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February, 1895. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 2. 


"/>anne schall it sone be sende," 

Yxxiii, 171. affraied, grayth, saide, paied; 
change grayth to grayde or grated. Cf. Yxii, 
141., Yxxiv, 2., Yxxxv, 39. 

Yxxiii, 224. fayrenes, gesse, expresse, is; 
change is to es the northern form. Cf. Yii, 45, 
81. Yxxiii, 69. All of which should be es. 

Yxxxv, 97. nowe, brought, boght, soght; 
change nowe to noght. Scribal error. 

Yxxxv, 122. handis, spende, bende, amende; 
change handis to hande. This form of the 
plural was not unused at the time the Mystery 
Plays were written. Cf. Morris's English 
Accidence on the formation of the plural. 

Yxxxvii, 113. schall, principall, A, Belial; 
change A to Anaballe. The A is merely the 
scribe's short-hand. Cf. Woodkirk xxv, 113. 

Yxxxvii, 188. pryde, tyde, cryed, prophicie. 

The only solution to this very irregular 
rime is to substitute for the line ending in 
prophicie, the 188th line from Woodkirk xxv, 
which reads. . . 

" For of this pryncc thus ere I saide."" 

This makes a correct rime-series. 
Yxliv, 97. nowe, Jesu, trewe, pursue. 
Change nowe to newe. The new e being used 
in the sense of renewed. 
Yxliv, 134. two, visita, ma, swa. 
Change two to twa, the northern form. 

H. E. Coblentz. 
Franklin College. 


The study of Ladino or Judaeo-Spanish must 
begin with the Ferrara Bible, for being printed 
out of Spain and primarily for Jews, it must to 
some extent represent the deviating forms of 
the language in the diaspora. So far, the Lad- 
ino has been sadly neglected, although its im- 
portance for the investigation of Old Spanish 
was pointed out by Bohmer. Of the two es- 
says mentioned in Grober's Grundriss der 
romanischen Philologie i, 691, only Griinwald's 
Ueber den Judischspanischen Dialekt als Bei- 
trag zur Aufhellung der Aussprache im Alt- 
spanischen has been accessible to me : it con- 
tains an ill-digested heap of facts and betrays 
the dilettante. A much better article is that 
by R. Foulch6-Delbosc: La Transcription 

Hispano-hibraique — in the Revue Hispaniqae 
for 1894 (Numero 1, p. 22-34); it does what it 
promises: "c'estpour faciliter l'gtude de ce 
rameati du castillan qu'a 6t6 compost le pre- 
sent travail." 

Considering the fact that the Ferrara Bible 
was simultaneously struck off for the use of 
Christians, its importance for the study of six- 
teenth century Spanish becomes at once evi- 
dent. The bible was again reprinted with 
Roman characters in 1631, and from time to 
time there have issued from the Judaeo-Span- 
ish Press in Vienna and Constantinople mod- 
ernisations of the same in Hebrew type. The 
prayers of the Spanish Jews are mainly ex- 
tracts from different passages of the Bible, 
and as long as they are printed in Spanish 
they adhere closely to the letter of the first 
source. The present essay is based entirely 
on one of these prayerbooks, kindly loaned 
me by Rev. Dr. S. Morais of Philadelphia. 
Its title is : Orden de las Oraciones Cotidianas 
Por estilo seguido y corriente, Con las de 
Hanucah, Purim y Ayuno del Solo. Como 
tambien las tres Pascuas de Pesah, Sebuoth, y 
Sucoth, y con las Parasioth, y Aftar6t. Nuev- 
amente corregido, y a su costa Impresso en 
Amsterdam, por David Fernandes & David 
De Elisa Pereyra. Afio 5488. a la Criacion. 
(A.D. 1727). 

The title page of the Bible claims for it that 
it is palabra por palabra traduzida de la ver- 
dad Hebrayca, and in the following introduc- 
tion its barbarous and strange translation 
(lenguaje barbaro y estraho, y muy diferente 
del pulido que en nuestros tiempos se usa) is 
explained by the desire to follow closely the 
original Hebrew. Thus the present participle 
is frequently used without the copula for the 
present tense : no por nuestras justedades nos 
echantes nuestra rogativa delante ti ; or the 
copula may be added : seamos conocientes tu 
nombrey aprendientes tu Ley. The copula is 
frequently omitted : todo tiempo que la alma 
entre mi ; quiera que el-hijo de firmamiento. 
The adjective is often placed after the noun : 
el Dio en el mundo esse ; porque hiziste a la 
cosa esta ; de ojo malo y de lengua la mala. 
The possessive pronoun before a participle 
may have an objective meaning: nuestros abor- 
recientes ; mis vencientes. A plural verb with 



February, 1895. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 2. 

S 4 

a collective noun as subject and a singular 
predicate when preceding a plural subject are 
due to Hebrew influence : tu compafia estavan 
en ella ; no sea a ti dioses otros delante mi. 
Nouns are sometimes put in the plural as in 
Hebrew : alee A. sus fazes a ti. These few 
deviations and the occasional misuse of the 
article is all that can be directly ascribed to 
the influence of the Hebrew original. Yet 
they suffice to turn at times the text into a puz- 
zle, especially when a Talmudical passage is 

Baist says (Grober, Gmndriss i, 702) that b 
and v are identical in every position and that 
in the Middle Ages they were used indiscrim- 
inately, while now they are misused (schul- 
massig ungenau). But the Ladino distin- 
guishes between the spirant and the explosive 
both in writing and pronouncing, and even 
/n the Ferrara Bible we find a consistent sepa- 
ration of the two consonants. Invariably we 
have d+cons. but cons.+v (except mb): sobre 
nombre hablar cobdicia dubda brosladura ; 
salvo encorvar resvalar envoluntar barvez, but 
combite. Latin intervocalic/ always gives b, 
otherwise b within the word changes to v : 
recebir arriba cabeca but escrevir governar 
maravilla ; hence we find regularly ava in the 
imperfect of verbs in ar. In v voc. v the first 
v dissimulates to b : bivo bolver bever (but 
bebraje); bivora for vibora is to be explained 
through the intermediate form vivora. Initial- 
ly original b is always preserved, and so is 
generally v, but in a few cases; as, abolar bola- 
tilla,v passes to b. A^has been developed be- 
fore initial ue and hue : guesso guerfano guer- 
to and also aguelo ; this g was probably pro- 
nounced, for it is sounded in Ladino. 

Intervocalic d remains in the verbal end- 
ings -ades, -edes, -ides, but the forms -ais, -eis, 
also occur ; it remains after the accent, hence 
the preterit of ver is vide by the side of vistes, 
hence the correct form fiuzia for fiducia. Dl 
changes to Id: cercalda for cercadla; tr be- 
comes dr in cidron. 

Between g and a, u is always inserted : 
gualardon quatregua. 

/•/ assimilates a preceding n : emmalecer 
commigo and has slipped into trotnpieco. N 
changes to n before i in aiiidar, and similarly 
in Una for linea. Bufano stands for bufalo; 

tembrar frequently occurs for temblar. 

S is written ss for etymological reasons in 
passo fuesse criasse appressurar, fuessa po- 
cession, etc.; similarly in assi assituar assos- 
seguado. Intervocalic j may have been a 
sonant, since visitar stands by the side of 
vezitar, lazo for laso ; so too before 11 as we 
find alezna for lesna. 

F is probably under literary influence in 
flama, and^is etymological in afflarse, afflito. 
H frequently takes the place of/: conhorte 
hulano horo (Juerd), but it was certainly not 
sounded, as can be seen from elada enchir 
ombro and hechar. Alharroba=algarroba. 

-Jf occurs only where its etymology demands 
it and doubtless was sounded s in popular and 
cs in learned words as it still is in Ladino : 
dixo alexar dexar execucion. G before e 
and i and/ coincide in sound and are used at 
times indiscriminately : linage bebraje, but 
always gentio muger. In agora, g stands for 

C before e and i; f before a o u has only an 
etymological signification and coincides in 
sound with s, as is to be seen from aciento for 
assiento, pocession, etc. 5 1 before m and « 
and Latin ci ce become z : hazer vezino dezir 
paz diezmo alezna; juyzio is probably to be 
explained from juez, since generally cy dy 
become voiceless f : verguenca alcar tercero 
braco. Sc remains or becomes c: conoscer 
aparecer. Initial ci remains. Wherever f 
appears for z, a learned form may be sus- 
pected ; some irregularities occur here, but to 
judge from Ladino they are only graphical. In 
cc the first c generally disappears: licion (lec- 
cion) aflicion aperficionar. The c has also 
disappeared in perfeto afflito. 

Pretonic e varies with i: heziste hiziste,vesitar 
visitar, escrevir, bendiziri bendezire and i with 
a in alabimiento; pretonic o may become u: pus- 
sib le. Post-tonic e becomes o in bispora; post- 
tonic i disappears in estanca. Esquadrifiar 
for escudrinar is probably due to analogy. 

Dio espirito stand regularly for dios espir- 
*V»,but the plural of the first is dioses. Change 
of declension takes place in aniinalia apetite 
culebro generancio oida. Abstract nouns are 
freely formed in -acion, -miento, -anfa, -ura: 
aderccamiento alabacion perdonanca amaril- 
lura secura. Their frequent use is due to the 



February, 1S95. MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. Vol. x, No. 2. 


many verbal cognate nouns in Hebrew. 
Strange is the use of the feminine past parti- 
ciple as a noun in occulta hecha. Before 
feminine nouns with accented a we find both 
eland la. The preposition d is used in the 
direct object even before inanimate objects. 

Nos vos are generally used instead of noso- 
tros vosotros. The pronoun tl with de gives 
ael. The personal pronoun is inserted be- 
tween the infinitive and the future ending : 

The present participle ends in -dn -iin, in 
the plural in -antes -ientes ; besides, the ger- 
und in -ando -iendo occurs. The third person 
plural perfect of dezir is dixieron. In the 
second person plural of the future subjunctive 
e in -edes disappears : guardardes oyerdes. 
The imperfect of hazer is haz and haze, of 
poner-pon and pone. The following verbs in 
guar (=Lat. ficare) occur : aboniguar abivi- 
guarfermosiguar fruchiguar (learned fructi- 
ficar) muchiguar testiguar. A large number 
of words, generally active verbs, are formed 
with a prosthetic a: alevantar apresentar 
arrepudiar arrodear asufrencia, etc. 

L. Wiener. 
Missouri State University. 


3° — 
penden wordum geweald wine Scyldinga, 
leof land-fruma, lange ante. 

I propose this reading in accordance with 
the frequent use of geweald as object of dgan 
(cf. Orosius, p. 288, 11. 9-10, 7 pat hi pees ilean 
rices dhte geweald pe his wiSerwinna eer 
dhte). Heyne's 'implied object' is thus sub- 
stituted for weold (for the interchange of eo 
and ea, see Cosijn, Beitrage, viii, 570, note to 
1. 1321); the suggestion of March (Anglo- 
Saxon Reader, p. 88) to read word-onweald 
dhte, ' had word-sway ' is also not far astray. 
Kluge's fiendagas for lange (Beitrage, ix, 188) 
records an act of momentary desperation, 
although Holder, in a presumably calmer mo- 
ment, has received this figment into his text. 

306. — GutSmod grutnmon. The emended 
reading Guffmode grummon is wholly unsatis- 
factory ; the natural meaning of grummon is 
not in accord with the spirit of the passage, 

and if it be forced into the list of verbs of 
motion, the resulting succession of predications 
is a stylistic defect. I punctuate and read the 
passage as follows : 

Gewiton him pa feran,—flota stille bad, 
seomode on sale std-feeSmed scip, 
on ancre fcest; eofor-lic scionon 
ofer hlior-bergan gehroden golde, 
/ah ond fyr-heard, ferh wearde heold, 
guSmod grimmon, — guman onetton, 
sigon cetsomne, oS peet hy seel timbred, 
geatolic ond gold-fah, ongyton tnihton. 

The narrative broken off at feran is resumed 
at guman onettan ; the interjected description 
now becomes artistically and stylistically com- 
plete by construing gutSmod grummon with 
the preceding half-line. But grummon must 
be changed to grimmon (=grimmum, adv. 
dat. (Englische Studien 1, 497) cf. grim- 
man, 1. 1543.), which is an adverbial modifier 
of guSmod, and guSmod in its turn qualifies 
the singular ferh: 'The boar held guard, 
grimly warlike of mood.' The poet has 
passed from the general view of the images 
on the helmets to the specific and lively de- 
scription of the symbolic figure. The transi- 
tion from the plural eqfor- lie to the singular 
ferh is therefore necessary, and the added 
descriptive gutSmod grimmon is highly fitting. 
Readers of Mr. Earle's notes to his trans- 
lation of the poem will not be unprepared to 
notice modern parallelisms in support of the 
proposed interpretation. At the gate of the 
Hall Farm, we are told (Adam Bede, ch. vi), 
there are "two stone lionesses which grin 
with a doubtful carnivorous affability above a 
coat of arms surmounting each of the pillars." 

"Very grand lodges they were, with very 
grand iron gates, and stone* gate posts, and on 
the top of each a most dreadful bogy, all 
teeth, horns, and tail, which was the crest 
which Sir John's ancestors wore in the War 
of the Roses : and very prudent men they 
were to wear it, for all their enemies must 
have run for their lives at the very first sight 
of them." 

Kingsley : The Water Babies, ch. i. 

It may be added that the true significance 
of the verb grimman, made obvious by Gene- 
sis 1. 793, is supported by one of the recently