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148 



She Degoi^aiboi^ aisid Hiji^nishei^, 



[PEBRUARt, 1886. 




NEW LAMPS FOR OLD. 



iAMPS may 
be meant 
as compre- 
hending all 
means of 
artificial 
lighting, 
though in 
comparison 
with the 
modern mode of ar- 
tificial illumination, 
all former times 
may be regarded as 
"dark ages." At the 
same time we owe 
much to the inven- 
tive ingenuity 
and elaborate work- 
manship of the art- 
isans of former 
days. 

Their patterns 
modernized, espe- 
cially as regards re- 
pouss6 or perforated 
work, are far more 
suitable, though 
somewhat less elab- 
orate, than the old 
Persian and other 
oriental lamps im- 
ported, and which 
are unadapted to 
gas and awkward in management, the bottom 
having to be taken out in setting in the light. 
Design in chandeliers, lamps and brackets, has 
benefited by the competition between gas and 
electricity. Each demands specific treatment in 
the mountings, and the supplementing of one by 
the other in the same article, for separate or com- 
bined use, such as having jets of one set outside, 
independent of the central light, affords opportunity 
for skillful artistic arrangement. The outer sup- 
ports of light to an enclosed light take, in several 
instances, the unique and appropriate form of 
Eastern oil fonts. Clusters of candle forms for gas 
have appended to them, to sustain their character, 
the ancient saucers, introduced to catch falling 
wax, and thus aid the simulation. There are many 
exceedingly beautiful ancient oil fonts, with finely 
proportioned, slender tubular arms, which served 
for wall brackets and supply serviceable types.- 
Ordinarily, apartments have an excess of light. 
The central chandelier, hoAvever, is through the 
introduction of brackets no longer looked to for 
the whole supply, and these particularly aid in 
graduating the light so as to display artistic adorn- 
ments to the best advantage. 

Antique patterns of chandeliers and lamps- 
Moorish, Persian, Turkish, old English, and Jap- 
anese—also the light, elegant styles of Louis XIV., 
which latter are in striking contrast to the heavy 
English makes imported, chiefly suitable for public 
buildings, obtain pre-eminence with the public. It 
is gratifying to find American artists entering so 
fully into the spirit of ancient designers. One 
notably beautiful chandelier has bulbous form of 
center, representing flower leaves, with masques 
between. A costly and artistically suggestive Jap- 
anese chandelier has round globes composed of 
plaques of metal in elaborate repouss6 work, show- 
ing colored glass in the interstices. The article has 
pendant links below the center and at sides. The 
links of the supporting chains differ in design from 
. each other, catching the hght at different angles, 
and showing the elaborate workmanship to ad- 
vantage. Figure designs in these show skillful 
management, as they appear symmetrical from 
whatever point viewed. A metallic chandelier 
globe in relief work is elaborated in the old Ger- 
man style, with the representation of warlike and 
pastoral scenes and customs of the East, graphically 
rendered. The fashionable self -colors for ceramic 
shades inside cuirasses are celadon, buff, and pink, 
giving good effect to the finely wrought metalwork. 
With these cuirasses, and centers of chandeliers 
similarly worked, metallic mounted mirrors will 
admirably accord. 

Ormolu gilt, with its soft, reflective luster, is 
admirably adapted to richly decorated drawing and 
dining-rooms, in chandeliers cadelabra and wall 
brackets in antique silver have a satisfying effect. 
A preference is given to brass over bronze for 
hall and alcove lights. In the chief apartments 
honors are divided. Jeweled, perforated metal owes 
its favor to the combination of briUiancy and 
solidity, the metal, too, in many instances subduing 
the light and affording reposeful rest to the eyes. 
In cuirasses of open repouss6 of oriental workman- 



ship droll effects are often introduced. Such is the 
beauty of design brought out, and the excellence 
of much of the workmanship, that we may be said 
to be all but independent of foreign goods, except 
that choice and new, tasteful styles imported will 
always command attention. 

Really elegant, moderate-priced goods, in the 
way of brass lamps, semi-spherical, square, oblong, 
or other shape, with plain beveled glass, or jeweled, 
may be obtained at surprisingly moderate prices, 
compared with those that ruled years since. With 
these it is always well to demand some special 
character. Tasty lamps of beveled glass in gilded 
brass are admirably suited to alcoves and bay- 
windows. 

Hall lamps afford especially fine scope for metal 
and color effects, only a moderate amount of exter- 
nal light being demanded. Among these are some 
showing fine iron grill- work. Leaves and branches, 
delicately wrought, are seen clambering upwards 
and outwards from the center, and, in their vigor- 
ous outgrowth, impinging on the plain or colored 
lights and wrought open-work. Prominent among 
fanciful forms is the Guy Faux lamp, with perfo- 
rated canopy, designed to emit smoke, without 
light, suggestive by its black iron exterior, and the 
almost hidden light, of the dark deeds of conspira- 
tors. Ceramic ware, the patterns orientalized, find 
partial adoption for table lamps as bases, and 
again as massive supports for octagonal newell 
lights, these approaching the viase form. Panels 
of raised metalwork are also introduced in these. 

We see designs for bracket heads in Flemish 
work, composed of hammered copper, which are 
really superb. Persian sun-spiral flames in bronze, 
dragons, masques, metal^shaped in branch form, 
with clusters of shells here and there upon them ; 
also scroll forms of ancient type, with ribbon bands 
in character for branches, figure as heads to 
brackets. 

The general designs in globes are too much 
hackneyed, but the very praiseworthy endeavor of 
leading manufacturers has resulted in unique pro- 
ductions in form, tints and delicate tracery. For up- 
stairs and small chandeliers exquisite French etch- 
ings are introduced, richly ornamental in themselves, 
on low-cut globes. There is a delicate opal globe im- 
ported, showing folds and variously tinged with 
color sometimes melting into each other ; also 
crackled glass and prints and tears in dark shades 
on diaper grounds, with which their hues contrast. 

Some very decided improvements have been 
made in slide-light arrangements, of a strictly 
mechanical character. Not only have all difficulties 
in drawing down been overcome, but, in one of 
the latest patents, the padding in general use for 
the tubing— so liable to get out of order and to cor- 
rode—is altogether dispensed with. Manufacturers 
of artistic specialties in this line, who lead taste, 
aim to avoid stereotyped familiarized forms ; but 
in examining general stocks it is well for pur- 
chasers to be posted in what is old, or so widely 
adopted as not to be in fashion. The task of 
selection with reference to the character of rooms, 
and the decorations with which lamps, candelabra 
and brackets are to be associated, will be facihtated 
by securing the aid of a professional expert, more 
especially if a hall or apartment is fitted up in 
some characteristic style. Dealers in these fixtures 
express surprise at the number of people who really 
do not know what they want. 

Familiar objects affect public taste, and it is 
important that gas and electric-light fixtures and 
mountings should not be unsightly and deformed. 
There is more than ever the need of studied pro-^ 
priety in design to secure grace and elegance. 



BED-ROOM LIGHTS. 

Bee illustration mi opposltepage. 

T'a'^E give on the opposite page a new and fine 
aX/ design for chandelier and bracket, suitable 
to a bed-room, by Mr. F. Thornton Macaulay. 

Chandelier.— Antique workmanship ; two lights ; 
pipes and twisted work to give brass effect ; perfo- 
rated work of flat copper, ^" X f " section, polished ; 
panel #f brass repouss6 represents ideal head ; iron 
chains. 

^rac&et- Japanese decorative forms; conven- 
tional lotus and lily ; hammered brass, with lacquered 
surface below bracket, showing grotesques. 



Very few people really see the works of the old 
masters. Art only shows herself to a lover, and her 
greatest concealment is when people put on specta- 
cles. She is shamelessly exposed in galleries to the 
crowd, but she need not blush— the crowd is blind— 
and while they are studying to see if her nails are 
well trimmed ; and, what "Ruskin says" about her, 
she is having most lovely interviews with one who 
stands apart and m\eJii,—Mdmund JiusseU. 



EMPLOYMENT OF COLORS. 

)^HE greatest triumph of the colorist is in mel- 
^^ lowing, softening and breaking color in large 
masses. Crude colors are, as a rule, to be avoided. 
A green compounded of blue, yellow, brown, and 
a dash of purple, will be far more attractive than 
one with which no tints are mixed. White and 
black are in nearly every case enriched and im- 
proved by judicious tempering with other colors. 
Yellow and red impart warmth to white ; green or 
blue a certain coldness ; so that a green- tinted white 
will look best in a pattern where there is much 
Indian red, and a pinky white may be opposed to 
much blue or gray. Black is always improved by 
a little blue. In nature we seldom see black un- 
blended with some color. Black is, after all, rela- 
tive and producible by contrast, and in some cir- 
cumstances Indian red or burnt umber may stand 
for it, especially where a darker hue would be 
harsh and unpleasant. Brilliant colors in great 
quantity are by no means necessary for brilliant 
effects ; ttiey should be reserved as heightening 
touches. High colors in profusion are extravagant, 
and may be said to be demoralizing ; the eye refus- 
ing to recognize their value becomes wearied ; they 
will often look heavy and gaudy, whilst the same 
blended with sober tints will appear delicate and 
full of light. Indian red, blue, ochre and white, 
thus modified, will, when brought in combination, 
produce fine general effects. Bright colors, like 
jewels, should be used rarely and judiciously. 



IlEPODSS]^ Work. — The name repouss6 expresses 
precisely the process. In a pitcher, for example, 
after the base, bowl and neck have been formed, 
and the lip hammered into shape, the floriated 
pattern is penciled on the surface, and then by 
means of blunt chasing tools is hammered outward 
in masses. An intended rose will thus appear sim- 
ply as a raised rounded surface. The pitcher is 
next filled with a cement of pitch resin, which 
makes a solid foundation for the chaser. The de- 
tails are gone over, and the parts to be set back 
worked into position. On the skill of the chaser 
depends the finish and expression. If he is defi- 
cient in skill, the design comes out in a spiritless, 
characterless manner. 



Roman Catacomb Lamps.— The reproductions 
of lamps found in the catacombs of Rome show 
admirable antique treatment of design. The cov- 
ers of the oil vessels that were used by Christians 
bear rehgious emblems. The Pagan lamps show a 
mouse which was supposed to carry about with it 
a human soul. 



A ITOVEL candle- holder is a bronze shield trans- 
fixed with a sword nearly run up to the hilt, the 
socket of candle rising from the handle. 




KOOBIBH LAMP.