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COMPUTER SYSTEMS 


ALTOS MAGNETIC TAPE UNIT SUBSYSTEM 
USER'S MANUAL 


June 1981 



ALTOS COMPUTER SYSTEMS 


2360 Bering Drive 
San Joser Californina 95131 


ALTOS MAGNETIC TAPE UNIT SUBSYSTEM 
USER'S MANUAL 

June 1981 



NOTICE 

ALTOS Computer systems makes no warranty of any kind with regard 
to this material, including, but not limited to, the implied 
warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular 
purpose. ALTOS Computer systems assumes no responsibility for 
any errors that may appear in this document. ALTOS Computer 
Systems makes no committment to update nor to keep current the 
information contained in this document. Tne information 
contained in this document is subject to change without notice. 

No part of this document may be copied or reproduced in any form, 
or by any means, without prior written consent of ALTOS Computer 
Systems. 



Table of Contents 


Section Title Page 


1. INTRODUCTION 1-1 

1.1 Tape Unit Hardware Features... 1-1 

1.2 Data Format on Tape 1-2 

1.3 Error Recognition and Correction 1-2 

1.4 Magnetic Tape Cartridge Media 1-3 

1.5 Tape Unit Software and Programming 1-4 

2. TAPE UNIT INSTALLATION AND CHECK-OUT 2-1 

2.1 Tape Unit Installation 2-1 

2.2 Tape Unit Check-out 2-1 

3. TAPE UNIT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE 3-1 

3.1 Tape Cartridge Insertion and Removal..... 3-1 

3.2 Periodic Tape Unit Maintenance 3-1 

3.2.1 Read/Write Head Cleaning 3-1 

3.2.2 Tape Cleaner Component Cleaning 3-3 

3.2.3 Motor Capstan Cleaning 3-3 

4. FILE BACK-UP AND RECOVERY 4-1 

4.1 File Back-up and Recovery Requirements 4-1 

4.2 Back-up/Recovery Capabilities 4-1 

4.2.1 Tape Interchange Program (TIP) 4-1 

4.2.2 File Back-up Utilizing TIP 4-2 

4.2.3 TIP File Name Conventions 4-3 

4.3 Tape Interchange Program (TIP) Operation 4-5 

4.3.1 Invoking TIP and Entering TIP Commands 4-5 

4.3.2 TIP Commands 4-6 

4.3.3 TiP File Name Parameters 4-8 

4.3.4 TIP Back-up and Restore Function Examples 4-9 

4.4 TIP Tape Recording Procedure 4-15 

5. ERROR CODES, TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM 

DIAGNOSTICS 5-1 

5.1 TIP Error Conditions 5-1 

5.2 File Specification Errors 5-1 

5.3 Inadequate Disk Space Dur ingRestore. 5-1 

5.4 'Full Tape Cartridge' Conditions 5-1 

5.5 Tape Media and Tape Unit Malfunctions 5-1 

5.5.1 General Error Codes 5-2 

5.5.Z Sub-error Codes 5-2 

5.5.3 Error Analysis 5-4 

5.5.4 Tape Unit Status Codes 5-4 

5.5.5 Error Recovery Techniques 5-7 

iii 



Section Title Page 

6. STAND ALONE MAGNETIC TAPE CARTRIDGE BACK-UP UNIT 

(MTU-1) WITH ACS8000 COMPUTERS 

6.1 82 00 -CPU PCB and MTU-1 6-1 

6.1.1 Installation of the MTU-1 6-1 


iv 



ALTOS MAGNETIC TAPE UNIT SUBSYSTEM 


USER'S MANUAL 


1. INTRODUCTION. 


The ALTOS magnetic tape unit (MTU) subsystem provides 
efficient back-up and restoration capabilities for program and 
data files. The tape unit subsystem consists of a CMTD-3400S2 
tape drive from Data Electronics, Inc. This drive comes as 
either a stand alone unit which can be electrically connected 
to the ACS8000 system by cables or, as an integral part of the 
ACS8000 system itself. Provided with the MTU subsystem is a 
copy of the Tape Interchange Program (TIP) . TIP is a product 
of Alloy Engineering Company, Inc. TIP provides all necessary 
capabilities to back-up and restore both floppy disk and 
hard disk files of any size under CP/M* and MP/M* only. With 
TIP tne user has the capability of backing up and/or restoring 
entire disk systems and individual program and data files. 

This manual is divided into six sections. The 
remainder of section 1 provides an overview of the tape unit 
subsystem. Section 2 discusses installation and check-out 
procedures of the tape unit subsystem. Section 3 provides 
the operating procedures for the tape unit subsystem. Section 
4 discusses the use of TIP. Section 5 discusses error 
conditions and provides troubleshooting and diagnostic 
instructions. Section 6 contains the procedure to incorporate 
tne tape unit (MTU-1) with the ACS8000 computers. 


1.1 Tape Unit Hardware Features. 


The tape unit provides high density tape cartridge 
storage of up to 13.4 MBytes of data on a single 1/4", 450-foot 
magnetic tape cartridge, using four tracks. Data is written at 6400 
bits/inch in Modified Frequency Modulation (MFM) format at a data 
transfer rate of 192 Kbits/ second. A serial recording format is 
used. 


Tne tape unit operates at two speeds depending on the 
operation being performed: 

a. READ and WRITE operations are performed at a 
tape speed of 30 inches/ second. 

b. Bidirectional search and rewind operations are 
performed at a tape speed of 90 inches/ second. 


*CP/M and MP/M are trademarks of Digital Research 

1-1 



1.1 


— Continued 


The use of an integral DC motor tachometer that drives the 
cartridge directly (no pulleys, belts or right angle friction 
drives) allows the drive to sustain a start/stop time of 25-26 
msec at a tape speed of 30 inches/ second and 71-74 msec at 
a tape speed of 90 inches/second. 

All code conversions (NRZ/MFM and MFM/NRZ) are done 
in the tape control unit thus reducing the amount of inter- 
action required by the CPU of the ACS8000. 

The tape unit contains several standard features 
designed to improve system reliability: 

a. An integral tape cleaner which continually 
cleans the tape while it is moving. 

b. The dual gap, read-while-write tape head insures 
that all written data can be read back from the 
tape. 

c. A separate erase head insures data* reliability 
of the tape unit to less than 1 error per 

100 Mbits read by the drive. 

1.2 Data Format on Tape. 


The tape unit records data in serial fashion on 
each of four tracks of the cartridge. When data is written 
to the tape unit it is written first to track 1, and the tape 
rewinds; data is written to track 2, and the tape rewinds; 
data is written to track 3, and the tape rewinds; data is 
written to track 4. There is an early warning indicator near 
the end of each track. The sensing of that indicator will 
cause the tape to rewind. 

The tape cartridge must be initialized before it 
is used for the first time. The initialiation procedure is des 
cribed in section 4. 

1.3 Error Recognition and Correction. 


Tne design of the tape unit provides exceptional 
reliability. The provision of reading all data immediately 
after it is written is the key element to this reliability. 

The tape head on the unit has both a READ and WRITE 
head designed so that as the data is written to the tape by the 
WRITE head, it is immediately read by the trailing READ head. 

If no errors are detected during this process the data has been 
properly written to the tape. 


1-2 


1.3 


Continued 


If an error is detected by the trailing READ head 
during a write operation, the tape unit attempts to re-write 
the file as many as 16 times. Before each attempt the 
unit rewinds the tape to the point at which tne file begins and 
the unit will then advance the tape 3 inches and attempt to 
write the file again erasing old file names. It will do this each 
time an error is detected up to a maximum of 16 attempts. If, 
at any time, the attempt is successful no further attempts will 
be made. This forward movement of the tape 3 inches from the 
beginning of the file each time an attempt is made ensures that 
the portion of tape used for a file of 2500 bytes or less is bypassed. 

If an error is detected during a read operation, the 
tape unit will re-read the data block a maximum of 16 times 
before signalling an aborted read operation. The incidence of 
permanent read errors is very slight because of the movement of 
the tape past the tape cleaner and read head 16 times. This action 
removes many of the contaminants that cause permanent read 
errors. If the 16 re-tries still result in a permanent read 
error it is likely that the tape has physical damage or is 
of poor quality and should be discarded. 

The tape unit has another feature to increase 
reliability. The built-in tape cleaner will remove contaminants 
from the tape media prior to passing the read/write heads. The 
tape unit generates a rewind of the tape each time the 
cartridge is inserted into the unit and at the end of most 
data operations. This procedure ensures that only the 36 inches 
of tape between the beginning of tape indicator and the load 
point at which data recording begins, is exposed to possible 
contamination by smoke, finger prints, or other foreign matter. 

1.4 Magnetic Tape Cartridge Media. 


The tape unit subsystem utilizes 1/4" tape cartridges 
chat meet the ANSI X 3.55-1977 standard. 

ALTOS recommends that £□.! cartridges be certified at 6400 bpi 
by the manufacturer: Scotch DC-300A, Scotch DC-300XL and Verbatim 
TC-4450 tape cartridges are examples of acceptable media. 


1-3 



1.4 


— Continued 


The tape unit has built-in sensors that identify 
beginning of taper end of tape, load point and early warning 
location. The tape unit controller automatically recognizes 
these sensor indicators and ensures that data is written 6 
inches beyond the loading point and will continue no more 
than 36 inches beyond the early warning location indicator. 

In order to take advantage of these sensor indictors the 
selected media cartridges should incorporate these features 
as per the ANSI compatability specifications. 

Tape cartridges of both 300 and 450 feet will be 
accepted by the tape unit. The storage capacity of these 
cartridges depends upon the length of the records being written. 
The longer the records, the fewer the number of inter-record gaps 
(IRGs) and, hence, the greater the efficiency of the unit. 

Table 1-1 lists storage capacities of formatted tape cartridges 
based on differing block lengths. 

Table 1-1. Storage Capacities — Formatted Tape Cartridges 


BLOCK SIZE 

BLOCK LTH 

300' 

TAPE 

— 
450 • 

TAPE 




(MBYTES) 



125 

0.2 

7000 

3.5 

10500 

5.3 

1024 

1.3 

5110 

5.3 

7664 

7.9 

2048 

2.5 

3349 

6.8 

5024 

10.3 

4096 

5.0 

1983 

8.1 

2975 

12.2 

*8192 

10.0 

1092 

8.9 

1638 

13.4 

*the 8192- 

Bvte Block 

is used by TIP 




Handling and storage of tape cartridges are 
critical to the reliability and overall performance of the 
tape unit subsystem. Excessive heat, humidity or exposure 
to magnetic fields will cause substantial increases in the 
rate of both temporary and permanent tape media errors. The 
user is cautioned to follow the handling and storage 
recommendations of the tape manfacturer to insure satisfactory 
performance of the tape unit subsystem. 

1,5 Tape Unit Software and Programming. 


The Tape Interchange Program (TIP) , which comes 
on either diskette or on cartridge, provides all the necessary 
software to use the tape unit subsystem for back-up and recovery 
of disk data and program files, TIP provides for automatic 
back-up and recovery for entire disk units or individual files. 
Automatic linkage of tape cartridges allows virtually unlimited 
back-up storage capacity utilizing TIP. 


1-4 














2 


TAPE UNIT INSTALLATION AND CHECK-OUT 


2.1 Tape Unit Installation. 


The Magnetic Tape Unit used with ACS8000 computer 
systems comes as either a stand alone unit which is connected 
electrically by ribbon cables to the host computer or as an 
integral part of the computer system itself. Instructions to 
install and connect the stand alone tape unit are sent with 
the MTU when it is shipped to the user. There are no 
installation procedures for tape units which are part of 
the computer system itself. 

2.2 Tape Unit Check-out. 


To check out the tape unit prior to using it for 
the first time you will need TIP. If your system has 1 or 
more floppy disk drives and a hard disk you will need to 
use your operating system disk and create a system which 
will warm boot from the hard disk. Once this is done you 
can log on to the hard disk, execute a mode command to 
set drive A to single density, insert the TIP disk, 
log on to drive A and enter TIP (carriage return) . This 
will provide you with a menu. Select the Initialization 
program and the tape unit will write a data pattern to 
all tracks of the tape. Each of the 4 tracks will have a 
different pattern written to it. This ensures that two 
tracks are not being written to at the same time. After 
the write operation is complete a read operation will be 
performed on each track to ensure the unit is writing 
properly and reading properly. Once complete, file marks 
are written to each of the four tracks. This completes 
initialization. 

Once initialization is successfully completed, 

TIP should again be used to back-up sample files to all 
tracks of the tape. 


2-1 (2-2 Blank) 



3. TAPE UNIT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE. 


3.1 Tape Cartridge Insertion and Removal. 


BE CERTAIN THAT NO TAPE CARTRIDGE IS IN THE 
TAPE UNIT WHEN THE TAPE UNIT, OR SYSTEM, IS 
POWERED-ON OR POWERED-OFF. THIS WILL PROTECT THE 
TAPE CARTRIDGE FROM DAMAGE CAUSED BY ELECTRICAL 
TRANSIENTS. 

The tape cartridge can only be inserted into the 
tape unit in one way. A keylock prevents insertion of the 
cartridge upside-down. Position the cartridge at the entry 
opening of the tape unit and slide the cartridge forward 
until the first detent is felt, then slide the cartridge 
forward until it is fully engaged. 

When the cartridge is inserted it will autom- 
atically be rewound and then advanced forward to the load 
point. If the tape has been set to the "safe" position (a 
form of write protect) this will be sensed when the cartridge 
is inserted into the tape unit. The control unit is informed 
and the cartridge will have to be removed for only a write 
operation. There is no override for a write protected tape. 
To remove the tape cartridge simply pull it from the unit. 

NOTE: do not attempt to remove the tape cartridge while 
any type of data transfer is underway. 

3.2 Periodic Tape Unit Maintenance. 


Three components of the tape unit require periodic 
maintenance in order to insure overall system reliability. The 
cleaning removes contaminants from the tape unit components 
which come into direct contact with the tape media. Cleaning 
insures that there will be adequate direct contact between 
the read/write head of the tape unit and the tape itself. 

The location of the components which require 
cleaning are shown in figure 3-1. The unit should be turned 
off before any cleaning is done. The components to be cleaned 
are accessed through the cartridge loading slot. A flashlight 
should be used to better view the components. 

3.2.1 Read/Write Head Cleaning. 


The magnetic read/write head should be cleaned daily 
if the tape unit is in regular use. Dirty heads may cause data 
drop-outs and error conditions during read or write operations. 
Use a non-residue, non-corrosive cleaning agent, such as 
Dupont Freon TF or isopropyl alcohol, and a cotton swab to clean 
the head assembly. Be sure to wipe off any excess and allow the 
heads to dry completely before operating the unit. 


3-1 




Figure 3-1. Tape Unit Components Requiring Cleaning 


3-2 




3.2.1 


— Continued 


CAUTION: SPRAY TYPE HEAD CLEANERS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED. 
AN OVERSPRAY NAY CONTAMINATE THE MOTOR BEARINGS. NEVER 
CLEAN THE HEAD WITH ANY HARD OBJECT. THIS HILL RESULT 
IN PERMANENT HEAD DAMAGE. 

3.2.2 Tape Cleaner Component Cleaning. 


The tape cleaner removes loose tape oxide and other 
foreign material from the tape beore it contacts the head. This 
foreign material accumulates in and around the tape cleaner 
and must be removed to ensure that the tape cleaner will 
continue to work effectively. The tape cleaner should be cleaned 
on the same schedule as the head. 

To clean the tape cleaner component insert a folded 
sheet of paper in the bottom of the cleaning slot of the tape 
cleaner and lift up. This will lift out the foreign material 
gathered around the tape cleaner. Compressed air or an air 
brush can also be used. During alternate cleaning periods 
the same materials used to clean the heads can be used. 

CAUTION: DO NOT USE ANY HARD OBJECTS TO CLEAN THE TAPE CLEANER. 
IF THE TAPE CLEANER SHOULD BECOME CHIPPED, IT COULD SCRATCH THE 
TAPE SURFACE, RESULTING IN LOST DATA AND/OR PERMANENT DAMAGE. 

3.2.3 Motor Capstan Cleaning. 


The drive capstan is composed of hard polyurethane 
and must be cleaned after foreign material has built up. Clean 
the capstan using isopropyl alcohol and a cotton swab. The 
cleaning schedule should be the same as for the other components 
listed earlier. 

CAUTION: BE VERY CAREFUL NOT TO PERMIT CLEANING SOLVENT 
TO CONTAMINATE THE DRIVE MOTOR BEARING. 


3-3 (3-4 Blank) 



4 


FILE BACK-UP AND RECOVERY 


4.1 File Back-up and Recovery Requirements. 


The ALTOS tape unit subsystem provides both the 
hardware and software necessary to back-up and restore data and 
program files of any size. The tape unit allows total back-up 
of a formatted 14.5 MByte hard disk on one cartridge. 

However, this system is only as reliable as the 
back-up procedures employed. It is the responsibility of the 
user to determine which capabilities of the back-up/ recovery 
system are required for the operation involved and then 
implement those procedures to ensure that the required files 
are backed-up at the required intervals. 

The reliability of the back-up/recovery system 
hinges on two factors: 

a. The discipline with which key data files are 
backed-up onto tape. The most functional 
and reliable tape back-up system is of no 
value, if, at the one time it is needed, 
the required data and program files were 
not backed-up in accordance with established 
procedures. 

b. The care with which the tape cartridge contain- 
ing the backed-up files are handled. The weakest 
link in the reliability chain is tape media 
which has been stored in hot or humid conditions, 
or has been placed near magnetic or electrical 
fields. 

4.2 Back-up/Recovery Capabilities. 


4.2.1 Tape Interchange Program (TIP). 


The ALTOS file back-up and recovery system is 
implemented through a program called the Tape Interchange 
Program (TIP) . TIP is distributed on diskette and/or tape 
and comes as part of the MTU system. At present, TIP provides 
seven functions that work together to provide complete file 
back-up and recovery. 

FUNCTION PURPOSE 


TAPE INITIALIZATION Writes two file marks at the start 

of each of the four tracks of the 
tape. Upon completion of this 
function the tape can be utilized 
for back-up and recovery operations 


4-1 



4.2.1 


continued 


FUNCTION 

DISK-TO-TAPE BACK-UP 


DISK-TO-TAPE RESTORE 


DISK-TO-TAPE APPEND 


PURPOSE 


Places a user-specified file or 
files onto the tape from a user 
specified disk 

Restores user specified data files 
previously stored on tape onto a 
user specified disk drive 

Adds additional files to a tape 
which already contains data or 
program files. 


FILE VERIFICATION 


TAPE DIRECTORY 
RETENSION TAPE 


Compares a file which has been 
backed-up to tape with a file 
of the same name, stored on a disk 

Lists the names of all data and 
program files contained on the tape 

Spools forward at 90 ips to end 
of tape and then rewinds a tape 
cartridge to ensure tape tension 
meets manufacturers specifications. 
This function will cure many error 
conditions which occur during tape 
use 


4.2.2 File Back-up Utilizing TIP. 


There are two general ways in which data and program 
files are backed-up to tape. 

a. With the exception of a random write, file back-up 
is utilized for those applications where either 
an entire disk is to be backed-up or a family of 
data and program files are to be backed-up. 

b. Individual file back-up is utilized where only 
individual data or program files are to be 
backed-up to tape. 

TIP supports both types of back-up requirements 
through the use of ambiguous and unambiguous file names. The 
file naming system utilized by TIP is identical with CP/M* 
and MP/M* file naming conventions. 


4-2 



4.2.3 


TIP File Name Conventions 


A file name is made up of Primary and Secondary 
names which describe the content of the file. 

a. Primary File Names — The primary name is from one 
to eight characters, which can be made up of all 
alphabetic characters, numerals and special 
characters with the following exceptions: 

<>.,;: = ?*[] 

The following are examples of valid primary names: 

ABCDEFGH A X123 A0\-"22Z 

The following are examples of invalid primary 
names : 

ABC7DEF JKL.MNO PQRSTUVWX 

b. Secondary File Names — several secondary file 
names are utilized by operating systems and 
related system software to represent standard 
types of files. The standard secondary file names 
are as follows: 

ASM An operating system assembler source file 

BAD Utilized to indicate a file which has been 
written onto a bad portion of disk media. 
Used with Winchester, hard disks to reduce 
system overhead which would occur each 
time an active file tried to utilize the 
bad media. TIP ignores all files with a 
secondary name of BAD 

BAK An operating system back-up file. Several 
programming systems generate back-up files 
during processing. This is done in case the 
working copy is accidentally destroyed the 
entire file is not lost. BAK is a default 
secondary file name. 

BAS A BASIC source file. The CBASIC* language 
compiler expects the program name to be 
followed by BAS as the secondary file name 


*CBASIC is a trade mark of Compiler Systems, Inc. 


4-3 



4.2.3 — Continued. 


COM An operating system command file. Programs 

which can be loaded directly into the system 
and executed are given the secondary file 
name COM 

INT A BASIC language intermediate file. 

Intermediate files are generated by 
compilers such as CBASIC 

SUB An operating system command list file. Piles 
which contain lists of operating system 
commands which may be executed by the user 
through the use of SUBMIT commands are given 
the secondary name of SUB 

$$$ An operating system temporary file. System 
programs which must generate temporary 
files in the course of their execution 
use the secondary file name of $$$ 

Although it is good programming practice to utilize 
these operating system default secondary names it is 
not mandatory to do so. If an installation determines 
that other secondary names are more appropriate, 
they may be used as well. 

c. Unambiguous File Names — When valid Primary and 
Secondary names are combined, they form an 
unambiguous file name. Examples of valid 
unambiguous file names are:. 

ABC. ASM 12345678. BAS A.B 

d. Group File Names — In many applications, the 
ability to refer to families of files is useful. 

For example, a diskette might contain program 
files, data files and executable load module 
files. You may wish to offload all program 

files to a back-up tape. This would be much easier 
if you could refer to all program files with a 
single name. This is accomplished through the use 
of Group File Names. In converting unambiguous 
file names to group file names which represent 
families of files, two special editing characters 
are used: 


4-4 



4.2.3 — Continued. 


? Whenever the operating system finds a 

question mark in a file name, it will 
consider any character to be a match 

* The asterisk in either the primary or 

secondary file name position tells the 
operating system to consider any primary 
or secondary name marked with * to be a 
match. 

The user's manual for your operating system gives 
examples of files using the two special characters 
described above. 


4.3 Tape Interchange Program (TIP) Operation. 

4.3.1 Invoking TIP and Entering TIP Commands with a Diskette. 


TIP is stored as a COM file and will execute under 
both CP/M and MP/M operating systems. Once the TIP diskette 
is inserted (it is issued in single density) entering TIP 
and pressing return will cause the TIP menu display. 

NOTE: A tape cartridge must be inserted before invoking TIP. 


CODE 

I 

T 

B 

R 

A 

V 

D 

ESC 


ACTION 

INITIALIZE TAPE 
RETENSION TAPE 
DISK-TO-TAPE BACK-OP 
TAPE-TO-DISK RESTORATION 
DISK-TO-TAPE APPEND 
FILE VERIFICATION 
TAPE DIRECTORY 
ESCAPE TO OPERATING SYSTEM 


This menu and the explanations given are based on version 3.3 
of TIP. Subsequent versions may contain more options or 
variations to existing options. Information on those changes, 
as they occur, will be explained in the TIP User's Instructions 
which will accompany the TIP software. Instructions on using TIP 
from a tape cartridge, which differ from those described in this 
section, will be available at a later date. 

With the menu displayed, select the option you wish 
performed, by code letter, and press return. An invalid selection 
will result in an error display and a prompt to select again. 


4-5 



4.3.2 TIP Commands. 


INITIALIZE TAPE — This function writes two file 
marks at the beginning of each of the four tracks 
of the tape. These two file mark records indicate 
that there is no data on the track. Thus the 
initialization process not only formats a new tape, 
it also erases any data previously written on the 
tape. If the tape cartridge being used is write 
protected (the "safe” write protection arrow has 
been set) the user will be prompted that the tape 
cannot be initialized. 

RETENSION TAPE — This function rewinds the tape, 
performs a high speed search to the end of the tape, 
and again performs a rewind operation. This action 
retensions the tape and will often alleviate errors 
that have occurred while using a particular tape. 

DISK-TO-TAPE BACK-UP — This function rewinds the tape 
cartridge and then prompts the user for the file name 
or names which are to be transferred from the user 
specified disk to the tape inserted. When the file 
transfer is complete, the user will be prompted for 
the next file to be transferred. No rewind action 
takes place at this time. This allows the user to 
stack files on the tape. If file transfer is 
complete, the user responds with a carriage return. 
TIP then writes two file mark records on the tape 
indicating end of data and rewinds the tape. If 
the user enters a file name or names which cannot 
be found on the disk the user will be informed by 
a screen display and prompted to select again. 

If the tape becomes full during a transfer the user 
will be informed that the tape is full. A fresh 
cartridge, which has been initialized, can be 
inserted and the file transfer can continue. This 
can be done as many times as necessary. 

DISK-TO-TAPE APPEND — This function is similar to 
a disk-to-tape back-up except that initial tape 
positioning is changed. When this function is 
invoked the tape is rewound, then read until the 
two file mark records are found. They are erased 
and the additional file or files are added to the 
tape. When the last file has been added, respond 
to the prompt with a carriage return. TIP will 
then write the two file mark records on the tape, 
and rewind the tape. When a tape becomes full, 
the procedure is the same as for disk-to-tape 
back-up. 


4-6 



4 . 3.2 


— Continued 


TAE£r-TO-DISK RESTQSATXON — This function transfers 
files from the tape to the user specified disk. 

When the files were originally backed-up from 
disk-to-tape, the disk address from which the file 
or files originated was stored as a source device 
code. For example, if the user backed-up all files 
from disk drive A, then each file would have a 
source device code of A. When restoration is 
desired, the user may be using the same disk drive 
as was used for the disk-to-tape back-up or he may 
be using a different drive. The user will have the 
option of restoring all files on the tape to the 
current disk, or restoring only those files which 
were oringinally backed-up from the current disk 
drive. *IGHORE SOURCE DEVICE CODE, Y OR N?' 

This prompt is the key. If you wish all files to 
be restored to the current disk drive and it is 
not the drive where those files originally came 
from, you would respond Y to the prompt. TIP 
would then restore all files on the tape to the 
currently used disk drive. If you respond N, TIP 
would restore only those files which originated 
on the currently used disk drive. 

FILE VERIFICATION — This function allows the user to 
compare the contents of a user specified file on 
tape to the contents of the same file on disk. Once 
both files have been identified and located, a byte 
by byte comparison is made between the two. If any 
discrepancies are found, the location of the byte 
in error and the tape and disk file byte values are 
displayed. The location of the error is supplied as 
the disk extent, record number and the number of the 
byte in error within the record. The values of the 
bytes found on the tape and disk are also displayed. 
If one file ends before the other, the remaining 
bytes in the other file are displayed, with "XX" 
being displayed as the byte value in the terminated 
file. 

TAPE DIRECTORY — This function allows the user to list 
the file names of all data and program files on the 
tape currently inserted into the unit. If the "CNTRL 
P" function is entered on the keyboard, TIP will 
echo the directory to the printer as well. 


4-7 



4 . 3 . 3 . 


TIP File Name Parameters 


For Disk-to-Tape, Tape-to-Disk and File Verification 
operations, the user is prompted for the file or 
files that are to be acted upon. The format for 
user response is: 

FILE NAME: 

[Source/Destination Disk Drive: 1 file. name (s) [MP/M User Number] 

INPUT DESCRIPTION 

I 

Disk Drive This optional input specifies 

the source or destination disk 
drive. For back-up operations 
this input specifies the disk 
drive on which the data files 
are to be found. For restore 
operations this input specifies 
the disk drive to which the 
files are to be transferred. 

For file verification operations 
this input specifies two criteria 
which must be met. First, the 
file on tape must match exactly 
the name specified including the 
disk drive specified during the 
back-up or append operation. 
Second, if the disk drive is 
specified then the disk file to 
be compared is presumed to be 
located on the specified disk 
drive. The format for the disk 
drive specification is the drive 
letter followed by a colon. 
Example: Es 

If no disk drive entry is made 
the currently logged drive is 
used by default. 


FILE-NAME The file name indicates the 

or files to be backed-up 
or restored by TIP. As described 
earlier, file names may be 
Group or Unambiguous file 
names. 


4-8 



4.3.3 


— Continued 


CP/M or MP/M When TIP is used under either 

CP/M or MP/M operating systems, 
the user may specify that the 
files to be backed-up or 
restored must reference a 
specific user number. If no 
user number is specified then 
the current user number is 
used as the default value. An 
asterisk (*) indicates that 
all user numbers meet the match 
criteria. The entry requires that 
an opening bracket ([), letter 
G, user number or *, and closing 
bracket (] ) be used. Example: 

[G0] . This would indicate 
user 0. 

4.3.4 TIP Back-up and Restore Function Examples. 


4. 3. 4.1 Back-up Example. 


In this example the user wishes to back-up all data 
and program files for an application called PAYROLL to the tape 
cartridge. The application programs are located on the floppy 
diskette in drive B. All of the program file names begin with 
PAY and are followed by other identifiers such as INP, OUT, with 
a file type of 'INT'. Example: PAYOUT. INT 

All of the data files reside on the Winchester Hard 
disk and have a secondary file name of FIL. 

Example: PAYDATA.FIL 

The tape cartridge is new and has been inserted into 
the unit. The sequence is as follows: 

With TIP residing on currently logged 
drive enter TIP (press return) 

Screen Displays: (based on version 3.3 TIP) 


CODE: 

I 

T 

B 

R 

A 

V 

D 

ESC 


ACTION: 

INITIALIZE TAPE 

RETENSION TAPE 

DISK TO TAPE BACKUP 

TAPE TO DISK RESTORATION 

DISK TO TAPE APPEND 

FILE VERIFICATION 

TAPE DIRECTORY 

ESCAPE TO OPERATING SYSTEM 


4-9 



4. 3. 4.1 — Continued 


User Inputs: 

I (press return) tape is initialized 

B (press return) 

Prompt: FILE NAME: 

B:PAY*.INT (press return) files are backed- 

up from disk to tape 
and screen will 
display each file 
name as it is copied 


data files from hard 
disk are backed-up 
to tape 


end of data marks 
written to tape 
and tape is rewound 

Now the user discovers that there is an additional 
file which must be added to the tape. The name of the additional 
file is PAYROLL. ERR and it currently resides on the logged-on 
drive. The user will re-insert the tape cartridge, invoke 
TIP, press return, and from the menu: 

enter A (press return) 


Prompt: FILE NAME: 

PAYROLL. ERR (press return) 


Prompt: FILE NAME: 
(press return) 


invoke the append 
function 


the additional file 
will be appended to 
the end of the tape 


this will cause the 
end of data marks 
to be placed at the 
end of the new file 
which was added 


Prompt: FILE NAME: 
E:*,FIL (press return) 

Prompt: FILE NAME: 
(press return) 


4-10 



4. 3. 4.1 


— Continued. 


To obtain a printed list of the directory of the 
tape, the user will enter a ''P before invoking the directory 
command, D. After the directory has been displayed and printed, 
tne user will press return to execute a warm boot and 
return to operating system control. 

4. 3. 4. 2 Restoration Example. 


A problem with the payroll system has developed. 
The TAXES. FIL file has been inadvertently destroyed on the 
disk and must be restored from the tape. The sequence, once 
tne proper cartridge has been inserted into the unit is: 


TIP (press return) 

Menu is displayed 
R (press return) 

Prompt: FILE NAME: 

TAXES. FIL (press return) 
PROMPT: IGNORE SOURCE DEVICE 


invoke TIP 


invoke tape-to 
disk restoration „ 

A. 

~ -a ( / <_5>>s5-w- 

G : -ir. 06 f Cc-i^ 


G:- 

Cr ■ 


^'S 


If you want restoration of this file to be from tape 
to the currently logged-on drive, and the file was originally 
backed-up from the same drive, respond with either Y or N. 


If you want restoration of this file to be from tape 
to the currently loggeo-on drive, and the file was not originally 
backed-up from tne same drive, respond with Y. 


If you want restoration of this file to be from tape 
to the drive (disk) from which it was backed-up, and that drive 
is not the currently logged-on drive, respond with N. Restoration 
will be from tape to the drive from which the file was originally 
backed-up. 


This next situation is one in which the user 
discovers that ail files have been lost on the disk and a total 
restoration is necessary. Regardless of which drive was used 
as tne originating drive to back-up the files, the user wants 
the whole tape restored to drive F. The sequence is as follows: 


4-11 



4. 3. 4. 2 


— Continued. 


Invoke TIP (press return) 

R (press return) Invoke tape-to 

disk restoration 


Prompt: FILE NAME: 
F:*.* (press return) 


Prompt: IGNORE SOURCE DEVICE CODE, Y OR N? 


Y (press return) 

Prompt: FILE NAME: 
(press return) 


the entire tape will 
be restored to 
drive F 


control returned to 
operating system 


4. 3. 4. 3 File Verification Example. 


In this example the user has made some recent changes 
to a data file called MASTER. FIL. Tne user is not certain if the 
tape file has been backed-up since the last changes were made to 
the disk file. The original back-up was made from drive E. 


Invoke TIP (press return) 
menu display 
V (press return) 

Prompt: FILE NAME: 

MASTER. FIL (press return) 
Display: FILE NOT FOUND ON 


Prompt: FILE NAME: 


Invoke Verification 


Specifying file to be 
compared 

TAPE 

user forgot that the 
source drive was 
made a part of file 
name. Accurate file 
name was E: MASTER. FIL 


E:MASTER.FIL (press return) 


4-12 



4. 3. 4. 3 — Continued. 

Display: FILES BEING VERIFIED TIP will compare the 

file on tape with the 
file on drive E since 
it was specified as 
the source device 
drive 

Display: FILES VERIFY! The files did match. 

Had they not matched 
a display would have 
shown the addresses 
where mis-matches 
occurred 

Prompt: FILE NAME: 

(press return) return to operating 

system control 


4. 3. 4. 4 CP/M and MP/M User Examples. 

Prompt: FILE NAME: 

PAYROLL. *[G*] This entry will result in 

all files with a primary 
name of PAYROLL to be 
backed-up regardless of 
their secondary names. 

It also results in those 
files being backed-up 
regardless of user number 

Prompt: PILE NAME: 

*.ERR[G1J All files with a secondary 

name of ERR from user 
number 1 will be backed- 
up 


4-13 



4.3.5 


TIP Use Considerations. 


The TIP program can utilize multiple tape cartridges 
to store ail of tne back-up files specified by the user. The TIP 
program utilizes end-of-data and end-of-tape markers which 
indicate whether the current tape cartridge contains the last 
file or whether additional cartridges were utilized. No tape 
labels are generated by TIP nor is the identification of the 
user who did the back-up operation revealed. No information 
concerning how many tapes make up a file are listed by TIP. 

It is highly recommended that gum tape labels be 
used to label each cartridge as it is used. The date that the 
back-up was performed, who performed it, system configuration 
and any other relevant information should be placed on the 
label. 


4. 3. 5. 2 Documenting Back-up/Restore Operations. 


Tne capabilities of CP/M and MP/M allow all output 
lines sent to a user terminal to be echoed to the system 
printer. On some operating systems this is done directly, while 
on others, spooler action captures the output lines and causes 
tne print action to occur later. 

ALTOS recommends the use of Control P (''P) 
to engage the printer while using TIP. Within TIP ''P 
can be entered at any time except in response to the command 
menu. This is the normal approach with CP/M. 

TIP does cause a reduction in performance when 
operating under MP/M. Under MP/M it is necessary to mask the 
I/O interrupts while TIP is actively accessing the tape 
cartridge. This requirement has two major effects; 

a. The MP/M time-of-day clock does not operate 
while TIP is actively transferring data to the 
tape, thus the clock will be "slow" after TIP 
has been utilized. 

b. The performance of individual users in a multi- 
user environment will be substantially affected. 
In a four user system each user could experience 
a degradation of performance of up to 50%. 

One way to minimize the effect of TIP in MP/M systems 
is to creace a single user MP/M system disk which contains TIP 
and is only used for TIP operations. This will substantially 
reduce the amount of degradation and will also keep other users 
from accessing and altering data files which are being backed- 
up on tape. 


4-14 



4.4 TIP Tape Recording Procedure. 


The TIP system writes files to tape in blocks of 
8,208 bytes. Contained within this block is a 16 byte tape 
control block (TCB) , which contains information describing the 
file. The file data consists of from one to sixty four 128 byte 
sectors as copied from the disk. If a file is over 64 sectors 
in length, TIP will write additional tape blocks until all of 
the file has been copied. 

TIP utilizes the standard end-of-tape convention of 
two file mark records on tracks 1, 2 and 3 to indicate that the 
tape unit should rewind and continue on the next track. An end- 
of-tape indication on track 4 signals that there are additional 
tape volumes within the back-up/restore operation. TIP's end- 
of-data indication is a file mark record followed by a blank 
record and two additional file marks. When TIP encounters the 
end-of-data condition on a restore operation, it indicates to 
the user, by display, that the task has been successfully 
completed. 


The Tape Control Block format is as follows; 


US FI F2 / / F8 T1 T2 T3 00 LB SD RC 

00 01 02 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 

US The CP/M and MP/M User Number which 

ranges from 00 to OF. If no user 
number was specified the current user 
is used as the default user number 

F1-F8 Primary file name in upper case ASCII 

T1-T3 Secondary file name in upper case ASCII 

LB Last block indicator 

SD Address of the disk drive from which 

this data file was backed-up. The 
value ranges from 0 to F which would 
indicate disk drives from A to P 

RC The number of 128-byte sectors which 

are contained in the 8192 byte block. 
This value ranges from 1 to 64. If the 
file does not utilize the entire tape 
block then TIP fills the unused portion 
of the tape block with OOH 


4-15 (4-16 Blank) 



5. 


ERROR CODES, TROUBLESHOOTING AND PROBLEM DIAGNOSIS. 


5.1 Tip Error Conditions. 


The error conditions encountered by TIP fall into 
2 categories : 

a. User errors-specifying incorrect file names, 
incorrect spelling, improper format when 
entering commands 

b. Tape media or tape unit problems-f ound by TIP 
and not allowing TIP to properly perform a 
valid user command 

5.2 File Specification Errors. 


If a user specifies an invalid file name, TIP 
will respond with tne display; FILE NAME BAD, REENTER. If the 
user enters a file name that does not exist, TIP will display 
FILE NOT FOUND. 

5.3 Inadequate Diak Space During Restore. 


If an attempt is made to restore files to a disk 
that does not have sufficient space, TIP will inform the 
user that restoration is being aborted and return to the 
command menu. It is up to the user to ensure that sufficient 
space is available. If an abort occurs, the user must insert 
a new cartridge and restore, selectively, those files which 
were not restored on tne previous cartridge. 

5.4 'Full Tape Cartridge' Conditions. 


TIP allows the user to back-up files to as many tape 
cartridges as necessary. When multiple tape back-up files are 
restored, TIP performs error checking to catch instances where 
the tapes have been inserted into the tape unit out of sequence. 
Tne display; UNEXPECTED END OF DATA indicates that a sequence 
error has occurred. The user should restart the restore operation 
using tne proper sequence of tapes. The same display can occur 
if the user extracts a tape from the unit while the unit is 
attempting to back-up or restore a file or set of files. When 
that tape is re-inserted at a later time, the tape is rewound, 
but no end-of-tape or end-of-data marks are placed on the 
tape since it was pulled from the unit prematurely. 

5.5 Tape Media and Tape Unit Malfunctions. 


TIP recognizes three error conditions that generally 
indicace problems with the tape cartridge, tape unit or the 
TIP software itself. TIP provides two types of error messages. 


5-1 



5.5 


continued 


A general error code provides a broad indicator of the type of 
error which has occurred. A specific sub-error code provides 
additional information as to the cause of the error. 

5.5.1 General Error Codes. 


5. 5. 1.1 TAPE COMMUNICATIONS ERROR, SYNTAX REJECT WITHIN TIP 


This error code indicates that an invalid set of tape 
movement commands were sent to the tape control unit by TIP. The 
user should assume that the TIP.COM file has been compromised and 
should go back to the original distribution diskette of TIP and 
re-load TIP to see if the problem occurs again. 

5. 5. 1.2 TAPE ABORT ATTEMPT WITH ATTEMPT 


This error code indicates that an unrecoverable error 
condition has occurred and that the tape media was moved. This 
means that after 16 retries the tape unit was unable to complete 
the requested operation. On a back-up operation this error 
generally indicates bad media. A sub-error code will also be 
displayed. During a restore operation this general error code 
display means that after 16 tries tne block of data still could 
not be read. Since the inability to read data is expected only 
once every 100 million attempts, the error code generally 
indicates a tape media or tape unit problem. 

5. 5. 1.3 TAPE ABORT WITHOUT ATTEMPT 


This error code indicates that an error has occurred 
without the tape moving. Generally, another message would 
follow. One common occurrence of this error display is when the 
user invokes TIP without having the tape cartridge inserted in 
the unit. Sub-error codes are generally included with any major 
error display. 

5.5.2 Sub-error Codes. 


Following the general error code display TIP 
will provide sub-error codes which provide more detailed 
information about the error condition. 

SUB- ERROR CODE MEANING & SUGGESTED SOLUTION 


00 The tape drive has executed an auto- 

matic rewind since the last TIP command 
was issued. Return to the command menu 
and proceed with the knowledge that 
the tape is already rewound. 


5-2 



5.5.2 


continued. 


01 


02 

03 

04-05 

06 


07 

08 


09 


10 

11 


12 


A write operation was requested to a 
write protected cartridge. Use of a 
non-write protected cartridge is 
required. 

A TIP command was issued with no tape 
cartridge inserted into the unit. 

The tape unit did not respond to a 
valid command. This is generally caused 
by a hardware failure. 

Not used 

The Read-af ter-Write circuity indicates 
an error in attempting to write a file 
mark record. The tape should be re- 
initialized, the tape re-tensioned and 
re-try the operation. If the same 
failure occurs, try a new cartridge. 

The tape unit aborted prior to 
completion of a valid command. This 
generally indicates a hardware failure. 

A read command failed due to missing 
data or file mark record. This is 
usually caused by bad tape media. If 
the same problem occurs with a new 
cartridge, suspect a hardware failure. 

A read command failed due to a "short" 
record being encountered. Ensure that 
the tape being read was created using 
TIP. Cause could be bad tape media or 
a hardware failure. 

Same as 09 sub-error code. 

A read command failed due to bad 
vertical parity. This is generally 
caused by bad tape media. If the error 
occurs with different tapes, suspect 
a hardware defect. 

A write command failed due to a read- 
after-write verification error. Re- 
tension the tape and try the operation 
again. If problem persists, suspect 
hardware defect. 


5-3 



5.5.2 


— continued 


13 A write command failed due to a read 

data indicator not being detected prior 
to the write operation being completed. 
This is generally caused by bad media. 
Proceed as in sub-error code 12 above. 

14 A read command failed due to a file 

mark being detected. This is generally 
caused by bad tape media. Proceed as in 
sub-error code 12 above. 

5.5.3 Error Analysis. 


When a problem develops with operations involving 
the tape unit, the first step in troubleshooting the problem 
is to make a dtermination as to whether the problem is with 
tne user making bad input commands r tape media or hardware 
failure. When the user is Informed that an error has occurred, 
the tape unit has already attempted recovery. For any Read or 
Write operation, the unit has attempted 16 retries. When attemp- 
ting a Write operation, the unit, during each retry, will advance 
the tape 3 inches to bypass possible bad media. If all 16 retries 
failed this would mean tne tape unit had bypassed 48 inches of 
bad tape. This is highly unlikely unless the whole cartridge is 
in fact defective. 

The tape unit utilizes three major design approaches 
to insure the ability to read data: 

a. Reads eacn block as it is being written using a 
trailing read head. 

b. Advances the unit past suspected bad media when- 
ever write errors occur. 

c. Uses a precise and clean signal during write 
operations. The read-after-write function is 
done with a 3db reduction in read head signal 
strength. This is done so that if the read- 
after-write operation is successful then later 
read only operations should occur without any 
difficulties. 

5.5.4 Tape Unit Status Codes. 


The tape unit returns two status codes at the 
completion of every operation requested by a program. One 
status code is for the tape drive and the other is for the 
tape interface. These status codes inform the calling program 


5-4 



5.5.4 


— Continued 


whether the requested operation was completed successfully 
as well as the ending condition of the tape media. The 
status codes are returned in the form of two status bytes 
as follows: 

DRIVE STATUS BYTE INTERFACE STATUS BYTE 

Bit 7 Reserved 
Bit 6 Data Block Available 
Bit 5 Command 

Bit 4 Status 

Bit 3 Current 

Bit 2 Drive 

Bit 1 Current 

Bit 0 Track 

The format of the Status bytes is as follows: 


Bits 



The status codes returned by tne drive are the 
hexadecimal representation of the Drive and Interface Status 
Bytes. Depending upon the type of operation requested by the user 
more than one indicator may be ON within the status byte. For 
example, if the tape drive was powered-oh and a tape cartridge 
was loaded at the beginning of the tape, the Drive Status Byte 
would be 15. The 10 bit indicates that tne drive is on and 
loaded, the 04 bit indicates that the tape is at the beginning 
and the 01 bit indicates that the tape is not write protected. 

The user should break the status codes into their component 
parts. The meaning of each bit in the status byte is defined 
below. 


DRIVE STATUS DEFINITION 

Bit 7 Reserved. This bit is reserved for 

later use. It is always set to 1. 

Bit 6 File Mark Detected. Whenever the tape 

unit detects a file mark record on the 
tape, this indicator is set. 


Bit 7 Reserved 
Bit 6 File Mark Detected 
Bit 5 Drive Rewinding 
Bit 4 "On" And Loaded 
Bit 3 Beginning Of Tape 
Bit 2 End Of Tape Warning 
Bit 1 Auto Rewind Executed 
Bit 0 Write Enabled 


5-5 




5.5.4 


— Continued. 


Bit 

Bit 

Bit 

Bit 2 
Bit 1 

Bit 0 

INTERFACE 
Bit 7 


i Drive Rewinding. The tape unit is in 

the process of a high speed rewind. 
This flag stays set until rewind is 
complete. 

[ On and loaded. The tape unit is 

powered-on and a tape cartridge has 
been inserted into the unit. 

i Beginning of tape. The loaded tape 

cartridge has been rewound and is at 
the beginning of tape. When a rewind 
occurs, the tape is rewound to the 
beginning of tape and then advanced 
to the load point. This bit shows that 
the tape is at the load point. 

End of tape early warning. The tape 
unit has detected the early warning 
hole in the tape, indicating that 
approximately 48 inches of tape 
remain before the physical end of 
tape cartridge. Only file mark write 
operations are permitted when this 
flag is set. The flag is reset when 
the tape is rewound. 

Warning flag. Since the last operation 
the tape drive has executed an auto- 
matic rewind. This is caused by taking 
the cartridge out of the unit and then 
re-inserting it again. The program 
must recognize that positional 
integrity of the tape has been lost, 
and that no operations which assume 
a tape location will provide expected 
data. 

Write enabled. This flag tells the 
program whether the tape cartridge 
has the 'safe' indicator ON, 
indicating the cartridge is write 
protected. If this bit is set to 1 
the cartridge is not write protected. 

STATUS DEFINITION 


Reserved. This bit is reserved for 
later use. It is always set to 1. 


5-6 



5.5.4 


— Continued 


Bit B 


Bits 5 & 4 


Bits 3 & 2 


Bit 1-0 


Data Block available. A tape read or 
search operation has been successfully 
completed and the data is available to 
be read into the control unit buffer. 

Command status. These bits indicate 
the results of every tape operation. 
The return codes are; 

00 - Operation Successful 

01 - The operation was aborted 

without tape movement. 

01 - Read operation aborted after 
16 retries 

11 - The specified input parameters 
requesting an operation were 
invalid. This is usually a 
programming error. 

Current tape drive. The tape unit 
allows up to 4 tape units to be daisy 
chained on the same data bus. These 
bits indicate the selected drive. 
Presently, only 1 MTU is available 
to the user. These bits are thus 
always set to 00 indicating 
drive 1 is selected. 

Current track. These bits indicate 
which of the current tracks is being 
accessed. When the end of a track is 
encountered the tape unit automatical- 
ly rewinds the tape cartridge and 
selects the next track, unless the 
tape was already on track four. The 
bit indications are as follows; 

00 - track 1 

01 - track 2 

10 - track 3 

11 - track 4 


5.5.5 Error Recovery Techniques. 


Always suspect the obvious. Clean the tape unit, try 
a different tape, retension the tape, check the error codes. 

This will solve many read and write problems. Tape errors caused 
by media problems usually result from the way the tape is stored. 
Heat and humidity will greatly increase the incidence of tem- 
porary and permanent tape related errors. A good example of this 


5-7 



5 . 5.5 


— Continued. 


is the manufacturer's statement that a minimum of 8 hours is 
necessary for a tape to become 'acclimated' to a new operating 
environment after the tape has been transported from one location 
to another. Another cause of media problems is tape the being 
wound onto a cartridge with variable tensions. If all of your 
attempts fail, note all of the symptoms, note ail the actions 
that you took and call your distributor for assistance. 


5-8 



6 . 


STAND-ALONE MAGNETIC TAPE CARTRIDGE BACK-UP UNIT 
(MTU-IJ WITH ACS8000 COMPUTERS. 


6.1 8200-CPU PCB and MTU-1. 


The MTU-1 package provides the components necessary for 
modifying ail the ACS8000 systems built on the 8200 chassis. 

ACS8000 computers built on the 8000 or the 8100 chassis can not be 
field upgraded to support the ALTOS Tape Subsystem. MTU-1 contains 
the following items: 

• MTU-1 Chassis Containing the Mag Tape Drive, 

#530-10809 

• Tape Controller Printed Circuit Board (PCB) , 

#330-10265 

• 50-pin Internal Tape Interface Connector Cable, 
#510-10529 

• Connector Caole with 37-pin Connector on 

one end, and a 34-pin Connector and a Pig-tail 
6-pin Connector on the other end, #510-10292 

• 50-pin Interconnect Cable Assembly, #510-10513 

• 37-pin Interconnect Cable Assembly, #510-10286 

• Power Cord, #230-10233 

• Floppy Diskett Containing TIP and TIP Manual, 
#580-10825 

• Blank Magnetic Tape Cartridge, #180-10267 

6.1.1 Installation of the MTU-1. 


Follow the procedure below when installing the MTU-1: 

a. With the power off, lay the ACS8000 on a flat 
working surface. Loosen the six screws that secure 
the top cover. Remove the top cover from the 
computer. 

b. Refer to Figure 6-1 for circuit chips and connector 
locations of the 8200 PCB for the steps below. 

c. Remove the Z80 CPU chip at location 14M. Be 
careful that no pins are bent in this operation. 

d. Place the Z80 CPU chip in the Tape Controller PCB. 
The notched end should be toward the embossed 
letters "CPU". 


6-1 







Figure 6-1 8200 PCB with Tape Controller PCB Mounted 






6 . 1.1 


— Continued 


e. Locate and remove the white six-wire power connector; 
it is to tne left of Matrix position 13K on the 

8200 CPU PCB (See Figure 6-1). 

f. Install the Tape Controller PCB onto the 8200 

chassis in location 14M. The PCB makes two 
interconnections on the 8200 chassis: 

1. The pins on the PCB will mate with the 40 
pin socket at location 14M 

2. The pins from which the plastic connector 
was removed in step (e) above will mate 
with the 6 pin connector on the 8200 

PCB when placed properly. 

g. Insert the white six-wire power connector removed 
in step (e) above onto the six-pin connector on the 
rear of the Tape Controller PCB at P2. The red 
wire of the connector should be on the right when 
viewed from the front of the 8200 PCB. Be sure 
the lip on the connector securely inter-locks with 
the lip on the Tape Controller PCB. 

h. Remove the 50-pin rear panel additional disk 
connector (Figure 6-2) from the 8000 computer 
and from the header at J2 of the 8200 PCB 
(Figure 6-1) . Save the hardware for next step. 

i. Attach the 50-pin ribbon cable supplied with 
the Tape Controller to the rear panel of the 
8000 computer at tne additional disk connector 
shown in Figure 6-2 and secure it with the hard- 
ware from step (h) above. 

j. Attach the other end of the 50-pin ribbon 

cable connector to the Tape controller PCB at PI. 

The red stripe along one side of the ribbon should 
be on the right side of the connector when viewed 
from the front of the 8200 board. 

k. Remove the 37-pin cable slot from the Parallel 
Port slot on the rear panel of the 8000 computer 
(See Figure 6-2); remove tne other end of the cable 
connector (34-pin) from the header at J4 on the 8200 PCB. 
Save the hardware for the next step. 

l. Attach the 37 -pin slot end of the con- 
nector cable supplied with the MTU-1 to the 
parallel port slot on the rear panel of the 8000 
computer and secure it with the screws from 
step (k) above. 


6-3 



CONSOLE CONNECTORS 



Figure 6-2 Rear Panel of ACS8000 Computer 


6-4 




6 . 1.1 


— Continued 


m. Connect the 34-pin end of the connector cable 
onto the header at J4 on the 8200 PCB. Connect 
the 6-pin pig-tail to the six-pronged plug on 
the Tape Controller PCB at P3. The pigtail 
connector is keyed and can only go in one way. 

n. Attach the 50-pin interconnect cable from 

the ACS8000 (additional disk) connector to the 
rear of the MTU-1 chassis. It is the only 50- 
pin connector on the MTO-1 rear panel. 

o. Attach the 37-pin interconnect cable from 

the ACS8000 Parallel Port Connector to the rear 
of the MTU-1 Chassis it is the only 37-pin 
connector on the rear panel. 

p. Replace the cover of the ACS8000 computer and 
tighten the six screws on that hold the cover 
in place. 

q. Install the power cord supplied with the MTU-1. 

r. Switch on the computer and the MTU power switch. 

s. Insert the tape cartridge. The front panel should 
be lit and the tape should rewind to the beginning 
of tape. 


6-5 




mt KSMoreiiMmics/AccuMcst 


DESCRIPTION 


PART NO. 


MATERIAL 


MANUFACTURER 


LIST OF MATERIAL 


UNLESS 

OTHERWISE SPECIFIED 

DIMENSIONS ARC IN INCHES 


TOLERANCES 

FRAC. 

DEC. ANSLES 


.XX tjOt t^/2 

.XXX S.OlO 


SIGNATURES 






PROPRIETARY NOTICE 


XENTEK INCORPORATED 

San Marcos, California 


PO\/J£2 SUPPLY 
2CNEMATIC 


ALL PATENT on OTMCT PnOPBiETARY RIGHTS 
PEBTAIHiHG TO THE fTEMS SOLO HEREUH, 

OER SHALL BEMAIH THE SOLE PnOPERTY OF ICOOE IDENT SIZE 
XENTEK SNCORPCflATED EXCEPT THAT THE I 

PURGHAStB small have THE RIGHT TO USE { 532 / Q D 
SUCH ITEMS FOR their iNTENOeO PURPOSE 


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