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February, 1895. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 2.
"/>anne schall it sone be sende,"
Yxxiii, 171. affraied, grayth, saide, paied;
change grayth to grayde or grated. Cf. Yxii,
141., Yxxiv, 2., Yxxxv, 39.
Yxxiii, 224. fayrenes, gesse, expresse, is;
change is to es the northern form. Cf. Yii, 45,
81. Yxxiii, 69. All of which should be es.
Yxxxv, 97. nowe, brought, boght, soght;
change nowe to noght. Scribal error.
Yxxxv, 122. handis, spende, bende, amende;
change handis to hande. This form of the
plural was not unused at the time the Mystery
Plays were written. Cf. Morris's English
Accidence on the formation of the plural.
Yxxxvii, 113. schall, principall, A, Belial;
change A to Anaballe. The A is merely the
scribe's short-hand. Cf. Woodkirk xxv, 113.
Yxxxvii, 188. pryde, tyde, cryed, prophicie.
The only solution to this very irregular
rime is to substitute for the line ending in
prophicie, the 188th line from Woodkirk xxv,
which reads. . .
" For of this pryncc thus ere I saide.""
This makes a correct rime-series.
Yxliv, 97. nowe, Jesu, trewe, pursue.
Change nowe to newe. The new e being used
in the sense of renewed.
Yxliv, 134. two, visita, ma, swa.
Change two to twa, the northern form.
H. E. Coblentz.
THE FERRARA BIBLE.
The study of Ladino or Judaeo-Spanish must
begin with the Ferrara Bible, for being printed
out of Spain and primarily for Jews, it must to
some extent represent the deviating forms of
the language in the diaspora. So far, the Lad-
ino has been sadly neglected, although its im-
portance for the investigation of Old Spanish
was pointed out by Bohmer. Of the two es-
says mentioned in Grober's Grundriss der
romanischen Philologie i, 691, only Griinwald's
Ueber den Judischspanischen Dialekt als Bei-
trag zur Aufhellung der Aussprache im Alt-
spanischen has been accessible to me : it con-
tains an ill-digested heap of facts and betrays
the dilettante. A much better article is that
by R. Foulch6-Delbosc: La Transcription
Hispano-hibraique — in the Revue Hispaniqae
for 1894 (Numero 1, p. 22-34); it does what it
promises: "c'estpour faciliter l'gtude de ce
rameati du castillan qu'a 6t6 compost le pre-
Considering the fact that the Ferrara Bible
was simultaneously struck off for the use of
Christians, its importance for the study of six-
teenth century Spanish becomes at once evi-
dent. The bible was again reprinted with
Roman characters in 1631, and from time to
time there have issued from the Judaeo-Span-
ish Press in Vienna and Constantinople mod-
ernisations of the same in Hebrew type. The
prayers of the Spanish Jews are mainly ex-
tracts from different passages of the Bible,
and as long as they are printed in Spanish
they adhere closely to the letter of the first
source. The present essay is based entirely
on one of these prayerbooks, kindly loaned
me by Rev. Dr. S. Morais of Philadelphia.
Its title is : Orden de las Oraciones Cotidianas
Por estilo seguido y corriente, Con las de
Hanucah, Purim y Ayuno del Solo. Como
tambien las tres Pascuas de Pesah, Sebuoth, y
Sucoth, y con las Parasioth, y Aftar6t. Nuev-
amente corregido, y a su costa Impresso en
Amsterdam, por David Fernandes & David
De Elisa Pereyra. Afio 5488. a la Criacion.
The title page of the Bible claims for it that
it is palabra por palabra traduzida de la ver-
dad Hebrayca, and in the following introduc-
tion its barbarous and strange translation
(lenguaje barbaro y estraho, y muy diferente
del pulido que en nuestros tiempos se usa) is
explained by the desire to follow closely the
original Hebrew. Thus the present participle
is frequently used without the copula for the
present tense : no por nuestras justedades nos
echantes nuestra rogativa delante ti ; or the
copula may be added : seamos conocientes tu
nombrey aprendientes tu Ley. The copula is
frequently omitted : todo tiempo que la alma
entre mi ; quiera que el-hijo de firmamiento.
The adjective is often placed after the noun :
el Dio en el mundo esse ; porque hiziste a la
cosa esta ; de ojo malo y de lengua la mala.
The possessive pronoun before a participle
may have an objective meaning: nuestros abor-
recientes ; mis vencientes. A plural verb with
February, 1895. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 2.
a collective noun as subject and a singular
predicate when preceding a plural subject are
due to Hebrew influence : tu compafia estavan
en ella ; no sea a ti dioses otros delante mi.
Nouns are sometimes put in the plural as in
Hebrew : alee A. sus fazes a ti. These few
deviations and the occasional misuse of the
article is all that can be directly ascribed to
the influence of the Hebrew original. Yet
they suffice to turn at times the text into a puz-
zle, especially when a Talmudical passage is
Baist says (Grober, Gmndriss i, 702) that b
and v are identical in every position and that
in the Middle Ages they were used indiscrim-
inately, while now they are misused (schul-
massig ungenau). But the Ladino distin-
guishes between the spirant and the explosive
both in writing and pronouncing, and even
/n the Ferrara Bible we find a consistent sepa-
ration of the two consonants. Invariably we
have d+cons. but cons.+v (except mb): sobre
nombre hablar cobdicia dubda brosladura ;
salvo encorvar resvalar envoluntar barvez, but
combite. Latin intervocalic/ always gives b,
otherwise b within the word changes to v :
recebir arriba cabeca but escrevir governar
maravilla ; hence we find regularly ava in the
imperfect of verbs in ar. In v voc. v the first
v dissimulates to b : bivo bolver bever (but
bebraje); bivora for vibora is to be explained
through the intermediate form vivora. Initial-
ly original b is always preserved, and so is
generally v, but in a few cases; as, abolar bola-
tilla,v passes to b. A^has been developed be-
fore initial ue and hue : guesso guerfano guer-
to and also aguelo ; this g was probably pro-
nounced, for it is sounded in Ladino.
Intervocalic d remains in the verbal end-
ings -ades, -edes, -ides, but the forms -ais, -eis,
also occur ; it remains after the accent, hence
the preterit of ver is vide by the side of vistes,
hence the correct form fiuzia for fiducia. Dl
changes to Id: cercalda for cercadla; tr be-
comes dr in cidron.
Between g and a, u is always inserted :
/•/ assimilates a preceding n : emmalecer
commigo and has slipped into trotnpieco. N
changes to n before i in aiiidar, and similarly
in Una for linea. Bufano stands for bufalo;
tembrar frequently occurs for temblar.
S is written ss for etymological reasons in
passo fuesse criasse appressurar, fuessa po-
cession, etc.; similarly in assi assituar assos-
seguado. Intervocalic j may have been a
sonant, since visitar stands by the side of
vezitar, lazo for laso ; so too before 11 as we
find alezna for lesna.
F is probably under literary influence in
flama, and^is etymological in afflarse, afflito.
H frequently takes the place of/: conhorte
hulano horo (Juerd), but it was certainly not
sounded, as can be seen from elada enchir
ombro and hechar. Alharroba=algarroba.
-Jf occurs only where its etymology demands
it and doubtless was sounded s in popular and
cs in learned words as it still is in Ladino :
dixo alexar dexar execucion. G before e
and i and/ coincide in sound and are used at
times indiscriminately : linage bebraje, but
always gentio muger. In agora, g stands for
C before e and i; f before a o u has only an
etymological signification and coincides in
sound with s, as is to be seen from aciento for
assiento, pocession, etc. 5 1 before m and «
and Latin ci ce become z : hazer vezino dezir
paz diezmo alezna; juyzio is probably to be
explained from juez, since generally cy dy
become voiceless f : verguenca alcar tercero
braco. Sc remains or becomes c: conoscer
aparecer. Initial ci remains. Wherever f
appears for z, a learned form may be sus-
pected ; some irregularities occur here, but to
judge from Ladino they are only graphical. In
cc the first c generally disappears: licion (lec-
cion) aflicion aperficionar. The c has also
disappeared in perfeto afflito.
Pretonic e varies with i: heziste hiziste,vesitar
visitar, escrevir, bendiziri bendezire and i with
a in alabimiento; pretonic o may become u: pus-
sib le. Post-tonic e becomes o in bispora; post-
tonic i disappears in estanca. Esquadrifiar
for escudrinar is probably due to analogy.
Dio espirito stand regularly for dios espir-
*V»,but the plural of the first is dioses. Change
of declension takes place in aniinalia apetite
culebro generancio oida. Abstract nouns are
freely formed in -acion, -miento, -anfa, -ura:
aderccamiento alabacion perdonanca amaril-
lura secura. Their frequent use is due to the
February, 1S95. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 2.
many verbal cognate nouns in Hebrew.
Strange is the use of the feminine past parti-
ciple as a noun in occulta hecha. Before
feminine nouns with accented a we find both
eland la. The preposition d is used in the
direct object even before inanimate objects.
Nos vos are generally used instead of noso-
tros vosotros. The pronoun tl with de gives
ael. The personal pronoun is inserted be-
tween the infinitive and the future ending :
The present participle ends in -dn -iin, in
the plural in -antes -ientes ; besides, the ger-
und in -ando -iendo occurs. The third person
plural perfect of dezir is dixieron. In the
second person plural of the future subjunctive
e in -edes disappears : guardardes oyerdes.
The imperfect of hazer is haz and haze, of
poner-pon and pone. The following verbs in
guar (=Lat. ficare) occur : aboniguar abivi-
guarfermosiguar fruchiguar (learned fructi-
ficar) muchiguar testiguar. A large number
of words, generally active verbs, are formed
with a prosthetic a: alevantar apresentar
arrepudiar arrodear asufrencia, etc.
Missouri State University.
NOTES ON THE BEOWULF.
penden wordum geweald wine Scyldinga,
leof land-fruma, lange ante.
I propose this reading in accordance with
the frequent use of geweald as object of dgan
(cf. Orosius, p. 288, 11. 9-10, 7 pat hi pees ilean
rices dhte geweald pe his wiSerwinna eer
dhte). Heyne's 'implied object' is thus sub-
stituted for weold (for the interchange of eo
and ea, see Cosijn, Beitrage, viii, 570, note to
1. 1321); the suggestion of March (Anglo-
Saxon Reader, p. 88) to read word-onweald
dhte, ' had word-sway ' is also not far astray.
Kluge's fiendagas for lange (Beitrage, ix, 188)
records an act of momentary desperation,
although Holder, in a presumably calmer mo-
ment, has received this figment into his text.
306. — GutSmod grutnmon. The emended
reading Guffmode grummon is wholly unsatis-
factory ; the natural meaning of grummon is
not in accord with the spirit of the passage,
and if it be forced into the list of verbs of
motion, the resulting succession of predications
is a stylistic defect. I punctuate and read the
passage as follows :
Gewiton him pa feran,—flota stille bad,
seomode on sale std-feeSmed scip,
on ancre fcest; eofor-lic scionon
ofer hlior-bergan gehroden golde,
/ah ond fyr-heard, ferh wearde heold,
guSmod grimmon, — guman onetton,
sigon cetsomne, oS peet hy seel timbred,
geatolic ond gold-fah, ongyton tnihton.
The narrative broken off at feran is resumed
at guman onettan ; the interjected description
now becomes artistically and stylistically com-
plete by construing gutSmod grummon with
the preceding half-line. But grummon must
be changed to grimmon (=grimmum, adv.
dat. (Englische Studien 1, 497) cf. grim-
man, 1. 1543.), which is an adverbial modifier
of guSmod, and guSmod in its turn qualifies
the singular ferh: 'The boar held guard,
grimly warlike of mood.' The poet has
passed from the general view of the images
on the helmets to the specific and lively de-
scription of the symbolic figure. The transi-
tion from the plural eqfor- lie to the singular
ferh is therefore necessary, and the added
descriptive gutSmod grimmon is highly fitting.
Readers of Mr. Earle's notes to his trans-
lation of the poem will not be unprepared to
notice modern parallelisms in support of the
proposed interpretation. At the gate of the
Hall Farm, we are told (Adam Bede, ch. vi),
there are "two stone lionesses which grin
with a doubtful carnivorous affability above a
coat of arms surmounting each of the pillars."
"Very grand lodges they were, with very
grand iron gates, and stone* gate posts, and on
the top of each a most dreadful bogy, all
teeth, horns, and tail, which was the crest
which Sir John's ancestors wore in the War
of the Roses : and very prudent men they
were to wear it, for all their enemies must
have run for their lives at the very first sight
Kingsley : The Water Babies, ch. i.
It may be added that the true significance
of the verb grimman, made obvious by Gene-
sis 1. 793, is supported by one of the recently