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The Fourteenth Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration notes 
with pleasure the existence of fifty and more treaties of arbitration concluded 
within the past five years, and more especially the arbitration treaties concluded 
between the United States and France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan, Mexico, 
Switzerland, Holland, Norway, Sweden, Portugal, and Spain. The conference, 
therefore, expresses the hope that the peaceful and judicial settlement of inter- 
national difficulties by resort to courts of arbitration and of justice bids fair 
to become the rule of the future, as it has been in a measure the enlightened 
practice of the immediate past. 

The Fourteenth Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration further 
commends the activities of our schools, colleges, universities, and the various 
professional, business, and labor organizations of the country by which and 
through which popular sentiment is created, trained, and directed, not merely 
to the maintenance of peace, but also, by the elimination of the ostensible causes 
of war by peaceful settlement, to the prevention of war itself. 

Finally, the Fourteenth Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration 
rejoices in the fact that the representation of all the civilized nations of the 
world in the Second Hague Conference, and the recommendation in its final act 
for a future conference, guarantee, for the future, a conference of an inter- 
national and permanent character, capable of correcting the inequalities of 
international practice and of enacting a code of international law based upon 
justice and equity. 



On the 11th day of May, 1908, in the presence of representatives of 
Latin America and of the United States, the corner stone of the new 
building of the International Bureau of American Republics was laid in 
the capital of our country. The occasion was a notable one, not merely 
from the presence of and addresses by President Roosevelt, Secretary 
Root, Ambassador Nabuco, and Andrew Carnegie, but as visible evi- 
dence of the fact that the Western Hemisphere is little by little being 
drawn into closer, more intimate, and sympathetic connection, and that 
Pan-America is cooperating to secure not merely commercial develop- 
ment but, by a closer understanding, the maintenance of peace at home 
and abroad. 

It was entirely appropriate that Mr. Root should be the conspicuous 
figure on the occasion; for it is not too much to say that his secretary- 
ship has witnessed the culmination of the various movements to bring 
Anglo-Saxon and Latin America together, nor is it too much to hope that 
the spirit of good fellowship generated by his policy and by his personal 
visit to the various countries of Latin America will result in removing 


misunderstandings that so frequently occur between peoples that do not 
come into close contact, and that the relations of the Americas may 
henceforth be based upon equality, justice, and a desire for the improve- 
ment of all without the sacrifice of the rights and national aspirations 
of any member of the Western Hemisphere. 

The importance of the occasion and Mr. Root's part in bringing it 
about were admirably set forth by the President in the last paragraphs 
of his address : 

In conclusion, let me speak of another trip, made a couple of years ago by the 
Secretary of State, Elihu Koot — the first time in our history the American 
Secretary of State, during his term of office, left the country to visit certain 
other nations. Mr. Root made the complete tour of South America, traversed 
Central America, and afterwards visited Mexico. He was everywhere received 
with the heartiest greeting, a greeting which deeply touched our people, and I 
wish to say once more how appreciative we are of the reception tendered him. 

His voyage was unique in character and in value. It was undertaken only 
because we citizens of this Republic recognize that our interests are more closely 
intertwined with the interests of the other peoples of this continent than with 
those of any other nations. I believe that history will say that though we 
have had other great Secretaries of State, we have had none greater than Elihu 
Root; and that though in his high office he has done much for the good of his 
nation and of mankind, yet that his greatest achievement has been the success 
which has come as the result of his devoted labor to bring closer together all 
the republics of the New World, and to unite them in the effort to work valiantly 
for our common betterment, for the material and moral welfare of all who dwell 
in the Western Hemisphere. 

The address of the Secretary of State follows in full : 
Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

We are here to lay the corner stone of the building which is to be the home of 
the International Union of American Republics. 

The wise liberality of the Congress of the United States has provided the 
means for the purchase of this tract of land — five acres in extent — near the 
White House and the great Executive Departments, bounded on every side by 
public streets and facing to the east and south upon public parks which it will 
always be the care of the National Government to render continually more 
beautiful, in execution of its design to make the national capital an object of 
national pride and a source of that pleasure which comes to rich and poor alike 
from the education of taste. 

The public spirit and enthusiasm for the good of humanity which have inspired 
an American citizen, Mr. Andrew Carnegie, in his administration of a great 
fortune, have led him to devote the adequate and ample sum of three-quarters 
of a million dollars to the construction of the building. 

Into the appropriate adornment and fitting of the edifice will go the contribu- 


tions of every American Republic, already pledged and, in a great measure, 
already paid into the fund of the Union. 

The International Union for which the building is erected is a voluntary 
association, the members of which are all the American nations from Cape Horn 
to the Great Lakes. It had its origin in the first Pan-American Conference held 
at Washington in 1889, and it has been developed and improved in efficiency 
under the resolutions of the succeeding conferences in Mexico and Brazil. Its 
primary object is to break down the barriers of mutual ignorance between the 
nations of America by collecting and making accessible, furnishing and spread- 
ing, information about every country among the people of every other country 
in the Union, to facilitate and stimulate intercourse, trade, acquaintance, good 
understanding, fellowship, and sympathy. For this purpose it has established 
in Washington a Bureau or office under the direction of a Governing Board com- 
posed of the official representatives in Washington of all the Republics, and 
having a Director and Secretary, with a force of assistants and translators and 

The Bureau has established a rapidly increasing library of history, travel, 
description, statistics, and literature of the American nations. It publishes a 
Monthly Bulletin of current public events and existing conditions in all the 
united countries, which is circulated in every country. It carries on an enormous 
correspondence with every part of both continents, answering the questions of 
seekers for information about the laws, customs, conditions, opportunities, and 
personnel of the different countries ; and it has become a medium of introduction 
and guidance for international intercourse. 

The Governing Board is also a permanent committee charged with the duty 
of seeing that the resolutions of each Pan-American Conference are carried out 
and that suitable preparation is made for the next succeeding conference. 

The increasing work of the Bureau has greatly outgrown the facilities of its 
cramped quarters on Pennsylvania avenue, and now at the close of its second 
decade and under the influence of the great movement of awakened sympathy 
between the American Republics, the Union stands upon the threshold of more 
ample opportunity for the prosecution of its beneficent activity. 

Many noble and beautiful public buildings record the achievements and illus- 
trate the impulses of modern civilization. Temples of religion, of patriotism, 
of learning, of art, of justice, abound; but this structure will stand alone, the 
first of its kind — a temple dedicated to international friendship. It will be 
devoted to the diffusion of that international knowledge which dispels national 
prejudice and liberalizes national judgment. Here will be fostered the growth 
of that sympathy born of similarity in good impulses and noble purposes, which 
draws men of different races and countries together into a community of nations, 
and counteracts the tendency of selfish instincts to array nations against each 
other as enemies. From this source shall spring mutual helpfulness between all 
the American republics, so that the best knowledge and experience and courage 
and hope of every republic shall lend moral power to sustain and strengthen 
every other in its struggle to work out its problems and to advance the standard 
of liberty and peace with justice within itself, so that no people in all of these 
continents, however oppressed and discouraged, however impoverished and torn 


by disorder, shall fail to feel that they are not alone in the world, or shall fail 
to see that for them a better day may dawn, as for others the sun has already 

It is too much to expect that there will not be controversies between American 
nations, to whose desire for harmony we now bear witness; but to every con- 
troversy will apply the truth that there are no international controversies so 
serious that they can not be settled peaceably if both parties really desire peace- 
able settlement, while there are few causes of dispute so trifling that they can 
not be made the occasion of war if either party really desires war. The matters 
in dispute between nations are nothing; the spirit which deals with them is 

The graceful courtesy of the twenty republics who have agreed upon the capital 
of the United States for the home of this International Union, the deep apprecia- 
tion of that courtesy shown by the American Government and this representative 
American citizen, and the work to be done within the walls that are to rise on 
this site, can not fail to be powerful influences toward the creation of a spirit 
that will solve all disputed questions of the future and preserve the peace of the 
Western World. 

May the structure now begun stand for many generations to come as the 
visible evidence of mutual respect, esteem, appreciation, and kindly feeling 
between the people of all the republics; may pleasant memories of hospitality 
and friendship gather about it, and may all the Americas come to feel that for 
them this place is home, for it is theirs, the product of a common effort and the 
instrument of a common purpose. 


In the Editorial Comment of the April number of this Journal (II, 
387) attention was called to the fact that the United States had seriously 
taken up the problem of arbitration treaties, and that by a happy formula 
of the compromis clause the objection of the Senate, as well as the tech- 
nical objection of the foreign powers, seems to have been overcome. As 
the nature of the compromis was carefully considered, as well as the 
constitutional and international difficulty, it seems unnecessaiy to do 
more than to refer to the editorial in question. 

The American Government has not entered, into an unrestricted agree- 
ment to arbitrate any and all controversies which may rise, but has lim- 
ited the scope of arbitration to controversies of a legal nature, or 
differences relating to the interpretation of treaties, thereby excluding 
any differences of a purely political nature. The reason for this restric- 
tion is self-evident; matters of policy are for the Government to deter- 
mine, and it is not to be supposed that a government will generally and 
in advance renounce the right to conduct and to control matters of