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V0, -?922 XIX ] General Notes. 573
feet away. I withdrew and it went back into the hollow. No eggs had
yet been laid.
Five out of the six eggs hatched and the young were successfully reared;
they left the nest on the morning of May 5. — E. von S. Dingle, Summer-
Ion, S. C.
Bird Interference on High Tension Electric Transmission Lines.
— While changing a live, 3-phase, 13,000 volt line i,t was observed that
the insulators and metal cross-arms were favorite resting places for the
Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura septentrionalis), The Florida Crow
(Corvus b. pascuus), and the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovieianus) .
The Vultures and Crows will perch upon the insulators, metal cross-arms,
or the static ground bayonets and the expanse of their wings is sufficient
to produce a short-circuit between the conductors or a ground connection
between the conductors and the static ground system. In the case of
13,000 volts, the current will arc 7/10 of an inch through the air to connect
with the bird's wing and the arc will follow several inches, often burning
up the bird and melting the line fuses. In a slightly different way the
Shrikes meet their death and suspend industries which depend on the
high tension line for power. The Shrike flies with its grasshopper or
lizard to the pole and decides that the sharp end of the tie wire is an ex-
cellent place to impale its victim. When the Shrike comes within striking
distance of the voltage on the live conductor a flash-over occurs and a
bird and a fuse are gone. It is doubtful whether the birds will ever ap-
preciate the danger of this silent, unseen power. These observations
were made in South Jacksonville during the summer of 1921. — Thomas
Hallinan, Jacksonville, Florida.
Scarcity of Breeding Birds in Duval County, Florida.— While
making a survey of the cold-blooded vertebrates in Duval County during
December, 1920; February, March, May, June, September, October, 1921;
and January, February, March, April, May, June, July, 1922, our parties
of from two to nine observers covered in the aggregate about 925 miles
through the different types of woods — pines, palmettoes, cypress, oaks, bays,
magnolias, and regions of thick undergrowths as well as fresh and brackish
water swamps. After covering all this territory and making a special
effort to note the existance of nesting birds, only two observations were
made. One was the abandoned nest of a Fish Hawk (Pandion haliaetus
carolinensis) on a high tree near New Berlin, noted June 4, 1922, and the
other was a Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) with a nest containing
four eggs in a thick shrub about three feet from the ground near Orange
Park, noted April 23, 1922. In this region, at certain seasons, the migrants
were numerous but the resident birds, during this period of observation
were relatively few in numbers and in species. This negative evidence
concerning the existance of occupied or abandoned bird's nests may be
due to this region's position in the zone of abrupt transition from the
574 General Notes. [^
near-tropical climate of Central and South Florida to the temperate
latitudes to the north. — Thomas Hallinan, Jacksonville, Florida.
Notes on Birds of Madison, Wisconsin, and Vicinity.
Fhalacrocorax a. auritus. Double-crested Cormorant. — During
the last few years there has been a striking increase in the numbers of this
species during migration. On May 1, 1921, a flock of at least 500 was seen
to leave the "Widespread" and start northward, the front of the column
being about half a mile wide. On April 29, 1922, three flocks numbering
about 200, 200, and 50 individuals, were seen flying a short distance apart
over Lake Mendota. On the following day there were about 1,000 birds
on the lower lakes.
On April 12, 1922, a flock of 14 Double-crested Cormorants was seen
over the waters of Lake Monona. They flew in ascending circles, now
soaring, now flapping their wings, until they had attained a great height;
then suddenly swinging into V-formation, they started southward and
were soon lost to view. Their behaviour corresponded exactly with that
reported for a Loon (Gavia immer) by Barnes (Bent — Life Histories of
North American Diving Birds, p. 55); this observation, coupled with the
fact that the Loon is rarely if ever known to sail, renders it highly pro-
bable that there was an error in identification.
Passerherbulus n. nelsoni. Nelson's Sparrow.— A fine male was
collected near De Forest, Sept. 24, 1921. Although listed by Kumlien
and Hollister as abundant at Lake Koshkonong in the fall, this is the
only specimen that the writer has seen in this vicinity during a period
of ten years.
Nyctea nyctea. Snowy Owl. — I was informed by Mr. George William-
son that a Snowy Owl spent about ten days in February of this year on
his farm on Lake Waubesa.
Bombycilla garrula. Bohemian Waxwing. — This species was
present in small numbers during the past winter, from Dec. 24, to March
Finicola enucleator leucura. Pine Grosbeak. — A flock of six was
seen on Jan. 1, and another of eight on Feb. 22, 1922, all in female or
immature plumage. In both cases the birds were feeding on the buds
of the European larch (Larix decidua).
The Bohemian Waxwing and Pine Grosbeak, contrary to what might
be expected, are by no means common winter visitors.
Buteo platypterus. Broad-winged Hawk. — This appears to be
an uncommon breeding species in southern Wisconsin. A set of three
eggs — incubation about ten days — was taken near Madison on May 27,
1922, and turned over to Prof. George Wagner of the University of Wis-
consin. The nest, situated about 37 feet from the ground in the forks
of an oak in the midst of a thick woods, was lined with bark scales, a few
chicken feathers, and dry but green oak leaves; outside dimensions 24 x