Serving To Heal. ..Honored To Serve
Food Handler Class
Requirements for Temporary Food
► A Temporary Food Establishment operates for a period of no more than 14
consecutive days in conjunction with a single event or celebration. An organizational
cookout, chapel suppers, pot luck & other similar events are NOT considered
temporary food establishments. (Unless there is being money changed for services)
►TB MED 530/NAVMED P-5010-1/AFMAN 48-147JP, Tri-Service Food Code, specifies
requirements for vendor application to operate a food establishment, employee
training, and safe food handling practices.
° Submit an application to operate to the Preventive Medicine office at least 30 days prior to the
scheduled event or opening of the operation.
° Pass a pre-operational inspection conducted by Preventive Medicine prior to serving customers.
(For Special Events and AAFES contracts Only)
° Food operation person in charge must possess a valid Food Protection Manager certification.
(When using Potentially Hazardous Food (PHF))
° When using Potentially Hazardous Food, person in charge must remain on site at all times when
the food operation is open for business. (Must have a valid Food Protection Manager certification)
° Food service workers must be trained to perform prescribed duties in a safe manner and in
accordance with prescribed sanitation and food safety requirements.
Purpose and Objective
*■ PurpoS0 - This training is designed to famiiiarize famiiy
readiness groups and Non-profit organization operating a
temporary food establishment with the basic principles of
food safety that must be applied when conducting food
operations on military installations.
ObjSCtivS - The objective for adhering to established
food safety principles is to prevent the occurrence of
Scope of Training -
° Understand factors that contribute to foodborne illness.
Understand controls that will minimize the risk of foodborne
■■ Foodborne Illness
Food Safety Hazards
Biological Hazards and the Nature of Bacteria
Foodborne Illness Risk Factors
Food Protection During Storage
Layers of Protection
■■ Personal Hygiene & Work Habits
Proper Cleaning & Sanitizing
Time & Temperature Controls
Maintaining Area Sanitation
Summary of Requirements
►Just because you don't hear about it often, doesn't
meant it doesn't happen... Only a small percentage of
actual foodborne illness cases ever get reported-
° An estimated 76 million people in the US get sick each year
° There are about 325,000 hospitalizations and 5000 deaths
each year because of diseases transmitted through food.
° Foodborne illness outbreaks do occur on military installations -
1 incident in 2012 resulted in over 100 soldiers getting sick.
► Personnel who prepare and handle food play a key role
in the prevention of foodborne illnesses by -
° Adhering to the prescribed food safety measures; and
° Maintaining sanitary controls within food operations.
Food Safety Hazards
► Harmful substances that present a food
safety hazard can be Chemical, Physical, or
Biological in nature and may result in injury
or illness when ingested.
"Chemical: Detergents, sanitizing agents,
pesticides, fuel, etc...
° Physical: bone fragments, glass, toothpicks, etc...
° Biological: bacteria, viruses, parasites, yeast, and
" A foodborne illness outbreak is defined as 2 or more
cases of a similar illness resulting from the ingestion of a
common food, ice and beverages are included as a "food"
*■ Contaminated - The presence of harmful substances
(physical, chemical, or biological) in or on food.
*■ Clean - Clean to sight and touch means there is no visible
debris, encrusted food, or greasy feeling.
*■ Sanitize - Sanitizing is a process of reducing the total
number of micro-organisms ("germs") on a surface to safe
levels. This is not the same as “steriiization," which is a process used
in hospitais to kiil (remove) ail micro-organisms that are on a surface.
• RTE- Ready to Eat. Examples of RTE food include deli meats and
cheeses, breads and rolls, salads, and fruits which will be eaten raw.
Key Terms (Continued)
Cross-contamination - The transfer of a harnnful
substance to food through direct or indirect contact— Spilled
chemicals or detergents on food packages or surfaces where food
comes into direct contact, such as plates, silverware, and food prep
Using unsanitized equipment or utensils to prepare, store, or serve
► Bare-hand contact with foods that are ready-to-eat (RTE) such as
fresh fruits, sandwiches, salad vegetables, and deli meats & cheese.
° Bacteria from raw foods transferred to foods that are ready-to-eat.
For example — Blood from raw meat dripping onto RTE foods stored on a
lower shelf in the refrigerator.
° Cutting boards and knives used to prepare raw meat are not cleaned and
sanitized and are then used to prepare RTE foods.
Key Terms (Continued)
Potentially Hazardous Food ( PH F) (Time/Temperature
Control for Safety Food) - A food that requires time or
temperature control for safety to limit the growth of
harmful micro-organisms or the formation of toxins.
Examples include but are not limited to: Raw or heat-treated
(cooked) animal food - meat, poultry, seafood, dairy products
► Heat-treated plant food - rice, pasta, baked potato, fried onions,
► Cut plant foods - cut tomatoes, cut ieafy greens (spinach/saiad),
cut meions, chopped gariic in oii
► Raw seed sprouts
► Cream pies
Foodborne Illness Risk Factors
There are 5 major risk factors related to employee behaviors and
food preparation practices that contribute to foodborne illness:
° Food from unsafe sources-
D Food must be obtained from sanitary sources that conform to local, state, and
federal statutes and regulations.
0 Food prepared in private homes are NOT authorized for sale or service at
temporary food establishments. All PFIFs must be prepared onsite
° Inadequate cooking- food must be cooked to prescribed temperatures in
order to kill and residual bacteria, viruses, or parasites that might be in or
on the food
° Improper holding temperatures- PFIFs must be held at proper cold or hot
holding temperatures to prevent the growth of bacteria
° Contaminated equipment- food contact surfaces must be cleaned and
sanitized to prevent cross contamination of food
° Poor personal hygiene- food employees must adhere to standards of
hygiene to prevent contamination of food contact surfaces and food.
Food Protected During Storage
► Do NOT store boxes or containers of food directly on the floor or
° Food should be at least 6 inches off the floor to prevent contamination or
► Protect from contamination when stored in refrigerators/freezers
and ice chests-
° All food must be wrapped or held in a covered container
° Food packaging/containers should be closed/covered so that there is no
° Food containers or packaging must be impermeable to protect from melting
ice when stored in ice chests
° Storage units must be kept clean; free of residual food debris.
° Ice used to keep foods cold may NOT be used for consumption
Cover food when held in hot or cold holding during serving periods
► Always examine food for signs of contamination or spoilage before
Layers of Protection
*■ Applying multiple levels of control called the Layers
of Protection is the underlying principle for reducing
the risk of foodborne illness from biological hazards.
° Good personal hygiene and work habits represent the first
layer of protection to prevent transferring biological
contaminants to food and surfaces that generally come into
contact with food
° Proper cleaning and sanitizing is the second layer of
control that prevents cross-contamination of food by
removing harmful agents from surfaces
° Time and temperature controls are employed to prevent
the growth of harmful microorganisms that may already
exist in the food
Personal Hygiene and Work
► People are natural carries of bacteria-
° staph bacteria is found on skin and hair, regardless of how often
° Bacteria such as E.-coli are found in our intestines.
► People can also carry harmful viruses that are readily
transmitted through food or contact surfaces that are
touched by others
° Norovirus is a primary example; it can live on surfaces such as
door handles, dishes, chairs etc. for several days
° Infection occurs when contaminated food is ingested or
contaminated hands come into contact with mucous
► Proper and frequent hand washing and proper use of
disposable gloves can reduce the risk of transmission
When to Wash Hands
Before beginning work
After using toiiet faciiities
After smoking, eating, or taking a break
Before putting on disposabie gioves and between giove
Before handiing cieaned and sanitized equipment and
After every chance of contamination
Before conducting any task invoiving food handiing
Hand Washing Sink
A dedicated hand washing sink must be provided at the
food concession for food empioyee use oniy
° Sinks used for washing food equipment/utensils may NOT be
used for hand washing.
Hand washing sinks iocated near the iatrines may NOT be
substituted as the designated food empioyee hand washing
Use of sanitizing hand geis is NOT authorized as a
substitute for proper hand washing.
Hand Washing Standards
*■ Use hot water when available
*■ Hand washing sinks must be supplied with soap
and disposable paper towels at all times
° Hands must be dried completely after washing
*■ A trash receptacle must be supplied at every hand
° Lather all exposed skin up to mid-forearm
° Lather/scrub for a minimum of 20 seconds
° Rinse and dry
Use of disposable gloves does NOT exempt food
employees from washing their hands
Disclosure by Worker to the supervisor—
° Diarrhea, Vomiting, Fever -- personnel are restricted from performing any tasks
associated with the food concession.
° Individuals with diarrhea must be cleared by a medical practitioner before they will be
authorized to work at the food concession.
► At the beginning of each work shift, the Supervisor must inspect employees for
signs of illness or injury—
° Frequent coughing or sneezing;
° Cuts or unhealed burns on hands and forearm;
° Infected wounds (oozing boils, pimples, sores).
The Supervisor will—
° Limit workers with persistent cough/sneezing or infected wounds to non-food or
equipment handling duties (trash management, cash register).
° Ensure all wounds/burns are covered with impermeable, tight-fitting bandage and
disposable gloves are worn if wound is on hands.
° Use workers without symptoms/injuries to perform: food preparation, equipment & utensil
washing & sanitizing, and handling clean dishware or disposable eating utensils.
► Outer clothing must be clean.
° Free of visible soil, stains, debris/particulates;
° Free of fuel or other chemical residues;
“Wearing an apron is recommended & can readily be exchanged when it becomes soiled.
► Adequate hair restraints must be worn by all personnel preparing or handling
° Hairnet - Beard-net (snood) and arm-net/sleeve to effectively cover hair on face or
° Paper/disposable hat or clean cap may be worn instead of hairnet—
□ Individuals with long hair must pin or tie loose hair not contained by the hat/cap.
D All males must wear a hat even if head is clean shaven - hats prevent perspiration from
dripping onto surfaces/food.
► Personnel preparing food may not wear jewelry on hands or wrist (except)—
° Plain/smooth wedding band
° Neatly trimmed & smooth;
° No false nails, polish, or nail jewelry/ornaments - disposable gloves must be worn if
► No eating or drinking in food preparation or serving areas.
° Exception: Water in a closed container with straw.
° Use only designated break areas away from food or utensil cleaning.
►When disposable gloves are worn, change often and between tasks
° Between handling soiled and cleaned/sanitized equipment & utensils;
° After handling trash;
° After wiping tables/counters;
° Before refilling condiment , napkin, and eating utensil dispensers;
° Before handling money;
° When gloves become torn.
° Wash your hands between each glove change!
Proper Cleaning and Sanitizing
► There are many tasks that require application of proper cleaning
and sanitizing procedures:
° Washing pot/pan, equipment, and utensil used for food;
° Wiping down tables and serving counters;
° Cleaning dispensers and condiment containers.
Food employees must adhere to proper procedures for—
° Preparing and managing sanitizing solutions;
° Managing wiping cloths;
° Using a 3-compartment sink configuration for washing food equipment &
° Handling cleaned and sanitized equipment & utensils.
° When using a three-compartment sink, utensil/kitchenware's are to be
immersed for a minimum of - 30 seconds if using a chemical sanitizer or
Methods for Sanitizing
*• Hot water is the preferred method for sanitizing equipment
and utensils when using a 3-compartment sink
*■ Chemicals such as bleach are generally used for all other
*■ Sanitizing chemicals come in a concentrated formula that
must be diluted in a water solution to a prescribed
*• Food employees must-
° Prepare fresh sanitizing soiutions daily and as often as necessary to
maintain proper concentration and to keep the soiution free of visibie
debris when in use
° Verify the minimum required concentration was achieved and the
maximum concentration was not exceeded each time a solution is
° Monitor concentration throughout the day or period of use
When Sanitizing Soiutions are
*• Use only sanitizing agents approved for food service
° Chlorine bleach or quaternary ammonia
*• Prepare according to manufacturer’s instruction and as
specified for your food operation
*• The concentration of a solution is dissipated by time, heat,
contamination and soapy water and may need fresh
preparation throughout the day
*• Do NOT mix different sanitizing agents in the same solution
Verify concentrations when prepared and throughout the
day using appropriate test kit or test paper
° Concentration must meet minimum standard
° Concentration must not exceed maximum standard
° Prepare new solution when visibly soiled or concentration falls below
Chlorine Sanitizing Soiution
► Use only plain, liquid-type, household bleach.
° Scented bleaches are not allowed for food operations.
► Minimum concentration must be 100 parts per million (ppm).
► Max concentration cannot exceed 200 ppm.
Large volume preparation for equipment & utensil washing in a 3-
° Add 2 tablespoons (1 ounce) bleach for every 4 gallons of water.
► Small volume preparation for spray bottles to apply directly onto
surfaces such as food prep tables & serving counters— Prepare using
°Add ¥2 tablespoon bleach to 1 gallon of water;
° Shake well, verify concentration, then fill individual spray bottles.
° Prepare fresh daily.
► All surfaces that come into contact with food or the patron's mouth
must be cleaned, sanitized, and protected from recontamination.
° Disposable plates & eating utensils recommended for temporary food operations.
° Disposables must be protected from contamination.
° Store cleaning supplies & equipment in designated areas away from food,
cooking utensils, and single-use items (napkins, eating utensils, plates).
° Reduce the risk of cross-contamination by having enough utensils and sufficient
"clean" areas to prepare and manage food.
► Use a 3-compartment sink or similar field expedient sink
configuration for washing and sanitizing reusable pots/pa ns/trays &
° 3 large buckets may be used as an improvised 3-compartment sink.
° Large items used to prepare/cook food that cannot be cleaned or sanitized using the
sink must be cleaned in-place using a procedure approved by Preventive Medicine.
Using a 3-Compartment
► Scrape excess food from items;
► Pre-soak if necessary;
► Wash in hot, clean, soapy water (IIO-I2O0F);
° Frequently change water when food debris begins to accumulate.
► Rinse in hot, clean, clear water (120-140oF);
° Change when soap suds accumulate or greasy film develops on surface of water.
► Sanitize in clear water—
° For hot water (171oF), completely immerse for 30 seconds.
° For chemical sanitizer (water should be between 75-llOcF), completely immerse for
15 seconds at prescribed sanitizer concentration.
► Air dry
° Use clean drain board, table, or rack.
General Requirements and
Sponges nnay NOT be used for cleaning food service equipment or utensils,
food prep tables, condiment containers, or napkin & utensil dispensers.
° Laundered daily; do NOT use soiled cloths from previous day.
° Segregate cloths that are used for food contact surfaces (food prep tables, serving
counters, condiment dispensers) from those used on non-food contact surfaces (ice
chests, refrigerators, patron tables).
° Rinse frequently and store in a soapy or clear water solution containing chlorine to
prevent the growth of harmful bacteria when not in use.
D Soap or rinse solutions must maintain a trace residual of chlorine (or other sanitizing agent) at all times;
□ Prepare fresh solution daily and when visibly soiled or sanitizer residual is zero (0).
Sinks used for food preparation, pot/pan/utensil washing, and hand washing
may NOT be used as a custodial sink for wiping cloth/sponge cleaning or
disposal of soiled solutions.
Time and Temperature Controls
° One of the other critical factors in controlling bacteria in food is controlling
temperature. Examples of temperature effect on growth—
D Ambient Temperatures:
□ At 90°F the number of bacteria on food will double every y 2 -hour;
D PHFs that are held outside of safe temperatures can result in over 4 billion bacterial cells in
only 4 hours.
□ Illness can occur after ingesting anywhere between a couple hundred to a couple thousand
D Refrigeration Temperatures: At 26°F the number of bacteria double every 60 hours.
► Bottom Line - Keep potentially hazardous foods at safe
° Chilled at 41°F or below
° If cooked, hold hot at 135°F or above.
► Bi-metallic stem-type or digital food thermometer
required for spot checking internal food temperatu
° Must be calibrated daily to ensure accuracy.
° Used to verify hot & cold holding and cooking.
° Sanitize between foods & prior to each use.
*■ Refrigerator, freezer, & ice chest must have an
equipment (indicating) thermometer.
° Positioned inside at warmest part of unit
° Glass thermometers are prohibited
“Ice Point Method
►Fill an insulated cup with crushed ice and water.
►The cup must have enough crushed ice to provide an environment of 32°F, so
you may need to pack more ice into the cup during the process.
► When the mixture of the water has stabilized in about four or five minutes,
insert the thermometer to be calibrated to the appropriate immersion depth.
►Be sure to hold the stem of the instrument away from the bottom and sides of
the container (preferably one inch) to avoid error.
► If your thermometer is not accurate within +/- 2°F of 32°F., adjust the
thermometer accordingly. The ice point method permits calibration to within 0.1°F.
Thermometer Calibration Methods
'‘Boiling Point Method
► Place water in a container and heat.
► After the water in the container has reached a complete "rolling" boil,
insert the instrument to the appropriate immersion depth.
► Be sure there is at least a two-inch clearance between the stem or
sensing element and the bottom and sides of the container.
► If your thermometer is not accurate within -i-/- 2°F of 212°F, adjust
thermometer accordingly. The boiling point method permits calibration to
► Thawing Frozen Foods—
° Do NOT thaw at room temperature!
°Thaw in a refrigerator or ice chest that maintains foods cold at 41oF or below; or
° Thaw as part of cooking process (e.g., frozen hamburgers on a grill).
Cold holding potentially hazardous foods during storage, transport, &
► Hot hoiding potentially hazardous foods after cooking and during
transport & service.
° Destroys living bacterial cells.
° Does NOT destroy bacterial toxins or spores.
► Cooiing leftover hot foods.
° Leftovers are prohibited in temporary food operations!
° Discard all unconsumed hot St cold food prepared for service each day.
► Prescribed standards are based on
targeted bacteria commonly found on
► A calibrated Food Thermometer must be
used to verify proper cooking temperature
Measure at thickest part of food.
Poultry & poultry products (chicken/ turkey sausage)
Stuffed vegetables containing meat
Pork & port products (sausage)
Bulk-prepared scrambled eggs
Whole muscle beef (roast, steak, beef strips)
Cooked plant food (vegetables & fruits) that do not contain
meat, poultry, fish, or eggs
*^Pests are readily controlled by maintaining the food
operation area in a sanitary status.
“Immediately clean up spilled food/liquids around food prep & serving area and around the trash cans.
“Wipe serving counters & customer tables to prevent food debris from accumulating.
“Surfaces where food comes into direct contact, such as plates, silverware, and food prep tables carries
bacteria on its body from human and animal waste.
•^Manage trash generated from the operation—
° Use plastic liners in all waste receptacles and do NOT reuse liners;
° Cover garbage containers when not in use;
° Empty garbage containers when 2/3 full and immediately take to the dumpster;
“Trash bags must be tightly sealed (tied) before placement in dumpster;
° Close dumpster doors;
° Clean trash receptacles (and lids) with soapy water at the end of each day.
>^Food concessions operating in an enciosed structure—
° Must have screens on all windows to prevent entry of flying insects;
° Must keep doors closed when not in use.
►Application of pesticides (e.g., Raid or insect foggers) is NOT authorized.
Summary of Requirements
•■Food from approved sources protected when stored
•■Required equipment & supplies on hand
° Refrigerator/freezer/ice chests
° Chaffing dishes or other equipment to keep hot foods hot
° Calibrated thermometers
° Disposable gloves
° Hand wash station with soap & paper towels
° Hair restraints
° Clean clothing (and plastic apron)
° Extra utensils & food prep work tables
° Dishwashing setup (3-sink)
° Sanitizing solution
° Trash receptacles & trash bags
•■Good personal hygiene & work habits
•■Proper cleaning & sanitizing
•■Time & temperature control of potentially hazardous foods
•■Maintain area sanitation
Serving To Heal...Honored To Serve
Contact us at (760) 380-3235