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Dr. Johnson of art. Nevertheless his style 
is well adapted for political satire, and its 
heritage became the possession of Gillray 
and Rowlandson, who were the true 
pioneers of modern caricature. 

Of the caricatures shown in Mr. Broadley's vol- 
umes the French are by no means the least inter- 
esting. Their drawing and their conception are 
alike strong. They are free from the coarseness 
which often disfigures the work of the English and 
the Spanish draughtsmen; and, except in the cases 
where the royalist draughtsmen of Paris borrowed 
from Gillray, they are original. Only very rarely 
do they borrow from German sketches. A curious 
example of this is one of the many sketches show- 
ing the retreat from Moscow. All the letterpress is 
French, except the words Nacb Posen on a sign- 
board, which in all probability point to a Prussian 
source. Another noteworthy feature in the French 
caricatures is the curious balance between the 
pro-Napoleonic and the anti-Napoleonic produc- 
tions. The former do not decidedly excel the lat- 
ter; for though the supporters of the Emperor had 
good material for satire in George III., John Bull, 
the Czar Alexander, and the defeated generals of 
the Allies, yet all these figures together were not 
so telling a butt as Napoleon in the days of his 
decline and fall. Those who go through the excel- 
lent series of French caricatures given in Mr. 
Broadley's text will probably find it hard to award 
the palna to Bonapartist or royalist caricatures. 

There is no need to point out the merits of the 
English caricaturists of this period. Their praises 
have often been sung, and by none more gener- 
ously than by a Dutch critic, Dr. H. E. Greeve, 
who, after commenting on the poverty of concep- 
tion of Dutch draughtsmen of that time, exclaims 
that the English caricaturists took the lead in the 
great national movement which overthrew Napo- 
leon, and that Gillray deserves a monument near 
that of Nelson. The panegyric is perhaps a trifle 
excessive. Nowadays we wonder how some of 
these repulsive figures of John Bull and the Cor- 
sican Ogre can ever have had much vogue; and 
we wish that occasionally Gillray had wielded the 
rapier rather than the bludgeon. The fact, how- 
ever, is indisputable that he and his compeers had 
an enormous vogue not only here but on the Con- 
tinent. Those draughtsmen knew the taste of their 
day as we cannot know it; they portrayed a hatred 
which we cannot fully understand, which it is the 
duty of the historian to account for and explain, 
and, in explaining, to moderate or dispel. Tout 
connattre c'est tout pardonner. We have come to 
know much that was hidden from the Georgians; 
and in knowing Bonaparte better we have to 
apologise for the caricaturists who depicted him 
as the incarnation of villainy. Nevertheless their 
sketches possess a very real historical value. They 
enable us to feel the throbs of the pulse of each 
European nation; and to the historical student 
who seeks to understand the inmost reasons of all 
this fire and fury, they will furnish food for medi- 
tation as to the means whereby these awful strifes 
might have been averted. 


By Gabriele D'Annunzio 

Italia ! Italia ! Non fu mai tuo maggio, 
Ne la citta del Fibre e del Leone, 
Quando ogni fiato era d'amor messagio 

Si bella come questa tua stagione 
Maravigliosa, m cui per te si canta, 
Con la bocca rotonda del canone. 

Italy ! Italy ! Never was thy May, 
In the city of Flowers and of the Lion, 
\^hen every breath was a message oj Love, 

So beautijul as this. 

Thy marvelous Season, which sings for thee 

With the round mouth oj the cannon.