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MARCH 1988 


Micro Systems 

, VARs & OEMs A CAHNERS PUBLICATION 

, Exploding 


Connectivity 

Strategies: 

Hardware OEMs 
turn to third ' 
parties \\ \ 

The DEckpille 
alliance 


C and T 

brings PS/1 


lones home 







HAYES ANN 

TECHNOLOGICAL 
MODEMS THAT IM 

It’s long been thought that even the best of technology eventually 
becomes obsolete. A notion that we at Hayes could never really understand. 
And certainly never accept. So in defiance of it, we created the V-series 
Smartmodem 960CT'and V-series Smartmodem 2400.'Modems that actually 
get better as they get older. Because they not only incorporate the most intel¬ 
ligent features found in modems today they also possess the capability to 
provide a long-term growth path into the communications environments of 
tomorrow. 

V-SERIES SMARTMODEM 9600 

This is the fastest modem we’ve ever made. It can send and receive data 
at 9600 bps and with adaptive data compression achieve an effective 
throughput of up to 19.200 bps. Point-to-point error control, forward error 
correction and data flow control ensure that data gets there accurately. 

The V-series Smartmodem 9600 also comes with automatic feature 
negotiation, a self-operating capability that analyzes all options for modem 
link and then selects the optimum feature set with any Hayes modem for the 
most efficient transmission at the highest shared speed. 

Synchronous and asynchronous communications modes as well as 
simulated full-duplex employing advanced CCITT V32 
trellis code modulation and fast turnaround 
ping-pong technology are also part of the 
package. Plus you’ll get the capability to link 
up with a range of networks, including SNA. ^ 

And soon V-series technology will offer an 
X.25 PAD option to further accommodate net¬ 
work environments of today. And the future. 


y 3 i 

Smartmodem 9600 

0 Hayes 


HS AA 


(0 1988 Hayes Microcomputer Products. Inc. PO. Box 105203 Atlanta. GA 30348 



OUNCES A 
CONTRADICTION: 
PROVE WITH AGE. 

V-SERIES SMARTMODEM 2400 

With adaptive data compression this modem can achieve an effective 
throughput of up to 4800 bps. Of course, it too offers point-to-point error 
control, data flow control, automatic feature negotiation and synchronous as 
well as asynchronous communications modes. And like the V-series 
Smartmodem 9600, it can link up with a wide range of networks, such as 
SNA, and be enhanced with an X.25 PAD option. 

V-series modems come in stand-alone versions and internal versions 
(V-series Smartmodem 9600B''and V-series Smartmodem 2400B 1 '). Internal 
versions are bundled with our powerful new Smartcom III 1 'communications 
software. 

And as yet another rebuttal to the argument for obsolescence, we 
developed the V-series Modem Enhancer!' 1 A separate stand-alone device that 
will upgrade current Smartmodem 1200'' and Smartmodem 2400'" external 
modems to the new standards set by the V-series products. 

A closer look at the V-series product line will reveal to you a revolu¬ 
tionary technology designed to be the beneficiary of time, not its victim. 

So contact your Hayes Advanced System Dealer or call 
800 - 635-1225 for the one nearest you. 



CIRCLE NO. 1 ON INQUIRY CARD 



Why doesn’t your wife 
smell better? 


m^There’s a subtle difference 
between $65 a quarter ounce and 
$65an ounce. Affording that dif¬ 
ference simply means seizing an 
opportunity. 

Your Arrow rep. 

Use his expertise and re¬ 
sources, and the rewards may 
be anything but subtle. 

Mike Bott is one example. 

Mike’s customer entered a 
multi-million dollar government 
bid that, in part, called for several 
laser printers. After talking with 
Arrow’s technical support team 
and evaluating the industry’s 
largest roster of printers, Mike 
recommended a Dataproducts® 
LZR 1230. He then secured one 
for the final demo stage of the bid. 
The bid was awarded to Mike’s 


customer. 

With a printer order worth 
$175,000. 

Why not let your Arrow rep 
help you seize an opportunity? 

Ask him about the Dataproducts 
LZR 1230 laser printer, it supports 
up to ten workstations and prints 
up to 12 pages per minute. 

If you have a nose for the 
finer things in life, call your 
Arrow rep. He has the answers. 


ARROW ELECTRONICS, INC 


COMMERCIAL 

SYSTEMS DIVISION 

NORTHEAST: 

MID-ATLANTIC: 

Joe Garofolo 

Pete Vescovo 

800-221-2490 

800-237-2357 

(Inside MA) 
800-382-5713 

(Inside NY) 

800-826-6295 

(Outside MA) 

(Outside NY) 

NORTHWEST: 

MID-AMERICA: 

Kathy Degnon 
800-325-3329 

Bob Berger 
800-228-2370 

(Inside CA) 

(Inside OH) 

800-523-2278 

800-851-8880 

(Outside CA) 

(Outside OH) 

SOUTHEAST: 

HEADQUARTERS: 

Dave Miller 

Elena Santini 

800-422-9924 

516-391-1762 

(Inside GA) 
800-241-5840 

(Inside NY) 

800-323-4373 

(Outside GA) 

SOUTHWEST: 

(Outside NY) 

Shirley Shepherd 
800-824-4366 
(Inside CA) 
800-824-1404 


(Outside CA) 



Afwn/u 


CIRCLE NO. 57 ON INQUIRY CARD 



Mini-Micro Sysieaui 

A CAHNERS PUBLICATION VOL. XXI NO. 3 MARCH 1988 


■ INTERPRETER 

Chips fall into place for IBM PS/2 compatibles .12 

OEM-built systems will outperform IBM PS/2 


Apple, DEC set stage for mutual system integration 22 

Mac-to-VAX connectivity key to DEC’S OSI strategy 

■ FEATURES 

Exploding five myths about ISDN . . . cover story 33 

Don’t let uncertainty about prices and international squabbling over 
standards confuse you. ISDN is coming. And you’ll have to deal with it. 



Mini-Micro Systems 


Exploding 
ISDN Myths 


Connectivity 

Strategies: 


Hardware OEMs 
turn to third 
parties \\ \ 


The DEC Apple 
alliance N 


p. 33 . Exploding ISDN Myths. 

Art direction by Mary Anne Ganley. 


Software links multivendor networks .43 

SNA? OSI? TCP/IP? Hardware OEMs and system integrators turn to 
independent software vendors for help with multivendor connectivity 


Disputes shake up 2,400-bps modem market .59 

MNP Class 5 data compression boosts modem throughput, whereas 
Class 4 error correction stirs controversy 


Nelson Benchmark tells the whole story .77 

The Neal Nelson Business Benchmark yields results for each test, rather 
than distilling results into a single ‘magic’ number 



p. 43 . Connectivity for OEMs 


□ TECHNOLOGY ’88 PRODUCT PERSPECTIVES 

Perpendicular recording increases data density .85 

by Eric Katz and Richard Brechtlein, Censtor Corp. 


New Products: Disk Drives.91 

□ DEPARTMENTS 

Editorial Staff.4 

Breakpoints.7 

Index to Advertisers .98 

Mini-Micro Marketplace.99 



KEEPING AMERICA 


COMPETITIVE 

p. 12 PS/2 clones are coming 


Cahners Publishing Company, A Division of Reed Publishing USA I Specialized Business Magazines for Building & Construc¬ 
tion I Manufacturing U Foodservice & Lodging □ Electronics & Computers □ Interior Design □ Printing □ Publishing □ 
Industrial Research & Technology □ Health Care fl Entertainment. Specialized Consumer Magazines: American Baby □ 
Modern Bride. 

MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS'"(ISSN 0364-9342) is published monthly by The Cahners Publishing Company, A Division of Reed 
Publishing USA, 275 Washington Street, Newton, MA 02158-1630. Terrence M. McDermott, President; Frank Sibley. Group 
Vice President; Jerry D. Neth, Vice President/Publishing Operations; J.J. Walsh, Financial Vice President/Magazine Division; 
Thomas J. Dellamaria, Vice President/Production and Manufacturing. Circulation records are maintained at Cahners Publishing 
Company, 44 Cook Street, Denver, CO 80206-5191. Telephone (303)388-4511. Second-class postage paid at Denver, CO 
80206-5191 and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address corrections to MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS" at the Denver 
address. MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS 1 "'copyright 1988 by Reed Publishing USA; Saul Goldweitz, Chairman; Ronald G. Segel, 
President/C.E.O.; Robert L. Krakoff, Executive Vice President; William M. Platt, Senior Vice President. Annual subscription 
rates for non-qualified people: USA, $65 per year; Canada/Mexico, $80; other countries, $105 per year for surface mail. Single 
copies of issues are $10. Please address all subscription mail to Sherri Gronli, 44 Cook Street, Denver, CO 80206-5191. 


© 1988 by Cahners Publishing Company, Division of Reed Publishing USA. All rights reserved. 



^BPA ABP 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


3 































STAFF 


Vice President/Publisher 

Donald Fagan 

Chief Editor 

Tim Scanned 



Enables you to quickly 
and efficiently deliver 
interactive voice 
applications to your 
customers. 


The nitaAudioboard PC-compatible 
peripheral card puts you to work in 
the productive MS/PC-DOS marketplace. 
nitaTools software, with its full function 
C-language interface, lets you develop 
targeted, high-fidelity voice applications 
while shortening your development cycle. 
And as a nitaOEM, you’re backed by a 
comprehensive support program that 
includes extensive documentation and 
technical assistance. 

Call Innovative Technology today-your 
business partner in delivering today’s most 
advanced interactive-voice solutions. 




INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY INC 

1000 Holcomb Woods Parkway, Suite 422 
RO. Box 767370, Roswell, GA 30076 

404 - 998-9970 

nita and iti are registered trademarks of Innovative Technology, Inc 


Managing Editor 

James F. Donohue 

Technical Editor 

George V. Kotelly 

Senior Editor: David Simpson 
Irvine, (714) 851-9422 
Senior Editor: Mike Seither 
San Jose, (408) 296-0868 

Senior Editor: Doug Pryor 
Senior Editor: Joseph P. Lerro Jr. 
Senior Editor: Dennis Livingston 


Associate Editor/Research: Frances Michalski 
Staff Editor/New Products: Megan Nields 
Editorial Assistant: Petina Doddy 

Contributing Editors 

Andrew Allison 

Mini/Micro Computer 
Product and Market Consultant 
Raymond C. Freeman Jr. 

Freeman Associates 
Charles LeCompte 
Datek Information Services 
(617) 893-9130 

Special Features Editor: Wendy Rauch-Hindin 
Dix Hills, N.Y. 

(516) 667-7278 

Gene R. Talsky 

Professional Marketing Management Inc. 
Edward Teja 
Freehold Corp. 

Editorial Production 

Chief Production Editor: Arsene C. Davignon 
Copy Editor: Brian Gardner 

Editorial Services 
Terri Gellegos 

Assistant to the Publisher: Sharon M. O’Connell 
Art Staff 

Senior Art Director: Mary Anne Ganley 
Assistant Art Director: William B. Reilly 
Artist: Amy Finger 

Director of Art Dept.: Norm Graf 

Production Staff 

VP Production: Wayne Hulitzky 
Director/Production: John Sanders 
Supervisor: William Tomaselli 
Production Manager: Joshua Levin-Epstein 
Composition: Diane Malone 


Editorial Offices 

Boston: 275 Washington St., Newton. MA 02158, 
(617) 964-3030. Irvine: 18818 Teller Ave., Suite 170. 
Irvine, CA 92715. Los Angeles: 12233 W. Olympic 
Blvd., Los Angeles, CA 90064. San Jose: 3031 
Tisch Way, San Jose, CA 95128. 


Reprints of Mini-Micro Systems articles are available 
on a custom printing basis at reasonable prices in 
quantities of 500 or more. For an exact quote, contact 
Katie Pyziak, Cahners Reprint Service, Cahners 
Plaza, 1350 E. Touhy Ave., Box 5080, Des Plaines, IL 
60018. Phone (312)635-8800. 


CIRCLE NO. 3 ON INQUIRY CARD 


4 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 










CLEARPOINT 


Only one vendor delivers all your 
workstation memory needs 


♦ Superior Performance ♦ Lifetime Warranty ♦ 24 -hour-a-day Support 


Memory is critical— 
don’t settle for less. 
Clearpoint’s workstation 
memory consistently out¬ 
performs system vendor 
offerings with: 

♦ innovative design 

♦ superior reliability 

♦ highest density 

♦ round-the-clock support 

♦ unconditional lifetime 
warranty 

Backed by state-of-the-art 
engineering, manufactur¬ 
ing and QA testing, 
Clearpoint memory 
makes the most of work¬ 
station performance. 


DEC 

MicroVAX 2000- 
Compatible 



The MV2000/16 MB* 
nearly triples the density offered 
by DEC. Achieve identical 
processor and memory 
performance to the full 
configuration MicroVAX II 
—at half the cost! 

MicroVAX H- 
Compatible 

The MV2RAM/16 MB* 
places the full system memory 
capacity on one board. Designed 
to run cooler and draw less 
power for maximum board life 
and reliability, the MV2RAM 
supports jumperless addressing 
and parity error checking. 



SUN 

Sun 3/2XX and 
4/2XX-Compatible 



The SNX2RAM/32 MB* 
delivers the Sun 3/2XX system 
maximum on a single board. It 
also offers the enhanced 
functionality of a micro- 
processor-managed "on-board 
hotline” for local and remote 
diagnostics. 

Sun 3/lXX-Compatible 

The SNXRAM* fits up to 
28 MB in just one slot, freeing 
four slots for peripherals. Using 
the latest one megabit DRAMs, 
you get the highest density plus 
increased reliability. 


Sun 3/60-Compatible 



The SNX60, comes in 4 MB 
SIMM sets that upgrade your 
Sun 3/60 to an expansive 
24 MB. Each SIMM is one MB 
of reliable Clearpoint memory 
with a 1 megabit DRAM to 
support parity checking. 

VME 

For VMEbus local 
memory or RAM disks 

Offering maximum flexibility, 
the VMERAM supports 
24 and 32 bit addressing and 
8, 16 and 32 bit data transfers. 
Compatible with VMEbus 
Rev.C specs, the VMERAM is 
available in 16, 8, 4 or 2 MBs. 


APOLLO 

DN 4000-Compatible 



Bring your DN 4000 up to its 
32 MB capacity with the 
DNX4RAM* Available in 
8 MB boards, Clearpoint’s cost- 
effective memory provides 
Apollo-equivalent performance 
with lifetime product support. 


DN 3000-Compatible 

The economical 1 or 2 MB 
DNXRAM memory offers 
Clearpoint’s quality engineering 
and manufacturing with 
performance identical to Apollo. 

IBM 


RT PC-Compatible 



Supporting the upgraded RT 
models 6150 and 6151, the low- 
cost RTRAM is available in 
4 or 8 MB boards. 



♦AVAILABLE IN OTHER SIZES 


Clearpoint is a registered trademark of Clearpoint 
Research Corporation. DEC, MicroV \X 2000, 

MicroVAX U are trademarks of Digital Equipment 
Corporation. Sun is a trademark of Sun Microsystems 
Inc. DN3000, DN4000 and Apollo are trademarks of 
Apollo Computer. IBM, RT PC are trademarks of 
International Business Machine Corporation. 

CIRCLE NO. 4 ON INQUIRY CARD 



CLEARPOINT 


Clearpoint Research Corp. 

99 South Street 

Hopkinton, MA 01748-2204 
1 - 800 -CLEARPT ( 617 ) 435-2000 
Telex: 298281 CLEARPOINT UR 
Clearpoint CANADA 416-620-7242 
Clearpoint EUROPE b.v. 31-23-273744 
Clearpoint ASIA 03-221-9726 








WHO DRIVES 
THE BN5 BOYS 
TO WORK? 





Rodime. The driving force behind the leaders. And it's 
no wonder. Rodime has been giving driving lessons and 
setting the pace year after year. 

With the first 3.5" disk drive. 

With the first 3.5" with an embedded SCSI controller. 
With the first 90 and 180 megabyte 5.25" half heights. 
With a high performance 8" SMDE drive for 
demanding storage needs. 

No line of drives is more reliably engineered and more 
complete than Rodime. That's why the big boys take them 
to work for every driving need. You can take them to work 
too. And you don’t have to wait. 

Because Rodime is shipping right now. 

So if you want to drive like the best, get the best. 
Rodime drives. The largest capacities and the fastest 
speeds. 

The real drive behind the leaders. 


RQDIME 

Moving towards the speed of mind. 


8000 Series* 
8" Form Factor 
740MB, SMDE 


5000 Series* 

5 l A" Half-Height 
90-180MB, 

SCSI, ESDI, ST506 


3000Series* 3 l /2 n Form Factor 
55-130MB, SCSI, AT, ST506 


Rodime, Inc. 

29525 Chagrin Blvd., Pepper Pike, Oh 44122,216-765-8414 

Rodime PLC, 

* ah drive capacities are unformatted. Nasmyth Road, Southfield Industrial Estates, Glenrothes KY6 2SD, Fife, Scotland 


CIRCLE NO. 5 ON INQUIRY CARD 





















BREAKPOINTS 


SAME NAME, DIFFERENT GAME FOR VAR-ANGLED MS-DOS 

Having made its mark in the PC-compatibility market with its IBM BIOS, 
Phoenix Technologies Ltd., Norwood, Mass., is extending its reach into the 
operating systems reseller arena with the acquisition of Paterson Laboratories 
Inc., Redmond, Wash., formerly a division of Microsoft Corp. Phoenix will this 
month begin distributing copies of Microsoft’s MS-DOS operating system, along 
with the Phoenix BIOS, to independent PC VARs, corporate VARs and others 
who are not yet big enough to foot the multimillion dollar OEM bill tacked on 
by Microsoft. Paterson now ships about 20,000 copies of its DOS/BIOS each 
month, a number that Phoenix hopes to double with its added influence. The 
single-quantity price for the repackaged DOS is about $85, with discounts for 
multiple copies .—Tim Scannell 

INTEL PREPARING TO SHIP OEM SYSTEMS BUILT AROUND IBM PC/AT-BUS 

Watch for the OEM Systems Division of Intel Corp., Hillsboro, Ore., to get into 
the IBM Corp. PC/AT-compatible business. The $300 million operation sells a 
variety of board-level products and systems for the real-time market. The move 
will pit Intel against some of its biggest customers of 80286 and 80386 
processors. Intel’s value-added is a worldwide force of field applications engi¬ 
neers, a heavy industrial distribution network and extensive customer train¬ 
ing services, according to company officials. Among the first of the new OEM 
systems built around the AT bus will be an 80386 system running at 25 
MHz .—Mike Seither 

APOLLO TOUTS DOMAIN/OS AS FIRST DISTRIBUTED UNIX 

Apollo Computer Inc., Chelmsford, Mass., claims its Domain/OS is the first 
distributed version of the UNIX operating system. But VARs and OEMs are 
more pleased by the fact that Domain/OS incorporates three operating systems: 
AT&T Co.’s UNIX System V Release 3, Berkeley UNIX Version 4.2 and Aegis, 
Apollo’s proprietary version of UNIX. “When it comes to software enhance¬ 
ments, nothing beats having three operating systems to give your program¬ 
mers flexibility,” says a West Coast VAR. Apollo says Domain/OS permits users 
of Apollo workstations to share files and resources across a network. Support 
for network functions like print serving and file sharing is included. Availabil¬ 
ity is slated for the second quarter .—Jim Donohue 

TOSHIBA UNLEASHES SG-BYTE OPTICAL DRIVE 

When Toshiba America Inc., Irvine, Calif., announced its 12-inch WM-S500 
optical disk drive at last fall’s Comdex show, the write-once drive held 4G 
bytes. Now, the company claims 5G bytes of storage, with unit shipments 
scheduled for next month. The higher capacity is due to increased recording 
density from 13,000 to 15,000 bpi, as well as utilization of more disk space. 
Other key specs include a 160-msec average seek time, and a 4M- to 8M-bps 
transfer rate via the SCSI interface. The drive costs $13,995 .—Dave Simpson 

UNISOFT AND ADVANCED MICRO DEVICES TEAM UP, TARGET WORKSTATIONS 

In a development that essentially says “move over” to Sun Microsystems 
Inc.’s SPARC chip, Unisoft Corp., Sunnyvale, Calif., has begun to port its UNIX 
System V.3 operating system, UniSoft+, to Advanced Micro Devices’ (Berkeley, 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


7 





BREAKPOINTS 


Calif.) Am29000 RISC microprocessor. The two companies say the integrated 
hardware and software will he available during the fourth quarter. The joint 
agreement, according to John East of AMD’s logic group, “will provide momen¬ 
tum for the Am29000 in the competitive engineering workstation and multi¬ 
processing markets.” As a result of this tandem, system integrators and OEMs 
will find another RISC-based option for the next generation of platforms.— 
Doug Pryor 

HEW APPLE LASERWRITERS BOAST EXPANDABILITY 

Apple Computer Inc. of Cupertino, Calif., has come out with three new 
upgradable versions of its pacesetting LaserWriter printers. Similar products 
based on the Canon USA Inc. SX print engine are upgraded by adding boards 
and font cartridges to an otherwise unchanged motherboard. But Apple and 
Canon, Lake Success, N.Y., have added a special card cage to the LaserWriter II 
line that permits removal of the entire motherboard. Besides adding memory, 
system integrators can change the architecture of the machine. Prices for the 
models SC, NT and NTX are $2,799, $4,599 and $6,599 respectively. —Charles 
LeCompte 

NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR ANNOUNCES NEW MEMBER OF CHIP FAMILY 

National Semiconductor Corp., Santa Clara, Calif., has announced availability 
of its 20-MHz CMOS-programmable DP8500 Raster Graphics Processor (RGP) for 
bit-mapped graphics systems. The new chip joins National’s Advanced Graphics 
Chip Set (AGCS), a family of VLSI building blocks for video graphics and 
printer applications. According to Roger Reak, director of graphics marketing, 
“The RGP and AGCS chips provide the highest level of graphics performance 
and resolution available on commercial chips, yet their pricing and modular 
architecture make them cost effective for low- and high-end systems.”— Jo¬ 
seph P. Lerro Jr. 

INTERPHASE TARGETS CONTROLLER AFTERMARKET FOR SUN WORKSTATIONS 

Interphase Corp., the Dallas-based manufacturer of VMEbus controllers, has 
started a service dedicated to providing OEMs with high-performance add-in 
boards for Sun Microsystems Inc. workstations and servers. The first product 
under that strategy is the Interphase 4400 Phoenix, a controller packaged on a 
standard Sun card that supports up to four SMD or SMD-E disk drives. The 
Phoenix 4400 uses high-speed memory FIFOs and a packetizing scheme to 
move data over the VMEbus at rates exceeding 30M bytes per second. Evalua¬ 
tion units of the 4400 Phoenix cost $3,350 and come with boot ROMS, installa¬ 
tion software, a queuing driver and other utilities .—Mike Seither 

PTI PITCHES 102M-BYTE, 3Vs-INCH WINCHESTER 

Joining Connor Peripherals Inc. in the lOOM-byte, 3V2-inch Winchester club, 
Peripheral Technology Inc. (PTI), Simi Valley, Calif., next month begins ship¬ 
ping the PT 4102R, which has an unformatted capacity of 102M bytes. The 
four-platter, $829 drive has an average access time of 35 msec and an ST506/ 
412 interface. An IBM Corp. PC/AT-compatible version (PT 4102A, $909) and a 
SCSI version (PT 4102S, $909) are due in May .—Dave Simpson 


8 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 





ROCKWELL 

MODEM TECHNOLOGY 
MAKES 144 Kbps 
A REALITY 


Rockwell International, 
the world leader in modem 
technology and products, 
brings you the new standard 
in high speed modem com¬ 
munications. Now you can 
enter the 14.4 Kbps/V 33 
market quickly and effi¬ 
ciently with Rockwell’s 
R144DP and R144HD. These 
world class 14,400 bps OEM 
modem products let you 
offer your customers relia¬ 
ble, low-cost solutions, and 
they are backed by a full 
five-year warranty 

This new 14.4 Kbps 
modem family is the latest in 
Rockwells leading R-series 
modems. The R144DP is the 
V33/V29 product offering 
which complements our 
R96DP and R48DP/208 
high speed modems. And 
the R144HD is compatible 
to the R96E the standard 
for facsimile modems. 

With a long history of 
commitment to quality relia¬ 
bility and customer service, 
Rockwell stands behind its 
products with its five-year 
warranty policy. 


To find out how you can 
be a major player in the 
growing 14.4 Kbps market, 
contact: 

Semiconductor Products Division 

Rockwell International, PO. Box C, 

M S. 501-300, Newport Beach, CA 92658-8902 
(800) 854-8099. In California, (800) 422-4230. 
Or contact the Rockwell area office nearest you: 

Santa Clara, CA USA (408) 980-1900 
Marlton, NJ USA (609) 596-0090 
Tokyo, Japan 81 3 -265-8808 
Hounslow, England 44-1-577-2800 


Rockwell 

International 


.. where science gets down to business 

Aerospace / Electronics / Automotive 
General Industries/A-B Industrial Automation 


% 




CIRCLE NO. 6 ON INQUIRY CARD 




The new COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/20 


The world now has two new 
benchmarks from the leader 
in high-performance personal 
computing. The new 20-MHz 
COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/20 and 
the 20-lb., 20-MHz COMPAQ 
PORTABLE 386 deliver system 
performance that can rival 
minicomputers'. Plus they intro¬ 
duce advanced capabilities 
without sacrificing compatibil¬ 
ity with the software and hard¬ 
ware you already own. 


Both employ an industry- 
standard Intel* 80386 micropro¬ 
cessor and sophisticated 32-bit 
architecture. Our newest porta¬ 
ble is up to 25% faster and our 
desktop is actually up to 50% 
faster than 16-MHz 386 PC's. 
But we did much more than 
simply increase the clock speed. 

For instance, the COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386/20 uses a cache 
memory controller. It comple¬ 
ments the speed of the micropro¬ 


cessor, providing an increase in 
system performance up to 25% 
over other 20-MHz 386 PC's. It's 
also the first PC to offer an op¬ 
tional Weitek™ Coprocessor Board, 
which can give it the performance 
of a dedicated engineering work¬ 
station at a fraction of the cost. 

They both provide the most 
storage and memory within their 
classes. Up to 300 MB of storage 
in our latest desktop and up to 
100 MB in our new portable. 


It simply works better. 



















most powerful PC's 
and off. 




and the new 20-MHz COMPAQ PORTABLE 386 


Both use disk caching to inject 
more speed into disk-intensive 
applications and both will run 
MS* OS/2. 

As for memory, get up to 16 MB 
of high-speed 32-bit RAM with 
the COMPAQ DESKPRO 386/20 
and up to 10 MB with the COMPAQ 
PORTABLE 386. Both computers 
feature the COMPAQ* Expanded 
Memory Manager, which supports 
the Lotus'/InteP/Microsoft* Ex¬ 
panded Memory Specification 


to break the 640-Kbyte barrier 
imposed by DOS. 

With these new computers 
plus the original COMPAQ 
DESKPRO 386™, we now offer 
the broadest line of high- 
performance 386 solutions. 
They all let you run software 
being written to take advantage 
of 386 technology, including 
Microsoft® Windows/386 Presen¬ 
tation Manager. It provides 
multitasking capabilities with 


today's DOS applications to 
make you considerably more 
productive. But that's just the 
beginning. For more informa¬ 
tion, call 1-800-231-0900, 
Operator 43. In Canada, call 
416-733-7876, Operator 43. 


Intel, Lotus, Microsoft, and Weitek are 
trademarks of their respective companies. 
©1987 Compaq Computer Corporation. 
All rights reserved. 


CO/JIPAO? 







INTERPRETER 


KEEPING AMERICA 

COMPETITIVE 



Chips fall into place 
for IBM PS/2 compatibles 


Mike Seither, Senior Editor 

If imitation is a form of flattery, 
then at least two companies in Cali¬ 
fornia’s Silicon Valley are laying it on 
thick. 

In January, Adaptec Inc., Milpitas, 
and Chips and Technologies Inc., San 
Jose, announced that together they 
have developed the key pieces that 
will allow OEMs to build IBM Corp. 
PS/2-like systems. These systems not 
only will be 100-percent compatible 
but also will offer higher performance 
than IBM’s PS/2 models 50, 60 and 
80 machines. 

Both Adaptec and Chips and Tech¬ 
nologies have worked for some time 
on the PS/2 compatibility project. 
The result: Chips and Technologies 
now has chip sets that mimic the core 


logic of the PS/2 as well as the Video 
Graphic Array (VGA), IBM’s new an¬ 
alog display technology. 

Adaptec has developed disk drive 
controllers and host bus adapters that 
will allow system integrators to attach 
drives with the small computer sys¬ 
tems interface (SCSI) to IBM’s Micro 
Channel, the backbone of the PS/2 
machines. To date IBM has not of¬ 
fered SCSI support for the PS/2. 

Another company that has made 
significant inroads into PS/2 cloning 
is Western Digital Corp., Irvine, 
Calif. Last year, the company an¬ 
nounced CPU board-level products 
that mimic the PS/2 models 25, 30, 
50 and 60 systems, including core 
logic chip sets, disk controllers and a 
video graphics controller. Western 
Digital also announced a series of 


add-in boards that duplicate the func¬ 
tions of the Micro Channel. 

Also playing in the clone game with 
Adaptec and Chips is quasi-develop¬ 
ment partner Phoenix Technologies 
Ltd., Norwood, Mass. This company 
supplies the ROM-based basic input- 
output system (BIOS) for PS/2 com¬ 
patibles. For the last several weeks, all 
these companies have been on a 
worldwide road trip telling OEMs 
and systems integrators their story. 
Here’s what they’ve been saying: 

The Chips and Technologies’ 
CHIPS/250 chip set recreates IBM 
PS/2 models 50 and 60, but with 
fewer components—68 for Chips 
compared to 119 for IBM. While 
models 50 and 60 now support only 
the 10-MHz version of Intel Corp.’s 
80286 CPU, systems using CHIPS/ 
250 components can use the 80286 
running at 16 MHz and 20 MHz. 

The CHIPS/280 chip set is for com¬ 
panies building systems compatible 
with the PS/2 Model 80, which uses 
Intel’s 32-bit 80386 processor. 
CHIPS/280 uses 66 components to 
build a motherboard, compared to 
179 for the Model 80. Chips claims 
that this level of integration will let 
OEMs build compact 32-bit systems 
to fill the gap in the PS/2 line between 
the desktop Model 50 and the floor- 
standing Model 80. 

What’s more, Chips and Techno¬ 
logies supports “matched memory cy¬ 
cles” for Model 50 and Model 60 
compatibles. IBM uses this scheme 
only in the Model 80 to get around 
the limitations of the 10-MHz Micro 
Channel while not “violating” the 
specifications of the bus. Add-in 
memory cards using this method have 
four additional pins that carry control 
signals, shortening memory access 


PIECES IN THE COMPATIBILITY PUZZLE 



SOURCE: CHIPS AND TECHNOLOGIES INC 


12 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 

































































time from 300 nsecs to 187.5 nsecs. 
That means OEMs can offer Model 
50 and Model 60 clones that have 50 
percent greater memory throughput 
than comparable IBM machines, ac¬ 
cording to Chips. 

For PS/2 Model 80 clones, Chips 
says it beats IBM at the matched- 
memory game by a margin of 33 
percent for 20-MHz machines—that 
is. Chips’ “fast” cycle is 150 nsecs, vs. 
200 nsecs for IBM. This system relies 
on configurable registers and most 
likely will be used by large OEMs who 
design their own memory add-in 
cards and bundle them in the clone. 

A discrete goodbye 

Both CHIPS/250 and CHIPS/280 
are built around an asynchronous di¬ 
rect memory access (DMA) controller 
that Chips claims will allow OEMs to 


“fine tune” their I/O systems to take 
full advantage of the Micro Channel. 
According to Chips’ engineers, IBM 
appears to have implemented a syn- 


Both Adaptec and Chips 
and Technologies have 
worked for some time on 
the PS/2 compatibility 
project. 


chronous DMA scheme that runs at 
either the same speed as, or half the 
speed of, the CPU clock in order to 
stay within the 10-MHz bounds of the 
Micro Channel. 

With a 10-MHz CPU, for example, 
IBM and Chips-based clones would 
have an equal DMA performance of 
10 MHz. But with a 12-MHz CPU, 
IBM systems would have a DMA 


speed of 6 MHz; with a 16-MHz 
CPU, IBM systems run at 8 MHz. On 
the other hand, Chips says that its 
asynchronous DMA clips along at a 
steady 10 MHz, regardless of CPU 
speed. 

Two other features round out 
Chips’ value-added offerings in both 
of its chip sets. First are mapping 
registers that support the Lotus/Intel/ 
Microsoft (LIM) Extended Memory 
Specification 4.0. Each task, or appli¬ 
cation, running under Microsoft 
Corp.’s Windows 2.0 can have its own 
lM-byte register. That provides fast 
context switching between applica¬ 
tions under Windows. 

Second, Chips has added four pro¬ 
grammable decoders that let OEMs 
avoid adding discrete logic devices to 
control such things as panel lights, 
password control and networking 


INTERVIEW: CHIPS AND TECHNOLOGIES INC. 


Answers in the chips for IBM PS/2 compatibility 


When IBM Corp. unveiled its Per¬ 
sonal System/2 series of computers 
last April, it made two things very 
clear to the competition. 

First, because of the complexity of 
such things as the high-end PS/2's 
Micro Channel, clone-makers would 
find it difficult to make a less expen¬ 
sive duplicate system. It would also 
take some time, possibly a year or two, 


to develop such a system without get¬ 
ting snagged on the myriad of patents 
and proprietary secrets that were em¬ 
bedded in the new IBM series. 

Second, if anyone should duplicate 
the PS/2 systems and the Micro Chan¬ 
nel, then IBM would use all of its legal 
clout to nab those who had violated 
even the slightest patent, be it an IBM 
patent or the patent of some other 


manufacturer who contributed to the 
system design. In fact, IBM president 
William Lowe himself said IBM 
would not tolerate those who chose to 
illegally ride on IBM’s coattails. 

Despite these warning shots fired 
across the bows of clone makers, the 
PS/2 lookalikes are here. In January, 
Chips and Technologies Inc., Adaptec 
Inc. and others debuted the working 



“Our design allows OEMs to get into a lower footprint board. That's a less 
expensive solution compared to IBM which is using twice as many signal 
chips," says Sikander Naqvi of Chips and Technologies. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


13 


















HardCopy 

vs. 

Easy Copy 
Easy Copy 
Easy Copy 



Together, we can find the answers. 


Honeywell 

* Vcrsatec is a trademark of Versatec. Inc. CIRCLE NO. 7 ON INQUIRY CARD See Us at NCGA, Booth #1028 © 1988 Honeywell Test Instruments Division 








































INTERPRETER 


KEEPING AMERICA- 

COMPETITI\E 


MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS 


CHIPS AND TECHNOLOGIES' PS/2 ALTERNATIVES 


CHIPS/250 CHIPS/280 

Function (IBM Models 50/60) (IBM Model 80) 


System Logic 

CS8225 

CS8238 

Graphics 

82C451/2 

82C451/2 

COMM/FD/IO 

82C607 

82C607 

Micro Channel 

Adapter Interface 

82C6XX 

82C6XX 


Source: Chips and Technologies Inc. 


support. These signal lines can be 
programmed from the BIOS. 

Count on color 

Finally, the CHIPS/450 graphics 
family provides two levels of support 
for IBM’s VGA. The two controller 
chips in the family, the 451 and 452, 
are pin-compatible, allowing OEMs 
to design one board and upgrade it, 
depending on the performance re¬ 
quirements of their market. The 451 


INTERVIEW: 

CHIPS AND TECHNOLOGIES INC. 


pieces of a PS/2-compatible system 
that are available to OEMs and sys- 
tem integrators. At that time, they 
promised that functioning system 
would be available within a month. 
Not only would they be 100 percent 
compatible with IBM PS/2 systems 
but they would also be less expensive 
and more powerful than IBM PS/2 
machines. 

Recently , Mini-Micro Systems 
talked to Chips and Technologies prod¬ 
uct marketing manager Sikander 
Naqvi about the company's PS/2 chip 
sets, which are the heart and soul of 
the new generation of IBM-compati- 
bles. Taking part in the interview were 
editors George Kotelly, James Dono¬ 
hue, Doug Pryor and Megan Nields. 
Following are excerpts of that inter¬ 
view. 

MMS. What precautions has IBM 
taken with its PS/2 systems to make it 
difficult to copy their design? 

Naqvi. If you look into the PS/2 
families, they have done exactly what 
they did in mainframes in terms of 
the proprietary nature of the hard¬ 
ware and the software. They are also 
doing their own internal design at the 
chip level, at the software level and 
even at the manufacturing level. For 
example, PC/ATs were usually manu¬ 
factured outside, but this is the first 
time they have integrated almost 
everything from chips to the operat¬ 
ing system software all internally. 
This is nothing different, if you com¬ 
pare that to their mainframes. 

MMS. What kind of problems have 
these proprietary roadblocks created 


for you? 

Naqvi. Our efforts had to change, 
too. When we started out, we looked 
at the overall system and basically 
decided there would be two different 
solutions to the problem: one in the 
hardware, and one in the software. 

They are very tightly coupled be¬ 
cause that’s how they [IBM] have de¬ 
veloped their system. So, when we 
designed the system about nine or 10 
months ago, we started by tying all 
the systems logic into the main moth¬ 
erboard logic. On the mass-storage 
side we started talking to Adaptec, 
Phoenix Technologies [Ltd.], and 
SCO [The Santa Cruz Operation] for 
the XENIX side, because we’d like to 
have XENIX on the machines. 

We also had extensive discussions 
with Microsoft Corp., because now 
the operating system is very tightly 
coupled to the hardware. In planning 
the hardware, you have to understand 
the software, and who would know 
more about software than Microsoft? 

MMS. Have you talked to IBM at 
all? 

Naqvi. We have talked to IBM to 
the extent that they know exactly 
what we have been doing. We have 
kept them abreast of all our develop¬ 
ment activities and will address the 
legal issue later. In fact, we have been 
talking with them extensively over the 
last six months at every level. 

MMS. Do you feel that IBM is in 
any way actively trying to stop sys¬ 
tems makers from producing PS/2 
clones? 

Naqvi. Every indication we have is 
that they are not out there to stop 
somebody from doing it. They want 
to control it this time, unlike the 
situation they had with their PCs. 


And they will control it through li¬ 
censing. 

MMS. What exactly have you de¬ 
veloped? 

Naqvi. We have two distinct solu¬ 
tions, one for the Model 50 and one 
for the Model 80, each comprised of 
the graphics, systems logic and hard¬ 
ware. Basically, we are putting all the 
pieces together right now which allow 
compatible manufacturers to have a 
100 percent compatible machine by 
just going to us and Adaptec. 

We designed the whole system be¬ 
fore we actually started on the actual 
chip design. What that means is that 
all the subsystems are really a collec¬ 
tion of tightly coupled chips. For ex¬ 
ample, there are seven chips for our 
Model 50. 

MMS. How are you positioning 
your system against IBM? 

Naqvi. This product is really targeted 
toward a hole we see in IBM’s prod¬ 
uct line between the Model 50 and the 
Model 80. Our customers will be able 
to come up with a Model 80 machine 
with the same footprint, or a lot 
smaller, than the Model 50. It will 
also be a real high-performance, 
20-MHz machine. 

At the same time, we are coming 
out with another chip set that puts the 
performance well above the Model 
80. So, we’re trying to squeeze them 
from both sides, one from the low end 
which can be put on a desktop, and 
one from the higher-end which is a 
cache-based system. 

MMS. In what ways does your de¬ 
sign benefit the OEM customer? 

Naqvi. What we want to bring to 
our OEM customer is essentially the 
same as in the past. Our machine 
would have to clearly be a better per- 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


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CIRCLE NO. 9 ON INQUIRY CARD 








INTERPRETER 



KEEPING america- 
CQMPETITIVE 


has control signals for the IBM PC, 
PC/AT and Micro Channel. The 452, 
a superset of the 451, supports 256 
colors in 640-by-480 resolution mode 
(IBM offers 16 colors) and 16 colors 
in 960-by-720 mode (IBM has four 
colors). 

The 452 also runs a graphics cursor 
and has a scheme to move blocks of 
text around quickly via hardware as¬ 
sist. Chips claims its VGA controllers 
offer six to seven times the perfor¬ 


mance of IBM’s. The reasons: a 16-bit 
VGA interface, vs. an 8-bit interface 
for IBM, and direct access to the CPU 
controller, giving Chips a 187.5-nsec 
cycle vs. a 300-nsec cycle for IBM. 

For its part, Adaptec is bringing out 
three rigid disk controllers and a pair 
of Micro Channel-to-SCSI host bus 
adapters for the PS/2. For models 50, 
60 and 80, Adaptec has a pair of 
controllers for drives with the ST506 
interface. The company claims the 


MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS 

controllers, the ACB-2610 and the 
ACB-2670, can burst data at transfer 
rates of 10M bytes per second, com¬ 
pared with IBM’s 3.3M bytes per sec¬ 
ond. 

The controllers also feature a read- 
ahead cache that loads a buffer with 
sector information beyond the origi¬ 
nal request. Adaptec believes this fea¬ 
ture will show noticeable perfor¬ 
mance increases, not so much for 
single-user applications as for multi- 


INTERVIEW: 

CHIPS AND TECHNOLOGIES INC. 


forming machine than IBM’s—not 
marginally better, but clearly a better 
machine than IBM’s. Also, in order to 
compete in this marketplace, you 
have to make sure that the cost factor 
is such that they [OEMs] can come 
out with a machine that can be priced 
below IBM’s. These two recipes 
haven’t changed in the PS/2 market. 

MMS. Why exactly is your system 
much cheaper than IBM’s? 

Naqvi. Our design allows them 
[OEMs] to get into a lower footprint 
board. In turn, that’s a less expensive 
solution compared to an IBM which 
is using twice as many signal chips. 
With the reduction in chip count, and 
the way we have packaged them, and 
the way we are pricing it, we know our 


customers can build a system which 
can effectively compete with IBM. 

MMS. What other benefits does 
your system solution offer besides a 
lower price tag? 

Naqvi. IBM’s PS/2s now have a 
standard clock rate of 10 MHz and 
offer a one-wait-state operation, and 
that’s really much like the way they 
have done in the past. It’s not surpris¬ 
ing coming from IBM. However, the 
machine we have designed is going to 
operate at 16 MHz today, and the 
whole architecture is designed for 20 
MHz. We have reason to believe that 
20 MHz will eventually be a standard. 
We also have less than one wait-state 
in this system, less than IBM’s. 

At every level our effort has been to 
optimize more performance, while at 
the same time keep the cost factor in 
our minds since those are the two 
things that make our OEMs compete 


in the marketplace. 

MMS. What about the design of 
IBM’s Micro Channel? Has it pre¬ 
sented any technical problems for 
you? 

Naqvi. We believe the Micro Chan¬ 
nel IBM has designed is very slow for 
the Model 50, so we have imple¬ 
mented what we call “bank memory 
timing.” Because of this mass memo¬ 
ry timing, our bus bandwidth is at 
least 60 percent faster than IBM’s, 
even at 10 MHz. Typically their 
Micro Channel cycle time is 300 nsec; 
ours is 200 nsec. In most applications, 
you probably won’t notice the signifi¬ 
cant improvement until you start ac¬ 
cessing your hard disk or you try to 
send something over a Token Ring or 
an Ethernet card. Then you will see 
the advantage of this wider band¬ 
width. 

Once you combine the Micro 
Channel bandwidth improvement 
and the system memory ... the real 
performance benefit of ourl6-MHz 
system is twice that of the IBM Model 
50. Even at 12 MHz, it’s at least 30 to 
40 percent better than IBM’s. I don’t 
think anyone will be designing a 
10-MHz system. It has to be either 12 
MHz or 16 MHz. 

MMS. The obvious question, of 
course, concerns compatibility. Just 
how compatible are your PS/2 alter¬ 
natives? 

Naqvi. Compatibility, as far as 
we’re concerned, is where we start. 
It’s not something we do as another 
feature. We take it for granted that it 
will be 100 percent compatible. In 
this case, however, compatibility 
wasn’t as easy as in the case of the 
IBM PC. IBM hasn’t published any 
schematics for the PS/2 or for its 



Mini-Micro Systems editors team up to question Chips and Technologies 
about its PS/2 chip sets. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


19 







INTERPRETER 


MICROCOMPUTER SYSTEMS 


KEEPING AMERICA 

COMPETITIVE 


user programs under UNIX and 
XENIX, where data is retrieved from 
storage in large blocks. The ACB- 
2610 uses the modified frequency 
modultation (MFM) scheme, while 
the ACB-2670 uses run-length limited 
(RLL), an encoding method that 
squeezes 50 percent more capacity 
from standard ST506 drives. 

At the high end, Adaptec’s ACB- 
26M20 is for drives using the en¬ 
hanced small device interface (ESDI). 


Like its ST506 cousin for the PS/2, 
the ESDI controller supports a bus 
transfer rate of 10M bytes a second 
and can operate two 780M-byte ESDI 
drives. IBM’s Model 80 top-end ESDI 
drive stores 314M bytes. 

Adaptec hopes to makes a big 
splash with its AHA-1640, a SCSI 
host bus adapter that can run a varie¬ 
ty of SCSI devices (magnetic and op¬ 
tical disk drives, tape drives, scanners 
and printers) off the PS/2 Micro 


Channel. 

The AHA-1640 features a bus 
transfer rate of 8M bytes a second 
(compared to 3.3M bytes a second for 
IBM). According to Adaptec, in 
multitasking operations the host 
adapter can handle up to 255 tasks at 
a time, vs. only 3 simultaneous tasks 
for the IBM Model 80. In addition, 
the adapter supports synchronous 
and asynchronous peripherals con¬ 
currently. □ 


INTERVIEW: 

CHIPS AND TECHNOLOGIES INC. 


BIOS [basic input-output system], so 
it was difficult to know how to go 
about being compatible. 

Our solution is to be 100 percent 
gate-level compatible with IBM. In 
fact, we are so compatible with IBM 
that when we build a machine, we can 
take the IBM PROM [programmable 
ROM], put in into our system and 
then boot it up from the IBM PROM. 
That’s where we started. We have also 
added a number of enhancements 
that are built into our system. Since 
they are not there in IBM’s PROM at 
boot-up time, the system goes 
through the BIOS to turn them on. 
Aside from these enhancements, how¬ 
ever, the [boot-up] default is identical 
to IBM’s, so there is no question of 
compatibility at boot-up time. 

MMS. In designing your systems, 
you have had the opportunity to 
closely examine IBM’s PS/2 design 
and system logic. What are some of 
your findings? 

Naqvi. We’ve found some very in¬ 
teresting things. For example, IBM 
hasn’t augmented and is not even 
using quite a few things that are there 
in the chips, which gives us an indica¬ 
tion that they may have some secret 
development programs. 

This is a benefit to us, since we have 
taken these unused registers and have 
tailored the BIOS from Phoenix 
[Technologies Ltd.] to take advantage 
of that. 

MMS. Any idea what these hidden 
registers are being reserved for by 
IBM? Are they suitable for graphics 
or communications or database? 


20 


Naqvi. In some cases, we know that 
these things they are not using are 
suitable for graphics. And, on the 
logic side, they are mostly related to a 
bigger DMA [direct memory access] 
bandwidth and a larger address space 
for DMA. Other areas are more re¬ 
lated to how you discover when you 
have a physical error in the system. 

MMS. When you say you’ve found 
some undocumented DMA registers, 
what do you think that suggests about 
the addition of smart controllers and 
multiprocessors. Do you expect a 
multiprocessor machine from IBM? 

Naqvi. What [IBM] has put in there 
are mainly some generic enhance¬ 
ments. But the higher DMA band¬ 
width would definitely be a help in 
multiuser applications. 

MMS. What about your relation¬ 
ship with IBM. Is it strictly verbal or 
legal, or do you have some other ar¬ 
rangement? 

Naqvi. We have been talking with 
IBM through our lawyers for the last 
six months, and we continue talking 
with them. They know exactly what 
we have done. Basically, we deal with 
IBM as a customer or, rather, a poten¬ 
tial customer—even if they are not a 
customer. On the legal side we have 
worked along with IBM. Our point 
has been that we are not going to 
violate anybody’s right to intellectual 
property. 

MMS. What about recent disclo¬ 
sures that Computer Automation 
[Inc.] retains some key patents on the 
Micro Channel, and that IBM li¬ 
censes these patents from them? Does 
that make things more difficult for 
you? 

Naqvi. I think what it indicates is 
that all the pieces are falling into 


place right now. Most of it has to do 
with the status of these patents. 

MMS. In the event you are wrong, 
and clone-makers make a PS/2 with 
your chips and IBM sues, are they 
going to be the one held accountable 
in court? More important, is there the 
possibility they can be found guilty of 
patent infringement? 

Naqvi. What we’re telling all our 
OEM manufacturers is go tell IBM 
what you are going to do. Tell them 
exactly what you are doing, and ask 
them what are the legal obligations 
before announcing anything. I don’t 
think anyone will risk putting some¬ 
thing on the market without first tell¬ 
ing IBM what they are doing. 

IBM will then tell them to fix it or 
pay up. They will be the final judge to 
tell if it fails or if it passes. 

MMS. Do you have any plans to 
enhance your AT chip sets in such 
areas as extended I/O and extended 
memory since OS/2 is not Micro 
Channel-dependent? What specifical¬ 
ly are you going to do in the AT area 
to support OS/2? 

Naqvi. We had announced an AT 
chip set last September. If you look 
inside that, we have all of these built- 
in hooks to take advantage of OS/2. 
IBM has also done similar things in 
their PS/2 systems to take advantage 
of OS/2, and that’s the reason that 
their 10-MHz PS/2 runs faster than 
their 10-MHz PC. We have the same 
things in our AT systems, and in fact 
they’re already in production now. 
So, our [AT] machines can run at the 
same speed as the PS/2s. 

As far as the EMS [extended memo¬ 
ry specification] is concerned, we sup¬ 
port the LIM 5.0 [the Lotus-Intel- 
Microsoft] standard on the chip itself. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 







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CIRCLE NO. 10 ON INQUIRY CARD 

















INTERPRETER 


SYSTEM CONNECTIVITY 

Apple, DEC set stage 

for mutual system integration 



Kinetics’ Etherport II for the Macintosh II provides networking within a 
work group or to a host. 


Mike Seither, Senior Editor 

For the last two years a handful of 
pioneering vendors has doggedly pur¬ 
sued one goal: integrating the seem¬ 
ingly disparate worlds of Apple Com¬ 
puter Inc. and Digital Equipment 
Corp. 

Companies that have tried include 
Kinetics Inc., Walnut Creek, Calif., a 
maker of Macintosh-to-Ethernet 
hardware. Others are Alisa Systems 
Inc., Pasadena, Calif, and Pacer Soft¬ 
ware Inc., La Jolla, Calif., with their 
Apple-to-VAX networking software 
for printing, file and mail services, 
terminal emulation and virtual disks. 

A market for these connectivity 
products clearly exists. DEC esti¬ 
mates that Apple’s Macintosh micro¬ 
computers have spread to more than a 
third of its 12,000 VAX minicomput¬ 
er sites, which have an estimated mil¬ 
lion-plus users. So it is no great sur¬ 
prise that, while Apple and DEC have 
tacitly approved third-party efforts to 
link their products, they have decided 
to bring that effort home. 



Apple Computer chief executive 
John Sculley (left) and Digital Equip¬ 
ment CEO Kenneth Olsen agree to 
work toward ,, interoperability ,, 
among VAX and Apple Macintosh 
systems. 


First, both Apple and DEC un¬ 
veiled a joint development pact. Then 
DEC chief executive Kenneth Olsen 
made a rare appearance at a non-DEC 
show when he announced the agree¬ 
ment on Apple turf at the MacWorld 
Expo in San Francisco. The following 
week, Apple CEO John Sculley re¬ 
turned the favor by appearing in Bos¬ 
ton at a DEC-sponsored conference. 

Turf-swapping executives 

At the Boston event, Olsen detailed 
plans for a wider “enterprise” net¬ 
working strategy that will include not 
only Apple units but also computers 
running the OS/2 operating system 
from IBM Corp. and Microsoft 
Corp., as well as UNIX-based work¬ 
stations. 

Within the next few months, DEC 
will extend its networking reach to 
“selected”clone makers like Compaq 
Computer Corp., Ing. C. Olivetti & 
Co. S.p.A. and Zenith Data Systems. 
Right now, DEC’S Network Applica¬ 
tions Support (NAS) provides net¬ 
working services to MS-DOS systems 
and connectivity to Big Blue’s System 
Network Architecture (SNA) via a 
gateway. 

Most analysts and industry watch¬ 
ers agree the announcement is signifi¬ 


cant and will benefit both companies. 
Even DEC and Apple third-party ven¬ 
dors are at least haltingly optimistic. 
David McCreery, president of Kinet¬ 
ics, says the joint development accord 
“legitimizes” what companies like his 
have been doing and will be good for 
business. However, he believes that 
Apple and DEC will not be able to 
move as fast as a smaller company to 
bring innovative products to market. 

DEC plans to use Kinetics’ Ether¬ 
net products in its 17 Advanced Tech¬ 
nology Centers to demonstrate Mac- 
intosh-to-VAX connectivity. Whether 
DEC will eventually license that kind 
of technology is still unknown. “Buy 
vs. build is one of the options we 
always look at,” says Dennis Schnei¬ 
der, DEC’S U.S. sales manager for 
distributed computing products in 
Nashua, N.H. “But to speculate at 
this point would be inappropriate.” 

Goals now, products later 

Don Cole, vice president of market¬ 
ing at Alisa Systems, also is optimis¬ 
tic. He calls the Apple-DEC deal 
“wonderful, even though neither said 
what they plan to bring to the game. 
We have the window of opportunity 
on them now at any rate.” 

What the Apple-DEC alliance calls 


22 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 
















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Consider, too, all those special Ada 
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Together, they implement the new 
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INTERPRETER 


SYSTEM CONNECTIVITY 


for is a “consistent set of application 
programming interfaces which [inde¬ 
pendent software] developers will use 
to write distributed applications, lev¬ 
erage industry-standard networks and 
interchange documents,” according 
to the joint DEC-Apple annnounce- 
ment. The specifications for those 
programming interfaces are sched¬ 
uled for publication in August at a 
developers conference sponsored by 
Apple and DEC. 

No specific products have yet been 
announced by the two computer gi¬ 


ants. At this point the agreement 
merely outlines 10 broad goals: 

• Distributed applications will be 
able to access VAX services. 

• Macintoshes using Apple’s net¬ 
work file protocol will be able to get 
to files stored on VAXes. 

• Macintoshes and VAXes will be 
able to exchange documents using 
DEC’S interchange format. 

• Desktop publishing devices 
available from both companies, such 
as laser printers running Adobe Sys¬ 
tems Inc.’s PostScript page descrip¬ 


tion language, will be able to commu¬ 
nicate over a network. 

• Macintosh computers will have 
access to other hosts and networks by 
emulating DEC terminals and sup¬ 
porting ASCII characters and X Win¬ 
dow graphics. 

• Macintosh computers will have 
access to DEC’S electronic mail serv¬ 
ices, including both ALL-IN-1 and 
X.400. 

• Macintoshes will be able to use 
DEC’S videotex and conferencing fa¬ 
cilities. 


VAR wars are a concern in Apple-DEC alliance 


Mary Jo Foley 

Even though Digital Equipment Corp. and Apple 
Computer Inc. have decided not to go into too much 
detail on their developmental partnership until August, 
speculation is rampant on what the long-term affects 
will be on value-added resellers. 

Specifically, there is concern that Apple and DEC 
VARs will butt heads if both camps try to market their 
respective workstations to the same scientific and 
engineering VAX customers—Apple pushing its 
Macintosh, DEC its systems like the microVAX and 
VAXstation 2000. 

To date, however, these VARs have almost never 
competed directly, even at the desktop level, says 
William Manning, an analyst with market researcher 
International Data Corp., Framingham, Mass. In fact, 
only a handful of resellers now carry both DEC and 
Apple equipment. 

The new alliance, however, could dramatically 
change this scenario. “Apple wants to push the Mac 
as an engineering workstation, but DEC already sells 
engineering workstations,” Manning says. Both 
parties will initially cooperate while the ink is still wet 
on their agreement, but this may only be for the short 
term, he speculates. 

Currently, Apple derives between 5 percent and 8 
percent of its total sales ($2.6 billion in 1987) through 
VARs. The $7.6 billion DEC, on the other hand, 
garners 27 percent to 30 percent of its revenues via 
VARs, Manning points out. 

Industry watchers at Dataquest Inc., San Jose, 
Calif., say the two companies are a good fit. 

“Although DEC offers a very respectable line of PCs 
and technical workstations, the desktop device has 
never been its strong suit,” says a Dataquest 
research bulletin. The addition of the Macintosh will 
enable DEC to rectify this shortcoming. 

At the same time, “Apple’s alliance with Digital 
opens the door for corporate buyers to include the 
Macintosh as part of their long-term computing 
strategies,” Dataquest notes. With many corporate 


buyers confused about the availability and benefits of 
OS/2, the operating system for IBM Corp.’s PS/2 
family, a DEC-Apple team could profit rapidly. 

Zero impact on customers 

For their part, VARs, while cautious, are extremely 
interested in the implications of the agreement. They 
are generally optimistic about the partnership. Of the 
half dozen DEC VARs contacted by Mini-Micro 
Systems, all were well aware of the January 
DEC-Apple announcement, but none seemed to be 
concerned about the possibility of adverse effects 
from the relationship. 

One purchasing agent of DEC equipment said that, 
“The two architectures (DEC and Apple) have been 
so different that we’ve never looked into Apple. So, 
increased connectivity in the short term will have zero 
impact on our customers.” 

More typical are reactions like that of W. Lowell 
Putnam, president of Video Communications Inc., a 
vendor of MicroVAX- and PDP-based television-station 
software: “In the short term, there will be no 
significant impact on our business. We’re waiting to 
see any specific products that result,” he says. But 
since the Feeding Hills, Mass., company uses 
Macintoshes extensively in its own offices, as well as 
DEC terminal emulators in its road demonstrations, it 
is keeping close tabs on the deal, Putnam says. 

Michael Kinkead, president of one of DEC’S largest 
VARs—The Saddlebrook Co., a $27 million 
Cambridge, Mass., vendor of financial services 
software—was perhaps the most enthusiastic of the 
VARs surveyed. “DEC and Apple make an 
outstanding team,” he says. “By forming this 
strategic partnership, these technological leaders can 
meet the pressing market needs for powerful yet 
affordable workstation capabilities in a networking 
environment that’s still unsurpassed for flexibility and 
ease of cost-effective, incremental growth.” 


Mary Jo Foley is a business and technology writer 
based in Washington. 


24 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 







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CIRCLE NO. 12 ON INQUIRY CARD 





HOW 
TO END 
THE 

OPTICAL 

ILLUSION. 



People have been talking 
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Contact the Maxtor distributor 
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and ordering infor¬ 
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Because 
seeing is 
believing. 



M^or 


Sales offices: Atlanta (404) 455-4226, Austin (512) 345-2742, Boston (617) 872-8556, New Jersey (201) 747-7337, 

Orange County (714) 472-2344, San Jose (408) 435-7884, Woking, England (44)/4862-29814, Tokyo, Japan 81-3-431-8940. 

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© 1987 Maxtor Corporation 

CIRCLE NO. 13 ON INQUIRY CARD 








INTERPRETER 


WHERE TO 
END THE OPTICAL 
ILLUSION. 


ALABAMA 


MISSOURI 


|205) 837-9300 

(P) 

(314) 432-4350 

IP) 

(205) 830-1881 

IQ) 





NEW JERSEY 


ARIZONA 


(201) 575-3510 

(P) 

(602) 966-6600 

(A) 

(201) 227-7960 

(A) 

CALIFORNIA 


NEW YORK 


(818) 700-1000 

(A) 

(516) 921-8700 

IP) 

(714) 768-4444 

(A) 

(516) 273-1660 

(A) 

(916) 922-6800 

(A) 

(607) 722-9300 

IP) 

(619) 453-9005 

(A) 

(716) 381-7070 

IP) 

(408) 295-4200 

(A) 





N. CAROLINA 


COLORADO 


(704) 527-8188 

(P) 

(303) 790-4500 

(A) 

(919) 876-7767 

IQ) 



(919) 544-5400 

(P) 

CONNECTICUT 



(203) 853-1515 

(P) 

OHIO 


(203) 237-2282 

(A) 

(216) 587-3600 

(P) 



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FLORIDA 




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GEORGIA 


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IQ) 





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IP) 

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IP) 

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IP) 



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KANSAS 


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(P) 

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(Q) 



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(Q) 

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(301) 921-0660 

(P) 



(301) 995-6640 

(A) 

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(801) 973-8555 

(A) 

MASSACHUSETTS 



(617) 861-9200 

(P) 

WASHINGTON 

(617) 657-5170 

(A) 

(206) 881-0850 

(A) 

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(S) 





CANADA 


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(403) 235-5325 

IF) 

(313) 525-1800 

(P) 

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(F) 

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(P) 

(514) 694-7710 

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(A) = Anthem Electronics 
(P) = Pioneer 

IQ) = Quality Components 
(S) = Storex 

(F) = Future Electronics, Inc. 


Mqp^or 

MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


• Jointly developed database speci¬ 
fications will allow Macintoshes to 
access data on VAXes over DECnet/ 
OSI network protocols. 

• Apple’s proprietary local area 
networks will be able to tie into wide 
area networks under Phase V of 
DECnet/OSI. 

• There will be a “unified”method 
to manage AppleTalk networks and 
DECnet/OSI. 

Desktop credibility 

The Macintosh-to-VAX integra¬ 
tion, as well as DEC’S “enterprise” 
networking scheme, will be based on 
Open Systems Interconnection (OSI), 
the seven-layer communications 
model proposed by the International 
Standards Organization. Some indus¬ 
try observers note that DEC’S recent 
announcements suggest that the com¬ 
pany is getting serious about OSI. 

“The issue was forced upon DEC 
by its customers,” declares Steve 
Widen, an analyst with International 
Data Corp., Framingham, Mass. 
“They’ve been waiting for straightfor- 


SYSTEM CONNECTIVITY 

ward answers on DEC’S commitment 
to OSI.” By allying itself with Apple, 
he adds, DEC may bring to bear more 
influence on how the OSI standards 
eventually stack up. 

Beyond that, the deal also helps 
DEC in an area where it has failed in 
the past—getting access to a credible 
desktop computing platform to com¬ 
pete with the IBM PC. In San Francis¬ 
co, Olsen called Apple the “leader in 
innovative ways to interface humans 
and computers.” He also stated that 
he clearly sees the Macintosh as a 
strategic weapon in his on-going war 
with IBM. 

As for Apple, it too stands to gain 
from the joint development deal— 
perhaps more than DEC—since the 
deal will reinforce Apple’s move into 
big-time business accounts. 

Most industry observers agree the 
most significant announcements are 
yet to come. These involve how DEC 
and Apple will work out joint market¬ 
ing agreements and how the develop¬ 
ment pact will effect their dealers and 
resellers. More details of the agree- 


AN APPLE IN THE EYE OF VAX USERS 


66 % 
CONSIDERING 
BUYING 
IBM PC OR 
CLONES 



46% 
CONSIDERING 
BUYING 
APPLE 

COMPUTERS 


(TOTALS MORE THAN 100% BECAUSE SOME USERS PLAN TO BUY BOTH MACHINES) 

source: THE YAM&E OfiOUP 


A recent survey of 540 Digital Equipment users shows that nearly half are 
considering buying Apple personal computers to connect to their VAX sys¬ 
tems. Other findings: Most employ their VAX systems in business applica¬ 
tions like accounting, and 81 percent say IBM could not lure them away from 
DEC. 


27 













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CIRCLE NO. 14 ON INQUIRY CARD 











INTERPRETER 



IBM: Philips and 
Hitachi have done it. 
You can too. 

TAIPEI INT'L 

OEM/SUBCONTRACTING SHOW 
June 21-25, 1988 

Taipei World Trade Center Exhibition Hall 

Put yourself in touch with the world's best OEM 
suppliers. 

By visiting the first Taipei Int'l OEM/Subcon¬ 
tracting Show, you'll have a chance to forge 
profitable ties with Taiwan's outstanding manu¬ 
facturers of products for the OEM market. These 
include electronic and electrical products, metal 
products, machinery, vehicle parts, plastic and 
rubber products and moulds & dies. Taiwan's 
OEM suppliers offer highly competitive prices 
and flexible production systems, and they are fully 
capable of meeting "Guaranteed Quality" and 
"On-time Delivery" requirements. 

Some of the major multinationals already sourcing 
successfully in Taiwan include AT & T, Xerox, 

Philips, Hitachi, IBM and Digital Equipment Corp. 
Shouldn't your company be added to this list? 

For further information, contact the show organizer. 

CIRCLE NO. 15 ON INQUIRY CARD 

Organizer: 

^ CHIISW EXTERNAL 1R/1DE DEI/ELOP/V1ENT COUNCIL 

5 Hsin Vi Rd., Sec. 5, Taipei (10509), 

Taiwan, R.O.C. Tel: (02) 7251111 
Telex: 28094 TPEWTC, 21676 CETRA 
Fax: 886-2-7251314, 886-2-7168783 
Local Contacts: 

Chicago : Tel: (312) 321-9338 

Telex: 253726 FAREAST TR CGO 
New York : Tel: (212) 532-7055 

Telex: 426299 CETDC NV 
San Francisco : Tel: (415) 788-4304, 788-4305 
Telex: 4974157 FETS SF 



SYSTEM CONNECTIVITY 

ment and its impact on VARs and 
system integrators will be forthcom¬ 
ing at a developers’ conference sched¬ 
uled in August, says Olsen. □ 


Apple's UNIX extends 
the reach of Macintosh 

It will be months before specifications are available 
from Apple Computer Inc. and Digital Equipment 
Corp. to unite the Macintosh and VAX computing 
worlds via the Open Systems Interconnection model 
over DECnet. But system integrators who are in a 
hurry to extend the reach of Apple’s Macintosh II 
have a solution ready now—A/UX. 

After numerous delays in bringing it to market, 
Apple finally announced the availability of A/UX at the 
Uniforum show last month in Dallas. 

A/UX, which Apple is shipping chiefly on 
preconfigured 80M-byte rigid disks, contains several 
key characteristics. First, it includes Apple’s 
implementation of AT&T Co.’s UNIX System V.2 
operating system and meets AT&T’s System V 
Interface Definition. In addition, it includes most of the 
Berkeley UNIX Version 4.2 extensions as well as an 
automatic recovery system. 

Networking support includes Ethernet, the TCP/IP 
protocols and the Sun Microsystems Inc. Network File 
Service. The Macintosh Toolbox, which developers 
need to create UNIX programs with the graphical 
Macintosh interface, also is included. 

UNIX developers have a choice of porting existing 
applications quickly by using the standard UNIX 
interfaces, such as the C, Bourne and Korn shells, 
and X Window Version 10.4, according to Apple. One 
program with a quarter million lines of code was 
ported in a day, according to Apple product manager 
Bill Jacobs. 

Porting UNIX and adding the Macintosh interface 
will take months, he adds. However, A/UX users can 
still use existing Macintosh applications by switching 
to the Macintosh operating system. That switch takes 
about 60 seconds. 

Apple says it is shipping A/UX on rigid disks partly 
because of a growing “shortage of UNIX gurus” and 
partly because it wants to make life easier for users. 
Later this year, Apple will make tape distribution an 
option. Users who like to torture themselves will be 
able to get A/UX on more than 50 diskettes. 

Current Macintosh II users can buy upgrade 
bundles that include internal or external rigid disk 
drives, 4M bytes of RAM and a paged-memory 
management unit that requires an authorized 
technician to install. The internal version lists for 
$4,879, while the standalone drive costs $5,459. A/UX 
also comes bundled with a Macintosh II entry-level 
monochrome monitor ($8,597), color monitor ($9,396) 
or development system ($8,399), which has no 
monitor. 


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TELECOMMUNICATIONS 



EXPLODING 


FIVE MYTHS ABOUT ISDN 



Don’t let uncertainty about prices and 
international squabbling over standards 
confuse you. ISDN is coming. 

And you’ll have to deal with it 


James F. Donohue, Managing Editor 

For many system integrators, VARs and 
OEMs, Integrated Services Digital Network 
(ISDN) is either a mysterious continent 
shrouded in myth or an attempt by AT&T Co. 
to put its hands in everybody’s pocket. 

In reality, it is neither. While AT&T backs 
ISDN—and stands to make money off it—so 
does, and will, every other telephone company 
in the world. And so will vendors of communi¬ 
cations equipment and services. And so will 
system integrators, OEMs and VARs. 

However, there is no doubt that confusion 
and doubt shroud ISDN. And that’s what cre¬ 
ates the myths you hear. ISDN is simple 
enough as a concept. It’s an on-going, interna¬ 
tional effort to create protocols to combine 
circuit-switched, mostly voice service (the dial¬ 
up telephone) with packet-switched, mostly 
digital service (for example, local area net¬ 
works) in a totally digital network that would 
carry voice, computer data, facsimile and 
video. 

It’s coordinating the international aspect of 
the project that is causing most of the trouble. 
That coordination means creation of stan¬ 
dards, and many vendors of communication 
equipment—especially those in the United 
States—look on standards as ammunition their 
competitors will use to steal customers. 

Notes Mary A. Johnston, senior consultant 
in the Telecommunications Consulting Group 
at BBN Communications Corp., Cambridge, 
Mass., “The goal of universal standards and 
limited interfaces seems out of sync with the 
pluralistic, competitive telecommunications 
scene in the United States.” That won’t stop 
ISDN, she says, but it may slow it down. 
“Vendors that gain competitive advantage from 
proprietary protocols may have little interest or 
motivation to hurry adoption of ISDN.” 

Johnston adds, “I’m becoming more and 
more convinced that there really will be some 
real value to ISDN. It’s not going to be across 
the board, and I’m not sure it’s going to be the 
centerpiece of a lot of people’s architectures. 
But in selected application areas, like 
telemarketing, it’s going to be very, very com¬ 
petitive and very powerful.” 

Here’s a look at five of the more commonly 
heard myths you’re hearing. 


33 




QMDO 


ISDN is too controversial to ever 
go into effect. 


What is 
controversial 
is how and 
when ISDN is 
coming, and 
what part 
American 
suppliers are 
going to play 
in it. 


Sorry, but that’s just not so. ISDN is coming. 
There’s no real debate about that. “ISDN will 
eventually be widely available,” says BBN’s 
Johnston, “because the long-term survival of 
the regional Bell operating companies [RBOCs] 
hinges on widespread customer acceptance of 
ISDN services.” 

What is controversial is how and when ISDN 
is coming, and what part American suppliers 
are going to play in it. 

Right now, the Europeans and the Japanese 
are moving with considerable speed into ISDN 
trials and, even, implementations. The concern 
is that the Japanese and Europeans, through 
use, will establish de facto international stan¬ 
dards, leaving Americans out in the cold. 

The European nations, led by France, Italy, 
the United Kingdom and West Germany, have 
set up aggressive plans to test and install ISDN 
that will be compatible across Europe. 

The European Parliament has set a series of 


deadlines for the implementation of ISDN. An 
important one falls at the end of 1988, at which 
time the Parliament’s 12 member states are to 
offer 64K-bit-per-second switched digital serv¬ 
ice that complies with ISDN and which can be 
integrated into a European network. 

In Japan, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone 
Corp., having conducted trials since late 1984, 
plans to install its first commercial ISDN serv¬ 
ices this year for Tokyo and Osaka. 

There’s activity just north of the U.S. border 
as well. Recently, Bell Canada opened an ISDN 
demonstration center in Ottawa and identified 
the first three customers for its fledgling ISDN 
service. The customers, federal government 
agencies in Ottawa, will use DMS-100 digital 
switches manufactured by Northern Telecom 
Canada Ltd. for six ISDN applications, includ¬ 
ing digital telephony and wide area networking. 

Meanwhile, in the United States, ISDN is 
stuck in often acrimonious debate among high- 


Where the RBOCs have ISDN trials in progress 


JswnEttiTECH 

Ameritech Information Technologies Corp, 
Chicago: 

Trial at Oakbrook, III. Affiliates are McDonalds Corp. 
and Bellcore. Equipment suppliers include AT&T, 

DEC, Fujitsu America and NEC. 

(§) Bell Atlantic 

Bell Atlantic Corp., Philadelphia: 

Trial at Red Bank, N.J. Affiliate is Bellcore. Equipment 
suppliers include Siemens and Bellcore. 

BELLSOUTH 

BellSouth Corp., Atlanta: 

Trial at Boca Raton, Fla. No affiliates have been 
announced. The equipment supplier is Siemens. The 
trial will mainly involve switch calls between Siemens 
and Southern Bell Telephone Co. in Boca Raton. 

NYNEX 

Nynex Corp., White Plains, N.Y.: 

Trial at Boston and New York City. Affiliate is Bellcore. 
Equipment suppliers include New England Telephone 
Co., New York Telephone Co. and Siemens. 


PACIFIC OTELESIS 

Pacific Telesis Group, San Francisco: 

Trial at San Francisco, San Ramon and Sunnyvale, all 
in California. Affiliate is Bellcore. Equipment suppliers 
include AT&T, Northern Telecom and NEC America. 

Southwestern Bell 
Corporation 
Southwestern Bell Corp., St. Louis: 

Trial at St. Louis and Dallas. Affiliate is Bellcore. 
Equipment suppliers include AT&T, Northern Telecom 
and Siemens. 

ircwEsr 

U.S. West Inc., Englewood, Colo.: 

Trial at Portland, Ore. Affiliates are Bellcore and U.S. 
National Bank of Oregon. Equipment suppliers include 
Harris Corp., Hayes Microcomputer Products Inc., 
Northern Telecom and NEC. 

Trial at Denver. No trial affiliates have been 
announced. NEC is the main equipment supplier 

Source: ISDN Newsletter, 214 Harvard Ave., Boston, Mass., (617) 232-3111. 



34 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 






TELECOMMUNICATIONS 


handed judges, bumbling state and federal reg¬ 
ulators, scheming suppliers, cautious investors 
and users who either don’t want ISDN or don’t 
think they can afford it. 

They want 'equal inefficiency 1 

State and federal regulators come in for a lot 
of criticism. “The trouble with the rule- 
makers,” says Leonard Hyman, first vice presi¬ 
dent at Merrill Lynch Capital Markets, New 
York, “is that they want all the players at equal 
inefficiency.” 

Hyman told a conference on ISDN spon¬ 
sored in Dallas by the International Council for 
Computer Communications, “Regulators do 
not want to let anything happen until they can 
predict everything that will happen. So they 
tend not to let anything happen.” 

Hyman cynically quips about regulators that 
“they will become irrevelant. They will end up 
some day doing useful work.” 

Regulators, of course, have a different view. 
Says Robert J. Keegan, a manager at the Massa¬ 
chusetts Department of Public Utilities, Bos¬ 


ton, “I believe that the overall goals of the local 
operating companies and state regulators re¬ 
sponsible for protecting the public interest co¬ 
incide to an unprecedented degree 1 .” 

As proof of how state regulators are willing to 
help the telephone companies, Keegan notes 
that, in 1984 when the Federal Communica¬ 
tions Commission was considering new equip¬ 
ment depreciation schedules for local tele¬ 
phone companies, the Massachusetts regulators 
gave New England Telephone Co. about twice 
the depreciation recommended by the FCC. 
Keegan describes this as “an effort to begin to 
deal with a significant ongoing problem:” help¬ 
ing local telephone companies control costs. 

No matter who’s at fault—or even if anybody 
is at fault—a lot of people are losing patience 
with what they see as bumbling, infighting and 
turf battles. Snaps Thomas E. Bolger, president 
of Bell Atlantic Corp., Philadelphia, “My God! 
We cannot afford to keep debating this much 
longer. It’s been ten years. These people are 
bringing us, for the first time in 100 years, to 
the point where we’re lagging in networks.” 


‘The trouble 
with the 
rulemakers is 
that they want 
all the players 
at equal 
inefficiency.’ 


mi 


The U.S. telephone companies can’t 
agree on standards for a nationwide ISDN. 


It does look as if there will not be a true and 
transparent nationwide ISDN hookup in the 
United States when all the pieces are in place in 
the early 1990s. The seven RBOCs that re¬ 
placed AT&T after its court-ordered breakup 
are testing and installing equipment that, to 
varying degrees, is incompatible with the 
equipment in other Baby Bell areas. 

While this sounds insane on the surface, 
there may be a method to the madness. Bruce 
DeMaeyer, president of Ameritech Communi¬ 
cations Inc., Schaumburg, Ill., a vendor of 
communications equipment, says the Baby 
Bells have set out deliberately to build little 
“islands” of ISDN centered on big cities like 
New York and Los Angeles. 

In these islands, he says, the RBOCs will 
thoroughly test ISDN, trying out lots of hard¬ 
ware and software. (DeMaeyer calls these “fla¬ 
vor of the week ISDN.”) That process is going 
on now, and it will continue through most of 
1988. 

In 1988 and 1989, he says, the RBOCs will 


work on expanding service across multiple ex¬ 
changes, but still within the isolated islands. 
Finally, about 1992, will come the push for 
nationwide connectivity. The RBOCs will link 
up the islands following techniques pioneered 
by the local area network industry: building 
gateways to link one geographic area with an¬ 
other. 

Link up the 'islands’ 

Some RBOCs, like U.S. West Inc., Engle¬ 
wood, Colo., already are working on the prob¬ 
lems of connecting disparate equipment in dif¬ 
ferent islands. U.S. West recently routed a call 
from a Digital Equipment Corp. VAXmate in 
Phoenix through a Northern Telecom Ltd. 
DMS-100 switch to an IBM PC in Denyer. 

Greg Miller, a manager at U.S. West, says of 
the Phoenix-Denver connection, “From a cus¬ 
tomer perspective, this means different vendor 
equipment can be used to send data between 
different ISDN switches. This is a key in devel¬ 
oping viable customer products and services.” 


While AT&T 
backs 
ISDN—and 
stands to 
make money 
off it—so 
does, and will, 
every other 
telephone 
company in 
the world. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


35 







TELECOMMUNICATIONS 


However, all is not well in ISDN connectivi¬ 
ty, internationally or in the United States. 
ISDN is in such a state of flux that even the few 
standards for connectivity that do exist are 
confused in their implementation. 

Notes Robert Jordan, a manager at IBM 
Corp.’s Rolm Systems Division, Santa Clara, 


Calif., “There is an X.25 standard (CCITT 
protocols for hooking into a public network), 
but at last count there were something like 400 
different implementations.” Jordan adds, 
“IBM/Rolm supports the drive for universal 
ISDN standards, but the key is that they be 
truly standard and truly universal.” 


■ 



IBM and DEC don’t support ISDN. 


It’s true that 
neither IBM 
nor DEC has 
been at the 
forefront, but 
in recent 
months both 
have been 
coming around 
to support 
ISDN. 


It’s true that neither IBM nor DEC has been 
at the forefront, but in recent months both have 
been coming around to support ISDN. 

IBM had been holding out against an ISDN 
in which a lot of intelligence was packed into 
the network. Big Blue had preferred to keep the 
intelligence at the customer site, where its com¬ 
puters live, not on the telephone network, 
where arch-rival AT&T lives. 

But now, Thomas J. Pierce, program manag¬ 
er for interconnection with IBM’s Information 
Systems Group, is saying that Big Blue sup¬ 
ports ISDN, even with intelligence on the net¬ 
work itself. “IBM, the switch manufacturers 
and the carriers—all of us are in favor of 
intelligence being provided inside the network 
as well as on customer premises,” Pierce says. 
“As far as network services are concerned, we 
believe that, as long as they are provided com¬ 
petitively, they can be provided on the network 
or at the customer site.” 

(The telephone companies, for their part, say 
they also are willing to go either way. “ISDN 
services should be embedded and attached,” 
says Ray Albers, vice president for technology 
planning at Bell Atlantic Corp.’s offices in 
Arlington, Va.) 

There is another issue for IBM and ISDN: 
will SNA (IBM’s mainframe-based networking 
scheme) support ISDN? According to Denis W. 
O’Shea, telecommunications consultant with 
IBM at Purchase, N.Y., “No significant struc¬ 
tural changes will be needed in SNA” to make it 
compatible with ISDN. 

IBM plans to test prototype ISDN adapters 
through Nynex Corp. in New York City this 
April (six IBM workstations and controllers in 
two Nynex locations). Ed Thomas, corporate 
director for advanced technological develop¬ 
ment at Nynex, New York City, says about the 
compatibility of SNA and ISDN, “Currently, 
SNA lacks software to establish a ‘handshake’ 
in a switched network. But there’s no question 


WHERE IBM PLANS ISDN 

FIELD TRIALS, 

DEMONSTRATIONS 

AND STUDY PROJECTS 

Nynex Corp. 

1988 

first trial with U.S. carrier 
and first IBM trial to test 
workstations and control¬ 
lers with experimental 
adapters. 

Deutsche Bundepost 

1988 

test basic rate access on 

8751 PBX. In West Germa¬ 
ny 

Norwegian Postal Telephone 

and Telegraph 

1988 and 

test primary access on 

1989 

8751, VM application. 

IBM/Rolm, Santa Clara 

Mid-1988 

demo basic access for 
workstations and control¬ 
lers connected to 9751 


PBX and primary access 
for CBX II and IBM 9750 


connected to an ISDN. 

BERKOM Project 

in progress 

multivendor study of 
broadband ISDN in West 
Germany, applications, 
standards, workstation re¬ 
quirements, funded by 

Deustsche Bundepost. IBM 
participates primarily 
through its European Net¬ 
working Centre in Heidel¬ 
berg. 

Multinational Asian Study 

in progress 

study of customer benefits 
of ISDN and workstation 


requirements, coordinated 
by Japanese Ministry of 

Posts and Telecommunica¬ 
tions. 


Source: IBM Corp. 


36 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 











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CIRCLE NO. 18 ON INQUIRY CARD 


























TELECOMMUNICATIONS 


Recently, DEC 
plunged into 
ISDN, offering 
its computers 
as terminals 
on ISDN 
networks, 
promising to 
build ISDN 
compatibility 
and involving 
itself in 
several ISDN 
trials. 


that IBM has the ability to provide that soft¬ 
ware. That’s one of the reasons for the trial.” 

Now Rolm’s a division 

Recently, IBM hooked up with United Tele¬ 
communications Inc. to build a data base sys¬ 
tem for an emerging technology called Signal¬ 
ing System 7 (SS7), which puts a great deal of 
intelligence on the line. And, in a move widely 
believed to be part of an ISDN strategy, IBM 
gave division status to Rolm Corp., its PBX 
subsidiary, changing the name to Rolm Sys¬ 
tems Division (RSD). The action puts RSD, 
with headquarters in Santa Clara, Calif., under 
IBM’s Information Systems Group. 

“The story is that we’re for it,” says Pierce. 
“We feel we are in a leadership role of under¬ 
standing what ISDN is and what are some of 
the hurdles that we have to get over. At the 
same time, we are actively involved in some of 
the field trials and standards activities. We 
perceive ISDN as a real potential customer 
benefit.” 

For its part, DEC had been avoiding partici¬ 
pating in the voice industry almost entirely, 
pushing instead its computer-to-PBX interface 


(CPI) that allows computer communications 
through PBXs. 

Recently, however, DEC plunged into ISDN, 
offering its computers as terminals on ISDN 
networks, promising to build ISDN compat- 
ibiliy and involving itself in several ISDN tri¬ 
als, including the Illinois Bell Telephone Co. 
show at the Oak Brook, Ill., headquarters of 
fast-food giant McDonalds Corp. And nine of 
the largest telephone companies are testing 
DEC database systems as part of SS7. 

Fred Koved, DEC’S telecommunications 
business development manager, says, “We see 
ISDN technology employed in the wide-area 
communications marketplace, providing high¬ 
speed, facility-to-facility communications. It’s 
clear that an improvement to wide-area data 
communications systems improves distributed 
data processing and its environment.” 

Koved adds that support for ISDN is part of 
DEC’S continuing support of standards. 
Koved, and just about everybody else working 
on ISDN, believes standards are key to the 
success of the service. “Integrating voice, data 
and video communications technology must be 
standardized,” Koved says. 



Hardly anybody wants ISDN. 


It’s true that a lot of people don’t want ISDN, 
at least not in the immediate future, and that 
this is putting a crimp in development and sales 
of ISDN equipment and services. “There does 
not seem to be the demand for ISDN that will 
lead to an early rollout,” concedes Daniel E. 
Crawford, senior vice president for network 
operations at MCI Communications Corp., 
Washington. 

Big companies, like The Travelers Corp., the 
insurance giant in Hartford, Conn., already 
have a sort of ISDN in place in the form of 
leased T1 lines and see no need to buy the 
telephone company’s service. Travelers won’t 
need ISDN, says Travers Waltrip, the compa¬ 
ny’s vice president for data processing, until 
sometime in the future when ISDN is a nation¬ 
wide network. Even then, says Waltrip, Travel¬ 
ers will “need it only at the interface, where we 
join the public domain network, to reach the 
small companies we do business with.” 

On the other hand, residential telephone 
users and small businesses don’t think they 
need the speed and power of ISDN—not now, 


and maybe never. They’re happy with plain old 
telephone service (POTS), especially since 
ISDN may be expensive. 

Richard Snelling, president of Southern Bell 
Telephone & Telegraph Co., Atlanta, says, 
“ISDN will cost users about 1.5 times POTS.” 
That’s become the standard party line about 
pricing from the telephone companies. But 
Snelling adds, “We're not going to price ISDN. 
We’re going to price service. It could be that, 
with value added features factored in, the price 
could be as much as 1.7 times POTS.” 

Soon after that, however, will come the 
“economies of scale” so familiar in the comput¬ 
er industry. The price of ISDN could drop to 
1.2 times POTS quickly, Snelling says. 

As cheap as twisted-pair 

Casimir S. Skrzypczak, vice president for 
science and technology at Nynex, White Plains, 
N.Y., predicts that “by 1995 ISDN will cost no 
more than regular twisted-pair copper wire.” 

Next to worries about standards, it’s this 
jumping and jiggling about price that has tele- 


38 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 








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CIRCLE NO. 19 ON INQUIRY CARD 















TELECOMMUNICATIONS 


phone users most worried about ISDN. They 
agree with Dr. Irwin Dorros, executive vice 
president for technical services at Bell Commu¬ 
nications Research Inc. (Bellcore), Livingston, 
N.J., when he quips, “If you chose to go for 
broke on ISDN, you may go broke.” 

While waiting for big companies to perceive 
a need for ISDN and for small users to get the 
price they want, telephone executives like 
Skrzypczak think their best target markets are 


medium size companies and operations, like 
school districts, that already have some sort of 
advanced telephone service, especially Centrex 
(a public switching service). 

A major problem. “AT&T is absolutely lousy 
at selling anything to anybody.” That comes 
from a vendor who wants to sell ISDN gear 
through AT&T. He asks not to be identified. 
“There is no fire in the belly” at AT&T to sell 
ISDN, he says. 


Where the RBOCs plan commericial ISDN service 


Bell Atlantic Corp., Philadelphia 

**Commercial service is due this year for the 
Commonwealth of Virginia and other unnamed 
customers. The locations will be in Virginia; West 
Virginia; Maryland; Pittsburgh, Penn.; and Washington, 
D.C. AT&T and Northern Telecom will supply 
equipment. 

BelSouth Corp., Atlanta 

**Commercial service starts this year in Atlanta. 
Customers are Trust Co. of Georgia, Prime Computer 


Inc., AT&T Network Systems Group and Hayes 
Microcomputer Products Inc. Equipment suppliers 
include AT&T, Northern Telecomm and Ericsson. 

Southwestern Bell Corp., St. Louis: 
**Commercial service is due to start about midyear 
for Shell Oil Co. and Tenneco Inc., both in Houston. 
The service contract covers ten years. AT&T will 
supply the central office switch; the customers will 
pick their own customer-premises equipment. 

Source: ISDN Newsletter, 214 Harvard Ave., Boston, Mass., (617) 232-3111. 




When ISDN becomes a reality, I’ll be 
stuck with foreign protocols and 
foreign suppliers. 


American 
companies are 
not likely to be 
shut out 
entirely as 
ISDN vendors. 


As noted above, that’s a real danger. Merill 
Lynch’s Hyman tells U.S. vendors of communi¬ 
cations equipment, “You’ll develop ISDN 
products. You’ll sell them here against foreign 
competition. And you won’t be able to sell 
them overseas” because of restrictions on im¬ 
ports in Europe and Japan. 

Nevertheless, American companies are not 
likely to be shut out entirely. 

Expect the affiliates of the seven RBOCs to 
be the big players, at least at first (see boxes). 
The seven did about $ 1.7 billion in telecommu¬ 
nications business in 1987 and are actively 
involved in ISDN trials. 

Another set of major players will be the four 
so-called independent affiliates: the SNET Tel¬ 
ecommunications Group, New Haven, Conn.; 
Centel Communications Systems, Bensenville, 
Ill.; Contel Executone, Norcross, Ga.; and Ro- 
telcom Inc.’s Network Systems Division, Roch¬ 


ester, N.Y. They did a bit more than $700 
million in telecomm business in 1987. 

Among the non-affiliated suppliers, Tel Plus 
Communications Inc., Boca Raton, Fla., seems 
to hold the biggest market share with about 
$280 million in telecomm sales in 1987. Next is 
RCA Corp.’s Telephone Systems Division, 
Cherry Hill, N.J., with $130 million in tele¬ 
comm sales. 

It is true, however, that foreign vendors are 
very active in the early ISDN trials in the 
United States. These include Japan’s Fujitsu 
Ltd. and NEC Corp., Europe’s Siemens AG and 
Ericsson Information Systems and Canada’s 
Northern Telecom. □ 


Interest Quotient (Circle One) 
High 517 Medium 518 Low 519 


40 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 



















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CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 



SOFTWARE LINKS 
MULTIVENDOR NETWORKS 

SNA? OSI? TCP/IP? Hardware OEMs and system 
integrators turn to independent software vendors 
for help with multivendor connectivity 


Dennis Livingston, Senior Editor 

System integrators face a nettlesome prob¬ 
lem: how to get dissimilar machines to talk to 
each other, even in distributed processing envi¬ 
ronments. For added complexity, these envi¬ 
ronments more closely resemble democratic 
New England town meetings than traditional 
master-slave relationships. 

Many companies have found that they need a 
range of equipment, from supercomputers to 
desktop machines, to satisfy their computing 
and communications requirements. Naturally, 
they prefer to purchase such devices from ven¬ 
dors that offer the best price/performance 
deals. Thus, no one vendor is likely to capture 
all the computing space in the office or on the 
factory floor. Hence, system integrators must 
be ready, willing and able to put together multi¬ 


vendor networks, which must communicate in 
a way that minimizes file transfer bottlenecks, 
user retraining and application program rewrit¬ 
ing. 

At least three network standards—Systems 
Network Architecture (SNA), Open Systems 
Interconnection (OSI) and Transmission Con¬ 
trol Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)—pro¬ 
vide the backbones that can make inter¬ 
operable data communications networks out of 
multivendor systems. 

SNA, an IBM Corp. proprietary protocol 
suite, has become a de facto industry standard 
by virtue of Big Blue’s control of 80 percent of 
the mainframe market. 

OSI is a multilayered protocol reference 
model promulgated by the International Stan¬ 
dards Organization (ISO) for use in designing 
multivendor networks. 


System 

integrators are 
increasingly 
called on to 
put together 
networks of 
machines from 
different 
vendors. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


43 









CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 


Multivendor 
systems achieve 
interoperability 
through the use 
of network back¬ 
bone standards 
like SNA, OSI and 
TCP/IP. 


TCP/IP is a series of specifications originally 
developed to ensure interoperability among 
U.S. Defense Department networks. It has 
since found widespread commercial applica¬ 
tion. 

Defined by suite 

Each backbone candidate consists of a suite 
of protocols that defines how data is formatted, 
transferred, routed and retransmitted if errors 
occur. Protocols, in turn, are implemented by 
connectivity software products, incorporated 
into operating systems, front-end processors 
and board-level communications controllers. 

Such products are sold to OEMs, VARs and 
end-users by a growing number of independent 
software vendors (ISVs). For example, Com¬ 
munications Solutions Inc., Orion Network 
Systems Inc., Rabbit Software Corp. and Sys¬ 


tems Strategies Inc. are among the SNA-ori¬ 
ented ISVs. TCP/IP-based vendors include 
Bridge Communications Inc., Excelan Inc., 
Micom-Interlan Inc., Network Research Corp., 
SBE Inc. and The Wollongong Group Inc. Spe¬ 
cializing in OSI software are Retix Inter¬ 
networking Co. and Touch Communications 
Inc. Several firms provide products based on 
more than one system. 

The proliferation of network standards poses 
certain problems for hardware OEMs and sys¬ 
tem integrators. Should they develop their own 
connectivity software or turn to third-party 
vendors of such products? Will a single stand¬ 
ard clearly emerge as dominant? If not, should 
OEMs hedge their bets by adapting their prod¬ 
ucts to more than one protocol suite? 

Several factors make third parties the logical 
source of connectivity products for OEMs. For 


PROTOCOLS AND OSI REFERENCE MODEL 



PHYSICAL 


OSI 

LAYER 


-WIDE AREA NETWORK- 
(WAN) PRODUCTS 


IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD 


FTAM, VTP, 
X.400. OTHER 


FTP, SMTP, TELNET 
NSF, OTHERS 


N 


N|] 


TP1 THROUGH 
TP5 \ 


OSI INTERNET 
PROTOCOLS 


E 802.4 


N BUS 


PACKET 


IEEE 802.2 


ETHERNET 


X.25 


IEEE 802.5 
TOKEN RING 


SDLC 


BISYNC 


L-LOCAL area network 
(LAN) PRODUCTS 


SOURCE SBE INC. 


OSI LAYER NAMES AND FUNCTIONS 


7 APPLICATION: Provides standard user functions (for 
example, electronic mail) and network interfaces (such 
as TELNET). 

6 PRESENTATION: Ensures that all devices can 
understand each other at the Application Layer. Can 
include syntactical conventions such as message 
compression, terminal standardization and data 
encryption. 

5 SESSION. Enables users to access processes on 
other machines; organizes and synchronizes the dialog 
between two network nodes. Validates identity and 
authority for communicating entities. 

4 TRANSPORT: Provides a logical connection from a 
process on one machine to a process on another, 
including end-to-end flow control, error 
detection/correction and message sequencing. 

3 NETWORK: Specifies how communications within 
and between networks should occur. Defines all possible 
routes that a message could take to its destination. 

2 LINK: Provides point-to-point data transfer over 
physical links in a network. Establishes, maintains and 
releases link connections. 

| PHYSICAL: Encodes, modulates and transmits data 
across physical links. Defines physical signal 
characteristics. 


44 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 





















































CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 


one, the world of network standards is complex 
and ambiguous. SNA, OSI and TCP/IP com¬ 
pete with, yet complement, each other. Varia¬ 
tions exist within all three protocol suites, and 
all are evolving. In addition, the lines between 
them are blurring, thanks to gateway products 
that connect one system with another, and to 
the mutual incorporation of specific protocol 
standards in more than one system. 

In this context, “Hardware vendors just 
don’t have the specialized expertise to under¬ 
stand these protocols in enough detail or to 
keep up with their evolution,” points out con¬ 
sultant David Passmore of Network Strategies 
Inc., Fairfax, Va. Thus, it is usually desirable 
for an OEM to let a connectivity software 
vendor track the convolutions of protocol de- 


velopment and undertake commercialization 

of emerging standards. 







DEFINITIONS OF TERMS IN CHART 



SNA 

Systems Network Architecture 




(IBM) 



SDLC 

Synchronous Data Link Control 


BISYNC 

(IBM) 

Binary synchronous protocol 


X.25 

(IBM) 

A packet-switched network 





protocol (CCITT) 



FTAM 

File Transfer Access Method 




(ISO) 



VTP 

Virtual Terminal Protocol (ISO) 



X.400 

A virtual terminal protocol 



TP1-TP5 

(CCITT) 

Transport Protocol, classes 1 
through 5 (ISO) 



FTP 

File Transfer Protocol (Defense 



SMTP 

Department) 

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol 
(Defense Department) 



TELNET 

A virtual terminal protocol 
(Defense Department) 



NFS 

Network File System (Sun 
Microsystems; public domain) 



TCP 

Transmission Control Protocol 
(Defense Department) 



IP 

Internet Protocol (Defense 
Department) 



ETHERNET 

Local area network architecture 
developed by Xerox and others, 
and later incorporated into the 
IEEE 802.2 and 802.3 standards 



IEEE 

Institute of Electrical and 
Electronics Engineers 



CSMA/CD 

Carrier Sense Multiple 
Access/Collision Detection: 
multiple access method used by 
Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 



TOKEN BUS 

Multiple access method used by 
IEEE 802.4 



TOKEN RING 

Multiple access method used by 
IEEE 802.5 and IBM 








Many OEMs also don’t want to waste time 
reinventing the wheel. Time to market is vital, 
according to Ed Stevens, support manager at 
Systems Strategies. “We cut that time by offer¬ 
ing products that OEMs can port to their equip¬ 
ment, rather than develop internally, as well as 
software support and maintenance services 
that OEMs find valuable.” 

Choose a protocol standard 

Jim Mullen, vice president for sales and 
marketing at Orion Network Systems, in com¬ 
mon with other industry watchers, feels that 
both SNA, because of its widespread use in the 
corporate world, and OSI, because of its grow¬ 
ing international acceptance, will eventually 
dominate the standards field. Other backbones 
are expected to fall by the wayside. “We our¬ 
selves started as an SNA house,” says Mullen, 
“but we recognized the emerging significance 
of OSI and are beginning to support some OSI 
standards.” 

Yet, TCP/IP, at least, is not so easily counted 
out of the standards sweepstakes. Virtually all 
major computer and network vendors support 
TCP/IP-based products, meeting a demand cre¬ 
ated in part by the slowness with which OSI 
standards have been formulated. Many end- 
users also see TCP/IP as providing a useful 
migration path to OSI. 

In this light, a number of companies, includ¬ 
ing Apple Computer Inc., Apollo Computer 
Inc., Digital Equipment Corp., Hewlett-Pack¬ 
ard Co. and Sun Microsystems Inc., have de¬ 
cided to bring their products into compliance 
with at least two, and sometimes all three, 
protocol standards to match their customers’ 
needs. 

“Our customers have current and pending 
investments in both consensus and de facto 
standards,” says Sam Alunni, Apollo’s IBM 
interconnect senior product manager. “We 
offer Domain/LU6.2, based on SNA software 
from Orion, as well as TCP/IP and OSI-derived 
workstation products to fit customers’ diverse 
networking plans.” 

Mike Gayowski, IBM interconnect market¬ 
ing manager at DEC, echoes this sentiment. 
“Our networking strategy is to connect any¬ 
time, anyplace, anywhere.” Toward this end, 
DEC, while promoting its own proprietary net¬ 
work, makes available DECnet-SNA gateway 
products (as well as VMS/SNA products), a 
VMS-based TCP/IP program developed from 
The Wollongong Group’s WIN/TCP and a sep¬ 
arate product line of OSI protocols. In addi¬ 
tion, DEC is moving DECnet Phase V into 


‘Once IBM’s 
OS/2 is 
installed, 
demand for 
LU6.2 on PCs 
and 

workstations 
should rise.’ 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


45 












CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 


IBM is 

transforming 
SNA into an 
architecture 
capable of 
supporting 
distributed 
processing 
environments. 


compliance with OSI standards as they emerge. 

Still, each set of standards has its own char¬ 
acteristics and prospects, which may lead 
OEMs and their customers to tilt to one or the 
other, at least for the next few years. 

SNA becomes peer-to-peer oriented 

Although SNA is an IBM proprietary stan¬ 
dard, its implementation at approximately 
25,000 sites has made SNA a de facto interin¬ 
dustry standard. As a result, OEMs selling into 
business computing environments must have a 
strategy for communicating with IBM ma¬ 
chines by accessing SNA and/or by linking with 
an open systems network in which SNA partici¬ 
pates. 

SNA has evolved in two directions since its 
introduction in 1974. Traditional SNA ties to¬ 
gether mainframes and unintelligent peripher¬ 
als in a hierarchical relationship. Non-IBM 
devices gain SNA access through software that 
enables them to emulate IBM's 3270 interac¬ 
tive terminal and 3770 remote job entry work¬ 
station. “Many companies still need to obtain 
huge amounts of data stored on mainframes via 
dumb terminals," points out Apollo’s Alunni. 
“We must continue to enhance old SNA prod¬ 
ucts so customers can take advantage of their 
installed base of such machines and the wealth 
of database and transaction processing soft¬ 
ware written for mainframes." 

With the proliferation of minicomputers and 
personal computers, IBM found it necessary to 
transform SNA into an architecture capable of 
supporting a cooperative processing environ¬ 
ment in which remote intelligent equipment 
could be linked not only with mainframes but 
also with each other, peer-to-peer. Such Low 
Entry Networking (LEN), as IBM calls its con¬ 
cept for the new SNA, is being created through 
the gradual implementation of two related pro¬ 
tocols: Logical Unit (LU) 6.2., marketed as 
Advanced Program-to-Program Communica¬ 
tions (APPC), which establishes logical com¬ 
munications between cooperating programs, 
and Physical Unit (PU) 2.1, which makes 
posssible point-to-point physical connectivity 
between peer nodes without mainframe in¬ 
volvement. 

LU6.2 solves several significant problems for 
SNA, according to Orion’s Mullen. “Since 
processor hierarchy is no longer an applicable 
concept with LU6.2, software programs in 
workstations and midrange computers can ex¬ 
change data directly, without logging on to a 
mainframe and without having to make PCs act 
like dumb terminals. Everyone in such a net¬ 


work is a peer." Moreover, with 3270-based 
software, IBM couldn’t build networks that 
would run by themselves. When programs can 
talk to programs, less human intervention is 
needed for such matters as data transmission 
and error detection. In addition, LU6.2 makes 
it possible to throw remote programs into exe¬ 
cution from any machine on the network. 

However, “There’s not yet a big demand for 
LU6.2 because 3270s are being used to access 
most applications that people want to use on 
IBM mainframes,’’ says Network Strategies’ 
Passmore. Few applications, in turn, have been 
written that use LU6.2, although this standard 
has been implemented within IBM’s Customer 
Information Control System (CICS). (CICS is a 
mainframe-based teleprocessing monitor that 
facilitates transaction processing by user-writ¬ 
ten programs.) 

In addition, Passmore notes that LU6.2 is 
very sophisticated software, occupying several 
hundred thousand bytes on a PC. That doesn’t 
leave a lot of room for other applications. 
“What users really need is OS/2, IBM’s new 
multitasking operating system. Once OS/2 is 
installed, you’ll see more and more applica¬ 
tions available that can support LU6.2, which 
will create demand for LU6.2 implementations 
on PCs and workstations." 

With added functionality, PU2.1 should also 
extend the versatility of LEN. In particular, a 
superset of LEN known as Advanced Peer-to- 
Peer Networking (APPN) makes possible peer- 
based communications over networks of inter¬ 
linked processors. One machine can talk to 
another through a third using such networks, 
and the network automatically reconfigures the 
best routing connections among its compo¬ 
nents as equipment is added to or removed 
from the system. 

However, APPN is currently available only 
with IBM’s System/36 minicomputer. As of 
January, IBM had not incorporated PU2.1 into 
its mainframes. Version 3, release 2 of Virtual 
Telecommunications Access Method (VTAM), 
the mainframe’s host communications soft¬ 
ware, announced last fall, will support LU6.2. 
But the Network Control Program (NCP), soft¬ 
ware that runs on the system’s communications 
processor, does not yet provide PU2.1 link 
support. (VTAM 3.2 works in conjunction with 
PU2.0, an older protocol.) 

Inclusion of LU6.2 helps move SNA away 
from its traditional structure. Without PU2.1, 
however, true peer-to-peer connections would 
be lacking. A PC on one network, for example, 
that wanted to communicate with a PC on 


46 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 




The longest line of protocol converters 
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KMW protocol converters allow local 
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using IBM protocols. 


Batch protocol converters. 


KMW batch protocol converters allow 
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Coax protocol 
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Without any host 
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cost ASCII printers, plotters and other 
devices. And adding a KMW VP-10 
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Interactive protocol 
converters. 

3274 SNA and 3271 BSC cluster con¬ 
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Ttoinax protocol converters. 

KMW also manufactures protocol 
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The support you need — 
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CIRCLE NO. 23 ON INQUIRY CARD 






CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 


another would still require VTAM involve¬ 
ment. 

IBM has made clear its intention to offer a 
PU2.1 link in a forthcoming version of NCP. 
Even so, the extent to which such software will 
support APPN—and, therefore, the degree of 
integration between APPN peer-oriented and 
hierarchial SNA networks—is not yet certain. 

SNA thus stands between the worlds of mas¬ 
ter/slave and distributed processing networks. 
OEMs selling into IBM environments must be 
prepared to cope with both—or to consider the 
alternatives. 

Does OSI have it? 

OSI is not itself a product, but an interna¬ 
tionally recommended reference model in¬ 
tended as a conceptual framework for the de¬ 
sign and comparison of multivendor network 
backbone systems. Each of OSI’s hierarchically 
organized seven layers consists of protocols that 
guide the performance of certain data commu¬ 
nications functions. Not every layer is com¬ 
plete, and each layer may offer several protocol 
options. (See “OSI Standards Bolster Data 
Communications,” MMS November, 1987, 
Page 69.) 

There is ample room within OSI for the 
development of more finely tuned, OSI-com- 
patible commercial products and protocol sub¬ 
sets. For instance, OSI’s lower layers have been 
dominated for some time by X.25 packet¬ 
switching standards for public data networks, 
established by the CCITT, and by Ethernet 
local area network (LAN) standards, developed 
by DEC, Intel Corp. and Xerox Corp. and 
incorporated as protocols 802.2 and 802.3 of 
the IEEE. In addition, users’ groups associated 
with General Motor Corp.’s Manufacturing 
Automation Protocol (MAP) and Boeing Com¬ 
puter Services’ Technical and Office Protocols 
(TOP) are elaborating OSI-based standards. 

Still, at least in past years, it seemed as if ISO 
was finalizing a full suite of OSI protocols 
about as swiftly as molasses climbing uphill 
during a cold wave. The organization’s travails 
are understandable. ISO is a complex mix of 
standards committees whose output must satis¬ 
fy user and vendor members from many partic¬ 
ipating countries. The process has been further 
slowed by the pull-and-tug of competing inter¬ 
ests when vendors attempt to insinuate propri¬ 
etary standards into OSI. (IBM has tried sever¬ 
al times to gain acceptance of LU6.2 as an OSI 
prospective upper layer peer-to-peer standard, 
so far without success.) And compliance testing 
of the growing range of commercial products 


presumably conforming to OSI remains a seri¬ 
ous issue. 

Yet, 10 years of work on OSI has created a 
foundation that makes possible the creation of 
practical products today. 

Touch Communications, for example, offers 
host- and controller-resident versions of 
TOUCH OSI conforming to the MAP/TOP 3.0 
specifications, along with a language-indepen¬ 
dent programming interface. These products 
allow users to view an entire network of dissim¬ 
ilar computers and resources as an extension of 
their local system. 

A number of recent and forthcoming events 
also indicate progress in bringing OSI protocols 
to practical fruition. The Government Open 
Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP), 
specified by the National Bureau of Standards, 
requires OSI as the standard reference in bids 
to all government agencies for new data pro¬ 
cessing and communications systems. In addi¬ 
tion, the here-and-now reality of OSI will be 
demonstrated at the Enterprise Networking 
Event International in Baltimore next June via 
an OSI network connecting three to 12 vendors 
in each of nine sites. 

IBM, for its part, has established a somewhat 
ambivalent relationship with OSI. OSI, after 
all, can be seen as an alternative to SNA for 
end-users who prefer to avoid complete reli¬ 
ance on IBM. “Many companies feel threat¬ 
ened by IBM dominance,” says Ed Stevens of 
Systems Strategies. “OSI is an outgrowth of 
that apprehension.” Brian McGann, vice presi¬ 
dent of product strategy and alliances at Touch 
Communications, agrees that companies are 
trying to get away from being locked into sole- 
source vendors and proprietary solutions. He 
points out that OSI acts as a rallying point next 
to SNA around which all other suites will 
evolve. 

Thus, IBM and, indirectly, system integra¬ 
tors, face a classic dilemma. How to help cus¬ 
tomers who wish to network machines from 
IBM and other vendors using non-proprietary 
standards, without thereby losing business to 
competitors? 

IBM’s solution, according to Network Strate¬ 
gies’ Passmore, is to remain firm in supporting 
SNA as the protocol of choice for IBM systems, 
while positioning OSI as a compatible means of 
accessing SNA within multivendor environ¬ 
ments. Thus, end-users can have both SNA and 
OSI. At the same time, IBM is selling OSI 
products primarily in Europe, where the de¬ 
mand has been strongest, while holding back to 
see how U.S. markets develop. 


OSI acts as a 
rallying point 
next to SNA 
around which 
all other 
suites will 
evolve. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


49 




CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 


IBM’s involvement with OSI takes a number 
of forms. The company is a member of several 
OSI organizations including ISO itself; the Cor¬ 
poration for Open Systems (COS), a MacLean, 
Va., forum of U.S. vendors and users that 
promotes and tests OSI standards; and the 
OSINET project, coordinated by the National 
Bureau of Standards to accelerate testing and 
use of OSI. 

OSI products from IBM include software 
based on the Qualified Logical Link Control 
(QLLC) protocol that allows users to run SNA 
sessions over X.25 packet-switched networks, 
and programs that support X.400, an OSI 
upper layer protocol for message-handling ap¬ 
plications. IBM is also developing OSI software 
at several European research centers. 

Therefore, OSI remains promising as the one 
potentially all-pervasive, internationally ac¬ 


cepted protocol suite with which all existing 
proprietary backbones (including SNA and 
DECnet) will be congruent. Whether an end- 
user should move to implement it now, or hold 
back to await further protocol specification, 
still remains an open question. 

TCP/IP: available now 

Network users reluctant to cast their fate 
with SNA don’t have to wait for OSI to get its 
act together. TCP/IP already exists as a proven 
network standard supported by more than 100 
vendors. 

TCP/IP, which generally conforms to OSI 
layers 4 (Transport) and 3 (Network), is part of 
a larger grouping—the Internet protocol suite 
—whose Application Layer (level 7) includes 
standards for file transfer, virtual terminal em¬ 
ulation (remote login) and electronic mail capa- 


COMBINED HIERARCHICAL/PEER SNA NETWORK 



PU 

PU 

2.1 

4 


SYSTEM/36 

APPN PEER NETWORK 

LEN-LOW ENTRY NETWORKING 
NCP-NETWORK CONTROL PROGRAM 
PU-PHYSICAL UNIT 


PU 

PU 

4 

2.1 


37X5 NCP 37X5 NCP 

HIERARCHICAL SNA NETWORK 


SNA-SYSTEMS NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 
APPN-ADVANCED PEER-TO-PEER NETWORK 
SSCP-SYSTEM SERVICES CONTROL POINT 



SYSTEM/36 

SNA/LEN PEER NETWORK 

SOURCE: NETWORK STRA TEGIES INC. 


Future SNA configurations could combine the advantages of hierarchical control of thou¬ 
sands of nodes and devices with the peer-oriented communications capabilities of systems 
based on PU2.1 /LU6.2 protocols. Here, a centralized SNA backbone facilitates wide-area 
communications between two local peer networks. The Low Entry Networking system (right) 
enables IBM PCs to establish point-to-point sessions on a Token-Ring Network without host 
involvement. The Advanced Peer-to-Peer Networking system (left) iinks nodes directly to each 
other over arbitrary network topologies. 


50 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 























































Now Key Tronic, Here are standard or enhanced 

for years the IBM* PC, XT or AT or PS/2 key- 
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quality advantages the industry 
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facturing process that assures every little. And no keyboard manufac- 


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keycap’s durability and legibility. 
And a 30 million lifecycle rating, 
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A crisp . tactile feel 
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What's more, highly automated term to describe the crisp 
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ity control make it possible ■^^Jr 
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turer, here or abroad, can guaran¬ 
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With manufacturing facilities in 
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* IBM PC, XT. AT and PS, 2 are registered trademarks of the IBM Corporation. 


CIRCLE NO. 2 ON INQUIRY CARD 











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CIRCLE NO. 25 ON INQUIRY CARD 









CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 


bilities. At present, the Internet family com¬ 
prises the world’s most widely used set of 
non-proprietary network standards. 

TCP/IP’s origins have heavily influenced its 
evolution. Developed in the early 1970s by 
diverse researchers involved with the Arpanet 
system of the Defense Department’s Advanced 
Research Projects Agency, TCP/IP in time be¬ 
came symbiotically joined with two other sys¬ 
tems: Ethernet, which provides lower layer net¬ 
work standards for TCP/IP, and the Berkeley 
UNIX 4.2 operating system elaborated at the 
University of California. 

Arpanet users included members of research 
and academic centers. When such individuals 
moved on to companies like Apollo and Sun, 
they carried along their enthusiasm for TCP/IP 
as the protocol of choice for linking engineering 
and technical workstations. 

While still typically implemented on UNIX 
machines over Ethernet LANs, TCP/IP is not 
necessarily restricted to either. In recent years, 
this standard has found its way into other 
operating systems as its use has spread from 
government and academic environments to the 
office arena. 

How should OEMs regard TCP/IP? Is it a 
system whose time is rapidly coming to an end, 
squeezed between SNA and OSI? Even the 
Defense Department, TCP/IP’s godfather, has 
announced its intention to migrate to OSI. Or 
does TCP/IP have years of useful life left? The 
latter seems to be the answer. Like Mark 
Twain’s death notice, any news of TCP/IP’s 
imminent demise is greatly exaggerated. 

“Since OSI hasn’t moved as quickly as ex¬ 
pected, TCP/IP has become a de facto OSI,” 
states Apollo’s Alunni. “It makes people com¬ 
fortable who are OSI-oriented, but can’t wait 
for ISO to roll out the protocols.” Steve Span- 
ier, technical marketing manager at Excelan, 
believes that it will be years before OSI ap¬ 
proaches TCP/IP’s popularity. It takes a long 
time to push through a set of protocols that 
pleases everyone, and different versions of OSI 
products will have to go through the same 
debugging process that TCP/IP programs have 
already faced. Alunni asks, “Since TCP/IP does 
what people want now at OSI levels 3 and 4, 
what’s to gain by waiting?” 

Excelan offers TCP/IP-based Ethernet LAN 
controller boards for UNIX, DEC’S VMS, Ap¬ 
ple’s Macintosh and IBM’s PC-DOS operating 
systems. Using a front-end communications 
processor takes the burden of processing proto¬ 
cols off the host CPU, freeing the latter for 
more efficient handling of its other tasks, ac¬ 
cording to Excelan. The company, however, is 


not putting all its eggs in the TCP/IP basket; 
Excelan is also developing products based on 
MAP/TOP protocols. 

As for SNA: “In theory, an IBM environment 
is a little more exclusive and harder to deal with 
than TCP/IP specifications, which have been in 
the public domain for a long time,” says Span- 
ier. SNA, after all, is supported by a single 
vendor with its own interests at stake; TCP/IP 


TCP/IP exists as a proven 
network standard supported by 
well over 100 vendors. 


was put together under the stimulus of a gov¬ 
ernment agency with everyone’s interests at 
stake, he notes. 

Even IBM, which might prefer to deal with 
OSI as the only complementary system, has got 
religion over TCP/IP. “If they want to sell a 
mainframe to a shop that has a cluster of 
engineering workstations, they’ll provide a con¬ 
nection to those machines,” says Alunni. “It’s 
notable that they showed up at last year’s 
TCP/IP Interoperability Conference.” At that 
meeting, sponsored by Advanced Computing 
Environments of Cupertino, Calif., IBM gave 
technical presentations on the use of TCP/IP in 
conjunction with the VM and MS-DOS operat¬ 
ing systems. 

The bottom line on TCP/IP, according to 
Spanier: You can build the best machine techni¬ 
cally, but it won’t sell if it can’t communicate 
with other types of machines. TCP/IP is the 
best way to connect diverse systems today. 


Sorting things out 

So how do OEMs help their customers sort 
through their network standards options and, 
in so doing, determine what kind of connectivi¬ 
ty software to offer them? 

“Keep an eye on IBM’s LU6.2,” says Systems 
Strategies’ Stevens. “It gives added flexibility to 
end users with an investment in machines from 
IBM and other vendors and could allow IBM to 
capture networks that might have otherwise 
gone to TCP/IP or OSI.” 

Network Strategies’ Passmore stresses that a 
decision on what protocols to support depends 
primarily on what machines you are dealing 
with. “If you’re an IBM shop, go with SNA,” he 
says. “If you’re in a multivendor environment, 
with a mix of equipment in which no vendor 
predominates, consider TCP/IP. It supports 
peer-to-peer communications better than SNA 


Third parties 
are the logical 
source of 
connectivity 
software for 
OEMs. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


53 






CONNECTIVITY SOFTWARE 


does for now, and many TCP/IP products are 
available. But down the road looms OSI, which 
will ultimately replace TCP/IP. This is not a 
question of if, but when.” □ 


Interest Quotient (Circle One) 
High 523 Medium 524 Low 525 



Companies 

mentioned in this article 


Apple Computer Inc. 

Digital Equipment Corp. 

Micom-lnterlan 

Rabbit Software Corp. 

Systems Strategies Inc. 

20525 Mariani Ave. 

129 Parker St. 

155 Swanson Road 

Great Valley Corporate Center 

225 W. 34th St. 

Cupertino, Calif. 95014 

Maynard, Mass. 01754 

Boxborough, Mass. 01719 

7 Great Valley Parkway E. 

New York, N.Y. 10001 

(408) 973-4409 

(617) 897-5111 

(617) 263-9929 

Malvern, Pa. 19355 

(212) 279-8400 

Circle 325 

Circle 329 

Circle 333 

(215) 647-0440 

Circle 336 

Circle 340 

Apollo Computer Inc. 

Excelan Inc. 

Network 


Touch Communications Inc. 

330 Billerica Road 

2180 Fortune Drive 

Research Corp. 

Retix Internetworking Co. 

10 Victor Square 

Chelmsford, Mass. 01824 

San Jose, Calif. 95131 

2380 North Rose Ave. 

2644 30th St. 

Scotts Valley, Calif. 95066 

(617) 256-6600 

(408) 434-2300 

Oxnard, Calif. 93030 

Santa Monica, Calif. 90405 

(408) 438-4800 

Circle 326 

Circle 330 

(805) 485-2700 

(213) 399-2200 

Circle 341 



Circle 334 

Circle 337 


Bridge 

Hewlett-Packard Co. 



Ungermann-Bass Inc. 

Communications Inc. 

3000 Hanover St. 

Orion Network 

SBE Inc. 

2560 Mission College Blvd. 

2081 Stierlin Road 

P.O. Box 10301 

Systems Inc. 

2400 Bisso Lane 

Santa Clara, Calif. 95050 

Mountain View, Calif. 94043 

Palo Alto, Calif. 94303-0890 

Suite 350 

Concord, Calif. 94520 

(408) 496-0111 

(415) 969-4400 

(415) 857-1501 

1995 University Ave. 

(415) 680-7722 

Circle 342 

Circle 327 

Circle 331 

Berkeley, Calif. 94704 
(415) 649-4000 

Circle 338 

The Wollongong Group Inc. 

Communications 

IBM Corp. 

Circle 335 

Sun Microsystems Inc. 

1129 San Antonio Road 

Solutions Inc. 

Old Orchard Road 


2750 Coast Ave. 

Palo Alto, Calif. 94303 

2125 Hamilton Ave. 

Armonk, N Y. 10504 


Mountain View, Calif. 94043 

(415) 962-7100 

San Jose, Calif. 95125 

(914) 765-1900 


(415) 960-1300 

Circle 343 

(408) 559-1118 

Circle 328 

Circle 332 


Circle 339 



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CIRCLE NO. 26 ON INQUIRY CARD 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


54 












Bill Angers, Eagle High-Rise Services. 


The Toshiba Tiooo 
Portable Personal 
Computer 

The Toshiba's new Tiooo laptop 
computer is so portable you can take it 
almost anywhere! The smallest, lightest 
(only 6.4 pounds) addition to the Toshiba 
laptop family gives you the power of a 
desktop PC in places you never dreamed 
possible. 

The Tiooo, Toshiba’s most affordable 
laptop, features MS-DOS®2.ll in ROM. 512 
KB RAM, and a built-in 720 KB 3-1/2" disk 
drive. This lightweight laptop runs up to 
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a super-twist LCD screen for easier 
viewing, in addition, the optional 768 KB 
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Call Hall-Mark today for the go- 
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Huntsville (205) 837-8700 

Arizona 

Phoenix (602) 437-1200 

California 

Bay Area (408) 432-0900 
Orange County (714) 669-4100 
Sacramento (916) 722-8600 


San Diego (619) 268-1201 

San Fernando Valley (818) 716-3300 

West Los Angeles (213) 217-8400 

Colorado 

Denver (303) 790-1662 
Connecticut (203) 269-0100 

Florida 

Ft Lauderdale (305) 971-9280 


Orlando (305) 855-4020 
Tampa Bay (813) 855-5773 

Georgia 

Atlanta (404) 447-8000 

Illinois 

Chicago (312) 860-3800 

Indiana 

Indianapolis (317) 872-8875 


Kanaas Mlsaouri 

Kansas City (913) 888-4747 St Louis (314) 291-5350 
Maryland New Jersey 

Baltimore (301) 988-9800 Fairfield (201) 575-4415 

Massachusetts New York 

Boston (617) 935-9777 Long Island (516) 737-0600 

Minnesota Rochester (716) 244-9290 

Minneapolis (612) 941-2600 North Carolina 

Raleigh (919) 872-0712 


Ohio Texas 

Cleveland (216) 349-4632 Austin (512) 258-8848 

Southern Ohio (614) 888-3313 Dallas (214) 553-4300 
Oklahoma Houston (713) 781-6100 

Tulsa(918) 251-1108 Utah 

Pennsylvania Salt Lake City (801) 972-1008 

Philadelphia (215) 355-7300 Wlaconsln 

Milwaukee (414) 797-7844 


MS-DOS, Lotus, Symphony and Multimate are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation 


© 1988 Hall-Mark Electronic s Corp7400-4053 
Hall-Mark Electronics is a su bsidiary of the Tyler Corp, 


CIRCLE NO. 27 ON INQUIRY CARD 













The one and only 
NEC Pinwriter® P9XL 
dot matrix printer. It can 
handle every printing job 
around the office with 
exceptional speed and 
agility. 

Snap in a multistrike 
film ribbon and the P9XL 
will turn out top-drawer letters and documents. At a 
speed of 140 cps in letter quality mode. And with its 
impressive speed of400 cps in draft mode, it can barrel 

through payroll, invoices, multipart 
forms, and continuous forms. 
Switch to color and you can 
whip around a few curves, 
charts, graphs and present¬ 
ations. On paper or transparencies. 


Computers and Communications 










In fact the only thing the P9XL doesn’t do 
around the office is break down. But then NEC is the 
largest manufacturer of 24-pin printers in the world. 
With the highest reliability standards in the industry. 

So if you want a single nec printers, they only stop 

printer that can do every- whenyouwanttoemto. 

thing, there’s only one in the 

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For more information and the name of the NECIS dealer nearest you, call 1-800-343-4418 (in MA 617-264-8635). 
Or write: NEC Information Systems, Dept. 1610,1414 Massachusetts Ave., Boxborough, MA 01719. 


CIRCLE NO. 28 ON INQUIRY CARD 



























• v v# : ' 


Fully featured OEM 

CCITT V.22 bis 
(2400 bps) 

modems. • 
in 12 sq. in. 


± y 

/ 



Others offer less capability—greater 
size. CTS offers greater capability—less 
size. The choice is yours in three ad¬ 
vanced, 2400 bps full duplex modems: 

CUSTOM DESIGN. First known bat¬ 
tery powered modem utilizing surface 
mount manufacturing technologies for 
laptop microcomputers □ Occupies 
less than 13 square inches □ Low 
power—consumes less than 1 watt. 

CTS2424STM. Smallest available 
standard applications modem with 
MNP* error correcting Class 4 protocol 


□ TTL interfaced □ Compact 16 
square inches □ Fully Hayes t com¬ 
mand set compatible □ Integral adap¬ 
tive equalizer in sophisticated CTS 
C-MOS designed signal processor □ 
Optional European fallback capabilities 
of CCITT V.22 A/B, V.23 and V.21 □ 
Less than $180.00 each in quantity. 

CTS2424STH. Smallest, lowest pow¬ 
er standard modem □ Integral adap¬ 
tive equalizer in advanced CTS C-MOS 
designed signal processor □ 12 square 
inches □ Uses less than 1 watt power 


□ Incorporates Hayes command 
set—offers European compatibilities 
V.22 bis, V.22 A/B, V.23 and V.21 plus 
guard tone capabilities □ Under 
$160.00 each in quantity. 

Call toll free today 1-800-328-6104 
or write CTS Fabri-Tek, Inc. Datacomm 
Products Division, 6900 
Shady Oak Road, Eden 
Prairie, Minnesota 55344 
for a copy of our new full 
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Custom OEM Modems. 



CIRCLE NO. 29 


CTS MEANS RELIABILITY 

CTS Fabri-Tek, Inc. □ Datacomm Products Division 



Data Pump Custom 
Designed 2400 Full 
Duplex Modem. 
Circle No. 30 



TTL Interfaced 2400 bps 
Full Duplex Modem for 
Small Quantity Users. 
Circle No. 31 



Quadmodem Four 2400 
bps Full Duplex Modems 
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Circle No. 32 


Half-Pak #24 IBM T 
PC Compatible Half 
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Circle No. 33 


■■■■■■■■■■■■■■HHaHHBHBaHaHHHiNew to the Industry Since 1896. 

‘Registered trademark of Microcom. ^Registered trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. tRegistered trademark of International Business Machines, Inc. 












MODEMS 


DISPUTES SHAKE UP 
2,400-bps MODEM 
MARKET 

MNP Class 5 data compression boosts 
modem throughput, whereas Class 4 
error correction stirs controversy 


David Simpson, Senior Editor 

The 2,400-bits-per-second modem market is 
benefitting from significant technological ad¬ 
vances. But there’s controversy. Most of the 
debate centers on data compression and error- 
correction techniques. 

To boost throughput, many modem manu¬ 
facturers are adding data-compression algo¬ 
rithms to their devices. To preserve compatibil¬ 
ity, some companies are using the algorithms 
included in MNP (Microcom Networking Pro¬ 


tocol, developed and promulgated by 
Microcom Inc.) Class 5—the fifth performance 
level of MNP (see “MNP: A class-y act”). 

Double-speed squeeze play 

Actual throughput increases resulting from 
MNP data compression vary depending on the 
type of file being transmitted. Users, however, 
can generally expect a 2:1 compression ratio. 
That means that a 2,400-bps modem would 
have an effective throughput of 4,800 bps. In 
reality, the total throughput increase is due in 


2,400-bps MODEMS CHASE THE LEADER OF THE PACK 


700- 
600- 
500 
400- 
300- 
200 - 
100 - 
0 - 


1,200 BPS 
2,400 BPS 


MODEM SHIPMENTS 
(THOUSAND UNITS) 



1987 


'88 


•89 


*90 


SOURCE: INTERNATIONAL DATA CORP. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


59 








































MODEMS 


MNP SHAKES HANDS WITH OSI 


OSI 

MODEL 


z: 


APPLICATION 


PRESENTATION 


SESSION 


TRANSPORT 


NETWORK 


LINK 


PHYSICAL 


TYPICAL 

APPLICATION 


MNP 

APPLICATION 








5 


5 




5 





CPU 




CPU 



APPLICATION 




APPLICATION 










PRESENTATION 




PRESENTATION 










SESSION 




SESSION 










TRANSPORT 




TRANSPORT 










NETWORK 




NETWORK 




>—. J 


LINK 


/ 


LINK 








/ 



/ 





PHYSICAL 




PHYSICAL 



MODEM 




MNP MODEM 



/ 





SOURCE: MICROCOM INC. 


MNP conforms 

to the OSI net¬ 
work reference 
model. Error de¬ 
tection and con¬ 
trol take place at 
the Link Layer. 


part (37 percent) to implementation of the 
lower classes of MNP, and in part (63 percent) 
to the data compression algorithm included in 
MNP Class 5. 

According to Greg Pearson, vice president of 
technology and planning at Microcom, the data 
compression in MNP Class 5 takes advantage 
of two techniques: run-length encoding (an 
algorithm that reduces repeated data se¬ 
quences) and Adaptive Huffman Encoding. 

With Adaptive Huffman Encoding, the 
modem assigns a token to each 8-bit pattern 
and continually adjusts a frequency table. For 
the most frequently occurring patterns, the 
modem sends the shortest tokens. In other 
words, frequently occurring characters are rep¬ 
resented employing less than the eight bits 
generally used to represent a character. As 
such, the data-compression technique dynami¬ 
cally adapts to particular data patterns. 

Pearson claims that, with certain types of 
files, data compression could exceed a 2:1 ratio. 
“The more pattern there is in the data, the 
more compression,” he explains, adding, how¬ 


ever, that “if the data is very random, it might 
actually slow down throughput.” 

Microcom claims that performance advan¬ 
tages range from 1.3 to 1.0 and 2.0 to 1.0, 
depending on the compressibility of the file 
being sent. The hardest types of files to com¬ 
press are .COM or .EXE files, followed by 
spreadsheet files. The easiest types to compress 
are word processing and print files. 

All classes of MNP are in the public domain 
—available to any vendor—but Microcom li¬ 
censes Class 5 for a one-time fee of $2,500. 
Licensees do not get code from Microcom, but 
they do get a complete specification on how the 
data-compression technique works. 

Look for manufacturers of 2,400-bps mod¬ 
ems to enhance their units with MNP Class 5 
data compression over the next few months. 
Some manufacturers—such as Concord Data 
Systems Inc., Microcom, MultiTech Systems 
Inc. and U.S. Robotics Inc.—shipped MNP 
Class 5 modems as early as last year. 

Beat of a different baud 

However, not all major modem manufactur¬ 
ers are boarding the MNP bandwagon. One 
notable absentee is Hayes Microcomputer 
Products Inc., which prefers its own proprie¬ 
tary method of data compression—called 
Adaptive Data Compression—in its V-series 
modems. 

Like Microcom, Hayes claims a possible 2:1 
data compression ratio, and effective through¬ 
put rates of 4,800 bps on its 2,400-bps mod¬ 
ems. And like the MNP method, Hayes’ tech¬ 
nique dynamically adapts to the type of data 
pattern being sent. 

Not surprisingly, Hayes claims better perfor¬ 
mance than MNP, based on its own compara¬ 
tive tests. “We can achieve better throughput, 
particularly on random data,” contends John 
Copeland, director of product development. 
Hayes is working with other manufacturers to 
develop modems that are compatible with its 
V-series data compression and error control. 

The problem for buyers, of course, is incom¬ 
patibility between modems with different data 
compression techniques, particularly in dial-up 
environments. If an MNP modem is linked to, 
say, a Hayes V-series, the two devices can 
communicate, but they can’t use data compres¬ 
sion or error control. 

LAP-B vs. MNP Class 4 

The issue of data compression in modems is 
a mere skirmish compared to the war over 
error-correction (or error-control) methods. 


60 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 












































































































































































MODEMS 


The warring factions? Proponents of LAP-B vs. 
proponents of MNP Class 4. 

LAP-B (Link Access Procedure-Balanced) is 
the link layer protocol used in the CCITT X.25 
standard and is an international standard for 
error correction. Proponents of LAP-B, such as 
Hayes, argue, among other points, that X.25/ 
LAP-B is a standard (MNP is a proposed 


standard); changes to it are publicly controlled 
(Microcom reserves the right to change MNP); 
it’s compatible with X.25 networks; has sup¬ 
port for multiple virtual circuits; and has a 
standardized negotiation scheme. 

More important, argue LAP-B proponents, 
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Networks) 
protocols compare closely with X.25, making 


MNP: A CLASS-Y ACT 


The Microcom Networking Protocol (MNP), a 
communications protocol that supports interactive 
and file-transfer applications, divides into six classes, 
or performance levels. According to Microcom Inc., 
the MNP performance ladder includes the following 
rungs: 

Class 1, the lowest performance level, uses an 
asynchronous byte-oriented half-duplex method of 
exchanging data. The protocol efficiency of a Class 1 
implementation is about 70 percent; in other words, a 
2,400-bps modem using MNP Class 1 will have a 
1,690-bit-per-second (bps) throughput. 

Class 2 uses asynchronous byte-oriented 
full-duplex data exchange. The protocol efficiency of a 
Class 2 modem is about 84 percent (a 2,400-bps 
modem will realize 2,000-bps throughput). 

Class 3 uses synchronous bit-oriented full-duplex 
data exchange. This approach is more efficient than 
the asynchronous, byte-oriented approach, which 
takes 10 bits to represent 8 data bits because of the 
"start” and “stop” framing bits. The synchronous 
data format eliminates the need for start and stop 
bits. Users still send data asynchronously to a Class 
3 modem, but the modems communicate with each 
other synchronously. 

The protocol efficiency of a Class 3 implementation 
is about 108 percent (a 2,400-bps modem will actually 
run at a 2,600-bps throughput). 

Class 4 adds two techniques—Adaptive Packet 
Assembly and Data Phase Optimization. In the former 
technique, if the data channel is relatively error-free, 
MNP assembles larger data packets to increase 
throughput. If the data channel is introducing many 
errors, then MNP assembles smaller data packets for 
transmission. Although smaller data packets increase 
protocol overhead, they concurrently decrease the 
throughput penalty of data retransmissions—more 
data is successfully transmitted on the first try. 

Data Phase Optimization is a technique for 
eliminating some of the administrative information in 
the data packets, which further reduces protocol 
overhead. 

The protocol efficiency of a Class 4 implementation 
is about 120 percent (a 2,400-bps Class 4 modem will 


effectively yield a throughput of 2,900 bps). 

Class 5 adds data compression, which uses a 
real-time adaptive algorithm to compress data. The 
real-time capabilities of the algorithm allow the data 
compression to operate on interactive terminal data 
as well as file-transfer data. The adaptive nature of 
the algorithm refers to its ability to continuously 
analyze user data and adjust the compression 
parameters to maximize data throughput. 

The effectiveness of data compression algorithms 
depends on the data pattern being processed. Most 
data patterns will benefit from data compression, with 
performance advantages typically ranging from 1.3 to 
1.0 and 2.0 to 1.0, although some files may be 
compressed at even higher ratios. The following types 
of user files are listed in increasing compressibility: 
.COM or .EXE files, spreadsheet files, word 
processing files and print files. 

A realistic estimate of the overall compression 
factor is 1.6 to 1, or 63 percent. This is equivalent to 
having a net protocol efficiency of 200 percent; in 
other words, a 2,400-bps modem can achieve a 
4,800-bps throughput. 

Class 6 applies mainly to 9,600-bps modems, and 
adds two features: Universal Link Negotiation and 
Statistical Duplexing. 

High-speed V.29 and V.32 modems do not provide 
compatibility with each other or with the lower speed 
modulation techniques found in 212A and V.22 bis 
modems. To overcome this problem, Universal Link 
Negotiation allows MNP modems to begin operations 
at a common slower speed and to negotiate the use 
of an alternate high-speed modulation technique. 

If the high-speed carrier technology uses 
half-duplex modulation, MNP Class 6 provides 
Statistical Duplexing. This algorithm monitors the user 
data traffic pattern to allocate utilization of the 
half-duplex modulation dynamically to deliver 
full-duplex service. 

With Class 6 modems based on V.29 technology, 
up to 19.2K bps throughput is possible on dial-up 
circuits in most applications. MNP Class 6 
incorporates the Class 5 data compression algorithm. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


61 





See Us At 

INTERFAC 

Booth #542 / 


r,tAoD«->* 

,p~CM“ 


MNP Class 5 Data 
Compression Modems 
from Multi-Tech Systems: 

When it has 
to be as fast 
as it is good 


modems, as well as non-MNP modems. And if you 
wish, you can even upgrade your present Multi-Tech 
Class 3 & 4 modems to Class 5 (call us for details). 


— 

In the May 12,1987 edition of PC Magazine where 
87 modems were reviewed, only three were 
awarded Editors Choice : “For a high-performing 
2,400-bps modem with a slew of extras, check out 

AAi ilti.Tor'h Qi/ctomo' AAi il+iA A /-,»■»-> OO^ C \A/ith 


30 


MAGAZINE 

iviuiii-icur 1 oybiemb iviuiiiiviuuern^^^fc... wun 
[its] high immunity to line noise and the extra 

EDITOR’S 

CHOICE 

advantage of MNP error correction, [this modem] 
should do a fine job of managing fast, error-free 
data communications." 


• Our Class 5 modems incorporate all of the features 
of our Class 3 versions. Features like phone number 
& configuration memory, auto-repeat dial and “AT” 
command compatibility. And Multi-Tech’s seventeen 
years of modem manufacturing experience. 


• In the dial-up modem world, Class 3 MNP is the 
hands-down choice for hardware-based error 
correction. With its 100% error-free transmission, the 
MNP protocol is used in dozens of manufacturers’ 
1200 & 2400 bps modems, and our MultiModem224E 
modems have been recognized as the best of their 
kind (see box). 

• Well, the best just got better. Multi-Tech modems 
now offer MNP Class 5 data compression along with 
error-correction. Class 5’s 2-to-1 compression and 
serial port speed conversion means that you can buy 
a 2400 bps modem from Multi-Tech and run it at 
speeds of up to 4800 bps*. Error free! 

• Multi-Tech Class 5 modems will communicate 
automatically with MNP Class 4 and Class 3 


• Please call us toll-free at 1-800-328-9717, for 
additional information... get a modem that’s as fast as 
it is good! 

* The compression throughput of MNP Class 5 is, like all compression schemes, 
dependent on the type of data being sent. The more ' compressible'' the data, the 
greater the throughput. For example, a typical text file transfer at 2400 bps should 
yield a throughput of between 4400 and 4900 bps. And the MultiModem224E's 
speed conversion and flow control features let you set your modem's RS232C port 
at 4800 or even 9600 bps, to take full advantage of the Class 5 compression. 

Trademarks: MultiTech. MultiModem-Multi-Tech Systems. Inc : PC Magazme- 
Ziff Davis Publishing: MNP-Microcom Network Protocol licensed from Microcom, Inc. 

CIRCLE NO. 34 ON INQUIRY CARD 

MuttiTech|S) 

Systems 

The right answer every time. 


Multi-Tech Systems, Inc. • 82 Second Avenue S.E. • New Brighton, Minnesota 55112 U S A. 

1-800-328-9717 • 1-612-631-3550 • FAX 612-631-3575 • TWX 910-563-3610 (U.S.A.) • Telex 4998372 MLTTC (International) 






















MODEMS 


adaptation of X.25 products to ISDN a rela¬ 
tively simple task. ISDN uses a protocol very 
similar to LAP-B for communication on its D 
channel. This protocol—LAP-D— provides 
multiple virtual circuit capability at the link 
layer, in addition to supporting the X.25 packet 
layer. 

LAP-D is the basic user-network signalling 
protocol for ISDN and is an extension of 
LAP-B. ISDN includes specific provisions for 
carrying X.25 packet layer logical data connec¬ 
tions on the ISDN D channel on top of the 
.LAP-D link layer protocol and also for carrying 
X.25/LAP-B connections on the higher speed 
ISDN B channel. 

“We went with it,” explains Hayes’ Cope¬ 
land, “because we could develop products that 
would work modem-to-modem using error con¬ 
trol as well as being able to work with X.25 
networks.” 

Nevertheless, other modem suppliers are 
going with MNP Class 4 error correction. 
MNP’s strong suit lies in its large installed base. 

However, it appears that both LAP-B and 
MNP Class 4 will survive, at least for the time 
being. Some companies offer support for either 
error-correction method, and some, such as 
Cermetek Microelectronics Inc. and General 
Datacomm Inc., plan to offer modems with 
both types of error correction built in. 

Copeland admits that “if there appears to be 
a real need for the so-called ‘dual-mode’ mod¬ 
ems, Hayes would develop one. But the prob¬ 
lem we have with MNP is that it’s not a CCITT 
standard, and it’s not as well-documented.” 


Last October, the CCITT convened to re¬ 
solve the LAP-B vs. MNP debate. But, the 
standards body left the issue unresolved, sug¬ 
gesting that the industry should find a way to 
incorporate both protocols in a new standard, 
to be called LAP-M. 

Groups that want to retain compatibility 
with the installed base of MNP modems are 
demanding that the new standard have both 
LAP-B and MNP protocols in it. The more 
zealous LAP-B proponents would prefer that 
MNP was not mentioned at all. Other groups 
are arguing for LAP-M as a primary protocol, 
with MNP as an “appendix” to the standard. 
Finally, it’s possible that no standard at all will 
evolve. 

If it comes at all, the new standard will 
probably not arrive until 1989; the next plenary 
session of the CCITT takes place this Novem¬ 
ber. Meanwhile, users can’t wait: demand for 
error-correction modems is rising steadily (al¬ 
though currently less than 3 percent of the 
world’s installed base of modems has any form 
of error control). 

However, buyers should not despair. The 
final standard may be compatible with, or 
include, both error-correction methods. And 
for applications that demand both protocols, 
dual-mode modems will be available. On the 
downside, modems with both MNP and LAP-B 
will cost more. □ 


Interest Quotient (Circle One) 
High 526 Medium 527 Low 528 


The problem 
for buyers is 
incompatibility 
between 
modems with 
different data 
compression 
techniques. 


VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 


// 

/ 

$4 

/ 

A 

/ 

/ 

/ 

ff 

/ 

/ 

ACER TECHNOLOGIES CORP. 

401 Charcot Ave., San Jose, CA 95131, (408) 922-0333 
1212/PC 300, 1200 FSK, PSK 

2400/SA 300, 600, FSK, DPSK, 

1200, 2400 QAM 

2400/PC 300, 600, FSK, DPSK, 

1200, 2400 QAM 

full duplex 

half, full 
duplex 
full duplex 

asynch 

asynch, synch 

asynch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 
auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$149(Q1) 

$329(Q1) 

$260(Q1) 

Circle 622 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.21, 
V.22B compatible; plugs into PC 
compatible 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22A, 
V.22 bis compatible 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22B, 
V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 
PC compatible 

ANCHOR AUTOMATION INC. 

20675 Bahama St., Chatsworth, CA 91311, (818) 998-6100 




Circle 623 

1200E 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 
duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$189(Q1) 

Bell 103J, 212A compatible 

1200i 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 
duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$149(Q1) 

Bell 103J, 212A compatible; 
plugs into IBM PC bus 

24001 

300, 1200, 
2400 

FSK, PSK, 
QAM 

half, full 
duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$199(Q1) 

Bell 103J, 212A, CCITT V.21, 
V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 
IBM PC bus 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


63 













VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 



ANDERSON JACOBSON INC. 






Circle 624 

521 Charcot Ave., San Jose, CA 95131, (408) 435-8520 






AJ 2412-AD3H 

300, 1200, 

FSK, QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 


2400 




auto answer 


bis compatible 

AJ 2412-STH 

300,1200, 

FSK, QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$495(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 


2400 




auto answer 


bis compatible 

AJ 2441-1 

300, 1200, 

FSK, QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(01) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.21, 


2400 




auto answer 


V.22, V.22 bis compatible 

APPLE COMPUTER INC. 






Circle 625 

20525 Mariani Ave., 

Cupertino, CA 95014, (408) 996-1010 






Personal Modem 

300, 1200 


full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$399(Q1) 







auto answer 



AT&T 







Circle 626 

295 N. Maple Ave., 1 

Basking Ridge, NJ 07920, (800) 247-1212 





2024A 

2400 

DPSK 

full duplex 

synch 


$1,960(01) 


2224CEO/2224G 

300-2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 


$650/$695(Q1) 

i Bell, Hayes, CCITT V.32 



QAM 





compatible; standalone/ 








multi-mounted version 

4024 

up to 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$475(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 



QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


compatible 

BIZCOMP CORP. 







Circle 627 

532 Mercury Dr., Sunnyvale, CA 94086, (408) 733-7800 






2110 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$429(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, Hayes 




duplex 


auto answer 


compatible; plugs into IBM PC or 








compatible 

4120 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$449(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, 




duplex 


auto answer 


Hayes compatible 

4124 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$599(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis, 


2400 

QAM _ 

duplex 


auto answer 


Hayes compatible 

BLACK BOX CORP. 







Circle 628 

P.O. Box 12800, Pittsburgh, PA 15241, (412) 746-5500 






MD797B 

300, 1200, 

FSK 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$350(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 


2400 


duplex 


auto answer 


bis, Hayes compatible 

MD815B 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$250(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, Hayes 




duplex 


auto answer 


compatible 

BYTCOM 







Circle 629 

2169 Francisco Blvd., Unit H, San Rafael, CA 94901, (415) 485-0700 





24/12 Contac 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$389(Q1); 

Bell 212, CCITT V.22 compatible; 


2400 

DPSK, QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 

$249(0100) 

plugs into IBM 

CASE COMMUNICATIONS INC. 






Circle 630 

7200 Riverwood Dr., Columbia, MD 21046-1199, (301) 290-7710 





4624/VS 

2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 



QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis compatible; standalone or 








plugs into IBM PC 

4648/VS 

2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$795(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 



QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis compatible; standalone or 








plugs into IBM PC 

CERMETEK MICROELECTRONICS INC. 






Circle 631 

1308 Borregas Ave. 

, Sunnyvale, CA 94088-3565, (408) 752-5000 





1200SPC 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$265(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A compatible; plugs 






auto answer 

$193(0100) 

into IBM PC/AT/XT 

2400R 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$545(01); 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 


2400 




auto answer 

$382(0100) 

compatible 

2400SPC 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$395(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A compatible; plugs 


2400 




auto answer 

$277(0100) 

into IBM PC/AT/XT 

CODEX CORP. 







Circle 632 

Maresfield Farm, 7 Blue Hill River Rd., Canton, MA 02021-1097, (617) 364-2000 




2219 

1200 

FSK 

half, full 

asynch 

manual orig./ 

$475(Q1) 

Bell 202S, 202T compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 



2220 

1200, 2400 

PSK 

half, full 

synch 

manual orig./ 

$685(01) 

Bell 201B, 201C compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 



2233 

300, 1200, 

FSK, QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

manual orig./ 

$445(01) 

Bell 103, 212, CCITT V.22 bis 


2400 




auto answer 


compatible 


64 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 






















VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 


/ * 

Cj / 


fi 

4? 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

// 

/ 

f 

/ 

COMPUTER COMMUNICATIONS SPECIALISTS INC. 





Circle 633 

6683 Jimmy Carter 

Blvd., Norcross, GA 30071, (404) 441 

-3114 





Audiomodem II 

1200 

FSK 

half duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$2,495(Q1) 

Bell 202S compatible, verbal 






auto answer 


response to inputs from 
touch-tone phone or hand-held 








terminal 

Audiomodem III 

1200 

FSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 


Bell 103, 202 compatible; plugs 




duplex 


auto answer 


into IBM PC/AT; verbal response 
to inputs from touch-tone phone 








or hand-held terminal 

CONCORD DATA SYSTEMS INC. 






Circle 634 

45 Bartlett St., Marlborough, MA 01752, (617) 460-0808 






224 Autodial Plus 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$425(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 


bis compatible 

224 Series II 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 


bis compatible; standalone or 








plugs into IBM PC 

212 Autodial 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$295<Q1) 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.21, V.22 






auto answer 


compatible 

CTS FABRI-TEK INC. (DATACOMM PRODUCTS DIV.) 





Circle 635 

6900 Shady Oak Rd., Eden Prairie, MN 55344, (612) 941-9100 





2424ADH 

110-2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$395(Q1) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22 



QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis, V.22 A/B compatible 

2424AM H 

110-2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$395(Q1) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22 



QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis, V.22 A/B compatible 

Half-Pak #24 

110-2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$395(01) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22 



QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis, V.22 A/B; plugs into IBM 








PC/AT/XT or compatible 

DATAGRAM CORP. 







Circle 636 

11 Main St., East Greenwich, Rl 02818, (401) 885-4840 






DCE-224 

300, 600, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(Q1); 

Bell 103, 202, 212A, 224, CCITT 


1200, 2400 

PSK, QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 

$500(0100) 

V.21, V.22, V.22 bis, V.23 








compatible 

DATEC INC. 







Circle 637 

2300 Englert Dr., Suite C, Durham, NC 27713, (919) 544-6433 





212SD 

300, 1200 

FSK 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$590(01); 

Bell 103, 113, 212A compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 

$418(0100) 


FASTCOMM DATA CORP. 






Circle 638 

12347-E Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA 22091, (703) 620-3900, (800) 521-2496 




FASTCOMM 2400 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK 


asynch 

auto dial/ 

$619(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 


2400 




auto answer 


compatible; plugs into IBM PC 

FRANKLIN TELECOMMUNICATIONS CORP. 





Circle 639 

733 Lakefield Rd., Westlake Village, CA 91361, (805) 373-8688 





Bright Modem 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 



auto dial/ 


Bell 103, 113, 212A compatible; 






auto answer 


plugs into IBM PC/AT/XT, 








Portable 

FM2400e 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 


asynch, synch 



Bell 103A, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

QAM 





V.22 bis compatible 

FM2400i 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 


asynch 



Bell 103A, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

QAM 





V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 








IBM PC and compatible 

GANDALF DATA INC. 

1020 S. Noel Ave., Wheeling, IL 60090, 

(312) 541-6060 





Circle 640 

ACCESS 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$510(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 

Series 24A 

2400 

QAM 



auto answer 



ACCESS 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$595(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 

Series 24S 

2400 

QAM 



auto answer 


bis compatible 

ACCESS 24V 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 



GENERAL DATACOMM INDUSTRIES INC. 

Straits Turnpike, Middlebury, CT 06762, (203) 574-1118 





Circle 641 

AccuLine 224 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$595(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 

$425(Q100) 

bis compatible 

DataComm 224+ 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 


asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$580(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 

$420(Q100) 

bis compatible 

DeskTop 201 

2400 

DPSK 

half, full 

synch 

manual orig./ 

$690(Q1); 

Bell 201C compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 

$510(Q100) 



MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


65 






















VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 


& 


// 
cf *° 

/ 


/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

.£> £ 
cf g 
& 

/ 

f 

/ 

HAYES MICROCOMPUTER PRODUCTS INC. 

P.O. Box 105203, Atlanta, GA 30348, (404) 449-8791 





Circle 642 

Smartmodem 

1200 

PSK, DPSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$399(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 

1200 



duplex 

auto answer 


compatible 

Smartmodem 

2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$599(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 

2400 


QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis compatible 

V-Series Smart- 

2400 

QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$899(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 

modem 2400 





auto answer 


bis compatible 


IBM Corp. 







Circle 676 

900 King St., Rye Brook, NY 10573, (914) 934-4000 






5853 

1200, 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$690(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 



QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

5842 

1200, 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$719(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 



QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

PC2400 

1200, 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$569(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 



QAM 



auto answer 


compatible; plugs into IBM 








PC/XT/AT 

IDE ASSOCIATES INC. 






Circle 643 

29 Dunham Rd., Billerica, MA 01821, (617) 663-6878 






IDEAcomm 1200S 

1200 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$345(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible; plugs 



QAM 



auto answer 


into IBM PC/AT/XT; includes 








software 

IDEAcomm 2400 

2400 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$645(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, 



QAM 



auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 








IBM PC/AT/XT; includes 








software 

INFINET INC. 







Circle 644 

40 High St., North Andover, MA 01845, (617) 681-0600 






224 Dial 

1200, 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch,synch 

auto dial/ 


Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 



QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis compatible 

IDM 2400 

1200, 1800, 

PSK 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$1,550/ 

CCITT V.26 compatible, 


2400 


duplex 


auto answer 

$1,650(Q1); 

$1,240/ 

$1,320(0100 

rackmount or standalone 

) 

INFOTRON SYSTEMS CORP. 






Circle 645 

Cherry Hill Industrial Center, Bldg. 9, Cherry Hill, NJ 08003, (609) 424-9400 




INM 2400 

1200, 2400 

QAM 

half, full 

synch 

auto dial/ 

$1,550/ 

Bell 201, CCITT V.22 bis 




duplex 


auto answer 

$1,650(01) 

compatible; rackmount or 








standalone 

LEADING EDGE HARDWARE PRODUCTS INC. 

225 Turnpike St., Canton, MA 02021, (617) 828-8150 





Circle 646 

Model "L" Series 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$149(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 

1200B 


QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


compatible; plugs into IBM 
PC/AT/XT or compatible; 
includes Bitcom software 

Model “L” Series 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$289(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 

2400B 

2400 

QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


bis compatible; plugs into IBM 








PC/AT/XT or compatible; 
includes Bitcom software 

MICOM SYSTEMS INC. 






Circle 647 

4100 Los Angeles Ave., Simi Valley, CA 93063, (805) 583-8600 





3124EH 

2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$599(Q1) 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 



QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

MICROCOM INC. 







Circle 648 

1400 Providence Highway, Norwood, MA 02062, (617) 762-9310 





AX/1200c 

1200 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$499(Q1) 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.22 



QPSK 



auto answer 


compatible 

AX/2400 

2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$699(Q1) 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 



QPSK 



auto answer 


compatible 

MITEL DATACOM INC. 






Circle 649 

13873 Park Center Rd., Suite 553, Herndon, VA 22071, (703) 471-1000 





4122ACX 

1200 

DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$700(Q1) 

CCITT V.22 compatible 

4123X 

1200 

FSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$480(Q1) 

CCITT V.21, V.23 compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 



4242X 

2400 

QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$900(Q1) 

CCITT V.22 bis compatible 


66 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 














The Hall-Mark solution 





The Unisys Series 5000 

The Series 5000 Family of multiuser 
microsystems from Unisys represents an 
integral part of their commitment to make the 
UNIX* System V Operating System available 
from micro to mainframe. 

The Series 5000 includes the Model 30, 
which can support up to 16 users, the Model 
50, which supports up 32 users, and the 
Model 90, supporting up to 88 users. 

All Series 5000 systems use the Motorola 
MC680XX microprocessor family as the foun¬ 
dation of their advanced system architecture. 

Hall-Mark offers solutions for your 
computer systems and peripherals needs. 

We carry a broad line of products—from com¬ 
puters to printers to cables and accessories. 
We have the inventory, technical support and 
33 locations nationwide to serve you. 

Call Hall-Mark today for the Series 5000 
from Unisys or any other Unisys product. 

UNiSYS 

Authorized 

Distributor 

(U4LLN*RK) 


Huntsville (205) 837-8700 

Arizona 

Phoenix (602) 437-1200 

California 

Bay Area (408) 432-0900 
Orange County (714) 669-4100 
Sacramento (916) 722-8600 


San Diego (619) 268-1201 

San Fernando Valley (818) 716-3300 

West Los Angeles (213) 217-8400 

Colorado 

Denver (303) 790-1662 
Connecticut (203) 269-0100 

Florida 

Ft. Lauderdale (305) 971-9280 


Orlando (305) 855-4020 
Tampa Bay (813) 855-5773 

Georgia 

Atlanta (404) 447-8000 

llllnola 

Chicago (312) 860-3800 

Indiana 

Indianapolis (317) 872-8875 


Kansas City (913) 888-4747 St. Louis (314) 291-5350 

Maryland New Jersey 

Baltimore (301) 988-9800 Fairfield (201) 575-4415 
Maaaachuaetta New York 

Boston (617) 935-9777 Long Island (516) 737-0600 

Minnesota Rochester (716) 24 

Minneapolis (612) 941-2600 North Care 


244-9290 


ster(716) 
arollna 

Raleigh (919) 872-0712 


Ohio Texaa 

Cleveland (216) 349-4632 Austin (512) 258-8848 

Southern Ohio (614) 888-3313 Dallas (214) 553-4300 
Oklahoma Houston (713) 781-6100 

Tulsa (918) 251-1108 Utah 

Pennaylvania Salt Lake City (801) 972-1008 

Philadelphia (215) 355-7300 Wlaconaln 

Milwaukee (414) 797-7844 


© 1988 Hall-Mark Electronics Corp./400-4055 
Hall-Mark Electronics is a subsidiary of the Tyler Corp. 


CIRCLE NO. 35 ON INQUIRY CARD 


* UNIX and UNIX System v are trademarks of AT&T Bell Laboratories. 

































One big idea 
in one small space. 

The COLORSCAN/2 color graphics work- 

( station “is an idea whose time has come,” 
reported Digital Review. It fits two capabili¬ 
ties-VAX'" access and the ability to run PC 
applications-into one very small, low-profile 
enclosure with quiet, diskless operation. 

It’s a built-in plug-compatible VT'"200 
text/color graphics terminal for all your VMS'" 
and UNIX* information access. And it’s a high 
performance MS-DOS" personal computer for 
today’s business applications. All in one sleek 
ergonomically-designed desktop workstation. ; 

There’s more, too. Parallel VT200 and 
MS-DOS operations. ReGIS'" Sixel, Tektronix'"! 
and EGA plus-compatible color graphics 
(640x480x10 resolution). Built-in cut and 
paste. Full 132-column display. 

In other words, “The COLORSCAN/2,” 
according to Frank J. Derfler, Jr., editor of 
PC Magazine, “is an excellent solution to 
desktop clutter for any combination of PC, 

LAN based and host based applications.” 

To find out more, call Datamedia at 
1-800-DMC-INFO. 


Unretouched screen 

10 x 15 x 2.5 inch base unit 


( OK iRSCAN is a registered trademark of Datamedia Corporation. VAX, VT, VMS and ReGIS are trademarks of Digital Equipment 
< orporatlon. IJNIX Is a registered trademark of AIM Bell Laboratories. MS DC)S Is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. 

Tektronix is a trattenpm of Ifektronix, Inc CIRCLE NO. 36 ON INQUIRY CARD 


The Fbsitive Response' 

11 Trafalgar Square, Nashua, NH 03063 







VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 


// 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

./ 

£ 

</ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

MULTI-TECH SYSTEMS INC. 






Circle 650 

82 Second Ave. S.E., New Brighton, MN 55112, (612) 631-3550, (800) 328-9717 




MT212EH 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$399(Q1) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, Hayes 



DPSK 

duplex 


auto answer 


compatible 

MT224EC 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$499(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, Hayes 


2400 

QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


compatible 

MT224EH 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$649(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, Hayes 


2400 

DPSK, QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


compatible 

NEC HOME ELECTRONICS (U.S.A) INC. 






Circle 677 

1255 Michael Dr., Wood Dale, IL 60191, (312) 860-9500 






PC-16-61 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$399(Q1) 

Bell 103A, 212A compatible; 




duplex 


auto answer 


plugs into MulitSpeed 

PC-16-63 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$499(Q1) 

Bell 103A, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 








MultiSpeed 

NOVATION INC. 







Circle 651 

21345 Lassen St., 

Chatsworth, CA 91311, (818) 998-5060 






490510 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$299(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 



490605-2 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$750(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 


2400 




auto answer 



490700 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$119(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 

OMNITEL INC. 







Circle 678 

3500 W. Warren Blvd., Fremont, CA 94538, (415) 490-2202 






Encore 2400HB 

2400 

QAM 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$399(Q1) 

Bell 103A, 212A, CCITT V.22, 




duplex 


auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 
IBM PC/AT/XT, PS/2 Model 30 

Encore 2400PS 

2400 


half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$399(Q1) 

Bell 103A, 212A, CCITT V.22, 




duplex 


auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 








IBM PS/2 Model 50, 60 

Encore 2400SD 

2400 

QAM 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$499(Q1) 

Bell 103A, 212A, CCITT V.22, 




duplex 


auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible 

OKIDATA 







Circle 652 

532 Fellowship Rd 

., Mount Laurel, NJ 08054, (800) OKIDATA 





Okitel 1200/1200B 

1200 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$339/$319(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible; 



DPSK 



auto answer 


standalone or plugs into IBM 








PC/AT/XT, PS/2 

Okitel 2400/2400B 

2400 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$549/$499(Q1) Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 



DPSK, QAM 



auto answer 


bis compatible; standalone or 
plugs into IBM PC/AT/XT, PS/2 

PARADYNE CORP. 






Circle 653 

8550 Ulmerton Rd 

., Largo, FL 33540 (813) 530-2000 






FDX 2400 Plus 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$595(Q1); 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 

$565(Q100) 

V.22 bis compatible 

FDX/PC 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$495(Q1); 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 

$465(Q100) 

V.22 bis compatible; plugs into 








IBM PC/XT or compatible 

PATTON ELECTRONICS CO. 






Circle 654 

7958 Cessna Ave., 

Gaithersburg, MD 20879, (301) 975-1000 





612 

1200 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$175(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 

$140(0100) 


624 

2400 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$295(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 



DPSK, QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 

$236(0100) 

compatible 

PENRIL DATACOMM 






Circle 655 

207 Perry Parkway, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, (301) 921-8600 





Cadet 1200 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$289(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 



Cadet 2400 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$535(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

Datalink 2400 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$595(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A. CCITT V.22 bis 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


69 












VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 


// 
o° / 

/ 

5 s 

/> 

/ 

4 

/ 

/ 

/ 

•XjT 

</ 

/ 

/ 

PRACTICAL PERIPHERALS INC. 






Circle 656 

31245 LaBaya Dr., Westlake Village, CA 91362, (800) 641 

-0814 





1200SA 

1200 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$169(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 




duplex 


auto answer 

$84(Q100) 


2400SA 

2400 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$239(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 




duplex 


auto answer 

$143(Q100) 

compatible 

PM2400 

2400 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$199(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 




duplex 


auto answer 

$120(Q100) 

compatible; plugs into IBM PC or 








compatible 

PROMETHEUS PRODUCTS INC. 






Circle 657 

4545 Cushing Parkway, Fremont, CA 94538, (415) 490-2370 





ProModem 1200T 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 


Bell 103, 212A compatible; plugs 






auto answer 


into Toshiba 

ProModem 2400 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch; synch 

auto dial/ 


Bell 103, 212A compatible 


2400 




auto answer 



ProModem 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 


Bell 103, 212A compatible; plugs 

2400B/2 

2400 




auto answer 


into IBM 

QUADRAM CORP. 







Circle 658 

One Meca Way, Norcross, GA 30093, (404) 923-6666 






Quadmodem II 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$795(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible; plugs 


2400 

QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


into IBM PC/AT/XT compatible 


RACAL-VADIC Circle 659 

1525 McCarthy Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035, (408) 432-8008 


1200VP 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$295(Q1); 

$236(Q100) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 

2400PA Model 2 

300, 1200, 
2400 

FSK, DPSK, 
QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$795(Q1); 

$636(0100) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 
compatible 

2400VP 

300, 1200, 
2400 

FSK, DPSK, 
QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$595(Q1); 

$452(0100) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 
compatible 


RAD DATA COMMUNICATIONS INC. Circle 660 

151 W. Passaic St., Rochelle Park, NJ 07662, (201) 587-8822 


DLM-300 

DLM-HD 

DLM-VJ 

300 

1200 

1200 

FSK 

FSK 

FSK 

full duplex 
half duplex 
full duplex 

asynch 

asynch 

asynch 

manual orig. 
manual orig. 

I manual orig. | 


Bell 103, CCITT V.21 compatible 
CCITT V.23 compatible 

1 CCITT V.23 compatible | 

ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL CORP. 

4311 Jamboree Rd., P.O. Box C, Newport Beach, CA 92658, (714) 833-4700 



Circle 661 

R212AT 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$20(Q1000) 

chip set; Bell 103, 212A 
compatible 

R1212DS 

300, 600, 1200 

DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$30(Q1000) 

chip set; Bell 103, 212A, CCITT 
V.22A/B compatible 

R2424DS 

300, 600, 
1200, 2400 

QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$47(Q1000) 

chip set; Bell 103, 212A, CCITT 
V.22A/B, V.22 bis compatible 


TANDY CORP. (RADIO SHACK) Circle 662 

1800 One Tandy Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102, (817) 390-3011 ______ _ 


25-1013 

300, 1200 

FSK, DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$199(Q1) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A compatible; 






auto answer 


plugs into Tandy 1000, 3000, 








4000 


TDT GROUP INC. Circle 663 

444 Brickell Ave., Suite 902, Miami, FL 33131, (305) 372-9332 


Undercover 

2400 

DPSK 

full duplex 

synch 

auto dial/ 

$650(Q1) 

Bell 201 compatible, plugs into 

Modem 201C 





auto answer 


IBM PC bus 


TEK-COM CORP. Circle 664 

120 Charcot Ave., San Jose, CA 95131, (408) 435-9515 


TC24AD 

300, 1200, 
2400 

QAM 

half, full 
duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$459(Q1); 
$371(Q100) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 
bis compatible 

TC24EC 

300, 1200, 
2400 

QAM 

half, full 
duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$595(Q1); 

$446(0100) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 
compatible 

TC24PC 

300, 1200, 
2400 

QAM 

half, full 
duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 
auto answer 

$345(Q1); 

$259(0100) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 
bis compatible; plugs into IBM 
PC/AT/XT, PS/2 


70 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 

































has been made 
DATA EASY. 


With DataSWEEP™! from Soricon. An intelligent, hand¬ 
held character reader/data entry system that provides the 
OEM,VAR and System Integrator with a solution-oriented 
system peripheral for selective, high-speed data input. 


• Multi-font capability: Most office fonts from typewriters, 

laser printers, daisy wheels, near letter quality dot matrix printers 
and some typeset text and proportionally spaced type 

• Automatically compensates for variations in user technique 


• The system adjusts automatically to the specific type style 



Provide your personal computer customers with the 
enhanced productivity of Soricon’s OCR/ICR technology. 
With the continuing rise in keyboard data entry costs, 
DataSWEEP 1 is a must for increasing data entry accuracy 
and productivity. 

Ergonomically designed, it’s the 
ideal price/performance solution 
for keyboard users in a wide variety 
of industries such as banking, 
insurance, securities, legal, medical 
and general office workplaces. 


When you consider the 
DataSWEEP 1 features and compare 
them to typical keyboard data entry, 
it becomes clear that intelligent 
character recognition (ICR) 
technology will become the 
standard method to efficiently and 
cost-effectively execute data entry. 


• Scanning speed: 170 effective wpm 

• Accuracy: Typically 99.3% 

• Easy and quick to install and operate 


• Works with the IBM PC, XT, AT and 100% compatibles 


DataSWEEP 1 comes complete with the hand-held intell¬ 
igent character reader, interface board (uses one full- size 
expansion slot), software diskette, 
user manual plus full service and 
manufacturer support. 


Soricon’s proprietary character 
recognition technology is not 
limited to Data SWEEP t It can be 
customized (in fact, that is our 
business) to function with other 
hosts, non-intelligent terminals, etc. 


Call Soricon today TOLL-FREE, 
1-800-541-SCAN for more 
information and a DataSWEEP 1 
demonstration. 


% SORICON 


4725 Walnut St. Boulder, CO 80301 
(303) 440-2800 FAX: 303-442-2438 


• Requires very little host memory 


The Soricon DataSWEEP 1 “A Better Way" 


CIRCLE NO. 37 ON INQUIRY CARD 








The TEAC FD-135 Series of IC-inch micro floppy disk drives need only one inch in 
height. A mere 25.4mm. But they're not short on capacity Switchable from 1 to 2 megabytes 
of storage, the FD-135 Series fit in with today’s emerging standard. 

In addition, TEAC offers six different 3 1 /2-incn drives available in three different form 
factors. The FD-135 Series, the world’s first one-inch high micro floppy disk drives. Next, our 
40mm high FD-35 Series which set an industry record for quiet operation. Then there’s our 
FD-35FN-23. It fits a standard 5 H-inch floppy disk drive opening and offers instant plug-in 
compatibility with 514-inch drives. 

To over 9 million users of our FD-55 Series 514-inch floppy disk drives, the distinctive 
TEAC arrow stands for precision performance and proven long-term reliability Now, with 
our line of 3 1 /2-inch micro floppy disk drives, we’re going all out to repeat ourselves. 

Built to Fanatical Standards. TEAC 

INSTRUMENTATION AND COMPUTER PRODUCTS DIVISIONS, 7733 TELEGRAPH ROAD, MONTEBELLO, CA 90640 

EAST (617) 475-7311 SOUTH/MIDWEST (312) 934-4411 ROCKY MOUNTAIN (602) 242-4025 (303) 427-3443 (801) 532-2111 
NORTHWEST (408) 727-1427 SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA (213) 727-7682 726-0303 CANADA FUTURE ELECTRONICS INC. (514) 694-7710 © 1*7 

CIRCLE NO. 38 ON INQUIRY CARO 



VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 


/ x / 

/ / // 

A 

// 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

</ 

/ 

i 

✓ 

TELCOR SYSTEMS CORP. 






Circle 665 

12 Michigan Dr., Natick, MA 01760, (617) 653-3995 






2424MA up to 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$795(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 


QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

2496DA up to 2400 

FSK, DPSK. 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$1,095(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 


QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

2496MA up to 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$995(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 


QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

TELEBYTE TECHNOLOGY INC. 






Circle 666 

270 E. Pulaski Rd., Greenlawn, NY 11740, (516) 423-3232 






1200BS 300, 1200 

FSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$150(Q1); 

Bell 212A, CCITT, Hayes 





auto answer 

$112(Q100) 

compatible; plugs into IBM PC 

TELENETICS CORP. 






Circle 667 

895 E. Yorba Linda Blvd., Suite H, Placentia, CA 92670, (714) 524-5770 





TC921I, PS/2 300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$595(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.21, 

2400 

QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


V.22, V.22 bis, V.32 compatible; 







plugs into IBM PC bus 

TC921S 300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(Q1 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.21, 

2400 

QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


V.22, V.22 bis, V.32 compatible 

TOUCHBASE SYSTEMS INC. 






Circle 668 

160 Laurel Ave., Northport, NY 11768, (516) 261-0423 






WorldPort 1200 300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$199(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.21, 



duplex 


auto answer 


V.22, Hayes compatible 

WorldPort 2400 300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$359(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.21, 

2400 

QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


V.22, V.22 bis compatible 

TRANSEND CORP. 






Circle 669 

884 Portola Rd., Portola Valley, CA 94025, (415) 851-3402 






PCM1200 300, 1200 

DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$159(Q1); 

Bell 212A compatible, plugs into 





auto answer 

$100(0100) 

IBM PC 

PCM2400 300, 1200, 

DPSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$289(Q1); 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 

2400 




auto answer 

$220(0100) 

compatible; plugs into IBM PC 

TRI-DATA SYSTEMS INC. 






Circle 670 

1450 Kifer Rd., Sunnyvale, CA 94086, (415) 746-2074 






OZ Guardian 110,300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$750(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A compatible 

Model 533 




auto answer 



TYMNET (MCDONNELL DOUGLAS NETWORK SYSTEMS CO.) 




Circle 671 

2650 N. First St., San Jose, CA 95161, (408) 922-7595 






933 2400 

DPSK, QAM 

full duplex 

synch 

auto dial/ 

$549(Q1); 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 




auto answer 

$467(0100) 

compatible 

934 2400 

DPSK, QAM 

full duplex 

synch 

auto dial/ 

$1,295(01); 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 





auto answer 

$1,126(0100) 

compatible; supports up to 3 
terminals or PCs over same 







dial-up line 

972 2400 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$749(Q1); 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


QAM 



auto answer 

$599(0100) 

V.22 bis compatible 

UNIVERSAL DATA SYSTEMS 






Circle 672 

5000 Bradford Dr., Huntsville, AL 35805, (205) 721-8000 






212A LP 300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

manual orig./ 
auto answer 

$195(Q1) 

Bell 103J, 212A compatible 

EC224A/D 300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$1,995(01) 

Bell 103J, 212A, CCITT V.22 

2400 

QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

FasTalk 2400 300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$495(Q1) 

Bell 103J, 212A, CCITT V.22, 

2400 

QAM 



auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible; standalone 
or plugs into IBM PC compatible 

U.S. ROBOTICS INC. 






Circle 673 

8100 N. McCormick Blvd., Skokie, IL 60076, (312) 982-5001 






Courier 2400 300,1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$599(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 

2400 

DPSK, QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

Courier 2400e 300,1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$699(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 

2400 

DPSK, QAM 



auto answer 


compatible 

Courier 2400e/PS 300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$699(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.22 bis 

2400 

DPSK, QAM 



auto answer 


compatible; plugs into IBM PS/2 







Micro Channel bus 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


73 
















VOICE GRADE DDD MODEMS 









/ 

// 

O ^ 

£ 5 s 

<7 

// 

*/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

</ 

f 

/ 

VEN-TEL INC. 







Circle 679 

2121 Zanker Rd„ San Jose, CA 95131, (408) 436-7400 






2400-33 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$749(Q1) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

DPSK, QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible 

2400-34 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$649(Q1) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

DPSK, QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible 

2400 Plus 

300, 1200, 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$599(Q1) 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

DPSK, QAM 1 

duplex 


auto answer 


V.22 bis compatible 

VISIONARY ELECTRONICS INC. 






Circle 674 

141 Parker Awe., San Francisco, CA 94118, (415) 751-8811 






Visionary 1200XT 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$495(Q1); 

Bell 103, 212A, CCITT V.21, 




duplex 


auto answer 

$223(Q100) 

V.22, Hayes compatible; 8K-byte 








RAM_ 

WESTERN DATACOM CO. 






Circle 675 

P.O. Box 45113, Westlake, OH 44145, (216) 835-1510 






424 Class 5 

300, 1200, 

FSK, DPSK, 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$695(Q1); 

Bell 103, 113, 212A, CCITT V.22, 


2400 

QAM 



auto answer 

$615(Q100) 

V.22 bis compatible 

MESA424 

300, 1200, 

DPSK, QAM 

full duplex 

asynch, synch 

auto dial/ 

$995(Q1); 

Bell 212A, CCITT V.22, V.22 bis 


2400 




auto answer 

$915(Q100) 

compatible 

WorldCom 223 

300-1200 

FSK, PSK, 

half, full 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$545(Q1); 

Bell 103, 113, 202A, CCITT V.21, 



DPSK, QAM 

duplex 


auto answer 

$485(Q100) 

V.22, V.23 compatible 

WINSYSTEMS INC. 







Circle 680 

P.O. Box 12136, Arlington, TX 76012, (817) 274-7553 






MCM-Modem 

300, 1200 

FSK, PSK 

full duplex 

asynch 

auto dial/ 

$395(Q1) 

Bell 103, 212A, Hayes 






auto answer 


compatible; plugs into STD bus 


ETHERNET SOLUTIONS 
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• multiple links with load sharing 

• enhanced security features 

A y 

available thru local RAD distributors 


74 


CIRCLE NO. 39 ON INQUIRY CARD 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 












The Hall-Mark solution: 

The Amdek Laserdek 

With Amdek’s new Laserdek, you can 
access volumes of reference material 
easily through your computer keyboard. 
Connect the Laserdek to your IBM or 
compatible system, insert the compact 
disc and you are all set to select from a 
library that would normally take hours to 
accumulate. 

Laserdek brings to life an exciting 
new technology which allows you to 
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Invest in your future now Call Hall-Mark 
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(MLtN^RK) 


Missouri Ohio Tsxss 

St. Louis (314) 291-5350 Cleveland (216) 349-4632 Austin (512) 258-0848 

Nsw Jersey Southern Ohio (614) 888-3313 Dallas (214) 553-4300 

Fairfield (201) 575-4415 Oklahoma Houston (713) 781-6100 

New York Tulsa (918) 251-1108 Utah 

Long Island (516) 737-0600 Pennsylvania Salt Lake City (801) 972-1008 

Rochester (716) 244-9290 Philadelphia (215) 355-7300 Wisconsin 

North Carolina Milwaukee (414) 797-7844 

Raleigh (919) 872-0712 

CARD 


Huntsville (205) 837-8700 

Arizona 

Phoenix (602) 437-1200 

California 

Bay Area (408) 432-0900 
Orange County (714) 669-4100 
Sacramento (916) 722-8600 


San Diego (619) 268-1201 

San Fernando Valley (818) 716-3300 

West Los Angeles (213) 217-8400 

Colorado 

Denver (303) 790-1662 
Connecticut (203) 269-0100 

Florida 

Ft Lauderdale (305) 971-9280 


Orlando (305) 855-4020 
Tampa Bay (813) 855-5773 


Atlanta (404) 447-8000 


Chicago (312) 860-3800 

Indiana 

Indianapolis (317) 872-8875 


Kansas City (913) 888-4747 

Maryland 

Baltimore (301) 988-9800 

Massachusetts 

Boston (617) 935-9777 

Minnesota 

Minneapolis (612) 941-2600 


© 1988 Hall-Mark Electronics Corp./400-4034 


Hall-Mark Electronics is a su bsidiary of the Tyler Corp. 

CIRCLE NO. 41 ON INQUIRY 











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BENCHMARKS 


NELSON BENCHMARK TELLS 
THE WHOLE STORY 


The Neal Nelson Business Benchmark yields 
results for each test, rather than distilling 
results into a single ‘magic’ number 


Ralph Barker 

Ralmar Business Systems 

The Neal Nelson Business Benchmark, in 
contrast to traditional benchmarks, measures 
multitasking system performance over a range 
of system loads. Additionally, the test results 
depict how the machine’s performance de¬ 
grades as the system load increases. 

Nelson developed the tests to solve his own 
benchmarking needs as a VAR. Now he sells 
them, and the reports they produce, for use by 
others. Because of the approach taken by the 
tests, VARs and system integrators who place 
systems into a variety of user environments 
should find them particularly interesting. 

A complete exercise program 

Almost all good benchmarks exercise a sys¬ 
tem through a mixture of memory manage¬ 
ment, calculation and disk I/O tests. Having 
been misled by benchmarks that simply exer¬ 
cise the hardware. Nelson designed the Busi¬ 
ness Benchmark to approximate the system 
load created by actual applications software. 
Although application programs typically com¬ 
prise a broad mixture of memory management, 
calculation and disk I/O operations, the mix¬ 
ture tends to vary with each general classifica¬ 
tion of application software, such as word pro¬ 
cessing, spreadsheet or database operations. 
Having benchmark results that depict each of 
these functional areas, in detail, can be critical 
when targeting a system for a particular user 
environment. 

Additionally, the benchmark provides de¬ 
tailed results for each of the 18 tests in the suite 
(in both numerical and graphical form), rather 
than distilling the test results into a single 
“magic” number as many benchmarks do. 



MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


77 



















BENCHMARKS 


Thus, the Business Benchmark can be used in a 
variety of performance measurement roles. 

Three of the tests provide an overview of the 
system’s performance for particular user envi¬ 
ronments. Test 1, for example, uses a mixture 
of operations that simulate an “average” user 
performing an “average” mixture of work. In 
contrast, Test 2 consists of a 15,000-cycle loop 
that contains a mixture of short-integer (16 


bit), long-integer (32 bit) and double-integer 
(64 bit) math, along with function calls, memo¬ 
ry allocation and other operations. Test 2 simu¬ 
lates calculation-intensive tasks like word pro¬ 
cessing or spreadsheet operations. 

Test 3 consists of a 250-cycle loop that con¬ 
tains a mixture of disk I/O functions, including 
sequential and random reads and writes of both 
short and long records. Thus, Test 3 depicts 


A look at Nelson's 18 tests 


\7\ Test 1 provides a mix of calculations and disk 
access functions to simulate an "average user" 
performing "average" work. Each test cycle consists 
of looping through these functions 100 times. 

[ 7 ] Test 2 consists of a 15,000-cycle loop, each loop 
containing a mix of short (16 bit), long (32 bit) and 
double (64 bit) math, along with function calls, 
memory allocation and so on. It simulates 
calculation-intensive tasks like word processing or 
spreadsheet operations. 

\J\ Test 3 consists of a 250-cycle loop, each of 
which contains a mixture of disk I/O functions, 
including sequential and random reads and writes of 
both short and long records. It depicts disk-intensive 
applications such as database or accounting 
software. 

[ 7 ] Test 4 is essentially an "overhead checker”. It 
consists of a 250,000-cycle null loop (no internal 
calculations), thus providing an indication of the 
overhead of the looping logic used in other tests. 

[ 7 ] Test 5 provides a 250,000-cycle loop, each with 
four calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication 
and division) of short (16 bit) fields against short (16 
bit) fields. It reflects the speed of "short” integer 
math. 

\7\ Test 6 provides a 250,000-cycle loop, each with 
four calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication 
and division) of long (32 bit) fields against long (32 
bit) fields. It reflects the speed of "long” integer 
math. 

[71 Test 7 provides a 25,000-cycle loop, each with 
four calculations (addition, subtraction, multiplication 
and division) of double-precision floating point (64 bit) 
fields against double-precision floating point (64 bit) 
fields. It shows the speed of “floating point” math, 
and will reflect the operations of a floating point 
coprocessor chip. 

[ 7 ) Test 8 consists of a 500,000-cycle loop, each 
loop calling an empty function (no parameters, no 
data allocation). It reflects the speed of the system’s 
function call routines. 

[ 7 ] Test 9 is a 100,000-cycle loop, each of which 
calls a function and passes nine data fields to the 


function. This test shows the speed with which the 

S stem evaluates data passed to functions. 

Test 10 checks character-oriented memory 
operations through a mix of initializing, moving and 
comparing a total of 2 million characters. It shows the 

S eed of text handling in memory. 

Test 11 consists of a 5,000-cycle loop with one 
disk read of 16 bytes in each loop. It reflects the 
speed of sequential disk I/O and the associated data 
transfer rate with disk reads. 

[ 7 ] Test 12 consists of a 5,000-cycle loop with one 
disk write of 16 bytes in each loop. It reflects the 
speed of sequential disk I/O and associated data 
transfer rate with disk writes. 

[ 7 ] Test 13 is a 500-cycle loop with one read of 512 
bytes from the disk in each loop. It reflects the disk 
I/O and data transfer rate when doing sequential 
block-oriented disk read operations. 

[ 7 ] Test 14 is a 500-cycle loop with one write of 512 
bytes from the disk in each loop. It reflects the disk 
I/O and data transfer rate when doing sequential 
block oriented disk writes. 

\7\ Test 15 is similar to Test 14, except that each 
loop also includes a "sync" instruction, forcing the 
disk controller to physically write the data held in the 
disk buffers onto the disk. It reflects the performance 
impact of sync instructions within application 
software. 

0 Test 16 reads the same 512-byte record from 
disk 5,000 times, thus testing the efficiency of the 
microprocessor and the cache manager on the disk 
controller. 

[ 7 ] Test 17 reads the same two records alternatively 
from disk 5,000 times, testing if the disk controller will 
keep at least two different records in cache memory 
for a given process. 

[71 Test 18 provides a 500-cycle loop in which widely 
spaced, non-sequential records are read from disk 
files. It provides a general indication of such functions 
as disk I/O speed and access time when doing 
random disk reads typical of a “live” multiuser 
environment. 


78 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 




BENCHMARKS 


disk-intensive applications such as database or 
accounting software. The balance of the tests 
check other, specific areas of system perfor¬ 
mance. 

To determine a system’s calculation perfor¬ 
mance, the Business Benchmark provides three 
separate tests. Short-integer (16 bit) and long- 
integer (32 bit) math operations are each tested 
with a 250,000-cycle loop. This loop performs 
four calculations (addition, subtraction, multi¬ 
plication and division) using integers of the 
same size. The floating point test consists of a 
25,000-cycle loop that does similar calculations 
with double-precision floating-point (64 bit) 
fields. The suite also contains a 250,000-cycle 
null loop so that the test’s looping logic over¬ 
head can be separately determined for more 
detailed analysis. 


Individual results are represented 
by the elapsed time necessary to 
complete the test at each load 
level. 


In the areas of testing memory operations 
and function call efficiency, the Business 
Benchmark examines the speed of processing 
empty functions and processing functions, 
which includes data parameters. In the test for 
function call efficiency (a 100,000-cycle loop), 
the nine data fields are passed to each function 
call. The “empty” function test provides useful 
information about the inherent overhead of 
function-call processing on the system. Text 
manipulation in memory is tested by the 
benchmark through a mixture of initializing, 
moving and comparing a total of two million 
characters. 

Reading and writing 

Although the average access time and the 
latency data supplied by disk manufacturers 
provide a starting point for analysis, data 
throughput is the real key to a system’s disk- 
related performance. Data throughput is a 
combination of the raw disk performance and 
efficiency of any disk caching scheme that may 
be present. A total of eight tests are provided by 
the Business Benchmark for disk I/O and disk 
cache management operations. Even though 
these tests vary according to the number of 
test-loop iterations, they do provide a good 
cross section of the disk I/O functions typically 
encountered. 



Individual tests read and write short-integer 
(16 byte) and block-oriented (512 byte) records, 
in both sequential and random-access patterns. 
The random-access test’s widely spaced records 
provide a general indication of the disk I/O and 
access speed typically encountered in a “live” 
multiuser environment. The efficiency of the 
microprocessor and cache management on the 
disk controller is also examined by repeatedly 
reading the same (512 byte) record from a disk. 

Another test alternately reads the same two 
long records to determine if the cache manager 
will keep at least two different records in cache. 
By comparing the individual test results with 
the disk operations anticipated in the user 
environment, a balanced view of the test sys¬ 
tem’s likely performance can be obtained. 

Each of the areas examined by the previously 
described tests is important. The acceptability 
of a system for a specific client’s use, however, 
is determined by the machine’s real multi¬ 
tasking performance. 

This performance criterion is determined 
within the Business Benchmark by simultane¬ 
ously running multiple copies of each test. 
Although a range of 0 to 100 simultaneously 
executing copies of each test can be selected 
when the benchmark is started, the typical 
range is zero to 20. Individual test results are 
represented by the elapsed time (in seconds) 
necessary to complete the test at each load 
level. As the multitasking aspect of the bench¬ 
mark follows the functional separation 
provided by the individual tests, the results can 
be closely related to specific user environ¬ 
ments. 


Neal Nelson 
runs the OS/2 
version of his 
Business Bench¬ 
mark on an IBM 
Corp. PS/2 
Model 80. The 
suite of tests ap¬ 
proximates the 
system load cre¬ 
ated by actual 
applications soft¬ 
ware. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


79 











BENCHMARKS 


Ralph Barker is 

president of Ralmar 
Business Systems, 
a San Jose, Calif., 
VAR specializing in 
UNIX systems, 
consulting and 
training for 
non-technical 
users. Before 
establishing 
Ralmar, Barker was 
president of the 
Systems 
Development 
division of Team 
Solutions Corp., a 
software company 
in San Jose, Calif. 


The results of the benchmark are presented 
in a series of reports (one for each of the 
eighteen tests), and include a graph that plots 
actual execution times against the number of 
test copies simultaneously running. The reports 
also include the actual numerical data showing 
the execution times at each load level and the 
percentage difference between the two ma¬ 
chine’s execution times. 

Individually tailored 

When running the Business Benchmark, Nel¬ 
son’s C language source code is downloaded 
and compiled on the target system. Compiler 
options may be specified, thus allowing the test 
results to reflect code optimization or other 
special compiler features present on the system. 
(Some specialized architectures, such as multi¬ 
processor systems, may require certain op¬ 
tions.) Unless otherwise instructed, the Nelson 
staff will use the standard portable C compiler 
with the -O option. 

Additionally, the range of multitasking can 
be specified at run time. A higher than normal 
range may be required to obtain meaningful 
results on extremely fast machines. The total 
run time for the suite can range from approxi¬ 
mately an hour on “fast” machines to over 24 
hours on a personal computer. 

The Business Benchmark can be used in 
many applications. Most companies leasing 


source code for the benchmark use it for inter¬ 
nal system testing, as well as product position¬ 
ing. 

Many of these companies also use the bench¬ 
mark reports directly with prospective custom¬ 
ers, as part of their sales presentation. Showing 
a non-technical customer the performance 
graphs is often easier and more effective than 
trying to explain the significance of a particular 
benchmark’s “magic” number. 

Companies can use benchmark results to 
determine the cost/benefit ratio of adding addi¬ 
tional memory, math coprocessors or other 
system enhancements. By running the related 
test before and after the addition of the pro¬ 
posed enhancement, they can easily determine 
the cost justification for the enhancement. 

Neal Nelson & Associates also maintains a 
database of test results for various commercial 
systems (currently over 130). Reports can be 
ordered that compare any two machines (or 
configurations) within the database. Exhaustive 
benchmarking of specific system configura¬ 
tions may be difficult to cost justify when 
dealing with departmental or small business 
machines. In such cases, the test results that are 
already in Nelson’s database may provide the 
company with sufficient data. □ 

Interest Quotient (Circle One) 

High 520 Medium 521 Low 522 


BENCHMARKING THE BENCHMARKS 

Here’s a checklist of what tests are most useful for what applications 


/ 

/ 

/ 

/ 

/y 

r <y 

f 

•o' ^ 

// 

$ Si 

<r 

ft/ / 
<?&<§' ** 

/ 

* 






1 

Mixed, average user 






2 

Calculation intensive average user 






3 

Disk intensive average user 






4 

Test overhead check 






5 

Short integer math 






6 

Long integer math 






7 

Floating point math 






8 

Function call, no parameters 






9 

Function call, nine parameters 






10 

Text manipulation in memory 






11 

Sequential disk reads, 16-byte records 






12 

Sequential disk writes, 16-byte records 






13 

Sequential disk block reads (512 bytes) 






14 

Sequential disk block writes (512 bytes) 






15 

Write and sync, flush buffers 






16 

Disk controller cache management 






17 

Multiple records in cache per process 






18 

Random disk reads 


Source: Neal Nelson & Associates 


80 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 





















The NEC Pinwriter 2200 

Now there is one printer that can handle 
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This 24-pin pinwriter features the sharp¬ 
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Multiple built-in paper handling features make 
it possible for you to print envelopes and 
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installed continuous forms. And, for real print 
variety, the P2200 has six built-in typestyle 
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The P2200 adapts easily to every environ¬ 
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NEC offers all these features on one 
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Hall-Mark today for NEC - the answer to 
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(U4LLNSMa< 


© 1988 Hall-Mark Electronics Corp./400-4029 
Hall-Mark Electronics is a subsidiary of the Tyler Corp. • 


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Arizona West Los Angeles (213) 217-8400 Georgia Maryland New Jersey Southern Ohio (614) 888-3313 Dallas (214 553-4300 

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Bay Area (408) 432-0900 Connecticut (203) 269-0100 Chicago (312) 860-3800 Boston (617) 935-9777 Long Island (516) 737-0600 Pennsylvania Salt Lake City (801) 972-1008 

Orange County (714) 669-4100 Florida Indiana Mlnneaota Rochester (716) 244-9290 Philadelphia (215) 355-7300 Wisconsin 

Sacramento(916) 722-8600 Ft. Lauderdale(305) 971-9280 Indianapolis(317) 872-8875 Minneapolis(612) 941-2600 NorthCarollna Milwaukee(414) 797-7844 

Raleigh (919) 872-0712 


CIRCLE NO. 43 ON INQUIRY CARD 
















The Latest 
Advance In 
Servos 
And Support 











The new Toshiba 
MK-250 may look like your 
average 5.25" Winchester 
drive, but looks can be 
deceiving. Because you 
can’t really see the 
15Mb/sec transfer rate 
or 18 ms access time that 
make it the perfect drive 
for UNIX"* and graphics 
applications. 

Nor can you see what makes it one of the most 
advanced Winchester drives ever produced. And that’s 
our new Hybrid-Servo. An innovation that allows us 
to provide the 382 MB capacity you need but with fewer 
platters and heads in the drive. Which, in turn, gives 
you other benefits. Like the fast transfer rate. Higher 
reliability. And more tolerance across the range of 
operating environments. 

But one of the best things about our new servo is 
the support it gives our position as a leader in disk drive 
technology. Because the Hybrid-Servo concept is a 
fundamental requirement in pushing 5.25" Winchester 
capacities toward the gigabyte level. All of which means 
Toshiba is well on the way to where the rest of the 
industry will be going. 

Of course, supporting your efforts to get ahead is 
really the driving force behind our advancements. It’s the 
reason for our multi-million dollar R&D program. Exten¬ 
sive engineering and integration assistance. Dependable 
Just-In-Time delivery, and more. Because if you’re not 
successful, we can’t be either. 

To find out more about what Toshiba servos and 
support can do for you, call us at 714-583-3150. 

And who knows? The next major advance could 
be yours. 



In Touch with Tomorrow 

TOSHIBA 

TOSHIBA AMERICA, INC. 


Disk Products Division, 9740 Irvine Boulevard, Irvine, CA 92718 


€)1987 Toshiba America, Inc. UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. 

CIRCLE NO. 44 ON INQUIRY CARD 





Introducing The Only 1" High 
Microfloppy Disk Drive 
Big Enough To Be A Mitsubishi. 



At just 1" high, our new MF353C and 
MF355C 3V2" microfloppy drives are 
designed to give your system a giant 
edge in performance and reliability. 

Developed by Mitsubishi—a $13 bil¬ 
lion dollar corporation with resources 
worldwide—the MF353C and MF355C 
integrate easily into today’s small, 
lightweight PC designs. 

When it comes to features, our 
microfloppies offer sizable 
advantages. 

Unformatted memory is an impressive 
1.0MB on the MF353C; 2.0MB on the 
MF355C. HCMOS-based LSI architec¬ 
ture with fewer parts and single 5V 
power requirements reduce power 
consumption while providing unsur¬ 


passed dependability and longer prod¬ 
uct life. Another big advantage from 
Mitsubishi: The MF355C is down¬ 
wardly compatible with the MF353C. 

A complete family 
of floppies. 

Whether 3 1 /z", 5V4" or 
8" form factor, Mitsubishi 
has just the floppy drive 
you need and available 
in quantity. Representing 
over two decades of 
design and manufactur 


innovation, proven performance and 
reliable, on-time delivery has made 
Mitsubishi the supplier of choice among 
the biggest OEMs in the business. 


Model 

No. 

Size 

Height 

Memory 

Capacity 

(Unformatted) 

Power 

Requirements 

MF353B 

m " 

1.26" 

1MB 

+ 5 V and +12V 

MF355B 

3 Vi" 

1.26" 

1MB/2MB 

+ 5 V and + 12 V 

MF353C 

3 V 2 " 

1" 

1MB 

+ 5V 

MF355C 

3 Vi" 

1" 

1MB/2MB 

+ 5V 

MF501B 

514" 

1.61" 

0.5MB 

+ 5V and + 12 V 

MF504B 

5^4" 

1.61" 

0.5MB/1MB/1.6MB 

+ 5V and + 12 V 

M2896 

8" 

2.25" 

1.6MB 

+ 5V and +24V 



ing expertise, each Mitsubishi drive is 
vertically integrated to include our own 
ICs, read-write heads, motors, and other 
critical components. 

It all comes down to quality. 

The result is unparalleled Mitsubishi 
quality from top to bottom, inside 
and out A reputation for product 


For complete information on how our 
floppy family can make a big difference 
in your PC designs, contact Mitsubishi 
Electronics America, Inc., Computer 
Peripherals Division, 991 Knox Street, 
Torrance, CA 90502. Telephone: (213) 
515-3993, and ask for our Peripherals 
Sales Department. 


Your Reliable Resource For Reliable Disk Drives. 


Mitsubishi 
Sales Offices 

Carrollton, TX (214) 241-5300 • Hackensack, NJ (201) 488-1001 
Minnetonka, MN (612) 938-7779 • Mt Prospect, IL (312) 298-9223 
Norcross, GA (404) 662-0758 • Sunnyvale, CA (408) 730-5900 
Torrance, CA (2D) 515-3993 • Woburn, MA (617) 938-1220 

© 1987 Mitsubishi Electronics America, Inc. 

CIRCLE NO. 45 ON INQUIRY CARD 


A 


MITSUBISHI 

ELECTRONICS 


See Us at NCGA, Booth #1154 




































DISK DRIVES 


TECHNOLOGY ’88 


PRODUCT PERSPECTIVES 


Perpendicular recording 
increases data density 


Eric Katz and Richard Brechtlein 

Censtor Corp. 

Since the early 1960s, improve¬ 
ments in the capacity, cost, perfor¬ 
mance and size of rigid disk drives 
using traditional longitudinal-record¬ 
ing methods have proceeded at a re¬ 
markable pace. Today, for example, 
high-end 5V4-inch Winchester disk 
drives are approaching capacities of 
1G byte at a cost of $5 per megabyte. 
Larger, 8-inch rigid disk drives with 
higher data-transfer rates sell for as 
little as $10 per megabyte. 

Improvements have been made in 
both head and media technology. For 
example, new slider designs continue 
to reduce the flying height of heads. 
In addition, the critical geometric 
structure of the gap in the ring head 
used for longitudinal recording has 
been reduced to tens of microinches, 
posing a demanding challenge for 
large-volume, low-cost component 
manufacturing. 

Meanwhile, there has been a shift 
away from oxide media toward sput- 
tered-metal thin film, which supports 
substantially higher bit densities. As 
bit density increases, the data-bit 
transitions get closer together, requir¬ 
ing higher values of coercivity. Coer- 
civity is the measure of the strength 
of a magnetic field required to switch 
the magnetic domain patterns in a 
material. Thin films show much high¬ 
er coercive values than oxides. Today, 
thin film allows areal densities in the 
range of 15 million to 30 million bits 
per square inch. (Areal density is de¬ 
termined by multiplying the linear 
bits per inch on the innermost track 


by the number of tracks per inch.) 

However, availability of parts for 
this upper range is sometimes a prob¬ 
lem because manufacturing yields 
tend to be low. By comparison, typi¬ 
cal non-contact heads and disks now 
being manufactured by Censtor Corp. 
using perpendicular recording tech¬ 
nology achieve areal densities from 
30 million to 60 million bits per 
square inch. Censtor accomplishes 
this with linear densities of 20,000 to 
40,000 bits per inch, with tracks laid 
down at between 1,000 and 2,000 per 
inch. 

Vertical vs. horizontal 

In longitudinal recording, the di¬ 
rection of magnetization of the indi¬ 
vidual bit cells lies along the direction 
of the track, that is, in the plane of the 
media. In vertical recording, the mag¬ 
netization is oriented perpendicularly 
to the surface of the media. Both 
methods allow storage and retrieval 
of data, and both function the same 
way. However, implementing perpen¬ 
dicular recording with a single probe 
head and a thick-film metal media 
offers significant benefits: Perfor¬ 
mance characteristics are better, and 
the physical structure of the head and 
media is simple to manufacture. 

To obtain the ever-higher recording 
densities needed for tomorrow’s high- 
performance disk drivers, either the 
linear bit density or the track density 
must be increased substantially. Each 
has its own unique and complex set of 
challenges that must be overcome be- 



Eric Katz (front) is principal physicist 
with Censtor Corp., San Jose, Calif. 

Richard Brechtlein is Censtor’s vice 
president of marketing. 


fore it’s possible to produce cost-ef¬ 
fective products. 

Linear bit density. During the re¬ 
cording process, the read/write head 
records data on written tracks 
through a series of magnetic reversals 
on the disk media. During playback, 
the magnetization pattern in the 
media generates a series of positive 
and negative voltage pulses in the 
head. The user’s data is contained in 
the time-interval relationships be¬ 
tween the pulses, which are written in 
integer multiples of a basic clocking 
frequency. Pulses that are present or 
absent in the various clock intervals, 
or “data windows,” determine the 
sequence of ones and zeroes. 

Toward a sharp pulse 

There is a practical limit to how 
densely these pulses may be packed 
along the track. The limiting factor is 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


85 









r 


disk drives TECHNOLOGY 88 


PRODUCT PERSPECTIVES 


CENSTOR MATCHES PERPENDICULAR 
MEDIA AND HEAD 



A probe-type head passes an electromagnetic flux through an upper layer 
of cobalt-chrome, causing the magnetic material on the disk to polarize 
vertically. A lower layer of highly permeable nickle and iron provides a return 
path for the flux. This technique provides a symetrical read-back pulse 
similar to those obtained in traditional longitudinal recording. 


the characteristic width of each pulse. 
Overlap of pulses causes a loss of 
signal amplitude, as well as a shift in 
the apparent positions of the individ¬ 
ual pulses. The loss in amplitude and 
the corresponding loss in signal-to- 
noise ratio increases the timing jitter 
of the pulses. This, along with the 
shift in position, increases the likeli¬ 
hood that pulses will fall outside their 
intended windows. That results in er¬ 
rors in recovering data. 

A number of factors contribute to 
the overall width of an isolated pulse. 
First, there is the resolution of the 
head itself. In longitudinal recording, 
pulse width is limited by the gap 
length of the ring head. In case of 
perpendicular probe heads, the pulse 
width is limited by the thickness of 
the probe element. This thickness is 
easily controlled in manufacturing by 
using a semiconductor wafer process 
step. 

Pulse width and amplitude are also 
affected by the “transition zone”in 
the media. The direction of magneti¬ 
zation in the media does not generally 
change abruptly at the written transi¬ 
tion. Rather, the change takes place 
gradually over a finite distance. In 
longitudinal recording, this zone can 
broaden even further by what is 
known as self-magnetization. A tran¬ 
sition in the media generates magnet¬ 
ic fields. While these fields are ulti¬ 
mately responsible for generating the 
read-back signals in the head, they 
also demagnetize the media. 

Beyond 2,000 tracks 

Perpendicular recording, on the 
other hand, tends to reduce the mag¬ 
nitude of the remnant magnetization 
itself, especially in regions far from 
the center of the transition. This oc¬ 
curs because the strength of the de¬ 
magnetizing fields grows weaker as 
the size of the zone increases. These 
fields continue to increase the size of 
the transition zone until an equilibri¬ 
um is reached, a point at which no 
further demagnetization takes place 
and the maximum demagnetizing 
field just equals the coercivity of the 
media. 

Thus, media with higher coercivity 


generally yield narrower pulses and 
better resolution. Perpendicular re¬ 
cording has an inherent benefit in 
that self-demagnetization is much 
smaller in the vicinity of the magnetic 
transition. This allows for the possi¬ 
bility of much sharper pulses than 
those attained from longitudinal re¬ 
cording media. 

Track density. Track density can be 
increased by reducing the track width 
of the heads, but this can lead to 
several problems. The head signal is 
approximately proportional to track 
width. Reducing track width reduces 
signal level, while much of the elec¬ 
tronic noise remains the same or is 
reduced more slowly than the signal 
level. The reduction in the signal-to- 
noise ratio causes more random jitter 
of the read-back pulses, increasing the 
number of bits in error. Because of 
their geometry, perpendicular heads 
can have a large number of coils that 
provide better signal levels compared 


to longitudinal ring heads with equiv¬ 
alent track widths. 

Higher track densities also require 
improved mechanical tolerances that 
will maintain head registration over 
the track. These mechanical toler¬ 
ances must be held on the manufac¬ 
tured heads as well as on critical drive 
components such as the spindle. Ad¬ 
vances such as ferrofluidic spindle 
bearings, which can keep the spindle 
from wobbling more than two one- 
thousandths of an inch, and new em¬ 
bedded servo techniques for guiding 
heads now allow track densities well 
in excess of 2,000 per inch. 

Another challenge to track density 
is “side-fringing.” The head not only 
reads and writes onto the media di¬ 
rectly below it, but it also reads (and 
to a lesser extent writes) on media on 
both sides of the track. Signals picked 
up from adjacent tracks, or from pre¬ 
viously written but slightly mis- 
registered portions of the same track. 


86 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 

























Reach legendary heights of perform 
ance with the new NS32532-based 
family of Heurikon VME processors 

The next time you do battle ^Sflj 

with your application. 
wield the power of the 
HK32/V532. Command the ■ 

performance of existing develop¬ 
ment tools and software. And 
stand confidently on a strong 
foundation of support. 

Key HK32/V532 features include: ' 

■ up to 30 MHz NS32532 CPU 

■ 4 or 16 MB of on-board DRAM 

■ up to 1 MB EPROM ■ optional ^ 
NS32381 floating point coprocessor * 

■ 4-channel. 32-bit DMA ■ SCSI inter¬ 
face ■ 2 RS-232 serial ports ■ 128 
bytes non-volatile RAM ■ optional 
time-of-day clock ■ mailbox interrupt 

full interface to VMEbus 


support 

■ UNIX™. VRTX® and 680X0 cross 
compiler support. 

For more information and a free poster. 

call 1-800-356-9602 ext. 0 500. 

Or to correspond by telefacsimile, 
call 608-251-1076. 

HK32/V is a trademark of Heurikon Corporation UNIX is 
a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. Inc. VRTX is a 
registered trademark of Ready Systems. Inc. Original 
illustration by Frank Frazetta © 1988 Heurikon Corporation 


Wield the 
Power... 


The New HK32/V Family 
of Heurikon Microprocessors 


CORP 


3201 Latham Dr., Madison. Wl 53713 

CIRCLE NO. 46 ON INQUIRY CARD 







THE BEST 5/ 4 INCH DISK DRIVE AVAILABLE 
UNTIL WE BUILD WREN VI. 



INTRODUCING 
WREN V 

The fastest, most reliable 5‘A" 
disk drives are now better 
than ever. The new WrenV 
with bigger capacity has up 
to 574 Mbytes formatted 
with the SCSI interface, or 
442 Mbytes of unformatted 
capacity using the ESDI. 

PERFORMANCE SECOND TO NONE 

Wren V is high performance. Average seek is a blistering 
14.5 ms. A patented, balanced straight-arm actuator, employing 
less mass than other designs, results in precision positioning 
and faster seek times. 

DESIGNED-IN RELIABILITY 

New Wren disk drives are better than ever thanks 
in part to lower power consumption, special shock mounts, 
advanced electronics packaging, and synchronized spindle 
capability for high performance subsystem applications. You 
can count on years of trouble-free use. 

A COMMITMENT TO QUALITY 

Manufacturing quality products and backing them with 
top-notch service and customer support is our commitment to 


you. We’re with you every step of the way; 
from system’s design to post-sales service 
in a true customer manufacturer 
partnership. 

Get the high performance edge— 
Wren disk drives from Control Data. 

For more information, call 
1-800-828-8001, ext. 82. 


Model 

Capacity 

(Mbytes) 

Avg. Seeld 

(ms)^ 

Interface 

Transfer R 
(MHz) 

WrenV 

574 

A 

SCSI 

10-15 

WrenV 

442 


ESDI 

10 

WrenV 

383 

14.5 

ESDI 

10 

WrenV 

344 

16.5 

SCSI 

10-15 

Wren V H.H. 

190 

18 

SCSI 

10-15 

Wren IV 

307 A 

16.5 

SCSI 

10-15 

Wren III 

18 lA 

16.5 

ESDI 

10 

Wren III 


16.5 

SCSI 

10 

Wren III H.H. 


18 

ESDI 

10 

Wren III H.H. 

91 

18 

SCSI 

10 

Wren II 

96 

28 

ST5()6,ESDI 

5 

Wren II H.H. A 


28 

ST506 

5 


H.H. = Half High Models 

SCSI models list usable capacity formatted in 1024 Byte sectors. 
Wren HI, IV, V-344 Mb SCSI models have 40,000 Hr. MTBF 
(others: 30,000 Hr. MTBF). 


CONTRPL DATA- 

















CIRCLE NO. 47 ON INQUIRY CARD 





HOW TO XL 
MBUSMESS. 

It’s simple. Get acquainted 
with NEC’s powerful new 
Astra® XL family. The 
Astra MicroXL, XL/8, 

XL/16 and XL/32 series. 

Each of these multiuser 
systems, using the UNIX® 

System V operating system, 
offers true compatibility 
and upgradability. 

The XL family is MC68020-based, with up to 16MB main memory, 
up to 2GB of disk storage and can accommodate up to 32 users. Plus, it 
runs a range of IBM and other communications protocols and offers 
advanced networking capabilities. 

In addition, the Astra XL family is ready to work right now with the 
most popular software development tools available. Including databases like 
UNIFY,* office automation software like Q-OFFICE +® and a variety of 
popular languages like C, COBOL, FORTRAN and more. 

At NEC, we’re continually advancing the technology of computers 
and communications. With the kind of products and programs you’d 
expect from a $17 billion industry leader. 

The new Astra XL family. It’s just what you 
need to excel in business. 

C&C Computers and Communications 

For more information and the name of the NECIS VAR nearest you, call 1-800-343-4418 (in MA 617-264-8635). 

For more information on our VAR and ISV programs, call 1-800-443-4849 (in MA 617-264-8635). 

Or write: NEC Information Systems, Dept. 1610,1414 Massachusetts Ave., Boxborough, MA 01719. 




CIRCLE NO. 48 ON INQUIRY CARD 


























































DISK DRIVES 


TECHNOLOGY ’88 


PRODUCT PERSPECTIVES 


can interfere with the primary signal 
being read back. This results in an 
increased error rate. 

A significant benefit of perpendicu¬ 
lar probe-type heads is that they tend 
to create small side-fringing fields. 
Such heads are critical to the 2,000- 
track-per-inch density. 

Evolution in revolution 

From the standpoint of design, the 
move from longitudinal to perpendic¬ 
ular recording can be an evolutionary 
process. Probe heads and double layer 
media, like those available now from 
Censtor, are mechanically compatible 
to those used in conventional drives. 
Platters come in standard Winchester 
diameters and use the same substrate 
as drives do today. 

Heads incorporate mini-Winches¬ 
ter slider design modified for im¬ 
provements in flying height, wear, stic- 
tion (a propensity of the head to 
stick to the media) and start-stop per¬ 
formance. The sliders can be 
mounted lengthwise or transversely 
to take advantage of current linear 
and rotary acuator designs. Track 
widths, currently ranging from 1,000 
to more than 2,000 tracks per inch, 
can be varied using different masks. 
Readback pulses are generally sy- 
metric in shape and similar to those 
obtained with ferrite heads on longi¬ 
tudinal media. These pulses do not 
have the “undershoots” characteristic 
of thin-film ring heads. Finally, front- 
end integrated circuits optimized for 
perpendicular recording are available 
from a number of sources. 

As densities are increased, mass 
storage designers are faced with prac¬ 
tical limitations resulting from the 
requirements for higher performance. 
Historically, higher densities have re¬ 
quired lower flying heights, smaller 
gap lengths, tighter mechanical toler¬ 
ances and better cleanliness and de¬ 
fect control in the media as the bit cell 
grows smaller and smaller. Perpen¬ 
dicular-recording technology holds 
the promise of increasing perfor¬ 
mance and tolerance. □ 



Optical drive aims 
at system integrators 


A 654M-byte WORM optical disk 
drive designed for OEMs and system 
integrators is now available from Laser 
Magnetic Storage International Co. 

The LMS LaserDrive 510 uses dou¬ 
ble-sided removable media that offers 
327M bytes of storage on each side. The 
5 ! /4-inch drive sustains a data transfer 
rate of 600K bytes per second and pos¬ 
sesses a 75-msec average access time. 

The product comes with an embed¬ 
ded SCSI interface that permits up to 
eight drives to be daisy-chained. 

Price: $2,880; media, $95. 

Laser Magnetic Storage International 
Co., 4425 Arrow West Drive, Colorado 
Springs, Colo. 80907-3489, (303) 593- 
7900. 599-8713. Telex: (910) 920 4908. 
Fax: (303). 

Circle 551 


RLL scheme enhances 
small-form Winchesters 

A 3 ! /2-inch rigid-disk drive with a for¬ 
matted capacity of 87M bytes is now 
being shipped by C. Itoh Electronics 
Inc. The YD-3082 uses four platters 
and the run-length-limited (RLL 2,7) 
encoding scheme for increased capacity 
and boasts an access time of 26 msec. 

The company aims the drive at manu¬ 
facturers of laptop and portable com¬ 
puters. The drive has a “shipping zone” 
aside from the data area, where the 
read/write head lands when power is 
turned off, and an embedded SCSI con¬ 
troller for one-to-one interleave. The 
controller supports 15 of the SCSI spec¬ 
ification’s common command options 
as well as arbitration and disconnect/ 
reconnect. 

Price: $ 1,195. 

C. Itoh Electronics Inc., 19300 S. 
Hamilton Ave., Torrance, Calif. 90248, 
(213) 327-9100. Circle 552 


Parallel disk drive 
operates with VMEbus 

IBIS Systems Inc. broadens the reach 
of its high-end disk drives with the 
introduction of a VMEbus host adapter. 

IBIS’ model 1012, a 14-inch, 2G- 
byte, parallel transfer disk drive, moves 
data at 12M bytes per second via a pair 
of 6M-byte-per-second recording chan¬ 
nels. The drive comes equipped with 
the IBIS-l/VME host adapter to operate 
on any VMEbus system. The 1012 also 
uses a proprietary controller, intelligent 
standard interface (ISI) or storage mod¬ 
ule device-extended (SMD-E) interface. 

The VMEbus host adapter is priced at 
$3,170 in OEM quantities; the 1012 
drive with an SMD-E interface, 
$17,000. 

IBIS Systems Inc., 5775 Lindero 
Canyon Road, Westlake Village, Calif. 
91362, (818) 706-2505. Telex: 472- 
0228. 

Circle 550 



Optical drive boasts 
12G-byte capacity 

Toshiba America Inc. is expected to 
begin shipments in April of a 12-inch 
write-once optical disk drive that stores 
14G bytes. 

The WM-S500 achieves an average 
seek time of 150 msec by keeping the 
spindle speed at 615 rpm to minimize 
average latency. Meanwhile, the data 
transfer rate varies from 4M bytes to 
8M bytes per second. A 32K-byte X2 
buffer speeds data transfers. 

The drive fits inside a standard 19- 
inch rack and comes with a built-in 
power supply and SCSI interface. 

Price: $ 11,495. 

Toshiba America Inc., Disk Products 
Division, 9740 Irvine Blvd., Irvine, 
Calif. 92718, (714) 583-3108. 

Circle 554 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


91 










MEMORY 

VME/VSB 



DUAL PORTED 
CI-VMEmory or CI-VSB-EDC 

• 4MB, 8MB, 16MB in VMEbus slot 


• On board CSR 

• Single bit error correction 
double bit error detection 

QBUS/PMI 



CI-PMI-EDC 

• Full PMI support 

• Single bit error correction, 
double bit error detection 

• Runs complete DEC diagnostics 

• 4 megabytes on one board 

• Block mode DMA 

• Control Status Register (CSR) 

MULTIBUS 



CI-796-EDC 

• 128KB to 2 megabytes on one board 

• Single bit error correction, 
double bit error detection 

• Selectable in 18K byte increments 


“STATE-OF-THE-ART MEMORIES 


for Qbus, MICROvax and the VAX” 



Call Toll Free: 


Chrislin 

Industries 

800 - 468-0736 <*, 


31332 VIA COLINAS, WESTLAKE VILLAGE. CA 91362 
TELE. 818-991-2254 
P.O. BOX 1657 SAN JUAN, PR 00629 
TELE. 809-876-5203 TELEX 345-4170 (CHRISLN PD) 
FAX NO. (809) 876-6140 
MULTIBUS is a trademark of Intel Corporation. 

PMI. VAX, MicroVAX, OBUS are trademarks 
of Digital Equipment Corporation 


CIRCLE NO. 49 ON INQUIRY CARD 


TECHNOLOGY ’88 


DISK DRIVES PRODUCT PERSPECTIVES 



Winchester boasts 
777M-byte capacity 

Siemens Information Systems Inc. 
has introduced a 777M-byte, 5 , /4-inch 
Winchester disk drive to occupy the 
high end of its MegaFile line. The com¬ 
pany plans to begin shipping evaluation 
units in the second half of this year. 

The Series 5000 will be available in 
both SCSI and ESDI versions. The 
drives are said to consume less than 
30W and achieve an average access time 
of 16 msec. The MegaFile uses both 
thin-film media and read/write heads. 
The eight-platter drive has a recording 
density of 30,825 bits per inch. Track 
density is 1,476 per inch. 

Price: $3,795. 

Siemens Information Systems Inc., 

Memory Products Division, Suite 325, 
5655 Lindero Canyon Road, Westlake 
Village, Calif. 91362, (818) 706-8872. 

Circle 553 


Subsystem stores 
up to 2.8G bytes 

U.S. Design Corp. targets OEMs and 
system integrators with a 2.8G-byte 
Virtual Information Processor 3000 
storage subsystem. 

The VIP 3000 measures 5.25 by 19 by 
25 inches and holds up to four peripher¬ 
al storage devices, including tape and 
optical drives. It offers 2.86G bytes, 
formatted, when loaded with four of 
Maxtor Corp.'s 5 I A-inch rigid disk 
drives. A peripheral backplane allows 
integration of both SCSI and ESDI de¬ 
vices. 

Interface kits to connect the VIP 
3000 to Apple Computer Inc.'s Macin¬ 
tosh personal computers are available. 
Kits for Digital Equipment Corp. VAX 
computers are expected to be shipped in 
the second quarter of 1988. 

Prices begin at $2,095. 

U.S. Design Corp., 4311 Forbes 
Blvd., Lanham, Md. 20706, (301) 577- 
2880. TWX 710-826-0417. 

Circle 555 


Drive boosts data rate 
to 4M bytes per second 

Hewlett-Packard Co. has pushed the 
data-transfer rate of its 5‘/4-inch rigid 
disk drives to 4M bytes per second with 
the introduction of the HP 97530D disk 
drives. 

In addition to faster data transfer 
rates, new differential drivers on the 
HP97530D drives allow OEMs to place 
storage devices up to 25 meters from 
the host. 

The drives come in unformatted ca¬ 
pacities of 136M bytes, 204M bytes, 
and 408M bytes and include an embed¬ 
ded SCSI controller. HP claims that the 
drives—which are targeted at the OEM 
market—have less than one msec of 
SCSI overhead. Average access time is 
17 msec. 

Pricing for the 408M-byte version is 
$2,100 in OEM quantities. Hewlett- 
Packard Co., 3000 Hanover St., Palo 
Alto, Calif. 94304, (415) 857-1501 

Circle 556 



Winchester notches 
600M bytes 

Hitachi America Ltd. designers have 
packed 13 5 , /4-inch disks into an 8-inch 
form factor to create a 600M-byte Win¬ 
chester, the DK71 IS. Target customers 
include system integrators who are 
building workstations and supermini¬ 
computers 

By using smaller platters than usual 
for an 8-inch assembly, Hitachi claims 
it has been able to increase the rotation¬ 
al speed to 4,876 rpm—about 25 per¬ 
cent faster than normal—to achieve an 
average access time of 12 msec. The 
drive uses an ESDI interface and boasts 
a data transfer rate of 2.46M bytes per 
second. 

Price: $5,500 in OEM quantities. 

Hitachi America Ltd., Computer Di¬ 
vision, 950 Elm Ave., San Bruno, Calif. 
94066-3094, (415) 872-1902. Telex: 
176308. Fax: (415) 872-1907. 

Circle 558 


92 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 

























Need a Digitizer in Your 

USE OUR POINTS 





The Science Accessories Corporation 
GP-7 Mark II sonic digitizer is totally inte- 
gratible, by using the point microphones 
and controller board, a workstation man¬ 
ufacturer can insert this digitizer into a 
workstation design without taking up any 
work space. The possibilities are unlimited 
because there are no bulky tablets to in¬ 
clude in your design. 

The Mark II digitizer has a lot of features 
packed into a tight space, such as; a large 
active area of 20" x 26"; two-way com¬ 
munications; built-in five function menu; 
RS-232 interface, with selectable baud 


rates; a resolution of 0.01 cm; and a 
choice of stylus, one or four button cursor. 


And if you need an even larger active 
area, take a look at the GP-8 sonic 
digitizer, with active areas up to 60" x 72." 
Call Skip Cleveland (203) 255-1526 


SAC 


SCIENCE 

ACCESSORIES 

CORPORATION 


970 Kings Highway West • RO. Box 550 
Southport, CT 06490 
(203) 255-1526 

Telex 964300 • Fax (203) 254-7271 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


CIRCLE NO. 53 ON INQUIRY CARD 


93 




DISK DRIVES 


TECHNOLOGY ’88 

PRODUCT PERSPECTIVES 


8-inch drives feature 
built-in diagnostics 

Targeting the replacement market for 
large rigid-disk drives, Toshiba America 
Inc. has announced 720M-byte 8-inch 
Winchesters. The MK-388FA is said to 
have built-in diagnostics that do not 
require external test equipment. 

The drive comes with a standard 
power supply for 8-inch drives. Toshiba 
claims this allows system integrators to 
upgrade drives of lower capacity with¬ 


out changing existing power supplies. 

The drive has an average access time 
of 18 msec and a data transfer rate of 
2.4M bytes per second. 

Price: $3,995, OEM quantities. A 
rack subsystem containing one drive 
(two can be mounted in it) is priced at 
$8,335. 

Toshiba America Inc., Disk Products 
Division, 9740 Irvine Blvd., Irvine, 
Calif., 92718, (714) 583-3108. 

Circle 563 


Target In On The 

PC/MICRO VALUE-ADDED MARKET 



Winchesters hold 
over IG-byte 



At the 1987/88 PC Reseller Series of the 
Invitational Computer Conferences (ICC), 

PC/micro, software and add-on periph¬ 
eral manufacturers meet with a 
pre-qualified group of value-added 
resellers, dealers and distributors 
throughout the U.S. and Europe. 

If you are a manufacturer trying to 
move product through the growing 
third party distribution channel, then 
each PC Reseller Conference will 
bring you to hundreds of pre-qualified 
resellers—and support your regional 
sales efforts. 

If you are a reseller, free of charge, 
you may attend local seminars focused 
on what you need to know—Adding 
Value to Guarantee Success Into the 
90s—covering industry trends and 
new business opportunities. Also, you'll 
see the latest product offerings from 
the major computer and peripheral 


manufacturers who are prepared to 
help you move product more profitably. 

Computer hardware and software 
manufacturers—target your U.S. 
and Europe reseller territories. And 
value-added resellers, dealers and 
distributors—target the PC Reseller 
Conference closest to you and call 
your local supplier, or our offices, for 
an invitation. 

In the U.S. contact: Invitational 
Computer Conferences, B.J. Johnson & 
Associates, Inc., 3151 Airway Avenue, 
C-2, Costa Mesa, CA, Tele: (714) 
957-0171-Telex: 5101002189 BJ JOHN. 

In Europe contact: Invitational 
Computer Conferences, C.J. Nicholl 
& Associates, Ltd., 37 
Brompton Road, London 
SW3 IDE, England 
Tele: 01-581-2326 
Telex: 888068 CJNADG. 



Ask about the OEM Peripheral Series and the Computer 
Graphic Series of the Invitational Computer Conferences. 


Two 8-inch Winchester disk drives 
announced by Century Data Inc. have 
broken the IG-byte barrier. 

Model C21200 stores 1.2G bytes; 
model C21500, 1.5G bytes. Both drives 
feature 10 platters and use thin-film 
heads and media. The difference in ca¬ 
pacity is in track densities of 1,115 tpi 
for the C21200 vs. 1,347 for the 
C21500. 

The company markets the drives in 
rack-mount configurations or as desk¬ 
side units. Applications include on-line 
transaction processing, communica¬ 
tions and graphics. 

Century Data Inc., 2055 Gateway 
Place, San Jose, Calif. 95110, (408) 298- 
5756, Fax: (408) 298-5553. 

Circle 559 


Micropolis furnishes 
765M-byte drive 

Sample quantities of two 765M-byte 
5 , 4-inch rigid disk drives are expected 
to be available during the second quar¬ 
ter this year from Micropolis Corp. 

Model 1560 uses the ESDI interface; 
model 1580 is equipped with a SCSI 
interface. Both supply an average access 
time of 16 msec. 

The drives contain eight platters and 
1 5 read/write heads. The ESDI version 
has a data transfer rate of 1.88M bytes a 
second. The SCSI drive, in synchronous 
mode, is capable of burst transfers of 
4M bytes per second. 

In quanties of 2,500, the ESDI drive 
is $2,295; the SCSI version, $2,395. 

Micropolis Corp., 21123 Nordhoff 
St., Chatsworth, Calif. 91311, (818) 
709-3305. 

Circle 557 


94 


CIRCLE NO. 51 ON INQUIRY CARD 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 
































The Hall-Mark solution: 


The Okidata 
Laserline 6. 

Okidata’s Laserline 6 uses today’s 
most advanced technology to give you 
quiet, fast, high-quality printing at a price 
that may surprise you. For what you would 
pay for a good daisy wheel, you can own 
an Okidata laser printer. 

The Laserline 6 is a feature-rich 
alternative to laser printers costing twice as 
much. It’s extremely fast — printing six 
pages per minute while still retaining 
perfect letter quality, 300 dpi. Standard 
features include 15 built-in typeset quality 
fonts using true boldface and italic for 
exceptional quality. 

Call Hall-Mark today for a demonstra¬ 
tion of the Okidata Laserline 6. It’s so easy 
to use it will amaze you. All supplies are 
replaceable and feature snap-in installation 
— no tools required. Plus, it’s compatible 
with a wide variety of software including 
Hewlett-Packard’s Laserjet and Laserjet 
Plus. 

Hall-Mark has solutions to all your 
printing needs. Call us today for Okidata’s 
Laserline 6. For outstanding service and 
delivery, Hall-Mark is the one. 


(U4U;N^RK) 


Alabama San Diego (619) 266-1201 

Huntsville (205) 837-8700 San Fernando Valley (818) 716-3300 

Arizona West Los Angeles (213) 217-8400 

Phoenix (602) 437-1200 Colorado 

California Denver (303) 790-1662 

Bay Area (408) 432-0900 Connecticut (203) 269-0100 

Orange County (714) 669 4100 Florida 
Sacramento (916) 722-8600 Ft. Lauderdale (305) 971 -9280 


Orlando (305) 855-4020 
Tampa Bay (813) 855-5773 

Georgia 

Atlanta (404) 447-8000 


Chicago (312) 860-3800 


Indianapolis(317) 872-8875 


Kansas Missouri Ohio Texas 

Kansas City (913) 888-4747 St. Louis (314) 291-5350 Cleveland (216) 349-4632 Austin (512) 258-8848 

Maryland New Jersey Southern Ohio (614) 888-3313 Dallas (214) 553-4300 

Baltimore (301) 988-9800 Fairfield (201) 575-4415 Oklahoma Houston (713) 781-6100 

Masaachusetts New York Tulsa (918) 251-1108 Utah 

Boston (617) 935-9777 Long Island (516) 737-0600 Pennsylvania Salt Lake City (801) 972-1008 

Minnesota Rochester (716) 244-9290 Philadelphia (215) 355-7300 Wisconsin 

Minneapolis (612) 941-2600 North Carolina Milwaukee (414) 797-7844 

Raleigh (919) 872-0712 


© 1988 Hall-Mark Electronics Corp./400-4035 
Hall-Mark Electronics is a subsidiary of the Tyler Corp. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


CIRCLE NO. 24 ON INQUIRY CARD 


PC Magazine. November 10.1987 
© 1987 Ziff Communicaiions Company 

95 






VT 220 in 

black-on-white 


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With excellent ergonomics, high reliability, proven 
compatibility and easy upgrading to graphics opera¬ 
tion, the Facit A2400 video terminal really enhances 
the VT220 concept 

The ergonomic design extends all the way from the 
letter quality text on soft-white background to the tilt 
and swivel base and functional keyboard layout 

And unlike the standard VT220 terminal, the 
A2400 is easily upgraded to VT240 graphics opera¬ 
tion, complete with full DEC ReGIS and Tektronix 

DEC and Tektronix are reg. trademarks 


4010/4014 emulations as well as very fast drawing 
times. Just add a graphics circuit board. 

Furthermore, you will have no trouble installing the 
terminal. Its VT220 emulation has been proven com¬ 
patible in numerous applications worldwide. 

However, we would like to show you the perfor¬ 
mance and compatibility of the Facit A2400 in real 
black-on-white. Please call your nearest Facit repre¬ 
sentative for a demonstration in your system and with 
your application software. 


Facit AB , S-17291 SUNDBYBERG . Sweden. Phone +4687643000 

AUSTRALIA. Elmeasco Instruments Pty. Ltd., 2-427-3322. AUSTRIA: Ericsson Information Systems GmbH, 0222-613 641. BELGIUM: Ericsson S.A., 02-243 8211. CANADA: Facit Canada 
Inc., 416-825-2712. CYPRUS. LBM (Lillytos) Ltd 5164634. DENMARK: Facit A/S. 02-633311. FINLAND. OY Facit, 0-42021. FRANCE: Facit S.A., 1-4780 7117. GREAT BRITAIN: Facit 
0634- 83 0008. GREECE: American Computers & Engineers Hellas S.A., 01-67197 22. HONGKONG. Gilman & Co. Ltd., 5-893 00 22. ICELAND. Gisli J. Johnsen HF. 1-6412 22. INDIA. Forbes 
Forbes Campbell & Co. Ltd., 22-2048081. ITALY: Facit Data Products S.p.A., 039-63 63 31. JAPAN. Electrolux (Japan) Ltd., 03-479-7570. KOREA: True Trading Co. Ltd., 2-783-3855-7. THE 
NETHERLANDS: Facit B.V., 3480-21784. NEW ZEELAND: Northrop Instruments and Systems. 9-501-801,501-219. NORWAY: EH • Ericsson Information Systems A NS, 02-35 58 20. PORTU¬ 
GAL: Regisconta Sari, 1- 5600 91. SINGAPORE: Far East Office Eqpts Pte Ltd.,66-74582 88. SPAIN: Facit S.A., 1-733 7696. SWEDEN: Facit AB, 08-764 3000. SWITZERLAND: Ericsson Infor¬ 
mation Systems AG, 01-8215921. USA: Facit Inc., (603)424-8000. WEST GERMANY: Facit GmbH. 0211-6109296. CIRCLE NO 52 ON INQUIRY CARD 













ADVERTISERS’ INDEX 


INQUIRY 

COMPANY PAGE NO. NO. 

Alsys .23 11 

Analog & Digital Peripherals.100 211 

Arrow.2 57 

Avex Electronics, Inc.21 10 

Avnet Computer Technologies, Inc.C4 56 

Best Power Technology.99 206 

China External Trade Development Council.30 15 

Chrislin Industries, Inc.92 49 

Clearpoint.4 5 

Compaq Computer Corp.10, 11 — 

Computerwise Inc.99 203 

Control Data Corp.88, 89 47 

CTS FabriTek, Inc., Datacomm Products Division . . .58 29-33 

Datamedia.68 36 

Diversified Technology.31 16 

Facit.96 52 

Flagstaff Engineering .100 215 

Fortran.25 12 

FTG Data Systems.99 205 

Graf point .100 213 

Hall-Mark Electronics.55, 67, 75, 81, 95 24, 27, 

35, 41, 43 

Harris/3M Document Products, Inc.39 19 

Hayes Microcomputer Products.C2, 1 1 

Heurikon Corp.87 46 

Honeywell Test Instrument Div.14 7 

Houston Instrument Div. of Bausch & Lomb.32 17 

Imagen Corp.16, 17 8 

Imperial Technology Inc.54 26 

Innovative Technology.3 3 

Interphase Corp.C3 55 

Invitational Computer Conferences.94 51 


COMPANY 


INQUIRY 
PAGE NO. NO. 


lOtech .99 

Keytronics .51 

KMW Systems Corp.47 

Marshall.18 

Maxtor Corp.26, 27 

Method Systems Inc.100 

Mitsubishi Electronic America.84 

Multi-Tech.62 

NEC Information Systems Inc.56, 57, 90 

Output Technology.76 

Pacific Electro Data.100 

Qualstar.100 

Quantum.28, 29 

Quasitronics.99 

RAD Data Communications.74 

Reliable Communications.42 

Rockwell International.9 

Rodime .6 

Science Accessories Corp.93 

Sigma Designs .48 

SI Tech. j .99 

Soricon Corp.71 

Source EDP.98 

TEAC Corp.72 

TeleVideo/Terminals.41 

Toshiba .82, 83 

Vesta Technology.99 

Western Union Easylink.37 

Workstations, Products & Services (WPS) .100 

Wyse Technology.52 

Zericon.100 

See P. 99-100 for Mini-Micro Marketplace 


207 

2 

22 

9 

13 

208, 209 
45 
34 
28, 48 
42 
212 
214 

14 
204 

39 

21 

6 

4 

53 
23 

202 

37 

54 

38 
20 
44 

201 

18 

210 

25 

216 


This index is provided as an additional service. The publisher does not assume any liability for errors or omissions. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS REGIONAL SALES OFFICES 


NATIONAL SALES MANAGER 

Len Ganz 
275 Washington St 
Newton, MA 02158 
(617) 964-3030 

NEW ENGLAND 

John J. Fahey 
Regional Manager 
199 Wells Ave. 

Newton. MA 02159 
(617) 964-3730 

NEW YORK/MID-ATLANTIC 

Joseph T Porter, Regional Manager 
487 Devon Park Dr 
Wayne, PA 19087 
(215) 293-1212 

SOUTHEAST 

Larry Pullman, Regional Manager 
6520 Powers Ferry Rd. 

Suite 395 
Atlanta, GA 30739 
(404) 955-6500 

MIDWEST 

Rob Robinson, Regional Manager 
Margaret W. Donahue 
Sales Coordinator 
Cahners Plaza 
1350 E Touhy Ave. 

P.O. Box 5080 
Des Plaines. IL 60018 
(312) 635-8800 

SOUTHWEST 

Don Ward. Regional Manager 
9330 LBJ Freeway, Suite 1060 
Dallas, TX 75243 
(214) 644-3683 


MOUNTAIN STATES 

John Huff, Regional Manager 
44 Cook St 
Denver, CO 80206 
(303)388-4511 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

Tim Eidson, Regional Manager 
12233 W. Olympic Blvd. 

Los Angeles, CA 90064 
(213) 826-5818 

NORTHERN CALIFORNIA/ 
NORTHWEST/NEVADA 

Frank Barbagallo 

Northwestern Regional Sales Manager 
Sherman Building, Suite 100 
3031 Tisch Way 
San Jose. CA 95128 
(408) 243-8838 

BENELUX/UNITED KINGDOM 

Jan Dawson 
Tracey Lehane 
Cahners Publishing Co. 

27 Paul St. 

London, EC2A 4JU, England 
011-44-1-628-7030 
Telex: 914911 
Fax: 01-628-5984 

ISRAEL 

Elan Marketing Group 
13 Haifa St., P.O Box 33439 
Tel Aviv, Israel 
972-3-252967 
Telex: 341667 


ITALY/FRANCE/SPAIN 

Alasdair Melville 
Cahners Publishing Co. 

27 Paul St. 

London, EC2A 4JU, England 
011-44-1-628-7030 
Telex: 914911 
Fax: 01-628-5984 

JAPAN 

Kaoru Hara 

Dynaco International Inc. 

Suite 1003, Sun-Palace Shinjuku 
8-12-1 Nishishinjuku. Shinjuku-ku 
Tokyo, 160, Japan 
03-366-8301 

Telex: J2322609 DYNACO 

SCANDINAVIA 

Martin Sutcliffe 
Cahners Publishing Co. 

27 Paul St. 

London, EC2A 4JU, England 
011-44-1-628-7030 
Telex: 914911 
Fax: 01-628-5984 

TAIWAN 

Donald Shapiro 
Trade Winds, 2nd Floor 
132 Hsin Yi Rd.. Sec 2 
Taipei, Taiwan 
3932718 & 3913251 
Telex: 24117 FC Trade 


WEST GERMANY/ 
SWITZERLAND/ 
AUSTRIA/EASTERN BLOC 

Uwe Kretzschmar 
Cahners Publishing Co. 

27 Paul St. 

London, EC2A 4JU, England 
011-44-1-628-7030 
Telex: 914911 
Fax: 01-628-5984 

Mini-Micro Marketplace/ 
Direct-Response Postcards/ 
Career Opportunities 

Carol Flanagan 
275 Washington St. 

Newton, MA 02158 
(617) 964-3030 

Cahners Magazine Division 

Terrence M. McDermott, President 
Frank Sibley, Vice President 
Computer Group 
Tom Dellamaria, VP/Production 

Promotion Staff 

Katherine Doyle 
Director, Marketing Services 
Kathleen Hackett 
Promotion Manager 

Circulation 

Denver, CO: 

(303) 388-4511 

Sherri Gronli, Group Manager 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


97 





































































Mi ith so many changes in computer 
WW technology, how can you keep up 
with trends in computer salaries, careers 
and the latest advances? 

All new survey provides 
comprehensive answers 

Call or write today, and you’ll have the 
latest data right at your fingertips. 

You’ll find out: 

How salaries are directly affected 
by your area of specialization in 
computing; 

How your experience level plays an 
enormous part in determining your 
salary; 

• What technical specializations are 
in most demand and how much of a 
premium many firms are willing to 
pay for your expertise. 

It’s the most comprehensive National 
Salary Survey we’ve ever published. 

Gain new insight 
into your own pmgress 

The new 1988 Survey will not only give 
you a thorough assessment of where your 
skills and expertise fit into today’s mar¬ 
ketplace. You’ll also get valuable informa¬ 
tion to help ensure that your career and 
salary will never be blocked or short- 
circuited. The new Survey provides a 
series of charts and graphs to help you 
understand your own progress, assess 
where your career is headed and develop 
strategies to make sure you’re staying in 
the mainstream of your career. 

In short, it’s “must reading” for anyone 
who’s interested in maximizing their 
chances of success. 


Best of all it’s FREE 

The new, 1988 Computer Salary 
Survey and Career Planning Guide is 

published as a free service to the profes¬ 
sion. As the leading recruiting firm that 
specializes exclusively in computing, we 
want to assist you in establishing and 
achieving your professional objectives. All 
our associates are computer professionals 
who have the experience you need to help 
you achieve your professional goals. 


Call 1-800-533-4200, 
ext. 107today 

Or, write to the address below. Either way, 
your copy will be mailed to you free. 


I <^edp* 


source* 

Computer Recruiting Specialists^^^ 

Department NMA1, PO Box 7571, San Mateo. CA 94402-7571 


CIRCLE NO. 54 ON INQUIRY CARD 









COMPLETE DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 
FOR MACHINE CONTROL 


TINY188 is a low cost “PC somewhat com¬ 
patible” engine for OEM controller applica¬ 
tions. A selection of high level languages is 
available in ROM. 

DDS188 An optional development board with 
EPROM programmer, floppy disk controller 
and added memory, removes to lower target 
system cost. 

Prices start at $269 each/$99 at 1,000. 

Vesta Technology, Inc. 

(303) 422-8088 


IMPROVE YOUR NETWORK WITH 
S.l. TECH F/0 BIT-DRIVERS 

Six fiber optic Bit-Driver products can 
eliminate many disadvantages of 
cables, especially: EMI/RFI, ground 
loops (electrical isolation with fiber), 
high attenuation (high signal loss), 
limiting distance between nodes, 
weight, lightning damage outdoors 
between buildings. They have been 
designed to work with: 

• Coaxial cable ARCNET - Model 2853 

• Single twisted pair cable OMNINET - 
Model 2852 

• Coaxial cable used by IBM in SNA - 
Model 2870 

• Twinax cable used by IBM 34/36/38 
systems - Model 2836 

• RS-232 or RS-422 Ring networks - 
Models 2105 or 2106 

For a complete catalog of Bit-Driver specifica¬ 
tion sheets, write: 

^ m a P.O.Box 609 

L m Geneva, IL 60134 

Or call: 312/232-8640 


S249.TERMINAL 



Featuring • Standard RS 232 Serial Asynchronous ASCII Communications 

• 48 Character LCD Display (2 Lines of 24 Each) 

• 24 Key Membrane Keyboard with embossed graphics 

• Ten key numeric array plus 8 programmable function keys 

• Optional RS 422 multidrop protocol mode 

• Keyboard selectable SET UP features - baud rates, parity, etc 

• Size (5 625"W x 6 9"D x 1 75"H). Weight 1 25 lbs 

• 5 x 7 Dot Matrix font with underline cursor 

• Displays 96 Character ASCII Set (upper and lower case) 

• Optional Bar Code Wand (shown) 


£D/IlPUTgR¥15ig. inc 


CIRCLE NO. 201 ON INQUIRY CARD 


CIRCLE NO. 202 ON INQUIRY CARD 


CIRCLE NO. 203 ON INQUIRY CARD 



The Intelligent 
Data Switch 


• No additional hardware or 
software required 

• Any combination of printers, 
plotters, modems, etc. 

• 256K spooling per port — 
expandable to 2Meg 

• Exclusive and/or simultaneous 
data paths 

• Automatic speed and code 
conversion (up to 19.2K baud) 


^QUASITROINIICS, IIMC. 

an Astrotech International Company 

211 Vandale Drive • Houston, PA 15342 

800 - 245-4192 


See us at Interface ’88 
Booth #2158 



IV 


> Presto! 

A Link to 
Mainframe 
L Graphics 


Find out how our whole family of 
EMU-TEK graphics terminal emulation 
software makes good sense for the work 
you do. Call today for more information. 


pyr OATA 
TIVl SYSTEMS 


(714)995-3900 

(800) 962-3900 (800) 972-3900 (Calif.) 
10801 Dale St., Suite M-2 
Stanton, CA 90680 


CIRCLE NO. 205 ON INQUIRY CARD 


IEEE-Z 

Easiest IEEE 488(GPIB/HPIB) 
Interfaces for your PC, PS/2, 
Macintosh, HP and more! 

• Controllers 

• Converters 

• Extenders 

• Buffers 

• Boards 

Call or send 
for your FREE 
; | Technical Guide 

1 ( Jtfif M (216) 439-4091 



25971 Cannon Road • Cleveland, Ohio 44146 

Telex 6502820864 « Fax (216) 439-4093 


Raw 

Line Power 
Makes 
Computers 
Sick! 

Raw line power. 

In many ways it’s 

like untreated water. The quality is uneven, 
unknown. Even polluted. You need computer 
grade power. A constant, reliable source of high 
quality AC power. 

That’s the first job of a Best uninterruptible power 
supply. Treating raw line power to provide the 
predictable, computer grade power your sensitive 
equipment demands. 

The second job is even more important. The Best 
breakthrough in UPS design means fewer parts to 
break down. Fewer chances to fail. More reliabili¬ 
ty for you. 

To find out more about the more reliable, more 
efficient, smaller, lighter, quieter, lower priced 
Best UPS, call today! We’ll send you our current 
catalog with all the facts. 

Call 1 -800-356-5794, ext. 3078 

In Wisconsin call (608) 565-7200, ext. 3078 




Best Power Technology 

P.O. Box 280, Necedah, Wisconsin 54646 

‘ ‘Advanced technology . . . for less ’ * 


CIRCLE NO. 204 ON INQUIRY CARD 


CIRCLE NO. 207 ON INQUIRY CARD 


CIRCLE NO. 206 ON INQUIRY CARD 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 


To advertise in the Marketplace, call Carol Flanagan 617-964-3030. 


99 




















































The PCT-100 is an in-line, 
user-programmable 
RS-232 protocol and data 
translator. It can provide a simple, inexpensive solu¬ 
tion to your communications and compatibility problems. 

• Terminal & Printer Emulation 

• Baud Rate Conversion (50 through 19.2 kbaud) 

• Handshake Translations (XON/XOFF, CTS/RTS. 
ENQ/ACK) 

• Code Conversions (ASCII. Modified ASCII. EBCDIC) 

• Bidirectional Manipulation of Data Strings, Bytes. Bits 

• User-Programmable 

• User Programs are Easily Implemented 

• Built-in Compiler. Editor and Debugger 

• Programs via any RS-232 ASCII Device 

• Only $495 (single unit quantities) 

• User's Technical Manual $25 

|| ffl I Method Systems Incorporated 

JJJ ■■ J 3511 Lost Nation Road 
Willoughby, Ohio 44094 
Call Toll-Free 1 -800-533-6116 
In Ohio (216) 942-2100 





Special MSI features include: 

• Unique 5-year guarantee on parts and labor 

• Distance/speed adjustability via internal jumpering with 
1-, 2-, and 3-mile options 

• Low prices 

• Power supply is UUCSA-approved; 220 vac/50 Hz 
power is optional 

• Off-the-shelf availability • Dealer inquiries invited 


Mighty-Mux™ 


• Independent data rates up to 19.2 kbits/second per channel 

• Receive, transmit, CTS/RTS. or DTR/DCD lines accommodat¬ 
ing hardware handshake for each of 8 channels 

• Coaxial or fiber optic common channel options $495 

Mini-Mux™ 


• Independent data rates up to 9 6kbrts/second per channel 

• Receive, transmit lines accommodating software 

-- $395 


handshake for each of 8 channels 


METHOD SYSTEMS INC. 

/I/I C /7 3511 Lost Nation Road 
M (<^3 L) Willoughby. OH 44094 

(216) 942-2100 • 800-533-6116 


UNIX 
SYSTEM 
AT PC 
PRICES 


NOW YOU CAN HAVE 
THE POWER AND 
VERSATILITY OF 

A MULTI USER 
UNIX BASED SYSTEM 
AT PC PRICES. 

•100% Unix 
Software Compability 

FOR JUST 

$ 4995 . 00 * 

WITH AT&T LICENSED 
UNIX TOOL SET - PLUS 

• CPU Board with 2 68000's and Cache memory 

• 32-bit VersaBus backplane with 20MB/sec throughput 

• 40MB Hard Disk • 1 MB RAM • 1,2MB 8" Floppy Drive 

• 4 RS-232 Serial Ports 

• Optional Ethernet. TCP/IP. 
3270, SNA Protocols 

•4-68 user capabilities 

• Expandable disk, memory, 
and Serial/Parallel/Ports 



Workstations Products & Services, Inc. 

260 Fifth Avenue. Suite 901. New York. NY 10001 

(212) 685-6996 


‘Limited quantities 
UNIX is a trademark of AT&T 


CIRCLE NO. 208 ON INQUIRY CARD 


IBM COMPATIBLE RS232 EASI-DISK 
3V2/5V4" FLOPPY DATA STORAGE & 
TRANSFER SYSTEMS 



Information Transfer to/from Non IBM Compatible 
Systems to/from IBM systems: (Over RS232 or 
488 Interface). 

• Reads & Writes IBM DOS 3V 2 I5V*" Disks 

• RS-232C I/O or 488 

• Rugged Portable Package/Battery Option 


CIRCLE NO. 209 ON INQUIRY CARD 

SCSI 


Analysis and Emulation 



PED-4000 SCSI Analysis and Emulation System 

STATE ANALYSIS 


• Transition Time Recording with 

100 Nanosecond Resolution 

• User Programmed, Event Driven Data Capture 

• Display of Time, Bus State, Phase and Condition 

• Menu Driven Setup, Capture and Display 


CIRCLE NO. 210 ON INQUIRY CARD 

Get the whole 
stray on graphics 
terminal emulation. 



To find out more about software 


• ASCII or Full Binary Operation 

• Baud Rates 110 to 38.4K Baud 

• Automatic Data Verification 

• Price $895 in Singles - OEM Qtys. Less. 

28 other systems with storage from 100K to 35 megabytes. 



ANALOG & DIGITAL PERIPHERALS, INC. 

251 So. Mulberry St Troy. Ohio 45373 
Ph. 513/339-2241 TWX 810/450-2685 
FAX 513/339-0070 


INITIATOR EMULATION 

• Single Initiator, Multiple Target Emulation 

• CCS Disk and Tape plus Vendor 
Unique Commands 

• Interactive or Program Emulation Modes 

• Menu Driven Edit, Configure and Run 

PACIFIC ELECTRO DATA s 


14 Hughes, Ste. B205, Irvine, CA92718 

(714) 770-3244 


that lets your PC emulate 
TEKTRONIX™ 4105/6/7/9 and 
DEC VT100™ terminals, 
call or write: 

<| GRAFPOItlT 

1485 Saratoga Avenue 
San Jose. CA 95129 
Tel. 1-800-426-2230 
In CA. call 1-408-446-1919 


CIRCLE NO. 211 ON INQUIRY CARD 


9-Track Tape Subsystem 

for the IBM PC/XT/AT 



Now you can exchange data files between 
your IBM PC and any mainframe or mini¬ 
computer using IBM compatible 1600 BPI 
9-Track tape. Unit can also be used for disk 
backup. Transfer rate is up to 4 megabytes per 
minute on PCs and compatibles. Subsystems 
include 7" or 10 Vi streaming tape drive, 
tape coupler card and DOS or XENIX 
compatible software. 

Prices start at $2,995. 

flURLSTRR 

9621 Irondale Ave., Chatsworth, CA 91311 
Telephone: (818) 882-5822 


CIRCLE NO. 214 ON INQUIRY CARD 


CIRCLE NO. 212 ON INQUIRY CARD 



9-TRACK TAPE • OCR SCANNING 
WORD PROCESSING CONVERSIONS 

CONNECT your systemsl We manufacture 
conversion systems for your PC/XT/AT. 
Our “DISKETTE CONNECTION” can read 
and write almost any WP or computer 
diskette. Our “SCANNING CONNECTION" 
captures text and images for your desktop 
publishing system.Our “TAPE CONNECTION" 
can read and write 800/1600/6250 GCR 
tapes. System prices start at $1195. 


CIRCLE NO. 213 ON INQUIRY CARD 


"D” SIZE PLOTTER 



*2295°° 

RETAIL 


$1,695°° 

INTRODUCTORY 

OFFER 


• Model PC 3600 

• Repeatability .001" 

• Speed at 7" Per Second 


• Vacuum Paper Hold Down 


• High Resolution Circles: Suitable for 
PCB Artwork 


(415) 490-8380 zeF t icon 

Stevenson Business Park 


Flagstaff Engineering • 1120 Kaibab 
Flagstaff, AZ 86001 • 602-779-3341 
CIRCLE NO. 215 ON INQUIRY CARD 


Box 1669 • Fremont, CA 94538 

CIRCLE NO. 216 ON INQUIRY CARD 


100 


To advertise in the Marketplace, call Carol Flanagan 617-964-3030. 


MINI-MICRO SYSTEMS/March 1988 






























































'Attgawi*. 


INTERPHASE 


Changing The Face Of SCSI 


SCSI never looked so good. Always 
a beautiful vision, early SCSI was not 
always a pretty sight It was incom¬ 
patible, incomplete and slow. 
Interphase is changing the face of 
SCSI by applying more than a decade 
of high-performance peripheral con¬ 
troller leadership to a range of new 
Ultra-Fast and full-functioned SCSI 
VMEbus host adapters. 

V/SCSI 4210 
JAGUAR 

is an Ultra- 
Performance 
caching 
host adapter 

with two independent and 
simultaneous SCSI ports and Com¬ 
mand 9ueuing. It offers true Multi- 
Threaded control of any mix of up to 



14 Synchronous and Asynchronous 
SCSI devices. Advanced systems 
concepts like disk striping and seg¬ 
regating high-end devices from slow 
or unbuffered ones become real. And 
Interphase’s 30 MByte s BUSpacket 
Interface^ 1 provides the industry’s 
fastest VMEbus speed. 

\m V/ESDI 4201 
PANTHER 

\ combines the 
j performance 
\ advantages 
of a host 
resident 

V T1 ~ caching ESDI disk drive 

controller with the flexibility of a full 
function SCSI port for backup, all in 
a single VME slot 


ftfc INTERPHASE 

corporation 



• V/MIX 3210 is the unique com¬ 
bination of a SCSI host adapter, Cen¬ 
tronics printer port, and Versatec or 
Benson plotter port All three become 
~ high-speed DMA 
devices, and at 
a price you’d 
expect for 
any one 
function 
alone. 

FACE FACTS 
Interphase SCSI solutions achieve 
true VME system-level performance 
with existing SCSI devices and let 
you take advantage of the new gen¬ 
eration of full-function SCSI devices 
as they are available. Don’t let a 
“dumb” host adapter make you look 
bad. See the changing face of SCSI. 
Call Interphase today. 

(214) 350-9000 





2925 Merrell Road • Dallas. Texas 75229 • Telex: 9109976245 NASDA9 NMSrINPH 

Interphase International 

93a New Street, Aylesbuiy, Bucks. HP20 2NY, England (0296)435661 Telex: 826715 AERO G 

Interphase is a registered trademark of Interphase Corporation. BUSpacket Interface is a service mark of Interphase Corporation. 

CIRCLE NO. 55 ON INQUIRY CARD 











never work 
without a net. 

Only AVNET Computer Technologies, Inc. offers you 
the products, the support, the service—everything you 
need for truly great performances in your workplace. 

AVNET is an advanced product dealer, offering a 
full line of today’s most sophisticated PC hardware 
and accessories. 

No other computer dealer offers the AVNET value- 
added difference. • 29 locations nationwide—coast 
to coast. • AVNET’s experienced National Service 
Organization—a wealth of technical training and 
support just a phone call away. • AVNET’s own 
leasing and rental programs, customized to your 
needs. • Custom PC configuration, and com¬ 
plete assembly and test facilities. • National 
Distribution—Products are available when you 
need them. 

From 29 offices nationwide... let us show 
you how AVNET’s value-added difference can 
make the difference in your performance. 

Call 1-800-255-2281, or in Minnesota, 
612-942-9170. 


^W 3 


The New MultiCom3270 IBM® 3278/3279 
Terminal Emulation System— for IBM PC, XT and AT 

Personal Computers. 

With the MultiCom3270, your PC can perform the tasks 
of both a personal computer and an IBM 3278/79 terminal 
—at a much lower cost than a standard-3270 emulator. 
The MultiCom3270 interface board and software allow 
file transfers between IBM mainframe^ and personal 
computers within the 3270 environment. It is IRMA™ 
compatible and runs many industry standard 3270 
software packages. 

Multi-Tech’s MultiCom3270 system is the eco¬ 
nomical way to increase personal computer 
productivity in 
a mainframe 
environment. 


““"■IsS® 


AVNET COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES, INC. 

Where Technology and Support Come Together 

10000 West 76th Street, Eden Prairie, MN 55344 


IBM and IBM Personal Computer AT are registered trademarks and IBM PC XT is a trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. 


CIRCLE NO. 56 ON INQUIRY CARD 


AVNMT 012