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Serving To Heal. ..Honored To Serve 

Fort Irwin 

Food Handler Class 

Environmental Health 

BLDG 172 
(760) 380-3235 

Requirements for Temporary Food 

► A Temporary Food Establishment operates for a period of no more than 14 
consecutive days in conjunction with a single event or celebration. An organizational 
cookout, chapel suppers, pot luck & other similar events are NOT considered 
temporary food establishments. (Unless there is being money changed for services) 

►TB MED 530/NAVMED P-5010-1/AFMAN 48-147JP, Tri-Service Food Code, specifies 
requirements for vendor application to operate a food establishment, employee 
training, and safe food handling practices. 

° Submit an application to operate to the Preventive Medicine office at least 30 days prior to the 
scheduled event or opening of the operation. 

° Pass a pre-operational inspection conducted by Preventive Medicine prior to serving customers. 
(For Special Events and AAFES contracts Only) 

° Food operation person in charge must possess a valid Food Protection Manager certification. 

(When using Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF)) 

° When using Potentially Hazardous Food, person in charge must remain on site at all times when 
the food operation is open for business. (Must have a valid Food Protection Manager certification) 
° Food service workers must be trained to perform prescribed duties in a safe manner and in 
accordance with prescribed sanitation and food safety requirements. 

Purpose and Objective 

*■ PurpoS0 - This training is designed to famiiiarize famiiy 
readiness groups and Non-profit organization operating a 
temporary food establishment with the basic principles of 
food safety that must be applied when conducting food 
operations on military installations. 

ObjSCtivS - The objective for adhering to established 
food safety principles is to prevent the occurrence of 
foodborne illness. 

Scope of Training - 

° Understand factors that contribute to foodborne illness. 
Understand controls that will minimize the risk of foodborne 


Training Outiine 

■■ Foodborne Illness 
Food Safety Hazards 

Biological Hazards and the Nature of Bacteria 
Key Terms 

Foodborne Illness Risk Factors 
Food Protection During Storage 
Layers of Protection 
■■ Personal Hygiene & Work Habits 
Proper Cleaning & Sanitizing 
Time & Temperature Controls 
Maintaining Area Sanitation 
Summary of Requirements 

Foodborne Illness 

►Just because you don't hear about it often, doesn't 
meant it doesn't happen... Only a small percentage of 
actual foodborne illness cases ever get reported- 

° An estimated 76 million people in the US get sick each year 
from food. 

° There are about 325,000 hospitalizations and 5000 deaths 
each year because of diseases transmitted through food. 

° Foodborne illness outbreaks do occur on military installations - 
1 incident in 2012 resulted in over 100 soldiers getting sick. 

► Personnel who prepare and handle food play a key role 
in the prevention of foodborne illnesses by - 
° Adhering to the prescribed food safety measures; and 
° Maintaining sanitary controls within food operations. 

Food Safety Hazards 

► Harmful substances that present a food 
safety hazard can be Chemical, Physical, or 
Biological in nature and may result in injury 
or illness when ingested. 

"Chemical: Detergents, sanitizing agents, 
pesticides, fuel, etc... 

° Physical: bone fragments, glass, toothpicks, etc... 
° Biological: bacteria, viruses, parasites, yeast, and 

Key Terms 

" A foodborne illness outbreak is defined as 2 or more 
cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a 
common food, ice and beverages are included as a "food" 

*■ Contaminated - The presence of harmful substances 
(physical, chemical, or biological) in or on food. 

*■ Clean - Clean to sight and touch means there is no visible 
debris, encrusted food, or greasy feeling. 

*■ Sanitize - Sanitizing is a process of reducing the total 
number of micro-organisms ("germs") on a surface to safe 
levels. This is not the same as “steriiization," which is a process used 
in hospitais to kiil (remove) ail micro-organisms that are on a surface. 

• RTE- Ready to Eat. Examples of RTE food include deli meats and 
cheeses, breads and rolls, salads, and fruits which will be eaten raw. 

Key Terms (Continued) 

Cross-contamination - The transfer of a harnnful 
substance to food through direct or indirect contact— Spilled 
chemicals or detergents on food packages or surfaces where food 
comes into direct contact, such as plates, silverware, and food prep 

Using unsanitized equipment or utensils to prepare, store, or serve 

► Bare-hand contact with foods that are ready-to-eat (RTE) such as 
fresh fruits, sandwiches, salad vegetables, and deli meats & cheese. 
° Bacteria from raw foods transferred to foods that are ready-to-eat. 
For example — Blood from raw meat dripping onto RTE foods stored on a 
lower shelf in the refrigerator. 

° Cutting boards and knives used to prepare raw meat are not cleaned and 
sanitized and are then used to prepare RTE foods. 

Key Terms (Continued) 

Potentially Hazardous Food ( PH F) (Time/Temperature 
Control for Safety Food) - A food that requires time or 
temperature control for safety to limit the growth of 
harmful micro-organisms or the formation of toxins. 
Examples include but are not limited to: Raw or heat-treated 
(cooked) animal food - meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products 

► Heat-treated plant food - rice, pasta, baked potato, fried onions, 
cooked appies 

► Cut plant foods - cut tomatoes, cut ieafy greens (spinach/saiad), 
cut meions, chopped gariic in oii 

► Raw seed sprouts 

► Cream pies 

► Gravies 

Foodborne Illness Risk Factors 

There are 5 major risk factors related to employee behaviors and 
food preparation practices that contribute to foodborne illness: 

° Food from unsafe sources- 

D Food must be obtained from sanitary sources that conform to local, state, and 
federal statutes and regulations. 

0 Food prepared in private homes are NOT authorized for sale or service at 
temporary food establishments. All PFIFs must be prepared onsite 

° Inadequate cooking- food must be cooked to prescribed temperatures in 
order to kill and residual bacteria, viruses, or parasites that might be in or 
on the food 

° Improper holding temperatures- PFIFs must be held at proper cold or hot 
holding temperatures to prevent the growth of bacteria 
° Contaminated equipment- food contact surfaces must be cleaned and 
sanitized to prevent cross contamination of food 
° Poor personal hygiene- food employees must adhere to standards of 
hygiene to prevent contamination of food contact surfaces and food. 

Food Protected During Storage 

► Do NOT store boxes or containers of food directly on the floor or 

° Food should be at least 6 inches off the floor to prevent contamination or 
pest access. 

► Protect from contamination when stored in refrigerators/freezers 
and ice chests- 

° All food must be wrapped or held in a covered container 
° Food packaging/containers should be closed/covered so that there is no 
exposed food. 

° Food containers or packaging must be impermeable to protect from melting 
ice when stored in ice chests 

° Storage units must be kept clean; free of residual food debris. 

° Ice used to keep foods cold may NOT be used for consumption 

Cover food when held in hot or cold holding during serving periods 

► Always examine food for signs of contamination or spoilage before 

Layers of Protection 

*■ Applying multiple levels of control called the Layers 
of Protection is the underlying principle for reducing 
the risk of foodborne illness from biological hazards. 

° Good personal hygiene and work habits represent the first 
layer of protection to prevent transferring biological 
contaminants to food and surfaces that generally come into 
contact with food 

° Proper cleaning and sanitizing is the second layer of 
control that prevents cross-contamination of food by 
removing harmful agents from surfaces 
° Time and temperature controls are employed to prevent 
the growth of harmful microorganisms that may already 
exist in the food 

Personal Hygiene and Work 

► People are natural carries of bacteria- 

° staph bacteria is found on skin and hair, regardless of how often 
you bathe 

° Bacteria such as E.-coli are found in our intestines. 

► People can also carry harmful viruses that are readily 
transmitted through food or contact surfaces that are 
touched by others 

° Norovirus is a primary example; it can live on surfaces such as 
door handles, dishes, chairs etc. for several days 
° Infection occurs when contaminated food is ingested or 
contaminated hands come into contact with mucous 

► Proper and frequent hand washing and proper use of 
disposable gloves can reduce the risk of transmission 

When to Wash Hands 

Before beginning work 

After using toiiet faciiities 

After smoking, eating, or taking a break 

Before putting on disposabie gioves and between giove 

Before handiing cieaned and sanitized equipment and 

After every chance of contamination 

Before conducting any task invoiving food handiing 

Hand Washing Sink 

A dedicated hand washing sink must be provided at the 
food concession for food empioyee use oniy 

° Sinks used for washing food equipment/utensils may NOT be 
used for hand washing. 

Hand washing sinks iocated near the iatrines may NOT be 
substituted as the designated food empioyee hand washing 

Use of sanitizing hand geis is NOT authorized as a 
substitute for proper hand washing. 

Hand Washing Standards 

*■ Use hot water when available 

*■ Hand washing sinks must be supplied with soap 
and disposable paper towels at all times 
° Hands must be dried completely after washing 

*■ A trash receptacle must be supplied at every hand 
washing sink 

*■ Requirements- 

° Lather all exposed skin up to mid-forearm 
° Lather/scrub for a minimum of 20 seconds 
° Rinse and dry 

Use of disposable gloves does NOT exempt food 
employees from washing their hands 

Health Requirements 

Disclosure by Worker to the supervisor— 

° Diarrhea, Vomiting, Fever -- personnel are restricted from performing any tasks 
associated with the food concession. 

° Individuals with diarrhea must be cleared by a medical practitioner before they will be 
authorized to work at the food concession. 

► At the beginning of each work shift, the Supervisor must inspect employees for 
signs of illness or injury— 

° Frequent coughing or sneezing; 

° Cuts or unhealed burns on hands and forearm; 

° Infected wounds (oozing boils, pimples, sores). 

The Supervisor will— 

° Limit workers with persistent cough/sneezing or infected wounds to non-food or 
equipment handling duties (trash management, cash register). 

° Ensure all wounds/burns are covered with impermeable, tight-fitting bandage and 
disposable gloves are worn if wound is on hands. 

° Use workers without symptoms/injuries to perform: food preparation, equipment & utensil 
washing & sanitizing, and handling clean dishware or disposable eating utensils. 



► Outer clothing must be clean. 

° Free of visible soil, stains, debris/particulates; 

° Free of fuel or other chemical residues; 

“Wearing an apron is recommended & can readily be exchanged when it becomes soiled. 

► Adequate hair restraints must be worn by all personnel preparing or handling 

° Hairnet - Beard-net (snood) and arm-net/sleeve to effectively cover hair on face or 
exposed arms. 

° Paper/disposable hat or clean cap may be worn instead of hairnet— 

□ Individuals with long hair must pin or tie loose hair not contained by the hat/cap. 

D All males must wear a hat even if head is clean shaven - hats prevent perspiration from 
dripping onto surfaces/food. 

► Personnel preparing food may not wear jewelry on hands or wrist (except)— 

° Plain/smooth wedding band 

Hygiene Standards 

► Fingernails 

° Neatly trimmed & smooth; 

° No false nails, polish, or nail jewelry/ornaments - disposable gloves must be worn if 

► No eating or drinking in food preparation or serving areas. 

° Exception: Water in a closed container with straw. 

° Use only designated break areas away from food or utensil cleaning. 

►When disposable gloves are worn, change often and between tasks 

° Between handling soiled and cleaned/sanitized equipment & utensils; 

° After handling trash; 

° After wiping tables/counters; 

° Before refilling condiment , napkin, and eating utensil dispensers; 

° Before handling money; 

° When gloves become torn. 

° Wash your hands between each glove change! 

Proper Cleaning and Sanitizing 

► There are many tasks that require application of proper cleaning 
and sanitizing procedures: 

° Washing pot/pan, equipment, and utensil used for food; 

° Wiping down tables and serving counters; 

° Cleaning dispensers and condiment containers. 

Food employees must adhere to proper procedures for— 

° Preparing and managing sanitizing solutions; 

° Managing wiping cloths; 

° Using a 3-compartment sink configuration for washing food equipment & 

° Handling cleaned and sanitized equipment & utensils. 

° When using a three-compartment sink, utensil/kitchenware's are to be 
immersed for a minimum of - 30 seconds if using a chemical sanitizer or 

Methods for Sanitizing 

*• Hot water is the preferred method for sanitizing equipment 
and utensils when using a 3-compartment sink 

*■ Chemicals such as bleach are generally used for all other 
sanitizing activities 

*■ Sanitizing chemicals come in a concentrated formula that 
must be diluted in a water solution to a prescribed 

*• Food employees must- 

° Prepare fresh sanitizing soiutions daily and as often as necessary to 
maintain proper concentration and to keep the soiution free of visibie 
debris when in use 

° Verify the minimum required concentration was achieved and the 
maximum concentration was not exceeded each time a solution is 

° Monitor concentration throughout the day or period of use 

When Sanitizing Soiutions are 

*• Use only sanitizing agents approved for food service 
° Chlorine bleach or quaternary ammonia 
*• Prepare according to manufacturer’s instruction and as 
specified for your food operation 

*• The concentration of a solution is dissipated by time, heat, 
contamination and soapy water and may need fresh 
preparation throughout the day 
*• Do NOT mix different sanitizing agents in the same solution 
Verify concentrations when prepared and throughout the 
day using appropriate test kit or test paper 

° Concentration must meet minimum standard 
° Concentration must not exceed maximum standard 
° Prepare new solution when visibly soiled or concentration falls below 
minimum requirement 

Chlorine Sanitizing Soiution 

► Use only plain, liquid-type, household bleach. 

° Scented bleaches are not allowed for food operations. 

► Minimum concentration must be 100 parts per million (ppm). 

► Max concentration cannot exceed 200 ppm. 

Large volume preparation for equipment & utensil washing in a 3- 
compartment sink— 

° Add 2 tablespoons (1 ounce) bleach for every 4 gallons of water. 

► Small volume preparation for spray bottles to apply directly onto 
surfaces such as food prep tables & serving counters— Prepare using 
1-gallon container; 

°Add ¥2 tablespoon bleach to 1 gallon of water; 

° Shake well, verify concentration, then fill individual spray bottles. 

° Prepare fresh daily. 

Cleaning Operations 

► All surfaces that come into contact with food or the patron's mouth 
must be cleaned, sanitized, and protected from recontamination. 

° Disposable plates & eating utensils recommended for temporary food operations. 
° Disposables must be protected from contamination. 

° Store cleaning supplies & equipment in designated areas away from food, 
cooking utensils, and single-use items (napkins, eating utensils, plates). 

° Reduce the risk of cross-contamination by having enough utensils and sufficient 
"clean" areas to prepare and manage food. 

► Use a 3-compartment sink or similar field expedient sink 
configuration for washing and sanitizing reusable pots/pa ns/trays & 

° 3 large buckets may be used as an improvised 3-compartment sink. 

° Large items used to prepare/cook food that cannot be cleaned or sanitized using the 
sink must be cleaned in-place using a procedure approved by Preventive Medicine. 

Using a 3-Compartment 

► Scrape excess food from items; 

► Pre-soak if necessary; 

► Wash in hot, clean, soapy water (IIO-I2O0F); 

° Frequently change water when food debris begins to accumulate. 

► Rinse in hot, clean, clear water (120-140oF); 

° Change when soap suds accumulate or greasy film develops on surface of water. 

► Sanitize in clear water— 

° For hot water (171oF), completely immerse for 30 seconds. 

° For chemical sanitizer (water should be between 75-llOcF), completely immerse for 
15 seconds at prescribed sanitizer concentration. 

► Air dry 

° Use clean drain board, table, or rack. 

General Requirements and 


Sponges nnay NOT be used for cleaning food service equipment or utensils, 
food prep tables, condiment containers, or napkin & utensil dispensers. 
Wiping cloths— 

° Laundered daily; do NOT use soiled cloths from previous day. 

° Segregate cloths that are used for food contact surfaces (food prep tables, serving 
counters, condiment dispensers) from those used on non-food contact surfaces (ice 
chests, refrigerators, patron tables). 

° Rinse frequently and store in a soapy or clear water solution containing chlorine to 
prevent the growth of harmful bacteria when not in use. 

D Soap or rinse solutions must maintain a trace residual of chlorine (or other sanitizing agent) at all times; 

□ Prepare fresh solution daily and when visibly soiled or sanitizer residual is zero (0). 

Sinks used for food preparation, pot/pan/utensil washing, and hand washing 
may NOT be used as a custodial sink for wiping cloth/sponge cleaning or 
disposal of soiled solutions. 

Time and Temperature Controls 

° One of the other critical factors in controlling bacteria in food is controlling 
temperature. Examples of temperature effect on growth— 

D Ambient Temperatures: 

□ At 90°F the number of bacteria on food will double every y 2 -hour; 

D PHFs that are held outside of safe temperatures can result in over 4 billion bacterial cells in 
only 4 hours. 

□ Illness can occur after ingesting anywhere between a couple hundred to a couple thousand 
bacterial cells. 

D Refrigeration Temperatures: At 26°F the number of bacteria double every 60 hours. 

► Bottom Line - Keep potentially hazardous foods at safe 
° Chilled at 41°F or below 
° If cooked, hold hot at 135°F or above. 



► Bi-metallic stem-type or digital food thermometer 
required for spot checking internal food temperatu 
° Must be calibrated daily to ensure accuracy. 

° Used to verify hot & cold holding and cooking. 

° Sanitize between foods & prior to each use. 

*■ Refrigerator, freezer, & ice chest must have an 
equipment (indicating) thermometer. 

° Positioned inside at warmest part of unit 
° Glass thermometers are prohibited 

Thermometer Calibration 

“Ice Point Method 

►Fill an insulated cup with crushed ice and water. 

►The cup must have enough crushed ice to provide an environment of 32°F, so 
you may need to pack more ice into the cup during the process. 

► When the mixture of the water has stabilized in about four or five minutes, 
insert the thermometer to be calibrated to the appropriate immersion depth. 

►Be sure to hold the stem of the instrument away from the bottom and sides of 
the container (preferably one inch) to avoid error. 

► If your thermometer is not accurate within +/- 2°F of 32°F., adjust the 
thermometer accordingly. The ice point method permits calibration to within 0.1°F. 

Thermometer Calibration Methods 

'‘Boiling Point Method 

► Place water in a container and heat. 

► After the water in the container has reached a complete "rolling" boil, 
insert the instrument to the appropriate immersion depth. 

► Be sure there is at least a two-inch clearance between the stem or 
sensing element and the bottom and sides of the container. 

► If your thermometer is not accurate within -i-/- 2°F of 212°F, adjust 
thermometer accordingly. The boiling point method permits calibration to 
within 1.0°F. 

Temperature Controlled 

► Thawing Frozen Foods— 

° Do NOT thaw at room temperature! 

°Thaw in a refrigerator or ice chest that maintains foods cold at 41oF or below; or 
° Thaw as part of cooking process (e.g., frozen hamburgers on a grill). 

Cold holding potentially hazardous foods during storage, transport, & 

► Hot hoiding potentially hazardous foods after cooking and during 
transport & service. 


° Destroys living bacterial cells. 

° Does NOT destroy bacterial toxins or spores. 

► Cooiing leftover hot foods. 

° Leftovers are prohibited in temporary food operations! 

° Discard all unconsumed hot St cold food prepared for service each day. 

Cooking Temperatures 

► Prescribed standards are based on 
targeted bacteria commonly found on 
specific foods. 

► A calibrated Food Thermometer must be 
used to verify proper cooking temperature 
was achieved. 

Measure at thickest part of food. 


Cooking Temperatures 


Poultry & poultry products (chicken/ turkey sausage) 

Stuffed meats 

Stuffed vegetables containing meat 


Pork & port products (sausage) 

Ground beef 


Bulk-prepared scrambled eggs 


Whole muscle beef (roast, steak, beef strips) 



Made-to-order eggs 

Cooked plant food (vegetables & fruits) that do not contain 
meat, poultry, fish, or eggs 



Maintaining Area 

*^Pests are readily controlled by maintaining the food 
operation area in a sanitary status. 

“Immediately clean up spilled food/liquids around food prep & serving area and around the trash cans. 
“Wipe serving counters & customer tables to prevent food debris from accumulating. 

“Surfaces where food comes into direct contact, such as plates, silverware, and food prep tables carries 
bacteria on its body from human and animal waste. 

•^Manage trash generated from the operation— 

° Use plastic liners in all waste receptacles and do NOT reuse liners; 

° Cover garbage containers when not in use; 

° Empty garbage containers when 2/3 full and immediately take to the dumpster; 

“Trash bags must be tightly sealed (tied) before placement in dumpster; 

° Close dumpster doors; 

° Clean trash receptacles (and lids) with soapy water at the end of each day. 

>^Food concessions operating in an enciosed structure— 

° Must have screens on all windows to prevent entry of flying insects; 

° Must keep doors closed when not in use. 

►Application of pesticides (e.g., Raid or insect foggers) is NOT authorized. 

Summary of Requirements 

•■Food from approved sources protected when stored 
•■Required equipment & supplies on hand 

° Refrigerator/freezer/ice chests 

° Chaffing dishes or other equipment to keep hot foods hot 
° Calibrated thermometers 
° Disposable gloves 

° Hand wash station with soap & paper towels 
° Hair restraints 

° Clean clothing (and plastic apron) 

° Extra utensils & food prep work tables 
° Dishwashing setup (3-sink) 

° Sanitizing solution 
° Trash receptacles & trash bags 

•■Good personal hygiene & work habits 
•■Proper cleaning & sanitizing 

•■Time & temperature control of potentially hazardous foods 
•■Maintain area sanitation 


Serving To Heal...Honored To Serve 


Contact us at (760) 380-3235