Skip to main content

Full text of "Huntington II Simulation Program - LOCKEY (Teacher's Guide)"

See other formats


Teacher’s Guide $.30 


DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION 
+: 


equeccIo 


HUNTINGTON II Simulation Program —LOCKEY 











computers are for kids EduSystems—expandable, economical 


djijoli)tjal! 





DIGITAL EQUIPMENT CORPORATION 
EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS 


A partial list of the publications in the continuing series of curric-- —_ 
ulum material published by Digital for use with EduSystems and RSTS 

are listed below. Please inquire directly for prices on classroom 
quantities. , 


Additional publications may be obtained from: 


Software Distribution Center ¥ 
Digital Equipment Corporation ; 
Maynard, Massachusetts 01754 4 

Populution: Self teaching BASIC Workbook $2.00 

BASIC Matrix Operations, Project Solo $1.00 

Problems for Computer Mathematics $1.25 

Advanced Problems for Computer Mathematics 2.00 


BASIC Application Programs 





Mathematics I $1.00 ga 

Mathematics II 1.00 

Science 1.00 

Business and Social Studies 1.00 

Plotting 1.00 
Huntington I Application Programs 

MATHEMATICS $2.00 

TEACHER ASSISTANCE 1.00 
Huntington I Simulation Programs 

BIOLOGY $1.00 

CHEMISTRY 2.00 

EARTH SCIENCE 1.00 ‘ 

PHYSICS 2.00 

SOCIAL STUDIES 1.00 


Huntington II Simulation Modules 


Student Workbook $0.30 
Teacher's Guide 530 
Resource Handbook -50 
Program Paper Tape 1.00 


i i 


LOCKEY 


THE LOCK AND KEY MODEL OF ENZYME ACTION 


TEACHER'S GUIDE 
Developed by: 
J. Friedland, Douglas MacArthur HS 
Levittown, New York 
B. Rosen, Half Hollow Hills Hs 
Dix Hills, New York 


Programmed by: 


J. Friedland, Douglas MacArthur HS 
D. Sobin, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn 


Support Material By: 
J. Friedland, Douglas MacArthur HS 


Illustrations by: 


M. Youla, Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn 


HUNTINGTON TWO COMPUTER PROJECT 
EN EV ER PROVECT 


Copyright Cc 1971, State University of New York 


15 October 1971 


The work of the Huntington Two Computer Project is partially 
Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant GW-5883. 


Exclusive publishing rights granted to Digital Equipment Corporation. 
REPRODUCTION NOT PERMITTED 


| a 
ra - - “y ~ 


eee 
Pom wet 





pe) ‘ 
: ; > 
= eS 
\ 
“ i = id es 
» ex 4 z be : - = 
- ; “ 5 a 
: : a 2x 
Se 
<e- al ‘ 





fe es SU Boe sé ievod bas thes? => 
ees | 5 oe Hs0Y wen  awottived. 

ee | ot ees ailin wofick isk pete 4 
Se | tT0¥ wot .eilin xg 


“syd bemmaxpoxd 


esse eer ee Fats] sepissAosM ae {pueda  Basibeizrt a 
po tel: ayisloore 6 etusitant ——S a a 


a= eas se eee aoe") eH swilItADEM es ipvoa Pacinae oes 


pe eS Se —s se 2 wed anotdeaaeeltE 


‘meidooid 36 efutizent simitoesyiet .alvor me Pas 





=. 


Program Area: 


Topic: 


Grade Level: 


Program Language: 


Abstract: 


SECTION II 


LOC KEY 


TEACHER MATERIALS 


Biology 


Enzyme study 


iv = -i2 


BASIC 


LOCKEY is designed to allow the student 
to apply his class knowledge of the lock 
and key model of enzyme specificity in a 
simulation of a real biochemical 
investigation. 


Given a brief background in this field 
of experimental biology, the student 
makes a hypothesis and then seeks data 
that will either support or refute his 
prediction. The program as it currently 
exists is in a very flexible form to 
allow students of widely varying 
abilities to design their own controls 
and experiments, within the constraints 
found in real biochemical investigations. 


II. A SAMPLE RUN 


LOCKEY- A COMPETITIVE INNIBITION: S?fUDY OF HE ENZYME 
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE FEATURING [ne LOCK AND KEY HYPOTHESIS 


DO YOU WISH INSTRUCTIONS? C1=YES» U=NO)? 1 f 


YOU ARE CONDUCTING AN INVESTIGATION OF THE ENZYME ’ 
ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE+e FROM [HE NAME YOU CAN TELL 

THAT TnhIls ENZYME WORKS ON THE CHEMICAL ACETYLCHOLINE. 

IT BREAKS ACETYLCHOLINE INTO ACETIC ACID AND CHOLINE. 


WE WANT [TO INVESTIGATE WhalCn INHIBITOR IS TRE MOST 
EFFECTIVE IN SLOWING THE NORMAL ACTION OF THE ENZYME. 
THIS WILL GIVE US VALUABLE INFORMATION ON Its ACTION. 


THE CODE FOx THE INHIBITORS Iss 





l= AMMONIUM 

e= DIMETHYLAMINE BE SURE TO CONSULT 

3= METHYLAMINE THE IMPOnTANT sTRuCTURAL 
4= PxHOSTIGMINE FORMULAE LISTED IN THE 
5S= TRIMETHYLAMINE INFORMATION PACKEL 

V= NO INHIBITOR 


IN THLS STUDY YOU CAN CONT#OL: 
THE AMOUNT OF ACETYLCHOLINE 
THE TYPE OF INHAIBITO:xt 
AND THE AMOUNT OF INHIBITOR 


BY COMPARING THE STRUCTUnE OF ACETYLCHOLINE WITH 
THE STRUCTUKE OF THE FIVE INHIBITOKS YOU SHOULD 

BE ABLE TO MAKE A HYPOTHESIS AS TO WHICH OF THE 

FIVE INHIBITORS WILL BE THE MOST EFFECTIVE 


REMEMBER: INCLUDE YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF [HE 
LOCK AND KEY MODEL OF ENZYME ACTION. 
AR A AR 6 Ig ie 26 2 a 2 is eg 2k 2k 2k 2k ok 2k 2k 2k 26 2 2 2 2k ek 2k 2k 2k 2 2c 2k 2 2 2 2k 2k 2K 2k ok i 2k 2 oc 2k 2 kc 2 2 


on oe, 
( 


AMOUNT OF ACETYLCHOLINE - FROM O TO 3 MILLIMOLES? 2 
TYPE OF INHIBITOR - USE CODE FROM O TO 5? 2 
WHAT IS AMOUNT OF INHIBITOR IN MILLIMOLES? 200 
DATA FORMAT: 1=TABLEs 2=GRAPH? 2 
‘MINe MILLIMOLES ACETIC ACID PRODUCED 
O l 2 
Lo eet eee t lLieieléesctél ec €F 66 Cee Csr CtCLeccelecscl 
0 I*x O 
el I * e2 
oe * 639 
ae * «5% 
4 | * 6 75 
ae * «92 
6 I * 1-07 
a = * 1.21 - 
oS I * 1634 . . 
“o> 2f # 1.46 = 
l I * 1256 
Mis * 1665 _. 
ee ae | * LleT2 
be3 £ * 1.279 
1-4 I * 1464 
1e5 I * 1246 
426 I aK 1-91 
ae oe * 1.93 
1-8 I * 1295 
5. Se * 1496 
2 I * 1297 
DO YOU WANT TO CONTINUE THE ASSAY? (1=YES»s» O=NO)? 1 
eel I * 12695 j 
2.2 1 * 1299 nN 
es Be * 1eY¥Y ~— 
geQ i * 1299 
2e5 I * 1.299 
2e<6 | * 2 
THE REACTION HAS RUN TO COMPLETION 


REMAINING CONCENTHATION OF INHIBITOnRS 200 MILLIMOLES 
2 


III. THE LOCKEY INPUTS 


As you may have noticed in the sample runs, the student must input certain infor- 

} mation. In order for him to obtain satisfactory results, he should choose values 
for the inputs that fall within the ranges listed in the outline below. (For 
more detailed information see p.4, Section III.) 


After brief instructions, the computer asks for these four inputs: 
1. Amount of acetylcholine - From 0 to 3 millimoles? 


Any value from 1 to 3 will give good data if held constant 
in all runs. 


See student manual for inhibitor code. 0 (zero) stands for 


° 
; I 2. Type of inhibitor - Use code from 0 to 5? 
no inhibitor and is used in the production of controls. 


3. What amount of inhibitor in millimoles? 
In general a value 200 times greater than input 1 produces 
good graphic results. But allow wide variation so results 
can be compared. 
4. Data format desired? 
Either format produces valid outputs. 
IV. USING LOCKEY 
A. The following subject areas should be covered in class before using LOCKEY. 
4 1. Structure and function of the enzyme. (See p.1-2, Section III.) 
2. Enzyme specificity. An enzyme works best on one (or a small number 
of structurally similar) compound(s). The Lock and Key hypothesis. 
(See p.2, Section III.) 
B. Pre-Lab Introduction 
* 
1. Brief introduction to competitive inhibition. (See p.3, Section III.) 


2. Meaning of the term millimole. (See p.3, Section III.) 


k 
3. Review of scientific method as it applies to LOCKEY. 


‘ a) control 
i b) changing only one variable, the one under study. 


a 


Cc. Lab: Small groups working independently. (See student materials.) 


1. Design experiments - inputs noted on input sheet. The input sheets allows 
a quick spot check for valid experimental design and input values. 


Can be assigned as reading as it is covered in student information. 


2. Gather data - at teletype. ( 


3. Compile data graphically and draw conclusion. 
4. Answer follow-up questions. 


dD. Post-Lab: See follow-up questions and sample answers. (See p.5-6, this Section.) 


V. OUTCOME OF LOCKEY 


As predicted by Lock and Key the drug prostigmine is the most effective inhibitor 
of the five. In fact, it is one of the two most effective competitive inhibitors 
known. (See Graph 2.1 below.) 





Graph 2.1 { 





ee x 


The fact that prostigmine is identical to acetylcholine in two locations (see 
Diagram 2.1) tells us something about the active site on the enzyme. These 
two locations must be involved in substrate recognition. 


This would partially explain why trimethylamine is a poorer inhibitor as it 
is similar at only one recognition site. Each of the other inhibitors is 


again less like acetylcholine at one site and thus should be poorer competi- 
tive inhibitors (as indicated by Graph 2.1). 


Answer key to questions in Student Material 


1. What happens to the amount of acetylcholine as acetic acid is 
being produced? Why? 


Acetylcholine concentration decreases because the 
acetylcholine is being broken down to produce the 
acetic acid. 
2. Which inhibitor is closest to acetylcholine in structure? 
Prostigmine is similar to two areas of the acetylcholine. 
3. Which part(s) of the inhibitor are similar to acetylcholine? 
The end parts: see Diagram 2.1. 


4. Which parts are not similar? 


The middle part: see Diagram 2.1. 


t 
e 
| 
ee. ' 2 
CH,— N— CHs—- CH=—10—C—CH acetylcholine 
3 ! £ 2 zZ t 3 
CH, i 
33 
é ’ 
8 § 
a ] 
4 8 
a 
. H 
— : ae : a C= CH, prostigmine 
’ ; 4 
CH C CH 
H 


similar ! different, similar 


Diagram 2.1. Comparison of structural formulas 
for acetylcholine and prostigmine. 


< 


6. 


/. 


8. 


9. 


Which inhibitor was least like acetylcholine in structure? 
Ammonium. 


Which inhibitor was most effective in slowing the breakdown 
of acetylcholine? 


Prostigmine was much more effective than any of the 
other inhibitors. 


Which was least effective? 
Ammonium. 
How might Lock and Key theory explain this? 


Since prostigmine is very similar to acetylcholine, the 
enzyme might very often join up with prostigmine instead 
of acetylcholine. Since less enzyme was reacting with 
acetylcholine, less acetylcholine could be broken down. 


But ammonium, because of its lack of similarity, joined 
with the enzyme only rarely, so the level of enzyme 
available to react with acetylcholine was only slightly 
lowered. 


Scientists get acetylcholinesterase from nerves. What animal 
would be the best to use if you wanted to get large amounts? 
Why? 


The major source today is the electric eel. (Any answer, 
however, that indicates thought should be rewarded and 
discussed.) 


Some other possible questions for discussion: 


. 


If someone were given prostigmine, what might be the first 
symptom? 


(Symptoms similar to tetany or botulism.) 


. What output format is the most useful? 


. How should you design experiments so that a fair comparison of 


the five inhibitors. can be made? 


. Why does the reaction go fast at first and slowly later?