Skip to main content

Full text of "A pedagogy of interconnectedness for encountering climate change as a wicked sustainability problem"

See other formats


Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 



ELSEVIER 


Contents lists available at ScienceDirect 

Journal of Cleaner Production 

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jclepro 



A pedagogy of interconnectedness for encountering climate change as r 
a wicked sustainability problem isss 

Anna Lehtonen • , Arto Salonen 3 , Hannele Cantell a , Laura Riuttanen 

3 University of Helsinki, Department of Teacher Education, Finland 
b University of Eastern Finland, Faculty of Social Sciences and Business Studies, Finland 
c University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, Finland 


ARTICLE INFO 


ABSTRACT 


Article history: 

Received 8 July 2016 
Received in revised form 
23 May 2018 
Accepted 18 July 2018 
Available online 23 July 2018 


Keywords: 

Modern dichotomies 
Interconnectedness 
Climate change 
Wicked problems 
Sustainability education 
Climate change education 


Climate change is a wicked problem of our time. It is a phenomenon that is difficult to combat with 
prevailing ways of thinking and behaving related to a modern understanding of humanity and education. 
In this article, the challenges of sustainability education are explored from the theoretical perspective of 
modern dichotomies. The article argues that to combat wicked problems of sustainability, awareness of 
interconnectedness is vital. In order to increase the understanding of what kind of dismantling of 
thinking in dichotomies and why the awareness of interconnectedness and pedagogical approaches are 
crucial in promoting sustainability, the literature of environmental philosophy, sociology and education 
are brought together with the literature of sustainability sciences and sustainability education. The 
principles of pedagogy of interconnectedness define the critical awareness of interconnectedness vital for 
sustainability education dealing with the wicked sustainability issues such as climate change. The 
pedagogy of interconnectedness underlines the essentiality of understanding of the world and humans 
as relational: recognizing the interdependence of society and nature, the local and global, and seeing the 
common reality as socially constructed and humanness and learning in a holistic way. A case of uni¬ 
versity pedagogy, the Climate.now online course material is presented and analysed as an example of 
interconnecting climate change education, how to implement the principle of pedagogy of intercon¬ 
nectedness in practice. 

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 


1. Introduction 

The wicked sustainability problems of today can be understood 
as the results of ignorance of the consequences of consumption, 
inattention to human dependence on ecological realities and the 
exceeding of planetary boundaries (Steffen et al„ 2015). Climate 
change is one of these wicked problems, as it is a huge, complex and 
systemic challenge, difficult to clearly define or foresee the conse¬ 
quences of solutions (Incropera, 2015). In addition, different 
stakeholders provide conflicting information related to climate 
change, its relevance and impacts due to different interests of 
knowledge. As a global issue, the implications and solutions need to 
be reflected both locally and globally. Furthermore, the challenges 
of maladaptive behaviour and the cultural and emotional aspects of 
climate change make it difficult to find efficient solutions to the 


* Corresponding author. 

E-mail address: annaelehtonen@gmail.com (A. Lehtonen). 

https://doi.Org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.07.186 
0959-6526/© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 


problem or predict the results (Incropera, 2015). 

Even with the complexity of today's alarming sustainability 
challenges, the tendency is to use simplifying and contrasting, 
seemingly quick and efficient problem-solving strategies. This 
tendency creates, strengthens and focuses on dualisms instead of 
on understanding the complex processes of change. An over¬ 
reliance on binary opposites has created a tendency to exaggerate 
differences, confound descriptions and encourage prescription. The 
overburdened dualism overlooks continuities, underplays contin¬ 
gencies and overstates the internal coherence of social forms 
(Wacquant, 1996; Sayer, 1989, 666). 

The major sustainability problems cannot be solved on the basis 
of our current way of living and will require a shift from traditional 
ways of thinking and acting upon environmental and socio¬ 
economic problems (UNESCO, 2002, 2014; Tilbury, 2007). Climate 
change, as a wicked problem and a signal of severe sustainability 
challenges, requires carefully considered responses which consider 
the root causes, are based on a systemic understanding and are 
participatory, transformative and transgressive (Kagawa & Selby, 















A. Lehtonen et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 


861 


2010; Sterling, 2009; Corcoran et al., 2017). 

Transformative learning and education, challenging societal 
paradigms and the re-thinking of education to be more responsive 
are regarded as imperatives in sustainability education (Palmer and 
Neal, 2003; Pittman, 2004; Sterling, 2003, 2009; 2010; Wolff, 2011 ; 
Laininen, 2018). Ecological intelligence, a holistic awareness of 
interconnectedness and systems thinking have been regarded as 
essential in sustainability education and as the core competencies 
needed for solving the wicked problems related to sustainability 
(i.e. Palmer and Neal, 2003; Pittman, 2004; Sterling, 2004, 2009; 
Wolff, 2011; Glasser and Hirsh, 2016). 

Despite decades of efforts to develop effective environmental 
education and education for sustainable development, severe gaps 
remain between education and sustainability (Wolff, 2011). The 
inconsistency between the reality of educational practices and the 
rhetoric of environmental education has been a real challenge 
(Sauve, 1999; Stevenson, 2007; Wolff, 2011). The serious dilemmas 
between sustainability and education can be understood as related to 
a fragmented worldview and the modern dualistic understanding of 
humanness (Wolff, 2011 ). Thus, in order to find effective approaches 
to sustainability education, it is relevant to understand how 
modernism still affects prevailing societal and cultural practices as 
well as education, even though there are signals of new and more 
sustainable ways of thinking emerging (Sterling, 2009; Wolff, 2011 ). 

The purpose of this article is to provoke a critical reflection of 
the prevailing dichotomized thinking and the essentiality of 
awareness of interconnectedness, and their implications in sus¬ 
tainability education on the basis of the theoretical frame of 
modern dichotomies. In the article unsustainable thinking in di¬ 
chotomies and a dualistic worldview are examined within the 
context of climate change. 

The research questions are as follows: 1) What kind of 
dismantling of dichotomized thinking and awareness of intercon¬ 
nectedness is vital in designing sustainability education and why? 
2) How were the principles of pedagogy of interconnectedness 
applied in practice of the design of Climate.now online course 
material for higher education? 

In the sections that follow, first the origins of unsustainability 
and climate change, the modern dichotomized thinking related to 
alienation, unsustainability and climate change, and its reflection in 
education are explored, and the most problematic dichotomies 
related to sustainability education are illustrated in Fig. 1. Second, 
the relevant aspects of the awareness of interconnectedness are 
demonstrated in Fig. 2 are explained: relationalism, the eco-social 
approach, the socially constructed climate change and the socially 
organized emotional response to climate change, and the integra¬ 
tion of different ways of knowing. Third, the critical aspects of the 
awareness of interconnectedness for sustainability education 
dealing with wicked problems are presented as the pedagogy of 
interconnectedness. Finally, in order to dismantle the gap between 
theory and practice, a case of university pedagogy, the design of the 
Climate.now course, is presented and analysed as an example of, 
how to apply the principles of a pedagogy of interconnectedness in 
practice of higher education. 

2. Material and method 

To construct the frame for a pedagogy of interconnectedness, 
the literature of environmental philosophy (Vogel, 2015; Orr, 2004; 
Naess and Rothenberg, 1990, 2008) and sociology of climate change 
denialism (Norgaard, 2011), the philosophy of environmental ed¬ 
ucation (Wolff, 2011) are brought together with sustainability 
literature. The prevailing thinking in dichotomies related to 
unsustainability and gaps in sustainability education are explored 
within the frame of modern dichotomies. The key dichotomies 


related to climate change, social—individual, nature—culture, 
mind—body, rational—emotional, and art—science are dismantled 
on a basis of theoretical reading for creating a basis for pedagogy of 
interconnectedness. 

A case of interconnecting climate change education for higher 
education, Climate.now is presented and analysed by applying the¬ 
ory directed approach to content analyses (Hsieh and Shannon, 
2005). Climate.now (www.climatenow.fi/) is online material 
designed for a 5 ECTS course on the basics of climate change. It was 
produced by a multidisciplinary group of experts in Finland in 2016 
in transdisciplinary collaboration within natural, environmental, 
technical and educational scientists and artists from the University 
of Helsinki, the Lappeenranta University of Technology, and the 
Metropolia School of Applied Sciences in Finland, and funded by 
SITRA, Finnish Innovation Fund. The first, second and fourth authors 
of the article were involved in the designing process of the course 
material of Climate.now. The development process of the theoret¬ 
ical, pedagogical thinking of interconnectedness started separately 
but simultaneously with the designing of the Climate.now material, 
and continued after the course material was published. 

The material of Climate.now contains written material, video 
lectures and interviews, assignments, tests and a guide for teachers 
including guide lines for contact sessions and criteria for assess¬ 
ment. The content of the material was analysed on the basis of 
pedagogy of interconnectedness, how the principles of pedagogy of 
interconnectedness were applied in the course material. 

3. Dismantling thinking in dichotomies and the awareness of 
interconnectedness 

In the following sections, the modern dichotomies critical in 
designing sustainability education are dismantled and reflected on 
from several theoretical perspectives. The origins of unsustainability 
related to dichotomized thinking and the manifestation of this type 
of thinking in education are explored. In the end the vital awareness 
of interconnectedness for sustainability education is explained. 

The modern era, characterized by the scientific and industrial 
revolution, is seen as the beginning of increasing consumption and 
unsustainability. The philosophical and scientific revolution of the 
Enlightenment defined natural resources as limitless and inex¬ 
haustible and thus legitimated the industrial revolution (Zafirovski, 
2010; Gay, 1996). According to Richard Norgaard (1994), atomism, 
mechanism, universalism, objectivism and monism, the meta¬ 
physical premises deriving from the modernism dominant in 
Western culture, help explain the cultural and biological destruc¬ 
tion (Norgaard, 1994; Laininen, 2018). Anthropogenic activities 
such as deforestation, agricultural practices and the burning of 
fossil fuels, which have resulted in large shifts among carbon pools 
related to global warming (IPCC, 1995), originate from the modern 
era and the philosophical revolution of the Enlightenment. 

3.3. Modem dichotomized thinking and education 

Dichotomized thinking, that is, dividing and separating ideas 
and objects into two opposing parts or classifications, is regarded as 
typical of the modern era. In the era of the Enlightenment, the 


1 Modernity as a historical category refers to a period characterized by a ques¬ 
tioning or rejection of tradition; the prioritization of individualism, freedom and 
formal equality; faith in inevitable social, scientific and technological progress and 
human perfectibility; rationalization and professionalization; a movement from 
feudalism (or agrarianism) toward capitalism and the market economy; industri¬ 
alization, urbanization and secularization; and the development of the nation-state 
and its constituent institutions and forms of surveillance (https://en.wikipedia.org/ 
wiki/Modernity. Foucault, 1995, 170—77). 



862 


A. Lehtonen et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 


idealization of individual rational minds and reason as the primary 
source of authority was the grounding philosophical principle 
guiding the development of scientific methods and knowledge 
(Outram, 2006). Distancing the knowing subject from the object 
has promoted an instrumental relation with nature, the body, other 
people and society (Wolff, 2011, 84—85). Human alienation from 
nature is seen as related to a dualistic understanding of the mind/ 
soul and the body. Reason is regarded as a human quality implying 
the superiority of humans over other animals in Western philoso¬ 
phy. Philosophical differentiation of the mind and the body as 
separate units, most famously associated with Cartesian dualism 
(Crane & Patterson, 2012), has been a constant mindset throughout 
history (Wolff, 2011, 85.). The mind and body dichotomy has been 
central in promoting an instrumental value relation to nature in 
contrast to nature having intrinsic values. 

Dichotomized thinking is integrated into modern education, 
where the ideals of rational humanity and objective knowledge are 
inherent. A typical goal of modern education is a rational individual 
citizen with the skills to succeed in competition and a fragmented 
knowledge of different fields and disciplines (Orr, 1991 ). As a result, 
the focus in education has not been the understanding of human 
dependence on holistic socio-ecological systems; the limits of hu¬ 
man life; questions of will and desire; and social responsibility, 
emotions, imagination and embodied knowing (Orr, 1991; Sterling, 
2009; Kagawa and Selby, 2010; Wolff, 2011). Instead, educators and 
learners have been provided with good skills of analysing, catego¬ 
rising and labelling things, seeing detail and dealing with parts and 
focusing on one factor or goal at a time. However, to deal with re¬ 
ality of wicked sustainability issues the skills of reframing, making 
synthesis, coping with uncertainty, resilience, and multiple in¬ 
telligences and ways of knowing are necessary (Sterling, 2009). 

According to Lili-Ann Wolff (2011 ), profound gaps exist between 
education and sustainability that can be understood as related to a 
segregated worldview and the modern dualistic understanding of 
humanness. These include the gulf between human and nature, 
knowledge and action, the rhetoric of environmental education and 
educational practice, the researcher and the object, knowledge and 
power, different generations, and the dilemma between individual 
desire and social obligations. To address the challenging gaps of 
sustainability education, Wolff (2011) defines the goals of sustain¬ 
ability education as the promotion of self-transformation through 
self-understanding and self-training, the development of social 
relations and collective responsibility, and the promotion of an 
understanding of the natural world and life on a global scale. In the 
following sections the essential goals of sustainability education are 
enlightened in relation to dichotomies of nature—culture, social- 
—individual, mind—body and reason—emotion, and art—science. 

3.2. Alienation and dichotomized thinking 

According to Steven Vogel (2015), climate change as an unin¬ 
tended commons is a tragedy. It is an unintended result, produced 
in both individual and collective practices. Vogel (2015, 207) refers 
to Marx’ concept of alienation when explaining how climate 
change is an unintended socially produced result. Human alien¬ 
ation from nature and socially produced reality has resulted in 
severe sustainability challenges such as climate change. According 


2 According to Marx’s account, to be alienated from something is to fail to 
recognize it as something one has helped to produce ; under alienation, the objects 
built by human practice - both the particular commodities built by labour and the 
broader phenomena generated by the "invisible hand" — appear as independent 
powers over and against human lives. In Marx's sense, we cannot be alienated from 
“nature”, but we can be (and are) alienated from the built environment — in that we 
do not recognize its sociality and its builtness (Vogel, 2015). 


to Vogel (2015), this alienation might be the reason for the lack of 
understanding of how individuals interact with the common 
physical, ecological and social reality of climate change. Sterling 
(2003) describes the phenomenon of alienation is an epistemo¬ 
logical battle heated by the tension between the parts and the 
whole. ' Separateness is an operative way of knowing, and this 
thinking reflects itself throughout Western culture. Relations are 
seen as win—lose games instead of win-win possibilities, and the 
focus is on parts of the system instead of their relations (Sterling, 
2003, 2009, 2010; Laininen, 2018). Alienation has been used as a 
concept to describe a sense of loss, harnessing subjectivity to ob¬ 
jects for capitalist interests. This has proceeded to new dimensions 
in the sphere of digital technology and cyberculture. In the time of 
digitalization the exploitation involves the human mind, language 
and emotions in order to generate value (Berardi, 2009.). 

A modern dualistic worldview and alienation have replaced the 
perception of man as an integral part of nature. Seeing nature as an 
object of instrumental benefit has led to attitudes of indifference 
and overconsumption (Wolff, 2011). The impact of private indi¬ 
vidual acts or thoughts is not generally considered to have signifi¬ 
cance in the social and global reality. The effects of human 
behaviour on socio-ecological systems has not been considered in 
individual or institutional decision making within societies. Due to 
globalization, the distant ecological and social consequences and 
impacts of consumption on other people and ecology have become 
obscured (Conca et al., 2002). Focusing on local action and solu¬ 
tions, while neglecting global impacts or the impacts on distanced 
localities has induced severe sustainability challenges. We are 
living in the Anthropocene era, in a reality where human activities 
impact the environment on all scales (Crutzen, 2002, 2006; Cook 
et al., 2013), Human intervention has affected everything; thus, 
everything in the world is different from what it would otherwise 
“naturally” be. Through land use activities, producing pollution and 
waste, and altering geochemical cycles, and changing the climate, 
people have made every spot on Earth manmade and artificial 
(Crutzen, 2002, 2006; Vogel, 2015.). 

People have ignored the human dependence not only on nature 
but on other people. Individuals have been separated from the 
social production of reality, the common ecological, social, material 
and nonmaterial reality. Social and economic systems are separated 
from nature, and decisions are based on reasoning with a false 
assumption of the separateness of emotions and values (Laininen, 
2018). However, the maladaptive behaviour, the social and psy¬ 
chological aspects of climate change, has brought sustainability 
problems to a wicked level. Research has proven that scientific 
knowledge about ecology and human dependence on nature does 
not solely alter sustainable behaviour (Kollmuss and Agyeman, 
2002). The neglect of ethical and emotional dimensions of 
climate change makes climate change education meaningless and 
inefficient (Selby, 2010). 

The modern dichotomies most problematic from the perspec¬ 
tive of sustainability education and climate change are illustrated in 
Fig. 1. At the core of the sustainability challenges are the di¬ 
chotomies between the individual and social, and culture and na¬ 
ture. People have become alienated from socio-ecological systems 
(Marcott et al., 2013). A dualistic worldview has replaced the 
perception of man being an integral part of nature (Bateson, 1972). 
Alienation and denial are socially produced and organized cultural 
responses to climate change (Norgaard, 2013; Vogel, 2015). An 


3 Decontextual separation - a deep-seated belief that the wellbeing of the iso¬ 
lated part is won in the struggle against other parts — is in opposition to the un¬ 
derstanding that the wellbeing of the part depends on the wellbeing of the whole 
and vice-versa (Sterling, 2003). 




A. Lehtonen et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 


863 


understanding of the global impact of local decision making is both 
missing and essential in a globalized world with global sustain¬ 
ability threats. However, at the core of this dichotomized thinking is 
the mind and body dualism, related to the idealization of reason 
and the neglect of emotional attachment and ethical awareness. 
Dismantling the dichotomy of art and science is essential for 
enriching scientific knowledge with different ways of knowing in 
order to illuminate the human response to climate change. 


Individual 



3.3. Sustainability as awareness of interconnectedness 

If unsustainability is seen as related to dualist, dichotomized 
thinking, finding effective approaches to sustainability challenges 
and decreasing global warming requires a holistic understanding of 
interconnectedness 4 5 (Nash, 1989; Kagawa and Selby, 2010) and 
relationalism (Naess and Rothenberg, 1990). Interconnectedness 
emphasizes the relational nature" of things. According to rela¬ 
tionalism, things exist and function only as relational entities 
(Naess and Rothenberg, 1990, 56). 

From a sustainability perspective, interconnectedness can be 
found in several dimensions. People are part of eco-social systems, 
and cultural attitudes and responses to climate change are socially 
produced and organized. Natural conditions and people's living 
conditions are interdependent, and local and global are interre¬ 
lated. Each person is involved in the continuous social construction 
of reality, and the individual choices of living and thinking have an 
impact on the common global reality of climate change. In addition, 
individuals have a crucial role in socialization processes, defining 
norms and taboos by acting or not acting, speaking or staying quiet, 
and even by thinking. Sustainable decision making is based on 
relational intelligence including both the emotional and ethical 
intelligence (Pless and Maak, 2005) and common good thinking 


4 For historical perspectives on interconnectedness in environmental philosophy, 

see Nash (1989). 

5 Relationalism refers to the theory of reality that interprets the existence, nature 
and meaning of things in terms of their relationality or relatedness. In the rela- 
tionalist view, things are neither self-standing entities nor vague events but rela¬ 
tional particulars (Naess and Rothenberg, 1990). 


(Glasser, 2017). The above mentioned essential aspects of the 
interconnectedness of sustainability are explained in the following 
paragraphs from different theoretical perspectives and illustrated 
in Fig. 2 at the end of this section. 

3.3A. The eco-social approach 

The eco-social approach to education, defines the human- 
—nature relationship as asymmetric because humans are fully 
dependent on nature, even though nature can flourish without 
humans (Salonen, 2014). In the big picture, an asymmetric inter¬ 
connectedness also exists between the biosphere, society and the 
economy in the real world. Without a well-functioning biosphere, 
there can be no society, and without society, there can be no so¬ 
cietal functions, including an economy (Salonen, 2014; Salonen and 
Konkka, 2015). The economy is a sub-system of a larger finite sys¬ 
tem, the biosphere (Max-Neef, 2010, 203—204). Therefore, the 
economy is also a sub-system of society (Pilipenko, 2015). It is 
impossible to benefit from the prosperity created by economic 
growth if the environment where humans live is ruined. This 
means that the common good of all living creatures is also good for 
an individual human being on a longer time scale. Commons 
thinking refuse the logic well-being depending on exploiting the 
other people or the environment, but elevates understanding of 
interdependence and common good (Kenrick, 2009). 

3.3.2. Socially constructed climate change 

Steven Vogel (2015; 36) underlines the essentiality of under¬ 
standing the social reality of climate change as socially constructed 
and produced unintendedly in both individual and collective 
practice. He refers to the philosophy of social constructionism for 
unmasking the hidden and forgotten processes of the collective 
production of social reality. According to social constructionism, 
knowledge should be understood as an active process, as we come 
to know nature only through transforming it (Vogel, 2015, 45—47). 

Wolff (2011) refers to Foucault's thinking and describes the essential 
understanding of knowledge similarly to Vogel. Knowledge is “not an 
objective or a matter of free-floating facts — it is a collective undertaking 
that involves everyone individually and socially in interaction with the 
many relations of a person's life, both rationally and emotionally, including 
self-relation, relation to others, and to physical nature." 

3.3.3. The socially organized emotional response to climate change 

The emotional response to climate change is socially organized 

and adapted in social interaction, according to the sociology of 
climate change. According to Kari Mari Norgaard (2011 ), individuals 
often collectively distance themselves from information about 
ecological threats and behaviour related to them because of norms 
of emotion, conversation and attention. Furthermore, our social 
environment provides us with a general idea of what we can 
disengage from and what we should repress from our conscious¬ 
ness or ignore. Inattention occurs in response to social circum¬ 
stances and is carried out through the process of social interaction. 
The prevailing responses to climate change, literal, interpretive and 
implicatory denial, which minimize the psychological, political and 
moral implications of climate change, are all socially organized 
(Cohen, 2001, Norgaard, 2011; 9). 

Moreover, the emotional aspect of climate change needs to be 


6 The theory of social constructionism highlights the fact that the world has a 
social and historical origin and is actively, socially constructed. Social construc¬ 
tivism applies the ideas of social constructionism to psychology and education. 
According to social constructionism, concepts are created by human beings, and 
this creation occurs in a historical social context, but it does not follow that the 
referents of those concepts are thus created (Hacking, 1999, Vogel, 2015; 35), as the 
ecology of our planet is not socially constructed. 








864 


A. Lehtonen et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 


carefully considered as eco-anxiety is a severe issue (Pihkala, 2017). 
People need the help of supportive communities to cope with 
climate change anxiousness and great fears about the future 
(Norgaard, 2011). The threat of climate change to the continuation 
of life, and the culpability of all people in its cause are psycholog¬ 
ically unbearable issues (Lehtonen and Valimaki, 2012). Besides, 
people need an emotional attachment 7 to nature in order to 
demonstrate environmentally responsible behaviour (Orr, 2004) 
and experience the connection embodied with other people and 
nature in order to have the motivation to take care of them 
(Martusewicz et al., 2014). Embodied and emotional awareness is 
essential, as emotional literacy and ethics are related (Nussbaum, 
2003; Goleman, 2006). The emotional aspect of learning should 
have a focus in education as emotional awareness, since emotions 
affect learning and thinking (Phillips, 2009). In addition, emotional 
and embodied literacy are important for creating a common vision 
of sustainable well-being. According to Naess (2008: 23). ‘‘What is 
good life, goes primarily through emotions." 

3.3.4. Integration of different ways of knowing 

For deepening the understanding of critical sustainability issues, 
discovering connected identities and creating new ideas and 
alternative visions of sustainable life, new ways of thinking are 
needed as wicked problems can't be solved with the same strate¬ 
gies of knowing, that has resulted in problems. To deepen the un¬ 
derstanding of different dimensions of climate change, 
transdisciplinary knowing is relevant. According to Kagawa and 
Selby (2010, 242—243), “There is a need for complementary and 
recursive use of artistic, embodied, experiental, symbolic, spiritual, and 
relational learning, especially in the vital educational task of recon¬ 
necting learners to the earth while enabling them to discover their 
connected identity and realize their full potentials.” Integration of 
various ways of knowing helps in construction of a multidimen¬ 
sional understanding of phenomena. 

Enriching rationality, analytic and mechanistic ways of knowing 
with creative ways of knowing, emotional and ethical intelligence 
are critical in envisioning and creating a more sustainable future 
(Kagawa and Selby, 2010). In addition, experiental and embodied 
knowing, the integration of mind and body is crucial in sustain¬ 
ability to make knowledge about interconnectedness meaningful. 
The integration of art and science in art-based learning processes 
have an immense potential in learning for sustainability 
(Eernstman, and Wals, 2013) and in addressing the modern di¬ 
lemmas of education. Personal meaning perspectives can become 
enriched in artistic dialogue and encounters with other people and 
the world. For example, concepts such as sustainable development 
or sustainable future can be re-embedded into the world and 
practice of living by applying art-based methods (Eernstman and 
Wals, 2013). 

To improve the situation of sustainability, the crucial di¬ 
mensions of an awareness of interconnectedness are illustrated in 
Fig. 2. The spiral in Fig. 2 demonstrates the need for dismantling, 
deconstructing and integrating dichotomized thinking on the meta 
level and designing practices where they are integrated. The spiral 
begins from the middle, and the dismantling of dichotomies starts 
from the individual's reflection on experiences and ways of seeing 
the collective reality. The role of science, philosophy and education 
is to provoke the dismantling and deconstructing of dichotomies, to 
create pathways as theories, concepts and practices in between 
dichotomies, and to promote the understanding of interconnec¬ 
tedness, common goods thinking, interdependence and the nature 
of the eco-social human being. 


7 Biofilia, having the meaning of affinity and love for all life (Orr, 2004). 


To summarize, combating climate change necessitates disman¬ 
tling the modern fragmented worldview and alienation: thinking in 
dichotomies needs to be demolished. The awareness of intercon¬ 
nectedness is central in the construction of sustainable societies 
and lifestyles and in education. Encountering climate change and 
other related big challenges of unsustainability necessitates critical 
consideration of effective, transformative pedagogies to provide 
people with systems thinking s (Glasser and Hirsh, 2016) and critical 
and creative learning skills (Kagawa and Selby, 2010). In the 
following chapter, we present the principles of a pedagogy of 
interconnectedness defining the vital awareness of interconnec¬ 
tedness contra thinking in modern dichotomies is essential in 
education. 


Individual 


Mind 


Local 


Reason 


Nature 


Science 


Global 


Body 



Social 


Fig. 2. Awareness of interconnectedness for sustainability. 


4. Principles of a pedagogy of interconnectedness 

As a conclusion of the theoretical exploration of the problematic 
thinking in dichotomies and needed integration in the section 3., 
the principles of pedagogy of interconnectedness define the critical 
awareness of interconnectedness for sustainability education. The 
pedagogy of interconnectedness aims at enhancing the under¬ 
standing of the world and humans as relational: recognizing the 
interdependence of society and nature, the local and global, and 
seeing the common reality as socially constructed. In order to 
promote awareness of interconnectedness, the humanness and 
learning needs to be considered in a holistic way, and the per¬ 
spectives of knowing need to be widened through the integration 
of science and arts in education. 

Essential awareness of interconnectedness in sustainability 
education 

A view of oneself, the human and the world as relational. 
Integration of human culture and nature, the local and global. 

• Understanding of the interdependence of and becoming con¬ 
nected with nature and society, global ecosystems and the 
community of people. 


8 Systems thinking means awareness of linkages and interactions between ele¬ 
ments that compose the entire system of a persisting problem (Capra, 1996). 






A. Lehtonen et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 


865 


• Becoming aware of oneself being a part of and having an impact 
on global eco-social reality and global ecosystems. 

Integration of the individual and social. 

• Becoming aware of how the individual and common good are 
parallel on a longer time scale. 

• Becoming aware of how emotional and value-based responses 
to climate change are socially organized by norms and taboos 
and how every individual is part of this socialization process. 
Individual acts, thoughts and attitudes construct the common 
reality and matter. 

Integration of mind—body, reason and emotion, intuition, and 
arts and science. 

• Becoming connected with oneself, with integrated and 
embodied experiences, thoughts, feelings, needs, values and 
your own creativity related to the body and mind. 

• Becoming aware of how emotions interfere in knowing and 
guide personal values. 

• Deepening the understanding of humanness and search for 
sustainable humanness and solutions for a sustainable life. 

• Searching for alternative ways of seeing reality; a creative 
visioning of sustainability. 

A pedagogy of interconnections enhances the need for special, 
integrative pedagogical approaches considered in line with 
learning goals for promoting the awareness of interconnectedness. 
Collaborative learning, phenomenon-based learning and arts- 
based learning as experiental, embodied, collaborative and crea¬ 
tive learning approaches are suggested as effective means that 
could enhance an awareness of interconnectedness. Common 
goods thinking can be learned in the practice of collaborative and 
participatory learning that integrate individual and social aware¬ 
ness in pedagogical practices and facilitate empowerment in 
collaboration. Transdisciplinary studying real world issues, can 
enable the integration of knowledge about the human and nature, 
and the nature and society of different fields. Through integration 
of arts in education it is possible to critically reflect on personal and 
cultural images, attitudes, norms and taboos. Furthermore, the 
integration of arts and science enables exploring humanity and its 
relations, widening perspectives and looking at reality differently 
in alternative ways, which are imperatives for future thinking and 
essential elements of art-based learning (Boeckel, 2014). 

5. Climate.now; interconnecting climate change education 

Climate.now, an online course material for a higher education 
institution, is an example of practice and analysed from the theo¬ 
retical basis of the pedagogy of interconnectedness. Climate.now 
consists of multidisciplinary online material for a multidisciplinary 
study and a teaching module (5 credits) on the basics of climate 
change. The study material contains written material, video lec¬ 
tures and interviews, tests, various applied assignments such as a 
learning diary and project work, and a guide for teachers that will 
help anyone familiarize themselves with the basics of climate 
change. In the Table 1 the goals and the content of Climate.now are 
related to the modern dichotomies and the different dimensions of 
pedagogy of interconnectedness. 

Climate.now is an example of interconnecting climate change 
education on many aspects. The design of the course material is 
transdisciplinary, and the material was produced in multidisci¬ 
plinary collaboration with natural, environmental, social and 
educational scientists and artists. The learning packages of 


Climate.now offer multidimensional perspectives on climate 
change as an interconnected physical, ecological, societal, cultural 
and ethical issue. The course material includes several inter¬ 
connected learning packages, such as Climate change in different 
fields or Big issues, covering large topics such as food production and 
the role of forests in climate change. Students work in multidisci¬ 
plinary groups during the course and complete multidisciplinary 
project assignments on prepared topics. The collaborative learning 
in study groups may offer experiential learning about common 
good thinking in practice. 

In the teachers’ guide, the learning approach is defined as sys¬ 
temic, participatory, dialogic and experiential learning in which 
climate change is discussed in different connections and contexts. 
In addition to understanding climate change and the related in¬ 
teractions, learning also focuses on becoming aware of different 
attitudes and ways of thinking. 

An eco-social, global and ethical awareness of interconnected¬ 
ness is deepened by the project assignments of Climate.now. These 
assignments consider Himalayan glaciers, Hurricane Katrina, which 
hit New Orleans in 2005, and stories of individual people in 
different parts of the world in very many aspects containing natural 
scientific, social scientific and ethical questions. The goal of the 
project assignments is for students to apply the topics in the course 
to the contexts given and, through local and global perspectives, 
gain a more in-depth understanding of what they have learned. 

A personal relationship with the topic, integration of social and 
individual, and critical thinking are enhanced by writing learning 
diaries. In the learning-diary the students are asked to reflect on the 
meaning of the content to themselves as persons, as a member of a 
society and to their field of study. The learning diary has a crucial 
role for integrating the individual and common awareness, as the 
diary should be discussed in the peer-group meetings. Moreover, 
the aim of writing in a diary is to promote reflection on climate 
change from ethical and emotional aspects, and to connect the new 
learning experiences and content to what has been learned before. 

Furthermore, the course design aims at engaging students by 
promoting awareness of each person and field of study having a 
crucial role in climate change, this is strengthened especially 
through creative project assignments searching for solutions to¬ 
ward a society where climate change has been resolved. Within 
Climate.now, integration of individual and social, promoting active 
agency is enhanced by reflective assignments on the different roles 
one has in relation to climate change and the role each field could 
have in combating climate change. At the end of the course the 
students are asked to use their imagination and creativity to look 
for solutions in a utopian assignment, imagining a world where 
climate change is resolved and designing a climate project of their 
own. Becoming aware of the meaningful role each person has in 
climate change might activate people to engage in critical reflection 
of prevailing responses, and the search for a new, more sustainable 
way of living. 

The principles of a pedagogy of interconnectedness are visible in 
the criteria for assessment. The criteria include studying and 
examining the issues in depth from various points of view; having a 
transdiciplinary approach and demonstrating systemic thinking; 
displaying a transformative approach to climate change; critical, 
creative and ethical thinking; awareness of the local and global as 
interrelated; critical reflection; and meta-thinking in their personal 
studying. 

6. Concluding remarks 

In order to strengthen the transformation to cultural and soci¬ 
etal sustainability through education, critical exploration of pre¬ 
vailing thinking and pedagogical practices is a prerequisite. To 


866 


A. Lehtonen et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 


Table 1 

Pedagogy of interconnectedness and Climate.now course materials. 


Dichotomy Pedagogy of interconnectedness 


Learning goal ( Climate.now) 


Content or exercise ( Climate.now) 


Nature — 
Culture 


Local — 
Global 


Individual 
— Social 


Seeing the world as relational 


Seeing a man as a part of global eco-social 
relations 

Systems thinking, ecological thinking and global 
awareness 

Transdisciplinary learning 

Seeing the reality of climate change, and cultural 

responses as socially constructed and organized 

with each person having a meaningful role in the 

social reality 

Collaborative learning 


Participatory learning 


Interconnected learning packages: Systems thinking, 
climate change in different fields, big issues 
(international negotiations, food, forestry) 

Various perspectives of climate change: Connections Project assignments: Case New Orleans, Himalaya, 


Basic knowledge: climate change as a scientific 
phenomenon, mitigating it and adapting to it 


Mind — 
Body 
Reason - 
Emotion 

Science — 
Art 


Seeing the human, and learning and knowing 
holistically 

Embodied and experiential learning 

Emotional awareness 
Seeing creatively 
Creative learning and visualization 
Arts-based learning 


between the environment, the economy and 
different parts of society 

Recognition of climate change as a global, human 
and ethical challenge 

Reflection on one's personal role in climate change 
as a person, member of society and an expert of 
one's own field 

Looking for solutions to climate challenge in a 
variety of ways, and examining the different 
perspectives, solutions, sources of information and 
the current debate about climate change from a 
critical point of view 


Reflection and discussion on images, associations 
and emotional responses, and ethical issues related 
to climate change 


Creative thinking, visioning new, sustainable ways 
of thinking 


Stepping into experts' shoes in different localities 


Learning diary: Reflection on personal and common 
images of climate change, on one's personal role in 
climate change, reflection on one's own field and 
future role as an expert 
Learning diary: Carbon footprint 


Contact session: Discourses on climate change: 
climate change and the media 
Learning diary: Climate change and humanity 
Video/Learning diary: Challenges of sustainability: 
common goods and life-affirming thinking 
Introductory exercise: Climate change around us 

Learning diary: Reflection on ethical issues and 
emotional responses related to climate change 

Learning diary: Utopia assignment: world of resolved 
climate change 

Project assignment: Visualization solutions for 
climate change in your own field 


strengthen the effectiveness of educational responses, educational 
practices need to be designed in line with learning goals. This de¬ 
mands critical thinking on the meta level. In this article the roots of 
unsustainability are examined from the point of view of alienation 
and fragmented thinking related to modern dichotomies. As a 
result of the theoretical exploration of the modern dichotomies 
that strengthen alienation, the educational response called peda¬ 
gogy of interconnectedness is outlined. 

Pedagogy of interconnectedness aims at promoting human 
interconnectedness through enhancing awareness of interconnec¬ 
tedness in educational practices. This means seeing humans and 
learning in a holistic way: integrating minds and bodies, reason and 
emotion; and seeing the world and humans as interconnected: the 
interconnectedness of the individual and social, nature and culture, 
the local and global, and the integration of art and science to create 
new insights and alternative ways of understanding. 

Identifying interconnectedness contra the prevailing dichoto¬ 
mized thinking and making interconnectedness visible in educa¬ 
tional practices make it possible to dismantle the prevailing 
segregated and dichotomized thinking. Redesigning education for 
sustainability necessitates the consideration and development of 
new learning approaches. Collaborative, participatory learning and 
exploring real-life issues could integrate individual and social re¬ 
alities, foster active agency and relational systems thinking. 
Moreover, integrating art and science into learning processes can 
enable enriching rational thinking with intuitive thinking and 
cultivate creativity and an embodied and emotional understanding 
of the wicked sustainability challenges of humanness. 

In this article, a case of university pedagogy, Climate.now, the 
online course for higher education, was presented as an example of 
how the principles of pedagogy of interconnectedness could be 
applied in practice. In the course design of Climate.now, trans¬ 
disciplinary, transformative and collaborative learning are 


promoted by studying in multidisciplinary study groups; systemic 
understanding is provoked by integrative and creative learning 
assignments; critical self-re flection and ethical awareness are 
enhanced in the instructions of the learning diaries; and these goals 
were ensured by the criteria for assessment. 

In the complex reality of climate change, redesigning education 
for sustainability and consideration of new learning approaches are 
needed on all levels of education. The core of pedagogy of inter¬ 
connectedness is to enhance critical reflection of dualistic and 
segregated ways of thinking and to promote the awareness of 
interconnectedness. The focus is on making visible the contradic¬ 
tions of the prevailing thinking and recognize unexpected, bewil¬ 
dering connections. This enables a more realistic understanding of 
the complexity of climate change and the creation of novel, various 
engaging encounters with climate change. With their focus on 
interconnectedness, these various approaches together can create a 
powerful response to climate change as the wicked burning sus¬ 
tainability challenge of our time. 

Funding 

This work was supported by the Emil Aaltonen Foundation. 
Climate.now was funded by the Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra. 

References 

Bateson, G., 1972. Steps to an Ecology of Mind: Collected Essays in Anthropology, 
Psychiatry, Evolution, and Epistemology. University of Chicago Press. 

Berardi, F., 2009. The Soul at Work: from Alienation to Autonomy. Semiotext (e). 
Boeckel, J.V., 2014. At the Heart of Art and Earth: an Exploration of Practices in Arts- 
based Environmental Education. Aalto University. 

Capra, F., 1996. The Web of Life: a New Scientific Understanding of Living Systems 
(1st Anchor Books ed). Anchor Books, New York, p. 30. 

Cohen, S., 2001. States of Denial: Knowing about Atrocities and Suffering. Polity 
Press, Cambridge: MA. 





A. Lehtonen et al. / Journal of Cleaner Production 199 (2018) 860-867 


867 


Conca, K., Maniates, M., Princen, T. (Eds.), 2002. Confronting Consumption. MIT 
press. 

Cook, J., Nuccitelli, D., Green, S., Richardson, M., Winkler, B., Painting, R., Way, R., 
Jacobs, P., Skuce, A., 2013. Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global 
warming in the scientific literature. Environ. Res. Lett. 8 (2), 1-7. 

Corcoran, P.B., Weakland, J.P., Wals, A.E. (Eds.), 2017. Envisioning Futures for Envi¬ 
ronmental and Sustainability Education. Wageningen Academic. 

Crane, T., Patterson, S. (Eds.), 2012. History of the Mind-body Problem. Routledge. 

Crutzen, P., 2002. Geology of mankind: the Anthropocene. Nature 415, 23. 

Crutzen, P., 2006. The “Anthropocene”. In: Ehlers, Eckart, Krafft, Thomas (Eds.), 
Earth System Science in the Anthropocene. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, 
pp. 13-18. 

Eernstman, N., Wals, A.E.J., 2013. Locative Meaning-making: an arts-based approach 
to learning for sustainable development. Sustainability 5. P, 1645—1660. 

Foucault, M., 1995.1975. Discipline and Punish. 

Gay, Peter, 1996. The Enlightenment: an Interpretation. W. W. Norton & Company 
Giddens, A (2009). The politics of climate change. London: Polity Press. 

Glasser, H., 2017. Toward robust foundations for sustainable well-being societies: 
learning to change by changing how we learn. In: Cook, J. (Ed.), Sustainability, 
Human Well-being and the Future of Education. Palgrave McMillan (Manuscript 
submitted for publication). 

Glasser, H., Hirsh, J., 2016. Towards the development of robust learning for sus¬ 
tainability core competencies. Sustainability 9 (3), 121—134. https://doi.org/ 
10.1089/sus.2016.29054. hg. 

Goleman, D., 2006. Emotional Intelligence. Bantam Books. 

Hacking, I., 1999. The Social Construction of what? Harvard university press. 

Hsieh, H.F., Shannon, S.E., 2005. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. 
Qual. Health Res. 15 (9), 1277-1288. 

Incropera, F.P., 2015. Climate Change: a Wicked Problem - Complexity and Uncer¬ 
tainly at the Intersection of Science, Economics, Politics and Human Behaviour. 
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 

IPCC, 1995. Scientific Assessments of Climate Change. The Policymaker's Summary 
of Working Group 1 to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, WMO/ 
UNEP. 

Kagawa, F., Selby, D. (Eds.), 2010. Education and Climate Change: Living and 
Learning in Interesting Times. Routledge, New York. 

Kenrick, J., 2009. Commons thinking. In: The Handbook of Sustainable Literacy: 
Skills for a Changing World, 33-8. Greenbook. 

Kollmuss, A., Agyeman, J., 2002. Mind the gap: why do people act environmentally 
and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environ. Educ. Res. 8 
(3), 239-260. 

Laininen, E., 2018. Transforming our worldview towards a sustainable future. In: 
Cook, J. (Ed.), Sustainability, Human Well-being and the Future of Education. 
Palgrave McMillan. 

Lehtonen, J., Valimaki, J., 2012. The environmental neurosis of modern man: illusion 
of autonomy and the real dependence denied. In: Weintrobe, S. (Ed.), Engaging 
with Climate Change. Psychoanalytic and Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Rout¬ 
ledge, pp. 48—51. 

Marcott, S.A., Shakun, J.D., Clark, P.U., Mix, A.C., 2013. A reconstruction of regional 
and global temperature for the past 11,300 years. Science 339 (6124), 
1198-1201. 

Martusewicz, R.A., Edmundson, J., Lupinacci, J., 2014. Ecojustice Education: toward 
Diverse, Democratic, and Sustainable Communities Routledge. 

Max-Neef, M., 2010. The world on a collision course and the need for a new 
economy. Ambio 39 (3), 200—210. 

Naess, A., 2008. Life's Philosophy. Reason & Feeling in a Deeper World. The Uni¬ 
versity of Georgia Press. 

Naess, A., Rothenberg, D., 1990. Ecology, Community and Lifestyle: Outline of an 
Ecosophy. Cambridge University Press. 

Nash, R.F., 1989. The Rights of Nature: a History of Environmental Ethics. University 
of Wisconsin Press, Madison. 

Norgaard, R.B., 1994. Development Betrayed. The End of Progress and a Coevolu¬ 
tionary Revisioning of the Future. London. 

Norgaard, K.M., 2011. Living in Denial: Climate Change, Emotions, and Everyday Life. 
MIT Press. 

Nussbaum, M.C., 2003. Upheavals of Thought: the Intelligence of Emotions. 


Cambridge University Press. 

Orr, D., 1991. What is education for?: Six myths about the foundations of modern 
education and six new principles to replace them. In: Context: A Quarterly of 
Humane Sustainable Culture, 27, pp. 59—64. 

Orr, D.W., 2004. Earth in mind: on education. Environment and Human Prospect. 
Island Press. 

Outram, D., 2006. Panorama of the Enlightenment. Getty Publications. 

Palmer, J., Neal, P., 2003. The Handbook of Environmental Education. Routledge. 

Phillips, M., 2009. Emotional wellbeing. The ability to research and reflect on the 
roots of emotional wellbeing. In: The handbook of sustainability literacy: skills 
for a changing world. Green Books, Dartington. 

Pihkala, P., 2017. Environmental Education after Sustainability: Hope in the Midst of 
Tragedy. Draft of an article for "After Sustainability" Theme number of Global 
Discourse (2017). 

Pilipenko, E., 2015. Economy as a subsystem of the society. J. Manag. Strat. 6 (3), 
38-43. 

Pittman, J., 2004. Living sustainably through higher education: a whole systems 
design approach to organizational change. In: Corcoran, P.B., Wals, A.J.E. (Eds.), 
Higher Education and the Challenge of Sustainability. Problematics, Promise, 
and Practice, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (The Netherlands), 
pp. 199-212. 

Pless, N.M., Maak, T., 2005. Relational intelligence for leading responsibly in a 
connected world. In: Academy of Management Proceedings, vol. 2005. Acad¬ 
emy of Management, pp. 11-16. No. 1. 

Salonen, A., 2014. An ecosocial approach in education. In: Jucker ja, R., Mathar, R. 
(Eds.), Schooling for Sustainable Development: Concepts, Policies and Educa¬ 
tional Experiences at the End of the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable 
Development. Springer, Berlin-Heidelberg, pp. 231—233. 

Salonen, A., Konkka, J., 2015. An ecosocial approach to well-being: a solution to the 
wicked problems in the era of Anthropocene. Foro de Educacion 13 (19), 19—34. 

Sauve, L., 1999. Environmental education: between modernity and postmodernity: 
searching for an integrating educational framework. Can. J. Environ. Educ. 4, 
9-36. 

Sayer, A., 1989. Postfordism in question. Int. J. Urban Reg. Res. 13, 666—695. 

Selby, D., 2010 Apr 15. ‘Go, Go, Go, Said the Bird’: Sustainability-related Education in 
Interesting Times. In: Education and climate change. Routledge, pp. 51-70. 

Steffen, W., Richardson, K., Rockstrom, J., Cornell, S.E., Fetzer, L, Bennett, E.M., et al., 
2015. Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet. 
Science 347 (6223), 1259855. 

Sterling, S., 2003. Whole Systems Thinking as a Basis for Paradigm Change in Ed¬ 
ucation: Explorations in the Context of Sustainability. Doctoral dissertation. 
University of Bath. 

Sterling, S.R., 2004. Higher education, sustainability, and the role of systematic 
learning. In: Corcoran, P.B., Wals, A.E.J. (Eds.), Higher Education and the Chal¬ 
lenge of Sustainability: Problems, and Practice. Higher Academic, Dordrecht, 
Netherlands, pp. 49—70. 

Sterling, S., 2009. Ecological intelligence. In: The handbook of sustainability literacy, 
pp. 77-83. 

Sterling, S., 2010. Living in the earth: towards an education for our time. J. Educ. 
Sustain. Dev. 4 (2), 213—218. 

Stevenson, R.B., 2007. Schooling and environmental education: contradictions in 
purpose and practice. Environ. Educ. Res. 13 (2), 139—153. 

Tilbury, D., 2007. Learning based change for sustainability: perspectives and path¬ 
ways. Social Learn. 117—131. 

UNESCO, 2002. Education for Sustainability, from Rio to Johannesburg: Lessons 
Learnt from a Decade of Commitment report presented at the Johannesburg 
World Summit for Sustainable Development, (Paris, France). 

UNESCO, 2014. Shaping the Future We Want. UN Decade of Education for Sus¬ 
tainable Development (2005-2014) Final Report (2014), p. 198 (Paris, France). 

Vogel, S., 2015. Thinking like a Mall. MIT Press. 

Wacquant, L., 1996. The rise of advanced marginality: notes on its nature and im¬ 
plications. Acta Sociol. 39,121—139. 

Wolff, L.-A., 2011. Nature and Sustainability: an Educational Study with Rousseau 
and Foucault. Lambert academic Publishing, Saarbrucken. 

Zafirovski, M., 2010. The Enlightenment and its Effects on Modern Society, p. 144.