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REVIEWS 391 

part to the smallness of the body of water and to an overcrowding." It 
is also noted that the increased number of poral pieces connected with the 
hydrospires, which are regarded as the respiratory organs of Pentremites, 
"would indicate an effort of the animal to adapt itself to a depletion of 
oxygen in this ancient sea." 

The descriptions of the Bryozoa and Gastropoda including Crustacea 
are by Dr. Cumings. The Bryozoa come from the top of the formation in 
an exceedingly soft, loose-grained, and greatly decomposed limestone, in 
which they are beautifully preserved. It is stated that, "Very few Bryozoa 
have ever been described from the famous oolitic limestones of Indiana," 
and that, "No better preserved fossils have ever been studied by the writer 
than these exquisite Fenestellids and other Bryozoa from the Dark Hollow 
quarries of Bedford." The descriptions of the Vertebrates, which consist 
of fish remains, were prepared by Professor Branson, of Oberlin College. 
This portion of the monograph is illustrated by forty-two plates which in 
their reproduction leave something to be desired, as is frequently the case 
in the illustrations of the fossils contained in the reports of state geological 
surveys similar to that of Indiana. 

C. S. P. 



Evidences of a Coblenzian Invasion in the Devonic of Eastern America. 
By John M. Clarke. Festschrift zum siebzigsten Geburtstage 
von Adolf v. Koenen, pp. 359-68. 

Dr. Clarke has devoted a portion of each of several recent summers to 
the field examination and collection of fossils of the Devonian formations of 
eastern Canada. In connection with this investigation he has critically 
studied the Devonian faunas of Gaspe in eastern Quebec, Dalhousie in 
northern New Brunswick, and those of the eastern and central portions of 
Maine, and this paper contains a preliminary statement of the results which 
have been obtained. It will be remembered that the Lower Devonian of 
central Europe has generally been divided into two terranes, of which the 
Gedinnian is the older and the Coblenzian the younger. 

It is stated that in Gaspe the Lower Devonian faunas are singularly 
profuse and are contained in a series of limestones reaching an approximate 
thickness of 1,500 feet. These limestones rest unconformably on Cambrian 
slates and have been divided into three terranes. The lowest one has been 
called the St. Alban beds by Dr. Clarke and its fauna "is an almost pure 
strain of the Helderbergian (especially Coeymans limestone and New 
Scotland beds) of New York." The middle division is the Cape Bon Ami 
beds with a sparse fauna which, however, has a similar relationship to that 



392 REVIEWS 

of the lowest beds. The top division is the Grande Greve limestone which 
is "the seat of a profuse fauna with very strong Oriskany traits commingled 
with features of still later age." The species indicating later age are stated 
to be such as might be paralleled with members of the Onondaga fauna of 
New York in an incipient stage of development, and present evidence of an 
earlier stage than that of the Onondaga. It is noted that certain species of 
this fauna occur in a very different f acies than in New York since " the large, 
heavy-valved species of brachiopods which characterize the loose and 
coarse sandy deposits of the Oriskany in central New York here occur with- 
out diminution of size or essential change of structure in entirely pure 
limestone deposits," and Hipparionyx proximus, Spirijer arenosus, and 
Rensselaeria ovoides are mentioned as examples. It is stated that during 
Devonian time: 

The evidence is complete of an unimpeded passage and migration [from this 
region] southwestward into the Appalachian basin of New York and of entire 
isolation from any communication far enough to the east to register itself in the 
transatlantic faunas. The succession and trend of outcrops of all paleozoic forma- 
tions from New York eastward to the Gulf of St. Lawrence, a distance of 600 
miles, conveys the impression that the deposits in question were laid down in a 
relatively narrow channel bounded by Appalachian folds of the older land and 
this impression is fortified by the detailed study of this fauna and of the almost 
denuded patches of paleozoics lying in the region between. 

At Dalhousie on the upper reaches of the Bay of Chaleur "is an isolated 
series of soft calcareous shales with interbedded contemporaneous effusives." 
Dr. Clarke states that he has determined about seventy species which may 
be used in comparison and correlation with other faunas. Nearly one-half 
of these are identical or affiliated with the Helderbergian fauna of the Appa- 
lachian gulf and a few of them are also present in the St. Alban beds of the 
Gaspe section. The pelecypod element shows a noticeable affinity with 
that of the Coblenzian, which is indicated by certain positive identifications 
as Pterinea pseudolaevis and Carydium gregarium. Only a few species of 
the brachiopods, however, can be referred to the European rather than 
the American type. 

In Aroostook County in northeastern Maine are the Chapman sand- 
stones which occur in two separate localities, one covering the upper reaches 
of Presqu'isle stream and the other known as Edmund's hill. The faunas 
of the two localities, however, show a decided difference since in a total 
of seventy-two probable species, forty-nine constitute the Edmund's hill 
fauna and twenty-five that of the Presqu'isle stream, while but two species 
are common to both outcrops. The two faunas, however, are united by 



REVIEWS 393 

the affinities of each with the Coblenzian faunas with which they show the 
closest agreement, which consists of three identical species and twenty-seven 
affiliated ones, while the next nearest is with the Helderbergian and Oriskany 
of the Appalachian gulf with eight identical and thirteen affiliated species. 
Dr. Clarke concludes that "the inference is unavoidable that the predomi- 
nating influence expressed in the Chapman congeries is that of the trans- 
atlantic faunas of contemporary age." 

Again in Piscataquis and Somerset counties in northern and western 
Maine to the west of Aroostook County are beds of quite fossiliferous sand- 
stone and sandy shale. This fauna comprises about seventy species, some 
of which are identical with members of the New York Oriskany fauna, as 
Rensselaeria ovoides, Spirifer arenosus, Hipparionyx proximus, Rhipido- 
mella musctdosa (var.), etc. ; . others which are not identifiable with known 
members of contemporaneous faunas; and finally a Coblenzian contingent, 
which enforces and supplements that appearing in Aroostook County. 

As a result of these studies Dr. Clarke states in conclusion: "The 
evidence then is fairly conclusive that during the period represented by the 
Coblenzian-Oriskany the arenaceous epicontinental sediments were the 
ground traversed by the Coblenz fauna westward along the North Atlantic 

continent The immigrant fauna taken as a whole is the direct 

descendant of the Coblenzian faunas, changed in part by variation and by 
mutation, and hence contemporary therewith only in the sense of being 
homotaxial; the lines of passage westward through the regions indicated in 
New Brunswick and Maine were courses of migration only, not basins of 
sequestration, fertile propagation, and dispersion as was the northern or 
Gaspe passage." 

C. S. P. 



Age of the Pre-Volcanic Auriferous Gravels in California. By J. S. 
Diller. Proceedings Washington Academy of Sciences, Vol. 
VIII, pp. 405, 406. February 13, 1907. 

The age of the auriferous gravels of the Sierra Nevada in California is gener- 
ally given as late Miocene or Pliocene. This conclusion is based chiefly on fossil 
plants and a few animal forms. The auriferous gravel period in all probability 
was a long one and no considerable part of its flora has yet been connected directly 
with its contemporaneous marine fauna in the same region. 

Mr. Diller has recently found a flora of ten species, determined by Dr. 
F. H. Knowlton, in beds that carry a large and definite Eocene marine 
fauna, studied by Dr. Wm. H. Dall. Three of these plants occur in the