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216 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



[Vol. xxi, No. 7. 



relationships between them are largely accidental. 
Few allegorists have attempted to control such 
relationships, Boccaccio least of all, — witness the 
extraordinary jumble of the Amoroso, visione. 
Boccaccio started the story of Idalagos as a pas- 
toral allegory. He invested two originals, himself 
and his father, with the character of shepherds. 
Suppose that Andald then presented himself for alle- 
gorical investiture ; the activity of Andald in the 
allegory was to be an intellectual activity ; his 
allegorical character must be human and mascu- 
line. Boccaccio would have written him down a 
shepherd, without a moment's thought of incon- 
sistency. What else could he have made him ? 

Delia Torre's assumption that the second inter- 
pretation of the words "tui gratia . . . particeps 
tuus" is correct, is not justifiable. The first in- 
terpretation is certainly as admissible, in itself, as 
the second. The following words, "in tarn alto 
. . . nos iunxit," seem to imply an association of 
the kind implied by the first interpretation rather 
than one of the kind implied by the second. A. Gas- 
pary evidently interpreted the passage in the first 
way, for he states that the addressee was ' ' nicht 
ein Lehrer . . . sondem ein Mitschviler ' ' of Boc- 
caccio. 38 

(a) See the refutation of (2) above. 

(6) Boccaccio and his contemporaries use the 
epithet solenne to indicate that a man is proficient 
in his profession or occupation. 29 It would be a 
most inappropriate epithet for a man admirable in 
Boccaccio's eyes precisely because he neglected his 
profession for outside interests. 

(e) Boccaccio wrote the phrase " a cui quasi la 
maggior parte delle cose era manifesta" after he 
had become acquainted with the very wide knowl- 
edge of Andald ; it is extremely improbable that 
he would then apply such a phrase to a youth 
whose knowledge was confined to that which had 
been gained from the trivium and the quadrivium. 

(d) No parallel : a shepherd resting with his 
flock is engaged in his duties as shepherd, not 
released from them. 

J8 Qesehkhte der Italienischen Ltieratur, vol. II, Berlin, 
1888, p. 336. 

29 Decameron 1 1 : Giucatore e mettitor di malvagi dadi 
era solenne ; viii 3 : come se stato fosse un solenne e gran 
lapidario ; Filippo Villani, Oroniea, xi 97 : in Ksa, dov* eb 
bono solermi medici. 



(e) The similarity in content may be accounted 
for upon the supposition that the addressee as well 
as Boccaccio was a pupil of the original of Cal- 
meta, or upon the supposition that Boccaccio, in 
writing the account of the astronomical study of 
the addressee, was merely dilating, out of his own 
astronomical knowledge, upon the theme astro- 
nomical studies, rather than attempting to give a ve- 
racious account of the progress of the astronomical 
study of the addressee. The similarity in nomen- 
clature is not surprising, in view of the fact that 
the two accounts were written at the same period, 
perhaps at nearly the same time. 

Calmeta, then, represents Andald di Negro, 
and the episode of the instruction of Calmeta is to 
be placed in the series of Boccaccio's references to 
Andald. It affords us direct knowledge of the 
content of the instruction of Andald, and in all 
probability reflects the order of his course. It is 
quite the most interesting of Boccaccio's several 
tributes to the teacher who had so great a share in 
the formation of his intellectual culture, and won 
so high a place in his admiration and affection. 

The certainty that the addressee of the letter 
Saere famis was not the original of Calmeta 
removes the only strong temptation to accept the 
second interpretation of the words " tui gratia . . . 
particeps tuus." It is very probable that the first 
interpretation of those words is correct. In that 
case, as has been pointed out, the course of in- 
struction in question was that of Andald. It is 
very probable, then, that Boccaccio's admission to 
the instruction of Andald was due to the kindness 
of the addressee of the letter Sacre famis. 



Ebnest H. Wilkins. 



Harvard University. 



'NYMPHIDIA,' 'THE EAPE OP THE 
LOCK,' AND 'THE CULPRIT PAY.' 

A certain resemblance, apparently unnoticed 
hitherto, exists between Drayton's fairy poem 
Nymphidia and Pope's Rape of the Loch; also 
certain resemblances exist between these two 
poems and Joseph Rodman Drake's Culprit Fay. 
They deserve a word or two of comment. 



November, 1906.] 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



217 



Nymphidia tells the whole course of love be- 
tween the fairy Pigwiggen and Queen Mab. He 
secretly invites her to a revel in a " cowslip flower 
on Hipcut-hill," whither she accordingly steals 
with her special maids of honor. While they 
revel, Oberon discovers the flight of his queen, 
and, aided finally by Puck, sets out to find her. 
This hunt leads in tune to the breaking up of the 
clandestine party and to Pigwiggen' s challenging 
Oberon to a duel to clear the queen of slander. 
Here comes the resemblance to The Rape of the 
Lock. When news of the destined combat reaches 
Mab and her maids where they hide in a nut-shell, 
she determines to seek out Prosperpine and ask for 
her intervention. The Queen of Hades is gra- 
ciously inclined, especially when she sees the 
fighters in stern combat with the blood spinning 
out of their helmets. 

" When to th' infernal Styx she goes, 
She takes the fogs from thence that rose, 
And in a bag doth them enclose, 

When well she had them blended : 
She hies her then to Lethe spring, 
A bottle and thereof did bring, 
Wherewith she meant to work the thing 

Which only she intended." 

Hastening then to the fighters, she waits for the 
opportune moment, 

" And suddenly unties the poke, 
Which out of it sent such a smoke 
As ready was them all to choke, 
So grievous was the pother : 
So that the knights each other lost, 
And stood as still as any post." 

Before these mists have altogether cleared away, 
Proserpine commands peace. Then, on pretense 
of refreshing the spirits of the warriors, she makes 
each drink from her second bottle, that containing 
Lethe water. At once, of course, they forget their 
cause of quarrel and all ends happily. 

Compare the conduct of Queen Mab in the 
latter part of this story with that of Pope's 
Umbriel, who also descends to the lower world 
for aid and makes a successful petition to Spleen. 
Spleen aids him as follows : — 

" A wondrous bag with both her hands she binds, 
Like those where once Ulysses held the winds ; 
Then she collects the force of female lungs : 
Sighs, sobs, and passions and the war of tongues. 



A vial next she fills with fainting fears, 
Soft sorrows, melting griefs and flowing tears. 
The gnome rejoicing bears her gifts away, 
Spreads his black wings and slowly mounts to day. 
Sunk in Thalestris' arms the nymph he found, 
Her eyes dejected, and her hair unbound. 
Full o'er their heads the swelling bag he rent, 
And all the furies issued at the vent. 

But Umbriel, hateful gnome, forbears not so, 
He breaks the vial whence the sorrows flow." 

The resemblance is not conclusive, but sug- 
gestive. I know of no other incident in liter- 
ature so similar to this one of Pope as that cited 
from Drayton. To be sure, there are numerous 
necessary differences, e. g., Mab goes to Proser- 
pine for aid to still the fight, not like Umbriel to 
provoke it ; but there are these similarities : in 
each case the intent is frankly comic ; in each 
case a fairy goes for aid to the lower world, sup- 
plicates a goddess, is successful, returns with two 
kinds of medicine, one a bag containing vapors 
and the other a bottle or vial containing liquid ; 
first, the bag is broken over the heads of con- 
testants (either kinetic or potential), and later the 
vial is brought into service. This seems exten- 
sive to be pure coincidence. 1 

Another matter of resemblance is in regard to 
Drake's poem. It seems that he may have 
profited from both Pope and Drayton. Drake's 
fairy hero has loved an earthly maid and thereby 
has "sullied his elfin purity." The poem tells 
how, as penance, he performs two difficult tasks 
in the face of serious handicaps, to remove the 
stain from his social standing. Possibly the re- 
lation which Pope's Ariel bore to Belinda sug- 
gested that of the Culprit Fay for his "earthly 
maid." 

" He has lain upon her lip of dew, 

And sunned Mm in her eye of blue, 
Fanned her cheek with his wing of air, 
Played in the ringlets of her hair." 

So also does Ariel, though to be sure he is not in 
love. 

1 Pope refers, in his preface, to the Eosicrusian book, 
Le Comte de Gabalis, as a source of information about 
sylphs, gnomes, etc. I have not seen this book, but to 
judge from Pope's reference to it, it seems very unlikely 
that this work furnished hint for the incident under 
consideration. 



218 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



[Vol. xxi, No. 7. 



The punishments suggested by Drake for the 
erring fay recall at least in spirit those of Pope. 
Drake's fairy king proclaims : 

"Fairy, had she spot or taint, 
Bitter had been thy punishment : 
Tied to a hornet's shardy wings, 
Tossed on the pricks of nettle's stings ; 
Or seven long ages doomed to dwell 
With the lazy worm in the walnut shell ; 
Or every night to writhe and bleed 
Beneath the tread of the centipede, 
Or bound in a cobweb dungeon dim, 
Your jailor a spider huge and grim." 

Pope's Ariel harangues his underlings thus : — 

" Whatever spirit, careless of his charge, 
His post neglects, or leaves the fair at large, 
Shall feel sharp vengeance soon o'ertake his sins, 
Be stopped in vials or transfixed with pins ; 
Or plunged in lakes of bitter washes lie, 
Or wedged whole ages in a bodkin's eye. 
Gums and pomatums shall his flight restrain, 
While clogg'd he beats his silken wings in vain." 

Possibly again the whole final adventure of the 
Culprit Fay, his ascent to heaven through the 
region of hostile cloud spirits and his chase after 
the shooting star to catch the spark that would 
relight his elfin torch, was suggested by Pope : 

" Some " (spirits) " in the fields of purest ether play 
And bask and whiten in the blaze of day, 
Some guide the course of wandering orbs on high 
Or roll the planets through the boundless sky. 
Some less refined beneath the moon's pale light, 
Pursue the stars that shoot athwart the night, 
Or suck the mists in grosser air below 
Or dip their pinions in the painted bow." 

And again as the famous lock is borne to heaven 
at the climax of the poem : — 

"A sudden star it shot through liquid air, 
And drew behind a radiant trail of hair. 

The sylphs behold it kindling as it flies, 

And pleased pursue its progress through the skies." 

That Drake may have read Nymphidia to ad- 
vantage, the following parallels in idea possibly 
show. The Culprit Fay arms thus for his adven- 
ture : 

" He put his acorn helmet on ; 
It was plumed with the silk of the thistle down, 
The corselet plate that guarded his breast 
Was once the wild bee's golden vest ; 



His cloak of a thousand changing dyes 

Was formed of the wings of butterflies ; 

His shield was the shell of a lady bug queen, 

Studs of gold on a ground of green ; 

And the quivering lance which he brandished bright 

Was the sting of a wasp he had slain in fight. 

Swift he bestrode his fire fly steed, 

He bared his blade of the bent grass blue, 
He drove his spurs of the cockle seed 

And away like a glance of thought he flew." 

Drayton's Pigwiggen arms thus for the duel : 

" And quickly arms him for the field. 
A little cockle shell his shield. 

His spear, a bent both stiff and strong, 
And well near of two inches long. 

And puts on him a coat of mail 
Which was of a fish's scale. 

< 

His rapier was a hornet's sting ; 

It was a very dangerous thing, 

For if he chanced to wound the king, 

It would be long in healing. 
His helmet was a beetle's head 
Most horrible and full of dread, 
And for a plume a horse's hair. 

Himself he on an ear-wig set, 
Yet scarce he on his back could get, 
So oft and high he did curvet 
Ere he himself could settle." 

Drake speaks of the Fay as having slain a wasp 
in fight ; Drayton tells how Oberon had an actual 
fight with a wasp whom he mistook temporarily 
for Pigwiggen. Drake speaks of an acorn helmet ; 
Drayton tells how Oberon defends his head with 
an acorn on its stalk which he uses in manner of 
single-stick. The Culprit Fay sails on the water 
in a mussel-shell ; Oberon floats in an acorn-cup, 
"as safe as in a wherry." Drake has his fay 
ride on a speckled toad, as well as on his fire-fly ; 
Drayton has a grasshopper and an ant as well as 
his ear- wig serve a similar purpose. Finally, not 
to go into further details, the crime of the Culprit 
Fay for which he endures hardship is the same as 
that of Pigwiggen for which he fights his duel, 
forbidden love. 

Of course, it should be borne in mind in con- 
clusion, that there was much fairy lore accessible 
in common to these poets which we have not con- 



November, 1906]. 



MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES. 



219 



sidered. 2 Still, it seems possible that Pope may 
have recollected Drayton's hero when sending 
Umbriel on his mission, and that Drake may, in 
the "two or three days" after talking with his 
friends and before reading them his poem, have 
had his imagination stirred by these his two prede- 
cessors in fairy lore. 

C. H. Caetbb. 

Syracuse University. 



Pandosto AND Tme Winters Tale. 

For more than a century a strange confusion 
has been current among Shakespeare editors and 
critics over the characters in The Winter's Tale, 
when compared with the corresponding characters 
in Pandosto, the source of Shakespeare's plot. 
This confusion, which at first seems 'small and 
un distinguishable,' probably originated with Stee- 
vens, when, in the edition of 1778 of Shakespeare's 
plays, he inadvertently attempted to give parallel 
lists of the characters in Greene's novel and The 
Winter' 8 Tale, in the following note : 

"In the novel of Dorastus and Favmia the 
King of Sicilia, whom Shakespeare names 

Leontes, is called Egistus, 

Polixines, King of Bohemia, - Pandosto, 
Mamillius, Prince of Sicilia, - Garinter, 
Florizel, Prince of Bohemia, - Dorastus, 

Camillo, Franion, 

Old Shepherd, Porrus, 

Hermione, Bellaria, 

s Cf. J. O. Halliwell' a Illustrations of the Fairy Mythology 
of A Midsummer Night's Dream. Both Drayton and Drake 
make use of paraphernalia common since Shakespeare's 
time at least, but little can be proved by that except as 
strengthening probabilities. Drayton almost certainly 
had Shakespeare in mind when writing : 

"Thorough brake, thorough brier, 
Thorough muck, thorough mire, 
Thorough water, thorough fire I 
And thus goes Puck about it." 

Also in describing Queen Mab's chariot in words that 
unmistakably recall Mercutio's account in Romeo and 
Juliet. 

"Four nimble gnats the horses were, 
Their harnesses of gossamere, 
Fly Cranion her charioteer 
Upon the coach box getting." etc 



Perdita, Fawnia, and 

Mopsa, Mopsa." 

Collier, in his introduction to the reprint of 
Pandosto ("Shakespeare's Library," ed. 1875, 
Pt. I, Vol. IV, p. 14), calls attention to the dis- 
crepancies in Steevens's list of characters in these 
terms : 

" [Steevens] committed a strange blunder 
(which shews that he had read Greene's work 
with very little attention), when he asserted that 
the Leontes of Shakespeare is the Egistus of the 
novel. Pandosto is Leontes, and Egistus is Pol- 
ixines. None of the other commentators corrected 
the error, or, perhaps, were able to do so, from 
not having taken the trouble to go through the 
incidents in the original story, and to compare 
them with those of the play." Dr. Furness in 
his Variorum Edition of The Winter's Tale (p. 1), 
also mentions Steevens's slip, and, in his character- 
istic spirit of charity, attributes it to ' a clerical 
error. ' 

Strange as it may seem, Steevens was quite 
right, from one point of view (the one probably 
assumed by him), as regards Leontes and Pol- 
ixines. So, also, are his critics correct, — from a 
different, but as justifiable, point of view. So far 
as I am aware, no one has attempted to ' find the 
concord of this discord.' The real variance be- 
tween Steevens and his critics is due to one of 
Shakespeare's tricks in altering, not the names 
and characters, but the geography of the plot. In 
Green's story, Pandosto is king of Bohemia, Egis- 
tus of Sicilia. Now, in Shakespeare's play, Leon- 
tes is king of Sicilia, Polixines of Bohemia. It is 
plain that Steevens was correct when he placed 
the name of Egistus opposite that of Leontes, and 
Pandosto to that of Polixines, — provided the aim 
was to preserve the geographical and titular cor- 
respondence of the characters. It is quite as plain 
that so soon as he passed from the two kings to 
their wives, children, and followers, the relation- 
ship which he desired to maintain must break 
down. As a result, all the leading characters, 
after the first two, in Steevens's list are wrong, — 
assuming, of course, that he desired to carry out 
the titular relationship. Thus, in Greene's novel, 
Garinter is Prince of Bohemia ; Steevens has him 
Prince of Sicilia. Bellaria is queen of Bohemia 
in the original story ; according to Steevens, Her-