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MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
[Vol. xxi, No. 7.
relationships between them are largely accidental.
Few allegorists have attempted to control such
relationships, Boccaccio least of all, — witness the
extraordinary jumble of the Amoroso, visione.
Boccaccio started the story of Idalagos as a pas-
toral allegory. He invested two originals, himself
and his father, with the character of shepherds.
Suppose that Andald then presented himself for alle-
gorical investiture ; the activity of Andald in the
allegory was to be an intellectual activity ; his
allegorical character must be human and mascu-
line. Boccaccio would have written him down a
shepherd, without a moment's thought of incon-
sistency. What else could he have made him ?
Delia Torre's assumption that the second inter-
pretation of the words "tui gratia . . . particeps
tuus" is correct, is not justifiable. The first in-
terpretation is certainly as admissible, in itself, as
the second. The following words, "in tarn alto
. . . nos iunxit," seem to imply an association of
the kind implied by the first interpretation rather
than one of the kind implied by the second. A. Gas-
pary evidently interpreted the passage in the first
way, for he states that the addressee was ' ' nicht
ein Lehrer . . . sondem ein Mitschviler ' ' of Boc-
(a) See the refutation of (2) above.
(6) Boccaccio and his contemporaries use the
epithet solenne to indicate that a man is proficient
in his profession or occupation. 29 It would be a
most inappropriate epithet for a man admirable in
Boccaccio's eyes precisely because he neglected his
profession for outside interests.
(e) Boccaccio wrote the phrase " a cui quasi la
maggior parte delle cose era manifesta" after he
had become acquainted with the very wide knowl-
edge of Andald ; it is extremely improbable that
he would then apply such a phrase to a youth
whose knowledge was confined to that which had
been gained from the trivium and the quadrivium.
(d) No parallel : a shepherd resting with his
flock is engaged in his duties as shepherd, not
released from them.
J8 Qesehkhte der Italienischen Ltieratur, vol. II, Berlin,
1888, p. 336.
29 Decameron 1 1 : Giucatore e mettitor di malvagi dadi
era solenne ; viii 3 : come se stato fosse un solenne e gran
lapidario ; Filippo Villani, Oroniea, xi 97 : in Ksa, dov* eb
bono solermi medici.
(e) The similarity in content may be accounted
for upon the supposition that the addressee as well
as Boccaccio was a pupil of the original of Cal-
meta, or upon the supposition that Boccaccio, in
writing the account of the astronomical study of
the addressee, was merely dilating, out of his own
astronomical knowledge, upon the theme astro-
nomical studies, rather than attempting to give a ve-
racious account of the progress of the astronomical
study of the addressee. The similarity in nomen-
clature is not surprising, in view of the fact that
the two accounts were written at the same period,
perhaps at nearly the same time.
Calmeta, then, represents Andald di Negro,
and the episode of the instruction of Calmeta is to
be placed in the series of Boccaccio's references to
Andald. It affords us direct knowledge of the
content of the instruction of Andald, and in all
probability reflects the order of his course. It is
quite the most interesting of Boccaccio's several
tributes to the teacher who had so great a share in
the formation of his intellectual culture, and won
so high a place in his admiration and affection.
The certainty that the addressee of the letter
Saere famis was not the original of Calmeta
removes the only strong temptation to accept the
second interpretation of the words " tui gratia . . .
particeps tuus." It is very probable that the first
interpretation of those words is correct. In that
case, as has been pointed out, the course of in-
struction in question was that of Andald. It is
very probable, then, that Boccaccio's admission to
the instruction of Andald was due to the kindness
of the addressee of the letter Sacre famis.
Ebnest H. Wilkins.
'NYMPHIDIA,' 'THE EAPE OP THE
LOCK,' AND 'THE CULPRIT PAY.'
A certain resemblance, apparently unnoticed
hitherto, exists between Drayton's fairy poem
Nymphidia and Pope's Rape of the Loch; also
certain resemblances exist between these two
poems and Joseph Rodman Drake's Culprit Fay.
They deserve a word or two of comment.
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
Nymphidia tells the whole course of love be-
tween the fairy Pigwiggen and Queen Mab. He
secretly invites her to a revel in a " cowslip flower
on Hipcut-hill," whither she accordingly steals
with her special maids of honor. While they
revel, Oberon discovers the flight of his queen,
and, aided finally by Puck, sets out to find her.
This hunt leads in tune to the breaking up of the
clandestine party and to Pigwiggen' s challenging
Oberon to a duel to clear the queen of slander.
Here comes the resemblance to The Rape of the
Lock. When news of the destined combat reaches
Mab and her maids where they hide in a nut-shell,
she determines to seek out Prosperpine and ask for
her intervention. The Queen of Hades is gra-
ciously inclined, especially when she sees the
fighters in stern combat with the blood spinning
out of their helmets.
" When to th' infernal Styx she goes,
She takes the fogs from thence that rose,
And in a bag doth them enclose,
When well she had them blended :
She hies her then to Lethe spring,
A bottle and thereof did bring,
Wherewith she meant to work the thing
Which only she intended."
Hastening then to the fighters, she waits for the
" And suddenly unties the poke,
Which out of it sent such a smoke
As ready was them all to choke,
So grievous was the pother :
So that the knights each other lost,
And stood as still as any post."
Before these mists have altogether cleared away,
Proserpine commands peace. Then, on pretense
of refreshing the spirits of the warriors, she makes
each drink from her second bottle, that containing
Lethe water. At once, of course, they forget their
cause of quarrel and all ends happily.
Compare the conduct of Queen Mab in the
latter part of this story with that of Pope's
Umbriel, who also descends to the lower world
for aid and makes a successful petition to Spleen.
Spleen aids him as follows : —
" A wondrous bag with both her hands she binds,
Like those where once Ulysses held the winds ;
Then she collects the force of female lungs :
Sighs, sobs, and passions and the war of tongues.
A vial next she fills with fainting fears,
Soft sorrows, melting griefs and flowing tears.
The gnome rejoicing bears her gifts away,
Spreads his black wings and slowly mounts to day.
Sunk in Thalestris' arms the nymph he found,
Her eyes dejected, and her hair unbound.
Full o'er their heads the swelling bag he rent,
And all the furies issued at the vent.
But Umbriel, hateful gnome, forbears not so,
He breaks the vial whence the sorrows flow."
The resemblance is not conclusive, but sug-
gestive. I know of no other incident in liter-
ature so similar to this one of Pope as that cited
from Drayton. To be sure, there are numerous
necessary differences, e. g., Mab goes to Proser-
pine for aid to still the fight, not like Umbriel to
provoke it ; but there are these similarities : in
each case the intent is frankly comic ; in each
case a fairy goes for aid to the lower world, sup-
plicates a goddess, is successful, returns with two
kinds of medicine, one a bag containing vapors
and the other a bottle or vial containing liquid ;
first, the bag is broken over the heads of con-
testants (either kinetic or potential), and later the
vial is brought into service. This seems exten-
sive to be pure coincidence. 1
Another matter of resemblance is in regard to
Drake's poem. It seems that he may have
profited from both Pope and Drayton. Drake's
fairy hero has loved an earthly maid and thereby
has "sullied his elfin purity." The poem tells
how, as penance, he performs two difficult tasks
in the face of serious handicaps, to remove the
stain from his social standing. Possibly the re-
lation which Pope's Ariel bore to Belinda sug-
gested that of the Culprit Fay for his "earthly
" He has lain upon her lip of dew,
And sunned Mm in her eye of blue,
Fanned her cheek with his wing of air,
Played in the ringlets of her hair."
So also does Ariel, though to be sure he is not in
1 Pope refers, in his preface, to the Eosicrusian book,
Le Comte de Gabalis, as a source of information about
sylphs, gnomes, etc. I have not seen this book, but to
judge from Pope's reference to it, it seems very unlikely
that this work furnished hint for the incident under
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
[Vol. xxi, No. 7.
The punishments suggested by Drake for the
erring fay recall at least in spirit those of Pope.
Drake's fairy king proclaims :
"Fairy, had she spot or taint,
Bitter had been thy punishment :
Tied to a hornet's shardy wings,
Tossed on the pricks of nettle's stings ;
Or seven long ages doomed to dwell
With the lazy worm in the walnut shell ;
Or every night to writhe and bleed
Beneath the tread of the centipede,
Or bound in a cobweb dungeon dim,
Your jailor a spider huge and grim."
Pope's Ariel harangues his underlings thus : —
" Whatever spirit, careless of his charge,
His post neglects, or leaves the fair at large,
Shall feel sharp vengeance soon o'ertake his sins,
Be stopped in vials or transfixed with pins ;
Or plunged in lakes of bitter washes lie,
Or wedged whole ages in a bodkin's eye.
Gums and pomatums shall his flight restrain,
While clogg'd he beats his silken wings in vain."
Possibly again the whole final adventure of the
Culprit Fay, his ascent to heaven through the
region of hostile cloud spirits and his chase after
the shooting star to catch the spark that would
relight his elfin torch, was suggested by Pope :
" Some " (spirits) " in the fields of purest ether play
And bask and whiten in the blaze of day,
Some guide the course of wandering orbs on high
Or roll the planets through the boundless sky.
Some less refined beneath the moon's pale light,
Pursue the stars that shoot athwart the night,
Or suck the mists in grosser air below
Or dip their pinions in the painted bow."
And again as the famous lock is borne to heaven
at the climax of the poem : —
"A sudden star it shot through liquid air,
And drew behind a radiant trail of hair.
The sylphs behold it kindling as it flies,
And pleased pursue its progress through the skies."
That Drake may have read Nymphidia to ad-
vantage, the following parallels in idea possibly
show. The Culprit Fay arms thus for his adven-
" He put his acorn helmet on ;
It was plumed with the silk of the thistle down,
The corselet plate that guarded his breast
Was once the wild bee's golden vest ;
His cloak of a thousand changing dyes
Was formed of the wings of butterflies ;
His shield was the shell of a lady bug queen,
Studs of gold on a ground of green ;
And the quivering lance which he brandished bright
Was the sting of a wasp he had slain in fight.
Swift he bestrode his fire fly steed,
He bared his blade of the bent grass blue,
He drove his spurs of the cockle seed
And away like a glance of thought he flew."
Drayton's Pigwiggen arms thus for the duel :
" And quickly arms him for the field.
A little cockle shell his shield.
His spear, a bent both stiff and strong,
And well near of two inches long.
And puts on him a coat of mail
Which was of a fish's scale.
His rapier was a hornet's sting ;
It was a very dangerous thing,
For if he chanced to wound the king,
It would be long in healing.
His helmet was a beetle's head
Most horrible and full of dread,
And for a plume a horse's hair.
Himself he on an ear-wig set,
Yet scarce he on his back could get,
So oft and high he did curvet
Ere he himself could settle."
Drake speaks of the Fay as having slain a wasp
in fight ; Drayton tells how Oberon had an actual
fight with a wasp whom he mistook temporarily
for Pigwiggen. Drake speaks of an acorn helmet ;
Drayton tells how Oberon defends his head with
an acorn on its stalk which he uses in manner of
single-stick. The Culprit Fay sails on the water
in a mussel-shell ; Oberon floats in an acorn-cup,
"as safe as in a wherry." Drake has his fay
ride on a speckled toad, as well as on his fire-fly ;
Drayton has a grasshopper and an ant as well as
his ear- wig serve a similar purpose. Finally, not
to go into further details, the crime of the Culprit
Fay for which he endures hardship is the same as
that of Pigwiggen for which he fights his duel,
Of course, it should be borne in mind in con-
clusion, that there was much fairy lore accessible
in common to these poets which we have not con-
MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES.
sidered. 2 Still, it seems possible that Pope may
have recollected Drayton's hero when sending
Umbriel on his mission, and that Drake may, in
the "two or three days" after talking with his
friends and before reading them his poem, have
had his imagination stirred by these his two prede-
cessors in fairy lore.
C. H. Caetbb.
Pandosto AND Tme Winters Tale.
For more than a century a strange confusion
has been current among Shakespeare editors and
critics over the characters in The Winter's Tale,
when compared with the corresponding characters
in Pandosto, the source of Shakespeare's plot.
This confusion, which at first seems 'small and
un distinguishable,' probably originated with Stee-
vens, when, in the edition of 1778 of Shakespeare's
plays, he inadvertently attempted to give parallel
lists of the characters in Greene's novel and The
Winter' 8 Tale, in the following note :
"In the novel of Dorastus and Favmia the
King of Sicilia, whom Shakespeare names
Leontes, is called Egistus,
Polixines, King of Bohemia, - Pandosto,
Mamillius, Prince of Sicilia, - Garinter,
Florizel, Prince of Bohemia, - Dorastus,
Old Shepherd, Porrus,
s Cf. J. O. Halliwell' a Illustrations of the Fairy Mythology
of A Midsummer Night's Dream. Both Drayton and Drake
make use of paraphernalia common since Shakespeare's
time at least, but little can be proved by that except as
strengthening probabilities. Drayton almost certainly
had Shakespeare in mind when writing :
"Thorough brake, thorough brier,
Thorough muck, thorough mire,
Thorough water, thorough fire I
And thus goes Puck about it."
Also in describing Queen Mab's chariot in words that
unmistakably recall Mercutio's account in Romeo and
"Four nimble gnats the horses were,
Their harnesses of gossamere,
Fly Cranion her charioteer
Upon the coach box getting." etc
Perdita, Fawnia, and
Collier, in his introduction to the reprint of
Pandosto ("Shakespeare's Library," ed. 1875,
Pt. I, Vol. IV, p. 14), calls attention to the dis-
crepancies in Steevens's list of characters in these
" [Steevens] committed a strange blunder
(which shews that he had read Greene's work
with very little attention), when he asserted that
the Leontes of Shakespeare is the Egistus of the
novel. Pandosto is Leontes, and Egistus is Pol-
ixines. None of the other commentators corrected
the error, or, perhaps, were able to do so, from
not having taken the trouble to go through the
incidents in the original story, and to compare
them with those of the play." Dr. Furness in
his Variorum Edition of The Winter's Tale (p. 1),
also mentions Steevens's slip, and, in his character-
istic spirit of charity, attributes it to ' a clerical
Strange as it may seem, Steevens was quite
right, from one point of view (the one probably
assumed by him), as regards Leontes and Pol-
ixines. So, also, are his critics correct, — from a
different, but as justifiable, point of view. So far
as I am aware, no one has attempted to ' find the
concord of this discord.' The real variance be-
tween Steevens and his critics is due to one of
Shakespeare's tricks in altering, not the names
and characters, but the geography of the plot. In
Green's story, Pandosto is king of Bohemia, Egis-
tus of Sicilia. Now, in Shakespeare's play, Leon-
tes is king of Sicilia, Polixines of Bohemia. It is
plain that Steevens was correct when he placed
the name of Egistus opposite that of Leontes, and
Pandosto to that of Polixines, — provided the aim
was to preserve the geographical and titular cor-
respondence of the characters. It is quite as plain
that so soon as he passed from the two kings to
their wives, children, and followers, the relation-
ship which he desired to maintain must break
down. As a result, all the leading characters,
after the first two, in Steevens's list are wrong, —
assuming, of course, that he desired to carry out
the titular relationship. Thus, in Greene's novel,
Garinter is Prince of Bohemia ; Steevens has him
Prince of Sicilia. Bellaria is queen of Bohemia
in the original story ; according to Steevens, Her-