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THIS ISSUE OF EDU FEATURES ELEMENTARY EDUCATION 
CREATIVE APPLICATIONS, THINGS TO DO, OPINION 


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THIS ISSUE OF EDU 
FEATURES ELEMENTARY 
EDUCATION 


SPEAK OUT (Contributions, Opinion and Letters 
to the Editor) 
4 @ OPINION: THE CHILD AND THE COMPUTER 
6 @® THE EDU VIEW 


... AND MORE... 


PRODUCTS AND NEWS 


8 @© INTRODUCING DECAL 

e CABRILLO TEST GRADER 

9 @ MORE DIGITAL IN THE NEWS 
10 © DEPRESS 


...AND MORE... 


POTPOURRI (Articles, Reports and Activities) 


11 ¢© TV TEACHERS 

13 @ WHAT IS TIMESHARING? 

14 @ WHAT’S A NICE MINI LIKE YOU DOING 
IN A PLACE LIKE THIS? 

USERS IN CONFERENCE 

CHILDREN LEARN COMPUTER SKILLS 

20 ® MEETINGS OF INTEREST 


... AND MORE... 


= ae 4 
© O1 
e @ 


APPLICATION STORIES 


21 © COMPUTERS ARE FOR KIDS 

COMPUTER ON THE GO 

THE CHILDREN’S MUSEUM 

HOW TO RUN AN IN-HOUSE COMPUTER 
WITH AMATEURS 


...AND MORE... 


NO 
& 
e 8@ @ 


SOURCE MATERIAL FOR EDUCATORS 


99 @ FREE AND LOW-COST ITEMS 
30 © 101 BASIC COMPUTER GAMES 
31 © MULTI-MEDIA FOR GRADE SCHOOLS 
32 @ BOOK REVIEWS 
33 © FOR THE VERY YOUNG 
... AND MORE... 


IDEAS AT WORK 
34 @ WHAT’S IN A NAME? 


35 © CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING 

36 @ ACTIVITIES FOR CHILDREN 

38 © THE IDEA BOX 

39 e GAMES COMPUTER BUMS PLAY 

40 © PROGRAM OF THE MONTH: REVERSE 


... AND MORE... 


PUBLISHER’S STATEMENT 


EDU—lIssue #10: Winter 1973 


Editors of this Issue: 
Sally R. Bower, DIGITAL 
Robert H. Meese, DIGITAL 
Dr. Sam Spero, Cuyahoga Community College, 
Cleveland, Ohio 


EDU is published four times per school year by the 
Education Products Group, Digital Equipment 
Corporation, Maynard, Mass. 01754. 


Circulation: 15,000 


Subscription Rates: $2.00 per year (Individual) 
$15.00 per year (Group) 


EDU welcomes contributions from its readers. Send to: 


Editor, EDU, at the above address. 


CREDITS—ART AND PHOTO 


COVER: The young artists who contributed to the 
cover design for this issue of EDU are: 


Suzanne Carol Peters—Age 4 (daughter of Alice D. 
Peters, Administrative Software Applications 
Manager, Education Products Group, DIGITAL) 


Detta June Ahl—Age 5 (daughter of David H. Anhl, 
Secondary School Marketing Manager, 
Education Products Group, DIGITAL) 


SUZANNE 


Pera 


ART: Bob Barner, 57 Temple Place, Boston, MA. 
Sally R. Bower, DIGITAL 


PHOTO: The Children’s Museum 
DIGITAL Equipment Corp. 
Whitworth College, Spokane, Washington 


OANA Waa Se 2 MEO 7. TA AN 


DPD TAM, THAI Tr Cc XN 


Fn en ee ee ee ee ee oe 


7 (Contributions, Opini 
SPEAK OUT (ariznento ne taton 


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CONTRIBUTIONS 


We know how hard it is to take the time to send your 
contributions to EDU. Especially now, when you’re busy 
preparing courses for this term or school year! But 
EDU needs input from its readership ...Do EDU and 
your fellow educators a favor. Make a resolution to 
write at least one letter to EDU this year... Okay? 

Talk about anything ... your installation, your computer 
instructional programs or your ideas ... for all levels 
of instruction from grade school to college and 
university. Typed or hand-written materials will be 
accepted—send us edited or unedited material. And 

if you need some ideas, look at our back issues of 

EDU, or write something for the following categories: 


SPEAK OUT (Contributions, Opinion and Letters to 
the Editor). 


PRODUCTS AND NEWS (Book reviews, classroom 
aids, other people’s products, anything new for 
classroom computing). | 
APPLICATION BRIEFS (Stories about your installation, 
applications at any level). 

SOURCE MATERIAL FOR EDUCATORS (Books, 
papers, articles, ideas and materials). 

CONFERENCES AND REPORTS (Meetings of interest, 
articles, reports and stories [original or borrowed!]). 
IDEAS AT WORK (Classroom ideas, hints for teaching). 


Send your letter, article and/or materials to EDU, 
Editor, Education Products Group, 5-5. 


CLASSI FI EDS And thanks. 


READERS: This is your section. We’ll run your ad here 
FREE if you’re a school or non-profit organization. 
Got some older equipment you'd like to sell, a useful 
software package, or some other service? We'll also 
run want ads—looking for hardware, software, 
part-time labor, etc.? 


Do you want the convenience of additional 
software without the extra cost of a programmer? 
| am considering a computing service for schools 
and individuals who need additional software or 
who need access to a computer. | propose a 
mail-in or terminal service for program develop- 
ment and usage. CPU’s will be a PDP-8/E 


initially and if demand is great enough a 
PDP-11/45 will be added to handle telecom- 
a, munications and PDP-11 assembler programs. 
For more information write: 

Clifford Bailey 

Box 311 

Bixby, Okla. 74008 

















OPINION: THE CHILD AND THE COMPUTER 


“The Child and The Computer’ was taken from a series 
of talks by Dean Brown, Stanford Research Institute, 
and Mohammed A. El-Ghannam of Ain Shams Univer- 
sity, Cairo. These lectures were presented in October, 
1971, at the Second Specialized Course on New Tech- 
nologies in Education, Beirut, Lebanon. 









Learning begins with experience, with seeing, touching, Q 
hearing, smelling, and manipulating. Sensual percep- 
tions, repeated in a somewhat orderly fashion, create 


organized structures of association within the memory. 





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With sufficient repetition, recognition of patterns 
emerges. When the patterns are established, they can 
be verbalized, communicated, abstracted, and ex- 
tended to predict new experiences or to give broader 
interpretation to old experiences. 


Thus the child must experience to learn. The computer 
serves as a laboratory in which such experiences can 
occur. The computer presents a picture. The child 
touches the screen. The picture responds according to 
preprogrammed instructions. The child touches it 
again. Again the picture changes. Material from virtu- 
ally every subject can be presented in this mode. At 
some later time, when the interaction between the child 
and the machine has run its course, the teacher (or 
other children) will verbalize the experience. At this 
point the correct terminology can be applied. However, 
itis the experience in a free, undirected context in which 
the perceptual structures are first established. The com- 
puter is particularly valuable for this purpose because 
the child feels free to explore—free from penalty in 
case of error. In fact, it is precisely through experi- 
encing different alternatives that the child gains a 
broad understanding of the subject. 


This leads to the fundamental axiom of computer 
teaching. The machine should never be used for testing 
or scoring, or for keeping records of the child’s activ- 
ities. If the machine once assumes a judgmental pos- 
ture, the child’s faith will be destroyed. After several 
betrayals of intimacy, the machine will never again be 
completely the child’s friend. The child’s modes will 
change irreversibly from curiosity to timidity. His ob- 
jective will change from actively exploring to merely 
making a good mark. He will fall back into that worst of 
pedagogical syndromes: ‘“‘guess what the teacher 
wants.” As a matter of fact, some children succeed 
rather well in guessing what the teacher wants and 
become A students. This has little to do with education. 


It is better to administer tests by conventional proce- | 
dures than by using the machine and thereby risking 
the fragile psychological ambience so carefully estab- 
lished for the child. In fact, testing seems to be one 
area in which the machine has little of substance to 
contribute. 


At its best, the computer is at the disposal of the 
teacher, turned on and used throughout the day. Topics 
may tange from drill to simulation, through game play- 
ing and on to composition and art. Other activities 
should be going on in parallel. Children group and re- 
group themselves around several foci of attention— 
reading books, painting, working with television and 
other media, listening to stories from the teacher, 
building things, and watching films. The teacher manip- 
ulates the ambience continually, making certain that 
every child receives the attention and the experiences 
he needs. 


Experiments with various classroom arrangements 
have shown that the addition of teaching devices al- 
lows much larger groups to be taught more efficiently 
with fewer teachers. Classes of 100 or more children 
are managed easily by one master teacher and several 
young student teachers or teacher’s aides. The children 
group themselves naturally around different foci of 
attention—the books, painting tables, music area, com- 
puter terminals, and video displays. The groups range 
in size from three to eight, and are continually forming 
and reforming according to the interests of each child. 
The paraprofessionals are compensated for their lack 
of formal command of various subjects by the material 
covered by the video and computer programs. They 
exercise the human functions of teaching while the 
machines take responsibility for the content. — 











—_ OPINION: ESTABLISH AN “EVALUATION CENTER” 


by Dr. Olcott Gardner 


The article in the January 1973 issue of EduHelp 
entitled ‘“The Basic Problems?” cited lethargy on 

the part of teachers and administrators to use com- 
puters as the main stumbling block in the path of 
computer entrance into education. The statement, “It 
seems generally true that the computer is either “in” 
the math... or the science department. . . and very 
seldom used considerably by both” is a key to the 
problem. When equipment becomes resident in a 
single department, the envelope of proprietorship 
seems to engulf it to the extent that not only is use 
restricted to that department but often to only a few 
within the department. Since this characteristic is 
hereditary in education, the only solution is surgery— 
move the computer to an extradeparimental residence! 


The second obstacle lies in the computer’s use being 
restricted to a calculating tool for science and math 
or teaching computer technology and programming. 
If full utilization of the computer in education is 
achieved, these applications become secondary to its 
educational support technology role. Since the 
computer will be used more for pupil and program 
evaluation services in all disciplines and across all 
grade levels, it rightfully belongs in a district-wide 
Evaluation Center that is readily accessible to every- 
one without first receiving permission for its use from 
a science or math teacher. 


The Evaluation Center established in 1972 in the 
Jamesville-DeWitt Schoo! District, DeWitt, N. Y. 
provides services to all teachers for pretest, 
curriculum embedded and post test monitoring of 
pupil achievement in all subject areas from kinder- 
garten through the 12th grade. Project SPPED 
(System for Pupil and Program Evaluation and 


4 


Development), supported by the Bureau of School 
and Cultural Research of the New York State 
Education Department, provides schools wishing to 
establish an Evaluation Center with banks of 
objectives and items in math, science, reading, 
language arts and social studies. Mark-sense card 
input allows immediate batch entry of data. In less 
than 6/10 second per pupil, individual pupil per- 
formance is monitored on as many as 40 objectives 
providing individual and group profile matrices in 
addition to item analysis with percent mastery and 
raw data output. Monitoring needs in the “affective 
domain” are met primarily by semantic differential 
analysis. | 


Teachers also utilize the output data to partition 

pupils into specific instructional activities. Educational 
strategy decisions for team teaching are made from 
the monitoring data. Flexible modular scheduling to 
implement the teaching strategies is then provided 

by the computer. All pupils in a school district could 
be rescheduled to meet their instructional needs as 
often as necessary. 


Once an Evaluation Center such as this is in operation, 
teachers and administrators soon perceive the 
powerful role of the computer in education and the 
applications proliferate rather than decline. In 
addition, the pupils who are operating the hardware 
are gaining exciting real-life experiences rather than 
expending all their efforts in computer-bum “games” 
and sliderule-type programming for math and 
science homework. 
About the author: Dr. Gardner is the Director of Research for 
The Jamesville-DeWitt Central School System 
in DeWitt, New York. He is active in the 


development of computer instructional monitoring 
systems for the PDP-12 and PDP-8/E computers. 





—> The teacher, in using the machine, should be guided 


by the following general principles: 


(1) Never use the computer when some other means 
is better. The computer should not compete with 
books, films, experiments, discussions, or games 
—it should augment them, in its own unique way. 


(2) Use arich variety of children’s phrases, idioms, 
and allusions to make the programs more rel- 
evant to the child’s existing universe. 


(3) Do not waste time trying to make the machine 
interaction human-like. ‘Natural’ dialog can be- 
come extremely expensive, yet it serves little or 
no pedagogical purpose. It is dishonest to try to 
fool the child into thinking the machine is some- 
thing that it is not—and besides, it can’t be done. 


(4) Master the art of “non-sequitur’’ where the ma- 
chine maintains a meaningful dialog even though 
it does not recognize the child’s response. 


(5) Never cast the machine into a judgmental role. 
(6) Use humor. 


(7) Change the rhythm of the flow between the child 
and the machine frequently, sometimes abruptly. 


(8) Never interrupt a flow when it is going well. 


(9) Allow the machine to be wrong occasionally. Cul- 
tivate the critical facility in the child to use his 
own judgment regarding his acceptance of what 
he is told. 


(10) Encourage the child to question the machine and 
otherwise take initiative when he can. 


When the children are interacting with the machine, 
they are in a completely different psychological mode 
than when they are with the teacher or doing other 
things. This is a very rich mode for learning: We should 
make use of it. 








CORRESPONDENCE CORNER > 


THE EDU VIEW 


The readers of EDU have interesting, enlightening and 
very varying views about all aspects of the newsletter. 
Compiled from thousands of responses to the © 
questionnaire in EDU #8, these comments are repre- 
sentative of the opinions we received. To sample some 
of the responses, many readers wanted more issues of 
EDU on a yearly basis; other wish lists included a 
request for less cartoons, for more cartoons, more 
feature articles ... more about DIGITAL products, 

less about them... two colors, four colors, and three 
hole punches. Some readers declined comment, 
because they thought EDU was just right... or 

terrific in its existing format. 


Here are some of the real words from fellow readers! 


“The mag is great. Leave it alone and simply 
continue as is. The students read this one ahead 
of all others.” 
C. L. Sackett 
Pasadena High School 
Pasadena, Cal. 


“| like it—one of the few communications | take the 
trouble to read. Thanks for sending it my way.”’ 
L. Faurot 
Northwestern College 
Saint Paul, Minn. 


“I like EDU as it is. It is readable, with a sense of 
humor. | like what you are doing.” 
H. G. Liebherr 
Nicolet High School 
Milwaukee, Wis. 


“| need a home copy of EDU!” 
Mrs. J. Wyatt 
Chapel Hill, N.C. 


“Just keep up the good work! EDU inspires me to keep 
at ‘em about computer uses in the classroom.”’ 
| J. Harpel 
Burt Junior High School 
Clarksville, Tenn. 


“Put in a centerfold!” 
T. L. Nitka 
Broward County Vocational 
Center 
Fort Lauderdale, Fla. 


“EDU is moving in the right direction. Keep it up!” 
C. Hamberg 
Adlai Stevenson High School 
Prairie View, III. 








“lam distressed at the sometimes obvious use of 
women as ornaments in the pictures of new computers 
and related equipment. It’s probably safe to say that 
most of the clerical work related to computers is done 
by women (e.g., Keypunching). But the illustrations 
with a woman at every keyboard tend to reinforce the 
current (although changing) image of women as 
menials or secretarial workers. This is the only 
complaint | have about EDU.... EDU represents 

one of my links to the “outside world” andisa 

source of mental stimulation for me. I’m willing to pay 
up to $8 ayear....” 


K. L. Kunkler 

Ortonville, Mich. ks 
“I’ve been with you since EDU #2. You’ve come 
a long way, baby!” 

J. Wenzel 

Albion College 

Albion, Mich. 
“Boost FOCAL a little—it’s a terrific language.” 

B. Wagner 

Glenbrook South High 

School 

Glenview, Ill. 
“Cut out all that fun and games which promotes the 
idea that a computer is a toy. A computer is a costly 
tool and should be devoted to doing serious work; 
any teaching set-up that does not impress that on 
the student is misdirected.”’ 

T. K. Tate 

Lehigh Community College 

schnecksville, Pa. 
“Looks good; usually a littke something for everybody, 
according to their interests. ...” 

M. E. Likes 

Central State University 

Edmond, Okla. 

oo 


“| think that one of the best things about EDU is that 

it can be read (and enjoyed!) by students and faculty.” 
Mr. Vitale 
Skidmore College 
Saratoga Springs, N.Y. 

















> PRODUCTS 
AND NEWS 





NEWEST IN PRINT 


Both of these new items-in-print should provide ex- 
cellent up-to-date information for current (and wishful) 
users of PDP-11 RSTS sysiems. 


Project DELTA — Computer Education for Delaware 
Schools: An application note that describes the use of 
a PDP-11 RSTS system in a network of Delaware’s 
secondary schools. Project DELTA’s exciting student- 
oriented and student-controlled approach to state- 
wide computer utilization is described; the DELTA 
educational program library package is fully outlined. 


RSTS/E Educational Library: This software bulletin 
outlines the educational program packages 
available from DIGITAL. Full descriptions of all items, 
as well as ordering information, are contained in this 
handy guide to educational resources. 


Both brochures may be obtained directly from Com- 
munication Services, PK1, DIGITAL. 


GUIDANCE 
AND THE PDP-14 


A new series of interactive guidance programs based 
on “humanistic psychology” has been written for use 
on PDP-11 RSTS Systems. Written in BASIC-PLUS, 
these eight programs have been designed for use in 
guidance and counseling applications for secondary 
schools, community and junior colleges. 


Developed by Dr. Russel N. Cassel of the Department 
of Education, University of Wisconsin — Milwaukee, 
the programs have been made available by a 
Wisconsin-based system and software firm. The eight 
programs include: 


1) PERSDEV: Personal Development Program. A 
one-semester course designed as an introduction to 
vocational and educational planning. 


2) HUMRELAT: Human Relations Program. A sequel 
to PERSDEV, this one-semester course deals with 
human relations and the ability to get along with 
people. 


3) DEDEV: Decision Development System. A one- 
semester course designed to develop decision-making 
competency in conjunction with the study of counsel- 
ing, school or clinical psychology, and social work. 


4) PLUDRUG: Drug Abuse Education. Based on 
simulations and games, this course is designed to 
provide information regarding drugs and drug users. 


5) REHAB: Rehabilitation Counseling System. De- 
signed for use by a professional guidance counselor 
or psychologist, REHAB may be used in individual or 
group work, It examines a wide variety of personal 
adjustment problems and counseling solutions. 


6) VOCGUYD: Vocational Guidance System. Aids in 
the exploration and planning of vocational or career 
choice. 


7) EDGUYD: Educational Guidance System. Aids in 
decision-making for choice of educational direction. 


8) DRIVING: Automobile Driving System. DRIVING 
is intended to supplement the standard automobile 
training course offered in most high schools. This 
program uses simulation and gaming to develop com- 
petencies. 


Educators who would like to obtain further information 
regarding this guidance package may contact: Mr. 
Leon Todd, Jr., Marketing Manager, Computerized 
Planning Systems, Inc., 4060 North Oakland Ave., 
Shorewood, Wisconsin 53211. Mention EDU! 











INTRODUCING DECAL 3 
DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CAI AUTHOR LANGUAGE  ~ 


The DIGITAL CAI Author Language package combines 
the latest teaching technology with the advanced hard- 
ware facilities of a RSTS-11 timesharing system. De- 
signed to provide an easy means for individualizing 
instruction, DECAL puts CAI lesson-authoring capability 
into the hands of educators. Within two or three hours, 
instructors with no previous computer experience can 
create lessons for drill and practice, tutorials, and 
mastery testing. 


DECAL consists of eight programs which permit in- 
structors to create and edit CAI lessons, build student 
name files, and obtain statistics on student perfor- 
mance. Within the scope of an individual lesson, an 
instructor can present textual material, pose questions, 
anticipate student responses, branch to different areas 
of a lesson depending on responses, time responses, 
and provide other guides for the student as he works. 


The eight programs which make up the DECAL package 
are: 


CREATE — enables an instructor to create a CAI 
lesson in a simple, interactive fashion. 


LEDIT — lesson editing program that allows the 
creation or modification of a lesson. 


STUDNT — student name file manager that permits 
creation of a student data base for later 
lesson and student performance reports. 


LREP — lesson report program that produces re- 
ports of student progress through a 
lesson. 

SREP — student report program that produces re- 


ports on student usage of the CAI system. 


COMMAN — comment file manager that allows listing 
and deletion of student comments. 


UANS — unanticipated answer reporting program 
that allows listing and deletion of unan- 
ticipated student responses. 


QUIZ — lesson administering program; the only 
: program used by the student. 


The DECAL package was developed by DIGITAL after 
considerable research and examination of existing CAI 
author languages, as well as consultation with educa- 
tors across the country. DECAL is currently installed in 
five test sites whose feedback is expected to influence 
future developments. Plans are underway to establish 
a special section of the DECUS Educational Library to 
facilitate DECAL lesson exchange. 








The Author Language is written in BASIC-PLUS for the 
PDP-11 RSTS system; the package requires either 
RSTS V4A or RSTS/E software with the Record I/O and 
PRINT USING features, 8K user area, and ample disk 
storage. Further hardware requirement details are con- 
tained in the DECAL System Manager’s Guide. 


For a limited time only, the DECAL Package is available 
to customers for $50. The package includes distribution 
of software ($35), Instructor’s Guide ($7.50), and a 
System Manager’s Guide ($7.50). This price is subject 
to change when development on the package is com- 
pleted; new pricing will reflect development, support, 
and maintenance costs. Any registered RSTS user is 
eligible to purchase DECAL upon completion of the 
associated software license agreement. To obtain 
copies of the order and licensing forms, write to: 
DECAL, Education Products Group, Building 5-5, 
DIGITAL. 


Students in a wide range of educational programs are currently 
making effective use of DECAL. Among the many possible 
applications of a CAI Author Language are industrial training, 
career education, primary and secondary education, and 
medical education. 





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MORE DIGITAL IN 
THE NEWS 


SEPTEMBER, 1973 AEDS MONITOR 

“An Instructional Mini-Computer 
Program” by Eddie James, Inter- 
mediate School District #110, 
Seattle, Washington. Describes a 
unique portable-computer pro- 
gram that is currently in progress 
in Seattle schools. (See article 
entitled “Computer On The Go” 
in this issue.) 

SCHOOL MANAGEMENT 

“A Lot of Computer for a Little 
Money” by Alice D. Peters. A 
unique arrangement with a local 
business firm aids Idaho Falls 
School District +91 in the acqui- 
sition of a PDP-11 RSTS system 
for instruction and administrative 
applications. The cover photo of 
this issue features Lexington 
High School’s EduSystem 50. 


CURRICULUM PRODUCT 
REVIEW 

“Huntington Simulation Mate- 
rials” by Sally R. Bower. De- 
scribes the Huntington simulation 
project, directed by Dr. Ludwig 
Braun at SUNY/Stonybrook, and 
outlines the materials that have 
been published by DIGITAL. 


THE MATHEMATICS TEACHER 
“Supertoys and Computers’”’ 
deals with Seymour Papert’s 
project utilizing the Turtle, other 
“Supertoys” and a PDP-11 RSTS 
system at the Artificial Intelli- 
gence Lab at MIT. 


OCTOBER, 1973 


NOVEMBER, 1973 


DECEMBER, 1973 


CABRILLO TEST GRADER 


The grading of mutiple choice tests has become an 
easier task for Hal Singer of Cabrillo High School, 
Lompoc, California. When existing packages failed to 
suit Hal’s needs, the team of Singer and Singer wrote a 
new test grader, in PAL Ill. (Hal credits his brother Don, 
teacher at Forest Grove Union High School, Forest 
Grove, Oregon, with authorship.) 


The Cabrillo test grader is designed to run on any 
PDP-8 with 4K words of core memory and an optical 
mark sense card reader. The use of this minimum 
hardware configuration means that users of EduSystems 
15, 25, 30, 45 and 50 qualify to run the package. 








FUN FOR 
PHOTO LOVERS 


Here’s the chance that all you camera buffs have been 
waiting for! An invitation to capture your school, your 
classmates and your EduSystem on film. 


We’re looking for candid black and white action- 
packed photos for publication in EDU, in brochures 
and magazine advertisements. Imagine your computer 
center featured in bill board size at the spring educa- 
tional conferences! The five most creative entries will 
receive credit and acclaim in a future issue of EDU 

... 80 Start snapping ... photo fun is for everyone. 


Forward 8 x 10 glossy photos (if possible) and nega- 
tives; submission permits DIGITAL to use photos in 
any way (with credit, of course). Don’t forget to attach 
information regarding school, people pictured and 
other facts and figures. 


Flash! 





The program uses standard EDUTEST test grading 
cards. It can handle 999 students and a 

maximum of a 100-question test for each student. The 
reporting system produces: 


an individual student response analysis for right or 
wrong answers. This report is optional. 


an item analysis of the number of times each ques- 
tion was missed. 


a class list of the number of questions each student 
answered correctly and his percentage score. 


The Cabrillo Test Grader will be available from the 
DECUS Educational Library in December. 





DEPRESS 


DEPRESS is a version of Dartmouth’s IMPRESS, /nter- 
disciplinary Machine Processing for Research and 
Education in the Social Sciences. DEPRESS was de- 
veloped for RSTS-11 by Clark Baker, Edward Baker 
and Deborah Persoleo of Project DELTA at the Univer- 
sity of Delaware with the cooperation of Dr. Edmund 
Meyers and Dartmouth College. 


DEPRESS is a selective retrieval and analysis system 
for large data files in the social sciences. It represents 
a radical change in social science instruction, making 
it more inductive. The aim is to allow students to solve 
empirical research questions on their own rather than 
memorizing what a book or teacher says. It eliminates 
the drudgery and trivial housekeeping details of statis- 
tical work so the user can concentrate on posing and 
answering questions. The system is designed so the 
novice can obtain meaningful results on his first trial. 


Intended primarily for high school students, DEPRESS 
is a simplification of IMPRESS. In most respects it 
resembles IMPRESS very closely. However, DEPRESS 
permits only simple statistical analyses of a data base 
(i.e., frequencies, chi-square test and percentages 
down, across, and on the total), which is adequate for 
the needs of most students. 


DEPRESS contains the data for four studies: 


COURT — Supreme Court justices study in 1956 
including background, politics, social 
class, and other demographic data. 


PRES52 — A random sample of the U. S. population 


in October-November 1952. Data on the 


presidential and congressional elections. 


PRES56 — A national probability sample of U. S. 
adults interviewed before and after the 
1956 (Eisenhower-Stevenson) presiden- 
tial election. Detailed data on issues, 
parties, candidates, as well as standard 
background items. 


PRES68 — Random sample of U. S. adult popula- 
tion in October-November 1968. Data 
contain a special over-sample of blacks, 
giving a total of 284 cases in the cate- 
gory of “non-white.” Many items on the 
Nixon-Humphrey election and consider- 
able information on racial attitudes, the 
Vietnam War, and measures of social 


stratification. 


Provision is made in the system to create additional 
data files of local interest. 


A description of DEPRESS may be ordered directly 
from DECUS. The software may be obtained directly 
from Project DELTA, University of Delaware, Newark, 
Delaware. 





PL/1 AND THE PDP-8 


CompuMax, Inc. recently announced the availability of 
mPL/1 (Mini Programming Language One) for the 
PDP-8 family of computers. 


Description: 

Mini Programming Language One is a high level, gen- 
eral purpose programming language developed espe- 
cially for small computers. The language has been 
styled after IBM’s PL/1 Language and represents a 
significant advance in language development for small 
computers. The language has been designed to permit 
any programmer, no matter how little or extensive his 
experience, to use it easily at his own level. Typical 
mPL/1 application areas include business program- 
ming, industrial control programming, and student 
training. mPL/1 runs under the OS/8 Operating System. 


The programming system includes the mPL/1 monitor, 
compiler, assembler, run time library, manual and a 
sample source program: $595. Optional maintenance 
subscription is available at $125 per year. 


Configuration Requirements: 

PDP-8 with 8K of core memory 

Terminal (TTY or DECwriter) 

DECtape (single drive) 

OS/8 System Software 

Options: Line printer, card reader, high speed paper 
tape reader/punch, 24K additional words of memory, 
7 additional DECtape drives. 


For further information about mPL/1, contact 
CompuMax Inc., P.O. Box 804, Oswego, Ill. 60543. 
Mention EDU! 


eh. 





10 











> POTPOURRI (Articles, Reports and Activities) 





COMPUTER MATH 


The Computer in Mathematics Instruction: The 
March, 1972 issue of the Journal for Research in 
Mathematics Education contains a very interesting 
article by L. L. Hatfield and T. E. Kieren entitled 
‘“Computer-Assisted Problem Solving in School 
Mathematics.” The experimental study examined the 
following questions: 


1. Does the activity of writing, executing, and study- 
ing the output of computer programs related to 
problems in the regular mathematics curriculum 
affect mean student achievement? 


2. Is there a differential effect of computer use on 
students of varying levels of prior mathematics 
achievement? 


3. Are there curricular areas where the use of the 
computer particularly contributes to or detracts 
from mathematics achievement? 


The study was conducted with respect to students in 
the seventh and eleventh grades over a two year 
period. The authors conclude, ‘generally speaking, 
the results from these related studies lend support to 
computer programming as a facilitator in certain 
aspects of mathematics instruction.” 

Submitted by Dr. Sam Spero, Editor of 

Computer Mediamation; reprinted from 

April 1972 issue. 


11 





TV TEACHERS 


Children’s television programs, like The Electric Com- 
pany and Sesame Street, have brought unique educa- 
tional tools to the hands of parents and teachers for 
the past several years. We at EDU recognize the value 
of this programming effort and offer the following news 
items and statistics as evidence of technology’s mean- 
ingful role in education. | 


—The U.S. Office of Education granted more than $4 
million to the Educational Development Center, Inc. of 
Newton, Mass., to develop a TV-based mathematics 
program for minority children from ages 8 to 11. The 
program will be offered to schools on open broadcast 
for home viewing. Work will begin in January and 
continue for two years under the direction of Dr. 
Jerrold R. Zacharias, director of MIT’s Education 
Research Center. Sixty-five half-hour shows are 
planned. 


—Teenage tutoring programs were initiated last sum- 
mer in twenty cities across the country; youths were 
employed as tutors for pre-schoolers using Sesame 
Street as a major tool. 


—Last spring The Electric Company won its first and 
Sesame Street its sixth Emmy Award for ‘‘outstanding 
achievement in children’s programming.” 


—Results of an analysis of The Electric Company done 
by The Educational Testing Service showed that the 
“orogram had a Clear and significant impact on its 
primary target audience” (second grade students in 
lower half of class in standardized reading test scores). 
The program also impacted first, third and fourth grade 
students in varying degrees and similarly affected all 
groups who viewed the show in school. (Two volume 
report available from ERIC, Document Reproduction 
Service: TM 002433 and 34) 


The computer is rapidly taking the place of the ink 
blot. Both reveal more about the individual who reacts 


to them than they do about themselves. 
—John R. Coleman 








34 nce upon atime, long before they what | say. What is the difference between that and 
invented the ball point pen (even memorizing right now, without learning to write?” 
before they invented the pencil), 
teachers used to teach by lecturing 
to the students who memorized every 
word their teacher said. Memorizing “Reading ?”’ 
was the only way to learn. 


“Well, for one thing, the slow students will be able to 
keep up by reading the notes.”’ 





‘Another skill they have to acquire.” 
One day a bright young man came up to his teacher 


A a6 9 Mees 
and said: Notes ‘ 
“Sir, | have invented a pencil.” “That you will prepare.” 
‘What is a pencil?’ asked the Teacher. “You mean | have to do more work with your new 


method of learning? | like memorizing better. | still see 


“It is a device to assist you in teaching and assist 
no advantage.” 


us In learning,” replied the Student. 


\, 


“What do | do with it? If | eat it will it help me ‘But sir, the advantages will present themselves once 
memorize better? If my students eat it will it help the system is in operation, because there will be so 
them memorize better?” many things students and teachers will be able to do 


“No,” said the student. “If you use it and we use it that They GGUMEnet GO DETOre: 


we won't have to memorize at all.” “You have to prove it to me before | will make any 
“What kind of teaching would that be, without lecturing radical change like you suggest. Anyhow, haven't we 
and without memorizing? How will | know if my always Jeathed oy memorizing ¢ 


students are learning if they don’t memorize and 


recite for me?” MORAL: Newton’s 2nd Law that a body at rest stays 


: at rest unless acted upon by an outside 
“That's easy,” replied the student. “You will ask them force is not just a law of physics. 


to write what they have learned.” 
“Write?” queried the Teacher. 
‘Oh, that’s something they will have to learn to do 


before they can use the pencil.” This article is reprinted from the May, 1972, issue of Computer 
; ; Mediamation. /n the words of the newsletter’s editor, Dr. Sam 
“And how long does learning to write take?” Spero, “Computer Mediamation is an occasional publication of 
7 ns the Educational Media Center of Cuyahoga Community College, 
Perhaps ay Oar. Cleveland, Ohio. Its purpose is to motivate faculty to examine the 
“Vou mean to say that | will have to wait a whole year potential of computers in instruction. The newsletter explores all 
the ways that a computer can be used as a medium (“... means, 
before students can use your new method for agency or instrumentality ...’’) for implementing any or all facets 
learning? Then they will come to class and write down of the instruction process.” 


Computer Applications in Classics 


A session on Computer Applications in Classics is scheduled for 1:30 
P.M. on December 28, 1973, as part of the meetings of the American ~~ 
Philological Association from December 28-30, at: the Chase-Park Plaza Hotel 
in Saint Louis, Missouri. Information can be obtained from James J, Helm, 
Department of Classics, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio 44074, 


Reprinted from the ACM Sigcue Bulletin, V7, No. 4, October 1973. 


12 














To timeshare means, quite literally, to share the time of 
a device among two or more applications, one ata 
time. Stated another way, to devote the time of a 
computer system to the execution of. two or more 
programs on an interleaved basis. 


In a timesharing system, each program is assigned a 
fixed time slice or time quantum with operation being 
switched from one program to another in round robin 
fashion until each program is completed. In other 
words, if each user receives 1/60 of a second and 

12 users are ‘‘on” the system, each user will receive 
service every 1/5 of a second. Since the central pro- 
cessing unit is considerably faster than any user 
terminal or peripheral, the user is generally unaware 
of any sharing of time and has the impression that he 
is the only one using the computer system. 


The timesharing system performs what is sometimes 
called ‘“‘multi-programming’”’; that is, it allows several 
programs to reside in core simultaneously and to 
operate sequentially. The switching between programs 
is initiated by a clock which interrupts the central 
processor to signal that a certain time period has 
elapsed. 


RSTS/E, however, has a more sophisticated scheduling 
mechanism. It doesn’t use the round robin approach 

as described above; instead, priority of which job is to 
run mext is determined by: 


a) job size 

b) computing requirements 

c) input/output requirements 

d) time since job ran last 

e) the specified priority level of the job (set by 
System Manager) 


User programs can be located in secondary memory 
(usually magnetic disk) and moved into main memory 
(core) for execution. Programs entering main memory 





_— WHAT IS TIMESHARING? 





13 


exchange places with a program (or programs) that has 
just been serviced by the central processor. This 
operation is called swapping. 

In operation, main memory is divided into separate 
memory blocks. Secondary (disk) memory is con- 
nected to these blocks through a high speed input/ 
output processor—a hardware device that allows the 
disk to swap a program into any one of the main mem- 
ory blocks without any aid from the central processor 
(Direct Memory Access or DMA). This structure allows 
the central processor to be operating on a user pro- 
gram in one block of memory while programs are 
being swapped to and from another block. This inde- 
pendent overlapped operation greatly improves 
efficiency and processing power. 

Round robin scheduling, in which each program 
operates in sequence and receives a fixed amount of 
time, is effective only if all programs have similar 
requirements. Such is generally not the case, however. 
At any particular time, a timesharing system will be 
handling some programs which require extensive 
amounts of computing time (said to be compute 
bound), other programs that must stop frequently for 
input or output (said to be I/O bound), and still other 
programs that are idle (programmer is thinking about 
next line, for example). 

To serve programs at and between these extremes, 
the scheduling algorithm provides frequent service 

to |/O bound programs and gives compute bound jobs 
longer time quantums to prevent wasteful swapping. A 
dynamic scheme provides two queues—one for each 
type of job. When a user first logs on to the system, he 
is placed in an I/O bound queue (waiting line) where 
he receives frequent service and small time quantums. 
If the program isn’t completed or does not request 
input or output during the time allotted to him, the job 
needs more computing time and is placed in the com- 
pute bound queue. The point at which a job enters 
these queues is determined by the other scheduling 
priority elements. Thus, the scheduling algorithm 
optimizes system efficiency by automatically adjusting 
to program requirements. 

In addition to sharing the time of the central processing 
unit, using RSTS/E, users can also share the use of 

all of the peripherals on the system. This concept is 
known as “resource sharing.” The user may, from his 
terminal or program, assign a device for his use, and 
release the device upon completion of an operation. 
Certain devices are “‘public’’ such as the system disk, 
line printer and high-speed paper tape, and do not 
have to be assigned to a specific user. 

Thus, using resource sharing, data may be read in from 
a card reader and printed out on a high-speed printer. 
The on-line user can assign devices and even other 
terminals for input and output functions. Individual 
users get exclusive use of devices for as long as re- 
quired and then release them for others to use with the 
RSTS/E monitor coordinating the I/O requests. 

For further information, see RSTS/E Brochure; to ob- 
tain a copy write to Communication Services, PK1, 
DIGITAL. 











WHAT'S A NICE MINI LIKE 


YOU DOING IN A PLACE 


LIKE THIS’? 


They don't draw combat pay, 
but today’s minicomputers 
are battling some 

tough environments. 


If computers could speak—really speak, that is— 
chances are you would hear a few of them longing 

for a little excitement, for an opportunity to grab all 

the gusto they can, to live a little dangerously. Like 
people, they only go around once in life, so it isn’t 
strange to find computers performing unusual jobs in 
sometimes hazardous places. 

While the majority of Digital’s mini, medium-scale and 
large computers find homes in such stable environ- 
ments as medical laboratories, university computer 
centers and corporate offices, there are no guarantees 
that the next computer off the assembly line might not 
end up riding out a storm somewhere in the 

Atlantic Ocean. 

Take, for example, the 11 PDP-8 minicomputers 
belonging to the National Ocean Survey, an agency of 
the U.S. Department of Commerce’s National Oceanic 
and Atmospheric Administration. Little did they realize 
when they underwent vibration, temperature-extreme 
and drop tests back at Digital that their working 
quarters would consist of four large survey ships, six 
25-foot auxiliary launches and one 60-ft. high speed 
launch that collect water depth data for the production 
of nautical charts (the type sold through most marinas 
and shipyards). 

Nor did the NOS’s 11 mini’s realize the briny rigours 
they would have to endure while patrolling all U.S. 
coastal waters. Several times high waves have broken 
through a vessel’s windows to drench an unsuspecting 
minicomputer in saltwater. 

Once, when a launch was beset by heavy seas, 

water broke through the operator’s cabin, 

soaking the computer and putting the boat 


14 





out of commission. The undaunted mini, 

however, never stopped running as the launch was 
towed to port. 

Living a drier but grimier existence is a 

PDP-8/L that travels the auto racing circuit with the 
Ferrari factory racing team. Purchased to keep track 
of lap counts and timings for the team’s racing 
entrants, this computer calls its between-races home 
the trunk of a team member's private car, where it is 
hauled from track to track, state to state. Once the 
team arrives at a racing site, the 8/L is unloaded and 
set to rest in the pit area, where it often falls prey to 
dripping ice-cream cones, exhaust fumes and sudden 
rain showers. 

Despite its working environment, the Ferrari team’s 
mini mascot has performed so well that Armand Gazes, 
Technical Advisor to the Ferrari factory racing team, 
has lately been working to set up a PDP-11 based 
system for future use by other racing teams and, 
eventually, race tracks. 

The possible advent of computerized scorekeeping 

is really old stuff to a certain PDP-8/I in Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania, because this mini has been controlling 
the electronic hysterics of a 274 by 30-foot scoreboard 
at Three Rivers Stadium, home of the Pittsburgh 
Pirates, for more than two years. Enviably lodged in 
the stadium's press box area, the computer informs 
and entertains Buc fans by forming and manipulating 
electronic words, numbers, animated cartoons and the 
like. It can also instruct the scoreboard to flash spot 
announcements.or newscasts, run commercials, 
conduct sing-a-longs, and drum up cheers for 

the “ole home team.” —> 





— 








USERS IN 
CONFERENCE 


The Springfield (MA) meeting of the NCTM, held on 
November 8-10, 1973, featured a wide selection of 
lectures oriented toward instructional computer use. 
Many of the workshop leaders and speakers are 


currently using DIGITAL EduSystems. Here is a capsule 


summary of the exciting ideas that were shared there! 


OPENING SESSION 


COMPUTER MODELS: John G. Kemeny, Dartmouth 
College, Hanover, N.H. 
Mathematicians have traditionally thought of mathe- 
matical models as a set of formulas. The computer 
provides a new and powerful! way of building | 
mathematical models. “Computer models” explores 
the potential of such models as well as their 
advantages and disadvantages. 


ELEMENTARY/MIDDLE SCHOOL/JUNIOR 
HIGH SCHOOL 


CARRYING-ON WITH COMPUTERS: Peg Pulliam, 
Lexington Public Schools, Lexington, Mass. 
(EduSystem 50) 

A series of games and other activities that provide an 

introduction to computers, while improving problem- 

solving techniques. Classroom application of the 
ideas discussed is not entirely dependent ona 
computer terminal. 


FLOWCHARTS, SIMULATION AND EXPLORATION: 
Ann Waterhouse, South Portland High School, 
South Portland, Maine (EduSystem 50) 

Examination of the ways a computer can enrich the 

junior high curriculum and lay a foundation for 

successful mathematical experiences in the future. 


—> (Continued from p. 14) 


Halfway round the world from Pittsburgh, where 
backhands are mightier than home runs, a PDP-8/S 
minicomputer rides Australia’s rugged eastern coast- 
line as part of a trailerized data acquisition project for 
the Sugar Research Institute in Queensland. 
Because the computerized laboratory must gather 
information from the Institute’s 26-member sugar 
mills, and because the sugar mills are located along 
a 960-mile coastal path in Queensland, the mini 
takes its places in an enclosed trailer where, with 
each visit to a sugar mill, it processes up to 1,400 
readings per hour from special instruments that 
measure the operations of a sugar milling train. Less 
spirited work than at Three Rivers Stadium, perhaps, 
but an absolute heaven for a mini with a sweet 
toggle switch. 





15 


GAMES LITTLE PEOPLE PLAY: Pamela Ellsworth, 
Project LOCAL, Westwood, Mass. (EduSystem 20) 
A survey of computerized games and simulations for 
elementary students; the exploration of several highly 
motivational techniques for promoting discovery of 
mathematical concepts and for practicing skills. 


SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL 


SO YOU WANT A COMPUTER?: Clyde Payne, East 
Islip High School, Islip Terrace, New York 
(EduSystem 50) 

The topic centers on the planning that is necessary 

to obtain a computer for a school system. 


INNOVATIVE USE OF THE COMPUTER IN THE 
MATHEMATICS CLASSROOM: Stephen Rogowski, 
Waterford-Halfmoon High School, Waterford, N.Y. 

Topics from statistics, analytic geometry, number 

theory, geometry, trigonometry, and other secondary 

programs were presented. A brief slide presentation 
of components and hardware was made and valuable 
literature was also mentioned. 


WHAT YOU ALWAYS WANTED TO KNOW ABOUT 
COMPUTERS BUT WERE AFRAID TO ASK: 
Ann Duffy, South Windsor High School, South 
Windsor, Conn. (EduSystem 10) 
A simple explanation and demonstration of how the 
computer does its thinking. No familiarity with pro- 
gramming or computers is presumed. All illustrative 
programs are suitable for use in grades 7 and up. 


HOW TO JUSTIFY COMPUTER EQUIPMENT FOR 
INSTRUCTIONAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE USE: 
Robert Haven, Project LOCAL, Westwood, Mass. 
EduSystem 20) 

A workshop designed for teachers and administrators 

interested in learning how to assemble and present an 

effective proposal for acquisition of computer 
equipment to support educational activities. 


Beyond their highly individualized lifestyles, the 
National Ocean Survey, Ferrari, Three Rivers Stadium 
and Sugar Research Institute minicomputers are 
representative of many other Digital computers 
enlisted in offbeat, often hazardous activities. And yet, 
they share another important factor in common: they 
function as pioneers in fields where larger, less hardy 
computers have never been. They are important to 
the computer industry because they are opening new 
markets for computer uses, and they are important to 
growing numbers of new users because, despite 
less-than-ideal working conditions, they are doing 
jobs more efficiently, accurately and completely than 
have ever been done before. 


Reprinted from the DIGITAL ON-LINE NEWSLETTER. 





Children Learn Computer Skills 


by Kurt Schork, MITRE Corporation 


Elementary school children at the Brown 
School and Phillips School in Wellesley, Massa- 
chusetts have proved themselves willing and 
capable students in an experimental program to 
teach computer skills to youngsters of elemen- 
tary school age. 


For two years, groups of children from 
age 7 to 12 have been programming under the 
tutelage of William Amory and Marilyn Anderson, 
computer applications specialists in MITRE’s 
Intelligence and Information Systems Department. 
Bill and Marilyn are interested in the computer’s 
value as an educational aid to teach children 
basic problem-solving techniques. Although the 
mechanics of programming are being taught so 
_that the kids can operate the terminal, the real 
objective of the project is to equip the students 
with a set of conceptual approaches to problem 
solving which may be applicable outside of the 
computer environment. 


AN INFORMAL BEGINNING 


The Brown School Computer Skills Project 
began in the spring of 1970 after a series of 
informal discussions between Bill Amory, a 
parent of four Brown School students, and a 
teacher from the school; this led to an explora- 
tory session between Bill and Brown principal, 
Mr. Ralph Doran. In June of that year Mr. Doran 
acquired a computer terminal for his school and 
invited Bill and Marilyn, a former teacher, to 
explain as much as they could about computers 
to the children before the school year ended. 
Their observations of that June convinced them 
that programming could be a stimulating learning 
experience for children. At this stage they were 
acting independently of MITRE. Motivated only 
by their interest in children, education, and 
computers, they mounted a volunteer project 
which was to bring them to Brown on a. weekly 
basis for the next two years. 

Over the summer Bill and Marilyn developed 
objectives to guide their efforts when the new 
school year began. Their thesis was that in 
learning to program successfully, children would 
be forced to analyze problems, break them down 
into their basic elements, and attack them 
logically and sequentially. Ideally, with enough 
reinforcement, these problem-solving techniques 
would be absorbed by the children and in turn 
applied to their regular school assignments as 
well. 


16 


A COOPERATIVE VENTURE 


The Wellesley Junior High PDP/8-I computer, 
a Project LOCAL system, is connected to the 
Brown School by a dedicated telephone line with 
a standard teletype terminal, and was used in 





conjunction with the FOCAL programming lan- 
guage. (Project LOCAL is a nonprofit organiza- 
tion which works with local school authorities 
to plan, acquire, and apply computer systems.) 
As it developed, the project became a cooper- 
ative venture involving MITRE, the Brown 
School, and the Wellesley School System. 
Teachers, educational administrators, and com- 
puter specialists came together to develop an 
innovative program in elementary education 


‘*CLASSY”’ 


The first task was to determine whether or 
not, and down to what age, children are able to 
learn basic programming techniques. Since most 
of the available programming materials were too 
advanced, this meant developing instructional 
techniques specifically geared to the vocabulary 
and reasoning abilities of elementary school 
children. 


Role-playing: games which illustrated certain 
programming principles were useful at this stage 
and very popular with the children. ‘‘CLASSY”’ 
was one of such game. In playing, a member of 





mom 


} 





the class is chosen to act out the role of a 
robot-like computer called CLASSY. He or she 
is given a limited number of precisely-worded 
command statements which are the only orders 
to which CLASSY can respond. (CLASSY’s only 
reaction to illegal commands is a _ buzzing 
sound.) The other members of the class then 
take turns delivering commands in the proper 
form and sequence to instruct the robot to perform 
certain tasks. Not only is this an enjoyable 
game, but it underscores the importance of 
precision and order in command statements as 
well as stressing the dependence of the computer 
upon its programmer. 


As the children progressed in programming 
they were led to concentrate on the nature of 
problem solving in its various contexts. For 
instance, in teaching the importance of breaking 
up difficult problems into manageable pieces or 
of using past experience as the basis for new 
solutions, Bill and Marilyn would help the 
children write simple programs where those 
techniques were important for success. At the 
same time, it was hoped that reinforcement 
through regular classroom assignments empha- 
sizing those same techniques would cause the 
problem-solving abilities developed in program- 
ming to flow naturally into noncomputer areas 
such as math, science, and social studies. 


For the next two years classes were held on 
a weekly basis (mostly involving fourth and fifth 
graders, but some third and sixth graders also 
attended). In addition to actual programming time 
spent at the terminal, there were games and 


discussions about the world of computers in 
general. A Computer Club was formed, and its 
members met over lunch hour for more discussion 
and instruction. Occasional films and field trips 
were scheduled to round out the project by pro- 
viding the children with different perspectives 
about what they were doing at the terminal. 


AN UNEXPECTED DIVIDEND 


Largely as a result of these activities it 
seemed apparent that an unexpected dividend of 
the project might be healthy, educated attitudes 
towards computers on the part of students and 
parents alike. Bill and Marilyn had anticipated 
some initial teacher resistance to their project 
as an untried, potentially irrelevant expenditure 
of time and energy. But they were confident that 
after the educational goals of the project had 
been fully explained, these fears would be 
quieted. An emotional bias against the computer 
side of the project would not have been sur- 
prising, since many adults harbor similar atti- 
tudes towards complex machines which they fear 
they cannot understand. 


A former teacher herself, Marilyn felt strongly 
about the need for an enlightened view of com- 
puters among educators: ‘“‘I feel that ultimately 





lt 


all teachers should be required to take courses 
in computer education as a part of their training. 
They simply cannot afford to turn their backs 
upon something which, whether they realize it or 
not, already has a pervasive effect on their 
lives. Children are excited by computers and 
they deserve to learn about them from interested, 
competent instructors.”’ 


Happily, the children never showed the 
slightest sign of being intimidated by the com- 
puter. Rather, they reacted with natural enthusi- 
asm to the concept of programming, and were 
particularly excited by working at the terminal. 
One of the year’s great successes came about 
when a child who had been refusing to attend 
school (called ‘‘school-phobic’’) heard about 
the project, began coming to school, and eventu- 
ally became an active member of the class. 


PROJECT EVALUATION 


After the first year an interim report was 
presented to the Wellesley elementary school 
principals. It cited the fact that although the 
children had been interested and attentive for 
the most part, weekly sessions of one hour had 
not been enough to present new material and 
review the old. Coupled with difficulties with 
the terminal, it meant that progress had not been 
as great as it might have been. In spite of these 
acknowledged difficulties, both the principals 
and the MITRE contingent were encouraged, and 
plans were made to continue the project through 
the 1971-1972 school year. 


Subjective evaluations of the project after the 
second year merely confirmed the tentative con- 
clusions which had been drawn after the first. 
The third and sixth graders had demonstrated 
conclusively that they could work successfully 
with simple interactive computer systems and 
that they could learn to write basic programs in 
the FOCAL language. Multiple choice question- 
naires and picture-drawing programs to print 
ownership labels for pencils and notebooks were 
among the student originated programs in which 
they showed their skill. Although some lost 
interest in the project—for a variety of reasons, 
including frustration over the mechanics of deal- 
ing with terminal malfunctions—most continued 
to be fascinated, especially with the terminal. 
Enthusiasm for the project even gave some evi- 
dence of having flowed into other areas of school 
life, as with the school-phobic child mentioned 
earlier. 


It was much more difficult to determine 
whether the problem-solving capabilities of the 
children had been improved. One reason for this 
was the unavailability of tests which measure 
problem-solving ability in children of grammar 
school age. Still, it was clear that most of the 
children had learned to recognize certain program- 
ming concepts with carryover value in other 





areas. These included recognizing the differ- 
ence between the name of a thing and its value, 
the importance of generalizing solutions to prob- 
lems, the importance of fitting together simple 
elements to form complicated solutions, the 
importance of breaking up unmanageable problems 
until a manageable level is reached, the impor- 
tance of using past experiences as the basis for 
new solutions, and the fact that there can be 
several different yet valid solutions to the same 
problem. 


LEARNING BY TEACHING 


There is an old educational axiom that says 
the best way to learn something is to try to 
teach it, and for nearly two years the children 
at Brown had been doing just that by construct- 
ing programs which, in their minds, were ‘‘teach- 
ing’’ the computer how to solve problems. In the 
final months of 1972 school year, Bill and 
Marilyn extended that concept by encouraging 
certain children to teach computer skills to 
classmates who were having difficulty learning 
them. Using children to teach children was by 
no means a new idea in Wellesley, and it worked 
particularly well in this case where the shortage 
of instructors had been a problem from the outset. 


By the end of the 1972 school year, the 
project had come a long way. From its status 
as an informal attempt to introduce computers 
into the world of elementary education it had 
grown in promise to the point where its possi- 
bilities began to outstrip the resources available 
to the MITRE team. They began to think in 
terms of a project which would be staffed and 
funded to investigate the several avenues for 
development which they had unearthed. Although 
their original interest in the Brown School had 
been strictly informal, they now found themselves 
wondering what they as MITRE personnel might 
be able to do. Since then they have spent a 
great deal of energy drafting a proposal to solicit 
funds for a major project along those lines. 


Although the Brown project has run its 
course, every effort is being made to ease its 
transition from an extermally-supervised project 
to that of an ‘‘in-house’’ activity conducted 
entirely by the students and teachers. 


THE PHILLIPS SCHOOL 


But even when the Brown School does set out 
on its own, the MITRE team, expanded to include 
Sally Goheen and Peter Tasker of the Manage- 
ment and Computer Systems Department, will not 
have withdrawn from the day-to-day world of 
elementary education altogether. Even while 
working on their new proposal, they have intro- 
duced computer skills programs in another 
school. 


Two classes of sixth graders at the Phillips 


18 


School in Wellesley are now participating in a 
program similar to the Brown School Project. 
Phillips is also the scene of an investigation 
into the potential use of computers in conjunction 
with the special education of children with 
learning disabilities. 


The Phillips School provides an environment 
for new approaches to learning, and this is most 
evident in the two sixth grade classes of Mrs. 
Ann Powers and Mrs. Lucy Baker, both enthusi- 
astic proponents of the computer skills program. 
Since October, their students learned the basics 
of programming through their own industry and 
the enthusiasm of their teachers so that now 
they are ready to proceed on their own. 





LEARNING DISABILITIES CHILDREN 


But the real excitement at Phillips has been 
generated by the work done with learning disa- 
bilities children. Learning disabilities problems 
are fairly common among children in the lower 
grades and their treatment is made more difficult 
by the cycle of under-achievement which poor 
performance in elementary school often sets off. 
Although educators and psychologists are some- 
times at odds over the correct treatment of 
learning disabilities, they do tend to agree that 
the one thread common to most cases is their 
lack of self confidence stemming from repeated 
frustration in learning situations. While this is 
certainly a symptom rather than a cause, any- 
thing which restores some measure of lost 
confidence to the child is an obvious asset in 
his struggle against a leaming disability. 


It seemed logical to the experimenters that 
the computer might be used to improve the self- 
image of learning disabilities children. They 
based this premise on the observation that many 
Brown School children had reacted to learning at 






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the computer terminal with far more enthusiasm 
and determination than they might have been 
expected to bring to an ordinary classroom 


assignment. The children were impressed by 
the computer as it seemed to be giving them its 
undivided attention, something a teacher cannot 
always afford to do. Then, too, the sense of 
satisfaction the children derived from manipu- 
lating a piece of equipment which would intimi- 
date most adults was also important. Having 
noticed these attitudes at Brown, it was sug- 
gested that there might be some place for com- 
puters in the learning disabilities area. But it 
was also clear that any such innovative effort 
would have to be carefully constructed to ensure 
the success of those children who participated. 
Nothing would be more disastrous than to create 
yet another negative learning situation for an 
already frustrated child. 


The Phillips School has an active learning 
disabilities program in operation under the 
guidance of Miss Sherri Katz and Mrs. Gail 
Miller. They reacted favorably to the initial 
suggestion and agreed to a cautious preliminary 
study to see if the project was at all feasible. 
Several learning disabilities children were 
chosen to learn how to work at the terminal. 


The first several sessions have been so 
successful in terms of student response that 
Dr. Newton Von Sander, coordinator of special 
education for the Wellesley School System, has 
become interested and is now meeting with the 
group on a regular basis. 





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BROWN, PHILLIPS, AND THE FUTURE 


No one assumes that a full scale learning 
disabilities project can be mounted without re- 
searching the problem thoroughly. The MITRE 
team recognized that the explosion in education 
technology has flooded the market with hardware, 
but that the quality of education has not yet 
improved commensurate with the promises that 
heralded that explosion. As a _ not-for-profit 
corporation, MITRE is in an excellent position 
to develop clearly thought out, carefully 
researched plans for the implementation of com- 
puter technology in education. 


Extending the knowledge gained from the 
Brown School and Phillips School, MITRE is 
planning another project for the Berea School in 
Jamaica Plan, Massachusetts. 


There is no doubt that the technical expertise 
exists to tailor computer technology to the needs 
of education. Open dialogue among educators, 
computer specialists, and students is the key to 
the future in this expanding area, for only through 
such dialogue can the needs and capabilities of 
the various groups be identified and united in a 
common effort to improve the quality of education. 
The Brown School Computer Project was a 
modest start, but from such modest starts we can 
locate the direction for the future. g 


Reprinted from MITRE Matrix, Volume ‘6, 
Number 1, 1973, a publication of the MITRE 
Corporation, Bedford, Massachusetts. 








MEETINGS OF INTEREST 


REGIONAL: 


Nov. 29 — 
Dec. 1 


Feb. 14-16 


Feb. 21-23 


Mar. 7-9 


Mar. 28-30 


NATIONAL: 


Nov. 30 — 


Dec. 5 


Feb. 22-26 


Feb. 25-27 


Mar. 1-6 


Mar. 15-19 


Mar. 27-29 


Apr. 16-18 


Apr. 17-20 


May 7-10 


June 24-26 


NSTA, National Science Teachers 
Association, Northeast Area 
Convention and Exposition, 
Boston, Massachusetts. 


NCTM, National Council of Teachers 
of Mathematics, Alouquerque Meeting, 
Albuquerque, New Mexico. 


NCTM, National Council of Teachers 
of Mathematics, Portland Meeting, 
Portland, Oregon. 


NCTM, National Council of Teachers 
of Mathematics, New Orleans Meeting, 
New Orleans, Louisiana. 


NCTM, National Council of Teachers 
of Mathematics, Des Moines Meeting, 
Des Moines, lowa. 


AVA, American Vocational Associa- 
tion, 67th Annual Convention, 
Atlanta, Georgia. 


AASA, American Association of School 
Administrators, National Meeting, 
Atlantic City, N.J. 


AACJC, American Association of 
Community and Junior Colleges, 
Annual Exposition, Washington, D.C. 


NASSP, National Association of 
Secondary School Principals, Annual 
Meeting, Atlantic City, N.J. 


NSTA, National Science Teachers 
Association, Annual Convention, 
Chicago, Illinois. 


ATEA, American Technical Education 
Association, National Clinic, 
Columbia, S.C. 


AERA, American Educational Re- 
search Association, Annual Meeting, 
Chicago, Illinois. 


NCTM, National Council of Teachers 
of Mathematics, Annual Conference, 
Atlantic City, N.J. 


AEDS, Association of Educational 
Data Systems, Annual Conference, 
New York City. 


CCUC/5, The Fifth Annual Conference 
on Computers in the Undergraduate 
Curriculum, Washington State U., 
Pullman, Washington. 





$23,000 TRICYCLE ACCIDENT STUDY 
Or 
NO WONDER WE DON’T UNDERSTAND 
WHAT THEY’RE SAYING IN WASHINGTON 


WASHINGTON (AP)—The Department of Health, 
Education and Welfare has proposed a $23,000 study 
to find out why children fall off tricycles, Rep. William 
J. Scherle, R-lowa, said Thursday. 


The title of the proposed study, Scherle said, is “The 
Evaluation and Parameterization of Stability and 
Safety Performance Characteristics of Two- and 
Three-Wheeled Vehicular Toys for Riding.” 


Reprinted from The Oakland Tribune, 
Friday, March 17, 1972 E 3. 





20 


WHAT WAS THAT? 


» Jack McCarthy 


There is sometimes security 
In well contrived obscurity. 
If words are large 

And most abstract 

And preferably 

Quite densely packed 

Then you can claim 

That they are dense 
Because they do 

Not see the sense. 





af 





APPLICATION STORIES 


Learning with the use of a mini-computer was devel- 
oped as a joint experiment in computer-aided educa- 
tion in the primary grades by Miss Wheatley, Dr. Wilbur 
H. Highleyman of Minidata Services, Parsippany, New 
aa Jersey and Digital Equipment Corporation. Dr. Highley- 
We js man, a pioneer in developing computer recognition of 
Serena hae fi af V pe hand-written characters, has written a successful 

AIL SSN business language for the mini-computer. Under the 
teacher’s control, the computer will work with a child 
in all primary levels of mathematics and language arts. 
Typical instructional sequences start with simple 
addition of two numerals and continue with other 
exercises up to full addition of four four-digit numerals, 
subtraction with or without borrowing, factoring, mis- 
sing addends, spelling alphabetization, punctuation and 
sentence structure. 


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The computer has proven to be an invaluable 
teaching aid for both slow and advanced students. One 
little girl was reduced to tears as the computer con- 
tinually told her she was wrong. But with a little 
encouragement, and faced with the knowledge that no 
one was going to do the problems for her, she soon 
gained an entirely new attitude toward problem solving. 
: rs A She now works at the typewriter with an intensity 
eisee Pee vicalG ugh See i High reserved heretofore only for television. 


« @aw ame 
5 ea2aneaess 


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bees 


eS Asked about the effectiveness of the experimental 
program which was begun in April 1971, Miss Wheatley 
relates the following example: ‘‘Under normal circum- 


COM PUTE RS stances, there would be one or two children in my 


class of 28 that would advance to borrowing and 


ARE FOR KI DS! carrying by the end of the school year. | now have 18 
a children facile in these processes.” 


What would you think of a teacher who could motivate The system is completely confidential, in that only the 
qa six-year-old child with an average attention span to teacher and the individual student know the actual 
sit for an hour and solve over 200 arithmetic problems? level at which the student is working. 
Or one who could get a bright first grader to plead Dr. Highleyman, the mini-computer expert responsible 
to stay after school to learn the fundamentals of for implementing the computer programs specified by 
carrying and borrowing so that he could advance Miss Wheatley, has expressed these comments: “The 
faster? A teacher with patience, total attentiveness to rapidly falling costs of the mini-computer will, in the 
each student, bringing each student along at his own foreseeable future, place techniques such as these 
speed? A teacher that brings tears when it’s time to eat within the budgets of many school systems. A single 
lunch or go home at the end of the day? A heart of mini-computer such as we have installed here could 
gold, you say? How about a heart of wires and handle up to 30 students, each working at his own 
transistors and switches? level on a virtually quiet television-like ‘typewriter’. 
The first grade students of Miss Carol Wheatley in Monitor screens can be used by the teacher to ‘tune 
Amos W. Harrison Elementary School, Livingston, New in’ on each student to see how he is doing, and to 
Jersey, have just such a teacher. In her classroom make on-the-spot adjustments in his instructional 
is a PDP-8/L which “talks” to each child by name, level.” 
gives him math and language arts problems tailored to CPU - PDP 8/L 
his particular level, instructs him when he’s wrong, Core Memory - 4K 
encourages him when he’s right, and “‘marks my paper Peripherals - 32K disc, card reader 

__ faster than Miss Wheatley does’, in the words of one No. and type of terminals - 1 local teletype 
young admirer. Language Used - Saibol 


21 





COMPUTER ON THE GO 


by Eddie James 


During the 1972-73 school year, the Intermediate 
School District No. 110 introduced computing to 1800 
students, ranging from elementary to high school 
level. Mr. Eddie James, Data Systems Coordinator for 
this Seattle (Washington) district, was instrumental 

in this project’s implementation; his ‘‘computer on the 
go” was delivered to respective schools in the trunk 
of his Opel! EDU thanks Mr. James for submitting 

this story for publication. 


In the spring of 1972, Intermediate School District No. 
110, Seattle, Washington, acquired a DIGITAL PDP-8/L 
minicomputer. The decision to use the computer for 
students in classrooms was an easy one. However, 
one minicomputer obviously could not meet the 
demands of 22 school districts. Therefore, it was 
decided that seven school districts of a basically 
rural character, each with one high school, would 
have the computer for approximately 20 school days. 
This schedule left time open for special presentations 
and for shorter visits to elementary schools. 


Prior to embarking on this seven-district tour, a set of 
realistic goals was established for making the best 

of our limited resources. They were: (1) to expose as 
many students as possible to basic computer concepts, 
capabilities, and shortcomings; (2) to give students the 
opportunity to use a computer for classroom problem 
solving, simulating situations they may meet in college 
and future professions; and (3) to help teachers and 
administrators understand how computers can be used 
in the classroom and to aid in determining whether a 
computer would be desirable on a long term basis. 


Most Classes Can Compute. It is usually the math 
department which provides impetus for the acquisition 
of an instructional computer. Not that the math 
department has the only application for one... far 
from it. A minicomputer can be of equal service to 
business education courses, social studies, biology, 
earth sciences, electronics and chemistry courses, not 
to mention data processing classes. The social 
implications of computers are such that for only math 
classes to be exposed to computers is, for some, 
evidence enough of improper planning and use. In 

fact when the computer is used only for math students, 
it nurtures the myth that only those so gifted are 
capable of using a computer or ever likely to come 

in contact with one. 


Unfortunately, the ISD No. 110 minicomputer program 
has reached only the math classes due to the short 
time each school district had the computer. Not only 
do the math teachers have the most interest in using 
a computer for classroom problem solving, but it is 
also true that math applications require the least 
language barriers and programming time for quick 
results. 


22 








Computers Are For All Ages. During the 1972-73 school 
year over 1800 students were introduced to the 
computer in ISD No. 110. These students were 
distributed among eight high schools, one junior high, 
and three elementary schools. By being ‘introduced to 
the computer,” | do not intend to imply that all 
students actually used it. When the computer arrived 
at a school the usual pattern was to use one class 
period for general discussion on computers. This 
discussion included lecture on what computers are 
(with heavy emphasis on what they are not), examples 
of how computers are used, a rundown of computer- 
associated professions, and a verbal comparison of 
data processing computers and the PDP-8 mini- 
computer. The last fifteen minutes of class were 
reserved for demonstrations. On the following day, the 
entire period was devoted to learning BASIC. 


In the high schools, between five and twelve classes 
received this introduction; approximately four classes 
actually used the computer. The heaviest usage was 
experienced in grades 10 and 11. 


The lowest grade level reached was a third grade 
class. Although they wrote no programs and received 
no instruction on the computer language, they did 
provide an interesting observation. From third grade 
students through the teaching ranks, the same 
questions were asked in every class and in every 
school. To the uninitiated, the computer is subject to 
the same myths, misunderstandings and mysteries 
regardless of age level. The main difference is that 
below grade eight, the questions are asked, whereas 
above that level, they must be actively solicited. (Ask 
a fifth grade class if there are any questions, and a 
forest of arms suddenly appears!) 


Not only are the questions the same regardless of 
age level, but there is very little difference in the 
ability of students to absorb the rudiments of the 
BASIC language. Naturally, the programs written by 
elementary students (grades 4-6) lacked the sophisti- 
cation of those written by secondary students, but this 
is a matter of background rather than ability to grasp 
computer concepts. 





And Then We Wrote .. . Despite the short time available 
in each school, students were able to develop several 
exemplary programs, some showing great originality. 
For example, a junior physics student, after only two 
periods of introduction, applied a formula to compute 
the speed of sound at ground level for any given 
Fahrenheit temperature. Other program examples 
included one to determine the percentage of property 
tax dollars going to the school district and percentage 
of change over previous years; interest rate programs; 
a program to graph a parabola, spin it on any axis and 
regraph it; a program to determine the variables of 

a quadratic; and one to determine the biological family 
of plants and animals on the basis of responses to 
computer-asked questions. 


Games were popular, too. We had blackjack and a 
simulated slot machine program. A highly sophisticated 
stock market game gave the player a sum of money 
and a list of stocks and their purchase prices. The 
player bought and sold stocks, the prices fluctuated 
and a tally of the player’s profits and losses was 
maintained. A game of “‘Tic-Tac-Toe”’ was a real work 
of art. (If one suspects writing programs to play games 
belongs in the extracurricular category, consider the 
logic involved in “‘Tic-Tac-Toe’’!) 

Even though having the computer in a school for four 
weeks was consistent with our goals of reaching as 
many students and teachers as possible, it was 
obviously a handicap for the students. As a general 
pattern, the first week was used for introduction, 
overcoming apprehension, and experimenting with the 
language. The second week saw the students gaining 
momentum and the teachers developing enthusiasm 
and insight. The third week was novelty week. By the 
fourth week some excellent programs were being 
developed, and ideas for programs were growing 
exponentially. Then the computer was gone. 





Student And Teacher Reactions. The reaction of 
students and teachers to using a computer in the 
classroom was predictable; many words have been 
written and spoken on this subject, and the schools in 


23 





our area were no different than any others. From the 
student-use standpoint, the computer, with only one 
point of entry, was inadequate. One teacher reported 
students using the machine until ten o’clock at 

night. As with any type of mechanical device, the 
interest of the students ranged from none to feverish. 
The computer was not in any one school long enough 
to determine interest shifts, but it seemed to be 
generally upward as confidence increased. 

For the most part this was the students’ first computer 
contact. The very term “‘computer” induced a mental 
image of a monstrous machine with thousands of 
winking lights in which all man’s knowledge was 
stored, workable only by the highly trained technician 
with an extensive math background. Somewhat in 
conflict with this image was the popular opinion that 
anyone who could type could pose a question on any 
subject to the computer and have that question 
answered. Some doubted the little box before them, 


smaller than most television sets, was a computer at 


all. Before you laugh at the students’ naiveté, 
remember that for the uninitiated, questions varied 
little from third grade to adult. 

In each school the students developed a rapport with 
the computer. They assigned to it a character and 
personality (and usually a name) which most had 
heretofore reserved for pets. Typewriters and adding 
machines should demand equal rights! 

Many teachers were at first dubious about having a 
computer in class. Some shared the students’ awe of 
computers, and some worried about how to make use 
of something they knew little of. They recovered 
quickly however, and indeed, the best student triumphs 
were traceable to teacher encouragement. Few 
teachers will ever keep pace with their students where 
imaginative computer use is concerned, but they don't 
have to. We suspect some teachers looked upon the 
computer as an intrusion, upsetting well-laid class 
plans. And for a twenty day visit, they have a point. 
The computer is a powerful motivator. Proving 
abstract theorems became fun rather than drudgery. 
Even at the elementary level, a student remarked, 
“Arithmetic wasn’t any fun until we got the computer!” 
One high school teacher noted that using the computer 
forced his pupils to use a systematic, detailed 
approach to solving problems, a trait he had never 
been able to instill. Another teacher stated that some 
of his students who could apply formulae by rote 
became acquainted with algorithms due to the com- 
puter’s inability to accept generalized statements. 
Unlike other acquired skills, students were more 
willing to impart their new-found knowledge to their 
less able academic brethren, although tutorial 
enthusiasm seemed to wane as the day for the 
computer to be picked up drew closer. 

Even those students who got little out of the computer 
beyond the introduction, at least have a better 
perspective of what a computer is, what it is not, what 
it does well, and what it does not do so well. During 
the introduction, a standard question asked of the 
students in each class was ‘‘How many of you think 
you are smarter than this computer?” Very few hands 
were raised. Ask them now! 





THE COMPUTER CENTER 

Since its opening in October, 1971, the Boston 
Children’s Museum Computer Center has developed 
into a place where people of all ages can come to 
learn about computers—how to use them, what they're 
like, what they can do—in an open and friendly 
atmosphere. 


The physical setting is modest—about 600 square feet 
in the upper reaches of the Visitor Center, surrounded 
by wooden railings and stairways to other parts of the 
open, multi-leveled exhibit structure. A PDP-8/| 
computer (donated by Digital Equipment Corporation), 
an acoustically-coupled ASR33 Teletype, and four 
electronic calculators are the backbone of the exhibit. 
The newest development is the Museum’s own edition 
of the LOGO “turtle” developed at MIT. 


The “turtle” (though at this point it looks more like a 
crab) is connected to the PDP-8/I. The “‘turtle” was 
built from the parts of a Meccano set, the British 
counterpart of an Erector set. This construction 
technique permits relatively simple dismantling of the 
“turtle” and construction of a totally new and 
different gadget. 


Programming the ‘“‘turtle” is straightforward, thanks to 
a stand-alone software package which immediately 
executes user commands entered from the Teletype. 
The software understands commands like: 

FORWARD 10 (abbreviated FO 10) 


or HEADLIGHT ON (HE ON) 


and so forth. The distance the turtle moves is 
determined by a timing loop, which turns on the 
turtle’s motors for approximately 1/5 second for each 
step the turtle is asked to move; in the example above, 
the turtle goes forward for 2 seconds. 


The ‘‘turtle” interface unit was built from surplus DEC 
logic modules donated to the Museum over a year ago 
when the idea of the interface was first conceived. 
Current catalog prices fix the cost of the parts 
involved at about $400; an additional $150 for the 
Meccano set and miscellaneous electronics brings the 
total hardware cost of the turtle and its controller to 
$550.00. With the design work completed, a person 
with a little electronics experience could build the two 
units in no more than two weeks of steady work. 


24 


THE 
CHILDREN'S 
MUSEUM 


Reception of the “turtle’’ by people at the Museum 
has been generally enthusiastic. It is coming to be 
seen as the forerunner of a whole series of exciting, 
low-cost interactive toys and machines that can 
perform functions that are useful either in themselves 
or in the insight they offer into the operation of the 
computer. This is, after all, the basic goal of the 
Children’s Museum Computer Center: to help make 
computers far more accessible and understandable to 
residents of the greater Boston area. 


Though it sounds like a lot of fun and games, the 
Children’s Museum Computer Center attempts to solve 
some real-world problems. These problems stem from 
the fact that 1) most people have very inaccurate 
conceptions of what computers are and what they can 
do; 2) many people feel an increasing level of 
dehumanization and fear due to the expanded and 
often insensitive use of computers by government, 
business, industry and education; and 3) most of these 
feelings and conceptions are a direct result of the 
inaccessibility of computers for ‘‘average”’ people. 


To date, over two hundred and fifty thousand people 
have visited the Museum’s computer place. About 60°/o 
of them are children under the age of 15; the remainder 
are adults who often seem to hitch a ride when their 
children visit the Museum and who can, therefore, use 
the Museum as a comfortable, non-threatening source 
of information for their own needs. 





All a part of the expanding horizons offered to museum visitors, 
children get first-hand experience with the newest “animal’’—a 
turtle! 


The Children’s Museum’s Visitor Center is well-known 
in education circles for its development of exciting, 
self-directed “beginnings’—experiences designed to 
turn people on rather than formally teach them. Its 
Computer Center is designed for this same sort of 
activity. Major effort is now being directed to the 
raising of funds and contributions to vastly extend the 
center’s capabilities by replacing the PDP-8/I with a 
PDP-11/40 timesharing system. The Computer Center 
staff is responsible for day-to-day operation and for 
observing the reactions and events that take place. 
They generate new ideas and make those new ideas 
happen. The staff consists of college students from 
across the country (usually with no background in 
computer technology) who come to Boston for 
three-month work-study terms at the Museum. 


ES 





Thousands of young children take part yearly in the Children’s 
Museum Computer Center “experience.” Eager to touch, try and 
learn, these children are using the Museum’s DIGITAL 
EduSystem 20. 


The Museum Computer Center is open to the public 

on Tuesday through Friday from 2 to 5 p.m., Saturday, 
Sunday, and holidays from 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. Admission 
- is $1.50 (adults) and 75¢ (children); but admission is 
FREE on Friday from 6-9 P.M. The Museum is available 
each weekday morning for school group visitation 

and introductory programs. 


The Computer Center Staff is anxious to aid other 
interested groups in starting similar learning centers 
and museum volunteers are always welcome! 


Submitted by: Bill Mayhew 
Computer Center Development 
Coordinator 
The Children’s Museum 
The Jamaicaway 
Boston, Mass. 02130 


THE RESOURCE CENTER 


This.article contains excerpts from a story entitled 
“Children’s Museum Resource Center” by Enid 
Holzrichter, which appeared in the Summer 1973 
issue of Education, the Commonwealth of 
Massachusetts. 


The Children’s Museum in Jamaica Plain is a very 
special place not only for children but for teachers. 
The museum’s Resource Center is devoted to providing 
a host of services and facilities for elementary and 
secondary school teachers: a loan service, Recycle, a 
Resource Center shop, workshop areas, a reference 





center, and a library. It also sponsors teacher 
workshops and courses and can provide consulting 
service for teachers and students. 


Loan Service 

The museum’s loan department has exhibits and 
displays, MATCH units (Materials and Activities for 
Teachers of CHildren), and Discovery Boxes which 
may be borrowed by schools for a small fee for 
several weeks at a time. 


Designed for the relatively intensive treatment of a 
specific topic over a two or three-week period, MATCH 
units contain objects of all sorts—films, pictures, 
games, recordings, projectors, supplies and a detailed 
Teacher’s Guide which structures the use of the unit. 
For instance, the MATCH PRESS for grades 5-6 allows 
a class to form its own publishing company. The kit 
comes with a portable press, type fonts, paper, ink, and 
instruction cards. The class writes, edits, prints and 
binds its own book. Discovery Boxes, on the other 
hand, are a one-activity kind of box which may be 
borrowed. 


The Resource Center also loans out live animals. A 
class may borrow a rabbit, a guinea pig or a turtle 
for a week. 


Recycle 

Recycle is another service at the museum Resource 
Center. Recycle is a facility for collecting industrial 
scrap, sorting it, and recycling it to educational groups. 
A teacher can come in and for $2 can fill up a bag 

with whatever materials he or she wants. There are 
cardboard, plastic, paper and leather scraps and many 
other materials to choose from. 


A teacher may enroll her class in a group membership 
at Recycle for $1 per student per year. This entitles her 
to come in repeatedly during the year and fill up on 

as much recycled material as she needs for her class. 


Museum staff continually develop new uses for 
Recycle materials and have published a Recycle 
Booklet full of ideas on how to easily construct 
language arts and math games or musical instruments 
for the classroom out of recycled materials. 


Do-it-yourself 

The Resource Center at the Children’s Museurn deals 
not only with tangibles but with intangibles and 
teacher services. It functions as a drop-in-center—a 
place where teachers can come and meet with 
museum personnel at no charge, research curriculum 
materials for themselves, and brainstorm for lesson 
plans. Reference questions may also be phoned in— 
the Resource Center likes to share the information 
they have with teachers. Many classroom ideas are 
generated by browsing through the woodworking and 
weaving workshops, printing corner, early childhood 
section, and science and mathematics teaching aids 
areas. 


Creativity is a characteristic potentially given to 
all human beings at birth. 


—Abraham Maslow 








HOW TO RUN AN IN-HOUSE COMPUTER 
W ITH AM ATEU RS by Robert McCroskey, Whitworth College 


This article is excerpted from an address given by 
Mr. Robert McCroskey at the ACM/SIGUCC Con- 
ference on the Small College Computer Center, 
Claremont, California, June 21, 1973. 


Many schools contemplate the prospect of obtaining 
their own computer system with more than a little 
trepidation. The prospect conjures up platoons of pro- 
grammers and operators, such as are usually found in 
the nearest large university computer center. Most of 
us at Whitworth shared these concerns prior to the 
installation of our RSTS-11 system in July, 1972. How- 
ever, our experience has proved our initial fears quite 
groundless. Our system permits an economy of opera- 
tion which is unimaginable to those who are familiar 
with only large-scale computers. Yet the system pro- 
vides enough computing power for both academic and 
administrative uses for the whole college. 


Until the installation of our PDP-11, Whitworth’s admin- 
istration and its 1,300 students depended upon an 

RJE terminal linked to the Washington State Univer- 
sity (WSU) network for instructional computing. 
Administrative jobs were shipped to the WSU campus 
via Greyhound Bus Lines. This arrangement proved 
unsatisfactory and there was a lot of pressure for more 
flexibility, more control, easier student access and 
shorter turnaround times. The academic demands 
seemed to be easily satisfied by purchasing an in- 
house timesharing system. In fact, a group of faculty 
members led by Dr. Ron Turner, chairman of the 
Modern Languages Department, was most influential 

in making this decision. The sophistication of the RSTS 
system raised the possibility of doing much of our 
administrative data processing on the in-house system 
as well, although our worries about staffing led us to 
move cautiously in this area. 


In retrospect, our fears were largely unfounded. Today, 
in addition to its instructional load, the system handles 
student accounts receivable, student records, the 
college development department’s gift record system, 
alumni placement records and admissions records. 
Aside from the usual assortment of part-time student 
help, the staff has always consisted of only two full- 
time employees: the author, who has assumed the 

title of Coordinator of Computer Services, and Mrs. 
Myrna Wittwer, who is titled the Supervisor of Oper- 
ations. Unfortunately, the College does not count my 
responsibilities as a full-time job, so | also teach 
courses in computer fundamentals and elementary 
programming. 

The system likewise is not kept busy by its adminis- 
trative chores, but is being used in a broad spectrum 
of computer-based instruction. Dr. Turner has written 
a CAI-type language called WHITCATS (Whitworth 
Computer-Assisted Tutorial System), which has 
enabled the computerizing of much of the more 


26 


raelll | 


Whitworth College’s Computer Center director Robert McCroskey 
(standing) and Professor of Physics Dr. Glenn Erickson are shown 
at work with the school’s RSTS-11 system. 


“mechanical” topics in several curriculum areas. The 
College has established a Computer Services Com- 
mittee which oversees general computer center 
policies and rationalizes the allocation of computing 
services between academic and administrative needs. 
So far, there have been only minor scheduling con- 
flicts between the two kinds of usage. My biggest 
problem is the continuing one of educating potential 
campus users about the uses and limitations of their 
own in-house computer system. 


Even though the system is handling a heavy instruc- 


tional and administrative load there is still considerable 


potential for expansion. Management services for the 
college’s administration is our most pressing need, 
and we are currently considering how best to provide 
it with the PDP-11 equipment. Perhaps at a similar 
conference next year we can provide an update of our 
computer experiences. 


FROM THE CAMPUS 


The computer science department at the Hatfield 
Polytechnic, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, England, is offering 
a ten-session general interest computer course this 
term using the school’s DIGITAL PDP-10 computer 
system. No previous knowledge is required; the course 


examines computer applications and future implications 


in a series of self-contained lectures. 


Although the course may be typical of many computer 
“familiarity” or “literacy” courses offered in universi- 
ties and high schools around the world, the tit/e is what 
sets Hatfield’s offering apart: “Everything You Always 
Wanted to Know About Computers, But Were Afraid to 
Ask” !! 








_~ 








ELLA SMUT 


A MAKE-BELIEVE 
PLACE? 


Students at White Mountain Regional High School, 
Whitefield, N.H., under the direction of Tom Ford, 
Science Department Chairman, recently compiled 
some. original software for the FANUC 260 Parts 
Programming Control using the school’s PDP-8/S 
computer. Although they had never seen the FANUC 
260 equipment, they used the PDP-8 to output the 
required code sequences on paper tape using the 
FOCAL programming language and the FANUC 260 
operator’s manual. The tapes were mailed away, and in 
turn, tooled into a trial aluminum workpiece for a Navy 
shipboard. 


Tom Ford is quite right when he says that White 
Mountain Regional is no ‘‘make-believe place’’! 








27 


CAI IN 
ADVANCED STATISTICS 


By Martha Larson 


Computer-power is expanding at Lawrence University 
through a research and instructional project formulated 
by Francis T. Campos, instructor in psychology. With 
$27,000 in funds from the National Science Foundation 
(NSF) and Lawrence University, Campos has developed 
a computer-assisted instructional program in advanced 
statistics. The money made possible the purchase of 
four computer terminals and a disk storage unit which 
increases the memory capacity of the university’s 
PDP-11 computer by 1.2 million words. The year-old 
computer now has 12 terminals. 


The course plan which Campos has developed went 
into use last January. It uses the computer as a 
resource for basic information, previously supplied by 
the course instructor in class lectures, and also serves 
as a student’s personal homework aide. The computer 
is available around the clock, seven days a week. 


The goal of the project is to help students achieve at 
least a minimum level of competence in statistics 

more efficiently. With this method Campos sees no 
reason why students should get a grade of D or below. 
The program is designed so that a student can 
approach the material at his own pace. With a com- 
puter doing the basic teaching, the instructor and 
student are freed from the classroom lecture to resolve 
individual problems on a one-to-one basis. The result 
is more individualized instruction. 


“We know pretty much what we want everybody to 
know,’’ Campos said in regard to the statistics course. 
“It doesn’t change much from year to year because 
it’s only a tool, a solid base of information, which is 
necessary to interpret and design experiments.” The 
computer program provides that solid base of informa- 
tion which can be revised when necessary. 


Statistics was chosen for the pilot program because 

it was most easily adapted to the computer system. 
Two more statistics-oriented courses—elementary and 
multivariate statistics—are planned for development. 

It will take a few years to organize the additional 
courses because there are no devised programs of 
this sort. Other eventual goals for the computer- 
assisted instructional program are to include more 
areas of mathematics and to encompass a short 
introductory psychology course. 


Reprinted from Computers and Automation 


Continued in their present patterns of fragmented 
unrelation, our school curricula will insure a 
citizenry unable to understand the cybernated 


world in which they live. 
—Marshall McLuhan—1964 





A STAR 
IS BORN 


To most educators the name Modern Talking Picture 
Service has a familiar ring; it’s the company that 
operates thirty film-lending libraries throughout the 
United States and Canada. And the newest “‘star’’ in 
the Modern Talking Picture Show is a PDP-11/20 RSTS 
system, the heart of a computer-assisted film 
scheduling system. 


Modern makes about 1.5 million film shipments every 
year; it carries 2,000 titles and has an inventory of 
115,000 prints. The intricate distribution problem is 
now being effectively and economically managed to 
the satisfaction of film borrowers and Modern’s 
management alike. 


_ How It Works: Film scheduling and customer list 
maintenance are done on video terminals, inventory 
control on teletype, while advertising uses an upper- 
lower case printing terminal. 


Borrower acknowledgements, shipping documents, and 


most management reports are produced on a high 
speed printer. The system can generate standard 

/2 inch magnetic tape for input to other EDP systems 
if required. 


The output per person is considerably higher, in terms 
of orders processed per unit time, than with the best 
manual systems available. Since the computer pro- 
duces all needed paperwork automatically, and 
performs all filing operations on customer records, 
availability records, and future commitments, a high 
degree of automation and accuracy have been 
achieved. In addition, it has been found that the 
scheduling, in terms of orders filled per print, is more 
accurate than with manual systems since the computer 
locates availabilities which manual methods sometimes 
overlook and less space is needed for the computer 
system than for a manual operation of comparable 
volume. 


The system is highly flexible. It permits the clerks 
working with it to exercise considerable judgment in 
processing each order, just as in a manual system, 
while it handles file accessing, update, retrieval, and 
refiling quickly and accurately, thus freeing the people 
to do the jobs requiring human judgement. 


Booking clerks handle one order (an order may 
request many films) at a time, as in a manual system. 
The scheduling system offers a wide variety of file 
accessing strategies under the control of the booking 
clerk, who chooses the strategy (or ‘‘mode’’) most 
suitable to the particular order being served at any 
time. Results are made known to the clerk 
immediately as the order is being processed, so each 
order can be completed to the borrower’s satisfaction 
in light of whatever constraints exist. 


28 





A WORD FROM 
FRAMINGHAM 


Framingham (Mass.) North High School’s new Edu- 
System 50/EDP had been installed only two short weeks 
when it appeared to Ted Duprez, the school’s business 
manager, that even more computer was needed. 
Apparently the computer has been so widely and 
quickly accepted that there are more clamoring 
students than there are terminals and hours in a day. 
One student was so anxious to begin working with 

the system that he parked his bike in the middle of 

the computer center! 


Framingham South High School will install a similar 
system shortly; a total of 32 terminals will service the 
district’s instructional and administrative needs. 





BUTLER PLANS 
“SHOW AND TELL” 


Using their new remote teletype with acoustic coupler, 
students from the Butler Senior High School will pro- 
vide a “Show and Tell’’ program for the sixteen 
elementary schools within the district, using the 
school’s EduSystem 50. The program will move on 
demand from building to building. Simple demonstra- 
tion programs written by the students will be used, and 
of course, “SNOOPY” will be invited to join the fun. 


Submitted by: 

Mr. Bill Ellis 

Butler Senior High School 
Butler, Pa. 16001 








> SOURCE MATERIAL 


FOR EDUCATORS 





FOR THE 
MATH-MINDED 


An exciting repository of ideas for computer mathe- 
matics is the only way to describe the new volume 
entitled Problems For Computer Solution by Steve 
Rogowski. Mr. Rogowski is the mathematics depart- 
ment chairman at Waterford-Halfmoon H.S., Waterford, 
NY. The book contains ninety creative problems, 
mostly oriented toward mathematics; each problem is 
stated followed by a BASIC program listing, sample 
run and analysis. Some of the original ideas that the 
author has included are best illustrated by program 
titles such as “Paper Folding Problem,” ‘You Be the 
Computer,” ‘‘A Quickie That May Take Awhile,” “The 
Old License Plate Trick’’—etc., etc., etc. 


But the best news is that Problems For Computer So- 
lution (all 350 pages of it!) is available in teacher and 
student editions, and at a price that is hard to believe! 
The Teacher’s Guide is $1.00 (unbound) or $2.00 
(bound); the Student Guide is $1.25. Enclose payment 
(plus $.50 postage) with order to: Mr. Stephen Rogow- 
ski, 6 Edward Street, Cohoes, NY 12047. Mention 
EDU! 


29 





FREE AND 
LOW-COST ITEMS 


Ecology Action Pack 

From those people who recommend that ‘“You Deserve 
A Break Today” (yes! McDonald’s!) comes this FREE 
package of educational materials for activities and 
projects in ecology. Developed in cooperation with the 
Dayton Museum of Natural History, the ‘Ecology Action 
Pack” includes spirit master study sheets covering 
water pollution, recycling and energy conservation. 
Write to McDonald’s, Ecology Action Pack, Box 2344, 
Kettering, Ohio 45429. 


Trash to Treasure by Sue McCord 

Project Change, State University of New York, Cortland, 
N.Y. 13045 ($1.00). A well-illustrated booklet packed 
with ideas for classroom art activities using common 
left-over materials. 


Materials List 

A useful list of classroom items that can be scrounged 
or purchased. EDC, 55 Chapel Street, Newton, Mass. 
02160. ($.72) 


A handy list that categorizes free materials into subject 
areas; includes toys, games, puzzles and science aids. 


Computer Art 

Ten selections of computer art posters are available 
for $1.00 each from Computra, Box 608, Upland, Indiana 
46989. Write for a FREE catalogue. 


ON-LINE 


ON-LINE is a timely and informative newsletter pub- 
lished five times per school year at the University 

of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Although the members of the 
editorial and reporting staff are associated with col- 
leges and universities, the newsletter provides up-to- 
date, relevant information for other educational levels 
as well. Each issue contains feature articles and 
papers in addition to contributed news items, needs 
and aids, sources of programs and ideas, and book 
reviews. ON-LINE is a must for newsletter-lovers 
everywhere. 


For more information, contact Karl Zinn, ON-LINE 


Editor, U-M CRLT, 109 East Madison Avenue, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan 48104. Tell him EDU sent you. 


NEW FROM 
HUNTINGTON II 


The social studies and biology teachers in our reading 
audience will be glad to know that four new BASIC 


simulation program units have just been published and 


in plenty of time for next semester’s course-planning 
sessions! Like all the Huntington II materials, each of 
these four programs contains three modules (Student 
Workbook, Teacher’s Guide and Resource Handbook) 
and a program paper tape. 


ELECT 1-2-3 
SUBJECT: Social Studies 
LEVEL: Grades 8-12 


DESCRIPTION: The ELECT package contains three 
programs which focus on campaign strategy and 
decision making. ELECT 1-2 deal with the study of 
campaign strategy in 14 American presidential elec- 
tions. ELECT 3 is a role playing game that simulates 
Campaigns and elections. 


SAP 
SUBJECT: Social Studies 
LEVEL: Grades 10-12 


DESCRIPTION: SAP is a statistical analysis program 
which performs statistical calculations useful in the 
examination of large quantities of survey data. It may 
be successfully implemented to facilitate a student- 
conducted survey research project. 


TAG 
SUBJECT: Biology, General Mathematics 
LEVEL: Grades 9-11 


DESCRIPTION: TAG provides the student with an 
opportunity to investigate the size of a wildlife popu- 


lation through the technique of tagging and recovering. 


This program uses the large-mouth bass population of 
a simulated farm pond as the study species. 


USPOP 
SUBJECT: Biology, Social Studies 
LEVEL Grades 10-12 


DESCRIPTION: USPOP is a highly flexible human 
population model oriented toward the investigation of 
U.S. population projections. The student can study 
the effects of fertility, age of mother at birth of child, 
sex ratio of offspring and age-dependent mortality on 
population size and structure. 


A total of fifteen Huntington II simulation program units 


are currently available. For further information about 
individual units and how to order, request the 
“Huntington Project Brochure” from: Communication 
Services, PK1, DIGITAL. 


101 BASIC COMPUTER 
GAMES 






: aa 

* BES Ps 

comiuvED ea OF 
},,G@QiNES \ Rae 





Edited py Davidit Ah! 


In EDU #7 we announced our plans to publish the 
“most comprehensive, all-embracing collection of 
computer games known to BASIC-speaking man”. 
Well, we’ve done it! Thanks to all the computerniks, 
sports enthusiasts, and geniuses—young and old alike 
—we’'ve published what we at EDU think is the best, 
most up-to-date, and clearly the most unique set of 
computer games-to-play-with and games-to-learn-by. 


101 BASIC Computer Games is the only book of its 
kind in existence... it contains program descriptions 
as well’as listings and sample runs for every game. 
Fully illustrated and documented, we think it’s an 
essential item for every library, bookshelf, and locker! 
It also makes a great birthday, Christmas, or April 
Fool’s present. Why, living without a personal copy of 
101 BASIC Computer Games might be equivalent to 
never owning your own flip-chip or Beethoven sweai- 
shirt! 

So order your copy today. All contributors will be 
receiving their complimentary copies within the next 
several weeks. For your convenience, an order form 
is enclosed in this issue of EDU! If the form is missing, 
send $5.00 plus 50¢ postage and handling (cash 
enclosed, please) to Software Distribution Center, 
Bldg 1-2, DIGITAL - 





ELECT e2- 3, USPOP, TAG and SAP—the four r new Huntington Il 
Simulation Packages. 


MULTI-MEDIA FOR 
GRADE SCHOOLS 


During the 1972-73 school year, a set of excellent 
materials was produced and used in the Minneapolis 
Public School system to provide elementary and junior 
high school students with a multi-media approach to 
learning about computers and the BASIC language. 


Produced under a federally funded project (Southeast 
Alternatives), the materials are designed for ease of use 
at this level (equipment for this media is generally 
available in grade schools and junior highs). During 

the test year, the materials created a high level of 
interest and achievement among the alternative school 
children that used them; the multi-media approach 
successfully allowed for individual differences in media 
preference. 


Each set of curriculum materials includes 3 booklets, 
3 filmstrips and a single videotape. The booklets, 
entitled “The Teletype’’, “BASIC 1” and “BASIC 2” 
are written for children; the liberal and consistent use 
of cartoons enhances the motivational value of the 
materials for this level. All of the materials were de- 
signed to be self-instructional; questions and answers 
are provided so that students can test their own level 
of mastery. Sample copies of the 3 booklets and 
videotapes (send blank tape) are available on request. 
Filmstrips may be obtained on a loan basis. 


For more information contact: 
Dr. Jane D. Gawronski 
Minneapolis Public Schools 
Special School District No. 1 
Minneapolis, Minn. 55413 
Tell her EDU sent you! 





PROGRAMS 
FOR THE CLASSICS 


Dr. James Helm of the Oberlin College Classics De- 
partment has written numerous programs for his work 
in classics. Several of these programs are written in 
BASIC-PLUS and utilize the school’s PDP-11/20 RSTS 
System. Among Dr. Helm’s collection is a program for 
drill and practice on the principal parts of Greek 
verbs and a program which scans Latin poetry in dac- 
tylic hexameter or elegaic couplet. 


For more information write to Dr. James Helm, Classics 
Department, Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio 44074. 
Mention EDU! 


31 


TUTORIAL EXERCISES 
FOR CHEMISTRY 


The newest addition to the Digital curriculum series is 
TUTORIAL EXERCISES FOR CHEMISTRY by Paul 
Cauchon, Science Department Chairman at the 
Canterbury School, New Milford, Connecticut. Based 
on classroom tested material, this book examines ten 
of the common topics taught in introductory chemistry 
courses. These programs are well suited for exercises, 
remedial work or pre-exam review material. The 100- 
page Teacher’s Guide includes full program documen- 
tation, sample runs, helpful hints and directions for 
using the exercises. An accompanying student work- 
book presents the exercises in a clear and straight- 
forward manner. 


Both books belong on your bookshelf, be you a chem- 
istry teacher or the school librarian! Order the Teach- 
er’s Resource Guide ($2.75) and the Student Workbook 
($1.00) from the Software Distribution Center, Building 
1-2. Payment must be enclosed with order. 





ECOLOGY 
AND ECONOMICS 
SIMULATION 


Frank P. Stafford of the Economics Department at 

the University of Michigan has developed a simulation 
game to demonstrate the interdependence of economic 
activities. This game, aptly named RIVER, utilizes a river 
basin as aclosed economic system on which industrial 
plants, sewage treatment plants, and fisheries are lo- 
cated. By entering parameters for the rate of effluent 
taxes as well as the location and size of sewage plants, 
students can see the time-lag and interdependence 

of economic and ecological policies. Outputs of the 
game are determined by the Streeter equation for 
oxygen deficits and the Theory of Fishery Dynamics. 
Stafford has used RIVER in two classes totalling 70 
students and reports an enthusiastic student reception. 
The package is written in FORTRAN and is currently 
operational on the University of Michigan’s MTS 
system. Stafford will be completing the final documen- 
tation for the package this summer, and indicates that 
a number of universities are interested in utilizing it 

for their courses. Contact: Dr. Frank Stafford, Eco- 
nomics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, 48104, telephone 313/764-3245. 


Reprinted from ON-LINE, May 1973. 


BOOK REVIEWS 


Computers and Young Children. Nuffield Foundation. 
John Wiley & Sons, Somerset, N.J., 1972. 


How and what to teach children about computers is 
the subject of this latest Weaving Guide produced 

by the Nuffield Mathematics Project. The main parts 
of this book consist of information about preparing 
flowcharts and samples of simple flowcharts produced 
by children; suggestions for a classroom activity in 
which the children act as human computers; informa- 
tion about using and preparing punched cards to 
present the program to the computer; and the descrip- 
tion of classes actually working with a computer. 

The elementary classroom teacher will gain much 
information about computers from reading this text. 
She also will find many practical suggestions for teach- 
ing children about computers. 


Computer Poems, collected by Richard W. Bailey. 
Potagannissing Press, Ann Arbor, Mich., $2.25. 


Computer Poems is an anthology of verse written by 
sixteen poet-programmers; selections range from 
clever computer-constructed pieces to poems that are 
amusing despite their origin. Although programming 
techniques are not discussed, this book will surely 
interest the computer buff and the layman alike. 


Background Math for a Computer World, by Ruth 
Ashley. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1973. $3.95. 


A self-teaching guide to the fundamental mathemati- 
cal knowledge required for further study of computer 
programming or computer science. Problems from 

a wide variety of math application areas exercise 
analytical talents and help to develop logical thought 
patterns. This is an excellent preview for further work 
with computers for the nontechnically oriented edu- 
cator. 








Computers, by Jane Jonas Srivastava. Thomas & 
Crowell Co., New York, 1972. 


This book is part of the Young Math Books series, and 
is geared to the very young (primary age) child, with 
delightful drawings by Ruth and James McCrea. 

After beginning with ““A computer is a machine for 
counting,” the book goes on to describe various uses 
of computers, as well as the functions of the five basic 
parts of digital computers. There is even a super 
flowchart for ‘‘counting giraffes met on the way to 
school.”’ 


The point is made that not only can a computer do a 
job very quickly, but it will do the same thing over 
and over, without getting bored and asking, “When's 
recess?” 

Submitted by: 

Peg Pulliam 

Lexington High Schoo! 
Lexington, Mass. 


ee 














—~ FOR THE 


VERY YOUNG 


Computer usage in elementary school level mathe- 
matics is growing at almost exponential rates! All over 
the country, grade school children are learning about 
computers—what they can do, what they can’t do 

(like answer any question a 6-year old can dream up!). 
Children are learning BASIC programming (yes!) and 
problem solving techniques, too. 


Peg Pulliam is an Elementary Math Specialist at Lex- 
ington H.S., Lexington, Mass. In a workshop last spring 
at Waltham H.S., Peg distributed a wealth of materials 
that she’s used in her computer classes. Reproduced 
here is an edited version of Peg’s bibliography of 
books and materials for use in course preparation 

and in the elementary classroom. Use it to get your 
grade school computer program off to a good start! 


Non-Fiction 


*Adler, Irving. The Giant Golden Book of Mathematics: 
Exploring the World of Numbers and Space. New 
York: Golden Press, 1960. Computers and Calcula- 
tors, pp. 74-76. A very exciting book. The author 
does not get into high speed computers, but has a 
good explanation of the difference between digital 
and analog computers. 


*Ball, Marion J. What is a Computer? Boston: 
Houghton Mifflin, 1972. Paperback. 
An excellent little book—one of five in Houghton- 
Mifflin’s Computer Resource Collection. This book 
clearly (but informally) describes the development 
of computers, their operation and function, as well 
as the fundamentals of flow-charting. (4th grade up) 





33 


Corliss, William R. Computers. United States Atomic 
Energy Commission, Division of Technical Infor- 
mation. 


“Jones, Weyman. Computer: The Mind Stretcher. New 
York: The Dial Press, Inc., 1969. 
Explains how computers work and discusses the 
basic principles of problem solving. Well written. 
Excellent explanation of core memory units. Good 
discussion of linear programming problems and 
chess on the computer in final chapters. (5th or 6th 
grade up) 


“Kenyon, Raymond G. / Can Learn About Calculators 
and Computers. New York: Harper and Row, 1961. 
Experiments and other activities concerned with 
history of calculators. Contains design and plans 
for building a little computer (calculator) in a cigar 
box. 


*Kohn, Bernice. Computers at Your Service. Englewood 
Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1962. 
Great little book (65pp.) with cartoon-like illustra- 
tions. Written in language easily understood by 3rd 
graders. This book gives a non-technical introduction 
to the computer, emphasizing its application rather 
than its operation. The author stresses the fact that 
computers don’t think, just obey. 


*Piper, Roger. The Story of Computers. New York: 
Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc., 1964. 

Gives historical background for computers, 
describes them and discusses their uses in industry 
today. Describes jobs created by computers and 
skills and training needed to fill these jobs (5th, 6th 
grade and older) 

Smith, Eugene. Computer Mathematics 1. Birmingham, 
Mich,: Midwest Publications, Inc., 1966. (Text and 
Teacher’s Manual) 

Written for secondary students but filled with many 
good ideas and games which can easily be adapted 
to younger children. 


Zuckerman, David W. and Robert E. Horn. The Guide 
to Simulations/Games for Education and Training. 
Lexington, Mass.: Information Resources, Inc. 
(P.O. Box 417), 1973. $15.00. 

Extensive reference of 600 games and simulations 
for educational use. 


Fiction 
*Philbrook, Clem. O/lie’s Team and the Baseball 
Computer. New York: Hastings House, 1967. 


*_____ Ollie’s Team and the Basketball Computer. 
New York: Hastings House, 1969. 
More about basketball than about computers. Good 
story for 4th-6th graders. 


“Williams, Jay and Raymond Abrashkin. Danny Dunn 
and the Homework Machine. McGraw-Hill, 1958. 
Danny Dunn and his two friends decide to get 
Professor Bullfinch’s computing machine to do their 
homework. Confronted by the moral overtones and 
also faced with the temperamental ups and downs 
of the calculator. 


* written primarily for children. 















THE BAG GAME 


An idea from FORUM, a magazine for educators pub- 
lished by the J. C. Penney Co., Inc., which featured 
“Creative Decision Making” in the Fall/Winter 1973 
issue. 


MATERIALS: 


Collect junk and odds and ends from the attic, desk 
drawers or from the old toy chest. Students should be 
able to find many of these “collectables” for the game. 
Put 5 or 6 items in each envelope; the number of 
envelopes must be equal to the number of students (or 
teachers) who will play the game. 


OBJECT: 


The object of the game is to make up a story which 
creatively solves one of the following three problems, 
using the contents of each “bag” as props. In so doing, 
creative decision making is exercised; the idea, of 
course, is to let your imagination soar! 


Problem 1: You find yourself with no money and no 
credit cards on your vacation. How do you 
get home? 


Problem 2: Your superintendent walks into your 
classroom and finds you standing on your 
head. How do you explain what you are 
doing? 

Problem 3: The ocean liner you are taking to Europe 
has just left the dock. You must get on 
that ship because you have medication for 
the captain and he must take it within 


the hour. How do you get aboard? 


Watch for more ideas from FORUM in future issues of 
EDU! 


34 


WHAT'S IN A NAME? 


This name game can be used effectively as an activity 
for elementary students to present cardinal and ordinal 
numbers (how many? and which one?). Or why not 
adapt it as a programming exercise for junior or 
senior high school students? Write the program in a 
tutorial fashion so that the elementary level children 
can use the computer to check their answers! Adapted 
from the original article entitled ‘““Names Have Many 
Numbers,” by Marina C. Krause (The Teacher, January 
1973), the game provides excellent practice for begin- 
ning programmers in string variable processing! 


Individual Activities 
1. How many letters are in your name? (First or full) 
2. How many different letters are in your name? 


3. How many letters are used more than once in your 
name? 


4. How many vowels are in your name? 
5. How many consonants? 


6. How many more consonants than vowels are in 
your name? Or vowels than consonants? 


7. Which letter of the alphabet begins your first name? 


8. Which vowel is used the most in your full name? 
Which consonant? 


Class Activities 


1. How many students have a first name beginning 
with the first letter of the alphabet? Second leiter? 
Third letter? And so on 


2. How many students have a first name with fewer 
than five letters? 


3. How many students have a first name with five or 
more letters? Ten or more letters? Fifteen or more 
letters? 


Have the students construct a graph to show some 

of this information (or have the computer do it for 
them!) Let the X-axis represent the number of letters 
in the first name (from 0 to 11); let the Y-axis represent 
the number of students (from 0-10). The children can 
place their own names in a square on the graph, 
above the appropriate number on the X-axis. 


Se 6 SO 8. he) ONE Vere 


“You can help the children interpret this graph in sev- 
eral ways. By answering questions they will discover 
who has the shortest name and who has the longest. 
They may find, as the children in my class did, that half 
the students have names with either five or six letters 
and that no student in the class has a first name with 
fewer than three letters or more than 10 letters. A 
graph like this can be used for talking about the con- 
cepts of probability, average, median and so forth. 
What’s in a name? It’s right there on the graph!” 





Computer games have wide application in today’s 
classroom. Students are playing them, writing them 
and learning from them. For many educators, games 
are effective educational tools because they motivate, 
they raise curiosity, they encourage inquiry... and 
because games are fun, they make learning fun. Isn’t 
that the way it should be? 


For those non-believers, for those educators who view 
computers as an expensive “‘toy”’ when used in this 
manner—these ideas may provide some evidence of 
the value of games to learning. 


In one sense games are like any other educational 
tool: the right game must be paired with the right 
application. Just as a chemistry text has little 
application for the English composition class, 
computerized Blackjack is not the best tool for the 
study of logic. 


Re! 
@ 


aegWdg 


eo? 


ae. 
@ 5 
Os | > 
a 
Cs 
(2 ss 
UA 
o fas 
a 
@ 





But Blackjack and games like it do have important 
implications for the classroom. The computer and its 
use have been successfully introduced to students and 
to teachers through game-playing. Games like this 
reduce the fear of computers and create a comfortable 
dialogue between man and the machine. And some- 
times, simple games like Blackjack encourage the 
player to examine the ‘“‘why” and “how” of computer 
programming and operation. We’re off on a learning 
path that may have no end! 


Problem solving is taught in many ways. Writing a 
computer program teaches logic—students analyze 
problems, teach a machine how to solve them. And 
we all Know that any one problem may have multiple 
solution paths. But what about creative problem 
solving? How is that taught? Or is it? Perhaps 
creativity in problem solving must be discovered, 
developed, and most importantly, experienced. Like 


_. CREATIVE PROBLEM SOLVING 


any learning process, experience—learning by doing 
and applying—is superior to the straightforward 
transmission of knowledge. 


To solve a problem creatively requires an ability to 
think divergently, to respond unusually and freshly 

to a situation. Try using even the simplest game to 
expose students to this type of analysis. Try 
TIC-TAC-TOE or REVERSE, this issue’s “Program 

of the Month.” Provide your students with the tools to 
develop creative analytical abilities by extending, 
stretching and remodeling the rules and the features 
of a game. Like this: 


(1) Play the game in a straightforward manner. 
(Assume the game is of the man vs. computer 
variety.) 

(2) When students have mastered or tired of (1), play 
the game to make the computer win. (This does 
not suggest that the student “‘allows” the machine 
to win, but rather develops a strategy that assures 
a computer victory.) 


(3) Next try a computer vs. student tie. 
(4) Try different score counts, like 4 games to 1, etc. 


(5) An excellent approach might be to have the 
student play the game without knowing the rules 
or directions. The student is forced to analyze 
the way the game is played. Once that has been 
achieved, start (1). 


(6) Encourage students to incorporate new features 
into the existing game, to increase the difficulty 
or to change the strategies; e.g., write the program 
for two students rather than student vs. computer, 
or change the object of the game. 


(7) Create an original game. 


ANSWERS TO FOURWAY 
FOURWAY appeared in EDU #9. 


FOURWAY: 
FORMS NO. OF PLAYS DISTRIBUTION 
DNS | 104 3, 6, 8, 6, 3, 
3, 6, 8, 6, 3, 
3, 6, 8, 6, 3, 
3, 6, 8, 6, 3. 
7X7 944 
9x9 146, 248 
EIGHTWAY: 
FORMS NO. OF PLAYS 
3X3 140 
5X5 69, 784 








ACTIVITIES 
FOR CHILDREN 


Peg Pulliam is an elementary school mathematics 
specialist for Lexington Public Schools, Lexington, 
Massachusetts. Over the past several years, Peg has 
been intimately involved with the elementary school 
computer program at Lexington. Grade school! stu- 
dents, in the past, have been bussed to the EduSystem 
50 at the high school computer center; plans are 
currently underway to install remote terminals in each 
of the cooperating elementary schools. 


The “GAME OF LOOPS,” “SECRET CODES” and 
“ROLE PLAYING” are only a sample of the very unique 
and creative work that Peg has been doing with 
children and computers. Watch for more of her work 

in future issues of EDU! 


In a recent letter to the Editor, Peg states that “‘if | 
were looking for the most crucial point of information 
in trying to teach kids about computers (or anything!) 
it would be DON’T BE IN TOO BIG A HURRY! Of 
course, that is what makes it so great with little people 
—there is no need to rush.” 


GAME OF LOOPS 


The idea for this activity comes from Computer 
Mathematics 1, by Eugene Smith (see EDU #9 for more 
information about this book). It is ideal as a pre- 
flowcharting lesson because it deals with the concepts 
of decisions, loops and branching. Here’s how to play! 


BOARD: 


(6) (7) END TART 
THE GAME OF 
LOOPS 





PLAYERS: 
MATERIALS: 


2to6 


Playing Mat, Movers (Chips, Oak Tag, 
etc.), Die with dots or numerals 1 to 6. 


OBJECT OF THE GAME: Be the first player to move 
your marker along the loop from 


[START] to [END] 


36 





RULES: 


1. Place your marker on | START 


2. Throw the die. 


3. Move the marker by following the arrows along the 
loop the number of locations shown on the die. 


4. If the marker lands on ‘“‘Go To Branch” 1), (3), 
, move it clockwise to the first location past 
the next ODD ‘Go To Branch.” 


o. If the marker lands on ‘‘Go To Branch” 2). (4), 


6), move the marker to the location on the inner- 
most loop indicated by the “xX.” 


6. If the marker lands on or passes | END}, that 


player WINS and the game ends. 


7. If the marker lands on an “‘If-Exit’’ , then on 
next turn throw the die, move the marker across 
the bridge to a new loop, and follow the arrows the 
number of spaces indicated by the die. 


SECRET CODES 


This game, also adapted from Computer Mathematics | 
by Eugene Smith, is an excellent tool for teaching 
children about punched cards, paper tapes, and how 
the computer “decodes” them! 


DIRECTIONS: 


Make up a code, using numbers 1 to 31, for all alpha- 
betic and special characters. Then record the binary 
equivalent of the numbers (1 to 31) next to each entry. 
The sample shown in Figure 1 uses a bar and the 
leftmost ‘1” to indicate that the binary codes do not 
have numeric equivalents, but rather are linked to 
alphabetics and special characters. 


—_ 


comma (,) = 27 = 1-11011 
period (.) = -11100 
Apostroph 

quotes (’’) 

question mar 


Z = 26 = 1-11010 





Figure 1 


PART I: CARDS 


The first time the children play, they record messages 
in the secret code on an index card. Figure 2 shows 
the card format; Figure 3 contains the message ‘“LET’S 
EAT,’ coded in pencil. 













Figure 2 Figure 3 


The children enjoy, as in Part |, decoding each others’ 
secret messages at the end of the exercise. They 
particularly enjoy this activity because they are cre- 
ating something that looks so much like the “real 
thing” that computers read! 


After the messages have been coded, students trade 
cards, and decode each others’ secrets. They love it! 


PART Il: TAPES 


Using long strips of adding machine tape, children use 
the same code and record different messages (with 
marks or punched holes) on the paper. They begin at 
the ‘‘arrowed”’ end of the paper tape, or the same 

end that would be read first by a paper tape reader. 
Figure 4 illustrates the recorded code for “A, B, C.” 





Figure 4 


ROLE PLAYING 


This activity is another excellent example of how 
“learning by doing” can be successfully used to teach 
computer concepts. Each child plays the part ofa 
BASIC instruction and the group enacts the process 
of program execution. “Role Playing” is an exciting 
approach to learning about computer operations and 
has been successfully used with the Lexington ele- 
mentary students to teach hard-to-grasp concepts 
like decisions and branching. 


ROLES: Teacher = CONTROL part of a computer 
Student #1 = Console OPERATOR 


Student #2 to +n = BASIC program instruc- 
tions or PARTS 


37 








BEFORE YOU BEGIN: 

1. Choose a simple program to begin with (see 
Figure 1). 

2. MEMORY can be a large colored card. 

3. OPERATOR writes the program on the blackboard. 


4. Each student (#2 to #n) is given a card with his 
PART instructions written on it. A PART is equiva- 
lent to one of the program instructions; i.e., Student 
#2 gets PART 1 or Instruction #10, Student 
#3 gets PART 2 or Instruction #20, etc. The instruc- 
tion cards are illustrated in Figure 2. 


5. Each role player is given a sign which indicates 
the role he is acting out, i.e, CONTROL, OPERATOR, 
PART 1, etc. 


6. All the PARTS are seated in numerical order, be- 
ginning with PART 1. 


INPUT A, B 
LET S=A+B 


PRINT A‘+" B“=" 8S 
END 





Figure 1 


PART 1 (Instruction #10) Card 

Write a ? on the blackboard. 

Wait for 2 numbers separated by a comma to be 
written on blackboard by OPERATOR. 

Cross out any numbers under A and B in MEMORY. 
Enter new numbers from board under A and B in 
MEMORY. 

Give MEMORY to PART 2. 


PART 2 (Instruction #20) Card 


Add numbers under A and B in MEMORY. 
Cross out any number under S in MEMORY. 


Enter sum of A and B under S in MEMORY. 
Give the MEMORY to PART 3. 


PART 3 (Instruction #30) Card 


Write on the blackboard the number under A in 
MEMORY, a plus (+) sign, the number under B in 
MEMORY, an equal (=) sign, and the number under 
S in MEMORY. ~ 

Give MEMORY to Part 4. 

PART 4 (Instruction #40) Card 


Give the MEMORY to CONTROL. 


Figure 2 


(Continued on p. 39) 





LESSONS FROM 
LEXINGTON 


The 1973-74 school year brings an ambitious computer 
program to Lexington, Massachusetts. The following 
descriptions might provide some ideas for curriculum 
offerings at your school! 


A. COMPUTER APPRECIATION 

Open to all students who have never completed an 
algebra course. Emphasis will be on demonstrations 
of what computers can and cannot do. Students will 
receive a great deal of “hands-on” computer use 

with demonstration programs, but little or no program- 
ming will be required. 2 periods per week. 


B. INTRODUCTION TO PROGRAMMING 


Designed for students with no programming experi- 
ence who have not completed second year algebra. 
Topic emphasis is on learning to write, enter, and run 
programs in BASIC. 2-4 periods per week. 


C. COMPUTER RELATED MATHEMATICS 


Designed for students with or without programming 
experience who have already completed second year 
algebra. A wide variety of pre-calculus mathematical 
topics that usually are not covered in other courses 
will be examined. 2-4 periods per week. 


D. COMPUTER RELATED NON-MATHEMATICS 


Open to students with BASIC programming experience 
who have completed or are simultaneously enrolled 

in second year algebra. Topic emphasis is on the 
programming of non-mathematical computer appli- 
cations using more advanced techniques of BASIC 
programming. Sample units include: sorting routines, 
file manipulation, simulations, games, etc. 2-4 periods 
per week. 


E. ADVANCED COMPUTER RELATED 
MATHEMATICS 

Open to students familiar with BASIC programming 
who have completed or are simultaneously enrolled 
in pre-calculus math. Topic emphasis is on numerical 


methods of applied mathematics. Sample units include: 


computing zeros of high order functions, numerical 
differentiation and integration, interpolation and 
extrapolation techniques, solving systems of equations, 
etc. 2-6 periods per week. 


F. COMPUTER SCIENCE 


Open to students who have completed either course 

C, D, or E. Emphasis is placed on learning assembly 
language programming for the PDP-8/I, and using this 
language to implement algorithms that would be in- 
convenient or impossible using BASIC, FOCAL or other 
interactive languages. 2-4 periods per week. 


G. PROJECTS 


Open to students who have successfully completed 
either course C, D, E, or F. Students will work on indi- 
vidual, large projects that they originate or that are 
suggested by the instructor. Cooperative projects with 


38 


other departments are encouraged. Advanced pro- 
gramming techniques and mathematical skills are 
required, as well as the ability to conduct and write 
a report on a research project. 2-6 periods per week. 





THE IDEA BOX 


Remember the suggestion box from the good old days? 
Well, we’d like to resurrect it and relabel it, too! Our 
“idea box” will contain lots of things to do in the 
classroom... like projects, activities and even helpful 
hints for using the computer more effectively. Send 
your ideas to IDEA BOX, Editor, EDU, Bldg. 5-5. 


— Using recyclable junk and leftovers from home 
(boxes, fabric, tin cans, brightly colored yarn, etc.) 
have groups of students build their own class- 
room computer! 

— In preparation for the next parent’s night, prepare 
a video tape that shows your active, computerized 
classroom! 

— Have students do a project that examines the role 
of the computer in pollution control, automobile 
manufacturing, or weather prediction. 

— Build a flip-chip from scraps and leftover materials. 

— Write a story about computers in the home. What 
roles will it play? 

— Experiment in art. Ask students to render their 
image of computers with paints or crayons. . . and 
after the computer familiarization course is finished, 
ask them to do it again. How do the drawings 
compare? 

—- Run your own educational fair—and make the 
computer a part of the “touch and feel” exhibit! 





> 





EAST KINORKI ROD & GUN CLUB NO. 69 


_ GAMES COMPUTER 
BUMS PLAY 


WRITE YOUR OWN CHECKS 


Write a program to produce a facsimile of a check. 
The face value should be less than $100. 


Have the computer accept as INPUT the date, the 
payee, the signator, the transit numbers and, of course, 
the amount of the check. Remember, this value must 
also appear in alphameric form in the space beneath 


APRIL 1 19. #2 


PAY TO. EUSTACIUS RIGGLETTS $97.34 


‘* * + * * * OOLEARS 


NINETY-SEVEN AND 34/100 +* 


FIFTH NATIONAL BANK 





the payee. This may be accomplished by actually 
typing the amount in words or by translating into 
alphamerics—a most tedious operation. 


Dress your check up with a bank of your own creation. 


Neatness counts! 


The check below is larger than actual size. Use the 
whole width of the paper. 

REFERENCES: Ask your father to lend you his check 
book! 





ACTIVITIES FOR CHILDREN 


(Continued from p. 37) 





39 





YAMAHOO FALLS 
xX 


1089-001-13-435-17 


“WRITE YOUR OWN CHECKS’ is taken from the 
new book of problem ideas entitled PROBLEMS FOR 
COMPUTER SOLUTION by Steve Rogowski. (See 
“FOR THE MATH-MINDED” article in this issue for 
more about the book!) 





PARTS 


1. 


Write a ? on the blackboard. 


a 
HOW TO PLAY: Wait for 2 numbers separated by a comma to be 
14. OPERATOR writes RUN on the blackboard written on the blackboard by the OPERATOR. 
: Meanwhile, cross out any numbers under A and B 
2. CONTROL hands MEMORY to PART 1. ‘7 MEMORY. 
3. PART 1 follows first instruction on his card. Enter the numbers from the blackboard under A 
4. OPERATOR writes two numbers separated by a and B in MEMORY. 
comma on the blackboard. Give MEMORY to PART 2. 
5. PART 1 continues until the instructions on his card 2. Is the number under A less than the number 
have been completed. under B? 
: If it is, give the MEMORY to PART 6. 
6. The game continues until the MEMORY returns to If it isn’t, give the MEMORY to PART 3. 
CONTROL. 
7. CONTROL writes READY on the blackboard. = ee ie snuneh GNSS ion Me ea 
Cross out any number under D in MEMORY. 
Enter the difference under D in MEMORY. 
Give the MEMORY to PART 4. | 
4. Write on the blackboard the number under A in 
ANOTHER PROBLEM: Once the students understand MEMORY, the minus c= Stan the number under B 
the procedure for this activity, try the following to give o MEMORY, the equal oe sign, and the number 
them experience with decisions and branching. under D in MEMORY. Give MEMORY to PART 9. 
5. Give MEMORY to PART 8. 
PROGRAM ¥ 
NP 6. Subtract the number under A from the number 
10 INPUT A, B encore 
20 IF A<B THEN 60 Cross out any number under D. 
30 LET D=A-—B Give MEMORY to PART 7. 
wm  40-PRINT A“—" B=" DO 7. Write on the blackboard the number under B in 
. MEMORY, the minus (—) sign, the number under A 
ease. in MEMORY, the equal (=) sign, and the number 
60 LETD=B—A under D in MEMORY. 
70 PRINT B“—”" A “=” D Give MEMORY to PART 8. 
80 END 8. Give MEMORY to CONTROL. 


PROGRAM OF THE MONTH—REVERSE 





REVERSE, a creation of People’s Computer Company, 
is a classic example of an addicting computer game 
... it's like peanuts—it’s literally impossible to play it 
only ONCE! REVERSE is a tough challenge for your 
analytical abilities; it’s not hard to play, but it is 
difficult to play it well. Divergent thinking and a crea- 
tive approach to problem solving are a must. 


REVERSE will present nine scrambled digits, which the 
player must place in sequential order (1 to 9) through 

a series of ‘‘reverses.’’ The number of digits can be 
reduced for use with classes of younger children. Try 
REVERSE—and send us your output if you solve a 
problem in less than eight moves! 


PROGRAM LISTING 


166 PRINTSPRINT "REVERSE -- A GAME CF SKILL" S\ERINT 
126 RANDOMIZE 

126 CIM Aeeta 

t4@ REM tee NENUMEER OF NUMBERS. 

158 N=o 

INFUT "CO VOL) WANT THE RULES ¢YES OR Nid "Ga At 


= 
1 
Dou 


Lé 

186 IF AS="NO" THEN 2416 

194 GOSUE F416 

SH REM e+ MAKE A RANDOM LIST Frets To FOND 
210 ACL SINT OC OCN-1 #RNDO +e 

Ze FOR Eee TO N 

SEB ACK IS INTONSRNC O44 

2e4@ SOR J=1 To K-41 

eo TF Aes =A T> THEN 22a 

SER NEXT ISNEXT KF 

Z2EG REM eee PRINT OR TGNIAL LIST AND START GAME 
290 PRINTER INT “HERE NE Gé ... THE Lrer ysc" 
S46 T= 

J20 GOSUE 6418 

SSH INPUT “HOW MANY SHALL I REVERSE": Rk 

ZSG ITF F=a@ THEN Soe 


S: 


IF Fils THEN =28 

PRINT "COPS! TOO MANS - | CAN REVERSE AT MOST NS GOTO Sze 
T=T+4 

REM tee REWERSE FB NUMBERS ANC PRINT MEW LIST 

PaGnk csc ih NOH IC Reo 

2=ACK 4 

ArKO SAC R-k +49 

At Fek+ tise 

HERT 

GOsSue eta 

REM soba ok 

Rieti ecSel Tah Ww 

® DP ORS oe SEHE WNP Sash 

NEST 

PINT STIS’ AMEE = Te STGP TARE PEs Sion Mah URIS EU TSN TE 


=; 
= 


= 
im 


ASO LHEA 


mt Sr 


ma! 


it fp oe We go 


a5 
bet 


4s 
= 


aS 3-, 
= 


MWbphpPE EEL REE 
Jr mm to Oa my oom, ia 
tye wt we age 


5 

S3@ INPUT "TRY AGAIN OSES OR Nt": Fe 

Sok PP Rea eS HEN sat it 

PE SRE NE RRS ICN te obs | FUER NACHE RHI Ce = PERRI) Sos iaeMT ch” Sees 

6b REM +o SUBRGUTINE Th PRINT LIST 

619 PRINT.POR R=. TO NNERINT Alok os ONERT & 

BoM PRINT PRINTS RETURN 

PAG REM 4 SUBROUTINE TO PRINT THE RULES 

La Pein?’ PRINT “THIS 15 THE GAME fF “REVERSE. TO -WIN, ALL Sol) HAVE" 
reo PRINT “TO GO TS ARRANGE A LIST OF NUMBERS (4 THROLGH"N™ >" 
PSG PRINT “PAC MME ROR ORDER FRG LBP rs Te ROUGE Peer . ae 
‘48 PRINT “TELL ME HOW MANY NUMBERS {COUNTING FROM THE LEFT) Toe 
cabs ETB Neier EM Eve wee = Pua I RICH Eel de TRIE MRI RUEINID sts TSr - JES 

fe CoO oP BN TUN: Si Er restos ee eh Ei ee ey eu 

oe FAP RR Ei Mae: i REVERSE di THE aRESie?T HPLE BE. 

even PURO IIMEY “sie Re deta Me Se ee rat Sf ej a ee tt 

Poh PRINTSPRINT “Nit. TF FO REWERSE 5. Gil! WIN?" 

St PR TR SPRINT OS Se Se ee EAR 


BRME OGIE Sapien. “Ene 
Eo nie Shh SPR TNT SRE Teh 


HE oC rahi ares Bam LIAN Serie ol a ete eal Pe] Sat TE 
M PRINT "TF SOL WANT To OUI T. PEERS 


Se eit 


ra re 


as 
map am 
Dt) 


POE S404! 


40 


SAMPLE RUN 


REVERSE -- A GAME CF Sk ELL 


DO YOU WANT THE RULES (YES OF NOOO YES, 


TERRES 


IS THE GAME OF “REVERSE To WIN. ALL YOU HAVE 


TO CG IS ARRANGE A LIST OF NUMBERS 4 THROUGH & 5 


IN NUMERICAL ORDER FROM LEFT To RIGHT 


= 


TO MOVE, You 


TELL ME HOW MANY NUMBERS ¢COUNTING FROM THE. BEFT) 2a 
REVERSE. 


ANG 
364 
NOW, 
2 


NO DOUET YOU WILL LIKE THIS GAME oF SKILL. ELIT 


FOR EXAMPLE, IF THE CURRENT LIST Is- 


C sete caeeriaecsai A) 


YOU REVERSE 4, THE RESULT WILL EE: 


ao. 2 7 ee 


IF YOU REVERSE &, You win: 


Bod oo Gow -eS 


IF YOU WANT TO GUIT. REWERSE @ ¢FERI) 


HERE 


J 


HOW 


ca 


HOW 


a) 


HER 


a 


Hild 


5 


HOW 


_ 


Hild 


HOW 


HOW 


yh 
' 


HOW 
e 
HOW 
6 
HOW 
HCW 


HOW 


pa] 


HOW 


WE Go... THE GIST - fs: 


MANY 


z 
s & 


MANY 


oF 


MANS 


{i - —s 


MANY 


“J 
40 


MANY 
1-2 
E WE, 
& 6 
MANY 
i -8 
MAINS 
2 4 
MANY 
z 4 
MANY 


> co 
r -! 


MANY 
1s 
MANY! 
24 
MANY 
rae 
MANY 
ea 
MANY 
3 4 
MANY! 
4 3 


MANY 


GS ds Soe 
SHALL I REVERSE? & 
fe She Ge ae ers! 
SHALL I REVERSE? & 
I ae te as Fl 
SHALL I REVERSE? & 


é 4-8 7 


Pan) 
mi 


SHALL I REVERSE? = 
6 4 Sr re ee 

SHALL I REVERSE? & ® 
Se a ee 

SHALL I REVERSE? & 

Site Spee eae Geers ee, 

BC... “HEHE LEST 16- 

Le So ea aS, 
SHALL I] REVERSE? & 
Ee ee Soe. eee ee 
SHALL I REVERSE? 4 
oe de hee 
SHALL I REVERSE? 2 
dt Ae de ae 
SHALL I REVERSE? «& 


oe eee 


ie 
Lo 


SHALL I REVERSE? 2 
d 3 3 ue ees 
SHALL I REVERSE? 6 
Ses is Rn eas 
SHALL I REVERSE? 7 
5 ela es Se 
SHALL I REVERSE? = 
5. 2 sae ee 
SHALL I REVERSE? 7 
ee. Se See ee ee 


SHALL I REVERSE? 4 


2) tt Bay 


aye 


SHALL I REVERSE? § 


Sere welbodisne i pete 


WON IT IN 11 MOVES 11) 


oo 


Game 


ACEYDU 
AMAZIN 
ANIMAL 


AWARI 
BAGLES 
BANNER 
BASBAL 
BASKET 
BATNUM 


BATTLE 
BINGO 
BLKJAC 


BLKJAK 
BOAT 
BOMBER 
BOUNCE 
BOWL 
BOXING 


BUG, 


BUI 


BULEYE 
BULL 


BUNNY 
BUZZWD 


CALNOR 
CAN-AM 


101 BASIC Computer Games 
ORDER FORM 


“tORIDULEE 
, Galles 


Edited by David Ht. Ahl 








Brief Description 


Play acey-ducey with the computer 
Computer constructs a maze 


Computer guesses animals and learns new 


ones from you 

Ancient game of rotating beans in pits 

Guess a mystery 3-digit number by logic 

Prints any message on a large banner 

Baseball game 

Basketball game 

Match wits in a battle of numbers vs. 
the computer 

Decode a matrix to locate enemy 
battleship 

Computer prints your card and calls 
the numbers 

Blackjack {very comprehensive), Las 
Vegas rules 

Blackjack (standard game) 

Destroy a gunboat from your submarine 

Fly World War Il bombing missions 

Plot a bouncing ball 

Bowling at the neighborhood lanes 

3-round Olympic boxing match 

Roll dice vs. the computer to draw a bug 

Guess a mystery 9-digit number vs. 
the computer 

Throw darts 

You're the matador in a championship 

bullfight 

Computer drawing of the Playboy bunny 

Compose your speeches with the latest 
buzzwords 

Calendar for any year 


Drive a Group 7 car ina Can-Am road race 


CHANGE 
CHECKR 
CHEMST 


CHIEF 
CHOMP 


CIVILW 
CRAPS 
CUBE 


DIAMNO 
DICE 
DIGITS 


DOGS 
EVEN 


EVEN 1 
FIPFOP 


FOOTBL 
FOTBAL 
FURS 
GOLF 
GOMOKO 
GUESS 


GUNNER 
GUNER | 
HANG 
HELLO 


HEX 


i 


fe, 





101 BASIC Computer Games is not the first collection of computer games 
and simulations nor will it by any means be the last. However, in many 
ways it is unique. It is the first collection of games all in BASIC. It is 
also the only collection containing both a complete listing and a sample 
run of each game along with a descriptive write-up. 


Educational Value of Games 

Educators have widely different opinions as to the educational value of 
games. There tends to be agreement that games are highly motivational 
and frequently very addictive. Most educators agree that games generally 
foster learning by discovery—i.e., the player doesn’t sit down at the 
terminal with the purpose of learning a principle of logic but after playing 
BAGLES three or four times he most assuredly has learned something 
about logic. Newton's second law is probably the furthest thing from 
the mind of a person sitting down to play ROCKET. However, when the 
player finally lands his LEM successfully on the moon, the chances are 
very good that he has discovered something about gravity varying 
inversely with the mass of the LEM and distance from the moon. 


The author believes that the educational value of games can be enor- 
mous—not only in their playing but in their creation. In any number of 
both high school and college computer science courses the writing of a 
game or simulation is the major course project. Indeed, many of the 
games in this book were done as such projects. 


Equipment to Play, Computer and Otherwise 

Most of the games in the book require no special knowledge, tools, or 
equipment to play, except of course, a BASIC-speaking computer. With 
few exceptions, the games all run in “standard” BASIC. Limitations and 
exceptions are noted in the individual write-ups so the games can easily 
be converted to almost any compiler. Every program in the book has been 
tested and run—they not only all run, but they’re all very enjoyable! 


101 BASIC Computer Games. Edited by David H. Ahl. Digital Equipment 
Corporation, Maynard, MA 01754. 256 pages. 8-1/2 x 11 paperbound. 
$5.00. ‘ 


Contents 

Computer imitates a cashier HI-LO Try to hit the mystery jackpot ROCKET Land an Apollo capsule on the moon 
Game of checkers . HI-0 Try to remove all the pegs from a board ROCKT1 Lunar landing from 500 feet (with plot) 
Dilute kryptocyanic acid to make it HMRABI Govern the ancient city-state of Sumeria © ROCKT2 Very comprehensive lunar landing 
harmless HOCKEY Ice Hockey vs. Cornell ROCKSP Game of rock, scissors, paper 
Silly arithmetic drill HORSES Off-track betting on a horse race ROULET European roulette table 
Eat a cookie avoiding the poison piece HURKLE Find the Hurkle hiding on a 10 x 10 grid RUSROU Russian roulette 

(2 or more players) KINEMA Drill in simple kinematics SALVO Destroy an enemy fleet of ships 
Fight the Civil War KING Govern a modern island kingdom wisely SALVO1 Destroy 4 enemy outposts 
Play craps (dice), Las Vegas style LETTER Guess a mystery letter — computer SLOTS Slot machine (one-arm bandit) 
Negotiate a 3-D cube avoiding hidden gives you clues SNOOPY Pictures of Snoopy 

landmines LIFE John Conway's Game of Life SPACWR Comprehensive game of spacewar 
Prints 1-page diamond patterns LIFE-2 Competitive game of life (2 or more SPLAT Open a parachute af the last possible 
Summarizes dice rolls players) moment 
Computer tries to guess digits you LITQZ Children’s literature quiz STARS Guess a mystery number — stars give 

select at random MATHD 1 Children’s arithmetic drill using you clues 
Penny arcade dog race pictures of dice STOCK Stock market simulation 
Take objects from a pile —try to end with MNOPLY Monopoly for 2 players SYNONM Word synonym drill 

an even number MUGWMP Locate 4 Mugwumps hidingona 10x10 TARGET Destroy a target in 3-D space— 
Same as EVEN — computer improves grid very tricky 

its play NICOMA Computer guesses number you think of 3D PLOT Plots families of curves—looks 3- 
Solitaire logic game— change a row NIM Chinese game of Nim dimensional 

of Xs to Os NUMBER Silly number matching game TICTAC Tic-tac-toe 
Professional football (very comprehensive) CHECK + — Challenging game to remove checkers TOWER Towers of Hanoi puzzle 
High School football froma board TRAIN Time-speed-distance quiz 
Trade furs with the white man ORBIT Destroy an orbiting germ-laidenenemy [RAP Trap a mystery number — computer gives 
Golf game —choose your clubs and swing spaceship you clues 
Ancient board game of logic and strategy PIZZA Deliver pizzas successfully 23MTCH Game of 23 matches — try not to take 
Guess a mystery number — computer POETRY Computer composes poetry in 4-part the last OnE 

gives you clues harmony UGLY Silly profile plot of an ugly woman 
Fire a cannon at a stationary target POET Computer composes random poetry WAR Card game of war 
Fire a cannon at a moving target POKER Poker game WAR-2 Troop tactics in war 
Hangman word guessing game QUBIC 3-dimensional tic-tac-toe WEKDAY Facts about your birthday 
Camputer becomes your friendly QUEEN Move a single chess queen vs. the WORD Word guessing game 

psychiatrist computer YAHTZE Dice game of Yahtzee 
Hexapawn game REVRSE Order a series of numbers by reversing 200P BASIC programmer's nightmare 


101 BASIC Computer Games 


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Cases Copies , Discount % 
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1-4 30-120 . 257, 
5-9 150-270 30F, 
10 300 35% 
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(1 case =30 copies) 


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