Skip to main content

Full text of "Kilobaud Microcomputing Magazine (February 1981)"

See other formats


kilobaud 



February 1981 
USA S2.95/DM 9.80 



MICROCOMPUTING 



T.M. 



DESK TOP COMPUTERS 



Microcomputing Expands Its Horizons 



The Invasion Takes 
Root in Many Lands 






V 






-t f c "~ I yp- 



.ur> 



s 









<* 



SMCm 






xt'^- 



CommunicllllUI & Will IUUI d MiMHMU l<lu il-AII Sta^ejLCoifiputerized 
the-Spot Front Panel Debugging D Getting thewjiofct from Y< 
Autoloader for the OSID Writing Your Own UJti\H Interpreter, 
Hookup with the 6800DTRS-80 PC and HiPlot Micro-Plott»TRevie 



A Few Extraordinary Products for Your 6800/6809 Computer 

From Percom . . . 

Low Cost 

Mini-Disk Storage 

in the Size You Want „ u 




Percom mini-disk systems start as 
low as $599.95, ready to plug in and 
run. You can't get better quality or a 
broader selection of disk software 
from any other microcomputer disk 
system manufacturer — at any price ! 

Features: 1 -, 2- and 3-drive systems 
in 40- and 77-track versions store 
102K- to 591K-bytes of random ac- 
cess data on-line • controllers in- 
clude explicit clock/data separation 
circuit, motor inactivity time-out cir- 



cuit, buffered control lines and other 
mature design concepts • ROM 
DOS included with SS-50 bus ver- 
sion — optional DOSs for EXOR- 
ciser* bus • extra PROM sockets 
on-board • EXORciser* bus version 
has 1 K-byte RAM • supported by ex- 
tended disk operating systems; as- 
semblers and other program de- 
velopment/debugging aids; BASIC, 
FORTRAN, Pascal and SPL/M lan- 
guages; and, business application 
programs. 





ill 




in mi* 



:*•** 



EXORciser* Bus LFD-400EX™ -800EX™ Systems 




Versatile Mother Board, Full-Feature Prototyping Boards 



«x15 



Printed wiring is easily soldered tin-lead 
plating. Substrates are glass-epoxy. Pro- 
totyping cards provide Tor power regula- 
tors and distributed capacitor bypassing, 
accommodate 14-, 16-, 24- and 40-pin 
DIP sockets. Prototyping boards include 
bus connectors, other connectors and 
sockets are optional. 
MOTHERBOARD — accommodates five 
SS-50 bus cards, and may itself be 



plugged into an SS-50 bus. Features 
wide-trace conductors. Price: $21.95 
SS-50 BUS CARD — accommodates 34- 
and 50-pin ribbon connectors on top 
edge, 10-pin Molex connector on side 
edge. Price: $24.95. 

SS-30 BUS CARD — VA-inch higher 
than SWTP I/O card, accommodates 34- 
pin ribbon connector and 12-pin Molex 
connector on top edge. Price: $14.95. 



The SBC/9™. A "10" By Any Measure. ^13 

The Percom SBC/9™ is an SS-50 bus compatible, stand- 
alone Single-Board Computer. Configured for the 6809 
microprocessor, the SBC/9™ also accommodates a 6802 
without any modification. You can have state-of-the-art 
capability of the '09. Or put to work the enormous selection of 
6800-coded programs that run on the '02. 

The SBC/9™ includes PSYMON™, an easily extended 1- 
Kbyte ROM OS. Other features include: 

• Total compatibility with the SS-50 bus. Requires no changes to the 
motherboard, memory or I/O. 

• Serial port includes bit-rate generator RS-232-C compatible with 
optional subminiature 'D' connector installed 10-pin Molex connec- 
tor provided 

• Eight-bit, non-latched, bidirectional parallel port is multi-address 
extension of system bus. Spans a 30-address field; accommodates 
an exceptional variety of peripheral devices. Connector is optional. 

• Includes 1 -Kbyte of static RAM 

• Costs only $199.95 with PSYMON™ and comprehensive users 
manual that includes source listing of PSYMON™ 

™ trademark of Percom Data Company, Inc 

• trademark of the Motorola Corporation. 

Prices and specifications subject to change without notice. 



The Electric Window™: Instant, Real-Time Video Display Control ^16 

Memory residency and outstanding software control of display format and 
characters make this SS-50 bus VDC card an exceptional value at only $249.95. 
Other features: 

• Generates 128 charac- 
ters including all ASCII dis- 
playable characters plus 
selected Greek letters and 
other special symbols. 

• Well-formed, easy-to- 
read 7x12-dot characters. 
True baseline descenders. 

• Character-store (display) 
memory included on card. 

• Provision for optional 
character generator 
EPROM for user defined 
symbols. 

• Comprehensive users 
manual includes source 
listing of Driver software. 
Driver — called WINDEX™ 
— is also available on mini- 
diskette through the Per- 
com Users Group. 




PEFGOM 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY. INC. 

211 N KIRBY GARLAND. TEXAS 75042 
(214)272-3421 



Products are available at Percom dealers nationwide. Call toll-free, 
1-800-527-1592, for the address of your nearest dealer, or to 
order direct. 



Most small system users think all 
licrocomputers are created equal. And 
fhey're right. If you want performance, con- 
ference, styling, high technology and relia- 
>ility (and who doesn't?) your micro usually 
las a price tag that looks more like a mini. It 
;eems big performance always means big 
)ucks. But not so with the SuperBrain. 

Standard SuperBrain features include: 
[win double-density 5 1 / 4 " drives which boast 
iver 300,000 bytes of disk storage. A full 
I2K of dynamic RAM - easily expandable to 
i4K. A CP/M* Disk Operating System which 
Insures compatibility to literally hundreds of 
application packages presently available. And, 
12" non-glare, 24 line by 80 column screen. 



You'll also get a full ASCII keyboard 
with an 18 key numeric pad and individual 
cursor control keys. Twin RS232C serial 
ports for fast and easy connection to a 
modem or printer. Dual Z80 processors which 
operate at 4 MHZ to insure lightning-fast 
program execution. And the list goes on. 
Feature after feature after feature. 

Better yet, the SuperBrain boasts modu- 
lar design to make servicing a snap. A com- 
mon screwdriver is about the only service tool 
you'll ever need. And with the money you'll 
save on purchasing and maintaining the 
SuperBrain, you could almost buy another one. 
For under $3,000, it is truly one of the most re- 
markable microcomputers available anywhere. 



Whether your application is small 
business, scientific or educational, the 
SuperBrain is certainly one of today's most 
exciting solutions to your microcomputer 
problems. Call or write us now for full details 
on how you can get big system performance 
without having to spend big bucks. So, why 
not see your local dealer and try one out 
today. Intertec systems are distributed world- 
wide and may be available in your area now. 




_ NTE3TEC 

Cdata 

SYSTEMS . 



^3 



2300 Broad River Rd Columbia SC 29210 
(803) 798-9100 TWX 810-666-2115 



'Registered trademart of Digital Research Inc 




TM 




MICROCOMPUTING 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 

Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 

Sherry Smythe 

EDITORIAL MANAGER 

Jeff DeTray 

PUBLICATIONS MANAGER 

Edward Ferman 

MANAGING EDITOR 

Dennis Brisson 

ASST. MANAGING EDITOR 

Susan Gross 

COPY EDITOR 

Eric Moloney 

EDITORIAL ASSISTANT 

Linda Stephenson 

ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISTANTS 

Cresca Clyne, Pat Graham, Nancy Noyd 

ASSOCIATE EDITORS 

Robert Baker, Ken Barbier, Frank Derfler, 
Jr., Rod Hallen, Peter Stark, Sherm Wantz 

MANUFACTURING MANAGER 

Noel Self 

PRODUCTION MANAGER/PUBLICATIONS 

Nancy Salmon 

ASST. PRODUCTION MANAGER 

Michael Murphy 

ART DIRECTOR 

Diana Shonk 

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT 

Joan Ahern, William Anderson, Jr., Steve 

Baldwin, Linda Drew, Robert Drew, Bob 

Dukette, Bruce Hedin, Kenneth Jackson, 

Ross Kenyon, Maryann Metivier, Theresa 

Ostebo, Jane Preston, Dion Owens, 

Patrice Scribner, Suzanne Self, Susan 

Symonds, Thomas Villeneuve 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

William Heydolph, Terrie Anderson, 

Bill Suttenfield 

TYPESETTING 

Barbara Latti, Sara Bedell, Michele 

DesRochers, luann Keddy, Mary Kinzel, 

Linda Locke, Karen Podzycki 

CORPORATE CONTROLLER 

Charles Garniss, Jr 

PLANT MANAGER 

Leatrice O'Neil 

ACCOUNTING MANAGER 

Knud Keller 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

Debra Boudrieau 

CIRCULATION 

Doris Day, Pauline Johnstone 

BULK SALES MANAGER 

Ginnie Boudrieau 

PUBLIC RELATIONS 

Joseph Wilson 

ADVERTISING 
603-924-7138 

Kevin Rushalko, Mgr. 
Marcia Stone, Hal Stephens 



BUSINESS 

37 Aurelec: Making Micros in Indonesia v. KaKapewmai 

Tiny firm one of country's first. 

72 Portrait of a Dynamic French Company Daniel j. David pet 

PET's number one importer in France. 

106 Microcomputers in Industry Barry Barney 

Number crunching is for machines, not humans. 

1 36 Computerize Your Rent-All Store c Pratner, h Davis soso 

Helps you maximize rentals and minimize inventory. 

DATA COMMUNICATIONS 

SO Consumer Information Systems Frank j. Dertier, jr. 

Videotext is gaining popularity around the world. 

EDUCATION 

32 Teaching Micros in Indonesia Mamto Koiopaking 

INFORMATIKA experiments in low-budget education. 

44 Island Computing Richard R.Eckert 

Microcomputer invasion at Catholic University in Puerto Rico. 

GAMES 

114 The Fifteen PUZZle William L Colsher TRS-80 

TRS-80 gives this old game a new twist. 

GENERAL INTEREST 

26 Micros in the Land of the Pharaohs Dr. uoyd a. case 

The ancient and the modern coexist in Egypt. 

54 The U.S.: A View from the U. K. Robin Bradbeer 
U. K. takes strides, but still lags Silicon Valley. 

56 London Computer Club a Huge Success Robin Bradbeer pet 

Despite size, clubbiness still emphasized. 

60 The Argentine Connection wiiiiamP winter, jr 

Surveillance reports that microcomputing activity is slow. 

62 The Skill Of the Irish Robert O'Connor 

Marketing strategy, not luck, draws U.S. firms in droves. 

69 The Micro Down Under coiinKeay 

Australia spawns its own micro community. 
HARDWARE MODIFICATIONS AND CONSTRUCTION 

112 The Modem Eliminator Dennis J Murray 

In some cases, computer communication is easier without a modem. 

1 1 7 Build a Computer System Control and Display Board j c Hassan 

Front panel that allows on-the-spot debugging. 




Page 69. 



~* AUSTRALIAN . 

Personal 




DEPARTURES AMTRAK- 

DESTINATION 

PHILADELPHIA 

NEWARK 

NEW YORK 



Page 50. 




4 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Contents: February 1981 



KIM 



Hai chamberim Simulation of Musical Instruments 

Part 2 describes an experimental KIM-based synthesis system. 



MUSIC 
142 

REVIEWS 
lOl 



Heath 
6800 



CP/M 
OSI 



Kevinconan A High-Stepping Plotter 

Hard-copy graphics courtesy of Houston Instruments. 

Ernie g. Brooner S. D. Sales' 80-Column Video Board 124 

Is it better than a less expensive 64-column board? 

Nat wadsworth Introducing the TRS-80 Pocket Computer 162 

Gives new meaning to the word portability. 

SOFTWARE 
Donald Skiff Getting the Most from Your H8 95 

Interfacing info you won't find in the Heath manuals. 

Marc i Leavey. m d Turn Your Smart Computer 1 28 

Into a Dumb Terminal 

6800 users can now hop onto the CBBS lines. 

Ken Barbier A Print Utility for CP/M 150 

Simplify operator effort and save disk space, too. 

David w Kammer Autoloader Program for the CI P 158 

And Superboard II 

Load and save machine-language programs with ease. 

TUTORIAL 
Richard Fritzson Write Your Own FORTH Interpreter 76 

First part of a major assembly-language project. 



Publisher's Remarks-6 
Computer Blackboard- lO 

PET-pourri-12 

Micro Quiz-16 

Dial-up Directory- 17 

As the Word Turns- 19 

Micro- Scope-20 

Little Bits-168 



DEPARTMENTS 

Calendar-171 

Classifieds- 172 

Dealer Directory-173 

Letters to the Editor- 196 

New Products- 198 

New Software-202 

Book Reviews-206 

Perspectives-210 



Page 106. 





Volume V 
No. 2 



This month: 

It is truly appropriate that this issue, which 
takes a look at microcomputing around the 
world, also marks the 50th issue of Kilobaud 
Microcomputing. Since the magazine was 
first issued in January 1977, Kilobaud Micro- 
computing has played, and continues to 
play, a significant role in the growth of the mi- 
crocomputing industry. 

As you read the section on microcomput- 
ing in other lands (beginning on page 26), you 
will be surprised to learn-as we were when 
we decided to put together this international 
issue-how widespread the brotherhood of 
microcomputing has become. From out of 
the shadows of the pyramids in Egypt to the 
sprawling peanut fields on the outskirts of a 
village in southern India, microcomputing af- 
fects the lives of millions of people every day. 

But the emphasis in these articles is not so 
much on the present as on the future. For ex- 
ample, in Ireland, which is actively trying to 
lure the microelectronics industry into the 
country, future growth means "tremendous 
political, cultural, sociological, psychological 
and philosophical implications." So too in 
Egypt, Indonesia, Puerto Rico and India, 
where, as author V. Kaliaperumal states, "the 
common man must be shown the benefits of 
computers. At present he looks at computers 
as machines that will take away his job. His 
fears and apprehensions must be removed." 

We agree. In its first 50 issues Kilobaud Mi- 
crocomputing has endeavored to help the 
computerist, and the non-computerist, come 
to grips with the microcomputing phenome- 
non and grow to understand and make use 
of the benefits of microcomputing. This will be 
our goal in our next 50 issues, and for 50 mul- 
tiples of 50 after that. 

-The Editors 



This month's cover: 

Illustration by Alexander Stevens. 



Kilobaud Microcomputing (ISSN 0192-4575) is published 
monthly by Wayne Green, Inc., 80 Pine St., Peterborough 
NH 03458. Subscription rates in U.S. are $25 for one year 
and $53 for three years. In Canada: $27 for one year only, 
U.S. funds. Foreign subscriptions (surface mail)— $35 for 
one year only, U.S. funds. Foreign air mail subscriptions 
—$62 for one year only, U.S. funds. Canadian Distributor: 
Micron Distributing, 409 Queen St. West, Toronto, Ontar- 
io, Canada M5V 2A5. In Europe, contact: Monika Nedela, 
Markstr. 3, D-7778 Markdorf, W. Germany. South African 
Distributor: KB Microcomputing, PO Box 782815, Sand- 
ton, South Africa 2146. Australian Distributor: Electronic 
Concepts, Attention: Rudi Hoess, 55 Clarence Street, 
Sidney 2000, Australia. Second-class postage paid at Pe- 
terborough NH 03458 and at additional mailing offices. 
Phone: 603-924-3873. Entire contents copyright 1981 by 
Wayne Green, Inc. No part of this publication may be re- 
printed or otherwise reproduced without written permis- 
sion from the publisher. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 5 



PUBLISHER'S REMARKS 

Japanese 
Lead the Field 



By Wayne Green 



New Technology 

Innovative and 

Coming This Way 



The Tour 

I was disappointed that more of our mi- 
crocomputer industry people did not 
take advantage of the October tour of con- 
sumer electronic shows in Tokyo, Seoul, 
Taipei and Hong Kong. The price was 
right, the time required was minimal, 
and the educational benefits were im- 
mense. The food was great! 

There, to be seen within a few days, 
were the latest developments in consum- 
er electronics, which included an impres- 
sive array of microcomputers, many of 
them new. 

The general impression I've gathered 
after going on this tour for two years in a 
row is that Japan is way out front in tech- 
nology, with heavy competition between 
Taiwan and Korea to get in there to pro- 
duce lower-cost models of the Japanese 
developments. In general their products 
are two or three years behind Japan. 

Hong Kong has gotten into the faster 
lane, making copies of the Japanese 
products within months of their intro- 
duction, rather than two or three years. A 




The Mitsubishi micro does a good job 
displaying Japanese ideographs. 

good example is the enormously success- 
ful Sony Walkman cassette stereo player, 
which I first heard in January 1980 when 
Chuck Martin of Tufts Electronics (Med- 
ford, MA) brought a couple along on a 
ham industry conference in Aspen. After 
listening to that player, anyone with a 
love of quality hi-fi music will be hooked. 




How about a keyboard, numeric pad, 
printer, two minifloppies and a CRT in 
one enclosure? This one is called the if 
800. 



This year there are several similar 
units being made in Japan, one in Tai- 
wan and three in Hong Kong. All cost 
considerably lower than the Sony, with- 
out sacrificing sound quality. Of course, 
by this time Sony had introduced the 





Elaborate and expensive displays attracted large crowds to Japan 's 1 980 Information Processing Exhibition. 
6 Microcomputing, February 1981 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

FOR YOUR DISK SYSTEM 



FILE BOX 

DISKETTE STORAGE SYSTEM 




TRS-80™ PRODUCTS 



.hums I in ruin 



MKMOBOFF #!4S#f 101 i OIH l> 
Se OTHER MVSTERttS * . 



/»#• //##• THS-HO 




NEWDOS/80 by Apparat 


. . . $149.95 


NEWDOS+ with ALL UTILITIES 
35-track 


.... $69.95 


40-track 


$79.95 


TRS80TM DISK AND OTHER 

MICROSOFT tm BASIC DECODEI 
MYSTERIES for the TRS-80TM 


MYSTERIES 
. . .$19.95 
D & OTHER 
$29.95 





Products damaged in 

transit will be 

exchanged. 

Prices, Specifications, 

and Offerings subject 

to change without 

notice. 



95 

for 5 l A" disks 
for 8" disks . . . $29.95 



MTC brings you the ULTIMATE diskette 
storage system, at an affordable price. Stor- 
ing 50 to 60 diskettes, this durable, smoke- 
colored acrylic unit provides easy access 
through the use of index dividers and ad- 
justable tabs. Unique lid design provides 
dust-free protection and doubles as a carry- 
ing handle. 



PLASTIC LIBRARY CASES 

(not shown) 
An economical form of storage for 10 to 15 
diskettes, and is suitable for your bookshelf! 
Case opens into a vertical holder for easy ac- 
cess. 

5 1 /4 -inch diskette case $3.25 

8-inch diskette case $3.50 



'RINGS' & 
THINGS 

Help prevent data loss and media damage 
due to improper diskette centering and 
rotation with the FLOPPY SAVER™ rein- 
forcing hub ring kit. 7-mil mylar rings in- 
stall in seconds. Kit is complete with 
centering tool, pressure ring, 25 adhesive 
backed hub rings and instructions. 

HUB RING KIT for 5VV diskettes . . $9.95 
REFILLS (50 Hub Rings) $4.95 



Protect your expensive disk drives and 
your valuable diskettes with our diskette 
drive head cleaning kit. The kit, consisting 
of a pair of special "diskettes", cleaning 
solution and instructions, can be used for 
52 cleanings. Removes contamination 
from recording surfaces in seconds 
without harming drives. 



CLEANING KIT for 5 l A" drives 



$24.95 



Single Sided, Single Density, Soft-Sectored 
Scinch, (for TRS-80™) Mini-floppy 

DISKETTES 

$21 



95 

box of 10 



These are factory fresh, absolutely first 
quality (no seconds!) mini-floppies. They are 
complete with envelopes, labels and write- 
protect tabs in a shrink-wrapped box. 

PLAIN JANE™ 

DISKETTES 

The Beautiful Floppy 

with the Magnetic Personality"* 

Thousands of people have switched to this 
low-cost alternative. These quality diskettes 
are packaged in a plain white box ... no fan- 
cy printing, fancy names or fancy labels, not 
even our own (labels cost money). Trust us. 

PLAIN JANETM Diskettes $21.95 

10 boxes of 10 (eachbox)$21.50 

VERBATIMS PREMIUM DISKETTES AT 
AFFORDABLE PRICES 



DATALIFE 



TM 



Seven data-shielding improvements mean 

freater durability and longer data life, 
hese individually certified diskettes 
feature thicker oxide coating, longer-lasting 
lubricant, improved liner, superior 
polishing and more! Meets or exceeds IBM, 
Shugart, ANSI, ECMA and ISO standards. 
Buy the best ... buy DATALIFE™ 
VERBATIM DATALIFETM DISKETTES 
Scinch (box of 10) 

MD525-01 $26.95 

10 boxes of 10 (eachbox)$25.95 

8-inch FLOPPIES 

Single-Density, FD34-1000 $29.95 
Double-Density, FD34-8000 $39.95 



CALL FOR INFORMATION ON 
OTHER TRS-80TM PRODUCTS 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED 

WITHIN ONE 

BUSINESS DAY 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

February 1, 1980 THRU 

February 28, 1980 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• COD. 



Add $2.50 for 
standard UPS 
shipping & handling 
$2.00 EXTRA 
for COD. 
Ohio residents 
add 5^2% sales tax. 




TO PLACE ORDER 
1-800-321-3552 



CALL 

TOLL 
FREE 



FOR PRODUCT INFO 
1-800-321-3640 



mii Ui < ha>9* 



IN OHIO call (216)289-7500 (COLLECT) 



^161 



META TECHNaj_nGJES CDRPaRflTJQtt 



VISA 



26111 Brush Avenue. Euclid. Ohio 44132 



801215 

TRS-80 is a TM of Tandy Corp. 
PLAIN JANE is a TM of MTC. 
©1980 by Metatechnologies Corporation, Inc. 



tS Reader Sen/ice — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 7 




This Hitachi unit features color graphics and a light pen. 



Another Hitachi system— the Basic Master. 



next generation — their stereo miniature 
cassette recorder. By next year I'm sure 
there will be a half dozen imitations of 
this. The one I brought back has made all 
my mono recorders obsolete for record- 
ing talks and meetings. 



Another Chinese Computer 

During my recent visit to Taiwan I had 
the opportunity to give a talk on the fu- 
ture of microcomputers to the Chinese 
Youth Organization at the famous Grand 
Hotel, one of the most lavish hotels in the 
Republic of China. The talk was a bit slow 
because it had to be translated as I went, 
but the response was enthusiastic and 
well worth the effort. 

After the talk, which was sponsored by 
the leading electronics magazine of Tai- 
wan (IBS Publications), I had an oppor- 
tunity to see a new microcomputer 
which happened to be on display on an- 
other floor of the hotel. This system, the 
Sigma 10, is made in Massachusetts! The 
character generator for the Chinese char- 
acters required a look-up table and break- 
ing down the characters into compo- 
nents. The numbers corresponding to 



the various character elements were en- 
tered with the key pad on the keyboard, 
and the system put them together into 
any of some 10,000 different characters. 
It takes a good video display to clearly 
show the complex Chinese characters. 
The same can be said for their printer, 
which is even able to print the characters 
in various sizes. No matter what ap- 
proach you take to tackling the Chinese 
characters it is a hard row to hoe — and I 
wish 'em luck. 



Fear of Polls 

Hardly a week goes by without some 
promotion for an expensive study of the 
microcomputing industry crossing my 
desk. I don't know who buys these re- 
ports, which range from around $200 to 
over $1000, but I have yet to see one 
which I thought was accurate in its pro- 
jections. 

While the changes going on in the mi- 
crocomputer market are occurring at a 
slower rate than those which influenced 
the recent election, I think it is these 
changes which are helping to screw up 
some of the polls on micro applications. 



For instance, there is no question that the 
micro is going to be a powerful tool for 
use in offices, both as a stand-alone com- 
puter (now starting to be called a desk- 
top computer) and as a terminal for ac- 
cessing data and services. Yet any survey 
of actual usage of micros today would 
give little hint of the real size of this de- 
veloping market. 

Schools are just starting to cope with 
the micro, so again, any survey, no mat- 
ter how careful, would tend to indicate 
this would be no big deal. I think it is go- 
ing to be. 

Just as this publication has helped to 
bring about a growth in the sale of micro- 
computers, coming publications for busi- 
nessmen and for educators will speed up 
changes in the marketing of microcom- 
puters. / can see these things and many 
of you can, but few of the people involved 
with generating those expensive reports 
really know much about our industry or 
where it is going — except what is reflect- 
ed in a single moment, which they study 
with a questionnaire. 

For instance, a recent survey by IDC 
(International Development Corporation) 
shows the educational market for micros 
in 1984 at only 3.2 percent of the market. 






Biorhythms — Japanese style — on Sanyo's PHC-IOOO. 
8 Microcomputing, February 1981 



National showed its Personal Information Terminal with 
built-in cassette. 







The Sigma 10 features Chinese charac- 
ter capability and displays 1520 Chi- 
nese characters (38 lines of 40 charac- 
ters) or 4800 alphanumeric characters 
(60 lines of 80 characters). 



I expect it to be around 25 percent to even 
30 percent, not so much for applications 
in running schools as for teaching stu- 
dents. 

The IDC sales projection for desk-top 
computers for 1984 is about $14 billion. 
Taking into consideration the impending 
invasion from Japan and the amount of 
consumer advertising that will have to 
accompany this, it seems to me that 
there is no reason to project a slower 
growth than we have had over the last 
five years in this field. If the market were 
just going to consist mostly of Tandy, Ap- 
ple and Commodore, yes, I would project 
a slowdown in overall growth. 

Considering such factors as the entry 
of Japanese products, followed in a year 
by more from Hong Kong and then a year 
after by micros from Taiwan, Korea and 
Singapore, coupled with the emergence 
of adequate software, I expect the growth 
of the micro industry to continue at 100 
percent per year, at the least. 

Thus, hardware sales of about $1.25 
billion this year would expand by 1984 to 
$20 billion. I do not find the Business 
Week projection of a $25 billion market 
for mass-produced software for 1985 at 
all difficult to believe, with perhaps $40 
billion for hardware. 

There can always be invisible factors 
which can upset this growth. Certainly 
the current recession and high inflation 
rate have slowed down business enthusi- 
asm for microcomputers. If we manage to 
have an even more serious blight of these 
problems, that could bend the growth 
curve substantially. 

The factors pushing in the other direc- 
tion are a growing awareness that much 



NEXT PC 
?FB? 0100 
-0 



Partial sample printout from the Sigma 
10. 



of the loss of productivity in our country 
has occurred in the office, not on the 
production line. The need for increasing 
office productivity is imperative, and lit- 
tle else is in view other than computers to 
bring about any massive improvement in 
this part of industry. 

The introduction of electronic mail 
would, in my estimation, save our indus- 
tries billions of dollars now wasted in 
fruitless phone calls. In light of a recent 
study that showed that 73 percent of 
business phone calls failed to get through 
on the first try, a communications prob- 
lem is clearly defined. 

I am counting on some computer hob- 
byists to come up with a practical elec- 
tronic mail system— preferably starting 
out with a TRS-80 as the host system. 
I've written on this need before, but the 
results have so far been disappointing. 
We need a box that will allow our micro- 
computers to use the telephone lines to 
exchange messages, and a program to 
accomplish all of the nitty-gritty for this. 
The box must take the message and 
phone number from the computer, dial 
up the number, turn on the computer on 
the other end, check the line, dump the 
message and get an acknowledgement 
that it was received. Not much to ask. 

I suppose these proliferating studies 
are of some interest to large corporations 
who are trying to decide where they are 
going over the next few years and who 
can well afford to spend a kilobuck on a 
lot of detail and a little imagination, 
which many reports represent. 



Issue on Word Processing 

Kilobaud Microcomputing will feature 
a special word processing issue in May. 
Manufacturers of word processing soft- 
ware for any microcomputer who want to 
be included in this issue should contact 
the Microcomputing editorial depart- 
ment immediately. Please send spec 
sheets of your software system. We will 
contact you if we need additional infor- 
mation. 




You'll save money, 
have fun, and learn 
by building it yourself 
— with easy-to-assemble 
Heathkit Computers. 

See all the newest in 
home computers, video 
terminals, floppy disk 
systems, printers and 
innovative software. 

Send today 
for your 



Heathkit 

Catalog - 




If coupon is missing, write 
Heath Co., Dept. 351-742, 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 



Send to: Heath Co., Dept. 351-742, 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022. 

Send my free Heathkit Catalog now. 
I am not currently receiving your 
catalog. 

Name 



Address 



City 



CL-728 



State 
Zip— 



*s Reader Service— see page 146 



Microcomputing, February 1981 9 



COMPUTER BLACK BOARD 

Vicarious 



By Walter Koetke 



Sometimes 
Simulations 



Learning say it Better 



Simulation Suggestions 

Simulations are models of the real 
world. They help answer that persistent 
question "What if. . .?" What if we use in- 
terferon as a treatment for cancer? What 
if two of the three engines in the proposed 
new plane design fail at the same time? 
What if New York City dumps its refuse 
two miles further from shore? What if we 
reduce the price of a widget in an effort to 
increase sales? Simulations can assist us 
with many very critical decisions. In gen- 
eral, they are used when real- world situa- 
tions would be too dangerous, too expen- 
sive, too difficult or too time consuming. 

The use of computers in simulations is 
a concept that should be understood by 
all who are computer literate. There are 
several available quasi-simulations that 
are appropriate for most school software 
libraries. All are described as quasi-simu- 
lations because they are gross oversim- 
plifications of a real-life situation. They 
can, however, be used to demonstrate 
the concept of simulation to those with 
little or no experience using computers. 

I suggest you add Taipan, Westward 
1847 and Hammurabi to your library of 
educational software. Taipan (by Art 
Canfil, available from Cybernautics) sim- 
ulates the China trade of the 1800s. Set in 



the British colony of Hong Kong, you 
begin with a small boat, working capital 
and a nagging debt. Your goal is wealth, 
and the path to that goal is to trade 
general cargo, arms, silk and opium. You 
must avoid pirates, pay your debts and 
make decisions regarding the acquisition 
of larger ships and arms for defense. 
Taipan is certainly enjoyable and can be 
used in a variety of classroom settings 
from history to business. 

Westward 1847 (by Jon Sherman, 
available from The Software Exchange) 
simulates the experience of those travel- 
ing the Oregon Trail in the mid 1800s. As 
you begin your journey, you allocate 
your financial resources for food, sup- 
plies, ammunition and a team of oxen. 
You are permitted to purchase additional 
items from the forts along the trail as the 
journey progresses. The simulated jour- 
ney includes many hazards — sickness, 
accidents, bad weather, hostile strangers 
and starvation. Interaction is enhanced 
whenever you hunt by requiring a time- 
sensitive user response. The time can be 
adjusted to challenge all age groups, thus 
Westward 1847 can be used and enjoyed 
by students in all grades from 3 through 
12. When enhanced with class discus- 
sions of the Oregon Trail, using this sim- 
ulation should be a positive educational 



10 
20 
30 
40 
50 
60 



TOSSES'? 



N 



LET H=0 

INPUT "HOW MANY 

FOR C = l TO N 

IF RND(2)=1 THEN LET H=H+1 

NEXT C 

PRINT 



THERE WERE" H 'HEADS AND" N-H "TAILS* 



AND 259 TAILS* 



READY 

>RUN 

HOW MANY TOSSES? 500 

THERE WERE 241 HEADS 

READY 

..RUN 

HOW MANY TOSSES? 500 

THERE WERE 234 HEADS AND 266 TAILS* 

READY 

>RUN 

HOW MANY TOSSES? 500 

THERE WERE 25? HEADS AND 241 TAILS* 

READY 



Listing 1. Coin-tossing TRS-80 program. 



experience. 

Hammurabi (public domain software, 
versions available from many sources) 
simulates the management of an ancient 
Sumerian city. As city manager, you 
must make decisions regarding the pur- 
chase and/or sale of land, the number of 
acres to plant for food production and the 
amount of food to distribute. Variables 
with which you must contend include 
the fluctuating price of land, the unpre- 
dictable harvest, occasional disasters 
and additional people moving into the 
city. 

This simulation has been available for 
many years, and many history and eco- 
nomics teachers have incorporated its 
use into their lesson plans. Those appli- 
cations that I've observed nicely demon- 
strate the proper use of the computer. 
This program has been used as part of a 
history course for two or three class peri- 
ods each year. The history teachers in- 
volved used Hammurabi to support the 
concepts and ideas they were interested 
in teaching. Those same teachers ig- 
nored the computer when available soft- 
ware would not support their educational 

goals. 

Writing simulations that validly repre- 
sent even a small portion of real life is not 
often easy. There are, however, several 
controllable examples that can be used 
with younger students. Perhaps the sim- 
plest is to write a program that simulates 
the tossing of a coin. The TRS-80 pro- 
gram illustrated in Listing 1 will simulate 
the tossing of a coin as often as requested. 
Note that the use of FOR/NEXT is not 
necessary for students who have not yet 
discussed these commands. Note also 
that this and all other examples require 
modification of the line containing RND 
when used on a computer other than the 
TRS-80. In most cases, this modification 
is completed by replacing RND(X) with 
INT(X*RND(1)+ 1) using the value of X 
given in the example. 

The simulation concepts of this pro- 
gram can be understood at the elemen- 
tary school level. The random number 
generator is used to select a random 1 or 
2. The programmer elected to let I repre- 
sent a toss of heads and 2 represent a toss 
of tails. Students should realize that this 
is the programmer's choice; the relation- 

(continued on page 195) 



10 LET S=0 

20 FOR C=l TO 3000 

30 IF RND<6) + RND(6) ■ 

40 NEXT C 

50 PRINT "THERE WERE" S 



7 THEN LET S=S+1 



"SEVENS* 



Listing 2. Dice-rolling TRS-80 program that counts "sevens. " 



10 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Bill Sez: 
Don't gamble! 
Buy only from a 
Factory Authorized 
Source. 



if*" - * 

_ ^%^e four C° s> 

******* 80 , ^eoo. 



Buy Only From a 
"Factory Authorized 
Source" a 



Roy Sez: Right! 
The customer 
receives trained 
authorized service 
along with 
interface 
information. 



.>**r^ epw9 * 75 - 

-r&tale '.'. 



. ow . t . wrtccoW® ° « e r . • • • ■ _ a wr> 



<*£& 



W* cT0 rtJ x Bu^et . • •• • 'terns 
kC Wf**% e etocK SVS 






s _..»» ERS & »£L \\ne. "^^ 






,rv»<W 



ASK FOR OUR 

INSTANT DISCOUNT 

From Roy Hawthorne 

Talk To Bill Tokar On 

Applications 



CALL TOLL FREE 

U.S.A. 
1-800-521 -2764 

MICHIGAN 
1-800-482-8393 



Reminder: 

We are open 

8:30 AM to 5:00 PM EST 

Monday through Friday 



WRITE TO: 

"The S tocking Source" 

|NEW| 24069 Research Drive 

Farmington Hills, Ml 48024 
313-474-6708 



^•Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 11 



PET-POURR1 

Your Data Is 



By Robert W. Baker 



With the Data 
Manager from 



In GOOd Hands Jini Micro-Systems 



Jinsam 

Jinsam is a fast and extremely flexible 
data manager for the 16K and 32K PET/ 
CBM from Jini Micro-Systems, Inc., PO 
Box 274, Bronx, NY 10463. It was de- 
signed for the business or personal user 
with no previous programming experi- 
ence. Functions are selected via menus, 
then the program prompts the user to en- 
ter needed information. New data bases 
are defined and created by the user, 
prompted by the system each step of the 
way. Facilities are provided to create, de- 
lete, change, display, print, retrieve and 
protect the integrity of your data. 

There are now three basic versions 
available. Jinsam 1.0 is the original ver- 
sion first introduced for the 16/32K CBM 
2001 with a CBM 2040 or Compu/Think 
disk. Jinsam 4.0 requires BASIC 4.0 in a 
32K CBM 2001 plus a CBM 2040 disk 
with DOS 2.1. This version has most of 
Jinsam 1.0 functions plus a machine- 
language sort that will sort 1000 records 
in about 10 seconds. Jinsam 8.0 is for the 
80-column 8032 CBM with a 2040 (with 
DOS 2.1) or 8050 disk. This version has 
all the functions of Jinsam 4.0 but with 
display formats upgraded to utilize the 
expanded screen width. 

All versions have a ROM that is in- 
stalled in one of the open ROM sockets of 
the PET/CBM. Two diskettes are required 
for each data base you create, and they 
must be kept as a pair. The data disk is in- 
stalled in drive and contains the actual 
data records of the data base. The pro- 
gram disk is installed in drive 1 and con- 
tains the Jinsam program modules and 
the key files for the matching data disk. 
With Jinsam 4.0, however, you may 
have more than one data base on the 
same pair of disks. 

To create a new data base, you're first 
asked for the number of fields (informa- 
tion items) in each record, then the name 
and length of each field. You have com- 
plete control of the data form and should 
carefully plan the structure of the fields. 

A correction feature lets you verify that 
all field names and lengths have been en- 

12 Microcomputing, February 1981 



tered correctly. If not, you have an oppor- 
tunity to make corrections before saving 
the field descriptors. The maximum 
length of any one descriptor field is 60 
characters. With a CBM 2040, the maxi- 
mum length of all fields plus the number 
of fields may not exceed 255. With Com- 
pu/Think disks and old or new ROMs, the 
maximum length of all fields is 255 char- 
acters. 

The next step in implementing your 
data base is to define the specific limited 
viewing fields to be displayed or printed 
by any printer routine. You specify the 
field numbers and the order in which 
they should be displayed. As few as one 
or as many as all fields may be preset. 

When selecting fields, you must take 
into account the printer width. The width 
of each column is the width of the field or 
the field name (whichever is larger) plus 
three spaces. Any number of fields that 
will fit within the form width can be 
printed in a report. For selective screen 
print, nine fields appear vertically on the 
screen at one time. Anyone will be able to 
review or print the preset fields, but a 
special password is necessary to make 
any changes to these fields. 

A four-level security system limits the 
amount of data seen within a record and 
the ability to manipulate and print rec- 
ords. You select your own private pass- 
words, which can be changed at any 
time. 

A user with the highest-level (level 4) 
password can manipulate the entire data 
base and define or revise passwords. A 
level 3 password allows you to manipu- 
late the entire data base, but you cannot 
change the passwords. A level 2 pass- 
word allows you to display all fields of all 
records, but denies the ability to change 
any records. Level 1 really has no pass- 
word, but only preset fields may be 
viewed or printed. 

The program will ask you to enter a 
password whenever one is called for. Jin- 
sam even has an auto time-out function 
for further security. After five minutes 
with no user activity, the program will 
terminate any current operation and au- 



tomatically return to the function select 

menu. 

Before entering records into the data 
base, you must define the first prime key. 
A key manipulation menu provides vari- 
ous options to set, edit and display the 
random access key files. A security code 
is necessary to access these functions. 

A key file is a sorted list containing one 
description field (or a part of a field) and 
identifying pointers. The pointer con- 
tains the location of a data record on the 
disk, indicating the track and sector 
where it is stored. A key is used during 
searches to represent the data record. 
You never need to know a record's loca- 
tion on the disk to retrieve it; the program 
takes care of everything for you. 

There are two types of keys available: 
prime and select. A prime key is a file 
containing one descriptor field (or lead- 
ing part) and pointers to each record in 
the data base. You can have up to five 
prime keys. The first prime key should be 
a field in the data base that has some 
unique attribute for each record such as a 
name, ID number, part number, etc., 
since it is the main pointer file to locate 
all records in the data base. A select key is 
a file containing one descriptor field (or 
leading part) and pointers to selected rec- 
ords in the data base which meet your 
specific requirements. 

For each key (prime or select) you must 
indicate the number of significant char- 
acters in the key. The maximum is five 
with a 16K PET or ten with a 32K PET. 
The smaller the key size, the quicker the 
PET will seem to operate. 

Since a key contains only the contents 
of one descriptor field and a pointer to the 
record, the entire key file can be held in 
memory at one time. A binary search is 
performed, and any record can be re- 
trieved with only a few machine opera- 
tions. Once the proper key is found, the 
program takes only that record directly 
from the disk for processing. The average 

Address correspondence to Robert W. 
Baker, 15 Windsor Drive, Atco, NJ 
08004. 






DATA MANAGER 



SAVE TIME. SAVE MONEY. 
Let J IN SAM work for you. 



• CUSTOM DATA FILES 

• CUSTOM REPORTS/LABELS 

• KEYED RANDOM ACCESS 

• FAST/EASY/MENU DRIVEN 

• MULTIPLE SEARCH KEYS 

• PRIVACY ACCESS CODES 

• WILD CARD SEARCH 



44 J IN SAM is the best Database 
Management System for the 



Commodore Computers! 



** 



JINSAM data manager assists you by intellect- 
ually manipulating records. 

No more will hundreds of valuable hours be 
spent searching for needed information. No more 
will hundreds of hours be spent entering and re- 
entering information for various reports. 

With JINSAM you can truly transform your 
Commodore Computer into the "state of the art" 
data processing machine with sophisticated fea- 
tures and accessories found nowhere, even at 10 
times the price. 

There are three disk based JINSAM. JINSAM 
1 .0 allows fast and easy file handling, manipulation 
and report generation. JINSAM 4.0 was designed 
for the professional and contains features needed 
in the business environment, such as: JINSORT, a 
user accessible machine language sort; compac- 
tion/expansion of databases, merging databases 
and much much more. JINSAM 8.0 is our best. 
JINSAM 8.0 runs on the new Commodore 8032, 
80 column display computer. JINSAM 8.0 has 
all the functions of 4.0 plus additional features 
found only on the most sophisticated and expensive 
database management systems. 

JINSAM is a new breed of data processing soft- 
ware. Powerful, sophisticated and easy to use. 
JINSAM has been thoroughly field tested. JIN- 
SAM is now installed and saving its users valuable 
time and money in educational institutions, re- 
search institutions and offices nationwide. 

JINSAM was designed with the user in mind. 
It is a forgiving system with help commands, 
prompts and utilities for recovering the bulk of data 
even after power failure, security passwords for 
privacy, editing, reclaiming space, auto recall, re- 
structuring, unlimited report formats, label printing 
and a choice of accessory modules all accom- 
plished by a few keystrokes. 

JINSAM has 5 accessory interfacing modules: 

WORDPROPACK- Intelligent interface for 
WORDPRO 3 or WORDPRO 4 which creates 
variable block with data or up to 10 conditions 
based on database contents. Produce "dunning 
letters", form letters, report to parent, checks, 
invoices, etc. 

MULTI-LABEL - Prints multiple labels per 
record with up to 2 lines for messages and con- 
secutive numbering. Produce inventory, bulk mail 
labels, etc. 



MATHPACK -global +, -, x, +, by another 
field or a constant, or zero a field. Sum fields in 
each record or running sum of single field in all 
records. Extract information or effect permanent 
change. Replace in same field or place in a wait- 
ing field. 

DESCRIPTIVE STATPACK - Determine 
mean, median, mode, standard deviation, variance, 
range. Generate histogram and produces Z-Score 
report. 

ADVANCED STATPACK - (you must also 
acquire DESCRIPTIVE STATPACK). Gener- 
ates CROSSTABS (number of occurances); CHI 
SQUARE, LINEAR REGRESSION with 
graphic representation and prediction. LINEAR 
CORRELATION and SIMPLE ANALYSIS OF 
VARIANCE. 

All JINSAM accessories are accessed thru 
the JINSAM menu and require a security password 
to gain entrance. 

JINSAM gives the user FREEDOM OF 
CHOICE. Start with JINSAM 1.0 and upgrade 
at any time. Choose from the accessory modules 
available at any time. JINSAM Newsletter brings 
the latest updates, user input and keeps an eye on 
the future. 

JINSAM alone is reason enough to own a com- 
puter. JINSAM can be found at Commodore 
dealers. Write for the dealer nearest you. 



of JINSAM 1 .0 functions Plus -I- machine sort 
with user access instructions # sort 1000 records 
inapxlOsecs # Global Compaction/Expantion 
• Create new database from existing database • 
merge databases. Includes MULTI-LABEL • 
4 deep subsoils. (Available Jan. 13, 1981) 

JINSAM 8.0 for Model 8032 with 80 Column 
screen. Requires 2040 or 8050 disk. Commercial 
Disk version for 80 Columns, JINSAM 4.0 func- 
tions Plus -I- Displays report formats to screen, 
4 deep subsorts. (Available Jan. 1, 1981) 

Commodore-approved ! 
Soon available for Apple™. 

JINSAM is a trademark of JINI MICRO-SYSTEMS, lac. 
WordPro is a trademark of Professional Software Inc. 
CBM Is a trademark of Commodore Business Machines. 

FLASH: We have broken the 255-byte limit! Now 
you can have unlimited record lengths included 
with JINSAM 4.0 and 8.0! 

JINSAM Data Manager 

for Commodore Computers 

— Additional Information 

— Jinsam Demo Disk ($15, plus tax) 

— Users Guide 1.0 ($25 plus tax) 



The many features of JINSAM 1 .0 -8.0 Please send to: 



Name 



Company 
Address _ 



City, State, Zip 
Phone ( ) _ 



JINSAM 1.0 for 16K/32K CBM 2001. Requires Position 
CBM 2040 or COMPU/THINK disk — including 
oldest ROMs. Menu Driven, ISAM - Indexed 
Sequential access method • Encripted PASS- 
WORDS for privacy # Unlimited fields # un- 
limited search criteria # 3 deep subsorts • 
.5-3 sec retrevial # editing • Auto Recall • 
Wild Card Capabilities; Reports: multiple head- Computer, Disk 
ings • paging • page numbering • item 
count. Labels: any size • 1-5 across • sheet 
or continuous. Utilities: Help commands # Re- 
cover • Key Dump • Record Dump • De- 
scriptor Dump # Restructure. 

JINSAM 4.0 for 32K CBM 2001 with BASIC 
4.0. Requires CBM 2040 with DOS 2.1. Has most 



»^353 



JINI MICRO SYSTEMS, INC 

Box 274 • Bronx, NY 10463 



Dealer inquiry welcome 



•^ Reader Service— see page 146 



Microcomputing, February 1981 13 



time to search for and retrieve any record 
is 1.75 seconds, with actual times rang- 
ing from 0.5 to 3.0 seconds. 

If you pick a key that is very common 
and then set secondary criteria to select a 
record, this time increases proportionally 
to the number of records that meet the 
criteria. Two records double the time, 
three records triple the time, etc. 

When adding or deleting a record, the 
program automatically loads the first 
prime key, which is also loaded and pro- 
cessed to get information needed in cre- 
ating, deleting or manipulating any 
prime key. The first prime key is auto- 
matically updated whenever you add or 
delete records. Any other prime keys 
must be manually updated if records 
have been added or deleted from the data 
base. Any prime key must be updated if 
information located in that prime key 
field has been changed anywhere in the 
data base. 

The select key is defined for selective 
record access using specific criteria from 
one field or specific criteria from every 
field in your data base. The select key file 
is named (up to 1 2 characters) for later re- 
call and can only be updated by redefin- 
ing the key. There is no limit to the num- 
ber of select keys you can have as long as 
there is disk space available on the pro- 
gram disk. When a select key is no longer 
active, you can scratch the correspond- 
ing select key file from the disk to free up 
additional disk space. 

Once the format of the data base has 
been defined and the first prime key es- 
tablished, you can then begin to enter ac- 
tual data records. A record manipulation 
menu provides various options to add, re- 
trieve, update (edit) or delete records in 
the data base. The fields viewed and the 
operations allowed on the records de- 
pend on the security password entered 
by the user. 

When adding new records, the pro- 
gram displays a tally of records on the 
data disk and the number of records now 
being entered. You are prompted to enter 
data according to the original descriptor 
fields. After an entire record is entered, 
the contents are displayed for you to 
check. 

When the record is correct, it is written 
to disk and the program prompts for the 
next entry. The program normally ac- 
cepts up to 25 record entries at one time. 
You can enter less than 25 entries by typ- 
ing END for the first field entry. 

When you end your data entry, the pro- 
gram sorts the new entries by the field 
you chose as the first prime key field and 
performs a merge sort to integrate this in- 
formation into the first prime key field. 
When new records are entered, the first 
prime key is automatically updated and 
is always valid. All other keys (prime or 
selected print keys) must be recreated. 

There are three methods of record re- 
trieval: 1) sequential, in key order; 2) ran- 
dom, criteria based: and 3) track and sec- 
tor, exact disk location. The program 

14 Microcomputing, February 1981 



loads the proper program module and 
prompts for a prime or select key, or the 
exact track and sector. When choosing a 
prime or select key to retrieve records, 
the chosen key file is loaded into main 
memory. 

In a sequential review, records are re- 
trieved and displayed in prime or select 
key order, alphabetic or numeric. When 
you ask for a random display, the pro- 
gram prompts for the field criteria, multi- 
ple field criteria, ranges or track and sec- 
tor needed to retrieve the specified rec- 
ords. 

There are three methods of record se- 
lection: 1) wild-card search, 2) prime/se- 
lect key range and 3) secondary key 
range. You can use only one or all three 
as necessary. 

The wild-card search allows you to en- 
ter the leading portion of specified criter- 
ia, and the program will display all rec- 
ords that match this portion. If you're not 
sure of the spelling of SMITH, for exam- 
ple, simply enter SM, and all records that 
have SM as the leading portion will be 
displayed. 

If you want to view a group of records, 
you can use a prime or select key range 
with the greater than (» and less than (<) 
symbols. You can even specify an inclu- 
sive range (O), if desired. Entering >N 
displays all consecutive alphabetic rec- 
ords beginning with N and continuing to 
the end of the data base. If you enter <N, 
the program starts at the first alphabetic 
N and displays all records in reverse al- 
phabetic order. An inclusive range with 
limits of M and N displays all records be- 
ginning with M and N as expected. Like- 
wise, the ranges can be used for numeric 
records with the obvious results. 

After choosing one key criterion, you 
can optionally specify a second, third, 
fourth,. . .criterion as necessary. For ex- 
ample, you may want to display all com- 
panies located in zip code areas 33406 
through 334 1 1 whose company names 
begin with the letters C, D, E or F, and 
specialize in business software for the 
PET (as identified in a coded status field). 
This task is simple with the Jinsam fea- 
tures and controls. 

Once your criteria have been entered, 
the program searches for, retrieves and 
displays only those records that meet all 
the specified criteria. You may choose to 
view preset fields or all fields in each rec- 
ord. Various controls are available at dif- 
ferent times as you view the selected rec- 
ords: 
C/ + — display next record 

display previous record 

Shift-D— delete currrently displayed rec- 
ord 

Shift-E— edit currently displayed record 
Shift-K— select a new key 
Shift-M— return to option menu 
Shift-N— select new search criteria 
Shift-P— print record currently displayed 
Jinsam also provides various options 
for printing labels, reports and other 
printed documents. Labels are consecu- 



tively printed or displayed from the con- 
tents of records, in ascending or descend- 
ing order, according to the prime or select 
key chosen. Each label can contain up to 
four lines with a maximum of three data 
base fields in each line as limited by the 
physical label size. 

A label description can be saved to 
avoid reentering the desired label format 
each time you print labels. The label for- 
mat can be displayed on the CRT one la- 
bel at a time, or printed with up to five la- 
bels across the page. You can stop the 
display or printing at any time and then 
continue, abort or restart the operation. 
When using individual sheets of labels, 
you can even specify the number of la- 
bels per sheet. The program will then 
stop at the appropriate time to allow in- 
serting the next sheet of labels. This han- 
dy feature even allows printing enve- 
lopes or file cards, if required. 

When printing reports, you have three 
options concerning the fields to be print- 
ed: 1) print only preset display fields, 2) 
print fields selected now or 3) print all 
fields. The preset fields are those fields 
defined when establishing the data base. 
These display fields do not require a pass- 
word to be viewed or printed. 

To specify specific fields to be dis- 
played, you must have a minimum of a 
level 2 password. You are prompted for 
the fields to be included and the order of 
the fields. Take care when specifying all 
fields in the data base, since you may ex- 
ceed the limits of your printer unless it 
has an auto carriage return/line feed like 
the CBM 2022/2023 printers. 

Before printing the report, enter the 
printer device number, any line feed or 
page feed functions, the printing order 
(ascending or descending), page head- 
ings, etc. The number of pages is unlimit- 
ed and will be automatically numbered. 
If your printer has a page feed option 
(form feed), the program will automati- 
cally feed to the top of the next page when 
the specified number of items is reached 
on each page. Otherwise, the program 
will stop and wait for you to manually ad- 
just the paper at the end of each page. 
Jinsam 4.0 allows more complex reports, 
and common report formats can be saved 
on disk for repeated use. 

A dump option allows you to dump the 
entire contents (or preset display fields) 
of each record or selected records in the 
data base according to the prime or select 
key chosen. The track and sector num- 
bers are included for each record dumped 
to the screen or printer. 

Other utility options allow you to dump 
the descriptor file, dump named key files, 
restructure the data base, convert a form- 
er data base and recover records. Jinsam 
4.0 even provides a copy function to copy 
specific fields of each record in the cur- 
rent data base to create a new data base 
as a subset of the original version. 

In addition to these standard features 
of Jinsam, there are five accessory inter- 
face modules available: 



/ 



• A Wordpropack module provides an in- 
telligent interface for Wordpro 3 or 4. It 
creates variable blocks with data or up to 
ten conditions based on data base con- 
tents. This allows creating form letters, 
checks, invoices, etc., directly from the 
data base. This module is much more 
powerful than you can imagine; you real- 
ly have to play with it to see how versatile 
it can be. 

• The Multilabel module prints multiple 
labels per record with consecutive num- 
bering and up to two lines for messages. 
You can easily produce inventory labels, 
bulk mailing labels, etc. 

• A Mathpack module provides numeri- 
cal addition, subtraction, multiplication 
and division of any field by another field 
or a constant. You can sum fields in each 
record or create a running sum of a single 
field for all records. This function can be 
used to extract information or effect a 
permanent change in the data base. Data 
can be replaced in the same field or 
placed in a new field. 

• For statistical analysis there are two 
additional modules. The Descriptive 
Statpack can compute the mean, medi- 
an, mode, standard deviation, variance 
and range. It can even generate histo- 
gram and Z-score reports. The Advanced 
Statpack must be used in conjunction 
with the Descriptive Statpack. It gener- 
ates crosstabs (number of occurrences), 
chi square and linear regression with 
graphic representation and prediction. 
Linear correlation and simple analysis of 
variance are also provided. 

The program modules and documenta- 
tion are thorough, clear and easily under- 
stood. If you decide to use Jinsam, you 
can start with Jinsam 1 .0 and upgrade at 
any time. Choose from the available ac- 
cessory modules to suit your current ap- 
plications and add more later. 

The Jinsam user's guide ($25) is a 90 + 
page manual that covers every feature in 
great detail with a large number of exam- 
ples. A demo disk is also available for a 
minimal cost. This disk shows many of 
the features offered by Jinsam and sam- 
ple outputs of the program. A Jinsam 
newsletter brings information on the lat- 
est updates, user inputs and new func- 
tions or features. The Jinsam User's 
Group publishes the newsletter on a 
quarterly basis with a small annual sub- 
scription fee. 



Tape-to-Disk 

With more and more people upgrading 
to disk, many are finding it very easy to 
convert their existing programs to use 
disk instead of tape for storing data. How- 
ever, how do you get any existing data 
files that are currently on tape into new 
disk data files? Do you have to reenter all 
that data you've been accumulating for 
weeks, months or even longer? Why 
should you, when there is a very simple 
solution? 



1© REM TflPE-TO-DISK DfiTfi FILE COPV 

28 REM 

36 REM BV: ROBERT U. BAKER, ATCG, NJ 

40 : 

50 PRINT"^aJTflPE-TO-DISK COP VMM" 

60 OOSUB 380 

70 PR I NT "THIS PROGRAM COPIES ANY TAPE DATA FILE" PRINT 

30 PRINT"FROM TAPE TO BISK, IN EXACTLY THE SAME" PRINT 

90 PR I NT "FORMAT.": PR I NT 

100 GOSUB 380 

110 PRINT" INSERT TAPE IN TAPE#1 " : PRINT 

120 PRINT"* DEPRESS ANY KEY WHEN READY 

130 GET R$:IF R$="" THEN 136 

140 PR I NT "OK "PRINT 

150 OPEN 1 

160 OPEN 15,8, 15 

170 PRINT'TENTER THE ENTIRE FILE NAME AS DESIRED " :RRINT 

180 INPUT "DISK FILE NAME";FL$ 

130 PRINT 

200 PR I NT "DRIVE* OR 1- " ; 

210 GET Dt-IF D$<>"0" AND D$0"1" THEN 218 

220 PRINT D*: PR I NT "OK" 

230 OPEN 2,8,2,D$+":"+FL$+",S,W" 

240 INPUT#15,EN,EM* 

250 IF EN THEN 328 

260 PR I NT "COPYING DATA " 

278 GET#1,C$ 

280 IF STO-0 THEN 350 

290 PRINT#2,C*; 

300 INPUT#15,EN,EM* 

310 IF EN=8 THEN 278 

328 PR I NT " 33© I SK ERROR " : PR I NT 

330 PRINT EN, EH* 

340 GOTO 370 

350 IF ST=64 THEN PRINT'TTOPV 

360 PR I NT "SOT APE READ ERROR" 

370 CLOSE 1 

388 PRINT" - 



DQNEMW" = GOTO 378 
STATUS =";ST 



CLOSE 2: CLOSE 15 : END 



READY 



RETURN 



Tape-to-disk PET BASIC program. 



This handy little BASIC program will 
read any data file on tape and create an 
exact copy on disk. It performs a byte-by- 
byte copy of the data from tape to disk so 
there is no change in the data format or 
contents. 

Furthermore, any program that previ- 
ously read the data from tape should now 
be able to read the data from the new disk 
file. All you have to do is change the 
OPEN commands to correctly open the 
disk data file. This normally means just 
changing the device number to eight (for 
the disk) and possibly adding the drive 
number before the file name with a sepa- 
rating colon. 

For example, a typical OPEN com- 
mand to read a tape data file from tape 1 
might be: 

OPEN n.l.O.'fllename" 

where n is any logical file number and 
filename is the name of the file on the 
tape to be read. To convert this to read a 
similar data file from disk, simply change 
the device number (1) to indicate the 
disk, which is device number 8. 

After the filename (but still inside the 
quotes) add *\S,R" to indicate the file is a 
sequential data file that you want to read. 
You might even want to include a specific 
disk drive number before the filename 
with a separating colon: 

OPEN n,8.0."0:nlename.S.R' , 



A typical OPEN command to write a tape 
data file might be: 

OPEN n. 1.1. "filename" 

Again, to convert this command to 
write to disk, simply change the device 
number (1) to indicate the disk (8). Then 
add 44 ,S,W" after the filename to indicate 
that you want to write a sequential data 
file: 

OPEN n.8.1."0:fllename.S.W" 

The only other changes that are re- 
quired are to change any PRINT#n com- 
mands that write to disk. BASIC normal- 
ly sends a carriage return (13 decimal) 
and line feed (10 decimal) at the end of 
each line printed or transmitted. This 
would normally be written at the end of 
each string written in the disk file. To be 
able to read this data back from the disk, 
BASIC expects only a carriage return at 
the end of the string. Thus, you must 
write only a carriage return at the end of 
each string written in the data file. You 
should therefore change any 

PRINT#n." " 

statements to the following form: 

PRINT#n." ";CHR$(13); 

to eliminate the trailing line feed charac- 
ter normally written. For convenience, 
you might want to define a variable CR$ 
= CHR$(13) in your program and then 
simply use this form to write data on 
disk: 



Microcomputing, February 1981 15 



CO LU 



CO 

o 



ob P 5 

OO to </> 



O 



cm E 

Q. 

s 



o 

uu 

CO 



UJ 
CL 

QC 
O 

CO 



c 
o 

Q. O 

o c 
5 9 

o 



% ! 



2 £ 



«3 

a cc 



o 



S s 



2 <c 

■ 

2 & 



—I I 

O 

c 2 

!k O 

Q. 

c 

LU >- 

a I 

□ 

±; -o ■ 

t/5 ro CO 



13 



(V 




\ 00 



DC O 
O >- 




S 

1 



CD 



o. 



CO 



lO 

o 

CO 

co 



5? 



CD 
CD 



LU LU in 

S£ I uj 

• ^ 1 ° 

r~~ ^j n: 

Z LU CL. 

UJ z LU 

CO *- t— 



L 



PRINT#n." 'iCRS; 

Don't forget the ending semicolon, or 
else you'll still get the ending line feed 
character as before (along with an added 
carriage return). With the new DOS 2.1 
ROMs, this last problem has been cor- 
rected, and BASIC will only write a car- 
riage return to the disk file (if the logical 
file number is less than 128). However, 
making this simple change will work 
with either version DOS. 

The rest of the program should run un- 
changed. However, when reading or writ- 
ing disk data files, it is customary to read 
the disk error and command channel 
(channel 15) to check for any disk errors. 
With the new DOS 2.1 ROMs, you only 
have to check the DS or DS$ disk status 
variables to check for any errors. 

I'll be happy to provide a copy on tape 
of any of my programs published in this 
column if you send $2 to cover expenses. 
In this case, I'll even include a copy of an- 
other utility program that will copy data 
files from disk back to tape. Together, 
these two programs allow copying data 
files back and forth between disk and 
tape without destroying the format of the 
data in the files. 

Magician's Hat 

I just recently previewed The Magi- 
cian's Hat from Southern Software Limit- 
ed of New Zealand. This fantasy simula- 
tion game with animated graphics pre- 



CONTINUOUS FORMS FOR YOUR COMPUTER 



h^t-t-t-t^T^ ^ HH 







SELF PROGRAMMERS: 

extensive stock line to choose from 

SYSTEMS USERS: 

■ fc forms designed to fit your format 

SOFTWARE HOUSES: 

complete forms support for your 
users 

COMPUTER DEALERS: 

forms installation assistance 

SERVICE BUREAUS/CPA's: 

quantity discounts 



Please tell us your business 
application and the program 
you are using. We will 
promptly send you the 
forms that will best accomo- 
date your needs. 

Checks 
To-Go 

8384 Hercules St. 
La Mesa, CA 92041 
(714) 460-4975 




r 




name 


phone no. 


1 organization 


1 address 




1 city, state 


zip 


1 hardware (processor type) 




1 software (p/r, a/p) 


j software (a/r, inv) 

! G programmer^ G dealer 

j Q end-user ^ Q software house 


G CPA/service bureau | 
G other 



sents a simplified role-playing character 
in an easy-to-comprehend fashion. The 
game is simple enough for most children 
to learn and enjoy, yet complex enough 
to present a real challenge for adults. 

The game sends you forward to locate 
the good magician's hat that has been 
stolen and hidden in the land. You have 
three weeks to find the hat along with as 
many treasures as possible. As typical of 
adventure games, you move throughout 
the confines of the game and fight off 
various monsters while searching for the 
hat. There are nine commands to control 
your normal movement or actions, along 
with casting spells or imbibing vials of 
magic potions, etc. 

Even though the material is similar, 
the Magician's Hat differs in concept 
from contemporary fantasy games. In 
most fantasy games, the character has 
pre-defined intelligence and wisdom. In 
Magician's Hat, more realistically per- 
haps, the game player must possess 
these attributes, while the real-world at- 
tributes such as strength and health are 
looked after by the program. 

The combat system is quite different 
from the more usual dice-rolling sys- 
tems. Actual blows are traded while be- 
ing graphically animated. There are 13 
commands to control your character's 
actions when fighting while you watch 
the results. 

The documentation clearly defines the 
major commands and basically how to 
play the game. It is, however, deliberate- 
ly sparse in some aspects to allow the 
player to discover the "hidden" features 
of the game , e . g. , j ust what does and does 
not score points and what the effects of 
the various treasures are. 

The program in general was interest- 
ing, challenging and very well written. It 
should be available here in the USA very 
shortly with a suggested price of $25. 
However, the sample copy that i pre- 
viewed would not run with the new disk 
ROMs. Hopefully, they'll have a version 
for DOS 2. 1 by the time the program is 
available. 

By the way, the authors have included 
a rather unique disk protection which 
will not allow you to display the disk di- 
rectory. Whenever you attempt to list the 
directory, you get a program title and 
copyright notice displayed instead. 

MICRO QUIZ 

What Does This Program Do? 

After the following program is executed, 

what is the value of S? 

DATA 5, 20, 15, 60, 60, 72 

S=0 

FOR 1= 1 TO 5 

READ X 

S=S+(X/I) 
NEXT I 

(answer on page 1 72) 



16 Microcomputing, February 1981 



DIAL-UP DIRECTORY 



By Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 



Mobile 
Micros 



Overcoming the 
Limitation of Location" 



Wl ! 



In this series dedicated to the use of mi- 
crocomputers in data communications, 
we have reviewed many different kinds 
of message systems and have met some 
of the personalities behind them. We 
have looked at quite a bit of hardware and 
software designed to help you move in- 
formation over the phone lines with your 
microcomputer. The coming year prom- 
ises to be even more exciting. We have 
some proven systems available now and 
can turn to devising more innovative 
uses for message systems and communi- 
cating terminals. 

In this issue we will first look at the past 
and the future. Then we will return to the 
present and describe two very important 
communications systems for today and 
tomorrow. 

Plus and Minus 1 2 Months 

When I first started writing about data 
communications using microcomputers, 
1 had to carefully introduce terms such as 
CBBS, ABBS and Forum-80. Over the 
last few months, thousands of computer 
users have entered these systems for the 
first time. The system operators consider 
themselves to already be in the third gen- 
eration of the microcomputer-based elec- 
tronic message system phenomenon. 
The systems have increased greatly in 
capability and ease of use. The number of 
proven hardware and software packages 
for smart terminal operation has expand- 
ed so rapidly that the owners of some sys- 
tems, such as the TRS-80, have about ten 
alternative routes to terminal operation. 

In the past, our communications sys- 
tems (TV, radio and phone) have forced 
us to be hooked up and ready to receive at 
the specific time a message is sent. I have 
called this the "time tyranny of telecom- 
munications." Our various computer- 
based electronic message and informa- 
tion systems have broken this time tyr- 
anny; they store messages and informa- 
tion so it is available when and how we 
want it. But there is still another limiting 
factor: place. I still have to physically be 
near a terminal to use the message sys- 



tems. The terminals have been only 
semi-portable. 

Now, the "limitation of location" is be- 
ing broken too. Radio Shack, Sharp and 
Panasonic have introduced completely 
portable microcomputers. Panasonic ad- 
vertises theirs as a terminal (complete 
with printer), and modem capability for 
the other units should be advertised very 
soon. 

I can't see too many other practical 
functions for these handheld computers 
except for data terminal use. This is per- 
haps the ultimate extension of distrib- 
uted processing. The proliferation of 
handheld computer terminals will re- 
quire new formats for our message and 
information systems, but these changes 
will be mainly cosmetic. These portable 
computers/terminals will begin to break 



down the limitation of location. The next 
steps? 

Well, we will certainly have to inte- 
grate our cars into the systems. Energy 
crisis or not, Americans still love their 
mobility too much to give it up just to 
telecommunicate. Amateur radio and 
particularly CB have proved the popular- 
ity of communicating on the go. We want 
our communications with us as we motor 
along. 

Who will be the first to tackle the prob- 
lems involved in mobile data communi- 
cations? I have heard only a few discus- 
sions of possible data transmission on CB 
channels, and, of course, I have de- 
scribed some of AMRAD's activities. But 
these have not tackled the tough prob- 
lems of simplex vs duplex, error correc- 
tion, etc. Many more exciting challenges 




The CompuServe information service allows owners of microcomputer systems 
(such as the one shown above) and of computer terminals to access a variety of infor- 
mation— from up-to-the-minute news to family service information, from personal 
financial programs to current and historical stock data, from programming lan- 
guages to electronic games. 

Microcomputing, February 1981 17 



There must be 
to get information 



a better way 
"inside" the mind. 



and opportunities are coming. 

After the limitation of location is shat- 
tered, I suggest the "man-machine barri- 
er" will be next. Reading information is 
just too slow. It also prevents you from 
driving and doing many other things si- 
multaneously. There must be a better 
way to get information "inside" the 
mind. Perhaps some sort of bioelectronic 
or bioelectromechanical link will be next. 

Ridiculous? Well, 18 months ago what 
would you have said about a palm-sized 
BASIC-speaking complete microcomput- 
er? The man-machine barrier must fall. 



Back to Today 

The future is intriguing, but the pres- 
ent is pretty good too! Let's look at two 
present systems. One is an information 
utility, and the other is a communica- 
tions carrier. Both have new ideas and 
healthy competition. 

CompuServe 

You have read about MicroNet and 
seen their ads in this magazine. Compu- 
Serve is the parent corporation of Micro- 
Net. They are gradually lowering the pro- 
file of the MicroNet information utility in 
favor of a larger system under the Com- 
puServe label. CompuServe is moving 
rapidly from a computer utility to an in- 
formation utility. The difference comes 
from the amount of prepackaged and 
stored information and the number of 
ready-to-run features available. 

A CompuServe user can still write his 
own programs in any of about six higher- 
order languages and use megabytes of 
memory for file storage. But now he can 
also receive the Associated Press news 
reports, news from major newspapers, 
stock quote services, bulletin boards, 
electronic mail, electronic newsletter ser- 
vices and games, too. 

Entry into CompuServe is made either 
through their own dedicated local tele- 
phone ports or through the Tymnet pack- 
et transmission network. Simply stated, 
this means you call a local phone num- 
ber, hook up your modem and sign on, if 
you are in an area covered by Compu- 
Serve or Tymnet. 

The network is getting bigger each 
month, but if you are in many stretches 
of the north central U.S. or away from 
major cities, you may have to make a 
long-distance phone call to access the 
system. If you enter through a Compu- 
Serve port, the service costs you $5 an 
hour. You have to add $2 more an hour if 
you enter through the Tymnet system. 



Your $5-$7 an hour buys you 72K bytes 
of working memory and 128K of disk 
storage with no additional charge. The 
system is available from 6 pm to 5 am your 
local time on weekdays and all day Satur- 
day, Sunday and holidays. 

The system still retains some of its 
original computer-utility flavor. Entry in- 
to some special users' bulletin boards is 
done by inserting a long command in- 
cluding periods, abbreviations and 
brackets. The system managers are mov- 
ing away from this difficult form of entry, 
and easy-to-use menus are appearing. 
Service is very fast, and the system is reli- 
able. You are actually using a network of 
2 1 Digital Equipment Corporation main- 
frames when you use CompuServe. 
There is a lot of redundancy built in. 

The news feature uses menus to sort 
down to general topics. This is the same 
concept used by viewdata and other vid- 
eotext services. This is in contrast to the 
word or subject sorts available on The 
Source. It is easy to read messages on the 
electronic mail system, and the service is 
very fast, but it is difficult to enter mes- 
sages previously prepared off line. The 
entry program spends too much time 
sending line numbers and page tops. The 
common user bulletin board really has 
too many commands available. A long 
learning curve is needed to get the most 
out of this feature. 

Some very fine special-interest bulletin 
boards are available on CompuServe. 
There are Heath, TRS-80, Micro-Connec- 
tion and amateur radio groups currently 
active. The command programs on these 



bulletin boards are very smooth and easy 
to use. If you spend some time on these 
special-interest bulletin boards, the Com- 
puServe hourly rate will probably be less 
than the equivalent cost in long-distance 
phone calls. 

Other features include high-quality 
multi-player games (real-time Startrek is 
my favorite), food and recipe information 
from the Better Homes and Gardens 
magazine and news from 12 regional 
newspapers. The MicroQuote service 
gives very complete stock prices and 
history, but it costs extra to use. 

If you need a lot of disk space or work- 
ing memory, or if you want to use several 
different computer languages, Compu- 
Serve is a bargain. If you have a lot of cor- 
respondents across the country, the elec- 
tronic mail system is reliable. If you have 
the money to play challenging interac- 
tive games with other users, the system 
can be a lot of fun. Otherwise, Compu- 
Serve can give you the experience of en- 
tering into the future world of informa- 
tion utilities with litte initial cost. 

CompuServe has joined with Radio 
Shack in marketing their service. In 
many Radio Shack stores you can buy a 
package containing a CompuServe ac- 
cess code, a program to allow a TRS-80 to 
work into the system through a modem 
and one hour of service time for less than 
$30. 

MCI 

MCI Communications Corporation is a 
long-distance telephone company. I in- 
troduced you to the Sprint long-distance 
telephone service (August 1980 Micro- 
computing), which is practically identi- 
cal to the service MCI provides. Both 
companies are in the business of building 
and operating facilities to provide long- 
distance telephone service at rates sub- 
stantially lower than AT&T. 

This is certainly good news for users of 




CompuServe's computers are located in two modern computer centers in central 
Ohio, such as the one shown above at 5000 Arlington Centre Blvd., Columbus, OH. 



18 Microcomputing, February 1981 



message and information systems a long- 
distance call away. The service is easy to 
use and reliable. MCI has about 60,000 
business customers who can attest to its 
value. The cost savings over regular tele- 
phone services range up to 50 percent, 
especially in the evening. 

Before we all applaud, I have to say a 
word about the relationship between 
these long-distance carriers and the tra- 
ditional telephone companies. MCI and 
Sprint are skimming the cream. Remem- 
ber who has to run the local circuits to the 
little old lady in tennis shoes 40 miles 
from the telephone exchange. Remem- 
ber who has to maintain and update all of 
the switching systems and who made the 
initial investment in what has been the 
world's best telephone system. Remem- 
ber these things when you pay your local 
bill, but then consider using the cheaper 
long-distance services because, after all, 
it is your money. 

If you have long-distance charges of 
over $25 a month, you should consider 
an alternative long-distance carrier like 
MCI. The service is available 24 hours a 
day. Your savings from 8 am to 5 pm dur- 
ing the week average 30 percent. Be- 
tween 7 pm and 1 1 pm the savings range 
from 40 percent to 60 percent. There is a 
$10 monthly service subscription fee. 

MCI also offers a Super Saver service 
with a subscription price of $5 a month. 
This service is only available from 5 pm to 
8 am local time and weekends and holi- 
days. MCI's services are not available 
everywhere. Check your phone book or 
write: MCI Telecommunications Corp., 
1500 17th St., N.W., Washington, DC 
20036. 



System Lists 

My list of electronic message systems 
has over 225 phone numbers on it, but 
many of them are not valid. I have had 
some agonizing experiences trying to 
keep current lists published, despite 
close cooperation from Microcomput- 
ing's editors. For these reasons, I am not 
going to publish general lists of systems 
any longer. If you have a data communi- 
cations capability, I suggest you check 
one of three systems for the most accu- 
rate listings. On the east coast, check the 
AMRAD CBBS (703/734-1387); in the 
central area, check Bill Abney's Forum 
80 at 816/861-7040; on the west coast, 
Bill Blue's ABBS (714/449-5689) always 
has a good list. If you don't have data 
communications capability yet, but 
would like to know if there are any sys- 
tems near you, drop me a self-addressed 
stamped envelope and include your area 
code. I will tell you if there are any sys- 
tems in your vicinity. 

If you have any data communications 
comments or questions, send them to me 
and include a stamped envelope if you 
want a reply. Send electronic mail to 
TCB967 on The Source; 70003,455 on 
CompuServe or the AMRAD CBBS. 



AS THE WORD TURNS 



By Eric Maloney 



Data Are Dead: 
Long Live Data 



"Data" is one of the most misunder- 
stood words in the English language. 

Once upon a time, it was simply the 
plural of the word "datum." The Oxford 
English Dictionary defines "datum" as 
"a thing given or granted; something 
known or assumed as fact, and made the 
basis of reasoning or calculation; an as- 
sumption or premise from which infer- 
ences are drawn." 

But "data" refused to sit still. By the 
middle of this century, it had come to 
mean "facts," "information" or "statis- 
tics." And to the horror of purists in En- 
gland and America, everybody started 
using it as a singular noun, as in "Check 
your data to make sure it is correct." 
Swords were drawn, and the battle has 
raged ever since. 

H. W. Fowler's A Dictionary of Modern 
English Usage, published originally in 
1926, stated flatly that "data" "is plural 
only." Margaret Nicholson's Dictionary 
of American-English Usage, published 
in 1958, agreed. So did the New York 
Times' Theodore Bernstein, the preemi- 
nent word hound of American journal- 
ism; he declared that "The use of 'data' 
as if it were a singular noun is a common 
solecism. . . .Data is plural." 

Even as late as 1966, Wilson Follett's 
Modern American Usage stated that 
"those who treat data as a singular 
doubtless think of it as a generic noun, 
comparable to knowledge or information 
. . . .The mistake is easy for anyone who 
has no feeling for Latin. But there is as yet 
no obligation to change the number of 
data under the influence of error mixed 
with innovation." 

Not everyone has been as unequivocal. 
William Strunk and E. B. White, in their 
book The Elements of Style, write that 
"data" is best with a plural verb, but con- 
cede that the word "is slowly gaining ac- 
ceptance as a singular." Rudolf Flesch's 
book The ABC of Style gives its seal of ap- 
proval to data as a singular, too, as do the 
Harbrace College Handbook and the 
United Press International Stylebook. 

Meanwhile, back at the data bank, the 
computerists continue to bang away at 



their keyboards, oblivious to the fact that 
a controversy even exists. Data is en- 
tered, data is retrieved, data (s analyzed, 
and no one gives it a second thought. If 
data are processed anymore, the com- 
puterist is probably a grammarian, too. 

Unwittingly and without regard to ety- 
mological propriety, computerists have 
swarmed the purists* bastions and anni- 
hilated once and for all the word "data" 
as a plural. I wonder what the late Mssrs. 
Fowler, Bernstein and Follett would have 
to say. I would like to think that even 
though they might not approve of the 
face-lift, they would be pleased to see 
data's long and promising future as a liv- 
ing word. 




A note on the words "disk" and "disc." 
Most of our authors use the former spell- 
ing, but occasionally we get a manuscript 
from someone who uses the latter. Our 
style is to use "disk." This is not because 
one is innately better or worse than the 
other — they essentially mean the same 
thing. But "disk" is the preferred spell- 
ing, and we use it exclusively in order to 
be consistent. Besides, "disc" is too 
much like "discus," which is tossed vig- 
orously into the air, a procedure we do 
not recommend to our readers. 

Microcomputing, February 1981 19 



MICROSCOPE 



By Eric Maloney 



Home Banking 
Experiments 



Industry 
Awaits 
Results 



Banking at Home— Pt. 2 

Last month's Micro-Scope discussed 
the Electronic Information home bank- 
ing service being offered by the United 
American Bank, Radio Shack and Com- 
puServe in Knoxville, TN. This month, 
we'll review some other experiments go- 
ing on around the country. 

Electronic home banking is still in its 
gestation period. Yet, several experimen- 
tal projects around the country are bring- 
ing such service closer to the home of the 
average American. 

• In Columbus, OH, Banc One recently 
completed a three-month home banking 
experiment called Channel 2000. Some 
200 customers were able to use their tele- 
vision sets to take advantage of four basic 
banking services via their phone lines. 

• Mission Cable of San Diego, owned by 
Cox Communications of Atlanta, is field- 
testing a two-way cable service called In- 
teractive Data Exchange (Indax) that in- 
cludes several home banking services. 
Indax will also be available in Omaha, 
NE, starting June 1. 

• The Chemical Bank of New York will 
use microcomputers (it won't say which 
make) as part of a home banking experi- 
ment to start in the second quarter of this 
year. The project will involve some 400 
customers. 

• Viewtron, an experimental interactive 
videotext system conducted by Knight- 
Ridder and AT&T in Coral Gables, FL, of- 
fered several home banking services to 
its 160 test families. 

So what have these experiments re- 
vealed to date? Not much more than that 
home banking is a technological reality, 
but an unknown commodity for an unde- 
fined marketplace. 

"We're still getting our house in 
order," says John Fisher, senior vice 
president of Banc One. "It's awful early 
yet to determine who the players are, 
where the capital is going to come from, 
what the regulatory problems are going 
to be, and what marketing skills are nec- 

20 Microcomputing, February 1981 



essary . We'll be spending the next couple 
of years refining, trying to construct 
what the real world will look like." 

William Cornfield of the Chemical 
Bank of New York agrees, and says that 
projections and marketing studies have 
little to do with what the future really will 
be. 

"While the studies are possibly indica- 
tive, it's hard to ask someone for an opin- 
ion on something people don't have and, 
in my opinion, don't understand." he 
says. "Also, the information is skewed to- 
ward certain types of people that aren't 
necessarily representative of the custom- 
er base." 

Most of the projects are offering tradi- 
tional banking services at the outset, re- 
lated mostly to basic funds transfer and 
account reporting. Other services, such 
as budget control and tax preparation, 
are still down the road. 

To access a home banking service, the 
customer is given some kind of personal 
ID number that he must type in on his 
keyboard. In the case of Indax, the code 
number will only work on his own termi- 
nal. Customers of the Express Informa- 
tion service in Knoxville, TN, are also giv- 
en a special security ROM pack for their 
TRS-80 Color Computer. All of the sys- 
tems provide two or three levels of securi- 
ty in the hardware and software to pro- 
tect the customer against unauthorized 
access. 

Once the customer has gained entry in- 
to the bank's computer, he views a menu 
of possible services, and selects one. He 
may, for instance, decide to pay some 
bills. He'll tell the bank how much 
money he wants taken from his account, 
to which businesses he wants it trans- 
ferred and on what date. The computer 
then asks the customer to verify each 
transaction. In the case of Indax, the cus- 
tomer must type "99" to complete the 
transfer. He can then call up a record of 
his transactions and the standing of his 
account. 

Nearly everyone agrees that to suc- 



ceed, home banking must be sold to the 
consumer as part of a larger package. A 
terminal, intelligent or not, is an invest- 
ment that most families won't be able to 
justify merely by the convenience of 
banking at home instead of at the bank. 

Thus, in most of the experiments, the 
customers have a variety of other ser- 
vices available to them. Indax, for exam- 
ple, will provide its subscribers with the 
opportunity to shop by computer, and 
the chance to access the electronic infor- 
mation service The Source. Channel 
2000 customers were able to use a card 
catalogue of the public library and a vid- 
eo encyclopedia. And the Chemical Bank 
is investigating possible hook-ups with 
The Source and CompuServe. 

And what about the advantages and 
disadvantages of viewdata — over tele- 
phone lines — vs teletext — via television 
signals? 

"The press shouldn't allow that to be 
controversial," says Fisher. "You should 
care less what the communications me- 
dium is. You should encourage them." 

He acknowledged, however, that it's 
"hard to get cable TV's attention. The ca- 
ble mentality is still entertainment. The 
people running cable are TV people. 
They think pictures, we think data." 

So how soon will it be before the aver- 
age microcomputerist on the street can 
add home banking to his list of applica- 
tions? No one is making predictions. The 
banking industry is still in the early 
stages of marketing research and analy- 
sis, and won't move ahead until it's con- 
vinced that people want home banking 
and other videotext services. The experi- 
ments of 1980 and 1981 should give 
them a better idea. 



Heats the Hot Tub, Too 

We couldn't make it to the gala open- 
ing, but the news release was impressive. 
"One of the most computerized homes 
I ever built, the Sun/Tronic House is 





CM -600 

Circuit 
Mount 



■••» •«•••• 





CM-600 $6.95 
RW-50 $2.98* 

NEW CM-600 SOLDERLESS PROTOTYPE BO ART) 

CM- 600 is a unique system for solderless construction of circuit prototypes, useful to 
both engineers and hobbyists. The CM-600 is a neoprene board 4|" (114mm) x 6" 
(152mm) with 2280 holes on .100" (2.54mm) centers. Standard components 
including DIP's are mounted by simply inserting leads into the holes in the long life 
neoprene material. Interconnections are easily made using 20 or 22 AWG(0,8 or 
0,65mm) wire jumpers. Positive contact is assured by the elasticity of the hole, which 
compresses the leads together. To remove components or leads, simply pull out. This 
facilitates easy circuit changes making it ideal for toreadboarding experimental 
circuits. CM-600 also features numbered rows and columns for easy reference. 
Accessory Kit RW-50 contains 50 pes of AWG 20 (0,8mm) insulated jumper wires of 
assorted lengths from J"(13mm) to 4" (100mm). Both ends are stripped and bent 90° 
for easy insertion. In stock directly from 

„» OK Machine & Tool Corporation 

3455 Conner St., Bronx,N.Y. 10475 U.S.A. 
Tel. (212) 994-6600 Telex 125091 

^ * Minimum billings $25.00, add snipping charge $2.00 

>^ New York State residents add applicable tax 



„* Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 21 




Night view of the rear of Sun/Tronic House emphasizes the greenhouse/solarium 
(center), and reveals, inside to the right, one of the home's passive copper solar 
walls. On either side of the greenhouse are solar collectors that, with the various 
passive solar systems, supply more than 60 percent of the home's space heating 
and domestic hot water needs. 



equipped with a highly sophisticated 
computer system that controls all as- 
pects of t he home's energy and other me- 
chanical systems, and also acts as ser- 
vant, nursemaid, secretary, guard, in- 
home entertainer and accountant." 
The house, built in Stamford, CT, in- 
cludes an Apple II computer system. Sit- 
uated in the library — "the home's opera- 
tional control center" — the Apple: 

• retrieves, on a TV screen, data on the 
home's energy performance. 

• controls the home's mechanical sys- 
tems, including the solar collector and 
photovoltaic arrays on the back lawn, 
and 

• operates the home's security sys- 
tems, including emergency lighting and 
power, the burglar alarm, the fire sprink- 
ler system and smoke detectors and 
summons the police or fire department. 

The second Apple, in the family room, 
is devoted to fun and recreation, and in- 
cludes a 45-inch television set. 

A remote terminal with television set is 
located in the kitchen for information re- 
trieval: "A typing in of simple instruc- 
tions commands the computer to retrieve 
recipes and menus, guest lists of previ- 
ous dinner parties, and what wines are 
stocked in the wine cellar, for example." 

A second terminal is located in the 
master bedroom, permitting its occu- 
pants to control the home's security 
lighting, temperature control and insu- 
lating shade system, "as well as get the 
latest stock market readings and deter- 
mine how much income tax they will 
have to pay based on current expendi- 
tures." 

The home's solar collector array sup- 
plies about 45 percent of the house's 
heating and hot water needs. But per- 
haps most importantly, it will also heat 
the hot tub. 

Also involved in this display of garish 
decadence are C&D Batteries Division of 
Eltra Co. (lead-acid storage batteries), 
Edison Electric Institute (energy systems 

22 Microcomputing, February 1981 



and programs), W. W. Gaertner Re- 
search (computer software, security sys- 
tems). General Electric (major appli- 
ances, housewares, television and audio, 
lighting, heat pumps) and Solarex (pho- 
tovoltaic solar cells). The whole thing is 
orchestrated by the Copper Development 
Association, which can be reached at 405 
Lexington Ave., New York, NY 10174. 



Teaching Electronic 

Journalism 

The success of electronic news and in- 
formation distribution through videotext 
services depends largely on whether 
young people interested in journalism 
are given the chance to develop skills in 
data communications. Is higher educa- 
tion adapting to the changing climate? 

At least two major universities are. 
Both Brigham Young University in Pro- 
ve UT, and Indiana University in Bloom- 
ington, IN, are offering courses in elec- 
tronic news, and hope to initiate on-cam- 
pus videotext services. 

At BYU, mainframes at the library and 
the campus daily have been hard-wired 
to an Onyx, which will act as a switching 
computer. Students, faculty and staff will 
be able to access the data bases over the 
campus telephone system, with termi- 
nals and modems. 

William C. Porter, who teaches a 
course called "Electronic Publishing" in 
the school's Department of Communica- 
tions, says that the paper. The Daily Uni- 
verse, hopes to be publishing an electron- 
ic edition called Unitext by the end of this 
spring. 

"We see so much happening, and we 
feel a need to keep abreast of what's go- 
ing on," he says. 

The department has already conduct- 
ed several limited experiments to test 
student response to such a service. For 
instance, the newspaper sometimes an- 
nounces in a story that more information 



is available through several public termi- 
nals set up for the purpose. During a re- 
cent basketball tournament, the termi- 
nals were used to update the scores. 

Porter says that BYU has 28 public ter- 
minals in the library and about 350 VDTs 
around campus. He hopes that the ser- 
vice will eventually spread out into the 
Provo community, and says that the uni- 
versity might also develop a teletext ser- 
vice with a Provo cable television outlet. 

The newspaper community has been 
ambivalent about electronic news. Porter 
says. 

"As we've gone to various conven- 
tions, we've found that the working-level 
editors aren't too concerned. But man- 
agement is beginning to become interest- 
ed." 

The project is beginning to accumulate 
an "enormous" amount of information 
on videotext. Porter says, and might 
eventually offer it through an electronic 
bulletin board. 

At Indiana University, journalism pro- 
fessor John Alhauser has been tracking 
electronic news since 1972. and teaches 
a course called "Electronic Newspaper." 
Last November, the school sponsored a 
conference entitled "Electronic Home 
News Delivery — Journalistic and Public 
Policy Implications." 

Alhauser agrees with Porter that until 
recently, the print media have not paid 
much attention to videotext. 

"At first, I got nothing but scorn," he 
says. 'There were people who didn't 
even see the need for electric typewriters, 
and felt that editors didn't need to learn 
anything more than spelling and edit- 
ing." 

But he says that as the economic impli- 
cations for newspapers become more 
clear, journalists are beginning to take 
note. Alhauser has spoken on electronic 
news to a number of organizations, in- 
cluding, recently, the staff of the Mil- 
waukee Journal. 

Alhauser 's course does not deal so 
much with the electronic newsroom as it 
does with the electronic home delivery of 
news. Students discuss regulatory prob- 
lems, revenue strategies and legal ramifi- 
cations. 

The school's plans for a videotext sys- 
tem are not as far along as BYU's. Al- 
hauser says that a campus committee is 
studying the possibilities, and the cable 
company in town is interested. 

"But we want to do it in a very sophisti- 
cated manner," he says. "And that 
means trying to drum up some money." 



TI and The Source 

Owners of the Texas Instruments TI- 
99/4 microcomputer can now subscribe 
to Texnet, a home information and com- 
munications service being offered by TI 
and the Source Telecomputing Corp. 

Customers will have available all ser- 
vices currently available on The Source, 



as well as new data bases designed specif- 
ically for the TI-99/4. It will also include a 
text-to-speech capability that lets users 
hear any messages typed on the comput- 
er keyboard or transmitted over the Tex- 
net system. 

The Source provides such features as 
the United Press International Newswire, 
world airline schedules and travel ser- 
vices, restaurant and wine guides, con- 
sumer buying services. The New York 
Times news and consumer data bases, 
foreign language drills, an electronic 
mail service and a job listing service. 

The TI news release says the company 
is actively seeking new software, new 
data bases and new peripherals for the 
TI-99/4, and expects to develop a variety 
of new services for Texnet, from within 
the company and from third-party devel- 
opers. 

TI spokesman Dan Garza says that de- 
tails on the arrangement and the neces- 
sary software would be released some- 
time in the first quarter of 198 1 , but says 
that Texnet's emphasis will be on the 
"unique color, sound, graphics and 
speech capabilities" of the TI-99/4. 



Electronic Yellow Pages 

Electronic yellow pages are just around 
the corner and should help stimulate the 
home terminal market, says a report re- 
cently issued by the International Re- 
source Development, Inc. 

The report says that revenues derived 
from such services should reach $200 
million by 1985 and $2.5 billion by 1990. 

The IRD report cites several recent de- 
velopments in the electronics industry 
that should promote the development of 
EYP: 

• GTE is offering an Infovision service 
to the Washington Post and other news- 
papers that will let them become a local 
EYP operator. Local information banks 
will be supplemented by access to cen- 
trally-provided databases and services. 

• The Arizona Republic and the Phoe- 
nix Gazette have formed a joint com- 
pany, RG Cable, and will sell classified 
advertising and editorial content on three 
leased channels to cable companies. 

• AT&T has designated electronic yel- 
low page service as one of the priorities of 
its new nonregulated subsidiary. 

In France, the government-controlled 
Post, Telephone & Telegraph organiza- 
tion is planning to phase out paper tele- 
phone directories over the next 15 years. 
Customers will get a $100 terminal with 
a keyboard to access directory informa- 
tion. 

The terminals, manufactured by the 
French company Telic, will also be used 
for GTE's Infovision service in the U.S. 

The report says that such EYP services 
will supplement such videotext services 
as Source Telecomputing and Compu- 
Serve. 

Not everyone is overwhelmed by ex- 



Time 


Projected Revenues 


Frame 


(S millions) 


1980 


<1 


1981 


5 


1982 


10 


1983 


30 


1984 


110 


1985 


250 


1986 


580 


1987 


940 


1988 


1400 


1989 


1900 


1990 


2500 



Percentage Leakage From 
Paper YP/CA (%) To EYP 



.1 

.3 

1.0 

2.0 

4.0 

6.0 

8.0 

10.0 

12.0 



Ten-year projections for electronic yellow pages/classified advertising revenues. 



citement at the prospect of electronic 
classifieds. The newspaper industry 
would like to restrict AT&T's role in EYP, 
and foresees a significant loss in advertis- 
ing revenues. 

For more information on the report, en- 
titled "Electronic Yellow Pages," contact 
the IRD, 30 High St.. Norwalk, CT 0685 1 
(203-866-6914; Telex 643 452). 



"Hi. My name is..." 

"I never thought a desk-top computer 
could impress me so much, but that's ex- 
actly what happened when I experienced 
the Apple II personal computer." 

So begins the full-page Apple ad that 
has been appearing in major dailies 
around the country. The author: Dick 
Cavett. 

Paying a well-known personality to trot 
out your product is a time-honored mar- 
keting strategy. But Cavett's enthusias- 
tic endorsement of the Apple II is the first 
of its kind in the micro industry. 

It undoubtedly presages important 



things to come. For instance, a news re- 
lease recently crossed our desk announc- 
ing that Pele, "the greatest soccer player 
of all time and a living legend," will be 
pushing Atari's new home video soccer 
game cartridge. 

"Pele's personal approval of Atari's 
soccer game cartridge will be especially 
valuable overseas, where soccer is the 
number one sport in more than 140 
countries," the release quotes Chairman 
and Chief Executive Officer Raymond E. 
Kassar. 

Who's next? Benjamin Spock for 
TRS-80s in the schools? Neil Armstrong 
for space games? Marilyn Chambers for 
Interlude? 



Micros and the Handicapped 

A contest designed to stimulate ideas 
and inventions to aid the handicapped 
through computer technology is being 
sponsored by Johns Hopkins University. 

Johns Hopkins, along with the Nation- 
al Science Foundation and Radio Shack, 




I Zinc, Therefore. . .A TRS-80 computer is being used by the St. Clair Die Casting 
Co. in St. Clair, MO, to design the zinc die castings that go into solid-state computers 
for service station gasoline pumps. The program, called ThinWall, isbeingoffered to 
die casters around the country by the Zinc Institute. 

Microcomputing, February 1981 23 



is offering a $ 10,000 grand prize and 100 
other awards, including 15 personal 
computer systems. 

Submission categories include com- 
puter-based aids for the blind, deaf, and 
mentally retarded; individuals with 
learning disabilities, neurological or neu- 
romuscular conditions; and the orthope- 
dically handicapped. Entries can be a de- 
vice, system or computer program. 

The contest runs through June, 1981. 

For more information, write Personal 
Computing for the Handicapped, Johns 
Hopkins University, PO Box 670, Laurel, 
MD 20810. 



First CRTs, Now Teleprinters 

Last month, "Micro-Scope" mentioned 
a Monosson View report that only 20 of 
150 cathode ray tube manufacturers 
would survive the 80s. This month's 
shake-out prediction comes from Ven- 
ture Development Corporation, which 
says that as many as 14 of 32 U. S.-based 
teleprinter manufacturers could be in 
trouble. 

The report mentions that three com- 
panies controlled over 60 percent of 1980 
shipments. These and 15 other manufac- 
turers have good growth potential, but 
the rest "will continue to lose market 
share." 

VDC predicted late last year that tele- 
printer sales would decline in 1980, even 



though DEC and Teletype can't keep up 
with their orders. They quote one manu- 
facturer as saying, "Competition from 
the big guys is getting fierce. They're 
lowering their prices, and we can't afford 
to do that. It looks like we will be getting 
out of this business pretty soon." 

Non-impact teleprinters are the fastest- 
growing sector of the market, while the 
daisywheel segment of the impact tele- 
printer market is also doing well. 

Further information on the report, ti- 
tled "The Teleprinter Terminal Industry: 
A Strategic Analysis" is available from 
Wendy Abramowitz, Market Research 
Analyst, VDC, 1 Washington St., Welles- 
ly. MA 02181 (617-237-5080). 



A View from Beyond 

A friend of ours in San Francisco who 
knows nothing about microcomputers 
recently read a copy of Microcomputing, 
and passed along the following observa- 
tions: 

'The issue of Microcomputing you 
sent me was just the right thing to thumb 
through while vaguely conscious be- 
tween naps on the living room carpet. Af- 
ter my perusal — which was much more 
than that, really, since I read almost all of 
every article — I can see why one needs to 
be a good editor in the face of all this care- 
fully thought out incomprehensibility. 

"It was a delight to read those articles 



about I don't know what and feel the 
voices of their individual authors coming 
through to me. Some hum, some in- 
struct, some climb over your shoulder, 
some lead the way with a torch, some sit 
back and laugh at everybody wandering 
around so eagerly. Man vs Hardware. 
The battlefront of the age. 

"The overall picture I received of this 
particular point in the contest was that 
the hardware is trying to overwhelm the 
software, the program, the soft human 
noodle, with sheer unexplored capabili- 
ty, irrascibility, and sudden charming 
spurts of unexpected strength. Sparks 
are flying, little things are being experi- 
mentally soldered to big things, plugs are 
being turned upside down and plugged 
back in. more or less just to see what hap- 
pens, MAC is put into contact with PET 
so they can gossip about the recent ru- 
mors concerning LUG's new hat and see 
what they can come up with for them- 
selves, in the hasty half-hour before they 
go out on the town. 

"Opera, that's what it was like to watch 
this show unfold, all the words incompre- 
hensible but the gestures and voices and 
music behind them pretty much giving 
me the drift, and myself enjoying filling 
in the wide blanks with hilarity or trage- 
dy as fit the mood of the moment, and no 
worries about accuracy to trouble me up 
here high in the peanut gallery. My 
thanks for the free ticket to the show." 



STOP! 



COMPUTERS 

Altos: 

8000-2 64K 2. 8 ' Disks 3939 00 

8000-5 64K 2. 8 ' Disks 5239.00 

Atari: 

400 8K 479.00 

800 16K 779.00 

810 Disk Drive 559 00 

825 Printer (Cent. 737) 780.00 

Atari Software— LOTS! LOW! 

Dynabyte 

DB 8/1 48K 2295 00 

DB 8/1 64K 2695 00 

Hewlett-Packard HP85 275000 

North Star: 

HRZ-1 32K DD ASM 1995 00 

HRZ-2 32K DD ASM 2295.00 

HRZ-2 48K DD ASM 2995 00 

Accts Rec /Payable ea 44900 

General Ledger 775.00 

Northword 295 00 

Mail Manager 235 00 

APPLE PRODUCTS 

Apple Computers CALL 

Disk II CALL 

Centronics Parallel Interface 95.50 

LOBO 5% w/Controller 3 3 455 00 

Pascal Language Card 399 95 

Vindex 80 Column Card 279 95 

Apple Software— LOTS! CALL 

Calif Computer Systems CALL 

Mountain Computers CALL 

MONITORS 

Leedex 12 * B/W 125.00 

Sanyo9'B/W 169.00 

Sanyo 12 ' B/W 26500 

Sanyo 13" Color 394 95 



CHECK OUR 
LOW PRICES 



TERMINALS 

Hazeltme 

1410 749.00 

1420 839.00 

1510 103900 

Televideo: 

TVI 912B 698 00 

TVI 912C 725.00 

TVI 920B 75000 

PRINTERS 

Anadex: 

DP8000 775.00 

DP9000 1259.00 

DP9500 1349 00 

Base 2 599.00 

Centronics. 

730-1 599.00 

737-1 795.00 

700-9 1225.00 

Diablo 630 2299 00 

Epson MX 80 575.00 

NEC Spinwriter: 

5510 Ser 254000 

5530 Par 2540.00 

Paper Tiger: 

445 NEW! 73900 

445 w/Graphics 799.00 

460 NEW! 1076 00 

460 w/Graphics 1 139 .00 

Qume 5 45/RO 2499.00 

Texas Instruments 

810 Basic 1495.00 

820 Basic KSP (Full ASC I II 02) 1649 00 

TERMS: Master Charge. VISA, M. Order, 
Cashier Check accepted COD add 10% 
deposit. Calif, add 6% tax, FREE delivery on 
most items. We PROMISE prompt service. 



MAIL 

ORDER 

ONLY 



R AC PRODUCTS *m 

3200 KNIGHTSWOOD WAY 

SAN JOSE, CA 95148 (408)274-1915 



for MOD I and MOD II TRS-80™ 

_ - o _ Now you can sort an 85K diskette r a c t 

FAST — ' In less than 3 minutes* <— T A5 I 

Perfect for your multi-diskette RANDOM file mailing lists, inven- 
tory, etc. Ideal for specialized report generation. Sort, merge or 
combination. All machine language stand-alone package — 
Efficient and easy to use. No separate key files required! Physical 
records are rearranged on diskette! Supports multiple sub records 
per sector including optional sector spanning. Sorts on one or 
more fields — ascending or descending. Sort fields within records 
may be character, integer, and floating-point binary. Provides 
optional output field deletion, rearrangement, and padding. 

'Sort timings shown below are nominal times. Times will vary 
based on sort and system configurations. Nominal times based 
on Mod 1 48K 4-drive configuration, 64 byte records, and 5 sort keys. 

TYPE FILE SIZE SORT TIME TYPE FILE SIZE SORT TIME 





(Bytts) 


(Sm) 




(Bvttt) 


(Sec) 


SORT 


16K 


33 


SORT 


340K 


1081 


SORT 


32K 


49 


SORT 


680K 


2569 


SORT 


85K 


173 


SORT and 


85K SORT + 


1757 


SORT 


170K 


445 


MERGE 


1275K Merge 





DSM for Mod I (Minimum 32K, 2-drives) $75 On-Dlsk 
DSM for Mod II (Minimum 64K, 1 -drive) $150 On-Dlsk 

Mod II Development Package $100 

Machine Language SUPERZAP, plus Editor/Assembler and 
Disassembler patches. (Include copy of Apparat NEWDOS + 5Vi 
diskette.) 

Mod II Generalized Subroutine Facility GSF' $50 
oo BASIC for Level II and Disk Systems $49.95 
oo BUSINESS (Requires Infinite BASIC) $29.95 
COMPROC Command Processor for Disk Systems $19.95 
REMODEL + PROLOAD (Specify 16, 32, or 48K Memory) $34.95 
QSF (Specify 16, 32, or 48K) $24.95 



CHECK, VISA, M/C, C.O.D. 

Calif. Residents add 6% 

Telephone Orders Accepted 

(714)637-5016 

TRS-80 IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORPORATION 



^101 



[=■- RACET computes -^| 

712 Pilmdala, Onset CA 92665 



24 Microcomputing, February 1981 




ow s your 
love life? 










A little dull around the edges? ^^ 

Routine? Predictable? Boring? Maybe ^^Ife 

all it needs is a little Interlude. Interlude is 
the most stimulating computer game ever conceived. 
It combines a computer interview, an innovative 
prograi >ncept, and a one-of-a-kind manual to 

turn yoM exciting, adventurous, delicious fun! 






Interlude is: romantic. . . playful. . . outrageous. . . a fantasy. Interlude is: ■ A Bed of Roses (Inter- 
lude #1) ■ Mata Hari (Interlude #49) ■ The Chase (Interlude #7) ■ Rodeo! (Interlude #71) ■ The King and I 

) ■ Some Enchanted Evening (Interlude #84) ■ Caveman Caper (Interlude #82) ■ From Here 
to Ecstasy (Interlude No. 30) ■ Satin Dreams (Interlude #72). 



More than 100 Interludes are included in the program. Most are described in detail in the accompanying manual, 
but several surprise Interludes are buried in the program awaiting that very 
sf I time when your interview says you're ready. (When you learn secret 

erlude #99. your love life may never again be the same!) Interlude 
can give you experiences you'll never forget. Are you ready for it? 



Interlude 

The Ultimate Experience. 



^235 



INTERLUDE, 10428 Westpark, Houston, Texas 77042. I'm really ready. Send my Interlude today. 



Apple n (16K)* TRS-80 (Level II-16K)** 

D Cassette ($16.95) D Cassette ($16.95) 

□ Diskette ($19.95) □ Diskette ($19.95) 

□ Diskette— Pascal or DOS 3.3 ($19.95) 
Add $1.50 for shipping and handling. 

D MASTERCARD □ VISA 
Account No. 



Poster 

□ 20"x 24" reproduction of 
this ad without ad copy 
($4.95— includes 
shipping charges) 

All charge customers must sign here 

Expiration date 



Available for immediate shipment. 

Please enclose your check payable to INTERLUDE 
or complete the charge information: 



MasterCard Bank Code 



CHARGE CUSTOMERS: Order by phone toll-free! 1-800-231-5768 Ext. 306 (Texas: 1-800-392-2348 Ext. 306) 

Name 



Address 
City 



Age 



State 



Zip 



* Apple II is a registered trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. **TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Radio Shack, a Tandy Co. 



The ancient and the modern coexist in Egypt. 



Micros in the 
Land of the Pharaohs 



By Dr. Lloyd A. Case 



It is hard to imagine that the micro- 
computer could revolutionize 
Egypt. How can revolution have 
meaning in a land synonymous with 
the timeless Sphynx, the pyramids 
and the origins of science itself? 

Yet micros and other computers 
will play an important role in Egypt's 
future. And though Egypt faces many 



problems developing its computer ca- 
pabilities, its leaders are well aware 
of the potentials. 

As part of its program to develop its 
technological resources, the Egyptian 
government has been contacting 
American companies that supply 
computer-related services. My com- 
pany—System and Computer Tech- 




Computer language of its day? Egypt abounds with the art of the pharaohs. This figure at Karnak repre- 
sents Hapshepsut, a female pharaoh. Her name and face were scratched out in this art at the order of her 
successor, who believed it would kill her soul and end her immortality. The vengeful successor missed find- 
ing all her art, and she lives in memory today. 



nology Corp.— was one of them. The 
Egyptians asked us, as specialists in 
computer facilities management in 
higher education, to visit their uni- 
versities, observe their computer fa- 
cilities and computer science curricu- 
la, and evaluate their programs. 

During our 17 days in Egypt, from 
the Delta to the Nubian regions, we 
gave a seminar on computering to a 
large group of university administra- 
tors from throughout the country, 
spoke with the minister of education 
and scientific research, visited the 
Aswan Dam and discussed comput- 
ers with a number of educators. All in 
all, we were impressed with the 
number of educational and techno- 
logical contrasts between Egypt and 
the U.S., and the explosive potential 
of computer technology there. 

We Arrive 

Upon our arrival, we were met at 
the Cairo airport by Dr. Mostafa 
Helmy, the minister of education and 
scientific research. He was accom- 
panied by others from the ministry, 
who graciously welcomed us with 
smiles and handshakes. We were 
particularly appreciative of their wel- 
come, because throughout the air- 
port, Egyptian soldiers with fixed 



Dr. Lloyd A. Case is director of Systems and Com- 
puter Technology Corp., 2900 Community College 
Ave., Cleveland, OH 44115. 



26 Microcomputing, February 1981 



bayonets were on guard. 

Early the next morning, we were 
escorted from our hotel to the office 
of the minister. Although the build- 
ing was being painted, its size and 
stature left no mistake that it was a 
national government office. Every- 
one we met there was cordial and 
pleasant; everyone seemed to speak 
fluent English. 

In our time with Helmy, he de- 
scribed the country, its educational 
system and the effects of the war 
with Israel. He described a need for 
technicians in Egypt and the lack of 
any educational system to really 
meet that need. We discussed cooper- 
ative ventures between United States 
and Egyptian educational institu- 
tions. 

Egypt's educational system is 
based on Britain's. Post-secondary 
educational institutions train people 
for technical careers. Dr. Helmy ex- 
pressed interest in establishing tech- 
nical institutes or something similar 
to a community college system 
throughout his country. 

He told us that Egypt's industry 
and economy suffered from a lack of 
technicians. But it should not be in- 
ferred they have weak universities. 
We were impressed throughout our 
visit by the skills and high level of the 
graduate programs in the university 
system. 

After leaving the minister we visit- 
ed some of the universities in Egypt. 
A number of the presidents, vice- 
presidents and deans showed an im- 
pressive computer literacy and ap- 
preciation for state-of-the-art technol- 
ogy. They were well aware of micro- 
computers, large-scale integrated cir- 
cuits and advances in home comput- 
ers. One dean of medicine asked 
about 16-bit microprocessor chips. 

They all expressed a desire to see 
Egypt benefit from the latest technol- 
ogy. They often echoed the one major 
concern that Dr. Helmy had stressed: 
they felt that their country could 
never leap ahead economically and 
industrially without plentiful techno- 
logical capacity, particularly in com- 
puting and electronics. 

One can appreciate this need when 
considering that the two largest uni- 
versities in Cairo (enrollments of 
about 90,000 and 180,000 each) oper- 
ate admissions and registration, and 
keep all student records without the 
aid of computer. Such a task is un- 
thinkable in American universities of 
even one-tenth their size. 

Physicist Dr. Said, director of the 




The famous Sphinx represents Egypt in many ways. Egyptians say in ancient times the Sphinx was nearly 
covered with sand. A young man slept between its paws and dreamed that the Sphinx asked for his help to 
be uncovered and repaired. In return, the Sphinx promised that he would become ruler of the land. This 
came to pass, and as pharaoh of Egypt, the man placed a stone telling the tale at the spot he slept. The 
stone remains today. 



computer center at Ain Shaims Uni- 
versity, works closely with their 
computer science program. Said was 
educated in the United States, at the 
University of California at Berkeley. 
We were impressed by his knowl- 
edge of some of the most recent de- 
velopments from Silicon Valley in 
California. 

Later we walked around his com- 
puter center. We could have been in 
any university in the United States. 
We saw students at terminals 
scratching their heads, pondering 
programming bugs in FORTRAN list- 
ings. Other students bustled about 
mounting tapes and ripping paper 
from the line printer. 

These, however, were privileged 
graduate students in the computer 
science program. They were some of 
the few with access to the computer 
hardware. Said indicated that under- 
graduates in computer science spent 
the majority of their time with theo- 
retical matters. 

Most of the interest in the comput- 
er that we saw at Ain Shaims was in 
statistical or scientific areas. The fac- 
ulty of engineering had recently re- 
quested terminal access to the com- 
puter. The business faculty had indi- 
cated some interest but had not yet 
been given service. Other areas of the 
university, such as medicine, the arts 
and agriculture, apparently were not 



yet interested. 

The Computer Center at Ain 
Shaims is equipped with a Data Gen- 
eral Eclipse and an IBM 1130. They 
were donated by Nobel-prize-win- 
ning physicist Dr. Lewis Alverez of 
the University of California at Berk- 
eley. The equipment came to Cairo as 
part of Alverez' s search for hidden 
chambers in the Great Pyramid at 
Giza. Alverez placed scintillation 
counters to measure the scattering of 
cosmic rays from the Great Pyramid. 
The pattern and intensities of the 
scattered radiation was digitized and 
sent back to California to be analyzed 
by scattering formulas. From this the 
internal structure of the pyramid 
could be deduced. The process is sim- 
ilar to X-raying the pyramid, except 
that it uses mathematics rather than a 
fluorescent screen. 

(Incidentally, Alverez' s study did 
not locate any chambers which were 
not already known.) 

In cooperation with Ain Shaims 
University we gave a seminar on 
computing to a group of university 
administrators. The general topic of 
the seminar was the state-of-the-art 
in academic computing. The seminar 
was entirely in English. This was no 
apparent problem to the Egyptian 
university people, who all spoke 
English. Typical questions were: 
"What evidence is there that the ex- 



Microcomputing, February 1981 27 



Buy By Mail 
and Save! 



INTERTEC SuperBank, 32K $2495 

64K Ram, List $3345 $2695 

64K Quad, List $3995 $3395 

NORTH STAR Horizon I 

32K DD List $2695 $1989 

Horizon I QD List $2995 $2245 

Horizon 2 32K DD.List $3095 $2289 
lntersystemDP-1 List $1749 . .$1495 




CROMENCO Z-2, List $9995 $7945 

System 64K, List $3990 $3179 

System 3 64K, List $7395 5689 

ATARI 800, List $1080 $799 

APPLE II, 16K $969 

DISK SYSTEMS 

THINKER TOYS' Discus 2D . $939 

Dual Discus 2D $1559 

Discus 2 + 2, List $1 549 $1259 

M26 Hard Disk, List $4995 . . $3949 

PRINTERS & TERMINALS 

PAPER TIGERS IDS-440 $679 

With graphic option $749 

CENTRONICS 730-1 ,List $795 $595 

737, List $995 $789 

704-9 180 cps $1495 

703-9 180 cps $1569 

T» 810,List$1895 $1489 

NEC SPINWRITER5530 $2395 

NEC SPINWRITER 5515 $2395 

DIABLO 630 List $271 1 $2399 

INTERTEC 

Intertube III, List $895 729 

Emulator $729 

Televideo 912C $679 

920C $799 

Hazeltine 1420 $789 

1500 $845 

Soroc 120, List $995 $689 

Soroc 140 $994 

Most items in stock for immediate delivery Factory sealed cartons, 
w/full factory warranty. NYS residents add appropriate sales tax 
Prices do not include shipping. VISA and Master Charge add 3% 
COD. orders require 25% deposit. Prices subject to change without 
notice 

Computers 
Wholesale 

P.O. Box 144 Camillus, NY 13031 

(315) 4722582 

Microcomputing, February 1981 







Today's Egypt is a mixture of ancient and modern: pyramids beside microwave towers. Cairo has begun to 
improve its telecommunications network using modern state-of-the-art technology but falls behind in the 
service and reliability in other parts of the world. 



penses of computer-assisted instruc- 
tion are matched by significant learn- 
ing taking place?" and "Are you 
aware of efforts anywhere to trans- 
late programs or courseware into 
forms useful to Arabic-speaking stu- 
dents?" 

While the vast majority of students 
appear to be veterans in their mid- 
twenties, they are like students any- 
where. I met a friendly young stu- 
dent named Mostafa selling garments 
on the banks of the Nile at Luxor. He 
explained (in fluent English) that he 
was an engineering student, studying 
air conditioning and heating. He said 
that he moonlighted to support his 
new family. He and his wife had just 
had a little boy three months before. 
He complained about inflation and 
the work at the university. 

Other Uses 

Continuing our travels, we found 
other computers being used in Egypt. 
The University of Cairo's computer 
equipment serves statisticians in so- 
cial and urban planning analysis. To- 
ward the end of our trip, we traveled 
to Ismailia, the headquarters for the 
Suez Canal Authority. We toured the 
research and engineering facilities, 
which use IBM gear to analyze traffic 
flow and the hydrodynamics of the 
canal. The Authority also models the 
economic behavior related to the 
canal-broadening project now under- 
way. 

Suez Canal University is located in 
Ismailia, but we saw no evidence of 



cooperation between the university 
programs and such government proj- 
ects. The faculty and students did not 
participate in any cooperative educa- 
tion.' This separation of theory and 
practice is probably part of their Brit- 
ish educational tradition. 

Although we saw no examples of it, 
we were told that some Egyptian 
banks are using computers. We had 
ample evidence that none of the air- 
lines do. We arrived on Swiss Air 
from Geneva. We had clockwork ser- 
vice until we reached Cairo, where 
three of us lost luggage, one for a peri- 
od of six days. Although the people 
were courteous and helpful, their ef- 
forts weren't aided by a computer- 
ized system for flights, reservations 
or baggage. Swiss Air coordinates its 
service in Egypt with Air Egypt. 

Problems 

As a developing country, Egypt is 
faced with many problems, not the 
least of which is an inadequate tech- 
nical education program. 

Cairo's universities are huge, and 
the tuition is free. But the data pro- 
cessing and computer science pro- 
grams do not have sufficient modern 
equipment to provide hands-on expe- 
rience for undergraduates. The elec- 
tronic laboratories lack digital logic 
trainers, integrated circuits, digital 
test equipment and other desirable 
equipment. 

Some students do transfer to Amer- 
ican, British or other foreign universi- 
ties with the hope of receiving superi- 



or educations. But Egypt does not 
have what Americans would consid- 
er a middle or upper class, and most 
students can't afford overseas school- 
ing. 

Also, Egypt has an unreliable pow- 
er supply. The Aswan Dam supplies 
60 percent of the country's electric- 
ity, and has taken giant steps toward 
providing power throughout the 
country. The beautiful 800-year-old 
Mohamed Ali Mosque, for example, 
is illuminated by a giant chandelier in 
which oil lamps have been replaced 
by electric bulbs. But many large 
buildings and hotels feel the need for 
their own power-generating equip- 
ment. Blackouts are common, and 
service interruptions are frequent. In 
a large computer installation such un- 
reliable power supply would be a ter- 
rible source of frustration. Any loss of 
electrical power more than a few 
thousandths of a second requires that 
a computer's memory be reloaded 
and the machine rebooted, an opera- 
tion that can take from half an hour to 
several hours. If this happened fre- 
quently, it would be difficult to gen- 
erate any productive work on even 
the best computer system. 

The telephone service poses an- 
other problem. It is nearly impossible 
to telephone across Cairo. The 
United States has provided funds to 
improve the network, but the system 
still has problems placing calls, find- 
ing available connections and main- 
taining signal levels. 

A computer service would have a 
hard time supporting the telecommu- 
nications network. A large installa- 
tion will probably have to be in the 
form of batch rather than terminals. 
This would be a disappointing and 
dated approach to computer service. 
The alternative would be for a com- 
puter network to maintain its own 
separate lines or microwave links, 
but this would cause new problems. 

Difficulties are aggravated by a 
shortage of technicians. The country 
doesn't have enough to maintain the 
equipment. If foreigners are hired, 
they might displace Egyptian work- 
ers. This would be a cardinal sin in 
Egypt— full employment is one of the 
government's primary goals. 

This move toward self-sufficiency 
applies to products, too. For example, 
I asked an administrator how he used 
a new plotter device I noticed. He ex- 
plained with a smile that it couldn't 
be used. The special paper it required 
was not produced anywhere in 
Egypt, and regulations prevented its 





#1 o SOFT WARE 

v* new items/new prices. 

FANTASTIC PRICE PROTECTION POLICY 

Well match any advertised price on any item that we carry. 
And if you find a lower price on what you bought within 
30 days of buying it, just show us the ad and well refund 
the difference. 

Its that simple. 

Combine our price protection with the availability of full 
professional support and our automatic update service and 
you have the Ultimate Software Plan. 

It's a convenient, uncomplicated, logical way to get 
your software. 

CP/M users: specify disk systems and formats Most formats available 




* 
s 






^ 

• 
• 



CP/M* 

OSBORNE 11 

General Ledger* $ 59/$20 

Acct Rec/Acct Pay* $ 59/$20 

Payroll w/Cost# $ 59/S20 

Buy 2 get 1 free $118/$57 

All 3 & CBASIC-2 ... $199/$71 

DIGITAL RESEARCH 

CP/M 2 2 Northstar $149/$25 
CP/M 2 2 Micropolis $169/$25 
CP/M 2 2 Durango 

F-85 $169/$25 

CP/M 2 2 Cromemco $189/125 
CP/M (other versions) Call 

PL/1-80 $459/$35 

Mac $ 85/S15 

Sid $ 65/S15 

Z-Sid $ 95/S15 

Tex $ 70/S15 

DeSpool $ 50/$ 10 

MICROSOFT 

Basic-80 $294/$30 

Basic Compiler $334/$30 

Fortran-80 $384/$30 

Cobol-80 $574/$30 

Macro-80 $144/$20 

Edit-80 $ 84/S20 

MuSimp/MuMath $224/$25 

MuLisp-80 $174/$20 

MICRO DATA BASE SYSTEMS 

HDBS $250/$40 

MDBS $750/$40 

Other Call 

SOFTWARE. 

MicroTax"^ 

Federal individual $749/$50 

Federal corporate $249/$ 25 

State individual $249 $25 

TCSt 

General Ledger $ 79/$ 25 

Acct Receivable $ 79/$ 25 

Acct Payable $ 79/$ 25 

Payroll $ 79/$25 

All 4 $269/$99 

SUPERSOFT 

Forth (8080 or Z80) $129/$25 

Diagnostic I $ 49/$20 

Other disk software less 10% 

SOFTWARE WORKS 

Adapt $ 69/ na 

Ratfor $ 86/ na 

COMPUTER PATHWAYS 

Pearl (level 1)# $ 99/$25 

Pearl (level 2)# $299/$25 

Pearl (level 3)# $549/$25 

COMPLETE BUSINESS 

SYSTEMS* 

Creator $269/$25 

Reportor $169/$20 

Both $399/$45 

MICROPRO 

WordStar $324/$40 

Mail/Merge $114/$25 



THIS MONTH'S SPECIAL: 

T.I.M. DBMS JUST $299. 

Terrific for inventory, mailings, 
financial, you-name-it! Menu- 
driven, auto-sort, 32000 records 
per file, any number of files, and 
dynamite documentation! 



WordStar/Mail-Merge $434/$65 

DataStar $279/$35 

Word-Master $119/$25 

SuperSortl $199/$25 

SuperSort II $169/$25 

SuperSort III $119/$25 

PEACHTREE'H* 

General Ledger $399/$40 

Acct Receivable $399/$40 

Acct Payable $399/$40 

Payroll $399/$40 

Inventory $399/$40 

Property Mgt $799/$ 40 

C PA Client Write-up $799/$40 
Mailing Address $349/$40 

STRUCTURED SYSTEMS 

GLorARorAP* $747/$25 

Payroll* $747/$25 

Inventory Control* $447/$40 

Analyst* $197/$20 

Letteright* $167/$20 

NAD# $ 87/$20 

QSORT $ 87/$20 

GRAHAM-DORIAN H 

General Ledgert $693/$40 

Acct Receivable* $693/$40 

Acct Payable* $693/$40 

Job Costing* $693/$40 

Payroll* $493/$40 

Inventory* $493/$40 

Cash Register* $493/$40 

Apartment Mgt# $493/$40 

MICRO AP 

Selector III-C2* $269/$20 

Selector IV# $469/$35 

* S-Basic $269/$25 

WHITESMITHS 

"C" Compiler* $600/$30 

Pascal (incl "C ")• $750/$45 

EIDOS SYSTEMS 

Kiss $299/$25 

K-Basic $529/$50 

ORGANIC SOFTWARE 

TextWriter III $111/$20 

• DateBook $269/$25 

SoHo Group 

• MatchMaker $ 84/$ 10 

• Worksheet $124/$20 

OTHER GOODIES 

Tiny "C $ 89/$50 

•^ Tiny C Compiler $229/$50 

CBASIC-2 $ 89/$15 

Pascal/Z $369/$30 



• 
• 



• 

• 



Pascal/UCSD $299/$30 

Pascal/MT + $224/$30 

Pascal/M $149/$20 

Nevada Cobol $129/$ 25 

Raid $229/$25 

MAGSAM III $129/$25 

MAGSAM IV $259/$25 

BSTAM $129/$10 

FMS-80 $649/$45 

dBASE II DBMS $629/$35 

Condor DBMS $599/$30 

Vulcan DBMS $469/$30 

T.I.M. DBMS* $329/$35 

CBS $369/$45 

Whatsit? $149/$25 

Ultra-Sort II $159/$25 

MicroStat $224/$ 15 

String/80 $ 84/$20 

Vedit $ 99/$ 15 

Postmaster $149/$20 

WordSearch $179/$25 

SpellGuard $269/$25 

Spell Binder $349/$45 

VTS/80 $489/$65 
Magic Wand $299/$45 
Electric Pencil II less 15% 

CPAids iess 12% 



$292 
Call 



• 
• 



II" 

MICROSOFT 

Softcard (CP/M) . . 
Cobol 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

Visicalc" $122 

CCA Data Mgr $ 84 

Desktop/Plan $ 84 

Zork Call 

PEACHTREE-n 

General Ledger $224/$40 

Acct Receivable $224/$40 

Acct Payable $224/$40 

Payroll $224/$40 

Inventory $224/$40 

MUSE 

Super-Text II $127 

Other disk software less 10% 

STC (Software Tech.) 

Prof Time & Billing 
Other 

OTHER GOODIES 

Data Factory 

Whatsit?" $129 

Creator $229 

LedgerPlus 
(GLA/R&A/P) $549 



$279 
less 15% 

$ 79 



• 
• 
• 

** 
• 

• 



II 

CP/M2 2(P&T) $159/$35 
Electric Pencil II less 15% 

NORTHSTAR 

NorthWord $299 

Mail Manager $239 

Info Manager $369 

General Ledger $749 

Acct Receivable $449 

Acct Payable $449 



♦ — Special Bonus with order \ — Requires microsoft BASIC •' — Supplied in source code « — Requires CBASIC-2 » — Mfgs Trademark 

ORDERS ONLY-CALL TOLL FREE VISA • MASTERCHARGE 

1-800-854-2003 ext 823 • Calif. 1-800-522-1500 ext 823 

Overseas— add $10 plus additional postage • Add $2 50 postage and handling per each item • California 
residents add 6% sales tax • Allow 2 weeks on checks, COD ok • Prices subject to change without notice 
All items subject to availability • 

THE DISCOUNT SOFTWARE GROUP * 25 ° 

1610 Argyle Ave , Bldg 102 • Los Angeles, CA 90028 • (213) 666-7677 



^ Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 29 



( 


i t i 


1 

m i I ■ 




iHBB ^Bi^^m 


..'A 1 






77ie .4swa« H/gto Dam best represents Egypt's commitment to technology and growth. It is a modern-day 
Egyptian monument in a land of historic engineering accomplishment. 



purchase outside the country. 

Technicians educated in Egypt 
often don't stay. Egypt's technical, 
scientific and engineering students 
are in great demand in the Middle 
East. Their abilities in Arabic and 
English are important in the Arab 
world, because technological transfer 
and production depend on interac- 
tions with Europe and America. Sev- 
eral government and educational ad- 
ministrators proudly told me they ex- 
port hundreds of Egyptians through- 
out the Middle East, particularly to 
Saudia Arabia and Kuwait. They re- 
ceive salaries of five to ten times 
what they might earn at home. 

Finally, IBM is the only significant 
vendor of mainframes in Egypt. But 
while they sell and service their 
equipment, they do not manufacture 
there. Egypt has apparently done 
nothing special to encourage such 
manufacture, such as offer tax breaks 
or incentive purchases. In fact, Egyp- 
tian regulations on employment 
make it unattractive for non-Egyp- 
tian businesses to import foreign per- 
sonnel. Also, import tariffs have been 
imposed to prevent loss of capital 
from foreign competition with Egyp- 
tian products. 

A Visit with Osman Osman 

At his home between Cairo and 
Memphis, we visited with Dr. 
Osman Ahmed Osman. His com- 



pany, Arab Contractors, grossed 
about $300 million dollars in 1978. 
Their construction activities include 
ports, bridges, industrial plants, 
transmission lines, housing develop- 
ments, railroads, dams, tunnels, res- 
ervoirs, hospitals, airports, ship 
building and land reclamation. They 
were also the prime contractor for the 
Aswan Dam and the Suez Canal 
broadening project. 

Osman is proud of his country and 
is quite pro-Western. He told us that 
while he worked with the Russians in 
completing the Aswan Dam, he felt 
that they had set Egyptian engineer- 
ing and technology back a decade or 
more. He said the equipment that 
they brought to Egypt was highly un- 
reliable, and caused a great deal of 
delay and frequent problems. He said 
he angered them by refusing to use it. 

Osman was pleased with what 
President Sadat had done to increase 
cooperation with the West. He felt 
Egypt had benefited a great deal from 
the improvements in equipment and 
engineering when the Soviets left. 

Osman is anxious to improve Egyp- 
tian education. His company donated 
the land and buildings for the Suez 
Canal University in Ismailia. Its goal 
is to upgrade the use and benefits of 
the Suez Canal, its associated ports 
and the Sinai region. The university 
has mechanical engineering and 
building trade programs aimed at de- 



velopment of the Sinai Peninsula. 

One of the current projects of the 
Arab Contractors is the Ahmed Ham- 
di tunnel under the Suez Canal to the 
Sinai Peninsula. Osman explained 
that access to the Sinai via the tunnel 
would aid in the economic develop- 
ment of this vast area. 

Egypt's Future 

Microcomputers are particularly 
suited to skirting some of Egypt's 
problems. 

Unlike mainframes and minicom- 
puters, micros do not need a reliable 
telecommunications network. The 
tight Egyptian economy (half its peo- 
ple earn under $500 a year) makes 
the price attractive, particularly as 
the number of compilers and the va- 
riety of software increase. The unreli- 
able power supply system can be 
solved by an inexpensive battery. 

Finally, the flexibility of micros 
makes it easier to locate the comput- 
ing power where it may be needed. 
Micros can be used in such areas as 
agriculture, engineering, govern- 
ment, business, transportation, com- 
munications, medical science and ed- 
ucation. 

We saw no evidence that micros 
had yet arrived in Egypt. But several 
educators were aware of microtech- 
nology and were anxious to use vari- 
ous chips and systems when they be- 
came available. There certainly is 
sufficient understanding and ability 
to take advantage of microcomput- 
ers. 

Conclusion 

The time for Egypt to use more 
modern computer technology has 

come. 

Egypt would probably prefer 
equipment and technological infor- 
mation more than foreign capital in- 
vestments. Both private companies 
and the U.S. government are inter- 
ested in providing such aid. It is a 
business opportunity and a boost to 
the economic stability in that part of 
the world. 

At least one community college in 
the U.S. is interested. Wayne County 
Community College in Detroit is con- 
sidering contributing both computer 
technology and curriculum designs 
related to microelectronics and mi- 
crocomputing. They've proposed an 
exchange of faculty and students be- 
tween the community college and the 
Egyptian universities. It would pro- 
vide the community college with an 
exciting foreign campus. ■ 



30 Microcomputing, February 1981. 



Desk Main/Frame 



Desk Main/Frame 

LOW COST & ATTRACTIVE STYLING 

• MAIN'FRAME INTEGRATED INTO FURNITURE QUALITY DESK 

• ELECTRONICS PACKAGE SLIDE MOUNTED FOR EASY ACCESS 

• SUPPORTS TWO 8" FLOPPY DRIVES FROM SEVERAL MANUFAC 
TURERS (DRIVES NOT INCLUDED) 

• 10 SLOT MOTHERBOARD INCLUDES CONNECTORS 

• POWER SUPPLY FOR DRIVES AND CARDS 

• DESK AND MAINFRAME AVAILABLE SEPARATELY 

• MATCHING PRINTER DESK AVAILABLE 



Traditional 



Wire-Wrapping 



JUST WRAP 



NEW 






c 

Wire -Wrapping 



WRITE OR CALL FOR OUR BROCHURE WHICH INCLUDES 
OUR APPLICATION NOTE: BUILDING CHEAP COMPUTERS' 



INTEGRAND 



^11 



8474 Ave. 296 • Visalia, CA 93277 • (209) 733-9288 
We accept BankAmericard/Visa and MasterCharge 



NORTH STAR HORIZON: 1 

HRZ-2-32K-D-Factory ASM $2275 

HRZ-2-32K-Q-Factory ASM $2675 

64K DD or Q Also Available 

HDS-18-F $4449 

Medical-Dental SYS $2500 

HP-85A SPECIAL $2795 

HP-83 2590 

We carry the complete HP line. 

COMMODORE (PET): 

2001-32K-BorN Keyboard $1090 

2001-16K $ 859 

8032 (80 Column Screen) $1599 

2040 Dual Floppy Drive $1090 

8050 Dual Floppy (1 MEG) $1599 

2022 Tractor Printer $ 749 

Word PRO IV $ 290 

VISICALC $ 195 

APPLE II PLUS Call For Price! 

ATARI 800 $ 849 

TI 99/4 Console & Monitor $ 990 

INTERTEC SUPERBRAIN: 

32KRAM $2595 

64KRAM $2695 

PRINTERS 
Letter Quality: 

NEC 5510 or 5530 $2550 

NEC 5520 KSR $2950 

DIABLO 630 $2390 

C ITOH $1690 

Dot Matrix: 

CENTRONICS 730 $ 599 

CENTRONICS 737-1 $ 799 

CENTRONICS 799 $ 999 

EPSON MX-80 $ 599 

PAPER TIGER 460G $1250 

PAPER TIGER 445G $ 820 

DISPLAY TERMINALS 

HAZELTINE 1420 $ 949 

HAZELTINE 1500 $ 999 

INTERTUBE III $ 775 

TELEVIDEO 920C $ 849 

Complete sales and service since 1977. Most items in stock, prices are subject to change. 
Visa and Master Charge Welcome. 

Multi Mon. thru Fri. 9=00 - 8:00 

_ ,-..-. Sat. 9:30- 3 = 00 

Business 



Computer Systems Inc. 



28 Marlborough 
( 203) 342-2747 



St. Portland, CT064 80 
TWX/TELEX 710-428-6345 



»^81 



z 



WHY CUT? 

WHY STRIP? 
WHYNOT . . . 



VA 



WIRE 

WRAPPING 

TOOL 



AWG 30 Wire 
.025' Square Posts 
Daisy Chain or Point To Point 
No Stripping or Slitting Required 
JUST WRAP-.... 
Built In CutOff 
• Easy Loading of Wire 
Available Wire Colors: 
Blue, White, Red & Yellow 
PATENTED U.S.A. 
FOREIGN PATENTS PENDING 



JUST WR AP TO OL WITH ONE 50 FT ROLL OF WIRE 
COLOR PART NO US LIST PRICE 



BLUE JW 1 B $ 14 95 

WHITE JW 1 W 14.95 

YELLOW JW 1 Y 14.95 

RED JW 1 R 14.95 



REPLACEMENT ROLL OF WIRE 50 FT. 



BLUE R JW B $ 2.98 

WHITE R JW W 2.98 

YELLOW R JW Y 2.98 

RED I RJWR 1 2.98 

JUST WRAP-UNWRAPPING TOOL 



1 $ 3.49 



'Minimum billings $25 00, add shipping charge 
$2 00/New York State residents add applicable tax 






OK Machine & Tool " 276 
Corporation 

3455 Conner St., Bronx, NY. 10475 U.S.A. 
Tel (212)994-6600 Telex 125091 



^ Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 31 



INFORMATIKA experiments in low-budget education. 



Teaching Micros in Indonesia 




By Maruto Kolopaking 



The story began in October 1977 
when I read an article in Popular 
Science magazine about computers 
that cost under $600. Since I worked 
with systems that cost tens to hun- 
dreds of thousands of dollars (the 
TIAC 827A2, the PDP 11/40 and the 
IBM 370 model 145), I realized that 
microcomputers would be a giant 
step in computing. They would soon 
produce a revolutionary change in 
both my country and all over the 
world. 

Since most of our people always 
misunderstand the concept of elec- 
tronic data processing (EDP) and are 
scared of computers, I thought, 
"Why don't you give them the cor- 
rect idea and concept of EDP, instead 
of letting them be confused?" I also 
thought that my country would lack 
data processing people in several 
years, both in large- and small-scale 
systems. 

So in December 1978, a friend and I 
started working to establish our foun- 
dation. The Lembaga Pendidikan 
Komputer "INFORMATIKA" (Infor- 
mation Educational Foundation), a 
nonprofit organization, opened in 
March 1979. 

Establishing the Organization 

My city is 265 meters (about 870 
feet) above sea level at the foot of 

Maruto Kolopaking, Informatika Educational 
Foundation, Box 284, Jalah Gunung Gede No. 11, 
Bogor, Indonesia. 

32 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Mount Salak (10,000 feet), and has a 
beautiful panoramic view. The rain- 
fall makes the climate not as hot as in 
other tropical cities. Night tempera- 
tures are around 22 degress Celsius, 
and at noon it is 28 to 30 degrees Cel- 
sius. The population is about 300,000, 
and the city is renowned for the most 
complete botanical garden in the 
world. The Bogor Institute of Agricul- 
ture is the best agricultural university 
in Indonesia. 

We started promoting our organiza- 
tion by putting small display adver- 
tisements and promotional brochures 



in local newspapers. The response 
was good. People came and the first 
class— Introduction to EDP— started 
with 28. Since our classes can accept 
30 people, this number made me 
quite glad. 

Our fees were relatively low by 
U.S. standards— about $16 for three 
two-hour classes a week for four 
weeks. We needed the funds to main- 
tain our organization and for adver- 
tising and, of course, to develop our 
organization. 

The class finished in one month, 
and we started our FORTRAN IV 




Three students discuss a problem in BASIC programming. 



course. We didn't have a computer 
yet, but this didn't discourage us. The 
FORTRAN course was useful since 
many universities in our city work in 
the scientific field. 

Five weeks later we started the 
FORTRAN programming workshop. 
We used one IBM 370/145 in Jakarta 
(68 km from here) and paid $200 per 
hour. This relatively high charge 
scared our students, and some people 
didn't continue the workshop. Of 
course, we had to charge them more, 
because we needed to pay the in- 
structor too, and we did not see any 
alternative. 

The class continued with PL/1, 
COBOL and, of course, FORTRAN 
IV, but after the theory class, stu- 
dents never had access to the com- 
puter because of its higher charge. 

Software Development in 
Courses 

During the courses in program- 
ming languages, we give simple ap- 
plications such as: 

• Calculating the average of several 
numbers 

• Solving some statistical problem 
with data given 

• Solving a simple business problem; 
print formatting of a list of items in a 
small inventory system 

•An education program 

Their response is quite positive. 
They actively participate and try not 
to discuss problems with friends 
when trying to solve them. 

The programming workshop has 
progressed rapidly since we acquired 
a PET and a TRS-80 computer. We 
provide workshops in BASIC, and 




An instructor gives guidance to a student. 



most of the applications are for busi- 
ness. This is because our city is close 
to Jakarta, which is the capital and 
the most crowded city in Indonesia. 
We think the BASIC workshop is 
worthwhile because we can charge 
students less, and because we think it 
is easier for them to program in CO- 
BOL and other languages after they 
have learned BASIC. 

We emphasize programming tech- 
nique—how to sort effectively, how 
to use variables, when to use ma- 
trices and so on. We cover such areas 
as statistics, payroll, personnel, in- 
ventory and graphics. 

Hardware 

Before we had our own micros, we 
emphasized large-system program- 
ming, with a higher course fee. After 
three months, I completed a part- 



WORKSHOP 


BASIC PROGRAMMING 


24 


0KT0BER - 24 


DESEMBER 


1979 


NO. 
URUT 


NAMA 




GRADE 

« 


i 


SUBAGIO 
PALENGKAHU 
SOPOKUWI 
NI LUH AVU 
SAKERAH 




I 


RE ADV. 



The grade calculations of five students in the BASIC programming workshop. 



time software project for a large sys- 
tem and dedicated the money to our 
organization. We bought the stan- 
dard PET 2001 system with 16K and 
the TRS-80 with 16K, both with cas- 
sette. It may surprise you that they 
each cost about $2400. 

After more than a year, we have 
had no trouble— they are quite good 
systems. But one item is still in our 
plans, and it depends on the funds we 
have. We do not have any printer or 
disk yet. Our students just write 
down the results of the program or 
the listing directly from the CRT 
screen. 

Microcomputer Use 

We have learned that most micro- 
computers here are used for small to 
medium businesses. We don't have 
any data on how many microcomput- 
ers there are, but we estimate about 
30-40 units, predominantly Commo- 
dore, Radio Shack and Apple II sys- 
tems. Most of them are in Jakarta, 
and the companies are involved in 
such areas as furniture, manufactur- 
ing (for inventory), textiles (for pay- 
roll and inventory), construction and 
electronics design. 

Since the price of hardware in the 
U.S. is going down, we assume that 
this will affect prices here, and hope 
that in the coming two or three years 
microcomputer use will increase con- 
siderably. 

Conclusion 

After running our organization for 
over two years, we still have some 
problems, particularly in the area of 
funding. We have successfully main- 
tained our computers and organiza- 
tion, but it is difficult to buy more 



Microcomputing, February 1981 33 



The 
Computer 

Broker 

WE BUY 
FOR YOU 
AT COST. 

YOU PAY 

FINDER'S 



The Computer Broker is a 
professional wholesale 
buying service for computer 
users. 

We act as your purchasing 
agents for computers, 
peripherals, supplies and 
furniture. 

You pay the lowest wholesale 
prices because we negotiate 
the best deals from suppliers 
by submitting orders to bid 
daily and purchasing in large 
volume. 

Buy the products you want at 
prices only dealers and 
volume buyers get. 

All items are shipped to you 
directly from the manufacturer 
or distributor and carry the 
full manufacturer's warranty. 

Below is a small sample of 
available products: 

Superbrain • NEC 
Centronics • C.ltoh 
Qume • Hazeltine 
Texas Instruments 
MPI • NEC Ribbons 



The Computer Broker® 

1 750 Skippack Pike 

Building 904 

Blue Bell, Pa. 19422 

(215)272-6655 



hardware when we have only 20 to 
25 students per month. We cannot 
charge them too much, because ours 
is a small city and the income level is 
relatively low. Most of our students 
are in their 20s and get their course 
money from their parents. 



But in spite of our problems, we are 
very optimistic that our organization 
will develop. We are the first and on- 
ly organization in the city that pro- 
vides such courses, and the first in In- 
donesia that owns Commodore and 
TRS-80 computers for education. ■ 



m\ 



We would like to add a printer 
and disk drive to our system, 
mostly for our Commodore, but 
we don't know when this can be 
done. We would appreciate if any 
organization or person who reads 
this article could donate the hard- 
ware and software. Any used 
printer or disk drive would be 
very useful to us, and we would 
try to pay the freight from the U.S. 



We also would like magazines and 
books on microcomputing; they 
cannot be bought here, and are dif- 
ficult and expensive to get. We 
have complimentary subscriptions 
from 80 Microcomputing, Kilobaud 
Microcomputing, Personal Comput- 
ing and Recreational Computing. 

We would also like information 
from any PET or TRS-80 users 
groups. 



OSI 48 PIN BUSS COMPATIBLE 

96 PROTOTYPE BOARD $33 Holds 96 14 or 16 

pin ICs Also accommodates 18,24or40pin ICs 
BP 580 BACKPLANE $43 Assembled 8- slot 

backplane with Molex connectors and resistors 
IOCA6 RS 232 SERIAL PORT $125 

Serial I/O port Dip Switch baud rate selection 
IOCA9 CENTRONICS PARALLEL PORT $175 

Parallel printer interface with 10 ft flat cable 
I0-CA6 9 COMBINATION $215 
10-1515 MULTI TERMINAL I/O $310 

4 RS 232 I/O Ports, Dip Switch baud rate selection 

4K Block of 2MHz memory at D000 Ideal for use 
in multi terminal time shared system 
CPU 1505 6502 MICROPROCESSOR $320 

6502 CPU board with floppy disk controller. 
RS 232 serial terminal port & real time clock 
Ideal for experimenters or use in OEM time shared 
systems Compatible with OSI software 
MEM-CM9 24K MEMORY $435 2MHz static 
low power Dip switch address (8K &16K blocks) and 
memory partition selection 1.6 Amp. at +5 V DC 
MEMCM9F $595 As above but adds floppy 
disk controller and real time clock 5 or 8 in. 
drives Ideal for OSI C4 or C8 upgrades 
MEM-KIT 24K $325 Bare card. 48 2114 300ns 
low power chips & connectors You supply 7400 
series logic chips 
MEM 48 48K STATIC 2MHi. $1149 

48K ultra low power 2MHz static memory Design- 
ed for use with 6502 CPU DIP SWITCH memory 
partition address Power ONLY 3/4 Amp at +5 V DC 

*"293 

B&N MICRO PRODUCTS, inc. I 

3932 OAKHURST DR. FORT WAYNE, IND. 46815 

(219) 485 6414 
TERMS Check or money order Add $2 shipping and 
handling Indiana residents add 4% sales tax 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



— Professional — 

Real Estate Software 

For Apple or TRS-80 

Property Management System 



(32K, 1 Disk Systems) 



Features: 



Tenant Information 
Lata Rant Reports 
YTD & Monthly Income 
Handles - 
Partial Payments 
Returned Checks 
Advance Payments 
Prints Receipts 

Price 



• 5 Digit Expense Accounts 

• Building Expense Report 

• Vendor Expense Report 

• Income Tax Report 

• All Reports Can Be Printed 

• Complete Documentation 

• Easy Data Entry & Edit 

• 200 Units per File 

$225.00 



Real Estate Analysis Modules: 

(Cassette or Disk) 




1) Home Purchase Analysis 

2) Tax Deferred Exchange 

3) Construction Cost/Protit 

4) Income Property Cashflow 

5) APR Loan Analysis 

6) Property Sales Analysis 

7) Loan Amortization 



$35 Per Module 



oftware 



At Computer Stores Everywhere 

Or Order COD Direct 

(Cel Residents Add 6% Seles Ten 

(213) 372 9419 



HIGH SPEED 
16K MEMORY 

$38.00 

Set of 8 4116 RAM chips, for 
use in Apple, Heath, Pet or 
TRS-80. Add $3.00 for shipping 
& handling (CA residents add 
6% sales tax). 

Visa, Mastercharge orders 
800-538-8559 (outside CA). 

exatron •*» 

181 Commercial Street 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 

408-737-7111 




TRS 80 is a registered trademark ol TANDY CORP 

SYSTEM 
EXPANSION 

FOR THE 

TRS-80* 

A/-A 95 f PC BOARD & 
90-7 L USER MANUAL J 



• J l J . | 



"v^nl sy,1CM 

•;• v'.T u swanskin 
l::i:.tr 

^jr fliiiSii 



SERIAL RS232C 20mA I O 
FLOPPY CONTROLLER 
32K BYTES MEMORY 
PARALLEL PRINTER PORT 
DUAL CASSETTE PORT 
REAL TIME CLOCK 
SCREEN PRINTER BUS 
ONBOARD POWER SUPPLY 
SOFTWARE COMPATIBLE 
SOLDER MASK, SILK SCREEN 



1^198 



LNW 
RESEARCH 

714-641-8850 

TO ORDER 



Dept K 



tighth St Manhattan Beach. CA 90266 



PO Bo« 16216 Irvine C A 92713 
Add S3 for postage and handling 
CA residents odd 6\ sales tax 
Master Charge & VISA orders now accepted 



34 Microcomputing, February 1981 



AD & DA CONVERTER 



Z80 MICROCOMPUTER 



6522 APPLE II INTERFACE 




JBE A-D & DA Converter can be used 
with any system having parallel ports 

• Interfaces with JBE Parallel I/O Card 

• D-A conversion time — 5 Lis • A-D 
conversion time — 20 lis • Uses JBE 
5V power supply • Parallel inputs & 
outputs include 8 data bits, strobe 
lines & latches • Analog inputs & out- 
puts are medium impedance to 5 volt 
range. Jk 



79-287 

Bare Board $29.95 



ASSM. $79.95 
I Kit $59.95 



6502 MICROCOMPUTER 




This control computer has: • 1024 
bytes RAM (two 2114s) • 2048 bytes 
EPROM (2716) • Uses one 6522 VIA 
(comp. doc. incl.) • Interfaces with JBE 
Solid State Switches & A-D & D-A Con- 
verter • Uses JBE 5V power supply 
• 2716 EPROM available separately 
(2716 can be programmed with an 
Apple II & JBE EPROM Programmer & 
Parallel Interface) • 50 pin connector 
included in kit & assm. 



80-153 

Bare Board $24.95 



ASSM. $110.95 
Kit $ 89.95 



SOLID STATE SWITCH 




Your computer can control power to 
your printer, lights, stereo & any 
120VAC appliances up to 720 watts (6 
amps at 120VAC). Input 3 to 15VDC 
• 2-14MA TTL compatible • Isolation 
— 1500V • Non zero crossing • Comes 
in 1 or 4 channel version • Includes 
doc. for interfacing with Dimmer Con- 
trol. 



79-282-1 

Bare Board $6.95 

79-282-4 

Bare Board $24.95 



ASSM. $13.95 
Kit $10.95 

ASSM. $49.95 
Kit $39.95 



APPLE II DISPLAY BOARD 





JBE is announcing a single board 
dedicated computer designed for con- 
trol functions. It features: • A Z80 
Microprocessor software compatible 
with the Z80, 8080 & 8085 
Microprocessors • Uses a Z80 PIO chip 
for I/O which has 2 independent 8 bit 
bidirectional peripheral interface ports 
with handshake & data transfer control 
• Uses one 2716 EPROM (2K) & two 21 1 4 
RAM memories (1K) • Single 5V power 
supply at 300MA req. • Clock frequency 
is 2MHz, RC controlled • Board comes 
with complete doc. • 50 pin connector is 
included »2716 EPROM available 
separately. ■&&&* % 

80-280 ASSM. $129.95 

Bare Board $29.95 Kit $119.95 



DIMMER CONTROL 



III1WM 




JBE Dimmer Control features: • 4 
channels • 256 brightness levels • On- 
board power supply • Four 8 bit 
parallel input ports • Interfaces with 
JBE Solid State Switch & Apple II 
Parallel Interface. 



80-146 

Bare Board $25.95 



ASSM. $89.95 
Kit $79.95 



POWER SUPPLIES 



• Use wall transformers for safety 

• Protected against short circuit and 
thermal breakdown. 

5 VOLT POWER SUPPLY 
Rated at 5V 500MA • Operates JBE A-D 
& D-A Converter, Z80 & 6502 Microcom- 
puters, 8085 & 8088 Microcomputers. 

80-160 ASSM. $20.95 

Bare Board $8.95 Kit $16.95 

± 12 VOLT POWER SUPPLY 

Rated at ± 12V 120MA • Can be used as 
a single 24V power supply • Ideally 
suited to OP-AMP experiments. 

80-161 ASSM. $22.95 

Bare Board $8.95 Kit $18.95 



80-144 

Bare Board $25.95 



ASSM. $49.95 
Kit $42.95 



• Has run-stop, single 
step switch • Has 16 
address LEDs, 8 data 
LEDs & 1 RDY LED 

• All lines are buf- 
fered. 



ICS 



6502 
6522 
Z80 

Z80 PIO 
2716 5V 



$9.95 
$9.95 
$9.95 
$9.95 
$19.95 




• Interfaces printers, synthesizers, 
keyboards, JBE A-D & D-A Converter & 
Solid State Switches • Has handshak- 
ing logic, two 6522 VIAs & a 74LS74 for 
timing. Inputs & outputs are TTL com- 
patible. 

79-295 ASSM. $69.95 

Bare Board $22.95 Kit $59.95 



2716 EPROM PROGRAMMER 




JBE 2716 EPROM Pro- 
grammer was designed 
to program 5V 2716 
EPROMS • it can also 
read 2716s. It Interfaces 
to the Apple II using 
JBE Parallel I/O Card & 
four ribbon cable con- 
nectors • An LED indicates when 
power is being applied to the EPROM 
• A textool zero insertion force socket 
is used for the EPROM • Comes with 
complete doc. for writing and reading 
in the Apple II or Apple II + • Cables 
available separately. 



80-244 

Bare Board $24.95 



ASSM. $49.95 
Kit $39.95 



BARE BOARDS 



APPLE II EXTENDER BOARD 

3 1 /2" x 2V2". Price includes 50 pin 
Apple Connector. 

80-143 $12.95 

8085 3 CHIP SYSTEM 

State-of-the-art system using an 8085, 
8156 & either an 8355 or 8755 

• Instruction set 100% upward com- 
patible with 8080A. 

Bare Board $24.95 

8088 5 CHIP SYSTEM 

An 8086 family microcomputer system 
using an 8088 CPU, 8284, 8155, 8755A 
& an 8185. 
Bare Board $29.95 

CRT CONTROLLER 

This intelligent CRT Controller is 
based on an 8085A Microprocessor & 
an 8275 Integrated CRT Controller. It 
features: • 25 lines, 80 characters/line 

• 5x7 dot matrix • Upper case only 

• Two 2716s • Serial Interface RS232 
& TTL • Baud rates of 110, 150, 300, 
600, 1200, 2400, 4800 & 9600 

• Keyboard scanning system • Req's. 
unencoded keyboard • Uses + 5V & 
± 12V power supplies. 

Bare Board $39.95 



50 pin connector 
STD. Dip Jumpers 
16 Pin, 2 ft. 



$5.95 
$4.25 




John Bell Engineering 



ALL PRODUCTS ARE AVAILABLE FROM JOHN BELL ENGINEERING • P.O. BOX 338 
DEPT. 4 • REDWOOD CITY, CA • ADD 6% SALES TAX IN CALIFORNIA • ADD 5% SHIPPING & HANDLING 



i^99 



(415)367-1137 



t* Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 35 



MODEL II 




$ DISCOUNT $ 

TRS-80®... 



MODEL III 



26-4002 
64K 1 Drive 
$3440.00 



26-4160 1 Drive EXP 
26-4161 2 Drive EXP 
26-4162 3 Drive EXP 
26-4501 Gen. Ledger 
26-4502 Inventory . . 

26-4503 Payroll 

26-4554 Acct. Rec. . 

26-4701 Fortran. . . . 

26-1 157 A Daisy Wheel . 2495.00 

26-1158 Daisy Wheel II 1799.00 



$1035.00 
. 1575.00 
. 2115.00 
. . 180.00 
. . 180.00 
. . 360.00 
. . 180.00 
. . 270.00 



COMPUTER SPECIALISTS 

26-1 1 55 Quick Printer II $1 87.00 

26-1145 RS-232 Board . .84.00 

26-1 140 "O" K Interface 249.00 

26-1141 "16" K Interface 359.00 

26 1 142 "32" K Interface 469. 0C 

26-1 160 Mini Disk - Drive 419.00 

26 1 161 Mini Disk - Additional 419.00 

26-1154 Lineprinter II 699.00 

26 1 156 Lineprinter III 1799.00 

26 1 159 Lineprinter IV 859.00 

26-1 166 Line Printer VI 1080.00 

26-1563 Scripsit - Disk 79.00 

26-1566 Visicalc 83.00 

26-1562 Profile 72.00 



NOTE: Call for availability of VIDEO TEX, Model III, Color, 
and other new products. 




26-1061 4KI $630.00 

26-1062 16K III 888.00 

26-1063 32K III 

2-Drives, RS232 2225.00 

COLOR 



**= .-.' -j. ccJe.'e.-MW ^■a**e»t>goicWBM» ^o>»aa a. w r y ^-ynr.-.- 






ALL OTHER R.S. SOFTWARE 

FURNITURE, STANDS, CABLES 

AND ACCESSORIES AT 

DISCOUNT FROM 

CATALOG PRICE. 



mmt»mmmmmmmmmmmmmmm\\\\\\\\\\\\u\ i n nun i 

26-3001 4K $360.00 

26-3002 16K 540.00 

26-3010 Color Video 360.00 

26-1206 Recorder 54.00 

26-3008 Joysticks 22.50 



cEnTRonics 

Fast 100 CPS Centronics 

730 Printer $659.00 

Text Quality Centronics 

737 Printer $819.00 



Novation Cat Modem. .$149.00 
CCA Data Management 

System 72.00 

Adventure Games 

Games 1-9 each 14.00 




Acorn 

Software 
Products, Inc. 



Pocket Computer 



Model II Cobol Compiler 

$360.00 
Cobol Run Time Package 

$36.00 



I 



m^mmmmmmmmmmm 





gOOOOO 

laoaaa 

cdcsjg* &) ism&ts m a m n a a 

m rri n-} m ryi ryi tyrt prs r^ Q Tz 2TIZ, 



26-3501 1 9K P.C $225.00 

26-3503 Cassette l/F 45.00 

14-812 Recorder 72.00 



GAMES: 

Alien Invasion $9.00 

Stock Market 9.00 

Star Trek 9.00 

Block Em 9.00 

Ting-Tong 9.00 

UTILITIES: 

System Savers 14.00 

EDUCATION: 

Language Teacher 18.00 

FREE: COMPUTER CATALOG 
UPON REQUEST 



1-800-841-0860 Toll Free Order Entry 

MiCRQ MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, JNCr 



No Taxes on Out Of DOWNTOWN PLAZA SHOPPING CENTER 
State Shipments 115 C SECOND AVE. S.W. 

— CAIRO, GEORGIA31728 

Immediate Shipment (912) 377.7^0 Ga. Phone No. 

From Stock on Most Items 

•TRS 80 It a registered trademark of the Tandy Corp. 



R.S. 90 Day Limited Warranty 
F-48 Form Provided 

Largest Inventory 
In the S.E. U.S.A. 



36 Microcomputing, February 1981 





Tiny firm one of country's first. 




Aurelec: Making Micros 

In India 




By V. Kaliaperumal 



After cycling a few miles north of 
Pondicherry, a small town in 
southern India, my friend and I 
turned onto a sandy road. For a while 
we had to keep getting down from 
our bicycles— sometimes because the 
sand was too soft; other times be- 
cause of lumbering bullock carts or 
village women carrying immense 
bundles of hay on their heads. Then 
we came to a small but stiff slope. All 
this made my friend a little breath- 
less, so we slowed down. 

As we were passing under big 
shady trees, looking at the green pea- 
nut fields all around with villagers 
working in them, my friend spotted a 
low building. He asked me, "What is 
that?" 

"That's a computer company." 

Still short of breath, my friend was 
hardly amused. 

"Murti, there is a time for every- 
thing. I'm in no mood for your silly 
jokes!" 

"Okay, let's go in and find out." 

<^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

True, it is an unlikely location for 
such a company. But then, Aurelec is 
a unique company in many ways. 




■4*i 



*.<%»* v- '• 



Front view of Aurelec. 



It was started in late 1973 by Kalya, 
a science student who had just gradu- 
ated from Sri Aurobindo Internation- 
al Centre of Education (SAICE), and 
Andre Viozat. Their first products? 
Electronic metronomes and toy or- 
gans—a far cry from the data entry 
stations and microcomputer develop- 
ment systems of today! 

Their next product was an electron- 



ic machine, the first of its kind in In- 
dia to measure surface areas of hides 
and other skins. India exports a lot of 
hides, whose irregular shapes make 
the measurement of area difficult. So 
this machine, which could display 
the areas in metric standards or in 

V. Kaliaperumal, 112, Mutthu Mariammane Koil 
St., Pondicherry 605001, India. 

Microcomputing, February 1981 37 



square feet, was received with great 
enthusiasm in the market. It won the 
first prize for the Best Indian Ma- 
chine at the Indian Leather Fair of 
1976 in Madras. 

Soon after, they were joined by Ulli 
Blass, who was working with 
Deutsche Telefonwerke. He had 
studied electrical engineering at 
Aachen University in West Germany 
and had worked with microproces- 
sors. He added a microprocessor unit 
to the area-measuring machine and 
interfaced a printer. This enabled the 
machine to print out the area of each 
skin, and the area of each batch as 
well as the cumulative total. A stamp- 
ing machine was made available to 
print the surface area of each skin. 



computer in 1971, capturing a big 
portion of the market in the 1970s. 
But apart from ECIL there were no 
Indian companies worth noting. It 
was American computers all the way. 

Interestingly, most of the IBM com- 
puters were from their 1400 and 1600 
series. And even now, numerous 
IBM 1400s are in operation, repre- 
senting probably the world's largest 
collection of obsolete computers on 
active duty. 

(IBM has wound up its operations 
in India; it did not agree to regula- 
tions requiring it to dilute its equity 
holdings in its Indian subsidiary to 
less than 50 percent.) 

Only in the last three years has the 
Indian government encouraged pri- 




The KTF-80 Data Entry Station. 



In a short period the company sold 
about 80 units. But with Ulli on the 
staff, and with Kalya having worked 
at the Computer Centre of SAICE, the 
company started developing micro- 
processor-based products. 

Micros in India — an Overview 

Let us leave Aurelec for a moment 
and look at the Indian computer 
scene. 

Until the last few years, the Indian 
computer market had been dominat- 
ed by American computers. Even as 
recently as mid- 1978, about 75 per- 
cent of the 450 computers installed in 
India were from U.S. companies. 
IBM led with 154 computers, fol- 
lowed by ECIL (Electronics Corpora- 
tion of India) with 99 and DEC with 
59. 

ECIL, the first Indian computer- 
manufacturing company, is govern- 
ment-owned. It made its first mini- 



vate companies to some extent. Big In- 
dian companies such as Delhi Cloth 
Mills (DCM) of the Shri Ram group, 
whose assets are worth 274 million 
dollars (assuming a U.S. dollar equals 
7.50 Indian rupees), and the Tata 
group, with assets worth $1.47 bil- 
lion, have started their own comput- 
er divisions. Other companies such 
as the Hindustan Computers Limited 
(HCL) have been formed in joint part- 
nership with local state governments. 
But apart from ICIML— a former sub- 
sidiary of International Computers 
Limited— which has been allowed to 
manufacture a hundred ICL 2904s, 
the rest of the companies are making 
either microcomputers or minicom- 
puters. DCM uses the 8080 in their 
Spectrum Series; HCL uses a Rock- 
well PPS eight-bit processor. Other 
popular microprocessors include the 
Z-80, IMP- 16 and 8085. So India will 
still be importing computers when- 



ever bigger systems are required. 

In the past, not many private com- 
panies could afford to have their own 
computer systems; few Indian com- 
puters were available and there were 
severe restrictions and stiff duties on 
imported systems. Nearly 50 percent 
of the systems were owned by the 
government, and another 25 percent 
by educational and research insti- 
tutes. 

But now with private companies 
themselves making systems at more 
competitive rates than ECIL, there 
has been a boom in the use of com- 
puters. In fact, in the last two or three 
years both DCM and HCL, com- 
panies employing hundreds of peo- 
ple, have sold more than 50 systems. 
Of all the new companies, DCM is 
the clear leader, with its popular 
Spectrum and Galaxy series. 

Back to Aurelec 

Let us come back to Aurelec. It is 
tiny compared to the other com- 
panies. The small $80,000 firm, em- 
ploying 13 people, is housed in a five- 
room building with 1300 square feet. 
All the rooms have big glass windows 
which overlook the fields, and have a 
view of the blue ocean on the eastern 
side. 

At the entrance is the office, where 
the typists work. This opens into the 
library, which is also used by the pro- 
grammers. Next is the workshop 
where the boards are wired and the 
systems assembled. 

Then we enter the computer labo- 
ratory. It has two microcomputer sys- 
tems. One of them is mainly used by 
the programmers, while the other 
one is used to check the boards or 
new designs. Kalya, Ulli and Nini 
Palande work iri the last room. Nini 
designs I/O interfaces and makes the 
printed-circuit board layouts. She 
worked for nearly six years at the 
Computer Center of SAICE before 
joining Aurelec. 

As everywhere, small computer 
companies have to work and think 
hard to survive. But as Kalya notes, 
"It is especially difficult in India. 
Each manufacturer has his own bus 
standards. No company divulges any 
details on its hardware or its interfac- 
ing specifications. Sometimes they do 
not even disclose the microprocessor 
used. 

"For example, one company would 
try to hide its 8080 saying that their 
system used the latest NMOS eight- 



38 Microcomputing, February 1981 



bit processor with 78 instructions. All 
this precludes the possibility of a 
manufacturer designing a single 
memory board or I/O interface and 
selling it. 

"If the big manufacturers had 
adopted a standard bus like the S-100, 
it would have opened up the market. 
There would have been room for the 
smart entrepreneur who could make 
a product with a small investment. It 
would have helped the end user also. 
He could buy a minimal system, then 
add on boards at a lesser cost as his 
needs grew. He would have had the 
opportunity of building up a flexible 
and more affordable computer sys- 
tem. 

"As there is no market for separate 



with eight or 12 connectors. The CPU 
board's description might sound like 
a Cromemco card or like so many 
other boards. It has a 4 MHz Z-80A, 
IK RAM, capacity for 8K ROM, 24 
parallel I/O lines for a keyboard and a 
line printer, an RS-232C or a 20 mA 
current loop serial interface, vec- 
tored interrupts, a four-channel pro- 
grammable counter timer, buffered 
outputs and an on-board memory 
management system expanding ad- 
dress space to 16 megabytes. 

The memory board has 16K of stat- 
ic RAM operating at 450 ns, or op- 
tionally at 250 ns. It uses TMS 4044 
chips. Software and hardware write- 
protects and bank-selects are stan- 
dard. Memory blocks of 4K bytes are 



ed making chips— mostly the usual 
TTL and CMOS chips— and some 
voltage regulators, op amps, audio 
amps and so on. But these local prod- 
ucts are as costly as, if not more ex- 
pensive than, the imported chips. It 
will take some time before India 
makes its own microcomputer com- 
ponents. 

Aurelec also makes video termi- 
nals. The keyboard has 85 keys. Fif- 
teen of these are for cursor and 
screen control, and 13 others are us- 
er-programmable. The video control- 
ler board displays 64 characters by 16 
lines on a 12-inch imported video 
monitor. This terminal sells for 
$2300. Again, this is the only com- 
pany willing to sell their CPU, mem- 



In India there are only around 1000 computers and microcomputers, 

whereas Radio Shack alone has sold 
over 250,000 TRS-80s in the last four years. 



add-on boards, even the small com- 
panies have to develop entire sys- 
tems. This requires a big investment, 
and also entails bigger risks. Design- 
ing a complete system takes a long 
time, and if the system does not sell 
fast the firm has to close down very 
soon." 

Aurelec studied the market careful- 
ly before designing their two systems 
—the Aurelec Microcomputer Devel- 
opment Systems (Aurelec MDS) and 
the Aurelec Key to Floppy Data Entry 
Station (Aurelec KTF-80). Both sys- 
tems are built on the newly estab- 
lished IEEE standard for the S-100 
bus. As such they are probably the 
only Indian systems using it at pres- 
ent. 

The MDS is for companies who 
market it as their own or as a part of 
their product. Aurelec gives them the 
entire hardware documentation and 
also trains their staff. This allows the 
small company to free itself from 
having to keep many maintenance 
personnel. It is the only company 
which gives hardware manuals. The 
rest of the companies maintain the 
systems they sell and annually charge 
around 10 percent of the system cost. 

The System 

The basic system looks like North 
Star's Horizon. It has a motherboard 



individually deselectable. There can 
be zero, one or two wait states. RAM 
and ROM can be overlayed by using 
the Phantom line. The memory is ex- 
pandable in increments of 4K. A 16K 
byte-250 ns board costs $ 1800. A 64K 
memory board using 16K bits dy- 
namic RAM is scheduled to be made 
available. This same board will be- 
come a 256K board when the 64K bit 
chips are available. 

The floppy-disk controller board 
uses the WD1771 chip, which can 
control four single-density, single- or 
double-sided Shugart drives. The 
board also has an 8255 with drivers to 
enable an additional keyboard and a 
second line printer to be added. The 
basic system is completed by a single- 
sided, single-density Shugart 800 
floppy-disk drive and a power sup- 
ply. The back panel has all the con- 
nectors to directly interface a key- 
board, a line printer and additional 
floppy-disk drives. 

All this for nearly $10,400— exorbi- 
tant by U.S. standards. But you must 
not forget that in India one has to pay 
heavy duties. Most of the chips have 
to be imported. A Z-80A, which can 
be bought in the U.S. for $11, costs 
around $50 in India. Even the lowly 
7400 costs 55 cents. ICs cost three to 
five times the U.S. price. 

A few Indian companies have start- 



ory, floppy disk or video controller 
boards separately. 

I asked Ulli about the company's 
software. He explained, 'We cannot 
afford to have scores of programmers 
like DCM or ECIL have. And we do 
not feel the need either. There is so 
much software available in the U.S. 
at a very reasonable rate. Why rein- 
vent the wheel? 

'For example, our system can be 
easily configured to use the CP/M 
DOS, which sells for $150. This has 
become the de facto standard, with 
over 100,000 users. The end user can 
get it from the U.S. We will give them 
the small input/output routines re- 
quired to interface it with our system. 

'Everybody profits this way. The 
user gets a good and reliable DOS at a 
much lower rate than we could offer 
if we wrote a similar DOS on our 
own. He gets access to the numerous 
programs which use CP/M. He also 
has the possibility of exporting soft- 
ware. (As early as 1978, Indian soft- 
ware companies exported $5 million 
worth of software.) We benefit also 
because we do not try to keep a big 
programming staff. However, our 
OEM buyers would be writing their 
own systems software. 

"Similarly we can recommend the 



Microcomputing, February 1981 39 



SUPERIOR PAPER 
TAPE READER 




8-channel encoding, 100 characters/sec; TTL outputs 
and handshake. Uses standard 1 " tape. 1 1 5 VAC 60 Hz 

input. 20 1 / 2 x10x16 1 /4". 60 lbs. sh. wt. Used: $135. 

KSR-33 TELETYPEWRITER and KEYBOARD 

Special 66 wpm. 600 operations/sec Utilizes ASCI I 
code with parity bit, 8'/?" sprocket-ted paper. 115 VAC 
60 Hz. Used, operational, but may require adjustments. 

Less cover ~T$2D0.^ $185. 

IC's — guaranteed no rejects; qty. limited: 

P8085 CPU, $12.95 2114 RAM 450 ns, 4/$17. 
821 2 8-bit I/O, $1 .90 8205 decoder, $2.20 

3341 FIFO $4.50 ea. or 4/$15. 

MC14411 baud-generator $7.95 

COPPERCLAD PCB, single-side; phenolic backed: 
4x18" - $.75 10x17" - $1.75 

15x22" - $3.50 16x32" - $5.25 

16x18" - $3.00 17x20" (drilled) - $3.00 

FIBERGLASS COPPERCLAD, single side 

6x13" - $1.00 4'/2x24" - $1.25 

Buy 5 or more ot one kind, take 20% ott. 

Send for FREE CATALOG! • Minimum Order $5.00 

Address Dept. K • VISA. MASTERCARD Accepted. 

Prices FOB. Lima, 0. • Orders over 50 lbs. tgt. coll. 
Electronic Surplus Since 1947 Phone 419/227-6573 



1016 E EUREKA • Bo. 1105 • LIMA, OHIO 



^169 
45802 



' 1 





When you buy your 
TRS 80™ equipment! 

§§ Ise our (oil free number lo 
*$ check our price before you buy )& 
a TRS-80™ . . . anywhere! 

TRS40 '% a t'Mamark o< ii« Radio S»*ck D>v<»0" o< Tandy Co(po>at>on 

fall Radk>5hac k warranty 






SALES COMPANY 

1412 WEST FAIRFIELD DR. 
P O BOX 8098 PENSACOLA FL 32606 
904/438-6607 
nationwide 1 800 874 1551 




VN 



well-accepted assemblers, interpret- 
ers and compilers from the U.S. after 
having tested them extensively," he 
continued. 'We can help the user if 
he runs into any difficulty. So our sys- 
tem can run not only BASIC, which is 
provided by all Indian manufacturers 
(of course, all these BASICs are quite 
different from each other), but also 
Pascal, FORTRAN and COBOL. Lan- 
guages like FORTRAN and COBOL, 
which is the most commonly used 
language, enable the customers to re- 
use their old programs also." 

It is not the same with application 
programs. Indian conditions are very 
different. It would take a lot of work 
to modify imported programs. So 
these programs are written at Aurelec. 
They have two full-time application 
programmers. The most used pro- 
grams are the payroll, inventory and 
accounting packages. Business 
houses in India do not require word 
processors, since the labor is cheap. A 
typist would be very happy to earn 
$50 a month. 

Almost all the computer companies 
write their own application software. 
There are very few software com- 
panies. All manufacturers have dif- 
ferent language standards, and since 
the number of systems sold is small, 
it will take some time before more 
software houses come up. 

The KTF-80 

Aurelec' s other product is geared to 
the printing companies. In recent 
years, these companies have import- 
ed a lot of phototypesetters from 
companies like Linotype Paul, Mono- 
type and Compugraphic. Not only 
are these used for local work but also 
for a lot of foreign companies, who 
get their typesetting work done in In- 
dia at lower rates. 

These machines are essentially 
word processors, whose output is in 
the form of negatives for offset print- 
ing. Most of the time, the phototype- 
setter is used to type and edit the text. 
Only in the final stage is the part of 
the machine that makes the negatives 
used. A Linoterm photosetter with a 
floppy disk option made by Linotype 
Paul costs around $35,000 in India. 
Yet most of the time it is used as a 
$35,000 word processor, which is 
surely very expensive! 

So why not have an additional and 
less costly word processor which can 
prepare the text and store it on a flop- 
py disk? This disk can then be placed 
in the photosetter' s floppy drive. The 
text is read and justified quickly and 



the negatives are made. 

This is where the Aurelec KTF-80 
Key to Floppy Data Entry Station fits 
in. It is similar to the basic MDS sys- 
tem, but also has the video terminal. 
The master floppy disk contains a 
simple DOS, which gets loaded on 
system initialization. Next, the text 
editor is loaded. Then the user types 
his text and corrects it. When the text 
is finally put on the hard-sectored 
floppy disk, the DOS takes care that 
the text is stored in a format compati- 
ble with the Linoterm photosetter. 

Its cost is less than $8600. So if a 
typesetter uses a Linoterm photoset- 
ter and also a KTF-80, he gets the 
equivalent of two photosetters for on- 
ly $43,600. To keep the Linoterm 
photosetter busy 100 percent of the 
time, three KTF-80 stations are re- 
quired. And for faster Linoterm mod- 
els, six KTF-80s give the maximum 
use. Aurelec is also writing the soft- 
ware to enable this system to be used 
with the phototypesetters of other 
companies. 

Many Indian companies have not 
bought printers along with their pho- 
totypesetters, because they are ex- 
pensive options. So they use expen- 
sive phototypesetting paper to get a 
hard copy of the text, which has to be 
sent to the author or others to get the 
final approval. The KTF-80 has a 
built-in printer interface, so proofs 
can be easily obtained by using any 
printer on ordinary cheaper paper. 
This results in a big economy also! 

This product was announced in Ju- 
ly 1980 and within a month three sta- 
tions were sold. Kalya is confident 
that their entire production, four sys- 
tems per month, can easily be sold. 
Four systems per month would defi- 
nitely not satisfy an American com- 
pany. But one must remember that in 
India there are only around 1000 
computers and microcomputers, 
whereas Radio Shack alone has sold 
over 250,000 TRS-80s in the last four 
years. 

Developing the Industry 

A thousand computers in a country 
of 650 million people! A single com- 
puter per 650,000 persons! This indi- 
cates not only an immense potential 
market, but also a tremendous need 
for developing this industry. The gov- 
ernment has to take the lead, remove 
all obstacles and encourage the com- 
puter industry. 

At present, a manufacturer has to 
pay heavier duties on imported com- 
ponents than a user who imports an 



40 Microcomputing, February 1981 



entire system. Hardly encouraging! 

The manufacturer is usually given 
permission to make only about 50 to 
100 systems per year. This small pro- 
duction naturally increases the sys- 
tem's cost. The government could al- 
low the companies to make an unlim- 
ited number or at least a much bigger 
number of systems. I'm sure that no 
U.S. company needs to get any ap- 
proval from the government on the 
number of systems it can make dur- 
ing the year! 

An employer has to get the approv- 
al of his employees or their unions 
prior to acquiring a computer system. 
The reason? The computer might re- 
place the employees or force them to 
take up other functions in the same 
company. Yet the same employer can 
install a lot of automatic tools which 
also could reduce or force reorganiza- 
tion of the labor. The government 
could remove all these anomalies. 

The private sector must also coop- 
erate within itself. If this industry is 
to develop rapidly, we cannot afford 
to have 50 different companies, each 
with its own software and hardware 
standards. They must come together 
and decide on common standards. 
This would encourage the small-scale 
manufacturers. It would increase 
healthy competition and lower 
prices, which would encourage more 
companies to buy these systems. 
This, in turn, would help the comput- 
er industry grow. 

The common man must be shown 
the benefits of computers. At present 
he looks at computers as machines 
that will take away his job. His fears 
and apprehensions must be removed. 

True, the task is difficult. But so 
was the work of educating the Indian 
farmer and teaching him to use mod- 
ern technology, the benefits of which 
are now evident. Just a few years ago, 
the country was importing millions 
of tons of wheat. The green revolu- 
tion has made India self-sufficient. 

We will have to wait to find out 
what the future portends, but hope- 
fully hundreds of Aurelecs will 
spring up all over the country. 

^p ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

When we left Aurelec, all my 
friend's annoyance had disappeared. 
Looking again at the long sandy 
stretch on which we would have 
to cycle back, and remembering the 
cool air-conditioned computer lab 
at Aurelec and the cold lime drink 
that we'd enjoyed, he said, "Hey, 
Murti! Sometimes I like your silly 
jokes!" ■ 



Data Terminals Fast 

...from MICROMAIL 




DIABLO 



630 



The Diablo Model 630 is a reliable, high quality, full- 
character serial printer for anyone who is seeking superior 
print quality at a low cost. This is the first Diablo printer to 
offer complete interchangeability between metal and 
plastic print wheels. And the sophisticated and discerning 
user does not sacrifice print quality to obtain this versatility. 
Every aspect of the Diablo 630 design has been focused on 
maintaining outstanding print quality. Terminals also 
have self-test extensive internal diagnostics and 
automatic bidirectional printing. 

$1,999.00 

Adjustable Forms Tractor — $200.00 



ANAOEX 



DP-9500/9501 



The Anadex Models DP-9500 and DP-9501 Alphanumeric 
line Printers are designed for all printer applications, 
including those requiring high density graphics. Standard 
features include three standard interlaces (RS 232C, Cen- 
tronics Parallel, and Current Loop), software selectable 
print sizes including compressed and expanded print, 
heavy-duty nine-wire printhead (permits true underlining 
and descending lower case letters), and fast bi-directional 
printing. The model 9501 offers slightly higher graphics 
resolution and a slightly slower print speed than the model 
9500 

$1,399.00 




PRINTERS 



C.R.T.'s 



ANADEX 



TeleVldeo 



DEC 



DP9000 
T.I. 



$1299 



810/2 
DIABLO 



$1599 



912C 

920C 

950 

SOROC 



$ 

$ 795 

$ 995 



LA 34 
LA34AA 

DIABLO 



$ 969 

$1099 



1640RO 
1650RO 



$2675 



IQ.120 
IQ.140 
IQ.135 



$ 689 
$1099 
$ 895 



1640KSR 
1650KSR 



$2830 

$2940 




43 



Quiet, compact and lightweight, this 30 character-per- 
second matrix teleprinter belongs wherever reliable 
performance and quality print-out are required— in the 
office, factory, classroom, or laboratory. Print quality is 
exceptionally crisp and easy to read What makes the 
model 43 so outstanding is its total economy— it costs less to 
own because of reliable low-cost LSI (Large Scale Integra- 
tion) circuitry used to carry out functions rather than more 
expensive, less reliable mechanical hardware. Buy now at 
this special price and beat the announced Teletype price 
increase. 



Price good through March 31, 1981 



$989.00 



MJCRQIYIflJIr., 



MICROMAIL 



3297 



SANTA 
-4338 



92703 



To Order: Send check to MICROMAIL, P.O Box 3297, Santa Ana, CA 92703. Personal or company checks 
require two weeks to clear. Visa/MasterCard accepted. COD. requires a 15% deposit Handling: Add 3% to 
orders less than $750. 2% to orders $751 • $2,000. 1% to orders over S2.000. NOTE: Handling charges are 
waived on orders pre-paid in advance by check. Shipping: We ship FREIGHT COLLECT via UPS or Motor 
Freight Air and Express delivery is available. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 41 



ORDER ENTRY/ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEMS 



CO 

LU 



O 



o 



< 
o 



Q. 

Q- 

< 





Fyrnetics President, Larry Larsen, and 
Controller, Dennis Turek, considering some 
of the features of their new security system. 

generated such a high volume of sales 
orders and invoices that it became 
necessary to install a computer system in 
1977 in order to handle the multi-million 
dollar annual sales volume. 
"Fyrnetics initially installed a Wang 2200 
computer system, equipped with seven CRT 
terminals, four 10 megabyte hard disk 
drives, and two line printers at a monthly 
lease cost of over $4000.00. By late 1979, the 
company had invested nearly six man-years 
in our own software development", 
comments Fyrnetics president, Larry 
Larsen "As a part of a cost cutting pro- 
gram, we decided to replace the Wang 
equipment with a microcomputer system. 
We reviewed all available micro systems 
and concluded that the MSI hardware and 
software packages were best suited to our 
needs." 



THE COMPANY: 
FYRNETICS, INC. 
1021 DAVIS ROAD 
ELGIN, ILLINOIS 60120 
312-742-0282 

Fyrnetics, Inc. of Elgin, Illinois has grown 
from a private manufacturer of ionization 
smoke detectors for companies, such as 
Sears & Roebuck, to a full line manufacturer 
of wireless security products which are sold 
through a worldwide network of dealers and 
distributors. Since saturation of the 
residential security market is estimated to 
be less than 3% in the United States, their 
major marketing effort has been directed 
toward distribution through dealers who 
demonstrate and sell electronic products to 
the consumer. This marketing approach 





The modern production facility at Fyrnetics, 
Inc. where wireless home security products 
are designed and manufactured. The 
company also has production facilities in 
Hong Kong where larger quantities of their 
products are manufactured. 

"We were particularly pleased with the system-generation 
capability of the MSI business packages, which allowed us to 
utilize our existing continuous form sales orders, invoices, and 
packing lists.The requirements for our computer system were 
rather demanding since we had large customers such as 
Montgomery Wards and Wicks, each having up to 300 stores. 
Each store is treated as an individual customer during the 
order entry and shipping process. However, payment is made 
from a central accounting office with many stores on a single 
check. Our system had to allow us to properly credit the 
payment to many different store locations and invoices. This 
feature was a part of the MSI Accounts Receivable software 
package. Our accounts receivable system handles over 750 
regular customers with over 3000 open invoices and 10,000 
transactions per month for us." 

The LIFESA VER line of wireless home security products 
manufactured by Fyrnetics, Inc. Anyone desiring more 
information on this interesting product line should contact 
Fyrnetics, Inc. at the above address. 



42 Microcomputing, February 1981 




CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE SELECTION OF ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE SYSTEMS 

The selection of business computer systems today involves the careful consideration of many 
different factors. Even though the cost of computer systems has dropped substantially, we 
considered the selection process to be highly critical to us because of the tremendous need for a 
highly reliable computer system in our daily operations. Due to our high volume of sales 
transactions we were highly dependent upon the system for order processing and for 
information. We considered the following issues to be key to our selection of the MSI system: 

LARGE DATA BASE - The processing of over 700 orders per month, with 3000 open invoices and 
5000 active statement items required that we have easy and efficient on-line access to our large 
data base. The MSI system provides a large selection of data reports for open orders, 
backorders, invoices, credit memos, as well as customer statements and account status 
information. 

EFFICIENT PAPERWORK FLOW - The processing of our large volume of sales orders required 
an efficient system for printing sales orders, packing lists, invoices, and customer statements. 
The MSI system offers a convenient system generation program which allows the use of any 
desired format for pre-printed continuous forms. In addition, packing lists and customer 
invoices are generated automatically as sales orders are processed. 

GENERAL LEDGER TIE-IN - Due to the large volume of individual invoices and cash receipts, 
we required an automatic posting procedure for our general ledger programs in order to 
minimize the data entry process. The MSI system offers a complete general ledger program 
package which links automatically to the other business program modules. All invoices, as well 
as cash receipts, are automatically written to the general ledger posting files from which 
individual journals are created. This procedure insures the generation of balanced journals and 
greatly reduces the time requirement for generation of monthly income statement and balance 
sheets. 

SYSTEM INTEGRATION - The MSI system 

is fully integrated. The order entry system is 

linked to inventory for correct pricing, 

description of items on order. The inventory 

system is also linked to general ledger to 

allow different categories of products sold 

to be automatically posted to the correct 
sales accounts. The MSI inventory system 
provides complete cost accounting 
information for both labor and material. The 
MSI programs provide the big machine 
capability that we need and yet provide the 
flexibility that we desire. 

The MSI computer system drives two line 
printers at Fyrnetics, Inc. 

SUPPORT - The availability of source 
listings for all of the MSI business software 
was an added incentive to select the MSI 
system. This has allowed us to make some 
specialized enhancements to our programs 
easily. MSI really delivered for us allowing 
the replacement of an expensive WANG 
2200 system with a comparable MSI system 
at a fraction of the cost. 
If you would like to have more information 
on MSI business computer systems, call or 
write, Midwest Scientific Instruments, Inc., 
220 W. Cedar, Olathe, KS 66061, 800-255- 
6638, Telex 42525(MSI A OLAT). 





The MSI computer system at Fyrnetics, Inc. 
employs 10 megabyte hard disk drives to 
contain the large on-line data base. 






MSI Helping to make your business run better. 




Microcomputing, February 1981 43 



The microcomputer invasion at Catholic University will have far-reaching effects in Puerto Rico. 



Island Computing 



By Richard R. Eckert 



The impact of the microcomputer 
revolution has not yet been felt in 
Puerto Rico. But Catholic University 
is helping to remedy this situation 
with a two-year associate degree pro- 
gram in digital electronics and com- 
puter programming. 

The program, which began last Au- 
gust with 20 students, will teach tech- 
nical personnel how to troubleshoot 
and repair common electronic cir- 
cuits, particularly those using micro- 
electronic components, and how to 
use and program the relatively inex- 




pensive microcomputer systems now 
appearing in both business and scien- 
tific settings. We hope to produce 
people with broad training and back- 
ground, permitting their future em- 
ployer to refine and complete the 
training according to their needs. 
The situation in Puerto Rico is 



First Year 



English 3 cr. 

Spanish 3 cr. 

Introduction to the Computer. ... 3 cr. 

Mathematics (Algebra) 3 cr. 

Basic Physics 3 cr. 

Theology 2 cr. 

Physical Education 0.5 cr. 

17.5 cr. 



English 3 cr. 

Spanish 3 cr. 

BASIC Language Programming. . 3 cr. 

Mathematics (Trigonometry). ... 3 cr. 
Introduction to Electricity 

and Electronics 3 cr. 

Theology 2 cr. 

Physical Education 0.5 cr. 

17.5 cr. 



Second Year 



Accounting 

Social Science or Political Science 
High Level Languages: 

FORTRAN, COBOL, Pascal 

Introduction to 

Systems Programming 

Electronics I 

(Analog Electronics) 



4 cr. 

3 cr. 

4 cr. 
3 cr. 
3 cr. 

17 cr. 



Accounting 4 cr. 

Philosophy 3 cr. 

Assembly/Machine Language 

Programming 3 cr. 

Applied Computer 

Programming 3 cr. 

Electronics II 

(Digital Electronics) 3 cr. 

Practicum 2 cr. 

18 cr. 



Table 1 . The curriculum of the two-year associate degree program in digital electronics and com- 
puter programming at Catholic University of Puerto Rico. 



unique. As a Commonwealth of the 
United States, it does not enjoy the 
benefits of statehood. This, its geo- 
graphical isolation and its low stan- 
dard of living means that technologi- 
cal advances are slow in arriving, and 
even slower in being used effective- 
ly. For example, Ponce is the second 
largest city in Puerto Rico with over 
300,000 residents, yet the only store 
even remotely related to microcom- 
puters is a Radio Shack franchise. It's 
the only operating Radio Shack store 
in the Commonwealth; the one in San 
Juan (Puerto Rico's capital and larg- 
est city) went out of business last 
year. 

But Puerto Rico's Commonwealth 
status does offer some advantages. 
Under certain conditions a U.S.- 
based company with a plant in Puer- 
to Rico is exempt from federal taxes. 
If the Commonwealth government 
thinks a company will bring new 
jobs, it will offer attractive local tax 
incentives. The upshot is that many 
high-technology corporations are be- 
ginning to set up operations in Puerto 
Rico. Those involved with electronics 
and computers include Digital Equip- 

Richard R. Eckert, Colegio de Ciencias, Universi- 
dad Catolica de Puerto Rico, Ponce, Puerto Rico 
00731. 



44 Microcomputing, February 1981 



ment Corporation, Intel, Hewlett- 
Packard, Data Products, Data Gen- 
eral, Ohio Scientific and Centronics. 
And they've brought with them a tre- 
mendous new demand for people 
trained in digital electronics and com- 
puter programming, on an island 
where unemployment is estimated to 
be more than 30 percent. 

At Catholic University, we became 
aware of the critical need to train peo- 
ple in computer hardware and soft- 
ware about two years ago. We also 
happened to be suffering through the 
first enrollment decline in our his- 
tory. Administrators suddenly be- 
came very receptive to innovative 
course programs which could attract 
new students. (At Catholic Univer- 
sity over 90 percent of the operating 
budget comes from student enroll- 
ment.) Since several people in the 
physics department had both the in- 
terest and the expertise, we decided 
to start the ball rolling. 

On the Launching Pad 

First we conducted a careful study 
of the employment possibilities for 
our prospective graduates. Armed 
with an impressive list of companies 
seeking the kinds of people we would 
train and willing to offer them on-the- 
job experience during their training, 
we wrote a proposal for the new pro- 
gram. 

Originally our idea was to offer two 
options: computer programming 
with heavy emphasis on the use of 
microcomputers in a business setting 
and digital electronics with the em- 
phasis placed on microcomputer 
hardware. But we soon found our- 
selves with an administrative prob- 
lem: In which department would the 
new program be placed? Hardware 
was in the domain of the physics de- 
partment, but business programming 
belonged with the College of Busi- 
ness Administration. We finally de- 
cided to develop a truly innovative 
program which would prepare a per- 
son in both computer programming 
and digital electronics. The graduate 
would then be able to move in either 
direction, depending on his interests. 

As our proposal moved from com- 
mittee to committee, the same objec- 
tion kept coming up: the proposal 
was too ambitious, and our students 
would either all flunk out or 
wouldn't know enough about either 
programming or electronics to be of 
any use. Our answer had two parts. 
First, the situation in Puerto Rico is 
such that any preparation in these 




Two groups of students running experiments on Heath Electronics Trainers. 



areas would guarantee our graduates 
employment. Second, since all indi- 
cations were that each graduate of 
the program will have a good job 
awaiting him, we could maintain 
high standards. We would carefully 
screen applicants to assure that the 
students accepted had both the abili- 
ty and the motivation necessary to 
complete the program. 

These answers seemed to satisfy 
everyone, and the proposal quickly 
moved through both college and uni- 
versity committees and decision- 
making bodies. Early in 1980 the pro- 
gram received final approval in the 
New York Board of Regents, the ulti- 
mate University authority, and was 
duly registered. 

The Program 

The program emphasizes trouble- 
shooting and repairing, and micro- 
computer programming and use in 
business and scientific settings. Table 
1 shows the program's curriculum. 
The courses can be broken down into 
four areas: computer programming 
(software), 19 credits; electronics 
(hardware), 12 credits; general re- 
quirements, 37 credits; on-the-job ex- 
perience, 2 credits. 

Computer programming courses. The 
students start with an introduction to 
computers and data processing; learn 
to program first in BASIC, then in 
FORTRAN, COBOL and Pascal- 
learn assembly- and machine-lan- 



guage programming on the Z-80 and 
other common microprocessors; re- 
ceive an introduction to systems pro- 
gramming and microcomputer oper- 
ating systems; and finish by learning 
advanced techniques in applied pro- 
gramming. 

Electronics courses. Here the stu- 
dents start with an introductory 
physics course followed by a survey 
of electricity and electronics which 
encompasses dc and ac circuits and 
semiconductor components. Follow- 
ing that, they take a course in analog 
electronic circuits and another em- 
phasizing digital electronic circuits. 
In the latter they're exposed to micro- 
processor circuits and associated 
hardware. 

General requirements. During the 
first year, students take enough math 
to prepare them for subsequent elec- 
tronics and computer programming 
courses. Since our university is inti- 
mately connected with the Roman 
Catholic Church, students are also re- 
quired to take courses in theology 
and philosophy to expose them to 
Christian ideals and morality. They 
take courses in social science or polit- 
ical science (depending on their inter- 
ests) and in English and Spanish to 
develop the communications skills 
they will require on the job. A course 
in accounting gives them some notion 
of how businesses operate and how 
microcomputers can be used in a 
business setting. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 45 




tipple 



® 



Disk Based System: Apple II or 
Apple II Plus with 48k RAM 
installed. Disk II with con- 
troller, RF Modulator; NEW 
DOS 3.3 only $1799 

Shipped free continental U.S. 

Buy a 16k Apple II or Apple II 
Plus for $1195; get 32k more 
memory, installed, and RF 
modulator, FREE! 

THE SOURCE® FREE! Buy the 
D.C. Hayes Micromodem II® 
for $379.95, and we'll give 
you The Source (a $100 
value) FREE! 

IDS 440G Paper Tiger® limited 
quantity special $849.95 



vi\a 



(800) 621-5802 




ERICKSON 

COMMUNICATIONS' 

Chicago. IL 60630 

5456 North Milwaukee Ave. 

(312) 631 -51 81 (within Illinois) 



^254 



On-the-job experience. All students 
must take a course called Practicum 
during their last semester. Here they 
gain on-the-job experience in local in- 
dustrial or commercial settings. 

Computer Equipment 

During the past two years the phys- 
ics department has gradually re- 
placed a five-user DEC 11/34 floppy- 
disk-based minicomputer system 
loaned to us by the Digital Equip- 
ment Corporation of Aguadilla, PR, 
with several TRS-80 systems. Al- 
though we were sorry to see the 1 1/34 
go, the cost of its required service 
contract ($5000 per year) gave us no 
choice. 

We chose Radio Shack equipment 
primarily because we could get ser- 
vice and parts through the local store. 
The large library of available soft- 
ware for the TRS-80 was also a factor. 

Our present computing equipment 
consists of five TRS-80 Model I's, 
each with a Quick Printer II; two 
TRS-80 Model I's complete with ex- 
pansion interface, line printer and 
two disk drives apiece; a TRS-80 
Model II with two eight-inch disk 
drives and a line printer (obtained 
with funds from an NIH-MBS re- 



Winchester Backup 

ALLOY offers COST-EFFECTIVE Tape Sub-systems boasting File- 
Oriented Backup. Using this technique, a Maintenance backup need 
only contain Active or Changed Files. Furthermore, a single file may be 
restored without disturbing other modified files. The Cartridge-Tape 
products support the "FUNNEL" 6400 bpi product by Data Electronics 
(DEI). The 9-TRACK products support most Industry Compatible For- 
matted tape units including the new Cipher Microstreamer. 




Cartridge-Tape Subsystems with up to 
13.4 Mbytes are available for: 

• Data General microNOVA and NOVA 

• Ohio Scientific Challenger C2/C3 

• S-100 under both CP/M&MP/M 

• Intel Multibus under ISIS 

• Z-80 processor piggy-back 5"x 5" 

• General Purpose RS-232 & 
PARALLEL 

9-Track Tape Subsystems with up to 
45 Mbytes are available for: 

• Ohio Scientific Challenger C2/C3 

• S-100 under both CP/M & MP/M 



ht t AT7 ENGINEERING 
ALLUY COMPANY INC. 

CQHP JTER PRODUCTS DiWSJQN ^ 269 





85 Speen Street 
Framingham, MA 01701 
(617)620-1710 
TWX: 710-380-7624 




Students working with a TRS-80 Model I disk- 
based system. 

search grant); an Ohio Scientific C1P; 
and two Heath microprocessor train- 
ers. In addition, we have a Mark 
Sense Reader interfaced to one of the 
TRS-80s and a Radio Shack Vox-Box 
to another. The Mark Sense Reader, 
which detects graphite marks on a 
special card, will be used to simulate 
batch processing. The Vox-Box, 
which converts sounds into digital 
signals, offers the interesting possibil- 
ity of verbal data entry. 

Our disk-based software is running 
under the TRSDOS and NEWDOS + 
operating systems, and we hope to 
obtain CP/M shortly. For languages, 
we now have BASIC on everything, 
FORTRAN on the Model I disk sys- 
tem and COBOL on the Model II. We 
will eventually be able to run FOR- 
TRAN, COBOL, Pascal and even PL/1 
on all of the TRS-80 disk systems. 

For assemblers, we have the Radio 
Shack tape version of Z-80 assembly 
language running on all of the TRS- 
80s, Microsoft's Z-80 macro assem- 
bler on the TRS-80 disk systems and 
Ohio Scientific' s tape version of the 
6502 assembler on the CI P. In addi- 
tion, we can enter Z-80 machine code 
into all of the TRS-80s, 6502 code into 
the C1P and 6800 code into the Heath 
microprocessor trainers. 

Electronics Equipment 

We're in the process of acquiring 
the necessary equipment for the elec- 
tronics courses. In all of the electron- 
ics laboratories we plan to use Heath- 
kit trainers and the impressive body 
of components and coursework that 
accompanies them. These kits are rel- 
atively inexpensive and very com- 
plete, permitting interesting experi- 
ments covering the entire range of 
the subject. 

In Introductory Electronics and in 



46 Microcomputing, February 1981 




A student troubleshooting the main board on a TRS-80 Model I. 



the analog electronics course, Heath 
electronics experimenter/trainers 
will be used to carry out experiments 
in dc electronics, ac electronics, semi- 
conductor devices and electronic cir- 
cuits. For the digital electronics 
course, Heath digital electronics 
trainers and microprocessor trainers 
will permit an impressive number of 
useful experiments. We have not 
been able to find any other electron- 
ics laboratory equipment approach- 
ing the versatility, cost effectiveness 
and excellent documentation of the 
Heath equipment. 

In an attempt to complete both the 
microcomputer and the electronics 
equipment (including oscilloscopes), 
we recently wrote a proposal to the 
Instructional Scientific Equipment 
Program (ISEP) of the National Sci- 
ence Foundation. If the proposal is 
successful, NSF will match some 
$20,000 of university funds (part of 
which has already been spent) to buy 
computer and electronics equipment 
for the new program. 

Other Uses of Microcomputers at 
Catholic University 

During the past two years there has 
been a dramatic increase in both in- 
terest and use of microcomputing 
equipment at Catholic University. 
What started as one TRS-80 Level II 
4K system in the physics department 
has grown to many Level II and disk 
systems in several departments 
(physics, chemistry, psychology, so- 
cial sciences, with biology, math and 
others about to join the parade). 
Through an ongoing series of semi- 



nars given to both faculty members 
and students, many people have seen 
what these systems can do and have 
become enthusiastic learners. 

The biggest use of TRS-80s on cam- 
pus (aside from teaching program- 
ming) is the tabulation of information 
obtained from various questionnaires 
used in the university's professor 
evaluation system. One type of ques- 
tionnaire is administered to at least 
two groups of students taking courses 
with the professor being evaluated; 
another goes to his colleagues. In each 
case the responder enters his answers 
by filling in the blanks on an IBM-like 
card using an electrographic pencil. 
The cards for a given group are then 
read by a Mark Sense Reader inter- 
faced with a TRS-80 and processed. 

The Mark Sense Reader and TRS-80 
is also being used to grade objective 
exams given by many different pro- 
fessors in the university. We have de- 
veloped programs that will give the 
professor just about any information 
he desires from an objective exam. 
Here, students answer questions 
with the same kind of card used for 
professor evaluations. 

In the chemistry department, in 
particular, several professors are us- 
ing TRS-80 disk systems in the pro- 
duction of exams. The process con- 
sists of first creating question files on 
diskettes organized according to top- 
ics. When the professor wishes to 
give an exam, he simply runs a pro- 
gram that will select from a given file 
the questions on an exam. The pro- 
fessor has the option of making the 
selection himself or having the com- 



FOR OHIO 
SCIENTIFIC USERS 

BPSORT for DMS 

• MACHINE CODE for high-speed 
sorting 

• BASIC language program for 
establishing sort parameters 

• Files of any length can be 
sorted 

• Floppies and hard disks are 
supported 

• Up to five keys can be specified 

Ascending and descend- 
ing keys are processed 
simultaneously 

• Header records can be skipped if 
present 

• Reauires OS-65U 



BPSORT $124.00 

EASY TO USE AND EXTREMELY 
FAST. A FILE OF TWENTY- 
THOUSAND BYTES CAN BE 
SORTED IN LESS THAN 10 
SECONDS. 

Order C.O.D. Master Charge or 
Visa from «^168 

Honders Inc QS^«™ 

57 North Street ^^ 

Middletown, NY 10940 
Telephone (914) 343-4880 



**SPECIAL**SPECIAL** 

TRS-80 ADD ON DRIVES 

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 



SINGLE SIDED $225.00 
DOUBLE SIDED $345.00 



COMPLETE SYSTEMS 
SINGLE SIDED $365.00 
DOUBLE SIDED $485.00 

INCLUDES: 
MINI DISK DRIVE 
FUSED POWER SUPPLY 
VENTED CABINET 
CABLE 

90 DAY WARRANTY 
FACTORY ASSEMBLED 
FACTORY TESTED 

THESE ARE NEW 5" FD's 



2 INTERFACE, INC 

20932 CANTARA ST *^ 151 
CANOGA PARK, CA 91304 
(213) 341-7914 

VISA AND MASTER CHARGE ACCEPTED 




v* Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 47 




A professor explaining the function of one of the TRS-80 Model II circuit boards. 



puter do it at random. A ditto master 
is then inserted into the line printer, 
and the exam is printed out (see refer- 
ences). 

Many university professors are now 
calculating their final averages on the 
TRS-80s. In fact, several are using a 
disk system to maintain their class 
records. The programs we have 
developed permit entering exam, quiz 
or laboratory grades either manually 
or with the mark reader. Using this 
process, recordkeeping and the 
calculation of student averages at any 
time becomes a snap. 

In the area of computer-assisted in- 
struction (CAI), many of the general 
chemistry and physical chemistry lab 
experiments have become partially 
computerized. Students use TRS-80s 
as calculational aids or to run simula- 
tions in certain experiments. In phys- 
ics, we have developed CAI programs 



for topics such as kinematics, projec- 
tile motion and atomic physics. In 
biology, a CAI program has been 
developed to aid the student in visual- 
izing the DNA replication process. 
This program uses both graphics and 
sound effects (see references). All of 
these programs are still in the experi- 
mental stage, but we hope to soon be 
using CAI programs commonly in sev- 
eral university departments. 

In the area of research, all of the 
recordkeeping and statistical analysis 
involved in a large interdisciplinary 
NIH-funded project are being carried 
out on TRS-80s. The purpose of the 
research is to determine the impact of 
air pollution on public health in 
southern Puerto Rico; it involves the 
storage and processing of data from 
physicians, schools, drug stores, hos- 
pital and area families, in addition to 
air pollution data from ten air quality 



monitoring stations and the results of 
several types of chemical analyses. 
TRS-80s are also being used in small- 
er research projects involving the 
psychology and sociology depart- 
ments and to process the data in- 
volved in several on- and off-campus 
surveys. 

I could continue to list present and 
proposed future applications of mi- 
crocomputers at Catholic University, 
but it would be almost endless. Per- 
haps it is more important to mention 
that the microcomputer invasion at 
our institution has changed the entire 
university scene. We see our micros 
being used almost constantly by both 
students and faculty. 

Whenever I enter the microcom- 
puter room in the physics depart- 
ment, I never know what to expect: 
baseball games that talk in Spanish, 
electronic circuit diagrams being de- 
signed on a TV monitor, students 
yelling at one of the systems with the 
system responding, a professor enter- 
ing grades or running a FORTRAN 
program— almost anything. This en- 
thusiastic response to our microcom- 
puters makes me certain that we are 
not far from the day in which micros 
will be as common as televisions or 
typewriters— even in Puerto Rico.H 

References 

Richard Eckert, "Quiz Master," 80 
Microcomputing, June 1980, p. 148. 



Catholic University has a faculty opening 
for someone with hardware and/or software 
training. Inquiries should be sent to the 
Physics Department, Catholic University of 
Puerto Rico, Ponce, PR 00731. 



a 



NEW... ...AD 200 

S 100 A/D and 
TIMER BOARD 

Tecmar's new A/D and Timer 
Board is designed to meet sophis- 
ticated data acquisition needs. The 
board can accommodate various 
A/D modules providing options 
such as 12, 1 4, or 16 bit accuracy; 
100 MHz throughput; variable 
ranges and gains. It contains a 
powerful timer circuit (AMD 951 3) 
which can start A/D conversion 
and can also be used independ- 
ently for time of day, event count- 
ing, frequency shift keying and 
many other applications. 



S-100 TRS-80 1 PET 2 KIM 2 APPLE 



A/D 



12 Bit 

High Speed 

8 Ch. Differential 

1 6 Ch. Single-ended 

Each A/D Board $495 



D/A 



12 Bit 

High Speed 

4 Channel 



Each D/A Board $395 



TRS-80 or PET expansion board, power supply, and enclosure $200. 
Kim expansion board and power supply $150. 




^139 



RR 



INC. 



J* 



TECMAR, INC. 

(216)382-7599 



23414Greenlawn • Cleveland. OH 44 122 



S-100 BOARDS 

Real Time $850 

Video Digitizer & Display 

8086 CPU $450 

W/vectored interrupts 

Ram8Kxl6/16Kx8 $395 

8086 PROM-I/O $495 

Serial and Parallel I/O $350 

Parallel I/O & Timer $350 

AD 100 $495 

AD 200 Call 

DA 100 $395 
Complete Systems Also available 

' Reg. Trademark of Tandy Corp. 
""Reg. Trademark of Commodore 



48 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Now NRI fakes you inside the 
world s most popular microcomputer 

to train you at home as the 
new breed of computer specialist! 



NRI teams up with Radio Shack 
to teach you how to use, 
program and service 
microcomputers . . . make you 
the complete technician. 
It's no longer enough to be just a 
programmer or a technician. With micro- 
computers moving into the fabric of our 
lives (over 200,000 of the TRS-80™ alone 
have been sold), interdisciplinary skills 
are demanded. And NRI can prepare 
you with the first course of its kind, 
covering the complete world of the ■ 
microcomputer. I 

Learn At Home H 

in Your Spare Time ■ 

With NRI training, the program- 
mer gains practical knowledge of hard- 
ware, enabling him to design simpler, more 
effective programs. And, with advanced 
programming skills, the technician can 
test and debug systems quickly and easily 

Only NRI gives you both kinds of 
training with the convenience of home 
study. No classroom pressures, no night 
school, no gasoline wasted. You learn at 
your convenience, at your own pace. Yet 
you're always backed by the NRI staff and 



Training includes TRS-80 computer, transistorized 
volt-ohm meter, digital frequency counter, 
and the NRI Discovery Lab with hundreds of tests 
and experiments. 

(TRS-80 is a trademark of the Radio Shack division of Tandy Corp.) 





your instructor, answering questions, giving 
you guidance, and helping you over the 
tough spots. 

Explore the TRS-80 
Inside and Out 

NRI training is hands-on training, 
with practical experiments and demon- 
strations as the very foundation of your 
knowledge. You don't just program your 
computer, you introduce and correct faults 
. . .watch how circuits interact. . . interface 
with other systems. . . gain a real insight 
into its nature. 

You also build test instruments and 
the NRI Discovery Lab, 
performing over 60 
separate experiments 
in the process. You 
learn how your 
trouble-shooting 
tools work, and gain 
greater understand- 
ing of the informa- 
tion they give you. 
Both microcomputer 
and equipment come 
as part ot your train- 
ing for you to use 
and keep. 



Send for Free Catalog... 
No Salesman Will Call 

Get all the details on this exciting 
course in NRI's free, 100-page catalog. It 
shows all equipment, lesson outlines, and 
facts on other electronics courses such as 
Complete Communications with CB, TV and 
Audio, Digital Electronics, and more. Send 
today, no salesman will ever bother you. 
Keep up with the latest technology as you 
learn on the world's most popular computer. 
If coupon has been used, write to NRI 
Schools, 3939 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, 
D.C. 20016. 




NRI Schools 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 

Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington, DC. 20016 
NO SALESMAN WILL CALL 
Please check for one free catalog only. 

□ Computer Electronics Including 
Microcomputers 

□ TV/Audio/ Video Systems Servicing 

D Complete Communications Electronics 
with CB • FCC Licenses • Aircraft, 
Mobile, Marine Electronics 

□ CB Specialists Course 




All career courses 
approved under GI Bill. 
□ Check for details. 



D Digital Electronics • Electronic 
Technology • Basic Electronics 
D Small Engine Repair 

□ Electrical Appliance Servicing 

□ Automotive Mechanics 
G Auto Air Conditioning 

□ Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, & 
Heating including Solar Technology 



Name 



(Please Print) 



Age 



Street 



City/State/Zip 

Accredited by the Accrediting Commission of the National Home Study Council 



172-021 



Microcomputing, February 1981 49 



Videotext systems are gaining in popularity around the world, while the U.S. takes a cautious approach. 



Consumer Information 

Systems 



By Frank J. Derfler, Jr. 



Videotext originated in England 
and, although it has been slow to 
gain momentum in the U.S., it has 
spread through Europe and Japan. 
The popularity of these TV-based sys- 
tems—known as viewdata and tele- 
text—is indicated by the effort and 
money being invested in testing and 
marketing them. 

I first introduced Microcomputing 
readers to these services in the Octo- 
ber 1979 article, "The Ultimate Con- 
sumer Computer" (p. 94). In that 
piece, I described the British Prestel 
viewdata service. Let's briefly re- 
view viewdata and teletext systems, 
and then take a quick tour around the 
world to see what's happening. 

Viewdata and Teletext Explained 

Both viewdata and teletext use the 
home TV as a data terminal to deliver 
news, sports, shopping information, 
catalogs, airline and transportation 
schedules, weather, stock reports 
and almost anything else you can 
imagine to their viewers on demand. 
The information pages in these sys- 
tems are entered by companies and 
presented to viewers either for a fee 
or as a form of commercial advertis- 
ing. 

Viewdata uses the home telephone 
to connect the TV/terminal to a large 
computer center. The viewer selects 
the desired information either from 
menus or by directly entering the 
page number of the desired informa- 
tion into a keypad. The request goes 
up the phone line to the computer at 
75 baud. The mainframe system then 
sends back a page or screen full of in- 
formation at 1200 baud. The informa- 

50 Microcomputing, February 1981 



tion can include colors and graphics. 
The user interacts with the main- 
frame throughout the session. 

The amount of information avail- 
able to the user is limited only by the 
disk space in the main computer. 
Viewdata systems can have as many 
as 200,000 pages of information on 
line. 

Teletext is a broadcast-oriented 
system. The phone line is usually not 
used; instead, information is broad- 
cast by a television station during the 
flyback time in the video scan of reg- 
ular television programming. The us- 
er's TV/terminal has a sophisticated 
processing ability allowing it to de- 
code the transmitted frames and grab 
the one designated by the user. The 
frames are constantly updated from 
the broadcast station. The teletext 
user does not interact with the cen- 
tral computer, only with his local ter- 
minal. 

This system is limited in the num- 
ber of pages it can transmit in a prac- 
tical time period. Typically, about 
800 pages of information are avail- 
able. 

Each system has its strengths and 
weaknesses. Teletext requires more 
local memory and processing ability, 
but only one central computer with- 
out extensive communications hard- 
ware and programming is needed at 
the television station. Viewdata can 
deliver more pages of information, 
but teletext can meet most users' 
needs with an average of about six 
seconds' update time. A maximum 
update time for teletext is about 25 
seconds. Viewdata is quicker, but the 
use of the telephone line is controver- 



sial in many countries where each 
phone call is charged at a high rate 
and many homes may not have 
phones. Television transmissions are 
widely received, and homes without 
running water often have a TV set. 

Britain's Prestel viewdata service, 
run by the British Post Office, now 
claims over 5000 subscribers. It con- 
nects customers to one of three com- 
puter centers. Its competition is an- 
other public agency, the British 
Broadcasting Company. The BBC op- 
erates a teletext service called 
CEEFAX. The private television com- 
pany in Great Britain operates a simi- 
lar teletext service called Oracle. All 
three systems use identical circuitry 
to decode the frames once the infor- 
mation is obtained by phone line or 
broadcast. The compatibility in for- 
mat is an attempt to keep the price of 
a TV/terminal as low as possible. 

Over in France 

Across the channel, the French 
seem to have clasped data communi- 
cations to their bosoms as a means of 
exploiting and exporting a highly 
profitable technology. They have 
even devised a new term, Telema- 
tique, which can variously mean the 
technology, the industry and the 
sociology of the interactive informa- 
tion media. 

The Telematique network includes 
a teletext system called Antiope. An- 
tiope was developed by the French 

Frank J. Derfler, Jr. (PO Box 691, Herndon, VA 
22070), is the author of "Dial-up Directory, " a 
monthly Microcomputing feature on electronic 
and computer information systems. 



005 

TS 



TUESDAY 
JULY_29,i9&0 



• •« » m mm mm m m 

mm mm •■> M* M> h> «• ' ~ —•••»««• 

9 mm mm mm mm m 

mm m m • m m, Ms , |p | 

«■ mm* • 

* • m> mm mm m 



TWELFTH NIGHT/FOLGER THEATER C546-4S00) 
$12,6,6.50 

JOSEPH & HIS AMAZING TECHNICOLOR DREAM- 
COAT/FORD'S THEATER (347-4633) $8.50,6 
HOTEL UNIVERSE/OLNEY THEATER 1924-34001 
♦12.50, 10, fi, 5 




DEPARTURES AMTRAK 

DESTINATION 

PHILADELPHIA 

NEWARK 

NEW YORK 

NEW HAVEN 

BOSTON 

PITTSBURGH 

CINCINNATI 

CHICAGO 

ST. LOUIS 

ATLANTA 



UNION TERN 
TINE TK 
9: 00 A- 21 
8: 00 A- 21 
B:00A-21 
8:00A-21 
9 .00 A- 21 
8:*0A-15 
8: 20 A- 15 
9: 20 A- 15 
9: 20 A- 15 
10:05A~17" 



241-fi&06 

CONDITION 

-15H DELAY 

15M DELAY 

-15N DELAY 

-15M DELAY 

15M DELAY 

-25N DELAY 

25M DELAY 

25N DELAY 

25N DELAY 

ION DELAY 



Typical "screens" of information from the French Antiope teletext system. The graphics are usually vividly displayed in color. 



Television and Telecommunications 
Research Center as a part of a larger 
system including home facsimile 
transmission (on special low-cost fac- 
simile machines) and an electronic 
telephone directory. The goals of this 
program include 25 million homes 
with electronic directory service by 
1985, videotext terminals costing on- 
ly $100 over the price of a standard 
television and $500 facsimile trans- 
ceivers. 

Last year, about 250,000 homes 
received electronic telephone di- 
rectory service. The French view this 
industry as one which is highly de- 
sirable, nearly inevitable and very 
exportable. I predict you will be see- 
ing some products from the Telema- 
tique wave very soon. An inexpen- 
sive French data communications 
terminal is due to hit the U.S. market 
as you read this article. 

One of the first consumers of the 
French information export are the 
people in Belgium. The Belgian ver- 
sion of the French Antiope system is 
called Perceval. In the case of Bel- 
gium, the French are exporting the 
technology to a neighboring country 
that uses French as one of its lan- 
guages. But the beauty of the Tele- 
matique product is the way it can be 
locally adapted. Local businesses or 
governments provide the informa- 
tion files. The French provide only 
hardware and software. Unlike 
many other computer exports, local 
adaptation is usually not a significant 
problem. 

In the Orient 

Problems do arise, however, on the 
other side of the world, when video- 



text tries to use the Japanese ideo- 
graphic written language. Written 
Japanese can use three different 
forms of script, depending mainly on 
the subject matter. The interactive in- 
formation systems are faced with the 
challenge of providing for all three 
forms of expression (including per- 
haps 3000 Chinese characters), num- 
bers and the standard Western alpha- 
bet. 

This challenge is being met in two 
different ways. The first approach is 
a marriage of teletext and viewdata. 
The home terminal is hooked to 
viewdata by phone line, but it also 
draws information from the teletext 
transmissions. Teletext provides the 
graphics characters needed for most 
displays. These graphics characters 
require a great deal of information to 
form, so there is little room left to 
send the other data on the teletext 
channel. Viewdata provides the easi- 
ly decoded numbers and alphabet 
characters. 

As an example, a page of stock mar- 
ket information can use titles trans- 
mitted by teletext to describe the con- 
tents of the listings and numbers 
from viewdata for the stock prices. 
The two inputs would be combined 
into one effective video display by 
the TV/terminal. This system has ap- 
peal because it is fast and very capa- 
ble. It can supply huge quantities of 
information. The decoders used in 
the home terminals are essentially 
standard (except for the interweaving 
of teletext and viewdata in the dis- 
play), so the hardware could be readi- 
ly used for both domestic and export 
markets. The transmission program- 
ming, however, is considerably more 



complex because of the split trans- 
mission path. 

The second approach to the Japa- 
nese character problem is to use a 
more sophisticated coding of a tele- 
text signal. The Asahi Broadcasting 
Corporation is pushing this system 
called Telescan. Telescan strings to- 
gether 16-bit digital words in sophis- 
ticated formats to present both ideo- 
graphic and standard ASCII coded in- 
formation. Telescan is not as fast or 
complete as the combined system, 
but it does not use phone lines, which 
are expensive in Japan. Entering in- 
formation into data files is also much 
simpler because the information will 
only be transmitted over one path. 

The Japanese are still trying to de- 
termine which method of transmis- 
sion is the most effective for their sit- 
uation. Their decision will probably 
lead the way for other countries using 
ideographic written languages. 

Back in the USA 

Americans are being very timid 
about videotext services. The words 
'test" and "experiment" are used to 
describe almost every use of these 
systems. There are many tests to de- 
scribe, but none of them seem to be 
leading to full-scale systems market- 
ing. 

When I first described the Prestel 
system, I included an announcement 
that GTE had acquired the license for 
U.S. development. They have run a 
trial system called Viewdata aimed at 
corporate users, but no mass market- 
ing has taken place. 

Teletext tests have been or are be- 
ing run in Philadelphia and Salt Lake 
City (CEEFAX systems) and Los 



Microcomputing, February 1981 51 



Angeles (Antiope). Cable TV opera- 
tors have long been interested in this 
kind of interactive programming, and 
the "superstation" WTBS in Atlanta 
is offering a CEEFAX service through 
cable operators. However, none of 
these services has been heavily mar- 
keted. 

Another test of a videotext system 
has just begun in the Washington, 
D.C., area. The Washington public 
television station (WETA) will be 
broadcasting a teletext signal based 
on the Canadian Telidon system. Tel- 
idon is a unique system providing 
sharper images than the original Brit- 
ish or French devices. The Telidon 
terminals use microcomputers in- 
stead of hardwired logic hardware. 
This two-year Washington test will 
only involve about 60 receivers. 

Similarly, AT&T and Knight-Ridder 
Newspapers are running a pilot test 
of a videotext service in Coral 
Gables, FL, involving about 200 cus- 
tomers. 

This U.S. testing seems like a pretty 
slow start for a system that was tech- 
nically mature over two years ago. I 
think there are several factors behind 
this very timid behavior on the part 



of some pretty rugged U.S. com- 
panies. 

First, of course, the economy has 
been slow. This may not be the time 
to go head-to-head with video record- 
ers and video games for the consum- 
er dollar. Money for investment and 
willing sponsors may both be in short 

supply. 

Second, the U.S. has other systems 
filling some of the videotext market. 
GTE must be faced with some inter- 
nal decisions over where a Prestel 
kind of service would fit in light of its 
dedication to its Telenet packet 
switching network. Telenet, while it 
is not aimed at home users, already 
provides access to The Source and 
other electronic information and 
electronic mail utilities. 

Finally, the regulatory situation in 
the U.S. is much more complex than 
in countries with a government mo- 
nopoly or limited competition sys- 
tem. Many legal and regulatory ques- 
tions have yet to be raised. The an- 
swer to some of these questions could 
mold the whole future of the infor- 
mation utility industry. Before any of 
these questions are asked, the com- 
panies involved want to have a lot of 



empirical evidence to back their posi- 
tions. 

Videotext systems fit one of my cri- 
teria for good mass communications 
systems. They break what I call the 
"time tyranny" of telecommunica- 
tions. You can get the information 
you want out of these systems when 
you want it. They are bound, how- 
ever, by the limitation of location. 
The user has to be near one of the ter- 
minals to get his information. 

One could easily picture a portable 
videotext terminal the size of the 
TRS-80 Pocket Computer or the latest 
mini-TV sets. When this degree of 
portability is reached (and it could be 
tomorrow morning), I predict a tre- 
mendous spurt in the growth of vid- 
eotext systems. These information 
systems, with their pages and pages 
of features, will only quicken their 
pace in the U.S. when they become as 
mobile as the "utility" they may re- 
place—the newspaper. 

Videotext systems are gaining in 
popularity around the world. The 
systems are still developing, but it ap- 
pears certain your future will include 
interactive data communications de- 
vices. ■ 



THE BEST IN SOFTWARE 
FROM COMPLEAT SYSTEMS 




Originally written for a non-profit organization and in use for over three years. A Partner of a 
Big 8 accounting firm said: 

". . .the best accounting program I have 

seen . . . does in a few pages of output what 

is frequently not done in SO pages. . ." 

Ideal for non-profit organizations such as charities, churches, schools, professional 
societies, etc., and a wide range of businesses such as consultants, service shops, cleaners, 
domestic services, ticket or insurance agencies, amusement parlors, health clubs, or any busi- 
ness that principally provides a service rather than a product. 

" . . .(its) most amazing feature is that a non-accountant 

can easily run the system and automatically 

produce all standard ledgers and reports" 

GENERAL LEDGER AND PAYROLL 

Write for our Free Booklet describing the many unique features. 
Requires 1 disk, 48K Z-80, CP/M* or 32K TRS-80* mod 1, 2 disk 
CHRISTMAS SPECIAL! get both programs for 30% off; good until January 31, 1981 





Master Charge or VISA accepted. CA residents add 6% tax 



SADE: SECURITY AND DATA ENCRYPTION 



>18i 



This set of programs is designed to be a user security system. 

It is the closest thing to ABSOLUTE SECURITY that there is! With a billion billion (10 10 ) com- 
binations, there is not a system anywhere that compares to it. NO ONE, not even us, can break the 

user chosen code, even if they have your disk and system!* 

SET IT AND FORGET IT. After start up, the system works automatically (transparent to the 

user) and automatically interfaces with all user programs. Some typical uses would be: 

—Proprietary product information; eg. formulas, parts list, patent data, program source code, 
etc. 

—Sensitive sales or financial information; eg. tax records, gross sales, profits, etc. 

—Confidential employee or client information; eg. payroll, client list & data, etc. 

—Time sharing, multi-user, or distributed processing. All information stored with central com- 
puter can be coded. 

Specifications: 

—Uses top of memory; 512 bytes for TRS-80 and IK for CPM. 

— Codes or decodes a record in less than one second. 

—All memory pointers are adjusted for automatic use with/by other programs. 

— Includes manual and disk with complete instructions. 

—Version 1 for TRS-80 model 1: requires 1 disk, 16K. $49.95 

—Version 3 for CPM: requires 1 disk, 24K CPM. This latest version allows a mixed system of cod- 
ed and uncoded files for greater speed, versatility, and security. $99.95 



$1000 FREE TO FIRST TO DECODE OUR SAMPLE MESSAGE! 



*AII cryptographic systems, except one time only keys, are theoretically breakable. However, we 
are so sure that our system is unbreakable that we are offering a $1000 rebate to the first customer 
who can decode our sample message included with the program. 



^94 



Compleat Systems 

9551 Casaba Ave., Chatsworth, CA 9131 1 

213-993-1479 

TRS-80 and CPM are registered trademarks of Tandy Corp. and Digital Research, Inc. 



i 



52 Microcomputing, February 1981 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 




DISK DRIVES 



$314 



40 track, 102K Bytes. Includes power sup- 
ply and TRS-80* compatible silver 
enclosure. Ready to plug-in and run the 
moment you receive it. Can be intermixed 
with each other and Radio Shack drive on 
same cable. 90 day warranty. One year on 
power supply. Available for 220 Vac (50 Hz) 
operation. External card edge included. 



FOR TRS-80 1 

CCI-100 

CCI-280 

For Zenith Z89 

CCI-189 
Z-87 



5 1 /4 ", 40 Track (102K Bytes) for Model I 
5 1 /4 ", 80 Track (204K Bytes) for Model I 



5 1 /4 ", 40 Track (102K Bytes) add-on drive 
Dual 5 1 /4 " add-on drive system 

DISKE1 ES — Box of 10 with plastic library case 
5 1 /4 " Scotch $35 Maxell $40 

8" Scotch $50 Maxell $55 

CLEAR PLASTIC CASE-Holds 50 diskettes 



$314 

$429 

$394 
$995 



BASF/ Verbatim $24 
BASF/ Verbatim $36 

$19 



NEW -S-100 CCS CARDS 



MAINFRAME, Z-80 CPU, CONTROLLER, 
RAM, and 2P + 2S CARDS 

8" SHUGARTSA801R DISK DRIVES 
DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS 

PATCHPAK #4 by Percom Data 

CP/M" for Model I, Zenith $145 • for Model II, Altos 

NEWDOSPIus 40track 

NEWDOS80 

COMPLETE SYSTEMS 

ALTOS ACS8000 Computers 

APPLE 16K 

APPLE III 96K 

TRS-80* Model U64K 

TRS-80* Model III-16K 

TRS-80* Expansion interface 

ZENITH Z89, 48K all-in-one computer 

ZENITH Z19 

TELEVIDEO 920C 

ATARI 400 $479 

APF Game Only $95 

MATTEL INTELLIVISION 



$CALL 

$425 

$ 8.95 
$169.00 
$ 79.00 
$135.00 



MONITORS 



LEEDEX 12" B & W Video 100 

ZENITH 13" Color 
SANYO 9"B&WVM4509 

SANYO 12" B & W DM5012 

SANYO 12" Green Screen DM5112 

SANYO 13" Color DMC6013 
APF 9"B&WTVM-10 



$ CALL 

$939 

$2999 

$3499 

$899 

$249 

$2395 

$735 

$748 

ATARI 800 $769 

Complete System $489 

$229 



$129 
$379 
$145 
$210 
$215 
$375 
$120 




$595 
$699 
$1050 
$1599 

DP-8000 $849 
$525 
$625 
$719 

paper $995 
$969 

$780 



TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

LIVERMORE STAR MODEM 2-year guarantee $145 

UNIVERSAL DATA SYSTEMS UDS-103 $179 

D CAT HARD WIRED DIRECT MODEM $189 

AUTO-CAT Auto Answer, Direct Connect Modem $229 

COMMUNICATIONS SOFTWARE 

CCI-TELNET VERSION 5: A communication package which enables 
microcomputer users to communicate both with large mainframes 
and other microcomputers. Completely CP/M compatible. Multiple 
communication protocols supported. $149 

For fast delivery, send certified checks, money orders or call to arrange direct bank wire transfers. Personal or company checks require two 
to three weeks to clear. All prices are mail order only. 



dealer (national/international) inquiries invited Send for FREE Catalogue 



16K MEMORY UPGRADE KITS 2 for$65 $35 

200 ns for TRS-80*, Apple II, (specify): Jumpers $2.50 

PRINTERS N EC Spinwriter 

Letter Quality High Speed Printer 

Includes TRS-80* interface software, quick 
change print fonts, 55 cps, bidirectional, 
high resolution plotting, graphing, propor- 
tional spacing: R.O. $2395 
R.O. with Tractor Feed $2595 KSR with Tractor Feed $2795 

C.ITOH Starwriter, 25 CPS, daisy wheel printer $1795 

C.ITOH Starwriter II, 45 CPS, daisy wheel printer $1 995 

Letter quality printers. Use up to 15" paper. 1 year warranty on 

parts. 3 months on labor. Proportional spacing and bidirectional 

printing. Same as VISTA V300. 

EPSON MX-80 

PAPER TIGER IDS 445 Graphics and 2K buffer 

IDS 460 Bidirectional, 160 cps, graphics and 2K buffer 

IDS 560 132 Columns, graphics 
ANADEX DP-9500/01 $1345 

OKIDATA Microline 80 Friction and pin feed 

Tractor Feed, friction, and pin feed 

Microline 82 Bidirectional, friction and pin feed 

Microline 83 Bidirectional, 120 cps, uses up to 15 
779 CENTRONICS TRACTOR FEED PRINTER 

Same as Radio Shack line printer I 
737 CENTRONICS FRICTION & PIN FEED PRINTER 

n x 9 proportional and 7x8 mono spacing. 

Same as Radio Shack line printer IV 
730 CENTRONICS FRICTION & PIN FEED PRINTER $595 

7x7 matrix Same as Radio Shack line printer II 
P1 CENTRONICS PRINTER $269 

Same as Radio Shack quick printer 
EATON LRC 7000 + 64 columns, plain paper $269 

TI-810 Faster than Radio Shack line printer III. Parallel and serial 

w/TRS-80* interface software w/u&l case & paper tray $1589 

Compressed print, vertical form control $1865 

ACCESSORIES 

SCOTCH HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE: Cleans drive 
Read/Write head in 30 seconds; specify 5V* " or 8". $ 25.00 

FLOPPY SAVER: Protection for center holesof 5 1 /»" floppy 
disks. Installation tools and rings for 25 diskettes. $ 1 1 .95 

Re-orders of rings only $ 6.95 
EXTERNAL DATA SEPARATOR: Eliminates data separation 
problems (crc). Improves reliability. This plug in unit comes 
fully assembled and tested. $29.95 

Z-80 SOFTCARD: Your key to software expansion. The plug- 
in Z-80 Softcard transforms your Apple into a Z-80 while 
keeping all the benefits of the 6502. Comes with CP/M in 
two disk format, MBASIC and GBASIC, full documentation 
and utility programs. $339.00 

VIDEX BOARD 80 Column, U/L case conversion card $299.00 
CRT FILM: Helps eliminate external glare, 9" $ 29.00 

RF MODULATOR: Adapts video to TV $ 29 00 

TRS-80 & OTHER MYSTERIES $ 1895 

NEC SPINWRITER THIMBLE $11.95 RIBBON $ 6.00 

CCS CARDS: Parallel or serial printer interface cards $115.00 

RS232: For Radio Shack Interface. $ 84 00 

DISK-DRIVE EXTENDER CABLES: Fits all mini-disk drives $ 16.95 

SIX (6) PRONG ISOLATOR: ISO-2 $ 54 00 

AC FILTER/6 PRONG POWER STRIP $ 39 00 

DISK DRIVE CABLES: 2 drive $29.00 4 drive $ 35.00 

DUST COVERS: TRS-80/Apple $ 7.95 

PLASTIC DISKETTE HOLDER: For ring binder, holds 20 $ 8.00 



The CPU SHOP, 



TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-343-6522 

TWX: 710-348-1796 Massachusetts Residents call 617/242-3361 



5 Dexter Row, Dept. K02M Technical Information call 617/242-3361 

Charlestown, Massachusetts 02129 Massachusetts Residents add 5% Sales Tax 

Hours 10AM-6PM (EST) Mon.-Fri. (Sat. till 5) Tandy Corporation Trademark/" Digital Research 




t^ Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 53 



U. K. takes strides, but still lags Silicon Valley. 



The U.S.: A View 
From the U.K. * 



The microcomputing scenes in Eu- 
rope and the U.S. differ in a num- 
ber of ways, the most obvious of 
which is the way that equipment is 
actually sold. Two years ago, when I 
first made my way into the cradle of 
the microcomputer, there were only 
five computer retail outlets in En- 
gland. Imagine my surprise and feel- 
ing of Nirvana when I came across as 
many shops in as many miles in Sili- 
con Valley. 

Two years later, things have 
changed on both sides of the Atlantic. 
There are nearly 400 companies sell- 
ing personal computers in the U.K., 
about 200 through retail outlets. Tak- 
ing into account the population dif- 
ference, and discounting multiple 
outlets like Radio Shack, this is a 
higher figure than in America. Simi- 
larly, the two most popular computer 
magazines in the U.K. sell just half 
the number of copies as Byte— 
but for just less than one quarter the 
population! 

Emphasis on Business 

Yet this rapid growth, which is par- 
alleled in Germany, France and Italy, 
has produced a different emphasis, 
especially in the percentage of sales 
aimed at the small-businessman. In 
the U.S., microcomputing is inexpen- 
sive. If prices in the U.K. are com- 
pared, the rate of exchange works out 
at nearly £1 = $1. For example, a Ra- 
dio Shack TRS-80 Level I system will 
cost $599 in the U.S. compared to 
$1000 in the U.K. An 8K PET is only 
$795 compared to $1400, and an Ap- 
ple is $1100 compared to $2000. 

Disposable income is lower in the 
U.K. than in the U.S. and this has 




By Robin Bradbeer 



stopped microcomputer interest 
from growing. When the cost of car- 
riage, insurance, duty and distribu- 
tion is taken into account, actual costs 
of imported systems are about 35-50 
percent higher. This means that in 
real terms systems can be twice as ex- 
pensive as in the U.S. This must 
make a difference to the eventual us- 
age of computers. 

The hobby market has never been 
large in the U.K. Business systems 
have been at the forefront of most 
marketing exercises ever since small 
systems took off a couple of years 
ago. Consequently, the PET is now 
Europe's biggest-selling small-busi- 
ness computer (something that most 
Americans cannot understand). This 
has meant that most marketing em- 
phasis, and space in retail outlets, is 
aimed at the small-businessman with 
only £5000 ($12,000) to spend on an 
initial system. 

Software and Hardware 

The other side of the coin, how- 
ever, is that development of sophisti- 
cated software to run on these sys- 
tems has grown at a faster rate than in 
the States. The British forte for pro- 
gramming has come to the fore, with 
word-processing packages like Word- 
Craft and a Pascal compiler for the 
PET now being marketed back to the 
States. In fact, a large amount of the 



software sold by American software 
companies such as Personal Soft- 
ware, Programma and others has 
been originally written in Europe. 

This trade in software is not one- 
way, though. A number of expatriate 
Americans have set up very profit- 
able businesses "Europeanizing" 
stateside software. As one acquaint- 
ance told me, "When you get a good 
bit of European software it is prob- 
ably better than a comparable Ameri- 
can product— but when you get junk 
it's really junk!" 

Most European companies that 
manufacture hardware have tended 
to leave the middle ground to im- 
ported American or Japanese models. 
They have concentrated on the low- 
end or high-end market. Typical of 
the former is Sinclair with its ZX-80, 
which is selling for under £80 ($200). 
Or they tend to rip off American sin- 
gle board computers; the UK101, for 
example, is a technical upgrade of the 
Superboard II. At the high end multi- 
user systems seem to be mostly Euro- 
pean produced, although probably 
using American-made parts. 

With government money available, 
education, business and industry are 



Robin Bradbeer, The Polytechnic of North Lon- 
don, Dept. of Electronic and Communications En- 
gineering, Holloway, London N7 8DB, England. 



54 Microcomputing, February 1981 



being subsidized in the "awareness" 
area. There are many courses and 
conferences aimed at the business- 
man, teacher and engineer, not so 
much in the use of computers but 
what they can do. Surveys have 
shown that the educational uses of 
small computers are far more impor- 
tant to the average Briton than busi- 
ness use, yet there is little govern- 
ment money available for actual pur- 
chase, although dC9m ($22m) is avail- 
able for training people on the nonex- 
istent machines! However, by fund- 
raising and judicial use of the budget, 
one secondary school in three now 
has access to a system of some sort. 
Hobby clubs and exhibitions are 
another group area. Europe does not 
have the large exhibitions devoted to 
personal computers, but local shows 
can attract 3000-4000 over two days, 
while the two or three major shows 
attract 25,000 or more. 

Micro Sales and Service 

The differences between England 
and California are striking. Micro- 
computing in the U.S. is considered 
normal. Tandy is selling over 200,000 
TRS-80 systems a year in the U.S. The 
fastest-selling system in the U.K., the 
Commodore PET, is probably selling 
around 300 systems per week at its 
peak. With one quarter of all the peo- 
ple in Silicon Valley, for example, in- 
volved in electronics, it is no surprise 
that the schools in the area are teach- 
ing programming to seven-year-old 
children. By the time they reach high 
school, using the computer will be as 
usual as using a calculator. 

A brief look into some of the stores 
in the area illustrates the variety of 
approaches. Around some of these 
stores are a number of small electron- 
ics firms and consultancies, supply- 
ing all the software and hardware 
needs of the area. A lot of them were 
run as part-time companies by those 
employed in the local electronics in- 
dustry. It was the first Byte Shop that 
placed the order for the Apple I com- 
puters that started Steve Wozniak off 
on his road to fame and fortune! This 
seemed to epitomize the difference 
between the retail selling of comput- 
ers in the States and this country. 

Computerland takes a totally dif- 
ferent approach. This chain-store or 
franchise system aims to have over 
100 stores around the country. The 
Bay area has three branches. Unlike 
the smaller, single-owner shops, 
Computerland sells a wide range of 
systems at prices ranging from $500 

iS Reader Service — see page 194 



upwards. However, it does not have 
highly developed software expertise. 

Radio Shack takes a similar ap- 
proach. Although selling systems 
based on the TRS-80 computer, the 
nearly 6000 shops give Tandy mas- 
sive coverage. Any relatively large 
shopping center has its Radio Shack. 
In the U.K. only the Level I and Level 
II systems are widely available. But 
in the States a large system contain- 
ing disks and printers and encased in 
a modern-style desk would cost 
around $3000. This system is tailored 
for small businesses and is advertised 
on local radio. 

Two retail chains in the U.K. are 
trying Radio Shack's approach. 
Curry's, an electrical retail chain 
with 400 outlets, set up a specialist 
group of stores concentrating on mi- 
cro-based systems. Lasky's, an audio 
retailer, has recently purchased a 
micro shop as the basis for a group of 
shops. 

One aspect of microcomputing that 
has not really been appreciated in the 
U.K. is the repair of home-based sys- 
tems. Companies like the Computer 
Field Maintenance provide office and 
lab-based repair, but there is really 
no company providing comprehen- 
sive facilities for home computer 
freaks. 

Two doors away from Byte of Palo 
Alto, I met the Microdoctors, three 
electronics engineers who provide a 
host of specialized operations, rang- 
ing from normal repair facilities, 
with sophisticated test gear, through 
fabrication and bit completion, to 
system configuration. The Microdoc- 
tors, all three of them, were obvious- 
ly overworked. 

Although available for the home 
user, they were spending most of 
their time servicing equipment under 
contract from five shops in the area. 
Their premises were, in fact, the first 
Byte Shop in the Bay area, and prob- 
ably the first in the world! This seems 
to inspire them in that they see them- 
selves pioneering a new form of ser- 
vice industry— and one that can do 
nothing but expand. 

In conclusion, it is clear that the 
West Coast of the States has adopted 
microcomputing in a big way and is 
therefore three or four years ahead of 
the U.K. in attitudes. Whether mar- 
keting and education policies in the 
U.K. will permit a similar acceptance 
here is debatable. It is disappointing 
that circumstances here are not as 
conducive as in the States. In that 
sense we are all the losers. ■ 



MORE FOR YOUR 

RADIO SHACK 
TRS-80 MODEL I ! 

THE DATAHANDLER 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT 
SYSTEM IN MMSFORTH 

Now the power, speed and compactness of 
MMSFORTH drive a major applications pro- 
gram for many of YOUR home, school and 
business tasks! Imagine a sophisticated 
database management system with flexibili- 
ty to create, maintain and print mailing lists 
with multiple address lines, Canadian or the 
new 9-digit U.S. ZIP codes, and multiple 
phone numbers, plus the speed to load hun- 
dreds of records or sort them on several 
fields in 5 seconds! Manage inventories with 
selection by any character or combination. 
Balance checkbook records and do CONDI- 
TIONAL reporting of expenses or other cal- 
culations. File any records and recall 
selected ones with optional upper/lower 
case match, in standard or custom formats. 
Personnel, membership lists, bibliographies, 
catalogs of record, stamp and coin collec- 
tions—you name it! ALL INSTANTLY, with- 
out wasted bytes, and with cueing from 
screen so good that non-programmers quick- 
ly master its use! With manual, sample data 
files and custom words for mail list and 
checkbook use. 

Technical: Handles data as compressed in- 
dexed sequential subfiles of up to 25K char- 
acters (9K in 32K RAM). Access 1-4 data 
diskettes. Modified Quicksort. Optionally 
precompiles for 5-second program load. Self- 
adjusts for many routine mods. Structured 
and modular MMSFORTH source code ideal 
for custom modifications. 

THE DATAHANDLER V1.1, a very soph- 
isticated database management system 
operable by non-programmers (requires Disk 
MMSFORTH, 1 drive & 32K RAM); with 
manuals $59.95* 




FORTH 



THE PROFESSIONAL FORTH 
FOR TRS-80 MODEL I 

(Over 1,000 systems in use) 

MMSFORTH Disk System V1.9 (requires 1 

disk drive & 16K RAM) just $79.95* 

MMSFORTH Cassette System V1.8 (requires 
Level II BASIC & 16K RAM) $59.95* 

AND MMS GIVES IT 
PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT 

Source code provided 

MMSFORTH Newsletter 

Many demo programs aboard 

MMSFORTH User Groups 

Programming staff can adapt 

THE DATAHANDLER to YOUR needs. 

MMSFORTH UTILITIES DISKETTE: includes 
FLOATING POINT MATH (L.2 BASIC ROM 
routines plus Complex numbers, 
Rectangular-Polar coordinate conversions, 
Degrees mode, more), plus a full Forth-style 
Z80 ASSEMBLER; plus a powerful CROSS- 
REFERENCER to list Forth words by block 
and line. All on one diskette (requires 
MMSFORTH, 1 drive & 16K RAM), . . $39.95* 

FORTH BOOKS AVAILABLE 

MICROFORTH PRIMER (comes with 

MMSFORTH) separately $15.00* 

USING FORTH — more detailed and advanc- 
ed than above $25 00* 

THREADED INTERPRETIVE LANGUAGES- 
advanced, excellent analysis of 

MMSFORTH-like language $18 95* 

CALTECH FORTH MANUAL — good on 
Forth internal structure, etc $10.00* 

* — Software prices include manuals and re- 
quire signing of a single-system user 
license. Add $2.00 S/H plus $1.00 per addi- 
tional book; Mass. orders add 5% tax 
Foreign orders add 15%. UPS COD, VISA & 
M/C accepted; no unpaid purchase orders, 
please. 

Send SASE for free MMSFORTH information. 
Good dealers sought. 

Get MMSFORTH products from your 
computer dealer or 

MILLER MICROCOMPUTER 
SERVICES (K2) ^255 

61 Lake Shore Road, Natick, MA 01760 
(617)653-6136 







Despite size, clubbiness still emphasized. 




London Corilputer Club 



Vj^7 ^^ ) 



A Huge Success 



By Robin Bradbeer 

The North London Hobby Com- 
puter Club started in October 
1978, and is now one of the most suc- 
cessful in Europe. The idea was con- 
ceived a few months earlier by some 
of those at the Polytechnic of North 
London who were interested in per- 
sonal computing. The library had 
been subscribing to American micro- 
computing magazines for a year or 




more, and the growth of computer 
clubs in the States augured well for 
similar activities in the U.K. 

The Polytechnic was keen to back 
the club. It has an active community 
affairs programme and saw this new 
activity as an extension of existing 
work. Consequently, various con- 
tacts in the national, local and spe- 
cialist press were cajoled into giving 




Jim Butterfield, surrounded by club members at the NLHCC monthly meeting. 



the idea editorial space. From the 
time of the first press comment, the 
telephones never stopped ringing. 
When we had our inaugural meetings 
in October, 400 people turned up 
over two nights. 

The charter members saw the club 
as a fortnightly get-together of about 
50 people, swapping ideas and appli- 
cations. Obviously with 400 interest- 
ed, we needed a different approach. 
So we decided to split the club into 
different sections, each with differ- 
ent but complementary interests. 
Areas included do-it-yourself (home- 
brew) computing, basic program- 
ming, digital electronics, business 
news and particular computers such 
as PET, Nascom and Apple. Some lo- 
cal teachers were interested in setting 
up an education group, but this never 
got off the ground, so the club decid- 
ed to set up a committee and other 
short courses in some of the areas 
mentioned. 

From the beginning of 1979, the 
club ran evening courses in BASIC 
programming, digital electronics, 
computing for novices and assembly- 
language programming. Two labora- 



Robin Bradbeer is the chairman of the North Lon- 
don Hobby Computer Club. Address correspon- 
dence to the NLHCC, Polytechnic of North Lon- 
don, Holloway Road, London N7 8DB, United 
Kingdom. 



56 Microcomputing, February 1981 



tories were in use weekly for the 
homebrew group, and PET and busi- 
ness groups were meeting fortnight- 
ly. An average of 200 people were us- 
ing the Polytechnic premises each 
week. The Department of Electronic 
and Communication Engineering let 
the club use its computer hardware, 
and eventually we were able to pur- 
chase some single board computers 
ourselves. 

Locally Based 

The club is very much a locally- 
based organization, with around 80 
percent of its current 250 + members 
living within four miles of the Poly- 
technic. About 40 members are as- 
sociated with the Polytechnic as stu- 
dents or staff, while the rest are 
"members of the public." The cross 
section of members' occupations is 
fascinating. We have housewives, 
schoolchildren, bricklayers, accoun- 
tants, DP managers, program- 
mers—the list is nearly endless. This 
gives the club a good base to work 
from. 

Our monthly meetings also reflect 
this varied background. About 150 of 
the members get together once a 
month for demonstrations by manu- 
facturers of new systems or new pro- 
gramming techniques. Typically, 
their meetings revolve around a 
'beer break" in the nearby bar, with 
the first half of the evening devoted 
to an explanation of a concept— say, 
speech synthesis or colour graphics— 
and demonstrations of various appli- 
cations later on. 

Although between one and two 
hundred people come along, we have 
a sense of "clubbiness." This is es- 
sential to the future of the club and it 
is encouraged in many ways. Other 
than the smaller weekly meetings, 
with numbers varying from a dozen 
for the business users group to 40 for 
the homebrew sessions and 60 + for 
the software workshops, the club 
produces a quarterly magazine called 
GIGO. This keeps the members in- 
formed of committee decisions. Each 
group within the club has free access 
to a couple of pages to describe its ac- 
tivities. 

The Polytechnic not only contrib- 
utes to the club's activities by its in- 
vestment in hardware. The library 
has extended its collection of comput- 
ing books and journals, and we now 
have the most comprehensive range 
of personal computing journals in 
London. The Computer Unit has also 
agreed to let members use the new 




Some of the 200+ who attended Jim Butterfield's talk on the Commodore PET. 



DEC- 10 that has recently been in- 
stalled, on a supervised basis. These 
two aspects give us a broader base of 
activities than could be envisaged 
otherwise. 

Because of these developments, the 
programme and organization of the 
club has evolved. Instead of the ini- 
tial specialized groups and short 
courses, the club programme now re- 
volves around a series of workshops. 
On Mondays the homebrew work- 
shop not only uses the labs for project 
work, but also includes a lecture pro- 
gramme covering topics like solder- 
ing techniques, printed-circuit fabri- 
cation, digital design methods and 
elementary wiring practice. 

On Tuesdays the PET users group 
and the business users group alter- 
nate. The programme for these 
groups covers topics such as in- 
put/output techniques, accounting 
procedures and word processing. 

On Thursdays what began as the 
software workshop and covered such 
things as advanced BASIC tech- 
niques, Pascal programming and 
game theory has evolved into two sec- 
tions. A 6502 users workshop concen- 
trates on OSI, PET, Apple, KIM and 
similar systems. Some very interest- 
ing machine code programmes have 
evolved from this group. The other 
section meets on alternate Wednes- 
days and concentrates on the Z-80/ 
8080/Z8000 processors. 

On Tuesdays a novice's group 
meets. This is a series of self-con- 
tained evening sessions on a six- week 
"rolling" basis. Those club members 
who know nothing about comput- 



ers—and there are many who do 
not— are introduced to various as- 
pects of the subject. They can then go 
into one of the workshop sessions 
with a decent background knowl- 
edge. 

The DEC- 10 is available on some 
evenings for development of pro- 
grammes too large for the smaller 
machines. The monthly meetings on 
Wednesday night cover a whole 
range of subjects. Jim Butterfield has 
shown some amazing software tricks 
with 6502 microprocessors; we had a 
computer music disco and seminars 
on computer fraud and privacy on 
small machines. We hope to link into 
Prestel, the Post Office postal view- 
data network, sometime this quarter 
to investigate networking. 

Teaching Each Other 

With around 300 members and a 
comprehensive programme of activi- 
ties, the club is now catering to a 
whole range of needs. However, we 
are aware that any complacency will 
mean falling numbers, and conse- 
quently less variety in our activities. 
One way we aim to overcome this is 
by involving those who know some- 
thing to teach those who do not. In 
the homebrew area, for example, 
someone who has built a computer 
from scratch has invaluable knowl- 
edge, and this should be tapped. 

If members are not able to expand 
their activities as they get to know 
more, they will become dissatisfied 
and leave. One of the problems with 
clubs such as ours is that when they 
become three or four years old, most 



Microcomputing, February 1981 57 



of the members gather a fair amount 
of knowledge about all aspects of 
computing. People now entering 
often feel out of it, and do not return a 



second time. 

We look on computing as a hobby. 
Although about one-third of our 
members are professionally involved 




User participation after Jim Butterfield's talk. 



in computing, the recreational angle 
is stressed quite strongly. A typical 
comment from a DP manager work- 
ing within ICL was that he came 
along to play games because he 
couldn't at work. Others see comput- 
ers as becoming an important ele- 
ment in their future lives, and they 
want to know what they are all 
about. We feel that part of our objec- 
tive is to make computers human and 
to break down the mystique that has 
built up over the years. So, the mes- 
sage is come and play with one— it 
won't bite you. 

The club is a founding member of 
the Association of London Comput- 
ing Clubs, and this links us to eight 
other clubs in the London area. The 
ALCC encourages reciprocal mem- 
bership and has arranged some joint 
meetings. It also organized the Lon- 
don Computer Fair in July, with an- 
other one planned for 1981. Over 
3500 people attended during the two 
days of the exhibition and saw 35 
commercial and 12 club exhibitors. 
Profits from ventures such as this go 
to stimulate the starting of clubs in 
the parts of London without local 
groups. ■ 



Why Do Professionals Prefer 



O 



u 

(0 

0) 
CD 

c 
o 

O) 

c 
c 

I 

r 
< 

c 
o 

« 
o 

c 

E 
E 
o 
O 



BECAUSE 

• Unique software • Technical support • Quick 
delivery • Established company • Release 2 
CP M (some packages under UNIX 4 and TRSDOS ) 

• Quality software • In-house expertise • Fast 
response • User orientation • Competitive prices 

• Customer service • Verbatim' - media • Onyx 
hardware (CP/M and UNIX versions) 



BECAUSE 

Unique swift routing Cybernetics response system 
gives you no-nonsense technical answers that save 
you time. Call: (714) 848-1922. 




NEW RM/COBOL applications: 

• Order Entry/Inventory • Receivables • Payables • 
General Ledger • Financial Modeling • Client Account- 
ing— and more on the way! 

NEW CBASIC2 2 applications: 

• REAP (Real Estate Acquisition Programs). 



Business 
Medical 
Real Estate 
Computer Systems 



Software from Cybernetics? 



RM/COBOL— The new standard tor microcomputer COBOL!! The only COBOL 
for CP/M (also on TRSDOS A UNIX) with alternate keys (multi-key ISAM), CRT 
screen handling, interactive debug, and the most useful Level 2 features. Compat- 
ible with RSCOBOL*— but runs faster. 



QSOPT" Soft Merge Package 



Plus existing CBASIC2 packages 
APH (Automated Patient History) 
Osborne & Assoc - Payroll • Payables/Receivables 
• General Ledger 
NAD" (Name and Address) 
PMS (Property Management System) 

Inquire for details 

Trademarks of Ryan-McFarland Corp , -Compiler Systems, Inc , Digital Research, 4 Bell 
Telephone Laboratories, Inc , 'Tandy Corp , ^Verbatim, Inc , 'Cybernetics, Inc , 'Struc- 
tured Systems Group. Inc , 'Small Business Applications, Inc 



TRS-80', Model II CP/M— The fastest Mod II CP/M with the most features. Out- 
standing teaching documentation for newcomers to CP/M, multiple CRT emula- 
tion, down loading package, support for CORVUS 10 Mb hard disk. Many addi- 
tional user-oriented features. 

And system software packages A Distributed in U K by 

MAGIC WAND" Editing/Word Processing F^OCl Microcomputer Applications Ltd 

CBASIC2 Compiler BASIC I'M'! 11 Riverside Court. Caversham^ Reading. England 




8041 Newman Ave 
Huntington Beach, 
(714) 848-1922 



TEL (0734) 470425 



, Suite 208 
CA 92647 



58 Microcomputing, February 1981 



^167 



1520 EAST MULBERRY, SUITE 110 

FT. COLLINS, COLO. 80524 
PHONE 303-221-1955 



CREATE-A-BASE 

This data base management program for CBM or PET 32K 
handles most business data processing chores with one 
program. No computer experience required. Just turn it on 
and go! 



EXTREMELY FLEXIBLE FEATURES 

Create records with up to 24 fields of data of your 

choosing. 

File up to 650 records on each floppy diskette ( 1 800 if you 

own the 8050 Disk Drive). 

Change or add fields at any time. 

Change data disks without dumping operating program. 

Sort or search by any one or two fields. 

Data can be added as $ amounts, with right hand 

justification. 

Perform arithmetic operations on fields with $ amounts 

( + , -. •./). 

Merge files, change or scratch records, output mailing 

labels. 

Completely interactive with WordPro 3 or 4*. output form 

letters, mailing lists, accounts receivable, invoices, 

statements, inventories, even reports on your favorite 

fishing holes (and have more time to go fishing too). 

Start the new year off right with Create-A-Base. 

You'll pat yourself on the back for months. 

Create-A-Base runs on CBM 8032 or 2001 32K machines. 

Available on disk only; list price $200.00. 

Price $200.00 

For the 8050 Disk Drive $360.00 

*Word Pro is a registered trademark of Professional 
Software Inc. 



INVENTORY CONTROL 

Disk based for CBM or PET 32K 

Inventory 
Point of Sale 
Accounts Receivable 

Inventory a minimum of 2000 items per diskette (a lot 
more with the 8050 Disk Drive.) 

Complete records of merchandise purchased and sold. 
Update files and supply cost values of stocked items. 

Update cash and credit sales, write invoices, remove sales 
from inventory and keep running total of sales tax. 
Cash sales and credit sales. 

Maintain a complete record of items charged, payments on 
account, print bills, sort files and print out summary 
reports. 

List price is only $ 1 00.00 



WORDCHECK 

WordCheck is the secretary's lifesaver! 

Our newest and already one of our fastest selling 
programs. 

This program interacts with WordPro 3 or 4*. Run your 
letters and documents through WordCheck it checks EVERY 
SINGLE WORD for spelling or typographical errors. 

WordCheck contains a spelling list of most commonly used 
words. Any words that do not match this list will show up 
on your screen. If these flagged words are all right pass 
them by with the pressing of a single key or 
AUTOMATICALLY add them to the spelling list without 
having to retype them. 

WordCheck is ideal for doctors, lawyers and anyone else 
doing technical writing. WordCheck is so simple to learn to 
use your secretary can be working with it in a matter of 
minutes. 

Your worries are over! No more scrambling for the 
dictionary when you have to write "fluorescent ", 
"nucleotide"' or "receive". WordCheck does the work for 
you quickly, thoroughly and accurately. 

Available for CBM and PET 32K* * machines with dual disk 
drives. List price is only $200.00. 

* Word Pro is a registered trademark of Professional 
Software Inc. 

* *CBM and PET are registered trademarks of Commodore 
Business Machines. 



PET-TERM 

ONLINE TERMINAL SOFTWARE FOR 

THE 8010 OR TNW MODEM 

Machine language routines for speedy performance. 

All necessary screen and keyboard character conversions. 

Control key and special key functions. 

Terminal to Disk Storage. 

Sequential or Program file transmission capability. 

Return to BASIC at will. 
Operate Half or Full Duplex. 



EXTRAS 

Support programs, such as a 

SEQFILE READ/EDIT/PRINTER which allows you and your 
customers to read, edit and printout those data files you 
will be receiving from the SOURCE and other such data 
bases. Also provided is a SEQ/PROG DECODER which allows 
decoding of operating programs which have been 
transmitted via the 8010 MODEM. 

This program and complete operating documentation lists 
for only $39.95. 



^ Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 59 



A microcomputing revolution has begun in Argentina. 




The Argentine Connection 



By William P. Winter, Jr. 

Microcomputing in Argentina for 
the private citizen can best be 
described in one word— frustrating. 

When I first looked around for 
dealers in Buenos Aires (pop. 10 mil- 
lion), I found almost nothing. Rumors 
had it that several outfits sold Radio 
Shack TRS-80s, but I couldn't find 
one. They didn't advertise or have a 
sales room. A flier I picked up at an 
industrial show a year ago gave an 
address, but it was a private home 
and no one answered the door or the 
phone. I later found out that they no 
longer sold Radio Shack products. 

A friend who works as a program- 
mer in the local factory of a large 
multinational company told me they 
had recently received a TRS-80 for 
evaluation. The price? Hold your hats 
—$4000 for a level II 16K system with 
CPU, monitor and cassette deck. 
Someone really made money on that 
deal. The price was high even by 
Argentine standards, where taxes 
boost prices by about 100 percent. 

The company was having trouble 
with the computer because of little 
support or software; also, the instruc- 
tions were in English, which the em- 
ployees don't understand well. I sug- 
gested that we get together (I am also 
a TRS-80 owner) and exchange in- 
formation — a sort of users group — 
but so far nothing has developed. 

While doing my legwork I did dis- 
cover that some equipment is avail- 
able. The Motorola MEK6802D3 as- 
sembled circuit board sells for $480, 
which I understand is double the 
price in the U.S. It comes with com- 
plete documentation, but no acces- 
sories or power supply. The Cosmac 
VIP goes for $565, with no support. 

Also on the market is the Texas In- 




struments TM990/189 for $665 (list 
price in the U.S. is $299). This unit is 
designed for the college classroom to 
be used for teaching microprocess- 
ing. It comes complete with litera- 
ture. TI does have a field officer here, 
so support for their computer should 
be available. 

Radio Shack Arrives 

One day while out on the streets 
pursuing my regular activities as a 
missionary, I happened by a store be- 
ing renovated. It had newly painted 
lettering on the window advertising 
Radio Shack computer products. It 
was empty as yet, but four men were 
sitting together talking. Lo and be- 
hold, a Radio Shack representative 
was setting up a new computer outlet 
with a local firm. 

Several days later I met the mana- 
ger, Nenson C. Lodi of Factorial Co. 
What a refreshing experience! Here 



was a man who knew computers, 
knew business and came directly to 
the point. 

Lodi gave me a good outline of the 
microcomputing situation in Argen- 
tina—today and in the future. Up to 
this point, no manufacturing or mar- 
keting organization has made a seri- 
ous attempt to serve the Argentine 
market. There have been some fly- 
by-night, quick-buck operations, but 
nothing serious. Now Texas Instru- 
ments is entering the field, with Ra- 
dio Shack right behind. Radio Shack, 
for instance, is providing trained 
technical personnel and program- 
mers to set up operating systems, 
complete with software and servic- 
ing. 

Lodi game me a copy of the legiti- 
mate list prices for TRS-80 equip- 
ment. The Model I Level II 16K sys- 
tem sells for $2037, a far cry from the 
$4000 the local factory paid. 

Software, as Lodi pointed out, is a 
real problem. Software available 
from the U.S. is not directly usable 
here; the business structures, taxing 
systems, employee laws and so on 
are very different from those in other 
parts of the world. So software must 
be developed from scratch to meet 
the unique needs of Argentina. 

Microcomputing here is not for the 
hobbyist. High prices and lack of 
component parts and other hardware 
make it almost impossible for an in- 
dividual to become involved. The 
major users are the small-to-medium 
businesses. Lodi predicts that there 
will be a massive development in this 
area during the 80s.B 

William P. Winter, Jr., O'Higgins 3168, Buenos 
Aires, Argentina. 



60 Microcomputing, February 1981 



THE ORIGINAL MAGAZINE FOR 
OWNERS OF THE TRS-80™* MICROCOMPUTER 



SOFTWARE 

FOR TRS-80 ' 

OWNERS 



N 

t 

E 



CQIYIPUTRQNICS 

MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE 



i 

N 



MONTHLY 

NEWSMAGAZINE 

FOR TRS-80 * 

OWNERS 



Practical Support For Model I, II & III 



PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 

BUSINESS 

GAMBLING • GAMES 
EDUCATION 

PERSONAL FINANCE 
BEGINNERS CORNER 
NEW PRODUCTS 
SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 
MARKET PLACE 
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 
PROGRAM PRINTOUTS 
AND MORE 






PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN OUR FIRST 12 ISSUES 
INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: 

A COMPLETE INCOME TAX PROGRAM (LONG AND SHORT FORM) 

INVENTORY CONTROL 

STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS 

WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (FOR DISK OR CASSETTE) 

LOWER CASE MODIFICATION FOR YOUR VIDEO MONITOR OR PRINTER 

PAYROLL (FEDERAL TAX WITHHOLDING PROGRAM) 

EXTEND 16 DIGIT ACCURACY TO TRS 80™ FUNCTIONS (SUCH AS 

SQUARE ROOTS AND TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS) 

NEW DISK DRIVES FOR YOUR TRS 80" 

PRINTER OPTIONS AVAIIABI E FOR YOUR TRS 80 ,M 

A HORSE SELECTION SYSTEM***AKITHMETIC TEACHER 

COMPLETE MAILING LIST PROGRAMS (BOTH FOR DISK OR CASSETTE 

SI Q[ IENTIAL AND RANDOM ACCESS) 

RANDOM SAMPLING***BAR GRAPH 

CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 

LEVEL II UPDATES***! EVEL II INDEX 

CREDIT CARD INFORMATION STORAGE III 1 

BEGINNERS GUIDE TO MACHINE LANGUAGE AND ASSEMBI Y 

LANGUAGE 

LINE RENUMBERING 

AND CASSETTE TIPS. PROGRAM HINTS. LA ITS I PRODUCTS 

COMING SOON (GENERAI LEDGER, ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND 
RECEIVABI 1 . FOR IRAN 80. FINANCIAI APPI ICATIONS PACKAGE 
PROGRAMS FOR HOMEOWNI RS. MERGE TWO PROGRAMS. 
STATISTICAL AND MATHEMATICAI PROGRAMS (BOTH 
ELEMENTARY AND ADVANCED i AND 



* IKS HO'" IS A IKADEMARK ()l I ANDY CORP 
W/ORD PROCESSING PROGRAM For writing letters, text, mailing lists, etc., with each new subscriptions or renewal 
LEVEL II RAM TEST Checks random access memory to ensure that all memory locations are working properly. 
DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM Complete file management for your TRS 80'". 
CLEANUP Fast action Maze Game. 

ADVENTURE Adventure »() by Scott Adams (From Adventureland International) 
* All programs are supplied on cassette (add $3 for Diskette Version - add $5 for modified Mod-II Version). 



^f£ 



SEND FOR OUR NEW -18 PAGE SOFTWARE CATALOG (INCLUDING LISTINGS OF HUNDREDS OF TRS 8() ,M PROGRAMS AVAILABLE ON 
CASSETTE AND DISKETTE) $200 OR FREE WITH EACH SUBSCRIPTIONS OR SAMPLE ISSUE 



CQKIPJTRQNICS 



^6 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

ONE YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $24 
TWO YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $48 
SAMPLE OF LATEST ISSUE $ 4 



«-*«?"* 



HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



START MY SUBSCRIPTION WITH ISSUE 

(#1 - July 1978 • #7 - January 1979 • #12 - June 1979 • #18 - January 1980) 
NEW SUBSCRIPTION RENEWAL 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER 
SIGNATURE 



EXP DATE 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY. 



STATE 



Z\P. 



••• ADD $6 YEAR (CANADA, MEXICO) ADD $12 YEAR AIR MAIL OUTSIDE OF USA. CANADA & MEXICO **« 



S Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 61 



Marketing strategy, not luck, draws U.S. firms in droves. 




The Skill of th€ Irish 



By Robert O'Connor 

Ireland, with its generous system of 
grants and tax relief and its access 
to the European market, is well 
poised to take full advantage of the 
coming revolution in microelectron- 
ics. 

During the last four years a parade 
of American electronics firms has 
come to this small country. Compa- 
nies that are naturally identified with 
Route 128 near Boston or with Cali- 
fornia's Silicon Valley are now hap- 
pily doing business in such places as 
Dublin, Limerick and Cork. 

Among the big names here are 
Mostek, Digital Equipment and Mea- 
surex. In the micro field, Apple Com- 
puter, Inc., of Cupertino, CA, moved 
into a 43,000-square-foot plant in 
Cork to supply personal computers 
for the European market. Analog De- 
vices, of Massachusetts, which has 
been in Ireland since 1976, is concen- 
trating the entire production of inte- 
grated circuits— from design to mar- 
keting—in Limerick. 

In all, foreign-owned electronics 
companies have about 70 plants oper- 
ating in Ireland, representing a fixed 
investment of about $600 million. 
American firms account for more 
than 80 percent of this investment. 

The IDA 

The Industrial Development Au- 
thority (IDA) is largely responsible 
for this influx of capital. The IDA has 
a mandate to create as many jobs as 
possible for an expanding Irish work 
force, and its range of incentives is 
impressive. 

Ireland will pay up to 50 percent of 
the cost of plant and equipment and 
100 percent of training costs. Firms 
that committed themselves before 
1981 to coming in enjoy complete tax 
relief on exports until 1990. For new- 




er arrivals, there will be a standard 
corporate tax rate of 10 percent. Re- 
patriation of profits and full deprecia- 
tion of costs are also allowed. 

And there is Europe. Since 1973, 
when Dublin joined the European 
Economic Community (EEC), the 
IDA's salesmen have been getting the 
attention of American industrialists 
by telling them that Ireland (popula- 
tion 3.3 million) has, in effect, a big- 
ger domestic market than the United 
States. The average return on invest- 
ment for U.S. companies in Ireland 
is, at 29.9 percent, the highest for 
American firms doing business over- 
seas. 

' This compares with 13 percent for 
EEC countries as a whole," one IDA 
official here says. 

The heavy activity in the computer 
field here can be traced to a decision 
by the IDA in the early 1970s to 
launch a major attempt to lure the 
electronics industry. The success of 
this policy, according to the agency, 
is reflected by the fact that one-half of 
U.S. electronics firms that decide to 
go abroad now choose Ireland. The 
development of electronics has 
paved the way for other, more dra- 
matic, advances in the future. 

James I. Whelan, project manager 
of the IDA's Overseas Division, says 
the decision to go after the electronics 
industry was made on the basis of 
that sector's high profitability, long- 
term stability and encouraging pros- 
pects for economic growth. He also 
mentions the fact that electronics is a 
clean industry. 



The possibility for linkage with 
other areas is another consideration. 
Expansion into computers, for exam- 
ple, has led to the production of ter- 
minals, printers and disk drums. 
Business electronics has meant word- 
processing equipment and intelligent 
typewriters. And, Whelan says, there 
is the microchip, "the basic intelli- 
gence of the computer industry." 

"In our studies of the electronics 
industry,' Whelan says, "we found a 
close connection between the devel- 
opment needs of the Irish economy 
and certain areas of the electronics 
industry." 

The late Sean Lemass, prime minis- 
ter from 1959 to 1965, did much to at- 
tract foreign investment to a country 
that had traditionally relied on high 
tariff barriers to protect feeble native 
industry. 

Lemass' successor, Jack Lynch, 
continued this opening-up process. In 
1965, while still minister for industry 
and commerce, Lynch negotiated the 
Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement, which 
established a free trade area between 
the two countries. 

Lynch recalls that the price Ireland 
had to pay was a ten-year phasing-out 
of tariffs against British industrial 
goods. Dublin agreed to this with a 
much larger prize— the Common 
Market— in mind. 

"We felt," Lynch explains, "that if 
Irish industry could adjust itself to 
withstand British competition, then it 
would be in a good position to with- 
stand competition from the industrial 
countries of Europe." 

In 1969, under Prime Minister 
Lynch, the IDA was reorganized. In- 



Freelance writer Robert O'Connor lives in Dublin, 
Ireland. 



62 Microcomputing, February 1981 



stead of civil servants, one official 
says, it now has "people who have 
business experience and therefore 
can have empathy with the business 
people that we deal with." 

Helped by a pro-investment out- 
look from both of the major political 
parties, they have done their job well. 
Besides computers and electronics, 
Ireland has established a growing ex- 
port trade in pharmaceuticals and 
health care products. 

The Offshore Syndrome 

Of course, Ireland is a small coun- 
try. Its dependence on outside coun- 
tries to buy its exports, coupled with 
foreign control of its industrial base, 
means that it could be dragged along 
by outside forces faster than it might 
otherwise choose to advance on its 
own. 

Dr. Barry O'Shea, a member of the 
National Board for Science and Tech- 
nology, recognizes this "offshore syn- 
drome" and argues that part of the 
solution is to make foreign-based 
companies "more Irish.' The deci- 
sion of Analog Devices to established 
a front-end operation in Limerick is 
an example. 

As Robert Cochrane, also a mem- 
ber of the NBST, puts it, companies 
that have started offshore operations 
"have become increasingly locked 
into the Irish economy, and this is 
desirable from our point of view 
because the possibility of a pullout 
becomes less and less." 

Both men are optimistic. Cochrane 
points to trends in employment and 
exports. In 1980, according to the 
IDA, 13,500 electronics workers in 
Ireland produced about $800 million 
worth of exports. By 1985, employ- 
ment is expected to rise to the 30,000 
range, and exports, the IDA feels, 
will easily triple. 

Cochrane says the 1980 figure rep- 
resents 20 percent of the value of in- 
dustrial exports. In 1985, he says it 
will be 35 percent. Another encour- 
aging factor, he adds, is that in 1980 
Ireland was already producing 2 per- 
cent of the European electronics out- 
put—with 1 percent of the work 
force. This share, he says, will in- 
crease as electronics becomes even 
more important in Ireland. 

Cochrane acknowledges that the 
Irish government has been criticized 
for its generosity to the multinational 
corporations, but he contends that, in 
its efforts to compete on a world 
level, the country does not have a 
great deal of choice. 



The Irish government has 

been criticized for its 

generosity to the 

multinational corporation, but 

. . . the country does not have 

a great deal of choice. 



Turning to social attitudes, O'Shea 
says that Ireland is more open to new 
ways of thinking than is its neighbor 
across the Irish Sea. 

'In general," he says, "we have ac- 
cepted change more readily than the 
U.K." 

He cites two examples: member- 
ship in the Common Market and dec- 
imalization of the currency, each of 
which took effect in Britain and Ire- 
land in the early 1970s. In Ireland, 
O'Shea says, neither issue is the sub- 
ject of debate, whereas in Britain 
each can still touch off an argument. 

Computer Automation 

Computer Automation of Irvine, 
CA, has about 130 employees at an 
eight-acre site in Dublin, and, accord- 
ing to General Manager Stuart F. 
Dale, its experience in Ireland has 
been positive. The plant, whose staff 
is scheduled to expand eventually to 
500, makes minicomputer products 
and data processing systems for com- 
panies that need computers capable 
of talking to each other. Dale says the 
plant's capacity will develop to the 
point where it will be producing pro- 
grammable test equipment. 

Computer Automation is a public 
company organized in 1967. The 
firm's board of directors and the IDA 
reached agreement on the Irish proj- 
ect in 1978, and production began in 
February 1979. The company is in 
line for a total grant package of about 
$5.1 million. 

When asked why Ireland was 
chosen, Dale sounds for a moment 
like a pitchman for the IDA. He re- 
cites the usual list of attractions: the 
tax benefits and grants; the access to 
Europe; the availability of high-qual- 
ity, English-speaking labor. This last 
consideration, he says, was impor- 
tant for his firm, which is undertak- 
ing its first foreign venture. 

Labor costs, Dale reveals, are 
slightly lower in Dublin than at Com- 
puter Automation's two other plants, 
in Richardson, TX, and Irvine. He 



says there is "more compression" 
here and speculates that the Irish tax 
structure, which grabs bigger and 
bigger bites out of rising earnings, 
tends to lessen the difference be- 
tween top and bottom. 

'Interestingly enough,' he re- 
marks, "the starting rate in our low- 
est job classification here is a tiny bit 
above the lowest rate for starting 
classification in the States." 

Seventy-five percent of Irish indus- 
trial workers are unionized. While 
Computer Automation's two U.S. 
plants are non-union, there is com- 
plete unionization at its Dublin facil- 
ity. Dale says that labor relations 
here are good, and he says that the 
Dublin plant is making a profit, al- 
though he won't say how much. 
There have been no work stoppages 
at the Dublin plant. 

"Overall," Dale says of labor costs, 
'I think it's costing slightly less here, 
but not substantially less. And wages 
have been increasing in Ireland faster 
over the last couple of years than they 
have in America. So what differences 
existed in the past have tended to be 
eroded." 

He says technical education 'is 
very good in terms of basic electron- 
ics training and is improving as re- 
gards the exposure to computers. The 
first thing is to give them (the stu- 
dents) a sound basis of electronics, 
and I think they stack up quite well.' 

Asked what problems he has 
found, Dale says, 'The communica- 
tions system is poor, particularly if 
you get located in some of the west- 
erly areas." 

He adds that there is a difficulty in 
finding qualified supervisory people 
and a lack of "the whole range of sup- 
ports and services" that would nor- 
mally be available in a large, metro- 
politan area in the United States. 

Dale also indicates that an Ameri- 
can businessman in Ireland might 
find himself more involved with the 
government than he would prefer. 
Services that are provided in the U.S. 
by utilities or by private companies 
are often in the hands of government 
agencies here. And Dale tactfully 
suggests that some of these bodies 
"are not as responsive or efficient' ' as 
they should be. 

Data Terminal Systems 

Like Computer Automation, Data 
Terminal Systems (DTS), of May- 
nard, MA, is a relative newcomer to 
Ireland. It began its Irish operations 
in a temporary site in 1978 and the 

Microcomputing, February 1981 63 




>nm\ 



rogressive 
omputing 



^202 




HARDWARE: C1P VIDEO MOD MAKES YOUR 600 VIDEO 
EVERY BIT AS GOOD AS THE 4P AND 8P GIVES 32/64 CHR 
LINE WITH GUARDBANDS 1 AND 2 Mhz CPU CLOCK WITH 
300. 600 & 1200 BAUD FOR SERIAL PORT 

COMPLETE PLANS $19 96 

KIT (HARDWARE & SOFTWARE) $39 95 

INSTALLED 32 CHR-J79 96 64 CHR-S99 96 

EXTRA K OF VIDEO RAM FOR 64 CHR NOT INCLUDED! 
C1P SOUND EFFECTS BOARD COMPLETELY PROGRAM 
MABLE' FOR THE DISCRIMINATING HOBBYIST THE BEST 
BOARD ON THE MARKET FOR CREATING SOUND AND MU 
SIC CAN BE INTERRUPT DRIVEN SO THAT YOU CAN USE IT 
FOR GAMING PURPOSES HAS ON BOARD AUDIO AMP 16 
BIT INTERVAL TIMER. 128 BYTES OF RAM AND TWO 8 BIT 
PARALLEL I/O PORTS ASSEMBLED AND TESTED $99 95 FOR 
CVS AND $124 95 FOR 540 VIDEO 

BARE BOARD $39 95 BOTH INCLUDE PROG MANUAL 
AND SAMPLE SOFTWARE 

C1P HI SPEED CASSETTE KIT GIVES A RELIABLE 300. 600 & 
1200 BAUD NO SYMMETRY ADJUSTMENTS-THE IDEAL FIX 
FOR OSI S CASSETTE INTERFACE EASILY IMPLEMENTED 
IN 30 MIN —WILL SAVE YOU TIME AND MONEY EVEN THE 
FIRST NIGHT YOU USE IT' $12 95 

PROGRAMMABLE CHARACTER GENERATOR BOARD $99 95 
YOU CAN USE OSI S CHARACTERS OR YOU CAN MAKE 
YOUR OWN IMAGINE YOU CAN NOW DO TRUE HIGH RESO 
LUTION GRAPHICS 512x256 INDIVIDUAL DOTS IN THE 
64 x 32 SCREEN FORMAT AND ALL UNDER YOUR CONTROL 

OTHER MODS AVAILABLE — SEND FOR CATALOG 
SOFTWARE (WITH DOCUMENTATION! 
PC CHESS V1 9 $14 95 
PALY CHESS AGAINST YOUR COMPUTER 
HELICOPTER PILOT (64 CHR VIDEO ONLY) $8 96 
AN EXCELLENT GRAPHICS PROGRAM 
GOLF CHALLENGER $14 95 

FROM 1 TO 4 PLAYERS PALY A ROUND OF GOLF ON YOUR 
18 HOLE GOLF COURSE ONE OF THE BEST PROGRAMS I 
HAVE EVER SEEN 1 YOU CAN EVEN DESIGN YOUR OWN 
COURSE COMES WITH FULL DOCUMENTATION (14 PAGES) 
TWO VERY INTRICATE SIMULATIONS' 

WILD WEASEL II YOU OPERATE A SAM MISSILE BASE DUR 
ING A NUCLEAR WAR NOT AS EASY AS YOU THINK 1 YOU 
MUST OPERATE IN A THREE DIMENSIONAL ENVIRONMENT 
FAILSAFE II THE SHOE IS ON THE OTHER FOOT' HERE YOU 
ARE IN THE ATTACKING BOMBER AND YOU MUST PENE 
TRATE DEEP INTO ENEMY TERRITORY CAN YOU SURVIVE'' 
AN EXTREMELY COMPLEX ELECTRONIC WARFARE SIMU 
LATION' SPECIAL-BOTH FOR $1995 

MANY MANY MORE— SEND FOR CATALOG WITN 
FREE PROGRAM (HARD COPY) AND BASIC MEMORY 
MAP. SI. 00. TWO LOCATIONS TO SERVE YOU: 
3336 AVONDALE CRT., WINDSOR, ONT , CANADA 
N9E 1X6 (519) 969-2500 

3281 COUNTRYSIDE CIR., PONTIAC TWP. Ml 46057 
(313) 373-0468 



OSI (8K) 



APPLE 



TRS-801 




1 



Computers 

& Gambling 
Products 

PRESENTS: ", ' MOgOZifttt 

PROBABILITY HANDICAPPING 
DEVICE 1 - A BASIC PROGRAM FOR: 

HORSE RACE HANDCAPPING! 

This incredible program was written by a professional software 
consultant to TRW Space Systems This is a complex program 
carefully human factored tor easy use It is a comprehensive 
horse racing system for spotting overlays in thoroughbred sprint 
races Your computer will accurately predict the win probability 
and odds line for each horse based on your entries from the rac 
mg form The next day overlaid horses can be spotted on the 
track tote board The user's manual contains a complete explana- 
tion of overlay betting plus much more useful information The ap- 
pendix contains a detailed tab run of a 100 consecutive race 
system workout showing an amazing 50% return ($1 50 return- 
ed for each $1 00 flat wager ) Includes many features such as 
error correction bubble sort, line printer output, automatic 
keyboard debounce. archiving, etc The manual may be ordered 
separately for perusal for $7 95 and credit 

CHALLENGER 1P. 2P. or 4P 8K VERSIONS Now Available! 
Pttd-1 User's manual and cassette for: 
Apple II (16K), TRS-80 Level II (16K). Challenger (8K) 29.95 
TRS-80 or APPLE DISK 34 95 

BRAND NEW FROM SOL: WIN AT THE RACES. This thoroughbred 
handicapping algorithm is based on a currently popular book on 
thoroughbred multiple regression techniques Both sprints and 
routes All of the features of PHD-1 plus more This program in- 
corporates the best data entry technique we ve ever seen 
32K TRS 80 or APPLE CASSETTE 34 95 

32K TRS-80 or APPLE DISK 39 95 

BOOKS 

Winning at the Races 21 95 ♦ .75 PAH 

Beating the Races with a Computer 14.95 ♦ .75 P&H 

Make checks payable to JOE COMPUTER DEPT K *s 247 
77713 Ventura Blvd Suite F. Woodland Hills, CA 91364 

£3ff^ CA residents add 6 % sales tax "TS^ 

^e**r PHONE ORDERS: 213 992 0514 — 

•SEND $2 00 TO PLACE YOUR NAME ON OUR MAILING LIST 

t TRS 80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation 



following year moved into a perma- 
nent plant in Clondalkin, a village 
outside Dublin. 

The factory produces electronic 
cash registers and "point-of-sale 
terminals," those sophisticated 
checkout monitors that can do so 
much to increase retail profit 
margins. 

John J. Quinlan, DTS' personnel 
manager, says there are 160 people 
employed at the Clondalkin plant, of 
whom 20 are in marketing. Like Dale 
at Computer Automation, he will not 
discuss profits, but will say that the 
work force at the Clondalkin site is 
scheduled to increase to 800 in about 
five years. 

Quinlan says DTS' start-up grant 
was 40 percent, or about $800,000. 
Also in the works is a training grant of 
almost $250,000. 

'The whole idea of a training 
grant,' he remarks, "is a realization 
by the Irish government that in some 
areas skills are not available in Ire- 
land." 

Quinlan, himself an Irishman, said 
that while skilled managerial and 
technical people are in short supply, 
it is much easier to fill production 
jobs in Dublin than in Maynard. 
Here, he said, there are ten appli- 
cants for every opening on the shop 
floor. The $200-plus a week general 
workers earn here, plus their higher 
level of benefits, makes labor costs 
between the two plants comparable. 

DTS moved into a plant that was 
built for it by the IDA. The fact that 
the agency builds factories on specu- 
lation is a lure for computer firms, 
who rate the ability to get into pro- 
duction quickly over the need for 
elaborate facilities. 

Marketing in America 

The IDA's marketing program in 
the United States is, to say the least, 
aggressive. The importance the agen- 
cy places on reaching the U.S. com- 
puter industry is underlined by the 
presence of an office in Menlo Park, 
CA, to serve the nearby Silicon 
Valley. There are seven IDA offices 
in the U.S. and one in Canada. 

The IDA's representatives in 
America are marketing specialists 
who know how to knock on doors, 
and they do so about once a quarter at 
each of the major U.S. corporations. 

Part of their approach, James 
Whelan says, is to convice American 
firms with customers in Europe that 
once they reach a certain level of 
sales on this side of the Atlantic, "it 



becomes prudent for them' ' to go into 
production in Europe as well. Then a 
location is gently suggested. 

Whelan says some American com- 
panies will make the jump after 
European sales have hit $10 million. 
Others will wait until the figure 
reaches $30 million. 

The goal of an IDA salesman 
abroad is to get a corporation to agree 
to a site visit. After that is arranged, 
the agency assembles a team in 
Dublin to begin planning. During the 
visit, which generally lasts from four 
to five days, the IDA introduces its 
guests to bankers, representatives of 
AnCo, the government training agen- 
cy, and even competitors who have 
already set up shop here. If things 
progress to the stage of serious nego- 
tiation, Whelan says, they try to 
"satisfy the company without having 
to give away the kitchen sink." 

Like Cochrane of the NBST, 
Whelan believes that the IDA's gen- 
erosity is both justified and neces- 
sary. 

"Our bottom line,' he says, "is the 
creation of jobs." 

He notes that Ireland has the 
youngest population in Europe, with 
more than 50 percent of its people 
under the age of 25 and more than 30 
percent under 15. Unemployment, a 
persistent problem, was running at 8 
to 9 percent in 1980. 

The drop in farm employment, 
Whelan says, 'is going to mean that 
there will be a flood of people in the 
next 10 to 20 years into other sectors 
of the economy, the industrial sector 
and the service sector." 

The Future 

Whelan can see no point in the fu- 
ture where the IDA will be able to re- 
lax. Ireland's strongest competition 
for investment is coming from the 
United Kingdom, particularly its 
'special development areas" in 
Northern Ireland and Scotland. 

As of 1979, it was costing the IDA 
an average of $10,000 for every job 
that was created. The cost of recent 
projects has suggested that figure 
may have risen sharply. Whelan says 
the country gets its money back with- 
in 2Vz years in the form of taxes and 
other economic benefits. 

An economist for the Economic 
and Social Research Institute, an in- 
dependent research organization that 
draws most of its funds from the gov- 
ernment, believes that the IDA's poli- 

(continued on page 66 j 



64 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Glorious Utopia 



or 



Gloom and Unemployment? 



Microtechnology comes to Ireland 



To the average Irish citizen, the 
presence of so much foreign 
investment may mean the differ- 
ence between having to emigrate 
and being able to live in his own 
country. The bulk of the business 
is in the Dublin area, but Limerick 
has emerged as an industrial cen- 
ter, and the IDA, by offering to in- 
crease grants, has been able to 
steer investment to rural areas 
where it is most needed. 

The National Board for Science 
and Technology (NBST), a public 
body, is now involved in a defini- 
tive study of what Ireland can ex- 
pect from microelectronics. The 
project, due for completion this 
year, is under the direction of 
Robert Cochrane and Dr. Barry 
O'Shea, two members of the NBST 
staff. 

Cochrane and O'Shea explain 
that the study is aimed at sparking 
a general discussion of microtech- 
nology in Ireland, something that 
has not yet happened. 

"Some of the treatment in the 
news media has tended to be 
somewhat superficial,' Cochrane 
observed, adding that the new 
technology has been painted as 
something that will either open 
the door to a glorious utopia or 
usher in an age of gloom and 
massive unemployment. They 
suggest that neither will be the 
case in Ireland. 

Nevertheless, an interim report 
they released last year states, "The 
technology and application of 
microelectronics has tremendous 
political, cultural, sociological, 
psychological and philosophical 
implications. We are today in a 
unique position in that we can an- 
ticipate the changes which are 
ahead and so direct them, plan for 
them and prepare for them.' 

According to Cochrane and 
O'Shea, one factor that will tend to 
lessen the impact of the new tech- 
nology here is the importance of 



agriculture. Cochrane points out 
that 22 percent of the Irish labor 
force is still on the farm. 

"For a relatively developed 
Western country," he says, "it's 
an extremely high proportion." 

In the United States and the 
United Kingdom, Cochrane says, 
only 3 to 4 percent of the workers 
are involved in agriculture. The 
figure for West Germany is 9 per- 
cent. 

The percentage of agricultural 
workers in Ireland is expected to 
drop in the next few years, but this 
decrease will be offset in part by a 
sharp rise in the size of the labor 
force itself. Cochrane said the pro- 
portion of those involved in farm- 
ing should eventually stabilize at 
about 11 percent. 

While the microchip will intro- 
duce more efficiency in animal 
husbandry and crop management 
and thus permit some staff reduc- 
tions, O'Shea says that 'the new 
technology per se is not likely to 
have a major effect on agriculture 
in the foreseeable future.' 
Cochrane adds that the small size 
of Irish farms means that massive 
automation on the scale of Ameri- 
can-style agribusiness is not fea- 
sible. 

Smallness should also inhibit the 
effects of automation in industry. 
Cochrane says the average firm 
here has about 50 people and notes 
that in Britain a company with 
1000 employees is classified as 
average-sized. "That's a very large 
firm in Ireland," he observes. 

Pointing out that in industry, as 
on the farm, full automation is 
possible in only a very large opera- 
tion, Cochrane says that this pros- 
pect "in all sectors of the economy 
in a relatively few years is slim.' 

Organized labor has been very 
enthusiastic about the electronics 
industry in Ireland, and the feeling 
about microtechnology is one of 
cautious optimism. Donal Nevin, 



assistant general secretary of the 
Irish Congress of Trade Unions, 
the Irish equivalent of the AFL- 
CIO, cites the number of jobs elec- 
tronics has already created and 
says microcomputing has "enor- 
mous potential" for expansion in 
the service sector. 

Nevin says, however, that 
unions are "apprehensive" about 
potential long-term effects, partic- 
ularly on the jobs of women, who 
make up a large percentage of the 
work force in electronics. He says 
organized labor would like to see 
advances in technology used to in- 
crease leisure time "not for its 
own sake, but to control the wide- 
spread unemployment that could 
result." 

Irish unions will probably have 
a great deal to say in this area, 
given the high rate of organization 
among workers. 

Nevin concedes that Ireland has 
a reputation abroad for labor un- 
rest, but contends that most of the 
problem lies outside the area of 
private industry. He says that 85 
percent of the days lost to strikes 
in 1979 were in the public sector. 
A notable example that year was a 
19-week postal strike. 

'That's not to say we don't have 
problems in this area,' he states, 
'but they haven't prevented 600 
to 800 foreign firms that have 
come to Ireland over the last 20 
years from thriving. "■ 

-R.O'C. 




Worth Star 

BASIC UTILITY SET 



EDITOR — Create & edit a 
Basic program using 26 
commands, including 
GLOBAL locate & change. 

BPRT — Print & cross 
reference a Basic program. 

BPAK — Pack a Basic 
program. 

RE — Rename a disk file. 

<£CC\ pluS $1 50 shl PP ,n 9- 
vpOy Calif. Res. add 6°o. 

Check, VISA. M C 

Software Systems 

1269 Rubio Vista Road. Altadena. Calif. 91001 
^ ni (213)791-3202 





is Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 65 



OMEGA 

SALES 
CO. 



^89 



"WHOLESALE COMPUTER PRICES" 
DIRECT TO THE PUBLIC 

12 Meeting St., Cumberland, RI 02864 



PRODUCT SPECIAL 

of the MONTH!! 




'//// 



Products are 

NOW 

IN 

STOCK 

AT 

OMEGA 

SALES 

CO. 



Diablo 630 
51995 

$ 2195 (with tractor feed) 





Apple II 



16K $ 949 
48K$1099 



I 

Iomega offers the best delivery and price on: I 

APPLE • ATARI • TRS-80 Model II • INTERTEC • I 

DIABLO • EPSON • HEWLETT PACKARD • SOROC • I 

COMMODORE • NEC • QUME • CENTRONICS I 

I 



Epson MX 80 $599 



Centronics 
(limited quantities- 
call for availability) 
779-11 » 749 
7049 *1500 

730-3 * 599 
737-1 * 699 



V** 



■S>S.«--' 




NEC spinwriter 
5510 5530 $2449 




~ 



■ 



■ 



Televideo 
912 B or C — 
920 C- 



»699iJ 
*769 




Atari 800 - $769 



OMEGA sells only quality merchandise to our customers. 

OMEGA will try to match any current advertised price with similar purchase 

conditions. Before you buy anywhere else — be sure to call OMEGA Sales Co. 

1401-722-1027 




CALL TOLL FREE FOR OMEGA'S PRICE! 

1-800-556-7586 



VISA 



OMEGA ships via UPS, truck, or air. COD's. 
Visa, Mastercharge accepted, with no service charge. 



OMEGA U A member in good standing of the 
better business bureau." 



fcT) 



cy on foreign investment has worked 
well. 

"Southern Ireland/ he says, "was 
one of the first relatively less-devel- 
oped countries to embark on export 
growth. The main vehicle for that 
was foreign investment." 

The 1960s and early '70s, he says, 
were a boom period all over the 
world, but since 1974, 'the competi- 
tion for international mobile invest- 
ment has increased dramatically. 

'In a sense, then, the multinational 
enterprise is in a very nice position. 
It's in the position of being able to 
pick and choose." 

He said that the country could "get 
into a situation where the IDA could 
well be paying too much for foreign 
investment." 

As for the threat that foreign busi- 
nesses might exercise political con- 
trol, he says, 'There's no foreign in- 
dustry playing a dominant role in the 
country. And most of the plants tend 
to be rather small by international 
standards. I don't think people see 
any danger of their exerting political 
pressure." 

And concerning any fears that an 
incoming company might have about 
losing control of its enterprise to the 
government, the economist said, 
"Obviously the climate for foreign 
investment here is quite favorable. 
There's certainly no danger of expro- 
priation. It's certainly more favorable 
than in the U.K. or France.' 

So, regarding the changes that 
microtechnology will bring, the out- 
look in Ireland appears to be very 
promising. 

The IDA, which could teach corre- 
sponding agencies in the more indus- 
trialized countries a few things about 
business, has laid a solid foundation 
in the form of a large, varied electron- 
ics industry. The government, re- 
flecting a realism common to smaller 
nations, remains committed to for- 
eign investment. And the Irish people 
themselves, no longer forced to emi- 
grate en masse, look upon the crea- 
tion of thousands of jobs as a sign that 
their children will also be able to stay 
in Ireland. 

The factors that have made Ireland 
attractive in the American board- 
room are likely to continue with a 
cumulative effect. This country- 
through its incentives, its attitudes 
and its commitment to Europe— is 
likely to exert an ever stronger pull 
on the U.S. computer industry. In a 
sense, Ireland already has one foot in 
the next age.B 



66 Microcomputing, February 1981 



A 







L}& ■ 



r-m* ,^-yr 



tfm ' '■ 



r > 
■ i 



\f^ 



# * 



The tricks our IBMS software 
can make your Apple* do! 

The small businessman has never had it so good, or 
so easy. Because now there's our Interactive 
Business Management System (IBMS) . . . which 
lets your micro-computer perform'like a larger 
unit, so you can mind, monitor and manage every 
aspect of your business accounting. 

A Full System 

While it's extremely easy to use, IBMS is a fufl 
system to handle the full job. The ten program 
modules can 'generate everything from the 
original invoice to the final profit/loss statements, 
plus many peripheral operations. The special 
Menu includes: System Start-up. Accounts Re- 
ceivable. Accounts Payable. Perpetual Inventory. 
Payroll. Fixed Assets. General Ledger. Plus Mailing 
Labels, and an Appointments Calendar. 

Save Maximum Time 

Since IBMS is a totally interactive system, multiple- 
entering of data is eliminated. Make an entry in 
one area and it automatically updates all con- 
cerned areas! No duplication of effort, no wasted 
time, no problems. 

Proven. And then some. 

It took 3 years to develop IBMS, including shake- 
down and on-site testing. As a result, it's reliable 
and versatile and its documentation is thorough 
and easily understandable. No wonder we con- 
sider it 5 years ahead of anything else available to 
the Apple II user. 

Introductory Offer 

The complete IBMS software package, on mini- 
floppy disks, documentation, and the backing of 
Programma International, Inc. is offered for a 
limited time at the Introductory Price of $1495.00. 
You'll be amazed how it can satisfy you ... by 
saving you time, effort, money and employee 
growth. 



I • p 

y f 



The Key to Business Management 



1 iSfc V ■j 



PROGRAMMA 

PROGRAMMA INTERNATIONAL, INC. 
2908 N. Naomi Street, Burbank, Ca 91504 
(213) 954-0240 

* Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



^103 



^ Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 67 



FOR APPLE II AND APPLE II PLUS COMPUTERS 

DoubleVision 



AH 



JL 






l?^Ht^^iii 



m*n\ u*p- 



fentfb^k^krfkrfk^b 



TTTTf 









««««»»»«»* 



COLUMNS 



LINES 



Upper 



• is a hardware board that may be plugged into any slot in Apple II or Apple II Plus 32K or 48K Disks • full 128 ASCII character set, including 
control characters • fully programmable cursor • built in light pen capability • inverse video • full cursor control • works with 
50760Hz • has 2k of its own screen memory • has its own video output jack that must be connected to a monitor (or a high band width black 
& white TV thru a good RF modulator). Color TV's produce a poor display and are not recommended. • permits you to connect another 
monitor (or a T.V. set thru RFmod) to the Apple video output jack • displays 24 lines of 80 column text — programmable for different 
values • permits you to have graphics on Apple video output • video output and Apple video output may be connected to one monitor thru 
optional video switch • is active only when addressed for reading from or writing to • accepts lower case input from keyboard by use of 
escape key. (no modification required) or direct use of shift key (1-wire connection from shift key pad to DoubleVision required). • is compati- 
ble with the latest version of various word processing software packages. Presently these include Apple-pie 2.0— Programma International, 
Easywriter Professional system— Informational Unlimited, Text Editor/Formatter— Peripheral's Unltd. (when ordering from these companies, 
please ask for versions compatible with DoubleVision). All software available from Computer Stop when released. • Peripheral's Unltd. 
BITS and P I T.S. and Southeastern Software's "DATA CAPTURE" with Micromodem and communication card. These packages give ability 
to upload, transfer and download files from remote computers, and all at 80 columns! • Programma Int. latest assembler LISA V;20 w;)) sup- 
port full 80 column display • is transparent for use with Basic and Pascal • software on disk for easy modification and adaptation for dif- 
ferent applications • completely commented source listing of software and hardware schematics available • PASCAL 
(optional) • becomes the console when installed in Pascal • Permits 80 column text processing with full upper/lower case while using 
Pascal's editor • must be plugged into slot 3 when operating with Pascal 

Available now at your local computer store 3>^%70.UU 



Call Computer Stop for Store nearest you 
Shipping, Insurance, Handling, extra 



Dealer inquiries invited. 
Contact: 

COMPUTER STOP CORP 
2545 West 237th St. 
Suite L 
Torrance, CA 90505 

539-7671 



68 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Calif. Residents add 6% Sales Tax 



•Apple is a Registered TM of Apple Computers, Inc. 



The Computer Stop 

16919 Hawthorne Blvd. 
Lawndale, CA 90260 -*» 

(213)371-4010 



MON. - SAT 
10-6 




Australia spawns its own micro community. 





The Micro Down Under 



By Colin Keay 




The microcomputing scene in Aus- 
tralia most closely parallels that 
in Canada. It follows the lead of the 
United States (from whence our tiny 
tablets of digital power cometh). It se- 
verely suffers the tyrannies of taxa- 
tion and penalties of economics, 
which the American microcomputer 
market is spared. And in Australia we 
have the additional tyranny of dis- 
tance from the source. 

Nevertheless, sales are booming as 
the mighty micro invades the terri- 
tory of the minicomputer and con- 
quers virgin fields of its own. 

Australia is a land as large as the 
continental U.S. but with less than 
one-tenth of the population. So the to- 
tal market is smaller. But the variety 
of available micros might even be 
greater than in the United States. In 
addition to almost every significant 
American microcomputer, we also 
have available some British micros 
not easily obtainable in America, and 
a few of our own, such as the Austra- 
lian Alpha Micro, the AWA Micro- 
star and the Rose Opal/Omega. These 
are virtually unknown in America. 

Such variety tends to keep unit 
sales low and price high. Good dis- 
counts are rare. Then add the 15 per- 
cent sales tax, which all nongovern- 
ment buyers must pay, and the cost 
of air-freight across the Pacific 
(which is almost essential because 
of the high risks of transoceanic 



shipping damage and half-year tran- 
sit delays). The Australian micro 
buyer pays twice as much, or more, 
than the U.S. buyer. 

I recently bought in Atlanta an 
S-100 expansion unit at a special dis- 
count price of $249. Georgia state tax 
brought the total to $257 (equal to 226 
Australian dollars). It was worth the 
trouble of carting the unit home as 
part of my baggage because the Aus- 
tralian purchase price was 575 dol- 
lars including taxes (about $633). 

Software is, by comparison, much 
cheaper. No sales tax applies (except 
for the cost of the medium), and it can 
be readily duplicated under license in 
Australia. As a result the dollar cost is 
often identical. (Ten percent more in 
real expenditure due to the current 
rate of exchange.) 

As in the United States, a large 
amount of good software is available 
to individuals through membership 
in microcomputer clubs. In the larger 
state capitals clubs exist for each of 
the major micros, with not much 
cross-contact between users of differ- 
ent microcomputers. 

On the other hand, Newcastle, 
Australia's sixth largest city and the 
largest non-capital city, has a micro- 
computer club which is open to all. 
Owners of home-brew systems or un- 
common brands can share their expe- 
riences and get advice on their prob- 
lems. The Newcastle Microcomputer 




Club is based at Newcastle Univer- 
sity, where staff members— such as 
Peter Moylan, Gordon Johnston and 
Peter McNabb— have done much to 
introduce novices to the world of mi- 
crocomputing. 

I am bound to be accused of home- 
town bias when I remark that three 
graduates of Newcastle University's 
Physics Department have become 
nationally recognized figures in Aus- 
tralian microcomputing. Bill Caelli is 
Australia's Adam Osborne, our guru 
of the micro. His book The Microcom- 
puter Revolution, published by the 
Australian Computer Society, is now 
in its third printing. If nothing else, it 
proves that the computer profession- 
als in Australia are taking the arrival 
of the micro very seriously. Caelli has 
recently formed a company to mar- 
ket a device which he has developed 
to prevent unscrupulous micro own- 
ers from gaining access via phone 
lines to data in commercial comput- 
ers. 

Paul Goldsbrough is a leading edu- 
cator in microcomputing. Now based 
at the Canberra College of Advanced 
Education, he spent some time in 
America working with the well- 
known Blacksburg team which pro- 
duced the 8080 Bugbooks (he wrote 

Colin Keay is an associate professor of physics at 
The University of Newcastle, New South Wales, 
2308, Australia. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 69 



Bugbook IV on microcomputing in- 
terfacing), and he conducts frequent 
industry seminars on the use of mi- 
crocomputers. 

Our graduate most familiar to the 
amateur computing fraternity in Aus- 
tralia is John Kennewell, who de- 
signed the inexpensive Mini-Scamp, 
which gave many hundreds of Aus- 
tralians their first taste of microcom- 
puting. 

Dick Smith and Others 

The Mini-Scamp was marketed by 
a chain of electronics stores estab- 
lished by a mercurial entrepreneur 
named Dick Smith. Between charter- 
ing Jumbo-jet flights to the Antarctic, 
Dick Smith has become a multimil- 
lionaire by staying at the forefront of 
electronics marketing in Australia. 
He is Australian agent for the Exidy 
Sorcerer and the System 80, the Chi- 
nese copy of the TRS-80. His elec- 
tronics chain is second only to Radio 
Shack in the number of stores it oper- 
ates. 

Radio Shacks abound everywhere 
in Australia, with nearly 40 in the city 
of Sydney alone. As a result the 
TRS-80 is the number one seller, with 
Apple in second place. For a time the 
Sorcerer ran third, but despite Dick 
Smith's active promotion the troubles 
besetting the U.S. Exidy Corporation 
have held back the sales of that fine 
microcomputer. 

The Apple got away to a poor start 
in Australia through a distributor set- 
ting the selling price far too high. 
Other importers have since brought 
the price down to the point where the 
Apple is an excellent value for the 
money and is becoming the most 
widely used microcomputer in high 
schools. 

The PET has achieved a better pen- 
etration of the college and university 
market, but it is not yet widely avail- 
able in the retail market. 

Recently a controlling share in 
Dick Smith Electronics was bought 
by Woolworths Australia. This devel- 
opment may lead to sales of the Sor- 
cerer and the System 80 at Wool- 
worth's Shopping Centers all around 
Australia. It is a development which 
could give Tandy a run for its money 
on this continent. 

Obtaining microcomputing maga- 
zines continues to be a problem in 
Australia. Direct subscription is least 
expensive, but surface mail from 
America averages three to four 
months. In some capital cities com- 
puter stores import air-freighted 

70 Microcomputing, February 1981 




ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE Wf 

David Levy series on game theory 



copies of leading U.S. magazines and 
sell them for $4.50 per issue. But 
Dick Smith (there's that name again) 
manages to retail selected journals 
such as Byte, 80 Microcomputing and 
Kilobaud Microcomputing at only 
$2.95 to those lucky customers with- 
in range of a Dick Smith store. 

For many years the interests of 
Australian microcomputerists have 
been served by Electronics Australia 
($1.60), under the editorial guidance 
of Jamieson (Jim) Rowe, who has 
now switched to a post as Technical 
Director for the Dick Smith organiza- 
tion. This magazine published many 
articles featuring mainly 2650 (Sig- 
netics) and SC/MP (National Semi- 
conductor) systems. These include 
John Kennewell' s series on his Mini- 
Scamp and a broad variety of 2650 of- 
ferings by Jim Rowe and David Ed- 
wards. As a result the Z-80 and 6502 
have a much weaker foothold in Aus- 
tralian homebrewing computing than 
in the United States. 

In mid- 1980 Australia's first micro- 
computing journal, Australian Person- 
al Computer, was launched. How- 
ever, it is very obviously a relative of 
the English magazine Personal Com- 
puter World and leans on it heavily for 
content material. 

The progress of microcomputing in 
schools and universities reflects the 
struggle between the innovative mi- 
crocomputer enthusiasts and the con- 
servative big-machine advocates. In 
some places the two attitudes coexist, 
but generally, the introduction of 
microcomputing meets opposition 
from entrenched "real computer— 
not hobby computer" mentalities. 



For example, my university has in- 
stituted degree courses aimed at pro- 
ducing specialist computer scientists 
and computer engineers, but a course 
aimed at educating general scientists 
in the use of microcomputers (among 
other things) in their work has been 
suspended to conserve funds and 
manpower. But despite negative atti- 
tudes and occasional setbacks, the 
microcomputer is intruding more 
and more into teaching and research 
in most university science and engi- 
neering departments in Australia. 

Schools in Tasmania 

On the school scene the state of 
Tasmania has for the past nine years 
been following the policy that "every 
child will have some exposure to in- 
teractive computing while at school,' 
with the result that Tasmania now 
has at least 162 terminals in schools. 
These are connected to a network of 
seven computers ranging from 
PDP-8s up to a VAX 11/780. West 
Australia is following suit, but the 
other states of Australia, not having 
such networks, are embracing the 
microcomputer to an increasing ex- 
tent. Unfortunately, there is no coor- 
dination, and the results are heavily 
dependent on the interest and atti- 
tude of the teaching staff of each 
school. Again, Tasmania has been a 
leader in providing a facility where 
schools purchasing Apple microcom- 
puters can retrieve useful Apple pro- 
grams through their statewide com- 
puter network. 

As far as the training of school 
teachers in microcomputers is con- 
cerned, the facilities in Australia are 
poor. There is nothing similar to the 
Laboratory for Personal Computers 
in Education at the State University 
of New York at Stony Brook. But the 
tide is turning, and despite severe fi- 
nancial cutbacks in Australian tertia- 
ry education, there is a growing de- 
mand by school teachers for courses 
of training in microcomputing. The 
teachers are being increasingly em- 
barrassed by pupils who know far 
more about microcomputing than 
they do. Imagine the problems they 
will have if we reach the stage similar 
to Japan's, where mothers are report- 
edly buying their children microcom- 
puters so they can keep up with their 
classmates who already have access 
to one. 

It's quite a taste of future shock to 
overhear a couple of 12-year-olds 
arguing the relative merits of eight- 
bit versus 16-bit processors! ■ 



More CFR Spectaculars!!! 



Parallel Input Correspondence' SELECTRIC 
TYPEWRITER/PRINTER TRS Rn 

Features iMb-BU 

• 15" Frame. 132 Columns COMPATABLE 
•Takes Std. Office 

Golf-Ball' Elements 
•Parallel T L Input 
•W\h Itfo ?rimer mechanism 
•Upper & Lower Case ASCII Ini 
•Used. Reconditioned Terminals 
•Ideal for Word Processing 
•Use as a Typewriter. Tool 



Prices Are 

Sub/eel to Change 

on All Items 




Only 
.00!! 



Complete. 
Ready to Use 



Replacement Line Cord Included. No Type Element Included 
•Add $20 00 for Handling & Packaging. Pay Shipping When Delivered 

IBM Technical Data for Selectric' $20.00ea 

-GET OUR BARGAIN-PACKED PERIPHERAL FLYER!!- H 

DAISY KSR ASCII TERMINALS 

Featuring: 

• 15" Frame. 132 & 156 Columns 

• 15 & 30 Characters/Second 
•Dual Pitch (10. 12 Chars/Inch) 
•Diablo "Hytype" Printer 

• Plotter Function w/ 1/60"H & 1/48"V Steps 

• Simple RS-232-C ASCII I/O 

Includes Operator's Instructions. Schematics. Etc 
Add $40 for Shipping Crate Pay Shipping on Delivery 

System 75 Daisy Terminals $ 1 499.00 



CASE STYLE 
MA Y DIFFER 



BARGAIN 'FLOPPY" DRIVES 

Removed from service, built by MPI Div. 
of Control Data. 9400 Series, takes 
Shugart-type 8" diskettes. Good cond.. 
may need some service. Incl.: data, schem- 
atics, etc. 

Only *229.00 

Buy 3 and SAVE BIG! 3/*599.00 Pius Sh.ppmg 



»^110 




Associates, Inc. 



MAIL ORDERS: 

Box 144, Newton, N.H. 

03858 



PHONE ORDERS: 

617/372-8536 

(Sorry; No Collect Calls) 
Mastercharge & VISA Welcome 



WAREHOUSE: 

18 Granite St. 

Haverhill, Mass. 01830 



AT LAST! 

Mass production prices on this high quality software. Buy direct and save 
50%. Now, also available for CBASIC on CPM and MBASIC on HEATH 
HDOS. 

DATA BASE MANAGER Mod-I $69 Mod-ll $199 

You can use it to maintain a data base & produce reports without any user 
programming. Define file parameters & report formats on-line. Key 
random access, fast multi-key sort, field arith., label, audit log. No time- 
consuming overlays. 500 happy users in a year. Mod-ll version has over 
50 enhancements including 40 fields max. IDM-M2 is great!' - 80-US. 

A/R Mod-I $69 Mod-ll $149 

Invoices, statements, aging, sales analysis, credit checking, form input, 
order entry. As opposed to most other A/R, ours can be used by doctors, 
store managers, etc. 

WORD PROCESSOR Mod-I $49 Mod-ll $49 

Center, justification, indentation, page numbering. Mod-I version features 
upper/lower case without hardware change! 

MAILING LIST Mod-I $59 Mod-ll $99 

The best! Compare and be selective. Form input, 5-digit selection code, zip 
code ext.. sort any field, multiple labels Who else offers a report writer? 

INVENTORY Mod-I $99 Mod-ll $149 

Fast, key random access. Reports include order info, performance 
summary, E.O.Q., and user-specified reports. Many have converted their 
inventory system to ours! 

GL. A/R. A/P. & PAYROLL Mod-ll $129 each 

Integrated accounting package. ISAM, 100+ page manual, Uses 80 column 
screen, not 64. A $1,000 value. Dual disk required. 

L216. a cassette package of 10 business programs for Level II 16K 
systems, $59. Includes word processor & data base. Poker game $19. 

Most programs are on-line, interactive, random access, bug free, 
documented and delivered on disks. Mod-I programs require 32K TRSDOS. 
Don't let our low prices fool you! If still not convinced, send SASE (28C) for 
catalog. 



^ 



MICRO ARCHITECT. INC.. 

96 Dothan St., Arlington, MA 02174 



^108 



MARK GORDON 

COMPUTERS 



«^84 



DIVISION OF MARK GORDON ASSOCIATES, INC. 

P.O. Box 77, Charlestown. MA 02129 
(617)491 7505 



SORT-80 

Produced exclusively for 

Marie Gordon Computers by SBSG 

TRS-80* disk files may be sorted and merged using 
SORT-80, the general purpose, machine language, sort 
program. Written in assembly language for the Z-80 
microprocessor, it can: 

—Sort files one disk in length 

—Sort Direct Access, Sequential Access and 

Basic Sequential Access files 
— Reblock and print records 
— Recontrol files from disk 
—Be executed from DOS 
—Be inserted in the job stream 
—Allow parameter specification 

• input/output file specification 

• input/output record size 

• lower/upper record limit 

• print contents of output file 

• input/output file key specifiers 

The minimum requirement is a 32K TRS-80* Level II com- 
puter with one disk drive or a single drive Model II com- 
puter. It will operate on 35, 40 and 77 track drives, and has 
been tested on TRSDOS 2,1, 2.2, 2.3, NEWDOS 2.1, 3.0 and 
VTOS 3.0.1. It is compatible with most machine language 
printer drivers. Sort time is fast: for example, a 32K file will 
sort in approximately 40 seconds. $59. 

InfoBox is the easiest-to-use information manager 
available for the TRS-80*. It's ideal for keeping track of 
notes to yourself, phone numbers, birthdays, inventories, 
bibliographies, computer programs, music tapes, and 
much more. This fast assembly language program lets you 
enter free-format data, variable length items and lets you 
look up items by specifying a string of characters or words 
that you want to find. You can also edit and delete items. 
Items entered into InfoBox can be written to and read from 
cassette and disk files. All or selected items can be printed 
on a parallel or serial printer. InfoBox occupies 3K. Specify 
cassette or disk version. $29.95 



DBUG + 29.95 

The ultimate monitor/disassembler 

Compare the features and price of DBUG + with other 
monitor/disassembler programs. It offers nine true, 
single-byte breakpoints, single step program execution, 
hex and decimal arithmetic including multiply and divide 
and conversions, ASCII dump that distinguishes all 256 
codes, disassembly to screen and printer in full Zilog 
mnemonics, and register set command. It also has the 
usual port I/O, hex and decimal memory dump, change, 
move, copy and exchange memory features offered by 
others. Ideal for the user who wants to experiment with 
assembly language or to write subroutines to call from 
BASIC; essential for the serious programmer. Special in- 
troductory price. 



master charge 



TRS-80 is a Tandy Corp. Trademark 




is Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 71 



Procep is one reason why PET is number one in France. 




Portrait of a 
Dynamic French Company 




The PET/CBM microcomputers 
may only be third in the U.S. But 
in Europe they are number one: by 
far in Great Britain and Germany, 
and by a comfortable, if slightly 
smaller, margin in Holland, Italy and 
France. 

The PET's quality is, of course, a 
major contributor to its success. But 
in the case of France, a second factor 
is the earnestness and activity of 
Commodore's exclusive importer, 
the Procep company. 

Procep started about five years ago. 
In those days, the company was very 
small— three or four people. They im- 
ported MOS Technology 6500 family 
microprocessors, primarily the 
KIM-1 board. 



When Commodore bought MOS, 
Procep became their importers. Big 
business began. They have since 
grown quickly— the company em- 
ploys 25 people and sells 300 systems 
a month. These figures will probably 
double this year. 

Quality Service 

Despite their growth, Procep offers 
the same good service. We have 12 
PETs and CBMs where I teach, and 
we've always received fast delivery 
and thorough documentation. And 
while we have yet to experience a 
system breakdown, I've heard that 
Procep' s maintenance service is also 

good. 

Procep controls a full network of 



The Euromicro Association 
(European Association for Micro- 
processing and Microprogram- 
ming) plays an important role in 
information propagation all over 
Europe, in the field of microcom- 
puters and related areas. Founding 
chairman is Dr. Rodnay Zaks. It 
publishes a journal (Euromicro 
Journal, formerly Euromicro News- 
letter), which is written on a scien- 
tific level. The March 1980 issue 
contains an interesting special sec- 
tion devoted to microcomputing 
that features very informative re- 
ports on the market for and use of 
microcomputers in different Euro- 
pean countries. People interested 



can obtain a copy by writing to one 
of the addresses below. 

The second important action of 
Eucromicro is to organize a con- 
gress of more than 500 partici- 
pants every year. Successive loca- 
tions have been Nice, France; Ven- 
ice; Amsterdam; Munich; Gote- 
borg, Sweden; and London (Sep- 
tember '80). The next congress 
will be in Paris in September 1981. 

For any inquiries write to D.J. 
David, c/o Euromicro, 18, rue 
Planchat, 75020 Paris, France, or 
to the U.S. correspondent, G.J. 
Lipovski, Department of Electrical 
Engineering, University of Texas, 
Austin, TX 78752. 



distributors and retailers, thus letting 
customers throughout France take 
advantage of their services. Distribu- 
tors are strongly supported by Pro- 
cep; they are trained in special semi- 
nars and receive all the information 
they need to serve their customers. 

Procep offers an excellent docu- 
mentation service. All Commodore 
brochures are translated into French. 
Translations are done as quickly as 
possible, thus relieving some of the 
documentation shortage customers 
have experienced in the past. 

Also, Procep offers a whole range 
of customer seminars. These include 
an introduction to microprocessors, 
an introduction to CBM systems use 
(with emphasis on printers and flop- 
py disks), microprocessor industrial 
applications (with emphasis on the 
Sysmod industrial system), Pascal 
programming, use of the IEEE and 
the CBM in business applications. 
Other seminars cover specific profes- 



DanielJ. David teaches business data processing 
at University of Paris 1. He is a member of the Eu- 
romicro and ISMM associations. His articles have 
appeared in Kilobaud Microcomputing, and he 
is a regular contributor to the main French micro- 
computing magazines, Microsystemes and 
L'Ordinateur Individuel. He writes a PET col- 
umn for the latter. He has authored several books 
on microcomputers, including La Decouverte du 
PET, La Practique du PET/CBM and Pro- 
grammer en Pascal. La Decouverte du PET 
(PET's BASICs) is being translated into English 
and will be published by dilithium Press soon. 



72 Microcomputing, February 1981 



sions, such as teaching or journalism. 

Software Support 

Procep's earnestness shows most in 
software. A full team of nearly ten 
programmers develops programs or 
adapts already written programs for 
the French market. Programs cover 
such areas as text processing, tele- 
processing, stock handling and gen- 
eral accounting. The company gives 
special support to customers who 
develop programs suitable for a 
whole branch of interest. 

All software developed by Procep 
is tested and approved by profession- 
als in the target branch before re- 



lease. This is especially important for 
the CBM 8000 series, which is more 
for professionals. 

Industrial Support 

Procep distributes Sysmod, a sys- 
tem of industrial printed-circuit 
boards (known as Eurocards) that 
plugs into a CBM 3000 to permit in- 
dustrial process control. Also, a CBM 
with Sysmod constitutes a true devel- 
opment system for the 6500 family. 
Sysmod boards include a parallel in- 
put/output board that features two 
6522s, analog input or output boards 
(eight or 12 bits), a relay board (12 re- 
lays), optically isolated input or out- 



put boards, an EPROM programmer 
board, a serial input/output board 
and a CPU board that permits the 
customer to use Sysmod in auton- 
omous mode. 

Conclusion 

In the long run, Procep's attitude 
will be rewarding. They have saved 
their customers frustrating and dis- 
couraging experiences, and this will 
help ensure a real development in the 
field of microcomputing. Procep has 
thus become an important contribu- 
tor to the success of Commodore, and 
more generally of microcomputing in 
France. ■ 



The French government, especially 
the Ministry of Industry, is quite ac- 
tive in the areas of electronic data 
processing, microelectronics and 
microcomputing. Their awareness 
was indicated last year by the organi- 
zation of a colloquium on "Informa- 
tics and Society,' which was attend- 
ed by President V. Giscard d'Estaing. 

Under the auspices of the Ministry 
of Industry, the DIELI (Direction des 
Industries Electriques et Informa- 
tiques) is carrying on several projects. 

First, a set of conferences has been 
organized throughout France to make 
industrial designers and managers 
aware of the potentials of micropro- 
cessors. In conjunction with this, a 
number of technical schools, called 
relay centers, have been established. 
These centers provide microproces- 
sor seminars and courses in each 



region, and help companies who 
want to incorporate a microprocessor 
in one of their products. They pro- 
vide consulting engineers and devel- 
opment system facilities, thus saving 
companies the investment in equip- 
ment and qualified engineers. 

In education, a project called 
'10,000 micros dans les Lycees" 
(10,000 micros in public schools) has 
provided roughly 1000 machines to 
schools throughout France. The pro- 
gram is a continuation of one that in- 
stalled minicomputers in a number of 
schools. The micros use the LSE lan- 
guage, an intermediate between 
BASIC and APL with French key- 
words. 

Also, public competitions have 
been organized to encourage more 
widespread use of microcomputers 
in everyday life. In 1980, the second 



year for the contests, a second com- 
petition was organized in the field of 
computer-aided artistic creation. The 
prizes are $1000-$20,000 grants to 
buy microcomputer equipment. 

The two categories for competition 
are future projects and real imple- 
mentations. Last year, winning proj- 
ects were related to present worries 
of the man on the street: energy sav- 
ings, health, education, security and 
aid for the handicapped. They in- 
clude a programmable electronic 
organ, a programmable rhythm box, 
a light box, an electronic lock (the key 
is a printed circuit), graphics creation 
software, an electronic drill, a heat- 
ing regulation system, a typing ma- 
chine for the handicapped, a diabetic 
assistance system and an obstetrical 
monitoring system. 

-D. J. David 



MICROCOMPUTER CHIPS 



4116 CHIPS : 

16K— 200 NANOSECONDS 

GUARANTEED PRIME 

IN STOCK FOR 
IMMEDIATE DELIVERY 

1 SET OF EIGHT . . . $32.95 
10 SETS OF EIGHT . . . $29.95 EACH 

FOR TRS-80, APPLE, MOST OTHER 
MICROCOMPUTERS. 

call or write immediately 
NO C.O.D.s 



1^351 



GENERAL PERIPHERALS 

41 GRASSY PLAINS STREET 

BETHEL, CT 06801 

(203)743-5583 



FIFTY BUS SYSTEMS 

32K 6800s from $1694.59 

32K 6809s from $1844.69 

Include: Chassis, CPU, 32K Static Ram, l/Os 
Fully Expandable 

2114L 300ns STATIC RAM CHIPS $5.90 

CAPTnpy PRIMP From the same shipment we use in our 
rmuiuni mime professional quality boards 
Add $5 00 Handling on Orders Under $200 00 

32K STATIC RAM BOARD 

FOR THE SS50 AND SS50C BUS (SWTP etc.) 

• SS50C Extended Addressing (can be disabled). 

• 4 separate 8K blocks • Low power 2114L RAMS 

• Socketed tor 32K • Write Protect 

• Gold Bus Connectors 

16K $328.12 

24K $438.14 

32K $548.15 

Phone, write, or see your dealer for details and prices on our 
broad range of Boards and Systems for the SS50/SS50C 
BUS including our UNIQUE 80x24 VIDEO BOARD, and our 
AC Power Control Products for all computers. 

Gimix ,, <5i 

1337 W. 37th Place • Chicago, IL 60609 
(3 1 2) 927-55 1 • TWX 9 1 0-22 1 -4055 
The Company that delivers. 

Quality Electronic products since 1975. 

GIMIX* and GHOST* are Registered Trademarks of GIMIX INC 



r 

A 
P 



L 
E 



T 
R 
S 

8 


I 

B 

M 



W 
A 
N 
G 



A 

L 

T 

A 

I 

R 



Maxell ° R MDysan 



Some computerists pay less - but may not 
receive Shuggart or IBM° approved disks. 



8 SINGLE SIDE 

DOUBLE DENSITY Box of 10 for $60 

8 DOUBLE SIDE 

DOUBLE DENSITY Box of lO for $ 70 

5 V MINI Box of 10 for $50 

DYSAN* DISKS 

EV MINI Box of S for S25 

( Specify - 8" Soft or Hard Sector/5" Soft or Hard Sector) 




CO D. S1.00 Additional 



(fabuK^UctMutict 



%£. 



L. 



238 EXCHANGE STREET 
CHICOPEE, MA. 01013 

413-592*4761 

established 1960 • closed mondays 
ATARI BMBMBMB TI/99-4 ! 



^141 



1 

D 
A 



G 

E 
N 
E 
R 
A 
L 



M 
A 

T 
T 
E 
L 



C 
R 

E 
M 
E 
N 
C 
O 



PET 



_; 



v* Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 73 



In all my dealings with software 

houses the one company 

which has always impressed me with its high 

quality service has been 

Instant Software 



v 



or 



:*:*:*3 



ftV.VfflV.V.VSV.V/.W 




-■_•_■_■- 



-■_■_■_■_■. 



■ ■ ■ ■ I 

• ■ • ■ 
• ■ • ■ I 



■ ■ 



■ • 



■ * 



• ■ 



■ ■ 



■ • 



■ ■ 



I • • 



■ • 



• ■ • • 



• ••••••••••a 

)••■•■«••••• 

■ ■■■••■••••■■•••■a 

• ■•••■•■•■■■■■■•••I 

• •■•••••■•■•■■•■■■•■a* 

• ■•■•••••••••■••••••I 

• ••••••••••••••••••• 

■ •■•••••■•■•••■■■■••I 

• ••••••••••••••••••• 

• •••••••■■••••••••••I 

■ ••■■•■■■•••■•••••••••■•I 

>••••••••■••■•••■•••••■•• 

• •••••■••••••••••■•••••a* 

■ ■•••■■■••••••••■•■■■■•■• • ' 



^ 



• •••••••■•••••••••••••■•••< 

!•••• ••••■••••••»•••••••••• 

• ••••■•••••••••••••••■••••< 



• ■ 






^^ 








..«■•••••■••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••■•■• ■ «« ^^- *^^b ,s*r«»v 

• • . . • • • • %>' • • • • • ^^■■Ijl^^H-"*^ T| ^00^^ * 

■ ••••■•■•••••■••••■••••••••••••••■•••■•••••••••*• •■" r ••••••• • - - • • *^ _-*»-**^ ^ JT* • • • • • 

,••••■■■••••••••••••••••••••••••••■••••■■•■•••••••■••••••••••••■ •^■■^^r-* ■ #«■ >" ....... 

• •••••••••••••••••••■•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• *^ • • "•""" 

■ ■•••■•••■•■■••■■••■••■•••■•••••■••••••••••••••••■••■■•*•*' 

. •■■•■•■■••••■•••••■•■•••••■••••••••■••••••••••*••••■■■■*** fi A"^yx' I " I ' A T"V A "A A O 

■ •■•••••■••••■••••••••••••■•••••••••■••••••••••••""••**'**' XI 111 A ) A W/l N 

••••• » _ 

• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• D*.^vo< Ac\*-\ f /"\t 



• « 



• 



• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• D^QOl/^QMf nf 

...........................••...••••••••.••••••••••••••••• i res i Lit, ni l ui 

• •••••••••••••••■••••••••••••••••••••••••a Anvpnturp Intern nil on in .*.' 

• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• .>i-«,l ft 1 1 4- V» r*\ *• /-vf* T"Vio 

• ••••••••••••••••••••••a • • • • • • •••••••••-•_•_•-•-•-"."-*.*.•_". •.". , _"-*_'.*. * dllvl clUlIlwI vJl lllC 

"Adventure" Series. 



• ••••■••••••••••••«• 



• • • 



• < 



Instant Software 



PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE 03458 603-9247296 



74 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Instant Software 

Now Sells The Adventure Series* 



YOU CAN CALL 1-800 258 5473 TO ORDER THESE NEW INSTANT SOFTWARE 
OFFERINGS. OR STOP BY ONE OF OUR 300 DEALERS THROUGHOUT THE 
U.S.A. AND THE WORLD, FOR PERSONALIZED SERVICE. 



*AND 
MORE 



ADVENTURE! 

1) ADVENTURELAND - You wander through 
an enchanted world trying to recover the 13 
lost treasures. You'll encounter wild animals, 
magical beings, and many other perils and 
puzzles. 
TRS-80 Tape Order No. 5501R 



2) PIRATE'S ADVENTURE - "Yo ho ho and a 
bottle of rum... ."You'll meet up with the 
pirate and his daffy bird along with many 
strange sights as you attempt to go from your 
London flat to Treasure Island. 
TRS-80 Tape Order No.5505R 



3) MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURE 

Good morning, your mission is to.. ..and so it 
starts. Will you be able to complete your 
mission in time? Or is the world's first 
automated nuclear reactor doomed? 
TRS-80 Tape Order No.5507R 

4) VOODOO CASTLE - Count Cristo has had a 
fiendish curse put on him by his enemies. 
There he lies, with you his only hope. 
TRS-80 Tape Order No.5508R 

5) THE COUNT - You wake up in a large brass 
bed in a castle somewhere in Transylvania. 
Who are you, what are you doing here, and 
WHY did the postman deliver a bottle of 
blood? 

TRS-80 Tape Order No.5511R 

6) STRANGE ODYSSEY - Marooned at the 
edge of the galaxy, you've stumbled on the 
ruins of an ancient alien civilization complete 
with fabulous treasures and unearthly tech- 
nologies. 

TRS-80 Tape Order No. 5512R 

7) MYSTERY FUN HOUSE - Can you find your 
way completely through the strangest Fun 
House in existence. 

TRS-80 Tape Order No.5513R 

8) PYRAMID OF DOOM - An Egyptian Trea- 
sure Hunt leads you into the dark recesses of 
a recently uncovered Pyramid. 

TRS-80 Tape Order No.5516R 

9) GHOST TOWN - Explore a deserted western 
mining town in search of 13 treasures from 
rattlesnakes to runaway horses, this Adven- 
ture's got them all! 

TRS-80 Tape Order No.5517R 



MORE* 



ALL 3 PAKS 
TRS-80 32K 
Apple 48K 



3 PAKS 



Apple 

No.5503AD 
TRS-80 
No.5504RD 



3 PAKS 



Apple 

No. 5509 AD 

TRS-80 

No.5510RD 



Prices: All Tapes 16K . . .$14.95 
All 3 Paks Disk . . $39.95 



3 PAKS 



Apple 

No.5514AD 
TRS-80 
No.55l5RD 



STAR TREK 3.5: Get those Klingon's! The newest, most 

sophisticated Star Trek version by the Grand Master - Lance 

Micklus. The top program of it's kind available. 

TRS-80 Mod.l L.II 16K 

Order No.55l8RD $19.95 Disk 

Order No.5519R $14.95 Tape 

SLAG: War gaming at it's best. Real time graphics combined with 
long range planning make this an exciting, fascinating game. 
TRS-80 Mod.l L.II 16K 
Order No.5520R $14.95 Tape 

ASTEROID: The real time, high resolution graphics game that's a 

smash hit at Arcades all over the world. Three levels of difficulty. 

Save your quarters. 

Apple 2 Disk 

Order No. 5521 AD $19.95 

KID VENTURES: #1 Little Red Riding Hood. Allows your child to 
interact with the story, learning as they go. Designed for readers and 
non readers alike. Includes sound and play along cassette tape. 
TRS-80 Mod. 1 16K 
Order No.5522R $14.95 Tape to Disk 

GALACTIC EMPIRE: Good strategy space war game. You as 

commander of Galactica's Imperial forces, must capture and hold 

the 20 inhabited worlds of the Galactic System. 

TRS-80 Mod. 1 16K 

Order No.5523R $14.95 Tape 

Order No.5524RD $19.95 Disk 

GALACTIC TRILOGY: Special all three games of the Trilogy - 
Galactic Empire, Galactic trader, and Galactic Revolution all on one 
disk at a special savings. 
TRS-80 Mod. 1 16K 
Order No.5525RD $39.95 

* INTERACTIVE FICTION: The computer sets the scene with a 
fictional situation. Then you become a character in the story. When 
its your turn to speak, you type in your response. The resulting 
dialogue and even the plot will depend on what you say. 

SIX MICRO STORIES:An introduction to interactive fiction. 
Involves the reader in a variety of situations from being a spy to a 
pilot in a doomed 747 and more. 
Order No.5526RD $14.95 Disk TRS-80 Mod. 1 16K 



LOCAL CALL FOR DEATH: A detective story considerably more 

challenging them the above program. 

Order No.5527RD $19.95 Disk TRS-80 Mod. 1 16K 

TWO HEADS OF THE COIN: Psychological Mystery set in the 
London of Sherlock Holmes. Most challenging of all. Will tax your 
observational and imaginitive skills. 
Order No.5528RD $19.95 Disk TRS-80 Mod. 1 16K 



We Guarantee It! 

r^ la nt So/r^^ 

^/o Guarantee ^\<^\ § 



<>l R PROGRAMS ARE GUARANTI I I) 
K) BE 01 \l II Y PRODUCTS. II \()l 
COMPLETELY SATISFII I) VOl MAY 
RETURN Illl PROGRAM WITHIN 60 
DAYS. A ( Kl 1)1 I OR REPLAC1 Ml N I 
WILI Bl Wll.l INGI Y GIVEN K)K 
ANY REASON. 



s 



temmwtmw 



DEALERS: 

Instant Software is offering you SUBSTANTIAL discounts 
when ordering these top selling programs. Just call toll-free 
1-800-532-5474, to place your order. WE SHIP RIGHT AWAY!!! 
Call us, if you need any further information. 



1 



Instant Software 

PETERBOROUGH, NEW HAMPSHIRE 03458 603-924-7296 



*s Reader Sen/ice— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 75 



Been yearning to tackle a major assembly-language project? 
Part 1 of this article describes a do-it-yourself FORTH interpreter. 



Write Your Own 
FORTH Interpreter 











; RDSEC - read 


a sector from the disk 


; HL - 


track t 


o read 




; DE - 


sector 


to read 




; BC - 


memory 


area to read 


to 


RDSEC 


PUSH 


B 


; save memory address 




PUSH 


D 


; save sector 




MOV 


B,H 


; all subs expect arg in BC 




MOV 


C,L 






CALL 


SETTRK 


; set track 




POP 


B 


; BC gets sector 




CALL 


SETSEC 


; select sector 




POP 


B 


; BC gets memory address 




CALL 


SETDMA 


; set memory address 




CALL 


REAL 


; READ the sector 




RET 








Listing 


la. Example assembly-language routine. 













RDSEC - read a sector from the disk 

IQP (of stack) - track to read 

TOP-1 - sector to read 

TOP-2 - memory address to read to 

NOTE: This routine won't work because it uses the 

same stack for subroutine calling and parameter 

passing. It is here only to make a point. 



RDSEC 



CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
CALL 
RET 



SETTRK 
SETSEC 
SETDMA 
READ 



SETTRK uses up top of stack 
SETSEC uses up top of stack 
SETDMA uses up top of stack 
all arguments set, perform read 



Listing lb. Example use of uniform parameter passing on the stack. 



RDSEC - read a sector from the disk 

TOP (of stack) - track to read 

TOP-1 - sector to read 

TOP-2 - memory area to read to 

NOTE: This is a threaded code routine. It uses two 

separate stacks and so will work. 

RDSEC DW TCALL ; threaded code CALL 

TCALL SETTRK, set track 
TCALL SETSEC, set sector 
TCALL SETDMA, set memory address 
TCALL READ, read sector 
threaded code RETurn 

Listing lc. Sample assembly code compressed into threaded code. 



DW 


TCALL 


DW 


SETTRK 


DW 


SETSEC 


DW 


SETDMA 


DW 


READ 


DW 


TRET 



By Richard Fritzson 

FORTH has become a popular pro- 
gramming language. It is avail- 
able for most microcomputers, from 
a variety of sources, in a variety of 
forms, under a variety of names. The 
language is fast and interactive and 
produces compact code. It also is easy 
to understand and implement. 

To implement the simple version 
explained in this article, you should 
be comfortable writing assembly 
code for microcomputers. Although 
the examples are all in 8080 assembly 
language, much of the source pre- 
sented is written in machine-inde- 
pendent threaded code so everything 
can be moved to another micro with 
only a little extra effort. 

The FORTH interpreter has three 
parts: an internal interpreter, an ex- 
ternal user interpreter and a compil- 
er. This article covers the implemen- 
tation of the interpreters. 

The Internal Interpreter: 
Threaded Code 

Most programming languages pro- 
duce either machine code, which is 
directly executed by a CPU, or inter- 
preter code, an internal representa- 
tion of the program, which is then in- 
terpreted by another program. In the 
first group are most FORTRANs, 
PL/M and assembly language. The 
second group includes nearly all BA- 
SICS, LISP and UCSD Pascal. 

Richard Fritzson, 25CallodineAve., Amherst, NY 
14226. 



76 Microcomputing, February 1981 



I The interpreter's architecture: a program counter and a stack 



019D 0000 



019F A101 



01A1 



PC 



DW 



RSTACK DW 



DS 







$ + 2 



80H 



;a 16 bit pointer into the MIDDLE off 
;the current instruction (not the 
; first byte, but the second) 

;the stack pointer points to the next 
; AVAILABLE stack position (not the 
; topmost occupied position) 

; reserved stack space 



RPUSH - push DE on stack 

ENTRY: DE - number to be pushed on stack 

EXIT: DE - is unchanged 

DESCRIPTION: this code is illustrative of how the 

stack works. However it is not used in the system and 

can be left out. 



;get stack pointer 

; store low byte 

;bump pointer to next byte 

; store high byte 

;bump pointer to next empty slot 

; restore pointer 



RPOP - pop DE from stack 

ENTRY: No Register Values Expected 

EXIT: DE - top element of RSTACK 

DESCRIPTION: this code is illustrative of how the 

stack works. However it is not used in the system and 

can be left out. 



0221 


2A9F01 


RPUSH 


LHLD 


RSTACK 


0224 


73 




MOV 


M,E 


0225 


23 




INX 


H 


0226 


72 




MOV 


M,D 


0227 


23 




INX 


H 


0228 


229F01 




SHLD 


RSTACK 


022B 


C9 




RET 





022C 
022F 
0230 
0231 
0232 
0233 
0236 



2A9F01 

2B 

56 

2B 

5E 

229F01 

C9 



RPOP 



LHLD 


RSTACK 


DCX 


H 


MOV 


D,M 


DCX 


H 


MOV 


E,M 


SHLD 


RSTACK 


RET 





rget stack pointer 

;drop to first stack position 

rget high byte 

;get low byte 
.•restore stack poiner 



Listing 2. Sample code showing stack details. 



FORTH produces threaded code, 
which is neither interpreter code nor 
directly executed by a CPU. It is in- 
terpreted, but the interpreters are so 
much faster (more than ten times the 
speed of BASIC) and so much smaller 
(less than 50 bytes) than other inter- 
preters that they are in a class by 
themselves. 

Notice that good assembly-lan- 
guage programs use subroutine calls 
as often as possible. In fact, they con- 
tain code that consists largely of 
CALL statements; the rest of it is for 
shuffling parameters in preparation 
for the next CALL (Listing la). If a 
standard method of parameter pass- 
ing were used, so that each routine 
returned its value(s) where the next 
routine expected to find its argu- 
ments, there would be no code at all 
except the CALL statements. 

To implement threaded code, first 
use the stack to pass all arguments to 
subroutines and to return all values 
from subroutines. (This is why 
FORTH is so stack oriented.) 

Once you have eliminated all of the 
code except the subroutine CALLs 
(Listing lb), look at the program. 
Every third byte of the program is the 
same. It is the machine-language op 
code for CALL. This is redundant in- 
formation and accounts for one-third 



of the memory occupied by the pro- 
gram. 

Eliminate the redundant informa- 
tion. Replace every CALL op code 
with one special CALL (which I will 
call TCALL, for threaded CALL). In 
algebra, this is called factoring. 

Listing lc provides a few details of 
threaded code. First, the RET instruc- 
tion has become a special TRET in- 
struction (to match the TCALL). Sec- 
ond, you are no longer writing assem- 
bly code. All of the instructions are 
assembled using the data declaration 
pseudo-op DW. No machine could 
execute the code produced by this as- 
sembly. Third, the most distinguish- 
ing feature of threaded code is that 
each instruction consists of the ad- 
dress of a subroutine. 

Design of the Internal Interpreter 

Since this new program cannot be 
executed directly by the CPU, you 
need an interpreter. But, because the 
code has such a close relationship to 
the machine code from which it is de- 
rived, the interpreter's task is easy 
and the interpreter itself is simple. 

Take a closer look at a threaded 
code routine. Table 1 shows two 
kinds of subroutine addresses in a 
threaded code program: addresses of 
machine-language subroutines and 



don't risk 

magnetic damage to 
edp storage media 

Many computer users have learned "the nard way" that 
accidental exposure to magnetic fields can erase or 
alter data and programs stored on disks and tapes. 
Such irretrievable loss can occur during media transit 
or storage if unprotected disks or tapes are exposed to 
the magnetic fields produced by motors, transformers, 
generators, electronic equipment, or even intense tran- 
sient fields induced by electrical storms. 

Data-Safe Products provide reliable, economical 
protection against stray magnetic field damage by 
shielding disks and tapes with the same high-permea- 
bility alloy used to shield cathode ray tubes and other 
magnetic-sensitive components. DISK*SAFE Floppy 
Disk Protectors, punched for 3-ring binder, sandwich 
two 8" disks, or smaller mini-disks, between sheets of 
magnetic shielding alloy encased in the strong vinyl 
pockets. (Binder sent free with 10 Protectors). 

DISK*SAFE 

FLOPPY DISK PROTECTORS 




TAPE * SAFE 

METAL CASSETTE SHIELDS 

TAPE*SAFE Cassette Shields are constructed of mag- 
netic alloy, with heliarc-welded seams and an easy- 
open hinged top. Each attractively-finished TAPE'SAFE 
holds one cassette in its original plastic box. A 
shelved metal FILE DECK (not shown) stores up to six 
TAPE* SAFEs for easy access. (One free with each six 
TAPE*SAFEs). VISA and MasterCard telephone orders 
accepted. Prices below include shipping. 

DISK*SAFE Floppy Disk Protectors: 1-5, $8.95 ea; 
6-9, $7.95 ea; 10 or more w/binder, $6.95 ea; 

TAPE-SAFE Cassette Shields: 1-5, $14.95 each; 
6 or more with free FILE DECK, $12.95 each 

TAPE-SAFE FILE DECK: $10.95 each. ^ 218 

Data-Safe Products, Inc. 

1926 Margaret St , Phila , PA 19124* 215/535-3004 
Dealer Inquiries Invited 



„* Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 77 



addresses of other threaded code rou- 
tines. The threaded code routines all 
begin with the word TCALL, and so 
are easily recognized. The machine 
code routines, however, can begin 
with an arbitrary machine instruc- 
tion. This makes them hard to recog- 
nize. 

To remedy this, I introduced a 
third special word, CODE, which 
means that the following routine is 
written in machine language and the 
interpreter should simply transfer 
control to it. Notice that each ma- 
chine-language routine must end by 
jumping back to the interpreter. 

Like the rest of the instructions in a 
threaded code program, TCALL, 



SUBRX 



DW 

DW 
DW 
DW 



TCALL 

SUBRA 
SUBRB 
SUBRC 




SUBRB 



DW 

DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 



TCALL 

SUBRC 
SUBRD 
SUBRE 
TRET 



SUBRA 



DW TRET 



DW 


CODE 


LXI 


B, 10 


POP 


H 


DAD 


B 


PUSH 


H 


IMP 


NEXT 



1 



Main Program 



Threaded Subroutine 



Machine-Language Subroutine 



Table 1. Two types of threaded-code subroutines. 






TRET and CODE are addresses of 
subroutines that perform the appro- 
priate tasks for the interpreter. 
TCALL and CODE, which precede 





















• 


NEXT 


- main 


internal interpreter loop 






• 
1 


ENTRY 


: PC - 


points 


into the instruction just completed 






• 
1 


EXIT: 


PC - 


incremented by 2, points to next 






; 






instruction 






; 




DE - 


points 


to middle of first word of 






; 






next routine (i.e. (PC)+1) 






• 
I 


DESCRIPTION 


: increments the PC; picks up the code 






• 
1 


word 


of the 


next routine and jumps to it. 


0237 


2A9D01 


NEXT 


LHLD 


PC 


; increment program counter 


023A 


23 






INX 


H 


;while loading DE with 


023B 


5E 






MOV 


E,M 


;next instruction 


023C 


23 






INX 


H 




023D 


56 






MOV 


D,M 




023E 


229D01 






SHLD 


PC 




0241 


EB 






XCHG 




,-pick up word addressed 


0242 


5E 






MOV 


E,M 


;by next instruction (which 


0243 


23 






INX 


H 


;is CODE, TCALL or some other 


0244 


56 






MOV 


D,M 


; executable address) 


0245 


EB 






XCHG 




; and 


0246 


E9 






PCHL 

Listing 


3. Main 


;jump to it 

interpreter loop. 





TCALL - the threaded call routine 

ENTRY: DE - middle of first word of routine being called 

EXIT: No Register Values Returned 

DESCRIPTION: pushes the current contents of the PC 

onto the return stack; makes DE the new PC. 



0247 2A9D01 
024A EB 
024B 229D01 
024E 2A9F01 

0251 73 

0252 23 

0253 72 

0254 23 

0255 229F01 
0258 C33702 



TCALL 



LHLD 

XCHG 

SHLD 

LHLD 

MOV 

INX 

MOV 

INX 

SHLD 

JMP 



PC 

PC 

RSTACK 

M,E 

H 

M,D 

H 

RSTACK 

NEXT 



;get old program counter 
; replace with DE 

;push old PC on RSTACK 



;back to interpreter 



Listing 4a. TCALL instruction. 



TRET - the threaded code return 

DESCRIPTION: pops the top element of the 

return stack and puts it into the program counter. 



025B 5D02 
025D 2A9F01 

0260 2B 

0261 56 

0262 2B 

0263 5E 

0264 229F01 

0267 EB 

0268 229D01 
026B C33702 



TRET 



DW 

LHLD 

DCX 

MOV 

DCX 

MOV 

SHLD 

XCHG 

SHLD 

JMP 



$ + 2 

RSTACK 

H 

D,M 

H 

E,M 

RSTACK 

PC 

NEXT 



;CODE 

;get stack poiner 

;high byte of top element 

;low byte of top element 

.•restore stack pointer 
; store top of stack in PC 

;back to interpreter 



Listing 4b. TRET instruction. 



the body of the routine, are often 
called code words, or type words. 
You will later see uses for more than 
just these two types. 

You can now design and write a 
complete interpreter for these rou- 
tines. To execute a sequence of in- 
structions, the interpreter needs a 
pointer to keep track of where it is. 
This is the equivalent of a CPU's pro- 
gram counter (PC) register. To handle 
the subroutine calling (the TCALL 
and TRET instructions), it needs a 
stack. 

How you implement these two 
constructs depends partly on which 
CPU you are writing for and partly 
on your own tastes. I use an 8080 and 
put both the PC register and the stack 
pointer in memory. This is because 
the 8080 doesn't have many 16-bit 
registers; I am not willing to tie one or 
two of them up with these pointers. 
The hardware stack pointer, as noted 
earlier, is already in use for passing 
parameters. Listing 2 shows some 
sample code demonstrating the de- 
tails of the stack. 

The entire main loop of the inter- 
preter is shown in Listing 3. (Its name 
is Next because its purpose is to step 
to the next instruction. This is not my 
own idea but seems to be a FORTH 
implementation tradition.) 

Its operation is simple: It incre- 
ments the program counter to the 
next instruction (which is the address 
of a subroutine), picks up the word 
that the instruction points to (which, 
being the first word of a subroutine, 
is either CODE or TCALL) and jumps 
to it (reminding us once more that 
CODE and TCALL are addresses of 
directly executable code). 

The routines to handle the special 
instructions are equally simple. The 
TCALL instruction (Listing 4a) stores 
the program counter on the stack and 
replaces it with the address of the 
word containing the TCALL instruc- 
tion (the word currently being exe- 
cuted). When the PC is next incre- 



78 Microcomputing, February 1981 




FMG CORPORATION NOW CARRIES GRAHAM-DORIAN & PEACHTREE SOFTWARE ) 



VISA* 



master charge 



H (T) 



NEW 

VERSATILITY 

For Your TRS-80 

® 





CONTROL PROGRAM 

FOR MICROCOMPUTERS 

ENABLING YOU TO RUN 

SOFTWARE PUBLISHED 

FOR CP/M 1.4 ON THE 

TRS-80 

CP M is considered the industry stand- 
ard disk operating system because it 
gives you the hardware-independent 
interface you need to make your com- 
puter work for you. CPM 2.0 is the 
latest in the evolution of a proven relia- 
ble and efficient software system. FMG 
CORPORATION NOW OFFERS THE 
CP/M 2.0 FOR THE TRS-80. 
It features an enhanced upward com- 
patible file system and powerful new 
random access capabilities. The CP/M 
2.0 from FMG provides the ability to 
run software published for the CP/M 
system, on the TRS-80 Model II. From 
minidisks, floppy disks, all the way to 
high-capacity hard disks, the flexibility 
of CP M 2.0 makes it a truly universal 
operating system. The package in- 
cludes an 8" system disk, editor, as- 
sembler and debugger for the TRS-80 

Available in Format A, B, C,G only . . . $200 $25 

mp/Mi 

MULTI-PROGRAMMING MONITOR 

NEW INDUSTRY 
STANDARD 

A deluxe operating system that 
provides big computer facilities at 
small computer prices. MP/M is a 
monitor program which operates 
with your microcomputer to provide 
multi-terminal access with multi- 
programming at each terminal. 
Best of all, it's CP/M compatible 
which means you can run a wide 
variety or programming languages, 
applications packages, and devel- 
opment software. 

You can run simultaneous edi- 
tors, program translators, and 
background printer spoolers. Or 
you can use MP/M for data entry or 
data-base access from remote ter- 
minals. Or you can use MP/M real- 
time features to monitor an assem- 
bly line and automatically schedule 
programs for execution throughout 
the day. MP/M makes an excellent 
focal point for a cluster of con- 
nected microcomputers. The pos- 
sibilities are limitless. 

(Format B) $450 $35 

(Format G) $300 $35 



*CP/M and MP M are trademarks of Digital Research 
ZSO is a trademark of Zilog. Inc 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp 
Pascal/M is a trademark of Sorcim. 



/MANUAL 
MANUAI/AIONE 



(M) 



N P.O. Box 16020 
Fort Worth, Texas 

76133 
(817) 294-2510 



All FMG Software Products Include All Neces- 
sary Manuals 

SOFTWARE / 

• MICROPRO INTERNATIONAL **SmkA 

SUPER-SORT I - Sort, merge, extract utility as abso- 
lute executable program or linkable module in Micro- 
soft format Sorts fixed or variable records with data 
in binary, BCD. Packed Decimal. EBCDIC ASCII 
floating & fixed point, exponential, field justified etc' 
Even variable number of fields per record 1 $225 $25 
SUPER-SORT II - Above available as absolute pro- 

9 ram on| y $175/$25 

SUPER-SORT III - As II without SELECT EXCLUDE 

$125/$25 

WORD-STAR - Menu driven visual word processing 
system for use with standard terminals Text format- 
ting performed on screen Facilities for text paginate 
page number, justify center and underscore User 
can print one document while simultaneously editing 
a second Edit facilities include global search and 
replace. Read Write to other text files, block move 
etc Reauires CRT terminal with addressable cursor 
positioning $495 $40 

WORD-STAR Customization Notes - For sophisticated 
users who do not have one of the many standard 
terminal or printer configurations in the distribution 
version of WORD-STAR N A $95 

WORD-MASTER Text Editor - In one mode has super- 
set of CP'M's ED commands including global search- 
ing and replacing, forwards and backwards in file in 
video mode, provides full screen editor for users with 
serial addressable-cursor terminal $150 $25 



o 

(M) 

n 

(M) 



U 

(M) 



(M) 



(M) 



FLOPPY SAVER - Protection for center holes of 5" 
and 8" floppy disks Only 1 needed per diskette Kit 
contains centering post pressure tool and tough 
7 mil mylar reinforcing rings for 25 diskettes. 

5". Kit $14.95 

5". Rings only $7.95 

8". Kit $16.95 

8". Rings only $8.95 

HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE Cleans the drive Read/ 
Write head in 30 seconds Diskette absorbs loose 
oxide particles, fingerprints, and other foreign parti- 
cles that might hinder the performance of the drive 
head Lasts at least 3 months with daily use. 

8" $32.00 

5V4" $30.00 



DESPOOL — Allows flexibility and efficiency. 
(Disk file printing can be accomplished while 
simultaneously using the computer for other 
tasks) Slower printers do not tie up the com- 
puter. Requires 32K minimum $75 $10 

SCREEN EDIT — Text editor for program en- 
try — allows user the ability to see entries as 
they are being made. Has command which en- 
ables user to move the viewed position of the 
file anywhere within the current data file OR 
add information anywhere in the file. Requires 

16K minimum $125 $25 

(Also available in TRS DOS format. 
Specify model or TRS-80) 

• MAC — Disk-based, powerful macro assem- 
bler utilizes Standard Intel Mnemonics. In- 
cludes macro processor. 

The CP M 8080 Macro Assembler reads as- 
sembly language statement from a diskette 
file and produces an Intel "HEX" format object 
file on the disk suitable for processing in the 
TRS-CP M environment. Requires 32K mini- 
mum and CPM $100 $25 

•ZSID — Efficient and reliable program testing 
system for Z80 microcomputers. Capabilities 
include traceback and histogram facilities. Al- 
lows real time break points. 
ZSID is a symbolic debugger which expands 
upon the features of the TRS-CP M standard de- 
bugger, providing greatly enhanced facilities 
for assembly language program check-out. Re- 
quires 32K minimum and C P M $99 $25 

MAIL LIST — Mailing list maintenance package. 
No sorting required to print normal address la- 
bels in zip code sequence. Supports new larger 
zip code. Sorts and selects on multiple fields. 
Labels may be printed in user selectable for- 
mats Includes sort and select utilities $300 $35 



FMG's LIBRARY: 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



(T) 



PEACHTREE SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 
GENERAL LEDGER - Records details of all financial 
transactions Generates a balance sheet and an in- 
come statement Flexible and adaptable design for 
both small businesses and firms performing client 
writeup services Produces reports as follows Trial 
Balance, Transaction Registers, Balance Sheet. Prior 
Year Comparative Balance Sheet, Income Statement, 
Prior Year Comparative Income Statement and De- 
partment Income Statements. Interactive with other 
PEACHTREE accounting packages Supplied in 
source code for Microsoft BASIC $990 $30 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE - Tracks current and aged 
payables and incorporates a check writing feature. 
Maintains a complete vendor file with information on 
purchase orders and discount terms as well as active 
account status Produces reports as follows: Open 
Voucher Report, Accounts Payable Aging Report and 
Cash Requirements Provides input to PEACHTREE 
General Ledger Supplied in source code for Micro- 
soft. BASIC $990/$30 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - Generates invoice regis- 
ter and complete monthly statements. Tracks current 
and aged receivables Maintains customer file includ- 
ing credit information and account status. The cur- 
rent status of any customer account is instantly avail- 
able Produces reports as follows: Aged Accounts 
Receivable. Invoice Register, Payment and Adjust- 
ment Register and Customer Account Status Report 
Provides input to PEACHTREE General Ledger. Sup- 
plied in source code for Microsoft BASIC $990 $30 

PAYROLL - Prepares payroll for hourly, salaried and 
commissioned employees. Generates monthly, quar- 
terly and annual returns. Prepares employee W-2's 
Includes tables for federal withholding and FICA as 
well as withholding for all 50 states plus up to 20 
cities from pre-computed or user generated tables. 
Will print checks', Payroll Register, Monthly Summary 
and Unemployment Tax Report. Provides input to 
PEACHTREE General Ledger Supplied in source 
code for Microsoft BASIC $990 $30 

INVENTORY - Maintains detailed information on 
each inventory item including part number, descrip- 
tion, unit of measure, vendor and reorder data, item 
activity and complete information on current item 
costs, pricing and sales. Produces reports as follows: 
Physical Inventory Worksheet, Inventory Price List, 
Departmental Summary Report, Inventory Status Re- 
port, The Reorder Report and the Period-to-Date and 
Year-to-Date reports. Supplied in source code for 
Microsoft BASIC $1,190 $30 

MAILING ADDRESS Keeps track of name and ad- 
dress information and allows the selective printing of 
this information in the form of mailing lists or ad- 
dress labels. Allows the user to tailor the system to 
his own particular requirements User-defined for- 
mat and print-out system uses a special format file 
which tells programs how to print the mailing list or 
address labels Standard format files are included 
with system Automatic sorting of data uses indexed 
file management routines which allow the name and 
address information to be sequentially retrieved and 
printed without tile sorting Supplied in source code 
for Microsoft BASIC $790 $30 

• GRAHAM-DORIAN SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

GENERAL LEDGER - An on-line system; no batch- 
ing is required Entries to Other GRAHAM-DORIAN 
accounting packages are automatically posted. User 
establishes customized C O.A Provides transaction 
register, record of journal entries, trial balances and 
monthly closings Keeps 14 month history and pro- 
vides comparison of current year with previous year 
Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source . $995 $35 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE - Maintains vendor list and 
check register. Performs cash flow analysis Flexible 
— writes checks to specific vendor for certain in- 
voices or can make partial payments Automatically 
posts to GRAHAM-DORIAN General Ledger or runs as 
stand alone system. Requires CBASIC? Supplied in 
source $995 $35 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - Creates trial balance re- 
ports, prepares statements, ages accounts and rec- 
ords invoices Provides complete information describ- 
ing customer payment activity. Receipts can be 
posted to different ledger accounts Entries auto- 
matically update GRAHAM-DORIAN General Ledger 
or runs as stand alone system. Requires CBASIC-2 
Supplied in source $995 $35 

PAYROLL SYSTEM - Maintains employee master file. 
Computes payroll withholding for FICA. Federal and 
Stale taxes. Prints payroll register, checks, quarterly 
reports and W-2 forms. Can generate ad hoc reports 
and employee form letters with mail labels Requires 
CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $590 $35 

INVENTORY SYSTEM - Captures stock levels, costs, 
sources, sales, ages, turnover, markup, etc. Trans- 
action information may be entered for reporting by 
salesman type of sale, date of sale, etc Reports 
available both for accounting and decision making. 
Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $590 $35 

JOB COSTING - Designed for general contractors 
To be used interactively with other GRAHAM-DORIAN 
accounting packages for tracking and analysing ex- 
penses User establishes customized cost categories 
and |ob phases Permits comparison of actual versus 
estimated costs Automatically updates GRAHAM- 
DORIAN General Ledger or runs as stand alone sys- 
tem. Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $995 $35 

Sample Program Disk For Each Graham-Dorian 
Business Package. Specify Package $45 



(M) 
(M) 

(M) 
(M) 



(M) 
(M) 



• MICROSOFT PRODUCTS 

BASIC-80 - Disk Extended BASIC. ANSI compatible 
with long variable names, WHILE/WEND, chaining, 
variable length file records $350 $25 

BASIC COMPILER - Language compatible with 
BASIC-80 and 3-10 times faster execution Produces 
standard Microsoft relocatable binary output. In- 
cludes MACRO-80 Also linkable to FORTRAN-80 or 
COBOL-80 code modules $395 $25 

FORTRAN-80 - ANSI 66 (except for COMPLEX) plus 
many extensions. Includes relocatable object com- 
piler, linking loader, library with manager Also in- 
cludes MACRO-80 (see below) $500 $25 

COBOL-80 - Level 1 ANSI 74 standard COBOL plus 
most of Level 2. Full sequential, relative, and in- 
dexed file support with variable file names STRING. 
UNSTRING. COMPUTE, VARYING/UNTIL, EXTEND. 
CALL, COPY, SEARCH, 3-dimensional arrays, com- 
pound and abbreviated conditions, nested IF Power- 
ful interactive screen-handling extensions Includes 
compatible assembler, linking loader, and relocat- 
able library manager as described under MACRO-80 
$750 $25 

MACRO-80 - 8080/Z80 Macro Assembler Intel and 
Zilog mnemonics supported Relocatable linkable 
output Loader. Library Manager and Cross Refer- 
ence List utilities included $150 $25 

XMACRO 86 - 8086 cross assembler All Macro and 
utility features of MACRO-80 package. Mnemonics 
slightly modified from Intel ASM86 Compatibility data 
sheet available $300 $25 



(M) PA SCAL/M* - Compiler generates P code from ex- 
* ' tended language, implementation of standard PAS- 
CAL. Supports overlay structure through additional 
procedure calls and the SEGMENT procedure type. 
Provides convenient string handling capability with 
the added variable type STRING Untyped files allow 
memory image I/O Requires 56K CP/M $150 $20 

/ IWI \ PASCAL/2 - Z80 native code PASCAL compiler Pro- 
\ , * , f duces optimized, ROMable re-entrant code All inter- 
facing to CP M is through the support library The 
package includes compiler. Microsoft Compatible re- 
locating assembler and linker, and source for all 
library modules Variant records, strings and direct 
I/O are supported. Requires 56K CPM and Z80 CPU 
$395 $25 

PASCAL/MT - Subset of standard PASCAL Gener- 
ates ROMable 8080 machine code. Symbolic debug- 
ger included Supports interrupt procedures. CPM 
file I/O and assembly language interface. Real vari- 
ables can be BCD, software floating point, or AMD 
9511 hardware floating point. Version 3 includes 
Enumeration and Record data types Manual explains 
BASIC to PASCAL conversion. Source for the run- 
time package requires Digital Research's MAC Re- 
quires 32K $250 $30 

CBASIC-2 Disk Extended BASIC - Non-interactive 
BASIC with pseudo-code compiler and run-time in- 
terpreter Supports full file control, chaining, inteqer 
and extended precision variables, etc $110 $15 



(M) 



(M) 



(M) 



(M) 
(T) 



(M) 



BSTAM - Utility to link one computer to another also 
equipped with BSTAM Allows file transfers at full 
data speed (no conversion to hex), with CRC block 
control check for very reliable error detection and 
automatic retry. We use it! it's great 1 Full wildcard 
expansion to send * COM. etc 9600 baud with wire. 
300 baud with phone connection. Both ends need 
one Standard and (g) versions can talk to one another 

$150 $5 

SELECTOR III-C2 - Data Base Processor to create 
and maintain multi Key data bases. Prints formatted 
sorted reports with numerical summaries or mailing 
labels Comes with sample applications, including 
Sales Activity. Inventory, Payables. Receivables. 
Check Register, and Client Patient Appointments, etc. 
Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied in source $349 $20 

GLECTOR - General Ledger option to SELECTOR 
III-C2 Interactive system provides for customized 
COA Unique chart of transaction types insure proper 
double entry bookkeeping Generates balance sheets, 
P&L statements and journals Two year record allows 
for statement of changes in financial position report. 
Supplied in source Requires SELECTOR III-C2 
CBASIC-2 and 52K system $250 $25 

TEXTWRITER III - Text formatter to justify and pagi- 
nate letters and other documents Special features 
include insertion of text during execution from other 
disk files or console, permitting recipe documents 
to be created from linked fragments on other files 
Has facilities for sorted index, table of contents and 
footnote insertions Ideal for contracts, manuals, etc 
Now compatible with Electric Pencil* prepared files 
$125/$20 



The sale of each 
proprietary software 
package conveys a 
license for use on 
one system only. 



Prices F.O.B. 
Fort Worth. Tex. 
Shipping, hand- 
ling and CO. D. 
charges extra. 



FORMATS AVAILABLE: 

(A) TRS-80 Model I (M) Keys Only 
ORDERS MUST (B) TRS 80 Model II 
SPECIFY DISK (C) TRS-80 Model III (M) Keys Only 
SYSTEMS AND (D) HEATHKIT H89 (M) Keys Only 
FORMATS: (E) NORTH STAR 

(F) SUPER BRAIN QD 

(G) STANDARD UNIMPLEMENTED 

(M) Modified version available for use with CPM as 
1 ' implemented on Heath and TRS 80 Model I 
computers. 

For all (T) items listed above , the rec- 
ommended system configuration consists of 
48K CPM 2 full dize disk drives 24 x 80 CRT and 
132 column printer. 



(T) 



PASCAL USER MANUAL & REPORT 

(2nd) Edition by K. Jensen and N. Wirth 

• Tutorial Manual and Concise Reference Report lor Both Pro- 
grammers and Implementors 

• Includes Helpful Examples to Demonstrate the Various Fea- 
tures ol PASCAL 

The book consists of two parts the user manual and the revised 
report The manual is directed to those who have some familiarity 
with computer programming and who wish to get acquainted with 
the PASCAL language The report defines standard PASCAL. 
which constitutes a common base between various implementa- 
tions of the language 

Stock No p r | ce 

#B21 $995 



PASCAL PRIMER Problem Solving 

This book has three major goals: 

• To Introduce all aspects ol the programming and problem 
solving process (includes problem specification and organi- 
zation, algorithms, coding, debugging, testing, documenta- 
tion and maintenance): 

• To teach good programming style and how to produce a high 

?uahty finished product: and 
b teach the syntax ol the PASCAL programming language. 
Numerous examples are employed throughout the text PAS 
CAL is used as a vehicle to teach various aspects of programming 
techniques 



Microcomputer Problem Solving Using Pascal 

by Kenneth L. Bowles 

• A Book Designed for Both College Courses AND Individual 
Sell-Study 

• Ideal lor use with UCSD Pascal 

• Includes Extensions to Standard PASCAL 

This book is designed both for introductory courses in com- 
puter problem solving at the freshman and sophomore college 
level, and for individual self-study It includes many examples and 
actually executable programs It includes information on the nec- 
essary functions and procedures tor handling graphics and 
strings 



PROGRAMING IN PASCAL 

by Peter Grogono 

• An Excellent Introduction to One of the Fastest Growing Pro- 
gramming Languages Today 

• Sections on Procedures and Files PLUS a Chapter on Dynamic 
Data Structures such as Trees and Linked Lists 

The text is arranged as a tutorial, containing both examples and 
exercises to increase reader proficiency in PASCAL Concepts are 
illustrated by examples, ranging from the Tower ol Hanoi problem 
to circumscribing a circle about a triangle PROGRAMMING IN 
PASCAL is sure to hold the reader's interest 



Stock No. 
#B22 



Price 
$1495 



BEGINNER'S MANUAL FOR UCSD PASCAL 
SYSTEM 

• An Enlightening Introduction to UCSD PASCAL 

• Demonstrates How to Use the UCSD PASCAL System and How 
to Program in PASCAL 

• Includes Many Practical Examples ol PASCAL Programs 

This book is intended to be used as an introduction and refer- 
ence manual tor people iusl beginning to use the UCSD Pascal 
Software System Whether you have never used a computer be- 
fore or whether you are an experienced programmer who is unfa- 
miliar with UCSD PASCAL this book will provide a relatively easy 
yet thorough introduction to UCSD PASCAL 



Stock No. 
#B23 



UCSD Reference Book 

A Reference Guide to the Complete 
UCSD PASCAL System 
Includes Information on Compiler 
Basic. Assembler and Editor 
Lists Actual P-Machine Codes 



Price 

$14 95 



This reference book can be a valuable and time-saving guide to 
tl- Hough information on the UCSD PASCAL system The easy-to- 
read manual provides fast access to pertinent data 



Stock No 
#824 



Price 
$1895 



Stock No 
#B25 



Price 
S11.95 



Stock No 

#826 



Price 

$25 00 



J 



v* Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 79 



Simple arithmetic routines 
INC - increment the top of the stack 



026E 7002 


INC 


DM 


$ + 2 


;CODE 


0270 El 




POP 


H 


;get top 


0271 23 




INX 


H 


? increment 


0272 E5 




PUSH 


H 


; restore 


0273 C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 






; DEC - 


decrement the 


top of the stack 


0276 7802 


DEC 


DM 


$+2 


;C0DE 


0278 El 




POP 


H 


;get top 


0279 2B 




DCX 


H 


; decrement 


027A E5 




PUSH 


H 


; restore 


027B C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 






; TADD 


- add 


the top two elements of th 


027E 8002 


TADD 


DW 


$+2 


;C0DE 


0280 El 




POP 


H 


; first element 


0281 Dl 




POP 


D 


; second element 


0282 19 




DAD 


D 


;add 'em 


0283 E5 




PUSH 


H 


;push result 


0284 C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 






r MINUS 


- nee 


late top o 


f stack 


0287 8902 


MINUS 


DW 


$ + 2 


rCODE 


0289 El 




POP 


H 


;get top 


028A CD9102 




CALL 


MINUSH 


; negate H 


028D E5 




PUSH 


H 


;push it 


028E C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 




0291 2B 


MINUSH 


DCX 


H 


;good ole 2s co 


0292 7C 




MOV 


A,H 




0293 2F 




CMA 






0294 67 




MOV 


H,A 




0295 7D 




MOV 


A,L 




0296 2F 




CMA 






0297 6F 




MOV 


L,A 




0298 C9 




RET 








; TSUB 


- subtract TOP 


from TOP-l 


0299 4702 


TSUB 


DW 


TCALL 


; threaded code 


029B 8702 




DW 


MINUS 


; negate top 


029D 7E02 




DW 


TADD 


;and add 


029F 5B02 




DW 


TRET 





Listing 5. Simple arithmetic routines. 





PeeKB 
ENTRY : 


- retrie 
TOP 


Ve a Dyte Iium memui j 

address 




EXIT: 


TOP 


byte at address 


02A1 A302 P 


EEKB 


DW 


$+2 ;CODE 


02A3 El 




POP 


H ;get address 


02A4 5E 




MOV 


E,M ;get byte 


02A5 1600 




MVI 


D,0 


02A7 D5 




PUSH 


D ;save 


02A8 C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 




PeekW 


- retrieve a word from memory 




ENTRY; 


TOP 


- address 




EXIT: 


TOP 


- word at address 


02AB AD02 I 


>EEKW 


DW 


$+2 ;CODE 


02AD El 




POP 


H ;get address 


02AE 5E 




MOV 


E,M ;get word 


02AF 23 




INX 


H 


02B0 56 




MOV 


D,M 


02B1 D5 




PUSH 


D ;save 


02B2 C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 




r PokeB 


- store 


byte in memory 




I ENTRY 


: TOP 


- address 






TOP-l 


- byte to store 




• EXIT: 


No Val 


ues Returned 


02B5 B702 


POKEB 


DW 


$+2 ;CODE 


02B7 El 




POP 


H rget address 


02B8 Dl 




POP 


D ?get byte 


02B9 73 




MOV 


M,E ;store 


02BA C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 




; PokeW - store word in memory 




; ENTRY: TOP 


- address 






TOP-l 


- word to store 




; EXIT: 


No Values returned 


02BD BF02 


POKEW 


DW 


$+2 ;C0DE 


02BF El 




POP 


H rget address 


02C0 Dl 




POP 


D ;get word 


02C1 73 




MOV 


M,E ; store word 


02C2 23 




INX 


H 


02C3 72 




MOV 


M,D 


02C4 C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 


Listir 


ig 6. Peek and Poke instructions. 



mented by the interpreter, it will 
point to the first real instruction of 
the routine (the one following the 
TCALL). The TRET instruction (List- 
ing 4b) pops an address off the top of 
the stack and stores it in the program 
counter, undoing the work of one 
TCALL and causing the interpreter to 
resume execution with the instruc- 
tion following the last executed 
TCALL type instruction. 

The CODE instruction could point 
to a routine that transfers control to 
the word following the CODE in- 
struction. But all it has to do is point 
directly to the next word. No inter- 
preter routine is needed at all. Thus, 
the CODE instruction for each ma- 
chine-language subroutine is differ- 
ent from the rest, but the execution of 
the system is faster. 

A threaded code interpreter does 
not provide all of the features of a BA- 
SIC interpreter, for example. Instead, 
it provides a flexible framework that 
you can expand not only with data 
manipulating instructions (e.g., Add, 
Multiply, Concatenate), but with in- 
terpreter manipulating instructions. 
(Notice that TRET is just another sub- 
routine; it begins with CODE and 
ends with a jump back to the inter- 
preter.) 

Expanding the Interpreter 

Adding new instructions is easy. 
Listing 5 contains routines for per- 
forming simple integer arithmetic. 
All of these take their arguments 
from the stack and leave their results 
there. Listing 6 contains new defini- 
tions for reading and writing bytes 
and words in memory. 

PUSH and POP are two useful ad- 
ditions to a language that uses the 
stack to pass parameters around. List- 
ing 7 contains the code needed to im- 
plement these (and some others as 
well). PUSH takes the word that fol- 
lows it, pushes it onto the parameter 
stack and then increments the pro- 
gram counter so that the interpreter 
doesn't try to execute the constant. 
This effectively makes PUSH a 32-bit 
instruction. 

Essential to any programming lan- 
guage are instructions that allow you 
to test conditions. Depending on the 
results of those tests you can then 
branch. Listing 8 contains code for 
implementing an unconditional 
jump; a jump-if-zero and jump-if- not- 
zero, which test the top element of 
the stack; and a jump-if-equal, which 
tests the top two elements. 

Each tests its appropriate condi- 



80 Microcomputing, February 1981 



tions and either replaces the PC with 
the address in the next word if the 
test is successful or increments the 
PC (skipping over the next word) if 
the test fails. You can make these 
jumps relative (and the code relocat- 
able) by having them add the con- 
tents of the next word to the PC in- 
stead of replacing the PC. 

All other additions to the interpret- 
er are made in the same way. You 
can experiment with control struc- 
tures (conditional TRETs, or condi- 
tional calls, which take two argu- 
ments—one address for true, the 
other for false). Or you can add more 
advanced data types such as floating 
point numbers (each of which takes 
two or three stack positions) and 
strings (the stack holds the pointer; 
you manage the string space). 

Constants and Variables 

Threaded code interpreters have a 
special way of dealing with constants 
and variables. Ordinarily, when you 
want to reference a number, whether 
because of its value (a constant) or be- 
cause of the value it points to (a vari- 
able), you could push it onto the 
stack. This means, however, that you 
need 32 bits each time you introduce 
a number into the code. 

An alternative is to define a com- 
monly used number as a function 
that pushes the value onto the stack. 
For example, when the function ONE 
is executed, it pushes a 1 on the stack. 
This reduces the size of the PUSH 1 
instruction to one word, but adds a 
new function to the interpreter (four 
words). Still, it is worthwhile for fre- 
quently used numbers. 

Another alternative is to introduce 
two new types of code words (that is, 
two new types of subroutine) called 
Constant and Variable. These replace 
the TCALL in the function definition. 
A Constant function has only one 
word associated with it; when it is ex- 
ecuted, it pushes the contents of that 
word onto the stack. 

A Variable function also has one 
word associated with it, but when ex- 
ecuted it pushes the address of that 
word onto the stack. Listing 9 con- 
tains the code for these new function 
types, along with some commonly 
used constants. This reduces the size 
of the new functions to just two 
words each. 

The User's Interpreter: 
Interactive 

Computers should be as easy to use 
as pocket calculators. This first ver- 







; Some 


standard 


threaded code functions 






; TPUSH 


- push 


the next word onto the stack 


02C7 
02C9 
02CC 
02CD 
02CE 
02CF 


C902 

2A9D01 

23 

5E 

23 

56 


TPUSH 


DW 

LHLD 
I NX 
MOV 
I NX 
MOV 


$+2 

PC 

H 

E,M 

H 

D,M 


;CODE 

;get program counter 
; advance to next word 
;and pick up contents 


02D0 
02D3 
02D4 


229D01 

D5 

C33702 




SHLD 
PUSH 
JMP 


PC 

D 

NEXT 


; store new program counter 
;push word onto param stack 
; continue 






. TPOP 


- drop the top 


of the parameter stack 


02D7 
02D9 
02DA 


D902 
El 

C33702 


TPOP 


DW 

POP 

JMP 


$+2 

H 

NEXT 


; CODE 

;pop one element 

;and continue 






; SWAP 


- exchange top 


two elements of the stack 


02DD 
02DF 
02E0 
02E1 
02E2 


DF02 

El 

E3 

E5 

C33702 


SWAP 


DW 

POP 

XTHL 

PUSH 

JMP 


$ + 2 
H 

H 
NEXT 


; CODE 

;get one element 

;exchange 

;put back 

;and continue 



DUP - duplicate the top of the stack 
DESCRIPTION: often used before functions which 
consume the top of the stack (e.g. conditional jumps) 



02E5 E702 
02E7 El 
02E8 E5 
02E9 E5 
02EA C33702 



DUP 



02ED 


EF02 


02EF 


319D01 


02F2 


C33702 



CLEAR 



DW 


$+2 


;CODE 


POP 


H 


;get top 


PUSH 


H 


;save it twice 


PUSH 


H 




JMP 


NEXT 




- clear 


the s 


tack 


DW 


$+2 


;CODE 


LXI 


SP, STACK ; reset stack pointer 


JMP 


NEXT 





Listing 7. Standard threaded-code functions. 



Threaded Code Jumps 



All Jumps are to absolute locations 
All Conditional jumps consume the 
elements of the stack that they test 



02F5 


F702 


# kj \jk ir 

JUMP 


— UIIUU 

DW 


I1«J J. LIUIldl 

$ + 2 


jump 
; CODE 




02F7 


2A9D01 


JUMP1 


LHLD 


PC 


;get program counter 




02FA 


23 




I NX 


H 


;get next word 




02FB 


5E 




MOV 


E,M 






02FC 


23 




I NX 


H 






02FD 


56 




MOV 


D,M 






02FE 


EB 




XCHG 




;make it the PC 




02FF 


229D01 




SHLD 


PC 






0302 


C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 










; IFZ - 


■ jump 


if top is 


zero 




0305 


0703 


IFZ 


DW 


$+2 


;CODE 




0307 


El 




POP 


H 


;get top 




0308 


7C 




MOV 


A,H 


;test for zero 




0309 


B5 




ORA 


L 






030A 


CAF702 




JZ 


JUMP1 


;if yes, jump 




030D 


2A9D01 


SKIP 


LHLD 


PC 


;else simply skip next 


word 


0310 


23 




I NX 


H 






0311 


23 




INX 


H 






0312 


229D01 




SHLD 


PC 






0315 


C33702 




JMP 


NEXT 










; IFNZ 


- jump 


if top not zero 




0318 


1A03 


IFNZ 


DW 


$+2 


; CODE 




031A 


El 




POP 


H 


yget top 




031B 


7C 




MOV 


A,H 


;test for zero 




031C 


B5 




ORA 


L 






031D 
0320 


C2F702 




JNZ 


JUMP1 


;if not, jump 




C30D03 




JMP 


SKIP 


;else don' t 








; IFEQ 


- jump 


if TOP =» 


TOP-1 




0323 


2503 


IFEQ 


DW 


$+2 


; CODE 




0325 


El 




POP 


H 


;get top 




0326 


CD9102 




CALL 


MINUSH 


rnegate it 




0329 


Dl 




POP 


D 


;get top-1 




032A 


19 




DAD 


D 


;add 'em 




032B 


7C 




MOV 


A,H 


;test for zero 




032C 


B5 




ORA 


L 






032D 


CAF702 




JZ 


JUMP1 


;if equal, jump 




0330 


C30D03 




JMP 


SKIP 


.•otherwise, don' t 








Listing 8. 


Threaded-code jumps. 


1 



Microcomputing, February 1981 81 



MISSPELLED 
WORDS? 

WordSearch (tm) can find them quickly and 
reliably. WordSearch is the ideal companion 
for your CP/M compatible editor or word pro- 
cessing system. WordSearch completes the 
job that these word processing tools started. 
WordSearch is a sophisticated interactive 
menu driven application that can be tailored to 
fit your system, terminal and working vocabu- 
lary. WordSearch allows for an unlimited vo- 
cabulary size without being constrained by 
language or special subset. Available user sys- 
tem disk storage capacity is the only considera- 
tion. 

WordSearch is EASY to use. Defaults can 
be reset at any time as either a permanent or 
temporary condition thus avoiding almost all 
redundant or otherwise unnecessary key- 
strokes. 
WordSearch is available now for $195.00 from 




H330DQI 

INCORPORATED 



P.O. Box 592293 
Miami, Florida 33159 

MASTER CHARGE (305) 238-3820 

and VISA accepted. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital 

Research. 

All prices are FOB Miami and subject to 

change without prior notice. 

Copyright (C) 1980 Key Bits Inc. 

All rights reserved worldwide. »^223 



OHIO SCIENTIFIC 

TOUCH TYPING - 15 lesson 
set teaches you to use all let- 
ters and numerals without the 
need to look at the keyboard. 
Requires 32x64 display. 8K. 
$19.95. 

FAILSAFE +2 - a sophisti- 
cated game based on the elec- 
tronic warfare environment en- 
countered by aircraft during 
nuclear war. 8K. $8.95. 

INTELLEGENT TERMINAL 
EMULATOR - down load, edit, 
then send files back to host 
computer. Full or half duplex, 
many other features. Disk sys- 
tems. $24.95. 

DS-PORT - 18 page data sheet 
shows how to add parallel ports 
to your C1P without a 610 
board. Includes photo posi- 
tives. $9.95. 

DS-20MA - Your C1P can use 
any ASCII 110 baud, 20MA 
pehferal with the aid of this 14 
page data sheet. $8.95. 

Send for a FREE complete 
software and hardware cata- 
log. ^193 

Aurora Software Associates 

P.O. Box 99553 

Cleveland, Ohio 44199 

(216)221-6981 



7 Implementation of Constants and Variables in a 
; threaded code system 

CONSTANT - code address for constants 

ENTRY: DE - points to middle of code word for 

constant 
DESCRIPTION: picks up the contents of the word 
following the code word and pushes it onto the stack. 



CONSTANT 



0333 EB 

0334 23 

0335 5E 

0336 23 

0337 56 

0338 D5 

0339 C33702 



XCHG 

I NX 

MOV 

I NX 

MOV 

PUSH 

JMP 



H 

E,M 

H 

D,M 

D 

NEXT 



;HL <- address of code word 
;get constant 



;push it on the parameter stack 
; return to interpreter 



033C 3303 
033E 0000 

0340 3303 
0342 0100 

0344 3303 
0346 FFFF 

0348 3303 
034A FF1F 



; Some common constants 
ZERO 



ONE 



DW 
DW 

DW 
DW 



NEGONE DW 
DW 

MEMORY DW 
DW 



CONSTANT 


CONSTANT 

1 

CONSTANT 
-1 

CONSTANT 
8*1024-1 



7 threaded code constant 



7 threaded code constant 



7 threaded code constant 



7 last available byte 
78K system 



034C 13 
034D D5 
034E C33702 



VARIABLE - code address for variables 

ENTRY: DE - points to middle of code word for 

variable 
DESCRIPTION: pushes address of word following code 
word onto the stack. 



7 increment to variable address 
7 store on parameter stack 
? return to inerpreter 



VARIABLE 




INX 


D 


PUSH 


D 


JMP 


NEXT 



Listing 9. Implementing constants and variables. 



sion of the external, or user's, inter- 
preter is not going to be the all-pur- 
pose, universally useful, interactive 
computer programming language. In 
fact, all it's going to be is a calculator, 
the simplest interactive algorithm 
you can write for a starting system 
(Table 2). 

The user types in a line containing 
numbers (arguments) and subroutine 
names (functions). The system scans 



the line from left to right; it pushes 
the numbers on the stack and exe- 
cutes the functions. When it hits the 
end of the line, it prints the top ele- 
ment of the stack. 

Users of Hewlett-Packard calcula- 
tors will know the input form as re- 
verse Polish notation. The arguments 
precede the functions that use them. 
Both the HP calculators and FORTH 
use RPN for the same reason: The 



1. READ a line from the console 

2. REPEAT 

SCAN for next word 
IF word is a function 
THEN EXECUTE it 
ELSE IF word is a number 

THEN PUSH value of number on stack 
ELSE ** ERROR** 
UNTIL END-OF-LINE encountered 

3. PRINT the top of the stack 

Examples of use : (Note: the machine prompts with a hyphen.) 

-67 + (user types) 

13 (machine types, note that 13 stays on stack) 

-11+ (user types) 

24 (machine types) 

- 6 - (user types) 

18 

Table 2. Algorithm for user's interpreter. 



82 Microcomputing, February 1981 



PRINTERS & CRT'S From Orange micro 



i^310 



CENTRONICS 737 (™~) 




Word Processing Print Quality 

• 18 x 9 dot matrix; suitable for word 
processing • Underlining • proportional 
spacing • right margin justification • serif 
typeface • 50/80 CPS • 9 1 /2" Pin 
Feed/Friction feed • Reverse Platen • 
80/132 columns 



CENTRONICS 737-1 
CENTRONICS 737-3 



. (List $995) $780 
(List $1045) $830 




EPSON MX80 



Low-Priced 
Professional Print Quality 

• 9 x 9 dot matrix • Lower case descenders 

• 80 CPS • Bidirectional, Logic seeking • 
40, 66, 80, 132 columns per line • 64 special 
graphic characters: TRS-80 Compatible • 
Forms handling • Multi-pass printing • Ad- 
justable tractors 




TELEVIDEO CRT'S 

PRICES SLASHED! 



QUANTITY PRICING AVAILABLE 



TVI912C") 
TV I 920C > 
TVI950 J 



Please Call Toll Free 
Prices are too low to 
advertise 



PRINTERS 

ANACOM 150 150 CPS, wide carriage, 9 x 9 dot (List $1350) $ Call 

ANADEX9500 wide carriage, graphics (List $1650) $1450 

VISTA V300 (C. ITOH) Typewriter quality, daisy wheel (List $1895) $1 795 

BASE 2 850 graphics printer (L j St $799) 749 

OKIDATA MICROLINE80 (List) $800) 599 

NEC 5530-5 letter quality, RO, parallel, tractors (List $2970) $2599 

MALIBU Dot graphics, 132 Col, Letter quality $ Call 

PAPER TIGER IDS 445 & 460 with graphics & 2K butter $ Call 

QU ME 5/45 Typewriter quality (List $2905) 2559 

INTERFACE EQUIPMENT 

APPLE II — BASE 2 parallel graphics intertace board 160 

SSM AIO BOARD Serial/Parallel interface board (List $225) 1 75 

TRS-80 CABLES expansion interface or direct $Call 



TOLL FREE (800) 854-8275 

C A, AL, H I (71 4) 630-3322 can for free catalog 



EPSON MX80 



(List $645) 



SCall 



Phone orders WELCOME. Same day ' 
shipment for VISA, MASTER 
CHARGE, and AMERICAN EX- 
PRESS. Personal checks require 2 
weeks to clear. Add 3% for ship- 
ping and handling. California resi- 
dents add 6%. Manufacturer's 
warranty included. Prices subject to 
revision. 




Oronge 

miCrO, inc 




3148 E. La Pal ma, Suite E 
Anaheim, CA 92806 



High 



ms Help 



Designed for Home and Commercial Use 



Here's your chance to put the wraps on 
staggering energy costs. ENERGY 
AUDIT helps you inspect any 
home, analyze your findings 
and make fuel-conservation 
investments that result in 
big savings. 

1. Energy Audit 

Whether you're a home owner or involved in an energy-asso- 
ciated business, this is a "must" program for accurately deter- 
mining heat loss. This program creates a computerized model of 
any dwelling. It will describe what materials are needed and the 
estimated construction costs to make a building an energy 
miser. Requirements: TRS-80, Level II, 16K; Expansion inter- 
face with at least 16K; 1 mini-disk drive; and a compatible DOS 
for disk-based version; and an optional printer. Order No. 
0052RD, disk, $75.00 or 0089R, cassette, $49.95. 




w 



ENERGY CONSUMPTION lets you 

monitor and manage fuel use for 

maximum cost efficiency. This 

combination will mean more 

dollars in your pocket in 

these uncertain times. 

2. Energy Consumption 

Take the guesswork out of energy consumption and conserva- 
tion. This program keeps utility bills for a 5-year period. 
Records precise amounts used and costs for natural gas, water 
and electricity. Keep track of energy costs, examine seasonal 
fluctuations and evaluate conservation efforts you've under- 
taken. The soaring cost of fuel requires careful energy manage- 
ment. This program can make you a tight-fisted professional! 
TRS-80, Level II, 16K. Order No. 0132R $9.95. 



»^40 



Instant Software 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 



THEY'RE EASY TO ORDER. . . 

• See Your Instant Software Dealer, or 

• Call Toll-Free 1-800-258-5473. 



is Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 83 



arguments have to be placed on the 
stack before the functions that use 
them are executed. 

Unlike the calculator, our inter- 
preter is not bound to this form of in- 
put. If you don't like typing expres- 
sions this way, you can change your 
scanning routine to go from right to 
left and type in Polish prefix (or nor- 
mal Polish) notation. Or you can look 
up an algorithm for translating alge- 
braic expressions into stack com- 
mands and then type those. 

Thus, while all FORTH systems 
use reverse Polish, you don't have to. 
This external interpreter is indepen- 
dent of the internal, stack-oriented 
interpreter. Using reverse Polish 
makes the interpreter simple, but if 
you want to use this system, why be 
lazy? You can choose whatever input 
form you like. You can choose what 
data types to accept and what func- 
tion your system will perform. You 
can have a calculator that handles 
decimal, octal and hexadecimal num- 
bers, that processes strings (foreign 
language word translators), that re- 
trieves information from tape or disk, 
all in response to a few taps of the 
keys. 

The User's Interpreter: 
The Dictionary 

Listing 10 contains the algorithm 
for interaction translated into the 
threaded language. Most of its parts 
are familiar to most programmers. 
The Readline function is provided by 
many operating systems. ASCII to bi- 



Listing 11. Dictionary lookup routine. 



03B7 DD02D702 SUCCEED DW 

03BB E5047E02AB DW 

03C1 4403 DW 

03C3 5B02 DW 



LOOKUP - the dictionary lookup routine 
ENTRY: TOP - pointer to string to be looked up 
EXIT: TOP - -1 if string found in dictionary 

if string not found 
TOP-1 - pointer to code of found subroutine 

or 
string pointer if not found 
DESCRIPTION: performs a linear search of the 
dictionary. Returns the code address if the string 
is found, or else the string pointer if not found. 

; threaded code 

rget top of dictionary 

;get char count of next entry 
;if end of dictionary 

;else attempt a match 
•if succesful match 

;else skip string 

;and pointer 

;and try next entry 

;drop dictionary pointer 
•leave a zero on the stack 
;and quit 

SWAP,TPOP ;drop string pointer 
FIRST, TADD,PEEKW ;get code pointer 
NEGONE ;push a minus one 

TRET ;and return 



038F 
0391 


4702 
C503AB02 


LOOKUP 


DW 
DW 


TCALL 
NAMES , PEEKW 


0395 
0399 


E502A102 
0503B003 


SEARCH 


DW 
DW 


DUP , PEEKB 
IFZ,FAIL-1 


039D 
039F 


C903 
1803B603 




DW 
DW 


MATCH 
IFNZ,SUCCEED-1 


03A3 
03A7 
03 AD 


E5047E02 

C70202007E 

F5029403 


DW 
DW 
DW 


FIRST, T ADD 
TPUSH,2,TADD 
JUMP, SEARCH- 1 


03B1 
03B3 
03B5 


D702 
3C03 
5B02 


FAIL 


DW 
DW 
DW 


TPOP 
ZERO 
TRET 



Names - address of dictionary names 



03C5 4C03 


NAMES 


DW 


VARIABLE 


; threaded code variable 


03C7 1906 




DW 


NAMEBEG 


jbeginning of names 



MATCH - match strings 

ENTRY: TOP - ptr to string 

TOP-1 - ptr to another string 
EXIT: TOP - -1 if strings are the same 

if strings do not match 

TOP-1 - ptr to first string 

TOP-2 - ptr to second string 
DESCRIPTION: written in assembly to speed things up. 



03C9 CB03 
03CB El 
03CC Dl 
03CD D5 
03CE E5 
03CF 1A 
03D0 BE 



MATCH 



DW 

POP 

POP 

PUSH 

PUSH 

LDAX 

CMP 



$ + 2 

H 

D 

D 

H 

D 

M 



;C0DE 

; first string 
; second string 
; leave on stack 

rget 2nd count 

; compare with first 



nary and binary to ASCII converters 



; Top Level External Interpreter Version 1.0 

; This routine reads one line of reverse 

; polish notation from the console and executes it. 

INTERACT 



0351 


4702 




DW 


TCALL 




; threaded code 


0353 


B904 




DW 


PROMPT 




; prompt the user and 


0355 


F603 




DW 


READLINE 




; read a console line 


0357 


0605 


SLOOP 


DW 


SCAN 




;scan for next word 


0359 


05037803 




DW 


IFZ,EXIT-1 




yif end of line, quit 


035D 


8F03 




DW 


LOOKUP 




;else lookup word in dictionar' 


035F 


05036803 




DW 


IFZ, NUMBER- 


1 


;if not found, try number 


0363 


EE03 




DW 


EXECUTE 




;else execute it 


0365 


F5025603 




DW 


JUMP,SLOOP- 


■1 


rand continue scanning 


0369 


A705 


NUMBER 


DW 


CONAXB 




rtry converting to number 


036B 


18035603 




DW 


IFNZ,SLOOP- 


-1 


;if succesful, leave on stack 
;and continue scanning 


036F 


C7028103 




DW 


TPUSH,ERRMSG 


;else push error message 


0373 


C704 




DW 


PRINTS 




;and print it 


0375 


C704 




DW 


PRINTS 




;then print string 


0377 


5B02 




DW 


TRET 




;and return 


0379 


E5025305 


EXIT 


DW 


DUP,CONBXA 




;copy and convert top of stack 


037D 


C704 




DW 


PRINTS 




rprint it 


037F 


5B02 




DW 


TRET 




; return 



0381 0D4E6F7420ERRMSG DB 



13, 'Not Defined: 



Listing 10. Interaction algorithm in threaded language. 



are standard parts of most programs, 
as are print string routines. A "scan 
for next word" routine is not as com- 
mon as the others, but it isn't diffi- 
cult. The dictionary lookup routine, 
which distinguishes functions from 
nonfunctions, is the central part of 
the algorithm. 

FORTH is well known for its dic- 
tionary of routines, in which it looks 
up incoming words. However, every 
computer language does this. BASIC 
has a table of reserved words and 
variable names; assemblers keep 
symbol tables; and LISP keeps its 
universal list of all known atoms. 

Each of these systems uses a differ- 
ent data structure for its dictionary. 
These vary in complexity from sim- 
ple arrays to difficult linked hash ta- 
bles. We'll look at two relatively easy 
techniques. One is the traditional 
FORTH dictionary format and the 
other is a variation developed for this 
implementation. 

Each entry in a subroutine diction- 



84 Microcomputing, February 1981 



03D1 C2E703 



03D4 
03D5 
03D6 
03D7 
03D8 
03D9 
03DC 
03DD 
03.E.Q, 
03E3 
03E4 



47 

23 

13 

1A 

BE 

C2E703 

05 

C2D503 

TATTY? 

E5 

C33702 



JNZ 

MOV 
MATCH 1 INX 
INX 
LDAX 
CMP 
JNZ 
DCR 
JNZ 
LXI 
PUSH 
JMP 



MATCHF ;if no match 



03E7 210000 
03EA E5 
03EB C33702 



MATCHF 



LXI 

PUSH 

JMP 



B, A 

H 

D 

D 

M 

MATCHF 

B 

MATCH 1 

H,-l 

H 

NEXT 

H,0 

H 

NEXT 



;else try string matching 
;B holds byte count 
;next byte 



; if no match 
;else dec count 
;if more to compare 
;else push success 



; failure 



06A9 E502 DW 
06AB 0546495253 DB 
06B1 E504 
06B3 00 
06B3 = 



DUP 
5, 'FIRST' 
DW FIRST 

DB 
NAMEEND EQU $-1 



;end of dictionary 



009B = 



DICSIZE EQU 



NAMEEND-NAMEBEG+1 



rdictionary size in bytes 



; Initialization Code 

; Executed on start up of system but eventually overwritten by 

; the expanding dictionary 

; DICMOVE - moves the dictionary names 

; to the top of available memory 



06B4 
06B7 


2A4A03 
EB 


DICMOVE 


LHLD 
XCHG 


MEMORY* 2 


;DE <- top of memory 


06B8 


21B306 




LXI 


H, NAMEEND 


;HL <- source (end of name 


06BB 


019B00 




LXI 


B, DICSIZE 


;BC <- byte count 
; transfer loop 


06BE 


7E 


DIC1 


MOV 


A,M 


;get next byte 


06BF 


12 




STAX 


D 


;move it 


06C0 
06C1 
06C2 


2B 

IB 
0B 




DCX 
DCX 
DCX 


H 
D 
B 


;dec source pointer 
rdec target pointer 
;dec count 


06C3 


78 




MOV 


A,B 


;test for zero 


06C4 


Bl 




ORA 


C 




06C5 


C2BE06 




JNZ 


DIC1 


;not yet 


06C8 


EB 




XCHG 




;set dictionary variable 


06C9 


23 




INX 


H 




06CA 


22C703 




SHLD 


NAMES+2 




06CD 


C9 




RET 






06CE 






END 







ary has two parts: the name of the 
subroutine and the code that com- 
poses it. If every dictionary entry 
were the same size, i.e., the same 
number of bytes, we could simply ar- 
range them in an array. Searching 
would be as easy as looking at each 
one in order until you find the word 
you want or hit the end of the diction- 
ary. 

However, since the name of a func- 
tion and the size of its code both typi- 
cally vary, there is no way to tell 
where one entry ends and the next 



one begins. 

The standard solution to the prob- 
lem is to add a third part to each en- 
try: a pointer to the beginning of the 
next entry. This makes the dictionary 
a linked list (Table 3). This solution 
has some good points. The lookup 
technique, while slow, is easy to im- 
plement. The linked list allows you to 
add additional structure to the dic- 
tionary; many FORTH implementa- 
tions allow you to define separate vo- 
cabularies with the dictionary. 

And the dictionary, which grows 



LINK-A 


► 


LINK-B 




LINK-C 







NAME-A 




NAME-B 




NAME-C 




NAMED 


Code for 
Routine A 


Code for 
Routine B 


Code for 
Routine C 


Code for 
Routine D 



Table 3. Standard linked FORTH dictionary. 



If you're looking for 

the best prices 
in the U.S.A. on 




TRS-80 

MICROCOMPUTERS 

We have consistently offered the 
TRS-80 line at savings up to 20%, 
which means you can save $150 
to $1500 by buying directly from 
Computer Discount of America. 

TRS-80 Model II, 64K System, 
with disc drive only $3385.00 

Other TRS-80 Model II, or Model 
III computers and systems, Color 
Computers, and Pocket Computers 
are in stock at similar savings. 

Our savings are as big on expan- 
sion interfaces, printers, diskettes - 
everything for your TRS-80 System. 



ATARI7 

MICROCOMPUTERS 





• «•**•*«• 



We have the full line of ATARI 
personal computers and systems, 
including Models 400 and 800. 
The computers, accessories, and 
hardware are brand new, in 
factory sealed cartons, and carry 
a full factory warranty. 
Most models are in stock for 
immediate delivery (usually 
within 7-10 days), and a price 
quote is as near as your phone. 
So if you're looking for the best 
prices in the U.S.A., for micro- 
computers and accessories, call 
Computer Discount of America, 
Inc., West Milford, New Jersey 
07480. 201 -728-8080. NO TAX ON 
OUT-OF-STATE SHIPMENTS. 



TOLL FREE 800-526-5313 



Computer 



of America 



Authorized "RS-80 dealer, store B-282. 



v* Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 85 



dynamically once you have a compil- 
er, is a single data structure that 
makes storage management easy. 

However, I have used a modified 
version of this technique (Table 4). 
The name of the function and the 
code to be executed are stored in two 
different places. The pointer, instead 
of connecting one entry to the next, 
links the name with the code. While 
this means you have to maintain two 



different data structures, you get 
more flexibility for your trouble. 

First, you can keep the names in 
any order you like (perhaps alphabet- 
ic), instead of the order in which they 
were defined. This allows you to re- 
duce searching time. 

Also, you can delete the names of 
functions that you do not need to ref- 
erence interactively (internal subrou- 
tines) and easily reclaim the space for 



EXECUTE - execute routine at top of stack 
ENTRY: TOP - address of routine to be executed 
EXIT: DE - middle of word addressed by top 
DESCRIPTION: The address is of a threaded code 
interpreter routine, so the contents of the 
first word is an executable address. EXECUTE 
gets that address and jumps to it, leaving DE 
in the same state that the main interpreter 
loop (NEXT) would have. 



;CODE 

;get address 

;get first word 



03EE F003 


EXECUTE 


DW 


$+2 


03F0 El 




POP 


H 


03F1 5E 




MOV 


E,M 


03F2 23 




INX 


H 


03F3 56 




MOV 


D,M 


03F4 EB 




XCHG 




03F5 E9 




PCHL 





;and jump to it 



Listing 12. Execute function. 



Listing 13. Readline program. 

READLINE - fill console buffer 

DESCRIPTION: reads characters from the console, echoing them 

to the screen and storing them in the console buffer, 

beginning in the third character of the buffer. 

Stops on encountering a carriage return and stores a 

final zero after the other characters. 

Takes appropriate action for a backspace character. 



; threaded code 

;mark buffer as unscanned 





READLINE 




03F6 


4702 


DW 


TCALL 


03F8 


3C03 


DW 


ZERO 


03FA 


5204B502 


DW 


CONBUF , POKEB 


03FE 


52046E026E 


DW 


CONBUF,INC,INC 


0404 


E502 RLOOP 


DW 


DUP 


0406 


FA04 


DW 


CIN 


0408 


E502F104 


DW 


DUP,COUT 


040C 


E502C70208 


DW 


DUP,TPUSH,08H 


0412 


23032904 


DW 


IFEQ,BKSP-1 


0416 


E502C7020D 


DW 


DUP,TPUSH,0DH 


041C 


23033F04 


DW 


IFEQ,EOL-l 


0420 


DD02B502 


DW 


SWAP, POKEB 


0424 


6E02 


DW 


INC 


0426 


F5020304 


DW 


JUMP, RLOOP- 1 


042A 


D702D702 BKSP 


DW 


TPOP,TPOP 


042E 


7602 


DW 


DEC 


0430 


C7022000F1 


DW 


TPUSH,20H,COUT 


0436 


C7020800F1 


DW 


TPUSH,08H,COUT 


043C 


F5020304 


DW 


JUMP, RLOOP -1 


0440 


D702D702 EOL 


DW 


TPOP.TPOP 


0444 


3C03DD02B5 


DW 


ZERO , SWAP , POKEB 


044A 


C7020A00F1 


DW 


TPUSH,0AH,COUT 


0450 


5B02 


DW 


TRET 



;push first byte of buffer 

;duplicate buffer pointer 
;get character 
;echo to screen 

; compare with backspace 



; compare with carriage return 



;if neither, store in buffer 
•increment buffer pointer 
;and keep reading 

;drop BS and buffer ptr copy 

;backup pointer 

;print a space 

;and another backspace 



;drop CR and buffer ptr copy 
; store final zero 
;print a line feed 
;and return 



Console Buffer 

DESCRIPTION: First byte contains the scan pointer which 
points to the next byte to be scanned. The remaining bytes 
contain characters read from the console. 



0452 4C03 
0454 



04B9 4702 
04BB C702C304 
04BF C704 



; threaded code variable 
;long enough for most screens 



CONBUF DW VARIABLE 

DS 101D 
; PROMPT - prompt the user 
; DESCRIPTION: clears to a new line and prints a hyphen 



PROMPT DW 
DW 
DW 



TCALL 

TPUSH,PRMSG 

PRINTS 



; threaded code 
;push pro ot message 
;and print it 




other purposes while leaving the 
code in the dictionary. This is signifi- 
cant if you like to use long variable 
and function names in your pro- 
grams. (Note that you can delete en- 
tries from the other dictionary for- 
mat, but only entire entires, and only 
in the reverse order from which they 
were defined.) 

Table 5 contains the details associ- 
ated with this format. Because there 
are two growing structures to main- 
tain, start one at the lowest point in 
memory available and the other in 
the highest, and let them expand to- 
ward each other. The function names 
are stored as strings of characters pre- 
ceded by byte counts. (This is a sec- 
ond difference between this diction- 
ary and the standard FORTH diction- 
ary. The latter usually stores only a 
few characters from each name, 
along with a character count, in order 
to conserve space. I prefer the full 
name so that I can later have a func- 
tion that types out the full text of an- 
other function interactively.) 

The lookup routine (Listing 11) ac- 
cepts a pointer to a string (byte count 
and characters); it returns either the 
associated CODE address for the rou- 
tine, or returns the string unchanged 
if it is not in the dictionary. It is writ- 
ten in threaded code and ought to be 
understandable if you have gotten 
this far. 









Code for 
Routine A 








NAME-A 




Code for 
Routine B 


LINK-A 










NAME-B 




LINK-B 




NAME-C 


Code for 
Routine C 






LINK-C 






NAMED 








Code for 
Routine D 






LINK-D 











Table 4. Variation of FORTH dictionary. 



86 Microcomputing, February 1981 



MICROPROCESSOR SI/PI 


po*r 

MME PA 


ix:s 


WE GUARANTEE FACTORY PF 


RTS 


2708 


1KX8 


EPROM 


3 Supply 


450 ns 


$5.50 


2716 


2KX8 


EPROM 


3 Supply 


450 ns 


$1 1 .00 


2716 


2KX8 


EPROM 


1 Supply 


450 ns 


$11.00 


2732 


4KX8 


EPROM 


1 Supply 


450 ns 


$35.00 


4116 


16KX1 


DYNAMIC 


3 Supply 


200 ns 


8/$36.00 










32/$ 136.00 


4116 


16KX1 


DYNAMIC 


3 Supply 


300 ns 


8/$32.00 










32/$ 120.00 


4164 


64KX1 


DYNAMIC 


1 Supply 


250 ns 


$130.00 


4118 


1KX8 


STATIC 


250 ns 


EXTRA 


SPECIAL 
$16.00 


2114 


1KX4 


STATIC 


250 ns 


$4.25 


8/$32.00 


2114L 


1KX4 


STATIC 


250 ns 


$4.50 


8/$34.00 


3242 


$11.00 




8224 


$ 2.95 


8255 


$ 6.50 


8155 


17.50 




8226 


3.95 


8259 


17.95 


8185 


29.95 




8228 


5.50 


8275 


32.95 


8202 


45.00 




8238 


5.50 


8279 


13.95 


8205 


3.95 




8243 


6.00 


8282 


6.70 


8212 


2.75 




8250 


15.95 


8283 


6.70 


8214 


5.25 




8251 


6.95 


8284 


5.85 


8216 


2.75 




8253 


12.95 


8755 


49.95 


TO ORDER: 


Send 


HANLE Y ENGINEERING 


check , 


money order or 










charge 


card C.O.D. 


P.O.BOX 2V 


132 "5 




Please 
shipping 


include $3.00 
i. For C.O.D. 


SEATTLE, WA 981 11 


allow for shipping and 


(206) 633-34 


04 




$2.00 C.O.D. fee. 












Send fo 


r full catalog including 


74XX, 74LSXX and CMOS I.C.'s. 



TEXAS COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

Radio /haek 

Authorized Sales Center 

All Radio Shack merchandise available at a discount. Ask for our price list. 

We offer the lowest prices on 



® 



TERS 



MODEL II 64K $3349 

All accessories for Model II available — disk expansions, printers and software 



(Plus shipping) 



Check out our low, low prices on these fine printers: 

• Anadex 9500/9501 * The New Daisy Wheel II 

• Epson MX-80 * Line Printer V 

• Okidata Microline 80 



Special: Price our CP/M for the Model II. It offers 596 K per drive. 



•k Payment: Money Order, Cashier s 
Check, Certified Check. Personal 
Checks require 3 weeks to clear VISA, 
MASTERCHARGE — Add 3%. 

• Prices subject to change at any time. 



• No tax out-of-state. TX add 5% 
it All items new, guaranteed by 

manufacturer 
•k Delivery subject to availability 



TEXAS COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

An Authorized RADIO SHACK* Sales Center F 70 1 



»^328 



Box 1174, Brady, Texas 76825 

TOLL FREE Number 800-351-1473 

Texas Residents 915-597-0673 



DR. DALEY OFFERS 
SOFTWARE FOR EVERYONE 



DATA 
BASE 

The data base package allows total user 
control over the contents of each entry 
in the file. Features user selectable rec- 
ord size from 5 to 242 characters per 
record, statistical and plotting pack- 
age, output with WORDPRO files or 
printer. Includes full user definable 
output formatting. With optional in- 
dexing routine can produce a compre- 
hensive index of a data set. 

$299.95 
Index 99.95 



MAIL 

LIST 

This powerful mailing list package fea- 
tures a variety of options for producing 
labels. It includes user defined file 
structure and label format. Label for- 
mat can list to the printer or to WORD- 
PRO format files. 



$159.95 



For PET or CBM 2000 or 8000 series with 32K memory please specify your machine configuration. 



^34 



SOFTWARE 
LIBRARY 

Hundreds of schools and individuals 
have purchased this package for use as 
an educational tool or just plain fun. It 
contains 50 (yes fifty!) programs. This 
ranges from our famous TREK 3 and 
horse race to fun learning programs for 
children to checkbook and a micro 
mail list program with lots in between. 
At about $1.40 per program how can 
you miss? 

Cassette $69.95 

Diskette 79.95 

For APPLE II or PET 



Charge to 

your 

MC/VISA 



fi 



master charge 




DR. DALEY'S SOFTWARE 

425 Grove, Berrien Springs, Michigan 49103 
frhone (616) 471-5514 Sunday-Thursday noon to 9 p.m. Eastern Time 



^ Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 87 



Listing 13 continued. 






04C1 


5B02 




DW 


TRET 


04C3 


030DOA2D 


PRMSG 


DB 


3 , ODH , OAH 






; PRINTS - prints string 






; ENTRY 


: TOP 


- points to string 






? DECRIPTION: 


Uses first byte of string as a character count. 


04C7 


4702 


PRINTS 


DW 


TCALL ; threaded code 


04C9 


E504 




DW 


FIRST ;get count 


04CB 


E5020503DEPRINTS1 


DW 


DUP,IFZ,PRINTX-1 ;if done return 


04D1 


DD02E504 




DW 


SWAP, FIRST ;else get next character 


04D5 


F104 




DW 


COUT ;print it 


04D7 


DD027602 




DW 


SWAP, DEC ; decrement count 


04DB 


F502CA04 




DW 


JUMP,PRINTS1-1 ;and keep looping 


04DF 


D702D702 


PRINTX 


DW 


TPOP,TPOP ;drop count and pointer 


04E3 


5B02 




DW 


TRET ;then return 



04E5 E704 
04E7 El 
04E8 4E 
04E9 0600 
04EB 23 
04EC E5 
04ED C5 
04EE C33702 



04F1 F304 
04F3 CI 
04F4 CD0C7E 
04F7 C33702 



FIRST - get next byte of string on stack 

ENTRY: TOP - ptr to string 

EXIT: TOP - first character of string 

TOP-l - ptr to rest of string 
DESCRIPTION: useful for advancing through strings a byte 
at a time. 



FIRST DW $+2 ;C0DE 

POP H ;get pointer 

MOV CM ;BC <- character 

MVI B,0 

INX H ybump pointer 

PUSH H ; restore pointer 

PUSH B ;add character 

JMP NEXT ; continue 



COUT - character output routine 
ENTRY: TOP - character to print 
DESCRIPTION: uses operating system to print character 



COUT 



DW 


$ + 2 


;C0DE 


POP 


B 


•C <- character 


CALL 


7E0CH 


;print it 


JMP 


NEXT 


; return 



CIN - character input routine 

EXIT: TOP - character read from console 

DESCRIPTION: Uses operating system 



04FA FC04 


CIN 


04FC CD097E 




04FF 6F 




0500 2600 




0502 E5 




0503 C33702 





DW 


$+2 


;CODE 


CALL 


7E09H 


; read character 


MOV 


L,A 


;HL <- character 


MVI 


H,0 




PUSH 


H 


;push on stack 


JMP 


NEXT 


; return 



0100 




ORG 


0100 


319D01 


LXI 


0103 


CDB406 


CALL 


0106 


210E01 


LXI 


0109 


229D01 


SHLD 


010C 


C33702 


JMP 



TITLE 'Threaded Code Interpreter for 8080' 
Richard Fritzson 
29 January 1980 Version 1.0 

This version contains only the basic internal 
interpreter and a simple interactive console 
interpreter . 

100H ; start up address 

SP, STACK ; initialize parameter stack 

DICMOVE ;move dictionary to high memory 

H, TOP-l ;set PC to top level loop 
PC 



NEXT 



;and start interpreter 



TOP - Top Level System Loop 
DESCRIPTION: TOP is an infinite 
loop which picks up the contents of the 
EXEC variable and executes it. 



010F 


1901AB02 


TOP DW EXEC , PEEKW 


;get top level program 


0113 


EE03 


DW EXECUTE 


;run it 


0115 


F5020E01 


DW JUMP, TOP-l 


; and loop 






; EXEC - address of top level 


routine 


0119 


4C03 


EXEC DW VARIABLE 


; threaded code variabl 


011B 


5103 


DW INTERACT 
; Reserved Stack Space 


raddress of user inter 


011D 




DS 128 


;parameter stack 


019D 


■ 


STACK EQU $ 
PAGE 





Listing 14. Interpreter program. 



The interpreter executes the code 
address returned by the lookup func- 
tion using the Execute function (List- 
ing 12), which simulates the action of 
the internal interpreter. 

The User's Interpreter: 
The Rest of the System 

Listing 13 contains a simple version 
of Readline, written in threaded 
code. It uses two input/output primi- 
tives—character in and character out, 
both of which use the stack for ac- 
cepting and returning characters. 
You can change these to whatever 
your system requires. 

You may have noticed by now that 
the top-level routine (Interact) is not a 
loop. It performs its function and 
then returns. To make the system ex- 
ecute this procedure repeatedly, re- 
place the TRET instruction with 
JUMPs to the beginning of the rou- 
tine. However, this locks the system 
into always executing this one func- 
tion. 

A more flexible alternative (Listing 
14) is to make the system's innermost 
loop repeatedly execute the contents 
of a variable (initial value: the Inter- 
act routine) so that the user can re- 
place the interpreter's main routine 
with a new one by simply changing 
the value of a variable. This is useful 
when you want to change from nu- 
meric calculating to a foreign word 
lookup or text editing. 

The rest of the code needed to 
make the system run is listed in List- 
ing 15. It is a fairly direct 8080 code 
for handling mundane tasks, such as 
scanning a line of characters for the 
next word or performing 16-bit divi- 
sion. 

The last two items in this listing are 
the names portion of the system's dic- 
tionary, which contains the names of 
the available words and the ad- 
dresses of their associated subrou- 
tines; and the system's initialization 
code, which moves this part of the 
dictionary to the top of available 
memory. All of the code here should 
be easy to understand. 

Useful Extensions, Notes about 
the Code 

To put everything together, type 
the code in the order in which the fig- 
ures are presented (except for Listing 
14, which is actually page one of the 
program). The order in which the 
subroutines are entered makes al- 
most no difference; just make the dic- 
tionary of names the last permanent 



88 Microcomputing, February 1981 



routine in the code. 

Programmability makes a comput- 
er more versatile than a calculator. 
FORTH is fun to use because of its 
ability to define new functions inter- 
actively. The complier described in 
the second part of this article allows 
you to do this. However, you can 
make a few other improvements be- 
fore then. 

The code presented so far is bare- 
bones. If your library of subroutines 
has substitutes for Readline, number 
conversions and string printing, they 
are bound to be better than these. 
(Notice that the ASCII/binary conver- 
sions only handle positive numbers.) 
Use yours instead of mine. 

Also, 16-bit arithmetic is limited. 
Add double-precision or floating- 
point routines to the system if you 
don't have them already. Put all of 
the arithmetic routines you can find 



into one version, and make yourself a 
calculator that is as good as the best.B 



HIGH MEMORY 



I VARIES WITH 2 

BYTE LENGTH OF STRING BYTES 



I N C 



SCAN 



LINK 



LINK 



LINK 



EXPANDS 
DOWNWARD 



LOW MEMORY 



EXPANDS 
UPWARD 



CODE FOR SCAN 



CODE FOR ADD ('+' ) 



CODE FOR INC 



Table 5. Details of dictionary. 



Listing 15. 

SCAN - Scan for next word 
ENTRY: No Values Expected 
EXIT: TOP - -1 if word found, if word not found 

TOP-1 - ptr to word if found (else nothing) 
DESCRIPTION: first byte of buffer contains a counter of 
characters already scanned. The next word is moved to the 
beginning of the line with a leading byte count. 

; CODE 

?BC <- character count 



;test for end of line already 

; if yes 

;HL <- scanning start point 

;B <- character count 
; increment pointer 
; increment count 
;get next character 
;test for end of line 
;if yes, 

;else, check for blank 
;if yes, skip it 

;else begin moving word 
;C <- size of string 



;inc word size 

rinc scanned char count 

rget next byte 

rtest for end of line 

; i f not , 

;else set eol flag 

;and change EOL to delimitier 

; check for space 

;if not yet 

;else save scanned char count 

;and word size 

;and return word pointer 



0506 


0805 SCAN DW 


$+2 


0508 


215404 


LXI 


H,CONBUF+2 


050B 


4E 


MOV 


C,M 


050C 


0600 


MVI 


B,0 


050E 


34 


INR 


M 


050F 


CA4705 


JZ 


SCANX 


0512 


23 


INX 


H 


0513 


09 


DAD 


B 


0514 


41 


MOV 


B,C 


0515 


23 SCAN1 INX 


H 


0516 


04 


INR 


B 


0517 


7E 


MOV 


A,M 


0518 


B7 


ORA 


A 


0519 


CA4705 


JZ 


SCANX 


051C 


FE20 


CPI 


2 OH 


051E 


CA1505 


JZ 


SCAN1 


0521 


115504 


LXI 


D,CONBUF+3 


0524 


0E00 


MVI 


CO 


0526 


13 SCAN2 INX 


D 


0527 


12 


STAX 


D 


0528 


OC 


INR 


C 


0529 


04 


INR 


B 


052A 


23 


INX 


H 


052B 


7E 


MOV 


A,M 


052C 


B7 


ORA 


A 


052D 


C23405 


JNZ 


SCAN 3 


0530 


06FF 


MVI 


B,-l 


0532 


3E20 


MVI 


A, 20H 


0534 


FE20 SCAN3 CPI 


2 OH 


0536 


C22605 


JNZ 


SCAN 2 


0539 


215404 


LXI 


H,CONBTJF+2 


053C 


70 


MOV 


M,B 


053D 


23 


INX 


H 


053E 


71 


MOV 


M,C 


053F 


E5 


PUSH 


H 


0540 


21FFFF 


LXI 


H,-l 


0543 


E5 


PUSH 


H 


0544 


C33702 


JMP 


NEXT 


0547 


3EFF SCANX MVI 


A,-l 


0549 


325404 


STA 


CONBUF+2 


054C 


210000 


LXI 


H,0 


054F 


E5 


PUSH 


H 


0550 


C33702 


JMP 


NEXT 



;hit end of line 
;mark buffer empty 
: return a zero 



CONBXA - convert binary to ascii 

ENTRY: TOP - 16 bit positive integer 

EXIT: TOP - address of converted ASCII string 

DESCRIPTION: pushes the digits of the number 

on to the stack, least significant digits first. 

Then pops them up and stores them in a local 

buffer . 




By Netronics 

ASCII/BAUDOT, 
STAND ALONE 



Computer 
Terminal 




COMPLETE 
FOR ONLY . . . 

$14995 



The Netronics ASCII/BAUDOT Computer Terminal Kit is a 
microprocessor-controlled, stand alone keyboard/terminal 
requring no computer memory or software. It allows the use of 
either a 64 or 32 character by 16 line professional display for- 
mat with selectable baud rate, RS232-C or 20 ma. output, full 
cursor control and 75 ohm composite video output. 

The keyboard follows the standard typewriter configuration 
and generates the entire 128 character ASCII upper/lower case 
set with 96 printable characters. Features include onboard 
regulators, selectable parity, shift lock key, alpha lock jumper, 
a drive capability of one TTY load, and the ability to mate 
directly with almost any computer, including the new Ex- 
plorer/85 and ELF products by Netronics. 

The Computer Terminal requires no I/O mapping and 
includes Ik of memory, character generator, 2 key rollover, 
processor controlled cursor control, parallel ASCII/BAUDOT 
to serial conversion and serial to video processing— fully 
crystal controlled for superb accuracy. PC boards are the 
highest quality glass epoxy for the ultimate in reliability and 
long life. 

VIDEO DISPLAY SPECIFICATIONS 

The heart of the Netronics Computer Terminal is the micro- 
processor-controlled Netronics Video Display Board (VID) 
which allows the terminal to utilize either a parallel ASCII or 
BAUDOT signal source. The VID converts the parallel data to 
serial data which is then formatted to either RS232-C or 20 ma. 
current loop output, which can be connected to the serial I/O 
on your computer or other interface, i.e., Modem. 

When connected to a computer, the computer must echo the 
character received. This data is received by the VID which 
processes the information, converting to data to video suitable 
to be displayed on a TV set (using an RF modulator) or on a 
video monitor. The VID generates the cursor, horizontal and 
vertical sync pulses and performs the housekeeping relative to 
which character and where it is to be displayed on the screen. 

Video Output: 1.5 P/ Pinto 75 ohm (EIA RS-170) • Baud Rate: 
110 and 300 ASCII • Outputs: RS232-C or 20 ma. current hop 
• ASCII Character Set: 128 printable characters— 



a&TS«8vxpviH+©Aot*» *t-r*JJ|*** 

!"t$U / O*+,-./0123456789: ;<=>? 

«fiO)EFGHI]WJfCP«STlM«VZ[\l A . 

v abcdtf9hij klftnopqrstttwx <frt ! >*1 



BAUDOT Character Set: ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQ 
RSTUVWXYZ-?:*3$*().,9014!57;2/6 8* 
Cursor Modes: Home, Backspace, Horizontal Tab, Line Feed, 
Vertical Tab, Carriage Return. Two special cursor sequences 
are provided for absolute and relative X- Y cursor addressing • 
Cursor Control: Erase, End of Line, Erase of Screen, Form 
Feed, Delete • Monitor Operation: 50 or 60Hz (jumper 
selectable. 

Continental U.S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut 

CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

m ^ I— To Order From Connecticut Or For Technical ^ m a 
Assistance, Etc. Call (203) 354-9375 
Netronics R&D Ltd.. Dept. K-2 

333 Litchfield Road. New Mil ford. CT 06776 

Please send the items checked below — 

D Netronics Stand Alone ASCII Keyboard/Computer 
Terminal Kit, $149.95 plus $3.00 postage 8c handling. 

D Deluxe Steel Cabinet for Netronics Keyboard/Termi- 
nal In Blue/Black Finish, $19.95 plus $2.50 postage 
and handling. 

□ Video Display Board Kit alone (less keyboard), $89.95 
plus $3 postage & handling. 

□ 12" Video Monitor (10 MHz bandwidth) fully assem- 
bled and tested, $139.95 plus $5 postage and handling. 

D RF Modulator Kit (to use your TV set for a monitor), 
$8.95 postpaid. 

□ 5 amp Power Supply Kit In Deluxe Steel Cabinet 
(±8VDC @ 5 amps, plus 6-8 VAC), $39.95 plus $2 
postage & handling. 

Total Enclosed (Conn. res. add sales tax) $ 

By- 

□ Personal Check □ Cashiers Check/Money Order 
D Visa D Master Charge (Bank # ) 

Acct. # ■ 



Signature 

Print 

Name 



_Exp. Date 



Address 
City 



State 



Zip 



□ Send Me More Information 



iS Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 89 



AIM 65 DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 
DSAIM 65 




The DSAIM 65 is a really complete low cost develop- 
ment system for the 6500 microprocessor family. This 
powerful development system provides the user with a 
display of 80 characters by 25 lines, 32K bytes of RAM 
memory expandable to 64K, over 280K bytes of mass 
storage on line expandable to over 1 Megabyte, 6 card 
slots expansion board, Centronics-type printer inter- 
face, a powerful disk operating system, BASIC high 
level language, debug monitor, editor, assembler, 
powerful system library programs for handling of files 
by same generic names or extension(s). 

Items also sold separately 



Call or write for further details. 



^334 



APPLIED BUSINESS COMPUTER CO. 

707 S. State College., Suite G. 

Fullerton, Ca. 92631 



12" BLACK & WHITE 
LOW COST VIDEO 
TERMINAL 

Easily interfaced with Radio Shack TRS 80 

$159.00 LIST 

Will sell 6 feet coaxial cable $6.00 

Texas residents add 5% sales tax. 
Add $5 for shipping and handling 




One year 
limited warranty 
• Ideal for home, personal and business computer systems, 
surveillance monitors • 12 diagonal video monitor • Com 
posite video input • Compatible with many computer 
systems • Solid state circuitry for a stable & sharp pic 
ture • Video bandwidth— 12 MHz ±3 DB • Input im 
pedance— 75 Ohms • Resolution— 650 lines Minimum IN 
Central 80% of CRT. 550 Lines Minimum beyond central 80% 
ofCRTref EIA RS375 • Dimensions— 1 1 .375 high; 16.250 
wade; 11.250 deep (exclude video input con 
nector) • Weight— 6 5 KG (14.3 lbs) net 

Use Master Charge/ Visa or send money order. 

Micro Products Unlimited 

P.O.Box 1525. Arlington, TX 76010 
817/461-8043 
Dealer inquiries welcome 



335 



M^PfPPM^MPM^PMM 



TAR HEEL SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 

"Affordable Software for Small Business" 
PROUDL Y ANNOUNCES 

REAL ESTATE BOOKKEEPING SYSTEM 

a disk-based fully-integrated system including 
cash journal, general journal, tenant ledger, 
landlord ledger, monthly landlord statements, 
balance sheet, P & L statement by profit 
centers, and more, all for $150 postpaid. 
(North Carolina orders add 4% sales tax.) 
Free continuing update service included. 
Minimum hardware: TRS-80 Model I, 32K, 
2 disk drives, line printer. Versions for 
TRS-80 Model II and III, Apple II and 
Commodore 2001 Series coming soon. Watch 
for announcement of other small business 
applications software in the months to come. 




^233 

TAR HEEL SOFTWARE 
SYSTEMS, INC. 

536 S LEXINGTON AVt PO BOX 140 
BURI IV.ION NORTH C AROl INA 2721* 



MMMMMS^MMMMMMMM 



Listing 15 continued. 

0553 4702 CONBXA 



0555 


4403DD02 


0559 


C7020A00DEC 


055F 


DD02 


0561 


E502 


0563 


18035805 


0567 


D702 


0569 


3C03 


056B 


9B05B502 


056F 


E5024403 


0573 


23039405 


0577 


9B05A102 


057B 


6E02 


057D 


9B05B502 


0581 


C70230007E 



CONB2 



0587 9B05 
0589 9B05A1027E 
058F B502 
0591 F5026E05 

0595 D702 CONB3 
0597 9B05 
0599 5B02 

059B 4C03 NBUFR 
059D 



DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 

DW 
DW 
DW 

DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 

DW 
DW 
DW 
DW 

DW 
DW 
DW 

DW 
DS 



TCALL 

NEGONE , SWAP 

TPUSH, 10, DIV 

SWAP 

DUP 

IFNZ,CONBl-l 

TPOP 
ZERO 
NBUFR, POKEB 

DUP, NEGONE 

IFEQ,CONB3-l 

NBUFR, PEEKB 

INC 

NBUFR, POKEB 

TPUSH, '0' ,TADD 



; threaded code 
;mark end of string with -1 
;divide number by ten 
;put quotient on top 

;continue until Q = 

;then drop quotient, 

;store zero in first 

;byte of buffer, 

jand store string 

;test for end of string 

;if yes 

;else, increment byte count 



;convert digit to ascii 
;and store in next location 



NBUFR 

NBUFR, PEEKB , TADD 

POKEB 

JUMP,CONB2-l ; repeat 



TPOP 

NBUFR 

TRET 

VARIABLE 
10 



;drop end of string marker 
;push return buffer address 
;and return 

rthreaded variable 
; plenty long enough 



05DE E005 
05E0 CI 
05E1 Dl 
05E2 210000 
05E5 CDED05 
05E8 D5 
05E9 E5 
05EA C33702 

05ED 0B 

05EE 78 

05EF 2F 

05F0 47 

05F1 79 

05F2 2F 

05F3 4F 

05F4 3E10 

05F6 29 

05F7 F5 



ENTRY 
EXIT: 



TOP 
TOP 



CONAXB - convert ASCII decimal string to binary 

pointer to string 
-1 if converted to binary 
if not 
TOP-1 - value of number if converted 
ptr to string if not 
converts only positive, unsigned 
integers. Written in assembly because I had it around 
and didn't want to rewrite it in threaded code. 



DESCRIPTION: 



05A7 A905 CONAXB DW 


$ + 2 


;CODE 


05A9 Dl 


POP 


D 


;get string pointer 


05AA D5 


PUSH 


D 


;but leave on stack 


05AB 1A 


LDAX 


D 


;get byte count 


05AC 47 


MOV 


B,A 




05AD 210000 


LXI 


H,0 


;starting value 


05B0 13 CONA1 INX 


D 




05B1 1A 


LDAX 


D 


;get next character 


05B2 FE30 


CPI 


'0' 


jtest for digit 


05B4 DAD705 


JC 


CONAX 


;if not 


05B7 FE3A 


CPI 


•9'+l 




05B9 D2D705 


JNC 


CONAX 


; i f not 


05BC D630 


SUI 


'0' 


;convert to binary 


05BE D5 


PUSH 


D 


;save pointer 


05BF 29 


DAD 


H 


^multiply current va 


05C0 E5 


PUSH 


H 




05C1 29 


DAD 


H 




05C2 29 


DAD 


H 




05C3 Dl 


POP 


D 




05C4 19 


DAD 


D 




05C5 5F 


MOV 


E,A 


;add new binary digi 


05C6 1600 


MVI 


D,0 




05C8 19 


DAD 


D 




05C9 Dl 


POP 


D 


.•restore pointer 


05CA 05 


DCR 


B 


;dec count 


05CB C2B005 


JNZ 


CONA1 


; continue until done 


05CE Dl 


POP 


D 


;then drop pointer, 


05CF E5 


PUSH 


H 


;push number 


05D0 21FFFF 


LXI 


H,-l 


;and -1 


05D3 E5 


PUSH 


H 




05D4 C33702 


JMP 


NEXT 




05D7 210000 CONAX LXI 


H,0 


; failure: push a zer 


05DA E5 


PUSH 


H 




05DB C33702 


JMP 


NEXT 





DIV - 16 bit 
ENTRY: TOP 

TOP-1 
EXIT: TOP 

TOP-1 
DESCRIPTION: 
positive integers only, 
in 16 bits. 



divide 

- divisor 

- dividend 

- remainder 

- quotient 
performs a 32 bit by 16 bit division for 

The quotient must be resolved 



DIV 



DIV1 



DIV2 



DW 


$ + 2 


;CODE 


POP 


B 


; BC <- divisor 


POP 


D 


;HLDE <- dividenc 


LXI 


H,0 




CALL 


DIV1 


;do division 


PUSH 


D 


;push quotient 


PUSH 


H 


;push remainder 


JMP 


NEXT 




DCX 


B 


; negate BC 


MOV 


A,B 




CMA 






MOV 


B,A 




MOV 


A,C 




CMA 






MOV 


C,A 




MVI 


A, 16D 


; iteration count 


DAD 


H 


; shift HLDE 


PUSH 


PSW 


;save overflow 




90 Microcomputing, February 1981 




Apple PIE 




Apple PIE (Progrumma International Editor) 
and FORMAT (text formatter) offer full strength 
solutions to today's word processing problems. 
These versatile, powerful programs provide 
document preparation and word processing 
capabilities previously found only on much larger 
computer systems. 

PIE is a general purpose, full screen editor 
that uses control keys and function buttons to 
provide a full range of editing capabilities such as 
search and replace, delete, copy, insert, move. 
Changes may be made directly anywhere on the 
screen and are shown as they are performed. 

FORMAT uses simple instructions 
embedded in the input text to describe the desired 
appearance of the final document. It handles 
centering, underlining, indenting, page numbering. 



Formatter 

margins, headers, footers, even form letters, and 
includes a proofing capability. 

These high-quality, cost-effective programs 
come with comprehensive documentation and run 
on a 32K Apple II. They are available throug 
your local computer store or direct from 
Programma International, Inc. at the 
price of $129.95. 

VIDEX VERSION T.M. 
DOUBLE VISION T.M. 
SUPR TERM VERSION T.M. 
STANDARD VERSION 

PROGRAMMA 

2908 N. Naomi Street 
Burbank, Ca. 91504 
(213) 954-0240 




Simple enough for the beginner. Versatile enough for the professional. 




1^11 



tS Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 91 



controller with our new... ^ 

TRS-80 INTERFACE 



#Turn your Micro into an 
electronic and security 




$5995 



To Order: 

Send $59 95 

plus $2 50 for 

shipping and 

handling 

Illinois 

Residents 

add 6% tax) 

TRS-80 Soft- 
ware (Specify 
Tape or Disk) 
$10 with 
purchase of 
Micro 
Commander 



90 Day Warranty 
Assembled & Tested; 



COMPUTER CONTROLLED - REMOTE CONTROL 

Now an inexpensive and direct carrier current interface between the 
TSR 80 and the BSR X 10 remote control modules. The MICRO 
COMMANDER X 10 modules and your computer can control your 
lights appliances motors. TV. stereo. heaters, alarms. fans. pumps. etc 

COMPUTER CONTROLLED - SECURITY 

Add a new dimension to your security system Place your home undei 
control of your computer real time clock while you are on vacation Add 
an input port to your computer and intelligence looms With switches on 
doors or w indows your computer can welcome guests or frighten intruders 

EASY TO USE - NO WIRES TO RUN 

Total control of all X 10 modules Utilize all 256 house and unit code 
combinations Oirect interlace to AC power line No command console to 
purchase No sonic link Plugs directly into TRS 80 Model 1 (Level II or 
Oisk| cassette jack or any I bit input and I bit output TTL port. 
MANUAL INCLUDES SOFTWARE LISTINGS 

NEW PORT C Real time CO N T- R-O-L 
sottware for all TRS-80 Mod.MLv.llor disk). 
Control your MICRO COMMANDER or output 
ports with respect to real time and/or input 
port triggers Save schedules on tape or disk. 
CONTACT US FOR BSR X10 PRICES 

- INTERFACE TECHNOLOGY + "3 

P O Box 383. Des Plaines. II 60017 
W Phone (312) 297-2265 




>Y DISK 

►ALE! 



■ We are an OEM for SIEMENS disk 
drives, and have we got a deal for you! 
Floppy Disk Services is selling the latest 
and greatest disk drives direct to you at 

C rices you can't find anywhere else. We 
uy in Dig quantities to set the best prices 
and pass that savings on to you. 

■ Looking for 8" drives? The FDD-100-8 
is the latest most updated model from 
SIEMENS. Single sided single or double 
density. These drives are built on tough 
chassis for years of trouble free use. They 
are rack mountable aVid Shugart compati- 
ble, both physically and electrically. Power 
requirements are simple just +24v and +5v, 
negative voltage hot required. The motor 
is AC. driven. 

■ Need 5.25" drives? The FDD-100-5 
is for you. These drives are 35 or 40 track 
models and like their big brothers are the 
latest models from SIEMENS. They work 
perfectly with the TRS-80 Mod 1 and are 
direct replacements for the drives used in 
Heath computers. Powered by just +12 
and + 5vdc. 

ask about our 8" drive package for the 

TRS-80 MOD II — $950.00 

for TWO drive system 

FDD-100-8d $360.002for$710 

FDD-100-5b $230.002for$450 

power conn, set 8" $3.50 

Manuals (8" or 5.25") $12.00 

All shipping collect via UPS. 

Prepay your order & we pay shipping 

Mastercharge and Visa accepted 

Floppy Disk Services Inc 

CN. 5212 ^191 

Princeton, N.J. 08540 
(609) 771-0374 



Listing 15 continued. 



05F8 EB 
05F9 29 
05FA EB 
05FB D2FF05 
05FE 2C 
05FF Fl 
0600 DAI 206 
0603 E5 



DIV3 



0604 


09 


0605 


DA0C06 


0608 


El 


0609 


C31406 


060C 


1C 


060D 


33 


060E 


33 


060F 


C31406 


0612 


09 


0613 


1C 


0614 


3D 


0615 


C2F605 


0618 


C9 



DIV4 

DIV5 
DIV6 



XCHG 

DAD 

XCHG 

JNC 

INR 

POP 

JC 

PUSH 

DAD 

JC 

POP 

JMP 

INR 

INX 

INX 

JMP 

DAD 

INR 

DCR 

JNZ 

RET 



H 

DIV3 

L 

PSW 

DIV5 

H 

B 

DIV4 

H 

DIV6 

E 

SP 

SP 

DIV6 

B 

E 

A 

DIV2 



;get overflow 

;if overflow, force subtraction 

;else,save dividend 

; attempt subtraction 

;if it goes 

;else restore dividend 

•increment quotient 
;drop old dividend 



•force subtraction 
;inc quotient 
; decrement count 
; repeat until done 



The Names in the dictionary 

Notice that the actual printed names are chosen for typing 
convenience and do not necessarily match the internal names 
which must conform to the assembler's rules. Also, not all 
functions have been included here. 



0619 = NAMEBEG 


EQU $ 




0619 012B DB 


1,' + ' 




061B 7E02 DW 


TADD 




061D 012D DB 


1,'-* 




061F 9902 DW 


TSUB 




0621 042F4D4F44 DB 


4, '/MOD' 




0626 DE05 DW 


DIV 




0628 0745584543 DB 


7 , ' EXECUTE ' 




0630 EE03 DW 


EXECUTE 




0632 05434C4541 DB 


5, 'CLEAR* 




0638 ED02 DW 


CLEAR 




063A 054D415443 DB 


5 , ' MATCH ' 




0640 C903 DW 


MATCH 




0642 064C4F4F4B DB 


6 , ' LOOKUP ' 




0649 8F03 DW 


LOOKUP 




064B 0445584543 DB 


4 , ' EXEC ' 




0650 1901 DW 


EXEC 




0652 064D454D4F DB 


6 , ' MEMORY ' 




0659 4803 DW 


MEMORY 




065B 06434F4E42 DB 


6 , ' CONBXA ' 




0662 5305 DW 


CONBXA 




0664 03494E43 DB 


3 , ' INC ' 




0668 6E02 DW 


INC 




066A 03444543 DB 


3 , ' DEC ' 




066E 7602 DW 


DEC 




0670 054D494E55 DB 


5, 'MINUS' 




0676 8702 DW 


MINUS 




0678 055045454B DB 


5, 'PEEKW' 




067E AB02 DW 


PEEKW 




0680 055045454B DB 


5 , * PEEKB ' 




0686 A102 DW 


PEEKB 




0688 05504F4B45 DB 


5 , ' POKEW ' 




068E BD02 DW 


POKEW 




0690 05504F4B45 DB 


5 , ' POKEB ' 




0696 B502 DW 


POKEB 




0698 03504F50 DB 


3 , ' POP ' 




069C D702 DW 


TPOP 




069E 0453574150 DB 


4 , ' SWAP ' 




06A3 DD02 DW 


SWAP 




06A5 03445550 DB 


3 , ' DUP ' 




06A9 E502 DW 


DUP 




06AB 0546495253 DB 


5, 'FIRST' 




06B1 E504 DW 
06B3 00 DB 


FIRST 




;end of d 


06B3 = NAMEEND EQU $-1 




009B = DICSIZE EQU NAMEEND- 


-NAMEBEG+1 



;dictionary size in bytes 



^cuted'on'srsrf up of system but eventually overwritten by 
the expanding dictionary 

DICMOVE - moves the dictionary names 

to the top of available memory 



06B4 2A4A03 
06B7 EB 
06B8 21B306 
06BB 019B00 

06BE 7E 
06BF 12 
06C0 2B 
06C1 IB 
06C2 OB 
06C3 78 
06C4 Bl 
06C5 C2BE06 

06C8 EB 
06C9 23 
06CA 22C703 

06CD C9 
06CE 



DICMOVE LHLD 
XCHG 
LXI 
LXI 



DIC1 



MOV 

STAX 

DCX 

DCX 

DCX 

MOV 

ORA 

JNZ 



MEMORY* 2 

H , NAMEEND 
B, DICSIZE 

A,M 

D 

H 

D 

B 

A,B 

C 

DIC1 



XCHG 

INX H 

SHLD NAMES+2 

RET 

END 



;DE <- top of memory 

•HL <- source (end of names) 

; BC <- byte count 

r transfer loop 

;get next byte 

;move it 

rdec source pointer 

;dec target pointer 

;dec count 

;test for zero 

;not yet 

;set dictionary variable 



92 Microcomputing, February 1981 






S>J& 



m>) 



Introducing our new disk drives for Appier computers! 






We invite you 

to compare our features: 

• Faster access 

• Quieter operation 

• Less power consumption 

• Diskette auto centering 

• Automatic eject 

• 40-T rack capability 



Attention dealers, 
distributors and OEM's! 

Call us for details on our 
attractive pricing! 



Now only 

$395 



• 



\\ 



V. 



The new A.M. Electronics disk drives for Apple™ 
computers are finished in compatible "Apple-beige," 
and are each 100% tested— ready to plug in. Order yours 
now from A.M. Electronics, "the power behind the drives!" 



^39 



The power behind the drives® 

A.M. ELECTRONICS, INC. 

3366 Washtenaw Ave. 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 
Call (313) 973-2312 



[master charge 



'"Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Co. 



FEATURES INCLUDE: 



Uses Standard Typewriter Ribbon 

Micro Processor Controlled 

Can Operate Continuously— 

No Thermal Problems (Hasan all metal 

print head) 

5 x 7 to Larger 10x7 and Larger 10 x 14 

Dot Matrix Character Generator 

Standard 96 ASCII Character Font 

Upper and Lower Case Printing 

Up to 88 Characters Per Line 

Single Line Print Rate Is 160 CPS 

Average Print Rate Is 60 CPS For Ten 

Lines 

Graphics Capability With Extended 

Character Modes 

Programmable With 32 System Level 

Software Commands 

Standard Parallel and Serial Interface 

Software and Hardware Reset Interface 

Software Line Counting For Paging 

Baud rate Select From 110 to 9600 

Manual Paper Advance 

Manual Selftest and Reset 

Adjustable Tractor Width From 1 to 9V? 

Inches 

Interfaces with Apple, Atari, OSI, T.I., 

TRS-80 and the List Goes On • 






C00S0L DATA LOGGER IMPACT PRINTER 




$495 Kit, 101B-80KE $545 Assembled & Tested 101B-80E 

FACTORY DIRECT ^292 "Registered Trademarks of Apple Computer Inc.. Atari Inc., Ohio Scientific Inc. Texas Instruments Inc., 

Tandy Corp respectively. 

COOSOL, INC. P.O. BOX 743, ANAHEIM, CA 92805 (714) 545-2216 7 Days a Week 






i^» Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 93 



NEW! TPM* for TRS-80 Model II 
NEW! System/6 Package 

Computer Design Labs 



Z80 Disk software 



We have acquired the rights to all TDL 
industry. Computer Design Labs will contin 



software (& hardware). TDL software has long had the reputation of being the best in the 
ue to maintain, evolve and add to this superior line of quality software. 

— Carl Galletti and Roger Amidon, owners. 



Software with Manual/Manual Alone 



All of the software below is available on any of the 
following media for operation with a Z80 CPU using 
the CP/M* or similar type disk operating system 
(such as our own TPM*). 

for TRS-80* CP/M (Modal I or II) 
for 8" CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for SV*" CP/M (soft sectored single density) 
for 5Y4" North Star CP/M (single density) 
for WW North Star CP/M (double density) 

BASIC I 

A powerful and fast Z80 Basic interpreter with EDIT, 
RENUMBER, TRACE, PRINT USING, assembly language 
subroutine CALL, LOADGO for "chaining^ COPY to 
move text, EXCHANGE, KILL, LINE INPUT, error inter- 
cept, sequential file handling in both ASCII and binary 
formats, and much, much more. It runs in a little over 1 2 
K. Art excellent choice for games since the precision 
was limited to 7 digits in order to make it one of the 
fastest around. $49.95/$15. 

BASIC II 

Basic I but with 1 2 digit precision to make tts power 
available to the business world with only a slight sacrifice 
in speed* Still runs fastef than most other Basics (even 
thoi© with much less precision). $99.95/$15. 

BUSINESS BASIC 

The most powerful Basic for business applications. It 
adds to Basic II with random or sequential disk files in 
either fixed or variable record lengths, simultaneous 
access to multiple disk files, PRIVACY command to 
prohibit user access to source code, global editing, 
added math functions, and disk file maintenance capa- 
bility without leaving Basic (list, rename, or delete). 
$179.95/$25. 

ZEDIT 

A character oriented text editor with 26 commands 
and "macro" capability for stringing multiple commands 
together. Included are a complete array of character 
move, add, delete, and display function. $49,957$ 15. 



Z80 Text Editing Language - Not just a text editor. 
Actually a language which allows you to edit text and 
also write, save, and recall programs which manipulate 
text. Commands include conditional branching, subrou- 
tine calls, iteration, block move, expression evaluation, 
and much more. Contains 36 value registers and 10 text 
registers. Be creative! Manipulate text with commands 
you write using Ztel. $79.95/$25. 

TOP 

A Z80 Text Output Processor which will do text 
formatting for manuals, documents, and other word 
processing jobs. Works with any text editor. Does 
justification, page numbering and headings, spacing, 
centering, and much more! $79.95/$25. 

MACRO I 

A macro assembler which will generate relocateable 
or absolute code for the 8080 or Z80 using standard 
Intel mnemonics plusTDL/Z80 extensions. Functions 
include 14 conditionals, 16 listing controls, 54 pseudo- 
ops, 1 1 arithmetic/logical operations, local and global 
symbols, chaining files, linking capability with optional 
linker, and recursive/ reiterative macros. This assembler 
is so powerful you'll think it isdoing all the work for you. It 
actually makes assembly language programming much 
less of an effort and more creative. $79.95/$20. 

MACRO II 

Expands upon Macro I's linking capability (which is 
useful but somewhat limited) thereby being able to take 
full advantage of the optional Linker. Also a time and 
date function has been added and the listing capability 
improved. $99.95/$25. 

LINKER 

How many times have you written the same subroutine 
in each new program? Top notch professional pro- 
grammers compile a library of these subroutines and 
use a Linker to tie them together at assembly time. 
Development time is thus drastically reduced and 
becomes comparable to writing in a high level language 
but with all the speed of assembly language. So, get the 
new CDL Linker and start writing programs in a fraction 
of the time it took before. Linker is compatible with 
Macro I & 1 1 as well as TDL/Xitan assemblers version 2.0 
or later. $79.95/$20. 



DEBUG I 

Many programmers give up on writing in assembly 
language even though they know their programs would 
be faster and more powerful. To them assembly language 
seems difficult to understand and follow, as well as 
being a nightmare to debug. Well, not with proper tools 
like Debug I. With Debug I you can easily follow the flow 
of any Z80 or 8080 program. Trace the program one 
step at a time or 1 steps or whatever you like. At each 
step you will be able to see the instruction executed and 
what it did. If desired, modifications can then be made 
before continuing. It's all under your control. You can 
even skip displaying a subroutine call and up to seven 
breakpoints can be set during execution. Use of Debug I 
can pay for itself many times over by saving you valuable 
debugging time. $79.95/$20. 

DEBUG II 

This is an expanded debugger which has all of the 
features of Debug I plus many more. You can "trap" (i.e. 
trace a program until a set of register, flag, and/or 
memory conditions occur). Also, instructions may be 
entered and executed immediately. This makes it easy 
to learn new instructions by examining registers/memory 
before and after. And a RADIX function allows changing 
between ASCII, binary, decimal, hex, octal, signed 
decimal, or split octal. All these features and more add 
up to give you a very powerful development tool. Both 
Debug I and 1 1 must run on a Z80 but will debug both Z80 
and 8080 code. $99.95/$20. 

ZAPPLE 

A Z80 executive and debug monitor. Capable of 
search, ASCII put and display, read and write to I/O 
ports, hex math, breakpoint, execute, move, fill, display, 
read and write in Intel or binary format tape, and more! 
on disk 



SYSTEM/6 

TPM with utilities, Basic I interpreter, Basic E compiler, 
Macro I assembler, Debug I debugger, and ZEDIT text 
editor. 

Above purchased separately costs $339.7 b 
Special introductory offer Only $1 79.75 with coupon!! 




I 






I 






I 



* $1 60. 



APPLE 




00 I 



8080 version of Zapple 



NEW! TPM now available for TRS-80 Model 

II! 

TPM* 

A NEW Z80 disk operation system! This is not CP/M*. 
It's better! You can still run any program which runs with 
CP/M* but unlike CP/M* this operating system was 
written specif ically for the Z80* and takesf ull advantage 
of its extra powerful instruction set. In other wprds its 
not warmed over 8080 code! Available for TRS-80* 
(Model I or II). Tarbell, Xitan DDDC, SD Sales "VERSA- 
FLOPPY', North Star (SD&DD), and Digital (Micro) 
Systems. $79.95/$25. 





ORDERING INFORMATION 

Visa, Master Charge and C.O.D. O.K. To order call or 
write with the following information. 

1. Name of Product (e.g. Macro I) 

2. Media (e.g. 8" CP/M) 

3. Price and method of payment (e.g. C.O.D.) include 
credit card info, if applicable. 

4. Name, Address and Phone number. 

5. ForTPM orders only: Indicate if forTRS 80, Tarbell, 
Xitan DDDC, SD Sales (5V4" or 8"). ICOM (5V4" or 
8"), North Star (single or double density) or Digital 
(Micro) Systems. 

6. N.J. residents add 5% sales tax. 



Manual cost applicable against price of subsequent 
software purchase in any item except for the Osborne 
software. 



SYSTEM MONITOR BOARD (SMBII) 

A complete I/O board forS- 1 00 systems. 2 serial ports, 
2 parallel ports, 1 200/2400 baud cassette tape inter- 
face, sockets for 2K of RAM, 3-2708/27 1 6 EPROM's or 
ROM, jump on reset circuitry. Bare board $49.95/$20. 609"599"2 1 46 



For information and tech queries call 



ROM FOR SMB II 

2KX8 masked ROM of Zapple monitor. Includes source 
listing $34.95/$15. 

PAYROLL (source code only) 

The Osborne package. Requires C Basic 2. 
5" disks $124.95 (manual not included) 
8" disks $ 99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE/RECEIVABLE 
(source code only) 

By Osborne, Requires C Basic 2 
5" disks $124.95 (manual not included) 
8" $99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 

GENERAL LEDGER (source code only) 

By Osborne. Requires C Basic 2 
5" disks $99.95 (manual not included) 
8" disks $99.95 (manual not included) 
Manual $20.00 



C BASIC 2 

Required for Osborne software. $99.95/$20. 



For phone orders ONLY call toll free 

1-800-327-9191 
Ext. 676 

(Except Florida) 

OEMS 

Many CDL products are available for licensing to 
OEMs. Write to Carl Galletti with your requirements. 

* Z80 is a trademark of Zilog 

* TRS-80 is a trademark for Radio Shack 

* TPM is a trademark of Computer Design Labs. It is not 
CP/M* 

* CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 

Prices and specifications subject to change without 
notice. 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED. 




COMPUTER 

DESIGN 

LABS 



^18 



342 Columbus Avenue 
Trenton, N.J. 08629 



94 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Here's some interfacing information not easily obtained from the Heath manuals. 



Getting the Most 
From Your H8 



By Donald Skiff 



Flexibility is one of the biggest 
advantages the Heath H8 has 
over its new siblings, the H88 and 
H89. A bare-bones H8 with the mini- 
mum 4K of memory and an H8-5 
serial and cassette interface board is 
not only inexpensive (less than $500), 
but can be used without a terminal 
for a variety of applications. A begin- 
ner can learn the workings of a com- 
puter at the machine level, add com- 
ponents when he is ready, and have a 
full-fledged microcomputer that will 
compete with the best of them. 

The wide range of possible uses 
makes detailed instructions for using 
the H8 a little slippery; it's almost as 
hard to be specific about how to con- 
nect the computer to something else 
as it is to answer the perennial ques- 
tion, "But what can you do with a 
computer?' Perhaps that's why 
Heath has been less detailed about in- 
terfacing and applications than it has 
been about assembling the machine. 
With so many ways to do it, where do 
you start? 

Ever since I built my H8 nearly 
three years ago, my biggest head- 
aches have been trying to figure out 
how to connect it to terminals, print- 
ers, modems and other computers. 
It's been a trying experience. Here is 
some of what I've learned. 

PAM-8 r the Front Panel Monitor 

The front panel of the H8 is a pe- 
ripheral device, and it is treated by 
the computer as any other external 
component. 

But the monitor program, PAM-8, 
uses the panel's switches and display 
almost continually, and since PAM-8 
runs along with user's programs, the 
panel is frequently involved. I in- 
clude a discussion of the front panel 



because it can be accessed through its 
I/O ports or through PAM-8 routines, 
separately from its regular PAM-8 
functions. 

The H8's intelligent front panel 
makes it different from most other 
microcomputers. You can examine 
and alter any register or memory lo- 
cation, load and dump programs on 
tape and execute programs (even 
single-step) with a single button. 

The front panel keypad and display 
are not completely dedicated to the 
monitor program, however. They are 
accessible through a couple of I/O 
port locations (360 and 361 octal) to 
serve nearly any purpose. PAM-8 can 
handle most of the housekeeping for 
such operations, making them simple 
to program whether running ma- 
chine-language programs or BASIC. 

Reading the Keypad- 
Assembly Language 

When GO is pressed, starting ex- 
ecution of a user's program, the 
keypad is disengaged from the 
PAM-8 routines, and pressing any 
single key has no effect unless the 
user's program checks for it. The two 
two-key stop operations (RTM/0 and 
RST/0), however, are connected by 
interrupt to return control to PAM-8. 

Other than these, the program can 
use almost any key press action. 
PAM-8 contains a routine that may 
be called to identify the key pressed. 
Since there are 16 keys, you can use 
them for entry of hexadecimal val- 
ues, for example. Or, in a controller 
application, pressing a certain key 
might start a particular process. 

The source code for PAM-8 is in- 
cluded in the H8 reference manual. 
On page 1-56 (in my copy, at least) is 
the routine RCK— read console key- 



pad. It contains key-bounce and aural 
feedback routines to indicate when a 
key is struck, and returns with the 
identification of the pressed key in 
the accumulator. 

So to detect a key press, simply 
CALL 003.260 (split octal); then do 
whatever you want with the contents 
of the accumulator. 

Reading the Keypad— BASIC 

It's even easier in BASIC. The state- 
ment 

X = PAD(0) 

will cause the computer to check the 
keypad for a key press, and set vari- 
able X equal to the value of the code 
for that key (up to 16). It will wait for 
the key press before continuing. 

If, for example, you want to lock 
your bookkeeping program with a 
pass code, simply ask for a three- 
number combination to be entered 
on the keypad before allowing the 
program to run. 

Controlling the Front 
Panel Display 

PAM-8 normally displays a mem- 
ory address and its contents or the 
contents of a pair of 8080 registers, all 
selectable from the keypad. During a 
user's program, it will continue to 
display the location or the register 
that was there when GO was 
pressed, updating it if the contents 
change. 

The display can, however, be 
turned off by the program (BASIC 
does this), or it can be made to dis- 
play just about anything, limited only 
by the arrangement of the LED seg- 
ments. Any number up to nine digits 

Donald Skiff, 7211 Scottwood Ave., Cincinnati, 
OH 45237. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 95 



111111 

6 2 

6 2 

6 2 

000000 
5 3 

5 3 

5 3 

444444 

Fig.L 

and nearly all alpha characters can be 
created. 

In Machine Language 

Memory location 040.010 contains 
a control byte used by PAM-8 to oper- 
ate the front panel display, and that 
byte can be changed by your pro- 
gram. It is identified in the source 
code as .MFLAG. Bit 00000010, 
when set, disables the update process 
in PAM-8, so that whatever is dis- 
played will remain until that bit is re- 
set. Bit 01000000, when set, will turn 
the display off. Other bits in this cell 
serve other functions, so change it 
carefully. 

A nine-byte block of memory 
(FPLEDS) starting at 040.013 con- 
tains the code that PAM-8 translates 
into the display pattern. Each byte 
controls one display character, and 
each bit controls one LED segment in 
the pattern shown in Fig. 1. 

The numbers in the figure repre- 
sent the bit number for that segment. 
Bit 7 is the decimal point. In the ap- 
propriate byte, any bits that are set 
will cause the corresponding segment 
to light, if the .MFLAG display on/off 
bit is reset. 

So, to create any pattern on the 
front panel display, stop the updating 
process by PAM-8 and insert appro- 
priate values into the FPLEDS block 
of memory locations. What appears 
will remain until you change it, or un- 
til your program returns to the moni- 
tor. 

In BASIC 

The statement CNTRL 2, 1 will turn 
the front panel display on, without 
any update by PAM-8. CNTRL 2,0 
will turn it back off. 

Any nine numerical values will be 
displayed when they are inserted into 
the FPLEDS memory locations. 
(Since BASIC uses decimal values, 
the locations start at 8203.) Use the 
statement 

POKE 8203, SEG(X) 

to cause the value of X to be shown in 
the first display location. 



The 8251 Mode Byte Bit Configuration 

X X X X X X 1 
X X X X 1 1 XX 

xxooxxxx 

1 X X X X X X 



Baud rate factor (16 x shown - required) 
Character length (8 bit shown - required) 
Parity enable (disabled - not needed) 
Number of stop bits (1 shown - can be 2) 

Octal value of mode byte (216 with 2 stop bits) 



The 8251 Command Byte Bit Configuration 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 




X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

1 

X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

1 

X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 

1 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



The 8251 Status Bit Configuration 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
1 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

1 


X 



X 
X 
X 

1 

X 

X 



X 
X 

1 

X 
X 
X 



X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 



1 

X 
X 
X 
X 

X 



Transmit enable (0 ■ disable) 

Data terminal ready output (Interrupt Enable) 

Receive enable (0 - disable) 

Send break character on data line 

Internal error flags reset (if used) 

Request To send output 

8251 Internal reset 

(Required) 

Octal value of typical command byte 



Transmitter ready for next character 

Receiver register has character 

Transmitter empty 

Error flags 

(always) 

Device ready (DSR) signal received 



Table 1. 



If you wish to display something 
other than the numerals 0-9, poke 
the decimal value of the bit pattern 
required as described above, instead 
of using the SEG(X) function. 

The H8-5 Serial and 
Cassette Interface Board 

Unless the new H8 owner goes di- 
rectly into floppy disk program stor- 
age, this is apt to be the first peripher- 
al interface purchased. The cassette 
interface is pretty much a single-pur- 
pose device, even though it uses the 
same control chip— the 8251 USART 
(universal synchronous-asynchro- 
nous receiver-transmitter)— as the 
serial interface. PAM-8 includes the 
routines for loading and dumping 
programs to tape, and few users will 
need to change the way the device 
operates. 

On the other hand, the serial inter- 
face should be used with a system 
console and is adaptable to a small 
variety of peripherals. Jumpers on 
the board configure the port to either 
RS-232 (or a close approximation of 
it) or current-loop operation. The 
Heath instruction manual adequately 
describes the necessary jumpering 
and connections for standard termi- 
nals. Several connnection points 
shown on the schematic diagram are 
not explained. 

If you have trouble getting a stan- 
dard RS-232 terminal to communi- 
cate through the H8-5 board, try con- 



necting it to pin 3 of PI 02 instead of 
pin 6, and jumper between pins 12 
and 13 of IC122. (This bypasses the 
opto-isolator.) 

Serial data transmission can take 
one of several forms, and the 8251 
USART is designed to handle at least 
some of these. The H8-5, however, 
incorporates only part of the possible 
8251 features. It is intended for asyn- 
chronous transmission of eight-bit 
bytes at a jumper-selected rate of 
from 110 to 9600 baud (bits per sec- 
ond) . It has two device control output 
lines, but no device status sensing 
lines (even though these are available 
on the 8251). 

You control the 8251 through a sep- 
arate I/O port, one number higher 
than the data port. After reset or upon 
power-up, the 8251 must be initial- 
ized before it can be used. Heath soft- 
ware takes care of this if the interface 
is being used with the system con- 
sole. Initialization takes the form of 
two byte values output to the control 
port. 

The first byte is called the mode 
byte. It sets the 8251 for synchronous 
or nonsynchronous operation, char- 
acter length (five-eight bits), parity 
handling and the number of stop bits 
to be used. The Heath manual says 
that only one mode byte is to be used 
with the H8-5: 1 16 octal. This sets the 
8251 for asynchronous operation, 
eight-bit characters, parity check dis- 
abled and one stop bit (two stop bits 



96 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Main Port (Port + 0) 

11111111 

Interrupt Enable Register (Port + 1) 

X X X X X X X 1 

X X X X X X 1 X 

X X X X X 1 XX 

X X X X 1 XXX 

ooooxxxx 

Interrupt Identification Register (Port + 2) 
X X X X X X X 1 
X X X X X 1 1 X 

oooooxxx 

Line Control Register (Port + 3) 

X X X X X X 1 1 
XXXXXO XX 

xxoooxxx 

XI X X X X X X 
1 X X X X X X X 

Modem Control Register (Port + 4) 



Data port— read and write registers 



Received data available interrupt enabled 
Transmitter holding reg. empty int. enabled 
Receiver line status interrupt enabled 
Modem status interrupt enabled 
(Required) 



No interrupt is pending (0 = Yes) 
Identification of highest priority int. pending 
(Required) 



Word length (8-bit length shown) 

Number of stop bits ( 1 shown; 1=2 stop bits) 

Parity instructions (no parity shown) 

Send break character over data line 

Enable access to baud rate set 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 







X X 

X X 

X X 

X X 

X 

X 



X 
X 
X 

1 

X 
X 



X 
X 

X 
X 
X 



X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 



1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



Line Status Register (Port + 5) 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 




X 
X 
X 
X 

1 

X 



X 
X 
X 

1 

X 

X 



X 
X 

1 

X 
X 
X 



X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 



X 

1 

X 

X 
X 

X 



X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 



1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



Modem Status Register (Port + 6) 



X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

1 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 

1 

X 



X 
X 
X 
X 

X 

1 

X 
X 



X 
X 
X 
X 

1 

X 
X 
X 



X 
X 
X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 



X 
X 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



X 

1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



1 

X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



Data terminal ready signal 

Request to send signal 

OUT1 signal (CPU can generate interrupt) 

OUT2 line signal 

8250 diagnostic signal 

(Required) 



Data ready 

Error flags 

Break signal received 

Trans, holding reg. empty (ready for next char.) 

Trans, shift reg. empty (character sent) 

(Always) 



CTS input has changed since last read 

DSR input has changed since last read 

(not relevant on H8-4) 

RLSD input has changed since last read 

Clear to send signal received 

Data set ready signal received 

(not relevant on H8-4) 

Line signal detect signal received 



Table 2. The 8250 register bit configuration. 



can be used if needed for a slow ter- 
minal, making the mode byte 216 oc- 
tal). (See Table 1.) 

Once received by the 8251, the 
mode byte need not be sent again 
unless the USART is reset. 

The next byte the 8251 requires is 
the command byte. This tells the 
USART whether data is to be trans- 
mitted, received or both; whether to 
reset the internal error flags; and 
whether to set the device control 
lines. For ordinary console interfac- 
ing, the device control lines are not 
used. (See Table 1.) 

A new command byte can be sent 
at any time, as long as the 8251 has 
not been reset. There may be times 
when its status is not known; if the 
USART mode has been set, sending it 
another mode byte (116 octal) will 
cause it to reset, and a subsequent 



command byte (005) will be treated 
as a new mode byte (an invalid one, 
at that), leaving the port uncon- 
figured and your program confused. 

On the other hand, assuming the 
mode is set when it isn't and sending 
it a command byte such as 005 will 
have the same effect. The solution is 
to send it a byte that will not reset it if 
it is, and be a valid mode byte if it 
isn't— either way leaving it set and 
waiting for a command byte. A 201 
octal will do this. 

However, 201 will not configure 
the port correctly; it merely ensures 
that the USART mode is set. Follow 
this with a 100 octal, which will reset 
the 8251, and then send the valid 
mode and command bytes. 

The H8-5 has an interrupt system, 
if your application calls for it. The in- 
terrupt jumpers are clearly explained 



in the manual and the schematic dia- 
gram. Heath software doesn't use in- 
terrupts, except a modem control 
package the Heath Users' Group 
released recently. There isn't space 
here to do the subject justice, so I'll 
limit my discussion to the fact that 
the DTR line from the USART is con- 
nected to the interrupt circuits, so 
that setting DTR will also enable the 
interrupts, if they are connected. 
That allows program control over the 
interrupt handling, perhaps useful in 
some kinds of controller applications. 

If you need a status sensing line, 
pin 22 of the USART is the DSR in- 
put, and it is unconnected. It would 
be easy to solder a wire to the pad and 
run it out to the interface terminal 
strip. A safer method would be 
through a buffer of some kind, such 
as a spare AND gate. 

The CTS line is tied to ground, 
where it must be if it is not in use, 
since the USART transmitter will not 
send a character unless CTS is low. It 
might be possible to disconnect it 
from the ground trace, but that 
would involve rerouting some circuit 
paths. 

The H8-4 Four-Port Serial 
Interface Board 

Although the H8-5 board can be 
used for purposes other than the sys- 
tem console, the H8-4 board is much 
easier to work with. Port and inter- 
rupt assignments are handled by 
jumper plugs (no soldering), and 
baud rates are software program- 
mable. It has the same capability of 
interfacing to RS-232 or current loop 
terminals, and the device control and 
status sensing lines are (almost) all 
run out to the interface terminal 
strip. In fact, each set of connector 
pins is repeated for each port, with 
the control and status pins reversed, 
enabling standard EIA cables to be 
connected to either one, depending 
on whether the peripheral is a termi- 
nal or a modem. 

The Heath instruction manual has 
some gaping holes. First, it doesn't 
explain very well the difference be- 
tween a modem and a terminal con- 
nection. For example, it says that 
"Computers and modems are two 
types of DCE (Data Communications 
Equipment); while terminals, print- 
ers and most peripherals are DTE 
(Data Terminal Equipment). Always 
connect a DTE to a DCE. Never con- 
nect two like types together.' (Does 
that mean you can't connect a 
modem to a computer? No.) But no- 



Microcomputing, February 1981 97 



where does it explain the real differ- 
ence, that between two connected 
units the output lines of one must 
connect to the input lines of the 
other. A standard connecting cable 
has the same numbered pins on both 
ends connected together. If it is male 
on one end and female on the other, 
and the equipment is likewise 
equipped, there should be no prob- 
lem connecting them. 

But there is a possibility that non- 
standard cables and equipment plugs 
may cause a mix-up in lines. The 
H8-4 dual connector arrangement is 
one way to overcome this, but the 
person connecting the equipment 
still needs to know exactly what is 
happening, because it certainly isn't 
foolproof. 

The 8250 ACE (asynchronous com- 
munications element) on the H8-4 
board is the counterpart to the 8251 
USART on the H8-5 board. The great- 
est advantage of the ACE is not that 
the baud rate is software controlled 
(which it is), but that all the control 
registers can be accessed indepen- 
dently, and in any sequence. There is 
no risk of sending a command byte or 
a mode byte at the wrong time, and 
confusing the poor thing. The baud 
rate generator is the only register that 
is accessed through another. General- 
ly, that is done only once in a session, 
on initial start-up, so it is not a prob- 
lem. Other controls can be accessed 
without disturbing the state of the 
8250. 

What the Heath instruction manual 
doesn't spell out is that each of these 
registers (there are seven altogether) 



is addressed at a different port num- 
ber. So each channel takes seven 
ports, instead of two as with the 825 1 . 
In setting the address of the channel, 
only the lowest one (the data port) is 
set. The others are automatically as- 
signed to the following six port num- 
bers. The manual provides a chart of 
this relationship, but the chart has 
been taken from a National Semicon- 
ductor publication, and leaves a great 
deal to one's power of deduction. 
Table 2 lists the seven ports and the 
functions of their various bits. 

Once you have overcome this hur- 
dle, programming the interface is 
easy. To initialize the port, output 
separate bytes to the line control reg- 
ister, the baud rate generator, the line 
control register again and (if used) the 
interrupt enable and modem control 
registers. The settings of these regis- 
ters may be examined simply by in- 
putting from them. All four device 
control/status lines (RTS,DTR, 
CTS,DSR) are available for use, as 
well as the modem carrier signal de- 
tect (RLSD). 

The H8-2 Three-Port 
Parallel Interface Board 

The H8-2 parallel board uses the 
same 8251 USART as the H8-5 serial 
board. Sound impossible? Well, what 
the Heath designers did was convert 
the parallel data from the H8 bus into 
a serial stream through the 8251, and 
then feed it into a U ART again to con- 
vert it back to parallel. Why? My 
guess is that this arrangement makes 
both original interface boards (H8-2 
and H8-5) look the same to the CPU, 



SURPLUS ELECTRONICS 



ASCII 



ASCII 



TRS-80* COMPATIBLE, 

IBM SELECTRIC" -BASED 

I/O TERMINAL with 

ASCII conversion installed: $645.00 

Many Other Items Available: 

Tape Drives; Cable: 

Cassette Drives; Wire. Power Supplies (5 volt 35 

amp. others): Displays; Cabinets; Transformers; 

Heat Sinks; Printers: Components 

Send for free catalog. 

WORLDWIDE ELECT. INC. 

130 Northeastern Blvd. 

Nashua, NH 03062 »^122 

Phone orders accepted using 

VISA or Master Charge 

TOLL FREE 603-889-7661 • 1-800-258-1036 

TRSflO is a trademark ol the Radio Shack Division ol Tandy Corporation 



ADD-ON MEMORY7GETTHE FACTS! 

Japanese 16K RAM chips have a one-to-ten m- 
service failure ratio to U S chips -- from a 1 980 
Hewlett Packard Study 

Do not buy carelessly specified chips or chips of 
unknown manufacture We offer41 1 6-oompatible 
chips from the two top Japanese manufacturers 
NEC and Fu|itsu. for most popular computers and 
expansion memory boards, including 

•APPLE *TRS-80 *NEW PET *HEATH H-89 
•SUPERBRAIN 'EXPANDORAM 'many others 

NEC UPD 416-C 200 NSEC Plastics . . 
J W.Q O /1 -r jK SPECIAL S39.95/16K 

FUJITSU 81 1 6E 200 NSEC Ceramics . . 
$S+-95/tT3K SPECIAL- $46.95/1 6K 

•Price at ad r.opy deadline We n beat Bny legitimate 

price for compnt nhle chips Hi- volume users dealers 

or clubs BSk .ibout further quantity riisrom J? 

Guaranteed good Send check or money order to 

MINIS & MICROS, INC. wa 

.19754 VICTORY BOULEVARD 
WOODLAND HILLS. CA 91367 

(213) 342-4535 

NO Shipping Charge 
CA residents add 6°< sales la 



and software written for one could be 
used with the other. 

For example, my printer uses a 
parallel interface. When I run cas- 
sette BASIC, I can print with a PORT, 
254 statement without having to 
manually configure that port. BASIC 
does it for me, because it thinks all 
ports are alike. 

Now that Heath has brought out 
the H8-4 board, cassette BASIC is 
probably different from my version, 
and some configuration is necessary 
for printers. But the idea was a good 
one. 

Anyway, each of the three ports on 
the H8-2 provides eight data lines in- 
put and eight output (you don't have 
to program the interface to change 
them back and forth, as you do with 
some parallel interface chips), a 
strobe (take data) line that carries a 
pulse to the peripheral when some- 
thing is on the data lines, plus an ac- 
knowledge (data taken) line to detect 
when the peripheral has the data. 

This kind of positive, two-way 
handshaking ensures accurate data 
transmission, because each byte is ac- 
companied by take data and data 
taken communication. The hand- 
shaking lines are repeated for incom- 
ing and outgoing data lines. In addi- 
tion, each port has a device control 
output line (RTS) and a device ready 
input line (DSR) line, controllable at 
the 8251 USART. 

For applications not requiring the 
handshaking signals, the board has 
several jumper connections to send 
or receive data as fast as the interface 
and CPU can handle it or to control 
input directly from the CPU. Data 
output lines can be either polarity, 
but all handshaking lines are nega- 
tive-asserting. 

Interrupts are available as on the 
H8-5 board, jumper selected and 
enabled by the DTR output line. The 
CTS line into the 8251 is used by the 
UART to control the serial transmis- 
sion between them. 

Transmission speed is determined 
by the handshaking signals, up to a 
rate limited by the clocking circuits 
running at about 20,000 baud, and 
the speed of the various chips 
through which the data passes. 

Conclusion 

Most of this information is in the 
Heath manuals. But getting it out is 
another matter, unless you already 
know more than the manuals. Trial 
and error is a long, hard row to hoe. 
But it's educational. ■ 



98 Microcomputing, February 1981 



DO YOU WANT MORE FOR YOUR MONEY ? 

Then you may want to look at these statistics on the number of articles published 
in the top three microcomputing journals. 



500 


























































480 
























































460 


























































440 










































420 










rNumuer ui — 
































400 










/\riicies x uuiisnea - 
































380 


























































360 


























































340 


























































320 




















































































































300 








280 










































Kilobaud Microcomputing 










260 


















































240 


























:rocomputing 


















220 










































200 










































180 










































160 










































140 










































120 










































100 










































80 




































60 










■ **■ 
■ •*■ 










a •■■■ 

s 




















































40 


o 




20 






























































































93 



257 



309 



(Figures based on counts made from January 1980 to September 1980) 

For $25.00 a year Kilobaud Microcomputing offers you more articles written for 
the newcomer to computing and more programs you can use than any other mi- 
crocomputing journal. 

And remember that it is solely through magazine articles that you can keep up 
with the state of the art. Books are a year behind. Only through magazines can 
you have an invaluable encyclopedia of microcomputing information. Kilobaud 
Microcomputing has published 1148 pages of articles to date this year — for 
$25.00 that's a lot of information. 

312B7 




Microcomputing, February 1981 99 



oo 



w 



J 



opened to 



HIPL0T 



TM 



DMP-4 
$1,385' 



DMP-3 
$1,250 




DMP-6 
$1,850* 



DMP-5 
$1,685* 



It's grown into a complete 
family of quality low cost digital plotters 



In just two short years, the 
HIPL0T has become the most 
popular digital plotter among 
small systems users. With a 
record like that, what can we do 
for an encore? WE'VE IN- 
TRODUCED A COMPLETE LINE 
OF HIPL0TS . . . with a model 
suited for just about every plot- 
ting application. 

The HIPL0T DMP Series is a 
new family of digital plotters 
with both "standard" and "in- 
telligent" models available with 
surface areas of 8V2 " x 1 1 " (DIN 
A4) and 11" x 17" (DIN A3). For 
the user needing a basic reliable 
plotter, we have the "old stan- 
dard" DMP-2 (8V2 " x 1 1 ") and the 
"new standard" DMP-5 (11" x 
17"). For those needing a lit- 
tle more capability, there are 
the DMP-3 (8V2" x 11") and 
the DMP-6 (11" x 17")-both 

HIPLOT and DM/PL are Trademarks 
TM of Houston Instrument 

Circle number 344 for literature 

Circle number 354 to have representative call 



Yes, they are UL listed! * * 

microprocessor controlled and 
providing easy remote position- 
ing of the X and Y axes (perfect 
for the OEM). For those who 
want this intelligence plus the 
convenience of front panel elec- 
tronic controls, we've provided 
the DMP-4 (8 1 / 2 " x 11") and the 
DMP-7(11" x 17"). 

The "standard" plotters come 
complete with an RS-232-C and 
a parallel interface. The "intel- 
ligent" DMP plotters accept data 
from either an RS-232-C or Centronics 
data source. For the "standard" plot- 
ters, software is available from 
our ever expanding "Micrographic 
Ifeers Group." The "intelligent" 
HIPL0Ts use our exclusive 
DM/PL™ language which min- 
inimizes plot software to a 
fraction of that normally as- 



houston instrument 

GRAPHICS DIVISION OF 

BAUSCHSLOMB T 



sociated wth digital plotting. 

With the new DMP Series, 
high quality digital plotting can 
now be a part of your system. It 
just doesn't make sense to be 
without this valuable tool when 
there is a DMP plotter with the 
plot size, speed and capabilities 
that are exactly tailored to your 
specific needs. ..and your 
budget. 

Prices for the DMP series 
range from $1,085* to $1,985*. 

For complete information con- 
tact Houston Instrument, One 
Houston Square, Austin, Texas 
78753. (512)837-2820. For rush 
literature requests, outside Texas 
call toll free 1-800-531-5205. For 
technical information ask for 
operator #5. In Europe contact 
Houston Instrument, Rochester- 
laan 6, 8240 Gistel, Belgium. 
Telephone 059/27-74-45. 



'U.S. suggested retail prices only. 
**DMP2, 3 and 4 UL listed 
DMP 5, 6 and 7 UL listing pending 



With the right software, charts and graphs are yours for keeps. . . and in color too. 



A High-Stepping Plotter 
From Houston Instruments 



By Kevin Cohan 



Charts and graphs are important to 
businessmen, engineers and sci- 
entists who need an easy way to in- 
terpret the results of their work or ex- 
plain statistics to others. Unfortu- 
nately, while some small computers 
provide on-screen plotting capability, 
the plot is available only as long as 
the computer is turned on. Further- 
more, the color selection and actual 
resolution leave something to be de- 
sired. 

Wouldn't it be nice if the micro- 
computerist could obtain hard copy 
of these data plots, with detail and 
options comparable to a large, expen- 
sive computer system? 

Well, the HiPlot Micro-Plotter 
from Houston Instruments, (1 Hous- 
ton Square, Austin, TX 78753), used 
in conjunction with appropriate soft- 
ware, can provide this hard copy. 




HiPlot is a low-cost, high-resolu- 
tion flat-bed plotter designed with the 
microcomputer user in mind. Step 
size (the amount the plotter moves 
along the x or y axis for a given input 
character) is hardware selectable, at 
either 1/100 or 5/1000 of an inch. In 
the low-resolution mode (still better 
resolution than any micro) the maxi- 
mum step rate, or speed, is 240 steps 
per second (sps) with 480 sps in high- 
resolution mode. 

The actual plot area measures sev- 
en by ten inches. Users may connect 
the HiPlot to their computer by using 
either of its built-in interfaces: a six- 
line TTL-level interface or a hard- 
ware-programmable RS-232 serial in- 
terface, featuring common baud rates 
(300-9600). If you use the serial inter- 
face, I recommend operating at either 
4800 or 9600 baud. Otherwise, the 



100 



plotter will operate at an annoyingly 
slow rate, especially when plotting 
complex graphs. 

As nice as the HiPlot is, writing 
your own software for it is quite a 
chore. I wrote several routines using 
North Star BASIC. These programs 
did produce results, but the lines be- 
ing plotted did not always match up, 
and the more complex the graph, the 
greater the error. 

However, West Coast Consultants. 
1775 Lincoln Blvd., Tracy, CA 95376, 
has done all the work for you, provid- 
ing well-done packages designed to 
make the HiPlot produce precise, 
top-quality graphical output for 
PETs, Apples and TRS-80s. Complete 



Address correspondence to: Kevin Cohan, Box 
411, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



VJ'W'ko 



-•PC 

Equation plotting with Curve. 




Bar graph. 

Microcomputing, February 1981 101 



ABCDEFGHI J 
KLMNOPQRST 

UUWXYZO 123 
456789 . - = + 



rt 



(J 



SIZE 1 






SIZE 1 

SI ZE 
BOLD 



1 



instructions for setting up the neces- 
sary hardware interfaces are includ- 
ed with the software. All three com- 
puters use the serial interface of the 
HiPlot. 

The software gives you a choice of 
programs. The first lets you plot 
equations of various types from a 
given set of data, while the second 
lets you create your own plot pro- 
grams using WCC's standardized set 
of subroutines, which can be merged 
with your data generation program. 



tt $ X ' &\()ft Curve 



Alphanumerics generated by Curve. 



The first program, entitled Curve, 
lets you plot Cartesian, parametric 
and polar equations. It also provides 
the ability to plot individual data 
points entered from the keyboard, as 
well as alphanumeric characters. 
Step-by-step interactive instructions, 
featuring nice graphics displays on 
the computer screen illustrating the 
equipment and procedures, lead you 
through the routine of plotting these 
equations. Curve even stops and noti- 
fies you when it is time to change 



pens to plot a different color. 

You can define the size of the plot- 
ting area, and all subsequent graphs 
will be adjusted accordingly. The di- 
rect data entry points, combined with 
the labeling and axis generation sec- 
tions of Curve, will undoubtedly be 
widely used in many laboratory ap- 
plications. You can define the axes 
with either full graph axis, simple 
lines or simple lines with ticks to in- 
dicate the space between gradua- 
tions, also user defined. The software 
also provides complete labeling capa- 
bilities for any plot generated by the 
user. 

The bar graph capabilities are an 
interesting feature of this software. 
You specify the coloring and shading, 
which can be as coarse as a quarter 
inch between lines, or as fine as shad- 
ing the bars with essentially solid col- 
or. Each bar can have as many differ- 
ent sections as required. 

Curve Subroutines 

Curve Subroutines is the title of the 
second package from WCC. This is a 




SINE WfiUES 




PLOT DATA 

& 
EQUATIONS 
WITH YOUR 

HIPLOT 

PLOTTER 
PROGRAM 

AVAILABLE rROH.... 



BAR GRAPHS 




CYCLOID 



Example of Curve's color capabilities. 



102 Microcomputing, February 1981 



set of routines meant to be called 
from within a program written by the 
user to generate graphs. They have 
all the features of the above software, 
without all the interactive instruc- 
tions and prepared equation plotting 
routines. A booklet giving complete 
descriptions of each module of the 
subroutine is included, letting you 
create graphics displays limited only 
by imagination and programming 
ability. 

This set of subroutines is similar to 
the standardized groups of subrou- 
tines found on many mainframe sys- 
tems for use with highly complicated 
and expensive plotting equipment, 
e.g., Tektronix-style storage display 
units and associated hard-copy units, 
or giant X-Y plotters. But expensive 
and complicated are adjectives not to 
be associated with the HiPlot-West 
Coast Consultants combination, 
though you cannot discern the differ- 
ence between the graphs produced 
by this setup and the aforementioned 
mainframe gear. 

This combination of hardware and 
software is useful to anyone who 
wants a clear representation of all the 
work their computer has just per- 
formed, from the small businessman 
to the top executive at DEC, from the 
smallest scientific statistics analysis 
to the largest lab application. Statis- 
tics will be easily visually repre- 
sented in multicolor, multishaded 
plots. When you take into considera- 
tion the cost of this hardware and 
software, its capabilities and the truly 
professional results, this setup is 
quite a deal. ■ 



§L ^^ 1 



Kilobaud Microcomputing does not 
keep subscription records on the 
premises, therefore calling us only 
adds time and doesn't solve the prob- 
lem. 

Please send a description of the 
problem and your most recent ad- 
dress label to: 

Kilobaud Microcomputing 
Subscription Dept. 
PO Box 997 
Farmingdale, NY 11737 



Thank you and enjoy your subscription. 



FOR OSI COMPUTERS 

SMARTERM 



An 'Intelligent' Terminal Software System 
for OSI Computers by Phil Lindquist 



• Even, Odd, or No Parity Use-Selected 

• Full or Half Duplex Operation 

• User Controlled Storage of Incoming Data 

• Stored Data Printed or Saved on Disk 

• Saved Data Recalled For Review or Output 

• Control Key Initiation of LOGON Messages 

- Join The Micro Communications Revolution - 

C2-4P MF, C4P MF Systems $19.95 

C2-8PDF,C8PDF,C4PDF Systems .... $23.95 

Order From: 

COMPUTER CONNECTION, INC. 

38437 Grand River • Farmington Hills, Mich. 48018 

Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



JPC PRODUCTS FOR 

6800 




COMPUTERS 




-..n,«;*>»ti»t;;5t m 



High Performance Cassette Interface 

• FAST - 4800 Baud Loads 4K in 8 Seconds! 

• RELIABLE - Error Rate Less Than 1 in 10 6 Bytes. 

• CONVENIENT - Plugs Directly Into The SWTPC. 

• PLUS - A Fully Buffered 8 Bit Output Port Provided. 

• LOW COST - $59.95 For Complete Kit. 

• OPTIONAL • CFM/3 File Manager. 

Manual & Listing $19.95 
(For Cassette Add) $ 6.95 

TERMS CASH. MC or VISA; Shipping & Handling $3 00 

Order Phone (505) 294-4623 

^92 p q Bqx 5^5 

r JPC producTs^^v^ Albuquerque, N.M. 87185 



v* Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 103 







And one that costs you a buck. 



One: Buy a new TeleLink® I cartridge for your 
ATARI 400 ™ or ATARI 800® computer and 
get one free hour of CompuServe Information 
Service time. 

Two: Visit a Radio Shack® computer center. Most 
are equipped to access the CompuServe 
Information Service now. Log in and see what you 
can get. The service is compatible with any 
TRS-80® including the new VIDEOTEX® unit. 

104 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Three: Send $1.00 to us and we'll send you the 
current "menu" of services, including the 
sophisticated big mainframe power of MicroNET. 
Send $1.00, name and address to: CompuServe, 
Information Service Division, 5000 Arlington 
Centre Boulevard, Columbus, Ohio 43220. 



Radio Shack, TRS-80 and Videotex are trademarks of Tandy Corporation. 
ATARI 400 and ATARI 800 are trademarks of ATARI, Inc. 



All this is yours to command. 



Welcome to 
CompuServe 



fiBSfiWBfitt 



Access to news and 
entertainment data bases, 
computer games and art, 
regional newspapers, 
newsletters, programs, 
languages, storage (up to 
128kfree!) and lots more is 
yours for 8 1 /3 cents per 
minute (between the 
hours of 6 pm and 5 am 
weekdays and all day 
weekends), billed to 
your charge card. It's 



a local phone hook-up in more than 260 U.S. cities. 



CompuServe is 
working with 11 
major regional 
newspapers to 
bring you their 
electronic 
editions, as well 
as the Associated 
Press news and 
sports wires. 








Simple games and 
graphics for the 

I beginner. And, when 
you're ready — try the 
really tough ones on 
MicroNET(see 

! MicroNET service). 

' You haven't lived 
until you discover a 

player from Los Angeles 
in your dungeon! 



CompuServe is continually adding new on-line 
information resources. 
So, order our current 
menu and watch for new 
features such as an 
electronic encyclo- 
pedia, travel infor- A 
mation,food 
preparation and 
gardening tips, 
government pub- i 
I i cation data — 
and much more! 






MicroQuote has his- 
torical and statistical 
data on almost every 
stock, bond or option 
you can buy. Corporate 
financial information, 
commodity prices 
and financial 
newsletters are 
also available. 




And, when you're ready for big-time computer action. . 

You need a 

computer to 

use all the 

MicroNET 

services which 

put you in 

command of 

our big, fast 

mainframe 

computers. 

But even with 

the simplest 

terminal you can send electronic mail to any other user, 

use the CB simulator, and try to zap the enemy's 

spaceships in real — and very fast — time. Many 

networking multi-player games available. 




Not 1985. 

NOW! 





See for yourself 
what a 

state-of-the-art 
electronic 
information 
L service can do. Get 
I a demonstration at 
a Radio Shack® 
computer center or 
send $1.00 for 
a current 
menu 

today. 



CompuServe 



Information Service Division 
5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, Ohio 43220 
(614) 457-8600 



^147 



** Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 105 



PROFIL 




Microcomputers in Industry 



By Bill Barney 



I work for a corporation 
that does custom manu- 
facturing. We're not small 
—our volume is measured 
in the millions of dollars. 
I've worked there for over 
four years, most of that in 
production. 

Last summer I moved to 
an office job. My duties in- 
cluded setting the price for 
each custom order that was 
received. It dawned on me 
after just a few days that I 
had become that most re- 
dundant of all creatures— a 
number cruncher. 

As a computer enthusiast, 
I don't take kindly to being a num- 
ber cruncher. I've always figured 
that number crunching was for sili- 
con chips, and not the sort of thing 
humans should spend their time on. 

I had been a computer owner for 
only a few months, but I had learned 
a lot. I had consumed every book I 
could find on the subject, and most 
magazines. And I knew that the 
things I was spending my time on 
could be done better, faster and less 
expensively by one of today's mi- 
crocomputers. 

Brick Walls 

But presenting this information to 
my employer was going to be a 
tricky job. Should I simply tell him 







«3(*wUa^ 



that I own a TRS-80, and as a result 
possess infinite wisdom? Unfortu- 
nately, when you mention Radio 
Shack to most people, it conjures up 
visions of yellow plastic radios, bat- 
tery cards and "breaker! breaker!' 
This is hardly the stuff of which in- 
dustrial revolutions are made. 

Neither did I think that present- 
ing to him the benefits a computer 
could bring to my job was a practical 
approach. Investing eight or ten 
thousand dollars in a machine to 
make one person's job a little easier 
is not an attractive course of action 
to today's company manager. 

Perhaps I should lay before him 
the problems that exist in the areas 
that are involved, and thereby 



demonstrate the need for 
the machine. 

But again, I saw prob- 
lems. The existing system, 
with all its faults, was the 
result of the company man- 
ager's best efforts, not to 
mention several long-time 
employees. These were the 
people with whom I had to 
work every day. 

On the other hand, I felt 
that the presentation had to 
be made and that I would 
be doing a real disservice to 
my employer if I didn't sug- 
gest an improvement that I 
was sure would be in the 
best interest of the company. 

So I developed a plan. I would 
gather together several magazine ar- 
ticles, book excerpts, manufactur- 
ers' information sheets and any 
other pertinent materials I could 
find. This should show him what 
the microcomputer industry could 
do for him. 

Again I hit a brick wall. How 
much information could I collect for 
someone who had no familiarity 
with the field? Especially someone 
with little, if any, time to spare for 
reading nonessential materials. 



Barry Barney, 1427 2nd St. SE, Puyallup, WA 
98371. 






5 106 Microcomputing, February 1981 



The available information falls in- 
to two categories. The first is trivial, 
at least from a business viewpoint: 
games, personal finance, stamp col- 
lection programs and so on. The sec- 
ond includes hopelessly technical 
material dealing with machine-lan- 
guage programming or hardware 
modification articles that from the 
business manager's viewpoint are 
useless. Even advertisements fall 
into one of these two areas. 

I felt like I had struck out. But I 
had to say something. So I decided 
to rely on his open-mindedness and 
on what I hoped was my ability to 
talk intelligently on the subject. I 
sent a memo: "I'd like to see you at 
your convenience." 

I didn't have long to wait. That 
same day he asked me to come on 
up to his office. My stomach was 
jumping and my palms were slick 
with sweat, but I soon learned that 
my nervousness was unnecessary. 

I briefly explained some of the 
problems I faced in doing an accu- 
rate and consistent job, and pointed 
out that everyone who had experi- 
ence with the job voiced the same 
concerns. I suggested some immedi- 
ate and projected applications that 
would benefit the company. 

To my surprise, he was agreeable 
and receptive. In fact, it wasn't long 
before he was suggesting some ap- 
plications of his own, all of which 
were within the realm of current 
technology. On the whole, it was a 



very constructive discussion, and 
out of it a plan of action developed. 
We are now defining exactly which 
problems have priority, and are ex- 
ploring what is available to solve 
them. 

The Lessons 

This is the point where I needed 
to stop and consider the lessons 
learned. What was it that made this 
company manager receptive to the 
idea of a microcomputer? 

I don't think any of us who are as- 
sociated with the field, on any level, 
can take much of the credit for his 
willingness to consider this solu- 
tion. It should mainly go to his being 
acquainted with the problems with- 
in the business that needed solving 
and his flexibility in considering in- 
novative alternatives. 

It certainly isn't due to his famili- 
arity with microcomputers. The 
company's experience with com- 
puters has been limited to mini and 
small business computers in the 
$25-30,000 range. All of the soft- 
ware has been provided by the com- 
puter vendor, rather than generated 
in-house. So, indeed this alternative 
was innovative. 

The experience emphasizes the 
responsibilities that micro users 
face if they want to be taken seri- 
ously. We need to be aware of the 
image we have in the eyes of the 
general public and take advantage 
of opportunities to improve it. This 
means being willing to use our com- 



puters to help others in whatever 
ways suit our interests and time. 

Those who are involved in the 
production of hardware and soft- 
ware also need to give attention to 
their image. Take a look at their ad- 
vertisements. What's in them that's 
not in 25 other ads in the same mag- 
azine? What new information do 
they present to the potential busi- 
ness users? And especially, do they 
present new information in a way 
that he can immediately understand 
without having to take a short 
course in computerese? 

Lastly, what about those who are 
involved in the information busi- 
ness—the magazine and book pub- 
lishers? What do they offer to the 
business user? He needs material 
that is brief and to the point, some- 
thing that shows him that we are ex- 
ploring new fields of application. 
Articles that deal with the configur- 
ing of a specific system for a specif- 
ic problem are interesting, but are 
they giving us something new? How 
many data file programs or general 
ledger systems is the average busi- 
ness going to implement? 

This last one comes back to us, the 
users. If you're participating in a 
project that has resulted in experi- 
ences that could be useful to the rest 
of us, why not share them? Perhaps 
we can take a big step towards let- 
ting the world know that we're in- 
volved in something that can be of 
immediate and direct benefit to 
others. ■ 



TRS-80 Model I and ~~ 
Model II Programs 



MULTIPLE REGRESSION 2.1— A disk based package of 
chained programs that permits model estimation using 
thousands of observations, user specified transforma- 
tions. X-Y plots, formatted for screen or printer 

$45.00 

Linear Programming $39.95 

0- 1 Programming $39.95 

Transportation Algorithm $39.95 

Heuristic Line Balancing $39.95 

Stat. Pack — medium, mode, mean (avg.. harmonic, 
geometric), variance, histograms. Tests (T.X'.F.) one 
variable regression, one and two-way ANOVA. $24.95 

Differential equations — 6 methods $39.95 

Queuing Statistics $ 1 8.95 

LOWERCASE MOO— Includes excellent documentation 
♦ all parts (nothing else to buy), compatible with Elec- 
tric Pencil $ I 4.95 



1 




^137 



h slate • Dn* *d 15 

S.C. mdm etf 4s uto 

Ovwmk orsm aid $5 tor 



uont 
ys^ems 



p.o. box 628 
Charleston sc 

29402 



BARE BOARDS 



Heath H8±Z80 

S- 100 8088 

APPLE* Z80 

TRS-80* Eprom 

PROGRAMMER 

8088 

(50 pin edge conn.) 



34.95 
55.95 
25.95 

24.95 
24.50 



to order send money order 
or check to: 

JWS Engineering Box 67 
^ 203 Lebanon, N J. Q8833 

add $2.50 for postage 
N.j. residents add 5% sales tax 

*H8 trademark Heath Company 

• APPLE trademark Apple computer Company 

*TRS 80 trademark Tandy Company 



APPLE DISKS 

Each Containing Multiple Programs 
TRS Programs Available Early '81 
BASIC TUTOR SERIES 

This series of disks is designed for the novice programmer 
and for those interested in learning how to program the 
APPLE Computer in Basic. 

Basic Tutor I — Introduction to programming commands 
Basic Tutor II — Continuation of Tutor I with the introduction 
of Graphic Command* in low and high resolution graphics 
modes. 

Basic Tutor III — Introduction to the study of Text Files and 
the basis for most of the "data processing" of strings and 
words. 

Basic Tutor IV — Studies in some simple methods of creating 
computer sounds and music composition 
Basic Tutor V — This disk includes some of the program 
studies that have been created by "novice" programmers, 
and are intended for your use and study. 
Basic Tutor VI — Studies in the intermediate level of 
programming in Basic. This disk is intended for your use and 
study of more "tricks". 

Basic Tutor VII — More utility programs to use and for your 
study. 

Astronomy I — Introduction to the study of stars and 
constellations. High resolution graphics is used to show the 
constellations you can find in the heavens The first disk con- 
tains 6 programs 

Astronomy II — A continuation of Astronomy I, that includes 
the viewing of the major constellations in the heavens with 
features shown. Includes 6 programs 
Physics I • Population • Number Race • Class Records 
Book • Inventory • Accounts • Convsrslons 
All Disks $24 .00 Partial listing, ask for our catalog Pre-paid, 
add $1 50 Mailing/handling. Guaranteed. 



3Nappa Lane, Westport, CT 06880 






is Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 107 5 




The Newest In 



Apple Fun 



We've taken live of our most popular programs and 
combined them into one tremendous package full of 
fun and excitement. This disk-based package now of- 
fers you these great games: 

Mimic— How good is your memory? Here's a chance 
to find out! Your Apple will display a sequence of 
figures on a 3 x 3 grid. You must respond with the ex- 
act same sequence, within the time limit. 

There are five different, increasingly difficult ver- 
sions of the game, including one that will keep going 
indefinitely. Mimic is exciting, fast paced and 
challenging— fun for all! 

Air Flight Simulation— Your mission: Take off and 
land your aircraft without crashing. You're flying 
blind — on instruments only. 

A full tank of fuel gives you a maximum range of 
about 50 miles. The computer will constantly display 
updates of your air speed, compass heading and 
altitude. Your most important instrument is the Angle 
of Ascent/Bank Indicator. It tells if the plane is climb- 
ing or descending, whether banking into a right or left 
turn. 

After you've acquired a few hours of flying time, 
you can try flying a course against a map or doing 
aerobatic maneuvers. Get a little more flight time 
under your belt, the sky's the limit. 
Colormaster— Test your powers of deduction as you 
try to guess the secret color code in this Mastermind- 
type game. There are two levels of difficulty, and three 
options of play to vary your games. Not only can you 
guess the computer's color code, but it will guess 
yours! It can also serve as referee in a game between 
two human opponents. Can you make and break the 
color code . . . ? 

Star Ship Attack— Your mission is to protect our or- 
biting food station satellites from destruction by an 
enemy star ship. You must capture, destroy or drive 
off the attacking ship. If you fail, our planet is 
doomed . . . 

Trilogy— This contest has its origins in the simple 
game of tic-tac-toe. The object of the game is to place 
three of your colors, in a row, into the delta-like, mul- 
ti-level display. The rows may be horizontal, vertical, 
diagonal and wrapped around, through the "third di- 
mension". Your Apple will be trying to do the same. 
You can even have your Apple play against itself! 

Minimum system requirements are an Apple 11 or 
Apple II Plus computer with 32K of memory and one 
minidisk drive. Mimic requires Applesoft in ROM, all 
others run in RAM or ROM Applesoft. 
Order No. 0161 AD $19.95 



Solar Energy For The Home 

With the price of fossil fuels rising astronomically, solar space-heating systems are starting to become very 
attractive. But is solar heat cost-effective for you? This program can answer that question. 

Just input this data for your home: location, size, interior details and amount of window space. It will then 
calculate your current heat loss and the amount of gain from any south facing windows. Then, enter the data 
for the contemplated solar heating installation. The program will compute the NET heating gain, the cost of 
conventional fuels vs. solar heat, and the calculated payback period— showing if the investment will save you 

money. 

Solar Energy for the Home: It's a natural for architects, designers, contractors, homeowners. . .anyone 
who wants to tap the limitless energy of our sun. 

Minimum system requirements are an Apple II or Apple II Plus with one disk drive and 28K of RAM. 
Includes AppleDOS 3.2. 
Order No. 0235AD (disk-based version) $34.95 



1234567890% 



Paddle Fun 



This new Apple disk package requires a steady eye and a quick hand at the game paddles! It includes: 
invaders— You must destroy an invading fleet of 55 flying saucers while dodging the carpet of bombs they 
drop. Your bomb shelters will help you— for a while. Our version of a well known arcade game! Requires Ap- 
plesoft in ROM. 

Howitzer— This is a one or two person game in which you must fire upon another howitzer position. This pro- 
gram is written in HIGH-RESOLUTION graphics using different terrain and wind conditions each round to 
make this a demanding game. The difficulty level can be altered to suit the ability of the players. Requires Ap- 
plesoft in ROM. 

Space Wars— This program has three parts: (1) Two flying saucers meet in laser combat— for two players, (2) 
two saucers compete to see which can shoot out the most stars— for two players, and (3) one saucer shoots the 
stars in order to get a higher rank— for one player only. Requires Applesoft. 

Golf— Whether you win or lose, you're bound to have fun on our 18 hole Apple golf course. Choose your 
club and your direction and hope to avoid the sandtraps. Losing too many strokes in the water hazards? You 
can always increase your handicap. Get off the tee and onto the green with Apple Golf. Requires Applesoft. 

The minimum system requirement for this package is an Apple II or Apple 11 Plus computer with 32K of 
memory and one minidisk drive. 
Order No. 0163AD $19.95 



Math Fun 

The Math Fun package uses the techniques of immediate feedback and positive reinforcement so that 
students can improve their math skills while playing these games: 

Hanging— A little man is walking up the steps to the hangman's noose. But YOU can save him by answering 
the decimal math problems posed by the computer. Correct answers will move the man down the steps and 

cheat the hangman. 

Spellbinder— You are a magician battling a computerized wizard. In order to cast death clouds, fireballs and 

other magic spells on him, you must correctly answer problems involving fractions. 

Whole Space— Pilot your space craft to attack the enemy planet. Each time you give a correct answer to the 

whole number problems, you can move your ship or fire. But for every wrong answer, the enemy gets a 

chance to fire at you. 

Car Jump— Make your stunt car jump the ramps. Each correct answer will increase the number of buses your 
car must jump over. These problems involve calculating the areas of different geometric figures. 
Robot Duel— Fire your laser at the computer's robot. If you give the correct answer to problems on calculat- 
ing volumes, your robot can shoot at his opponent. If you give the wrong answer, your shield power will be 
depleted and the computer's robot can shoot at yours. 

Sub Attack— Practice using percentages as you maneuver your sub into the harbor. A correct answer lets you 
move your sub and fire at the enemy fleet. 

All of these programs run in Applesoft BASIC, except Whole Space, which requires Integer BASIC. 

Order No. 0160AD $19.95 



— Skybombers 

Two nations, seperated by The Big Green Moun- 
tain, are in mortal combat! Because of the terrain, 
their's is an aerial war— a war of SKYBOMBERS! 

In this two-player game, you and your opponent 
command opposing fleets of fighter-bombers armed 
with bombs and missiles. Your orders? Fly over the 
mountain and bomb the enemy blockhouse into dust! 

Flying a bombing mission over that innocent look- 
ing mountain is no milk run. The opposition's aircraft 
can fire missiles at you or you may even be destroyed 
by the bombs as they drop. Desperate pilots may even 
ram your plane or plunge into your blockhouse, sui- 
cidally. 

Right personnel are sometimes forced to parachute 
from badly damaged aircraft. As they float helplessly 
to earth, they become targets for enemy missiles. 

The greater the damage you deal to your enemy, the 
higher your score, which is constantly updated at the 
bottom of the display screen. 

The sounds of battle, from exploding bombs to the 
pathetic screams from wounded parachutists, remind 
each micro-commander of his bounden duty. Press 
On, SKYBOMBERS— Press On! 

Minimum system requirements: An Apple II or Ap- 
ple II Plus, with 32K RAM, one disk drive and game 
paddles. 
Order No. 0271AD (disk-based version) $19.95 





Instant Software 



* A trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



108 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Apple 



* 



Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio 

Buon giorno, signore! 

Welcome to the province of Santa Paravia. 
As your steward, I hope you will enjoy your 
reign here. I feel sure that you will find it, shall 
we say, profitable. 

Perhaps I should acquaint you with our little domain. It is not a 
wealthy area, signore, but riches and glory are possible for one who 
is aware of political realities. These realities include your serfs. They 
constantly request more food from your grain reserves, grain that 
could be sold instead for gold florins. And should your justice 
become a trifle harsh, they will flee to other lands. 

Yet another concern is the weather. If it is good, so is the harvest. 
But the rats may eat much of our surplus and we have had years of 
drought when famine threatened our population. 

Certainly, the administration of a growing city-state will require 
tax revenues. And where better to gather such funds than the local 
marketplaces and mills? You may find it necessary to increase custom duties or tax 
the incomes of the merchants and nobles. Whatever you do, there will be far- 
reaching consequences. . .and, perhaps, an elevation of your noble title. 

Your standing will surely be enhanced by building a new palace or a magnificent 
cattedrale. You will do well to increase your landholdings, if you also equip a few 
units of soldiers. There is, alas, no small need for soldiery here, for the unscrupulous 
Baron Peppone may invade you at any time. 

To measure your progress, the official cartographer will draw you a mappa. From 



Software 

From Instant Software 




it, you can see how much land you hold, how much of it is under the plow and how 
adequate your defenses are. We are unique in that here, the map IS the territory. 
I trust that I have been of help, signore. I look forward to the day when I may ad- 
dress you as His Royal Highness, King of Santa Paravia. Buona fortuna or, as you 
say, "Good luck". For the Apple 48K. 
Order No. 0174A $9.95 (cassette version). 
Order No. 0229AD $19.95 (disk version). 



^ JJP SEE YOUR LOCAL INSTANT SOFTWARE DEALER OR USE THE ORDER FORM BELOW 

ORDER 

For Fast aQ ififi^ 
Senrfce^ To J,. Free 

1 -800-258-5473 



106 107 108 109 



Apple Cassettes 

0018A Golf $7.95 

0025A Mimic $7.95 

0040A Bowling/Trilogy $7.95 

0073A Math Tutor I $7.95 

0079A Oil Tycoon $9.95 

0080A Sahara Warriors $7.95 

0088 A Accounting Assistant $7.95 

0094A Mortgage w/Prepayment Option/ 

Financier $7.95 

0096A Space Wars $7.95 

0O98A Math Tutor II $7.95 

0174A Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio $9.95 

0148A Air Flight Simulation $9.95 

We Guarantee It! 

fmmtimimmmmmtmmm 

Is ^ cj/° Guarantee ^V_, 

OUR PROGRAMS ARI GUARANTF.I I) 

TO Bh QUALITY PRODUCTS. II NOT 
COMPLIIIIY SATISFIED YOU MAY 
RETURN IHI PROGRAM WITHIN 60 
DAYS. A (Rl 1)11 OR REPLACEMEN1 
WILL Bl WILLINGLY GIVEN I OR 
'^ ANY Rl ASON. 



tS Reader Service — see page 194 



Name 



Address 
City 



State 



.Zip. 



□ Check 
Card No 

Signed 



D Money Order D VISA D AMEX □ Master Charge 

Exp. Date 

Date 




Order your Instant Software today! 



Quantity 



Order No. 



Program name 



Shipping and handling 




Unit cost 



Instant Software Inc. 

Peterborough, N.H. 03458 



Total order 



^40 



Total cost 



$1.00 



Microcomputing, February 1981 109 



Rene Descates * Homer * Jeremy Bentham * Plato * John Adams * Pliny the Elder 

Computers 

1: Device designed to execute a sequence of 



o 
X 

E 

o 



N 



— 






ZJ 

22 

C 
C3 



DC 

»■■■ 



Zj 

C 
■2 



3 

Zj 



3 

E 

DC 

35 



C5 

o 

• MM 



mathematical operations. 







Beginner's Russian 

This package consists of three programs that 
graphically display the Cyrillic alphabet. The 
programs are arranged so that you progress from 
one to the next — building your knowledge asyou 
progress. It includes instructions on proper 
pronunciation of the letters and even an in- 
troduction to simple Russian words. 
Order No. 0136R $9.95 



Everyday Russian 

Everyday Russian will acquaint you with the 
Russian words relating to: foods, places to eat, 
everyday signs, and the names of common 
stores. You will also learn the order of the Cyril- 
lic alphabet. Each of the three divisions of this 
package will teach you the words and then quiz 
you on comprehension. You can even practice 
typing in Russian, using your TRS-80 keyboard 
as a "Cyrillic typewriter." 
Order No. 0137R $9.95 



The Russian Disk 

Now you can have both the Beginner's Rus- 
sian and Everyday Russian packages on floppy 
disk! Requires an Expansion Interface with 16K 
and one disk drive. 
Order No. 0212RD $24.95 



Teacher 

This program allows you to input any number 
of questions and answers. The computer will 
prepare tests, give quizes, provide up to three 
hints per question and even give (optional) 
graphic rewards for correct answers. Perfect for 
parents, teachers, or anyone faced with learning 
a lot of data in a short time. 
Order No. 0065R $9.95 



Wordwatch 

Four programs for budding lexicographers, 
etymologists, or anyone else who uses words. In 
WORD RACE, you must choose the proper 
definitions. Find the misspelled word in HIDE N 
SPELL. Take a pre-recorded quiz in SPEL- 
LING BEE, in which the words are played 
aloud! Meet variations on proper spelling in 
SPELLING TUTOR. 
Order No. 01 11R $7.95 




IQ Test 



Are you smart enough to buy this package? IQ 
Test will administer and score an intelligence test 
in 30 minutes flat! There are three equivalent 
tests, each consisting of 35 questions, designed 
to test your general knowledge and problem 
solving abilities. Most of us claim a "touch of 
genius" — here's your chance to prove it! 
Order No. 0157R $9.95 



V A B-C 




Archimedes' Apprentice 

A tutorial software package that will teach you 
the formulas used to find the volume o\ any solid 
object. It covers parallclopipeds (cubes and 
rectangular solids), prisms, pyramids, cylinders, 
cones and spheres. It can even qui/ you on how 
well you learned the lesson. 
Order No. 0092R $9.95 



Video Speed-Reading 
Trainer 

You can increase your reading speed and 
comprehension. How? By practicing, that's 
how! This three-part program will Hash charac- 
ters or words on the screen, then you must echo 
what you saw. You can begin at a relatively slow 
rate, because the computer will advance your 
speed automatically as your speed and eompren- 
hension increase. It will train you with numbers, 
letters, words and phrases. 
Order No. 0100R $9.95 



Typing Teacher 

A complete seven -part package t hat guides 
you from familiarization with the kev board, 
through typing words (and phrases), to mastery 
o\ touch typing. Your video monitor becomes a 
bottomless page lor typing practice! 
Order No. 0099R $9.95 



All packages listed are for the TRS-80 Model I Level II; they require 16K of memory and 
are cassette-based unless otherwise indicated. 



Instant Software 



PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



n W n/ 1 un S * !|P AB !M ;>B 1\ o|o;k>!M * skjoSki||\ c | * ||i|\ jjk'US uqof ¥ r,w>\\ aqqs 



110 Microcomputing, February 1981 



William Shakespeare * Thomas Edison * Aristotle * William of Occam * 

EducationXn 



Thomas 



1: The action or process 
developing knowledge. 



<&> 



« 



I 



Basic Math Program 
from EMSI 

The Basic Math Program is a comprehensive 
math teaching package. It was created by a cer- 
tified math teacher with 15 years of program- 
ming experience. 

The first three programs comprise: Whole 
Number Arithmetic by Teaching Objective. This 
set includes Addition, Subtraction and Multi- 
plication. The fourth program is Fractions and 
Mixed Number Arithmetic. Logic and Deductive 
Reasoning is the fifth program in the set. The 
Metric/English Conversion program rounds out 
the series. 

You choose from a MENU of options, so as to 
custom-tailor both practice and test sessions. 
The program options include: Number of Pro- 
blems/Session, Level of Problem Difficulty, 
Number of Seconds/Problem, Type of Assis- 
tance to be Offered, and Type of Reward. 

The package includes a 60 page teacher's 
manual that contains detailed instructions on 
how to use the programs. It shows you exactly 
what material will be on the monitor and how to 
select the program options. It further explains 
how to analyze the session results by number of 
problems correct, actual problems given, if an 
incorrect digit was entered, if it was corrected 
and whether the HELP feature was used. 

Fractions and Mixed Number Arithmetic 
shows the student every step of how to solve the 
problems. It waits for the student to enter each 
answer and, if he makes an error, reviews the 
material so the error can be found. 

Deductive Reasoning is a modified and much 
improved Mastermind-type exercise. 

Metric/English Conversion will convert quan- 
tities (length, area, volume and weight) from 
Metric to English, or English to Metric. 
Order No. 5002R $80.00 

We Guarantee It! 



yo Guarantee 






oi r programs are guarantffd r 

TO Br QUAI I IV PRODUCTS. IF NOT S*J 

COMPLFTI LY SATISFIED YOU MAY SI 

RETURN Till PROGRAM WITHIN 60 21 
DAYS. A CREDIT OR REPLACEMENT 

WILL Bl WILLINGLY GIVEN I OR % 

^ ANY Rl ASON. jp 



Grade Book 



Teachers, now you can use the speed and ac- 
curacy of the TRS-80 to help you calculate stu- 
dent grades. Type in the scores for tests, quizzes, 
homework, classwork or special projects. The 
Grade Book program will calculate and display 
individual grade averages. 

The program permits you to weigh student 
performance scores and convert raw score totals 
to a 100-points-equals-perfect-score basis. You 
can also average quarterly grades with the grades 
for the previous quarter, semester and final ex- 
am, to obtain an average grade for the year. 

When grading time comes around, don't chain 
yourself to a calculator — go modern with the 
Grade Book package. 
Order No. 0050R $9.95 




Toll -Free 
-800-258-5473 

OR USE OUR ORDER 
FORM BELOW 



of training and 

Teacher's Aide 

Now you can have the benefits of Computer 
Assisted Instruction (CA1) in your own home. The 
Teacher's Aide program will let you create a 
teaching system for any conceivable subject. The 
program allows you to create a question and an- 
swer lesson (you can input up to 8000 characters 
per lesson). You can then save this lesson on the 
disk and create an entire sequence of lessons. 

Your lessons can be tailor-made for you or your 
students. The options available are: (1) review the 
material prior to taking the lesson, (2) provide 
hints to help answer questions, and (3) offer a 
graphic display as a reward for correctly answering 
all the questions. The Teacher's Aide program will 
even allow for spelling errors! 

The Teacher's Aide package is perfect for 
parents, teachers, and students who need the 
unlimited patience and undivided attention only a 
computer can provide. Readin', writin', and 
'rithmatic will never be the same— now that you 
have the Teacher's Aide package from Instant 
Software. 

This package requires the following minimum 
system: 

1. A TRS-80 Level 11 with 16K RAM. 

2. An Expansion Interface with 16K RAM. 

3. One disk drive. 

4. Any compatible Disk Operating System. 
Order No. 0214RD (disk-based) $39.95 






Name 



Address 



City 



State 



■ Zip 



D Check 



Card No. 



□ Money Order 



D VISA 



D AMEX 



Signed 



Exp. Date 



Date 



I 

□ Master Charge 

I 




! 



I 



I 
I 

I 
I 



Instant Software Inc. 



Peterborough, N.H. 03458 



^40 



*ui3|0)d ¥ saui|OH IPPU3M J^IIO * sn^ipsay « ooajo | 3 ¥ ^w}\o\ 



ft 



ft 



09 

as 



CD 

■O 

■■■ 

3 

O 
N 

as 
* 



as 
3 

as 



3 
as 



o 

3 

as 

o 

ti 

mm* 

3 

a- 
o 

3 
c 
or© 



S 
o 



I s. 



ft 

V3 



I 
I - 



S3 

tarn* 

& 

ft 

as 
as 



SdJBJ30§ 



v* Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 111 



In some cases, computer communication is easier without a modem. 



The Modem Eliminator 



By Dennis J. Murray 



Have you ever needed to establish 
communications between two 
or more computers located near each 
other? 

Did you use modems? If so, why? 

Provided all the computers have a 
standard RS-232C port and are within 
several hundred feet of each other, 
there is a simpler, more reliable 
method: a modem eliminator. 

A modem eliminator (or, in some 
circles, a null modem) consists of 
nothing more than one RS-232C fe- 
male connector for each computer 
and a few passive components. It 
does not restrict transmission speed, 
uses little or no power, does not use 
telephone lines and, in the half-du- 
plex mode, lets you establish a party 
line with three or more computers 
on-line. 

There are drawbacks. For example, 
you must have dc continuity on the 
communication line between com- 
puters (called a hard-wired line). Al- 
so, the approach won't work with 
certain sophisticated telecommunica- 
tion driver programs that look for 
transitions on modem control lines to 
indicate terminal response. 

But if these problems don't apply to 
you, then a modem eliminator may 
be just the thing. 

There are two versions: one for 
full-duplex (Fig. 1) and one for half- 
duplex (Fig. 2). 

A Full-Duplex Modem Eliminator 

The full-duplex modem eliminator 
is simple to build, requiring only two 



RS-232C female connectors (DB-25S) 
and a three- wire cable. 

Referring to the schematic in Fig. 1, 
solder a short jumper between pins 4 
and 5, and another jumper between 
pins 6, 8 and 20 of each connector. 
These jumpers simulate data set 
ready, carrier detect and clear to send 
signals normally generated by a mo- 
dem. Solder one wire of the three- 
wire cable to pin 7 of connector A, 
and the other end of the same wire to 
pin 7 of connector B. This wire estab- 
lishes a common ground between 
computers. 

Solder one of the remaining two 
wires to pin 3 of connector A and the 
other end of the same wire to pin 2 of 
connector B. Solder one end of the re- 
maining wire to pin 2 of connector A 
and the other end to pin 3 of connec- 
tor B. These two wires will now send 
the transmitted data from each com- 
puter to the receive line of the other 
computer. 

The assembly is now complete. All 
that remains is to put hoods on the 
connectors and place them in use. 

A Half-Duplex Modem 
Eliminator 

Two requisites for a half-duplex 



transmission are that the transmit sig- 
nal must be fed back into the receive 
line, and that only one computer can 
transmit at a time— the rest must lis- 
ten. 

EIA standards call for the transmit 
signal to be on pin 2 and the receive 
signal on pin 3. With no data trans- 
mission, both pins should be at the 
mark level of -3 volts or less. When 
one computer transmits, it must pull 
its transmit line to + 3 volts or higher 
to generate a space; otherwise, the 
line remains at - 3 volts or less, indi- 
cating a mark condition. The receive 
line for a modem eliminator must be 
able to follow the transmitted signal 
if it is to simulate half-duplex. 

Resistor Rl sets the receive bias to 
a mark level by feeding the transmit 
signal from pin 2 to the receive line 
on pin 3 (Fig. 2). Diodes Dl through 
Dn are reverse-biased. Therefore, 
when there is no transmit data, all re- 
ceive lines are at the mark level. 

When CPU-B transmits, it pulls its 
transmit line (pin 2) to the space level 
[> + 3 volts), forward-biasing the di- 
ode, which forces the receive line 
(pin 3) to follow. Thus, all stations 
monitoring the receive line will pick 
up the transmitted data. 



CPU -A 
TRANSMIT DATA 

RECEIVE DATA 

SIGNAL GROUND 

REQUEST TO SEND 

CLEAR TO SEND 

DATA SET READY 

REC LINE SIGNAL DETECT 

DATA TERMINAL READY 



2 

3 

7 
4 
5 
6 
8 
20 



7 
A 
5 
6 
8 
20 



CPU-B 
RECEIVE DATA 

TRANSMIT DATA 

SIGNAL GROUND 

REQUEST TO SEND 

CLEAR TO SEND 

DATA SET READY 

REC LINE SIGNAL DETECT 

DATA TERMINAL READY 



Dennis J. Murray, Computech, 1005 Chestnut 
Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073. 



EIA CONNECTOR 
DB-25S 



EIA CONNECTOR 
DB-25S 



Fig. 1. Full-duplex modem eliminator. 



112 Microcomputing, February 1981 



When CPU-A transmits, it pulls its 
transmit line to the space level. The 
receive line follows, due to biasing 
through Rl. Since diodes Dl-Dn are 
reverse-biased, all stations will re- 
ceive data. 

To assemble this circuit, you will 
need one RS-232C female connector 
for each computer to be in the link, 
one diode for each computer but the 
first, one resistor and a two-wire ca- 
ble. The resistor value is not critical 
and should be chosen such that it reli- 
ably produces a mark state on the re- 
ceive line with all computers con- 
nected. Normally, this will also pro- 
duce a reliable space condition when 
CPU-A transmits. If not, the addition 
of diode Dx will correct the problem. 

Solder a jumper between pins 4 
and 5 and another jumper between 
pins 6, 8 and 20 on all connectors. Sol- 
der one end of a wire from the two- 
conductor cable to pin 7 of connector 
A and the other end of the same wire 
to pin 7 of the other connectors. Sol- 
der one end of the other wire to pin 3 
of connector A and the other end of 
the same wire to pin 3 of the other 
connectors. This establishes a com- 
mon ground and receive line for all 



CPU-A 



DX 



CPU-B 




01 



7 
4 
5 

6 

8 

20 



RECEIVE LINE 



GROUND LINE! 



CONNECTOR 'A' 
DB-25S 



2 

3 

7 
4 
5 

6 

8 

20 



CONNECTOR 'B' 
DB-25S 

DN 



Rl -USUALLY 4 7K(SEE TEXT) 

DX. Dl -ON— SMALL SIGNAL DIODE 
OR RECTIFIER DIODE (le., IN914B 
OR IN4001, ETC.) WITH A PIV RAT- 
ING OF 30 VOLTS OR GREATER. 



7 
4 

3 

6 

8 

20 



CPU-C 



CONNECTOR 'C' OPTIONAL 
DB-25S 



Fig. 2. Half-duplex modem eliminator. 

connectors. 

Solder resistor Rl between pins 2 
and 3 of connector A. Solder diodes 
between pins 2 and 3 of the remain- 
ing connectors, being careful to ob- 
serve correct polarity (banded end to- 
ward pin 3). 

Connect the computers and try 
communicating. If it works, you're in 
business. If not, measure the mark 



level voltage between pins 3 and 7 of 
connector A. If the voltage is greater 
than -3 volts, adjust the value of Rl 
to result in -3 volts or less. If the 
voltage is OK, diode Dx is needed. 

The only restriction placed on the 
RS-232C interface is that the trans- 
mitter must be able to exceed the re- 
ceiver's space threshold by an 
amount equal to the forward voltage 
drop of the diodes used (usually 0.6 
volts). This should not be a problem if 
you are using a commercially avail- 
able interface or a well-designed 
homebrew system, since this value is 
usually far exceeded. 

One other potential problem: in 
rare instances, some computers do 
not output data terminal ready (pin 
20). You may be able to circumvent 
this by shorting pins 4 and 5 to pins 6 
and 8 on that computer's connector, 
thus using request-to-send to gener- 
ate all required voltage levels. 

Once these problems have been 
solved, you will find the interface to 
be reliable and considerably less ex- 
pensive than modems. The half-du- 
plex model has proven itself in a par- 
ty line involving up to four comput- 
ers. ■ 



If you have an Apple, Pet or TRS-80 microcomputer/ you can 
have fantasy at your fingertips with Epyx computer games from 
Automated Simulations. 

Like me, you're probably really into games, all sorts of games. 
But on Epyx game is more than a game - it's an experience, and 
it's a chance to use your computer for something other than work. 
The great thing about Epyx games is that you have a choice. 
Whether you're a beginner or an expert, you can find games that 
are easy to learn. Challenging. Fun to play for twenty minutes or 

"/ tan rescue ten prisoners 
slay a mad wizard, retrieve 
stolen treasure ami save 
money. So 
tan you!" 



hours at a time. You can play these games over and over, because 
you're constantly trying new tactics and strategies. 

I've already entered and re-entered a world of monsters and 
misfits, demons and dwarves, trials, tribulations and treasures with 
a game called "Temple of Apshai." Now it's my chance to have fun 
with three more games from Automated Simulations ... and I can 
save money, too! 

With "Datestones of Ryn* and "Morloc's Tower; I get to escape 
from booby-trapped mazes, find more treasures and zap more 
monsters. And with "Rescue at Rigei; I get to outwit the nasty High 
Tollah and free 10 prisoners. 

Automated Simulations has a special offer on "Datestones 
of Ryn; "Morloc's Tower* and "Rescue at Rigel.* Buy all three * 55 
for just $49.95, a $70.00 value. This offer is available 
for a limited time only, so don't wait to be a hero. See your 
local dealer today. Or you can order these games by 
phone. Dial (800) 824-7888, operator 861. In California, 

(800) 852-7777, operator 861 . 

'Available on disk for 48K Apple 
with Applesoft, 32K TRS-80, 
and 32K Pet/CBM. 




,s Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 113 



TRS-80 gives this old game a new twist. 



The Fifteen Puzzle 



By William L. Colsher 

In 1878, a fellow named Sam Loyd 
invented a puzzle consisting of a 
box with fifteen numbered blocks. 
These blocks were arranged in four 
rows, each containing four blocks, 
except for one row which held three 
blocks and a space. The object of the 
game is to arrange the blocks in nu- 
merical order (see Fig. 1). 

This is not as easy as it may seem. 
Since there are 16 blocks available 
(15 numbers and a space) there are 
20,922,789,888,000 possible starting 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


0* 



*In the old-fashioned physical puzzle this 
zero is an empty space. 

Fig. 1. Final arrangement. 



positions. Some fairly heavy math in- 
dicates that half of these positions are 
impossible to solve. Many of the pos- 
sible positions will require hundreds 



of moves to solve. You can see that 
this is not a trivial game. 

The program that this article is 
based on does more than just gener- 



WilliamL. Colsher, 4328 Nutmeg Lane, Apt. Ill, 
Lisle, IL 60532. 





Program Listing. 


10 


REM***THE FIFTEEN PUZZLE 


20 


REM***W. L. COLSHER 


30 


CLSxlN."D0 YOU NEED INSTRUCTIONS (Y-l, N«2)";A:IF A-l T.G0S. 10000 


1*0 


CLS:M-0: P. "GENERATING THE PUZZLE TAKES A WHILE. PLEASE WAIT." 


50 


F.I-lT016:A(l)-0xN.I 


60 


F.I-1T016 


70 


R-RND(16) 


80 


IFA(R)O0T.70 


90 


A(R)-I 


100 


N.I 


110 


G0S.5000 


120 


IF F-l T.50 


130 


G0S.6000 


11*0 


P." ":IN."Y0UR M0VE N ;X 


1*5 


G0S. 1*000 


150 


G0S.7000 


160 


IF FO0 T.180 


170 


P. "ILLEGAL MOVE, RE-ENTER" :F. I»1T0500:N. 1 :G. 130 


180 


A(X+F)-A(X):A(X)-16 


190 


G.8000 


200 


M-M+1:G.130 


999 


EN0 


uooo 


REM***C0NVERT NUMBER TO LOCATION IN ARRAY 


1010 


F.I-1T016 


i*020 


IFA(I)=X T. UOUO 


«*030 


N.I 


i*0<*0 


X-l 


1*050 


RET. 


5000 


REM***VERIFY SOLUTION POSSIBLE 


5005 


F-l 


5010 


S-0 


5020 


F.I-ltol5 


5030 


F.J-I+1T016 


501*0 


IFA(I)>A(J)T.S-S+1 


5050 


N.J:N.I 


5060 


F.I-1T08 


5070 


READ X 


5080 


IF A(X)-0 T. S-S+l 


5090 


N.I 


5095 


REST. 


5100 


A-INT(S/2) 


5110 


IFA*2«S T. F-0 


5120 


RET. 


5130 


DATA 2, U, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13, 15 


6000 


REM***0I SPLAY GAME BOARD 


6005 


C.:L-339:P.A.217,"M0VE ";M 


6010 


F.I-1T0I* 


6015 


P.A.L," "; 



114 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Listing continued. 



6020 

6025 

6028 

6030 

6038 

60U0 

6050 

6060 

6070 

7000 

7010 

7015 

7020 

7025 

7030 

7035 

70U0 

70U5 

7050 

7060 

8000 

8010 

8020 

8030 

80U0 

8050 

8060 

8070 

8090 

10000 

10010 

10020 

10030 

100U0 

10050 

10060 

10070 

10080 

10090 

10100 



F.J-1T0* 
N«A((I-1)*J»+J) 
IF N=16 T. N»0 
IF N<10 T.P." ";N; 

IF (N«10) * (N<16) T.P.N; 

N.J 

L-L+6U 

N.I 

RET. 

REM***CHECK FOR LEGAL MOVE 

F-0 

IFX+1>16T.7025 

IFA(X+1)*16T.F=1 

IFX-K=0T.7035 

IFA(X-1)=16T.F»-1 

IFX+U>16T.70U5 

IFA(X+U)«16T.F=l» 

IFX-U<=0T.7060 

IFA(X-U)=16T.F»-U 

RET. 

REM***CHECK FOR A WIN 

F.I=1T016 

IFA(l)OI T.200 

N.I 

G0S.6000 

p N " . D » H 

P. "CONGRATULATIONS I II YOU DID IT IN ONLY ";M;" MOVESI!" 

P." ":IN."TO PLAY AGAIN, HIT ENTER. ";A$ 

G.10 

REM***INSTRUCTIONS 

C.:P.A.18,"F IFTEEN PUZZLE" 

P.A.128,"THE OBJECT OF THE 'FIFTEEN PUZZLE IS TO MOVE THE" 

P. "NUMBERS AROUND SO THAT THEY ARE IN ORDER FROM 1 TO 15. A MOVE" 

P. "IS MADE BY TYPING IN THE NUMBER (WHICH MUST BE ADJACENT TO" 

P. "THE ZERO) YOU WISH TO MOVE. THAT NUMBER IS THEN EXCHANGED" 

P. "WITH THE ZERO. YOU WIN WHEN THE BOARD LOOKS LIKE THIS:" 

P." ":P." ":P." 12 3 U":P." 5 6 7 8":P." 9 10 11 12" 

P. "13 Ik 15 0" 

P." ":IN."HIT ENTER TO PLAY";A$ 

RET. 



ate a puzzle. One of the most impor- 
tant things it does is verify that the 
randomly generated puzzle is actual- 
ly solvable. Clearly, this is a nice fea- 
ture to have. The algorithm used in 
this section is given by D. D. Spencer 
Game Playing With Computers 



in 



(Hayden Book Co., 1975). Fig. 2 illus- 
trates this algorithm in verbal form. 



The program checks for legal 
moves by examining the four (at 
most) locations that surround a given 
number (specified during the game 
by its coordinates). If any one of the 
locations contains the zero, then the 
move is legal. Otherwise, an error 
message is printed and play contin- 
ues. 



A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


H 




J 


K 


L 


M 


N 





P 



1. Let N be a number in position A of the 
puzzle to be solved. Count how many num- 
bers smaller than N are in positions higher- 
lettered than A. Count the blank as 16. 

2. Do this for all 16 positions (A-P) and add 
up the count. 

3. If the blank square is one of the follow- 
ing: B, D, E, G, J, L, M or O, add one to the 
sum. 

4. There is a solution if the sum is even. 

5. There is no solution if the sum is odd. 

Fig. 2. Algorithm for 15 Puzzle solvability. * 

* Adapted from Game Playing with Comput- 
ers by D. D. Spencer. 



Playing the game is really quite 
simple. The computer will display 
the game board and then ask you for 
your move. You then just type in the 
number you wish to move and hit 
ENTER, after which the computer 
will re-draw the game board, making 
your move. In the event that your 
move results in a win (not very likely) 
the computer will congratulate you 
and ask if you want to play again. ■ 



PET TWO-WAY RS-232 and PARALLEL OUTPUT INTERFACE 




SADI - The microprocessor based serial and parallel 
interface for the Commodore PET. SADI allows you to 
connect your PET to parallel and serial printers, 
CRT's, modems, acoustic couplers, hard copy termi- 
nals and other computers. The serial and parallel 
ports are independent allowing the PET to communi- 
cate with both peripheral devices simultaneously or 
one at a time. In addition, the RS-232 device can com- 
municate with the parallel device. 

Special Features for the PET interface include: 
Conversion to true ASCII both in and out 
Cursor controls and function characters 



specially printed 

Selectable reversal of upper and lower case 

PET IEEE connector for daisy chaining 

Addressable - works with other devices 
Special Features for the serial interface include: 

Baud rate selectable from 75 to 9600 

Half or full duplex 

32 character buffer 

X-ON, X-OFF automatically sent 

Selectable carriage return delay 
Special Features for the parallel interface include: 

Data strobe - either polarity 

Device ready - either polarity 

Centronics compatible 

Complete with power supply, PET IEEE cable, RS-232 
connector, parallel port connector and case. Assembled 
and tested. SADIa (110VAC) $295 SADIe (230VAC) $325 




Connecticut <^307 
microcomputer, Inc. 

34 Del Mar Dfive Brookfield CT 06804 
203 775 4595 TWX 710 456 0052 



VISA AND M/C ACCEPTED— SEND ACCOUNT NUMBER, EXPIRATION DATE 
AND SIGN ORDER. ADD $3 PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING A HANDLING- 
FOREIGN ORDERS ADD 10% FOR AIR POSTAGE. 

Mention this magazine with your order and deduct 2%. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 115 




SIRIUS8000and80 + 

HIGH PERFORMANCE, LOW COST 
FLOPPY ADDONS! 



The SIRIUS SYSTEMS 8000 and 80 + 
Series of Floppy Disk Add-Ons are de- 
signed to provide unmatched versatili- 
ty and performance for your TRS-80* 
MOD I and MOD II. 
80+ FOR YOUR MODI- 
COMMON CHARACTERISTICS include 
■SINGLE/DOUBLE Density Operation 
■90 Days P&L WARRANTY BMix any 
or all 80+ on the SS Standard Cable 
■Exceptional Speed Stability B5ms 
track-to-track access time (25ms for 
the 80 + 5) BSwitch Selectable Drive 
Address 

The SIRIUS 80 + 5 is a SINGLE SIDED, 
40 TRACK Disk Drive with 102K/204K 
Bytes Single/Double Density Opera- 
tion. SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY 
PRICE!!! 

SIRIUS 80 + 5 $299.95 

SIRIUS 80 + 5A 

(with Floppy-Disk Option) 314.95 

SIRIUS 80 + 1— a SINGLE SIDED, Fast 
40 TRACK Disk Drive with 102/204K 
Bytes Single/Double Density Opera- 
tion. 

SIRIUS 80 + 1 349.95 

SIRIUS 80 + 2— a DOUBLE SIDED, 80 
TRACK (40/side) Disk Drive. It appears 
to the TRS-80* as TWO 40 TRACK 
drives yet COST LESS THAN HALF 
THE PRICE! This unit may require the 
SS Standard Cable. Formatted data 
storage is 204K/408K Bytes Single/ 
Double Density. 
SIRIUS 80 + 2 429.95 




SIRIUS 80 + 3— a SINGLE SIDED, 80 
Track (96 tpi) Disk Drive. Offering 2 1/3 
times the storage of a standard Radio 
Shack Drive (204/408K Bytes Single/ 
Double Density), the 80 + 3 reduces the 
need for diskettes tremendously!! 

SIRIUS 80 + 3 479.95 

SIRIUS 80 + 4— a DOUBLE SIDED, 160 
track (80/side-96 tpi) Disk Drive. The ul- 
timate in State-Of-The-Art 5 1/4" Floppy 
Disk Technology, the 80 + 4 is seen by 
the TRS-80* as TWO single sided 
drives. Thus, in terms of capacity, one 
80 + 4 is equivalent to 4 2/3 standard 
Radio Shack drives— at a savings of 
over 73%. (With a Double Density Con- 
verter, the available memory is huge— 
408K/916K Bytes Single/Double Densi- 



ty!!) 

sir 



SIRIUS 80 + 4 629.95 

Note: The Expansion Interface limits 
drives to 12ms track-to-track 
* TRS-80 of Tandy Corp. 
ACCESSORIES 

SS Standard 2 Drive Cable $29.95 

5 1/4" Diskettes (Box of 10) 29.95 

NEWDOS/80-Sqphisticated Operating 
System for the TRS-80* from 
Apparat 139.95 



SIRIUS 80 + 5, NEWDOS/80, and Two Drive Cable $429.95 

SIRIUS 80 + 3, NEWDOS/80, and Two Drive Cable 624.95 

SIRIUS 80 + 4, NEWDOS/80, and Two Drive Cable «-;-".IS*XS 

TWO SIRIUS 80 + 5's (SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICE! !) 2 for/559.95 

TWO SIRIUS 80 + 3's, NEWDOS/80, and Two Drive Cable 999.95 

TWO SIRIUS 80 + 4's, NEWDOS/80, and Two Drive Cable 1349.95 

FOR YOUR MOD II— SIRIUS 8000 (NEW!!) 

(All SIRIUS 8000 Series 8" Floppy Disk Drives include Case and Power Supply.) 

SIRIUS 8000-SINGLE SIDED, 77 TRACK 8" Disk Drive $6 i?/?5 

SIRIUS 8500— DOUBLE SIDED, 154 TRACK 8" Disk Drive 829.95 

SIRIUS 8100—2 DRIVE, SINGLE SIDED Expansion System 995.95 

SIRIUS 8150—2 DRIVE, DOUBLE SIDED Expansion System 1360 .95 

2 Drive, 50 Conductor Cable for MOD 1 1 34.95 



I 



Save up to 10% with these SIRIUS Packages 

PRIAM 

Hard Disks 

Now Available 
from SIRIUS 

SYSTEMS! 



PRIAM s high-performance low-cost Winchester disc drives speed up throughput and expand data storage 
from 20 megabytes to 154 megabytes And a single controller can be used to operate 14-inch-disc dnves with 
capacities of 33 66 or 154 megabytes or floppy-disc-size drives holding 20 and 34 megabytes So it s easy to 
move up in capacity or reduce package size, without changing important system elements or performance 




■ Fast . Unear Voice Coil Positioning ■ DC Power required only' m50ms 


Average Positioning time 


■ 10 ms track-to-track positioning ■ Simple, parallel Interface ■ 90 ms 


Maximum Positioning Time 


■ Fully servoed head positioning 


f ■ Optional SMD Interface ■ 6.4 ms Average Latency 


■ Dedicated servo tracks 


THE PRIAM LINEUP 






Model/Disc Size 


Capacity 


Size 


Weight 


Price 


DISKOS 2250(14") 


22Mbytes 


7 ,, x17"x20 ,, 


33lbs. 


$2495 


DISKOS 3350(14 ) 


33Mbytes 


T * 17" » 20' 


33 lbs 


$2995 


DISKOS 6650 14' 1 


66 Mbytes 


7" x 17" - 20" 


33 lbs 


$3749 


DISKOS 15450 (14**) 


154 Mbytes 


7 - 17" * 20 


33 lbs 


$4695 


DISKOS 2050 ( 8") 


20 Mbytes 


4 62 - 8 55 « 14.25" 


20 lbs 


$2995 


DISKOS 3450 ( 8 ) 


34 Mbytes 


4 62" * 8 55 * 14 25 


20 lbs 


$3745 


DISKOS 1070 


10 6 Mbytes 


floppy-size 


(low) 


$2195 



Optional SMD interface available for $ 150 

SIRIUS SYSTEMS Hard Disk Enclosures include all internal cabling , a power supply, 
case and a fan for reliable operation. 

14" DISKOS DRIVE CASE $375.00 

8" DISKOS DRIVE CASE 265.00 



introducing the versatile, Low-Cost 
OMEGA series controller 



As new technological advances bring down the 
cost of fast, reliable mass data storage, the need 
for an inexpensive, versatile controller have be- 
come greater and greater. To meet this need, 
SIRIUS SYSTEMS OMEGA Series Controller 
was designed 

The SIRIUS OMEGA Series Controller Module 
utilizes an on-board microprocessor to 

mediate data transfer to a wide variety of 
peripherals from an equally wide variety of host 
computer systems. Up to four Winchester Hard 
Disks (8" or 14"), four 5%" Floppy Disks Drives 
and/or up to eight 8" Floppy Disk Drives may be 
in use at one time. 

SPECIFIC HARDWARE 
FEATURES INCLUDE: 

■ Control of up to twelve Floppy Disk Drives 
(eight 8 ' ' and/ or four 5 V* ' ') 

• 8 " and/ or 5V* " Disk Dnve Utilization 

• Single (FM) or Double (MFM) density data 
storage 

• Hard or Soft sectored diskette usage 



• Utilization of ' Quad" density (96 tpi) 8" or 
5V*" Disk Drives 

m Control of up to four WINCHESTER type 
PRIAM DISKOS Disk Drives 

• 8" or 14" may intermix on the same cable 

• Accommodates 8" and/ or 14" drives of 
10.6 Mbytes to 154 Mbytes 

• Ultra-Fast data transfers 

■ Extremely flexible host-controller interfacing 

SPECIFIC SOFTWARE 
FEATURES INCLUDE: 

■ Dynamic format modifications via command 
words 

■ Extremely flexible format acceptance for un- 
usual data storage formats 

■ Easily interfaces to standard operating sys- 
tems (TRS-DOSvCP/M- .etc) 

■ Operates in either get/put sector mode or 
data string mode 

■ Performance parameters may be changed by 
EPR0M replacement or Dynaminic Repro- 
gramming 

CP/M" of Digital Research 



THE OMEGA-S100— a DMA, Single Board controller available in Hard Disk, Floppy 
Disk and Combinational Versions. 

OMEGA-S100 FDC (Floppy Disk only version) $495.95 

OMEGA-S100 HDC (Hard Disk only version) IS'?? 

OMEGA-S100 FHDC (Floppy and Hard Disk version) 975.95 

THE TRS-80* MOD II OMEGA— a Single Board, DMA Hard Disk Controller for the Ra- 
dio Shack MOD II. OMEGA-MOD II $725.95 

THE LSI-II OMEGA— a DMA, Single Board (quad width), DEC compatible Hard 
Disk controller for Q-BUS type computers (LSI-11/2 and LSI-11/23 compatible). 

OMEGA-LS1 11 $1395.00 

NOTE- OMEGA Controllers available soon for the TRS-80* MOD I, STD BUS, and 
other systems. Consult SIRIUS SYSTEMS for current prices and availabilities. 

PACKAGES (NEW!!!) „ sd b , 

20 MegaByte, S-100 or MOD II system with Hard Disk Drive, Case & Power Supply, 

Cables, OMEGA Controller and Documentation— $3615. 

33 MegaByte, S-100 or MOD II System (as above) $4115. 

154 MegaByte, S-100 or MOD II System (as above) $5820. 

CP/M^ 2.2 Operating System for above packages (specify S-100 or MOD II) $170. 



SPECIAL 
PURCHASE!! 

NEW SIEMENS 8" 



and 5 1 /4 



»» 



Disk 



Drives at SUPER 
DISCOUNTS! 



SIEMENS FDD-100-8 Single sided, 
8" Single or Double Density Disk 
Drive $389.95 

(2/$359.95 ea) 
SIEMENS FDD-100-5 Single sided, 
5V*" Single or Double Density Disk 
Drive $249.95 

(2/$229.95 ea) 
SIEMENS Technical Manual (specify 
8" or 5 1 /4") $12.95 



TFORTHI-whatit 

has to offer YOU! 

TF0RTH is a procedural FORTH type language 
which specifies a process rather than a desired 
result Designed to run on the TRS-80* 
TF0RTH is a very powerful tool by itself or 
used in conjunction with Assembly Program- 
ming A rich set of WORDS come with TF0RTH 
and many features considered as extra with 
other FORTH languages are standard with 
TF0RTH These features include 

■ Advanced Math Package 

■ Line Editor 

■ Macro Assembler 

■ Re-Entrant Code 

■ Super Graphics Capabilities 

■ Sophisticated User Functions 

■ 140 Page User s Manual 

■ Virtual memory 

■ Interpreter 

■ Compiler 

■ Produces CMD Files 

■ Expandable 

■ And many, many other features 

TF0RTH from SIRIUS comes on diskette com- 
plete for the TRS-80* with as little as 16K of 
memory and a single Disk Drive 
TF0RTH $129.95 



STATE-OF-THE-ART DISK DRIVES 

MPI 51/52 & 91/92 



QUME DataTrakS 

8" Disk Drive 

DOUBLE SIDED! 

DOUBLE DENSITY! 

High performance Double Sided Disk 8" Disk 
Drive ■ Single or Double Density ■ Door Lock 
and Write Protect INCLUDED! ■ Negative DC 
Voltage not required ■ Low Power Operation 

■ FAST! 3ms track-to-track access 

■ Low friction and minimum wear 
m Superior Head Load Dynamics 

QUME DataTrak 8 $574.95 

(2/S549 ea) 

QUME Technical Manual $12.95 

Connector Set #3 (AC. DC, & Card Edge) 

$10.95 
Connector Set #4 (AC and DC) $2.95 



5%" Disk Drives 




^67 




SIRIUS 
SYSTEMS 

7528 Oak Ridge Highway 
Knoxville, Tennessee 37921 



116 Microcomputing, February 1981 



TO ORDER CALL (615) 693-6583 

Phone Orders Accepted 9AM-7PM (EST) Mon-Fri 

We accept MC, VISA, AE, COD (requires Certified Check, Cashier s Check 
or Cash) and Checks (personal checks require 14 days to clear). SHIPPING 
AND HANDLING: $7 .00 per Floppy Disk Drive or 80+ Module ■ 5% for other 
items (any excess will be refunded) ■ Foreign Orders add 10% for Shipping 
& Handling Payment in U.S. currency ■ Tennessee residents add 6% Sales 
Tax ■ VOLUME DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 



■ Fast! 5ms track- to- track access 

■ Exclusive Pulley-Band Design 

■ Unique Door/Ejector Mechanism 
m Reliable 1112*/* Speed Stability 

■ Single/Double Density Operation 

■ Industry/ ANSI Standard Interface 

MPI 51 (Single Head/40 tracks) 
125K/250K Bytes Single/Double Density* * 

$259.95 
MPI52 (Dual Head/80 tracks (40/side)) 
250K/500K Bytes Single/Double Density* * 

$349.95 

MPI 91 (Single Head/80 tracks) 
250K/500K Bytes Single/Double Density* • 

$399.95 
MPI 92 (Dual Head/ 160 tracks (80/side)) 
500K/1000K Bytes Single/Double Density** 

$524.95 

MPI Technical Manual $12.95 

* * Unformatted data storage 




This "unobtrusive" front panel allows on-the-spot debugging without a debugger program. 



Build a Computer System 
Control and Display Board 



By J. C. Hassall 



In the early days of personal com- 
puting, when front panels were 
more functional than cosmetic, unin- 
formed (but interested) neighbors, 
friends and family could be wowed 
with an impressive array of switches 
and blinking LEDs. Who wouldn't be 
impressed by a micro-version of Mr. 
Spock's computer on the U.S.S. En- 
terprise? 

But those old front panels were 
useful, too. You could stop the com- 
puter simply by flipping a switch, 
single-step the machine or look into 
its innermost memory by flipping an- 
other switch and observing the LEDs. 



:Jr3 f* • 

< < OA 



|R3 U ♦ 

JR4 
• (> I (i 



C2 



A sharp operator could do on-the- 
spot debugging with the front panel. 
In fact, you had to use the front pan- 
el, after power-up, to toggle in the 
bootstrap program, which let the ma- 
chine read a better, longer bootstrap 
program from cassette or paper tape. 
As our sophistication grew, our re- 
liance on the front panel dwindled. 
Firmware became available with the 
bootstrap in nonvolatile memory. 
You simply powered up and the ma- 
chine bootstrapped itself. So front 
panels were reduced from a function- 
al component to just another pretty 
face. 





f5"> XRDY 



Rl = 330ft 

R2 * I Mft 

R3 = 470ft 

R4 = 50Kft 

CI * 2.2 M F 

C2 ' 220pF 



TYPE 
7400 
74121 
NE555 



Kft IKft 

*/v 4— vw— -i 



B 

|l \z 

I 

■ J \ A 



+ 5 



A 

-o 




IKft 
-wv ' 



S2 



SI 



4 B 



Fig. 1. Single-steps the CPU either manually or at the user-adjusted rate from 20 to 120,000 steps per 
minute, or allows the CPU to run free. 



OK, but what about program de- 
bugging? No longer could the ma- 
chine be halted in mid-stride. Now 
another program, called a debugger, 
had to be loaded into memory. The 
debugger would then execute the er- 
rant program and display interim cal- 
culation results, register contents, 
and so forth on an output device. This 
is worthwhile, but slow and often ag- 
gravating. 

Theory of Operation 

The circuits shown in the accompa- 
nying figures will provide most of the 
features of the front panel. They'll let 
you stop the CPU at the end of any 
machine cycle; observe the contents 
of the data and address buses; and 
single-step the CPU manually, one 
machine cycle at a time. 

The circuits will also give you a fea- 
ture not found on other front panels: 
the ability to single-step the CPU au- 
tomatically at an adjustable rate, one 
machine cycle at a time. 

The circuits' features offer numer- 
ous advantages. If you do much hard- 
ware work, stopping the CPU also 
freezes the system bus, so that the 
status of the address and data lines 
may be observed on the LEDs, or sta- 
tus lines checked with a logic probe. 
This capability is convenient for 
checking memory address decoding, 
I/O port decoding, data errors and so 
forth. 



/ C. Hassall, H&H Enterprises, 1201 Highland 
Circle, Blacksburg, VA 24060. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 117 



A particularly nice feature is that 
data on the bus may be observed. For 
example, immediately after an input 
instruction is executed, the data bus 
will contain the data from the input 
port referenced in the instruction. 
Thus, terminal interface problems 
can generally be quickly solved by 
checking terminal data and status 
lines. Bit errors on memory boards 
can similarly be quickly traced. 

If you're more involved with soft- 
ware than hardware, the circuits let 
you directly observe data values 
transferred throughout the program 
under development without having 
to load a debugger. The circuits are 
not intended to replace a debugger, 
however. 

The circuits were developed initial- 
ly for a home-brew 8080-based sys- 
tem, and then adapted to an S-100 
system. The bus signals described are 
for the S-100 bus, but the circuits will 
work with any system that has access 
to the CPU's Ready or Hold pin. 
Since microprocessors are dynamic 
devices, they must have a clock to re- 
fresh internal registers and maintain 
synchronization of internal opera- 
tions. Thus, slowing down the CPU 
clock to a more human speed would 
result in internal chaos in the CPU. 

All microprocessors have a wait 
state in which no external operations 
(e.g., memory access) take place, but 
internal refresh continues. In es- 
sence, the CPU does nothing at full 
clock speed during the wait state. 
Upon exiting the wait state, normal 



operation continues. So the key to 
stopping the system is to cause the 
CPU to enter a wait state and stay 
there until allowed to exit by the op- 
erator. 

Single-stepping is accomplished in 
a similar fashion— put the CPU into a 
wait state, allow it to exit the wait 
state, execute one machine cycle, 
then immediately cause it to reenter 
the wait state. 

The term "immediately" is relative 
to the system clock. To fully under- 
stand, you need to look at how the 
CPU enters and exits a wait state. 

At the end of each machine cycle, 
the status of the active high Ready 
line to the CPU (XRDY, pin 3, on the 
S-100 bus) is monitored. If it is at a 
logic zero, the CPU will enter the 
wait state for the next machine cycle. 
At the end of the cycle, the status of 
the line will again be monitored. The 
CPU will stay in the wait state until 
XRDY goes high again. Therefore, 
the single-step circuitry must hold 
the XRDY line at logic zero to stop 
the CPU and provide a clean TTL log- 
ic one pulse of the proper duration to 



Dialight 555-3007 units can be obtained 
at the following locations: Philadelphia 
Electronics, 112 North 12th St., Phila- 
delphia, PA 19107; Newark Electronics, 
500 N. Pulaski, Chicago, IL 60646; and 
Westates Electronics, 20151 Bahama 
St., Chatsworth, CA 91311. Prices range 
from $1.22 each, in quantities from one 
to nine; $1.11, for ten to 24; and $1.01, for 
25-99. 



■ It UK m Wfc^TSI 


p^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 








m • • • • • 1 Ski \ 


1 • * • * 


m • • • • • | HI iZ • .v 1 


\\\\\\\\w. 




M( ] *TF| 






^ I * ! 

■ •■*> ~> i. iwi frnW to • • all 


Mr^M %. m • 9 • # ty # ..♦ • • • • • • 




IhmmrJLIi • • ml 


Bf^m Hi2 W.* «.^-» » m « +*m;.*_^m • • • • • 






tikMwwwm Hff • • • • 




,i^ }••••< 


• • • • 




■ ••••• ( H:£j 


VlflflHn •::, ;^a. addr« I •• 




W *m\ / • *m 


MM ■ 




Lt J 


Ha^Jt^SA ^g-.» * j> . • * •••••• 






19 




I '^Qfc3 


l* ' • • • • T TTMWW uW% 1 















the line to allow the CPU to execute 
the next machine cycle. 

The duration of the pulse doesn't 
really matter, provided that it is 
shorter than the duration of one ma- 
chine cycle. The circuit in Fig. 1 will 
provide a step pulse of 0.114 us to 
12.2 us in duration, so it will control 
an 8080 with an 18.432 MHz or slow- 
er crystal. If your system uses a dif- 
ferent CPU, compare the duration of 
its wait cycle (usually specified as 
Twait) to me times given above. The 
values have been chosen to cover 
most CPUs. Adjustment procedures 
will be covered later. 

The control circuit in Fig. 1 can op- 
erate in three modes: CPU free-run- 
ning, CPU single-stepped and CPU 
single-stepped at an adjustable rate. 
In the first mode with switch Si in po- 
sition A, pin 1 of ICla is high, so pin 5 
of lb is low, which causes pin 6 of lb 
to be high, and the CPU operates in 
the free-running mode. Closing Si (to 



AI5 [||> 
AI4 [ei> 
AI3 [J5> 
AI2 [33> 
All (87> 
AIO [37> 



A9 [34> 

A8 [84> 

A7 [83> 

A6 [82> 

A5 [?£> 



Photo 1. The finished product, with the control circuitry on the left and the display circuitry on the right. 
The address bus has been divided into two groups: the upper eight bits (H REG. ADDRJ and the lower 
eight bits (L REG. ADDR). The LED display format used here is octal, but hex could be used as easily. The 
LEDs used are Dialight 555-3007 units. (Photos by Jan Wellman. ) 




} H REGISTER 



) L REGISTER 



> DATA 



DI3 [42> 
D03 [8?> 
012 [4?> 
002 [88> 
OH [84> 

001 fl?> 
010 [95> 

ooo (Tr> 



Fig. 2. The display portion of the circuitry. See the 
text for an explanation of the LEDs. 



118 Microcomputing, February 1981 



the B position) causes pin 6 of lb to go 
low, putting the CPU in a wait state 
after completion of the ongoing ma- 
chine cycle. This is the second mode 
of operation. 

Now assume that S 3 is in the B posi- 
tion. S 2 is an SPDT normally closed, 
momentary closed type switch. Posi- 
tion B is the normally closed position, 
in which case the output from the 
flip-flop formed by lc and Id is high. 
When S 2 is momentarily closed to po- 
sition A, the flip-flop toggles and the 
output goes low. The low-to-high 
transition of pin 4 of IC2 as S 2 is re- 
leased to position B, causing the Q 
output to pulse from high to low to 
high. That pulse causes pin 6 of IClb 
to go high, allowing the CPU to exit 
the wait state. 

In the third mode of operation, IC3 
is allowed to operate as a free-run- 
ning multivibrator by switching S 3 to 
position A, thereby allowing the reset 
line to float high. The high-to-low 
transition of the output from IC3 will 
trigger IC2 each time. Since the out- 
put duration of IC3 is much shorter 
than IC2, no retriggering error can re- 
suh. With S3 in position A, the CPU 
will automatically be single-stepped 
at a rate determined by the 1 meg- 
ohm trimming pot for IC3. The val- 
ues given allow adjustment from 20 
to 120,000 steps per minute. Return- 
ing S3 to position A returns to mode 1 
operation. 

The formulas to determine the 
pulse duration of IC2 and the pulse 
train frequency of IC3, should you 
want to change from the values giv- 
en, are as follows: 

For IC2, the pulse duration time is 
T = 0.7C 2 (R 3 + R4), where T is in sec- 
onds, C 2 is in farads and R 3 and R4 are 
in ohms. The pulse train frequency 
for IC3 may similarly be calculated 
from F= 1.44/lRi +2R 2 )C 1# where F is 
in steps per second and R and C have 
the same units as above. 

The display circuit of Fig. 2 consists 
simply of three 74LS04s and two 
74LS02s, which drive the LEDs. No- 
tice that the LEDs are not drawn with 
the customary current-limiting resis- 
tor in series with the voltage supply. 
The LEDs I used were Dialight 555- 



+5V 



12V (j> 



GNO [50> 




o GND 



Fig. 3. Can be used to provide the necessary + 5 V 
for the control and display board. 



3007 units. Each unit has a current- 
limiting resistor within the package. 
The current is limited to 5 milliamps. 
The internal current-limiting resistor, 
combined with the fact that they can 
be mounted on 0.100 inch centers, 
saves board space and gives a more 
professional appearance (see photo). 
Each LED indicates the status of a 
particular bus line. No provision has 
been made to isolate the display from 
the bus during DMA— the LEDs will 
always display address and data line 
status. The address lines simply re- 
quire an inverter to drive the appro- 
priate LED. 

The data lines require a different 
arrangement, due to the split data bus 
configuration (Data In and Data Out) 
used in the S-100 bus. NOR gates are 
required here, so that when a given 
Data In or Data Out line is active 
high), the appropriate LED will be 
it. The only time Data In and Data 
Out are high is during Reset, in which 
case all LEDs (address and data) are 
lit. This circuit can be easily altered 
to work with a bidirectional data bus 
—simply replace the 74LS02s in Fig. 
2 with 74LS04s. 

The regulator circuit of Fig. 3 is a 
standard circuit and requires no de- 
scription. As seen in the photo, no 
heat sink is needed for the regulator 
(assuming a regulator current rating 
of 1.5 A) because current drain for the 
entire board, with all LEDs on simul- 
taneously, is less than 0.2A. Not 
shown in any circuit diagram, but ad- 
visable in any computer system, are 
0. 1 uF decoupling capacitors. 

Construction and Adjustment 

Construction and adjustment is 
easy. As can be seen from the photo, 
all components fit nicely on a 2.7 inch 
by 4.7 inch piece of perforated board. 
I chose not to use a motherboard slot, 
but rather to hardwire the board di- 
rectly to the motherboard. I did this 
because there is no need to remove 
the board once installed. It provides 
maximum flexibility in locating the 
control and display board in the com- 
puter case and gives easier access to 
the switches, rather than being sand- 
wiched between two closely spaced 
system boards in the motherboard. 

As can be seen in the photo, I have 
grouped the LEDs according to func- 
tion (data and address). The address 
LEDs are split into two groups. The 
uppermost row in the photo displays 
the upper eight bits of address (Ai 5 - 
A 8 ), and the middle row displays the 
lower eight bits (A7-A0). The advan- 



ENTERTAINING, EXCITING 
& EDUCATIONAL 

APPLE II 

SOFTWARE 

MATH CHALLENGER-Teaches and tests 
the basic arithmetic skills to children of 4-12 years. 
Has four skill levels using graphics and sounds. 8K 
RAM $5.95 

I SEA BATTLE is played much like the popular 
game of Battleship. You are pitted against the Apple 
II in this game of hit and miss. Uses dazzling graph- 
ics and exciting sounds. 12KRAM $12.95 

HANGMAN— Outwit the computer by guessing 
a word which the computer selects from an enor- 
mous bank of 1160 words. Three skill levels with 
words ranging from 3-10 letters in length. Colorful 
graphics with sounds make HANGMAN fun as well 
as challenging. 16KRAM $12.95 

MARS LANDER— Maneuver the spacecraft to 
a successful landing on Mars' surface. Uses HIRES 
graphics and exciting sounds for a realistic adven- 
ture of the future. 24KRAM A $12.95 

FIREFLYER COMPUTING 

2075 N. Stadium Lane 
Provo, Utah 84601 ^131 
(801) 375-2377 

Apple II and Applesoft are trademarks of 
Apple Computers Inc. 




# ^ Having trouble 

>-^ learning to use 

your computer? 

r Reference manuals don't teach Most BASIC 
texts don't cover specific personal computers 

TIS solves these problems 
with step-by-step books 
tailored for your machine. 

For PET/CBM 

Understanding Your PET/CBM $16 95 

Vol 1 Basic Programming 

PET Graphics $ 6 95 

For OSI CIP/C4P 

Understanding Your C1P/C4P $ 9 95 

A Workbook of BASIC Exercises 

Money Back Guarantee VISA/MC accepted 

All prices include UPS or 1st Class postage. 

TIS. Dept KB *^95 fSmL 

Box 921 lv*f*^ 

Los Alamos, NM 87544 / 





Klass Dismissed 

>ue to extenuating circumstances. 
Kilobaud Microcomputing will be un- 
able to bring you a final article in the 
Kilobaud Klassroom series as promised 
in last month's issue. Our appreciation 
to Peter Stark and George Young who 
coauthored the series. 

Because of reader interest in these ar- 
ticles, the Kilobaud Klassroom series 
will be made available in book form. 
Watch for details in upcoming issues of 
this magazine. 



Microcomputing, February 1961 119 



tage of grouping the address LEDs in 
this fashion will be discussed below. 

Additionally, as can be seen in the 
photo, each group is arranged for oc- 
tal presentation of information. They 
could have been grouped for hex just 
as easily; I would discourage straight 
binary. While using color-coded 
wires may not be necessary, I 
grouped the power, address, data in, 
data out and XRDY leads by color, 
then wired the board to the mother- 
board as the last step. Alternately, 
wire each lead to the motherboard as 
it is wired to the control and display 
board. 

Adjustment is easier than construc- 
tion. Check for proper wiring of all 
connections before proceeding. 
There is always a great temptation to 
power up even before the soldering 
iron is cold, but checking the wiring 
takes only a few minutes and pays 
dividends in troubleshooting (if need- 
ed) later. 

Before wiring the control and dis- 
play board to the motherboard, apply 
power to the control and display 
board. With the display inputs float- 
ing, all LEDs should be lit. With SI in 
position A, output XRDY from IClb, 
pin 6, should be high. Switching SI to 
position B should put XRDY low. 
Pulsing S2 from position B to A then 
back to B should create a single low to 
high to low pulse on XRDY. It is the 
duration of this pulse that you will 
have to adjust. Opening S3 to the A 
position will cause a pulse train at 
XRDY. Adjust the one megohm tim- 
ing pot and observe that the pulse 
train speed changes. The only critical 
adjustment is for the 50k ohm timing 
pot for IC2. 

After all connections are made to 
the motherboard, reset the computer 
system and observe that all LEDs are 
lit for as long as the reset switch is ac- 
tive. Then put SI in position B, there- 
by forcing the CPU into the wait 
state. Pulse S2 and observe sequen- 
tial changes of the address LEDs. 

Bear in mind that the address lines 
should increment by one each time. 
If the address displayed seems to be 
randomly increasing (by two or three 
instead of one), adjust the 50k ohm 
timing pot to a lesser resistance. If 
you have a listing of the memory to 
which you reset the system, you 
should observe the memory contents 
displayed on the data LEDs. 

No distinction has been made as to 
the source of the data (i.e., going to or 
coming from the CPU). My main con- 
cern was for the contents of the data 



bus. It will be obvious as you step 
through a program (with the listing to 
refer to) where the data originates. 
Also, the status of the data bus in 
(PBIN) line can be monitored for de- 
termination of data origin. 

I suggested above that there is a dis- 
tinct advantage to grouping the LEDs 
into either an octal or a hexadecimal 
format. Presumably the computer is 
programmed in one format or the 



other, rather than in straight binary. 
Use the same format on the control 
and display board. 

Additionally, you will notice in the 
photograph that I have divided the 
address display into two groups: the 
upper-most row is the upper eight 
bits addressed by the H register, 
while the middle row of LEDs dis- 
plays the lower eight bits of the ad- 
dress bus, which is addressed by the 





Table 1. 


Decimal, hexadecimal and octal address equivalents 








mBSOLL 


iTE ADDRESS 


H R 


L G 


7i: C 


ABSGi UTE ADDRESS 


H RE 


G 


DEC 


...DEC....„_ 


_HE& DCJBL. 


..HEX 


. OCT 


E'fluE 


DE£ HEX DC.TflL HEX... 


OCT. 1 


"BGE 


8 














14336 3S0© 


34000 


* >. 


78 


J4 


256 


1 00 400 


1 


1 





14597 3*900 


34400 




71 


14 


512 


200 1000 


mm 


-W. 





14846 3H00 


35000 




i' xl. 


14 


I* t' '— : 


366 1 400 


■— * 


-^» 





15104 3B00 


334- 


•^ mm 


mm —»• 


14 


1024 


400 2000 


4 




1 


15,:r-f 5C00 


36000 


3C 


? 4 


15 


1 280 


500 2400 


5 


... i 


i 
j 


156.16 3D00 


36400 


3C^ 


r ".'.* 


15 


1536 


600 3000 


6 


6 


1 


15672 3E00 


37000 


3E 


76 


i ~ 


1 792 


700 3400 


i' 


t 


1 


16126 3F00 


"7-7 


!>i 


7 


i rr 
J. .' 


2043 


g00 4000 


V": 


10 


-, 










■ 










_ 


j 8364 46- 


400v 


48 


1 00 


J 6 


2364 


900 4400 





J. J 


X 




— 


■$ •% 


i 6 1 


1 6 












1 6648 4 1 H6 


40-^tj 


*tl 


2560 


H00 5000 





1 ~ 

m .» 


• 


j :V', ;." 47 . 


4 ! 000 


i — 


1 02 


1 6 


2816 


B00 5400 


B 


13 




J. i -f 


4 1 400 


4"^ 


ie 


16 


3072 


C00 6000 


C 


14 


._Jt 


1746 44i 


42000 


■ i 


] 84 




■.'.■• -I - - 2 'o 


D00 6400 


D 


15 


T 


j 7664 4500 


42400 


.' t— 


! 05 


! 7 


3584 


E00 7000 


E 


J 6 


m W 


j 79 ? 8 4 c 


4788m 


• — 






3840 


F00 7400 


F 


1 r 


■-'i 


16.1 r 47 


4 "' 


4 1 ' 


1.07 


I •. 


48"9to 


1 000 1 0000 


10 


20 


• 

*• 


1 64 


4400i."i 




J !8 


.1 6 


4352 


1 1 00 1 0400 


11 


2 J 


■t 


! 86 ;".6 4 9«i 


4*t 4 tk 'v.* 


49 


1 i 1 


i -, 

.1 o 


4666 


1. 200 1 1 000 


12 


mm m... 


t 


10*944 4 r 


4"" 


4i". 


1 i 2 


!8 


4864 


.1. 300 1 1 400 


.13 


.•;!. ■-.'■ 


t 

4 


19200 4B' 


"t . -H-KiV 1 


46 


\ ! 3 


18 


5120 


1 400 1 2000 


14 




™i 


1 9456 4C00 


460% 


4^" 


114 


19 


3376 


1. 500 1 2400 


15 


x'. "_"' 


~i 


J 97 i 2 4D00 


4 


4D 


1 13 


16 


56^2 


J. 600 .!. 3000 


16 


2.F 


*"i 


19968 4F- 


4, 


4t 


! 1 


19 


•JOOO 


1 700 1 3400 


17 


£, 1 


nr 
..i 


20224 47 


47400 


4F 


i 1 


: 3 


6144 


J. 800 14000 


16 


30 


hi 


0480 8660 


500*1 


50 






6400 


1800 14400 


!. 9 


31 


O 


20736 5 J 06 


-0400 


51 


J I 


28 


6656 


.!. H00 .!. 5000 


lfl 


.. : JL. 


6 


2099 ? 


5 ! 068 


E ■ 


.! 1 




69 1 2 


1 B00 1 5400 


IE; 


w ■-.!' 


t^. 


2] 248 88- 


5 ! 400 


1 f 


1 . 5 


20 


71 66 


1C00 16000 


1C 


34 


t' 


21504 5400 


5~0- 


_ 4 


124 


21 


7424 


.1. C'00 1 6400 


ID 


35 


t'' 


71 760 55i 


•f.2400 


L. 1.. 

I I 


125 


2J 


7660 


1 E00 1 7000 


IE 


36 


t 


220 J 6 5600 


530C 




1 . 


2 J 


7936 


1 F00 1 7400 


JF 


1.' ( 


i 




53400 


•. 1 t 


1 27 


7:1 


S192 


2000 20000 


20 


40 


i~» 


77378 5800 


54000 


c-r-. 


1 30 


Mm mm 


o4*r© 


2 1 00 20400 


21 


41 


:~t 


22784 3988 




8 ~< 


131 


~' "T* 


3704 


2200 21000 


m* mm 


42 


Cjl 


-■3040 5A0€ 


55000 


80 


5 37 


■"7* "7* 


3960 


2300 2 i 400 


.c'~ •-"' 


43 


t~i 


23796 3B00 


"8480 




133 




92 1 to 


2 4 2 2 


24 


.> .i 
*+■-»■ 


9 


73557 5600 


"30000 


5C 


134 


mt -'' 


8472 


2^0 22400 


25 


45 


•~* 


23806 57- 


30400 


5D 


135 


..-.' •.';» 


8726 


2600 23000 


2.G 


46 


9 


74064 3E00 


570i 


57 


1 36 


y! •. ' 


8964 


2700 23400 




47 


9 


74320 "D-F^ 


37400 


^F 


187 




10248 


2 80 2' 4 




50 


10 


"4376 6000 


00000 


60 


140 




10486 


2800 24400 




5J 


10 


74837 6*00 


60400 


61 


141 


24 


10752 


2600 75000 


20 


5 2 


10 


281086 6200 


£ J 000 




14 


24 


1 1 0t-36 


2600 25400 


2B 


53 


10 


73744 63810 


! 400 


63 


.1.47 


24 


11264 


2C00 26000 


2C 


54 


1 i 


33600 64 


62000 


64 


!44 


-.rr 


11520 


2D00 26400 


2D 


crcr 


11 


73656 6500 


6 7488 


65 


145 


-|C" 


1 1 776 


2E00 27000 


2E 


36 


i i 


76 .! J 2 6600 


03000 


*-<F 


J 46 


-irr 


1 2032 


2F00 27400 


2F 


er-r- 


1 1 


26368 6700 


3400 


67 


147 


- rr 


12266 


3000 30000 


30 


60 


12 


76624 6800 


04000 




.1 50 


26 


12544 


3 J. 00 30400 


Zi 


61 


12 


76860 6900 


4406 


69 


151 


26 


12600 


3200 31000 


■J." 1 .*-'! 


62 


12 


27 I 36 6R00 


65000 


60 


152 


26 


1 Z&~<F 


ZZ^} 3 1 400 




- — »■ 
■72 ■_!*• 


12 


77397 6B00 


654< 




188 


2^, 


13312 


3400 32000 


34 


64 


13 


77646 6C00 


66000 


6C 


154 




1 3568 


3300 32400 


-rtr 


.- cr 
r> ... i 


13 


27904 6D00 


66488 


6D 


155 


y'. f 


1 3624 


3600 33000 


Z-ir-' 


z:<*r< 


J3 


78 1 60 6F00 


67680 


i'^F 


J36 


X. I'' 


1 4060 


3700 33400 


37 


67 


13 


284 1 6 6F00 


67468 


t.F 


157 


*:. r 



120 Microcomputing, February 1981 



> OFFICE 
SYSTEMS 



COMPUTER INTERFACES 
& PERIPHERALS 



• POS-IOO NRZ1 TAPE DRIVE CONTROLLER/FORMATTER Now your 
micro can read and write IBM/ANSI compatible NRZ1 format 9-track magnetic 

tapes. The POS-1 00 consists of S-1 00 bus card, 6' ribbon cable, tape drive controller 
card, cable to Pertec-Standard NRZ1 Tape drive, plus documentation and Z-80 or 
8080 software (specifiy). Power is derived from tape drive and S-100 bus. Ship Wt.: 
\Q ttvi. Su^sVed ReiaW Price $995.00 

• POS 103/202 "MIX or MATCH" MODEM - Unique POS control design permits 
use in one housing ot both Bell-compatible 103 (0-300 baud) and 202 (0-1200 

baud) modem modules originally made by VADIC Corp. for a telephone company 
subsidiary. FEATURES: RS-232 serial Interface, auto-answer, auto-dial, LED 
display, telephone line interface via acoustic coupler, manual DAA, or auto-answer 
DAA (sold separately). FULLY ADJUSTED; no special tools required. 3,000 mile 
range over standard dial-up telephone lines. Ship wt.: 15 lbs. 

PRICES POS 103 Modem - $199.95; POS 202 Modem - $299.95; 

POS 202 Modem w/Auto-Answer - $349.95; POS 103/202 Modem - $499.95; 
FCC-Approved Auto-Answer DAA $ 1 25.00; Acoustic Coupler - $29.95. 

• POS DAISY-WHEEL PRINTER INTERFACE for TRS-80 - Will drive Diablo 
HyType I, HyType II, and Qume Q and Sprint 3 printers. Includes IK user- 
available memory for custom print routines (such as graphics, bidirectional print- 
ing, etcj Programmed to respond to print commands from BASIC ELECTRIC 
PENCIL™, and SCRIPSIT™ software. Draws its power from printer. Ship wt.: 

5 lbs. Price $250.00 

Cables, each (Specify HyType I, HyType II, or Qume) $ 25.00 

• POS ASCII INTERFACE for IBM I/O SELECTRIC This Centronics style 
parallel printer interface will drive an IBM Model 731 or 735 I/O typewriter 

(EBCD and Correspondence codes). No software needed. Features on-board EPROM 
which holds up to 8 ASCII-to-IBM code tables for different type spheres. Closed- 
loop operation runs at maximum printer speed; stops and starts on a single character 
without loss of data. Requires +12VDC and +5VDC power source. Ship wt.: 

5 lbs. Price $249.95 

Power Supply ( + 5VDC, +12VDC, +24VDC for Solenoids on Printer) . . . .$ 49.95 

• CONVERT OFFICE SELECTRIC TO I/O TYPEWRITER - Kit includes 
assembled solenoids, switches, wire harness, magnet driver PCB plus instructions 

for installation and mCPU interface. Price $150.00 

• "FORMALINER" Variable Width Forms Tractor tor 1 5 " Selectrics . . . $95.00 

• GTE Model 560 ASCII SELECTRIC I/O Terminal With RS-232 Serial Interface 
and digital cassette deck for use as memory typewriter. Ship wt.: 100 lbs. 

Price, tested and adjusted $1,195.00 

• POS ASCII IBM SELECTRIC PRINTER 15 Selectric from GTE terminal 
cleaned and adjusted with POS Centronics-style ASCII printer interface. UC/LC, 

carbon and fabric ribbons. Compatible with TRS-80, Apple, SOL and other CPU 
parallel printer ports. Ship wt.: 75 lbs. Price . . ' $895.00 

PACIFIC OFFICE SYSTEMS »x153 
918 Industrial Avenue Palo Alto, CA 94303 (415)493-7455 



LEARN MICROPROCESSING 
ON YOUR OWN COMPUTER! 



You Learn How To: 

# Design and code microprocessor software 

# Use logic and Bit Manipulation Techniques 

# Enter and execute programs on your own 
computer 

# Understand Microprocessor Architecture 
and Support Chips 

# Control Programmable Input/Output Ports 

# Implement Real-Time Interrupt Handling 
and Data Transfer 

# Design your own microcomputer 

You Receive: 

■ A fully tested and assembled 8085A I 
Microcomputer with 1K RAM, 1K 
EPROM and 1k PROM Memory, 
Programmable I/O, Keyboard Unit, CPU 
Card, Display and Operating System, 44 | 
pin edge connector can be configured to 
any bus structure, area on CPU Card for 
Custom wire-wrap design or user 
defined interface circuitry, completely 
expandable 

■ Complete Step-by-Step Instruction Manual 

■ Complete User's Manual with programs 
included 




8085 MICROPROCESSOR 
TRAINING UNIT $299.95 

RATED BEST VALUE 
BY INSTRUCTORS 

1 352 page 8085A Cookbook takes you 
from basic microprocessor concepts to 
actual design of an 8085A 
Microcomputer 

1 344 page 8080/8085 Software Design 
Book 1 with over 190 executable 
program examples plus detailed 
examination of all 244 Instructions and 
typical assembly language program for 
the 8080/8085 Microprocessor. 
Satisfaction Guaranteed. If not 
completely satisfied you may return the 
product within 30 days for a full refund 



»^19 



FOR BANK CARD ORDERS: 
CALL TOLL-FREE NUMBER: 

1 -800-426-6254 




14905 NE 40th, Dept. KB 2 
REDMOND, WA 98052 

YES! I want to start learning Microprocessors. Please rush me: 

D 8085AAT Microprocessor Training Unit at $299.95 plus $3.00 P & H 

D 8085 Cookbook 21697 $12.95 D 8080/8085 Software Book 21541 $9.50 

NAME CARD NO. 



ADDRESS 



EXP DATE 



CITY 



D VISA 



D MASTERCARD 



STATE 



ZIP 



SIGNATURE 



MARK GORDON 

COMPUTERS 

DIVISION OF MARK GORDON ASSOCIATES, INC. 

P.O. Box 77, Charlestown, MA 02129 
»^239 (617)4917505 

COMPUTERS 

Atari 800 W I 6K 799.00 

Level-ll 1 6K System 659. OO 

Model-ll 64K System 3499.00 

I 6I< Model III 859.00 

DISK DRIVES 

40 Track 5' 4 inch drive 314.00 

80 Track 5 '/4 544.00 

4 Disk Drive Cable 39. OO 

PRINTERS 

Centronics 730 599.00 

Epson MX80B 499.00 

Centronics 737 849.00 

Okidata Microline 83 1044.00 

Integral Data 440G 999. OO 

NEC 55 I w-tractor 2679.00 

Okidata Microline 80 599. OO 

Diablo 630 2495.00 

MISC HARDWARE 

Expansion int. TRS-80(Ok) 249.00 

Novation Cat modem | 59. OO 

I 6K Memory Kit 4 f .99 

Leedex Monitor 109.00 

Printer Cable for above 49.00 

ISO-2 Isolator 54.00 

AC LINE FILTER 24.00 

STORAGE MEDIA 

Verbatim-box I 5' 4 2S.OO 

Memorex-box 10 5' 4 22.00 

Plastic Storage Box 5.00 

OPERATING SYSTEMS 

NEWDOS by APPARAT INC 49.00 

NEWDOS ♦ by APPARAT INC 99. OO 

MMS FORTH DISKETTE-PRIMER 79.95 

NEWDOS 80 1 49.00 

DISKETTE TRS-80* 
BUSINESS SOFTWARE BY SBSG 

Free enhancements and upgrades to registered owners for 
the cost of media and mailing 30 day free telephone sup- 
port User reference on request 
Fully Interactive Accounting Package. General Ledger. 

Accounts Payable. Accounts Receivable and Payroll 

Report Generating 

Complete Package (requires 3 or 4 drives) $475.O0 

Individual Modules(requires 2 or 3 drives) $ I 25. OO 

Inventory II: (requires 2 or 3 drives) $ 99.00 

Mailing List Name &, Address II 

(requires 2 drives) $129.00 

Intelligent Terminal System ST 80 III: $ I 50. OO 

The Electric Pencil from Michael Shrayer $ I 50.00 

File Management System: $ 49.00 

FINE PRINT 

TRS 80 is a Tandy Corporation trademark Use of above operating sys 
tems may require the use of Radio Shack TRS DOS Radio Shack 
equipment subject to the will and whim of Radio Shack 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

We accept Visa and Mastercharge We will ship C O D certified check 

or money orders only Massachusetts residents add 5 percent sales tax 

To order call toll free 1 -800-343 5206 
For information call 617-491-7505 

The Company cannot be liable for pictorial or typographical inaccuracies. 






^Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 121 



L register. This method has the ad- 
vantage of subdividing each IK of 
memory into four blocks. A 256-byte 
group corresponds to incrementing 
the H register by one. Increment the 
H register four times, and you have 
gone through IK bytes (one page) of 
memory. 

Using Table 1 , with address equiv- 
alents in decimal, hexadecimal and 
octal, greatly facilitates determina- 
tion of memory location in decimal, 
hex, octal or decimal page, as well as 
memory addresses as a function of H 
register contents. Calculation of 
memory offsets, relative jump loca- 
tions, amount of memory used by a 
program and so on is now almost triv- 
ial. When used in conjunction with 
the memory address display, Table 1 
tells you at a glance exactly where 
you are in memory, whether you use 
hex or octal in your programming. 

Conclusion 

No longer do you need to put up 
with the shortcomings of a computer 
with a functionless front panel. By 
using the control and display board 
described here, on-the-spot debug- 
ging will be a reality. The board will 
give you the capabilities of stopping 
the CPU, manually single-stepping 
the CPU and observing address and 
data in/data out bus contents. It also 
includes a feature not offered on 
other front panels: single-stepping 
the CPU automatically at an opera- 
tor-adjusted rate. While S-100 pin 
numbers have been used in the cir- 
cuit diagrams, this circuitry is adapt- 
able to any other system. ■ 




USERS! 



Read.... 





L 



The Unofficial Users Journal 

□ Software Exchange 
□ Hardware Mods 
□ Peeks & Pokes 
□ Bugs & Fixes 
Send $12 for 12 issues to: 

PEEK(65) ^gs 

P.O. Box 347 

Owings Mills, MD 21117 

Maryland Subscribers add 5% sales tax 
Foreign Subscribers add $8 postage 

Check reader preference card for free issue 



ABSOLUTE RDDRESS 



H REG 



L'fcL. 



ABSOLUTE RDDRESS 



H REG 



DEC 



.DEC 


HE&— -QCI8L- dE& . 


QlT....E 


8.L5E- 


.DEC 


..HEX . 


OCTAL HEX. 


. OCT 


...E8GE 


Zoo r *:- 


7888 


78088 


78 


1 68 


26 


47 1 84 


B800 


1 346106 B'Z> 


770 


46 


28928 


7 1 88 


70400 


71 


1 6 1 


28 


47366 


B900 


134466 69 


271 


46 


29 i 84 


7288 


7 1 888 


I"' +L 


1 oZ 


23 


476 .1 6 


B800 


1356166 BR 


272 


46 


29440 


7388 


71488 


r 


1. 63 


28 


47o7^i 


B800 


135466 BB 


273 


46 


29898 


7408 


72688 


74 


1 64 


29 


46128 


BO 00 


1 366166 Bl" 


774 


47 


A. 7* _* •_< *.. 


7308 


72480 


75 


1 65 


29 




BC'00 


136400 80 


775 


47 


38288 


7688 


73000 


76 


1 66 


29 


43648 


BEOO 


1 37666 6E 


276 


47 


38484 


7780 


73400 


r r 


1 67 




43696 


0F00 


1 37466 BF 


*i r i 


47 


38728 


7800 


74000 


78 


178 


36 


49152 


C000 


] 40600 00 


300 


48 


30976 


7900 


74408 


79 


171 


38 




C 1 00 


146400 CI 


30 J 


4:5 


31232 


7888 


73800 


7R 


17? 


38 


A r\ . - . - .< 


C200 


141000 02 


58 "' 


48 


J. J -tec- 


7B88 


75400 


7R 


173 


38 


49920 


C300 


141460 C3 


303 


43 


t | -r . • . > 


7008 


78000 


7C 


174 


31 


58 1 76 


04610 


J 42000 04 


304 


49 


32888 


7088 


76488 


7D 


1 73 


31 


58432 


0300 


1424610 05 




49 


72736 


7880 


77880 


7F 


176 


3J 


"it'bOC' 


C600 


j 43000 Co 


306 


49 


323! 7 


7F88 


77408 


7~ 


177 


31 


50944 


C 780 


j 43400 07 


w 


4^* 


3i7'8o 


3000 


1 88000 


80 


266 




5:1.200 


0600 


144000 C 


7 J 


58 


33824 


8 1 00 


1 (.36480 


31 


26 1 


'-.• *.' 


51456 


C900 


j 44400 C9 


-. 1 1 


50 


3ji!'c't1 


8288 


1 8 1 808 


i~» _^_ 


2£\2 


— "■ jL . 


51712 


0008 


1 4500O 7 8 


7 1 7 


50 


•_">3536 


8388 


181400 


C5 •■*'■ 


20Z 


-^ .— , 


5 J 963 


OB0O 


] 45400 00 




50 


33792 


6:488 


1 02000 




264 


w*P 




0000 


1 46000 CC 


314 


51 


34848 


3566 


182400 


P^ 


2^ 


•-** %/* 


52468 


0008 


1 46400 CD 


13 


51 


34384 


3688 


1 03000 


■::'■ fci 


2y^ 


•.""* -'■ 


52736 


CE00 


I 47800 CE 


7' 


51 


34588 


8788 


1 03400 


o r 


207 


■..'• •..!« 


52982 


OF08 


j 47400 cr 


-' 7 


^l 


348 1 8 


3686? 


1 04000 


J — ' o 


210 


34 




0000 


I 50000 00 


328 


cr •-. 


35872 


8988 


1 04469 


89 


21.1 


34 


53504 


D 1 00 


1 50400 D .1 


■ .:. .1 


r — . 


35328 


'Sf\yL^'\ 


1 856106 


36 


2 1 2 


T . > 


53768 


D200 


1 5 1 OOO C 




52 


rcc-. .« 


'3B00 


1 05400 


86 


213 


34 


540 1 6 


D300 


181400 C 




^2 


35848 


6008 


1 06000 


3C 


2J4 


33 


54272 


04- 


182000 D4 


324 


53 


38898 


3088 


1 06400 


8D 


215 


-rtr 




0306 


152400 D5 


325 


tr-r 
■. • . '< 


Z6ZS2 


8E08 


1 07000 


3E 


21 « 


35 


54784 


D600 


1 33000 06 


3 26 


53 


38888 


8F00 


[ 67468 


3F 


217 


-rcr 
. > ■-.' 


556140 


0700 


j 53400 07 


7 


53 


38884 


98861 


1 1 61000 


98 


226 


36 


55296 


D800 


1 54000 r.'8 


330 


^.4 


37128 


9 1 00 


1 1 0400 


91 


221 


36 


err— rrrr -■ 


D900 


154400 r 


331 


74 


«j r ■-• i"' t* 


9280 


1 1 1 000 


92 




36 


rrtr,-i,-j.- 
..'•-•oh.'l0 


0000 


1 33600 00 


33 ..' 


54 


3783.£ 


9388 


1 1 1 486 


':* 3 


Z. jL •_'• 


7c 


56864 


OF 


155400 08 


1 


54 


37 888 


94861 


1 1 2666 


94 


-1 •-. 1 


•_:' i 


36326 


0000 


1 56800 E 


334 


55 


38144 


9588 


1 1 2460 


95 


2^.'!"."' 


J i 


cr • rr -? - 
w'Ov ' r O 


0000 


.156400 DD 


— --rcr 
•.'■ '■ . ' 


trrr 


38400 


96861 


1 1 3000 


96 




i' 1 1" 


36632 


DE00 


157000 OF 


336 


^ 


38858 


9700 


1 1 3480 


97 




■!.'•• r 


cr-?.- H .-..- 


OF 00 


157400 OF 


• ■ r 


trrr 


389 1 2 


9388 


1 1 4000 


96 


2Zti 


to>0 


cr- tt .* • 


E000 


1 60000 F0 


340 


56 


39188 


9988 


1 1 4400 


99 


231 


.j,i*Z'.* 


57680 


E 1 00 


1 68400 F ! 


341 


56 


39424 


9R00 


1 1 56100 


90 


*_ •-.' a.. 


-'•C' 


57836 


F 200 


161800 F 


342 


56 


39888 


9600 


115480 


9B 


xl -— * -.."* 


•j<c-- 


58.1 12 


E30O 


1 6 J 400 F 


343 


56 


39938 


9 888 


1 1 6000 


90 


234 


38 


58368 


F480 


16 7000 F4 


T ' * 


.i r 


48192 


9088 


1 1 6400 


90 


-,-rar 


39 


^2^24 


E560 


162480 F5 


345 


cr-r 


48448 


9E00 


1 1 76100 


9E 


236 


39 


58o3@ 


E600 


J 63000 F6 


346 


57 


48784 


9F00 


1 1 7400 


9F 


jC. .'< t 


39 


5913 


E760 


1 63480 F7 


347 


r r 


48988 


A068 


1 261080 


F\& 


240 


46 


59392 


E800 


1 64000 F8 


350 


58 


41216 


H 1 00 


1 20400 


Hi 


24 J 


48 


59646 


F900 


104480 E9 


7^,1 


C u Z \ 


41472 


h286i 


1 2 J. 066 


82 


242 


40 


59904 


ER00 


165800 F8 


752 


cr.-, 


41728 


R300 


121466 


RZ 


243 


40 


60 1 68 


EB00 


105480 EB 


353 


CTi-. 


4 1 984 


A400 


1 22668 


84 


244 


41 


684 1 6 


EO00 


1 66600 EC 


354 


59 


42248 


R500 


1 22466 


05 


245 


41 


68672 


EO00 


166400 ED 


-rr-t— 


59 


42496 


f\S0^ 


1 23666 


R6 


246 


41 


68928 


EE00 


J 670610 EE 




cr .9 


42752 


R700 


1 23466 


87 


247 


4J 


6 1 1 84 


EFOO 


167406 EF 


« i 


59 


43886 


86861 


1 24666 


86 


230 


i — t 


6 J. 446 


F0610 


1 70000 F0 


7> 


60 


4326-4 


8988 


1 24466 


89 


251 


42 


61696 


F 1 80 


170400 Fl 


36 i 


60 


43528 


RR00 


1 25666 


86 




42 


6 1 952 


F200 


171000 F2 


762 


60 


43776 


RB00 


1 25400 


68 




42 


62268 


F30O 


1 7 1 400 F3 




60 


44832 


RC00 


1 26660 


80 


254 


43 


62464 


F480 


17 7000 F4 


764 


61 


44268 


RD00 


1 26466 


80 


-•crcr 


43 


62726 


F500 


172400 F5 


365 


61 


■»,i cr . • ,1 


FtEOO 


127000 


fi£ 


2~i<€' 


43 


62976 


F600 


177000 F6 


366 


6 1 


44888 


RF00 


1 27480 


flF 




43 




F700 


173400 F7 


367 


61 


45856 
453 1 2 


B688 
B 1 00 


1 30000 

1 30466 


BO 
Bl 


2B^ 
26 1 


1 4 

44 


6 3 "7 4 4 


F800 

F900 


1 74O00 F8 
174466 F9 


378 
371 


62 

^2 


45588 


B288 


131 600 


B2 


262; 




64800 


FR06 


I 75600 F0 


T— 7 — i 


62 


45824 


B300 


1 3 .!. 466 


B3 


263 


44 


^A?^. 


FE 


1 75400 FB 


..''■ i' ■':> 


62 


46868 


B400 


132000 


B4 


264 


45 


^4^12 


FC00 


1.76000 F8 


374 


67 


46336 


B566 


1 32400 


B5 


265 


45 


64768 


FC'00 


176400 FO 


-'-?rr 


67 


46592 


Bo00 


1 336100 


B6 


266 


.» cr 


650/4 


FF00 


1 77000 FT 


776 


63 


46o4© 


B786 


1 33400 


B7 


267 


45 


65286 


FF00 


] 77400 FF 




63 



122 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Automated 
Equipment 

Incorporat 



^96 



1B<430 Ward, Fountain Valley, CA 927Q8 



WE'VE MOVED! 

Call Toll-Free for latest low prices! 

1-800-854-7635 Outside CA 

714-963-1414 Inside CA 

1-800-854-7635 Outside Cont. USA 

Prices change daily to meet competition 






TERMINALS 

TELEVIDE0912B $698 

TELEVIDEO 912C 698 

TELEVIDEO 920C 748 

NEW TELEVIDEO 950 1000 

SOROC IQ-120 695 

ZENITH Z-19 735 

HAZELTINE 1500 850 




■• Milt: lfl|l 



^■mm, 



SOLID STATE 

MUSIC KIT ASM 

CB2 Z80 CPU $200 $265 

VB1C VIDEO 140 190 

VB2 VIDEO 155 210 

VB3 VIDEO 375 440 

I04 INTERFACE 165 225 

SB1 SYNTHESIZER 195 270 

MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS MEMORY 

DM3200 32K 4MHZ 480 

DM6400 64K 4MHZ 595 

DMB3200 32K 4MHZ BANK SELECT. 630 
DMB6400 64K 4MHZ BANK SELECT. 745 



NORTHSTAR 

HRZ-1-32K-D $1990 

HRZ-2-32K-D 2295 

HRZ-1-32K-Q 2450 

HRZ-2-32K-Q 2690 

ADDITIONAL 32K RAM 450 

HARD DISC SYSTEM 3935 

8"DISC DRIVES FOR NORTHSTAR. CALL 
NORTHWORD 295 




DYNABYTE 

DB 8/1 COMPUTER $ 2395 

DB 8/1 COMPUTER WITH 

5" DRIVES 3900 

DB 8/4 DUAL 8 " DRIVES 3030 

32M PHOENIX 1 1800 

96M PHOENIX 18000 

ALTOS 

64K, ONE MB FLOPPY 3800 

64K, ONE MB FLOPPY, 

EXPANDABLE 5100 

64K, 14.5MG HARD DISK 8100 



SOFTWARE 

WORDSTAR $350 

MAILMERGE 100 

DATASTAR 250 

N.S. PASCAL 160 

MAGIC WAND 290 

CBASIC 100 

BOOKKEEPER 800 



ADDITIONAL SOFTWARE DISCOUNTS 
WITH SYSTEM PURCHASE 



GRAHAM-DORIAN 

JOB COSTING$700 
INVENTORY. . 475 
CASH REG. . . 475 
APARTMENT . 475 
MEDICAI 700 



STRUCTURED SYS 

ACCTS REC $700 

ACCTS PAY 700 

GENLEDG 700 

PAYROLL 700 

INVENTORY ... 425 



We will try to beat any advertised price. 

TERMS: All prices listed are cash discounted and subject to 
change. COD's are 2% additional. Universities and 
well rated-firms Net-10. 
SHIPPING: ADDITIONAL IN ALL CASES. 

TECH. ASSISTANCE: WE TRY TO HELP INTERFACE AND 

TROUBLESHOOT— CALL 714-963-1414. 
Open Mon.-Fri., 8:00 AM - 5:00 PM Dealer Inquiries Invited. 



PRINTERS 

NEC 5510(TRACT, RIB., THIM) $2570 

NEC 5520 (TRACT., RIB, THIM) 2900 

NEC 5530 (TRACT, RIB., THIM) 2600 

MALIBU 2295 

TI-820 1640 

ANACOM (SPECIAL) 990 

EPSON MX80 CALL 

ANADEXDP-8000 795 

ANADEXDP-9500 1345 

XYMEC CALL 




MORROW 

DISCUS 2D 1 DRIVE 970 

DISCUS 2D 2 DRIVE 1635 

DISCUS 2 + 21 DRIVE 1265 

DISCUS 2 + 22 DRIVE 2245 

DISC JOCKEY 2D CONTROLLER 350 

DISCUS M26 HARD DISC 3990 

ADDITIONAL HARD DISC 3685 

WE CAN CONFIGURE THE HARD DISC 
AND FLOPPIES TO WORK WITH N.S. AND 
OTHER S100 SYSTEMS. CALL FOR DE- 
TAILS. 



MISC 

NEC THIMBLES $ 14 

NEC RIBBONS 6 

RS 232 CABLE 5' 20 

RS 232 CABLE 10' 25 

LEDEX MONITOR 125 

NOVATION CAT 165 



DISCS-BOX OF 10 



VERBATUM5V4 

VERBATUM5V4 

VERBATUM8 

VERBATUM8 

OTHERS 



1SIDE$27 
2SIDE 45 
1SIDE 35 
2SIDE 55 
CALL 



PLASTIC STORAGE BOXES3 



Our Systems Work! 

All systems normally tested and 

configured in our repair facility before 

delivery. Service contracts available. 

Prompt repairs and warranties. 



^ Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 123 



Is this board better than less expensive 64-column boards? 



S.D- Sales' 80-Column 

Video Board 



By Ernie G. Brooner 



You can always get an argument 
about terminals vs mapped mem- 
ory video. 

The terminal occupies no memory, 
and the mapping technique permits, 
even in its simplest form, more ac- 
cess to character manipulation. Map- 
ping is faster and more flexible, but it 
occupies memory space. A 64-col- 
umn board (the commonest kind) re- 
quires dedication of IK, and an 80- 
column board requires 2K of mem- 
ory space. 

Some of the more sophisticated 
models now try to combine the best 
features of both systems— complete 
software control of the screen and I/O 
port addressing. The S.D. Sales 8024 
is one such device. The secret is an 
on-board Z-80 processor. 

In the January 1980 issue of Micro- 
computing, I described the construc- 
tion of a 64-column memory-mapped 
board by Ithaca Intersystems ("A 
Video Board from Ithaca Intersys- 
tems," p. 50). I was satisfied in every 
way, and in fact am still using it. But I 
got carried away by the excitement of 
the West Coast Computer Faire in 
March 1980, and bought the S.D. kit 
from one of the exhibitors. The going 
price for this item is just over $300 in 
kit form, and nearly $500 assembled 
and tested. Boards of this price range 
are intended for business use or the 
very serious hobbyist. 

What It Does 

One is justified in asking what can 
this item do that cannot be done by 
the many available 64-column boards, 
at one-third to one-half the price. 




The S. D. Sales 8024. 



Either a great deal, or very little, de- 
pending on your point of view. 

First, of course, it has 24 lines of 80 
columns, or twice the display of the 
64-column board. This is important 
only if you are going to be using soft- 
ware that requires a display that 
wide; if you write your own soft- 
ware, you don't need it. And if you 
use an 80-column printer, you will be 
able to display the same lines on both 
the terminal and printer. 

How important is this feature? To 
me, not very. My most stringent re- 
quirement is the Word Star word pro- 
cessor that I use in my writing chores. 
Word Star formats the entire docu- 
ment on the screen before printing. 
But most documents are printed on 
standard 8-1/2 inch paper, and the 



Selectric I use as a printer is 10 pitch. 
Allowing for normal margins, there- 
fore, I print only 60 columns to each 
line. The 64-column board accommo- 
dates this nicely, and still has room 
for the editing display at the end of 
each 64-column line on the CRT. 

What else will an 80-column board 
do? It allows 24 lines of display, and I 
do miss that on my home system, but 
I can live without it. 

Now to some particular advantages 
of the board being discussed. The 
most significant, from a design point 
of view, is the on-board processor 
and its associated software in ROM. 
The software is quite extensive, run- 

Ernie G. Brooner, Box 236, Lakeside, MT 59922. 



124 Microcomputing, February 1981 



ning to around 2K. This is much more 
than you could conveniently dedicate 
to an in-computer software driver for 
a memory-mapped board. (Existing 
operating systems usually leave any- 
where from one-fourth to one K avail- 
able for this purpose.) This software 
in ROM recognizes a great many 
more control characters than would 
otherwise be possible, and can per- 
form such activities as causing speci- 
fied fields to blink, to reverse, to be 
underlined or to do combinations of 
these things. The cursor is also com- 
pletely controlled by the calling pro- 
gram at all times. The Z-80 processor, 
and the ROM software, function only 
during the CRT retrace time and do 
not disturb the display in any way. 

The displayable characters are 
stored in another ROM, as they cus- 
tomarily are in any video display de- 
vice, mapped or otherwise. The spe- 
cific advantage offered by this unit is 
a provision for an additional com- 
plete set of alternate characters, 
which can be designed and pro- 
grammed into a ROM by the user, if 
he has the capability for program- 
ming ROMs. 

The user manual explains how to 
design the characters. Briefly, each 
character is made up of a dot matrix 
of eight bytes. With this feature, you 
can conceivably have, for example, 
both English and Hebrew alphabets 
available, and switch from one to the 
other at will by simply including the 
appropriate control characters in the 
information being sent to the screen. 

Construction 

This is not a difficult kit, although 
the board is very densely populated. 
The instructions rightfully caution 
that it is not for beginners. I would 
add that it's not for advanced build- 
ers, either, unless they already 
understand how this kind of circuitry 
works and have on hand the neces- 
sary test equipment and access to 
chips and other spare parts that this 
kit uses. If you really need such a 
board and can afford it, buy it assem- 
bled. 

Kits are becoming scarcer in this in- 
dustry, and I suspect that this is at 
least partly due to manufacturers not 
wanting to fuss with builders' errors. 

This kit has fair documentation 
with one exception: those of us who 
think like engineers and technicians 
never quite trust a schematic we 
can't see well enough to read, and 
this is a prime example. A complex 
diagram has been reduced to fit a 



standard page and is useless. 

To make a long story shorter, my 
8024 board failed to work at first test- 
ing and had to be sent to the S.D. fac- 
tory for help. This was followed by 
the usual hassle in trying to get it re- 
paired and returned. 

When the board was finally re- 
turned (in good working order, inci- 
dentally), the explanation was that 
the builder (me) had installed a cou- 
ple of diodes backwards. I have se- 
rious doubts about this. A trace had 
been cut and a previously unused 
section of a hex inverter had been in- 
serted into the clock line to the char- 
acter generator. Since my original 
diagnosis had been that the charac- 
ters were not being clocked into 
memory, I will always wonder just 
who should have paid for the help I 
needed. In reality, I did. 

The previous paragraphs touch on 
both documentation and manufac- 
turer support, so these subjects will 
not be elaborated. Briefly, my entire 
experience with S.D. Sales has been 
worse than with some others, better 
than most, and somewhat less satis- 
factory than I would wistfully hope 
for. 

Summary 

Although the S.D. 8024 is described 
as a video board, think of it as a ter- 
minal and evaluate it in that way. 
There is an on-board keyboard port, 
and because of this, the board re- 
places all of a terminal, with the ex- 
ception of the CRT monitor. As with 
a terminal, it is addressed by port 
number and does not consume any of 
the computer's memory. It is hard- 
wired to be port 1 for data and for 
status, so you might have to read- 
dress some of your other peripherals. 

The cost does seem a bit excessive, 
but on the other hand it is compara- 
ble in performance to a good termi- 
nal. The on-board software permits 
many more features than are found 
in the average terminal. The hard- 
ware quality is excellent, and the 
most serious criticism I have con- 
cerns the problem of getting it going 
for the first time. 

I am aware of only one other, 
slightly more expensive, board in the 
same category available to hobbyists. 
If advertising can be trusted, it has an 
integral graphics capability that this 
board (and most boards) lack. If pay- 
ing this amount again for a video 
board, I would be willing to go a bit 
further for either more features or a 
complete stand-alone terminal. ■ 



SNAPP II EXTENDED DASIC A family of en- 
hancements to the Model II DASIC interpreter. 
Part of the package originated with the best of 
APPARAT, INC.'s thoughts in implementing 
NEWDOS DASIC. The system is written entirely in 
machine language for SUPER FAST execution. 
The extensions ore fully integrated into Model II 
DASIC, and require NO user Memory, and NO 
user disk space. The package is made up of the 
following six modules, each of which may be 
purchased separately, 

XDASIC — Six single key stroke commands to list 
the first, last, previous, next, or current program 
line, or to edit the current line. Includes quick 
way to recover DASIC program following a NEW 
or system or occidental re -boot. Ten single 
character abbreviations for frequently used 
commands: AUTO, CL5, DELETE, EDIT, KILL 
LIST, MERGE, NEW, LUST, and SYSTEM. $40.00 
XREF — A powerful cross-reference facility with 
output to display and/or printer. Trace a vari- 
able through the code. Determine easily if a 
variable is in use. $40.00 

XDUMP — Permits the programmer to display 
and/or print the value of any or oil program 
variables. Identifies the variable type for all 
variables. Each element of any array is listed 
separately. $40.00 

XRENUM — An enhanced program line renum- 
bering facility which allows specification of an 
upper limit of the block of lines to be renum- 
bered, supports relocation of renumbered 
blocks of code, and supports duplication of 
blocks of code. $40.00 

XFIND — A cross reference facility for key words 
ond character strings, also includes global re- 
placement of keywords. $40.00 
XCOMPRESS — Compress your DASIC programs 
to an absolute minimum. Removes extraneous 
information; merge lines,- even deletes state- 
ments which could not be executed. Typically 
saves 30-40% space even for programs with- 
out REM statements! Also results in 7-10% im- 
provement in execution speed. $40.00 
ENTIRE PACKAGE ONLY $200.00 



8160 Corporate Pork Dr. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45242% 257 

Coll Toll Free c^ m 

1 - 600 - 543-4626 HvB I 
Ohio residents 
coll collect (513)691-4496 

All products now available to run with TRSDOS 2.0. 
TRS 60 is a rrodemork of rhe Rodio Shock 
division of Tandy Corporation. 

Now available for Model III 



»x Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 125 




The following BASIC PROGRAM, written on the TRS-80, was 
compiled using MICROSOFT'S BASIC COMPILER and SIMUTEK"S 
BASIC COMPILER We feel the results speak for themselves! 

10 ' SPEED TEST 

SIMUTEK ZBASIC COMPILER VS. MICROSOFT COMPILER 

15 CLS:PRINTaB»"HIT ft KEY WHEN READY TO STftRT TEST"? 

28 I$=INKEY$:IFI$=-THEN2aELSEF0RZ=lT01i: 

FORX=15360TO16383:POKEX, 19l:PRINTPEEK(X)5 :NEXTX 

31 FORX=«TOi27:FORY=«T047:SET(X,Y):NE)(TY,X 

:F0RX=127TMSTEP-l:FORY=A7T0KTEP-l:RESET(X,Y) 

: NEXTY, X: FORX=1TO 1000:GOSUB1««:NEXTX, Z 

40 CLS:PRINT N FINISHED WITH PROGRAM TEST";:ST0P 

KM RETURN 



BASIC PROGRAM SIZE: 329 BYTES 
PROGRAM RUN: 22 Minutes, 37 Seconds 



Compilers: 



Microsoft 



Simutek 



Compiled Size: 
Compile Time: 
Program Run: 
System Req: 
Price: 



10057 Bytes 

14 Minutes 

17 Mm 04 Sec. 

48K 1 Disk 

$195 00 



1 228 Bytes 

0.75 Seconds 

1 Mm. 46 Sec. 

16K LV II or 32-48K Disk 

Tape $99.00, Disk $129 00 



ZBASIC is an "Interactive Compiler". This means it is resident while 
you write your basic programs. You may compile your program and 
run it or save it, without destroying your resident basic program! In 
fact, jumping back and forth between your compiled program and 
your basic program is one of it's best features' 

Simutek's compiler allows saving your "compiled" programs to tape 
or disk Programs may then be loaded by use of the system 
command for tape, or as a /CMD file from DOS This makes it 
extremely hard for people to "pirate" your programs 

Best of all, Simutek does not charge royalties on programs you sell 
that are compiled with ZBASIC 1 (Microsoft charges 10% or $200 a 
year') 

Why use a complicated "Assembler" to write machine language 
programs when you can write them in ZBASIC? 



Some of the basic commands supported by ZBASIC: 



FOR 

SET 

DATA 

INPUT 

PRINT 

SOR 



NEXT 

RESET 

READ 

INKEYS 

LPRINT 

LEN 



STEP 

POINT 

RESTORE 

LET 

PRIN 

ASC 



IF 

CHR$ 

END 

STOP 

USR 

VAL 



THEN 

RANDOM 

GOTO 

OUT 

SGN 



ELSE 
RND ( ) 
GOSUB 
INP 
INT 



PEEK 

POKE 

CLS 

RETURN 

ABS 



ON GOTO 
ON GOSUB 



INT MATH | — . V / AND OR SOR 



Model I TRS-80 (or PMC-80) Only 
ZBASIC Tape Version: 1 6K Level II TRS-80 
ZBASIC Disk Version: 32 or 48K 1 Disk Sys. 
ZBASIC Manual Only: 



$99. OO 

$129.00 

$25.00 



Credit Card orCOD Call Toll Free: (800) 528-1 149 

or send check or money order to: 



SIMUTEK 



^12 








PO Box 13687 Tucson. AZ 85732 

(COD Available $3 00 Extra) 

TRS-80 is a TM of Radio Shack, a Tandy Corp 



(602) 886-5880 



mn 

CORPORATION 



Solve your disk problems, buy 100% 
surface tested Dysan diskettes. All 
orders shipped from stock, within 24 
hours. Call toll FREE (800) 235-4137 
for prices and information. Visa and 
Master Card accepted. All orders sent 
postage paid. 



PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd 
San Luis Obispo. CA 
93401 (InCal call 
(805)543-1037) 



1^274 



Save money... Save energy 

Cut your fuel bills with the new 

Qz. commodore 

Programmable Thermostat 



CCXX OFT A«.*T 



[in 
1 1 '-< 



C8Sy tO install ... in your present 24 volt heating/ 
cooling system — in minutes — using only a screwdriver. 

Easy tO prOQram ... for up to 4 temperature 
changes each day with dual set back feature. 

CldSy tO OpOrdtG . . . with exclusive slide controls 
for both time and temperature. 

Features continuous LCD read-out of time, temperature, day 
of week . . . 7-day clock . . . exclusive sliding lever controls . . . 
"Day Skipper" switches . . . complete instructions. 

Commodore Thermostat— pays for itself 
in fuel savings in a year or less ! 

Get It today . . . utmrt saving tomorrow 

$129.95 includes shipping 

marketed by: 

»^142 




Random 
Acce 




v inc. 



PO Box 1555 South Bend IN 46624 
Order and Information Line 
219-277-8844 






126 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Terminals and Printers! 



TELEVIDEO TVI-912C 



SOROC 




Upper and lower case, 15 baud rates: 75 to 
19,000 baud, dual intensity, 24 x 80 character 
display, 12 x 10 resolution. Numeric pad. Pro- 
grammable reversible video, auxiliary port, 
self-test mode, protect mode, block mode, 
tabbing, addressable cursor. Microprocessor 
controlled, programmable underline, line and 
character insert/delete. "C" version features 
typewriter-style keyboard. List $950 

OUR PRICE: CALL 

920C (with 1 1 function keys, 6 edit keys and 
2 transmission mode keys, List $1030 

CALL 
Intertec 

EMULATOR 

Software compatible with a Soroc IQ-120, 
Hazeltine 1500, ADM-3A or DEC VT-52. Fea- 
tures block mode transmission and printer port; 
12" anti-glare screen; 18-key numeric keypad- 
full cursor control. List $895 

OUR PRICE $749 





NEW INTERTUBE 

List $995 ONLY $749 

12" display, 24 x 80 format, 18-key numeric 
keypad, 128 upper/lower case ASCII charac- 
ters. Reverse video, blinking, complete cursor 
addressing and control. Special user-defined 
control function keys, protected and unpro- 
tected fields. Line insert /delete and character 
insert/delete editing, eleven special line draw- 
ing symbols. 




IQ-120 

List $995 

SPECIAL 



$729 



IQ-140 List $1495 

SPECIAL $1149 



HAZELTINE 



1500 
ONLY 

$879 



1410 w/numeric keypad, List $900 $749 

1420 w/ lower case and numeric pad . . . 849 

1510, List $1395 1089 

1520, List $1650 1389 



NEC SPINWRITER 



TM 




Terminal /Keyboard as well as 
RO Printer Only models available. 

CALL FOR PRICES! 

CENTRONICS 

PRINTERS 

NEW 730, parallel, friction, tractor . . . $649 

NEW 737 parallel, friction, tractor $829 

779-2 w/tractor (same as TRS-80 Line 
Printer I), List $1350 

702 120 cps, bi-direct., tractor, VFU NEW 

703 185 cps, bi-direct., tractor, VFU LOW 

704 RS232 serial version of 703, $2350 . . PRICES 



TI-810 




TI-810 Basic Unit, $1895 . ONLY $1695 
TI-810 w/full ASCII (Lowercase), vertical 

forms control, and compressed print . $1895 
TI-745 Complete printing terminal 
with acoustic coupler, List $1695 $1399 




PAPER TIGER 



® 






IDS 440 Paper Tiger, List $995 $695 

w/graphics option, incl. buffer, $1194 . . $789 
TRS-80 cable 45 

NEW I0S PAPERTIGER 460L.st $1295 $1149 
NEW IDS PAPERTIGER 460G List $1394 $1199 

NEW IDS 460 

QUALITY PRINTING AT MATRIX 

SPEED-LOGIC SEEKING 

PROPORTIONAL SPACING 

w/auto text justification 

RNflDeX 

DP9500/DP9501 PRINTCRS 

DP-9500. List $1650 $1399 

DP-9501. List $1650 $1399 

OKIDATA 

Microline80 only $649 

Tractor Feed Option $99 

Serial interface $89 

AXIOM IMP I $699 

COMPRINT 912 w/parallel interf. $559 
912 w/serial interface, List $699 $589 

MICROTEK, List $750 $675 

ANADEX 80-Col. Dot Matrix $849 



Above prices reflect a 2% cash discount (order prepaid prior to shipment). Add 2% to prices for credit 
card orders, C.O.D.'s, etc. Prices are f.o.b. shipping point. Prices are subject to change and offers 
subject to withdrawal without notice. WRITE FOR FREE CATALOG. 



MiniMicroMart, Inc. 

1618 James Street, Syracuse NY 13203 (315) 422-4467 TWX 710-541-0431 




6800 users can now hop onto the CBBS lines. 



Turn Your Smart Computer 
Into a Dumb Terminal 



By Marc I. Leavey, M.D. 



The Computer Bulletin Board Sys- 
tem (CBBS) is an actively growing 
part of microcomputerdom. All you 
need is a terminal and a modem, to be 
in touch with systems all over the 
world via the telephone line. 

However, this setup has several 
major problems. First, you have no 
facilities to save material accessed on 
the system. Second, individuals with- 
out terminals (such as the GMXBUG- 



PROMPT 
INITIALIZE 




NO INPUT 




CLEA 




( $00 ^ 
VJMPDOS/ 



STORE 

IN 

MEMORY 




YES 



« 



PROMPT 
MEMORY FULL 



> 



CLEAR 
STORE 
FLAG 



SEND 
CHARACTER 
TO 
SCREEN 



J 



ON 



OFF 



/checks^ 

-C ECHO ./>- 



SEND CHAR. 
THRU MODEM, 



Fig. 1. Flowchart of TERM. $. 



VDM system I recently upgraded to) 
are out in the cold. Finally, all of that 
computer power is sitting idly by 
while you are on line. 

This set of programs will overcome 
these problems. It allows a 6800- 
based computer, with a GMXBUG- 
3.0 monitor and GIMIX VDM, to 
simulate a full- or half-duplex termi- 
nal for connection to a modem. Inter- 
nal commands let you store incoming 
data in memory and view it on the 
screen. A new DOS command, writ- 
ten for SSB DOS68.51C, lets you save 
the textual material directly to disk 
for later use. Alternatively, nondisk 
users can use a simple outputting 
routine to save the region to tape. 
Thus, received data can be examined 
with the editor, or programs in BA- 
SIC can be used directly. 

I developed a second version of the 
terminal routine for users of non- 
VDM systems. Monitors such as 
SWTBUG or SMARTBUG, which 
support terminals through ACIA 
ports, may use this version. The func- 
tion is identical to the GMXBUG ver- 
sion, although it is a few bytes longer 
due to the inclusion of routines not 
needed with the video-based moni- 
tor. 

The flowchart in Fig. 1 describes 
both versions of the terminal pro- 
gram. A loop continually scans for in- 
put from either the keyboard or mo- 
dem. Keyboard input, when present, 
is first checked for control characters 
$01 (control- A) through $06 (control- 
F), which are used as internal termi- 
nal commands to set or clear flags. 



In the absence of a control charac- 
ter, the byte is passed to the modem 
output, and the input loop is reen- 
tered. The character may or may not 
be echoed to the terminal, depending 
on the setting of one of those flags. 
This allows either full-duplex (no in- 
ternal echo) or half-duplex (echo en- 
abled) operation. 

When the loop detects modem in- 
put, the character may first be stored 
in memory, depending on another 
flag. If the character is stored, a check 
sees if the storage memory is full. If 
so, the program issues a STORAGE 
MEMORY FULL prompt and aborts 
further attempts at storage. Regard- 
less, the terminal displays the charac- 
ter, and the input loop is again reen- 
tered. 

For the GMXBUG-based system, 
the keyboard is on the standard PIA 
on port 4, and the modem is connect- 
ed to an ACIA on port 0. This lets you 
use the TAPOUT and TAPEIN rou- 
tines in the monitor to conveniently 
provide input and output. 

A modified version for SMART- 
BUG supports the standard ACIA for 
the terminal on port 2. The modem 
ACIA is connected to port 3. Simply 
changing the terminal ACIA to port 1 
($8004) would make this program 
SWTBUG-compatible, since no rou- 
tines unique to SMARTBUG are 
used. Because an ACIA is assumed, 
however, MIKBUG would not be 



Marc I. Leavey, M.D., 4006 Winlee Road, Ran- 
dallstown, MD 21133. 



128 Microcomputing, February 1981 



able to run this program without re- 
writing the input and output rou- 
tines. 

To use this program, run it from 
disk. I save it as a transient (TERM.$), 
so that merely typing TERM while in 
DOS executes the program. Nondisk 
users may, of course, load the pro- 
gram from tape and jump to the start- 
ing address. 

After the opening banner is dis- 
played, the terminal is configured 
and running in full-duplex, storage- 
mode-off operation. Typing any con- 
trol character command, even while 
receiving, will alter the appropriate 
flag and action. 

The Commands 

A rundown of the various com- 
mands may be helpful. Briefly, they 
are: 

Control- A. Initiates storage of in- 
coming data. Any data coming in 
over the modem port is stored se- 
quentially in RAM. The parity bit is 
masked. Data typed on the keyboard 
is not stored, unless echoed by the re- 
mote computer or modem. 

Control-B. Stops storage. Pointers 
remain where they are, and when 
and if storage is resumed, data will be 
placed immediately following what- 
ever is already there. 

Control-C. Clears the pointer to the 
end of data. This has the effect of 
wiping out all stored data, although it 
is really still there if it has not been 
overwritten. Clearing the pointer re- 
sets storage whether or not the stor- 
age mode is on. It will even reset 
while receiving, but who knows 
where you will be then! 

Control-D. Dumps the contents of 
storage memory to the screen. 

Control-E. Enables internal echo. 
Note that although what you type is 
on the screen, it still is not stored in 
memory. It has to be coming into the 
modem port to do that. 

Control-F. Enables full-duplex 
mode. This way, what you type does 
not mess up what you receive. The 
system you are talking to must tell 
you what you say. This is the way 
many CBBS systems like it. 

Break. Null, or break, is $00. It exe- 
cutes a jump to $D283, which is the 
warm start address of Smoke Signal 
DOS. If you want to go somewhere 
else, like to the monitor ($E0E3), just 
change the jump address. 

The Dump Command 

Here is some more on the dump 
command. After typing a control-D, 




ODOA 
E07E 
D283 
E0C8 
8008 
800C 
E1D1 

A100 

A100 CE A1DD 
A103 BD E07E 
A106 F6 8008 
A109 5k 
A10A 25 33 
A10C F6 800C 
A10F 5k 
A110 2k Fk 
A112 B6 800D 
A115 84 7F 
A117 7D A1DC 
A11A 27 17 
A11C FE A1DA 
A11F A7 00 
A121 08 
A122 FF A1DA 
A125 BC A1D8 
A128 26 09 
A12A CE A3^7 
A12D BD E07E 
A130 7F A1DC 
A133 F6 8008 
A136 57 
A137 57 
A138 2k F9 
A13A B7 8009 
A13D 20 C7 
A13F B6 8009 
A1H2 Qk 7F 
Al4iJ 81 07 
Alk6 2F IB 
A148 F6 800C 
A14B 57 
Al4c 57 
fllkD 2k F9 
AUF B7 800D 
A152 7D A1CB 
A155 27 QA 
A157 F6 8008 
A15A 57 
A15B 57 
A15C 2k F9 
A15E B7 8009 
Al6l 20 A3 
A163 81 01 
A165 27 17 
A167 81 02 
AI69 27 18 
A16B 81 03 
A16D 27 19 
A16F 81 Ok 
A171 27 ID 
A173 81 05 
A175 27 kA 
A177 81 06 
A179 27 kB 
A17B 7E D283 
A17E B7 A1DC 
A181 20 83 
A183 7F A1DC 
A186 20 F9 
A188 FE A1D6 
A18B FF A1DA 
A18E 20 Fl 
A190 FE A1D6 
A193 BC A1DA 
A196 27 08 



SMARTBUG storage terminal program. 



8 

9 
10 
11 
12 

13 
Ik 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
2k 

25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 
31 
32 

33 

3k 
35 
36 
37 
38 

39 
kO 
kl 
k2 

k3 
kk 

k5 
k6 
kl 

m 

k9 
50 

51 
52 
53 
5k 

55 
56 

57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 

63 
6k 

65 
66 

67 
68 

69 

70 

71 
72 

73 
7k 

75 
76 

77 
78 

79 
80 
81 
82 



83 
8k 

85 
86 

87 
88 



NAM SMARTBUG STORAGE TERMINAL PROGRAM 
PROGRAM TO CONVERT SMARTBUG-6800 SYSTEM 
INTO A TERMINAL THAT STORES INPUT INTO 
MEMORY - FOR LATER SAVE TO DISK 

VER 2.0 - 10 MAY 80 

MARC I. LEAVEY, M.D. 



CRLF 

PSTRNG 

ZWARMS 

OUT4HS 

PORT2 

PORT3 

OUTEE 



OPT 
OPT 

EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 
EQU 



STORTM 



TERM 



RCVCHR 



NOSAVE 



SNDCHR 



MODLUP 



A 
A 
A 



ECHLUP 



SNDXIT 
COMAND 



EXIT 
START 
ISLAND 
STOP 



CLEAR 



DUMP 
DMPLUP 



ORG 

LDX 

JSR 

LDA B 

LSR B 

BCS 

LDA B 

LSR B 

BCC 

LDA A 

AND A 

TST 

BEQ 

LDX 

STA A 

INX 

STX 

CPX 

BNE 

LDX 

JSR 

CLR 

LDA B 

ASR B 

ASR B 

BCC 

STA A 

BRA 

LDA 

ATJD 

CMP 

BLE 

LDA B 

ASR B 

ASR B 

BCC 

STA A 

TST 

BEQ 

LDA B 

ASR B 

ASR B 

BCC 

STA A 

BRA 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

JMP 

STA A 

BRA 

CLR 

BRA 

LDX 

STX 

BRA 

LDX 

CPX 

BEQ 



NOG 
NOS 

$0D0A 
$E07E 
$D283 
$E0C8 
$8008 
$800C 
$E1D1 

$A100 
# PROMPT 
PSTRNG 
PORT2 

SNDCHR 
PORT3 

TERM 

PORT3+1 

#$7F 

STRFLG 

NOSAVE 

ATADDR 

0,X 

ATADDR 

TOADDR 

NOSAVE 

#FULPMT 

PSTRNG 

STRFLG 

PORT2 



NOSAVE 

PORT2+1 

TERM 

PORT2+1 

#$7F 

#$7 

COMAND 

PORT3 



MODLUP 

PORT3+1 

ECHOFG 

SNDXIT 

PORT2 



ECHLUP 

PORT2+1 

TERM 

#$01 

START 

#$2 

STOP 

#$3 
CLEAR 
#$4 
DUMP 

#$5 

ECHOON 

*$6 

ECHOOF 

ZWARMS 

STRFLG 

TERM 

STRFLG 

ISLAND 

FMADDR 

ATADDR 

ISLAND 

FMADDR 

ATADDR 

DUNDMP 



TERMINAL PORT 
MODEM PORT 




Microcomputing, February 1981 129 



Listing continued 



A198 A6 00 
A19A BD E1D1 
A19D 08 
A19E 20 F3 
A1A0 CE A365 
A1A3 BD E07E 
A1A6 CE A1D6 
A1A9 BD E0C8 
A1AC BD A1CC 
A1AF CE A379 
A1B2 BD E07E 
A1B5 CE A1DA 
A1B8 BD E0C8 
A1BB BD A1CC 
A1BE 7E A106 
A1C1 B7 A1CB 
A1C4 20 BB 
A1C6 7F A1CB 
A1C9 20 B6 
A1CB 00 
A1CC CE A1D3 
A1CF BD E07E 
A1D2 39 
AID 3 OD OA 
A1D5 04 
A1D6 00 00 
A1D8 5F FF 
A1DA 00 00 
A1DC 00 
A1DD OD OA 
A1DF 53 
A1FF OD OA 
A201 20 
A21C OD OA 
A21E OD OA 
A220 43 
A229 OD OA 
A22B 43 
A254 OD OA 
A256 M3 
A27E OD OA 
A280 43 
A2A2 OD OA 
A2A4 43 
A2CA OD OA 
A2CC 43 
A2FA OD OA 
A2FC 43 
A32B OD OA 
A32D 43 
A344 OD OA 
A346 04 
A347 OD OA 
A349 3E 
A362 OD OA 
A3 64 04 

A365 53 
A378 04 

A379 53 
A38C 04 

A100 



89 
90 
91 
92 
93 
94 
95 
96 
97 
98 

99 
100 
101 
102 

103 
104 

105 
106 

107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 

113 
114 

115 
116 

117 
118 

119 
120 
121 
122 

123 
124 

125 
126 

127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 

133 
134 

135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 

145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 



DUM)MP 



ECHOON 
ECHOOF 

ECHOFG 
PCRLF 

CRLFST 

FMADDR 
TOADOR 
ATADDR 
STRFLG 
PROMPT 



FULPMT 

FMPMPT 
TOPMPT 



LDA A 0,X 

JSR OUTEE 

I NX 

BRA DMPLUP 

LDX #FMPMPT 

JSR PSTRNG 

LDX # FMADDR 

JSR 0UT4HS 

JSR PCRLF 

LDX KTOPMPT 

JSR PSTRNG 

LDX #ATADDR 

JSR 0UT4HS 

JSR PCRLF 

JMP TERM 

STA A ECHOFG 

BRA ISLAND 

CLR ECHOFG 

BRA ISLAND 

FCB 

LDX ttCRLFST 

JSR PSTRNG 

RTS 

FDB CRLF 

FCB 4 

FDB $0000 

FDB $5FFF 

FDB $0000 

FCB $00 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /SrWRTBUG - 6800 TERMINAL PROGRAM/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC / BY! MARC I. LEAVEY, M.D./ 

FDB CRLF 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /COMMANDS:/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-A = START STORAGE OF REMOTE INPUT/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-B = STOP STORAGE OF REMOTE INPUT/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-C = CLEAR STORAGE POINTERS/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-D - DUMP STORED DATA TO SCREEN/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL -E = ENABLE TERMINAL ECHO (HALF DUPLEX)/ 

FDP CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-F = DISABLE TERMINAL ECHO CFULL DUPLEX)/ 

FDP CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL -G = FXIT TO DOS/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCB 4 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /» STORAGE MEMORY FULL «/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCB 4 

FCC /STORAGE STARTS AT $/ 

FCB 4 

FCC /STORAGE ENDS AT $/ 

FCB 4 

END STORTM 



CBBS and stored data in RAM, you 
now want to save what you've stored 
to disk. "Simple," I hear you say, 
"I'll just type SAVE, give it a name 
and use the dump boundaries as my 
starting and ending addresses." 

Just one problem, bunky. The save 
command saves binary files, not text. 
If you try to save text, you will end up 
with all kinds of addressing informa- 
tion inserted indiscriminately there- 
in. It takes hours to clean up, and you 
still will miss one or two. So the solu- 
tion is the SVTEXT command, shown 

here. 

The syntax of this command is 
identical to the save command, ex- 
cept, of course, for the absence of a 
transfer address, which is not execut- 
able, since the data being saved is 
text. So, if the dump delimiters are, 
for example, $0000 and $17B2, and 
the file to be created on disk drive 1 is 
CBBS.TXT, you would enter DOS by 
typing BREAK, and then typing: 

SVTEXT, 1 :CBBS.TXT,0, 17B2 

After creation, the file may be exam- 
ined with the view command, or 



the contents of storage memory, be- 
ginning at $0000, are output in ASCII 
to the terminal. Nothing is sent or re- 
ceived via the modem during this 
output, and you should think of the 
terminal as being off-line. Keyboard 
input, with the exception of one char- 
acter, is also ignored. 

At the conclusion of the dump, the 
starting and ending address of data in 
storage is displayed. These limits are 
useful if the data is to be saved to disk 
or tape. The SVTEXT command 
saves the text as a disk file. You may 
use conventional Kansas City Stan- 
dard or other tape techniques, just as 
with any other program or data. Be- 
cause you might not want to view a 



long dump, especially at 300 baud or 
less, type an escape character ($1B) to 
terminate the dump in progress and 
jump directly to the display of bound- 
aries. 

The TERM.$ program is shown as- 
sembled at $A100, below my DOS, in 
a convenient location of vacant mem- 
ory. If this is not practical for you, 
you can place it within the first 32K 
block of memory, preferably on the 
high side of whatever memory you 
have. Change the high limit of stor- 
age, TOADDR, to protect the new lo- 
cation. 

The SVTEXT Command 

After you've gone on line with a 




GET 

START ADDRESS^ 

END ADDRESS 

FILE SPEC 




V DOS J 

Fig. 2. Flowchart of SVTEXT. $. 



130 Microcomputing, February 1981 



MICROSTAT 
NOW AVAILABLE FOR CP/M* 

MICROSTAT, the most powerful statistics package available 
for microcomputers, is completely file-oriented with a power- 
ful Data Management Subsystem (DMS) that allows you to 
edit, dttat, augment, sort, rank-order, lag and transform (1 1 
transformations, including linear, exponential and log) existing 
data into new data. After a file is created with DMS, Microstat 
provides statistical analysis in the following general areas: 
Descriptive Statistics (mean, sample, and population S.D., 
variance, etc.), Frequency Distributions (grouped or individ- 
ual), Hypothesis Testing (mean or proportion). Correlation and 
Regression Analysis (with support statistics). Non-parametric 
Tests (Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Wilcoxon, etc.), Probability Dis- 
tributions (8 of them), Crosstabs and Chi-square, ANOVA (one 
and two way), Factorials, Combinations and Permutations, plus 
other unique and useful features. 

MICROSTAT requires 48K, Microsoft Basic 80 with CP/M 
is sent on a single-density 8" Disk. It is also available on 5" 
diskettes for North Star DOS and Basic (32K and two drives 
recommended), specify which when ordering. The price for 
Microstat is $250.00. The user's manual is $15.00 and 
includes sample data and printouts. We have other business 
and educational software, call or write: 



^82 



master charge 

'Ml INTERBANK C*"0 



P.O. Box 68602 
Indianapolis, IN 46268 
J (317)283-8883 

* CP/M is a registered trade mark of Digital Research. 



Model EP-2A-79 

EPROM Programmer 



J* 



\^c 





SYM-1 

OHIO 

SCIENTIFIC 

HEATH H-8 
SWTP 



Software available for F-8, 6800. 8085, 8080, Z 80 6502 1802 
2650. 6809 based systems. ' 

EPROM type is selected by a personality module which plugs into 
the front of the programmer. Power requirements are 115 VAC 
50/60 Hz. at 15 watts. It is supplied with a 36-inch ribbon cable for 
connecting to microcomputer. Requires V* I/O ports. Priced at 
$16900 with one set of software. (Additional software on disk and 
cassette for various systems ) Personality modules are shown below. 

Part No Programs Price 

™S 2708 $1700 

2704.27(18 , 7 .oo 

2732 33.00 

TMS 2716 17(K) 

TMS 2532 3300 

TMS 2516.2716.2758 l7m 

MCM68764 ;l r )(M) 

Optimal Technology, Inc. 

Blue Wood 127, Eariyvville, Virginia 22936 * 29 
Phone (804) 973-5482 



PMO 
PM 1 
PM2 
PM3 
PM4 
PM5 
PMK 



CALL US YOUR ORDER TOLL FREE! 



SINCE 
1970 



"PRODUCTS FOR YOUR COMPUTER OR BUSINESS" 



-frSwingline Bursters & Decollators -sir Word Processing Forms 

-fr Custom &. Stock Continuous Forms it Roll Papers/Thermal Papers 

-fr Continuous Mailers & Continuous Labels 

-fr Floppy Diskettes, Ribbons it Stock Continuous Checks, 

-fr Snap-Apart Forms Invoices Statements 

ir Register Forms & Envelopes, Letterhead, & 

-frPegboard Systems Business Cards 

THOUSANDS OF DIFFERENT ITEMS - ASK US 



ON REQUESTS FOR CATALOGS & PRICES - BE SPECIFIC ABOUT YOUR NEEDS 



PRODUCT * 



9511 15 1m 

9511-20 1m 
9511-cc-2m 
9511 cc-3m 



DESCRIPTION 



1411 15 1m 

1411 cc-2m 
1411-cc-3m 
1411-cc-4m 
1411-201 



128518-1 



9V2X11" 1 part— 15# Stock Tab 
9V2X11" 1 part- 20# Stock Tab 
9V2X11" 2 part-Carbonless 
9V2X11" 3 part-Carbonless 



1 4%x1 1 " 1 part- 15# Stock 
14%x11" 2 part-Carbonless 
14 7 / 8 x11" 3 part-Carbonless 
14%x11" 4 part-Carbonless 
14%x11"1 part- 20# Stock 



QTY. PER 
CARTON 



1500 

1250 

750 

500 



12x8V 2 ' 1 part- 18# Stock 
(Form is 1 1 "x8V 2 M -Torn Apart) 



33 1L 
332L 
33-3L 
U0S-2L** 



%x3V2" 1 up Stock Labels 

%x3V 2 " 2-up Stock Labels 

^uxS 1 //' 3-up Stock Labels 

i yi 6 x4" 2 up Stock Label 

("SPECIAL CARRIER 9V2"x9" C.C. for fixed 



1500 
750 
500 
375 

2700 



COST /CARTON 



ON 



2900 



63 1TC 
632TC 



Cont. White 3x5 cards 1 wide 
Cont. White 3x5 cards 2 wide 



5000 20.00 

10000 35.00 

15000 48.00 

5000 37.50 

platen printers) 




48 28 



4000 
8000 



40.00 
76.00 



FORM: (fill out & call order toll-free or mail to address below) 



PRODUCT 4» 



DESCRIPTION 



•PRICES INCLUDE DELIVERY "N«i continuous 

UNITED STATES 



TOTAL 



NAME 



ADDRESS 



CITY 



STATE 



ZIP 




MCD 



You can charge your orders to your VISA or Master Charge 

™J5" Money Order, Certified Check, or 

*» . Personal Check. (On personal 

VISA D checks — goods shipped after 

check clears.) □ 



Account No. 



Expiration Date 
Signed 



Issuing Bank No. 



Mail Address 
for Custom 
Forms, Tech- 
nical Questions, 
& Mail Orders 



NATIONAL MAIL ORDER DEPT. JMS 
E. 15205 14th 
Veradale (Spokane) , WA 99037 ^ 127 



PHONE FOR TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE & CUSTOM 
(509) 922-4428 . 8 am - 5 pm (PST) . Mon 



QUOTES: 



TO PHONE-IN ORDER OR NATIONWIDE 1^800-547-5995 Ext 135 
REQUEST CATALOG CALL: In OREGON 1-800-452^8847 Ext. 135 



ts Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 131 



worked upon with the editor. If the 
format is proper, it could even serve 
as a BASIC data file or a BASIC pro- 
gram. 

The SVTEXT program is dia- 
grammed in Fig. 2. If you've never 
written a disk command you might 
find it frightening, but reading from 
or writing to a disk file is no more 
complicated than addressing an I/O 
device. What makes it so simple is 
the disk file management (DFM) rou- 
tine in the DOS. After obtaining the 
unit number, file name and delimit- 
ers, the DFM allows one byte, placed 
in the A accumulator, to be written to 
the disk by calling the DFM as a sub- 
routine. This is analogous to output- 
ting the character through OUTEEE. 
Thus, the file created will be an exact 
image of what is in memory. ■ 



We're the 
MAGNOLIA people 
you've been 
looking for. . . 

Add the CP/M R disk operating 
system to your Zenith/Heath '89 
All-in-One Computer. Easily in- 
stalled hardware and software 
proven by reliable service for more 
than a year. Supports 8-inch, 
double-sided 5-inch, and hard disk 
drives. 
Only $195. 
Ask your local dealer, or «^234 

MAGNOLIA a 

MICROSYSTEMS 

2812 THORNDYKE AVE WEST 
SEATTLE. WASHINGTON 98199 

(206) 285-7266 

CP/M* is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc 



USR-330D Modem 



Auto-Dial/ Auto Answer $399 

Connect your TRS-80, Apple, or any other 
computer to the phone lines. 

• 0-300 Baud-Bell 103/113 compatible 

• Serial-RS232 

• Half/Full Duplex 

• 1 year warranty 

FCC Certified 
Direct connection to 
phone lines via RJ11C 
standard extension 
phone jack 

USR-330A Modem 

Same as 330D 

but Manual-Originate/Auto-Answer. 

Radio Shack Model II Users - 

We have software to connect you directly 
to the phone lines. 



U.S. ROBOTICS inc 

203 N WABASH 
SUITE I71B 
CHICAGO. ILL BOSOI 




$339 



001B 
0D0A 
3F11 
3F12 

3F13 

3F14 
3F16 
3F26 

D283 
E0C8 

A100 

A100 CE A1B4 

A103 3F 14 

A105 3F 26 

A107 26 27 

A109 F6 8000 

A10C 5^ 

AlOD 24 F6 

A10F 3F 12 



i<4G-5650 



^263 



Alll 
All4 
A116 
A119 
A11B 
A11C 
A11F 
A122 
A124 
A127 
A129 
A12C 
A12E 
A130 
A132 
A134 
A136 

A139 
A13B 
A13D 
A13F 
Al4l 

AIM 3 
A145 
A147 
A149 
A14B 
A14D 
A14F 

A151 

A153 
A155 
A157 
A15A 
A15D 
A15F 
A162 
Al64 
A167 

ai6a 
ai6c 
ai6f 

A172 
A174 
A176 
A178 
A17A 
A17C 
A17E 
A180 
A181 
A183 

A185 
A188 
A18A 



7D A1B3 

27 16 

FE A1B1 
A7 00 
08 

FF A1B1 
BC A1AF 

26 08 
CE A30D 
3F 14 
7F A1B3 
3F 11 
20 D5 
81 06 
2F 0B 
3F 13 
7D A1AC 

27 02 
3F 11 
20 C6 
81 01 

27 17 
81 02 
27 18 
81 03 
27 19 
81 04 
27 ID 
81 05 

27 4F 
81 06 
27 50 
7E D283 
B7 A1B3 
20 A6 
7F A1B3 
20 Al 
FE A1AD 
FF A1B1 
20 99 
FE A1AD 
BC A1B1 
27 OF 
A6 00 
3F 11 
3F 26 
27 04 
81 IB 
27 03 
08 

20 EC 
3F 16 
CE A32B 
3F 14 
CE A1AD 



1 
2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 
12 

13 

14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 

23 

2k 

25 
26 

27 

28 
29 
30 

31 
32 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 

39 
40 
41 
42 
43 

i\n 
45 

46 
47 
48 

49 
50 

51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 

59 
60 
61 

62 

63 
64 

65 
66 

67 
68 

69 
70 
71 
72 

73 
74 

75 
76 
77 
78 

79 
80 
81 
82 

83 
84 

85 
86 

87 



Storage terminal program in assembly language. 

NAM STORAGE TERMINAL PROGRAM 
" PROGRAM TO CONVERT GMXBUG-6800 SYSTEM 
:s INTO A TERMINAL THAT STORES INPUT INTO 
« MEMORY - FOR LATER SAVE TO DISK 

ft 

" VER 2.0 - 3 MAY 80 

it 

" MARC I. LEAVEY, M.D. 



OPT NOG 

OPT NOS 

ESC EQU $1B 

CRLF EOU $0D0A 

OUTCHR EQU $3F11 

TAPE IN EQU $3F12 

TAPOUT EQU $3F13 

PSTRNG EOU $3F14 

PCRLF EOU $3F16 

INKEY EQU $3F26 

ZWARMS EQU $D283 

OUT4HS EQU $E0C8 

ORG $A100 

STORTM LDX #PROMPT 

FDB PSTRNG 

TERM FDB INKEY 

BNE SNDCHR 
RCVCHR LDA B $8 000 
LSR B 

BCC TERM 

FDB TAPE IN 



NOSAVE 



SNDCHR 



SNDXIT 
COMAND 



EXIT 
START 

STOP 

CLEAR 

• 

ISLAND 

DUMP 

DMPLUP 



NOINTP 



DUNDM^ 



TST 

BEQ 

LDX 

STA A 

INX 

STX 

CPX 

BNE 

LDX 

FDP 

CLR 

FDB 

BRA 

CMP A 

BLE 

FDB 

TST 

BEQ 

FDB 

BRA 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEO 

CMP A 

BEO 

CMP A 

BEO 

JMP 

STA A 

BRA 

CLR 

BRA 

LDX 

STX 

BRA 

LDX 

CPX 

BEQ 

LDA A 

FDB 

FDB 

BEQ 

CMP A 

BEQ 

INX 

BRA 

FDB 

LDX 

FDB 

LDX 



STRFLG 
NOSAVE 
ATADDR 
0,X 

ATADDR 

TOADDR 

NOSAVE 

HFULP4T 

PSTRNT, 

STRFLG 

OUTCHR 

TERM 

#*6 

COMArJD 

TAPOUT 

ECHOFG 

SNDXIT 

OUTCHR 

TERM 

#501 

START 

tt$2 

STOP 

#^3 
CLEAR 

DUMP 
#*5 

ECHOON 

#$6 

ECHOFF 

ZV'ARMS 

STRFLG 

TERM 

STRFLG 

TERM 

FMADDR 

ATADDR 

TERM 

FMADDR 

ATADDR 

DUNDMP 

0,X 

OUTCHR 

INKEY 

NOINTP 

#ESC 

DUNDMP 

DMPLUP 

PCRLF 

HFMPMPT 

PSTRNG 

#P1ADDR 




132 Microcomputing, February 1981 



A SOFTWARE PACKAGE YOU CANNOT AFFORD TO PASS UP 



APPLE 



TRS-80* LEVEL II (CASSETTE/DISK OR CP/M) 



8"CP/M** (S/D DENSITY) 




A SOPHISTICATED BUT SIMPLE TO USE WORD PROCESSOR. SOME FEATURES 
ARE JUSTIFICATION, NEWSPAPER FORMAT, TEXT EDITING, AUTO-CENTERING, ETC 



PLUS 100 ADDITIONAL SERIOUS PROGRAMS 



BUSINESS 

1. Check Book 

2. Accounts Receivable 

3. Accounts Payable 

4. Messages 

5. Label 

6. Mailing List 

7. Re-order 

8. Long Distance 

9. Inventory 

10. Quarter Report 

1 1. Daily Reports 

12. Invoice 

13. Overhead 

HOME APPLICATIONS 

1. Kitchen 

2. Telephone 

3. Timer 

4. Inventory 

5. Alarm 

6. Insurance 

7. Payable 

8. Left Over 

9. Check Book 

10. Interest 

11. Real Estate 

12. Recipe 

13. Efficiency 

UTILITY PROGRAMS 

1. Memory Check 

2. Memory Dump 

3. Debug 

4. Communicate 

5. System Check 

6. Disable 

7. Conversion 

8. Move 

*TRS 80 A Trademark 
of Tandy Corporation 



SCIENTIFIC 

1. Mean Calculations 

2. Electrical Cost 

3. Energy Efficiency 

4. Home Efficiency 

5. Solar Efficiency 

6. Curve Tables 

7. Alphabetic 

8. Logarithms 

9. Statistical Analysis 

10. Measures 

11. Weights 

12. Circumference Points 

13. Quadratic Equations 

14. Straight Line 

15. Conversions I 

16. Conversions II 

17. Conversions III 

18. Conversions IV 

19. Weather Forecasting 

20. Hydraulic Calculations 

21 . Booster Calculations 

22. Graphs 

23. Forms 

GAMES FOR ALL 

1. Slot 

2. Hold-Urn 

3. Twenty One 

4. Chase It 

5. OOPS 

6. Wheel of Fortune 

7. Craps 

8. Sparkle 

9. Keno 



ALL FOR 



$109.95 



Master Charge — Visa 
C.O.D. — Checks Accepted 



EDUCATIONAL 

1. Digital Electronics 

2. Integrated Circuits 

3. Metric 

4. Flashcards 

5. Flashcards II 

6. States and Capitals 

7. Math I (Children) 

8. Math II (Children) 

9. Vocabulary 

10. Digital II 

1 1 . Color Code Conversion 

12. Homework I 

13. Biorhythm 

AMATEUR RADIO 

1. Quad Antenna Design 

2. Beam Antenna Design 

3. L-Pad Design 

4. Pi-Network 

5. Attenuator Design 

6. Resistance 

7. Capacitance 

8. Coil Winding Calculations 

9. Dipole Antenna Design 

10. Resonance Frequency 

11. DB-Loss 

12. Gain Calculations 

13. Frequency Calculations 

ELECTRONICS 

1. Ohms Law 

2. OP-Amp Design 

3. Circuit Analysis 

4. Circuit Analysis II 

5. Hex-Decimal Conversion 

6. Inductance Calculation 

7. Trans Formula 

8. Voltage Divider 

* *CP/M A Trademark 
of Digital Research 



HIGH SIERRA SOFTWARE INC. 



^340 



5541 HIGHWAY 50 EAST • SUITE 2A • CARSON CITY, NEVADA 89701 • TELEPHONE (702) 883-6590 



DIABL0 1620 $1795 




Letter quality 
daisywheel printer 

Forms tractor 
included 

Bidirectional 
Printing 



Completely refurbished by national 
terminal distributor with 30 day 
warranty. All units have serial inter- 
face, keyboard, ASCII, upper and 
lower case. 



Listing continued 



QUME DIABLO NEC 


Print Wheels 


Ribbons 


EA 6 + 


EA Doz 


Diablo 8.25 7.50 


Diablo 6.50 72.00 


Qume 8.25 7.50 


Qume 4.00 43.50 


Nee 17.00 15.50 


Nee 7.00 71.50 



3M DISKETTES 3M 

5 1 /4" Sgl. Dens. 29.95 

8"Sgl.Dens. 31.00 

8" Dbl. Dens. 39.95 

Library Cases 2.95 



Head Cleaning Diskette Kit $23.95 




DAVIS SYSTEMS, INC. "<* 

P.O. BOX 98407 

ATLANTA. GA. 30359 

(404) 634-2300 



SPECIAL PRICES 



We offer a complete selection of 
hardware, software, peripherals. 



£cippkz 



OHIO SCIENTIFIC 

VECTOR GRAPHICS 

COMMODORE PET 

Immediate shipping. 
VISA/MC accepted 

Contact us for a catalog on 
specific products or call us for 
a quote. 

Computer Distributors 

P.O. Box 60284 K 

Houston, TX 77205 

(71 3) 821 -2702 



A18D 

A190 

A192 

A195 

A197 

A19A 

A19D 

A19F 

A1A2 

A1A5 

A1A7 

A1AA 

A1AC 

A1AD 

A1AF 

A1B1 

A1B3 

A1B4 

A1B5 

A1D3 

A1D5 

A1F0 

A1F2 

A1F4 

A1FD 

A1FF 

A228 

A22A 

A252 

A254 

A276 

A278 

A29E 

A2A0 

A2C5 

A2C7 

A2ED 

A2EF 

A30A 

A30C 

A30D 

A30F 

A328 

A32A 

A32B 

A33E 

A33F 

A352 

A100 



BD E0C8 
3F 16 
CE A33F 
3F 14 
CE A1B1 
BD E0C8 
3F 16 
7E A105 
B7 A1AC 
20 C3 
7F A1AC 
20 BE 
00 

00 00 
5F FF 
00 00 



00 

oc 

47 
OD 0A 

20 
0D 0A 

0D 0A 

43 
0D 0A 

43 
OD 0A 

^3 
0D 0A 

43 

0D 0A 

43 
0D 0A 

43 
0D 0A 

43 

0D 0A 
4E 

0D OA 
04 

OD OA 
3E 

OD OA 
04 

53 
04 

53 
04 



88 
89 
90 

91 
92 

93 
94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 
100 
101 
102 

103 
104 

105 
106 
107 
108 

109 
110 
111 
112 

113 
114 

115 
116 

117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 

123 

124 

125 
126 

127 
128 

129 
130 
131 
132 

133 
134 

135 
136 
137 



ECHOON 
ECHOFF 

ECHOFG 
FMADDR 
TOADDR 
ATADDR 
STRFLG 
PROMPT 



FULPMT 

FMPMPT 
TOPMPT 



JSR OUT4HS 

FDB PCRLF 

LDX # TOPMPT 

FDB PSTRNG 

LDX KATADDR 

JSR OUT4HS 

FDR PCRLF 

JMP TERM 

STA A ECHOFG 

BRA ISLAND 

CLR ECHOFG 

BRA ISLAND 

FCB 

FDB $0000 

FDB $5FFF 

FDB $0000 

FCB $00 

FCB 12 

FCC /GMXBUG - 6800 TERMINAL PROGRAM/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC / BY: MARC I. LEAVEY, M.D./ 

FDB CRLF 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /COMMANDS : / 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-A = START STORAGE OF REMOTE INPUT/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-B = STOP STORAGE OF REMOTE INPUT/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-C = CLEAR STORAGE POINTERS/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-D = DUMP STORED DATA TO SCREEN/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-E = ENABLE ECHO ( HALF -DUPLEX)/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /CONTROL-F = DISABLE ECHO (FULL-DUPLEX)/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /NULL OR BREAK = EXIT TO DOS/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCB 4 

FDB CRLF 

FCC /» STORAGE MEMORY FULL «/ 

FDB CRLF 

FCB 4 

FCC /STORAGE STARTS AT $/ 

FCB 4 

FCC /STORAGE ENDS AT $/ 

FCB 4 

END STORTM 




CD80 
D283 
D291 
D2A0 
D2A6 
D2A9 

D783 
D786 
0000 
000C 
0001 
0002 

0003 
0001 

CD80 

CD80 CE CDF8 
CD83 BD D291 
CD86 BD D2A0 
CD89 FF CDDF 



1 
2 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 
11 
12 

13 
14 

15 
16 

17 
18 

19 
20 
21 
22 

23 
24 

25 
26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 



:: 



Save text command. 

NAM SAVE TEXT COMMAND 
OPT NOS 
OPT NOG 

* COMMAND TO STUFF CONTENTS OF MEMORY INTO 

* A SEQUENTIAL FILE ON DISK 

« COMMAND FORMAT: SVTEXT,<FILE SPEO,<START ADDR>,<END ADDR> 

M 
i* 

« VER 1.00 - 24 APR 80 
» MARC I. LEAVEY, M.D. 

*» 
#» 

* DOS EQUATES AT© DR1 CODES 
TCA EQU $CD80 

$D283 



ZV/ARMS EQU 
ZFLSPC EQU 
ZGETHN EQU 
ZOUTST EQU 
ZTYPDE EQU 
CDFM EQU 
DFM EQU 
XFC EQU 
XFT EQU 
QS04W EQU 
QSWRIT EQU 
QSWC EQU 
FTCS EQU 

*• 
#* 

ORG 
SVTEXT LDX 
JSR 
JSR 
STX 



$D291 

$D2A0 

$D2A6 

$D2A9 

$D783 

$D786 



12 

1 

2 

3 
1 

TCA 

#FCB 

ZFLSPC 

ZGETHN 

FMADDR 




More 



134 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Listing continued 










CD8C BD D2A0 


33 




JSR 


ZGETHN 




CD8F FF CDE1 


34 




STX 


TOADDR 




CD92 CE CDF8 


35 




LDX 


#FCB 




CD95 86 01 


36 




LDA 


A #QS04W 




CD97 A7 00 


37 




STA 


A XFC,X 




CD99 86 01 


38 




LDA 


A #FTCS 




CD9B A7 OC 


39 




STA 


A XFT,X 




C09D BD D786 


MO 




JSR 


DFM 




COA& 2€> VF 


41 




BNE 


ERROR 




CDA2 86 02 


42 


: FILOPtJ 


LDA 


A #QSWRIT 




CDA4 A7 00 


43 




STA 


A XFC,X 




CDA6 FE CDDF 


44 




LDX 


FMADDR 




CDA9 FF CDE3 


45 


: FILLUP 


STX 


ATADDR 




CDAC A6 00 


46 




LDA 


A 0,X 




CDAE CE CDF8 


47 




LDX 


#FCB 




CDB1 BD D786 


48 




JSR 


DFM 




CDB4 26 OB 


49 




BNE 


ERROR 




CDB6 FE CDE3 


50 


: OKSAVE 


LDX 


ATADDR 




CDB9 BC CDE1 


51 




CPX 


TOADDR 




CDBC 27 OC 


52 




BEQ 


DONE 




CDBE 08 


53: 




I NX 






CDBF 20 E8 


54: 




RRA 


FILLUP 




CDC1 BD D2A9 


55: 


ERROR 


JSR 


ZTYPDE 




CDC 4 BD D783 


56: 




JSR 


CDFM 




CDC7 7E D283 


57: 




iJMP 


ZWARMS 




CDCA CE CDF8 


58: 


DONE 


LDX 


KFCB 




CDCD 86 03 


59: 




LDA 


A #OSWC 




CDCF A7 00 


60: 




STA 


A XFC,X 




CDD1 BD D786 


61: 




JSR 


DFM 




CDD^ 26 EB 


62: 




BNE 


ERROR 




CDD6 CE CDE5 


63: 




LDX 


#OKPMPT 




CDD9 BD D2A6 


64: 




JSR 


ZOUTST 




CDDC 7E D283 


65: 




JMP 


ZWARMS 




CDDF 


66: 


FMADDR 


RMB 


2 




CDE1 


67: 


TOADDR 


RMB 


2 




CDE3 


68: 


ATADDR 


RMB 


2 




CDE5 M 


69: 


OKPMPT 


FCC 


/DATA SAVED 


TO DISC/ 


CDF7 00 


70: 




FCB 







CDF8 


71: 


FCB 


RMB 


165 




CD80 


72: 




END 


SVTEXT 





th* wait Is ovtrl 
THC 6502 ASSCMBICA 
for your 8KPCT 
is now available! 

by Joy Balakrishnan 

Now that many 6502 Assembler books are 
available, this Assembler enables you to code 
machine language programs that run 100 or 
more times faster than BASIC 

• Uses 1 tapedrive; almost 1K free for your 
machine language program 

• Handles all opcodes & several pseudo- 
opcodes, and accepts hex/dec. operands 

• Symbols are 6 characters in length, but that 
length is easily modified 

• Versions for old and new ROMs included 

• Comprehensive documentation includes 
separate User & Program Manuals which 
facilitates easy program enhancements 

• Over 25 English language error messages 
also numbered for easy reference 

• GUARANTEED to load or replaced FREE 

only $1 5.95 

Plus $1 Postage • Diskette - Add $2 
(Calif, residents add 6% Sales Tax) 



»^33 




Humon engineered Software 
3748 ingleujood Blvd. Room 11 
Los Rngeles. California 90066 

(213) 398-7259 

dealer inquiries welcomed 



I"" ' "" nrrrrmiiiirrnniiiiuj 






MI OH RELIABILITY F OR TRSOO— I 

I SK OR I VEEE3 

LON HEAT DESI6N-35 TRACK RELIABILITY 

DOUBLE DENSITY COHPATIBILITY-4 DRIVE POKER SUPPLY SAHE V0LTA6E RE6ULATI0N 

SPEED REGULATION-DATA SEPARATION AVAILABLE-TRACK FIDELITY-PERFORMANCE INSTRUCTION 

BARE DRIVE $249.00-4 DRIVES W/PS »1199.00 

CABLE $59.00-4 DRIVES CABINETS * 150. OO 

L_ I IM EE F : " Ft I |Nj~rE£R 

BIDIRECTIONAL-SPECIAL CHARACTERS-GRAPHICS-DOUBLE SIZE 40 C0LUHN-STD80 COLUHN-CONDENSED 132 COLUMN 

SOFTNARE CONTROLS-FEATURES EXPANDABLE-5 COPIES N/0 CARBON-ADJUST I BLE NIDTH FANFOLD PAPER 

SPACE SAVER DESI6N-0NNER HAINTAINABLE-3 MILLION CHARACTER OVERHAUL-SHALL BUSINESS PRINTER 

LINEPRINTER $650. OO-CABLE $59. OO-PAPER * 49.00 

1 <£»K: M EI M O Ft V 
l<bK MEMORY SET $98. OO 

WORD PROCESSING SOFTWARE 
DISK BASIC-SIHPLE TO USE-BU6 FREE-EXPANDABLE NITH HAIL LIST AVAILABLE LATER 
WP4/CMD $79.00 

DELIVERY 4 WEEKS, PAYMENT IN ADVANCE, ADD SHIPPING CHARGES 
TAMO DATA CORPORATION ^ 3S0 

617-872-9666 
100 EAMES STREET, FRAM INGHAM, MA 01701 
***TRS80-I TRADE MARK OF TANDY RADIO SHACK 



* 



I 



S I 



^ Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 135 



Sophisticated software to help you maximize rentals and minimize inventory. 



Computerize Your 
Rent- All Store 



By Charles W. Prather and Hawthorne A. Davis 



We supply businesses with 
custom-programmed micro- 
computers. Through a local rental 
equipment company, we became 
aware of the need for a specialized 
package of programs to help manage 
rent-all businesses. 

The company had seven store loca- 
tions serving eastern North Carolina, 
and the combined inventory includ- 
ed thousands of equipment items. 
The firm wanted to maximize profit 
by controlling equipment distribu- 
tion among the stores according to 
demand. 

In addition, management wanted 
to determine the profitability of each 
rental item, to identify which ones 
should be added to or subtracted 
from the equipment pool. Profitabili- 
ty by store location would also help 
pinpoint where more local advertis- 
ing effort was needed. 

These and other objectives were 
met with the software package we 
developed which we call ARM- 1000 
(for Automated Rental Management). 

Rental Equipment Business 

The American Rental Association 
(ARA) has developed an equipment 



classification scheme in which cate- 
gories of rental items are assigned a 
unique number. For example, ARA 
number 9104 identifies all motor- 
driven trenchers that dig a three-foot 
deep by six-inch wide trench. In addi- 
tion, each trencher owned by the 
business carries its own separate in- 
ventory number so each specific one 
can be identified. 

Rental companies also rent bulk 
equipment. Like the regular equip- 
ment, bulk equipment is identified 
by an ARA number, but the entire 
lot, rather than each piece, carries a 
single inventory number. Examples 
of this type of equipment are scaf- 
folding and party glasses. 

Standard printed contracts are exe- 
cuted for each rental showing equip- 
ment rented, dates and dollar 
amounts. These rental contracts be- 
come the data source to keep the en- 
tire system current. 

Many rental firms consist of a 
headquarters store and a number of 
other stores in nearby towns and 
communities. Though ARM- 1000 
was originally written for a seven- 
store chain, it can easily accommo- 
date more. 



1-MAINTAIN, ADD TO AND UPDATE NUMBERED INVENTORY 

2-MAINTAIN, ADD TO AND UPDATE BULK INVENTORY 

3-MANAGE NUMBERED INVENTORY 

4-MANAGE BULK INVENTORY 

5-MAINTAIN VENDOR REFERENCE FILE 

6-MAINTAIN ARA DESCRIPTION FILE 

7-MAKE BACKUP COPY OF DATA DISK 

8-FINISHED USING SYSTEM 

WHICH ONE? 

Sample 1. Master menu display. 



Software Overview 

We replaced the CCP (console com- 
mand processor) of CP/M with our 
main menu program, so that when- 
ever the reset button on the computer 
is pressed, the system comes up dis- 
playing the main function menu 
(Sample 1). To perform a function, 
you just type its number. 

This main menu program also exe- 
cutes whenever any operating pro- 
gram ends and the system reboots. It 
can be disabled by pressing the es- 
cape key; then, access to any of the 
usual CP/M functions is possible. The 
menu drives seven principle pro- 
grams, which do the major tasks of 
entering data, processing, generating 
reports and making backup copies of 
data and program diskettes. 

Three utility programs were not in- 
cluded in this menu because they are 
used less frequently. They initialize 
the system, initialize new diskettes 
and locate errors in file contents. 
These hidden (nonmenu) programs 
are run by pressing the escape key 
and entering the program's name. 

Following are the menu-driven 
programs and their functions: 

MANAGE generates all the re- 
ports. This is the main rental manage- 
ment program, which locates, sum- 
marizes and presents data in selected 
ways for the standard and the bulk 
inventoried equipment items as de- 
scribed below. 

FMAINT maintains the main in- 
ventory data file, allows data entry 



Charles W. Prather and Hawthorne A. Davis, 
Southern Digital Systems, Inc., Suite 806-A, 
Vernon Park Mall, Kinston, NC 28501. 



$136 Microcomputing, February 1981 



from rental contracts and automati- 
cally updates the financial and rental/ 
repair history for each inventoried 
item each month. A separate but sim- 
ilar maintenance program is used for 
bulk inventoried equipment. 

VENDOR builds and maintains a 
file of vendors and manufacturers. 

ARAMMNT builds and maintains 
a file of ARA numbers and names. It 
also cross-correlates VENDOR.DAT 
and ARADESC.DAT files to rapidly 
find the favored vendor for any speci- 
fied ARA number. 

COPY allows automatic menu-di- 
rected copying of data and program 
diskettes. Verifies the diskette track 
by track. 

Four data files are used, and they 
contain the following data: 

INVENTORY.DAT, the main data 
file, contains 21 data fields describing 
item and vendor and maintaining 
rental income, repair and rate struc- 
ture information. This file also con- 
tains a moving window record of the 
last 12 months' rentals and rental in- 
come for each item. 

VENDOR.DAT contains the ven- 
dor's name, address and two tele- 
phone numbers. 

ARADESC.DAT correlates the 
ARA number with a word descrip- 
tion of the item and the favorite ven- 
dor. The ARADESC.DAT file cross- 
references each ARA number with a 
50-character description string and a 
preferred vendor number. This file is 
also kept sorted according to ARA 
number and is binary-searched by 
the MANAGE program to give the 
word description of any item when 
its inventory number is entered. 

The maintenance program for this 
file can locate a preferred vendor 
when the ARA number is entered in 
typically three seconds. This main- 
tenance program also provides alpha- 
betically and numerically sorted lists 
of those ARA items stocked. 

INVIND.DAT correlates ARA 
number with inventory data file 
pointer. This index file is automati- 
cally kept sorted by the MANAGE 
program. 

We selected Microsoft's Fortran-80 
and 8080 assembly language over 
other popular microcomputer lan- 
guages because their execution 
speed, especially for sorting and lo- 
cating items, is considerably faster, 
and we judged the increased system 
performance would be well worth 
the extra programming work in- 
volved. Our judgment proved to be 
right; routinely sorting the 









PROFITABILITY REPORT 














12 MONTHS ENDING 


10/79 














*♦ 


LOCATION(S) SELECTED 








ARA# 


COP 


ARA# 


COP 


ARA# 


COP 


ARA# 


COP 


ARA# 


COP 


1004/ 





1220/ 





1267/ 





1306/ 





1323/ 





2623/ 





3932/ 





3995/ 





4192/ 





4351/ 





4722/ 





4724/ 





5003/ 





5044/ 





5064/ 





5072/ 





5102/ 





5170/ 





5312/ 





5317/ 





5323/ 





6016/ 





6046/ 





7208/ 





7323/ 


o 


7426/ 





7431/ 





7943/ 










8575/ 





3996/ 





9800/ 





3229/ 


44 


4601/ 


56 


1229/ 


61 


5602/ 


63 


3363/ 


66 


3317/ 


67 


7209/ 


103 


1411/ 


107 


3340/ 


114 


3223/ 


117 


7357/ 


121 


4175/ 


144 


6357/ 


149 


6002/ 


155 


3564/ 


156 


1236/ 


157 




159 


6010/ 


170 


7216/ 


200 

252 


3743/ 
6539/ 


200 
267 


1213/ 
1327/ 


203 
273 


3314/ 
3213/ 


203 
279 


3260/ 
6713/ 


230 
296 


3322/ 


304 


6444/ 


303 


6323/ 


323 


4350/ 


333 


1273/ 


342 


4633/ 


345 


1406/ 


351 


4913/ 




6003/ 




7071/ 


353 


7213/ 


366 


3626/ 


372 


3244/ 


330 


4965/ 


392 


9355/ 


397 


3264/ 


401 


3713/ 


401 


334/ 


413 


6044/ 


421 


3634/ 


^o^ 


1203/ 


429 


6590/ 


429 


1251/ 


432 


2700/ 


440 


3202/ 


474 


5664/ 


474 


1260/ 


476 


7240/ 


430 


3307/ 


482 


5144/ 


433 


9054/ 


434 


3236/ 


491 


5066/ 


495 


1403/ 


500 


3900/ 


512 


5331/ 


517 


3137/ 


521 


5146/ 


525 


2012/ 


S2o 


1213/ 


■AJ 


3217/ 


536 


1007/ 


554 


7358/ 


565 


5134/ 


563 


7345/ 


S. 00 


3524/ 


J7J 


3259/ 


630 


3319/ 


631 


7419/ 


644 


6446/ 


646 


7432/ 
3032/ 


652 
706 


3635/ 
5136/ 


653 
713 


5024/ 
5147/ 


672 
722 


3973/ 

9324/ 


639 
725 


4923/ 
5142/ 


704 
738 


3230/ 


743 


1225/ 


750 


5000/ 


751 


5157/ 


760 


1212/ 


770 


5114/ 


771 


7464/ 


730 


7423/ 


302 


5143/ 


308 


6337/ 


.- < -N 


1404/ 


317 


3544/ 


317 


6320/ 


331 


2656/ 




390 1 / 


343 


1277/ 


357 


7383/ 


368 


1252/ 


339 


5042/ 


391 


6343/ 


901 


3721/ 


903 


3239/ 


913 


8640/ 


926 


5130/ 


929 


— ■ *- ■_' *- / 


946 


6552/ 


991 


1264/ 


1000 


3223/ 


1000 


5143/ 


1009 


4624/ 


1032 


7440/ 


1055 


4950/ 


1076 


1713/ 


1034 


1262/ 


1120 


4939/ 


1 129 


1312/ 


1154 


3275/ 


1154 


5133/ 


1160 


1324/ 


1169 


3242/ 


1201 


3333/ 


1221 


1223/ 


1227 


5026/ 


1261 


3353/ 


1261 


3954/ 


1270 


3335/ 


1293 


8514/ 


1325 


7365/ 


1327 


7104/ 


1355 


5611/ 


1375 


5169/ 


1330 


3552/ 


1336 


6333/ 


1407 


2714/ 


1435 


3574/ 


1457 


3502/ 


1476 


3280/ 


1477 


5036/ 


1433 


1006/ 


1487 


6312/ 


1491 


2240/ 


1500 


1326/ 


1501 


6311/ 


1575 


5067/ 


1530 


2612/ 


1595 


9360/ 


1616 


1414/ 


1622 


1216/ 


1625 


3955/ 


1716 


6310/ 


1725 


5052/ 


1772 


4912/ 


1349 


9004/ 


1373 


5062/ 


1934 


3344/ 


1939 


5613/ 
7435/ 


2043 
2344 


3712/ 
5113/ 


2057 
2400 


6309/ 
1353/ 


2103 
2577 


3993/ 
7400/ 


2172 
2635 


4619/ 
3025/ 


2265 
2710 


1266/ 


2750 


4914/ 


3017 


3996/ 


4627 


1261/ 


5332 





Sample 2. Profitability report by ARA category. COP stands for coefficient of performance and is 
ROIxlOOO. 



ARA# 9054 

INV# LOC SINCE CURRMO 12-MO 
RENTS * RENTS * 



LAST:RTD REP 



COST 



151 L2 11/79 0/ 

152 L2 7/99 0/ 

153 L2 7/99 0/ 

163 L2 7/99 0/ 

164 L2 7/99 0/ 

575 L7 7/99 0/ 

576 L7 7/99 0/ 
377 L4 7/99 0/ 



23/ 
3/ 







o 






2/ 
^3/ 



:92. 9/23/79 7/99 1113.23 

34. 10/29/79 7/99 15.00 

7/15/79 7/99 

9/ 7/79 7/99 



-. .-. 

40i 



-JOO 



13/ 172. 2/ 4/79 7/99 

0/ 0. 7/ 4/70 7/99 

0/ 0. 7/ 4/70 7/99 

0/ 0. 7/ 4/70 7/99 



54.25 
54.25 
90.65 
70.00 
70.00 
70.00 



Sample 3. Tweleve-month rental history for each specific item in ARA category 09054 for all store 
locations. 



INVIND.DAT data file containing 
4000 + items requires only a few sec- 
onds, and locating a single item by 
ARA number requires less than half a 
second. The system response is prac- 
tically instantaneous. 

The key to fast system response is 
to maintain a sorted index of ARA 
numbers referenced to inventory 
numbers in RAM during program 
execution. Locating the correct in- 
ventory number after entering an 
ARA number is fast because only 



RAM is searched and no long disk 
reading is involved. The inventory 
number is arranged so that it is also a 
file pointer to the proper record in the 
INVTORY.DAT data file, allowing 
the disk to immediately find the rec- 
ord and read it. 

Because the ARA index is main- 
tained in RAM, about 7000 items can 
be on line at any one time. Rental 
businesses can manage groups of 
items separately (for example, home- 
owner and contractor equipment), so 



Microcomputing, February 1981 137 



that each group could consist of over 
7000 items, which is large enough to 
satisfy the requirements of most any 
rental store chain. 

The lNVENTORY.DAT file con- 
sists of unformatted records that are 
104 bytes long. However, Microsoft's 
Fortran-80 requires fixed length rec- 
ords of 128 bytes. We did not want to 
waste this extra space on the disk- 
ettes, so we developed a special file 



handler for Fortran-80 which permit- 
ted using random file records of any 
length. The file handler is included 
with ARM- 1000, but we are also mar- 
keting it separately. 

Software Function 

Initial data entry for all rental 
equipment items is time-consuming 
because of the number of items (typi- 
cally 1000 per store location) and be- 



SUMMARY DY LOCATION 
12 MONTHS AVERAGED 
ARA# 9054 



CURRENT MONTH 
LOC NUM RENTALS INCOME 



PERIOD CHOSEN 
RENTALS INCOME 



LI 
L2 
L4 
L5 
L7 



0/ 0.0 

0/ 0.0 

0/ 0.0 

0/ 0.0 

0/ 0.0 



0./ 
0./ 
0./ 
0./ 
0./ 



0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 
0.0 



0/ 0.0 

69/ 13.3 

0/ 0.0 

0/ 0.0 

0/ 0.0 



0./ 

934./ 
0./ 
0./ 
0./ 



COP 
0.0 0.000 
196.3 .739 
0.0 0.000 
0.0 0.000 
0.0 0.000 



Sample 4. Summary of 12-month rental history by ARA category for all locations. 



INV# 13 DESCRIPTIVE 

ARA DESCRIPTION: BED 3/3 SINGLE ROLL AW AY 
MODEL** 1231 SERIAL* 

MANUFACTURER LECGET AND PRATT 
VENDOR LEOOET AND PRATT 

HISTORY 



ARA# 4624 



PURCHASED 2/76 COST 64.73 

LOCATION L2 SINCE 7/76 

LIFE-DATE: 20 RENTALS 173.00 INCOME 



IN SERVICE 7/76 
REPAIRS 0.00 REP-C05T 



RATE STRUCTURE: 730 MIN 
THIS MONTH: RENTALS 



RECENT RECORD 

HR DAY 
INCOME 



7.50 UK 



22.00 MO 



11/73 12/73 1/79 2/79 3/79 4/79 3/79 6/79 7/79 3/79 9/79 10/79 

RENTALS 10 

INCOME 00 32 000000000 

LAST: RENTED 7/17/** REPAIRED 7/99 PAUSE "RET" 

Sample 5. Comprehensive report by inventory number. 



ACTIVE ARA CODES, DESCRIPTIONS AND 
PREFERRED VENDOR CODES 



ARA DESCRIPTION 

1406 BABY CRIB REGULAR 

1411 BABY PLAY PENS MESH TYPE 

1414 BABY STROLLERS 

1408 BABY HIGH CHAIRS 

1404 BABY CRIB PORTA-CRIB TYPE 

4624 BED 3/3 SINGLE ROLLAWAY 

7208 BICYCLE EXERCISE STANDARD 

7209 BICYCLE ACTION BIKE 
8223 CHAIRS ITEM NOT IN BOOK 
9367 COLOR TV SET 15.5 INCH 
7 888 COT PLASTIC METAL 

3230 FLOOR POLISHER 13 TO 15 INCH DIAM 

3213 FLOOR MACHINE 13 INCH POLISHER 

1225 I DON'T KNOW 

9347 NOT LISTED 

3319 REFRIGERATOR SMALL SIZE 

7218 ROLLER MASSAGE 

8344 SANDER BELT 3 IN W/VAC 

9360 TV SET 16 INCH B/W 

3260 VACUUM SMALL 3 GAL 

3259 VACUUM 6 GAL 

326 4 VACUUM UPRIGHT 

72 40 VIBRATORS BELT STANDING 

Table 1. Inventory number, description and vendors. 



VEN 



REC 






3 





5 





6 





4 





2 





14 





15 





16 





20 


120 


24 





19 


92 


8 


92 


7 


4 


9 





22 





13 





17 





21 


120 


23 





11 





10 





12 





18 



cause 21 data fields are entered for 
each item. We streamlined the data 
entry process so that all 21 data fields 
can be entered in 45-60 seconds. 
Once the initial data has been en- 
tered, the system is easy to keep cur- 
rent because the rental dates and dol- 
lar values are entered directly from 
the rental contracts. New items are 
entered and obsolete items are 
dropped using the efficient file main- 
tenance options on the master menu. 
Deleted inventory numbers are auto- 
matically reused when additional 
items would have exceeded the avail- 
able disk storage capacity. 

Output is obtained on the CRT dis- 
play or on a printer. Reports are: 

Profitability report— ARM- 1000 
computes percent return on invest- 
ment (ROI) for each ARA equipment 
category (Sample 2). The heading 
COP stands for coefficient of per- 
formance and is equal to the ROIx 
1000. The profitability report can be 
obtained for the items at any one 
store or at all stores combined. The 
reports are printed beginning with 
the least profitable and ending with 
the most profitable, making it easy to 
single out the group of least- and 
most-profitable items. 

Performance reports by ARA number 
—Two performance reports can be 
produced for any ARA-numbered 
equipment category. The first is a re- 
port showing the detailed 12-month 
rental history for each specific inven- 
tory item in the selected ARA cate- 
gory. This report shows data for all 
store locations (Sample 3). The sec- 
ond summarizes the last 12-month 
rental activity for the selected ARA 
category for all store locations (Sam- 
ple 4). These reports allow a direct 
item-by-item and store-by-store per- 
formance comparison. 

Comprehensive report by inventory 
number— Upon entering any inven- 
tory number, a comprehensive re- 
port is displayed on the CRT showing 
descriptive information, recent per- 
formance, month-by-month perfor- 
mance over the past year, repair rec- 
ord and more for a specific piece of 
equipment (Sample 5). 

Equipment transfers and rental rate 
changes— Reports are printed auto- 
matically whenever equipment items 
are moved from one store location to 
another or whenever the rental fees 
are changed on any item. These re- 
ports help remind employees that 
these important changes have oc- 
curred. 

Inventory number and descriptions/ 



138 Microcomputing, February 1981 





C^-fS 



* ***** _-.*s*«*5. 



VR Data, an international distributor of 
brand name hardware and peripherals 
to both business and personal users, 
has been a leader in sales and service 
since 1972. 

The Centronics line of dot-matrix and 
correspondence quality printers is 
known world-wide for its high quality 
and exceptional reliability. 

Centronics printers are designed for 
heavy use while their reasonable price 

L makes them the obvious choice for 
even small applications. 
Centronics offers a wide range of 
printers to satisfy even the most 
demanding applications. 
Call VR Data today. 



ORDER NOW (1) 800-345-8102 • IN PENNSYLVANIA (215) 461-5300 




MODEL III HEADQUARTERS 

• Call for Prices and Delivery Schedule • 



MODEL III DISK DRIVES 

Add drives to your Mod. Ill and 
get FREE INSTALLATION. 

Complete upgrade 

including drive, 

power supply, 

controller, and 

mounting hardware. 

Additional drive $249. 

80 Track drives add $150 each 

complete warranty. 



$ 599 




16K 



MEMORY FOR 
MODEL III 



*49J 



MODEL I DISK DRIVES 

40 TRACK $340. 
80 TRACK $499. 
90 day warranty 



EXTENDED 1 YEAR 
WARRANTY $/|C 

FOR MINI DISK DRIVES ^T^ 



CALL FOR PRICES ON OTHER BRANDS OF HARDWARE AND PERIPHERALS. 



WE SERVICE MANY BRANDS OF COMPUTER EQUIPMENT. 

CALL FOR CONSULATION AND ESTIMATE. 

^ DEALER INQUIRES INVITED • BIDS ACCEPTED • ABOVE PRICES ' 

777 HENDERSON BLVD. ARE CASH DISCOUNTED, CALL FOR OTHER TERMS. 

FOLCROFT. PA 19032 ORDER NOW • TOLL FREE 1 (800) 345 8102 • IN PENNSYLVANIA (215) 461 5300 




~ 



Microcomputing, February 1981 139 



VENDOR NO. 


VENDOR NAME 


9 


ACE HARDWARE/UNITED SURPLUS CO 


6 


ACROPRINT TIME RECORDER CO 


268 


AGRI SUPPLY GARNER 


221 


AJAY ELECTRIC MOTORS 


11 


ALAN MFG. CO. 


184 


ALDRIAGE POWER CO 


4 


ALL MAKES MACHINE CO. 


161 


ALLISON AND ERWIN CO 


243 


ALLIS 


223 


AME 


7 


AMERICAN HARDWARES EQUIPMENT CO 


176 


AMERICAN LINCOLN 


202 


AMERICAN VALUE 


3 


AMERICAN PNEUMATIC TOOL CO. 


2 


AMERICAN PRODUCTS 


5 


APEX FOUNTAIN SALES, INC. 


10 


ARC ELECTRICAL REPAIR 


38 


ARMOUR-DIAL, INC 


190 


ARVIN 


173 


ATWATER STRONG 


8 


AUTO GENERATOR & STARTER SERVICE 


22 


B & W AUTO PARTS, INC 


19 


BALDWIN COOKE CO. 


20 


BANNER AND LAY, INC 


12 


BARNES MOTOR & PARTS CO 


14 


BELCO IND 


231 


BELLEVILLE SPECIALTY TOOL 


186 


BENO J. GUNDLACH CO. 


15 


BERGER INSTRUMENTS 


191 


BIG BLUE STORE 


264 


BILCO INDUSTRIES 


213 


BINKS 


178 


BLACK & DECKER 


16 


BLUE BIRD INTERNATIONAL 


17 


BOSCH (ROBERT CORP) 


159 


BROOKS SERVICE CO 


160 


BROOKS AND BROOKS LIMITED 


13 


BROWN OIL CO, INC 


23 


BULLDOG ENTERPRISES, INC 


18 


BURGESS, INC 


21 


BURLINGTON COMPRESSOR SERVICE, INC 


211 


BURTON IND/SAA 


94 


C A NASH & SON CO 


200 


CAL-VAN 



Table 2. Alphabetical vendor list with file numbers. 



vendors— Equipment items, along 
with their associated ARA numbers, 
are listed and referenced to the 
preferred vendor (Table 1). This list 
can be sorted both alphabetically and 
numerically by ARA number. 

Vendor list— Vendors are listed al- 
phabetically along with their associ- 
ated file numbers (Table 2). 

Hardware Requirements 

Hardware is typical; nothing spe- 
cial is required. Diskettes are eight- 
inch single or double density, soft 
sectored. Because of the size and 
complexity of the programs and the 
data stored in memory during pro- 
gram execution, 64K RAM is re- 
quired. If the single density format is 
used, three eight-inch disk drives are 
needed, but with double density two 
drives are adequate. 

Our specific hardware configura- 
tion included a Tarbell disk interface, 
a TEI 3p + 3s I/O Board (one printer 
and one CRT port), a TEI 8080 
CPU, Central Data Corp. 64K Dynam- 
ic RAM, Shugart or Siemens eight- 
inch disk drives, a Soroc IQ-120 ter- 
minal and a serial or parallel 
printer. ■ 



SAVE! SAVE! SAVE! 

We have discounts, free shipping and 
a TOLL FREE NUMBER available 

Call Us! 800/531-7466 



TRS~80's 



Microcomputers 



*W1 



Pan American 
Electronics 



1 I (MflClOUS 

a i sax* 

J <W'.JU0US 

« ftf 

5 i s'surjfc 



INCORPORATED 

Texas and Principle Number 512/581-2765 
Telex Number 767339 
Department K 
1117 Conway 
Mission, Texas 78572 



Radio /hack 

AUTHORIZED SALES CENTER 



MasterCard 



140 Microcomputing, February 1981 



COMP 
CASE 




ATTACHE STYLE CASES FOR CARRYING AND PROTECTING A COM- 
PLETE COMPUTER SET-UP CONSTRUCTED OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY 
LUGGAGE MATERIAL WITH SADDLE STITCHING WILL ACCOMMODATE 
EQUIPMENT IN A FULLY OPERATIONAL CONFIGURATION ALONG WITH 
MANUALS. WORKING PAPERS AND DISKS NEVER A NEED TO REMOVE 
EQUIPMENT FROM CASE SIMPLY REMOVE LID. CONNECT POWER AND 
OPERATE LID CAN BE REPLACED AND LOCKED FOR SECURITY AND 
PROTECTION WITHOUT DISCONNECTING CABLES FULLY TESTED 

ft AP101S Apple and Single Disk Drive $109 

9 AP102D Apple and Double Disk Drive 119 

ft AP103M Apple, 9 inch Monitor and Double Drive 129 

ft RS201 TRS-80. Expansion Unit and Double Drive 109 

ft RS202 TRS-80 Monitor and Accessories 84 

ft P401 Paper Tiger Printer 99 

ft P402 Line Printer ll-Centronics 730 89 

ft CC90 Matching Attache Case 75 



CQflPJTER CASE CQPIPflNV ^320 

5650 INDIANA MOUND CT COLUMBUS OHIO 43213 
(614) 868-9464 





NOW. . .Continuous Checks 

That Can be Used With or Without Your Computer/ ! 
The Best in A Home Checking System 



That's right. Continuous Checks in a 3-to-a-page 
desk set design that can be computer printed or 
handwritten - just as you now do your present 
home checks. 

VERSATILE 

Our checks are not a high-volume businessform 
adaptation. They're especially designed for the 
home or low volume user Now, you don't have 
to change your check writing habits just to use 
your computer. 

THOUGHTFUL FEATURES 

Programming? Easy. All stub and check informa- 
tion is on the same line No need to change 
tractor width either. Our checks are standaru 
9Vi" width for tractor feed printers. 

COMPLETE HOME SYSTEM 

When you've finished printing your monthly 
checks on your computer, store your checks and 
stubs in our attractive Data Ring Binder Check- 
book. Later, if you have a few checks to write 
there's no need to load them into a printer - just 
write a check right there at your desk as shown 
above. 

And, you can mail your checks in our dual 
windowed envelopes to eliminate addressing 
chores. 



UNIQUE 

You won't find checks like these at any bank or 
forms company. Even so, our special small 
quantity printing process will give you quality 
and appearance equal to any check supplier. 

Color co-ordinated imprinting is standard on 
blue, grey, tan, or green checks. 

Standard imprinting and encoding is as shown 
above (logos and multi-color printing are 
optional). 

Our prices are reasonable too. Two Hundred 
checks are just $29.95 (envelopes $11.95). 
Five Hundred checks are $49.95 (envelopes 
$23.95) Data Ring Checkbooks are only $5.95 

Special "ORDER NOW" Offer 

If you order now, we'll send you a checkbook 
FREE. You'll save $5.95. Just enclose a voided 
check (for encoding information) with your 
payment. (VISA - MasterCharge orders must 
show signature, expiration date, and account 
number). Or, send today for samples (sorry, we 
can't make this free offer on requests for 
samples) To: 



SYNERGETIC 
SOLUTIONS 



4715 SHEPHERD RD 
MULBERRY, FL 

^237 3386 ° 



DISK DRIVE WOES? PRINTER INTERACTION? 
MEMORY LOSS? ERRATIC OPERATION? 

DON'T BLAME THE SOFTWARE 

Power Line Spikes, Surges & Hash could be the culprit! 
Floppies, printers, memory & processor often interact! 
Our unique ISOLATORS eliminate equipment interaction 
AND curb damaging Power Line Spikes, Surges and Hash. 



Clear up Software and System problems 
with an ISOLATOR! 



ALL ISOLATORS: • 125 VAC, Standard 3 prong plug 

• 1875 W MAX Load - 1 KW/Socket or socket bank 

• Balanced Pi Filtered sockets or socket banks 

• Spike/Surge Suppression - 1000 Amps, 8/20 usee 
(SUPER ISOLATORS offer expended filtering and 

Spike/Surge Suppression capabilities) 




ISO 1 



ISO-1 A -3 individually filtered sockets 

ISO-4 -6 individually filtered sockets 

ISO- 2 -2 filtered banks; 6 sockets 

ISO 5 3 Altered banks; 9 sockets 




IS02 



$ 56.95 
96.95 
56.95 
79.95 




IOS6 




IS07 



•SWITCHABLE ISOLATORS - ALL ISOLATOR advantages 
combined with the versatility, convenience and utility of indi- 
vidually switched sockets. Each switch has associated pilot 
lite. 

ISO-6 -3 switched, filtered sockets $128.95 

ISO-8 -5 switched, filtered sockets 161.95 

•SUPER ISOLATORS - Cure for severe interference problems. 
Useful for Industrial applications and heavy duty contro//ed 
equipment or peripherals. 

• Dual Balanced Pi Filtered sockets 

• Spike/Surge Suppression • 2000 Amps, 8/20 usee 

ISO- 3 3 super filtered sockets $ 85.95 

ISO- 7 5 Super- filtered sockets 139.95 



•CIRCUIT BREAKER any model (add CB) . ADD 
•CKT BKR/SWITCH/PILOT any model (CBS) ADD 



PHONE ORDERS 1617 655 1532 ^93 

L±U Electronic Specialists, Inc. 

171 South Main Street. Natick. Mass 01760 
Dept. KB-B 



7.00 
14.00 




J 



^ Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 141 



Part 2 of this music synthesis article explores the computation of data for waveform tables and describes 

an experimental KIM-based synthesis system. 



Simulation of 
Musical Instruments 



By Hal Chamberlin 






In Part 1 we devised a method of 
synthesizing multiple tones with 
any waveform desired. The question 
now becomes, "How do you deter- 
mine what samples to put into a 
waveform table?" 

Perhaps the simplest method is to 
draw one cycle of the waveform on 
graph paper and then laboriously 
read off 256 sample values and enter 
them into the table. The drawn shape 
could come from an oscilloscope pho- 
to of a musical instrument sound or 
from imagination. The drawn shape 
must span exactly 256 grid lines in ex- 
actly one cycle to be valid. You could 
also make use of a light pen or graph- 
ic digitizer in conjunction with a 
drawing program to do the same 
thing with much less effort. 

The biggest problem when using 
imagination is that there is no simple 



AMPLITUDE 

I 



1 



TIME 



A. ORGAN 




C PIANO 




1 



D. TRUMPET 



Fig. 1. Typical instrument amplitude envelopes. 



relation between the appearance of 
the drawn shape and the resulting 
timbre. Thus, if a particular shape 
produces a sound that is close to what 
is desired, there is no way to know 
what must be changed to make it 
sound even closer. 

Filling the Waveform Tables 

Probably the best way to fill wave- 
form tables is to write a program that 
accepts harmonic specifications, 
computes the corresponding wave- 
shape and automatically enters it into 
memory. There is a very definite cor- 
relation between the harmonic make- 
up of a tone and its timbre. You can 
also occasionally find published har- 
monic analyses of musical instru- 
ment tones, particularly organ pipes. 

Listing 1 shows a very simple BA- 
SIC program that can be used to cre- 
ate waveform table data and poke it 
directly into memory. The state- 
ments starting at line 3000 first am- 
plitude-normalize the waveform, 
convert the samples into integer form 
in the range of to 63 (to avoid over- 
flow when four are added up) and 
then poke them into memory. 

The biggest advantage of using har- 
monics to specify waveforms is that 
alias distortion can be readily avoid- 
ed. Alias distortion occurs whenever 
any frequency component of a wave- 
form exceeds one-half of the sam- 
pling frequency. This can easily hap- 
pen with high notes using waveforms 
rich in harmonics. 

For example, if you attempt to play 
high C (523 Hz) using a waveform 
with ten significant harmonics 
through an 8 kHz sample rate system, 
the eighth, ninth and tenth harmon- 
ics will alias, since they will be 4184, 
4707 and 5230 Hz, respectively, all 



above four kHz. Aliasing means that 
intended frequencies are altered and 
usually produces an objectionably 
harsh sound. Thus, waveform tables 
used to play high notes should have 
their upper harmonics restricted, 
while those for low notes may have 
dozens of significant harmonics if de- 
sired. 

Musical Instrument Synthesis 

After some experimentation with 
different waveforms and types of 
music, you will discover that a wide 
variety of tone colors is possible, but 
the tones always sound like an organ. 
Of course, the organ is the most ver- 
satile of conventional musical instru- 
ments, but digital synthesis should be 
able to do better. One of the reasons 
for an organ-like sound is that only 
continuous, sustained tones can be 
generated by simple waveform table 
scanning. In other words, the ampli- 
tude envelope is rectangular, as 
shown in Fig. la. Many instruments 
have other shapes, such as those in 
Figs, lb, lc and Id. 

The standard method of adding an 
amplitude envelope to a sound is to 
pass it through a variable-gain ampli- 
fier and vary the gain in accordance 
with the desired envelope shape. In 
digital synthesis this is equivalent to 
multiplying the samples representing 
the sound by an amplitude factor that 
changes as the note progresses. The 

Hal Chamberlin is vice president of Research and 
Development for Micro Technology Unlimited, 
Box 12106, Raleigh, NC 27605. Active in electron- 
ic sound synthesis since 1966 and in computer mu- 
sic synthesis since 1970, he has authored numer- 
ous magazine articles and has recently published a 
book entitled Musical Applications of Micropro- 
cessors. 



142 Microcomputing, February 1981 



1000 REM WAVEFORM TABLE FILL PROGRAM 

1001 REM ENTER HARMONIC NUMBER FOLLOWED BY RELATIVE AMPLITUDE 

1002 REM HARMONIC NUMBER=0 FILLS THE TABLE AND EXITS 
1010 DIM W(256): Z = 6 . 283 1 85/256 

2000 FOR 1=0 TO 255: W(I)=0: NEXT I 

2010 PRINT "ENTER HARMONIC NUMBER " ; : INPUT N 

2020 IF N=0 GOTO 3000 

2030 PRINT "ENTER RELATIVE AMPLITUDE ";: INPUT A 

20U0 FOR 1=0 TO 255: W( I ) =W( I )+A«SIN( N»I»Z ) : NEXT I 

2050 GOTO 2010 

3000 M=0 

3010 FOR 1=0 TO 255 

3020 IF ABS(W(I))>M THEN M=ABS(W(I)) 

3030 NEXT I 

30H0 PRINT "ENTER ADDRESS OF WAVEFORM TABLE ";: INPUT A 

3050 FOR 1=0 TO 255 

3060 POKE A+I,INT(31 . 5»W( I ) /M+32 ) 

3070 NEXT I 

9999 STOP 

Listing 1. Waveform Table Fill program in BASIC. 



series of amplitude factors could 
come from an envelope table that is 
scanned just like the waveform table 
but much more slowly. 

Adding overall envelope control 
certainly improves the variety of 
sounds available and is frequently 
enough to give reasonable simula- 
tions of common musical instru- 
ments. However, rather than spend- 
ing a lot of time explaining how over- 
all envelope control can be added to a 
table-scanning digital synthesis sys- 
tem (which mainly involves methods 
for eliminating time-consuming mul- 
tiplication), let's go all the way and 
include timbre envelopes as well. 

To some extent the sound of all in- 
struments changes its waveform dur- 
ing the course of a note. Consider, for 
example, the "waaahhh" of a muted 
trombone or the "twaanng" of a gui- 
tar. The change in character of the 
sound during the notes is what makes 
these instrument sounds so distinc- 
tive. In terms of synthesizing these 
and similar sounds, it is the harmonic 
composition, as well as the overall 
amplitude, of the waveform that 
changes gradually. 

The standard method of adding a 
timbre envelope to a sound is to pass 
it through a variable filter and vary 
the cutoff or center frequency and Q 
factor in accordance with the desired 
effect. In digital synthesis you have to 
use a digital filter, which involves 
several multiplications per sound 
sample. This is just not practical in a 
real-time microcomputer-based sys- 
tem, so some other method must be 
found. But first we need a way to vi- 
sualize timbre envelopes so that they 
can be specified. 

Fig. 2a shows a simplified decaying 
waveform of a plucked string. The 
overall amplitude envelope is quite 



similar to that of Fig. lb, but the 
waveform itself also changes shape. 

At the very beginning, the second 
harmonic is actually stronger than 
the fundamental. The second har- 
monic is responsible for the crook in 
the waveform near the baseline. 
However, as the waveform decays, 
the second harmonic decays faster 
than the fundamental and thus the 
crook gradually disappears. Eventu- 
ally, the second harmonic fades out 
completely, leaving just a decaying 
sine wave. This is reasonable behav- 
ior for a plucked string because high- 
frequency vibrations encounter great- 
er losses in strings than low-frequen- 
cy ones do. 

Fig. 2b shows one way of repre- 
senting this behavior in meaningful 
terms. The solid line shows the am- 
plitude envelope of the fundamental, 
while the dotted line shows the enve- 
lope of the second harmonic. We can 
find out the harmonic composition of 
the tone at any point in time by erect- 
ing a vertical scale at that point and 



reading off the amplitude of each har- 
monic as shown. The same idea will 
work for any number of harmonics. 

Now, how can we modify the tone 
generator routine described last 
month for varying waveforms? The 
secret is to arrange for the waveform 
table address bytes, which are nor- 
mally constant, to change while the 
table scanning is taking place. Thus, 
while the tone is sounding, the syn- 
thesis program is actually switching 
through a sequence of waveform ta- 
bles. If the switching is fairly rapid 
and the contrast between adjacent 
waveform tables is small, the audible 
effect is that of a smooth transition. 
The idea is not unlike that of a se- 
quence of image frames giving the il- 
lusion of smooth motion in a movie. 

Fig. 3a illustrates this concept by 
showing the resulting stair-step ap- 
proximation to the smooth harmonic 
envelopes in Fig. 2b. In this example 
only eight waveform tables are used; 
in a practical situation it is common 
to use between 15 and 30 of them. 
Fig. 3b shows the resulting wave- 
form, which even for this coarse ex- 
ample bears a remarkable resem- 
blance to the ideal case in Fig. 2a. 

In the actual implementation of 
waveform table switching, the con- 
cept of a waveform sequence table is 
introduced. The waveform sequence 
table is nothing more than a table of 
waveform table addresses. This extra 
level of indirection is very little prob- 
lem in a microprocessor such as the 
6502, and it has many benefits. 

While a note is sounding, a pointer 
scans through the sequence table at 
uniform speed just as the waveform 
pointer scans through the waveform 
table, but more slowly. In the pro- 
gram implementation, the time 




TIME 



A WAVEFORM 



AMPLITUDE 

li 



75 



25 



FUNDAMENTAL 
2nd HARMONIC 




TIME 



B INDIVIDUAL HARMONIC ENVELOPES 



Fig. 2. Simplified characteristics of a plucked string. 



Microcomputing, February 1981 143 



031E 


650E 




ADC 


V2IN 




0320 


8503 




STA 


V2PT 




0322 


A504 




LDA 


V2PT+1 




0324 


650F 




ADC 


V2IN+1 




0326 


8504 




STA 


V2PT+1 




0328 A506 




LDA 


V3PT 


VOICE 3 


032A 


6510 




ADC 


V3IN 




032C 


8506 




STA 


V3PT 




032E 


A507 




LDA 


V3PT+1 




0330 


6511 




ADC 


V3IN+1 




0332 


8507 




STA 


V3PT+1 




0334 


A509 




LDA 


V4PT ; 


VOICE 4 


0336 


6512 




ADC 


V4IN 




0338 


8509 




STA 


V4PT 




033A 


A50A 




LDA 


V4PT+1 




033C 


6513 




ADC 


V4IN+1 




033E 


850A 




STA 


V4PT+1 




0340 


CA 




DEX 




DECREMENT & CHECK TEMPO COUNT 


0341 


D008 




BNE 


TIMWAS ; 


BRANCH TO TIME WASTE IF NOT RUN OUT 


0343 


C614 




DEC 


DUR ; 


DECREMENT & CHECK DURATION COUNTER 


0345 


F00C 




BEQ 


ENDNOT 


JUMP OUT IF END OF NOTE 


0347 


A615 




LDX 


TEMPO 


RESTORE TEMPO COUNT 


0349 


D0B9 




BNE 


PLAY1 


CONTINUE PLAYING 


034B 


DOOO 


TIMWAS: 


BNE 


.+2 


; 3 WASTE 12 STATES 


034D 


DOOO 




BNE 


.+2 


3 


034F 


DOOO 




BNE 


.+2 


i 3 


0351 


D0B1 




BNE 


PLAY1 


; 3 CONTINUE PLAYING 


0353 


60 


ENDNOT: 


RTS 




| RETURN 
TOTAL LOOP TIME =115 STATES = 8695 HZ 






Remainder < 


of core sound-generation routine from Part 1. 



equalization instructions are replaced 
with instructions to move four point- 
ers through their respective wave- 
form sequence tables at a rate of one 
increment each time register X 
(TEMPO) times out. 

One advantage of using a sequence 
table is that waveform switching can 
be rapid when there is rapid change 
in the harmonic envelopes and less 
rapid at other times, thus cutting 
down on the number of waveforms 
needed and memory usage. Another 
advantage is that waveforms do not 
have to be stored in memory in the 
order that they are used. This allows 
such tricks as playing through the at- 
tack sequence backwards for the de- 
cay sequence to save on memory. 

Another trick is to cycle through a 
few waveforms during the sustain of 
a note to impart a sort of warble ef- 
fect on notes. A strumming effect can 
also be created in this manner. You 
can even construct several sequence 
tables for the same set of waveforms 
to take care of differences in duration 
and articulation from note to note. 

The results of adding waveform ta- 
ble sequencing to the earlier synthe- 
sis routine, which was done primari- 
ly by Frank Covitz, are astounding. 
Attempts at simulating plucked string 
sounds result in a real plucked sound, 
and you can easily tell the difference 
between a plucked string and a 
struck string (not possible without 
timbre envelopes). Blown instru- 
ments sound blown, and bowed in- 
struments sound bowed. You can 
even get reasonably nice-sounding 



bells, even though true bell tones are 
decidedly inharmonic and therefore 
cannot be duplicated by simple 
waveform table scanning. 

Many of the instrument definitions 
sets of harmonic envelopes) that 
lave been experimented with are 
based on computer analyses of musi- 
cal instruments published in the 
Computer Music Journal by James A. 
Moorer (see references). 

One particularly successful instru- 
ment simulation done by Cliff Ash- 
craft has been a piano. To cover the 
wide range of the piano, it is neces- 
sary to define several instruments, 
one for each octave. This is because 
the quality of piano sound varies in 
different pitch ranges due to differ- 
ences in string construction and the 
fact that the sounding board has a fi- 



AMPLITUDE 

I 



nite mass. Music played with his pi- 
ano definitions is amazingly realistic, 
just like a real piano in the next room. 
Consult the references for a full de- 
scription of the system. 

This article is not primarily con- 
cerned with simulating existing musi- 
cal instruments with a microcomput- 
er. The real interest, and future of 
computer music synthesis, is in 
dreaming up entirely new instrumen- 
tal sounds and composing scores that 
complement them. 

Tone color as a musical variable is 
just as important as pitch and rhythm 
and may become more so, since pitch 
and rhythm composition has been ex- 
perimented with for centuries, 
whereas timbre composition has only 
recently been possible. Convincing 
simulation of existing musical instru- 
ments is an important milestone be- 
cause most conventional musical in- 
struments produce very complex 
sounds. Doing a good job on them im- 
plies the capability to begin exploring 
timbre space without a lot of restric- 
tions. 

Delayed-Playback 
Digital Synthesis 

While, you can do amazing things 
with real-time software digital syn- 
thesis on a microcomputer, the com- 
promises, shortcuts and relatively 
low sample rates necessary leave 
something to be desired in the area of 
fidelity. The faster microprocessors 
that are beginning to appear (both 
higher clock frequency standard 
units and the new 16-bit units) will 
certainly improve the capability of 
real-time software synthesis. A 6502 
running at 3 MHz, for example (which 
is currently available), could produce 
eight voices at a 12 kHz sample rate 



-*TIME 



I 2 3 4 5 

WAVEFORM TABLE NUMBER 

A HARMONIC COMPOSITION OF WAVEFORMS IN SEQUENCE 




B WAVEFORM CORRESPONDING TO A 



Fig. 3. Example synthesis of a plucked string. 



144 Microcomputing, February 1981 



The 6502 Resource Magazine 

ATARI • COMM 



• • • 



TelePET 



Adding 



The PtT 

port Word Pro 

Converter 



RE PET 

ESS"" 

MlklU.. 

KIDS FOR 
COMPUTERS 



aioier «°° d 
^Xciured 

<or»* e 




.f* 6 * 



"^ 






SCREENDOMP 

^ W ore 2Sn 

SeVec«o° 



±ejree , °noi 









Oo 



!4ave J WT 



«•>" * 






Reading the 

ATARI 
Keyboard ott Mo 

the fly 



ATARI BASIC 

Variable- Field 

Length 

Random 

Access Files 

On The 2040 ^ 

Disk Drive ^,*G>* x ?a% 1 



■ 

■ 










A few entry point, 
original /upgrade, 
4.0 ROM 









** ..<■<>* 




We're going monthly in January, providing even more up-to-date, useful information 
for owners and users of 6502 based computers. 

US: 12 issues, $16.00 Canada: 12 issues, $18.00 U.S. funds 
Surface Mail, All other countries: $20.00 U.S. Funds 

COMPUTE P.O. Box 5406 Greensboro. NC 27403 USA 
Dealer Inquiries Invited • 919 275-9809 



A I AM, f'h. I . APPLE and OSI are trademarks of Atari, Int , Co mm odo r e Business Machines, Inc., Apple Computers, In* . ami Ohio Scientific, In< in that ordet 



^ 315 



^ Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 145 



Now Break Through The 64K 
Micro-Memory Limit! 




SIXTEEN 

Bank Selectable 16K Static RAM 



r 




SAVE $50.QO 

LIMITED TIME OFFER 

Don't buy any more antique RAMs (RAM without 
bank select) — now there's Netronic's new 
SWEET SIXTEEN board featuring a universal soft- 
ware bank select system. SWEET SIXTEEN is 
capable of addressing 2.048 different banks. 
With SWEET SIXTEEN boards you can add mem- 
ory beyond the 64K limit, or expand to a multi- 
terminal system 

LOOK AT THESE FEATURES: 

• 300 NS. low power 2114s 

• Software Bank Selector — Universal decoder 
works with Cromenco, Alpha Micro. Netronics. most 
other systems, or your design Onboard dip 
switches Bank Select Enable Reset Enable, Reset 
Disable, Port Address. Port Data 

• All Inputs And Outputs meet the proposed IEEE 
standards for the S- 100 bus 

• 4.0 MHz Operation 

• Schmitt Trigger Buffer on all signals for maximum 
noise immunity 

• Addressable On 16k Boundaries. 0-64k. dip 
switch selectable 

• Phantom Option, dip switch selectable 

• PWR/MWRITE Option, dip switch selectable 

• LEO Indicator to display status. 

• Glass Epoxy PC Board with gold-plated contacts 
and double-sided solder mask 

• Fully Socketed. 

• Four Separate Regulators for maximum stability. 

10- Day Money- Back Policy For Wired & Tasted 
Unit- Try a fully wired board — then either keep it, 
return it for kit or simply return it in working condi- 

Cont mental USA Credit Card Buyers 



Outside Connecticut: 



CALL TOLL FREE: 
800-243-7428 

From Connect icnt Or For Assisfsnce 
(203) 354 9375 

Please send the items checked below 

G SWEET SIXTEEN kit; No S 16 (reg price 

$249 .95) now $199 95* 

SWEET SIXTEEN, fully assembled, tested. 

burned in; No. S-16W (reg price $289 95) 

now $239 95* 
'Plus $2 postage & insurance Connecticut residents 
add sales tax 

Total Enclosed $ 

n Personal Check □ Money Order /Cashier's Check 



D VISA G Master Charge (Bank No 

Acct No Exp Date. 

Signature 

Print 

Name 



.) 



Address 

City 

State 



Zip 



ISMYETRONICS 



RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, LTD. 
333 Litchfield Rd New Milford. CT 06776 



KB2 



•..« 



SCORE PREPARATION 



SYNTHESIS COMPUTATION 



PLAYBACK 



STANDARD 

TEXT 

EDITOR 






SCORE 
FILE 



MUSIC 

INTERPRETER 
SYNTHESIS 
ROUTINES 




SOUND 

FILE 



PLAYBACK 
PROGRAM 




Fig. 4. Delayed-playback software synthesis system. 



for fidelity similar to good AM radio 
reception. However, there are still a 
number of musical features missing 
which are needed for a truly versatile 
system for interest to the majority of 
musicians and listeners. 

For example, bending notes (gradu- 
ally changing their pitch), true vibra- 
to, percussion instrument synthesis 
and singing voice synthesis are all 
needed to penetrate the contempo- 
rary music idiom (perhaps this is why 
Bach is so often performed with com- 
puters). With delayed playback, any 
or all of the compromises may be 
eliminated, the sample rate and DAC 
accuracy may be increased to true hi- 
fi levels, and any desired musical fea- 
ture that can be defined can be imple- 
mented. 

Fig. 4 shows a block diagram of a 
delayed-playback software synthesis 
system as it might be implemented 
on a microcomputer. Playing a musi- 
cal selection is actually a three-step 
process. 

In the first step a machine-readable 
score is entered or edited from a pre- 
vious run. Typically, the score file on 
disk is just a standard ASCII text file, 
so a standard text editing program is 
sufficient. In advanced systems other 
methods of score entry, such as 
graphical input with a light pen, joy- 
stick or digitizer or even direct input 
from a mu$ic keyboard, are possible. 
In any case, the result of the first step 
is an integrated score and instrument 
definition file on disk. 

In the second step, a music inter- 
preter program, which also contains 
all of the synthesis routines, reads the 
score file, carries out the indicated 
synthesis operations and writes a 
sound file on disk. While the majority 
of your work is spent creating and 
editing the score file, the vast majori- 
ty of machine work is spent comput- 
ing the sound file. 

Computing a minute of final sound 
may take anywhere from five min- 
utes to whatever CPU time you can 
tolerate, depending on the sample 
rate, number of simultaneous voices 
playing and the sophistication of the 



synthesis techniques. Most of this 
time is spent in arithmetic subrou- 
tines, so a microprocessor with auto- 
matic multiply (such as the 6809, 
9900 and all of the new 16-bit units) is 
a distinct advantage. 

In the playback step, a highly spe- 
cialized program reads the sound file 
from disk and sends the sound sam- 
ples to the DAC at a uniform rate. 
When high-resolution DACs (ten bits 
or more) are used, the uniformity of 
sample rate becomes critical to mini- 
mize jitter distortion. In order to 
achieve such uniformity while the 
program is also handling data read- 
back from the sound file, the DAC 
must generally be equipped with its 
own sample clock and at least one 
level of data buffering. 

A Delayed-Playback System 

I implemented an experimental de- 
layed-playback software digital syn- 
thesis system and demonstrated it at 
the PC '80 computer show in Phila- 
delphia this fall. It runs on the 
6502-based KIM-1 microcomputer 
equipped with 16K of RAM and a Mi- 
cro Technology Unlimited (MTU) 
disk controller, which adds another 
16K. Two Siemens eight-inch floppy 
disk drives are used, and the double- 
density capability of the MTU con- 
troller is utilized. 

An experimental 12-bit digital-to- 
analog converter with an additional 
three bits of gain control is used to get 
a theoretical dynamic range equiva- 
lent to a 16-bit DAC. The gain control 
is not yet utilized by the software, 
however. An important feature of the 
experimental DAC is a 256 sample 
first-in-first-out buffer which allows 
the sample stream from the computer 
to be interrupted for milliseconds at a 
time without affecting the smooth 
flow of data to the DAC itself. 

When floppy disks are used to hold 
the sound file, the disk format is an 
important determinant of the maxi- 
mum playback data rate. While the 
normal CODOS disk operating sys- 
tem software (which is used to pre- 
pare the score file) uses the standard 



146 Microcomputing, February 1981 



IBM disk format of 26 sectors of 256 
bytes each, the total diskette capacity 
is only about 512K bytes. 

A different format consisting of 16 
sectors of 512 bytes is used for the 
sound file and gives 630K bytes per 
disk, a 23 percent increase in poten- 
tial data rate and capacity. In order to 
read YYiTCfagri \he sound file at high 
speed, it is mandatory to be able to 
read all of the sectors on a track in 
one revolution of the disk. In addi- 
tion, you must be able to step to the 
next track without waiting for a 
whole revolution before reading 
again. Staggering the sector numbers 
by three on adjacent tracks is utilized 
to accomplish this. The resulting sus- 
tained average data rate from the disk 
can approach 40K bytes per second. 

The actual playback program cur- 
rently uses a 20 kHz sample rate with 
12-bit samples for a total data rate of 
30K bytes per second. At this data 
rate, an eight-inch diskette holds 
about 21 seconds of sound. Going to 
double-sided disks would double the 
capacity to 42 seconds. Minidisks 
have about half the capacity, but 
more important, only half the maxi- 
mum data rate. 

The synthesis and computation 
phase of a performance is relatively 
straightforward on the experimental 
system. The score file is read from 
drive using CODOS, and the sound 
file records are written onto drive 1 
using a set of specialized disk driver 
routines. When a sound disk is filled 
up, the synthesis program waits for a 
new disk to be inserted into drive 1. 

When the playback program is 
called in, CODOS is disabled and the 
operator is expected to put the first 
sound disk in drive and the second 
one in drive 1. When playback starts, 
the first 21 seconds of sound are read 
from drive and then an immediate, 
inaudible switchover to drive 1 is 
performed. During the next 21 sec- 
onds, the operator must remove 
sound disk 1 from drive and insert 
disk 3 to be read when disk 2 is ex- 
hausted. You can switch back and 
forth like this indefinitely for music 
of any duration; the performance at 
the PC '80 show required 23 disks for 
eight minutes of sound. 

The problem in using this system is 
not the disk jockeying required dur- 
ing playback but the changing of 
disks during computation. With the 
music selected for performance, a 
new disk was required about every 
15 to 30 minutes, which means that 
the computation cannot be left to run 





EXORciser-compatible 
MACROMODULES™ 

NOVEX introduces the first in a series of highly innovative, cost effective, and 
feature packed microcomputer boards. All are fully compatible with the Motorola 
*EXORciser bus and * Micromodule series. * Motorola Trademark 



the PACHYDERM™ 

THE MASSIVE MEMORY CARD 
WHICH NEVER FORGETS 

• UP TO 256 KB, INCLUDING PARITY, 
ON ONE BOARD! 

• 5V OR 12V BATTERY BACKUP 

• LOW COST: UNIT PRICE, 64K x 9- $975 
EACH ADDL.64K x 9- $500 

AND MUCH MORE! 



the CONTROLLER ™ 

CONTROLS FOUR 8" OR 5'/4" FLOPPIES, 
SGL/DBL SIDED, SGL/DBL DENSITY 
CONTROLS PRIAM 8" OR 14" HARD DISCS 
DMA AND PRIORITY INTERRUPT CONTROL 
CLOCK/CALENDAR WITH BATTERY BACKUP 
UNIT PRICE -ONLY $995 
PACKAGED FLOPPY/HARD DISK SYSTEMS 
WITH 6809 SOFTWARE ALSO AVAILABLE 



nOVeX NOVEX, INC., P.O. BOX 3006, GAITH., MD 20760 



RECESSION PUTTING A 
BITE ON YOUR BUSINESS? 

Inventory going wild? Receivables out of control? Cash flow bind hurting? 

Being deluged with paperwork that just won't quit? Before you throw money away 
chasing after over priced, over sized computers. 

TALK TO US 



about low cost, effective alternatives. Small 
Business Systems Group is in the business of help- 
ing small business people survive our country's 
economic rollercoaster by providing the kind of 
small computer system which really fits both your 
business and your budget. And gives you room for 
future growth. 




6 Carlisle Road 

Westford. MA 01886 
(617)692-3800 

SMALL BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS GROUP 

v^ 143 




THE SPIKE-SPIKERtm 



with transient absorber and filters 



Computer Power Console 

s Protects computer equipment from 
most power line transients 

^ Provides convenience of plugging all 
computer equipment into one unit and 
simply switching the equipment on and 
off in required sequential order 



^ Provide RF hash" filtering between 
computer and motorized equipment in 
the computer system, home or office 
to help prevent interference 

*s Eliminates constant plugging and 
unplugging of power cords 



$59.95 



The Spike-Spiker has 8 individually switched 1 20 VAC outlets divided into two rows of separ- 
ate filtered circuits of 4 outlets each main on off switch fuse and indicator light Prewired and 
ready to use' 

Plug your CPU interlace etc in one filtered set of 4 outlets and your disks and printer in the 
other set of 4 outlets This allows RF hash' filtering to help prevent interference between the 
the computer and its peripheral motorized equipment 




nao® 



® ^222 

ELECTRONICS CO., INC. 



Dept. MC 

6584 Ruch Road E. Allen Twp. 
Colony Drive Ind. Pk. 
Bethlehem, PA 18017 



OUT OF STATE 
800-523-9685 
215-865-0006 



TRS-80 & OTHER NEEDS FILLED FOR LESS 



+ + + COMPATIBLE DISK DRIVES WITH POWER SUPPLY AND CASE- 120 DAY WARRANTY + + + 

♦ 40 TRACK (204,800 BYTE/DISK) USE BOTH SIDES. ANTI-CRIMP/POWER PROTECT $319 

• 8 IN. DRIVE & PS/CASE $729 WITH PS/CASE FOR 3 DRIVES $929 

* 8C TRACK (204.8K BYTE) 90 DAY WARRANTY $419 

• 4-DRIVE CABLE $28 •• 10 DISKS-5 IN (a $24-8 IN (a $36HARD CASE $3 & 5 



BASE 2 PRINTER $599 



EPSON MX-e0 PRINTER $499 MICROLINE 80 PRINTER $529 



CABLE (a $ 25 
$790 



•CENTRONICS 737 $729 + + + + + 

• HARRIS SELECTRIC (WORD PROCESSING TYPEWRITER & PRINTER) 

• LOWER CASE FOR CENTRONICS 779/RADIO SHACK LINE PRINTER 1 EASY INSTALL $99.95 

• UPS (UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY) PREVENT POWER DROP SURGE OR OUT? FROM $195 
•CAT MODEM (ORIG/ANS) $144 + + + + + + + + 16K MEMORY SET (200 NANO) $39 

• 16K MODEL III RADIO SHACK SYSTEM $849 
•APPLE, ATARI, RADIO SHACK MODEL 1/2 HARDWARE/SOFTWARE DISCOUNTED. A/R, A/P, G/L, P/R FOR 
$200 or $59 M. (MODEL 1) & $329 or $60 ea. (MODEL 2). APPLICATIONS INTERACT & ARE COMPLETE & 
PROFESSIONAL WILL RUN ON OTHER COMPUTERS THIS IS A SPECIAL INTRODUCTORY PRICE 

• ASK FOR FREE FLYER WITH OUR LOW PRICES— DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED MASS RESIDENTS ADD 
5% TAX— FOB. TEWKSBURY — FREIGHT EXTRA 

M/C, VISA OR CHECK ACCEPTED TRS-80 IS A REG TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP 



^105 



OMNITEK SYSTEMS — 24 MARCIA JEAN DR.. DEPT-M, TEWKSBURY, MA01876 CALL617-851 3156 



v* Reader Service— see page* 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 147 



overnight vyith any degree of benefit. 
Clearly, a 10 megabyte hard disk 
would be advantageous here. 

The experimental delayed synthe- 
sis program does about the same 
things as the real-time synthesis pro- 
gram mentioned earlier. The major 
differences are an essentially unlim- 
ited number of voices, interpolation 
between waveform table entries and 
interpolation between adjacent 
waveform tables in the sequence 
rather than sudden switching. It 
won't be considered complete until 
the musical features described previ- 
ously are implemented. 

The Future 

While these developments may 
seem exciting now, the future is like- 
ly to see many more exciting things 
happen in the field of music synthesis 
on microcomputers. The sophisticat- 
ed programmable synthesizer boards 
will undoubtedly become more so- 
phisticated and gradually come down 
in price. Today's square- wave syn- 
thesizer chips will probably be sup- 
plemented by programmable wave- 
form synthesizer chips that use direct 
memory access to automatically scan 



waveform tables in memory. 

The most exciting prospects are in 
the software synthesis area, how- 
ever. The processors used in personal 
systems will gradually get faster at 
the machine-language level, which 
will increase the capability and fideli- 
ty of real-time software synthesis. 
Even a simple step up to 16 bits, 
which is inevitable, will nearly dou- 
ble the speed of the core sound rou- 
tine, giving both more voices and a 
higher frequency range. Because of 
the very low cost of including a DAC 
in the circuitry of a computer, most 
future systems will probably contain 
built-in DACs. 

On the delayed-playback front, ex- 
perimental systems such as the one 
just described will reach full develop- 
ment and make it possible to produce 
significant music of commercial val- 
ue with microcomputers. Even the 
very general and powerful MUSIC- 11 
system (truly the ultimate in sound 
synthesis flexibility) has already been 
implemented on the LSI- 11 micro- 
computer (used in the Heath HI 1 and 
Terak systems), and it is only a mat- 
ter of time before it is available for 
the more common microcomputers. 



The decreasing cost and increasing 
capacity of small hard disks will also 
make using a delayed-playback type 
of system much more convenient and 
increase the fidelity even further. ■ 

References 

1. Mathews, Max, The Technology of 
Computer Music, MIT Press, Cam- 
bridge, MA, 1969. 

2. Moorer, J. and J. Grey, "Lexicon 
of Analyzed Tones,' Computer Music 
Journal, vol. I, number 1, 1977, p. 4 
and succeeding issues. 

3. Chamberlin, Hal, "A Sampling of 
Techniques for Computer Perfor- 
mance of Music,' September 1977, 
Byte. 

4. Chamberlin, Hal, "Advanced 
Real-Time Music Synthesis Tech- 
niques," April 1980, Byte. 

5. Chamberlin, Hal, Musical Applica- 
tions of Microprocessors, Hayden 
Book Co., Rochelle Park, NJ. 



The two real-time digital synthesis pro- 
grams described in this article, along with 
the necessary digital-to-analog converter, 
may be obtained froir* Micro Technology 
Unlimited, Box 12106, Raleigh, NC 27605. 



TIP 29C 

Power Transistor TO-220 
Case lamp 30 watts 100 
volt NPN Limited Quanti- 
ty 3 for $1 .25 



2111 SPRAG 
FM Detector & Limiter 
Full Data $1.25 



PMD-11K-60 

60 Volts HFE 800-20K 

12 Amps. PNP TO-3 8**^.? 
150 Watts By Lambda 

$1.50 



ME*' 



D to A CONVERTER 
MC1408L6 Each 

While They Last $4.95 



4K By 1 

STATIC MEMORY 

MK4104-4 $4.50 Ea. 



MICROWAVE DIODE 

For Down Converters 
5082 - 2835 $1.50 or 5 For $6.00 



MICRO MINI 
TOGGLE SWITCHES 

6 for $5 with hardware. 



&4KC -"(OHk 



99$ 



EACH 



SG3501A VOLTAGE REGULATOR BY SILICON GENERAL 

14 Pin Dip. ± 15V Regulator - Great for OP AMP 

Supplies — Output Adjustable For ± 10V to ± 23V — 

Thermal Shutdown Protected. 

• $.75 Each or 3/S2.00 • 



SEND FOR FREE FALL CATALOG 



Digital Research: Parts 

(OF TEXAS) 
P.O. BOX 401247C GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-2461 



Push Button Switch - Normally Closed 

6/$ 1.25 



74177 Binary Counter/Latch 

Divide by 2, 4, 8, 16. Presetable input $.60 



10 Ohm Button Trim Pot 



4/$1 .00 



SWITCH 

Same type as used on 
some computer boards. 
$.69 Each DPST or can 
be arranged SPDT. 

5 For $2.50 



OPCOA CLOCK #R1200 AC 

12 Hour Format. 12 Volt Operation. .3 Inch Display. Has Radio 
(Alarm) Output. Complete with On-Board Switches and 4 Pin 
connection for easy hook up. With Data. 

Add 60Hz Time Base for DC Operation. 

SUPER SPECIAL 2/8.00 or $4.28 each 

Plug in transformer and all parts to make clock operational $2.20. 



TERMS: Add 50* postage, we pay balance Orders under $ i5 add 75C 
handling. No COD. We accept Visa, MasterCharge and American Ex- 
press cards Tex. Res. add 5% Tax. Foreign orders (except Canada) add 
20% P&H . 90 Day Money Back Guarantee on all items 



148 Microcomputing, February 1981 



the ULTIMATE in 
CHEAP VIDEO 



BOOK & KIT 
ONLY $42.95 




Don Lancaster s "Cheap Video'concept allows almost 
unlimited options, including: 

* Scrolling- Full performance cursor. 

* Line Character formats of 16/32, 24/80 32/64 
or almost anything. 

* Graphics up to 256 X 256 B&W; 96 X 128 COLOR 

(requires low-cost option modules) 

* Works with 6502 , 6800 and other micros. 

SPECIAL OFFER: Buy the Kit (uppercase alpha 
numeric option included) & get the Book at 1/2 price. 

^ 106 milX ELECTRONICS. DEPT K . 1020 W WILSHIRE BLVD OKLAHOMA CITY OK 73116 



I'm Sold. PLEASE RUSH ( ) SEND FREE CATALOG 

( ) TVT 6 5/8 Kit & Cheap Video Cookbook $42.95 
( ) TVT -6 5,8 Kit only (book required for assembly) $39.95 
name: 



address: 
city: 



state: 



Zip: 



ELECTRONICS Dept. K2 1020 WILSHIRE BLVD. OKLAHOMA CITY. OK 73116 



Super Special 

Apple II 16K 

$950.00 



INTEGRAL DATA 
SYSTEMS 

440G: Paper Tiger 

with Graphics; 
2K Buffer 

460: Word 

Processing Quality 

460G: IDS460w/Graphics 



$950 

reg. $1095 

$1099 

reg. 1295 

$1199 

reg. 1395 



reg 1195 00 



Centronics 737 

High Quality Dot Matrix 

{Apple Silentype 

Includes interface and 
graphic capabilities 

[Apple Parallel Int. 
Apple Serial Int. 
Centronics Parallel Int. 



$895 

reg. 995.00 

$535 

reg. 595.00 



$160 

reg. $180 

$175 

reg. $195 

$185 

reg. $225 



DOUBLE VISION 

DISK II 

with controller 

without controller 
MICR0M0DEM 
PASCAL 

LEEDEX MONITOR 
KG-12C 

Green Phosphor 

12" Screen w/ Glare Cover 

18 MHz bandwidth 



$295.00 

$525.00 
$445.00 
$325.00 
$425.00 
$140.00 
$275.00 



The Computer Stop 

16919 Hawthorne Blvd. 
Lawndale. CA 90260 

(213)371-4010 



16K RAMS for 

APPLE II (ten 

TRS-80 5>Dy 



^ 105 



MON. - SAT. 

10-6 



AUTHORIZED TRS 80* DEALER #R491 





26-1062 

Model III 16K RAM 
Model III, BASIC 




26 - 4002 

Model II, 64K 



$875.00 $3500,00 



26-1056 

16K Level II with Keypad 

$670.00 

WE ACCEPT CHECK, MONEY ORDER, OR 
PHONE ORDERS WITH VISA OR MASTER 
CHARGE. SHIPPING COSTS WILL BE ADDED 
TO CHARGE ORDERS. DISK DRIVES, PRINT- 
ERS, PERIPHERALS, AND SOFTWARE - 
YOU NAME, WE'VE GOT IT. 
WRITE OR CALL FOR OUR COMPLETE 
PRICE LIST. 

C& S ELECTRONICS, LTD. 32 EAST MAIN ST. MILAN, MICH. 48160 
(313) 439-1 508 (31 3) 439-1 400 



FULL FACTORY WARRANTY 
ON ALL ITEMS SOLD. 



^79 



C & S ELECTRONICS MART IS AN AUTHORIZED TRS 80® SALES CENTER STORE #R491 



^ Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 149 



Simplify operator effort and save disk space, too. 



A Print Utility for CP/M 



By Ken Barbier 



If only I had a dollar for every time I 
have entered 

PIP LST: = FILENAME.PRN 

and gotten a garbage printout of an 
assembly-language program listing 
because I forgot to include [T8] on the 
end of the command line! 

The peripheral interchange pro- 
gram (PIP) supplied with the CP/M 
operating system can perform a host 
of functions, including formatting of 
output to a line printer, but it insists 
that you tell it to expand the tabs. For- 
get the [T8], and your listing will be 



all jammed together. And I a/ways 

forget. 

In addition to amnesia, I also suffer 
from laziness. Every unnecessary 
keystroke on a computer terminal is 
an insult to humanity (I dare you to 
ask me what I think of Pascal). Since I 
can't remember all the magic words 
required by PIP, I wrote the Print 
program shown in Listing 1. 

Operating Print 

Now when I want a printout of a 
file named (in this example) FILE- 



Listing 1. Assembly-language Print program. 



t f\ F>RIM"T UTILITY FOR CP/M 6 MARCH 80 * 

THIS PROGRAM PERMITS THE SIMPLE ENTRV OF "PRINT FILENAME N" 
TO PRODUCE N COPIES OF THE NAMED . PRN FILE. IF N IS NOT 
SPECIFIED. IT DEFAULTS TO 1. 

OTHER FILE TVPES MAV BE SPECIFIED IF DESIRED. TAB* ARE 
EXPANDED TO 8 SPACES. AND A FORM FEED IS OUTPUT EACH 60 LINES 
AND A - THE END OF THE FILE. 



* CP/M BDOS ADDRESSES 



oooo 


■ 


RBOOT 


EQU 





0005 


= 


BDOS 


EQU 


5 


005C 


■ 


FCB 


EQU 


5CH 


007C 


- 


FCBN 


EQU 


FCB+32 


0065 


s 


TVPE 


EQU 


FCB+9 


006D 


■ 


QTV 


EQU 


FCB+17 


0080 


= 


INBUF 


EQU 


80H 






* CP/M 


BDOS 


FUNCTIONS 


0001 


= 


READF 


EQU 


1 


0002 


■ 


TVPEF 


EQU 


2 


0005 


■ 


LISTF 


EQU 


5 


000B 


= 


INTRF 


EQU 


11 



RE-BOOT CP/M 

BDOS CALL ENTRV 

DEFAULT FILE CONTROL BLOCK 

RECORD COUNT 

FILE TVPE 

NUMBER OF COPIES 

DEFAULT DMA ADDRESS 



READ CONSOLE INTO <A> 
WRITE CONSOLE FROM <E> 
WRITE LIST DEUICE FROM <E> 
TEST CONSOLE INTERRUPT 



NAME. PRN, I simply have to enter 

PRINT FILENAME 

and out comes a listing, with tabs ex- 
panded to eight spaces, and with 
form feeds for each page and for the 
end of the listing. 

Lacking one of the exotic word pro- 
cessors, I often use the ED program 
of CP/M to write letters, notes, oper- 
ating instructions, product data 
sheets and similar examples of short 
texts. I usually need more than one 
copy of such items and use a PRINT 
command to produce multiple copies 
(up to 255). Simply enter 

PRINT FILENAME 5 

and out come five copies of FILE- 
NAME.PRN. If the file to be printed 
has a file type other than PRN, it can 
be specified in the usual manner: 

PRINT FILENAME.TYP 

where .TYP agrees with the file type 
specification in the disk directory. 

Print Program Features 

The program is most useful on a 
single disk drive CP/M system but is 
fully compatible with multi-drive 
systems. When loaded, the program 
will pause and prompt the operator to 
place the read disk in the drive. This 
lets you print a file that is not on the 
same disk as the PRINT.COM file. 



Ken Barbier, Borrego Engineering, PO Box 1253, 
Borrego Springs, CA 92004. 



150 Microcomputing, February 1981 



After printing is complete, the pro- 
gram again pauses, allowing another 
swap of disks before reloading the 
CP/M operating system. These 
pauses make life with a single disk 
drive system a little easier, but can be 
patched out of the program if not 
needed. 

The minimum size of any file on a 
CP/M system is IK bytes, and PRINT 
fits easily within IK. This lets you in- 
clude operator prompts and error 
messages that are fully spelled out 
and easily understood. 

For example, if a read checksum 
error is encountered when the file to 
be printed is being loaded into the 
computer memory, the program dis- 
plays 

READ ERROR! ENTER X TO ABORT 
CR TO IGNORE _ 

and pauses, giving you the option of 
entering "X" to return to the operat- 
ing system or entering a carriage re- 
turn to ignore the error and print the 
data as read. 

Other types of errors which are not 
recoverable are also flagged on the 
console, and a pause lets you swap 
disks before returning to the operat- 
ing system. 

If the file to be printed is larger 
than the available memory in the 
computer, it will be read into mem- 
ory and printed in segments. Multi- 
ple copies are still possible with large 
files, since the file is rewound at the 
end of each printout. 

All disk operations and I/O are han- 
dled through the CP/M standard 
BDOS call, which is vectored through 
a jump instruction at memory loca- 
tion 5, so the program as listed should 
be compatible with any version of 
CP/M. 

Add a Program and Gain 5K 

In "CP/M for Single-Drive Sys- 
tems" (Kilobaud Microcomputing, 
September 1980, p. 94), I listed a File- 
copy program for use on single disk 
drive CP/M systems. With such a sys- 
tem—typically consisting of a com- 
puter, one terminal, one printer and a 
single disk drive— there is little need 
for most of the features provided by 
PIP. Adding Filecopy and Print to 
your systems disk can eliminate the 
need for PIP, which takes up 7K 
bytes of disk space. Each of the new 
programs fits in IK, so erasing PIP re- 
sults in a net gain of 5K bytes. On a 
single-density minifloppy system, 
this provides an increase of more 
than 10 percent in the available user 
workspace !■ 



Listing 


1 continued. 










GOOF 


m 


OPEN 


EQU 


15 


; OPEN FILE 




OG11 


■ 


FIND 


EGU 


17 


i FIND FILE IN DIRECTORV 




0014 




REftD 


EQU 


20 


i READ FILE 








* CONTROL CHARACTERS AND CODES 






0G7F 


= 


RUB 


EQU 


7FH 


. RUBOUT CHARACTER 




001A 




EOF 


EQU 


1AH 


i END OF FILE IN BUFFER 




0009 


31 


TAB 


EQU 


9 


i TAB CHARACTER 




OOGC 


= 


FFEED 


EQU 


OCH 


i FORM FEED CHARACTER 




0100 






ORG 


0100H 


; TPA PROGRAM START ADDRESS 




0100 


C3GC02 




JMP 


START 


i GO TO PROGRAM START 








* CONSOLE I/O 


THROUGH BDOS CALL 






0103 


E5 


CI 


PUSH 


H 


; SAUE REGISTERS 




0104 


05 




PUSH 


D 






0105 


C5 




PUSH 


B 






0106 


0EG1 




MUI 


C. READF 


i READ FUNCTION 




0108 


CD050G 




CALL 


BDOS 


i RETURN CHAR IN <A> 




oioe 


CI 




POP 


B 


i RESTORE OTHER REGISTERS 




010C 


Dl 




POP 


D 






0100 


El 




POP 


H 






010E 


C9 




RET 








010F 


E5 


CO 


PUSH 


H 






0110 


05 




PUSH 


D 






GUI 


C5 




PUSH 


B 






0112 


5F 




MOU 


E. A 


; PRINT CHAR TO <E> 




0113 


0E02 




MUI 


C. TVPEF 






0115 


CD050G 




CALL 


BDOS 






0118 


CI 




POP 


B 






0119 


Dl 




POP 


D 






G11A 


El 




POP 


H 






G11B 


C9 




RET 








one 


E5 


LO 


PUSH 


H 






ono 


05 




PUSH 


D 






OUE 


C5 




PUSH 


B 






011F 


5F 




MOU 


E. A 






0120 


0EG5 




MUI 


C. LISTF 






0122 


CDG500 




CALL 


BDOS 






0125 


OEOB 




MUI 


C. INTRF 


LOOK FOR OPERATOR 




0127 


CDG500 




CALL 


BDOS 


INTERRUPT 




012ft 


E6G1 




AN I 


1 


IN LS BIT 




012C 


CA3701 




JZ 


LOX 






G12F 


CD0301 




CALL 


CI 


IS IT A RUBOUT? 




0132 


FE7F 




CPI 


RUB 






0134 


CftESOl 




JZ 


EXIT i 


VES. QUIT 




0137 


CI 


LOX 


POP 


B 






0138 


01 




POP 


D 






0139 


El 




POP 


H 






G13A 


C9 




RET 








G13B 


3EGD 


CCRLF 


MUI 


A. ODH 


CR LF TO CONSOLE 




0130 


CD0FG1 




CALL 


CO 






0140 


3E0A 




MUI 


A. OAH 






0142 


C30F01 




JMP 


CO 






0145 


3E0D 


LCRLF 


MUI 


A. ODH i 


CR LF TO LIST DEUICE 




0147 


CD1C01 




CALL 


LG 






014ft 


3E0ft 




MUI 


A. GAH 






014C 


C31C01 




JMP 


LO 






014F 


El 


MSGXP 


POP 


H 


OUTPUT MESSAGE AND RETURN 




0150 


7E 


MSGX1 


MOU 


A.M 


THROUGH <H. L> 




0151 


FEGO 




CPI 





TEXT TERMINATOR = 




0153 


CftSOGl 




JZ 


MSGEX 






0156 


CD0F01 




CALL 


CO 






0159 


23 




I NX 


H 






015ft 


C35001 




JMP 


MSGX1 






01 50 


23 


MSGEX 


I NX 


H 


POINT TO TEXT ♦ 1 




015E 


E9 




PCHL 


1 


AND RETURN THERE 








* PRINT 


UTILITY 


CONSOLE MESSAGE SUBROUTINES 




G15F 


CD3BG1 


RDMSG 


CALL 


CCRLF s 


PROMPT FOR READ DISC 




0162 


CD4F01 




CALL 


MSGXP 






0165 


5245414420 


DB 


'READ DISC IN DRI 


UE. THEN CR ' 




0181 


OG 




DB 


G 






0182 


CD03G1 


RDMS1 


CALL 


CI 8 


GET RESPONSE 




0185 


FE58 




CPI 


'X' ; 


ALLOW EXIT 




0187 


CftOGOO 




JZ 


RBOOT 


BACK TO CP/M 




013ft 


FEGO 




CPI 


ODH 


ACCEPT CR ONLV 




018C 


C282G1 




JNZ 


RDMS1 






018F 


CD3B01 




CALL 


CCRLF : 


ACKNOWLEDGE 




0192 


C9 




RET 


1 


AND RETURN 




0193 


CD3BG1 


RDERR 


CALL 


CCRLF 


SHOW READ ERROR 




0196 


CD4F01 




CALL 


MSGXP 






0199 


5245414420 


DB 


'READ ERROR! ENT 


ER X TO ABORT ' 




01B7 


ODOft 




DB 


ODH. GAH 






01B9 


2G202G202G 


DB 


> 


CR TO IGNORE ' 




0109 


OG 




DB 









010ft 


CDG301 


RDER1 


CALL 


CI 


ACCEPT CR OR X 




01DD 


FE58 




CPI 


'X' 






01DF 


CftE8Gl 




JZ 


EXIT 






01E2 


FEGO 




CPI 


ODH 






01E4 


C8 




RZ 


• 


RETURN MEANS IGNORE 




01E5 


C3DftGl 




JMP 


RDER1 


READ ERROR 




01E8 


CD4FG1 


EXIT 


CALL 


MSGXP 


(More ^ / 





Microcomputing, February 1981 151 



The days of complicated, unreliable, 
dynamic RAM are gone: 




INTRODUCING 




$199 



the ultrabyte memory board 

QC I complete kit \ 

%M w y*vith 16K memory] 



Netronics consistently offers innovative products at un- 
beatable prices. And here we go again — with JAWS, 
the ultrabyte 64K S100 memory board. 
ONE CHIP DOES IT ALL 
JAWS solves the problems of dynamic RAM with a 
state-of-the-art chip from Intel that does it all. Intel's 
single chip 64K dynamic RAM controller eliminates 
high-current logic parts . . . delay lines . . . massive 
heat sinks . . unreliable trick circuits. 
REMARKABLE FEATURES OF JAWS 
Look what JAWS offers you: Hidden refresh . . . fast 
performance ... low power consumption . . . latched 
data outputs .200 NS 4116 RAMs . . . on-board 
crystal 8K bank selectable . . fully socketed . . . 
solder mask on both sides of board . . . designed for 
8080. 8085. and Z80 bus signals . . . works in Explorer. 
Sol. Horizon, as well as all other well-designed S100 
computers. 

GIVE YOUR COMPUTER A BIG BYTE OF MEMORY 
POWER WITH JAWS— SAVE UP TO $90 ON 
INTRODUCTORY LIMITED-OFFER SPECIAL PRICES/ 



,UII 

I 



I 



UNDECIDED? TRY A WIRE) ISK JAWS IN YOUR COMPUTER ON OUR 
JO-DA Y MONEY BACK OFFER (SPECIFY YOUR COMPUTBV 



CONTINENTAL U S A CREDIT CARD IUVERS OUTSIDE CONNECTICUT CAU 



^^^ From Conntcticut Or Far Ataman 

ISNNETRONICSI 



KB2 



CALL TOLL FREE 800-243-7428 

From Connacticut Ot For Am nunc • (203) 354 9375 

'research & 
Idevelopmentltd 

333 Litchfield Road. New Mi Iford.CT 06776 

Please send the items checked below 
G JAWS 16K RAM kit. No 6416. $199.95.* 

□ JAWS 1 6K RAM fully assembled, tested, burned in. 
No. 6416W. $229.95.* 

n JAWS 32K RAM kit. No 6432. (reg. price $329.95). 
SPECIAL PRICE $299 95* 
JAWS 32K RAM fully assembled, tested, burned in. 
No. 6432W. (reg. price $369.95). SPECIAL PRICE 
$339.95.* 

□ JAWS48K RAM kit. No 6448. (reg. price $459.95). 
SPECIAL PRICE $399.95.* 

□ JAWS 48K fully assembled, tested, burned in. No 
6448W. (reg. price $509.95). SPECIAL PRICE 
$449.95.* 

JAWS 64K RAM kit. No. 6464. (reg. price $589.95). 
SPECIAL PRICE $499.95* 
JAWS 64K RAM fully assembled, tested, burned in. 
No. 6464W. (reg. price $649.95). SPECIAL PRICE 
$559.95* 

n Expansion kit. JAWS 16K RAM module, to expand 
any of the above in 16K blocks up to 64K. No. 16EXP 
$129.95* 

•All prices plus $2 postage and handling. Connecticut 
residents add sales tax. 

Total enclosed. $ 

G Personal Check □ Money order or Cashiers Check 

□ VISA n MASTER CHARGE (Bank No ) 

Acct. No. Exp. Date 

Signature , 

Print Name _ 

Address 
City 



State 

G Send me more information 



Zip 



Listing 1 continued. 



G1EB 
G1ED 
OlFB 
01FC 
GUFF 
026 1 
0204 
0206 
0209 



GGGA 

4241434B; 

00 

CD03G1 

FEOD 

CAGGOO 

FE53 

CrtOOOO 

C2FC01 



OB ODH. OAH 

:0 DB 'BACK TO CP/M? 

DB 

EXIT1 CALL CI 

CPI ODH 

JZ RBOOT 

CPI 'X' 

JZ RBOOT 

JNZ EXIT1 



i WAIT FOR CR OR X 



AS ONLV LEGAL RESPONSE 



02GC AF START 


XRA 


A 


CLEAR CONTINUATION AND 


0200 32DAG3 


STA 


CONTD 


RELOAD FLAGS 


0210 32DBG3 


STA 


RELOD 




0213 3C 


INR 


A 


. DEFAULT PRINT QTV = 1 


0214 32DC03 


STA 


COUNT 




0217 216500 


LXI 


H. TVPE 


SET FILE TVPE TO . PRN 


021 A 7E 


MOU 


A. M 


IF NOT SPECIFIED 


02 IB FE20 


CPI 


/ * 




0210 C22802 


JNZ 


STAR1 




0220 3650 


MUI 


M. 'P' 




0222 23 


I NX 


H 




0223 3652 


MUI 


M. 'R' 




0225 23 


I NX 


H 




0226 364E 


MO I 


M. 'N' 




0228 216D0G STAR1 


LXI 


H. QTV 


GET PRINT QUANT I TV 


022B 7E 


MOU 


A.M 


IF ANV 


022C FE20 


CPI 


/ * 




G22E CA5S02 


JZ 


PRNIN 


ELSE CONTINUE 


0231 D63G 


SUI 


30H : 


STRIP ASCII 


0233 320C03 


STA 


COUNT ; 


AND SAUE QUANT I TV 


0236 23 


I NX 


H 




G237 7E 


MOU 


A.M 


ANOTHER DIGIT-' 


G238 FE2G 


CPI 


/ t 




G23A CA5802 


JZ 


PRNIN 


NO. CONTINUE 


G230 CDCBG3 


CALL 


MULT I 


VES. COUNT * 1G > <C> 


G24G 7E 


MOU 


A.M 


ADD NEW LS DIGIT 


0241 D630 


SUI 


3GH 




G243 31 


ADO 


C 




G244 32DCG3 


STA 


COUNT ; 


FOR TOTAL 


G247 23 


I NX 


H 




0248 7E 


MOU 


A.M 


GET LAST DIGIT 


0249 FE2G 


CPI 


* 


IF ANV 


G24B CA58G2 


JZ 


PRNIN 




G24E CDCBG3 


CALL 


MULT I 




G251 7E 


MOU 


A.M 




0252 D630 


SUI 


3GH 




0254 81 


ADD 


C 




G255 320CQ3 


STA 


COUNT 




* INPUT 


THE PRINT FILE 




0258 CD3BG1 PRNIN 


CALL 


CCRLF 


SIGN ON MESSAGE 


G25B CD4F01 


CALL 


MSGXP 




025E 43502F4D20 


DB 


'CP/M PRINT UTILITY U80. G 6 MAR 80' 


G281 ODOA 


DB 


GDH. OAH 




0283 OG 


DB 







G284 CD5FG1 


CALL 


RDMSG 


PROMPT FOR READ DISC 


G287 115CGG 


LXI 


D. FCB 


LOOK FOR FILE 


028A GE11 


MUI 


C.FIND 


BEFORE GOING AHEAD 


G28C CDG5GG 


CALL 


BDOS 




G28F FEFF 


CPI 


255 


DOES FILE EXIST? 


0291 C2B3G2 


JNZ 


PRNI1 


VES. READ IT 


G294 CD3BG1 


CALL 


CCRLF 


NO. GIUE UP 


0297 CD4FG1 


CALL 


MSGXP 




G29A 46494C4520 


DB 


'FILE DOES NOT EXIST! 


02AF OG 


DB 







G2B0 C3E8G1 


JMP 


EXIT 




02B3 21G0GG PRNI1 


LXI 


H. 


ZERO LINE AND 


02B6 22D8G3 


SHLD 


DSAUE 


CHAR COUNTERS 


G2B9 21DD03 


LXI 


H. BUFFR 


. INITIALIZE POINTER 


G2BC 22D603 


SHLD 


HSAUE 


INTO BUFFER 


02BF 115CG0 


LXI 


D. FCB 


; USE FILE CONTROL BLOC! 


G2C2 GEGF 


MUI 


C. OPEN 


AND OPEN THE FILE 


02C4 CDG5GG 


CALL 


BDOS 




02C7 FEFF 


CPI 


255 


i ERROR? 


G2C9 C2E8G2 


JNZ 


PRNI2 




G2CC CD3BG1 


CALL 


CCRLF 


I VES. SHOW IT 


G2CF 554E41424C 


DB 


'UNABLE TO OPEN 


FILE! ' 


02E4 GG 


DB 







G2E5 C3E801 


JMP 


EXIT 


; AND ABORT 


02E8 U5C0G PRNI2 


LXI 


D.FCB 


; READ A RECORD 


G2EB GE14 


MUI 


C. READ 




02ED CD05GG 


CALL 


BDOS 




02FG FEGG 


CPI 





; GOOD READ? 


G2F2 CAFDG2 


JZ 


PRNI3 


VES. STORE IT 


02F5 FEG1 


CPI 


1 


i OR END OF FILE^ 


G2F7 CA23G3 


JZ 


RDEND 


l VES 


G2FA CD93G1 


CALL 


RDERR 


i NO, SHOW ERROR 


G2FD 2AD603 PRNI3 


LHLD 


HSAUE 


i STORE THE RECORD 


03GG 118000 


LXI 


D. INBUF 




G3G3 0E8G 


MUI 


C. 8GH 




G3G5 1A PRNI4 


LDAX 


D 




G306 77 


MOU 


M. A 




G307 23 


I NX 


H 




0308 13 


I NX 


D 




03G9 GD 


DCR 


C 




G3GA C2G5G3 


JNZ 


PRNI4 




03GD 22D6G3 


SHLD 


HSAUE 


1 AND NEXT ADDRESS 


G31G 3AG70G 


LDA 


7 


i ANV MEMORV LEFT^> 


0313 3D 


DCR 


A 




0314 BC 


CMP 


H 




0315 C2E802 


JNZ 


PRNI2 


i VES. KEEP READING 


G318 AF 


XRA 


A 


; NO. SET FLAGS /< 


0319 2F 


CMA 







152 Microcomputing, February 1981 











THE ROBB REPORT 



%• 



-».,. xi* t 






> : ■■*.- 



.■U. .< i> 



1 I 



I 



III 








^Hfcg^j 



I-S- 



ii-aw iimimiT" 




HSS 





THE ROBB REPORT, published monthly, is the market place for the buyer seller and 
trader who appreciates the finer things in life. Listed for sale are hundreds of new and previously 
owned antique and classic motor cars, yachts, airplanes, premium properties horses, art, 
firearms and antique treasures. Complete descriptions and photographs are included, as well as the 

owner's name, address and telephone number. 

A 12 month subscription to THE ROBB REPORT is $45.00*. Send your check to 

the address below. For even faster 24 hour service, call toll-free: 

800-228-2606. (In Nebraska call 800-642-8777). For renewals or information 

call 404-256-9470. 






THE MAGAZINE FOR CONNOISSEURS 



^-20 



THE ROBB REPORT/P.O. Box 7203 17/AtIanta, Georgia 30328 



T.M. 



PROGRAMS 

Micro- 
computer 
Educational 
Programs 

Interpretive Education, providing 
leadership in educational programs 
for basic living skills, introduces a 
breakthrough series of new Micro 
Computer Educational (MCE) 
programs. 

The MCE programs are unique in 
that they offer automatic branching 
to individual reading levels, vari- 
ability in vocabulary levels and are 
educationally sound. 

The new programs are cooperatively 
designed by a combined team of 
educators and micro computer 
specialists. Each program is 
currently designed for application 
on Apple II* andTRS-80**. 

Please call collect today for more 
information on how MCE programs 
can aid your teaching efforts with 
special needs audiences. 



s 



•A trademark oi Apple Compute' inc 
•A trademark o) Tandy Corporation 



rZ 



For free information and catalog, 
write or call collect: (616) 345-8681 






Listing 1 continued. 



INTERPRETIVE 
EDUCATION 



Dept 17G ^195 
2306 Winters Dr Kalamazoo. Ml 49002 



031 A 32DA03 




STA 


CONTD 


AND 




03 ID 32DB03 
0320 C32A03 




STA 
JMP 


RELOO 
RDENl 


PRINT PARTIAL FILE 




0323 AF 


RDEND 


XRA 


* i CLEAR CONTINUED 




0324 32DA03 




STA 


CONTD 


FLAG 




0327 327C00 




STA 


FCBN i 1 


REWIND THE FILE 




032ft 2A0603 


RDENl 


LHLD 


HSAUE 


FLAG END OF FILE 




032D 361 A 




MUI 


M.EOF 








* PRINT 


THE FILE 






032F 2AD803 


PRNOU 


LHLD 


DSAUE 


<E> = POSITION ON LINE 




0332 EB 




XCHG 


; 


<D> * LINE COUNT ON PAGE 




0333 21DD03 




LXI 


H. BUFFR i 


OUTPUT THE BUFFER 




0336 7E 


PRN01 


MOU 


A.M 


GET A CHARACTER 




0337 23 




I NX 


H 


AND POINT TO NEXT 




0338 FE1A 




CPI 


EOF 


ALL DONE? 




033H CA67G3 




JZ 


PRNEX 






0330 FEOA 




CPI 


OAH 


IGNORE LINE FEEDS 




033F CA3603 




JZ 


PRN01 






0342 FEOO 




CPI 


GDH 


CARRIAGE RETURN? 




0344 CA5803 




JZ 


NXTLN 






0347 FE09 




CPI 


TAB 


TAB CHARACTER? 


0349 CAAFG3 




JZ 


TABBR 


VES. SKIP AHEAD 


034C FE1F 




CPI 


1FH 


NON-PRINTING? 


034E DA52G3 




JC 


PRN02 


VES. DONT COUNT IT 




0351 1C 




INR 


E 


NO. COUNT 




0352 CD1C01 


PRN02 


CALL 


LO : 


WRITE THE CHARAACTER 




0355 C33603 




JMP 


PRN01 






0358 CD4501 


NXTLN 


CALL 


LCRLF ; 


CR AND LF 




0358 1E0G 




MUI 


E. 


ZERO CHAR COUNTER 




035D 14 




INR 


D 


COUNT LINE 




035E 7A 




MOU 


A. D > 


TO END OF PAGE 




035F FE3C 




CPI 


60 






0361 CCC303 




CZ 


FORMO i 


THEN FORM FEED 




0364 C33603 




JMP 


PRNG 1 


AND CONTINUE 




0367 EB 


PRNEX 


XCHG 


| 


SAUE COUNTERS 




0368 22D803 




SHLD 


DSAUE 






036B 3ADA03 




LDA 


CONTD I 


FILE CONTINUED? 




036E B7 




ORA 


A 






036F CA7B03 




JZ 


PRNE1 


NO. COUNT IT 




0372 21D003 




LXI 


H. BUFFR 


VES. READ MORE 




0375 22D603 




SHLD 


HSAUE 






0378 C3E302 




JMP 


PRNI2 






0378 3E0C 


PRNE1 


MUI 


A. FFEED ; 


FEED GUT LAST PAGE 




037D CD1C01 




CALL 


LO 






0380 210000 




LXI 


H. 


AND ZERO COUNTERS 




0383 220803 




SHLD 


DSAUE 






0386 3ADCG3 




LDA 


COUNT ; 


COUNT THIS PRINTOUT 




0389 3D 




OCR 


A 






038A 32DC03 




STA 


COUNT 






038D C2A103 




JNZ 


PRNE2 l 


AND DO MORE TIL 




0390 CD4F01 




CALL 


MSGXP I 


ALL DONE 




0393 414C4C2 


044 


08 


'ALL DONE! ' 






039D 00 




DB 









039E C3E801 




JMP 


EXIT 






03A1 3ADBG3 


PRNE2 


LDA 


RELOD I 


HAUE TO RELOAD FILE? 




03A4 87 




ORA 


A 






03A5 CA2F03 




JZ 


PRNOU 


NO, PRINT IT AS IS 




03A8 AF 




XRA 


A 


VES. CLEAR THE FLAG 




G3A9 32DB03 




STA 


RELOD 






G3AC C3B302 




JMP 


PRNI1 I 


AND RE-OPEN THE FILE 




G3AF 7B 


TABBR 


MOU 


A. E l 


GET POSITION 




0380 E607 




AN I 


07 l 


MASK 3 LS BITS 




03B2 4F 




MOU 


C. A i 


FOR TAB SPACING 




0383 79 


TABB1 


MOU 


A.C I 


DONE? 




0384 E60S 




AN I 


8 






0386 C23603 




JNZ 


PRN01 ; 


VES. NEXT CHARACTER 




0389 3E20 




MUI 


A. ' ' 






03BB CD1C01 




CALL 


LO I 


NO. OUTPUT A SPACE 




03BE 1C 




INR 


E l 


COUNT IT 




03BF OC 




INR 


C 






03C0 C3B303 




JMP 


TABB1 ; 


AND LOOP 




03C3 3E0C 


FORMO 


MUI 


A. FFEED i 


OUTPUT A FORM FEED 




03C5 CD1C01 




CALL 


LO 






03CS 1600 




MUI 


D. i 


ZERO LINE COUNT 




Q3CA C9 




RET 








03CB 3ADCG3 


MULT I 


LDA 


COUNT i 


COUNT TIMES TEN 




03CE 4F 




MOU 


C. A 






G3CF G7 




RLC 








G3DG 07 




PLC 








030 1 G7 




RLC 








03D2 SI 




ADD 


C 






G3D3 81 




ADD 


C 






G3D4 4F 




MOU 


C. A ; 


INTO <C> 




G3D5 C9 




RET 








• rah 


BUFFERS 








8306 


HSAUE 


DS 


2 l 


BUFFER ADDRESS STORE 




03D8 


DSAUE 


DS 


2 


COUNTERS STORE 




G3DA 


CGNTD 


DS 


1 


CONTINUED FLAG 




03DB 


RELOD 


DS 


1 


RELOAD FILE FLAG 




G3DC 


COUNT 


DS 


1 


NUMBER TO PRINT 




03DD 


BUFFR 


DS 


1 


START OF RAM BUFFER 




03DE 




END 









154 Microcomputing, February 1981 



COMPUTER 

EQUIPMENT 

& SOFTWARE 

BARGAINS 



COmPUTER SMOPPt?R 

Tht Hmttonartr Utrtirtpfee la CwnpuWr fqwpmtrtl 



--=^— - n.lSJ 3 



Z^A^—r. 



Get Your 



mint jsrrw I 



<mmu « W i WW * H — V 



EVERY MONTH 



BUY, SELL OR TRADE ALL TYPES OF COMPUTER 
EQUIPMENT AND SOFTWARE (pre-owned and 
new) among 20,000 readers nationwide. 
FEATURES: 

• Low classified ad rates - 10$ a word 

• Hundreds of ads from individuals 

• Categorized ads so you can find them instantly 



• Large (11 by 

Subscribe now 
(one FREE plus 
your first issue 
you may have a 
first issue free. 
BONUS: // you 
owned or softwa 
subscription and 



14") easy to read pages 

for $10 and receive 13 issues/year 

12 regular issues). After receiving 

if you're not completely satisfied 

100% refund and you still keep the 

Bank cards accepted. 

have something to advertise (pre- 

re) send in a classified ad with your 

well run it FREE. 



The Nationwide Marketplace for Computer Equipment 

COmPUTSR SHOPPSR.36I 

P.O. BOX F 21 • TITUS VI LLE, FL 32780 • 305-269-3211 
MasterCard & VISA subscriptions only, call TOLL FRS 1-800-52 8-6050 EX. 184 



THE BIGGEST NAME IN LITTLE COMPUTERS*" 

TRS-80 Model II— Your Best Buy 
In a Business Microcomputer 



" " " 




UP 

TO 

15% 




t 



TRS-80 

ftwa 



on 

mputers, 
and peripherals 

Similar values on all Radio /tldGk merchandise 
CALL COLLECT: 

915-283-2920 

Van Horn Office Supply ^ 214 

701 W. Broadway - P O Box 1060 
Van Horn, Texas 79855 



® Radio /hack 



VISA- 



THE NA TIONWIDE SUPERMARKET OF SOUND 9 



APPLE II TRS-80 

• QUALITY ® 

DISK SOFTWARE 




master charge 



DH0ME FINANCE PAK I: Entire Series $49.95 ®<D 

□ CHECK REGISTER AND BUDGET: This comprehensive CHECKING ACCOUNT MANAGEMENT SYS 
TEM not only keeps complete records, it also gives you the analysis and control tools you need to actively 
manage your account. The system provides routines for BUDGETING INCOME AND EXPENSE AUTO 
MATIC CHECK SEARCH, and BANK STATEMENT RECONCILING. CRT or printer reports are produced 
for ACTUAL EXPENSE vs BUDGET, CHECK SEARCH DISPLAY, RECONCILIATION REPORT and 
CHECK REGISTER DISPLAY by month. Check entry is prompted by user-defined menus of standard 
purposes and recipient codes, speeding data entry and reducing disk storage and retrieval time. Six fields of 
data are stored for each check: amount, check no., date, purpose, recipient and TAX DEDUCTIBLE RE 
MINDER. CHECK SEARCH routines allow searching on any of these data fields. Routines are also provid- 
ed for CHECK SORT by date and check no., DATA EDITING and Report Formats. Up to 100 checks/mo 
*or»ge $39.95 

□ SAVINGS: Account management system for up to 20 separate Savings accounts. Organizes, files and 
displays deposits, withdrawals and interest earned for each account. Complete records shown via CRT or 
printer $14.95 

D CREDIT CARD: Get control of your credit cards with this program. Organizes, stores and displays 
purchases, payments and service charges for up to 20 separate cards. Use for credit cards or bank loans. 
CRT or printer reports 5^4 95 

□ UNIVERSAL COMPUTING MACHINE: $49.95 ®(J) 

A user programmable computing system structured around a 50 row x 50 column table User defines row 
and column names and equations forming a unique computing machine. Table elements can be multiplied, 
divided, subtracted or added to any other element. User can define repeated functions common to a row or 
column greatly simplifying table setup. Hundreds of unique computing machines can be defined, used, stored 
and recalled, with or without old data, for later use. Excellent for sales forecasts, engineering design analysis, 
budgets, inventory lists, income statements, production planning, proiect cost estimates in short for any 
planning, analysis or reporting problem that can be solved with a table. Unique curser commands allow you 
to move to any element, change its value and immediately see the effect on other table values. Entire table 
^__^ can be printed by machine pages (user defined 3 5 columns) on a 40 column printer 

□ COLOR CALENDAR: $29.95 ® 

HI -RES color graphics display of your personal calendar. Automatic multiple entry of repetitive events. Re 
view at a glance important dates, appointments, anniversaries, birthdays, action dates, etc. over a 1 year per 
tod. Graphic calendar marks dates. Printer and screen display a summary report by month of your full text 
describing each day's action item or event. Ideal for anyone with a busy calendar 

D BUSINESS SOFTWARE: Entire Series $159.95 ®<D 

□ MICR0ACC0UNTANT: The ideal accounting system for the small business Based on classic T accounts 
and double entry bookkeeping, this efficient program records and produces reports on account balances, 
general ledger lournals, revenue and expenses Screen 01 40 column printer leports. Handles up to 1000 
journal entries per month up to 300 accounts. Includes a short primer in Financial Accounting .$49.95 

□ UNIVERSAL BUSINESS MACHINE This program is designed to SIMPLIFY and SAVE TIME foi the 
serious businessman who must periodically Analyze. Plan and Estimate. The program was created using our 
Universal Computing Machine and it is programmed to provide the following planning and forecasting tools 

CASH FLOW ANALYSIS PR0F0RMA BALANCE SHEET SOURCE AND USE OF FUNDS 

PR0F0RMA PROFITS LOSS SALES FORECASTER JOB COST ESTIMATOR 

Price, including a copy of the Universal Computing Machine S89.95 

□ BUSINESS CHECK REGISTER AND BUDGET: Our Check Register and Budget programs expanded to 
include up to 50 budgetable items and up to 400 checks per month Includes bank statement reconciling 
and automatic check search (48K) $49 95 

□ ELECTRONICS SERIES: Entire Series $259.95 ®(D 

□ LOGIC SIMULATOR SAVE TIME AND MONEY Simulate your digital logic circuits before you build 
them. CMOS, TTL, or whatevei, if it's digital logic, this piogram can handle it. The piogram is an inter 
active, menu driven, full fledged logic simulator capable of simulating the bit time by bit time response of a 
logic network to user specified input patterns It will handle up to 1000 gates including NANDS NORS IN 
verters, FLIP FLOPS, SHIFT REGISTERS. COUNTERS and usei defined MACROS Up to 40 user defined, 
random, or binary input patterns Simulation results displayed on CRT or printer Accepts network des 
motions from keyboard 01 from LOGIC DESIGNER foi simulation S 7 59 95 

□ LOGIC DESIGNER: Interactive HI-RES Graphics piogram foi designing digital logic systems A menu 
driven series of keyboard commands allows you to draw directly on the screen up to 15 diffeient gate types, 
including 10 gate shape patterns supplied with the program and 5 reserved foi user specification Standard 
patterns supplied are NAND, NOR, INVERTER. EX OR, T FLOP. JK FLOP, D FLOP. RS FLOP. 4 Bit 
COUNTER and N BIT SHIFT REGISTER. Usei interconnects gates |ust as you would normally draw using 
line graphics commands Network descriptions foi LOGIC SIMULATOR generated simultaneously with the 
CRT diagram being drawn $150 qt, 

MANUAL AND DEMO DISK Instruction manual and demo disk illustrating capabilities of both pro 
9'anis $29.95 

D MATHEMATICS SERIES: Entire Series $49.95 A 

□ STATISTICAL ANALYSIS I: This menu dnven program perfoims SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION analy 
sis, determines the mean, standard deviation and plots the frequency distribution of user supplied data sets 
Printer, Disk, 1/0 and edit routines included (32K mm.) S19 95 

□ NUMERICAL ANALYSIS: HIRES 2 Dimensional plot of any function Automatic scaling At youi option, 
the program will plot the function, plot the INTEGRAL, plot the DERIVATIVE determine the ROOTS 
find the MAXIMA and MINIMA and list the INTEGRAL VALUE $19 95 

□ MATRIX: A general purpose, menu driven program foi determining the INVERSE and DETERMINANT of 
any matrix, as well as the SOLUTION to any set of SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EOUATI0NS Disk 1/0 foi 
data save Specify 55 er;n set (48K) or 35 cqn (32K) $19 95 

□ 3D SURFACE PLOTTER Explore the ELEGANCE and BEA'JTY of MAT HEMATICS by creating HI RES 
PLOTS of 3 dimensional surfaces from any 3 variable equation Disk save and recall routines foi plots Menu 
driven to vaiy surface parameters. Hidden line 01 transparent plotting si 9 9b 

□ ACTION ADVENTURE GAMES: Entire Series $29.95 (g) 

□ RED BARON: Can you outfly the RED BARON 7 This fast action game simulates a machine gun DOG 
FIGHT between your WORLD WAR I Bl PLANE and the baron's You can LOOP, DIVE. BANK 01 CLIMB 
in any one of 8 directions and so can the BARON in HIRES graphics $14 95 

□ BATTLE OF MIDWAY You are in command ol the U S.S HORNETS DIVE BOMBER squadron Youi 
targets are the Aircraft carriers, Akagi, Soryu and Kaga You must fly youi way through ZEROS and AA 
FIRE to make your DIVE BOMB run In HI RES graphics . ..S14.95 

LJSUB ATTACK It's April, 1943 The enemy convoy is headed for the CORAL SEA Your sub the 
MORAY, has just sighted the CARRIERS and BATTLESHIPS Easy pickings But watch out foi the DE 
STROYERS they're fast and deadly In HI RES graphics S14.95 

□ FREE CATALOG All programs are supplied on disk and tun on Apple II w/Disk & Applesoft ROM Caid & 
TRS-80 Level II and require 32K RAM unless otherwise noted Detailed instructions included Oideisship 
ped within 5 days. Card users include card number Add $1.50 postage and handling with each oidei 
California residents add 6'/i% sales tax Foreign orders add $5.00 postage and handling. 

Make checks payable to: 

SPECTRUM SOFTWARE -^ 

P.O. Box 2084 142 Carlow, Sunnyvale, CA 94087 
For phone orders - 408-738-4387 
DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 







Microcomputing, February 1981 155 




LOOK MAU 

$\I HAVE DRIVES!! 



TRS-80* Model HI now available 

with full range of M.P.I. 

Double Density Drives 

up to 2.8 Megabytes on-line 

floppy disk storage. 

Also available - Ultra DOS 
CALL FOR OUR UNBELIEVABLE LOW PRICING 



LEVEL IV PRODUCTS, INC. 



»^23 



Please add $2.50 for shipping and handling 
$1 50 COD 

* Product of the Tandy Corporation 



32238 Schoolcraft Road, Suite F4 • Livonia, MI 48154 
313 525-6200 Outside Michigan call 1-800-521-3305 

Level IV Products Catalog 

NEW - SEND $2 FOR YOUR COPY 
REFUNDABLE ON FIRST ORDER 



Dealers Orders Welcome 



[master charge 1 






I ^^^"^^^v 





THE FIRST TRS-80 COMPATIBLE COMPUTER 
WITH HIGH DENSITY COLOR GRAPHICS I 




LNW80 



PC BOARD 



$ 89.95 



Ask about our 



LNW 
RESEARCH 



Keyboard 

caoinet 

Leedex 
VIDCO 100 80 



198 



LNW RESEARCH introduces the LNW80, a high performance color computer, 
compatible with the TPS-80™ Model I. The fully integrated LNW80 is 
a sophisticated and versatile microcomputer with the following powerful 
features . 

COMPATIBILITY 

Hardware and software compatible to the Radio Shack TRS-80™ Model I 
computer, provides the widest software base of any microcomputer, 
cassette interface; expansion bus 

DISPLAY 

Quality upper and lower case display. 

Two modes of color graphics, high resolution graphics, 384 x 192 in 
eignt colors - higher densitv than the Apple II*. Low density color 
grapiiics of 128 x 192 are also available in eight colors. 

iiiyn resolution - black and white graphics - of 384 x 192 mixed with 
text and TRS-80™ standard graphics. 

Reverse video, composite video rf output. 
PERFORMANCE 

The LNW80 utilizes the fast Z-80A microprocessor which executes at a 
speed of 4 MHZ - over twice the speed of the TRS-80™ Model I. 



N 



EXTERNAL DATA SEPERATOR 



1 



W 



ASSEMBLED 
AND FULLY TESTED 

$1495 



LNW RESEARCH 3183-E AIRWAY AVE COSTA MESA CA 92626 714-641-8850 



' Apple II ■> * IMol Apple < nmpuw. *M 
TtfS m i> t fM ot lindi lotp 



ORDERING INFORMATION 



Add S3 (or postage and handling . 
CA residents add 6% sales tax 




SYSTEM 
EXPANSION 

££XV 9S r pCBOARD * I 

9Q-jf L USER MANUAL J 



SERIAL RS232C 20mA I O 
FLOPPY CONTROLLER 
32K BYTES MEMORY 
PARALLEL PRINTER PORT 
DUAL CASSETTE PORT 
REAL-TIME CLOCK 
SCREEN PRINTER BUS 
ONBOARD POWER SUPPLY 
SOFTWARE COMPATIBLE 
SOLDER MASK SILK SCREEN 



156 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Proven Favorites . . . 

These 10 Popular Games Offer 

Exciting New Challenges 

Here are 10 games that have never lost popularity. They've been played in many forms for many years. 
And now they're among the favorite software packages in the computerized home-entertainment field. 

Don't miss out on the excitement, challenge and downright fun of these programs. Take the word of 
thousands of satisfied players. They're still tops. Order yours today and play your kind of game. 





, 














X 


■ 


X 












X 
X 


X 
X 
X 




■ 








X 


■ 


■ 


■ 




X 






XX 


X 
X 


■ 








X 

■ 


- - 







TRS-80* 



OTHELLO 



OTHELLO — Pit your strategic powers against a merciless, computerized op- 
ponent. You play on a board of 64 squares. When you capture your opponent's 
game disks (by bracketing them with your own disks), they immediately change 
sides to become members of your set. You can capture several game pieces at 
one time as long as they are in-line horizontally, vertically or diagonally. Major 
reversals of score are commonplace as whole blocks of men change side in an in- 
stant. (Tl (Order No. 0046R $9.95 



Beginner's 
Backgammon 
and Keno 




BEGINNER'S BACKGAMMON/KENO— Why sit alone when you can play 
these fascinating games: • BACKGAMMON: Play against the computer in a 
game that's sure po sharpen your skills; • KENO: Enjoy this popular Las Vegas 
gambling game— guess the right numbers and win big! (Tl) Order No. 0004R 
$7.95. 

CARDS — A one-player package to let you play, with your computer, these 
famous games: • DRAW AND STUD POKER: These programs will keep your 
game sharp; • NO-TRUMP BRIDGE: Develop your strategy and (hopefully) in- 
crease your skill. (Tl) Order No. 0063R $7.95. 



Your Cribbage 

and 

Checkers 

Partner 




YOUR CRIBBAGE AND CHECKERS PARTNER— •CRIBBAGE is a two- 
person game that you are sure to enjoy. This is NOT a tutorial — it is a game 
worthy adversary. •CHECKERS: An old favorite which follows international 
rules, including multiple jumps. (Tl) Order No. 0068R $9.95. 

(T1)=TRS-80 Model 1, Levelll, 16K RAM 



CHESSMATE-80— This versatile chess opponent gives you a choice of ten levels 
of play, from the "blitz" level (the computer has 3 seconds to move) to the infinity 
level (where the computer will consider every possible move— which could take 
years). This machine-language program is a conservative player and follows all the 
rules of international play. CHESSMATE-80 can teach you how to move and 
allow you to set up the board and play end games or special problems. CHESS- 
MATE-80 battled Sargon II to a draw at two minutes a move and beat Microchess 
1.5 in six moves. (Tl) Order No. 0057R $19.95. 

BOWLING— Let your TRS-80 set up the pins and keep score. One player can 
pick up spares and get strikes. (Tl) Order No. 0033R $7.95. 



Apple 

GOLF 



** 




GOLF — Without leaving the comfort of your living room you can enjoy a 
challenging 18 holes of golf with a complete choice of clubs and shooting 
angles. Now, you need never cancel your game because of rain. One or two 
players can enjoy this game on your Apple II with Applesoft and 32K. Order 
No. 0018A $7.95 



PET 



*** 



CASINO 1— Gamblers, gather round for: *BLACKJACK— a fun-to-play and 
tutorial version that allows you to play every combination that they play at the 
MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas; *ROULETTE— also a game and a tutorial 
which could enable you to develop the skill to make a fortune at the tables 
Order No. 0014P $7.95 

CASINO II— This is not simply a craps game, it is a tutorial program that will 
teach you the odds on every type of bet, so you can steer clear of the sucker bets 
that impoverish the unwary. Using the exact rules used at the MGM Grand 
Hotel in Las Vegas, you'll play under actual gambling house conditions. Get 
the edge you need to "get lucky." Order No. 0015P $7.95 

CHECKERS & BACCARAT— Using International Rules, you'll play 
♦CHECKERS with your computer and the computer will keep score, time the 
moves and even tell you when to jump (it'll be so busy, you may have an edge!); 
•BACCARAT— gives you the choice of playing Las Vegas or Blackjack style 
and the computer will deal the cards, figure the payoff and keep track of your 
bankroll. Order No. 0022P $7.95 



ORDER YOUR INSTANT SOFTWARE TODAY! 

Just Call Toll-Free 



Insta nt Softw are 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 603-924-7296 



1-800-258-5473 



* A trademark of Tandy Corporation 

** A trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 

*** A trademark of Commodore Business Machines Inc. 



^ Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 157 



Load and save machine-language programs with consummate ease. 



Autoloader Program 
For the C1P and Superboard II 



By David W. Kammer 



As an owner of OSI's Superboard 
II, I eventually became tired of 
writing programs in BASIC and start- 
ed machine-language programming 
with the ROM monitor. 

The documentation carefully ex- 
plains how to program from the key- 
board and mentions how to load ma- 



chine language from cassette directly 
to memory. However, it doesn't say 
how to generate machine-language 
tapes in the first place. This program 
lets you produce self-loading tapes 
that will load a machine-language 
program anywhere in memory. 
The program is in 6502 machine 



ADDRESS 

1EC0 
1EC0 
1EC0 



MACHINE 
CODE 



1EC0 


A9 


00 


1EC2 


85 


F0 


1EC4 


A9 


65 


1EC6 


8D 00 02 


1EC9 


A2 


0D 


1ECB 


BD 


CE IF 


1ECE 


20 


2D BF 


1ED1 


CA 




1ED2 


10 


F7 


1ED4 


A9 


0D 


1ED6 


20 


2D BF 


1ED9 


A9 


0A 


1EDB 


20 


2D BF 


1EDE 


A2 


07 


1EE0 


BD 


DC IF 


1EE3 


20 


2D BF 


1EE6 


CA 




1EE7 


10 


F7 


1EE9 


20 


B0 IF 


1EEC 


0A 




1EED 


0A 




IEEE 


0A 




1EEF 


0A 




1EF0 


85 


FF 


IEF2 


20 B0 IF 


1EF5 


18 




1EF6 


65 


FF 


1EF8 


85 


FF 


1EFA 


20 


B0 IF 


1EFD 


0A 




1EFE 


0A 




1EFF 


0A 




1F00 


0A 




1F01 


85 


FE 


1F03 


20 


B0 IF 


1F06 


18 




1F07 


65 


FE 


1F09 


85 


FE 


1F0B 


20 


AC FE 


1F0E 


A9 


0D 


1F10 


20 


2D BF 



Autoloader program in machine language. 



LABEL 

* - $1EC0 
ADR - $FE 
STP - $F0 

START 



MNE OPERAND 



L0AD1 



L0AD2 



LDA 

STA 

LDA 

STA 

LDX 

LDA 

JSR 

DEX 

BPL 

LDA 

JSR 

LDA 

JSR 

LDX 

LDA 

JSR 

DEX 

BPL 

JSR 

ASL 

ASL 

ASL 

ASL 

STA 

JSR 

CLC 

ADC 

STA 

JSR 

ASL 

ASL 

ASL 

ASL 

STA 

JSR 

CLC 

ADC 

STA 

JSR 

LDA 

JSR 



#0 

STP 

#$65 

$0200 

#13 

TEXT1.X 

$BF2D 

L0AD1 

#$0D 

$BF2D 

#$0A 

$BF2D 

91 

TEXT2,X 

$BF2D 

LOAD2 

KEYB 

A 

A 

A 

A 

ADR*1 

KEYB 

ADR+1 

ADR+1 

KEYB 

A 

A 

A 

A 

ADR 

KEYB 

ADR 

ADR 

SFEAC 

#$0D 

$BF2D 



CO^*^ENT 



INITIALIZE STOP FLAG 
INITIALIZE CURSOR POSITION 
PRINT OUT "CASSETTE WRITE" 



CR AND LF 



PRINT OUT "PGM ADD?" 



GET STARTING ADDRESS FROM KEYBOARD, DISPLAY 
IT, CONVERT TO HEX AND STORE IN $FF AND $FE 



DISPLAY STARTING ADDRESS 
CR AND LF 




language and is located in the highest 
memory of an 8K machine. It uses 
many of the subroutines in the ROM 
monitor and BASIC. 

To use the program, type in the ma- 
chine-language program that you 
want to save anywhere in RAM 
memory except between $00F0- 
$0220 and $1EC0-$1FFF. The pro- 
gram must end with the three illegal 
op codes 93 93 93 as an end flag. Put 
the monitor in the address mode, en- 
ter the address of the autoloader pro- 
gram (1EC0) and type G. Then type 
in the hexadecimal address of the 
program to be saved after the 
prompt. 

Put the cassette recorder in record 
mode and touch the space bar. The 
address will be updated on the screen 
as the program is recorded, and the 
computer will jump to the monitor in 
the address mode when finished. The 
first program you should put on tape 
is the autoloader program itself. 

To load a machine-language pro- 
gram from tape, go to the monitor in 
the address mode, start the cassette 
recorder in playback and type L. You 
don't need to type in the address of 
the program; the monitor will auto- 
matically load the program starting at 
the correct address. When \Y\e pro- 
gram is finished loading, the comput- 
er is back to keyboard control, but in 
the data mode. To run the program, 
type a period (.), the entry address of 
the program and G.B 



David W. Kammer, Department of Physics, Al- 
bion College, Albion, MI 49224. 



158 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Listing continued 



1F13 

1F15 

1F18 

1F1A 

1F1D 

1F20 

1F21 

1F23 

1F26 

1F28 

1F2A 

1F2C 

1F2F 

1F31 

1F34 

1F37 

1F39 

1F3C 

1F3F 

1F41 

1F44 

1F47 

1F49 

1F4C 

1F4F 

1F51 

1F54 

1F57 

1F59 

1F5B 

1F5D 

1FSF 

1F61 

1F63 

1F65 

1F67 

1F6A 

1F6D 

1F6F 

1F72 

1F75 

1F77 

1F7A 

1F7C 

1F7E 

1F80 

1F82 

1F84 

1F86 

1F89 
1F8B 
1F8E 
1F90 
1F93 
1F96 
1F97 
1F99 
1F9B 
1F9E 
1FA0 
1FA3 
1FA5 
1FA8 
1FAA 
1FAD 

1FB0 
1FB3 
1FB6 
1FB9 
1FBB 
1FBE 

1FBF 
1FC0 
1FC1 
1FC2 
1FC3 
1FC5 
1FC7 
1FC9 
1FCB 
1FCD 

1FCE 
1FCF 
1FD0 
1FD1 
1FD2 
1FD3 
1FD4 
1FD5 
1FD6 
1FD7 
1FD8 
1FD9 
1FDA 
1FDB 
1FDC 
1FUD 



A9 0A 
20 2D 
A2 10 
BD E4 
20 2D 
CA 

10 F7 
20 00 
C9 20 
D0 F9 
A9 2E 
20 Bl 
A5 FF 
20 BF 
20 Bl 
AS FF 
20 C3 
20 Bl 
A5 FE 
20 BF 
20 Bl 
AS FE 
20 C3 
20 Bl 
A9 2F 
20 Bl 
20 AC 
A0 00 
Bl FE 
C9 93 
D0 04 
E6 F0 
D0 04 
A2 00 
86 F0 
20 BF 
20 Bl 
Bl FE 
20 C3 
20 Bl 
A9 0D 
20 Bl 
A6 F0 
E0 03 
F0 09 
E6 FE 
D0 D0 
E6 FF 
4C 54 

A9 2E 
20 Bl 
A2 03 
BD F5 
20 Bl 
CA 

10 F7 
A9 2F 
20 Bl 
A9 30 
20 Bl 
A9 30 
20 Bl 
A9 0D 
20 Bl 
4C 43 

20 00 
20 2D 
20 93 
10 03 
4C C0 
60 

4A 
4A 
4A 
4A 

29 0F 
C9 0A 
90 02 
69 06 
69 30 
60 

45 
54 
54 
45 
53 
53 
41 
43 
20 
45 
54 
49 
52 
57 
3F 
44 



BF 

IF 
BF 



FD 



FC 

IF 
FC 

IF 

FC 

IF 
FC 

IF 
FC 

FC 
FE 



IF 

FC 

IF 
FC 

FC 



IF 



FC 

IF 
FC 



FC 

FC 

FC 

FC 
FE 

FD 
BF 
FE 

IE 



L0AD3 



SPC 



PGMD 



HERE2 



HERE3 



END 



1IERE4 



LDA 


#$0A 


JSR 


$BF2D 


LDX 


#16 


LDA 


TEXT3.X 


JSR 


$BF2D 


DEX 




BPL 


LOAD3 


JSR 


$FD00 


CMP 


#$20 


BNE 


SPC 


LDA 


#$2E 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


ADR+1 


JSR 


HXAH 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


ADR+1 


JSR 


HXAL 


JSR 


*FCB1 


LDA 


ADR 


JSR 


HXAH 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


ADR 


JSR 


HXAL 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


#$2F 


JSR 


$FCB1 


JSR 


$FEAC 


LDY 


#0 


LDA 


(ADR) ,Y 


CMP 


#$93 


BNE 


HERE2 


INC 


STP 


BNE 


HE RE 3 


LDX 


#0 


STX 


STP 


JSR 


HXAH 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


(ADR) ,Y 


JSR 


HXAL 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


#$0D 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDX 


STP 


CPX 


#3 


BEQ 


END 


INC 


ADR 


BNE 


PGMD 


INC 


ADR+1 


JMP 


PGMD 


'BOART 


1 CONTROL 


LDA 


#$2E 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDX 


#3 


LDA 


TEXT4,X 


JSR 


$FCB1 


DEX 




BPL 


HERE 4 


LDA 


#$2F 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


#$30 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


#$30 


JSR 


$FCB1 


LDA 


#$0D 


JSR 


$FCB1 


JMP 


$FE43 



PRINT OUT "TO LOAD HIT SPACE' 



KEYBOARD INPUT SUBROUTINE 
KEYC JSR $FD00 

JSR $BF2D 
JSR $FE93 
BPL RETN 
JMP START 
RETN RTS 
HEX TO ASCII SUBROUTINE 
HXAH 



HXAL 



ASC2 

TEXT DATA 
TEXT1 



LSR 


A 


LSR 


A 


LSR 


A 


LSR 


A 


AND 


#$0F 


CMP 


#10 


BCC 


ASCZ 


ADC 


# 'A 


ADC 


# '0 


RTS 





WAIT FOR SPACE KEYBOARD ENTRY 

"." TO CASSETTE (ADDRESS MODE) 
STARTING ADDRESS TO CASSETTE 



•7" TO CASSETTE (DATA MODE) 

DISPLAY CURRENT ADDRESS 

LOAD PROGRAM BYTE 
STOP CHARACTER? 
NO, INITIALIZE STOP FLAG 
YES, INCREMENT STOP FLAG 



CONVERT TO ASCII 

DUMP HIGH NIBBLE TO CASSETTE 

CONVERT TO ASCII 

DUMP LOW NIBBLE TO CASSETTE 

CR TO CASSETTE 

END OF PROGRAM? 

YES, EXIT 

INCREMENT PROGRAM ADDRESS 

AND GET NEXT BYTE 



"." TO CASSETTE 

OUTPUT ADDRESS $00FB TO CASSETTE 



U / M TO CASSETTE 

ASCII TO CASSETTE 

ASCII TO CASSETTE 

CR TO CASSETTE 

JUMP TO MONITOR 

INPUT CHARACTER FROM KEYBOARD 
DISPLAY IT 
CONVERT TO HEX 
LEGAL CHARACTER? 
NO, TRY AGAIN 

SHIFT TO RIGHT A TIMES 



CONVERT TO ASCII 



'9-2 



.BYTE •ETTESSAC ETIRW' 



CaMPuCauEh 




COVER YOUR INVESTMENT 



• Cloth Backed Naugalhyde Vinyl 

• Waterproof & Dustproof 

• Longer Life 

• Improved Reliability 

• Two Decorator Colors- 
Saddle Tan and Black 



TEXT2 



.BYTE '?DDA MGP 




APPLE COMPUTERS 

Apple Ensemble - covert entire Apple n 

with 9 video * two stacked disk $15 95 

Full Apple II 12 95 

Apple II Keyboard 7 95 

Apple II Disk 3 95 

Apple II Disk (stacked-two disk) 7 95 

APPLE III available soon 
TRS-80 MODEL I 

Keyboard $ 7 95 

Cassette 4 95 

Video Display 9 96* 

Package Offer 18 95* 

•NOTE Add $3 00 for Expansion Interface 
TRS-80 5% Disk $ 4 95 

Two Disk Cover (side by side) 7 95 

TRS-80 MOOEL II 

Entire Unit $22 95 

Keyboard Only 7 95 

Three Disk Unit (8" Drlvea) 18 95 

TRS-80 MODEL Ml SI 4 95 

TRS-80 COLOR COMPUTER 9 95 

Line Printer I $16 95 

Line Printer II 9 95 

Line Printer Ml 1 5 95 

Line Printer IV 9 95 

Line Printer VI 14 95 

Daisy Wheel Printer II 16 95 

Quick Printer I 9 95 

Quick Printer II 5 95 

PET COMPUTERS 

Pet 2001 $1 2 95 

Pet 8032 1 2 95 

Pet 2040 Disk 12 95 

Pet 2022 Printer 9 95 

Pet 2023 Printer 7 95 

ATARI 800 $10.95 

Atari 400 9 95 

Atari 810 Disk 5 95 

CROMEMCO System Three $19 95 

Cromemco 3100 CRT 18 95 

Cromemco 3779 Printer 16 95 

Cromemco 3703 Printer 18 95 

SUPERBRAIN $19 95 

Emulator 19 95 

InterTube 19 95 

Superstar 19 95 

HEATH COMPANY 

H-19 H-89 CRT $18 95 

H-17 Disk 995 

H-27 Disk 12 95 

H-77 Disk 9 95 

H-8. H-11 Computers 12 95 

H-14 Printer g 95 

H-34 Printer 15 95 

H-36 Printer 18 95 

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS 
Data System Terminal $1995 

Decscope Terminal 19 95 

WT/78 Terminal 19.95 

VT/78 Terminal 19 95 

VT-100 Terminal 16 95 

Decprinter I 15 95 

Decwnter II 18 95 

Decwnter III 18 95 

Decwnter IV 15 95 

OHIO SCIENTIFIC 

C1P Computer with Keyboard $14 95 

C4P Computer with Keyboard 14 95 

C2D Computer 19 95 

C3D Computer 19 95 

C2 OEM Computer 19 95 

C3 OEM Computer 19 95 

C3-S1 Computer (single) 16 95 

C3-S1 Computer (stacked) 22 95 

WANG COMPUTERS 
Terminal with disk $20 95 



Terminal without disk 18 95 

2221 Printer 19 95 

2221 W Printer 22 95 

2231 Printer 19 95 

2261 Printer 19 95 

CPT 8000 Computer $22 95 

CPT Rotary IV Printer 12 95 

CPT Rotary V Printer 15 95 

Compucolor II Entire Unit $16 95 

Compucoior II Keyboard 5 95 

Vector Graphic MZ Computer $14 95 
Vector Graphic Mindless Terminal 18 95 

North Star Horizon $1 4 95 

Hewlett Packard 85 1 4 95 

Sorcerer 9 95 

Texas Instruments 99 4 9 95 

Intercolor 3621 18 95 
PolyMorphic System 8813 Computer! 4 95 

PolyMorphic Keyboard 7 95 
CRT's 

Televideo TV1 91 2 or 920 $1 4 95 

Hazeitine (one size fits all) 18 95 

Soroc IQ 1 20 1 8 95 
Adds Terminals 25 100 980. etc 19 95 

ADM-3 14 95 

Leedea Video 100 9 95 

Leedex Video 100-80 1295 
PRINTERS 

NEC Spinwnter with Keyboard $15 95 

NEC Sptnwnter without Keyboard 15 95 

Diablo with Keyboard 15 95 

Diablo without Keyboard 15 95 

Xerox with Keyboard 15 95 

Xerox without Keyboard 15 95 

Qume Sprint III 14 95 

Qume Sprint V with Keyboard 1 5 95 
Qume Sprint V without Keyboard 1 5 95 

Teletype 43 12 95 

IDS 440 Paper Tiger 12 95 

Texas Instruments 800 Series 18 95 

Trendcom 100 or 200 9 95 

Centronics 101 19 95 

700 701. 702. 703 704. 753 18 95 

Centronics 779 16 95 

Centronics PI 730. 737 9 95 

Comprint 912 12 95 

Anadex DP8000 12 95 

Xymec HY Q 1000 12 95 

Okidata 22 15 95 

Okidata SL125 15 95 

Okidata SL2S0 15 95 
DISK DRIVES 

MicropoHS 1041. 1042 1043 1053 $ 9 95 

Vista Double Disk 9 95 

Vista 5'« Disk 6 95 

Matchless 5' • Disk 6 95 

Lobo Double 8 Disk 9 95 

Lobo 5' 4" Disk 6 95 

MPI B51 or B52 Disk 4 95 

Percom 5' 4 Disk 495 

MINI'S and MAXIE's 

IBM 3610 Printer $12 95 

IBM 3604 Keyboard 9 95 

IBM 3610 and 3604 Ensemble 15 95 

IBM 5120 Computer 22 95 

IBM 5103 Printer 19 95 

IBM 3276 22 95 

IBM 3278 22 95 

IBM 5251 (crt 8 keyboard! 22 95 

IBM 5251 Keyboard 9 96 
DATA GENERAL 

Dasher LP2 $15 95 

Dasher TP1 15 95 

Desher TP2 15 95 

Dasher D100 19 95 

Dasher D200 1 9 95 

6052 CRT and Keyboard 1995 

6053 CRT and Keyboard 1 9 95 
Honeywell VIP 7200 (crt&keyboard)$22 95 



Sand check or money order to 

Include $1.50 for postage and handling. 
Overseas orders include $4.00 postage. 

DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



CLwuCauEn 

P.O. Box 324 (Dept. A) 
Mary Esther, FL 32569 
Phone (904) 243-5793 



i^90 



v* Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 159 



add lowercase 

with our PLUG-IN 

piggyback 

board! 



CERTRDniC5 

NOW! Add lowercase and optional 
second character sets to ALL 
MODELS* Centronics printers — in- 
cluding the popular 101A and 779: 
96 Character ASCII; optional 
character sets: APL, TRS-80/H-19 
Graphics, Scientific, Customer- 
defined. "Except 730. 737 and 6000-series 

Available now In two versions: 

5 x 7 dot matrix — $ 95.00 (A&T) 

9 x 7 dot matrix — $135.00 A&T) 

Optional Character Set — add $15.00 

Postage Paid on Prepaid Order 

ALSO: Refurbished Printers! 

Limited quantity now in stock: 

730-1: $450 306: $595 
101/1 01 A: $795 103: $995 

102: $1195 Shipped postage collect 



Digital ^ei 

Systems 

Engineering 




12503 Kino's Lake Drive 

Reston, Virginia 22091 

(703) 620-2994 

All products waranteed 90 days 
MasterCard, VISA, Check, MO, PO 



Listing continued 






1FDC 


44 




1FDF 


41 




1FE0 


20 




1FE1 


4D 




1FE2 


47 




1FE3 


50 




1FE4 


45 TEXT3 .BYTE 'ECAPS Till DAOL 0T' 




1FE5 


43 




1FE6 


41 




1FE7 


50 




1FE8 


53 




1FE9 


20 




1FEA 


54 




1FEB 


49 




1FEC 


48 




1FED 


20 




1FEE 


44 




1FEF 


41 




1FF0 


4F 




1FF1 


4C 




1FF2 


20 




1FF3 


4F 




1FF4 


54 




1FF5 


42 TEXT4 .BYTE 'BF00' 




1FF6 


46 




1FF7 


30 




1FF8 


30 




1FF9 


93 ; STOP FLAGS 




1FFA 


93 




1FFB 


93 

C1P ROM subroutines and locations. 


$BF2D 


Prints character in accumulator (A register) to screen offset by cursor. The cur- 




sor positi 


on is in $0200. This subroutine also processes a CR (SOD) and LF($0A) 




and increments the cursor positon after every print to screen. 


$FEAC 


Takes address stored in $FE (low) and $FF (high) and displays on screen. 


$FDOO 


Returns ASCII character from keyboard in accumulator. 


$FCB1 


Outputs 


byte in accumulator to cassette. 


$FE93 


Converts 


> byte in accumulator to hexadecimal. Returns $80 if not a legal hexa- 




decimal character. 


$FE43 


Entry into address mode of monitor. 




Radio Shack 



TRS-80 DISCOUNT 



□ NO OUT-OF-STATE TAX 

□ NO SHIPPING COSTS 



TRS-80 $ 

MODEL II 64K ** 



II 



PACKS ENOUGH DATA HANDLING POWER FOR 
MANY SMALL BUSINESSES. 




TRS-80 MODEL III 

32K-2 DISKS 



$21 



II 



NEW PERSONAL COMPUTER . . 
REAL-TIME CLOCK, SHARPER 
CRT IMAGES AND FASTER 
LOADING CASSETTES 



CERTIFIED CHECKS 
CASHIERS CHECKS 
OR CREDIT CARDS 





TRS-80 COLOR $ 

COMPUTER OR VIDEO *^m^O^ each 

A LOW COST, COLOR COMPUTER F( 




^266 



PERRY OIL & GAS INC. 

137 NORTH MAIN STREET, PERRY, MICH. 48872 

PHONE (517) 625-4161 

WARRANTIES HONORED BY ALL RADIO SHACKS • *T.M. TANDY CORP. 



160 Microcomputing, February 1981 



S& 



S 



o 



HO 



<5>0 



oft! 



tf(3 



£© 



\ 



O© 






0® 



^ 



'(3><?) 



SO 



00 



r 0)8 



A<^ U V 



f^f-Q 1 ^! 



Li\ 



o 



^ 



ag> 



<8 



flO 



(•& 



jm 



vW^I 



03 



« 



Mi 



--v>v 



o, 



6& 



\ 



fee 



63 






(St?) 



o& 



#a 



Od 



.00 



N3> 



19B 



r tf 



^ 



~($) 



f\J®b 



&i 



<3& 



rQ&i 



es 



.<£ 



tea 



!/ 



^ 



rt>: 



^ 



.t> 



KB'" 



^l 



W? 



6S> 



© 



I 



ee 



CO 



€&* 



who 



«^.\ 



f3 



f*3. 



.7 



G© 






QE9 



tf> 



m 






0C2> 



£3>> 






(3© 



t&**cs 



,(#> 






ANYONE 

can't expertly assemble 

with the Apple II® 

and this 
easy-to-use package... 






^tt 



^> 



de& 




just isn't meant to program 



If you're really interested in program- 
ming.. .assembly language is the only way 
to go. It's faster, more versatile, and lets 
you fine-tune programs so they work 
exactly your way. 

Whether you're a beginner, in-betweener, 
or an advanced programmer, our 4-part 
assembler package is just your speed. 
You'll find it's easy to learn, easy to use 
and more powerful. Of course, you can 
buy any of the programs separately. Or, 
for a limited time get the complete 4-part 
package for your 48K Apple \\+ with DISK II 
drive, at the special price of $99.95. Look 
what it includes! 

USA. 

This is the mainstay. It's the only inter- 
active assembler that's so easy to use, 
whatever your skill level. With an average 
speed of 20K lines per minute, it's 4 to 20 
times faster than others. Since it's a 
symbolic assembler, you don't have to 
keep track of addresses. It also provides 
30 pseudo opcodes and comes with 

is Reader Service — see page 194 



approx. 140 pages of easy to understand, 
superior documentation. $49.95. 

XREF/65 - 

SCTOUSA - SORT 2.0. 

This program handles the details like a 
master. XREF/65 allows you to create 
cross-reference listing of all variables and 
labels. And it helps reduce debugging 
and documentation time. SORT 2.0 sorts 
and displays the LISA symbol tables, 
while SCTOUSA can automatically con- 
vert SC Assembler** 3.2 files to LISA. 
$19.95. 

TRACE/65. 

It delivers more control and reduces 
debugging time dramatically. Its symbolic 
trace listings mean you can forget wasting 
time looking up addresses in symbol 
tables. Its ability to stop listing at any time 
means you have sure control. And its four 
breakpoints let you change registers, 
memory locations etc. during trace. 
$24.95. 



DISASM/65. 

This is the disassembler that's easy to use, 
for you, me, anyone! Because you have 
control and decide what code should be 
instruction or data. And it allows you to go 
in and create LISA based text files for pro- 
grams where you've never seen the 
source code. $29.95. 

Entire 4-part package, on diskettes, com- 
plete documentation, and backed by 
Programma International, only $99.95! 
(A $24.85 saving.) 



•Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 
**SC Assembler is a trademark of S-C Software 



Programma International, Inc. 
2908 N. Naomi Street, 
Burbank, Ca. 91504 ^277 

(213) 954-0240 

Microcomputing, February 1981 161 



Gives new meaning to the word portability. 



Introducing the TRS-80 
Pocket Computer 



By Nat Wadsworth 



Some seven years ago I was in- 
volved in the design and manufac- 
ture of one of the first microcomputer 
systems made expressly for personal 
computerists. 

The SCELBI-8H included an 8008 
CPU chip, was typically supplied 
with 4096 bytes of memory and used 
machine-language programming. A 
separate interface and keyboard in- 
put the data, and another special unit 
let the computer display messages on 
the face of an oscilloscope tube. 

The whole package, complete with 
5 amp power supply, weighed in at 
some 30 pounds and took up two cu- 
bic feet of space. The system sold for 
about $2500. 

The other day I walked into a local 
Radio Shack store and bought the 
new TRS-80 Pocket Computer. 

It comes complete with an integrat- 
ed alphanumeric keyboard and dis- 
play. It has considerably more mem- 
ory (including a BASIC interpreter 
and operating system in read only 
memory) than the pioneering 
SCELBI-8H. It is programmable us- 
ing high-level BASIC language. 

The complete unit is 1/2 inch thick, 
2-3/4 inches wide and 7 inches long. 
It tips the scales at a featherweight six 

ounces. 

Like the SCELBI-8H, this machine 
is a pioneering personal computer, 
the first pocket computer to be made 
commercially available. It truly her- 
alds, I do believe, the coming of the 
personal computer revolution for 
everybody. 

Orders of Magnitude 

The TRS-80 Pocket Computer (PC) 
has the features and abilities that I 
would have liked to design into the 

162 Microcomputing, February 1981 




SCELBI-8H seven years ago. Namely, 
it is highly portable, highly functional 
and capable of being highly personal- 
ized. 

In just seven years technology has 
permitted computer system design- 
ers to improve performance by or- 
ders of magnitude (that is, powers of 
10, when dealing with the decimal 
numbering system). Let's take a look 
at some of the areas where these vast 
improvements have been made. I'll 
start by recapping some of the above 
figures. 

The TRS-80 Pocket Computer, tak- 
ing up about ten cubic inches of 
space, is roughly 1/345 the size of the 
early personal computer. That repre- 
sents a difference in magnitude of or- 
der two-plus. The PC is about 1/80 
the weight of many desk-top systems. 
That is, again, almost two orders dif- 
ference in magnitude. 



The early 8H system needed about 
25 watts; the TRS-80 runs on four 
watch batteries and consumes 11 
milliwatts when in the operating 
mode. The order of magnitude differ- 
ence for power consumption exceeds 
three! (Twenty-five watts is some 
2272 times more power than 1 1 milli- 
watts.) 

Incidently, at those power levels 
the manufacturer claims some 300 
hours of operating time on a set of 
batteries. At an hour or two actual op- 
erating time per day, that comes to a 
six to nine month period between 
battery changes. (By the way, it re- 
tains its memory contents when not 
being used at just a fraction of its nor- 
mal power level.) 



Nat Wadsworth, PO Box 232, Seymour, CT 
06483. 



The TRS-80 Pocket Computer pro- 
grams in BASIC language. As a mini- 
mum, that is at least an order of mag- 
nitude more convenient than pro- 
gramming in machine language. 

Real Capability 

The TRS-80 Pocket Computer is 
not a toy. It is a genuine computer by 
all formal standards and as proved by 
practical application. 

The machine comes equipped with 
a BASIC operating system built into 
its ROM memory and the equivalent 
of 1424 bytes of user memory. This 
might not seem like much read and 
write storage to people used to run- 
ning with 64K 
and dual eight- 
inch disks, but it 
is considerably 
more than you 
might expect, 
because the in- 
terpreter per- 
forms tokeniz- 
ingand program 
packing tricks, 
and the comput- 
er reserves extra 
data memory 
not included in 
the above count 
for use by pro- 
gram variables. 

First things 
first. For start- 
ers, the TRS-80 
Pocket Comput- 
er can serve 
purely as a mul- 
tifunction calcu- 
lator by operat- 
ing in the direct 
execute mode. 
You don't have 
to do any programming; simply type 
in your formulas using algebraic no- 
tation and press the enter key. 

Do you want transcendental func- 
tions such as sine, cosine, log, natural 
logarithms or exponentiation? Just 
type them in. All those functions and 
more are provided in ready-to-use 
format. Parentheses in your for- 
mulas? You can use up to 15 levels of 
them if you want. 

But you aren't going to buy a real 
pocket computer just so that you can 
have a fancy calculator, so let's get on 
to the good stuff. 

Four Operation Modes 

First there is the regular PRO, or 
program, mode. This is the mode you 
use to enter and edit a program. This 



machine has complete editing ability. 
You can access any line or group of 
lines in a program using the LIST 
command (shortened to L to save 
keying strokes). When you reach the 
appropriate line, cursor control lets 
you skip over words and characters 
to get to the part of the line that you 
want to deal with. 

The display shows up to 24 charac- 
ters at a time. However, you can roll 
the display right or left along a full 
80-character line. (Yes, you can have 
multiple BASIC statements on a line.) 
Naturally, you can also scroll the dis- 
play up or down. 

Remember, I said full editing abili- 




ties. You can do all the standard ed- 
iting operations such as inserting or 
deleting characters and new lines. 

You can use line numbers from 1 to 
999 when creating a program. A 
special feature lets you assign alpha- 
numeric labels to lines. 

For language, you have the stan- 
dard selection of BASIC statements 
including LET, INPUT, PRINT, 
PAUSE, PRINT USING, IF. . .THEN, 
GOTO, GOSUB, RETURN, FOR. . . 
STEP, NEXT, STOP, END and 
CLEAR. There is even a little audio 
beeper (BEEP) built into the unit for 
audible signals when programs need 
input or to announce other types of 
pertinent events. 

Need to know how much program 
memory you have left? Just ask for 



the info with the MEM command. 

Variables? You can use the 26 let- 
ters of the alphabet as numeric or 
string variables, although the string 
variables are limited to seven charac- 
ters per string. 

If you're disappointed because I 
only mentioned letters as variables 
through subscripting, don't be. You 
can assign up to 204 variables 
through subscripting. Of course, 
there is a trade-off here. As in any 
BASIC, the more variables you assign 
(beyond the 26 letters of the alphabet 
in this case), the less memory you 
will have available for program stor- 
age. The 26 letter-of-the-alphabet 

assignments, 
though, are 
memory-free on 
the Radio Shack 
PC. Memory for 
these variables 
is provided as 
part of a fixed 
memory area 
that is not used 
for program 
storage. 

Once a pro- 
gram or pro- 
grams (you can 
have a whole 
bunch of differ- 
ent programs in 
memory at the 
same time) are 
in memory, you 
must switch to 
the RUN mode 
to execute them. 
You can use the 
RUN (shortened 
to R.) if you just 
have a single 
program in the 
unit. If you want to select a particular 
routine from a group residing in the 
machine, you can use the RUN (line 
number) format. However, as I will 
explain, programs can be executed in 
other ways. 

But suppose your program doesn't 
work correctly right off the bat? Well, 
you just shift right into debugging 
with the DEBUG command; the com- 
puter will enter a break condition im- 
mediately after each instruction is ex- 
ecuted. You can then inspect the val- 
ues of variables, step to the next line 
in the program, continue debugging 
in a fast modality or resume normal 
program operation. 

The PC can operate in two more 
modes. The DEF mode lets the opera- 
tor define any one of a group of keys 

Microcomputing, February 1981 163 



as invoking the operation of a partic- 
ular program or routine. You can des- 
ignate any program or routine in 
memory as a defined operation by as- 
signing a label to the first line in the 
program. The label assigned must be 
the symbol for the selected key. The 
selected key is one that the user 
wants to designate for invoking a par- 
ticular action. 

The DEF mode thus enables pro- 
grams or parts of programs to be ex- 
ecuted or accessed more convenient- 
ly than by using the RUN command 
followed by a line number. This is 
particularly true if the key selected to 
perform a programmed operation is 
mnemonically 
related to the ac- 
tivity. Thus, the 
I key might be 
defined by a us- 
er as the one to 
use when the in- 
terest portion of 
a financial cal- 
culation was to 
be performed. 

By the way, a 
couple of re- 
movable tem- 
plates are pro- 
vided. You can 
write on these 
templates and 
fit them around 
the special keys 
used in the de- 
fine mode. They 
slip off the unit 
and can be 
stored in the 
computer's car- 
rying case. 

Finally, there 
is the so-called 
RESERVE mode of operation, which 
lets you to assign statements, func- 
tions or commands to various keys 
within a group of designated keys. 
There is a limitation in this mode; the 
operation cannot exceed 48 program 
steps. The practical intent of this 
mode is to let you execute frequently 
used functions or operations with a 
single key. 

For instance, in your line of work 
you might repeatedly need to refer to 
the quadratic formula. If so, you 
could place the steps necessary to 
solve that formula in memory with 
the computer operating in the RE- 
SERVE programming mode. You 
would then assign a particular key to 
that operation. Perhaps you might 
use the F key to represent formula. 

164 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Thereafter, whenever you needed to 
solve a quadratic problem, you 
would just switch your TRS-80 to the 
run mode and punch the F key. 

Or, suppose you are working on de- 
bugging a complex program. You 
needed to frequently check the val- 
ues of three variables. You could use 
the RESERVE mode to put in a short 
routine that would display those val- 
ues each time you struck, say, the V 
key. 

In essence, the RESERVE mode lets 
you customize or tailor the PC to your 
specific needs. It is an extra feature 
that lets the machine be personalized 
to each user's unique requirements. 




Benchmarks 

From time-to-time, Kilobaud Micro- 
computing has run articles on bench- 
marking the various popular micro- 
computers. I recently hauled out the 
June 1977 issue and took a look at 
some benchmarking routines worked 
up by Tom Rugg and Phil Feldman 
("BASIC Timing Comparisons," p. 
66). 

I modified their Benchmark Pro- 
gram 1 to appear as shown here: 

300 PAUSE "START" 

400 FORX = lTO100 

500 NEXTX 

700 PAUSE "END" 

800 END 

The PAUSE statements on the 
TRS-80 Pocket Computer are similar 



to PRINT statements. The difference 
is that messages are just briefly dis- 
played (for about a second); the pro- 
gram then continues automatically. 
(The PRINT statement on the PC re- 
quires that the entry key be de- 
pressed before program operation 
continues. This option makes sure 
you won't miss any vital directives.) 
The FOR loop was ended at a value 
of 100 instead of 1000 as in the origi- 
nal benchmark. The trial times I ob- 
tained were then multiplied by 10 for 
comparison with the microcomput- 
ers discussed in the benchmarking 
article. 
Why was the FOR loop value cut to 

100 for the test? 
Primarily be- 
cause the PC 
limits the FOR 
range to a maxi- 
mum of three 
digits or 999. 
This is a limita- 
tion of the ma- 
chine, but not a 
serious one; it 
can be circum- 
vented by fac- 
tors inside the 
loop or by using 
nested loops. 

The above 
limitation might 
make you won- 
der if the TRS-80 
Pocket Comput- 
er is an integer 
BASIC machine. 
No, it is not. It 
has full floating- 
point capability 
to ten significant 
digits and plus 
or minus the 
99th power. This is what it normally 
uses for calculations. But the variable 
value of FOR . . . NEXT loops must be 
integer values in the range 1 to 999, as 
must any specified STEP value. (The 
value 1 is assumed for a STEP value if 
none is specified.) 

So, if you want to perform a calcu- 
lation on a variable over the range of, 
say, 10 to 9990 in steps of size 10, you 
need to do the following type of pro- 
cedure: Have the FOR . . . NEXT vari- 
able go from 1 to 999 with a step size 
of 1. Multiply those values by 10 in- 
side the loop, using a different vari- 
able name to obtain the range actu- 
ally desired. 

I also used X as a variable in the 
benchmark program, instead of the 
variable K used in Rugg's and 



Feldman's tests. 

Why mention such a seemingly 
trivial alteration? Because it makes a 
difference. Because of the manner in 
which variables are stored, ones sym- 
bolized by the letters W, X, Y and Z 
can be looked up faster than those la- 
beled A, B, C and so forth. Using the 
variable symbol X in the benchmark 
tests instead of the variable symbol A 
results in about a 20 percent better 
performance. 

So how did Benchmark Program 1 
stack up? The test for 100 loops ran in 
18.5 seconds. This figure must be 
multiplied by 10 to get a comparison 
figure to use against the machines 
timed by Feld- 
man and Rugg. 
So the time for 
1000 loops 
would be ap- 
proximately 185 
seconds. That is 
about 90 times, 
or close to two 
orders of magni- 
tude, slower 
than the typical 
two seconds that 
many micro- 
computers take 
to perform such 
an operation. 

Yes, the ma- 
chine is consid- 
erably slower 
than most mi- 
crocomputers. 
But it still does 
floating-point 
operations a lot 
faster than you 
can do them in 
your head! 

The speed is 
roughly comparable to that of an 
8008-based machine. But let's keep 
in mind one other significant factor. 
The pocket computer is only pulling 
11 milliwatts of power. As the old 
saw goes, 'It takes power to obtain 
speed." You have to make some sort 
of sacrifice in a machine of this size. 
When you have a machine that can 
give six to nine months of typical dai- 
ly operation on a set of four 
wristwatch batteries, you can't ex- 
pect it to set blazing speed records. 

Other Benchmark Tests 

Let's take a look at how the ma- 
chine fared in a few other benchmark 
tests. 

Benchmark Program 2, adapted 
from Feldman and Rugg, contained: 



300 PAUSE "START" 

400 X = 

500 X = X+1 

600 IF X<100 THEN 500 

700 PAUSE "END" 

800 END 

This test ran in 33 seconds. Multi- 
plying by 10 yields 330 seconds, as 
opposed to ten seconds by other 
micros. Note now that the speed ratio 
is down from about 90:1 to about 
33:1. 

Benchmark Program 5 in the 
"BASIC Timing Comparisons" arti- 
cle was altered slightly so that it read: 

300 PAUSE "START" 
400 X = 




500 


X = X + 1 


510 


A = X/2*3 + 4-5 


520 


GOSUB 820 


600 


IFX<100THEN500 


700 


PAUSE "END" 


800 


END 


820 


RETURN 



This one executed in 78 seconds. 
That makes the benchmark 780 sec- 
onds when adjusted for a loop of 1000 
instead of 100. Typical microcomput- 
ers run the program in about 30 sec- 
onds. Note that the performance ratio 
is now down to about 26: 1 . It appears 
that as the benchmarking programs 
are given a larger variety of opera- 
tions, the disparity between the time 
required by the PC and its bigger 
cousins becomes smaller. In light of 
these three tests, I would guess that 



the PC pays a heavy time price dur- 
ing FOR... NEXT loops. You can 
easily make up your own bench- 
marks to confirm or deny this hy- 
pothesis. 

All in all, considering its size, I am 
favorably impressed with the TRS-80 
Pocket Computer's speed. It may not 
set any records, but I can tolerate 
waiting a few seconds while a ma- 
chine does my work for me. 

What Next? 

Now that I've proven to my own 
satisfaction that the TRS-80 Pocket 
Computer is indeed a real comput- 
er—and a rather impressive per- 

former at that— 
I'm ready to put 
it to good use. 

As a profes- 
sional pro- 
grammer, I have 
wanted just 
such a machine 
in my pocket to 
quickly verify 
algorithms that I 
might dream up 
at any time, on 
or off the job. 
This is the area 
in which I think 
the PC will be 
handiest for me. 
Others might 
find it valuable 
for entirely dif- 
ferent uses. The 
TRS-80 Pocket 
Computer is de- 
signed to be 
highly adapt- 
able, and will 
thus have a spe- 
cial appeal to 
each individual. This personalization 
is the essence of personal computing. 
I like the machine's size and porta- 
bility. It fits comfortably in a shirt or 
jacket pocket, a purse or a briefcase. 
This ability to literally put a comput- 
er in your pocket and take it with 
you, operate it any time you 
want— while you're on a plane, a bus, 
in a car, standing on a street corner, 
sitting in your office or in your living 
room— is going to make a big differ- 
ence in the way people perceive and 
respond to this tool of the brain. 

Some people will use the PC as a 
daily appointment reminder. Engi- 
neers will use it to solve routine ap- 
plication problems, the kinds of prob- 
lems that are a pain to solve with 
pencil and calculator but not worthy 



Microcomputing, February 1981 165 



Sprint 68 
Microcomputer 




CONTROL COMPUTER 
DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

6800 MPU, serial I/O, 48K RAM, dual 8 
drives, WIZRD multitasking DOS, editor, 
assembler, 12K BASIC, all for $3995 

OPTIONS 

C, PL/W, PASCAL, FORTRAN, EROM pro- 
grammer, analog I/O, parallel I/O, 488 
GPIB interface, CMOS RAM/battery, power 
fail detect power on reset 



wiviii; 



Wintek Corp V 163 
1801 South Street 
Lafayette IN 47904 
317 742 8428 




t 



t 



TONE SIGNALING 

Generators 
For Any Rotary Phone 

Soft-Touch Porta-Touch 

$34.95 $59.95 

Add $1 00 for shipping. Tex. Res. add 5% Sales Tax. 

Replaces mouth piece on For use with GTE where Soft- 
most phones for direct con- Touch will not fit. Held over 
nection with Soft-Touch mouthpiece to amplify signal 
tone. FCC Approved. tones. 9 volt battery powered 

• Phone Banking • Mobile Radio • Central Dictation • Paging • 

Check Verification • WATS extender • Order Entry • Call 

Diverters • SPC Sprint. MCI Execunet. ITT City-Call • 

Micro Products, Unlimited 

P.O. Box 120005 Arlington. Tax 76012 
817/277-4198 ^ 338 



^ SOFTWARE FOR OSI 

K^ VIDEO GAMES 1 $15 

^\. Three Games Head-On is liKe the popular arcade game Tank 
Battle is a tank game tor two to tour Trap 1 is an enhanced 
K^ blockade style game 

VIDEO GAMES 2 $15. 

K* Three games Gremlin Hunt is an arcade-style game tor one to 
p^ three Guntight is a duel of mobile artillery Indy isaracegame 

tor one or two 

"yt ADVENTURE: MAROONED IN SPACE $12 

An adventure that runs in 8K' Save your ship and yoursel* trom 
K~ destruction 

DUNGEON CHASE $10 

k— A real-time video game where you explore a twenty level 
y< dungeon 

BOARD GAMES 1 $15 

Two games Mmi-gomoku is a machine language version of 
live stones gomoku Cubic is a 3-D tic-tac-toegame Both with 
graphics 

DISASSEMBLER $12 

Use this to ook at the ROMs in your machine to see what makes 
BASIC tick Reconstruct the assembler source code ol 
machine language programs to understand how they work 
Our disassembler outputs unique sutlixes which identify the 
addressing mode being used, no other program has this' 



/ 



SUPER* Bl ORHYTHMS $15. 

A sophisticated biorhythm program with many unique 
features 

C1 SHORTHAND $12 

Use only two keys to enter any one of the 
BASIC commands or keywords Saves much 
typing when entering programs Written in 
machine language 

Send for FREE catalog 

For all BASIC-in-ROM systems Selected programs 
available on disk Color and sound on video games 

ORION ASSOC. ^ 329 

147 Main St. Ossining, NY 10562 




ATARI 800 

16 K $799* 
commodore 
Pet: 16K $79 9 

EXIDY Sorcerer 
16 K $999* 

Call or write for price list with 
comparable savings on a full line 
of peripherals and other name brands 




^260 



IKITIFT 



arehouse 



3620 La Habra Way 
Sacramento. Ca 95825 
(916) 486- 3678 



• Computers are fully tested and 
burned in for 48 hours. 

♦Cash price-add 2/ for Visa/ 
Mastercharge. Price subject to 
change without notice. 



MEMOREX 

DISKETTES 
& CARTRIDGES 

for your computer or word processor 

BUY THE BEST FOR LESS. 
Lowest prices. WE WILL NOT 
BE UNDERSOLD!! Buy any 

quantity. Call free (800) 235- 
4137 for prices and information. 




PACIFIC ^246 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd. 
San Luis Obispo, CA 
93401 (InCaL call 
(805) 543-1037.) 



H 
O 
M 
E 

S 

€ 

o 

r 

t 

h 

e 

T 
R 

S 

8 

o 



Ftotor ing 

High Quality Commercial. 
and Economy Models. 

Computer ConsxXes for 

$129 95; 

Printer Stands $39.95 

Complete TRS-80 Business 
System built in. 





^ Cuttom furniture for the 
* TRS-80 off ice or horn* decor. 
\ —FOR 24 HOUR INFORMATION- 
PHONE 408-946-1205 

A\ /C **>»-**** 2485 AUTUMNVALE AVE 
/W ZJ *v»Tt«t SAN JOSE, CA. 95132 
Dealer inquiries Invited. 



of putting on a large computer. Stu- 
dents of virtually any subject can 
quickly adapt this little unit to pre- 
sent material and drill them on it in a 
personal fashion. The businessper- 
son will find it invaluable for per- 
forming countless types of financial 
calculations and analysis. 

One of this machine's enjoyable 
challenges will be in the develop- 
ment of compact and efficient pro- 
grams. The art of creating compact 
coding has been dropping by the 
wayside as the price of memory de- 
clines. 

Many things are coming for the 
TRS-80 Pocket Computer. You can 
already get a tape cassette interface 
so that you can store programs on an 
audio cassette. A number of applica- 
tion programs are being developed 
and marketed by Radio Shack. 

Before I close, let me point out one 
more "order of magnitude" compari- 
son. The early SCELBI-8H micro- 
computer with input/output devices 
sold for about $2500. The TRS-80 
Pocket Computer retails for less than 
$250. ■ 



If you have some compact rou- 
tines for the TRS-80 Pocket Com- 
puter or have learned some new 
tricks and capabilities of the ma- 
chine that others might enjoy, why 
not drop me a letter and tell me 
about it. Perhaps we can get some 
sort of user's forum started to ease 
the path of those who will be fol- 
lowing in our footsteps. 



68 MICRO 
JOURNAL™ 

6800-6809-68000 
* The only ALL68XX Com- 
puter Magazine. 

Foreign Orders— Add: 
Air Mail $30.00 /Year Surface $12.00 /Year 

1 Year $18.50 2 Years $32.50 

3 Years $48.50 

OK, PLEASE ENTER MY 

SUBSCRIPTION 

Bill my: M/C □ — VISA □ 

Card # 

Expiration Date 



For G 1-Yr. □ 2 Yrs. □ 3 Yrs. 

Enclosed: $ 

Name 

Street— 

City 

State 



Zip. 



68' MICRO JOURNAL™ 
3018 Hamill Road 
HIXSON, TN 37343 ^ 132 



166 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Who Says Programmers Are Dull? 

Here's a chance to display your creative, imaginative and artistic talents! 

Enter the first Microcomputing Graphics Contest. You can win $100 for the 

best microcomputer-generated graphics display in any of the following categories: 



Color video 

Black and white video 



Printer hard copy 
Plotter hard copy 



Second prize is a $50 certificate for books from our Book 
Nook section. Third prize is a one-year subscription to 
Microcomputing. 

Limit: two submissions per category. 
Deadline: April J, 1981. 

Winners will be selected by a panel of judges from the computer science and art de- 
partments of Keene State College (Keene, N.H.) and Franklin Pierce College (Rindge, 

N.H.). 



•The following information must accompany each entry: Your name, address and 
phone number; the category of the entry; title of the entry; description of the hard- 
ware; name of any commercial software used in the creation of your work. 

• For video categories, send 5x7 inch glossy prints of the artwork as it appears on 
your video display. 

• For the hard-copy categories, send full-size originals. 

• While you don't need to submit programs with your entries, they must be available 
on request. 

• No minis or mainframes allowed. 

• Entries become the property of Micrucomputing magazine, and cannot be returned. 

• Address entries to Graphics Contest, Kilobaud Microcomputing Editorial 
Dept., Peterborough, NH 03458. 



APPLE* PRDC 


DUCTS 


\ SOFTWARE 


APPLE COMPUTER 


PRINTERS/MONITORS 




Visicalc 
Desktop Plan 




150 00 
99 50 


129.00 
84.00 


Our Price 


ACCESSORIES 




CCA Data Manaqement 




99 50 


84 00 


Apple II Plus 16K 1195 00 995.00 


Microsoft Z 80 Softcard 


349 00 


299.00 


Applewriter 




7500 


65.00 


Apple II Plus 48K 1395 00 1099.00 


Hayes Micromodem II 


379 00 


349.00 


Appleplot 




70 00 


5900 


Apple II Disk w/oont 3 3 645 00 549.00 


CCS-7710A Serial Card 


159 95 


129.00 


Apple Fortran 




200 00 


179.00 


Apple II Disk w/ncont 495 00 469.00 


CCS-7728A Centronics Card 


119 95 


99.00 


Apple Cashier 




250 00 


219.00 


Apple Pascal System 495 00 399.00 


CCS-7424A Clock/Calendar 


125 00 


99.00 


Apple Controller 




625 00 


54900 


Apple Silentype Printer 595 00 529.00 


Mntn Comp A/D-D/A Card 


350 00 


329.00 


Maqic Window Text Editor 




99 95 


84 00 


Inteqer Firmware Card 200 00 179.00 


Mntn Comp ROM Plus Card 


155 00 


1 39.00 


BPI Gen Ledqer 




495 00 


350 00 


Hiqh Speed Serial Card 195 00 169.00 


Mntn Comp Filter ROM 


5500 


49.00 


BPI Accounts Receivable 




495 00 


350 00 


Centronics Parallel Card 225 00 189.00 


Mntn Comp Copy ROM 


55 00 


49.00 


BPI Inventory 




495 00 


350.00 




M&R Supermod II 


29 95 


29.00 


The Data Factory 




150 00 


129.00 




Smarterm 80 Col Board 


360 00 


329.00 


DB Master 




189 00 


149 00 


OLENSKY BROS., INC. ^130 


Sanyo 9 in Monitor 
Sanyo 12 in Monitor 


240 00 
320 00 


179.00 
289.00 


Paper Tiqer 460G Graphics 
Memorex 5 1 4" Diskettes 




45 00 


39 00 


COMPUTER SALES DIVISION 


OKI u80 Printer 


800 00 


595.00 


W'HubRinq Box 10 




39 95 


29 00 


3763 AIRPORT BLVD. • MOBILE. AL 36608 


Paper Tiqer 460G Printer 


1 395 00 


1249.00 










U 51 205/344 7448 1 1 

t 10 AM 6 PM CST p^ 


Retail Store Prices May Differ From 
Mail Order Prices 


'Apple II is a trademark of Apple Compu 
* Hayes Microdem II is a trademark of 
Microcomputer Products. Inc. 


ler. Inc. 
Hayes 



Add-On 
Disk Drive 

Subsystems 

FOr APP^- TRS-80, S-100 

Based Computers 




Expansion and enhanced capabilities are key words in achieving full utilization of your computer system. Our complete line of LOBO disk 
drive subsystems are the ideal, cost-effective way to provide the expansion capabilities you need to meet your system growth requirements. 
All of our subsystems are complete, thoroughly tested, 100% burned in, and feature a 1 year 100% parts/labor warranty. 



APPLE 



3101 Minifloppy. 31011 Minifloppy w/interface card 

8101CA One SA800 in cabinet w/power, DDC* Controller, cable and manual 
8202CA Two SA800 in cabinet w/power, DDC* Controller, cable and manual 
51 01 CA One SA850 in cabinet w/power, DDC* Controller, cable and manual 
5202CA Two SA850 in cabinet w/power, DDC* Controller, cable and manual 
•Double Density Controller 



S-100 BASED 
COMPUTERS 

MODEL NO DESCRIPTION 

41 01C SA400 in cabinet w/power 

8212C Two SA801 in cabinet w/power 

521 2C Two SA851 in cabinet w/power 



GENERAL 



TRS80 



MODEL NO DESCRIPTION MODEL NO 

41 01C SA400 in cabinet w/power C808 

81 01C II One SA800 in cabinet w/power for Mod. II LX80 

8202C II Two SA800 in cabinet w/power for Mod. II RS232 

C802 CableforMod.il 16K 

C805 Cable for TRS80 Minifloppy VTOS 



DESCRIPTION 

Cable for TRS80 Eight inch Floppy 
Double density expansion interface 
Dual Serial Port Option 
16K Byte RAM for LX80 (32KB max.) 
4.0 Disk Operating System 



MODEL NO DESCRIPTION 

8212 Two SA801 in cabinet 

8212C Two SA801 in cabinet w/power 

5212 Two SA851 in cabinet 

521 2C Two SA851 in cabinet w/power 



^126 



INVENTORY CO., 

P.O. Box 185, Santa Ynez,Ca., 93460 
(805) 688-8781 



v* Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 167 



LITTLE BITS 



By Richard Fritzson 



Assembly-Language Coding 





LDA 


IOFLAG 


; Get R/W indicator 




ORA 


A 






JNZ 


Ll 


; if not zero, write 




CALL 


READ 


; else read 




JMP 


L2 




Ll: 


CALL 


WRITE 




L2: 


ST A. 


ERR 


; save error flag 




• 


Example 


1. 



A 



subroutine that ends with the instructions: 

CALL SUBR 

RET 
can be optimized to end with: 

JMP SUBR 
because the routine SUBR will return "over" the calling routine to the proper 
address. On an 8080-type CPU, this trick saves one byte of memory in the as- 
sembled code and about eight microseconds each time it executes (one less 
RET and a JMP instead of a CALL). It also makes the code less readable. 

The following trick, similar to the above, has similar advantages and im- 
proves readability. 





CALL 


XFER 


; do transfer 




STA 

• 
• 
• 


ERR 


; save error flag 


XFER: 


LDA 


IOFLAG 


; get R/W flag 




ORA 


A 






JZ 


READ 


; if read 




JMP 


WRITE 


; else write 






Example 


2 



Example 1 is the standard assem- 
bly-language coding of the IF-THEN- 
ELSE construct, taken from a floppy 
disk controller. The code is awk- 
ward. It has one forward GOTO for 
each CALL; it has two unnecessary 
labels; it has a test for nonzero just be- 
fore the CALL to READ (executed 
when the test fails) and three lines 
away from the CALL to WRITE, 
which is called when the test suc- 
ceeds. 

You can achieve the same function 
by introducing an extra "switching" 
subroutine (see Example 2). The re- 
sulting code is one JMP instruction 
shorter— three bytes saved on an 
8080; only one byte saved on a Z-80 
where the eliminated JMPs were rel- 
ative—and executes in the same time. 
More important, it eliminates the two 
forward JMPs and their labels Ll and 
L2 and the right test next to the right 
routine's name. As long as the new 
subroutine is on the same page as the 
calling code, no new readability 
problems are introduced. If you fol- 
low the rule of never making an as- 
sembly-language routine more than 
one page long, this is no trouble. 

A little thought, and examination of 
old assembly-language routines, 
should convince you that this is not a 
special-case solution, but an alterna- 
tive way to code IF-THEN-ELSEs on 
any occasion. ■ 



By John M. Franke 



Exercise Your 
Socket Contacts 



Richard Fritzson, Metagram, 
Rd., Hamburg, NY 14075. 



5048 Lakeshore 



New or unused socket contacts are overly stiff until a chip has been insert- 
ed and removed a few times. Many people will inadvertently bend pins 
on 24-, 28- or 40-pin integrated circuits when trying to insert them. I have de- 
signed a simple contact exerciser tool to solve this problem. 

I split a 16-pin parts carrier lengthwise and soldered or epoxied it to a handle 
made from a piece of printed circuit board. The tool permits me to exercise 
any pin number socket quickly and has completely eliminated bent pins. ■ 

John M. Franke, 1006 Westmoreland Avenue, Norfolk, VA 23508. 



PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD 
23mm x 70mm 




SOLDER 

OR 

EPOXY 



1/2 - 16 PIN 
PARTS CARRIER 



Socket contact exerciser tool. 



168 Microcomputing, February 1981 



By D. C. Shoemaker 

Heath Commands Revealed 

Version 1.6 of the Heath Disk Operating System (HDOS), along with the 
earlier Version 1.5, includes several new features and commands, as well 
as an improved operating manual. But two useful commands remain undocu- 
mented. These allow the user to reset (replace) the disk containing the operat- 
ing system with another disk, one that doesn't have to include all the HDOS 
files, using the same type of reset command you would use in PIP, "RESET 
SYO:." These two commands take the following form. 

CAT/JGL— presumably named for the chief architect of HDOS, Gordon 
Letwin— can be used to catalog a disk to determine what's on it. This com- 
mand sets a standard catalog listing with all the normal flags (S, W, L) plus 
one other (C). 

The C i'\\es are the ones that are interesting— HDOS requires them to oper- 
ate in the stand-alone mode. They must reside on the disk (or in memory) for 
the operating system to function. Normally, they are on the SYO: disk, where 
they are kept when not required for an operation. 

The other command-SET HDOS STAND-ALONE— allows you to enter the 
stand-alone mode. When executed, this command transfers all files flagged 
with a C into memory, letting the SYO: disk be removed completely. Any 
other disk may then be mounted on SYO:, regardless of whether or not it is a 
SYSGENed disk. The command may be reset by typing SET HDOS NO- 
STAND-ALONE. 

The stand-alone mode has several applications. Changing disks in the midst 
of a long program or one requiring several disks of data is easier. Also, it gives 
you the ability to remove a disk that you don't want tampered with later. 

A word of caution: for some reason, 
Heath left these functions undocu- 
mented. Always expect the unexpect- 
ed when dealing with some undocu- 
mented aspect of a system. I recom- 
mend you practice on nonessential 
disks before trying this technique out 
on an irreplaceable program or data. 

Some features of an operating sys- 
tem are left undocumented because 
they may sometimes produce 
"strange" results. This can apply to 
any system, from an IBM 370 to a 
Heath H8. It's entirely possible that a 
bus may exist in Level IV that Heath 
wants to correct in Level V before is- 
suing the documentation. 

I'm indebted to Dave Kobets of the 
Kansas City Heathkit Electronic Cen- 
ter for first drawing my attention to 
the existence of these commands. ■ 



D.C. Shoemaker, 2000A Foxridge, Blacksburg, 
VA 24060. 



By Jim Porter 



Don't 
Freq. Out 

Every now and then I need a lower 
frequency than my breadboard 
555 clock can deliver; I need a simple 
divide by 2, 4, 8 or more circuit. A 
74163 is fast and simple to use. Con- 
nect + 5 V and ground; put the clock 
input on pin 2; and get one-half fre- 
quency on pin 14, one-fourth on pin 
13, one-eighth on pin 12 and one-six- 
teenth on pin 1 1 . 1 can use one output 
or all four. If one-sixteenth the fre- 
quency isn't enough, then cascade the 
output to another input. It's simple! ■ 



Jim Porter, PO Box 12842, Memphis, TN 38112. 



+ 5V 



INPUT -LrLTLTL 



GND 




1/2 INPUT FREQ 

1/4 INPUT FREQ 

/8 INPUT FREQ 

1/16 INPUT FREQ 



(ALSO 74160, 74161. 74162 DO THE SAME TRICK) 



Fig. 1. Lowering the frequency. 



Call 

For 

Manuscripts 



Kilobaud Microcomputing 

looking for business articles! 



is 



Businessmen in all fields are beginning to 
take notice of the microcomputer. They 
are eager to know which computers, pe- 
ripheral equipment and applications soft- 
ware will let them take full advantage of 
this new tool. What knowledge do you 
have to share? 

Here are the kinds of articles that we 
want you to write for us: 

•Are you a businessman with a system up 
and running? We want to know how it 
works. What were your expectations? 
Have they been fulfilled? Did you find the 
software that you wanted? What prob- 
lems have you had? How did you over- 
come them? What recommendations do 
you have for other businessmen? 

•We want reviews from a businessman's 
perspective of specific hardware and 
software. If you've recently bought a new 
product and want to tell others how great 
-or poor-it is, Microcomputing will pro- 
vide you with a forum. 

•What programs have you written to 
meet your specific needs? Perhaps an- 
other businessman can use them, too. 
Even if he can't, your program may serve 
as a springboard for other ideas. 

•Perhaps you aren't using your micro for 
business, but know a company that is. Trot 
on down with your pencil and notebook, 
and find out what they're up to. While they 
might not have the time to write up their 
experiences, they might be more than 
willing to tell somebody else about them. 
And an outside observer will often be able 
to see things with a unique and valuable 
perspective. 

Don't worry if you're not a professional 
writer. That's what we editors are here for. 
And we'll be more than happy to send 
you a copy of our writer's guidelines. 

Send your manuscripts and correspon- 
dence to: 

Kilobaud Microcomputing 
Pine St. 
Peterborough, NH 03458 

We're looking forward to hearing from 
you. 



Microcomputing, February 1961 169 




SOFTWARE FOR OSI 





A JOURNAL FOR OSI USERS!! 

The Aardvark Journal is a bimonthly tutorial for OSI 
users. It features programs customized for OSI and 
has run articles like these: 

1 ) Using String Variables. 

2) High Speed Basic On An OSI. 

3) Hooking a Cheap Printer To An OSI. 

4) An OSI Disk Primer. 



5) A Word Processor For Disk Or Tape Machines. 

6) Moving The Disk Directory Off Track 12. 

Four back issues already available! 
$9.00 per year (6 issues) 



ADVENTURES 

Adventures are interactive fantasies where you give thj 
computer plain English commands (i.e. take the swore 
look at the control panel.) as you explore alien citiei 
space ships, ancient pyramids and sunken subs. Avera< 
playing time is 30 to 40 hours in several session; 
There is literally nothing else like them — excel 
being there yourself. We have six adventures available 
ESCAPE FROM MARS - Explore an ancien 
Martian city while you prepare for your escap< 
NUCLEAR SUBMARINE - Fast movin| 
excitement at the bottom of the se« 
PYRAMID — Our most advanced and mo; 
challenging adventure. Takes place in oi 
own special ancient pyramid 
VAMPIRE CASTLE - A day in old Drac] 
castle. But it's getting dark outsid« 
DEATH SHIP - It's a cruise ship - but it ain| 
the Love Boat and survival is far from certaii 
TREK ADVENTURE - Takes place on| 
familiar starship. Almost 
good as being therj 

$14.95 eacl 



N EW SUPPORT ROMS FOR BASIC 
IN ROM MACHINES 



C1S - for the C1P only, this ROM adds full 
screen edit functions (insert, delete, change 
characters in a basic line.), Software selectable 
scroll windows, two instant screen clears (scroll 
window only and full screen.), software choice of 
OSI or standard keyboard format, Bell support, 
600 Baud cassette support, and a few other 
features. It plugs in in place of the OSI ROM. 
NOTE : this ROM also supports video conversions 
for 24, 32, 48, or 64 characters per line. All that 
and it sells for a measly $39.95. 
C1E/C2E for C1/C2/C4/C8 Basic in ROM ma- 
chines. 

This ROM adds full screen editing, software 
selectable scroll windows, keyboard correction 
(software selectable), and contains an extended 
machine code monitor. It has breakpoint utilities, 
machine code load and save, block memory move 
and hex dump utilities. A must for the machine 
code programmer replaces OSI support ROM. 
Specify system $59.95 



DISK UTILITIES 

SUPER COPY - Single Disk Copier 
This copy program makes multiple copies, 
copies track zero, and copies all the tracks 
that your memory can hold at one time — 
up to 12 tracks at a pass. It's almost as fast 
as dual disk copying. — $15.95 
MAXIPROSS (WORD PROCESSOR) - 65D 
polled keyboard only - has global and line edit, 
right and left margin justification, imbedded 
margin commands, choice of single, double or 
triple spacing, file access capabilities and all the 
features of a major word processor — and it's 
only $39.95. 



P.C. BOARDS 

MEMORY BOARDS!! - for the C1P. - and they 
contain parallel ports! 

Aardvarks new memory board supports 8K 
of 21 14's and has provision for a PIA to give a 
parallel ports! It sells as a bare board for $29.95. 
When assembled, the board plugs into the expan- 
sion connector on the 600 board. Available now! 

PROM BURNER FOR THE C1P - Burns single 
supply 2716's. Bare board - $24.95. 

MOTHER BOARD — Expand your expansion 
connector from one to five connectors or use it 
to adapt our C1P boards to your C4/8P. -$14.95. 



ARCADE AND VIDEO GAMES 

ALIEN INVADERS with machine code moves — 
for fast action. This is our best invaders yet. The 
disk version is so fast that we had to add select- 
able speeds to make it playable. 
Tape - $10.95 - Disk - $12.95 

TIME TREK (8K) - real time Startrek action. 
See your torpedoes move across the screen! Real 
graphics — no more scrolling displays. $9.95 

STARFIGHTER — a real time space war where 
you face cruisers, battleships and fighters using a 
variety of weapons. Your screen contains work- 
ing instrumentation and a real time display of the 
alien ships. $6.95 in black and white - $7.95 in 
color and sound. 

MINOS — A game with amazing 3D graphics. 
You see a maze from the top, the screen blanks, 
and then you are in the maze at ground level, 
finding your way through on foot. Realistic 
enough to cause claustrophobia. — $12.95 



SCREEN EDITORS 

These programs all allow the editing of bas 

lines. All assume that you are using the stani 

OSI video display and polled keyboard. 

C1P CURSOR CONTROL - A program that u; 

no RAM normally available to the system. (\ 

hid it in unused space on page 2). It provit 

real backspace, insert, delete and replace fui 

tions and an optional instant screen clear. 

$11.95 

C2/4 CURSOR. This one uses 366 BYTES 

RAM to provide a full screen editor. Edit ar 

change lines on any part of the screen. (Basic 

ROM systems only.) 

FOR DISK SYSTEMS - (65D, polled 

board and standard video only.) 

SUPERDISK. Contains a basic text editor wi 

functions similar to the above programs and at 

contains a renumberer, variable table mak< 

search and new BEX EC* programs. The BEXE( 

provides a directory, create, delete, and char 

utilities on one track and is worth having 

itself. - $24.95 on 5" disk - $26.95 on 8". 



AARDVARK IS NOW AN OSI DEALER! 

Now you can buy from people who can supp<j 
your machine. 

-THIS MONTH'S SPECIALS- 
Superboard II $279 



C1P Model II 
C4P 



429 
749 



. . . and we'll include a free Text Editor T< 
with each machine! 

Video Modification Plans and P.C. Board: 
for C1P as low as $4.95 



7^ 




This is only a partial listing of what we have to offer. We now offer over 100 programs, data sheets, ROMS, and boards 
for OSI systems. Our $1.00 catalog lists it all and contains free program listings and programming hints to boot. 

Aardvark Technical Services • 1690 Bolton • Walled Lake, Ml 48088 

" 91 (313)699-3110 or (313)624-6316 




o 



170 Microcomputing, February 1981 



CALENDAR 



West Coast Computer Faire 

The 6th West Coast Computer Faire 
will be held in San Francisco, April 3-5, 
1981. Manufacturers and distributors 
will exhibit low-cost systems for small- 
business, school and home. The speakers 
program will feature topics on computers 
in education, electronic prosthesis for the 
physically impaired, computer art, ex- 
otic games, information utilities, legal as- 
pects of computing and biomedical appli- 
cations. Contact Computer Faire, 345 
Swett Road, Woodside. CA 94062, 415/ 
851-7075. 



Albion, MI, 

Microcomputer Fair 

Albion College will be hosting the sec- 
ond annual Albion Microcomputer Fair 
on Feb. 21, 1981, from 9 am to 4 pm in the 
Science Complex. For further informa- 
tion, contact D. W. Kammer, Dept. of 
Physics, Albion College, Albion, MI 
49224, 517/629-551 1, cxt. 261. 



Papers for EUROMICRO '81 

A call for papers has been issued for the 
EUROMICRO Symposium to be held in 
Paris, Sept. 8- 10. Authors should submit 
six copies of original papers on recent 
and novel developments in all aspects of 



microprocessing and microprogram- 
ming by March 15 to EUROMICRO, 18 
rue Planchant, 75020 Paris, France. 



Computer Game Festival 

The 4th Annual PACS Computer 
Games Festival, sponsored by the Phila- 



delphia Area Computer Society and the 
LaSalle College Physics Dept.. will be 
held March 14, 1981, from 10 am to 5 pm 
in the LaSalle College Ballroom, 20th and 
Olney, Philadelphia, PA 19141. For fur- 
ther information, contact Stephen A. 
Longo, Physics Dept., La Salle College. 
Philadelphia. PA 19141. Phone: 2 15/951- 
1255. 



MICROSETTE 



C-10 $1 00 C-60 $175 



1 


Al 


DATA g^ ___ ^^ ^ 


060 


■■■ m% 290 


MicMOserrf; co «n £*• s». . m. \*m, ca ««ms 


Mtcwoscrrt co 


U»n, Hi *» ( »<MM 


" • m» 


1 • ■ 


• 

• • 










A| 




C90 # 

{ nacmcr&FT 


^— v ■•■■ 


Macaosrm i tamm .m* vw». ca **ms 




• • » • J 1 


fe> • • 


• 

• • < 



kilobaud 



MICROCOMPUTING 

BINDERS 

order 
yours 
today 




Keep your library of Microcomputing safe from loss 
or damage in these handsomely appointed binders 
with rich dark blue covers and gold lettering. Each 
binder holds 12 issues making an EXCELLENT REFERENCE 
HANDBOOK. Several binders form a guality library you 
can be proud of. Please state years 1977-81 

S7.50 each ... 3 for $21.75 ... 6 for $42.00 
Postage paid in USA. Foreign orders please include 
S2.50 for postage. 

Send check or money order only to: 
KILOBAUD MICROCOMPUTING BINDERS 
P.O. Box 51 20, Phila., PA 19141 



Allow 6 6 ~e»»<i loi Or • •• • 



Pieos«- no C O D oio>i'. no phone oiden 



MICROSETTES FOR 
COMPUTERISTS 

In the amazing microcomputer industry 
a three-year-old product is a winning 
product. Microsette users acclaim the 
excellent value and reliability of these 
cassette tapes for sale storage of their 
computer programs. Microsette 50-foot 
and 100-foot length cassettes are packed 
by a 30-day warranty for use on all popu- 
lar microcomputers. The two convenient 
lengths store the complete memory 
contents of most microcomputers. The 
tapes are as excellent for Hi-Fi audio as 
for microcomputer use. 



MICROSETTES FOR 
AUDIOPHILES 

Audiophiies are very selective when it 
comes to media for their high fidelity 
systems. A recent survey of BYTE Maga- 
zine readers revealed that 99% own high 
fidelity audio equipment. Microsette 
tape quality is already welt established 
with microcomputer owners. Now Micro- 
sette offers popular C-60 and C-90 length 
cassette tapes for the computerist who 
is also an audiophile. 

Dealer prices are 50% of list. Available in 250 quantity 
case lots only. Write or call (415) 968-1604 for complete 
details. 



MicroS€tte Co., 475 Ellis St., Mountain View, CA 94043 



^123 



^ Reader Service— see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 171 



KILL 




LIKE 
LIGHTNING! 



AC power line surges are destructive, can cost you 
money, and can't be prevented. But you can stop 
them from reaching your sensitive electronic equip- 
ment with a Surge Sentry. 

Surge Sentry acts in picoseconds to dissipate up 
to a 1 ,000,000 W, 100/x second surge. Triggers at 
10% above nominal peak voltage. Works in parallel 
with the power line. Is easy to install for immediate 
protection. No complicated wiring or special tools 
required. 

Several different models to choose from, including 
an OEM version. Call or write today for a free brochure, 





Slllir.RY 

It'll clean up your AC 




M 



mlRKS 



^46 



ENTERPRISES, I1VC. 

643 South 6th Street, San Jose, CA 95112 
(408) 288-5565 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



CLAfflFIEDS 

Classified advertisements are intended for use by persons desiring to buy, sell or 
trade used computer equipment. No commercial ads are accepted. 

Two sizes of ads are available. The $5 box allows up to 5 lines of about 35 charac- 
ters per line, including spaces and punctuation. The $10 box allows up to 10 lines. 
Minimize use of capital letters to save space. No special layouts allowed. Payment is 
required in advance with ad copy. We cannot bill or accept credit. 

Advertising text and payment must reach us 60 days in advance of publication 
(i.e., copy for March issue, mailed in February, must be here by Jan. 1). The publisher 
reserves the right to refuse questionable or inapplicable advertisements. Mail copy 
with payment to: Classifieds, Kilobaud Microcomputing, Peterborough NH 03458. 
Do not include any other material with your ad as it may be delayed. 



Wanted: used cassette software for Apple II 
& books on computing. Send list for my of- 
fer. Ray Gabriel, PO Box 175, Madison, OH 
44057. 

For Sale: SWTPC CT-64 terminal, 16 x 64 x 
2 & features. Needs monitor. $225 or best. 
Also 2400-baud cassette I/O board & soft- 
ware, $20. William Lee, 337 E. Naples, 
Chula Vista, CA 92011, 714-697-3176. 



Tel-It message and inventory computer sys- 
tem. Z-80 based terminal with 16 char, read- 
out (no CRT). Built-in tape drive, real-time 
clock. Will interface to printer. Cost $900, 
asking $500; call Bob Loveless at 714-689- 
7800. 

Diablo Hytype 1 Model 1200. Letter quality 
"Daisy Wheel" printers. Brand new units 
w/platen and print wheel. EI A RS-232C/ 
CCITT interface kit, $75. Power supplies, 
$100. New printer, $650. There is no better 
buy anywhere. For Apple, TRS-80 & CP/M 
systems, interface info available. After 7 
PM. Scott Priester, 211 White Water Ct., 
Greer, SC 29651. 803-268-0678. 

Wanted: CPU board for SWTP 6800 com- 
puter. Write Garth Fisher, Department of 
Industrial Technology, Walla Walla Col- 
lege, College Place, WA 99324. 

SWTPC M6800 computer, 36K memory, ex- 
pandable to 64K with 4116s. Cassette inter- 
face, 2 serial I/O brds., keyboard and video 
interface. All documentation and software. 
$700. SSB disk drive and controller brd. 
DOS versions 3.1, 4.3 and 5.1. $500. T. 
Southworth: 313-281-0233 after 5 PM. 

I/O sale: Centronics P-l, $250; SWTPC 
CT-64 terminal, $250; Hitachi 9" video 
monitor, $75; SWTPC AC-30 tape I/O, $75. 
\0°7o down on COD, cash orders ppd. C. D. 
Shilling, Box 18014, Ft. Worth, TX 76118. 

Printer— Texas Instruments Silent 700- 
Model 755. Receive only thermal printer and 
data terminal (RSR-232). Exc. condition. 
$495. 212-224-2448 (eve.). 



Use the Classifieds! 



Heath H89 computer w/32K extra memory. 
Still in boxes, $1600 or assembled, $2200. Sav- 
ings of $250-600! Steve Larson, 1525 S. Lan- 
sing St., Aurora, CO 80012. 303-752-3768. 

Teletype ASR-33 complete w/stand, paper, 
tape and manuals. Just refurbished by Tele- 
type. Works perfectly. $400 or best offer by 
March 1st. Steve Larson, 1525 S. Lansing St., 
Aurora, CO 80012. 303-752-3768. 

For Sale: PDP 11/03 or Heath H-ll 32K 
RAM and I/O card. Both 1/2 board cards, 
working, factory assembled with manuals. 
Best offer. Write PO Box 16692, Portland, 
OR 97216. 

For Sale: Heath H9 video term., $200; Cherry 
Pro Keybd w/encl., internal pwr sup., $130. 
H9 prints lwr case input from Cherry/comput- 
er. H9 avail w/o mod. I ship. George Sullivan 
c/o Dr. P. Petcher, Chatom, AL 36518. 205- 
847-2262. 

For Sale: Teletype KSR-33 very good condi- 
tion. With cart and base; will include TRS-232 
interface and cables (ready to go when you 
plug it in). Asking $425— Make offer. Mark 
Engelhardt, 274 Mainzer, St. Paul, MN 
55118. Phone: 612-457-8911. 

For Sale: Base 2 printer. Brand new. Business 
forces me to get daisy wheel. Tractor feed & 
single sheets. Must sacrifice, $395. Willing to 
ship COD. D. Keen, RD 1, Box 432, CMCH, 
NJ 08210. 

Diablo Hytype I Mod 1200 daisy wheel print- 
er; new pin feed fric. platen & print wheel; 
white 'RO' cover; new Boschert switch supply; 
interface cable, service manual— $1000. 
Barry: 415-228-6211. 

Texas Instruments 16-bit University Module 
computer, complete with power supply, in- 
creased RAM, RS-232 wiring, and all manu- 
als; $250. A. A. Schwartz, 6454 Camino 
Teatro, La Jolla, CA 92037. 

For Sale: New 16K RAMs from scrapped 
computer boards. Tested, 200 ns 41 16s. High 
rel. ceramic, $25 for 8, $45 for 16. Doug Gen- 
netten, 4425 Goshawk Drive, Fort Collins, CO 
80526. 303-226-1395. 



MICRO QUIZ 



(from page 1 6) 



Answer: 47 

I=l=>S=0+(5/U 

I=2=>S=5+(20/2) 

I=3=>S=15+(15/3) 

I=4=>S=2CH-(60/4) 

I=5=>S=35+(60/5) 



172 Microcomputing, February 1981 



ITbEflLER blRKTOim 



Phoenix, AZ 

Most complete electronics store in 
Arizona. Books, magazines, proto- 
typing equipment, building supplies 
&. components of all kinds. Free Cat- 
alog. Open six days a week. Tri-Tek 
Inc., 7808 N. 27th Ave., Phoe- 
nix, AZ 85021. 

El Monte, CA 

Ohio Scientific specialist in the San 
Gabriel valley serving greater Los 
Angeles. Full product line on dis- 
play. Specializing in business com- 
puters. In-house service. Custom 
programming. Terminals. Printers. 
Open Mon-Sat, 9 AM-7 PM. Com- 
puter & Video, 3380 Flair Dr., 
Suite 207, El Monte, CA 91731, 
572-7292. 

San Jose, CA 

Bay area's newest computer software 
store. Featuring Instant Software for 
the TRS-80, magazines, books. 
Shaver Radio, 1378 S. Bascom 
Ave., San Jose, CA 95128, 998- 
1103. 

San Jose, CA 

New and used computer prod- 
ucts — specializing in S-100 boards, 
printers, drives, chassis and complete 
systems, as well as supplies and parts 
— Imsai, Tandon, Diablo— 5000 sq. 
ft. WAV Component Supply, 
Inc., 1771 Junction Ave., San 
Jose, CA 95112. 



Denver, CO 

Tantalizing software for your micro- 
computer. We have software appli- 
cations for both home and business. 
Ask for prices on diskettes, tapes, 
custom forms, checks, etc. The Soft- 
ware Gourmet, 1111 South 
Pearl St., Denver, CO 80210, 
777-8890. 



Sarasota, FL 

Dynabyte computer systems, Hazel- 
tine and NEC, Word-Star, Struc- 
tured Systems accounting. Consult- 
ing, training, sales, service. Glisco, 
Inc., 4001 Roberts Point Rd., 
Sarasota, FL 33581, 349-0200. 



Sarasota, FL 

Real-Time/Industrial Software 
Engineering Consultants. Top-down 
design and structured techniques 
utilized. Advanced Computer 
Concepts, Inc., PO Box 15710, 
Sarasota, FL 33579. 



Tampa, FL 

Apple Computer sales and service. 
S-100 boards from SSM, Godbout, 
Thinker Toys, California Computer 
Systems. Computer books and maga- 
zines. AMF Microcomputer 
Center, Inc., 11158 N. 30th 
Street, Tampa, FL 33612, 971- 
4072, 977-0708. 



Dial a dealer! 



Dealers: Listings are $15 per month in prepaid quarterly payments, or one 
yearly payment of $150, also prepaid. Ads include 25 words describing your 
products and services plus your company name, address and phone. (No area 
codes or merchandise prices, please.) Call Marcia at 603-924-7138 or write 
Kilobaud Microcomputing, Ad Department, Peterborough, NH 03458. 



Aurora, IL 

Microcomputer systems for home or 
business; peripherals, software, 
books & magazines. Apple, Hewlett- 
Packard, North Star, Cromemco sys- 
tems. IDS-440G printer w/ Apple 
graphics, New HP-85 & HP calcula- 
tors. Farnsworth Computer 
Center, 1891 N. Farnsworth 
Ave., Aurora, IL 60505, 851- 
3888. 

Chicago, IL 

Computer Hardware/Specialists for 
home and business. Largest selection 
of computer books, magazines and 
copyrighted software in Illinois. Ex- 
perienced factory-trained service 
department. Feature Apple, Alpha 
Microsystems and Hewlett-Packard 
calculators and accessories. Data 
Domain of Schaumburg, 1612 E. 
Algonquin Rd., Schaumburg, IL 
60195, 397-8700. 

Chicago, IL 



never 



Brand new lowest prices, 
undersold, postpaid in USA— Tele- 
type 43 keyboard printers, Okidata 
&. Integral Data printers, SS-50 bus 
computers, peripherals &c business 
software. Data Mart, 914 East 
Waverly Street, Arlington 
Heights, IL 60004, 398-8525. 

Herington, KS 

Hardware support. Maintenance 
and service for all microcomputers 
and peripherals. Kits assembled or 
debugged. Radio Shack (mods OK) 
repaired. Quality work, fast turn- 
around and reasonable cost. Prairie 
Micro Clinic, Box 325, Hering- 
ton, KS 67449, 258-2179. 



Garden City, MI 

Books, Magazines, Hardware, and 
Software for Apple, Northstar, 
TRS-80, and PET. Computer 
Center, 2825 1 Ford Rd., Garden 
City, Ml 48135, 425-2470. 

Hannibal, MO 

Ohio Scientific products, modifica- 
tions, service, software. 8" disk for 
Clp, C4p. Process control specialist. 
E&I Technical Service, 5300 
Paris Gravel Road, Hannibal, 
MO 63401, 248-0084. 



Kinston, NC 

"Rent-All" CP/M software for multi- 
ple rental locations accommodates 
7000 + items. Shows profitability by 
item/store; moves items between 
stores by demand . . . more. Dealer 
inquiries invited. Southern Digital 
Systems, Inc., Suite 806A, Ver- 
non Park Mall, Kinston, NC 
28501, 527-4691. 



Portland, OR 

Ohio Scientific specialists for 
business and personal computers. 
Local service. Terminals, printers, 
custom programming. Full OSI prod- 
uct line on display! 10 AM to 6 PM 
M-F. Fial Computer, 11266 SE 
21st Ave., Milwaukee, OR 
97222, 654-9574. 



Milwaukee, WI 

Specializing in the CBM-PET, busi- 
ness, personal, educational, indus- 
trial, telecomputing systems. Con- 
sulting, modems, printers, books, ac- 
cessories, magazines, supplies, 
peripherals, timesharing. Factory 
authorized service. Convenient 
freeway access. PETTED micro 
systems, 4265 W. Loomis Rd., 
Milwaukee, Wl 53221, 282- 
4181. 



MOVING? 

Let us know 8 weeks in advance so that you won't 
miss a single issue of Kilobaud Microcomputing. 
Attach old label where indicated and print new address 
in space provided. Also include your mailing label 
whenever you write concerning your subscription. It 
helps us serve you promptly. 



If you have no label handy, print OLD address here. 



.Call 



. Address 
t City 



State 



print NEW address here: 



□ Address change only 
D Extend subscription 

□ Enter new subscription 
D 1 year $18.00 



□ Payment enclosed 

(1 extra BONUS issue) 

□ Bill me later 



Name 



Call 



Address 



City 



State. 



Zip 



Kilobaud Microcomputing P.O. Box 997 • Farmingdale NY 11737 



Microcomputing, February 1981 173 



3 NEW BOOKS 





Some 
of the 

Best 









|| 



""'"St*"** H 



• SOME OF THE BEST FROM KILOBAUD/MICROCOMPUTING— BK7311— A col 

lection of the best articles that have recently appeared in Kilobaud/MICROCOM- 
PUTING. Included is material on the TRS-80 and PET systems, CP/M, the 8080/ 
8085/Z80 chips, the ASR-33 terminal. Data base management, word processing, 
text editors and file structures are covered too. Programming techniques and 
hardcore hardware construction projects for modems, high speed cassette inter- 
faces and TVTs are also included in this large format, 200 plus page edition. 
$10.95/ 

• UNDERSTANDING AND PROGRAMMING MICROCOMPUTERS-BK7382-A valuable addition to your computing library. This 
two part text includes the best articles that have appeared in 73 and Kilobaud Microcomputing magazines on the hardware and soft- 
ware aspects of the new microcomputing hobby. Well known authors and well structured text helps the reader get involved in 
America's fastest growing hobby. $10.95* 

• 40 COMPUTER GAMES— BK7381 — Forty games in all in nine different categories. Games for large and small systems and even a 
section on calculator games. Many versions of BASIC used and a wide variety of systems represented. A must for the serious com- 
puter gamesman. $7.95* 



iT* « "mvmc. u Z '"V"* « •rus,,?*''" Corn,,,,,.' 
P« Mo. Do , l „ s, *»« "» MS Moo™, „J " »«» Coml 

_ _. •., 



INTRODUCTORY 



• HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE HERE! — BK7322— If you (or a friend) want to 
come up to speed on how computers work . . . hardware and software 
this is an excellent book. It starts with the fundamentals and explains the 
circuits, and the basics of programming. This book has the highest recom- 
mendations as a teaching aid for newcomers. $4.95.* 

• THE NEW HOBBY COMPUTERS— BK7340— This book takes it from 
where "HOBBY COMPUTERS ARE HERE!" leaves off, with chapters on 
Large Scale Integration, how to choose a microprocessor chip, an introduc- 
tion to programming, low cost I/O for a computer, computer arithmetic, 
checking memory boards . . . and much, much more! Don't miss this tremen- 
dous value! Only $4.95.* 

INTRODUCTION TO MICROCOMPUTERS (VOL. 0^111). 







H086V 

^compuTeRs 

1 m * H£Be$ 





***«***„ 



• AN INTRODUCTION TO MICROCOMPUTERS, VOL. 0- 

BK1130-The Beginner's Book — Written for readers who know 
nothing about computers -for those who have an interest in 
how to use computers — and for everyone else who must live 
with computers and should know a little about them. The first in 
a series of 4 volumes, this book will explain how computers 
work and what they can do. Computers have become an in- 
tegral part of life and society. During any given day you are af- 
fected by computers, so start learning more about them with 
Volume 0. $7.95.* 




• VOL. I— BK1030— 2nd Edition completely revised. Dedicated 
to the basic concepts of microcomputers and hardware theory. 
The purpose of Volume I is to give you a thorough understand- 
ing of what microcomputers are. From basic concepts (which 
are covered in detail), Volume I builds the necessary compo- 
nents of a microcomputer system. This book highlights the dif- 
ference between minicomputers and microcomputers. $12.99 * 

• VOL. II— BK1040 (with binder)— Contains descriptions of in- 
dividual microprocessors and support devices used only with 
the parent microprocessor. Volume II describes all available 
chips. $31.99* 

• VOL. Ill— BK1 133 (with binder)— Contains descriptions of all 
support devices that can be used with any microprocessor. 



• HOW TO BUILD A MICROCOMPUTER - AND REALLY UNDERSTAND IT - BK7325 - by 
Sam Creason. The electronics hobbyist who wants to build his own microcomputer 
system now has a practical "How-To" guidebook. This book is a combination technical 
manual and programming guide that takes the hobbyist step-by-step through the design 
construction, testing and debugging of a complete microcomputer system. Must reading 
for anyone desiring a true understanding of small computer systems. $9.95.* 

• TOOLS & TECHNIQUES FOR ELECTRONICS -BK7348- by A. A. Wicks is an easy-to- 
understand book written for the beginning kit builder as well as the experienced hob- 
byist. It has numerous pictures and descriptions of the safe and correct ways to use 
basic and specialized tools for electronic projects as well as specialized metal working 
tools and the chemical aids which are used in repair shops. $4.95.* 



•Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book 

Department • Peterborough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. No COD. orders accepted All orders add $1 00 

handling. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the above address. 

"PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE" 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 







MICROPROCESSOR 
INTERFACING 
ECHNIQUES 



SPECIAL INTERESTS 



1 




n 
e 

w 



new! 



• MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED AND OTHER MYSTERIES— 

BK1186— by James Farvour. From the company that brought 
you TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES* Contains more 
than 6500 lines of comments for the disassembled Level II 
ROMs, six additional chapters describing every BASIC subrou- 
tine, with assembly language routines showing how to use 
them. Flow charts for all major routines aive the reader a real in- 
sight into how the interpreter works. $29.50 (Available after 
December 20th). 

• THE CP/M HANDBOOK (with MP/M)— BK1187— by Rodnay 
Zaks. A complete guide and reference handbook for CP/M— the 
industry standard in operating systems. Step-by-step instruc- 
tion for everything from turning on the system and inserting the 
diskette to correct user discipline and remedial action for prob- 
lem situations. This also includes a complete discussion of all 
versions of CP/M up to and including 2.2, MP/M and CDOS. 
$13.95. 



• TRS-80 DISK AND OTHER MYSTERIES— BK1 181— by Harvard C. Pennington. This is the definitive work on the TRS-80 disk 
system It is full of detailed "How to" information with examples, samples and in-depth explanations suitable for beginners 
and professionals alike. The recovery of one lost file is worth the price alone. $22.50.* 

• INTRODUCTION TO TRS-80 GRAPHICS— BK1 180— by Don Inman. Dissatisfied with your Level I or Level II manual's 
coveraae of qraphics capabilities? This well-structured book (suitable for classroom use) is ideal for those who want to use all 
the graphics capabilities built into the TRS-80. A tutorial method is used with many demonstrations. It is based on the Level I, 
but all material is suitable for Level II use. $8.95.* 

• MICROPROCESSOR INTERFACING TECHNIQUES-BK1037-by Austin Lesea & Rodnay Zaks-will teach you how to inter- 
connect a complete system and interface it to all the usual peripherals. It covers hardware and software skills and techniques, 
including the use and design of model buses such as the IEEE 488 or S100. $15.95.* 






Vi & 



\ 



*£»• 

«!»** 



How to 
Make Money 




With 
Computers: 



>cr.»yrtlltN ."■* 



>k 




MONEYMAKING 



• HOW TO MAKE MONEY WITH COMPUTERS- BK1003- In 

10 information-packed chapters, Jerry Felsen describes more 
than 30 computer-related, money-making, high profit, low 
capital investment opportunities. $15.00.* 

• HOW TO SELL ANYTHING TO ANYBODY- BK7306- Ac- 
cording to The Guinness Book of World Records, the author, 
Joe Girard, is "the world's greatest salesman." This book 
reveals how he made a fortune -and how you can, too. $2.25.* 

• THE INCREDIBLE SECRET MONEY MACHINE-BK1178-by Don Lancaster. A different kind of "cookbook" from Don Lan- 
caster Want to slash taxes? Get free vacations? Win at investments? Make money from something that you like to do? You II 
find this book essential to give you the key insider details of what is really involved in starting up your own money machine. 
$5.95.* 






BUSINESS 



• PAYROLL WITH COST ACCOUNTING -IN BASIC -BK1 001 -by L. Poole & M. 
Borchers, includes program listings with remarks, descriptions, discussions of 
the principle behind each program, file layouts, and a complete user's manual with 
step-by-step instructions, flowcharts, and simple reports and CRT displays. Pay- 
roll and cost accounting features include separate payrolls for up to 10 com- 
panies time-tested interactive data entry, easy correction of data entry errors, job 
costing (labor of distribution), check printing with full deduction and pay detail, 
and 16 different printed reports, including W-2 and 941 (in CBASIC). $20.00.* 

• SOME COMMON BASIC PROGRAMS— BK1053— published by Adam Osborne & 
Associates Inc. Perfect for non-technical computerists requiring ready-to-use pro- 
grams Business programs, plus miscellaneous programs. Invaluable for the user 
who is not an experienced programmer. All will operate in the stand-alone mode. 
$14.99 paperback. 

• PIMS- PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM- BK1 009- Learn 
how to unleash the power of a personal computer for your own benefit in this 
ready-to-use data-base management program. $11.95.* 



**f**tm*i 







***»»,<,» - _ * V^ 



*'=«53H& 



t * *Z£*Z*7£r ****** ,fc» 



PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE' 



•Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book 

Department • Peterborough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1.00 

handling Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the above address. 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



kb microcomputing book nook 




PROGRAMMING & COOK BOOKS- 






-Z80 




NSIDE LEVEL II - BK1 183 - For machine language program- 
mers! This is a comprehensive reference guide to the Level II 
ROMs, allowing easy utilization of the sophisticated routines 
they contain. It concisely explains set-ups, calling sequences, 
variable passage and I/O routines. Part II presents an entirely 
new composite program structure which unloads under the 
SYSTEM command and executes in both BASIC and machine 
code with the speed and efficiency of a compiler. Special con- 
sideration is given to disk systems. $15.95.* 

• PROGRAMMING THE Z-80 - BK1 122 - by Rodnay Zaks. Here 
is assembly language programming for the Z-80 presented as a 
progressive, step-by-step course. This book is both an educa- 
tional text and a self-contained reference book, useful to both 
the beginning and the experienced programmer who wish to 
learn about the Z-80. Exercises to test the reader are included. 
$14.95.* 

• Z-80 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING - BK1177- 

by Lance A. Leventhal. This book thoroughly covers the Z80 in- 
struction set, abounding in simple programming examples 
which illustrate software development concepts and actual 
assembly language usage. Features include Z80 I/O devices 
and interfacing methods, assembler conventions, and compari- 
sons with 8080A/8085 instruction sets and interrupt structure. 
$16.99.* 

• Z-80 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOKBOOK- 

BK1045 — by Nat Wadsworth. Scelbi's newest cookbook! This 
book contains a complete description of the powerful Z-80 in- 
struction set and a wide variety of programming information. 
Use the author's ingredients including routines, subroutines 
and short programs, choose a time-tested recipe and start 
cooking! $15.95.* 

-6502- 

• PROGRAMMING THE 6502 (Third Edition)— BK1005— Rodnay 
Zaks has designed a self-contained text to learn programming, 
using the 6502. It can be used by a person who has never pro- 
grammed before, and should be of value to anyone using the 
6502. The many exercises will allow you to test yourself and 
practice the concepts presented. $12.95.* 

• 6502 APPLICATIONS BOOK - BK1006 - Rodnay Zaks 
presents practical-application techniques for the 6502 micro- 
processor, assuming an elementary knowledge of 
microprocessor programming. You will build and design your 
own domestic-use systems and peripherals. Self-test exercises 
included. $12.95.* 

• 6502 ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING-BK1176- 

by Lance A. Leventhal. This book provides comprehensive 
coverage of the 6502 microprocessor assembly language. 
Leventhal covers over 80 programming examples from simple 
memory load loops to complete design projects. Features in- 
clude 6502 assembler conventions, input/output devices and in- 
terfacing methods, and programming the 6502 interrupt 
system. $16.99.* 

• 6502 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOKBOOK - 

BK1055 — by Robert Findley. This book introduces the BASIC 
language programmer into the realm of machine-language pro- 
gramming. The description of the 6502 structure and instruc- 
tion set, various routines, subroutines and programs are the in- 
gredients in this cookbook. "Recipes" are included to help you 
put together exactly the programs to suit your taste. $12.95.* 



'* 9 V * 



\,** W VIII ^* 



SHEETS Microcomputing s 

grammers wouldn't try to work without these 

h pads, which help prevent the little errors that can 

m6 hours of programming time. Available for 

pre ng is Assembly/Machine Language (PD1001), which 

olum r addre otion (3 bytes), source 

md) and cc and for BASIC 

(PC 7 2 columns wide. 50 its to a pad. $2.39/ 



8080 / 8080A- 



• 8080A/8085 Assembly Language Programming— by Lance 
Leventhal— BK1004— Assembly language programming for 
the 8080A/8085 is explained with a description of the functions 
of assemblers and assembly instructions, and a discussion of 
basic software development concepts. Many fully debugged, 
practical programs are included as is a special section on 
structured programming. $15.99.* 

• 8080 PROGRAMMING FOR LOGIC DESIGN— BK1078— Ideal 
reference for an indepth understanding of the 8080 processor. 
Application-oriented and the 8080 is discussed in light of replac- 
ing conventional, hard-wired logic. Practical design considera- 
tions are provided for the implementation of an 8080-base con- 
trol system. $9.50.* 

• 8080 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOKBOOK - 

BK1102 — If yu have been spending too much time developing 
simple routines for your 8080, try this new book by Scelbi Com- 
puting and Robert Findley. Describes sorting, searching, and 
many other routines for the 8080 user. $12.95.* 



-6800 



• 6800 PROGRAMMING FOR LOGIC DESIGN— BK1077— Ori- 
ented toward the industrial user, this book describes the process 
by which conventional logic can be replaced by a 6800 
microprocessor. Provides practical information that allows an 
experimenter to design a complete micro control system from 
the "ground up." $9.50.* 

• 6800 SOFTWARE GOURMET GUIDE AND COOKBOOK - 
BK1075-Like its culinary cousin, The 8080 Gourmet Guide, 
this book by Scelbi Computing and Robert Findley describes 
sorting, searching and other routines — this time for the 6800 
user. $12.95.* 



COOK BOOKS 



• CMOS COOKBOOK -BK1011- by Don Lancaster. Details 
the application of CMOS, the low power logic family suitable 
for most applications presently dominated by TTL. Required 
reading for every serious digital experimenter! $10.50.* 

• TVT COOKBOOK -BK1064- by Don Lancaster. Describes 
the use of a standard television receiver as a microprocessor 
CRT terminal. Explains and describes character generation, 
cursor control and interface information in typical, easy-to- 
understand Lancaster style. $9.95.* 

• TTL COOKBOOK -BK1063- by Donald Lancaster. Explains 
what TTL is, how it works, and how to use it. Discusses prac- 
tical applications, such as a digital counter and display 
system, events counter, electronic stopwatch, digital voltmeter 
and a digital tachometer. $9.50.* 

"PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE" 



*Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book 

Department • Peterborough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1 .00 

handling. Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the above address. 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 



-BASIC AND PASCAL 



NEW REVISED EDITION 

• PROGRAMMING IN PASCAL— BK1 140— by Peter Grogono. The computer 
programming language PASCAL was the first language to embody in a 
coherent way the concepts of structured programming, which has been 
defined by Edsger Dijkstra and C.A.R. Hoare. As such, it is a landmark in the 
development of programming languages. PASCAL was developed by 
Niklaus Wirth in Zurich; it is derived from the language ALGOL 60 but is 
more powerful and easier to use. PASCAL is now widely accepted as a 
useful language that can be efficiently implemented, and as an excellent 
teaching tool. It does not assume knowledge of any other programming 
language; it is therefore suitable for an introductory course. $12.95.* 

• THE BASIC HANDBOOK— BK1 1 74— by David Lien. This book 
is unique. It is a virtual ENCYCLOPEDIA of BASIC. While not 
favoring one computer over another, it explains over 250 BASIC 
words, how to use them and alternate strategies. If a computer 
does not possess the capabilities of a needed or specified 
word, there are often ways to accomplish the same function by 
using another word or combination of words. That's where the 
HANDBOOK comes in. It helps you get the most from your com- 
puter, be it a "bottom-of-the-line" micro or an oversized 
monster. $14.95.* 




• LEARNING LEVEL ll-BK1175-by David Lien. Written 
especially for the TRS-80, this book concentrates on Level II 
BASIC, exploring every important BASIC language capability. 
Updates are included for those who have studied the Level I 
User's Manual. Sections include: how to use the Editor, dual 
cassette operation, printers and peripheral devices, and the 
conversion of Level I programs to Level II. $15.95.* 



n 

e 

w 
i 



• INTRODUCTION TO PASCAL— BK1 189— by Rodnay Zaks. A step-by-step intro- 
duction for anyone wanting to learn the language quickly and completely. Each 
concept is explained simply and in a logical order. All features of the language are 
presented in a clear, easy-to-understand format with exercises to test the reader at 
the end of each chapter. It describes both standard PASCAL and UCSD PASCAL, 
the most widely used dialect for small computers. No computer or programming 
experience is necessary. $12.95.* 

• BASIC NEW 2ND EDITION - BK1081 - by Bob Albrecht. Self-teaching guide to 
the computer language you will need to know for use with your microcomputer. 
This is one of the easiest ways to learn computer programming. $6.95.* 

• BASIC BASIC (2ND EDITION)— BK1026— by James S. Coan. This is a textbook 
which incorporates the learning of computer programming using the BASIC lan- 
guage with the teaching of mathematics. Over 100 sample programs illustrate the 
techniques of the BASIC language and every section is followed by practical prob- 
lems. This second edition covers character string handling and the use of data 
files. $9.45.* 

• ADVANCED BASIC— BK1000— Applications, including strings and files, coordinate geometry, 
area, sequences and series, simulation, graphing and games. $9.65*. 

• SIXTY CHALLENGING PROBLEMS WITH BASIC SOLUTIONS (2nd Edition)- BK1073- by Donald 
Spencer, provides the serious student of BASIC programming with interesting problems and solu- 
tions. No knowledge of math above algebra required. Includes a number of game programs, as well as 
programs for financial interest, conversions and numeric manipulations. $6.95.* 





"•*:«->.-*, -* 


"*»*Wfli 














" «' .•";"■■*-. 


•V 


*••*<*<*• 








•Cv» S>1 k 


v < •— K, 




'.v \"" •"■> 






X >• ' ' 






>. 5**1 






5 «:7\" MW ' 






* *» 






'■■' 






«• <?■'■■•<:: 
'•~-..w.,f •'• •» k 


?y"iitp 




• '•"■•>■. 'I-.-.? 







w* 




.fetemt wrth 
8ASIC SoMkw* 



OWrtWOtt o*** 1 







GAMES 






• WHAT TO DO AFTER YOU HIT RETURN - BK1071 - PCC's 
first book of computer games ... 48 different computer games 
you can play in BASIC . . . programs, descriptions, many illus- 
trations. Lunar Landing, Hammurabi, King, Civel 2, Qubic 5, 
Taxman, Star Trek, Crash, Market, etc. $10.95.* 

• BASIC COMPUTER GAMES -BK1074- Okay, so once you 
get your computer and are running in BASIC, then what? Then 
you need some programs in BASIC, that's what. This book has 
101 games for you from very simple to real buggers. You get the 
games, a description of the games, the listing to put in your 
computer and a sample run to show you how they work. Fun. 
Any one game will be worth more than the price of the book for 
the fun you and your family will have with it. $7.50.* 

• MORE BASIC COMPUTER GAMES- BK1 182 -edited by 
\ David H. Ahl. More fun in BASIC! 84 new games from the people 

♦ who brought you BASIC Computer Games. Includes such 
favorites as Minotaur (battle the mythical beast) and Eliza 
(unload your troubles on the doctor at bargain rates). Complete 
with game description, listing and sample run. $7.50.* 

"PRICES SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE" 

'Use the order card in the back of this magazine or itemize your order on a separate piece of paper and mail to Kilobaud Microcomputing Book Department 
• Peterborough NH 03458. Be sure to include check or detailed credit card information. No C.O.D. orders accepted. All orders add $1.00 handling. 

Please allow 4-6 weeks for delivery. Questions regarding your order? Please write to Customer Service at the above address 



FOR TOLL FREE ORDERING CALL 1-800-258-5473 




Money. . . 



kilobaud 



MICROCOMPUTING 



Selling Kilobaud MICROCOMPUTING, the most 
complete journal of microcomputing, brings the 
computer enthusiast through your door. Once he's 
in your store, you can sell him anything. 

For information on selling Kilobaud MICROCOM- 
PUTING, call 603-924-7296 and speak with Ginnie 
Boudrieau, our bulk sales manager, or write to her 
at Kilobaud Microcomputing, 80 Pine Street, Peter- 
borough, NH 03458. 

jOur dealers are telling us that Kilobaud MICRO- 
COMPUTING is the hottest-selling computer 
magazine on the newsstand, so call today and join 
the ranks of dealers who make money with KM. 



>• .I* it » j ,< i 



MICROCOMPUTING' 



SO Pine Street, Peterborough NH 03458 



this publication 
is available in 
microform 




Please send me additional information. 

University Microfilms International 






300 North Zeeb Road 
Dept. P.R. 

Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 
U.S.A. 

Name 



18 Bedford Row 
Dept. P.R. 

London, WC1R4EJ 
England 



Institution 

Street 

City 

State 



Zip 




is HfiRD COPY STORAGE a problem? 

KILOBAUD MICROCOMPUTING, as 

thick as it is. is more like a floppy 
when it comes to standing on the 
bookshelf. Try the KILOBAUD 
MICROCOMPUTING Library Shelf 
Boxes . . . sturdy corrugated white 
dirt-resistant cardboard boxes 
which will keep them from flopping 
around. We have self-sticking labels 
for the boxes, too, not only for 
KILOBAUD MICROCOMPUTING, but 
also for 73 Magazine, 80 MICRO- 
COMPUTING and for CQ, QST, 

Ham Radio, Personal Computing, Radio Electronics, Inter- 
face Age, and Byte. Ask for whatever stickers you want 
with your box order. They hold a full year of KILOBAUD 
MICROCOMPUTING, 80 MICROCOMPUTING or 73 

Magazine. Your magazine library is your prime reference; 
keep it handy and keep it neat with these strong library 
shelf boxes. One box (BX- 1 000) is $2.00. 2-7 boxes (BX- 
I00I) are $ 1 .50 each, and eight or more boxes (BX-I002) 
are $ 1 .25 each. Be sure to specify which labels we should 
send. Have your credit card handy and call our toll-free 
order number 800-258-5473. or use the order card in the 
back of the magazine and mail to.- 

kilobaud tm 

MICROCOMPUTING 

Peterborough nh 03458 



178 Microcomputing, February 1981 



Power Supplies! Power Supplies! 



Power Supplies! 



SOLID STATE!! (5) 



We got 'em! Take your pick . . . 



These units are ideal for micro computers. They have been removed from equipment, checked out and 
guaranteed. 

1—5 volts @ 8 amps + 12 volts @ 2 amps + 6 volts @ 75 MA. Power supply has a 3- wire line cord and fused. Dimensions: 
10V2" x 5V2" x 4V 2 ". Shipping weight: 16 lbs 37.50 ea. 2/70.00 

2— Model 818, 5 volts at 15 amps + 12 volts at 4 amps- 12 volts at 2 amps, (with line cord) 35.00 ea. 2/65.00 

3— + 5 volts at 5 amps ± 12 volts at 500 ma. + 6 volts at 25 ms. (line cord included) 32.95 ea. 2/60.00 

4— EI^<^,^™lt7o™tfwrir^ hz;"o utput""^" ™A7DC,"bvpT2ri2Vr " 

1.5A, D.C., OVP. New, in box with operating instructions 31.50 

5— Power Design, Model 1210, constant voltage, DC. P.S. input: 105-125 A.C., 55 to 440 hz. Output: 
1-12 volts, 0-10 amps, DC. continuously adjustable output voltage 139.00 



COMPUTER GRADE CAPACITORS . . . 



18,000 mfd 10 VDC 
4,400 mfd 20 VDC 

46,000 mfd 20 VDC 
3.000 mfd 25 VDC 



1.25 
1.00 
2.50 
1.00 



11,000 mfd 25 VDC 
35,000 mfd 35 VDC 
10,000 mfd 50 VDC 
88,000 mfd 75 VDC 



1.50 
3.50 
2.50 
3.75 



4,000 mfd 75 VDC 

500 mfd 100 VDC 
6 80 mfd 100 VDC 
330 mfd 150 VDC 



1.75 

1.00 

3.50 

175 



WIRE WRAP BOARDS 



These boards are pre-wired and removed from equipment. Easy to un- 
wrap for setting up your own board, contains mostly 14-pin IC sockets 
with individual pin connections. Each board has VCC and ground 
planes. 

Smaller board measures 6V2" x 6" and has 40 to 50 sockets. 
Larger board measures 13V2" x6" and has 75 to 100 sockets. 








Reduced prices 



$7.50 ea. 2/$ 14.00 
$12.50 ea. 2/$23.00 




TEKTRONIX 310* 
PORTABLE SCOPE 

*(H ICKOK equivalent) 



f req : dc to 4m hz 

sweep range: 0.1 us to 

0.6s/div. 

versatile triggering, 

internal, external, 

line, AC or DC coupled 

& automatic triggering 



SALE 
PRICE 

$249.00 

Shipping C.O.D. 



TRIAD 
CONTROL TRANSFORMERS 

input: 1 1 5/230vac 50/60hz lug type connections 

MODEL F107Z 

Secondary: 12V at 8A/24V at 2A 

Output: 48VA $5.75 ea. 

add 1 0% sh ipping 

MODEL F108/U 

Secondary: 12V at8A/24V at 4A 

Output: 96VA $8.00 ea. 

add 1 0% sh ipping 

MODEL F109/V 

Secondary: 12V at 16A/24V at 8A 
Output: 192VA $17.50 ea. 

add 10% shipping 



TRANSFORMERS 

ISOLATION STEP-DOWN TYPE 



Primary: 230/1 15V, 50/60 

CPS, Secondary: 1 1 5 volts 

output 250 VA add 10% shipping 



$13.95 



IMC MAGNETICS 
SUPER BOXER FANS 



Unused, Model WS2107FL 
- 310, 220/240 VAC, .3 amps, 
50/60 hz, 4 11/16"x4 11/16" 
xlVa" 



$8.95 



Clock Crystal Oscillators— TTL, Vectron. type CO 
231 T. Crystal freq. 4.9152 mhz. Input voltage 5 VDC 
±. Output: Drives 10 TTL Loads Logic "0": 0.4V 
max., sink 16ma. Logic "1" 2.4V min source 2 ma. 
(above 50 mhz drives 2 Schottky TTL loads). Tuning 
adjust, with nominal range of ± 30 ppm below 25 
mhz and 15 ppm above 25 mhz. R.Ft. 1Vi"x 
1 Vi" x Vi" $13.95 



Minimum order $25.00. Items offered subject to prior sale. FOB, Brockton, Mass. Money order or check w/order. Shipments and 
handling add 5%. Shipments by parcel post or UPS. No CODs. Mass. residents add 5% sales tax. 



WALLEN 



ELECTRONICS CO. INC. Tel: (617) 588-6440-6441 components 
45 108 SAWTELL AVE., BROCKTON, MA. 02402 co T NNEc™s-wmE 



^ Reader Service — see page 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 179 



111 

O 

UJ 



UJ 
UJ 

CC 
Ii. 

UJ 

_J 

CO 

3 

< 
< 



< 

cc 



(A 



>■ 
Q. 

o 
o 



>- 
»- 
z 
< 
s 
cc 
< 

Q 
UJ 



< 

O 

8 



o 

2 

cc 

UJ 



O 



o 

UJ 



UJ 

Q 

< 



UJ 

CC 

< 

UJ 



(A 



DIGITAL RESEARCH COMPUTERS 

(214) 271-3538 



32K S-100 EPROM CARD 
NEW! 




$74.95 



USES 2716s 

Blank PC Board - $34 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 
ADD $30 



SPECIAL: 2716 EPROM s (450 NS) Are $11.95 EA. With Above Kit. 



KIT FEATURES: 

1. Uses +5V only 2716 (2Kx8) EPROM's 

2. Allows up to 32K of software on line! 

3 IEEE S-100 Compatible 

4 Addressable as two independent 16K 
blocks 

5 Cromemco extended or Northstar bank 
select. 

6 On board wait state circuitry if needed. 



7. Any or all EPROM locations can be 

disabled. 
8 Double sided PC board, solder-masked, 

silk-screened 
9. Gold plated contact fingers. 

10. Unselected EPROM's automatically 
powered down for low power. 

11. Fully buffered and bypassed. 

12. Easy and quick to assemble. 



16K STATIC RAM KIT-S 100 BUSS 



PRICE CUT! 




3111 II II III I II II I 

in ii i in mi ii ii 




BLANK PC BOARD W/DATA-$33 

LOW PROFILE SOCKET SET-$12 

SUPPORT IC'S & CAPS-$19.95 



KIT FEATURES: 

1. Addressable as four separate <»K Blocks. 

2 ON BOARD BANK SELECT circuitry (Cro- 
memco Standard') Allows up to 512K on line! 

3 Uses 2114 (450NS) 4K Static Rams. 

4 ON BOARD SELECTABLE WAIT STATES. 

5 Double sided PC Board, with solder mask and 
silk screened layout Gold plated contact fingers 

6 All address and data lines fully buffered ASSEMBLED & TESTED-ADD $35 

7. Kit includes ALL parts and sockets 
8 PHANTOM is jumpered to PIN 67 
9. LOW POWER: under 1.5 amps TYPICAL from 
the +8 Volt Buss 

10 Blank PC Board can be populated as any 
multiple of 4K. 



OUR #1 SELLING 
RAM BOARD! 



32K SS-50 RAM 



$37900 



For 2MHZ 
Add $10 



Blank PC Board 
$50 




For SWTPC 
6800 - 6809 Buss 



Support IC's 

and Caps 

$19.95 

Complete Socket Set 

$21.00 



Fully Assembled, 

Tested, Burned In 

Add $30 



At Last! An affordable 32K Static RAM with full 
6809 Capability. 

FEATURES: 

1. Uses proven low power 2114 Static RAMS. 

2. Supports SS50C - EXTENDED ADDRESSING. 

3. All parts and sockets Included. 

4. Dip Switch address select as a 32 K block. 

5. Extended addressing can be disabled. 

6. Works with all existing 6800 SS50 systems. 

7. Fully bypassed. PC Board is double sided, 
plated thru, with silk screen. 



16K STATIC RAM SS-50 BUSS 



PRICE CUT! 










llfllllllflll 



FULLY STATIC! 



FOR 2MHZ 
ADD $10 



■ m 
m 



<3t^JuJt:~jr\ 



III 



■ '» »'H' »" I»<>'»' »« »■» »t« ■ « ■«• » ■ M-~1»-« 



■ -■ ** »* *T*^f*V*V*'*' *• 



FOR SWTPC 
6800 BUSS! 



ASSEMBLED AND 
TESTED - $35 



KIT FEATURES: 

1 Addressable on 16K Boundaries 

2 Uses 2114 Static Ram 

3 Fully Bypassed 

4 Double sided PC Board Solder mask 
and silk screened layout 

5 All Parts and Sockets included 

6 Low Power: Under 15 Amps Typical 



BLANK PC BOARD— $35 COMPLETE SOCKET SET— $12 

SUPPORT IC'S AND CAPS— $19.95 



H e*t STEREO! %„,, 

S-100 SOUND COMPUTER BOARD 



COMPLETE KIT! 
$3495 

(WITH DATA MANUAL) 



At last, an S-100 Board that unleashes the full power of two 
unbelievable General Instruments AY3-8910NMOS computer 
sound IC's. Allows you under total computer control to 
generate an infinite number of special sound effects for 
games or any other program. Sounds can be called in BASIC, 
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE, etc 
KIT FEATURES: 

* TWO Gl SOUND COMPUTER IC'S. 

* FOUR PARALLEL I/O PORTS ON BOARD. 

* USES ON BOARD AUDIO AMPS OR YOUR STEREO. 

* ON BOARD PROTO TYPING AREA 

* ALL SOCKETS. PARTS AND HARDWARE ARE INCLUDED 

* PC BOARD IS SOLDERMASKED, SILK SCREENED, WITH GOLD CONTACTS. 

* EASY. QUICK. AND FUN TO BUILD WITH FULL INSTRUCTIONS. 

* USES PROGRAMMED I/O FOR MAXIMUM SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY. 
Both Basic and Assembly Language Programming examples are included. 

SOFTWARE: 

SCL'" is now available! Our Sound Command Language makes writing Sound Effects programs 
a SNAP! SCL™ also includes routines for Register-Examine-Modify, Memory-Examine- Modify, 
and Play-Memory. SCL™ is available on CP/M* compatible diskette or 2708 or 2716. Diskette - 
$24.95 2708 - $19.95 2716 - $29.95. Diskette includes the source. EPROM'S are ORG at 
E0O0H 



BLANK PC 

BOARD W/DATA 

$31 



4K DYNAMIC RAM BLOWOUT! 

SAME AS INTEL 2107B! 

4K RAMS AT AN UNBELIEVABLE 50C EACH!!! 

Prime, new, National Semi., 1979 date coded, full spec parts. NS. 
#MM5280-5N. Same as INTEL 2107B-4, T.I. TMS4060. NEC uPD41 1, etc. 
We bought a HUGE QTY. from a West Coast Distributor at truly 
DISTRESS PRICES! One of the most popular and reliable RAM's ever 
made. These parts have been used by almost all Major Computer Main 
Frame Mfg. the world over! Arranged as 4K x 1 , 270 NS Access Time, 22 
Pin Dip. These units DO NOT use multiplexed addressing, thus making 
REFRESH and other timing very simple. See INTEL MEMORY DESIGN 
HANDBOOK for full application notes. The NAT. SEMI. MEMORY DATA 
BOOK is available at most Radio Shack Stores. Prime units in original 
factory tubes! 

9XO #5280-5N 4096 BITS x 1 270 NS ACCESS 

22*** 8 FOR $4.95 32 FOR $16 

° FACTORY CASE (450 PCS) — $180 

Sockets Special: 22 Pin Low Profile (With Purchase of 5280s) 8 FOR $1. 



COMPUTER PARTS SPECIALS 

74LS175 - .99 8035 Intel Single Chip CPU 6.95 

74LS240 - 1.19 Signetics 2901 4 Bit Slice - 6.95 

74LS241 - 1.19 AMD 2903 4 Bit Super Slice - 12.50 

74LS244 - 1.19 AMD 29705 Dual Port RAM - 8.95 

74LS373 - 1.29 Intel 2716-1 (350 NS) - 12.95 



NEW! G.I. COMPUTER SOUND CHIP 

AY3-8910 As featured in July, 1979 BYTE! A fantastically powerful Sound & Music 
Generator. Perfect for use with any 8 Bit Microprocessor Contains: 3 Tone Channels. 
Noise Generator, 3 Channels of Amplitude Control 16 bit Envelope Period Control, 2-8 
Bit Parallel I/O. 3 D to A Converters, plus much more' All in one 40 Pin DIP Super easy 
interface to the S-100 or other busses $11.95 PRICE CUT! 

SPECIAL OFFER: $*4^95 each Add $3 for 60 page Data Manual. 



Digital Research Computers 

** (OF TEXAS) ■ 

P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-3538 



TERMS: Add $1.50 postage. We pay balance. Orders under $15 add 75C 
handling No COD. We accept Visa and MasterCharge Tex. Res. add 5% 
Tax. Foreign orders (except Canada) add 20% P & H. Orders over $50, add 
85C for insurance. 



•TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH. 



WE ARE NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA, THE SUPPLIERS OF CPM SOFTWARE. 



"THE BIG BOARD" 

OEM - INDUSTRIAL - BUSINESS - SCIENTIFIC 

SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER KIT! 

Z-80 CPU! 64K RAM! 




0. 

< 

o 



u 

z 
o 

Q 

z 
o 

-I 

I 

Z 
< 

< 

LU 

-I 

a. 
i- 



oo 

CO 



Q 

H 

_i 

O 
Z 

s 



< 

f- 
o 

< 



o 
o 

• • 

LU 

Q. 

O 

oc 

3 

UJ 

Q 

Z 
< 






» # ♦ • * • • * • 




2§5 







THE FERGUSON PROJECT: Three years in the works, and maybe too good to be true. A tribute to hard headed, 
no compromise, high performance, American engineering! The Big Board gives you all the most needed 
computing features on one board at a very reasonable cost. The Big Board was designed from scratch to run the 
latest version of CP/M\ Just imagine all the off-the-shelf software that can be run on the Big Board without any 
modifications needed! Take a Big Board, add a couple of 8 inch disc drives, power supply, an enclosure, C.R.T., 
and you have a total Business System for about 1/3 the cost you might expect to pay. 



$ 649 



00 (64KKIT 

BASIC I/O) 



** 



FULLY SOCKETED! 



FEATURES: (Remember, all this on one board!) 



SIZE: 8V 2 x 13% IN. 
SAME AS AN 8 IN. DRIVE. 
REQUIRES: +5V @ 3 AMPS 
- 12V @ .5 AMPS. 



64K RAM 



24 x 80 CHARACTER VIDEO 



Uses industry standard 4116 RAM'S. All 64K is available to the user, our VIDEO 
and EPROM sections do not make holes in system RAM. Also, very special care 
was taken in the RAM array PC layout to eliminate potential noise and glitches. 



Z-80 CPU 



With a crisp, flicker-free display that looks extremely sharp even on small 
monitors. Hardware scroll and full cursor control. Composite video or split video 
and sync. Character set is supplied on a 2716 style ROM, making customized 
fonts easy. Sync pulses can be any desired length or polarity. Video may be 
Inverted or true. 5x7 Matrix - Upper a Lower Case 



Running at 2.5 MHZ. Handles all 4116 RAM refresh and supports Mode 2 
INTERUPTS. Fully buffered and runs 6080 software. 



FLOPPY DISC CONTROLLER 



SERIAL I/O (OPTIONAL) 



Full 2 channels using the Z80 SIO and the SMC 81 16 Baud Rate Generator. FULL 
RS232! For synchronous or asynchronous communication. In synchronous 
mode, the clocks can be transmitted or received by a modem. Both channels can 
be set up for either data-communication or data-terminals. Supports mode 2 Int. 
Price for all parts and connectors: $85. 



Uses WD1771 controller chip with a TTL Data Separator for enhanced 
reliability. IBM 3740 compatible. Supports up to four 8 inch disc drives. Directly 
compatible with standard Shugart drives such as the S A800 or SA801 . Drives can 
be configured for remote AC off-on. Runs CP/M* 2.2. 



TWO PORT PARALLEL I/O (OPTIONAL) 



Uses Z-80 PIO. Full 16 bits, fully buffered, bi-directional. User selectable hand 
shake polarity. Set of all parts and connectors for parallel I/O: $29.95 



BASIC I/O 



Consist* of a separata parallel port (Z80 PIO) for use with an ASCII encoded 
keyboard for input. Output would be on the 80 x 24 Video Display. 



REAL TIME CLOCK (OPTIONAL) 



Uses Z-80 CTC. Can be configured as a Counter on Real Tlma Clock. Set of all 
parts: $14.95 



64K RAM KIT 

80 x 24 Video Kit 

Floppy Disk Controller Kit 

2-80 CPU Kit 

SER 8 PAR. I/O 

S-100 Mother Board 

SUB TOTAL 



SYSTEM COMPARISON 



. $370.00 
. . 365.00 
235.00 
. . 185.95 
. . 129.95 
... 45.00 
$1330.90 



Talk aoout bangs per buck! The prices shown for 
S100 kits were taken from the July 1980 BYTE. 
This will give some basis for comparison between 
the Big Board and a similar system Implementa- 
tion on the S100 Buss. 



CP/M* 2.2 FOR BIG BOARD 



The popular CP/M* D.O.S. modified by MICRONIX 
SYSTEMS to run on Big Board is available for $150.00. 



PC BOARD 



Blank PC Board with Rom Set and Full Documentation. 

$195.00 



PFM 3.0 2K SYSTEM MONITOR 



The real power of the Big Board lies in its PFM 3.0 on board monitor. PFM commands include: Dump Memory, Boot CP/M*, Copy, Examine, Fill Memory, Test Memory, Go To, 
Read and Write I/O Ports, Disc Read (Drive, Track, Sector), and Search. PFM occupies one of the four 2716 EPROM locations provided. 
Z-80 Is a Trademark of Zllog. 



Digital Research Computers 

w (OF TEXAS) r 

P.O. BOX 401565 • GARLAND, TEXAS 75040 • (214) 271-3538 



TERMS: Initial shipments will be made approximately 3 to 5 weeks after we 
receive your order. VISA, MC, cash accepted. We will accept COD's (for the 
Big Board only) with a $75 deposit. Balance UPS COD. The $75 deposit 
assures your place in line for the initial production run of Big Board. 



•TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH. 



NOT ASSOCIATED WITH DIGITAL RESEARCH OF CALIFORNIA, THE ORIGINATORS OF CPM SOFTWARE 
*M TO 4 PIECE DOMESTIC USA PRICE. 



«^44 



ELECTRONICS 



INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 



P.O. Box 4430S 
Santa Clara, CA 95054 

Will calls: 2322 Walsh Ave. 
(408) 988-1640 TWX 910-338-2139 

Same day shipment. First line parts only. Factory tested . 
Guaranteed money back. Quality IC's and other compo- 
nents at factory prices 



7400TTL 

7400N 

7402N 

7404N 

7409N 

7410N 

74 UN 

7420N 

7422N 

7430N 

7442N 

7445N 

7447N 

7448N 

7450N 

7474N 

7475N 

748SN 

7489N 1 

7490N 

7492N 

7493N 

7495N 

74100N 1 

74107N 

74121N 

74123N 

74125N 

74145N 

741 SON 1 

74151N 

74154N 1 

74157N 

74161N 
4162N 

74t63N 

741 74N 

74175N 

'4190N 1 

74192N 

741 93N 

74221N 1 

I2MN 1 

7436SN 

74366N 

7436 7N 

74LS00 TTl 

741 SOON 

74LS02N 

74LS04N 

74LS05N 

74LS08N 

74LS10N 

741S13N 

74LS14N 1 

74LS20N 

74LS22N 

74LS28N 

74LS30N 

74LS33N 

74LS38N 

74LS74N 

74LS75N 

74LS90N 

74LS93N 

74LS95N 1 

74LS107N 

74LS112N 

74LS113N 

74LS132N 

74LS136N 

74LS1MN 

74LS155N 

74LS1S7N 

74LS162N 

74LS163N 

74LS174N 

74LS190N 

74LS221N 

74LS258N 

74LS367N 

LINEAR 

CA3045 

CA3046 

CA3081 

CA3082 

CA3089 

LM301AN AH 

LM30SH 

LM307N 

LM308N 

LM309K 

LM311HN 

LM317T 

LM317K 

LM318 



LM320K-5 

LM320K 12 

LM320K 15 

LM320T-5 

LM320T8 

LM320T-12 

LM320T 15 

LM323K 5 

LM324N 

LM339N 

LM340K 5 

LM340K8 

LM340K 1? 

LM340K 15 

IM340K24 

LM340T 5 

LM340T8 

LM340T 12 

LM340M5 

LM340T 18 

LM340T24 

LM350 

LM377 

LM379 

LM380N 

LM381 

IM38? 

LM709H 

LM723H N 

LM733N 

LM741CH 

LM741N 

LM747HN 

LM748N 

IM1303N 

LM1304 

IM1305 

LM1307 

IM1310 

1M1458 

IM1812 

LM1B89 

LM2111 

LM2902 

LM3900N 

LM3905 

LM3909N 

MC 1458V 

m 

N( ')55V 
N1556A 
NE565A 
NE566V 
NE567V 
OB 

nun 

78L08 

78M05 

75108 

75491CN 

75492CN 

75494CN 



A lo CONVERTER 



HOIHK 
8700CJ 
870 1CN 
B790CJ 

LD130 
9400CJVF 
ICL7103 
ICI7107 

CMOS 

CD40O0 
C04001 
CO4002 
CD4006 
CD4O07 
CD4008 
' D40OS 
CD4010 
C04011 
CD4012 
CD4013 
CD4014 
C04015 
CD4016 
CO4017 
CD4018 
C04019 
CD4020 
C04021 
CD 4022 
CD4023 
CD4024 
C04025 



4 50 
13 95 
22 00 

13 95 
9 95 
7 40 
9 50 

14 25 



C04026 
C04027 
CO4028 
C04029 
C04030 
CD4035 
C04040 
CD4042 
CD4043 
CD4C44 
C04C46 
CD4C49 
C04C50 
CD4051 
C04060 
C04066 
CD4068 
CO4069 
C04070 
C04071 
C04072 
CD4073 
CD4075 
CD4076 
CD4078 
C04081 
I D40S2 
CD4H6 
CD4490 
C04507 
CD4508 
CD4510 
CD4511 
CD4515 
CD4M6 
CD4518 
C04520 
C04527 

CD4528 

CD4553 

C04566 

CD4583 

C04585 

C040192 

74COO 

74C04 

74C-0 

74C4 

74C20 

74C30 

74C48 

74C74 

74C76 

74C90 

74C93 

74C54 

74C160 

74C75 

74C92 

74C221 

74C905 

740906 

74C914 

74C922 

74C923 

74C925 

74C926 

74C927 

INTERFACE 

8095 
8096 
809' 
MM 

8T09 
8T10 
8T13 
8T20 
8T23 
8T24 
8T25 
8T26 
8T28 
8T97 
8T98 



MOS/MEMORY 



2114L 450ns 

4116 200ns 

8 4116 200ns 

MM5262 

MM5280 

MM 5320 

MM5330 

P0411D3 

PD411D4 

P5101L 

4200A 

82S25 

91L02A 

HD0165 5 

MM5710O 

GIAY38500 1 

MCM66751A 

mm 

4100 
416 



400 

5 50 
35 00 

40 
300 
9 95 
594 
400 
500 

8 95 

9 95 
290 
1 50 

6 95 
450 
9 95 
9 95 
350 

10 00 
16 00 



CONNECTORS 

30 pin edge 2 50 

44 pin edge 2 75 

86 pin edge 4 00 

100 pin edge 4 50 

100 pin edge WW 5 25 

IC SOCKETS 
Solder Tin Low Profile 
PIN 1 UP PIN 1UP 



? level 1 4 pin i 



?0 



CLOCKS 




MM5311 


550 


MM5312 


3 90 


MM5314 


390 


MM5369 


2 10 


MM5841 


14 45 


MM5865 


7 95 


CT7010 


895 


CT7015 


8 95 


MM5375AAn 


390 


MM5375AG N 4 90 


7205 


16 50 


7207 


7 50 


7208 


15 95 


7209 


4 95 


DSO026CN 


3 75 


DS0056CN 


3 75 


MM53104 


2 50 


MICROPROCESSOR 


6502 


10 95 


6504 


9 95 


6522 


995 


MM 


6 95 


6802 


11 95 


6820 


4 95 


6850 


5 95 


8080A 


5 95 


8085 


12 95 


8086 


75 00 


ZM 


9 95 


Z80A 


11 95 


8212 


290 


8214 


3 95 


8216 


290 


8224 


3 45 


8228 


4 95 


8251 


6 95 


8253 


15 00 


8255 


5 75 


8257 


10 95 


8259 


14 95 


1802CP plas 


13 95 


l8020Pplas 


17 95 


1861P 


9 50 


CDP1802CD 


28 95 


CDP1802D 


35 00 


COP1816P 


7 95 


UARTFIFO 




AY5 1013 


5 50 


AY5 1014 


7 50 


3341 


6 95 



WIRE WRAP LEVEL 3 
PIN PIN 

14 32 24 86 
16 33 28 1 00 
18 57 40 1 23 



CRYSTALS 




1 MHz 


450 


2MH7 


450 


4 MH/ 


4 25 


5 MH; 


4 25 


10 MH/ 


4 25 


18 MHz 


390 


20 MHz 


390 


32 MHz 


390 


32768 Hz 


400 


1 8432 MHz 


4 50 


3 5795 MHz 


1 20 


2 0100 MHz 


1 95 


? 097152 MHz 


4 50 


2 4576 MHz 


4 50 


3 2768 MHz 


4 50 


5 0688 MHz 


4 50 


5 185 MHz 


4 50 


5 7143 MHz 


4 50 


6 5536 MHz 


4 50 


14 31818 MHz 


4 25 


18 432 MHz 


4 50 


22 1184 MHz 


4 50 


KEYBOARD ENCODERS 


AY5 2376 


$12 50 


AYS 3600 


17 95 


AY59100 


10 50 


AY59200 


16 50 


74C922 


550 


74C923 


550 


HD0165 5 


6 95 


AY59400 


10 50 



PROM 
1702A 
2708 
2716T1 
2716 5 Volt 



4 95 

7 30 

18 00 

13 50 



8 2716 5 VON89 00 



2101 1 

2102 1 

2102AL 4 1 ■ 

2102AN 2L 1 I 

2104A 4 4 ! 

2107B 4 3 

21111 3 

21122 3! 

2114 3 
21141 300ns 4 



2732 

2758 
69 8741A 
69 8748 

87488 

8755A 
RAMN82S23 
85 N82S123 
95 N82S126 
45 N82S129 
65 N82SI31 
95 N82S136 
75 N82S137 
75 OM8577 
95 8223 



55 00 
19 50 
55 00 
55 00 
55 00 
55 00 

2 95 
6 50 

3 75 
8 50 
8 50 
8 75 
8 75 
290 
2 90 



Connectors RS232 

DB25P 3 62 

DB25S 5 20 

Cover 1 67 

0E9S 1 95 

DA15P 2 10 

DA15S 3 10 

Complete Set 9 50 



riickok3ViDl|HLEOmyl 
timeler 19 95 

Stopwatch Kll 26 95 

Auto Clock Kit 17 95 

Digital Clock Kit 14 95 

IK 1M [prom Kit 

(less PROMS i S89 00 
Motkertoard S39 00 

Erlaiider Board $15 00 

RESISTORS 4 watt 5% 
10 per type 03 
25 per type 025 
100 per type 015 
1000 per type 012 
350 piece pack 
5 per type 6 75 

kj wan 5% per type 05 

Televideo Terminal 
Model 91? $845 00 
Model 920 $945 00 

Tiny Banc Eiitnmemon Kit 
110 M 



KEYBOAROS 

56 key ASCII keyboard kit $67 50 

Fully assembled 77 50 

53 key ASCII keyboard kit 60 00 

Fully assembled 70 00 

Enclosure Plastic 14 95 

Metal Enclosure 29 95 

LEDS 

Red to 18 15 

Green Yellow T018 20 

Jumbo Red 20 

Green Orange Yellow Jumbo 25 

Chplite LEO Mounting Clip* 8 $1 25 
(specify red amber green yellow clean 

CONTINENTAL SPECIALTIES in stock 

Complete line ol breadboard lest equip 
MAX 100 8 digit Freq Clr $149 95 

OK WIRE WRAP TOOLS in stock 
Portable Mullimeler $18 00 

Complete line ol AP Products in stock 



SPECIAL PRODUCTS 

MMS865 Stopwatch Timer 

with 10 pg spec 9 00 

PC board 7 50 

Swilchei Mom Pushbutton 27 

3 pos slide 25 

Encoder HD016S 5 6 95 

Paratromci 100A Logic 

Analyzer $475 00 

Model 10 Trigger 

I .pander Kit $229 00 

Model 1 50 Bus 

Grabber Kit $369 00 

Clock Calendar Kit $23 95 

2 5 MHi Frequency 

Counter Kit $37 50 

30 MHi Frequency 

Counter Kit $47 75 



TRANSFORMERS 
6V 300 ma 3 25 

12 Volt 300 ma transformer 1 25 
12 6V CT 600 ma 3 75 

12V 250 ma wall plug 2 95 

1 2V CT 250 ma wall plug 3 75 
24V CT 100 ma 3 95 

10V 1 2 amp wall plug 4 85 

12V 6 amp 12 95 

12V 500 ma wall plug 4 75 

12V 1 amp wall plug 6 50 

10 15 VAC 8 16 VA wall plug 9 75 



CA 
CC 
CA CA 
CC 
CA 
CA,CC 
CA CC 
CC 
CCCA 
CC CA 
CC CA 



DISPLAY LEDS 

MAN1 

MAN3 

MAN7? 74 

DL704 

DL707 DL707R 

DL 727 728 

DL747 750 

FND359 

FND500/507 

FN05035I0 

FNO800 807 

3 digit Bubble 

10 digit display 

7520 Clairex photocells 

TIL311 Hen 

MAN3640 CC 

MAN4610 CA 

MAN4640 CC 

MAN4710 CA 

MAN4740 CC 

MAN6640 CC 

MAN6710 CA 

MAN6740 CC 



MA1002A C. E 

MA1012A 

102P3 Iranstormei 

MA1012A Transformer 



270 2 90 
125 39 
300 1 00 
300 I 25 
300 I 00 
500 1 90 
600 1 95 
357 70 
500 1 35 
500 90 
800 2 20 
60 



BSR Controller $39 95 

Connect your computer to the BSR Home Control 
System Computer controlled ultrasonic Irans 
miner lor your BSR Software lor 1802 user 



PROM Eraser 

assembled. 25 PROM capacity $37.50 
(with timer $69.50). 6 PROM capacity OSHA/ 
UL version $69.50 (with timer $94.50). 

Z80 Microcomputer 

16 bit I/O, 2 MHz clock, 2K RAM, ROM Bread- 
board space. Excellent for control. Bare Board 
$28.50. Full Kit $99.00. Monitor $20.00. Power 
Supply Kit $35.00. Tiny Basic $30.00 

S-100 Computer Boards 

8K Static Godbout Econo IIA Kit 149.00 
16K Static Godbout Econo XIV Kit 269.00 
24K Static Godbout Econo XX-24 Kit 414.00 
32K Static Godbout Econo XX-32 Kit 537.00 
16K Dynamic RAM Kit 289.00 

32K Dynamic RAM Kit 328.00 

64K Dynamic RAM Kit 399.00 

Video Interface Kit $139.00 

80 IC Update Master Manual $39.00 

Comp. IC data selector, 2700 pg master reference 
guide. Over 51 ,000 cross references. Free update 
service through 1980. Domestic postage $3.50. 

Modem Kit $60.00 

State of the art, orig., answer. No tuning neces- 
sary. 103 compatible 300 baud. Inexpensive 
acoustic coupler plans included. Bd. only $17.00. 

LRC 7000 Printer $389.00 

40/20 column dot matrix impact, std. paper. 

Interface all personal computers. 

64/40/32/20 version $405.00. Optional cables 
available. 

LRC 7000 printer interlace cable for Super Elf 
with software $26.00 



^ 






tt «ST | U , CC 



^ 



NiCad Battery Fixer/Charger Kit 

Opens shorted cells that won't hold a charge 
and then charges them up, all in one kit w/full 
parts and instructions. $7.25 

Rockwell AIM 65 Computer 

6502 based single board with full ASCII keyboard 
and 20 column thermal pnnter. 20 char, alphanu- 
meric display, ROM monitor, fully expandable. 
$375.00. 4K version $450.00. 4K Assembler 
$85.00, 8K Basic Interpreter $100.00 

Special small power supply for AIM65 assem . in 
frame $54.00. Complete AIM65 in thin briefcase 
with power supply $499.00. Molded plastic 
enclosure to fit both AIM65 and power supply 
$47.50. Special Package Price: 4K AIM, 8K Basic, 
power supply, cabinet $599.00 

AIM65/KIM VIM/Super Elf 44 pin expansion 
board; 3 female and 1 male bus. Board plus 3 
connectors $22.95. 

60 Hz Crystal Time Base Kit $4.40 

Converts digital clocks from AC line frequency 
to crystal time base. Outstanding accuracy. 

Video Modulator Kit $9.95 

Convert TV set into a high quality monitor w/o 
affecting usage. Comp. kit w/full instruc. 

Multi-volt Computer Power Supply 

8v 5 amp, ±18v .5 amp, 5v 1.5 amp, -5v 
.5 amp, 12v .5 amp, -12v option. ±5v, ±12v 
are regulated. Basic Kit $29.95. Kit with chassis 
and all hardware $43.95. Add $4.00 shipping. Kit 
of hardware $14.00. Woodgrain case $10.00. 
$1.50 shipping. 



RCA Cosmac 1802 Super Elf Computer $106.95 



Compare features before you decide to buy any 
other computer. There is no other computer on 
the market today that has all the desirable bene- 
fits of the Super Elf for so little money. The Super 
Elf is a small single board computer that does 
many big things. It is an excellent computer for 
training and for learning programming with its 
machine language and yet it is easily expanded 
with additional memory, Full Basic, ASCII 
Keyboards, video character generation, etc. 

Before you buy another small computer, see if it 
includes the following features: ROM monitor; 
State and Mode displays; Single step; Optional 
address displays; Power Supply; Audio Amplifier 
and Speaker; Fully socketed for all IC's; Real cost 
of in warranty repairs; Full documentation. 

The Super Elf includes a ROM monitor for pro- 
gram loading, editing and execution with SINGLE 
STEP for program debugging which is not in- 
cluded in others at the same price. With SINGLE 
STEP you can see the microprocessor chip opera- 
ting with the unique Quest address and data bus 
displays before, during and after executing in- 
structions. Also, CPU mode and instruction cycle 
are decoded and displayed on 8 LED indicators. 

An RCA 1861 video graphics chip allows you to 
connect to your own TV with an inexpensive video 
modulator to do graphics and games. There is a 
speaker system included for writing your own 
music or using many music programs already 
written. The speaker amplifier may also be used 
to drive relays for control purposes. 



plus load, reset, run, wait, input, memory pro- 
tect, monitor select and single step Large, on 
board displays provide output and optional high 
and low address. There is a 44 pin standard 
connector slot for PC cards and a 50 pin connec- 
tor slot for the Quest Super Expansion Board. 
Power supply and sockets for all IC's are in- 
cluded in the price plus a detailed 127 pg instruc- 
tion manual which now includes over 40 pgs. of 
software info, including a series of lessons to 
help get you started and a music program and 
graphics target game. Many schools and univer- 
sities are using the Super Elf as a course of study. 
OEM's use it for training and R&D. 

Remember, other computers only offer Super Elf 
features at additional cost or not at all. Compare 
before you buy. Super Elf Kit $106.95, High 
address option $8.95, Low address option 
$9.95. Custom Cabinet with drilled and labelled 
plexiglass front panel $24.95. All metal Expan- 
sion Cabinet, painted and silk screened, with 
room for 5 S-100 boards and power supply 
$57.00. NiCad Battery Memory Saver Kit $6.95. 
All kits and options also completely assembled 
and tested. 

Questdata. a software publication for 1802 com- 
puter users is available by subscription for 
$12.00 per 12 issues. Single issues $1.50. Is- 
sues 1-12 bound $16.50. 

Tiny Basic Cassette $10.00, on ROM $38.00, 
original Elf kit board $14.95. 1802 software; 
Moews Video Graphics $3.50. Games and Music 
$3.00, Chip 8 Interpreter $5.50. 



A 24 key HEX keyboard includes 16 HEX keys 

Super Expansion Board with Cassette Interface $89.95 



This is truly an astounding value! This board has 
been designed to allow you to decide how you 
want it optioned The Super Expansion Board 
comes with 4K of low power RAM fully address- 
able anywhere in 64K with built-in memory pro- 
tect and a cassette interface. Provisions have 
been made for all other options on the same 
board and it fits neatly into the hardwood cabinet 
alongside the Super Elf. The board includes slots 
for up to 6K of EPROM (2708, 2758, 2716 or Tl 
2716) and is fully socketed. EPROM can be used 
for the monitor and Tiny Basic or other purposes . 

A IK Super ROM Monitor $19.95 is available as 
an on board option in 2708 EPROM which has 
been preprogrammed with a program loader/ 
editor and error checking multi file cassette 
read/write software, (relocatable cassette file) 
another exclusive from Quest. It includes register 
save and readout, block move capability and 
video graphics driver with blinking cursor. Break 



Quest Super Basic V5.0 

A new enhanced version of Super Basic now 
available. Quest was the first company 
worldwide to ship a full size Basic for 1802 
Systems. A complete function Super Basic by 
Ron Cenker including floating point capability 
with scientific notation (number range 
±.17E 38 ), 32 bit integer ±2 billion; multi dim 
arrays, string arrays; string manipulation; cas- 
sette I/O; save and load, basic, data and ma- 



points can be used with the register save feature 
to isolate program bugs quickly, then follow with 
single step. If you have the Super Expansion 
Board and Super Monitor the monitor is up and 
running at the push of a button. 

Other on board options include Parallel Input 
and Output Ports with full handshake. They 
allow easy connection of an ASCII keyboard to the 
input port RS 232 and 20 ma Current Loop for 
teletype or other device are on board and if you 
need more memory there are two S-100 slots for 
static RAM or video boards. Also a 1K Super 
Monitor version 2 with video driver for full capa- 
bility display with Tiny Basic and a video interface 
board Parallel I/O Ports $9.85, RS 232 $4.50, 
TTY 20 ma l/F $1.95, S-100 $4.50. A 50 pin 
connector set with ribbon cable is available at 
$15.25 for easy connection between the Super 
Elf and the Super Expansion Board. 

Power Supply Kit for the complete system (see 
Multi-volt Power Supply ). 



chine language programs; and over lb state- 
ments, functions and operations. 

New improved faster version including re- 
number and essentially unlimited variables. 
Also, an exclusive user expandable command 
library. 
Serial and Parallel I/O included 

Super Basic on Cassette $55.00. 



Gremlin Color Video Kit $69.95 

32 x 16 alpha/numerics and graphics; up to 8 
colors with 6847 chip; 1K RAM at EOOO. Plugs 
into Super Elf 44 pin bus. No high res. graphics. 
On board RF Modulator Kit $4.95 



1802 16K Dynamic RAM Kit $149.00 

Expandable to 32K. Hidden refresh w clocks up to 4 
MHz w/no wait states. Addl. 16K RAM $63.00 

Super Elf 44 pin expansion board; 3 female and 1 
male bus. Board plus 3 connectors $22.95 

Tiny Basic Extended on Cassette $15.00 
(added commands include Stringy, Array, Cas- 
sette I/O etc.) 

S-100 4 Slot Expansion $ 9.95 

Super Monitor VI. I Source Listing $15.00 



Elf II Adapter Kit $24.95 

Plugs into Elf II providing Super Elf 44 and 50 pin 
plus S-100 bus expansion. (With Super Ex- 
pansion). High and low address displays, state 
and mode LED s optional $18.00. 



Super Color S-1 00 Video Kit $1 29.95 

Expandable to 256 x 192 high resolution color 
graphics. 6847 with all display modes computer 
controlled. Memory mapped. 1K RAM expanda- 
ble to 6K. S-100 bus 1802, 8080, 8085, Z80 etc. 
Editor Assembler $25.00 

(Requires minimum of 4K for E A plus user 
source) 

1802 Tiny Basic Source listing $19.00 

Super Monitor V2.0/2.1 Source Listing $20.00 



TERMS: $5.00 min. order U.S. Funds. Calif residents add 6% tax. 

$10.00 min. BankAmencard and Master Charge accepted. $1.00 insurance optional. 
Postage: Add 5%. COD. $10.00 min. order. 



FREE: Send for your copy of our NEW 1980 
QUEST CATALOG. Include 48c stamp. 



Start learning and computing for only $129. 95 wit h a Netronics 8085-based 
computer kit. Then expand it in low-cost steps to a business/development system 
with 64k or more RAM, 8" floppy disk drives, hard disks and multi- terminal I/O. 

THE NEW EXPLORER 85 SYSTEM 

Special! Full 8" floppy, 64k system for less than the price of a mini! Only $ 1499.95! 

(Also available wired & tested. $1799.95) 



Imagine — for only $129.95 you can own the starting 
level of Explorer/85, a computer that's expandable into 
full business/development capabilities — a computer 
that can be your beginner system, an OEM controller, 
or an IBM-formatted 8" disk small business system. 
From the first day you own Explorer/85, you begin 
computing on a significant level, and applying princi- 
ples discussed in leading computer magazines. Ex- 
plorer/85 features the advanced Intel 8085 cpu. which 
is 100% compatible with the older 8080A. It offers on- 
board S-100 bus expansion. Microsoft BASIC in ROM, 
plus instant conversion to mass storage disk memory 
with standard IBM-formatted 8" disks. All for only 
$129.95. plus the cost of power supply, keyboard/ 
terminal and RF modulator if you don't have them (see 
our remarkable prices below for these and other ac- 
cessories). With a Hex Keypad/display front panel. 
Level "A" can be programmed with no need for a ter- 
minal, ideal for a controller. OEM. or a real low-cost 
start. 




Full 8" disk system for /ess than the price of a mini (shown with 
Netronics Explorer/85 computer ond new terminal). System features 
floppy drive from Con t ml Do to Corp.. world's largest maker of 
memory storage systems ( not a hobby brand!) 



:,.. 




Level "A" is a 
complete operating 
system, perfect for 
beginners, hobbyists, 
industrial controller 
ase. $129.95 



LEVEL "A" SPECIFICATIONS 

Explorer/85's Level "A" system features the advanced 
Intel 8085 cpu. an 8355 ROM with 2k deluxe monitor/ 
operating system, and an advanced 8155 RAM I/O . . . 
all on a single motherboard with room for RAM/ROM/ 
PROM/EPROM and S-100 expansion, plus generous 
prototyping space. 

PC Board: Glass epoxy. plated through holes with 
solder mask. • I/O: Provisions for 25-pin (DB25) con- 
nector for terminal serial I/O. which can also support a 
paper tape reader . . . cassette tape recorder input and 
output . . . cassette tape control output . . . LED output 
indicator on SOD (serial output) line . . . printer inter- 
face (less drivers) . . . total of four 8-bit plus one 6-bit 
I/O ports. • Crystal Frequency: 6.144 MHz. • Control 
Switches: Reset and user (RST 7.5) interrupt . . . addi- 
tional provisions for RST 5.5. 6.5 and TRAP interrupts 
onboard. • Counter/Timer Programmable. 14-bit bi- 
nary. • System RAM: 256 bytes located at F800. ideal 
for smaller systems and for use as an isolated stack 
area in expanded systems . . . RAM expandable to 64K 
via S-100 bus or 4k on motherboard. 

System Monitor (Terminal Version): 2k bytes of 
deluxe system monitor ROM located at F000. leaving 
fW00 free for user RAM/ ROM. Features include tape 
load with labeling . . . examine/change contents of 
memory . . . insert data . . . warm start . . . examine and 
change all registers . . . single step with register display 
at each break point, a debugging/training feature ... go 
to execution address . . . move blocks ot memory from 
one location to another . . . fill blocks of memory with a 
constant . . . display blocks of memory . . . automatic 
baud rate selection to 9600 baud . . . variable display 
line length control (1-255 characters/line) . . . chan- 
nelized I/O monitor routine with 8-bit parallel output 
for high-speed printer . . . serial console in and console 
out channel so that monitor can communicate with I/O 
ports. 

System Monitor (Hex Keypad /Display Version): 
Tape load with labeling . . . tape dump with labeling 
. . . examine/change contents of memory insert data 
. . . warm start . . . examine! and change all registers . . . 




Level "A" 

With Hex 

Key fxid /Display. 



single step with register display at each break point . . . 
go to execution address. Level "A" in this version 
makes a perfect controller for industrial applications, 
and is programmed using the Netronics Hex Keypad/ 
Display. It is low cost, perfect for beginners. 
HEX KEYPAD/DISPLAY SPECIFICATIONS 
Calculator type keypad with 24 system-defined and 16 
user-defined keys. Six digit calculator-type display, 
that displays full address plus data as well as register 
and status information. 
LEVEL "B" SPECIFICATIONS 
Level "B" provides the S-100 signals plus buffers/ 
drivers to support up to six S-100 bus boards, and in- 
cludes: address decoding for onboard 4k RAM expan- 
sion selectable in 4k blocks . . . address decoding for 
onboard 8k EPROM expansion selectable in 8k blocks 
. . . address and data bus driven for onboard expansion 
. . . wait state generator (jumper selectable), to allow the 
use of slower memories . . . two separate 5 volt regula- 
tors. 

LEVEL "C" SPECIFICATIONS 
Level "C" expands Explorer/85's motherboard with a 
card cage, allowing you to plug up to six S-100 cards 
directly into the motherboard. Both cage and card are 
neatly contained inside Explorer's deluxe steel 
cabinet. Level "('-" includes a sheet metal superstruc- 
ture, a 5-card. gold plated S-100 extension PC hoard 
that plugs into the motherboard. |ust add required 
number of S-100 connectors. 




Explorer/85 
With Level "C 
(,'ordQige. 



■ 



LEVEL "D" SPECIFICATIONS 

Level "D" provides 4k of RAM. power supply regula- 
tion, filtering decoupling components and sockets to 
expand your Explorer/85 memory to 4k (plus the origi- 



nal 256 bytes located in the 8155A). The static RAM 
can l)e located anywhere from /fr#(r) to EFFF in 4k 

blocks. 

LEVEL "E" SPECIFICATIONS 

Level "E" adds sockets for 8k of EPROM to use the 
popular Intel 2716 or the Tl 2516. It includes all sockets, 
power supply regulator, heat sink, filtering and decou- 
pling components. Sockets may also be used for 2k x 8 
RAM IC's (allowing for up to 12k of onboard RAM). 
DISK DRIVE SPECIFICATIONS 

• 8" CONTROL DATA CORP. • Data capacity 401.016 bytes 
professional drive (SD). 802,032 bytes (DD). 

• LSI controller unformatted. 

• Write protect. • Access time: 25ms (one 

• Single or double density. track) 

DISK CONTROLLER/ I/O BOARD 
SPECIFICATIONS 

• Cont.olsuptofour8"drives. • 2716 PROM s<x:ket included 

• 1771 A LSI (SD) floppy disk for use in custom 
controller applications 

• Onboard data separator • Onboard crystal controlled. 
(IBM compatible). • Onboard I/O baud rate 

• 2 Serial I/O ports generators to 9600 baud. 

• Autoboot to disk system • Double-sided PC board 
when system reset. (glass epoxy.) 

DISK DRIVE CABINET/POWER SUPPLY 

• Deluxe steel cabinet with individual power supply for max- 
imum reliability and stability. 

ORDER A COORDINATED 
EXPLORER/85 APPLICATIONS 
PAN 

Beginner's Pak (Save $26.00!)— Buy Level "A (Ter- 
minal Version) with Monitor Source Listing and API 
5-amp Power Supply: (regular price $199.95). now at 
SPECIAL PRICE: $169.95 plus post. & insur. 
Experimenter's Pak II (Save $53.40!) — Buy Level 
*'A" (Hex Keypad/Display Version) with Hex 
Keypad/Display. Intel 8085 User Manual. Level "A" 
Hex Monitor Source Listing, and AP-1 5-amp Power 
Supply: (regular price $279 35). all at SPECIAL 
PRICE: $219.95 plus post. & insur. 
Special Microsoft BASIC Pak (Save $103.00!)— In- 
cludes Level "A" (Terminal Version). Level "B". 
Level "D" (4k RAM). Level "E*\ 8k Microsoft in 
ROM. Intel 8085 User Manual. Level 'A' Monitor 
Source Listing, and AP-1 5-amp Power Supply: (regu- 
lar price $439.70). now yours at SPECIAL PRICE: 
$329.95 plus post. & insur. 

ADD A TERMINAL WITH CABINET, 
GET A FREE RF MODULATOR: Save 
over $114 at this SPECIAL PRICE: $499.95 
plus post. & insur. 
Special 8" Disk Edition Explorer/85 (Save over $104!) 
— Includes disk- version Level "A". Level "B". two 
S-100 connectors and brackets, disk controller. 64k 
RAM. AP-1 5-amp power supply. Explorer/85 deluxe 
steel cabinet, cabinet fan. 8" SD/DD disk drive from 
famous CONTROL DATA CORP (not a hobby 
brand!), drive cabinet with power supply, and drive 
cable set-up for two drives. This package includes 
everything but terminal and printers (see coupon for 
them). Regular price $1630.30. all yours in kit at 
SPECIAL PRICE: $1499.95 plus post. & insur. Wired 
and tested, only $1799.95. 

Special! Complete Business Software Pak (Save 
$625.00!) — Includes CP/M 2.0. Microsoft BASIC. 
General Ledger. Accounts Receivable. Accounts 
Payable. Payroll Package: (regular price $1325). yours 
now at SPECIAL PRICE $699.95. 



Please send the items checked below: 

□ Explorer/85 Level "A" kit ( Terminal Version). $129.95 plus 
$:i post & insur. 

□ Explorer/85 Level "A" kit ( 1 lex Keypad/Display Version) . . . 
$128.95 plus $3 post & insur 

: i 8k Microsoft HASH n cassette tape. $64.95 postpaid 

□ 8k Microsoft BASIC In ROM Ml( requires U>vels"B". D" and 
"K ") $99.95 plus $2 post. & insur. 

: J Level "B" (S-100) kit $49.95 plus $2 post, ft insur 

D Level "C" (S-100 6-card expander) kit $39.95 plus $2 post 

ft insur 
D Level "0" (4k RAM) kll $69.95 plus $2 post ft insur. 
D Level "1" (EPROM/ ROM) kit $5.95 plus 50f pfth 

□ Deluxe Steel Cabinet for Kxplorer/85 . . $49.95 plus $3 post. 
ft insur 

□ Fan For Cabinet . . SI 5.00 plus $1.!S0 post, ft insur. 

D ASCII Keyboard/Computer lerminal Wit. features a full 12H 
character set uftl case full cursor control: 75 ohm video 
output: convertible to baudot output; selectable baud rate. 
RS232-C or 20 ma. I/O. M or (>4 character by lfi line formats, 
and can be used with eithera CRT monitorora TV set (if you 
have an RF modulator) SI49.95 plus $;t (X) post ft insur 

□ DeLuxe Steel Cabinet for ASCII keyboard/terminal ... 
$19.95 plus $2 .50 post ft insur. 

□ New! Terminal/ Monitor: i s.. photo) Same features as above. 
except 12" monitor with keyboard and terminal is in deluxe 
single cabinet; kit S399.95 plus $7 post ft insur. 

□ Hazeltine terminals: ( )ur prices too low to quote — CALL US 
n Lear-Sigler terminals/ printers: ( )ur prices loo low to quote 



CALLUS 

Hex Keypad/ Display kit 



$69.95 plus $2 post ft insur 



□ AP-1 Power Supply Kit ±8V @ 5 amps) in deluxe steel cabinet 
. . . $39.95 nlus $2 post ft insur 

Q Gold Plated S- 100 Bus Connectors $4.85 each postpaid 

□ RF Modulator kit (allows you to use your TV set as a monitor) 
. ..$8.95 postpaid. 

D 16k RAM kit (S-100 board expands to H4k) $199.95 plus $2 

post ft insur. 
D 32k RAM Id! $298.95 plus $2 post ft insur 
D 48k RAM kit $399.95 plus $2 post, ft insur 
D 64k RAM kit S499.95 plus $2 post, ft insur 
D 16k RAM Expansion kit (to expand any of the above in Ink 

blocks up to 04k) $99.95 plus $2 post ft insur. each 

□ Intel 8065 cpu Users' Manual S7.50 postpaid. 

n 12" Video Monitor (lOMHz bandwidth) $139.95 plus $5 

|>ost ft insur 
D Beginner's Pak (see above) SI68.95 plus $4 post. & insur. 

□ Experimenter's Pak (see above) . $219.95 plus $o post. & 
insur 

[ ] Special Microsoft BASIC Pak Without Terminal (see a l>ove) 

$329.95 plus $7 post ft insur 
D Same as above plus ASCII Keyboard Terminal With Cabinet, 

Get Free RF Modulator (see above) $498.95 plus $10 post. 

ft insur 

□ Special 8" Disk Edition Explorer/ 85 (see above) SI 496.95 
plus $26 post, ft insur. 

D Wired & Tested $1799.95 plus $20 post, ft insur 
D Extra 8" CDC Floppy Drives $499.95 plus $12 post, ft insur 
i Cabinet & Power Supply For Drive S69.95 plus $:< post, ft 
insur 
D Drive table Set-up For Two Drives $25 plus $1 .SO post ft 
insur 



□ Disk Controller Board With I/O Ports SI 99.95 plus $2 post 
ft insur. 

I Special: Complete Business Software Pak (see above) 
$699.96 post pa id . 

SOLD SEPARATELY- rv««* WQO 

□ CP/M 1.4 $100 postpaid Uepi. t\D<£. 

□ CP/M 2.0 SI50 postpaid 

□ Microsoft BASIC $325 postpaid 

[ J Intel 8085 cpu User Manual $7.50 postpaid. 
[ 1 Level "A" Monitor Source Listing $25 postpaid 

Continental I .S.A. Credit Card Buyers Outside Connecticut 

CALL TOLL FREE: 800-243-7428 

To Order From Connecticut ( )r For Technical 
Assistance, call (2(H) 354-9375 

Total Enclosed (Conn res. add sales lax) $ 

Paid By: 

□ Personal Check □ Cashiers Check/Money ( )rder 

□ VISA □ Master Charge ( Bank No . ) 

Acct. No. Exp. Date 

Signature 

Print 

Name 

Address 

Cit 



4 



» 



State 



Zip. 



■ 
■ 



NETRONICS Research & Development Lid. 
333 Litchfield Road, New Millord. CT 06776 



t/> Reader Service — seepage 194 



Microcomputing, February 1981 183 



WE'RE G 

We're not selling it. The JADE Catalog is the best, and the best things 
in life are free. We will send you our new 1981 edition describing over 
4000 microcomputer parts, components, boards, systems, accessories, 



S-100 Boards 






\W\ 



\ 
64K RAM Board - Cal Comp Sys 

4 MHz, bank selectable, IEEE standard 
MEM-64565A A&T $449.95 

Memory Bank - Jade 

4 MHz, IEEE S-100, bank selectable, 8 or 16 bit 

MEM-99730K Kit, no RAM $219.95 

MEM-16730K I6K kit $249.95 

MEM-16730A I6K A&T $299.95 

MEM-32731K 32 K kit $289.95 

MEM-32731A 32K A&T $339.95 

MEM-48732K 48 K kit $324.95 

MEM-48732A 48K A&T $374.95 

MEM-64733K 64K kit $359.95 

MEM-64733A 64K A&T $409.95 

MEM-99730B Bare board $55.00 

ExpandoRAM II - SD Systems 

4 MHz RAM board expandable from 16K to 256K 

MEM-16630K I6K kit $289.95 

MEM-16630A I6K Jade A&T $339.95 

MEM-32631K 32 K kit $329.95 

MEM-32631A 32K Jade A&T $379.95 

MEM-48632K 48 K kit $369.95 

MEM-48631A 48K Jade A&T $419.95 

MEM-64633K 64 K kit $409.95 

MEM-64633A 64K Jade A&T $459.95 

32K STATIC RAM - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz expandable static RAM board uses 21 14L's 

MEM-16151K 16K4MHzkit $169.95 

MEM- 16151 A 16K 4 MHz A&T... $224.95 

MEM-32151K 32K 4 MHz kit $299.95 

MEM-32151A 32K 4 MHz A&T... $349.95 

16K STATIC RAM - Cal Comp Sys 

2 or 4 MHz 16K static RAM - a real memory bargain 
MEM- 16160A I6K 2 MHz A&T... $279.00 
MEM-16162A 16K 4 MHz A&T... $309.00 
MEM-16160B Bare board $29.95 

THE BIG Z* - Jade 

2 or 4 MHz switchable Z-80* CPU with serial I/O 

CPU-30201K Kit $145.00 

CPU-30201A A&T $199.00 

CPU-30200B Bare board $35.00 

SBC- 100 - SD Systems 

2.5 MHz Z-80* CPU with serial & parallel I/O ports 

CPC-30100K Kit $299.95 

CPC-30100A Jade A&T $369.95 

SBC-200 - SD Systems 

4 MHz Z-80* CPU with serial & parallel I/O ports 

CPC-30200K Kit $339.95 

CPC-30200A Jade A&T $399.95 

CB2 - S.S.M. 

2 or 4 MHz switchable Z-80* CPU with RAM, ROM, & I/O 

CPU-30300K Kit $239.95 

CPC-30300A A&T $299.95 

2810 Z-80* CPU - Cal Comp Sys 

2/4 MHz Z-80A * CPU w/ serial I/O port 
CPU-30400A A&T $275.00 



DOUBLE-D - Jade 

Double density controller with the inside track 

IOD-1200K Kit $299.95 

IOD-1200A 8" A&T $389.95 

IOD-1205A SWA & T $389.95 

IOD-1200B Bare board $65.00 

DOUBLE DENSITY - Cal Comp Sys 

5 l A" or 8" disk controller with free CP/M 2.2 
IOD-1300A A&T $374.95 

VERSAFLOPPY II - SD Systems 

New double density controller for both 8" & 5'A" 

IOD-1160K Kit $379.95 

IOD-1160A Jade A & T $439.95 

S.P.I.C. - Jade 

Our new I/O card with 2 SIO's, 4 CTC's, and 1 PIO 
IOI-1045K 2 CTC's, 1 SIO, 1 PIO . . $199.00 

IOM045A A&T $259.00 

1OI-1046K 4 CTC's, 2 SIO's, I PIO $259.00 

IOI-1046A A&T $319.00 

IOI-1045B Bare board w/ manual . . . $59.95 
IOI-1045D Manual only $20.00 

1/0-4 - S.S.M. 

2 serial I/O ports plus 2 parallel I/O ports 

IOI-1010K Kit $179.95 

IOI-1010A A&T $259.95 

IOI- 1010B Bare board $35.00 

100K DAY CLOCK - Mtn Hardware 

Crystal controlled S-100 clock with NiCad backup 
IOK-1400A A&T $329.95 

SB1 - S.S.M. 

15 Hz to 25K Hz music synthesizer for S-100 

IOS-1005K Kit $239.95 

IOS-1005A A&T $299.95 

TB-4 - Mullen 

Extremely versatile extender board with logic probe 

TSX-180K Kit $55.00 

TSX-180A A&T $75.00 

S-100 EXTENDER - Cal Comp Sys 

Puts problem boards within easy reach 
TSX-160A A&T $24.95 

VIDEO BOARD - Jade 

64 x 16 assembled & tested S-100 video board 

IOV-1050B Bare board $25.00 

IOV-1050K Kit $99.95 

IOV-1050A A&T sale price $139.95 

VDB-8024 - SD Systems 

80 x 24 I/O mapped video board with keyboard I/O 

IOV-1020K Kit $399.95 

IOV-1020A Jade A&T $459.95 

VB3 - S.S.M. 

80 x 24 or 80 x 48 memory mapped with graphics 

IOV-1095K Kit, 4 MHz $399.95 

IOV-1095A A&T, 4 MHz $464.95 

IOV-1096K 80 x 48 upgrade, 4 MHz . $89.00 

PB-1 - S.S.M. 

2708, 2716 EPROM board with built-in programmer 

MEM-99510K Kit $159.95 

M EM-99510A A&T $239.95 

PROM- 100 - SD Systems 

2708, 2716, 2732, 2758, & 2516 EPROM programmer 

MEM-99520K Kit $219.95 

MEM-99520A Jade A&T $269.95 



Single Board Computers 




AIM-65 - Rockwell 

6502 computer with printer, display, & keyboard 

CPK-50165 IK AIM $374.95 

CPK-50465 4K AIM $449.95 

SFK-74600008E 8K BASIC ROM ... $99.95 
SFK-64600004E 4K assembler ROM $84.95 

PSX-030A Power supply $64.95 

ENX-000002 Enclosure $49.95 

4K AIM, 8K BASIC, power supply, & enclosure 
Special package price $625.00 

Z-80* STARTER KIT - SD Systems 

Z-80* computer with RAM, ROM, I/O, & keyboard 

CPS-30010K Kit $369.95 

CPS-30010A Jade A&T $459.95 

Motherboards 

ISO-BUS - Jade 

Silent, simple, and on sale ■ a better motherboard 
6 Slot (5'/4" x 8Y8") 

MBS-061B Bare board $19.95 

MBS-061K Kit $39.95 

MBS-061A A&T $49.95 

12 Slot (9%" x 8/8") 

MBS-121B Bare board $29.95 

MBS-121K Kit $69.95 

MBS-121A A&T $89.95 

18 Slot (14tt" x S%") 

MBS-181B Bare board $49.95 

MBS- 18 1 K Kit $99.95 

MBS-181A A&T $139.95 

Mainframes 

MAINFRAME - Cal Comp Sys 

12 slot S-100 mainframe with 20 amp power supply 

ENC-112105 Kit $309.95 

ENC-112106 A & T $349.95 

DISK MAINFRAME - NNC 

Dual 8" drive cutouts with 8 slot motherboard 
ENS- 112320 with 30 amp p.s $699.95 

Video Monitors 

9" B & W MONITOR - A.P.F. 

High quality, high resolution video monitor 
VDM-750900 9" monitor $149.95 

13" COLOR MONITOR - Zenith 

The hi res color you've been promising yourself 
VDC-201301 $449.00 

12" GREEN SCREEN - NEC 

20 MHz, P31 phosphor video monitor with audio 
VDM-651200 12" monitor $249.95 

SUP'R'MOD II - M & R Assoc 

Color or B & W TV interface recommended for Apple 
IOR-5050A A&T $29.95 






NG rr AWAY 

peripherals, and software. All you have to do is ask for it. Just circle 
our inquiry number on the reader service card in the rear of this 
magazine and we will send you the best. It's free and it's easy. 



Accessories for Apple 



...i-yy 





rs ra 

«a -a 



16K MEMORY UPGRADE 

Add 16K of RAM to your TRS-80, Apple, or Exidy 

MEX-16100K TRS-80 kit $39.95 

MEX-16101K Apple kit $39.95 

MEX-16102K Exidy kit $39.95 

DISK DRIVE for APPLE 

5 l A" disk drive with controller for your Apple 

MSM-12310C with controller $475.00 

MSM-123101 w/ out controller $375.00 

8" DRIVES for APPLE 

Complete kit with controller, DOS, and two 8" drives 
Special package price $1475.00 

AIO - S.S.M. 

Parallel & serial interface for your Apple 

IOI-2050K Kit $159.00 

IOI-2050A A&T $199.00 

PRINTER INTERFACE - Cal Comp 

Sys 

Centronics type I/O card w/ firmware 
IOI-2041A A&T $99.95 

APPLE CLOCK - Cal Comp Sys 

Real time clock w /battery backup 
IOK-2030A A&T $119.95 

SUPERTALKER - Mtn Hardware 

Speech recognition/ synthesizer w/ speaker & mike 
IOS-2015A A&T $275.00 

Z-80* CARD for APPLE 

Z-80* CPU card with CP/Mfor your Apple 
CPX-30800A A&T $279.95 

MICROMODEM - D.C. Hayes 

Auto answer /dial modem card for Apple or S-100 

IOM-2010A Apple modem $349.95 

IOM-1100A S-100 modem $375.00 

Micronet Modem - Micromate 

Direct connect modem with extra features 
IOM-2020A Best Apple modem . ... $275.00 

EPROM ERASERS T 

Spectronics hi intensity industrial eraser 

XME-3100 Without timer $69.95 

XME-3101 With timer $94.50 

L.S. Engineering UV eraser for up to 48 EPROMs 
XME-3200 A&T $39.95 



8" Disk Drive Sale 




JADE's new dual disk sub-assemblies include: 
Handsome metal cabinet with proportionally 
balanced air flow system, rugged dual drive power 
supply, cooling fan, cable kit, lighted power 
switch, approved fuse assembly, line cord, Never- 
Mar rubber feet, and all necessary hardware to 
mount 2-8" disk drives - it's all American made, 
guaranteed for six monthes, and it's in stock! 
Dual 8" Sub-Assembly Cabinet 

END-000421 Cabinet kit $225.00 

END- 000420 Bare cabinet $59.95 

Single sided, double density disk drive sub-system 
END-000423 Kit w/2 8" drives .... $995.00 
END-000424 A&T w/2 8" drives $1195.00 

Double sided, double density disk drive sub-system 
END-000426 kit w/2 8" drives ... $1495.00 
END-000427 A&T w/2 8" drives $1695.00 

8" DISK DRIVES 

Highly reliable double density floppy disk drives 
Shugart 80 1R single sided, double density 

MSF-10801R SA-801R $425.00 

Special Sale Price 2 for $790.00 

Siemens FDD100-8D2 single sided, double density 

MSF-201120 6 mo warranty $395.00 

Special sale price 2 for $750.00 

Qume Datatrak 8 double sided, double density 
MSF-750080 SA- 85 1R compatible .. $625.00 
Special sale price 2 for $1198.00 

JADE DISK PACKAGE 

Double-D controller kit, two 8" double density drives 

CP/M 2.2, cabinet, power supply, & cables 

Special package price $1395.00 

DISKETTES - Jade 

Bargain prices on magnificent magnetic media 

b l A" single sided, single density, box of 10 

MMD-51 10103 Soft sector $27.95 

MMD-51 11003 10 sector $27.95 

MMD-51 11603 16 sector $27.95 

5'4" double sided, double density, box of 10 
MMD- 5220 103 Soft sector $39.95 

8" single sided, single density, box of 10 
MMD-81 10103 Soft sector $33.95 

8" single sided, double density, box of 10 
MMD-8120103 Soft sector $39.95 

8" double sided, double density, box of 10 
MMD-8220103 Soft sector $57.95 

NOVATION CAT 

300 baud, auto answer/ originate acoustic modem 
IOM-5200A Special sale price $139.00 

D-CA T 300 baud, direct connect modem 
IOM-5201A Special sale price $179.00 

* Z-80, Z-80A, and the letter Z are recognized trademarks 
of Zilog, Inc. *CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital 
Research Corp. *CBASIC is a trademark of Compiler 
Systems, Inc. 



Printers 




SPINWRITER - NEC 

65 cps, bi-directional, letter quality with tractor 
PRD-55510 with 16K buffer $2595.00 

CENTRONICS 737-1 

9 x N dot matrix, letter quality, proportional spacing 

PRM-15737 Parallel $795.00 

With interface for Apple $895.00 

MX-80 - Epson 

132 column, 9x9 dot matrix, multiple fonts 

PRM-27080 Save $100.00 $545.00 

Interface for Apple $1 10.00 



MICROPROCESSORS 

Z-80 10.86 

Z-80A 12.95 

6602 11.50 

6800 11.96 

6802 17.96 

6809 39.96 

8035 24.00 

8060A 6.59 

8086 16.96 

8748 59.96 

Z-80 SUPPORT 

3881 PIO 9.50 

3881-4 PI04MHz . 14.50 

3882 CTC 9.50 

3882-4 CTC-4MHz 14.95 

3883 SIO 29.50 

3884 SIO 49.50 

6800 
SUPPORT 

6821P 5.95 

6828P 11.95 

6834P 22.50 

6840P ia75 

6860P 4.80 

6862P 6.79 

6875L 7.40 

68488P 26.00 

BAUD RATE 
GENERATORS 

MC14411 10.00 

1.843 MHz xtal 4.95 

UARTS 

AY5-1013A 5^5 

AY3-1014A 8.25 

TR1602B 5^6 

TMS6011 5.96 

IM6402 9.00 



PROMS 

2708 450ns R25 

10 for $69.00 

2716 12,5v 12.95 

2716 5v 12.95 

10 for $99.00 

2532 5v 39.95 

2732 5v 39.96 

2768 5v 19.95 

RAMS 

21L02 2 MHz 1.25 

21L02A 4 MHz 1.50 

2114L 2 MHz &75 

2114LA 4 MHz 3.95 

2147 70ns 39.95 

4116 4.95 

4164 64Kxl 175.00 

5257 2 MHz &75 

5257A 4 MHz 7.25 

MK4118 18.95 

SUPPORT 
DEVICES 

8212 4.96 

8214 4.66 

8216 2.96 

8224 3^5 

8224-4 10.96 

8226 3.86 

8228 4.95 

8238 4.95 

8243 aOO 

8250 14.95 

8251 6L50 

8253 13.95 

8255 6.50 

8257 19.95 

8259 17.95 

8275 49.95 

8279 15.96 



■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■«■■■■■■■■■ 

| PLACE ORDERS TOLL FREE 

I Continental U.S. Inside California 

800-421-5500 800-262-1710 



For Technical Inauiries or Customer Service call 

213-973-7707 




1^48 
Computer Products 
4901 W. Rosecrans, Hawthorne, Ca 90250 
TERMS OF SALE: Cash, checks, credit cards, or 
S Purchase Orders from qualified firms and institutions. 
Minimum order $15.00. California residents add 6% tax. 
Minimum shipping and handling charge $2.50 Pricing 
I and availability subject to change without notice. 
■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■I 



apple II plus 

With 48Kof 
memory! 

$1042°° 



With the purchase of 
the APPLE II 
select from the below 
SPECIAL PRICING.' 

Base 2 printer ^599°° 
Disk IWcont ... 585 °° 

Diskll 475°° 

Ser. Printer Cd. 179°° 

SupRMod 23°° 

3way I/O Select 33°° 
Video 100 12" 119°° 
Firmware Card. W9°° 
UHFtoRCA Cable 5°° 




1 74LS00 


26 


74LS02 


26 


74LS03 


26i 


74LS04 


26 


74LS08 


28 


74LS09 


26 


74LS10 


26 


74LS20 


26 


74LS21 


28 


74LS22 


26 


74LS26 


49, 


74LS27 


.26 


74LS30 


28 


74LS32 


32 


74LS38 


.32 


74LS42 


65 


74LS48 


.78 


74LS51 


.25 


74LS54 


.35 


74LS74 


.38 


74LS75 


.60 


74LS83 


.44 


74LS85 


.95 


74LS86 


95 


74LS90 


.69 


[74LS93 


.69 


74LS107 


.45 


74LS112 


38 


74LS113 


48 


74LS122 


48 


74LS123 


.95 


74LS126 


69 


74LS138 


69 


74LS151 


.44 


74LS153 


.44 


74LS155 


115 


74LS158 


75 


74LS160 


95 


74LS161 


85 


74LS162 


95 


74LS163 


160 


74LS164 


65 


74LS165 


65 


74LS170 


175 


74LS174 


75 


74LS175 


75 


74LS190 


75 


74LS193 


95 


74LS195 


95 


74LS196 


85 


74LS221 


140 


74LS240 


165 


74LS241 


165 


74LS243 


145 


74LS244 


145 


74LS245 


225 


74LS253 


95 


74LS257 


95 


74LS258 


95 


74LS259 


285 


74LS279 


44 


74LS283 


100 


74LS293 


185 


74LS298 


120 I 


74LS366 


95 


74LS367 


55 


74LS368 


55 


74LS373 


1 39 


74LS374 


139 I 


74LS386 


65 J 



*159 




BASE 2 PRINTER 

TO APPLE COMPUTER 

INTERFACE BOARD Wli I CABLI 



Global Specialties 



apple ll/appk II plu/ 

With 60Kpf 
memory! 

$1259°° 

■ Switch from"APPLESOFT"to 
"INTEGER BASIC "and back again. 

■ With DiscOperatittgSystem 
DOS 3.3 run PASCAL program 

without need fora PASCAL card. 



SlOO MEMORY BOARD 

16 K 
STRTIC 

RfiM 

$24900 




s 124 95 

apple clock/calendar 

e Seconds,mmiutps,hours,dayof-v*eek 
month, dale, A year 

• Onboard battenes with one year hie 

• Uses MSM5a32<xystal controlled 

California (.ompuifr Systems 




■I HAI 11 1% 
<« HAH* AUDHI SS4HI I 
tMllHIHI) Ml Ml iH, Ml. Ml 
Ml I fS III '•>'• •>'■ •',! I) 

M(.N«< S»ArW)AWI)S 
4 Mil.' ' Iff UAIII ItJ 



ASSIMBlcD 
& TESTED 

< .ililornui ( imiptili r Swlctm 



Logic Probes 



LP1 










*J 7 49 




LP2 



$ 

8750 

No**Clitches*\ Surges Or Interference 

Thr MPI> I I 7 is ihr Urn cm t solution to \nur 
power distribution problems. , K( . yM 

I I 7 h.*s .1 hiieli [wrftir rn.im r r Ml filler l>uilt 111 < in nit 
hrrtfhrc Ivm. i I* r »•* t ,tn«l %n \* il» lit'il < .utlrK illunim.tlnl 
1 hi off vwrtfll for -.witi rml out let \ .mil n l>uill *ith 
"•KK* M ' ' I .i|>pro\.*i| , oiii|Mirifiils .itid In himiik in .1(1 .ill 
\ttfl ilussis v*ith » oti\ fulfill llloiililMIK ll.ilH£fv 



*21*9 



MSM5832 

MICROPROCESSOR 
REAL-TIME $7*5 
CLOCK/CALENDAR 
GENERAL DESCRIPTION 

The MSMS83? is a monolithic metal-gale CMOS integrated 
circuit that tunctions as a real time clock calendar tor use in 
bus oriented microprocessor applications The on chip 3? 768 
Hi crystal controlled oscillator time base is counted do*n to 
provide addressable 4 bit I. O data ot SECONDS MINUTES 
HOURS DAY OF WEEK DATE MONTH and YEAR Data ac 
cess is controlled by 4 bit address chip select read write and 
hold inputs Other functions include 1?H ?4H format selection 
leap year identification and manual 30 second correction 



LP3 



EPROMS 

2708Kx8$5?5 

2776 2kx8 



10.95 

8 lor $80 

$ 5849|2732«*8 39.9 



TRS80 

16 K Mrmory AdrJOn 

•4395 

KIT CONTAINS 
DIP SWITCHES 
AND DETAILED 
INSTRUCTIONS 



SINGLE S VOLT FOR 2716*2732 



/// 




«* $ 



■*>»«». MM* IMPACT PAINTER 

• Oof rtoiution giapMci in •>• dmnmltimt 

• 1970 character buffer 

• fully ad/uirab'a Iracrori lo » l 7 

oo 



boxe_ inc 



/£ 



5712 




I'lMH 

A P. 



Shelf 



VMS27K 

E-PROM 

REQUIRES 
THREE ^S 50 
POWER SUPPS. 



SN7400N 
SN7402N 
SN7404N 
SN7408N 
SN7410N 
SN7412N 
SN7413N 
SN7414N 
SN7416N 
SN7417N 
SN7423N 
SN7425N 
SN7430N 
SN7437N 
SN7438N 
SN7440N 
SN7442N 
SN7443N 
SN7445N 
SN7451N 
SN7454N 
SN7474N 
SN7475N 



SN7482N 

SN7492N 

SN7493N 

SN7495N 

SN7496N 

SN74122N 

SN74136N 

SN74141N 

SN74151N 

SN74153N 

SN74154N 

SN74155N 

SN74157N 

SN74160N 

SN74161N 

SN74163N 

SN74164N 

SN74165N 

SN74174N 

SN74175N 

SN74180N 

SN74181 N 

SN74393N 



CONCORD 



■• 



Connector Layout 



$14500 ^5500 



Description 

The RS- 232C Compatible Digital Transfer 
Switch is designed to switch modems 
between front end processors All 24 pins of 
the connector are switched, with Pin 1 wired 
to ground 



Tbar 



INCORPORATED 



L««d«x Corp 

12" BLACK & WHITE 
LOW COST VIDEO 
MONITOR 



com PUT CR 



^297 



APPLE EXPANSION KIT 
|16K Memory Add On 5 QQool 

mi »***» Aim OMMf *J\V 

ill S lfvSt»lf«.Tli IMS 



S100 16K ADDON 

IDA DC DO Ann WITH DOCUMENTATION ftNO 
dAKC DUAKD 0ITAIL10 INSTRUCTION BOOK 



componenn 



1971 SOUTH STATE COLLEGE NAHEI M, CA. 92806 

VIS* MASTERCNARCE MimMkn AU-V1 AONIA-UM OROCR J1000 

CHECK OR MO UH/"0/'UbJl 100 SI SO fOR f RT 

NOCOO Nf stock .nd ^llo»ff 12 000 l.pfsoNemi jnductO's C*l RES ADO & 



8038C 

VCO Wiiv»'fon»Gen 



FRT.CHARGES 

am't frt.chg. 

l$ 10-49 $ 20< 
50-99 40c 

100-249 7« 
250-499 8« 

500-999 10 

1 000 up inquire 

555TIMER 
27C 



WTAGEREGUUTOI 



ni (,*rive 

/90S SV 
7908 8V 
W> 1SV 
("918 18V 



POSITIVE 

raof, sv 

rSOb 6V 
'HOH 8V 
'HI? 1?V 



95 < 



$265 



►95 



T1CMNOLOQV IfVrC 




IQ12 



SCRs & Triacs 

10Amp.400Volts Isolated Tab 

IS4I0 tc p 2 4° IT4I0 

95< 



2114L 

1024x4 Static RAM 

300 nsec ...... 1 3" 

200nsec ...... 4 75 




17 95 - 



LOGIC 

PROBE 

KIT 



COMPLETE 80B5A BASED 

MICRO-COMPUTER 

AND MICaOPnOCESSOfl TRAINING UNn 

YOU GET: 

• Fully Assembled and fesfed M854 Mrcrocom 
pilfer wrm .rX RAM. IK WOM.l IK EPROM 
ProQiammahtr, I/O Keyboard unit. CPU card. X 
ma Asynchronous seruV porf. f> JfJ*»y and 
Operating system 

•oTMtM Cookbook X2p*ges lakes you irom 
baste concepts to actual d&sron 

•8080e08SA Sott*»am Dmstgn Book I with 
dntaikml anamination ot all 2*4 instructions. I 
336 pages include sample programs using 
all baste instructions and typical assembly 
language k\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\% 




MC1330A1P 

MC1350P 

MC1358P 

LM380N 

NE565N 

/WC1458P 



808SA 

cootnooK 




'$295 00 



186 Microcomputing, February 1981 



THE COMPUPRO SYSTEMS APPROACH: 

HIGH POWER, 

HIGH PERFORMANCE, 

AND HIGH THROUGHPUT 



Unlike "all-in-one" computers, CompuPro's modular S-100 systems 
are amazingly flexible machines that are ideal for high level industrial, 
commercial, and scientific applications. Full conformance to all IEEE 
696/S-100 specifications ensures well integrated systems performance, 
as well as freedom from obsolescence in the years to come. 

All CompuPro products meet the most demanding mechanical 
and electrical standards, accept the highest possible clock speeds for 
maximum throughput and are backed with one of the best - if not the best - warranties in the business (1 year limited warranty on all products, 
2 year limited warranty for boards qualified under the Certified System Component program). 

When you're looking for a computer, there are lots of choices. But when you need a precision machine that is built for the future as 
well as the present, the choice narrows down to the most experienced name in the S-100 business: CompuPro. 



NEW! COMPUTER ENCLOSURE 2 

Introductory price: $795 
Specify rack mount or desk top version. 

We just made it easier for you to move up to an expandable 
S-100 system. . .COMPUTER ENCLOSURE 2 is ready to accept 
boards the minute it's unpacked. Heavy-duty, fused, constant 
voltage power supply provides +8 Vat 25 Amps (!), +16V at 3 
Amps, and -16V at 3 Amps; 20 slot shielded motherboard, with 
active termination, offers high speed performance. Other 
features include dual AC outlets on rear, heavy-duty line filter, 
circuit breaker, quiet ventilation fan, reset switch, and black 
anodized front panel (with textured vinyl painted cover for 
desktop version). Rack mount version includes slides for easy 
pull-out from rack frame. 

Also available: COMPUTER ENCLOSURE 1. Same as above, 
but less power supply and motherboard. $289 desktop, $329 
rack mount. 



LOWEST PRICE EVER ON 

16K DYNAMIC RAMS - 8/$37 

Just what you would expect from the memory leader: top 
quality, low power, high speed (200 ns) 16K dynamic RAMs, 
backed up with a 1 year limited warranty. Expand memory in 
TRS-80* -I and -II computers as well as machines made by 
Apple, Exidy, Heath H89, newer PETs, etc. Add $3 for two dip 
shunts plus TRS-80* conversion instructions. Limited quantity. 



\ 



S-100 HIGH PERFORMANCE 



MOTHERROARDS 



Actively terminated and fully shielded, these advanced 
motherboards handle the coming generation of 5 to 10 MHz 
CPUs as well as present day 2 and 4 MHz systems. Mechanically 
compatible with most computer enclosures. Unkits have edge 
connectors and termination resistors pre-soldered in place for 
easy assembly. 

20 slot motherboard with edge connectors - Unkit $174, A/T $214 
12 slot motherboard with edge connectors - Unkit $129, A/T $169 
6 slot motherboard with edge connectors - Unkit $89, A/T $129 



si 



SOFTWARE 

PASCAL/M* : $175 complete 

PASCAL - easy to learn, easy to apply - can give a 
microcomputer with CP/M" more power than many minis. We 
supply a totally standard Wirth PASCAL/M* 8" diskette and 
comprehensive manual. Specify Z-80* or 8080/8085 version. 

8088/8086 MONITOR-DEBUGGER: $35 

Supplied on single sided, single density, soft-sector 8" disc. 
CP/M* compatible. Great development tool; mnemonics used 
in debug conform as closely as possible to current CP/M " DDT 
mnemonics. 



HIGH SPEED S-lOO CPU ROARDS 
8 BIT CPU Z 

Like many others, we claim full conformance to IEEE 
696/S-100 specifications; unlike many others, we'll send you 
the timing specs to prove it. CPU Z includes all standard Z-80A* 
features along with power on jump, on-board fully maskable 
interrupts for interrupt-driven systems, selectable automatic 
wait state insertion, provision for adding up to 8K of on-board 
EPROM, and 16/24 bit extended addressing. Works with 6 MHz 
CPUs; supplied with 4 MHz CPU. $225 Unkit, $295 A/T, $395 
CSC 

16/8 BIT CPU 8085/88 

When we shipped the first CPU 8085/88 board back in June of 
1980, we created a bridge between the 8 bit world of the present 
and the 16 bit world of the future. By using an 8088 CPU (for 16 
bit power with a standard 8 bit bus) in conjunction with an 8 bit 
8085, CPU 8085/88 is downward compatible with 8080/8085 
software, upward compatible with 8086/88 software (as well as 
Intel's coming P-Series), designed for professional-level high 
speed applications, and capable of accessing 16 megabytes of 
memory. . .while conforming fully to all IEEE 696/S-100 
standards (timing specs available on request). 

Looking for a powerful 8 bit CPU board? Looking for a 
powerful 16 bit CPU board? Then look at CPU 8085/88, the best 
of both worlds. 

Prices: $295 Unkit, $425 A/T (both operate at 5 MHz); $525 
CSC (with 5 MHz 8085, 6 MHz 8088). Owner's manual available 
separately for $5. 

8 BIT CPU 8085 

This is a single 8 bit processor version of the above board, 
and may be easily upgraded to full 16 bit operation at a later 
date. $235 Unkit, $325 A/T, $425 CSC. 



MPX 1: THE ANSWER TO COST-EFFECTIVE 

MULTI-PROCESSING 

MPX 1, a powerful front end processor/system multiplexer, 
unloads the host CPU to handle heavy 8 or 16 bit 
multi-user/multi-task traffic. This results in greatly increased 
throughput and speed of operation. MPX includes an on-board 5 
MHz 8085 microprocessor, 2K of ROM, 4K or RAM, interrupt 
controller, and much more. Finally. . .multi-processing is an 
affordable reality. Call for pricing and delivery information. 



OTHER S-100 RUS PRODUCTS 

Active Terminator Board $34.50 Kit 

Memory Manager Board $59 Unkit, $85 A/T, $100 CSC 

Mullen Extender Board $59 Kit 

Mullen Rela