'T'' 


91 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


.RX]])}  VR  FNir'^'UDUnnN  113  ])^R1  M 

yr'’T  ]iK  oxmv  :\a*n'’D:x  ’’"r  t‘’K  7XTj'’'’K"Duymx  lyi 

pk:\d*»*ix 

IX  nytoyniN  *’t  l''^  ■’i  no  lyi  nv’’  ]‘7*’'’xsx  (i 

.]n*'nu;-)XD  r^^^s-oioymN  ]“7y*» 

K pD  T*’x  Dxv,  ,:\Kt3*>?2  D:\:n‘?*’’’D'ix  ]ny:\D'»nx  (2 

.*7xx  nyo‘?*’'>X3;:\Dx  nyi  u*’!*?  ysn^  lyiy’  “ixd  nvDynixnxD  ix 

■y^  ixuy:^  lyr'^T  pxTr'’N“DDyniK  nyi  ps  ]3x:\d*’ix  y‘?y’X’’DX  n nyD*’'iK 
,*?x:Konys  yx::i!P  'oxi  •)XDy:i"D*’iD  i*’X  D^^yioiry^  inxn  dot  yD^^ytx  ]*iot 
ly'nyri  t'»n  dot  .d^‘>d  pyiND  ]ix  ynOTp  ■’yi:;TKD  iid  ]yjxDD;ND  t'^k  Di<n 

.y’XNT'’:N:^DX“DDDKp  Dy*7  D‘’D  DynDKayDxnx  y:^jy  ’’i 

DPDKDIOTXD  y’XKT'^IlXIlDN-DDDKP  '’T  DOT  HD^’nii;  DOTS  Dyi  IXJ  .OaDWny 
*KP  ’’*7  I'^X  Dy:KT'»DDXD  n IX  DyDDyp  DyD  DOT  ]P*’t:;D'»'nN  IDH  D'‘V*’DyD  D'’X 

px  ,DDXD'DyD^'’Xx:  nyi  ]:iyp  ]k  n*>D  ix  nyi'py'n  Dy'rxDxy’: 

]D*’niz;yx  inn  IDpx  y»DDyivi  ]n‘»DixDn’nx  "iy‘7DD7*’D,,  nyix 
y'’X'’:nDX  iix  'iyD'’'?''D  d?''xxj  ]D''d  dot  inyoiyyx  bn]  dot  ,Dy’’j'’‘?pXD 
,D'’n*’‘?u;  .]DXD'’.Dy  iDOTy:^  Dp*’^y:\  I'^ix  lyrn  oyi  DyD‘’ix  .d:otd  miD  dix 
“’’ix  ''1  lyD'ipy:^  d'»d  ix  :\xd  ]D*>‘’'nx  ny’  t*»x  pynx  oyi  ix  .DXDy:i  y^yTax  ix 
•»!  ]Dy:^Dyn*’X  n’’D  D.rypD  iix  npnn  inysnyp  yD^n‘7yn  *T’‘7ayiiy:\DyD 

Isnii'DDyDDX  yD‘:’yn  d*’d  px  XDy:\  po  :ixd  ny**  pnD’’nx  dddxt  /‘7xx 
-D'»7DX  •’1  .*7*’x  ny*’’’!  ix  nyD^y:  dot  ]Dxn  ]‘7x;t  ’’n  ^dd  /inyTi  Dp^’D^y:^  *>*’1  ]D3OT 
lyoynix  •»!  iis  n •’idd  /iDi<ny:\  D‘7'>’>xy:^  Diy’a  lyrn  nysDyp  yi:y*»'>A 

.px'^D'DDyDDX  ]D*»'1X  ]yD*>DU?  ‘71JT 

DyDDxy:^  pijn  D^jn  ,y’xxT‘»:x:\Dij-DDDxp  nyi  ]id  DyT’‘7:^D*»D  n paD*’‘>Tix 

’iyD'’X  lyrn  .ynyiix  ]ix  y’»x’»PD^<  iid  y*»xp’n»Dfi  lyi  ■’p  px  ‘?y:iD  d’^p 

•pi  iy‘?D'’iip  ‘?DpDpy*?  lyDipxn  laifin  Dynit<  pp  ix  DD'»in 

.DDixiyA  •’•’T  ‘^p 

"]yDi:y:i,,  lyrn  Dy  y^‘?y^^  ]id  ipnnxD  p p dit  ly'^Dyp  p dp  .d:dpt 
•)^<a  pJ<7iyA  Dppy:\  lyrn  yx:x:i  I'^ix  px  ■idxdd^-‘’P  yjy‘7'’tz;DXD  ]DOTy:i 
-DDPX  ypxDPD^xp  iix  D'’p‘7y:i:^  DyDDyn:^  nyi  dp  ]y:yp  ]‘?xt  dx'ii  ^yD’^yix 

.]nx:\D’»ix  yDy‘»n  ]dp 

.]nx:iD'’'ix  y‘:’ypyDD  .DPDyD 

'X^iiij’DDDxp  p .px:\D'’'ix  yi:;ppyDD  p pd  yr'»x  pyn  D^x^nyi  ot  ‘?xt 
.]DPD'’7x  ]ny;ixD'’PX  :iaPDpr*’X  yppiyDi:;‘?p  x ]nxn  DDDX'ryin  Dxn  ypxrp 
X pxTr’’X‘DDynix  ]p  ]y,Di:y:\  Dxn  ]yD  px  DDXDDy^  dwp  :ii:ix‘?  ]y^  Dxn 
px  mxD  ,DPxs  pyty'^'^p  ,(^DX*?ypxs)  ]’’wxd  DypPDyD“‘?iD  x ,piyOT"n'’Pty 
’•’ixa-iij-DDDXp  Dyi  ]p  DyT»‘?.:iDp  ysp:\  x ]ix  iy‘:’ppiy  n'»ix  ]yD^:yx  r'^x 
lyrn  p pyT'»‘?p  p DyD^ix  ]ix  Dy^yiyyp  p ]'>x  Dr'>*?y:iirpx  dot  dxh  ypxr 
iyr*»T  iDDiji  pD  px  "xpjxpxp,,  yDPA'ODymx  nyi  dp  iDOTyji  Dp'’tyy.xDP 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


92 


nxD  ,'>t  DT’Dyis'inx  ]ik  iinbyn  ny‘?Kosy>jsp  ’t  i’k  pyns  ’’i 

"lya  N pyiy^  Dsn  DijtT  )is  ynsjcw  y3’'7:ynyi'iyD'’iN  iix  yp’Da’n  nxj 
^OKp  DP  iiyoJio  -ipyn  iVni  dxii  ,]yrDy‘?T>a  .isns’is  iD’njpp  D’pDy'? 

.ddxq'Pk:  nyi  pyp 

iS!UUJ  TJNUU]g''l^!  IIN  ^7 

"KD  X XT  pw  fx  XDyj  oyrPp  ]’x  tixdot’ix  iix  ypxT’ip’’?  lyi  pyn 
TjXDiys’ix  Tyi  D’lx  Tx  ,i3y:ip  txj  I’x  Tyanyi  pp  nyi  I’x  piD’n’i^ 
lyi  mD’iy  lo’ni  x uxnyj  nyi  I’x  D!jn  ,d’p  ixn  x lu'^xnj!^  D:ypyi  Dxn 
Dxn  ,‘7D’DD3Dy‘?  bijx  yTjD’PXD  X lynyj  p’d’p  T’x  oy  ,T'XT:”X"DDymx 
Tiyox  D‘?xn  TjxDTO’ix  Tyn  .nxnyi  D’myjp  d’p  Typ’DDn  TyT  I’x  t’x 
’i  iD’TyjD’ix  o’ox:’!  d’d  owp  in'?!?!!  D’nsiTPXi  n pn  iD'^xnyjjx  Tyj 
ps  D’sii  yjyo’Tyx  p dp  lyaxip  iddi'?  n ]’x  p’l'iDyj  ]yp’T  oxn  ,TyT”n 

.lysDyp  yiy’ibyn  ’t 


■y"?  D'7ij;ayT  p lyip  jjoyp  □yp’‘7p  ]i3  ypxi’np’*?  iix  uxDiyspx  idxj 
■DuyDTX  Tyi  .ippDXD  "Txoxn,,  p I’x  DTXDiyTxs  lynyj  p”  yayD'’'?3yj‘'(3 
ysxp  Tysypix  t’x  d!ji  .pyxbys  "axoxt,.  px  lynyi  lyp’T  p-x  px  pxir’x 
■pjjD  lyrn  d”x  nyn  Tyn’x  .1945  ,17  nxux’  tp  1943  pv  yiiy  ps  ;D’iyTn  i9 
tiypix  '7i:xnyi  x ]ynyi  px  ’’t  ]is  yiy  -pypyywyj  y^T  ysjxj  x lyaipys 
■•’oa  .y’sxDiypx  ypypiy  ppD  ddx  nyr  DiyTxsyi  pn  oxn  oy  .d’id  iix  py^ 
:‘?''su;”3  Dix  .DPxxTyn  px  pp9j  ,niiax  .D''’p’DDxn‘DT:xuiyTyT’n  .lysi-m 
psTyT  piyiipyojxp  n .-iy>xp  I’x  y’ayT’sy  did’d  x pxT^yiopx  px  oy 
iu‘?xn  yortyj  n ’■’o  iix  ypuxTp  n ■”o  .y‘7X  .ypny’nD  t^a  P’t  Diypyp  ia!<“ 
DyT  ix  ?DyT  pyn  pxnyj  ixoyj  px  dxp  .pxnyA  DDXTayAaix  o’sxj  ’t  pnr 
nnpupxT  .TyAx5  I’x  '?m'<Qv  x pxnyA  Djnijyjr’x  px  pyo”!  ’i  iia  idpi 
-’Tya  iDxn  DSTXTyp  Dxn  lya  .p’rpi  p'?x  pxA  I’x  d^t  Ty3x  pynyi  lyp’i 
"D’nx  iDxmxD  pxiiAiyDPD  Tyopx  lynyi  I’x  Tyjx'?  ps  p”  ’i  *>?<3  .poAyaxp 
pxj  .iypis'’Tsiyr’x  DiD’D"’Dax  yp’D’P  ’i  ly’axmso’ix  p’l  TyAx'?  ps  ppvi 
"Xi  nyupx  -lypysp^Tyi  x lyaipxa  is  lyjp'^yA  px  lypix’axD  yiPOjyDPX 
lyr’T  ’ponijT’iyTs  n"T  ]ix  px^nys'?’!  ypTxi  ’ns  p’a  tx  ,i:isxiix3  ayiy’s 
■pijT  ]iy’'?’is  TynxsxtADAyii^tA  ps  lyaipxs  oi ’s  '7y  lyaa  px  lyAx"?  ps  o’nx 
D!j:n  .Dj’m  p’ljyDiypis  ]y.i:ns’TSiyA”X  d:i’id  ysy'’Dy  lytxiyo’iy  I'rijD’n  txu 


93 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


pxn  ,p‘’^:?:ix  IK  ]id  nyi  DVTOtJKny:^  okh 

■’n  p'^Kii  ]DV  KTK  112  W.  ,DiT  “nypni  ]ik  to^nn  dki  loy  u:yp 

"iKD  iVT'pyD  K pKiiy:^  onnKyr^r^K  nynnyi  t'^k  d^'  .imKuu^yic^iK 
OKI  .iyi:p  yr*’‘7p  ]DKjy:\  ‘1*>‘i.k  pw  ]2Kn  oy  yD'^yi^  r-c  ypjKnp  n 
nK  n TK  /]pK“iKn  •’I  ]‘7yioi2;D‘'’iK  OKI  inyii  D:^KTy:^  odikt  yn'ryi 

"jiK  n n'»*7ix  iiK  oyriK'^iKs  ID-iki  ]‘?kt  nyoyn 

’y:i  T*’K  pay  nyiaK  ]k  ,Dy'’Qy“T'’Dy  ]i2  ■^KDyri  I'^n  ]y:^:iA:nK3  y-)Kt3‘»aKD 
yTK^pip-iyniD  yp:iK‘iP  n tk  ,]y^K32'’-!K  iy:^aryn  *’*1  '’’’n  nmiyax^  dki  ly'.i 
D’’ai'’‘?n  '>‘7  iiD  oayn  y^Ki’’^^  ■’i  i^^KDrnx  diz;'>:  on  ,i^kt 

lytoyn-iK  iid  idp^’^d^kp  ]p'’T’’‘?nyi  *>11  D'^r^y  yiy'^KKiK^s  yD^’yiK  Tk 

.-lywynnKiKD  o'’?^ 

"jiK  ]7D  topK  lytKOKnKD  nyi  ]y'ny:\  t'^k  nyopKiKD  iiyi^imn  ik:\  k ]id 
lyi  iiD  m:in^  PK  ]y?3K‘72  ]'’K  ]yjKDiyy:\  t^k  dkii  .y’^iiKSKnc  n prxiyD 
]y7Kt:iz;y:^  lyrn  ,:i7772Ktiki  ly'^'iD  ]7k  ]y?2^yn  yay'^Koy^  rx  ''KQKDoy:^,, 
mnnp  rv  TK  ,D'’^iz;n  ]?3  on  k ly'i’iy:^  oiiz;d  t‘’K  D‘7K?Dy‘7  4D*’^iy“r  ly^y^K 

♦ly^iy:;  diz;*’:  lym 

nnia  ,]y?3y‘7nK‘-iD  yo7Dyny:iD*'iK  diz;^:i  ]ik  yoaDyny:\D-’iK  i^^mp  ]\k  y*??^  n 
ID'^D  K ]iD  DKD'^'iTy-)  ^’’K  ]yiz;y,:i  Diypy:^  ikj  okh  ]Dyn2:y?3Kn:2  di:?*’:  ]ik  i:c 
n^D  n'lD  t^yn  n‘7n>  iix  ,niyii?i  iid  ddko  n tk  ]ik 

.pn  Dyii  iinun  nyi:?’’!^'’  lyi  ]ik 

VK  tODK?2  '’^K:i  n T-'X  1945  IKUK*’  ]t3-17  12'’7K  ]D"16  ]12  DDK7  nyi  ]*’K 
"K*:’  px  ipnnxD  'axDxn,,  n iis  lyiy^iyn  yp-’Di^n  n ]7X  ]‘:^X2y^  ^DKODayiyt: 
IT**  y7yn’»‘?3y:i  iny'?  ly'^Dwy-i  n ]nxn  ]dix  xtx  ^t^ix  ]ix  ]2x‘7‘o:x  lyrn  ]iy:^ 
.XDnn  p?3y  ]iy’’}zx:  ]id  uynyDxny:^  in  ]ny:\x^  nynxDXDDayiz^'o  *’1  ]‘’X 

ivi  ir: 

n’?5;D  ypn3"iyDy?3ii?y!:  x ]u’’‘?y:i  ]2xn  D’’:ix:i  n oxn  ^innyi  Dpipy:\ 

TnD  yom.:^  pp  t*»x  ixt  ^-’^d  lyi  nnx  on-ix  ]yrn  n’’*’  yoDx‘‘7piy‘iX2  •’i  iix 
*yA  yIyni^:D'D^‘l  yDni:\  x ly^iy^  iy‘’t)pxD  oxi  t*’x  o'^n  p-’x  ]id  lynyA  ui:?*': 

t:’’n  lyiyinx  nyi  iid  nynijj  o,^nxn  lyrn  nynyz:  *>•  tx  ,iy*’:yyii’ 

.]yn7pyAn^j:D  t'>x  ,p'’‘7:^?D'!X  ]D*»n:i  Dyi  ]*id  Di:;nynxn  ny*’  ]ix  p'>i:'’ni  x 
]*i2  imin  Dyi  ]^y77  p-’^^x  in  o*'?:  ii;Din  imiyn  x DDxz:y:\  oxn  iyr’’x  nyiy"* 

.D1p?D1X 

11UD7II 

nDonra'^x  nyDaxpxn  x lyiiy:^  t^’X  pxiz;ny2‘?n  n^b^  ‘?X")iy*’  p nyoxs  p’’?D 
yDy*7t)‘7y77  px  ’’‘o  px  yTyn'’‘7y“i  ]''x  ^■’o  ddh  •7*’?2‘?n  x t**  x ]yny:\  t^’x  ny  ny^y 
’^yi  in  ny  oxn  p:y:\'’‘?yo3*’X  iix  lom  □yr'’oy:\‘7X  pn  pjxn  x lyoy'^nxns 
T*’X  ny  irnp  yiy^’^ns  n I'^x  *>‘’0  ]ix  yi:;’’T'’  n ‘>•'0  omo  id  x innxn 
•‘ynxD^i^ooiyiyo  n .onny  yDo’^pmnxo  ]D*’'»‘7.:\'isDnx  OD'’‘:5X'’2zy2D  x ]yny:\ 
■nyn  o:ypy:i  ou;n  inijn  -^n  oijn  ,D*’r:y  yD‘?yix  ]pw  □*’X  py‘:’D  ]oxpx77nx 
HDD  nnnn-]n  n id  x pyzipynx  o:iy*?2  ny  ioDny:\  •’i  imn  ]p'>T'>‘? 

10'»mx  1D*»?2  Dp’’SDa^^p  p->p  pxn  oiz;’’:  *7xt  t*’  ]‘>’’x  tx  ,D'»:*’:y  ]D''’>‘’:\T:iDnx 
P‘’D  o*»n  lyoxTTx  pxi:?nyn‘?n  m'ny  ‘?xniy'»  n nyojjiD  p-’o  p»x  1935  nx'*  i^’X 
nyoTD  p*’D  P’x  pn^n  .‘^xni:?'’  pv  lynyA  n'^iy  pxiynyn*?n  *?nmD  nno  nyoio 


CZENSTOCHQV  — Our  Legacy 


94 


I’k  1'7'>is  rv  lyjavyi  ^938  nij’  t>s  t’k  nyoijD  i”a  .imKoaryi 
nan'7?2  n -insDispms  n’lwn  du?’2  ,ny>nx3  mx  .I’liy  oijn  px  dm’jv 

.laijnnyiD’iK  t’k 

ID’a  lyaxns  ny  fx  Dy’sxDixsyi  iix  Dy’spy'^yD  n iis  d”x  nyy  I’x 

.oyn  lyn’p  Vyi  Diyn  lyn’p  by  iyDvyi^2'ii<  mon”  nynjjDijDDayiyD 

ty’DDnyopxnxD  lyiiyi  t’x  oijtn  .to’v^y'^jynys  x pynx  t’x  mpaix  pn  D’a 

.xsan  Diy’3  *iya  ar’n  I’ny  t’x  ]ix  man”  ]U7’b’i9  pxs 

luinn 

•aya  ayi  I’x  b’-'aix  iivapx  ix  lyaiayi  tJijn  yxiyayabn  pyan  ayina  p’a 
Dyr’X  ny  pnayms  axn  ay  .aauynxa'oaaxaiyayT’n  aya  iis  ayaax  ayiy: 
■’X  axn  ay  .i^ix’nsxa  aya  ixi  laaxawvi  t’x  ay  .ao’nayj  ]ix  ap'aiaaya 
I’x  HD’n  I’x  axapxa  x am  .xayao  ayaaxcJ  ><  11n  »<P3X  ’las  pn  atxbyjaya 
■’jtx  ay'iaD’n  px  axcycxas  t’x  ’ponxaD’nxt  ayao  ixa  a'x  pix  bxaiy 

.ayanayii 

■'pDPDNi?  pUTf^'Pll 

’byn  X lynyj  t’x  .-’poi’sxp  ixyb  aysnaxo  ps  pt  aya  ,’pm’DXp  pyaxbn 
D’X  T’X  p:yj’bya:’x  aya  po  "y’spx,,  D’aT.9  aya  ]’x  .a”pDybayTays  yir’a 
-ay  a’a  .a’la  laya’T  x abxaya  la’ayio’ix  iix  pxaa  ps  is’ibajx  is  lymbyi 
laxnyi  asxayi  ,ay:xi’aax9  yaybay  a’a  lyaxTis  .ay  t’x  ayaysa^  a’lyan  yayb 
TS  laxnyj  aa’syj  ay  t’x  ia”p  I’x  ayaa’aiyyi  x px  D’n’na‘’’£XT  ’a  laia 
ay  axn  a^yn  ’a  p’lx  ib”P  yaa’aiyyi  ’a  a’a  .Dbiyn’3  id’tx  y’ypyrjy  aya 
IpyaiD’TX  ayn  oxn  baia  oya  3’bix  ix  .p’a'sxn  .D’nsia  ’a  n’lx  ]saxTTy.J  I’t 
laxnyj  iDxtyaya  t’x  ay  -lynyaxa  is  I’T  lyn’byi  n’aan  yr’T  iix  d’x  ayn 

.nbiy-n’a  ps  ipaxs  aya  ^’ix  p’anjyn  abxn 

•yj  axn  oxn  .ayayaax  ayiP’b’is  x pyiyjaya’x  a’a  axn  axPDy  aya 
laxn  iTya”a  ’a  oxn  .niasa  y:yaxaaxa  ’a  ]yay:is  D”a  abiyn’a  id’ix  ayaax 

.aiXbTya”a  p’p  aa’syipynx  px  aa’iayns 

■'PDJ‘’gNi?  u'’'?''nb^g  ^7 

aya  I’lba  la’bayi  layb  D”3  t’x  n"y  ’poa’DXP  txv'p  y’b’axs  aya  po 

.lb’i9  I’X  I’T  ai’syj  iix  ay’T’uitrx  ix  t’x  ayabyn  .’any’  iit 

■byn  .(’pD^’QXp  ixyb  iis  ayaiaa  x)  (bpjx’)  aipx’  ]ayn  a^x^nsra  xn  bxt 
ps  ayia  ayivapx  ix  lynyi  px  pax’‘i’a  I’X  aj’inyi  laJJ’  yP’i 
ms  .]yba’a  yby’oaxi’s  px  ’a  ,a”s  lo  x a’X  p’aayaa’ii  .aoxT^Txaca^xb  aya 
a"a  11T  p’x  atxbyiaya’x  axn  ay  .laaxairyi  i960  ax’  px  ay  t’x  lay’iaxa 
a’a  I’T  aayaaxs  iix  ayaaaybya  ayajyj’axas  x I’x  ayabyn  .p.sxp  12’na’x 

,lX'3i3’iyxii  7’x  arm  ay  .Jjiiyaxs  I’S’aya 


95 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


n-y  "pKpin*’ 

D’^n  'T  pD  11T  ivT  nviV'?'>o  ‘rspin’ 

T’s  .xponyii'suD  D"“  ^y^  pc  .ona  iik 
.iiij:3!j:0D:yu.'D  I’S  lisnyi  iT’uyi 

P’P  lyaipyj:!?  ay  t’s  1929  aK’  rJ< 

cij:n  1931  aij’  I’x  iix  .yasjNp  .VsyaDisa 
aya  iid  ’oya  ’las  pn  lyaiiyiayanx  ay 
la’iayi  D’s  uijn  yaVyai  ■ixa'ryays 
-DUO  x 11X  D’xi'?  11T  X nyaayarp  ”ns 

.T’'7ixa  ayo 

tju.a  ay  .ii^o^yo  ayiya^i^xa  px  ayp’xia,  .aya’ou;  x lynyj  pk  ay 
IDPX  ]”p  DDityi  D^’D  ‘7U»J”P  a’lJ^  PK  Dixirnara  ]”p  DDirya  oiyi  'puapaa 

•lay'?  iayaDDXC^'?yiyi  rx  ix 

yuyTiyoxayj  o:  ’5  '7y  ’a  ,D”'’Da]xa  lyn  .nnn'^a-o'i'yn  ayo’-'iis  aya  ix: 
px  Dxu”x  oV’syj  I’T  .Pxyaoaxo  p’p  lympyijx  lyra  ,Di:.a’i  yii^’sxi  I'la 
t5U?i  -lyiaaxr’x  Diypy:»  la  lax.a  yax  oi^’:  ,px'?iyaya  I'a’ox 

Tan  pa  px  o’aoD  ]’ya  <iax  axDO  pa  -la  is  lynyj  aapa  ayn'a’o  '?xpm’  ’a 
ay  Dun  lay’  axa  .D”‘7Daix'a  y:yttipyi  ’a  iia  opais-'aaxT  x laxnya  px 
"ISP’X  aa  aix  ai  ,nsy  ix  oxnya  ay  oxn  ny’  axa  .oaxirDD’'>aD  x Dxnyi 
.0”S  ayda’aiuxaaix  ix  qax  nixiian  yDy‘7:yiay3  oP’">Daya  aax  px  lyaaax 
o'a’aiaya  pa  P5?P  -Q’x  pxn  D^'^oaix'?  ’a  ix  .ayaam  i”p  ouia  ypxo  t’X 

.BDxaaxaoaix'?  aya  ]id  D^yaayas  obx 
■oax  D”paayaynya’x  ayoDyax  aya  o’a  px  naann  oaai  D’a  oxa  ay 
•IDDppp’x  Diu?  p’p  lyayj  oiya  oyaa  lyaa  aa,a;x  I’x  .iDa'’‘?D  yra  Da’Dya 
pxn  px  Dna!<yaa”X  paya  otya  ax:  iy:’a  ,y:yaipyj  ’a  ,D'”VDa:x'?  y'?X 
pyuaaopx  ’a  ]a’D  is  pxaDis”a  io”p3y‘?:ya  yay’sjx:’::  P’P  oxny:  dc;': 
ps  -.ID  •o”'?Da:x':’  ps  iyaipyj:x  PP’i  pypxa  laaa  .DQX2^JX»Da:x'?  aya  ]id 
yp’oa:  oxa  D:y'?D  ayii'^’D  '7xpin’  .ys’Dm  yjyii  aya:yp  yaya:x  ps  ’’o  ,'7xaui’ 
.U'”Voa:x'7  yp’a:a”'7Da:  ’a  ppynisoaax  lynyi  p’Da:  px  dxii  -p”'^oax  o'^ya 
axs  PX  D’p’DyD  ’a  .ayn'^’D  Vxpm’  ps  a’aoai  ayEi-’OO’ayDpxaxs  x px  oxa 
D’vpyjynya’x  oaai  o’a  ay  ay  uxn  ixoy:  px  lyaipn-miay  ix  piiyi  D’x 

pay*?  pa  po  loii’a  yosy'?  ’a  is  T’a 
BX^  ,t):aaxy:iP'’X  Dxn  DDXwixaoaix'?  ’a  dxp  ay::iay:ayo:ix  yVx  n’lx 
,oy’spiaDD:’x  pya  px  ix^aax  aya  lyayaaxo  is  oxoa^ax  .oiyanyas  o'ax  ay 
•IXtaya  -p’DiSD’ix  aaxoiya’x  piiya  px  ay  dxii  atayaax  yVx  P’'7X 
-ytpy  aya  a’lx  di'7d:”x  p’o’axm  X oa’xyao’ix  oxn  aynb’o  ^xpin’ 

X px  D”p:ayjyaaya’x  ysman  .yayDOxaox  yax’'?’axs  X isxit^ya  .yupip 
BP  Baa’pyao’ix  an  Bxn  ay  .iaya:x  ois  nyr’x  po  i:ix’sx3  yVisBiaysoya 
yoDiay  ’a  p-x  I'jpx  .BDuxa  lyaji'^axtaxD  iix  pyaais’i  y'ax  .B’pay'jBprs  x 

.B”S  I’K  lyaip  IS  B'^yoaxs  Biyp  Vxaa’p  nyoyn 
-’xyB  ’a  Baypya  iix  pyByn’Bpx  y'ax  aya’x  bd’tspx  ’a  Bxnya  Bxn  ay 
ByBDPya  an  Bx-a  ay  .pyaax  yaaayassiBax  ’a  loxsisis  oya^x  pv’  ps  pa”? 
a'j’.a  ’a  '7X1  a’a’.a  apa  a’l  tayaayn  oxn  .ayr-n  ayay’  tx  .Q’sans  oya  b’s 
.BBipaxa  B’B  Baxn  yopyaBsiyaonx  ix  P”np’ais  Biyp  ’jxaa’v  -lyaipxa 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


96 


D3Xii7jK!3Dnj}<‘7  nyi  iis  uryi’iviD  ns’  lys  lyny:^  fx  nyii'7’o  '?x?Tn’ 

’1  113  lyayi'iNu  Tyi  iix  nyi  lynyi  ^y  t’x  d^s  ys^xi  ’t  px 

y^3D'”^XD  yj”!  u’o  ’'D  ]is  i’oy3~ix  yiynyiynyn’x  yi”!  d’o  ■”0  iDyo’ii’Dpx 
I’T  "ly  ux”  ■o'”''7DTixi'  ’T  113  mntic'  ybx  n’lx  .iyjmy'”owxa  y'ly’SJxrD 
D^■'^^xpy^  iyi”T  oy  ni  .“lya  th  x .“nor  xtx  nyr’X  iid  iik  up'’'?'''’DX3 
Da’Dyj  ,-oDXii'3xamix'?  nyi  ii3  Ty-'DiynxD  iix  msa  na  iid  oyiyi  n nxiW 
D!<n  ny  .n"y  nyn'i’o  ‘ixprn’  oiynnynD  ay:yanxDu;nxD  iid  yiyn  ’i  I’lX  in 
ny’nD  rx  □I'lui  on  iyiiy>  t’x  ixddux'?  x lyn  .iDiyaxa  px  dp’‘7”DX3  I’l 
pyiDX  113  iD'ixnyiDx  n’x  uxn  -|xt  niw  pp  ix  -pyii  D^xaayi  x^ 
xjya  .oao  pd  n’l'?  lyn  is  •ixamax'?  ny:ymxDii?axD  x iidd  psy"?  oyn 

.X3ixi!?’J  rv  .pxDyi  ay  I’X  n"y  xjxn 

.VXD’DDxn  '7xay:yiyn  p^T”  px  pnx  ay  fx  1959  ayaayDDyo  D’lnax  P^ 
aya^'iiD’a  yiraipyipy  ’a  .”dx  pyuiu,,  x t-ix  p'-ax  I’x  ay  tx  -oy  Dxn  lo^nyi 
aya  pD  ayr’x  ’ii  y‘?x  -lyii^yi^  I’x  oy  oxii  .op’xiaaixxn  nxnyi  lyj”! 
.pn  .a'lin  apaa  lyjJXPii  d’x  lyrn  D^'icaix"’  y^a  ysiXJ  X px  yu’uipytpy 
.y’ayaxpx  t>31’  aya  is  iyjiia'''’ans  y'lx  pyii  oiyaDyioax  ’uyi  i’t  uxn  ay 
.IP’iyisD’iax  3”ai  piu;  pyr’i  iyijiax'?J'”X  ’a ’s  -lyaipaxD  ODaxays  oxn  oxii 
aya  pyii  px  laxiiyi  uyaaxyio-’ix  pniyaiziPiD  pin?  t-’x  Dxaixas  aya  ’s 
iyi3XJy;nyD’’ax  oyiati’  aya  t’x  ayuyDi:;  -lyaipyiix  t’x  dxh  .p^ya^xsoyaxp 
px  iDyiyj  T’x  ay  .aya'’'7io’a  yivuipyipy  ’a  pD  iD”.apy'?yiJX  yoxivaD  is 
lyaiya  ayunryj  x ix  .oas’iiyi  iV’dx  p’r  pxa  ysixn  PX  aya’S'uoyi 
Dxn  Dxa  .DDx'7y:i  I’lx  p’'?x  Dx.a  ay  px  “ixo’di:^  px  pnx  d”i  px  uaya 
uyii  Diax  Jyo  ’■’aa-”iis  x px  ix  .ayD’i  lyiiyi  px  ap’xiaxa  ayn  iyay‘7X 
max  lyu  ’■’tis  PX  .ayui'ixs  x lynyi  ayax  rx  pai^n  aya  .D”n  aya  px  pn  ay 
’nis  .11TX3  lay’  laxaaxD  pxn  n’a’iapxa  ’a  px  nxnyi  ua’ayDX  ay  rx 
aynayuDyo  id-b  id’ix  ia-i2  pd  ddxi  aya  px  ,y’sxay.DX  aya  IX^  iyo 

•lyiaxjyiD’ix  naiyi  pn  rx  ,1959 

y’SxayDX  aya  axs  ayu  ”iis  .Pxd’ds;  px  UDitxa  D’x  pxii  oxn  y‘?X  ’a 
,ayp’Diaaii  aya  dx  tx  -py'iryn  I’x  oxa  tx  , P’1'71  Diypyi  DST’iaxi  PXa 
aya  t’x  ,ayii'7’D  “ixpin’  .DDXsrixaoaix'i’  aya  pD  mya’TyaD  ayaiy‘7D”aiy 

.xoiy’i 

,yii’DipyTpy  aya  pD  ins’T-ay’iaa  y'ly’syDO  x laxiiyi  piayi  i”'?!  t’x  oy 
px  raDayai’X  ayrnx  n ,1959  ,13  ayDayoDyo  ,p’D3iT  lyaipyiaxD  t’x  oxn 

.lyo’iixps’x  'jayn  ays’iaxo  pd  t’ih 

’a  .laxnyi  aa’Dyio’ix  py'iaprD  lyrn  ins’T  aya  pd  pi'^wxi  y'^X 
aya  is  lyaipyi  px  lyiiip’DDyiirxn  yay”T  pD  D”aDX2  I’T  px.a  D”'7Daix‘7 

.’aDayarx  ayr’ix  'I'^y  >1959  ,15  ayDayoDyo  p’Doi’a  ,n’i'7 
ap’iyyiis  pxn  lyr’axB'OD'i’n  px  iDDXuriXTioaix'?  aynx^XBOiywo  ’a 

.oyaxaiy'^yu  py'7xaix? 

.n’l"?  aya  is  xcixaxtr  PS  laxs  is  lyaipyi  t’x  xixn  na'jiy  ar’aD 
,UDXTyixaDa:x'7  aya  pd  axoyapyoPxayiyi  aya  .p’ottayax  pa’P  a"a 

.n"y  ayn'i’D  “ixpin’  mya’iyaD  oyiyDaxoTraxo  aya  lynyi  a’Doa  axn 

aya  is  .Diya’iyaa  pd  piyaix  aya  laxnyi  tDp’m’xaxB  ^’1X  rx  oy 
P’Diy  ay'7y’syDD  x laxnyi  a’layiis  t’x  ,o'7yDttTyj  Dx>a  y’'7’ax3  ’a  oxn  .nasa 
.iy’'7i:y  px  w’xyaayn  I’x  pD’aiyD’ix  yaiayaDniDix  t3’»  (nasa) 

.nsi  maar  lan?  na’ 


97 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


n"3?  tt^o’iixisTK'7  ('7iy“i5;n)  p’uyn  "i"7 

T’K  n"s  lyc’njjnsTK'?  pnayn  i"i  iid  dmd  lyr 
orns  -anan  ,nnsu?a  I’n  axD  ooi'^axs  nyo’ni  x 

.d”‘?oi:n?  ]ik 

'JA  ]aun  ,n'>ax  ayum  n ]ix  an  n :U7C'’njjnxm'7  pn:yn  iio  layo'^y  n 
I’x  njjaijDDjyiya  I’x  oxi  ypsx^TxaDO  aya  n’ls  nDyu?yA'ax'>j!<'?!j:p  x uxn 
r’P  lynyA  BW’j  lyrn  ”t  oijn  .n’laya  apipSA  du,">:  .fin  oayj’^aya  ‘?Q(<p 
lympija  ayaj’p  yay”i  ix  -o’axa  I’l  ”T  lajjn  ixa  .la’Djyn  yay'rAynaxs 
ni’D  pD  lyixoipxa  I’x  nnsi2;a  n .i'7X3U’oyDi!tas  layn  iix  nnV’a  Dyo’taymx 

.ayDayD  '’ns  iix  I’t  ”aa  nyarp 

11X  y’Aij:'7i<:DKaxDO  ua’aiDtr  oijn  ]ix  in  ayBDD'7y  aya  lynyi  t’x  p’ajyn 
laaijiBtt^yA  ,1’syaya  an  — a'’ijtsjj:y'’  — ayD”ns  aya  .a!jDpxa-i!<s  x laxnyj  t’x 
pyaiasD’ai’  oa’ansu;  ux^  — aaxjaya  — ayu’aa  aya  .1965  I’x  pax’"i’j  px 

.Vxyauaxo  I’k  px  oxPXi''''X  nxnyA  t’x  px 
Bipay.axa  lynyA  t’x  .oyu’Dayn’nx  I’x  djyaiBo  x p’ajy”T  ax^  -P’aay.a 
ayw’DD’'7X’sxD  aya  is  oaynyi  ay  uxn  d”s  ysaip  x •lyAnx’ni’ax  y‘’X’sxD  pa 
-yA  T’K  ay  ."ana,,  px  a’'7AD’a  ayn’opx  ix  laxnyA  ay  t’k  ayaaxA  px  ”Daxs 
’n  ,iDax  yp’aja’DAX  P’aiaynxa  .oy’siD’uDA’x  y”a  ysixA  X Px  P’toyD  lyn 
lynyA  ,.o  .d  .ipt  p’axs'iaia  px  uaxso  I’X  a’'7Aa’a‘DJAiD'7xnaxD  :'?’aw”a  Dis 
■X’'?a’a"Dyaya„  aya  px  a’‘7AD’a-DAjiD'7xnaxo  ,"iayDi:7:Aaxn„  ps  ays’taxa 
■aiBx:  px  ajx"?  axs  A3i'7”b3x  aysi’a”  aya  I’x  a’'7JB’a  OAAiBVxnaxs  ,"pyB 
px  px  ,WB’nxaiD”x  .a  pa  Aiia’DAx  aya  ayanx  lynyi  t’x  oxn  .BDXiz^JO'n 
a’VAB’a  X ,iax’  yAAx'?  -lynyj  t’x  ay  .oy’siB’Boj’x  yayajx  5”a  ysAXA  x 

."aaia„  pa  ByB’axp'BXBs;  pa 

P’aiy.a  px  "AjiB”s-ayByaax,-  ’a  iyA”iraya  is  la’i.ayAJX  Bx.a  I92i  ax’  I’x 
,Dxa  BO”ia  ayaayii  yayajx  I’x  .axBxaBO’i’aax  iia  aax  aya  lyauaxa  Bx.a 
.AaiB”X  aya  iia  pjyBO’tAy  ay'?y’ayBxa  aya  axa  paxt  is  Baaxaxa  Bxn  ay  tx 
IpixaaxB  IS  ,'7a”iis  dw  ix  -t’x  oxa  px  ax’  ”aa  Ba’BO’Tjy  Bxn  aaid”s  ’a 
aya  axa  iy’?B’a  yVy’ojXA’s  ’a  laxs?  pa  lyAAijjyaBiyiX  y3y'?a’aayaAix  p’l 

.A3iB”s  aya  pa  piyao’uy 

WB’nxixTX^  P’ajyn  a"a  t’x  nB’n®‘B'?yii  ayB”iis  aya  pa  b”s  aya  px 
px  I'j’ia  p’p  laxayAp’ais  ay  fx  nan‘?a  aya  ixJ  .ajxaaxs-iBxa  px  lyiiyj 
’IXS  d'?x  yoxp'ipAxap  ayp’Bax  aya  px  p’ajayaax  -max'?  I’x  Bi’inyA  Bx.a 

.axBpxa 

B’a  lyaxtis  i'?’ia  pa  pynx  wB’iixaxTx"?  p’ajy.a  an  I’x  1948  ax’  px 
px  y’A'jya  px  ,b”s  yo’iiyA  x ,iB'?xnyAe’ix  i’t  ”t  laxa  Bwayis  .’laa  pn 

.yaxJXP  ,‘?xy'iBiX»  px  lyaipyAAX  ajnAXi 
•ayByaax,,  px  p’aya  lyiiyj  ©o’uxaxTx'?  p’ajyn  a"a  t’x  ‘jxyaBixa  px 
-axa  ,Bex©3xaoaAx'?  aynxaxooiyiyB  aya  px  px  y’sxT’AXjax  ayiP’aAia  /ana 
.BaxiPAxaoajx'?  aya  pa  ays’taxs  pa  bsx  oya  b”s  yo’iiyA  x p’aiyaya 
-y*?  iDy'?Baxs;'?ytyj  px  ByaaxyAB’s  D’x  b’s  lyaxtis  mxn  oxn  ’t 
-3”p  D’X  I'jyn  ,Ba”aa  px  D’aan  yi”t  y'?x  px  Baypyi  d’x  laxn'oxn  y‘?x ’t  ,7a 

ipjyaax  P’t  aiaa  .7oyAaxa  BB7’i  ^xa 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


98 


l«r)”i3(u  noin 


•D”n  “ivtnjiK  11D  inxnxa  oix’SJD’inx  n pn  ^yrn  I’a  i»n 

l»nj?a  I’x  DX11  .ynxnVxn  ]«p  jnxnyi  osxnayj  T>a  l^rn  .nxaxnxa  Vosou; 
.oayV©  ^y”T  T’x  D»  Tx  .03nyi  to  in  axn  dixt  .nyixV'OiJxwn  I’a  x 
I’n  i»i?  Dj;  tx  .p’lVi  oVxnyj  W'i  i»nx  .lonixa  oiy’j  ]xt  ix)  aaxn  I’x 
]”Vi?  s ]yai3yjD’a  oxn»i  yn  2xn  D«n  nvn  ]id  pn3y”JD’nx 
.l»ai3yns  tijix  ’'n  dxt  i^a  axn  ynxnVxn  j’x  nynx  ,13xt  a’a  Vpy0 
IvjiDyj  in  I’a  pxn  ynxnVxtn  ]’x  iviivi  ]y3”T  n’a  oxii  iva  ”m  n I’x 
vVx  ]ya  oxn  anxT  ]id  .^x■|yo  ipnnDS  x I’x  ,]yj3n3'nx3  VDyVpynty  I’x 
1”P  Dsxnavi  1941  pya  ]d*6  oyT  mu^DJ  1200  onx  .nxixnxn  ]id  p” 
nyuoyniy  i”a  .inyaVy  yj^a  a’a  )ynyj  I’x  pn  ’n  jiy’ns  .nxaxwDiyiyo 

.^x’  10  ]ix  7 po  "lyii’p  ”nx  o’a  pnyiyniy  x ]ix 
X lynyi  Vxax  rx  oy  m fxVs  x px  un’DyjD’inx  nnx  oxn  jya 
pya’n  n ]ix  oyjyiyyp  n ipn^Vonx  onayj  jaxn  yVx  .pnaxo'Vxoya 

jyu  nxD  X .lyaijyny  yVx  n3ix  ”3  inxn  nyoVyria’a  y^y'r’is  yny”i  o’a 

oi’DynynixjiD  j^x  oysni  yi^'^p  I’x  D'7'”Dyy  nnx  jya  oxn  nyoys^y 
yDini  X ^xi  u’a  y’V’axo  ]•>'>a  jix  yx  .xayj  ]’x  lyony  yiyT^tynxc  I’x 
lyi  >i’ix  lyiiDyj  i’i  oxn  oxn  ,Vity  x I’x  ]ixny3  ooxinyi  jy^’n  ]n” 
]y3”T  n’a  yD'?yn  ix  nnoiya  nyn  pD  paxi  lyn  .1  .ni  yy*7x  o”t  nyoiyiy 
.“I’ln  iD’ni  ayn  ]id  nyiPio^x  n .ny^inyViy  ]yny3  rx  o'7”oyny  jnxnyi 

.ojypyj  ]3xn  ”t  oxn  o’a  joVxnyj  noix  ]3xn 

yop’oiVayy  ]ix  yosxVpyy  pnx  jyaipyi  lyj”:  n"y  nyoxs  i”a  iix  ^’x 
lix  on’iopxn  ]ynyj  ji’n  jiyoiya  yp’onxn  ’n  jiy’nx  .D”n  nyn  jis  ^xi 
P>a  OTiyixnixmxD  ,in)in  n op’i’nyj  nnx  jaxn  ”t  .nyooyniyjpjpp 
yi  ]3xn  yaVyii  ,yVx  n loVxnyj  ]ix  osxVpyx  )ynyj  px  oxn  ,sxp 

.'1'7’n  nyiya’snya  ]’x  op’opjyj 

X ]’x  lyaiayM’nx  mix  oxn  ^ya  V”!!  p’nVia  ]ynya  px  y’^axs  )”a 
yx  .n"y  nyoia  iix  lyoxo  ]”a  pjxnx  lynyi  px  oxn  ix  P’1'73  yx  .pin 
liD  ny3’lii3”x  ’T  py’iiy  .«i*7’n  ly”!  ixd  nx3p3xn  ny”T  jyiiya  iB;o3ya  ’n  i’3 
oxn  yD'ryii  ,*?n”a  x piiyi  px  o’13  ]’x  ]tt703ya  ’n  is'rxnys  laxn  oxii  Pin 
D’tynn  ”m  .n’a  O’a  oi’oyiyoi’xnxD  y^  sxp  jon’iyixnixanxD  i”a  p’niyyi 

.oxnyj  niinn  'rta  O’a  n’a  ]3xn  nyoysiy 
.“lyooyiw  X ‘iy3”a  is  yiynxii  ]”p  pxoyipyiix  pi”!  pyo'?y  y3”a 
’T  oxnyj  1X3  ]3xn  ]ix  pnxom  yn”3  ”t  iy3”T  nyoysiy  iox3xa  nxs  x 
1’ix  PX  nyn3’p  ”iix  yn’x  o’a  py3yiw  i”a  .'7xniy’'“i3p  is  paip  is  n’st 
IX  .ODxnyi  oxn ’t  .“lyooymy  x nyn’x  is  oxoiy  nyn3x  ix  j’x  pxoyipyiix 

.onyny3  oiy’3  n’x  jis  n’a  ]3xn  nya  pyoyo  i”t  oyii  onxn 
]”a  iix  I’X  p’a  ]y3”T  ny3x'?  nyiix3XOD3yiyo  I’x  jnx’  y'?x ’t  pn 
0X3  ]yp3xn  iy3”T  0x11  pyo3ya  yp’n'7ia  p’3”ii  ’n  po  ]yiiy3  n"y  ’no 
0”x  X iy3”T  n’a  .laxiis  pxiiy3  0”nDX3  ]ix  jyaxiiy  o”s  ys3X3  ’n  ]yiiy3 
.nyo3xo  y3”D  ny”t  x 0x3  ]p3xn  i3’iy‘iyn  ]ix  yp’nyax  ]”p  iyaipy3  nyoyoiy 
oy  ’ll  ,io”x  ]yiiy3  ]y3”T  ]ny3x'7  ’n  ]’x  ’’nyoxVpiy  nyn  ]id  ]ix’  y'rx  ’n  pn 
oy  ]u;o3iiiy3  n’a  i3xn  3x0  iyiiy3  px  oy  )yii  tx  .nnain  nyn  ]’x  I’t  03xt 
oy  ityo3niy3  yt  n’a  pxn  03X3  ]yiiy3  px  oy  ]yii  jix  ,03X3  ]”t  '7x1 
03xay33nin  pxn  oxii  yVx  ’n  nxo  d”3  ]”p  oty’3  px  oxn  ,3x0  i”t  *7Xt 


99 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesley 


.nXOtt^Kp 

oy  :k  ,]yTyaD’ix  Vxa  ixdk  njix  oxn  p”*?  y^y^3^x  iid  px’  n pn 
p3iD  X oy’Voyj  pjxiya  I’x  yVvpm  j^Vp  x I’x  axn  txt  .^id  nyn  aaip 
IX  l□vV^y^  iVyn  tq  px  D)  x ivc^yi  uvn  nu?DX  ,nx7DX  tx  .Mijyoxn  po 

.tjiin’nD  ’T  JVT 

n’a  .ojix’nDXD  nvtijix  p ixd  ivt  lynyi  rx  1945  nxiix’  jo'is  dvt 

X1XS  Dxn  lytyj  ixt  ]3xn  I’n  iix  arno  ]ix  s'’'7’oxd  jon  jD’inyiix  ]3xn 

.pVxD  iiyn”  oxT  ]yiyyj  t’x  ov  p^Viaix 
nnoiya  x ixi  px  n"y  mn  i”o  ]ix  yx  p’n  ]y3”i  1945  “lynoynxi  iniy 
ypnvax  p’p  jixsya  ]y:”T  to  •i'p’is  iid  yix  jix  nxDXDDiviyu  jid  pvns 
]iD  pvnx  isrn  I’o  .y’DVynxV’o  I’X  nyoovniy  x axnyi  3xn  “|’X  m 
.nnv  yiyp’iD  yayoPxiyixD  n loynoxn  ix  ^yQ  Vxa  p’p  pixiyj  p’n  jV’is 
nyi  o’o  pyV  oy”!  x ]yi3  ]3’inyj3x  yn  ]3xn  D”n’nD  n pniDy'piyi 

.Donpix  nynyoy^  x nxD  aniyoxn 

I13'15  DUl  ,11X31;ir)D]UUJD  I’X  nXIlDJ  t)"13{<a  T’X  "lUD'PUll  ,lXn'''OU)  HUlt)  119  Op’UJUJlX 

.1945  .nXDX’ 


yiB  3 rnn  Dhn 

23  yptsnp  eiMK 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


13Kt5K/iyT]l  ]1K  DIPIJIS 
DSDi;  S ilD 


"lyiiKDKDDjyiz^D  lyi  i'id  ii'pyn 


CZENSTOCHQV  - Our  Legacy 


100 


"lyi  IID  11D 

:i31JJ7ni?3-D'T3XDtriJ7Tn 

jiunnua'?''!  puuHn 

U’}JNT'']NJlN"D9nNi?  IDtU'l”  1137  119  UlNllUriNi?  1117 
.NUUJ  lUlWlNDDlUUlU  0111”?!?  TN 

t3i<n  ly  .i2;''‘7xp  r><  i9io  ix’  i’k  n^iiyi  n’uyi  t’x  .inymyn’?’!  pyDi<:a 
ly’fD  itynyi  .]D”P’HSd  ywnjjDX’S’j’x  rx  yp’DD’n  d’s  t33D’”syiD'’ix  I’t 
niinVo  D‘?yn  lyo^nx  lyi  ixs  .i3n'7'>3  y’^xnx^a’A  loyrxn  px  D‘?p'’nt3:x  on 
ly  C5xn  1940  yiiy  .iiuynxn  lytt^’OD’iijn’nsn  lyi  I’x  p’oyo  lyny.i  ly  t’x 
lyi  I’X  p’DyD  pniyn  iixaijoDiyroD  p’p  lysnpyi  T’x  px  i2;’‘?xp  dtij'j-ixd 
IS  lynyJ  ly  t’x  uoyj  id’iij  ]id  o-”:£  lyn  rx  ."I’yxn  i?3wn„  yxxT’jxnij 

.'?7ixn  IIS  nirn  r’l  li’Hyi  t>x  t3’‘?s  lyDixpxamx 

rx  tn’spy‘?yDD''ix  ly  I’x  lyjn’^i’tD’ix  yizi’ixiD  n rs  lyi  rx 
px  ruiiyj  tnnxuiijp  dixi  ps  px  "x’mbxoya,,  lyi  I’x  iixnyii  Dp’iyyi 

."liys‘?ys-ixD!<in„ 

D'>'’S'DMiT>ixiyijp  lyi  T’X  lyiinrixs  yDosy'^iyi’iiy  px  yooiiy  ->7  px 
Bi’T’D  px  p’DD’n  .px’7iyyny7’i  lynyi  ly:”!  yVx  lyn  /'pys'^ys'ixDxn,,  I’x 
yyi’X  ’7  ii’jxsijns  ix  ]s’i.7y.M!<  ly  oxn  ,iyiiuy'77ys’x  y'?x  n ps  pxisyx 
P'>'7pyiD’ix  px  ysnj'DDiixp  x OT’T’ixinx  oxn  ny  .7iXDiy7y7’n  p:iD}<iixs  ps 
7y7  7X3  ps  iDyD’ivDpx  yiy’T  113  Dixpxs  lynyj  lyrn  oijn  ,ys'7yTx  iiji 
IS  'll!  pn  T^x  niSr7‘7nn  o’a  .oy’sxTPxnij;  oiiv  yiy7”ii;7xs  px  nan'ia 
ysni  pn  in  oijn  jiid  is  ixd  ps  px  nijiiyii  lysniyisnx  7iXDi:?7y7m 

.DnyoyinxD 

ciijn  "pysVys'JXDxn.,  ps  i7”  ’7  lyrn  xoyi  Dyr’'ip  ps  p’Dirsix  lO’a 

•lyinn  dis  pxnyi  ap’iyyjj’nx 

lD”7JyPX  X isijnayj  oijn  .xoyi  Dy:”'7p  px  pmyaip  -nymys'in  pyoxa 
y7y7inx3  sVx  Din’ixnx  pms  uxnyi  pnr  in  pijn  D’sis’p  ’7  .pijs 
7y7  nyupx  /'I’ysn  lanyn,,  : o’sis’p  •”77  lynyi  lyrn  oy  .Dy’SXT’>:xi7x 
’7  px  p''Dyo  lynyi  lyoysiy  fx  7ys'?y'n  .T”uiyp'’‘?n  n7iri'>  ps  jn7'’S3!i: 
7y7  ps  lyaipyiaix  fx  px  y.si7i-7yaxi'’D7XS  x d'>.q  7y7'?yn  7y'7X5sy>ii<p 
pyuija  ."n’p77ii,-  iw  pix'?!  np37  ps  .in7'>s:{j  7y7  7ytD:ix  /'7177„  ,.p  .x 
c{!;o'7ny7  px  px  is:y7ysi!jp  1317  i7i7  iyi:i7'’Si7J  y"?!?  D7:'>a7xs  I7ys7y3'?n 
-XJ7U  xpDinj7''ttn)  "siiun,,  ysxTpxj7ij;-Dsaxp  yiy7'''>  n o-'-’diyaix  ps7y7 

.(xnx''U:3  x''xxip 

7y7  ps  7y7''siu  px  7y3yriuD  7y7  i7iifnyi  t->x  3i7y37y3‘7n  pycjja 
lyi'”!  pxis'''ix  •’7  .DTiy  px  iVysxa  p'’7pyjD'>i7x  ,y’xxi’’ixi7ij’Dsaxp 
'7X3  ;B7pyiS7i7  pVx  7y  Dijn  i‘7’>n  nyi7yr'>x  ix  s’ls  px  ,y'?XDx‘?ij:p  lynyi 


101 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  I^egacy 


D’D  isuna’mxD  iD’a  iis  oijoyi  yiiT>DO’Tps  n b’s  lyianj’a 

IIS  nsnD!j'ny:st'>mss'i'7sn  t3T>T’iKJn!j:  ,y’S’aias  iis  y’spnjjns  .s  nyi 
pyay"??  iis  oy’sps  yoaDijnsa  i'py'jBSj’D,,  yaysnyi  ’im  n ,Dysnj'DQosp 
’1  D’a  lysiU’S  oasayi  /'i‘7y:iB  yip’inynyojis  ciayi  -asawoKa  layoyai  ps 
i3Tiy”oiysa*Dj:Nns  k oi’Qyiam  : nyiiyj  o’a  pnxais  I’t  'im  ’n  ,nyn’‘?ia’a 
n’T  Dip  oy  3’is  IIS  ,!<Dyi  Dy:”‘?p  rx  lanyp’pyssa  nyDy'?iyaisD  nyn  iid 
PijTiyi  axytyir’s  px  a^’DDy^x  ly  t’s  ,'7ysxa-ay”DiP  oyi  a’jyaiyyaaiyp  ayn 
Dyr’ayj‘?s  oyi  pm  k .lauynsa'oiasDu^nynm  ayT  ps  aoyaxmypjia  ps 
yiy’T’  m pyp  nasp  s pjjnyi  Da’Byj  I’ls  I’X  caKa-’ssj  ^y^  pyp  »iasp 

.Dpoia  px  laijDxpjjTRjns 

-nya*?’!  pyaija  I’x  ijayi  Dyr’'7p  ps  y’yxi’np’'?  lyT  iis  a^s  ayn  I’x 
,a:yn  m px  laxaija’ix  ’my  a’a  ixn  nyn  n’lx  B;’i'7yn  iyixai2;yi  nya 
P’l  n’lx  iVxsyi  iff’i'^yn  t’x  ay  .iy3xa’a*’SX3  ’t  I’x  ayno’ix  i!j  p’aao’w 

.px'?s-Daaxp 

."pya’ua,,  lyaija  layajix  lynyi  aaxpxa  t’s  ay 
naxp  ps  '7Jjaa’D  x iy  lopsuyio’-ix  t’x  myaaya'j’T  pyaxa  lyax^  aya 
aya’aaxa  iix  a'?yn  d'?x  yaa’iyyi  aya  I’x  n’t  p’a3a”au;:”X  ,a”n”aD  axs 

.j3iiynxa'Da:xat:?aya’n  aynxsxoojyiya  aya  ]ts 

npni 

.1915  ax’  px  T”ap  ayiT’ts  ,i’ixp  px  nxnyi  n’tw  I’x  pax^i  npaa 
P’tyaya  t’x  ’t  .”a”n”aD„  iniynxa'aan’  aya  I’s  iox‘?Btyjjx  I’t  axn  ’t 
t’x  ’t  .ao”!  py’aD’‘?s’sxD'i2t’aD’:t’s  I’x  yayaix  p’tsaya  axn  px  laxnyi 
Vyiw  aayn  ’t  .Vxau^’  p’p  p’l  ts  n'7iy  a”a.iyj  I’t  px  -aairan  n’tx  nusyi 
aya  axs  B”p3ayiaya’x  px  ia”p’xyD  yut’axaxt’iXJax  ya’x  a’a  ajxpxa 
aya  a’a  la’stsjx  ’aaa  naxo  ps  la^xnyisx  ’t  aayfi  axsaya  iix  ijtiynxa 
"naipan,,  a’a  aa’syi^x  P^x"?!  npna  axn  ax’  ni’s  px  ittjynxa'D’Sia’p 
T’3  ,"nx3XaU3,.  pm’p  aymax'?  px  p’aya  a”s  yayjty'?  x p’aiy”t  napits 
n’ay  a’a  ti’apx  p’aaayaaxa’a  .ytitaxti  I’x  asytxa  I’r  axn  ’t  .nanba  aya 
a’x  T’X  nytD’ix  itt^’ax  ix  p’ajaxn  .yayatx  Px  xp’SPax'Jit  ypaias  .I’payat"? 
ayaii?  aya’x  pxsyiatax  t’x ’t  .ay’atp  x ps  y’spjts  ’a  laxnyj  a’taaaxstx 
*a’a  .Jinytixa  yiy’SiVn  ’a  aa’i’tx^iax  px  ap’atayj  ,apynyi  j ny^ayaty  itx 
manVa  aya  px  lyri^aya  t’x  axn  .aiaxaya’V  y^xiy'^aix  n’t  a’a  p’aja’s 
yp’aaaoD  ’a  a’‘?iy  -lajyaxa  yu?’nxaa  ’t  aay'jaya’x  oyp’a  ya’x  n’tx  .B”y 
'D’tax  p’ajyatt?  a’x  air'^yi  y’xxaty’ax  ay5y:iy  a’x  pjxa  x ayax  .ay’i’nya 

•oy’yxm’D  yaaay'jayDyi  ’a  its  n’t  iy”aa 

.t'iX3!<t3Dtyi:ta  px  D’sm’p  aa’fixnx  axa-ayayaax  aya  axn  i94i  ax’  px 
pta’p  iB’a  la’siytx  P^xbi  npaa  ytyaxn  ps  aa’iyVya  "ptnnn,,  taaa  aya 
aya  ps  payayjixo  'a  ’t  aayii  iixax^iojyira  P’p  p’ajyaipjx  ."ataa„ 
y‘’X  asa  oy’axsa’o  yaoayaxti  ’a  na  12:  p’ajpynaya  pa’p  ps  B”p’DyB 
oayaptxa  px  iPB'’xn  ayaiiys  .Jiiaytxa  aytipaan  a’x  a’Vtx  ,aya’‘?iB’a 
n't  axn  ’t  .pa’p  ps  pyayat’x  ’a  axs  ayaax  ayjyayiyiaya'x  a’x  a’Vty 
axn  ’t  laVyti  I’x  .axamyayaax  la’a  ipapaaxs  ayjiy  ]x  px  a'jyairyi 
ty  ays^yna’a  ip’y3”x  px  mamyaynax  isyVasxty'^ytyj  lO’tai  oya  ptyi 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


102 


IIS  ijTi’SiN  ^5;^  113  .ix‘7cn!j:D  id’in  PS  lyay^nxis  ysyriya-iijo ’t  ip’^’ 

.Dsnsoyapyo  ps  inyDysaxD’a  yvi^yow"  s n uayn  ONTnyoysai!: 
lyaipxa  pax'll  “pm  oijn  ,11”  iis  lyijrosmKS-ioxa  ’t  ps  a’lnajj  is’a 
.iJiiynsa'mjKDttnyi’ii  yDjDijiixa  x p’Pixmijt  is  "pi'^nn.,  isaa  ps  ‘lysxa  x 
'7XP!j;p  I’X  "yA’'?,,  aya  ps  ayio  yivupx  n ps  lyuiyi  yn  yxjxj  s osn  n 
ps  iDsnxa  ’T  axs  ojy”'?  n yspyn  ^ix  ,2  xiix?D->ayus  ^px  pis’p  ps 
niXDiyayiPi  is  nn  oyi  px  lyAAiuspaxs’n”  ’t  l^yn  ppoysi*?  n’ss 

> 

ayax  -pmr’x  n^pmayi  x usxayA  lyay'px  n’lx  pxn  lasnxa  y'?x ’t 
px  ,iyAiiax'iD’ix  ’T  pyii  niy’T>  n px  DS’i'r.iyA  uiyj  laxn  pxa  yo’na ’t 
•axs  uiyp  UDyA  lO’nA  ps  id”S  n px  ayjy'is  n lyra  ayiiyj  iis  pys  la’Vis 
ayaxt’nj  x oitny-yj  o^n'o  lyn  -oy’spx  ps  d'-’s  aya  I’x  .nxnyj  Dsy'^pa’ii 
.pisv  laxs  '?D’aD:3y'7  isxwaxs  a’a  pjxPi  npaa  an  Dppsyiyxa  ,ayAAin 
a’lx  uayii  ,DXi  xiix'?D’ayttis  tix  y'>spx‘OAii'?anDnx  aya  ps  d^s  aya  px 
■na’Da  ’a  pjxa  x .ypj’VayaD  p’p  Daxsoaxau  dis  aa’syjpynx  VAX'?!  npaa 
ps  lyayjiSD’iax  n d’x  mi’'?yA  ajx'aaip  aaxiaya  ps  lyjjix’axa  yp’aiysA 

a’X  D’a  .ayaaniyj  an  n oxn  -xtsyA  lonaA  ps  y’sxanip’V  aya  aijtJ 
yAyayAyjaya’x  ysiai  x O’a  uxn  n .ysxf’AXAax'Dsaxp  aya  ynayay  ays:XA 
T’x  0X11  ,12  xpDixsiaxA  nnx  rnn  px  pis’p  oya  oannxiax  .aya’pAO’a 
,A:iAyiixa'DaAXC5i2?ayani  px  py'?  py'?DOXir‘iyTyA  iis  ayojys  aya  pxnyi 
P’siy  aya  px  .xuyj  nyA’”'7p  ps  iAiayp'?yoxa  aysiXA  aya  anx  p’aapani 
yooyaA  ’a  a’T  isiayionax  oxn  oxn  t^x'ia  .apaa  lyaxoiyyi  t’x  pia’p  iis 
yVxatti  ’a  anx  pnixa  a’T  ^xn  n lyn  .naois  iix  iiiaya:iiixa  -Dsxiya’'? 
npaa  t’x  oxa  ox-  : a’x  a’^x  pniyjix  Pxn  ,xuyA  Dyr’'?p  ps  ay'^oyj 
ypiaa  yana  ,ypoaip  yiayay'?  ,yTi'7a  yo’m  x pxioyj  P’ajyow  oxa  n /'pjx'ji 
uxa  n .p^xAyVy  ay:ya”ii7xa  px  u^pA’-'a  ps  ayooia  x pnayn  .Pivoe; 
'axs  px  yooiay  ’a  I’x  ayoysaxo’D  ya’x  a’ls  di'i3A”x  I'rxox'jxp  x oxw 
.Ajio'7xa  ayp’xia  px  uaniyAO”'?!  ipniyou;  a’x  a’'7is  yoaD/S’ms 

Dp’D’niyA  n oxa  isaxa  px  a’o  nia  .opanixa  iyay‘?x  oxa  '7a'''’Z3Ei  aya’'?  a’X 
.aopj  axA  p’ajT’iaa  .y’ayjxiu'opPxs  ayoi’a”  aya  a’'?is  Dp’Di‘7ayj  px 
aoxp  ip’D'7’At)3y  oya  it3”aAisis  ’aaa  oyaaxyj  usxa  px  Axt^  ’t  oxa  axsaya 

.Daxa'’SXJ  aya  o’o  ,xjn:;  p’a 

yiyaxn  ps  laaa  ps  oy’spiaooA’x  ’a  oa’oyjo’ix  p’D”sa”'7A  ox-i  ’t 
nyi”'??  ayiixsxsDjyiyD  ps  aynyj  p’a:a’o  /'pay’ax-  d'?x  pxsyjaiax  lix 

.pa:ya  px  i:iAyiixa‘oaAXotyaya’ii  aya  is  xt^yA 
lyaxtis  ’T  T’X  -xoyA  Qyp’'?P  ps  y’sxa’iip’’?  aya  ps  d”s  aya  I’x 

•aaxp  px  i'?xsyA  D’aan  ”a  aysjXA  x o’a 

p'?XS  yiy’a”  oxa  oxn  .ayDoya  yD0iy’a'7ya  ’a  ps  ya”K  t’x  pax'aa  apaa 

.pyAyjD’iax  I’t  ps  oxa  uiAynxa  ytt^’si'?n  ’a  px 
.aiaxiys’’?  paia  aya  px  Aii'7A’ss7SX  yD”aa  x lyaipxa  sX'i  Pa><'?a  apaa 
y’sxi’Axaax  layjx’s  ivt  Iis  pyiyAO’iax  /'oxsyj  ’a  px  ly’ias,,  iia  px 
T’X  pax"?!  ripaa  tx  -la’acryi  ixaT’sw  a”'?  axa  ,i4i  d”t  fi’ix  ,pax’'i’a  px 
T’X  ’T  px  iixaxsoayETo  px  piiyoDa'7yT  aytti’si‘?n  aya  ps  aawa  ’a  lynyj 
yiy’sxa  ’a  pya  ur’a'rya  p’aasoyp  -aixn  aya  px  isxn  o’d  laaxoTpyi 

.1DX^'?^J0 


103 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


,010:1”  iis  is’i  i>:yTyny:  lyi  ,n"y  iixosixnty  .•>  pns’  i"i 

1953  IX’  rs  oyi::xp'oiyn  loi’i”  iid  ynx^o’ix  ly^ysyso  lyi  rx  oxn 
11D  yoD’wys  ’!„)  "j:’T”isx  i<oy:  xo‘>!?''i  T'iJ  ’ixoo  ym.,  : 5d’d  iiyo:ix 
113  o’vui’ibyr.  yo’n:  ’i  lonmxo  .("xtiyi  lyiiyonxn  r><  i^xdu^d’ix  oyi 

.fix'll  -IpOl 

npai  Tx  ,iio’xi3  lyi  I’x  myo  x i'7X2y‘ii”ii<  I’x  oy  tx  -d’ix  dt”ii  oy 
,1”T  031X1  oy  .iixowo’iK  xoy:  lynyonxn  I’s  noxp  px  I'ixsy:  fx  fix'?! 
oyi  I’x  naxp  pii’i'iyn  I’x  i5x3y:  t’s  n tx  ,iyiiy:  o”opxo  I’x  oy  ’ii 

.iiXoxoDiyuio  px  xoyi  Dy:”5p  p3  i:xottT3’ix 

."yuixii  I’X  n”  ’T  po  i:xooi3’i!<  ps  imin„  iia  pi  p>x  oixott’i:  lio 
’1  iiyii  ::i3”h:iX3  yiy::y5  x loy.iy:  oxn  -401 '402  ]0”t  ^ix  5”o  iyo”iix 
-1X0  oxn  ly  px  DT’sxi  PV’P  pox?  po  I’lyi’oix  p.x  piyooyp  yiii’i^yn 
y:”i  p3  ,p5xo  ii3  lyooxo  x-  = lyoiyii  yiii^ij.^  u’o  ::ia”n:iXO  ’i  op’iiy 
lyoxiix  ’1  T’x  p’lioix  p3  :yo  ’i  I’s  iix  -lyaipyio’iix  ’i  t’n  py’iyo’o 

."o:xn  I’x  lyiiy:  o’a  i5xoy: 

j j ’ ■?  n 1 7 n Qj  n 

.ysiixiDXD  I’x  Di’iiiy:  oyiaxi  1ik  i904  ix’  I’x  oxia^xn  px  piay: 
”01X0  lyi  I’x  i’5:o’a  lyivopx  IX  lynyi  ly  I’X  nx’  our  yoo’io  ’i  po 

.irx-’5yi3 

P’T  o’D  lyaxiis  iixoxooiyuTo  p’p  lyaipy:  ly  t’x  1940  .ii’^no  I’x 
oi’i’xii  5y’iyoxa  lyiiy:  ly  rx  -o’^s  k pi  .ly^iyiiv  ”iis  px  Pi3  ;y5’axo 

.lyjiin  px  op:  I’x  y’^’axo  pi  o’a  0”u  ys:x:  ’i  oay5y:  px 
oyi  ii’tpxiix  DiJi  V’liyiy  yy:xi  1”I  oyaipiy:  oxn  ::’53i5  nuia 
iyop’:”ixo  X po  dix3  yoifiy  ’i  lyiiy:  yopxo  I’x  oxn  .oxi'iyoyaix 
-3”'?:  px  iixoxoDiyipo  I’x  lyoyaix'ouxiix  ’i  ii3  y’sxipxnx  iyi”oy:5x 
I'x  y’sxi’ixniJ'Doaxp  lyoioxnxa  lyiii’i”  lyi  iio  I’ly’Pixo  ’i  p’0”s 

•Xoyi  Dy::”'?p 

iyo:3”syiDPX  px  lyiiyi-ioxa  iy5i3o:x'?xo  x lynyi  rx  ii’bai^  nma 

■p’iio:x  11X  iizipyyiziy:  iis  ::isxiyox  lyix'ip  i<  o’a  lyojya  x ,ixoxr:xiix 

.oXTiyoyaix  lio  lysnxs  d5x  iixuvi  o5”iiiyi  ypxo  ly  I’X  ixoiyi  ,iy::ii 
Dio:i”  ]iy5P3  lopx  ix  in  opn  oxn  -yiyjxio  ’i  lyryiopixo  oxn  ly 
oxn  ly  .010:1”  lyuxoxoDiyino  ii3  ’^xtp’u;  ipnypio  ]ix  nyo’o  oyi  iix 
oix  iinpxnijt  I’l  ?iK  lo”i:  is  -|p  oiyoiiay:  iix  opyuy:  ,i3iiy:  ypxo 
lyi  O’a  i:ii:’3ixo  px  o^yoiyy:  ii  ly  oxn  pyiis  oyi  is  .^axp  loioxuxo 
pyp  naxp  px  y’sxiyoxxp  px  lyny:  i:yn  unyiixa-oiixoiyiyipi  lyiri’^PD 

.DT’SX: 

liyoyaixo  is  qaxp  po  ixoxipxiix  osp.i  lyi  lyny:  rx  u’^ai^  ni:;a 
oi’rixiix  oxn  ly  .lyoyaix-ouxiis  yur’i”  ’i  iid  naiya  y^yiyoxa  •>! 
lyiiy:  rx  oxn  .f:yi’'7yo:''x  yiyi”  y^xp’ixi  ’i  oiipxinx  I’lx  iix  o'sio’p 
’1  p3  iy::iiyixo  y5x  iio  ipi'odihx  lyi  ”3  ::is’oiyiyD:ix  yiy^xixa  x 

.oxiiyir  oyi  is  lyoyaix-oiixus 

px  px  iyoy3ix-Di:xiis  ’i  ”3  ouV^a  piHDui  lynyj  rx  ::''‘:’3i5  nm 
’’S’Vxs'Xoyi  lyi  1111  nxryi  di’txdixd  p’l'xna  ly  ip<  o”s  lya^yr  lyi 

•Di’ooyix  nxiiyi  ly  I’x  5xa  yiyiya  px 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


104 


«T>iK  .usTnyayaiN  po  ira’i  yaxy'?  ’t  ■tyoipyjnxc  t’k  nis’D-ov  •’ssia 

UtjyA  Diji  HN'jnKD  ‘?!<i  r\m  tk  -inijnya  ]JN‘7ii;ynxD  i’k  nyi 

ny  yD'?yn  D’n  -lyiD-nyDynx  yiy'^’is  ’t  d’q  jjnj’mxs  I’x  I'^yott^  in  ]ix 
■^iji  ny  ]ix  D’x  ixD  lyrsyi  |‘?xr  ’n  tn  -Djypyj  dij  in  oijn 

ix'rinijs  DyT  iDn!<nyi3Ji:  ©nijjyDxp  Dxn  nir’?:  lynyoxT  ‘j’nnyT  in 

liy'?  r’^  lynyoxT  nDa  ,!<Dyj  oxi  iix'?pxd  ps 
I’n  D’a  ly  axn  jji'?inonx  ayi  I’x  .1943  .22  nyaayD.ayo  -o^nsaix 
px  DiDH”  aynxDijDDiytt^D  iis  '7in  pi’nxpD  ayi  Db^ayi  pr  ]”x  iix  niD 
pt  pn  .omnxnxj  ’i  px  mpniK  cnx  ypr‘:’3yaD  i^p  iixnyi  Dp’u^yipynx 
.iyaipyjai><  ayaysti;  fx  ay  m ,xayi  nyr^'^p  I’x  la^'^ayi  I’x  anjs 

px  layaax  ^^’'^pyjonx  nijnyi  >:’‘?n'7  nira  I’X  yp3'’‘7pyaa  px 
y'?xana  n lis  may  aypnypy'?  aya  lynyi  t’x  ay  .ayax'7"Dijn’aa!?D 
ay  a{<n  Dy’x’axaa'osaxp  yrn  ”aa  p’a^yn  .ypr'^ayaa  I’x  la^pasi’iu 
•••SDjxp  jjyaaw  x aa’oyi  aijn  oxn  ,iaijynx3'Da;xawayam  x aan’jxjax 
yw'^ns  laia  isix  lya^nyi  ijyaau;  x nnx  ,i’ix  ax.a  ay  .a'”p’t3ya  ynnaxa 
px  y’SXT’iXiai?  ocaxp  ayiya”  aya  is  man  y3y'7ay  ap’ii^yi  ,ayayaax-|xa 
]aj<n  Dijn  ,ia:yaipxa  yw’axao’n  lynyj  lyrn  man  yi’n  .ijay:^  Dya'”'7p 
.y’SXT’wia!?  Dsaxp  aya  iid  aya’pia’a  ’a  inx  ann’aapy’7y  apaniyi 
■>a  pD  ayp’X  lynyi  t’x  iix  ypj’aayaa  px  D’u/an  nVy  lynyj  px  ay 
5.30  ,1943  ,3  aoiinx  iPijaayionx  t’x  aijn  .ajxauisnx  ps  laxaxpjxnx 
.aya’aaxa  px  a5yn  x m lyaipyaaix  ay  t’x  aaxauisnx  oya  i’x  iix  aawaxo 
,D’’'’p3V‘?wayQ  yp’aa’"?  px  yu/’a/yn  ,yi:;’aijaD\a  x px  nixa 

axnyi  ajjtn  iinynxn  yu7’aD'’5x''sxD"tt’’a:’P'’s  ’a  iix  p/Xo  ya^’a”  oijta  oxn 

.iy”a  ya’x  I’x 

ujLriiu7in[i] 

,yamy'7iaip  n'?  .ayaijo  aya  .1915  ax’  I’x  nxaxaojyiffa  I’x  n’l^yj 

.a’cn  aynxipym  x lynyi  I’x  ,amD',axi3n  x 

axn  aipayis  .acn  iTyn’'?ya  Jiyaaa;  I’x  laxnyn  pnsaya  t’x  aiy’'7X 
•op'pxs  ayp’ayj'jx  aya  I’x  nyaaxi  px  aan  opx^m  '7X’n'’  px  aaay5yj  ay 
lyny'^aX'is  ypy'^asxip^ytyj  a’a  aa’oyayarx  in  ay  ax.a  ix  rmarp  ps  .y^vp 
PX  y’sxPixnx  ’a  ."a'’ysn‘aan:;n„  px  lyayaayjp’ax  ip’  ayn  ypxa  px  iix 
Bxn  ay  .a”s  yno  ysixj  pn  a’x  p’ajyaam  ,D”n  ya’ms  ’a  □’x  ”3  laxnyn 
■xnx  px  ap’''7”ax3  in  px  ipiynxa  aya  px  y'lxa  yp^an’s^x  ix  lyaiaaxs 
layapx  lypyi  aixpxa  ay  px  ysxpwiax  aya  px  .isjyayajxp  iix  laxajya 
ypxa  axn  ay  px  pxaDU?  is  jppn  x axnyj  ax.a  ay  ."’xixa.,  anxanyDs 
ayaa’S’D’‘?xiip  x layii  131*;3  .ixd  aypiaa  oxa  inx  iix  ipxasir  a:yaypy.i 
'Pyn  aytapx,,  aD’aiPPXi''  ayai’ao’P’s  aya  px  ayaaxyj  ay  axn  aypiaa 

.ijia^’s  ’a  pyjD’iax  px  iyaiiyi5'”Bax  I’ls  iix 
pynx  ,1936  ax’  I’x  ,iyaniy'?iaip  aiypx  px  '7xaiii’  p’p  pn  n5iy  p’a:'?yn 
IX  DPxayi^aaiax  px  pxnyi  P^xap  aaxa  px  ay  .ynx'ia  p’p  pia’p  x px 
asytyiaaxD  px  nxsxoDiyira  p’p  lyaipyipms  ay  t’x  oya^x^  .ysxaysx 
.Daxo  aypy^aoxipoa’iiaax'?  ayiix3xoo3yii''o  aya  I’x  a’-’s  "nai^pn,,  pn 
a’a  jpapaaxo  px  oxajxs  X lyiiyn  iiX3XBDJy2'’o  px  px  ,1937  ,19  ’jp 
pi’apx  IX  lyauyi  o^xaya  axn  ipaniyViaai  aiy^x  .yaa’ttiyi  ixaxa-pxaaiya 


105 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


0X11  ,Dyp*’iL?ou;?DXi^xs  ’’’T  i^yp  iixiDii;'iy*T’ii 

.DIXD  VDy‘7DDX\i;iO‘T»11 

TO*’iiy*7i?3iy  iTy^^x  oxn  iiXDXDD^y^'o  iD“i'’Dipx  ]oxn  ]iy‘o*'n  *’1  “i^<:i  “’ll 
“D:i2i‘iyppo'*ix  ]x  *oo*’Dy^  ]3‘’in3X  rx  ]Dxn  dxii  .]sio:^‘0“r^X‘oii:;'iy*T'’ii 

]yaXDii^y^  T'’X  "i>  .iiDXiyD*’^  yii^’»Do*’"iy‘:’D'’n"'’‘OjX  ]d^’’1QU7"ixd  C3*’*’p'’DyD 

.‘ovDii;  yiJ3X.i  x u*’?:  ;\:nrnnxD  ]*’x 

□yi  ]"i‘’T'’:x^"ix  ]’’X  P'’*’*j:x  iivopx  ]x  ly^i^y^  ox“  i:7i3‘’iiy*7i?3iy  ity'^'^x 
"D:\:in:i'’'i^  oyr  *iyny*i"*js*’in  *>1  ]id  ‘iyr*’X  iyiiy;\  ^''X  “ly  .ox'Tiyoynx 

.:\:i‘?^XT“1XD 

“iyn?3yi3Dyo  -Dvon^’’  oyv.xDXOo^yiL’o  ]id  DyyxuoxDyi  n ]id  n*’inax  ]i3*’?3 
DDX")ny:^7Dix  t^'x  oxii  ,y*’‘?‘’nxD  yD'^n^ixii  ]"i’’i‘70xd  oy  oxn  ,1942  ,22 
t)i*’“ixir'xp  lyr^T  w’U'’iiypi?3ii^  iivo**!  lymn  i’’*’!  iix  ny  .ypr‘73y*iD  ]’’x  ]*ii<iiyA 
IIX  ]y:\ii‘7"r'’TD**ix  ’’i  ]id  ^ya  ynxfinri  I’^x  ."I'lyy'ryo'^XDxn  px  ]"ixiiy:i 
"lyi  Dy.?Di'’iiy:^  in  ny  uxn  /':\XDxn„  ]’’X  ]y:\2nrixn"D:\jimxii?xp  yp'’‘?‘’ii:\ 
pyox?D  0^72  or>pxn  in  oxn  “ly  .yDn.rDi3Xoi:^nyini  x ]id  :\aiin'’:xnx 
”DD?2xp  ny’opn''nxD  oyi  ]id  oixi^y^xp  nyp^ioyuyDi:;  oyi  ,:\‘iyn'iyn‘7n 
Ix'td  Dyn  ‘ODy'ipnniixD  ]nxn  yi"*’n  ]ix  ,xo>n  □yr'’‘ip  ]'’X  y'’yxT’>:ix:\nx 

op'’iyy^pm:i  y^i^x  lyrn  "inyii^yD'r^xDxn,,  ]"X  :\:i"mxii;xp  D'>ii7-Tn  ‘’m  ixa 
“x:\“ix'DD?DXp  oyi  ixd  ujiyT^xi^iD  lyi  .xuy:^  □yr*'‘’'P  ]’’X  ]ynii  ix  inxiiy:! 
iyt33ix  ]ixiiy:i  •jpn'’nxD  ]ix  unnnx:^nxyi  t'^x  rix  .]yiiy:\  in^  y*’yxT’’:i 
“iyr''X  lyiiy:^  t^x  i:'L)*’v,yii72i:7  niy^ix  .:\nyn*iy3‘?n  pyuXTD  ]id  :\:n‘'D:x  lyi 
”D’’nDnx  o*i'’:inxoD  oxn  oxn  "iyii;''aoyo  nyi  ]^x  yoDinupx  n ]id 

irpon  nynino  pn  onyny:\  inx  oxn  ysini  nyi  iy  .]0X3xn:\"Djxn  ]ix  ]dxd;z; 

.u;o‘’iiy‘7i7307 

Dyr*’ip  ]iD  “TJXoii^Dnx  ]ix  y^xxinip*'*?  nyn  nxD  ^yo  •’ni^  ,1943  ,24  •’ai'’ 
:i:ii‘’d:x  nyn  nyo:iix  inxnaxi:;!  yDin:i  x ]yDipy:\  fx  ,xuy:^  nyiiXDiitDDjyi:;o 
]D'’'’ny:\  inxn  dxii  -y*?^  OT’ooynx  oxn  iix  onnxn^y^yn  nynnyD'iT*’  osnn  ]id 
T*’X  .IXT  nw  v^p  inx  in  pn^oDn  ,woniy‘7iDi:;  nTy'>‘7X  .li^oniyPi?:*^ 

.nijiiy^  oi*’DDyix  o'^ijDyi 

X 07D*»oiyxD  i^’’‘7:\  oxn  y'’xxT*»ix:\iij‘DD7:xp  lyn  ]id  nioii<iay?3ij;p  n 
yr‘’*?p  oxn  .ii^oniy'^ioi:;  iTy*»‘?x  ]Di‘’ooyix  Dyi  lynDxn  ix  yDii:ii‘DDDXp 
uxn  oy  ]ix  pxn  yopnxoo^ixD  o*’d  n^i^y^  o‘7yDO^yxDinx  D‘7i<?Dyn  Px  xoy:i 
y’XXT’’:xnx-DDDxp  iywn’*>  lyi  ]id  loxp  iyp'’D‘7no3y  nyn  lonnyiiaij  iniz;  in 
]u;oniy‘7i?:i:;  iTy’^^x  ly’nDxn  ]id  ]xP,d  nyn  t-’x  Dinx  nrx  ,]yjxi'»a  •’xxi  n ]:\yp 

.nxDn’’DDii“7Dix 

’’n  pyp  nyDoyp  ]ix  I'^yn  x ni  ]‘7XDy:i  o'^xDyn  t^x  i:;Dniy‘7i7DD;  nry^'^x 

.]y:xi'»D"'’:ixa 


IlNnT'2^(U 


Driiiy:\  inx'^-nyirp  yoD^D  n ]id  .1914  nx**  ]'’x  D7ixmyD;D  I'^x  n^^oy:; 

.iixDxocryo'D  ]^x  oo^n  ]Tyn'’‘7yn  Aryno’i;  x i^x  ni<iiy:^  pnicnyn  ]ix 


]nnny:\:x  ny  oxn  inyo'ny  yrn  ]'d  ny'^ynyoxo 
“inioty  o’’D  in  p^iaooy^i^xn  ,0'»in2  I'^ix  lyannxc 


nyoDy‘707  nyn  n'’‘7ix 

Hi  lyoyonx  nx*’  14  ix 

nny'^XTD 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


106 


DyiDii:  11K  "nn’3,.  unynyi  owiyii  Dijn  wD'’ny'7':niy 

fa  ’na  t>s  p’ljyjn  .y’sxt’jxnij;  iT’S‘’'?yis  ayi  ps  iVDyaoyii’nx  ay  t’x 
11X  T’'7:iu'’a  ayn’opx  ay’n  x lynyj  t’x  ay  •lay'?  i”t  pa  lou’a  yosy*?  ’a 
DPauaxsjij  T’X  D’x  ]tx  iiiD'7xnaxs  aya  I’x  laijTiyj  D'?”T;aya  ay  fx  axcaya 
■axs  X lynyi  t’x  ay  .lyr’axs  y'?yTX’D5S!Jis  ■’I  la’i’iXAax  o^a  nxiTy-i 

.p’axD  ay'jxa  ]’x  a’'7iD’o-DJPD'?xn 

aya  I’x  n’opx  lynyi  ay  fx  0x02^  ly  PN  P’I^  ■’■'  IV'' 

ITD  y’xxpjxAax  aya  px  TP’oa’n  x lyaiTyi  px  ATnynxa  ayiy’iiVn 

X o’a  tsxTixa  I’t  oxn  px  03x‘?xo'ay:aya  x lynyi  t’x  ay  .oxa'ayoyaax 
lynyi  ypxts  t’x  ay  .]Dxa  ’a  a’lx  opa’iiys  Dxn  oxn  nsasTy'opbxs  ayonys 
■ayuyaax  its  >p'?.DXtaxD'TDxa-DJTTaj’a.i  aya  i’tx  aynya  ”aa  ’a  its  ayT”X 
I’l  dx?t  PK  sxa'ayDyaax  px  a’‘?iD’»  Ti’Dipyipy  ix  lyTTyj  fx  ay  .oxa 
Da’‘?X3  paxoTZ?  lynyi  t’x  ay  .O’na’p  ’a  ps  sx’axsyapyo  iD’a  lymaaxs 
aya  aaia  laxTTyi  oi'jxsaxs  ay  px  p’a”i3”'7i  px  ayoyaax'OJJXTTX  ’a  ”a 

.■jaxTTJP  sa’Doyax  "^XQ  ''’’’s  P^^  ”X’‘?xs‘Xoyi 

aya  its  laxoxT’TX^ax  ’a  ]td  ayp’x  lyiTyi  ay  px  xt3!<”  oyp’Vp  px 
P”p’xyD  yiy’axDXT’iXiax  yo’iai  TPTiyiD’iax  TTX  y’XXT’TXiax'osaxp  ayiir’a” 

.aTDTxaayaxP  '^sa  px  a’Vao’ti  x lyTTyi  t’x  px 


T’X  xpy^  DjTP’Vp  ITS  aTXsiTTD’TX  px  y’xxa’TTp’’?  aya  its  d”1  aya  px 

.T'7XDy3  HTiXP  TUTDXT1X3  I’X  ay 


niaj'iupxp  DPI  q’lx  ix  urai  ?”g  p .xdpj  du]”Pp  px  oxj  diixddxtt  ’i 
IsiX'ii'JP’ax  Dxn  ,u30"a'DpPxg  x ppdt’utxp  apaapn'iT”  ipa  lapuii  px 

•XUPJ  PUT”'?P  pg  nugap  ’i 


107 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


'7DN'' 

CSjn  ,^S'7'’^y  X p’13y'’'’T  .1917  ]’K  n!J3XDDr>t2^D  1T’13J?5 

puinyi  p’lsiyT  t’x  ly  m ,"3’ysn"3Qiii^n„  ysxT’jxjiij  lyT  is  aiynyi 
P’t  pTnD’iK  D1S  lyaipyi  t’s  D!jt  .ixaDoaxso  ps  piPn  x iis  do”!  t>x 
IS  lynyi  t’X  iiiayaus?  yacyii  p’t  .im”'??  px  lyio’ix  iDy’^ayo’ix  ,inayix3 
as?’:  nan'ja  ayi  axs  'I’s  1”t  t’x  '?xdis  x a'>‘7is  ayax  -‘ixaiy’-piN  I’S  15?aip 

■laxiiyi  aDy'ipT’inxD 

■pynx  .1939  ayurn  px  .ay  anna  .px'i^S^O’''^  nan'7a'’sx:  ’i  lyn 
laxii  li2?to'”T  ’T  .aw’3  ayax  aii^Pyi  ay  .la’ayi  yiy’aynxD  ’i  px  laxois 
tx  .p’aiixi  .lyix^xn  I’K  aayT'’'7iyyimx  .yayaix  ayaayann  a’a  asxayi  d’x 
lypn  a”p3y‘?pT’n  ayi  px  .la’ayi  yir’ay'iixo  ’a  P’lx  ap’yyipynx  pyn  ”1 
-p’aix  av  T’N  t^aija  -SPXap  P’P  laxnyi  aT’Dyjpynx  ]ix  px'iii^vs  ypx 
"O’lxaxs  tjxn  ay  .aaya’aaxs  px  paxaii?  .n^jaxacayiya  i”p  lyaipyi 

I’x  a'jaaxnaxD  I’l  tixn  ay  .iixiayaiix  iix  pain  niy»iP^X  Qsa  aJXP^ 
px  pyixaa  ois  a^aiyiis  yayaix  iix  in  axn  ay  .laaix  ip’aifiaa  x 

.]jaxa  pp’xxayn 

aya  pa  aoi’a  px  a'?yaiyyi  i’t  ay  axn  x^yi  p’lai  iis  a^s  aya  px 
a”p’aya  yip’ay'saya'iy’aixpo  x ua’syj  px  ,i:ijyiix3‘DaiXBiyay'”ii  ayii^’siPn 

.aiM’  aya  pyiis 

■as’in  ’a  iiq  ayr’X  lyiiyi  ay  fx  xt^yi  Dyi”'7p  iia  i'”aii?aix  la’a 
yrn  .puyiixa'oaixaipaya’ii  ayaisxiixa  aya  iia  aya’six  px  laxaxi’ix^ax 
.Xayi  iciai  ps  px  nan'ia  aya  axs  pa  ajypy.i  d’x  laxn  oxii  .ai”aa 
•oaaxp  ps  yaiaiy  ayaosyn  aya  is  lyjjx^aya  I’x  ay  .ay’j  d’x  lyaypaya 
.pVxs  pya”  iia  ai33  laxa  lay"?  oxa  pn  is  a’apa  a”pa”aj  px  a’p’aoi'i 

ay  PX  xsyi  Dyr’'7p  ps  a:xai:;s’iu  px  ysxa’iip’’?  aya  pa  a”s  aya  I’x 

•I’jxsyj  'laxp'oajxBiyaya’ii  py’a'iyn  I’x 

UUHJ 

ay  axn  lax’  yao’aa  ’a  iia  .1914  ax’  px  nxsxaoiyira  I’x  la’iayi 
PX  ayaysw  .ipn  s^xa  aya  p’aay’'>t  ."a^n^aa..  y’sxpjxiax  aya  is  aaynyi 
’’’aaxs  aya  pa  axayapyo  aya  px  nayi'Diay'?  aya  lyiiyj  lax’  yiax"?  ay 
ayp’ajyaiy  lyiiyi  I’lx  t’x  ay  ."a'”n”aa..  y’SXPixiax'aaiP  px  p’S''’'7yiD 
-’aoi'x  ay3y‘?aaxiy:o’ii  ayim”)  "xn”..  ps  aiyaixsoyax?  iix  ayayaaxa'a 

.yi'?’ii  px  (Bia 

aya^nyi  aya  px  ivapx  lyiiyi  ay  I’x  xsyi  lo’iai  pa  ib”s  ’a  px 
PX  ay  /Ti'7nn..  iia  a’Vja'a'OJjia'jxiiaxs  p’aay’n  .S3iiyiiX3  ayiP'sian 

B”S  V’3  p’ajyaa’11  .axa'ayayaax  I’x  a’'7ja'’a  d'7X  pxnyj  a'p’nyjD’ix 
.axaiyap  pa  B’'’p’Bya  ay3y'?ayiy  aya  ]iyii  iVxnyaxa  iy'?axT  is  I’lx 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeacy 


108 


I’n  B’a  tyaxns  ny  t’K  -ijoyi  lo’nx  iid  y’xiiT'iv'?  nyi  ijji 
T'‘?it3''a  nyivops  it?  lynyi  I’lK  I’n  cijn  ^’Ka  pni’  -nyma 

px'?!  npan  inn  nyi  rx  iDynoyirnx  /'tsm’ns,,  y’’SNT''3?<iJnij;  nyi  iid 
yr’a  .ijio'jxinxB  nyn  ]’n  Tn!s:nyi  Db^myn  fx  iix  DyjyDxu;yi'”j 

yojDjj'nxa  n loxcr  px  n’T’jxnjj:  □’’a  ‘7'”B3x  iivupx  ix  lyauyi  laij.n  nyina 

.y'>yxt’3xn{i;-osaxp 

lyi’n  jjoyi  nyr’’??  ii3  n:xBu;s’TX  iix  y’xxi’np’'?  nyn  iis  d”x  nyn  rs 

■laxp  I’x  iVxDyi  nynna  yT’a 

INUJNR  ■?Ni?Tn'' 

'ja”'?  ny'jyntjonrx  ps  in  .1917  nij’  I’x  nuaxoDayu^D  rx  iT>iayi 

.tjsywyi  ‘?x'>3u'?ij:p  iix  "r’a  nyaxixnDo  nyn  iid  nya’oar’X  nijaaxp 

''nyDu'7ip  nyn  I’x  DanyVyi  ny  oijn  y‘7nr  yr'>ayi‘?x  n ipnay  pi<a 

.8*10  xpmxsinxi  inx  y'?ny— lypnyinjxn  lyn  iis  a3i‘?'>''a9!3; 

lyn  I’lx  ’nypm  x D^syy:^  ny  Dijn  pnjyott^DDa'jyT  pijnyi  t’x  ny  lyn 

.0X1  nynywnxn  nyn  inx  pun3ynya'’x  n aynaiji  px  yy‘?x  nyaisny 

I’x  I’T  pnia^sonx  /'n'7aDX.,  aiVp'unxso  I’x  p’oyo  lynyi  t’x  ny 
ny'i’siyixiy  nyon  oVx  lyiiyi  oixpxa  I’lx  fx  ny  .iius’ii’s  px  ‘luaoiD 

.aiVp'ioDPxip  ms  onynyi  px 

■l3;''T’pyn  nyn  is  ,nu’'ujn’  yaono  n po  .mynyi  oijn  njoixp  'ixpin’ 

■pix  IX  o’a  aia”syiD''ix  in  aijn  px  "nn’a.,  y’sxT’ixiuj  oiir  nyiy’DDP 
.nyapxnxa  px  iVni  lyaxTinaaix  ipnxDu?  ,iyin  ib7’B''‘7U;s  lo'ippi 

yp’oiVa  1929  nij''  px  lyaipynijs  lyrn  oy  lyn  pnij^'n  o'?!? 

,D'''?’nn  oiijiyi  nijauDoiywo  px  laijn  n”  px  '7xni:;’'p'>i<  p:;'’iyyii?yi 
nij:  lyaip  lyp  lynaix  n ps  iiit”'?  n tx  .ony'rpnyT  nijBixp  Vxptn’  oijn 

.ciir  nyaisijtnxa  nyDnn’ixnij:  ix  inn 

•ngs  .Donijain  o’?}?  Dia”syio'’ix  in  ny  aijn  lay"?  py‘?oDXtt7‘?yTyi  px 
•ISPi  yiy’B’bus  y'jyiopx  iVyaiPiyaxnx  ]id  onu  yoipny  ojjn  pniyayi 

po  lypi’jnnD’ix  iix  oyppy’iyo  .oy’xxunijsyn  n iis  o”s  nyn  px 
'UBDiyiPB  pD  B’^nnya  n pn  ,i942  a nyauBpij  tp  ,1942  ,22  nyaayBsyo 
.nnswa  ysasi  pn  pp'insD  ny  Bijn  -inijniyi  Ba^nayiaix  px  dibit’  nynija 

ny  Bijji  UByi  oyp’Vp  px  px  lasp  ms  BPinayi  Bijn  nijBUjp  ‘rxprn’ 
nyn  B’a  lyiini’anxs  oanyi  Bijn  ny  .ysmi'onixBwnyn’n  ij  on’i’isinij 
nxD  px  I’t  nxs  nynyi  BinijTxa  Bi^n  ny  .iniynxa'onixBipnyn’n  nyiP’'?’TD 
nyn  po  -lyB’nyiix'?  n’S’sij;  iB’a  Bpxanjp  nyn  pxwyi  Bijn  ny  .ysini  pn 
D’x  B’a  Bn’nyoMjp  Bijn  nijBaiip  ‘jxprn’  .ipiynxa'oniiiBErnyn’P  nyi:;’‘?’i3 
■’V’a  .px’nBU  nyixi’Bnss  in’Pixinij;  pyn  ,6i  xii’Vysip  I’lx  ,'?ija  yay'jBy 

.puBya'Ooaxp  px  ppyoijnxa  ,ipn'?’aD’ix  yu^’nyo 

,"auiyT„  y’sxt’ixinu'DBaijp  nyiy’n”  nyap’P’nxB  nyn  pB  i”bi:;b:x  pua 
■iy’B’'7ij;s  PB  n”tt^nyBPX  pj  ,biii’  ys:xi  ’n  Bnynyi  Bijn  oy  nya'?yii  is 
yn’x  px  pu'iiyya:!}  ysini  p’t  B’a  i’t  ny  Bijn  ,ip'?yBu?a”x  nyn^’iu'ruyn’x 
•oy’sps  11X  iByB’H’Bpx  yn’x  yb’ij  px  '7”Bpi;  pi’Bpx  ix  lyauyi  px  iy”n 


109 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leffgcy 


ny  !•>«  Kroy:\  Dyr'’‘?p  ‘T3Kd^d*’ik  TiX  y'lKT’np*’*?  nyi  ps  nyi  ]’’k 

D'’n‘?i)7JNT]  nnR 

D'ln'’  X ‘iy'’’’T  t*’x  ny  .iixDxuo^yuu  1916  ]*’x  n'’'i:2y:\ 

□'’X  D^r*?y:^  ixi  ]ix  ]y:\:nanxn  y^ynyox^  yiyiiv;  ri<  u‘?:i:x-iy:^  in  ]ix 
/"nnnnn,,  y'’yxT'’ax:^nx  ‘iyiz;*’:2i‘7n  nyi  lonynyA  Di<n  ny  .ynx:tt'’:i  n ipniiy 
lix  yioDinDpx  n ]id  nyr*’x  ,y‘:iy.:\'>^y*orx  iy3yinny:\r'’X  pn  p:xi  x ^pnjyn 
"niTOH,,  nnx  ]“)XDyApynx  ly  t'^x  1935  nx*’  ]'’X  nyi'’’?:^^'’^  yDDayyTy:\ax 
.pinv  iiD  nxoynpyo  *iy*T  lynyr^  d^xi  t*’X  iix  x’^ijirxpoanT  pv 

pD  nyiD  ny'n'’t:px  ix  ly'ny:^  *iy  t\s  x*oy:\  lonn^  ]id  ny*7  ]'’x 

/'oxTiyoynix,,  'id'’d  toymxy:^t3’’^  n*’t3px  ]ix 

.y*>sxT*’ax:\ni<’DDDXp  -lyu;*’!*’’’  -lyi  px  ivDpx  ]yny:\  ly  t-’X  XDy:i  Dyp'’‘7p  ]*’X 
t:p'’t2^y:^pynx  ]ix  it*’  X ixa  d*’?:  iixny:\  D.QXDy:\  ny  t'’x  *?XD*\y  x n*’*?!:: 
IDXSi^j  Daypy:i  idix  nn^n  in  uxn  ly  ,Dxixn  ]nyi  p*>p  ]nxny:\ 

lyQip'ixpm::  Dny"it:i2;y:^  oxn  px  ny:\x5  oyny  ]''X  □•'iL^Tyn  ]ii;ny'ny;3  nyi 

.xtjy:i  -iynxDxi:D:yii;i:  Dyn^^5p  px  y'’>:xT'’:ix:nx'DDDxp  lyi 

lyrn  *»p22'’nn  ‘^nyn  iix  v^n'lbw  lyo'^x  u*’?d  ]y;3xny  □nn'^yijxn  nnx 
PD  iny'^yri  x DDXDy:i  inxn  |y:xn’’D’*>:2Xj  •’i  nyiix*?  iyr^T’’5D  pD  ’idi<‘7d:ix 
y-iyw  inn  iix  lynna'^yn^XD  nnx  ]dxd  n lyiip*?^^  •’n  t-’x  oy  px  ]D*»n  y5x 

.]nxny.:\  DDxnnyri^ix  ny  t-’x  ]y:ij'ip’’3'’'’3 

n Di<n  iD‘7XDiyy:ii  yDD‘?xy“T'>x  n ]n  nyr'>x  ]yny:\  t'^x  nnx 

in  PD  Dj<n  ni^Di^DDayiyD  ]'’x  y^:jxT*>3x:inx"DDDXp  n px  D^Jin 

.pyAyiionn^ 

PTlNIp 

lx;2Dn  nmo'mDpxDi^xD  iid  pi  .1919  nx*’  px  n^jD^^DDayiyD  ]''X  nnnyA 
”>*’iyDij‘7iy  lyn  ]*»x  Dny‘?y:i  DyiDx^  I'lx  y*7'iu;’Dp‘?i5D  Dpnayy:\  .ypix^P 

.8“  10  xponx^fnx:^  nnx  y’^iu^nypnymaxn  nyi  iiD  :;p‘?*»^DDij 
y‘’XXP»:x:^")ij“D::n'»  nyn  px  ]DynDy:\mx  ny  t-’x  ny‘?'»i:;  X pn^y^^n  ix: 
px  ‘?X30’id  px  in  pn:D-’’’:iDnx  /'nDD,,  m^p'DnxDo  px  ]ix  "'>2V'ir]  nyian,, 
y'’2SXD3ynx  I'lX  pm  ]Dy5DDX^5yTy:\  pn  D^pmo^x  uxn  y’’:iXT’’ax:\nx  n .]Dpxn 

.t:’’’>pmn.^"DDDxp  — ni5p"DnxDD  nyi  ]ix 
'DD^xp  nyu^n*’’’  nyi  pD  nyiP:^^'’?:  yoi^ny  n iid  lyny^  t'^x  ynxnp  py:3X*’ 
pnxni  DTx*?y3i  □'»x  Dxn  tidx^-dddxp  pn  .XDyi  Dyp'>*?p  I'^x  y’yxT*»:ix:\nx 
D*7yDiy  px  XDy:i  Dym'^p  iid  onnx  in  uo'^n  ny  .oy’^^px  yomy^i  in’Dnonx 
pn  .Dy'’ypx  yDO'^m  nx:i  pnn'^Donx  ny^ximnxD  :\3na'’nnxD  I'^x  in 
pxn  nyaxTpnxD  yDn:i  x ix:  ]ix  ly  m p'’DXp  ]‘’X  ppy^  p>x  y'^^^px  yoiyiy 
px  pnpD  '•m  nyny^i  dx“t  lymayi^n  iDDXD'Dnxn^xiz?!  iiyo-'n  x mDxno^x 

.piyapxn  y'^x  DyDD'>anxD 

T’X  yiypy:i:ix  nyjxrmnxD  yDn:\  x d‘’d  lyny^  t*’X  y*’xpx  yomix  pn 
’»nywyn  nyiy»DyD  Dny:\'’:yn  iid  ]yD'i2y:^n  ]Dxn  m oxn  ,]yDnxD’»a'ix  ytyD'^n 
paxn'D:inn)‘»:iyn  nyn  P'lW  i'’x  y^’^^px  n .35  yy’^x  mxDXt^Dayiz;^  px 
-D:;xny:\  n'»x  pnD  ym  ]P''D*7xm  x 0DXDy:i  D*7XDyn  Dxn  iix 

.D*’pt:n'’r5D'»xDn  i^x  D'‘pDD'’m 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


110 


■DsaKp  ii!jnyA  vnKip  pyM'  i’k  y’sps  lyiy  iijj 

tajjn  DJjn  -yiu^piyn  x djdjjudjx  ojjn  ny  .nyco’m  ^x  nywjnyjy  ,Typ’DoiP 
ysjxi  X px  Da3”syjD’ix  I’t  iix  oyanx’ojjxnx  is  nyoyanx  yc/’T’  Di’Dy^i 

.ynyijx  y’n 

lysayp  pn  ps  ysnj  x d’s  D’niyi  in  ly  cijn  ,1943  -I8  pny.a 

-)yt:'''7p  iro’-'T  D’a  jis  X lopyn  n iid  itx‘?9X1x  Ps  y’spx  ix  l^p^SD^nx 

pi'?'>’03X  112  pxip.>  oVinyianx  ’’t  lyr’i  ^xsis  x 3’'7is  .y’SPiax  px 

13P‘7a3x  IS  lyjii'jyi  I’x  oyr’X  .yixa'DiJXio’ix  ny”i  px'^'ixd  laxo  .oy.oy 
-Dinxais  px  pxnyi  op’r’syi  iy'?pyatti  lyrn  opyr  yppya’x  ’t  px 

.D‘7iyn'’3  iwi”  p’lx  pxnyi  loxiinyT  -1943  ,19  pnya 
nyi  axn  ,t!3X2'’xxi  nyT  ps  I'lxs  PXJ  -2D”n  oxt  ->:ix’nsx3  lyT  IXJ 
yjyDxiz^iyT  ’i  ps  tnx  dxt  DDiryio’ix  nxsxoDJSs^o  I’x  ayo’axp  lysi’T” 

.nasa  x D'jyoiyyi  iix  ^y3Xl’t)^xs  opyt 
•j’X  nyT  .iy’‘?'’is  px  u^’T’  ^’ix  lyr’i  nnsa  nyi  n’lx  losmps’ix  ’i 

:iyi3l'7X2  T’X  D’jXH 

JX2  px  D”n''nD  1X3  'laxp  I’x  y:y'?XDyi  -lysayp  ysiv  opyt  pn  xi 

.1943  ,19  piya  pD 


aVx  iX’  21  -pyax^  DixaiyaxP 
b'7X  iX’  26  ,py'?x  nyaunyn 
dVx  iX’  23  -pyjx’  ynxip 
a‘?x  iX’  19  -py’jyn  lyasp 
a‘?X  uj;’  18  -P’lffTy’  '^xaiyixi 
.d‘7X  ii<’  23  -pyax*?!:^  P’ll? 

.PP13X  "iy”l  1133 

•Dsaxp  iyD:Dxnx3  lytt^T”  lyi  pc  p^xau^yi  ysyVoy  lyrn  oxt 
lyi  I’x  i3’ii!;yir’X  '?isan  aiba  ly”!  ca  I’l  i2xn  oxn  -y’sxipxjix 

.DT’SXJ  pyp  l^xp  py’T’  PD  yoD’iyyi 

]‘>N  t3’'''PD13S’?  ]1D  V*?!?"!  H 

jipr'pajno  I’s 

.pp'?xa  ps  -V”a  ^PD  lyDyjaix  -lyayax'r’p  P’t  i’t  Dpoyj  yprbpyiD 

•yAO’iK  iy3”T  oy  .‘iyjx'?’D3y3'ix  ix  o‘?x  iy:x3\rD:x  ypr'?3yio  px  i94i  I’x 
p’lnyijx  1’i  oxn  oix  oyn  n’lx  px  i'?xii  x po  lya’ia  n iixiiyii  opxn 

•lya’ii^xa  P’ojxa  ox^  Px  lyiPODnr’x  ysyVoDxiiioi’n  -iPX"iX3  T‘?yos’3’ix  oxn 

-lyj’ipxa  ’1  ps  V’s  pyn  poxiu  is  i^xeyia^x  oui’a  px  lyoyaix  p PS  nypp 
•yao’ix  laxn  lyp’^oyo  yu’D”!  ’i  tx  -I’jyounxs  oiypyi  oir’a  I’t  cxn  lyp’p 

.piiDiya  iy:yi3iX3  lix  pxnxs  P3  ix'?s  py:x‘?ii”o  XiX  ooxio 

px  aipyiomx  o’sx^  p pxn  iroaya  pxnxs  is  pms  yoiyiy  p 

lyipVnnopx-ioxa  ’n  ppnyijx  I’l  13Xn  oy  px  1942  ixnayD'ixi^X’ 

.DJiyiaix  lysjxi  lyn  Ps  PX  yii’ixii  -p‘?ai'?  po 
IDixsoiXio  yotxipxs  yoony  ’i  ]id  lox?  yiyn^X  y'?X  px  I’s?  -nyT'’‘?p  ’n 
pis  p pxn  lyaxn'BOxa  ’sxi  p .'PX'js^d’p  PV  nxny^  Dp’u;yi?ynx  lyp’t 
axn  oxn  .ot’oixdo’ix  lyiiys  DU7’a  lyr’t  ’■’t  V”!!  -op'siyxpms  loxi  o’a 


Ill 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leguoy 


lyavxa  is  ’iin  ’n  ixVs  ?<  laoKToiss  is  ijmya  ayp^’^rayTo  n lyinnsyi 
.Ty:iiN‘7'a'’Vj  ]’n  -lija  oaip  d?  -Djy.TOcyaax 

I’V  laija  uiy’J  psi  Oijn  .ayoyaax  isxanxD  i’t  •”!  i^xi  ’itx  ’ii 

uajjsDjsnu  iiy>  iid  tk  -lox^xn  nyanyi  ,iax“ ’t  .ayix'?"D’ia  ayn  yp^iyay'? 

•Dyaa^j  '.s  p’l’^po’ix  ?!<;s  ycnyi  x ’•’t  iS’ti 

X inxny^  1a•>‘?py^D’1X  I’lx  lyrn  aynxsijoojy't'o  ’t  Tis 

.yo’ny'jyiy’S  '?iaya  mxa'ryi  innx  nyiiyi  lyrn  ’v  ur’ns  iix  '?xs  yo’nys 
,ay”Diy  □"n  nyjp’x  apy’  ,xaaxa  3”'7'Dmax  .la’paip  nu?a  .’ptJjyis  pani 

.yayijx  iix  i’"?!!?  .ayjjjx'?  .oaxsxsxT  nira  ,ij'’'?iy3y  pyayn 

’T  Da’naayi  dk“  ypa'>'7ayna  ayax‘?'a’ia  px  n”  yup’osyyxa  ‘?xs  ’t 

nyayaax  ssna  yiS’  .yp’a^xa^■’^I7^x3  x lynyi  t’x  ayanx ’t  .it”  1.250  iis  '?xs 
■’’SDX  y‘:’y"’sysa  X PXioya  px  la’siso’ix  yspais  yua’ac^xa  x axnya  axn 

.aaiaya 

yay’^asxii^'^yTyj  lynyj  iya”i  a”5Diax'7  ’"i  PS  a^mya  n 

aayaaa?  x fi’ix  ,i”5i  i^j  p^n  pyps  oyi  lyrix  pnayayp  iix  ayia 
DXT  .lyaauanxa  yaxfna  n I’x  ixa  is  oxn  apnayaaiaxo  -isix  lya^nya 
■■lyiaxaxD  ayayau;  in  axn  oxn  .ysna  ya^nya  x laxiiiya  ’’t  ]axn  yaany 

.laiaynxa'DnaxaaiD’ix  ]x  ]’x  lopxnya 

nynxaxaDayaia  aaynya  yaipay  ’i  laxn  ysna  aya^nya  lyainny  nyn  is 
liana  : ’ii  lyia  yay^Dsxai^yiya  yaaxpxa  ya'aytx  ’•’t  lai’iis  px  a”5onax^ 
nya;nx5  p’x  px  i”  nyai'ay’ii  p’x  ,nxa5ya  nnx  .aa’^ai'a  naia  -vaayna 

ia;nx30''aK  d : iViiya  lya”!  ,ysna  ya’nya  ."anyayp  ayn  pa  laxaa’ix  n 
la’ipaax  is  nix  ni  layii  lyj’aya  (2  ; apaianaxaai  lai’axiaxya  pa  ayax'a  ayn 

.a'ayii  ayay’aayonx  ayn  a’a  lyaanaunxa  laii  (3  px 

■yaax  .laxn  yp’ayaa?  a’a  aansyaanx  lyiiya  rx  nyax'a  pa  naa;  ayn 
.a’la  T’x  axaa  xix  a’a  anax  ayay’  ix  ’iix  .axaaai  lai’aapy'ay  a’a  yayaxp 
ixaxii  X px  I’T  ia”'7isa'”ax  ivnya  I’x  lan^aax  ps  B’vsy'^isa  yp’sa^x  n 
pa  pynx  a”ii  piai  t’x  ais  aya  lyii  .oyaaxa  px  laxt  a’a  pyii  apyayais  px 

•lyaanaaionax  px  a’a  ’a  lyayay  ayax*? 

aya  'axt  aaxa5ya  prax  tx  ■lox'aa’xa  ax>a  .yaiaa  ya”nya  ."jayayp  oxa 
.axs  uaip  oy  oxn  .oxt  layaaya’X  px  ayax'?-B’ia  pa  iD’i’aaax  ayaaiay 
px  aya  19  p’l.ax  Pija  •ibx'jbjx  I’x  aaxa'aya  pnx  -lyaaiVya  I’x  ix'aa  aya 
laa’aisD’iais  ly'ap’aaip  ia”aip  px  lyaxaipxa  t’x  ayaax  P’t  111  .ayaxVa’iB 
p’aaaxnaaia  ,1942  ,21  ayaxapx  lax'aoax  t’x  ay  .yaaxaayaaix  ’a  pa  I’m  ’a 
IPX'axs  Tin  pxnya  aa’i’axaya  5xa  'a’a  I’x  ay  .pxaya  yp’anaoa  pa  ayn  x 
'Xaoayttia  Dya”5p  px  lyaipyaax  .1942  ,9  ayaaynxa  .□I’awa  ay  I’x  ixa  px 

•Xtayi  aynxa 

aya  px  a”p’aya  ayinapx  is  lyniaya  n”5a  I’l  axn  aaxa5ya  pnx 
pa  iB”pay'?aya’iu;  ’a  layayaaya’X  yaiyay  cxa  px  y’sxi’axaax'oaaxp 
laia  ypa’‘aayaB  B’a  aaiaa’aaxo  px  lyaxawya  I’lx  I’x  aaxa5ya  .ypa’‘?ayaa 
iaaxa5ya  ^ala  iya”T  inaa  aax  .ayayaax'ixa  yoi’V’ia  laia  inaa  ip’u; 
a’'7is  lyaipyaix  iya”T  oayaaay  ”aa  ax:  px  aa’5ai'?  nwa  is  pxnya  ap’uiya 

•lyanaa’aaxa  ’a  pa  oy’sxp’'?aax?  yaynnyaaix  ’a 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


112 


110  onyo’iVDis  oVx  inijnyi  DaspK2  ivrn  t3”'?Di:x‘?  ivnjjojjDOjyiro  ’i 
Vpa'>'735;iD  DKoajjp-D’iD  icT'x’‘7Qa5j:p  nyi  ro  I’is  rs  nyis'?  yiyi’inKs 

.loijVajK  y’n  ysjsi  k i’in  iya”t 

'UODjyiPD  ’1  110  DDxnp  "iyi2?n^DXT’3sn!j  nyayinyiaix  nyn  pjsn  8 
yaynax  ^D  x iio  I’lx  ’ii  ,v^ly■|^  iwi^i  Iik  A3’‘?ai‘7  niya  ;U”‘?073X‘?  ayiijjo 

.iixai2;o'’ix  laa’t’axjnjj;  ix  is  nijiiyi  t’I  P2^<^y3l  ^y^  T’s 

nyayiiip  ayi  iio  .i:xBtyo’ix  dis  ■ coy'^nyi  vv<i  c!<:n  ’pnayao  iii2?aj 

.paijoiyyi  iy:ix'?*iu’ia  rx  ay  t’x  aynx 

ayiiUDUaDayirD  yayaix  y’n  ysixi  x iix  ay^aiy  D”n  ,i:’‘7ai‘?  nira 
■ayaaix  nya  ,.i:’'70i'?  niya  .ajxoiyo’ix  rx  op’'7'>''ax3  I’l  pun  a^Vonix'? 
D”n  .lyaipyiaix  njxaiso’ix  ri<  ’’x  -ivid  nyayoax  iix  ayoayp  ayoybi’a 

•ixraaus  S puiiyi  t’x  1'h<  ayiv'7xa  px  lympisiu  lyiiiVyi  rx  ray^as? 

aya  is  puit^yi^a  lo  x ‘jyiuP^rxiau  pjjn  a^’^oux'?  ayiiU3Ut>DTyya 

.ypa'’'73yaa  ay;ix‘?'a’ia  rf<  ajxawo’ix  rs  Jra''i'>'7xya 


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113 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


K3ixn  naVu; 

lia  11D  lana  nyi  t’x  xisn  na‘?tt; 
lya’wnyi  t’x  D!<ti  /'TujsijBOjyiPtJ  lann" 
•D’nx  ,1949  -l!J’  I’X  DST’K'OiJiSia  ]’X 
]io  ijxmxD  'rsiDiys  Djn  lan  layayj 
lia  DjjT  .yroreinx  rx  1T” 

D’tt  D'7’syio’ix  rs  iis  id”t  225  D‘7xnmK 

,nmxanx3  ps  nijr’sy  '7'?i2;  x 

yaVyix  in  lyj’syi  oy  m^a  iix  a’n 
ayiP’JxaB  nyi  rx  y’'7''axD  nyjiyoiy'?  lyi  n’lx  '7Xqi!j  ayiy’sxa  lyi  ’n  ii^i’isy 
laxs  .i‘?!j:a’5ip  ’’ns  ’t  I’k  “^xiijonys  iw’j’S’iya  px  ypjxni?  ’t  po  '?an 
lOQ’air  o'xixn  y■^y^lx  I’lx  px  iia  po  inD”nxa  ’i  iix  niji’sy  ’i  n’i’‘?xjx 

.y’Qxai}<’3  p’T  u’a  lyiypxa  is  I’l  p’D’u  '7a  mip  T’X 

.1900  ,22  nyaaysyi  nxaijDDiyiyD  I’x  nxnyj  nnayi  t’x  xixn  na'7iy 
.n^aUBDjyuiD  I’x  y'^w  aypaymixn  yiy’T’  ’t  ap’ijyaxs  ny  aijn  nij’  I8  is 

Xixn  T’X  1919—1922  plj’  ’T  pX  •I'j’IS  I’X  DIT  lO’nA  X Dxnyi  DXn  Dxn 

.ayp’axaya  d'7X  cyaaxyi  lonxi  in<  ,^naa^x^  I’X  I’x  ivnyj 

’T  B^’xnx^l  ■i”ni‘7XSTyT  rs  lamx  ’i  ps  D^’^1DW  ay  oxn  p’B”sa”'7J 
px  Bi’iyi  x>xii  Dxn  1924—1922  tax’ ’t  PS  .y'pwinn  yiy’iayo  aya:iat5axa 
.IX’VxBxa'piPXtt  iP’sn’x  oya  I’x  .p'laxa  lay:  .axni’nx^  I’x  ayD’'7’a  is;’'7’i'3 
Ba’aiBir?  t3”x  ax’  X ay  oxn  ayD’'’’a  px  p’a:y”T  .ujxaaxs  cxtt  1‘?’T3  0x11 
o’a  Ba’xiaxaj  uxn  0x11  ,ayp’s:”x  aya  lynyi  t’x  iix  yVw  la’S’sx  aya  I’x 
P’P  lyaipyjp’ais  ay  t’x  ,1924  px  ,aoi’a  ayD’'7’a  laxi  .iyin:ya”SD’ix 
1931  T’a  ”ays”'7iytx'?.i  x ayaiaa  iix  ayoxo  P’T  o’a  ua’oyi  iix  iixaxoDjyiyD 
oa’siaxas  px  tyi’iyxa  yn’iayri  y:yj”x  o’a  p’aaxo  x Bioyyi  oyaax:  iix 
yay'jiy  iid  ”aa  iio  yr’x  lyiiyi  t’x  p’aaxo  ’a  .laya  y’sx'^XT’x  yiy’^xtrar 
nxaxoD^y'i't)  i”p  p’ax  prn’T  iu;D”a  ’a  ax:  ’ii  .1'7’is  pix:  px  iy::iDyaaxD’ix 
y’aaoiai’x  pyD”a  oya  ii’'7ayD:ix  t’x  iix  nxiiyi  oa’i’iipya  p’aaxi:  ’a  t’x 
lyiiyi  y’sxsipx  ’sx:  aya  iis  d”s  ayuinay  aya  I’x  I’x  x:xii  .ayaiys 
ii?’BO’ayDpxax3  t’X  oy  .BD’'7X’sysD  o'lx  P’aaxs  ay:yi”x  p’T  px  ap’Dsyiyx^ 
-x:x’sx:  T’X  IIX  ixt)  iP’B:”n  oya  T’a  Ba’DO’ipy  p’aaxa  ’a  tx  -tjpXQ  aya 

.::ia’:ya  ayiy’'7’is  aya  ^a1a  laxny:  Da’T’'? 
nnViy  t’x  nxaxBOiyiyu  p’p  Da’Tyaxa:”ax  oxn  ”aax  ’sx:  ’t  ’n 
ayiixaxi:D:yiiTB  ps  iD”pay‘7:yTays  y:yyTy::x  yaya:x  d’»  lyaxTis  x:xii 
ID’inaya  is  oxiTyi  l^xa  ii2;D”a  ’a  .p’:ax'7pxT  oVx  nuny:  sa’Doyax  DiD:a” 
X iD”a::x  tryn  oxuiy  I’x  j:iayp'?yDxa  y'i’ii’s  ’a  a’lx  oyp’:ax‘7pXT  y^x 
iy:”T  .y’sxaoD’i’aax  ay”T  B'7yBiryA:”X  pxn  o’sx:  ’a  ’ii  oyaax:  .TyB”a 
n”  y"?!?  axs  ’11  i'x:xii  axfl  .laxiiy:  B”aDX3  oyp’iaxVpxT  ’a  T”iiay‘?D’a 
px  ayayB’a  yix"?  ’a  Bayn  iy'7:yB  sxo  •'7::xay:  ayayna?  x IX  1’t  Ba’in 
I’X  H”  lay’  px  T’in  oyay’  ,p’Biy  py’  P’a:y:yp  xixn  .ayay'jaya’w 
D:yay‘7X  ps  I’lx  ax:  ,nias  y:y5”x  y:”T  ps  T’i'ja  bw’:  Ba”"?  .nxaxnoiywB 
iy:”T  y'7x  ’a  .iBoyax  iix  iyi:iD’ipaya  ,ni:aap  lyny:  lyr’T  ixo  Pry’  •mas 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legate 


114 


^yDpx^ND  Kts  11D  w’lyyiyyi  yiy’  .kjxti  ps  yU3XpS3  iix  orns  n lyiiyj 
I’T  to'axa  .•nT’ayyiryj  ypx  co  nn  cn’oynyt)3''N  -ly  .on’i’xn  u?’f>s  d’k  tjijn 
D’a  ny  myi  {ji  ojj  .yjxp  lyim”  ^y^  iiyn  lyaipsn  ix 

,njj!3!jDD:yu7D  rs  PIT  lyapyj  lyrn  ojjin  ,jjoy:i  iyu?njj;‘?  pa  y^ysu’^ajK 
-'?ynya  oxfnj  uijn  oy  in  .njjiiuiryurD  ^y5x'?  po  yjyDjjVoax  u’a  ny  oiyi 
ps  asniynn  iis  ayipjo’a  u’a  aiyn  ly  i^j’xa  nxn  ps:  ^y^  op’o 
liyn  iVp  nu'?p  x o’x  13P  oypsaiXDi’X  yVx  ’t  pit  ib2kp’'7XS  uoyi  a’a 

•nyuinx  ly^’n  oxn  -in”  y'?x  ps  '?'m  lyaxtms  px  yxx"?  ^y^^;'’lx^t3  ■)y^ 
P27pyytyyi  y'?x  ]id  nny  nyT  I’x  xixn  .cDXirtnyn  pxi  ^y^  ayajix  i'?xQyi 
px  ^ylp'?^’;Dnx  -Dyppy'pyD  •<i  — ycD^ppx^t3  n inx  iix  nxDx^ioiywD  I’x 
n ^yDX^  tST  :nyto‘?y  yrn  lyaipyiaix  lyr’t  oy  ya'jyn  int  oypxonxsyt 
,nc;a  ^y^na  lyi  nynjp  o^n  nyi  po  ,‘7Dn‘y'?”a  *iyaia  ’t  -’as'^py’ 
.yaixpxa  px  irna  iis  axaty  yxiXJ  x iix  lyiPjD’a  nnDc^a  ypPxs'^’s 
pyiinnanroiayV  px  lyijyPa  Vxax  lya  nx  ptnjyyu^yi  yp’uiVa  ’t  ^XJ 
yp'’‘?Xax  n ixi  maxa  ni  nyr’n  n px  axotr  yiyBaxtt^yiD’’'J<  1>?  n!j:'i''y:t  ant;’ 
a'?x»yT  aiJJ  ’T  1X3  lyiiyi  fx  xoy^'  yi”'??  yiysxtttyi  VyjE?  oxa  .ay3mn''''X 

ayt2;px‘?pt:;  is  laxiiyit  asnyJD’ix  o’sxJ  ’a  laia  t’x  dxh  -ojin  yaaay*? 
T’x  oy  '7''ni  ,iu'7xns''ix  aiypyi  m'i  xtjyi  Dyr'''?p  I’x  n’t  uxn  xixn  .ayaax 
lyaxtis  xtjyi  ny^’Pp  ps  asnVoix  ay  .ana  iix  lay*?  Tt^nis  '?iixayi  x lynyn 
ps  axati^axs  x PX  onx  in  la'jxnxa  iix  pniai"?  iir  ]ix  XJya  nas  ]”t  a’a 
X axs  lyVaiyatr/axD  .yV’axs  ayir’Vns  x ’’a  aypiia  x PX  iixaxaojyiro 

IX  -aap  ip’ayay"?  x ps  lyixott^ft^  nx  aypjia  aya  .a'ryi  yaio  ayaja”axa 

X ps  pVxnxaonx  pn  anayi  pxn  ■”!  .ayasays  x lij  px  asi'?  ix  -P’tt^'PT 
yti?'>ayayaaaxD  ytit^ns  ps  iinx  yax.naj  lax-a  Dioyaix  .anx  ly'ru^aaya 
xaxn  t3X-a  aap  layasa’s  aya  ax  px  .py'?  12;^”  isnx  oay’Pyi  laayay'ry 
laVxnaax  taxn  as’apoiaxa  aya  0x11  /'iixaxtaoaytya  pain,,  iia  pn  pnit^ya 
0X11  -iia  ioax»aya  oya  I’x  pxnyi  opiaayasx  ov  ’’x  i'>m‘;'>'’a  iix  la’n  6()0 
,Dxa  axa  px  aayVyaaaiax  P’'7X  oxn  ay  oxn  -oxa  axa  tp’aE^ya  XJXii  tax.a 
’a  ps  aaynya  axn  ay  oxn  oxa  iix  ]inx  ya’a  a’o  lytyi  ax.a  ay  oxn 

•iVyiip  yau?ay 

■jx^ayaxa  x t’x  iyiaiay'7aya''X  yaya^x  ya’a  .i''’‘7X  xixn  yatray  oxa 
px  p’ax  lyj’a  pyu”a  ’a  ni  ix  ypxta  la  aann  iia  T>a  .aya’a  yDy'?ay  axs 
ntx  ni  px  ix’  aytypxa  aya  ,"p''aaxa  ip’ai'?a„  ]ib  p”pDXTnaa  n iix  axaw 
yttni’s  IIX  ywPxaxa  n px  oyp’aaxVpxt  ’a  lyoya  11s  aiaysxas  ’a  piiya  nx 
ia‘?s”iisaxs  ic^’a”  p’o  1x^5  p pij-a  lyVa’sxp  yp’aaya’ni  ’a  .|yaaip’a'’''3 
•Xaya  Dya”'?p  px  pyV  oxa  px  lyaai'^aaonx  ’a  ,xaya  ]’x  ‘?aaxay.i 
"Xsxatyyi,,  ’a  iid  “^xsax  oya  pyii  49—52  la”;  ’a  nnx  aaia”att7xa  n 
ayay  tx  ,aayaipxa  aytp’axoo’n  x nx  ayatt;aay'?  y/’oxs  aya  nnx  la’aaxa 
X -ayaaya  x -u’aaxa  x tat  i'7ns  px  lyiiyi  nx  oxn  ,px3  ayay’  ,c;a”a 
ayaaxayi  pyaaxs  tr^’a”  la’iais  11s  b”P’S”J  I’x  ax-a  oxn  -ayayaaaxs 

.]u?a3ya  yp’a‘?n:;aix 

ia”T  H’lx  .i'?xa’Stt7  ”iis  ’a  iiyn  ipa”at£txa  ’a  t’x  ny'jaya’ia;  axi 
ps  ayaaya'asnn  aya  .laaaxnjyiya  ]is  "jysxa  X pyn  Sittn  ays’x  o’l  173*174 
•’astyp’K  laia  "/Xt  '?X3UDays  yonps’aya  oxa  tx  ,Diaaa”  aynxsxtJopii^a 

.ypjxap  lyaoaxB  lyips 


115 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


r’T  pmoiK  D1S  Nixn  0135-13  ly'iD’sxp  5”T  yi3ss  s ]’x 
o^yn  -lyT  rs  ono  oiyj  Di’p’onp  ny  .•”s'''?xs  ^joyi  ^y■T  ps  y'?XT  ^y^  liyn 
■'j'liyxa  X ’n  ^y»  1’^  !”'?><  n”i  Iopxb  ’t  11X  lopxs  IX  o’J  "ix^  '^”^X 

OTixnjyiyT  -lyTiy.D'os’in  lyi  tx  -xixn  ^ya’x  O’l  194  o”T  >i’ix  .opX"DiJ'ii?’t 
"y’sxoixsyi-  nyoa/iy  lyi  3xs  F^^p  ’’S’Pxs  xt)y>  ywn”  ’t  isnyiD’iny  oxn 
-ly’^oiyi'i  03”-ii2;  xiXTi  .i3xiB’ix  535”!  pyii  oy’spnooi’x  pyiyi  ”i  px 
”t  oxn  .y'7X*i  yp’-iymo  ’t  o’^’s-iyi  laxn..  103X’X'>'7X.b  iJOVi  yiyn”  ’t  tx 
."yoxJBnx  ’1  TP’snyt  lyuxjyj  lXi  15^’?  ”t  lyax  -n’Bonx  idpxt 
’T  px  ]ix  113  oyT  I’x  la’-iiyxa  lyi’n  oxn  lopxo  ’i  po  oo’'?  ]’x 
oiy’3  Di’P-iyonx  inxnyi  loniyyi  t’x  osnpoiixo  iin  ya'iyn  I’x  lyinimxa 
IS  ix-it;'”3  X 11X  oiyoipxT  nywnxoo’n  x fx  ii3  oxt  tx  ‘is’ms  any  i”p 

•lann  lom  po  moxnyo’*?  ysxoiyaipxT  nyi 
nyP’.Dopmn’x  ix  t’x  ii3  oxixn,,  tx  -loniyyi  oxn  ixaDp’"?!  'l'?xn  i"n 
,"nxoxoD3y'2^t3„  lyt)  ."mon”  lynxaxBOiyiyo  po  nasa  lyn  inx  ooniyonx 

.(209  O’n  ,1958  piX’^’J 

■3111  oiyaipxn  -lyw-ixoo’n  x t’x  nia,,  oxixn  tx  -oiy'ip'iyn  p''‘7p  ’lyn 
px  aipaix  ,p’5  -n”*?  PB  113  X T’X  oxn  .n”P  iix  oi'?3  o’a  op’0”ny3 
■ixy-ioixa  ,"-iy3’3  ”ns  11s  531’  nyn„)  ."oioan”  nynxoxBOjyiyo  po  Dt’xxnyn 

.(13  0”t  ,1958 

: ly^ayi  px  lypp’onx  y”n  ystxi  x oay^oioynxs  oxn  xixn  na5iy 
nyaxopx  ."^xiniiyt-inxa”  .nxoxooiyiyo  I’x  i:i5n’iO’ix  yotiny  ’n  .1 

.1950  ,22 

nyoya’;  nyn  is)  .iwaxoaiyi^o  I’x  xoy-i  Dy3”5p  po  lyo  yosy5  ’n  .2 
.1950  .xoixnxB  I’X  no’Pon  n’nxiy  110  njxonxB  po  ixnx  -"ITiran,,  (o”s-ix’ 
."Itttan,,  ,(5p’o-ix  noo)  .lypixnyi  yp’iy’ino  o’a  aio'oi’  ■iy3y5”-io  x .3 

.1950  XOJXXTO 

px  Dipaix  ]io  nyoyPa,,  .oioin”  nynxaxBDiywo  iio  nipaix  nyn  .4 
.7—10  io”T  ,1958  ,5xy-io3XB  px  ooxiiTixoDnix?  nynxoxBOjytyo  ."laxp 
■:x»Dn3x5  nynx3XBD3yi2;o  ,"«iaxp  px  Dipaix  po  nyoy^a,,  .Di5n  I’la  .5 

. 29—31  10”t  ,1958  ,5xy-|03XB  T’X  OOXC? 
,"v.xoxoo3ytt?o„  .my  lyn  po  o”-iu  yiyaipyiaix  ’n  iio  oiVa  oxn  .6 

.52—56  TO”t  ,1958  P1’P*1'3 

pi’O’s  IS  iiiyi  p’t  oyn  ]a”-i©  o'xixn  naPiy  iio  i:io”nx3  nyn  iiyn 
o’ayi  Dyn  I’lx  ixnyo  -lyii’oxo’nxo’ix  nyn  po  uip’a  y5iooi3io”nx3  ’n 
■yiaix  ’n  po  oi5a  oxn,,  oxixn  iiyii  la’niyyi  oxn  nyaPyn  ,]xanya’5  D”n 
’11  lyj’t  lyp  0x11  ,n5’3  x t’x  oy„  .oynjiPxB  "nny  myn  po  o”niy  yiyaip 
nyn  110  5xaa’o  x t’x  ’t  — 5n”a  yiy’  .lamn  tsjxi  oyn  nxo  ^xaa’o  x 
.oynnxanyn  laxn  Ttt;D”n  ’n  0x11  ,Diojn”  py’yoxn”X  tio  Vxny’  noia  ny3”B7 
"oonymxo,,)  ."iPyownxB  oiy’i  I’t  I’x  lyp  ,oxnpn  ,op’n3nyn’iiz70’ix  nya  T”p 

.(1959  ,25  nyaayiixi  ,ixno’a 

« * * 

po  o’lnx  y’5’axB  p’t  o’a  xixn  fx  oDxa-’sxi  nyn  110  t5xo  toxi 
Diypyj  5xa  yoctny  oxn  ”t  laxn  D’lynn  22  ixi  .”no  nyn  I’lx  "nypna,, 
I’T  T3xn  0X1X11  ’n  .p’ttt  yp’D3’5  ’n  Tytnyn  iix  ooi5  nyspno  o’a  lyayoyox 
ii’opx  iy5ooxiy5y;yi  lynyi  xixn  t’X  5”nnyn  .t5’io  TtX'?nxB  11  0”nayi 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeaoy 


116 


y’jsnojyx  ’t  tn  ,opxs  ^y^  fs  woonyDpNnKS  .lo’aya  n’w 

un’BST  nna  s u’o  oynivnya  cs  is  in  oijn  iPTnu"?  i'k  ^10^^-^^p  ]is 
I’K  iai'7’''osu  18  pn’asn^  loyayi  d’k  ia8<i  I’x  ,1948  ,7  ixus’ 

D8D'?inn  ijn  .jji’jnxt  o'?!?!  x ,^y‘?^3yt3tt>^XD  -p’samx  px  luja^oojyiPB 
*iyt3T'fixn8  >311  X lynyi  fx  nyoysw  lyo  pn  cu  snin  p’x  ix  -lynyi  fx 
'?y’S’D8  144  .nxasoDiyii^o  I’x  nap  pp  ps  jpV’psx  ix  ca  oyo’axp 
unynain  opyt  ix’‘?’a  p’x  po  yaio  y^yaxipyj  X px  nyoyanxo’a  yannx‘?pyT 
X ps  T>T  lya  DD’inyT  dx7  .oyax"?!  aayipn  ni’D  px  dipio  p’sdis  px 
^ya1J  pyoiix  i‘?’is  px  iio’n'pp  pa  y'?x^QJys  ^y^  ps  nna  oasnxa 

.1948  ,19  nxnays  aapXT  919/48 

.^xynaixo  -y^XiXP  P’P  lyaipyux  U^xii  na"?!:;  px  1948  ^yaaysy^  px 
yj'H’n  .o^a  ,'iyoDyinp  nyp’S3”x  pn  dp  pynD  is  in  lynyi  t’x  ipdjip  p’l 

.pnX’'iP  px  PX’  yiix"?  txs  Drill  dxii  ,xixii'ixaD’p 

*D7ix^  ^y^  px  ii’Dpx  pxnyi  lyDipjx  1”t  ixi  i”"?!  I’x  xixn  na^ip 

Dix®”^’i  P’'?axs  ,nxDynpyo  ,nys’nx3  : iddx  DS’in  n pmyaypxs  ,DSXwaXD 

lyiiyi  Wi  1X3  D’''‘?073x‘?  yiyaipyi  ”3 ’t  ]y3”T  d’-'s  ny3y’  is  .yny73X  px 
IDymx  y'?X  px  ip’'?”Dxa  D3ypy3  dw:  i’t  px  Dmxy33”x  p’nynyi  ’ii 
D‘?73XinXD  rx  Pin  pn  .D’r’snyn  pxis’ix  y3y'?Dsxu;'?yTyi  y'jx  X3Xii  Dxn 
’T  iD'rxmyT  Dxn  ny  .DX’nxDynpyo  x dp  DDXiP3xaDPx‘?  X px  pxny3 
,1DDPxa  y33x‘?  D’pjyiis  ,iin3  y'?x  I’lx  DiyDD3yy3  Dxn  ly  ,p3yn3Xsoyix? 
nyn  px  Dy’siD’DD3’x  nyiix3Xi303yiPD  ybK  Dyas  dp  dpxd3XP  PX  lyiw 
lDynDy3S’ix  px  ny  .yppDiynxaD’i3  is  Dp’ipyi  px  Dliyi  iDXipy3  .D‘?yii  iys3X3 
Dp’li’pxa  I’T  .nia’Da  DDXs?3xaon3x‘?  px  iy33i'7axnxs  ,oypyixpx  ’t  I’lx 
.'?xynD3xa  px  px  pnx’'i’3  PX  DDxiP2xao73x'?  nyn  ps  oy’sxp’‘?ais  ’t  px 
lanxinyT  I’t  ny  Dxn  DDXtt;:xaon3X'?  nyT  ixd  D«p3ay3y3nya’x  pn  dp 
-ytpy  nyi  ixs  '?’sw”a  x px  nyDoia  x n Di’i  ]ix  y’sxDisyi  yan  nyn  x 

.iyn’'?3Dp  yiPDip 

DW’3  px  xi33xnXD  P’P  p’lsyiiya’x  i’t  X3xii  t3xn  1958  '?’nsx  yniy 
■Dn3x'?  ny'?xynD3xa  nyn  D’a  apxoixp  ip’iiyou;  x Px  ny  t’x  I’nyn  opipyi 
Day3  '?xynD3X»  P’P  aaip  ny  lyii  px  iy3jny”Di2;xD  y3”T  is  Dp’u;  ,DDXiP3xa 

.yii’Dipyipy  nyi  ps  lyijis’i  ■’T  px  '?”D3X  ny 


117 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legae: 


5SP1D28D  rS 


you^iv  ’»T 


ODKiL^jK^DijK*?  nyi'iKDxuDjyu;^  “lyi  po  yahtao'^iK 


:t:y;3'T'>’ny.'i 


ussiyjsamjN'?  “ij;t  iid  idj?d’>'ivupn  n 

iJKDtt^iyT’n  11K  mpaiK  iiyn  iyj3i'7‘T:KnBS  j?B^nKt3D'>n 
Dipnm  11N  inin  119  pn’  p tn  iindnddjuuju 
a?uii  njjnnipujniN  in  119  idpndwuj  iin  wu 


tPD  v'’lpN^y^  lyT  lyujix 

TECHNICAL  SUPERVISION  AND  LAYOUT  BY 

HARRY  KLEIN 


liD  >m’D:u  lyiy’jsvB  nvT  tyuJiK  ’^yott’^ysstix  ^Knyuija 
ttyo’ai}?  nia  iie  lys’nijD  -l”*??  ’lyn 


lyijyVino  .a 

’P0^KJKP  .lyu 
Di'733ynjn  .n 


tByu’DUpnia  po  lyi’^ica 

UID’IHjtaVK’  •'? 
“lyn'j'D  .tv 
ttixpKae  .w 


Waa'jx  .a 
©B''n!j:ps''X  .3 

)<s¥:ii  .IP 


y T S 3 K i? 


1966 


’7Kyiu3i<a 


YIDDISH 

SECTION 


360 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Sources 

Articles  from  the  English  and  Yiddish  Media. 

Brener,  L.,  Destruction  and  Resistance  in  the  Czenstochover 
Ghetto.  Poland:  1950  (book  written  in  Yiddish). 

Edelist,  N.,  Editorial  Committee  Sefer  Czenstochov . Israel,  1967 
(book  written  in  Yiddish  and  Hebrew). 

Federman,  R.,  Czenstochover  Yidn.  New  York:  United  Czensto- 
chover Relief  Committee,  1947  (book  is  written  in  Yiddish). 

From  the  files  of  Beth  Hatefutsoth,  Tel  Aviv. 

Gliksman,  William,  A Kehillah  in  Poland  During  the  Inter-War 
Years.  Philadelphia:  M.E.  Kalish,  1969. 

Hamer- Jacklyn,  Sarah,  A Miracle^  1954. 

Holocaust  Memorial  Center,  *'Zchor*\  West  Bloomfield,  Mi. 

Traditional  Anti-Semitism,  ''Zchor'\  Chicago. 

Waga,  Sz.,  Churban  Czenstochov.  Buenos  Aires:  1949  (book  is 
written  in  Yiddish). 


>1 


")JT> 


In  Memory  of 


Yosel  Zilberberg 


Yosel  Zilberberg  was  born  in  Szczekocin,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Czenstochova.  At  the  age  of  11,  he  left  his  parents’  home, 
where  he  lived  in  great  poverty.  Yosel,  a teenage  boy,  decided 
to  go  to  the  nearest  city  which  was  Czenstochova,  where  he 
found  a person  who  was  willing  to  teach  him  to  be  a tailor. 
Yosel  was  a young  and  ambitious  person,  and  very  proud  of 
having  a trade.  He  decided  to  become  independent  by  open- 
ing a small  tailor  shop. 

The  Second  World  War  started  on  September  1,  1939.  Yosel 
was  in  Czenstochova  and  shared  the  same  fate  as  all  the  Jevs^ 
under  the  barbaric  German  occupational  rules.  All  of  his 
family  perished  in  the  Holocaust.  After  the  liquidation  of  the 
large  ghetto,  he  was  in  the  small  ghetto  and  was  working  in 
Hasag  Pfelcem.  He  then  was  liberated  on  the  16th  of  January 
1945. 

After  his  liberation  in  Czenstochova,  Yosel  Zilberberg  met 
Mania  Ickowicz.  They  got  married  and  have  two  lovely 
children,  a girl,  Rosalie,  and  a boy,  Jacob.  They  came  to 
Montreal  in  1948. 

Yosel  Zilberbrg  became  an  active  member  in  the  executive 
of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal.  He  was  active  in 
the  Aid  Committee.  He  was  most  generous  giving  contribu- 
tions for  this  great  cause  and  helping  financially  the  needy 
Landsleit  in  Poland  and  Israel. 

Then  one  day  the  Czenstochover  Society  was  shocked  to  leam 
that  Yosel  Zilberberg  was  no  longer  with  us.  He  died  on 
April  13th,  1956.  The  Czenstochover  Society  had  lost  a 
Landsman  and  a good  friend.  He  will  alvs^ys  be  remembered. 


OT 


')0T> 


In  Memory  of 
My  Beloved  Parents 


Anna  and  Binem  Zielonka 


Sisters  and  Brothers 


and 


in  Cherished  Memory  of 
My  Beloved  Sister 


m 


■ 


* 


m 


'4& 


Frieda  (Zielonka)  Fischer 

Ever  in  My  Thoughts 


WHO  PERISHED  UNDER  NAZI  TYRANNY 


BARBARA  PRYOR 


In  Loving  Memory  of 
My  Husband,  Father  and  Zaddi 

SIMCHA  SILVER  (Zilberberg) 


survivor  of  the  Holocaust 


t 


Executive  member  and  Secretary  of 
the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal, 
and  instrumental  in  all  projects, 

such  as: 

the  Yiddish  Yizkor  Book 
and  the  Holocaust  Monument 
erected  in  Montreal. 


CHAYA  ZILBERBERG  and  FAMILY 


■^D 


In  Loving  Memory 


of  my  Parents 


Sarah  Levy 
1910-1991 


Sam  Levy 
1913-1989 


My  parents  were  lucky  enough  to  survive  the 
tragedy  of  the  war.  They  came  to  the  U.S.  A.  in  1949 
and  began  a new  life.  Times  were  hard  but  they 
always  managed  to  get  by.  As  Passover  approaches, 
my  fondest  memory  of  them  comes  to  me.  The  first 
Seder  was  always  at  our  apartment.  Approximately 
30  people  were  always  invited  and  no  one  ever  went 
away  hungry.  It  was  a time  of  laughter,  love  and 
sharing.  This  is  how  I remember  my  parents.  Our 
whole  family  has  an  empty  space  in  our  hearts 
because  we  miss  them  very  much. 


With  fondest  memories 
JOE  LEVY  and  FAMILY 


^ ^ no 


f .. 

I 



In  Memory  of  my  beloved  father 
and  our  grandfather 

LEON  WINDMAN 

who  was  deported  from  France 
to  Auschwitz  in  June  1942  and  perished  there 

He  will  always  be  remembered 
as  a wonderful  father. 

Jacqueline  Windman 
Schupper  and  Family 


In  Loving  Memory  of 
my  Dear  Parents 

LEIZER  and  MANIA  WINDMAN 

who  perished  in  the  Holocaust,  together  with  all  other 
Czenstochover  martyrs. 

My  sister,  POLA,  and  her  infant  baby,  and  my  younger 
sister,  SHEVA,  were  deported  from  Czenstochov,  at  the 
time  of  the  second  deportation  to  Treblinka. 

My  brother,  LEIBL,  who  lived  for  many  years  in  Paris, 
France,  and  was  deported  in  1942  to  the  Auschwitz  death 
camp,  and  perished  together  with  all  other  Jewish  mar- 
tyrs of  the  Holocaust. 


WOLF  WINDMAN 


UQKU/n’’'?  V''y2  ]Q'’U  ]■’K 

"T>n  ]yjKn"iy“T  usKU/payn  pK 
-lynjiN  pa  u’l’iyiK''  n 
"lyuin  pK  '■na  yny''u 

nn’raymi  ><r‘7«n 

]ypjy"ryA  p''a'''>K  ■’t  “T’n 
(py^ayrt)  ‘7iy"iyn"‘7K"ity’> 

pN  nayn  ,un 


In  loving  memory  of  a dear  wife  and  mother 


HALINA  ROSENBLUM 

You  were  with  us  for  many  happy  years, 
Now  we  are  left  with  fond  memories  and  tears 
Of  that  beautiful  smile  upon  your  face. 
Filled  with  love,  friendship  and  grace. 

As  each  day  goes  by,  we  wish  you  were  here. 
But  in  our  hearts  you  are  always  near. 

You  knew  how  much  we  loved  you 

We  miss  you 

Always  remembered 
HARRY,  RUTH,  HENRY  and  ROSALYN 


In  Memory  of 

Josef  & Pola 
(Zylberszac)  Orbach 
and  Daughter,  Madzia 
who  perished  in  the  Holocaust 

PAUL  ORLAN 

In  Loving  Memory 
of  the 

SREBRNIK  FAMILY 

SOPHY  HANDMAN  and  HELEN  WISE 

In  Loving  Memory  of 

Rosyna  (Rachel)  Berkowicz, 

Ester  Oderberg  (nee  Berkowicz), 

Moishe  Oderberg. 

Rosyna  (Rachel)  Berkowicz  was  killed  in  Treblinka. 

Ester  Oderbei^-Berkowicz  and 
Moishe  Oderberg  were  shot  in  Czenstochova 

JONAS  BERK 

In  Loving  Memory  of 
my  dear  parents  and  family 
Hendel  and  Rachel  Rosenblum 

who  perished  in  the  Nazi  Holocaust 
HERSHEL  (HARRY)  ROSENBLUM 


In  Loving  Memory  of 
my  Dear  Husband,  Fhther  and  Zaidi 


MOISHE  RAPAPORT 

a Survivor  of  Treblinka 


and  his  parents 

ELIEZER  and  FEIGE  RAPAPORT 
and  daughter  ESTHER 

All  perished  in  the  Holocaust 


ROSE  RAPAPORT  and  FAMILY 
HARRY,  PENNY,  AMY  and  BRENDA 


In  Memory  of 

SZYMON  MARKOWICZ 


On  the  second  of  December  in  1909,  Szymon 
Markowicz  was  bom  to  Sarah  and  Elias  Markowicz, 
in  Czenstochova.  At  the  age  of  eighteen  he  left  his 
family  to  study  engineering  in  Prague.  At  the  out- 
break of  World  War  II,  Szymon  married  Guta  Gold- 
stein. They  lived  through  the  war  in  Tynda,  Siberia. 

Upon  his  return  to  Poland  in  1945,  Szymon  worked 
at  Warsaw’s  Ministry  of  Energy. 

In  1967  Mr.  Markowicz  moved  with  his  wife  and  two 
children  to  Haifa,  Israel.  There  he  worked  up  to  his 
last  days  at  the  Hevrat  Hashma  (Israel’s  electricity 
company).  He  died  in  Israel  in  1986. 


In  Memory  of 


JOACHIM  MARKOWICZ 


Joachim  Markowicz,  known  by  his  friends  as  Marek, 
was  bom  in  Czenstochova  in  1898.  Marek  studied  at 
the  Jagelon  University  in  Krakow.  He  returned  to 
Czenstochova  to  practive  law. 

During  the  war  Marek  escaped  death  by  fleeing  to 
Russia.  After  the  war  he  moved  to  Warsaw  and  be- 
came one  of  Poland’s  most  prominent  lawyers. 

Tbday  he  lies  in  Warsaw’s  only  Jewish  cemetery. 


In  Memory  of 

SAMUEL  GOLDSTEIN 


Samuel  Groldstein  was  bom  in  Mlava,  Poland.  He  was 
a well  admired  figure  in  Czenstochova.  Samuel  was 
the  chairman  of  the  city’s  Jewish  commimity  and  a 
co-owner  of  a Czenstochova  metal  industry. 

Samuel  Goldstein  died  in  Treblinka  during  the  Second 
World  War. 

Prom  his  family  of  five  children,  only  one  survived  the 
war.  Her  name  is  Guta  (Goldstein)  Markowicz. 


5 


MOISHE  LEFCOVITCH 


Moishe  Lefcovitch  was  a man  who  always  had  a 
twinkle  in  his  eyes  and  a word  of  wisdom  on  his  lips. 
He  commanded  and  received  the  respect  of  all  who 
knew  him.  He  exuded  warmth,  charm,  compassion 
and  humour. 

Moishe,  as  a young  man,  was  unusually  intelligent, 
eager  to  learn;  the  quest  of  knowledge  outweighed  all 
else.  The  range  of  his  learning,  the  impact  of  his  per- 
sonality, his  wise  approach  and  the  conduct  of  every- 
day life  made  him  a role  model.  Moishe  was  fluent  in 
Yiddish,  Polish  and  English. 

Moishe  was  the  son  of  Menachem  and  Rose.  He  had 
a brother,  Yidel,  and  a sister,  Lipka.  His  brother  and 
sister  perished  in  the  Holocaust.  His  father  died  when 
Moishe  was  just  a young  boy.  His  beloved  mother  died 
in  Israel  in  1968. 

Moishe  was  very  active  in  the  Czenstochova  Society. 
He  was  Chairman  of  the  CultiuBl  and  Financial  Revi- 
sion Committee.  He  used  to  love  to  talk  about  his  home 
town  of  Czenstochova,  where  his  roots  were. 

Moishe  passed  away  on  October  22,  1985.  He  was  a 
devoted  husband  to  Regina,  and  a loving  father  to 
daughters  Pearl  and  Miriam.  He  was  the  proud  grand- 
father of  Rasalie,  Tara,  Jason  and  Stefanie. 

We  miss  him  so,  so  much.  His  memory  hves  in  oin" 
hearts  everyday  and  it  will  remain  there  forever. 


In  Loving  Memory  of 
My  Dear  Wife 

ANNA  KREMSKI 

born  in  Czenstochov,  nee  Rotensztain 

A HOLOCAUST  SURVIVOR 


who  passed  away  on  October  26,  1992 

We  have  spent  our  life  together. 
This  photo  was  taken  at  our 
Golden  Wedding  Anniversary 
on  April  14,  1991 

You  will  always  be  in  my  heart 
and  in  my  memory  forever. 


JACK  KREMSKI 


■)0T> 


mi 


I 


■■  .v-V  ? . 


■\4 




I 


Grandfather  Mordechai 
and  grandmother  Pesa, 
parents  of  Szmul  Leib, 
Teudik,  Nuchim  smd 
Jeikil  Kremaki 


«3  '{*?  %9W«S*#W 

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£"”.«■  • •-'  I I % 

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•i.-  ’'■  i.ji  t:;  . • X* 

' '41  \.  ft' 


'■*  '.  --,v. 


Monument  of  Mordechai  and  Besa  Kremski, 
Jeikil  and  Brandi  Kremski,  Nuchim  and 
Traya  Kremski,  Tzudik  and  Laya  Kremski, 
Mordechai  and  Sara  Herszlikowicz  and 
Simon  Mlodinof. 


THE  FAMILY  KREMSKI 
was  well  known  for  many  generations  in  Czenstochova. 
They  were  liked  for  their  generosity  and  help 
to  friends  and  neighbors. 

All  of  them  perished  1942  in  Treblinka. 

WE  WILL  ALWAYS  REMEMBER  THEM 

JACK  and  ANNA  KREMSKI 


- r**}. 

t, 


Iv  i*  j'Jfiir-  -C  ' 

{"psrsy'p  ' 

- s - S 


Monument  of  Blima  Rifka, 
Grandmother  of 
Jack  Kremski. 

Standing: 
The  Kremski  family 


I >1 


■)0T> 


-if: 


Szmul  Laib  and  Baila  Kremski 


Emanuel  and  Raizil  Rotensztain 


In  Memory  of  my  beloved  parents 
SZMUL  LAIB  and  BAILA  KREMSKI 

who  perished  1942 

during  the  Nazi  Holocaust  in  Treblinka. 

My  father's  brothers 

YEIKY  and  BRANDIL  KREMSKI  and  Eamily 
NUCHIM  and  TRANA  KREMSKI  and  Family 
CUDIK  and  LAIA  KREMSKI  and  their  son  WOLF 
Brother-in-Law  YOSIL  GRUCA  and  Family 
My  mother's  sister  SARA  and  husband 
MORDECHAI  HERSZLIKOWICZ  and  Family 

In  Memory  of  my  beloved  parents 
EMANUEL  and  RAIZIL  ROTENSZTAIN 
and  my  sister  JADZIA  ROTENSZTAIN. 

My  father  was  shot  near  the  cathedral 
of  Czenstochova  on  * Bloody  Monday"  of  1939. 

He  was  buried  at  the  Jewish  Cemetery 
exhumed  in  1971  and  brought  to  Israel 
where  he  is  buried  on  Mt.  Olive  in  Jerusalem. 

My  mother  and  sister  perished  1942  in  Treblinka. 


ANNA  and  JACK  KREMSKI 
survivors 


3? 


V 1 


In  Memory  of 

Mrs.  DORKA  ZILBERT 

(nee  Kopinska) 


0 


Beloved  “Aunt  Dora”  of 
IRWIN  and  RITA  KOPIN 
and  lovingly  remembered  by 
JUDY,  ALAN  and  GAIL 


In  Memorium  to 
Gutka  (Gita)  Kartus 

This  is  in  memory  of  Gutka  (Gitka)  Kartus  (nee 
Nirenberg)  - mother,  confidante,  and  best 
friend.  Gutka,  a wonderful,  caring,  and 
vibrant  person,  died  suddenly  and  tragical- 
ly on  November  21,  1982.  During  her  life- 
time, Gutka  was  always  very  active  in  the 
Czenstochover  Society,  having  also  served 
GUTKA  (GITA)  KARTUS  as  Vice-President  of  the  Ladies  Auxiliary. 

On  the  tenth  anniversary  of  her  death  she 
is  still  missed  and  remembered  by  many.  The  writing  on  her  headstone 
is  so  true  - “So  full  of  life  and  love  for  others,  she  gave  joy  to  all  who 
knew  her’’. 

Even  though  her  grandchildren,  Carrie  and  Genna  Solomon,  did  not 
have  the  privilege  of  really  knowing  her  in  life,  they  often  feel  as  if  they 
do  remember  her  because  they  have  been  told  so  much  about  her. 

Our  love  for  her  as  a mother  and  a grandmother  really  does  transcend 
death ! 

Lovingly  remembered  always  by  your  family, 

EVY  KARTUS  SOLOMON,  HOWARD  SOLOMON, 

CARRIE  and  GENNA  SOLOMON 


In  memory  of 

THE  MIETKIEWICZ  FAMILY 

Josef,  Sara  and  their  children, 
Malcia,  Dorka,  Regina, 
Andzia,  Markus  and  Adolf 

all  died  in  Treblinka  in  1942 


In  memory  of 

THE  MIETKIEWICZ  FAMILY 

Wolf,  Tosia  (Kopinski) 
and  son,  Jerzy 

who  died  in  Treblinka,  1942 


In  memory  of 

Ignac  & Rozia  (Kopinski)  Sobol 

and  son,  Oles 

who  were  killed  at  the 
Cemetery  of  Czenstochova  in  1943 


In  memory  of 

THE  KOPINSKI  FAMILY 

Maurycy,  Terenia  (nee  Fhjgenblat) 
son,  Adam,  and  daughter,  Haneczka 

who  were  killed  at  the 
Cemetery  of  Czenstochova  in  1943 


In  memory  of 

LEON  KOPINSKI 
and  Eamily 


Leon  Kopinski,  son  of  Golda  & Wolf,  was  born  in 
Czenstochova.  He  was  a very  active  Zionist  before 
the  war  — involved,  also,  in  commimity  work.  When 
the  war  broke  out,  he  was  in  charge  of  the  Judenrat. 


Leon,  his  wife,  Karola,  and  son,  Wladek,  were  kill- 
ed at  the  Cemetery  in  Czenstochova  in  1943. 


In  memory  of 


THE  ZILBERT  FAMILY 


Tadek,  Ted  Zilbert  (Zylberszac)  was  born  in 
Czenstochova.  He  was  the  son  of  Shulim  and 
Brandla.  His  wife,  Dora  Kopinski,  was  also  bom  in 
Czenstochova.  She  was  the  daughter  of  Wolf  and 
Golda  (Wiener).  The  2!ilberts  had  been  in  the  ghetto 
and  Laboior  Camp  Hasag.  They  were  hberated  in 
Czenstochova  in  January  1945,  and  came  to 
Montreal  via  France  in  1948.  From  the  beginning, 
until  their  death,  they  were  both  very  active 
members  of  the  Czestochover  Society  of  Montreal. 
Tadek  passed  away  in  1984,  and  Dora  passed  away 
in  1990. 

They  are  survived  by  their  daughter,  Lucy, 

2 grandchildren  and  5 great-grandchildren. 


In  Loving  Memory 

of 


NATHAN  GELBER 


In  Loving  Memory  of 
my  Dear  Husband,  Fhther  and  Zaidi 
MENDEL  FRIEDLANDER 


SURVIVOR  OF  THE  HOLOCAUST 


A long-time  member  of  the  Executive  of  the 
Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal, 
Executive  Vice-Chairman  and  Treasurer. 


CHANKA  FRIEDLANDER  and  CHILDREN 


In  Loving  Memory 
of  my  Dear  Parents 

MOSHE  MORDECHA  KLEIN(ER) 
RIEKA  ZYLBERSZAOrZ-KLEIN(ER) 

and  my  Dear  Brothers 

YAKOV  and  YECHIEL 

who  perished  in  the  Holocaust 

HARRY  KLEIN  FAMILY 

In  Loving  Memory 
of  Our  Parents 

MOSHE  & MIRIAM  ALTMAN 

Holocaust  Survivors 

CYPORA  LEB,  YAIR  ALTMAN  and  ANETTE  ALON 

In  Memory  of  our 
Dear  Departed  Parents 

JOE  and  MADZIA  ROSENBERG 

survivors  of  the  Holocaust 

Sadly  missed  by  their 
Children  and  Grandchildren 
SAM  ROSENBERG  and  RENEE  FINEBERG 


With  pain  in  our  hearts  and  everlasting  love 
we  remember  our  parents,  family,  and  friends 
who  p>erished  at  the  hands  of  the  Nazis 
in  the  gas  chambers  of  Treblinka  and  Auschwitz 
and  in  the  fields  and  on  the  roads  of  Boland. 

FEIGENBLATT  FAMILY 


Father  Shlomo  Josef 
Mother  Ryfka 

Brother  Leibel,  his  wife  Malka, 
their  2-year-old  child,  Josele 
Brother  Shimon 
Sister  Malka 

HOLENDER  FAMILY 


Father  Moshe  David 
Mother  Tova  Yentil 
Brother  Yankele 
Brother  Chaim  and  Family 
Brother  Ehezer  and  Family 
Sister  Balcia  Langer, 
her  husband  and  five  children 
Sister  Chanele  Goldstein 
and  her  children,  Sabcia  and  Molly 
Sister  Frymcia  Szwartz  and  Family 
Sister  Ryfcia  Szmulewicz  and  husband,  Avraham 

We  also  remember  with  pride  and  love 

our  dear  brothers 

who  survived  to  see  and  participate 
in  the  rebirth  of  our  Jewish  Nation, 
and  saw  their  children  Uving 
in  a free  and  secure  Israel: 

Brother  Avraham  Holender 
who  fought  the  Nazis  as  a member 
of  H.M.  Jewish  Brigade  Group 

Brother  Shlomo  Holender 
DANIEL  and  BERNICE  FAGAN 


In  Loving  Memory  of 
my  Dear  Parents 

YITZCHAK  and  MALKA  BORENSTEIN 

(nee  Gastfreund) 
and  my  Dear  Brother 

MOSHE  JOSEL 

who  perished  in  the  Holocaust 

EVA  BORENSTEIN-KLEIN 
and  FAMILY 

In  Memory  of 

our  Dear  Parents  and  Pamilies 

Fhther  : MOSES  KIRSCHENBAUM 

Mother : SOPHIE  KIRSCHENBAUM 

(nee  Tvuatschor) 

Brother:  MUNIO  KUPFERMAN 

Sister  : REGINA  WURMBERG 

Fhther  : AARON  FISCHEL  LEDERMAN 

Mother : MIRIAM  LEDERMAN 

(nee  Schwartzbaum) 

Brother:  CHAIM  LEDERMAN 

ESTHER  and  KOPEL  LEDERMAN 

In  Loving  Memory  of  Our  Parents 

ABRAHAM  and  CYRIL  NEUFELD 

and 

FISHEL  and  HELA  FIKSEL 

and  our  brothers  and  sisters  who  perished. 
ISAK  and  ESTHER  FIKSEL 


In  Loving  Memory  of 

BERL  and  TAUBA  BOMBA 

AVRAHAM  LEIB  & GHANA  (nee  Kozuch) 

ISRAEL  & RACHEL  BOMBA  (nee  Milstein)  (Grandparents) 

BERL,  son  of  Abraham  Bomba;  HENRY  & NACHA 

(nee  Lefkowitz)  (brother); 

RACHEL  & JACK  CHATKANY  (sister); 

YANKEL  & SARAH  & son  BOYRECH  YEHUDA  (brother) 

YEHUDA  LEIB  & DWORA  LEIHA  HAMBURGER 
MOSHE  & PERL  ROSENBLUM  (Grandparents) 
OYZER  BETZALAL  and  BEILA  ROSENBLUM  (Parents) 
RUBIN  & MIRIAM  ZWILLICH;  ESTER  LEIHA  (daughter); 
POL  A & son,  MARK,  HAMBURGER;  SZLOMO, 
YEHUDA  LEIB  and  MOSHE  HAMBURGER  (brothers); 
DWORA  LEHA  HAMBURGER  (sister) 

ABRAM  & REGINA  BOMBA 


In  Memory  of  my  Dear  Departed 
Sister  and  Brother-in-law 

CHARLES  & MANIA  KONARSKY 

(nee  Klein) 

survivors  of  the  Holocaust 
HARRY  KLEIN 


In  Loving  Memory  of  my  Parents 

RUCHEL  and  SHIMSZA  SKOWRONEK 

and  Sisters 

ESTHER  DINA,  HANDL  and  BAIL  A 

Perished  in  Treblinka 

I am  the  only  survivor 
MIRIAM  SKOWRONEK 


In  Memory  of 

SHLOMO  and  RIFKA  BIALYSTOK 

Shlomo  Bialystok  was  born  in  Czenstochova  in  1899  to 
Hodel  Feifer  and  Moshe.  At  the  age  of  20,  he  was  mo- 
bilized into  the  Pblish  army.  After  a few  months,  he 
escaped  to  Frankfurt,  Grermany  where  he  married  Rifka 
Hoffstadter.  They  had  two  daughters,  Malka  (Mali)  and 
the  late  Blima  (Mimi).  The  family  lived  in  Cologne  until 
1939.  With  the  impending  threat  of  the  Nazis,  Shlomo 
fled  to  Tangiers,  Morocco.  Blima  and  Malka  were 
evacuated  by  the  American  Red  Cross  and  Rifka  joined 
Shlomo  in  Tangiers.  Together  they  came  to  Montreal  in 
1944  where  Shlomo  became  active  in  the  Czenstochover 
Landsmanshaft.  Shlomo  and  Rifka  have  four  grand- 
children and,  to  date,  four  great-grandchildren.  They  are 
greatly  missed. 


MALI  RUBIN 


332 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeaoy 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


331 


THE  HOLOCAUST  MONUMENT 
IN  MIAMI,  FLORIDA 

In  the  fall  of  1984,  a small  group  of  Miami’s  Holocaust  survivors 
joined  to  develop  the  idea  of  building  a permanent  memorial  to 
the  memory  of  the  six  million  Jews  who  perished  from  the  hands 
of  the  Nazis.  It  seemed  only  fitting  that  a community  with  one 
of  the  largest  Holocaust  survivor  populations  in  the  world  should 
follow  the  lead  of  Philadelphia,  Atlanta,  San  Francisco  and  Detroit 
in  erecting  a Holocaust  memorial  that  would  stand  as  a perma- 
nent reminder  to  future  generations  of  Nazi  persecution,  as  well 
as  a symbol  of  the  world’s  indifference  to  genocide. 


330 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  last  official  Jewish  burial,  that  of  David  Albert,  took  place 
on  May  3rd,  1970.  In  1973  another  (anonymous)  interment  took 
place,  this  one  without  official  permit.  Since  1973  the  cemetery 
fell  victim  to  neglect,  looting  and  vandalism. 

It  is  assumed  that  the  first  burial  took  place  at  the  Czenstochova 
Cemetery  circa  1799—1800.  The  grave  of  Izaak  ben  (son  of) 
Moszek  (Jews  didn’t  use  last  names  at  the  time)  was  closely 
guarded  in  fear  of  desecration  until  the  death  years  later  of 
Eleazer  ben  David.  In  1803  there  were  no  funerals.  In  1805,  two 
Jews  died  leaving  behind  no  record.  Year  1910  marks  the  death 
of  one  of  the  richest  Jews  in  Czenstochova,  Szymon  Gk)ldman.  In 
1812  Wolf  Landau  was  buried  and  in  1813  Pinchas  Landau. 

Although  unlisted  in  the  publication  “Jewish  Cemeteries’’,  the 
Czenstochova  Cemetery  is  rated  highly  by  scholars  and  re- 
searchers. It  housed  4,500  tombstones  around  20  of  which  dated 
to  the  early  19th  century,  circa  700,  the  latter  part  of  the  19th  cen- 
tury. About  3,000  were  raised  between  1900-1946,  and  450  after 
World  War  II. 

Among  the  tombstones  executed  prior  to  1920  true  works  of  art 
can  frequently  be  found  which  can  provide  valuable  socio-histori- 
cal  information  for  scholars,  as  well  as  serve  as  commemorative 
monuments  of  what  once  constituted  the  Jewish-Polish  culture. 

Along  with  the  linguistic  mosaic  (inscriptions  in  Hebrew,  Polish, 
Russian,  German)  the  epitaphs  are  a source  of  invaluable  demo- 
graphic information  for  students  of  the  Jewish  way  of  life.  The 
monuments  of  martyrs  murdered  in  the  Czenstochova  ghetto  or 
symbolic  graves  of  people  annihilated  in  concentration  camps  are 
there  as  a reminder  of  recent  history. 

Moses  Finkelstein  representing  the  Board  of  the  Jewish  Organi- 
zation recently  signed  an  agreement,  relating  to  the  cemetery 
reconstruction.  However,  the  concrete  procedures  connected  with 
the  project  are  somewhat  complicated,  the  sandstone  tombstones 
disintegrated,  the  brick  entrance  gate  collapsed,  etc. 

The  Foundry  Czenstochova  will  rebuild  the  surrounding  wall  and 
the  collapsed  gate.  It  will  also  provide  the  lighting  to  illuminate 
the  grounds. 

The  City  of  Czenstochova  undertook  to  construct  a road  from 
Zlota  Street  leading  through  a tunnel  to  the  main  gate. 

Since  the  mere  road  construction  and  electrical  installations  are 
estimated  to  take  3—4  years,  the  total  renovation  project  may  not 
be  realized  until  the  first  decade  of  the  year  2000. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


329 


The  Jewish  Cemetery 
Shall  Be  Salvaged 

Reprinted  from  the  Pohsh  paper  of  Czenstochova* 

At  the  end  of  September  1990  the  Legal  Department  of  the 
Czenstochova  Regional  Office  ratified  a document  establishing 
the  “Foundation  in  charge  of  the  Reconstruction  (rebuilding)  of 
the  Jewish  Cemetery  in  Czenstochova  and  Protection  of  the 
historical  remains  (heirlooms)  of  the  Jewish  Culture”.  The 
members  of  the  Foundation  are  Jack  Kremski,  Arye  Edelist  and 
Wolf  Windman.  The  plan  of  action  outlined  by  them  contains  the 
following  key  issues: 

1)  Commemorative  plaques  to  be  placed  on  the  building  of  the 
National  Philharmonie  (former  synagogue),  Hospital  Rydygier 
(financed  before  the  war  by  the  Jewish  community)  and  on 
Garibaldi  Street  (the  area  of  the  former  ghetto). 

2)  Establishment  of  a center  of  study  and  research  of  Jewish 
culture  and  customs. 

3)  Renovation  and  rehabilitation  of  the  Jewish  Cemetery  in 
Czenstochova. 

4)  Publication  of  a monograph  dealing  with  (or  outlining)  the 
Jewish  population  in  Czenstochova. 

The  Foundation  has  many  sponsors  and  benefactors  who  will 
fulfill  various  tasks  of  the  programmed  agenda,  including  the 
President  of  Czenstochova,  who  serves  as  its  general  coordinator. 

In  the  1960s  the  cemetery  was  absorbed  and  devastated  by  the 
neighbouring  industrial  complex  “Foundry  Czenstochova”  (then 
called  Bierut  Foundry).  In  1981  the  cemetery,  ruined  by  pollution 
and  neglect,  was  fenced  off  and  made  accessible  to  outside 
visitors.  Although  there  was  no  industrial  activity  on  its  grounds, 
only  people  with  special  permits  and  accompanied  by  a guide 
could  visit.  Inspite  of  the  existing  restrictions,  63  foreign  guests 
visited  in  1987,  64  in  1988  and  17  in  1990. 


♦Translated  from  the  RDlish  by  Lucy  Nisker 


The  Fbundation  to  Restore  the  Cemetery  and  Heritage  of 
Czenstochova  lays  a wreath  at  the  Warsaw  Ghetto  Monument,  on 
August  13,  1989. 


BOOK  COMMITTEE  MEMBERS 


Executive  Members  of  the  Czenstochover  Social  Club 
of  Miami,  Florida: 

Willie  Windman  Morris  Semsky  Juluis  Jacoby 

President  Vice  President  Financial  Secretary 

Frank  Zaidman  Abe  Bomba  Sidney  Schwartz 

Entertainment  Recording  Secretary  Treasurer 

Morris  Wolf  Morris  Offman  Harry  Klein 

Trustee  Trustee  Trustee 

Cesia  Jacoby  Miriam  Semsky 

Sunshine  Secretary  Membership 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeaoy 


327 


Mr.  Schwartz  presents 
a '*Pikuach  Nefesh*'  plaque 

to  Mr  Windman 


Members  of  the 

Czenstochover  Social  Club  of  Miami 
Dedicate  Ambulance  to  Israel 


Reprinted  from  Broward  Informer,  April  17,  1986 


The  Survivors  of  the  Czenstochover  Community  of  Poland 
have  chosen  to  donate  an  ambulance  to  the  people  of  Israel  as 
fitting  memorial  to  those  members  of  their  community  who 
perished  during  the  Holocaust. 

This  purchase  and  donation  was  preceded  by  an  extensive  fund- 
raising drive  undertaken  by  members  of  the  Czenstochover  Social 
Club  among  survivors  of  Czenstochova  from  Dade,  Broward  and 
Palm  Beach  Counties  in  Florida,  as  well  as  throughout  the  coun- 
try. The  purchase  of  this  lifesaving  gift  represents  the  fruition 
of  the  successful  and  meaningful  efforts  on  the  part  of  these  sur- 
vivors, their  friends  and  relatives. 

The  ambulance  was  recently  dedicated  at  a well-attended  gathering 
and  collation  held  at  Temple  B’nai  Zion,  200  178th  Drive  in  Miami 
Beach.  Reflecting  on  the  significance  of  this  gift  in  saving  lives 
in  Israel  were  guest  speakers,  Robert  L.  Schwartz,  Southeast 
District  Director  of  ARMDI  and  Rabbi  Jacob  Green,  spiritual 
leader  of  the  Congregation. 

The  “Pikuach  Nefesh”  Plaque  for  the  saving  of  lives  was  presented 
on  behalf  of  the  People  of  Israel  to  Wolf  Windman,  President  of 
the  Czenstochover  Social  Club  of  Greater  Miami  by  Robert  L. 
Schwartz,  District  Director. 

There  were  over  200  members  and  friends  of  the  Czenstochover 
Social  Club  present,  celebrating  the  fulfillment  of  their  efforts  in 
making  this  vital  gift  to  Israel. 

The  American  Red  Magen  David  for  Israel  (Southeast  District), 
the  sole  U.S.  support  wing  of  Magen  David  Aidom,  Israel’s  official 
emergency  medical  ambulance,  first-aid  and  blood  service  society, 
arranged  for  the  ambulance  to  be  sent  to  Israel.  They  will  also 
inform  the  members  of  the  Club  when  the  ambulance  will  arrive 
in  Israel  and  where  it  is  stationed,  so  that  members  may  visit  the 
ambulance  if  they  so  desire. 


326 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Social  and  Cultural  Activities 


BOOK  COMMITTEE  - JOINT  CHAIRPERSONS 


W.  WINDMAN 
President 


A.  BOMBA 
Recording  Secretary 


The  Czenstochover  Social  Club 
of  Miami,  Florida 

By  A.  Bomba 

The  Czenstochover  Social  Club  of  Holocaust  Survivors  of  Miami  was 
founded  in  1982,  and  the  following  people  have  been  appointed  as  the  Execu- 
tive members  of  the  Czenstochover  Social  Club  in  the  following  order: 

Wolf  Windman,  President  Joe  Oderberg,  Treasurer 

Joe  Gelber,  Secretary  David  Guterman,  Rec.  Secretary 

Julius  Jacoby,  Fin.  Secretary  Morris  Semsky,  Social  Event 

Frank  Zaidman,  Vice  President 

Board  Members:  M.  Geverts,  M.  Wolf,  M.  Orenstein,  Mrs.  M.  Semsky, 

Mrs.  C.  Jacoby. 

Activities 

Meetings  are  held  three  times  a year  - Main  event:  The  Liberation  Party  from 
the  concentration  camp  of  Czenstochova;  Purim  Party;  Chanukah  Party.  Our 
social  activities:  A donation  of  an  ambulance  to  the  State  of  Israel.  Donations 
were  also  given  to  Israel’s  Defence  Dept  (IDF),  Ben  Gurion  University  in  Baar 
Sheba,  Holocaust  documentation  centers,  ITie  Jewish  Press  “Forward”  in 
New  York,  and  visiting  sick  friend  at  home  and  in  hospitals. 

We  are  also  in  contact  with  landsleit  in  Israel,  Paris,  Australia,  Canada  and 
the  United  States. 

We  are  now  taking  part  in  a project  of  restoring  the  Jewish  Cemetery  in 
Czenstochova,  and  we  are  very  much  involved  in  the  publishing  of  a book  to 
be  written  in  English  about  our  city  of  Czenstochova  and  its  survivors,  a 
project  of  the  2nd  generation  of  Montreal,  Canada. 

A newly  appointed  committee  for  the  year  1992,  with  the  following  changes: 
M.  Semsky,  Vice  President',  Frank  Zeidman,  Social  Director,  Abram  Bomba, 
Recording  Secretary  Board  Members:  Z.  Szwartz,  M.  Offman,  Harry  Klein. 


U.S.A 


Czenstodiover 
Survivors  in 

MIAMI 


Mr  Wolf  Windman  standing  at  the 
Czenstochover  Monument  in  TrehlinkA. 


323 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  Monument  in  the  Chicago  Jewish  Cemetery 
for  the  Martyrs  of  the  Chenstochover 

and  Vicinity  Jewish  Community 
who  Perished  in  the  Holocaust 


322 


Chenstochover  Society 
of  Chicago  Officers  1989^1990 


Mr.  Daniel  Fagan  William  Zarnow  Selek  Goldberg 

Vice  President  Vice  President  Vice  President 

Financial  Secretary 


Mr.  Jos.  Fifer  Mrs.  J.  Pryor 

President  President 


Mr.  Abe  Yelen  Mrs.  Joseph  Steiner  Morris  Secemsky 

Treasurer  Recording  Secretary  Vice  President 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lefsacy 


321 


We,  the  Presidents,  Officers,  Board  of  Trustees,  and  membership 
of  the  Society,  are  Holocaust  survivors.  Our  common  bonds  and 
common  experiences  have  given  us  great  resolve  in  our  efforts. 
We  have  lived  to  see  the  rebirth,  establishment  and  growth  of  the 
State  of  Israel,  which  was  only  a dream  to  our  forefathers  for  so 
many  generations.  We  are  very  proud  of  Israel,  our  homeland, 
which  is  a reservoir  of  talent,  strength,  and  hope  brought  forth. 
Fbr  us,  for  our  children  and  for  our  generations  to  come,  “No  More 
Wandering”. 

Barbara  Pryor  and  Joe  Fifer 
Presidents, 

Midwest  Chenstocbover  Society 


Standing,  from  left  to  right:  Selek  Goldberg,  Abe  Yelen,  Sara  Yelen, 
William  21arnow,  Daniel  Pagan  and  Moms  Secemsky 
Seated,  from  left  to  right:  Sylvia  Goldberg,  Sima  Steiner,  Barbara  Pryor 
and  Joseph  Fifer. 


320 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesley 


The  Midwest 
Chenstochover  Society 

Chicago,  Illinois 
A not-for-profit  organization 

The  Midwest  Chenstochover  Society  has  been  recognized  as 
an  outstanding  organization  in  the  Chicago-land  area.  We  are  well 
known  in  the  Jewish  community  for  our  activities  and 
accomplishments. 

The  history  of  our  organization  begins  in  1927,  when  a group  of 
Chenstochover  landsleit  founded  the  Chenstochover  Educa- 
tional Society.  They  came  together  to  raise  funds  and  support  the 
Kinderheim,  as  well  as  a home  for  the  aged  and  other  needs  of 
the  Jewish  community  in  their  old  home  town,  Chenstochova, 
Poland.  The  Society  continued  its  good  work  until  frustrated  by 
the  Holocaust. 

Fbllowing  the  war,  there  was  a substantial  influx  of  survivors  from 
Chenstochova  and  other  nearby  areas  of  Poland  to  the  Chicago- 
land  region.  Our  organization  grew  and  flourished,  with  new  pur- 
pose and  resolve.  We  became  the  Midwest  Chenstochover  Society, 
and  our  focus  has  continually  been  on  charitable  efforts  and 
support  for  the  Jewish  community,  the  Jewish  People,  and  the 
State  of  Israel. 

Our  program  includes  regular  and  substantial  fundraising  efforts 
for  Magen  David  Adorn,  the  Jewish  United  Fund,  Israel  Bonds, 
and  other  Jewish  charities  and  causes.  We  have  donated  a fully- 
equipped  ambulance  to  Magen  David  Adorn,  and  in  1967,  we  built 
a First  Aid  Station  located  in  Dimona,  Israel,  which  we  support 
and  maintain  to  this  day.  We  have  built  a monument  for  our  mar- 
tyrs from  Chenstochova  at  the  Waldheim  Jewish  Cemetery  in 
Chicago,  in  honor  and  commemoration  of  their  lives  and  the 
liberation  of  our  People  from  the  Nazi  concentration  camps.  Our 
response  to  and  support  for  the  State  of  Israel  has  been  continual 
and  constant,  and  not  limited  to  times  of  emergency. 


U.S.A 


Gzenstochover  Survivors 
in  Chicago 

Social  and  Cultural  Activities 


BOOK  COMMITTEE  - JOINT  CHAIRPERSONS 


JOS.  FIFER 
President 


MRS.  J.  PRYOR 
President 


BOOK  COMMITTEE  MEMBERS 


(From  the  right) 

Daniel  Pagan,  Jack  Bowitz,  Abe  Yelen,  Selek  Goldberg 


IN  ETERNAL  MEMORY 

Of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  Community’s  victims  of  Nazi  tyran- 
ny, erected  by  the  Holocaust  Survivors  in  New  York  at  the  Beth 
David  Cemetery. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our 


317 


to  taste?  Where  is  my  one-room  “apartment”  in  the  basement? 
Where  are  the  pear  trees  and  the  lilacs  that  once  grew  in  our  yard? 
Where  are  my  playmates  with  whom  I played  in  Ferdlach,  Matke 
and  soccer?  Everything,  everything  is  gone ! Nothing  left  but 
decay  and  ruin. 

Where  are  the  happy  couples  in  the  “Alleyes”,  walking  hand  in 
hand  to  Pazderskis  clock  and  back?  So  in  love  and  full  of  hope 
for  the  future.  Where  are  the  beautiful  store  windows,  where  we 
used  to  stop  and  admire  the  displays?  Left  are  empty  eye-sores. 

I looked  at  the  Warta,  our  Jewish  river.  In  summertime,  Jewish 
children  used  to  wade  in  her  cooling  waters  to  escape  the  heat. 
There  is  nothing  left  of  our  beloved  river.  Just  a narrow  little 
stream,  as  if  she  has  cried  out  her  water- tears  after  her  Jewish 
children,  who  are  no  more.  The  Warta  is  dying  of  a broken  heart, 
and  so  is  the  city  of  my  youth. 

The  next  day,  I left  Czenstochova,  never  to  return  again. 


Czenstochover  Book  Committee  members  at  the 

50th  Wedding  Anniversary  of  Miriam  and  Morris  Semsky 

in  Miami,  March  1998. 


Miriam  and  Morris  Semsky  celebrating  their  50th  Wedding  Anniversary 
among  their  guests,  Eva  and  Harry  Klein,  March  1993.  The  Semskys 
are  active  in  the  preparation  of  this  book. 


316 


CZENSTQCHOV  ~ Our  jLegacy 


vided  for  a decent  education  of  the  children,  but  also  helped  pro- 
vide a warm  and  healthy  environment.  In  a desert  of  disease  and 
poverty,  many  a child  was  spared  the  ravages  of  typhus,  diph- 
theria, scarlet  fever  and  rickets,  so  prevalent  in  the  homes  of  the 
poor  working  people  of  Czenstochova.  It  is  said,  “He  who  saves 
one  life,  is  as  if  he  saved  the  world”.  The  Czenstochover  Young 
Men  and  the  Czenstochover  Relief  Committee  saved  the  lives  of 
Jewish  children.  Of  all  their  great  achievements,  this  is  the 
greatest. 

This  noble  work  went  on  until  the  fateful  year  1929.  The  year  of 
the  great  depression  that  hit  America.  The  members  of  our  two 
organizations  became  themselves  impoverished.  Many  lost  their 
jobs  and  became  recipients  of  government  relief.  The  help  from 
America  had  stopped,  and  little  by  little,  the  Great  Folkshul 
shrank.  The  classrooms  became  dark  and  grim  reminders  of  a 
glorious  past.  Attendance  grew  smaller  but  the  administrators 
and  the  teachers  did  not  give  up.  With  superhuman  efforts,  they 
kept  the  school  going,  albeit  in  a diminished  format.  The  school 
limped  along  until  the  terrible  year  of  1939.  The  Nazi  murderers 
did  not  spare  our  beloved  school,  and  it  shared  the  fate  of  the 
Jewish  people.  A bright  star  on  the  firmament  of  Yiddish  culture 
shines  no  more.  Just  a few  of  us  are  left,  old  men  and  women  left 
in  various  corners  of  the  world  to  recall  its  glory.  Soon  there  will 
be  silence. 

Rest  in  peace  Lerern  Feigele,  Lerern  Vagele,  Lerern  Rivkele, 
Lerern  Tsine,  Lerern  Weisenberg,  Lerern  Zabludowska,  Lerern 
Zorska,  Lerer  Zaks,  Lerer  Tabachnik,  Lerer  Kaplan,  Lerer 
Melman,  Lerer  Datner,  Lerer  Willenberg.  You  will  never  be 
forgotten. 

Epilogue 

I was  in  Czenstochova,  my  home  town,  this  year  of  1988,  the 
hundredth  anniversary  of  my  Society  and  the  birth  of  my  father. 
As  I got  off  the  train,  I was  on  Pilsudski  street,  the  street  where 
I was  born  and  raised.  A deep  sadness  overcame  me  as  I looked 
- where  is  my  street?  Through  tears,  I saw  decay  and  emptiness, 
neglected  houses,  darkness  where  once  there  was  light.  Where 
is  the  happy  noise  of  Jewish  children  playing?  Where  are  stores 
lining  the  street?  Where  is  Wigotski’s  store  where  my  mother  us- 
ed to  buy  her  groceries.  (He  used  to  charge  next  to  nothing,  his 
way  of  helping  a poor  family.) 

Where  are  the  crowds  walking  into  the  meeting  hall  of  the 
“Bund”?  Where  is  the  Gordonia  and  the  Bethar?  Where  is  my 
boss,  Mr.  Weisblum,  Reb  Israel  who  blessed  me  on  the  day  I left 
for  America?  Where  is  Mrs.  Weisblum,  who,  every  Friday  at  noon, 
brought  down  into  the  factory,  a plate  of  the  Sabbath  soup  for  me 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legate 


315 


So  the  Jewish  working  people  began  building  schools  for  their 
children.  Schools  in  which  every  subject  would  be  taught  in 
Yiddish,  a language  they  spoke  and  loved.  But  this  seemed  an 
almost  impK)ssible  task.  The  Polish  authorities  refused  all  finan- 
cial help,  and  so  did  the  Jewish  Community  authorities  (Gmineh), 
albeit  for  different  reasons.  Again  the  eyes  of  the  Jewish  poor 
turned  to  America,  and  the  eyes  of  the  poor  of  our  home  town  turn- 
ed to  New  York  - to  the  Czenstochover  Young  Men’s  and  Relief 
Committee,  and  they  were  not  found  wanting.  A delegation  of 
members  of  both  our  organizations  went  to  Czenstochova  to  find 
a suitable  site,  and  start  building.  Members  of  the  Czenstochover 
Young  Men’s  and  Relief  Committee  set  aside  part  of  their  meager 
earnings  for  this  all-important  undertaking. 

And  the  building  grew  and  grew,  and  was  finished.  It  was  a 
building  such  as  a child  of  the  ghetto  had  never  seen.  Fbr  them, 
raised  in  one-room  dwellings  or  dark  basements,  on  streets 
without  trees  and  flowers,  the  Fblkschool  on  Krutka  street 
number  23  was  a revelation.  The  yard  was  roomy  and  airy.  Color- 
ful peonies,  crocuses  and  pansies  planted  all  around,  beautified 
the  yard.  In  the  back  of  the  yard,  a small  garden  exuded  pleasant 
aromas  of  green  trees  and  shrubs.  The  children  played  there  all 
day,  and  their  pale  faces  took  on  color.  Their  weak  lungs  gained 
strength.  Their  rachitic  legs  began  to  straighten  and  a new  Jewish 
child  was  born  — a happy,  healthy  and  bright-eyed  youngster,  such 
as  the  street  of  the  River  and  the  street  of  the  Potters  have  never 
seen. 

The  school  had  three  stories  of  large  and  bright  classrooms. 
Teachers  were  brought  in  from  such  far-away  cities  as  Grodno, 
Wilno  and  Bialystok.  The  teachers  spoke  in  the  beautiful  cadences 
of  Lithuanian  Yiddish,  never  heard  in  our  environment.  We  listen- 
ed in  awe  and  admiration  to  these  wonderful,  courageous  and 
devoted  people,  who  started  teaching  such  subjects,  never  heard 
by  man  or  beast,  as  Yiddish  grammar,  physics,  chemistry,  geo- 
graphy, literature,  arithmetic  and  art.  The  parents  were  p)Oor,  and 
they  seldom,  if  ever,  paid  the  tuition.  Paid  or  not,  these  teachers 
stayed  on  their  jobs.  More  often  than  not,  coming  to  class  hungry. 
(I  remember  once,  in  the  laboratory,  we  were  boiling  a fish  to 
detach  the  skeleton,  which  we  were  studying  at  the  time.  I wat- 
ched the  teacher  as  he  ate  the  discarded  flesh  of  the  fish.) 

During  all  this  time,  the  Czenstochover  Young  Men’s  and  Relief 
Committee  kept  the  school  going.  Beside  money,  there  was  Nes- 
tle milk  for  a cup  of  hot  cocoa,  warm  fluffy  underwear  for  the  cold 
Polish  winter,  and  shoes ! Oh  those  beautiful  American  shoes,  the 
dream  of  every  Jewish  child  in  the  ghetto. 

I am  deeply  convinced  that  these  tremendous  efforts  of  the 
Czenstochover  Young  Men’s  and  Relief  Committee  not  only  pro- 


314 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


and  pointed  with  his  finger,  “There ! There  he  is.”,  and  turned  back 
into  Crotona  Park.  I looked  with  bewilderment  at  the  man  my 
uncle  had  pointed  out.  It  was  August  1939,  and  New  York  was  in 
the  throes  of  the  biggest  heat-wave  in  years.  The  street  was  baking 
in  the  torrid  sun.  And  there  was  this  little  man,  pushing  a tall 
barrel,  mounted  on  two  wheels.  At  the  side  of  the  barrel  were 
affixed  a tall  broom  and  a dust-pan.  I watched  Mr.  Banoff  as  he 
wearily  pushed  the  barrel.  Occasionally  he  stopped,  took  off  the 
broom  and  pan,  and  started  to  sweep  up  little  piles  of  dirt,  which 
he  dumped  into  the  barrel.  And  so  he  pushed  his  burden,  so  small 
and  bent,  sweat  washing  his  sunburned  face.  I did  not  move 
forward.  I did  not  want  to  shame  this  man.  Through  eyes  clouded 
with  tears,  I watched  him  turn  into  Bathgate  avenue.  I never  spoke 
to  him  of  his  grateful  brother.  Perhaps  it  was  just  as  well.  Hitler 
came  and  it  didn’t  matter  anymore.  Nothing  mattered  anymore. 
I still  weep  silently  for  Mr.  Banoff  and  my  shattered  dream  of  the 
golden  land. 

The  years  passed  and  the  “Czenstochover  Young  Men”  kept 
growing.  Despite  restrictive  immigration  quotas,  there  was  a con- 
tinuous flow  of  emigration  from  our  home  town,  enough  to  replen- 
ish the  ranks  of  our  organization.  The  membership  grew  and  so 
did  the  scope  of  its  activities.  Cemetery  plots  were  purchased,  to 
extend  the  desire  for  togetherness  even  beyond  the  grave.  And 
laws  were  established  to  use  these  cemeteries  according  to  our 
faith. 

Extreme  poverty  became  a way  of  life  in  our  home  town,  and  our 
people  there  turned  their  hungry  eyes  to  America.  The  Czensto- 
chover Young  Men  did  not  fail  them:  help,  in  all  forms,  kept  on 
flowing  to  the  people  we  left  behind  in  our  Old  Home.  It  was  a 
sacrifice  for  many  a member.  Prosperity  has  not  yet  arrived  in 
America. 

With  the  enlightenment  of  the  Jewish  people,  there  arose  a great 
need  to  educate  the  children  of  the  Jewish  poor.  Compulsory 
education  was  still  a thing  of  the  future.  Only  the  rich  had  their 
religious  and  secular  institutions  of  learning,  privately  admi- 
nistered and  funded.  A poor  Jewish  child  had  not  a chance  to  enter 
such  a school.  (My  own  parents  could  never  read  nor  write.) 

For  a thousand  years,  Jews  spoke  Yiddish,  derided  by  its  antago- 
nists and  enemies  as  a worthless  jargon.  (Cecil  Roth,  in  his 
“History  of  the  Jews”,  devotes  about  three  paragraphs  to  the 
Jewish  language.)  The  Jewish  masses  kept  on  speaking  it  in  ever 
increasing  numbers.  Jewish  literature  came  into  full  bloom,  with 
the  appearance  of  Mendele  Mosher  Sphorim,  Sholem  Aleichem, 
Peretz  and  others,  who  wrote  in  Yiddish.  The  creation  of  a Yiddish 
school  system  became  imperative. 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  I^jgacy 


313 


* 'Tribes  of  the  wandering  and  weary  breast. 

How  shall  ye  flee  away  and  be  at  rest ! 

The  wild  dove  hath  her  nest,  the  Fbx  his  cave. 

Mankind  their  country  — Israel  but  the  grave.** 

Who  was  this  Hershl  Grynszpan?  Who  was  this  Hershl 
Grynszpan,  this  child  of  the  ghetto,  this  eighteen-year-old  boy 
with  the  curly  earlocks  and  long  kapoteh?  By  what  magic  of  erudi- 
tion and  inborn  intelligence  did  he  turn  away  from  the  pages  of 
the  Talmud  to  cast  his  eye  to  the  verses  of  Lord  Byron?  Tb  remind 
me,  the  blessed  one,  who  was  going  to  America:  Do  not  forget  my 
friend,  you  are  going  to  the  “Goldeneh  Medineh”.  But  we  are  still, 
all  of  us,  in  exile. 

In  1888,  the  eighteen  men  of  Czenstochova  founded  our  Society. 
The  founding  of  the  Society  was  an  inevitable  result,  given  the 
devotion  of  the  Czenstochover  to  their  families  and  friends  in  the 
“Old  Home”  and  to  their  Landsleit  in  New  York.  Their  aim  was 
to  keep  in  contact  by  having  regular  meetings,  help  one  another 
financially,  and  help  the  people  they  left  behind.  (Acquisition  of 
cemetery  plots  came  later.) 

The  beginnings  were  modest:  there  was  a ten-cents-a-week 
membership  tax.  But,  so  were  the  founders  — no  arrogant  intellec- 
tuals, no  people  of  property  or  wealth.  Just  simple  working  people, 
imbued  with  the  high  ideals  of  the  Jewish  working  class,  and  to 
help  one’s  brother,  here,  and  in  the  old  home,  when  in  fact,  none 
of  them  could  truly  afford  it. 

Before  one  emigrated  to  America,  it  was  customary  to  visit  friends 
and  kin  in  their  houses  to  say  good-bye,  and  collect  addresses  of 
their  kin  in  New  York.  When  one  arrived  in  New  York,  one  looked 
them  up  and  gave  regards. 

On  the  street  of  the  butchers,  lived  a poor  seller  of  thread.  When 
I was  a boy  of  fifteen  and  apprenticed  to  a tailor,  my  boss  used 
to  send  me  there  to  buy  thread,  making  sure  that  I took  along 
some  empty  spools  on  which  to  wind  the  thread.  I went  to  say 
good-bye  to  this  man.  Before  I left,  he  gave  me  the  address  of  his 
brother  in  the  Bronx,  with  the  words:  “My  brother’s  name  there 
is  Abe  Banof  f . But  you  know,  when  he  was  still  here,  he  was  Avrom 
Pacanowski.  Amerike  Gannef ! My  brother  must  be  now  in  ‘di 
hoyche  fenster’  in  America.  Thank  my  brother  for  the  money  he 
sends,  and  tell  him  that  without  his  help,  I would  be  out  of 
business.” 

When  I arrived  in  the  Bronx,  I asked  my  uncle  to  take  me  to  Mr. 
Banof f.  “I  can’t  take  you  to  Mr.  Banof f’s  house”,  said  my  uncle. 
“He  lives  too  far,  but  I will  take  you  to  his  place  of  work.”  We 
crossed  Crotona  Park  and  came  to  Pulton  street.  My  uncle  stopped 


312 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  streets  of  the  ghetto  were  narrow  and  mostly  unpaved,  with 
deep  mud  in  summer  and  deeper  snow  in  the  winter.  Crooked  lit- 
tle houses  lined  both  sides  of  the  street.  The  little  houses  were 
old  and  bent  to  the  ground,  as  if  in  prayer.  Somehow,  these  little 
houses  never  fell.  They  stood  old  and  proud  even  when  hordes  of 
soldiers  from  the  nearby  camp  invaded  the  streets  of  the  ghetto 
during  a pogrom.  The  soldiers  pushed  their  bayonets  into  little 
Jewish  windows,  and  hacked  away  at  the  houses.  The  little,  old 
houses  held  - the  houses  and  the  Jews:  both  stubborn  — both 
surviving. 

As  time  passed  by,  the  Jewish  population  kept  growing.  Fed  by 
an  increasing  stream  of  Jews  wandering  in  from  the  little  villages 
and  townships  that  surrounded  Czenstochova,  villages  and 
townships  with  the  most  wondrous  Jewish  names:  Vloin,  Dzurik, 
Klobuck  Ovepole,  Meriv  and  many  others.  The  incoming  Jews 
pressed  hard  against  the  ghetto  walls  into  adjoining  streets.  From 
River  street,  from  Potters  street  and  the  Street  of  the  Goats,  they 
flowed  into  the  Warsaw,  Kracow  and  Garden  streets.  And,  to  the 
street  named  after  Marshall  Pilsudski,  the  great  friend  of  the 
Jews. 

Czenstochova  blossomed  with  the  vitality  of  Jewish  life  of  culture, 
industry  and  commerce.  There  were  a hundred  little  houses  of 
prayer,  and  two  synagogues.  From  the  yeshivos  and  houses  of 
study  could  be  heard  the  chanting  of  the  Talmud:  the  sweet  songs 
of  the  ages.  The  Jewish  people  of  our  town  lived  in  peace,  observed 
their  holidays  and  the  holy  Sabbath.  The  streets  of  the  ghetto 
smelled  of  fresh-baked  challah  and  rye  bread.  Early  Friday  mor- 
nings, the  fishers  pulled  out  of  the  river  the  heavy  wooden  crates, 
full  of  live  carp,  pike  and  perch,  to  sell  to  Jewish  women  for  the 
adornment  of  the  Sabbath  table.  A sweet  sound  could  be  heard 
in  the  streets  of  the  ghetto:  the  ringing  of  brass  on  brass,  as  the 
women  were  pounding  pestle  on  mortar  to  crush  the  cinnamon 
and  vanilla  sticks  for  the  Sabbath  cakes  and  pies. 

On  the  Sabbath  morning,  a holy  silence  descended  on  the  streets 
of  the  ghetto.  The  Sabbath  was  queen.  A queen  to  all.  To  the  old 
and  the  young,  the  rich  and  the  poor.  The  Sabbath  was  universal 
and  eternal. 

I have  a little  memory-book,  such  as  one  used  to  buy  before  “Going 
to  America”.  A little  book  with  covers  of  wood,  on  which  there  was 
usually  a carving  of  a Polish  mountaineer.  In  this  little  book, 
friends  and  relatives  inscribed  expressions  of  love,  good  wishes 
and  farewells,  with  little  poems  and  proverbs,  imploring  at  the 
same  time:  “When  you  cross  the  great  sea,  do  not  let  the  water 
wash  away  your  memory.  Remember  us,  and  help  us !”  In  this 
book,  it  was  my  friend,  Hershl  Grynszpan,  who  penned  these 
lines: 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


311 


One  Hundred  Years  of 
Czenstochover  Young  Men 

REFLECTIONS.  ... 

By  Kopel  Lederman 

This  year,  1988,  we  are  celebrating  the  100th  anniversary  of 
the  Czenstochover  Young  Men.  A whole  century  has  passed,  since 
a small  group  of  eighteen  young  Jewish  men,  former  inhabitants 
of  a small  town  in  the  south-west  of  Poland  called  Czestochova, 
gathered  at  the  corner  of  Delancey  and  Norfolk  streets,  all  recent 
arrivals  to  the  teeming  lower  east  side  of  New  York.  They  gathered 
to  talk  of  their  hard  life  here,  in  this  Golden  Land.  Of  the  airless 
and  sunless  environment  in  the  crowded  tenements.  Of  the  ter- 
rible conditions  in  the  dark  and  dank  sweatshops,  where  one 
spent  the  hours  of  daylight  hunched  over  the  sewing  machine, 
pumping  the  foot  pedal  ever  faster  and  faster,  to  bring  home  the 
two  or  three  dollars  a week  to  feed  wife  and  children. 

Yes ! Life  was  hard,  and  the  foreman  in  the  sweatshop  was 
ruthless  in  his  demands:  “Paster ! Paster,  Greenhorn,  or  you  will 
wind  up  in  the  street !“  But  when  these  eighteen  young  men  came 
together  after  a days’  work  at  the  corner  of  Delancey  and  Nor- 
folk, their  talk  was  cheerful  and  their  hopes  high:  “We  will  make 
it  in  this  America,  and  if  we  will  not  make  it,  our  children  will. 
America  is  free  for  all.  With  G— d’s  help,  we  will  get  our  children 
out  of  the  tenements  and  sweatshops.’’ 

Eighteen  means  life.  And  so  did  these  eighteen  young  tailors, 
cigar  makers,  peddlers  and  street  cleaners,  dream  of  a better  life. 
And  they  talked  of  their  home  town. 

Czenstochova  was  a town  young  immigrants  could  not  easily 
forget.  The  town  was  beautiful,  with  that  quiet  beauty  of  the 
Pohsh  countryside.  Three  wide  boulevards,  lined  with  stately 
houses  and  elegant  store-fronts,  shaded  by  great  chestnut  trees, 
where  every  autumn  Jewish  children  came  to  gather  chestnuts 
to  decorate  the  Succot  booths.  Then  came  the  new  and  the  old 
markets  leading  into  the  ghetto,  nestled  along  our  beloved  river: 
The  Warta. 


310 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


The  Officers  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  and  Relief  Committee 
in  New  York  are  (as  in  July  1992): 

President  Murray  Mruvka 

Vice  President  Morry  Markuse 

Treasurer Stefa  Markuse 

Financial  Secretary Esther  Lederman 

Recording  Secretary Kopel  Lederman 

Trustee  Hyman  Rotenstein 

Trustee  Rubin  Hersch 

Trustee Walter  Lublinski 

Cemetry  Chairman Louis  Lazarovitch 

Cemetery  Chairman Leon  Gongola 

Entertainment  Chairman Zev  Silbergleith 

Our  Society  is  one  of  the  oldest  Benevolent  Societies  in  the  United 
States.  The  so-called  “Landsmanshaftn”  were  founded  mostly  by 
immigrants  from  Eastern  Europe  in  order  to  help  the  new  immi- 
grant members  to  acclimatize  themselves  in  this  “New  Golden 
Land”. 


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Conference  held  in  Detroit  of  the  Central  Executive  of  the 
Czenstochover  Landsmnshaften  in  the  U.S.A.  and  Canada. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Le/gacy 


fateful  day,  when  the  Nazi  hordes  took  our  Home  Town,  razed  it 
to  the  ground  and  murdered  our  people.  There  was  nobody  left 
for  us  to  help. 

Today  our  Society  has  taken  on  a new  look  and  agenda  of  philan- 
thropic activities.  Most  of  our  members  now  are  holocaust  sur- 
vivors. Most  of  the  charities  and  contributions  are  directed  to  the 
State  of  Israel  in  many  forms:  Israel  Bonds,  Defense  Forces, 
Magen  David  Adorn,  Disabled  Soldiers,  Library  and  Kindergarten. 
The  Kindergarten  in  Qfar  Saba  was  funded  by  our  Society.  At  this 
time,  to  do  justice  to  history,  I cannot  fail  to  note  that  our 
members,  Anne  and  Jack  Kremski,  have  on  their  own  accord  and 
with  their  own  funds,  built  a fine  park  for  children  in  the  city  of 
Tel  Aviv.  Contributions  are  also  made  to  local  Jewish  organiza- 
tions and  individuals  (U.  J.A.  and  others). 

Ours  is  an  aging  membership.  For  generations  our  Society  replen- 
ished it’s  waning  membership  from  a small  but  steady  flow  of 
immigrants  from  our  Home  Town.  Today,  there  is  only  the  silence 
of  death  and  desolation  in  Jewish  Czenstochova. 

For  years  our  Society  has  made  efforts  to  induce  the  children  of 
our  members,  the  so-called  Second  Generation,  to  join  our  ranks 
in  The  Society,  but  except  for  a few,  we  have  failed.  The  blame  can’t 
be  fixed  on  anyone.  It  is  more  the  fault  of  the  conditions  that  now 
prevail  in  the  Jewish  communities  in  America,  and  the  flight  of 
the  Jews  to  the  suburbs  and  the  Florida  sun. 

Some  of  us  still  cling  to  our  beliefs  and  to  old  friends,  the  “Last 
of  the  Mohicans’’.  How  we  wish  for  someone  to  pick  up  the  reins  ! 


Conference  of  Czenstochovers  living  in  the  United  States  and  Canada 
prior  to  World  War  II. 


308 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lee&cy 


Gzenstochover  Society  and 
Relief  Committee  in  New  York, 

Then  and  Now 

By  Kopel  Lederman 

Our  Society  is  one  op  the  oldest  Benevolent  Societies  in  the 
United  States.  The  so-called  “Landsmanshaftn”,  founded  mostly 
by  immigrants  from  Eastern  Europe  — in  order  to 

— help  the  new  immigrant  members  to  acclimatize  themselves  in 
this  “New  Gk^lden  Land”; 

— to  lend  the  members  in  need  some  money; 

— buy  cemetery  plots  for  “Yber  hundert  un  tzvantzik”; 

— and  call  weekly  or  monthly  meetings,  so  as  not  to  lose  contact 
with  the  old  dear  friends  from  the  same  home  town,  the  beloved 
“Alte  Heim”, 

Our  Society  was  founded  in  1888.  In  the  beginning  the  member- 
ship was  poor.  They  worked  long  hours  in  the  sweat-shops,  for 
three  dollars  a week.  They  lived  a misrable  life  in  the  steaming 
tenements  of  the  lower  east  side;  but  they  never  forgot  their  Home 
Town  and  the  terrible  poverty  of  the  people  they  left  behind.  Poor 
themselves,  they  kept  on  sending  continuous  help  to  their  Home 
Town:  Matzos  for  Passover  and  help  for  other  Holidays.  They  sent 
booties  and  warm  underwear  for  children  and  practically  saved 
their  lives  in  the  cold,  dark  Pblish  winters.  But  the  greatest 
achievement  of  “Gzenstochover  Young  Men”,  (former  name  of  the 
Society)  was  the  building  of  The  Yiddish  Fblk  School  in  Czensto- 
chova.  It  was  a three-story  building,  the  most  beautiful  of  all  the 
elementary  schools  in  Czenstochova.  In  this  school,  where  all  the 
subjects  were  taught  in  Yiddish,  the  child  of  the  poorest  of  the 
poor  came  for  an  education  and  found  a warm  home  and  modern 
teaching,  from  A.B.C.  to  algebra.  I am  proud  to  say  that  I attend- 
ed and  graduated  from  this  wonderful  school,  and  will  be  grateful 
to  the  end  of  my  days  to  the  devoted  teachers,  who  taught  me  right 
from  wrong,  and  to  The  Gzenstochover  Society  which  built  the 
school.  This  great  work  of  charity  went  on  unabated  until  that 


VIII 

U.S.A. 


Czenstochover  Community 
of  New  York 


Social  and  Cultural  Activities 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


With  the  coming  of  Purim  1943,  which  symbolizes  victory  of  the 
Jews  over  their  enemies,  the  Germans  did  not  hestitate  to  take 
revenge  for  their  victory.  They  devised  a scheme  to  fool  the 
remaining  intelligentsia,  promising  them  that  the  Third  Reich 
had  negotiated  an  agreement  with  the  International  Red  Cross 
permitting  their  resettlement  in  Palestine.  Doctors,  engineers, 
lawyers  and  bookkeepers  presented  themselves,  including  the 
president  of  the  Jewish  Community  Council,  Morris  Kopinsky 
and  family.  TEu:paulin  covered  trucks,  marked  with  the  Red  Cross 
were  provided  for  transport.  Instead  of  Palestine,  they  were  taken 
to  the  Jewish  cemetery,  where  gendarmes  with  machine  guns  and 
opened  graves  awaited  them.  Only  one  person  survived,  Kopin- 
sky’s  son,  who  jumped  from  a truck. 

The  Jewish  underground  carried  out  a death  sentence  on  two 
traitors.  They  were  read  their  sentences  and  were  executed  on  the 
sp)Ot.  The  sentences  were  placed  in  a bottle  and  buried  with  the 
two  traitors  in  the  Talmud  Torah  building. 

As  the  result  of  the  treachery,  preparations  for  the  Jewish  uprising 
did  not  come  to  fruitation.  The  houses  in  which  the  arsenal  was 
stored,  together  with  their  heroic  occupants  were  dynamited  by 
the  Germans.  The  street  where  this  uprising  was  being  prepared 
was  Nadrzeczna  Ulica. 

Czenstochova,  before  the  war,  had  a Jewish  population  of  between 
thirty-six  and  thirty-seven  thousand,  with  a vibrant,  well  organiz- 
ed Jewish  community.  The  Community  Council  (“Gemine”)  con- 
ducted democratic  elections  for  Council  Members  (“Dozers”)  and 
President  of  the  Council.  The  council  was  concerned  with  the 
welfare  and  health  of  the  Jewish  populace  and  clergy.  It  supported 
the  Jewish  hospital  and  orphanage  as  well  as  providing  financial 
support  for  the  indigent.  We  also  had  branches  of  organized 
political  parties  and  factions;  professional  organizations  and 
unions;  and  an  organized  workers’  movement;  sport  clubs;  a 
music  club  with  its  own  orchestra  (LIRA);  a health  clinic  (TOZ); 
as  well  as  Yeshivas  and  Rabbis.  And  all  of  us  present  were  part 
of  Jewish  Czenstochova  of  which  we  are  proud. 

Dear  friends,  in  memory  of  Jewish  Czenstochova  we  gather 
together  to  have  this  Yizkor.  With  bowed  heads  and  in  deep 
sadness,  we  pay  our  respects  to  our  martyrs,  holy  ones  and  their 
families  and  do  honour  to  their  memory. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leg^acy 


tration  camps.  The  accommodations  and  working  conditions  are 
well  known  to  you.  I believe  you  remember  the  deprivation  of  civil 
liberties  and  the  degradation  to  this  day. 

Those  persons  who  presented  themselves  to  the  First  Aleja 
gathering  point  were  herded  to  loading  ramps  and  loaded  like  cat- 
tle into  barred  cattle  cars  without  water,  sanitary  facilities  and 
without  seating,  locked  up  and  sent  to  Treblinka.  Those  who 
passed  out,  were  exhausted  or  died  en  route  were  unloaded.  What 
awaited  our  dear  ones?  You  and  I know  well . . . gas  and  crematoria. 

The  coldblooded  monsters  had  established  different  work  details. 
One  detail  emptied  the  abandoned  housing  and  apartments  of  all 
possessions  and  goods  of  the  departed  Jews.  The  Gtermans  con- 
verted the  residences  on  Garibaldi  Street  into  warehouses  and  the 
remaining  Jews  sorted,  packed  and  shipped  the  goods  to  Germany. 
In  the  abandoned  houses,  the  Germans  discovered  hidden  Jews 
in  make-shift  bunkers.  The  terrified  souls  they  uncovered  were 
shot  on  the  spot. 

Massive  executions  were  carried  out  on  the  site  of  the  destroyed 
Grerman  Synagogue.  Amongst  those  shot  at  this  location  were  the 
Cantor  Rishel  and  his  family. 

At  the  intersection  of  Krutka  and  Waty  Streets  was  another 
execution  place.  Amongst  the  murdered  was  my  father,  Josef 
Shaje  Wajsberg,  bless  his  soul.  The  murderers  chose  men  as  a 
“transport  kommando”  to  collect  the  bodies  and  transport  them 
to  a previously  prepared  open  mass  grave  at  Kawa  Street. 

It’s  worth  to  recall,  that  a member  of  the  Jewish  underground 
(resistance),  Fishlewicz  from  Radomsk,  attempted  to  shoot 
Hauptmann  (Captain)  Rohn  during  a selection  at  Rynek  Warszaw- 
ski.  However,  his  pistol,  purchased  from  Polish  underground 
sources,  the  “A.K.”  (Armia  ELrajowa),  failed  to  work.  He  and  every 
tenth  person  at  the  selection  were  shot  in  reprisal.  Amongst  those 
shot  was  an  old  member  of  the  Bund,  Harshel  Friman,  a noted 
achiever  for  the  Jewish  working  class.  Another  heroic  event  oc- 
curred at  Rakow  Railroad:  The  Jewish  underground  blew  up  a 
fully  loaded  troop  train  en  route  to  the  Eastern  Front.  In  reprisal, 
the  Germans  took  every  tenth  person  of  the  kommando  at  Ost- 
Bahnhof  and  Rakow  and  shot  them.  Among  them  was  my  com- 
rade, Icek  Dorenfeld. 

On  the  5th  of  January  1943,  the  remaining  working  men  of  the 
small  ghetto,  performing  what  was  known  as  the  useful  or  needed 
occupations  and  their  women  and  small  children  were  gathered 
by  the  Germans  and  sent  to  Radomsko.  Together  with  the  Ra- 
domsk women  and  children  there  were  sufficient  persons  to  make 
up  a full  transport  to  Treblinka.  This  was  the  last  transport  from 
Czenstochova  to  Treblinka. 


304 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leffaqy 


A Yizkor  Speech 

to  the  Second  Generation 

By  Benjamin  Waisberg 

A History  OF  the  Jews  by  Solomon  Grayzel  is  considered  to  be 
one  of  the  best  books  on  Jewish  history,  comprising  760  pages. 
Only  one  half  page  is  devoted  to  the  hquidation  of  European  Jewry. 
Imagine,  how  future  historians  will  deal  with  the  Holocaust’s 
obliteration  (or  annihilation)  of  six  million  Jews ! I appeal  to  you 
esteemed  landsleit,  to  pass  on  to  your  children  your  survival 
experiences  of  the  war  years  as  a testament  to  them,  so  that  the 
innocent  blood  of  our  mothers,  fathers,  sisters,  brothers,  and 
children  should  not  be  forgotten. 

Dear  friends,  how  can  we  be  at  this  Yizkor  and  not  go  back  in 
thought,  to  the  Yom  Kippur  of  1942?  Our  fathers  and  mothers 
were  in  holy  places  fasting  and  praying  for  a good  year  to  come. 
However,  like  lightning  and  thunder,  the  news  spread  that  Son- 
derkommandos,  hooligans  in  black  uniforms,  had  encircled  and 
blockaded  the  ghetto.  We  felt  as  if  our  chests  were  in  a vice  and 
we  choked  as  if  a black  cloud  was  suspended  in  the  air.  We  asked 
ourselves  where  to  flee  and  to  whom.  However,  we  Jews  had  no 
friends  outside  the  ghetto. 

By  night  the  Jewish  police  notified  us  to  be  prepared  for  resettle- 
ment (repatriation)  and  to  take  with  us  twenty  kilograms  of 
clothing  and  food  for  a two  day  journey.  At  six  o’clock  in  the  mor- 
ning came  the  second  order:  those  Jews  who  have  work  permits 
should  register  at  the  “Metalurgia”.  Those  without  work  permits 
must  present  themselves  at  the  First  Aleja  and  be  prepared  for 
a two  day  journey.  At  the  “Metalurgia”  we  were  welcomed  with 
batons;  we  were  herded  and  beaten  and  our  work  permits  were 
confiscated  and  destroyed.  Those  arrivals  at  the  “Metalurgia”  who 
were  not  admitted,  were  driven  by  the  pohce  (Pohsh,  Ukrainian, 
German,  Estonian,  and  Lithuanian)  to  the  resettlement  point.  In 
the  “Metalurgia”  we  formed  into  rows  and  were  driven  to  different 
work  locations:  “Hagen  East  Railroad,  HASAG  Pfelzern,  HASAG 
Rakow,  Czestochowianka,  and  Warta”,  the  future  sites  of  concen- 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


303 


1939,  The  Year  of  Crisis 

The  most  critical  year  of  all  was  1939.  The  Second  World  War 
began  with  its  blitz  and  annihilation,  the  skies  became  dark  with 
terror  and  the  foreboding  spectre  of  the  enforced  ghetto  arose  over 
millions  of  Jews.  The  beginning  already  presaged  something  of 
what  was  to  come:  the  destruction  of  the  Jewish  community  of 
Eastern  Europe  and  the  decimation  of  the  Jews  of  Western 
Europe. 

Officers  for  1940  were  elected  by  acclamation:  Mr.  Kaman 
president  and  A.  Weinstock  vice-president.  Aided  by  the  admini- 
stration and  executive  they  gave  the  society  their  devoted 
leadership. 

In  1941  certain  changes  took  place  in  the  composition  of  the 
executive  and  committees.  A.  Weinstock  was  elected  president  and 
Prank  Gtoldfarb  vice-president. 

In  1946  a new  name  appeared  in  the  masthead  of  the  society,  that 
of  Izzy  Feldman  the  new  president;  L.  Sedlovsky  was  vice- 
president. 

One  of  the  meetings  took  up  the  question  of  approving  the 
erection  of  a monument  in  memory  of  the  martyrs  of  Czensto- 
chova  to  be  located  at  the  entrance  to  the  cemetery. 

1954-1964 

Years  of  Growth  Under  New  Conditions 

Elections  for  the  year  1954  again  brought  new  blood.  The  officers 
were  K.  Tarnofsky,  president;  S.  Geller,  vice-president. 

The  Last  Five  Years 

The  chief  officers  in  the  year  1960  were  the  same:  S.  Abrams, 
president;  G.  Bialik,  vice-president. 

New  officers  were  elected  in  1964:  H.  Kaman,  president;  S.  Yaku- 
bowitz,  vice-president. 

And,  speaking  of  the  future,  may  there  prevail  among  the  Czen- 
stochover  the  same  spirit  of  intimacy  and  friendliness  and  may 
they  not  remain  backward  in  their  contributions  to  the  State  of 
Israel  through  all  Welfare  Institutions  whether  they  be  local, 
national  or  international.  May  we  extend  the  traditional  wish  of 
“double”  strength  (ko  I’chai)  to  the  fiftieth  Jubilee  and  to  a won- 
derful and  bright  future  for  all. 


302 


CZENSTOCHQV  - Our  Leg^&cy 


1925-1930 

These  were  quiet  years  according  to  the  society’s  veterans.  The 
society’s  affairs  progressed  in  a routine  and  satisfactory  manner. 
The  presidents  were:  H.  Honickman  1924;  M.  Tamofsky,  1925-26; 
M.  Caplan  for  a third  time  1927-28;  A.  Richtiger,  1929;  M.  Teir- 
nofsky,  1930. 

The  society  assisted  Jewish  schools  both  religious  and  secular, 
Hebraist  and  Yiddishist.  Assistance  was  given  to  the  project 
which  brought  Jewish  war  orphans  from  the  Ukraine  to  Canada 
in  1926. 

1930-1939 

These  were  the  years  of  economic  crisis,  difficult  years  for  the 
world  which  were  reflected  in  Jewish  life.  The  new  Poland  which 
arose  after  the  war  provided  no  hope  for  the  Jews.  The  only  solu- 
tion was  to  emigrate.  But  where? 

The  USA  had  closed  its  doors  and  set  up  the  quota  system.  Jews 
looked  for  new  emigration  opportunities  and  found  some,  albeit 
limited,  in  the  Latin  American  countries  and  in  Canada.  But  the 
economic  depression  had  penetrated  here  too  — it  could  not  be 
escaped. 

The  depression  had  provoked  tension  but  M.  Tarnofsky,  who  was 
president  from  1930  to  1932,  made  great  efforts  to  preserve  uni- 
ty His  successor,  I.  Redness  who  assumed  the  chair  in  1933,  con- 
tinued along  the  same  lines. 

The  ominous  year  1933  had  its  tragic  repercussions  across  the 
world.  The  Hitler  decrees  and  the  anti- Jewish  manifestations  in 
other  countries  provoked  demonstrations  to  awaken  the  con- 
science of  the  world.  A local  committee  was  formed  to  help  the 
victims  of  Nazism  and  the  Chenstochover  Society  took  its  place 
on  this  committee. 

In  that  tumultous  year  D.  Finer  was  elected  president  and  Jacob 
Lubek  recording  secretary.  His  minutes,  incidentally,  present  a 
clear  record  of  the  reaction  of  the  Society  to  the  events  of  the  day. 

In  1934-1935  M.  Tarnofsky  again  assumed  the  presidency  and 
Harry  Garelick  was  vice-president.  D.  Danziger  was  treasurer, 
D.  Bemholtz  was  named  chairman  of  a special  committee  to  carry 
on  relief  work.  Despite  the  economic  severity  and  the  difficulty 
in  raising  dues  and  money,  he  succeeded  in  raising  the  Society’s 
contributions  to  relief  work  and  aid. 

For  the  year  1936  D.  Finer  was  elected  as  president  for  the  second 
time  and  A.  Appelbaum  as  vice-president. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


301 


Gzenstochover  Aid  Society 

A Chapter  of  Jewish  Communal  Activities  in  Toronto 
The  Beguiling 

The  Society  was  founded  on  December  18th,  1914,  in  the  house 
of  the  first  secretary  Hersh-Wolf  Switzer  at  51  Baldwin  Street. 
Founder  and  first  president  was  Joe  Bochnek.  The  founders  and 
first  members  were  “landsleit”  who  had  already  organized  an  aid 
society  to  collect  funds  for  the  war  victims  of  their  native  town. 
They  found  it  difficult,  however,  to  maintain  an  organization  solely 
for  this  purpose.  The  money  had  to  be  put  in  reserve  to  be 
distributed  after  the  war  was  over  when  contact  could  be  estab- 
lished. The  60  members  saw  that  an  organization  had  to  be  set 
up  which  they  could  maintain  on  a permanent  basis  and  which 
would  provide  constant  content  and  contact,  an  organization 
which  would  do  both  relief  work  for  overseas  and  mutual  assis- 
tance here  on  a fraternal  basis. 

In  1916  when  A.  Winter  was  named  president  the  society  advanced 
to  new  achievements.  Meetings  were  held  at  the  2^onist  Institute 
of  that  day  at  206  Beverley  Street.  Each  meeting  brought  some- 
thing new  and  the  group  expanded  in  depth  and  in  breadth.  The 
treasury  grew,  sick  benefits  were  extended  and  cemetery  plots 
were  acquired.  A constitution  was  drafted. 

The  Post-World  War  I Years 

In  this  crucial  period  the  presiding  officers  were  the  late  S.  Shrott; 
in  1919  his  successor  was  M.  Caplan.  After  this  year  the  semi- 
annual election  system  was  dropped.  In  1920  Joe  Rubin  was 
elected  president.  He  was  followed  by  B.  Jacobs,  and  the  late 
Kalman  Shiff . Both  of  whom  strove  to  interest  the  members  in 
communal  obligations.  The  latter  even  wanted  the  society  to  take 
a stand  in  the  then  current  kashruth  dispute,  though  the  mem- 
bership successfully  maintained  their  neutrality. 

In  1923  M.  Caplan  was  re-elected  and  he  was  instrumental  in 
organizing  a women’s  auxiliary  — which  has  been  a constant 
asset  to  the  society’s  growth  and  development. 


300 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  Presidents  of  the  Czenstochover  Aid  Society 

for  the  Past  75  Years 


I.  Bochnik 1914-1915 

A.  Winter 1916-1917 

M.  Thrnofsky 1915,  1925-26,  1930-31,  1934-35 

M.  Caplan half  year  1919,  1920,  1923-24,  1927-28 

S.  Shrott 1919 

L.  Rubin 1921 

B.  Jacobs  1921 

K.  Shiff 1921-22 

Shogolov 1922 

H.  Honickman  ....  1924 
A.  Richtiger 1929 

R.  Redness 1933 

D.  Finer 1933,  1936 

H.  Kaman 1937-38,  1940,  1961-62,  1964-65 

I.  ShuLman 1939,  1946-48,  1963 

A.  Weinstock  1941-42,  1946,  1957-58 

F.  Goldfarb 1943-44 

I.  Feldman 1946 

L.  Sedlofsky 1947-48 

Max  Rosen 1945 

S.  Abrams 1932,  1952,  1959-60 

K.  Tarnofsky 1953-54 

S.  Geller 1955-56 

F Gk)ldfarb 1965-66-67 

J.  Nightingale 1968-69-70-71 

S.  Yakubowitz 1972-73-74-75 

P.  Skovronek 1976-77-78-79-80-81 

A.  Weinstock  1982-83 

R Skovronek 1984-85-86-87-88-89-90-91-92 


Holocaust  Memorial 

on  Bathurst  Lawn  Cemetery,  Horonto,  Ontario,  Canada 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


299 


EXECUTIVE  MEMBERS  OF  THE 
CZENSTOCHOVER  AID  SOCIETY  OF  TORONTO  - 1984 


Sitting  from  left  to  right:  B.  Walsberg,  Board  of  Directors;  A.  Weinstoch,  Bast 
President;  M.  Frank,  Recording  Secretary;  P Skovronek,  President; 

S.  Yakubowitz,  Vice-President;  S.  Gelkopf,  Treasurer 

Standing:  J.  Swan,  Hospitaler;  B.  Waisberg,  E.  Srebrnik,  Financial  Secretary; 
J.  Nightingale,  G.  Bialick,  J.  Krakowsky,  A.  Kochen,  Trustee;  B.  Ickowicz, 
P Fiksel 

Absent  are:  Harvey  Nightingale,  Efraim  Fiksel  and  M.  Gerichter 


EXECUTIVE  MEMBERS  OF  THE 
CZENSTOCHOVER  AID  SOCIETY  OF  TORONTO  - 1990 


Sitting  from  left  to  right:  J.  Swan,  Hospitaler;  B.  Waisberg,  Vice-President; 
P Skovronek,  President;  S.  Yakubowitz,  Honorary  President;  A.  Weinstock, 
Treasurer;  H.  Fishman,  Recording  Secretary 

Standing:  E.  Fiksel,  G.  Bialik,  P Pioro,  Sandy  Garber,  Financial  Secretary; 
I.  Fiksel,  Board  of  Directors;  A.  Kochen,  Trustee;  P Fiksel,  J.  Krsdcowski, 
Board  of  Directors 


298 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lef^y 


Czenstochover  Community 
of  Toronto 


Social  and  Cultural  Activities 


Czenstochovers  from  Toronto  at  a Liberation  Dinner  in  Miami  in  1992 


VII 

CANADA 

Gzenstochover 
Survivors  in 
TORONTO 


NDUJ  DD]'"*?!?  IDIDDlUD^i  Dl^  IINDNDDJDUJD  n^NOJ  lig 

A demonstration  by  Czenstochover  survivors  in  1946 
moving  towards  the  destroyed  small  ghetto 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lei 


295 


At  a Yizkor  Memorial  Service  in  Montreal 

Harry  Klein,  Chairman  of  the  evening 


David  Boruchowsky  lights  a candle 


The  President  of  the  City  in  Czenstochova 
Speaks  at  the  Exhumation  of  the  27  Martyrs 
Killed  on  January  4th,  1943 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


293 


At  a Yizkor  Memorial  Service  in  Montreal 

Harry  Klein,  Chairman  of  the  evening 


At  a Yizkor  Memorial  Service  in  Montreal 


-H'u  ’i7miD?'T  nn7U)  /pDiwp'iuiNn  .2  mn  ,n'7aNj  ain  iig  orT'iuig 

r’13UJ]Un(<  .2  T"! 

From  the  right:  Rabbi  Gtotheb,  Rabbi  B.  Borzykowsky, 
Szlomo  Dylevsky,  Dr.  Benjamin  Orenstein 


gnui?  ’g-'T  vh  u'nmNpN  lui  iig  Di'i'Tuig 
Yizkor  in  the  D.P.  Camp  in  Bergen  Belzen 


290 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 

At  the  7th  Yizkor  Memorial  Service  in  Montreal  in  1949 


li)T7ua-ii)JTDa  I’N  u’DuiNpN  Tin  119  Dn’iing  dni 

♦ 

Memorial  Service  in  Bergen  Belzen 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  L^i 


289 


gaSE 

nDejnVKiiiDT 

NEVER  FORGET 


This  Monument  is  erected  at  the  Jewish  Cemetery  (de  la  Savane) 
in  Montreal  to  the  memory  of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  Community 
who  perished  in  the  Holocaust. 


288 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  revolt  in  the  Warsaw  and  other  ghettos  aroused  the  admira- 
tion of  freedom  lovers  all  over  the  world  against  insuperable  odds. 
These  are  the  objective  facts  and  there  is  no  point  in  suffering 
from  feelings  of  guilt. 

Therefore,  as  it  is  by  the  grace  of  G— d,  that  we  were  given  to  live, 
we  must  resolve  that  we  must  prepare  the  future  generations  to 
know  of  our  tragic  and  heroic  past. 

Have  forty-three  years  really  passed  since  the  uprising  of  the  Jews 
in  the  Warsaw  Ghetto?  It  was  in  1943  that  they  used  their  naked 
fists  against  the  Nazi  tanks  and  cannon.  And  not  only  against 
the  Nazis.  They  beat  their  fists  against  the  silence  of  the  world. 

We  must  perpetuate  the  memory  of  Six  Million  Kedoshim.  We 
must  record  every  detail  of  our  past,  so  that  we  can  pass  it  on  from 
generation  to  generation.  Let  us  Remember! ! ! 


Two  Thousand  Years  of  Jewish  Life  in  Europe  by  1933 

AUSTRIA 

ESTONIA 

LITHUANIA 

RUMANIA 

1,030  years 

600  years 

600  years 

1,800  years 

BELGIUM 

FRANCE 

LATVIA 

BAAR 

700  yeai's 

1,930  years 

400  years 

312  years 

BULGARIA 

GERMANY 

LUi  EMBOURG 

UKRAINE 

1,900  years 

1,612  years 

647  years 

81 6 years 

CZECHOS- 

WHITE 

LOVAKIA 

GREECE 

MEMEL 

RUSSIA 

1,000  yeai's 

2,233  yeai's 

269  years 

550  years 

CRIMEA 

HOLLAND 

NORWAY 

YUGOSLAVIA 

1,900  years 

800  years 

82  years 

1,000  years 

DENMARK 

HUNGARY 

POLAND 

311  years 

1,900  yeai's 

800  years 

DANZIG 

ITALY 

RHODES 

400  years 

2,100  years 

2,000  years 

Gilbert  - “Atlas  of  the  Holocaust”. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


287 


significance  of  what  happened,  the  full  scope  and  magnitude  of 
six  million  brothers,  sisters,  and  children  . . . gone. 

Forty-two  years  later,  we  are  filled  with  the  shattering  realization 
that  there  is  no  substitute  for  our  losses:  for  those  Jews,  for  those 
Communities,  for  the  houses  of  learning,  the  libraries,  the  syna- 
gogues, the  arts,  the  professional  and  scientific  achievements, 
there  is  no  substitute  for  European  Jewry,  for  its  people,  for  its 
Yiddishkeit,  for  its  treasures.  Their  almost  total  absence  is  not 
only  a loss  for  our  generation  of  survivors,  but  a loss  for  mankind 
and  for  Jews  everywhere,  for  generations  to  come. 

We  say  we  know  what  happened  in  the  Holocaust  of  the  20th 
century.  We  recall  that  six  million  died,  and  we  think  of  the 
uncounted  millions  left  maimed  in  body  and  in  spirit.  We  say  we 
know,  because  we  can  record  fact  and  deed,  and  can  list  the  names 
of  our  loved  ones  in  the  Yad  v’Shem  of  our  hearts.  We  grow  bitter, 
when  we  encounter  those  today  who  lie  and  say  it  never  happened 
— who  say  so  either  because  they  cannot  face  the  truth  or  - far 
worse  — who  say,  it  never  happened,  because  they  want  to  make 
it  happen  again. 

We  do  know  what  happened.  What  we  do  not  know  — what  nobody 
can  explain  — is  why  it  happened.  For  us  as  Jews,  of  course,  the 
Nazi  Holocaust  has  special  significance.  This  was  to  be  the  “Final 
Solution”.  Not  a Jew  was  to  be  left  in  the  world  — not  a Jew  in 
Germany  or  Austria,  or  France,  or  Britain,  or  Russia,  or  America. 
Not  a Jew  anywhere  in  the  world. 

The  period  of  the  European  Holocaust  causes  some  Jews,  espe- 
cially among  the  younger  generation,  feelings  of  uneasiness  and 
even  of  guilt.  The  question  has  often  been  asked:  Why  did  the 
Jews  go  like  lambs  to  the  slaughter,  instead  of  putting  up  a 
resistance?  The  question  has  only  one  answer:  Whoever  asks  it 
shows  ignorance  and  a lack  of  understanding  of  what  actually 
happened  in  Europe  during  World  War  II.  Today,  in  retrospect,  we 
are  beginning  to  grasp  the  power  of  the  forces  of  evil  at  work  then. 
At  the  time,  however,  nobody  in  his  wildest  dreams  could  have 
imagined  that  human  beings  were  capable  of  what  the  Germans 
did. 

But  to  return  to  the  question:  Why  did  the  Jews  not  revolt?  The 
answer  is  clear.  During  World  War  II  the  Germans  killed  over  20 
million  people  of  various  nationalities.  We  heard  hardly  anything 
of  revolt  from  them.  Apparently  it  was  made  almost  impossible 
to  resist  physically  and  if  this  was  true  of  the  gentiles  who  dwelt 
in  their  own  countries  and  possessed  armies  and  armaments,  it 
was  even  truer  of  the  Jews.  The  Jews,  after  all,  constituted  a 
minority  and  to  a large  extend  an  alien  element  in  the  countries 
of  Europe. 


286 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  LesCBcy 


Our  Story  Must  Not  Die  with  Us, 
but  Live  on  Forever 

By  Harry  Klein 

A speech  made  at  a Yizkor  Memorial 
in  Montreal  on  November  of  1986 

Dear  Friends, 

We  gather  again,  to  pay  tribute  together  to  our  dear  ones,  who 
perished  in  the  Holocaust,  and  to  the  Six  Million  Kedoshim,  to 
recite  Kaddish  and  to  remember.  We  remind  others  who  might 
tend  to  forget  and  we  pass  on  the  legacy  of  a tragic  and  heroic  past 
to  our  future  generations. 

In  the  past  40  years,  much  has  been  written  about  the  cruelty  of 
the  Nazis,  about  the  annihilation  of  millions  of  Jewish  men, 
women  and  children.  We  have  learned  of  the  destruction  of  hun- 
dreds of  Jewish  communities,  and  of  how  the  world  stood  by, 
allowing  it  all  to  happen.  We  know  of  how  the  Jews  rose  up  and 
resisted  the  Nazis  all  over  Europe,  both  actively  and  passively,  how 
they  fought  in  the  camps,  in  the  ghettos,  and  the  forests,  and  we 
know  of  the  heroism  of  the  martyrs  of  the  Warsaw  Ghetto. 

A substantial  body  of  literature  already  exists  in  many  languages 
about  the  Holocaust  and  Resistance.  But  this  is  a mere  fraction 
of  the  story.  Ask  any  survivor,  who  went  through  the  Holocaust 
experience  and  he  will  tell  you  that  there  is  yet  much  more  to  tell. 
Each  survivor  has  something  new  to  add.  The  complete  story  has 
not  yet  been  told,  perhaps  it  never  can  be. 

Fbr  us,  the  survivors  of  the  Holocaust,  this  day  of  commemoration 
serves  not  only  to  evoke  memories,  but  also  as  a reminder,  that 
inside  each  of  us  there  is  a part  of  ourselves  that  shall  forever  re- 
main destroyed. 

Fbrty-two  years  after  the  Holocaust,  which  inflicted  on  our  people 
the  greatest  tragedy  in  our  national  history,  we  still  live  with  the 
painful  sense  of  bereavement  which  we  cannot  and  shall  not  over- 
come. We  still  cannot  free  ourselves  of  the  sadness  and  sorrow  that 
has  become  a part  of  our  lives.  Only  now  we  begin  to  grasp  the  full 


CZENSTOCHQV  - Our  Legacy 


285 


historical  one,  with  speakers  delivering  talks  which  brought  us 
back  to  pre-war  Czenstochova  and  the  destruction  of  its  Jewish 
community  (Kehilah). 

Tradition 

Those  members  of  the  Society  who  regularly  devoted  their  time 
and  energy  carrying  out  various  functions,  continued  working  in 
their  roles  over  the  years  in  what  seemed  to  become  a tradition. 
Some  of  the  executive  members  who  originally  began  to  lead  the 
annual  Yizkor  Memorial  Service  continued  to  fulfill  this  duty  each 
year.  Eventually  it  became  a tradition  to  them.  The  speakers  re- 
mained constant  for  many  years:  Dr.  Benjamin  Orenstein,  Harry 
Klein,  Szlomo  Waga,  Berl  Ickowicz,  Harry  Rosenblum,  Ted 
Zilbert. 

The  22nd  Yizkor  Service  was  held  on  October  4,  1970.  The 
president,  Lajbke  Jakubowicz,  opened  the  Yizkor  Academy  and 
Harry  Klein,  the  chairman  of  the  event,  led  the  Yizkor,  followed 
by  the  speakers.  Dr.  Benjamin  Orenstein  and  Harry  Rosenblum. 


The  Life  That  Is  No  More 

A hundred  years  ago,  the  majority  of  the  world's  Jews  lived  in 
Europe  in  the  Polish  provinces  of  the  Russian  empire,  in  the 
Austro-Hungarian  Empire,  and  in  the  German  Empire.  Tb  be 
sure,  it  was  a world  of  poverty  and  hardship,  of  sacrifice  and 
struggle,  but  it  was  also  a world  of  scholars  and  poets,  of 
impressionable  matchmakers  and  philosophers.  It  was  a world 
where  each  week  men  and  women  confronted  new  perils  and 
hazards,  and  where  each  Sabbath  they  sat  with  their  children 
around  a table  surrounded  by  song  and  joy.  It  was  a world  of 
synagogues  and  houses  of  study  where  young  and  old  crowded 
together  by  the  candlewick  to  study  late  into  the  night;  where 
mothers  and  grandmothers  rocked  their  loved  ones  to  sleep  with 
lullabies  of  hope  and  faith;  where  a neighbor's  joy  was  a shietl's 
day  of  rejoicing,  and  where  his  pain  was  its  day  of  sorrow.  It 
was  a world  where  the  price  of  respect  was  good  deeds,  but 
where  the  right  to  friendship  had  no  prerequisites.  Such  a 
world  were  these  10,000  tiny  dots  on  the  map  — Belz,  where  the 
Hasid  hurried  to  be  at  his  rebbe's  table;  Vilna,  where  the 
ordinary  cobbler  conversed  in  the  Talmud;  Pnsk  and  Lodz, 
where  vendors  rose  at  the  crack  of  dawn  on  Monday  and 
Thursday  to  hurray  their  wares  to  the  marketplace;  there  was 
Warsaw,  where  writers  leisurely  sipped  tea,  and  interpreted  the 
life  of  the  times.  . . Vienna,  her  parks  and  broad  streets 
bustling  with  artists  etching  out  moments  of  memory  and 
violinists  transforming  cafes  into  symphonic  halls... 


284 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Yizkor  Service  in  Memory  of  the  Martyrs 

The  First  Yizkor  Academy 

The  seventh  Yizkor  in  the  memory  of  the  martyrs  was  organized 
by  the  Czenstochover  Committee  of  Montreal  and  took  place  on 
Sunday,  February  17,  1948. 

The  religious  ceremony  was  conducted  by  Cantor  A.  Matz.  Rabbi 
Dr.  Ch.  Denberg  gave  a speech  on  the  theme,  “The  duty  of  the 
Jewish  people  at  the  present  moment”.  George  Klein  dedicated 
an  address  to  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  Community  and  the 
martyrs.  The  legal  advisor,  Leon  Krystal,  made  a moving  appeal 
for  reconstructive  financial  aid  to  the  survivors  of  the  Holocaust. 
The  two  delegates  from  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Toronto, 
David  Birenholtz  and  Harry  Goldberg,  expressed  their  thanks  for 
organizing  a Czenstochover  Society  in  Montreal.  A.  Myerowicz 
and  Sz.  Grund  spoke  of  the  deceased  Nora  Klein.  Grund  read  a 
poem  about  the  genocide  of  the  European  Jews  written  by  Nora 
Klein  prior  to  her  death.  The  guest  speaker,  Mr.  R.  Federman  of 
New  York,  spoke  in  detail  about  the  life  and  the  tragic  calamity 
of  the  Jewish  Community  and  the  Holocaust  Survivors.  Mr.  Harry 
Berk  was  the  Chairman  of  this  very  impressive  Yizkor  Academy. 

One  of  the  principal  tasks  of  our  society  was  to  ensure  the  memory 
of  martyrs  (kedoshim)  who  perished  in  the  Holocaust.  The  new- 
ly elected  executive  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  began  its  activity 
at  the  end  of  1948.  The  first  item  on  the  agenda  was  to  organize 
a “Yizkor  memorial  service”  which  was  to  be  held  in  1949. 

As  of  1949,  the  Yizkor  services  were  held  in  the  Workman  Circle 
Centre,  Jewish  Public  Library,  the  Zionist  Movement  Centre  and 
in  the  Beth  Hamedrash  Hagadol  Congregation. 

The  speakers  of  the  Memorial  Yizkor  Academies  were:  Dr. 
Benjamin  Orenstein,  Rabbi  Benjamin  Borzikowski,  Szlomo 
Waga,  Harry  Klein,  Kuba  Goldberg,  Harry  Rosenblum,  Berek 
Ickowicz  and  Ted  Zilbert.  The  memorial  service  was  conducted 
in  two  parts:  the  first,  a religious  one  with  six  candle  lights  and 
the  memorial  prayers  for  the  martyrs,  the  second  part,  an 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lefcacy 


283 


Ruth  Klein  Tatner,  Joyce  Nisker  Thkefman,  Aaron  Dudkiewicz, 
Evelyn  Kaxtus  Solomon,  Susan  Wallace  Ship  and  Cypora  Altman 
Leb. 

We  are  all  extremely  proud  to  have  supported  Mr.  Klein  in  writing 
this  book  which  traces  our  roots  and  opens  doors  to  catch  a last- 
ing glimpse  of  the  life  of  our  ancestors  in  Czenstochova.  This  book 
is  a compilation  of  records,  memorabilia  and  photos  of  our 
heritage,  past  and  present,  which  will  create  a legacy  for  our 
future  generations. 


282 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


So  It  Shall  Be  Written;  So  It  Must  Be  Told  . . . 

By  the  Executive  Committee  of  the  First  and  Second  Generation 
of  Czenstochover  Holocaust  Survivors  of  Montreal 

Growing  up  in  the  1950s  and  ‘60s,  we  were  the  baby-boomers. 
We  represented  the  hopes  and  aspirations  of  our  parents  who  sur- 
vived the  horrific  atrocities  of  the  Holocaust. 

Yet,  many  of  us  were  raised  in  very  protected  environments,  where 
history  was  only  whispered.  As  our  parents  clung  to  their  “lands- 
men” for  moral  and  social  support,  their  children,  for  the  most 
part,  were  excluded  from  this  interaction.  We  were  shielded  from 
their  wartime  experiences  which  was  their  sorrow  to  carry. 

It  came  as  a surprise  in  the  late  1970s  when  many  of  us  were 
invited  to  become  involved  in  the  Czenstochova  Society.  Until  then, 
our  only  contact  was  as  spectators,  watching  our  parents  leave 
to  attend  meetings,  bond  drives,  bazaars,  dinner— dances.  Even 
their  annual  Yizkor  service  was  limited  to  their  own  generation. 
They  did  not  want  to  upset  the  children. 

However,  as  we  matured  into  adults  and  the  survivors  neared 
retirement  age,  they  realized  that  they  must  share  their  past  with 
us,  or  it  would  remain  untold.  Moreover,  they  desired  a continuity 
to  their  Society,  to  maintain  their  cemetery  and  their  cherished 
monument,  dedicated  to  those  Czenstochovers  who  perished  in 
the  Holocaust. 

In  Montreal,  we  were  a small  group.  Many  of  our  peers  had  left 
Quebec.  Mostly  out  of  respect  for  our  parents,  we  began  to  par- 
ticipate in  meetings  in  the  early  1980s.  We  planned  several  suc- 
cessful events:  in  1982,  a three -generation  picnic;  in  1987,  a 
dinner— dance.  It  was  not  until  1990  that  we  became  particularly 
inquisitive  about  our  roots.  Although  a book  about  the  Montreal 
Czenstochover  group  had  been  published  in  Yiddish  during  the 
1960s,  most  of  us  were  unable  to  read  and  understand  it. 

As  a dynamic  leader,  Harry  Klein  formed  a book  committee  in 
order  to  publish  a book  in  English  about  the  history  of  the  Jewish 
community  of  Czenstochova.  The  committe  was  comprised  of 
Harry  Klein,  Harry  Rosenblum,  Lucy  Nisker,  Morris  Szwimer, 


Mr.  & Mrs.  Harry  Klein  and  Mrs.  & Mrs.  Berel  Ickowicz  at  the 
Czenstochover  Liberation  Party  of  the  Miami  Social  Club. 


CZENSTOCHOVER  OF  MONTREAL 


From  the  left  (top):  A.  Birenbaum,  M.  HerzUkowicz,  L.  Jakubowicz, 
N.  Sporn,  I.  Yablon,  Mr.  & Mrs.  H.  Rosenblum,  Mr.  & Mrs.  M.  Lefkovicz, 
Mr.  & Mrs.  T.  Zilbert,  I.  Leichter,  H.  Klein,  Mr.  & Mrs.  E.  Srebrnik, 
Ch.  Konarsky,  Mr.  & Mrs.  E.  Freiberg,  Mr.  & Mrs.  Z.  Neufeld, 

Mr  & Mrs.  M.  Friedlander,  B.  Ickowicz,  G.  Kartus,  M.  Leichter, 

Mrs.  E.  Klein,  Mrs.  S.  Ickowicz. 


Ladies  Auxiliary  of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  Community  of  Montreal,  1965 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


279 


278 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Service.  The  reading  of  such  messages  would  leave  a deep  impres- 
sion and  would  serve  to  strengthen  our  ties  with  other 
Czenstochover  Landsleit. 

At  the  15th  Yizkor  Memorial  Service  in  New  York  (which  is  con- 
sidered to  be  the  largest  center  of  Czenstochover  in  the  world), 
a message  was  sent  by  the  Montreal  executive  members  which 
read  as  follows:  “lb  the  Czenstochover  Relief  Committee  and 
Ladies  Auxiliary  in  New  York:  Dear  Landsleit.  Together  with  you 
we  deeply  grieve  the  tragedy  of  the  destruction  of  the  Jewish 
Community  of  Czenstochova  which  was  the  8th  largest  in  Poland, 
and  the  loss  of  those  who  perished  in  the  Holocaust,  together  with 
all  the  others  comprising  the  6 million  Jewish  Martyrs.  Our  feel- 
ings of  great  loss  and  sadness  are  shared  and,  therefore,  we  have 
to  be  strong  and  proud  that  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  people  will 
never  be  forgotten  for  their  heroic  resistance  in  the  struggle  with 
the  Nazi  barbarians.  We  must  never  forgive  or  forget,  in  our 
thoughts,  the  cruel  days  of  the  Nazi  atrocities  against  the  Jewish 
people.’  ’ 

FairweU  Receptions 

A get-together  was  organized  by  the  FairweU  Committee  for  those 
families  who  planned  to  move  away  from  Montreal.  The  first 
fairwell  reception  was  held  for  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Kuba  Goldberg  who 
were  moving  to  New  York.  The  celebration  was  held  in  the  Zionist 
Movement  Centre  on  Esplanade.  Many  came  to  honor  the  Goldbergs 
and  congratulatory  speeches  were  made  in  a lively  atmosphere. 
Dr.  Grenstein  and  his  wife  presented  a humorous  program.  Other 
such  events  took  place,  honoring  the  Buchwalter  family,  who 
moved  to  Toronto  and  the  Peper  family,  who  moved  to  New  York. 

An  impressive  evening  of  slight  variation  was  the  fairwell  to 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Waga,  who  moved  to  Toronto.  This  event  was  com- 
bined with  activities  including  the  election  of  a new  executive 
committee  and  the  review  of  two  books,  one  by  Dr.  Orenstein, 
“Chorban-Czenstochov”  in  Latin  transcription,  and  the  other  by 
Mr.  Waga,  “Chorban  Czenstochov”  in  Yiddish. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leffaoy 


277 


bears  the  photo  of  the  Synagogue.  You  deserve  the  greatest 
recognition  for  that  marvelous  idea  which  serves  as  a symbol  of 
our  great  Jewish  community  of  Czenstochova.  That  consideration 
proves  the  importance  of  your  activities.  Thank  you  and  I wish 
everyone  a Happy  Passover.'' 

The  content  of  the  letters  demonstrates  the  strong  interest  of  our 
Landsleit  who  were  seeking  some  practical  and  moral  support  in 
their  difficult  times. 

Sick  and  Welfare 

The  Landsmanshaft,  being  faithful  to  the  traditions  of  their 
parents  in  Czenstochov,  considered  the  visiting  of  a sick  landsman 
to  be  a great  Mitzvah  (good  deed).  Such  a visit,  by  a delegation 
of  his  landsleit,  had  a positive  psychological  effect  on  the  person’s 
recovery.  The  same  support  was  being  shown  by  the  Financial  Aid 
Committee.  An  answer  to  the  call  for  help  was  always  available. 

Czenstochover  Landsleit  in  Israel 

The  contact  with  the  Czenstochover  Society  in  Tel-Aviv,  Israel,  has 
significant  meaning  for  our  landsleit  in  Israel  to  whom  we  directly 
send  financial  support.  Despite  the  restraints  in  carrying  out 
large  projects,  we  continued  to  offer  our  financial  support.  The 
necessity  of  assisting  them  which  was  of  great  importance,  was  shown 
by  the  many  letters  of  recognition  and  thanks  in  our  files.  Each 
letter  from  Czenstochover  landsmen  in  Israel  is  in  itself  an 
historic  document  and  reflects  the  activities  among  our 
Czenstochover  landsleit  everywhere.  It  is  a symbol  of  the  once- 
upon-a-time  Jewish  Community  in  Poland,  destroyed  in  the 
Holocaust. 

Czenstochova  in  North  America 

The  Czenstochover  Aid  Society  of  Toronto  has  been  in  regular  con- 
tact with  the  Landsmanshaft  of  Montreal.  Information  of  impor- 
tant decisions  is  officially  reported  by  mail.  In  1959,  when  the 
executive  in  Toronto  decided  to  build  a Medical  Centre  in  Israel, 
an  official  letter  was  sent  to  the  Czenstochover  Society  in 
Montreal. 

In  1957,  Dr.  Benjamin  Orenstein  was  invited  to  Toronto  as  guest 
speaker  at  the  15th  Yizkor  Memorial  Service.  Later  that  evening, 
he  was  invited  to  attend  an  important  executive  meeting  to  dis- 
cuss future  actions  towards  the  creation  of  new  projects. 

The  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal  is  in  contact  with  the 
Landsmanshaften  and  Aid  Societies  throughout  the  world.  It  has 
been  a practice  for  these  Societies  to  send  a message  to  the  Yizkor 


276 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legucy 


From  our  Archives 

The  Ladies  Auxiliary  of  the 

Czenstochover  Society 

A very  important  group  in  the  Landsmanshaft  has  been  the 
Ladies  Auxiliary,  most  of  them  wives  of  the  executive  members. 
Apart  from  graciously  hosting  society  meetings,  these  ladies  were 
strongly  involved  in  annual  fund-raising  activities,  such  as  the 
Bazaar  and  “money  shower”.  The  funds  raised  were  used  to  sup- 
port Israel  as  well  as  others  in  need  of  assistance.  They  main- 
tained a special  book  to  register  the  demands  for  financial 
support.  An  acknowledgement  of  our  appreciation  to  Mrs.  Sala 
Ickowicz  is  in  order  for  keeping  this  book  under  her  control  for 
over  12  years.  A special  thank  you  and  recognition  to  the  Ladies 
Auxiliary  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal  for  all  their 
hard  work  and  devotion. 

Letter  of  Thanks  from 
Czenstochover  Landsleit  in  Israel 

June  10,  1957: 

“Dear  friends,  Czenstochover  landsleit.  I received  a letter, 
including  a money  order,  for  which  my  family  and  I are  thanking 
you  whole-heartedly  I deeply  appreciate  your  devotion  towards 
your  landsleit  by  sending  them  your  kind  support.  Your  gift  to 
us  has  great  significant  meaning." ' 

Haifa,  June  10,  1957: 

''Dear  Czenstochover  landsleit,  heartiest  brothers  and  sisters.  You 
should  be  blessed  for  your  kindness.  When  I received  your 
package  of  clothing,  a ray  of  joy  came  into  our  house.  I could  never 
have  imagined  providing  such  good  clothes  for  my  family,  as 
everything  is  so  costly.  I would  like  you  to  know  that  you  have  done 
a good  deed.  Our  best  regards  and  many  thanks  to  all  of  you."" 

Tel-Aviv,  April  11,  1957: 

"Dear  friends.  I would  Uke  to  thank  you  for  the  money-order  I 
received  from  you.  I was  deeply  moved  by  your  letterhead  which 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


Ca  nadian  ,^66ociation  for  eJ^Lor  ^draei 


ASSOCIATION  CANAOlCMNt  OKS  TNAVAICLKUMS  OMSNACL 

!Jirwr  rm  riiyoyiin  ojn  niiB  oew^pryj  nr^ufp 


NATIONAL  EXECUTIVE  OFFICE 


7005  KILDARE  ROAD.  SUITE  14  - CCTE  ST  LUC.  QUEBEC  H4W  1C1  TEL  ; (514)  484-9430 


September,  3,  1991 


Mr,  Harry  Klein 

President,  Czens tochover  Society 


Dear  Mr.  Klein; 

I am  very  pleased  to  extend  our  best  wishes  in  the 
preparation  of  your  book  about  the  Czenstochover 
Society . 

Over  the  past  few  years,  you  and  your  collegues  have 
been  most  generous  to  our  special  Campaign  for  the  Beth 
Rivka  Geriatric  Hospital  in  Petach  Tikva,  Israel.  Your 
donations  have  helped  in  establishing  facilities  for  the 
people  who  are  in  need  of  the  services  of  Beth  Rivka. 

I am  sure  that  you  and  your  members  can  be  proud  of 
your  participation  in  our  Campaign  and  the  appreciation 
h-as  been  shown  by  the  Certificates  which  were  presented 
to  your  Society  as  well  as  the  appreciation  from  the 
Beth  Rivka  Geriatric  Hospital  in  their  affixing  Plaques 
in  honor  of  your  contributions, 

I wish  you  and  your  Society  continued  good  health  and 
we  look  forward  to  your  support  for  our  cause  in  helping 
the  people  in  Israel  who  require  the  services  of  Kupat 
Holim. 

I take  this  opportunity  to  extend  to  you,  your  family, 
and  the  families  of  all  the  members  of  the  Czenstochover 
Society,  best  wishes  for  a healthy,  happy  and  peaceful 
New  Year. 

Shalom, 


Israel  Nachshen 
Executive  Director 
Eastern  Region 

IN/fk 


274 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


Canadian  Friends  of  Amal 


November  19,  1992 


National  Office: 

7005  Kildare  Road.  Suite  14 
Cole  St  Luc.  Quebec  H4W  1C1 
(514)  484  9430 


Mr.  Harry  Klein,  President 
Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal 


Dear  Mr.  Klein; 

We  acknowledge  with  thanks  receipt  of  a donation  from 
your  Society  for  $3,430.00  Canadian,  which  will  be  used 
for  Amal  Scholarships. 

This  project  provides  scholarships  for  needy  students 
attending  the  Amal  Education  System. 

Contributions  through  Canadian  Friends  of  Amal  to 
the  Perpetual  Scholarship  Fund  permit  us  to  increase 
the  number  of  scholarships  awarded  annually. 

We  look  forward  to  your  continued  support  and  with 
best  wishes. 


.lorn. 


Israel  Nachshen 
Executive  Director 

IN/fk 


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272 


CZfiXMo^^'CHOV  - Our  Le, 


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Fund'iaising  Projects  of  the 
Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal, 

1967  " 1992 

1967  — First  day  of  war 

- Emergency  Fund  for  Israel 

- $5,000  for  medical  supplies 

1971  — Donated  a fully  equipped  Ambulance,  serving  now 

in  Israel  — $10,000. 


The  year  1971,  donated  a fully-equipped 
Ambulance,  serving  in  Israel. 


1973  — Yom  Kippur  War 

- Emergency  Fund-Drive  Campaign  - $12,000. 

1974  - Project  Shaar  Zedek  Hospital  in  Jerusalem 

- Endowed  a Doctor’s  Office  - $5,000. 

1978  — Project  Shaare  Zedek  Hospital  in  Jerusalem 
Technology  in  Haifa  - $10,000. 

1983  — An  Academic  Staff  Office  for  “Technion”,  Israel 
Institute  of  Technology  - $5,000. 

1986  - Golda  Meir  Nahalat  Zvi  Clinic,  Petach  Tikvah,  Israel 

- $5,000. 

1989  - Beth  Rivkah  Geriatric  Hospital,  Petach  Tikvah, 

Israel  - $5,000. 

1990  - Beth  Rivkah  Geriatric  Hospital,  Petach  Tikvah, 
Israel  - $5,000. 

- Scholarship  fund  to  the  trade  school  Amal  in  Israel 

- $3,430. 


1992 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


271 


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270 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


Editorial  Committee  of  the  Book 
‘^Czenstochover  Yidn”  - 1947 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


269 


Lucy  Nisker  is  treasurer  and  chairperson  of  the  fund-raising 
campaigns  in  Montreal,  for  the  Czenstochover  Book  to  be  pub- 
lished in  English  in  1993.  Lucy’s  determination  to  see  that  there 
are  funds  to  cover  this  Book  Project  makes  us  confident  that  the 
project  will  become  a reality 

Among  other  outstanding  members  of  the  executive,  I should 
mention  Szlomo  Waga  who  was  Chairman  of  our  Society,  an  influ- 
ential personality  who  has  earned  everyone’s  respect.  Szlomo 
Waga  also  was  a frequent  speaker  at  the  annual  Yizkor  gathering. 

To  be  fair  to  all  of  our  landsleit,  I must  underline  that  all  of  us 
deserve  to  be  praised  for  the  work  we  have  done  in  Montreal.  We 
should  be  proud  as  well,  to  know  that  our  members  have  played 
a part,  all  in  their  own  special  way,  by  participating  in  the  many 
projects  to  support  the  institutions  of  our  choice  in  the  State  of 
Israel. 


Supporting  the  Technion  Society  in  Israel 


From  left:  T.  D.  Zilbert,  H.  Klein  and  H.  Rosenblum,  with  Canadian 
Technion  Society's  Eugene  Stearns. 

Executive  members  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal  have 
endowed  a second  project  at  the  Technion  Israel  Institute 
of  Technology:  an  academic  staff  office  in  the  Canada  Nuclear 
Engineering  Institute.  This  gift  is  in  memory  of  Czenstochover 
Jews  who  perished  in  the  Holocaust. 

The  presentation  of  the  cheque  was  made  at  the  home  of  Mr.  and 
Mrs.  Harry  Klein,  to  Eugene  Stearns,  national  chairman  of  the 
Canadian  Technion  Society  board  of  directors. 


268 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


In  Recognition  of  our 

Past  and  Present  Members  of 

the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal 

By  Harry  Klein 


The  activities  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal  are  most 
meaningful  to  those  who  have  devoted  their  time  and  energy  to 
keep  the  survivors  of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  Community 
together.  They  were  instrumental  in  helping  us  rebuild  our  shat- 
tered lives,  after  we  survived  the  Holocaust. 

It  was  not  an  easy  task  for  us  Czenstochovers  who  arrived  in 
Montreal  after  the  war,  but  we  were  determined  to  keep  alive  the 
traditions  of  our  parents  who  perished. 

To  begin  with,  I would  like  to  talk  about  a landsman  who  lived 
in  Montreal  for  many  years.  When  we  arrived,  we  found  his  house 
open  to  all  of  us.  He  was  Yecheskel  Silver,  the  first  president  of 
the  Czenstochover  Society.  He  was  a great  help  to  those  who 
sought  his  advice  and  he  was  devoted  to  helping  us  until  the  last 
minutes  of  his  life. 

Our  next  president  was  Lajbke  Jakubowicz,  known  lovingly  to  us 
all  as  “Feter  Lajbke”.  Always  the  first  to  arrive  at  an  executive 
meeting  and  the  last  to  leave,  he  was  truly  a remarkable 
individual. 

Berel  Ickowicz,  who  was  Chairman  of  the  Society  for  many  years, 
showed  great  interest  and  determination  in  offering  his  advice  for 
the  good  of  our  Society,  until  he  moved  with  his  family  to  Toronto. 

Symcha  Silver  (Zylberberg),  as  Secretary,  took  upon  himself  to 
inform  all  our  members  of  the  Society’s  activities  and  to  encour- 
age everyone’s  participation.  Through  our  joint  activities,  we 
became  very  good  friends. 

It  was  also  our  great  privilege  to  have  Dr.  Benjamin  Orenstein  as 
our  General  Secretary  and  top  advisor.  I had  the  pleasure  to  work 
with  Dr.  Orenstein  on  our  project  of  publishing  a Yiddish  book, 
sponsored  by  the  Czenstochover  Society.  Dr.  Orenstein  published 
the  book  in  1965. 

Teddy  Zilbert,  supported  by  his  wife  Dorka,  was  our  Public  Relations 
person.  Thanks  to  their  active  involvement  in  our  activities  and 
their  great  efforts  in  fund-raising  campaigns,  organized  by  the 
Ladies  Auxiliary,  these  campaigns  were  always  a great  success. 

Harry  Rosenblum,  as  Chairman  of  the  first  and  second  generation 
Czenstochover  Survivors,  has  been  very  effective  in  all  his 
endeavors.  With  particular  reference  to  our  yearly  Yizkor  service, 
he  is  among  the  prominent  speakers  about  our  tragic  past.  It 
became  a tradition  for  Harry  Rosenblum  and  I to  alternate  each 
year  as  chairman  and  speaker  at  those  Yizkor  services. 


267 


The  Executive  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal,  1964 


Seated  from  left:  B.  Ickowicz,  Sz.  Waga,  G.  Frajtag,  Ch.  diver. 
Dr.  B.  Orenstein,  L.  Buchwalter. 

Standing  from  left:  M.  Herszlikowicz,  H.  Klein,  M.  Friedlander, 
Ch.  Konarsky,  S.  Silver,  L.  Jakubowicz,  Sz.  Lerner. 


Executive  Members  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal,  1976 


Seated  from  left:  M.  Altman,  S.  Silver,  L.  Jakubowicz,  Dr.  B.  Orenstein, 
M.  Friedlander,  A.  Birnbaum. 

Standing  from  left:  Sz.  Lerner,  D.  Kaminsky,  M.  Herszlikowicz, 

M.  Lefkowicz,  H.  Klein,  B.  Ickowicz,  Ch.  Konarsky  H.  Rosenblum, 

Z.  Neufeld. 


266 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


Who  are  those  executive  members?  The  fact  that  all  the  members 
are  Holocaust  Survivors  speaks  for  itself.  Who  could  have 
understood  better  those  who  were  seeking  assistance  and  direc- 
tion to  their  daily  lives? 

The  newly  elected  executive  members  in  November  1948: 

President Yecheskel  Silver  (1948) 

President  Lajbke  Jakubowicz  (1959) 

President Harry  Klein  (1987) 

Chairman Berl  Ickowicz 

Vice-Chairman  Mendel  Friedlander 

Treasurer Harry  Klein 

Secretary  General Dr.  Benjamin  Orenstein 

Public  Relations Ted  Zilbert 

Secretary Simcha  Silver 

Recording  Secretary Charles  Konarsky 

Financial  Secretary Edward  Srebrnick 

Cultural  Committee  Harry  Rosenblum 

Financial  Aid  Committee Moshe  Altman 

Monument  Committee Szmuel  Prokosh 

Monument  & Cemetery  Comm.  . . . Mordecha  Dudkiewicz 

Cultural  & Fin.  Revision  Comm Moshe  Lefkowich 

Arrangements  Committee Simon  Lerner 

Reception  Committee Aaron  Birenbaum 

Telephone  Committee Max  Herszlikowicz 

Sick  and  Welfare  Committee Abraham  Kaminsky 

Hospitality  Committee Zelig  Neufeld 


Not  listed  above  were  others  who  served  briefly  on  the  executive: 
We  mourned  the  passing  of  Szlomo  Dilevsky  (Chairman),  Yosef 
Zilberberg  (Member  of  the  Executive),  and  Dr.  Harry  Lazarovicz 
(Chairman).  We  bid  farewell  to  the  following  who  departed  from 
Montreal:  Kuba  Gk)ldberg  ('Secnetary  and  Chairman),  Berek  Fefer 
(Campaign),  Szlomo  Waga  (Secretary  and  Chairman),  and  Louis 
Buchwalter  (Arrangements  Committee). 


266 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our 


LUCY  NISKER  LEIBKE  JAKUBOWICZ 

Treasurer  President  (Deceased) 


Executives  of 
Czenstochover  Survivors 
of  Montreal 
1948  - 1993 


264 


CZENSTOCHQV  - Our  Legacy 


6.  to  participate  in  the  fund-raising  activities  and  to  be  active  in 
the  Jewish  social  and  cultural  life  of  Montreal; 

7.  to  create  a friendly  atmosphere  among  our  Landsleit  so  as  to 
share  the  times  of  joy  and  sorrow; 

The  members  of  its  Executive  must: 

a)  be  devoted  and  able  to  fulfill  such  activities; 

b)  possess  deep  commitment  to  the  tasks  of  the  Society; 

c)  be  ready  to  volunteer  time  as  needed. 


Czenstochover  Landsleit,  giving  a helping  hand  in  the  promotion  of 
this  book  at  a Luncheon  Meeting  in  Miami,  FI.,  1993 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Oitr  Legacy 


263 


The  Montreal  Czenstochover  Society  Reorganized 

From  our  Archives 

In  1947,  A GREAT  NUMBER  of  Czenstochover  Landsleit  began  to 
arrive  in  Montreal  from  the  D.P.  Camps  in  Germany  and  also  from 
Czenstochova  itself.  Considering  the  number  of  newly  arrived  in 
Montreal,  the  Czenstochover  Aid  Society  decided  to  call  a general 
meeting  of  all  the  Landsleit  in  Montreal  in  November,  1948. 

Mr.  George  Klein,  vice  president  of  the  Aid  Society  had  suggested 
that  the  Landsleit  survivors  of  the  Holocaust  take  over  the  leader- 
ship of  the  Czenstochover  Society  and  the  founding  members  be- 
come the  Senior  Advisory  Consulting  Committee  who  would  par- 
ticipate in  all  activities  of  the  newly-formed  Czenstochover 
Society,  including  the  financial  support.  At  that  meeting  in 
November  1948,  a resolution  was  accepted  to  change  the  name 
of  the  organization  to  the  “Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal”. 
In  early  1949,  the  previous  executive  transferred  the  sum  of  90 
dollars  to  the  newly  elected  treasurers  of  the  society,  Mr.  Harry 
Klein  and  Mr.  Yecheskel  Silver,  who  continued  as  president  for 
a few  years.. 

The  Executive  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal 

The  “Czenstochover  Landsleit  of  Montreal”  elevated  itself  to  very 
high  standards  as  a result  of  the  activities  it  initiated  in  Montreal. 
It  served  as  a model  for  other  Landsmanshaften  and  Societies 
through  its  positive  efforts  and  undertakings: 

1.  to  continue  the  traditions  of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish 
Community; 

2.  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  the  martyrs  in  the  heroic  struggle 
against  the  brutality  of  Nazi  Germany; 

3.  the  commitment  to  organize  a yearly  Yizkor  Service  in  memory 
of  the  martyrs  who  perished  in  the  Holocaust; 

4.  to  bring  to  justice  the  Nazi  German  murderers  who  bestially 
destroyed  the  Jewish  population  of  Czenstochova; 

5.  to  give  financial  aid  to  our  Landsleit  overseas,  victims  of  the 
Nazi  regime; 


262 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le^y 


Willie  Yablon  (Yablonkiewich) 

Willie  Yablon  was  bom  in  Czenstochova  to  Berish  and  Chavah  (nee 
Fishof).  He  came  to  Montreal  in  1930  and  mai’ried  Adela  Goldberg 
of  Lodz.  They  had  two  sons  and  a daughter.  His  family  was  promi- 
nent in  Czenstochova.  They  had  participated  in  all  social  activities 
of  that  city.  He  maintained  contact  with  his  family  until  the 
Second  World  War.  After  the  war  he  too,  looked  for  an  opportuni- 
ty to  help  the  survivors  of  Czenstochova.  The  Czenstochover  Aid 
Society  of  Montreal  elected  him  Chairman.  He  gave  his  time  and 
effort  with  great  devotion.  As  a member  of  the  Senior  Advisory 
Committee,  he  was  always  ready  to  give  generous  financial 
assistance. 


Bessie  and  Yecheskel  Silver  (Zylberberg) 

In  1929,  Bessie  Perelman  married  Yecheskel  Silver  in  Czensto- 
chova. They  came  to  Montreal  in  1931.  They  had  two  children, 
Louis  and  Boslyn.  The  Silvers  were  very  active  members  of  the 
Czenstochover  Society. 

When  the  Czenstochover  Holocaust  survivors  arrived  in  Montreal 
they  were  invited  to  meet  with  the  existing  Aid  Society. 
A new  group  was  formed  under  the  name  of  ** Czenstochover 
Society  of  Montreal”.  Yecheskel  Silver  was  elected  its  President 
and  Treasurer.  He  has  been  active  in  the  Society  for  many  years 
and  his  family’s  home  was  an  “open  house”  for  the  Society  until 
his  death  on  September  12,  1959.  During  his  years  as  President, 
intensive  work  was  done  to  provide  financial  aid  to  the  many 
Czenstochovers  overseas.  Many  meetings  of  the  executive  were 
held  to  organize  fund-raising  activities.  The  Society’s  campaigns 
were  always  very  successful.  The  Silver  family  were  always 
helpful  in  the  projects  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  in  Montreal. 


M.  Silver  (Zilberberg) 

Motel  Silver  was  born  in  Czenstochova  to  Chayim  and  Mania 
(Staszevska).  The  family  came  to  Montreal  in  1926  and  establish- 
ed their  home.  Motel  Silver  was  in  contact  with  his  parents  until 
the  outbreak  of  World  War  II.  He  was  among  the  founding 
members  of  the  Czenstochover  Aid  Society  and  was  elected 

Secretary.  Later  he  belonged  to  the  Senior  Advisory  Committee 
of  the  Society. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


261 


David  Gelber 

David  Gelber,  son  of  Kasriel  and  Sarah,  was  bom  in  Czenstochova 
to  a nationalistic  and  orthodox  family.  This  environment  influ- 
enced his  entire  life.  The  depression  following  World  War  I 
brought  misery  to  the  Jewish  masses,  particularly  to  Czensto- 
chova. Hunger  and  poverty  were  widespread.  David,  in  his  desire 
to  escape  the  life  of  poverty,  was  planning  to  leave  Czenstochova, 
but  he  was  too  young  for  this  venture.  Finally,  at  the  age  of  17, 
he  left  home  for  Vienna,  Austria.  He  was  very  impressed  with  the 
Viennese  lifestyle.  However,  he  did  not  want  to  remain  there.  His 
dream  was  to  be  a pioneer  in  Israel,  or  to  be  reunited  with  his 
brother,  Nathan,  who  lived  in  Canada.  After  three  years  in  Vienna, 
he  received  a visa,  through  the  efforts  of  his  brother,  which 
enabled  him  to  move  to  Quebec  City,  Canada.  He  learned  English 
and  French  and,  also,  found  himself  involved  in  the  social  life  of 
the  Jewish  community.  He  became  Treasurer  of  the  Talmud 
Torah.  Five  years  later,  he  became  a Canadian  citizen.  In  Quebec 
City,  David  met  and  married  Saydie  Evan,  daughter  of  Gteorge  and 
Jessica  Evan.  They  had  three  children,  two  sons  and  a daughter. 
When  their  eldest  son,  Nachum,  became  Bar-Mitzvah,  the  fami- 
ly moved  to  Montreal.  All  three  children  received  a traditional 
Jewish  upbringing  and  graduated  from  University  as 
prof  es  sionals . 

Mrs.  Saydie  Gelber  was  well-known  in  Montreal  and  played  a 
prominent  social  role.  (She  passed  away  recently.)  David  Gelber 
was  one  of  the  founders  of  the  Czenstochover  Aid  Society  and  was 
its  Treasurer.  He  made  valuable  contributions  to  many  cultural 
causes  and  institutions. 


Avraham  Mayerowicz 

As  one  of  the  old-timers  in  Montreal,  Mayerowicz  influenced  the 
formation  of  the  “Aid  Society”  in  Montreal.  It  was  at  the  time 
when  the  atrocities  of  Nazi  Germany  against  the  Jewish  people 
of  Europe  became  known  to  the  world.  The  Jewish  community 
of  Czenstochova  was  destroyed  — over  35,000  of  its  members 
slaughtered  by  the  Nazis.  Czenstochovers  living  in  Montreal  were 
anxious  to  help  survivors  from  their  hometown,  now  in  D.P. 
camps.  Mayerowicz  is  known  in  many  institutions  of  Talmudic 
study  in  the  Montreal  Jewish  community.  The  Yeshiva  “Maor 
Hagolah”  conducted  by  Rabbi  Benjamin  Borzykowski,  himself  a 
survivor  of  the  Holocaust,  is  among  those  he  patronizes. 


260 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Nathan  Gelber 

Nathan  Gelber  was  among  the  first  organizers  of  the  Czensto- 
chover  Society  of  Montreal.  He  was  bom  in  Czenstochov  to  Kasriel 
and  Sarah,  who  raised  him  in  a religious,  nationalistic  environ- 
ment. His  character  and  views  of  life  were  formed  in  his  parents’ 
home. 

Nathan  was  the  first  of  the  Gelbers  to  reside  in  Montreal.  He  was 
successful  in  sponsoring  his  family’s  immigration  to  Canada.  He 
was  a long-time  resident  of  Montreal  and  was  instrumental  in  the 
development  of  many  religious,  national,  and  cultural  institutions 
for  the  general  population.  As  Honorary  President  of  the 
Czenstochover  Survivors  Group  of  Montreal,  he  was  a great  finan- 
cial supporter  and  assisted  in  all  the  activities  of  the  Society. 


Harry  (Berkowicz)  Berk 

Harry  Berkowicz  was  born  in  Czenstochova  to  Rachel  Szpitz  and 
Moshe  Aaron.  They  were  a wealthy  family.  His  father  was  the 
president  of  a celluloid  factory,  the  firm  of  Berkowica,  Spitz  and 
Kinstlicher.  In  1920,  the  Berkowicz  family  immigrated  to  the 
United  States.  Harry  lived  in  New  York  for  9 years.  In  1930,  he 
came  to  Montreal,  Canada,  where,  in  1935,  he  married  Bessie. 
They  have  three  children,  two  daughters  and  a son. 

After  World  War  II,  with  the  news  of  the  murder  of  6 million  Jews 
in  Europe,  the  annihilation  of  the  Jewish  community  of  Czensto- 
chova, and  the  sick  and  displaced  Czenstochover  survivors  in  the 
D.P.  camps,  Harry  was  one  of  the  first  Czenstochovers  in  Mon- 
treal to  assist,  financially,  those  in  tragic  circumstances. 

Berk  was  the  President  of  the  Czenstochover  Aid  Society  of 
Montreal,  and  was  a well-known  supporter  of  many  charitable  in- 
stitutions, both  national  and  local,  religious  and  cultural.  He  was 
also  instrumental  in  the  publication  of  the  Montreal— 
Czenstochover  book,  written  in  Yiddish,  in  1956.  He  participated 
in  the  activities  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Holocaust 
Survivors  in  Montreal. 


CZENSTQCHQV  - Our  Legacy 


259 


George  Klein 

George  Klein  was  born  in  Czenstochova  into  a very  prominent, 
strictly  religious  family.  He  attended  the  “Cheder”  of  Yechiel 
Grylaks  and  later  enrolled  in  the  High  School  where  he  graduated 
with  honors.  Subsequently,  he  attended  the  University  of 
Shudaika. 

Under  the  influence  of  world  literature  (Haskala),  he  turned  in 
the  direction  of  the  Zionist  movement.  He  linked  up  with  the 
Tzeirei  Zion  movement.  At  the  age  of  16,  his  intelligence  and 
dedication  led  to  his  election  as  secretary  of  the  Keren  Kaymet 
Commision.  At  the  first  conference,  held  in  Warsaw,  he  was 
nominated  as  delegate.  There  he  was  introduced  to  Professor 
Dr.  Chayim  Weitzman  as  the  youngest  secretary  of  the  nation. 
After  a short  time,  he  became  a member  of  the  Poale  Zion  move- 
ment. George  Klein  played  an  important  social  role  and  was  very 
active  in  association  with  such  prominent  personalities  as 
J.  Berman,  H.  Prudelski,  I.  Danziger  and  M.  Weisberg. 

George  was  involved  in  the  Trade  Union,  the  Jewish  library  and 
sports  clubs.  At  the  age  of  19,  he  left  Czenstochova  and  moved 
to  Brussels,  Belgium.  From  Belgium,  he  and  his  wife,  Hela  (nee 
Brukner)  emigrated  to  Montreal,  Canada,  with  their  infant  son 
Jack.  Several  years  later  a second  son,  David,  was  born.  Soon 
afterwards,  he  was  elected  President  of  the  Canadian  Hebrew  Sick 
Benefit  Society.  As  delegate  of  the  Society,  he  was  present  at  the 
laying  of  the  cornerstone  of  the  Jewish  General  Hospital  in 
Montreal. 

After  the  passing  of  Hela,  George  married  Bess  (nee  Arbes)  in 
1939.  Bess  had  one  daughter,  Annette,  from  her  previous 
marriage. 

After  World  War  II,  he  was  among  the  founders  of  the  Czensto- 
chover  Society  and  was  elected  Honorary  President.  He  gave  a 
great  deal  of  financial  assistance  to  the  Czenstochover  survivors 
of  the  Holocaust.  George  Klein  was  instrumental  in  the  publica- 
tion of  “Czenstochover  Yiddin”,  a book  printed  in  Yiddish  which 
appeared  in  New  York  in  1947. 


258 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


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The  Founders  of  the  Czenstochover  Aid  Society  of  Montreal 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


267 


Establishment  of  the 
Czenstochover  and  Vicinity 
Aid  Society  of  Montreal 


News  of  the  slaughter  and  suffering  of  European  Jewry,  and 
specifically  of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  Community,  under  the 
Nazi  regime,  moved  a group  of  Czenstochovers,  who  had  settled 
in  Montreal  prior  to  the  outbreak  of  the  Second  World  War,  to  con- 
vene a meeting  on  December  16,  1945. 

A committee  of  the  following  people  was  elected: 


GEORGE  KLEIN  Honorary  President 

JACK  WIEGENSBERG  Honorary  Vice  President 

LEON  KRYSTAL  Legal  Advisor,  Honorary  Chairman 

HARRY  BERK President 

NATHAN  GELBER  Honorary  President 

DAVID  GELBER Treasurer 

M.  BORZIKOFSKI Membership  Secretary 

M.  SILVER Recording  Secretary 

L.  YABLON  Chairman  of  the  Aid  Committee 

Y.  SILVER Public  Relations 

A.  MAYEROWICZ Chairman  of  the  Steering  Committee 


Ladies  Auxiliary 

MRS.  BELT  MRS.  BORZIKOFSKI 

MRS.  YAROST  MRS.  KLEIN 


256 


CZ;ENSTCX::H0V  - Our  Legacy 


NATHAN  GELBER 
Hon.  President 


HARRY  BERK 
President 


GEORGE  KLEIN 
Hon.  President 


YECHESKEL  SILVER 
Public  Relations 


Executives  of  the 
Czenstochover  Society 

of  Montreal  1940'1948 


VI 

CANADA 

Czenstochover 
Survivors  io 
MONTREAL 


254 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


THE  ZYLBERBERG  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Simcha  Zylber(berg),  son  of  Chayim  and 
Mania  (nee  Staszewska)  — Chaya  Silver 
(nee  Bergman),  was  born  in  Czenstoc- 
hov.  They  lived  in  France  since  1934, 
and  came  tx)  Canada  in  1955.  They  have 
two  children,  Margerit  and  Michel.  Sim- 
cha and  his  wife,  Chaya,  have  been  very 
active  in  the  Society  and  in  the  Ladies 
Auxiliary.  Simcha  held  the  position  of 
secretary  for  many  years  and  partici- 
pated in  all  of  the  activities  of  the  Land- 
smanshaft.  They  have  three  grand- 
children and  one  great-grandchild. 


I 


■ 


FOUR  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeac 


253 


THE  YELEN  FAMILY 

CHICAGO 

Abe  Yelen,  born  in  Lelov,  son  of  Leib 
Aron  and  Esther  Golda  Yelen.  His  fami- 
ly perished  in  the  Holocaust.  Abe  was 
in  a German  concentration  camp,  and 
survived  in  Russia.  He  left  Russia  with 
Ander’s  army  and  went  to  Israel.  He  is 
married  to  Sarah  Weinberger,  daughter 
of  Mordechay  and  Brandel  from 
Rzeszow.  They  have  a son,  Arje,  and  two 
daughters,  Esther  and  Adina.  They  have 
lovely  grandchildren.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Abe 
Yelen  are  active  in  the  Czenstochover 
Society  of  Chicago. 


PERISHED  AT  THE  HANDS  OF  THE  NAZIS  IN  TREBLINKA 
Father  Leib  Aharon  Yelen  Sister  Bluma  Yelen 

Mother  Golda  Esther  Yelen  Sister  Ruchele  Yelen 

Yehudith  Yelen  Brothr  Berele  Yelen 

Brother  Shyja  Yelen  Sister  Cyla  Kalter 

Sister  Leya  Yelen  Sister  Neshka  Kalter 


Abe  Yelen  and  Feimily, 

Michael  Yelen  and  Family,  David  and  Lola  Kwinter 


252 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


THE  WOLFOWICZ  FAMILY 

U.S.A. 


V' 


* 


■S'  r. . 


'?  I 


1 

f 


> !’ 


Moishe  Wolfowicz  (Morris 
Wolf),  born  in  Czensto- 
chova,  son  of  Berish  and 
Rivkah  Wolfowicz,  born 
May  2,  1910.  Moishe  was  in 
Bergen  Belzen  and  liber- 
ated in  May  of  1945.  He 
married  Sala  Schotland  on 
June  28,  1946,  and  moved 
to  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  in 
1950.  They  have  three  sons 
and  seven  grandchildren. 
They  are  currently  living  in 
North  Miami  Beach  and  in 
Des  Moines,  Iowa. 


lii 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  WINDMAN  FAMILY 

U.S.A. 

Wolf  Windman,  bom  in  Czenstnchova,  is  the 
son  of  Leizer  and  Mania  Windman-Shopa, 
Wolf  was  in  the  large  and  small  ghetto.  On 
January  16th,  1945,  Wolf  was  deported  to 
Buchenwald.  He  was  liberated  May  8,  1945. 
He  lived  in  Paris  until  1960  when  he  came 
to  the  United  States. 


The  extermination  of  six  million  must  never  be  forgotten. 

There  are  people  today  who  declare  the  Holocaust  was  a myth, 
that  it  never  happened.  Through  education  of  all  people,  the 
Holocaust  must  be  told  over  and  over  again  to  assure  that  what 
was  must  never  again  be.  Our  most  sacred  task  now  is  ensur- 
ing that  the  memory  of  this  greatest  of  human  tragedies,  the 
Holocaust,  never  fades,  that  its  lessons  are  not  forgotten. 

As  an  infant,  born  in  Paris  in  1941, 1 was  too  young  to  realize 
the  events  of  the  time.  I have  educated  my  children  to  always 
remember  and  never  to  forget. 

I also  want  to  pay  a special  tribute  to  my  uncle  Wolf  Windman, 
President  of  the  Czenstochover  Social  Club  of  Greater  Miami, 
and  to  my  mother  Paulette  Windman  Cohen  who  during  the 
Holocaust  made  sure  that  I was  hidden  and  safe  from  the 
Nazis  until  I came  to  the  United  States  with  her,  where  we  live 
and  worship  the  way  we  want. 

When  my  uncle  Wolf  came  to  the  United  States,  he  told  me  of 
the  atrocities  he  lived  through  and  saw.  I am  very  proud  of  him 
for  the  work  he  does  and  his  commitment  to  the  United  States 
and  Israel,  and  the  cause  to  assure  that  there  will  never  be 
another  Holocaust. 

JACQUELINE  WINDMAN  SCHUPPER 


HOLOCAUST  SURVIVOR 


250 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legao: 


hi 


fi' 


I 


ni 


Peter  and  Susan  Ship 


THE  WALLACE 
(WROCLAWSKI) 

SHIP  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Felicia  Szaja  was  born  in  Czensto- 
chova.  She  married  Adam  Wallace 
(Wroclawski)  who  was  born  in 
Bendzin,  but  as  a married  couple 
they  lived  in  Czenstochova.  They 
were  blessed  wdth  a son  Mietek,  but 
his  life  was  a short  one  as  he 
perished  in  the  Holocaust  at  the 
age  of  6. 

The  Wallaces  survived  the  Czensto- 
chover  Ghetto  and  then  in  the 
Labor  Camp  “Hasag”,  where  they 
were  liberated  in  1945. 

They  lost  many  members  of  their 
family  After  the  liberation  they  left 
for  Czechoslovakia  and  in  1947 
made  their  way  to  Montreal, 
Canada,  where  their  daughter, 
Susan,  was  born  shortly  thereafter. 

Felicia  passed  away  in  1961  and 
Adam  in  1971. 


Their  daughter  Susan  married  Peter 
Ship.  They  have  a daughter  Mona,  a 
son  Darren,  died  in  1985.  The  Ships 
reside  in  Montreal. 


Mona  Ship 

THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Leerac: 


249 


THE  SZWIMER  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Szlomo  Szwimer,  bom  in  Czenstnchova, 
the  son  of  Joseph  and  Faiga  (nee 
Gelber).His  parents  and  immediate 
family  all  perished  in  the  Holocaust. 
Szlomo  survived  both  ghettos  and  then 
was  incarcerated  in  the  concentration 
camp  at  Hasag  Pelcern,  after  which  he 
was  sent  to  camps  at  Buchenwald  and 
. Dora.  After  being  liberated  from  Bergen 
' A Belsen,  Szlomo  spent  some  time  in  the 

town  of  Saltzheim.  Here  he  became  ac- 
tive in  sports  and  involved  in  activities 
devoted  to  aiding  Jews  in  the  struggle 
- to  make  illegal  aliya  to  Israel  from 

Germany.  In  1946  he  made  the  journey 
to  Israel  himself;  however,  the  British  intercepted  the  boat  on  which  he  was 
travelling.  All  of  the  ship’s  passengers  were  placed  in  an  internment  camp 
known  as  Eilit.  After  two  days  in  this  camp,  he  managed  to  escape  with  the 
help  of  outsiders.  Establishing  a normal  life  was  a difficult  task  under  British 
occupation.  Szlomo  became  involved  in  the  underground  military  and  trained 
at  Givat  Olga,  a training  facility  for  special  forces.  In  1948,  he  was  mobiliz- 
ed through  the  Palmach  as  a member  of  the  Harel  unit  and  sent  to  open  a 
way  to  Jerusalem,  which  at  the  time  was  surrounded  by  the  Arabs.  Fought 
in  these  successful  battles,  as  well  as  the  fight  for  old  Jerusalem  and 
numerous  battles  on  the  Negev.  Married  in  1952  to  Laja  Friling,  they  had 
their  first  son,  Joseph  and  moved  to  Canada.  Szlomo  established  a successful 
furniture  business  working  long  and  hard  hours.  Soon  the  couple  had  two 
more  sons,  Morris  and  Philip.  The  Szwimers  have  achieved  a very  happy 
family  life  and  have  enjoyed  the  additions  of  two  daughters-in-law  and  the 
birth  of  a grandson,  Jason. 


248 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legac 


THE  SWAN  FAMILY 

TORONTO 

Jack  Swan  (Swietarski)  was  born  in  Predborz,  Poland,  in  1918.  He 
is  the  son  of  Lavish  and  Leah  (nee  Saifert)  Swietarski.  He  had  three 
sisters  and  one  brother.  His  father  was  a Felsher  (paramedic)  for 
the  town.  Frances  (Frania)  Windman  was  born  in  Czenstochova, 
Poland,  in  1920,  the  daughter  of  Fischel  and  Chava  (nee  Shinert) 
Windman.  She  had  twelve  brothers  and  sisters.  The  family  was 
involved  in  running  a successful  bakery. 

Jack  and  Prances  were  married  in  Czenstochova  in  1939,  and  spent 
most  of  the  war  years  in  Germany.  Eight  of  Frances’  family  and  only 
Jack’s  youngest  sister  survived. 

In  1946,  they  travelled  back  to  Czenstochova  and  then  made  their 
way  to  a refugee  camp  in  Einring,  Germany.  From  there  they  went 
to  Belgium,  where  their  daughter,  Evelyn,  was  born  in  1947. 

They  settled  in  Toronto,  Canada,  in  1948,  where  Jack  worked  as  a 
barber  until  he  retired  in  1987.  Frances  worked  as  a hairdresser. 
Their  second  daughter,  Lynn,  was  born  in  1953. 

Jack  and  Frances  still  reside  in  Toronto  with  their  family,  which  now 
includes  five  grandchildren,  Felicia  and  Mitchell  Cohen,  and  Mamie, 
David  and  Daniel  Goodman. 


m 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesac 


247 


THE  SREBRNIK  FAMILY 

TORONTO 

Edward  and  Esther  (nee  Gabel)  Srebrnik 
were  born  in  Czenstochova.  Edward  is 
the  son  of  Chava  Rosen  and  Hershel, 
Esther  the  daughter  of  Gk)lds  Zilber- 
man  and  Eaiwish  Gabel.  They  were  in 
both  ghettos  and  Hasag  Pelcern, 
liberated  on  January  17,  1945.  Ed- 
ward’s mother  and  four  brothers  and 
sistem  perished  in  the  Holocaust.  His 
father  died  during  the  war.  Esther’s 
parents  and  two  brothers  also  perish- 
ed. They  came  to  Montreal  in  1948  with 
their  son,  Henry,  born  in  Czenstochova 
in  1945.  They  have  two  daughters  in 
Montreal,  Grace  and  Evelyn,  and  one 
grandson  in  Toronto.  Edward  and  Esther,  both  very  active  in  the 
Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal  and  Toronto. 


EDWARD  & ESTHER  SREBRNIK 


246 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  SKOVRONEK  FAMILY 

TORONTO 

Philip  Skovronek,  born  in  Krzepic,  son  of 
Chaskiel  and  Hendl  Fbige  Skovronek— 
Cincinatus,  was  tak:en  away  from  his 
home  on  April  10,  1942,  and  sent  to  Nie- 
derkirch,  and  from  there  to  Markstad, 
Finfteichen,  Gross— Rosen,  Flosenburg, 
Dresden  and  was  liberated  by  the  Rus- 
sian army  in  Theresienstadt,  May  9, 
1945. 

Arrived  in  Toronto,  September  1948, 
and  was  married  the  following  year  to 
Esther  (born  in  Toronto),  the  daughter  of 
Meyer  and  Rachel  Schnittman. 

Philip  joined  the  Czenstochover  Aid  Society  and  became  active  in  the 
executive.  He  was  elected  as  President  in  1976.  Esther  is  active  in  the 
sisterhood.  They  have  three  daughters,  Harriet,  Cheryl  and  Marilyn,  and  four  • 
grandchildren,  Brandon,  Rebecca,  Gillian  and  Daniel. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeax: 


THE  SILVER  FAMILY 

UNITED  STATES 

Frank  Silver  (Froim  Zylberglait),  born 
in  Czenstochova,  Nadrzecna  18,  son  of 
Moishe  and  Esther  Leah  (nee  Bomba). 
Both  parents,  two  brothers,  Baruch  and 
Itzhak,  four  sisters,  Faige,  Yeta,  Reisel 
and  Lieba,  perished  in  the  Holocaust. 
Has  one  brother,  Israel,  now  living  in 
Jerusalem,  Israel.  Was  in  both  ghettos 
and  the  Hasag.  Was  liberatd  in  Czen- 
stochova in  1945. 

Lola  Silver  (nee  Slawna),  born  in  Czen- 
stochova, Aleja  36.  Daughter  of  Chaim 
and  Esther  Binah  (nee  Eilenberg).  Was  in  both  ghettos  and  in  the  Hasag. 
Liberated  in  1945  in  Czenstochova.  Lost  both  parents,  two  sisters,  Gitel  and 
Hannah,  and  one  brother,  Abraham.  Has  two  sisters  living  in  New  York,  Bala 
and  Rose,  and  one  sister,  Sarali,  living  in  Israel.  Has  one  brother,  Motek, 
living  in  Montreal,  Canada. 

The  Silvers  emigrated  to  Canada  in  1949,  and  moved  to  New  York  in  1957. 
Both  are  active  in  the  Czenstochover  Society,  where  Frank  was  president 
in  1986-7.  Lola  is  a Life-member  of  Hadassah.  The  Silvers  have  two 
daughters,  Esther  and  Phyllis. 


i 


# 


\ 


■W" 


FRANK,  LOLA  & ISRAEL  ZYLBERGLAIT 


/ 


TWO  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


244 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  SEMSKY  FAMILY 

(CONTINUED) 

The  ghetto  was  a horror.  People  were  beaten  and  killed  for  no  reason. 
After  a short  while,  the  small  ghetto  was  burned  down  and  everyone  was 
sent  to  the  Hasag.  We  all  worked  in  the  ammunition  factory,  mEiking  bullets 
that  were  used  to  kill  us.  When  they  built  the  kitchen,  I was  sent  to  work 
there.  Life  became  a bit  easier  because  I was  able  to  feed  our  families.  I stole 
food  to  give  to  others  to  stay  alive.  This  went  on  for  three  years.  In  mid- 
January  we  heard  that  the  Russians  were  near  and  on  January  16,  1945, 
we  were  liberated. 

A new  life  was  to  begin  as  we  tried  to  remember  how  human  beings  lived. 
In  March  of  1946,  our  son,  Arnold,  was  born  in  the  same  town  where  my 
husband  and  I were  born.  We  decided  that  we  had  to  raise  him  in  America, 
where  people  were  free.  We  arrived  in  America  in  1949.  Our  daughter  was 
born  in  September  of  1952.  That  completed  our  family.  A new  life  in  a new 
country. 

- REMEMBER  - 

Miriam  and  Morris  Sernsky 


THE  VOICE  OF  A 
SECOND  GENERATION 
HOLOCAUST  SURVIVOR 

My  name  is  Cheryl  Pieda  Sernsky.  I am  named  after  Charna  and  Faivel 
Majorczyk  - grandparents  I have  never  known. 

Recently  my  parents,  Morris  and  Miriam  (nee  Majorczyk)  Sernsky  added 
their  names  to  the  Holocaust  Memorial  wall  in  Miami. 

It  is  the  only  gravestone  I can  visit,  being  the  child  of  Survivors.  This 
is  both  good  and  bad.  I was  taught  valuable  lessons,  mostly  on  the  impor- 
tance and  closeness  of  family.  How  unfortunate  is  the  history  of  those 
lessons  ! 


“I  CAN  NEVER  FORGET  . 


Cheryl  Sernsky 


243 


THE  SEMSKY  FAMILY 

NEW  YORK 


This  is  dedicated  to  our  future:  Our  son, 
Arnold  and  his  wife  Lorraine,  their 
children  Michele  and  Michael,  and  our 
daughter,  Cheryl. 


I,  Miriam,  was  born  in  Czensto- 
chova  in  1922,  to  Eaivel  and  Ghana  Ma- 
jorczyk.  I adored  my  parents.  I am  the 
oldest  of  the  family.  I had  three  sisters 
and  a brother.  My  childhood  was  happy. 
I was  very  athletic  and  had  lots  of 
friends.  When  the  Germans  came  on 
September  1,  1939,  everything  changed. 
Bullets  flew  for  a day  and  night  as  an  introduction  to  the  misery  to  come. 
We  were  sent  out  of  our  homes  to  slave  labor  for  the  Germans.  I worked  in 
the  kitchen.  The  Germans  decided  that  there  were  still  too  many  people  and 
made  a selection. 


MR  & MRS.  MORRIS  SEMSKY 


ARNOLD  & LORRAINE  SEMSKY  and  children,  Michele  and  Michael 


Some  to  the  left,  some  to  the  right  — no  one  knew  where  they  were  going 
Within  five  minutes,  all  I had  left  of  my  family  was  my  youngest  sister,  Lola 
We  were  sent  to  Metalurgia  and  from  there  to  the  small  ghetto.  It  was  there 
in  the  kitchen,  that  I met  my  husband,  Morris.  My  sister  stayed  with  us 

THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


(continued) 


242 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lei 


• a* 


THE  MORRIS  SECEMSKY  FAMILY 

CHICAGO 


EMMA  AND  MORRIS  SECEMSKY 


Survivors  of  the  Holocaust,  Morris  and  Emma  married  in  Germany  in  1947, 
following  their  liberation.  They  immigrated  to  Chicago  in  1949,  where  Morris 
was  in  business  until  his  retirement.  The  Secemskys  have  three  children, 
Rebecca  (a  teacher,  married  to  Jeffrey  Morris),  Solomon  (a  physician,  mar- 
ried to  Ginnie),  and  Rochelle  (an  attorney,  married  to  Bernie  Dyme).  All  the 
Secemsky  children,  together  with  their  nine  grandchildren,  live  in  the 
suburbs  of  Chicago,  enabling  Morris  and  Emma  to  “shep  nachas”  from  their 
true  “yiddishe  kinder”  on  a regular  basis. 

Emma  and  Morris  Secemsky  have  been  members  of  Anshe  Motele  Congrega- 
tion in  Chicago  for  over  31  years.  Morris  has  been  an  active  board  member 
of  the  shul  for  20  years,  and  currently  serves  as  chairman  of  the  board. 

The  Secemskys  have  dedicated  their  lives  to  Jewish  communal  service.  They 
are  involved  in  the  work  of  Shearis  Hapleitah,  LaOr  and  Israel  Bonds.  Morris 
is  currently  the  Treasurer  of  LaOr,  and  has  served  as  its  president,  as  well 
as  an  honoree  of  this  organization  dedicated  to  Holocaust  education.  Morris 
emd  Emma  are  strong  supporters  of  Israel  Bonds,  and  have  been  Bond 
Honorees  of  Anshe  Motele. 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


241 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  ROSENTAL  FAMILY 

U.S.A. 

Manny  Rosental,  born  in  Czensto- 
chova,  son  of  Shmuel  and  Freda 
Rosental.  His  parents,  aunt,  two 
brothers  (Malech  and  Moshe)  and 
sister  (Malka)  perished  in  the  Holo- 
caust. Molly  Rosental,  also,  lost  her 
parents  (Chaskel  and  Feiigil  Rosen- 
tal), her  two  brothers  (Yaakov  and 
Simcha)  and  her  sister  (Leah)  to  the 
Holocaust. 

Manny  and  his  wife,  Molly,  survived 
both  ghettos  . Liberated  in  Czensto- 
chova,  Hasag,  January  16,  1945. 
Manny  volunteered  in  the  Israeh  Ar- 
my in  1948,  then  came  to  the  United 
States  in  1963  with  his  wife,  Molly. 
They  have  two  daughters,  Ziporah 
and  Freda,  and  five  grandchildren. 


5^ 


\ 


Manny  Rosental  was  mobilized  in 
Pbland  August  20,  1939.  After  three 
weeks,  he  became  a prisoner  of  war. 
Six  months  later,  the  Germans  sent 
the  Jewish  prisoners  of  war  home  to 
the  ghetto. 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


Harry  Rosenblum,  born  in  Czenstx^chova,  son  of  Heindl  and  Rachel  Rosen- 
blum-Chlopak,  was  in  the  large  and  small  ghetto  and  in  Hasag  Pelcern. 
Deported  to  Buchenwald  in  January  of  1945.  Liberatd  in  Gardelegen. 

Halina  Rosenblum-Opatowski,  born  in  Lodz,  daughter  of  Berish  and  Rivka- 
Lea,  was  in  the  Lodzer  ghetto,  deported  to  Auschwitz  and  later  to  Bergen- 
Belzen,  liberated  in  1945. 

Harry  came  to  Montreal  together  with  his  wife,  Halina,  in  1953.  The  Rosen- 
blums  became  very  active  in  the  Czenstochover  Society  and  in  the  Ladies 
Auxiliary,  also  elected  executive  members.  They  have  two  daughters  and  a 


TWO  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le^ac 


THE  ROSENBERG  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Madzia  Rosenberg  (nee  Kleiner)  was 
born  in  Czenstochova  to  Rivkah  (nee 
Zylberszatz)  and  Moshe  Mordchai 
Kleiner.  Madzia  was  in  the  large  and 
small  ghetto  and  in  Hasag  Pelcern.  Her 
parents  and  two  of  her  brothers,  Yacov 
and  Yechiel,  perished  in  the  Holocaust. 
She  was  deported  to  a German  concen- 
tration camp  in  Ravensbruek,  Germany 
and  was  liberated  in  May  1945.  Madzia 
married  Joseph  Rosenberg,  son  of  Hin- 
da  (nee  Gastfreund)  and  Shmuel  Rosen- 
berg. His  four  brothers  and  one  sister 
MADZIA  & JOE  ROSENBERG  all  perished  in  the  Holocaust.  They  have 

two  children,  Sam  and  Renee  (Pineberg) 
four  grandchildren,  Sam’s  children,  Lara  and  Morgan,  and  Renee’s  children, 
Lonny  and  Mandy. 


it 


■ 


Standing  (from  the  right):  LONNY,  LARA,  MORGAN  and  MANDY 

THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


238 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


The  Families 

REKSZOWICZ  & MAYEROVICH 

of  Nova  Wies 

and  the  Eamilies 

CHARNEY,  SCHIFF  & CRACKOWER 

of  Czenstochova 

after  living  in  these  communities 
for  generations, 

were  left  with  only  two  known  survivors 

after  the  Holocaust  — 

JOINE  REKSZOWICZ  & HELEN  REIBER 


ANNETTE  RENSCHOWICZ 


A survivors  “get'together** 


Mrs.  Eva  Klein  (nee  Borenstein)  was  born  in  Olkush.  She  is  seen  here 
at  a Survivors  “get-together"  in  Miami.  FI.  in  March,  1993,  at  the 
residence  of  Mr.  & Mrs.  Frank  & Rose  Besser. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leffac 


237 


THE  PACK  FAMILY 

TORONTO 

Manny  Pack  (nee  Chlopak)  and  Fania  survived  the  ghettos  of  Czenstochova. 
From  1942  to  1945,  they  worked  at  Hasag  Pelcern  and  escaped  during  the 
Russian  liberation  on  January  17,  1945.  Their  son,  Samuel,  was  born  in 
December  of  1945  in  Czenstochova,  where  they  lived  until  1950,  when  they 
moved  to  Tel  Aviv.  In  1952,  they  emigrated  to  Toronto,  Canada,  where  they 
successfully  established  themselves  in  their  business  and  personal  lives. 
Their  son  is  married  to  Linda,  and  they  have  two  grandchildren,  Andrew 
and  Jessica. 


I'*;:'."!'.' 


m. 


m 


236 


CZENSTCHUHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  NISKER  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Lucy  Mietkiewicz  Zilbert  Nisker  was 
* born  in  Czenstochova.  She  is  the  daughter 
of  Wolf  and  Ibsia  (Kopinski)  Mietkiewicz. 
She  is  the  only  survivor  of  her  family.  She 
was  in  the  large  and  small  ghetto,  then  in 
the  labor  camp  Hasag.  Her  parents  were 
shipped  to  Treblinka  and  she  was  being 
taken  care  of  by  the  Zilbert  family,  who 
later  adopted  her.  The  three  of  them  came 
to  Montreal  via  France  in  1948.  Lucy  is 
married  to  David,  they  have  two  children: 
a daughter,  Joyce  married  to  Steven  Teikef- 
man,  and  son.  Dr.  William  married  to  Diane  Sandler.  The  Niskers  have  five 
grandchildren.  Lucy  is  active  in  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal. 


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THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


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.^i;  ••‘ni{%i 


, I 

■•;5Ul%iil 


THE  NIRENBERG  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

David  Nirenberg,  son  of  Avraham  and 
Ester  (nee  Aranowicz).  David  was  in  both 
ghettos  and  Hasag  Pelcern.  Deported  to 
Buchenwald  and  many  other  KZ.  camps. 
Liberated  in  Germany,  David  came  to 
Montreal  with  his  wife  Miriam,  daughter 
of  Szmul  Greenberg  and  Tzivia  (nee 
Puterman)  of  Pabianitz.  They  have  a son 
and  one  grandchild. 


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THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


234 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leerac 


THE  MRUVKA  FAMILY 

U.S.A. 

Ruth  Mruvka  (nee  Bialek),  born  in 
Czenstochova,  daughter  of  Szulem 
and  Pearl  (nee  Laicher)  Bialek,  was 
in  both  ghettos  and  Hasag  Pelcern. 
Liberated  on  the  16th  of  January 
1945.  Murmy  Mruvka,  son  of  Zelda 
(nee  Czarna)  and  Alan  Mruvka,  was 
born  in  Czenstochova.  Liberated  in 
Austria,  lived  as  a Pblish  boy  in 
Austria. 

Ruth  and  Murray’s  parents  and 
their  family  perished  in  the 
Holocaust. 

The  Mruvka  family  have  two 
children.  Pearl  and  Alan.  Pearl  is 
married  to  David  Fbrman  and  has 
two  sons,  Ethan  and  Ryan.^ 


"tc. 

^1. 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leerac 


THE  MAYERCZAK  FAMILY 

MIAMI 

Leon  and  Pola  (nee  Szwarcbaum)  were  born  in  Czenstochova.  They  were 
liberated  in  Hasag  Pelcern  on  January  16th,  1945.  They  live  presently, 
together  with  their  family,  in  Miami  Beach,  Florida. 

They  have  two  sons,  Joseph  and  Michael,  daughters-in-law,  Rhea  and 
Linda,  and  five  grandchildren,  Marjorie,  Sari  and  Justin,  Ian  and  Ejay. 


I 


’ - 


>2  •'*' 


RUTH  PECHWASSER  AND  FAMILY 

TO  ALL  THE  PEOPLE  WE  LOVED  AND  LOST, 
AND  TO  ALL  WHO  SURVIVED, 

LET  GENERATIONS  TO  COME  NEVER  FORGET ! 


.<5*4 


232 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legaa 


THE  MARKOWICZ  FAMILY 

UNITED  STATES 


Victor  Markowicz,  son  of  Szymon  and 
Guta  Markowicz  (both  born  in  Czensto- 
chova),  was  born  in  Tynda,  Siberia.  He 
spent  his  childhood  in  Warsaw  and  mov- 
ed with  his  parents  and  sister  to  Israel 
\ isi  at  the  age  of  twenty  After  having  stu- 

I died  mathematics  at  the  Haifa  Technion, 
he  moved  to  the  United  States.  He  pre- 
sently  lives  with  his  wife,  Monica,  and 
his  two  daughters,  Clara  and  Daniela  in 
Englewood,  New  Jersey.  His  older 
sister,  Ewa  Jagermann,  lives  with  her 
husband,  Marcel  Jagermann,  and  daughter,  Beatrice  Warecki,  in  Montreal. 
Guta  Markowicz  continues  to  live  in  Haifa. 


VWiS--  ■ 


■ 


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A - 


^ * 


* 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leerac 


THE  LERNER  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Dorka  Lerner,  born  in  Czenstochova, 

' i daughter  of  Refuel  and  Fradel  (nee 

1^3  y.:  f Haberman).  Dorka  was  in  both  ghettos, 

f later  worked  in  Hasag  Pelcern  together 

with  her  two  sisters,  Sala  and  Bluma. 
\ ■-  ^ _ Tlieir  parents  and  two  brothers  pe- 

^ “•> . ^ " rished  in  the  Holocaust.  Dorka  was 

j liberated  on  January  16th,  1945  in 
I Czenstochova.  She  was  married  to  the 
I late  Simon  Lerner  and  has  one 
’ daughter,  Frances,  son-in-law  Bernard 
Fried  and  two  granddaughtei's,  Sabrina 
and  Simone.  She  has  recently  moved  to 
Toronto. 

Simon  Lerner,  born  in  Czenstochova,  son  of  Szlomo  and  Sarah  (nee 
Berkenstadt).  After  the  liquidation  of  the  large  ghetto,  Simon  was  together 
with  his  father,  Szlomo,  and  his  brother  Daniel  in  the  small  ghetto  and  in 
Hasag  Pelcern.  The  Lerners  came  to  Montreal  in  1949.  Simon  was  an  ac- 
tive member  in  the  executive  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  in  Montreal. 


THE  LERNERS  DURING  A VISIT  IN  ISRAEL 
Dorka  and  Simon  Lerner  are  standing  at  the  fully-equipped  Ambulance 
donated  by  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal  in  1971. 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


230 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le^ac 


THE  LEICHTER  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Mama  Lc‘icht(a-  was  lx)rn  in  Dzialoshin  tn 
Yakov  IckowiC'Z  and  Gitel  (nee  Kirshen- 
bauni).  Tlu!ir  family  of  nine"  moved  to 
Cz(*nstoeho\'a  in  1927.  During  the  Nazi 
iH‘ginH‘,  Manias  jiartmls  and  four 
(•hildixai  were  deported  to  Treblinka. 
Mama,  h('r  bix:)ther  Bta  l and  sister  Genia 
(ix'siding  in  Isracd)  wwv  in  the  glietto  and 
Hasag  P(dc:(M'n.  SIk'  was  libt'rattxi  on 
January  19,  19  19,  and  ai  rived  in  Canada 
in  1947  She  has  two  childixai,  Roselyn 
and  Ja(!k,  and  five  grandehildren. 


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THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legac, 


229 


THE  LEFKOWICZ  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Moshe  Lefkowicz  was  born  in  Czensto- 
chova  to  Menachem  and  Rose  (nee  Szaia). 
He  was  in  the  ghetto  and  in  Hasag 
Pelcern.  Liberated  on  January  16th, 
1945. 

Regina  Lefkowicz  (nee  Krakovska), 
was  born  to  Szlomo  and  Pearl  of  Radom- 
sko.  She  was  in  the  ghetto  and  in  Hasag 
Pelcern,  and  liberated  on  January  16th, 
1945. 

Moshe  and  Regina  were  married  in 
Czenstochova  in  1946.  They  came  to 
Montreal  with  their  daughter.  Pearl,  in 
1948.  Their  other  daughter,  Miriam,  was  born  in  Montreal.  The  Lefkowicz’s 
have  two  daughters  and  four  grandchildren. 


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THE  KWINTER  FAMILY 

TORONTO 


Lola  Kwinter  (nee  Yelen),  born  in  Czen- 
stxDchova,  daughter  of  Abraham  and 
Ghana  Yelen  (nee  Nudelman).  Lola  was 
in  both  ghettos  and  in  Hasag  Pelcern. 
She  was  liberated  on  the  16th  of 
January,  1945.  Lola  was  married  to  the 
late  David  Kwinter.  Their  son,  Moshe, 
perished  in  the  Holocaust.  Survivors 
ai'e  daughter  Marilyn  and  son  Alan. 
Lola  has  two  gmndchildren,  Julia  and 
David.  She  was  remarried  to  the  late 
Mike  Mietkiewicz,  born  in  Czensto- 
chova,  survived  by  two  sons,  Henry  and 
Mark. 


LOLA  KWINTER 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leffoc 


227 


MM 


THE  KOPIN  FAMILY 

U.S.A. 

In  1926,  Jacob  Kopin,  bom  in  CzenstxD- 
chova,  and  his  American  bride,  Eva, 
traveling  on  the  same  passport, 

visited  family  in  Pbland.  Their  son, 
Irwin,  was  born  in  New  York  several 
years  later.  After  the  War,  only  his 
sister,  Dorka,  her  husband,  Ted  Zilber- 
shatz,  and  a niece,  Lucy  Nisker  (nee 
Mietkiewicz),  survived.  They  settled 

in  Montreal.  Irwin  attended  McGill 
University  where  he  met  and  married 
Rita  (nee  Browns tein).  They  have 
three  children,  Judy,  Alan  and  Gail, 
and  three  grandchildren. 


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226 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


THE  KOHN  FAMILY 

FAIRLAWN,  N.J.,  U.S.A. 

Samuel  Kohn  was  born  in  Czenstochov, 
son  of  Jacob  and  Sara  (nee  Genislav).  His 
parents  and  two  sisters,  Renia  and  Rachel 
with  her  two-year-old  daughter,  Marylka, 
perished  in  the  Holocaust  in  Treblinka. 
Sam  was  confined  in  several  ghettos  and 
in  the  concentration  camp,  Blizin,  then  to 
Auschwitz-Birkenau.  Sam  was  liberated 
in  Seshaupt  near  Munich  on  May  5th, 
1945.  Sam  came  to  New  Haven,  Connec- 
ticut in  April  of  1951,  and  in  1953,  he  met 
Celina  (nee  Markowicz).  Celina  survived 
as  a “Catholic”  child  hidden  by  a Pblish  family  on  a farm  near  Czestochowa. 
Sam  and  Celina  got  married  in  June  of  1953.  The  Kohn’s  have  two  children, 
Jeff  and  Sharon  Jacobs.  Sharon  has  a daughter,  Jennifer  Laura. 


4 . t 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


225 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  L^acy 


THE  KLEIN  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 


^ Harry  Klein(er),  born  in  CzenstxDchova, 

' I Moshe  Mordcha  and  Rivka 

(nee  Zilberszatz).  His  parents  and  two 

I of  his  brothers,  Yacov  and  Yechiel,  per- 
i ished  in  the  Holocaust.  Harry  was  in 
the  large  and  small  ghetto,  later  de- 
p>orted  to  Blizin,  from  there  to  Ausch- 
m I witz  and  to  Germany.  He  was  liberated 

F 1 in  Allach-Dachau  on  May  5,  1945.  In 

■ I August  1947  he  married  Eva  (nee 

I Borenstein),  daughter  of  Yitzchak  and 

I Malka  (nee  Gastfreund).  They  came  to 

EVA  & HARRY  KLEIN  Montreal  in  June,  1948.  Eva’s  parents 

and  her  only  sibling,  Yosel,  perished  in 
the  Holocaust.  The  Kleins  have  three 
daughters,  Marilyn  (married  to  Marvin  Kobric),  Ruthie  (married  to  Howard 
Tatner)  and  Janet  (married  to  Steven  Slavin);  and  seven  grandchildren,  Danny 
and  Jeffrey;  Lauren,  Jonathan  and  Bradley;  and  Jaime  and  Ryan. 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


224 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legaa 


STASHEK  KARTUS 


GUTKA  KARTUS 


THE  KARTUS  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Stashek  (Samuel)  Kartus  was  born  in  Czenstx)- 
chova,  Poland,  as  the  son  of  Wilhelm  Kartus 
and  Eva  (nee  Majtlis).  Gutka  (Gita)  (nee 
Nirenberg)  was  born  in  Czenstochova,  Poland, 
as  the  daughter  of  Abraham  Nirenberg  and 
Esther  (nee  Aronovitch).  Both  were  in  the  large 
and  small  ghettos  and  in  Hasag  Pelcern. 
Stashek  survived  a number  of  concentration 
camps,  including  Buchenwald  and  Terezin. 

Stashek  and  Gutka  were  re  united  after  libera- 
tion and  arrived  in  Montreal  in  October,  1949, 
where  their  only  child,  Evelyn,  was  born  in 
January  1950. 

Stashek  worked  as  a salesman  for  many  years. 
Both  were  active  and  vital  people  with  many 
friends.  Stashek  and  Gutka  were  extremely  in- 
volved in  the  Czenstochover  Society  until 
Gutka’s  tragic  accidental  death  on  November 
21,  1982. 

Stashek  later  I'e-married  and  lives  with  his  wife 
in  St.  Laurent,  Quebec.  He  has  two  lovely 
granddaughters,  Carrie  Solomon  and  Genna 
Solomon. 


SAM  KARTUS,  GITA  KARTUS 
& EVY  KARTUS  SOLOMON 


CARRIE  SOLOMON  GENNA  SOLOMON 

Age  11  7 

THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


''  35.  ' ' 


THE  ICKOWICZ  FAMILY 

TORONTO 


Berl  Ickowicz,  born  in  Czenstocliova, 
son  of  Jacob  and  Gitl  (nee  Kirshbaiim). 
Sala  (nee  Niidelman),  born  in  Lelov  and 
lived  in  Czenstocliova,  survivor  of  the 
Holocaust,  liberated  on  January  16th, 
1945  fixim  Hasag  Pelcern.  Caine  to 
Montreal  in  1950.  They  have  two 
daughtei’s,  Gloria  and  Paulette,  and  five 
grandchildren.  Both  have  been  very  ac- 
tive. Berl  was  the  Chairman  of  the  Czen- 
stochover  Society  in  Montreal,  until 
they  moved  to  Tomnto. 


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THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


222 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leerac 


THE  HERSZLIKOWICZ  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Motek  Herszlikowicz,  bom  in  Czenstochova  before  the  War,  the  son  of  David 
and  Hasag  Pelcern.  He  survived  Buchenwald  and  Dora  and  was  liberated  April 
15th,  1945  from  Bergen-Belsen.  Motek  lost  both  parents  and  all  brothers  and 
1945  from  Bergen-Belsen.  Motek  lost  both  parents  and  all  brothers  and 
sisters  in  the  Holocaust.  He  immigrated  to  Montreal  in  1948,  where  he  met 
and  married  his  wife,  Rosalyn.  Together  they  have  two  daughters,  Arlene 
and  Sandy,  three  grandsons  and  two  granddaughters.  Motek  is  still  an  ac- 
tive member  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal. 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  GELBER  FAMILY 

MIAMI,  FLORIDA 


Joseph  Gelber,  son  of  Louis  and  Esther, 
and  Rose  Gelber  (nee  Chai'ny),  daughter 
of  Harry  and  Devorali,  survivors  of  the 
Holocaust,  came  to  New  York  in  1947. 
The  Gelbei's  have  two  childi-en,  Dorothy 
and  Harry,  and  one  grandchild.  Since 
their  arrival  in  the  United  States,  they 
were  very  active  in  both  the  Czensto- 
chover  Society  and  the  Relief  Commit- 
tee. In  1974,  they  moved  to  Miami, 
Florida,  where  Joseph  was  involved  in 
the  founding  and  organization  of  the 
David  Ben  Gurion  Culture  Club  and  the  Czenstochover  Social  Club,  con- 
tributing his  creativity  and  invaluable  service  until  he  died  in  1985. 


X 


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^4. 


Fix)in  left  to  right:  Stewart  and  Dorothy  Sandberg,  Elaine  and  Harry  Gelber, 
Rose  and  Steven  Sandberg. 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


220 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesac. 


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THE  FRIEDLANDER  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Mendel  Fi'iedlander,  bom  in  Czenstnchov, 
son  of  Szlomo  and  Ra,izel.  Ghana  Fried- 
lander,  born  in  Zaglembie  to  Abraham 
and  Zisel  (nee  Erlichman),  and  lived  in 
Czenstochov.  Both  were  in  the  large  and 
small  ghettos.  Mendel  was  deported  to 
Buchenwald  and  liberated  in  January 
1945.  He  met  Ghana  in  Gzenstochov  after 
her  liberation  in  January  1945.  They  ar- 
rived in  Montreal  in  1948.  They  have  two 
children,  Rosa  and  Sam,  and  five 
grandchildren . 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  FELDBRILL  FAMILY 

CALIFORNIA 

I Mendel  Feldbrill  was  born  in  Czensto- 
I chova  and  lived  with  his  family  at 

J I Krotka  8.  He  was  in  the  large  and  small 

I , ghetto  and  was  placed  into  the  Rakov 

work  camp,  then  transferred  to  Buchen- 

Efe  wald.  Mendel  was  liberated  by  the  Rus- 
sian Army  in  May  1945.  His  wife  Mila 
Feldbrill  (nee  Milstein)  was  born  in 
Czenstochova.  She  lived  with  her  family 
at  Targowa  17.  She  was  in  both  ghettos 
and  worked  in  Hasag  Pelcern.  Mila  was 
liberated  by  the  Russian  Army  in 
January,  1945.  Their  parents  and  sib- 
lings  perished  in  the  Holocaust. 

After  gaining  freedom,  they  were  mar- 
i lived  in  Germany,  then  Israel, 

later  in  Thronto,  Canada.  In  1956  they  moved  to  the  United  States.  They  have 
two  sons,  one  a dentist,  the  other  an  investment  mortgage  broker  who  is 
married  and  has  given  them  restitution  - a granddaughter. 


Ws. 


At  the  Treblinka  Memorial  Headstone 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


218 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le^ac 


and  a son,  Martin  - 


THE  FISHMAN  FAMILY 

TORONTO 

Chayim  Fishman  was  born  in  Czensto- 
chova  to  Moshe  Leib  and  Gitel  (nee  Zar- 
noviecka)  from  Fladomsko.  His  parents, 
two  brothers  and  a sister,  perished  in 
the  Holocaust.  Chayim  was  in  both 
ghettos  and  in  Hasag  Pelcern,  where  he 
was  liberated  on  January  16,  1945.  Bess 
Fishman,  daughter  of  Szmuel  and 
Rachel  Glatt  (nee  Applebaum),  lost  her 
parents,  two  sisters  and  a brother,  in  the 
Holocaust.  The  Fishmans  came  to 
Toronto  in  September,  1948.  They  have 
two  children  — a daughter,  Roslyn, 
and  five  grandchildren. 


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THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


217 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


THE  DUDKIEWICZ  FAMILY 


MONTREAL 


Mordechai  Dudkiewicz,  son  of  Aaron 


and  Bella,  was  born  in  Koniecpol  in 


1906.  Before  the  war  he  resided  at  27 


Pilsudskiego  in  Czenstochov.  With  the 


outbreak  of  World  War  II,  Mordechai 


managed  to  make  his  way  to  Russia. 


There,  he  joined  the  Polish  Army,  Cav 


airy  Division.  Mordechai  arrived  in 


Israel  in  the  early  1940’s  where  he  met 


and  married  Sara  Fishman.  They  had 


two  children,  Issie  and  Aaron.  Morde 


chai  moved  to  Montreal  in  1956,  his  wife 


and  children  joining  him  in  1958.  Mor- 


dechai became  an  active  member  of  the 


Czenstochover  Society  to  which  he  held 


various  executive  positions.  He  remain 


ed  a devoted  member  until  his  death  in  1978.  Sara  died  in  1973. 


ISSIE,  ZINA, 


MICHAEL  and  ALLAN 


DUDKIEWICZ 


MARCY,  AARON 


STEVEN,  DAVID  and  BRIAN 


DUDKIEWICZ 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


216 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


THE  DANKO  FAMILY 

CHICAGO,  ILLINOIS 

My  name  is  Abe  Danko  and  I write  this  story  to  honor  the 
memory  of  my  parents  and  brothers  who  perished  at  the 
hands  of  the  Nazis. 

My  father,  Isaac  Dankiewicz  was  bom  in  1895.  My  mother,  Bluma,  was 
born  in  1899.  My  brothers  were  Daniel  Wolf  (1917),  Berek  (1923)  and 
Hershel  (1930).  I was  born  Avraham  Dankiewicz  in  1920  in 
Czenstochova. 

In  German-occupied  Czenstochova,  bread  cost  40  zloty  in  1940  if  you 
were  lucky  enough  to  find  any  for  sale.  With  two  of  my  friends,  we  cross- 
ed the  border  into  Klobucko  14  kilometers  away.  In  Klobucko,  bread  cost 
two  marks,  equal  to  4 zloty.  We  bought  15  loaves  of  bread  and  smuggled 
them  back  to  Czenstochova.  We  sold  8 loaves  to  help  pay  for  the  other 
seven  that  we  kept  to  feed  our  families.  The  third  time  we  attempted 
to  smuggle  bread  we  were  captured  and  sent  to  German  forced  labor 
camp  at  Kochanovice,  later  transferred  to  Blahhammer.  I was  transfer- 
red many  times  and  lost  track  of  my  friends.  I never  knew  what  hap- 
pened to  my  family.  I was  liberated  in  Theresienstadt  (Terezin)  in  May 
of  1945  and  promptly  hospitalized  for  four  weeks  with  typhus.  In  June 
I returned  home  to  Czenstochova  but  I found  no  trace  of  my  parents 
or  brothers.  The  memory  of  my  family  will  remain  within  me  as  long 
as  I live. 

My  name  is  Edith  Danko  and  I write  this  to  honor  the 
memory  of  my  parents,  brothers  and  sisters  who  perished 
at  the  hands  of  the  Nazis. 

My  father,  Hershel  Hershkowitz,  was  born  in  1889.  My  mother,  Rivka 
Lox  Hershkowitz,  was  born  in  1891.  My  oldest  sister,  Zisel,  was  born 
in  1915.  Then  came  my  brother  Leib  in  1916,  Yesrael  in  1918,  and  I was 
born  Chiah-Idel  in  1920.  My  sister,  Sarah,  was  born  in  1922,  brothers 
Etmim  and  Antchell  in  1924  and  1926.  My  youngest  sister.  Dobra,  was 
born  in  1930. 

My  father  was  a small  businessman  in  Seleszcze,  Czechoslovakia.  In 
1943,  the  Germans  took  my  entire  family  to  Kamienice  Podolsky.  At 
the  ui^ging  of  my  gimidmother,  I hid  in  the  forest  and  witnessed  my  fami- 
ly being  taken  away.  After  two  days  I returned  to  my  house  and  waited 
for  thi-ee  months  for  their  mturn.  The  final  transport  took  me  to  the 
ghetto  in  Chust.  Six  weeks  later  we  were  aboard  a train  to  Auschwitz. 
Shortly  I was  sent  to  an  airplane  factory  at  Boytzenburg.  I was  liberated 
on  May  5,  1945  by  the  American  army.  I spent  2-1/2  years  at  the  Feren- 
waldt  D.P.  camp,  where  I met  Abraham  and  married  him  6 weeks  later. 

We  now  live  in  Morton  Gix)ve,  Ilhnois.  We  have  two  children, 

Celia,  a teacher,  and  Henry,  a medical  doctor.  The  memory 
of  my  paients,  bixytheis  and  sisters  lives  within  them  and  my 
six  gi'andchildren. 


THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


215 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


nTHE  BOWITZ  FAMILY 

Jacob  Bowitz  (Jakubowitz)  was  born  in 
Czenstnchova,  son  of  Shloma  and  Chaya 
(nee  Bratt).  His  parents  and  one  sister. 
Mala,  perished  in  Ti'eblinka.  Jacob  was 
in  the  Czenstochova  Ghetto,  and  later 
was  deported  to  Cieszanow,  Buchenwald 
and  Allach-Dachau.  He  was  libemted  in 
Staltach,  April  30,  1945.  Jacob  and  his 
wife,  Mania,  came  to  Chicago  in  Decem- 

Mania  Bowitz  (nee  Kohn)  was  born  in 
Czenstochova,  daughter  of  Markus 
Mordechai  Kohn  and  Eva  Hawil  (nee 
Waynereich).  Her  parents  and  two 
sisters,  Adele  and  Ruchcia,  perished  in  Treblinka.  Mania  was  in  the  ghetto 
and  Hasag  Pelce^rn. 

Mania  and  Jacob  have  one  daughter,  Helen,  and  four  grandchildren,  Adam, 
Emily,  Corey  and  Jane. 


IN  MEMORY  OF: 

KOHN 

ROSENWALD 

WAYNEREICH 

BRAM 

HAMBURGER 

OPPENHEIM 

SYLMAN 

BRATT 

ROSENBLAT 

HERSCHEL 

ROSENTHAL 

and 

MALA  JAKUBOWITZ 

FRANYA  GRANEK 

THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


214 


THE  BOMBA-HAMBURGER  FAMILY 

U.S.A. 


Abmham  Leib  Bomba,  born  in  Czenstochova,  was  active  in  the  “Freiheit”  and 
in  the  “Poale  Zion”.  He  was,  also,  the  secretary  of  the  Barbers  Union  in  Czen 
stochova.  During  the  war,  Abraham  was  in  the  large  ghetto.  On  the  26th  of 
September,  1942,  he  was  deported,  together  with  his  family,  to  Treblinka, 
where  he  was  working  in  the  gas  chamber  as  a Barber,  cutting  off  all  the 
women’s  hair  before  they  were  gassed. 

In  January  of  1943,  he  managed  to  escape  from  Treblinka,  and  returned 
back  to  Czenstochova  into  the  small  ghetto.  After  the  liquidation  of  the  ghet- 
to, he  worked  in  “Hasag  Pelcern”.  Abraham  Bomba  was  liberated  in 
Czenstochova  on  the  16th  of  January,  1945.  After  his  liberation,  he  went  to 
Falkenstein,  Germany,  where  he  was  the  president  of  the  Jewish  Community. 
Abraham  emigrated  in  1951  to  the  United  States,  and  became  very  active  in 
the  Czenstochover  Relief,  and  in  the  “Czenstochover  Young  Men”  as  Seci'etai'y 
and  President.  In  1985  he  moved  to  Florida. 

Regina  Bomba  (nee  Hamburger)  was  in  the  Lodzer  ghetto,  later  deported 
to  Radomsko,  then  to  Czenstochova  — in  the  ghetto  and  in  Hasag  Pelcern. 
Regina  was  liberated  on  January  the  16th  1945. 

They  have  one  daughter,  Bonnie,  and  > grandchildren.  Army  and  Karen 
Levy,  who  live  in  Israel. 


FRIMET  BIRNBAUM 

(nee  KONOPINSKA) 

Born  in  Sosnoviec,  wife  of  Aron  Birn- 
baum.  They  lived  in  Czenstochova.  She 
was  in  the  lai'ge  and  small  ghetto  and 
Hasag  Pelcern.  Frimet  was  liberated  in 
Czenstochova  on  Januai'y  16,  1945  and 
came  to  Canada  together  with  her  hus- 
band, Aron  Birnbaum,  in  1949. 

Frimet  was  an  active  member  of  the 
Ladies  Auxiliary  of  the  Czenstochover 
Society. 

Frimet  Birnbaum  died  February  14, 
1980  and  was  buried  at  the  Jewish 
cemetery  in  Montreal. 


ARON  BIRNBAUM 


Born  in  Kamik,  son  of  Szlama  and 
Malka.  Aron  lived  in  Czenstochova  and 
was  in  the  small  and  large  ghetto  and 
Hasag  Pelcern.  He  was  liberated  in 
Czenstochova  on  January  16,  1945,  and 
came  to  Canada  together  with  his  wife, 
Frimet,  in  1949.  Aron  was  active  in  the 
Czenstochover  Society  and  was  a 
member  of  the  executive  committee.  He 
participated  in  all  the  activities  of  the 
Society. 

Aron  Birnbaum  died  April  2,  1981,  in 
Montreal  and  was  buried  next  to  his 
wife,  Frimet  Birnbaum. 


212 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesac 


LEIBISH  BIRNBAUM 

Born  in  Kamik,  son  of  Szlama  and 
Malka,  Leibish  lived  in  Czenstochova  on 
Warszavska  Street.  He  was  in  the  small 
and  large  ghetto  and  Hasag  Pelcern, 
and  liberated  in  Czenstochova  on 
January  16,  1945.  He  then  lived  in  Ger- 
many. He  visited  Montreal  and  took  in- 
terest in  the  Czenstochover  activities  of 
Montreal. 

Leibish  Birnbaum,  brother  of  Aron 
Birnbaum,  died  on  October  31,  1987  in 
Munich  where  he  was  buried  at  the 
Jewish  cemetery.  He  was  survived  by 
his  son,  Szlama  Birnbaum. 


SZLAMA  BIRNBAUM 

Born  in  Czenstochova,  son  of  Leibish 
and  Hela.  Lived  in  Czenstochova  on 
Warszawska  Street.  Szlama  was  in  the 
small  and  large  ghetto  and  liberated  on 
the  16th  of  January  1945. 

He  is  a nephew  of  Aron  Birnbaum. 
Szlama  was  on  a visit  to  Montreal  and 
took  interest  in  the  Czenstochover 
activities. 

Szlama  Birnbaum  is  currently  living  in 
Munich,  Germany,  where  he  started  a 
new  generation  of  the  Birnbaum 
Fa 


THE  SZLAMA  BIRNBAUM  FAMILY 

MUNICH,  GERMANY 

Szlama  Birnbaum  was  married  in  Israel  on  October  3,  1962  to  Hinda  Birn- 
baum,  daughter  of  Mordechai  and  Mala  Mintus.  Her  family  sui'vived  tlie  wai* 
in  Russia  and  emigrated  from  Lodz,  Poland,  to  Israel  in  1950.  Szlama  and 
Hinda  have  4 children,  Zwi,  Abi'aham,  Ilan  and  Ester. 

Zwi,  the  oldest,  is  living  in  Montreal.  He  graduated  from  Concoixlia  Univer- 
sity as  Bachelor  of  Science  in  1987  and  is  currently  emx)lled  in  the  Chai*tered 
Accountancy  program  at  McGill  University. 

Abraham,  who  resides  in  Munich,  deals  primarily  in  real  estate  and  is 
managing  a Hotel  together  with  his  father.  He  got  married  July  28,  1987 
to  Miriam,  daughter  of  Hershel  and  Mania  Daitelzweig. 

Ilan  who  also  resides  in  Munich  is  a wholesaler  and  retailer  of  electronic 
merchandise.  November  12,  1989  he  married  Mira,  daughter  of  Herahel  and 
Zila  Putzer. 

Ester  is  16  years  old  and  still  lives  with  her  parents. 

The  picture  below  was  taken  at  the  wedding  of  Ilan  and  Mira  Birnbaum. 
From  left  to  right;  Ester,  Abraham,  Hinda,  Ilan  and  Mira,  Szlama,  Mii’iam 
and  Zwi. 


* 


# 


210 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leerac 


THE  ALTMAN  FAMILY 

MONTREAL 

Moshe  Altman  Z”L,  son  of 
Chayim  and  Dvorah  (nee  Zylber- 
shatz  Z”L)  and  Marisia  (Miriam) 
Altman  Z”L,  daughter  of  Leibish 
and  Feigel  Cukierman  Z”L,  born 
in  Czenstochova,  were  survivors 
of  the  Holocaust  and  were 
liberated  from  Hasag  Pelcern  on 
the  16th  of  January,  1945. 

In  1948,  they  arrived  in  Israel 
after  a two  year  stay  in  Italy, 
where  their  daughter  (5ypora  was 
born.  In  Israel,  tragedy  struck. 
They  lost  a one-and-a-half  year-old 
son  Chaim  Z’‘l  to  polio.  However, 
they  were  blessed  later  with  two 
' other  children,  Yair  and  Annette. 

In  1959,  the  family  arrived  in  Montreal,  where  Moshe  founded  the  Almet  Co. 

Both  Marisia  and  Moshe  were  very  active  members  of  the  Czenstochover 
Society  and  the  Ladies’  Auxiliary  in  Montreal. 

Moshe  was  an  executive  member  and  Marisia  — the  president  of  the  Ladies’ 
Auxiliary. 

Moshe  Altman  died  on  the  11th  Nissan,  1983. 

Marisia  Altman  died  on  the  25th  Av,  1986. 


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THREE  GENERATIONS  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS 


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208 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


A Special  Thanks 


Working  with  Mr.  Harry  Klein  on  the  “Czenstochover  Book 
Project”  was  a great  experience  and  we  are  looking  forward  to 
seeing  the  book  in  print.  Throughout  the  many  hours  of  work  we 
have  always  admired  his  tremendous  stamina  and  dedication  to 
this  project  and  the  iron  will  he  had  demonstrated  in  wanting  to 
get  this  book  done.  We  are  sure  that  his  committee  will  appreciate 
the  great  effort  and  work  he  has  put  into  it.  He  deserves  great 
applause. 

This  book  will  be  of  special  value  to  the  next  generation  who  must 
know  what  has  happened  in  Czenstochova  so  many  years  ago.  No 
matter  how  many  books  are  written  on  the  Holocaust,  each  one 
has  different  tales  to  record  and  this  one,  in  particular,  is  so  per- 
sonal and  comprehensive. 

With  best  wishes  to  you  and  your  family  for  good  times  ahead. 


David  and  Ursula  Feist 


Our  Testimony 

THANK  YOU 
to  all  the  Czenstochover 
who  participated  in  the 
“photo  album  section”  of  our 
book.  We  have  accomplished 
a mission  that  the  victims 
have  assigned  to  us  — 

TO  REMEMBER! 


THE  BOOK 
COMMITTEE 


Congratulations  and  Best  Wishes 


Mazel-Tov  to 

EVA  and  HARRY  KLEIN 
on  the  occasion 
of  the  publication  of  the  Book 
“Czenstochov  — Our  Legacy” 

ISSIE  & ANNETTE  WERK 

MONTREAL 

Mazel-Tov  to  Our  Friends 
EVA  and  HARRY  KLEIN 
on  the  occasion  of 
the  publishing  of  the  Book 
“Czenstochov  — Our  Legacy” 

EMIL  and  DORA  LIPSHITZ 

Best  Wishes 
to  the  publisher  of 
The 

Czenstochover  Book 
and  the 

Book  Committee 
of  Montreal 

FRANK  & SHALENE 

ZAIDMAN 
MIAMI,  FLORIDA 


Congratulations 
on  the 

publication  of 
The 

Czenstochover  Book 
“Our  Legacy” 

JAY  and  LINDA 
SILVERBERG 

NANAIMO,  B.C. 


Congratulations  and  Best  Wishes  to: 
HARRY  ROSENBLUM 

Chairman  of  the  Book  Committee 


on  the  occasion 
of  the  publishing  of 
“CZENSTOCHOV  - OUR  LEGACY” 

and  to 

all  the  participants 
of  the  Czenstochover  Society 

and 

the  Book  Committee 
who  made  this  historic  document 

a reality 


RUTH,  HENRY  and  ROZ 
ROSENBLUM 


mu 


To  the 

Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal 

and 

to  my  good  friend 
HARRY  KLEIN 
our  heartiest  Mazel  Tov 

Dear  Harry,  I am  pleased 
to  be  a Sponsor  of  your  book 

“CZENSTOCHOV  - OUR  LEGACY”. 

This  publication  is  a sign 
of  your  sensitivity  to  the  need 
to  document  aspects  of  the  Holocaust. 

OUR  BEST  WISHES 
TO  YOU  AND  YOUR  FAMILY 


MR.  and  MRS.  HENRY  SAMEL 

MONTREAL 


Congratulations  and  Best  Wishes 


Mazel-Tov  on  the 
completion  of  the  book 
“Czenstochov  — Our  Legacy” 

In  Honour  of  Our  Parents 
EVA  & HARRY  KLEIN 

With  Love  and  Best  Wishes 

from  your 

Children  and  Grandchildren 

MARILYN  & MARVIN  KOBRIC 
DANNY  & JEFFREY 

RUTHIE  & HOWARD  TATNER 
LAUREN,  JONATHAN  & BRADLEY 

JANET  & STEVEN  SLAVIN 


JAIME  & RYAN 


202 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le/gac: 


Sincere  Thanks  to  oiu*  Friends 

Whose  Support 
Made  this  Project  Possible 


Mr.  & Mrs.  Y.  Altman 
Mr  & Mrs.  C.  Alon 
Mrs.  R.  Abramson 
Mrs.  M.  Ackman 
Mr.  M.  Abman 
Mrs.  S.  Achtman 

Rabbi  B.  Borzykowski 
Mrs.  E.  Birenbaum 
Mrs.  M.  Blankrot 
Mr.  F.  Blum 
Mr.  W.  Biberkraut 
Mrs.  S.  Bedzow 
Mrs.  J.  Buber 
Mr.  & Mrs.  S.  Bruck 
Mrs.  J.  Burdman 
Mrs.  G.  Baum 

Mrs.  J.  Chenciner 
Ml'S.  D.  Cola 
Mrs.  S.  Cuplowski 

Mr.  & Mrs. 

A.  Dudkiewicz 

Mrs.  M.  Einhorn 
Ml'S.  M.  Eastman 
Mrs.  R.  Engel 
Mrs.  E.  Eichler 

Mrs.  A.  Federman 

Dr.  S.  Friedlander 

Mrs.  D.  Feingold 

Mrs.  Froman 

Mrs.  N.  Fuhrer 

Mr.  & Ml'S.  I.  Fayerman 

Ml'S.  E.  Frajberg 

Ml'S.  S.  Germanitski 
Ml'S.  H.  Goldstein 
Mrs.  G.  Gorfinkel 
Mrs.  M.  Gruenwald 
Ml'S.  I.  Gomulinski 
Mr.  & Mrs.  B.  Gmnek 
Ml'S.  & Ml'S.  S.  Grushka 
Mr.  & Mrs.  M.  Gut  berg 
Ms.  B.  Goof  man 

Mr.  & Ml'S. 

M.  Hei'szlikowicz 


Mrs.  B.  Hirshtal 
Mrs.  L.  Horn 
Mrs.  M.  Hirshfeld 
Mr.  & Mrs.  M.  Jagerman 

Mrs.  R.  Kenigsberg 
Mrs.  C.  Kaminski 
Mrs.  B.  Kneller 
Mrs.  F.  Kupferstein 
Mr.  Sam  Kartus 
Mr.  & Mrs.  H.  Klein 
Mrs.  A.  Kotler 
Mrs.  I.  Kornfield 
Mr.  & Mrs.  M.  Kobric 
Mrs.  S.  Kleinplatz 
Mrs.  Krymalowski 

Mrs.  A.  Liberman 

Mrs.  M.  Lande 

Mrs.  M.  Lechman 

Mrs.  B.  Landau 

Mrs.  Levcowicz-Freiman 

Mrs.  Leichter-Silverman 

Mrs.  S.  Lesniak 

Mrs.  B.  Landau 

Mrs.  E.  Landau 

Mrs.  S.  Lesniak 

Mrs.  L.  Lydinia 

Mr.  & Mrs.  J.  Leb 

Mr.  & Mrs.  M.  Lipshitz 

Mrs.  I.  Mandelbaum 

Mr.  & Mrs.  W.  Markowicz 

Mrs.  R.  Milner 

Mrs.  M.  Minzberg 

Mrs.  A.  Munk 

Mr.  & Mrs.  C.  Makowsky 

Mrs.  H.  Mansfield 

Ml'S.  E.  Magier 

Mrs.  B.  March 

Mrs.  L.  Maltz 

Ml'S.  M.  Meiler 

Mrs.  S.  Neuman 
Ml'S.  J.  Mattel 
Dr.  & Ml'S.  B.  Nisker 
Mr.  & Ml'S.  D.  Nisker 
Mr.  & Ml'S.  D.  Nirnnherg 

Ml'S.  B.  Rezyka 


Mrs.  A.  Ranchman 
Mrs.  S.  Rosenblat 
Mrs.  A.  Rosenman 
Mr.  I.  Russ 
Mr.  H.  Rosenblum 
Mrs.  M.  Rotmensh 
Mrs.  D.  Rudnicki 
Ms.  R.  Rosenblum 
Mr.  H.  Rosenblum 

Mrs.  L.  Shefner 
Mrs.  S.  Shmerer 
Mrs.  H.  Schnitzer 
Mrs.  S.  Samuels 
Mrs.  J.  Solomon 
Mrs.  N.  Safir 
Mrs.  L.  Schwartz 
Mrs.  R.  Stone 
Mrs.  S.  Stermer 
Mrs.  S.  Stermer 
Mrs.  S.  Schipper 
Mrs.  R.  Slonovic 
Mrs.  N.  Stermer 
Mr.  Henry  Storozum 
Mrs.  S.  Sonabend 
Mrs.  H.  Silberstein 
Mrs.  E.  Solomon 
Mrs.  M.  Steinmetz 
Mr.  & Mrs. 

M.  Szwimer 
Mr.  & Mrs. 

Sz.  Szwimer 
Mrs.  H.  Takefman 
Ms.  M.  Takefman- 

Backman 
Mr.  & Mrs. 

S.  Takefman 
Mrs.  E.  Tboberman 
Ml'S.  S.  Trokenber 
Mr.  & Mrs. 

H.  Tatner 

Mrs.  M.  Weis 
Mrs.  B.  Wiesniecki 
Mr.  I.  Yablon 
Mrs.  B.  Zajman 
Mrs.  M.  Zylbergold 
Ml'S.  M.  Zysman 


ENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


PECIAL  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT 


The  Book  Committee  wishes  to 
expmss  their  appmciation  to  those 
who  have  shown  exceptional 
genemsity  in  supporting  this  pioject. 
Our  special  thanks  go  to: 


Mrs.  Bessie  Berk 
Mr.  & Mrs.  Aaron  Gelber 
Mr  & Mrs.  Hai'ry  Klein 
Mr.  & Mrs.  David  Nisker 
Mr.  & Mrs.  Harry  Rosenblum 
Mr.  & Mrs.  Arnold  Semsky 
Mr.  & Mrs.  Steven  Slavin 
Mr.  & Mrs.  Issie  Werk 


and  to  the 

Czenstochover 

Czenstochover 

Czenstochover 

Czenstochover 

Czenstochover 


Society  of  Montreal 
Society  of  Toronto 
Society  of  Chicago 
Society  of  New  York 
Social  Club  of  Miami 


200 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


“Young  people  today  all  over  the  world  are 
frighteningly  ignorant  about  Hitler  and  the 
Holocaust  and,  as  a result,  frighteningly 
vulnerable  to  revisionist  lies  and  other 
messages  of  antisemitic  hatred.” 

“Equally  alarming  is  that  this  upsurge  of  antisemitism  is 
world-wide.  Hate  apparently  knows  no  boundaries.  Are 
people’s  memories  so  short?  Every  year,  there  are  fewer  and 
fewer  survivors  of  the  Holocaust.  Their  unique  ability  to 
testify  to  the  horror  of  World  War  II  disappears  with  their 
passing.  That  helps  to  explain  why  many  children  of 
Holocaust  survivors  are  now  beginning  to  play  an 
increasingly  significant  role  in  remembering  the  past  in  order 
to  avoid  its  recurrence.  We,  the  Second  Generation,  are  called 
upon  to  perpetuate  and  preserve  our  legacy  and  pass  it  to  our 
children,  so  that  they  become  the  link  in  time.” 

Toronto 


Are  People’s 
Memories 
So  Short  ? 


“Questions  that  survivors  expected  to  hear 
25  years  ago  finally  began  to  be  asked.  The 
second  generation  of  Holocaust  survivors  is 
taking  over  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of 
those  who  perished  in  the  Holocaust.” 

“The  survivors  of  Hitler’s  “final  solution”, 
however,  did  not  have  the  luxury  of 
abstraction.  For  ordinary  survivors,  it  was  an  unbelievable 
ordeal  they  happened  to  survive.” 

“Whether  silent  or  outspoken,  survivors  were  torn  between 
remembering  and  forgetting,  between  shielding  their  children 
fix)m  their  unhappy  history,  and  warning  them  that  the  world 
was  a dangerous  place.  They  urged  each  other  to  “forget  the 
gruesome  things,  and  look  forward  and  see  the  good”,  but  the 
speed  with  which  the  Holocaust  was  receding  into  history 
frightened  them.  The  Holocaust  is  a crime  that  will  never  be 
forgotten.  It  is  not  to  be  repeated.  Those  tales  deserve  of 
everlasting  hatred  of  the  barbarians  whom  we  should  never 
forget  or  forgive.  We  live  in  the  bloodiest  century  in  the 
history  of  the  Jewish  people  and  in  the  history  of  mankind.” 

Toronto 


Torn 

Between 

Remembering 

and 

Forgetting 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


199 


Second  Generation  ^ Speaking  Out! 

“Tb  call  something  history  means  that  it 
has  come  to  an  end.  Now  you  can  clap  it  in 
a book:  it  is  finished.” 

‘‘The  truth  we  are  hem  to  assert  is  that  the 
Holocaust  did  not  begin  in  the  1930s  and  it 
did  not  begin  in  the  1940s.  You  might  think 
it  began  in  the  Middle  Ages,  but  we  who 
lived  in  the  20th  century,  know  that  the 
Middle  Ages  never  ended;  they  reemerged  in  the  20th 
century.  Now  the  torture  chambers  of  the  Inquisition,  made 
more  horrible  by  modern  science  and  technology,  chemistry, 
physics,  engineering  and  even  medecine,  pmduced  a 
barbarism  far  beyond  the  limited  powers  of  the  Dark  Ages. 
The  mind  still  stumbles  over  the  pinblem;  how  could  this 
happen;  how  could  the  world  let  it  happen?  Reason  faltei's; 
logic  is  pamlyzed.  For  us  Jews,  of  course,  thri  Nazi  Holocaust 
has  special  significance.  This  was  to  be  the  ‘‘Final  Solution”, 
and  that  means  that  we  must  be  prepared  to  carry  the  burden 
of  the  survivor,  for  generations  and  generations  to  come.” 

Montreal 


Barbarism 
of  Modern 
Science 
far  beyond 
cruelty  of 
Past  History 


‘‘It  took  them  more  than  30  years  before  th€) 
Survivors  of  the  Holocaust  could  speak 
openly  of  their  experiences  to  a world  ready 
to  listen.  Now,  quite  suddenly,  it  appears  the 
children  of  these  survivors  are  coming  of 
age.  As  they  do,  they  are  speaking  out  in  a 
voice  of  their  own.  That  voice  is  an  intense, 
sharp  one,  which  gives  expression  to  their 
special  legacy.  Until  recently,  the  burden  of  that  legacy  was 
seldom  discussed  among  survivors  and  their  children.” 

“Words  alone  can  not  convey  the  shock  and  horror  that 
accompanied  this  tangible  evidence  of  the  Nazi  regime’s 
systematic  pmgram  of  genocide.  We  must  never  forget  these 
crimes  against  humanity.  We  must  study  and  understand  the 
record  of  the  Holocaust.  From  this  we  must  learn  to  remain 
eternally  vigilant  against  all  tyranny  and  oppression.  We 
must  rededicate  ouraelves  to  the  principle  of  equality  and 
justice  for  all  people,  remembering  the  terrible  fruits  of 
bigotry  and  hatred.” 


We,  the 
Second 
Generation 
of 

Holocaust 

Survivors 


Montreal 


198 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


“There  has  also  been  increasing  interest  in  recent  years  in  the 
role  non- Jews  played  in  saving  Jews  from  the  Nazis,  he  observ- 
ed. Yad  Vashem,  which  maintains  an  Avenue  of  the  Righteous  at 
the  site  of  the  memorial  and  museum  to  honor  those  who  risked 
their  own  lives  or  freedom  on  behalf  of  Jewish  friends  or 
neighbors,  now  lists  8,000  Righteous  Gentiles  who  hid  or  other- 
wise saved  Jews  from  the  Nazis. 

On  a per  capita  basis,  Holland  leads  in  the  percentage  of  Christians 
who  helped  Jews.  Yad  Vashem  lists  3,000  Righteous  Gentiles  from 
Holland.  Poland,  with  a much  larger  Jewish  and  non- Jewish  popu- 
lation, also  has  3,000.  The  remaining  2,000  persons  represent  the 
total  from  all  the  other  nations  of  Europe. 

Arad  noted,  however,  that  Righteous  Gentiles  in  the  U.S.S.R.  are 
only  now  being  discovered,  because  until  recently  the  Soviet 
government  maintained  a tight  lid  on  documentation  of  anti- 
Jewish  atrocities. 

He  also  said  that  although  Denmark  managed  to  save  almost  all 
of  its  Jews,  very  few  individual  Danes  are  honored  at  Yad  Vashem. 
“The  Danish  Jews  were  saved  as  a group  through  a nationwide 
effort,  leaving  little  or  no  need  for  individual  acts  of  heroism,”  he 
explained.  “Virtually  all  Danish  non- Jews  were  Righteous 
Gentiles.” 

During  his  visit  to  the  United  States,  Arad  spoke  at  a reception 
in  his  honor  given  by  the  American  and  International  Societies 
for  Yad  Vashem.  Eli  Zborowski,  president  of  the  American  and 
International  Societies,  reported  that  Yad  Vashem’s  historic  Valley 
of  the  Destroyed  Jewish  Communities,  adjoining  the  museum  and 
memorial  in  Jerusalem,  was  nearing  completion  and  would  be  for- 
mally opened  at  solemn  ceremonies  next  year.  On  huge  stone 
pillars  in  the  Valley,  covering  an  area  of  six  acres  dug  out  among 
the  hills  surrounding  Yad  Vashem,  will  be  engraved  the  names 
of  some  5,000  European  communities  where  Jews  once  lived. 


A giX)Lip  of  elderly  Jewish  people  in  fmnt  of 
the  Old  Peoples  Home  in  Czenstochox^ 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


197 


Grandchildren  Hear 
Survivors’  Tales 

F^x)ni  The  New  York  Media 

For  many  Jews  who  survived  the  Nazi  Holocaust,  telling  their 
children  about  the  suffering  they  endured  proved  too  emotional 
a task.  But  they  are  finding  it  easier  to  speak  with  their  grand- 
children about  their  experiences,  according  to  Dr.  Yitzhak  Arad, 
chairman  of  Yad  Vashem,  the  Holocaust  Martyrs’  and  Heroes’ 
Remembmnce  Authority  in  Jerusalem. 

“Holocaust  families  have  gone  through  an  unusual  metamor- 
phosis,” Arad  said  during  a recent  visit  to  New  York.  “Many  sur- 
vivors deliberately  refrained  from  discussing  their  suffering  in 
order  to  spare  their  children  — and  themselves  — the  pain  of 
remembrance.  In  an  effort  to  build  new  lives,  survivors  often 
buried  themselves  in  their  business  or  professional  lives,  leaving 
little  time  to  dwell  on  the  past.” 

“Today,  with  the  passage  of  time  and  the  softening  of  memory, 
survivors  feel  differently.  They  can  never  forget,  but  today  more 
and  more  of  them  can  talk  about  the  terrible  losses  they  knew. 
And  they  are  telling  their  stories  to  their  grandchildren,  who  are 
learning  about  the  Holocaust  in  a way  that  the  survivors’  own 
children  never  did.” 

“Moreover,”  said  Arad,  an  historian  who  has  spent  20  years  as 
head  of  the  Yad  ’Vashem  memorial,  “renewed  interest  in  the 
Holocaust  is  not  confined  to  the  grandchildren  of  Holocaust 
families  but  appears  to  be  worldwide.  The  1.2  million  visitors  to 
Yad  Vashem  each  year  includes  a growing  proportion  of  young  peo- 
ple from  all  countries,  many  of  whom  are  not  Jewish. 

“Germany,”  Arad  said,  “is  understandably  one  of  the  nations  most 
involved  in  raising  the  consciousness  of  young  people  to  the  Nazi 
murder  of  Jews.”  He  explained  that  the  German  government 
allows  young  people  to  do  voluntary  work  in  Israel  as  an  alter- 
native to  military  service  through  an  organization  called  Sunden- 
Zeichen  — “Mark  of  Sin”  — as  part  of  Germany’s  effort  to  repent 
for  its  crimes  against  the  Jewish  people. 


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They  began  to  work  hard  to  build  a new  family  and  a life  for 
themselves  in  a foreign  country.  On  March  7,  1948,  almost  a year 
after  arriving  in  the  U.S.,  a baby  daughter  was  born  and  named 
Dorothy  Esther  Gelber.  Three  years  later  on  July  5,  1951,  a baby 
son  and  brother  for  Dorothy  was  born,  Harry  Charles  Gelber  — 
the  beginning  of  a new  family.  They  followed  the  same  religious 
practices  as  in  Europe,  raising  their  children  in  the  kosher  and 
orthodox  tradition.  The  children  attended  public  schools  as  well 
as  Hebrew  School.  My  grandparents  brought  up  their  children  as 
Americans. 

In  October  of  1974,  Joseph  retired  and  moved  with  his  wife.  Rose, 
to  Miami,  Florida.  They  had  a car,  a new  condo,  personal  belong- 
ings, and  love  for  each  other. 

On  July  1,  1985,  Joseph  Gelber  died.  This  was  four  days  before 
his  son’s  birthday  and  eight  months  before  his  50th  Anniversary. 
He  is  survive^d  by  his  wife,  his  brother,  his  sister,  his  children  and 
his  only  grandson,  me. 

He  is  buried  in  Beth  David  Cemetery,  in  New  York  City.  His  mar- 
ble head  stone  reads: 

- Devoted  Husband 

- Beloved  Father  and  Grandfather* 

- Holocaust  Survivor 


Czenstochover  Committee  in  Paris,  1946 


Scate^d  fix)m  right:  Thnenbaum.  Le\i.  Wixyclawski.  Dawidowicz 

Stajiding  fixDiii  right:  Weiiunaii,  Fii'steiifeld.  Ki'zepicki.  Diinian.  Landau. 
Pankulavvski 


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a large  and  busy  port  city  on  the  Baltic  Sea,  owned  and  continued 
by  Poland.  England  and  Pi*ance  agined  to  become  allies  of  Poland. 
Soviet  Russia  arranged  a peace  treaty  to  be  signed  by  Polish  and 
German  delegates.  Hitler,  of  Germany,  and  Mussolini,  of  Italy, 
signed  a military  treaty  joining  forces.  On  August  31,  1939,  the 
treaty  between  Stalin  and  Hitler  was  ratified  in  Moscow. 

Trouble  was  also  brewing  in  the  heart  of  Czenstochov,  the  home 
of  my  grandparents.  German  spies  were  seen  on  every  street 
corner.  My  grandparents  gathered  together  with  other  family 
members,  so  that  they  were  with  one  another  in  case  something 
should  happen.  On  the  radio,  they  heard  that  German  officials 
were  falsely  accusing  the  Jews  of  crimes  they  had  never  com- 
mitted. From  then  on  Jews  were  persecuted  all  through  Europe. 
Every  Jew  was  forced  to  wear  an  arm  band  with  the  Star  of  David 
on  it.  David  decided  to  give  up  the  name  ‘‘David”  because,  in 
Poland,  it  was  a very  Jewish  name.  Ever  since,  he  has  been  only 
known  as  Joseph  Gelben*.  Hitler  started  to  have  a desire  to  cap- 
ture or  even  kill  every  Jew,  so  he  began  establishing  concentra- 
tion camps  to  house  and  execute  the  Jews.  My  grandparents  spent 
months  trying  to  hide  and  avoid  the  conce^ntration  camps,  but  they 
were  eventually  found.  Joseph  Gelber  was  moved  from  camp  to 
camp  along  with  his  wife;,  aunts,  uncles,  cousins,  brothers  and 
sons-in-law.  He  was  with  his  brother  Charles  for  the  most  part, 
but  was  separated  from  his  wife  and  everyone  else.  Later  on,  he 
was  miraculously  liberated  by  a Jewish-American  soldier, 
Seymour  Zipper.  Other  family  members  were  liberated  by  other 
soldiers  of  the  American  or  Russian  armies. 

Many  fatalities  resulted  from  the  war.  My  grandfather’s  brothers, 
Charles  and  Abe,  were  killed  in  the  concentration  camps.  His 
sister,  Molly,  was  also  killed,  along  with  their  parents,  Leon  and 
Esther  Rachel.  Her  three  children  perished.  Aunts,  uncles, 
cousins,  in-laws,  and  close  friends  perished. 

All  but  a few  of  the  liberated  survivors  immigrated  to  foreign 
countries,  such  as  France,  Israel,  England,  the  Netherlands, 

Czechoslovakia,  Canada,  Australia,  the  United  States  and  others. 
On  March  14,  1947,  my  grandparents  arrived  in  the  United  States, 
after  being  rejected  by  the  Netherlands.  They  landed  in  New  York 
Harbor  because  Ellis  Island  had,  already,  been  shut  down.  They, 
along  with  old  friends  and  close  family,  settled  in  the  Bronx.  They 
had  to  go  to  night  school  to  learn  English  after  a hard  day’s  work, 
earning  money  for  the  basic  needs  of  the  family.  Along  with  fur- 
niture making,  my  grandfather  took  on  the  trade  of  designing  and 
making  picture  frames.  Some  of  his  frames  have  been  sold  to 
famous  museums,  such  as  the  Metropolitan  Museum  of  Fine 
Arts. 


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Life  of  a Holocaust  Survivor 

By  Steven  Sandberg,  Age  12 

On  August  13,  1907,  David  Joseph  Gelber,  my  grandfather- to-be, 
was  born  in  the  small  Jewish  community  of  Czenstochova, 
Poland.  He  was  the  oldest  son  of  Leon  and  Esther  Rachel  Gelber, 
who  had  five  other  children,  three  boys  and  two  girls.  The  next 
eldest  was  his  brother  Charles,  followed  by  his  sister  Miriam, 
another  brother  Abe,  his  second  sister  Molly,  and  finally  his  lit- 
tle brother  Philip.  His  father  was  a proud  and  respected  furniture 
maker.  The  family  was  very  religious,  living  by  strict  orthodox 
and  kosher  rules.  They  probably  considered  themselves  poor,  but 
their  love  was  very  great.  Each  person  in  the  household  had 
specific  choms  and  i*esponsibilities.  The  father  was  considered  the 
head  of  the  home  and  family,  responsible  for  everyone. 

As  David  became  more  responsible  for  his  actions,  he  chose  his 
own  friends  and  started  to  date  girls  around  his  age.  One  of  the 
girls  he  met  and  dated  was  Rose  Czarny,  my  grandmother-to-be. 
Although  she  was  a year  younger  than  David,  they  had  a lot  in 
common  and  enjoyed  each  other’s  company.  On  March  15,  1936, 
they  were  finally  married.  They  had  three  children,  two  boys  and 
one  girl.  David,  like  his  father,  was  a furniture  maker.  He  was  very 
talented  in  many  fields,  but  most  of  all,  his  art.  His  hobby  was 
painting  and  drawing.  David  never  sold  his  paintings  because  of 
his  modesty.  He  thought,  “Well,  it’s  just  something  I like  to  do 
in  my  spare  time’’.  So,  he  gave  them  as  gifts  or  mementos  to 
friends  and  family.  In  their  home,  like  the  one  they  grew  up  in, 
they  spoke  Yiddish,  along  with  their  native  language,  Polish.  Most 
women  were  not  allowed  to  learn  Hebrew  because  it  was  against 
orthodox  laws;  Yiddish  was  taught  instead.  As  World  War  II  was 
appreaching,  Jews  were  starting  to  be  considered  inferior  or 
second  class. 

In  March,  1938,  the  German  Army,  under  the  leaderehip  of  Adolf 
Hitler,  took  over  the  Sudetenland,  Czechoslovakia.  World  War  II 
began  on  September  1,  1939,  with  the  invasion  of  Poland,  the 
homeland  of  my  grandparents.  Hitler  wanted  to  control  Danzig, 


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feel  is  a strong  sense  that  life  is  precious  and  there  will  always 
be  good  times  and  bad  times.  The  trick  is  to  have  faith  that  the 
bad  times  will  not  last  forever  and  look  for  the  moments  of  love 
and  humour  that  will  occur;  even  in  a holocaust. 

I also  feel  a strong  drive  to  live  my  life  in  a way  that  is  unselfish 
and  has  significance  for  others.  I believe  that  fate  and  not  just 
luck  made  my  parents  survive  among  the  very  few  and  that  they 
are  here  for  a special  reason;  and  that  I am  too. 

It  has  been  my  personal  challenge,  to  raise  my  own  children  to 
be  sensitive  and  responsible  to  the  needs  of  others  and  always 
appreciative  of  what  they  have.  I hope  they  can  remember  the 
strength  and  courage  of  their  ancestors  and  pass  on  the  story  of 
survival  to  their  children. 

I have  not  as  yet  realized  the  total  impact  my  family’s  past  has 
had  on  my  life.  However,  as  I get  older  and  deal  with  more  of  life’s 
struggles,  I feel  that  somewhere  inside  me  is  a voice,  telling  me 
that  I will  land  on  my  feet.  My  parents  did  and  so  can  I. 


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The  2nd  Generation 

By  Lynn  Goodman 

I am  the  child  of  survivors  of  the  Holocaust.  Until  recently,  that 
in  itself  had  no  special  meaning  to  me. 

I heard  other  “children”  discussing  the  feelings  of  guilt  and 
sadness  they  lived  with,  but  I could  not  identify  with  them.  I 
assumed  quite  simply,  that  1 was  different. 

Now,  as  I find  myself  in  a very  difficult  and  stressful  time,  I realize 
that  being  the  child  of  survivors  has  had  a significant  impact  on 
my  life^. 

My  parents,  Jack  Swietarski  and  Frania  Windman,  were  born  in 
Poland  and  came  to  Canada  in  1947  at  the  ages  of  twenty-nine 
and  twenty-seven  respectively.  They  were  fortunate  in  having 
family  members  survive  with  them.  Of  the  thirteen  children  in 
my  mother’s  family,  eight  survived  and  most  settled  in  or  near 
Tbi*onto.  My  father  had  relatives  in  Canada  who  had  come  before 
the  war  and  his  only  surviving  sister  settled  in  Israel. 

The  focus  of  my  nuclear  family  was  never  centered  on  ourselves. 
This  seemed  very  different  to  me  from  my  Canadian  friends.  We 
were  deeply  involved  in  and  cared  about  all  of  our  extended  fami- 
ly and  friends.  The  bonds  I formed  during  those  years  remain 
stmng  today. 

Jewish  holidays  were  celebmted  at  large  dinners  and  while  we  did 
not  attend  synagogue  or  practice  all  religious  customs,  I did 
develop  a strong  sense  of  my  Jewish  heritage  from  my  family’s 
togetherness.  Thei*e  was  always  story  telling  and  laughter  and 
although  we  heard  many  tales  about  the  “old  country”  and  the 
war,  they  were  never  told  with  hate  or  bitterness.  Somehow  my 

relatives  could  see  life  beyond  the  atrocities  and  even  managed 
to  find  some  humour  in  very  tmgic  cireumstances  — like  the  time 
my  mother  was  given  oxen  and  a cart  to  tmvel  with  on  her  own. 
Her  story  could  have  focused  on  the  terrer  of  being  alone  and  run- 
ning for  her  life.  Instead,  her  story  was  told  laughing  at  herself, 
as  she  tried  to  manage  animals  she  knew  nothing  about ! 

I am  sure  that  my  family’s  positive  attitude  is  the  reason  I do  not 
feel  the  guilt  many  of  my  contempomries  do.  Instead,  what  I do 


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191 


Thoughts  and  Feelings  of  Second  and 
Third  Generation  Holocaust  Survivors 

We  were  brought  up  in  a home  where  the  Czenstochover  Lands- 
manschaft  was  at  the  centre  of  all  our  activities.  Our  father  and 
mother,  Berel  and  Sala  Ickowicz,  took  the^  concerns  foi*  the  "lands- 
leit”  very  much  to  heart.  From  them,  we  learned  that  working 
for  and  with  the  Landsmanschaft  meant  helping,  sharing  and 
friendship. 

As  far  back  as  we  can  lemember,  our  de^ar  father,  who  died  on  June 
15,  1988,  was  chairman  of  this  vibrant  society.  He  strongly 
believed  that  fundraising  was  everyone’s  job.  He  had  all  of  us 
actively  involved  in  selling  tickets  for  different  fundraising  pro- 
jects. It  also  seems  like  just  yesterday  that  our  father  and  our 
mother  both  worked  aggi^ssively  in  setting  up  Passovei*  packages 
to  be  sent  to  needy  families,  both  in  Poland  and  in  Israel.  They 
worked  relentlessly  for  this  cause. 

Our  door  was  always  open  to  the  Landsmanschaft.  These  charac- 
teristics and  values  they  gave  us  will  live  within  us  forevei*  and 
have  been  handed  down  to  theii*  five  granddaughters. 

Gloria  Bi  umer 
Paulette  Ke^stelman 


I AM  THE  GRANDCHILD  OF  HOLOCAUST  SURVIVORS.  My  name  is 
Jennifer  Deborah  Brumer.  Both  of  my  Hebrew  names  once 
belonged  to  other  young  women  like  me.  These  two  women,  my 
great  aunts,  were  in  their  late  twenties  and  married.  Deborah  had 
a young  son.  They  and  their  families  died  in  the  concentration 
camps.  I remember  these  women  I never  knew  with  sadness  and 
respect.  I also  remember  their  brothers  and  sisters  and  parents 
who  perished  and  I think  about  all  the  aunts  and  uncles  and 
cousins  I will  never  have. 

Within  these  thoughts  of  those  who  died,  I celebrate  the  bravery 
and  courage  of  my  grandparents  who  lived.  I realize  that  without 
their  strength  and  perseverance,  the  Nazi  plan  would  have  suc- 
ceeded, and  I would  not  be  here  to  write  about  what  I think, 
remember,  realize  and  celebrate. 

So,  I have  a hope,  a prayer,  a dream  for  you:  A dream  that  never 
again  will  having  different  beliefs  or  different  heritage  become 
a death  warrant  for  the  innocent.  Never  again,  anywhere,  anytime, 
for  any  reason,  will  people  experience  such  evil.  And  never  again 
will  people  die  as  a result  of  ignorance  and  fear. 

Jennifer  Brumer 


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At  times  I found  it  surprising  that  my  mother  could  watch  movies 
about  the  war  and  would  want  Dad  to  watch  them  too.  It  seemed 
as  if  they  confirmed  to  her  in  a very  concrete  way  that  somehow, 
miraculously,  she  and  my  father  had  survived  these  war  atrocities. 

I was  always  impressed  with  their  incredible  will  to  surmount 
obstacles,  despite  their  horrible  experiences  in  the  Holocaust  and 
their  struggles  and  success  in  adjusting  to  their  new  country, 
Canada.  Their  marvelous  zest  for  and  capacity  to  enjoy  life,  their 
continued  respect  for  humanity,  their  tolerance  of  other  peoples’ 
ethnic  differences,  and  their  love  for  and  commitment  to  family 
and  friends  made  my  parents’  house  a warm  and  vibrant  place. 

Most  of  all,  I am  left  with  memories  of  two  wonderful  people  who 
taught  me  a lot  about  survial,  about  life,  about  “Menschlichkeit” 
and  how  they  represented  a whole  generation  of  survivors  who 
were  as  incredible  as  they  were ! Mom’s  amazing  optimism  and 
sense  of  humour  in  good  times  and  in  bad  and  Dad’s  tenacity  and 
feisty  approach  to  life  have  left  a lasting  impression  on  me. 

I can  also  honestly  say  that  they  made  me  proud  to  be  their  child 
and  a Jew  — despite  Hitler’s  maniacal  design  to  destroy  us  all! 

Special  People 

I never  really  knew  my  Bubby  Gittel  but  I know  my  Zaide  Sam. 
I have  heard  a lot  about  the  Holocaust  and  I think  it's  great  that 
some  people  lived  through  this  horrible  thing  and  I think  that  the 
people  who  lived  through  it  are  very  special  people. 

Carrie  Solomon 
Age  11 

Granddaughter  of  Samuel  Kartus 
and  the  late  Gita  Kartus 


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At  a much  later  point  in  time  Dad  again  met  this  Jewish  Capo  who 
was  now  an  inmate  at  Theresienstadt.  The  Capo  was  close  to  dy- 
ing from  an  illness.  He  begged  Dad  for  forgiveness  for  the  injus- 
tice and  pain  he  had  caused  Dad.  Dad  forgave  him. 

I am  still  in  awe  of  my  father’s  tremendous  courage  and  the 
consequences  he  had  suffered,  risking  his  life  to  rescue  my 
mother. 

I remember  Dad  telling  me  about  his  suffering  at  a war  factory 
in  Colditz  towards  the  end  of  the  war. 

He  had  been  stabbed  in  the  lower  back,  with  a bayonet,  by  a 
drunken  Oberscharfuhrer.  Dad  was  seriously  wounded  and  sent  to 
the  “Lazaret”  (military  hospital)  where  he  remained  for  ten  days. 
Some  Jewish  doctors  there  urged  Dad  and  other  recovering  pa- 
tients, to  muster  all  the  strength  they  had  and  march  hundreds 
of  kilometres  to  their  final  destination. 

Eight  kilometres  away  from  Terezin,  Dad  collapsed,  succumbing 
to  total  exhaustion.  A German  officer  threatened  to  shoot  him  if 
he  didn’t  get  up.  Dad  vividly  recalls  those  moments  when  his  life 
hung  in  the  balance  because  he  could  no  longer  go  on.  Instead 
the  officer  saved  Dad’s  life  by  throwing  him  onto  a wagon  of  hay 
which  took  Dad  to  Terezin,  where  he  was  finally  liberated  during 
Passover  1945. 

My  parents  always  made  me  feel  as  if  I had  known  their  parents 
(my  late  grandparents)  personally.  They  told  me  anecdotes  about 
their  personalities  and  stories  about  their  lives.  They  truly  made 
my  grandparents  and  their  own  childhood  come  alive  for  me. 

On  one  occasion,  when  Mom  and  I had  one  of  our  cozy  evening 
chats  over  a cup  of  tea,  she  told  me  about  the  time  when  the 
Germans  were  invading  the  ghetto  and  were  taking  many  of  the 
older  people  away  to  Treblinka  to  be  gassed.  She  described  how 
her  mother,  a wise  and  clever  woman,  tried  to  reassure  her  and 
calmly  reminded  her  to  look  after  her  younger  sister  and  brother, 
because  she  knew  she  would  never  see  any  of  them  again.  In  the 
meantime,  my  grandfather  ran  frantically  around  the  roof  of  their 
apartment  building,  crying  that  he  so  much  wanted  to  live. 

I remember  sobbing  about  the  vision  of  my  poor  maternal  grand- 
father — who,  in  his  pictures  resembled  a cuddly  teddy  bear  - run- 
ning about  helplessly,  begging  for  his  life  and  also  about  my 
mother’s  terrible  desperation  about  failed  efforts  to  get  her 
parents  out  of  the  ghetto  to  safety. 

I was  always  astonished  at  how  my  parents  had  come  through  the 
war  at  all,  but  even  more  so,  at  how  they  had  used  their  wits  in 
so  many  difficult  and  dangerous  situations. 


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Memories  Of  My  Parents*  Experiences 

By  Evelyn  Kartus  Solomon* 

From  the  time  when  I was  still  quite  young,  I remember  my 
parents  having  animated  discussions  with  other  survivors  about 
what  it  had  been  like  in  the  Czenstochover  ghettos  and  in  the 
camps.  They  talked  about  their  experiences  and  about  who  had 
survived  and  who  hadn’t.  Amidst  many  a tragic  tale  there  were 
often  bursts  of  laughter  and  episodes  of  unbelievable  acts  of 
heroism  and  courage.  When  they  shared  this  horrible  time  in  their 
lives  with  each  other  and  their  friends,  it  was  generally  with  those 
who  had  also  been  through  it  and  really  understood. 

My  mother  was  always  more  open  about  her  experiences  than  my 
father.  Perhaps  this  was  because  hers  were  somewhat  less  trau- 
matic than  his.  She  was  in  “Hasag”,  in  camps  and  in  “Selections”. 
But  Dad  was  in  these  too  and  also  in  a number  of  concentration 
camps  where  he  came  daily  face  to  face  with  death. 

It  was  always  more  painful  for  Dad  to  talk  about  what  he  had  been 
through.  I have  never  felt  comfortable  pressing  him  for  informa- 
tion, but  I always  wanted  to  know  more,  so  that  I could  be  sure 
to  pass  on  this  legacy  of  our  heritage  to  my  children. 

In  particular,  I remember  both  my  parents  telling  me  about  an 
incident  that  happened  in  “Hasag”. 

My  mother  and  father  were  working  the  night  shift  in  this  work 
camp  when  Mom  was  being  verbally  insulted  and  beaten  by  a 
“Capo”  (camp  police)  for  smoking  a cigarette  at  one  of  the  ma- 
chines. My  father  tried  to  rescue  my  mother  from  this  abusive 
man  and  defended  her  by  punching  him  back.  The  Capo  was  also 
a Jew  who  took  advantage  of  his  position  and  the  power  he  had 
over  his  fellow  Jewish  captives. 

In  retaliation  the  Capo  reported  Dad  to  the  German  authorities 
who  dragged  him  out  of  his  bunk  in  the  middle  of  the  night  and 
gave  him  25  lashes,  beating  him  almost  senseless. 


♦ Evelyn  Kartus  Solomon  is  the  daughter  of  Stashek  (Sam)  Kartus  and  the  late 
Gutka  (Gita)  Kartus. 


CZENSTCX]!HOV  — Our  Leffocy 


187 


A meaningful  argument  against  inter- marriage  is  this  legacy  we 
are  obligated  to  perpetuate.  We  must  not  only  remember  for  our- 
selves, but  we  must  continue  to  tell  and  retell  future  generations 
that  the  Holocaust  was  not  a fictitious  horror,  as  some  will  have 
us  believe,  but  the  reality  of  what  happened  to  our  ancestors.  We 
were  the  tragic  scapegoats  for  a generation’s  fears  and  weak- 
nesses. Tb  allow  our  children  and  the  world  to  forget  this,  would 
be  to  diminish  not  only  the  horrors  suffered  by  our  parents,  but 
also  the  memories  of  those  who  paid  with  their  lives. 

My  husband’s  parents  are  also  Holocaust  survivors.  Despite  the 
emotional  and  physical  horrors  our  parents  endured,  they  turned 
adversity  into  success  by  leading  exemplary  lives.  Both  sets  of 
parents  have  enjoyed  (to  this  point)  forty- six  years  of  marriage. 
They  have  experienced  life’s  trials  and  tribulations  together  with- 
out the  loving  guidance  of  their  own  parents  or  the  support  of  an 
extended  family.  Despite  this,  they  have  raised  their  children  to 
have  a true  appreciation  of  family  and  traditions,  and  to  enjoy  love 
of  freedom  and  dignity. 

Our  love,  admiration  and  respect  for  our  parents  know  no  bounds. 
Their  love  and  strength  have  allowed  them  not  only  to  endure 
themselves,  but  also  to  enrich  a part  of  mankind  through  their 
existence. 


Czenstochover  in  the  United  States  at  a Yizkor  Memorial  Service 
in  1954. 


186 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leg^iy 


A Voice  from  the 
Second  Generation 

By  Roslyn  Gail  Keri 

My  name  is  Roslyn  Gail  Keri.  I am  the  daughter  of  Hyman 
(Chaim)  Fishman  and  Bess  Fishman  (nee  Glatt).  My  father,  pater- 
nal grandfather  and  great-grandfather  were  all  born  in  Czensto- 
chova.  As  my  father  has  recounted  to  my  brother  and  me,  his  was 
a large  family,  comprised  of  a sister,  two  brothers,  many  aunts 
and  uncles,  and  a score  of  cousins.  Sadly,  my  father  and  three  of 
his  cousins  were  the  only  survivors. 

My  grandfather  was  a man  whose  life  was  centered  around  Torah, 
Veavodah.  He  belonged  to  an  Hassidic  Shtibel  and  a religious 
Zionist  Organization  (Mizrachi);  his  family  led  a rich,  cultured  life. 

My  mother’s  family  lived  in  Warsaw  and  was  very  religious.  My 
mother  and  her  sister  survived  because  their  parents  managed 
to  send  them  out  of  Warsaw  to  a small  town,  where  they  had 
family.  From  there,  they  were  taken  to  a labour  camp. 

Unlike  other  families  who  did  not  experience  the  Holocaust,  my 
brother  and  I grew  up  with  little  sense  of  family  history.  Our 
family  was  grounded  in  the  here  and  now.  There  was  always  a pro- 
found sadness  in  the  fact  that  most  of  our  extended  family  was 
missing.  We  were  unable  to  enjoy  the  close  bonds  that  many  of 
our  peers  formed  with  their  grandparents.  We  never  knew  most 
of  our  aunts,  uncles  and  cousins. 

We  had  no  sense  of  who  our  parents  were  as  children  or  how  they 
evolved  into  the  adults  they  had  become,  as  they  were  our  main 
sources  of  information.  Although  they  would  sporadically  recall 
their  childhood  memories  of  family  and  holidays,  these  memories 
were  bittersweet;  for  many  of  them  were  of  siblings  who  never 
reached  adulthood. 

As  second  generation  Holocaust  survivors,  we  have  learned  not 
to  take  family  and  loved  ones  for  granted.  There  is  joy  (in  that  we 
are  perpetuating  their  memories)  and  yet  a distinct  sa^ess,  when 
naming  our  children  for  those  loved  ones  whose  lives  were  so 
tragically  ended. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Out  Legsicy 


185 


small ! They  hardly  had  any  food,  but  a kind  Christian  family 
occasionally  brought  them  food;  but  they  had  to  be  very  careful 
that  they  wouldn’t  get  caught  by  the  Germans.  They  lived  in  the 
attic  for  a while.  One  day,  a German  came  in  and  found  out  where 

they  were  hiding,  and  took  each  of  them  to  different  concentra- 
tion camps. 

In  1945,  Anne  and  Margot  both  died  of  typhus  fever.  Mrs.  Frank 
died,  but  Mr.  Frank  survived  because  his  camp  was  freed  by  the 
Russian  army.  Someone  got  hold  of  Anne’s  diary  and  showed  it 
to  Mr.  Frank.  Anne’s  diary  got  published  in  Holland  in  1947  and 
was  translated  into  many  different  languages.  Children  studied 
it  in  school  because  Anne  had  such  great  willp)ower  to  survive  and 
she  had  an  incredible  amount  of  courage ! Anne  never  was  and 
never  shall  be  forgotten  ! “I  shall  not  remain  insignificant !”  were 
Anne’s  last  words. 

Reading  this  book,  made  me  realize  that  a long  time  ago  the 
Jewish  people  had  a very  rough  time  living  and  were  mistreated. 
They  were  put  into  concentration  camps  — some  were  slaves,  some 
starved  to  death;  but  most  were  gassed  or  murdered.  This  was 
only  because  Adolf  Hitler  decided  to  hate  all  of  the  Jews  and  com- 
manded that  they  all  be  executed.  I find  it  very  hard  to  believe  that 
human  beings  can  be  so  cruel  with  one  another.  World  War  II  was 
a very  surprising  nightmare,  but  now  that  we  know  that  it  has 
happened  once,  we  will  never  ever  let  it  happen  again ! ! ! 


General  view  of  the  "'Farm  School" 


Students  in  the  mechanical  workshop  of  the 
Jewish  School  of  Crafts,  1945 


184 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Anne  Frank 

A review  by  Lauren  Klein  Tatner,  11  years  old 

The  biography  of  Anne  Frank,  written  by  Angela  Bull,  is  an 
interesting  but  frightening  story  about  Anne’s  life. 

Anne  F'rank  led  a very  hard  and  difficult  life,  but  at  the  beginning, 
not  one  person  would  have  guessed  what  a terrible  tragedy  was 
going  to  happen  before  long ! Anne’s  life  used  to  be  perfect ! She 
was  born  on  June  12th,  in  the  year  1929,  in  Germany  The  Franks 
were  very  rich.  She  had  a very  smart  sister  named  Margot  and 
two  caring  parents,  Edith  and  Otto  Frank,  who  always  wanted 
their  children  to  be  happy. 

When  Edith  and  Otto  found  out  that  Adolf  Hitler  was  now  the 
leader  of  Germany  and  wanted  all  of  the  Jews  (such  as  them)  to 
be  killed,  Edith  and  Otto  moved  to  Holland.  They  hoped  that  now 
they  would  be  safe.  Anne  and  Margot  were  in  excellent  schools. 
Anne  was  very  popular;  she  had  many  friends  and  boyfriends ! 
Anne  was  also  very  smart.  They  lived  in  peace  for  quite  a while. 

Soon  it  was  Anne’s  13th  birthday  She  got  many  great  presents, 
although  she  especially  loved  the  notebook  that  she  had  gotten, 
and  decided  to  use  it  as  a diary. 

The  Franks  were  very  upset  when  they  heard  that  Hitler  now 
invaded  Holland  too  ! Hitler  made  many  restrictions  for  the  Jewish 
people.  They  had  to  wear  a yellow  star  badge  everywhere  they  went 
that  said  “Jew”  on  it.  The  Jewish  people  all  had  to  be  indoors  by 
8:00  p.m.  They  were  not  allowed  to  take  public  transportation  or 
drive  cal's  or  ride  bikes ! Soon  the  Jews  were  all  being  captured 
and  taken  away  to  different  concentration  camps. 

The  Franks  were  not  caught  immediately.  Early  one  morning, 
they  left  their  home  behind  forever  and  went  to  hide  in  the  attic 
of  an  old  building.  They  celebrated  Shabbat  and  other  holidays. 
It  was  very  hard  to  do  so,  because  they  always  had  to  be  quiet  so 
that  no  one  would  find  them.  The  attic  was  very  dark  and  gloomy, 
and  everyone  was  always  squashed  together  because  it  was  so 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


183 


Lauren  Klein  Tainer,  Age  11  Reviews: 

Child  of  the  Holocaust 

By  Jack  Kuper 
Paper jachs,  294  pp. 

Who  could  believe  that  a 9 year  old  Jewish  boy  could  survive 
three  years  on  his  own  during  World  War  II  in  constant  hiding 
in  Poland,  as  did  Jack  Kuper.  Child  of  the  Holocaust  is  Jack 
Kuper’s  autobiography  It  tells  of  how  he  disguised  himself  as  a 
Catholic  orphan  in  order  to  stay  alive. 

Wasn’t  Jack  afraid  without  his  parents?  Where  would  he  go  now 
that  he  was  alone?  What  if  it  was  found  out  that  he  was  Jewish 
— what  would  happen  to  him?  These  were  some  of  the  questions 
continuously  on  my  mind  as  I read  this  book.  It  made  me  very 
sad  to  think  that  Jack  was  no  longer  with  his  parents  and  brother 
and  would  probably  never  see  them  again. 

Though  Jack  Kuper  survived  his  adventures,  he  leaves  readers 
breathless,  wondering  what  this  brave  and  creative  boy  will  do 
next. 

I would  recommend  this  book  to  others  my  age  as  it  would  give 
them,  as  it  gave  me,  a good  understanding  of  what  children  and 
adults  lived  through  during  the  Holocaust.  I find  it  hard  to  believe 
that  it  is  a true  story. 

This  book  is  very  well  written  and  not  too  difficult  to  follow.  It 
touches  every  emotion:  I felt  sad,  happy,  angry  and  excited  at  dif- 
ferent times  throughout  the  book. 

If  ever  a film  version  of  this  book  was  made,  I would  definitely 
go  to  see  it,  although  it  would  likely  be  painful  to  view. 


182 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


We  Must  Learn 

More  About  the  Holocaust 

By  Lauren  Klein  Tatner 

I CANNOT  BE  MORE  THANKFUL  that  my  Bubby  Eva  and  my  Zaidy 
Harry  survived  the  War.  The  reasons  are  many,  but  most  of  all, 
without  them,  all  those  people  in  my  family,  including  myself, 
would  not  be  here  today  I find  that  a very  troubling  thought. 

My  grandparents  and  the  millions  of  Jewish  children  and  adults 
were  all  innocent  people!  I still  cannot  understand  why  anyone 
would  want  to  harm  or  even  kill  them ! I find  that  thought  very 
disturbing! 

Whenever  I have  the  opportunity,  I choose  to  read  books  about 
the  Holocaust,  to  learn  more  about  what  the  Jewish  people  went 
through  in  the  past.  Usually  it  is  very  difficult  for  me  to  get 
through  those  books.  I find  it  very  upsetting  just  to  think  about 
all  that  they  suffered.  Child  of  the  Holocaust  by  Jack  Kuper  and 
the  Diary  of  Anne  Frank  are  two  books  which  I read,  both  of  which 
deal  with  the  stories  of  children  my  age. 

I am  very  pleased  that  my  Zaidy  wrote  the  book  “Czenstochov  - 
Our  Legacy”,  as  it  is  his  generation  that  can  best  recount  what 
happened  during  the  Holocaust.  Many  actually  lived  through  that 
horrible  nightmare! 

When  there  will  be  no  more  of  his  generation,  the  people  of  the 
following  generations  will  appreciate  reading  this  book.  If  every- 
one reads  and  realizes  that  something  this  tragic  has  happened 
in  the  past,  we  can  all  work  together  to  ensure  that  this  will  never 
happen  again! 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


181 


Beyond  a Single  Word  or  Thought 

By  Janet  Klein  Slavin 

When  I think  about  my  parents  and  the  Holocaust,  not  a single 
woixl  comes  to  mind,  not  a single  thought.  A large  lump  in  the 
middle  of  my  throat  will  not  allow  me  to  ever  visualize  a single 
moment  of  time  my  parents  must  have  suffered  during  that 
terrible  period  in  their  lives. 

When  I think  about  my  parents,  I see  them  now,  as  the  caring, 
loving  and  proud  parents  who  are  always  and  have  always  been 
there  for  us,  their  special  children.  We,  their  children,  who  are 
special  because  they  survived  and  were  able  to  give  life  to  us.  We 
are  special  because  they  survived  and  we  then  were  blessed  to 
have  them  as  our  parents. 

In  my  growing  years,  my  parents  never  for  a moment  burdened 
us  with  stories  of  the  many  years  they  had  suffered.  Yet  we  always 
knew.  In  fact,  they  even  tried  to  shield  us  from  any  hardships  of 
their  more  recent  years. 

Because  of  my  parents,  who  have  been  there  to  protect,  to  teach 
and  to  love,  I aspire  to  do  as  wonderful  a job  with  my  children. 
I love  them  very  much. 

These  few^  words  and  the  ability  to  express  them  in  writing  have 
been  inspired  by  my  beautiful  niece,  Lauren,  who  has 
demonstrated  her  courage  and  sensitivity  in  expressing  her 
emotions  on  paper.  Thank  you  sweetie ! 


180 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


In  light  of  their  tragic  past  and  incomprehensible  losses,  I have 
marvelled  at  their  continued  ability  to  overcome  life’s  hardships, 
stoically  endure  life’s  difficulties  and  maintain  and  project  a 
positive  and  healthy  outlook  on  life. 

As  a child  of  Holocaust  survivors,  I cannot  say  that  my  growing- 
up  years  were  filled  with  horrid  stories  of  my  parents’  tragic  past. 
Any  stories  recounted,  grew  out  of  questions  I posed  to  try  to 
understand  all  that  they  had  been  through.  Their  comfort  level 
in  sharing  these  stories  only  grew  as  I grew  older. 

I know  that  I can  never  understand  all  that  they  had  lived  through 
during  that  hideous  period  in  Jewish  history.  They,  too,  know  that 
I can  never  really  understand  all  that  they  had  experienced.  What 
I can  understand,  is  the  importance,  to  them,  of  the  strong  sense 
of  identity  they  have  given  to  me,  which  has  allowed  me  to  feel 
that  strong  sense  of  family  and  my  roots,  which  I hope  will  con- 
tinue to  be  passed  on  through  the  generations. 

I am  very  proud  of  my  father’s  efforts  and  tremendous  display 
of  strength,  perserverence  and  dedication  as  he  relentlessly 
worked  to  compile  this  English  language  book  on  his  hometown, 
Czenstochov.  I admire  my  mother’s  patience  and  support  to  him 
as  he  clocked  7-day  weeks,  during  these,  their  retirement  years, 
in  preparation  of  this  book. 

This  book  is  a compilation  of  historical  material,  memoirs, 
memorials  and  photographs  pertinent  to  Czenstochov  and  its 
inhabitants  who.  Like  my  parents,  lived  through  the  Holocaust  and 
began  anew  in  North  America.  I believe  in  the  value  of  this  book, 
which  will  serve  as  memories  of  the  families,  such  as  my  own, 
who  struggled  to  rebuild  their  lives,  and  will  serve  as  the  photo 
album  to  families,  such  as  my  own,  who  search  for  the  links  with 
their  past. 


Malka  and  Yitzhak  Borenstein 
in  the  ghetto  in  1940 


Yosel  Borenstein, 
1939 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


179 


A Strong  Sense 
of  Family  and  Roots 

By  Ruth  Klein  Tatner 

Family  and  Photographs  — two  terms  that  evoke  so  much 
emotion  and  hold  so  much  meaning  for  me.  My  close  ties  with  my 
family  and  my  passion  for  the  camera  have  grown  throughout  the 
years,  alongside  the  sadness  and  anger  of  the  tragedy  and  horrors 
of  the  Holocaust,  which,  for  me,  were  represented  by  the  annihila- 
tion of  my  parents’  family,  their  photographs  and  sweet  memories. 

Oh  how  I would  have  loved  to  have  known  my  Bubbles  and  Zaidies 
— only  how  much  I comprehend  really  more  today,  as  I watch  the 
interactions  between  my  children  and  their  grandparents. 

Oh  how  I would  have  loved  to  have  known  my  parents  as  adult 
children  — only  how  much  I comprehend  really  more  today,  as  my 
children  watch  the  interactions  between  me  and  my  parents. 

Oh  how  I would  have  loved  to  have  seen  photographs  of  my  parents 
as  children,  as  teenagers;  photographs  of  their  parents,  my  grand- 
parents — only  how  much  I comprehend  really  more  today,  as  my 
children  joyfully  study  the  many  photographs  of  their  parents  and 
grandparent  s . 

Despite  the  void  that  I speak  of,  I feel  most  fortunate  today  as  I 
think  of  the  warmth,  caring  and  memories  that  my  parents  im- 
parted to  our  family  during  my  growing  up  years.  Despite  their 
tragic  past  and  incomprehensible  losses,  they  were  strong  and  lov- 
ing in  their  role  as  parents  and  friends  to  me  and  my  sisters. 
Despite  the  linguistic,  cultural  and  generational  gap,  they  were 
strong  as  role  models. 

I would  often  smile  (albeit  with  a certain  child  like  skepticism, 
for  nobody  could  have  been  such  perfect  children  all  the  time)  as 
they  searched  the  photographs  of  their  minds  and  shared  with 
me  and  my  sisters  anecdotes  of  their  own  childhood,  as  lessons 
in  family  respect  and  caring.  These  vividly-described  anecdotes 
came  to  serve  as  my  photo  album  of  their  past,  my  roots. 


178 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legracy 


Reflections 

By  Marilyn  Klein  Kobric 

The  definition  of  the  word  “survivor”  is  to  continue  to  live,  to 
exist. 

Against  all  odds  my  parents,  Eva  and  Harry,  “survived”  the 
unspeakable  horrors  of  the  Holocaust.  After  their  liberation  they 
met,  married  and  immigrated  to  Canada.  They  did  not  know  the 
language  or  customs  of  their  adopted  home  but  found  the 
strength,  determination  and  courage  to  rebuild  their  lives. 

I often  listened  to  my  parents  discuss  the  past  but  I found  myself 
disassociated  from  their  words.  I could  not  even  for  one  moment 
imagine  my  own  mother  and  father  living  through  the  horrors 
they  described.  It  was  less  painful  for  me  to  watch  movies  or  read 
books  about  the  lives  of  strangers. 

I remember  looking  at  photographs  of  my  grandparents.  As  they 
looked  back  at  me  I wondered  what  it  would  be  like  to  have  my 
own  grandparents  who  would  love  me  and  make  me  feel  special. 
I am  named  in  loving  memory  of  my  grandmothers  Rivka  and 
Malka  and  they  continue  to  live  through  me. 

I have  tremendous  gratitude,  respect  and  love  for  my  parents. 
They  have  given  me  an  appreciation  for  life.  I am  their  child  — a 
child  of  “survivors”.  I continue  to  draw  on  their  endless  supply 
of  love  and  courage.  This  will  remain  with  me  for  all  of  my  life. 
I hope  to  pass  this  on  to  their  grandchildren. 


V 

THREE 

GENERATIONS 

TestUy. . . 


The  Czenstochover  Jewish 
Community  was  uprooted.  But 
we  — the  survivors  — started 
new  lives.  We  have  pledged  to 
make  sure  that  our  children 
and  grandchildren  will  know 
and  remember  where  their 
roots  are.  They  must  know  that 
their  ancestors  suffered  and 
died,  only  because  they  were 
Jews. 

It  is  because  of  us  that  Hitler’s 
“final  solution”  has  failed.  We 
made  a new  beginning  towards 
a Jewish  future  in  dignity. 


176 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


His  wife  contradicts  him.  “WTien  you  come  back  after  45  years,  and 
you  speak  Polish,  for  sure  you  were  Jewish.” 

They  walked  through  the  houses  where  they  had  been  reai'ed,  now 
occupied  by  Poles,  who  the  Peldbrills  say  were  very  hospitable  but 
didn’t  ask  many  questions. 

‘T  wanted  to  be  where  my  parents  were  born,”  she  says,  ‘‘to  be  in  that 
place  once  before  I die.” 


We  Cannot  Go  Back 

to  Where  Our  Parents  Grew  Up 

By  William  Zimmerman  Second  Generation 

As  A MEMBER  OF  THE  SECOND  GENERATION,  I view  the  concentration 
camp  as  the  central  theme  in  my  life.  It  is,  for  me,  the  reference  point 
against  which  all  else  is  measured.  We  have  a common  bond  with  our 
parents,  the  first  generation.  We,  too,  are  survivors.  We  share  the 
guilt,  mourn  the  past  and  think  about  what  might  have  been. 

No,  we  were  not  there.  We  were  not  even  born  yet.  However,  the  picture 
is  so  vivid  in  our  minds.  How  many  times  have  we  pictured  the 
transports,  felt  the  fear,  smelled  the  horrors  ?How  could  we  have  fared 
under  those  conditions  ? Do  we  really  understand  what  it  means  to 
suffer  to  the  extent  that  our  parents  did?  These  and  other  questions 
constantly  weigh  on  our  minds. 

Yet  there  is  a part  of  the  suffering  that  is  uniquely  ours.  We  are  the 
generation  who  never  had  an  extended  family.  We  have  no  grand- 
parents, aunts,  uncles,  cousins.  We  cannot  go  back  to  where  our 
parents  grew  up,  to  the  schools  they  attended,  to  the  friends  and 
neighbors  that  remember  them  as  young  children.  This  is  part  of  our 
legacy.  We  have  very  little  in  terms  of  a tangible  past.  It  is  mostly 
our  parents’  recollections  and  a few  photographs. 

So  how  are  we  to  compensate  for  the  deprivations  that  resulted  from 
the  camps?  No,  we  will  never  take  away  the  bitterness  of  the  mass 
killings.  We  do  not  and  cannot  make  up  for  the  lives  that  were  lost. 
Yet,  we  are  living  proof  of  the  spirit  and  determination  of  the  first 
generation.  They,  the  true  heroes  who  reconstructed  what  they  could 
of  their  lives  and  built  upon  that  foundation,  have  done  the  best  that 
they  could. 

As  survivors,  both  first  and  second  generation  have  ongoing  respon- 
sibilities, some  shared  and  others  unique  to  each  group.  Both  groups 
must  strive  to  preserve  the  truth  of  the  past,  to  assure  that  those  who 
perished  did  not  do  so  in  vain  and  to  pass  this  spirit  on  to  third,  fourth 
and  future  generations.  In  essence,  then,  both  first  and  second 
generation  have  a common  past  and  a common  future.  What  about 
the  present  ? Here  we  have  two  groups  that  come  from  totally  dif- 
ferent worlds.  Their  bond  is,  of  course,  the  concentration  camp.  Can 
first  generation  ever  really  appreciate  the  problems  and  concerns  of 
their  children  when  compared  to  those  of  their  past?  Can  second 
generation  ever  really  comprehend  all  that  their  legacy  implies? 
These  are  difficult  questions,  perhaps  never  to  be  answered  to  the 
fullest  extent.  So,  we  go  on,  both  groups  striving  to  ease  their  respec- 
tive paths  through  life  through  mutual  support,  understanding  and 
love. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


175 


They  walked  through  the  streets  of  Czenstochova,  where  Mila  had 
been  a schoolgirl  and  Mendel  a teenage  tool  and  dye  maker  before 
the  war. 

She  recalls  one  day  in  the  ghetto  where  they  were  forced  to  live 
during  the  war.  She  had  been  excused  from  work  by  her  foreman, 
and  everyone  who  was  not  working  was  called  by  the  Nazis  to  line 
up. 

Ten  people  were  discovered.  “The  Nazis  found  and  shot  them.  I 
never  forgot  this.  They  were  just  lying  there  in  the  street.  It  was 
horrible.’  ’ 

The  Feldbrills  had  to  leave  the  ghetto  in  1942  and  go  to  work  in 
Rakow,  a munitions  factory  just  outside  town,  until  Czenstochova 
was  liberated  in  1945. 

“It  was  a place  where  people  were  forced  to  work  until  all  their 
strength  was  drained.  Then  they  were  shipped  off  to  Auschwitz 
to  die.” 

That  was  where  they  met.  “We  fell  in  love  there  — what  a laugh,” 
says  Mila. 

The  day  before  the  Germans  retreated  from  the  advancing  Soviet 
army  and  deserted  Czenstochova,  Mendel  was  sent  to  Buchen- 
wald.  He  survived  because  his  skills  were  of  use  to  the  Nazis.  He 
escaped  two  days  before  the  Russians  came  in. 

He  returned  to  Czenstochova  and  found  Mila. 

They  first  moved  to  Germany  and  lived  in  the  apartments  of 
former  Nazis.  When  they  got  the  chance  in  1948,  they  sailed  for 
Haifa  and  lived  there  until  1956,  when  they  moved  to  San  Fran- 
cisco to  be  with  their  sons.  They  have  lived  in  Millbrae  for  17  years. 

During  the  interview,  they  stare  at  photographs  and  reflect  on  the 
past. 

“We’re  glad  we  can  tell  these  stories  for  people,”  Mendel  says.  “We 
want  other  [survivors]  to  know  it’s  safe,  they  can  go  back.” 

The  Feldbrills  found  Rakow,  the  work  camp,  now  is  a working 
machinery  factory.  The  couple  walked  into  the  building  where 
they  were  held  captive  and  talked  with  the  employees. 

“I’m  not  angry  at  them,”  Mendel  says  of  the  employees  there. 
“Now  I am  a free  person.  I can  walk  in  and  go  out”  of  the  factory. 

The  site  of  the  ghetto  is  now  a bus  depot.  “1  said  to  a woman  there, 
‘this  is  something  new  here,’  ” Mendel  Feldbrill  recalls.  “ ‘Oh,  she 
said,  ‘you  see,  this  was  a smeUy  little  ghetto.  The  Jews  were  here.’  ” 

That  was  their  only  encounter  with  anti-Semitism.  “We  didn’t 
want  to  argue  with  people  and  many  people  didn  t recognize  us 

as  Jews,”  he  says. 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


San  Francisco  Couple  Returns  to 
Site  of  Painful  Holocaust  Memories 

By  Garth  Wolkoff 

Staff  writer  of  the  San  Fi'ancisco  Jewish  Bulletin 

Mila  Feldbrill  returned  to  the  past  hoping  to  find  someone 
who  had  survived  the  Nazi  decimation  of  her  native  Poland  - a 
friend  from  high  school,  a cousin,  a neighbor. 

She  found  no  one. 

“We  were  looking  for  anyone  alive,”  she  says  of  the  people  she 
knew  before  the  war  in  Czenstochova,  where  she  was  born  and 
later  imprisoned.  “It’s  hard  to  believe  that  everyone  is  dead.” 

Her  husband  Mendel,  also  born  in  Czenstochova,  returned  there 
45  years  after  the  war  to  “take  a few  pictures  and  to  talk  to 
people.”  He  walked  the  streets  of  his  hometown  over  and  over 
again  “to  find  peace.” 

But  his  wife  interrupts  with  the  refrain,  “There  is  no  one  left.” 

In  an  interview,  he  describes  their  summer  tour  of  Polish  concen- 
tration camps  as  a trip  “we  needed  to  make”  to  finally  put  the 
horror  behind  them. 

The  man  sighs,  then  looks  out  a window.  Mournful  resignation 
shows  on  his  face.  “I  don’t  feel  anger  anymore,”  he  says. 

Several  days  after  the  interview,,  he  calls  the  Bulletin  to  say  he 
has,  in  fact,  found  peace  — embodied  in  his  two  grown  sons,  Leon 
and  William  Feldbrill.  “They  are  our  restitution,”  he  says,  “for  all 
that  we  went  through.” 

During  three  weeks  in  July  and  August,  the  Feldbrills  engaged 
in  an  emotional  archaeological  dig  through  the  ruins  of  their 
childhoods  and  the  traces  of  a nearly  extinct  Polish  Jewry; 
through  Treblinka,  where  their  parents  died,  through  the  Warsaw 
Ghetto,  through  Auschwitz. 

“I  was  searching  for  something  there  in  my  own  town,”  he  says. 
“I  was  looking,  I don’t  know,  maybe  for  my  mother,”  he  says  with 
a laugh,  “but  I didn’t  see  her.” 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


173 


Here  is  the  text  that  my  family  reads  at  the  seder,  as  reprinted 
from  the  Jewish  Spectator,  April  1950: 

“Perform  this  ritual  after  the  third  of  the  Four  Ceremonial  Cups, 
just  before  the  door  is  opened  for  the  symbolic  entrance  of  the 
Prophet  Elijah.  All  rise,  and  the  leader  of  the  seder  recites  the 
following: 

“On  the  night  of  the  seder  we  remember  with  reverence  and  love 
the  six  million  of  our  people  of  the  European  exile  who  perished 
at  the  hands  of  a tyrant  more  wicked  than  the  Pharaoh  who 
enslaved  our  fathers  in  Egypt. 

“Come,  said  he  to  his  minions,  let  us  cut  them  off  from  being  a 
people,  that  the  name  of  Israel  may  be  remembered  no  more.  And 
they  slew  the  blameless  and  pure,  men  and  women  and  little  ones, 
with  vapors  of  poison  and  burned  them  with  fire. 

“But  we  abstain  from  dwelling  on  the  deeds  of  the  evil  ones  lest 
we  defame  the  image  of  G— d in  which  man  was  created. 

“Now,  the  remnants  of  our  people  who  were  left  in  the  ghettos 
and  camps  of  annihilation  rose  up  against  the  wicked  ones  from 
the  santification  of  the  Name,  and  slew  many  of  them  before  they 
died. 

“On  the  first  day  of  Passover  the  remnants  of  the  Ghetto  of 
Warsaw  rose  up  against  the  adversary,  even  as  in  the  days  of 
Judah  the  Maccabee.  They  were  lovely  and  pleasant  in  their  lives, 
and  in  their  death  they  were  not  divided,  and  they  brought 
redemption  to  the  name  of  Israel  through  all  the  world. 

“And  from  the  depths  of  their  affliction  the  martyrs  lifted  their 
voices  in  a song  of  faith  in  the  coming  of  the  Messiah,  when 
justice  and  brotherhood  will  reign  among  men.” 

All  sing  “Ani  Ma’amin”  (I  Believe),  the  song  of  the  martyrs  in  the 
ghettos  and  liquidation  camps: 

“I  believe  in  perfect  faith  in  the  coming  of  the  Messiah: 

“An  though  he  tarry,  nonetheless  do  I believe.” 


172 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Wliy  on  the  seder  night  ? In  part,  because  it  was  on  the  fii-st  night 
of  Passover  50  years  ago,  when  the  Germans  had  surmunded  the 
Warsaw  Ghetto  and  were  preparing  to  destroy  it,  that  the  last 
remnants  of  the  half-million  Jews  of  Wai'saw  rose  up  against  their 
oppressors  and  fought  one  of  the  most  valiant  battles  of  Jewish 
history 

The  other  reason  for  choosing  the  seder  is  that  we  are  command- 
ed on  Passover  to  tell  the  story  of  the  Exodus  from  Egypt,  over 
and  over  again.  “And  the  more  one  tells  the  story  of  the  Exodus 
from  Egypt,  the  greater  one’s  merit,”  the  Hagadali  says. 

And  so  we  are  commanded  from  the  depths  of  Auschwitz,  by  those 
who  did  not  survive  to  tell  the  story  of  European  Jewry,  over  and 
over  again. 

We  who  survived  consider  the  recounting  of  the  tale  to  be  the 
fulfillment  of  a solemn  oath  made  to  those  who  were  killed.  “Pro- 
mise us  you  will  remember,”  they  said.  “Promise  us  you  will  tell.” 

And  so,  on  a holiday  when  we  are  gathered  with  friends  and  family 
to  celebrate  our  freedom,  we  tell.  We  tell  not  only  of  the  destruc- 
tion, but  also  of  that  which  was  destroyed. 

There  was,  we  tell,  a great  Jewish  people  in  Europe  for  more  than 
1,000  years.  They  formed  thousands  of  communities;  they  built 
trade  and  commerce  and  erected  houses  of  learning  and  woi'ship. 
They  created  their  own  language,  their  own  literature,  their  own 
theater,  their  own  music.  They  spewed  forth  into  the  world  some 
of  the  greatest  geniuses  of  the  last  centuries. 

And  then  we  must  tell  of  the  destruction  of  the  methodical 
dehumanization  of  the  Jews  first  in  ghettos  and  then  in  concen- 
tration camps,  of  the  torture  and  the  starvation,  of  the  carefully 
orchestrated  murder  of  millions. 

We  tell  Nahum  Rembo’s  story,  of  children  being  led  to  their  deaths 
in  Treblinka,  and  in  that  we  tell  the  the  end  of  a civilization. 

And  then,  after  we  have  recited  all  this,  we  can  tell  of  the  young 
heroes  who  rose  up  on  the  first  seder  night  in  1943,  who  lashed 
out  against  these  murderers  of  children  and  gave  expression  to 
the  bitter  outcry  of  a people  in  their  darkest  hour. 

The  struggle  of  a small  and  virtually  unarmed  group  of  young 
Jews,  led  by  the  likes  of  24-year-old  Mordechai  Anilevitch  and 
28-year-old  Tzivia  Lubetkin,  was  the  first  uprising  in  occupied 
Europe  and  lasted  longer  than  the  German  invasion  of  Poland. 

We  must  continue  to  give  life  to  these  unlived  lives  and  some 
meaning  to  their  horrible  deaths. 

On  the  seder  night,  let  us  tell  their  stories  and  give  voice  to  their 
cries. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


171 


loomed  so  large  in  my  life.  For  if,  after  all  Czenstochova  goes  on, 
sublimely  indifferent  now  to  what  happened  to  my  parents,  and 
my  whole  people,  how  can  I go  on  endlessly  grieving  about  what 
occurred  there?  It  is  now  impossible  to  mythologize  Czenstochova. 
And  so  life  must  go  on,  for  people  like  me  — but  elsewhere.  In 
Canada,  maybe,  or  Israel,  or  who  knows  where.  But  Poland  is  no 
longer  a ‘romanticized’  (if  such,  be  the  appropriate  word)  part  of 
my  life.” 


Passover  Remembrance 
of  the  Warsaw  Ghetto,  1943 

By  Zvi  Hosenwein 

Jewish  Telegraphic  Agency 

New  York  — “It  was  a day  that  brought  me  down  completely,” 
recalls  Nahum  Rembo,  secretary  of  the  Warsaw  community,  in  his 
memoirs. 

It  was  a hot  day  in  August,  1942  and  Rembo  had  been  told  that 
the  Germans  were  evacuating  schools  and  orphanages,  including 
the  one  run  by  Janusz  Korczak. 

The  Germans  began  loading  the  trains  that  would  take  the 
children  to  Treblinka.  “The  death  march  started  by  Korczak  with 
his  children  — that,  I will  never  forget,”  wrote  Rembo. 

“That  was  not  a march  to  death,  it  was  a silent  organized  protest 
against  the  savagery. 

“It  was  surreal.  The  children  were  lined  up  in  groups  of  four,  with 
Korczak  leading  them,  his  eyes  lifted  skywaixl,  his  hands  holding 
those  of  two  children. 

“At  night,  I thought  I heard  the  marching  of  the  little  children. 
They  are  marching  to  the  tune  of  the  teachers.  I heard  therr  march 
without  stop,  going  in  an  unknown  direction.”^ 

Every  year  in  our  home,  we  pause  in  the  middle  of  the  Passover 
seder  to  retell  Nahum  Rembo‘s  story  — and  the  many  other  stories, 
including  my  own,  that  made  up  the  destruction  of  European 
Jewry. 

We  pause  at  the  passage  in  the  Hagadah  that  says,  “In  every 
generation,  every  individual  must  feel  as  if  he  (or  she)  personally 
had  come  out  of  Egypt.” 

My  modern-day  Egypt  was  WWII  Poland,  and  not  a day  goes  by 
without  my  thinking  of  my  enslavement  them.  On  the  seder  night, 
I ask  my  family,  and  all  Jews,  to  think  back  with  me. 

1 Emaiiuel  Ringelblum.  Notes  fix)in  the  Ghetto.  Vol.  2.  pp.  213-214.  ti-aiislated  from 
the  Yiddish,  LL.  Peretz  Publishing.  Ismel.  1985. 


170 


CZENSTOCHQV  - Our  Legacy 


After  years  of  neglect,  a thick  forest  had  envelopped  all  but  about 
30  of  perhaps  2,000  or  3,000  tombstones.  As  night  was  falling 
quickly,  they  headed  back  to  the  hotel. 

The  receptionist  had  good  news:  a Jewish  resident  of  Czensto- 
chova  who  thought  he  knew  Srebrnik’s  parents  wanted  to  see 
them  tomorrow  in  the  lobby. 

Moshe  F.  was  a robust,  78-year-old  pensioner,  one  of  approximate- 
ly 150-200  Jews  still  left  in  Czenstochova.  On  the  eve  of  the  war, 
28,500  Jews,  or  one-quarter  of  the  total  population,  made  their 
homes  he^re.  Most  of  the  Jews  were  deported  to  death  camps;  a 
lucky  few,  including  Srebrnik’s  parents,  worked  at  HASAG,  the 
German  arms  factory  at  the  edge  of  town. 

Moshe  survived  the  war  by  fleeing  to  the  Soviet  Union;  his  wife, 
who  remained  be3hind,  died.  After  the  war,  Moshe  remarried,  and 
now,  he  told  the  visitors,  he  lived  in  a flat  in  the  old  ghetto  area 
with  his  second  wife  and  24-year-old  daughter. 

He  said  that  he  had  indeed  known  the  Srebrnik  family,  and  added 
that  he  would  be  pleased  to  show  Henry  where  Moshe  and  Abba 
wei'e  buried.  The  burial  site  on  Kawia  Street  was  not  far  from  his 
own  house.  It  was  a small  field  marked  by  an  unobtrusive  granite 
stone  memorializing  4,000  Jews  — including  Moshe  and  Abba  — 
shot  by  the  Gei*mans. 

Moshe  F.  accompanied  Srebrnik  to  the  cemetery,  and  led  him  to 
the  weathered,  mossy  headstone  of  his  mother’s  grandfather. 
Smbiiiik,  normally  a voluble  pemon,  was  so  awed  by  the  sight  that 
he  was  unable  to  talk  for  many  minutes.  When  he  got  into  the  car, 
he  had  to  fight  back  the  tears. 

Latei;  back  at  the  Hotel  Centralny,  his  composure  intact  again, 
he  spoke  animatedly  of  what  he  had  seen  in  Czenstochova. 

“It’s  like  catching  up  with  your  past,’’  he  said  of  the  visit  to  his 
ancestral  roots.  “You’ve  known  the  place  but  you’ve  never  seen 
it.  It’s  like  having  been  blind  all  these  years  and  then,  miracu- 
lously, regaining  your  vision  and  seeing  the  world  you  once  knew 
only  in  your  mind. 

“The  oddest  thing  about  being  in  the  town  was  that  I simulta- 
neously felt  myself  to  be  a complete  stranger,  a phantom  outsider, 
almost  an  intruder  from  the  past,  yet  at  the  same  time  I had  a 
very  intense  feeling  of  belonging  there.  The  feeling  was  an 
abstmct,  metaphysical  one  — as  though  I shared  some  sort  of  pri- 
vate communication  with  the  town  itself,  mther  than  its  actual 
living  physical  inhabitants  of  today 

“Seeing  the  actual  hustle  and  bustle,  the  cars  on  the  street,  the 
ongoing  day-to-day  life  of  a city,  in  a sense  made  me  sign  my  own 
pi  iv^ate  peace  treaty  with  that  part  of  my  past  that  has  always 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


169 


He  got  to  Czenstochova,  125  miles  southwest  of  Wai'saw,  at  dusk 
and  checked  into  the  Hotel  Centmlny  on  Swiei'szewskiego  Sti*eet. 
In  a way,  the  hotel  seemed  like  a second  home,  for  his  parents 
knew  it  well  in  their  youth. 

Srebrnik  unpacked,  then  consulted  the  black  notebook  in  which 
he  had  written  explicit  instructions  on  how  to  find  the  apartment 
flats  in  which  his  parents,  Edward  and  Esther,  once  lived.  Though 
they  were  unable  to  tell  him  whether  Czenstochova’s  Jewish 
cemetery  was  still  standing,  or  whether  the  unmarked  graves  of 
his  mother’s  brothers  were  located  in  the  city  rather  than  the 
suburbs.  Srebrnik  told  his  friend  that  he  was  determined  to  find 
both  sites. 

He  had  no  trouble  finding  the  various  crumbling  apartment 
buildings  where  his  parents  lived  before  and  after  the  war.  And 
he  also  found  the  flat  where  he  was  born  on  July  19,  1945.  But 
Srebrnik  had  no  luck  in  finding  the  cemetery,  nor  in  locating  the 
graves  of  Moshe  and  Abba,  his  late  uncles. 

One  late  afternoon,  24  hours  before  he  was  due  to  leave  Czen- 
stochova, he  happened  to  glance  at  a large  city  map  thumb-tacked 
on  the  wall  opposite  the  Hotel  Centralny  receptionist.  By  sheer 
chance,  his  eye  caught  the  Jewish  cemetery.  (City  maps  he  had 
earlier  consulted  did  not  show  the  cemetery.) 

This  sudden  discovery  excited  him  so  much  that  he  asked  the 
receptionist  if  she  knew  anything  about  the  existence  of  an 
organized  Jewish  community  in  Czenstochova.  She  promised  to 
make  inquiries.  Meanwhile,  Srebrnik  and  his  friend  decided  to 
go  to  the  cemetery. 

They  drove  past  the  old  town  square  and  Warszawska  Street, 
where  his  parents  lived  before  the  ghetto  was  liquidated  by  the 
Germans;  past  the  former  Jewish  hospital  on  Mirovska  Street  and 
up  Zlota,  a narrow,  cobble-stoned  country  road,  on  either  side  of 
which  were  small  frame  houses  and  gardens. 

When  they  reached  the  end  of  the  road,  they  asked  a passing  boy 
where  the  cemetery  was.  “There’s  a cemetery  there,  but  it’s  only 
a Jewish  one,”  he  said.  Abiding  by  the  boy  s directions,  they  went 
up  a wooded  path,  but  were  unable  to  find  a cemetery.  They 
returned  to  the  parked  Renault,  and  a girl  gave  them  different 

directions. 

They  retraced  their  path,  crossed  a short  bridge,  walked  along  a 
long  gray  wall  affixed  with  rusty  barbed  wire,  squeezed  under  two 
low-slung  pipelines,  traversed  a railroad  track  and  came  to  a quiet 
forest  glade.  It  was  already  growing  dark,  but  they  could  make 
out  the  ruined  remains  of  an  arched  gate,  which  led  to  an  eerie, 
forlorn  Jewish  cemetery. 


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Exploring  Ancestral  Roots 
in  Czenstochova 

By  Sheldon  Kirshner 

Reprinted  from  The  Canadian  Jewish  News  of  September  30,  1977 

Czenstochova,  Poland  — Henry  Sreb- 
rnik  was  in  Czenstochova,  the  source  of 
his  familial  roots,  and  he  could  hardly 
believe  it. 

Even  as  he  walked  along  Czensto- 
chova’s  main  street,  Najswictzet  Marii 
Panny,  which  leads  to  the  Jasna  Gora, 
one  of  Roman  Catholicism’s  major 
shrines,  he  felt  like  a somnambulist  in 
an  extremely  vivid  dream. 

A 32-year-old  native  of  Czenstochova 
had  good  reason  to  be  amazed  that  he 
was  finally  here.  “My  parents  and  my 
forefathers  were  born  and  raised  in  this 
city.  Through  stories  — good  and  bad  — 
it  has  always  been  part  of  me,’’  explained  the  lecturer  in  political 
science  and  Jewish  studies.  “I  wanted  to  see  it  for  myself.” 

Srebrnik  arrived  in  Poland  in  July,  following  visits  to  Germany, 
Austria  and  Czechoslovakia.  He  and  his  friend,  whose  parents  hail 
from  Lodz,  another  Polish  city,  crossed  into  Poland  at  Szczecin. 
Fbr  Srebrnik,  Szczecin  was  not  just  an  obscure  frontier  post 
separating  Poland  and  Czechoslovakia.  In  1938  several  Polish  divi- 
sions occupied  Szczecin,  and  his  father,  a bookkeeper;  was  a 
soldier  in  the  invading  force. 

On  the  way  to  Czenstochova,  Srebrnik  stopped  at  Auschwitz. 
Though  the  sombre  concentration  camp  did  not  move  him  to  the 
extent  he  thought  it  would,  he  was  glad  that  he  had  seen  the  in- 
famous place  where  some  of  his  parents’  relatives  had  perished. 


Henry  Siebrnik: 
seaivhing  for  mots 


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167 


A sudden  wind  brings  rain.  I’m  alone  in  the  min  in  the  cemetery. 
Only  the  peasant  women  know  I’ve  come  hem.  They’ll  wonder  and 
tell  their  husbands  who’ll  have  a few  drinks;  the  vodka  is  cheap 
but  good.  One  forgets,  but  remembem  what  them  is  to  mmember: 
“That  American  Zydowka  wandering  around  the  old  Jewish 
cemetery  all  by  herself.’’ 

A branch  crackles,  leaves  rustle;  some  prowler,  some  drunkard 

— yes,  I saw  empty  whisky  bottles  near  the  gravestones,  broken 
glass,  human  excrement.  A jungle,  this  Jewish  cemetery,  teem- 
ing, rotting. 

I’ve  lost  my  way. 

Look  for  the  wall,  look  for  the  light,  away  from  the  trees,  from 
the  dark  twisted  forest. 

Stumble  through  the  bmnches,  the  knee-high  gmss,  the  wet  clay 
earth.  Scratch  at  a stone.  Find  one  familiar  name,  one  witness 
from  the  long-ago  dead  past,  in  this  Jewish  graveyeard  in  Poland 

- Poland,  graveyard  of  the  Jews. 

On  a huge  pink  block  of  marble  with  many  names,  a name  jumps 
out;  “Pola  Kutner’’.  My  mother’s  sister.  The  pretty  one.  The 
youngest.  Not  yet  married.  Shot  in  this  cemetery,  buried  in  this 
mass  grave  for  smuggling  some  bread  into  the  camp. 

“Even  during  the  war,  we  had  enough  to  eat,’’  Marias  aunt  had 
said,  speaking  of  the  privation  the  Poles  are  suffering  now.  “’We 
can’t  even  get  ham  now.  Who  couldn’t  get  ham  during  the  war?’’ 

Yes.  And  Pola  was  shot  for  a piece  of  bread. 

The  rain  has  let  up.  The  wind  has  dropped. 

A bit  of  sun  shines  through  the  leaves.  A sparkle.  A beam.  A halo. 
And  now,  again,  in  the  open  garden,  in  the  high  grass,  in  front, 
where  my  great-grandfather  Yekl’s  gravestone  should  have  been. 
It’s  gone  and  soon  the  others  will  be  gone,  too.  If  my  daughter  ever 
comes  here,  all  she  will  find  will  be  the  great,  sprawling,  glower- 
ing Huta.  The  peasant  women  will  be  gone  and  no  one  will  remem- 
ber the  Jewish  cemetery. 

And  what  of  it  - if  the  Jews  are  gone? 


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‘‘They  steal  the  flowers  off  the  gravestones  and  sell  them,”  Maria 
had  told  me,  speaking  of  Polish  poverty  and  Polish  greed  and 
Polish  thieves;  she  herself  a Pole.  “They  steal  gravestones  and 
smooth  them  over  and  sell  them.  My  neighbour  breaks  the  stems 
of  the  flowers  she  leaves  on  her  husband’s  gi^ve  so  they  shouldn’t 
steal  them.” 

Deeper  into  the  cemetery,  the  open  garden  becomes  a grove,  a 
forest.  Trees  block  out  the  sky,  uproot  tombstones  which  them- 
selves seem  to  sprout  vines  and  branches.  The  wet  earth  soft 
under  my  feet.  Twigs  snap  back,  brambles  catch  on  my  rain 
poncho,  my  hair.  (Later  this  summer  there’ll  be  berries.)  Looking 
for  names,  I scratch  at  the  moss  and  grass  covering  a stone.  A 
thorn  pierces  the  palm  of  my  hand.  My  blood  mixes  with  the  dirt. 
(Dirt  and  snow  in  the  young  girl’s  mouth.  Snow  on  her  open  eyes.) 
A train  whistles  past,  filling  the  graveyaih  with  mar  and  coal  dust. 
In  the  little  house  way  out  of  the  country,  the  train  whistled  past 
in  the  night.  I was  six  years  old  and  I wanted  my  mother,  and  the 
night  was  loneliness  and  a train  hooting  through.  (The  man  with 
the  grey-blond  hair  rocked  in  his  chair  sucking  on  a pipe.  Flora, 
her  golden  braid  a crown  around  her  head,  was  laying  out  the 
cards.  “We  will  have  money,  yes.  But  who  will  bring  it?  And 
when?’’  They  say  she  betrayed  him,  her  husband.  He  was  a Jew 
and  she  betrayed  him  and  the  Germans  killed  him.) 

Is  it  true,  this  memory,  this  sound  of  a train  rushing  through  the 
night  calling  my  loneliness,  loneliness  of  a train  hooting  in  the 
dark  and  the  smell  of  petunias  at  night? 

Poland.  The  smell  of  petunias  at  night.  Lilacs.  Apple  trees.  Tar 
melting  in  the  sun  after  the  rain  on  a Polish  afternoon.  Mush- 
rooms. Mushrooms  in  a Polish  forest. 

Tlie  young  girl  we  found  in  the  fomst.  Snow  and  dirt  in  her  mouth. 
Open  eyes.  Garbo  hair.  The  nun  and  her  little  girls  were  going  for 
a walk  thmugh  the  snowy  woods.  We  passed  the  keeper’s  cottage. 
A peasant  woman  was  preparing  dinner,  peeling  potatoes.  When 
we  came  back,  she  was  dead. 

“Toppled  right  over  into  the  potatoes  she  was  peeling,  onto  the 
knife,”  we  heard  the  nuns  whispering.  “The  knife  stuck  in  her 
face.  And  we  spoke  with  her  just  an  hour  before.” 

But  the  girl.  Oh,  the  young  Jewish  girl ! Beautiful  with  Garbo  hair, 
thin  white  body  in  the  snow.  Jewish  girl  dead  in  the  Polish  woods, 
mouth  packed  with  snow,  open  eyes  covered  with  dirt  and  snow. 

The  snow  was  high  in  the  empty  fields.  We  walked  quickly,  two 
bundled  figures  — a woman  and  a little  girl.  She  was  scared,  this 
Polish  woman.  She  knew  my  mother  was  never  coming  back  and 
she  was  scared.  “If  the  Germans  find  you  with  me.  . . Hurry,  lift 
your  feet !”  We  walk  to  the  train  through  the  snow-covered  fields. 
Everything  is  white  and  still. 


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165 


“Ah,  then  Pani  is  a Jewess.  Well,  never  mind,  that’s  all  right.  Yes, 
Pani  must  walk  right  back  past  the  tracks.  And  where  is  Pani 
from?  America?  Life  is  good  there,  isn’t  it.  Better  than  here?" 

“Yes,  America  is  wonderful." 

“But,  excuse  me,  Pani.  Was  Pani  here  during  the  war?  And  Pani 
survived?  Yes,  those  were  hard  times.  I remember  how  they  took 
the  Jews  away.  So  Pani  survived." 

“Well  then,  yes,  that’s  the  gmveyard  over  there  right  behind  those 
trees.  Of  course,  Pani  may  not  find  it  as  Pani  expects.  Who  knows 
if  Pani  will  find  anything.  They  took  over  part  of  the  cemetery  for 
the  foundry.  They  wanted  to  build  over  the  whole  place,  but  the 
Jews  protested.  Jews  fmm  America.  So  they  signed  an  agi*eement 
not  to  build  anymore.  For  fifty  years.  Some  of  the  — you  know,  the 
remains  - were  transferred  to  other  towns.  To  Radomsk.  Pani 
understands.  And  the  gravestones,  well,  there’s  not  much  left." 

“Oh,  she’ll  find  some  of  them.  Sure,  there’s  a Rubinstein,  I 
remember.  Of  courses,  the  Gei’iiians  took  away  the  best  ones,  the 
fine  marble." 

“Yes,  it’s  open.  Pani  can  go  right  in.  They  pulled  the  gate  down 
long  ago." 

Walk  back  past  the  dogs  - quiet  now  across  the  tracks,  through 
the  trees,  to  an  old  greyish -pink  stone  wall.  The  archway  dazzles 
in  the  after- rain  sun.  The  gate  is  gone. 

“Grandfather  Yekl  was  buried  right  in  front.  His  tombstone  really 
stands  out.  You  can’t  miss  it  when  you  walk  in,  my  father  had 
said  when  he  heard  I was  going  back  to  Czestochowa.  But  don  t 
go  there  by  yourself.  It’s  very  isolated,  out  in  the  country.  Wed 
always  go  in  a group,  a few  of  us.  The  shkutziin  used  to  throw 
stones."  And  he  bent  his  head  and  parted  his  hair  to  show  me  a 
fifty-year-old  scar. 

Right  in  front,  where  great-grandfather  Yekl’s  grave  should  have 
been,  the  grass  grows  high,  soft,  inviting.  An  open  garden,  this 
city  of  dead.  Yellow  sunshine  beams  through  the  leaves,  mindrops 
glisten  on  overturned  tombstones.  IVIoss  and  earth,  young  grass, 
yellow  flowers,  tender  sprouts  hiding,  protecting,  obscuring  the 
hands  of  the  Golden  upraised  in  blessing:  “A  just  man  Zelig  Katz 

1880-1935." 

(Forgotten.  Children  and  grandchildren  dead.  In  the  ovens,  in 
stacks  of  corpses.  Resurrected  in  the  rich  earth,  the  fields,  the 
neat  unobtrusive  flower  beds  of  the  camp.) 

Great-grandfather’s  stone  is  gone.  Maybe  it  was  stolen  by  the 
Germans.  Maybe  by  the  Poles. 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Wasteland 

By  Ruth  Kiel  Everett* 

Coming  here  I took  the  wrong  path.  A quiet  muddy  country  lane 
with  the  Huta  — the  foundry  — behind  the  fields,  farm  houses 
along  the  way,  dogs  barking. 

Polish  dogs  barking  and  snapping.  Jewish  school  boys,  bearded 
peddlers,  old  men  running  from  Polish  dogs.  And  now  I. 

And  now  I,  alone  on  a country  road  in  Czestochowa,  Poland  of  the 
Jew  haters  now  finally  without  Jews  - looking  for  my  great  grand- 
father Yekl’s  grave. 

Dogs  are  more  afraid  than  people,  I tell  myself,  walking  slowly. 
They  gather  warily  behind  me  as  I pass  house  after  house.  A pack 
of  Polish  dogs  barking  and  growling  in  the  quiet  air. 

Two  women  come  out  from  behind  a house.  I approach  them,  smil- 
ing. I won’t  let  them  see  my  fear. 

“Good  day.  Could  you  tell  me  the  way  to  the  Jewish  cemetery?” 

They  exchange  glances.  Peasant  women.  Gaps  in  their  teeth,  mak- 
ing them  look  older  than  they  are. 

“It’s  over  on  the  other  side,  right  across  the  railway  tracks.  And 
what  would  Pani  want  with  the  Jewish  cemetery?” 

“My  family  is  from  Czestochowa.  My  great-grandfather  was 
buried  here.”  (But  not  my  grandfather.  My  grandfather,  Berl,  died 
in  Treblinka.) 

* “Wasteland"  by  Ruth  Kiel  Everett,  the  daughter  of  Chanan  Kiel  (Kielczyglowski) 
and  Sara  Kutner-Kielczyglowski,  from  Czestochowa,  was  published  in  1983  in 
“Ariel",  an  English-language  review  of  Arts  and  Letters,  published  in  Israel.  This 
special  1983  edition  of  “Ariel",  was  dedicated  to  the  Jewish  Resistance  during  the 
Second  World  War. 

Ruth  survived  as  a child  in  a Convent  for  children,  near  Warsaw.  Her  mother, 
Sara,  a nurse,  perished  in  the  Holocaust.  In  1977,  Ruth  visited  Czenstochowa  and 
went  to  the  Jewish  cemetery,  to  witness  what  was  left  of  her  Kehillah. 

Ruth  Kiel  Everett  lives  in  Jerusalem  with  her  husband,  Yaakov,  and  daughter, 
Sarah.  She  is  a tourist  guide  and  a free-lance  writer. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


163 


In  Memory  of  the 
Jewish  Victims  in  Europe 

There  has  been  an  unprecedented  increase  of  interest  in  the 
Holocaust.  It  is  the  subject  of  numerous  books,  movies  and  tele- 
vision features.  Until  some  25  years  ago,  survivors  often  did  not 
wish  to  talk  about  their  experiences.  They  felt  guilt  or  pain.  This 
changed  only  recently,  as  the  ranks  of  the  survivors  began  to 
dwindle  and  “revisionists”  claimed  that  the  Holocaust  never 
occurred. 

The  Holocaust  remains,  however,  an  undeniable  historic  event.  Tb 
teach  its  history,  a vast,  complex  and  profoundly  disturbing  sub- 
ject, may  be  deeply  upsetting.  But  its  lesson  must  be  transmitted 
and  understood  by  every  generation.  It  ought  to  be  shared  by  all 
faiths,  all  ethnic  groups  and  nationalities.  If  we  do  not  learn  from 
past  tragedies,  we  risk  their  repetition. 

This  attempt  of  genocide  did  occur  in  reputedly  “civilized” 
countries.  We  are  forced  to  realize  that  people  are  not  only  cap- 
able of  great  achievements,  but  also  of  unspeakable  cruelty.  To 
ignore  it,  is  to  deny  reality.  The  Holocaust  represents  the  most 
extreme  and  destructive  consequences  of  bigotry.  In  its 
systematic  planning  and  cold-blooded  efficient  execution,  the 
Nazi  persecution  of  the  Jews  was  a unique  event  in  the  history 
of  genocides. 

With  few  exceptions,  the  treatment  of  Jews  in  the  Nazi-occupied 
countries  followed  the  example  of  Germany.  Civil  rights  were 
denied,  property  was  confiscated  and  all  aspects  of  daily  life  were 
controlled  by  the  Nazis.  Gentiles  had  a choice:  they  could  follow 
the  majority  in  aiding  and  abetting  the  murderers,  or  they  could 
quietly  retain  their  humanity  and  follow  their  conscience.  In  doing 
the  latter,  some  of  them  became  heroes,  unsung  heroes  until  now. 
May  the  perpetrators  of  evil  never  be  forgotten  and  the  Righteous 
forever  remembered. 


162 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeac 


fcg  M 


YOM  HASHOAH 

Yom  Hashoah,  or  Holocaust  Remembrance  Day,  is  designated 
to  commemorate  the  6 million  Jewish  people  who  were  murdered 
in  the  Holocaust.  The  27th  day  of  Nisan  was  declared  by  the 
Knesset  of  Israel  as  Yom  Hashoah  because  it  marked  the 
beginning  of  the  Warsaw  Ghetto  uprising.  It  is  observed  by 
Jews  around  the  world  and  has  become  an  integral  part  of  our 
heritage  and  calendar.  Rituals  of  the  day  include  the  lighting 
of  a memorial  candle  the  night  before  and  special  services  in 
the  synagogue. 


Mordechai  Anilewicz,  Commander  of  the  Ghetto  Uprising. 
Monument  in  Kibbutz  Yad  Mordechai,  Israel. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le^ac 


161 


■ 


Victims  of  the  Nazis 
by  Country 


COUNTRY 

JEWISH 

POPULATION 

IN  1939 

NUMBER  OF 

JEWS  KILLED 

BY  THE  NAZIS 

PERCENTAGE 

KILLED 

Poland 

3,250,000 

2,850,000 

87.7 

Soviet  Union 

2,100,000 

1,500,000 

71.4 

Romania 

850,000 

425,000 

50.0 

Hungary 

400,000 

200,000 

50.0 

France 

300,000 

90,000 

30.0 

Czechoslovakia 

315,000 

240,000 

76.2 

Germany 

193,000 

110,000 

57.0 

Austria 

90,000 

45,000 

50.0 

Lithuania 

150,000 

130,000 

86.2 

Latvia 

95,000 

80,000 

84.2 

Holland 

150,000 

105,000 

70.0 

Belgium 

90,000 

40,000 

44.4 

Yugoslavia 

75,000 

55,000 

73.3 

Greece 

75,000 

60,000 

80.0 

Italy 

57,000 

15,000 

26.0 

Bulgaria 

50,000 

7,000 

14.0 

Others 

15,000 

5,000 

33.3 

8,255,000 

5,957,000 

72.1 

* 


:■}  ' 


■•I 


"y  ’.1^. 


> 


I'-’f 


mmm 


The  crematoria  at  Auschwitz  which  worked  day  and  night  to 
burn  the  millions  of  victims. 


160 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


All  of  these  conquests  brought  more  and  more  Jews  under  the  rule 
of  the  Germans  and  invited  even  more  stringent  measures,  cul- 
minating in  extermination  in  the  notorious  death  camps. 

The  roundup  of  Jews  and  their  shipment  to  the  death  factories 
was  organized  and  executed  by  the  SS.  But  the  rest  of  the  German 
army  was  not  adverse  to  taking  part  in  shootings  and  humiliation 
of  Jews. 

It  was  almost  standard  procedure.  Right  after  the  victorious 
German  armies,  came  the  Gestapo  with  their  files.  In  those  files 
were  the  names  of  Jewish  leaders  and  prominent  persons  whom 
the  Gestapo  would  round  up  in  order  to  ship  them  to  Auschwitz. 

The  Jews  were  expendable  and  their  extermination  continued  at 
a rapid  pace.  The  railway  lines  leading  to  Auschwitz  were  never 
bombed  — the  area  was  out  of  reach  of  American  warplanes,  the 
men  in  the  War  Department  claimed. 

But  these  same  men  could  order  the  air  force  to  bomb  factories 
five  miles  from  the  concentration  camp.  Jewish  leaders  in  this 
country  swallowed  it  all.  They  did  not  want  to  hamper  the  war 
effort. 

That  September  brought  countless  tragedies,  enough  to  fill 
the  history  books  forever. 


Transport  of  Jews  waiting  inside  the  Auschwitz  gates. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


159 


Jews  Viewed  as  Expendable 
as  German  Armies  Advanced 

By  Arno  Herzberg 

(JTA) 

For  Jews,  September  1,  1939  is  a day  that  confirmed  the  old 
adage  that  Jews  will  be  victims  of  upheaval  and  war,  that  they  are 
expendable,  that  their  fate  is  of  no  concern  to  the  great  makers 
and  shakers  of  this  world. 

This  day  was  significant  not  only  because  it  showed  how  little  the 
Western  democracies  were  prepared  to  cope  militarily  with  the 
power,  tactics  and  methods  of  Nazi  Germany.  For  Jews,  it  was  the 
end  of  all  efforts  to  save  our  people  from  the  clutches  of  the  most 
vicious  criminals  in  history. 

Emigration  out  of  Germany  slowed  to  a trickle  on  that  day,  and 
the  physical  extermination  of  Jews  was  brought  a decisive  step 
closer. 

I had  always  feared  that  the  Nazis  would  resort  to  measures 
beyond  the  imagination  of  a normal  person  if  war  ever  broke  out; 
that  they  would  want  to  get  rid  of  Jews  so  that  they  did  not  have 
to  feed  them. 

When  war  did  break  out,  the  Nazis  were  no  longer  concerned  how 
the  world  would  react  to  their  behavior.  The  so-called  civilized  na- 
tions saw  the  cruelties  the  Nazis  dealt  out  in  Austria  and  Czech- 
oslovakia, as  in  Vienna,  where  the  Jews  had  to  scrub  the  sidewalks 
with  their  bare  hands.  The  Allies  had  signaled  to  them  long  ago, 
in  the  Conference  of  Evian  and  elsewhere,  that  they  could  do  with 
the  Jews  as  they  pleased. 

In  this  war,  the  fate  of  the  Jews  was  bound  up  with  the  advance 
of  the  German  armies.  First  came  the  conquest  of  Poland,  with 
its  millions  of  Jews;  then  France,  Belgium,  Holland,  Denmark, 
Norway;  then  Hungary,  Yugoslavia  and  Greece,  and  finally,  the 
Soviet  Union. 


158 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legaa 


One  of  the  Torahs  is  to  be  dedicated  to  Abramowicz’s  and 
Rapaport’s  synagogue,  Temple  Beth  Torah,  in  Westbury,  and  one 
to  Harry’s  parents’  synagogue,  Congregation  B’nai  Israel,  in  Pair- 
lawn,  New  Jersey.  Another  will  go  to  the  Jewish  War  Veterans 
Museum  in  Washington,  D.C.,  and  Harry  said  he  hopes  a fourth 
will  go  to  a Holocaust  museum  in  the  United  States. 

The  fifth  Torah  was  given  to  the  Mid-Island  Y during  the  recent 
Kristallnacht  ceremony. 


Czenstochover  in  Israel 


The  Publication  Committee,  of  the  book  "'Czenstochov"  printed  in 
1967  in  Israel. 

(Seated  from  right):  G.  Frajtag,  N.  Edelist,  A.  Gotlieb,  J.  Leslaw, 

J.  Levitt,  Dr  A.  Horowicz,  M.  Ch.  Tiberg,  L.  Richer. 

(Standing  from  right):  H.  Wiernik,  Ch.  Z.  Rosen,  C.  J.  Kaufman, 

I.  Ben-Moshe,  Ch.  Bierenholtz,  D.  Koniecpoler,  S.  B.  Szancer,  A.  Pelui, 
M.  Jaskiel. 


The  Ariangement  Committee. 

(Fix)m  right):M.  Ch.  Tiberg,  S.  D.  Jeruszalmi,  J.  Leslaw,  A.  Gottlieb, 
I.  Ben-Moshe. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


157 


After  the  wai;  the  elder  Rapaport  went  back  to  Czenstochova.  He 
found  his  fathei‘'s  gi'ave^site,  and  nearby,  he  spotti^d  the  stone 
which  had  been  I'emoved  to  make  a sidewalk.  He  repaii'ed  the 
monument  and  visited  again  a few  times.  About  edght  yeai’s  ago, 
four  yeai*s  befom  he  passed  away,  Moishe  leduimed  with  Hai*ry  and 
Penny. 

“In  the  town,”  said  Penny,  “you  could  see  where  all  the  Jewish 
houses  wei-e.  You  could  see  the  outlines  of  a mezuzali  on  eveiy  dooi’, 
and  you  could  see  the  holes  whei’e  they  had  bec^n  nailed  on.  Kvciy 
place  I walked,  I walked  in  blood,”  she  said. 

The  Jewish  cernc.Jery  “was  like  a jungle,”  recalled  Hai*i*y.  “It  took 
all  day  to  clear  away  the  weeds.  We  v^ere  i*eady  to  leaver  without 
finding  |my  grandfathei*’s  grave],  when  my  wife^  stumbled  ovei* 
some  1‘ocks.  She  had  found  tlu^  wcJl.  My  fathei-  counted  off  25 
paces  and  thei'e,  {ji‘ot(K;ted  by  somc^  trcKis,  he  found  the  grav(^ 

“I  became  interested  in  ix^storing  this  pailiculai’  cemc3tei*y.  Thc3 
Abramowiczes  and  I formed  a committee  and  we  am  negotiating 
with  a Polish  contractoi*  now  to  i'estori3  th(3  gat(3  of  the  cenu^U^ry.” 

Last  spring,  Abramowicz  made  a similar  pilgi'imagci  to  Czt^nsto- 
chova  with  his  fathei*,  Fi*oim  Abi*aniowicz.  Wliile  thc^re,  they  were 
told  by  a local  i*esident  that  “a  whoi(i  bunch  of  Toi*ahs  and  books” 
were  lying  in  the  factory  on  the  cemc3tei*y  gi*ounds. 

“I  brought  home  some  pi*oof,”  Abramowicz  said,  “in  casc3  they 
didn’t  believe  me.”  He  took  a few  books  and  a megillah  with  him 
to  Long  Island  and  showed  them  to  Hari*y  and  Penny. 

Together,  the  Rapapoi’ts  and  Abi*amowiczes  went  back  to  Poland 
a few  weeks  later.  Tht^y  visited  the  factory,  and  thei*e,  in  a i*oom 
off  to  the  side  of  a corridor,  were  boxes  of  pmyerbooks  and  Tbi-ahs, 
covered  by  an  old  blanket. 

“There  were  books  fmm  flooi*  to  shouldei*  high,”  said  Hai*i  •y.  "They 
were  all  in  V63i*y  bad  shape.” 

The  two  families  decided  to  bi*ing  out  as  many  books  as  they 
could. 


“To  get  a Tbi*ah  out  is  almost  to  be  able  to  save  a soul,”  said  Hai‘i*y. 

Five  Tbi’alis  and  many  gmyerbooks  were  ci*ammed  into  ev(3ry  avail- 
able space  in  the  luggage,  thus  making  their  way  to  the  Unite^d 
States. 

Inside  the  covers  of  some  books  are  names  of  Jews  who  usc^d 
them.  In  one,  someone  had  used  a blank  page  to  write  of  his  woes: 

“All  day  long  I'm  working  at  the  factory.  There  is  no  food  . . . My 
wife  is  very  sick  and  she  can’t  nurse  the  child.  My  heart  aches.” 

“You  feel  the  souls  of  these  people,"  said  Harry. 


156 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Rapaport,  this  and  four  other  Torahs  are  back  in  Jewish  hands. 


It  is  possible  that  if  the  Rapaport  and  Abramowicz  families  had 
not  gone  to  search  for  their  roots  several  years  ago,  those  books 
might  still  be  lying  in  oblivion. 

But,  in  a way,  the  discovery  was  inevitable.  Something  about 
Czenstochova  kept  calling  to  those  families,  although  there  is 
almost  nothing  left  of  the  once-vibrant  Jewish  life  there. 

What  remains  is  a strong  memory  of  and  pride  in  Czenstochova, 
kept  alive  laigely  through  a New  Yoi*k- based  fraten*nal  group  of 
Holocaust  survivors  with  branches  around  the  world.  Rapaport 
and  Abramowicz  met  each  other  and  their  spouses.  Penny  Hemd 
and  Donna  Jescniewoicz,  lespectively,  through  this  gi'oup,  in 
which  thcur  j)arents  werc^  all  members. 


All  four  wei-e  boi'n  just  aftcu*  the  war  in  Europe.  Now  the  two 
families  aix^  ncixt-dooi*  neighbors  in  Melville.  Th(u*(^  ai“e  pi'obably 
moi‘e  Czenstochova  Jews  on  thcdi’  stiecJ  than  in  all  of  Czensto- 
chova today. 


Rapaport’s  fathei*,  Moishe,  was  abk3  to  give  his  fathei*  a pi*ope3i’ 
Jewish  bui'ial,  violating  a Nazi-imposed  cui*few,  and  he  memoi’ized 
the  plot’s  location:  25  steps  from  an  old  well  inside  the  gates  of 
the  Jewish  cemetery. 


A Tbi^ah  scroll  that  survived  the  Holocaust  was  presented  to  the  Mid- 
Island  Y by  (fiom  left):  Donna  and  Jack  Abramowicz  and  Penny  and  Harry 

Rapaport.  At  right  is  Michael  Soroka,  president  of  the  Y’s  Board  of 
Directors. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeacy 


155 


Torah  Scroll  Survived  “Hells  of  Europe” 
in  CzensCochova  Warehouse 

By  Toby  Axelrod 

Reprinted  from  Long  Island  ''The  Jewish  Week'' 

November  25,  1988 

Cradling  the  small  Torah  in  his  arms  like  a baby,  Jack  Abramowicz 
stood  next  to  his  long-time  friend  and  neighbor  Harry  Rapaport. 
They  faced  a crowd  of  nearly  1,000  people,  packed  into  the  gym 
of  the  Mid-Island  Y in  Plainview,  L.I. 

“This  Holocaust  Torah  survived  the  hells  of  Europe,”  said 
Rapaport.  “It  is  dedicated  to  the  Mid- Island  Y as  a memorial  to 
our  lost  six  million. 

As  the  Kristallnacht  com- 
memoration drew  to  a close 
that  night  of  Nov.  9,  hun- 
dreds of  people  pushed 
their  way  to  the  front  of  the 
room  where  the  200-year- 
old  Torah,  swathed  in  a 
tallis  cover,  lay  on  a small 
table  beside  six  memorial 
candles. 

One  by  one,  people  reached 
out  to  touch  and  caress  the 
Torah  as  if  it  were  a long- 
lost  child  suddenly  come 
home. 

Fbr  more  than  40  years, 
this  Torah  had  lain  with 
other  damaged  scrolls  and 
prayerbooks  in  a corner  of 
a warehouse  in  Czensto- 
chova,  Poland.  And  now, 
thanks  to  Abramovicz  and 


Examining  and  reading  the  Holocaust 
Sefer  Torah  for  the  first  time  are  (1.  to 
r):  Rabbi  Dr  Yaakov  Thompson  and 
Harry  Rapaport. 


154 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


young  Jewish  people  who  had  decided  to  organize  illegally,  such 
as  Szmulewicz,  Laznaz,  Mandelbaum,  were  also  confined. 

That  commanding  group  was  realized  on  the  historic  day  of  May 
12,  1940.  On  that  date,  most  of  the  people  did  not  return  home 
after  work,  but  went  directly  to  the  illegal  meeting  which  took 
place  at  the  former  pubhc  bank  of  Aleia  22.  All  the  entrances  and 
exits  were  barred.  Over  a thousand  people  attended  this  meeting. 
Strong  words  to  protest  the  enforcement  of  compulsory  labour 
among  the  Jewish  people  came  first  from  Rosenwein,  Szyldhaus 
and  Szmulewicz.  It  was  decided  that  all  those  in  the  forced  labour 
group,  regardless  of  their  political  views,  would  be  protected.  This 
illegally  organized  group  became  the  basis  for  the  future 
resistance  movement  in  the  small  ghetto. 

Zvi  Rosenwein  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  the  resistance  movement 
in  Czenstochova.  This  resistance  to  the  oppression  of  the  Jews 
by  the  Nazi  regime  was  followed  by  the  leader  of  the  uprising  in 
the  Warsaw  Ghetto.  Rosenwein  was  advised  to  continue  to  spread 
his  revolutionary  movement  in  other  cities  and,  while  on  a mis- 
sion to  Bendzin,  he  became  the  actual  leader  of  the  resistance 
movement  in  that  town.  After  the  downfall  of  Hitler’s  Germany, 
Rosenwein  was  in  a D.R  Camp  at  Einring,  in  the  American  zone 
of  Germany.  He  soon  became  a member  of  the  Central  Commit- 
tee of  the  Czenstochover  survivors  and  a member  of  the  cultural 
committee.  He  was  also  involved  in  the  preparations  of  the  book 
“Churban  Czenstochov”. 

In  1949,  Zvi  Rosenwein  moved  to  New  York  and  became  the 
secretary  of  the  Czenstochover  Society  and  Social  Club.  He  con- 
tinued his  activity  and  was  co-editor  of  the  book  “Czenstochov”, 
which  was  published  in  New  York  in  1958.  That  same  year,  he  was 
involved  in  the  publication  of  a series  of  articles  under  his  literary 
name,  Zvain. 

Zvi  Rosenwein  is  one  of  the  outstandingly  colourful  personalities 
in  the  history  of  Czenstochova.  He  will  always  be  remembered  for 
organizing  the  heroic  resistance  against  the  barbaric  Nazi  regime. 


Abram  Bomba,  a Holocaust 
Survivor,  holding  a 'Holocaust 
Torah'’  rescued  in  Czenstochova. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


153 


Zvi  Rosenwein 

Translated  from  Yiddish 

The  name  Rosenwein  grew  to  be  a symbol  of  resistance  among 
those  of  the  younger  generation  of  Czenstochov  who  were  ready 
to  fight  under  his  leadership  in  their  besieged  city  of  Czen- 
stochova  during  the  Nazi  regime  of  World  War  II. 

Zvi  was  born  in  Czenstochova  on  December  18,  1918,  to  a strictly 
orthodox  family.  He  received  a general  religious  education  and 
was  an  avid  reader.  He  was  influenced  by  the  works  of  A.D.  Gordon 
who  called  upon  the  Jewish  youth  to  abandon  their  lives  in  the 
diaspora. 

In  1932,  Zvi  became  involved  in  the  organization  “Gordonia”,  and 
subsequently  climbed  the  social  ladder.  In  the  following  year,  he 
represented  his  organization  with  lectures  on  Zionism  and 
Socialism.  In  1938,  at  the  age  of  20,  he  wrote  a column  “Under 
the  Shadow  of  Extinction’’  in  the  weekly  Czenstochover  Press. 

World  War  II,  1939,  the  German  motorized  military  units  occupied 
Czenstochova.  Rosenwein  continued  to  face  the  fight  against 
hunger,  starvation  and  epidemic  sickness.  He  had  to  reorganize 
“Halutz  farm’’,  long-time  known  to  Czenstochova.  In  this  activity, 
he  could  continue  to  do  the  illegal  work  among  the  Jewish  youth 
in  the  city.  He  called  an  emergency  conference  in  Warsaw  with 
the  participation  of  Tzivia  Lubetkin  and  Joseph  Kaplan.  The  path 
for  an  international  alertness  was  paved  at  that  conference. 
Rosenwein  became  one  of  the  main  leaders  of  this  illegal  organi- 
zation. Illegal  meetings  were  held  regularly  at  the  homes  of  Malka 
Weltman  on  Berka  Joselewicza  1,  Cela  Katz  on  Warszavska,  Hela 
Friedman  on  Garncarska,  and  Mania  Szczeczura  on  Kedrzynska. 
Rosenwein  attended  all  of  these  meetings  and  encouraged  actions 
to  fight  the  Nazis. 

Very  unpleasant  times  had  begun  with  the  steady  hunting  down 
and  rounding  up  of  Jewish  people  who  were  sent  to  forced  labour. 
At  the  working  sites,  they  were  beaten  and  insulted.  Zvi  Rosen- 
wein was  among  those  apprehended  for  forced  labour.  Many 


152 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


arrested  and  now  I was  to  return  there  for  another  five  months, 
until  my  nerves  cracked  and  I was  given  an  agricultural  trainee 
visa  for  England,  “to  leave  England  upon  completion  of  the 
training”. 

On  September  1,  1939,  World  War  II  broke  out.  By  then  about 
170,000  German  Jews  were  left  to  be  exterminated,  now  that  emi- 
gration had  become  an  impossibility.  The  phase  that  Crystal  Night 
had  opened  enabled  perhaps  80,000  German  Jews  to  emigrate  in 
1939,  as  the  result  of  world  indignation.  It  made  room  for  the 
“final  solution”,  which  affected  my  brother,  Fritz  Hermann,  and 
many  other  relatives  who  did  not  make  it  before  the  closing  of  the 
gates. 

Would  it  have  been  possible  to  save  more  in  1939?  The  lesson  of 
Crystal  Night  is  simple:  People  who  can  be  saved  today  should 
not  be  left  waiting  for  tomorrow.  It  may  never  come. 


A Survivor  Writes 

By  Sonia  Games 

From  many  parts  of  North  America  and  of  the  world  came 
memories  of  the  tragic  days  in  the  Jewish  Community  of  Czen- 
stochova.  Mrs.  Sonia  Games  writes  to  us  from  Phoenix,  Arizona: 

Dear  Mr.  Harry  Klein 

"...  .lam  enclosing  a copy  of  my  book,  ESCAPE  INTO  DARK- 
NESS, which  recently  came  out  in  paperback  by  Shapolsky 
PubUshers,  N.Y.  This  is  the  second  printing;  the  first  was  in  hard- 
cover in  April  of  1991. 

"My  family  was  deported  from  the  Czenstochova  Ghetto,  and  the 
book  might  be  of  particular  interest  to  you  and  to  our  second  and 
third  generation  readers.  . . . 

"...  .It  was  only  five  years  ago  that  I was  able  to  write  it,  as  you 
can  surely  imagine.  But  I had  this  box  of  yellowing  notes  on  my 
shelf,  and  the  obligation. 

"We  are  a fading  generation  and  I wanted  to  share  my  experiences. 
My  reward  is  an  opportuniity  to  lecture  in  schools  about  the  Holo- 
caust, an  opportunity  I am  immensely  grateful  for.  I haven't  made 
a cent  on  this,  nor  do  I expect  to.  Sufficient  that  my  effort  pro- 
vided me  a forum  to  confront  and  rebuke  those  who  would  deny 
history. 

"Yes,  to  this  day  I well  remember  the  Czenstochova  Ghetto.  . . .” 
A book  to  be  recommended! 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


151 


There  was  a canteen  where  you  could  buy  some  cheese  or  sausage 
or,  believe  it  or  not,  boxes  of  candy.  The  profit  that  went  to  the 
SS  was  unbelievable. 

One  morning  the  PA  system  bellowed:  ‘All  Jews  who  own  a car 
report  at  the  gate  immediately”.  Many  did  — and  were  relieved  of 
their  property  at  one-tenth  or  less  its  value.  We  were  working  in 
the  quarries  and  were  told  to  avoid  looking  at  the  house  of  the 
Commander,  SS  Colonel  Koch  (later  executed  by  the  Nazis  them- 
selves). His  wife.  Use  (known  for  her  interest  in  tattoos  and  lamp 
shades  made  of  human  skin  showing  interesting  tattoos),  was 
looking  for  potential  victims.  The  work  in  the  quarries  was  make- 
believe  work,  seemingly  without  value,  but  a great  opportunity 
for  the  supervisors  to  beat  us.  Young  men  who  were  healthy  could 
survive,  as  I did;  men  in  their  50s  and  60s  were  just  driven  to 
“normal”  deaths. 

Even  among  the  SS,  there  were  human  beings  as  well  as  beasts. 
Some  used  every  opportunity  to  be  cruel,  others  seemed  curiously 
matter-of-fact.  Inside  the  camp  proper,  you  saw  the  bulk  of  the 
“real”  inmates,  mainly  Gentiles.  Some  were  political  activists 
(who  seemed  to  fare  quite  well),  some  homosexuals,  some  ex-jail- 
birds who  had  not  been  let  go  after  their  sentence  had  been  served 
but  placed  in  Buchenwald;  some  Jehovali’s  Witnesses,  some  old 
and  practically  dying,  some  looking  rather  healthy  in  spite  of  all 
the  suffering. 

But  I recall  an  old,  slim  man,  with  a two-by-four  in  place  of  a leg. 
An  SS  officer  who  knew  him,  exclaimed  upon  seeing  him,  “Are 
you  still  alive?  I’ll  bring  you  some  rope  tonight  and  you  can  hang 
yourself.”  The  next  morning  we  had  a long  roll  call  while  they  cut 
him  off  a tree  and  dragged  him  to  his  block  comrades  so  that  the 
elder  could  report  “Strength,  380.  Now,  379  present,  and  one 
corpse’  ’. 

On  another  occasion,  as  I stook  at  the  fence  and  near  a watch 
tower,  suddenly  something  was  thrown  down  at  me.  It  turned  out 
to  be  a perfectly  good  and  tasty  sandwich.  Obviously,  the  SS  man 
on  the  tower  had  a heart. 

After  a week  or  two  inside  the  real  camp,  we  were  returned  to  the 
stables.  By  that  time  rumors  had  it  that  those  whose  emigration 
papers  were  ready  could  be  released.  Indeed,  this  is  what  hap- 
pened. After  about  2'/:  months  in  Buchenwald,  my  name  was  call- 
ed to  report  at  the  gate.  I was  told  that  I would  be  released  the 
next  morning  “to  continue  to  prepare  Jewish  youth  for  emigra- 
tion at  the  ‘Juedische  Anlernwerkstatt’  in  Frankfurt/Main.” 

It  turned  out  that  this  ORT-type  school  had  been  taken  over  by 
the  Gestapo,  or  SS,  to  further  Jewish  emigration  through  voca- 
tional training.  I had  taught  there  for  over  two  years  when  I was 


150 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Others  had  committed  suicide  by  various  means,  or  died  from 

natural  causes.  Our  arrests  had  been  chaotic:  some  of  the  black- 
shirts were  relatively  human,  others  sadists  with  a killer  instinct. 

I still  recall  the  Frankfurt /Main  exhibition  hall  where  we  were 
assembled  and  thoroughly  disoriented,  the  transport  to  the 
railway  station  on  trucks  (“keep  your  heads  on  your  knees,  who- 
ever raises  his  head  only  a second  will  be  shot”),  the  long  train 
ride  to  Weimar,  the  renewed  cruelties  on  the  way  to  Buchenwald 
and  then  the  long  wait  on  the  parade  grounds,  from  6 in  the  morn- 
ing to  4 p.m. 

Suddenly,  over  the  PA  system,  a voice  shouted,  “If  another  of 
those  Jews  hangs  himself,  will  he  please  first  put  a piece  of  paper 
with  his  name  on  it  in  his  pocket  so  that  we  know  who  the  hell 
he  is.” 

As  the  day  progressed  and  we  stood  and  waited,  we  relieved 
ourselves  in  our  pants,  tried  to  help  some  older  men  who  had 
fainted  by  just  propping  them  up.  Now  and  then  a Kapo  came 
along  and  beat  some  up.  The  machine  guns  on  the  watch  towers 
were  moved  like  searchlights  over  us.  When  one  man  screamed 
out  loud,  “Sh’ma  Yisrael’’,  a crackling  and  seemingly  drunk  voice 
shouted  over  the  PA  “Pick  him  up  and  take  him  to  the  bunker; 
we’ll  take  care  of  him  tonight.’’  We  knew  what  it  meant  without 
being  told. 

Late  in  the  afternoon,  we  were  given  something  to  eat,  whale 
goulash.  It  caused  immediate  diarrhea.  By  then  we  had  been  put 
in  barracks  which  were  really  stables.  Rows  of  planks  in  three  or 
four  layers  served  as  beds,  and  we  were  so  crowded  that  most  of 
us  could  only  sleep  on  our  sides  to  save  space.  Of  course,  there 
were  no  blankets,  not  even  straw.  In  fact,  the  man  on  my  right 
did  not  get  up  next  morning.  He  had  died  in  his  sleep  and  we 
dragged  him  out  for  roll  call. 

I will  never  forget  this  first  night  — it  was,  again,  a preview  of 
hell.  Men  who  had  to  relieve  themselves,  used  their  hats;  ten-mark 
bills  served  as  toilet  paper  and,  as  had  happened  the  night  before, 
some  went  insane  and  were  beaten  to  death.  Early  in  the  morn- 
ing we  were  permitted  to  use  the  “toilets’’  — open  ditches  with 
raw  lumber  to  sit  on. 

Rumours  spread  like  wildfire:  we  would  be  working  at  something; 
we  would  be  released  soon;  we  would  stay  on  and  on;  and  our 
hopes  made  a skydive  when  we  were  properly  admitted  and  some 
of  us,  perhaps  1,000,  put  into  the  real  camp.  I was  one  of  them. 

Of  the  many  impressions  that  I gained  and  often  recall  in  night- 
mares to  this  day,  one  will  do:  the  utter  corruption  of  the  place. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Leffocy 


149 


Witness  of  Shattering  Crystal 

By  Henry  Warschauer 

Reprinted  from  the  ''Canadian  Jewish  News''  of  November  10,  1978 

The  most  brutal  rehearsal  for  the  Holocaust  took  place  inside 
Germany,  in  full  view  of  a passive  German  population,  between 
November  9 and  November  12,  1938.  The  event,  known  as  if  to 
prettify  the  pogrom,  was  “Crystal  Night”,  the  night  of  broken 
glass,  and  remembered  by  Jews  all  over  the  world  as  the  begin- 
ning of  the  “final  solution”.  The  40th  anniversary  of  the  event 
gives  me  cause  to  jot  down  these  facts  and  memories  which  I feel 
should  never  be  forgotten. 

Under  the  Goebbels-organized  cover  of  “spontaneous  demonstra- 
tions of  irate  citizens”  following  the  death  of  a German  embassy 
official  in  Paris  on  November  9,  which  also  was  the  anniversary 
of  the  unsuccessful  Hitler  uprising  of  1923.  171  synagogues  were 
set  ablaze  all  over  Germany,  and  others  wantonly  destroyed. 

In  the  course  of  these  operations,  which  stretched  into  Novem- 
ber 10,  91  Jews  were  murdered,  many  others  severely  wounded 
and,  in  broad  daylight,  more  than  7,000  Jewish-owned  businesses, 
including  29  of  the  largest  and  world-famous  department  stores, 
destroyed.  Also,  beginning  November  10,  and  ending  only  Novem- 
ber 12,  some  25,000  male  adult  Jews  were  arrested  by  the  GestapxD 
and  taken  to  the  three  largest  concentration  camps. 

So  it  was  that  on  November  11  or  12, 1 found  myself  in  the  recently 
established  concentration  camp  Buchenwald,  together  with 
almost  half  the  25,000  arrested  Jews. 

The  camp  was  completely  unprepared  for  our  arrival.  As  we  now 
know,  on  November  9,  before  our  arrival,  the  camp  count  had  been 
9,842  inmates.  Fbur  days  later,  thanks  to  us,  it  had  risen  to  19,676. 

There  was  not  enough  water  or  food,  nor  barrack  or  toilets,  to 
accommodate  us.  In  fact,  by  the  time  we  arrived,  the  first  group 
had  already  been  decimated  by  men  who  had  gone  insane,  run 
berserk  and  been  clubbed  to  death  by  Kapos,  as  well  as  Jews  who 
had  taken  it  upon  themselves  to  “put  some  order  into  this  chaos”. 


148 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lcj 


The  Holy  Bible  for  the  Germans  was  Hitler’s  “Mein  Kampf’’,  an 
inspiration  for  hate,  brutality  and  murder. 

Idzihowsky,  the  lawyer  who  was  officially  appointed  to  defend 
Kestner,  declared  that  his  client  was  only  a small  pin  in  Hitler  s 
machine.  He  asserted  that  the  whole  world  was  to  be  blamed  for 
allowing  the  spread  of  Hitler’s  plague  in  Germany  and  around  the 

world. 

Kestner  was  sentenced  to  death. 


Nazi  murder  Kestner  during  his  arrest  in  Czenstochova  after  the  war 


Ch.  Kiel 


E.  Chrobolowski 
and  wife  Helen 


Li.  Brener 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


147 


The  Nazi  Murderer  Kestner 
Before  the  Court  of  Justice 

Translated  from  Yiddish 

Kestner,  a typical  German  gendarme,  born  in  Sosnie  (Silesia), 
spoke  fluent  Polish.  Of  sadistic  behavior,  just  like  the  other  Nazi 
degenerates,  he  was  appointed,  along  with  another  bandit, 
Lashinsky,  to  liquidate  the  so-called  “small  ghetto”  in  Czensto- 
chova.  Their  level  of  brutality  was  far  greater  than  that  of  the 
ghetto  Commandant  Tzopot. 

When,  in  the  summer  of  1943,  the  German  rulers  suspected  that 
the  Jewish  resistance  movement  was  preparing  a military  attack, 
they  found  it  necessary  to  give  Kestner  and  Lashinsky,  the  job 
of  removing  and  liquidating  the  small  Jewish  ghetto  in 
Czenstochova.  Kestner  completed  his  mission  splendidly 

As  witness  and  accused,  Kestner  declared  that  he  did  not  recall 
exactly  how  many  people  he  had  murdered  with  his  own  hands 
. . . “maybe  300  or  800  people”.  He  admitted  that  he  had  murdered 
“only”  22.  As  the  trial  progressed,  it  became  clear  that  his  crimes 
were  horrible. 

Statements  by  witnesses,  such  as  Owieczka,  Koniecpolski,  Szpitz, 
Kromolowski  and  Zelkowicz,  were  heard.  They  had  hved  through 
the  liquidation  of  the  small  ghetto  where  thousands  of  our 
brothers  and  sisters  were  murdered.  They  described  how  Kestner 
coldbloodedly  shot  several  bullets  into  the  heart  of  a little  girl 
whom  he  swung  by  her  hair.  Savagely  he  murdered  children  and 
helpless  elderly.  These  are  only  fragments  of  Kestner’s 
“activities”. 

The  prosecutor,  Kazinsky,  called  the  German  nation  ‘ ‘a  horde  of 
cattle  who  followed  their  leader  blindly,  even  into  inhumanity”. 
Hitler,  one  of  the  greatest  criminals  in  history,  lived  by  the 
teachings  of  Friedrich  Wilhelm,  who  believed  that  the  Germans 
could  only  be  ruled  by  a dictator.  According  to  Hans  Frank,  who 
was  sentenced  to  be  hanged  by  the  1946  International  Tribunal 
in  Niirenberg,  “Whatever  served  the  German  Nation  was  lawful”. 


146 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeracy 


The  disappearance  of  so  many  started  rumors.  Himmler  stated 
that  all  Jews  were  being  “resettled  in  the  east”.  The  mails  were 
in  operation  throughout  the  war,  but  there  were  no  letters.  Swiss 
salesmen  were  allowed  in  and  out  of  Germany  and  some  said  they 
had  met  soldiers  who  told  them  of  seeing  “hundreds  of  Jews  in 
big  open  graves”.  The  Swiss  did  not  believe  it. 

On  December  8,  1942,  Joseph  Goebbels  said  “treatment  of  the 
Jews  is  a delicate  question”  that  ought  not  to  be  asked.  The  Inter- 
national Red  Cross  was  kept  from  the  concentration  camps,  and 
ordered  not  to  transmit  messages  to  and  from  Jews. 

The  news  reached  London,  however,  and  the  slaughter  of  a million 
Jews  was  reported.  Winston  Churchill  had  no  comment.  Fbreign 
Secretary  Anthony  Eden  said  he  didn’t  believe  the  story.  The  U.S. 
Embassy  in  Berne  cryptically  told  the  story  as  a sort  of  postscript 
to  its  regular  messages. 

The  New  York  Times  published  British  reports  about  the  holocaust 
on  June  30,  1942,  and  July  2,  but  printed  the  story  in  the  middle 
of  the  paper.  In  Palestine,  Hebrew  newspapers  deplored  the 
publishing  of  “unproven  and  exaggerated  rumors”.  Influential 
British  Jews  wanted  to  suppress  the  story  for  fear  of  arousing 
Hitler  to  greater  crimes. 

New  York’s  Rabbi  Stephen  Wise,  worried  about  whether  to  keep 
silent,  but  held  a press  conference  in  October,  1942,  and  announc- 
ed that  half  of  Poland’s  Jews  — 2 million  — had  been  killed  by  the 
Nazis. 

The  same  month.  Prof.  Felix  Frankfurter  saw  Roosevelt  and  told 
him  the  story.  The  president  said  not  to  worry.  The  Jews  were 
being  used  by  the  Germans  to  build  fortifications  on  the  Russian 
frontier. 

At  almost  the  same  time,  a Polish  emissary  named  Jan  Karsky 
related  to  Frankfurter  the  detailed  story  of  the  Holocaust.  Frank- 
furter said:  “I  can’t  believe  you.” 

The  leaders  of  the  free  world  felt  they  could  do  nothing  about  it. 
It  was  all  too  far  away. 

Matzohs  for  Pesach  1945 

By  Cheryl  Semsky 

There  was  a religious  man  in  Czenstochova  named  Noah 
Edelist.  After  the  liberation,  Mr.  Edelist  came  to  see  my  father, 
Morris  Semsky.  He  was  very  concerned  that  there  would  be  no 
matzohs  for  Pesach.  He  asked  if  there  were  any  other  bakers  still 
alive.  My  father  told  him  about  Jack  Shipper  and  Nathan 
Eilenberg.  Mr.  Edelist  and  his  friends  found  a “bakery”  that  was 
very  dirty.  They  got  to  work,  roUed  up  their  sleeves  and  cleaned 
it.  They  were  given  some  flour.  Thanks  to  Mr.  Edelist,  Czensto- 
chova had  matzohs  for  Passover. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le^cacy 


145 


Holocaust  was  **Too  Far  Away** 

By  Jim  Bishop 

When  World  War  II  ended,  a grave  question  arose:  “When  did 
the  Allies  learn  of  the  extermination  of  the  Jews,  and  what  did 
they  do  about  it?”  The  question  has  been  asked  for  many  years. 
Authors  in  untold  numbers  have  ransacked  the  old  files  in 
Washington,  London  and  Berlin;  but  they  have  all  drawn  blanks. 

Except  one,  Walter  Laqueur,  a writer  with  the  tenacity  of  a bull- 
dog. I read  his  book,  “The  Terrible  Secret' \ all  day  yesterday  and 
part  of  the  night.  It  is  a document  that  portrays  an  eerie  partner- 
ship between  Hitler  and  Churchill  and  Roosevelt. 

Many  historians  date  the  beginning  of  the  Holocaust  as  January 
1942,  because  that  is  when  Himmler  convened  the  Wannsee 
conference  for  the  “final  solution”  of  the  Jewish  problem.  The  con- 
ference endorsed  what  had  been  going  on  since  June  1941  — the 
killing  of  500,000  Jews. 

The  special  SS  units,  Einsatzgruppen,  had  been  selected  for  the 
extermination.  The  first  camp,  Chelmno,  was  already  operating. 

A few  camps  were  set  up  in  Germany,  but  the  big  ones  were  all 
in  Poland.  Some  observers  forget  that  over  3 million  Poles  were 
slain,  as  well  as  6 million  Jews. 

In  the  fiery  fury  of  a world  at  war,  very  few  — even  among  Jews 
— wanted  to  believe  that  a selected  group  of  civilians,  all  across 
the  face  of  Europe,  would  be  slaughtered.  Some  cited  the  tremen- 
dous cost  to  Hitler  and  the  loss  of  manpower  at  the  front,  to  afford 
thousands  of  Einsatzgruppen  working  hard  to  round  up  and  ship 
the  defenseless  in  cattle  cars  from  such  remote  areas  as  Brest  and 
the  Crimea. 

The  Germans  began  the  killing  on  June  22,  1941,  slaughtering 
2,000  Jews  in  Bialistock  and,  a few  days  later,  7,000  in  Lvov.  The 
Nazis  didn’t  master  the  technique  of  their  holocaust  until  the 
summer  of  1942.  By  that  time,  big  camps  were  at  Belzec,  Sobibor, 
Treblinka,  Auschwitz  and  Majdanek. 


144 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leff&cy 


The  revolts  in  the  Warsaw  and  other  ghettos  against  insuperable 
odds  aroused  the  admiration  of  freedom  lovers  all  over  the  world. 
It  was  the  faith  and  conviction  of  the  Jewish  resistance  which  en- 
abled them  to  make  the  Warsaw  ghetto  into  a symbol  of  heroism 
for  all  times. 

A basic  law  of  sociology  states  that  a minority  tries  to  resemble 
the  majority  among  which  it  lives,  as  far  as  life-style  and  even 
ways  of  thinking  and  cultural  values  are  concerned.  This  is  also 
true  of  the  Jews,  expecially  since  they  had  broken  out  of  the  ghetto 
walls  and  become  members  of  the  Western  world’s  open  society. 

Yet  in  this  “civilized”  world,  heroism  and  physical  bravery  are 
often  thought  to  be  identical.  People  are  brought  up  on  this  con- 
cept and  are  prepared  to  shed  their  own  and  others’  blood  in  its 
name. 

No  effort  was  spared  by  Jews  to  continue  the  observation  of 
religious  precepts  under  German  rule,  to  keep  the  Sabbath  as 
commanded,  to  refrain  from  forbidden  foods,  to  hold  prayers  on 
the  holy  days,  to  blow  the  shofar  and  eat  matzot.  All  this  actually 
went  on  at  the  time  of  the  Holocaust  in  all  the  camps. 

It  was  this  spiritual  heroism  that  existed  in  the  dark  years  of  the 
Holocaust.  Despite  the  horrifying  conditions  resulting  from  the 
Nazi’s  crimes  in  the  labor  camps,  ghettos  and  concentration 
camps,  the  Jews  — rabbis  and  leaders,  as  well  as  the  common 
people  — preserved  the  image  of  human  beings.  This  was  true 
heroism  and  it  is  this  type  of  heroism  that  we  must  stress. 

One  is  amazed  to  read  documents  written  underground  which 
reveal  the  Jewish  spirit  in  all  its  splendor.  Wonderful  manifesta- 
tions of  mutual  help  and  of  leadership  frequently  encouraged  the 
Jewish  people  at  that  fateful  hour.  Here  was  the  real  greatness  ! 

It  is  within  this  framework,  therefore  — and  not  as  a separate  and 
isolated  phenomenon  — that  one  should  regard  the  ghetto  rebels, 
the  overwhelming  majority  of  whom  were  Zionists.  They  drew 
their  inspiration  from  the  spiritual  greatness  of  the  Jewish  people 
. . . from  their  belief  both  in  its  past  and  its  future. 


Czenstochover  Independent  Society  in  Chicago 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


143 


Jews  Shouldn’t  Feel 

Guilt  nor  Shame  for  Holocaust 

The  period  of  the  European  Holocaust  causes  some  Jews, 
especially  among  the  younger  generation,  feelings  of  uneasiness 
and  even  guilt.  The  question  has  often  been  asked:  Why  did  the 
Jews  go  as  lambs  to  the  slaughter  instead  of  putting  up 
resistance? 

The  question  has  only  one  answer:  whoever  asks  it  shows 
ignorance  and  a lack  of  understanding  of  what  actually  happened 
in  Europe  during  World  War  II. 

Today,  in  retrospect,  we  are  beginning  (and  only  beginning)  to 
grasp  the  power  of  forces  of  evil  at  work  then.  At  the  time, 
however,  nobody  in  his  wildest  dreams  could  have  imagined  that 
human  beings  were  capable  of  what  the  Germans  did. 

However,  the  post-Auschwitz  world,  far  from  faultless  as  it 
certainly  is,  does  not  resemble  the  world  before  the  gas  chambers 
and  concentration  camps.  A new  dimension  of  man’s  degradation 
now  accompanies  us  from  here  to  eternity.  We  often  experience 
a sense  of  insecurity  and  uncertainty  out  of  fear  of  the  possibility 
that  what  happened  may  recur,  against  the  Jewish  people  and 
other  human  groups. 

But,  to  return  to  the  question:  why  did  the  Jews  not  revolt?  The 
answer  is  clear.  During  World  War  II  the  Germans  killed  over 
20  million  people  of  various  nationalities.  We  heard  hardly  any- 
thing of  revolt  from  them.  Apparently  it  was  made  almost  impos- 
sible to  resist  physically  and  if  this  was  true  of  the  gentiles  who 
dwelt  in  their  own  countries  and  possessed  armies  and  arma- 
ments, it  was  even  truer  of  the  Jews.  The  Jews,  after  all,  con- 
stituted a minority  and  to  a large  extent  alien  element  in  the  coun- 
tries of  Europe. 

These  are  the  objective  facts  and  there  is  no  point  in  suffering 
from  feelings  of  guilt  or  shame  just  because  there  were  no  Davids 
to  fight  the  German  Gohath.  David,  in  his  time,  fought  in  his  own 
country,  using  a sling  and  stones  as  weapons. 


142 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  most  important  fact  to  remember  is  that  the  Nazi  Holocaust 
was  a singular  event  in  the  history  of  humankind,  without  prece- 
dent. Never  before  had  the  might  of  the  military,  the  power  of  the 
legislature  and  enmity  of  the  general  population  united  against 
a segment  of  its  citizens  that  comprised  0.8%  of  the  total  popula- 
tion. The  mechanical  mass -murder  system  of  an  Auschwitz  had 
never  happened  before.  There  was  no  ready-made  psychological 
weapon  to  meet  it. 

Miraculously,  throughout  this  unremitting  tale  of  horror, 
barbarism  and  evil,  there  also  were  many  instances  of  morality 
and  righteousness,  all  the  more  to  be  emphasized  and  celebrated 
as  they  happened  truly  at  the  lowest  p)oint  of  human  conduct. 
Often  putting  their  own  and  their  family’s  lives  in  danger,  some 
Christians  hid  Jews  from  the  Nazis,  or  helped  them  escape  to 
safety.  The  people  of  Denmark  as  a whole  defied  Hitler’s  orders 
and  Germany’s  military  might,  and  refused  to  hand  over  their 
Jewish  citizens  for  slaughter.  These  individuals  have  come  to  be 
known  as  the  Righteous  Gentiles.  One  of  these  brace  and  reso- 
lute individuals  was  Raoul  Wallenberg,  a young  Swedish  diplomat 
who  saved  100,000  Hungarian  Jews  in  1944  at  great  personal 
danger,  and  who  may  still  be  held  prisoner  by  the  Soviet  Union. 
On  a smaller  scale,  but  nevertheless  just  as  bravely,  the  German 
factory  owner  Schindler  saved  300  Jewish  laborers  by  single- 
handedly  retrieving  them  from  transports  to  concentration 
camps.  He  fed  and  housed  them  in  his  own  labor  camp,  and  kept 
them  working  in  his  factory  until  the  war  was  over.  Others  took 
Jewish  children,  raised  them  as  their  own,  and  thus  saved  their 
lives.  Had  any  been  found  out,  they  and  their  families  could  have 
been  executed. 

These  Righteous  Gentiles,  and  many  thousands  of  others,  proved 
that  there  was  a choice:  they  could  follow  the  majority  and  aid 
and  abet  the  murderers,  or  they  could  quietly  retain  their  humani- 
ty, follow  their  conscience  and  be  the  until-now  unsung  heroes 
of  a horrendous  and  shameful  time  in  history. 

May  the  perpetrators  of  evil  never  be  forgotten,  and  the  Righteous 
forever  remembered. 


Dr.  Emanuel  Ringelblum  was  among  the  first  to  write 
an  historical  book  about  Czenstochova. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


141 


Hitler  was  quick  to  exploit  the  world’s  failure  to  act  on  behalf  of 
the  Jews.  It  vindicated  his  policies,  and  hastened  the  implemen- 
tation of  the  “final  solution’’. 

With  few  exceptions  the  treatment  of  Jews  in  the  Nazi  occupied 
countries  followed  the  example  of  Germany.  Civil  rights  were 
eliminated,  property  and  businesses  confiscated,  and  daily  life 
was  subject  to  the  whim  of  the  Nazis. 

Ghettoization  of  Jews  began  in  earnest  now,  which  meant  that  all 
Jews  living  in  a particular  town  or  city  were  herded  into  one  sec- 
tor, the  area  was  closed  off,  usually  with  barbed  wire  and  guards 
outside  the  entrance.  Jews  of  small  towns  were  also  brought  to 
this  gathering  p)oint,  so  that  thousands  of  people  inhabited  space 
meant  for  a few  hundred.  Having  their  intended  victims  in  one 
convenient  location  simplified  the  work  of  the  Nazis  for  the  time 
when  transports  of  Jews  began  leaving  for  the  death  camps. 
Meanwhile,  inside  the  Ghetto,  life  was  unbearable.  Fbod  was 
almost  impossible  to  get,  water  supplies  were  inadequate, 
medicine  not  available,  and  the  sanitary  system,  primitive  at  best, 
was  totally  insufficient.  Disease  ran  rampant  among  the  half- 
starved  inhabitants,  and  typhus  outbreaks  killed  thousands  daily. 

With  the  benefit  of  hindsight,  we  now  wonder  why  the  Jews 
allowed  this  to  happen.  Why  didn’t  they  fight  back,  we  ask.  There 
were  many  reasons,  but  we  can  discuss  some  of  the  most  impor- 
tant ones.  The  humiliating  treatment,  loss  of  all  civil  rights  and 
physical  and  economic  deprivation  had  its  desired  effect.  The  Jews 
were  demoralized,  helpless,  totally  at  the  mercy  of  a murderous 
governmental  policy.  One  of  the  most  difficult  to  accept  was  the 
complicity,  or  at  best  indifference,  of  the  neighbors  and  the  rest 
of  the  world.  People  they  grew  up  with,  lived  and  worked  with  sud- 
denly became  deadly  enemies.  The  soul  crushing  realization  of 
having  spent  one’s  life  as  a loyal  German  subject,  going  and  try- 
ing to  be  as  much  like  a “true’’  German  as  jxDSsible  all  were  exer- 
cises in  futility.  The  tragic  self-delusion  of  the  emancipated  and 
assimilated  Jew  culminated  in  passive  resignation  to  the  in- 
evitable. The  normal  human  reaction  to  such  extreme  contradic- 
tion was  shock  and  a denial  of  reality.  The  emotional  trauma, 
together  with  the  insidious,  deceptive  way  the  government  car- 
ried out  its  plans  for  the  “final  solution’’  of  the  Jews,  checked  the 
ability  of  the  victims  to  organize  and  fight  back.  There  were  excep- 
tions, of  course,  as  some  Jews  did  join  partisans  and  other  counter 
insurgency  groups.  The  Warsaw  Ghetto  uprising  is  probably  the 
best  known  act  of  resistance  by  Jews,  but  certainly  not  the  only 
one.  Resignation  and  denial  were  the  operative  emotions  of  the 
majority  of  the  victims,  however. 


140 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lesacy 


The  danger  these  “subhumans”  represented  was  described  as  so 
great  that  any  means  at  the  disposal  of  the  Aryans  had  to  be  imple- 
mented to  save  the  world  from  the  evil  designs  of  the  Jews.  Mob 
hysteria  has  nothing  to  do  with  logic.  It  must  be  added  that  the 
confiscation  of  “Aryanization”,  of  Jewish  property  did  not  fail  to 
please  the  masses.  The  later  boycotting  of  Jewish  businesses  also 
benefited  the  Gterman  merchants  — it  eliminated  competition.  The 
first  step  in  the  Nazi  “race  purification”  program  was  the  exclu- 
sion of  all  Jews  from  government  position,  civil  services,  and  the 
army,  followed  by  the  firing  of  all  Jewish  teachers,  professors, 
scientists,  artists,  musicians.  This  move  accomphshed  two  impor- 
tant goals:  by  removing  their  means  of  making  a living,  it  impo- 
verished the  Jews,  while  at  the  same  time  separating  them  from 
the  rest  of  society.  This  separation  was  later  enhanced  by  the  man- 
datory yellow  arm  band  all  Jews  had  to  wear  in  public.  In  1935, 
when  the  infamous  “Nuremberg  Laws”  were  passed,  the  effec- 
tive exclusion  of  Jews  from  the  economy  was  complete,  as  well 
as  the  total  loss  of  their  legal  and  civil  rights.  These  laws  decreed 
that  only  persons  of  “German  blood”  (Aryans)  could  be  citizens 
of  the  Reich,  while  persons  of  “impure  blood”  (non-Aryans)  were 
inferior  and  were  “subjects”  of  the  State  but  not  citizens.  Thus, 
Jews  legally  became  second-class  citizens  at  the  mercy  of  the 
government,  defenseless  to  fight  against  eviction  from  job  and 
property. 

Hitler  was  figuratively  “testing  the  water”  with  his  progressive- 
ly more  restricting  and  more  brutal  laws  and  actions,  and  he  was 
not  getting  opposition  to  them  from  the  population  or  from  the 
countries  of  the  free  world.  In  1938,  during  the  “Kxistalnacht”, 
the  Night  of  Broken  Glass,  Nazi  thugs  destroyed  and  looted 
Jewish  businesses,  assaulted  and  murdered  Jews  they  caught, 
burned  synagogues  and  much  Jewish  property  all  across 
Germany.  Between  20,000  and  30,000  Jews  were  arrested  that 
night  and  sent  to  concentration  camps.  Then,  to  add  insult  to  in- 
jury, Jews  were  forced  to  pay  one  billion  marks  in  fines  so  that 
the  German  insurance  companies  could  reimburse  Christian  busi- 
nessmen who  might  also  have  suffered  losses  during  the  looting 
and  vandalism.  The  resulting  silence  of  the  international  com- 
munity seemed  to  provide  Hitler  with  a carte  blanche  for  his 
policies.  No  one  would  raise  a hand  on  behalf  of  the  Jews.  Hitler 
received  more  encouragement  for  his  repressive,  brutal  policies 
that  year  from  the  free  world  at  the  conclusion  of  the  Evian  Con- 
ference. 32  countries  sent  representatives  to  Evian  in  July,  1938 
to  formulate  a plan  that  would  get  the  beleaguered  Jews  out  of 
Germany  and  Austria  and  help  them  be  absorbed  in  volunteering 
free  nations.  The  Conference  was  no  more  than  an  empty  gesture. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legate 


139 


Traditional  Anti'Semitism 

2k;hor-Chicago 

Traditional  anti-Semitism  was  based  on  the  fact  that  Jews  refused 
to  accept  Jesus  as  their  redeemer,  and  as  the  centuries  rolled  on, 
still  refused  to  convert  to  Christianity.  It  was  standard  church 
teaching  to  condemn  and  ostracize  the  Jew  for  this  refusal.  Their 
eternal  wandering  and  constantly  being  at  the  mercy  of  Chris- 
tians served  to  confirm  the  seeming  truth  of  church  teaching  that 
their  wretched  condition  was  a punishment  from  G— d for  refus- 
ing to  believe  in  the  “true”  faith.  The  fact  that  Jews  were  forced 
to  flee  from  one  place  to  the  next  due  to  the  hostility  of  the 
Christian  community,  and  did  not  choose  this  miserable  form  of 
existence  of  their  own  volition,  did  not  seem  to  negate  the  argu- 
ment of  the  church.  By  the  18th  century,  greater  stress  was  placed 
on  economic  and  p)olitical  anti-Semitism.  Under  Hitler,  racial  anti- 
Semitism  took  on  a still  newer  slant.  According  to  Nazi  theory, 
the  inherent  evil  of  Jews  did  not  arise  from  their  “mistaken” 
religious  beliefs,  or  their  economic  role,  but  from  their  very  being, 
their  very  identity,  as  Jews.  Literally,  he  claimed  the  evil  was  in 
their  blood.  Also  according  to  Nazi  ideology,  Germans  were  the 
highest  level  of  the  Aryan  “race”,  while  Jews  were  subhuman. 
These  subhumans,  amazingly,  were  accused  of  trying  to  subvert 
and  undermine  the  structure  of  world  affairs,  and  deprive  the 
Aryan  super- race  of  its  rightful  position  — that  of  world  domina- 
tion. Nazi  theorists  insisted  that  democracy,  liberahsm,  socialism 
and  communism  were  all  destructive  Jewish  notions  that  would 
only  deprive  the  superior  race  of  power  and  authority.  How  sub- 
humans who  were  described  as  vermin  could  obtain  the  power  to 
be  a threat  to  a super-race  was  never  questioned.  The  German  peo- 
ple, conditioned  by  centuries  of  anti-Semitism,  fell  into  line  once 
again  and  helped  Hitler  into  power. 

Once  Hitler  was  appointed  Chancellor  on  January  30,  1933,  racist 
doctrine  became  an  integral  part  of  the  totalitarian  regime,  openly 
expressed  and  practiced.  Hitler  appointed  himself  a kind  of 
“Defender  of  the  Race”.  Sporadic  violence  by  Nazi  thugs  against 
Jews  accelerated  and  was  condoned,  even  justified,  by  the  State. 


138 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


G— d was  never  more  immediate  nor  salvation  more  attainable.  As 
an  adult,  sitting  next  to  my  parents  in  shul  on  the  high  holidays, 
I often  wondered  what  gave  them  the  strength  to  return  to  the 
house  of  prayer  and  what  meaning  they  possibly  could  have  found 
in  those  prayers  after  That  Night. 

A second  eventful  date  and  turning  point  in  my  mother’s  psycho- 
emotional  calendar  was  the  17th  of  January.  She  was  liberated 
that  day,  gaining  her  physical  freedom  from  the  bondage  of 
Hasag.  She  was  fond  of  recalling  how  four  starving  young  women 
held  on  to  one  another,  barely  able  to  walk  until  they  found  and 
occupied  an  abandoned  apartment  on  Krutka  Street.  The  place 
was  freezing  cold  and  the  girls,  wearing  heavy  men’s  boots  and 
mink  coats  they  found  in  the  apartment,  had  to  drag  coals  from 
another  part  of  Czenstochova  in  a wheelbarrow. 

There  were  other  ‘little’  miracles  which  took  place  after  the  17th. 
When  their  meager  supply  of  coal  ran  out  Tolla,  Hella,  Malla  and 
Lutka  went  into  a Russian-run  factory  which  manufactured  heat- 
ing ovens  and  asked  to  be  hired.  The  Soviet  officer  in  charge,  his 
chest  full  of  medals,  understood  that  what  they  really  wanted  was 
an  oven.  To  their  astonishment  he  dispatched  one  of  his  employees 
with  a brand  new  oven  saying:  “Make  sure  it  works  perfectly 
before  you  come  back!’’  As  the  girls  thanked  him  he  whispered: 
“Ich  bin  oich  a Yid.’’ 

As  I reflect  upon  my  relationship  with  my  own  children  I become 
conscious  of  the  child  that  I am.  None  of  us  are  quite  as  free  as 
we  would  like  to  believe;  there  is  more  of  our  parents  within  us 
than  we  are  willing  to  acknowledge,  for  better  or  for  worse.  We, 
whose  parents  were  tried  and  tested  against  their  will  in  the  worst 
of  all  possible  crucibles,  somehow  must  distill  from  their  experi- 
ences only  the  noblest  lessons  and  incorporate  them  into  the 
fabric  of  our  lives.  Then  we  must  pass  these  lessons  on.  Fbr  all 
times. 


Menachem  Botstein  and  his  mother,  Tblla  Rotsztajn 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


137 


shortly  before  my  birth  they  must  have  made  a conscious  decision 
never  to  speak  Pohsh  in  the  presence  of  their  children.  To  their 
mind  Polish,  rather  than  German,  stood  for  all  that  was  despicable 
and  evil  in  their  world.  I have  not  understood  it  nor  have  I sought 
an  explanation. 

I know,  however,  that  were  it  not  for  my  mother’s  gentile  friend, 
Hella,  who  risked  her  life  on  several  occasions,  one  of  my  uncles 
would  surely  have  perished.  Also,  my  mother’s  blond  hair,  blue 
eyes  and  fluency  in  Polish  must  certainly  have  been  the  reason 
she  was  permitted  to  move  freely  carrying  goods  between  Klobuck, 
on  the  so-called  German  side  of  the  border,  and  Czenstochova 
which  was  part  of  the  General  Gk)ubernement  during  those 
terrible  days.  Ironically,  in  the  final  hours  of  her  life,  under  heavy 
sedation,  my  mother  again  spoke  Polish,  praying  to  G~d  to  bless 
and  protect  those  whom  she  was  leaving. 

As  their  rejection  of  Polish  symbolized  bitterness  toward  their 
birthplace,  my  parents  steadfast  devotion  to  Yiddish  was  per- 
haps their  way  of  holding  on  to  the  memory  of  their  beloved  kin. 
Growing  up  in  Israel,  I recall  my  mother  often  being  chided 
publicly:  “Why  don’t  you  speak  Hebrew  to  your  son?!”  To  which 
she  would  reply:  ‘T’m  not  worried  about  his  Hebrew.  But  how  will 
he  know  what  his  grandfather  said?”  If  a miracle  should  occur 
and  my  grandparents  would  once  again  walk  on  this  earth,  how 
would  I address  them,  was  her  concern.  I am  indeed  indebted  to 
my  parents’  foresight  and  to  their  courage  to  withstand  the 
criticism  of  the  enlightened  ones.  Yiddish  has  provided  me  some 
wonderful  moments  of  emotional  as  well  as  intellectual  delights. 

Children  of  survivors  have  learned  another  way  of  reckoning  time. 
Fbr  their  parents,  time  came  to  a standstill  on  one  fateful  day. 
Nothing  was  ever  the  same  since.  The  calendar  is  a heartless 
calculator,  evolving  with  precise  regularity,  triggering  at  given 
times  uncontrollably  powerful  inner  responses.  Fbr  as  long  as  she 
lived  my  mother  dreaded  the  coming  of  Yom  Kippur,  lending  an 
added  dimension  to  the  meaning  Days  of  Awe. 

Inevitably,  on  that  day  she  became  withdrawn  and  silent.  Her 

fasting  brought  on  a severe  migraine  resulting  in  her  losing  con- 
sciousness, accompanied  by  fits  of  nausea  and  hallucinations.  A 
doctor  would  have  to  be  summoned.  It  was  only  during  my  late 
teens  when  I realized  that  it  was  on  the  night  following  Yom 
Kippur  in  1942  that  the  first  massive  roundup  (aktion)  of  Czen- 
stochover  Jews  took  place,  when  my  mother’s  parents  and  all  of 
her  married  siblings  and  their  children  were  taken  away.  That 
Yom  Kippur  was  to  be  the  last  time  my  mother  had  a ‘home’  in 
the  most  elementary  sense  of  that  word.  That  Yom  Kippur,  I was 
told,  there  was  not  a dry  eye  in  the  shtiblech  and  synagogues  of 
Czenstochova.  Everyone  fasted,  all  felt  compelled  to  be  in  shul. 


136 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leeacy 


Growing  Up  with  Czenstochov 

By  Menachem  David  Rotstein 

In  memory  of  Tolla  Unglik-Rotsztajn 

One  of  the  first  books  I remember  looking  at  was  written  in  a 
language  I could  not  then  read.  What  remains  in  my  mind  quite 

vividly  however,  is  an  illustration  of  a female  angel,  her  back  arched 
and  a bayonet  piercing  her  slender  body  Below  her  is  a headstone 
— a matzevah  — inscribed  in  Hebrew.  Page  after  page  the  same  il- 
lustration on  the  glossy  paper;  only  the  names  of  the  dead  are  dif- 
ferent and  the  number  of  gravestones  seems  endless.  I think  that 
this  was  how  I first  learned  to  count. 

Had  they  known  what  an  unsettling  effect  these  drawings  had 
on  my  impressionable  mind,  my  parents  would  no  doubt  have  hid- 
den the  book  and  kept  it  under  lock  and  key.  I must  have  asked 
what  kind  of  book  this  was,  where  it  came  from,  and  how  it  came 
into  their  possession.  I don’t  remember  their  answer,  but  now  I 
know. 

The  book  which  still  remains  etched  upon  my  memory  is  called 
Churban  Czenstochov,  the  first  memorial  book  printed  in  com- 
memoration of  that  destroyed  Polish  community.  It  came  out  less 
than  two  years  after  liberation,  written  in  Yiddish,  and  printed 
in  German  font.  The  book  had  a brown  cover  depicting  menacing 

factory  chimneys  with  the  letters  HASAG  boldly  written  across 
the  top. 

Hasag  is  one  of  those  words  survivors’  children  like  myself  grew 
up  with.  Other  words  were  Lager,  JFhr  die  Krieg,  and  Die  Dritte 
Alley.  In  between  I heard  these  names:  Soreh-Iteh,  Moishe-Isser, 
Primmet,  Roochel,  Pineches,  Hendle  and  so  on  and  on  and  on.  I 
know  them  all.  I know  them  in  the  order  they  were  born  and  the 
profession  they  practiced,  which  of  them  were  married  and  which 
had  children.  As  well,  I know  the  names  of  the  towns  around 
Czenstochova  from  which  some  of  their  spouses  came:  Klobuck, 
Kshepitz  and  Yanov. 

I know  the  language  they  all  spoke.  I know  that  my  parents  both 
learned  Polish,  but  I never  heard  it  spoken  in  our  home.  Sometime 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


135 


When  it  came  my  turn  to  say  a few  words  of  comfort  to  the  few 
hundred  people,  words  these  Jews  so  desperately  needed  to  hear, 

I could  only  say  the  following: 

‘If  this  is  what  is  left  of  our  great  community  of  Czenstochova, 
then  our  destruction  is  more  complete  than  we  thought.’ 

Then  I broke  down  in  tears,  and  all  the  rest  of  the  gathering  cried 
with  me. 

Dr.  Benjamin  Ornstein,  another  speaker  at  that  meeting,  writes 
more  about  that  episode  on  page  64  of  the  book  “Czestochowa”, 
published  in  New  York  in  1958. 

Many  changes  took  place  in  the  life  of  each  individual  and  in  the 
lives  of  Jews  in  general  since  1946.  And  yet,  those  frightening 
pictures  follow  me  wherever  I go.  I see  those  pained  and  thin  faces, 
those  fear-filled  eyes,  full  of  pleading  to  hear  a consoling  word 
from  me.  And  I fear  to  see  their  eyes  full  of  tears.  How  badly  I 
wanted  to  say  some  consoling  words  to  them,  but  instead  they 
heard  only  my  cries. 

In  my  sleepless  nights,  they  appear  again  in  my  mind,  the 
shadows  of  those  faces  from  that  barrack  in  the  camp  of  Felda- 
fing.  And  I pray  that  they  should  never  leave  me,  for  they  are  a 
part  of  me.  I carry  them  with  me  in  all  my  wanderings,  and  in  all 
my  deep,  lonely  struggles.  Sometimes  I wish  that  I could  be  back 
in  Feldafing,  in  that  sad  gloomily-lit  barrack,  and  that  I could 
again  look  in  their  young,  sad  faces,  and  again  see  that  deep  sor- 
row that  will  never  leave  me. 

I hope  that  all  of  you  with  whom  I met  at  that  gathering,  live  now 
in  peace  and  in  comfort,  and  that  you  have  built  yourselves  your 
family  nests,  and  that  you  have  nachas  from  your  children  and 
grandchildren.  But  the  cry  and  the  sadness  of  that  evening  in  the 
camp  of  Feldafing  will  always  be  with  us  to  the  end  of  our  days 
in  this  “world  of  lies”,  the  world  in  which  we  live. 


Montreal  Book  Committee,  1966 


(From  left):  W.  Yablon,  H.  Berkowicz,  N.  Gelber,  G.  Klein 


134 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  Jews  in  the 

Displaced  Persons  Camps  in  Germany 

By  Zvi  Rosenwein 

(Translated  from  the  Yiddish  by  Rifka  Rosenwein) 

The  life  of  the  Jews,  in  the  displaced  persons  camps  after  the 
destruction,  marks  a heartbreaking  and  awesome  chapter  in 
Jewish  history.  The  theme  is  rife  with  boiling  hot  drama.  It  is 
frightful  to  touch  that  theme  and  go  back  to  that  abyss  of  sadness 
and  wails;  one  filled  with  deep  emotional  struggles. 

It  is  there  that  you  see  the  absurdity  of  continuation  and  the  drive 
to  live.  While  at  the  time  of  the  destruction,  there  was  the  struggle 
to  survive,  in  the  DP  camps  emerged  a more  inward-looking  con- 
flict — the  question  is  it  worthwhile  to  survive?  Is  it  right  to  sur- 
vive when  so  many  of  our  nearest  are  no  more?  It  was  an  intense 
struggle  with  G— d and  the  world;  Jewish  morality  combined  with 
physical  weakness. 

The  struggles  and  tensions  of  those  times  are  burdening  me 
forever.  Sometimes  I try  to  free  myself  of  those  thoughts,  to  rid 
myself  of  those  episodes  of  despair. 

About  one  of  those  episodes,  I would  like  to  write  a few  lines.  It 
was  the  26th  of  June,  1946.  I was  in  the  DP  camp  of  Einring, 
which  was  near  the  Austrian  border.  It  was  also  close  to  the  Hitler 
residence  in  Berchtesgarden.  A group  of  Jews  from  Czenstochova 
were,  at  that  time,  in  Camp  Peldafing  in  Bavaria.  They  invited  me 
to  be  one  of  the  speakers  at  a memorial  meeting  on  the  yahrzeit 
of  the  liquidation  of  the  small  Czenstochova  ghetto. 

Fbldafing  was  a large  camp  for  sick  DPs.  When  I arrived  there 
and  saw  how  the  Jews  walked  around  in  hospital  uniforms,  a year 
after  the  liberation,  I was  terribly  saddened.  I came  to  the  “hall”, 
really  a large  wooden  barrack.  There  I was  met  by  several  hundred 
Jews  from  Czenstochova.  Most  of  them  were  still  dressed  in 
hospital  clothing. 

To  that  gathering,  also,  came  Czenstochover  Jews  from  other  cities 
in  Germany,  like  Munich  and  Frankfurt.  Many  I recognized,  but 
some  I couldn’t:  the  years  in  the  ghettos  and  camps  had  changed 
their  looks  completely.  I cannot  recall  a time  that  I was  as  depress- 
ed as  when  I met  these  Jews. 


IV 

Aftermath 


Revival  and 
Remembrance 


132 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Legacy 


I AM  ALIVE 

My  bluebird  will  swing  our  grandson's  dream 
with  buckeyes  and  green  Aprils 
with  barefooted  youth 
in  the  white  foam  of  ancient  watermills. 

My  bluebird  will  fly  far  away 
to  the  honey-nest  of  grandfather  Berl 
from  the  windy  fern  he  will  drink 
our  tearful  pearls. 

And  I,  myself,  a pre-holocaust  echo, 
a tiny  beam  in  my  grandson 's 
golden  web 

will  rejoice  in  Warsaw  Yiddish 
Yach  leyb,  yach  leyb. 


CHANAN  KIEL 


THE  OLD  SYNAGOGUE 

The  old  synagogue  — a shrivelled  grandfather 

with  dreamy  windows, 

drowsy  Jews  reciting  the  Psalms. 

On  the  roof  — homeless  doves 
begging  for  alms. 

The  old  synagogue  — shrunken,  gray, 
hiding  its  sadness  and  fear, 
quiet  and  shy, 
afraid  of  an  evil  eye. 

The  old  synagogue  — in  gloomy  days 
guards  the  yellow  pages  of  the  sleechot, 
the  hasty  evening  prayers  of  a cousin, 
and  the  children 
late  for  Shofer-Blozn. 

The  old  synagogue  — burned  to  the  ground, 
my  town  murdered  in  cold  blood, 
and  we  still  write  them  letters 
from  abroad. 


CHANAN  KIEL 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


131 


grave  shall  also  be  here”.  Nonetheless,  he  gave  me  great  courage 
to  carry  out  my  plan,  so  that  I could  be  among  the  people  to  avenge 
the  flow  of  innocent  Jewish  blood  in  the  death  factory. 

During  the  nineteen  days  I spent  in  Treblinka,  we  tried  to  save 
as  many  as  we  could.  We  succeeded  in  sparing  the  lives  of  many 
Czenstochover  Jews:  Jacob  Eisner  (now  in  Israel),  Rapaport  (now 
in  the  U.S.A.)  and  a few  others  who  managed  to  escape; 
Pacenovski  (now  in  Israel),  Abram  Bomba  (now  in  America)  .... 

I escaped  on  October  21,  1942,  and  the  following  day,  I was 
attacked  in  the  forest,  one  kilometer  from  Treblinka  by  some  Pbles 
who  took  my  clothing.  I was  left  in  my  underwear. 

In  the  middle  of  November,  1942,  I returned  to  Czenstochov,  to 
the  small  Ghetto.  When  I told  my  horror  story  of  what  I had 
witnessed  in  the  death  eamp  of  Treblinka,  of  our  families  being 
killed  by  gassing  and  the  burning  of  their  bodies,  everyone 
thought  that  I was  insane  and  was  speaking  nonsense. 

From  the  small  Ghetto,  I went  to  work  in  the  “Meble  lager”  and 
made  contact  with  the  underground  and  encouraged  them  to  fight 
and  escape. 

In  June  of  1943,  the  planned  revolt  in  the  small  Ghetto  was 
unsuccessful.  In  that  revolt  the  greatest  of  our  ghetto  heroes  were 
killed,  including  my  brother,  Yitchak  Gelbard.  It  led  to  the  liquida- 
tion of  the  small  ghetto  in  Czenstochova. 


Pupils  in  the  Czenstochover  public  school,  with  its  director 
Ms.  Szacher  in  1932. 


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bands.  They  were  shouting  “All  men  to  the  right  and  women  to 
the  left,  all  undress  fully”.  Women  and  children  were  chased,  in 
the  nude,  by  armed  S.S.  who  wished  to  cut  off  their  hair.  Then 
the  people  were  driven  through  an  alley,  “Alley  of  Heaven”,  to  the 
gas  chambers.  They  believed  that  they  were  going  to  take  a 
shower. 

In  the  meantime,  the  men  were  to  pick  up  the  strewn  clothing  and, 
running  naked,  they  were  to  bring  the  clothing  far  away  to  a 
designated  sorting  place. 

All  the  undressing  was  done  under  pressure  and  harassment,  ac- 
companied by  horrible  yelling  and  beating,  so  as  to  confuse  the 
victims  about  what  was  actually  transpiring. 

When  a subsequent  transport  of  victims  arrived,  loaded  into  six 
cattle  cars,  no  sign  of  the  previous  victims  remained. 

Another  group  worked  in  the  “Red  Camp”  at  the  doors  that  opened 
from  the  other  side  of  the  gas  chambers.  At  the  entrance  of  the 
gas  chambers,  the  floor  was  elevated  and  gradually  sloped.  After 
the  gassing,  the  doors  would  open  and  all  the  corpses  would  slip 
into  the  pits.  A bulldozer  would  dig  day  and  night  to  clear  the  pits 
for  the  new  victims. 

The  deportation  of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  population  began 
the  day  following  Yom  Kippur,  on  September  22,  1942.  The 
transports  began  to  arrive  in  Treblinka.  I went  with  the  fourth 
transport  and  arrived  in  Treblinka  on  October  2,  1942,  after 
spending  twenty  hours  in  the  cattle  train. 

When  the  Czenstochover  transport  arrived,  there  were  many  of 
our  transport  chosen  to  remain  working  in  the  camp.  I was  among 
them.  My  work  was  to  cut  cord  to  a certain  size  to  be  given  to  each 
person  as  he  arrived  from  the  transport,  to  tie  together  his  or  her 
shoes.  I must  confess  that  for  the  first  two  days,  I did  not  realize 
what  was  happening  around  me.  I came  back  to  my  senses  to 
understand  what  I saw  with  my  own  eyes  — the  tragedy  and  the 
destruction  of  the  Jewish  people.  Among  those  Czenstochover 
chosen  to  work  in  the  camp,  I met  Aron  Berliner,  Moshe  Click, 
two  Gelber  brothers  and  many  others,  whose  names  I do  not  recall. 

I had  decided  that  I would  not  remain  there.  I was  actually  help- 
ing in  the  destruction  of  the  Jews  by  not  making  an  attempt  to 
escape.  I also  wanted  to  return  to  the  Ghetto  and  to  the  under- 
ground fighters  to  make  them  aware  that  we  had  to  be  prepared 
to  fight  the  inhuman  murderers  of  our  Nation. 

I had  met  my  friend  and  teacher  whom  we  had  saved,  Gershon 
Prentke.  I wanted  to  convince  him  to  partake  in  my  plan  to  escape. 
However,  he  was  very  depressed  and  weak  and  he  said:  “Here  is 
the  grave  of  my  wife  and  child  and  close  relatives;  therefore,  my 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


129 


Nineteen  Days  in  Treblinka 

Originally  written  in  Yiddish  by  A.  Gelbard 

Treblinka  —a  place  that  has  never  been  printed  on  any  map  of 
Poland,  and  I am  in  doubt  if  any  Polish  Jew  ever  knew  that  such 
a place  existed.  Millions  of  Jews  are  now  aware  of  that  “unknown” 
place  which  became  the  cemetery  of  their  loved  ones. 

Where  is  Treblinka?  The  road  that  links  Warsaw  to  Bialistock  was 
a place  called  Malkin.  There  was  a train  station  with  many  train 
rails  that  branched  out  in  many  directions.  One  of  the  rails  led 
to  a small  village  called  Treblinka.  Its  inhabitants  did  not  know 
about  the  technology  of  the  civilized  world.  They  continued  to 
cultivate  the  fields  in  a primitive  way.  They  used  the  wood  from 
the  nearest  forest  to  heat  their  homes  and  cook  their  meals.  In 
1941,  the  Nazi  beasts  ordered  the  trees  of  the  forest  cleared  and, 
on  that  location,  they  erected  an  extermination  factory  of  German 
precision. 

The  cleared  area  of  the  forest  was  enclosed  with  barbed  wire,  that 
was  covered  with  tree  branches  and  leaves  in  order  to  mask  what 
was  going  on.  There,  in  a very  short  time,  were  built  thirteen  gas 
chambers. 

During  my  19-day  stay  in  Treblinka,  I witnessed  the  daily  arrival 
of  three  to  four  transports  of  six  to  eight  thousand  persons  per 
transport.  Quite  a number  of  transports  arrived  during  the  night. 

Special  train  rails  were  layed  through  the  camp  to  allow  the 
transport  to  drive  directly  into  the  Treblinka  station.  A locomotive 
with  six  wagons  would  ride  into  the  camp.  The  transport  would 
then  be  surrounded  by  the  S.S.,  Ukrainians  and  Jewish  groups, 
forced  to  do  the  dirty  work. 

One  group  was  called  “Blue”  because  of  the  blue  armbands  they 
wore.  Their  job  was  to  chase  everyone  out  of  the  wagons,  to  discard 
the  baggage  and  carry  out  the  dead  bodies  of  those  that  had 
suffocated  during  their  last  journey. 

The  bodies  were  immediately  thrown  into  burning  pits  with 
human  bodies  that  were  continuously  on  fire.  Not  far  away  stood 
another  group,  referred  to  as  “Red”,  because  of  their  red  arm- 


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bour,  I can  still  recall  his  name,  Piotz  Supel,  to  help  us.  We  left 
the  house  of  that  gentile  farmer  who  lived  in  Zagrodniki.  The 
farmer  accompanied  us  to  Warsaw.  We  gave  him  money  to  pur- 
chase train  tickets  for  us  to  Czenstochova.  His  wife  was  in  tears 
when  we  left.  She  asked  that  we  write  to  them  should  we  survive. 

When  the  war  ended,  I wrote  to  them.  I received  a reply  in  which 
she  informed  me  that  her  husband  and  his  friend  perished  in  the 
Mauthausen  concentration  camp.  She  was  remarried  to  a Jewish 
fellow.  I have  come  to  believe  that  she  was  a Jewish  woman.  Those 
of  our  group  who  survived  are  Yankel  Eisner  who  lives  in  Israel, 
Moshe  Papaport,  Yechiel  Berkowicz  and  myself. 


ESCAPED  FROM  TREBLINKA 


3 Czenstochovers  among  the  group: 

Seated  on  the  right,  Jacob  Ajzner  and  Standing  on  the  left,  Abram  Bom- 
ba and  Moshe  Rapaport. 


Abram  Bomba,  standing  at  the  entrance  of  the 
Treblinka  Museum. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


127 


Later  a new  resistance  group  was  formed  by  Ch.  Kaufman,  Yankel 
Eisner  and  Yechiel  Berkowicz,  Moshe  Rapaport,  Szimon  Amster- 
dam and  the  Herman  brothers.  It  was  decided  that  Moshe  Rapa- 
port, Yankel  Eisner,  and  one  of  the  two  Herman  brothers  would 
be  part  of  a new  escape  attempt.  Before  the  ‘ Appell”,  all  three  men 
went  into  hiding.  The  following  day  we  heard  nothing  about  their 
escape.  It  seemed  that  everything  had  gone  smoothly.  We  now  had 
to  go  ahead  with  our  next  plan.  It  was  Saturday  and  we  were  pre- 
paring to  go  into  hiding  as  well.  Before  the  ‘Appell”,  we  noticed 
that  someone  was  pacing  in  the  area  where  we  were  intending  to 
hide.  It  seemed  that  he  was  looking  for  something.  It  turned  out 
to  be  Kolenbrener  from  Czenstochova  who  was  collaborating  with 
the  Gestapo.  We  decided  to  postpone  our  plans  to  the  following 
day,  Sunday.  That  Sunday  we  went  to  work  as  usual  and,  in  the 
evening,  again  prior  to  the  “Appell”,  we  went  into  hiding.  We  had 
to  be  most  careful  as  the  Ukranians  and  the  S.S.  were  on  the  alert. 
We  remained  in  the  bunker  for  several  hours  until  it  got  very  dark. 
We  then  decided  to  crawl  out  in  the  direction  of  the  clinic  and  the 
watch  tower.  We  were  now  on  the  other  side  of  the  fence  and  con- 
tinued to  crawl  a few  hundred  meters.  We  then  stood  up  and  ran. 
We  ran  for  hours,  not  knowing  where  we  were. 

At  2 a.m.,  we  heard  voices  in  Ukrainian  and  it  appeared  that  we 
were  in  the  guards’  camp.  We  must  have  been  running  in  circles 
in  the  darkness  of  the  night  for  over  five  hours,  covering  a mere 
kilometer.  We  turned  in  another  direction  and  started  to  run 
again.  This  time  we  arrived  at  the  river  Bug.  We  were  now  six 
kilometers  from  Treblinka.  It  was  5 a.m.,  and  we  could  see  a farm 
house.  Berkowicz  went  to  the  house  and  a few  minutes  later  he 
reappeared  to  inform  us  that  the  entire  area  was  surrounded  by 
the  Gestapo.  We  had  to  leave  immediately.  Once  again,  we  were 
on  the  run. 

We  arrived  at  a bridge  which  was  the  Malkin  crossing.  In  the 
distance  we  could  see  a German  post  on  the  other  side  of  the 
bridge.  Our  decision  was  to  remain  in  the  field,  as  it  was  too 
dangerous  to  cross.  It  was  9 a.m.  and  we  decided  that  we  would 
remain  in  the  field  until  nightfall,  and  then  continue  our  escape. 

We  asked  a farmer,  passing  on  a hay  wagon,  to  assist  us.  We  beg- 
ged him  to  allow  us  to  stay  on  his  farm.  We  offered  him  money 
and  he  agreed  to  help  us.  He  accompanied  us  to  the  farm,  the  plan 
being  that  if  we  were  caught,  he  would  accuse  us  of  having  broken 
in. 

At  nightfall,  the  Sheriff  of  the  Village  came  to  tell  us  that  he  would 
lead  us  to  the  highway.  We  walked  until  morning.  We  arrived  in 
another  village.  Along  the  road,  we  saw  a woman  at  the  door  of 
her  house.  We  spoke  with  her,  and  she  permitted  us  to  stay  in  her 
home  for  almost  one  week.  After  that  week,  she  asked  her  neigh- 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


were  pleased  with  the  blanket-full  of  concealed  loot.  No  report  was 
made  to  the  Germans. 

A week  passed  after  that  incident  and  there  were  no  conse- 
quences. We  had  accumulated  a large  sum  of  money  which  we  hid. 
L.  Rosenthal  requested  half  the  money  as  he  and  another  person 
from  Warsaw  were  planning  to  escape.  His  companion  claimed  he 
knew  of  a safe  way  out  of  the  camp.  I informed  Hershel  Gk)ldstein 
who  advised  me,  to  give  Rosenthal  what  he  had  requested.  That 
day,  I did  not  see  Rosenthal  at  the  ‘ Appell”,  which  meant  that  he 
had  escaped.  Four  weeks  later,  Kozetsky  told  me  that  Rosenthal 
was  back  in  the  camp.  I could  hardly  believe  it.  When  I came  to 
work  (sorting  “szmates”)  and  saw  Rosenthal,  I asked  him  what 
had  happened  and  why  he  was  back  in  Treblinka.  He  looked  at 
me  for  a brief  moment  and  replied  that  he  had  returned  in  order 
to  show  me  a safer  route  of  escape. 

One  day,  Kapo  Commander  Galewsky  questioned  Rosenthal  about 
his  escape.  We  were  aware  that  Galewsky  wished  to  escape.  We 
all  were  anxious  to  know  the  details  of  Rosenthal’s  escape  and 
return.  He  suggested  that  Hersh  Goldstein  be  the  next  to  escape, 
since  he  looked  like  a gentile.  It  appeared  that  Galewsky  too  had 
now  decided  to  sneak  out  of  the  camp.  He  spoke  at  length  with 
Rosenthal  about  it.  I had  noticed  that  Rosenthal  recently  had 
become  quite  friendly  with  the  “Knpos”  (camp  police).  One  day 
they  gave  him  something  which  he  immediately  pocketed.  In  the 
evening  after  work,  we  did  not  see  Rosenthal. 

A few  days  after  Rosenthal’s  second  escape  we  noticed  that  the 
SS  was  observing  our  every  move.  Therefore,  we  had  to  be  very 
careful  with  our  next  escape  attempt.  They  had  learned  that  some- 
one had  been  smuggled  into  the  camp  and  had  left  with  a large 
sum  of  money  and  valuables.  The  commander  knew  all  about  it. 
He  found  the  man  and  beat  him  viciously  on  head  and  body  We 
were  witnessing  the  scene.  The  commander  then  came  over  to  our 
group  and  pointed  to  Szlomo  Chapnik,  Hersh  Goldstein,  the  two 
Feiner  brothers,  two  men  from  Piotrkov  and  me.  We  were  ordered 
to  go  with  the  SS  immediately.  On  the  way,  the  Kapo  Rakowski 
noticed  me  and  requested  my  release,  because  I was  the  barber. 
I was  sent  back  to  the  barrack.  Rakowski  remembered  that  I had 
helped  his  brother  to  escape.  The  other  two  men  were  taken  to 
the  clinic  and  shot. 

It  appeared  that  Rosenthal  had  escaped  again,  though  this  time 
alone.  Later,  when  I was  no  longer  in  the  camp  a friend  from 
Radomsko  told  me  that  Rosenthal  was  in  Praga  for  a while.  But 
a few  months  later,  he  was  again  part  of  a transport  of  Jews  to 
the  extermination  camp  of  Treblinka.  However,  this  time  nobody 
was  selected  to  work  in  the  camp.  The  entire  transport,  Rosenthal 
included,  was  exterminated. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


125 


My  Escape  from  Treblinka 

A.L.  Bomba’s  Story,  originally  written  in  Yiddish 

TREBLINKA:  A small  village  northeast  of 
Warsaw  which  was  the  site  of  a model  death- 
camp  which  existed  solely  to  put  masses  of 
people  to  death.  Its  only  labor  was  the  labor  of 
Death. 


Every  person  selected  from  a transport  and  ordered  to  work 
in  the  death  camp  of  Treblinka,  was  planning  to  escape. 

This  was  not  an  easy  task  as  you  needed  a lot  of  money,  which, 
if  found  on  you,  would  be  a cause  for  your  immediate  execution. 
One  also  had  to  find  someone  whom  one  could  trust  with  an 
escape  plan. 

We  were  a group  who  had  become  very  close  to  one  another.  In 
our  group  were  Hersh  Goldstein,  Hershel  Kaufman,  Yankel 
Kaufman,  Yitzchak  Zaidman,  Yechiel  Bercovitch,  Leibel 
Rosenthal,  Yankel  Aisner  and  myself.  Everyone  in  the  camp  knew 
that  I was  a barber  who  would  sometimes  cut  the  hair  of  “Kapo” 
Rakovski  and  “Kapo”  Blay.  Kapo  Rakovski  permitted  me  to  work 
in  the  barrack,  which  gave  me  the  opportunity  to  hide  money  and 
other  valuables  in  preparation  of  the  planned  escape.  Concealed 
in  our  blankets  were  our  money  and  valuables.  On  the  designated 
day,  we  went  into  our  hiding  place  and  waited  for  the  darkness 
of  night.  Yitzchak  Zaidman  led  the  way,  followed  by  Hersh 
Goldstein  and  myself.  When  we  were  20  meters  fmm  the  barmck, 
we  saw  two  Ukrainian  guards  attacking  Zaidman.  They  beat  him, 
unwrapped  his  blanket,  saw  the  money  and  then  talked  with  him. 
We  gradually  moved  back  in  the  direction  of  our  barrack  and 
returned  to  our  places.  A few  minutes  later,  the  guards  entered 
with  Zaidman.  They  spoke  with  the  barrack  commander. 
Engineer  Galewski,  who  ordered  everyone  outside.  The  two 
Ukrainians  came  out  with  Zaidman,  demanding  from  him  to  point 
out  those  who  had  been  with  him.  Zaidman  remained  silent.  We 
were  then  ordered  back  to  our  stations.  The  Ukrainians  continued 
speaking  with  the  commander.  It  appeared  that  the  Ukrainians 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Eventually,  he  remarried  and  moved  across  the  border  to 
Germany.  One  night,  he  had  a dream.  His  first  wife  said  to  him: 
“You  know  that  our  daughter  is  alive  and  you  must  make  another 
attempt  to  find  her.”  He  awoke  and  decided  to  search  once  more. 

Leaving  his  pregnant  wife,  he  returned  again  to  Czenstochova. 
He  begged  his  friend  working  in  the  city  hall  for  help  and, 
together,  they  set  out  in  search  of  the  child.  They  travelled  into 
the  northern  areas  of  Poland,  trying  to  find  the  family  who  adopted 
his  child.  It  was  an  extremely  difficult  task,  but,  at  last,  in  one 
of  the  cities,  they  found  the  family. 

The  Polish  friend  went  alone  to  meet  the  parents  and  to  inform 
them  that  the  real  father  of  Maria  was  alive  and  that  he  wanted 
his  daughter  back. 

At  first  the  adoptive  parents  did  not  want  to  consider  returning 
the  child.  Little  Maria  was  their  daughter.  They  were  a family. 

Many  meetings  and  discussions  followed.  Promises  were  made 
to  convince  the  people  to  return  Maria  to  her  real  father.  Even- 
tually, they  agreed,  but  they  moved  to  another  city  where  they 
were  not  known,  deeply  saddened,  and  went  into  mourning. 

As  for  Maria,  she  went  back  to  Germany  with  her  real  father.  It 
took  her  a long  time  to  adjust  to  her  new  family. 

This  is  a true  story. 

Maria  now  lives  in  Israel,  where  she  is  married  and  has  her  own 
family. 


Identification  tag  for  the 
Jewish  slaves  in  the 
concentration  camp  in 
Czens  toch  ova . 


A Jewish  pohceman  in  the 
ghetto. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legacy 


123 


Little  Maria 

By  Lucy  Mietkiewicz  Zilbert  Nisker 

In  1942,  IN  OUR  Jewish  Ghetto  of  Czenstochova,  there  was  a 
young  couple  who  had  a 9-month-old  baby  girl.  Since,  by  this  time, 
most  children  and  old  people  had  been  deported  to  Treblinka,  they 
sought  desperately  to  protect  the  child  from  the  Germans. 

The  couple,  whose  name  will  remain  anonymous,  convinced  a local 
Pole  to  escort  the  baby  to  a Polish  convent,  located  outside  the 
ghetto.  They  dressed  the  child  and  placed  her  in  a basket,  with 
a note:  Maria,  9 months  old. 

The  Polish  woman  took  the  basket  with  the  baby  to  the  orphanage, 
rang  the  bell,  and  hid  nearby  to  see  what  would  occur.  Moments 
later,  a nun  opened  the  door,  saw  the  infant  and  took  her  inside. 

Months  passed.  The  father  of  the  child  was  imprisoned  in  the 
labor  camp  “Hasag”  in  Czenstochova,  while  the  mother  perished 
in  the  flames  of  the  burning  ghetto. 

In  January  1945,  Russian  troops  liberated  Czenstochova  from 
German  occupation.  The  father  of  Maria  was  fortunate  to  survive 
the  war.  Having  lost  his  wife  and  most  of  his  family,  his  only  hope 
now  was  to  be  reunited  with  his  daughter  (who  by  this  time  was 
4 years  old).  He  so  much  wanted  to  bring  her  up.  As  soon  as  he 
was  able,  he  travelled  to  the  orphanage  to  meet  with  the  Mother 
Superior.  When  he  inquired  about  little  Maria,  she  told  him  that 
she  remembered  her  very  well.  Just  last  year,  a young  childless 
couple  from  Warsaw  came  to  adopt  a child.  They  chose  Maria.  He 
was  shocked  ! Trying  to  be  of  help,  the  Mother  Superior  provided 
him  with  their  address. 

The  very  next  day,  he  took  the  train  to  Warsaw  to  retrieve  his 
daughter.  When  he  arrived,  he  could  not  locate  the  building.  It 
had  been  destroyed  during  the  1944  Warsaw  uprising.  There  was 
no  trace  of  Maria  ! Heartbroken,  he  returned  to  Czenstochova.  He 
tried  again  to  locate  the  Polish  family,  with  no  success 

Months  passed,  but  he  could  not  find  peace  not  knowing  whether 
his  child  was  dead  or  alive.  Whenever  he  saw  a little  girl  of  Maria’s 
age,  he  looked  very  closely  to  try  and  recognize  her. 


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Joseph.  In  1960,  we  made  the  decision  to  move  to  Canada.  Many 
years  of  struggles  and  hard  work  allowed  me  to  build  a successful 
business  and  extend  our  family  with  two  more  sons;  Morris  and 
Philip.  Looking  back  at  the  difficulties  I had  to  endure,  gives  me 
a great  sense  of  satisfation  and  pride  in  the  successes  and 
happiness  that  my  family  now  enjoys  through  their  careers  and 
families  of  their  own.  Of  course  to  a very  large  extent,  the  credit 
for  the  success  in  rebuilding  the  family  and  heritage  I had  lost, 
goes  to  my  wife  Laja,  for  without  her  strength,  love  and  support, 
none  of  this  could  have  been  possible. 


Two  Brothers 

By  Esther  Gabel  Srebrnik 

Every  Jew  from  Czenstochova  who  survived  the  war  has  many 
stories  to  tell.  I have  always  wanted  to  share  the  story  of  two  who 
did  not  survive,  my  brothers  Abba  and  Moishe  Gabel.  In  1943 
posters  were  put  up  in  Czenstochova  stating  that  a reward  of  10kg 
of  sugar  would  be  given  to  those  who  informed  the  Gestapo  on 
a Jew.  Two  Poles  saw  my  brothers  wandering  in  the  forest  and 
told  the  authorities.  This  is  how  they  became  the  victims  of 
treason. 

When  I was  liberated  on  January  16,  1945  I learned  about  the 
tragic  fate  of  my  brothers  and  I was  desperate  to  exhume  their 
bodies.  I finally  had  the  necessary  documents  drawn  up  and  the 
arrangements  were  made,  but  the  Jewish  suffering  was  not  over 
yet.  The  Kielce  Pogrom  had  begun.  My  husband  Edek,  myself  and 
our  one-year-old  son  Henry  had  to  flee  Poland  immediately.  I 
thought  my  plans,  to  remove  my  brothers’  bodies  from  the  forest, 
would  never  be  realized. 

Throughout  my  life  in  Canada  this  bothered  me  tremendously.  I 
always  felt  guilty  about  leaving  them.  My  son  Henry  knew  this 
and  when  he  went  to  Poland  in  1977  his  most  important  mission 
was  to  find  the  graves  of  my  brothers.  Through  sheer  luck  and 
perseverance,  he  found  a monument  to  4,000  Jews  killed  during 
the  war  and  my  brothers’  names  were  among  them.  Apparently, 
after  the  war  a commission  was  formed  to  exhume  the  bodies.  I 
now  felt  as  if  a great  weight  had  been  lifted  off  my  shoulders. 
Thanks  to  my  son  Henry,  I could  now  live  with  the  memory  of  my 
two  beloved  brothers. 


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myself.  The  arrangement  was  that  we  were  allowed  to  live  there, 
but  only  as  long  as  we  did  not  marry  The  room  had  no  bathroom, 
no  kitchen;  just  four  beds.  We  lived  together  in  this  room  for  seven 
years. 

My  friends  and  I met  a man  from  Czenstochover,  Mr.  Jutobrovski. 
He  was  a kind  man,  who  expressed  a very  sincere  concern  for  all 
of  us,  and  even  went  along  with  us  when  we  were  preparing  to 
go  off  to  the  army.  At  that  time  there  had  not  yet  been  a Jewish 
army,  since  the  English  were  still  in  control  of  the  country.  I had 
the  privilege  of  being  the  three  thousandth  soldier  to  enter  the 
army. 

When  we  were  mobilized,  there  were  not  enough  guns  for  all  of 
us.  We  were  sent  out  anyway,  and  told  that  if  one  of  the  other 
soldiers  were  injured  or  killed,  we  were  to  take  his  gun.  It  was 
our  mission  to  open  the  way  to  Jerusalem,  which  at  that  time  was 
under  Arab  occupation.  The  commando  group  with  which  I was 
mobilized  was  known  as  Palmach. 

I was  attached  to  a special  forces  commando  detachment  and  sent 
to  train  at  a camp  at  Givat  Olga.  Here  I would  have  the  honour 
of  having  had  close  contacts  with  individuals  who  would  later  play 
key  roles  in  the  successful  establishment  of  the  state  of  Israel. 
Among  them,  Yosef  Tabenkin,  Uri  Banher,  David  Elaizer  and  Ariel 
Sharon.  This  was  a turning  point  in  my  life,  as  for  the  first  time 
as  a free  man,  I felt  as  though  I could  make  a difference,  fighting 
for  the  rights  of  the  Jewish  people.  At  the  outset  we  were  1300 
special  forces  troups,  and  by  the  time  of  the  cease  fire,  our  num- 
bers had  dwindled  to  350,  many  of  whom,  including  myself,  had 
been  injured.  I spent  some  time  in  hospital,  and  upon  my  release 
was  sent  to  train  as  a member  of  the  military  police,  a position 
which  I held  until  my  discharge  from  the  army. 

After  our  tours  of  duty  in  the  army  my  friends  and  I returned  to 
our  small  apartment.  In  time  my  friends  married,  and  I was  left, 
the  last  one  in  our  little  apartment.  I met  and  married  my  wife, 
but  we  had  no  means  to  start  our  life  together.  My  wife  also  came 
from  a poor  home,  which  created  a problem,  because  my  mother- 
in-law  wanted  her  daughter  to  have  an  easier  life.  However,  we 
decided  to  make  a go  of  it  anyway.  I asked  my  landlord  for  per- 
mission to  live  in  the  apartment  with  my  wife,  until  I could  scrape 
together  enough  money  to  move  elsewhere.  He  did  not  agree,  but 
we  moved  into  that  apartment  anyway.  One  difficult  test  for  our 
new  marriage  was  that  this  apartment  had  no  conveniences  at  all. 
But  with  the  help  of  our  neighbours,  we  were  soon  able  to  over- 
come some  of  these  obstacles. 

After  some  time  we  would  move  from  that  apartment  to  a 
different  home  and  soon  we  welcomed  the  arrival  of  our  first  son 


120 


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refused  to  give  up  hope.  Finally  the  British  soldiers  liberated  the 
camp  and  brought  food  for  us.  It  was  at  this  point  that  many  died 
because  their  weakened  bodies  could  not  withstand  the  shock  of 
eating  after  such  long  periods  of  severe  starvation.  My  will  to  live 
was  so  great  that  I controlled  my  urges  to  eat  large  amounts  of 
food  — a very  difficult  task,  to  say  the  least. 

After  being  liberated,  I slowly  regained  my  strength.  A friend,  Mr. 
Macovsky  and  I decided  that  we  no  longer  wished  to  live  in  camps, 
and  decided  to  find  a place  of  our  own  to  live.  Macovsky,  who  was 
fluent  in  German,  would  help  us  to  pass  for  German  Jews  and  thus 
facilitate  our  ability  to  obtain  an  apartment  in  Germany.  We  went 
looking  door  to  door  for  a place  to  live,  and  finally  found  a room. 

We  stayed  there  for  a while  and  then  moved  along  to  a small  town 
at  Saltzeim  where  many  Jews  settled  temporarily  while  waiting 
for  permission  to  emigrate.  The  permission  was  not  forthcoming 
and  I decided  that  I would  go  to  Israel  illegally,  if  necessary.  We 
boarded  a ship  destined  for  Israel.  All  of  the  passengers  were  mak- 
ing similar  attempts  of  rellocation  to  Israel.  We  were  caught  and 
placed  in  an  internment  camp  name  Eilit.  After  two  days,  we 
escaped  from  the  camp  and  attempted  to  enter  the  mainstream 
of  Jewish  life  in  Israel.  We  were  met  with  mixed  emotions,  as 
many  could  not  comprehend  how  we  could  allow  ourselves  to  have 
been  treated  by  the  Nazis  in  the  ways  that  we  had  been  back  in 
Poland.  It  became  necessary  for  us  to  prove  ourselves  as  worthy 
and  win  the  compassion  of  those  around  us,  making  them  realize 
that  the  treatment  we  received  at  the  hands  of  the  Nazis  was  not 
our  faults,  but  a result  of  circumstance. 

Back  in  Germany,  I practised  carpentry,  which  proved  useful  when 
arriving  in  Israel.  I met  a man  who  was  formerly  from  Czensto- 
chover  and  had  a carpentry  shop  in  Israel.  He  hired  me  and  soon 
I had  my  first  job,  in  the  hope  that  I would  be  able  to  look  on  as 
the  other  carpenters  worked  and  learn  the  trade.  As  luck  would 
have  it,  there  was  no  room  for  me  to  work  inside  the  shop,  so  the 
man  set  me  up  to  work  outdoors.  This  forced  me  to  run  inside 
periodically  for  water,  but  in  actual  fact,  to  allow  me  to  look  on 
as  the  others  worked. 

My  friend  Efraim  was  living  on  a kibbutz.  His  father  was  a 
carpenter  back  in  Czenstochover,  making  him  a good  candidate 
for  work  in  this  shop.  I told  the  owner  about  Efraim  and  he  hired 
him  as  well.  The  problem  was  finding  him  a place  to  live.  I took 
him  in  with  me,  however  my  landlord  did  not  like  this  arrange- 
ment and  we  were  forced  to  leave.  We  finally  found  a new  place 
to  live.  We  were  four  men  in  one  room.  All  of  us  were  from  Czen- 
stochov  ; there  was  the  two  Lax  brothers,  Efraim  Seltzer  and 


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119 


was  the  existence  of  work  that  ensured  our  survival.  I was 
involved  in  this  operation  which  in  my  case,  involved  destroying 
the  shipping  crates  in  which  the  ammunition  was  being 
transported.  In  time,  the  lack  of  crates  created  the  need  to  set  up 
a carpentry  factory  to  build  more.  I was  helped  by  three  others; 
Itzoulek,  Yescrovitch  and  in  the  carpentry  shop  by  Bercovitch,  all 
of  whom  unfortunately,  did  not  survive  the  war. 

One  particularly  unpleasant  recollection  of  the  work  in  the 
factory,  involved  a scenario  in  which  a man  paid  off  the  work 
foreman  to  relieve  him  of  the  distasteful  duties  of  cleaning  the 
ammunition  casings.  The  foreman  chose  me  to  replace  the  man. 
After  a short  while  on  this  job,  without  permission,  I abandoned 
my  post.  The  foreman  searched  everywhere  for  me,  as  I did  every- 
thing in  my  power  to  elude  him.  Finally  he  reported  me  to  the 
Hassack  representative  who  later  called  me  in  to  speak  to  him. 
Suspecting  that  I might  have  ties  to  the  underground,  he  let  me 
off  the  hook  with  the  warning  that  if  this  should  happen  again 
he  would  be  forced  to  deport  me.  It  was  then,  by  his  reaction  to 
me,  that  I knew  that  he,  too,  had  connections  to  the  underground. 

As  the  Russians  approached  the  town,  the  Nazis  decided  to 
evacuate  the  factory.  Some  Jews  hid  themselves  in  the  factory, 
however  I chose  to  go  with  the  majority.  Our  destination  was 
Buchenwald.  In  this  camp  we  suffered  terribly;  hunger  and  hard 
labour  were  very  common.  From  there,  I was  deported  to  the  con- 
centration camp  of  Dora.  In  this  camp,  the  Nazis  produced  V2 
rockets.  The  work  there  was  extremely  grueling,  working  prac- 
tically non-stop  to  construct  a railway,  with  nothing  to  eat  except 
the  Nazis  rendition  of  soup.  In  this  camp,  I became  reunited  with 
a childhood  friend  from  home,  Efraim  Seltzer.  Efraim  and  I stuck 
together,  offering  encouragement  and  support  to  one  another  in 
this  terrible  place  we  found  ourselves  in. 

With  the  English  forcing  the  Nazis  back,  Dora  too,  was  evacuated. 
People  were  separated  according  to  nationality  for  transport  in 
the  huge  wagons.  I claimed  to  be  a non- Jew,  a decision  I would  later 
regret.  The  trip  to  Bergen  Belsen  was  a difficult  one.  People  were 
packed  into  the  wagons  like  sardines.  We  were  not  fed  and  many 
did  not  survive  the  long  trip. 

The  war  was  nearing  an  end  and  at  Bergen  Belsen,  the  situation 
was  desperate.  Food  was  in  very  short  supply,  and  we  were  fed  ra- 
tions which  were  impossible  to  survive  on.  In  this  camp  I was  plac- 
ed in  barracks  with  many  people  from  my  hometown  of  Czensto- 
chover.  The  Macovskies,  Hershlicovitch  and  others  were  among 
those  interned  with  me. 

We  were  so  malnutritioned  that  the  simplest  step  was  an 
impossible  task.  This,  however,  did  not  break  my  spirit  and  I 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


the  Grermans,  would  identify  Jewish  children  in  the  streets.  These 
children  would  receive  beatings  and  sometimes  even  more  horrify- 
ing punishments. 

Soon,  the  Nazis  evacuated  the  ghetto,  splitting  up  entire  families. 
The  Germans  would  tell  the  evacuees  that  they  were  being  sent 
to  alternate  locations  behind  the  front  lines,  to  take  part  in  work 
details,  such  as  potato  picking.  In  actual  fact,  they  were  being  sent 

to  the  Treblinka  concentration  camp.  My  parents’  last  words  to  me 
were  that  I should  save  myself  and  that  I should  tell  anyone  who 
would  listen  of  the  atrocities  being  perpetrated  against  the  Jews 
by  the  Nazis.  From  that  moment  on,  I realized  the  difficulties  I 
would  face  as  an  only  child,  with  no  family,  no  life  experience,  no 
education  and  no  trade. 

I was  placed  in  a small  ghetto  where  I lived  with  total  strangers. 
The  holidays  were  particularly  painful  times,  wandering  the 
streets,  looking  into  windows,  while  others  attempted  to  celebrate. 
I would  walk  the  streets,  anguishing  over  my  loss,  until  finally 
I would  tire  and  go  home  to  a lonely  bed.  This  ghetto  was  also 
disbanded  and  we  were  all  interned  and  forced  to  work  in  large 
factories.  I was  placed  in  an  ammunition  factory  known  as  Hassag 
Peltserie.  My  cousin,  Hartzge  Schillit  was  also  placed  in  a near- 
by factory  named  Rackov. 

Hartzge’s  brother,  Herschel  and  his  wife  were  being  hidden  outside 
of  the  ghetto  by  non- Jews.  Shortly  before  the  war,  Herschel  tried 
to  save  his  brother  by  approaching  one  of  his  wife’s  gentile  friends 
in  order  to  persuade  this  friend  to  take  in  Hartzge.  The  lady  was 
most  receptive  and  told  the  couple  to  wait  while  she  went  to  get 
them  food  for  breakfast.  She  returned  with  officers  of  the  S.S.  who 
proceeded  to  torture  my  cousin  Herschel  and  force  him  to  divulge 
the  name  of  his  brother  and  in  which  factory  he  was  working. 

Herschel,  his  wife,  and  Hartzge  were  all  taken  to  a concentration 
camp.  The  wife  Adella,  was  the  only  one  to  survive  the  war.  These 
lives  were  all  ruined  in  exchange  for  a five-kilogram  bag  of  sugar 
offered  by  the  Nazis  for  anyone  willing  to  turn  over  Jews  in  hiding. 

The  section  in  which  I worked  was  varied  in  the  diversity  of  the 

people  who  worked  in  our  section  would  pay  the  Polish  workers 
ammunition  from  the  front  lines,  cleaning  and  refurbishing  it, 
and  then  returning  it  to  the  front  lines  for  use.  Some  of  the  elderly 
people  who  worked  in  our  section  would  pay  the  Polish  workers 

to  get  food  for  them.  The  elders  in  turn  would  give  us  food  to 
ensure  that  we  would  work  harder  and  thus  spare  them  from 
deportation. 

It  was  common  practice  for  the  underground  resistance  to  subvert 
the  German’s  efforts  by  sabotaging  different  processes  and  thus 
creating  work  and  the  need  for  more  Jews  to  perform  this  work.  It 


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117 


those  who  were  less  fortunate.  Every  week  before  the  sabbath, 
merchants  would  go  through  the  various  neighbourhoods,  collect- 
ing food  for  the  needy.  This  food  would  then  be  distributed  to  poor 
families  so  that  they  too,  could  celebrate  a joyous  sabbath.  These 
gestures  of  kindness  made  a tremendous  impression  on  me  and 
served  to  rekindle  in  me,  the  belief  that  there  still  existed  some 
semblance  of  good  and  humanity  in  mankind. 

The  town  of  Czenstochover  was  an  interesting  mix  of  extremes. 
One  particular  individual  comes  to  mind  as  a symbol  of  the  con- 
trasting ideals  of  good  and  evil,  prevalent  during  those  times.  A 
Jewish  man,  known  to  us  as  Gay  la  Avrum  was  a gentleman  who 
made  his  living  in  trades  which  were  not  socially  or  legally  accept- 
able. As  a result,  he  was  an  outcast  of  the  Jewish  community  who 
did  not  wish  to  be  associated  with  his  dishonest  business  deal- 
ings. This  man,  as  ruthless  as  he  was  in  his  approach  to  business, 
was  a totally  different  person  in  his  private  life.  He  saw  to  it  that 
his  family  respect  all  Jewish  traditions  and  that  his  children  be 
educated  and  respectable.  Avrum  made  a point  of  caring  for  one 
of  the  town’s  mentally  infirm,  homeless  men.  Every  week  Avrum 
would  take  this  man  down  to  the  river,  bathe  him,  and  provide  him 
with  a fresh  set  of  clothing.  Looking  back,  it  seems  ironic  that 
at  a time  when  others  would  turn  their  backs  on  the  needy,  this 
man  who  others  considered  undesirable  or  crooked,  would  pro- 
vide aid  and  comfort  to  those  who  needed  it  the  most. 

Eventually  it  came  time  to  enter  public  school,  where  anti-Semitism 
was  a terrible  problem.  Hatred  of  Jewish  students  was  so  fierce, 
that  it  became  necessary  to  segregate  Jews  from  non- Jews  in 
separate  schools.  This  did  little  to  solve  the  problem  of  Polish 
children  would  look  for  us  after  school  in  an  attempt  to  provoke 
fights.  In  the  beginning  we  tried  to  avoid  them,  however  their  per- 
sistence forced  us  to  confront  them  against  our  wills.  My  parents 
would  always  be  very  upset  when  I would  come  horn  all  bruised 
and  battered.  They  did  not  want  me  to  fight  with  the  non- Jewish 
children  and  pleaded  with  me  to  avoid  these  confrontations  at  any 
cost. 

Once  the  war  broke  out,  our  family  attempted  to  flee  the  German 
occupation,  but  eventually  we  were  held  up  in  a small  town  and 
were  forced  to  return  home.  The  Nazis  began  selecting  Jews  for 
several  different  types  of  work  which  they  wanted  carried  out.  I 
tried  to  avoid  becoming  involved  in  their  various  work  projects, 
but  this  was  not  always  possible. 

The  Nazis  constructed  a ghetto  and  took  away  all  of  our  means 
of  supporting  ourselves.  Eventually  hunger  would  set  in,  forcing 
me  to  sneak  out  of  the  ghetto  to  stand  in  the  Polish  food  lines  for 
bread.  Some  of  my  friends  who  did  likewise,  were  not  as  fortunate 
as  I,  and  were  picked  out  of  the  lines  by  Poles  who,  working  with 


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worn  out  shoes  would  always  serve  as  a symbolic  lesson  to  me 
about  the  cold  harshness  of  growing  up  poor  and  Jewish  in  a world 
that  tolerated  neither. 

My  parents,  though  not  extremely  religious,  kept  a strictly  kosher 
home.  Often  in  my  childhood,  situations  in  the  outside  world 
would  demonstrate  to  me  the  total  disregard  and  disrespect  of 
Jewish  culture  and  tradition,  held  by  the  non- Jews  of  Czensto- 
chover.  One  particularly  disturbing  recollection  is  of  a man  who 
watched  over  the  building  in  which  my  family  lived.  One  day,  I 
saw  this  man,  sitting  outside,  eating  a ham  sandwich.  The  man 
called  me  over  and  asked  me  if  I was  familiar  with  the  type  of  meat 
that  he  was  eating.  When  I said  that  I was  not,  he  held  down  my 
arms  and  rubbed  a slice  of  ham  all  over  my  face  and  mouth.  It 
is  a taste  I have  never  been  able  to  rid  myself  of  to  this  very  day. 

Our  town  was  predominantly  anti-Semitic,  whose  majority  would 
seek  out  any  opportunity  to  harass  and  terrorize  the  Jews  of  this 
fairly  large  Polish  town.  Very  often,  the  Jewish  community  would 
be  under  siege  by  groups  of  youths  and  adults,  intent  on  damag- 
ing Jewish  property,  as  well  as  inflicting  bodily  harm.  A small 
group  of  Jewish  townspeople  would  undertake  a modest  resis- 
tance effort  to  combat  the  violence  and  terror.  In  one  unfortunate 
confrontation,  one  of  the  non- Jewish  pillagers  was  killed.  His 
death  would  serve  to  create  a martyr  for  the  anti-Semitic  factions 
and  give  them  further  cause  to  make  the  Jews  of  Czenstochover 
the  focus  of  continued  pogroms  and  violence. 

The  Poles  were  extremely  harsh  in  their  attitude  towards  the  Jews. 
Often,  in  organized  groups,  the  Polish  townspeople  would  picket 
in  front  of  Jewish  businesses,  discouraging  customers  from  buy- 
ing their  goods.  These  tactics  made  it  difficult,  if  not  impossible 
for  the  Jews  to  earn  a living. 

The  hatred  toward  Jews  only  made  us  stronger  in  our  resolve;  the 
instinct  to  survive  was  greater  than  our  complacency  to  succumb 
to  this  overt  discrimination.  As  a child  I can  remember  taking  part 
in  the  efforts  to  resist  the  campaigns  against  the  Jewish  sectors 
of  town.  We  build  walls  and  barricades  to  help  prevent  our  enemies 
from  perpetrating  their  evil  deeds  upon  us.  Growing  up  in  these 
circumstances,  it  became  painfully  obvious  that  only  the  strong 
could  survive.  Not  a very  cheerful  lesson  for  a young  boy,  but  one 
that  encouraged  youth  to  adopt  a fighting  mentality  at  a very  early 
age  - there  was  little  choice  in  the  matter. 

The  town’s  Jewish  community  was  made  up  of  three  classes  — the 
poor,  an  entrepreneurial  middle  class,  and  the  well-off.  At  all 
times,  the  Jews  of  Czenstochover  exhibited  a sense  of  responsi- 
bility to  their  own.  One  found  childhood  memory  if  of  the  gene- 
rosity shown  by  many  of  the  fortunate  Jewish  town’s  folk  in  aiding 


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115 


A Lost  Childhood 

By  Szlomo  Szwimer 

My  earliest  childhood  memories  are  of  the  times  as  a youth  in 
school.  It  was  an  old  schoolhouse,  maintained  through  the 
generosity  of  the  Jewish  community  of  the  town.  The  impoverish- 
ed children  of  our  community  went  to  this  school,  while  others, 
more  well  off,  went  to  private  schools  run  by  rabbis.  The  school 
had  approximately  150  students. 

The  school  was  adjacent  to  a river.  This  river  was  bordered  on  one 
bank  by  a Jewish  neighbourhood,  and  by  a Jewish  hospital  on  the 
other.  The  sounds  of  the  rolling  river  were  a big  part  of  our  day 
in  school,  as  the  water  rushed  outside  of  the  windows,  and  after 
a long  day  in  classes,  I often  went  down  to  the  river  to  swim.  This 
was  a place  where  my  friends  and  I would  go  to  forget  the  harsh 
realities  of  religious  segregation.  Playing  with  friends  and  enjoy- 
ing childhood  activities  allows  us  to,  for  a short  while,  forget  the 

hatred  which  often  surrounded  all  Jewish  children,  even  within 
the  security  of  one’s  own  home  town. 

Beyond  the  bank  where  the  hospital  stood,  was  a gentile  neigh- 
bourhood. The  non- Jewish  children  would  regularly  interrupt  our 
swimming  by  hurling  stones  at  us.  We  barely  had  time  to  get  out 
of  the  water  and  defend  ourselves.  I remember  vividly,  the  many 
times  I would  go  home  bloodied  as  a result  of  the  stonings  I receiv- 
ed at  the  hands  of  our  non- Jewish  neighbours.  Fbr  fear  that  my 
parents  would  not  allow  me  to  return  to  the  river,  I felt  compelled 
to  invent  creative  stories  in  order  to  explain  my  dishevelled  con- 
dition upon  arriving  home. 

Eventually,  the  truth  did  come  out,  and  my  parents  forbid  from 
playing  by  the  river  after  school.  From  that  time  on,  my  after- 
noons were  spent  in  the  relative  safety  of  my  own  backyard,  play- 
ing soccer,  with  a ball  fashioned  from  old  socks.  The  new  shoes 
I would  receive  at  Passover  would  inevitably  be  worn  out  in  a mat- 
ter of  a few  short  days  as  result  of  the  wear  and  tear  of  our  daily 
soccer  matches.  The  realities  of  poverty  would  require  me  to  walk 
around  for  the  rest  of  the  year  in  torn  and  tattered  shoes.  These 


114 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legcacy 


after  a day  of  fasting  and  prayers  to  the  Almighty  to  grant  each 
and  everyone  a year  of  life,  all  the  street  lights  were  put  on.  The 
purpKDse  was  to  make  sure  that  no  Jew  sould  be  able  to  run  away 
to  the  Aryan  side  of  the  ghetto  walls.  The  Jewish  ghetto  police 
were  running  from  house  to  house  telling  everyone  that  they  had 
to  be  present  at  the  ‘Appell”,  which  took  place  on  the  “New 
Market’’.  There  they  selected  those  chosen  for  deportation  to  the 
gas  chambers  of  Treblinka.  I did  not  go  to  the  “Appell’’.  I took  my 
mother  and  my  sisters  to  a hiding  place  in  a bunker  at  the  Braland 
Factory,  under  a barrage  of  gunfire.  Sixty  people  were  hiding  in 
this  bunker. 

The  Nazi  Commander,  Degenhart,  demanded  that  the  Landau 
brothers  turn  in  those  who  were  hiding  in  their  factory.  He 
threatened  that  if  they  found  the  hiding  place,  everyone  would  be 
shot.  That  bunker  was  not  discovered,  the  Landau  brothers  were 
not  killed. 

I had  an  identification  card  from  “Enro’’.  I went  from  Landau’s 
factory  to  the  “Metalurgia’’,  where  a large  group  had  gathered. 
The  Director  of  “Enro’’  company  told  us  to  go  with  him  and  pre- 
sent our  working  permit  from  “Enro’’.  On  the  way  to  the 
Metalurgia,  the  guard  gave  a signal  to  the  Nazi  Degenhart  who 
then  asked  the  age  of  a young  boy  in  our  group.  In  his  panic,  the 
boy  could  not  talk.  His  father,  Szmuel  Zelinger,  answered  for  him 
and  said  he  was  17  years  old,  but  the  guard,  Szol,  took  him  out 
of  our  group  and  killed  him  with  his  revolver  right  in  front  of  us. 

That  was  the  first  time  in  my  life  that  I saw  a person  killed.  I will 
never  forget  that  horrible  scene  as  long  as  I live.  That  tragic  Yom 
Kippur  of  1942  marked  the  beginning  of  all  deportations  and  the 
murder  of  my  beloved  family  — my  father,  Chaim,  my  mother, 
Dvora,  and  my  sisters,  Sara  and  Miriam. 


Inside  the  HASAG  Concentration  Camp 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


113 


The  Tragic  Yom  Kippur 
of  1942 

Orig^ally  written  in  Yiddish  by  Moshe  Altman 

It  was  a few  days  before  Yom  Kippur  of  1942.  Alter  Altman  was 
an  electronic  technician  and  the  Brigadier  of  the  “Enra”  Co.,  who 
worked  in  the  company  as  a slave  laborer.  I had  a special  permit 
from  the  company,  but  I have  always  found  ways  not  to  go  to  work. 
The  Brigadier  warned  me  that  recently  the  management  was  very 
strict  with  those  who  were  not  present  at  work  all  the  time.  The 
working  permit  was  a guarantee  of  security  and  it  could  be  taken 
away  at  any  time. 

One  day  Alter  Altman  told  me  that  he  had  just  come  out  of  the 
administration  office  and  that  there  was  bad  news  for  all  those 
in  the  ghetto.  He  was  told,  in  confidence,  that  the  murderous 
“deportation  commando”  had  arrived  in  Czenstochov  and  100 
cattle  box  cars  were  on  the  train,  ready  to  be  used  for  the  depor- 
tation of  the  Czenstochova  Jews  from  the  large  ghetto. 

Upon  hearing  the  shocking  news,  I called  a few  of  my  friends, 
Yeheskel  Of  man,  Friedman  and  Zborovski.  We  all  decided  that  we 
had  to  return  to  the  ghetto  to  warn  everyone  so  that  they  had  the 
opportunity  to  do  everything  possible  to  save  themselves  from 
deportation.  I also  told  my  brothers,  Todel  and  Tovieh  and  David 
Kozak. 

At  first,  everyone  thought  this  story  was  exaggerated,  but  others, 
from  different  working  places,  confirmed  its  authenticity.  We 
asked  ourselves  what  we  could  do.  But  no  one  knew  the  answer. 
The  Jews  who  were  in  their  hiding  places  thought  that  in  a few 
days  everything  would  be  over.  That  did  not  happen.  The  Nazis 
were  searching  everywhere  for  those  in  hiding.  Whoever  was 
found  was  immediately  shot.  It  was  shameful  that  the  Jewish 
ghetto  police  collaborated  with  the  Commandos  in  the  search  and 
turned  the  people  over  to  the  Nazis. 

At  that  time,  the  war  between  the  Germans  and  the  Russians  was 
continuing.  All  the  windows  had  to  be  covered  at  night.  The  same 
law  applied  for  the  street  lights;  but,  on  that  Yom  Kippur  night. 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leff&cy 


The  Holocaust  was  different  from  all  other  earher  massacers  in 
the  history  of  the  Jewish  people  because  of  its  conscious  planning 
and  systematic  execution. 

Death  is  always  tragic,  but  when  death  by  murder  is  multiplied 
by  six  million  in  five  years  (counting  only  the  Jewish  victims),  a 
new  term  had  to  be  coined  for  it:  Genocide.  And  the  conscience 
of  the  world  seemed  mute.  A great  transformation  has  taken  place 
in  the  lives  of  the  Jewish  people.  We  are  no  longer  the  victims  of 
rulers  in  one  country  or  another.  We  have  become  masters  of  our 
own  destiny  in  our  own  land  — Israel. 

I presently  reside  in  Chicago  and  have  one  son  and  one  daughter 
and  two  grandchildren.  I am  also  the  President  of  the  Midwest 
Czenstochover  Society.  I am  happy  at  last. 


In  December  1939  the  German 
authorities  ordered  all  Jews  to  wear 
at  all  times  an  armband  with  a large 
Star  of  David. 


PHOTO  BY  ILUSTR.  “POLISH  JEWS” 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


111 


My  Story  of  Survival 

By  Barbara  Pryor 

My  name  is  Barbara  Pryor,  born  Basia  Zielonka.  I am  married 
to  Jerry  Pryor,  formerly  Jurek  Przyrowski. 

I lived  in  Czenstochova  on  the  famous  Garibaldi  Street.  It  was  a 
home  between  the  mikva  and  the  synagogue,  the  town’s  most 
beautiful.  As  I witnessed  the  burning  of  the  synagogue  by  the 
Nazis,  I was  sure  that  the  flames  would  reach  heaven. 

My  family  consisted  of  my  beloved  parents,  six  sisters  and 
brothers,  and  eight  nieces  and  nephews.  Both  of  my  parents  also 
came  from  large  families. 

On  September  of  1939,  the  Germans  overran  Poland  and  the  mass 
slaughter  of  Jews  began,  as  did  the  nightmare  of  the  deportation 
trains,  extermination  camps  and  various  other  bestial  atrocities 
perpetrated  by  the  Germans.  Their  “final  solution’’  took  away  my 
entire  family. 

How  did  I survive  ? This  episode  of  my  survival  is  one  of  many 
miracles.  One  day  we  were  all  rounded  up  on  the  square,  next  to 
the  small  ghetto  for  another  selection  from  people  who  all 
belonged  to  various  working  groups.  I slipped  into  one  group  but 
was  pushed  out  by  a Jewish  policeman  because  “I  didn’t  belong 
there’’.  My  sister  saw  my  dilemma  and  signalled  to  me  to  quickly 
move  into  her  group.  At  that  moment,  a miracle  happened:  The 
group  I was  taken  out  of  was  sent  away  for  deportation.  Nobody 
survived.  On  this  unforgettable  Bloody  Monday,  a few  heroic 
Jewish  partisans  attempted  to  kill  the  Germans,  among  them  a 
lieutenant  Rohn.  This  caused  havoc  among  the  Germans.  They 
responded  by  massacering  more  Jews  in  revenge.  They  then  took 
truckloads  of  Jews  to  the  cemetery  to  face  a German  firing  squad. 
The  tragedy  was  indescribable.  I survived  Bloody  Monday.  Later, 
I was  taken  to  the  Hasag  concentration  camp  in  Czenstochova. 
The  small  ghetto  was  burned  to  the  ground,  with  mothers  holding 
their  babies  in  their  arms,  old  people  hidden  in  the  houses.  This 
was  just  one  episode  in  my  miraculous  survival  story. 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


In  May  1941,  an  order  was  given  forcing  all  the  Jewish  people  to 
live  in  a ghetto  situated  in  the  impoverished  part  of  the  city.  Life 
in  the  ghetto  was  intolerable.  Ten  to  twelve  people  were  crowded 
into  one  room,  without  water,  toilet  or  food. 

In  September  1942,  rumors  spread  that  the  ghetto  was  going  to 
be  liquidated.  On  the  day  of  Yom  Kippur,  September  21,  Germans 
dressed  in  black  uniforms  arrived  in  the  city  together  with  Ukra- 
nians.  Many  cattle  cars  could  be  seen  at  the  train  station.  At  4 a.m. 
on  September  22,  the  Germans  and  Ukranians  attacked  a few 
streets  in  the  ghetto  and  chased  everyone  from  their  homes.  Those 
who  did  not  move  quickly  were  killed  on  the  spot. 

I was  in  the  first  group,  along  with  my  wife,  our  4-week-old  child, 
my  mother  and  brother.  We  were  chased  by  police  to  walk  quickly 
in  the  direction  of  the  train  station  where  over  60  cattle  cars  were 
ready  to  be  loaded.  Five  thousand  people  were  loaded  into  the  train 
that  tragic  day  after  Yom  Kippur  — the  first  transport  to 
Treblinka.  My  family  and  I,  however,  were  told,  along  with  some 
of  the  others,  to  return  to  our  homes.  But  I never  saw  my  brother, 
his  pregnant  wife  and  their  3 year  old  son  again. 

On  September  25th,  a day  before  Sukkot,  we  were  taken  back  to 
Berka  Joselewicza  Street.  A few  more  people  were  taken  out  of 
the  group.  The  rest  were  sent  back  to  the  station.  We  were  push- 
ed into  the  wagons  and  piled  on  top  of  one  another.  After  several 
hours  waiting,  the  train  started  rolling.  The  wagon  was  filled  with 
about  120  to  140  persons,  without  food,  water  or  room  to  breathe. 
The  train  was  headed  in  the  direction  of  Warsaw.  After  travelling 

all  night,  we  arrived  the  following  morning  at  a small  station  — 
Treblinka. 

I was  standing  near  the  window  watching  one  train  roll  in  while 
another  one  left,  empty.  Ours  was  the  third  train  entering  Tre- 
blinka. It  was  12  noon. 

Orders  were  given  immediately  as  we  rolled  into  the  camp.  Women 
and  children  were  ordered  to  go  inside  the  barracks,  while  the  men 
were  to  stand  outside.  They  were  made  to  undress  completely  and 
to  get  ready  to  go  to  the  shower  room.  Nobody  knew  that  these 
were  the  gas  chambers.  On  that  day,  between  16-18,000  Jewish 
people  arrived  at  the  camp.  All  were  gassed  within  a couple  of 
hours. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le, 


109 


My  Hometown 
Czenstochov 

By  A.  Bomba 

First  let  me  say  many  thanks  to  my  friend  Harry  Klein  for  the 
hard  work  he  has  put  into  compiling  a book  in  English  about  our 
city  Czenstochova,  for  the  second  generation.  Many  books  have 
been  written  in  various  languages,  but  this  book  is  about  the 
history  of  our  city  It  will  be  unique  as  it  describes  the  life  of  a 
vibrant  pre-war  Czenstochova  which  ceased  to  exist  as  we  once 
knew  it. 

Jews  have  inhabited  the  city  of  Czenstochova  for  many  hundreds 
of  years.  They  have  enriched  the  city  by  building  hospitals,  fac- 
tories, banks,  clubs,  political  parties,  congregations  and  welfare 
institutions.  We  were,  nonetheless,  strangers  in  our  own  land  and 
in  our  own  city  because  we  were  Jewish  and  were  not  accepted 
by  most  of  the  Polish  people  who  were  anti-Semites. 

In  the  thirties,  the  ruling  party  of  the  country  created  new  laws 
against  the  Jewish  population.  There  were  anti-Semitic  outbreaks 
against  Jewish  students  in  the  Universities;  the  Poles  were 
organized  to  boycott  Jewish  merchants.  This  mistreattnent  con- 
tinued with  pogroms  in  1937,  led  by  Kluzniak  and  in  1938,  led 
by  Baron.  The  abuse  of  Jewish  people  continued  until  1939  and 
the  outbreak  of  the  second  world  war. 

On  the  second  day  of  the  war,  the  Germans  entered  our  city  and 
two  days  later,  on  September  4th,  without  any  provocation,  the 
Germans  started  to  attack  the  entire  population  of  Czenstochova. 
Many  people  were  killed. 

In  December,  1939,  the  Jewish  population  was  ordered  to  wear 
arm  bands  with  the  Star  of  David.  All  the  Jewish-owned  stores, 
businesses  and  factories  were  confiscated.  This  was  followed  by 
an  order  that  Jews  must  give  up  all  such  possessions  as  fur  coats, 
radios  and  furniture.  Every  few  days  the  Germans  attacked 
Jewish  homes  and  took  the  men  and  women  to  do  forced  labour. 
Many  Jewish  people  were  never  returned  to  their  homes. 


108 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


of  tradition  and  respect  for  their  roots.  This  is  reinforced  every 
Shabbat  when  we  travel,  en  masse,  to  Buby  and  Zaidy’s  for  din- 
ner. The  conversation  is  noisy,  the  kids  run  around.  Something 
always  gets  spilled,  but  you  will  not  find  a more  loving  atmosphere 
or  “hamische”  feeling  than  around  the  Skovronek  family  table 
on  Friday  nights. 


V ;c'  h 


\\\ ' ^ 


The  living  quarters  (barracks)  in  the 
HASAG  forced-labour  camp. 


A section  of  the  small  ghetto 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


107 


day  of  Pesach.  The  police  came  to  the  house  looking  for  him  and 
when  they  couldn’t  find  him,  they  arrested  his  youngest  sister. 
When  our  father  found  out  about  this,  he  surrendered  to  the  police 
and  his  sister  was  allowed  to  go  home.  He  was  kept  in  a hall  over- 
night. The  next  day,  the  family  was  allowed  to  say  goodbye.  When 
his  father  walked  into  the  room,  he  was  hardly  recognizable.  His 
eyes  were  red  and  swollen  with  tears,  and  his  hair  had  turned 
white  overnight.  He  squeezed  our  father’s  hand  and  said,  ‘T  do 
not  believe  that  we  will  see  each  other  again”.  About  six  weeks 
later,  around  Shavuot,  the  Germans  scooped  up  the  remaining 
Jews  of  Krzepic,  and  sent  them  to  the  gas  chambers  of  Auschwitz. 
Included  were  28  members  of  our  family  - uncles,  aunts,  cousins 
and  our  83  year  old  great-grandmother. 

Our  father  spent  the  next  three  years  in  a variety  of  different 
concentration  camps,  including  Niederkirch,  Markstadt,  Fiinf- 
teichen,  Grossrosen,  Flossenberg,  Dresden  and,  finally,  There- 
sienstadt.  He  lived  under  conditions  that  we,  of  today’s  genera- 
tion, cannot  possibly  fathom.  He  was  finally  liberated  when  the 
Russians  marched  into  Theresienstadt.  He  was  weak  and  weighed 
approximately  90  pounds;  but  he  gathered  all  his  strength  and 
went  back  to  Chenstochova  where  he  found  two  cousins,  Sara  and 
Sam  Wien.  He  then  travelled  to  his  home  town  in  the  hope  of  find- 
ing more  relatives.  But  they  had  all  perished.  He  then  returned 
to  Germany  and  there  found  out  that  his  youngest  sister,  Lily,  had 
survived  and  was  in  Sweden.  Through  her  he  received  the  sad 
news  that  his  sister.  Rose,  had  died  in  Bergen  Belsen.  At  the  same 
time,  he  learned  that  his  sister,  Beatrice,  who  had  left  Krzepic  just 
before  the  war,  was  married  in  New  York  to  a man  named 
Weisbrot. 

Our  father,  along  with  the  other  survivors,  never  gave  up  hope. 
It  kept  them  alive  and  it  allowed  them  to  move  on  to  a new  world. 
For  our  Dad,  this  new  world  was  Canada.  He  learned  a new 
language  and  rebuilt  his  life.  He  married  our  mother  shortly  after 
moving  to  Toronto  and,  for  over  40  years,  they  have  had  a strong, 
loving  marriage. 

Our  father  became  a successful  builder,  although  he  would  be  the 
first  to  tell  you  a man’s  success  is  not  measured  by  his  pocket- 
book,  but  by  his  honour  and  integrity.  He  has  always  been  active 
in  the  Jewish  community.  He  is  President  of  the  Chenstochover 
Aid  Society  and  has  worked  tirelessly  for  Israel.  Zionism  and  the 
survival  of  Israel  is  always  at  the  forefront  of  his  thoughts,  second 
only  to  his  family.  In  June  of  1989,  he  was  instrumental  in 
organizing  a home -town  reunion  in  Israel.  People  got  together 
who  had  not  seen  each  other  in  over  40  years.  It  was  a tearful, 
joyful  occasion. 

We  are  now  grown  up  and  have  lives  of  our  own;  but  we  carry  with 
us  the  history  of  our  ancestors  as  told  to  us  by  our  Dad.  We  will 
retell  these  stories  to  our  children,  so  they  may  also  have  a sense 


106 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  Skovronek  Family 

Throughout  our  childhood,  we  were  regaled  by  stories  of 
“Krzepic”.  We  heard  of  the  small  2-room  house  our  father,  Philip 
Skovronek,  lived  in  with  his  parents  and  3 sisters.  In  the  sum- 
mer our  father  slept  in  the  kitchen,  and  the  rest  of  the  family  slept 
in  a little  larger  room  which  contained  two  beds,  a table,  some 
chairs,  a credenza  and  a clothes  closet.  This  room  was  heated  by 
a ceramic-tile  oven  from  floor  to  ceiling.  In  the  winter  this  oven 
was  used  to  heat  the  room,  as  well  as  for  cooking.  When  it  was 
very  cold  our  father  moved  into  this  room  with  the  rest  of  the  fami- 
ly for  the  warmth  of  the  stove.  He  awoke  to  the  frost  caked  on  the 
windows.  Running  to  the  outhouse  on  cold  winter  nights  was 
another  story  we  heard  about  often.  Our  father  attended  public 
school  from  8 a.m.  to  1 p.m.  and,  after  lunch,  he  would  go  to 
“Cheydar”  until  7 or  8 p.m.  In  the  winter,  when  the  days  were 
short,  it  was  very  dark  at  that  hour.  Our  great-grandfather  lived 
close  to  “Cheydar”,  so  the  first  stop  on  the  way  home  was  to  our 
father’s  maternal  grandfather.  When  our  father  complained  that 
he  was  afraid  to  go  home  in  the  dark,  our  great-grandfather  gave 
him  this  sound  advice:  “Go  home  and  tell  your  father  to  come  and 
get  you”. 

It  is  so  important  for  all  these  stories  to  be  handed  down  through 
the  generations.  Particularly  because  we  never  knew  these  peo- 
ple, who  all  were  killed  in  the  Holocaust;  but,  through  these 
stories,  they  come  alive  for  us  and  we  cherish  their  memories. 

At  the  age  of  17  our  father  left  home  to  earn  a living,  while  his 
family  remained  in  Krzepic.  For  holidays,  he  used  to  travel  home 
from  Chenstochova.  When  the  war  broke  out,  on  September  1, 
1939,  he  was  at  home  with  his  family.  He  spent  the  next  three 
years  at  home,  being  dragged  out  to  do  work  that  included  clean- 
ing a horse  stable  with  bare  hands,  lining  up  boulders  on  a road 
(for  no  reason)  and  digging  up  potatoes  in  the  field.  Periodically 
the  SS  would  come  to  the  town  and  arrest  able-bodied  Jews  and 
send  them  to  work  in  concentration  camps.  Our  father  used  to 
hide  at  his  gentile  neighbours  until  the  Germans  left  town.  In  this 
way,  he  managed  to  stay  home  until  April  10,  1942.  It  was  the  last 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


105 


His  funeral  was  the  first  that  I ever  attended.  The  blackmailer 
soon  vanished,  and  I suspected  that  the  partisans  “took  care”  of 
him. 

At  the  end  of  1944,  Czenstochova  became  a bombing  target  for 
the  advancing  Russian  army,  and  Rakow  in  particular,  because 
of  the  foundry.  Irena  sent  me  to  relatives  a few  miles  away.  Sud- 
denly on  the  17th  of  January  1945,  all  the  bombing  stopped.  The 
next  day,  I was  taken  back  to  the  apartment,  and  found  BOTH 
my  parents  there ! You  can  imagine  my  surprise ! 

My  parents  found  a place  to  live  in  Czenstochova,  with  Ted  and 
Dora  Zylberszac,  and  their  niece,  Lucy,  whose  parents  and  brother 
perished  during  the  war.  As  most  of  Poland  was  still  at  war,  we 
had  to  remain  there  for  some  time. 

We  did  return  to  Katowice,  where  my  parents  took  repossession 
of  their  old  embroidery  business.  I enrolled  in  a local  school,  and 
as  I was  used  to  the  name  Pabinska,  my  parents  registered  me 
as  Lucyna  Fabinska,  to  keep  the  initial  “F”  in  the  surname.  Later 
my  parents,  also,  officially  changed  their  name.  We  moved  to 
Australia  in  May  1949,  to  join  my  uncle  who  had  moved  there  one 
year  earlier.  We  lived  in  Melbourne.  I was  sent  to  a boarding  school 
to  learn  English  and  so  that  my  parents  could  establish  them- 
selves in  business  without  having  to  care  for  a 13  year  old  child. 

I went  on  to  study  pharmacy.  On  March  15,  1959,  I married 
Dr.  Michael  Bergman.  We  have  one  daughter,  Suzanne,  and  two 
sons,  David  and  Jonathan,  as  well  as  two  grandchildren. 


Jewish  police  station  in  the  small  ghetto 


The  large  ghetto  in  ruins 


was  the  only  person  in  Rakow  who  kjiew  the  truth  about  me.  And 
when  the  Gestap)0  came,  usually  at  night,  to  search  for  partisans, 

I was  locked  in  the  toilet  until  it  was  safe  to  come  out.  That  toilet 
became  like  a second  home  to  me. 

At  the  beginning  of  my  stay  with  Irena,  she  would  take  me,  once 
a month,  on  an  early  morning  train  ride  to  Czenstochova,  where 
we  would  stand  on  a certain  street  corner,  wait  for  a column  of 
marchers.  Irena  did  this  to  reassure  them  that  I was  safe.  Then 
Irena  stopped  taking  me.  My  parents  had  sent  a message  that  so- 
meone had  recognized  me  and  they  feared  that  I might  be  de- 
nounced. I did  not  see  my  parents  again,  until  two  years  later,  the 
day  after  we  were  liberated. 

While  living  in  Rakow,  I lived  as  normal  a life  as  possible.  I went 
to  school,  went  skating  and  tobogganing.  We  lined  up  for  food  ra- 
tions, and  raised  pigs.  However,  in  Poland,  Catholic  children  have 
their  First  Communion  between  the  ages  of  six  and  eight.  This 
meant  that  to  keep  my  cover,  I would  have  to  be  confirmed.  But 
Irena  had  promised  my  parents  that  she  would  do  everything  in 
her  power  to  prevent  me  having  to  be  confirmed.  Although  I went 
to  all  the  classes,  and  learned  all  the  material  required,  I found 
some  excuse  for  my  not  participating.  Usually  I was  sick  or  sent 
away  so  it  would  not  look  so  obvious.  Finally,  when  it  became  too 
dangerous  for  me  to  remain  in  Rakow,  because  the  town  was  fre- 
quently being  searched  for  partisans.  I was,  ironically,  sent  to  live 
with  Natala  and  her  SS  officer.  We  told  him  that  I was  Natala’s 
little  sister  and  we  told  our  Rakow  neighbors  that  I had  had  my 
confirmation  while  I was  staying  with  Natala.  During  the  few 
weeks  that  I lived  with  Natala,  I ate  the  best  food  that  I had  eaten 
during  the  entire  war. 

Two  notable  incidents  took  place  while  I lived  in  Rakow.  First,  a 
new  tenant  moved  into  our  building.  She  was  about  my  mother’s 
age  and  seemed  very  nice.  One  day  she  cornered  me,  and  said 
“I  know  who  you  are”.  I thought  that  was  the  end  of  me.  She 
identified  me  as  Lucyna  Fajgenblat,  since  she  had  known  my 
parents.  She  told  me  that  my  secret  was  safe  with  her,  as  she  too 
was  living  a lie,  as  a widow,  hiding  her  Jewish  husband  in  the 
countryside. 

The  second  incident  had  a more  profound  effect  on  me.  One  day 
I saw  a big  crowd  gathered  on  the  street  nearby.  I moved  to  the 
front  of  the  crowd,  only  to  witness  a Jew  shot  dead,  only  two 
meters  from  me. 

In  1943,  Stan  Kaczmarczyk  became  very  ill  with  tuberculosis.  A 
cousin  of  his,  from  the  country,  visited  Rakow.  He  knew  that  there 
was  no  such  person  as  Lucyna  Pabinska,  and  he  blackmailed  the 
family  for  all  the  money  that  they  could  have  used  to  save  Stan. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le/sr^ 


103 


old  and  obviously  not  able  to  work,  I was  of  no  value  to  the 
Germans.  My  days  were  spent  locked  in  our  room,  in  silence. 

No  one  was  to  know  of  my  existence.  If  I heard  a noise  outside 
the  door,  I would  quickly  and  quietly  climb  into  a large  wicker 
basket,  filled  with  clothing. 

In  Hasag  there  also  worked  Poles.  One  day  a Pole  came  up  and 
left  a small  parcel  near  my  parents,  when  the  Germans  were  not 
looking.  When  they  opened  it  at  night,  they  found  a small  cooked 
chicken,  with  a letter  in  the  core.  It  was  from  Irena  Kaczmarczyk. 
She  wrote  that  if  my  parents  received  the  chicken,  that  the  con- 
tact was  safe. 

She  had  organized  things  from  her  end,  along  with  the  plans  for 
taking  me  out  of  the  ghetto.  The  Pole  carried  messages  back 
and  forth  at  great  risk  to  his  own  life,  and  my  parents  would 
always  get  a chicken  ! In  case  he  were  caught,  he  could  claim  the 
chicken  was  his  lunch.  Towards  the  end  of  1942,  it  was  arranged 
that  I be  passed  over  to  Irena.  On  THE  day,  a tall  thin  man  came 
early  in  the  day  to  our  room . He  strapped  me  to  his  chest,  and  went 
straight  to  a pre-selected  out-house,  where  he  left  me  in  the  smelly 
toilet,  under  a plank  of  wood.  At  nightfall,  my  father  took  me  to 
the  fence  of  the  ghetto,  made  a hole  and  pushed  me  through.  A 
woman  was  waiting  for  me,  but  I did  not  know  her.  I was  scared. 
She  told  me  that  I was  to  stay  with  her  for  a few  days,  until  Irena 
could  come  and  take  me  to  Rakow.  I spent  a lot  of  time  hidden 
under  her  bed. 

Irena  came  and  took  me  home  to  her  husband,  Stanislaw 
Kaczmarczyk,  and  their  two  daughters,  Stanislawa  (then  12)  and 
Tbresa  (then  9).  I was  6 years  old.  Also,  part  of  the  family  were 
Irena’s  niece  and  nephew,  children  of  Stanislaw  and  his  first  wife, 
Irena’s  late  sister.  They  were  adults  already  and  were  hiding  with 
the  partisans.  Furthermore,  Natala  was  the  mistress  of  an  SS  of- 
ficer. All  the  information  that  she  gathered,  she  passed  on  to  her 
brother,  Jurek.  Life  with  the  Kaczmarczyk  family  was  like  sitting 
on  a time  bomb. 

Conditions  were  better  for  us  than  for  most,  since  Stanislaw  had 
a job  in  the  foundry.  This  gave  him  some  privileges,  such  as  ac- 
cess to  a private  toilet,  ownership  of  a small  shed  for  the  pig  that 
they  raised  for  food,  and  access  to  a hot  shower  in  the  foundry 
once  a week.  At  other  times,  we  all  washed  in  the  kitchen  basin. 

I had  two  identities,  depending  on  the  circumstances.  To  all  the 
neighbors,  I was  Lucyna  Pabinska,  a niece,  daughter  of  Irena’s 
brother,  a widower  who  could  not  look  after  me.  But,  during  a Ger- 
man search,  I became  “Terenia’ , and  the  real  Terenia  went  to  a 
neighbor  and  became  her  granddaughter,  who  was  about  the 
same  age,  but  lived  in  Czenstochova.  This  lovely  woman,  Irena, 


102 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Soon  after  we  moved  into  the  compound,  my  mother’s  brother, 
Adam,  and  his  wife  arrived  from  Lvov  and  joined  us.  Although 
he  was  a bacteriologist,  he  pretended  to  be  an  embroiderer  so  he 
could  stay  with  our  family  and  would  not  be  sent  to  the  ghetto. 
Also  with  us  was  my  father’s  brother,  Heniek,  and  my  paternal 
grandparents.  The  rest  of  the  family  was  confined  to  the  ghetto, 
except  my  uncle,  Stasiek,  who  was  trapped  in  Russia. 

With  the  work  that  the  families  did  in  this  compound,  they  could 
earn  money  and  we  led  a nearly  normal  life,  considering  the  cir- 
cumstances. There  were  even  weddings  and  parties  among 
friends  in  the  apartments.  This  situation  lasted  for  about  a year. 

Suddenly,  one  day,  while  we  still  lived  in  these  apartments,  the 
Gestapo  arrived  and  ordered  all  the  old  people  and  those  not  able 
to  work  to  assemble  in  the  courtyard.  Those  “selected”  were  told 
to  bring  a bag  with  some  clothing,  and  enough  food  for  two  days. 
They  were  to  be  “resettled”  on  farm  “for  an  easier  life”.  I remem- 
ber being  sent  back  to  our  apartment  to  get  a blanket  for  my 
grandparents  who  were  the  “lucky  ones”  to  be  selected  for  reset- 
tlement. I also  brought  them  some  sugar,  in  case  they  were  able 
to  get  some  tea  on  their  journey.  That  was  the  last  we  ever  saw 
of  Mordechai  and  Miriam  Fajgenblat.  Sometime  later,  we  learned 
that  they  were  taken  directly  to  Majdanek  and  killed.  At  about 
the  same  time,  my  mother  stopped  receiving  letters  from  her 
parents  in  Sosnowiec.  Later,  when  we  were  in  the  ghetto,  some- 
one from  Sosnowiec  told  my  mother  that  Isidor  and  Rogina 
Levenhof  went  in  a similar  “selection”  and  were  killed  in 
Treblinka. 

Shortly  after  that,  a childhood  friend  of  my  father  appeared  one 
day,  posing  as  a customer.  Her  name  was  Irena  Kaczmarczyk.  Fbr 
a large  fee,  she  was  willing  to  hide  my  parents,  but  we  had  no 
money  since  all  our  worldly  possessions  were  left  behind  in 
Katowice.  Nevertheless,  she  agreed  to  take  me  into  her  care, 
although  I was  not  aware  of  it  at  that  time.  She  began  by  taking 
me  for  walks  out  of  the  compound,  so  as  to  test  ways  of  removing 
me  permanently.  Suddenly,  we  were  told  that  the  compound  was 
to  be  closed  immediately,  and  all  residents  moved  to  the  ghetto. 
New  plans  had  to  be  made. 

My  parents  found  accommodation  in  the  same  block  as  the 
Kopinski  and  Zylberszac  families.  Tadek  Zylberszac  was  married 
to  Dora  Kopinski.  His  brother,  Gutek,  and  wife,  Anka,  were  also 
in  the  ghetto.  They  had  a daughter,  Stefa,  who,  during  the  war, 
was  hidden  in  a convent. 

All  the  adults  in  the  ghetto  who  were  able  to  work,  marched  each 
morning  to  an  ammunitions  factory,  called  Hasag,  a few  kilo- 
meters away.  It  became  very  dangerous  for  me.  I was  only  six  years 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


101 


The  Wartime  Experiences 
of  Lucia  Bergman  (nee  Eajgenblat) 

My  name  is  Lucia  Bergman,  but  when  I was  born  on  April  17th, 
1936, 1 was  Ludwiga  Fajgenblat.  My  mother’s  name  was  Eugenia 
Isidor  Levenhof,  my  father’s  was  Adek  Fajgenblat.  My  maternal 
grandparents  lived  in  Sosnowiec  and  had  two  sons,  Adek  and 
Stasiek,  both  older  than  my  mother 

My  father’s  parents  were  Mordechai  and  Miriam  Fajgenblat.  They 
iiad  six  children. 

We  lived  in  Katowice,  so  that  my  father  would  not  compete  with 
iiis  father  and  brothers  who  lived  in  Sosnowiec.  All  of  them  were 
embroiderers. 

i was  only  three  years  old  when  the  war  broke  out. 

In  Poland,  the  1st  of  September  was  a public  holiday.  In  1939,  my 
parents  travelled  to  Czenstochova  to  visit  my  grandparents,  and 
1 stayed  with  my  maternal  grandparents  in  Sosnowiec.  Wlien  war 
vas  declared,  my  parents  became  stranded  in  Czenstochova  with 
only  two  days’  supply  of  clothing.  As  Jews  were  banned  frc»m  fur- 
ther travel,  I could  not  be  reunited  with  my  mother  and  father  un- 
til a year  later,  when  they  arranged  for  a Christian  friend  to  bring 
me  to  Czenstochova,  using  his  daughter’s  identity  papers. 

When  I arrived  in  Czenstochova  in  1940,  Jews  were  still  allowed 
to  live  in  their  own  homes,  but  this  was  changing  quickly.  The 
Jewish  quarter  was  walled  in  and  all  Jews  were  required  to  move 
into  “the  ghetto’’.  A selection  of  families  including  our  family,  all 
of  whom  were  tradesmen  (i.e.:  tailors,  milliners,  jewellers,  em- 
broiderers, etc),  were  ordered  to  move  into  three  apartment  blocks, 
built  in  a “U’ -shape  around  a courtyard.  On  the  fourth  side,  there 
was  a high  fence  and  gate  leading  to  the  outside  world.  This 
building  was  on  the  main  street  of  Czenstochova,  and  the  Jews 
within  were  not  allowed  to  exit  but  the  Christians  from  the  town 
could  enter  and  utilize  the  services  of  the  residents.  The  Germans, 
of  course,  could  get  all  their  services  from  the  residents. 


100 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


be  allowed  to  return  to  work.  Standing  next  to  my  aunt,  the 
German  officer  pushed  me  to  one  group  and  ordered  my  aunt  to 
go  to  the  other  side.  My  group  was  soon  to  be  sent  to  Trebliiika. 

My  aunt  and  uncle  were  ordered  back  to  work.  They  were  lican 
broken,  not  knowing  how  they  would  face  my  parents  and  lell 
them  that  I had  been  taken  away  by  the  Germans. 

Suddenly,  a miracle  occurred  ! I was  released  from  the  gmup  and 
a few  minutes  later,  joined  my  aunt  at  work.  She  was  overjoyed 
to  see  me,  crying  and  laughing  at  the  same  time.  She  was  thrilled 
to  be  able  to  return  me  to  my  parents. 

However,  while  we  were  at  work,  there  was  a big  “selection”  at 
the  factory,  “Metalurgia”,  on  Garibaldi  Street.  My  parents  and  my 
brother  were  among  a large  group  taken  away.  That  morning  was 
the  last  time  I saw  my  parents  and  my  brother  alive,  as  well  as 
my  best  friend  whom  I knew  since  I had  been  2 years  old. 

I am  the  only  survivor  of  my  class,  which  consisted  of  23  children. 


THE  HOLOCAUST 

Millions  of  People  never  got  a chance 
Children's  lives  never  got  to  advance. 

So  many  children  with  so  many  dreams 

Most  of  them  never  grew  up  to  be  in  their  teens. 

People  running  away,  people  in  hiding, 

But  disaster  they  would  definitely  be  finding. 

But  what  was  the  cause  of  all  this  mess? 

What  was  the  reason  of  all  this  distress? 

It  was  because  the  Jews  were  different 
And  proud  of  it  too. 

And  the  Germans  thought  everyone  should  be  like  them 
Even  if  it  wasn't  true. 

In  the  end,  6,000,000  were  gone. 

But  there  was  still  some  hope  that  shone. 

Because  three  years  after  it  was  finished 

The  State  of  Israel  was  born 

Until  this  day  this  tragedy  we  mourn. 


MELANIE  TAKEFMAN 

(Age:  11) 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


99 


My  Childhood 

By  Lucy  Mietkiewicz  Zilbert  Nisker 

I WAS  10  YEARS  OLD  when  the  war  broke  out  on  September  1,  1939. 
A few  days  later,  German  troops  marched  into  Czenstochova,  and 
my  entire  world  changed. 

The  first  orders  were  for  everyone  to  give  up  their  radios,  and 
deliver  them  to  a central  depot.  This  cut  our  contact  with  the  out- 
side world.  The  major  change  for  me,  however,  was  that  I no 
longer  was  able  to  go  to  Jewish  Day  School.  Jewish  children  were 
denied  access  to  all  educational  facilities.  My  parents  discussed 
the  situation  with  others,  and  within  a few  months,  small  tutorial 
groups  were  illegally  organized  in  private  homes  by  two  sisters. 
Riba  and  Madzia  Horowicz.  Every  day  these  groups  met  to  teach 
the  children  lessons  on  different  subjects.  To  insure  our  secrecy, 
we  changed  locations  frequently. 

In  1940,  life  became  more  difficult.  All  Jews,  13  years  and  older, 
were  ordered  to  wear  the  armband  with  the  Star  of  David.  I was 
not  yet  old  enough  to  receive  this  honor. 

September,  1942,  brought  deportations  to  Czenstochova.  One  day 
after  Yom  Kippur,  everyone  was  put  under  “house  arrest”.  Several 
days  later,  we  learned  that  my  grandparents  Mietkiewicz,  two 
uncles  and  four  aunts  were  among  the  first  groups  shipped  to 
Treblinka. 

Shortly  thereafter,  my  parents  and  brother  and  myself  were 
transported  to  a huge  factory  called  “Metalurgia”.  We  were  con- 
sidered fortunate  to  be  placed  there,  and  told  we  were  immune 
from  deportation. 

On  October  5,  1942,  Simha  Torah,  I bid  my  parents  good-bye  and 
was  sent  to  liquidate  apartments  abandoned  by  Jewish  families, 
in  an  area  which  was  later  to  be  the  “small  ghetto”.  The  task  was 
emotionally  draining,  as  often  we  would  find  food  on  the  table, 
which  meant  that  the  family  was  forced  to  leave  suddenly.  On  that 
day,  the  Germans  arrived  while  we  were  working.  Everyone  was 
ordered  out  into  the  street.  They  inspected  all  of  us  and  divided 
us  into  two  groups.  One  group  was  to  be  sent  away,  the  other  to 


98 


CZENSTOCHOV 


— Our 


was  unable  to  walk  any  longer  and  sat  down,  was  shot  in  the  head. 
For  this  poor  soul  the  torture  and  pain  were  over. 

In  spite  of  the  heavy  “SS”  security  and  continuous  shootings, 
many  of  the  marchers  were  able  to  escape  to  the  forest. 

When  we  reached  the  horrible  camp  Gardelegen,  only  one  hundred 
and  fifty  souls  remained  alive.  Half  an  hour  before  we  arrived,  the 
“SS”  searched  the  forest  to  recapture  some  of  the  people  who  had 
managed  to  escape.  All  were  captured  and  driven  to  Gardelegen, 
where  they  were  gathered  into  a shack  and  burned  alive. 

The  world  knew  only  much  later,  that  on  April  12th,  1945,  three 
days  before  the  liberation  by  the  American  army,  1,015  people, 
martyrs  of  many  nationalities,  had  perished. 

The  victorious  American  army  ordered  the  Mayor  of  Gardelegen 
to  prepare  a special  place  in  the  cemetery  for  the  memory  of  the 
burned  martyrs.  Gardelegen  has  a cemetery  where  there  are 
1,015  special  graves  that  symbolize  the  brutality  of  the  Nazi 
regime. 

As  one  of  the  68  people  who  survived  the  “Dead  March”  I pay  my 
respect  to  those  who  perished.  It  is  a tragedy  I can  never  forget. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


97 


From  Rotleberade  to  Gardelegen 

To  the  Memory  of  my  friends  who  perished  in  the  Holocaust 

Originally  written  in  Yiddish 
by  Harry  Rosenblnm 

I WAS  BORN  IN  CzENSTOCHOVA  AFTER  the  liquidation  of  the  large 
ghetto,  I was  placed  in  HASAG  Pelcern,  a forced  labor  camp  in 
Czenstochova.  On  January  15,  1945,  I was  deported  to  Buchen- 
wald  and  later  to  Dora;  from  there  again  to  Rotleberade.  This  was 
the  last  stage  of  my  painful  experiences  of  horror  during  the 
“March  of  the  Dead”,  a march  from  the  concentration  camp  Rotle- 
bemde  to  Gardelegen. 

This  camp  was  located  in  Germany.  It  employed  over  1,000  slave 
workers  of  all  nationalities,  used  in  the  production  of  missiles  for 
the  Nazi  war  machine. 

On  Wednesday,  April  5,  1945  the  camp  was  evacuated  and  we  were 
forced  to  march  again.  From  far  away  Nordhausen  we  saw  the 
fires  caused  by  the  air  attacks  by  the  Allied  forces.  Under  horrible 
and  inhuman  conditions,  harassed  by  terrible  beatings,  we  were 
all  driven  at  night  to  the  tio,in  station.  At  the  same  time,  all  the 
inmates  of  other  camps  in  the  same  area  werc  evacuated.  Tbgether 
we  numbered  over  8,000  people. 

We  were  surrounded  by  “SS”  troops  who  proceeded  to  push  over 
100  people  into  each  of  many  cattle  cars.  The  transport  lasted 
seven  days  and  nights.  No  one  received  food  or  water  and  as  a 
losult  many  died.  Each  day  the  train  stopped  and  the  corpses  werc 
thrown  out  of  the  cattle  wagons.  On  the  seventh  day  the  train 
stopped  completely  because  there  was  no  more  rail  connection. 
The  transportation  system  had  been  bombed  into  total  collapse. 

Now  the  “SS”  guards  ordered  everyone  out  of  the  wagons  to  line 
up  and  be  counted.  Only  2,000  out  of  the  8,000  had  survived. 

Under  heavy  “SS”  guard,  we  were  forced  to  start  marching  once 
again  on  a narrow  road  towarxis  a forest.  Two  thousand  living 
skeletons  marched,  not  knowing  their  destination.  Anyone  who 


96 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


the  letter  “K”:  Kohn,  Kleiner,  Konsens  and  Krakowski,  so  we 
were  all  tatooed  with  numbers  in  sequence  on  our  arms.  Three 
of  us  survived  to  the  end  of  the  war.  Kohn  in  the  United  States,  Klein 
in  Canada,  Krakowski  in  Israel.  Unfortunately,  Konsens  didn’t 
make  it.  He  gave  up.  I tried  to  encourage  him  as  much  as  I could, 
but  only  a few  months  before  the  end  of  the  war,  he  was  killed 
by  the  SS. 

Later  I was  in  Birkenau -Auschwitz,  where  I was  put  on  the  detail 
of  digging  ditches  with  a group  of  about  20  people.  During  our 
lunch  time,  dining  on  watery  soup,  we  talked  with  people  from 
different  places.  Somebody  asked  me  where  I was  from,  and  I 
mentioned  Czenstochova.  A couple  of  men  got  up  and  told  me 
about  their  experience  in  Czenstochova,  and  how,  when  they  were 
passing  by  in  a train,  a young  fellow  with  a red  armband  from 
Rawo,  gave  them  water.  When  I heard  that,  I jumped  and  took  up 
the  story  where  they  left  off.  That  was  a most  unusual  reunion. 

From  that  moment  until  today,  I can  still  hear  the  crying  and 
screaming  from  that  boxcar.  When  the  train  started  moving,  I 
heard  their  cries:  “Don’t  forget  us!  Avenge  our  souls!  Say  Kaddish 
for  our  families!’’ 


Loading  the  cattle  cars. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


95 


through  the  small  open  window.  I ran  back  a few  times  to  refill 
the  watercans,  giving  the  water  mostly  to  the  women  with 
children.  I told  them,  “I  don’t  want  anything  because  I am  a Jew 
myself.”  They  started  asking  me:  “Where  are  we  going?”,  “What 
are  they  going  to  do  to  us?”  I knew  that  these  transports  were 
going  to  Treblinka  - a death  camp  — but  seeing  those  helpless 
mothers  with  children,  I did  not  have  the  heart  to  tell  them. 

When  I moved  on  to  the  next  wagon,  which  was  full  of  young  men, 

I told  them  the  truth  and  told  them  they  had  nothing  to  lose  by 
breaking  out  while  the  train  was  moving.  Each  time,  I was  run- 
ning with  the  water,  I was  constantly  chased  and  threatened  by 
the  S.S.  guards,  who  were  pointing  their  rifles  at  me.  When  the 
train  started  moving,  I heard  screaming  voices:  “Don’t  forget  us! 
Avenge  our  souls!  Say  Kaddish  for  our  families!” 

Finally,  I was  chased  back  to  work,  and  in  the  evening  we  were 
escorted  back  to  the  ghetto.  The  next  day  when  I got  back  to  work, 
I had  a chance  to  speak  to  some  Polish  people  who  worked  near- 
by on  the  railroad  and  who  lived  in  the  area.  They  told  me  that 
the  night  before  there  had  been  a lot  of  shooting  and  some 
prisoners  had  escaped  from  moving  trains.  The  Germans  were 
checking  out  the  entire  area,  I was  told. 

I worked  there  a few  days.  After  being  transferred  to  work  in  many 
different  places,  I found  a way  to  return  to  the  ghetto.  But  several 
months  later,  I was  caught  and  sent  to  the  concentration  camp 
at  Blizin,  which  was  a terrible  camp  for  hard  labor  and  execu- 
tions by  the  stonefaced  S.S.  Sturmfiihrer  Nell.  There  I met  my 
buddy  from  back  home,  Harszel  Kleiner  (now  Harry  Klein  of 
Montreal,  Canada).  We  went  through  a living  hell. 

I happened  to  have  a good  working  position  in  a warehouse;  we 
were  able  to  help  each  other.  First,  Harszel  got  infected  with 
typhus  fever,  and  I was  able  to  bring  him  soup.  Then,  I was  sick 

with  typhus  and  Harszel  was  there  helping  me. 

Then  we  were  shipped  in  cattle  cars  to  Birkenau -Auschwitz.  We 
arrived  at  night  and  were  waiting  by  the  gas  chambers  and  cre- 
matoriums until  daylight.  The  SS  men  in  charge  were  sleeping 
after  a drinking  party.  While  we  were  waiting,  my  buddy,  Harszel, 
found  out  that  his  sister-in-law  was  working  in  the  “Sonderco- 
mando’  ’ behind  the  electric  fence.  They  exchanged  words  through 
the  fence  in  the  dark.  In  the  morning,  the  SS  Stormfiihrers 
arrived  and  the  selection  started  “to  left  to  right”.  By  some 
miracle,  we  were  spared.  While  waiting,  we  could  see  the  flames 
from  the  crematoriums  reaching  up  to  the  sky,  and  could  smell  the 

stench  of  human  flesh. 

By  then  we  had  met  two  other  friends  and  the  four  of  us  kept 
together.  By  a coincidence,  all  four  of  our  last  names  started  with 


94 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Samuel  Kohn  Tells  His  Story 

By  Samuel  (Szmulek)  Kohn 

SAMUEL  (SZMULEK)  KOHN  was  born  in  Czestochowa,  son  of  Jacob  and  Sara 
Genieslaw. 

Both  parents  and  two  sisters,  Renia  and  Rachel  (and  her  two-yeai'-old  daughter 
Marylka),  perished  in  the  Holocaust  in  Treblinka. 

Sam  was  confined  in  several  ghettos  and  later  deported  to  the  concenti'amp  camp, 
Blizin.  From  there,  he  was  taken  to  numerous  different  camps  and  then  to 
Auschwitz.  He  was  finally  liberated  by  the  American  Army  in  Seshaupt,  near 
Munich,  Germany,  on  May  5,  1945.  He  came  to  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  in  April 
of  1951. 

In  1953,  Sam  met  Celina  Markowicz,  who  had  been  born  in  Boleslawiec,  Poland, 
near  Czestochowa.  She  survived  the  war  by  passing  as  a Catholic  child  on  a farm 
with  a Polish  family.  Sam  and  Celina  were  married  in  June,  1953.  The  Kohns  have 
two  children:  Jeff,  who  owns  the  Jeff  Martin  Fitness  Studio  in  New  York  City,  and 
Sharon  Jacobs,  who  is  at  Temple  University  School  of  Medicine  and  the  Director 
of  HSC  Project  Management  in  Philadelphia.  Her  husband,  David,  is  a vice  presi- 
dent at  Citicorp.  They  have  a daughter,  Jennifer  Laura. 


In  October  of  1942,  after  the  “selection”  by  the  German  S.S. 
murderer,  Degenhart,  I was  taken  away  from  my  family  and 
wound  up  in  the  “small  ghetto”. 

There  is  one  incident  that  will  stand  out  in  my  mind  forever.  Along 
with  a couple  of  other  fellows,  I was  picked  to  go  to  work  outside 
the  ghetto  and  sent  to  a German  company  by  the  name  of  “Rawo”. 
(As  I later  found  out,  this  company  was  organized  by  very  rich 
German  Nazis,  so  that  they  and  their  families  would  not  have  to 
go  to  the  Russian  front.)  Our  job  was  to  load  and  unload  trains 
with  rags  and  metal  scraps.  We  were  supplied  with  special  red 
armbands  that  had  German  writing  and  the  logo  “Rawo”  on  them. 

While  we  were  working,  a train  came  by  and  stopped  for  a coal 
refill.  I heard  loud  noises  and  crying  children,  and  when  I got 
closer,  I saw  women  and  children  packed  in  cattle  trains  calling 
out  for  water.  When  they  noticed  me,  they  screamed  out  that  they 
had  gold  money  for  water,  not  knowing  that  I was  also  a Jew.  (I 
was  blond  and  wearing  that  German  armband.)  I managed  to  fill 
two  cans  of  water,  ran  to  the  railroad  cars,  and  pushed  the  water 


93 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Le 


* 


■ 


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■■ 


Harry  Klein  was  among  the  first  typesetters  in  Yiddish  after  his 
liberation  from  the  Concentration  Camps  in  Munich,  Germany,  where 
he  became  co-worker  in  the  Jewish  newspaper  *'Unzer  Weg'’  a weekly 
publication,  which  started  on  October  12,  1945. 


2* 


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Administration,  editorial  staff  and  typesetters  of  ‘‘Unzer  Weg  in 
Munich,  September  1945. 

Editor  Lavy  Szalit:  ¥r  ; Typesetter  Harry  Klein:  M 


92 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  La 


Jewish  Weekly  - Munich  1945 


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i'n  bxi^’'  Dy 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


91 


I received  a fcx)d  parcel  for  the  week.  In  September  1945  we  moved 
to  our  new  apartment  in  Munich. 

We  now  wrote  to  our  brother  George  Klein  in  Montreal,  telling  him 
that  we  were  alive  in  Munich.  His  telegram  followed,  stating  that 
he  was  going  to  work  on  immigration  papers  immediately  to 
enable  us  to  come  to  Canada.  We  were  delighted  with  the  news. 
At  that  time,  Canada  was  still  closed  for  new  Jewish  immigrants 
and  we  had  to  wait  for  a long  time  to  get  our  papers. 

Our  only  goal  was  to  meet  our  brother  and  his  family.  During  the 
waiting  period,  each  of  us  got  married  in  Munich:  My  sister  Mania 
to  Chaskel  Konarsky,  my  sister  Madzia  to  Josel  Rosenberg  and 
I,  myself,  to  the  lovely  Chava  Borenstein. 

We  continued  to  exchange  letters  with  our  brother.  Finally  we 
were  informed  that  our  papers  were  ready.  We  arrived  in  Montreal 
in  1948  and  were  at  long  last  united  with  my  brother  George  and 
his  family. 

Soon  I became  very  active  in  the  Czenstochover  Society  of  Montreal. 
I had  the  responsibility  to  rebuild  my  life,  to  have  a family  and 
to  be  able  to  provide  for  them.  In  1951  I opened  my  own  printing 
company.  Eva  and  I had  three  daughters,  Marilyn,  Ruthie  and 
Janet,  all  of  whom  are  married  and  have  children. 

I will  always  remember  that  I am  a survivor  of  the  Holocaust.  Fbr 
over  40  years  I actively  reminded  others  never  to  forget  our 
“Kedoshim”  who  perished  in  the  Holocaust.  I always  remember 
the  vow  I took  on  the  day  of  my  liberation  from  the  concentration 
camp  in  Allach-Dachau.  With  the  publication  of  the  book 
“Czenstochov  - Our  Legacy”,  I can  truly  say  that  I have  fulfilled 
my  duty  as  a survivor  of  the  Holocaust. 


Barbed  wire  enclosed  the  HASAG  Concentration  Camp 


90 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


There  I met  some  people  from  Czenstochova  who  suggested  that 
I go  to  the  Jewish  Community  Service  Centre  on  Mehl  Street 
where  there  were  listings  of  people  who  had  survived  and  were 
in  the  area.  Unfortunately,  these  hstings  were  not  helpful  to  me. 
I remained  in  Munich  two  days  longer  and  was  fortunate  to  meet 
two  girls  from  my  hometown  who  told  me  that  the  last  time  they 
had  seen  my  sisters  was  a few  days  before  the  liberation  from 
Hasag  in  Czenstochova.  I was  disappointed  but  determined  not 
to  give  up.  On  my  return  to  Feldmoching,  I learned  from  a girl 
I met  on  the  train  that  she  knew  my  sisters  were  living  in  Buchloe. 
Several  days  later  I was  on  my  way  to  Buchloe.  I waited  along  the 
highway  in  search  of  a ride.  I was  picked  up  by  a military  truck, 
but  after  a two-hour  ride  I was  told  to  get  off  and  was  left  in  the 
middle  of  nowhere.  Once  again  I found  myself  on  the  highway 
looking  for  a ride.  This  time  I was  picked  up  by  a military  truck, 
headed  in  the  direction  of  Buchloe.  I then  took  the  train  the 
remainder  of  the  way.  As  I walked  through  the  streets  of  Buchloe, 
I spotted  a few  girls  whom  I asked  if  they  knew  of  my  sisters 
Mania  and  Madzia.  They  shouted  and  nodded  excitedly  and 
pointed  to  a house  down  the  road.  As  I ran  toward  the  house,  my 
sisters  came  running  toward  me.  We  fell  into  each  others  arms 
kissing,  yelling,  laughing  and  crying.  It  was  an  incredible 
moment. 

My  sisters  were  unaware  that  I had  survived  the  concentration 
camps.  I remained  with  them  for  two  weeks.  They  told  me  that 
the  last  days  before  the  liberation,  many  people  from  Hasag  were 
loaded  onto  trucks  and  deported  to  another  concentration  camp 
in  Ravensbruck,  Germany.  They  also  told  me  that  they  had  run 
away  and  had  been  in  hiding  on  a farm,  not  knowing  that  the  war 
was  over. 

We  decided  that  I would  return  to  Feldmoching,  to  find  a place 
for  us  to  stay.  They  would  join  me  later.  When  I arrived  in  Feld- 
mochtng,  I discovered  a note  from  John  informing  me  that  he  was 
returning  to  Czechoslovakia  and  that,  maybe,  we  would  meet 
again  one  day. 

I was  now  on  my  own,  with  a great  responsibility  to  my  sisters. 
Our  reunion  caused  me  to  change  my  outlook  to  a more  positive 
one.  I was  now  the  one  who  had  to  care  for  the  three  of  us  and 
see  to  it  that  we  be  reunited  with  our  brother  George  who  was 
living  in  Montreal,  Canada,  since  before  the  war. 

At  the  Rental  and  Housing  Office  in  Munich,  I met  a lady  who 
offered  me  two  rooms  in  her  apartment  on  Maximilian  Strasse. 
With  a place  to  live  in  Munich,  I registered  our  names  with  the 
Jewish  Community  office  for  food  rations.  There  I came  upon  a 
notice  looking  for  Yiddish  typesetters  for  the  weekly  newspaper 
“Unzer  Weg”.  I applied  and  was  accepted  for  the  job  as  typesetter. 


CZENSTQCHOV  - Our  Lee&cy 


89 


(military  police)  passed  by,  one  of  whom  stopped  us  and  asked 
where  we  were  going.  John  replied  in  English  that  we  were 
heading  to  the  nearest  village.  He  then  pointed  at  me,  explaining 
that  it  was  impossible  for  me  to  walk.  At  first  there  was  silence. 
Then  we  were  invited  into  the  jeep.  We  stopped  at  the  first  military 
}X)st  where  several  American  soldiers  came  over  to  us.  One  of  them 
picked  me  up  onto  his  shoulder  and  asked  another  soldier  to  take 
a photograph. 

The  two  M.P.s  returned  to  the  jeep  with  a sack  of  canned  food. 
It  seemed  that  they  had  orders  to  take  us  to  Feldmoching.  The  jeep 
arrived  at  the  house  of  a middle-aged  woman  who  timidly,  but 
politely,  introduced  herself  as  Frau  Bauer.  The  American  soldier 
told  her  that  I was  very  weak  and  asked  if  she  would  allow  me 
to  remain  in  her  house  for  a few  weeks  until  I was  strong  enough 
to  leave.  The  American  instructed  her  not  to  feed  me  with  the 
canned  food.  He  told  her  to  give  me  small  portions  of  cooked  rice 
with  milk  and  to  increase  these  portions  gradually.  After  the 
Americans  thanked  her  and  left,  John  stayed  on  for  a while  longer. 
He  later  left  to  look  for  a place  to  stay  and  he  promised  me  that 
he  would  be  back  in  a few  days. 

As  I looked  around  the  room,  I wondered  if  this  was  real  or  merely 
a dream.  There  was  a clean  bed  with  pillows,  a clean  towel  and 
soap.  After  I had  washed  myself,  Frau  Bauer  gave  me  a small  bowl 
of  rice  and  milk  and  told  me  to  eat  slowly.  Feeling  very  tired,  I 
went  to  bed.  I cried  myself  to  sleep.  The  next  morning,  Frau  Bauer 
told  me  she  had  heard  me  cry  in  my  sleep. 

I stayed  at  Frau  Bauer’s  house  for  over  four  weeks.  I had  been 
quite  fortunate,  as  I later  learned,  for  many  of  those  who  had  sur- 
vived the  camps  later  died  because  of  the  large  quantities  of  rich 
food  they  consumed,  which  made  them  ill.  John  came  to  see  me 
and  invited  me  to  stay  with  him,  once  I was  feeling  stronger. 

Gazing  at  the  tatooed  number  on  my  left  arm  which  was  part  of 
my  nightmare,  it  was  hard  for  me  to  believe  that  I was  now  a free 
man.  I had  to  try  not  to  think  at  all.  I isolated  myself.  I did  not 
want  to  leave  the  security  of  my  newly-found  home.  One  morn- 
ing, Frau  Bauer  suggested  that  I go  outside  for  some  fresh  air. 
I refused  to  comply  which  caused  her  to  say  angrily  that  I was 
not  the  only  one  who  had  suffered.  She  herself  had  lost  her  hus- 
band and  son  in  this  war.  I ignored  her.  I told  her  that  I would  be 
moving  to  my  friend’s  house  in  a week.  Leaving,  I thanked  Frau 
Bauer  for  all  she  had  done  for  me. 

In  Feldmoching,  I met  two  survivors  who  advised  me  to  go  to  the 
“UNRRA”  office,  located  in  Munich,  to  obtain  identification  cards 
which  would  then  enable  me  to  register  with  the  City  HaU  in  Feld- 
moching. I went  to  Munich  on  a Sunday  morning  in  July  1945. 


88 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


MY  MEMOIRS  - continued 

Destined  to  Survive 

I do  not  know  how  long  I stood  at  the  gates  of  “Liberation”  on 
May  5,  1945,  at  the  Allach-Dachau  Concentration  Camp.  At  80 
pounds,  I was  a living  skeleton  contemplating  the  tatooed  number 
on  my  left  arm,  an  everlasting  reminder  of  the  Birkenau- Ausch- 
witz death  camp. 

Tears  ran  down  my  face.  These  were  neither  tears  of  joy  nor  pity, 
but  were  tears  of  anger  at  the  world.  . . What  was  I to  do  now?.  . . 
I thought  about  my  family  . . . did  anyone  survive?  I cried  out  and 
made  a vow  that  as  long  as  I would  live,  I would  always  remember 
those  who  perished  in  the  death  factories  and  gas  chambers,  for 
the  “crime”  of  being  Jews.  It  occurred  to  me  that  my  destiny 
was  to  survive  and  speak  about  all  I had  experienced  and  make 
the  world  listen. 

My  thoughts  were  suddenly  interrupted  by  a military  guard  who 
told  me  to  go  back  to  the  barrack.  I went  back  inside  and  looked 
for  a place  on  the  floor.  I was  tired  and  fell  asleep.  The  shrill  sound 
of  the  sirens  woke  me  and  voices  over  the  loud  speaker  announced 
that  the  very  weak  would  be  taken  by  ambulance  to  receive  medi- 
cal care.  I was  afraid  and  wanted  to  be  left  alone.  Surely  I would 
not  seek  any  medical  help. 

Near  me  on  the  floor  lay  a man  who  informed  me  that  the  Germans 
had  gone  and  that  we  were  free  to  go  anywhere  we  wanted.  He 
asked  if  I would  accompany  him  to  the  nearest  village.  He  was 
familiar  with  the  region.  About  3 kilometers  from  the  camp  was 
a place  called  Feldmoching. 

Early  the  next  morning,  we  left  the  camp  through  an  opening  in 
a broken  wire  fence,  an  exit  used  by  many.  As  we  walked,  he  in- 
troduced himself  as  John  from  Prague,  Czechoslovakia.  He  had 
been  arrested  by  the  Gestapo  and  sent  to  work  on  a farm  near 
Munich,  Germany.  He  was  a strong  man  who  spoke  several 
languages,  including  English. 

As  we  walked  along  the  road,  we  saw  military  people  on  trucks 
marked  “U.S.  Army”  in  bold  letters.  Several  Jeeps  marked  “M.P.” 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


87 


MY  HOME  TOWN  ...  I WILL  NEVER  FORGET  YOU 

Destroyed  is  my  Home-Town 
the  one  I do  lemember, 
and  wiped-out  is  my  family 
with  all  of  its  splendor. 

Deep  in  my  thoughts 

of  the  past  so  fruitful, 

when  I was  together  with  my  parents 

I saw  everything  so  rosy  and  beautiful. 

As  I am  now  dreaming  of  the 
once  upon  a time, 
oh ! how  I do  miss  you 
each  time  and  all  the  time. 

And  you  my  dear  mother 
I remember  you  — lovable  and  bright, 
always  with  a smile  — when 
she  kissed  and  hugged  me  so  tight. 

And  my  father  my  idol 

who  seemed  always  in  learning  to  be, 

has  never  failed  to  show 

his  care  and  love  for  me. 

Now  is  my  heart  so  bleeding 
and  bitter  with  pain, 
because  destroyed  is  my  past  — and 
it  will  never,  never  more  be  the  same. 

But  in  my  memory  my  home  town 

you  will  always  stay  with  me, 

the  way  I have  known  you 

so  beautiful  and  great  I wanted  you  to  be. 

And  in  my  heart 

you  will  remain  forever  more, 

and  I will  see  you  always 

no  other  — but  the  way  as  before. 


by  HARRY  KLEIN 
Nov.  11/84 


86 


Auschwitz  Railway  Gate 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


85 


of  that  year  I was  again  put  on  a cattle  train  and  sent  to  Sachsen- 
hausen/Oranienburg.  The  Germans  did  not  really  know  any  more 
what  to  do  with  us.  It  became  obvious  that  their  war  machine  was 
disintegrating  fast. 

By  April  1945  I found  myself  in  Dachau— Allach.  A few  days  later 
I was  again  commanded  to  march,  but  I was  no  longer  able  to  con- 
tinue and  remained  in  Allach,  where  I was  liberated  by  American 
soldiers  on  May  5,  1945. 

I have  lived  through  Auschwitz  and  I have  survived  several  other 
camps  in  which  tens  of  thousands  have  died.  My  story  is  a small 
episode  in  the  huge  mosaic  of  torture  and  destruction  which  may 
never  be  complete,  in  spite  of  a large  body  of  documentation  and 
literature  in  many  languages. 

The  Jewish  people  of  the  world  still  suffer  a sense  of  bereavement 
from  the  losses  inflicted  on  them  fifty  years  ago  in  Europe  - losses 
of  life,  of  learning,  losses  of  old  books  and  old  synagogues.  The 
damage  of  our  cultural  property  and  to  “Yiddishkeit”  is  irrepar- 
able. 

Does  it  not  teach  us  to  fight  the  growing  acceptance  of  violence, 
aggression  and  nationalistic  hatred  that  seems  to  be  Sweeping  the 
world?  If  we  are  the  “chosen  people”,  let  us  not  only  be  chosen 
to  suffer,  but  also  chosen  to  teach  righteousness  and  tolerance. 


...  and  these  are  the  remains. 

Heaps  of  shoeSy  a tragic  memorial  to  the  millions. 


84 


nTir.NSTOCHOV  - Out  Legacy 


We  were  informed  that  we  would  stay  in  Birkenau  as  a work  force. 
First  we  were  quarantined  for  a period  of  time  in  sjiecial  barracks. 
Immediately  on  entering  the  barrack  I handed  my  parcel  to  the 
block  Capo.  He  closed  his  door.  Rachela  told  me  later  that  she  sent 
him  six  shirts,  ten  pieces  of  soap,  two  gold  watches,  five  gold  coins 

and  some  rings. 

The  trick  worked.  The  block  Cajx)  let  me  know  that  after  the 
tattooing  I should  come  to  see  him  in  his  room.  After  the  quaran- 
tine period  I should  not  report  for  work.  He  will  send  me  to  work 
with  a special  small  group.  He  was  sure  my  sister-in-law  would 

try  to  see  me  again. 

The  next  day  we  were  ordered  to  take  a shower  and  to  have  our 
hair  cut.  We  got  the  camp  clothing  which  was  sprayed  with  chemi- 
cals. Back  at  the  barracks  we  were  tattooed  on  our  left  arm. 

When  the  letter  “K”  was  called,  the  three  of  us  - Klein,  Kohn, 
Krakowski  - stood  together  once  again.  But  when  we  were  asked 
to  volunteer  for  work  according  to  our  trade,  Sam  Kohn  and 
Yitzchak  Krakowski  were  separated  from  me.  I was  transferred 
to  Birkenau  Lager  “D”,  Block  22. 

I was  isolated  and  so  lost  contact  with  Rachela.  My  work  was 
not  specific.  Each  day  I was  assigned  to  a different  group.  Loneli- 
ness and  depression  overcame  me  and  while  I was  physically  still 
strong,  I felt  mentally  near  despair.  Working  in  the  shadow  of  the 
gas  chambers  and  crematoria,  breathing  the  stench  of  human 
flesh  daily,  I felt  trapped,  despondent,  hopeless. 

I was  at  one  of  the  nerve  centres  of  Hitler’s  “final  solution’’,  at 
a place  which  revealed  a dimension  of  human  nature  never  before 
observed  in  modern  history.  It  was  the  systematic  perversion  of 

humanity. 

As  one  who  witnessed  it  all  but  was  unable  to  understand  it  fully, 
I grew  bitter  about  those  misguided  individuals  who  pronounce 
today,  that  all  of  this  never  happened.  They  lie  in  the  face  of  wit- 
nesses like  myself,  against  the  evidence  of  photos,  films  and  docu- 
ments, against  evidence  supplied  by  the  perpetrators  themselves. 
I take  it  as  a personal  insult  to  hear  the  denial  of  what  European 
Jewry  went  through.  It  all  hapjiened  while  the  world  watched  pas- 
sively. The  world  even  watched  passively  when  it  heard  of  the 
desperate  suicidal  uprising  in  the  Warsaw  Ghetto  by  those 
martyrs  who  had  nothing  to  lose.  They  saved  Jewish  digmty  at 
the  cost  of  their  lives. 

In  the  beginning  of  1944,  when  the  defeat  of  the  Nazis  became 
increasingly  certain,  the  gas  ovens  of  Birkenau  worked  overtime. 
Thousands  of  Jews  were  sent  on  terrible  death  marches,  intended 
to  deny  them  liberation  by  the  advancing  allied  forces.  In  October 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


83 


MY  MEMOIRS  - continued 

Surviving  in  Auschwitx 

When  the  war  on  the  Eastern  Front  began  to  go  badly  for  the 
Germans,  Blizin  was  scheduled  to  be  closed  and  we  were  to  be 
evacuated.  Shmulek,  Yitzchak  and  myself  did  all  we  could  to  stay 
together  when  the  transport  order  came. 

I was  25  years  old  when  I arrived  at  the  Inferno  of  Auschwitz— 
Birkenau.  Ever  since,  I have  lived  with  memories  that  a thousand 
years  could  not  erase.  The  sight  of  flames  from  the  crematorium 
ovens  in  the  night  sky  are  still  in  my  mind’s  eye  and  I can  still 
smell  the  stench  of  human  flesh.  A new  vocabulary  would  be 
needed  to  describe  the  pain  on  the  faces  of  the  victims  and  the 
viciousness  of  the  executioners  or  the  callous  ingenuity  of  the 
Nazi  planners. 

There  were  1800  of  us  who  arrived  from  Blizin.  We  were  first 
chased  by  Germans  with  police  dogs,  which  terrified  us.  After  half 
an  hour  we  came  to  a barbed  wire  fence  and  a large  gate  through 
which  we  entered  a huge  open  area.  There  was  yet  another  fence. 
The  German  guards  with  their  dogs  now  left  us  standing  there. 
Beyond  the  fence  we  faced  barracks  where  we  saw  women  going 
in  and  out. 

Dusk  was  falling  as  I stood,  occupied  with  my  thoughts  and 
anxieties.  Was  there  someone  calling  my  name  ? Yes,  again  I he^ 
my  name  called  and  the  voice  came  from  beyond  the  barbed  wire 
fence.  I could  no  longer  see  clearly  and  walked  a little  closer.  There 
I saw  my  sister-in-law,  my  brother  Yankel’s  wife.  Rachela!  I 
yelled.  The  last  time  I had  seen  Rachela  was  in  the  selection  from 
the  small  ghetto  in  Czenstochova. 

I learned  later  that  Rachela  had  arrived  at  Auschwitz  a year  earlier 
from  Sosnowice.  She  wanted  to  talk  and  talk.  As  it  got  darker  she 
handed  me  a parcel  across  the  fence  “Give  this  to  the 
‘Blockaeltesten  Capo’  ” she  told  me.  “It  will  make  your  life  a lit- 
tle bit  easier.’’  She  promised  to  give  me  a lot  of  help  and  to  keep 
in  touch  with  me. 

Rachela  was  in  the  women’s  quarter,  called  Lager  “C’’,  working 
with  an  ehte  group  named  “Canada’’.  Their  job  was  to  sort  out 

the  belongings  of  those  who  had  been  gassed. 


82 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leg&oy 


When  I arrived  at  Blizin  it  was  lucky  for  me  to  meet  Wowek 
Brokman.  Brokman  was  born  in  Czenstochova.  As  an  electrician 
by  trade  he  was  sent  to  Blizin  in  advance  to  help  build  the  camp. 
He  became  foreman  of  the  electricians  and  therefore  he  could  help 
me  register  at  the  camp  office  and  join  his  group  as  an  assistant 
electrician. 

Thanks  to  his  initiative  I could  avoid  really  hard  physical  labour. 
Other  Czenstochovers,  who  were  privileged  to  work  as  tradesmen. 
In  our  group  of  electricians  were  Harshel  Konsens,  Yitzchak 
Krakowski,  Pinia  Mager  and  Leon  Werkzeig  from  Radom. 

I shared  all  my  good  news  with  Sam  (Szmulek)  Kohn.  He  and 
Yitzchak  Krakowski  became  my  very  close  friends  in  Blizin.  We 
took  care  of  each  other  — “Achim  TTzoro”  — and  our  being  like 
brothers  gave  us  the  strength  and  willpower  to  live  for  the  day 
of  our  liberation.  But  freedom  was  still  only  a dream. 

The  Purim  Exchange  to  Palestine 

In  February  1943,  rumours  circulated  that  those  who  had  families 
in  Palestine  could  be  exchanged  for  German  prisoners  now  in 
English  captivity.  There  was  a ray  of  hope  as  the  possibility  of 
Nazi  defeat  came  to  mind  for  the  first  time.  Registration  of  those 
who  had  relatives  in  Palestine  began  at  once.  Members  of  the 
Jewish  Resistance  Movement  felt  skeptical  since  they  could  not 
believe  that  the  Nazis  would  allow  witnesses  to  live  who  could  tell 
the  world  of  the  mass  killings  of  Jews.  However,  the  registration 
continued  until  the  list  was  complete. 

One  day  before  Purim,  Commander  Degenhart  came  into  the 
ghetto,  inspected  a few  of  the  places,  then  went  to  the  office  of 
the  Judenrat.  He  declared  that  the  exchange  could  take  place,  sug- 
gesting that  members  of  the  Judenrat,  as  well  as  the  intelligent- 
sia and  their  families,  be  the  first  to  go.  On  the  following  day, 
Purim,  everyone  in  the  ghetto  went  to  work  as  usual,  except  those 
selected  to  be  exchanged.  They  were  all  assembled  on  the  Market 
Square.  Degenhart  told  them  to  walk  in  the  direction  of  “Novy 
Rinek”,  the  New  Market.  As  they  walked  along  Warszawska 
Street,  everything  appeared  to  be  calm.  However,  when  they  ap- 
proached No.  9 Warszawska,  they  were  suddenly  surrounded  by 
German  police  and  forced  into  police  trucks.  They  then  headed 
in  the  direction  of  the  Jewish  cemetery,  not  the  train  station  as 
they  had  been  promised.  They  were  now  trapped  without  any 
chance  of  resistance.  In  despair,  some  struggled  with  police,  some 
jumped  from  the  moving  trucks,  some  committed  suicide  by 
swallowing  cyankali  tablets.  Most  of  the  victims  were  killed  at  the 
cemetery.  On  that  tragic  day,  157  of  the  Jewish  intelligentsia  were 
murdered  in  cold  blood  by  the  Nazis. 

How  can  we  foi^ve  or  forget?  That  Purim  day,  March  2,  1943, 
will  be  remembered  in  the  history  of  Czenstochova,  as  “Bloody 
Purim”. 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Legacy 


81 


well  as  transferees  from  other  camps.  My  friends  Hershel 
Konsens  and  Vovek  Brookman  both  perished.  Yitzchak 
Krakowski  now  lives  in  Israel.  Sam  Kohn  lives  in  Fairlawn,  New 
Jersey. 

The  daily  routines  were  often  interrupted  by  incidents  that  filled 
our  hearts  with  terror.  One  day  at  noon,  we  could  see  the  Jewish 
Camp  Police  and  the  Ukrainian  guards  running  in  the  direction 
of  a group  of  workers  at  the  camp  gates.  An  alarm  sounded  and 
everyone  had  to  line  up  outside  their  barracks  to  be  counted.  We 
learned  that  six  inmates  from  the  Czenstochover  section  had 
escaped  and  could  not  be  found.  Their  names  were  called  out  over 
and  over  again  as  we  stood  for  more  than  two  hours  at  the 
‘ Appell”.  A high-ranking  Nazi  officer,  named  Betcher,  came  for- 
ward and  issued  an  order  that,  due  to  the  escape  of  the  six 
prisoners,  another  six  were  to  be  executed.  Szlamek  Minzberg 
called  out  the  names  of  four  men  who  were  sick,  as  well  as  two 
brothers,  who  all  stepped  forward.  The  six  condemned  men  were 
immediately  surrounded  by  Ukrainian  executioners  and,  together 
with  three  inmates  of  the  camp  carrying  shovels,  taken  away.  One 
witness  to  the  execution  later  told  me  of  the  torture  that  the  six 
martyrs  had  undergone.  They  had  been  ordered  to  dig  their  own 
graves  and,  when  they  refused,  they  were  again  brutally  beaten 
with  rifles.  Their  bloodied  bodies,  lying  on  the  ground,  were  finally 
shot.  The  Ukrainians  ordered  the  three  men  with  shovels  to  dig 
the  graves.  The  entire  incident  left  an  indelible  mark  on  us  all. 

After  that  day,  the  barracks  were  guarded  both  day  and  night.  To 
deter  any  further  such  escapes,  we  were  told  that  each  man  was 
responsible  for  the  person  to  his  left  and  to  his  right.  Should 
anyone  escape,  then  the  two  men  to  his  sides  were  to  be  executed. 

Two  days  later,  as  I worked  with  some  electricians  repairing  the 
lights  in  the  guardhouse,  we  again  heard  loud  voices.  Looking  out- 
side, I could  see  two  men  lying  on  the  ground  being  beaten  by 
rifles.  Nell,  the  camp  commander,  then  came  out  ordering  the 
beatings  to  stop.  We  could  now  see  Arye  Mandelbaum  and  Lemel, 

two  of  the  group  who  had  escaped  earlier  that  week.  Szlamek 
Minzberg,  the  head  of  the  Jewish  Police,  was  ordered  to  take  the 
two  men  to  the  kitchen  for  a meal  and  to  be  questioned.  The  two 
talked  about  their  escape  and  their  eventual  recapture.  They  had 
headed  for  the  forest  and  then  to  the  highway,  looking  for  food. 
They  were  attacked  by  several  Poles  and  then  dragged  back  into 
the  forest,  where  they  were  robbed  and  stripped  of  their  clothing. 
They  were  later  taken  to  a farm  house  and  kept  prisoner  until  the 
Pblish  police  arrived  and  they  were  returned  to  the  camp.  The  two 
i70f used  to  give  any  information  as  to  the  whereabouts  of  the  other 
four,  who  were  still  missing.  They  were  tortured  and,  after  many 
hours  of  brutal  investigation,  they  were  taken  away  and  shot. 


80 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


We  continued  marching  and  upon  our  arrival  at  the  train  station, 
we  were  pushed  inside  cattle  cars  and  locked  up.  Two  hours  later, 
the  doors  opened  and  again,  we  were  ordered  to  march  to  the 
police  station  on  Pilsudskiego  Street,  where  we  stayed  until  the 
next  day.  Again  we  were  ordered  to  the  train  station  and  into  the 
cattle  cars,  about  120  people  to  a car.  At  Blizin,  a forced-labour 
concentration  camp,  we  were  met  by  guards  who  beat  us  while 
we  were  leaving  the  cars. 

In  the  Forced-Labour  Camp,  Blizin 

We  marched  a long  distance  to  the  site  of  the  concentration  camp. 
The  gates  were  guarded  by  Polish  police  and  Ukrainian  guards. 
We  were  ordered  to  stop  and  remove  our  hats.  A high-ranking  Ger- 
man officer  was  informed  that  we  were  a transport  of  several  hun- 
dred Jewish  inmates.  We  were  given  instructions  that  we  would 
each  be  registered  and  would  each  receive  a numbered  metal  plate 
that  must  be  worn  around  our  necks  at  all  times.  All  our  posses- 
sions had  to  be  turned  in,  and  anyone  discovered  with  more  than 
five  German  marks  would  immediately  be  shot. 

After  registration,  we  went  through  a second  gate  and  came  to 
an  area  that  was  separated  from  the  front  entrance  by  water.  We 
were  then  taken  to  wooden  barracks.  Tired  and  hungry,  I rested 
on  an  upper  bunk  bed.  I later  met  two  Russian  P.O.W.s  who  told 
me  that  over  4,000  had  died  of  forced  labour  and  starvation  in  this 
camp.  They  pointed  towards  a forest  and  called  it  “the  graveyard”. 
These  P.O.W.s  had  managed  to  stay  alive  because  they  were  elec- 
tricians, a valuable  occupation  to  the  Nazis.  I noticed  a huge  barrel 
at  the  entrance  to  the  barracks.  Looking  inside,  I found  black 
water  which  I later  learned  was  coffee.  I again  went  to  lie  down. 

On  the  bunks  nearby  were  my  friends  — Szmulek  Kohn,  Yitzchak 
Krakowski  and  Hershel  Konsens.  At  dawn  the  next  morning,  I 
was  awakened  by  loud  voices.  Many  of  the  prisoners  ran  to  the 
barrel  of  black  water  for  drinks  and  were  given  a portion  of  bread. 
The  “Kapos”,  block  police,  were  hitting  everyone  on  their  heads 
and  ordering  us  to  go  outside  the  barracks.  The  camp  commander 
was  given  a report  that  one  person  was  missing.  The  camp 
grounds  were  searched  as  all  the  inmates  stood  lined  up  until 
about  2 o’clock  that  afternoon.  Fbrtunately,  the  missing  person 
problem  was  solved  when  it  was  discovered  that  one  person  had 
registered  twice. 

The  same  day,  I was  given  a place  to  work  with  the  group  of 
electricians. 

Night  followed  day  in  endless  oppressive  progression.  In  addition 
to  people  from  Czenstochova,  the  inmates  of  Blizin  were  from  the 
towns  of  Ibmashev,  Skorzisk,  Piotrkov,  Plaszov  and  Radom,  as 


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79 


faces  were  covered  with  blood.  They  had  been  apprehended 
outside  the  ghetto  fence.  Later,  the  German  jxjlice  handed  the  two 
men  over  to  the  Ukrainian  guards  in  the  market  square.  They 
could  always  be  relied  upon  to  commit  the  most  evil  acts.  Shots 
rang  out.  Two  young  lives  were  snuffed  out.  It  was  just  one  of  the 
daily  occurrences. 

The  news  soon  spread  that  a selection  of  children  and  elderly 
people  had  taken  place  during  the  day  and  that  they  had  been  sent 
to  Treblinka  to  be  killed.  Panic  and  fear  rose  in  the  ghetto. 
Rumours  again  spread  that  another  round-up  would  take  place 
sometime  in  mid-March. 

Other  rumours  traveling  through  the  ghetto  were  that  the  police 
had  orders  to  arrest  18  people  to  be  sent  to  Blizin  to  build  a 
concentration  camp. 

We  were  terrorized  almost  daily.  During  each  march  to  the  slave 
labour,  somebody  was  taken  out  and  thrown  into  the  “Yatke”  (jail). 

On  March  17th,  1943,  a friend  who  worked  at  the  “Varta”,  another 
work  group,  told  me  that  the  ghetto  police  were  planning  more 
arrests.  My  sister,  Madzia,  asked  me  not  to  go  to  work  as  arrests 
were  always  made  from  each  work  group.  Many  who  left  in  the 
morning  did  not  return  at  night,  but  were  sent  to  the  “yatke”,  the 
prison.  I was  afraid  to  remain  in  the  ghetto  and  went  to  work.  Two 
from  our  group  were  arrested.  When  we  arrived  at  our  place  of 
work,  “Schott”,  the  German  officer  on  duty,  noticed  that  two  car- 
penters were  missing.  After  hearing  that  these  two  men  had  been 
arrested,  he  angrily  ordered  me  and  another  man  to  report  to  the 
arrest  house  in  exchange  for  the  two  carpenters.  Now,  I found 
myself  among  the  people  who  were  going  to  be  deported. 

On  that  March  17th,  all  prisoners  were  assembled  in  the  market 
place  (Rineczek).  The  Nazi  Degenhart  told  us  not  to  worry  and 
that  we  were  going  to  work  in  the  shoe  factory  in  Blizin.  We  were 
then  herded  into  ranks  of  four  by  German  police,  armed  with 
rifles,  and  ordered  to  march  through  the  streets.  We  passed  some 
deserted  buildings  with  broken  windows  that,  at  one  time,  were 
shops  owned  by  Jewish  shopkeepers,  and  were  now  marked  with 
an  “X”,  after  being  plundered  and  destroyed  by  the  Nazis.  Sud- 
denly I heard  the  sound  of  a rifle  shot.  I was  pushed  by  a Ukrai- 
nian guard  holding  a rifle  and  we  were  ordered  to  “Sztajn  bleiben”, 
to  stop.  A few  had  run  away  from  the  marching  group  and  were 
hiding  in  the  empty  buildings.  Thinking  that  it  was  a good  idea, 
I also  started  running  in  the  direction  of  the  buildings,  but  was 
chased  by  a Ukrainian  guard  yelling,  “Kuda  Kuda”.  We  were  all 
captured  and  forced  back  to  our  group.  We  were  fortunate  that 
no  one  was  killed. 


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CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Legacy 


MY  MEMOIRS  - continued 

The  End  of  the  **Small  Ghetto** 

For  a while,  it  was  peaceful  in  the  ghetto,  until  the  last  random 
“selection”  and  killing  of  27  people  took  place  in  the  market 
square.  The  ghetto  was  no  longer  safe.  I decided  to  change  my 
work  place  to  outside  the  ghetto  walls.  I had  been  working  in  the 
technical  department  of  E.  Epstein.  My  sisters  Mania  and  Madzia, 
who  lived  together  in  the  small  ghetto  greeted  my  decision  as  good 
news.  I was  accepted  to  work  as  a window  glass  cutter  with  the 
renovation  group,  which  was  supervised  by  a German  officer 
named  Schott.  I had  very  little  work  to  do.  Most  of  the  work  was 
done  by  carpenters.  Nonetheless,  there  were  tense  moments,  par- 
ticularly when  the  ghetto  commander  Degenhart  arrived  “to 
inspect  each  building”. 

Our  fear  was  that  he  might  detect  the  hiding  place  of  the  children 
and  elderly  who  were  hidden  in  bunkers.  We  became  convinced 
that  he  suspected  this  and,  therefore,  came  for  these  frequent 
visits.  While  working  outside  the  ghetto,  people  always  worried 
about  the  lives  of  their  families.  They  worried  that  a selection  of 
elderly  people  might  take  place  during  the  day.  Degenhart  was 
determined  to  find  the  childrens’  hiding  places.  He  convened  the 
Jewish  ghetto  leaders  and  told  them  that  he  was  aware  that  some 
children  were  still  hiding  in  the  bunker  and  that  it  was  a crime 
to  torture  children.  He  declared,  most  seriously,  that  he  planned 
to  open  a daycare  for  children  up  to  the  age  of  14,  in  the  ghetto. 
They  would  be  cared  for  by  their  own  mothers.  The  mothers  would 
no  longer  go  to  work  outside  the  ghetto.  They  would  have  the 
opportunity  to  be  with  their  children  all  day.  Degenhart’s  plan  to 
open  a daycare  center  was  neither  believable  nor  comprehensible. 
However,  it  was  accepted  by  the  people  who  also  hoped  that  such 
concern  would  be  extended  to  the  elderly. 

The  ghetto  was  always  full  of  frightening  rumours;  terrible  things 
happened  every  day. 

Once,  as  I was  going  to  install  some  windows,  I witnessed  a 
horrible  scene.  The  ghetto  police  and  German  police,  together  with 
Degenhart,  were  brutally  beating  two  young  men.  The  youngsters’ 


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out  of  my  hiding  place,  looking  for  Yankel,  I was  told  he  had  been 
selected  for  deportation.  I had  no  more  tears  left.  Now  only  my 
two  sisters,  my  sister-in-law  Rachela  and  I were  left. 

How  can  words  describe  the  great  tragedy  brought  up)on  my 
innocent  family  by  a mere  few  gestures?  I had  witnessed  the 
death  sentence  pronounced  on  my  parents  and  on  my  two 
brothers.  How  can  one  possibly  describe  the  agonizing  silence  pre- 
ceding a selection  or  the  gut-wrenching  moment  when  Rachela 
had  to  give  up  her  one-year-old  baby  girl  to  a certain  death  ? 

From  “Metaliirgia”  to  the 
*‘Small  Ghetto” 

The  liquidation  of  the  Large  Ghetto  of  Czenstochova  was  completed 
on  October  4,  1942  when  the  last  batch  of  victims  was  sent  to  their 
death  in  the  gas  chambers  of  Treblinka.  The  world  did  not  seem 
to  care.  . . . Our  Polish  neighours  stood  by  and  watched. 

All  the  buildings  and  homes  were  now  vacant.  There  was  a 
horrible  emptiness,  an  air  of  fear.  The  few  thousand  Jews  who 
remained  as  slave  labourers  were  stripped  of  their  identity,  dignity 
and  humanity.  Eventually  they  were  sent  to  a smaller  ghetto  in 
the  poor  part  of  Czenstochova. 

The  “small  ghetto”  was  in  the  north-east  section  of  the  city.  The 
German  authorities  had  commandeered  a few  homes  on  Mostova 
Street,  Kozia,  half  of  Nadrzeczna,  half  of  Garncarska  and  a few 
homes  on  Spadek  Street.  This  ghetto  was  set  up  as  shelter  for  the 
survivors  from  the  Large  Ghetto,  who  were  chosen  to  work  at  the 
weapons  factory,  called  HASAG  Pelcern  and  in  other  forced  labour 
groups. 

The  ghetto  was  surrounded  with  barbed  wire.  Armed  sentries 
were  posted  at  the  gates.  We  went  to  our  usual  work  places  every 
day,  returning  at  night  to  sleep  in  the  overcrowded  rooms.  There 
was  no  privacy,  nor  were  there  kitchen  facilities.  Only  inmates 
who  were  registered  at  their  work  places  were  entitled  to  meals 
when  they  returned  from  work.  A special  kitchen  was  set  up  on 
Nadrzeczna  Street.  The  daily  rations  consisted  of  half  a kilogram 
of  bread,  half  a litre  of  coffee  and  half  a litre  of  soup  for  dinner. 
At  six  o’clock  in  the  morning  we  had  to  report  to  our  assigned 
group  to  leave  the  ghetto  for  work.  Each  time  — leaving  and 
returning  — we  were  counted  and  searched. 

In  spite  of  being  treated  like  vermin,  the  inhabitants  of  the  ghetto 
established  a Jewish  Resistance  Organization.  When  the  German 
authorities  became  aware  of  its  existence,  they  entered  the  ghetto 
periodically  trying  to  track  it  down. 


76 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


MY  MEMOIRS  - continued 

Tragedy  Strikes  My  Family 

Degenhart  stood  at  the  new  market  place  holding  a thin  stick  in 
his  white-gloved  hand.  As  the  frightened  crowd  of  Jewish  men  and 
women  was  paraded  before  him,  he  pointed  his  stick  left  and  right, 
separating  those  he  selected  for  deportation  from  the  ones  he  con- 
sidered fit  for  work.  Fbr  those  sent  to  the  left,  cattle  cars  were 
already  waiting  at  the  railway  station,  destined  for  the  Treblinka 
death  camp.  My  brother  Yankel,  who  had  married  Rachela  Hager- 
man  in  1940,  lived  with  his  wife  and  baby  daughter  on  Nadrze- 
czna  Stret.  My  parents,  my  siblings  and  I decided  to  go  to 

their  house  so  that  the  whole  family  could  go  to  the  “selection” 
together.  It  was  Monday,  September  28,  1942,  the  seventeenth  day 
of  Tishrei  and  the  first  day  of  Hoi  Homoed  Sukot.  We  clung 
to  each  other.  When  we  were  told  to  get  ready,  we  stood  in  line 
helpless  and  terrified.  Degenhart  had  assumed  the  power  to 
decide  who  should  live  and  who  should  die.  My  brother  Yankel  was 
the  first  to  pass.  Degenhart  glared  at  him  for  a few  agonizing 
moments  then  sent  him  to  the  right.  Yankel  could  go  to  the 
Metalurgia.  My  sister-in-law  Rachela  and  her  baby  daughter  were 
sent  to  the  left  which  meant  death.  But  Rachela  managed  to  get 
another  chance.  She  quickly  handed  the  child  to  my  mother  and 
slipped  back  into  the  line-up.  When  her  turn  came  again  she  was 
sent  to  the  right  - she  would  live.  My  parents  were  selected  for 
the  death  train.  Lastly  my  sisters  Mania  and  Madzia,  my  younger 
brother  Yechiel  and  myself  were  sent  to  the  right. 

We  cried  in  despair,  knowing  that  we  would  never  see  our  parents 
again,  that  they  were  condemned  to  death.  We  embraced  each 
other  to  gain  the  strength  to  walk  to  the  Metalurgia. 

As  we  entered  the  grounds,  my  brother  Yechiel  was  stopped  and 
asked  his  age.  He  was  not  allowed  to  pass.  Instead  he  was  trans- 
ferred to  a group  destined  for  deportation. 

After  some  hours  of  waiting,  announcements  came  through  on 
the  loudspeaker.  Another  selection  was  to  be  made.  We  had  to  be 
ready  for  registration  later  that  day.  I told  my  brother  Yankel  that 
I was  going  to  hide  until  this  registration  was  over.  When  I came 


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75 


vaded  the  ghetto  air.  Something  awful  was  going  to  happen.  The 
news  from  outside  was  ominous.  Lithuanian  and  Ukrainian 
guards  in  black  uniforms  were  seen  in  different  parts  of  the  city. 

The  Judenrat,  as  well  as  all  the  German  authorities,  tried  in  vain 
to  give  assurances  in  order  to  calm  the  ghetto  population.  The 
shocking  experience  of  that  night  is  still  vivid  in  my  memory.  In 
the  evening,  everybody  was  at  home  worrying  about  the  dark 
rumours.  Nobody  could  go  to  sleep.  It  was  a very  black  night.  The 
street  lights  were  off  and,  therefore,  it  was  impossible  to  distin- 
guish any  activity  in  the  streets.  Suddenly,  a few  minutes  past 
midnight,  all  the  street  lights  came  on.  There  was  a lot  of  noise 
and  confusion.  German  and  Ukrainian  guards,  in  full  combat 
gear,  shouted,  threatened  and  pointed  rifles.  The  Jewish  ghetto 
police,  running  in  every  direction,  added  to  the  confusion. 

At  5 A.M.,  the  shooting  began.  People  were  chased  and  herded 
into  small  frightened  groups.  Many  carried  small  bundles  of  per- 
sonal belongings.  Women  held  their  young  and  crying  children. 
The  guards  shouted  orders  in  rapid  succession:  “schnell  machen, 
schnell,  schnell!”  The  Jewish  police  came  to  every  house  on 
Degenhart’s  orders:  “Get  out,  leave  your  keys  in  the  door.  Anyone 
found  hiding  will  be  shot.” 

All  Jewish  lives  were  now  at  risk.  As  people  were  driven  from  their 
homes  and  hustled  through  the  streets,  they  were  sprayed  with 
automatic  rifle  fire,  unprovoked  and  upredictably.  Hundreds  were 
killed  or  left  dying  in  the  streets.  The  first  streets  emptied  in  this 
way  were  Kavia,  Koszarova,  Warsover  Market,  Warsover  Street  up 
to  Garibaldiego  and  Wilsona. 

That  day  — Yom  Kippur,  1942  — Degenhart  condemned  7,000 
Czenstochova  Jews  to  die  in  the  gas  chambers.  The  rest  were  sent 
to  the  “Metalurgia”,  a large  industrial  plant  converted  into  a 

labour  camp. 


Photo  taken  in  Czenstochova  in  1940,  during  the  occupation. 


Members  of  the  organisation 
^^AKIBA'\  sitting  from  the  left: 
Mendel  Berkowicz,  who  was  shot 
in  a bunker,  Mayer  Jakubowicz, 
who  died  in  Theresienstadt,  next 
to  him  is  Ruven  Dzialecki. 

Standing  from  the  left: 

Mendel  Berkowicz,  shot  in  a 
bunker  (a  cousin  of  the  same 
name),  Zysie  Schwartz,  Ilek 
Laks,  who  lives  in  Israel  and  a 
third  cousin,  also  named  Mendel 
Verkowicz  was  shot  in  the 
bunker  as  well. 


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CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


MY  MEMOIRS  - continued 

The  Liquidation  of  the  “Large  Ghetto” 

During  THE  YEAR  OF  1942  five  deportations  took  place.  Their  aim 
was  to  destroy  the  entire  Jewish  community  of  Czenstochova.  The 
first  occurred  on  September  22,  the  second  three  days  later,  the 
third  on  September  28,  followed  by  two  more,  on  October  1 and 
October  4. 

The  sadistic  commander  Degenhart  was  personally  in  charge  and 
responsible  for  all  of  them.  A Jewish  community  that  had  existed 
for  over  300  years  was  to  be  destroyed  with  ruthless  efficiency. 

One  day  in  June  1942,  Commander  Degenhart  issued  an  unusual 
order:  The  whole  ghetto  population,  between  the  ages  of  15  and 
50  was  to  be  assembled  with  their  working  cards,  to  check 
whether  everyone  was  correctly  registered  with  his  work  detail 
Over  20,000  people  came  to  this  “Appell”  (roll  call).  Nobody 
suspected  that  it  was,  in  fact,  a rehearsal  for  the  planned  destruc- 
tion of  the  Czenstochova  ghetto. 

The  Judenrat  was  charged  with  providing  a specific  number  of 
workers  daily  to  serve  the  German  authorities.  In  addition,  Jews 
were  rounded  up  in  the  streets  and  in  house-to-house  searches 
and  hauled  away  to  perform  all  kinds  of  work  around  the  city. 
Gradually,  the  terror  in  the  ghetto  intensified.  New  and  harsher 
laws  were  passed  every  day.  With  every  law,  fear  and  uncertainty 
increased  and  made  life  intolerable.  In  August  1942,  the  ghetto 
community  was  near  panic;  rumours  spread  that  a Deportation 
Commando  was  about  to  liquidate  the  large  ghetto  and  that  the 
Jews  of  Czenstochova  were  to  prepare  for  deportation. 

The  First  Selection  for  Deportation 
- Yom  Kippur  1942 

Yom  Kippur  morning,  September  21,  1942,  seemed  like  any 
morning  in  the  ghetto.  The  labour  commandos  left  for  their 
assigned  working  places.  The  dark  figures  of  elderly  Jews 
scurried  anxiously  through  the  deserted  streets,  hoping  not  to  be 
noticed.  They  wanted  to  reach  the  synagogue  unharmed,  where  they 
would  spend  their  hohest  day  in  prayer.  Uncertainty  and  fear  per- 


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On  a very  cold  Friday  in  January  1940,  the  Jewish  women  were 
particularly  intimidated.  Grerman  soldiers  attacked  Jewish  homes 
forcing  the  women,  often  half -naked,  out  of  their  beds  and  on  to 
the  streets.  My  mother  was  among  them.  They  were  marched  to 
the  New  Market  Place,  where  they  were  detained  for  hours  in 
freezing  cold  weather.  Some  were  eventually  sent  home,  while  the 
rest  were  driven  to  a school  on  Narutowicz  Street.  There,  they 
were  ordered  to  undress  completely.  After  being  subjected  to 
insults  and  ridicule  all  night  and  into  the  morning,  they  were 
permitted  to  return  home. 

April  9,  1941,  was  marked  by  an  official  public  notice  at  City  Hall, 
printed  on  red  paper.  It  was  signed  by  Dr.  Wendler:  “Let  it  be 
known,  that  as  of  April  9,  1941,  my  order  is  to  set  up  a closed  living 
section  for  all  the  Jewish  inhabitants  of  Czenstochova,  that  will 
include  the  streets  listed  below.  The  transfer  date  for  all  the  Jews 
to  the  assigned  streets  will  end  on  April  17.  Those  who  .will  not 
comply,  will  have  to  leave  the  City.  They  will  be  allowed  to  take 
with  them  25  kg  of  personal  belongings  per  head.  The  Polish  inha- 
bitants living  in  the  ghetto  section  must  leave  on  the  assigned 
date.’’ 

Was  this  the  beginning  of  the  end?  The  Jewish  people  of  Czen- 
stochova were  to  be  locked  up  in  a ghetto.  None  of  our  neighbours 
outside  the  ghetto  showed  concern.  They  did  not  bat  an  eyelid. 
It  was  a Jewish  problem.  What  would  happen  next?  We  were 
shocked,  depressed,  but  not  in  despair.  Hope  was  the  answer.  One 
carried  the  burden  and  waited  for  tomorrow.  Will  there  be  a 
tomorrow?  Hope  sustained  us. 

Jews  and  ^Aryans” 

Polish  police  guards  were  stationed  at  the  entrance  to  the  “Large 
Ghetto”  which  was  enclosed  by  barbed  wire.  The  non- Jewish 
neighbours  were  not  permitted  to  visit  or  to  carry  on  business 
inside  the  ghetto,  biit  they  were  allowed  to  pass  it  on  their  way 
to  the  city.  A sign  was  posted  in  every  corner  of  the  ghetto  which 
read:  Jews  Leaving  The  Ghetto  Without  Authorization  Will 
Be  Shot.  Non- Jews  Walking  Inside  The  Ghetto  For  The 
Purpose  Of  Buying  Or  Selling  Will  Be  Sent  To  Prison. 

The  ghettos  were  a revival  of  the  medieval  idea  of  confining  all 
Jews  to  small,  segregated  areas  of  the  cities.  For  the  Nazis, 

ghettos  provided  a convenient  source  of  slave  labor.  The  Jewish 
inmates  were  a helpless,  dehumanized  workforce  for  Grerman  fac- 
tories, installations  and  offices.  By  October  1940  about  350,000 
of  Poland’s  Jews  were  behind  the  barbed  wires  of  ghettos. 


72 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


I was  with  my  parents  and  the  rest  of  the  family  at  our  home  on 
Berka  Joselewicza.  There  were  hard  knocks  with  rifle  butts  on 
our  door.  We  heard  German  voices  shouting,  “All  men  over  the  age 
of  15,  Raus!  Raus!  Past  Schnell”  German  soldiers  chased  my 
father  and  me  into  the  street,  our  hands  held  high  over  our  heads. 

We  saw  many  of  our  fellow  citizens  in  the  same  position,  running 
in  the  same  direction  and  hundreds  of  others  lying  on  the  ground. 
We  kept  running  as  far  as  the  church  where  we  were  kept 
prisoners.  After  a few  hours,  my  father  was  released  and  sent 
home.  I was  forced  to  remain  in  the  church  overnight.  The  next 
morning,  a German  officer  came  to  the  church  and  selected  50 
people  to  follow  him.  I was  one  of  them.  Our  job  was  to  find  peo- 
ple, shot  dead  in  the  street  during  this  German  action,  and  to  load 
the  dead  bodies  on  a truck  for  burial.  When  this  horrible  job  was 
done,  I was  allowed  to  go  home.  But  the  wild  random  shooting  con- 
tinued. Homes  were  set  on  fire  with  the  people  trapped  in  them. 

Suddenly,  without  any  provocation,  Germans  opened  fire  with 
their  automatic  machine  guns.  Fix)m  then  on,  the  Germans  began 
to  attack  people  on  the  streets  and  in  their  homes.  People  were 
ordered  to  stand  with  their  hands  over  their  heads.  Many  were 
driven  to  Katedralna  Street,  New  Market  Place,  Strazatzka  Street 
and  to  City  Hall.  In  each  of  these  places,  they  were  ordered  to  lie 
face  down.  Hundreds  of  them  were  killed  in  the  streets  by 
automatic  rifle  fire.  This  horrible  day  became  known  as  “Bloody 
Monday”. 

Fbllowing  Bloody  Monday,  the  Jewish  people  began  to  suffer 
increasingly  at  the  hands  of  their  tormentors.  The  cruelest  mem- 
ber of  the  Gestapo  in  Czenstochova  was  a man  by  the  name  of 
Shabelski,  who  was  Volksdeutsch.  He  was  considered  the  terror 
of  the  city,  not  only  by  the  Jewish  population,  but  also  by  the  Poles. 

Initially  we  did  not  realize  that  this  was  also  going  to  be  a war 
against  the  Jews.  However,  with  each  passing  day  the  intensity  of 
persecutions  increased.  Every  day  people  were  rounded  up  to  do 
forced  labour  in  the  city  and  on  the  highways.  During  heavy 
snowfalls,  in  the  winter  of  1940,  men  were  pulled  out  of  their  beds 
in  the  middle  of  the  night  to  shovel  snow.  During  one  such  raid 
I was  apprehended  but  managed  to  escape.  After  this  incident  I 
hid  in  a credenza  in  our  kitchen,  which  was  used  to  store  the 
Passover  dishes.  Nobody  could  suspect  that  someone  was  hiding 
in  such  a small  space.  I was  never  caught  again  during  any  of  the 
following  forced  labour  roundups. 

One  of  the  first  official  laws  proclaimed  by  the  German  occupiers 
was  that  all  Jews  from  the  age  of  14  must  wear  a white  armband 
on  their  left  arm  with  a blue  ten  centimeter  Star  of  David  printed 
on  it.  A large  Star  of  David  had  to  be  placed  on  the  windows  of 
Jewish-owned  stores. 


CZENSTOCHQV  - Our  Legacy 


71 


MY  MEMOIRS  - continued 

The  First  Days  of  the  War 
in  Czenstochova 

Even  during  the  years  before  the  Nazis  invaded  Poland,  events 
in  Germany  influenced  and  increased  anti-Semitism  in  Czensto- 
chova. There  were  pogroms  in  the  city  and  in  the  late  thirties  it 
became  dangerous  for  Jewish  people  to  walk  on  the  Alley  Pro- 
menade — the  most  beautiful  in  Czenstochova  — in  the  evening. 

On  the  first  day  of  the  War,  Friday,  September  1,  1939,  it  became 
clear  that  the  Germans  were  going  to  occupy  the  City  of  Czensto- 
chova. The  attack  came  shortly  after  the  retreat  of  the  Polish  Ar- 
my. The  city  was  in  a state  of  panic.  The  population  searched  for 
ways  to  escape.  The  last  trains  and  private  vehicles  headed  in  the 
direction  of  Warsaw  and  Kielce.  Soon  roads  were  crowded  with 
people  fleeing  the  approaching  Germans. 

German  airplanes  flew  very  low  above,  shooting  with  automatic 
weapons  at  the  panic-stricken  people.  The  roads  were  lined  with 
dead  bodies.  The  first  German  motorized  columns  arrived  on 
Sunday,  September  3.  There  were  advance  patrols  driving  through 
our  city.  In  the  afternoon  of  that  same  day,  large  units  of  German 
military  forces  followed.  Czenstochova  was  now  under  occupation. 
A mood  of  depression  spread  throughout  the  population. 

Czenstochova  was  one  of  the  first  cities  in  Pbland  to  be  occupied 
by  the  Nazis.  One  could  feel  the  tension.  The  people  were  in  the 
streets,  reading  the  German  military  decrees.  German  soldiers 
mingled  with  the  crowd.  They  handed  out  cookies  and  chocolate 
to  the  people,  who  trustingly  accepted  their  goodwill  gesture. 

The  Tragic  Monday 

On  Monday  morning,  September  4,  1939,  the  first  German  decree 
demanded  that  all  stores  and  other  business  establishments  be 
opened.  As  during  peace  time,  the  city  streets  were  filled  with 
pedestrians.  Now  these  same  people  were  shocked  to  see  German 
jxihce  herding  their  fellow  citizens  at  rifle  p)oint.  Many  of  them 
were  half -dressed.  These  scenes  made  a lasting  and  shocking 
impression  on  us  all  who  witnessed  them.  We  knew  then  that  we 
could  expect  very  harsh  times. 


70 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leff&cy 


Zionist  “Mizrachi”  movement  and  later  influenced  me  to  join  him 
in  the  “Hashomer  Hadati”  youth  group  of  that  movement.  It  was 
not  long  before  I was  chosen  to  be  one  of  the  leaders  in  my 
“Kvutza”.  During  the  years  preceding  the  outbreak  of  the  Second 
World  War,  I was  very  active  in  Hashomer  Hadati.  Yankel  became 
a staff  membr  of  the  Zionist  weekly  “Unzer  Weg”.  Tragically,  he, 
like  many  other  members  of  my  closest  family,  fell  victim  to  the 
Holocaust.  My  friend  Zvi  Rosenwein  had  known  Yankel  well.  After 
World  War  II,  when  Zvi  was  a journalist  in  New  York,  he  remem- 
bered him  in  a moving  eulogy  in  the  Yiddish  weekly  “Algemeiner 
Journal”.  He  described  Yankel  as  a brilliant  man  and  talented 
writer.  The  article  was  reprinted  in  the  Czenstochover  book,  pub- 
lished in  1965  in  Montreal. 

When  I was  18  years  old  I decided  to 
leave  the  Yeshiva  in  order  to  learn  a 
trade.  My  father  was  not  very  pleased 
with  the  decision.  However,  a cousin, 

Isack  Szczecinsky,  a printer,  intro- 
duced me  to  Chaim  Weisberg  who 
owned  the  weekly  newspaper  “Die 
Zeit”,  distributed  in  Czenstochova 
and  vicinity.  Weisberg  hired  me  as  his 
typesetter  at  a salary  of  10  zlotys  per 
week.  That  was  my  start  in  the  print- 
ing trade  and  I was  very  proud  of  it.  Harry  Klein  and  his 

brother  Yankel  as 
members  of  the 
Hashomer  Hadati. 


The  Youth  Group  of  '‘Hashomer  Hadati"'  of  the 
Mizrachi  movement  in  Czenstochova  1933 


CZENSTQCHOV  — Our 


69 


MY  MEMOIRS 

By  Harry  Klein 


I WAS  BORN  IN  CZENSTOCHOVA  IN  1918,  at  the  end  of  the  First  World 
War.  My  parents,  Rivka  (nee  Zylberszatz)  and  Moshe  Mordcha 
Kleiner,  named  me  Hershel.  I was  the  third  of  their  six  children. 

I had  a very  close  relationship  with  my  two  older  brothers,  George 
and  Yankel.  I always  felt  protective  and  responsible  for  my 
younger  sisters  Mania  and  Madzia  and  my  younger  brother 
Yechiel.  Our  parents  were  prominent  in  the  local  middle  class,  and 
observant  of  Jewish  law  and  ritual.  We  loved  and  respected  them. 

My  mother  was  a soft,  charming  woman  with  a ready  smile.  My 
father,  who  for  many  years  was  a successful  businessman,  always 
found  time  for  his  Talmudic  studies.  His  teachings  and  convic- 
tions determined  my  religious  upbringing  and  guided  me  through- 
out my  life,  though  later  I chose  to  adapt  to  a more  modern  lifestyle. 

I received  my  education  first  at  cheder,  then  at  secondary  school 
and  at  Yechiel  Grillaks  private  school,  where  I received  my  high 
school  diploma.  At  my  parents’  request,  I continued  my  studies 
at  a Talmudic  Academy,  known  as  the  “Lumer  Yizchak”,  in  pre- 
paration for  the  Yeshiva.  Subsequently,  I attended  Yeshiva  for  two 
years. 

I was  still  quite  young  when  my  brother  George  married  Hela 
Brukner.  They  moved  to  Mondzev,  Poland,  where  their  son  Jack 
was  born.  In  1927  the  young  couple  emigrated  with  their  infant 
son  to  Montreal,  Canada. 

My  brother  Yankel,  a tall,  blue-eyed  fellow,  was  educated  in  the 
Yeshiva  “Keser  Torah”.  He  became  a leading  member  of  the 


Voices  of 

Holocaust 

Survivors 


A of  the  Chasidic  and  Learned  Men 
of  the  Czenstochom  Community 


Ismel  ShuMm  Zylberszatz  Moshe  Mordcha  Kleinei 


Av^imm  Henech  Finkelstem  Leibl  Kantor 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


65 


More  effective  than  the  Jewish  partisan  units  was  the  plan  by 
which  Jewish  citizens  and  their  families,  who  had  escaped  to  the 
forests,  were  sheltered  and  maintained.  The  basic  function  of  the 
twenty  Jewish  family  camps,  which  were  spread  thmughout 
eastern  Europe  and  the  western  territories  of  Russia,  was  to  sei’ve 
as  a refuge  for  thousands  of  men,  women,  and  children,  both  in- 
dividuals and  families.  The  size  of  the  camps  varied,  from  camps 
of  a few  families  to  those  with  hundreds  of  families.  The  two 
largest  family  camps  were  in  the  dense  forests  of  Belorussia.  One 
was  commanded  by  Tuviah  Belski  and  contained  1,200  Jews;  the 
second  was  under  the  command  of  Shimon  Zorin  and  held  800 
people.  Army  units  composed  of  partisans  defended  the  camps 
both  against  Nazi  forces  that  had  besieged  the  forests  and  against 
the  non- Jewish  partisans.  An  additional  function  of  the  units  was 
to  locate  food  for  the  camps’  inhabitants  by  utilizing  partisans’ 
methods.  This  was  accomplished  through  confiscation  by  threat 
or  by  force.  Here  it  should  be  mentioned  that  while  farmers  were 
generally  ready  to  allow  the  seizure  of  food  by  non- Jewish  par- 
tisans, they  rebelled  against  confiscation  attempts  by  the  Jewish 
partisans  for  their  family  camps. 

Even  though  the  family  camps  came  into  existence  in  scattered 
locations  through  Jewish  initiative,  they  eventually  became  a reali- 
ty with  which  the  partisan  high  command  had  to  come  to  terms. 
These  family  camps  were  an  independent  and  original  Jewish 
response,  through  which  thousands  of  men  and  women,  old  and 
young,  were  saved  from  the  enemy  and  fmm  starvation.  In  a few 
cases,  Jewish  survivors  of  the  ghettos  were  integrated  into  near- 
by partisan  units  so  that  they  would  not  have  to  be  sent  into  the 
interior  regions  of  Russia. 

During  the  Holocaust,  partisan  units,  in  actuality,  rescued  only 
a relatively  small  number  of  Jews.  Yet  considering  the  tremen- 
dous losses  of  the  Jewish  people  and  the  limited  means  of  escape, 
we  must  not  belittle  any  effective  rescue.  Furthermore,  we  must 
not  forget  that  for  many  Jews  the  partisan  struggle  was  an  end 
in  itself:  a contribution  to  the  general  anti-Nazi  resistance  and 
a personal  revenge  for  the  murder  of  loved  ones. 


“Beth  Jacob  School  for  Girls')  established  by 
Agudath  Israel  in  Czenstochova. 


64 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


pressed  itself  in  the  betrayal  of  the  Jews  attempting  to  reach  the 
forests  in  order  to  locate  the  partisans.  Jews  were  alternately  rob- 
bed, murdered,  or  turned  over  to  the  authorities  resulting  in  their 
execution. 

Closely  linked  to  this  hatred  were  the  negative  opinions  of  Jews 
regularly  heard  in  partisan  ranks,  whose  personnel  were  often 
drawn  from  natives  of  the  area.  In  addition,  many  former  Soviet 
soldiers,  especially  those  who  escaped  from  prisoner-of-war 
camps,  were  already  infected  with  anti-Semitic  opinions  absorbed 

from  Nazi  propaganda.  Partisans  accused  their  Jewish  commdes- 
in-arms  of  spoiling  their  relationship  with  the  local  population, 
thereby  causing  substantial  damage  to  the  cause.  Some  local  com- 
manders and  their  superiors  also  had  negative  opinions  about  the 
Jews.  Thus,  the  Jewish  partisans  suffered  not  only  from  pereecu- 
tion  and  discrimination  at  the  hands  of  their  fellow  fighters,  but 
also  from  the  commanders. 

Reports  of  these  conditions  reached  the  ghettos  and  work  camps 
and  strengthened  the  hesitation  of  individuals  and  groups  to 
escape  into  the  forests.  They  struggled  over  the  difficult  personal 
decision  to  escape  the  ghetto,  thereby  abandoning  a wife,  children, 
elderly  parents,  or  younger  siblings  to  an  unknown  fate.  Thus, 
there  were  individuals  and  groups  in  the  ghettos  who  preferred 
to  make  a stand  at  the  time  of  the  final  Nazi  assault,  rather  than 
leave  for  the  forests. 

However,  faced  with  mass  murder  and  destruction  of  the  ghettos, 
without  even  an  opportunity  for  resistance,  it  became  clear  to 
many  who  hesitated  that  despite  the  drawbacks,  the  partisan-held 
forest  was  a real  alternative. 

A significant  phenomenon,  which  blunted  antisemitism  and 
presented  Jewish  fighters  with  a focus  for  their  organizational 
and  military  capabilities,  were  the  Jewish  national  units.  Most 
were  formed  in  the  partisan  forests  in  1943.  These  units  were 
composed  of  determined  and  highly  motivated  fightere.  They  were 
led  by  able  commanders,  almost  all  of  whom  had  a strong  national 
Jewish  consciousness.  These  Jewish  units  were  imbued  with  rich 
Jewish  traditions  and  made  extensive  use  of  the  Yiddish  language. 
They  fostered  relations  with  the  Jews  in  the  nearby  ghettos,  help- 
ing them  to  join  the  partisans.  Then  units  totaling  about  1,000 
individuals  were  established,  including  one  under  the  leadership 
of  Abba  Kowner,  later  a leader  in  Israel’s  War  for  Independence 
and  a renowned  poet.  These  units  were  soon  disbanded,  with  their 
fighters  scattered  throughout  other  units.  The  reason  for  this  ac- 
tion by  the  partisan  command  appears  to  have  been  political. 
Despite  the  dissolution  of  the  Jewish  units,  other  national  units, 
such  as  Ukrainians,  Russians,  Belorussians,  Lithuanians,  and 
Moldavians,  were  allowed  to  exist  until  the  end  of  the  war. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


63 


who  had  remained  in  the  forests,  and  a mixture  of  farmers  and 
city  dwellers,  including  criminals,  who  found  sanctuary  in  the 
woods.  Their  order  and  discipline  were  weak  and  a significant 
number  were  little  more  than  bands  of  robbers.  For  example,  a 
large  portion  of  these  units  was  not  subservient  to  the  partisan 
high  command  and  every  local  commander  operated  indepen- 
dently. During  this  period,  Jews  who  had  the  necessary  qualifica- 
tions and  the  desire  to  join  the  partisans  had  no  one  to  whom  they 
could  turn,  due  to  the  weak  and  ineffectual  partisan  movement. 
Moreover,  a number  of  these  partisan  units  were  violently  hostile 
to  Jews. 

A good  example  of  the  prevailing  conditions  may  be  seen  in  the 
story  of  Jews  at  the  Tutshin  (Tuczyn)  ghetto,  in  the  western 
Ukraine.  On  September  22,  1942,  the  German  and  Ukrainian, 
forces  decided  to  eliminate  the  ghetto  and  destroy  its  inhabitants. 
The  Jews  revolted,  burned  their  houses  and  used  a barrage  of  gun- 
fire to  cover  their  escape  into  the  nearby  forests.  At  the  time  of 
the  breakout  from  the  ghetto,  approximately  1,000  Jews  were  killed. 
Approximately  3,000  Jews  reached  the  forests,  where  they  roamed 
about,  suffering  from  exposure  and  hunger.  About  300  of  them 
returned  to  the  ghetto  and  were  immediately  shot.  About  1,000 
to  1,500  of  the  Jews  from  the  ghetto  were  recaptured  in  a short 
time  and  suffered  a fate  similar  to  one  of  those  who  returned.  The 
remainder,  among  them  husbands  separated  from  their  families, 
survived  longer.  However,  most  of  them  were  ultimately  killed, 
either  when  they  were  robbed  or  murdered  outright,  or  were  in- 
formed upon  by  the  virulently  antisemitic  Ukrainian  population. 
From  the  entire  Jewish  community  only  fourteen  people  surviv- 
ed. It  is  no  wonder  that  many  Jews  preferred  to  take  their  chances 
and  remain  in  the  cities  rather  than  escape  to  the  forests. 

The  partisans  underwent  a change  during  the  second  period  of 
activity  — 1942-1944.  During  these  years  the  supreme  partisan 
commander  in  Russia  exerted  authority  over  most  partisans  in 
the  area,  except  for  Polish  and  nationalistic  Ukrainian  units.  Tlie 
local  commanders,  certified  by  virtue  of  their  ability,  were  placed 
under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  representatives  of  the  staff  of  the 
partisan  high  command.  What  is  important  for  this  study  is  that 
these  changes,  in  all  phases  of  the  functioning  of  the  units,  came 
too  late.  By  then,  a significant  portion  of  eastern  European  Jews 
had  already  been  murdered.  When  the  Jewish  multitudes  were 
still  alive,  they  could  not  find  any  partisans  to  whom  they  could 
flee.  When  partisans  would  accept  them,  there  were  hardly  any 
Jews  left  to  escape  and  join.  While  this  tragic  paradox  may  be  con- 
sidered as  the  decisive  factor  for  the  nonparticipation  of  the 
Jewish  populace  in  the  partisan  movement,  it  was  not  the  only 
one. 

The  intense,  deep-seated  hatred  of  the  local  population  towards 
the  Jews  also  had  a great  deal  of  significance.  This  hatred  ex- 


62 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


First,  it  must  be  emphasized  that  the  Soviet  partisan  movement 
arose  and  operated  from  military  and  political  necessities.  These 
criteria  determined  whether  to  provide  refuge  for  the  local  popu- 
lation oppressed  by  the  Nazis.  In  any  event,  the  partisan  move- 
ment did  not,  in  general,  delegate  to  itself  as  a special  task  the 
rescue  of  Jews,  despite  the  fact  that  the  latter  were  the  prime 
targets  for  murder  by  the  Nazis.  Jews  were  only  allowed  in  par- 
tisan ranks  if  they  could  further  the  goals  of  the  partisan  move- 
ment. These  included:  conducting  rear  guard  actions  against  the 
Nazis;  terrorism,  with  all  the  military  force  it  could  generate; 
operations  to  diminish  the  enemy’s  strength;  and  conquering  ter- 
ritory in  prepamtion  for  a return  to  Soviet  sovereignty.  All  of  this 
was  coordinated  with  the  regular  Soviet  army  and  the  political 
institutions  of  the  Soviet  Union.  The  Nazi  occupation  government 
and  its  collaborators  made  every  effort  to  wipe  out  the  partisans. 
They  were  not  particular  about  the  methods  they  used.  They 
usually  executed  those  suspected  of  collaborating  in  the  partisan 
operations.  Often  they  executed  the  families  of  suspects  after  tor- 
turing them. 

The  ammunition  and  light  equipment  of  the  partisan  units  could 
not  compare  with  that  of  the  German  army  and  their  allies.  The 
partisans,  nevertheless,  were  able  to  strike  hard  at  their  enemies 
because  of  their  flexibility  and  mobility,  expert  knowledge  of  the 
terrain  and  ethnicity,  which  permitted  them  to  merge  with  the 
local  population.  Every  partisan,  moveover,  was  expected  to  be 
battle-experienced,  in  superb  physical  shape,  patient,  trustworthy 
and  devoted  to  the  cause.  These  conditions  were  often  waived  for 
a candidate  who  brought  with  him  a weapon. 

In  general,  the  Jews  were  not  good  candidates  for  the  partisan 
ranks.  Predominantly  urban,  they  genemlly  lacked  several  of  the 
essential  attributes  required  of  a partisan:  military  experience, 
familiarity  with  the  local  terrain,  typical  outer  appearance,  abso- 
lute command  of  local  languages,  and  other  attributes  that  would 
promote  and  facilitate  relationships  with  the  villagers,  the  parti- 
sans’ most  important  allies,  the  Jews  also  did  not  have  the  option 
of  presenting  a weapon  as  a ticket  of  admission  to  the  partisan 
ranks.  Obtaining  and  possessing  arms  was  not  only  personally 
dangerous,  but  could  lead  to  reprisals  upon  their  households,  rela- 
tives, and  the  entire  ghetto. 

There  were  instances  when  Jews  — from  the  villages,  for  example, 
with  weapons  and  with  several  of  the  necessary  qualifications, 
succeeded  in  making  it  to  the  forests.  Even  then,  however,  they 
were  often  compelled  to  retrace  their  steps  (in  the  best  of  circum- 
stances) because  of  the  prevailing  situation  in  the  forests.  On  this 
point,  it  is  essential  to  distinguish  between  two  main  periods. 

During  the  initial  period  of  partisan  activity  (1941-1942),  the 
number  of  units  was  minimal  and  military  strength  was  ineffec- 
tive. The  personnel  consisted  mostly  of  former  Red  Army  soldiers. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  Legsicy 


61 


Eastern  European  Jews  in  the 
Partisan  Ranks  During  World  War  11 

By  Dov  Levin 

European  Jews  fought  the  Nazis  in  partisan  groups  in  the  forests, 
villages,  and  other  non-urban  locales.  The  terrain  included  many 
dense  and  large  forests,  wide,  marshy  swamps  and  other  inac- 
cessible hideouts.  These  broad  areas,  covering  thousands  of 
square  miles  were  mostly  conquered  by  the  Nazi  armies  in  the 
early  stages  of  the  war.  Some  partisan  units  were  under  the 
authority  of  the  Polish  government  in  exile.  Most  units  were  con- 
nected to  the  Soviet  partisan  movement,  from  whom  they  receiv- 
ed aid,  directions  and  orders.  Finally,  they  acceded  to  the  Soviet 
command  completely.  The  military  and  political  activities  of  these 
units  occasionally  brought  them  near  to  the  largest  concentra- 
tions of  the  Jewish  population  in  eastern  Europe. 

At  the  outset  of  the  war  between  Germany  and  Russia  (1941-1942), 
this  population  was  imprisoned  in  the  ghettos  and  in  the  camps. 
Under  these  conditions  of  brutal  oppression,  and  in  constant 
danger  of  destruction,  groups  of  rebels  organized  underground 
units  to  resist  and  to  fight  the  Nazis.  A prime  goal  was  to  bring 
out  large  numbers  of  Jews  from  the  ghettos  and  camps  to  join 
the  partisans.  Much  effort  was  expended  in  this  direction,  but 
only  30,000  Jews  actually  succeeded  in  joining  the  Soviet  partisan 
movement.  These  Jews  later  numbered  in  their  mnks  senior  offi- 
cers, outstanding  heroes,  and  many  who  received  decorations.  The 
partisans  — with  the  exception  of  regular  armies  — were  one  of 
the  best  known,  strongest,  and  most  inventive  of  the  European 
resistance  movements  and  Jews  participated  in  inflicting  damage 
upon  the  Nazis.  Despite  this  record,  the  question  must  be  asked: 
Why,  during  the  Holocaust,  did  proportionately  so  few  Jews  join 
the  partisans? 

There  is  no  one  simple  explanation  for  this  phenomenon.  Much 
has  to  do  with  the  nature  of  the  partisan  struggle  in  eastern 
Europe  that  did  not  allow  many  to  join.  There  were  also  specific 
problems  with  Jewish  participation. 


60 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legsusy 


The  Resistance  of  Che 
Group  “Freihait** 

By  A.  Virsztel 

The  youth  of  the  “Poale-Zion  ” and  “Freihait”  to  which  I 
belonged  were  well  organized  cultural  groups,  carrying  on  educa- 
tional activities  among  the  young  working  class  people  by  pre- 
paring them  in  special  training  programs  on  “Hachshara”.  They 
were  later  sent  to  Israel.  A lot  of  work  was  done  by  participating 
in  “the  League  for  the  Working  Class  in  Israel”,  “Karen  Kayemet”, 
“Karen  Hayesod”. 

With  the  invasion  of  the  Hitler  bandits  in  Czenstochova,  all  our 
activities  had  to  be  stopped.  The  leaders  of  our  group,  Sz.  Straus 
and  D.  Kaufman,  had  to  leave  their  homes  due  to  the  threat  of  the 
“Gestapo”.  I received  a letter  from  Straus  telling  of  his  arrival  in 
Latvia,  but  I have  since  lost  contact  with  him. 

In  September  1942,  after  the  “Selection”  in  the  large  ghetto,  we 
were  driven  by  armed  German  guards  to  the  “Golgota”.  We  were 
all  members  of  “Freihait”,  “Gordonia  Hashomer  Hatzair”,  and 
were  very  close,  like  one  family. 

In  the  small  ghetto,  the  movement  “Freihait”  helped  to  organize 
the  Kibbutz,  which  was  split  into  several  groups  of  five.  One  group 
consisted  of  the  following  members:  W.  Pressman,  P.  Slomnitzki, 
A.  Szildhaus,  D.  Kantor,  and  I am  the  sole  survivor. 

Many  of  our  group  escaped  to  fight  the  Nazis  as  partisans  in  the 
forest.  We  provided  them  with  heavy  boots  and  warm  clothing. 
All  of  this  was  done  in  great  fear.  In  the  small  ghetto,  we  organized 
a collection  of  all  types  of  ammunition,  German  uniforms,  boots 
and  helmets.  Some  of  the  people  in  the  ghetto  were  sent  to 
“Rakov”  and  others  to  “Hasag”.  My  wife  and  I were  among  those 
sent  to  “Hasag”.  Conditions  were  unbearable  — hunger,  dirt, 
disease.  My  brother  and  I were  sent  to  “Buchenwald”  on  January 
15th,  1945. 


CZENSTOCHQV  - Our  Lesrgcy 


59 


The  Martyrdom  of  Leon  Tenenbaum 

An  active  member  of  the  Jewish  resistance  group  in  the  small 
ghetto  was  Leon  Tenenbaum.  He  was  arrested  and,  after  dread- 
ful tortures,  was  sent  to  Hasag-Apparatenbau.  There  all  the 
workers  were  lined  up  and  Leon  was  forced,  by  the  Gestapo,  to 
identify  all  those  who  were  members  of  the  resistance.  All  of  them 
— together  with  Tenenbaum  — were  executed. 

Jacob  Juzefowicz 

We  received  a great  deal  of  help  from  Jacob  Juzefowicz,  the 
fearless  manager  of  the  mechanical  shop  of  the  “Maschinenbau”. 
The  German  engineer,  who  appointed  him  as  head  of  this  division, 
had  recognized  his  great  talent.  Nevertheless,  hie  was  later 
deported  to  Auschwitz,  together  with  a colleague,  for  helping  a 
Jewish  couple  escape  from  the  camp.  He  perished  in  Buchenwald, 
along  with  thousands  of  other  Jewish  workers. 

For  a long  time,  some  Polish  workers  kept  us  informed  about  the 
world  beyond  the  camp.  When  they  suddenly  stopped  showing 
up,  we  lost  all  contact  to  the  outside  world.  One  day,  we  felt  that 
something  was  in  the  air.  The  SS,  Gestapo  and  Schutzpolizei  were 
aggressive  and  nervous.  They  chased  us  out,  in  the  direction  of 
the  “ramp”,  where  railway  cars  waited  for  a deportation  to 
Buchenwald.  All  those  who  were  not  on  that  last  transport  were 
left  alone  by  the  Germans.  They  were  freed  by  the  Allied  Armies. 


Photo  taken  in  Czenstochova  in  1940,  during  the  occupation. 


From  the  left:  The  two  brothers 
Haftke,  one  of  whom  died  in  1944 
in  Auschwitz,  the  other  was  shot 
in  1948,  during  the  uprising  in 
the  ghetto;  next  to  him  Ruven 
Dzialecki,  who  lives  in  Israel 
and  Zysie  Schwartz  who  is  in 
the  U.S.A. 


58 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  LegBcy 


Resistance 
in  HASAG  Pelcern 

By  A.  Sztainbrecher 

By  THE  END  OF  July  1943,  the  “small  ghetto”  in  Czenstochova  was 
demolished  and  liquidated.  That  marked  the  end  of  a hemic 
chapter  of  Jewish  resistance  against  Hitler’s  military  might. 

The  Germans  succeeded  in  creating  a tremendous  panic  among 
the  over  4,000  “selected”  Jews  who  were  the  forced  labourers  in 
the  Czenstochova  concentration  camp.  Despair  grew  when  the 
fighters  of  ZOB  — the  resistance  movement  — were  eliminated 
and  when  we  heard  about  the  Warsaw  ghetto  revolt  and  about 
mass  liquidations  in  other  places.  Our  own  recent  experience  was 
the  destruction  of  the  large  ghetto  of  Czenstochova.  We  became 
convinced  that  Hitler’s  henchmen  were  ready  to  murder  us  all. 
They  realized  how  much  we  hated  them  and  they  were  determined 
to  break  any  resistance. 

Tortures  and  Killings 

The  production  manager,  engineers  and  administrative 
employees,  including  the  “Werkschutz”,  participated  in  the  tor- 
tures and  killings  of  Jewish  slave  workers  at  the  Hasag— Appara- 
tenbau.  After  work,  the  “Werkschutz”  often  entered  the  barracks 
to  beat,  torture  and  kill.  Sometimes,  they  would  shoot  through 
the  windows,  especially  through  those  of  the  women’s  barracks. 

Fmm  time  to  time,  a “selection”  was  ordered  at  that  work  station. 
At  the  first  such  selection,  500  people  were  killed.  The  Unfor- 
tunates were  first  thrown  into  dark  cellars.  Then  their  hands  were 
bound  and  they  were  loaded  onto  trucks.  The  trucks  took  them 
to  the  Jewish  cemetery,  where  they  were  shot. 

The  conditions  in  the  “Appamtenbau”  camp  forced  the  members 
of  the  resistance  group  to  work  in  extreme  secrecy.  They  were 
organized  in  cells  of  5 persons,  who  had  to  be  constantly  on  the 
alert. 


CZENSTOCHOV  — Our  L>eg*acy 


57 


feeling  that  this  time  I would  not  escape  death  as  I did  on  March 
20th,  1943,  the  day  when  the  pmfessional  inteligentia  was  killed, 
the  so-called  “Purim  Action”. 

The  last  rays  had  disappeared  from  the  sky.  The  moon  and  the 
stars  dominated  the  darkness  of  the  night,  bringing  a mysterious 
silence  to  the  night.  It  was  a painful  night  - a sleepless  one  with 
reflections,  spiritual  stock-taking  and  thoughts  of  death.  The  next 
day,  June  25,  1943,  there  was  no  one  fmm  the  Nazi  mgime  ainund 
the  ghetto  hospital.  Around  10:00  o’clock  in  the  morning,  Dom 
Gotlieb  came  to  see  us  from  the  ‘Arbeit  Einzatz”  to  calm  us  down 
and  to  tell  us  that  Bernaixl  Kurland  was  doing  everything  possible 
to  free  us.  The  reason  for  our  arrest  was  not  known. 

At  noon  my  brother,  Jacob,  came  with  food.  He  told  us  that 
Tzoport  told  him  that  if  Degenhart  will  not  come  at  3:00  o’clock, 
then  we  will  be  released  from  prison.  Time  passed  slowly  and, 
with  each  passing  hour,  there  were  thoughts  of  suicide  and 
destroyed  hope.  It  was  now  five  o’clock  in  the  evening.  We  heard 
loud  shooting.  We  had  no  idea  what  was  happening.  The  police- 
man on  guard  said  only  that  there  was  something  bad  happen- 
ing. He  did  not  want  to  tell  us  anything  else.  We  later  learned  that 
fighting  had  bmken  out  between  the  underground  movement  and 
the  Nazis. 

On  Saturday,  the  26th  of  June,  the  sadistic  Degenhart  and  Ron 
came  to  us  and  sarcastically  asked,  “What  are  you  doing  here? 
Go  back  to  your  work.”  Seveml  minutes  later,  the  Chief  of  the  Gen- 
darmes came  in,  holding  an  automatic  machine  gun  in  his  hand 
and  started  to  argue  with  Degenhart.  He  wanted  to  kill  us.  We 
found  out  that  Marisia  Rotstein  was  killed  at  the  hospital.  The 
four  of  us  were  released.  The  liquidation  of  the  small  ghetto 
started.  There  were  bloody  scenes  of  killing.  Loads  of  heavy 
trucks  filled  with  people  were  sent  to  the  Jewish  cemetery.  Men, 
women  and  children  were  killed. 

At  this  selection,  I was  with  a group  of  women  who  were  sent  to 
work  in  “Hasag  Pelcern”.  This  was  my  last  encounter  with  the 
monster  Degenhart. 

It  was  later  learned  that  Degenhart  was  sent  to  Greece  to  fight 
with  the  partisans.  The  partisans  were  informed  who  Degenhart 
was  and  they  killed  him  during  a raid. 


56 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


My  Last  Encounter  with  the 
Cold'Blooded  Murderer,  Degenhart 

Ori^nally  written  in  Yiddish  by  Estera  Epstein 

It  was  early  summer  of  1943.  There  was  a beautiful  blue  and 
clear  sky.  The  sun  was  spreading  its  warm  rays  and  this  created 
an  atmosphere  of  happiness  for  all  living  human  beings. 

Tired  after  a hard  day’s  work  together  with  the  other  forced 
laborers,  we  were  ready  to  leave  “Hasag  Pelcern”  and  go  to  the 
small  ghetto.  The  procedure  of  returning  to  the  ghetto  for  the 
evening  was  complicated  and  involved  an  “Appell”  to  count  all  the 
people  who  were  going  to  the  ghetto,  under  the  strict  guidance 
of  the  “Werkschutz”  director,  Klem,  and  the  other  guards  of  the 
Nazi  regime. 

On  that  particular  day,  the  “Appell”  was  not  being  held  as  usual 
in  the  court  of  the  factory.  Much  to  everyone’s  surprise,  Degen- 
hart had  arrived  and  started  to  call  out  names.  Each  person  whose 
name  was  called  had  to  step  out  and  report  to  Degenhart.  The  first 
name  he  called  was  mine,  then  Szmulewicz  and  Davidowich.  All 
together,  eight  women  were  called.  We  were  investigated.  Four 
women  were  told  to  go  back  in  line.  The  other  four  were  detained. 
Those  held  back  were  Marisia  Epstein,  Szmulewicz,  Davidowicz 
and  myself.  On  that  same  day,  M.  Wodzislawski  and  J.  Winter  were 
arrested.  Both  were  sent  to  jail  and  later  killed. 

Degenhart  told  me  that  we,  the  four  women,  will  be  interrogated 
tomorrow  morning  by  the  “Gestapo”,  and  later  will  be  returned 
to  “Hasag  Pelcern”.  For  tonight,  we  had  to  stay  in  the  ghetto 
hospital. 

In  the  meantime,  the  day  shift  was  escorted  to  work  and  we  were 
left  in  the  hands  of  the  barbaric  Gendarme  and  “Meister” 
Hochberg.  They  forced  us  to  run  several  kilometers  while  they 
followed  on  bicycles.  When  we  arrived  at  the  small  ghetto,  we  were 
taken  prisoner  by  the  Polish  police  officer  Paruzel  and  the  Com- 
mandant of  the  Jewish  ghetto  police  Parasol.  We  were  taken  to 
the  ghetto  hospital  of  Yascrovska  Street.  Marisia  Botstein,  the 
wife  of  Engineer  Samek  Rotstein,  was  also  there.  I had  a bad 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leffac 


55 


transferred  to  the  small  ghetto,  the  ammunition  parts  were  pre- 
pared in  our  mechanical  shop.  It  was  pmduced  with  gmat  cai^  and 
devotion,  to  be  ready  when  needed  to  sti*ike  back.  Later,  for  securi- 
ty reasons,  the  weapon  parts  were  prepared  in  the  basement  on 
Garncarska  Street  #144.  Among  those  in  the  Jewish  resistance 
were  the  brothers  Ziskind,  L.  Szmulewicz,  C.  Viernik,  A.  Tsczai'ny 
and  others.  Of  those,  Ziskind,  Viernik  and  Mrs,  Tsczarny  am  alive 
today  in  Israel. 


A “Lag  Bomer"  parade  of  Jewish  school  children  on  Garibaldi  Street 
(in  the  'Barge  Ghetto")  in  the  year  1941.  Among  the  paraders  is 
Marzej  Krause. 


54 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  Shop  on  Alee  14 

By  Sz.  Waga 

In  November  1942,  the  Nazis  formed  the  small  ghetto,  and  over 
5,000  Jewish  people  were  transferred  to  this  small  ghetto.  It  was 
located  in  the  filthiest,  poorest  part  of  the  city.  That  was  where 
the  remnant  of  the  Jews  was  confined,  after  those  in  the  large 
ghetto  had  been  decimated.  In  the  morning,  they  were  driven  to 
forced  labour  and  in  the  evening  they  returned  exhausted  and 
depressed. 

At  that  time,  the  leader  of  the  Kibbutz,  my  friend  Aryeh  (who  was 
later  killed  in  the  forest  near  Czenstochova)  came  to  see  me  at  my 
carpentry  shop  on  Alee  14.  He  told  me  that  my  shop  would  be  the 
transit  place  from  the  small  ghetto  to  the  train  station  and  the 
return.  This  shop  on  Alee  14  was  located  outside  the  ghetto  and 
was  open  to  Aryans  only,  as  were  several  shops  run  by  the  Jewish 
artisan  group  who  worked  for  the  German  clientele. 

Each  day  I saw  many  people  who  came  through  my  house  from 
the  “outside  world”.  I can  remember  those  faces  of  the  young  men 
and  women  who  were,  at  first,  devastated  to  go  outside  the  ghetto, 
but  who  later  returned  as  courageous  resistance  fighters.  By  the 
end  of  1942  I was  told  that  there  would  be  a meeting  in  my  shop. 
At  that  time  a young  gentile  fellow,  who  gave  his  password  to 
enter,  introduced  himself  as  a delegate  from  Zarki  where  there 
was  a Kibbutz.  My  friend  Aryeh  entered  with  a young  man  who 
introduced  himself  as  Aniek  from  Warsaw.  Later,  I was  told  that 
this  was  Eliezer  Geler.  The  gathering  lasted  an  entire  day.  It  was 
decided  that  we  would  be  ready  for  armed  resistance.  At  the  end 
of  January  1943,  my  friend  Moitek  M.  Zilberberg  came  to  my  shop 
with  a small  package  of  revolvers. 

In  March  of  1943,  the  shop  on  Alee  14  was  liquidated  and  the 
artisan  shops  were  transferred  to  the  small  ghetto.  There,  I took 
over  the  carpentry  and  locksmith  shops,  equipped  with 
mechanically-operated  machines. 

The  resistance  movement  built  part  of  the  ammunition  in  the 
foundry  of  “Vulkan”  and  smuggled  it  into  the  ghetto.  When  I was 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


53 


After  the  Massacre 

An  imaginary  conversation 

After  the  first  deportation  of  Czenstochova  Jews  fmm.  the 
large  ghetto  to  the  gas  chambers,  Commander  Degenhart  oixlemd 
the  streets  cleared  of  the  dead  bodies. 

The  job  of  removing  the  dead  was  given  to  a gmup  of  young  men 
who  were  told  to  dig  a large  hole  on  a vacant  lot  on  Kavia  Street. 
Degenhart  ordered  that  there  they  should  dispose  of  “the 
garbage”.  Several  hundred  victims,  shot  during  the  “Aktion”,  were 
loaded  onto  horse  drawn  wagons  and  taken  to  the  mass  gi'ave.  One 
German  policeman,  armed  with  an  automatic  weapon,  and  a 
Jewish  policeman,  with  a rubber  stick,  were  assigned  to  accom- 
pany each  transport.  They  were  to  keep  order  during  the  silent 
funeral  procession  and  to  urge  the  men  to  do  their  work  faster. 

The  Jewish  policeman  carried  out  his  task  as  he  was  ordered.  He 
turned  his  nose  in  the  direction  of  the  wind  to  avoid  the  putrid 
smell  of  the  corpses.  All  day  long  bodies  were  gathered  from 
homes,  basements,  bunkers  and  fields.  As  he  was  walking 
alongside  the  wagons,  something  caught  this  policeman’s  eye.  He 
noticed  the  corpse  of  a young  woman  lying  face  up.  She  appeared 
to  be  alive  and  ready  to  free  herself  from  the  dead  around  her.  Her 
black  hair  dragged  along  the  blood-spattered  road. 

The  young  policeman  became  enchanted  with  her  beauty  and,  as 
if  in  a dream,  he  began  to  communicate  with  her.  He  imagined 
her  speaking  to  him.  “Where  are  you  taking  me?”  her  open  eyes 
seemed  to  ask.  “You  are  a ruthless  human  being,  you  have  no  pity ! 
You  are  a shameless  servant  of  these  murderers.  Would  you  ever 
avenge  the  killers  of  your  people?” 

As  he  became  deeper  involved  in  that  imaginary  conversation,  he 
was  brutally  awakened  by  the  shouts  of  the  German  guard.  “Move 
on!  Faster!  Schneller!  Get  rid  of  that  garbage.”  The  wagon  began 
to  shake  and  the  head  of  the  young  woman  moved  from  side  to 
side.  The  Jewish  policeman  walked  faster.  Closer  and  closer  came 
the  mass  grave  on  Kavia  Street  where  the  dead  beauty  would  join 
hundreds  of  other  nameless  victims. 

Soon  earth  covered  the  grave,  while  the  murderers  continued  their 
bloody  game.  Their  victims’  silent  screams  of  pain  and  horror 
continues  to  be  heard  throughout  this,  supposedly  civilized, 
20th  century. 


52 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Polak’s  place,  whom  he  considered  his  friend,  but  who  betmyed 
him  to  the  Gestapo.  Machel  was  arrested  and  taken  to  jail.  The 
news  that  Machel  Birenzweig  was  killed  on  the  jail  grounds  and 
that  his  family,  too,  was  slaughtered,  shocked  and  saddened  many. 
His  friend,  Yidel  Kolian,  was  waiting  for  his  return  in  vain.  A 
young  girl,  named  Tbba  Rosenzaft,  was  also  killed  on  the  jail 
grounds,  along  with  Hanka  Birenzweig.  Yidel  Kolian  now  lives 
in  Israel. 

The  martyrdom  of  Machel  Birenzweig  will  long  be  remembered 
in  the  history  of  Czenstochova.  Those  whose  lives  he  saved 
justifiably  regard  him  as  a hero. 


A Czenstochover  Martyr 
Remembered 

By  Cheryl  Semsky 

Harry  Potasziewitcz  chose  to  die  rather  than  to  reveal  to  the 
Germans  the  whereabouts  of  the  partisans.  Despite  unmerciful 
beatings,  he  would  not  speak.  Beaten  to  death,  he  was  hung  on 
display  from  a police  station  window. 

Harry  Potasziewitcz  was  a true  martyr. 


Ghetto  round-up 


CZENSTQCHOV  ~ Our  Legacy 


51 


counted  the  people  in  the  group,  Lange  asked,  in  a quiet  and  polite 
voice,  how  many  were  planning  to  go  to  the  other  side  that  day. 
Birenzweig  was  able  to  save  many  children  by  hiding  them  in 
Christian  homes.  Thanks  to  him,  they  are  alive  today  — among 
them,  Kurland’s  son  and  Brener’s  daughter. 

The  Jewish  resistance  movement,  “ZOB”,  had  the  best  oppor- 
tunity to  be  in  contact  with  the  outside  world  through  the  Meble- 
Lager.  Birenzweig  was  well  aware  of  that. 

Unfortunately,  this  only  door  to  freedom  was  eventually  closed. 
Birenzweig,  his  wife  and  his  elderly  mother,  paid  a high  price  for 
his  unselfishness. 

Mrs.  Hanka  Kongeretsky,  with  her  two  children,  was  hidden  in 
one  of  the  bunkers.  Her  little  boy  often  escaped  from  the  hiding 
place  and  his  mother  was  unable  to  stop  him.  One  day, 
while  out  of  the  hiding  place,  he  was  found  by  the  Germans  and, 
scared  of  their  threats,  he  pointed  to  the  bunker.  As  a result, 
Hanka,  her  children  and  others  in  that  hiding  place,  were  shot. 

On  March  19,  1943,  Degenhart,  with  his  gang  of  murderers, 
accidentally  entered  the  room  where  the  partisans  held  their 
meetings.  During  their  search,  they  came  upon  some  ammuni- 
tion. In  reprisal,  six  wonderful  members  of  the  Czenstochova 
youths  were  killed.  They  were  Monek  Flamenbaum,  Alek 
Herszberg,  Yerszy  Rosenblat,  Henek  Richter,  Yanek  Krause  and 
Szlamek  Shein. 

It  appears  that  the  Germans  had  received  a tip  from  an  informer 
about  the  activities  in  the  Meble-Lager.  On  the  second  day  of 
Shavuot,  1943,  the  German  police  (Schupo/Schutzpolizei)  arrived, 
together  with  the  hangman  Degenhart.  They  came  with  a pre- 
pared plan  to  liquidate  the  Meble-Lager  and  all  its  work  places. 

Degenhart  ordered  Machel  Birenzweig  to  get  his  family.  Machel 
understood  what  that  meant  and  left,  as  if  to  obey  the  order.  But, 
he  disappeared.  As  the  Germans  could  not  find  him,  they  killed 
his  mother.  His  wife,  Hanka,  was  taken  away  on  a truck  in  the 
direction  of  the  jail  of  “Zavodie”.  Pinchas  Birenzweig  was  beaten, 
had  his  teeth  knocked  out  and  was  ordered  to  remain.  He  was  told 
that  they  would  kill  everyone  if  he  attempted  to  escape.  While 
hunting  for  his  brother,  they  forgot  about  Pinchas  who  left  with 
some  others,  went  to  the  small  ghetto  where  he  hid  with  a group 
of  partisans.  Using  false  papers,  he  later  escaped  to  Germany, 
from  where  he  was,  eventually,  liberated. 

Machel  Birenzweig  remained  in  hiding  inside  the  Meble-Lager 
and  the  Germans  were  unable  to  find  him.  He  was  in  contact  with 
his  friends.  He  asked  Leon  Zilbersztain  to  bring  him  some 
jewellery  from  a hiding  place,  since  he  believed  that  with  the 
jewellery  he  could  bargain  for  his  life.  Later  he  hid  at  a “good” 


50 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Heroism 

in  the  “Meble'Lager” 

Originally  written  in  Yiddish  by  Ch.  KIEL 

During  the  deportotion  and  liquidation  of  the  Jewish  population 
of  Czenstochova,  the  name  on  everyone’s  lips  was  Machel  Biren- 
zweig.  There  were  many  working  groups  in  the  ghetto;  but  the 
only  one  to  be  spared  from  deportations  was  the  “Meble-Lager”, 
which  was  under  the  supervision  of  Machel  Birenzweig. 

Machel  was  a very  compassionate  man.  During  the  time  that  this 
working  group  was  operational,  he  and  his  family  were  constantly 
in  great  danger.  He  was  in  danger  of  losing  his  life  because  of  his 
dedication  to  helping  others.  Birenzweig  practiced  silent 
resistance  against  the  Nazi  oppressors.  The  Meble-Lager  con- 
sisted of  many  different  work  places.  It  had  a separate  transport 
department  which  had  a permit  to  travel  all  over  the  city  without 
interference.  That  whole  group  was  distinguished  by  exceptional 
heroism  inspired  by  Birenzweig. 

Their  assignment  was  to  remove  the  furniture  from  the  Jewish 
homes  after  liquidation  of  the  large  ghetto.  When  their  working 
parties  arrived  at  these  homes,  they  often  found  children  whose 
parents  had  been  deported.  These  children  were  then  hidden  in 
boxes  and  cupboards  at  the  Meble-Lager.  To  do  that  required 
superhuman  courage.  It  was  like  condemning  oneself  to  death. 

The  two  brothers,  Machel  and  Pinchas  Birenzweig,  organized  a 
web  of  bunkers  in  strict  secrecy.  To  accomplish  this,  one  had  to 
have  a team  one  could  trust  completely.  In  the  beginning,  there 
was  a problem  to  get  food  for  the  hidden  children.  Such  food  had 
to  be  smuggled  in.  Many  people,  who  wanted  to  find  refuge  on  the 
non- Jewish  side  of  the  city,  came  to  the  Meble-Lager,  the  only 
place  where  one  could  plan  an  escape.  Birenzweig  was  the  per- 
son who  helped  and  protected  them  all  from  certain  death. 

Each  day,  when  the  working  group  from  the  small  ghetto  arrived 
at  the  Meble-Lager,  they  would  pass  a German  named  Lange.  He 
was  always  standing  at  the  entrance.  Everybody  knew  Lange  as 
the  “Chazin”  who  was  responsible  for  the  whole  place  and  the 
working  group.  His  name  is  worthy  of  mention  because  he  was 
really  an  exception  among  the  Germans.  When  Birenzweig 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


49 


burned  in  the  Nazi  death  camps.  And  we  remember  the  silence 
of  the  world  as  the  machine  of  slaughter  rolled  through  Jewish 
community  after  Jewish  community. 

In  this  valley  of  death  there  was  kindled  in  the  Warsaw  Ghetto 
a flame  of  Jewish  defiance  that  was  to  light  the  path  of  Jewish 
freedom  in  the  land  of  Israel.  This  is  the  debt  we  owe  to  the  free- 
dom fighters  of  the  Warsaw  Ghetto,  and  in  many  other  Ghettos 
who  conquered  despair  and  with  a Jewish  heroism  that  has  no 
peer  took  to  the  bunkers  to  kill  their  killers.  Their  legacy  to  the 
Jewish  people  is  our  resolve  that  the  Holocaust  shall  never  be 
repeated.  The  command  of  the  six  million  to  us  is  that  we  must 
make  the  Jewish  State  so  strong  that  Jews  will  never  ever  be 
helpless  again. 


Fifty  Years  Warsaw  Ghetto 
Uprising  1943-1993 


48 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legucy 


Fifty  Years 

Warsaw  Ghetto  Uprising  - 1943'1993 

by  Harry  Klein 

A SUBSTANTIAL  BODY  OF  LITERATURE  already  exists  in  many 
languages  about  the  Holocaust  and  Resistance.  But  this  is  a mere 
fraction  of  the  story.  Ask  any  survivor  who  went  through  the  Holo- 
caust experience,  and  he  will  tell  you  that  there  is  yet  much  more 
to  tell.  Each  survivor  has  something  more  to  add.  The  complete 
story  has  not  yet  been  told.  Perhaps  it  never  can  be. 

Now  fifty  years  later,  we  are  filled  with  the  shattering  realization 
that  there  is  no  substitute  for  our  losses;  for  those  Jews,  for  those 
communities,  for  the  houses  of  learning,  the  libraries,  syna- 
gogues, the  arts,  the  professional  and  scientific  achievements. 

There  is  no  substitute  for  European  Jewry,  for  its  people,  for  its 
Yiddishkeit,  for  its  treasurers.  Their  almost  total  absence  is  not 
only  a loss  for  our  generation  of  survivors  but  a loss  for  mankind 
and  for  Jews  everywhere,  for  generations  to  come. 

We  still  cannot  free  ourselves  of  the  sadness  and  sorrow  that  has 
become  a part  of  our  lives.  Only  now  do  we  begin  to  grasp  the  full 
significance  of  what  happened,  the  full  scope  and  magnitude  of 
six  million  brothers,  sisters,  and  children  . . . gone. 

The  calculated  visiousness  of  the  executioner,  the  helplessness 
of  the  doomed,  the  passivity  of  the  bystander  - all  these  lie  beyond 
our  comprehension  — fascination  with  death,  the  victims  with 
hope,  the  survivors’  testimony.  A new  vocabulary  needs  to  be  in 
vested  to  describe  the  events. 

We  cannot  allow  the  next  generation  not  to  know  of  their  past. 
We  cannot  let  the  memory  of  our  Kedoshim  die  with  us  the  sur- 
vivors. Therefore,  as  it  is  by  the  grace  of  G-d  that  we  were  given 
to  live,  we  must  resolve  that  we  must  prepare  the  future  genera- 
tions to  know  of  our  tragic  and  heroic  past. 

We  must  perpetuate  the  memory  of  Six  Million  Kedoshim.  We 
must  record  and  record  every  detail  of  our  past,  so  that  we  might 
pass  it  on  from  generation  to  generation.  We  remember  the  one 
and  a half  million  Jewish  children  who  were  slaughtered  and 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


47 


Wladka’s  frequent  trips  and  those  of  two  other  girls,  contact  with 
the  Warsaw  Ghetto  underground  was  established  again. 

Encouraged  by  the  revived  fighting  spirit,  some  members  of  the 
Warsaw  ZOB  favored  an  open  revolt  in  both  camps,  promising  to 
supply  weapons.  However,  the  Czenstochova  ZOB  was  opposed  to 
the  suggestion.  The  mounting  terror  and  the  frequent  searches 
of  Polish  workers  who  would  risk  smuggling  weapons  into  the 
Hasag  camps  militated  against  the  idea.  A plan  to  escape  was  also 
abandoned  because  it  was  practically  impossible  to  reach  the 
partisan  groups  in  the  woods.  Moreover,  the  decree  of  collective 
responsibility  as  applied  by  the  Germans  restrained  the  ZOB  com- 
mand from  sending  out  its  members.  The  absence  of  one  usually 
led  to  the  execution  of  scores  of  others. 

The  fact  that  their  number  could  not  be  enlarged  limited  the 
activities  of  the  Jewish  partisans  in  the  woods  to  attacks  on  minor 
German  posts  and  on  Polish  constables  who  collaborated  with  the 
Germans,  and  to  obtaining  food  and  ammunition.  Lacking  the 
necessary  manpower  and  fighting  equipment  to  undertake  large- 
scale  attacks  against  the  Germans,  the  Jewish  partisans  decided, 
therefore,  to  contact  the  Polish  partisans  and  jointly  fight  the 
common  enemy. 

In  the  Konyetspol  woods,  there  operated,  at  that  time,  a group  of 
the  A.  K.  (Armia  Krajowa)  named  Orzel  (Eagle).  Unaware  of  their 
political  affiliation,  the  Jews  considered  them  as  their  natural 
allies  and  suggested  common  armed  action.  At  the  appointed  day 
and  place  of  the  first  meeting,  a group  of  Jews,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Kuba  Ripshtayn,  waited  for  the  representatives  of  Orzel. 
They  came  armed  with  machine  guns  and  revolvers.  Kuba  and  his 
comrades,  without  suspecting  anything,  greeted  the  approaching 
Orzel  men  with  friendly  gestures  and,  to  prove  their  friendly  feel- 
ings, did  not  even  open  their  holsters.  But  when  the  distance  be- 
tween the  two  groups  was  narrowed,  the  men  from  Orzel  fired  on 
the  Jews.  Only  one,  the  wounded  Shidlovski,  succeeded  in  escap- 
ing. The  rest  of  the  Jews  were  killed  by  the  Polish  Fascists.  This 
was  not  the  only  treacherous  act  the  Polish  Fascists  committed 
against  the  Jews  in  the  Konyetspol  woods.  These  Poles,  together 
with  Polish  police,  also  massacred  another  Jewish  partisan  group. 

The  situation  of  the  remaining  Jewish  partisans  became  more  and 
more  dangerous.  They  were  forced  to  leave  their  fortified  hiding 
places  and  live  in  the  open  woods.  Fortunately,  a Polish  peasant 
named  Romanow,  came  to  their  aid,  giving  them  a warm  meal  and 
bread  at  night.  Another  Jewish  ZOB  group  joined  a left-wing 
Polish  partisan  unit  which  operated  in  the  Konyetsp)ol  area,  under 
the  leadership  of  the  Pole  Hanysh.  The  Hanysh  unit  received  the 
Jews  in  a warm  and  friendly  manner.  With  these  progressive 
Poles,  the  Jews  could  demonstrate  their  courage  and  share  their 
fighting  abilities. 


46 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Lee^acy 


to  the  group  slated  for  deportation.  When  the  German  officer 
Rohn  resumed  the  selection,  Fishelevitch  attempted  to  shoot  him, 
but  his  revolver  jammed  at  first,  and  Rohn  suffered  only  a slight 
arm  wound.  Fishelevitch  then  fought  the  attacking  policemen 
with  his  bare  fists  until  he  was  shot  dead.  Meanwhile  Feyner  at- 
tacked another  officer,  Soport,  with  his  knife.  Feyner  was  also 
mortally  wounded. 

In  reprisal,  the  Germans  picked  twenty-five  of  the  assembled  Jews 
at  random  and  executed  them  on  the  spot.  About  300  men  and 
women,  among  them  some  ZOB  members,  were  taken  to  the 
Pblish  Police  precinct.  The  ZOB  command  did  everything  possible 
to  rescue  their  comrades.  They  succeeded  in  smuggling  in  to  them 
files  and  other  tools  with  which  to  cut  the  prison  bars,  but  their 
rapid  transfer  to  the  nearby  city  Radomsko  destroyed  the  hope 
of  a prison  break.  They  did,  however,  make  use  of  the  tools  later 
when  they  were  deported  to  extermination  centers.  They  cut  the 
bars  on  the  cattle  cars  and  together  with  other  deportees  leaped 
from  the  train.  Most  of  them  were  shot  down  by  the  escorting  gen- 
darmes or  caught  on  their  way  back  to  the  ghetto.  Only  a few 
returned. 

The  acquisition  of  weapons  was  always  a dangerous  and  costly 
undertaking.  In  December,  1942,  M.  Ferleger,  commander  of 
Nadrzeczna  66,  was  surprised  by  a German  policeman  as  he  was 
about  to  accept  some  weapons  outside  the  ghetto.  He  knocked 
down  the  German  and  escaped,  but  was  later  caught  and  taken 
to  Gestapo  headquarters  where  he  was  tortured  and  shot. 

Zoska,  the  girl  courier,  suffered  a similar  fate.  One  day  when  she 
was  bringing  weapons  from  Warsaw,  she  was  followed  by  an  in- 
former who  threatened  to  report  her  to  the  Czenstochova  police. 
Zoska  attacked  him,  but  was  soon  surrounded  by  a group  of 
Germans.  In  the  ensuing  struggle,  she  was  shot. 

The  Germans  proceeded  with  the  liquidation  of  the  ghetto,  kill- 
ing scores  on  the  spot  and  executing  hundreds  of  men,  women, 
and  children  at  the  Jewish  cemetery. 

The  ZOB  in  Hasag  and  in  the  Woods 

After  the  liquidation  of  the  Small  Ghetto,  the  connections  between 
the  various  remaining  ZOB  units  were  cut  off.  There  were  three 
groups  in  the  woods  around  Konyetspol.  Others  were  in  the  labor 
camps,  Hasag— Eisenhiitte  (Hasag  steel  mill  in  Rakov)  and 
Hasag— Apparatenbau . 

At  this  point,  contact  with  the  underground  movement  in  the 
Warsaw  Ghetto  was  also  temporarily  disrupted.  It  was  not  until 
some  weeks  later  that  Wladka,  a liaison  officer  of  the  Warsaw 
Coordinating  Committee,  came  to  Czenstochova,  made  contact 
with  groups  in  the  woods,  and  through  them,  was  put  in  touch 
with  some  ZOB  members  in  the  two  Hasag  camps.  Thanks  to 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


45 


before.  Hardships  in  the  ghetto  increased;  contact  with  the  ZOB 
(Jewish  Fighting  Organization)  in  Warsaw  had  lessened  and  only 
occasionally  did  couriers  of  the  Polish  underground  in  Warsaw 
bring  information  about  life  in  other  ghettos  and  instructions. 
One  such  message  brought  the  news  about  the  mass  deportations 
from  the  Warsaw  Ghetto  (summer,  1942)  without  the  deportees 
having  knowledge  of  what  awaited  them.  This  same  note  also  con- 
tained the  warning  that  Czenstochova  would  meet  the  same  fate 
as  other  ghettos  and  must  therefore  prepare  for  open  resistance. 

A meeting  was  set  for  September  21,  1942  (Yom  Kippur),  with 
Jewish  representatives  of  the  PPR  (Polish  Workers  Party),  the 
Bund,  the  left  wing  of  the  Poale-Zion,  the  General  Zionists  and 
its  youth  movement,  and  of  non-af filiated  groups.  A member  of 
the  Warsaw  ZOB  was  to  have  participated  in  the  deliberations. 
However,when  the  first  two  representatives,  Brener  and  Rozyne, 
arrived  at  the  meeting  place  in  the  offices  of  the  TOZ  (Society  for 
the  Protection  of  Health),  they  were  detained  and  severely  beaten 
by  German  police.  They  were  later  released,  thanks  to  a deal  be- 
tween Jewish  teamsters  and  the  policemen  for  whom  they 
worked,  but  as  a result  of  this  mishap  the  planned  meeting  did 
not  take  place. 

The  next  day  the  Germans  and  their  Polish  Fascist  helpers 
marched  into  the  Ghetto  and  began  the  deportation  round-ups. 
There  was  no  resistance  on  the  part  of  the  Jews.  The  fighting 
organization  which  was  about  to  become  a reality  had  not  come 
into  being.  Many  of  its  potential  members  were  deported  to 
Treblinka  and  later  perished  in  the  uprising  there  in  which  they 
participated.  Only  a few  of  the  original  initiators  remained  and, 
together  with  older  youths,  continued  to  organize  fighting  groups 
which  became  active  in  the  so-called  Small  Ghetto.  Some  of  the 
resistance  groups  remained  after  the  deportation  from  the  Large 
Ghetto  until  its  liquidation. 

The  first  act  of  armed  resistance  took  place  on  January  4,  1943. 
It  was  poorly  organized.  The  German  police  captain  Degenhart 
had  ordered  all  Jews  working  in  the  ghetto  that  day  to  assemble 
on  the  square.  Present  were  Mendel  Fishelevitch,  a staff  member 
of  the  Fighting  Organization,  who  had  a revolver;  his  friend, 
Isadore  Feyner,  who  had  a knife;  and  some  members  of  the  group 
Nadrzeczna  66.  The  few  pistols  the  Fighting  Organization  had 
were  taken  out  that  day  by  members  who  were  on  special 
assignments  outside  the  ghetto.  Armed  with  only  one  revolver  and 
a knife,  the  fighters  after  long  deliberation,  decided  to  assemble 
at  the  square.  There  an  “action”  was  in  progress.  The  old  women 
and  children  were  selected  for  deportation.  The  approaching 
members  of  the  Fighting  Organization  and  other  young  men  and 
women  were  immediately  surrounded  by  gendarmes  and  driven 


44 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


The  Story  of  Jewish  Resistance 
in  the  Ghetto  of  Czenstochova 

By  Dr.  William  Glicksman  (For  my  son,  Allen) 

[Dr.  Glicksman  is  a survivor  of  the  Holocaust.  He  was  arrested  by  the  Gestapo 
and  deported  to  Auschwitz  and  from  there  evacuated  to  Dachau,  where  he  was 
liberated  by  the  American  Third  Army  on  April  30,  1945.  He  came  to  the  U.S.A. 
in  May,  1946,  and  resides  with  his  family  in  Philadelphia. 

Dr.  Glicksman  — teacher,  lecturer,  and  historian  — has  written  extensively  on  the 
Holocaust  theme.  Among  his  important  monographs  are:  Social  Differentiations 
in  the  German  Concentration  Camps,  The  Function  of  the  Jewish  Police  in  the 
Ghetto  of  Czenstochova,  and  Aspects  of  the  Economic  and  Social  Life  of  the  Jews 
in  the  Ghettos. 

He  is  also  the  author  of  In  the  Mirror  of  Literature,  a portrayal  of  the  economic 
life  of  the  Jews  in  Poland  as  it  is  reflected  in  Yiddish  literature  (1914— 1939).  Cur- 
rently, Dr.  Glicksman  teaches  at  Dropsie  College  in  Philadelphia,  and  is  a Fellow 
of  the  Diaspora  Research  Institute  at  the  Tel-Aviv  University. 

The  account  that  follows  is  based,  in  addition  to  the  author's  personal  experiences 
in  the  Czenstochova  Ghetto,  on  a variety  of  sources  dealing  with  his  subject,  par- 
ticularly the  works  of  L.  Brener,  among  them  Resistance  and  Extermination  in 
the  Ghetto  of  Czenstochova  (Jewish  Historical  Institute  of  Warsaw).] 


The  idea  of  a resistance  movement  was  conceived  in  the  very 
first  months  of  the  war  when  the  leaders  of  various  political  par- 
ties, as  well  as  politically  non-af filiated  young  men  and  women, 
reorganized  themselves  into  cells  for  the  purpose  of  secretly  con- 
tinuing their  activities.  Their  ultimate  goal  was  the  creation  of 
a fighting  organization.  These  groups  met  at  cemeteries  during 
funerals,  in  old-age  homes,  and  in  social  welfare  institutions,  to 
work  out  plans  for  such  illegal  activities  as  education  for  the 
children,  maintenance  of  a library,  and  the  publication  and  dis- 
tribution of  periodicals. 

In  order  to  coordinate  the  illegal  work  of  the  various  parties,  inter- 
group  conferences  were  held  from  time  to  time.  At  one  such  con- 
ference, in  August,  1941,  the  question  of  organizing  a unified 
resistance  movement  was  brought  up  again.  Unfortunately,  dif- 
ferences of  opinion  among  the  members  prevented  its  formation. 
But  early  in  1942  the  combination  of  a number  of  factors  made 
the  creation  of  a fighting  organization  even  more  imperative  than 


C2^NSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Legacy 


43 


JUNE  16.  1943 

At  7:00  o’clock  in  the  morning  everyone  in  the  ghetto  was  ordered 
to  meet  outside  because  Degenhart  and  his  officers,  Ron,  Verner, 
etc.,  were  making  a “selection”.  Hundreds  of  Jews  were  arrested 
and  taken  to  the  Jewish  cemetery  where  they  were  murdered.  The 
others  were  loaded  onto  trucks  and  sent  to  the  ammunition  fac- 
tories. More  than  800  Jewish  people  were  murdered  in  Czensto- 
chova  during  the  two  day  action. 

JUNE  26.  1943 

The  Germans  believed  that  many  Jews  were  hidden  in  bunkers. 
An  amnesty  was  declared  for  those  who  would  give  themselves 
up  by  Monday,  the  28th  of  June.  The  result  of  this  trick  — a mass 
grave  of  200  women,  children  and  elderly  who  were  present  on 
Tuesday,  the  29th  of  June.  At  5:00  a.m.,  the  massacre  took  place 
in  the  cemetery.  At  the  execution,  the  people  had  to  undress  and 
had  to  walk  in  pairs  to  the  open  grave  as  one  gunshot  served  to 
kill  two  people  and  their  bodies  fell  into  the  grave. 

JULY  20.  1943 

The  houses  in  the  small  ghetto  were  blown  up  with  dynamite.  A 
“selection”  took  place  at  the  work  places.  That  day,  70  more  people 
were  murdered,  including  the  Jewish  police  and  their  families. 


This  Monument  was  erected  in  1945, 
on  the  Jewish  Cemetery  in  Czenstochov. 


A collective  Tombstone,  with  127  people  who  were  murdered  on 
Purim,  of  March  27,  1943.  Among  them  were  Professionals, 
members  of  the  Judenrat,  men,  women  and  children.  The  family 
Kopinski  lost  many  members  of  their  family  that  night. 


42 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Legacy 


Forty  thousand  Jews  passed  before  the  tyrant  Degenhart,  “Yemak 
Shemoi”,  during  the  three  weeks  of  “selection”.  Present  as  well 
during  the  selection  was  the  Greneral  of  the  SS  and  Pohce  Chief 
of  the  Radomer  district,  Greneral  Betcher.  Szmuel  Groldstein,  who 
had  been  for  the  past  18  years  the  “Preses”,  that  is  the  chairman 
of  the  Jewish  community  of  Czenstochov,  a prominent  “Mizrachi” 
leader  and  participant  in  all  of  the  Jewish  institutions,  attempted 
suicide.  Wearing  the  Talis  and  Tifillin,  he  jumped  out  of  the  win- 
dow of  his  second  floor  apartment,  but  was  stopped  by  a German 
guard  and  beaten.  He  was  sent  to  Treblinka. 

All  the  Jews  were  beaten  and  taken  under  heavy  guard  to  the 
waiting  cattle  trains.  The  prominent  Orthodox  Jew,  Ytche  Meir 
Krell,  walked  barefoot  and  with  dignity  “.  . . and  this  is  the  will 
of  the  Almighty,  brothers  and  sisters,”  he  called  out.  With  him 
in  this  transport  to  Treblinka  were  J.H.  Zitnicki,  A.H.  Shipper, 
Zeligfeld  and  Blumenkrantz. 

THE  SMALL  GHETTO 

One  of  the  oldest  and  dirtiest  parts  of  the  city,  near  the  River 
Warta,  was  enclosed  with  barbed  wire.  A few  streets  in  that  area 
became  the  “small  ghetto”.  Workers  were  selected  and  threaten- 
ed with  death  should  they  fail  to  come  to  work  each  day.  They 
marched  to  work  under  the  watchful  eyes  of  the  “Workschutz” 
police.  After  12  hours  of  work  under  unbearable  conditions,  they 
returned  in  the  evening  to  the  sleeping  holes  in  the  small  ghetto. 

SATURDAY,  ON  THE  EVE  OF  PURIM,  MARCH  20.  1943 

The  Nazi  Degenhart  ordered  what  was  called  the  “prisoner 
exchange  to  Palestine”.  The  Judenrat,  including  doctors  and  other 
“intelligencia”,  together  with  their  families,  were  gathered  in  a 
house  outside  the  barbed  wire  of  the  small  ghetto.  All  the  pris- 
oners exchange  groups  were  ordered  onto  military  trucks  and 
taken  to  the  Jewish  cemetery  where  they  were  all  murdered.  On 
this  day,  127  people  perished.  Some  of  the  executioners  were  the 
“Schutzpolizei”,  Schott,  Klufaz,  Esof  Szemil,  Uvkelbad,  Hantke. 

THE  DESTRUCTION  OF  THE  SMALL  GHETTO.  JUNE  6th.  1943 

Several  police  cars  arrived  at  about  4:00  a.m. , and  the  small  ghetto 
was  attacked  by  heavy  gun  fire  and  the  spray  of  machine  gun 
bullets.  The  people  fled  to  the  underground  tunnel.  Degenhart 
ordered  hand  grenades  to  be  thrown.  That  attack  lasted  over  an 
hour.  Many  people  were  killed,  and  those  who  survived  were 
loaded  onto  trucks  and  taken  away  to  be  executed. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


41 


SCHOOLS 

Schooling  was  a special  problem  for  Jewish  children.  Schools 
existed  in  secrecy,  lead  by  Dr.  Merring  and  other  teachers. 

Under  these  terrible  conditions,  much  was  accomplished.  Two  of 
the  leaders,  Mr.  Roziner  and  Dr.  Walberg,  of  TOZ,  were  killed  in 
June,  1943,  upon  orders  of  Degenhart. 

APRIL  9th,  1941 

Fbr  Czenstochover  Jews,  the  large  ghetto  became  a reality  on  this 
day.  Theoretically,  the  boundaries  of  the  ghetto  went  from  the  rail 
bridge  to  as  far  as  Warta  Bridge.  The  left  side  extended  to  Kavia 
Street.  The  house.  Alee  14  Wilsama,  Pilsudskiego,  and  a part  of 
the  Strazacka  Street,  remained  outside  the  ghetto. 

The  Jewish  police  were  posted  at  the  gates.  Signs  in  Polish  and 
German  on  the  Aryan  side  of  the  ghetto  announced  the  following: 

“Because  of  disease,  entrance  is  strictly  prohibited/* 

There  was  also  another  sign  in  German,  Polish  and  Hebrew,  which 
read: 

''Death  penalty  for  crossing  the  ghetto.** 

To  outsiders,  it  looked  like  the  Jewish  ghetto  was  a self-ruling 
community  but,  in  reality,  it  was  used  as  a means  to  keep  all  the 
Jews  in  one  location  and  under  guard,  a plan  that  was  later  used 
in  the  “Final  Solution’’. 

THE  CONFISCATION  OF  FUR  COATS,  DECEMBER  24,  1941 

By  the  end  of  1941,  a new  decree  declared  that  Jews  were  forbid- 
den to  own  furs,  a crime  punishable  by  the  death  penalty.  In  the 
course  of  48  hours,  five  railway  truck  loads  of  furs  were  collected 
and  delivered  to  the  Nazis. 

WORK  SHOPS  ORGANIZED,  1942 

With  the  help  of  Dr.  Michael  Wychert,  the  Chairman  of  the  Jewish 
Social  Service,  the  Judenrat  organized  work  shops  in  order  to  give 
the  Jews  the  opportunity  to  earn  a living  in  all  types  of  work 
places.  Permission  for  such  work  facilities  had  to  be  obtained,  and 
the  Jews  were  charged  large  sums  of  money  for  that  privilege. 

In  the  meantime,  over  500  Jewish  workers  were  used  in  the  large 
ammunition  factories  of  Hugo  Schneider,  Hasag  Pelcem,  “Warta”, 
“Czenstochovianka”  and  “Rockov”. 

SEPTEMBER  22,  1942 

In  the  early  morning,  after  Yom  Kippur,  at  3:00  a.m.,  the  destruc- 
tion of  the  Czenstochover  Jewish  community  began,  when  all  the 
street  lights  were  turned  on  so  that  it  became  difficult  to  hide. 


40 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  legacy 


THE  ELECTION  OF  A “JUDENRAT” 

The  first  day  of  “Hoi  Homod  Sukkoth”,  Leon  Kopinsky  was 
ordered  by  the  Gestapo  to  organize  a committee,  an  Eldest- Rath, 
of  24  people  who  would  be  responsible  for  the  Jewish  community 
of  Czenstochova.  A meeting  was  called  and  sixty  representatives 
of  many  influential,  social,  public  and  political  organizations  met 
and  chose  a “Judenrat”  of  24  people. 

DECEMBER  15,  1939 

All  the  Jews  were  ordered  to  wear  white  arm  bands  with  the  blue 
imprint  of  the  Star  of  David  on  their  left  arm.  Jews  were  not 
allowed  on  the  trains  or  any  other  public  transport. 

DECEMBER  24.  1939 

At  about  7:00  p.m.,  a fire  broke  out  in  the  “shul”  on  Garibaldi 
Street  and  burned  it  to  the  ground.  Destroyed  were  the  Torah 
Scrolls  and  the  splendid  library  of  the  Judaic  Institute  of  the 
synagogue.  The  spiritual  leader  was  Dr.  H.Z.  Hirsh  berg.  At  the 
same  time,  a pogrom  was  organized  by  the  Poles  of  Czenstochova, 
which  plundered  the  shops  and  broke  the  windows  in  the  Jewish 
section  of  the  city. 

JANUARY,  1940 

There  was  a night  raid,  organized  by  the  Gendarmery  officer  Am- 
baras  and  his  group.  The  men  and  women  in  the  Jewish  section 
were  ordered  to  go  out  into  the  new  Market  Place  in  the  bitter  cold. 
There  they  stood  for  several  hours.  They  were  then  ordered  to  go 
to  a local  school  where  they  were  physically  searched  for  gold. 

That  same  month,  there  was  a new  law  regarding  forced  labour 
for  all  the  Jews.  All  men  between  the  ages  of  14  and  60,  including 
converts  to  Christianity,  had  to  sign  up  for  forced  labour  for  the 
Germans.  The  “Judenrat”  were  required  to  supply  a certain 
number  of  people  to  do  labour.  The  raids  continued  and  people 
were  also  taken  off  the  street. 

By  1940  Jews  were  not  allowed  to  own  factories  and  businesses, 
previously  run  by  Jews,  were  now  taken  over  by  German 
‘ ‘Treuhanders  ’ ’ ! 

Under  these  unbearable  conditions,  the  refugees  arrived  from 
Krakow,  Plock,  Bodzancv  and  Lodz.  They  organized  “the  Jewish 
self -ruling  system”  comprised  of  police,  courts,  health  office  and 
bread  cards. 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Leffacy 


39 


lik 


six  people.  He  was  told  to  bring  these  people  to  the  office  that 
afternoon.  The  names  on  the  list  were  L.  Kopinsky,  L.  Bromberg, 
H.D.  Berliner,  D.  Koniecpoler,  J.  Krauze  and  J.  Engel.  Fbur  were 
executive  members  of  the  Jewish  community,  “Kehila”,  the  others 
were  a manufacturer  and  a home  owner.  A decision  was  made  to 
meet  with  the  Secretary  of  the  “Kehila”,  H.  Wien,  at  2:00  p.m.  in 
his  house.  At  that  meeting,  it  was  agreed  that  they  would  be  the 
official  contact  between  the  Jewish  Community  and  the  law. 

At  3:00  p.m.  we  arrived  at  the  “Bank  Handlovy”  and  the  guards 
greeted  us  with  the  words,  “Die  Hunde  sind  da”  — the  dogs  are 
here.  The  guards  directed  us  to  a room  and  at  the  table  were  three 
Gestapo  officers.  After  some  formalities,  one  of  the  officers  told 
us  that,  in  fact,  they  were  supposed  to  kill  us  for  what  we  did  to 
the  German  army  when  they  were  invading  Czenstochova,  but 
that  they  still  had  lots  of  time  to  kill  us.  We  were  placed  under 
arrest,  but  were  told  that  we  were  to  be  released  for  two  days.  We 
were  asked  for  the  names  of  the  Chairman,  Vice-Chairman  and 
Treasurer  of  our  group. 

ROSH  HASHANA.  2nd  DAY.  1939 

We  were  told  that  the  German  authorities  had  arrested  100  Jews 
from  another  city  We  made  contact  with  them,  and  we  learned 
that  they  were  arrested  on  the  highways  and  most  were  from  Lodz. 
There  were  no  women  among  them.  We  gave  them  medical  sup- 
plies received  from  the  druggist  H.  Neufeld,  with  the  help  of  Cesia 
Kozak.  The  six  arrested  Jews  had  to  report  to  the  Gestapo  every 
second  day.  They  spent  their  time  organizing  a kitchen  to  provide 
free  meals  for  the  people  of  the  community. 

The  old  city  “shul”  was  destroyed  by  the  Poles  during  those  ten 
days  around  Rosh  Hashana  and  Yom  Kippur. 

SEPTEMBER  30.  1939 

Every  day  there  were  new  edicts.  Jews  were  not  allowed  to  possess 
more  than  100  zloty.  The  balance  of  their  money  and  all  their 
valuables,  including  jewellery,  had  to  be  deposited  in  the  bank.  The 
City  Hall  operated  under  a temporary  City  President,  A.  Belka, 
a Volksdeutscher  resident  of  Czenstochova.  He  was  arrogant  and 
brutal  towards  the  Jews.  There  existed  also  a very  bad  relation- 
ship between  the  Jews  and  Poles  of  the  city 

It  was,  therefore,  decided  to  send  a delegation  to  Bishop  Kobina. 
In  that  group  were  Neufeld,  Ziriker,  Eng.  Levkowicz  and  Dr.  Safer. 
Unfortunately,  when  that  delegation  went  to  see  Bishop  Kobina, 
they  found  that  he  was  under  “house  arrest”. 


38 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


A Diary  of  Sad  Days 

By  David  Koniecpoler 

Translated  from  Czenst€>chover  book,  published  in  Israel 
SEPTEMBER  1,  1939 

The  Polish  army  and  the  police  left  the  city  of  Czenstochova  and 
panic  spread.  Thousands  of  Jews  abandoned  their  homes,  taking 
only  their  most  important  possessions,  on  the  run  with  no 
destination.  Hundreds  more  Jews  from  the  neighbouring  areas 
came  into  the  city,  people  of  all  ages,  trying  to  escape  the  ap- 
proaching German  army. 

SEPTEMBER  3.  1939 

Yesterday,  Saturday,  we  saw  the  first  military  units  marching  into 
the  city,  and  today  there  are  larger  groups  of  military  units.  The 
Jewish  pKDpulation  was  in  the  streets. 

SEPTEMBER  4,  1939 

Early  in  the  morning,  there  were  rumours  that  the  “Gestapo”  has 
arrived.  At  about  11:00  a.m.,  continuous  rifle  shots  could  be  heard. 
The  Gestapo  were  searching  buildings  and  chasing  people  out  of 
their  homes.  Men  were  forced  into  the  streets  where  they  were 
either  shot  or  taken  away.  At  the  churches,  factories  and  open 
squares,  hundreds  were  ordered  to  lie,  face  down,  on  the  ground 
and  rifles  were  fired  into  the  air. 

These  events  continued  until  Wednesday,  the  6th  of  September. 
A group  of  about  400  people  made  up  of  both  Jews  and  Pbles  were 
beaten  and  tortured.  There  were  dead  people  and  dead  horses  and 
cows  lying  together  in  the  gutters. 

Many  Jews  were  rounded  up  and  taken  to  jails  and  military 
barracks.  Stores  were  vandalized  and  Jevsdsh  homes  were  ran- 
sacked. Men  were  dragged  from  their  homes  never  to  return. 

JEWISH  NEW  YEAR  (Erev  Rosh  Hashana),  1939 

M.  Asz  came  to  my  home  with  a list  in  his  hand,  telling  me  about 
the  arrest  of  two  ritual  judges.  Rabbis  Kleinplatz  and  Greenfeld. 
Those  arrested  were  brought  to  the  cellar  of  the  “Bank  Handlovy”. 
M.  Asz  was  called  to  the  office  of  the  Gestapo  and  given  a list  of 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


37 


typhoid  epidemic  broke  out,  the  camp  was  closed  (January  16, 
1945),  and  the  surviving  inmates  were  deported  to  an  unknown 
destination. 

In  June  1943,  the  HASAG  Rakow  steel  mill  was  opened  in  which  five 
hundred  to  one  thousand  Jews  from  Slovakia  and  Poland  were  ex- 
ploited. It  was  closed  on  January  16,  1945,  and  the  workers  were 
sent  to  the  Buchenwald  and  Ravensbrtick  camps.  The  largest 
camp  in  the  Czenstochova  area  was  HASAG  Pelcern,  which  func- 
tioned from  June  1943  until  January  16,  1945.  This  was  a muni- 
tions factory  employing,  at  any  given  time,  about  five  thousand 
Jews,  from  Poland,  Germany,  Austria  and  Bohemia.  Finally,  there 
was  an  average  of  three  thousand  Jews  working  in  the  munitions 
factory  of  Warta  and  Czenstochovianka. 

In  December  1942,  the  Zydowska  Organizacia  Bojowa  (Jewish 
Fighting  Organization  — ZOB)  created  a resistance  unit  in 
Czenstochova,  with  some  300  participants.  They  maintained  con- 
tact with  the  Warsaw  center.  In  January  1943,  this  group,  under 
the  leadership  of  Mendel  Fiszlewicz,  offered  armed  resistance  to 
a German  Aktion.  During  the  clash,  251  Jews  were  killed;  the  rest 
were  deported  to  Radomsko  and  from  there  to  Treblinka.  The 
reprisals  that  followed  included  the  murder  of  127  of  the  Jewish 
intelligentsia,  and  250  children  and  elderly  people.  In  other 
resistance  groups,  there  were  two  relatively  large  units  of  par- 
tisans, who  were  killed  by  Polish  rightist  partisans,  and  several 
small  units  that  joined  the  leftist  Polish  partisans.  On  June  25, 
1943,  another  ZOB  group  tried  to  resist  the  liquidation  of  the 
small  ghetto.  When  the  Soviet  army  liberated  Czenstochova,  there 
were  still  some  5,000  Jews  in  the  area.  In  June  1946,  2,167  Jews 
were  living  in  Czenstochova.  After  the  Kielce  pogrom  on  July  4, 
many  of  them  joined  the  Berhia  for  Palestine. 


Fbrced  labour  group  in  the  large  ghetto 


36 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legacy 


Persecution  of  Che  Jews 
In  Czenstochova 

Excerpt  from:  Gutman  - **Encyclopedm  of  the  Holocaust** 

The  Germans  entered  Czenstochova  on  Sunday,  September  3, 
1939,  the  third  day  of  the  war,  and  persecution  of  its  Jews  began 
at  once.  More  than  300  Jews  were  killed  on  the  following  day, 
which  became  known  as  “Bloody  Monday”.  On  September  16,  a 
Judenrat  (Jewish  Council)  was  formed,  headed  by  Leon  Kopinski. 
Confiscation  of  Jewish  property  and  household  effects,  beatings, 
mockery,  and  degradation  went  on  incessantly.  In  August  1940, 
1,000  young  Jews  were  rounded  up  and  sent  to  the  Cicchanow 
forced-labor  camps;  very  few  survived. 

A ghetto  was  established  on  April  9,  1941,  by  order  of  the 
Stadthauptmann  (city  commissioner),  SS-Brigadefiihrer 
Dr.  Richard  Wendler,  in  the  eastern,  old  part  of  the  city.  The  ghetto 
was  sealed  off  on  August  23.  Some  twenty  thousand  Jews  from 
other  cities  (Lodz,  Flock,  Krakow)  and  villages  were  sent  to  the 
Czenstochova  ghetto,  which  eventually  held  more  than  forty-eight 
thousand  persons.  The  main  places  of  work  outside  the  ghetto 
were  the  German  Metallurgie  military  factories  on  Krotka  Street. 

In  preparation  for  the  forthcoming  liquidation  of  the  ghetto,  in 
May  1942,  the  Germans  seized  and  killed  the  Jewish  social, 
cultural  and  political  activists.  Large-scale  Aktionen  began  on 
September  22  and  lasted  until  October  8.  In  each  deportation, 
some  eight  thousand  Jews  were  packed  into  sixty  freight  cars.  A 
total  of  thirty-nine  thousand  Jews  were  sent  in  this  way  to  the 
Treblinka  extermination  camp.  Elderly  people,  in  the  home  for  the 
aged,  and  the  children  in  the  orphanage  were  killed  on  the  spot. 
About  two  thousand  Jews  managed  to  escape  or  to  hide  in  the  city. 

After  the  deportations,  the  northeastern  part  of  the  ghetto,  called 
the  “small  ghetto”,  held  some  five  thousand  able-bodied  Jews  with 
skills  or  professions.  On  September  2,  a privately-owned  German 
munitions  factory  (Apparatenbau)  belonging  to  the  HASAG  net- 
work, was  established  in  the  suburb  of  Stradom.  This  forced-labor 
camp  existed  for  two  years,  and  a total  of  three  thousand  Jews 
from  Poland,  Germany  and  Austria  passed  through  it.  When  a 


u 

Persecution, 
Resistance  and 

Destruction 
of  the 

Jewish 

Community 


Personal  Memories 
ami  Documents 


34 


CZENSTOCHOV  - Our  Legrgcy 


I.  L.  PERETZ  FOLK  TALES 
Drawing  by 
Yossel  Bergner 


CZENSTOCHOV  ~ Our  Le/sracy 


33 


A young  farmer  girl  noticed  the  blond  Jewish  boy  dressed  in  his 
white  shirt.  She  stared  at  him  for  a long  time,  thinking  what  a 
beautiful  child  he  was.  Suddenly,  the  impulse  overcame  her  to 
want  to,  together  with  her  father,  kidnap  the  boy.  They  offered  my 
brother  a few  candies  and  he  let  the  farmer  girl  pick  him  up  to 
sit  beside  her  on  the  wagon.  She  embraced  him,  smiling  happily. 
The  old  farmer  was  in  a very  good  mood,  pleased  that  he  was  tak- 
ing home  such  a good  bargain.  After  a year  or  two,  the  boy  would 
grow  up  to  be  a good  Christian  shepherd  for  his  sheep  and  cattle. 

By  chance,  our  cousin,  Gitele,  wanted  to  buy  some  potatoes  for 
Passover  from  the  same  farmer.  Suddenly  she  noticed  her 
youngest  cousin.  Aunt  Deborah’s  son,  Avraham  Szlomele.  He  was 
sitting  on  the  lap  of  a farmer  girl.  She  went  over  to  the  wagon. 
Gitele  reached  to  take  him  off  the  wagon  but  the  farmer  and  his 
wife  started  yelling  that  the  boy  was  their  grandson.  The  farmer 
lifted  his  fist  in  anger  and  was  about  to  drive  away.  “This  is  my 
aunt’s  son’’,  Gitele  shouted.  “Give  me  back  the  child.”  A large 
crowd  was  gathering,  Christians  and  Jews  alike.  The  air  was  very 
tense.  The  shouting  became