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M^cGra*- 






.teCQ 



irO§l 



tilne 




owerful 




DPU card with error-correcting 
memory and controller cards 



68000-Powered 

Once again you get a big stride forward with Cromemco. 

This time it's our new DPU Dual Processor Unit. It gives 
enormous power to Cromemco computer systems such as 
our System One shown here. 

Compares with mainframes 

With the new DPU you get the almost unbelievably 
powerful 68000 processor and its 32-bit data-handling 
capabilities combined with its 16 Megabyte address space. 

In other words with the System One /DPU combination 
you get a small machine that's the equal of superminis and 
mainframes in some areas. 



8-Bit and 68000 software 

The dual part of the DPU refers to its on-board Z-80A 
processor. With this you have access to existing CP/M* 
software. 



for tomorrow 

But besides being compatible with this wealth of existing 
8-bit software, the System One/DPU has available a whole 
family of new 68000 system software. This includes a wide 
range of high-level software such as our 68000 Assembler, 
FORTRAN 77, Pascal, BASIC, COBOL, and C. 

Beyond all this there's a version for the 68000 of our 
widely admired CROMIXt Operating System. It's like 
UNIXJ but has even more features and gives multi-tasking 
and multi-user capability. In fact, one or more users can run 
on the Z-80A processor while others are running on the 
68000. Switching between the Z-80A and 68000 is auto- 
matically controlled. 

The System One itself is a bus-oriented machine that has 
options for color graphics, for 390K or 780K of floppy 
storage, a 5 MB hard disk option, communications capabil- 
ity, and multi-processor capability using our I/O processor 
card. 



Powerful new micro. 
Powerful software. 





System One CS-1H 



Highly expandable 

i/ith the System One/DPU combination, you get 
tremendous expandability. Right now you can have up to 2 
MB of RAM storage. You get this with our new Memory 
Storage cards and our Memory Controller. The Controller 
fully supports the 16 MB storage space of the 68000, allow- 
ing you vast future expansion capability. 

Further, the memory has built-in error detection and 
correction, a feature normally found only in much more 
costly systems. 

Present customers can field-upgrade their Cromemco 
systems to use the DPU and still be able to run their present 
software using the Z-80A on the DPU. It's one more 



3102 Terminal 



instance of Cromemco's policy of providing obsolescence 
insurance for Cromemco users. 

Low priced 

With all this performance you might not be ready for the 
low price we're talking about. With 256K of RAM and 780K 
of floppy storage, the price of the System One/DPU is only 
$5495. That's hard to beat. 

So contact your rep now. Hell fill you in on the many 
more features that this outstanding and powerful machine 
offers. 

*CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 
tCROMtX is a trademark of Cromemco, Inc. 
tUNIX is a trademark of Bel] Telephone Laboratories 



>TM 



Q Cromemco 
incorporated 
280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415)964-7400 
Tomorrow's computers today 

Circle 128 on Inquiry card. 




M> INTERFACES 



COLOR GRAPHICS 








I* 











11-MBYTE 










COLOR 


FLOPPY DISK 


HARD DISK 


JOYSTICK 


SOFTWARE 


ERMINAL 


PRINTERS 


MONITORS 


DRIVES 


DRIVE 


CONSOLE 


SUPPORT 




at Cromemco computer card 
capability can do for you 



The above diagram shows in a func- 
tional way one of the most complete 
lines of computer cards in the industry. 

Look it over carefully. It could be well 
worth your while. 

These are all cards that plug into our 
S-100 bus microcomputers. 

You can also assemble them into a 
custom system in convenient Cromemco 
card cages. 

MULTI-PROCESSING AND 
INTELLIGENT I/O 

The range of capabilities and versatility 
you can draw upon is enormous. 

In processors, for example, you have a 
choice of CPU's including our extremely 
useful new I/O Processor. This can be 
used as a satellite processor to do off-line 
processing, multi-processing, and to form 
intelligent I/O. It opens the door to a 
whole new group of applications and 
tasks. Ask us about it. 

HIGH RESOLUTION 
COLOR GRAPHICS 

Again, you can have beautiful high- 
resolution color graphics with our color 
graphics interface. You can select from 
over 4000 colors and have a picture with 
a resolution at least equal to quality 
broadcast-TV pictures. 





You have an unprecedented selection 
of memory including our unusual 48K 
and 16K two-port RAMs which allow 
high-speed color graphics. 

LOTS OF STORAGE 

These days you often want lots of disk 
storage. So you can select from our disk 
controller card which will operate our 5" 
and 8" floppy disk drives (up to 1.2 
megabytes). Or select our WDI interface 
to operate our 11-megabyte hard disk 
drives. 

POWERFUL SOFTWARE AND 
PERIPHERAL SUPPORT 

There's much more yet you can do 
with our cards. And, of course, there's an 
easy way to put them to work in our 8-, 
12-, and 21 -slot card cages. Our PS8 
power supply makes it simple to get the 
system into operation. 

Finally, Cromemco offers you the 
strongest software support in the industry 



with languages like FORTRAN, 
COBOL, ASSEMBLER, LISP, BASIC and 
others. There is also a wide choice from 
independent vendors. 

To top it all off, you can draw from 
substantial array of peripherals: ter 
minals, printers, color monitors and dis 
drives. 

There is even more capability tha 
we're able to describe here. 

NOW AT HALL-MARK 
AND KIERULFF 

For your convenience Cromemo 
products are now available at Hall-Mark 
Electronics and Kierulff Electronics. Con 
tact these national distributors for im 
mediate product delivery. 

CROMEMCO COMPUTER CARDS 
• PROCESSORS — 4 MHz Z-80 A CPU, single card 
computer, I/O processor • MEMORY — up to 64K 
including special 48K and 1 6K two-port RAMS and 
our very well known BYTESAVERS® with PROM 
programming capability • HIGH RESOLUTION 
COLOR GRAPHICS — our SDI offers up to 754 x 
482 pixel resolution. • GENERAL PURPOSE IN- 
TERFACES— QUADART four-channel serial com- 
munications, TU-ART two-channel parallel and 
two-channel serial, 8PIO 8-port parallel, 4PIO 
4-port isolated parallel, D+ 7A 7-c:hanncl D/A and 
A/D converter, printer interface, floppy disk con- 
troller with RS-232 interface and system 
diagnostics, wire-wrap and extender cards for yoi 
development work. 



Q Cromemco '" 
incorporated 
280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415)964-7400 
Tomorrow's computers today 

Circle 129 on Inquiry card. 



In The Queue 



BITE 



Volume 8, Number 



January 1983 



Features 

30 The Compaq Computer by Mark Dahmke / The 

latest IBM-compatible microcomputer, this portable machine 
can run all IBM system software, and it costs less than the 
Personal Computer. 

40 Microcomputing, British Style by Gregg 

Williams / Our Senior Editor braved the crowds and the 
clamor of the fifth Personal Computer World Show to bring 
us this firsthand account. 

54 Build the Circuit Cellar MPX-16 Computer 
System, Part 3 by Steve Ciarcia / The final installment 
describes the design of the MPX- 1 6, which is I/O 
compatible with the IBM Personal Computer. 

86 Heath's HERO-1 Robot by Steven 
Leininger / This microcomputer-controlled robot 
demonstrates the principles of automation and robotics. 

1 00 IBM's "Secret" Computer: the 9000 by Chris 

Morgan / IBM Instruments Inc. manufacturers a 
68000-based instrumentation computer that could become 
a powerful business machine. 

1 28 The Next Generation of Microprocessor by 

Timothy Stryker / Before too long, integrated-circuit 
manufacturers will be marketing single-chip processors that 
directly implement high-level languages in hardware. 

152 Maximizing Power In Multiuser Architectures 

by Mark Garetz / A system design combines the 
advantages of a single-processor multiuser system with 
those of both loosely and tightly coupled networks. 

1 66 Personal Computers In the Eighties by 

Greggory S. Blundell / A recent study shows that the 
market potential for the next decade is enormous. 

1 86 Meet You at the Fair by Philip A. Schrodt / A 

first-person report of the S 12.5-million high-tech rock 
concert sponsored by Steve Wozniak. 

1 98 Public Key Cryptography by John Smith / An 

introduction to a powerful cryptographic system for use 
on microcomputers. 

234 Atari Player-Missile Graphics In BASIC by Paul 
S. Swanson / The Atari computer offers a unique way to 
manipulate graphics in a BASIC program. 

254 Problem Oriented Language, Part 2: Writing a 

Module by Mark Finger / Develop a problem oriented 
program with simplified data input. 

283 Eratosthenes Revisited: Once More through 
the Sieve by Jim Gilbreath and Gary Gilbreath / A closer 
look at a benchmark prime-number program and various 
Pascal and C compilers. 



371 Vector Graphics for the TRS-80 by Dan 

Rollins / How to incorporate machine-language graphics 
into your BASIC programs. 

396 Simulation of Simple Digital Logic through 
a Computer-Aided Design System by Robert 

McDermott / Computer-aided design for hobbyists. 

418 User's Column: Burnouts, Bargains, and Two 
Sleek Portables by Jerry Pournelle / The tireless industry 
critic mourns Ezekial and seeks comfort from the exquisite 
Adelle, who happens to be an Otrona Attache. 



Reviews 

110 Apple-Cat II by James A. Pope 

330 Whitesmiths C Compiler by Larry Reid and Andrew 

P. McKinlay 

346 Analyst and Qsort by Structured Systems Group 

by Jack L. Abbott 

364 The Timex/Sinclair 1000 by Billy Garrett 

446 Supervyz and Organizr: Two Menu-Driven Front 

Ends for CP/M by Christopher O. Kern 



Nucleus 



6 

14 

222, 



272, 



387, 

386, 

391 

463 

469 

470 

476 

480 

481 

486 

541 

542 

544 



Editorial: New Hardware 

Letters 

381 System Notes: Exploring the Commodore 

VIC-20; Autograph: A Plotting Subroutine in TRS-80 

Level II BASIC 

276, 386 Book Reviews: Teletext and Videotex in 

the United States; Structured Systems Programming; 

Silent Witness: A Novel of Computer Crime 

454 Programming Quickies: Another Binary to BCD 

Conversion Routine; High-Speed Pascal Text File I/O 

468, 475, 479, 485 BYTE's Bits 

BYTE's Bugs 

BYTELINES 

Clubs and Newsletters 

Event Queue 

Software Received 

Books Received 

Ask BYTE 

What's New? 

Unclassified Ads 

BOMB, BOMB Results 

Reader Service 


















hTTT^TTTTTTi 






Page 40 



^^^^■^■B 



Page 54 



^^^^^^wmBBr&KESsS 



Paqe 100 



Page 110 



Editor in Chief 
Christopher P. Morgan 

Managing Editor 

Mark Haas 

Technical Editors 

Gregg Williams, Senior Editor; 
Richard S. Shuford, Curtis P. Feigel. 
George Stewart, Arthur Little, Stanley 
Wszola, Pamela Clark, Richard Malloy; 
Phillip Lemmons, West Coast Editor; Steve 
Ciarcia, Mark Dahmke, Consulting Editors; 
Jon Swanson, Drafting Editor 

Copy Editors 

Beverly Cronin, Chief; 

Faith Hanson. Warren Williamson, Anthony J. 

Lockwood, Hilary Selby Polk, Elizabeth Kepner, 

Nancy Hayes, Cathryn Baskin, Tom McMillan; 

Margaret Cook. Junior Copy Editor 

Assistants 

Faith Kluntz. Beverly Jackson, Lisa Jo Steiner 



Production 

David R. Anderson, Assoc. Director; 
Patrice Scribner. Jan Muller, Virginia Reardon; 
Sherry McCarthy, Chief Typographer; Debi 
Fredericks, Donna Sweeney, Valerie Horn 

Advertising 

Deborah Porter, Supervisor; 

Marion Carlson, Rob Hannings. Vicki 

Reynolds, Cathy A. R. Drew, Lisa Wozmak; 

Patricia Ackerley, Reader Service Coordinator; 

Wai Chiu Li, Advertising/Production 

Coordinator; Linda J. Sweeney 

Circulation 

Gregory Spitzfaden, Manager; 

Andrew Jackson. Asst. Manager; 

Agnes E. Perry, Barbara Varnum, Louise 

Menegus, Jennifer Price, Sheila A. Bamford; 

James Bingham. Dealer Sales, Deborah J. 

Cadwell, Asst; Linda Ryan 

Marketing Communications 

Horace T. Howland. Director; 

Wilbur S. Watson. Coordinator; 

Timothy W. Taussig, Graphic Arts Manager; 

Michele P. Verville, Research Manager 

Controller's Office 

Kenneth A. King, Asst. Controller; 
Mary E. Fluhr, Acct. & D/P Mgr.; Karen 
Burgess, Jeanne Cilley, Linda Fluhr, Vicki 
Bennett. L. Bradley Browne. Vern Rockwell 

Business Manager 

Daniel Rodriguez 

Traffic 

N. Scott Gagnon, Manager; 
Scott Jackson, Kathleen Reckart 

Receptionist 

Jeanann Waters 

Publishers 

Virginia Londoner, Gordon R. Williamson; 
John E. Hayes. Associate Publisher; 
Cheryl A. Hurd, Publisher's Assistant 



fll 



Officers of McGraw-Hill Publications Com- 
pany: Paul F. McPherson, President; Executive 
Vice President: Gene W. Simpson; Senior Vice 
President-Editorial: Ralph R. Schulz; Vice 
Presidents: R. Bernard Alexander; Kemp Ander- 
son, Business Systems Development; Shel F. 
Asen, Manufacturing; Harry L. Brown. Special 
Markets; Robert B. Doll, Circulation; James E. 
Hackett, Controller; Eric B. Herr, Planning and 
Development; H. John Sweger, Jr., Marketing. 

Officers of the Corporation: Harold W. 
McGraw Jr., Chairman and Chief Executive 
Officer; Joseph L. Dionne, President and Chief 
Operating Officer; Robert N. Landes, Senior Vice 
President and Secretary; Ralph J. Webb, 
Treasurer. 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 







In This Issue 

The microcomputer industry is still moving along at a good clip. New and 
improved products proliferate and the battle for shelf space and consumers' 
cash is as heated as ever. This month we feature several of the latest offerings 
and look ahead at the shape of things to come. Showcased in our cover 
photo, by Paul Avis, are three such items: the Compaq computer, a portable 
unit that boasts complete compatibility with the IBM Personal Computer; the 
HERO-1 Robot from Heath Co., an educational device that demonstrates prin- 
ciples of automation and robotics; and the Epson QX-10/Valdocs System, a 
machine noteworthy for the way in which its software and hardware are in- 
tegrated (for a product description see September 1982 BYTE, page 54). Chris 
Morgan describes "IBM's 'Secret' Computer: the 9000," Billy Garrett reviews 
"The Timex/Sinclair 1000," Timothy Stryker discusses "The Next Generation of 
Microprocessor," and Greggory S. Blundell looks at "Personal Computers in 
the Eighties." Gregg Williams reports on his recent trip to the Personal Com- 
puter World Show in London in "Microcomputing, British Style." Philip A. 
Schrodt gives us a first-person report of the U.S. Festival, a high-tech rock con- 
cert, in "Meet You at the Fair." Steve Ciarcia concludes his three-part article 
"Build the Circuit Cellar MPX-1 6 Computer System." Plus we have our regular 
features and reviews. 



BYTE is published monthly by BYTE Publications Inc, 70 Main St, Peterborough NH 03458, phone [603) 
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MicroAngelo based color graphics systems are easy to 
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Formats: 8" SS/SD. Apple II with CP/M, 5'/." and 8" 
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The Micro Link II * 1982 by Wordcraft. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, 

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CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research. Inc. 

MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft. 

THE SOURCE is a subsidiary of THE READER'S 

DIGEST ASSOCIATION 



Editorial 



New Hardware 



by Chris Morgan, Editor in Chief 



The January issue of BYTE has traditionally been our showcase for new 
microcomputer hardware because it follows on the heels of the November 
COMDEX show and the scores of fall product announcements. This month is 
no exception — you'll find a wealth of the latest items herein. 

The industry's new product fever rages on, spurred by record growth in 
sales and profits. Apple, Tandy, and Commodore, the three biggest names in 
our business, posted fiscal 1982 sales increases of 75 percent, 70 percent, and 
63 percent, respectively — all in the midst of a recession. Equally encouraging 
are the many product introductions coming from companies new to the com- 
puter market. The Compaq from Compaq Computer Corporation, Houston, 
Texas, is featured in our cover photo this month (for story see page 30). Along 
with it on the cover are the Heath HERO-1 microcomputer-controlled robot 
(see page 86) and the Epson QX-10/Valdocs System, which was described by 
Senior Editor Gregg Williams in the September 1982 BYTE (page 54). 




6 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Photo 1: The Compaq, a portable IBM look-alike from Compaq Computer Corp. 

Circle 320 on inquiry card. — 



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Editorial 



■ 



The Compaq 

Take the IBM Personal Computer and the Osborne 1, 
put them in an inertia bonding machine, flip the switch, 
and you have the Compaq computer. At least, that was 
my first impression when I saw the machine this past 
summer. 

The Compaq was designed to be totally compatible 
with the IBM Personal Computer. It accepts all the 
peripheral boards for the IBM, and it was able to run 
every piece of IBM software we tried in it. It costs less 
than a comparably equipped IBM Personal Computer 
($2995 for the 128K-byte system with one double-density 
drive, versus $3735 for a similarly equipped IBM PC). 
And at 28 pounds, the Compaq is definitely transport- 
able. Combining the monochrome and color graphics 
boards onto one board is another good idea used in the 
Compaq. The machine's designers deserve straight As for 
their efforts. 

The Compaq will undoubtedly give IBM much to think 
about. In fact, a spate of IBM look-alikes will soon des- 
cend on the marketplace, most likely forcing IBM to 
restructure its pricing schedules. 

Epson's QX-10 

First described by Gregg Williams in his September 
article, the QX-10 is, at first glance, not a revolutionary 
machine. Yet in many subtle ways it is. On the surface, 
its specs are not spectacular: 8 bits, CP/M, two 5Vi-inch 
floppy-disk drives, and a monochrome monitor. But the 
real power of the machine lies in its careful integration of 
software and hardware. The software was designed with 
the hardware in mind and vice versa. 

To use an overly familiar phrase, the QX-10 is user- 
friendly. For example, the Valdocs (for "valuable docu- 
ments") software system lets you work with characters, 
numbers, graphics, and time (in the form of an electronic 




Photo 2: The Epson QX-10/ Valdocs System. 



8 January 1983 © BYTE Publicahoru Inc 



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automatic; internal, 
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sources; variable 
holdoff. 



Probes included. 

High-performance, 
positive attachment 
10-14 pF and 60 
MHz at the probe 
tip. 




Tfektronix 2213 



In 30 years of Tektronix oscil- 
loscope leadership, no other 
scopes have recorded the 
immediate popular appeal of 
the Tek 2200 Series. The Tek 2213 
and 2215 are unapproachable for the 
performance and reliability they 
offer at a surprisingly affordable 
price. 

There's no compromise with 
Tektronix quality: The low cost is the 
result of a new design concept that 
cut mechanical parts by 65%. Cut 
cabling by 90%. Virtually eliminated 
board electrical connectors. And 
eliminated the need for a cooling fan. 



Yet performance is written all over 
the front panels. There's the band- 
width for digital and analog circuits. 
The sensitivity for low signal mea- 
surements. The sweep speeds for 
fast logic families. And delayed 
sweep for fast, accurate timing 
measurements. 

The cost: $1200* for the 2213. 
$1450* for the dual time base 2215. 

You can order, or obtain more 
information, through the Tektronix 
National Marketing Center, where 
technical personnel can answer 
your questions and expedite 
delivery. Your direct order includes 



probes, operating manuals, 15- 
day return policy and full Tektronix 
warranty. 

For quantity purchases, please 
contact your local Tektronix sales 
representative. 

Order toll free: 
1-800-426-2200 
Extension 34 

In Oregon call collect: 
(503) 627-9000 Ext. 34 



"Price F.O.B. Beaverton, OR. Price subject to change. 



Ttektronix 

COMMITTED TO EXCELLENCE 



Copyright©! 982. Tektronix, Inc. All rights reserved. TTA-338 



Editorial , 



datebook and event scheduler). The keyboard, patterned 
after Epson's proposed keyboard standard (see "An In- 
troduction to the Human Applications Standard Com- 
puter Interface" by Chris Rutkowski, Part 1, October 
1982 BYTE, page 291 and Part 2, November 1982 BYTE, 
page 379) allows even naive users to work with the 
Valdocs system quickly and easily. 

Such products reflect a growing concern for the user, a 
recognition that the old standards for hardware and soft- 
ware performance are no longer good enough. We need 
better-quality products, more attention to details, better- 
written manuals, and state-of-the-art features. Fortunate- 
ly, the industry is listening. 



Commodore 64 Guide 

We just saw the Commodore 64 Programmer's Refer- 
ence Guide (published by Commodore Business 



Machines Inc. and Howard W. Sams and Co. Inc.). The 
book explains the workings of the Commodore 64, a 
machine we didn't fully appreciate until now. The Com- 
modore 64 gives you a lot for its $599 suggested list price: 
64K bytes of RAM, another 28K bytes of ROM (most of 
the top 32K bytes of memory can switch among various 
combinations of RAM and ROM), two text modes (mono- 
chrome and four-colored text), two high-resolution 
modes (320 by 200 pixels in monochrome and 160 by 200 
in four-color mode), eight sprites (easily movable, 
colored, user-defined shapes), and a sophisticated three- 
voice sound synthesizer. In addition, you can mix graph- 
ics and text modes, display up to 24 rows of 64 characters 
each, and do smooth scrolling of video images (as on the 
Atari 400 and 800 computers). The machine is far from 
perfect, but it is, in its own way, as sophisticated as the 
state-of-the-art Atari machines. Look for a review of the 
Commodore 64 in an upcoming issue of BYTE. ■ 



Articles Policy 

BYTE is continually seeking manuscripts of high quality written by individuals who are applying personal computer systems, designing 
such systems, or who have knowledge that will be useful to our readers. For a formal description of procedures and requirements, poten- 
tial authors should send a legal-sized, self-addressed envelope with 37 cents U.S. postage affixed to BYTE Author's Guide, FOB 372, Han- 
cock, NH 03449. 

Each month, the authors of the two leading articles in the reader poll (BYTE's Ongoing Monitor Box or BOMB) are presented with bonus 
checks of S100 and S50. Unsolicited materials should be accompanied by full name, address, and return postage. 



^JbiaUHq 




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Oscilloscope 
Program Extended 

Larry Korba's article 'Turn Your Apple 
II into a Storage Oscilloscope" has many 
applications besides the one discussed. 
(See the September 1982 BYTE, page 520.) 
Looked at from a more general viewpoint, 
his program will log analog data at 
regularly spaced intervals. The display 
portion may or may not be important to a 
particular data-logging operation, but 
data-logging techniques have many ap- 
plications. 

The purpose of this letter is to remove 
one of the limitations of the program. In 
his program, the time between samples is 
limited to a maximum of 50 milliseconds 
(ms) corresponding to a sweep time of 
1000 ms /division. The sample interval can 
easily be extended to periods as long as 
two hours, allowing data to be logged 
over a period of days or weeks. 

The following modifications are re- 
quired. The Tl timer on the 6522 register 
is set up to run in its free-running mode, 
toggling pin PB7. The T2 timer /counter is 
set up to count pulses. Both of these modi- 
fications are accomplished by loading the 
ACR with 0E0 hexadecimal on lines 174 
and 175 of Korba's listing lb. Next, pin 
PB7 is connected to pin PB6. Now, T2 is 
counting pulses from Tl. The time T be- 
tween interrupts from T2 is: 

T = 2(Nl + 2){N2 + l)Tc 

where Nl is the 16-bit number in the Tl 
timer and N2 is the 16-bit number in the 
T2 timer. (For further information, see 
Marvin L. De Jong, Apple II Assembly 
Language. Indianapolis, IN: Howard W. 
Sams & Co., 1982.) T c is the clock fre- 
quency and is approximately 0.97779 
microseconds, not 1 microsecond. Of 
course, the IER should be loaded with 0A0 
hexadecimal rather than 0C0 hexadecimal 
(lines 180 and 181 in listing lb), and 
another ASL A instruction should follow 
the ASL A instruction on line 76 of listing 
lb. 

A short sequence of BASIC instructions 
will convert the desired time T between 
samples into Nl and N2, which you can 
then POKE into the appropriate 6522 
registers. It is probably useful to start with 
N = for short sample intervals and in- 
crease N2 as necessary to achieve the 
desired sample interval. 

For example, with Nl = 60898 and 



N2 = 60455 a sampling interval of two 
hours is obtained. You could collect data 
over a period of 20 days at this rate. 

Again, the modifications are simple and 
the versatility of the program is increased 
if, in effect, the timers on the 6522 are 
combined to provide a 32-bit timer rather 
than a 16-bit timer. 

Marvin L. De Jong, Professor 
Department of Mathematics-Physics 
The School of the Ozarks 
Point Lookout, MO 65726 



No Shortage 
of Multiuser Unix Systems 

In the BYTELINES section of the 
August 1982 BYTE, a brief editorial was 
presented concerning the apparent short- 
age of actual shipments of Unix-based 
multiuser microcomputer systems. (See 
"Unix Where Art Thou," page 448.) 

Codata Systems Corporation has been 
shipping Unix -based multiuser systems for 
more than a year. These systems operate 
under Unisis, our variant of Unix version 
7, and provide users with all of the bene- 
fits of this powerful operating system. 

Codata was the first to offer a micro- 
computer-based Unix on the M68000; the 
first to offer APL under Unix; and more 
recently the first to offer a microcomputer 
version of BASIC compatible with Digital 
Equipment Corporation's powerful 
XBASIC-Plus. 

Inasmuch as Codata has more than 500 
multiuser Unix systems in the field, and is 
increasing that number by 50 per month, 
it was distressing to read that article. 

Beau Vrolyk, Vice President, Marketing 
Codata Systems Corp. 
285 North Wolfe Rd. 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086 



Pascal Defended 

Some computer hobbyists may, like 
Mr. Pournelle, be disappointed by some 
Pascal compilers and by the limitations of 
one or two of the hundreds of texts avail- 
able on the subject. (See "Letters, Pascal, 
CB/80, and Cardfile," September 1982 
BYTE, page 318.) Professional program- 
mers, however, will rightly perceive these 
as superficial grounds for evaluating a 
computer language. They will more likely 



be interested in the strong points of Pas- 
cal: its emphasis upon structured tech- 
niques, its strong data typing, the flexibili- 
ty of its user-defined data structures, and 
the mathematical elegance of its grammar 
(as reflected in the Backus-Naur formula- 
tion). 

As one such professional, Pascal en- 
ables me to create, very quickly, highly 
reliable and extraordinarily complex pro- 
grams for the real-time control of preci- 
sion automatic machinery. 

Pascal is not the end-all of computer 
languages (being somewhat deficient in 
string processing and file handling), yet it 
can prove a most useful tool for anyone 
who takes the trouble to understand its 
strengths. But only a fool would attempt 
to master Pascal in an afternoon. 

Dr. Gerald Hull 

RD 1, Box 85 

Little Meadows, PA 18830 



BYTE Scoops Others 

Although I spend $300 per year for IEEE 
and ACM journals, it was BYTE that first 
told me about France's new World Com- 
puter Center. Keep up the good work. 

William Randolph Franklin 

School of Engineering 

Electrical, Computer, and Systems 

Engineering Department 
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 
Troy, NY 12181 



Letter of the Law 

BYTE readers should be aware of a 
serious omission in Richard Stern's article 
regarding legal protection for object code. 
(See 'The Case of the Purloined Object 
Code, Part 1; The Problems," September 
1982 BYTE, page 20.) Mr. Stern proceeds 
from the premise that the key determina- 
tion is whether the work in question is em- 
bodied in a "copy." He then argues that 
object code stored in a ROM (read-only 
memory) may not be a "copy" entitled to 
copyright protection under the 1976 
Copyright Revision Act and under the 
1980 amendment to that Act regarding 
computer software. Mr. Stern states 
(pages 430-431) that a "copy" is a tangible 
embodiment of a work from which it can 
be — as Mr. Stern quotes the statute — 



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Letters. 



"perceived ... or otherwise communi- 
cated." He then argues that it may not 
make sense to say that object code can be 
"perceived" or "communicated" because 
object code is primarily intended to con- 
stitute a list of instructions for a machine, 
rather than an expression directed toward 
another human being. 

Mr. Stern's quotation left out words 
critical to the statutory definition as ap- 
plied to computer programs. According to 
the Act, "copies" are "material objects, 
other than phonorecords, in which a work 
is fixed by any method now known or 
later developed, and from which the work 
can be perceived, reproduced, or other- 
wise communicated, either directly or 
with the aid of a machine or device." 
(Emphasis added.) 

I believe Mr. Stern's argument, even as 
stated, is tenuous, in that object code is in- 
telligible (albeit with difficulty) and clear- 
ly conveys information. However, when 
the complete statutory definition of 
"copy" is considered, his argument is 
rendered unsupportable. There can be no 
question that a work in object-code form 
can be "reproduced" from a ROM "with 
the aid of a machine or device." 

In addition, Mr. Stern fails to note that 
the 1980 Software Copyright Act specifi- 
cally defines "computer programs" to in- 
clude "a set of statements or instructions 
to be used directly or indirectly in a com- 
puter in order to bring about a certain re- 
sult." By any straightforward interpreta- 
tion, object code falls within this defini- 
tion. 

Denying copyright protection for object 
code would, as a practical matter, render 
useless the protection which even Mr. 
Stern concedes Congress established for 
source code. Most programs are distribut- 
ed in object code, and, even where they 
are not, copyright would offer mean- 
ingless protection if a purchaser of a copy 
of the source code could make and market 
multiple copies of the object code for prof- 
it without the copyright owner's consent. 
An interpretation such as that urged by 
Mr. Stern puts an enormous loophole in 
the copyright protection provided by 
Congress. This, in fact, is exactly what 
was found in the most recent federal ap- 
pellate decision on this subject (August 2, 
1982), William Electronics Inc. v. Artie 
International Inc., squarely upholding the 
copyrightability of object code. 

Mr. Stern made errors in analysis in the 
article as well. For example, in character- 
izing object-code programs as "utilitarian 
objects," he seems to be confusing infor- 



mation with the medium in which the in- 
formation is stored. Distinguishing the 
computer programs stored in a ROM 
from the ROM itself (i.e., the utilitarian 
object) should be no more difficult than 
distinguishing what is written in a book 
from a blank ream of paper. 

Ronald Abramson 
Fenwick, Stone, Davis & West 
Two Palo Alto Square 
Palo Alto, CA 94304 

Solution Doesn't Fit Problem 

We'd like to take issue with some com- 
ments made in Jerry Pournelle's Septem- 
ber BYTE User's Column. He criticizes 
Pascal compiler systems for their handling 
of syntax errors. The observations are 
valid; however, his proposed solution is 
questionable and fails to address the 
primary problem. 

A Pascal compiler can do a lot to iden- 
tify and. describe mistakes, but syntax cor- 
rection is extremely difficult and often in- 
correct. For instance, Mr. Pournelle does 
not understand why " = " cannot be 
replaced by ":=" in obvious situations. 
This simple example illustrates the dif- 
ficulties that can arise: 

You want: IF A = B 

You type: IF A = B 

The compiler corrects as: IFA : = B 

Many similar problems require compli- 
cated heuristics to provide reasonable cor- 
rections. The same constraints apply 
when inserting missing semicolons. Many 
people do not recognize that semicolons 
are statement separators, not statement 
terminators. Statement separators are 
necessary for multiple-statement lines and 
multiple-line statements. How many peo- 
ple, for example, are thrilled with FOR- 
TRAN'S single statement per line restric- 
tion? 

What can be done if the compiler does 
not remove such annoyances? Certainly, 
switching languages is a drastic measure. 
Pascal is more portable than BASIC (try 
moving a BASIC program written in one 
dialect to another BASIC system). Also, 
BASIC programmers encounter simple 
syntax errors. The interactive nature of 
BASIC suggests a strategy. 

The approach employed in the UCSD 
Pascal system offers a solution. When the 
UCSD Pascal compiler detects an error, it 
invokes the editor. The location of the 
error is highlighted, and the diagnostic 



16 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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Letters. 



message is displayed. The error is quickly 
fixed and compiling resumes. This interac- 
tive technique is very fast. Syntax 
checkers or pretty printers can also scan 
text to locate syntax errors before compil- 
ing. Syntax -directed editors are a sophisti- 
cated solution that prevents errors before 
they occur. Knowledge of the language 
grammar allows these editors to signifi- 
cantly reduce program text entry time. 

We do not think Pascal should be 
"stuffed into a culvert" for the reasons 
outlined by Mr. Pournelle (though Pascal 
does have shortcomings). His comments 
do have merit as a critique of available 
software tools. 

Mark A. Morely 
Stephen J. Schmitt 
2400 Science Parkway 
Okemos, MI 48864 

Jerry Pournelle Replies 

Your point is well made; I shouldn't 
want a compiler to make that correction, 
and I see the problem of making one smart 
enough to know what I do want. Yet — 
though your point is well taken — the 
problem is, why would a practical pro- 
grammer use a compiler (rather than an 
interpreter)? Surely there must be ways to 
let the computer do bean counting. 

Some may program splendidly, without 
trivial errors. Alas, I don't. 1 don't pro- 
gram for a living, and when I want my 
computer to do something, I simply want 
a job done. Thus, simple old interpretive 
BASIC survives, because it gets the simple 
problems solved fast. 

As to Pascal's portability, you talk 
about moving BASIC programs from one 
system to another: we've had terrible 
problems moving Pascal programs from 
one compiler to another on the same 
system! Yet for all that, I continue to 
work with Pascal because I too like its 
"philosophy"; it's the way that 
philosophy was implemented that I don't 
care for. 

That's why I'm searching for the proper 
extensions to the standard. . . 

Perhaps the SCUD (UCSD) Pascal is in- 
deed the solution, especially on fast 
machines like the 68000; we're supposed 
to get a Sage computer that runs UCSD as 
the operating system, and if that solves 
the problem, believe me, I'll be glad to tell 
everyone. 

Meanwhile, please read what I said, 
which is "there are times when I am will- 
ing to take Pascal and stuff the language 
into a culvert, " which, I would have 



thought, implies that those times are out- 
numbered by times when I'm not so in- 
clined — else why would I devote so much 
space to the language? But I can't think it 
hurts to chronicle the pains of a computer 
user in trying to learn the language. . . . 



A Source for Computer 
Aids for the Disabled 

It was very encouraging to see the 
September 1982 BYTE devoted to the ad- 
vancements being made with computers 
for the disabled. 

As a manufacturer of speech-synthesis 
products and a long-time advertiser in 
BYTE, Street Electronics missed the op- 
portunity to inform BYTE readers of our 
dedication in that area. 

A sizable share of Street Electronics' 
sales efforts have been directed to the 
disabled community, including the blind, 
the nonvocal, and others with various 
learning disabilities. The Echo II allows a 
blind individual to program on the Apple 
computer. Our Talking Terminal program 
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features similar to those discussed in 
David Stoffel's article ("Talking Ter- 
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lower price. 

We hope BYTE readers find this infor- 
mation as informative as we found the 
September BYTE. 

Andrew Clare, Vice President 
Street Electronics Corp. 
1140 Mark Ave. 
Carpinteria, CA 93013 



Passive Resistance 
Aids Pirates 

Last year the Soviet Union paid 
$500,000 to steal ADABAS source code 
on tape in the United States because, I am 
told, they were unable to buy a paperback 
edition at W. H. Smith's in London. 

But by Mr. Leach's reasoning (see "Of 
Paperbacks and Program Protection," 
June 1982 BYTE, page 28), it would ap- 
pear that it is Software A. G.'s fault that 
the Soviets had to steal. Had it priced 
ADABAS at $100 instead of $100,000 the 
Soviets could have bought 5000 copies 
legally! 



Similarly, am I expected to rationalize 
obtaining a photocopy of International 
Resource Development (IRD) Inc.'s in- 
dustry analysis and forecast, The Robot 
Market Explosion, because $1285 for 150 
pages could only be justified by gold- 
impregnated ink and then only if pages 
are embellished with solid print areas. 

In thumbing through BYTE and other 
publications, I have come across nu- 
merous attempts at oversimplifying what, 
after all, is a complicated subject. Mr. 
Neiburger's and Mr. Pelczarski's decisions 
must not be mistaken for do-all, cure-all 
solutions. (See "Outsailing the Software 
Pirates," June 1982 BYTE, page 26.) Apple 
Computer's Mike Markkula has merely 
made a decision that is a far cry from a 
solution — and then again such a decision 
is easier made by a hardware vendor than 
a software vendor. 

Attempts to solve the problem must 
first of all recognize what the problem is 
(i.e., giving due benefit to owners of in- 
tellectual property). Marc Brown in his 
article "New Court Created to Strengthen 
Patents" (Electronics, June 30, 1982, page 
24) reports on how the U.S. Court of Ap- 
peals for the Federal Circuit can make 
litigation less expensive and heard by 
judges in the know. Bill HR 6420 seeks to 
punish software pirates. And Atari would 
not hesitate to take any pirate to court. 

Why is there preference for legal protec- 
tion and expensive, tedious legal redress? 
The answer lies in the absolute belief on 
the part of intellectual property owners 
that pirates are not pirates because they 
are naive or dumb. On the contrary, they 
are smart enough to hide behind an im- 
practical legal quagmire. So let us look at 
some basic facts: 

1. The price of software is not 
synonymous with the cost of its repro- 
duction. In addition, the development 
cost must be recouped. Other factors 
include the applaudable desire to make 
money and pride in being able to 
charge more than the guy next door 
because you have a superior product. 
Mr. Leach is trying to enforce uniform 
mediocrity, which is fundamentally 
against the concept of free competi- 
tion. 

A person buys software because it is 
worth it. So we have $10 software and 
we have $1 million software. But $1 
million paperbacks are difficult to sell, 
and in the absence of intimidating 
paperwork and antipiracy con- 
trivances, impossible to insure. 



18 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 191 on inquiry card. 




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"Paperback" software is suitable for 
consumer-type software. But certainly 
not for any old software. In fact, some 
publishers practice antipaperback 
strategy. For example, Walt Disney 
Productions would not license video- 
tape (video tape is the paperback of 
films) distribution of full-length car- 
toons. Consequently, it is easy to pro- 
secute anyone who sells Snow White 
on tape. 

2. The price of software is not related to 
the price of hardware. You should be 
able to buy $100 software for the IBM 
3081 and $10,000 software for the 
Osborne 1. Again, one buys software 
because it is worth it, not because it is 
cheap. But the same software for large 
computers can cost more than it does 
for small computers. Example, Cin- 
com's Total for minicomputers costs 
$20,000 but for mainframes it may cost 
$100,000; not because of relation to 
cost of hardware, but because the 
mainframe user derives more benefits 
from its use. Similarly, software may 
be "free." Hewlett-Packard lets you 
have Image when you buy a minicom- 
puter. Of course, you can bet your 
bottom dollar that this software will 
not run on any other machine. 

3. Somewhere in the world there are peo- 
ple and businesses whose only source 
of income is the sale of software. Can 
you blame them for being chagrined by 
uncontrolled copying of their soft- 
ware? 

4. Somewhere in the world there are peo- 
ple who are conspicuously, naively, or 
conveniently unaware that somewhere 
in the world there are people and 
businesses whose only source of in- 
come is the sale of software. So it is 
pointless in counting on conscience to 
protect your investment in software 
development. 

Mr. Neiburger's control of the situa- 
tion — by sending updated software 
only to licensed users — is a good but 
incomplete solution. Who wants up- 
dated Pac-Man? 

5. Somewhere in the world there are peo- 
ple who have no qualms about giving 
disks upon disks full of other people's 
software when they sell a machine. 
Because they derive no direct benefit 
from this copying, how would the law 
catch up with them7 

6. Somewhere in the world there are peo- 
ple who would make money selling 
pirated software. It is worth it. Apple 
won't prosecute. Tandy won't pro- 



20 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



secute. Papa and Mama cannot afford 
to prosecute. And even Mr. Neiburger 
would not prosecute discovered 
pirates; he prefers to convert them to 
dealers. Those not discovered get away 
scot-free. 
7. Copyright and patent legislation is im- 
precise for the purpose of software 
property protection. Because Mr. 
Neiburger, for example, dishes out 
source code, can he prosecute someone 
who modifies it and then sells the 
modified object code? Is the modified 
program provable by Mr. Neiburger as 
a derivative of his software, or can the 
modifier simply say his software is 
reverse-engineered ? 

Even then, is reverse-engineering a 
valid defense7 If a game can be 
patented, who cares if you wrote the 
source code yourself by understanding 
what someone else's implementation 
does7 The end result is the same game! 
The recent Atari judgment seems only 
to be concerned with whether it is the 
same game — not whether one program 
is a copy of the other! 

Therefore, is SB-80 an infringement 
on CP/M? After all, SB-80 uses the 
same system calls and parameters. It 
does what CP/M does. And, is Idris an 
infringement on Unix? 

Clearly, we have not heard the last of 
software copyright and patents. Clearly, 
there is no panacea. Clearly, there should 
be no romanticism in the criticism of soft- 
ware pirates. But it's also clear that any 
legislative attempt to protect software 
copyright owners will not stop piracy. It 
merely makes more criminals. And please 
don't go away thinking humans by nature 
refrain from breaking laws. Fifty percent 
of working Americans drive above 55 
miles per hour every day! Nobody says 
you cannot break laws. All it means is 
that you are liable to get caught if you do. 

The situation, apart from being frus- 
trating for our business, is rather in- 
sidious. A system vendor who insists on 
licensed copies of operating systems, lan- 
guages, utilities, and applications is at a 
disadvantage to pirates, is assailed by pro- 
spective customers as do-gooders, and 
given absolutely no backup by copyright 
owners to handle the situation. 

While the legislature is mulling over 
what laws to enact, I think the least copy- 
right owners can do is to stand up. It may 
be expensive to sue the user of an in- 
fringed copy. But it is also not worth 
spending thousands of dollars to defend 
Text continued on page 24 
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24 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 





Letters. 



the "savings" of $750 by using, say 
pirated Microsoft COBOL. 

My questions to companies like Micro- 
soft, Digital Research, Visicorp, Softech 
and others are quite simple: 

• Do they agree their software is of value 
to licensed users and pirates alike? 

• If the software is of value, would it then 
stand to reason that a pirate user cannot 
simply do without the software in his 
business or profession? 

• Should such users be found, it would 
cost them plenty to either defend an in- 
fringement suit or stop using the software, 
making it penny wise and pound foolish 
to use pirated software in the first place. 
Therefore, will these software companies 
prosecute such users if the identities of 
these individulas are brought to com- 
panies' attention? 



I guess the ball is in the court of those 
who are hurt most by pirates. If they do 
not stand up for their rights, pretty soon 
nobody else will. 



K. C. Toh, Group Managing Director 

Unidata Snd. Bhd. 

6th Floor 

Syed Kechik Foundation Building 

Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur 22-16, Malaysia 



PC Software Irksome 

I recently got a personal computer after 
years of intermittent use of various main- 
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an IBM Personal Computer, is apparently 
considered a well-designed, well-imple- 
mented system. I have no complaints 
about the hardware except the usual ones 
about the keyboard. But if its software is 
truly well designed and executed compared 
with that on other microcomputers, then I 
am astounded. Microsoft, which wrote 
PC-DOS and BASIC for the machine, 
forces users to memorize a large amount 
of arbitrary material and seems to expect 
all users to be system programmers. 

For example, most I/O statements in 
BASIC take arguments. I know at least 
four different syntaxes for specifying 
multiple arguments: 

(x,y),z 

x.y 

x;y 

(x,y)-(w,z) 



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Letters. 



PC-DOS uses slashes (/) to separate some 
arguments and commas for others. Fur- 
thermore, commands that are common to 
both PC -DOS and BASIC are completely 
different. (DIR versus FILES, for 
example.) 

The crowning example of an avoidable 
idiocy is the names of the commands for 
finding the cursor position. To find the 
line the cursor is on, use "CSRLIN". To 
find the cursor column, however, instead 
of "CSRCOL", we have to use "POS(n)". 
Not exactly consistent or easy to 
remember. And the argument (n) is only a 
dummy argument. It can be anything the 
programmer wants (i.e., the computer 
doesn't really need it!). My only hypo- 
thesis about why one is required is that it 
is intended to confuse and discourage new 
programmers, so that they will be forced 
to buy canned software. 

Finally, I must mention BASIC'S on- 
screen editor. It is wonderful. But it would 
have been more wonderful if Microsoft 
had defined the first five function keys to 
do what they do in EDLIN, which is the 
editor when you are in DOS and which 
has some very useful functions. Instead, 
you have some rarely used expressions, 
such as TRON and "LPTl:", to save a few 
fractions of a second of typing time. 

I admit it: I don't like BASIC to begin 
with. I'm really just waiting for a decent 
version of APL to come out. (IBM's 
BASIC doesn't even support two-dimen- 
sional matrices. The ability to use n di- 
mensional arrays again and to manipulate 
them easily will make my fingers dance 
with joy.) But I pity all the people who 
will think that writing their own programs 
has to be this painful. 

None of these problems are critical or 
make the machine unusable. Indeed, for 
someone who writes programs on it every 
day, they probably soon recede from con- 
sciousness as the various quirks are 
memorized. But why should I, who will 
never do much programming, have to 
struggle to remember or look up each 
function I use? Am I expecting too much? 
Perhaps for people who have used 
previous generations of microcomputers 
these problems are trivial compared with 
what they are used to. But I see no reason 
to accept such obvious flaws. 



Roger E. Bohn 
73 Boston St. 
Somerville, MA 021431 



26 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 337 on inquiry card. 



I run out of memory?" 



Most people do run out of memory 
with only 18K VisiCalc* workspace. 
But you can expand your Apple II* 
to 177K VisiCalc memory! You 
can also get 80-column display, 
lower case letters, and hard disk 




support — all without buying 
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The Saturn expansion system for 
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boards, and an optional 80-column 
display board. You can put the 
Saturn boards in any slot. And with 
all that memory, our software lets 
you save files on more than one 
diskette. 

Each Saturn RAM board includes 
additional software for other pro- 
gramming applications. So your 
BASIC, PASCAL, and CP/M pro- 
grams get an extra bonus. 



Ask your computer dealer for 
more details about the Saturn 
memory expansion systems. See 
how much bigger and better your 
models can become! 

•VisiCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. Apple II is 
registered trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. 



SfySTSWCS 



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PO. Box 8050 
3990 Varsity Drive 
Ann Arbor, Ml 48107 

1 (313) 973-8422 



Circle 362 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 27 



Ranas disk drive was 

twice as good as Apple's 

with one head. 



Now we have two. 




PWe added another head 
so you won't have to buy another disk. 

That's the beauty of a double sided head. A 
floppy disk which allows you to read and write on 
both sides. For more storage, for more information, 

for keeping larger records, 
and for improved perfor- 
mance of your system. 
That's what our new Elite 
Two and Elite Three offers. 
It's the first double headed 
Apple® compatible disk 
drive in the industry. And of 
course, the technology is 
from Rana. We're the com- 
pany who gave you 163K 
bytes of storage with our Elite One, a 14% increase 
over Apple's. And now with our high tech double 
sided heads, our Elite Two and Three offers you two 
to four times more storage than Apple's. That's 
really taking a byte out of the competition. 

We put our heads together 
to give you a superior disk drive. 

We designed the Elite Three to give you near 
hard disk capacity, with all the advantages of a 
minifloppy system. The double sided head oper- 
ates on 80 tracks per side, giving you a capacity of 
652K bytes. It would take 4 1 /2 Apples to give you 
that. And cost you three times our Elite Three's 
reasonable $849 pricetag. 



Rana's double sided heads give Apple 
II superior disk performance power 
than second generation personal com- 
puters such as IBM's. 



It takes 4 1 /2 Apples to equal the capacity 
of our superior Elite Three. 







The Elite Two offers an impressive 326K bytes 
and 40 tracks on each side. This drive is making a 
real hit with users who need extra storage, but 
don't require top-of-the-line capacity. Costwise, it 
takes 2 1 /2 Apple drives to equal the performance of 
our Elite Two. And twice as many diskettes. Leave it 
to Rana to produce the most cost efficient disk 
drive in the world. 

We've always had the guts to be a leader. 

Our double sided head may be an industry 
first for Apple computers, but nobody was surprised. 

® Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 




They've come to expect it from us. Because Rana 
has always been a leader. We were the first 
with a write protect feature, increased capacity 




Your word processor stores 5 times as many pages of text on an Elite Three 
diskette as the cost ineffective Apple. 

and accurate head positioning. A first with attrac- 
tive styling, faster access time, and the conve- 
nience of storing a lot more pages on far fewer 
diskettes. We were first to bring high technology to 
a higher level of quality. 

So ask for an Elite One, Two, or Three. 
Because when it comes to disk drives, nobody 
uses their head like Rana. 



RanaSystems 





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toll free: 1-800-421-2207 In California only call: 1-800-262-1221. Source Number: TCT-654 

Circle 352 on inquiry card. 

Available at all participating Computerland stores and other fine computer dealers. 



Product Description 



The Compaq Computer 

A portable and affordable alternative 
to the IBM Personal Computer. 



Mark Dahmke 
Consulting Editor 



What emulates an IBM Personal Computer, can easily 
be carried from place to place, and costs a lot less than 
the competition? The Compaq computer, and because it 
can run any major business and professional software 
written for the IBM PC, it looks like a sure winner. I 
visited the Compaq Computer Corporation's head- 
quarters in Houston recently to try out a prototype of its 
brainchild. 

The Compaq computer is a full-function portable busi- 
ness computer that resembles the IBM PC in almost every 
way. Not only did Compaq obtain a license to use 
Microsoft's MS-DOS, but the company's designers also 
rewrote the low-level system functions used by BASIC 
and the operating system from the specifications required 




Photo 1: The Compaq computer is a portable system that is 
compatible with the IBM Personal Computer and less expensive. 



by the higher-level software. By rewriting instead of 
copying the code, the designers circumvented copyright 
infringement yet still created a computer that can run 
IBM PC software. This interesting approach to 
duplicating the functions of the IBM PC, as well as the 
overall quality of the machine, is a testament to the 
designers' engineering expertise. The designers, who 
came from such major microelectronic corporations as 
Texas Instruments, have experience in every aspect of the 
industry, from portable terminals to Winchester disk 
drives. Their efforts led to the development of a proto- 
type Compaq in less than six months. (See photo 1.) 

The Physical Design 

The Compaq computer is designed to be portable, and 
although it weighs 28 pounds, it achieves that goal. To 
transport it, you simply secure the keyboard to the main 
unit by locking two sliding latches. The closed case mea- 
sures 20 by 8.5 by 15.3 inches and has a built-in carrying 
handle. 

The cabinet is a plastic shell that has access panels on 
three sides for servicing. You can reach all of the circuit 
boards by removing the top panel and exposing the 
aluminum chassis. You can then open three main key- 
hole-mounted aluminum panels to reach the video dis- 
play, the 120-watt power supply, the expansion slots, 
and the motherboard (see photo 2). The aluminum 
chassis, panels, and a special front panel around the 
video display and disk drives are elements in a design that 
complies with all FCC emission standards for personal 
computers. (In fact, an independent lab report indicates 
that for all frequencies tested, the Compaq was more 
than 10 decibels below the standard.) 



30 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 203 on inquiry card. 





Actual Size 
Unretouched Output 



COLOR THAT PEAKS FOR ITSELF 



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Photo 2: By removing the top, you can easily reach the circuit 
boards, video display, and power supply for servicing. 



Photo 3: A sliding door conceals a storage compartment, the 
power switch, and the ventilation fan. 



At a Glance 

Name 

The Compaq Computer 

Manufacturer 

Compaq Computer Corporation 
12337 Jones Rd. 
Houston, TX 77070 
(713) 890-7390 

Components 

Size: width 20 inches, depth 15.3 inches, heiqht 8.5 

inches 
Weight: 28 pounds 

Processor: Intel 8088 1 6-bit microprocessor and socket for 

future addition of Intel 8087 coprocessor 
Memory: 1 28K bytes of RAM (random-access read/write 

memory), expandable to 256K on the main system 

board 
Display: 9-inch high-resolution video display: 25 lines, 80 

characters; high-resolution graphics with RGB color 

monitor connection; adjustable viewing angle; 

composite video connector; RF modulator 
Keyboard: detachable 6-foot retractable coiled cord; 83 keys 

in IBM-identical keyboard layout; 10-key numeric 

pad and 10-key function pad; adjustable typing 

angle 
Storage. 320K-byte double-sided 5 'A -inch floppy-disk drive 

included; optional second 320K-byte drive 
Expansion. three IBM PC-compatible expansion slots; parallel 

printer interface included 

Software 

MS-DOS operating system and BASIC licensed from Microsoft; IBM 
PC-compatible; can run all major business and professional soft- 
ware packages sold for use on the IBM PC 

Options 

serial-interface board, 320K-byte disk drive; 64K-byte memory in- 
crements to an additional 1 28K bytes; light pen for use with color 
monitor; asynchronous communications interface 

Price 

S2995 for a basic system with 128K bytes of memory, one 
320K-byte disk drive; S3590 for a two-disk-drive system. 



On each side of the computer, you'll find a sliding 
door. One conceals a storage compartment for the power 
cord and the power switch and provides an opening for 
the ventilation fan (see photo 3). To plug the power cord 
into its standard chassis socket, you must first open the 
access door, which prevents the computer from overheat- 
ing. The second access panel covers the expansion slots 
(see photo 4). 

Although the Compaq keyboard is the image of the 
IBM PC, it is actually quite different in several respects. 
The Compaq's keys have a softer touch and the hard- 
wired click is missing. You can select your own level of 
audible feedback for keystrokes by simultaneously press- 
ing the ALT key and the + or — key to raise or lower 

The Compaq's floppy-disk drives 

have major advantages, including 

320K bytes of storage capacity 

each. 

the volume from no click to a loud one. The keyboard 
connects to the computer by a 6-foot coiled cord that is 
stored in a tube built into the front of the unit. Both the 
computer cabinet and the keyboard have recessed feet 
that let you elevate the unit to a five-degree angle. You 
can also angle the video display five degrees. 

Disk Drives 

The Compaq uses Control Data Corporation SVi-inch 
floppy-disk drives because they have three major advan- 
tages. First, they are much quieter than the IBM PC's 
single-sided Tandon drives. Second, when you turn the 
Compaq off, the two read/write heads remain unloaded, 
so they won't touch each other. For a portable computer, 
that's an important feature because it eliminates the 
possibility of the heads damaging each other in transit. 



32 January 19W © BYTE Publications Inc 









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Photo 4: A second access panel covers the three expansion slots. 



The Brains Behind the Operation 

The Compaq Computer Corporation was founded in Feb- 
ruary of 1982 by three former Texas Instruments (TI) senior 
managers. Rod Canion, president and chief executive officer, 
was manager of three different TI Product Customer 
Centers, where research, engineering, and marketing depart- 
ments combine their efforts to create new products and bring 
them into the marketplace. James Harris was a vice-president 
of engineering who managed several key engineering and 
product-development efforts at TI, including 5V-i- and 8-inch 
Winchester disk drives, the 770 intelligent terminal, and the 
development of bubble-memory storage for other products. 
Harris also shares the patent for the architecture of the TI 990 
computer. William Murto, a former vice-president of mar- 
keting and sales for TI, managed business development and 
product planning there. 

Compaq has raised more than $10 million in funding from 
major venture-capital firms. The lead investor was Sevin 
Rosen Partners, headed by Benjamin Rosen, the respected 
personal computer industry analyst who publishes the Rosen 
Electronics Letter, and L. ]. Sevin, founder of Mostek. 



While the company recommends that you insert a card- 
board retainer when you transport the unit, the designers 
assume that most people would forget or wouldn't be 
able to find the cardboard when they wanted to move the 
computer. To offer additional protection, the drives are 
shock mounted. The third advantage of these drives is 
their storage capacity. Each double-sided disk drive holds 
320K bytes of programs or data. You can still read stan- 
dard IBM disks with the Compaq, but you also have the 
option of formatting user disks for twice as much storage 
as the standard IBM PC offers. 

Unlike the IBM machine, the Compaq does not have a 
disk-drive expansion connector from the disk-interface 
board, but you can plug an IBM floppy-disk controller 
board into one of the expansion slots and add two addi- 
tional drives. Finally, the Compaq, in another variation 
from the IBM PC, does not have a cassette interface; the 



Compaq's disk drive is a standard feature, so its designers 
chose not to include one. 

Memory Capacity 

The Compaq comes with 128K bytes of RAM 
(random-access read/write memory) soldered in to in- 
crease reliability. You can expand to 256K bytes of RAM 
on the motherboard. By comparison, the IBM PC comes 
with 16K bytes of RAM and can expand to 64K bytes on 
the motherboard. The design of the Compaq mother- 
board gives you access to the additional memory-chip 
sockets without requiring you to remove the board. 

The large amount of RAM in the Compaq enabled its 
designers to omit the cassette BASIC interpreter in ROM 
(read-only memory), one of the IBM PC's features. With 
128K bytes of RAM on the Compaq, you can use 
BASICA (Advanced Disk BASIC on the DOS disk) 
without sacrificing RAM memory space needed for 
programs. 

Monochrome and Graphics 

The Compaq improves upon the design of the IBM PC 
by consolidating monochrome and color graphics into 
one board. Hence you get the best of both worlds in one 
monitor display. Internally, the software always recog- 
nizes the color-graphics board and acts accordingly. 
When you specify the 80- by 25-line mode, however, the 



With both monochrome and color 

graphics on one board, you get the 

best of both worlds. 

hardware switches to the character set of the mono- 
chrome board. The available character sets are identical 
to those on the IBM PC, and the Compaq has both RGB 
(red-green-blue) and composite-video outputs as well as 
an RF (radio-frequency) modulator output so that you 
can connect the computer to your television. 

Ultimate Compatibility 

When a company advertises a computer as being "IBM 
PC -compatible," the best way to test its claim is to try to 
load an IBM release of PC-DOS, CP/M-86, or the UCSD 
p-system. I didn't have the p-system, but I did have both 
PC-DOS and CP/M-86 and was able to try both of them 
on a prototype of the Compaq computer. The systems 
loaded and executed perfectly, with the exception of the 
BASIC on PC-DOS, which wouldn't execute because the 
Compaq doesn't have ROM BASIC. The BASICA pro- 
vided on disk and all of the IBM PC sample BASIC pro- 
grams found on the PC-DOS disk ran without incident. I 
also tried some CP/M-86 assembler-level software that I 
had written, and it worked without a hitch as well. I 
spent about an hour loading and running a number of 
game programs and some professional packages such as 
Wordstar and Supercalc. With one exception, they all 
worked correctly. The one that didn't was a game pro- 
gram that ran perfectly but died when I tried to terminate 



34 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 22 on inquiry card. 




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the game. One of the programmers told me that the pro 
lem was probably a result of not initializing the hardware 
correctly when the system was powered up. The com- 
pany assured me that the problem would be solved before 
any machines were shipped. 






Other Features 

Several special features deserve mention. Instead of 
providing a connector for external disk drives, the Com- 
paq has a parallel printer-port connector that is fully sup- 
ported by all system software. In addition, the Compaq 
has been designed to handle 128K-bit RAM memory com- 
ponents as soon as they become commercially available. 
Many features of this computer indicate that the 
designers anticipated possible problems and solved them 
before the Compaq was announced. A case in point is the 
keyboard cable, which is designed to supply 12 volts in- 
stead of 5 to the keyboard, thus preventing the voltage 
from dropping to marginal levels at the end of its 6-foot 
cord. In another anticipatory design feature, the RGB 
monitor interface has internal jumpers that allow reverse- 
signal polarity for some nonstandard RGB monitors. 

Documentation 

I can only assume that the same level of quality that is 
characteristic of the Compaq computer will be found in 
the documentation. The company was preparing the 
user's manual when I looked at the Compaq, but the 
typeset text and numerous diagrams and tables I saw 
looked quite professional. 

The Bottom Line 

Considering all of the ways in which the Compaq im- 
proves on the IBM PC, the most significant difference 
between the two is price. An IBM PC with one double- 
sided drive (320K bytes), both the monochrome and 
color-graphics boards, a parallel-printer port, a 
monochrome monitor, and 128K bytes of RAM would 
cost approximately $3735. All of these features are stan- 
dard on the Compaq for $2995. With this configuration, 
you would have only one remaining expansion slot on 
the IBM PC, while three slots would be available on the 
Compaq. All of the options are also less expensive with 
the Compaq. For example, an additional double-sided 
drive for the IBM PC would cost $650 in contrast to the 
$595 for the Compaq. A 64K-byte memory board costs 
$195 for the Compaq versus $350 for the IBM, and a 
serial-interface card for the Compaq costs $145, while its 
IBM counterpart is $150. 

Conclusions 

The Compaq computer has everything going for 
it — design, compatability, portability, and price. The 
only possible obstacle Compaq faces is IBM itself. IBM 
has a longstanding reputation for deliberately designing 
hardware and software that render plug-compatible pro- 
ducts incompatible. Barring that occurrence, Compaq 
should do well by introducing a comparatively low-cost 
and portable alternative to the IBM PC.H 



36 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 285 on Inquiry card. 



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48K PARTIALLY POPULATED $519. 
32K PARTIALLY POPULATED $409. 



64K RAM, MODEL MM65K16S 

•64Kx 8-bit 

• Speed in excess of 6 MHz 

• Uses 1 50ns 1 6K (2K x 8) static RAMS 

• Ultra-low power (435 Ma. max. — 
loaded with 64K) 

• Bank Select and Extended Addressing 

• A 2K window which can be placed 
anywhere in the 64K memory map 

• Four independently addressable 16K 
blocks organized as: 

— Two independent 32K banks or 

— One 64K Extended Address Page or 

— One 48K and one 16K bank for use 
in MP/M 1 (option) 

• Each 32K bank responds 
independently to phantom 

• 2716 (5V) EPROMS may replace any or 
all of the RAM 

• Field-proven operation in CROMEMCO 
CROMIX*andCDOS*. 

• Compatible with latest IEEE 696 
systems such as Northstar, CompuPro, 
Morrow, IMS, IMSAI front panel, Altair 
and many others. 

OEM and DEALER inquiries invited. 



m 



memory™ 
merchant 



14666 Doolittle Drive 

San Leandro, CA 94577 

(415)483-1008 

Circle 252 on Inquiry card. 



FULL TWO-YEAR 
WARRANTY. 

I 



1 



The reliability of our boards, 
through quality-controlled production and 
proven performance, has enabled us to 
extend our warranty to a full two years. 
That's standard with us, not an option. 
This includes a 6-month exchange 
program for defective units. 

Shipped direct from stock. 

All Memory Merchant's boards are 
shipped direct from stock, normally 
within 48 hours of receipt of your order. 
Call us at (415) 483-1008 and we may be 
able to ship the same day. 

16K RAM, Model 
MM16K14 




16Kx8Bit 16K STATIC RAM $169. 

Bank Select & Extended Addressing 
Four independently addressable 4K 

blocks 
One 4K segment equipped with 1 K 

windows 
Uses field-proven 21 14 (1 K x 4) RAMS 
Low Power (less than 1 .2 Amps) 
Runs on any S-100 8080, 4 MHz Z-80 or 

5 MHz 8085 system. 

Prices, terms, specifications subject to 
change without notice. 

•Cromix and CDOS are trademarks of CROMEMCO. 
1 MP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 



If you can beat these prices, 
you must have a brother-in-law 
in the business. 



16K RAM KITS 13.95 

Set ot 8 NEC 41 16 200 ns Guaranteed one year 

DISKETTES 

ALPHA DISKS 21.95 

Single sided, certified Double Density 40 Tracks, 
with Hub ring Box ot 10 Guaranteed one year. 

SCOTCH 3M 

S S D.DEN 40 TRK 23.50 

D.S.D.OEN 40 TRK. ... 36.50 

VERBATIM DATALIFE 

MD 525-01. 10. 16. .26 50 

MD 550 01. 10. 16 44 50 

MD 557-01. 10, 16. .45 60 

MD 577-01. 10. 16...... ....... 34 80 

FD 32 or 34-9000 . 36.00 

FD 32 or 34-8000. . .45.60 

FD 34-4001 48 60 

DISKETTE STORAGE 

5% " PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 2 50 

8' PLASTIC LIBRARY CASE 3 50 

PLASTIC STORAGE BINDER w/ Inserts 9.95 

PROTECTOR 5'/»" (50 Disk Capacity) 21 .95 

PROTECTOR 8" (50 Disk Capacity) ... 24.95 

DISK BANK 5Vi" .5 95 

DISK BANK 8' 6 95 

NEC PERSONAL 
COMPUTERS 

Call Alpha Byte for our low NEC prices. 

ALTOS COMPUTER 
SYSTEMS 

Call Alpha Byte for our low Altos prices. 

ATARI COMPUTERS 

SIGNALMAN MODEM 85.00 

ATARI 800 659.00 

ATARI 400 (16K) $CALL 

ATARI 810 DISK DRIVE 445 00 

ATARI 850 INTERFACE . 169.00 

ATARI 410 PROGRAM RECORDER 75.00 

EPSON CABLE 35.00 

MEMORY MODULE (16K) 89 95 

JOYSTICK CONTROLLER 10.00 

PADDLE CONTROLLERS 17.50 

STAR RAIDERS 32 00 

MISSILE COMMAND 32 00 

ASTERIODS . 32.00 

PACMAN 32.00 

CENTIPEDE 32.00 

PERCOM DISK DRIVE 684 00 

INTEC PERIPHERALS 
RAM MODULES 

48K FOR ATARI 400 145 00 

32K FOR ATARI 800 67.00 

PRINTERS 

ANADEX 9501A 1390 00 

RIBBONS FOR MX-80 8.95 

RIBBONS FOR MX-100 24 00 



C-ITOH F-10 40 CPS PARALLEL 1390 00 

C-ITOH F-10 40 CPS SERIAL . 1390 00 

C-ITOH PROWRITER PARALLEL 480 00 

C-ITOH PROWRITER SERIAL 590 00 

EPSON MX-80 W/GRAFTRAX PLUS SCALL 
EPSON MX-80 F/T W/GRAFTRAX PLUSSCALL 
EPSON MX-100 W/GRAPHTRAX PLUS SCALL 

EPSON GRAFTRAX PLUS 60 00 

COMREX CR-1 PARALLEL 839 00 

COMREX CR-1 SERIAL 859 00 

COMREX TRACTOR FEED. ..." 109 00 

IDS PRISM 80 859 00 

IDS PRISM 80 W/ COLOR/OPTIONS .1599 00 

IDS MICROPRISM 480 SCALL 

NEC 8023A 485 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 3530 P. RO 1995 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7710 S RO 2545 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7730 P RO 2545 00 

NEC SPINWRITER 7700 D SELLUM 2795 00 
NEC SPINWRITER 3500 SELLUM. 2295 00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 389 00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 82A 460 00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 83A 700 00 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 84 1170 00 

OKIGRAPH 82 49 95 

OKIGRAPH 83 49 95 

MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 32K 299 00 

MICROBUFFER IN-LINE 64K . .349 00 
MICROBUFFER 64K EXPANSION MOD. .179.00 

WICO 

JOYSTICK 2350 

TRACKBALL (Specily Atari or Apple) 54.00 

APPLE ADAPTOR (For Joystick) 17.50 

BOOKS 

THE CUSTOM APPLE 24.95 

BASIC BETTER & FASTER DEMO DISK .18.00 

THE CUSTOM TRS-80 24 95 

MICROSOFT BASIC FASTER & BETTER. .24.95 

CUSTOM I/O MACHINE LANGUAGE 24.95 

TRS-80 DISK & MYSTERIES 16 95 

MICROSOFT BASIC & DECODED 24.95 

APPLE HARDWARE 

APPLEMATE DRIVE 269.00 

SUPER CLOCK II 129.00 

VERSA WRITER DIGITIZER 259.00 

ABT APPLE KEYPAD 11900 

SOFTCARD PREMIUM SYSTEM . 569 00 

MICROSOFT Z-80 SOFTCARD 249.00 

MICROSOFT RAMCARD 79.00 

VIDEX 80x24 VIDEO CARD 260 00 

VIDEX KEYBOARD ENHANCER II 129.00 

VIDEX FUNCTION STRIP 74.00 

VIDEX ENHANCER REV 0-6 99.00 

M & R SUPERTERM 80x24 VIDEO BD. .315.00 

M & R COOLING FAN 44.95 

T/G JOYSTICK 44.95 

T/G PADDLE 29.95 

T/G SELECT-A-PORT 54 95 

VERSA E-Z PORT 21.95 

THE MILL-PASCAL SPEED UP 270 00 

PROMETHEUS VERSACARD 165 00 

LAZAR LOWER CASE + 59.00 

MICROBUFFER IIJ 16K W/GRAPHICS...259.00 
MICROBUFFER II* 32K W/GRAPHICS .299 00 

SUPERFAN II 62.00 

RANA CONTROLLER 104 00 



RANA DRIVES 335.00 

SNAPSHOT 119.00 

GRAPPLER+ 145.00 

7710A ASYNCHRON. SER INTERFACE 149.00 
7712A SYNCHRON. SER INTERFACE.. 159 00 

7742A CALENDAR CLOCK 99 00 

7728A CENTRONICS INTERFACE 105.00 

APPLE VISION 80-80 COL CARD 259.00 

APPLE 8" DISK DRIVE CONTROLLER. .549. 00 

MONITORS 

AMBER 12" 165.00 

NEC 12" GREEN MONITOR 169.00 

NEC 12" COLOR MONITOR 399.00 

SANYO 12" MONITOR (B & W) 198.00 

SANYO 13" COLOR MONITOR 402.00 

BMC GREEN MONITOR 89.00 

AMDEK COLOR 1 365.00 

AMDEK RGB COLOR II 774.00 

AMDEK RGB INTERFACE 169.00 

COMREX 12" GREEN MONITOR 115 00 

MOUNTAIN 
HARDWARE 

CPS MULTIFUNCTION BOARD 154.00 

ROMPLUS W/ KEYBOARD FILTER 165.00 

ROMPLUS W/O KEYBOARD FILTER 125.00 

KEYBOARD FILTER ROM 49.00 

COPYROM 49.00 

MUSIC SYSTEM 369 00 

ROMWRITER ... 149.00 

A/D + D/A 299.00 

EXPANSION CHASSIS 580.00 

RAMPLUS 32K 160 00 

S-100 HARDWARE 

Alpha Byte is your new S-100 head- 
quarters! We've expanded our line of 
S-100-compatible hardware. Here's just a 
lew of the lines we carry: 

CALIFORNIA 
COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

2200A MAINFRAME 459 00 

2065C 64K DYNAMIC RAM 539.00 

2422 DISK CONT. & CP/M« 359 00 

2710 4 SERIAL I/O 279.00 

2718 2 SERIAL / 2 PARALLEL I/O 269.00 

2720 4 PARLLEL I/O 199.00 

2810 Z-80 CPU 259.00 

QT COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

18 SLOT M/F W/P.S 430 00 

12 SLOT M/F W/CUTOUTS FOR 2-5'/< "500.00 
12 SLOT M/F W/CUTOUTS FOR 2-8". 600. 00 
8 SLOT M/F W/CUTOUTS FOR 2-8". .550. 00 

STATIC MEMORY SYSTEMS 

"LAST MEMORY" BOARD 64K 500.00 

"LASTING MEMORY" PROM PROG. 299 00 

ADVANCED MICRODIGITAL 
SINGLE S-100 BOARD 
COMPUTER 

SUPERQUAD-8 820 00 

SUPEROUAD-5 . 820.00 

COMREX 

"THE TIMEPIECE" S-100 CLOCK 125 00 



SIERRA 

COMPUTER PRODUCTS 

S-100 PROM PROGRAMMER A/T 240.00 

S-100 PROM PROGRAMMER KIT 195.00 

S-100 PROTOTYPE MODULE SEMI KIT 90 00 

MODEMS 

NOVATION CAT ACOUSTICS MODEM. 140.00 
NOVATION D-CAT DIRECT CONNECT 156 00 

NOVATION AUTO-CAT AUTO ANS 219.00 

NOVATION D-CAT (1200 Baud) 619.00 

NOVATION APPLE-CAT (300 Baud) 310.00 

NOVATION APPLE-CAT (1200 Baud) 605.00 

UDS 212 LP (1200 Baud) 429.00 

UDS 103 JLP AUTO ANS 209.00 

HAYES MICROMODEM 289.00 

HAYES 100 MODEM (S-100) 325.00 

HAYES SMART MODEM (300 BAUD) .227.00 
HAYES SMART MODEM (1200 BAUD). .540. 00 

HAYES CHRONOGRAPH 199.00 

SIGNALMAN MODEM W /RS-232C 85.00 

TERMINALS 

TELEVIDEO 920C 830.00 

TELEVIDEO 950C 995.00 

ADDS-VIEWPOINT 599.00 

HAZELTINE ESPRIT 510.00 

VISUAL-50 GREEN 690.00 

TRS-80 MOD I 
HARDWARE 

PERCOM DATA SEPARATOR 27.00 

PERCOM DOUBLER II W /DOS 3.4 159.00 

TANDON 80 TRK DISK DRIVE W/P.S. .345.00 
TANDON 40 TRK DISK DRIVE W/P S 289 00 

LNW DOUBLER W/DOSPLUS 3.3 138.00 

LNW 5/8 OOUBLER W/DOSPLUS 3 4 181.00 
MOD III DRIVE KIT W /DRIVES 875.00 

IBM HARDWARE 

SEATTLE 64K RAM+ 355 00 

OUADBOARD 64K. . 430.00 

64K MEMORY UPGRADE 80.00 



ALPHA BYTE IBM MEMORY 
EXPANSION BOARDS 

256K W/RS-232C 349.00 

256K W /RS-232C & SUPERCALC 529.00 

512K W/RS-232C 599.00 

512K W /RS-232C & SUPERCALC 749.00 

IBM DISK DRIVES 

Alpha Byte's add-on drive kits tor the IBM-PC — 
each kit includes installation instructions. 
1 Tandon TM100-1 Single head 40 trk.195.00 
1 Tandon TM 100-2 Double head 40 trk262.50 

BARE DRIVES 

TANDON 5V4 INCH 

100-1 SINGLE HEAD 40 TRK 195 00 

100-2 DUAL HEAD 40 TRK 262.50 

100-3 SINGLE HEAD 80 TRK 250.00 

100-4 DUAL HEAD 80 TRK 369 00 



CP/M is a reg. trademark ot Digital Research. 
38 BYTE January 1983 



squires Z-80 Softcard. IReg. trademark ot Micro Pro International Corp, {Trademark of Practical Peripherals, Inc. "Trademark of Software Dimensions, Inc. 

Circle 16 on Inquiry card. 



TANDON THINLINE 8 INCH 

848-1 SINGLE SIDE 379.00 

848-2 DUAL SIDE 490.00 

HARD DISK 
DRIVE SPECIAL 

MEDIA DISTRIBUTORS 

t'A" Winchester, cabinet. PS controller, 
assembled and tested Attaches to your Z-80 CPU 
system in minutes. Runs on Northstar. Heath/ 
Zenith, TRS-80 Mod II. Apple w/ CP/M* . CCS 
and others. Hardware must be 2-80 /CPM- 
system. The included self-installing software at- 
taches to your CP/M' 8 system. 6-month warran- 
ty No effect on your present floppy disk system. 
Includes all cables and installation instructions 

10 MEGABYTES 2370.00 

20 MEGABYTES 3180.00 

ISOLATORS 

ISO-1 3-SOCKET 49.95 

ISO-2 6-SOCKET 49.95 



MICRO PRO 

APPLE CP/M® 

WORDSTAR*! 

SUPERSORT't 

MAILMERGE't 

DATASTAR't 

SPELLSTAR't 

CALCSTAR't 



199.00 
109.00 
...60.00 
162.00 
.109.00 
109.00 



MICROSOFT 

APPLE 

FORTRAN - 

BASIC COMPILER" 

COBOL* 

Z-80 S0FTCAR0 

RAMCARD 

TYPING TUTOR 

OLYMPIC DECATHLON 

TASC APPLESOFT COMPILER 

ALDS 

MULTIPLAN 



.150 00 

296 00 

.550.00 

249.00 

.79.00 

...17.95 

. .24.95 

.125 00 

...95.00 

209.00 



IBM SOFTWARE 

VOLKSWRITER 145.00 

WRITE ON 90 00 

EASYWRITER II 247.00 

HOME ACCOUNTANT+ 105.00 

VISICALC / 256K 189.00 

SUPERCALC 179.00 

WORDSTAR 235.00 

MAILMERGE 79.00 

DATASTAR 220 00 

SPELLSTAR 150.00 

SUPERSORT 160.00 

d BASE II 429.00 

SPELLGUARD 230 00 

Call for additional IBM software prices. 

APPLE SOFTWARE 

MAGIC WINDOW 79,00 

MAGIC SPELL 59 00 

MAGIC MAILER 59.00 

DB MASTER 169.00 

DB MASTER UTILITY PACK 69.00 

DATA CAPTURE 4.0/80 59.95 

PFS GRAPH 89.95 

PFS: (NEW) PERSONAL FILING SYSTEM. 85. 00 

PFS: REPORT 79.00 

Z-TERM" 89 95 

Z-TERM PRO* 129.95 

ASCII EXPRESS 63.95 

EASY WRITER-PRO 199.00 

EASY MAILER-PRO 79.00 

A-STAT COMP. STATISTICS PKG 99.00 

BEAGLE BROTHERS UTILITY CITY 23.00 

APPLE MECHANIC 23.00 

TIP DESK#1 15.95 

SUPER TEXT II 129.00 

LISA 2.5 59.95 

TRANSCEND II 115.00 

PEACHTREE SERIES 4/40 369.00 

SCREENWRITER II 99.00 

DICTIONARY 79.00 

CONTINENTAL SOFTWARE 

G/L 165.00 



A/R 

A/P 

PAYROLL 

PROPERTY MGMT 

THE HOME ACCOUNTANT 

FIRST CLASS MAIL 



.165.00 
165.00 

.165 00 

. 399 00 
.59 95 

,, 55.00 



TRS-80 SOFTWARE 

NEWDOS/80 2 MOD I. Ill 139,00 

LAZY WRITER MOD 1,11 165,00 

PROSOFT NEWSCRIPT MOD I. Ill W/Iabels109 00 
SPECIAL DELIVERY MOD I. Ill 119.00 




FRANKLIN ACE 

1 000 1 595.00 

RANA DISK DRIVE 449.00 

RANA DRIVE 

CONT. CARD 1 35.00 

C.ITOH 8510 

PRINTER 795.00 



% 

MICROBUFFER 32K 299.00 

NEC 12" GREEN 

MONITOR 200.00 

VERBATIM DISKS 45.00 

LIBRARY CASE 5.00 

J3523~ 

Now $2352 



VISICORP 

DESKTOP PLAN II... . 

VISIPLOT 

VISITREND/VISIPLOT 
VISIDEX 

VISITERM 

VISICALC 

VISIFILES 



. 189.00 
158 00 

.229 00 
189 00 
79 00 
189 00 
189.00 



CP/M® SOFTWARE 

We carry CP/M- software in all popular disk 
formats Call tor availability and price. Most soft- 
ware also available on IBM 

SUPERFILES 170.00 

THE WORD PLUS 117.00 

d BASE II 429.00 

QUICKCODE 230.00 

DUTIL 91.00 

SUPER CALC 189.00 

SPELLGUARD 230.00 

P& T CP/M* MOD 2 & 16 TRS-80. ...175.00 

COMMX TERMINAL PROG 82.50 

PASCAL Z 349.00 

PASCAL MT+ 439.00 

PASCAL/M 295.00 

ACCOUNTING PLUS"- 

G/L,A/R,A/P,P/R 179900 

CONDOR I 579.00 

CONDOR II 849 00 

BADLIM 62.00 

DIGITAL RESEARCH 

MAC 89.00 

SID 69.00 

ZSID 97,00 

PL/ 1-80 439,00 

C BASIC 2 96,00 

SUPERSOFT 

DIAGNOSTIC I 

DIAGNOSTIC II 

'C'COMPILER 

UTILITIES I 

UTILITIES II 

RATFOR 

FORTRAN 

DISK DOCTOR 

MICROPRO 

WORDSTAR 

SUPERSORT 

MAILMERGE 

DATASTAR 

SPELLSTAR 

CALCSTAR 

WORDPAK 



69 00 

89.00 

179.00 

...59.00 

.59.00 

89.00 
.239.00 

78.00 



265.00 
160.00 
95 00 
.220.00 
150.00 
195.00 
455.00 



MICROSOFT 

BASIC 80 249.00 

BASIC COMPILER 299.00 

FORTRAN 80 359 00 

COBOL 80 419.00 

MACRO 80 185.00 

mu MATH/mu SIMP 200.00 

mu LISP/mu STAR 165.00 



X-TRA SPECIAL DELIVERY MOD I. Ill 199.00 

TRACKCESS MOD 1 24 95 

OMNITERM SMART TERM. MOD I. Ill .89.95 
MICROSOFT BASIC COMP FOR MOO I 165.00 
LOOS 5 1 MOD I. Ill 119.00 



TRS-80 GAMES 

INVADERS FROM SPACE 

PINBALL 

MISSILE ATTACK 

STAR FIGHTER 

SCARFMAN 



.17.95 
.17 95 
1895 
24 95 
.17.95 



APPLE & ATARI GAMES 

BRODERBUND 



APPLE PANIC 

MIDNIGHT MAGIC 
CHOPLIFTER. 



.23 61 
. 27.26 
.27 20 



AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS 

INVASION ORION 20.95 



STAR WARRIOR 31 

CRUSH. CRUMBLE AND CHOMP 24 

TEMPLE OF APSHAI 31 

HELLFIRE WARRIOR 31 

RESCUE AT RIGEL 23.36 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS 

WIZARD AND PRINCESS 27.26 

SOFT PORN ADVENTURE 23.36 

THRESHOLD 31.16 

JAW BREAKER ..23.36 

CROSSFIRE 24 95 

ULYSSES & GOLDEN FLEECE 25.95 

FROGGER 24 50 



INFOCOM 

ZORK I. II. Ill 28.00 

STARCROSS 28 00 

DEADLINE 35.00 

EDU-WARE 

COMPU-READ 24.95 

COMPU-MATH FRACTIONS 34.95 

COMPU-MATH DECIMALS 34.95 

MORE GREAT APPLE 
GAMES 

GALAXY WAR 20.95 

ALIEN TYPHOON 20.95 

ARCADE MACHINE 32.95 

TUES. MORNING OUARTERBACK 25.95 

THE DRAGON'S EYE 20.95 

COMPUTER QUARTERBACK 31 16 

SEA FOX 24 00 

THE SHATTERED ALLIANCE 49.95 

POOL 1.5 27.26 

ULTIMA 31 16 

RASTER BLASTER 23.36 

FLIGHT SIMULATOR 26.61 

INTERNATIONAL GRAND PRIX . . 25.95 

SARGON II 28.95 

SHUFFLE BOARD 29.95 

SPACE KADETT 28.00 

SNACK ATTACK 23.36 




THIEF 

MARS CARS 

KAMIKAZI 

THE WARP FACTOR 

COSMO MISSION 

WIZARDRY 

SIRIUS SOFTWARE 

SPACE EGGS 23 36 

GORGON 31.16 

SNEAKERS 23.36 

PHANTOMS FIVE 22 00 

BANDITS 25.00 

EDU-WARE 

PERCEPTION PKG 19.95 

COMPU-MATH: ARITHMETIC 39.95 

COMPU-SPELL (REQ DATA DISK) 24 95 

COMPU-SPELL DATA DISKS 4-8. ea 17.95 

RENDEZVOUS 28.50 

ON-LINE SYSTEMS 

ULTIMA II 42.00 

MISSILE DEFENSE 27.26 

SABOTAGE 20.95 

TIME ZONE 77 96 

CRANSTON MANOR 25.95 

CANNON BALL BLITZ 25.95 

MUSE SOFTWARE 

ROBOT WARS 

THREE MILE ISLAND 
ABM 



To order or for 
information call 

InNewYxk: 
(212)509-1923 

In Los Angeles: 
(213)706-0333 

In Dallas: 
(214)744-4251 

By Modem: 
(213)883-897^ 




IPUTER 
PRODUCTS 



31245 LA BAYA DRIVE 
WESTLAKE VILLAGE. CA 91362 



We guarantee everything we sell for 30 days — no returns after 30 days. Detective software will be replaced free, but all other software returns are subject to 1 5% restocking lee and must be accompanied by RMA slip. No 
returns on game software, unless defective. We accept VISA and MasterCard on all orders; COD orders, up to $300. Shipping charges: $3 for all prepaid orders, actual shipping charges for non- prepaids; $3 for COD orders 
under 25lbs ($6 for over) plus a $4 surcharge: add 15% for foreign. FPO and APO orders Calif add 6% sales tax, in LA. County add 5V2%. Prices quoted are for stock on hand and are subject to change without notice. 



Circle 16 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 39 



Microcomputing, British Style 

The Fifth Personal Computer World Show 



by Gregg Williams, Senior Editor 



Quick: what's the most microcomputer-hungry 
country in the world? The United States, of 
course, right? We've got Silicon Valley and 
Route 128 (recently dubbed Technology Highway) near 
Boston. We've got BYTE, Apple, Atari, and IBM. True 
enough, but Britain has the people — and it has a lot more 
than we do. 

There's ample evidence that, compared to the U.S., 
proportionally more of Britain's population is interested 
in microcomputers. The Fifth Personal Computer World 
Show, a business and hobby microcomputer show hosted 
by one of Britain's leading computer magazines, Personal 
Computer World, is a case in point. From September 
9 to 12, 1982, 47,461 people attended the show— 12,000 
more than visited this year's West Coast Computer Faire, 
which also lasted four days and was — until now — the 
world's largest microcomputer show. If that's not enough 
evidence, consider that the Personal Computer World 
Show held at the Barbican Center in London had far 
fewer exhibitors and less exhibition space than the Com- 
puter Faire, yet drew roughly one- third more people. A 
quick check in an almanac confirms that the population 
of the United States is almost four times that of the 
United Kingdom, which makes the attendance figures 
even more impressive. Something rather important is 
happening over there. 

Last September, I attended the show to observe the 
state of microcomputing in Britain firsthand. And if the 
crowds I saw in London were any indication, more 
Britons from a wider range of ages (still almost exclusive- 
ly men and boys, though) are clamoring for microcom- 
puters than Americans are on the basis of any American 
convention I've ever attended. On the weekend, I saw a 
line — er, excuse me, queue — of people several blocks 
long waiting to buy tickets. It must have taken hours to 
reach the window, and once inside you couldn't move or 
see anything. 

Why are the British so enthusiastic about microcom- 
puters? Part of the answer lies in the official support of 
the British government, which decided that microcom- 
puters are important enough to warrant government- 
sponsored public education on the subject. The British 
Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) sponsored a tutorial 
series on computers and commissioned an official 
microcomputer to be used in conjunction with the pro- 
grams. I'm told that the television programs have been 




The Personal Computer World Show on one of the 
slow days. You should have seen it when it got crowd- 
ed! (Photos by Gregg Williams and Chris Morgan.) 




The ACT Sirius 1, as popular in Britain as the IBM 
Personal Computer is in the United States, is said to be 
the Victor 16-bit microcomputer in a different housing. 
An entire section of the show was devoted to ACT and 
third-party hardware and software vendors. 





Although the Personal Computer World Show had separate 
business and hobbyist sections, Acorn (maker of the BBC 
Microcomputer) had booths in both. Left: a dozen people 
were able to get hands-on experience with the BBC 
Microcomputer. Above: a screen shot of Snapper, a BBC 
Microcomputer game whose graphics and sound are great. 




The Sinclair machines may be the most popular in Britain, but that doesn't mean that people like their keyboards— a brisk 
market exists for add-on keyboards and enclosures for Sinclair machines. This one, from DK'tronics, includes a full-size 
keyboard with keypad and an enclosure large enough to fit the computer board and other Sinclair peripherals. Its £45 price 
tag (almost as much as the £50 ZX81 computer) indicates the amount of interest in such products. 



■ 



augmented by books and materials to be used in the 
public school system. A BBC series on programming is 
planned, and the National Extension College, a home- 
study institute, already has a course on BASIC program- 
ming using a generalized version of the language. 

Jack Schofield, editor of another leading British micro- 
computer magazine, Practical Computing, has his own 
hypothesis for the popularity of microcomputers in Brit- 
ain. The past decade has not been kind, economically or 
socially, to Britain, and as a result most people have 
learned to accept long lines and high prices as part of 
daily life. Fearful that high technology may put him out 
of a job someday, the average Briton has accepted the 
computer as a potential influence, but one that he has 
some control over. This, Schofield says, may explain the 
strong interest in microcomputers that transcends British 
class and economic boundaries. 

Whether or not Schofield's hypothesis is correct, the 
British appetite for microcomputers owes a good deal to 
the pivotal work of one man: Clive Sinclair. As head of 
Sinclair Research, the company that makes the ZX80, the 
ZX81, and the Spectrum microcomputers, Clive Sinclair 
is to the British small computer what Adam Osborne is to 
the American business computer: the creator of a product 
whose price is so low that the competition finally ac- 
cepted it as the price to beat. Before Sinclair brought out 
the ZX80 at about £100 (less than $200), the British had 
only expensive American imports. Discounted Com- 
modore VIC-20s and Atari 400s, for example, sell for 
around £200 and £300 respectively, almost twice their 
American prices. Because it is so expensive abroad, the 
Apple II is known primarily in Britain and Europe as a 
business machine, believe it or not. American microcom- 
puters have always been just too expensive for the 
average person. You can then imagine the exultation 
when Sinclair Research brought out the ZX80 for under 
£100 — one-half to one-third the price of the imports. 
Granted, it wasn't as good a computer, but more people 
could afford it, and that made the difference. Now more 
than half the microcomputers in Britain are ZX80s and 
ZX81s. The ZX81 now sells for £50, and British manufac- 
turers are interested in creating a full-featured computer 
for less than £300. 

My first observation at the Personal Computer World 
Show was that people were insatiably curious about 
microcomputers. After that, I was impressed by the 
diversity of inexpensive machines. I've written short 
descriptions of the six machines most worthy of 
note— the Acorn BBC Model B, the Dragon 32, the 
EACA Genie III, the Camputers Lynx, the Grundy 
Newbrain AD, and the Sinclair Spectrum. (All but the 
Genie III are low-cost machines.) I've included a chart 
that compares those computers, a collection of photos 
from the show, and a list of addresses for all the products 
mentioned in this article. So lean back and enjoy the 
show — at least you don't have to fight the crowds. ■ 




Here's a 3-inch disk pack for the Grundy Newbrain 
AD computer. The Newbrain disk-drive module 
houses two 3-inch disk drives in a small unit the size of 
the computer itself— in fact, the disk-drive module is 
meant to fit unobtrusively under the computer. 




The Osborne computer is very popular in Britain. (Ac- 
tually, I'm a sucker for a clever ad.) 




A section of the show was devoted to the Third European Chess 
Championship, a tournament among microcomputer chess pro- 
grams. Tournament rules stipulated that all machines average 30 
moves per hour, a computational limit that put several computers 
at a disadvantage. 




The Microwriter is one of the most interesting 
devices I saw at the show. A one-handed data- 
entry unit, it can be hooked up to a printer or a 
microcomputer, and it even has some limited 
word-processing features. You enter data by 
pressing down and releasing certain combinations 
of the six buttons. At £557.75 (less than $1000). 
it's a bit expensive, but its portability and one- 
handed operation make it desirable to some. 







Even more interesting than the Microwriter is the 
Jupiter Ace, a low-cost microcomputer that has 
FORTH instead of BASIC in ROM. Any 
resemblance to the Sinclair Spectrum is not ac- 
cidental; Steve Vickers and Richard Altwasser, 
who designed the Ace, were the codesigners of the 
Spectrum and are now running their own com- 
pany. The Jupiter Ace is a very interesting im- 
plementation of Forth Interest Group FORTH 
with some innovative extensions to adapt it to a 
cassette-only environment. 




These stamps, issued recently by the British Post Office, reflect Brit- 
ain's commitment to and awareness of computers in everyday life. 





The Sinclair Spectrum 



If Clive Sinclair's black-and-white ZX80 and ZX81 
have become the most popular microcomputers in 
Britain (and, for that matter, in the rest of the world), 
is it any wonder that his company's new color 
microcomputer, the Spectrum, is doing just as well? 

The success of the Spectrum is a source of great 
comfort to Clive Sinclair, especially since the BBC 
chose Acorn's design over his for use in its computer- 
literacy program. (Incidentally, Sinclair could be ac- 
cused of the same tactic for which he had berated 
Acorn: advertising the product long before he was able 
to deliver it.) As the British ad for the Spectrum points 
out, the Spectrum is markedly simpler and more 
elegant than the Acorn BBC Microcomputer when 
measured by the number of chips on its main circuit 
board. However, the Spectrum shows a quirkiness 
that is the price we pay for its circuit board elegance 
and low cost. And Clive Sinclair's statement that the 
Spectrum is "less than half the price of its nearest com- 
petitor — and more powerful" is only half right: half 
the price, yes, but definitely not more powerful. 

First of all, you have to consider the keyboard. For 
£125, we can't quite demand the full keyboards offered 
by machines that are considerably more expensive 
than the basic Spectrum. Given the price differential, 
we can make allowances for the Spectrum's unique 
keyboard, which is basically a pressure-sensitive mem- 



brane (like those of the ZX80 and ZX81) mounted 
under a piece of molded gray rubber that protrudes 
above the plastic cover to make "keys." This in- 
teresting scheme works surprisingly well, but the 
cramped 9.3-inch-wide keyboard has other faults that 
are harder to excuse. 

Inexpensive or not, the keyboard layout is impossi- 
ble to justify. It may be innovative, but it's also poorly 
designed in several respects. The layout is clever in 
that you can use it to enter letters, numbers, one- 
stroke BASIC keywords, graphics symbols, and the 
like. But that scheme makes the keyboard busy. Most 
keys have five legends: three printed on the key and 
one each immediately above and below the key. This 
design may be necessary, but it also causes eyestrain 
and confusion. I'd be willing to forgive all this, but I 
can't excuse such thoughtless "innovations" as pro- 
viding only one Caps Shift key (in the lower left-hand 
corner; the one on the right is used as a Symbol Shift 
key) and placing the space key in the lower right-hand 
corner of the keyboard. 

The Spectrum's BASIC is a superset of the Sinclair 
BASIC used in the ZX80 and ZX81, and it has some 
valuable features, most of them having to do with the 
rather clever way graphics are implemented. ZX81 
cassette tapes will not load on a Spectrum, and most 

Continued on page 50 



44 January 19S3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



The Acorn BBC Model B Microcomputer 



The BBC Microcomputer enjoys a colorful reputa- 
tion because of its history. (See "The BBC Computer," 
Popular Computing, October 1982.) More than two 
years ago, the BBC decided to start a computer literacy 
television series. The network realized that, with more 
powerful and increasingly inexpensive microcom- 
puters, it would soon be possible to create them with 
enough computing power to offer their owners per- 
sonal hands-on experience with microcomputers at an 
affordable price. The BBC considered the Newbrain 
computer and rejected it. Acorn and Sinclair Research, 
along with other companies, then submitted designs, 
and the Acorn won. (Sinclair went on to market its 
design as the Sinclair Spectrum.) Clive Sinclair has 
been quick to point out problems with the Acorn unit, 
and the interaction between the two companies has 
been a source of entertainment for the British com- 
puter community. 

Although the BBC Model B is more expensive than 
some units (see page 49), it has an advantage over 
most of the very-low-cost ones: it is a no-compromise 
computer that has many uses beyond self -instruction in 
computer technology. I will confine my remarks to the 
Model B unit instead of the less expensive Model A (at 
£299) because the latter lacks most of the features that 
make the BBC Microcomputer competitive with other 
similarly priced units. 



The BBC Model B has eight video-display modes, 
five pixel-graphics modes in which you can display 
text, and three text-only modes. The highest graphics 
mode (640 by 256 pixels, 2 colors) requires a video 
monitor, while the lowest one (160 by 256 pixels, 4 or 
16 colors) offers roughly the same resolution, prac- 
tically speaking (i.e., once the image is displayed on a 
standard color television) as the Apple and Atari com- 
puters, but it also offers additional colors. 

The most innovative feature of both BBC computers 
is the Tube, a special interface built into the computer 
that enables the main computer (which uses a 6502 
board) to communicate with any suitably designed 
auxiliary microprocessor board. This is, not coin- 
cidentally, a way for Acorn to provide a Z80 board so 
that the BBC computer can run business software 
available through Digital Research's popular CP/M 
operating system. At first, the Tube sounds like the 
Microsoft Consumer Products' Softcard for the Apple 
II, but the connection it uses is different. The Softcard 
and similar boards share the address and data lines 
with the main microprocessor. The Tube, however, 
uses a dedicated 2-MHz serial link with memory buf- 
fers on each side of the link and interrupt-driven soft- 
ware. This scheme allows true coprocessing with both 
processors running at full speed. Acorn has plans to 

Continued on page 51 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 45 




The Dragon 32 

The Dragon 32 is named for its standard 32K 
bytes of memory — quite a selling point in a country 
accustomed to microcomputers with memories as 
small as IK bytes. And because the Dragon 32 is 
one of the newest British microcomputers, it offers 
more features for the money than most of its com- 
petitors (see table 1). 

The Dragon 32 seems to be a very adequate 
machine, but there's nothing exceptional about it. 
In fact, I can sum it up in one sentence: it looks like 
a Radio Shack TRS-80 Color Computer with 32K 
bytes of memory. (I've found that some Color 
Computer cartridges will run on the Dragon 32, but 
they must be taken out of their plastic shells to fit in 
the Dragon 32 cartridge slot.) Its similarities to the 
TRS-80 Color Computer include use of the 6809E 
microprocessor and Microsoft's Extended Color 
BASIC (right down to command names — PMODE, 
HEX$, and DEFUSR, for example), nine colors for 
color graphics display, five graphics modes, 
joysticks, and cartridge software. 

The Dragon 32, however, does have several ad- 
vantages over the TRS-80 Color Computer. First, in 
Britain it is considerably cheaper than the Color 
Computer. Second, the Dragon 32 can be expanded 
to a full 64K-byte workspace (unlike the Color 
Computer, which can only be expanded from 16K 
to 32K bytes of memory). Third, the Dragon 32 has 
a typewriter-style keyboard that is somewhat better 
than the TRS-80 Color Computer's adequate but 
calculator-like keys. Finally, the Dragon 32 includes 
a Centronics-type parallel-printer port. 

Dragon Data Ltd. plans to market its computer in 
America but hasn't decided on a date. You can be 
sure the company will take care of its home market 
before expanding internationally. When that hap- 
pens, American buyers will have a choice of low- 
cost color computers. 



The EACA Genie III 

The Genie III is the only one of the six microcom- 
puters profiled here that doesn't fall in the low-cost 
category. I included it because, of all the business 
machines at the show, it's the one that caught my 
eye. Like the IBM Personal Computer, it is 
newsworthy not because it's innovative but because 
it carefully combines the best features of other com- 
puters. It is manufactured by EACA International 
and distributed in Britain by Lowe Electronics. 

The Genie III is housed in two units. The main 
one contains the computer itself, a 12-inch green- 
phosphor video display, and two SVi-inch double- 
sided 80-track floppy-disk drives. (These can be 
augmented by either two 5Vi-inch or two 8-inch 
floppy disks.) The other unit is a detachable 86-key 
keyboard, which includes a numeric keypad around 
whose two edges eight function keys are wrapped. 

Emulation capabilities are the Genie Ill's main 
claim to fame. It is supplied with two operating 
systems, NEWDOS-80 version 2.0 and CP/M 2.2. 
If you load NEWDOS-80, the BASIC loaded is a 
RAM (random-access read/write memory) version 
of Radio Shack TRS-80 Model I BASIC supplied 
(legally) by Microsoft; the video display shows 16 
lines of 64 characters each, and the machine 
emulates a TRS-80 Model I. If you load CP/M, the 
video display shows 24 lines of 80 characters each, 
and the machine emulates a CP/M system with a 
standard screen size. (Under software control, 
NEWDOS can also use the 24 by 80 video format.) 

Table 1 lists some of the Genie Ill's features. Its 
built-in real-time clock, optional high-resolution 
graphics (288- by 640-pixel) board, and optional 
programmable-character interface board are also of 
interest. With additional hardware, the Genie III 
can support multiple users and run Digital 
Research's MP/M operating system. You can also 
add an external 5-megabyte hard disk. 



46 . January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



The Grundy Newbrain AD 



In the July 1982 issue of Personal Computer World, 
managing editor Dick Pountain writes, "When the 
Newbrain was announced to the world two years ago, 
the design concept was significantly in advance of 
anything that had been seen in the field of handheld 
computing." And so it was — even though problems 
plagued the design. In fact, the company that created 
it, Newbury Labs, sold the design to its current owner, 
Grundy Business Systems Ltd. At one time, the 
Newbrain was in line to be the BBC computer, but 
design problems and the change in ownership caused 
the BBC to look elsewhere. 

The machine is now being advertised as a compact 
but powerful microcomputer, and the number of hard- 
ware and software features and options it offers sup- 
ports this point of view. The Newbrain AD, which 
contains a 16-character fluorescent display, is com- 
plemented by a cheaper version, the Newbrain A, 
which sells for £199. The Newbrain M, a third model 
that includes a battery-backup option, is scheduled to 
be released soon. 

The basic unit includes a Z80A microprocessor that 
runs at 4 MHz, a National Semiconductor COP 420M 
microprocessor dedicated to handling input and out- 
put, 32K bytes of RAM, and 29K bytes of ROM (read- 
only memory). Through an external expansion box, 
you can increase this to a staggering 2 megabytes of 
RAM and 4 megabytes of ROM. Grundy plans to 
market the CP/M operating system and popular 



applications-software packages in ROM, which will 
convert the Newbrain to a "crashproof," stand-alone 
computer dedicated to one task. The keyboard has cal- 
culator-type keys in a standard configuration; the 
spaces between keys are just slightly smaller than those 
on a standard typewriter keyboard. The Newbrain 
video-display character set contains 512 letters, 
numbers, and graphics as well as videotex symbols. 
The character set is divided into two 256-character 
banks, only one of which can be selected at a time. 

A Multiple Communication/Network Module adds 
8, 16, or 24 (depending on the model) RS-232/V24 
bidirectional serial ports. According to the manufac- 
turer, Newbrains connected through this module con- 
stitute a de facto network that can share floppy or 
hard disks, printers, and other peripherals. 

An optional Videotex Module enables Newbrain 
owners to access British Teletext and Prestel services. 

The Newbrain produces a monochrome text or 
graphics video image. The macjjjne offers a choice of 
several pixel densities: 256, 320, 512, or 640 pixels per 
row. In addition, you can split the video display into 
separate graphics and scrolling-text areas (with text 
above graphics); a graphics-only display has 250 rows 
of pixels. 

The Newbrain software is equally versatile, if con- 
fusing on occasion. The 29K bytes of ROM contain the 
Newbrain operating system as well as its BASIC, 

Continued on page 51 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 47 



The Camputers Lynx 



The Lynx, from Camputers Ltd., is one of the new- 
est machines I saw in England. "Previewed," not an- 
nounced, at the Personal Computer World Show, it 
offers more computing power for the money than any 
other machine I saw there. 

The unit itself is almost Spartan in appearance and 
size, but it has some rather attractive features. The 
keyboard, which houses the entire computer, is full- 
sized and conventionally laid out. Unfortunately, the 
Delete key is where the Return key usually is, and the 
Return key is, oddly enough, to the right of the right 
Shift key. The Lynx comes with 48K bytes of memory, 



but it can be expanded to an impressive maximum of 
192K bytes. The computer runs a Z80A micropro- 
cessor and can optionally run CP/M. It has a good 
40-character, 24-line video display that converts to an 
8-color, 248- by 256-pixel graphics display. With addi- 
tional memory, video resolution doubles to 80 
characters per line and 248- by 512-pixel graphics. I 
was told that the unit allows user-defined characters. 
Representatives from Lynx say a 5V4-inch disk drive 
will be available for the unit and that the company will 
eventually market an adapted version of the machine 
in the United States. 



Vendor List 



Ace: Jupiter Cantab, 22 Foxhollow, Bar Hill, Cambridge 
CB3 8EP, England. Telephone 0954-80437. 

BBC Models A and B: Acorn Computers Ltd., Fulbourn 
Road, Cherry Hinton, Cambridge, England. Telephone 
0223-245200. 

Cambridge Ring (network system): Orbis Computers Ltd., 
4a Market Hill, Cambridge CBZ 3NJ, England. Telephone 
0223-312449. 

Dragon 32: Dragon Data Ltd., Queensway, Swansea In- 
dustrial Estate, Swansea SA5 4EH, England. Telephone 
0792-580651. 

Genie III (British distributor): Lowe Electronics, Bentley 
Bridge, Chesterfield Rd., Matlock, Derbyshire, DE4 5LE 
England. Telephone 0629-2430. 

Genie III (manufacturer): EACA International Ltd. , EACA 
Industrial Bldg., 13 Chong Yip St., Kwun Tong, Kowloon, 
Hong Kong. Telephone 3-896323. 



Lynx: Camputers Ltd., 33a Bridge St., Cambridge CB2 
WW, England. Telephone 0223-315063. 

Microwriter: Microwriter Ltd., 31 Southampton Row, 
London WC1B 5HJ, England. Telephone 01-831-6801. 

Newbrain A and AD: Grundy Business Systems Ltd., 
Grundy House, Somerset Rd., Teddington TWll 8TD, 
England. 

Sirius: ACT (Sirius) Ltd., Ill HagleyRd., Edgbaston, Bir- 
mingham B16 8LB, England. Telephone 021-454-8585. 

Spectrum: Sinclair Research, 6 Kings Parade, Cambridge, 
Cambridgeshire CB2 1SN, England. Telephone 
0276-685311. 

ZX81: see Spectrum, above. 

ZX80/ZX81/Spectrum enhanced keyboard and enclosure: 
DK'tronics, 23 Sussex Rd. , Gorleston, Great Yarmouth, Nor- 
folk, England. Telephone 0493-602453. 



48 January 1983 © BYTE Publications lnc 







How They Compare 








BBC Model B 


Dragon 32 


Genie III 


Lynx 


Newbrain AD 


Spectrum 


Price (pounds, including 
Value Added Tax) 


£399 


£199 


£2185 


£225 


£229 


£125 


Microprocessor used 


2 MHz 6502 


6809E, speed 
unknown 


4 MHz Z80A 


4 MHz Z80A 


4 MHz Z80A 


3,5 MHz Z80A 


Standard RAM 


32K bytes 


32 K bytes 


64K bytes 


48K bytes 


32K bytes 


16K bytes 


Maximum RAM 


32K bytes 
(see note 1) 


64 K bytes 


64 K bytes 
(see note 2) 


192K bytes 


2 megabytes 


48K bytes 


ROM included 


16K bytes 


16K bytes 


2K bytes 


16K bytes 


29 K bytes 


16K bytes 


Text display 

(columns, rows) 


40 by 24 or 
80 by 25 


32 by 16 


64 by 16 or 
80 by 24 


40 by 24 
(see note 3) 


40 by 30, 
or 80 by 30 


32 by 24 


High-resolution graphics 
display (in pixels) 


640 by 256 


192 by 25 


160 by 72, 
optional 
640 by 288 


248 by 256 
(see note 3) 


640 by 256 


176 by 256 


Number of colors 
available 


16 


9 


monochrome 
only 


8 


monochrome 
only 


8 


Type of keyboard 


full-size 

typewriter style 
plus function 
keys 


full-size 
typewriter style 


full-size 

typewriter style 
plus keypad and 
function keys 


full-sized 
typewriter style 


full-sized 
keyboard with 
calculator-style 
keys 


smaller-sized 
keyboard with 
rubber mem- 
brane keys 


Subjective rating of 
keyboard (1 = unaccep- 
table, 10 = excellent) 


8 


7 


8 


6 (see note 4) 


7 


3 (see note 5) 


Interfaces included 

(excluding TV output) 


RS-423 serial 
parallel port, 
RGB monitor 
output, 8-bit I/O 
port, four 12-bit 
analog input 
channels 


parallel port 
joystick and 
cartridge ports, 
color monitor 
output 


RS-232C and 
parallel ports 


RS-232C port 


two RS-232C 

ports, 

composite 


none 


Disk drive available? 


yes 


yes 


two 5 Vi -inch 


yes 


yes 


yes 



Other features 



high-speed 
serial link for 
second 
processor 



includes 

Extended 

Microsoft 

Color 

BASIC 



drives (800K 
bytes each) 
included 

detachable optional 

keyboard, runs Videotext 

NEWDOS-80 module 
and CP/M 2.2 



Note 1: Acorn is working on a 16-bit processor with 128K bytes of RAM that connects to the BBC Model B computer via a high-speed 
serial link; this would bring the computer (in an unconventional way) to 160K bytes of RAM. 

Note 2: In the multiuser system, the Genie III has 192K bytes of memory. 

Note 3: With an optional expansion box, the Lynx can display 24 rows of 80 columns each and 248 by 512 pixel graphics. 

Note 4: The Lynx keyboard suffers from having a Return key to the right of the right Shift key and a Delete key where the Return key would 
be on most keyboards. 

Note 5: The Spectrum has a very idiosyncratic keyboard that is partially excusable because the unit is so inexpensive. See the main text 
for more details. 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 49 



Sinclair Spectrum continued from page 44: 

ZX81 BASIC programs will require some modification to 

work. 

Sinclair used his earlier computers as a testing ground 
for several original features. Some of these (like the "in- 
telligent" cursor that prevents you from entering syntac- 
tically incorrect BASIC statements) have remained in the 
Spectrum, while others (like the nonstandard character 
code used in the ZX80 and ZX81, abandoned for the 
ASCII code in the Spectrum) are mercifully absent. 

The character-oriented video image is 24 lines of 32 
characters each. Each character has a separate attribute 
byte (each one of eight colors, chosen independently) that 
determines its foreground and background colors, 
brightness, and flashing/steady status. The screen is 
always in the bit-mapped graphics mode (192 by 256 pix- 
els), and characters are "painted" onto the video display 
in a pixel pattern. (This makes possible unrestricted mix- 
ing of text and graphics as well as an OVER command 
that merges a character string with whatever image is 
already on the screen.) 

Actually, it's easiest to think of the video screen in 
terms of monochrome pixel graphics (i.e., each pixel is 
either on or off), with each 8- by 8-pixel square 
(character) having its own foreground and background 
color. Using the metaphor of images being "printed" on 
video "paper," the BASIC commands INK and PAPER 
set the foreground and background, respectively, of the 
next character to be printed. Unfortunately, this scheme 



restricts the color combinations of two adjacent pixels 
(unlike most high-resolution graphics schemes, which 
allow two adjacent pixels to be almost any color pair). 
The Spectrum also has 21 user-defined characters, each of 
which can be defined via special BASIC commands (thus 
simplifying the process more than other micro- 
computers). 

Like the ZX81, the Spectrum has a rear-edge connector 
that contains a full set of address, control, and data lines. 
The Spectrum will accept the same ZX printer that the 
ZX81 uses, but, unlike the ZX81, it is upgraded to its 
maximum 48K bytes of memory via an internal 32K-byte 
board and won't work with the ZX81 16K-byte memory 
pack. Other peripherals in the works from Sinclair are a 
£20 RS-232C /network interface board and a £50 3-inch 
disk drive. The company's Microdrive (as it is called) is 
noteworthy because it costs well under $100. Each 3-inch 
floppy disk can hold up to 100K bytes of data; its average 
access time is 3.5 seconds, and its data-transfer rate is 
128K bits per second. 

How will the Spectrum fare in the American market? 
That depends. Timex Corporation has the rights to 
market the Spectrum (it already markets a modified ZX81 
as the Timex/Sinclair 1000). If the Spectrum were to sell 
for the equivalent of £125, its price in Britain, it would 
cost roughly $220 in the United States — hardly competi- 
tive with comparable low-cost American units. My guess 
is that Timex will market an American version of the 
Spectrum for somewhere between $125 and $175 within 




50 January 19*3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 425 on Inquiry card. 



the next six months. 

In any case, the Spectrum is a promising machine. I'll 
reserve further judgment until it becomes available here 
in the United States. 

Acorn BBC Microcomputer continued from page 45: 

offer 6502 and Z80 auxiliary boards and is experimenting 
with a board containing National Semiconductor's 16-bit 
16032 chip. 

Acorn is offering an interface to its Econet local net- 
work system that will make it possible to hook up as 
many as 254 microcomputers using inexpensive 4-wire 
telephone cable. Orbis, a subsidiary of Acorn, supports 
the Cambridge Ring (developed at the Cambridge 
University Computer Laboratory), a high-speed local 
network in a ring configuration that can connect to 
anything from mainframes to microcomputers. 

BBC BASIC is closely modeled after the de facto stan- 
dard Microsoft versions, but it adds several good exten- 
sions. The most important of these are local variables, 
subroutines that pass parameters, and recursion. BASIC 
has always been severely handicapped because it lacks 
these features (especially the first two), and I applaud the 
BBC's inclusion of them in the language. (Language 
designers, especially Microsoft, take note.) Another 
fascinating feature is a built-in 6502 assembler that allows 
6502 assembly-language code in a BASIC pro- 
gram — bravo again! How Acorn got these and many 
other features into a 16K-byte BASIC, I'll never know. 

The BBC Model B includes an RS423 serial port, which 
is said to be an RS-232C-compatible interface that 
facilitates a higher data-transfer rate and a longer max- 
imum cable length than the RS-232C. In addition, the 
Model B includes an 8-bit Centronics-type parallel port, 
an 8-bit input/output (I/O) port, an RGB (red-green- 
blue) color-monitor output, and four 12-bit analog-to- 
digital ports. 

Although some other British microcomputers offer 



more features for a given price, none of them surpasses 
the BBC Model B microcomputer in terms of versatility 
and expansion capability. Acorn has plans to produce a 
version of its computer for American use but has not yet 
set an availability date. 

Grundy Newbrain AD continued from page 47: 

mathematics package, screen editor, graphics package, 
and device-driver software. The BASIC conforms to the 
ANSI (American National Standards Institute) x3.2/78 
standard instead of the more common de facto Microsoft 
BASIC standard. The Newbrain's graphics package com- 
bines traditional point-to-point drawing with Logo-like 
"turtle" commands (e.g., move-forward-drawing-a-line 
and rotate-pen-to-new-facing-angle). In addition, com- 
mands that draw arcs and fill areas with color are 
available. 

The most useful commands relate to data streams, 
which are the "pipeline" through which all data transfer 
occurs. As with the Atari 400 and 800 computers, all in- 
put and output is handled through the operating system. 
This procedure accomplishes two things: first, it allows 
I/O to be handled in a standard way, regardless of the 
language or hardware involved; second, it is an open- 
ended approach that lets you write software interfaces 
that will work with any hardware you connect the 
machine to. Up to 255 data streams can be open at one 
time. For example, multiple data streams opened to the 
Newbrain screen editor give you multiple graphics 
"pages" that can be written to and displayed in- 
dependently. 

The Newbrain is obviously a complex, capable 
machine designed with open-ended expansion in mind. I 
personally do not like its small size, and its design is 
sometimes too complex. I would, however, want to ex- 
amine it more carefully before making a final decision on 
it.l 



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logical addresses to be dynamically 
translated to any 4K block of the 
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□ 24-bit addressing option. 

□ Comprehensive technical manual with com 
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tor MP/M II™ and "virtual disk" solid 
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□ 8/16 data transfer protocol. 




Memory 



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$1,350.00 

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refundable with order. 
OEM & dealer inquiries invited. 



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Circle 238 on inquiry card. 



January 19S3 © BYTE Publications lnc 51 



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JRT Pascal at $29.95 (which includes postage) certainly allows the user 
to experience champagne and caviar at cafeteria prices..." 

INTERFACE AGE, Oct. '82 "...JRT Pascal is following the example set by Software 
Toolworks (Sherman Oaks, CA) of offering quality software at extremely 
low price..." 

INFOWORLD, Aug. 16, '82 The magazine's Software Report Card' rated JRT's 
documentation good' and performance, ease of use and error handling 
excellent'*- the highest rating. 



AND NOW: JRT PASCAL 3.0— 

with all the features that earned 2.0 so 
much praise — PLUS the many new features 
shown here. The price? — still just $29.95! 
This astonishing price includes the complete 
JRT Pascal system on diskettes and the 
new expanded user manual. Not a subset, 
it's a complete Pascal for CP/M.* 

Modern computer languages recognize 
the advantages of dividing programs into easy- 
to-use functional modules. JRT's external 
procedure modules give you flexibility to run 
programs of almost unlimited sizes. Because 
the procedures are separately compiled, if one 
part of a program changes only that part needs 
recompiling. And libraries of external proce- 
dures can be built-up containing code and 
data common to many main programs; the 
time and duplication savings are obvious. 

Faster and more reliable than ever, 
for beginner or expert, engineer or business- 
man, JRT Pascal 3.0 provides a set of 
features unequaled by any other Pascal... 
or any other language. 

52 BYTE January 1983 




OUR NO-RISK OFFER: 

When you receive JRT Pascal 3.0, look 
it over, check it out, compare it with similar 
systems costing ten times as much. If you're 
not completely satisfied, return it — with the 
sealed diskettes unopened — within 30 days, 
and your money will be refunded in full. 
That's right: satisfaction guaranteed or your 
money back! 

A JRT bonus: if you want to copy the 
diskettes or manual — so long as it's not for 
resale — that's o.k. with us. Pass it on to your 
friends. But don't delay. Send the coupon or 
phone today and start enjoying the Pascal 
advantage; at $29.95, there's no reason 
to wait! 

NEW Full support 
for indexed files 



NEW 



CRT screen formatting 
and full cursor control 



NEW Facilities for 
formatting printed reports 



NEW 

175-page 

user manual 

with protective 

3-ring binder 

and 5-1/4" or 

8" diskettes 

NEW Handy 
JRT Pascal reference card 

NEW File variables 
and GET/PUT 

NEW Dynamic arrays 

NEW SEARCH procedure 
for fast table look-up 

Extended CASE statement 

Graphing procedures 

Statistic procedures 

Circle 220 on inquiry card. 



14 digit BCD FLOATING 
POINT arithmetic 

True dynamic storage 

Advanced 
assembly interface 



Fast one-step compiler; 
no link needed 

Efficient compiler needs 
only 85K diskette space 

Maximum program size: 
more than 200,000 lines 



More than 200 

verbal error messages 

Separate compilation 
of auto-loading 
external procedures 

No limits on procedure 
size, nesting or recursion 




TO JRT CUSTOMERS: THANK YOU . 

Your response to very low-priced/high-quality 
JRT Software has been overwhelming. Since 
last summer we've added almost 25,000 
new JRT owners; because we allow them 
to make copies for friends, the total number 
of new users must be enormous! And just 
as rewarding for us are the many positive 
comments JRT gets from pleased customers 
and the media. Pascal 3.0 is an example of 
new improvements and products we 
have in work. It's also another example 
of our standing policy: best software 
quality and best 
price. So to 
customers past 
and future, enjoy 
and thank you. 



JAMES R. TYSON 
Owner JRT Systems 





...new, improved, but... 



Random files 

to 8 megabytes with 

variable length records 

64K dynamic strings 

Activity analyzer 
prints program use 
histogram 



J7PW80\L30 



.-still 
only 

$2995! 



phone 415/566-5100 



Send 

to JRT SYSTEMS 

550 Irving Street/A1 

San Francisco, CA 94122 

Here's my $29.95; please send me JRT Pascal. I understand that if I'm 
not completely satisfied, I can return it within 30 days — with the sealed 
diskettes unopened — for a full refund. (Allow 2-3 weeks for shipping.) 
I need the 5-1/4" diskettes for D Apple CP/M; □ Heath, Hard Sector; 
Q Heath, Soft Sector; □ Northstar; D Osborne; □ Superbrain; 
D Televideo; D Xerox 820. I need D 8" SSSD diskettes. 



Name. 



Address . 



City. 



State . 



.Zip_ 



D Check □ C.O.D. D MasterCard □ VISA 

(CA residents add sales tax. Add $6 for shipping outside North America.) 



Card # . 



Exp.. 



Signature 

"CP/M is a Digital Research TM. 



A 56K CP/M system is required. 



Circle 220 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 53 



Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar 



Build the Circuit Cellar 
MPX-16 Computer System 

Part 3 

The final installment describing the design of the MPX-16, 
which is I/O-compatible with the IBM Personal Computer. 



This month's article is the last of 
three on the construction of the Cir- 
cuit Cellar MPX-16 computer, which 
is built around the Intel 8088 micro- 
processor. In part 1, I presented an 
overview of the system and a discus- 
sion of the coprocessors and bus 
structures. Last month, in part 2, I 
described the memory, interrupt me- 
chanism, expansion bus, and I/O- 
(input/output) decoding sections. 
This month I'd like to finish by de- 
scribing the serial and parallel I/O, 
counters and timers, the floppy-disk 
interface, and an overview of certain 
parts of the CP/M-86 operating 
system. 

Because the MPX-16 is somewhat 
more complex than the typical Circuit 
Cellar project, I've had to simplify or 



Copyright © 1983 by Steven A. Ciarcia. All 
rights reserved. 



IBM and IBM Personal Computer are trade- 
marks of International Business Machines 
Corporation. 

CP/M-86, CP/M-80, and MP/M are trade- 
marks of Digital Research Inc. 



Steve Ciarcia 

POB 582 

Glastonbury, CT 06033 



abbreviate my treatment of many 
details to fit the articles into only 
three issues of BYTE; to learn some 
nuances of the individual system 
parts, you should consult the refer- 
ences I have listed on page 82. (More 
detailed information on the MPX-16, 
including timing diagrams and list- 



Most of what you can 
learn about the 

MPX-16 applies also to 

the IBM Personal 

Computer. 



ings, is available in the MPX-16 
Technical Reference and User's 
Manual, available from The Micro- 
mint.) But these articles contain 
enough information for you to under- 
stand the basic functions of all the 
subsystems and how they work 
together. And most of what you can 
learn applies also to the IBM Personal 
Computer and other similar ma- 



chines. We'll continue the presenta 
tion after we review the major fea 
tures of the MPX-16. 

MPX-16 Features 

The Circuit Cellar MPX-16 com- 
puter system, shown in photo 1 on 
page 56, fundamentally consists of a 
single 9- by 12-inch five-layer printed- 
circuit board (containing 120 inte- 
grated circuits), to which various pe- 
ripheral devices are attached. Its I/O- 
expansion bus is completely compati- 
ble with that of the IBM Personal 
Computer but has nine expansion 
positions instead of five. 

The MPX-16 uses the Intel 8088 
microprocessor and the optional Intel 
8087 numeric coprocessor; the main 
circuit board has room for 256K bytes 
of user memory and contains two 
serial and three parallel I/O ports, a 
floppy-disk controller, and EPROMs 
(erasable programmable read-only 
memories) containing the BIOS (basic 
input/output system) module of 
Digital Research's CP/M-86 16-bit 
disk operating system. The MPX-16 
can be expanded by plugging in 
various circuit boards and interfaces 



54 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



? 



Bored Waiting? 

Here's The Board You Ve 
Been Waiting For. 



A Hare 
Pius 

Tape Cc 



Teletek's HD/CTC 




A hard disk and cartridge tape 
controller together on one board? 
Magic? Not really. It's Teletek's 
HD/CTC. The hard disk and cartridge 
tape drive controller provide the 
support necessary to interface both 
a rigid-disk drive and a cartridge 
tape deck to the S-100 bus. 
A colorful addition to Teletek's 
already impressive line of S-100 
boards, the HD/CTC's specifica- 
tions include: 

A Z-80A CPU providing intelligent 
control of the rigid-disk and 
cartridge tape drives. 



Support of 5V4" rigid-disk drives 
with transfer rates of 5 megabits per 
second. Minor changes in on-board 
components allow the support of 
other drive types/sizes and transfer 
rates up to 15 megabits per second. 
(Interface to disk drive is defined by 
software/firmware on board.) 
Controller communications with the 
host processor via 2K FIFO at any 
speed desirable up to the limit of 
2 megabytes per second for a data 
block transfer. Thus the controller 
does not constrain the host proces- 
sor in any manner. 



• Two 28-pin sockets allowing the 
use of up to 1 6k bytes of on-board 
EPROM and up to 8k bytes of 
on-board RAM. 

• Individual software reset capability. 

• Conforms to the proposed IEEE-696 
S-100 standard. 

• Controller can accommodate two 
rigid-disk drives and one cartridge 
tape drive. Expansion is made 
possible with an external card. 



Teletek's HD/CTC Offers A Hard Disc 
Controller, Plus Cartridge Tape Controller, 

All In One Board 



FELETEK 



9767F Business Park Drive Sacramento, CA 95827 (916)361-1777 Telex #4991834. Answer back-Teletek 



©Teletek 1982 



Circle 400 on inquiry card. 




Photo 1: The MPX-16 has been designed to be compatible with the IBM Personal Computer in that peripheral devices made 
for use with the IBM PC can be plugged into the I /O-expansion bus of the MPX-16. 




Photo 2: This keyboard, made by Key Tronic Corporation (Building 14, Spokane 
Industrial Park, Spokane, WA 99214), is nearly an exact copy of the keyboard of 
the IBM Personal Computer. 



to provide a full megabyte of user 
memory and additional external mass 
storage. A more detailed list of char- 
acteristics appears in table 1 on page 
59. 

The MPX-16 was initially designed 
to run CP/M-86, but eventually 
Microsoft's MS-DOS operating sys- 
tem will be available for it, making it 
possible to run most software written 
for the IBM Personal Computer on 
the MPX-16, except software that 
uses unique features of the IBM 
machine. The principal difference is 
this: with the present operating-sys- 
tem BIOS, the MPX-16 communi- 
cates with the user through a serially 
interfaced display terminal instead of 
through a memory-mapped video dis- 
play. In theory, you could plug an 
IBM Display Adapter into one of the 
expansion slots and connect a serial 
keyboard (such as the Key Tronic 
model shown in photo 2) for exact 



56 January 19» © BYTE PublicaHoni Inc 




Photo 3: Blasts and flying fluids won't faze an MPX-16 computer protected by a Hoffman heavy-duty NEMA 12 enclosure. (Photo 
courtesy of Owl Electronic Laboratories Inc.) 



hardware emulation. 

The MPX-16 is well suited for use 
as a low-cost 8088-based computer 
for integration into a complete hard- 
ware/software package chiefly 
because it combines so many func- 
tions on a single printed-circuit 
board. Putting together the hardware 
of a complete system, you need only 
add a power supply, a serial video- 
display or printing terminal, and one 
floppy-disk drive (either 5V4- or 
8-inch). By the time you read this, an 
enclosure for the circuit board should 
be available. Many applications need 
nothing more. 

Photo 3 shows the MPX-16 along 
with all the other components needed 
to create an industrial control system, 
including a NEMA 12 (a National 
Electrical Manufacturers Association 
specification) enclosure, which 
should protect it from any environ- 
ment you'd want to operate it in. 



Parallel I/O Interface 

The MPX-16 System Board sup- 
ports four independent parallel I/O 
ports; of these, two are dedicated to 
single purposes and two are available 
as general-purpose I/O ports. The 
two dedicated ports use the Intel 
8255A-5 programmable peripheral in- 
terface (PPI), which appears as IC60 
in section 4 of the schematic diagram, 
figure 1 on pages 60 and 61 . The other 
two ports are implemented using the 
Intel 8155H-2 chip, IC47 in figure 1, 
which contains two I/O ports, a 
14-bit counter/ timer circuit, and 256 
bytes of read/ write memory. (This 
memory is not used in the MPX-16. 
I've written about the 8155 before; see 
reference 3.) The relationship of the 
parallel I/O subsystems with the 
global system bus structures can be 
seen in the system block diagram (see 
figure 2 in part 1, November 1982 
BYTE, pages 84 through 86). Most 



notably, the 8155 communicates over 
the local address/data bus shared 
with the processors, while the 8255 
receives its data through the buffered 
resident data bus. 

One of the dedicated ports is used 
during system initialization to read 
the settings of DIP (dual-inline pin) 
switches SWl through SW8, which 
form an 8-bit system-configuration 
value. The eight lines of the con- 
figuration switches drive the port-A 
lines of the 8255. These lines are in- 
itialized by the power-up software in- 
itialization routine as input lines in 
the 8255's operating-mode (basic in- 
put/output). The operating system 
can read the switch settings via an in- 
put instruction from I/O address 
hexadecimal 1A0. Data bits to 7 in 
the value obtained contain the respec- 
tive settings of SWl to SW8. 

The second dedicated parallel port 
in the 8255 is normally set up as a 



January 19«3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



57 



Make 
me Qume 



Co 



The Qume SPRINT 11 PLUS™ is the new stan 
dard of quality for professional, letter-perfect 
daisywheel printing. And for just $1776, 
you can have it for your personal or desk- 
top computer. It comes complete with a 
Qume Connection interface module to fit 
popular computers from IBM, Radio Shack, "^ 
Commodore, Xerox, Hewlett Packard, North 
Star and many others. Its 96-character daisywheel 
delivers letter-quality text at a steady 40 cps. And 



etioix. 

with an average of 5,500 trouble-free hours 
(3 years typical use) between maintenance, 
the SPRINT 11 PLUS is unmatched in 
reliability. Qume quality is the choice of 
sophisticated, professional users. At $1776, 
there's no reason for you to settle for any- 
thing less. Make the Qume Connection by 
calling one of our authorized distributors. 
Or write Qume, 2350 Qume Drive, 
San Jose, California 95131. 



Our new 

SPRINT 11 PLUS 
fits every computer. 

$1776. 




Qume 

:». ▼ A Subsidiary of ITT 



It's easy to make the 
Qume Connection. 

Call the distributor nearest you to get the 
best quality printer for your microcomputer. 



Abacus Data Services 

(416) 677-9555 Ontario. 

Canada 
Anacomp/ESCOM 
Division 

(213) 516-7480 CA 
(206) 641-4990 WA 
(509) 624-1308 WA 

Anthem Systems 
Corporation 

(415) 342-9182 CA 

Audiovisual Services 

(713)659-1111 TX 
(800) 392-7777 TX Only 

Bohlig and Associates 

(612)922-7011 MN 

Butler Associates 

(61 7) 964-5270 MA 
Byte Industries 

(800) 972-5948 CA Only 
(800) 227-2070 Outside CA 

C&G Distributors, Inc. 

(513) 435-4340 OH 

(800) 245-1084 Outside OH 
(412) 366-5056 PA 

(800) 245-1084 Outside PA 
David Jamison 
Carlyle Corp. 

(213) 277-4562 CA 

(415) 254-9550 CA 
(714) 640-0355 CA 
(808) 531-5136 HI 

(312) 975-1500 IL 
(201) 946-9669 NJ 

(214) 458-0888 TX 

(713) 530-4980 TX 

The Computer Factory 

(212) 687-5000 NY 
(914) 793-1300 NY 

(212) 896-0700 NY 
(516) 248-6700 NY 

Computing Resources. I nc 
(702) 825-8800 NV 
Computer Mart 
of New Jersey 
(201) 283-0600 N J 
Datamex Ltd. 
(514)481-1116 Montreal. 

Canada 
(613) 224-1391 Ottowa 

(416) 787-1208 Toronto 
(604) 684-8625 Vancouver 

Data Systems Marketing 

(602) 833-0061 AZ 

(714) 540-2312 CA 
(213)641-2050 CA 
(415)941-0240 CA 
(916)891-8358 CA 

(213) 796-2562 CA 
(213) 796-2631 CA 
(714) 560-9222 CA 

(213) 344-7097 CA 
(209) 237-8577 CA 
(303) 573-5133 CO 
(303) 694-1 710 CO 

(313) 254-2830 Ml 
(406) 587-1200 MT 
(505)294-1531 NM 
(503) 297-8444 OR 
(412) 486-2676 PA 

(214) 960-1604 TX 

(713) 789-0803 TX 

(801) 292-6666 UT 
(206)575-8123 WA 
Data Technology 
Industries 

(415) 638-1206 CA 
Data Terminal Mart 
(403) 270-3737 Alberta 

(403) 420-1 755 Alberta 

(514) 288-1555 Montreal 
(902) 469-3782 Nova Scotia 

(416) 677-0184 Ontario 
(416) 495-2001 Ontario 
(416) 245-4780 Ontario 
(613) 729-5196 Ontario 
(604) 872-8482 Vancouver 

Equipment Resources 

(404) 955-0313 GA 
General Electric 

(205)479-6547 AL 
(602) 2788515 AZ 
(415) 436-9265 CA 

(714) 231-0309 CA 
(203) 628-9638 CT 
(904) 751-0615 FL 
(305) 921-0169 FL 
(404) 452-4919 GA 
(319)285-7501 I A 
(219) 933-4500 IN 
(31 7) 241-9330 IN 
(812)473-6161 IN 
(502)452-3311 KY 
(61 7) 938-1920 MA 
(301) 332-4710 MD 
(612) 522-4396 MN 



(816)231-6362 MO 
(314)965-7115 MO 
(704)525-3011 NC 
(201) 227-7900 NJ 
(518) 385-4888 NY 
(716) 876-1200 NY 
(513) 874-8512 OH 
(503) 221-5095 OR 
(901) 527-3709 TN 
(214) 243-1106 TX 
(713) 672-3575 TX 
(801) 973-2253 UT 

Gentry and Associates 

(305) 859-7450 FL 
InterACT Computer 
Systems 

(305)331-7117 FL 
(404) 953-8213 GA 
(704) 552-7502 NC 
(704) 254-1949 NC 
MicroAmerica 

(213) 327-6030 CA 
(800) 262-4212 CA Only 
(800) 421-1485 Outside CA 
(617)449-5807 MA 
(800)343-4411 Outside MA 
(617) 431-7660 MA 

(214) 235-3616 TX 
(800) 442-5847 TX Only 

(800) 527-3261 Outside TX 

National Computer 
Syndicate 

(312) 459-6400 IL 

Office Systems, Inc. 

(704) 374-0822 NC 
(919) 274-8423 NC 
(919) 549-0545 NC 

PAR Associates 

(303) 371-4140 CO 

(801) 292-8145 UT 

Pioneer Electronics 

(205) 837-9300 AL 
(305) 859-3600 FL 
(305) 771-7520 FL 
(404)448-1711 GA 
(301) 948-0710 MD 
(919)273-4441 NC 

(215) 674-4000 PA 

Pioneer Standard 
Electronics 

(312) 437-9680 IL 
(317) 849-7300 IN 

(313) 525-1800 Ml 
(612) 935-5444 MN 

(216) 587-3600 OH 
(513) 236-9900 OH 
(412) 782-2300 PA 

(512) 835-4000 TX 

(214) 386-7300 TX 
(713) 988-5555 TX 

Schweber 

(205) 882-2200 AL 
(408) 496-0200 CA 
(213) 537-4321 CA 
(916) 929-9732 CA 

(213) 999-4702 CA 
(203) 792-3500 CT 
(305)927-0511 FL 
(305) 331-7555 FL 
(404) 449-9170 GA 
(319) 373-1417 IA 

(312) 364-3750 IL 
(617) 275-5100 MA 
(301) 840-5900 MO 

(313) 525-8100 Ml 
(612) 941-5280 MN 
(201) 227-7880 NJ 
(516) 334-7474 NY 
(716) 424-2222 NY 
(216) 464-2970 OH 

(513) 439-1800 OH 
(918) 622-8000 OK 

(215) 441-0600 PA 
(412) 782-1600 PA 

(713) 784-3600 TX 

(214) 661-5010 TX 
(512) 458-8253 TX 

(414) 784-9020 Wl 

Tek Aids Industries Inc. 

(312) 870-7400 IL 
(512) 835-9518 TX 
Terminal Rentals 

(602) 258-4466 AZ 

(714) 832-2414 CA 
(408) 292-9915 CA 
(213) 637-3413 CA 
(714) 235-9268 CA 

(415) 956-4821 CA 

Terminals Unlimited 

(800) 336-0423 
Unico 

(512)451-0251 TX 
Victor Electronics 
(617) 481-4010 MA 
Western New York 
Computer 
(716) 381-4120 NY 



Qume 

▼ A Subsidiary ol ITT 

Circle 347 on inquiry card. 



1. designed to use a 5-MHz Intel 8088 microprocessor, which combines a 16-bit 
architecture with an 8-bit bus interface and has 20-bit addressing capability for up to 
1 megabyte of system memory, operating in maximum mode to support multipro- 
cessing 

2. optional Intel 8087 math coprocessor 

3. onboard space for four 64K-byte banks of dynamic RAM for a total of up to 256K 
bytes, with parity generation and error detection. 

4. sockets for up to 64K bytes of JEDEC 24- or 28-pin standard ROM or EPROM devices 

5. two RS-232C serial interface ports 

6. two 8-bit general-purpose parallel I/O ports with handshaking control lines 

7. one Centronics-compatible parallel printer port 

8. four programmable timers (one for a real-time clock, two for data rates, one for 
memory-refresh requests) 

9. four independent DMA (direct memory access) channels 

10. sixteen levels of vectored, prioritized interrupt control 

1 1 . single- or double-density floppy-disk controller for controlling up to four 5 V4 -inch or 
8-inch drives 

12. five 62-pin l/O-expansion-channel connectors (hardware compatible with the IBM 
Personal Computer) with space for four more 

13. five-layer 9- by 12-inch printed-circuit board 

14. BIOS for CP/M-86 in EPROM 

Table 1: Features of the MPX-16 computer system. 



Centronics-compatible printer port. 
This second port can also be used as a 
general-purpose 15-bit parallel inter- 
face with 10 output lines and 5 in- 
put lines. Fourteen of the I/O lines 
are connected to the port-B and port-C 
lines of the 8255. All 15 lines are buf- 
fered and connected to the 20-pin 
Bergstik connector J15. The 10 output 
lines from port B and bits 6 and 7 of 
port C drive sections of the open- 
collector buffers IC77 and IC78. The 
5 input lines are buffered by IC77 and 
IC76, with pull-up resistors on the in- 
put lines to allow for use of open- 
collector drivers on the other end. 
Signal-return paths are provided on 
pins 14 through 18 of J15. 

The two nondedicated parallel 
ports, which communicate to the out- 
side world through the two 20-pin 
Bergstik connectors J16 and J17, are 
implemented with the 8155H-2, IC47. 
These two identical I/O ports, each 
with 11 I/O lines (three of which are 
used for handshaking control), are in- 
itialized by the software initializa- 
tion routine as one 8-bit output port 
(116) and one 8-bit input port (J17). 
Because these ports are meant to be 
used for varying purposes, the appli- 
cation software of the user will 
typically reinitialize the 8155 to suit 
the application. This is accomplished 



by writing a new control word into 
the 8155's command /status register 
located at I/O address hexadecimal 
ICO. 

Serial Interface 

The MPX-16 system board con- 
tains two independent RS-232C asyn- 
chronous serial I/O ports (also 
known as serial channels). These are 
primarily intended to be used in con- 
necting the system to video-display 
terminals, but they may be attached 
to any compatible RS-232C devices. 
One of the serial channels (CHO) has 
been defined as the console I/O port 
for the CP/M-86 operating-system 
software. The second serial port 
(CHI) is available for user-defined 
applications. 

The two RS-232C serial ports are 
implemented with Intel 8251A 
USARTs (universal synchronous/ 
asynchronous receiver/ transmitters), 
as shown in figure 1. An 8251 A is 
capable of transmitting and receiving 
simultaneously at different data rates; 
however, the MPX-16 system re- 
quires that the same rate be used for 
both transmitting and receiving. A 
split-speed application may be sup- 
ported by using both serial ports, 
programmed to operate at different 
rates. 

January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 59 



*(2) 
•(3) 



S2 ■ 

SYSAIE • 

SYSIORD - 

SYSIOWR • 

SYSRES ■ 

SYSCLK2 • 

SYSAO ■ 
SYSA1 ■ 

RESDATO ■ 
RESDAT1 ■ 
RESOAT2 - 
RESDAT3 - 
RES0AT4 - 
RESOAT5 - 
RESDAT6 ■ 
RESDAT7 ■ 



CRYSTAL 2 
4.9152MHz 



R20 
1.8K 



R19 
1.8K 



M vw II IC53[U>- 



<T IC76 ' — 



IC76 

R21 74LS14 

33K 



Cll 
lOOpF 



£ 



IC69 
74LS393 



• CM. 

IC53 | 13 >- 




I I 



IC53 [l4>- 



I7C72 I 

1489 




+ SYSIOWR 

SYSI0R6 ~ 



:R24 
•4.7K 



RESDATO 



SYSIOWR 



CSSIOQ 



SYSRES 



cssioi 



RESDAT2 



RESDAT3 



RESOATS 



GATEO 

GATE1 

GATE 2 

W_R 

RO 

CS 

AO 



D3 

D4 

D5 

D6 

D7 

CLKO 

CLK1 

CLK2 



0UT2 
OUT1 
OUTO 



IC61 
8253-5 



17 TIMEINTR 



*(1) 

-Qe^lC35 



RXC 

TXC 

CLK 

RESET 

WR 

RD 

CS_ 

C/D 



03 

D4 

DS 

06 

D7 

CTS 

DSR 

RXO 



TXRDY 
RXRDY 



IC70 
8251A 



RESOATO 27 



RXC 
TXC 
CLK 
RESET 

WR 

RD 

CS_ 

C/0 

DO 

Dl 

02 

03 

DA 

D5 

06 

D7 

CTS 

DSR 

RXD 



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IC71 

8251A 



J13 
RS-232C DTR [17>— 
OSR <C~6~1~ 
CTS < j 5 h 
RTS Q^>~ 
RXD < [TT - 



CHO CONFIG. JUMPERS 
A _ 6 _ | DSRO 



TXD [~2^— 

sig'nal snd pT> -, 



SERIAL CHANNEL 
CONNECTOR 



rTcso 

1488 






-|2<r> IC62 
-|18^> IC62 



I7C79 
1488 



1 






LjT^oi 



15 SI01TXRDY 



14 SiOlRXRpy 



I I 

-f21> IC62 
-|l9> IC62 



CHI CONFIG. JUMPERS 
0SR1 A^ 6 -J 



J14 

— <C?0~l DTR 

MO DSR 

-l~r> cts 

~<^7~| RTS 

- |~T^ > RXD 

-<f2~| TXD 



JT<? 



GND SIGNAL 



SERIAL CHANNEL 1 
CONNECTOR 



Figure 1: Section 4 of the schematic diagram of the MPX-16 computer. Section 1 appeared in November's article; sections 2 and 3 
appeared in December's article. Connections to other sections of the schematic are shown by the notation *(n), where n is the number 
of the other section. 




SIGNAL 
RETURNS 



Here are shown the interface circuits for the serial and parallel I/O ports: the 8251A USARTs and the 8255A-5 and 8155H-2 
parallel-interface components. 



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Both transmitter-ready and receiv- 
er-ready interrupt-request signals are 
generated during communication se- 
quences. These signals are fed into 
interrupt-request lines IR0, IRl, IR2, 
and IR3 of the slave 8259A program- 
mable interrupt controller, IC62 
(which appeared in section 1 of the 
schematic diagram in November's ar- 
ticle). The channel-0 interrupts have 
priority over the channel-1 inter- 
rupts, and the receiver-ready inter- 
rupt requests have priority over the 
transmitter-ready requests. 

Both types of request signals are 
active-high. The receiver-ready inter- 
rupt request, which signals the main 
processor that a character has been 
received and converted to a parallel 
format, is obtained from the 8251A 
US ART's RXRDY output line. Simi- 
larly, the transmitter-ready interrupt 
request, which signals the processor 
that the 8251A is ready to transmit 
another character to a peripheral 
device, is taken from the TXRDY out- 
put line of the 8251A. (Each USART 
also provides four control lines that 
can be used for modem control.) 

Counter/Timers 

Four independent counter/ timers 
are found on the MPX-16 system 
board. All four are used for dedicated 
system functions and generally 
should not be used for other pur- 
poses. Three of these counter/ timer 
circuits are part of the Intel 8253-5 
programmable interval timer (PIT), 
IC61. The fourth one is the timer sec- 
tion of the 8155H-2, IC47, which was 
discussed above. All of the counter/ 
timers are visible in section 4 of the 
schematic diagram, figure 1. 

The 8253-5 PIT contains three inde- 
pendently programmable 16-bit 
counter/ timer circuits capable of 
clock rates of up to 2 MHz (mega- 
hertz). These counters can be oper- 
ated in any of six different modes: 
terminal-count-interrupt generator, 
programmable one-shot, rate gener- 
ator, square-wave generator, soft- 
ware-triggered strobe, and hardware- 
triggered strobe. 

On the MPX-16 system board, all 
three counter/ timers of the 8253 PIT 
are programmed by the power-up- 
initialization software routine to 



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operate in mode 3 (square-wave gen- 
erator). The input clock signal that 
drives all three of the 8253's counter- 
clock-input lines is obtained from a 
simple crystal-controlled oscillator 
circuit consisting of a 4.9152-MHz 
crystal, a couple of inverter gates, a 
few resistors, and a capacitor. The 
output of this circuit, a 4.9152-MHz 
square wave, is then divided down by 
a 74LS393 binary counter to form a 
2.4576-MHz USART clock and a 
1.2288-MHz clock to drive the 8253 
PIT counters. 

The first counter circuit of the 8253 
PIT is used as a software-program- 
mable data-rate generator, producing 
a signal called BAUDO. Similarly, the 
second counter circuit is used to pro- 
duce the data-rate signal BAUDl. 
The data rate for both serial channels 
is set at power-up for 9600 bps (bits 
per second) using a data-rate multi- 
plier factor of 16. The system soft- 
ware then automatically initializes 
the data rate for the console serial 
channel (channel 0) when the user 
types a Return character in ASCII 



(American Standard Code for Infor- 
mation Interchange). The first char- 
acter must be Return for proper data- 
rate initialization. If the input data 
rate of the console terminal is not 
9600 bps, the program reinitializes 
the counter-1 circuit of the 8253 to 
match the new data rate. 

So that system crashes 

will not occur, 

the memory-refresh 

signal must never 

be altered by 

application software. 

The third counter/ timer circuit of 
the 8253 PIT is intended for use as a 
real-time clock for either time-of-day 
or software-timing-delay applica- 
tions. This clock is initialized at 
power-up by software, preset for a 
10-ms (millisecond) period (100 Hz). 
This clock output drives the IR0 line 
of the master 8259A interrupt con- 
troller, IC35, and forms the highest- 



priority maskable system interrupt. 
This timekeeping capability can be 
very useful in interrupt-driven, real- 
time process-control applications. 

The fourth counter/ timer on the 
MPX-16 system board is the timer 
section of the 8155H-2, IC47. This 
timer is driven by the SYSCLK2 
(2.386-MHz) clock signal to produce 
the square-wave signal REFRQST, 
which has a period of 15.1 /is (micro- 
seconds). The REFRQST output sig- 
nal activates the periodic refresh 
operation required by the dynamic 
RAMs (random-access read/write 
memories). This vital signal must 
never be altered by the user's applica- 
tion software; if it is, system crashes 
may occur. 

Floppy-Disk Drive Controller 

The MPX-16 system supports up to 
four floppy-disk drives. Versatility is 
provided by jumper-selectable fea- 
tures of the MPX-16's floppy-disk 
controller interface: either 5Vi-inch 
or 8-inch drives may be used and up 
to four drives may be attached to the 



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•jj 1 j © 1982 AshtonTate 

I^^JJS mm "?35^ CP/M is a trademark of [Digital Research 




64 January 1983 © BYTE Publications lnc 



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A. Power Lines 

All power to the disk drives is supplied from an external power supply through separate power cables. A typical 5 '/i -inch floppy-disk drive 
will require approximately + 5 V (volts) DC at 0.5 A (amps) and + 1 2 V DC at 1 A. A typical 8-inch drive will require + 24 V DC at 1 .3 A, + 5 V 
DC at 0.8 A, -5 V DC at 0.05 A and 115 VAC at 0.3 A. 

B. Output Li nes 

DRI VESEL x: The four drive-selection lines, numbered through 3, are provided to enable the selected drive to respond to input signals 
and consequently to output data and/or status information. Each individual drive must be configured to respond to one of the four drive- 
select signals. This is usually accomplished via a programmable shunt header or a DIP switch. A drive is selected by a logic low state on the 
sel ect line assig ned to it. 

DIRECTION: This control line defines the direction of motion of the selected drive's read/write head during a step operation. A high state 
(equivalent of logic 1 ) will cause the head to move out, toward the outer edge of the disk. A low state (logic 0) will cause the read/write head to 
m ove in, toward the center of the disk. 

STEP: This control line causes the selected drive to move its read/write-head carriage one position in the direction controlled by the 
direction-select line. Each step is initiated by the low-to-high transition of the STEP pulse. Direction changes must occur at least 1 pS before 
the trailing edge of the step pulse. 

WR ENABLE: The write-enable, or write-gate, signal enables the writing of data onto the disk when it is active-low. When this line is 
in active-high, the read-data logic and head-step logic circuits are enabled. 

HEADLOAD x: The four head-load lines, numbered through 3, are alternative output lines which usually require the user to install or 
configure the drive unit to accept them. The head-load line can be used to load and unload the read/write head from the disk's surface. If 
desired, the heads may be kept loaded to avoid the 50-ms head-load time. Typically a drive will be configured so that the read/write head 
lo ads when either the drive-select line or the motor-on control line becomes active. 

MOTOR ON x: Three output lines, numbered 0, 1, and 2, are provided fo r mo tor-on/motor-o ff control. The MOTOR ON line on pin 16 of 
J11 and J12 is the st andard flopp y-disk interface signal. The MOTOR ON 1 and MOTOR ON 2 lines are available as alternative output con- 
trol lines. When the MOTOR ON line of the floppy-disk drive (if available) is driven active-low, the drive motor will be turned on, allowing 
reading or writing on the drive. Typically, a 1 -second delay is required after activating the motor control line prior to reading or writing. To 
ma ximize motor life, the motor for the drive is usually turned off after 2 seconds if no commands have been issued to the drive. 

SIDESELECT: This output control line is used to select which side of a two-sided floppy disk is to be used for reading or writing. This line 
is provided for future system expansion; it is not supported by the current MPX-1 6 system software. A logic high on this line designates the 
read/write head on side 0, and a logic low indicates selection of the side-1 read/write head. A typical delay of 100 /*s is required before 
re ading or writing af ter switching sides. 

LOW CURRENT: This output control line is an active-low signal used only by 8-inch drives. It causes a reduced current flow through the 
read/write head when writing data on tracks 43 to 76. When tracks through 42 are selected, the low-current signal is high, causing a 
gr eater current flow . 

FAULT RE SET: This is an active-low output signal which can be used to reset a disk drive's fault logic, if the drive has some. 

WR D ATA: The write-data output line contains the serial data information to be written onto the disk. This signal is enabled by the WR 
ENABLE control line. Each positive transition on the WR DATA line causes the current through the read/write head to be reversed, thus 
writing a data bit onto the disk. 

C . Input Lines 

READY: The active-low READY input line can be used to indicate the status of the disk drives when the circuitry in the drive supports 
such a function. This signal typically indicates that the drive motor is rotating at the correct speed and that two index holes have been 
detected after a disk ha s been inserted into the drive. If drive-ready indication is not supported by the drive being used, the jumper to ground 
mu st be in stalled. The READY signal is conditioned by a 150-ohm pull-up resistor and a Schmitt-trigger inverter. 

INDEX: The INDEX interface line is an active-low signal that occurs once for each revolution of the disk. This signal indicates the logical 
be ginning of a track. It is conditioned by a 150-ohm resistor and a Schmitt-trigger inverter. 

TRACK0: This input line is active-low when the drive's read/write head is positioned over track of the disk (the outermost track) and the 
access lo gic circuitry is driving current through phase 1 of the stepper motor's windings. This signal is at a logic 1 at all other times. The 
T RACKO signal is conditioned by a 150-ohm pull-up resistor and a Schmitt-trigger inverting buffer. 

TWOSIDED: The active-low TWOSIDED input signal, for 8-inch drives, indicates that a double-sided disk is contained in the drive when 
low, and a single-sided disk is in the drive when high. This signal is terminated by a 1 50-ohm pull-up resistor and a Schmitt-trigger inverting 
buffer. This signal is not supported by the current system software but is available for future use as two-sided drives become more widely 
used 

WRITE PROTECT: This active-low input signal indicates that the disk inserted on the selected drive has been write-protected, and thus 
no write operations can be performed. On 8-inch drives, the write-protect notch is left uncovered to write-protect the disk; conversely for 
5 V4 -inch drives, the write-protect notch on the disk must be covered to write-protect the disk. This input line is terminated by a 1 50-ohm pull- 
up resisto r and a Schmitt-trigger inverting buffer. 

FAULT: When available, on 8-inch drives, this input line indicates that a fault condition has been detected by the drive-control logic and 
that further operations on the drive should not be permitted. Thus active-low input is terminated by a 150-ohm pull-up resistor and a Schmitt- 
tri gger inverti ng buffer. 

RD DATA: The read-data input signal contains serial data and clock-bit information read from the disk when the WR ENABLE control line 
is high (inactive). This line provides an active-low pulse of approximately 200 ns for each flux reversal detected by the drive electronics, 
whether a data bit or a clock bit. This raw data signal is conditioned by a 150-ohm pull-up resistor and a Schmitt-trigger inverter. 

Table 2: Descriptions of the floppy-disk-drive interface signals found in the MPX-16 system. Both 8-inch and 5Vt-inch drives are 
supported by the floppy-disk controller. 






66 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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CP/M and MP/M are registered trademarks of Digital Research Inc. Apple II is a registered trademark 
of Apple Computer. Inc. MS-DOS and Soflcard are trademarks of Microsoft. TRS-80 is a trademark 
of Tandy Corporation. IBM is a trademark ol International Business Machines. 



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system. Three drive-motor-control 
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spectively. A description of the func- 
tions of each interface signal is given 
in table 2 on page 66. 

Either single- or double-density 
recording may be selected under soft- 
ware control. The normal disk format 
is compatible with the IBM 3740 for- 



mat (in the 8-inch size) or with the 
IBM Personal Computer (in the 5Vi- 
inch size — what might be called the 
IBM 5150 format), but this can be 
changed via a software modification. 
Single-density recording uses the FM 
(frequency modulation) technique, 
while double-density operation uses 
the MFM (modified frequency modu- 
lation) technique. (See reference 7 for 
an explanation of FM and MFM as 
applied to floppy disks.) 

The heart of the floppy-disk inter- 



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face is an Intel 8272 single-chip 
floppy-disk controller, or FDC 
(IC21). This device appears in section 
5 of the schematic diagram, figure 2 
on pages 70 and 71, along with the 
rest of the floppy-disk interface logic. 

The Intel 8272 was designed to be 
pin- and function-compatible with 
the NEC (Nippon Electric Company) 
/iPD765 floppy-disk controller. These 
controllers support 15 software com- 
mands, processor-interrupt genera- 
tion, DMA (direct memory access) 
data transfers, and generation of 
several control signals that can be 
used to reduce the amount of hard- 
ware support logic required to em- 
ploy double-density recording for- 
mats. The 8272 FDC, in conjunction 
with the 8237A DMA controller, 
IC48, forms an efficient disk-interface 
subsystem. 

There are six basic functional sec- 
tions in the disk interface: clock-sig- 
nal-generation logic, motor-on/ off 
logic, drive-control logic, data-write 
logic, processor-interface logic, and 
data-recovery logic for reading the 
disk. 

Clock-Signal Generation 

The 8272 FDC requires two exter- 
nal clock signals as input: a 4- or 
8-MHz square-wave clock and a data- 
write clock, with a pulse duration of 
250 ns (nanoseconds), that is pulsed 
at one of three frequencies. 

The square-wave clock input at pin 
19 of the FDC is derived from an 
8-MHz crystal oscillator, IC10. If 
8-inch drives are to be used, jumper 
JP16 must be installed and JP17 re- 
moved. This routes the 8-MHz clock 
directly to pin 19. When 5V4-inch 
drives are to be used, JP27 must be in- 
stalled and JP16 removed, applying a 
4-MHz signal to pin 19, instead. 

The repetition rate of the 250-ns 
data-write clock pulse is 1 MHz, 500 
kHz (kilohertz), or 250 kHz, depend- 
ing on the disk-drive type and disk 
format. Multiplexer IC3 selects the 
correct clock frequency for the 
desired recording density. When the 
MFM signal coming from the 8272 is 
in a logic low state, single-density fre- 
quencies are selected. When MFM is 
high, the double-density frequencies 
are selected. 

Text continued on page 72 



68 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 263 on inquiry card. 



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V-SPOOL instantly buffers up to 1 6K in memory - 
roughly 6 full pages. Instead of waiting for the text to 
print you retain complete computer control while the 
buffered text is sent to the printer. Edit another letter or 
enter an invoice while the previous one prints. 

The time saved with V-SPOOL can be substantial. 
Using a letter quality printer, you'll save up to a minute 
per page. If you print 60 pages of letters or invoices a day, 
that's an hour saved. 

NO HARDWARE COSTS 

V-SPOOL costs a fraction of a hardware buffer. 
Instead of three hundred dollars, V-SPOOL isjust $79. It 
also requires no power, will never break down and is in 
many cases faster - a hardware buffer may take 17 
seconds to fill up while V-SPOOL will buffer the text 
almost instantly. 



SIMPLE TO USE 



One command activates V-SPOOL. It's that 
simple. Its operation is foolproof and transparent to 
your application programs - you'll want to use it all the 
time. 

NO INTERFACING 

V-SPOOL requires no hardware or software 
modifications. Just CP/M 2.2. It occupies only 3K of 
memory space plus the size of the print buffer (variable 
from 2K to 16K). Installation is very simple - it comes 
ready-to-run on most CP/M computers. 



Disk and Manual $79 



Quality software by 







Exclusively distributed in North America by 
CompuView Products, Inc. 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 




CompuView 



PRODUCTS, INC. 

1955 Pauline Blvd., Suite 200 • Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 • (313) 996-1299 
Australian Distribution: Software Source Pty. Ltd. • 89 Oxford St. • Bondi Junction NSW 2022 Australia • (02) 389-6388 

Circle 118 on inquiry card. 



*(2) 
»(3I 





SYSTEM CONTROL BUS 








■ 






SYSTEM ADDRESS BUS 






RESIDENT DATA BUS 




















RFRnflT7 — . .. 



J10 (MOLEX 22-05-3151) 

GND rr 




"POLARIZING KEY" I 11 I 
-12V0C ru 



13 
♦ >2A 



jr:° 



°0 

°c 

1/2 IC7 Q s 
74LS393 



■ID o 



IC5 
74LS175 



3D 
4D 
>CK 
CLR 



1Q 
30 



150MARQST2 



-|T^> IC48 



IC20 
74LS04 



IC55 
74LS08 



^iP ' 



11 , JP13 JPU I 3 



IC9 
74LS 



IC10 
8 MHz 
CRYSTAL 
OSCILLATOR 



«t 



SEL 
STB 



1/2 IC3 
74LS157 



15 



IC20 
74LS04 



IC14 ° 

74LS74 



1_^ 



JP16A JP17 



3MHi V 



t V 



tio 



,(.- 



IC20 
74LS04 



>CLK Q 

CLR 



JT 



«c 

R A «D 



1/2 IC7 
74LS393 



-TL 3 



$ I C 13 IC16 f 

4 74LS74 74LS74 



>CLK 

cTr 



PRE 
D Q 



>CLK Q 

CLR 



f 



IC 2 1 <CTi~r— 



IC8 
74LS10 



IC9 
PU 74LS74 



V C C 




Rl R2 

4 5.62K „„ „,„ 11.82K 

T 1 j % JP9 JPIO 1% 



pu <- 




IC8 

74LS10 




12 MFMDAT 



1/2 IC3 
74LS157 



SEL 
STB 



1' 



\/IC20 
6 74LS04 



k 



>CLK Q 

CLR 



I 13 IC15 
, v 74LS74 



>CLK 
cTr 



IC15 V C c 

74LS14 



PRE 
Q 



>CLK 

cTr 



>CLK Q 

CLR 



-E 



IC 16 
74LS74 



IC13 
74LS74 




VCC 



Figure 2: Section 5 of the MPX-16 schematic diagram. Here are shown the system-board power connections and the floppy-disk con- 
troller, including the PLL (phase-locked loop) circuitry used to recover data read from a disk. Connections for both 8-inch and 
5'A-inch drives are shown. 



SYSIOWR - 
SYSRES - 

SYSAO- 

RESDATO- 
RESDAT1 - 
RESDAT2 - 
RESDAT3 ■ 
RESDAT4 - 
RESDAT5 - 
RESDAT6 - 
RESDAT7 - 



IC6 
74LS173 



IC53 \J^>~ 



F. 



Tc Is rr>- 


CSFDC 


4 


IC53|_2_>- 




14 




OMACK2 


15 


16 




8/4 MHz 


19 




»F« 


26 


21 


23 


22 




VCOSYNC 


24 



vcc 



R15 

IK 



TYPICAL FOR 
PULLUP RESISTORS 



VCC 
A 
1 



!i 'f3fi 



R5 
330n 



R6 

620n 



ce 

47dF 



IC21 

8272/765 



DBO 
OBI 
DB2 
OB3 
DB4 
OB5 
OB6 
OB7 

"WR 

RD 

40 



DRQ 
DACK 



CLK 
MFM 



WCLK 
RDD 

RDW 

vco 



RDY 
IOX 
INT 

USO 

US1 



FLT/TRO 
WP/TS 



LCT/DIR 
FR/STP 



CEXT 
ENABLE 



PU 



( jpi6 m 

n (jPJ5 J-C12 
I » ^ O.ImF 



1 FOCRES 



0E1 

oil 



r IC18 
7406 



IC4 

74S124 



VCO 

8MHI 
NOMINAL 



>CLK 
2D 



IC 17 

74LS175 



1 FDCWE 






JP18-4 J11 



1^ I JKI 

-^>*t- 




MOTOR ON 2 

- | 24 | 1 40 | WR ENABLE 

— { 32 | 1 14 | SIDE SELECT 



vcc 



*> RN1 I 

I VA •—HIT 



te 



2 
74LS14 



VCC 



-f23>lC62 



I C 12 
74LS14 



■o*- 



I !C_.j 



"j/^TI 



IC 26 
74LS139 



1Y0 
1Y1 
1Y2 
iTi 

2r0 

2T1 

2V2 
2Y3 



RN1 

150 n 



- J34 \ -f 1 22 I READY 

JP18-6 

- | a I 1 20 I INDEX 



C12 
74LS14 



I7C27 
'7407 



0-* 



^J>^{Eh-S 



i4>>o^ 



>• 



I T- 



D>^ 



H>j 



ici2 

74LS14 



IC22 
74LS240 



E-£>- 



vcc 

R37 

IK 



b* 



i>. 



h|>>h 



o- 



- | 12 I j 26 I DRIVESEL 1 

— I 14 I 1 30 I DRIVESEL 2 

A 6 I 1 32 I DRIVESEL 3 

.0— | 18 I HE4DL0AD 

o— I 24 I HEADLOAO 1 

e— I 48 I HEADLOAD 2 



'\ JP18-S 



I JP18-8 



HEADLOAD 3 



■Ex- 



*&* 



JP18-9 
H 16 I 1 34 I DIRECTION 

H 20 I 1 36 j STEP 



L. 



IC23 
7407 



-m 



FAULT RESET 



LOW CURRENT 



vcc 
4 






dP 



H>- 8 



IC 18 
74 06 



IC3 1 

1G 
I C 1 1 
74LS153 



lo<<]> 7 * L ' 14 



RN1 

ison 



■12= — QTj (77] TRACKO 

TSIDE 1 1 

- 1 10 [ TWOSIDED 



— I 26 I 1 4 4 I WRITE PROTECT 

1 6 j FAULT 



X 



5 1/4 FDC CONNECTOR - 



- | 22 I 1 38 I WR DATA 

— | 30 I 1 46 I RD DATA 

-CD — H 
hi J12 



8 FDC CONNECTOR - 



ALL ODD NUMBERED PINS TIED TO GROUND 



* (SECTION #) DENOTES CONNECTION TO INDICATED PIN 
OR SIGNAL ON OTHER NUMBERED CIRCUIT SECTIONS. 



A complete table of the MPX-16's integrated circuits was printed in the part 2 of this series (December 1982 BYTE, pages 56 and 60). 
The table included a listing of power connections and a cross-reference by schematic section. 



Motor Control 

The floppy-disk-drive interface 
provides three separate motor-on/ off 
control lines for the floppy-disk 
drives: MO TOR ON 0, M OTOR 

ON l,and MOTOR ON 2. These 
signals are generated by a 74LS173 
quad D-type register chip, IC6. The 
4-flip-flop register is addressed as an 
I/O device residing on the resident 
data bus at hexadecimal address 0A0. 
The Q0 output of IC6 controls the 

MOTOR ON line. To turn the 
motor on, a logic 1 is written into Q0, 
and to turn off the motor a logic is 
written. The Ql and Q2 outputs of 
IC6 similarly control the MOTOR 

ON 1 and MOTOR O N~2~ lines. 

The MOTOR ON line is con- 
nected to pin 16 on both Jll (the 5 X A- 
inch-drive connector) and J12 (the 
8-inch-drive connector). Use of this 
pin for motor control in floppy-disk 
interfaces is fairly standard through- 
out the computer industry. The other 
two motor-control lines are not stan- 
dard but are provided to allow addi- 
tional control, if needed, by wiring 



the interface cable appropriately. 
The most common arrangement is for 
MOTOR ON~0 to control drive A, 
M OTOR ON 1 to control drive B, 
and MOTOR ON 2 to control drives 
C and D. All three control lines have 
an onboard jumper that can be used 
to disconnect the signal from the disk- 
drive connectors. 



Drive-Control Logic 

The floppy-disk-interface drive- 
control logic consists of all control 
signals other than the motor-on/off 
control signals supplied to or received 
from the electronic circuitry inside 
the floppy-disk drives. All of the out- 
put signal lines are driven by type- 
7406 open-collector inverting drivers 
or type-7407 open-collector nonin- 
verting drivers. All input signal lines 
are conditioned by 150-ohm pull-up 
resistors and 74LS14 Schmitt-trigger 
inverter gates. All of the signals, in- 
put and output, are active-low. 

The RW/SEEK line of the 8272 
FDC is used to multiplex eight DC in- 



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input • Built in self test • Cartridge ribbon • 2nd keyboard switch selectable. 



CBYTE WRITER 



125 NORTHVIEW RD., ITHACA, N.Y. 14850 
(607) 272-1 132 



terface signals onto four pins of the 
8272. When the FDC is in the seek 
mode (with RW/SEEK low), pin 19 
of the 74LS240 octal inverting buffer 
IC22 is driven low. This causes the 
TRACKO and the TWOSIDED 
signals to be input into pins 33 and 34 
of t he FDC , and the DIRECTION 
and STEP signals from pins 38 and 
37 to be output to the drives. 

When the FDC is in the read/write 
mode (with RW/SEEK high), pin 1 of 
the inverting buffer IC22 is driven 
low. This all ows t he WRITE 
PROTECT and FAULT signals to 
pass into pins 34 and 33 of the FDC 
and lets the FA ULT RESET and 
LOW CURRENT signals from pins 
37 and 38 of the FDC pass to the 
drive. Note that the four signals that 
were gated by a low state on the 
RW/SEEK line are now blocked by 
the high-impedance state of their buf- 
fer sections. A pull-up resistor is pro- 
vided to ensure that a false STEP 
command is not issued to the drive 
units. 

The 8272 FDC provides two con- 
trol signals to select one of four 
drives, USO and USl on pins 29 and 
28. These two lines drive the 74LS139 
dual 2-to-4-line demultiplexer, IC26, 
which selects the desired drive by 
placing a low state on the correspond- 
ing DRIVESEL x line. The signals 
from USO and USl are tapped off to 
another section of the demultiplexer 
to activate the head-load signal at the 
same time. (The interface may be 
wired to load all heads together or 
separately.) 

The HD (head-select) output of the 
8272, pin 27, is available for applica- 
tions where two-sided disk drives are 
available. This signal can be used to 
select one of the two read/write 
heads. Initially, the MPX-16 system 
software supports only single-sided 
drives and does not use this control 
signal. A two-sided modification will 
eventually be incorporated. 

Two input pins, the READY and 



INDEX signals are conditioned by 
74LS14 Schmitt-trigger inverters and 
routed directly to the 8272. The 

READY line can be jumpered to 
ground if the attached drives do not 
provide a status-ready indication. An 
index pulse occurs once per revolu- 



72 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 66 on inquiry card. 



Expand your possibilities with 
Concurrent CP/M.™ 

If you have to wait impatiently for your personal 
computer to finish a job before moving on to another 
task, you need Concurrent CP/M. This new software tech- 
nology from Digital Research increases the productivity 
of your IBM PC by allowing you to do more with it. 

Using Concurrent CP/M, you can run several 
programs simultaneously, switching instantly from one 
program to another. For the first time you can write a letter 
while you do your financial planning. For the first time 
you can write text while printing other documents. For 
the first time you can edit programs while your program 
compiles. Concurrent CP/M is the best investment 



you can make in microcomputing because it multiplies 
the value of your hardware and lets you use all the CP/M 
compatible programs. And if you're developing software, 
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wave in the business. 

There's nothing like Concurrent CP/M in the 
personal computer world, and you can get it only from 
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Research, Inc. (408) 649-5500. 160 Central Avenue. 
Pacific Grove, California 93950 Circle 148 on inquiry card. 



Coming soon! CP/M '83 International 
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about exhibiting call 617-739-2000. 



Now your IBM PC can do 
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DIGITAL 
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The creators of CP/M™ 



tion of the disk when a soft-sectored 
floppy disk (the type supported by 
the MPX-16) is being used in the 
selected drive. 

Data-Write Logic 

The data-write logic consists of the 
74LS175 quad type-D flip-flop IC17 
and the 74LS153 4-to-l decoder, 
ICll. The 74LS175 is configured as a 
shift register clocked by the single/ 
double-density write clock, which 
provides the precompensation re- 
quired for double-density recording. 
The actual value (250 or 125 ns) 
depends on the particular drive size 
being used and is selected by jumpers 
JP20 and JP21. 

Data-Recovery Logic 

The data-recovery (data-read) logic 
of the floppy-disk interface, shown 
on page 70 of figure 2, is fairly com- 
plex, due to the subtleties of MFM 
double-density recording. The 
MPX-16 uses a PLL (phase-locked- 
loop) circuit to decode the double- 
density data. The 8272 floppy-disk 



controller, IC21, requires two input 
signals, the RDD and RDW signals at 
pins 23 and 22, respectively, to be 
generated from the raw-data signal 
read from the disk and transmitted to 
the interface by the drive electronics. 
The RDD signal consists of one posi- 
tive pulse for each magnetic-flux 
reversal read from the disk, which 
can signify either a clock bit or a data 
bit. The RDW signal tells the 8272 of 
the status of the "data window" (a 
period of time in which a pulse may 
or may not occur), which is used by 
the 8272 to determine if the flux 
reversal is a data bit or a clock bit (see 
reference 7). 

The 8272 provides two output 
signals, the VCOSYNC and MFM sig- 
nals, that simplify the implementa- 
tion of a PLL data-recovery circuit. 
The VCOSYNC signal goes active- 
high when valid data is being read 
from the disk and is used to enable 
the PLL logic. When a gap area (a 
place on a floppy disk where no data 
is recorded — for example, between 
the disk's identification and data 



fields) is being read by the read/write 
head, the VCOSYNC signal goes low 
to disable the PLL. In addition, the 
VCOSYNC signal can be high only 
after the read/write head has been 
loaded and the head-load time has 
elapsed. The MFM signal from the 
8272, when active-high, indicates that 
the 8272 has been programmed for 
double-density operation; when 
MFM is inactive-low, single-density 
operation is indicated. This signal, 
along with the data-recovery logic, 
allows the recording mode to be soft- 
ware-selected between single- and 
double-density operation. 

The active-high RAWDATA pulses 
from the disk-drive circuitry trigger 
two one-shot multivibrator sections, 
both in IC2, which serve as pulse 
shapers for the phase-detector logic. 
Section IC2a shapes the single-density 
(FM) data pulses, while section IC2b 
works for double-density (MFM) data. 
Separate one-shots are provided for 
the MFM and FM modes so that the 
recording format can be selected only 
by software. 



3D B oU/4 The affordable singleboard microcomputer 
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Single Board Technology This multiprocessor board 
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for storage and peripherals through four channel DMA. 
Memory and Disk Storage 320K of 200ns dynamic 
RAM combined with five (5) Z80A microprocessors pro- 
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74 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc Circle 84 On inquiry Card. 



With ASCOM . . . 



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personal computer communication 

has never been this easy. 



That's why Big 8 accounting firms and 
Fortune 500 companies use ASCOM. 

ASCOM is an interactive microcom- 
puter telecommunications program for 
timesharing and data transfers. It is 
easy to use because it employs menus, 
simple commands and features an on- 
line help facility. 

A typical use of ASCOM is to access 
a data base to retrieve data for storage 
and analysis on your microcomputer. It 
can also be used to transmit program 
files to another machine running 
ASCOM. This can be done locally 
through direct connection, or over 
telephone lines by using a modem. 

ASCOM works on IBM PC, MS-DOS, 
CP/M-86, and CP/M-80 compatible 
micros. 



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("Plus $3.00 shipping and handling in N. America. Ct. 
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ASCOM is a trademark of Dynamic Microprocessor 
Associates. CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research 
© Copyright 1983 Westico, Inc. WA + 1 

B-1 



ASCOM features: 

.Works with modems or by direct con- 
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baud. 

.Transfers both text and program files 
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. Protocols to synchronize large file 
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• Automatic processing with com- 
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. Commands for displaying directories 
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To order ASCOM, call or write today: 

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25 Van Zant Stieet • Norwalk, CT 06855 
(203) 853 6880 • Trim 643 788 



Circle 39 on inquiry card. 




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The one-shots take the raw data 
pulses from the drive and stretch or 
shrink them to a constant length, as 
required. The duration of the output 
pulses of the one-shots is determined 
by resistors Rl through R4 and capa- 
citors C6 and C7. Jumper connections 
JP9 through JP12 are used to set up 
the correct pulse duration for 5 1 /*- 
inch or 8-inch drives. The RC (resis- 
tance/capacitance) values are chosen 
to provide a shaped data pulse width 
that is one-half the duration of the 
data window. These values are 2 fis 
for 5 a /4-inch and 1 /us for 8-inch 
FMDAT (single-density data) pulses, 
and 1 ^s and 500 ns for 5 l /4-inch and 
8-inch MFMDAT (double-density 
data) pulses, respectively. 

A type-74Sl24 voltage-controlled 
oscillator (VCO), IC4, generates a 
free-running 8-MHz VCO output fre- 
quency used to track the incoming 
data stream. The VCO frequency is 
also divided by 2 to produce a 4-MHz 
clock pulse. Jumpers JP8 and JP15 
select the correct VCO frequency for 
the type of drive in use (8 MHz for 
8-inch and 4 MHz for SVi-inch). 

The read-data pulse for the 8272's 
RDD input is derived from IC13 and 
IC16. Pin 5 of IC13 (the Q output) 
goes high when this flip-flop detects 
the rising edge of each inverted data 
pulse, which corresponds to the lead- 
ing edge of the negative-going raw 
data pulse from the disk drive. On the 
rising edge of the next inverted 
8-MHz VCO-clock pulse, the Q out- 
put of IC13 is then clocked into flip- 
flop IC16, forming the positive RDD 
pulse required by the 8272. 

CP/M-86 BIOS 

Digital Research's CP/M-86 oper- 
ating system is designed to operate in 
almost any 8086- or 8088-based micro- 
computer system. This flexibility has 
been made possible by dividing the 
operating-system code into functional 
sections, one of which is accessible to 
the computer's manufacturer, 
dealers, and users. This section is the 
lowest-level portion and is called the 
basic input/output system or BIOS 
(usually pronounced "by-ahs" or "by- 
ohs" for short). 

The higher-level BDOS (basic disk 
operating system — "bee-dahs"), the 



76 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



nucleus of CP/M-86, calls on the 
BIOS to gain access to the physical 
hardware of the computer system, in 
our case, the MPX-16. This provides 
a very machine-independent environ- 
ment for the BDOS. 

Imagine the BIOS as a slave that 
the BDOS can order around. The 
BDOS knows what it wants to do 
(communicate with the disk con- 
troller or console serial port, for ex- 
ample) but doesn't know exactly how 
to talk to the hardware. It does have 
rapport with the BIOS, though, and 
can ask the BIOS to communicate 
with the hardware and return the 
results. 

As a user, you will almost always 
receive your CP/M-86 computer sys- 
tem with a customized BIOS pre- 
viously installed by your manufac- 
turer or dealer. But if you buy 
CP/M-86 directly from Digital Re- 
search, it will not contain a BIOS that 
will work with the MPX-16. To sup- 
port this project, I have arranged for 
a customized BIOS to be written, 
burned into EPROMs, and distrib- 
uted by The Micromint for use with 
the MPX-16. 

The inner workings of the BIOS 
and full instructions on how to 
customize it are too complex to deal 
with in this article and are covered in 
great detail in the CP/M-86 docu- 
mentation, so rather than duplicate 
that material, I shall attempt to ex- 
plain in English terms what the 
various parts of the BIOS do. 

BIOS Organization 

The BIOS portion of CP/M-86 
resides constantly in user memory 
during normal system operation. 
When power is first applied to the 
MPX-16, the 8088 processor comes 
up executing instructions at the very 
top of memory, in the space assigned 
to EPROM in the MPX-16. The first 
instruction it encounters is an in- 
itialization vector that causes control 
to branch to the initialization routine. 
This routine first performs diagnostic 
operations to make sure that the 
system is working properly, then it 
copies the BIOS out of its storage 
locations in the EPROM into 
addresses low in memory. Control is 
then transferred to the cold-start vec- 

Clrcle 176 on inquiry card. > 



sTTTl 1 1 rrgfiW =i loi* 



Runs With The Best! 



VisiCalc" , DB Master , Desktop Plan" — they are 
all running on the Franklin ACE 1000. Cash flow, 
budgets, word processing or data base manage- 
ment, business or pleasure, the ACE 1000 runs 
with the best. 



The Franklin ACE 1000 is hardware and software 
compatible with the Apple"' II. Franklin users can 
choose from an enormous selection of programs 
— programs that run better on the ACE because it 
includes 64K of RAM, upper and lower case, 
VisiCalc keys, a numeric pad and an alpha lock key. 

Run with the best. Call or write today for the name 
of your local authorized Franklin dealer. 



Franklin ACE is a trademark of Franklin Computer Corporation. 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
VisiCalc and Desktop Plan are registered trademarks of Visi Coi 
OB Master is a registered trademark of Stoneware. 




X 



\. 






COMPUTER CORPORATION 

7030 Colonial Highway 
Pennsauken, NJ 08109 
609-488-1700 






"fffffffffw > • 



' 



# 




'lllllllllllllllllllll 



> 



BIOS< 



BDOS ( 



TRANSIENT PROGRAM AREA 



DISK PARAMETER TABLES 



BIOS 

(BASIC INPUT /OUTPUT SYSTEM) 



BIOS JUMP VECTORS 



BASIC DISK OPERATING SYSTEM 



CONSOLE COMMAND PROCESSOR 



-CS + 3500 
(APPROXIMATELY) 



-CS + 253F 
-CS + 2500 



JUMP VECTORS 



CS = CODE -SEGMENT REGISTER 

DS = DATA- SEGMENT REGISTER 

SS = STACK -SEGMENT REGISTER 

ES= EXTRA-DATA-SEGMENT REGISTER 



-CS.DS.ES, SS 
(WHEN CP/M-86 
IS IN CONTROL) 



CP/M-86 

CODE AND DATA 



Figure 3: Memory map of the CP/M-86 operating system as configured for the MPX-16. 
In 64K-byte systems, the CS, DS, SS, and ES registers will all contain a value of zero, 
and the segments will overlap. User programs are loaded into the TPA (transient pro- 
gram area). 



Offset from 
Start of BIOS 

0000 
0003 
0006 
0009 
000C 
000F 
0012 
0016 
0018 
001 B 
001 E 
0021 
0024 
0027 
002A 
002D 
0030 
0033 
0036 
0039 
003C 



Instruction 

JMP INIT 
JMP WBOOT 
JMP CONST 
JMPCONIN 
JMP CONOUT 
JMP LIST 
JMP PUNC 
JMP READER 
JMP HOME 
JMP SELDSK 
JMP SETTRK 
JMP SETSEC 
JMP SETDMA 
JMP READ 
JMP WRITE 
JMP LISTST 
JMP SECTRAN 
JMP SETDMAB 
JMP GETSEGB 
JMP GETIOB 
JMP SETIOB 



BIOS 
Function 
Number 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 



Description 

cold start 

warm start 

console status check 

console character input 

console character output 

list-device character output 

punch-device character output 

reader-device character input 

move to track 

select a disk drive 

set track number 

set sector number 

set DMA-offset address 

read selected disk sector 

write selected disk sector 

return list-device status 

sector translation 

set DMA segment address 

get MEM region table offset 

get IOBYTE 

set IOBYTE 



Table 3: BIOS (basic input/output system) jump vectors for CP/M-86 on the 
MPX-16. These jump instructions are the 21 entry points to the BIOS. The BDOS 
module calls these subroutines when it needs to send commands or receive data from 
the actual hardware (machine-dependent) interfaces, such as disk drives or serial 
ports. The offset address is from the start of the BIOS, which is located at an address 
in memory hexadecimal 2500 locations up from the start of the CCP/BDOS code 
segment. 



tor of CP/M-86, and normal opera- 
tion begins. 

Figure 3 shows a typical memory 
map for a CP/M-86 installation. The 
BIOS is made up of several subsec- 
tions. The first 63 bytes contain 21 
jump vectors, each 3 bytes long. Each 
jump vector is an instruction to 
transfer control to the address in 
memory of a routine that performs an 
assigned low-level function, such as 
restarting CP/M-86 or getting a con- 
sole character. These functions are 
listed in table 3. 

As shown in figure 3, the BIOS re- 
sides in memory at an address offset 
by hexadecimal 2500 from the base 
address of CP/M-86. This offset is 
constant, but the upper boundary of 
the BIOS may change, depending on 
the size and special requirements of 
the microcomputer hardware. For ex- 
ample, some disk controllers are 
interrupt-driven, some are set up to 
use DMA transfers, and some use 
regular I/O transfers to communicate 
with the processor. The complexity of 
the BIOS depends on how many dif- 
ferent features like these it must sup- 
port. 

The first two jump vectors, as 
shown in table 3, are for system re- 
initialization. The first one is called 
directly by the CP/M-86 loader pro- 
gram and performs any needed hard- 
ware initialization when CP/M-86 is 
loaded "from cold start" (for the first 
time after the computer is turned on). 
The second is called the "warm-start" 
vector because it is called whenever a 
program terminates (through BDOS 
function 0). After the warm-start 
operation has been completed, con- 
trol is immediately transferred to the 
part of CP/M-86 with which the user 
converses, the console command pro- 
cessor, or CCP. 

The next six jump vectors in table 3 
transfer control to various character- 
I/O routines. In all of the routines, a 
character being sent out to a device 
must be placed in the CL register, and 
any character or status information 
being returned will appear in the AL 
register. For example, CONST, 
CONN, and CONOUT pass charac- 
ters to and from the logical console 
device in this manner. The next vec- 
tor (LIST) sends a character to the 



78 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 415 on inquiry card. 



"Itili-r Moiir," ' ourte-.y nl <jh-<( 

Abram, university ol Moitn Carolina 



"Aurora" liy Richard Kat/. Vectrix 
Corporation 



Integrated Circuit Design" Courtesy "In Thf Beginning" by Richard KatA 
of floyd J James. University of riorth Vectrm Corporation 
Carolina at Chapel Mill 



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logical list device (usually the 
printer). Further down, we see that 
function 15 (LISTST) returns the 
status of the list device. 

The reason why the list-status rou- 
tine is not located adjacent in mem- 
ory to the list-output routine is sim- 
ple: when the first version of 
CP/M-80 was written, no list-status 
routine existed. It was added later, 
but to avoid rearranging all the jump 
vectors, it was added as function 15. 
In CP/M-86, other jump vectors were 
added after it. The logical device 
names Reader and Punch are actually 
obsolete. They were intended for a 
paper-tape reader and punch, but 
these routines are now used to oper- 
ate various auxiliary input and out- 
put devices. 

Disk I/O Routines 

BIOS functions 8 through 14 and 
function 16 are used for disk-con- 
troller communications. For example, 
the HOME function causes the cur- 
rently selected disk to return to track 
(that is, it causes the read /write 
head to seek to the outermost track). 
The SELDSK function activates the 
disk drive whose address is passed in 
the CL register and makes it the cur- 
rent disk (this is how the default disk 
is activated). 

The READ and WRITE functions 
transfer a single record (128 bytes) 



from the current DMA buffer (set 
with SETDMA) to or from the cur- 
rently selected disk (SELDSK) at the 
current track and sector (SETTRK 
and SETSEC). The BDOS refers to 
the disk directory on disk to know 
where to read or write information 
when needed. 

Disk-Definition Tables 

All of the recently introduced oper- 
ating systems from Digital Research, 
including CP/M-86 and CP/M-80 
version 2.2, are table-driven. This 
means that all the disk definitions and 
storage-allocation information is kept 
in tables in the section of memory oc- 
cupied by the BIOS, rather than in 
the BDOS. This allows for flexibility 
in interfacing disk drives and other 
peripheral devices to the system. 
Early versions of CP/M-80 assumed 
that all disks attached to the system 
were identical: 8-inch single-density 
drives. Now, many systems have one 
to four floppy disks, and perhaps an 
additional hard disk, for mass 
storage. A few even have so-called 
RAM disks (large-capacity semicon- 
ductor random-access read/write 
memories set up to simulate disk 
drives). Because the modification of 
the tables is usually performed by an 
experienced programmer, the user 
rarely has the need to modify them. 
(To keep this article from running 



overlong, I'll let those of you who are 
really interested look to the CP/M-86 
documentation to learn those soft- 
ware mysteries.) 

In Conclusion 

That's all the information on the 
MPX-16 we can reasonably cover in 
three magazine articles, but more in- 
formation is available for those of 
you who need it in the MPX-16 Tech- 
nical Reference and User's Manual, 
available separately from The Micro- 
mint. 

You've probably noticed a great re- 
liance on Intel components through- 
out the computer. These are present 
in the MPX-16 for compatibility, 
because they are used in the IBM Per- 
sonal Computer, but I suspect that 
IBM's design team selected these com- 
ponents because of Intel's foresight in 
promptly supporting its 16-bit micro- 
processors with parts that work well 
together, at reasonable cost, in a 
complete solution to a computer- 
design problem. 

Overseeing the design of the 
MPX-16 has been quite an adventure 
for me these past few months. I hope 
you've enjoyed reading this epic. 

Next Month: 

We'll look at a single-line alphanu- 
meric liquid-crystal display for use in 
a portable computer terminal. ■ 



Saturday 

February 5th, 1983 

10AM to 6PM 



Question: 

Why do they call it Computer Swap 

America if it's only held in Northern 

California? 

Answer: 

Because manufacturers, software 
producers, computer stores, consumer 
electronic outlets and individuals come 
from all over the country to sell their 
products within the highest concen- 
tration of computer enthusiasts in the 
country — the San Francisco Bay Area. 



^■^naa/ohn Craig'* 1 

COMPUTER 
% SWAP 1 
AMERICA 



A High-Technology Flea Market and Mini Show 
for Personal Computing Enthusiasts 




Santa Clara County Fairgrounds 

Exposition Hall 

344 Tully Road 

San Jose, California 



Admission: $5.00 

Seller's Information Package: 

Computer Swap America 

PO Box 52 

Palo Alto, CA 94302 

(415) 494-6862 

Consignment Table Information: 
415-351-31 77 



Single Selling Spaces: $ 40 for selling personal items, all others $125 



Auctions, door prizes and a bit of 



make this a fun event, .not one to be missed. 



80 January 19(3 © BYTE Publications Inc 






You can wait for industry standards 

to mandate improved performance. 

Or you can have it now on Maxell. 

The Gold Standard. 



What distinguishes a Maxell floppy disk? 
Improvements great and small, achieved in a 
decade of innovation. We developed 
unique, uniform crystals to assure dense 
oxide packing. Intensified the calendering 
process to minimize the need for aPrasive 
burnishing. Created an improved binder 
and lubricant. And a new jacket 
design that leaves industry standards 
in our wake. 

It would require photomicrographs 
to make some of these improvements 
observable. On the job, the advan- 
tages become obvious. Resolution 
enhanced by 20% creates a cleaner 




signal output. And guarantees the read/write 
accuracy in double-density applications. New 
jacket construction, heat-resistant to 
140°F, extends disk use without risk of 
mistracking. In effect, durability is re- 
defined. And in accelerated tests 
against the most respected names 
in the industry, Maxell sustained 
the highest and most consistent 
output over time. 

We applaud industry standards 

that aspire to dropout-free, 

reliable disk performance. 

The Gold Standard expresses 

a higher aim: perfection. 



maxell 



It's worth it. 

Computer Products Division, Maxell Corporation of America, 60 Oxford Drive, Moonachie, N.J. 07074 201-440-8020 

Circle 247 on inquiry card. 



To receive a complete list of Ciarcia's 
Circuit Cellar project kits available from the 
Micromint, circle 100 on the reader service 
inquiry card at the back of the magazine. 



Editor's Note: Steve often refers to previous 
Circuit Cellar articles as reference material for 
each month's current article. Most of these past 
articles are available in reprint books from 
BYTE Books, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 
POB 400, Hightstown, NJ 08520. 

Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, Volume I, covers 
articles that appeared in BYTE from September 
1977 through November 1978. Ciarcia's Circuit 
Cellar, Volume II, contains articles from 
December 1978 through June 1980. Ciarcia's 
Circuit Cellar, Volume III, contains the articles 
that were published from July 1980 through 
December 1981. 



Acknowledgments 

Thanks to Jim Norris, George Martin, and 
Linda Spencer of Owl Electronic Laboratories 
for their contributions to the design. 

Thanks to Mark Dahmke and Gordon Heins 
for their help with the documentation. 

Thanks to Bill Morello and his staff at 
Techart Associates for their careful work in 
drawing the schematic diagrams. 



References 

1 . Cantrell, Thomas. "An 8088 Processor 
forthe S-100 Bus." Part 1, September 
1980 BYTE, page 46. Part 2, October 
1980 BYTE, page 62. Part 3. 
November 1980 BYTE, page 340. 

2. Ciarcia, Steve. "Build the Circuit Cellar 
MPX-16 Computer System." Part 1, 
November 1982 BYTE, page 78. Part 
2, December 1982 BYTE, page 42. 

3. Ciarcia, Steve. "Ease into 16-Bit Com- 
puting." Part 1, March 1980 BYTE, 
page 17. Part 2, April 1980 BYTE, page 
40. Reprinted in Ciarcia's Circuit 
Cellar, Volume II. Peterborough, NH: 
BYTE Books, 1981, page 171. 

4. Ciarcia, Steve. "The Intel 8086." 
November 1979 BYTE, page 14. 
Reprinted in Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar, 
Volume II. Peterborough, NH: BYTE 
Books, 1981, page 120. 

5. Component Data Catalog. Santa Clara, 
CA: Intel Corporation, 1981. 

6. The 8086 Family User's Manual. Santa 
Clara, CA: Intel Corporation, 1981. 

7. Hoeppner, John F. and Larry H. Wall. 
"Encoding/Decoding Techniques Dou- 
ble Floppy-Disc Capacity." Computer 
Design, February 1980, page 127. 

8. iAPX Book. Santa Clara, CA: Intel Cor- 
poration, 1981. 

9. iAPX 86,88 User's Manual. Santa 
Clara, CA: Intel Corporation, 1981. 



10. iSBX 218 Flexible Disk Controller 
Hardware Manual. Santa Clara, CA: In- 
tel Corporation, 1981. 

1 1 . IBM Personal Computer Technical 
Reference Manual. Boca Raton, FL: 
IBM Corporation, 1981. 

12. Morgan, Christopher L. and Mitchell 
Waite. 8086/8088 16-Bit Micropro- 
cessor Primer. Peterborough, NH: 
BYTE Books, 1982. 

13. NEC Application Note AN10: Con- 
sideration for Interfacing the NEC 
nPD765 to the CDC9404 and 9406-21-8 
Flexible Disk Drives. Mountain View, 
CA: NEC Electronics USA, 1981. 

14. NEC Application Note AN8: A 
Single/Double-Density Floppy-Disk 
Controller Using the nPD765. Moun- 
tain View, CA: NEC Electronics USA, 
1981. 

15. NEC Data Book. Mountain View, CA: 
NEC Electronics USA, 1982. 

16. Shugart SA400 Minifloppy Diskette 
Storage Drive OEM Manual. Sunny- 
vale, CA: Shugart Associates, 1977. 

17. Shugart SA800/801 Diskette Storage 
Drive OEM Manual. Sunnyvale, CA: 
Shugart Associates, 1977. 

18. Signetics Logic-TTL Data Manual. 
Sunnyvale, CA: Signetics Corporation, 
1982. 

19. Tandon TM848-1/TM848-2 Product 
Specification. Chatsworth, CA: Tandon 
Corporation, 1980. 



The following items are available from: 

The Micromint Inc. 
561 Willow Ave. 
Cedarhurst, NY 11516 
(516) 374-6793 

(for technical information) 
(800) 645-3479 

(for orders only) 

1. MPX-16 single-board computer 
system: assembled, tested, and burned- 
in. Includes 64K bytes of RAM, Digital 
Research CP/M-86 operating system 
on 8-inch or 5'/4-inch floppy disk, 
CP/M-86 BIOS in EPROM, MPX-16 
Technical Reference and User's 
Manual. Requires power supply and 
one floppy-disk drive. 

Single-quantity price $1895 

2. MPX-16 single-board computer 
system, as above, but with 256K bytes 
of RAM installed. 

Single-quantity price $2135 

3. MPX-16 single-board computer 
system, assembled and tested, with 
64K bytes of RAM. 

In OEM quantities of 100 $1200 each 



4. Complete MPX-16 disk-based sys- 
tem: includes MPX-16 single-board 
computer, assembled, tested, and 
burned-in, with 256K bytes of RAM 
installed, CP/M-86 operating system 
on S'A-inch floppy disk, CP/M-86 
BIOS in EPROM, power supply, one 
single-sided 5V*-inch floppy-disk 
drive, connecting cables, MPX-16 
Technical Reference and User's 
Manual. Enclosure sold separately. 

Single-quantity price $2895 

5. Wave-soldered printed-circuit 
board for MPX-16, with all sockets, all 
passive components, and 5 expansion 
connectors installed; no integrated 
circuits included $595 

6. Digital Research CP/M-86 
documentation (three-volume set), 
sold separately $40 

7. MPX-16 Technical Reference and 
User's Manual, sold separately .... $35 

8. Enclosures for MPX-16 circuit 
board, power supplies, and floppy- 
disk drives call for prices 



9. Unpopulated (blank) printed- 
circuit board for the MPX-16 computer 
system: five-layer, screened, and 
solder-masked. Includes CP/M-86 
BIOS in EPROM, MPX-16 Technical 
Reference and User's Manual. 

Single-quantity price $300 



When it becomes available for the 
MPX-16, Microsoft's MS-DOS operat- 
ing system may be optionally substi- 
tuted for CP/M-86. 

The MPX-16 is available to OEMs in 
large quantities. Various forms of kits 
and subassemblies will eventually be 
available. Call The Micromint for 
prices and delivery information. The 
Micromint will test previously wave- 
soldered circuit boards assembled by 
users for a fee of $50. 

For orders within the continental 
United States, please include $10 for 
shipping; overseas orders please in- 
clude $30. Residents of New York 
please include 7 percent sales tax. 



82 January 19«3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 187 on inquiry card. 



More Apple II owners choose Hayes 
Micromodem II than any other modem 
in the world. Compare these features 
before you buy. You should. It's your 
money. Thousands of other Apple 11 
owners have already com- 
pared, considered, and are now 
communicating — all over the 
U.S.A. — with Micromodem II. 
The best modem for the Apple 
II. The most modem 
for your money. , t 

A complete 
data communi- 
cation system. 
Micromodem II 
is not "base 
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board tils quickly and easily — into your 
Apple II. eliminating the need foraserial 
interlace card. And the Microcoupler'" 
(Included) connects the Apple II directly 
to a standard modular telephone jack. 
Auto-dial and -answer features are built 
in. Operation can be full or half duplex. 



with a transmission rate of 300 bps. And keyboards, further extending your 
it's Bell 103compatible and FCC approved, capabilities. Incoming data can be 



Now there's Hayes Terminal Pro- 
gram, tool Developed by Hayes speci- 
fically for Micromodem II, this new 

Terminal Program allows 
you to access all the great 
features of your modem 
in a matter of seconds. 
With it, you can use 



printed (on serial or parallel printers) 
as it's displayed on your screen. 

Micromodem II is available with 
or without the Terminal Program. Buy 

your modem by itself, or optionally pack- 
aged with the Terminal Program disk 
and user manual at extra cost. The soft- 
ware is also sold separately, for those 



yourCP/M," DOS who already own a Micromodem II. 




3.3 or Pascal for- 
f matted disks to 

create, send, re- 
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files. Hayes Terminal 
Program is a complete, 
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And because it's menu 



If you're ready to communicate 
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mation utilities, time-sharing systems, 
or use bulletin boards, then you're 
ready for Micromodem II. Come on. 
Compare. Consider. Then buy. 

Micromodem 11 is already the 
best-selling modem for the Apple II. 



driven, you can choo se from And Hayes' new Terminal Program 
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modem U and Mraocoupler ate trademarks ot Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer. Inc. 
CP/ M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. Inc. © 1982 Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc. Sold only m the USA. 



WHAT YOU SEE 
IS WHAT 

YOU GET. 



Introducing the 
most advanced 
computer 
animation 
ever created 
forthe Apple 8 ! 




Actual Reproduction 



'They told us that graphic animation this sophisticated 

Can t be done. _Rj C h arC | Hefter. creator of STICKYBEAR and 

Old Ironsides and world-famous author and illustrator. 



S TICKYBEAR and 
Old Ironsides are 
registered trademarks of 
mum Resource, Inc. 




It took 2V2 years in testing and develop- 
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a breakthrough in color graphics that will 
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SEE FOR YOURSELF. 

What you see on this page and on the 
lively eye-catching packaging, is exactly 
what you get in these four bright, bouncy 
new programs developed by O ptimum 
Res ource, Inc. and distributed by Xerox 
Ed ucation Publications/Weekl y Reader, 

Unlike other programs, where the pictures 
on the packaging bear no resemblance to 
the screen images, these programs deliver 
precisely what's promised! 

HERE'S WHAT YOU GET... 

Bright, interest-grabbing packag- 
ing made of durable, wipe-clean 
Ivirryl. Easy to store... attractive to 
display! 

| STICKYBEAR'" -the first animated 
I character created exclusively for 

your Apple® by a popular children's 

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Hi-resolution graphics never 
before seen on an Apple®! And, for 
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)And each program is packed with 
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You won't be disappointed when you see 
these programs or the packaging. We 
guarantee it. 



Look for STICKYBEAR BOP , ST ICKYBEAR 
ABC , STI CKYBEA R N umbers and Old Iron- 
sides programs in finer computer stores 
everywhere. Dealers are invited to inquire 
by calling toll-free 1-800-852-5000. 

If there is no store near you, Visa and 
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toll-free 1-800-852-5000. Or, send a check 
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gram, plus $2.00 for shipping and han- 
dling (and please add state sales tax). 
Mail to Xerox Education Publications/ 
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Apple II and Apple II Plus 48K 3.3 DOS 




Apple and Apple II are registered 
trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc. 



Distributed by 






Stickybear Bop 

Three animated shooting galleries of 
STICKYBEARS, ducks, planets, balloons, 
more... to knock off the screen. Each round 
requires more skill. FREE game, poster and 
stickers. For ages 3 to 99. 

By Richard Hefter. Program by Jack Rice. 




Stickybear ABC 

Big, full-screen full-color moving pictures, 
with sound, represent each letter in the 
alphabet. FREE poster, book and stickers. 
For ages 3 to 6. 

Pictures by Richard Hefter. Program by Jamie and 
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" — 




Stickybear Numbers 

Colorful groups of big moving objects- 
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FREE poster, book and stickers. 

For ages 3 to 6. Pictures by Richard Hefter. 
Program by Jamie and Steve Worthington. 




PLUS, 
FOR THE 
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Old Ironsides 

This colorful, new 2-player naval battle 
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obscuring your vision, more! FREE poster. 
For ages 8 to 99. 

By Richard Hefter and Jack Rice. 



Xerox Education Publications 

Weekly Reader 



Computer Software Division 



Circle 440 on inquiry card. 



Product Description 



Heath's HERO-1 Robot 



Steven Leininger 

Leininger and Associates 

5402 Summit Ridge Trail 

Arlington, TX 76017 



Heath, a leading supplier of educational electronic kits, 
began a few years ago to design an industrial electronics 
course. Intending to teach the broad range of skills 
necessary for electromechanical control and real-world 
interfacing, the instructors wanted a hardware training 
kit that would demonstrate stepper-motor control, sound 
input and output, and object detection and ranging. 




Photo 1: The assembled Heath HERO-1 robot. 

86 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



One proposed kit had all of the actuators and sensors 
mounted on a breadboard chassis plus a book detailing 
the experiments that could be performed. That was the 
way Heath instructors had taught computer technology 
with their classic microprocessor trainer. But they 
decided to go beyond the microprocessor-trainer concept 
and build an educational device that would be fun to use 
after the experiments were over. A robot seemed to be the 
ideal solution. 

The engineers at Heath approached the robot project 
with great enthusiasm. Imagine having the charter to 
design a robot that demonstrates virtually all principles 
of automation and robotics. The final product of this 
engineering effort is now available as HERO-1 (Heath 
Educational Robot-1). 

The Mobile Robot, Circa 1982 

The HERO-1, completed and "fully clothed" (see photo 
1), looks like a distant cousin of R2D2. It stands about 20 
inches high on its three-wheel base and weighs 39 
pounds. Though HERO-1 is not as strong, fast, or ac- 
curate as its industrial counterparts, it does have an im- 
pressive list of capabilities. It can sense sound, light, mo- 
tion, distance, and time; it can move about the room and 
grasp objects with its optional programmable arm. It can 
even do a credible job of speaking with its optional 
speech synthesizer. 

The robot is controlled by an onboard computer that 
can be programmed manually via the hexadecimal 
keypad on top of the head assembly. Each function of the 
HERO can be exercised with just a few lines of code to 
verify correct operation or to demonstrate one or more 
principles of industrial automation. After the low-level 
functions of the robot are understood, the user can then 
get a taste of real-time robot programming with the 



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Photo 2: The Heath HERO-1 robot from the assembler's perspective. Note the teaching pendant (remote control) and the variety of 
sensors in the robot's head. 



teaching pendant (see photo 2). The teaching pendant, 
basically a remote controller connected to the robot by 
wires, can be used to select the desired motion, such as 
forward motion at half speed or raising the arm to a 
horizontal position, as well as to control the duration of 
that motion. 

Inside the HERO-1 

Fourteen printed-circuit boards, three wiring 
harnesses, and four heavy-duty rechargeable batteries 
make up the bulk of the electronics. The main processor 
board comes from Heath already assembled and tested so 
that the student of robot technology does not have to be a 
computer-troubleshooting technician as well. The pro- 
cessor board has 4K bytes of programmable memory, 8K 
bytes of ROM (read-only memory), and a Motorola 6808 
microprocessor. The ROM contains the machine- 
language debugger program that allows hexadecimal data 
to be loaded into the HERO-1 via the keyboard. It also 
contains the Robot Interpreter program, which simulates 
a possible ideal instruction set for the control of the 
motors, speech, and real-world interfacing. 

Power for the HERO-1 comes from four gelled- 
electrolyte rechargeable batteries connected as two in- 
dependent 12-volt (V) supplies. Enough power is 
available to run the robot for at least an hour of 
untethered operation. The robot can also operate con- 



tinuously if connected to the battery charger included 
with the HERO-1, but of course mobility is impaired by 
the line cord. 

An internal power-supply board contains a switching 
regulator that generates the required voltages for the 
computer, control, and sensory circuitry and provides 
the necessary regulation when recharging the batteries. A 
switching regulator was chosen because its high efficiency 
translates into longer battery life and cooler operation. 

The basic HERO-1 has two stepper motors and a 
permanent-magnet DC motor. One stepper motor is used 
to rotate the head, so that sensors can be pointed in the 
desired direction independent of the body attitude. The 
other stepper motor is used to set the direction of the 
drive wheel with respect to the body for steering. 

Heath chose a large DC motor as the main drive 
because of the torque required to move nearly 40 pounds 
of plastic, metal, and electronics. In order to provide 
some sort of feedback to the system about the distance 
traveled, an optical sensor was mounted on the front 
wheel with an encoder disk to send pulses to the com- 
puter for counting. 

The HERO-1 senses distance with a pulsed ultrasonic 
SONAR (sound navigation/ranging) system operating at 
35 kHz. An ultrasonic transmitter emits a pulse to be de- 
tected by an ultrasonic receiver. The time interval be- 
tween the transmitted and received pulses is proportional 



88 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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to the distance to the object. The system has a resolution 
of 0.42 inches over a range of about 8 feet. This ranging 
feature is primarily useful for avoiding obstacles while 
moving about under program control. 

The motion, sound, and light-detection circuits are in- 



At a Glance 

Name 

HERO-1 Robot 

Manufacturer 

Heath/Zenith Educational Systems 
Department 150-145 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 
|616) 982-3200 

Price 

Basic HERO-1 kit (ET-18), without the arm and speech synthesizer, 
S999.95; arm add-on kit, S399.95; speech add-on kit, S 149.95; 
HERO-1 package including arm and speech synthesizer, S1495; 
training course, S99.95; assembled HERO-1 (ETW-18), S2495 

Features 

Size: maximum of 20 inches high by 1 8 inches wide (50 cm by 45 
cm); 39 pounds |1 7.6 kg) 

Sound detection: frequency range, 200 Hz to 5000 Hz; amplitude 
range, 256 discrete steps; directional characteristics, almost 
horizontally and vertically uniform 

Light detection: frequency range, visible spectrum; amplitude 
range, 256 discrete steps; sensor beam angle, approximately 30 
degrees 

Ultrasonic ranging: pulsed ultrasonic, 35 kHz; range, to 8 feet (0 
to 2.4 meters); resolution, 0.42 inches |l cm); sensor beam 
angle, approximately 30 degrees 

Motion detection: continuous-wave ultrasonic field; range, can 
detect an adult at about 15 feet (5 meters); directional 
characteristics, horizontally and vertically uniform if pointed at 
wall 

Time sensing: battery-powered clock IC: in units of 

seconds, minutes, days of week, days of month, months; ac- 
curacy, plus or minus 120 seconds per year 

Mechanical: head, rotates 350 degrees in horizontal plane; 

shoulder, rotates 1 50 degrees in vertical plane; arm, extends 5 
inches (12.7 cm); wrist, pivots 180 degrees, rotates 350 
degrees; gripper capacity, to 6 inches (0 to 15.2 cm); arm 
payload, horizontal and retracted, 16 ounces (450 grams); 
horizontal and extended, 8 ounces (225 grams); gripper force, 
5 ounces (140 grams); minimum turning radius, 12 inches 

Battery charger: power requirements, 1 20/240 V AC, 50/60 Hz, 
60 watts maximum; output voltage, 27 V DC (maximum) 
unregulated; output current, 1 .9 A (maximum) into fully dis- 
charged batteries; recharge time, 10 hours (maximum) with 
robot off 

Batteries: four 4-amp-hour, 6-V gelled-electrolyte rechargeable cells 

Speech (optional): phonemic speech IC; number of phonemes, 64; 
levels of inflection, 4 

Documentation 

Assembly manual, user's manual, technical manual, and speech 
dictionary 

Audience 

Anyone interested in learning about robots 



terfaced to the onboard microprocessor with an 8-bit 
A/D (analog-to-digital) converter. This produces a 
binary digital number ranging from to 255 in response 
to an input voltage from a sensor selected by the con- 
troller. The higher the voltage from the sensor, the higher 
the output value to the 6808 microprocessor. 

Motion is detected by using a continuous-wave 
ultrasonic field like that used in an ultrasonic burglar 
alarm. The robot looks for a change in the amplitude of 
the reflected ultrasonic waves to indicate that something 
is moving in its field of coverage. Of course, the robot 
must remain stationary during motion detection so that it 
is not simply detecting its own motion. 

Light can be detected and quantized with a light- 
dependent resistor connected to the robot's A/D con- 
verter. The robot can aim the light sensor by moving its 
head so that it can determine the direction of a light 
source by looking for the maximum intensity. (This way, 
the HERO-1 can surely find the light at the end of the tun- 
nel.) 

Sound is detected with a microphone connected to the 
A/D converter. While it is not capable of any sort of 
complex speech recognition, the properly programmed 
robot can listen for and count syllables to effect crude 
recognition. In other program applications, the ambient 
sound level may be important. Once again, the A/D con- 
verter provides an 8-bit representation of the sound level 
at any given instant, which can be processed as desired in 
the user's program. 

The HERO-1 uses the Votrax SC-01 speech synthesizer 
integrated circuit as its "larynx." This device produces 
phonemes in response to digital inputs. These phonemes, 
which are the basic building blocks of intelligible speech, 
can be combined under program control to produce 
words, phrases, and sentences. The HERO-1 comes with 
several built-in phrases, such as "Warning! Warning! In- 
truder! I have summoned the police!," "Your wish is my 
command," and "Oh no! I do not do windows!" You can 
program your own phrases and sound effects into the 
robot via the keypad, so that the speech can be tailored to 
satisfy your special requirements. 

An onboard calendar/ clock counts seconds, minutes, 
hours, days of the week, days of the month, and months. 
You can use this in programs and experiments to delay 
the actual execution of an event until some future time 
(like having HERO-1 say "happy birthday" when you 
come within detector range on your birthday). 

An experimenter's solderless breadboard, with connec- 
tions to an I/O (input/output) port and interrupt line on 
the microprocessor board, is mounted on HERO-l's 
head. Ground signals and 5-V and 12-V power are sup- 
plied so that an external power supply is usually not re- 
quired. Heath provided this breadboard to give the user a 
chance to perform experiments from Heath's Robotics 
Course and to encourage individual experimentation. 

The optional manipulator arm has five more stepper 
motors and is attached to the head. The arm can pivot 
about its shoulder, extend and rotate the hand at the 
wrist in two independent directions, and actuate its claw. 



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This arm is not as fancy or as accurate as some stand- 
alone robot arms, but for $399.95, the HERO-1 arm 
assembly is an outstanding bargain that helps an ex- 
perimenter become familiar with robot control. 



Operation of the HERO-1 Robot 

When power is first applied to the robot, it responds 
with the synthesized word "ready." HERO-1 is now in the 
executive mode and is ready to enter one of the five other 
modes. 

The utility mode can initialize the mechanical com- 
ponents, set the internal clock, and handle the saving and 
loading of program data. The initialize command causes 
the robot to seek a known position by stepping each 
motor until a limit switch corresponding to that motor is 
tripped. HERO-1 is now in its home position. As the 
robot performs head and arm movements, it remembers 
just how far it has moved, so that it can return the arm to 
the home position via the shortest route when given the 
Home Arm command. 

With the utility mode you can save programs on or 
load them from cassette tape. Lengthy experiments can be 
saved for further study, or application routines can be 
loaded after power-up, eliminating the drudgery of 
reentering previous work manually. This mode also has a 
command that allows the user to set and display the time 
and date in the clock/calendar. The clock runs even when 



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the robot is turned off, so that the time is always accurate 
once it has been set. 

The manual mode permits operation of HERO-1 with 
the teaching pendant, whose cable and connector at- 
taches to the rear of the robot. Unfortunately the pendant 
allows only one function at a time, so the operator can't 
move the arm and drive at the same time. There are four 
switches on the teaching pendant: 

• The trigger switch acts as a dead-man switch, meaning 
that no motion is allowed unless this switch is pressed. 

• The function switch selects between arm functions 
(moving the head, arm, and gripper) and the body func- 
tions (drive and steering motor operations). 

• The rotary selector switch is used for motor selection in 
the arm mode and combined speed and forward-or-re- 
verse selection in the body mode. 

• The motion switch is a three-position, return-to-center 
rocker switch. In the arm mode, it determines the direc- 
tion of the selected motor, thus providing the com- 
plementary tasks of opening and closing the hand, 
extending and retracting the arm, and so on. In the body 
mode, you can choose the direction of travel with the 
motion switch. When the motion switch is released in the 
body mode, the drive wheel is returned to the straight- 
ahead position. 

The learn mode is very similar to the manual mode, ex- 
cept that the commands from the pendant are entered 
into memory at the same time that the motions are being 
performed. You can then instruct the robot to repeat the 
previous movement sequence in its entirety or to move 
through the sequence a step at a time. You can even tell 
HERO-1 to reverse arm and head motions to undo what 
it did. 

The program mode is entered from the executive mode 
and is a hexadecimal debugger/monitor program like 
those usually found on microprocessor training kits. 
With this mode the real die-hard hackers (computer ex- 
perimenters) can enter machine-language code to be exe- 
cuted directly by the 6808 microprocessor. 

The repeat mode is an improvement over the program 
mode because it provides access to the Robot Language, a 
robotics interpreter that supports motion control and 
sensor management as additions to the 6808 machine 
language. The interpreter runs 10 to 100 times slower 
than its pure machine-code equivalent, but the simplifica- 
tion of applications-program writing usually makes this 
compromise worthwhile. 

Both the program and repeat modes help the user per- 
form apparently simultaneous operations — such as arm 
motion, sensing, talking, and moving around — by alter- 
nating tasks so quickly that they appear to be happening 
at the same time. 



Taking the HERO-1 for a Test Drive 

On a visit to the Heath facilities in Benton Harbor, 
Michigan, I had a chance to evaluate (read that "play 



92 January 19S3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE January 1983 93 



with") one of the preproduction prototypes of the 
HERO-1. When the robot was first initialized, it respond- 
ed with a mechanical-sounding "ready." I picked up the 
teaching pendant, and everyone stood around confident- 
ly watching as I examined the controls. 

I directed HERO-1 around the room 

and trapped it between some 

chairs . . . Going back to the arm 

mode, I reached for a coffee cup 

and picked it up. 

Having recently completed my review of a robot arm 
(see "Colne Robotics Armdroid, The Small Systems 
Robot" in the May 1982 BYTE, page 286), I decided to 
test HERO-l's arm first. After some practice, I was able 
to zero in on a Styrofoam coffee cup and pick it up 
(hmm, not bad). 

Of course, the microcomputer had stored all of my 
commands in its memory and could repeat those motions 
to duplicate my feat. When my commands were "played 
back," the robot waved its arm back and forth just as I 
had done while becoming familiar with the controls. The 
Heath engineers showed me how the sequences could be 
examined with the keyboard and display and how they 



could be edited to remove or adjust undesired sequences. 

For the mobility test, I flipped the function switch on 
the pendant from "arm" to "body," selected the speed and 
direction, and pulled the trigger to make it go. Boy did 
people move fast! I almost drove one of only three 
HERO-ls off the conference-room table! The Heath peo- 
ple invited me to continue the trial run with the robot on 
the floor, (Ah, that's what I needed, running room!) 

With the pendant in my hand, I directed HERO-1 
around the conference room and trapped it between some 
chairs. A little change of direction and I backed it out of 
the dead end and steered for the table. Going back to the 
arm mode, I reached for another coffee cup and suc- 
ceeded on the first attempt. 

After evaluating HERO-1 for about an hour, I can 
truly say that it is a product of extraordinary flexibility 
and function. I've seen speech synthesizers before, 
worked with robotic manipulators, watched maze-solv- 
ing, microprocessor-controlled "mice," and used micro- 
processor trainers and breadboarding systems, but I have 
never seen all of that in one package before! 

The Written Word 

HERO-1 comes with four manuals. At the time this 
review was being typed, only the user's manual was 
available for preview; but well-written manuals have 
always been a mark of the Heath company, and after exa- 



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mining the user's manual, it looks as if the ones for this 
product will be no exception. 

The user's manual is a basic overview of the robot's 
operation, a quick lesson in how to use HERO-1. This 
document gives the first-time user the information neces- 
sary to perform simple tasks with HERO-1. It explains 
the different modes of operation and gives some short 
sample programs that demonstrate the sensory and 
speech capabilities of the robot. 

Heath will include the assembly manual with all 
HERO-1 kits. While there are a lot of printed-circuit 
boards to be assembled and tested, the task doesn't ap- 
pear to be significantly different from that of building a 
color television set, so an assembly manual for HERO-1 
should be a simple matter for Heath. 

Heath will supply a technical manual to describe the 
function and use of the robot in detail. This will perhaps 
be the most challenging manual that Heath has under- 
taken. To adequately describe, in detail, all the subtleties 
of the sensory, motion, manipulative, and speech sys- 
tems is truly a formidable task. I've been assured that a 
lot of time is going into making this a "heavy-duty, 
here's-everything-you-need-to-know" document. 

A speech dictionary made up of the most common 
words will also be supplied to help users build their own 
sentences and phrases to use with the speech synthesizer. 



A Training Course Too 

Heath will be offering a robotics training course to sup- 
plement hands-on experience with the HERO-1. Students 
will learn the principles and fundamentals of industrial 
robotics. The course will cover robot terminology, types, 
and applications; motors and power sources; basic 
hydraulics and pneumatics; robot control and con- 
trollers; and sensors and real-world interfacing. 

The course, to be available for $99.95 (excluding 
HERO-1, of course), covers a 1200-page manual and has 
experiments that you can perform on HERO-1 to demon- 
strate concepts. 

The Bottom Line 

If you are interested in robotics, Heath will show you 
the way. HERO-1 is available in kit form for $999.95, less 
arm and speech synthesizer. The manipulator arm costs 
another $399.95, and the speech synthesizer costs an ad- 
ditional $149.95. A combination package with all three 
costs $1495. If you don't want to spend 35 hours building 
the robot, plus 3 hours on the voice, and 10 hours on the 
arm, a fully assembled, ready-to-roll HERO-1 is available 
for $2495. Anticipating interest from hobbyists, industry, 
and educational institutions, Heath is going to support a 
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DEALER INQUIRIES. GSA. GOVERNMENT. EDUCATIONAL BIDS INVITED 



SupetS'sm and CompuSut I 



c Data Sysiems Cwpwiwi 




96 January 1983 © BYTE Publications lnc 



Circle 21 on inquiry card. 




The QX-10. 




PSON 



■ ■ 




That, of course, was the promise nearly all com- 
puter manufacturers made to us. 

But along the way, the promise was unfulfilled. 

People found out that even the simplest com- 
puter languages were as troublesome and time- 
consuming as high school French — fine if you 
like that sort of challenge, but a real barrier if 
what you want to do is use a computer, as 
opposed to learning to use a computer. A lot of 
people found they could live their whole lives 
without ever knowing what GOSUB, LOGIN, or 
MID$ meant. 

The first anybody-can-use-it computer. 
That, in a nutshell, is what makes the Epson 
QX-10 the most astonishing breakthrough in 
personal computer technology ever. Not only 
does it have some of the most advanced hard- 
ware available on the market today, it is a system 
that requires no computer classes, no study, no 
lectures, no books; a system you can use, right 
out of the box, backed by little more than logic, 
intuition and native intelligence. 

It's a software system called VALDOCS. And 
it's designed on a whole new standard to make 
serious, useful computing no more difficult than 
typing. Someday all computers may be built this 
way. But for now, there's only one. 

The Epson QX-10. 
The manageable manager. 
The QX-10/VALDOCS system was designed 



from the very beginning to handle the details of 
human existence in a remarkably straightfor- 
ward, accessible, human manner. For all intents 
and purposes, it has already built into it all the 
software you will ever need to successfully man- 
age the details of your life. 

Consider what the standard configuration of 
VALDOCS will do: 

• It's a full-function, sophisticated word 
processor; 

• an information indexer for easy access to files; 

• an address book; 

• and an electronic mail system. 

• It's also a calculator; 

• an appointment book and notepad; 

• an event timer; 

• and a clock and calendar. 

• It gives you an automatic list of "things to do" 

• and lists your schedules and itinerary. 

• Finally, it's a business graph drawing system. 
That's what it does right out of the box; what 

you can make it do within minutes of unpacking 
it. Without buying additional software or writing 
your own programs in what amounts to a foreign 
language. 

It's like suddenly being a computer expert; 
suddenly being smarter. You can do in minutes 
— and often with a single key — what may have 




taken users of other systems days to learn, or 
hundreds of dollars in supporting software to 
accomplish. 

You're overcome with an unmistakable feeling 
of power. 

Simply stated, what the QX-10 does better 
than any other personal computer system in 
existence is to free you from manipulating the 
computer, and allow you to manipulate 
information. 

And, after all, isn't that what you want a com- 
puter for? 

The keyboard is the key. 

The HASCI keyboard — short for Human Appli- 
cations Standard Computer Interface — has been 
designed to place important fundamentals like 
STORE and RETRIEVE in plain view on dedicated 
function keys. Virtually every program in other 
computers does these fundamentals differently, 
and how to do these functions is hidden right 
down with the most obscure technical details. 
The VALDOCS system. 

What VALDOCS does better than any other soft- 
ware system currently available is to take the 
"interactive" concept to its logical conclusion; it 
asks you to make choices, then executes com- 
mands based on your decisions. 

The common sense of such a system reduces the 
amount of time needed to master the QX-10 to a 
fraction of that needed for other computers: in 



effect it displays the message, "Press this key to 
perform this function; press that key to perform 
that function; or press another key to move on to 
something else." 

No brochure, of course, can do justice to the 
VALDOCS system; to fully appreciate it, you 
must sit down at a QX-10 and experience it. But to 
appreciate the range of its capabilities, examine 
them one by one. 
Word processing. 

When you turn the QX-10 on, it comes to life as 
a word processor. And as such, it does every- 
thing you'd expect a word processor to do. 

Of course you can add and delete words and 
sentences; shift copy blocks from one place to 
another; even locate a specific word or thought 
on documents ranging from a few words to mul- 
tiple pages. 

That's where most word processors stop. But 
not the QX-10. 

The QX-10 allows you to format exactly the 
way you'd like your document to appear in print. 
So when you press the key labelled ITALICS, the 
type en the screen changes to italics; when you 
press BOLD, it changes to boldface. With the 
QX-10, you can vary the SIZE of the type and 
even change the STYLE. 

So when you press PRINT, your document is 
printed exactly the way you've already seen it on 
the screen. What you see is what you get! 



Scheduling. 

Scheduling, in its essence, is the manipulation of 
time. And the QX-10 makes it easy in a way that 
no appointment book, or calendar, or list of 
things to do ever could. 

To begin with, the QX-10 always knows what 
time it is. The internal clock/calendar has a bat- 
tery backup which keeps track of the date and 
time, even if the computer has been unplugged. 

As a scheduler, the QX-10 works like a desk 
calendar, but gives you instant, electronic access 
to dates and times, past, present and future. 
It automatically opens to today's electronic 
"page," it allows you to make appointments, jot 
down notes and reminders, list things to do, or 



even set an alarm for yourself. 

Most important — and useful — the SCHED- 
ULE function is always available. If you're typing 
a letter in the word processing mode, for exam- 
ple, you can stop in the middle and book 
an appointment just by pressing the SCHED 
key; pressing it again returns you to the word 
processing mode, right where you left off. 
Calculating. 

To simplify the entering of numeric data, the 
QX-10 has a separate 10-key pad that lets you 
add, subtract, multiply and divide. Just like a cal- 
culator. Its decimal tab key allows you to auto- 
matically align columns of numbers. But the 
QX-10 can sum the numbers within a document 






EPSON 



STOP HELP p 0P ,J UNDO 



SYSTEM CONTROLS 




I 



FILE CONTROLS 





being word processed or place the total of a cal- 
culation at any point within a document. That's 
the sort of thing that makes the QX-10 usable. 
Graphics. 

Generally speaking, pictorial information (charts 
and graphs) is a lot easier to digest than numeric 
information (columns of figures). Fortunately, 
the QX-10 makes graphics very, very simple. 

In the DRAW mode, the QX-10 allows you to 
create a line graph, a bar graph, or a pie chart. 
Based on your choice, it will ask you for pertinent 
information such as the names, range and inter- 
vals for each axis, and the numeric value of each 
data point to be charted or graphed. Once all the 
information is entered, it will automatically plot 



the coordinates and draw the graph, even st 
imposing different types of data on the same 
graph. It couldn't be easier. 
Filing. 

The block of File Control keys on the HASCI key- 
board allow you to do everything you need to do 
with a finished document: STORE it; RETRIEVE 
it; MAIL it to someone else's computer electron- 
ically; or PRINT it on the printer. Each with the 
stroke of a single key. 

But those functions can't hold a candle to the 
power of INDEX. In the QX-10/VALDOCS sys- 
tem, every document, every graph — everything 
is indexed by up to eight keywords of your 
choice. And instantly available. 



CALC SCHED DRAW 



APPLICATIONS 




VALDOCS 

DOCUMENT PROCESSOR 



TYPESTYLES 





Here's how it works: for every file, you assign 
a name up to eight words long. Like "Mom's 
Recipe for Thanksgiving Pumpkin Pie from 
Scratch/' or "Personal Financial Statement for 
SB A Loan Application." When you need to, you 
can retrieve any file, using one or more of the 
keywords you assigned in the name. For exam- 
ple, "Mom's Recipe," "Thanksgiving," "Finan- 
cial Statement," or "SBA," will give you all the 
documents having to do with those topics. 

And that is the most astonishing and useful 
filing system you're ever likely to run across. 
Electronic mail. 

On the QX-10/VALDOCS system, sending 
information to, or receiving information from 
another computer starts with a single key. It 
provides you, in effect, with electronic "in" 
and "out" baskets, gives you an "address book" 
of your correspondents, even allows you to 
schedule transmission times to coincide with 
less expensive telephone rates. Best of all, 
VALDOCS handles all your electronic mail 
functions without interfering with any of the 
other computer functions. So you can word 
process, calculate or graph while VALDOCS 
handles your mail. 
System controls. 

Say you're in the middle of a project and you 
don't know what to do next; or you give the com- 
puter a command and then wish you hadn't; or 



you want to stop some function the computer is 
performing — now. VALDOCS makes it easy. 

The HELP key is always available to you, and 
can be pressed any time the system offers you a 
choice. The STOP key immediately stops what- 
ever function the computer may have been 
performing; the UNDO key undoes the last thing 
you told it to do — so you can un- select a func- 
tion, or even wn-delete a file. 
CP/M compatibility. 

The Epson QX-10 has a side benefit that's going 
to make it very popular with some people — it's 
CP/M 2.2 compatible. Which means that most 
any CP/M software you have — or would like to 
have — will run on the QX-10. Most of these will 
be accessible under the MENU key which dis- 
plays a menu of all the non- VALDOCS pro- 
grams on file, in English, and lets you select the 
one you wish to run. 
State-of-the-art hardware. 

Up to now, we've only talked about what the 
QX-10/VALDOCS system does for you, because 
after all, what a computer does is far more impor- 
tant than how it does it. 

But in order to create a system like the QX-10, 
we've had to come up with some of the most 
advanced — and spectacular — hardware on the 
personal computer market. 

When you unpack the QX-10, here's what you 
get: a detachable HASCI keyboard with its own 




processor; an ultra high resolution monochrome 
display; two ultra thin 5 x k" disk drives with a 
capacity of 340K bytes per disk; a Z80 micropro- 
cessor with 256K of main memory; a separate 
display processor chip with 128K of video- 
dedicated memory; a DMA controller; an inter- 
rupt controller; a built-in calendar/clock with 
battery back-up, an RS-232C interface; a parallel 
printer interface; a light pen interface; internal 
space for up to five peripheral cards; and the 
VALDOCS software package. 

All that for under $3,000. 

Frankly, none of the so-called "third genera- 
tion" microcomputers will do for you what the 
QX-10/VALDOCS system will do. And all of 
them cost more; some of them cost a lot more. 

But for the price, none are more advanced. 

The QX-10 video display features both bit map- 
ping and the more usual character operation. The 
bit mapping allows multiple type fonts or high 
resolution graphics to be displayed on the screen 
in a remarkable 640 by 400 dot format — a feature 
available in only a few of the world's highest- 
priced systems. To get this performance, we 
turned to a new 16-bit video controller chip from 
NEC to give us the additional "oomph" we 
needed. But the central processor is the 8-bit Z-80, 
instantly compatible with the world's largest base 
of software — CP/M. Our five expansion slots are 
not used for any of this performance. 



Relax — it's from Epson. 

Epson is best known in the U.S. for its full line of 
printers. We're known for the fact that every 
third dot matrix impact printer sold in this coun- 
try has our name on it; for the fact that we make 
more printers and print mechanisms than all the 
other manufacturers in the world combined; and 
for the fact that Epson printers have a reliability 
rate of over 98%. 

But that doesn't mean we're new in compu- 
ters. Not by a long shot. Epson has been building 
and selling fine quality business computers in 
other countries since the 1970's, and we have a 
history of precision manufacturing dating back 
more than a hundred years. 
The most important component is you. 
You don't buy a computer for how "smart" it is. 
You buy one for how smart it makes you. 

The Epson QX-10 was conceived, designed, 
engineered and built with just one thought in 
mind: to vastly expand your ability to see, to 
think, to create with a system that acts as a natu- 
ral extension of the human mind. 

And the critics agree the design concept is one 
of the best they've seen. 

The QX-10 is not a computer designed to play 
games, although it plays games as well as any 
and better than most. 

It's a computer for people who think. 

And who want to think better. 













SPECIFICATIONS 








CPU and Memory 




Interfaces 


Main CPU 


Z80A Microprocessor, 4 MHz Clockrate 


Serial RS-232 Programmable, DB-25 Connector, 


Main Memory 


64Kto256KRAM 


Synchronous or Asynchronous 


CMOS Memory 


2K RAM Battery Backup 


Printer Standard Parallel 


IPL 


Up to 8K 


Light Pen 


Controllers 




Option slots Five 


Video/Graphic 


NEC 7220 Graphic Display Controller 


Speaker Controlled by Countertimer 


Disk 


Double Density Floppy Disk Controller 


Environmental 


DMA 


Programmable DMA Controllers 
ifen^rj^MA Channels 


Requirements 




Temperature Operating Range 41° to 104°F 
(5°to40°C) 


Interrupt 


Programmable Interrupt Controllers 


Storage Range 22° to 158°F 
(-30°Cto70°C) 




(15 Interrupt Levels) 


Control/Timer 


Two Programmable Interval Timers 


Humidity Operating Range 10 % to 80 % 
Non- Condensing 
Storage Range 10% to 90% 
Non-Condensing 

Physical Characteristics 


Printer I/F 
Serial I/F 


Programmable Parallel Interface 
Multi-Protocol Serial Controller 


Clock 


CMOS Realtime Clock/Calendar 
with Battery Backup 






Size CPU Monitor Keyboard 

Width 20.3 in 12.4 in 20 in 


Display 


12" Green Monochrome 
High-Resolution Monitor 




640 x 400 Pixels 


(508mm) (312mm) (510mm) 




80 characters x 25 lines 


Depth 13.6 in 13.6 in 8.9 in 




Non-Glare Screen 


(340mm) (340mm) (224mm) 




Dedicated Memory 32K or 128K 


Height 4.1 in 10.6 in 1.9 in 


Mass Storage 


Two 5V4-inch, Double Sided Floppy Disk 


(103mm) (266mm) (49mm) 


Detachable 


Drives; 
Capacity: 340K Per Disk 


Weight 20.61b 12.11b 5.51b 
(9.4kg) (5.5kg) (2.5kg) 


Keyboards 


ASCII 


Power Requirements 115 VAC, 60 Hz; with Switching Power 




HASCI 


Supply 
100 Watts 




PDC 


Specifications subject to change without notice. 




EPSON AM 


ERICA, INC. 




COMPUTER PRO 


3UCTS DIVISION 




3415 Kashiwa Street • Torrance, 


California 90505 • (213) 539-9140 


© 1982 EPSON AMERICA. INC 




PRINTED IN USA 11QX82 



Mr. Dow and Mr. Jones 

introduce 

Dow Jones Software™ 




Jones: "Mr. Dow, look what they're selling in that new store 

down the street: Dow Jones Software. You haven't gotten 
us into ladies' fashions, have you?" 

Dow: "No, Mr. Jones. That's a computer store, and our software 
products allow investors and business professionals to use 
a personal computer like this one here to easily manage 
financial information." 

Jones: "But what about our reputation? We've been leaders in 

serving the business and financial community for over 100 
years. Are you sure this new software will be as reliable as 
The Wall Street Journal and Barron's?" 

Dow: "Of course, Jones. Our software is so reliable we back it up 
with a full-year warranty. People trust Dow Jones Software 
the same way they trust the Journal. And we have a toll- 
free Hotline number in case they want expert help." 

Jones: "Couldn't that be a lot of phone calls? After all, we've got 
the Dow Jones Averages to get out every day." 

Dow: "Don't worry, Jones. Our software is very easy to use, and 
we have a fully staffed Customer Service Department to 



respond to our dealers and customers." 

Jones: "Just what can our software do?" 

Dow: "In a nutshell, Jones, with a personal computer, a tele- 
phone, a modem and Dow Jones Software, you can easily 
perform complex analyses on the information available 
from our information service, Dow Jones News/Retrieval®." 

Jones: "People really use our software to make decisions?" 

Dow: "Absolutely. Once you've stored the information you want, 
our software does the rest. For instance, with one Dow 
Jones Software product you can follow indicators for stocks, 
sort, rank, screen and set critical points for buying and 
selling. With another, you can easily construct technical 
charts. Look at this beautiful graph." 

Jones: "You mean all those calculations I've been doing by hand 
I could do in a fraction of the time with this software? 
That's great!" 

Dow: "It is, Mr. Jones. Just like the Journal, Dow Jones Software 
is a resource you can bank on!" 




Dow Jones 
Market Analyzer'" 

A technical analysis product 

that allows private and profes- 
sional investors to automatically 
collect, store and update histor- 
ical and daily market quotes, and 
to construct technical analysis 
charts at the touch of a key. 



Dow Jones 

Market Microscope™ 

A fundamental analysis 
product that allows professional 
money managers to choose and 
follow indicators for extensive 
lists of stocks and industry 
groups, and to sort, rank, screen 
and set critical points for buying 
and selling. 



Dow Jones 

Market Manager 
A portfolio management 
product for private or profi 
sional investors who desire 
immediate access to pricing 
financial information, and who 
need an accounting and control 
system for their portfolios of 
securities. 



nd 



Dow Jones 
Connector'" 

A communications product 

for the business or professional 
person who wants instant elec- 
tronic access to news, facts and 
vital data at the home or office, 
via personal computer, simple 
terminal, communicating word 
processor or teletypewriter. 



See your computer dealer 
or call 

1-800-345-8500 

for a free brochure 
(Alaska, Hawaii and foreign, 



Dow Tones Software 



...Bank on it. 



1 TO 16 USERS TO GO 

Altos multi-user 8086 or 68000 -based 

networking computers are chosen by more 

OEMs and Fortune 1000 companies. Here's why. . . 



ALTOS® 16-bit computer 
systems do more for more users. 
They give you more power. More 
features. And more reliability. For 
less money. 

You get a choice of 8086 or 
68000-based family processors, 
memory management to one MB 
of RAM, an intelligent Z80™ I/O 
and disk controller, plus up to 160 
megabytes of fast Winchester 
storage. 

A single Altos computer can 
serve up to 16 users. And every 
Altos 16-bit computer gives you 



INTER-ALTOS 
LOCAL NETWORK 



Series 586. ACS8600 and ACS68000 
20-160 MByte Winchester 
1-16 USERS with 

ALTOS-NET 




ETHERNET 



Series 586. ACS8600 and ACS68000 
20-160 MByte Winchester 
116 USERS with 

ALTOS-NET/UNET" 



REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS 



Series 586, ACS8600 and ACS68000 
20-160 MByte Winchester 
1-16 USERS with 

ALTOS-NET/UNET 

2780/3780 
3270 
X 25 
SNA/SDLC 




added features like Multibus'" 
interfacing, real time clock, power 
fail detection and comprehensive 
diagnostics. 

But that's just the beginning. 
Link multiple Altos' together and 
communicate in the office of the 
future today. Serve hundreds of 
users with full Ethernet™ and 
ALTOS-NET'" hardware and soft- 
ware support. And save money 
with fewer interconnects. 

In addition. Altos supports 
remote communications protocols 
such as 2780/3780. 3270, X.25, 
and SNA/SDLC. 

Altos has all the 16-bit soft- 
ware you need, too. With popular 
operating systems like XENIX'" / 
UNIX" (with a user-friendly "busi- 
ness command menu interface"), 
CP/M-86,'" MP/M-86,™ 0ASIS-16, 
MS'"-DOSand PICK for 8086-based 
systems; plus UNIX System III" 
and RM/COS" for 68000-based 
systems. 



Altos also has high-level lan- 
guages (BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL 
and PASCAL), and applications 
software (ABS/86 and ABS/68 for 
general accounting, word process- 
ing and financial planning). 

Since 1977. Altos has delivered 
more than 30,000 highly reliable, 
fully socketed, proven single board 
microcomputers and peripherals 
built for business. 

If you've been looking to go 
with a more powerful computer 
that can serve from 1 to 16 users 
for less money, call or write 
us today. 

Altos Computer Systems 
2360 Bering Drive 
San Jose, CA 95131 
(408) 946-6700 
Telex 171562 ALTOS SN J 
or 470642 ALTO UI 



Packed with 
fresh ideas 
for business 

COMPUTER SYSTEMS 

800-538-7872 

(In Calif. 800-662-6265) 

Circle 20 on inquiry card. 



ALTOS is a registered trademark and ALTOS-NET Is a trademark of Altos Computer Systems. Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corporation. CP/M-86 and MP/M-86 are trademarks of Digital Research. Inc. 
MS and XENIX are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. XENIX is a microcomputer Implementation of the UNIX operating system. UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories. UNIX System III Is a trade- 
mark of Western Electric RM/COS is a trademark of Ryan-McFarland. Inc. OASIS-16 Is a product of Phase One Systems. Inc. PICK Is a product of Pick & Associates and Pick Computer Works. 
Multibus is a trademark and 8086 is a product of Intel Corporation. 68000 is a product of Motorola. Inc. UNET is a trademark of 3Com Corp. Z80 Is a trademark and product of Zilog. Inc. 
• 1982 Altos Computer Systems. 



Product Description 



IBM's "Secret" Computer 

The 9000 

IBM Instruments Inc. manufactures a 68000-based 
instrumentation computer that could become a powerful 

business machine. 



Chris Morgan 
Editor in Chief 



The best-kept secret of 1982 may have been that IBM 
makes a 68000 computer. If that surprises you, you're not 
alone. The unit, called the IBM Instruments Computer 
System, is IBM's second major microcomputer pro- 
duct — the first, of course, is the IBM Personal Computer. 
The 9000 made its debut in June 1982 at the COMDEX 
show in Atlantic City, even though it was publicly an- 
nounced the previous month by IBM's subsidiary, IBM 
Instruments Inc., in Danbury, Connecticut. The an- 
nouncement was so unhyped that few people took notice. 

The machine is marketed as a laboratory instrumenta- 
tion computer, yet its design innovations and modularity 
make it a natural candidate for a business or general-pur- 
pose computer — with the appropriate engineering and 
cosmetic changes, of course. IBM has declined to com- 
ment on this possibility, however. 

In this article I'll describe the features of the machine, 
which I saw during a recent visit to the IBM Danbury 
facility, and speculate about the impact of a 68000-based 
microcomputer from the world's largest computer com- 
pany. 

Features 

The IBM 9000 is well suited to the laboratory: its 
modular construction revolves around a basic chassis 
containing a processor board, a 12-inch black-and-white 
CRT display, and a 57-key keypad, all included in the 
$5695 price. The 9000 has been engineered with crowded 
lab benches in mind: the modules stack vertically to con- 
serve space. When augmented by the printer/plotter, 



keyboard, and a host of other options, the 9000 becomes 
a powerful 16-bit computer system. A full-blown con- 
figuration typically costs $10,000 or more. 

Design Methodology 

Why has IBM decided to offer a 68000 computer? To 
answer that question, I interviewed the machine's 
designers at IBM Instruments, a recently acquired, whol- 
ly owned subsidiary of IBM. For years it has been active 
in the design of computer-oriented laboratory equip- 
ment. The division's status as a separate profit center 
within IBM allows it to experiment more freely with 
unusual computer designs — in particular, development of 
a laboratory-oriented microcomputer. 

The incentive to do this came from a major change in 
the instrumentation field. During the 1970s laboratory 
techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance and gas 
chromatography became more popular — techniques that 
required masses of sophisticated mathematical calcula- 
tions. These calculations demanded more in the way of 
mathematical analysis than 8-bit computers could 
deliver. For example, fast Fourier transform (FFT) 
analysis (a common mathematical technique in the lab- 
oratory) consumes huge portions of memory. Thus lab- 
oratories had to stick to more expensive but powerful 
minicomputers. A real need arose for ways to improve 
the productivity and cost-effectiveness of data acquisi- 
tion and processing in the laboratory. 

So the IBM 9000 was born. It has the memory space (up 
to 5 megabytes of RAM!) to handle sophisticated labora- 

Text continued on page 104 



100 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




Photo 1: The new IBM 9000 Instrumentation Computer, 
manufactured by IBM's instrumentation division in Danbury, 
Connecticut. The machine uses the Motorola 68000 processor 
and includes (in this implementation) a 12-inch CRT display, a 
57-key keypad with user-definable keys, an 83-key keyboard, 
four-color printer/ plotter, custom IBM multitasking operating 
system, five I/O ports, disk controller for up to four 5'A-inch or 
8-inch floppy-disk drives or hard disks, Versabus interface, and 
room for up to 5 megabytes of RAM onboard. The implementa- 
tion shown in the photo costs close to $10,000. 




Photo 3: The IBM 9000 seven-layer planar processor board, 
showing the remarkably dense population of ICs and VLSIs. 
This state-of-the-art board has over 1600 test points and could 
not have been manufactured just over a year ago because of the 
density of the components. By plugging in an optional expan- 
sion board, up to five Versabus (a 32-bit bus standard developed 
by Motorola) cards can be plugged into the main board. 




a i laini ii a a a m ■ ■ i 

aalinaaaaaaaa 

E E 



Photo 2: Close-up of the 57-key keypad (at top) and the 83-key 
keyboard on the IBM 9000. 




Photo 4: The stripped-down version of the IBM 9000, with CRT 
display, 57-key keypad, processor board, and chassis, retails for 
$5695. 




Photo 5: Close-up of output from the dot-matrix printer/plot- 
ter, which features four-color printing, 200 characters per sec- 
ond in draft mode, and 220 by 336 dots per inch of resolution. 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 101 



At a Glance 

Name 

The IBM Instruments Computer System 

Manufacturer 

International Business Machines 
IBM Instruments Inc. Division 
Orchard Park 
POB 332 
Danbury, CT 06810 

Components 

Basic System Module 

(comprises processor board, CRT display, keypad, and chassis) 

Size: width 22.3 inches, depth 17.2 inches, height 23.2 inches 
(with CRT display positioned on bridge); weight (main 
chassis alone): 31.5 pounds; weight with CRT, printer, and 
keyboard added: 78.8 pounds 

Electrical needs: 1 20 volts AC 

Processor: Motorola 68000, with 32-bit registers/ 1 6-bit 

data flow; 24-bit addressing (up to 1 6 
megabytes) 

Memory: 1 28K bytes of RAM; up to 1 28K bytes of 

ROM 

Keypad: 57 keys for data entry, arranged in three 

color-coded rows, pressure-sensitive type 
with audible click; all keys are user- 
definable, and six keys have LEDs under 
program control 

CRT display: 1 2-inch raster-scan type with 768- by 

480-pixel bit-mapped display, 80 characters 
by 30 rows, green-on-black display; 1 user 
definable keys beneath the display with 
user-chosen legends at bottom of screen; 
display has unique single-lever tilt and 
swivel adjustment 

Interfaces: IEEE-488 interface, standard bus, I -MHz 

operation; three RS-232C serial ports, ASCII 
coded, asynchronous, 19,200 bps maximum 
data rate, software-settable parameters; one 
8-bit parallel bidirectional port with hand- 
shaking signals and TTL-level signals 

System bus: superset of Motorola Versabus; main board 

accepts up to five Versabus cards via at- 
tachable expansion card; 32 programmable 
interrupts on four hardware levels; seven 
hardware levels total; four channels of 
DMA at I MHz maximum 

Standard software: IBM custom operating system, with real- 
time, multitasking nucleus; drivers for I/O 
(input/output) including CRT, printer, sen- 
sors, etc.; graphics; file handling and disks; 
debugger; and diagnostics 

Miscellaneous: three built-in 16-bit timers with up to 2-MHi 

pulse source; built-in real-time clock with 
battery backup 



Keyboard: 



Options 

Printer/plotter: 



impact, dot-matrix type, bidirectional; 200 
characters per second in draft mode; plot- 
ting resolution: 220 by 336 dots per inch; 
four-color ribbon; accepts 8'/2- by I 1-inch 
regular paper or 9'/i-inch pinfeed fanfold 
paper; unit mounts in processor unit chassis 



Disk drives. 



Expansion card: 

Additional 
memory card: 



Hard-disk 
controller card: 



Analog sensor 

card: 

Software options: 



Planned future 
software: 



83-key keyboard, virtually identical to IBM 
Personal Computer keyboard; has full ASCII 
character set with numeric keypad (not to 
be confused with 57-key keypad on main 
chassis); cursor control, print control, 10 
programmable function keys (distinct from 
softkeys on CRT display); automatic repeat 
on all keys; keyboard is movable, with 
detachable 6-foot coil cable 
up to four drives in any combination; 
available in 5 'A -inch size: double-sided, 
double-density, 327K bytes formatted, 
250,000 bits/second transfer rate. In 8-inch 
size: double-sided, double-density, 985K 
bytes formatted, 500,000 bits/second 
transfer rate, IBM standard format 
system bus card with five additional Ver- 
sauus card slots 

up to 1 megabyte per card in increments of 
256K bytes; 500-nanosecond access time; 
memory includes single-bit error checking in 
hardware 

controls up to four 5 '/i -inch 5-megabyte 
and/or 10-megabyte formatted hard-disk 
drives, 625,000 bytes/second transfer rate, 
using SA 1 000 and ST506 interface 

available in five versions 
BASIC with extensions; operating system ex- 
tension on disk; editor; macroassembler; 
linker/loader/librarian; disk utilities; 
chromatography application program 

FORTRAN 77 compiler; Pascal compiler; 
mathematics/statistics package; communica- 
tion capabilities through IBM 3101 and 
3270 emulation software; full-screen editor 



Hardware Prices 

Basic unit (with processor board, keypad, CRT) 

Memory expansion card with 256K bytes of RAM 

Additional 256K bytes of RAM expansion 

Single 5 'A -inch disk drive mounted in display 

Cabinet with one 5 'A -inch disk drive 

Additional 5 'A -inch disk drive 

Cabinet with one 8-inch disk drive 

Additional 8-inch disk drive 

Hard-disk controller 

5-megabyte hard-disk drive with cabinet 

Additional 5-megabyte hard-disk drive 

10-megabyte hard-disk drive with cabinet 

Additional 1 0-megabyte hard-disk drive 

Keyboard 

Printer/plotter 

Sensor board "A" 

Expansion feature with five slots 

Software Prices 

BASIC language 

Operating system extensions 

Chromatography applications package 



$5695 

1095 

995 

650 

795 

650 

1495 

975 

1295 

2495 

1995 

2695 

2195 

270 

2095 

850 

95 



SI 95 
155 
495 



102 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 42 on inquiry card. 




^^g^-^xv^t'V-;^^.^^'-. 



Have you put aside buying a color monitor 

because it's too expensive? 
But, have you looked at the new TAXAN RGBvision 

color monitor? 
Would you be excited at a suggested retail price 

of $399.oo for the RGBvision I, and $599 for the 

RGBvision II? 



SB*" 



Hi^ 



mm 



i 3 


> -^w 


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nw 



pirn 




DO VIE HAVE GOOD NEWS FOR YOU! 

s For those low prices, you can havei 
a Full compatibility with Apple III and IBM PC without 

interface modules 
H Compatible with Apple II through the TAXAN "RGB-II" card 
a RGBvision I medium resolution - 380(H) lines 
3 RGBvision II high resolution • 510(H) lines 
a Unlimited colors through linear amplifier video circuit and 16 

colors for Apple III and IBM PC 
3 12 -inch, 90° deflection CRT display 



Can you really afford to turn all that down without looking at 
the TAXAN RGBvision monitors? See your local dealer for a 
demonstration. 



,AXAN 12 green phosphor monitor, 
model KG12N, features an 800 line 
resolution at center, 2000 character 
display 



© TAXAN 

TSK ELECTRONICS CORPORATION 

1524 Highland Avenue 
Duarte, California 91010 
A subsidiary of Kaga Denshi 



Apple II and III are trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc 
IBM PC is a trc 



I Get The Most From Your NEC 
1 PERSONAL COMPUTER 
With RACET computes Software 
and HARDWARE!!! 

* * * * * NEW - NEW - NEW - NEW - NEW - NEW - NEW ****** 




RACET RK-4'8 MULTIPLEXOR 

Schools — Businesses — Word Processing!!! The RACET MK4/8 Multiplexor allows multiple 
users to share the same mass storage, whether it is floppy disk or the RACET Hard Disk. The 
Multiplexor is fully supported under the RACET "Everything' DOS. Users can work in mixed ROM 
BASIC and CP/M Call Compatible modes All users can request information and be writing to the 
disk simultaneously. The multiplexor not only provides a cost-elfective solution to users requiring 
multiple computers, but also provides the power of sharing data. 

4-Port Mux $745 8-Port Mux $945 

CALL FOR LOWEST HARD DRIVE PRICES FOR NEC 

RACET NECDOS FOR YOUR PC-8000 AND PC-8800!! THE EVERYTHING' DOS!!! $225 

Has ROM BASIC mode Has CP/M» compatibility mode Works in both modes with the RACET RK 
4/8 Multiplexor for shared disk environment. Supports the RACET Hard Disk in both modes and 
optionally with the Multiplexor. 

RACET NECDOS does more for your PC-8001 than any other DOS. It's faster, more efficient and 
easier to use Its loaded with extra features to let you stretch the limits of your system 
EMPHASIZES INTEGRITY. NO MOUNT or REMOVE commands. Excellent protection from 
improper diskette swapping File password protection. 

ADVANCED FEATURES. All DOS functions and commands may be used directly in a BASIC pro- 
gram!!! Special RUN option allows merging of programs, retaining all variables in memeory. 
Fixed block spanned records. AUTO and DO commands Machine language loads and saves 
MATPRINT and MATINPUT to disk Complete directory. All supervisory calls documented and 
available to the machine language programmer Superzap and other extensive utilities. 

* NEW * ELECTRIC PENCIL* * * $99.95 
THE most popular Microcomputer Word Processor in the world now available on the NEC! ! ! With 
many added features Embedded print commands Print from memory and disk!! Settable tabs. 
Indent and hanging indent Parallel, Serial, and Video drivers. OICTAMATIC cassette control lor 
translating dictated messages! ! And much more! ! ! Most features of word processors costing five 
times as much! !! Runs on 32K or 64K system! ! ! Works In multi-user environment with the RK4'8 
Multiplexor!!!! 

* NEW * ELECTRIC SPREADSHEET * * $75 
A BASIC Spreadsheet program for the PC-8001 . Anything you work with columns and rows and a 
calculator belongs on the Electric Spreadsheet. Results formatted tor screen or printer. 'What if 
questions answered. P/L forecast Personal budget Real estate investment Net worth forecast 
Cash flow estimates Business forms. Works on 32K or 64K system 111 70 operators plus 
histogram plot, revise spreadsheat layout, and more Select preprogrammed operators for line, 
column, or cell calculations. Set column widths and number ot decimals Manual and diskette 
include 22 examples. 

* NEW * ADVANCED PROGRAMMING BASIC * * $60 
THE (unctions and commands in this package give you extended control over data and your 
PC-8001 system. These extensions to NBASIC provide complete conversion ol time and date 
functions including days between dates and Julian dates. Extended string functions include lus- 
tily, truncate, center, rotate, translate, shift, pack, and search Array functions include masked 
search of both sorted and unsorted arrays, and insert in sorted arrays 

MULTI-KEY SORT "MKS" $60 
SUPER FAST Machine Language In-Memory Sorts. Three key sort on 500 elements in 4 sec- 
onds!!! Simple one-line BASIC functions - SORTV and SORTC VERBS Mixed ascending and 
descending keys 

BASIC PROGRAMMING UTILITIES BASUTIL' $60 
COMPRESS, EXPAND, PRETTY, XREF Cross Reference Utility. Great tor modeling, debugging 
and structuring BASIC programs. 

KFS-80 KEYED FILE SYSTEM KFS-80' S150 
MACHINE language BASIC ISAM utility provides keyed and sequential access to multiple files 
Simple interface to BASIC. Binary tree keyed-tile index system provides rapid access lo records. 

CONVERT TRS-80* PROGRAMS TO RACET NECDOS 
WITH PROTRAN' $99.95 
COMPLETE utilities for tile transfer and BASIC program conversion. MOD III diskettes may be read 
directly; MOD I and II via RS-232. Transfer BASIC programs, data files, or machine language files. 
NO SUPPORT is provided for conversion of machine language files or PEEK'S, POKE'S or USR's to 
function on PC-8001 Substantial knowledge of TRS BASIC and NBASIC required Package 
designed for software authors. 



AVAILABLE FROM YOUR LOCAL NEC DEALER or from RACET computes 
CHECK, VISA. M/C. COD.. 

PURCHASE ORDER 

Telephone Orders Accepted L^_ Integrity i 

(714) 997-4950 



jHL IMCO UCHLCn Ul IIUIII HHUC I |.UlM|juit:b 

C~ RACET COMPUTES LTD-d 

i l_ Integrity tn Software ^_J 

1330 N. Glassell. Suite M. Orange. CA 92667 (714) 997-4950 



. TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORPORATION 

. CP/M IS A TRADEMARK OF DIGITAL RESEARCH 

. ELECTRIC PENCIL PENCIL IS A TRADEMARK OF MICHAEL SCHRAYER 

■ ELECTRIC SPREADSHEET IS A TRADEMARK OF DAN G HANEY 8, ASSOCIATES 




Photo 6: Close-up of the 12-inch, green-on-black raster-scan 
CRT display, with 768- by 480-pixel bit-mapped display and 80 
characters by 30 rows. Ten user-definable keys are located along 
the bottom of the display, with user-chosen legends on the 
screen. The display has a unique single-lever tilt and swivel ad- 
justment. 



tory mathematics. It has modular hardware features 
needed in the lab, such as a high-resolution color printer 
to create graphs and charts, a swiveling CRT display, and 
a movable keyboard that can go where the experiment is. 
More important, it has the Motorola 68000, a powerful 
16-bit processor. Long a favorite with many software 
designers, the 68000 was chosen by IBM despite the fact 
that the IBM Personal Computer uses the Intel 8088 pro- 
cessor (which is not a true 16-bit processor). The 68000 
won out mainly because of its superior benchmark per- 
formance. According to its designers, the 68000 gives the 
9000 a better price/performance ratio and provides a 
standard method to control all IBM instruments. The 
9000 has real-time multitasking capability — important in 
data acquisition — and its five I/O interfaces allow it to be 
easily connected to a variety of laboratory instruments. 

The real star of the 9000 is its remarkable state-of-the- 
art planar processor board. Seven layers deep, it is literal- 
ly crammed with ICs and VLSIs to the saturation point. 
IBM says the board could not have been manufactured 
just over a year ago because of its high chip density (the 
board has more than 1600 test points). On this single 
board are the complete computer, five I/O ports, the disk 
controller, and slots for an auxiliary expansion card that 
will hold up to five Versabus cards. The advantage to 
single-board construction is the freedom from printed- 
circuit board connection points — a major source of com- 
puter failure. (Incidentally, IBM will swap processor 
boards with customers in an overnight service in case of 
hardware failure.) The 32-bit Versabus ensures com- 
patibility with future instruments. In addition, the Versa- 
bus stands an excellent chance of becoming a standard 
bus in the future. 

One look at the 9000's processor board reveals its 



104 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 350 on Inquiry card. 



ACTIVE FILTER AMPLITUDE RESPONSE 



♦ 18' 


A 








1 

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I -18 

T 

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D 

E -28 

dB 

-38 


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FREQUENCY - Hz 

1. User-defined analysis and 



CHI 200»V/DIV AC T 
CH2 5 V/OIV DC t 



269mV 20PS/DIV 

5.2 V 8.80V + CHI 







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CHI 200BV/DIV AC T 10nS 
REF 200I.V/DIV T 0.00V + 

REF 10nS 


/DIV 

CHI 

/DIV 



HORTHWEST INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS- INC 
MODEL 85 DIGITAL MEMORY OSCILLOSCOPE 
OPERATIONS MENU 



HARD COPY 



HAUEFORM AUERAGING 



HAUEFORM STORAGE 

LOAD REFERENCE HAUEFORM 

OSCILLOSCOPE SET UP STORAGE 

MISCELLANEOUS 

RETURN TO OSCILLOSCOPE 



WHICH OF THESE DISPLAYS WERE GENERATED 
BY A PERSONAL COMPUTER? 



Every single one of them. And 
not just generated, either. The instru- 
ment settings were configured, 
signals acquired, and analysis per- 
formed via a personal computer, 
also. An Apple II®, to be specific. 
Equipped with Disk II®, 48K mem- 
ory, DOS 3.3 and a remarkable, 
make that revolutionary, engineering 
breakthrough known as the Model 
85 aScope™. Remarkable because 
aScope transforms any computer 
in the Apple 1 1 series into a dual chan- 
nel , DC to 50 M Hz repetitive signal 
bandwidth (25 KHz real time sam- 
pling rate), fully programmable, 
digital memory oscilloscope. Revolu- 
tionary because it does all this for 
less than $1,000. 

The way we achieved this cost re- 
duction was by not following the path 
of conventional instrument archi- 
tecture, combining a stand-alone 
programmable oscilloscope with a 
general purpose computer controller. 
Instead, we integrated. Making 
aScope a peripheral. Supplying only 
what was needed to make the per- 
sonal computer a high performance 
instrument. 

Result? An oscilloscope system 
that allows you to configure a setup, 
define the analysis you desire and 
produce an end result display in the 
most useful format. Many frequently 



performed routines are already part 
of aScope's software. But more im- 
portantly, the system's architecture is 
designed to accommodate consider- 
able user modification via co- 
resident BASIC or assembly language 
programs. (One example: the user- 
defined program to plot the ampli- 
tude response of an active filter 
shown in display 1 above.) 

a Scope will average waveforms. 
Store waveforms on disk in binary or 
text files. Store instrument settings 
for automated setup. Or load and 
display a reference waveform from 
disk (display 3 above). 

aScope also delivers waveform 
voltage readings utilizing a cursor- 
controlled digital voltmeter 
(display 2). And generates 
hard copy via an Epson 
MX-80™orSilentype® 
printer. 

Space permitting, 
we'd go on about aScope's 
menu driven single keystroke com- 
mands (display 4), its sub-menus with 
complete prompting and so forth. But 
frankly, we suspect you're probably 
as intrigued as you could be on the 
basis of one ad. 

So here's how to find out more. 
Call 800-547-4445. This will pro- 
vide you with the name of the aScope 
representative or authorized com- 



puter dealer in your area, as well as 
an opportunity to invest $10 in our 
comprehensive aScope demonstra- 
tion disk. 

The Model 85 aScope. We admit, 
the performance it delivers for the 
price is so remarkable, it may initially 
strike you as unbelievable. But then, 
when you think about all the break- 
through products this industry has 
seen over the last decade, sounding 
unbelievable at first is almost a 
tradition. 




NORTHWEST 
INSTRUMENT 
SYSTEMS, INC. 

RO. Box 1309, 

Beaverton, Oregon 97075 
800-547-4445 
(503)297-1434 




Apple II®, Disk II®, and Silentype® are registered trademarks of Apple Computers, Inc. Epson MX-80™is a trademark of Epson America, Inc. 



Circle 296 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 105 



' The Best In Price, ' 
Selection and Delivery 

Call Now 

TOLL FREE 

800-368-3404 

(In VA, Call Collect 703-237-8695) 

AMPEX'INTERTEOTEXAS INSTRUMENTS'GENERAL DATA 

COMM.«ANDERSONJACOBSON»C.ITOH«QUME • BEEHIVE* 

DATASOUTH* DIABLO 'CENTRONICS • NEC • PRENTICE 



ONLY S1895 
ONLY S2295 
ONLY S2695 



INTERTEC SUPERBRAIN II 

64K DD" 

64K QD* 

64K SD - (96TPI) 
•(includes M/Soft BASIC) 

DDS-10Meq 

(HardD.sk) 9 HJBEIEB 

DYNABYTE Call 

l.:i:u'71 

NEC 

7710 Ser $2196 

7715 Call for Special Price 

7730 Par $2150 

7720 Call for Special Price 

7725 Call for Special Price 

Std. Forms Tractor $ 200 

3510 $1390 

3510EX. . . Call for Special Price 

3515 $1395 

DATASOUTH Call 

DIABLO 

620-SPI $1144 

630-R102 $1995 

630-R110 $1795 

630-R153" $1745 

'(for IBM PC, Apple II, TRS-80) 

630-R155 Call 

630-K104(KSR) $2385 

QUME 

Sprint 9/45 FP $1794 

Sprint 9/55 FP $2119 

Sprint 9/55 FP/XMEM $2186 

Sprint 9/55 LP/XMEM $2094 

Sprint 11/40-130 .Call 

Bi-Dir. Forms Tractor .... $ 199 
CENTR ONICS: 34/38 Call 

AMPEX 

Dialogue 80 $ 699 

Dialogue 80 (4 pgs) $ 939 

BEEHIVE (SMART DISPLAY) 

DM5 Call 

DM5A Call 

DM310 (3101 Emulator) . Call 
DM 3270 (3270 Emulator) . . Call 
Protocol Converter Call 



C. ITOH 

CIT101 $1350 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 

745 Standard $1390 

745 Std. (Reconditioned) . . . Call 

765BblM'my Call 

785 Standard Call 

810 Basic $1249 

810Package $1439 

820 Package RO Package $1610 
820 KSR Package Call 

840 RO Basic $ 795 

840 RO Tractor Feed Pkg. $1059 
940 Video Ed'tr $1570 

li'H-Hi'M 

PRENTICE STAR 300Bd..$ 124 

GDC1035JL $ 169 

1200-9600 Baud Call 

Stat Muxes Call 

BE333P=g| 

QUME 

Data Trak 5 ... $ 289 or 2 for $549 
Data Trak 8 ... $519 or 2 for $999 
M.lii'.'HiUB 

BISYNC-3780 $ 769 

Wordstar (IBM P.C.) $ 279 

Data Star $ 218 

Mail Merge FREE* 

Spell Star $ 149 

Spell Guard $ 229 

Plan 80 $ 249 

d Base II $ 529 

CalcStar $ 191 

SuperSorl $ 158 

Super Calc $ 249 

InfoStar Call 

CIS Cobol $ 689 

Forms II $ 159 

MACRO 80 $ 183 

"C" Compiler $ 177 

•With purchase of InfoStar 

Special! While They Last! 

SOROC TERMINALS 

IQ120 MiW*H*l 

NOTE IBM and Burroughs compatible 
terminals available Please inquire 



In addition, we can make EIA RS 232 or RS 449 cables to your order, 
and supply you with ribbons, printer stands, print wheels, thimbles for 
all printers listed. And many, many more items. CALL NOW. 

All items shipped freight collect either motor freight or UPS unless other- 
wise specified. All prices already include 3% cash discount. Purchase with 
credit card does not include discount. Virginia residents, add 4% Sales Tax. 
For fastest delivery send certified check, money order or bank-wire transfer. 
Sorry, no C.O.D. orders. All equipment is in factory cartons with manufac- 
turers' warranty (honored at our depot). Prices subject to change without 
notice. Most items in stock. 



T€RP)MALS 




Terminals Terrific, Inc., P.O. Box 216, Merrifield, VA 22116 
Phone: 800-368-3404 (In VA, Call Collect 703-237-8695) 



designers' eclectic approach: it contains ICs from over a 
dozen U.S. and Japanese companies — Advanced Micro 
Devices, Signetics, Motorola, National Semiconductor, 
Texas Instruments, Intel, Intersil, Hitachi, Western 
Digital, and others. Each chip was chosen for its specs 
alone. This would have been heresy back in IBM's mono- 
lithic days, when practically every IC inside an IBM com- 
puter was custom made by IBM. 

Other Features 

In addition to the RAM and ROM within the machine, 
a 64K-byte (12-bit word) graphics memory handles the 
screen display; the Motorola 6845 CRT controller chip 
manages the display logic in the IBM 9000. Other features 
include a memory-protect scheme (useful in multitasking 
applications) and composite video. 

The IBM 9000 automatically conducts a power-on 
diagnostic routine, and a second diagnostic routine can 
be initiated by the user. 

The CRT display has excellent resolution (768 by 480 
pixels) and one felicitous feature: a single handle control 
that lets you quickly shift the position of the display 
horizontally and vertically by merely pulling the handle 
toward you and repositioning the screen. Beneath the 
screen is a row of user-definable keys like those on 
Hewlett-Packard machines. The printer/plotter is well 
suited to the 9000, with 220 by 336 dots per inch and ex- 
cellent four-color printing. 

The 57-key user-definable keypad is perhaps the 9000's 
oddest feature; yet having that many user-definable keys 
could be a boon for some applications. One spectator at 
the COMDEX show suggested using the keys to represent 
Wordstar commands. Though I'm no fan of this type of 
touch-sensitive key, I suppose it does the job. 

The 9000 operating system (custom designed by IBM) 
has multitasking capability and a sophisticated I/O man- 
ager that queues up all I/O requests. The software is 
menu driven with keyword bypass for the expert user. 
The system features contiguous file allocation to mini- 
mize access time, and the various high-level languages 
(BASIC, Pascal, and FORTRAN 77) all share a common 
graphics interface — a decided plus. 

Laboratory-oriented software available includes a gas 
chromatography program. A nuclear magnetic resonance 
station is also available for $250,000. 

Speculation 

The IBM 9000 is ideally suited to the laboratory. But it 
strikes me that the 9000's processor board could become 
the heart of a general-purpose microcomputer for the 
business market. As I said earlier, IBM is not commenting 
on this speculation. (Incidentally, IBM 9000 customer 
deliveries should have begun by the time you read this.) 

I think the 9000 is, in its quiet way, one of the most ex- 
citing new arrivals on today's microcomputer scene. I 
predict it will start showing up in all sorts of unexpected 
applications. In one gesture IBM has legitimized a micro- 
processor that deserves more attention: the Motorola 
68000. ■ 



106 January 19«3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 401 on Inquiry card. 



,i-r -r- ■■ ■ i > i . v-~'"i 
t- : ! : : ! : : : ; I : : : ; : 

L : • J jiij iiii !;;! :;•! ::;| |:i :. : :'i \ 



u*— «£ GaUy (iiijMd (i 



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Still short of features 
on your QUAD function IBM PC board? 



This may really be the only board you need 
to expand your IBM personal computer. 
We've now added the most wanted feature 
on a quad function board: two asynchronous 
ports along with memory, clock/calendar, 
and parallel printer port. And unlike most 
big memory boards, you don't have to 
sacrifice multiple functions to get 
51 2k of add-on memory in a single 
slot. 

THE BASICS 

The main board has three functions 
standard: Parity checked and fully 
socketed memory up to 256k in 
64k increments, clock/calendar 
with battery back-up, asynchronous 
communication port (RS232C ser- 
ial) which can be used as COM1 or 
COM2, (DCE for a printer, or DTE 
for a modem). Optional is a 1 00% 
IBM compatible parallel printer port, 
and a second async port for another $50 
each. Also included are: SuperDriveTM disk 
emulation and SuperSpoolerrM printer buf- 
fer software. 

NO CORNERS CUT 

We didn't lower the quality to give you all 
this. The board is a four layer design with 
solder masking, silk screened locations, 
and gold plated edge connectors. Compo- 
nents are premium grade and meet or 
exceed IBM specifications. Each board is 
burned in and tested prior to shipment. 
CLOCK/CALENDAR 
& CLIP-ON BATTERY 
Our clock is powered by a simple $4 lithium 
watch battery available at your corner drug 
store. It is clipped on, not soldered like 
some other clock boards. How useful is a 
battery warranty that requires you to send 
your board to the manufacturer to replace 
it? We send you a diskette with a program 
that sets the time and date when you turn 
on your computer. Now your programs will 
always have the correct time and date on 
them without you ever having to think 
about it. (Just which version of that program 
you were writing is the latest one?) 
MEGAPAK OF MEMORY 
The picture in the inset shows the optional 
256k MegaPakTM board mounted "piggy- 
back " on the main board. This expandability 
feature gives those who need it 512k of 
add-on memory in a single slot. Now you 
can create disk drives in memory up to 



320k, set aside plenty of space for print 
spooling, and still have plenty of memory 
for your biggest programs. An exclusive 
design allows the memory to be split at two 
memory addresses to take full advantage of 
the memory disk feature of concurrent 
CP/M. 




FREE SOFTWARE 

The disk emulation software creates "disk 
drives" in memory which access your pro- 
grams at the speed of RAM memory. The 
print spooler allows the memory to accept 
data as fast as the computer can send it and 
frees your computer for more productive 
work. Some manufacturers sell hardware 
printer buffers that do only this for hundreds 
of dollars. SuperSpoolem/i eliminates the 
need for these slot robbing products. 

CHEAP SOFTWARE TOO 
What good is great hardware without some 
great software to use it with? We offer 
some terrific prices on some of the popular 
programs you will want to use your board 
with. How about the cream of the spread- 
sheet programs, SUPERCALC, for just $1 76. 
Or maybe dBASE II by Ashton-Tate for just 
$469. 

WHY BUY IT FROM US? 

Because we provide the service and support 
most companies just talk about. We realize 
how integral this board is to the use of your 
computer. What good is a warranty if it 
takes weeks for repairs to be made? We 
offer 48 hour turnaround or a replacement 
board on all warranty repairs. Do you hear 
anyone else making this promise? If you 
still are not convinced, and want to compare 
prices, remember we don't charge extra for 
credit cards, shipping, or COD fees. If you 
still want to buy elsewhere, ask them if 
they will face the acid test. 



THE ACID TEST 

Qubie (say que-bee-A) gives you a 30 day 
satisfaction guarantee on all board pur- 
chases. If you are not completely satisfied 
we will refund the entire cost of your 
purchase as well as pay the postage to 
return it. If you can get one of our competi- 
tors to give you the same guarantee, buy 
any other board you think compares and 
return the one you don't like. We're not 
worried because we know which one you 
will keep. We also offer a one year parts 
and labor warranty. An additional one year 
extended warranty is available for $50. 

TO ORDER BY MAIL SEND 

—Your name and shipping address 
— Memory size, and options requested 
— Software and cables needed 
— Daytime phone number 
—California residents add 6% sales tax 
— Company check or credit card number 

with expiration date (personal checks 

take 18 days to clear) 




TO ORDER BY PHONE 
In California (805) 482-9829 
Outside California (800) 821-4479 
PRICES: 64k $375 192k $499 
128k $439 256k $599 
512k $998 
(Includes async port, memory, clock/ 
calendar, SuperDriveTM, and Super 
Spooler™ software) 
OPTIONS: 

Parallel Printer Port $50 

Second Async Port $50 

MegaPakTM with 256k of memory $399 
Cable to parallel printer $35 

Cable to modem or serial printer $25 
Memory Diagnostics Program $10 

SUPERCALC by SORCIM $ 1 76 

dBASE II by Ashton-Tate $469 

SHIPMENT 

We pay UPS surface charges. UPS 2 day 
air serive $5 extra. Credit crad or bank 
check orders shipped same day. 

QUBIE' 
DISTRIBUTING 

918 Via Alondra 
Camarlllo, CA 93010 



Circle 435 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 107 







THE FIRST AND ONLY 
BOARD\DURlBMPC 
MAY EVER NEED. 

Your IBM personal computer is a very 
versatile piece of equipment. Perhaps 
more versatile than you realize. New 
applications and functions are being 



by Quadram you can keep your options 
open for tomorrow's technology. Following 
in the tradition of Quadram Quality, four 
of Quadram's best selling IBM boards 
have been combined into one board. 
Your remaining slots will be left free and 
available to accommodate future expan- 
sion needs and uses which you may not 



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PROVEN DESIGN. 

Quadram has been shipping IBM boards 
with each of the Quadboard functions 
on separate boards since December, 
1981. They are still available as separates 
(including a Dual Port Async Board) for 
those who desire a quality board but do 
not need to keep slots open for future 
expansion. And they all come with a 
one year warranty from the leader in 
technology applications. 



256K MEMORY EXPANSION. 

Socketed and expandable in 64K 
increments to 256K, full parity generation 
and checking are standard. A Quad 
board exclusive feature allows parity to 
be switch disabled to avoid lock-up 
upon error detection. The dip switches 
also allow it to be addressed starting 
on any 64K block so that it takes up only 
as much as it has memory installed. 
Memory access and cycle time naturally 
meet all IBM specifications. 



CLOCK/CALENDAR. 

Quadboard eliminates the hassle of 
manually inputting the date on system 
boot-up by providing for the clock and 
all software routines necessary for 
inserting the appropriate programs on 
your diskettes. The internal computer 
clock is automatically set for compati- 
bility with most software routines which 
utilize clock functions. On-board battery 
keeps the clock running when the 
computer is off. 



SEE OUR AD ON PAGE 339 






9K9I 



ALL ON ONE BOARD 

Now you can utilize all the PC's capacity 
with Quadram's extremely flexible con- 
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with IBM hardware, operating systems, 
and high level languages. It's a full-size 
board that can be inserted into any free 
system slot and it even includes a card 
edge guide for securely mounting the 
card in place. 






SOFTWARE TOO! 

With Quadboard you receive not only 
hardware but extensive software at no 
extra cost. Diagnostics, utilities, and 
Quad-RAM drive software for simulating 
a floppy drive in memory (a super-fast 
SOLID STATE DISK!) are all part of the 
Quadboard package. 






$595 



with 64K 
Installed 



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PARALLEL PRINTER I/O. 

A 16 pin header on Quadboard is used 
for inserting a short cable containing a 
standard DB25 connector. The connector 
is then mounted in the knock-out hole 
located in the center of the PC back- 
plane. The parallel port can be switch 
disabled or addressed as Printer 1 or 2. 
No conflict exists with the standard 
parallel port on the Monochrome board. 
The internal cable, connector and 



hardware are all included. 



ASYNCHRONOUS (RS232) 
COMMUNICATION ADAPTER. 

Using the same chip as that on the IBM 
ASYNC board, the device is software 
programmable for baud rate, character, 
stop, and parity bits. A male DB25 
connector located on the back connector 
is identical to that on the IBM Async 
Adapter. The adapter is used for 
connecting modems, printers (many 
letter quality printers require RS232), 
and other serial devices. Switches 
allow the port to be configured as COM1 
or COM2 and the board fully supports 
IBM Communications Software. 



INCREDIBLE PRICE! 

Priced at $595 with 64K installed, $775 

with 128K, $895 with 192K and $995 

with 256K. 

ASK YOUR DEALER. 

All products are sold through local 



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does not stock Quadram, 
please ask him to call us 
at (404) 923-6666. /TV 7 \ 

QUADRAM fcr 

CORPORATION 

4357 Park Drive/ Norcross, Ga. 30093 
Circle 340 on inquiry card. 



Hardware Review 



Apple-Cat II 



A Communications System from Novation 



James A. Pope 

458 Elm St. 

Denver, CO 80220 



A modem, of course, is merely a 
device used to convert digital signals 
into analog form and vice versa, 
thereby allowing computers to com- 
municate with each other over tele- 
phone lines. Novation's Apple-Cat II, 
the latest in the "Cat" series of 
modems, has been promoted as not 



merely another modem but the base 
unit for a sophisticated "personal 
communications system" for the 
Apple II computer. 

In this article I will discuss the 
product as it currently exists, describe 
some of the enhancements that are 
being developed, and give you some 



At a Glance 



Name 

Apple-Cat 



Communications System 



Type 

Modem for the Apple II Plus, expandable 
to a full communications system 

Manufacturer 

Novation Inc. 
1 8664 Oxnard St. 
Tarzana, CA 91356 
|213) 996-5060 

Price 

Base system: S389; Options: Expansion 
Module: S39; Bell 212 upgrade module: 
S389; BSRX- 10 controller: SI 9; Touch- 
Tone decoder: $99; ROM firmware chip: 
$29 

Computer 

Apple II Plus, with 48K bytes of RAM 
(random-access read/write memory) and 
one disk drive; printer (optional) 



Hardware 

Base system: single circuit board, 
telephone cable, and telephone sockets; 
Options: Bell 212 protocol expansion 
board, BSR X-10 controller, telephone 
handset. Expansion Module, Touch-Tone 
decoder chip, firmware ROM (read-only 
memory) chip 

Software 

Single disk, DOS 3.2, copyable, containing 
a terminal operation program, test pro- 
grams, and file-conversion programs 

Features 

300 bps full-duplex (Bell 103) transfer, 
1 200 bps half-duplex (Bell 202) transfer, 
auto-answer, 27K-byte buffer, status 
display line, onboard RS-232C port 

Audience 

Apple II users who want to transfer data 
over telephone lines 



help in using the present system to its 
fullest extent. 

"1200 Baud" 

Like many companies, Novation 
has planned its product development 
in such a way as to provide for future 
expansion. This includes the wording 
of certain pieces of advertising copy. 
For example, the early advertising 
and sales materials for the basic 
Apple-Cat II system claimed speeds 
of "0-1200 baud." You will indeed be 
able to communicate with someone at 
1200 baud (or to be more precise, 
1200 bits per second or bps), but you 
may have trouble finding someone to 
communicate with. 

The Apple-Cat II can transmit at 
1200 bps, but only with the Bell 202 
protocol that very few computers use 
anymore (see text box on page 112 on 
1200-bps protocols). Of the 1200-bps 
protocols, the Bell 212 and Racal- 
Vadic VA3400 are much more 
popular. This means that 300 bps is 
likely to be your maximum transmis- 
sion rate unless you are talking to 
another Apple-Cat using Bell 202. 

Fortunately, by the time you read 
this an add-on card will be available 



110 January 1963 © BYTE Publications Inc 






Anadex sileint- 
Quietly goin 




be printers, 
our business. 




SILENT/SCRIBE MODELS 



Now and then office noise 
levels can go sky-high. But with 
Silent/Scribe - our new family of 
matrix impact printers - you can raise 
your printer expectations while signifi- 
cantly lowering your office noise level. 

How quiet is "silent"? Silent/Scribe operates at 
less than 55 dBA, which means that in the average 
office you may have to look at it to determine 

whether it's printing. 

And Silent/Scribe 
is as easy to buy as it 
is to live with. You 
can select a variety 
of printing speeds, 
fontsand line widths. 
Some models pro- 
vide both draft and 
enhanced quality 
copy. All models 
have superb dot- 
addressable graphics 
at no extra cost. 



Also standard are sophisticated communi- 
cations controls and protocols, flexible and 

easy-to-use operator controls, quick-change 
continuous loop ribbon cartridge, and universal 
interfaces that work with virtually any computer 
system. 

For full details on how Silent/Scribe can fit your 
application - quietly - contact Anadex today. You'll 
find the units attractively packaged, quality en- 
gineered, modestly priced, and available now. 



Standard £/ / / / / / 


Features ^ 


<f 


<? <?' 


<?' 


£' 


Printing Speed 10 


150 


150 


120 


120 


200 


(Char, per Sec.) 1 12 


180 


180 


— 


— 


120 


12.5 


— 


— 


150 


150 


— 


13.3 


200 


200 


— 


__ 


— 


15 


_ 


— 


180 


180 


150 


16.4 


— 


— 


200 


200 


164 


Enhanced I 10 


— 


— 


— 


— 


100 


Expanded Print 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


(Double Width) 












Dot Addressable 












Graphlcs(Dot/ln.,H/V) 


60/72 


60/72 


75/72 


75/72 


72/72 


Max. Line Width (In.) 


8.0 


13.2 


8.0 


13.2 


13.2 


Audible Alarm 


Opt, 


Opt. 


Opt, 


Opl. 


Yes 


Out-of-Paper Sense 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Ribbon, Continuous 












Loop Cartridge (Yds) 


30 


30 


30 


30 


30 


Interlacing: 












Parallel Cent. Comp. 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


RS-232-C Serial 


Ybs 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 



A 



A Quality Circle Member 

nnadex 



©Copyright 1982 
Anadex, Inc. 




Silent/Scribe. The Quiet Ones from Anadex. 



ANADEX, INC. • 9825 De Soto Avenue • Chatsworth, California 91311, U.S.A. • Telephone: (213) 998-8010 • TWX 910-494-2761 
U.S. Sales Offices: San Jose, CA (408) 247-3933 • Irvine, CA (714) 557-0457 « Schiller Park, I L(31 2) 671 -1717* Wakefield, MA (61 7) 245-91 60 
Hauppauge, New York, Phone: (516) 435-0222 • Atlanta, Georgia, Phone: (404) 255-8006 • Austin, Texas, Phone: (512) 327-5250 
ANADEX, LTD. • Weaver House, Station Road • Hook, Basingstoke, Hants RG27 9JY, England • Tel: Hook (025672) 3401 • Telex: 858762 ANADEX G 



Circle 27 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 111 




UNIX, 

with change. 

Idris is a trademark of Whitesmiths, Ltd. /UNIX is a trademark of Bell Laboratories. 



Put off by the UNIX price tag and licensing restrictions? If you are, 
take a closer look at Idris. 

Idris gives you all the power of UNIX at a fraction of the cost— 
and they're highly compatible— even pin-for-pin in some cases. 
Upfront expenses are much lower, you only pay for the parts you 
ship, and the end-user licenses can be transferable. 

What's more, we wrote Idris ourselves— from the ground up— 
so you'll have fewer licensing hassles. We wrote it almost entirely 
in C, for maximum portability across a wide range of processors. 
And we kept it small. 

Idris can run comfortably where UNIX can't even fit: On an 
MC68000 with no memory management hardware, for example. 
On a bank-switched 8080 or Z80. Or on any LSI-11 or PDP-11 with 
memory management. A very big Idris plus. 

Find out how you can put Idris to work in your favorite con- 
figuration today. Write Whitesmiths, Ltd., 97 Lowell Road, Concord, 
MA 01742. Or call (617) 369-8499, TLX 951708 SOFTWARE CNCM. 

With Idris, you pocket the change. 

Whitesmiths, Ltd. 

Crafting SoftwareTbols for your Trade* 

Distributors: Australia, Fawnray Pty. Ltd. P.O.B. 224 Hurstville NSW 2220 (612) 570-6100 
Japan, Advanced Data Controls, Corp., Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (03) 263-0383 
United Kingdom, Real Time Systems, Newcastle upon Tyne 0632 733131 



Circle 427 on inquiry card. 



1200 bps: 

Half- vs. Full-duplex 

The most popular mode of transmit- 
ting data to and from personal com- 
puters over telephone lines is the Bell 
103 protocol, which transmits data at 
the rate of 300 bps (bits per second) or 
about 30 characters per second. Three 
protocols for 1200-bps data transfer 
are available, however: Bell 202, 
Racal-Vadic VA3400, and Bell 212. 

Bell 202 was the first of these high- 
speed protocols, but it can send data in 
only one direction at a time. In other 
words, it is a half-duplex protocol. 
This method is difficult to use because, 
among other things, it is hard to deter- 
mine the direction in which data is 
traveling. Bell 103, on the other hand, 
is slow (300 bps), but it can transmit 
data simultaneously in both directions 
(i.e., full-duplex, using both originate 
and answer channels) and is rather 
easy to use. 

Then came theVA3400 and Bell 212 
protocols. These can transmit at 1200 
bps in full-duplex mode, using both an 
originate channel and an answer chan- 
nel just like the much slower Bell 103 
protocol. Unfortunately, modems for 
these protocols require special phase 
modulation hardware that has caused 
them to be about two to four times 
more expensive than a Bell 103 
modem. . . .R.M. 



that will enable the Apple-Cat II to 
use the full-duplex, 1200-bps Bell 212 
protocol, but this will add about $390 
to the price of the modem. Novation 
should make this point more clear in 
its advertisements. 

The System 

As I mentioned before, Novation 
has produced not just a modem for 
the Apple II, but a communications 
system that allows your Apple to 
"communicate with the outside 
world." As of this writing, however, 
Novation has not produced all of the 
additional components of such a sys- 
tem. The basic unit as it stands today 
gives you the following capabilities: 

• Full-function, low-speed (0-300 
bps), full-duplex, originate/answer 




Photo 1: The Apple-Cat II basic system circuit board with the telephone connector 
cables. The cables are connected to pins located along the top of the card. Also shown 
are the two empty sockets for chips. The one on the left is for the Touch-Tone receiver 
chip; the other one (near the upper right corner) is for firmware ROM chips. (All photos 
are by the author.) 




Photo 2: The Expansion Module contains sockets for a modular telephone line and 
handset, an RS-232C connector, a BSR X-10 controller, and a tape recorder. Also pre- 
sent is an LED to indicate an "off-hook" condition. The module mounts on the back of 
the Apple with double-sided tape and connects to the Apple-Cat II via the three cables 
shown here (the single pair for the phone line, the double pair for the handset, and the 
ribbon for the rest). 



modem capabilities which, with the 
software provided, allow you to set 
up a very intelligent terminal. 
• Full-function, 0-1200 bps commu- 
nication through an RS-232C port 
allows for in-house transfer of infor- 
mation. 



• Data may be transferred at 1200 bps 
(half-duplex, Bell 202) over phone 
lines to another Apple-Cat II system. 

• With the addition of a standard 
telephone handset (optional), you can 
use the Apple-Cat II as a telephone or 
change to voice communications 



before or after a data transfer to 
another computer. 

• A 27K-byte memory buffer is avail- 
able for data-transfer storage. 

• The system offers a high capability 
for expansion. 

Installation 

The Apple-Cat II is fairly easy to 
install. When you open the box you 
will find a single printed-circuit board 
(see photo 1), two modular telephone 
sockets (RJll), a telephone cord, and 
a manual. The circuit board can be 
inserted into any slot other than slot 
(although slot 2 is best for reasons I'll 
explain soon). One of the telephone 
sockets is for the telephone line, and 
the other is for the optional telephone 
handset. Both of the telephone 
sockets have attached wires that must 
be plugged into the circuit board. 
After these are connected, the sockets 
themselves are slid into the slots in 
the back of the Apple and the appro- 
priate telephone cables are plugged 
in. 

If you are like many Apple owners, 
however, the several cables you prob- 
ably already have coming out of the 
back of your machine may not leave 
enough room for the two sockets to 
fit in the slots. The optional Expan- 
sion Module (see photo 2) eases this 
problem somewhat. This unit con- 
tains telephone sockets, tape recorder 
jacks, "off-hook" LED indicator, BSR 
X-10 controller connector, and RS- 
232C port. When installed (see photo 
3), this unit saves quite a bit of space 
and also allows you to take advan- 
tage of future developments. It really 
should have been part of the basic 
system, but $39 is a reasonable price 
to pay for the convenience this unit 
provides. 

Documentation 

The documentation for the Apple- 
Cat II is adequate but not excep- 
tional. Editing and organization are 
the primary problems. For example, 
general specifications given early in 
the manual are contradicted later on. 
The use of green blocks with inverse 
type for highlighting and green ink to 
distinguish the computer responses is 
a nice idea, but it's not well exe- 
cuted — the effect makes the manual 



January 1983 © BYTE Publication* Inc 113 



Just when the business 
world is up to its white collars 
in visiclones, calcalikes and 
other spreadsheet packages, 
Apple's* come out with 
something entirely different. 

Introducing Senior Analyst. 

Like other financial 
modeling packages, it allows 
managers and professionals 
to ask all those proverbial 
"What If?"questions. 

Unlike the others, this 
powerful financial planning 
tool was designed to be used 
in a corporate environment, 
by lots of people. So you get 
lots of advantages. 

For example, you can 
transfer data (across diskettes) 
from one financial model 
to another. Or consolidate 
many models into one. 

So sales, manufacturing, 
administration and any 
number of other depart- 
ments (even in other cities) 
can easily share information. 
Giving each the power to 
create comprehensive and 




With Senior Analyst, you can now cultivate forecasts 
by merging reports from distant divisions. 

flexible financial projections, 
budgets, cash flow statements 
and the like. 

Want to combine selected 
data (such as important 
subtotals) from six different 
divisions? With Senior 




Senior Analyst lets different departments share and consolidate data. That way the company doesn't make 
more pitchforks than it can sell. 



Analyst, you can do it. And 
even print out a formatted 
report that includes only the 
information you need. 

A report that anyone can 
understand. Because the 
headings are in English, not 
in code. 



Easy to follow commands allow employees to 
create models without learning a second language. 

You can also document 
and print out all those 
assumptions used to create 
your model, to give others a 
concrete understanding of 
how you reached your 
conclusion. (The program 



even allows you to continue 
working while a model is 
being printed.) 

To complement all these 
accommodating features, 
you'll also find built-in 
functions for depreciation, 
linear regression forecasting, 
and other powerful virtues 
not found in most financial 
software packages. 

All of which we'd like you 
to experience in person, at 
any of our 1300 authorized 
full-support dealers (they 
also offer a vast library of other 
quality software distributed 
by Apple for Apples). 

And don't ask for just any 
spreadsheet package.Tell them 
you need to see an analyst. 

j&gcippkz 

The most personal software. 



Call (800) 538-9696 for the location of the authorized Apple dealer nearest you, or for information regarding corporate purchases through our National Account Program. 
In California (800) 662-9238. Or write Apple Computer Inc., Advertising and Promotion Dept., 20525 Mariani Ave., Cupertino, CA 95014- © 1982 Apple Computer Inc. 



Circle 30 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 115 



Circle 289 on inquiry card. 



personal computer 

UCSD 

p-System™IV.1 

includes 8087 



Network Consulting has added many 
features that the professional pro- 
grammer will find useful, these fea- 
tures are not available from any other 
sources. 

• Hard disk support for Corvus, Tall 
Grass Technology, Davong and 
others 

• 25% more floppy storage, without 
adding or modifying hardware, re- 
taining compatibility with standard 
IBM diskettes 

• 8087 Numeric Processing Unit in- 
creases speed of Floating Point 
Operations 20-40 times. 

• Up to 800K on each mini-diskette 

• RAM disk support (a pseudo-floppy 
volume that uses up to 512k RAM) 

• 8086/87/88 macro assembler 

• Extended memory support 

• Adaptable system support avail- 
able for adding custom I/O drivers 

• 8087 Native Code Generator allows 
full use of 8087. 

• A library of program modules 

• Disk write verification 

Standard p-System features include: 

• Standard I/O redirection (including 
command files) 

• Dynamic program overlays 

• Support for asynchronous processes 
and concurrency primitives in Pascal 

• Fast Pascal p-code compiler 

• Fast FORTRAN and Basic p-Code 
compilers also available 

• A powerful screen oriented editor 

• A filer for handling both files and 
volumes 

• A Native Code Generator that pro- 
cesses your Pascal, Fortran and 
Basic programs to convert parts of 
them to native machine code 

•Dynamic runtime binding of 
separately compiled programs and 
units 

• Turtlegraphics for easy graphics 
displays 

• Print spooler for background printing 

• Symbolic debugger 

USCD p-SYSTEM from 
Network Consulting 

The only serious choice for business 

TM The Regents of the University of California 



Network Consulting Inc. 

Discovery Park (Willingdon Site) 

#110-3700 Gilmore Way 

Burnaby, B.C. 

Canada V5G 4M1 

(604) 430-3466 




Photo 3: The Apple-Cat II and Expansion Module installed. Using the Expansion 
Module reduces cable clutter. The author has turned the unit sideways to permit full use 
of the adjacent slot on the back of the Apple. 



hard to read. Also, some portions 
seem to be missing. But all in all, 
reading the manual will teach you 
how to use the basic system. 

The Corn-Ware II Program 

Unless you are a fairly sophisti- 
cated 6502 assembly-language pro- 
grammer, the only way you can cur- 
rently use the Apple-Cat II is with 
Corn-Ware II, the software package 
provided with it. Other packages that 
are compatible with Apple-Cat II, 
such as ASCII Express: The Profes- 
sional System and Visiterm, have 
come out recently, but in this review I 
will focus on only the Corn-Ware II 
program. 

If you didn't insert the circuit board 
into slot 2, your Apple II will sound 
an alarm the first time you boot the 
software disk. The reason is very 
simple — a configuration section of 
the terminal program has certain 
defaults set when it is created, and the 
default slot number is 2. If the card is 
not in that slot, the program will tell 
you so. When this happens, call the 
terminal configuration program and 
change the slot number. The com- 
mand for this and any of the other 
functions is a single keystroke. 

The terminal configuration pro- 
gram sets the various operating pa- 



rameters, including card location, 
tone or pulse dialing, Touch-Tone de- 
coding, input/output selection 
(modem or port), operating mode, 
speed, number of data bits, number 
of stop bits, parity type, and upper- 
case or lowercase display. Any of the 
parameters may be changed while the 
system is online. A list of the various 
Corn-Ware II program functions is 
shown in table 1. 

The actual operation of the Apple 
II as a terminal is uncomplicated. 
Files may be transmitted in text or 
binary form, and program files can be 
converted to binary using a routine 
provided. (They will have to be 
changed back after being received by 
the other system, however.) 

A helpful feature is a status line 
that appears on the bottom rows of 
the screen. This line tells you the con- 
ditions of the various options and 
functions, such as upper- or lower- 
case, carrier detect, full/half duplex, 
on/off line, operating mode (origi- 
nate, answer, or automatic), and 
memory buffer conditions, including 
on/ off, amount used, and amount 
free. All in all, it is a very friendly 
program (see photos 4-6). 

Unfortunately, without the Corn- 
Ware II program, the Apple-Cat II 
itself is difficult, if not impossible to 



116 January 1903 © BYTE Publications Inc 



JUST THINK...DEALER DEMO 
SOFTWARE FOR ONLY $295 



We think you think the same way 

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FINANCIAL General Ledger • Accounts Payable • Accounts 
Receivable • Payroll • Cash Receipts /Disbursements • Job 
Costing • Inventory Control • Order Entry /Invoicing MED- 
ICAL/DENTAL Office Scheduler • Patient Billing • Ac- 
counts Receivable • Insurance Forms SCHOOL MANAGE - 
MENT Student Record Keeping • Student Scheduling • 
Fund Accounting CHURCH MANAGEMENT • Pledges 
and Contributions'Membership Rosters 
• Talent Index • Fund Accounting 
• Office Scheduler WHOLE- 




SALE DISTRIBUTION 



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chasing and Receiving • 
ventory Control • Invoicing 
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Backorder Management 
MANUFACTURING 
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INTERNATIONAL 
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'6445 Metcalf* Shawnee Mission, KS 66202 
(913) 677-1137 



All IMS business 

applications require 8 

or 16 bit, versions of 

CP7M* or 

MP/M* and 

CBAS1C* coming 

soon CB80 ? and 
CB86" registered 
e marks of Digital 
Research Corp 



Circle 202 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 



Circle 204 on Inquiry card. 



Main/Frames 




Key Function 

<ESC> Escape. Places you in "Command" mode. 

A Auto-dial. Allows for entry of up to 56 digits and can sense additional dial 

tones and pauses in 2-second increments. You may also re-dial the last 

number entered. 
B Print memory. Sends the contents of the 27K-byte buffer to the configured 

printer port. 
C Terminal CHAT mode. Allows for two-way communication without affecting 

the buffer contents. 
D Disk command. Allows for the entry of any DOS command, e.g., CATALOG, 

to allow you to see what data files are on the disk. 
F High-speed Corn-Ware transfer. Allows for 1200-bps transfer rate between 

two Apple-Cat II systems (Bell 202). 
H Hang up. Does just that. 

I Toggle local echo (on/off). Sometimes known as full/half duplex on some 

terminals, this controls the echoing of characters to the Apple's screen, as 

opposed to true full/half duplex, which signifies whether there is full two- 
way simultaneous transfer capability. 
K Keyboard to memory. Allows for direct entry into buffer for later transmis- 

sion. 
L Load memory from disk. Loads a specified text or binary file from disk into 

memory. 
M Terminal memory mode. In this mode all keystrokes (transmitted and 

received) are stored in memory. 
N Serial number. Performs a self-test of the operating software and returns a 

status message. 
P Pick up phone. Answers incoming voice call and allows for switching from 

data transmission mode to voice. 
Q End program. 

R Reconfigure terminal/printer. Calls the configuration program. 

S Save memory. Writes buffer contents to disk. 

U Unattended answer/memory on. Gives you an Apple II answering machine 

(data only). 
V Verify memory. Verifies the contents of the buffer and returns a checksum 

for comparison. 
X Send memory. Transmits the contents of the buffer. 

Table 1: A list of one-key commands for the Corn-Ware II program of the Apple-Cat 
II. 



access through BASIC or Pascal. In 
contrast, other modems, such as 
those manufactured by Hayes Micro- 
computer Products, are fairly easy to 
access, and dozens of programs that 
take advantage of this have been 
written. Novation has provided a 
means for easier access, which I will 
touch on later. 

The RS-232C Port 

A 25-pin connector included on the 
circuit board of the basic system pro- 
vides access to various auxiliary 
signals for expanded use of the sys- 
tem. Table 2 describes these pins and 
explains their uses. One group of 
these pins comprises an EIA (Elec- 
tronic Industries Association) stan- 
dard RS-232C connection. If you use 
the optional expansion module, these 
signals, together with those from pins 
5 through 14, are brought out to the 



118 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



connectors on the back of the 
module. 

The use of the RS-232C connector 
is not well documented in the 
manual. The printer portion of the 
configuration program refers to a 
Novation printer port, while the ter- 
minal portion of the same program 
refers to an external port for in- 
put/output. These references seem to 
indicate that you can communicate 
through an external port rather than 
the phone line and also access a 
printer hooked up to an onboard 
printer port. Well, you can, but not 
really at the same time — the two 
ports in question are, in fact, one and 
the same. The system doesn't care 
which way you use the port, and it 
doesn't have a built-in check to see if 
you have the port configured to be 
used both ways at once. As you can 
see, some conflicts could arise. 

Circle 96 on inquiry card. > 



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120 January 1983 © BYTE Publicatioiu Inc 




Photo 4: The main menu of Corn-Ware II, the Apple-Cat Us terminal program, as 
shown on the author's screen. The two lines at the bottom form a status display. Com- 
mands are entered via a single keystroke. Pressing <ESC> in any mode will return you 
to this screen. 




Photo 5: After typing A in the main menu (photo 4), you get this screen, which shows 
the auto-dial menu. Pressing R now will redial the last number entered. Pressing D will 
give you the next screen (photo 6). 



A section on printer characteristics 
appears in the configuration portion 
of the Corn-Ware II program. This 
section allows you to choose whether 
you wish to send printer output to the 
port or to a card in another slot. You 
also determine the handshaking 



method to be used and at what speed 
you want the port driven, along with 
the structure of the data (length, 
parity, and number of stop bits). 
Because most users who have a 
printer also have an interface card, 
this option might not be used very 

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often. However, you may want to 
drive another serial device as if it 
were a printer, and this option 
enables you to do that. Once set up, 
this option can be designated as a 
default condition if you wish. 

If you elect to use the port as a 
printer port and want to print the 
contents of the Apple-Cat II buffer, 
you'll find the commands for doing so 
are very easy. You merely type B, 
which causes the contents to be trans- 
mitted to the printer via the port. You 
may stop the transmission by press- 
ing < ESC > . It is as easy as it 
sounds. (Actually, the command is 
the same whether you're printing us- 
ing the built-in port or an interface 
card in another slot.) 



Photo 6: Selecting D from the previous screen (photo 5) gives this entry screen for 
phone numbers. Note that the options include pauses and waiting periods for a second 
dial tone. Since the Apple-Cat II can dial using either tone or pulse dialing, it can be 
used with private branch exchanges (PBX) or long-distance services that require tones, 
such as MCI. Most other modems do not function in both dialing modes. 



Pin 


Signal Name Description 


Option 


1 


PRT-TXD output, transmit data 


RS-232C 


2 


PRT-RVD input, receive data 


and 


3 


PRT-CTS input, clear to send 


printer 


' 4 


GND signal ground 


port 


5 


60Hz input, AC line reference 


BSRX-10 


6 


GND signal ground 


controller 


7 


+ 12V output, +12 V DC 




9 


BSR-SIG output, 120-KHz control signal 




8 


+ 12V output, +12 V DC 


off-hook 


12 


OH LED output, LED drive 


LED 


10 


TAPE 1 output, tape recorder control 


tape 


11 


TAPE 2 output, tape recorder control 


recorder 


13 


AUDIO output, signal to tape 




14 


GND signal ground 




15 


212-RXD input, receive data 


Bell 212 


16 


212-TXD output, transmit data 


modem 


17 


212-TXE output, transmitter enable 


card 


18 


212-CAR input, carrier detect 




19 


212-XMT input, transmitter signal 




20 


GND ".,' signal ground 


. .1"' 


21 


AUDIO output, audio, phone line 


speech 


22 


AUDIO output, audio, phone line 


synthe- 


23 


SPCH-EN output, speech enable 


sizer 


24 


SPCH-IN input, synth. speech signal 


card 


25 


GND signal ground 




Table 2: 


This is the pin configuration for the expansion 


input/ output port on the 


Apple-Cat II board. The Expansion Module plugs into pins 


1 through 14; the remain- 


ing pins 


are reserved for future developments. 





Driving an External Device 

This is one of the nicer features of 
the Apple-Cat II. If you need to com- 
municate with an in-house host and 
outside sources as well, you can 
switch from one to the other without 
undoing a lot of cables or buying 
another interface card. The Apple- 
Cat II can be switched from modem 
to port communications via the con- 
figuration portion of the program. In 
fact, some rather interesting com- 
binations are available to you. Let's 
consider the following situation: You 
need to use both low-speed (300 bps) 
and high-speed (1200 bps) dial-up 
communications, and the higher 
speed uses Racal-Vadic VA3400 pro- 
tocol, which means you have an addi- 
tional modem to drive occasionally. 
If you hook the VA3400 modem into 
the RS-232C port, you can configure 
the system to drive the external 
modem whenever necessary. This 
capability saves you the need for 
another interface card and gives you 
buffer and auto-dial capabilities with 
the higher-speed communications. 

Expansion Capabilities 

The following optional attach- 
ments will probably be available by 
the time this review appears in print: 

• a Bell 212 protocol card that will 
allow you to transmit data at 1200 
bps in full-duplex mode 
•a separate BSR X-10 controller unit 
that will plug into the Expansion 



122 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Check The Chart 
Before You Choose 
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IUI I' 



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•As advertised in BYTBMagazine. August 1982. 



COLUMBIA 



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Home Office: 
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Telephone 301-992-3400 
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Module and allow you to control BSR 
remote units without using a BSR 
Command Console 

• a Touch-Tone decoder chip that, 
when plugged into the basic circuit 
board, will allow the system to 
decode Touch-Tone codes (from a 
remote phone, for example) 

• a firmware ROM chip that will easi- 
ly allow specialized applications 

Other options that are still under de- 
velopment include a tape recorder 
output that would allow you to 
record Apple-Cat II transactions and 
a speech synthesizer card that would 
enable the Apple-Cat to "speak." 

As mentioned before, one of the 
most frustrating aspects of the Apple- 
Cat II is the inability to access it 
directly from BASIC, Pascal, or by 
any other way than via the provided 
software or special software pack- 
ages. Novation has just recently de- 
veloped an EPROM that will allow 
you to access the Apple-Cat II from 
the BASIC environment. This 



EPROM will feature commands that 
are compatible with the Hayes Micro- 
modem II. However, only those pro- 
grams for the Micromodem II that are 
written in BASIC will function, as the 
two units are accessed differently in 
the 6502's assembly-language en- 
vironment. 

Conclusions 

You might have gotten the impres- 
sion at the beginning of this article 
that I was disappointed about the fea- 
tures Novation or its dealers were 
pushing to market the basic Apple- 
Cat II unit. I still am. While I feel that 
Novation should flaunt its accom- 
plishments, I feel even more strongly 
that the company's literature should 
be very explicit about the unit's pre- 
sent capabilities and future develop- 
ments. After all, we, the professional 
hackers of the microcomputer world, 
are going to use these products in 
many ways — including some that 
Novation never imagined. I feel that 
it is only fitting that we be given ac- 



curate information as to just how far 
the manufacturer has gone and where 
it plans to go from here. 

I would feel much better if I had 
found an insert in the manual saying, 
"This manual has been written with a 
fully developed system in mind. As of 
this date, xx/xx/xx, the following 
areas have been finished: A, B, C, 
etc. Future developments are. . . ." 
After all, we pay for the product, and 
keeping us informed would show a 
lot of goodwill. 

As for the future of the Apple-Cat 
II, it's clear that Novation has the best 
combination going in the field of Ap- 
ple II communications. My advice to 
current modem owners (Hayes and 
others) is to watch the developments 
and weigh the advantages of switch- 
ing. If you don't, you may find your- 
self left behind. Apple users shopping 
for a modem would be wise to con- 
sider this system very carefully if they 
even contemplate using the Apple II 
as something other than a dumb ter- 
minal. ■ 




INDUSTRIES, INC. 



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Questions & Answers 

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124 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 245 on Inquiry card. 




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your order direct to RCA Microcom- 
puter Products, Dept., BT-183, Cus- 
tomer Service, New Holland Avenue, 
Lancaster, PA 17604. Be sure to 
include name and shipping address, 
telephone, and payment: $399.00 
each, plus $3.00 each shipping, plus 
applicable state and local taxes. Send 
check or money order payable to RCA 
Corporation. Prices and specifica- 
tions subject to change without notice. 



RC/1 



Circle 353 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 125 



nputer Exchange - The Supply Center for the IBM-PC 



SOFTWARES 



BUSINESS 



♦ ASHTONTATE, dBa ■ •. I28K 

dba , 8K 

APPLIED SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY. Versalorm N£W> 

DATAMOS! Real Estate Iffveslmfni ProiM-i NEW 

Write-On 
OEKVER SOFTWARf .„ >v tern) 

EAGLE SOFTWARE >' NEW 

HOWAROSOFT. Real Estate Aiaiyzer 
JNFOttMATION UNLIMITED 

Easyspe'le-' iS8« Words) 
tasy'ilet 15 DBMS) 
Easy Fiaitssr 
lyE SOFTWARE, T I M III (a DBMS) 
::« Design la powerful easy to use DBMS) NEW! 
Guard : 
eMagic: --SEE 
magic NEW 

Gi ii • >:..':':■. • -.- NEW* 

SpElh f M 86} 

iCRAF? 

Legal E-i n eji^g 

P'c'e a t Sis" te 

* MICRO MS tt»t 

-p micropro, swii5idt» 3k,s , v 

E MailMerge' u : t 
E SpellStsr ' 

3 Pat Word i Mail » Spell above 3 

'■if v.i 
NORElt, Visualize 

Easy Data DBMS 
NORTH AMt . - An we 




PBl CORPOP ■ ! Investor 

♦ PEACHTRfrE. Peach Pat 6 (81. AR * AP) 
PERFECT SOFTWARE. Perfect Writer ' » 

Perfect Speller':*': 
: ' ' = Perfect Filer Tl ¥ 

SELECT INFO. Select [a WPS) 
. SOBCIM/TSA. SopeiCaic 
SuperWrtlet 
SfNESiilSTIC. Cats Reporter 

♦ VISICORP . )'■« <5Mt 
VisiDex 
V it »„ i p m t 
Vislfile 

Desktop Pan i 
VisiScileaiiie 
aus.ssss EsnKsstin*! ■rEssfsS s 



UTILITY 



')>»»' 



NfWl 



LIST 
PSICE 
$ 700 
S 700 
J 389 
S 130 
S 130 
$ 750 
5 150 
J 250 
S 350 
S 175 
S 400 
I 25C 
J 495 
$ 225 
$ 295 
$ 90 
$ 90 
S 160 
$ 495 

$ 750 
$ 750 
$ 250 
$ 495 
S 250 
$ 250 
5 845 
J 50 
J 100 
$ 250 
J 250 
S H5 
% 595 
S 389 
J 189 
S 289 
S 595 
$ 295 
$ 395 
J 250 
5 250 
$ 250 
} 300 
S 300 
J 300 
$ 300 
$ 100 



Aim 

WO, 

♦ CON 



NAGY SYSTEM. Cop, , Utilities $ 35 

NORELL DATA. System Backup. Bil Copier $ 50 

NORTON, Morton Utilities, 14 powerful urograms, 3 disks $ SO 

! M. ' . l *ld.IIM:I.M. ' MM 

ACORN, tost Colony $ 30 

AUTOMATED SIMULATIONS temple ot Apsha, I 4. 

Oil Barons NEW! J 100 

R0OER8UN0, Apple Panic $ 30 

ONTINENTAi. lie « • p,ib $ bO 

DATAMOST. Pig Pen : $ 30 

Space Strike $ 30- 

DAVIDSON, the Speed Reader S 75 

INFOCOM, Deaoi.oe % 50 

Zork I $ 40 

: Zorkli :$ ■■„ 49 

tZork III NEW! $ 40 

Golf Challenge NEW! $ 25 

ljlyst<: » fleece % 35 

■ 145 

SENTIENT, Cyborg NEW! $ 35 

SIRIUS, Conquest ot Call to Arms " $ 30 

KINNAKER, snooper troops; HI or *2 J 45 

Story Ma.h.ne or Ease Maker S ,35 

RATEGIC, The Warp Factor $ to 

RSACOMf * 25 



DISKETTES 



OUR 

PRICE 
$449 
$449 
IMS 
S 89 
S 89 
$545 
Si.29 
$189 
MS9 

sin 

tji 
SIN 

$365 
|8 
KM 
$ 69 
$65 
SI OS 
. $249 

$395 

$355 

Si.SE! 

$249 

* 79 

SS29 

SMS 

t 35 

J 75 

$189 

$169 

f 99:. 

$395 

$23? 

$119 

$179 

UJ» 

$199 

$269 

$169 

S17S 

SI 99 

$219 

S239 

$233 

S2IS 

J 7S 



$ 29 
$ 39 
S 65 



Control Data Corporation 12 for 10 Special. 
CDC. 120 each, 5H with ring, SS. SD (Apple, IBM, etc.) 

12 each, 5 1 /., with ring, SS, SD (Apple, IBM, etc.) 

12 each. 5 1 /. with ring, SS, SD (H/P, IBM 320K. etc.) 

12 each 8", SS, SD 

10 each, 5 1 /. with ring, DS, DD (IBM) 
IBM, 10 each, SS», SS, SD (Apple, IBM, etc.] 

10 each, 5'/., SS, DD (H/P, IBM 320K, etc.) 
VERBATIM. 10 each 5%, with ring, SS, SD or SS, DD 
MAXELL. 10 each, 5M, SS, SD 
DVSAN. 10 each. 5'/,, SS. SD 
10 each, 5, DS, DD 



Limited Time! 
$ 450 $195 



• Means a BEST buy. 
AD #950 



Hot Line For Information 
On Your Order 
(503) 772-3803 



64K IBM-PC . . . $2,995 



Or 256K . , . $3,430 

by iem In- 1 e 
|P§§20K Disk Qppg 

12" Green Monitor 

Momtoi Not 4s Shown 

Call For Details 



HARDWARE 




for th» 

IBM-PC 



OUR 
PRICE 



MMMCM 



Combo PE '- port $ 495 $359 

S =35 SEISE? 

' sync & para $ 555 $395 

ComboPlus 64k «/async para 4 clock 'cal J 595 $429 

> . u t/ to: !92K'aad $192. 

256K add $256 

Parity W IK $ 395 $265 

i?8K $ 535 $349 

I92K $ 675 $435 

256K $ 795 $495 

Call 

CURTtS. Pf n PC $ 80 $ 65 

9 1 i pi,, xteod*3 !0 g is 5g j 45 



DAVONG 



DSl 501 Hatd Disk, 5 Meg 

Microsoft 64k ram cam w/pano 

2«R RAM d w/Panti 
256K RAM Card . Pirdy 
_ _ 64K RAM Chips < " 

lecrnsr inc. au no« p.tar-: ■.;» 

128K 



*QUADRAM 



{■ -*■;.:;..' ,: 



1 naoi'-r f,J» , t , j, Jdr -| 

it - 4 or t(" •xa'i 

QMciiwatu • \ exriantlacls to -25.6K. i 'iinsirai: ixor:: 
'4- 

Memot, Board. 512k. •.in Serial Port. H6517 
Memurv 

M.i.nu.er Snapon SK Par-Far Epson «MFB » PS I 
Mictola/e EME64, »7PS1 

1 * k (9V ;ESi 

TG PRODUCTS joystick 



t 350 

$ 525 
$ 875 
S 175 

S 565 
% 736 



■I ,95 
S ;75 
$ 895 
$ 995 
:,!.EE 
J 150 
$ 159 
J 2.99 
$ 20 
S 65 



landon 



'a i i- 



1 ea % 350 
■ft 2 0! Biore $ 350 
Same Disk Drives as now supplied oh IBMPC. ; 



S259 

SE»E 

JEE,: 

$129 

$415 

S53S 



$435 

SEES 

mi 

$670 
$995 
$ 95 

$145 
SEEE 
S 15 
$ 49 



$259 
$249 



XEDEX 



«BOby«Bluc 



64K plus 

CP/M-80 operatiso ::: 
$60O : $449 



PRINTERS AND ACCESSORIES 

EPSON, See Epson section below 

STAR MICRONICS. Gemini 10 $ 499 

Gemini 15 $ 649 

APPLE COMPUTER. INC.. Silentype Printer lor Apple II $ 395 

IDS. Microprism 480, near letter quality, HOcps, 80 col. $ 799 

Prism 80 Color, 200cps (all options-color, sprint, auto) $1795 

If Paper Tiger, 440 w/Graphics and 2K. Limited Special $1295 

LETTER QUALITY — DAISY WHEEL PRINTERS: 
•ft OLYMPIA. ES-100, Printer/Typewriter, complete with all 

interfacing to the Apple II $1735 

COMREX, Comriter CR-1, RS232 Serial l/F, 200 wpm $1199 

Comriter Tractor Feed for CR-1 SI 18 



$385 
$495 
$335 
$699 
$1450 
$495 



$1295 
$845 
$ 99 



SUPPLIES: Tractor Feed Paper, Ribbons, Heads, Qume Daisy Wheels & Ribbons. 



EPSON PRINTERS & ACCESSORIES 

■ft MX80 F/T III. with Graftrait 
MX100 F/T III, with Graftrai* 
IBM-PC to Epson Cable 

Apple Interface and Cable tor MX80 or MX100 
Grappler+ by Orange Micro, specify printer 
Apple Graphics Dump 
Atari to Epson Cable 
TRS-80 to Epson Cable 
Other cables, interfaces, ribbons, heads and paper in stock. 



$ 745 


S525 


$ 995 


$695 


$ 60 


S 45 


$ 120 


$ 95 


$ 165 


$119 


S 15 


$ 9 


$ 40 


$ 30 


$ 40 


$ 30 



8" CP/M-80 



BUSINESS!. SYSTEM 
SOFTWARE 



♦ASHTONTATE dBase II 
COMSHARE TARGET. Target PlannerCalc 
Masterplanner 

PlannerCalc Applications Pkg 
PlannerCalc Combo Pkg. 
INFOCOM. Deadline 
Zorkl 
Zork II 

Zork III NEW! 

Starcross NEW 1 

ISM, MatheMagic 
MICROCRAFT, Legal Billing S Time Keeping 

Prof. Billing & Time Keeping — Billkeeper 
♦MICROPRO, WordStar* plus free WordStar Training Manual 
MailMerger m 
SpellStarTM 

3 Pak, Word S Mail & Spell, 3 above 
SuperSort 
DataStar 
CalcStar 

MICROSOFTr^o 

BASIC Compiler 
COBOL-80 
BASIC-80 

muLisp/muStar-80 
MSort-80 
Edit-80 
Macro-80 
OASIS. The Word Plus (45,000 word verification) 
PEACHTREE, Magic Wand 

Series 4 GL, AR, AP or Inventory, each 
Series 8 GL. AR, AP, lire, or Pay each 
Series 9 Peach Text 
Series 9 Spelling Proofreader 
Series 9 Calc. Mail List or Telecomm.. each 
PERFECT SOFTWARE. Perfect Writer * " 
Perfect Speller™ 
Perfect Filer™ 
SELECT INFO.. Select (a WPS) 



LIST 
PRICE 
$ 700 
$ 99 
S 325 



$ 100 
$ 750 
$ 750 
$ 495 
$ 250 
$ 250 
$ 845 
$ 250 
S 295 
$ 145 
$ 275 
S 500 
S 395 
$ 750 
S 350 
S 200 
S 195 
$ 120 
S 200 
$ 150 
$ 500 
$ 600 
$ 750 
$ 500 
$ 300 
$ 375 
S 389 
S 189 
$ 289 
$ 595 



OUR 
PRICE 
$449 
$ 39 
$225 
$ 40 
$ 65 
S 45 
$ 39 
$ 39 
$ 39 
$ 39 
$ 75 
$395 
$395 
$249 
$ 79 
$129 
$395 
$169 
$199 
S 99 
$199 
$325 
$295 
$545 
$275 
S14S 
$145 
$ 80 
$145 
Call 
$195 
$395 
$495 
$330 
$195 
$245 
$239 
$119 
$179 
$359 



MONITORS 



Special Truckload Sale 



NEC. 12" Green 

12" Color, Composite 
SANYO, 9" BSW 

9" Green 
■ft 12" B&W 

12" Green 

13" Color, Composite 

13" Color RGB 
ZENITH, 12" Green 
AMDEK. 12" Green #300 

13" Color I, Composite 

13" Color II, RGB, Hi Res. (Ap. II, III I IBM-PC) 

13" Color III, RGB, Commercial, (Ap. II, III) 

DVM, Color II or III to Apple II Interface 
Note: Color II and III come with cable for IBM-PC 



S 249 
$ 450 
S 190 
$ 200 
$ 250 
$ 260 
$ 470 
S 995 
$ 150 
$ 200 
$ 449 
$ 899 
$ 569 
S 199 



$159 
$349 
S149 
$139 
$139 
$199 
S349 
$795 
$119 
S159 
$359 
$799 
$469 
$175 



MODEMS AND 
TELE COMMUNICATIONS TERMINAL 

HAYES, Mictomodem II (for the Apple II) $ 379 $275 

Apple Terminal Program for Micromodem II $ 99 $ 69 

NOVATION, Applecat II Modem $ 389 $269 

212 Apple Cat $ 725 $599 

HAYES. Stock Chronograph (RS-2321 $ 249 $189 

Stock Smartmodem (RS-2321 $ 289 $225 

Smartmodem 1200 (RS-232) $ 699 $535 

Micromodem 100 (S 100 bus) $ 399 $275 

SIGNALMAN. Modem MKI (RS-232) $ 99 $79 

IBM-PC to Modem Cable $ 39 $ 29 

AXLON. Datalink 1000 Hand Held Communications terminal $ 399 $325 



* * CORVOS SYSTEMS 

^ 6 Meg Hard Disk, w/o interface $2995 $2095 

• # 11 Meg Hard Disk, w/o interface $4795 $2695 

w 20 Meg Hard Disk, w/o interface $5795 $3495 

IBM PC Interface (IBM DOS), Manual & Cable 5 $ 300 $239 

Mirror built in for easy backup $ 790 $595 

Apple Interface, Manual & Cable 5 $ 300 $239 
Other Interfaces, Omni-Net, Constellation. Mirror. All in Stock, 



ca 



H/P 7470A Graphics Plotter $1550 $1195 

H/P41C Calculator $ 195 $169 

H/P 41CV Calculator with 2.2K Memory $ 275 $239 



Portland. OR. Cash S Carry Outlet 11507-0 SW Pacific H»y.. Tetrace Shop 
ping Center, Tigatd. OR Over the-countet sales only. On 99W between Rte. 217 



flPnPDIWr IWFflDM/MinW AMIt Tronic- A " mal1 ,0 P0 Bo> 138 °- Jacksonville, OR 97530 

UnUCnllll) llirUnlllHI IVJn HnU ICnWIO. All ttems usually in stock. We immediately tionor Cashiers Checks, Money Orders, Fortune 1000 
Checks and Government Checks Personal or Company Checks allow 20 days to clear. No COD Add 3% lor VISA or MC Include telephone number Add 3% for shipping 
insurance and handling (S l&H) with $5 minimum. UPS ground is standard so add 3% more tor UPS Blue with $10 minimum Add 12% total lor S l&H tor US Postal, APO or FPO 
with $15 minimum For Hawaii, Alaska and Canada, UPS is in some areas only, all others are Postal so call, write, or specify PO Foreign orders except Canada for S l&H add 18% 
or $25 minimum except for monitors add 30% or $50 minimum. Prices subject to change and typo errors, so call to verily. All goods are new, include factory warranty and 
are guaranteed to work. Due to our low prices, all sales are final Call before returning goods for repair or replacement. Orders received with msutlicent S l&H charges will 
be refunded. ORDER DESK HOURS 8 to 6 PST. M-F and 10 to 4 Sat. 1 PM here is 4 PM in NY. 

nilDDCtTCDCUPrC- We have been a com P uter dealer Slnce 1978 and in mail order since 1980 Banks: First Interstate Bank, (503) 776-5620 and fetterson 
UUrl nCrLnCril/CO. State Bank, (503) 773-5333. We belong to the Chamber of Commerce, (503) 772-6293, or call Dun & Bradstreet if you are a subscriber 
Computer Exchange is a division of O'Tech Group, Inc. 



Professio 



fOlV PRICES TO PROFESSIONALS WHO KNOW WHAT THEY WANT AND KNOW HOW TO USE IT. 



Manufactured g] g^, & g^^, £ ap| 

Exclusively for L=y ^»»>*> 


pic con 


nputc 




LIST 


OUR 




PRICE 


PRICE 


B&H APPLE It* 






64K (48K ♦ COEX 16K) 


•1725 


•1150 


Disk, M icro Sci A2 w/3.3 Controller 


•579 


»378 


Disk, Micro Sci A2 Only 


'479 


$299 



cippk»n/ii+ _ 

supply center 



The B&H Apple 11+ differs from tht 
Apple Apple 11 + only in that it is in 
black hammertone color and its 
warranty is longer. 
Warranty: Factory warranty is by 
Bell and Howell (not by Apple) and 
is one year parts plus 90 day labor. 
Warranty service available at Bell 
and Howell service centers or 
return to Computer Exctianf 




I 


3ARDWAI 

for Apple 11/11* 

LIST 


OUR 


SOFTWARE 

on disk for Apple 11/11 + 




RAM EXPANSION: 

COEX RAM Card 16K 
ALS. AODRam 16K 


PRICE 
$ 179 
S 149 


PRICE 
S 59 
J 79 






* 


BUSINESS 


* 






* 


Microsoft. RAMCard 16K 


J 195 


J 89 


LIST 


OUR 


* 


Saturn Systams, 32K 


S 249 


S169 


PRICE 


PRICE 


64K 
Axlon 128K 


$ 425 
S 475 


S319 
$375 


Apple Computer. Inc. 
The Controller GL, AR, AP $ 625 


$399 


* 


A»lon. RAM Disk 320K 


J1395 


$995 


Apple Writer II $ 150 


$119 


* 


80 COLUMN VIDEO CARDS: 
ALS. Smarterm 


$ 345 


$249 


Apple Pascal $ 250 
Apple Fortran $ 200 


$199 
$159 




Videx, Videoterm 


J 345 


$239 


DOS Tool Kit $ 75 


$ 59 




Vista. Vision 80 


S 395 


$199 


DOS 3.3 Upgrade Kit $ 75 


$ 59 




MISCELLANEOUS: 






Apple Pilot $ 150 


$119 




ALS. Smarterm 80 Col. Card Specia 


S 345 


$249 


DJ Portfolio Evaluator $ 50 


$ 45 




Z Card [Z 80) W/CPM Specia 


J 269 


$199 


How to! $ 50 


$ 25 


■ejl 


S 149 


$ 79 


Microcouner $ 250 


$125 




Synergizer w/S'calc + Condor 


S 749 


$529 


Micro Telegram $ 250 


$125 




Aalon. 320K RAM Disk System 


$1395 


$995 


Apple Logo $ 175 


$149 




ASTAR. RF Modulator 


$ 35 


$ 25 


Applied Soft Tech.. VersaForm $ 389 


$265 




CCS. Serial Interface 7710A 


S 150 


$129 


Artsci MagicWindow II New! $ 150 


$ 99 




Other CCS Cards in stock 


Call 


Call 


Ashion-tate. dBase II (CP/M) $ 700 


$439 




Dan Paymar. Lower Case Chips 


$ 50 


$ 39 


Continental. GL. AR. AP or PR. ea. $ 250 


$169 




Don't Ask. DAO 003 S.A Mouth 


S 125 


$ 85 


1st Class Mail s 75 


$ 49 




Kensington. System Saver 


S 90 


$ 69 


Home Accountant $ 75 


$ 49 




Kraft, Joystick 


S 65 


$ 49 


Hayden. Pie Writer (Specify bid.) $ 170 


S 99 




Paddle 


S 50 


$ 39 


.* High Tech.. Job Control Sys. $ 750 


$350 




MSR. Sup R Ian 


S 50 


$ 39 


Into Master $ 189 


$119 


* 


Microsoft. Z80 Softcard Pack 


S 345 


$245 


Howard Soft. 




* 


Sottcard Premium Packs 695 


$495 


Real Estate Analyzer II $ 195 


$129 


* 


16K RAMCard 


$ 100 


$ 89 


Tax Preparer $ 150 


S 99 




Mountain. CPS Multifunction Card {239 


$199 


Info. Unlim Easywriter (PRO) $175 


$119 




Orange Micro. Grappier Plus 


S 165 


$119 


•* ISA. Spellguard (CP/M) $ 295 


$ 99 




Practical Peripherals. 






UK. Letter Period w/Mail Merge $ 150 


$ 99 




M8S 8K Serial (Epson) 


5 159 


$129 


ay Micro Craft. (CP/M) 






MBP 16K Para (Epson) 


S 159 


$129 


Professional Billkeeper $ 750 


$395 




Microbutfer II 16K. (specify) 


J 259 


$209 


Legal Billing & Timekeeping $ 750 


$395 




Microbufter II 32K. (specify) 


S 299 


$229 


Micro lab. Invoice Factory $ 200 


$ 99 


* 


PCPI, Appli Card, 14 features. 
4 Mhz 






Tax Manager $ 150 
Micro Pro. (all CP/M) 


$ 99 


$ 445 


$325 




6 Mhz 


$ 595 


$435 


WordStar® + Training Manual $495 


$199 




RH Electronics. Super Fan II 


* 75 


$ 59 


MailMerge™ $ 250 


$ 69 




SSM.AlOll.Senal/Para Interfaces 22! 


$169 


SpeltStar™ $ 250 


$ 99 




TG Products. Game Paddles 


S 40 


$ 29 


SPECIAL! All 3 above $ 895 


$349 




Joystick 


S 60 


$ 45 


Data Star™ $ 295 


$149 




Select-A-Port 


S 60 


$ 45 


* Microsoft. Multi-Plan (CP/M) $ 275 


$175 




Versa. VersaWntmg 






Multi-Plan (DOS 3.3) New! $ 275 


$175 




Graphics Tablet 


5 300 


$239 


Muse. Super Text 40/80 $ 175 


$129 


* 


Videx. Videoterm 80 col. 


S 345 


$249 


Super Text 40/56/70 New! $ 125 


$ 95 




Soft Video Switch 


S 35 


$ 25 


Jf On-line. Screenwriter II $ 130 


$ 89 




Enhancer II 


S 149 


$ 99 


The Dictionary New! $ 100 


$ 69 




Function Strip 


S 79 


$ 59 


General Manager II Newi $ 230 


S155 




Full Videx Line. Call. Up to 35% 


off. 




Osborne/C.P. Soft. (Disk and Book) 






WICO Trackball 


$ 80 


$ 55 


JXt- Some Common Basic Programs 
75 Business, Statistics and Math 
programs lot the Apple II $ 100 


$ 49 












NEC LIMITED SPE IAI 


at. Practical Basic Programs 






8001 32K Computer 


J 995 


$(99 


40 more very valuable programs 
beyond "Some Com BasicProg" $ 100 


$ 49 




286K Total. Dual Drive PC8031 S 995 
32K addon and 1/0 Unit PC8012 t 649 
>all for other software and accessories. 


$699 
$415 


Peichtiee. Requires CP/M and MBASIC 
Videoterm or 40 columns 
Series 40 GL, AR or AP, each $ 400 


Specify 
$275 



LIST OUR 

PRICE PRICE 

Series 40 GL & AR & AP. all 3 $ 595 $395 

Series 40 Inv. or Pay, ea. $ 400 $275 

Series 9 lent & Spell* Mail all 3 S 595 $395 

Series 80 GL I AR S AP, Videx $ 595 $395 

Perfect. Perfect Writer $ 389 $239 

Perfect Speller $ 189 $119 

Perlect Filer $ 289 $179 

Quality. GBS w/3 gen (a DBMS) $ 650 $475 

Sensible. Sens. Speller, specify $ 125 $ 85 

•»JL Silcon Valley. Word Handler $ 250 $139 

Sof./Sys.. Executive Secretary $ 250 $169 

Executive Speller $ 75 $ 55 

Solidus/Softech 

•at Stockfile S 600 $350 

Stocksellei $ 700 $450 

Systems Plus 

Acctg Plus, General Ledger $ 425 $295 

Acctg. Plus, GL, AP and A/R $ 995 $595 

Acctg Plus, above + Inventory $1395 $775 

Software Publishing. 

PFS II $ 125 $ 85 

Report $ 95 $ 65 

Graph $ 125 S 85 

Southeastern Data Capture, call to specify. 

Stoneware. DB Master $ 229 $155 

DB Utility I or II $ 99 S (9 

Videx, 

Applewriter II preboot disk $ 20 $ 15 

Visicalc to 64K preboot disk $ 50 I 39 

Viscalc to 176K preboot disk $ 90 $69 

VisiCorp/Personal Software. 

Visicalc 3.3 $ 250 $179 

VisiDex Special! $ 250 $150 

VisiFile $ 250 S179 

Desktop Plan II $ 250 $179 

Desktop Plan III $ 300 $219 

Visiplot $ 200 $149 

VisiSchedule New! $ 300 $219 

VisiTrend 4 VisiPlot $ 300 $219 

VisiTerm $ 100 $ 79 



UTILITY & DEVELOPMENT 



Beagle. Utility City $ 30 

DOS Boss $ 24 

Apple Mechanic New! $ 30 

Central Point Software 

Filer, DOS Utility S 20 

af Copy II Plus (bit copier) $ 40 

Epson. Graphics Dump I 15 

Insoft, 

GraFORTH by Paul Lutus $ 75 

TransFORTH II by Paul Lutus $ 125 

Microsoft. 

A.L.O.S. $ 125 

BASIC Compiler $ 395 

Cobol 80 $ 750 

Fortran 80 $ 195 

TASC Compiler $ 175 

•ajL Omega, Locksmith (bit copier) $ 100 

Penguin.Comp.GraphicsSys.New!$ 70 

Graphics Magician New! $ 60 

Phoenix. Zoom Grafix S 40 

Quality. Bag of Tricks New! $ 40 

Sensible, Back It Up, (bit copier) $ 60 



$ 22 
$ 18 
$ 22 

S 15 
$ 35 
$ 9 

$ 59 
$ 99 

$ 75 

$299 
$559 
$149 
$159 
$ 75 
$ 53 
S 41 
$ 29 
S 29 
$ 49 



AD #950 



THE WORLD'S LARGEST COMPUTER MAIL ORDER FIRM 



Computer Exchange 

Circle 479 for IBM Peripherals ■■ ...,._ — *. » *»« ■ -.. *%■* »>•. ^& 



B&H APPLE 11+ 
64K STARTER SYSTEM 



$1,595 
SAVE $ 834 



• 4IK BAH APPLE II* 

• COEX 16K RAM Card 

• Micro Sci A2 Disk Drive with 3.3 Controller 

• Central Point Filar. Apple II* 3.3 DOS plus many, 
utility programs 

• Sanyo 9" Green Monitor 

• RF Modulator (for color IV) 

• Game Paddles 

• Game with Color Graphics and Sound 



| FOR THE APPLE ll/lf. Ill 
DIRECT SUBSTITUTES 
MICRO-SCI tor APPLE DRIVES 

Micro- Sci A2 drives and/or controllers are direct plug 
compatible substitutes lor Apple drives and controllers. 



# For Apple II 

A2, 5W, 143K Disk Drive 
Controller Card for A2 Drive 
A40. 5*", I60K Disk Drive 
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The Next Generation 
of Microprocessor 

A proposed inexpensive microprocessor that can directly 
execute a high-level language. 



It will not be long before 
integrated-circuit manufacturers 
begin to come out with single-chip 
processors that can directly execute 
high -level -language instructions. 
When this happens, the resulting ex- 
plosion in the availability of high- 
speed, high-quality software could 
make the present stage of the com- 
puter revolution look like a 
halfhearted warm-up exercise by 
comparison. 

The reason for this is very simple: 
it is far more convenient to develop 
software in high-level languages than 
it is in the assembly languages that 
are currently available. This conve- 
nience factor has meant that most 
custom-designed software has been 
written in high-level languages, even 
though, under current micropro- 
cessor architectures, an enormous 
penalty in terms of performance is 
typically paid. One commonly hears 
statements that an assembly-language 
program will run a hundred times 
faster than the equivalent program 
written in BASIC. The only reason 
that most programs continue to be 
written in BASIC is that it is perhaps 



Timothy Stryker 

Samurai Software 

POB 2902 

Pompano Beach, FL 33062 

a hundred times easier to do so. 
Although compilers are available that 
can boost high-level-language perfor- 
mance, they are costly and require 
the use of large, expensive computers. 
And even a compiled program may 
be 10 times slower than an assembly- 



An inexpensive 

processor whose 

assembly language was 

itself a high-level 

language would gain 

wide market 

acceptance virtually 

overnight. 



language program. An inexpensive 
processor whose assembly language 
was itself a high-level language would 
gain wide market acceptance virtual- 
ly overnight. IC manufacturers are 
naturally aware of this, and concrete 
evidence of this awareness (i.e., an 
actual chip) can be expected soon. 
No doubt a fair amount of confu- 



sion exists at present as to just how to 
go about the implementation of a 
high-level language in hardware. Na- 
tional Semiconductor and Zilog have 
each introduced single-chip micro- 
computers incorporating small 
BASIC interpreters in on-chip ROM 
(read-only memory). While this is a 
step in the right direction, the utility 
of these chips is greatly diminished by 
their slow processing speeds. The 
low-level architectures of both chips 
are entirely conventional in nature, 
and the fact that they happen to in- 
corporate BASIC on-chip rather than 
in an external ROM represents merely 
an advantage in terms of decreasing 
system chip count. Higher up on the 
scale are Western Digital's Pascal and 
Ada Microengines, multichip pro- 
cessors that have experienced only 
limited market acceptance due to 
their high costs. The Intel iAPX-432 
processor appears to be a promising 
development in this area, but the 
great complexity of its architecture 
would appear to put it out of the 
sights of most potential users for the 
time being. 
Another much-discussed approach 



128 January 19S3 © BYTE Publications Inc 








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USER OBJECT COOE 



ONE 

MACHINE- 
LANGUAGE 
ROUTINE 




Figure 1: Simple threaded object code. The program counter points to certain object 
code, which in turn points to a machine-language routine. When that routine is 
finished, the program counter is incremented and points to the next object code, which 
points to the next machine-language routine. 



USER OBJECT CODE 



PROGRAM COUNTER 




ML ROUTINE 
POINTER 




ANOTHER 
MACHINE- 
LANGUAGE 
ROUTINE 



Figure 2: Threaded object code, FORTH style. In FORTH the object code points not to a 
machine-language routine, but to another pointer, which then points to the routine. If 
the routines are short, more time is spent jumping to the routines than executing them. 



to the question has centered around 
the prospects for a FORTH machine. 
FORTH would appear at first to be 
the perfect candidate for implementa- 
tion in hardware because of its 
reverse Polish syntax and its inherent- 
ly stack-oriented nature. The reason 
that these factors single FORTH out 
as a prime candidate for hardware 
implementation is that other types of 
high-level languages must invariably 
translate user requests for expression 



evaluation into stack-oriented terms 
at some level. In order for a high-level 
language to appear as the true, one- 
for-one, assembly-level equivalent of 
machine language, it is almost a 
necessity that the high-level language 
itself be stack-oriented. FORTH is the 
only well-known stack-oriented high- 
level language; hence, FORTH comes 
to mind as a major contender for 
hardware implementation. 

A more detailed examination of the 



structure of FORTH may, however, 
help explain why the implementation 
of this language in hardware has not 
gained wide support. FORTH was 
conceived as an inherently threaded 
language. This means that its object 
code, unlike that of most compiled 
languages, is set up as a series of 
pointers, rather than as directly ex- 
ecutable machine code. In principle, a 
threaded language could be designed 
in which these pointers directly in- 
dicated executable machine-language 
routines (see figure 1). FORTH, how- 
ever, is set up so that the pointers in- 
dicate other pointers, which, in turn, 
point to the executable machine- 
language routines (see figure 2). The 
way in which FORTH transfers con- 
trol from one machine-language rou- 
tine to the next is by having each 
machine-language routine terminate 
in a JUMP to a routine called NEXT. 
This routine increments FORTH's 
"program counter" to address the 
next object-code pointer in sequence. 
Control is then passed by another se- 
quence of pointers (or a double- 
indirect JUMP) to the next machine- 
language routine desired. 

This double-indirect control-trans- 
fer process is all very fine as long as 
the number of machine cycles re- 
quired to accomplish the effect of a 
typical FORTH operator is large in 
comparison to the number required 
for the double-indirect JUMP itself. In 
designing a processor with a stack- 
oriented architecture, however, one 
would certainly intend to create 
single-byte op codes like ADD and 
SUBTRACT, whose function would 
be to accomplish, in very few cycles, 
the addition or subtraction of the top 
two stack entries to or from one 
another. Under these circumstances, 
the number of machine cycles re- 
quired for getting to the op codes in 
question, via the double-indirect 
JUMP, could be substantially greater 
than the number required to do the 
operations themselves. This observa- 
tion applies even if the machine's in- 
struction set were to incorporate a 
1-byte NEXT instruction that could 
be placed at the end of each machine- 
language routine instead of a JUMP 
to a whole NEXT routine. Thus, it 
would appear that, paradoxically, the 



130 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE January 1983 131 



Circle 14 on inquiry card. 



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very object structure attributes that 
make FORTH nearly ideal for non- 
stack-oriented hardware make it 
relatively ill-suited for use as the basis 
of a true stack-oriented machine. 

An Alternative 

The primary disadvantage of using 
FORTH as the basis for the hardware 
implementation of a high-level lan- 
guage is, as discussed, its threaded 
nature. I would like to present an 
alternative scheme that skirts these 
difficulties and that represents a 
viable, cost-effective approach to the 
implementation of a high-level lan- 
guage in hardware. This scheme is the 
result of more than three years of ex- 
tensive commercial refinement and 
testing in such applications as real- 
time industrial process control, com- 
piler development, and database 
analysis. 

One of the first things to be estab- 
lished in the design of any new pro- 
cessor is the range of intended ap- 
plications that the processor should 
address — in commercial terms, its in- 
tended market. The market segment 
that is ripe for exploration at this 
point is the small, inexpensive, but 
largely custom-programmed, soft- 
ware-intensive system for which 
speed of development and speed of 
data manipulation must go hand in 
hand. For systems of this type, 16-bit 
data-handling and 16- to 24-bit ad- 
dressing capabilities should be suffi- 
cient for the next several years. Of 
primary importance is that the costs 
associated with both hardware and 
software development in systems of 
this type should be minimized. 

If we agree that software develop- 
ment costs are best minimized 
through the implementation of a 
stack-oriented high-level language as 
the assembly language of the 
machine, the design problem then 
revolves around the question of how 
to best optimize system efficiency in 
terms of both processing speed and 
memory-space usage, at the lowest 
possible cost in silicon. In optimizing 
the design of the system for process- 
ing speed and memory-space usage, 
we must consider the typical uses to 
which the system will be put — in par- 
ticular, we must ask three questions: 



132 January 1°*3 © BYTE Publication* Inc 



Circle 136 on inquiry card. 



Powerful CB'NI Software. 

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was $199.95 now only $29.95. 

When we introduced Nevada COBOL three years ago, it was 

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to use. 

□ Extremely Compact. You can compile and execute up to 
2500 statements in 32K RAM, 4000 statements in 48K, etc. 

□ It's based upon the ANSI-74 standards with level 2 features 
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GYou get a diskette, 153-page manual with lots of examples 
and 16 complete COBOL source code programs. 



NEVADA 

FORTRAN 

was $199.95 now only $29.95. 

□ IF . . THEN . . ELSE constructs. 

□ COPY statement. 

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G 150 English language error messages. 

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PILOT 

was $149.95 now only $29.95. 

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D What's more, John Starkweather, Ph.D., the inventor of the 
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PILOT. There are commands to drive optional equipment such 
as Video Tape Recorders and Voice Response Units. There's a 
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□ Meets all PILOT-73 standards for full compatibility with older 
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EDIT 

was $119.95 now only $29.95. 

□ A character-oriented full-screen video display text editor de- 
signed specifically to create COBOL, BASIC and FORTRAN 
programs. 

D Completely customizable tab stops, default file type, key- 
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DThe diskette comes with an easy to read manual. 



To make our software available to even more micro users, we've slashed our prices. 
What's more, we're offering a money back guarantee. If for any reason you're not 
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This is a limited time offer, so order yours today! 

Shipping/handling fees. Add $4.00 for first package and $2.00 each additional 
package. OVERSEAS Add $15.00 for first package and $5.00 each additional 
package. Checks must be in U.S. funds and drawn on a U.S. bank! 

'A Compiler Benchmark: A Comparative Analysis of Four COBOL Compilers'' by 
Stephen F Wheeler. Trademarks: CP/M, Digital Research; TRS-80, Tandy Corp.; 
Apple II, Apple Computer Inc.; Osborne 1, Osborne Computer Corp. © 1982 Ellis 
Computing. 



o 



ELLIS COMPUTING 



MAIL TODAY! To: Ellis Computing 

3917 Noriega St 
San Francisco, CA 94122 



(415)753-0186 



The CP/M operating system and 32K RAM are required. 

Indicate diskette format: D 8" SSSD 

5Va" □ Apple CP/M □ Osborne D N*SD □ N*DD 

□ TRS-80 Mod I □ Micropolis Mod II 

DTRS-80/mapper □ Superbrain DD DOS 3.X 



Indicate software packages: 



Send my order for 



□ COBOL 
D FORTRAN 



D PILOT 
□ EDIT 



packages @ $29.95 each Total 
In CA add sales tax 
□ Check enclosed D COD Shipping/handling . 



□ MasterCard 



□ VISA 



If COD add $4.00 . 
TOTAL 



Exp. Date 



Signature . 
Ship to: 
Name 



-Phone #. 



Company 

Street 

City/St/Zip . 
Country 



Offer expires 1/31/83 



Circle 165 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 



133 



• What operations are necessary in 
order to provide the minimum level 
of power consistent with the user's 
need for high-level-language capabil- 
ities? 

• What additional operations would 
be desirable, and how does the cost of 
their inclusion compare with the soft- 
ware development costs that would 
be incurred by leaving them out? 

• What will the relative frequencies of 
occurrence of each of these opera- 
tions be in terms of both time and 



space in typical user programs? 

In answer to the first question, most 
people would agree that the opera- 
tions considered vital would include 
the following: 

• 16-bit numeric push and pop 

• top-of-stack duplicate and top-pair 
swap 

• 16-bit two's-complement addition 
and subtraction 




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• 16-bit Boolean AND, OR, and 
NOT operations 

• 16-bit comparison operations 
(greater-than, less-than, and equals), 
and some means for using the results 
of comparisons to control program 
flow (if-then) 

• subroutine call and return 

• 16-bit memory -fetch and memory- 
store 

• GOTO (all structured program- 
ming ballyhoo to the contrary) 

Note that we do not have to concern 
ourselves here with any questions as 
to addressing modes. The stack- 
orientation of the language takes care 
of all that automatically. For 
example, the memory-fetch operation 
would be expected to replace the top 
stack entry with the contents of the 
memory location originally addressed 
by that stack entry. To do an indirect 
fetch then, one would simply perform 
two ordinary memory-fetch opera- 
tions in a row. To do an indexed 
fetch, one would merely get the base 
address and the index into the top 
two positions on the stack, perform 
an addition, and then perform a nor- 
mal memory -fetch. Other addressing 
modes of arbitrary complexity, such 
as triple-indirect and doubly indexed- 
indirect, can be similarly formulated 
simply by using the basic operations 
as building blocks. This synergy is a 
function of the beautiful simplicity 
and cleanliness of the stack-oriented 
approach. We can achieve a fully 
symmetrical, easy-to-learn instruc- 
tion set of enormous power without 
spending a fortune on silicon. 

One is tempted at this point to 
begin wondering just how the various 
capabilities listed above would be 
made available to the user, how they 
would be implemented in the hard- 
ware, and so on. Let us leave these 
questions aside for the moment until 
we have had a chance to address the 
last two questions raised earlier. The 
above collection of operations would 
appear to represent the true bare- 
bones minimum needed. What else 
would it be desirable for the architec- 
ture to support in the form of hard- 
ware primitives? 

Here we enter into a realm of 
speculation in which there is con- 



134 January 1983 © BYTE Publication! Inc 



Circle 173 on Inquiry card. 



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siderable room for disagreement. 
Each individual has a different idea as 
to what constitutes the ideal mix of 
hardware capabilities, and we find lit- 
tle in the way of objective criteria to 
go on, because the whole field of 
stack-oriented high-level-language 
development is still in its infancy. For 
this reason, actual working ex- 
perience with such languages is in- 
valuable. It is only by having used a 
stack-oriented language extensively 
that one can get a feel for what 
features are particularly desirable and 
what features are not. As noted 
above, I have been experimenting 
with these languages for more than 
three years now, and my personal ex- 
perience is reasonably representative 
of many of the kinds of applications 
in which a processor such as the one 
discussed here would be used. 

Turning first to the question of ad- 
ditional arithmetic operations, 
multiplication and division arise as 
prime candidates for inclusion. I have 
found considerable use for both, even 
in connection with entirely logic- 
based tasks. Multiplication is of par- 
ticular use in multidimensional array 
indexing and singly dimensioned ar- 
ray indexing in cases where the array 
element size is not a power of 2. The 
need for division crops up somewhat 
less frequently, but it and its cor- 
ollary, the modulo operation, are suf- 
ficiently time-consuming (in both 
development and execution time) for 
a programmer to implement in soft- 
ware that it is a real blessing to have 
them available as language primi- 
tives. Thus, full 16-bit unsigned 
multiplication (with a 16-bit result), 
division, and modulo are all included 
in the architecture presented here. 

Right-shift and left-shift operations 
are commonly found in current as- 
sembly languages for good reason, 
and we would hope to have them 
available here as well. Left-shift, syn- 
ergistically enough, can already be 
accomplished very easily using the 
top-of-stack-duplicate and addition 
functions. Right-shift cannot. I would 
propose to rectify this, not by supply- 
ing a right-shift operator, but by 
designing the division hardware such 
that if division by a power of 2 is 
called for, the operation will be car- 



ried out as a simple right-shift of the 
appropriate number of bit-positions. 
This arrangement has the additional 
benefit that ordinary divisions need 
take no longer to execute than the 
minimum amount of time, even in 
cases where the programmer does not 
know in advance whether or not the 
divisor in the computation will be a 
power of 2. 

The exclusive-OR or XOR opera- 
tion is the only Boolean operation 
conspicuously missing from the 
above list. It is infrequently needed, 
but to derive it using the other 
operators is comparatively time- 
consuming. One possibility would be 
to design the equals function as a bit- 
wise exclusive-NOR. This, however, 
while intriguing, would lead to prob- 
lems in other areas. Given that XOR 
is not particularly costly to imple- 
ment in hardware, it should be in- 
cluded as a hardware primitive. 

In writing programs in a stack- 
oriented language, one constantly 
finds the need for stack -manipulation 
operators more powerful than the 
simple top-of-stack-duplicate (let's 
call this DUP, as FORTH does) and 
top-pair-swap (SWAP). Because it is 
frequently useful to create a fresh 
copy of the stack entry just below the 
one on top (as FORTH's OVER oper- 
ator does), this operation should be 
included as a hardware primitive. It is 
even useful to have the ability to ac- 
cess entries arbitrarily deep in the 
stack. Sometimes the depth within 
the stack of the desired entry can be 
specified literally by the programmer 
in the source code; at other times it is 
useful to allow the depth of stack ac- 
cess to be a computed variable. By 
covering the latter case, we cover the 
former as well. Thus, we will imple- 
ment an operator called N-TH that 
will take the top stack entry as its 
argument, and replace it with a fresh 
copy of the nth item in the stack. 

I have also found considerable use 
for a peculiar stack-manipulation op- 
erator, not ordinarily found in 
FORTH, called ROTATE. This oper- 
ator bears the same relation to SWAP 
that N-TH does to OVER, that is, it 
takes the top stack entry as an argu- 
ment and rotates out the nth item in 
the stack, placing it on top of the 



136 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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stack and deleting it from its previous 
position. This operator would be 
relatively costly to implement in 
hardware (presenting perhaps a level 
of difficulty comparable to that of im- 
plementing multiplication hardware). 
However, it is impossible to simulate 
the effect of this operator using a se- 
quence of other operators. Also, in 
many situations, having it available 
can substantially simplify software 
development. For these reasons, 
ROTATE should be included as part 
of the instruction set presented here. 
One might also envision the need for 
an inverse-rotate operator, one that 
takes the top stack entry and inserts it 
a given depth into the stack. Such a 
capability is rarely needed, however, 
and using ROTATE, we could con- 
struct such an operation in software 
fairly easily. 

Control of program flow is a vital 
aspect of software design. Handling 
of conditional branches is best done 
through the use of an IF operator that 
examines the top stack entry. If it is 0, 
IF loads the program counter with the 



address of the point to be branched 
to. This allows the programmer the 
freedom to make branches condi- 
tional on the basis of the evaluation 
of any arbitrary expression involving 
both arithmetic and logical quantities 

With a stack-oriented 
approach, we can 

achieve a 

fully symmetrical, 

easy-to-learn 

instruction set 

of enormous power 

without spending a 

fortune on silicon. 

and relations. Note that, with a 
GOTO operator, an IF-THEN-ELSE 
construct can easily be provided via 
assembly-time macroinstructions 
without any need for further instruc- 
tion-set support. At the point in the 
user's code at which the ELSE occurs, 
the assembler can automatically 



generate a GOTO pointing to the ad- 
dress of the end of the else-clause. 

The other prime flow-controlling 
constructs of structured program- 
ming, such as DO. ..WHILE, 
REPEAT... UNTIL, and CASE, can 
all be implemented using various ar- 
rangements of IF and GOTO, gener- 
ated, where desired, under the con- 
trol of assembly-time macroinstruc- 
tions. 

One construct, however, stands 
out as being so useful that it deserves 
further consideration: the iterative 
loop. My proposed architecture con- 
tains a FOR instruction that expects 
upper- and lower-loop bounds to be 
presented to it on the stack; it also has 
a NEXT instruction that executes as a 
conditional branch back to the cor- 
responding FOR, along with incre- 
mentation of the loop variable. This 
arrangement has a number of im- 
plications for our machine architec- 
ture. For one, it implies that we must 
have a second stack for storing this 
FOR... NEXT loop context (we knew 
we needed this extra stack anyway to 

Text continued on page 142 




138 January 1983 © BYTE Publication! Inc 



Circle 426 on inquiry card. 



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support the subroutining feature). For 
another, it means that we will need 
two additional instructions, one to 
push the current value of the loop 
variable onto the main stack (the cor- 
responding operator in FORTH is 
generally called either PI or I ), and 
another to cause the current 
FOR. . .NEXT loop context to go away 
if the FOR... NEXT loop is terminated 
prematurely (sometimes called 
LEAVE in FORTH). 

Whether or not there should also 
be a STEP instruction, for changing 
the loop step size, is open to debate. I 
have occasionally found the need for 
such an instruction, but have also 
found that convenient alternative 
software solutions are usually avail- 
able where this need exists. For the 
sake of minimizing the cost of the 
silicon, I am in favor of leaving it out. 
One area I have purposely left to 
the end of the discussion of desirable 
features is that concerning data types. 
So far we have spoken only about 
16-bit integers. Certainly, however, 
hardware support for other data 
types could be extremely useful; 
single-byte data, for one, but 
floating-point numbers and character 
strings also come readily to mind. 
Here, however, we must be careful 
not to get carried away on the wings 
of overworked imagination. The sup- 
port of floating-point arithmetic in 
hardware is a gigantic undertaking. If 
we are seriously interested in design- 
ing an inexpensive high-level 
machine, we will have to forgo this 
luxury for the time being. Perhaps in 
the year 1995, when chips are fabri- 
cated using genetic-engineering 
techniques and gates are only 5 or 10 
protein molecules in size, inexpensive 
floating-point hardware will become 
feasible. Until then, software 
floating-point arithmetic or, at the 
most, coprocessor architectures 
should remain the rule for inexpen- 
sive systems. 

On the other hand, single-byte data 
and character-string data present no 
such overwhelming design burden. 
We can expect that the addition of 
8-bit memory-fetch and memory- 
store operations would require little 
in the way of additional processor 
logic. Also, if these operations are set 



up so that they behave just like their 
16-bit equivalents except that they 
pertain only to the low-order 8 bits of 
each 16-bit stack word, all our ex- 
isting 16-bit operators will work with 
8-bit data as well. Character strings, 
being nothing more than sequences of 
single-byte data, should also be easy 
to support in hardware. If strings are 
represented on the stack in the form 
of length foremost followed by string 
body, with one 8-bit character per 
16-bit stack entry, they are in fact 
very convenient to deal with, as ex- 
perience has shown. I have found the 
string-push-immediate operation to 
be the most useful, followed by 
string-push-absolute (in which the 
string address is taken from the top- 
of-stack), and, somewhat less useful, 
string-store-absolute. This last opera- 
tion, in fact, is rather infrequently 
needed, rather costly to do in hard- 
ware, and rather easy to do in soft- 
ware. Therefore, I think it would best 
be omitted. 

The veteran FORTH user may be 
wondering at this point what all the 
fuss here is about. So far, everything 
we have discussed has appeared to 
resemble FORTH so strongly that to 
say we are not speaking of imple- 
menting FORTH in hardware would 
appear to be an exercise in semantics. 
This is no accident. As mentioned 
earlier, FORTH is currently the most 
popular stack-oriented high-level 
language, and any source-level com- 
patibility that we can preserve be- 
tween FORTH and the language that 
is proposed here can only be benefi- 
cial to users of both languages. The 
driving differences between FORTH 
and the language proposed here ap- 
pear primarily at the object-code 
level. FORTH object code is thread- 
ed, whereas what we are discussing 
here is an object code based on ex- 
ecutable op codes. This means that, 
for example, the way in which a 
subroutine invocation will occur here 
is for the address of the called routine 
to be pushed onto the stack, after 
which a CALL instruction will be ex- 
ecuted in order to actually transfer 
control to the desired routine. 

Nothing in what has been said so 
far has in any way touched on the 
question of I/O (input/output) struc- 



142 January 1983 © BYTE Publication* Inc 



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BYTE January 1983 143 



Circle 407 on Inquiry card. 




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3 


is INTERTEC 

Edata 

= SYSTEMS. 



Operation 
Name 

Push 

Pop 

Dup 

Swap 

Over 

N-th 

Rotate 

Plus 

Minus 

Times 

Divide 

Modulo 

And 

Or 

Xor 

Not 

Grtr 

Less 

Eauals 

If 

Goto 

Call 

Return 

Fetch 

Store 

Peek 

Poke 

For 

Next 

Pi 

Leave 

Spshim 

Stgfch 



FORTH 

Mnemonic Description 



<0-9> 

DROP 

DUP 

SWAP 

OVER 



/ 

MOD 

AND 

OR 

XOR 

NOT 

> 

< 



C! 

DO 

LOOP 

PI 

LEAVE 



Push a 16-bit quantity onto TOS 

Pop entry on TOS 

Push a new copy of TOS 

Swap TOS with NOS 

Push a new copy of NOS 

Replace TOS with the TOSth deep stack entry 

Rotate TOSth stack entry out to TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS plus TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS minus TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS times TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS divided by TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS mod TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS Boolean-AND TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS Boolean-OR TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with NOS Boolean-XOR TOS; pop TOS 

Replace TOS with its 1's complement 

Replace NOS with logical NOS>TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with logical NOS<TOS; pop TOS 

Replace NOS with logical NOS = TOS; pop TOS 

Jump to address on TOS if NOS = 0; pop TOS and NOS 

Jump unconditionally to address on TOS; pop TOS 

Call subroutine at address on TOS; pop TOS 

Return from subroutine 

Replace TOS with word pointed to by TOS 

Store NOS into word pointed to by TOS; pop both 

Replace TOS with byte pointed to by TOS 

Store single-byte NOS into addr on TOS; pop both 

Begin For. ..Next loop, from TOS to NOS; pop both 

End For. ..Next 

Push For. ..Next counter value 

Exit For. ..Next context prematurely 

Push-string immediate 

Push-string absolute (string equivalent of @) 



Table 1: A list of operations that should be included in a microprocessor that could 
directly execute a FORTH-like high-level language. TOS means top-of-stack; NOS 
means next-on-stack. 



hire. This is because the most rational 
I/O structure known is the memory- 
mapped structure, and little needs to 
be said about it other than that it 
should be used here. Memory- 
mapped I/O is clean, infinitely ex- 
pandable (to the capacity of the 
address space), and requires zero pro- 
cessor support. I have never under- 
stood why a computer architect 
would want to choose any other 
method. 

We should also touch briefly on the 
question of interrupt structure here, if 
only to say that a simple one such as 
those found in the 6502 and the 6809 
should perform admirably. Because 
of the stack orientation of our 
machine, nothing but the current pro- 
gram counter and program-status 
register (condition codes) need be 
saved on the stack when an interrupt 
occurs. Note the tremendous advan- 



tage that stack orientation gives us in 
this area over register-oriented micro- 
processors, with their need to save 
and restore all user registers that have 
the possibility of being altered by the 
interrupt-handling routine (indeed, 
the more powerful the processor, the 
more registers there are to be saved 
and restored — hence, paradoxically, 
the more time consumed in respond- 
ing to interrupts). This alone should 
give our system the ability to respond 
extremely rapidly to interrupts of all 
kinds . . . not to mention the fact 
that our ability to write interrupt- 
handlers in high-level code will make 
the whole process considerably 
simpler and more glitch-resistant. 

Putting It All Together 

Table 1 lists all the basic operations 
that I have proposed for our 
hardware-implemented instruction 



144 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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BYTE January 1983 145 



8-BIT INSTRUCTION REGISTER 



15_BIT s — i _ . 1 

PUSH ^ — I °^<vj 



6-BIT 
PUSH 



NORMAL 
6-BIT 
OP CODE 




f<3 



A BYTE OF THE FORM: 



1 X X X X X I X 



EXECUTES AS A PUSH OF THE NUMBER XXXXXX, 



A BYTE -PAIR OF THE FORM: 



OYYYYYYY YYYYYYYY 



EXECUTES AS A PUSH OF THE NUMBER OYYYYYYY YYYYYYYY, 



A BYTE OF THE FORM: 



1 


1 


z 


z 


z 


z 


z 


z 



INVOKES THE EXECUTION OF OP CODE ZZZZZZ 

Figure 3: An instruction decoding method for the proposed numeric push operations. 
Using only 1 byte, you could push any number from to 63 onto the stack. With 2 
bytes, you could push any number up to 32, 767. 



set. Compared to existing micropro- 
cessors, it is remarkably short, sim- 
ple, and straightforward. In par- 
ticular, because so few op codes will 
be required to implement this set, we 
have the opportunity to do something 
quite astonishing here. 

One of the questions I raised at the 
beginning of this discussion called 
attention to the possibility that some 
operations may be found to occur 
more frequently in typical user pro- 
grams than others. This is in fact the 
case: experience has shown that the 
numeric push operation typically oc- 
curs far more frequently, in both time 
and space, than any other single 
operation. It stands to reason, then, 
that if we can somehow optimize the 
implementation of the numeric push 
for both speed and space efficiency, 
we can create an architecture whose 
performance is as unassailable as its 
ease of use. The fact that so few op 
codes are needed to implement the 



rest of the instruction set gives us this 
opportunity. 

Let's suppose that we wish to stick 
with the standard of the 8-bit byte as 
the basic unit of memory ad- 
dressability. The total number of op 



A processor of this 

type could of course be 

programmed in many 

other languages, in 

addition to its 

high-level 

assembly language. 



codes shown in table 1 is only 33. 
Allowing room for expansion and 
rounding up to the next higher power 
of 2, we decide to make allowance for 
64 distinct op codes in our instruction 
set. This leaves 256 minus 64, or 192, 



bit patterns available for other pur- 
poses. What better use to put these to 
than as short, high-speed forms of the 
numeric push operation? 

The design adopted for these short, 
high-speed numeric push operations 
is very simple. Small numbers such as 
0, 1, and 2 are the most commonly 
pushed quantities. These could be set 
up in the form of ultrashort, single- 
nybble instructions, but this would 
gain us little because we are already 
presupposing at least an 8-bit-wide 
data bus for the purpose of reading in 
the ordinary op-code bytes. In addi- 
tion, numeric pushes of larger num- 
bers — typically those representing the 
addresses of data areas, jump points, 
and subroutines — are very common, 
and we would like to optimize these 
to whatever extent we can. For these 
reasons, I have found it desirable to 
recognize two distinct flavors of 
short-form push, one of which con- 
sumes 64 of the available bit patterns, 
and the other of which consumes the 
remaining 128. The first of these en- 
codes single-byte pushes of numbers 
from up to 63; the other acts as the 
first byte of a 2-byte instruction 
whose effect is to push numbers that, 
while large, do not cover the full 
16-bit range. 

The way this works is outlined in 
figure 3. When the processor enters 
the execution phase of its instruction 
cycle, it examines the high-order 2 
bits of the byte it has just fetched 
from memory. If these 2 bits are both 
high, the remaining 6 bits in the byte 
are treated as a normal op code (e.g., 
ADD, FETCH, etc.). Otherwise, if 
the high-order bit of the byte is high, 
but the next-to-high-order bit is low, 
the remaining 6 bits in the byte are 
taken as a 6-bit quantity to be pushed 
onto the stack. Finally, if the high- 
order bit of the byte is low, the rest of 
the byte is taken as the high-order 
byte of a 2-byte quantity to be 
pushed, and the low-order byte of 
this quantity is taken from the next 
sequential location in memory. In this 
way, numbers up to 32,767 can be 
pushed onto the stack in 2 bytes or 
less — by locating one's object code 
within this address range, one can 
generate incredibly space-efficient 
code. 



146 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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There is a further bit of serendipity 
to be exploited here. Because, as now 
envisioned, all operations besides 
pushes of numbers exceeding 63 can 
be encoded in a single byte, we have 
reason to suppose that we may not 
need more than an 8-bit-wide external 
data bus in order to derive virtually 
the full level of performance of a 
16-bit machine. All we need to do in 
order to take advantage of this is to 
separate out our two stacks from the 
user's address space and to place them 
(and their internal 16-bit-wide bus) 
entirely on-chip. 

In fact, doing so will have the addi- 
tional advantage that we can then im- 
plement the stack -manipulation and 
arithmetic hardware much more easi- 
ly and directly — indeed, it even makes 
sense under these circumstances to 
consider making the processor cycle 
rate a significant multiple of the 
main-memory-access cycle rate. It is 
as though, without half trying, we 
have arrived at a low-cost architec- 
ture incorporating a high-speed cache 
memory (i.e., the stacks) whose con- 
tents are always guaranteed to be the 
most useful possible because its 
contents are entirely under program 
control! 

Figure 4 shows a possible pinout 
for a microprocessor of the kind 
described here. Astute readers may 
recognize the pinout as being iden- 
tical to that of the well-known 6502. 
Rearranging the pins slightly, one 
could imagine a processor of this kind 
being made pin-compatible with the 
6809 or any of several other currently 
common microprocessors. 



VssC 


1 


40 


]RES 


rdy[ 


2 


39 


1*2 


*1[ 


3 


38 


]N.C. 


IRQ[ 


4 


37 


3*o 


N.C.[ 


5 


36 


]n.c. 


nm1[ 


6 


35 


]N.C. 


SYNC[ 


7 


34 


]R/W 


vccC 


8 


33 


]DB0 


AB0[ 


9 


32 


]dbi 


AB1[ 


10 


31 


]DB2 


AB2[ 


11 


30 


]DB3 


AB3[ 


12 


29 


]DB4 


AB4[ 


13 


28 


]DB5 


AB5[ 


14 


27 


]DB6 


AB6[ 


15 


26 


]DB7 


AB7[ 


16 


25 


]AB15 


AB8[ 


17 


24 


] AB14 


AB9[ 


18 


23 


]AB13 


AB10[ 


19 


22 


]AB12 


AB11[ 


20 


21 


]v S s 



N.C. " NO CONNECTION 

Figure 4: A possible pin diagram for a pro- 
posed microprocessor that could directly 
run a FORTH-like high-level language. 
Some readers may notice that this is the 
same pinout as that for the 6502 
microprocessor . 

Some Closing Remarks 

A processor of this type could of 
course be programmed in many other 
languages, in addition to its high- 
level assembly language. Most if not 
all currently popular high-level 
languages, including BASIC, Pascal, 
PL/I, APL, FORTRAN, COBOL, 
LISP, and Ada, would be con- 
siderably easier to implement on a 
processor of this sort than they have 
been on existing microprocessors. 



More to the point, the compilers and 
interpreters for these languages 
would consume much less memory 
space on a machine like this than they 
do now, which would allow systems 
manufacturers to cut their prices 
substantially on systems supporting 
these languages. 

The ideas outlined here were 
developed independently (with a 
great deal of help from Mr. Ken 
Wasserman) but are no doubt similar 
in many respects to those presently 
under discussion at all the major 
integrated-circuit manufacturers' 
engineering facilities. Stack-oriented 
high-level-language hardware 
represents an eminently practical, 
cost-effective mechanism for extract- 
ing minicomputer performance from 
microcomputer hardware — at "nano- 
computer" cost. 

The reason that this development 
has been so long in coming is due to a 
number of factors, not the least of 
which is that until recently software- 
oriented personnel have had little in- 
put into instruction-set design. In ad- 
dition, an architecture of the sort 
presented here would probably not 
have been feasible prior to the advent 
of VLSI (very-large-scale integration) 
as a commercially viable mass- 
production technology. 

In this connection, it is amusing to 
note that Electronics magazine once 
ran as part of a "New Year's Wish 
List" the fervent hope that Intel Cor- 
poration's Gordon Moore be granted 
"inspiration on what to do with a 
chip holding 1 million transistors." 
This wish may be granted yet.B 




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148 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 195 on inquiry card. 






THE MD-44 

A complete 5V4" Winchester 
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IBM-PC*, APPLE*, OSBORNE*, 
KAYPRO*, ALSPA*. XEROX 820*, 
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any Z-80, CP/M* system. 
Software includes SOURCE CODE 
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available for OASIS*, TURBODOS* 
and others. 

Easy installation. Fast data access. 
No special buss required. 
Full six-month warranty. 

ALSO AVAILABLE: 

MD-10(11 MB formatted): $2695. 

MD-20 (22 MB formatted): $3595. 

A networking option handling up to 

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Scotts Valley, CA 95066 
Call (408) 438-5454 



Registered trademarks of IBM Corp Apple Computer, Inc Osborne Computer Corp Kaypro, Inc Alspa Computer Inc., Xerox Corp Heath Company Tandy Corp. Godbout Electronics, tnc 
North Star Computers Inc Digital Research Inc Phase One Systems Inc and Soltware 2000, Inc 

Circle 250 on inquiry card. 



The Panasonic portable computer 

We've improved the way 

Link „ Panasonic. 

It will improve the way you 
solve problems. And the 
solutions come from the 
portable computing power 
you have at your 
fingertips. You can take it 
with you on planes, cars, 
boats, anywhere, because 
it fits into a suitcase. You can 
be more cost effective in the 
field, because you'll have 
access to more information for 
making on-the-spot decisions. 
You'll have the incredible 
advantage of being able to 
telecommunicate from anywhere 
you are. It gives you a whole 
new world of computing. 
Portable computing. 

Software Solutions — Now 

there's an exciting new software 
system for the 6502 
microprocessor that gives you more 
solutions to your problems. 
The popular language software for the portable computer includes 
Extended Basic Compiler/ Interpreter, SnapFORTH and Microsoft Basic.® 
The Panasonic portable computer also has a wide range of specific 
software programs for your specific problems, such as: 

The Scientific Calculator — An incredibly powerful tool that solves mathematical problems for the 
scientist, engineer, and professional wherever they go. 




Portabudqet — It's your portable personal financial manager. It gives you up-to-the-minute personal 
control. It allows you to be your own record keeper, savings advisor, accountant, bill manager, credit 
and charge account guide, investment counselor, portfolio keeper, and tax assistant. Overall, it 
helps plan your personal financial life, portably. 

Portacalc — Gives you the portability and the flexibility to automatically analyze numerical problems 
wherever and whenever they arise. You can assess "what if" alternative business problems, 
comprehend key variables in business, and dynamically analyze problems on engineering projects. 

Portawriter — It allows you to write, edit, and format information. And, you can telecommunicate the 
information from wherever you are. Whether you're in the boardroom, hotel room, or even on a golf 
course, Portawriter gives you full editing and formatting capability for notes, reports, letters, news 
copy, tables, lists, forms, orders, you name it. 

Portalpg — It is an easy, precise tool for time-billing professionals without a minute to lose. Whether 
you're on the road or in the office, you can log time, compile bills, generate billing reports, and track 
the work of your highly paid employees. Portalog gives you improved timekeeping productivity. 

Telecomputin g 2™ — It lets you telecommunicate with your data base. You can establish 
communications between headquarters and field forces. Exchange files and programs between 
remote stations. Access timesharing services and store data in a large computer's mass storage. 
You can also upload and download program data. 



with a wide range of new software, 
you solve problems. 



Portaflex -A master program that allows you to create solutions for applications, such as: 

□ Inventory Control —Analysis and control of inventory while you're on the job. 

□ Order Entry -A customized system for any sales order entry. It offers you productivity, and the 
advantage of faster order entry. 

o Field Service - Retrieve, diagnose, and analyze your field service data wherever you are in the field. 

a Auditing and Accounting -Custom auditing and accounting, anywhere you are in the field. 

□ Estimating —versatility for flexible bidding and estimating at your job site. 

Software Development Tools for the Customizer — Create your own custom programs and burn 
them into your EPROM so your program is recorded in nonvolatile form. 

Simply taKe a desk top microcomputer,* insert the software development discs, create your own 
program, de-bug that program, compile the program, then "burn-in" your problem-solving EPROM. 



* Presently offered for Apple II Plus. 



Hardware Specifications - 

The Panasonic portable computer offers 6502 
microprocessor (1 MHz) technology. 

□ It offers 4K or 8K internal nonvolatile RAM 

□ 48K internal ROM 

□ Built-in Ni-Cad rechargeable battery pack 

□ External AC adapter/recharger 

□ 26-character liquid crystal display 

□ 65-key completely redefinable keyboard 



Introducing Peripherals for Additional Solutions — 

Modular peripherals let you customize your system. 

□ Multiple RS-232C serial interfaces 

a Asynchronous modem with cassette interface 
(110 or 300 baud) 

□ 40-character microprinter (thermal dot matrix printing) 
a 8K or 16K RAM memory expansion packs 

□ X-Y four-color plotter (up to 80 characters per line) 

□ TV adapter (32 characters X 16 lines with color 
and graphics) 



The Panasonic portable computer. It's improved the way you solve problems. Because we believe 
its portable modules and multiple software applications can vastly improve your productivity. And that 
can be an important solution to your profit problems. 

The portable computer from Panasonic. We've improved the way you solve problems. 

Link Panasonic. It's changing the way the world uses computers. 




Please send me more information. 

Panasonic Company, Hand-Held Computers 
One Panasonic Way, Secaucus, New Jersey 07094 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 



Name (PLEASE PRINT) . 
Title & Company 



II Type of Business, 
^fc Address 



City- 



Phone Number ( 



.State. 



.Zip_ 



Panasonic. 

just slightly ahead of our time. 



Circle 319 on inquiry card. 



Maximizing Power 
in Multiuser Architectures 

A system design combines the advantages 

of a single-processor multiuser system 

with those of both loosely and tightly coupled networks. 

Mark Garetz 

Compupro Systems 

Box 2355 

Oakland Airport, CA 94614 



The microcomputer industry is wit- 
nessing a trend toward more power- 
ful (i.e., 16-bit) systems. At the same 
time we see a demand for systems 
capable of serving a number of users 
simultaneously. Multiuser environ- 
ments can be achieved in many ways. 
In this article I'll discuss Compupro's 
approach to the problem, but first 
let's consider a few basic multiuser ar- 
chitectures. 

The classic multiuser system con- 
sists of a single CPU (central process- 
ing unit), lots of memory, and the ap- 
propriate number of I/O (input/out- 
put) ports. The single processor 
serves all the users of the system by 
means of timesharing. The concept is 
fairly simple (although implementa- 
tion is quite tricky): every few 
microseconds, a timer causes an inter- 
rupt to the system that causes the pro- 
cessor to suspend what it is doing for 
the current user and to do something 
else for the next user in line. In a two- 
user system, the processor switches 
back and forth between the users. In a 
system with more than two users, the 
processor usually goes around the 
circle, servicing each user in turn. A 
more sophisticated system might give 
certain users more time than others, 
according to each user's priority. 

Although it is by no means simple 
to write, the software for the classic 
multiuser system is all written for one 
processor. This means that the 



operating system is in tight control of 
all the system resources (in theory, 
anyway). The effectiveness of this ap- 
proach depends greatly on the effi- 
ciency of the hardware used to imple- 
ment it. Hardware that performs well 
in a single-user environment may per- 
form miserably in a multiuser en- 
vironment (but we'll delve into that 
later). At some point, the maximum 
capacity of every single-processor 
multiuser microcomputer system is 
reached, usually at around three to 
four users. In simpler terms, we could 
say that the maximum capacity of the 
system is reached when the speed or 
performance suffers noticeably if 
another user is added to the system. 
With poorly designed hardware, this 
could happen at the two-user level; 
with well-designed hardware, it could 
occur as high as the eight-user level. 
Of course, the application of the sys- 
tem has a lot to do with the point at 
which performance seems affected. 
For example, in a computation-inten- 
sive environment, the maximum 
capacity of a well-designed system 
might be reached at four users. In a 
less intensive environment (such as a 
database inquiry system in which ter- 
minal use is low, and the chance of 
everybody's using the system at once 
is minimal) the maximum capacity of 
the system might be 16 users. 

The point of this discussion is that 
every single-processor multiuser sys- 



tem will at some point reach its maxi- 
mum capacity, and if the desired 
number of users exceeds the maxi- 
mum capacity of the system, the sys- 
tem will slow down. The degree of 
slowdown depends on how many users 
the system is handling above its max- 
imum capacity. Depending on the ap- 
plication, the slowdown may be 
tolerable. In most cases (with well-de- 
signed hardware) the system will still 
be many times faster than timeshar- 
ing with a large computer at 300 bps 
(bits per second) over the phone lines. 

But many of us are accustomed to 
fast single-user microcomputers and 
notice (and resent) the least slow- 
down. An obvious solution is to keep 
our single-user microcomputers and 
let the other people in the office get 
their own if they need computers. In 
many cases this is a good solution, 
although it's usually much more ex- 
pensive than a multiuser system. The 
major problem with this solution is 
the difficulty of sharing common 
resources, such as an expensive hard- 
disk drive, a letter-quality printer, or 
a common database that everyone 
needs to access. With independent 
microcomputers, sharing of common 
resources is next to impossible. 

Of course, it's possible to hook 
together all these independent sys- 
tems to form a network of microcom- 
puters. In a network, each connected 
device is called a node. Every node 



152 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



THE PERSONAL 
COMPUTER AD 
OUR COMPETITION 
DOESN'T WANT 
YOU TO READ. 



It's an ad for NEC's APC™ 
Advanced Personal Computer. 
A solutions-oriented system that 
solves business problems in the 
simplest, most cost-effective way. 
The APC supports both CP/M-86™ 
and MS-DOS™ It can store more 
information than any system in its 
price range. In short, it's got the 
best price/performance of any 
personal computer. That's why our 



competition would p r 
never see our systr 4 
We asked som 
len who sjj 
Jus why t 
'reason' 
The\ 
Tonly p 



w you 



"That APC of yours is t h 
powerful computer of f^ 
I saw. I don't know hov 
for that price." 

"Now that I've used it 
awhile, I see why you nam 
Advanced Personal Compute?! 
And that from bu° : gasmen 
who have tested iu 
When you see the|| 
understand why, a 
others, all of these b 
picked NEC. 

Our business software 1 
was optimized to take 
advantage of the APCs 
unique hardware features. That 
makes system operation faster 
and easier. 

Our software includes a full set 
of general accounting packages, 
word processing, mailing list 
management, business planning, 
database management, and com 
munications. And we're readying 
many more. 
We're the only company to 
back our software with a unique 
nconditional guarantee. It wi 
■vork or you get your money 
"back. 
Smaller businesses use the 
'APC as their principal data pro 
ng system. It handles everythi 
nting and order pr 
~ to mailing list anffl 
agement. 

ger companies use the 
decision support and 
ications tool for managers 





Our high-resolution color 
graphics run circles, arcs and lines 
around everybody else. The APCs 
screen images— lines, characters, 
pictures— are unprecedented in 
their clarity. 

See the personal computer our 
competition wishes had never been 
invented. The Advanced Personal 
Computer from NEC. Return the 
coupon to NEC Information 
Systems, Inc., 5 Militia Drive, 
Lexington, MA 02173. 



APC is a trademark of Nippon Electric Co.. Ltd 
CP/M-86 is a trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 
MS-DOS is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc 



Send me more information on the BE183 
Advanced Personal Computer. 



Address 



City, State. Zip 



Company 




Telephone 

NEC 

NEC Information Systems, Inc. 

5 Militia Drive, Lexington, MA 02173 



The Benchmark in World Class Computers 

Circle 287 on inquiry card. 



A WORD TO THE WISE. 




No one gives you more in an economically engineered 

smart terminal than Wyse. 



These days there's little room for 
waste of the corporate dollar. And 
these days the WY-100 smart terminal 
looks even better when you compare 
it to the other guys. 

You definitely get more from Wyse 
— the leader in low-cost, high-per- 
formance, ergonomically engineered 
smart terminals. 

To begin with, you get a great 
looking terminal that features die 
cast aluminum packaging and takes 
up a minimum of desktop space. 

You also get a terminal with an 
uncanny way of pleasing people. It 
comes with an easy-on-the-eyes 
green phosphor screen. And a fully 
tilting/rotating display and detached 
keyboard. (After all, one person's 
just-right-tilt is another's not-quite- 
right-tilt). 

When the workload seems impos- 
sible, horizontal and vertical split 
screen capabilities with independent 
scrolling allow you to be in two places 
at once. 



There's more. You get program- 
mable function keys and transparent 
print. Plus 128 characters with upper 
and lower case, line drawing and 
graphics, and a keyboard with 105 
keys — including cursor pad, special 
mode and function keys. 

Of course, all of this wouldn't mean 
much if you couldn't count on Wyse 
quality. That's why each WY-100 is 
put through an extensive on/off 
testing program. 

On top of that, WordStar® and other 
emulations are now available from 
your distributor. Which means you 
can automatically get 32 of WordStar's 
most commonly used multi-key com- 
mands fully-implemented on our func- 
tion keys for faster, easier use. 

We think you'll be quite impressed 
when you compare the WY-1 00 to 
other terminals in its class. But don't 
take our word for it. Call or write us 
today. We'll send you detailed infor- 
mation on why the WY-1 00 smart 
terminal gives you more. A lot more. 




2184 Bering Drive, San Jose, CA 95131 
(408) 946-3075 TLX 910-338-2251 

In the East, call (516) 293-5563. 



WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro, Inc. 
UL and FCC approved. & 1982 Wyse Technology, Inc. 



154 BYTE January 1983 



Circle 493 on inquiry card. 



must have a certain amount of intelli- 
gence. A combination terminal/com- 
puter/mass-storage node (commonly 
referred to as a workstation), must 
have the raw computing intelligence 
to perform normal computing tasks 
and to send and receive messages 
over the network. If the node is a 
printer, it need possess only enough 
intelligence to send and receive 
messages. 

Distributed Processing 

Networking is one form of what is 
called distributed processing. The 
name comes from the fact that the 
processors are distributed throughout 
the computing environment. In the 
case of networking, these processors 
are located some distance from one 
another, and they are not linked 
together very tightly; that is, it would 
be very difficult for one processor in 
the network to control the actions of 
another. Appropriate software could 
make one processor appear to control 
another, but in reality each processor 
is quite isolated from the others. Such 
a system is said to be loosely coupled. 

Another form of distributed pro- 
cessing involves multiple processors 
housed in the same cabinet. In this in- 
stance, a master processor usually 
controls the actions of all the slave 
processors. In a single-user environ- 
ment, various parts of the computing 
task would be divided among the pro- 
cessors; each would perform a certain 
part of the task but simultaneously 
with the other processors, thus speed- 
ing up execution. This process is 
called parallel processing because 
many processors are used to complete 
the task, each processor running in 
parallel with the others. 

Large-scale computers use parallel 
processing to get very high through- 
put. The technique is being im- 
plemented at the chip level as well. 
For example, the Intel 8086 uses two 
processors internally: one to handle 
operations on the bus and the other to 
decode and execute the instructions. 
This has a measurable effect on per- 
formance. The concept has been ex- 
panded further in the Intel iAPX 286 
(also known as the 80286) with four 
internal processors, further sub- 
dividing the tasks. The effect on per- 



formance is dramatic. 

The above-mentioned form of 
parallel processing is also a network 
of processors. However, it differs 
from the networks I discussed pre- 
viously in being tightly coupled; that 
is, one master is in tight control of all 
its slaves. 

In microprocessor systems, parallel 
processing has been used to increase 
the throughput of multiuser systems 
by essentially assigning a processor 
and independent memory to each 



user. The advantage of such a system 
is that the maximum system capacity 
is extremely high, usually only 
limited by the speed of mass storage. 
Such systems operate as networks, 
with each processor running in- 
dependently. Some implementations 
are loosely coupled, and others are 
tightly coupled. 

Hardware That Supports 
Multiuser Architectures 

System designers can prevent per- 



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Your Assurance of Value and Service. 




Circle 79 on inquiry card. 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 155 



formance degradation in multiuser 
systems in several ways. The most 
obvious method is to use high-speed 
RAM (random-access read/write 
memory), high-performance disk- 
drive controllers, and powerful, high- 
speed processors. One of the reasons 
that Compupro has designed its family 
of products to such high standards of 
performance is to make certain that 
nothing will impede multiuser archi- 
tectures. In fact, much of our hard- 
ware is designed to enhance the per- 



formance of multiuser architectures. 
Later in this article, I will describe a 
new processor board that brings un- 
precedented multiuser computing 
power to the realm of microcom- 
puters and the IEEE (Institute of Elec- 
trical and Electronics Engineers) 
696/S-100 bus. First, however, I will 
discuss other ways of enhancing the 
performance of multiuser systems. 

Our processor and memory boards 
are the fastest available. Our disk- 
controller boards use DMA (direct 



Take A Test Drive! 



J 

ADA 

N 
U 
S 



We all know how important the 
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But how do you choose the right 
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needs? 



Now we've just made it easier for you to make the right choice. 
Our new demo package allows you to experience the power of 
JANUS/Ada. 

JANUS/Ada is a subset implementation of Ada that includes many 
features not found in any other micro-processor programming 
language. These include true modular programming, full error 
messages in English, error walk-backs, and re-entrant initialized 
variables. These and more features are described in greater detail 
in our informative brochure. -32HI 

Take up to 30 days to experience the power of JANUS/Ada. Make 
sure it does what you want. Then if you find it isn't right for you, 
send it back and we II return your money, no questions asked. But 
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package at the introductory price of $30.00. This offer concludes 
after the West Coast Computer faire, March 31, 1983. Drop by the 
Faire and see us at our booth. —-^ 



The language Information 

that is based call, write or circle our reader service number to receive our 
informative brochure. 



on the past 
but looks to 
the uses of 
the future. 



ffts 



Ordering 

Please specify your microcomputer, CPU, disk format and operating 
system. 

JANUS/Ada Demo Disk and Manual 

Contains evaluation compiler, linker and example programs. 
Available on 8" MS-DOS, 8" CP/M, Apple softcard 

and IBM-PC .... ,?**S?^^^^^^ ^Tr7 . $30.00 

$30.00 can be applied to full JANUS/Ada package. 

JANUS/Ada Package 

Contains complete compiler, linker, assembler, example programs, 

manual and more Prices from $300 

Available on most disk formats. Call for your system price. 



CP.'M, CP/M 86 MP.'M 86 ate trademarks of Digital Research, 
■ ADA is a trademark of the U.S. Deparlmeot of Defense 
MS DOS is a trademark of Mictosofl 
Apple Softcatd is a trademark of Microsoft, Inc 

©Copyright 1982 RR Software 



OFTWARE 



specialists in slate of the art programming 



P.O. BOX 1512 MADISON, WISCONSIN 53701 



244-6436 



memory access) transfers, which offer 
maximum throughput because they 
move data between an I/O channel 
and memory without going through 
the processor. Our I/O boards are 
designed to allow easy integration 
into a multiuser environment. 

All of our products are designed for 
the IEEE 696/S-100 bus. The modu- 
larity and flexibility of that bus are 
vital to our ability to offer the wide 
range of multiuser solutions we are 
about to discuss. In our multiuser 
System 816/C, one central processor 
board's time is shared among all the 
users in the system. The processor 
board happens to be our innovative 
CPU 8085/88 dual-processor board, 
which allows simultaneous execution 
of both 8- and 16-bit programs. The 
operating system is a proprietary im- 
plementation of Digital Research's 
MP/M-86 that we call MP/M-816. It 
is a true 16-bit operating system; 8-bit 
applications are handed off as a task 
to the 8-bit processor for execution. 
This system can handle up to 15 
users, depending on the application. 

However, this system incorporates 
products that system integrators have 
been familiar with for years. Let's dis- 
cuss some of our newer hardware de- 
signed specifically for multiuser ap- 
plications. 

Multiplexer Channels 

IBM developed a type of data chan- 
nel, known as the multiplexer chan- 
nel, that is actually a separate, small 
computer dedicated to increasing the 
speed of input/output operations. 
The channel controls the flow of data 
between the system's RAM and the 
outside world. A channel that serves 
only a single I/O device (such as a 
terminal) is called a selector channel. 
A multiplexer channel serves more 
than one I/O device by interleaving 
data from the various devices under 
its control. 

Compupro's MPX-1, a multiplexer 
channel for the S-100 bus, contains a 
6-MHz 8085 processor, 4K or 16K 
bytes of RAM, up to 8K bytes of 
EPROM (erasable programmable 
read-only memory) using a 2764 
device, an 8259A interrupt controller, 
and a complete TMA (temporary 
master access) interface to the bus. 



156 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 349 on inquiry card. 



The 8085, RAM, and EPROM allow 
execution of programs on the MPX-1 
in parallel with the CPU on the bus. 
The interrupt controller monitors any 
or all of the eight vectored-interrupt 
lines on the bus. The TMA interface 
allows the MPX-1 to talk to any 
memory location or I/O port on the 
bus. Also included are a mechanism 
that enables the master CPU (some- 
times called the host CPU) to get the 
MPX-l's attention and a mechanism 
by which the MPX-1 can cause an in- 
terrupt to the host. 

The purpose of a multiplexer chan- 
nel is to off-load the task of process- 
ing system interrupts from the host 
CPU. Consider what happens in a 
normal system when an I/O board 
causes an interrupt because a 
character is ready from a terminal. 
The CPU has been running a task for 
its current user when a second user 
presses a key. The I/O board receives 
the character from the terminal and 
causes one of the vectored-interrupt 
lines to go into the active state. The 
CPU must suspend what it is doing 
for the current user (which it does by 
saving its entire state on the stack) 
and jump to the service routine for 
that interrupt. The service routine 
reads the character from the I/O 
board and puts it into a buffer. First 
the service routine may check the 
character to see if it is any of several 
special control characters such as a 
back space or carriage return. If a line 
has been completely entered (in- 
dicated by a carriage return) it may 
set a flag so that the task that requires 
this input will know that it's ready for 
processing. Buffer pointers need to be 
updated along with a status byte that 
tells the number of bytes in the buf- 
fer. Then the service routine returns 
to a routine that restores the state of 
the previous task and resumes execu- 
tion of that task. 

This whole operation, simply to 
process one character, may take 
several hundred processor cycles for 
execution. This is time stolen from 
the original current task, which has 
the result of slowing that task down. 

Now consider the same process if a 
multiplexer channel such as the 
MPX-1 is in the system: the same in- 
terrupt line is made active on the bus, 



but this time the MPX-1 sees the inter- 
rupt and the onboard 8085 responds 
instead of the host CPU, which con- 
tinues its execution undisturbed. The 
MPX-1 then steals one bus cycle to 
read the character from the I/O 
board. The MPX-1 checks the char- 
acter for special control characters 
and responds accordingly. Buffer 
pointers are updated, and the char- 
acter may be written to a buffer in the 
host's memory space (stealing one 
more bus cycle) or be kept in a buffer 
on the MPX-1. A flag may be set if it 
was a carriage return (again stealing 
another cycle). 

The difference is that the MPX-1 
processed the interrupt in parallel 
with the host CPU, stealing only a 
few cycles from another task, rather 
than several hundred. It is clear that a 
multiplexer channel can greatly in- 
crease the throughput of a multiuser 
system. The MPX-1 is capable of per- 
forming many other tasks in a system 
(printer spooling is another), and 
more than one MPX-1 can be used in 
the same system. 

Slaves and Masters 

We have seen how the addition of a 
front-end processor can speed up the 
operation of a single-processor multi- 
user system, but in many situations 
even that speed improvement is not 
enough. In these cases, devoting a 
separate processor to each user is the 
only way to get maximum through- 
put, but it is also nice to retain the ad- 
vantages of a tightly coupled environ- 
ment. 

Compupro has recently introduced 
two new products to satisfy these re- 
quirements. However, before I get in- 
to the specifics of these products, I 
should clarify the various ways that 
multiple processors can exist on the 
IEEE 696/S-100 bus. 

Each S-100 system must have a 
master processor that is in control of 
the whole system. This is called the 
permanent master. In most systems, 
this is the processor board that we are 
all familiar with. The system may 
also have up to 16 temporary masters 
that request control of the bus from 
the permanent master. A priority sys- 
tem decides which of the 16 tempo- 
rary masters gets control of the bus. 



The process of requesting and receiv- 
ing control of the bus (and the subse- 
quent running of bus cycles by the 
temporary master) is called TMA 
(temporary master access). TMA dif- 
fers from DMA (direct memory ac- 
cess) in that a temporary master may 
either access memory or perform I/O. 

The MPX-1 and all of Compupro's 
disk controllers are implemented as 
true IEEE 696 temporary masters. 
They request use of the bus from the 
permanent master and arbitrate for 
priority in the manner prescribed by 
the IEEE standard. 

Memory and I/O boards on the 
bus are known as bus slaves because 
they are subservient to the masters. 
Any bus master (permanent or tem- 
porary) may talk to any bus slave. 
The bus-interface circuitry is much 
more complicated for a master than it 
is for a slave. 

Compupro's two new products that 
address the need for a processor per 
user are called slave processors for 
two reasons. One is that there is 
always a powerful master CPU over- 
seeing system operations (which we'll 
get to later). The other is that these 
processors are implemented as IEEE 
696-bus slaves rather than as tem- 
porary masters. 

We had many reasons for im- 
plementing our slave processors as 
bus slaves instead of temporary 
masters. As I mentioned earlier, the 
bus-interface circuitry for a slave is 
less complex (meaning it takes up less 
precious board space) than it is for a 
temporary master. When we get into 
the specifics of each slave processor, 
you'll see why that's important. 

Also remember that a temporary 
master can access any memory or I/O 
location on the bus. If the slave pro- 
cessors were implemented as tem- 
porary masters, it's possible that one 
slave could severely mess up the 
operation of another slave, causing 
slave or system crashes. Protecting 
one user from crashing another or the 
whole system is vital. How protection 
was achieved by implementing the 
slave processors as slaves will be- 
come clear later. 

Another important design con- 
sideration in developing a processor- 
per-user system was the limitation on 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 157 



the number of temporary masters 
allowed by the IEEE 696 arbitration 
scheme. Up to 16 temporary masters 
are allowed, but that doesn't translate 
to 16 users. Remember that disk con- 
trollers and the like are also im- 
plemented as temporary masters, and 
this would cut down the number of 
users a system could support. 

Last came the consideration of the 
software required for such a system. 
The orchestration of multiple tem- 
porary masters is a much greater task 
than programming a single, powerful 
CPU to handle interprocessor com- 
munication. 

The first slave processor we de- 
signed was intended to fill two basic 
needs. The first requirement was to 
provide 8-bit and 16-bit capability for 
our 16-bit-only processor boards — 
CPU 8086/87, CPU 68K (the Motoro- 
la 68000), CPU 16032 (the National 
Semiconductor 16032), and CPU 286 
(more on this later). When we devel- 
oped the first 8- or 16-bit dual- 
processor board, the CPU 8085/88, 
we realized that we were fulfilling the 



very real need to use the newer 16-bit 
software while retaining the ability to 
use older 8-bit software. Unfortunate- 
ly, we couldn't fit an 8-bit processor 
on every new 16-bit processor board, 
so we needed a slave 8-bit processor 
to give dual-processing capabilities to 
systems based on the newer processor 
boards. 

The second need was for a high- 
performance, 8-bit node in a pro- 
cessor-per-user multiuser system. 

Compupro has filled both these 
needs with a Z80B-based slave- 
processor board called the SPU-Z 
(SPU for slave-processing unit, Z for 
Z80). The SPU-Z contains the follow- 
ing: a 6-MHz Z80B processor, 192K 
bytes of DRAM (dynamic RAM), 
two RS-232C serial ports, an atten- 
tion port so that the host CPU can get 
the SPU-Z's attention, a method by 
which the SPU-Z can cause an inter- 
rupt to the system, 2K bytes of start- 
up EPROM, and 4K bytes of fast, 
static, and dual-port RAM for com- 
munication between the bus and the 
SPU-Z. 



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5 CCS 2065 64K Dynamic RAM 250 

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1 CROMEMCO D+7A 220 

1 CROMEMCO SYSTEM ONE 

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4 IMS 4SIZO 235 

3 IMS 5" FDC 380 

1 IMS 16K STATIC RAM 195 

1 IMS Cartridge Disk controller 590 

3 ITHACA INTERSYSTEMS 64K RAM 400 

1 ITHACA INTERSYSTEMS V I/O 345 

1 ITHACA INTERSYSTEMS FDC 450 

1 MEMORY MERCHANT 64K RAM 450 

1 PER SCI 1170 Floppy disk controller 300 

1 SD SYSTEMS VERSAFLOPPY II (assembled) 350 

1 SD SYSTEMS Video Board 370 

3 SIERRA DATA SBC -100 SLAVE 500 

1 SSM I/O 4 KIT 140 

4 SSM I/O 4 ASSEMBLED 200 

1 SSM Terminator Board 45 

1 SSM PB1 Prom Burner 180 

1 SSM CB1A CPU 130 

2 SYSTEMS GROUP DMB 64K RAM 495 

1 TARBELL FLOPPY DISK CONTROLLER 320 

1 TELETEK FDC II 245 

1 TELETEK SYSTEMASTER 650 

SOFTWARE (for CP/M or TURBODOS Operating Systems) on 8" single sided, 
single density media 

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1 CCS; CP/M 2.2 ' 50 

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1 INNOVATION: TIM III 100 

4 ITHACA INTERSYSTEMS CP/M 2.2 100 

5 MICROCALL M-CALL Communications 50 

1 MICROPRO SUPERSORT .100 

1 MICROPRO SPELLSTAR 100 

1 MICROSOFT MACRO 80 120 

1 MICROSOFT MULISP/MUSTAR 160 

1 SORCIM PASCAL M 135 

2 TARBELL DISK BASIC .65 

DISK DRIVES: Floppies and Winchesters 

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1 CORVUS 20 MB DRIVE 1,500 

1 CORVUSMIRROR 500 



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4 IMS 20 MB SUBSYSTEM 


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1 IMS 40 MB SUBSYSTEM 


3,895 


2 MP1 B92 80 TRACK 5" DRIVES 


250 


QUME DT 8" DOUBLE SIDED DRIVES 


490 


8 SHUGART 801 8" SINGLE SIDED DRIVES 


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29 TEI RM 12 SLOT RACK MOUNT MAINFRAME . 


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1 TEI DFD FLoppy disk enclosure 


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CRT TERMINALS 




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1 HAZELTINE 1421 (out of warrantee) 


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SPU-Z Specifics 

Let's examine the various portions 
of the board in more detail: The Z80B 
and 64K bytes of DRAM form the 
main execution engine for any 8-bit 
task. The two serial ports provide 
connection for a terminal and local 
printer for the user. Having the ter- 
minal and printer local rather than on 
the system bus helps to keep bus 
usage down and therefore increase 
the bus capacity. 

The SPU-Z's dual-port RAM prob- 
ably requires the most explanation. 
Dual-port RAM is memory that two 
processors can access. In this case, the 
two processors are the onboard Z80B 
and any other S-100 bus master 
(either permanent or temporary). The 
dual-port RAM is used by SPU-Z to 
transfer information to and from the 
host system. The dual-port RAM can 
reside on any 4K-byte boundary in 
the full 16-megabyte address space on 
the S-100 bus. Internally, the dual- 
port RAM can be made to overlay 
any 8K-byte section of the DRAM 
(along with the EPROM). Also, Com- 
pupro's disk controllers and the 
MPX-1 can transfer data directly to 
the dual-port RAM, again maximiz- 
ing throughput. 

Lastly, the SPU-Z may cause an in- 
terrupt to the host system, and the 
host system may signal the SPU-Z by 
its attention port, much like the 
operation of an MPX-1. 



Super Slaves 

We realized that the need existed 
for a truly high-performance slave 
processor, which meant that the slave 
itself should have 16-bit capability. 
High-speed number crunching was 
also at the top of the want list for 
users who needed a higher perfor- 
mance node. 

Having one of the few multiuser 
systems in existence with a place for a 
high-speed Intel 8087 math processor 
(on the CPU 8086/87), Compupro 
was one of the first companies to 
realize a definite limitation of the 
8087 in multiuser systems. 

The problem is that the 8087 has 
quite a number of registers, all 80 bits 
long. Remember that to switch users, 
all these registers must be saved on 



158 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



The new TEAC half height disk drive gives you everything you expect from a top 
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2.2 Mb. The TEAC drives operate under PC DOS 1.1 (80 track drives come with JFORMAT, 
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BOARDS 

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• Clock Calendar Card. Features 
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• Prom Blaster. Programs most 4K to 
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SOFTWARE 

• Home Finance. Easy to use checkbook 



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Choose the V300 Q/A for the color 
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• Princeton graphics HX-12 RGB color 
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Figure 1: A typical system configuration with a CPU 286 master processor (based on Intel's iAPX 286) with its main system memory 
and floppy- and hard-disk storage. Up to 4 megabytes of M-Drive/H solid-state disk is supported by the system for ultrafast access 
times. Any mix of up to sixteen 8-bit or 8-/ 16-bit slave processors may be plugged into the system. (Figure provided courtesy of Com- 
pupro Systems.) 



the pushdown stack (where a micro- 
processor temporarily puts data that 
will be needed later) and another 
user's previous register's contents 
must be moved into the 8087. Well, 
that's a lot of information to move 
that often, and that means operation 
gets slower. The solution seemed ob- 
vious to us: give users who need to 
crunch numbers their own 8087s. 

Because many people are accus- 
tomed to using both 8-bit and 16-bit 
software, we decided to give this 
high-performance slave node an 8-bit 
processor as well. 

So there you have the basic ar- 
chitecture for the SPU-D— an 8-MHz, 
16-bit Intel 8088, an 8087 socket, and 
a 6-MHz Z80B. We also needed at 
least 192K bytes of DRAM (16-bit 
programs are big), the same dual-port 
RAM and EPROM as are on the SPU-Z, 
and two serial ports. That's a lot of 



computing power to give each user in 
a multiuser environment. 

The SPU-D operates with its dual- 
port RAM in an identical fashion to 
the SPU-Z. The two boards differ 
mainly in the addition to the SPU-D 
of the 8088/87 pair. 

Power and User Protection: 
CPU 286 

Any of Compupro's previous CPU 
boards (CPU Z, CPU 8085/88, CPU 
8086/87, CPU 68K, CPU 16032) can 
be used to control a system consisting 
of any number of slave processors 
(limited by the available slots in the 
motherboard), but we wanted to pro- 
vide a processor board that could 
serve as the foundation of a multiuser 
microcomputer system with un- 
precedented power. 

The CPU 286 is a processor board 
based on Intel's 80286 super 16-bit 



microprocessor, and is particularly 
suited to this task (see figure 1). The 
Intel 80286 can address 16 megabytes 
of RAM (from a 1 -gigabyte virtual 
address space), has full memory map- 
ping and protection built into the 
chip, and is designed to switch be- 
tween tasks very quickly. In fact, the 
80286 can switch tasks in only 17 to 
22 microseconds {us); by comparison, 
the admittedly powerful Motorola 
68000 takes around 150 ps and its 
enhanced descendant, the 68010, 
takes 110 /is. Furthermore, the 80286 
will run any code written for the 
8086/88 but executes the code four 
times faster than an 8086 running at 
the same clock speed. Incidentally, 
the CPU 286 board runs at 10 MHz. It 
also has a socket for the 80287 math 
coprocessor chip, and additional cir- 
cuitry to allow the use of either 8- or 
16-bit memory. 



160 January 1983 © BYTE Publication* Inc 



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Among the 80286's many impres- 
sive features, none is more important 
than its built-in memory protection. 
One of the drawbacks of a single- 
processor multiuser system is that it is 
extremely difficult to keep the 
sophisticated user from crashing 
another user or the whole system. 
Because a single processor is doing 
everything, it also has access to 
everything. It can get to the last bit of 
every user's memory area. Processors 
such as the 80286 provide a great deal 
of protection between users, but it's 
still possible for one user to crash the 
entire system. 

The advantage of using the slave 
processors is that the master pro- 
cessor is in direct control of com- 
munications within the system. The 
master processor also never has to ex- 
ecute a program for a user; it's only 
executing the operating system. (In a 
single-processor system, the pro- 
cessor executes the program and the 
operating system.) It now becomes 
easy to restrict the system-wide 
effects of a single slave processor. Of 
course, sophisticated users can crash 



their own slave, but they can't affect 
any others. The system still runs. 

Summing Up 

We at Compupro believe that our 
multiuser architecture embodies the 
best of both network systems and 
single-processor systems. The ar- 
chitecture includes a network of high- 
performance slave processors that ex- 
hibits the best characteristics of both 
loosely and tightly coupled networks, 
with the network organized around a 
single processor of tremendous 
power. 

Because our systems are based on 
the IEEE 696/S-100 bus, we can mix 
and match any combination of the 
multiuser systems I've discussed (soft- 
ware permitting). We could start out 
with a single-processor system such 
as a System 816/C, later upgrade that 
to use a CPU 286 as the master pro- 
cessor, and add an MPX-1 to increase 
throughput even more. Then we 
could add an M-Drive/H solid-state 
disk emulator (for up to 4 megabytes 
of super-fast storage). When that sys- 
tem reaches its limit (which shouldn't 



be for quite a while) we can start to 
give some users their own SPU-Zs. 
Those users who need even greater 
computing power can get their own 
SPU-Ds. 

The Next Step: 

Networking Multiuser Systems 

I haven't talked much about how 
Compupro proposes to connect 
several of the above systems into a 
network of multiuser systems. To be 
truthful, we're waiting for the dust to 
settle a bit with all the various net- 
working schemes presently in opera- 
tion before we decide which one to 
use. For the time being, several 
people are using the synchronous 
serial channels on our Interfacer 3 
and 4 boards to connect multiple 
Compupro systems together. Imagine 
the potential of several 16-user, SPU- 
D/CPU-286-based systems all 
hooked together in a single network. 
We intend to continue producing the 
most powerful microcomputer 
systems possible while maintaining 
flexibility to use future technological 
innovations. ■ 



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Z8 SERIAL EXPANSION BOARD 
BCC08 Z8 Serial Board 
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MOTHER-BOARD 
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with 5 connectors (Gold) 
Assembled & Tested .... S81.00 

UNIVERSAL POWER SUPPLY 

+5@300ma. +12& -12V@50 ma. 
UPS01 Assembled and 

Tested $ 35.00 

UPS02 Kit S 2700 

+5 @ 1 amp. +12 & -12V @ 50 ma. 
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UPS04 Kit S 50.00 

Z8 CROSS ASSEMBLERS 

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XAS01 ForTRS-SOModl . S 75.00 

XAS02 For TRS-80 Mod III S 75.00 

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Z8 is a trademark of Zilog Inc 

CP M is a trademark of Digital Research 



As featured in Ciarcia's Circuit Cellar. 
Byte Magazine, July. August, 1981. 

Z8 BASIC COMPUTER/CONTROLLER 

BCC01 Z8 Basic Computer 

Assembled & Tested ... $199.00 
BCC02 Z8 Basic Computer 

Kit S169.00 

Z8 MEMORY, I/O EXPANSION & 
CASSETTE INTERFACE 
BCC03 Z8 Expansion Board 

w/4K memory S1 40.00 

BCC04 Z8 Expansion Board 

w/8K memory $170.00 

Z8EPR0M PROGRAMMER 
BCC07 Z8 EPR0M Programmer 
Assembled* Tested 
$145.00 




162 lanuary 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 497 on inquiry card. 



Circle 498 on Inquiry card. 



£#!/&€ Mmmpj $*)Qimm mathi 



L&JUU^LIL 



HARDWARE 

8 MHZ 16 bit (8088) CPU 
6 MHZ 8 bit (8085) CPU 
Up to 1 megabyte 10 MHZ 

static RAM 
2.4 Megabytes of IBM 

compatible 8 inch 

floppy disk storage 
up to 80 Megabytes 

Winchester disk storage 
20 Slot IEEE 696/S-100 bus 

9 RS-232C serial ports 



SOFTWARE 

MP/M ,M 8-16 IM including: 

CP/M-80™ 

CP/M-86'*' 

MP/M-86' 
dBASEM™ Data Base 

Management 
SuperCalc IM Financi 

Planning 
WordStar™ Word 

Processing (optional) 



16 bits -Financial planning 



Not all computers can 
lead your business into 
the future. 

Buying a multi-user com- 
puter system is a big invest- 
ment. In time, training, and 
money. So you'd better 
choose a system that won't 
become obsolete. 

Circle 211 on inquiry card. 



16 bits -Accounting 





You can begin your invest- 
ment with a single user in- 
stallation.Then, you can add 
up to 6 more terminals as 
your business grows. And 



as you need it. 

it does the job of two 
generations of computers 
at the same time. 

With a Gifford Computer Sys- 
tem you can use any of the 
thousands of 8 bit cp/M" 
programs available. And any 
of the faster 16 bit CP/M pro- 
grams, too. if you're using 



CP/M already, your invest- 
ment in training, software 
and data is protected. 

Our systems are designed 
with your future in mind. 



1*1* f Wlf KM •/» M-H Wi 



as new technology becomes 
available it can be in- 
tegrated into your com- 
puter at an affordable price- 
protecting your hardware 
investment. 

you get all the support 
you II ever need. 

We have centers in San Fran- 
cisco and Los Angeles, with 



complete demonstration 
and support facilities. Call 
now for a demonstration. 

Cifford Computer Systems. 



your future. 

mpm 8 16 is a proprietary implementa- 
tion of MP/M-86 and was configured for 
comouPro bvG&G Engineering CP/M and 
MP/M are registered trademarks of Oigi 
tal Research SuperCalc Is a trademark 
of sorcim WordStar is a trademark of 
MicroPro international corpdBASEll is 
a trademark of AshtonTate compuPro 
is a trademark of codbout Electronics 

Cifford Computer Systems 
is an authorized 
CompuPro Systems center. 




Circle 181 on inquiry card. 




HOME COMPUTERS 

A 

ATARP 



16K $199 



BOO 




32K 



iNon Atari Ram 



T. $274 48K $499 



48K. '. . .." . . . $ 3 5 9 

4 1 Recorder $74 00 

8 1 Disk Drive $429.00 

822 Printer $26900 

825 Printer $589.00 

830 Modem $159.00 

820 Printer $259.00 

850 Interface $169 00 

CX40 Joysticks (pair) $ 1 8.00 

CX853 Atari 1 6K Ram $77.95 



New low price effective January 1 . 1 983 

Microtek 1 6K Ram $ 74.95 

Axlon Ramdisk (128K) $429.95 

Intec 48K Board $159.00 

Intek 32K Board $ 74.00 

One Year Extended Warranty $ 70.00 

CX481 Entertainer Package $ 69.00 

CX482 Educator Package $130.00 

CX 483 Programmer Package $54.00 

CX 484 Communicator Package $344.00 



SOFTWARE FOR ATARI 



Pac Man 
Centipede 
Caverns of Mars 
Asteroids 



ATARI 

$33 Missile Command ... $29 

$33 Star Raiders $35 

$32 Galaxian $33 

$29 Defender $33 



ON-LINE 

Jawbreaker $27 Mission Asteroid $22 

Softporn . $27 Mouskattack . $31 

Wizard & Princess. ... $29 Frogger S31 

The Next Step $34 Cross Fire (ROM) $36 

SYNAPSE 

File Manager 800. . . $89 Shamus $26 

Chicken $26 Protector. $26 

Dodge Racer $26 Nautilus $26 

Synassembler $30 Slime $26 

Page 6...! $19 Disk Manager $24 

DATABOFT 

Pacific Highway. $25 Graphic Generator $13 

Canyon Climber $25 Micro Painter $25 

Tumble Bugs $25 Text Wizard $79 

Shootmg Arcade $25 Spell Wizard $64 

Clowns & Balloons $25 Bishop's Square $25 

Graphic Master $30 Sands of Egypt . . $25 

EPYX 

Crush Crumble $24 MorlocsTDwer $16 

Undead Crypt $24 Rescue at Rigel $24 

Curse ot Ra .-£16 Ricochet S16 

Datestones $16 Star Warrior $29 

Invasion Onon $1Q Temple Apshai $29 

Arthur's Hen $24 Upper Reaches $16 

APX 

Text Formatter Si8 50 Holy Grail S24 

Family Budget $1850 Pia>er Piano $13.50 

Easlsrn Front $24 Keyboard Piano $1850 

Family Cash $18 50 Number Blast $13 

Jukebox $13 Frogmaster $1850 

Downh.il $1850 747LandSimul *;I8.50 

Out'aw $18 50 Word Processor S40 



K-razy Shoot Out 
K-razy Kritfers 



CE3S 

$32 K-razy Antics 
$32 K-star Patrol 



STICK STAND 

$ 6" 




VIB1CORP 

For Apple, IBM Si Franklin 

Visidex $189.00 

Visifile." $189.00 

Visiplot $1 59.00 

Visiterm $89.00 

Visitrend/Plot $229.00 

VisiSchedule $229.00 

Desktop Plan $189.00 

VISICALC for Apple II plus. Atari, CBM & IBM 1 79.00 
CONTINENTAL 

The Home AcountanMApple/Franklin) $59.00 

The Home Accountant (IBM) $ 1 1 9.00 

1 st Class Mail (Apple/Franklin) $59.00 

SIRIUB 
Free Fall $24 Space Eggs $24 

Beer Run $24 Sneakers $24 

Snake Byte $24 Bandits $28 

BRODERBUND 
Apple Panic $23 Arcade Machine . $34 

David's Magic $27 Choplifter $27 

Star Blazer $25 Serpitine $27 

INFOCOM 

Deadline $35 Zork I $29 

Star Cross $29 Zork II or III $29 

MPC 

Bubdisk H28K Ram) $719.00 



PRINTERS 

Smith Corona 

TP 1 $599.00 

C.ITOH (TEC) 

Starwriter (F1 0-40CPS) $1 399.00 

Printmaster (F1 0-55CPS) $1 749.00 

Prowriter 80 Col(P) $499.00 

Prowriter 80 Col (S) $629.00 

Prowriter 2 (1 32 Col) $799.00 

OKI DATA 

82A $429.00 

83A $659.00 

84P $1 079.00 

84S $1199.00 

IDB 

MicroPrism $649 00 

132 (fully configured) $1 599.00 

80 (fully configured) $ 1 399.00 

Call for other configurations. 
DAI BYWR I TE R 

Letter Quality $1 049.00 

DIABLO 

620 $11 79.00 

630 $ 1 849.00 




DISK DRIVEB FOR 
ATARI COMPUTERS 

51 Single Drive $549.00 

A1 Add-On Drive $339.00 

52 Dual Drive $879.00 

Single Side Dual Head . . $679.00 
Dual Drive Dual Head. . $1046.00 



B/ 



u-sa 



■■■Val 



MICRQ-SCI 

DIBK DRIVES FOR 

FRANKLIN B. APPLE 

A2 $299.00 

A40 $369.00 

A70 $499.00 

C2 Controller $79.00 

C47 Controller $89.00 



FLOPPY DISKS 

MAXELL VERBATUM 

MD I (Box of 10) $32 5V4" SS DD $26 

MD II (Box of 1 0) $44 SW DS DD $36 

MFD I (8") $40 ELEPHANT 

MFD II (8"DD) $50 5%" SS DD $19.99 



MONITORS 

AMOEK 

300G $ 1 69 00 

Color I $339.00 

Color II $699.00 

Color III $429.00 

BMC 

1 2" Green $85.00 

13" Color 1400 $279.00 

13" Color 1401 (Mid Res) $369.00 

ZENITH 

ZVM 121 $99.00 

BHARP 

Sharp 1 3" Color TV $275.00 

PANASONIC 

TR-120 MIP(High Res. Green) $159.00 

CT-1 60 Dual Mode Color $299.00 



MODEMS 

HAYES 

Smart $239.00 

Smart 1 200 (1 200 Baud) $549.00 

Chronograph $199.00 

Micromodem II (with Term) $309 00 

Microdem 1 00 $309 00 

NOVATION 

Cat $1 44.00 

D-Cat $159.00 

Auto Cat $21 9.00 

21 2 Auto Cat $589.00 

Apple Cat II $279.00 

212 Apple Cat II $609.00 

ANCHOR 

Mark I (RS-232) $79.00 

Mark II (Atari) $79.00 

Mark III (TI-99) $109.00 

Mark IV (CBM/PET) $1 25.00 

Mark V (OSBORNE) $95.00 

Mark VI (IBM-PC) $1 79.00 

Mark VII (Auto Answer Call) $11 9.00 

TRS-80 Color Computer $99.00 

9 Volt Power Supply $9.00 



west 



800- 648-33 1 1 

IN NV. CALL (70E) B8B-5BB4 
P.O.BOX SB89 STATED NE, NV. 89449 



west 



international OBDEBB:Ali shipments outside continental United States must be pre-paid by certified check only! Include 3% (minimun $3.00) 
shipping and handling. educational OlSCOUiMTBrAdditional discounts are available from both Computer Mail Order locations to qualified 



Educational Institutions. 



Circle 107 on inquiry card. 



F 



FRANKLIN 



$ $ § 



M 




ACE 10 with Controller Card 
ACE Writer Word Processor 

CALL... 

FOR SYSTEM PRICE. 




NEC 

3BBO Printer 
SEOS9 

PERCOM DRIVES 

5V4" 1 60K Disk Drive 

5'A" 320K Disk Drive 

AMDEK 

31 0A Amber Monitor 

AmdiskOW) Drive 

DXY Plotter 




$329 
$449 

$179 

$729 

.$759 



RAIMA DISK DRIVES 

Call for price and availability on tne 
new Rana Disk Drives for the Apple and 
Franklin Computer Systems 



commodore 

8032 $999.00 

CSM 64 CALL 

4032 $749.00 

8096 Upgrade Kit $369.00 

Super Pet $1 599.00 

203 1 $369.00 

8250 Double Sided Disk Drive $1 699.00 

D9060 5 Megabyte Hard Disk $2399.00 

D9060 7.5 Megabyte Hard Disk $2699.00 

8050 $1 299.00 

4040 $969.00 

8300 (Letter Ouality) $1 549.00 

8023 $599.00 

4022 $399.00 

New Z-Ram, Adds CP/M and 64K Ram $549.00 

The Manager $209.00 

Magis CALL 

Word Pro 5 plus $319.00 

Word Pro 4 plus $299.00 

Word Pro 3 plus $ 1 99.00 

The Administrator $379.00 

InfoPro Plus $21 9 00 

Power $79.00 

VIC 20 Dust Cover $6.99 

CBM 8032 Dust Cover $1 4.99 

CBM 8050/4040 Dust Cover $1 0.99 

I vic »o ' i; " 5S " 
$ 179 

VIC 1 530 Commodore Datassette $69.00 

VIC 1 540 Disk Drive $339.00 

VIC 1541 (64 Disk Drive) CALL 

VIC 1 525 Graphic Printer $339.00 

VIC 1 21 3K Memory Expander $32.00 

VIC 1 1 1 8K Memory Expander $53.00 

VIC 1 1 1 1 1 6K Expansion $94.00 

VIC 101 1 RS232C Terminal Interface $43.00 

VIC 1 1 1 2 VIC IEEE-488 Interface $86.00 

VIC 1211 VIC 20 Super Expander $53.00 

VIC Mother Board $99.00 



SOFTWARE 

I.U.S. Easywriter II 

I. U.S. Easyspeller 

Peachtree Peach Pak (GL/AP/AR). . . 
MPC Bubdisk 



$249 
.$129 

$419 
. . . call 



Whp\ HEWLETT 
WLkM PACKARD 

HP 41CV 
CALCULATOR 



209 




HP41C... 
HP 10C... 
HP 11C. 
HP 12C... 
HP 15C... 
NEW 1 6C 




*m 



64K RAM 

780 KB Disk Storage 

Word Processing, Ultracalc CP/M 

C-Basic Software 

Smith Corona TP1 

Letter Quality Printer 

$2995.00 



HEWLETT PACKARD 




ra 

HP«85 




HP-125 $1969 00 

HP-85 16K Memory Module $169 00 

5'/4"Dual Master Disk Drive $1 799.00 

Hard Disk w/Floppy $4349 00 

Hard Disk $3549.00 

"Sweet Lips" Printer $11 99.00 

80 Column Printer $649.00 



PC-1500 

POCKET 
COMPUTER 



$ 209 



CE 150 Printer, Plotter and Cassette 

Interface Unit $1 72.00 

CE152 Cassette Recorder $69.00 

CE 1 55 8K Ram Expansion Module . . . $94.00 



Timex Sinclair 1000 

$89 




TELEVIDEO 
TERMINALB 

910 $579.00 

91 2C $699.00 

920C 749.00 

925C $749.00 

950 $950.00_ 

800A $131900 

802 $2649.00 

802H $4695.00 

806 $5495 00 

816 $9495 00 




16K Memory Module 

Vu-Calc $1795 The Organizer 

Super Math $12.95 The Budgeter 

Check Book Manager $13 95 Stock Option 

Loan & Mortgage Amomzer $ 1 2 95 



$44 95 

$14 95 
$1195 
$14 95 



SEC 

COMPUTERS 

8001A $729.00 

8031 $729 00 

8012 $549.00 

PRINTERS 

8023 $499.00 

77 1 0/7730 $2399 00 

3510/3530 $1599 00 

MONITORS 

JB-1 260 $ 1 29 00 

JB-1201 $159.00 

JC-1201 $319 00 

JC-1 203 $729.00 



800-233-8950 



IN PA. CALL (71 7) 3B7-9575 
477 E. THIRD ST., WILLIAMBPOBT, PA. 1 7701 



east; 



Circle 107 on inquiry card. 



In-stock items shipped same day you call. No risk, no deposit on COD orders Pre-paid orders receive free shipping within the continental United States with no waiting period 
for certified checks or money orders Add 3% (minimum $3 00) shipping and handling on all COD and Credit Card orders NV and PA residents add sales tax All items subiect 
to availability and price change NOTEi We stock manufacturer's and third party software for most all computers on the market' Call today for our new catalogue 



Personal Computers 
in the Eighties 

A recent study shows the market potential 
for the next decade is enormous. 



Data-processing managers, 
manufacturers, and market analysts 
alike have raved in unison about the 
vast potential for personal com- 
puters. The diverse applications, the 
encouraging price/performance 
ratios, and the vast untapped market 
all promise big things for those small 
systems. But just how big will the 
future market be and what will it in- 
clude? 

According to a recent study by The 
Eastern Management Group, a firm 
specializing in market forecasts for 
the data-processing industry, the 
market potential over the next decade 
is enormous. The Eastern Manage- 
ment Group interviewed many of the 
major manufacturers and vendors of 
personal computers, some potential 
manufacturers of these computers, 
and more than 850 owners or 

About the Author 

Greggory S. Blundell is a market analyst 
with The Eastern Management Group, a New 
Jersey-based market-research firm. Mr. 
Blundell has participated in numerous studies 
on both the telecommunications and data- 
processing markets. He is currently involved in 
a study of the computer peripherals market. 



Greggory S. Blundell 

The Eastern Management Group 

520 Speedwell Ave. 

Morris Plains, NJ 07950 

operators of microcomputers. We 
weighed the information received 
from these interviews against several 
factors, including the present and 
projected economic climates, the key 
choices confronting the personal 
computer marketplace (such as that 
between 8- and 16-bit micropro- 
cessors), and the potential acceptance 

One of the principal 
forces contributing to 

the recent market 

growth has been the 

gradual acceptance of 

personal computers by 

corporate data- 
processing managers. 

of microcomputers in the home, 
business, and educational markets 
throughout the decade. Combining 
all of these factors, we were able to 
make several forecasts by ex- 
trapolating two different types of 
sales data: that concerning personal 
computers sold as replacements and 
that concerning computers sold as 



new systems or additions. We then 
collected the results of all this work 
into a report called 'The Ten Year 
Market for Personal Computers." 
Here I will present several findings 
from that report that may be of in- 
terest to BYTE readers. 

Growth of the Market 

It turns out that 1982 was a banner 
year for microcomputers. Approx- 
imately 1,440,000 personal com- 
puters were shipped around the 
world; more than 1 million were sold 
in the United States alone. That 
translates into a 70 percent leap over 
the previous year's shipments — and 
that in the midst of an ailing 
economy. And this looks to be only 
the beginning (see figure 1). 

Why has this happened? For one 
thing, personal computers are under- 
going a liberation from "basement 
toy" status. As this changeover accel- 
erates, more and more home users, 
who at one time merely contemplated 
the purchase of a personal computer, 
will now actually take the plunge and 
buy one. 

Furthermore, through the late 



166 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



With Chart-Master; 

creating quality graphics is 

as easy as apple pie. 




No matter how you 
slice them, pie 
charts, bar charts and 
scatter diagrams are a lot 
easier to read and understand 
than rows and columns of numbers. 
Now you can create colorful business graphics any- 
time you need them, with an easy-to-use Chart- 
Master graphics software program. A program that 
works with Hewlett-Packard plotters and your IBM® 
or Apple® personal computer. 



iii 





Values printed at data points; both left and right Y-axis scales; floating 
legends & bars; both horizontal & vertical formats; exploded pie sections. 

Just enter your data, choose a chart format, 
preview the chart on your screen, and Chart-Master 
will automatically create a beautiful, presentation- 
quality chart. In seconds. 

There's more to Chart-Master than simplicity. 
Incredible power and sophistication. You can enter 



data manually or auto- 
matically from VisicalC 1 
and other programs. Print 
on either paper or acetate 
transparencies. Make your 
charts any size, anywhere on the page. 
Have your text appear in attractive print-quality 
type. Choose from sophisticated formats that in- 
clude percentage bars, stock price (High/Low/ 
Close) and area charts. 

Power and ease-of-use. That's why Chart- 
Master is in daily use at major corporations like GE, 
Eastman Kodak, Exxon, Union Carbide, GM, AT&T, 
DuPont, 3M, Citibank, Motorola, Proctor & Gamble 
and GTE. 

The retail price of Chart-Master is $375. For a 
complete information kit and name of your nearest 
dealer, contact Decision Resources, Inc., 21 Bridge 
Square, Westport, CT 06880. (203) 222-1974. 

DecisionResources 

Software Designed for Decision Makers 



Visicalc is a trademark of Visicorp. Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer Inc. 
IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 



Circle 144 on inquiry card. 






12 
11 
10 
9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



WORLDWIDE SHIPMENTS 





1 


■ 1 


f% 


wammm^mmrm i ■ i 


w^mmmmm i i i i 


^mmm^am i i i ■ i 


i ■ i i i i i 




■ i 


I I I I I I 




m 




M 


ill 




n i 


ill 


i i i i i i 



81 



82 83 



84 



85 86 87 
YEAR 



88 89 



90 91 



Figure 1: Predicted worldwide shipments of personal computers. 



1970s and early 1980s, a growing 
change in the structure of the labor 
force became evident. New managers 
entering the business community 
brought with them a keen awareness 
of computer systems gained from 
both college study and home use. 

Indeed, one of the principal forces 
contributing to the recent market 
growth has been the gradual accep- 
tance of personal computers by cor- 



porate data-processing (DP) 
managers. From 1975 to 1982, an ini- 
tial reluctance on the part of DP 
managers to use personal computers 
was slowly supplanted by a grudging 
admittance of the microcomputer's 
usefulness. In 1983, DP managers will 
play a commanding role in the pur- 
chase of personal computers. Not 
only will they be buying Apple lis, 
TRS-80s, etc., for themselves, but 



they will also be laying down 
guidelines as to what systems may be 
used by their employees. 

The change is significant. It in- 
dicates the emergence of a coor- 
dinated approach on the part of the 
business sector toward personal com- 
puters. In 1983, 45 percent of per- 
sonal computers brought into busi- 
nesses will be acquired through the 
decision-making policies of corporate 
data-processing managers; by 1985, 
the number will rise to 70 percent. 

Home users also will approach per- 
sonal computers deliberately and sys- 
tematically. These buyers will include 
not only experimenters and pioneers 
but also educated consumers who 
measure system excellence in terms of 
performance and productivity. 

The Business, Home, and 
Educational Markets 

During the 1980s, most of the per- 
sonal computer users will be in the 
business community. The primary 
users will continue to be white-collar 
managers, administrative personnel, 
scientists, and engineers. 

Many manufacturers realize this. 
IBM has followed Apple and Tandy 
into the business market. The 
latecomers, Digital Equipment Cor- 
poration (DEC) and Wang, will also 
focus on the business sector. By 1985, 
revenues will clearly indicate that for 
companies like IBM, DEC, and 



Need More Serial Ports ? 



• • « * 



Price 

$249.00 



!* Add a BTA smart multiport controller to your C.P.U. 
"*" The MODEL 524 expands a single RS232 port to four 
individual ports with port selection and baud rate 
controlled by user software. 

I *" Buffered inputs permit simultaneous operation in- 
creasing data exchange rate. 

I "H" 62K spooler model also available. 



Bay Technical Associates 

P. O. Box 387, Bay St. Louis, MS. 39520 
601 - 467-8231 



168 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 51 on inquiry card. 



FOR $4995 YOU CAN NOW HAVE A COMPACT, COMPLETELY 

INTEGRATED SYSTEM WITH A 12 INCH DIAGONAL NON-GLARE 

HIGH RESOLUTION COLOR MONITOR, DUAL 400 KB DRIVES AND A 

DOT MATRIX 140 CPS BI-DIRECTIONAL PRINTER. 

THE ALL-IN-ONE EXECUTIVE DESK-TOP 

WORKSTATION 



BMC if 800 



Operating Systems 

8 BIT 

Standard: CP/M 

Optional: MP/M II 

with CP/NET* 

MP/M II with up to 4 users 

16 BIT CPU 

MS DOS* 

(IBM PC Compatible) 

CP/M* 86 

(CP/M, MP/M Compatible) 

and much more... 




Wide Variety of Software to choose 
from (also an 8/16 BIT System.) 



THE POWERFUL, VERSATILE, 
BEAUTIFUL, RELIABLE AND 
EASY TO USE BMC if 800 IS 
NOW EXCLUSIVELY 
DISTRIBUTED BY: 

•CP/M, MP/M and CP/NET are 
trademarks of Digital Research. 
Circle 61 on inquiry card. 



BMC SYSTEMS INC. 

1900 Avenue of the Stars 

Penthouse Suite 2840 

Century City, California 90067 

(213) 557-9002 

1-800-BMC-8003 



CANADA 
COMPUTER 

1285 Britannia Road, East 

Ontario, Canada L4W 1C7 

(416) 677-7972 

BYTE January 1983 169 



CP/M® Users: 

Access IBM 
with ReformaTTer™ 



ReformaTTer conversion software lets 
you read and write IBM 3740 disk- 
ettes* on your CP/M or MP/M system. 

ReformaTTer is ideal for CP/M users 
who want 

• Access to large system data bases 

• Distributed data processing 

• Offline program development 

• Database conversion 

With ReformaTTer, you have the 
ability to 

• Bidirectionally tranfer complete 
files between CP/M and IBM 

• Automatically handle ASCII/ 
EBCDIC code conversion 

• Display and alter IBM 3740 direc- 
tory and data 

Enjoy the same advantages of main- 
frame access that other ReformaTTer 
users have. Customers like Upjohn, 
M&M/Mars, The United Nations, 
Arthur Young & Co., Sandia Labs, 
FMC Corp., and Stanford University 
all use ReformaTTer. So can you. 

Other versions of ReformaTTer con- 
version software include 

CP/M ~DEC(RT 11) 

TRSDOS Mod. II - CP/M 

TRSDOS Mod. II - DEC (RT 11) 

Order ReformaTTer today for only 

$249. 

*IBM 3740 basic data exchange format. Refor- 
maTTer requires one 8" floppy drioe. 



PERSONAL COMPUTER 
SHIPMENTS IN THE U.S. 




(415) 324-9114 

TWX: 910-370-7457 

467 Hamilton Av., Suite 2, Palo Alto, CA 9430 1 
CP/M is a reg. trademark of Digital Research 



Please send complete information on the follow 
ing versions of ReformaTTer 



Please send ReformaTTer CP/M ~ IBM. My 
check for $249 (plus $5 shipping. Cal. 

Res. add 6'/2% sales tax). D Charge to my 

n VISA l i MasterCard. 

* exp. date 



Signature 

Name 

Company 

Street 

City 

State 



Zip 



Mail to MicroTech Exports, Inc. 

467 Hamilton Ave., Palo Alto, CA 94301 



CO 



o 




Figure 2: The predicted shipments of personal computers in the U.S. broken down into 
three market segments: businesses, homes, and educational institutions. Although a 
majority of personal computers will continue to end up in businesses, an increasingly 
larger portion will be purchased by home users and schools. 



Wang, the path to greatest success 
leads (as it always has) directly into 
the business market. 

Accordingly, DP managers and 
other business users can expect 
enhanced marketing and advertising 
campaigns directed at them, and 
more systems permitting a great 
variety of applications will be pro- 
moted in the marketplace with gusto. 

The reason for this enthusiasm is 
that the potential business market is 
huge. Approximately 55 million 
white-collar workers are employed in 
the U.S. alone. At the end of 1982, 
1,600,000 systems were spread 
among U.S. business establishments; 
thus only 1 out of every 34 white- 
collar workers could boast a personal 
computer. 

Throughout the 1980s many cor- 
porations that have not yet purchased 
a system will buy one. By 1991, ap- 



proximately 55 percent of all 
businesses owning one system will 
have invested in an additional per- 
sonal computer. The result will be a 
substantial number of new personal 
computers claimed by the business 
sector each year. In 1983, 1,026,000 
new systems will be shipped to U.S. 
companies, bringing the installed 
base (total units installed) of business 
personal computers up to 2,642,000. 
By 1988, about 12,500,000 will have 
been installed. As we embrace the 
1990s, U.S. business establishments 
will have accrued an installed base of 
more than 15 million personal com- 
puters (see figures 2 and 3). 

U.S. households will also begin 
buying personal computers at an in- 
creasing pace, although not as rapidly 
as domestic businesses. New low- 
priced systems such as the 
Timex/ Sinclair 1000 (for a review in 



170 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 284 on Inquiry card. 



PERSONAL COMPUTERS 

TOTAL UNITS 
INSTALLED IN THE U.S. 



</> 



20 



15 



10 



/ 


BUSINESS / 


/ home yS 


^ 


1 1 1 1 


EDUCATION 
i i i 



81 82 83 84 85 



86 87 
YEAR 



88 89 90 91 



Figure 3: The predicted total number of personal computer units installed in the U.S., 
broken down by market segment. 



this issue, see page 364), the Com- 
modore VIC-20, and the Atari 400 
will appeal to finance-minded house- 
holds that once viewed personal com- 
puters as unjustified luxuries. Ag- 
gressive and clever advertising, such 
as that evidenced by Commodore, is 
aimed at the heart of the home mar- 
ket. Personal computer technology is 
becoming less a threatening concept 
and more a familiar acquaintance. 

Families with annual incomes of 
more than $25,000 will account for 
the overwhelming majority (90 per- 
cent) of households investing in a 
system. Such a system will be pur- 
chased with money set aside for 
recreation. These households will 
naturally have fairly large recreation 
funds to tap and, therefore, be willing 
to approach the personal computer 
marketplace. 

At present, 621,000 systems are 
scattered throughout U.S. 
households. One year from today, 
that number should jump to more 
than 1 million. According to our 
studies, five years from now, 4.2 



million systems will be located in 
U.S. homes; and as 1990 rounds the 
bend, U.S. home users should ac- 
count for 6.8 million systems (see 
figure 3). 

A third part of the personal com- 
puter market triad, the education seg- 
ment, will be slower to turn to per- 
sonal computers than the other two. 
Lack of response to date has been 
primarily due to the poor economic 
factors plaguing school districts and 
universities. Simply stated, school 
budgets at the local level have not 
grown at the same rate as expenses. 

Despite financial limitations, 
however, a change is in the offing. 
Computer training and literacy are on 
the rise at all levels of education. Us- 
ing personal computers as teaching 
aids, universities and colleges are of- 
fering many courses in computer 
science, while at the same time pro- 
viding easy access to the personal 
computer regardless of the student's 
field of study. 

Basic data-processing courses are 
springing up in high schools and even 



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Ohio: 216/464-6688 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 171 



grammar schools. And, of course, 
there are those intriguing computer 
camps where children can attend one- 
to two-month courses in computer 
programming during their summer 
vacations. 

Educational institutions are grow- 
ing more receptive to computers each 
year. Their logic is simple: the invest- 
ment of often less than $300 per stu- 
dent to introduce him or her into the 
intricacies of data processing is an in- 
vestment well made. At this time, 
barely 250,000 systems exist in U.S. 
schools. By the beginning of 1990, 
that number will jump almost tenfold 
(see figure 3). 

8 Bits versus 16 Bits 

The proliferation of personal com- 
puters is not occurring in a vacuum. 
Several competitions are pulling and 
shaping the marketplace. One of 
these is the tacit yet intense battle be- 
tween 8-bit and 16-bit personal com- 
puters. 

Prior to 1981, very few 16-bit per- 
sonal computers existed. Data- 



processing managers and home users 
studied the market and generally 
came away with an Apple II, a 
TRS-80 Model II, or a Commodore 
PET— all 8-bit systems. 

But soon advances in semiconduc- 
tor technology permitted a reduction 
in prices, and affordable 16-bit 
microprocessors began appearing in 

The competition 

between 8-bit and 

1 6-bit systems means a 

far wider selection, 

especially for the 

business segment. 

personal computers. During 1982, a 
wave of personal computers carrying 
16-bit microprocessors washed over 
the marketplace. A majority of these 
systems were built around two 
microprocessors: Motorola's 68000 
chip and Intel's 8086 chip. (Indeed, 
within the 16-bit microprocessor 
ranks, there seems to be a contest to 



see who will be king of the hill, Intel 
or Motorola. In terms of numbers, In- 
tel holds an advantage. But, 
Motorola is coming on strong with its 
68000, which was chosen by Tandy 
for its Model 16.) 

As the number of systems carrying 
a 16-bit architecture increased, so too 
did the number of 16-bit operating 
systems. Currently, the two most 
popular 16-bit operating systems are 
Microsoft's MS-DOS and Digital 
Research's CP/M-86. But the com- 
petition here is also heating up, and 
more entrants, such as perhaps a 
16-bit Unix-like system, are sure to 
enter the fray. 

This competition between 8- and 
16-bit machines means a far wider 
selection of products to choose from, 
especially for the business segment. 
The various 16-bit systems now 
available — and you can bank on 
more appearing as the year pro- 
gresses—allow wider and more 
sophisticated applications. The upper 
echelon of the white-collar work 
force will turn to these 16-bit systems 



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172 January 1°83 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 370 on Inquiry card. 



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BYTE January 1983 173 



Circle 132 on Inquiry card. 



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precisely because of their greater 
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So far, businesses have used per- 
sonal computers most often for client 
records and accounting purposes, text 
editing, mailing lists, and financial 
planning. Applications such as stock/ 
investment analysis and graphics do 
not appear to be as common. The 
power of the 16-bit systems will pro- 
mote more sophisticated applications 
by businesses. Because of their price 
tag — a typical system costs $5000 — 
these 16-bit personal computers will 
initially find their way into larger 
organizations. But that too will begin 
to change during the 1980s as 16-bit 
systems become less expensive. They 
will gradually supplant 8-bit systems 
within the business market segment. 

The home market segment, on the 
other hand, doesn't really have a need 
for a personal computer carrying a 
16-bit microprocessor. According to 
one of our surveys, the top four ap- 
plications in the home market seg- 
ment are, in descending order, games 
(entertainment), financial planning, 
education, and banking. The 8-bit 
machines on the market now can han- 
dle those applications as well as a 
16-bit machine. And in the case of 
games, some 8-bit machines are 
distinctly better. 

This does not mean 16-bit systems 
will not affect the home market. 
Quite the contrary, 16-bit personal 
computers such as the Fortune 32:16 
and the TRS-80 Model 16 will have 
great impact. Because of the extreme- 
ly competitive nature of 16-bit 
systems marketing, vendors of 8-bit 
systems will have to keep lowering 
their prices. And as prices are 
slashed, it is ultimately the home user 
who will benefit. 

The shift from 8-bit to 16-bit 
machines will also affect the software 
industry. For a long while, indepen- 
dent software vendors focused on the 
8-bit operating system called CP/M. 
But no longer are they concentrating 
solely on 8-bit software. Their efforts 
are more and more being directed 
toward the 16-bit world. For the 
business user this means a wider 
selection of enhanced software; and 
home users will find more software 
directed specifically toward them. 



174 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Be Wise. 
Be Thrifty. 









EfjjP 




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Photo 1: The Osborne 1 portable computer. 



Photo 2: The Compass portable computer by Grid Systems. 



In short, the division of the per- 
sonal computer marketplace into two 
segments, 8-bit and 16-bit systems, 
will mean a greater selection for users 
in terms of both price and perfor- 
mance. 

Portable Systems 

One of the biggest changes in the 
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ing the 1980s will be a marked in- 
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But sales personnel will not be the 
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Managers, professionals, and even 



people from the clerical ranks will be 
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Consider for a moment that, depend- 
ing on system sophistication, you can 
use portables for the following pur- 
poses: accounts receivable, mailing 
lists, financial planning, stock/in- 
vestment analysis, sales tracking, in- 
ventory, limited graphics, invoicing, 
general ledger, and more — all in a 
system that can be conveniently 
transported from one place to 
another. 

Indeed, next to processing power, 
probably the key factor is weight. 
Portable computers come in all 
shapes and sizes: The Osborne 1 
weighs about 24 pounds; the Otrona 
Attache, 19 pounds; Grid Systems' 
Compass, 9.25 pounds (see photo 2); 
and the list goes on. 

Other factors to consider are price, 
microprocessor size, and the amount 
of random-access read/write memory 
(RAM). These are good indicators of 
the operational scope of the portable 
system. Osborne, the company that 
virtually pioneered the portable com- 
puter market, is today the most 
popular. The computer's basic 
statistics are impressive even for a 
desktop unit: $1795, Z80A 8-bit pro- 
cessor, 64K bytes of RAM, two disk 
drives, and a small pile of software. 

As the 1980s mature, the dominant 
trend will be toward greater power in 
smaller size. To date, the most 
sophisticated portable personal com- 



puter, and not coincidentally the 
most expensive, is the Compass from 
Grid Systems Corporation. 

The Compass offers more than 
many desktop systems. At $8150, this 
system has 256K bytes of RAM plus 
256K bytes of nonvolatile bubble 
memory and a flat display screen. It 
is, in effect, the elite choice of the por- 
tables. Corporate executives and 
other high-ranking white-collar 
workers make up the target market. 
The prestige factor alone should en- 
sure its success. 

Like the rest of the personal com- 
puters, different portables will be 
assigned to either the low- or high- 
end markets. Consumers will be able 
to select from a range starting with an 
inexpensive basic processing tool, 
priced at less than $100, and moving 
up to a sophisticated multipurpose 
computer system with a cost that 
could easily approach $10,000. Some 
key players to watch in this relatively 
new game are Osborne, Grid, 
Otrona, and IBM. 

Each year, portable systems will 
account for a larger share of total 
personal computer shipments. By the 
end of 1983, 12 percent of all ship- 
ments will be portable; by 1990, the 
share will reach 25 percent (figure 4). 

Personal Computer Pricing 

Before we discuss prices, let's 
define exactly what we mean by per- 
sonal computer. In putting our study 



176 January 1'83 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 388 on inquiry card. ■ 




Which Spreadsheet lets you: 

Use every cell (never see "out of memory") 
Consolidate multiple spreadsheets 
Split the screen as 
often as you want 

VisiCalc NO 

SuperCalc NO 

CalcStar NO 

Scratchpad 

The Ultimate Spreadsheet 




Scratchpad 
features include: 

■ Virtual Memory (never see "out of memory") 
Every cell on the spreadsheet can be used. 
Don't be misled, other spreadsheets tell you 
how "big" the matrix is, but you can only use 
a very small portion. With Scratchpad's virtual 
memory feature you can use EVERY CELL! 

■ Consolidation (not just merging but also 
combining spread-sheets) This makes 
Scratchpad almost three dimensional. 

■ Unlimited Screen Splitting 

■ If/Then 

■ Merge 

■ Unlimited Title Locking 

■ Long Strings Supported 

■ Help file 

■ Variable column width 

■ Built in financial functions 



■ Built in math functions 

■ Variable formats 

■ Automatic and selective recalc 

■ Interface to Stats-Graph graphic package 

■ More 

For virtually all CP/M, CP/M-86, and MS 
DOS compatible systems, including 
the IBM PC. 

Available from fine dealers everywhere, or 
directly from SuperSoft. 



Scratchpad: 



$295.00 



Japanese Distribution: 

ASR Corporation International 

3-23-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-Ku, 

Tokyo 105, Japan 

Tel, (03) 437-5371 

Telex. 0242-2723 

CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. VisiCalc 
is a registered trademark of Visi-Corp. SuperCalc is a registered 
trademark of Sorcim. CalcStar is a registered trademark 
of Micropro. 



^A I ^ 









FIRST IN SOFTWARE TECHNOLOGY P.O.Box1628 Champaign, IL61820 (217)359-2112 Telex270365 



PORTABLE COMPUTERS 

PERCENT OF TOTAL WORLDWIDE 
PERSONAL COMPUTER SHIPMENTS 



8% 



25% 



© 



1982 




20% 



1985 




1990 



Figure 4: Because of a growing response from white-collar workers, portable personal 
computers will account each year for a greater percentage of personal computer 
shipments. 



3500 

3000 

2500 

W 2000 
< 

_i 

§ 1500 

1000 

500 


AVERAGE PERSONAL COMPUTER PRICES 






BUSINESS 


^ '"- 1 | _L_ 


















HOME 




i i i i i i I J 



82 



83 84 



85 



86 87 
YEAR 



88 



89 



90 91 



Figure 5: Over a 10-year period, the average price of a business desktop computer 
should decrease from $3275 to $2700. Home computer prices should drop from an 
average of $530 to $350. 



together, we placed a price ceiling of 
$10,000 on personal computers. 
Home personal computers are simply 
defined as any personal computers 
that are to be used mostly in the 
home. Home system prices may or 
may not include peripherals such as 
disk drives and printers, depending 
on the computer. 



What we considered to be the 
average price of a business system 
would cover the integral keyboard, 
monitor, and starting amount of 
RAM and only necessary peripherals, 
such as a low-cost dot-matrix printer 
and two floppy-disk drives. 

The last seven years of this decade 
will see system pricing for home and 



business users either drop or remain 
stable while products deliver more 
processing power and more RAM. 
Between 1982 and 1987, average 
system prices will drop 20 percent, 
while the average amount of RAM 
will increase over fivefold (48K bytes 
to 256K bytes). 

Beyond 1987 and into 1990, 
average prices will drop even more as 
home-user purchases of low-end 
models increase. In 1990, the average 
personal computer price, including 
basic peripherals and software, will 
be $2350, down from the early 1983 
mark of about $2600. 

Average pricing of the entire per- 
sonal computer industry, however, is 
somewhat deceptive. The crux of the 
matter is that the range of systems 
available to the buyer will be 
significantly larger in the next 10 
years than it was in 1980, 1981, and 
even 1982. 

The average price of a home per- 
sonal computer is currently about 
$530. These low-end systems are 
bought by both businesses and 
households, but their greatest poten- 
tial by far rests with the home user. 

With the exception of a few hobby 
kits, initial systems shipped in the 
home sector have for the most part 
fallen in the high-end range, i.e., 
generally $1000 or more. Until recent- 
ly, the prices of home personal com- 
puters often paralleled the prices of 
business personal computers. There 
seemed, for instance, to be almost as 
many Apple lis being set up in U.S. 
homes as there were in U.S. 
businesses. 

Last year more companies like 
Commodore and even Timex became 
aware of the home market. The key 
to their marketing tactics, which 
many other companies will follow, is 
aggressive marketing through low 
prices. They know that home users 
recoil from the idea of paying what in 
many instances is the price equivalent 
of a fine used car for what remains in 
many eyes to be an elaborate toy. 
Therefore, much of the potential 
home-user market has remained un- 
tapped. Low-cost systems with 
enough RAM and application poten- 
tial to be useful are what home users 
are now after. 



178 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 






iBm PC compatible produces Co rememoer. 



* r f "* *'# **>'$<* #*.#■■':* • * * * * * * » m 

* *i * * I '* * 1 -* * * * * "* ■* * * * • * ■ * * * * * * * 

* * S * * h* * ■'$ * * '• • * * * • * * * * * « * * * • 

* * !■'<* " «■« * £| ; » ■• ■* ■■« .» * * * * * *■ ■ *■ ■*■. * ■» » ■» # « 




256 KB 



i ill computer peripnerals uiiiiini 

1117 Venice Boulevard Los Pnqeies cr 90015 C213J 298-1297 Telex: 1945G1 LSR 

Circle 108 on inquiry card. 

IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines 
© 1982 Computer Peripherals Inc. 



Circle 325 on inquiry card. 



P&T CP/M @ 2 is 
GROWING a 




Start with a Model II floppy system and 
grow into a hard disk. Since all P&T 
CP/M 2 systems are fully compatible, 
you will have no conversion worries. 
Special note: P&T hard disk systems 
allow you the user to configure logical 
drive assignments to your specifications. 
Write for more details. 

Prepaid VISA, M/C. or COD orders accepted 
All prices FOB Goleta and subject to change. 
CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital 
Research. TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp 



PICKLES 
& TROUT 

P.O. BOX 1206 

GOLETA, CA 93 116 

(805) 685-4641 



YSoiff 



The home market, accordingly, 
will see the average cost of a low-end 
system fall from $530 in 1982/1983 to 
$370 by 1990 (figure 5). Home users 
can look forward to more personal 
computers breaking the $200 and 
$100 barriers as manufacturers gear 
up production and begin slashing 
prices to compete in what is rapidly 
becoming an overcrowded market. 

Although the typical cost of a per- 
sonal computer sold in the business 
segment has recently been substan- 
tially higher than the price of a 
typical home system, the average 
business system too will enjoy a 
reduction in cost. Between 1983 and 
1990, the cost of a typical business 
system will drop from $3300 to 
$2700. 

Probably the single factor carrying 
the greatest weight for business 
system pricing is the battle between 
8-bit and 16-bit systems. The new 
breed of personal computers, those 
built around 16-bit microprocessors, 
is generally priced at about $5000. A 
majority of 8-bit systems is ap- 
proximately half that amount. Fur- 
thermore, 8-bit systems, in order to 
compete in both home and business 
markets, will continue to undergo 
price reductions. Prices of personal 
computers for business will naturally 
follow suit. 

The final outcome of this price 
jockeying will be a truly complete 
range of personal computers. Dif- 
ferent systems boasting different 
characteristics and carrying vastly 
different price tags will be available. 

Companies on the Move 

As 1983 begins to roll, three prime 
contenders for the personal computer 
crown emerge: Apple, Tandy, and 
Commodore. No surprise there. The 
question is, with established 
behemoths like IBM, and dynamic 
newcomers like Sinclair, will the "Big 
Three" still retain that title as the 
decade comes to a close? 

What will ultimately determine the 
answer to that question is the market 
focus the various competitors adopt. 
Corporate market emphasis will vary 
depending on the structure of present 
strategies, and the unfolding develop- 
ments within each of the three market 



segments. For example, it is indis- 
putable that the biggest potential 
market is the home market. If the 
home segment were to live up to its 
potential, the company that could 
win the lion's share of that market 
(Timex/ Sinclair?) would steal away 
the personal computer crown. But, 
home consumers are for the most part 
still extremely wary about the 
relatively new personal computer 
technology. Although they will 
gradually open their doors to per- 
sonal computers, their purchases will 
not even come close to the number of 
systems absorbed by buyers from the 
business market, that is, at least not 
by 1990. 

The business market holds tb 
greatest immediate rewards for per- 
sonal computer vendors. Business 
users will pay higher prices, make 
multiple system purchases, and, 
guided by the data-processing 
manager, boldly explore all the 
diverse avenues in the personal com- 
puter terrain. All the major vendor: 
are aware of this. 

Through the 1980s, then, th 
greatest emphasis will be placed oi 
the business market. Apple, Tandy, 
and Commodore each have 
penetrated this market very nicely 
and established a good position. 

But IBM, DEC, Wang, Burroughs, 
and other data-processing and office- 
product companies are already be- 
sieging that position. And they have a 
background in the U.S. business 
marketplace that will help facilitate 
the entire sales process. 

Look at IBM. Big Blue shippei 
40,000 systems in the first fivi 
months of market participation. 
DEC, Wang, and several of the other 
larger contenders should run into lit- 
tle difficulty following suit. 

Accordingly, during the next seven 
years, the lead of the Big Three will 
erode. In 1983, Apple, Tandy, and 
Commodore will, between them- 
selves, record 54 percent of world- 
wide personal computer shipments 
totaling 2.2 million units (19.3 per- 
cent, 17.7 percent, and 17.0 percent, 
respectively). 

By 1990, the competition will have 
severely narrowed the gap. IBM will 
claim 11 percent of 1990 shipments, 



180 January 1983 © BYTE Publication! Inc 



«* 



^ 




»,..* 



Pi's. .■ si- J 

APTURE 



Completely Redesigned. 
Now, the Grappler + . 

The original Grappler was the 
first graphics interface to give 
you hi-res screen dumps from 
your keyboard. The new 
Grappler + with Dual Hi-Res 
Graphics adds flexibility with a 
side-by-side printout of page 1 
and page 2 graphics. 
Interfacing the Grappler + to a 
wide range of printers is easy 
as changing a dip switch. 4K of 
exclusive firmware makes the 
Grappler + the most intelligent, 
full-featured Apple® Printer 
Interface made. And, the 
Grappler + is Apple III compatible.' 

Up to 64K Buffer Option 

An optional Bufferboard can now 
be added to all existing Grappler 
and Grappler + interfaces. See 
your Apple Dealer for details. 

'Requires additional software driver. 
"Requires graphics upgrade. 

©Orange Micro, Inc. 1982 




ACTUAL APPLE II PRINTOUT USING GRAPPLER AND EPSON MX100 

_WithThe. 

Grappler + 

I Printer Interface 




CPM is a registered trademark of Digital Research, Inc. 
Apple is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 



The Grappler + Features: 

• Dual Hi-Res Graphics • Printer 
Selector Dip Switch • Apple III 
Compatible* • Graphics Screen 
Dump • Inverse Graphics 

• Emphasized Graphics • Double Size 
Picture • 90° Rotation • Center 
Graphics • Chart Recorder 

Mode • Block Graphics • Belt 
Control • Skip-over-perf • Left and 
Right Margins • Variable Line 
Length • Text Screen Dumps. 

The Grappler + also works with 
Pascal and CPM. 

The Grappler + interfaces with 
the following printers: 

• Anadex • Centronics • Datasouth 

• Epson* * • NEC • Cltoh • Okidata* * 
The original Grappler is available for 
IDS 460, 560, Prism, Microprism. 

H Orange micro 

1400 North Lakeview 

Anaheim, California, 92B07 

U.S.A. 

(714) 630-3620 

Telex: 183511 CSMA 

Foreign Dealer Inquiries Welcome 



Circle 302 on inquiry card. 



Circle 167 on Inquiry card. 



CP/M 
GRAPHICS 
SOFTWARE 

PLOTWARE-z 































































































»a«( houses, ei 



On ALTOS, APPLE, 

OSBORNE, ZENITH, 

and most others. 

THE MOST COMPLETE: 

Use THREE ways: 

1. "MENU" GRAPHICS (easy, friendly) 

2. "COMMAND FILES" (powerful, flexible) 

3. "COMPILER LINKED" (Fortran, etc.) 
Use on: most CRT's, dot matrix printers, 
plotters, word processing printers 

THE MOST PROVEN: 

2 years in the field 

THE MOST IMPLEMENTED: 

1. 8 bit and 16 bit machines 

2. USER MODIFIABLE 

3. many applications programs 

$399 complete 
$35 manual only 

VISA, MC, COO., CHECK, M.O. 



THE ENERCOMP 
COMPANY 

P.O. Box 28014 

Lokewood, Colorado 80228 

(303) 988-1648 

Also Available Through 

WESTICO 

The Software Express Service 

25 Van Zant Sireel • Norwalk. Connecitcut 068S5 

(203)853-6880 • Telex 643788 

and selected dealers. 



THE CHANGING MARKET SHARE OF 
WORLDWIDE PERSONAL COMPUTER SHIPMENTS 



OTHER 
25% \ 



APPLE 
/21% 



OTHER 
44% 



TIMEX 




fck /—-TANDY 


SINCLAIR' 




^L/ 19% 


12% 


/^ 


\ 




IBM 


COMMODORE 




6% 


18% 




12% 



COMMODORE 



12% 



1982 

1.5 MILLION UNITS 
TOTAL 



1990 

9.8 MILLION UNITS 
TOTAL 



Figure 6: As the 80s progress, the top five contenders for the personal computer crown 
will be Apple, Tandy, Commodore, IBM, and Sinclair. But, although the market will 
expand, the present Big Three — Apple, Tandy, and Commodore — will lose much of 
their present market share. 



exceeding 9.8 million systems. At the 
same time, Apple will ship 11.6 per- 
cent; Tandy, 11.5 percent; and Com- 
modore, 11.9 percent (figure 6). 
Commodore, therefore, will even- 
tually assume a slim market lead in 
shipments, thanks to a strong 
worldwide presence, and an almost 
equally divided tapping of both the 
home and business market reservoirs. 
But close behind and nipping away at 
the lead will be companies like IBM, 
DEC, NEC, and, of course, Timex/ 
Sinclair. 

Users can also look forward to new 
systems from unfamiliar sources. Last 
year showed conclusively that there 
still is enough time for more last- 
minute entrants into the personal 
computer race. In 1982, at least 10 
new manufacturers announced plans 
to market a personal computer. But, 
although more will do likewise in 
1983, the number will not be quite as 
high. 

In the past three years, the influx 
rate of entrants into the personal 
computer marketplace has been 
nothing short of incredible. So far, 
the market has been open enough to 
support just about any and every in- 
terested vendor. But by 1990, too 
many personal computer vendors will 
be competing for a market that can 
no longer support them all. The in- 
evitable outcome, by 1990 or perhaps 
as early as 1988, is an industry 
shakeout. 

When looking back at the 1980s, 



future analysts will no doubt 
characterize it as a decade of transi- 
tion for the personal computer in- 
dustry. In this time frame, the per- 
sonal computer industry will achieve 
maturity. System capability will 
undergo a constant upgrading, ven- 
dors will widen product lines, and 
buyers from each segment will in- 
crease their spending. In 1990, 
worldwide personal computer 
revenues will exceed $23 billion; 
domestic revenues, $14 billion. 

Increases in memory storage, 
greater processing power in more 
compact sizes, and a general lowering 
of system prices will combine to effect 
an overall enhancement of the con- 
sumer's image of personal computers. 

In the final analysis, what has hap- 
pened in the early 1980s and will con- 
tinue throughout the mid and late 
1980s is the unfolding of a technolog- 
ical revolution. The advent of a more 
affordable, accessible, and versatile 
personal computer and its potential 
market acceptance have always 
promised to have enormous impact 
on U.S. businesses and homes. The 
coming-of-age of these small systems 
reflects not only a growing awareness 
on the part of industry of the needs of 
the mass market, but also a growing 
acceptance of personal computers in 
the minds of more and more con- 
sumers, who are now turning con- 
fidently to the personal computer 
marketplace, and who will continue 
to do so throughout the 1980s. ■ 



182 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



HOW TO SELLMORE SOFTWARE 



eries of 
I software marketing bulletins 
from PromptDoc, Inc. 



THE PromptDoc 

Manual Maker 

You know better user manuals sell more software, but 
how do you make better user manuals? How do you 
identify just the right details to motivate prospective 



users to buy? How do you organize these details into a 
sequence that makes sense to first-time users while it 
provides ongoing reference to veterans? How do you 
format and package a manual so it's attractive enough to 
get attention yet clear enough to be readily understood? 
And, how do you do all this at a pace that keeps up 
with your product release schedule? The PromptDoc* 
Manual Maker is the answer. 



Introducing Computer-assisted Writing 

Imagine a software product that prompts you through 
the process of planning, outlining and writing a user 
manual and even supplies boilerplate introductory and 
transitional text. Envision reducing your user manual 
preparation process to this: 

1. Select boilerplate chapter files 

2. Edit chapter tables of contents 

3. Pause while computer builds a skeleton manual 
in Preformatted CP/M® text files 

4. Use your word processor to edit the skeleton 
manual into a working draft 

5. Tell computer to build a Table of Contents; 
publish review draft 

6. Revise, polish and publish manual as instructed 
by documentation 

Compared to your current process that may sound 
more like a software maker's dream than a real product. 
It's a dream all right— a dream come true called the 
PromptDoc® Manual Maker. It's the only product of its 
kind. 

Consider These Benefits 

Improved productivity— with PromptDoc® you can 
gain as much as 40% on typical manual writing jobs. 

Project control— with prestructured modular chapters, 
writing tasks can be segmented without losing continuity. 

Manual uniformity— by product, by product line, by 
company. 

Quality assurance— the boilerplate files help assure 
completeness and usability; the PromptDoc® Writer's 
Guide gives publishing instructions. 

Proven performance— based on the PromptDoc® 
methodology, the structures and outlines have been 
proved in myriad applications for the past four years; 
now we've tailored it specifically for the commercial 
software vendor. 

Reasonable Price 

$245 for software and two manuals, $45 for manuals 
only (add $5.00 for shipping and handling). This product 
will begin paying for itself the minute you start using it 
and continue making you money each time you publish 
a manual. What could be more reasonable? 

CP/M® Compatible;Uses Your Word Processor 

Now available for use with WordStar® and other word 
processors on the Apple® II with the Softcard® and on 
standard 8" CP/M® systems. 



See Your Dealer For a 
Demo or Use The Coupon 
Now 

You know a better way to 
make better manuals can 
enhance your competitive 
position. Why wait another 
minute? Seeyourdealerfor 
a demonstration or complete 
thecouponnowandmailitto 
PromptDoc®, 833 West 
Colorado Avenue, Colorado 
Springs, CO 80905. Or, if 
you'd rather not wait for the 

mail, call (303) 471 -9875. 




PramptOoc 



Prompt Doc is a registered trademark of Prompt-Doc, Inc. Apple and Apple 
1 1 are registered trademarks of Apple Computer Inc. Softcard is a registered 
trademark of Microsoft Corporation. CP/M is a registered trademark of 
Digital Research, Inc. WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro 
International Corporation. 



I need the Prompt Doc Manual Maker now! Send a copy to: 



Name 

Address. 



.Telephone ( )_ 



□ 8" CP/M 



Configuration: D Apple II CP/M 

□ Send manual only. 

□ My check is enclosed for $ 

□ You may charge my VISA 

Account # 

Amount $ Expiration Date 

Signature 



D UPS COD. 
Master Card 



□ I need more information. 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



Send it to the address above. 



Circle 335 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 183 



Fruitful Connections. 



There are more people in more 
places making more accessories 
and peripherals for Apples than 
for any other personal computer 
in the world. 

Thanks to those people — 
in hundreds of independent 
companies— you can make the 
humblest 1978 Apple II turn tricks 
that are still on IBM's Wish List 
for 1984. 

But now we're coming out with 
our very own line of peripherals 
and accessories for Apple® Personal 
Computers. 

For two very good reasons. 

First, compatibility. We've 
created a totally kluge-free family 
of products designed to take full 
advantage of all the advantages 
built into every Apple. 

Second, service and support. 




Now the same kindly dealer who 
keeps your Apple PC in the pink 
can do the same competent job 
for your Apple hard-disk and your 
Apple daisywheel printer. 

So if you're looking to expand 
the capabilities of your Apple II 
or III, remember: 

Now you can add Apples to 
Apples. 



Gutenberg would be proud 

Old Faithful Silentype® has now been joined by New Faithfuls, the 
Apple Dot Matrix Printer and the Apple Letter Quality Printer. 

So now, whatever your budget and your 
needs, you can hook your Apple to a printer 
that's specifically designed to take advan- 

V^ , tage of all the features built into your 

^^ > '****"lllfflllll Apple. With no compromises. 
^ |||liL. The 7x9 Apple Dot Matrix 
\__jfp"" — | Printer is redefining "correspondence 
.— -""^ quality" with exceptional legibility. 
With 144x160 dots per square inch, it can 
also create high resolution graphics. 

The Apple Letter Quality Printer, 
which gets the Words out about 33% 
faster than other daisywheel printers 
in its price range, also offers graphics 

t~^L agp^ capabilities. See your authorized 

i^^fl j>^^0^^ Apple dealer for more information and 

\ ^^0?^ demonstrations. Because, unfortunately, all 
^gt^""""^ the news fit to print simply doesn't fit. 

©1983 Apple Computer Inc. 




«"^**, 




A joy to behold. 

The new Apple Joystick II is 
the ultimate hand control device 
for the Apple II. 

Why is it such a joy to use? 

With two firing buttons, it's 
the first ambidextrous joystick - 
just as comfortable for lefties 
asrighties. 

Of course, it gives you 360° 
cursor control (not just 8-way like 
some game-oriented devices) and 
full X/Y coordinate control. 

And the Joystick II contains 
high-quality components and 
switches tested to over 1,000,000 
life cycles. 

Which makes it a thing of 
beauty. And a joystick forever. 



G 





the creek 
without 
i paddle? 



Or left in space? Or down in 
he dungeons? 

Whatever your games, you'll 
e happf to know that someone 
has findly come out with game 
paddlefbuilt to hold up under 
blistermg fire. Without giving you 
blisters! 

App|e Hand Controller II 
ame paddles were designed with 
ne recew discovery in mind: 
teopll|playing games get 
:ed ari<| can squeeze very, very 
ard. 
So we ftlade the cases extra 
rugged. Wejised switches tested 
to 3,000,00(|life cycles. We shaped 
them for hoping hands and placed 

e firing Mtton on the right rear 
side for maidmum comfort. 
So yogf 1 never miss a shot. 




A storehouse of knowledge. 



and reliability, you need only store 
one word of wisdom: 
Apple. 




If you work with so much data 
or so many programs that you find 
yourself shuffling diskettes con- 
stantly, you should take a look at 
Apples ProFile™ the personal 
mass storage system for 
the Apple III Personal 
Computer. 

This Winchester-based 
5-megabyte hard disk 
can handle as much data 
as 35 floppies. Even more 
important for some, it 
can access that data 
about 10-times faster • 
than a standard floppy 
drive. 

So now your Apple 
III can handle jobs once 
reserved for computers 
costing thousands 

As for quality ^0 



Launching pad for numeric data. 



Good tidings for crunchers of 
numerous numbers: 

Apple now offers a numeric 
keypad that's electronically and 
aesthetically compatibl 
with the Apple II 
Personal Computer. J 
So you can enter 
numeric data 
faster than -*• 

ever before. 

The AppL 
Numeric Key- 
pad II has 
a standard 
calculator- 
style layout. 
Appropriate, 




because unlike some other key- 
pads, it can actually function as a 
calculator. 

The four function keys to the 
left of the numeric pad should be 
of special interest 
, to people who use 

H. VisiCalc? Because 
|p j 1| they let you zip 
H | H around your 
' work sheet more 
easily than ever, 
adding and 
deleting entries. 

With one 
land tied be- 
hind your 
back. 

VisiCata is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. I 



Circle 29 on inquiry card. 



Meet You at the Fair 



High-tech meets an old tradition at the US Festival. 



Saturday, September 4, 1982, 8:30 
a.m. Glen Helen Regional Park, San 
Bernardino County, California. The 
desert sun hangs low, the air still clear 
of windblown dust, the surrounding 
mountains starkly etched brown and 
stone-white in the low morning light. 
A campground slowly stirring to 
life — 100,000 people camped in a 
sandy treeless desert wash — 100,000 
people who had been amazingly con- 
siderate and quiet the night before, 
despite media fears of mass orgies and 
punk-rock terror. The US (United in 
Song) Festival, Steve Wozniak's 
$12.5-million gamble on human 
nature, is into its second day. 

To the south, a perfect amphi- 
theater the size of 40 football fields 
has been created. A stage the size of 
an office building towers above with 



About the Author 

Philip A. Schrodt is an associate professor of 
political science who specializes in interna- 
tional relations, mathematical modeling, and 
applications of microcomputers to social 
science. He is also vice-president of Polymath 
Associates Software in Skokie, Illinois, a firm 
that develops Pascal statistical software. 



Philip A. Schrodt 

Department of Political Science 

Northwestern University 

Evanston, IL 60201 

500,000 digitally coordinated watts of 
perhaps the finest sound system ever 
assembled. The festival has its own 
interstate off-ramp and its own air- 
port control tower, deserves its own 
zip code, and, with a total attendance 
of about 250,000, is larger than any 
one of the 14 smallest members of the 
United Nations. It is Wozniak's folly 
or Wozniak's gift to the "US" genera- 
tion, depending on your perspective. 
And it is the first rock concert ever to 
feature a computer technology ex- 
hibit. 

The music doesn't start for at least 
two hours, but already a steady 
stream of people heads into the 
festival grounds. Joining the cattle 
drive through the entrance gate, pass- 
ing the innumerable booths selling 
soft drinks, food, and rock memora- 
bilia, I head down to the three large 
circus tents that house the computer 
exhibits. Wozniak (cofounder of Ap- 
ple Computer Inc.) thought you 
could mix rock music and computers. 
Friday was the trial run. And it's 
working. 

The exhibitors are feeling pleased. 
Yesterday was good, the traffic is 



coming through. In fact the exhibitors 
are feeling smug. They are the 
pioneers — they bet this thing would 
work and risked at least $1000 on 
renting and running a booth. They 
trusted Woz's latest crazy idea and 
feel it paid off, and they sound a note 
of contempt toward those in the trade 
who couldn't see how the rock crowd 
could benefit them. The exhibitors 
here feel vindicated — they knew this 
would work, they knew you could 
reach out to the masses. In short, they 
shared Woz's dream and participated, 
while the bulk of the industry stayed 
back. 

I wander about, people-watching, 
talking with exhibitors, checking out 
the displays. There's something oddly 
familiar about this — the heat, the 
tents, the music, the technology. Yet 
this is supposed to be a novel ex- 
perience . . . but wait, this deja vu is 
nothing more than recollections of 
sultry August days in rural Johnson 
County, Indiana. Woz has reinvented 
the county fair! 

Suppose an International Harvest- 
er, John Deere, or Funk Hybrid Seed 
dealer wanted to introduce his prod- 



186 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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uct to American farmers at the turn of 
the century. How would he do it? The 
county fair. He'd provide a good 
time, including a midway, horse 
races, beauty pageant, and country 
music. And he'd bring in his finest 
new tractor and combine and put 
them on display. The average farmer 
most likely couldn't afford the equip- 
ment, probably didn't even need it, 
but he'd look at it and admire it. So 
maybe he doesn't buy the combine, 
but he does buy the plow, and two 
years down the line when his 
neighbor is in the market for a trac- 
tor, he puts in a good word for the 
product he saw at the fair. And so 
gradually the fruits of the nineteenth- 
century industrial revolution reach 
out to the mass markets of the coun- 
tryside and life changes beyond 
recognition. 

Woz may have never been to a 
rural county fair, but he's got the idea 
down perfectly. With the county fair 
the fruits of the industrial revolution 
came to the rural masses; with the 
techno-rock concert the fruits of the 
information revolution can come to 



the urban and rural masses. 

The industry, however, was split 
on the efficacy of this approach. Ap- 
ple, Atari, and Mattel had large, pro- 
fessional exhibits. Commodore was 
well represented by its dealers, with 
VIC-20s much in evidence. The new 
portable computers, a la Osborne, 
could be found without difficulty in 
dealer displays. But the old-line elec- 
tronics firms — Texas Instruments, 
Hewlett-Packard, Xerox, Tandy, and 
needless to say IBM — were no-shows. 

Oh well, well have fun without 
them. 

The Exhibitors 

To see what Apple had accom- 
plished, you just have to look 
around. Not only at the concert 
financed with Wozniak's millions, but 
also at the displays. At least 80 per- 
cent of the machines in use are Apple 
lis, as impressive an advertisement as 
any. Apple's display is low key and 
confident — mostly hands-on demon- 
stration graphics programs, no 
games — effectively drawing the dis- 
tinction between a video game and a 



computer in a nonthreatening 
fashion. You can't walk by the dis- 
play without being handed a half 
dozen Apple logo stickers. At night, 
Apple's hot-air balloon towers in the 
sky like a giant lantern, and the 
Goodyear blimp floats overhead with 
the message "Thanks Woz." If Apple 
ever has problems making it as a cor- 
poration, it might consider applying 
for tax-exempt status as a religion. 

Atari has the largest computer ex- 
hibit, though it is concentrating on 
games and is pushing the Atari 400 
rather than the 800. Atari provides an 
interesting twist by having the 
presidents of five of the largest Atari 
users' groups present, explaining soft- 
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the computer revolution. 

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ultralow-resolution games. The 
display is just a larger version of what 
you'd find in a department store. Far 
and away the main attraction at Mat- 
tel is a new electronic drum set that 
consists of four pads about 3 inches in 
diameter, which simulates, rather im- 



188 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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pressively, a complete drum set. It is 
always mobbed. 

An assortment of dealers features 
business machines — usually either 
$10,000 hard-disk systems or $2500 
portables that resembled you-know- 
what with a larger screen. Yes, the 
Osborne 1 has clearly emerged as the 
small computer people love to hate, 
replacing the TRS-80 in that vaunted 
position. And speaking of the 
TRS-80, Tandy is conspicuously ab- 
sent from the Festival. 

The real fun is at the small exhibits. 
The small exhibitors see themselves 
collectively as "the industry." They 
have had the time to talk among 
themselves and have analyzed their 
audience. This is not the West Coast 
Computer Faire. The consensus is 
that the Festival goers are about 1 
percent people in the trade, maybe 9 
percent who have some acquaintance 
with computers, and the remaining 90 
percent no exposure at all, ever. So it 
is fun and a challenge presenting to 
people for the first time a technology 
that they've heard about, seen in the 
movie Tron, but never experienced 



firsthand. And the industry ex- 
hibitors are encouraging the viewers 
to sit down, relax, and chat a while, 
avoiding the pressure of the trade 
fairs. 

The fascination of it is you can't tell 
the programmers from the druggies 
(always a problem, admittedly). I 
talk with a Silicon Valley dealer for 
the lovely new Jonos Ltd. "Courier" 
portable (Z80A, 64K bytes of 
memory, 9-inch video display, 
3V2-inch Sony floppy disks, state of 
the art): "What kind of people do we 
get? All kinds. This tall guy comes 
along, strange looking, missing a cou- 
ple of teeth. Sits down and starts 
pounding away at the keyboard. I'm 
getting worried. Then he asks, 'Hey, 
how do you install Wordstar on this 
machine?' Gets into the operating 
system, pretty soon has everything 
switched around. And finally ex- 
claims, What are you guys doing 
with Apple II Wordstar in this 
machine?' Turns out he's a program- 
mer for Micropro. But he liked the 
machine and wants to help us 
upgrade the Micropro software for 



it. . . . Two other types of people are 
those who don't know the first thing 
about computing and those who 
stand here in front of the air condi- 
tioner." 

Behind the Scenes 

The Festival is organized by pro- 
moter Bill Graham's organization, 
and the computer people know a lot 
more about rock 'n' roll than Bill 
Graham knows about computers. 
When I unsuccessfully tried to get 
press credentials, they asked me how 
to spell BYTE, a somewhat discom- 
forting inquiry. Never heard of it, 
and my explanation that BYTE was 
the Rolling Stone of microcomputing 
didn't seem to impress anybody. 
Meanwhile several exhibitors were 
giving detailed critiques of the US 
Festival, Woodstock, and the final 
Stones tour, all based on personal ex- 
perience. 

However, the organization was not 
flawless. Take the case of Rana 
Systems, the disk-drive company. 
Rana had a disk problem — 10,000 
disks to be precise. Frisbee disks. 



January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 189 



Mike Mock and I talked standing in 
front of a 3-foot-high pile of Rana 
Frisbees. "We've been planning this 
promo for months. Talked to Unuson 
[a corporation formed by Steve Woz- 
niak to fund this Festival and future 
Festivals] on the phone; they said 
Frisbees weren't on the prohibited list. 
Sounded great. We sent them the 
design so they could approve the US 
logo — no problem. So we show up 
here and now they tell us that Frisbees 
are prohibited at the Festival. ..." 
So? "Well, we're having people fill out 
these little cards . . . ," Mike pauses 
to stop some people from helping 
themselves to Frisbees, "and well 
distribute the Frisbees through local 
dealers. Probably work out better 
that way anyhow, for the dealers. 
And Unuson's beginning to talk about 
helping us pay postage." 

No Frisbees? At a rock concert? 
That's right — no wine, no coolers, no 
beach balls either, no Hare Krishnas, 
no Moonies, security everywhere. I 
suppose it's necessary — being 
smacked in the eye with a Frisbee is 
no fun — but Woodstock this ain't. 
Twenty years of organizing concerts 
and Graham's people have this to a 
science. Los Angeles Times rock critic 
Robert Hilburn called it "humane," 
which is accurate. It works — it is 
smooth, it is safe, but it is not spon- 
taneous. Can't be. The trains run on 
time, period — Benito Mussolini 
would have been proud. 

More Exhibitors 

You can see an assortment of stan- 
dard exhibits. Maxwell Corporation 
has the inevitable fake robot — body 
by Toys-R-Us and all the intelligence 
that could be programmed into 50 
flashlight bulbs and a CB transceiver. 
Ah, for the day when we will be deal- 
ing with real robots. All of the music 
and art exhibits are getting a lot of at- 
tention. The outer space exhibits — 
L-5 Society, Delta Vee, and an 
elaborate UFO exhibit— are not: this 
is definitely a low-tech crowd. 
Curiously, the banks of video games 
also attract little attention. Music is 
the priority here. 

And with a music crowd at this ex- 
hibition, the Syntauri Corporation, 
which produces a sophisticated syn- 



thesizer running on an Apple II, is in 
paradise. At the intersection of rock 
music and computers, with a framed 
letter of appreciation from some folks 
making a movie called Tron, and a 
booth right under the air-condition- 
ing vents, Syntauri couldn't have it 
better. 

Lenore Wolgelenter, sales director 
for Syntauri, explains the response 
they are getting. "The musicians are 
unfamiliar with this technology, but 
they are willing to learn. Show them 
that computers are something they 
can use, and they'll take the time to 
learn about them. It's only beginning. 
Only recently have we started getting 
calls from musicians who say, 'I want 
to do the following. . . . Can you tell 
me how to do it?' But that is the kind 
of thing we're hoping to encourage." 

They're so right. I pass the Syntauri 
booth and a couple of guys looking 
very much at home with a keyboard 
are trying one of the demos. They are 
still there a half hour later, ex- 
perimenting. Syntauri may have 
something: Rock music is in the ab- 
solute doldrums. Computers give 
composers an unparalleled creative 
tool. Maybe at the US Festival in 2001 
the computers will be on stage, and 
the tents will display electric guitars 
and mechanical drum sets. 

Outside of the music field, the 
response is harder to predict. For ex- 
ample, take the Stahler and Via Video 
exhibits. Stahler Company is a small 
San Jose firm that produces special- 
ized drill bits for preparing printed- 
circuit boards without etching. It is 
largely a family operation, and Mary 
Stahler, daughter of the company 
president, was happy to have the op- 
portunity to represent the firm at this 
fair for the same reason that her 
parents wanted to avoid it — the rock 
concert. Stahler is doing surprisingly 
well given the completely technical 
nature of the product — no Pac-Man 
here — and figured to about break 
even with the exposure as a bonus. 

In contrast, one of the most im- 
pressive displays is Via Video's 
animation system. With the sweep of 
a pen across a graphics tablet, it can 
do the day's work of a Disney artist, 
in color and displayed on a 5-foot 
monitor. But this isn't attracting 



much attention. Perhaps an audience 
who has never tried to do computer 
animation doesn't appreciate the ac- 
complishment. Magic is magic, after 
all. 

Out to the Music 

By midday, the exhibition tents are 
really getting crowded. Must be the 
heat. I'm getting tired of interviewing, 
and I've always wanted to hear San- 
tana live. So, after an invigorating 
lunch of nachos and Tecate, I wander 
into the brave new world of the con- 
cert amphitheater. 

Any collection of 200,000 people 
sitting in the desert sun is bound to be 
impressive. To take in the ambience 
of the place, one must appreciate two 
factors: skin and water. 

Skin: the Southern California tan. 
These are not people who spend 12 
hours a day in front of video dis- 
plays, unless those monitors have real 
ultraviolet leakage problems. All 
shades of tan: tanned Nordic Cauca- 
sian blending into Sudanese African 
without missing a shade. Exposed 
skin — lots and lots of it. Unlike 
Woodstock, there is very little nudity 
here, as changes in fashion have made 
that rather unnecessary. With the ad- 
vent of the string swimsuit, only a bit 
of imagination and a basic under- 
standing of human anatomy separate 
fashionable dress from nudity. 

Water: this site is desert — quite a 
beautiful bit of desert, dust-shrouded, 
sun-bleached mountains as fine as I've 
seen. But as in all deserts, the quest 
for water dominates. And so the 
"Ritual of the Spray Bottle," a new 
form of friendly social interaction, 
doubtlessly coded by the same seg- 
ment of DNA that causes chim- 
panzees to pick lice. Everybody has 
spray bottles and is spraying 
everybody else with water. Massive 
fire hoses are mounted on the sound 
towers, soaking the audience, who 
loves it (as does this writer). Outdoor 
showers — pure genius — a half-acre of 
spraying water, fabulous, lowers the 
temperature a good 20 degrees, an an- 
cient device, no self-respecting Per- 
sian or Islamic palace was without 
one. 

It is, however, a rather subdued 
crowd for a rock concert. Very few 



190 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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drugs — by rock concert standards 
that is, meaning I have been proposi- 
tioned to buy dope only about 20 
times and was there a good half hour 
before smelling marijuana. But the 
crowd isn't really lively, and the per- 
formers are clearly a bit uncomfort- 
able with this. The heat, the 
economy, the security, or maybe just 
the 1980s? 

Had any of the music fans been to 
the tech exhibits? Just look for the 
promotional material. Apple decals 
everywhere. But then, you couldn't 
drive down the main streets of Cairo, 
Egypt, last summer without seeing 
Apple logos everywhere, so that isn't 
surprising. But Syntauri stickers are 
seemingly on every third person. Link 
Systems is making a big hit with its 
(prohibited) Datafax visors, which 
read "Tame the Data Monster." Here 
are thousands of people who don't 
know what a database manager is, 
much less know Link from Stone- 
ware, but they've got those visors on. 

Computer nerds? Yes, I saw 
one — University of Arizona Depart- 
ment of Computer Science T-shirt, 
wire-rim glasses, white cords, pale 
complexion, looking like he was 
dreaming of a 32-bit microprocessor 
rather than taking in the music. 
Classic nerd. But I saw only one. 

Santana is fine, with a guest ap- 
pearance by Herbie Hancock, but 
time to get back to work. If you want 
a review of the music, check Rolling 
Stone. Besides, by now I'm a bit leery 
of the dust and heat. I had stayed out 
most of the day Friday, and around 
6:00 p.m. Friday evening, I returned 
to my tent with every expectation of 
suffering an agonizing demise via a 
combination of heatstroke and 
asthma, 

By midafternoon Saturday, most 
people have had their fill of the heat, 
and there is a general movement 
toward the tents as the temperature 
rises to the daytime maximum. The 
exhibition tents are air-conditioned, 
remember? So in the afternoon, they 
really start getting the traffic. How, 
the scoffers had asked, are you going 
to get a bunch of rock-crazed hippies 
wandering through these industry 
tents? Air-conditioning and 105 
degrees does it nicely. And the ex- 



hibitors just smile. . . . 

Still, not everybody was pleased 
with the turnout. Take the case of the 
new magazine for the IBM Personal 
Computer, PC. Its booth was aban- 
doned Saturday morning. As I heard 
the story from the folks at Softalk, 
who were doing a brisk business in 
giveaway posters, PC's publisher 
had given up late Friday. The pub- 
lisher's assessment: "Look at this 
crowd. Do you see anybody who can 
even afford an IBM PC?" 

Brilliant deduction, Sherlock! See 
that scuzzy looking guy standing 
there — filthy old jeans, a stupid felt 
hat that's been through too many 
rainstorms, idiotic T-shirt with a big 
fat raccoon on it? Well, friend, he's 
made the purchasing decisions on 
$20,000 worth of microcomputer 
equipment the past two years, in- 
fluenced the purchase of another 
$20,000, and he's got $5000 in a grant 
and is trying to decide between an 
Apple III and IBM PC. I know -he's 
me. Appearances don't mean much. 
That woman you were ogling in the 
bathing suit that contains slightly 
more material than an 8-inch floppy 
is president of a software consulting 
firm and those wizened old dudes 
with the gold dog tags that say "Woz 
Guest" in Epson expanded print aren't 
exactly tyros in this business. But if 
you'll talk only to those done up in 
three-piece suits, you won't find 
much business here. 

But protective camouflage aside, it 
makes good business sense to talk to 
that 90 percent who don't know a 
thing about computers. There you 
have Jane Six-Pack, out with her 
boyfriend listening to Tom Petty and 
the Heartbreakers. She can actually 
play with the graphics tablet on an 
Apple II and draw pictures with it 
and see computers in applications 
more sophisticated than a Space In- 
vaders machine. She can't afford an 
Apple, but that VIC-20 or Timex/ 
Sinclair 1000 is certainly inexpensive 
enough, and her child is going to be in 
school in a couple of years and the 
school board really should get a cou- 
ple Apple lis or Atari 800s. And hey, 
look at that, you touch this dot and 
the figure turns upside down; this is 
kind of cute. We are never going to 



192 January 19»3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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get that audience into Computerland, 
and they are 80 percent of the con- 
sumer market. 

Have you ever considered just how 
intimidating the average computer 
store is? "Why yes sir, you would like 
to touch our new Wombat 128K 
Supermicro? Most certainly, sir. Just 
show us your American Express Gold 
Card, permit us access to your Swiss 
bank account so that we may check 
your net worth, and I'm afraid we 
must surgically remove your left arm 
for collateral, and then you are 
welcome to read the manual." I've 
been programming for 15 years, and I 
get intimidated by most computer 
stores. Furthermore, about 90 percent 
of computer sales personnel fall into 
two categories — ignorant and ar- 
rogant—with about two months ex- 
perience separating the two. 

To have a truly personal computer 
market — as opposed to an elite com- 
puter market, or a Space Invaders 
market — the industry is going to have 
to reach the masses. Not just the com- 
puter nerds, not just the Merrill- 
Lynch crowd, not just the college stu- 
dents. The mass market. And there is 
no better or more natural way than 
the rock concert and its analogs. It 
worked for John Deere and Interna- 
tional Harvester, it will work for 
Apple and Atari — and Syntauri and 
Link and Rana and Microflow and 
Stahler and dozens of other small 
firms that took the chance to exhibit 
here. 

Monday morning. Driving back 
north, California highway 101, soon 
to penetrate the heart of Silicon 
Valley but now in the rich agricultur- 
al Salinas Valley, John Steinbeck's 
country. Dodging trucks hauling 
cauliflower, tuned in to KNBR, a San 
Francisco soft-rock station, low-class 
stuff, for jerks like me who don't care 
enough about music to install an FM 
radio and will listen to anything that 
isn't disco. 'The next hour of music is 
brought to you by Osborne, the per- 
sonal business computer!" The 
Osborne 1, that aggravating micro- 
screen turnkey system, advertising on 
a rock 'ri roll station! And doubtless- 
ly laughing all the way to the bank. 
The personal computer revolution is 
only beginning. ■ 



194 January 1983 © BYTE Publications lnc 



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Public Key Cryptography 

An introduction to a powerful cryptographic system 
for use on microcomputers. 



Cryptography, the art of conceal- 
ing the meaning of messages, has 
been practiced for at least 3000 years. 
In the past few centuries, it has 
become an indispensable tool in the 
military affairs, diplomacy, and com- 
merce of most major nations. During 
that time there have been many in- 
novations, and cryptography has 
changed and grown to accommodate 
the increasingly complex needs of its 
users. Present techniques are very 
sophisticated and provide excellent 
message protection. Current develop- 
ments in computer technology and in- 
formation theory, however, are on 
the verge of revolutionizing cryp- 
tography. New kinds of cryptograph- 
ic systems are emerging that have in- 
credible properties, which appear to 
eliminate completely some problems 
that have plagued cryptography users 
for centuries. One of these new 
systems is public key cryptography. 

In public key systems, as in most 
forms of cryptography, a piece of in- 
formation called a key is used to 
transform a message into cryptic 
form. In conventional cryptography 
this key must be kept secret, for it can 
also be used to decrypt the message. 
In public key cryptography, how- 
ever, a message remains secure even if 
its encryption key is publicly re- 



John Smith 
21505 Evalyn Ave. 
Torrance, CA 90503 



vealed. This unique feature gives 
public key systems great advantages 
over conventional systems. 

This article deals with the theory 
and application of public key cryp- 
tography. It reviews the methods and 
problems of traditional cryptogra- 
phy and describes the remarkable 
concept and advantages of public 
keys. It also describes a real public 
key cryptosystem, showing examples 
of the encryption and decryption 
operations; and it attempts to clarify 
the concept of trap-door one-way 
functions, upon which public key 
systems are based. 

Computers are essential for im- 
plementing many modern cryptosys- 
tems, including the one described 
here. Several BASIC-language pro- 
grams (TRS-80) are included to il- 
lustrate algorithms used in this 
system. These can be used to experi- 
ment with the encryption, decryp- 
tion, and derivation of small keys. 

Conventional Cryptosystems 

A cryptosystem must have two 
methods for transforming messages: a 
method of encryption, which renders 
messages unintelligible; and a method 
of decryption, for restoring them to 
their original forms. For simplicity, 
normal message text shall be called 



plaintext, and the encrypted form, 
ciphertext. Ciphertext messages maj 
also be called cryptograms, or may 
just be called messages when it is clear 
that the encrypted form is meant. 

To appreciate the significance of a 
public key system, we need to know 
some of the methods and problems of 
conventional cryptosystems. In a 
conventional system (see figure 1), a 
plaintext message is converted to a 
cryptogram by an encryptor and 
sent over a communication channel. 
While in transit, the cryptogram may 
be intercepted by someone other than 
the intended recipient. If it is en- 
crypted well, it will be meaningless to 
the interceptor. At the receiving end, 
the cryptogram is converted back in- 
to plaintext by a decryptor. The en- 
cryptor and decryptor may be pro- 
cedures executed by people or com- 
puters or may be specially con- 
structed devices. In any case, they are 
both supplied with keys from a key 
source. 

Cryptographic keys are analogous 
to the house and car keys we carry in 
our daily lives and serve a similar 
purpose. In many modern systems, 
each key is a string of digits. For ex- 
ample, keys defined by the Data En- 
cryption Standard of the National 
Bureau of Standards consist of 64 



198 January 1983 © BYTE Publications lnc 



Circle 396 on inquiry card, i 





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MESSAGES 



II 



ENCRYPTOR 



^> 



CRYPTOGRAMS 



MESSAGES 



II 



DECRYPTOR 



"FS 



KEYS 



KEYS 



KEY 

SOURCE 







SECURE CHANNELS 



»«■ PUBLIC CHANNELS 

Figure 1: A conventional cryptographic system. Encrypted messages (cryptograms) are 
sent over a public communication channel, while the keys needed for encryption and 
decryption are sent over secure channels, for example, via courier. The key source may 
be located at the encryptor or decryptor, in which case one of the secure channels is 
very short. 



binary digits, 56 of which are signifi- 
cant. To encrypt a message, a key 
and the message are somehow in- 
serted into an encryptor, and the 
cryptogram that emerges is a jumble 
of characters that depends on both 
the message and the key. To decrypt 
the message, the correct key and the 
cryptogram are inserted into a 
decryptor, and the plaintext message 
emerges. In conventional systems, the 
correct key for decrypting a message 
is the same one used to encrypt it. 
Obviously, the keys used must be 
closely guarded secrets. 

In a good system the number of 
possible keys should be very large, 
and decryption of any cryptogram 
should be possible with only very few 
of the keys, often with only one. 
These conditions make it impractical 
to try decrypting a message with one 
key after another until the one that 
reveals plaintext is found. The Data 
Encryption Standard provides more 
than 7 X 10 16 keys (a 7 followed by 
16 zeros), and there is some con- 
troversy over whether this number is 
sufficient! 

The keys to be used are obtained 
from a key source, which selects 
them, perhaps randomly, from the 
large set of all usable keys. The key 
source may be located near the en- 



cryptor, near the decryptor, or 
elsewhere. But each key to be used 
must be made available to both the 
encryptor and the decryptor. Therein 
lies the most serious problem of con- 
ventional cryptosystems: some safe 
method must exist for distributing 
secret keys to the encryptor and the 
decryptor. 

This problem is illustrated with a 
simple example: let's say you want to 
communicate privately with a friend 
named Mary. Many communication 
channels are available to you, none of 
which may be completely private: 
telephone, mail, and computer net- 
works, for examples. You could send 
encrypted messages, but Mary could 
not read them without the keys. And 
you dare not send secret keys over 
these public channels. One of you 
must visit the other, so that you could 
agree on a key to use for future cor- 
respondence. But if your communica- 
tion need was for only one private 
message exchange, it could be trans- 
acted during the visit, rendering the 
conventional cryptosystem un- 
necessary. Or if your communication 
need were immediate, a personal visit 
could cause an unacceptable delay. 
And if you need to communicate with 
several people, all the necessary visits 
could entail considerable expense. 



Most conventional cryptosystems, in- 
cluding the Data Encryption Stan- 
dard system, have this problem. 
Public key cryptosystems, however, 
can avoid this problem entirely. 



Public Key Systems 

The concept of public keys may be 
one of the most significant crypto- 
graphic ideas of all time. A public key 
system has two kinds of keys: encryp- 
tion keys and decryption keys. It may 
seem that having two kinds would 
make the key distribution problem 
worse, or at least no better. These 
keys, however, have remarkable, 
almost magical, properties: 

• for each encryption key there is a 
decryption key, which is not the same 
as the encryption key 

• it is feasible to compute a pair of 
keys, consisting of an encryption key 
and a corresponding decryption key 

• it is not feasible to compute the 
decryption key from knowledge of 
the encryption key 

Because of these properties, Mary 
and you can use a public key system 
to communicate privately without 
transmitting any secret keys. To set it 
up, you generate a pair of keys, and 
send the encryption key to Mary by 
any convenient means. It need not be 
kept secret. It can only encrypt 
messages — not decrypt them. Reveal- 
ing it discloses nothing useful about 
the decryption key. Mary can use it 
to encrypt messages and send them to 
you. No one but you, however, can 
decrypt the messages (not even 
Mary!), as long as you do not reveal 
the decryption key. Figure 2 il- 
lustrates the flow of information in 
this situation, with Mary on the left 
and you on the right. To allow you to 
send private messages to her, Mary 
must similarly create a pair of keys, 
and send her encryption key to you. 
You can also go a step further. 
Since your encryption key need not 
be kept secret, you can make it 
public, for example, by placing it in a 
computer network public file. Once 
you have done so, anyone who wants 
to send you a private message can 
look up your public key and use it to 



200 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 47 on Inquiry card. 



► 



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MESSAGES 



II 



ENCRYPTOR 



CRYPTOGRAMS 



MESSAGES 



II 



DECRYPTOR 



7^ 



ENCRYPTION! 
KEY, 







SECURE CHANNELS 



■PUBLIC CHANNELS 



DECRYPTION 
KEY 



KEY 
SOURCE 



Figure 2: A public key cryptographic system. Encryption keys can be safely sent over 
the ordinary communication channel because the information they contain cannot be 
used to decrypt messages. Decryption keys are created near the decryptor and are not 
sent anywhere else. Each person who expects to receive encrypted messages creates a 
key for encryption and a corresponding key for decryption and sends the encryption 
key to those who will originate the messages. 



Key Length 
(digits) 

50 
100 
150 
200 
250 



Factoring Time 

3.9 hours 
74 years 
1.0 million years 

3.8 billion years 

5.9 trillion years 



Table 1: The time required to break the 
RSA public key system by factoring 
the key, for several different key 
lengths. These factoring times assume 
one computer operation per microsec- 
ond. 



encrypt a message. Since you need 
not transmit the decryption key, and 
since it cannot be computed from 
your public key, the message is 
secure. Only you can decrypt it. 
Other people can place their encryp- 
tion keys in the same public file, 
which would thus become a directory 
of public keys. Any two people with 
directory entries could then com- 
municate privately, even if they had 
no previous contact. It would be 
necessary, however, to protect the 
keys in such a file so that no one 
could change someone else's encryp- 
tion key, for example, by substituting 
another encryption key. Fortunately, 
there is a way to protect the keys 
themselves with a public key crypto- 
system, but that is another topic. 



The RSA Cryptosystem 

Now that the general concepts of 
public key cryptography have been 
examined, the next problem is how to 
design an actual working system. In- 
deed, when Whitfield Diffie and Mar- 
tin Hellman conceived the basic prop- 
erties of this cryptosystem in 1976, no 
one knew how to make a system that 
could employ them. The situation 
was similar to that of space travel in 
1950. It was conceivable, but no one 
had accomplished it. In 1977, three 
researchers at the Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, Ron Rivest, 



Adi Shamir, and Len Adleman, pub- 
lished an elegant method for creating 
and using public keys. 

In the Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (or 
RSA) cryptosystem, the keys are 
200-digit numbers. The encryption 
key is the product of two secret prime 
numbers, having approximately 100 
digits each, selected by the person 
creating the keys. The corresponding 
decryption key is computed from the 
same two prime numbers, using a 
nonsecret formula. 

Anyone who knows the secret 
prime numbers can compute the 
decryption key, but the primes are 
hidden because only their product, 
the encryption key, is revealed. Of 
course, the primes may be discovered 
by factoring the key, but factoring 
such a number is about as easy as 
traveling to Alpha Centauri, especial- 
ly if the person who constructs the 
number has done it in a way that 
discourages factoring. Rivest, 
Shamir, and Adleman estimated that 
a fast computer would require 3.8 
billion years (nearly the estimated age 
of the earth) to factor a 200-digit key. 
Estimates of the time required to fac- 
tor keys of several other lengths are 
shown in table 1. 

Before encryption, a message is 
converted into a string of numbers. 
This step is common in cryptosys- 
tems, as it is in computers and com- 
munication systems. Next, the 



message is subdivided into blocks, 
much as computer text files are sub- 
divided into records or sectors. Each 
block contains the same number of 
digits, and is treated as one large 
number during encryption. To en- 
crypt the message, an arithmetic 
operation involving the encryption 
key is performed on each block, 
resulting in a cryptogram containing 
as many blocks as the original 
message. The arithmetic operation, 
described below, is the same for all 
blocks. To decrypt, the inverse 
arithmetic operation, which requires 
the decryption key, is performed on 
each block of the cryptogram. The 
result is the original message in its 
numerical form. 

As you can imagine, it would be 
cumbersome to illustrate these opera- 
tions with 200-digit numbers, so the 
detailed descriptions below use small 
keys and messages; otherwise, the 
operations shown are the same as 
those used in a full-size RSA system. 
Also, the encryption method de- 
scribed here is actually a subset of the 
original RSA method. This modifica- 
tion, which is due to Donald Knuth 
(see reference 3), uses the basic RSA 
technique, while lessening somewhat 
the number of computations in- 
volved. (For more detailed informa- 
tion, the reader should refer to the 
original Rivest-Shamir-Adleman 
paper, shown as reference 5.) 



202 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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(505) 242-3333 



E\calibur 

TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION 



Circle 171 on Inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 203 






Arithmetic with a Modulus 

The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman cryp- 
tography system uses arithmetic 
modulo n in encoding, decoding, and 
key selection. Because arithmetic 
modulo n is almost the same as or- 
dinary arithmetic, it is easy to use. 

To add or multiply modulo n, first 
add or multiply in the usual way. Then 
divide the result by n, and use the re- 
mainder for the final answer. For ex- 
ample, in arithmetic modulo 5, 
3 + 4=2, because 3 + 4 is ordinari- 
ly 7, and 7 divided by 5 leaves a re- 
mainder of 2. This equation is usually 
written 

(3 + 4) mod 5 = 2 

where the notation "mod 5" indicates 
that arithmetic modulo 5 is being per- 
formed. Using this notation: 

(4X4) mod 5 = 1 

since 4X4 = 16, and 16 divided by 5 
leaves a remainder of 1 . 

The number n is called the modulus, 
and may be any positive integer. All 
answers in arithmetic modulo n are 
smaller than n, but are never negative. 
For example, when n is 5, every correct 
answer is 0, 1, 2, 3, or 4. If the initial 
result of addition or multiplication is 
less than n, the division step is un- 
necessary. 

When performing a chain of opera- 




tions, such as 



(2X3X4) mod 5 = 4 

the division step may be performed 
after each operation or at the end. The 
answer will be the same. When per- 
forming a chain of multiplications, it is 
best to perform the division step after 
every multiplication to keep the in- 
termediate results from growing larger 
and larger. This is especially important 
where the intermediate results could 
overflow a computer's storage area. 

Several common devices inherently 
perform arithmetic with a modulus. 
For example, most automobile 
odometers use a modulus of 100,000. If 
such an odometer reads 99,987 at the 
start of a 45-mile trip, it will read 32 at 
the destination; in the notation of 
arithmetic modulo H: 

(99987 + 45) mod 100000 = 32 

Computers are easily programmed 
to perform arithmetic modulo n. In 
BASIC, one extra statement is required 
for each arithmetic operation. For ex- 
ample, to calculate (A XB) mod n: 

500 X = A*B 

510 X = X - INT(X/N)*N 

Many interpreters allow placing both 
statements on the same line. INT(X/N) 



is the quotient that would result from 
division ofXby N; INT(X/N)*N is the 
quotient times the divisor; and 
X - INT(X/N) *N is the remainder. 

In this article, an encryption opera- 
tion is described that requires that a 
number be cubed modulo n. This 
BASIC subroutine computes B =(A 3 ) 
mod n: 

500 REM COMPUTE B = (A*A*A) 

MODN 
510 B = A* A 
520 B = B - INT(B/N)*N: 

REM MODN 
530 B = B*A 

REM (A* A)* A 
.540 B = B - INT(B/N)*N: 

REM MOD N 
550 RETURN 

When multiplying integers, the 
number of digits in the result is usually 
the sum of the numbers of digits in the 
operands. If the result has more digits 
than the interpreter uses in its vari- 
ables, the computed result will not be 
exact. Use double-precision variables, 
if they are available. Exact results will 
be obtained if the number of digits in 
the modulus is no more than half the 
number of digits used by the inter- 
preter, and all operands are smaller 
than the modulus, which is usually the 



How to Encrypt 

While the encryption and decryp- 
tion operations are normally per- 
formed by a computer program, I will 
describe them as if you were perform- 
ing them by hand. Normally, the on- 
ly manual operation required is enter- 
ing the message to be encrypted. 

Suppose you wish to encrypt the 
message 

MARY HAD A LITTLE LAMB. 

Once entered into a computer, the 
message will be in numerical form, 
frequently in ASCII (American Stan- 
dard Code for Information Inter- 
change). In ASCII, this message is 

77 65 82 89 32 72 65 68 32 



65 32 76 73 84 84 76 69 32 
76 65 77 66 46 

This is not yet encrypted, of course. It 
is merely written as a computer might 
represent it (all the numbers in this ar- 
ticle are decimal). Group the message 
into blocks with six digits each: 

776582 893272 656832 653276 
738484 766932 766577 664600 

Each block except the last consists of 
three consecutive characters from the 
ASCII representation above. The last 
block consists of the last two charac- 
ters plus two zeros added at the right 
to make the final block as long as the 
rest. Digits added for this purpose 
may have any value. 



Suppose that the encryption key, 
usually called n, is 94815109. This is 
the product of two prime numbers. 
To encrypt the message, treat each 
block as a number, and cube it 
modulo n (see the text box 
'Arithmetic with a Modulus"). For 
example, to encrypt the first block of 
the message: 

(776582 X 776582 X 776582) 
mod 94815109 = 71611947 

Performing the cubing operation on 
all eight blocks produces the crypto- 
gram 

71611947 48484364 03944704 
03741778 61544362 35331577 
88278091 50439554 



204 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




The Well-Tempered Cross-Assembler 



Before Johann Sebastian Bach developed 
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302-734-0151 



Circle 45 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 205 



Arithmetic modulo n is a fun- 
damental part of the RSA system. It is 
also used in decryption and creating 
keys. Most of us have used arithmetic 
modulo n, although perhaps we 
didn't call it that. For instance, 
arithmetic modulo 12 is frequently 
used in calculations related to keeping 
time. The text box "Arithmetic with a 
Modulus" reviews the mechanics. 

Almost any method may be used to 
convert the text to numbers. It would 
have worked just as well to use A = l, 
B=2, . . . Z = 26, but the ASCII code 
is already in wide use, and it includes 
numbers for spaces and punctuation. 
The block length should be almost 
equal to the key length, because mak- 
ing it long minimizes the number of 
blocks per message. When considered 
as a number, however, no block 
should be as large as the key. For the 
above key, no block should be larger 
than 94815108. Making the block 
length slightly less than the key length 
ensures that this requirement is met. 
Of course, with full-length keys, 
there will be about 100 characters per 
block. 

Listing 1 is a BASIC program that 
uses the above key to encrypt a line of 
text. Two lines of the program (670 
and 680) perform the encryption. The 
rest deal with input, formatting, and 
printing. If desired, the encryption 
key in line 220 may be changed; use a 
key with seven or eight digits, or 
reduce the number of characters per 
block (line 210). 

The programs in listings 1 through 
4 were written for the TRS-80 BASIC 
interpreter, which is capable of 
16-digit precision. They may be 
adapted for use with other inter- 
preters, and I have tried to structure 
and annotate them well enough to 
make them easy to modify. 

How to Decrypt 

Since the RSA system is a public 
key system, the decryption key, 
usually called d, differs from the 
public encryption key. For the above 
encryption key, d is 63196467. Know- 
ing the value of d, you can decrypt 
the message by raising each crypto- 
gram block to the power d, modulo 
n. That is, if a cryptogram block is C, 
you must compute (C d ) mod n. For 



example, to decrypt the first block of 
the above cryptogram: 

(71611947 63196467 ) mod 94815109 = 
776582 

converts this block back to the first 
three ASCII codes of the original 
message. Each of the remaining 
blocks is decrypted in the same way. 
Fortunately, raising a number to a 
large power does not require per- 
forming a comparable number of 
multiplications. One efficient algo- 
rithm is a variation of the "Russian 
Peasant Method" of multiplication 
(see reference 4). It computes 
M = (C) mod n, as follows: 



1. Let M = 1. 

2. If d is odd, let M = (MxC) mod 
n. 

3. Let C = (CXC) mod n. 

4. Let d = integer part of d/2. 

5. If d is not zero, repeat from step 2; 
otherwise, terminate with M as the 
answer. 

To raise a number to the power 
63196467, this algorithm executes its 
loop (steps 2 through 5) 26 times. It is 
employed as a subroutine in the 
BASIC-language decryption program 
of listing 2. Line 200 contains the 
keys, which may be changed, if 
desired. Lines 340 through 380 ex- 
ecute the algorithm. 

Text continued on page 210 



Listing 1: A program in BASIC (TRS-80) to demonstrate the encryption process de- 
scribed in the text. Lines 670-680 perform the encryption. When the program prompts 
you, type the text to be encrypted. The program will then print the text in numerical 
form, followed by the cryptogram. Use uppercase letters only. 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
2 90 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
350 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 



ENCRYPT MESSAGES, USING A MINIATURE VERSION OF THE 
RIVEST-SHAMIR-ADLEMAN PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOSYSTEM . 

PROMPT FOR THE MESSAGE TO BE ENCRYPTED, PRINT THE 
NUMERIC FORM OF THE MESSAGE, AND PRINT THE CRYPTOGRAM. 



DEFINE PARAMETERS. 

DEFDBL C,M,N 
DIM M( 100 ) 
CHRS = 3 
N - 94815109 



C, M, AND N HAVE 16 DIGITS 
MESSAGE BLOCKS 
CHARACTERS PER BLOCK 
ENCRYPTION KEY, OR MODULUS 



GET THE MESSAGE FROM THE USER. 



PRINT : M$ - "" 
INPUT "MESSAGE"; M$ 
IF MS = "" THEN END 
PRINT 



MESSAGE FOR ENCRYPTION 
STOP IF NOTHING IS ENTERED 



' ADD ZEROS TO MESSAGE, IF NECESSARY, TO MAKE ITS LENGTH 
' A MULTIPLE OF THREE ( AN EVEN NUMBER OF BLOCKS ) . 

L - LEN( M$ ) ' LENGTH OF MESSAGE 

Q = INT( L/CHRS ) ' NUMBER OF COMPLETE BLOCKS 

R = L - Q * CHRS ' LENGTH OF PARTIAL BLOCK 

IF R > THEN M5 = M$ + CHR$(0) : GOTO 340 ' ADD A ZERO? 

' CONVERT THE MESSAGE TO NUMERIC FORM, AND PRINT IT. 

FOR 1=0 TO Q-l ' I IS THE BLOCK NUMBER 

M( I ) = ' CONVERT BLOCK I TO NUMERIC 

FOR J=l TO CHRS ' FOR EACH CHAR IN BLOCK 

A = ASC(MID5(M$,3*I+J,1)) ' CONVERT TO NUMBER 

Listing 1 continued on page 208 



206 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Osborne brings you the comparison 
IBM* and Apple don't want you to see. 



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A. The Osborne 1™ includes two built-in 100K byte floppy disk drives. The IBM® and APPLE II® drives provide approximately 160K bytes of 
storage. B. From the IBM Product Center Personal Computer Price Schedule. C. From the Apple Computer Suggested Retail Price List. 
D. The Osborne includes MBASIC® from Microsoft. E. The Osborne includes CBASIC®, a business-oriented BASIC language from Digital 
Research.™ F. The Osborne includes CP/M®, the industry-standard control program from Digital Research. The list of software packages 
which will run with CP/M is considerable. IBM offers CP/M 86 (a version of CP/M) at extra cost. There are optional hardware systems which 
allow the Apple II to run CP/M; the Apple II control program is highly comparable to CP/M. G. The Osborne includes WORDSTAR® word 
processing with MAILMERGE®— products of MicroPro™ International. H. The Osborne includes SUPERCALC™, the electronic spreadsheet 
system from Sorcim Corporation. I. Exact price comparisons cannot be presented, because the software and hardware options chosen to 
create the "equivalent" of the Osborne 1 Personal Business Computer vary in price. The range indicated was computed using price lists 
from IBM and Apple. Documentation of the computations are available on request from Osborne Computer Corporation. Trademarks: 
OSBORNE 1: Osborne Computer Corporation; SUPERCALC: Sorcim Corporation; Digital Research: Digital Research, Inc.; Registered Trade- 
marks: WORDSTAR, MAILMERGE: MicroPro International Corporation of San Rafael, CA; MBASIC: Microsoft; CBASIC, CP/M: Digital Research, 
Inc.; IBM: IBM Corporation; Apple, Apple II: Apple Computer Corporation. 



Circle 308 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 207 



Circle 384 on Inquiry card. 

StarLogic 

Announces Major 

Savings on 

Tandon Floppy 

Disk Drives 



We're overstocked on Tandon disk 
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Here are the industry-standard drives. Basic 

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TANDON TM100-1 $165.00 

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Apple and Apple II are registered trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc 

IBM and PC are trademarks df IBM Corporation. 

TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation. 

Prices subiect td change without notice. 

Prices do ndt include shipping charges which will be added td 

MasterCard and Visa billing. 



Listing 1 continued: 



450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 
600 
610 
620 
630 
6 40 
650 
660 
670 
680 
690 
700 



M( I ) = M( I ) * 100 
M(I) - M(I)+ A 
NEXT J 
PRINT M( I ) ; 
NEXT I 
PRINT : PRINT 



' SHIFT BLOCK LEFT 
' ADD THE CHARACTER 

PRINT THE BLOCK 
DO THE NEXT BLOCK 



' ENCRYPT THE 


MESSAGE, AND PRINT THE 


CRYPTOGRAM . 




PRINT "CRYPTOGRAM:" 


: PRINT 










FOR 1=0 TO Q-l 




I IS THE BLOCK NUMBER 


M = M( I ) 














GOSUB 670 






ENCRYPT 


THE 


BLOCK 




PRINT C; 






PRINT IT 






NEXT I 






DO THE 


NEXT 


ONE 




PRINT 

1 














GOTO 260 






RUN THE 


PROGRAM AGAIN 


' SUBROUTINE . 


ENCRYPT ONE MESSAGE BLOCK. 






• COMPUTE C = 


(M-3) 


MOD N. 










C = M * M : C 


= C - 


INT( C/N ) 


* N 


(M * M) MOD 


N 


C = C * M : C 


= C - 


INT( C/N ) 


* N 


(M * M * M) 


MOD N 


RETURN 















Listing 2: A program in BASIC (TRS-80) to demonstrate the decryption process de- 
scribed in the text. Lines 340-390 decrypt one block of a cryptogram by raising it to a 
power. The program asks for a cryptogram block to be decrypted. Several seconds 
later, it prints the decrypted characters in ASCII. If you enter 0, the program will ter- 
minate. 



100 
110 
120 
130 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 
210 
220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 



DECRYPT MESSAGES, USING A MINIATURE VERSION OF THE 
RIVEST-SHAMIR-ADLEMAN PUBLIC KEY CRYPTOSYSTEM . 

PROMPT FOR THE CRYPTOGRAM BLOCK TO BE DECRYPTED, AND 
DECRYPT AND PRINT THE MESSAGE BLOCK, IN NUMERIC FORM. 



• DEFINE PARAMETERS. 

DEFDBL C,D,M,N 

N = 94815109 : D = 63196467 



DOUBLE PRECISION 
KEYS 



' MAIN PROGRAM LOOP. 

INPUT "CRYPTOGRAM BLOCK"; C 
IF C = THEN END 
GOSUB 340 
PRINT M 
GOTO 240 



USER ENTRY 
STOP IF NO ENTRY 
DECRYPT BLOCK 
MESSAGE BLOCK 
REPEAT 



SUBROUTINE. DECRYPT C, CRYPTOGRAM BLOCK. 

COMPUTE M = (C A D) MOD N. USE MODIFIED RUSSIAN PEASANT 

ALGORITHM (BYTE, OCTOBER 1981, PAGE 376). 

Listing 2 continued on page 210 



208 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 499 on inquiry card. 



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Listing 2 continued: 

340 Dl - D : M - 1 

350 IF Dl/2 = INT(Dl/2) GOTO 370 

360 M = M * C : M=M- INT(M/N) * N 

370 C=C*C : C=C- INT(C/N) * N 

380 Dl = INT(Dl/2) : IF Dl > GOTO 350 

390 RETURN 



IF Dl IS EVEN, SKIP 
M = (M * C) MOD N 
C = (C * C) MOD N 



How to Derive Keys 

Earlier, I said that it is feasible to 
derive a pair of keys, n and d, for en- 
cryption and decryption, but not 
feasible to calculate d from n. That 
seems incredible, but experts believe 
it is true when n and d are constructed 
in the following way. 

The encryption key, n, is the prod- 
uct of two large prime numbers, p 
and q: 



pq 



(1) 



The decryption key, d, is calculated 
from p and q by 

d = [ 2(p-l)(q-l) + 1 1/3 (2) 

Although n is made public, p and q 
remain secret. If n is sufficiently 
large, say 200 digits, it is practically 
impossible for anyone to factor it and 
discover the values of p and q; and 
without knowing p and q, it is equal- 
ly difficult to compute d. 

For the encryption and decryption 
examples given earlier, the keys were 
constructed as follows: 



prime number, 
prime number, 
encryption key, 



p = 7151 
q = 13259 
n = 7151X13259 
= 94815109 
decryption key, d = (2X7150X 
13258 + l)/3 
= 63196467 

Because p and q may have 100 or 
more digits in an operational RSA 
system, their selection requires com- 
puter assistance. The following three 
restrictions apply to how they should 
be chosen. First, neither p — 1 nor 
q — 1 must be divisible by 3, or the 
decryption operation will not work 
correctly. Second, p—1 and q — 1 



should both contain at least one large 
prime factor. Third, the ratio p/q 
should not approximate a simple frac- 
tion, e.g., Vi, Vi, etc. These last two 
restrictions help ensure that n will be 
difficult to factor. Donald Knuth, in 
the second edition of his book (see 
reference 3), gives a detailed pro- 
cedure for selecting p and q, which 
ensures that these restrictions are 
met. While the procedure described is 
for constructing 250-digit keys, it is 
applicable to other key lengths. 

Enough keys are available for 
everyone. The number of 250-digit 
keys constructible with Knuth's pro- 
cedure is much greater than 10 200 . For 
comparison, the number of atoms in 
the known universe is about 10 80 . 

To create a different pair of seven- 
or eight-digit keys, find primes p and 
q such that neither p — 1 nor q — 1 is 
divisible by 3, and the product n = pq 
is a seven- or eight-digit number. 
Then calculate d from formula (2). 
Divisibility by 3 is easily checked by 
casting out 3s, and the BASIC pro- 
grams described below are helpful in 
finding prime numbers. 

How to Find Large 
Prime Numbers 

To find a large prime number, 
select a random odd number of the re- 
quired size and determine whether it 
is prime. If it is not, increase it (or 
decrease it) by 2 and try again, 
repeating until finding a prime. It is 
not necessary, however, to attempt to 
factor a number to determine whether 
it is prime. 

To test whether a number n is 
prime, select any number greater than 
1 and smaller than n, say x, and 
calculate 

y = (x"~ l ) mod n 



210 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Circle 307 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 211 



If y is not equal to 1, n is not prime. 
But if y = 1, h may be prime, and 
further testing is required. Repeat the 
test using another value of x. If this 
test is performed with many different 
values of x, and if y = 1 for all the 
test cases, n is probably prime. 
Listing 3 is a BASIC program that 
uses 10 values of x to test a number 
for primality. If the program says the 
number is not prime, it is not prime. 
But if the program says the number is 
probably prime, there is a small 
chance that it is not. 

What is the probability that this 
program will make an error? I don't 
know, but it illustrates a class of pro- 
grams, some of which are very good. 
Knuth (reference 3, page 375) 
presents one that is slightly more 
complicated, for which the odds 
against an error are a million to one 
when 10 values of x are used for 
testing, and are a million million to 
one when 20 values are used. For 
serious work I would use the more 
complicated program, but the one 
presented here illustrates the process 
of testing without factoring — and it 
doesn't seem bad. It has not made an 
error in several hundred trials. 

Listing 4 is a BASIC program that 
searches for a prime number using the 
same test method as the previous pro- 
gram. The program will begin with 
the number you enter and search 
downward until it finds a probable 
prime, which it will identify. If you 
enter 99999999, it will find the largest 
eight-digit prime. This program helps 
to find primes for constructing small 
keys like the ones above. 

One-Way Functions 
and Trap-Doors 

Public key cryptosystems derive 
their unusual properties from mathe- 
matical functions called trap-door 
one-way functions, which are useful 
because they can act as ordinary 
functions or as one-way functions. 

One-way functions are like one- 
way streets. The ordinary cube func- 
tion, B = A 3 , resembles a one-way 
function in that it is easier to calculate 
B, given A, than it is to calculate A, 
given B. The latter calculation, the 
cube-root function, is called the in- 
verse of the cube function. The in- 



Listing 3: A program in BASIC (TRS-80) to test whether a number is prime. This pro- 
gram demonstrates a primality test that does not attempt to factor the number being 
tested. For very large numbers, it is much faster than factoring. 



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TEST WHETHER A NUMBER IS PRIME. 

USE PROBABILISTIC TEST BASED ON FERMAT ' S THEOREM. 

SEE KNUTH, "SEMI NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS". 

PROMPT FOR NUMBER, TEST IT, AND PRONOUNCE VERDICT. 



DEFINE PARAMETERS. 

DEFDBL N,P,X,Y 
K = 10 



DOUBLE PRECISION 
NUMBER OF TEST CASES 



GET A NUMBER TO BE TESTED. CHECK THE SIZE. 



PRINT 

INPUT "NUMBER"; N 

IF N < 3 THEN END 

IF N > 99999999 THEN PRINT "TOO BIG" 



GET A NUMBER TO TEST 
GOTO 2 40 



' DETERMINE WHETHER N IS PRIME. 

PRINT "TEST NUMBER: "; 

FOR 1=1 TO K ■ TEST CASES 

X = 2 + INT( (N-2 )*RND(0) ) ' TEST VALUE 

PRINT X; 

GOSUB 490 ' PERFORM TEST 

IF Y <> 1 GOTO 380 ' NOT PRIME? 

NEXT I 
PRINT : PRINT ' NOT PRIME IF Y <> 1 

' PRINT THE VERDICT. 

IF Y = 1 THEN PRINT N; "IS PROBABLY PRIME." 
IF Y <> 1 THEN PRINT N; "IS NOT PRIME." 









GOTO 240 



• RUN THE PROGRAM AGAIN 



SUBROUTINE. COMPUTE Y = [X"(N-1)] MOD N. 






Y = 1 : P = N-l • 

IF P/2 = INT(P/2) GOTO 520 

Y = Y*X:Y = Y- INT( Y/N ) * N 
X=X*X:X=X- INT(X/N) * N 
P = INT(P/2) : IF P > GOTO 500 
RETURN 



IF P IS EVEN, SKIP 
(Y * X) MOD N 
(X * X) MOD N 



verse of an automobile would convert 
smog to gasoline. A mathematical 
function is said to be one-way if it is 
much more difficult to compute the 
inverse than to compute the function 
itself. To qualify as a one-way func- 
tion, the inverse must be very dif- 
ficult to compute, even by machine. 



A function that could be computed in 
a few seconds, for which computing 
an inverse required thousands of 
years, would fit the definition. 

To create a public key cryptosys- 
tem, a trap-door one-way function is 
used. It is easy to compute an inverse 
of a trap-door one-way function, but 



212 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 





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Circle 378 on inquiry card. 



BYTE January 1983 213 



it can be very difficult to determine 
how. Computing an inverse can take 
millions of years because finding out 
how to do it can take that long. If the 
method is known, computing an in- 
verse may take only a few seconds. 
This is a completely different situa- 
tion than that created by a one-way 
function, for which there is no easy 
way to compute an inverse. When a 
trap-door one-way function is being 
constructed, the person constructing 
it has access to information, called 
trap-door information, that reveals 
how to compute inverses. Once the 
function is constructed, the trap-door 
information is hidden so well that it 
can take millions of years to find. 

The Knuth modification of the 
RSA system encryption function, 
cubing a number modulo n, is a trap- 
door one-way function. Its inverse 
function is the cube root modulo n. In 
arithmetic modulo n, "cube root" is 
defined as in ordinary arithmetic: if B 
is the cube of A, then A is the cube 
root of B. Notice that this definition 
does not say how to compute cube 
roots (in either kind of arithmetic). If 
you know how to compute cube roots 
modulo n, you know how to decrypt 
messages. In modulo n arithmetic, the 
cube root of B is computed by raising 
B to some power d, modulo n. But 
knowing this doesn't help unless you 
know the value of d. And d can be 
computed by formula (2) if n has two 
factors (p and q), and p— 1 and q — 1 
are not divisible by 3. If you con- 
struct the modulus, n, you know p 
and q, and can therefore calculate the 
value of d. Knowing d, you can com- 
pute cube roots; in other words, 
decrypt cryptograms. The values of p 
and q are hidden from other people 
by the difficulty of factoring n. They 
are deprived of the value of d, and 
therefore cannot compute cube roots. 
Hence, they cannot decrypt crypto- 
grams created by cubing modulo n. In 
the RSA system, the value of d is the 
trap-door information that reveals 
how to compute inverses (cube 
roots). You might think of p and q as 
comprising a trap-door through 
which the value of d is obtained. Fac- 
toring n is analogous to finding the 
trap-door, but it is very difficult to 
do. 



Listing 4: A program in BASIC (TRS-80) that searches for a prime number. It illustrates 
the search technique and may be used to help construct small keys for the public key 
cryptosystem described in the text. Enter any number of eight digits or fewer, and the 
program will find a prime number that does not exceed the number entered. 



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' FIND A PRIME NUMBER NO LARGER THAN THE NUMBER ENTERED. 
' USE PROBABILISTIC TEST BASED ON FERMAT ' S THEOREM. 
' SEE KNUTH, "SEMI NUMERICAL ALGORITHMS". 



' DEFINE PARAMETERS. 

DEFDBL N,P,X,Y 
K = 10 



DOUBLE PRECISION 
NUMBER OF TEST CASES 



' GET A NUMBER TO BE TESTED. CHECK THE SIZE. 

I 

PRINT 

INPUT "NUMBER" ; N ' GET A NUMBER TO TEST 

IF N < 3 THEN END " STOP IF SMALL NUMBER 

IF N > 99999999 THEN PRINT "TOO BIG" : GOTO 220 

I _____ _____ 

' DETERMINE WHETHER THE NUMBER ENTERED IS EVEN. 
• IF SO, SUBTRACT ONE. 



IF N/2 = INT(N/2) THEN N = N - 1 



PRINT N, THEN DETERMINE WHETHER IT IS PRIME. 



PRINT N; 
FOR 1=1 TO K 

X = 2 + INT( ( N-2 ) *RND( ) ) 

GOSUB 520 

IF Y <> 1 GOTO 400 
NEXT I 
REM 



' TEST CASES 
' TEST VALUE 
• PERFORM TEST 
■ NOT PRIME? 



' IF N IS PRIME, TERMINATE THE PROGRAM. OTHERWISE, 
' DECREASE IT BY TWO, AND TRY AGAIN. 

IF Y - 1 THEN PRINT "IS PROBABLY PRIME." : END 
PRINT "NO." : N = N - 2 : GOTO 340 



GOTO 220 



RUN THE PROGRAM AGAIN 



~ 



SUBROUTINE. COMPUTE Y = [X~(N-1)] MOD N. 



Y = 1 : P = N-l 

IF P/2 = INT(P/2) GOTO 550 

Y = Y*X : Y = Y- INT( Y/N ) * N 
X=X*X : X=X- INT(X/N) * N 
P = INT(P/2) : IF P > GOTO 530 
RETURN 



IF P IS EVEN, SKIP 
(Y * X) MOD N 
(X * X) MOD N 



Other trap-door one-way functions 
undoubtedly exist, and these could be 
the foundations for other public key 
cryptosy stems. For each of these 



systems, the same principles would 
apply. The creator of the system 
parameters would have access to cer- 
tain trap-door information, which 



214 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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Editor's Note: Recently, a software 
product became available that allows 
Z80 system owners to take advantage 
of the benefits offered by public key 
cryptography in their private cor- 
respondence. Called The Protector 
(from Standard Software of Randolph, 
Massachusetts; list price: $165), the 
new system uses a 77-digit key. On a 
4-MHz Z80 microcomputer running 
under the CP/M operating system, 
message encryption and decryption 
take about one minute plus the 
necessary disk access time. The time 
needed to generate the encryption and 
decryption keys ranges from 15 
minutes to 4 hours. The memory re- 



quirement is 38K bytes. 

Although the 77-digit key is much 
shorter than the 200-digit key pro- 
posed for the full-size Rivest-Shamir- 
Adleman system, the key may be more 
than adequate for most applications. 
The author of the system, Charles 
Merritt of PKS Inc., has received 
estimates of the time needed to break 
the system ranging from three uninter- 
rupted days on a Cray-1 to one year. 

When asked about the people who 
were using the system, Mr. Merritt 
replied that he had not heard from any 
of them. Apparently, they also want to 
keep their identities secret. . . .R. M. 



would reveal how to compute in- 
verses. For everyone else, the trap- 
door would be hidden, and for them 
the encryption function would be, in 
effect, a one-way function. 

Is the RSA System Unbreakable? 

Successfully analyzing a cryptosys- 
tem, and being able to read its crypto- 
grams without authorization, is 
called breaking the system. Theoreti- 
cally, the RSA system can be broken 
by a determined analyst. Factoring 
the encryption key, or modulus, 
would do the trick, for then the 
decryption key could be easily 
calculated from formula (2), after 
which any message could easily be 
decrypted. However, factoring a key 
of the recommended length and con- 
struction does not seem feasible. 
Knuth gives a procedure for con- 
structing a 250-digit key and con- 
siders it inconceivable at this time 
that such a key could be factored. Ex- 
perts acknowledge that a break- 
through in the art of factoring large 
numbers would render the RSA sys- 
tem worthless but consider such a 
breakthrough extremely unlikely. 
Apparently, factoring large numbers 
is not a new problem, but one that ex- 
pert mathematicians have attacked 
for centuries, and it is known to be 
very difficult. 

Another way to break the system is 
to determine the value of d without 
factoring n. Although you can ap- 
proach this problem in several ways, 



experts believe that none of them are 
likely to be fruitful. 

Yet another method of breaking the 
system is to learn how to compute 
cube roots modulo n without know- 
ing the value of d. Less seems to be 
known about the difficulty of doing 
this than is known about the difficul- 
ty of factoring n. At this time, no one 
knows how to compute such cube 
roots in a reasonable time without 
knowing d. 

Any new cryptosystem should be 
viewed with suspicion. The accepted 
method of demonstrating the ade- 
quacy of a new system is to subject it 
to prolonged, concerted attack by 
people with experience in breaking 
other systems. If the new system 
proves resistant to such an attack, it 
may tentatively be considered secure. 
The process of validation is continu- 
ing, but a fairly large number of 
preliminary studies done so far in- 
dicate that the system is quite secure. 

Digital Signatures 

Very closely related to public key 
cryptography is the concept of digital 
signatures. One problem with cor- 
responding electronically, such as via 
a computer network, is that messages 
can be easily forged — you usually 
cannot be certain that the sender of a 
received message is actually the per- 
son claimed in the message. A public 
key cryptosystem, however, can be 
used to provide positive identification 
of any sender who has a public key 



216 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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Late Developments 

Ron Rivest, one of the authors of the 
RSA public key cryptosystem, reports 
that it is presently finding commercial 
application in the transmission of keys 
for the U. S. Data Encryption Stan- 
dard, a conventional system that can 
process information at a much faster 
rate. He and the other authors of the 
system are now at work producing a 
single-chip implementation of the 
system that can be used on a micro- 
processor bus, which should be able to 
process about 150 characters per sec- 
ond. 



In a related item, Adi Shamir, 
another of the RSA authors, claims to 
have broken a rival public key system 
called the Knapsack System. Shamir's 
report, however, remains to be inter- 
preted, and some variations of the 
Knapsack technique may still be 
usable. This system, developed by 
Ralph Merkle and Martin Hellman, is 
based on a well-known problem of 
determining which numbers of a given 
set of numbers were added together to 
produce a given sum. 



on record. If, for example, Mary has 
filed a public key in some public ac- 
cess file, she can digitally sign a 
message to you by decrypting it with 
her private key before transmitting it. 
After receiving the message, you (or 
anyone else) can read the message by 
encrypting it with Mary's public en- 
cryption key. The process is essential- 
ly the reverse of the cryptosystem: 
the message is first decrypted and 
then encrypted, and anyone can 
reveal the message, but only Mary 
with her secret decryption key can 
create it. 

In addition, messages using digital 
signatures can be subsequently en- 
crypted with another key. After 
Mary decrypts her message to you 
with her secret decryption key, she 
can then encrypt it with your public 
encryption key. The result is a 
message that only Mary could have 
created, and only you can read! 



Messages with digital signatures 
have other interesting and useful 
properties and may be used to ad- 
vantage with other (non-PKC) cryp- 
tosystems. These properties and ap- 
plications might easily justify an arti- 
cle on digital signatures alone. 

Summary 

This article has described the prin- 
ciples of public key cryptosystems. 
One example has been given, the 
Rivest-Shamir-Adleman system. We 
have seen how keys are constructed 
and used, and have at our disposal 
four BASIC programs for further ex- 
perimentation. These programs may 
also be useful as models for assembly- 
language programs that could manip- 
ulate larger numbers and run faster. 
We have seen that the RSA crypto- 
system provides public keys in more 
than astronomical quantities and 
that it is believed to be unbreakable. 



Several questions come to mind: Is 
a personal computer powerful 
enough to run a full-size RSA system? 
How long would a small computer 
take to construct a 200-digit key? Or 
even a 100-digit key? How long 
would it take to decrypt a medium- 
length message? 

Regardless of the answers to these 
questions, the prospects are good for 
using public key systems with small 
computers. New computer models 
appear almost monthly, and their 
performance is improving rapidly. 
The theoretical work that gave birth 
to the RSA system is also proceeding 
at a rapid pace, and we can expect 
new and different public key systems 
to result from that work. Some of 
these may be suitable, perhaps even 
optimized, for small machines, and 
the prospects are exciting. ■ 



References 

Diffie, W. "Privacy and Authentication: An 
Introduction to Cryptography." Pro- 
ceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 67, March 
1979, pages 397-427. 
Diffie, W. and M. E. Hellman. "New Direc- 
tions in Cryptography." IEEE Transactions 
on Information Theory, Vol. IT-22, No. 6, 
November 1976, page 644. 
Knuth, Donald E. The Art of Computer Pro- 
gramming: Semi-Numerical Algorithms, 
Volume 2, 2nd ed. Reading, MA: Addison- 
Wesley, 1981, 

Nyberg, Jostein. "A Fast, Ancient Method 
for Multiplication." BYTE, October 1981, 
page 376. 

Rivest, R. L, A. Shamir, and L. Adleman. 
"A Method for Obtaining Digital 
Signatures and Public Key Cryp- 
tosystems." Communications of the 
Association for Computing Machinery, 
Vol. 21, No. 2, February 1978, page 120. 



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218 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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DBM Data Base Management w/report 196 

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System Notes 



Exploring 
the Commodore VIC-20 



Joel Swank 
12550 SW Colony #3 
Beaverton, OR 97005 



I was excited when I first obtained my Commodore 
VIC-20, and I spent several contented days playing with 
the new system. I soon realized, though, that it was 
capable of much more than simple games, so I decided to 
explore further. The nontechnical users manual offered 
little help; I would have to do my exploring on my own. 
Moreover, because the VIC has only CBM BASIC, deter- 
mining its internal workings would be difficult. 

The first step in unraveling the mysteries of the VIC is 
to find the location of the system functions (memory, in- 
put/output ports, and programs) in the memory space of 



RUN1 Hexadecimal dump of memory. Enter the starting and 
ending addresses when prompted. Memory is dumped 
4 bytes per line. 

RUN2 ASCII dump of memory. Enter the starting and ending 
addresses when prompted. Memory is displayed in 
ASCII, 8 bytes per line. 

RUN3 Hexadecimal to decimal conversion. Enter the hexa- 
decimal number; the decimal equivalent will be 
displayed. 

RUN4 Decimal to hexadecimal conversion. Enter the 

decimal number; the hexadecimal equivalent will be 
displayed. 

RUN5 Hexadecimal to binary conversion. Enter a hexa- 
decimal number up to four digits long; the binary 
equivalent will be displayed. 

RUN6 Jump to machine-language program. Enter the ad- 
dress of the program in hexadecimal. The SYS com- 
mand is used to execute the program. 

RUN7 Hexadecimal POKE. Enter the starting address in 

hexadecimal and then each byte in hexadecimal after 
its address is displayed. Type END to stop. 

Table 1: Memory Utility Program functions. When you enter 
the commands RUN1, RUN2, etc., the program will perform 
the corresponding functions. 



its 6502 microprocessor. All documentation for the 6502 
processor uses hexadecimal numbers to describe its fea- 
tures, but the VIC's BASIC uses decimal numbers only. 
Working with the 6502 requires using hexadecimal 
numbers. To solve this problem I wrote the VIC Memory 
Utility Program, a BASIC program that emulates a few of 
the capabilities of a monitor program (see listing 1). It has 
seven functions executed by typing RUNl, RUN2, RUN3, 
etc. (see table 1). The utility program allows you to dis- 
play memory in hexadecimal and ASCII (American Stan- 
dard Code for Information Interchange), alter memory in 
hexadecimal, convert hexadecimal to decimal and 
decimal to hexadecimal, convert hexadecimal to binary, 
and execute a machine-language program. The base con- 
version of numbers can be of great help to those un- 
familiar with hexadecimal and binary notations. Using 
the utility program, I was able to learn a great deal about 
the VIC's functions. 

Memory Locations 

Some of the locations of the VIC's functions are given 
in the users manual in decimal numbers. Using these as a 
start, I soon had mapped the entire 64K-byte memory 
space (see figure 1). The lower half of the address space is 
reserved for RAM (random-access read/write memory), 
while the upper half is for ROM (read-only memory) and 
I/O (input/output). The control program for the VIC is 
stored in ROM, and BASIC programs are stored in RAM. 
Some of the things that I found while exploring the VIC 
are described in the following paragraphs. All addresses 
are given in both hexadecimal and decimal. Hexadecimal 
numbers are preceded by a dollar sign ($); decimal 
numbers are in parentheses. 

The patterns for the VIC's character sets are contained 



222 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Circle 49 for literature. 

Circle 50 to have representative call. 



Listing 1: Memory Utility Program. This operates much like a monitor program, enabling you to examine and modify the VIC-20's 
memory. 



e REM 

1 SOT 

2 SOT 

3 SOT 

4 GOT 

5 SOT 
S GOT 
7 SOT 

10 re 
lee p 

150 ' 
200 ' 

see 

4»e i 

450 

see : 
see i 

1600 

lies 

1200 
1300 
140S 
190B 
2000 
2100 
2990 
3000 
3220 
3230 
3300 
3320 
3330 
3500 
3990 
4000 
4030 
4050 
410© 
4150 
4200 
4300 
4400 
4500 
4600 
4700 
5©00 
5100 
5200 
5300 
5400 
5500 
5900 
6800 
6100 
6200 
6300 
6400 
6500 



VIC MEMORY 
100 

O4S00 

O10000 

O 1 100 

O 6 Ei 

000 

oi2eee 

M 

R INT "HE! 



UTILITV 
HEX DUMP 
ASC I I DUMP 
HEM TO DECIMAL 
DECIMAL TO HEX 
HEX TO BINARV 
JUMP TO SUBROUTINE 
HEX POKE 



DUMP" 
OSUB200e 
OSUB 3000 
= 1 

OR I=SSTOEN 
F..T= 1 THE NGO SUBS 000 
K=PEEK f I ) 
OSUB 9600 
PR INT" " ; 

J=J+1IF JC5 THEN1390 
PR INT : J=l 
NEXT 
END 

REM SETUP SUB 
HEX*="0123456789ABCDEF 
RETURN 

REM INPUT START 
INPUT "ENTER 
B00 



AND END 
START" ;S* 
IFTTC0THEN 3000 



"ENTER END" ; S* 

7000 : IFTT<6THEN33ee 



DUMP" 



SOSUB 
SS=TT 
INPUT 
GOSUB 
EN=TT 
RETURN 
REM 

PR INT"ASCI I 
SOSUB 3B88 
J=l SOSUB 2000 
FOR I=SS TO EN 
IF JrlTHENSOSUB 8000 
X = PEEK C I> 
IFX>191THENX=32 
PR INTCHRt <X> ; 
J=J+1 : IFJ=9THEN J=l 
NEXT 
END 

PRINT"JUMP TO ML 
SOSUB2000 
INPUT"ENTER 'TO ' 
GOSUB 7000 
SVS < TT> 
END 
REM 

PR I NT" HEX TO BINARY 
INPUT "ENTER HE 
IF LEN<S*)>4 
GOSUB 7000 : 
M=2tl5 ! J=0 
FOR I=1T016 



PR INT 



PROGRAM 
ADDRESS 



IFTT<0 THEN 



S* 
GOTO5200 



. S* 
THENGOSUB 7756 
IFTT<0THEN6100 



SOTO6100 



6600 
6700 
6800 
6900 
7000 
7050 
7100 
7150 
7200 
7250 
7300 
7350 
7400 
7450 
7500 
7550 
7600 
7650 
7700 
7750 
7800 
7900 
3000 
8100 
8200 
8300 
8400 

9500 

9600 

9700 

9800 

9900 

9950 

9960 

18000 

18130 

10200 

10300 

10400 

10900 

11000 
11100 

11150 
11200 
11300 
11400 
11500 
12888 
12180 
12200 
12300 
12400 
12580 
126 00 
12780 
12750 
12800 
12900 
READ 



J = J 

IF 

PR I 

M = M 

REM 

TT = 

T* 

IFT 

IFT 

J = V 

SOT 

FOR 

IFT 

NEX 

J = J 

TT = 

NEX 

RET 

TT = 

PR I 

RET 

REM 

x:< 

GOS 

XK 

GOS 

PR I 

RET 

REM 

vx 

■2.V. 
Tl* 
T2$ 
PR I 
RET 
PR 

IN 
GO 
PR 
EN 
RE 
PR 

IN 
SO 
PR 
GO 
GO 
EN 
PR 
SO 

IN 
GO 
AD 

1 = 

IF 
SO 

IF 
PO 
til' 



: IFJ 
-M> = 

"0" ; 

: NEX 
ONVE 
FOR 
D* C.S 
"0"T 
"9"T 
< T*> 
7550 
1T06 
MID$ 
GOT 



=5THENJ=1 : PR INT" "; 
0THENPRINT"1"; : TT=TT-M : SOT06 

T :END 

RT HEX TO DECIMAL SUB 

L=1T0 LEN<S») 

* ,L , 1> 

HEN 7700 

HEN7358 



< "ABCDEF" ,J,t) THEN7500 
O7700 



INVALID HEX H " 
N 

RINT I AS 4 HEX DIGITS 
T C I/256> 

9600 
TU-INK 1/256::' *256) 

9600 

N 

RINT XX AS 2 HEX DIGITS 

T <XX.-"16> 

-VX*16 

ID* (HEX* , V/S + l , 1> 

ID*(HEX* , zy.+l , 1> 

Tl* ; T2* ; 

N 

T"HEX TO DECIMAL" 

T "ENTER HEX" ; S* 

B 7000 : IFTT<0THEN10100 

TS* ; "=" ; TT 



DECIMAL TO HEX 
NT"DECIMAL TO HEX" 
UT "ENTER DECIMAL"; I 
UB2000 
NT I ; " = " ; 
UB2000 
UB 8088 



NT"HEX POKE" 

UB2000 

UT"ENTER START ADDRESS". S* 

UE7000 : IFTT<0THEN12280 

= TT 

DD : GOSIJB8008 : INPUTS* 

*=" END "THEN END 
SUB7000 IF TT<0THEN12500 
TT>255THENGOSUB7750 : GOTO12508 
KEADD , T T 
D = ADD + 1 : GO TO 12580 



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HEXADECIMAL DECIMAL 




400 



1000 



1E0O 



2000 



8000 



9000 



AOOO 



COOO 



FFFF 



1024 



4096 



7680 



8192 



32768 



36864 



40960 



49152 



66535 



IK BYTES OF RAM 



3K BYTES RAM EXPANSION 



4K BYTES OF RAM 



SCREEN BUFFER 



24K BYTES RAM EXPANSION 



CHARACTER SET PATTERNS 



INPUT/OUTPUT PORTS 



8K BYTES ROM EXPANSION 
(PR06RAM CARTRIDGE) 



16K BYTES VIC CONTROL PROGRAM 
AND CBM BASIC IN ROM 



Figure 1: The V1C-20 memory map shows the organization of 
the VIC's memory with starting addresses in both decimal and 
hexadecimal for each block. 



TV controller 

Horizontal position control 
Vertical position control 
Character set selection 
Sound control 
Screen/border color control 
First 6522 VIA; controls user 
port, joysticks, and light pen 
Second 6522 VIA; controls 
keyboard, printer, disk, and 
tape 



Table 2: Input and output addresses. The values at these 
memory locations control the video and sound output as 
well as the input and output from the keyboard and 
peripherals. 



$9000-$900F 


(36864-36879) 


$9000 


(36864) 


$9001 


(36865) 


$9005 


(36869) 


$900A-$900E 


(36874-36878) 


$900F 


(36879) 


$9110-$911F 


(37136-37151) 


$9120-$912F 


(37152-37167) 



in a 4K-byte ROM located at $8000 (32768). The pattern 
for each character requires 8 bytes of data. The bits of the 
first byte determine which dots of the top row of the 
character will be on, the second byte does the same for 
the second row, and so on. The order of the character 
patterns in the ROM is the same as the order in the table 
on page 141 of the users manual. There are actually four 
separate character sets contained in this ROM, each tak- 
ing IK bytes for the patterns of the 128 characters per set. 
The first set, located at $8000 (32768), is the standard 
VIC character set. The next, at $8400 (33792), is the 



reverse standard character set. At $8800 (34816) is the 
VIC alternate character set that includes lowercase letters 
in place of graphics. At $8C00 (35840) is the reverse of 
the alternate character set. The byte at $9005 (36869) 
determines which of these character sets is used. When 
the VIC is powered on, this location is set to F0 hexadeci- 
mal, which selects the standard character set. When the 
shift and Commodore keys are pressed together, the 
value in $9005 (36869) is changed to F2 hexadecimal. This 
selects the alternate character set at $8800 (34816). Press- 
ing the shift and Commodore keys a second time changes 
back to the standard set. The value in location 36869 can 
also be changed from the keyboard with a POKE com- 
mand or even from a BASIC program. 

The integrated circuit of the VIC's TV controller uses 
the value in location 36869 to determine which character 
set is currently in use. It always assumes that the reverse 
character set immediately follows the selected one in 
memory and uses that reverse character set to blink the 
cursor. The cursor flashes between the character and its 
counterpart in the succeeding character set. Location 
36869 can also be used to select other character sets. For 
instance, storing Fl hexadecimal in 36869 selects the 
reverse character set at $8400 (33792). This makes all nor- 
mal characters on the screen reverse. Because the TV con- 
troller selects the immediately following character set for 
reverse characters, the alternate character set at $8800 
becomes the reverse in this mode. That means that the 
cursor blinks between reversed uppercase and normal 
lowercase characters. 

The value of the byte at $9005 (36869) can select still 
more character sets. If FC hexadecimal is stored there, the 
RAM starting at $1000 (4096) is used for the character 
patterns. This allows you to design your own character 
sets. Character sets at $1400 (5120), $1800 (6144), and 
$1C00 (7168) can also be selected with values FD, FE, and 
FF hexadecimal respectively. In fact, the 4K-byte block of 
RAM at $1000 (4096) will completely replace the ROM at 
$8000 (32768), and all features mentioned above will 
work for the user-designed character sets. Of course, on 
the standard VIC this RAM area is used for the BASIC 
program buffer and therefore cannot be used entirely for 
your own character sets. Also, the screen buffer takes the 
top 512 bytes of this area. 

Input/Output 

The entire area from $9000 (36864) to $9FFF (40959) is 
reserved for I/O (see table 2). Locations $9000 (36864) to 
$900F (36879) are for the TV controller. The character 
sets, screen and border color selections, and sound con- 
trols are all located here. Locations $9000 (36864) and 
$9001 (36865) control the horizontal and vertical position 
of the VIC's screen within the border. I sometimes use my 
VIC with an ancient black-and-white television. Because 
the corners of the screen are rounded on this set, each 
corner of the VIC's display loses three characters off the 
edge of the screen. To circumvent this, I store an 8 
(instead of the normal 5) in location $9000 (36864). This 



226 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE January 1983 227 





Pointer for POKE and SYS commands 

Address of start of BASIC memory 

Address of start of BASIC variables 

Address of start of BASIC arrays 

Address of end of BASIC arrays 

Address of bottom of BASIC strings 

Address of end of BASIC memory 

Subroutine to load next BASIC text 

character 

Time of day clock in 60ths of a second 

since midnight 

Data pointer for SAVE and LOAD 

Tape buffer pointer 

Length of file name for SAVE, LOAD, 

and OPEN 

Device code 

File name pointer for SAVE, LOAD, and 

OPEN 

Current key down (if any) 

Key-input stack pointer 

Current cursor position in screen buffer 

Current cursor position in color buffer 



Table 3: Page memory locations. These addresses show the 
locations of the various functions of the VIC's operating 
system. 



$14 


(20) 


$2B,$2C (43,44) 


$2D,$2E 


(45,46) 


$2F,$30 


(47,48) 


$31, $32 


(49,50) 


$33,$34 


(51,52) 


$37, $38 


(55,56) 


$73 


(115) 


$A0-$A2 (160-162) 


$AE,$AF (174,175) 


$B2,$B3 


(178,179) 


$B7 


(183) 


$BA 


(186) 


$BB,$BC (187,188) 


$C5 


(197) 


$C6 


(198) 


$D1,$D2 (209,210) 


$F3,$F4 


(243,244) 



$200-$258 (512-600) 

$277-$27F (631-639) 

$286 (646) 

$28D (653) 

$300-$332 (768-818) 

$30C-$30F (780-783) 



Line input buffer 

Key-input stack 

Current color 

Shift-key-down flag (if any) 

User exit vectors 

Processor register save area for SYS 



$33C-$3FB (828-1019) Tape buffer 

Table 4: Page 2 and 3 memory locations. The VIC uses these 
addresses as a scratch-pad memory for the operating system. 



$300 


(768) 


BASIC error routine 


$302 


(770) 


BASIC warm start 


$304 


(772) 


Keyword-to-token conversion 


$306 


(774) 


LIST command 


$314 


(788) 


IRQ processor interrupt 


$316 


(790) 


BRK processor interrupt 


$318 


(792) 


NMI processor interrupt 


$31A 


(794) 


OPEN command 


$31C 


(796) 


CLOSE command 


$324 


(804) 


Input line from keyboard/screen 


$326 


(806) 


Output a character to screen 


$330 


(810) 


LOAD command 


$332 


(812) 


SAVE command 



Table 5: User exit vectors. You can access particular routines 
in the VIC's ROM programs by using these addresses. 



228 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Circle 326 on inquiry card. 




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moves the VIC's display to the right, allowing me to see 
all of the leftmost characters, but more characters are 
lost off the right side. Because the left side of the screen is 
used the most, this solution takes care of most situations. 
I can always use a POKE command to enter a 2 into loca- 
tion 36864 whenever I need to see all of the right side of 
the display. 

Locations $9110 (37136) through $912F (37167) are 
used to operate the VIC's two 6522 VIAs (versatile inter- 
face adapters). These VIAs provide 32 programmable 
external-control lines that the VIC uses for communica- 
tion with external devices such as tape, disk, or joysticks. 

At location $9400 (37888) are 512 bytes of RAM orga- 
nized as 1024 half-bytes, or nybbles. A nybble may con- 
tain any number between and 15. The nybbles from 
$9600 (38400) to $97FF (38911) are used for the screen 
color codes. There is one nybble for each character posi- 
tion in the screen buffer at $1E00 (7680). The color for a 
character is selected by using a POKE command to enter 
the color code (0-7) into the desired nybble. 

Memory Organization 

The RAM on the standard VIC is divided into two sec- 
tions, the 4K-byte block at $1000 (4096) to $1FFF (8191) 
and the lK-byte block at to $3FF (1023). All of the 
lK-byte block is reserved for special purposes. Page 
(0-$FF) is accessed in a special way by the 6502 
microprocessor; it contains much of the VIC's most im- 
portant data. Table 3 lists some of the data that is stored 
there. Page 1 ($100-$1FF) is reserved by the 6502 for the 
hardware stack and should not be used by any programs. 
The VIC uses pages 2 and 3 ($200-$3FF) for various data 
(see table 4). 

One of the VIC's most important features, found at 
locations $300-$332 (768-818), is the series of user exit 
vectors. The user vectors are pointers to locations in the 
VIC's ROM programs. The VIC uses these vectors as the 



addresses of important routines. This allows you to 
change the addresses of these routines by changing the 
addresses in the vectors. The concept of user vectors is 
common in larger computer systems, but it is just catch- 
ing on in the microcomputer world. User exits are signifi- 
cant because they make it easy for you or professional 
software developers to add new features and I/O devices 
to the VIC, increasing its flexibility (see table 5). 

The VIC's design also allows for memory expansion. 
The logical first step in such expansion is to fit 3K bytes 
of new RAM into the gap from $400 (1024) to $FFF 
(4095), between the two blocks of RAM on the standard 
VIC. This brings the total up to 8K bytes and allows user- 
designed character sets to be fully implemented. This new 
RAM also allows the VIC to create high-resolution 
graphics. 

Up to an additional 24K bytes of RAM may be 
added in the range from $2000 (8192) to $7FFF (32767), 
giving the VIC a maximum capability of 32K bytes of 
RAM. Locations $9800 (38912) through $9FFF (40959) are 
reserved for expansion of the VIC's I/O capability. Any 
of a wide variety of I/O devices could be added here (up 
to 2048 of them). Locations $A000 (40960) through $BFFF 
are reserved for ROM expansion. This is where the VIC's 
future hardware cartridges will reside. A routine in the 
VIC's initialization program checks this area for the 
presence of a cartridge during cold and warm starts. If a 
cartridge is present, it will be initialized instead of VIC 
BASIC, thus allowing the program in the cartridge to 
assume complete control of the VIC. 

Conclusion 

This article is not meant to be a comprehensive study 
of the VIC. Nonetheless, the information provided here, 
together with the VIC Memory Utility Program, should 
be enough to give you a good start on using your VIC-20 
to its fullest potential. ■ 



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230 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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Atari Player-Missile 
Graphics in BASIC 

The Atari computer offers a unique method to manipulate 

graphics in a BASIC program. 



If you have ever tried to move an 
object around on the screen using 
BASIC, you probably made the ob- 
ject look like it was jumping from one 
point to the next instead of moving 
along smoothly. One reason for this 
is that BASIC, which is an inter- 
pretive language, has a major draw- 
back — it is too slow. You may have 
resorted to a crash course in machine 
language to find a solution to this 
problem. But machine language, even 
with the aid of an assembler to form 
the code from assembly-language 
statements, takes longer to program 
and debug than BASIC. 

In addition to being slow, BASIC 
compounds the problem of moving 
the object. If it is more than one line 
high, computations must be made to 

Editor's Note: This article covers one of the 
methods for working with player-missile 
graphics. For details on working with playfield 
animation, see "The Atari Tutorial, Part 3: 
Player-Missile Graphics," BYTE, November 
1981, page 312. For an excellent overview of 
Atari BASIC, see "The Atari Tutorial, Part 6: 
Atari BASIC," BYTE, February 1982, page 
91. . . S. J. W. 



Paul S. Swanson 

97 Jackson St. 

Cambridge, MA 02140 



determine where each line will fall 
after the move. If the object is 5 dots 
high and 5 dots wide, you move 25 
dots using 5 calculations for deter- 
mining placement of the object. This 
does not include the fact that you 
must first erase the old image, which 
usually means drawing the shape in 

Consider the possibility 
of superimposing an 
object on the screen 

without disturbing the 
images already there. 

the old location using a background 
color. This doubles the time required 
from the amount required to draw 
it — first you "undraw" it in one loca- 
tion, then draw it in the next location. 
To complicate matters even fur- 
ther, consider the case where you 
want to move the object "in front" of 
some other images that you want on 
the screen. How do you calculate 
what colors to put back in the place 
of the old shape? If you don't put 



them back, the object will leave a 
path through the images on the screen 
in the color you are using to erase the 
object when you move it. 

The Atari Solution 

Consider the possibility of super- 
imposing an object on the screen 
without disturbing the images already 
there. The object will not be "on" the 
screen in memory. Therefore, it will 
not destroy any part of the images 
when it moves. Since the Atari com- 
puter has two-, four-, and five-color 
graphics modes, wouldn't it also be 
nice to use an extra, independent col- 
or for this object? That would add a 
third, fifth, or sixth (depending on the 
graphics mode) color to the display. 
As long as we have gone this far, how 
about having four of these objects, 
called players, all with independent 
colors and movements and all with 
different shapes? 

Player-missile graphics on the 
Atari can do all these things, plus a 
few other tricks. In addition, it also 
offers you four 1- or 2-byte-wide 
"missiles" that you can use. 



234 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




COmPUTER WAREHOUSE 

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SINGLE-LINE 

RESOLUTION 



DOUBLE -LINE 
RESOLUTION 



Figure 1: A 5- by 5-dot X-shape can be 
defined with only 5 bytes of memory. 



The players are 8 dots wide. In ad- 
dition, the dots for the players and 
the missiles can be single, double, or 
quadruple width. The width defini- 
tion can be controlled for each 
player, but all missiles must have the 
same width. 

Player-missile graphics also solves 
another problem. The 5- by 5-dot ob- 
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quire only 5 bytes to describe its 
shape and the bytes are next to each 
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object. 



P/M BASE (MUST 
BE DIVISIBLE 
BY 2048) 



P/M 
BASE+ 768 

+ 1021 

+ 1280 

+ 1536 

+ 17 92 

+ 2048 









M3 


M2 


Ml 


MO 




PLAYER 








PLAYER 1 




PLAYER 2 








PLAYER 3 



P/M BASE (MUST 
BE DIVISIBLE 
BY 10241 



P/M BASE + 384 
+ 512 
+ 640 
+ 768 
+ 896 
+ 1024 







' 


M3 | M2 | Ml |M0 




PLAYER 




PLAYER 1 




PLAYER 2 




PLAYER 3 



Figure 2: Memory allocation for the player-missile graphics. Definitions for the shape 
and vertical position of both the players and missiles are kept in this area of memory. 



Controlling the players is a fairly 
simple task. You must describe to the 
computer the player's position, color, 
shape, and size. You must also 
specify what happens if another color 
is on the screen in the same position 
as part (or all) of the player. After a 
few initial steps required to set up the 
player-missile graphics mode, which 
is done once for all players and 
missiles, each of the players is con- 



trolled the same way. 

Each player occupies a 128-byte 
strip in memory. A player is one col- 
or and is shaped by using one byte in 
the strip for each horizontal line. 
Each of the 8 bits will turn on a dot of 
the player color if it is a 1 and turn off 
a dot if the bit is a 0. For example, a 
simple shape such as an X can be 
defined in a 5- by 5-dot grid (see 
figure 1), which is what you would do 



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236 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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if you wanted to PLOT the character 
on the screen. 

In figure 1, the values of the 5 bytes 
required to define it are computed 
using each horizontal row as 1 byte, 
taking empty squares as and full 
squares as 1. The value of the first 
row converted from binary to 
decimal is 17, the second row is 10, 
and the third row is 4. Rows five and 
six are the same as rows two and one, 
in that order. The shape may then be 
defined as a string of characters with 



the values 17, 10, 4, 10, and 17. (If the 
figure is not symmetrical, the first 
byte defines the top of the figure.) 
Using this method defines the 25-dot 
figure with only 5 bytes. 

Movement 

Player-missile graphics uses two 
different methods to move the player 
in horizontal and vertical directions. 
Horizontal motion is the easier. All 
you do is use the POKE command to 
enter the horizontal position (0-255) 



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into a memory location. Vertical mo- 
tion is a little harder. You must move 
the player up and down in the 
128-byte strip. 

As you may have suspected, there 
is one catch to using player-missile 
graphics. The player-missile area 
must be located in a certain position 
with respect to a IK- or 2K-byte 
boundary. The sample program (see 
listing 1) uses a double-line resolution 
player, which requires that the posi- 
tion be aligned with respect to a 
lK-byte boundary (see figure 2). A 
finer method of describing the player 
shape (single-line resolution) that re- 
quires that it be set up starting at a 
2K-byte boundary is also available. 
In that method, the player strips are 
256 bytes long. 

In the double-line resolution 
method (i.e., each horizontal line of 
the player is represented by two tele- 
vision scan lines), the missile area 
must start 384 bytes after a lK-byte 
boundary. The missile area is 128 
bytes long. After the missile area, at 
512 bytes after the lK-byte bound- 
ary, players through 3 take 128 
bytes each so that player 3's area ends 
on the next lK-byte boundary. 

The problem with this is that 
BASIC locates the string area in 
memory depending on the length of 
the program statements as rep- 
resented in memory. If you modify a 
program by adding a statement or 
two, the strings are started in a higher 
memory location. This makes it dif- 
ficult to guarantee that a string will 
start on the lK-byte boundary. 

One solution is to find the area 
above the memory that BASIC is 
using and place the player-missile 
areas there. Then you can use POKE 
to move the player vertically. This 
works, but vertical motion is very 
slow. If the player is moved with a 
FOR. . .NEXT loop, the vertical mo- 
tion distorts the shape of the player so 
that it looks like it is swimming up 
and down the screen. A loop is too 
slow. FOR. . .NEXT statements with 
a POKE in between are not the fastest 
way to do this. 

BASIC can move data around in 
strings at very high speeds. The 
POKE command is not too fast 
because it moves only 1 byte at a 



238 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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Listing 1: Sample program using player-missile graphics. The program requires a 
joystick. 



9 
10 

20 

29 

30 

39 

40 

49 

50 

58 

59 

60 

69 

70 

79 

80 

90 

:l. 

:L 1 

:l.20 

129 

130 

140 

15 

159 

160 

170 

180 

190 

20 

2.10 

22 

230 

24 

25 
260 
270 
230 
290 
299 
3 
309 
310 
319 
320 
329 
330 
339 
340 
349 
35 
359 



REM ** FIND START OF STRING SPACE: ** 

DIM X*(l> 

A=ADR(X*> 

REM ** GET FIRST IK BOUNDARY ****** 

B-INT < < A -5 12 ) /i 024+1 > *1 024 

REM ** FILL UP TO PLAYER AREA *** 

F*<B-A+511) 

** P0*. IS PLAYER ZERO AREA **** 

P0$(128) 



DIM 
REM 
DIM 
REM 
REM 
DIM 
REM 

S $=-":' 

REM 



HM AND VM ARE 
JOYSTICK ****** 



** S* IS SHAPE, 
, ♦ .USED TO READ 
S*<12) ,HM<15> ,VM<15> 
** DEFINE PLAYER ZERO SHAPE *** 
A**A" 

** READ JOYSTICK VALUES ******* 
15 



FOR 1*1 TO 

READ HP,VP 

HM<I>=HP 

VM( I)= VP 

NEXT I 

REM ** CLEAR 
P0*»CMR*<O> 
P0t<12B)*CHR'*<0> 
P0*<2>*P0* 
REM ** DRAW SCREEN 
GRAPHICS 4 
SET COLOR 0,0,10 
COLOR 1 
PLOT 45,18 
DRAWTO 45,12 

30,12 

30,24 

55,24 

55,6 

20,6 

20,30 

65,30 

65 , 

20,0 

SET PRIORITY 



PLAYER ZERO AREA **** 



BACKGROUND **** 



DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

DRAWTO 

REM ** 

POKE 623,1 

REM ** GIVE 



*l Mrf W W Mr" Mr" W V/ Mr* *mf Mr' 
,1, ^v •*. m m m m Jr. /n /& m 



ANTIC P/M BASE PAGE ** 



P K E 5 4 279, 1. N T ( B / 2 5 6 ) 

REM ** SET TWO-LINE GRAPHICS ***** 

POKE 559,46 

REM ** ENABLE P/M GRAPHICS ******* 

POKE 53277,3 

REM ** COLOR :::: 2, LUM. » 4 ******* 

POKE 704,36 

REM ** HORIZ* POSITION * 110 ***** 

HP=11Q 

REM ** VERTi POSITION » 50 ******* 



240 January 1983 © BYTE Publication Inc 



Listing 1 continued on page 244 
Circle 358 on Inquiry card. «■— ♦• 




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Circle 517 on Inquiry card. 

244 Janunry 1983 © BYTE Publicatloni Inc 



36 
369 

37 
379 

38 
389 
390 
4 9 
410 
419 
420 
429 
43 
439 
440 
449 
45 
460 
47 
439 
49 
499 
500 
510 
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1 



VP=50 

REM ** SET HORIZONTAL POSITION *** 

POKE 53248, HP 

REM xx SET DOUBLE SIZE PLAYER mjkjk 

POKE 53256 ,1 

REM ** SET NO, BYTES IN PLAYER xxxx 

LS-LEN(S$) 

REM ** I NIT, COLLISION FLAG x***** 

HITC-0 

REM xx DISABLE CURSOR kxokjkmokxcxososoiok 

POKE 752 , 1 

REM xx CLEAR COLLISION RESIST ER xx 

POKE 53273*0 

REM xx PUT PLAYER IN AREA xjkxjkjkxx* 

P0$<VP,VP+LS)»=S$ 

REM xx WAIT UNTIL USER IS READY xx 

? "PRESS TRIGGER TO START" 

IF STRIG(0)=1 THEN 460 

? "V'tEEM CLEAR SCREEN 

REM xx INITIALIZE SCORE COUNTER xx 

COUNT =0 

REM xx PLAYER MOVE LOOP xxxx****** 

P0*(VP,VP+LS)=S* 

COUNT^ COUNT +0,1 

I F O O U N T =» I N T < C U N T ) T H E N S U N D J. ,20, 1 2 , 7 

HIT=PEEK< 53252) 

SOUND 1 ,0,0*0 

S=STICK<0> 

KP«HP+HM<8) 

VP=VP+VM(S) 

POKE 5 3243, HP 

POKE 53273,0 

IF HP<80 THEN 70 

? INT (COUNT) ;"" 

IF HIT-0 THEN HI TOO J SOTO 500 

IF HITOl THEN 50 

SOUND 0,20,12,7 

? t? "YOU HIT THE WALL ! !" 

? "THAT COSTS YOU 25 POINTS!!"?? 

COUNT "CQUNT+25 

? I N T ( U N T ) I " " ? R E M MOV E C U R S R U P 

SOUND 0,0,0, 

HIT C=l 

GOTO 50 

REM xx END OE CAME ROUTINE xx 

POKE 752,0 

? "::■"$ REM CLEAR SCREEN 

? "YOUR SCORE : "J COUNT 

? "PRESS RETURN TO PLAY AGAIN"? 

INPUT X* 

GOTO 130 

REM xx DATA FOR HMO VE , V MOVE xokxosok*: 

DATA , , , 0,0, , , , 1 , 1 , 1 , ~ 1 , 1 ,0,0,0, 

■••■ 1 , 1 , •••• 1 , -• 1 , ~- 1,0,0,0,0,1,0,-1,0,0 



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BYTE January 1983 245 



time. First, BASIC must read the 
command and interpret what to do. 
After all that "overhead," all you get 
is 1 byte transferred. Using LET 
statements between strings is a much 
more efficient method because you 
have the overhead of reading and in- 
terpreting only once. Then the state- 
ment can be one that moves as many 
bytes as you want. It is therefore very 
much to your advantage to use 
strings instead of POKE in player- 
missile graphics. 

Sample Game 

Listing 1 is included here to help 
describe how to implement player- 
missile graphics in BASIC using 
strings. It is a simple game using a 
background screen over which player 
can move. It uses the joystick to get 
the player out of a simple maze. 

Lines 10 through 50 set up and 
dimension P0$ for player 0, so that 
the starting location of the string is 
512 bytes above a lK-byte boundary. 
Lines 10 and 20 find where the string 
area starts. Line 30 sets B equal to the 
value of the lK-byte boundary that is 
within 512 bytes of the start of the 
string space. Player 0's area must 
begin 511 bytes above that location 
minus A. That is handled by placing a 
filler string (line 40) to move the 
pointer that will locate P0$ at the 
right spot. Line 50 dimensions P0$. 

This method will always place P0$ 
at 512 bytes above a lK-byte bound- 
ary, no matter how long the program 
is, until you run out of memory. To 
use players 1 through 3, you can 
simply add the strings Pl$, P2$, and 
P3$, each dimensioned to 128, onto 
the dimension statement (keep them 
in order). 

Now that the string has been set in 
the correct position, initialization of 
all the variables and other items can 
take place. The first part defines the 
player shape. The player in this game 
is a flattened X. The design is in figure 
3. Two zero bytes are used, one on 
each end of the player (vertically) so 
that it will erase the old image when 
you create the new image (the pro- 
gram allows the player to move only 
one vertical position at a time). The 
bytes from top to bottom are 0, 65, 
42, 28, 28, 42, 65, and 0. Line 70 




Figure 3: The modified X-shape as used in 
the program. 



defines the player using a control- 
comma for the zero bytes, capital A 
for 65, an asterisk for 42, and escape- 
control-hyphen for 28. The charac- 
ters to use for most values can be 
found in Appendix C of the Atari 
BASIC Reference Manual. If you are 
not that ambitious, you can substi- 
tute a FOR. . .NEXT loop. The fol- 
lowing loop will work in place of line 
70: 

70 FOR 1 = 1 TO 8 

72 READ S 

74 S$(I)=CHR$(S) 

76 NEXT I 

78 DATA 0,65,42,28,28,42,65,0 

The DATA statement in line 78 will 
not interfere with the operation of the 
next FOR. . .NEXT loop because the 
data for that will begin at line 1000. 

The loop starting at line 80 reads 
values into two arrays that will help 
decode the joystick movements into 
+ 1, 0, or —1 horizontally and ver- 
tically. The two arrays defined here 
will make the reading of the joystick 
much faster; speed is important in 
that loop. 

The next series of statements, start- 
ing at line 130, sets all bytes in P0$ to 
0. The only bits we want set are 
where the player is to be. All the 
others must be 0. 

Lines 160 through 290 draw the 
maze the player is to move through. 
This maze is actually a spiral-like 
series of lines at right angles, as you 
will see when you run the program. 
Any shape that the player can fit 
through will work. 



The next section of the program, 
starting at line 300, sets up the player- 
missile area. One part writes to 
special memory locations, called 
hardware registers. These are actually 
data lines to the graphics controller 
microprocessor, called ANTIC. It 
controls the screen display and all 
graphics commands go through it. 
ANTIC also superimposes the players 
and missiles over the screen image. 

You can't read what is in the hard- 
ware registers, but you can read and 
write to the shadow registers. The 
shadow registers are memory loca- 
tions, which in this case are below 
1024. The operating system reads the 
shadow registers and sends their 
values to the corresponding hardware 
registers. These values are sent when 
the screen is blanked-out before the 
scanner starts to trace the next video 
frame. Since ANTIC receives these 
values 60 times per second, the delay 
is minimal. 

Line 300 refers to one of these 
shadow registers. This sets up the 
priority of the players and missiles. 
Using the POKE command to enter a 
1 in this location causes the players 
and missiles to have priority, which 
makes them look as if they are mov- 
ing in front of the images on the 
screen. A value of 8 causes the 
players and missiles to appear to 
move behind the screen image. 

Line 310 tells ANTIC (directly— no 
shadow register) where to find the 
player-missiles. The value put in this 
location using POKE is the page 
number of the lK-byte boundary that 
is just below the player-missile area. 
It adds to this location (INT(B/256)) 
to find your images. 

Line 320 tells ANTIC through a 
shadow register that you want 
double-line resolution on the players. 
Other "legal" codes are at this loca- 
tion that will do different things. Be 
very careful what you put here with 
POKE. 

The color of player is set at line 
340. The value is the color number 
times 16 plus the luminance value. 
This location, which is a shadow reg- 
ister, controls the color of player 
and missile (the missiles are the 
same color as the player of the same 
number). You can set the colors for 



246 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



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BYTE January 196)3 247 



oua&^ 



ALTERNATIVE 




System Highlights 

• Dual Processors 

• 64K or 128K RAM 

• Selectable 40 or 80 
column text 

• Color Graphics Resolution 
— 280h x 192v High 

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functions 

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players 1, 2, and 3 by adding lines to 
POKE values in registers 705, 706, 
and 707. 

Lines 350 and 360 set the variables 
that will be used by the program for 
the horizontal and vertical position 
values of the player. Line 370 tells 
ANTIC what the horizontal position 
of player is to be. Players 1, 2, and 3 
are in locations 53249, 53250, and 
53251. The horizontal positions for 
missiles through 3 are at locations 
53252 through 53255. 

Line 380 sets ANTIC to display the 
shape at double its horizontal size. 
Values of and 2 at this location set 
single size; a value of 3 sets quadruple 
size. This is read in binary and the 
last 2 bits are the only ones that are 
read by ANTIC. Therefore, a value 
of 4 will be interpreted as a 0, a 5 as a 
1, etc. Players 1, 2, and 3 use loca- 
tions 53257, 53258, and 53259. 

LS is set to the length of S$ in line 
390. The variable LS is used in mov- 
ing the player instead of LEN(S$) 
because it is faster. 

There is a provision for reading 
when players are in "conflict" with 
other players, screen colors, and 
missiles. Also, another provision 
detects a conflict between missiles 
and screen colors. Separate locations 
can be read to find out if such a con- 
flict has occurred, one of which is 
used in this program. HITC is used in 
the program (line 410) to store a flag 
of 1 if a conflict has taken place and 
has not been cleared. 

A constantly updated display will 
be in the text window that shows 
elapsed time. ■ Because the cursor 
would serve no purpose in it and 
would make the number harder to 
read, line 420 shuts it off. 

When a conflict has taken place, 
the corresponding location is set to 1. 
It is not reset when the player or 
missile is moved out of conflict. Loca- 
tion 53278 resets all the conflict in- 
dicators (Atari uses the term "colli- 
sion" instead of conflict). ANTIC sets 
the registers again a few milliseconds 
later if there is still a conflict. 

Line 440 places the player on the 
screen by putting the shape into the 
player area. This string statement can 
now be used because the player-area 
string is in the correct position. This 



248 January 1983 © BYTE Publication. Inc 



Circle 48 on Inquiry card. 



Multi-Reasons to Choose 
CompuPro's Multi-User 

System 816/C 




Run any mix of 8 or 16 bit software at any terminal. 

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Circle 97 on Inquiry card. 



Line 

Number Description 

500 Places the player image into the player area at vertical location VP. The first time 

through this has already been done, but the loop must always end by reposition- 
ing the player. It branches back to 500 to do this. 

510 Increments the counter by 0.1. This is incremented each time the loop is run and 

will have the effect of timing the game in arbitrary units. 

512 At each tenth increment, when COUNT is an integer, the computer will generate 

a click in the television speaker. The person playing can keep track of time 
without referring to a number that he or she hasn't got time to look at. 

520 Reads the collision register for player-to-playfield position. 

522 Shuts off the sound started in line 512. 

530 Reads the value of joystick 0. 

540-550 Updates the horizontal and vertical positions using the two arrays to interpret 
the joystick value returned. 

560 Tells ANTIC what the new horizontal position is. 

570 Clears the collision registers. ANTIC has plenty of time between this statement 

and the next read of the collision register (line 520) to update them several times. 

575 Detects the end of the game. 

580 Displays the current time value. 

590 Clears the HITC flag and returns to the beginning of the loop if there is no con- 

flict. 

600 Begins the routine that is used when the player hits the side of the maze. If the 

HITC flag is 1 , the hit was already counted. Therefore, this statement goes back 
to the beginning. 

610 Begins sound effect of hitting the wall. 

620-640 Displays message that the player hit the wall, adds a penalty to the timer, and 
redisplays the timer. 

650 Stops sound effect started at line 610. 

660 Sets HITC flag to indicate hit has been counted. 

670 Goes back to start next loop. 

700 Line 575 branches here if the player is moved beyond the left edge of the maze, 

which is assumed to end the game. Since a message will be printed followed by 
an INPUT statement, line 700 turns the cursor back on. 

710-740 Displays the full score (previous displays were the integer value) and waits for 
the RETURN key. 

750 Goes back for another game. 



Table 1: Description of the main section of the sample program. Lines previous to 
line 500 initialized the player-missile graphics. 



statement replaces, in this example, 8 
POKE statements, which would take 
much longer to execute. The state- 
ment in line 440, placed in a 
FOR. . .NEXT loop that goes from 1 
to 1000, takes 15 seconds. Using a 
corresponding POKE statement in a 
FOR. . .NEXT loop to place 8 bytes 
would have taken 2 minutes, 38 sec- 
onds in the same FOR. . .NEXT loop. 
Allowing 8.5 seconds for the 
FOR. . .NEXT loop, a simple divi- 
sion shows that line 440 is more than 
17 times faster than using a POKE 
statement. 

Lines 450 through 490 first wait for 
the person playing the game to press 
the trigger button and then set the 
scoring variable COUNT to 0. Note 
that the clear screen statements clear 
only the text window. 

Now that everything is initialized, 
we can use player-missile graphics in 



the game. Because of the concern for 
speed of execution, REM statements 
were minimized in the next portion of 
the program. The function of these 
statements is described in table 1. 



The program cannot 

check to see If you go 

"through" a wall when 

you hit It— It merely 

fines you 25 points. 



Error Checking 

This game does have a few faults 
(meaning that it is not idiot-proof). It 
has no checks if the player is moved 
off the screen and out of the player 
area. This will result in error 
messages. The program cannot check 
to see if you go "through" a wall 



when you hit it. It will fine you 25 
points when you hit the wall, but has 
no way of determining if you got out 
of the conflict on the correct side of 
the wall. Lastly, it tests for the "game 
over" condition by checking the 
horizontal position of the player. If it 
is low enough, it is assumed that the 
player left the maze at the correct 
point. 

The above faults can be eliminated 
by using extra statements in the loop 
(lines 500 through 670) to test the 
conditions. Testing if the player went 
through a wall instead of going back 
from where it came may be a little dif- 
ficult, but the range check is 
simple — just test that HP is between 
and 255 and that VP is between 1 and 
128-LS. You can refine the finish test 
by also testing that the vertical posi- 
tion is less than 18 (like the screen 
vertical positions, the player-missile 
vertical positions go from the 
top = 1 to the bottom = 128). 

The collision-detection register will 
not be 1 for a collision if you do not 
use, in this case, the COLOR 1 state- 
ment for the maze. The detection is 
bit-coded so that it may also tell you 
what you hit. Because the low-order 4 
bits are used, the value never exceeds 
15. The positions of the bits that are 
on correspond to the SETCOLOR 
numbers of the color bit. The register 
indicates 1 for color 0, 2 for color 1, 4 
for color 2, and 8 for color 3. The 
BASIC COLOR statement COLOR 1 
actually specifies the color from color 
register 0, which is why it returns a 
value of 1. If the maze were drawn 
with a COLOR 2 statement preceding 
it, the collision detection would 
return a 2 when there is a conflict. 
The program would have to be 
altered to compensate for this. 

Note one very important item in 
the use of strings for the player- 
missile graphics. The player positions 
will move when you go from deferred 
mode while the program is running to 
immediate mode. This is caused by 
BASIC moving things around when 
the program is not running. Any 
position tests you do on the player 
must be done during the time the pro- 
gram is running. Stopping the pro- 
gram with the Break key, then using 
CONT to resume, will also alter the 



250 January 19*3 © BYTE Publication! Inc 



position. The program should be 
RUN from the beginning to get an ac- 
curate position. 

You may also have noticed that, 
when you go to the second or subse- 
quent game by pressing Return at the 
end of one game, the player turns into 
a jittering stripe running vertically the 
full length of the screen. This happens 
when a player is on the screen during 
a GRAPHICS statement execution. 
This will destroy the position of the 
player, causing the line of garbage. In 
this program, the player-missile 
graphics is reinitialized completely, 
which puts the player back where it 
belongs. When writing the initializa- 
tion part of programs that use player- 
missile graphics, remember to execute 
the GRAPHICS statement before you 
set up the player-missile graphics. 
The stripe can be eliminated in this 
program by adding the line 

745 POKE 53248,0 

This moves the player off the left side 
of the screen. The vertical stripe still 



exists, but it occurs in the part of the 
video cycle where the scanner is 
turned off to go from the end of one 
line to the beginning of the next line. 
You can also move the player faster 
by making it increment twice in each 
loop. The fastest way to do this is to 
first add zero bytes at the beginning 
and ending of S$ so that it starts and 
ends with two zeros instead of one. 
Second, alter lines 540 and 550 to add 
HM(S)*2 and VM(S)*2 instead of 
HM(S) and VM(S). The player will 
not move quite as smoothly as 
before, but will still be vastly 
smoother than if you plotted it direct- 
ly on the screen. 

Conclusion 

This is only a brief introduction 
and one example of player-missile 
graphics. Atari can supply you with 
manuals that describe them in more 
detail. You can combine the informa- 
tion from Atari manuals with this 
method to create some very impres- 
sive graphics. The method of locating 
boundaries for setting the start of ar- 



rays can also be used to place alter- 
nate character sets for character 
graphics, screen displays, and display 
lists. 

This method of moving the players 
in BASIC opens up more uses for 
BASIC in graphics, but it is still a 
very slow way to execute graphics 
routines if they require smooth mo- 
tions around the screen. It can be 
used only if the computations and 
testing required in the loop are small 
in number. Remember that BASIC is 
running in milliseconds, not micro- 
seconds like machine language; it is 
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Problem Oriented Language 

Part 2: Writing a Module 



Mark Finger 
2439 Overlook Circle 
Lawrence, KS 66044 



In part 1 of this series (December 
1982 BYTE, page 314), the concept of 
a Problem Oriented Language (POL) 
was introduced. POL uses input that 
incorporates terms normally used in 
describing a particular problem. 
These terms are organized into 
phrases and sentences that resemble 
English sentences. The input is 
relatively free of the format restric- 
tions normally associated with 
question-and-answer or menu input. 
Much more information can be input 
with a single entry. A typical entry, 
such as, "Draw an XY graph, X from 
to 4, Y from -2 to 3, Title 'Contour 
Plot', Execute", would replace dozens 
of responses required for other types 
of input. POL-type programs are nor- 
mally used in technical or graphics 
applications where there are many 
possible parameters to change but 
only a few need to be set at any given 
time. 

The Problem Oriented Language 
Programming System (POL/PS) was 
introduced in order to provide micro- 
computers with the capability of 
handling POL, especially in terms of 
solving technical problems. The series 
of routines (POL-80) for handling 
POL input was presented and their 
capabilities were examined. 

Developing a Module 

One of the goals of POL/PS is to 
enable the user to write programs in a 



modular format. Programs can then 
be easily extended, and the modules 
can be used in other programs. 

POL-80 was developed from my 
experiences with a FORTRAN system 
called GRIP. One of the problems en- 
countered in the writing of GRIP- 
compatible modules (see part 1 for 
more background on GRIP) is the 
lack of proper program development. 
Frequently, GRIP programs have had 
input that is as awkward as the 
question-and-answer sessions they 
were designed to replace. In addition, 
there has been some resistance to the 



One of the goals of 
POL/PS is to enable the 
user to write programs 

in a modular format. 



use of GRIP because of the "diffi- 
culty" in understanding what it did 
and how it could be used. Rick Hilst 
(current developer of GRIP) and I 
have discussed at length how to 
simplify the learning process. Based 
on classroom experience, we have 
developed a series of eight steps that 
can be useful in the writing of most 
programs, but which must be used in 
writing POL programs. The steps 
must be followed faithfully. Using 
these steps can cut the learning time 



in half for POL/PS and can reduce 
program development time by 25 to 
50 percent. 

As a sample problem, we're going 
to develop a module to find the roots 
of polynomial equations by using five 
common methods. (The root of a 
polynomial equation, such as P(X), is 
a number A such that P(A)=0.) Al- 
though this module can be used by 
itself, it is best used as part of a larger 
numerical-methods program, or it 
can be used as a module in other pro- 
grams. Actually, this module is rather 
small and its application is somewhat 
trivial, but it is representative of the 
much more complex and powerful 
modules that would be part of an ap- 
plication package. Larger modules 
may have more statements, but the 
part of the module relating to the 
framework of POL/PS would not be 
any more complicated. Root finding 
was chosen because the actual com- 
putations are relatively simple. Thus, 
the user may be able to concentrate 
more on the input and other aspects 
of POL/PS. Larger, more complex 
modules will have a greater degree of 
difficulty in their mathematical com- 
putations, but the input should not be 
any more difficult. 

For those not familiar with 
numerical methods, root finding is 
done by making an initial estimate of 
one of the roots of an equation, 
checking the value obtained, and ad- 



254 January 1983 © BYTE Pubucations Inc 



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justing the estimate according to 
some formula. This trial-and-error 
method is continued until the root is 
found within some acceptable error 
criteria. 

Step by Step 

The first step in developing a POL 
program follows. 

1. Write a paragraph identifying the 
goals of the program or module. Be 
specific! The more careful you are 
now, the fewer problems there will be 
later. For the sample module, the 
goals are these: 

The module will find roots of 
equations using five methods: 
Newton's, Approximate Newton's, 
Secant, Interval-Halving, and 
Regula Falsi. Failure to find roots 
will be indicated, if necessary. 

This paragraph lists the main result 
desired and the standard algorithms 
(plans for step-by-step solutions) that 
will be used. A secondary goal (an 
additional or alternate output) is also 
indicated — a possible alternative to 
the main result. 

2. Define all the expected forms of 
output. Our sample module requires 
that (A) the numerical value of the 
root found will be output to the ter- 
minal, along with the number of 
evaluation attempts required, and (B) 



failure to find a root will be indicated 
by a message to the terminal listing 
the number of evaluations attempted. 
The specific form of each output is 
well defined, whereas it was only 
hinted at in step 1. Frequently, pro- 
grammers begin to plan the actual 
code at this point. This is unfortunate 
because both the output and the input 
must be defined before the program 
design can be done well. 
3. Identify the information required 
to produce the desired output. The in- 
formation inputs required for root 
finding include: 

• the method to be used 

• the equation to be solved 

• the derivative of Y with respect to X 
when Newton's method is used 

• initial estimates of the roots 

• the maximum number of evalua- 
tions permitted before declaring 
failure 

• the absolute value of Y that is the 
criterion for success 

Each of these inputs must be 
changeable because different situa- 
tions may require different values. It 
is also desirable to be able to change 
any of the inputs without leaving the 
program, especially when changing 
equations. 

At this point, we realize that we 
need the ability to verify that the 
starting values required for the regula 
falsi and interval-halving methods ac- 



tually trap a root between them. This 
means that one point gives a positive 
value for Y; the other gives a negative 
value. In verifying that the two start- 
ing points give proper Y values, we 
must add an additional output to step 
2: (C) output the value of Y of the 
equation for any given X. 

The inputs identified in step 3 are 
determined by steps 1 and 2, i.e., they 
are the ones required to meet the 
goals of step 1 and produce the out- 
put of step 2. Other input should not 
be required within this module. 

4. Choose the format of the input. 
We identified three input formats in 
part 1: question-and-answer, menu, 
and POL. POL will be our choice for 
several reasons: (A) the user of this 
module is expected to be familiar with 
numerical methods, and probably 
will use this module frequently 
enough to remain familiar with the 
keywords; (B) usually, several tests 
or trials will be run at one session 
with only minor changes in the 
parameters between trials; and (C) in 
a large numerical-methods package, 
the initial keyword can eliminate a 
question or a menu, and the whole in- 
put is much faster and easier. 

Not all problems are suited to the 
POL method, but technical problems, 
especially those requiring graphics, 
are easily adapted to this form of in- 
put. 

5. Design the input. Now is the time 




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256 January 19*3 © BYTE Publications Inc 



to actually choose the keywords used 
to enter the information. To identify 
this module, we will use the word 
"Roots." Command sequences for 
various types of input are then 
formed. These sequences should use 
terms that normally describe the type 
of problem involved. A sample input 
for this module might be this: 

Roots using secant, the equation is 
'Y = SIN(X)\ starting points are 2 
and 2.1, execute 

Many other possible lines could be 
shown, but this one will serve as an 
example. 

At this time, the number of 
characters to be matched within each 
keyword should be chosen. (I choose 
four unless I feel that I must have 
more.) Rewriting the input, capitaliz- 
ing the required letters of the key- 
words, results in 

ROOTs USINg SECAnt, the 

EQUAtion is 'Y = SIN(X)', 

STARting points are 2 and 2.1, 

EXECute 

Note that some words do not have 
a portion capitalized. These are 
"filler" words used to make the input 
more readable. However, the pro- 
gram must be able to recognize and 
skip over them. Some common fillers 
can always be omitted. The ones 



omitted for this module are 
"AN_", "THE_", "FOR_", 
"AND_", "OF_", "EQUAL_", 
"EQUALS_", "IS_", and "ARE_" 
(where the underscore represents a 
space). In addition, two characters 
will always be skipped — "," and " = ". 
The word "points" in the previous ex- 
ample is skipped on a location-by- 
location basis. 

6. Write the "tree" structure. As we 
write the input lines for the previous 
section, we should also arrange the 
keywords in a hierarchical structure. 
The simplest way to show this struc- 
ture is a "tree" diagram. Each branch 
should have only one meaning or 
function. Sometimes, several 
branches will use the same words and 
sections of the program, but internal 
flags can maintain the difference. 

The tree for this module is shown 
in listing 1. Sufficient keywords and 
options are available in it to perform 
all the actions listed under step 3. 

7. Write the "Help" routine. Now 
that keywords have been chosen for 
this problem, we should begin writing 
the exact functional definitions of 
each input term and how this term 
will help attain the desired goals. At 
this time, the following items should 
be considered: 

• What internal flags will be used to 
control routines? 

• What exact information is required 



Listing 1: Tree structure of keywords for 
the ROOTs program. The words are ar- 
ranged in hierarchical order. 



USINg 

NEWTon 

APPP.oximate NEW^on 

SECAnt 

INTErval HALving 

REGUla FALSi 
STARTing (points) ##.# (##.#) 
MAXImum (EVALuations) ## 
EPSIlon ##.# 

VALUe (at) ##.#,##.# 

EQUAtion 'Y=f unction of X' 
DYDX 'YPRIME=function of X' 
CLEAr 
EXECute 



to perform the action associated with 
each possible input? 
•What default values will be used if 
that information is not supplied? 

For example, a flag called 
METHOD % is used to keep track of 
which method is used. A second flag 
keeps track of the number of starting 
points currently entered. An error 
message would be printed if, for ex- 
ample, the interval-halving method 
were attempted using only one start- 
ing point. 

The full version of the functional 
definitions is used to assist in writing 
the program. A condensed text ver- 
sion, saved on the disk in a file called 

" ROOT", is used to assist the 

user (see listing 2). The blank in the 
filename is the prefix. This prefix 
consists of the first four letters of the 
major program name, NUMR in this 
case, because it is planned as part of a 



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numerical-analysis package. 

A list of errors should also be 
planned to catch mistakes and omis- 
sions in input. The list for the sample 
module is given in listing 3. It at- 
tempts to cover almost any input er- 
ror and also checks that necessary in- 
formation has been entered. Be sure 
to rewrite and revise the tree, the 
HELP list, and the error listing several 
times before starting to write the 
code. 

Before we proceed, note that in all 
the development done so far, very lit- 
tle time has been spent on planning 
the actual program code (other than 



choosing a few needed flags). All the 
steps so far have concentrated solely 
on the problem to be solved, not on 
the programming language to be 
used. Usually, the first seven steps 
will take about half of the develop- 
ment time for a module. The extra 
time spent on planning will save a lot 
of time later in changing program 
code and debugging. This emphasis 
on planning, on examining the prob- 
lem, and on using terms normally 
associated with the problem in a 
phrase or sentence structure is why 
this type of input is called Problem 
Oriented Language. 




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8. Write the program. During the 
discussion on writing the program, 
consult listing 4 and the variables in 
listing 5. The comments on POL-80 in 
listings 4 and 5 in part 1 of this series 
are also important for understanding 
the explanations below. 

Begin by writing the keyword 
recognition lines and the required ac- 
tion if a match is found. This consists 
of the following four actions: 

• Set the pattern to be matched in 
AM (line 3200). 

• Set the number of letters to be 
matched in NLET. This may include 
numbers and one space at the end of 
the entity. 

• Call the matching routine (GOSUB 
750). 

• Determine if the match was suc- 
cessful (FLAG = 1) and perform the 
required actions accordingly. 

Because "ROOTS" will be checked 
at a higher level (by the program that 
will call this module), the first 
keyword we are interested in is 
"USINg". Its line is 

3200 AM = "USING" 
:NLET = 4 
:GOSUB 750 
:IFFLAG = 1 

THEN GOTO 4000 

The first option at line 4000 is now 

4000 FCD = 1 

:AM = "NEWTON" 
: NLET = 4 
: GOSUB 750 
:IFFLAG = 1 

THENMETHOD%=l 
:GOTO 3200 
(Check for the next com- 
mand on the line) 

The remainder of the matches for 
words can be written in a similar 
manner. 

Organizing the Program 

The portions written so far can 
now be organized into a program for- 
mat. The highest level of matching is 
located at line 3200, immediately 
after the initializing statements. Each 

Text continued on page 268 



258 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 




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BYTE January 1983 259 



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Listing 2: These HELP messages will assist an inexperienced user in working with the 
ROOTs program. 

The ROOTS module is used to find the real roots of any equation. 

The following words are always skipped over at any place in the line: 

A 

AN 

THE 

FOR 

AND 

EQUALS 

EQUAL 

IS 

ARE 

OF 
Commas (,) and equivalence signs (=) are also skipped. 

The options of ROOTS are: 

USINg method 

where the methods are: 

NEWTon (Newton's method) 

APPRoximate NEWton (Approximate Newton's method) 

SECAnt (Secant Method) 

INTErval HALving (Interval Halving Method) 

REGUla FALSi (Regula Falsi Method) 

STARTing (points) ##.# (##.♦) 

sets the start points for the methods. 
Newton's method requires 1 point. 

Approximate Newton's method requires 2 points close together (4 .99 & 5) 
Secant Method requires 2 points. 

Interval Halving and Regula Falsi require 2 points that bracket the 
root between them. 

MAXImum (EVALuations) ## 

## is the maximum number of evaluations before reporting failure to 
meet convergence requirements. 

EPSIlon ##.# 

When ABS(Y)<##.#, the root is considered to be found. 
VALUe (at) ##.*,##.#, 

will give the value of the current equation at the values of X entered 

EQUAtion 'Y=function of X' 

used to enter the current equation in correct BASIC syntax. 

DYDX 'YPRIME=function of X' 

used to enter the derivative of X needed by Newton's Method, 
using correct BASIC syntax. 



used to set values of variables to their default values 
equivalent to the following commands 

USINg SECAnt 
STARting 1 
MAXImum EVALuations 20 
EPSIlon 0.1 
EQUAtion 'Y=X' 
DYDX 'YPRIME=1' 

EXECute 

causes the root to be found. 



Listing 3: Error messages for the ROOTs program. When developing an error-message 
list, try to anticipate all typical errors. 

1521 , "Unexpected entity after ROOTs" 

1522, "Unexpected name of method after USINg" 

1523, "Missing first number after STARt" 

1524, "Both starting numbers are equal" 

1525, "Expecting integer (between 2 and 10000) after MAXImum EVALuations" 

1526 , "Expecting real number (<10) after epsilon" 

1527 , "Expecting a number after VALUe" 

1533 , "Missing string after EQUAtion" 

1534,"Missi ng string after DYDX" 

1535 , "Missing 2 starting values when method requires 2" 

1536, "Did not redefine DYDX after changing EOUAtion" 

1541, "Failed to decode remainder of line" 

9999, "******Last entry in an error list must always be Line 9999*******" 



260 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



THE FORTH SOURCE 



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MVP Forth is fig-FORTH modified by 100% ot the FORTH-79 Standard 
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LI ALL ABOUT FORTH by Haydon. MVP-FORTH reference, 
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F&79 $140 

D Apple ll/ll + , GraFORTH by 

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Point $1 00 

LJ 8087 Support 

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[ : APPLE User's Manual 

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I : TRS-80 User's Manual, 

MMSFORTH $19 

a METAFORTH by Cassady 
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code $30 

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D Invitation to FORTH $20 
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CROSS COMPILERS Allow extending, modifying and compiling for 

speed and memory savings, can also produce ROMable code. 'Requires 

FORTH disk. 

[J CP/M $200 LJ IBM- $300 

I ] H89/Z89 $200 [J 8086» $300 

I 1 TRS-80/I $200 1. 1 Z80» $300 

I I Northstar 9 -- $200 I I Apple ll/ll + $350 

I i fig-FORTH Programming Aids tor decompiling, callfinding, 
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INC.). VISA, MasterCard or COD'S accepted No billing or unpaid PCs California 
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BYTE January 1983 261 



Circle 193 on inquiry card. 




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262 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Listing 4: ROOTs program listing. ROOTs is designed to work with the POL-80 pro- 
gram. 

******************************************************************************** 

Module ROOTs 

******************************************************************************** 

3000 REM MODULE ROOTS (NUMRROOT) 

3001 REM COPYRIGHT MARK FINGER 1981 

3010 GOSUB 7100 **Stores return addresses and 

:FCD=0 initializes parameters 

3020 FART=1 

:AART(0)="A " 

:AART(1)="AN " 

:AART(2)="THE " 

;AART(3)="IS " 

:AART{4)="ARE " 

:AART(5)="EOUALS " 

:AART(6) ="EQUAL " 

:AART(7)="AND " 

:AART(8)="FOR " 

:AART(9)="OF " 

:NART=9 
3030 FCOM=l 

: ACOM ( ) « " , " 

:ACOM(l)="=" 

:NCOM=l 
******************************************************************************** 

Matching on the highest level of the tree structure below roots 

******************************************************************************** 
3200 AM="USING" 
:NLET=4 
: GOSUB 750 
:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 4000 
3210 AM="START" 
:NLET=4 
: GOSUB 7 50 
:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 4100 
3220 AM="MAXIMUM" 
;NLET=4 
: GOSUB 7 50 
:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 4200 
3230 AM="EPSILON" 
:NLET=4 
: GOSUB 750 
:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 4300 
3 240 AM= "VALUE" 
:NLET=4 
: GOSUB 750 
:IF FLAG=1 

THEN FVA=0 

:GOTO 4400 
3250 AM="E0UATTON" 
:NLET=4 
: GOSUB 7 50 
:IF FLAG=l 

GOTO 4600 
3260 AM="DYDX" 
:NLE' T '=4 
: GOSUB 7 50 
:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 4700 
3270 AM="EXECUTE" 
:NLET=4 
: GOSUB 7 50 
:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 5000 
3280 AM="CLEAR" 
:NLE , r'=4 
: GOSUB 7 50 
:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 4800 

3290 IF FCD=0 

THEN NERP-15 21 

: GOSUB 1200 

3291 IF FGD=1 AND IEOC=0 

THEN NERR=1S41 

:GOSUB 1200 
3295 FERR=1 
3300 GOSUB 7000 

:CHAIN MERGE ARET, I RET , DELETE 3000-99Q9 

Matching for the method under USINg 

******************************************************************************** 

4000 FCD=1 

:AM=" NEWTON" 

:NLET=4 

: GOSUB 7 50 

:IF FLAG=1 

THEN ME'"HOD% = L 
:GOTO 3200 
4010 AM^'APPROXIKAT" 

:NLET=4 

; GOSUB 750 



Listing 4 continued on page 264 



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Listing 4 continued: 




:IF FLAG=1 






THEN AM=" NEWTON" 








NLET=4 
GOSUB 750 
METHOD%=2 




CALL 


:GOTO 3200 
40 20 AM=" SECANT" 
:NLET=4 




YOUR 


:GOSUB 750 
:IF FLAG=1 

THEN METHOD%=3 




LOCAL 


:GOTO 3200 
4030 AM=" INTERVAL" 
:NLET=4 




DYSAN 


: GOSUB 750 

:IF FLAG=1 

THEN AM="HALVING" 




OFFICE 




NLET=3 
GOSUB 750 




CA: Los Angeles 




METHOD%=4 




(213)907-1803 


:GOTO 3200 
4040 AM="REGULA" 




Orange County 


:NLET=4 




(714)851-9462 


: GOSUB 750 
:IF FLAG=1 

THEN AM=" FALSI" 




Sacramento 
(916)966-8037 


:NLET=4 

: GOSUB 750 

:METHOD%=5 




San Francisco/Sunnyvale 




(408) 727-9552 


:GOTO 3200 
4050 NERR=1522 




DC: Washington 


: GOSUB 1200 




(703)356-6441 


:GOTO 3295 






******************************************************************************** 




GA: Atlanta 

*(404) 952-0919 


Setting the number of STAPting POINts and their values 




IL: Chicago 


******************************************************************************** 




(312)882-8176 


4100 FCD=1 




:FT=1 




(800) 323-5609 


: GOSUB 950 
:IF FLAG=1 




MA: Boston 


THEN X1=DV 




(617)273-5955 


:FSP=1 
:GOTO 4150 




*(6 17) 229-2800 


4110 AM="POINT" 




Ml: Detroit 


:NLET=4 

: GOSUB 750 




(313)525-8240 


:IF FLAG=1 

GOTO 4100 




MN: Minneapolis 


4120 AM="AT " 




♦(612)814-7199 


:NLET=3 






: GOSUB 7 50 




MO: St. Louis 


:IF FLAG=1 




(314)434-4011 


GOTO 4100 






4140 NERR=1523 




NY: New York 


:GOSUB 1200 
:GOTO 3300 




(212)687-7122 


4150 FT=1 

: GOSUB 9 50 
: IF FLAG=0 




OH: Cleveland 

(216)333-3725 


GOTO 3200 






4160 X2=DV 




PA: Pittsburgh 


:FSP=2 




(412)261-0406 


:IF X2oXl 

GOTO 3200 




Philadelphia 


4170 FSP^l 




(609) 939-4762 


:NERR=1524 






:GOSUB 1200 




IX: Dallas/Ft. Worth 


:GOTO 3295 




*|817)261-53I2 

WA: Seattle 

(206) 455-4725 


******************************************************************************** 




Setting the number of MAXImum EVALuations 




******************************************************************************** 






4 200 FCD=1 
:FT=3 




♦Includes OEM Sales 


:BB1=2 
:BB2=10000 




Dysan Diskettes are also available 


: GOSUB 850 




from all ComputerLand Stores, 


:IF FLAG=1 




Sears Business Systems Centers, and 


THEN NUMEVAL=IV 
:GOTO 3200 




many independent computer outlets 


4210 NERR=1525 




nationwide. 


:GOSUB 1200 
•GOTO 3295 




For the location of the Dysan sales 


******************************************************************************** 




outlet nearest you, contact Dysan at: 
(408) 988-3472 


Setting the value of EPSIlon 




Toll Free: (800) 538-8 133 


******************************************************************************** 




Telex: 171551 DYSAN SNTA 


4 300 FCD=1 
: FT=3 




TWX: 9 10-338-2 144 


:BBl=lE-20 




0WH W~\. 


:BB2=10 




EuM m lim/~«fi 


: GOSUB 950 




mm f #V7\//## 


:IF FLAG=1 




Wm) l^fOlif 1 


THEN EPSILON=DV 




^/corporation 


:GOTO 3200 






4310 NERR=1526 






:GOSUB 1200 , , 






• GOTO 3295 Listing 4 continued on page 266 




264 January 1983 © byte Publication* inc Circle 154 on Inquiry card. 



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Listing 4 continued: 



Circle 394 on Inquiry card. 



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******************************************************************************** 

Returning the value (s) of Y at the requested Xfs) 

*********** ft ************ * * * **************************************************** * 
4400 FCD=1 
4430 AM="AT " 
:NLET=3 
: GOSUB 750 
:FT=1 

:GOSUB 950 
:IF FLAG=1 

THEN FVA=1 
:X=DV 

: GOSUB 9000 

:PRINT "The value at "rX;" is ";Y 
:GOTO 4430 
4440 IF FVA=1 

GOTO 3200 
4450 NERR=1527 

:GOSUB 1200 
:GOTO 3295 
******************************************************************************** 

Entering the EQUAtibn 

******************************************************************************** 
4600 FCD=1 

: GOSUB 800 

:IF FLAG=0 

THEN NERR=1533 
GOSUB 1200 
GOTO 3295 
4610 AEQ="9000 "+AB+" : RETURN" 

:FEXT=0 

:FDX=0 
4620 OPEN "O", #7, "EQUATION. BAS" 

:PRINT#7,AEQ 

: CLOSE* 7 

:CHAIN MERGE "EQUATION" , 4630 , ALL, DELETE 9000 
4630 GOSUB 1480 

:GOTO 3200 
******************************************************************************** 

Entering the derivative of the equation 
(required by Newton's method) 

******************************************************************************** 
4700 FCD=1 

: GOSUB 800 

:IF FLAG=0 

THEN NERR=1534 

:GOSUB 1200 
:GOTO 3295 
4710 AEQD="9001 "+AB+" :RETURN" 

:FDX=1 
4720 OPEN "O" ,#7, "EQUATION. BAS" 

:PRINT#7,AEQD 

: CLOSE* 7 

:CHAIN MERGE "EQUATION" , 4630 , ALL , DELETE 9001 
4730 GOSUB 1480 

:GOTO 3200 
******************************************************************************** 

CLEAring the parameters to default values 

******************************************************************************** 
4800 FCD=1 

:METHOD%=3 
:X1=0 
:X2=1 
!FSP=2 
:NUMEVAL=20 
:EPSILON=.l 

:AEQ="9000 Y=X: RETURN" 
:AEQD="9001 YPRIME=1 :RETURN" 
:FDX=1 
:GOTO 3200 
******************************************************************************** 

EXECution of root-finding 

******************************************************************************** 
5000 FCD=1 "Initial i zing values 

:X=X1 
:IF FSP=2 

THEN X=X2 

: GOSUB 9000 
:YLAST=Y 
:XLAST=X 
:X=X1 
5010 IF METH0D%<>1 AND FSP<>2 "Checking for 2 starting 

THEN NERR=1535 points for methods that 

:GOSUB 1200 require 2 

:GOTO 3295 
5020 IF METHOD%=l AND FDX=0 **Checktng for derivative 

THEN NERR=1536 update if Newton's method 

:GOSUB 1200 Is used 

:GOTO 3295 

Listing 4 continued on page 268 



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BYTE January 1983 267 



Listing 4 continued: 



5030 IF METHOD%=4 

THEN GOSUB 9000 
: XOTHER=X 
:YOTHER=Y 
5050 NUM=0 
5100 NUM=NUM+1 

:ON METHOD% GOSUB 6000,6200,6400,6600,6800 
5110 XCTHER=XLAST 
:YOTHER-YLAST 
: XLAST=X 
: YLAST=Y 
:X=XNEW 
:Y=0 
5200 IF NUM>NUMEVAL 

GOTO 5400 
5210 IF ABS(YLAST)>EPSILON 

GOTO 5100 
5220 PRINT "The root is ",XLAST 

:PRINT NUMj" Evaluations were required." 
5260 GOTO 3200 

5400 PRINT "The root was not found in ";NUMEVAL;" attempts." 
5410 PRINT "The last values were X =";XLAST;" and Y =";YLAST 
5420 GOTO 3200 
******************************************************************************** 

Methods Subroutines 

******************************************************************************** 



•♦Computation loop 

"Adjusting to maintain the 
points for the next time 
through the loop 



"Checking if too many 

evaluations 
"Checking if done 

**The desired root has been 
found 



"Newton's Method 



"Approximate Newton's Method 



"Secant Method 



"Interval Halving Method 



"Peguia Falsi Method 



6000 GOSUB 9001 

:GOSUB 9000 

:XNEW=X-Y/YPRIME 

: RETURN 
6200 XOTHER=X 

:X=X+(X2-X1) 

:GOSUB 9000 

:YLAST=Y 

:XLAST=X 

:X=XOTHER 

:GOSUB 9000 

:XNEW=X-Y/( (YLAST-Y) /(XLAST-X) ) 

: RETURN 
6400 GOSUB 9000 

:XNEW=X-Y/( (YLAST-Y) / (XT.AST-X) ) 

: RETURN 
6600 X=.5* (XLAST-XOTHER1+XOTHER 

:GOSUB 9000 

:IF Y*YLAST>0 

THEN XLAST^XOTHER 
:YLAST=YOTHEP 
6610 XNEW=X-Y/ ( (YLAST-Y) / (XLAST-X) ) 

: RETURN 
6800 GOSUB 9000 

:XNEW=X-Y/( (YLAST-Y) /(XLAST-X) ) 

:XLAST=XOTHER 

:YLAST=XOTHER 

: RETURN 
******************************************************************************** 

Subroutine for saving variables when leavinq 

******************************************************************************** 
7000 OPEN "O" ,#6,ADISK+"SAVEROOT" 

:KRITE*6,AE0 

:WRITE*6,AEQD 

:WRITE*6,EPSILON,FCD,FDX,FSP,FVA,METHOD%,NUMEVAT,,Xl,X2 

: CLOSE* 6 

:GOSUB 1400 

: RETURN 
******************************************************************************** 

Subroutine for restoring variables when returning 

******************************************************************************** 
7100 OPEN "I" ,#6,ADISK+"SAVEROOT" 

:INPUT#6,AE0 

:INPUT»6,AE0D 

: INPUT* 6 , EPSILON , FCD , FDX , FSLP , FVA , MFTHOD% ,NUMEVAI, , XI , X2 

: CLOSE* 6 
7110 OPEN "O" ,*7,"E0UATION.BAS" 

:PRINT*7,AE0 

:PRINT*7,AEQD 

: CLOSE* 7 

:CHAIN MERGE "EQUATION" ,7120 , ALL, DELETE 9000-9001 
7120 GOSUB 1450 

: RETURN 
******************************************************************************** 

Equation subroutines will be inserted here 

******************************************************************************** 

9000 REM 

9001 REM 
******************************************************************************** 

Remember — 

Line 9999 must be present in the module, even if only as a remark. 

******************************************************************************** 
9999 END 



Text continued from page 258: 

successful match, except for EX- 
ECute, directs the computer to a line 
in the 4000s for further processing on 
that branch. For example, lines 4000 
to 4050 handle matching for the 
methods and set a flag (METH- 
OD %) for internal use by the pro- 
gram. Each of the other keywords, at 
the same level in the tree as USINg, 
has its own sections for further pro- 
cessing. 

Error Trapping 

What happens if someone goofs 
and misspells a word or simply gets a 
wrong word? Line 3290 checks for 
this. A flag (FCD) is set to upon 
entering this module. A successful 
match on any of the acceptable words 
results in FCD being set to 1 (see lines 
4000, 4100, etc.). If line 3290 is 
reached, we may or may not have a 
problem. If the end of the current 
command has been reached, and we 
have already found at least one valid 
command (FCD = 1), we may return 
to the calling program. If no valid 
keyword has been found (FCD = 0), 
or if we have not reached the end of 
the current command, implying that 
there are more words to be processed, 
we have an error. 

One of the variables (FEOC) in the 
POL-80 program is set whenever an 
end-of -command is reached. It can be 
examined as needed. If an error is 
found, an error number is set, a 
message is printed (the subroutine at 
line 1200), the remainder of the cur- 
rent command line is ignored 
(FERR = 1), and control is returned to 
the calling module or main program 
(line 3300). Each error in the ROOTs 
program is handled similarly; line 
4050, for example, is reached if an ac- 
ceptable root-finding method is not 
chosen. 

Variations in Input 

Not all input is in words, however. 
Sometimes a number is required, for 
example, the maximum number of 
evaluations for MAXImum EVALua- 
tions. Line 4200 in ROOTs shows the 
steps required to extract a number. 
The type of number is set by FT. In 
this case FT is positive, implying that 
either an integer or a real value is ac- 



268 January 1983 © BYTE Publications Inc 



Listing 5: Variables and their descriptions as used in the ROOTs program. 



AEO 

AEOD 
EPSILON 

FCD 
FDX 

FSP 
FVA 

METHOD% 
NUMEVAt, 

X 

XI 
X2 
Y 

YPRIME 

XOTHER 

YOTHER 

XLAST 

YLAST 

XNEW 



Tnternal equation containing the root Default is "Y=X" 
to be found 



Contains the derivative of AEO 

The value for determining success of 
finding root—success if 
ABS(Y)<=EPSILON 

Flag for checking command syntax 

Flag for making sure a new AEOD is 
entered if AEO is changed 
(required for Newton's Method) 

Number of starting points entered 

Flag for syntax after VALUe (AT) 

Flag for method to be used 

Maximum number of attempts (to find 
root) before failure is declared 

Independent variable in AEO and AEOD 

Starting point 1 

Starting point 2 

Dependent variable in AEO 

Dependent variable in AEOD 

A previous X value attempted 

Y value at XOTHER 

Another previous X value attempted 

Y value at XLAST 

X value for next attempt 



Default is "YPRIME=1" 
Default = .01 



Default = 2 



Default=3 (Secant) 
Default=20 



Default = 
Default = 1 



ceptable, but that it should be round- 
ed to the nearest integer. Acceptable 
values are between 2 and 1000. 
Because other values are not accept- 
able, FT is set to 3. An error is set if 
the number is not in the proper range. 
Lines 4100, 4300, and 4535 show 
other examples of extracting 
numbers. 

Sometimes strings are required. In 
ROOTs, strings may be required for 
the equation and its derivative (lines 
4600 to 4630 and 4700 to 4730, re- 
spectively). To get a string, GOSUB 
800 is called. If the current entity is a 
string, it returns FLAG = 1, and the 
string is stored in AB. Because the 
string .represents an equation we wish 
to use in the program, a line of 
BASIC code is built up as a subrou- 
tine by placing one of the reserved 
line numbers, 9000 or 9001, at the 
beginning of the string and a 
RETURN at the end. The line of code 
is stored in a BASIC program file. 
Then, that line is put into the current 
program using CHAIN MERGE, and 
the files are reset. 



Although it is not done in ROOTs, 
a match may be done on a specific 
character, if desired, by using 
GOSUB 750 as if a word that is one 
character long were being matched 
(NLET-1). 

The portions of the program 
discussed so far can be directly tied to 
the "tree" and the HELP listings. 
Because each keyword has very 
specific actions associated with it, the 
actual coding is relatively simple. 
Standard sequences for matching or 
extracting entities are used; normally, 
one or two flags or values are set, or 
an error may be set. Compare lines 
3200 to 5000 with the tree. What 
seems complex is actually simple 
when examined in detail. The difficult 
part of programming in POL is 
designing the input and writing the 
tree (steps 3 to 6 above). 

Lines 5000 to 7000 form the main 
computational section. Flags are first 
checked and appropriate actions 
taken, then the computational loop is 
started (lines 5100 to 5210). The two 
possible endings are handled in lines 



5220 to 5420. Lines 6000 to 7000 con- 
tain the subroutines for the five root- 
finding methods. 

Finally, initialization routines are 
required. Lines 3010 to 3030 and the 
subroutine at line 7100 do initializa- 
tion on a normal entry, while line 
3300 and the subroutine at line 7000 
handle return to the main program. 
The procedures in these lines are a 
minimum set for a simple module. 

Summary 

This part of the series has presented 
a step-by-step procedure for writing 
an individual module. In part 3, we 
will look at the relationship between 
modules, how to write the main pro- 
gram that links modules, and ways in 
which modules can be made more 
useful. I will also present a more flexi- 
ble and comprehensive method of en- 
tering and exiting modules. ■ 



The following items are available 
from the author: 

1. The POL/PS User's Manual and the 
ROOTs User's Manual for $20. These 
manuals generally supplement but do 
not duplicate the material presented 
here. Topics include detailed rules of 
input, theory and examples of opera- 
tion, and programming rules and 
hints. 

2. The two manuals above and a disk 
containing all the appropriate files for 
$30. 

3. The items listed above and the 
graphics package (which includes the 
contour plotter module) for $200. The 
ROOTs module in this package will 
have additional graphics capabilities, 
such as plotting the equation and 
graphically following the root-finder 
as it seeks the root. 

These items will be offered on 
several disk formats (CP/M 8-inch, 
Osborne, and others as I can make ar- 
rangements). A user's group will be set 
up, and I will sell software written by 
others for the POL/PS on a royalty 
basis. For more information, or to 
order items, contact: 

His Programs 
c/o Mark Finger 
2439 Overlook Circle 
Lawrence, KS 66044 



January 1983 © BYTE Publication Inc 



269 



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EDUCATION -ENGLISH 

A Batch of Endings 
Agreement of Pronoun/ Antecedent 
Alphab