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Full text of "Dal-Ace - Dallas Atari Computer Enthusiasts newsletter, January, 1983, Volume 4, Number 1"

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JAN 483 


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ATARIS ПЕШ DEFENDER 


VOLUME Ч 195064 








" PRESIDEHT'S PERSPECTIVE 


You may have not noticed it, but we have changed the 
look of the newsletter. After two and one half years, this 
is the first big change in the newsletter. Bill Simpson, а 
friend and professional printer, offered his help апа 
knowhow in preparing our newsletter. Аз you сап see, it 
payed off. The cost to the group even went down Бу about 
1/3. Also we now have bulk mail rate, so even the cost of 
mailing went down by 3/4. 

So, now we are looking for more input from you іп the 
way of articles and photo's of you and your ATARI. 

As you know by now, ATARI has released the news of 
their new 1200XL computer. The current information I 
. received from ATARI is that it will basically be ап 800 
stripped down. It will contain 64K of RAM, but the same 
amount as the 800, with 48K will Бе available. The only 
slot is the BASIC one. The unit has one big mother board 
with no, repeat, no expansion capability and no RF 
She Obes Ad A ветар ӨТ тепе, трае unit is said. to be 
factory sealed. There are no fancy graphic chips other 
than the ANTIC and GTIA that is in the 400/800. The price 
tag is under $1000. The unit I think should go for around 
$500 to $600 to compete with you know who. 

There will be a product review as soon as І сап 
borrow one because I'm not going to buy one. My 800 is, I 
think, still the best buy. ATARI you blew it again. 

There has been some misunderstanding on the part of а 
few as to the role that dealers play at our club meetings. 
Now that we meet at our current location, we get а lot of 
calls from dealers, both store-front and out of their 
house, to come to our meetings. The guidelines are very 
simple: One. They must be a member of the A.C.U.G.D.. 
Second. They must pay a fee of $5.00 per table to help 
cover the cost of the room. Three. During the meeting, if 
they are in the same area as the meeting, all sales will 
come to a halt until break or after the meeting. Four. 
Because they are there to support the group, a club сата 
or current newsletter with purchasers name attacted, must 
be shown to make a purchase. And last, I must Бе notified 
at least one week in advance as to someone setting up. 

Please remember, there is nothing in the Constitution 
that says it is your right to sell at the meetings. It is 
a privilege. So help us make the best of a good thing. 


Happy Computing 
Gary 


COVER PHOTO: Tabitha Sewell, daughter of. Gary Sewell, 
gives ATARI's new DEFENDER(r) a try. Photo by Gary Sewell. 





ACUGD LIBRARY DISK NO. 3 





There are a lot of great programs on this disk, 
especially if you like graphics. Atarican, Markl, 
Playmiss, Bytel, Byte2, Pokedemo, Animation, and Encounter 
are all small graphics programs. If you chained them 
together, it would be an impressive demonstration for that 
neighbor of yours who is thinking about buying a computer. 


Also on this disk are several games. Ricochet plays 
almost like the commercial version (I am told) while 
Trench (you are Luke Skywalker) is only enjoyable if the 
Force is truly with you.  Anglecan, two cannons shooting 
at each other, will make you remember your highschool 
geometry. 


The program I had most fun with however is Database. 
(But then I'm a sucker for useful programs.) Database is 
menu driven and therefore easy to operate. You start out 
by setting up the headings you want to use and the length 
of the longest heading. After that, a menu appears giving 
several options such as add a record, change a record, 
etc. Make your selection and go from there. When adding 
a record Database will ask for "field length." Through 
trial and error, I found that you cannot set a field 
length longer than 250. 


I entered a small inventory program, including a 
field entitled "cost." Database would sort on any field, 
including "Cost," in ascending or decending order and 
print records either to the screen ог to a printer. Оп my 
Epson MX-80 there was a delightful little surprise on the 
printout. 


The only trouble I had with Database was after 
choosing the print option. А second menu appears which 
lists the headings you have established and adds as the 
last number "Begin." If you choose anything other than 
"Begin," Database asks for specific search parameters. 


(1) <= (2) ж (5) >= 7 


This is where it gets confusing. If you type "1" 
after the question mark you are asking Database to search 
for records less than or equal to the heading you 
selected; "2" would be equal to, etc. After you type in 
"1, 20r 3," Database asks for "Value" and you enter 
either an amount or a word. This search technique worked 
great when using dollar amounts from my inventory, but 

seemed rather useless for alphabetical headings. Now the 











screen blanks for a second and the secondary menu 
appears again with all the headings. At this point I 
thought I had lost it all. Not so. I finally discovered 
that Database had just been doing the search. When the 
secondary menu appears for the second time, type in 
whatever number corresponds with "Begin," and Database 
will print out the record(s) that corresponds with your 
search criteria. 


Database is done in Basic and therefore slow. 
However, it you haven't sprung for File 
Manager 800 or Data Perfect, this 
program is quite capable of holding your record collection 
inventory and just about anything else you want to put in 
it. And besides, it only costs $4. 


One last thing about Database. Don't forget to save 
your records to disk.  Nothing's worse than setting up the 
headings, entering all the records and enen shutting of 
the computer without saving it all. 


ACUGD Library Disk No. 3 also has a little program 
called Digclock. Now digital clock programs are not 
extremely useful, but I added a little something to this 
one that makes it a lot more versitile. But I'11 tell you 
more about that next month. Meanwhile, go mob the 
librarian amd get this disk. 


S. J. Henderson 


FOR SALE: Intro To Programming I,II,III. New - nerver used. Cost 
$75.00 will take $50.00. | 

My First Alphabat - АРХ Software, slightly used. $17.50 

Rick Richardamm. 644-5383 


The ACUGD Bampetion Special Interest Group will be reviewing 
computer based ШВЫ: і оп programs at 7:50 Р.М. Wed, Feb 2,at the 
home of Rich Greenlee, 512 Copher Ct., Euless,Tx. (817) -267-7426. 








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FORTHought By Fred Sagor: 


FORTH Classes, А Guide to FORTH Organizations, and FORTH on the Club 
Bulletin Board System | | 


FORTH Classes 


FORTH classes will be held on Monday nights from 7:00 P.M. 
(вһағр!!) to 10:00 P.M. for 10 weeks beginning January 17,1983. The 
next section of this article outlines what FORTH is. 

I will be the instructor. I have 2 years experience working with 
FORTH on the Atari, and this will be the second time I have taught 
FORTH for ACUGD. You can call me at 424-0291. 
|» Classes will be held at the house of: 

Jim Chaney, 916 E. Berkely, Richardson, TX 75081 

Jim hosted the FORTH classes given by Harry Hafele in 1982. Jim 
has a large screen T.V. that makes it much easier for everyone to 
see. ТЕ you have access to good facilities and are willing to host 
classes for the club, please contact our Education Chairman, Tom 
Schaeper at 242-2483. | | 

You may use any version of FORTH you choose. However, my 
classes will emphasize fig-FORTH, the common base of all Atari 
FORTH's. If you can afford it, I recommend. valFORTH from Valpar 
International. all of the modules are very good to excellent, with a 
great deal of depth. As well as the main valFORTH module, Г. 
recommend the "General Utilities and Video Editor" module for this 
class. | 

A less expensive way to go is with Extended fig-FORTH by Pat 
Mullarky. Note that Extended fig-FORTH was the starting point for 
valFORTH and is very faithful to the fig-FORTH model. By special 
arrangement with Pat Mullarky, Extended fig-FÜRTH is available thru 
the club, for members only, in disk or tape form. 

You should have at least 32K of memory to program in FORTH. А 
disk is very helpful, but tape is adequate. | 

"Starting FORTH" (outlined in a later section) is the required 
text. Costs for the class (in addition to your getting "Starting 
FORTH") are a one time fee of $10 for refreshments and a one time 
fee of $5 to reproduce handouts. The club normally mandates a $5 fee 
to be paid by each student to the instructor. Instead of this, Jim 
Chaney and I request that each student select and perform a service 
for the club. | | 

Please bring "Starting FORTH", paper, pencil, and а diskette or 
a cassette tape to each class session. You will be ahead of the game 
if you read chapter 1. and 2 before the first class. 

The rest of this section is a set of directions to Jim Chaney's 
house starting from Central Expressway and Spring Valley in 
Richardson. Go east on Spring Valley. The road will fork at the 
second light. Bear right and the road will become Centennial Blvd. 
Go about one and a half miles on Centennial, accross Greenville Ave. 
and Abrams. At first light after railroad tracks, turn left onto 
College Park and go one block north to E. Berkley. Turn left onto 
E. Berkley. Number 916 is halfway down the block on the left. 1 
look forward to seeing-you there. 





FORTH is one ue the oat. реда eal computer languages ever 
developed. > ` Most computer languages have a fixed definition. 

FORTH does: not. FORTH is a living; ‘evolving language, like English. 

FORTH starts you out with a good, solid set of pre-defined 
words. When you program in FORTH, you define new, more useful words 
in terms of older words. This lets you build up a language that is 
tailored to the types Gf problem you wish to solve. Finally, you 
define a word that is the solution to your problem. 

7 The different versions of FORTH differ in terms of what words 
have been pre-defined. А11 FORTH's now available for the Atari are 
Базед: оп a set of words called fig-FORTH. 

FORTH includes an assembler (written in FORTH) that can be 
extended to become much more powerful than a conventional 
macro-assembler. FORTH lets you move at will from the low level 
world of assembly language, peeks and pokes, up to the high level 
world of IF...THEN...ELSE, FOR...LOOP, CASE statements, recursion, 
and beyond to levels of control beyond conventional languages. FORTH 
is a structured, interactive language. This makes debugging much 
easier. FORTH also includes an editor and methods of taking over 
direct control of your disk drive. © 

Typically, FORTH programs rur about 10 times faster than BASIC, 
2 times faster than "C", and 2-3 times slower than pure assembly 
language. FORTH programs Сап be made to use much less memory than 
other languages (including assembly language) available on the 
Atari. Because of this, it nas neen used to чеме торе ROM cartridges 
and Atari arcade machines. i 

The Atari ЕОКТН Interest теу 


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The Atari FORTH Interest Group is a very informal group of 
members of the Atari Computer User Group of Dallas who like to 
exchange information about FORTH. 

We meet once a month at 7:30 P.M. on the Thursday after the main 
ACUGD. meeting. This is normally the first Thursday after the first 
Saturday оғ “gach month. The: meetings are free (and fun!). Each month 
we meet at a different member's hoüse. Refreshments are supplied by 
the host. The exact date and place of each meeting are published in 
the club newsletter and will be: posted on the bulletin board system. 
New members arè: always welcome.  . 

“Тһе founder and focal. point! оғ this group is Tom кораш: For 
more “information,” you can contact, Tom at 242-2483, or call me at 
424-0291. ` Our’ "agenda" „28. ‘to talk about and demonstrate our FORTH 
activities until we run out of steam after about 2 hours. Then 
comes биг. world f apous “Part. 2". “This is а free-wheeling "bull 
séssion" and demonstration of whatever anyone has gotten or built 
for the Atari. Part 2 has. been known to run very late. 

The next meeting of the Atari FORTH Interest Group will be held 
January 13, 1983 at 7:30 P. M. at the home of: 

Don Care 

10209 White Elm Dr. 
Dallas, TX 75243 
Home phone: 235-6126 








A-b-U-6-U PAGE 8 | 


FIGs The International FORTH Interest Group 











The FORTH Interest Group is a non-profit organization dedicated 
to the promotion of the FORTH language. Most of the work of FIG is 
in the public domain. This includes Assembly Source Listings of 
fig-FORTH for several computers including our own 6502 (the CPU of 
the Atari 400 and 800). Other publications are the Proceedings of 
the FORTH Modification Lab (FORML) and the FORTH-79 Standard. 
Е: You can join FIG for $15 рег year. This gives you а 1 year 
subscription (6 issues) to FORTH Dimensions, the FIG technical and 
news magazine. Each issue of FORTH Dimensions is now about 34 pages 
long and always has excellent articles. Leo Brodie (the author of 
"Starting FORTH”) is the editor. | 

The address is: 


FORTH Interest Group 
Р.О. Box 1105 

San Carlos, СА 94070 
(415) 932-8650 


They will take MasterCard and VISA on orders of $10 or more. Ве 
sure to request your free FORTH programmer reference card. 

FIG runs a Conference Tree online bulletin board at (415) 
787-1534. Use 500 baud, full duplex. Press "Return" twice to start. 

FIG has several U.S. and Foreign chapters including: 


Тһе Dallas/Fort Worth Chapter of FIG 


Е 


The local chapter of the FORTH Interest Group aeets eonthly, on 
the 4th Thursday at 7300 Р.М. а: 
Software Automation 
1005 Business Parkway 
Richardson, Texas 


For more information, call Marvin Elder (214) 231-9142 or Bill 
Drissel (214) 264-9680. Meetings cost $1.50 each to pay for 
refreshaents, mailings, etc. 

About half the members of the Dallas/Fort Worth Chapter are 
professional FORTH programmers. About 15 different types of 
computers are represented (FORTH is one of the most transportable 
languages there is). At a normal eeeting, there are 1 or 2 formal 
Speakers. The meeting usually lasts about 2 and a half hours. You 
do not need to be a member of FIG to attend. 

This group is associated with the international FORTH Interest 
Group (FIG). It is not connected with the Atari Computer User Group 
of Dallas. 

Mountain View Press 


Mountain View Press, Inc. 
Р.О. Box 4656 

Mountain View, СА 94040 
(415) 961-4103 


АЕ PAGE Ч 


This is a profit making company, in зове way associated with the 
international FORTH Interest Group (FIG). The phones for both | 
organizations are answered by the same people. Mountain View Press 
publishes and distributes many FORTH related products, eost of which 
are not in the public domain. 

Two documents that I recomend are "Startin FORTH" at $916 soft 
cover, $20 hard cover (more about this in the next section), and the 
"FORTH Encyclopedia" at $25. The "FORTH Encyclopedia" is an advanced 
book of about 336 pages defining in detail (including flow charts) 
all of the words in fig-FORTH, with references to FORTH-79. Checks, 
money orders, VISA, MasterCard, and COD's are accepted. 





Starting FORTH 


SZIZEIESESEE2EISIEQEJIEIEIIEN GE 


"Starting FORTH", written and illustrated by Leo Brodie. 
Copyright 1981 by FORTH, Inc., Published by Prentice-Hall. 

This remarkable and delightful book far surpasses all earlier 
books for the beginning FORTH programmer has been the required 
textbook for all of the FORTH classes held to date by ACUGD. This 
565 page book has been enjoyed even by people who don't like FORTH. 
Locally, I have seen the soft cover version of this book at The 
Micro Store, Softwares, Waldenbooks, and B. Dalton Bookseller at 
about ($15.95). The hard cover version at $20 is available froa 
Mountain View Press. The only problem with the book is that it is | 
based on polyFORTH by FORTH, Inc., not fig-FORTH. However, the two 
versions of forth are quite similar. One help is а 3 page public 
domain document "Notes for the valFORTH User" available from: 


Valpar International 
3801 East 34th Street 
Suite 105 

Tucson, Arizona 83713 
(800) 528-7070 


Be sure to ask for a FORTH bumper 
sticker! 


FORTH on the Club Bulletin Board 


Watch for the latest news about FORTH on the new FORTH file on 
the clubs Bulletin Board. Contributions welcome! Join the 
FORTHwriters' | | 





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.operating system program. First you may ask why . do, I want © 
to. change. it in the first place? Well, аз we all know, the | 
EU (and. girls) out in Sunnyvale are not perfect when it 
comes to programming. Wouldn't it be nice to correct some | 
of their mistakes. 

Also, think how you. might re- -write the 05 to suit 
your needs, say..change the Screen. ‘color, set the margins, 
etc. 

Wells Newell. Ind. .has come out. _ With. .board, . that 
plugs into. your. 800. (уез I. said. 800 “not. 400) “phat, allows 2 


жақс ән 


ou to н EPROMS. in place. of, the 05”, ROMS. With these | . 








“EPRO MS ` ‘you | can modify. the system until n are pour" 


face (өт, screen). Note though, you myst е carefull о. | 
„you are doing. A wrong. patch, and your | 800, may fail | тыз 
Work аваіп until you correct the Problem, ог install des 
original ‘ROMS again. -` pase и | Ns 
| On the subject of ананын you | do i ` remove A 
the ogg, Poari, Zemoye the three ROMS on that board "ада" Е 
i . them i the same location on, the. пен, board. Male 
sure the "düftchés аге set eorréctly, "and ` re- install. "the си 


¢ 


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“ew board, ‘Thats’ Pr. сақаны | | И 


5, s BAT 


Tb make changes Чо the 05, ала "ust “Have: "EPROM^ 
burner. I won't go into the process of burning t “EPROM! s 
or changing the OS here. There are people іп, “the group to 
help you with that. — 5. 

Оп the board you will notice смо. . additional eo 
These are for installing either 4K of RÁM QE ‘EPROM ` ‘that 
unused range at %С000 to $CFFF. With this tem? you 
Can place routines here for any 1. РА like. Опе ѕіде 
effect of this is, programs’ like “Microsoft "5asic(r), | 
Visicalc(r), Letter Perfect(r), Data  Perfect(r), апа "Host 
forth programs can use it. These are only a few of the 
programs I have к Қ оа 

Newell pq us aiso” “ Pnélüdihg | “a "monitor that will 
plug into this area that will do some ОЁ the features of 
DISKSCAN plus others. о were written ру Nude Young of 
“cher Dairis А по К, к, ақ ласа. NN 

I Will до а Téview oF the monitor  hext motth' “because ^ 
it will take a whole page just to cover it. у. 

The price on the board varies with the way you buy it 
but the base price із $159.95. For current price 
information, contact Newell Ind. at 1-214-423-1781. 





* 
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by Gary Sewell 


e de царі. 2. or thg biggest 244. with. | the Atari 
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PPBEIT 





CREATIVE FIRMWARE 


ATARI 800/400 EPROM DEVELOPMENT SYSTEMS 


Finally there is an inexpensive way for you to develop your own 
custom software in ROM! -_ | | 


CREATIVE FIRMWARE EPROM PROGRAMMER 
The CREATIVE FIRMWARE EFROM PROGRAMMER runs from the joystick 
ports on your ATARI computer and permits programming of 2716 and 
253A EFROMs (273 and 2732A programming > афар ет optional). 
Simple commands Дака you to READ, VERIFY and ЕКОСКАМ these 
EFROMs ав well as SAVE and LOAD programs to cassette or disk and 
LIST these programs to the printer. The software is all in 
machine language resulting in the fastest possible programming 
time. Disk and cassette SAVE and LOAD formats are completely 
compatible with the DOS binary files. In addition, the CF EPROM 
Frogrammer permits you to read 2K and АҚ mask programmed ROMs. 
Frogram editing is also an included feature. The CF ЕРКОМ 
Frogrammer is supplied in kit form only. Specify disk or- 
cassette based system. 


CREATIVE FIRMWARE CARTRIDGE EPROM BOARD 
This board fits into the cartridge slotí(s) on ATARI computers 
"and permits up to ВК of ЕРКОМ space. Simple strapping options 
on the board permit the use of one or two 2716s, one or two 
25525, or ohe of each! The CF ЕРКОМ Cartridge Board is supplied 
in kit form only. | 


Frogramming adapter for 2732 and 2732A «РКОМе: | $17.50 
2716 EFROMs(2K0: $4.00 | 

. 2532 ЕРКОМе(4К):  $& OO 

NOTE: The Cartridge EFROM Board has вете plated connectors. 


PRICING 
і. CARTRIDGE EFROM BOARD (kit(w/all parts less EFROMs): $12.89 7 
27 EFROM FROGRAMMER (kit w/all parts less case): à $79.00 
4 
> 


Add $2.00 shipping ага амы реғ Seder (Texas residents - add 
5% state sales tax). 


For more info or to place order: 


CREATIVE FIRMWARE 
| 707 Auburn Drive 
Richardson, Texas 75081 
(274) 599-2571 after 6PM 





А-С-0-6-0 PAGE іс 





BASIC COMPILER 


It’s here--a compiler for ATARI Basic is about to be released by 


DATASOFT. ‘fou can use it for your own applications, on commercial 
products you have bought elsewhere GAPX^s XREF is a prime candidate», 
or tor sottware that vou develop tor sale. In the last case, there 
will be no run-time licence fee, but vou will need to insert a credit 
reterencing the compiler and DATASOFT. 

SPEED--this is the objective, and you will find the compiler can 


increase the speed of your programs by about 15 X. 

CODE PROTECTION--since the output is machine code, it is much 

easier to protect your programs against piracy. 

EASE OF DEVELOPMENT AND DEBUGGING--yes, now you can develop your 
programs in a high-level language, using all the powerful commands, 
especially in the Graphics area, and do you debugging in interactive 
mode with BASIC. Then when the program is complete and tested, 
switch to Machine Code tor speed and code protection. 

TWO FLAVORS--that’s right, you have the choice of selecting the 
*tloating point option at compile time, and getting arount 3 X the 
speed, or the 2-byte integer option and getting the full 15 x. 

An update that is expected to Бе released later will allow 4-byte 
integer for around a S X speed increase. The FP option is most 
suited to scientific and mathematical applications. The 2-^5yte 
integer option is most suited to utilities and games. The 4-byte 
integer version will be the preferred option for business 
applications, but until! it comes out, use floating point. 

LARGEST PROGRAM--the largest program that you can compile will be 
around 150 sectors. 

DOUBLE DENSITY ORIUES--yes, it works fine with the PERCOM drives. 

In fact, the largest program compilable increases to around 160 
standard sectors (88 DD sectors?) with these drives. 

MEMORY--you will need 48KB. А compiled program wil! be larger than 
the BASIC version--ballpark is about 20% larger. This is so of most 
assembler programs, since BASIC is actually а form of shorthand, 
which is expanded, one line at a time, when the program is run 

(this is also why BASIC is so slow). 

FORMAT--the compiler takes your program, in tokenized mode, and 
generates assembler code from it in PASS 1. PASS 2 builds a symbol 
table trom.the generated assembler code. PASS 3 assembles the 

code from the compiler and the appropriate run-time library 

into an executable machine language program. The Run-time library 
is assembled beginning at $2480 (decimal 9000). The program itself 
is assembled beginning at $3280 (decimal 12588). PASS 4 gives vou 
the option of listing to the screen ог the printer a BASIC statement 
W/memory address cross-reference. This is very useful, since if vou 
get a system error in program execution, you can abort the run, 
continue from the point of error, restart your program at the 
beginning, or start it at any other point (aren’t you glad vou 

took a hard-copy of the addresses??. 

YOu can also immediately execute the program you just compiled 
while in PASS 4. 

RESTRICTIONS--I Know this question was high in your mind. The news 
is excellent. ALL OF ATARI BASIC IS IMPLEMENTED, with the exception 
ot commands that deal with program files (SAVE, CSAVE, LOAD, CLOAC, 
LIST, ENTER, RUN with an argument--RUN by itself is OK), and the 
commands DOS (yeah, I wish that one was there tco!?, МЕМ, BYE, and 


CONT. None of that is too hard to live with (well, DOS wou!d have 
been nice, and without arguments after the RUN command, you can’t 
chain programs). точ can only terminate a FOR/NEXT loop with a 


single NEXT (по NEXT’s in IF statements--uze GOTO’s to the МЕСТ). 

you can't use variable line 876 ibut vou can use ОМ GOTO- GOSUB te 

get the same effect), and vou can’t PRINT CHRS( 155) (use PUT еп, it 
instead). | z 





РАБЕ 13 





You must DilMension arrays in your program before any line that 
references them--not just before in the logical flow ot the program, 
but in a line with a lower line 8'!'' Also, all DATA statements must 
be at the end of the program. There is also a restriction on the 
way strings and substrings are handled that means you will avoid 
having substrings on the left side of an "=" sign, or assigning to 
any string variable a literal that contains a character with the 
decimal value 155 (since this is the RETURN code in BASIC, vou 
would have had to POKE this into the literal in the first place, 
so do it to the string instead). The restriction on substrings on 
the left side of an "=" is handled with PEEK’s and РОКЕ” =, so 
you can still do what you need to do in your program, just do 
it in a difterent way. 
INTEGER OPTION--you can’t use the transcendental functions 
(SIN, COS, ATAN, CLOG, LOG, EXP, SQR), of course, or any fractions, since 
the only numbers supported are integers. And, being 2-byte integers, 
the numbers range from -32767 to 32767 (you can, however, PEEK and 
POKE up to ó4K and the compiler will generate workable code tor 
your. When using RNO, instead of saying A4XRND«à5 to get a number 
between 0 and 3.9999999, you say ЁЕМО‹ 4) to get an INTEGER between 
В and 3. To use the smallest amount of memory possible, use GOSUB's 
liberally cCisn’t it wonderful to be able once again to follow the 
precepts of Structured Programming, and Top-down systems design k 
programming к testing--much better programs should result, with 
fewer bugs, clearer documentation and more reliable maintenance), 
while minimizing the use ot SUBSTRING’s, ARRAY's or a variable as the 
step size in a FOR/NEXT loop. | 
Since your programs will now run faster than excrement through a goose, 
vou will have to stop using FOR/NEXT loops to build delays into 
your program ‘you shouldn’t be using them anyhow, since they are 
dependent on position in your program)--instead use: 

nnnnn D260:GOSUB 2600900 

200800 POKE 544,0 

20018 IF РЕЕК< 544) 28 THEN 28818 

20020 RETURN 
to give delays measured in "jiffies", ог 1/4@ of a second. The 
preceding example gives a one second delay. Since you can РОКЕ 
any number up to 255, you can have any delay up to just over 4 
seconds. If this is not enough for you, use the following: 

nnnnn D1z88:02x2:gosub 20000 

20008 POKE 544,01:РОКЕ 545,02 

. 20010 IF «РЕЕК“ 544) +РЕЕК 5452228 THEN 248186 

26026 RETURN 
to give delays of up to just over 18 minutes. D! is 9 of jiftfies 
and 02 is # of 258 X jiffies. The preceding example gives a delay 
ot 108 seconds. 
MY COMMENTS: This product is НОТ!!! Look for ATARI to explore this 
as a program product in the near future. | | 

«Р.З. While you can run this product on a single density, single 

drive system, it is easier with two single density crives, and 

easier still with one double density drive. H W has a good 

price on PERCOM double density drives, and I can speak from 

experience that they are great--! have two of them 


-— - вт - 
2-47 à 
42245 2246 


BILL Васо (2122 


G. 





A-C-U-G-O _ PRBEIQ 





EDITOR*S NOTE 





I want to come everyone back from the holidays and hope that 
each of you had a very gerry one. Since the December seeting I 
have read sevérel articles which have given а glieps of what we 
cen expect in tu future from Atari. One was from Datamation. To 
provide a super condensed version it goes something like this. 
In the beginning was Pong. Then came Warner Communications 
which makes movies and records and publishes MAD eagizine and DC 
comics. Is this any way to develope а computer? You bet! Atari 
has grown by a factor of 22 in four years and doubling every 
eight months, and generated nearly half on Warner's projected 
94.2 BILLION revinue. WON!! Information processing іп the office 
and in the home is upon us and in the next 3 to 5 years more 
than half of the Новев in the U.S. will have computers. Warner, 
with its interactive cable, will be very involved in that as 
will the Atari computer. Alan Kay, the chief scientist for 
Atari, has been given a very large budget to insure that Atari 
not only keaps pace with the future but sets the pace. He is 
building а team that will plot this coarse. With а deal signed 
with Lucasfila, Atari not only has the right to create games 
based on the movies (RAIDERS and Revenge of the Jedi) but a plan 
to incorporate Lucasfile's highly advanced interactive graphic 
capabilities into its future line of products. The technologies 
that will be incorporated into the next generation of Atari 
products are likely to include voice synthesis, artificial 
черен interactive graphics, animation, апа 35-0. Along 
these lines Atari has acquired most of the consumer-oreiented 
holographic patents in the U.S. and today Kay's group is 
experimenting wiht hologramas as well as alternate means of 
incorporating S-D into future products. 

Of an more immediate nature, I read where a bank in МУ has 
been trying a pilot program of "banking at home". А person could 
do most of their normal banking from their home computer, 

| transfer of funds, paying bills, inquiry into the balance of 
‘their account , and other common banking functions. For this 
program they used Atari computers! The plan worked very well and 
other banks across the country are going to be starting their 
own similar services. 

Have you heard about tuning into your favorite computer 
station on the radio? NO? Well it is just around the corner. А 
pilot project was recently run in the D.C. area, where computer 
programe and articles were broadcast to subscribers. All you 
need is a radio eodem. It is just like a phone modem except not 
limited to 500 baud and it picks up its signal froa the air 
waves instead of a phone. 









PAGE IS 





A-C-U-G-0 





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