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V0, -?922 XIX ] General Notes. 573 

feet away. I withdrew and it went back into the hollow. No eggs had 
yet been laid. 

Five out of the six eggs hatched and the young were successfully reared; 
they left the nest on the morning of May 5. — E. von S. Dingle, Summer- 
Ion, S. C. 

Bird Interference on High Tension Electric Transmission Lines. 

— While changing a live, 3-phase, 13,000 volt line i,t was observed that 
the insulators and metal cross-arms were favorite resting places for the 
Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura septentrionalis), The Florida Crow 
(Corvus b. pascuus), and the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovieianus) . 
The Vultures and Crows will perch upon the insulators, metal cross-arms, 
or the static ground bayonets and the expanse of their wings is sufficient 
to produce a short-circuit between the conductors or a ground connection 
between the conductors and the static ground system. In the case of 
13,000 volts, the current will arc 7/10 of an inch through the air to connect 
with the bird's wing and the arc will follow several inches, often burning 
up the bird and melting the line fuses. In a slightly different way the 
Shrikes meet their death and suspend industries which depend on the 
high tension line for power. The Shrike flies with its grasshopper or 
lizard to the pole and decides that the sharp end of the tie wire is an ex- 
cellent place to impale its victim. When the Shrike comes within striking 
distance of the voltage on the live conductor a flash-over occurs and a 
bird and a fuse are gone. It is doubtful whether the birds will ever ap- 
preciate the danger of this silent, unseen power. These observations 
were made in South Jacksonville during the summer of 1921. — Thomas 
Hallinan, Jacksonville, Florida. 

Scarcity of Breeding Birds in Duval County, Florida.— While 

making a survey of the cold-blooded vertebrates in Duval County during 
December, 1920; February, March, May, June, September, October, 1921; 
and January, February, March, April, May, June, July, 1922, our parties 
of from two to nine observers covered in the aggregate about 925 miles 
through the different types of woods — pines, palmettoes, cypress, oaks, bays, 
magnolias, and regions of thick undergrowths as well as fresh and brackish 
water swamps. After covering all this territory and making a special 
effort to note the existance of nesting birds, only two observations were 
made. One was the abandoned nest of a Fish Hawk (Pandion haliaetus 
carolinensis) on a high tree near New Berlin, noted June 4, 1922, and the 
other was a Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) with a nest containing 
four eggs in a thick shrub about three feet from the ground near Orange 
Park, noted April 23, 1922. In this region, at certain seasons, the migrants 
were numerous but the resident birds, during this period of observation 
were relatively few in numbers and in species. This negative evidence 
concerning the existance of occupied or abandoned bird's nests may be 
due to this region's position in the zone of abrupt transition from the 



574 General Notes. [^ 

near-tropical climate of Central and South Florida to the temperate 
latitudes to the north. — Thomas Hallinan, Jacksonville, Florida. 

Notes on Birds of Madison, Wisconsin, and Vicinity. 

Fhalacrocorax a. auritus. Double-crested Cormorant. — During 
the last few years there has been a striking increase in the numbers of this 
species during migration. On May 1, 1921, a flock of at least 500 was seen 
to leave the "Widespread" and start northward, the front of the column 
being about half a mile wide. On April 29, 1922, three flocks numbering 
about 200, 200, and 50 individuals, were seen flying a short distance apart 
over Lake Mendota. On the following day there were about 1,000 birds 
on the lower lakes. 

On April 12, 1922, a flock of 14 Double-crested Cormorants was seen 
over the waters of Lake Monona. They flew in ascending circles, now 
soaring, now flapping their wings, until they had attained a great height; 
then suddenly swinging into V-formation, they started southward and 
were soon lost to view. Their behaviour corresponded exactly with that 
reported for a Loon (Gavia immer) by Barnes (Bent — Life Histories of 
North American Diving Birds, p. 55); this observation, coupled with the 
fact that the Loon is rarely if ever known to sail, renders it highly pro- 
bable that there was an error in identification. 

Passerherbulus n. nelsoni. Nelson's Sparrow.— A fine male was 
collected near De Forest, Sept. 24, 1921. Although listed by Kumlien 
and Hollister as abundant at Lake Koshkonong in the fall, this is the 
only specimen that the writer has seen in this vicinity during a period 
of ten years. 

Nyctea nyctea. Snowy Owl. — I was informed by Mr. George William- 
son that a Snowy Owl spent about ten days in February of this year on 
his farm on Lake Waubesa. 

Bombycilla garrula. Bohemian Waxwing. — This species was 
present in small numbers during the past winter, from Dec. 24, to March 
22, 1922. 

Finicola enucleator leucura. Pine Grosbeak. — A flock of six was 
seen on Jan. 1, and another of eight on Feb. 22, 1922, all in female or 
immature plumage. In both cases the birds were feeding on the buds 
of the European larch (Larix decidua). 

The Bohemian Waxwing and Pine Grosbeak, contrary to what might 
be expected, are by no means common winter visitors. 

Buteo platypterus. Broad-winged Hawk. — This appears to be 
an uncommon breeding species in southern Wisconsin. A set of three 
eggs — incubation about ten days — was taken near Madison on May 27, 
1922, and turned over to Prof. George Wagner of the University of Wis- 
consin. The nest, situated about 37 feet from the ground in the forks 
of an oak in the midst of a thick woods, was lined with bark scales, a few 
chicken feathers, and dry but green oak leaves; outside dimensions 24 x