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SPD 10/25 

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 


ORDER NUMBER: MS-7199.0 
DATE: March, 1975 



PREFACE 


This system description of the SPD 10/25 intelligent Terminal 
Display System is intended for those having a general familiarity 
with data processing. Machine characteristics and programming 
features are described in terms which should aid comparisons between 
the SPD 10/25 and competitive equipment. The equipment char¬ 
acteristics described herein remain subject to revision in order that 
system improvements may be incorporated when applicable. 


Section I introduces the SPD 10/25 and includes some of its signifi¬ 
cant features. The second section of the manual presents a detail 
description of the SPD 10/25 Terminal Processing Unit (TPU) and 
associated peripheral equipment. Section III presents example con¬ 
figuration diagrams. 


Copyright© 1975 by INCOTERM Corporation 


ii 


Mar. 1975 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Page 


SECTION S - INTRODUCTION 


1-1 


System Flexibility and Growth .... 
Advantages of the SPD 10/25 Terminal . 
Flexible Emulation Capabilities . . 
Flexible Peripheral Device Capabilities 

Configuration Flexibility. 

Unlimited Keyboard Flexibility . . 
Interfaces On Any Line Discipline . 
Processing and Edit Capabilities . . 
Main CP Software Compatibility . . 

Stand Alone Capability. 

Modular Design. 

No Basic Application Limitations . 

Software. 

SPD 10/25 Assembler Program . . 
SPD/DOS Diskette Operating System 

SPD Program Loader. 

SPD Debug Program. ...... 


1-2 

1-2 

1-2 

1-2 

1-2 

1-3 

1-3 

1-3 

1-3 

1-3 

1-3 

1-3 

1-3 

1-3 

1-4 

1-4 

1-4 


SECTION II - FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 


2-1 


Terminal Processing Unit (TPU). 

Functional Characteristics. 

Core Memory. 

Auto-Exec Interrupt Structure. 

Power Save Restart. 

Refresh Subsystem. 

Display Monitor .. 

Character Generation. 

Refresh Memory.. . 

Screen Configurations. 

Attribute Characters. 

Cursor Control. 

Keyboard. 

Shift Lock Key. 

Cyclic Check Calculations. 

Read-Only-Memory (ROM) Code Conversion . . 

Communication Controllers. 

Multiplexer. 

Peripheral Devices. 

Flexible Diskette. 

Disk Format . . . .. 

Detail Specifications. 

SPD-MT Half-Inch Magnetic Tape Subsystem 
P-15B Printer. 


2-1 

2-2 

2-2 

2-2 

2-5 

2-5 

2-5 

2-5 

2-5 

2-6 

2-6 

2-7 

2-7 

2-8 

2-8 

2-8 

2-8 

2-10 

2-10 

2-12 

2-12 

2-13 

2-14 

2-16 


iii 


Mar. 1975 













































TABLE OF CONTENTS (Cont'd.) 


Page 

P-100 Printer. 2-18 

P-165A Printer. 2-21 

SPD LP250/LP300 Line Printers. 2-23 

SPD PRP-45/20Q Printing Reader Punch. 2-24 

SPD CR250 and CR500 Card Readers. 2-25 

SPD-L Program Loader. 2-27 

Program Loading. 2-27 

Hardware Bootstrap. 2-27 

Remote Loading. 2-27 

Program Loading from Disk. 2-27 

SECTION SSI-CONFIGURATION GUIDE... 3-1 

APPENDIX A - INSTRUCTION FORMATS. A-1 

APPENDIX B-SPD 10/25 INSTRUCTION SET... B-1 

APPENDIX C - INSTALLATION AND PLANNING DATA. C-1 


IV 


Mar. 1975 

















SECTION 


INTRODUCTION 


The INCOTERM® SPD® (Stored Program Display) 
Model 10/25 is an alphanumeric cathode ray tube 
(CRT) display terminal containing a stored program, 
digital computer. See Figure 1-1. The Terminal 
Processing Unit (TPU) contains a core memory for 
program execution, a separate MOS memory for 
screen refresh, an interrupt structure, an arithmetic 
logical processor, a refresh module and timing unit, a 
real time clock, and automatic memory-protect and 
power-save circuitry. 


The SPD 10/25 terminal is software programmable, 
has the ability to interface with a wide range of 
peripheral devices, and can operate under the 
communications philosophies of various Central 
Processing Units (CPU). Therefore, the SPD 10/25 
can easily be optimized to meet the unique needs of 
any application, whether it be on-line, real time, 
time-sharing, remote batch, or even off-line stand 
alone. 



Figure 1-1. SPD 10/25 Display Terminal. 


Mar. 1975 


1-1 




SYSTEM FLEXIBILITY AND GROWTH 

The TPU contains a stored program which provides 
the functional characteristics of the terminal. The 
SPD 10/25 is equipped with self-contained plug-in 
controller modules and hence can be reconfigured for 
different applications with minimal effort. It is the 
stored program which provides the unit with a 
capability of being altered to suit a specialized need 
and to grow with the system experience. All 
keyboard and computer entered screen data, control, 
and edit functions are handled by the software and 
therefore are programmed to the precise desired 
functional characteristics of the customer's 
application. Each function or control key has an 
identity to the program only as described by the key 
entry code and, therefore, its functional assignment 
can be altered through programming. Similarly all 
communication line handling techniques can be 
defined by the program. 

The internal unit organization employed is that of a 
processing unit to which all peripheral devices are 
connected, including the display monitor/generator 
and keyboard, by a commonly shared input/output 
bus. The bus organization is identical to that used in 
larger scale computer systems and permits simple 
connection of all required peripheral unit controllers 
by module insertion and address assignment. Several 
controllers may be handled simultaneously. The 
instruction set of the TPU is specifically tailored to 
optimize data manipulation and communications 
handling capability. 

Operator efficiency is one of the important factors 
affecting overall system performance and one of the 
most important advantages of the programmable 
display is the optimization of the human resource by 
increasing the operator's data entry efficiency and 
reducing operator training time. Keyboard functions 
may be custom tailored to satisfy specific user 
requirements while retaining software compatibility 
with the central site. 

Functions may be added or modified as your 
requirements change merely by changing the 
software. Additional peripherals may be added as 
your future requirements dictate. 

It is these features that provide the SPD 10/25 with 
the power and flexibility to operate effectively in a 
variety of communications environments. 


ADVANTAGES OF THE SPD 10/25 TERMINAL 

The SPD 10/25 is a proven display terminal system 
which can be used in a variety of applications. The 
advanced design of the SPD 10/25 Display, Terminal 
System provides the following advantages. 

Flexible Emulation Capabilities 

Because the SPD 10/25 contains a stored program 
digital computer it can be programmed to emulate 
the functions of any other computer terminal. 

Flexible Peripheral Device Capabilities 

The SPD 10/25 has the capability of interfacing with 
a wide range of peripheral devices which may include: 

— 7 or 9 channel half inch magnetic tape 

— Single or dual drive flexible disk 

— Various speed printers 

— Various speed card readers 

— Printing reader punch 

— Punched paper tape reader 

— Cyclic check controller 

— Remote load controller 

Configuration Flexibility 

The SPD 10/25 is offered in three basic 
configurations; as a single station with a 1920 
character display, as a dual station with two 1920 
character displays, or as a dual station with two 960 
character displays. 

The SPD 10/25 single provides a powerful processing 
capability for those installations where only one 
terminal is required. The major advantages of the dual 
station system are its increased flexibility and lower 
per station cost. The two operator positions are 
available at considerably less cost than two single 
displays and both operator positions may be 
interfaced to a single modem; no multiplexer is 
required. Combinations of singles and duals may be 
employed to provide the user with a powerful yet 
economical system configuration. 


1-2 


Mar. 1975 



Unlimited Keyboard Flexibility 

The SPD 10/25 keyboard provides the ultimate in 
flexibility and ease of operation. The entire keyboard 
is under the control of the software program. Its 
operation, therefore, can be customer specified to 
best suit the specific requirements of the customer's 
application. 

Interfaces On Any Line Discipline 

All communication formats, control sequences, and 
message envelopes specified between the SPD 10/25 
and the central site computer are defined by the 
software program. If it becomes desirable to change 
the communication line handling techniques of the 
system, it isn't necessary to buy new terminals. The 
change may be easily accomplished by changing the 
SPD 10/25 program. And, of course, this may be 
done without changing the terminal operator's 
procedure. 

Processing and Edit Capabilities 

Because all data entry and edit functions are handled 
by the software program, most of the data editing 
and validation may be done at the display terminal, 
thereby reducing the workload of the main CPU. 
Data compaction and/or data expansion can also be 
the function of the program thereby reducing the 
communication line use costs. 


Main CP Software Compatibility 

SPD 10/25 Display Terminal Systems have been 
interfaced with a number of different central site 
main computers and data bases. This compatibility is 
accomplished by programming the SPD 10/25 
terminal to have the functional characteristics that 
the mainframe expects. Therefore no changes to the 
central site software are necessary. 

Stand Alone Capability 

In many display terminal systems there are times 
when the display terminal is not actively involved 
with data communications with the remote 
computer. Unlike hard-wired terminals, the SPD 
10/25 need not remain unused when not on-line but 
can be operated as a stand alone computer to perform 
the local station's processing requirements. 


Modular Design 

Because the SPD 10/25 is modular in design, the user 
can select an SPD 10/25 configuration that satisfies 
his initial system requirements, and then expand 
when increased application requirements or system 
economies dictate. 

No Basic Application Limitations 

It can now be readily seen that the SPD 10/25 is a 
powerful and flexible display terminal system which 
may be configured to perform virtually any 
alphanumeric display application. 


SOFTWARE 

The standard software provided with the SPD 10/25 
includes an assembler, a program loader, and a variety 
of utility and diagnostic programs. Additional 
application and emulation programs for various 
terminals, and an optional Diskette Operating System 
are also available. 

SPD 10/25 Assembler Program 

Symbolic assembler programs exist for the SPD 10/25 
Display Terminal which run on the IBM S/360 under 
OS, the Burroughs B2500/3500, the Honeywell 
H316/516 and H716, and the ICL Series 1900. There 
is also a version of the assembler which runs on the 
SPD 10/25 under the Diskette Operating System. The 
major differences between these assemblers are the 
operating procedures for the host computer on which 
they run. Features of the assembler system include: 

— Symbolic address and mnemonic op-codes 

— Expressions using arithmetic and logical 
operators in the operands 

— Parenthetical expressions 

— Pseudo op-codes to initialize core with constants 

— Error list with or without source list 

— Free form source format 

— Decimal, hexadecimal, binary, and ASCII 
constants 

— Literals 


Mar. 1975 


1-3 



The SPD Assembler can produce any or all of the 
following outputs: 

— Object code on various storage media 

— An assembler statement listing 

— A cross-reference listing 
— A literal table listing 

The SPD Assembler also has a conditional assembly 
capability which allows sections of code to be 
included or left out of the assembler process as a 
result of parameters included in the source program. 

SPD/DOS Diskette Operating System 

For those systems equipped with the SPD D-250 
Flexible Diskette, an SPD/DOS Diskette Operating 
System is available. This system provides facilities for 
the development, maintenance, and storage of 
programs, and implements a file system and attendant 
utilities for use by diskette applications programs. 

Features of the SPD/DOS include: 


— Assembler for program preparation 

— Dump, debug, and edit capability for program 
development 

— Source and object program input from a variety 
of media 

— Assembler/loader facilities for multiple segment 
overlay programs 

SPD Program Loader 

The loader accepts the output of the SPD Assembler 
and loads the program into the core memory of the 
SPD 10/25. The text portion of the loader is 
check-summed to ensure that an error free load is 
obtained. 

SPD Debug Program 

A Debug program is available to allow a programmer 
who is developing a new SPD 10/25 program to 
debug the program efficiently. Some of the 
commands available are: 

Change — Change the contents of memory at a 
specific location. 


— File update and control for source, object, and 
data files 

— Utilities for file maintenance 


Breakpoint — When the executing program's PCR is 
equal to a specified address, control 
returns to the Debug program. 


1-4 


Mar. 1975 




SECTION II 


FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION 


GENERAL 

The standard SPD 10/25 Single Station consists of a 
display monitor, a Terminal Processing Unit (TPU), a 
half duplex communications controller, a keyboard 
controller, and provision for a broad range of 
additional peripheral devices. The SPD 10/25 Dual 
Station system consists of a master terminal and an 
auxiliary terminal, each with its own keyboard and 
display screen. The master terminal contains the TPU 
and all controllers required for both display stations. 
Both operator positions have full capability and may 
function independently of and concurrently with 


each other. The auxiliary display may be placed up to 
2000 feet from the master. This section discusses the 
various components of the SPD 10/25 Display 
Terminal System. 

TERMINAL PROCESSING UNIT (TPU) 

The TPU incorporates the core memory, an 
Automatic Executive (Auto-Exec) interrupt 
structure, an arithmetic-logical processor, a Real Time 
Clock, the Refresh Module Timing Unit (RMTU), and 
a Screen Buffer/CCC/ROM Unit. See Figure 2-1 fora 
System Diagram. 



2 EXTERNAL 

I/O BUS CONNECTIONS 



OPTIONAL PERIPHERAL DEVICES AVAILABLE 


PAPER TAPE 


TAPE 
CASSETTE 

(OPTIONAL) 



P-I5B P-100 PI65/I65A D-250 


MAG 

TAPE 






LP 250/300 


i 



Figure 2-1. SPD 10/25 System Diagram. 


Mar. 1975 


2-1 










Functional Characteristics 

The functional characteristics of the SPD 10/25 
Display Terminal are shown as follows in Table 2-1. 

CORE MEMORY 

The SPD 10/25 Display System employs a 4096 byte 
magnetic core memory for program storage. The basic 


core memory is divided into eight sectors of 512 
bytes with each byte available to the program and 
individually addressable. Program instructions require 
either one word (two 8-bit bytes) or two words of 
core. See Figure 2-2. 

AUTO-EXEC INTERRUPT STRUCTURE 
An interrupt is a randomly occurring signal from a 


Table 2-1. Functional Characteristics 


Type of Computer 

Parallel Binary, byte oriented 

Addressing 

Single address with multilevel indirect addressing 

Data Format 

8-bit byte 

Memory Word 

16 bits, 2 bytes 

Arithmetic Code 

Two's complement 

Internal Memory 

Type 

Magnetic Core 

Size 

2048 words, 4096 bytes 

Memory Cycle 

1.6 microseconds 

Refresh Memory 

Type 

MOS 

Size 

2048 or 4096 bytes 

Arithmetic Speed 

Add Immediate 

1.6 microseconds 

Subtract Immediate 

1.6 microseconds 


2-2 


Mar. 1975 





device which requests some action from or provides 
some information to the TPU and the internally 
stored program. Devices which may cause interrupts 
are the Real Time Clock, peripheral devices, and 
communication controllers. The Automatic-Executive 
(Auto-Exec) interrupt structure provides, via 
hardware, the functions required to handle an 


interrupt when it occurs. These functions include 
determining which device has caused the interrupt, 
saving and restoring of specific registers, requesting 
specific input/output operations, and sequencing 
specific program routines to be executed. If the 
Auto-Exec were not implemented, these functions 
would be the responsibility of the program. 


BEGINNING ENDING 

ADDRESS ADDRESS 



PROGRAM 

MEMORY 


Figure 2-2. SPD 10/25 Memory Configuration. 


Mar. 1975 


2-3 











Auto-Exec utilizes specific core locations in its 
operation. These locations are called the Memory 
Reserve Area. See Figure 2-3. Each device which may 
cause an interrupt has two words reserved for it in the 
Memory Reserve Area for register storage. 


Machine instructions are available to control the 
actions of Auto-Exec. These instructions allow the 
program to prevent or accept interrupts from all or 
specific devices, to wait for interrupts, and to reset 
interrupts. 


POWER RESTART ADDRESS LOCATION OF CURSOR 



Figure 2-3. Memory Reserve Area. 


2-4 


Mar. 1975 




POWER SAVE RESTART 

The SPD 10/25 provides the capability of saving the 
contents of its core memory in the event power is 
turned off or fails. Since all functions of the TPU are 
implemented by a software program, one word of 
core, at byte address FFC hexadecimal, has been 
reserved for storage of a pointer to the address of the 
first instruction to be executed when power is turned 
on. It is the software program that insures the correct 
pointer is loaded into the reserved “power restart" 
word. See Figure 2-3. 


REFRESH SUBSYSTEM 

The Refresh Subsystem provides all the controls and 
interfaces necessary for driving the single or dual 
display screens. The Refresh Subsystem contains the 
Read Only Memory (ROM) character generator and 
the refresh memory required for refreshing of the 
display screens. Character generation, cursor 
generation, character brightness, and character 
blinking are all under the control of the Refresh 
Subsystem. 

Display Monitor 

The viewing monitor and screen presentation is based 
on standard T.V. techniques and uses a 12-inch 
diagonal CRT monitor. Characters are displayed in an 
8x12 dot matrix area providing a clear and highly 
readable font. The screen uses a green P39 phosphor 
for high light output efficiency and resultant ease of 
viewing. The outer surface of the cathode ray tube is 
etched to minimize incident surface reflections from 
surrounding sources. The viewing grid is 9.0 inches 


wide by 6.5 inches high. The operating mode of the 
display is dynamically selectable by the software 
program. Selections include screen sizes of either 
2000, 1920, or 960 characters and line lengths of 80 
or 64 characters. 

Character Generation 

The SPD 10/25 Display System provides several 
upper case only and upper/lower case character sets. 
The character set employed may be selected by the 
user from those available. The character set chosen is 
generated by the refresh subsystem using a Read Only 
Memory (ROM) character generator. Each character 
is constructed from a matrix of dots which fit into a 
display position that is an 8x12 dot matrix area 
within a 10x16 envelope. The unused portion of the 
display position allows for spacing between characters 
and lines. 

Refresh Memory 

For refreshing of the display screens, the SPD 10/25 
utilizes an MOS dynamic random access refresh 
memory which is completely separate from the core 
memory used for program storage. The refresh 
memory is available in sizes of 2048 or 4096 bytes. 
Dual display 1920 character screens require the full 
4096 bytes for screen refresh. Single 1920 character 
displays or dual 960 character displays require only 
2048 bytes for screen refresh. For those systems that 
require only 2048 bytes of refresh memory, the 
additional 2048 bytes are available as an option and 
may be used under program control for such uses as 
buffering or temporary data storage. Table 2-2 below 
illustrates the various refresh memory configurations. 


Table 2-2. Memory Configurations 


Configuration 

Refresh Memory 

Required 

Optional Refresh 
Memory Available 

SPD 10/25 Single 1920 

2048 

2048 

Character Display 

.A 


SPD 10/25 Dual 1920 

4096 

None 

Character Display 



SPD 10/25 Dual 960 

Character Display 

2048 

2048 


Mar. 1975 


2-5 







Attribute Characters 


Screen Configurations 

The format of the SPD 10/25 display screen is 
completely under the control of the software 
program. The maximum number of displayable 
characters on the screen is dependent on the 
operating mode selected by the program. The 
selectable formats are shown below in Table 2-3. 


Table 2-3. SPD 10/25 Display Screen Format 


Number of 
Lines Per 
Display 

Number of 
Characters 

Per Line 

Total 

Displayable 

Characters 

30 

64 

1920 

25 

80 

2000 

15 

64 

960 

12 

80 

960 


Attribute characters are non-displayable control 
codes which define the characteristics of the display 
field that follows. An attribute character is the first 
character in a display field. The attribute character 
itself normally is not displayable, but with an 
available system option, if the protect/unprotect bit 
in the attribute character is a 1, then a vertical line (I) 
character is generated on the screen at the attribute 
character position. When displayed, the vertical line is 
subject to the other parameters specified in the 
attribute character such as brightness, blinking, or 
blank. Each time a character in the screen memory 
equal to or greater than HEX 80 is detected, the 
Refresh Subsystem considers this code to be an 
attribute character and all following alphanumeric 
characters will be modified as indicated by the 
attribute value. Hardware controlled conditions 
include two levels of brightness (normal and high 
intensity), field blinking, and blanking. The field is 
defined as the attribute character position plus all 
data following it up to the next attribute character or 


Table 2-4. Attribute Character 


Bit 

Description 


7 

1 = Control character (attribute) 

Hardware 

MSB 

0 = Data Character 

Function 

6 

1 = Blink 

Hardware 


0 = No Blink 

Function 

5 

1 = Protect 

Software 


0 = Unprotect 

Convention* 

4 

0 = Alphanumeric 

Software 


1 = Numeric 

Convention 

3 

00 = Normal intensity, or 


2 

01 = Normal intensity 

Hardware 


10 = High intensity 

11 = Blank 

Function 

1 

Unused 

Software 

Convention 

0 

1 = Field has been modified 

Software 

LSB 

0 = Not modified 

Convention 


* Also hardware function for Protect Field marker. 


2-6 


Mar. 1975 





the end of the screen, if no attribute character 
follows. The effect of an attribute, however, does not 
wrap from the end of a screen back to the start of the 
screen. Blinking may be done in either normal or high 
intensity mode. At the first position of the display, 
the screen is always unblanked, non-blinking, and 
normal intensity. All other conditions require an 
attribute character before the displayed data. 

Table 2-4 defines the format of the attribute 
character. The software conventions shown in Table 
2-4 are those for compatibility with the IBM 3270 
Information Display System. However, the actual 
convention used is entirely subject to the software 
program. 

Cursor Control 

The cursor symbol on the SPD 10/25 display screen is 
entirely under software control. Manipulation of the 
cursor symbol's position on the display screen is 
accomplished by loading appropriate values into a 12 
bit hardware register called the Cursor Register. 
Enabling or disabling the cursor symbol appearance 
on the display screen and the cursor blink rate are 
also software controlled. 


KEYBOARD 

One of the most unique and powerful aspects of the 
SPD 10/25 is the fact that the keyboard is completely 
programmable. The entire keyboard can therefore be 
customer specified to best suit his specific 
requirements. 

Except for the Shift key, there are no hard wired 
functions performed as a result of keyboard action. 
Each key or combination of keys has a particular 
associated 7 or 8-bit code. Depression of a key causes 
that code to be sent to the keyboard controller. Upon 
receipt of data from the keyboard, the keyboard 
controller interrupts the SPD 10/25. The software 
routine in the core memory then must inspect the 
input data and decide what function to perform. The 
symbol engraved on a key has a given meaning only as 
a result of the program. Different programs may very 
well give a particular key different meanings. The 
operation of the keyboard can, therefore, be changed 
merely by loading in a new program. Figure 2-4 
shows the SPD 10/25 keyboard. 

The main features on the keyboard are the three 
groups of keys: twelve on the left side, fifty two in 












the center, and twelve on the right. The left and right 
key groups are generally referred to as “function" 
keys. At the top of the keyboard are eight indicator 
lights which are also under control of the software 
program. 

There are four types of keys found on the SPD 10/25 
keyboard: 

Encoded Keys — These keys each produce, when 
depressed, a specific data code which is presented to 
the keyboard controller. Only encoded keys may 
cause interrupts. In many cases these keys may 
produce a second data code when depressed in 
conjunction with a shift key or a mode key, when 
present. 

Shift Key — These keys do not produce a data code. 
When depressed in conjunction with an encoded key, 
the shift key causes the second (shifted) data code of 
the encoded key to be produced. These keys are 
conceptually the same as a shift key on a typewriter 
or a teletype. 

Mode Key — This key is an option and does not 
produce a data code. When depressed in conjunction 
with an encoded key, and possibly the shift key, the 
normal data code will be produced with the most 
significant bit set to one. This key is conceptually 
similar to the control on a teletype. 

Shift Lock Key 

This key is available on an optional keyboard and 
does not produce a data code. When depressed, it 
places the entire keyboard into shifted mode. The 
shift lock state may be terminated by a new 
depression of the shift lock key. 


CYCLIC CHECK CALCULATIONS 

While it is possible to perform cyclic check 
calculations by programming, the complexity of the 
calculation would almost certainly require a large 
amount of memory and execution time. For this 
reason, the SPD 10/25 includes a Screen 
Buffer/CCC/ROM module which provides the 
hardware required to do cyclic check calculations. 
This hardware allows calculation of either a PARS 
Cyclic Check Polynomial (x® + x^ + 1) or the 3270 
Cyclic Check Polynomial (x^® + x^ + 1) to be 
selected by the software. The length of the cyclic 
check resultants are 6 and 16 bits respectively. The 


calculation operates on 6 and 8 bit data respectively, 
and does not use character parity. 


READ-ONLY-MEMORY (ROM) CODE 
CONVERSION 

The third portion of the Screen Buffer/CCC/ROM 
module is a Read Only Memory (ROM) code 
conversion feature which implements a table look-up 
operation for the code conversions listed below. All 
ROM code conversion operations are entirely under 
software control. 

1. Line/Character to Binary 

2. Binary to Line/Character 

3. ASCII (8) to EBCDIC (8) 

4. EBCDIC (8) to ASCII (8) 

5. PARS (6) to ASCII 

6. ASCII to PARS (6) 


COMMUNICATION CONTROLLERS 

Communications controllers, either synchronous or 
asynchronous, provide the complete interface 
between the SPD 10/25 TPU and standard line 
modems, multiplexer, or any device with a standard 
communication adapter. The controllers meet the 
standards as specified in the Electronic Industries 
Association (ElA) Standard RS 232-C. 

Each of the controllers operate in a half-duplex mode 
performing both the receive and transmit functions. 
Two controllers must be used for full duplex 
operation. Additional controllers can be used when 
multiple half or full duplex lines are required. If, for 
reliability, a second communication path is required, 
a completely independent communication path can 
start at the terminal. Figure 2-5 illustrates only three 
of many possible configurations of the 
communications controllers. 

The Synchronous Controllers operate at 1200 to 
9600 baud and the Asynchronous Controllers operate 
at 50 to 9600 baud. Character Parity Checking (short 
parity) is provided in the hardware of each of these 
controllers. Longitudinal Parity Check (LPC) is 
performed by programming at the customer's option. 


2-8 


Mar. 1975 



When in the transmit mode, the processor sends data 
to either the asynchronous or synchronous controller 
in a parallel-by-bit and a seriai-by-character sequence. 
The controller then converts the data to serial-by-bit 
and serial-by-character data and places it on the 
communications line. When in the Receive mode, 
either controller receives data serial-by-bit, 
serial-by-character from the communications line. 
The controller then converts the data to a 


parallel-by-bit, serial-by-character sequence and 
transfers it to the processor. The number of data bits 
in a character and the order in which they are sent or 
received is determined by hardware options in the 
controller. 

There may be a maximum of 50 feet of cable 
separating the SPD 10/25 terminal and the modem. 
This is a standard limitation imposed by the modem. 


TPU 


I/O 


B 

U 

S 



Half Duplex 

Communications 

Facility 


Half Duplex 

Communications 

Facility 


Full Duplex 

Communications 

Facility 


Figure 2-5. Example Communication Controller Configurations. 


Mar. 1975 


2-9 











MULTIPLEXER 

The SPD-M multiplexer (Figure 2-7) interfaces the 
SPD 10/25 to a single modem and communication 
line or, alternatively, to another multiplexer unit. The 
multiplexer interfaces with up to 8 or, optionally, up 
to 16 data terminals at one site. See Figure 2-6. The 
multiplexer operates in a single or multidrop 
environment with communication traffic controlled 
by a Central Processor Unit (CPU) oriented polling 
system. 

The SPD-M interfaces directly to any El A RS 232-C 
compatible modem. The multiplexer operates in full 
or half duplex configurations, synchronously or 
asynchronously, and is transparent to all code 
patterns in both the transmit and receive modes. 
Maximum separation from the modem is 50 feet. 

A terminal unit and the multiplexer are connected 
using direct cabling with standard modem interface 
connectors. The data terminal may be up to 1000 
feet from the multiplexer. Up to four multiplexers 
may be interfaced with a “master" multiplexer which 
provides for up to 64 SPD 10/25 TPU's to be 
connected to the communications line through one 
modem. 


PERIPHERAL DEVICES 

Each input/output interface of the SPD 10/25 
terminal unit with a peripheral device or a 


communication modem is handled through a 
controller which is connected to the Terminal 
Processing Unit Input/Output bus. In addition to the 
communications controllers discussed earlier, the 
other peripheral devices include the following: 

— Single or Dual Flexible Diskette 

— 7 or 9 Channel Half Inch Magnetic Tape 

— Printers 

— 15 characters per second 

— 100 characters per second 

— 165 characters per second 

— 250 lines per minute 

— 300 lines per minute 

— Printing Reader Punch 

— Card Readers 

— 250 cards per minute 

— 500 cards per minute 

— Punched Paper Tape Reader 

— Remote Load Controller 


TPU 


I/O 

B 

U 

S 


Synchronous or 


Terminal 


To 

Asynchronous 

«*i— Maximum —► 

Multiplexer 


—►Modem 

Controller 

1000' 

Unit 




Connects to as 
many as 15 other 
SPD 10/25 displays. 


Figure 2-6. Communication Controller with Multiplexer. 


2-10 


Mar. 1975 






>-M Multiplexer. 





Flexible Diskette 

The SPD D-250 Flexible Diskette system provides 
on-line removable disk storage for the SPD 10/25 
Display Terminal. The D-250 consists of either one or 
two flexible disk drives, a disk controller unit, control 
panel, power supply and associated electronics. As a 
stand alone peripheral device, the D-250 interfaces 
with the SPD 10/25 Display Terminal through a disk 
controller which consists of a single board residing in 
one of the I/O controller slots in the TPU. 

The D-250 uses flexible disk cartridges in the disk 
drive units. The vertically mounted cartridges are 
completely interchangeable from unit to unit 
allowing read and write interchangeability at all times 
with a high degree of reliability. Each disk cartridge 
has the capacity for recording up to 262,144 bytes 
of data, giving a total capacity of 524,288 data bytes 


for a two drive system. Both drives for a two drive 
system are located within the same housing (see 
Figure 2-8). 

Features of the D-250 system include: 

— High data transfer rate 

— High data storage capacity 

— Read and write interchangeability between disk 
drives 

— Write protection at the device level 

— Buffered controller operation 
Disk Format 

Each disk cartridge is composed of 64 tracks with 32 



Figure 2-8. SPD D-250 Diskette. 


2-12 


Mar. 1975 







recording sectors per track. A sector consists of the 
following fields: 

Gap — A field of all zeros generated by the 

hardware for spacing purposes be¬ 
tween sectors. 


Sector Byte — One byte indicating the sector address. 

Data Bytes — 128 bytes of data 

Cyclic Check — Two bytes of redundant data generated 
by hardware to detect read errors. 


Sync Byte — A byte generated by software for sync 
purposes. 


Track Byte — One byte indicating the track address. 


Detail Specifications 

Table 2-5 shows the detail specifications for the SPD 
D-250 Flexible Diskette system. 


Table 2-5. D-250 Diskette Specifications 


Storage Media 

- Flexible 7.5 inch disk cartridge 

Storage Capacity: 

Number of Tracks 

Records per Track 

Records per Disk 

Record Length 

- 64 

- 32 

- 2048 

- 133 bytes including 1 sync byte, 1 track byte, 

1 sector byte, 128 data bytes and 2 cyclic 
check bytes 

Rotational Speed 

- 375 RPM 

Access Time (Track to Track) 

— 10 ms track to track 

— 10 ms settle at addressed track 

Transfer Rate disk to buffer 
and buffer to disk 

— 31.25 kilobytes per second 

Average Latency 

— 85 milliseconds 

Number of Drives 

— 2 max 

Cyclic Redundancy Check 

— 16 bits (2 bytes) 

Bootstrap Capability 

— 2048 bytes max (2047 plus one EOB character) 

Buffer (shared by both drives) 

— 256 bytes of data (MOS static RAM) 

Data Transfer Rate, TPU to 
buffer or buffer to TPU 

— 62.5 kilobytes/sec. max 

Write Protect 

— Built in, on the media, as well as selectable via 
front panel switch 

Interlock 

— Interlock circuitry prevents damage to disk 
while loading and unloading 


Mar. 1975 


2-13 




SPD-MT Half-Inch Magnetic Tape Subsystem 

The SPD-MT Half-Inch Magnetic Tape Subsystem 
(Figure 2-9) provides the SPD 10/25 Display 
Terminal System with a low cost, high performance, 
bulk storage capability for a wide variety of data 
communication system applications. The SPD-MT 
consists of three (3) basic models; the SPD-MT, 


810-7, 810-9, and 1610-9. Each model series consists 
of an IBM and ANSI compatible tape transport, a 
tape formatter unit, and a magnetic tape controller. 
The characteristics of the different model series are 
summarized in Table 2-6. 

The compact tape formatter unit is an integral part of 
each model series and contains the power supplies 



Figure 2-9. Magnetic Tape Unit. 


2-14 


Mar. 1975 





and timing and control logic which provides 
exceptional flexibility, performance, and reliability in 
controlling all functions of tape motion and data 
transfer between the magnetic tape controller and the 
selected tape transport. 

All models of the SPD-MT tape transports are 
interfaced to the SPD 10/25 TPU through a magnetic 


tape controller located within the housing of the 
display terminal. The magnetic tape controller is 
equipped with a 1024 byte buffer memory to 
facilitate high speed data storage and retrieval. This 
memory may also be used as a “scratch pad" by the 
stored program when tape operations are not in 
progress. 


Table 2-6. SPD-MT Tape Transport Characteristics 


Model 

Number 

Reel 

Size 

Recording 

Density 

Transfer 

Rate 

Recording 

Technique 

Number of 
Channels 

810-7 

10.5" 

556/800 cpi 

20 KHz 

NRZ! 

7 

810-9 

10.5" 

800 cpi 

20 KHz 

NRZI 

9 

1610-9 

10.5" 

1600 cpi 

40 KHz 

PE 

9 l 


Table 2-7. SPD-MT Specification 


Data Density 

810-7 

— 

800, 556 cpi Non Return to Zero (NRZ) 

810-9 

— 

800cpi NRZ 

1610-9 

— 

1600 cpi Phase Encoded (PE) 

Tape Velocity 

— 

25 ips Read/Write 

Number of Tracks 

— 

7 or 9, IBM/ANSI compatible 

Recording Mode 

— 

NRZ is. IBM compatible 


— 

PE is IBM and ANSI compatible 

Tape Specification 

— 

Computer grade 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) wide 


' 

1.5 Mil (38.1 microns) thick 

Rewind Speed 

810-7,810-9, 1610-9 

— 

150 ips (nominal) 

Reel Size 

— 

10.5 inches 

Mounting 

— 

Floor cabinet 


Mar. 1975 


2-15 






P-15B Printer 

The SPD P-15B is a compact, low cost, highly reliable 
impact type printer designed for continuous duty 
operation. See Figure 2-10. Solid state electronics 
perform over 80% of the printing functions. Printing 
is done at 15 characters per second on a character by 
character basis using a 5 x 7 dot matrix for character 
reproduction. The SPD P-15B, which uses ASCII 
code, prints an original and up to three copies at 72 
characters per line with 10 characters per inch 
horizontal spacing. Vertical spacing is 4-1/2 lines per 
inch. 

The SPD P-15B uses standard teleprinter paper in 
8-1/2 inch web rolls with 4-1/2 inch or 5 inch 


diameters (325 or 400 feet) and 1 inch core. The 
ribbon used is standard teleprinter ribbon, 2 inch 
diameter spool. 

The SPD P-15B uses standard 110 Volt, 60 Hz, A. C. 
current. Power input during printing is 60 watts 
maximum; during idle transmission periods, the 
mechanism is completely at rest and the power 
requirement is much less. The SPD P-15B is a 
self-contained unit which may be interfaced to the 
SPD 10/25 by a printer controller which consists of a 
single board residing in one of the I/O controller 
positions within the SPD 10/25 Terminal Processing 
Unit (TPU). A low paper alarm is included as 
standard equipment. A 28-inch pedestal stand is 
available as an option. 


Table 2-8. P-15B Specifications 


Printing Method 

— 

Impact, character by character one line at a time 

Character Structure 

— 

5x7 dot matrix, 10 point type equivalent 

Character Set 

— 

ASCI 1 — 64 characters 

Printing Rate 

— 

15 characters per second 

Printing Format 

— 

72 characters per line 

4.5 lines per inch vertical spacing 

10 characters per inch horizontal spacing 

Paper 

- 

Standard teleprinter, 8.5 inch web roll, 

4.5 or 5 inch diameter, 1 inch core 

Sndicators/Controls 

— 

ON/OFF, Power On Lamp, Circuit Alarm Lamp, 
Low Paper Alarm 


2-16 


Mar. 1975 







Figure 2-10. SPD P-15B Print 


Mar. 1975 


2-17 




P-100 Printer 

The SPD P-100 (see Figure 2-11) is a low cost, 
compact, medium speed, impact printer employing a 
standard 5 x 7 (9 x 7 optional) dot matrix for 
character reproduction. The P-100 is designed to 
operate with all SPD 10/25 display systems as a 
self-contained unit complete with the necessary 


electronics including a parallel interface and an 
80-character buffer, a power supply, and a 
two-channel vertical format control. 

The printing speed is 100 characters per second. 
Horizontal spacing is 10 characters per inch and 
vertical spacing is 6 lines per inch. Elongated 
characters (double-width) which are printed under 



Figure 2-11. SPD P-100 Printer. 


Mar. 1975 


2-18 




program direction through the use of a specific 
control code are spaced horizontally at 5 characters 
per inch. 

All SPD P-100 printers include an automatic motor 
shut-off circuit which turns the unit off 7 to 15 
seconds after the last print or paper movement 
command. The motor turns back on automatically 
upon receipt of the next print or paper movement 


command. This feature increases printer life and 
reduces background acoustical noise. 

An SPD P-100 80-character buffer may receive 
parallel data up to a maximum rate of 75,000 
characters per second. The parallel interface 
controller which is housed in the SPD 10/25 terminal, 
permits location of the printer within a maximum 
cable run distance of 40 feet from the controller. 


Table 2-9. P-100 Specifications 


Printing Method — 

Impact, character-by-character, one line at a time. 

Printing Rate — 

100 characters per second 

— 

60 lines/Minute (80-char, line) 

— 

150 lines/Minute (20-char. line) 

Character Buffer — 

80 characters (one line) 

Character Structure — 

5x7 dot matrix (9x7 optional) 

Character Code — 

64 ASCII characters 

Elongated Characters — 

Printed on a line-by-line basis (double width) 

Inking Medium — 

1 inch wide inked ribbon automatically reversed. 

Format — 

80 characters per line (max.) 

— 

6 lines per inch 

Vertical Format Control — 

Channel 5 vertical tab, 

— 

Channel 7 top-of-forms 

Forms Movement — 

Sprocket Feed, adjustable to 9-1/2 inches wide. 

Forms Type — 

Standard sprocket paper with original and up to four copies. 

Operating Noise Level — 

Below 65 decibels under normal operating conditions. 

Automatic Motor Control — 

Printer motor automatically turned off 7 to 15 seconds after receipt of 
last print or paper movement command; motor is turned on again upon 
receipt of next print or paper movement command. 

Controls — 

ON/OFF, SELECT, FORMS OVERRIDE, TOP-OF-FORM 

Indicators — 

PAPER OUT, SELECT 

Manual Controls — 

Forms thickness, paper advance 


Mar. 1975 


2-19 








P-165/P-165A Printers 

The SPD P-165/P-165A character printers (Figure 
2-12) are compact medium speed printers which are 
interfaced to the SPD 10/25 through a printer 
controller consisting of a single board residing in one 
of the I/O controller slots within the housing of the 
TPU. 

Printing speed for both model printers is 165 
characters per second. At this speed the printers will 
print 55 full width 132-character lines per minute. 
For shorter lines they will print up to 110 lines per 
minute. Horizontal spacing is 10 characters per inch 
and vertical spacing is 6 lines per inch. Elongated 
(double-width) characters, which can be printed 


under program control are spaced horizontally at 5 
characters per inch. The internal logic of the P-165A 
automatically converts ASCII codes for lower case 
alphabetic characters to the upper case equivalent; 
the P-165 does not. The P-165 uses a 5 x 7 dot matrix 
for character reproduction and the P-165A uses a 9 x 
7 dot matrix. 

Both model printers are equipped with an automatic 
motor control feature which turns the motor off 7 to 
15 seconds after the last print or paper movement 
command. The motor turns back on automatically 
upon receipt of the next print or paper movement 
command. This feature increases printer life and 
reduces background acoustical noise. 


Table 2-10. P-165/P-165A Specifications. 


Printing Method 

— Impact, character by character, one line at a time. 

Printing Rate 

— 165 characters per second 

— 55 lines/Min. (132-char line) 

— 110 lines/minute (33-char, line) 

Character Buffer 

— 132 characters (one line) 

Character Structure 

— P-165 uses 5x7 dot matrix; P-165A uses 9x7 

Character Set 

— 64 ASCII characters 

Vertical Format Control 

— Channel 5 Vertical tab 

— Channel 7 top-of-forms 

Format 

— 132 characters per line 

— 10 characters/inch horizontal 

— 6 lines per inch vertical 

Elongated Characters 

— 5 characters/inch horizontal 

Forms 

— Sprocket fed, adjustable from 4 to 14-3/8 inches wide, 
original and up to four copies 

Controls 

- ON/OFF, SELECT, TOP-OF-FORM, FORMS OVERRIDE 

Indicators 

- PAPER OUT, SELECT 

Manual Controls 

— Forms thickness, paper advance 


Mar. 1975 


2-21 










SPD LP250/LP300 Line Printers 

The INCOTERM SPD LP250 and LP300 Line 
Printers are low cost, quiet, chain type, impact line 
printers designed for use with all SPD 10/25 Display 
Terminal Systems in a wide range of applications. The 
LP250 and LP300 Line Printers are externally 
identical and functionally similar; the difference is in 
their printing speed. The LP250 and LP300 Line 
Printers print at a rate of 250 and 300 lines per 
minute respectively. Both model printers are 
self-contained units which are fully buffered and 
contain all the necessary printing electronics. The 
units are interfaced with the display system's 
Terminal Processing Unit through a printer controller 
consisting of a single board residing within the 
housing of the TPU. The printer may be located up to 
a maximum cable run distance of 40 feet from the 
Terminal Processing Unit. 

Both model printers record data on standard fan-fold. 


sprocket fed paper from 4 inches to 16 inches in 
width and are capable of producing an original and up 
to five clean legible carbon copies. 

The LP250/LP300 printers are equipped with a 
vertical format control unit (VFU) as a standard 
feature. The VFU employs an IBM compatible 1-5/8 
inch paper tape loop to provide for preprogrammed 
line spacing of the printed copy and accepts line feed, 
vertical tab, and top-of-form commands. Vertical 
printed line spacing may be performed at 6 or 8 lines 
per inch, switch selectable by the operator. 

To increase printer life and reduce background 
accoustical noise, the LP250/LP3Q0 printers come 
equipped with an automatic motor control as a 
standard feature. This feature turns off the belt 
motor 30 seconds after the last print or paper 
movement command. The motor automatically turns 
back on upon receipt of the next print or paper 
movement command. 


Table 2-11. LP250/LP300 Specifications 


Number of Print Positions 

— 

132 columns 

Printing Technique 

— 

Impact, character by character 

Printing Rate 

LP250 

— 

250 lines per minute 

LP300 

— 

300 lines per minute 

Character Spacing 

Horizontal 

— 

10 columns per inch 

Vertical 

— 

6/8 lines per inch (operator selectable) 

Character Set 

— 

64 ASCII characters 

Character Buffer 

— 

132 character buffer (1 line) 

Forms Type 

— 

Sprocket fed, continuous fanfold 4 to 16 inches wide; 
up to 6 part, carbon interleaved 

Forms Adjustment 

- 

Horizontal — right or left tractors individually adjustable 
up to full 16 inch range 

Operator Controls 

Front Panel 

— 

Form Feed, Line Feed, Stop, Print 

Rear Panel 

— 

On/Off Switch 

Indicator Lights 

— 

Ready, Motor Off, Alarm, No Paper 


Mar. 1975 


2-23 





SPD PRP-45/200 Printing Reader Punch 

The INCOTERM SPD PRP-45/200 Printing Reader 
Punch is the ultimate low cost, 80-column card 
oriented peripheral for communications terminals. 
See Figure 2-14. The PRP-45/200 is a multi-purpose 
device capable of reading cards at up to 200 cards per 
minute (cpm), punching and/or printing cards at 45 
to 75 cpm, and reading-punching concurrently. 


The SPD PRP-45/200 is a self-contained unit 
including all the electronics, buffer memory, power 
supply, mechanism, and casework. The unit is 
interfaced to the SPD 10/25's Terminal Processing Unit 
(TPU) by a controller consisting of a single board 
residing in one of the I/O controller positions within 
the housing of the TPU. 

The PRP-45/200 has two input hoppers which feed 
cards through a common read station, wait station, 
punch station, and print station, into two output 
stackers. All operation, including selection of input 
hoppers and output stackers, is under program 
control. This allows reading from one input hopper, 
punching from the second hopper, with file 
separation of output without operator intervention. 
The 12-bit structure of the unit accommodates any 
coding format including binary and packed decimal. 


A read check is included as a standard feature and 
post-punch read check is available as an option. 

Table 2-12. PRP-45/200 Specifications 

SPEEDS 


Card Reading 

— 200 cpm 

Card Punching 

— 45-75 cpm 

Card Punching/Printing 

— 45-75 cpm 

Card Reading/Punching 

— 45-75 cpm- 

CAPACITIES 


Primary Input Hopper 

— 600 cards 

Secondary Input Hopper 

— 400 cards 

Output Stacker 1 

— 400 cards 

Output Stacker 2 

— 400 cards 


STANDARD FEATURES 


Primary and Secondary Card Feeds 
Two Output Stackers 
64 Character Print Set 
1 Row = 80 Print Positions 
80 Character Read, Punch and Print Buffers 
Read Check 



Figure 2-14. PRP-45/200 Printing Reader Punch. 


2-24 


Mar. 1975 




Figure 2-15. GR250/CR500 Card Readers. 



SPD CR250 and CR500 Card Readers 

The INCOTERM SPD CR250 and CR500 Card 
Readers are self-contained units capable of reading 
standard 80-column cards at a maximum rate of 250 
and 500 cards per minute respectively. Cards may be 
picked automatically at this rate, or on an individual 
basis up to the maximum rate. Both model card 
readers, which are externally identical, are front 
loaded and unloaded, and accept cards punched in 
Hollerith or binary format, reading the data column 
by column. Data is detected photoelectrically, 
converted to logic levels, and then transmitted to the 
SPD 10/25's Terminal Processing Unit (TPU). The 
card readers are designed for table-top operation and 
are suited for use in an office environment or as an 
integral part of an industrial data processing system. 

The card readers have been designed with the 
requirements of the user foremost in mind and have 
been carefully engineered to be the simplest and most 
reliable units available. The number of moving parts 
and electronic elements have been reduced to an 
essential minimum. Ease of operation and 
maintenance were high priority design goals, and, as a 
result, the card readers have the following features: 

- High Reliability - Simplicity of Design 

— Low Cost — Ease of Maintenance 

— Ease of Operation 


To protect the card reading mechanisms, the units 
have-card feed stop and motor shutdown features for 
the following conditions: 

— Output Hopper Full — Five Successive 
— Input Hopper Empty Pick Failures 

— Card Jam 


Table 2-13. CR250/CR500 Specifications 


Reading Speed 
CR250 

CR500 

— 250 cards per minute 

— 500 cards per minute 

Input Hopper 
Capacity 

— 500 cards 

Output Hopper 
Capacity 

— 500 cards 

Card Format 

— Standard El A, 12 row, 

80 column — Hollerith 
or binary code 

Operator Controls/ 
Indicators 

— Power, Reset, Read Error, 
Halt 


Mar. 1975 


2-25 





Figure 2-16. SPD-L Program Loader. 


2-26 


Mar. 1975 


SPD-L Program Loader 

The SPD-L Program Loader (Figure 2-16) is a paper 
tape input unit comprising a paper tape reader and 
the associated controller logic. It is used to transfer 
data and/or instructions to the TPU in either a 
“bootstrap" mode or in response to a Read 
instruction from the TPU. Data and instructions may 
be read at 15 characters per second. In “bootstrap" 
mode the TPU uses only the four least significant bits 
of each 8-bit data character from the tape. Two 
characters from the tape are required to form one 
byte of data. 

PROGRAM LOADING 

Because the SPD 10/25 is a stored program computer, 
some method must be available for loading the stored 
program into the computer's memory. Program 
loading for the SPD 10/25 may be accomplished in 
any of the following ways. 

Hardware Bootstrap 

Programs may be loaded by means of a hardware 
bootstrap from any of several devices. 

1. By using an SPD-L Program loader with the 
program stored on punched paper tape. 

2. By using an SPD D-25Q Diskette with the program 
stored on disk. 

3. By loading directly from the SPD 10/25 Keyboard. 

4. By using a Remote Load Controller and loading 
from a remote location via the communications 
line. 

5. By using a Read Only Memory (ROM) loader 
which bootstraps a program into memory after a 
hardware timeout occurs. 

Bootstrap loading begins at core location zero and 
proceeds upwards through memory until an 
End-of-Boot character is detected. When the 


End-of-Boot character is found, the TPU leaves the 
bootstrap mode and program control is automatically 
transferred to memory location zero. Therefore 
location zero should be loaded with a valid 
instruction. 

Remote Loading 

A Remote Load Controller, when used in the SPD 
10/25, allows a program to be "bootstrap" loaded 
from a remote location into an unattended SPD 
10/25 via a communications line. The remote 
location may be a CPU or another INCOTERM 
Display Terminal System. 

The Remote Load Controller is physically connected 
via hardware to an associated communications 
controller and occupies one of the I/O controller slots 
in the TPU. One Remote Load Controller is required 
for each communications line from which bootstrap 
loading may occur. 

The Remote Load Controller continuously monitors 
the communications line looking for a specific 
bootstrap character sequence. When the bootstrap 
character sequence is found, the Remote Load 
Controller causes the TPU to be placed in Bootstrap 
Mode. Each character of text is then placed 
sequentially into the core memory beginning at 
location zero and continuing until an End-of-Boot 
character is received at which time the TPU is 
released from Bootstrap mode and program control is 
transferred to location zero. 

Program Loading from Disk 

In those systems which contain a D-250 Diskette, 
program loading may be accomplished from the disk 
under control of the SPD/DOS which is a disk 
resident operating system. Programs are loaded from 
the selected disk unit by merely typing in the 
program name at the keyboard. The SPD/DOS 
operating system then automatically loads the 
designated program into memory and transfers 
program control to the program's assembled entry 
point. 


Mar. 1975 


2-27 





SECTION It! 

CONFIGURATION GUIDE 


This section illustrates with sample diagrams the The information presented herein also illustrates the 

various methods of configuring the SPD 10/25 Display various components of the SPD 10/25. 

Terminal and its associated peripheral equipment. 










SPD 10/25 Dual 


3-2 


Mar. 1975 





















COMMUNICATIONS LINE 


IOOO FT 
(4800 BAUD 
OR LESS) 



MODEM 





SPD-M Multiplexer Cascaded 


3-4 


Mar. 1975 


PRINTER 



















APPENDIX A 


INSTRUCTION FORMATS 


Figure A-1 illustrates the formats of the seven types of instructions. Types 1, 2, 4, and 6 are one word instruc¬ 
tions. Types 3, 5 and 7 are two word instructions. 



BIT 

15 14 | 13 12 11 

10 

9 8 

7 6 5 4 

3 2 10 

TYPE 

1 

OPCODE 

1 

S 

ADDRESS FIELD 

type 2 

OPCODE 

N 

EFFECTIVE DATA 

TYPE 

3 

OPCODE 

OPEXT 

EFFECTIVE DATA 

TYPE 

4 

OPCODE 

OPEXT 

type 5 

OPCODE 

EH 

OPEXT 

TYPE 6 

OPCODE 

na 

OPEXT 

FUNCTION 

DEVICE 

j TYPE 7 

OPCODE 


OPEXT 

FUNCTION 

DEVICE 


WORD ONE 


NEXT INSTRUCTION 
NEXT INSTRUCTION 


ADDRESS FIELD_ 


NEXT INSTRUCTION 


ADDRESS FIELD 


NEXT INSTRUCTION 


ADDRESS FIELD 


WORD TWO 


Typo 1 - Byte, Index, Jump, and Increment Class 

Type 2 — Immediate Class 

Type 3 — Compare and Jump Class 

Type 4 - Operate Class 

Type 5 — Arithmetic Test-Jump Class 

Type 6 — I/O Class 

Type 7 - I/O Test-Jump Class 


OPCODE: Operation Code 

OPEXT: Extension to Operation Code 

I: Indirect Address Flag 

S: Sector Flag 

JS: Jump Sense Flag 

N: Not Used 


Figure A-1. instruction Formats. 


Mar. 1975 






























APPENDIX B 


SPD 10/25 INSTRUCTION SET 


Table B-1 contains the entire instruction set of the SPD 10/25 and includes the mnemonic operation code, 
type of instruction (see Figure A-1), execution time, hexadecimal model of the op-code, name of the 
instruction, and the action of certain registers upon execution of the instructions. 


Table B-1. SPD 10/25 Instruction Set. 


Mnemonic 

Type 

Exec. 

Time* 

Hexadecimal 

Model 

Name 

Action 

LD 

1 

3.2 

0000 

Load 

[EA] -+ (ACR) 

LDI 

2 

1.6 

8000 

Load Immediate 

ED (ACR) 

ST 

1 

3.2 

0800 

Store 

(ACR) [EA] 

AD 

1 

3.2 

1000 

Add 

(ACR) + [EA] -> (ACR) 

ADI 

2 

1.6 

9000 

Add Immediate 

(ACR) + ED -> (ACR) 

SB 

1 

3.2 

1800 

Subtract 

(ACR) - [EA] -> (ACR) 

SBI 

2 

1.6 

9800 

Subtract Immediate 

(ACR) - ED -* (ACR) 

CM 

1 

3.2 

2000 

Compare 

(ACR) : [EA], Set CSR 

AN 

1 

3.2 

2800 

And 

(ACR) A [EA] (ACR) 

ANI 

2 

1.6 

A800 

And Immediate 

(ACR) A ED -> (ACR) 

OR 

1 

3.2 

3000 

Or 

(ACR) V [EA] -+ (ACR) 

ORI 

2 

1.6 

B000 

Or Immediate 

(ACR) V ED (ACR) 

XOR 

2 

1.6 

D000 

Exclusive or Immediate 

(ACR) V ED (ACR) 

LDC 

1 

4.8 

4000 

Load Cursor 

[EA] -> (CUR) 

0-11 

STC 

1 

3.2 

4800 

Store Cursor 

(CUR) -* [EA] 

0-11 

CMC 

1 

4.8 

7000 

Compare Cursor 

(CUR) : [EA], Set CSR 

MLA 

4 

1.6 

C002 

Move Line Register to ACR 

(LIR) (ACR) ,0 -> (ACR) 

0-5 6-7 

MAL 

4 

1.6 

C003 

Move ACR to Line Register 

(ACR) -* (LIR) 

0-5 

MCA 

4 

1.6' 

C004 

Move Character Register to ACR 

(CHR) -*■ (ACR) , 0 -* (ACR) 

0-5 6-7 

MAC 

4 

1.6 

C005 

Move ACR to Character Register 

(ACR) (CHR) 

0-5 

CLL 

4 

1.6 

cooc 

Clear Line Register 

0 -+ (LIR) 

CLC 

4 

1.6 

C00D 

Clear Character Register 

0 -> (CHR) 

SHL4 

4 

1.6 

C009 

Shift Left Four 

(ACR) (ACR) , 0 -» (ACR) 

0-3 4-7 0-3 

INC 

1 

3.2 

5000 

Increment 

[EA] +1 -* [EA] 

0-11 0-11 

DEC 

1 

3.2 

5800 

Decrement 

[EA] -1 [EA] 

0-11 0-11 

IN2 

1 

3.2 

6000 

Increment by Two 

[EA] +2 -► [EA] 

0-11 0-11 

JCEV 

5 

* * 

8C02 

Jump on Condition Even 

IFF (ACR) =0, EA -»• (PCR); IF (ACR) =; 
0 0 


(PCR) +4 -* (PCR) 


"Execution time is given in microseconds without indirect addressing. 

"‘Execution time is 1.6 if no jump is taken, 3.2 if a jump is taken (without indirect addressing) 


Mar. 1975 


B-1 





Table B-1. SPD 10/25 Instruction Set (Cont'd.) 


Mnemonic 

Type 

Exec. 

Time 

Hexadecimal 

Model 

Name 

Action 

JMP 

1 

1.6 

B800 

Jump 

EA -» (PCR) 

JSR 

1 

3.2 

7800 

Jump to Subroutine 

(PCR) + 2 [EA], EA + 2 -* (PCR) 

CJFAL 

3 

1.6 

A000 

Compare and Skip 

(PCR) +4 -> (PCR) 

CJLT 

3 

* * 

A100 

Compare and Jump 

If Less Than 

IFF COO, EA -+ (PCR); IF COO 

(PCR) +4 -» (PCR) 

CJEQ 

3 

* * 

A200 

Compare and Jump 

If equal 

IFF EQ=1, EA (PCR); IF EQO 

(PCR) +4 -* (PCR) 

CJLE 

3 

* * 

A300 

Compare and Jump if 

Less Than or Equal 

IFF EQ=1 or CO=0, EA -> (PCR) 
otherwise (PCR) + 4 -> (PCR) 

CJTRU 

3 

3.2 

A400 

Compare and Jump 

EA (PCR) 

CJGE 

3 

* * 

A500 

Compare and Jump if 

Greater Than or Equal 

IFF CO=1, EA -» (PCR) 

otherwise (PCR) + 4 -> (PCR) 

CJNE 

3 

* * 

A600 

Compare and Jump 

If Not Equal 

IFF EQO, EA -> (PCR); IF EQO, 

(PCR) +4 -* (PCR) 

CJGT 

3 

* * 

A700 

Compare and Jump 

If Greater Than 

IFF COO, EA -» (PCR); IF COO, 

(PCR) +4 -* (PCR) 

JCFAL 

5 

1.6 

8800 

Skip 

(PCR) + 4 -*• (PCR) 

JCLT 

5 

* * 

8900 

Jump On Condition Less Than 

IFF COO, EA -> (PCR); IF COO, 

(PCR) +4 -> (PCR) 

JCEQ 

5 

* * 

8A00 

Jump On Condition Equal 

IFF EQ=1, EA (PCR); IF EQO, 

(PCR) +4 -» (PCR) 

JCLE 

5 

* * 

8B00 

Jump On Condition Less Than Equal 

IFF EQ=T or COO, EA -> (PCR); 
otherwise (PCR) + 4 -+ (PCR) 

JCTRU 

5 

3.2 

8C00 

Unconditional Jump 

EA -+ (PCR) 

JCGE 

5 

* * 

8D00 

Jump On Condition Greater Than or 
Equal 

IFF COO, EA (PCR) 

otherwise (PCR) + 4 -*• (PCR) 

JCNE 

5 

* * 

8E00 

Jump On Condition Not Equal 

IFF EQO, EA (PCR); IF EQO, 

(PCR)+4 -* (PCR) 

JCGT 

5 

* * 

8F00 

Jump On Condition Greater Than 

IFF COO and EQ+0, EA -> (PCR) 
otherwise (PCR) + 4 -* (PCR) 

JCNG 

5 

* * 

8801 

Jump On Condition Negative 

IFF NGO, EA -» (PCR); IF NGO 

(PCR) +4 -*• (PCR) 

JCPO 

5 

* * 

8C01 

Jump On Condition Positive 

IFF NGO, EA (PCR); IF NGO 

(PCR) +4 (PCR) 

JCOD 

5 

* * 

8802 

Jump On Condition Odd 

IFF (ACR) = 1, EA (PCR); IF (ACR) = 0, 

0 0 
(PCR) =4 -> (PCR) 

JCNC 

5 

* * 

8900 

Jump On Condition No Carryout 

IFF COO, EA (PCR); IF CO = 1, 

(PCR) + 4 -> (PCR) 

JCCO 

5 

* * 

8D00 

Jump On Condition Carryout 

IFF COO, EA -> (PCR); IF CO = 0, 

(PCR) + A -*■ (PCR) 

HALT 

4 

* * * 

C001 

Halt 

Stops execution when programmer's 
console attached. 

NOP 

4 

1.6 

cooo 

No Operation 

Performs no function except an 
execution delay. 

CIO 

6 

1.6 

C900 

Control I/O 

Directs controller activities. 

RIO 

6 

* * * * 

CAOO 

Read I/O 

INB -» (ACR) 

WIO 

6 

* # * * 

CBOO 

Write I/O 

(ACR) -+ OTB 

JTACK 

7 

* * 

C800 

Jump if I/O ACK 

IF ACK, EA -> (PCR); IF NO ACK, 

(PCR) +4 (PCR) 

JFACK 

7 

* * 

CCOO 

Jump if No I/O ACK 

IF NO ACK, EA -> (PCR); IF ACK, 

(PCR) + 4 (PCR) 

IOR 

4 

1.6 

C008 

I/O Reset 

Resets Controllers and interrupts. 

ENB 

4 

1.6 

C006 

Enable 

Allows interrupts. 

DSB 

4 

1.6 

C007 

Disable 

Prohibits interrupts. 

WAIT 

4 

**** * 

COOF 

Wait 

Waits for return from refresh cycle or an 
interrupt. 

CLA 

2 

1.6 

8000 

Clear Accumulator 

0 (ACR) 

SKP 

5 

1.6 

8800 

Skip 

(PCR) + 4 -» (PCR) 

WJMP 

5 

3.2 

8C00 

Unconditional Jump 

EA -*• (PCR) 


** Execution time is 1.6 if no jump is taken, 3.2 if a jump is taken (without indirect addressing) 

*** Time is 1.6 without a Programmer's Console attached (NOP). Time is indeterminate if a halt occurs since manual action is 


required. 

**** Time is 1.6 if the device acknowledges. Otherwise, background executes until the interrupt occurs. 
***** Time is indeterminate — waits until an interrupt occurs. 


B -2 


Mar. 1975 







APPENDIX C 


INSTALLATION AND PLANNING 
DATA 


ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS 


Ambient Temperature Range 



Operating 

Storage 

SPD 10/25 Display Terminal (Std.) 

+32°F to +90°F 

—40°F to +160°F 

(fan option) 

+32°F to +104°F 


SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display 

+32°F to +104°F 

—40°F to +160°F 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

+60°F to +90°F 

-40°F to +140°F 

D-250 Diskette (Dual) 

+60°F to +90°F 

—40°F to +140°F 

Magnetic Tape Units (All models 



including Formatter) 

+35°F to +104°F 

—4°F to +150°F 

P-15B Printer 

+40°F to +100°F 

—40°F to +160°F 

P-100 Printer 

+40°F to +100°F 

—40°F to +160°F 

P-165/P-165A Printers 

+40°F to +100°F 

—40°F to +160°F 

LP250/LP300 Printers 

+50°F to +110°F 

0°F to +150°F 

PRP/45-200 Printing Reader Punch 

+40°F to +110°F 

-40° F to +140°F 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

+50°F to +95°F 

—40°F to +140°F 

SPD-M Multiplexer 

+32°F to +104°F 

-40°F to +160°F 

SPD-L Program Loader 

+32°F to +90°F 

—40°F to +160°F 

Keyboard 

+32°F to +104°F 

—40°F to +160°F 


Mar. 1975 


C-1 



ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS (Cont'd.) 


Relative Humidity (non-condensing) 



Operating 

Storage 

SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 

10% to 90% 

10% to 90% 

SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display 

10% to 90% 

10% to 90% 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

20% to 80% 

0% to 90% 

D-250 Diskette (Dual) 

20% to 80% 

0% to 90% 

Magnetic Tape Units (All models 
including Formatter) 

15% to 95% 

10% to 95% 

P-15B Printer 

7% to 95% 

0% to 98% 

P-100 Printer 

5% to 90% 

0% to 95% 

P-165/P-165A Printers 

0% to 95% 

0% to 98% 

LP250/LP300 Printers 

20% to 75% 

5% to 98% 

PR P-45/200 Printing Reader Punch 

8% to 90% 

5% to 95% 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

20% to 80% 

5% to 98% 

SPD-M Multiplexer 

10% to 90% 

10% to 90% 

SPD-L Program Loader 

10% to 90% 

10% to 90% 

Keyboard 

10% to 90% 

10% to 90% 


Altitude Range 

Operating 

Storage 

SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 

0 to 10,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft. 

SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display 

0 to 10,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

0 to 10,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft 

D-250 Diskette (Dual) 

0 to 10,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft 

Magnetic Tape Units (All models 
including Formatter) 

0 to 20,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft 

P-15B Printer 

Oto 12,000 ft. 

0 to 25,000 ft 

P-100 Printer 

0 to 10,000 ft. 

0 to 50,000 ft 

P-165/P-165A Printer 

0 to 12,000 ft. 

0 to 50,000 ft 

LP250/LP300 Printer 

0 to 12,000 ft. 

0 to 50,000 ft 

PR P-45/200 Printing Reader Punch 

0 to 6,000 ft. 

0 to 12,000 ft 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

0 to 10,000 ft. 

0 to 50,000 ft 

SPD-M Multiplexer 

Oto 10,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft 

SPD-L Program Loader 

Oto 10,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft 

Keyboard 

0 to 10,000 ft. 

0 to 40,000 ft 


C-2 


Mar. 1975 






ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS 


SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 

SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

D-25Q Diskette (Dual) 

Magnetic Tape Units (All 
models including Formatter) 

P-15B Printer 

P-100 Printer 

P-165/P 165A Printers 

LP250/LP300 Printers 

PRP-45/200 Printing Reader 
Punch 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

SPD-M Multiplexer 

SPD-L Program Loader 
Keyboard 


Mar. 1975 


Frequency 

Voltage 

Current 

Power 

(Hertz) 

(Volts) 

(Amps) 

(Watts) 

60 ± 1 

117 ± 15% 

3.5 

320 

50 ± 1 

234±15% 

1.75 

320 

60 ± 1 

117 ±15% 

0.8 

70 

50 ± 1 

234±15% 

0.4 

70 

60 ± 1 

117 ±13% 

1.85 

160 

50 ± 1 

234±10% 

0.9 

160 

60 ± 1 

117 ±13% 

3.6 

302 

50 ± 1 

234 ±10% 

1.8 

302 

60 ±3 

115 ± 10% 

6.0 

500 

50 ±3 

230±10% 

3.0 

500 

60 ± 3 

117±10% 

0.75 

60 

50 ±3 

230±10% 

0.375 

60 

60 ± 1 

117±10% 

3.2 

300 

50 ± 1 

234±10% 

1.6 

300 

60 ± 1 

117 ±10% 

3.8 

360 

50 ± 1 

234±10% 

1.9 

360 

60 ± 1 

115±10% 

5.0 

400 

50 ± 1 

230±10% 

2.5 

400 

60 ± 1 

115 ±10% 

4.3 

351 

50 ± 1 

230±10% 

2.1 

351 

48 to 66 

115±10% 

0.95 

115 


230 ± 10% 

0.48 

115 

60 ±3 

117±15% 

2.0 

100 

50 ± 3 

234±15% 

1.0 

100 


Power supplied by SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 
Power supplied by SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 


C-3 




PHYSICAL DIMENSIONS 


Width Depth Height Weight 



Ins. 

MM 

Ins. 

MM 

Ins. 

MM 

Lbs. 

Kg. 

SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 

19 

483 

19 

483 

18 

457 

70 

31.8 

SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display 

19 

483 

19 

483 

18 

457 

37 

16.8 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

18 

457 

19.75 

502 

15.5 

394 

63 

28.6 

D-250 Diskette (Dual) 

18 

457 

19.75 

502 

15.5 

394 

76 

34.5 

Magnetic Tape Units (In cabinet, 
all models including Formatter) 

22 

559 

24.5 

622 

58 

1473 

273 

124 

P-15B Printer w/o Pedestal 

12.75 

324 

17.75 

451 

5 

127 

25 

11.3 

P-15B Printer w/Pedestal 

19 

483 

19 

483 

35 

889 

35 

15.9 

P-100 Printer 

23 

584 

18.75 

476 

12.5 

318 

66 

30 

P-165/P 165A Printers 

27.75 

705 

20 

508 

11.5 

292 

118 

53.5 

LP250/LP300 Printers 

30 

762 

28 

711 

40.5 

1029 

275 

125 

PRP-45/200 Printing Reader 

Punch 

48 

1219 

27 

686 

37.75 

959 

250 

113.4 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

19.5 

495 

14.75 

375 

13.5 

343 

35 

15.9 

SPD-M Multiplexer 

17 

432 

14 

356 

10 

254 

30 

13.6 

SPD-L Program Loader 

12 

305 

7 

178 

5.5 

140 

7.5 

3.4 

Keyboard 

19 

483 

7.5 

190 

3.0 

76 

5 

2.3 


THERMAL DISSIPATION 


DISSIPATION 

BTU's/Hour Calories/Hour 


SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 

1094 

274 

SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display 

240 

60 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

550 

138 

D-250 Diskette (Dual) 

1035 

259 

Magnetic Tape Units (All models including Formatter) 

1710 

428 

P-15B Printer 

205 

51 

P-100 Printer 

1035 

259 

P-165/P-165A Printers 

1235 

309 

LP250/LP300 Printers 

1368 

342 

PRP-45/200 Printing Reader Punch 

1200 

300 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

393 

98 

SPD-M Multiplexer 

345 

86 

SPD-L Program Loader 

Negligible 


Keyboard 

Negligible 



C-4 


Mar. 1975 



CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS 


TOP 



ms. 

mm. 

SPD 10/25 Display Terminal 

24 

600 

SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display 

24 

600 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

24 

600 

D-250 Diskette (Dual) 

24 

600 

Magnetic Tape Units (All models 
including Formatter) 

6 

150 

P-15B Printer 

12 

300 

P-100 Printer 

20 

500 

P-165/P-165A Printers 

20 

500 

LP250/LP300 Printers 

30 

750 

PR P-45/200 Printing Reader 

Punch 

24 

600 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

12 

300 

SPD-M Multiplexer 

12 

300 

SPD-L Program Loader 

removable 

Keyboard 

removable 


CABLE LENGTHS - MAXIMUM 


FRONT REAR LEFT RIGHT 


ms. 

mm. 

ms. 

mm. 

ms. 

mm. 

ms. 

mm. 

16 

400 

30 

750 

10 

250 

10 

250 

16 

400 

30 

750 

10 

250 

10 

250 

12 

300 

24 

600 

3 

75 

3 

75 

12 

300 

24 

600 

3 

75 

3 

75 

30 

750 

30 

750 

12 

300 

12 

300 

24 

600 

24 

600 

12 

300 

12 

300 

30 

750 

30 

750 

12 

300 

12 

300 

30 

750 

30 

750 

12 

300 

12 

300 

24 

600 

36 

900 

18 

450 

12 

300 

24 

600 

6 

150 

6 

150 

6 

150 

24 

600 

24 

600 

12 

300 

12 

300 

16 

400 

24 

600 

3 

75 

3 

75 


to clear area 
to clear area 


MAXIMUM LENGTH 



Feet 

Meters 

SPD 10/25 Display Terminal (to Modem) 

50 

15.2 

SPD 10/25 Auxiliary Display (to Master) 

2000 

610 

D-250 Diskette (Single) 

10 

3 

D-250 Diskette (Dual) 

10 

3 

Magnetic Tape Units (All models including Formatter) 

20 

6.1 

P-15B Printer 

50 

15.2 

P-100 Printer 

40 

12.2 

P-165/P- 165A Printers 

40 

12.2 

LP250/LP300 Printers 

40 

12.2 

PRP-45/20Q Printing Reader Punch 

15 

4.5 

CR250/CR500 Card Readers 

30 

9.1 

SPD-M Multiplexer (to SPD 10/25 @ 4800 bps or less) 

1000 

305 

SPD-L Program Loader 

3 

1 

Keyboard (Master) 

10 

3 

Keyboard (Aux.) 

2000 

610 


Mar. 1975 


C-5 





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