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A Database Publication 




Full listing of 



In-depth appraisal of 
Atari's latest machine 



Atari 
, Insights 



Write your 
own programs 

Getting to grips 
with binary 

Synchronise 
your sound 



S 




■ Welc 




TO ATAR 
MAG^ 




(IF YOU'RE WOT YET AN 




The only way to make full use of ATARI USER is to 
become one. And Ihe easiest way to do Ihat rs wiih 
ATARI Personal Computer Packs. 

There isn't a better way to get Into computers. 
There isn't a more comprehensive starter pack. 
Only ATARI could give you a 64 Ram memory, cas- 
sette 'soundthrough' capabilities, a maximum of 256 
:olours on the screen at onetime and 4 'sound' voices. 

A AtARIBOQXL PERSON 




COME_ 
kl USER 
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1 1 ATARI USER, STOP HERE.) 




I I No one else could offer you all this power ai these prices. 

I 1 And, as eveiything comes together, you can make the most 

I of the unbeatable ATARI 800XL straight away. 

I Without doubt, ATARI Personal Computer Packs are the 

easiest way to get into computers, 
I The only difficulty Is deciding which one. Now read on 

□ NRLCamPUTERPHCKS 





miifesEdiroi 


CliflMoKniglit 




Mike Bibbv 




AlanMcUchlfli 




Kevin Edward! 




Pele Bibbv 




Peier Glove. 




HeetharSheld. 




MikeCowlev 




John Riding 


UErrismgSale 




EdironnChie 




Editorj 


: 061-45GB835 




: 061-456 8383 




; 061-4563500 


Subscriotion 


s- 061-4B00173 



ism B u'Z' 



News 



a 



Beginners Y 

This month Mike Bibby -^ 
gets you staned in writ- %^/ 
ing your own programs. 
You'll soon be saying 
"programming is easy". 





Analysis 



With the Atari 130XE now in the U - ta 
shops, we bring you an analysis of this | | ^| 
new machine and present the firs' 
program showing how lo use the exlr 
memory to good effect. 




Bit Wise 

Do your sums in binary n 



42 



' Contents 



y- 



with Pete Bibbv's crea- kj^, 
tive use of the SOUND 
command. 



PI 





home 


I fei. 


'wfc 


5UhF£ 

Guide the frog 
over the river t 
classic. 


the road and 
in this arcade 


gmjy 
48j 



Random 
JV umbers 

If it's a random byte 
VQu're in need of, read 
Kevin Edwards' article - 




Graphics 

Dave Russell continues his series with I R Al 
an introduclion to Graphics [Wodes 1 l*-"^l 



A dventuring 



arguments lor C (\^ 

graphic adventures and we give you a | ^ '-'I 
brain-bending puzzle to solve before 
next month. 



Mai/bag 



Microscope 

Take a closer look at this etcha-sketch j^ /I 



Order Form 

Take out a subscription for Atari User R 
-ata special introductory offer, Or buy ' 









comms J 


g 


^^l^b^ 


Some of the most exciting developmen 
microcomputing are taking place in the fie 
communications. In this special 1 2-p 
section we bring vou the tow-down on lin 
your Atari to the outside world. 

• Peter Atkinson confesses that he's hoc 
on hacking. 

• Bulletin Boards explained by Peter To 
with all the latest Atari-based bulletin b 

V 


s in numbers tor you to phone. 

dof • Basildon, gateway to the world via the 

age ITECs bulletin board. 

Idng • MicroLink, tlie exciting new micro com- 
munications system tailored to your needs. 

ked Full details of the service and the facilities it 
offers can be found in the centre pages, 

otill, • Why use serial transmission? Robin 
ard Hudson explains. 



EUROPES LEADING 



SOFTWARE 



EXPRESS 




WTCH-eUT R3R RJfOXER THWIUNG M3VEmjRE5 CF ,,. 
CAPIWN SeFfWARE IN THIS M««aNEi£eN 1(^1 



SEND SAE FOR OUR PRICE LIST. 



HOTLINE 



jrSTONEYHURST ROAD /n91\ ^R4 ?H\R(\ 

ERDINGTON, BIRMINGHAM B24 8HA \\MC I f »JU*t \MUUV 




STs on way 
to whack 
the Macs 



BARRING a major hiccup, offering Gem onlv on 

the first 520ST mac Ninas will 

ba arriving in the UK within haue it on ROM by thi 

days of this issua of Atari machine cjnss inlo Ihi 

Uaot hitti 

standi, and 

■hordy sftennrardi 



( to ApplBS E2,000-plijf 



However the 520STs \ 




GUESS who's reading the 
Atari User? Find out on 
Page 9. 



Line up to become a 
millionaire... 



ATARI bass Jac 




llie United Stales are currently And the final v 

vuntrng software for the 52037. Tramiel . . . 
■■[t doesn't slop IhBre, -Evflntiially w 

Britain campanies ara also in on the act. 



iy 54,500 for the 



1 syslerr 



luming lots of brlgM 15-vear- 



Exciting, 

saysW.H. 

Smitii 



HE AlBM 130XE h, 



Probe into cut price games 



SHARING 
THE GOODIES 



The Atari lOBO disc diiva i 
bslng stocked or a trial basis b 
live branches - Blrminghan 



Are YOU a first rate 
PROGRAMMER? 

Then join the P rofessionals/ 

Award-winning Database Software needs 
more programmers, both for freelance work 
and permanent positions. 

Applicants must be fluent in both Basic 
and machine code on at least one of the 
popular micros, and preferably have 
experience of others. 

Experience in the software industry is not 
essential, but obviously candidates must 
have written good quality software in the 
past and samples will be required. 

Pay is negotiable, depending on age. 
experience and qualifications. There are 
excellent prospects for hard working, skilful 
programmers. 



Peter Davidson, Software Manager, Dalabeae Software, 

Eiitapa House, 68 Chester Road, Hazel Grove, 

Stockport SK7 5NY. 



I, Thfl oHer stated: ' 



GooddeaUays 

XlhW has hit back aL alle- h _ ■ 

jatiors bv a prcmln.., UK AfQI"! 

disiribLilior. company that a daal |I I if I I 

iffarBd bv ibe corporation WDS n»«*l ■ 



irin the520STar 



Heir of 
the dog 



News 



1- 



130 ST 
misses 
Hanover 
Show 




Mystery monitor 



Good 
reception 



software currenlly a\ 
the 800XL - asli 
around 3,000 tilles. 



Precision Software 
rewrites for XE 



ilude Easy Scri 



biding its limE bafora launching Euch as v 

versions for the 520ST. other data 
Aireadyinthepipelireforthe These ■ 

130XE is the cDrrpany'6 well and Spell 

known Sunerbase ranga - the 200,000 copies, and Suparbai 

SupBcbase database, Super- 64, which has sold 70,000. 



, and Supsttype. 
e ST i-erslons. 



ablefnrtheSTIa 



Mid John Iran- £1,000 fc 



le ST fits into this i 



Seal of 
approval 
from the 
man at 
the top 

ATAHI User has alrsadv 



ip aides: "Hs Bhowad it to 
varybodv - and I maan 

verybodv". 



Tlie launch issue's cover 
depicted Tramial's head 
carved out o1 stona along- 
side tha likenesses of the 
four United States 
presidents to be found on 
IVIount Rush mo re. 

And this prompted the 
comment from one US Atari 





THIS month wo aro goin. 
__jin to writo our own programs. 
Nothing spectacular mind, but 
enough to glue vou a quiet glow 
of satisfaction. Firstly, lot's dis- 
cuss what we did last month. 
We learned ihat to "talk" lo the 
computer me had to speak to it in a 
language it already understood, 
called Basic. We also learned how to 

print out messagss, or strings as they 



to do the sum 4+4 we typed: 
PRINT 4+4 [Return] 

/vhere [Return) means vou should 

computer. Hopefully it then responds 



■GOOD MORNING' 



PRINT "GOOD MORNING" 
[Return! 



"Good Morning" by using: 



providing we use our Caps propi 

Notice that PRII^T itself remaii 

capitais. This is because it is a spi 

Basic word - a keyword. Forthe I 



symbols for which 
respectively. Notici 



PROGRAMMIN 

IS 

EASY 



[Return] 
PRINT 'EASY" 
[Return] 



We need to give the compute 

1. Prints out PROGRAMMIN 

2. Prints out IS 

3. Prints out EASY 

in sequence, without slopping t 
us what to do next. Such a sequf 



pressed Return (assuming we'd typed 
it correctly). 

Sometimes, though, we want to 



called . 



proerar 



Beginners | — 



your CAPS on 
you won't fall 



) error ■ 



f 



memory. To see Ihe list, typ 
LIST [Return] 



1» PR»I "pnoGRAimiG" 

3« mm "tdsv" 



/ Start to writs your own programs 
I in PART TWO of l\/IIKE BIBBY's 
guide through the micro jungle / 



numbered sequence of 8i 



PROGRAMMING 

IS 

EASY 



RUN [Return] 

I see printed out: 
PROGRAMMING 
IS 
EASY 



you don't do this the pre 
typing in might get jumt 
previous one -you'll set 

You probably ihir 
haven't got a progra 



n going to ask you to do 
i test your faith in me I 
creen by typing: 



PROGRAMMING 

IS 

SIMPLE 



program you w 
alter line 30. 
Changing I 



implar - iust type in th 



30 PRINT "SIMPLE" [Return] 



LIST [Return] 

fou should obtain Program 



IB PRINT "PROEttaMIING" 

1» PHMI "15" 

3S PRIIIT "SKfLE" 



Program II 
should revea 



RUN [Return] 

You shouliJ now get the ravissd 
If you accidentally tvped line 10 as: 
10 PINT "PROG RAMMING" 



3uld get an error message. 

To rectify such mistakes, simply 

tvpH the correct yersiun of line 10 



r editing, a 
for a while. 
all simply rt 



Vinually ad of them have two things 

• They make vilal teaching points 

the first place). 

• The output -that is, what appears 

and in many cases there a re far easier 
ways of doing it 

you can oniy improve by doing it. not 



ahead and try It - you can't hurt the 
computer from the keybnard, so lal 
your imagination run riot. 

Vou'll learn far more from your 
own examples than you will by merely 
echoing mine. And the good thing is 
that you get such prompt feedback 



So what I'd like you lo do now is to 
spend a good time writing simple 
"message" programs for the com- 



for each instruction. It's also good 
policy to LIST your program before 
you RUN it, just to make sure that all 



PROGRAMMING 



11 PIIIT 


-PnaAinNt- 




» PUNT 


•IS" 




25 PRINT 


■NSTNEN" 




31 PRINT 


'SH»LE" 





20 and 30. Even though we entered i 

memory in its correct numerica 
position. Try running the program a: 
final confirmation. 



s go up in steps of 10 when 
n for when we are patching 



19 PRINT CHIII12S) 




It PRINT "«T»Rr- 




31 PNINT "BSER" 




Program IV 






typing each line. 




Wow LIST it. Is there 


phantom 


line 25 in there? If so, you 


iidn t type 


NEW after the last proc 




lines 10, 20 and 30 ot 


the lates- 


program have replaced th 


se lines in 


the old program. But a 


the new 


program doesn t have a 1 






r program 


The moral is to use NEW before 


entering a new program. 




If you have got an un' 




25, dont worrv - you ca 


easily ge 


rid of It by typing; 




25 [Roturn] 




This will delete the lin 


since you 


replace the old Iine25wil 


a new line 


which contains nothing - 


which the 






method holds good for deleting an' 


line from a program -Sim 


lytypeou 




ss Return, 


I'd better explain wh 


at line 10 



lents of 10, each li 
; after PRINT. 



25 PRINT "RATHER" [Rotum] 

Ifyou list it you'll see thai Ihe program 



Beginners | — 



M 


PRUT CHRJIllS) 1 


IS 


raiiT 




21 


PBUT 


■ftTllRI" 


IS 


ptinT 


1 


it 


PBMT 


■USES" 



Program V 



It PRIRI CHRSdtS) 



ProgrBm VI 

The oulput vou will gat is; 
HELLOOUTTHERE 



Try to get the message lo appear 
legibly by rewrlling the program with 
appropriate spaces in the strings. 



pletely differenl. 

Try running Program VIII. I I 
the affect is pretty impressive. 

So far alt our programs ^ 



The ability to repeat a simple 
operation rapidly is what gives 
the Atari much of its power 



« 


PRINT 


TEEL" 


3« 


?RIiT 


■OIZZT" 


4t 


PRINT 




EC 


PRINT 




SI 


60T0 1 


• 



what you have typed in. This program 
shows how, with the addition of one 
tine (line 601, you can obtain a huge 
increase in the amount of output. It is 
this ability, to repeal a simple 
operation rapidly, that gives the Atari 
much of its power. 

If things are happening a little too 
fast for you, you can temporarily 
suspend action by pressing; 

[Control] + 1 
[Control] + 1 



I (line 10) 

FEEL (line 20) 
DIZZY (line 30) 



0. It duty does so and 

(line 10) 
. (line 20) 

mil it reaches line SO, 
lacktoline lOandsoon 
Notice that when the 
it scrolls up to make 

ime for such a condition 
, where you keep on 



i oi t 






It useful machines 
unconditional loops 



e program 



IS PRINT 
2« PRIM) 
I« PRINT 
4« PRINT 
GS PRINT ■■ 
it PIINI ■' 
7* PRINT " 
M PRINT " 
n PRINT " 
lU PRINT 
111 PRINT 
i.lt PRINT 
IM PRINT 



II MINT CNR1III5I 
Zl PRINT "THIS IS" 
n PRINT "VERY S1LL«" 
4R tOTS IB 




Part of the new Atari generation 



THE first Atari computers, in the 
days when Acorns were only 
found on trees, wore rovolution- 
orv to say the least. The 400 and 
800 - both initially with Sk and 
subsequently with a massive 1 6k 
- featured such undreamed-of 
features as 256 colours, multiple 
sprites and a four channel sound 

' upgraded 



Assessed by 
ANDRE WILLEY 



jitportabla, a 



leSBXEM 
hav'a Midi 



; 800X1 



3 64lt, 



iced ( 



Id work correctly or 



Ihe 16/32 bit ST range V 
music interfaces buili in. 

Atari could neither conlirm or deny 
tills, but did confirm that currently all 
production efforts are being chan- 
nelled into prouiding good slociss of 
the 130XE, and in getting ready lor 
tlie launch of the new 5Z0ST in 
May/June. 

The XE range will support a whole 






One Interesting point is that the 
graphics symbols are now printed on 
the front of each key, making typing 
programs very much simpler. 

The power switch is at the rear, 

the transformer lead. Also provided 
□n ihe rear panel are TV and video 
outputs, the serial bus conriector for 



and although there is no 
i interface, the enpansion 



130lt t 



The Trai 



□OS 2,5, an upgrade of t^ 
2,0. It will s" 



aid DOS 

, .. ill of the 

,,^., ,he extra RAM of Ihe 

130XE and files from the abortive 
DOS 3, 

The 1 30XE itself is a very sleeli 
light-grey unit, looking similar to the 
keyboard portion of an IBM, The keys 



: an 800XL Basic will 
its "Ready" prompt 
tart to program, load 






« feel a 






The 65XE (a re-packaged 800XU 
ill probably not see dayiiglit while 
e 800XL is still in the shops. The 
mours say that Ihe 8 bit portable 
iXEP has been scrapped in favour of 



The function keys (Start, Optlo 
etc! now lie just above the ma 



sophisticated Basic, dan' 
Iry Basic-XL from OSS. Tl 

(player/missile graphic: 
advanced record handlif 
matted PRINT Btaiem 
spaed memory access ai 
fjll string handling, full ( 



■- — ■-■• 


«•■ 


complete programs to type in at the 


basically a 12Bk version of the 




800XL, and is upwardly software 


The appendices cover pin connec- 


compatible, The styling, keyboard and 


tions, accessing the extra RAM and 


documentation have been vastly 


Error messages. 1 feel that the book 


improved and lets hope that the 


still doesn t go far enough and that 


rather minor video problems will soon 


some menllon at least should be 


be sorted out. 


made of file handling (such as OPEN, 


Still, at £169,99, it is a very good 


CLOSE and X10), PEEKs and POKEs, 


buy indeed, offering far more for the 


ARRAYS, maths functions and the 


price than the equivalent CBM, Acorn 


memory map. 


or Amstrad offerings. 1 don't really 





My other gripe is the location and 




construction of the cartridge socl^et. 




It Is very difficult to insert cartridges 




into the back of the machine, since 




you can't even see the socket without 


■ 


leaning over the computer. Also 




third-party cartridges have a 




this wasn't quite as bad as the famous 


Sinclair "Ram-Paclt-Wobble" and it 


caused me no problems during 


testing wUh AtariWriter, Actionl. 


Basic-XL and Atari Anist. it could well 


cause problems as the unit gets older. 


1 was, however, pleasantly sur- 


prised by the manual. It is well laid out 


and a good introduction into pro- 


gramming in Basic, 1 


It clearly explains the keys and | 


houv to write simple programs, with 


examples throughout and a set of 




However, Ihere is a loophole that 
Atari has exploited in the 1 30XE, The 

Why nol, for instance, have two sets 
of 64k, storing your progiam in one 



Ols area, although we can change 
to oj[ advantage Issb program 
listing on nexl page). 

Your Basic program will start at 
lojt 2k, which leaves a nice blocis 
froiTi 16k up to 32k or S4000 to 
S7FFF in hex, relatively free. 

You can tell the computer to use 
ither the "normBi" $4000-S7FFF 
lemory, or one of four other "hidden" 
liocks inside the maciiine. Four iots 
of 16k being the extra 64k, of course. 



soooo 

ApprQX 

$4000 

$8000 
SAOOO 
SCOOO 


I 


e™rv 




~w 


$0000 
$4000 
$BOO0 
$C0OO 


'in 


a for OS 

Basic 


Via bark 
\ 




VQUr Basic program 


(if 


•="■ 




..» 


Bank 2 


B,.„,0„ 


Opsrating Bysterl 


Bank 3 











n Table 1 you can see 


he eight 






for use 




how ihev are allocated 


-think of 


"switch on" an empty block of 


m as two sets of four blocks. You 




tell the computer that whenever 


data, eel up screens, or anything else 




n S4000 


you wish within that area. 


$7 FFF, you really mean 


to talk to 


After you have finished working 


of blocks 0, 1, 2 or 3, 




with the extra block you give another 






POKE and your Basic program is back 


gram that extends th 


oughout 




SI of the 37k free m 


mory to 


By the way, DO remember to make 



[he start of the program it 
I memory switching anc 
n GOSUB to it wheneve. 



m/code 










2 1 


med: BAO 


tejittorful 


description) 
jDndarybanka 


ddressi 


2 1 

[Na 


™.='Jr 


m'sL°o1s' 


selBclBitI 
dBscription) 
condary bank 


ddress) 



BK 




" 


1 CPUbankenablelCBE) 

1 =6502 uses Normal msmory bank at $4000 


5 1 Video bank eneblelVBEl 

1 = Antic uses Normal memory bank at $4000 
= Antic usas Eitended memory bank at $4000 


(Unused or the 130XE1 


•7 1 Sslf-tasiROMsaleW 
l=RAMen8blBaatI5000 
□ = Selt-iast HOrul enabled at $5000 



-Analysis 



1- 



? example program 
3l memory, or one 



'■"•'•"""■ 



not quite a 



you remember thai an Atari actually 
has two, not one. CPU chips. The 
6502 is the main one. which does all 
of the work for Basic and input/out- 



:allad Antic whi. 
devoted lo generating t 
display. This also accesses 
order to do its jab. You cai 
and the 6502 lo acces: 
banks of memory. 



ForE 



mple. 






le 6503 W 



c progra 



■r?) It 



plished both tasks at the same time. 

You can't of courES tell the CPU to 
change the display data while you're 
in this mode — il doesn't see the same 
memory as the display chip. 

This means that any graphics 
commands, PLOTs and DRAWTOs, 
etc.. must be done when the CPU is 
accessing the memory containing the 



program is switched off. Y 
till use SETCOLOR, thouj 
doesn't actually change t 
Its of the display area. 
! memory location is used 
I all of the switching. This 
in 54017 (SD301 for machi 
sers). Each individual bit wit( 
ication does a different jab, 
jsdinTablelMsi 



ilh's 






always be 1 , 
le (from Basic, that 



you switch il offl. This giv 
value of 128 + 64+1 lor 
POKE into 54017. The 



the POKE, 
the POKE, 
the POKE, 
(he POKE, 



CPU 'Normal' M< 

POKE, 

CPU'Enlended'r 

POKE. 

ANTIC 'Normal' 

the POKE, 

ANTIC Extended 

the POKE. 

To set the memc 



POKE 54»7,l»Itlltl64Ii 
Of POKE 54817,253 

Example 1: To set the CPU t 



PDKE S4B17,l)]'t4t8<'J7 



POKE wn,i.n*12f*» 

You will quite quickly gel usei 
working with location 54017 a 



:e your program Is 

memory you can always switch off 
and start again if things go wrong, 

IMy special thanks to Software 
Express, of Birmingham, for The kind 
loan of the very first 130XE in Bruin.i 



rrecl. and SAVE it. When yr 
aatlem will quickly be drav 
II be left on the screen while tl 




A ATARI* 
ZOOMSOFT 



SOFTWARE SPECIALIST 

ADVENTURES 




' Analysis 



i- 



CPU 

ANTIC 

BANK 



VARIABLES 

Sets CPU mode for subrou 



FUNCTIONS 



1010 GOSUB to set colours. 

1070-1120 Get a key. If 1-5, GOSUB 
Esc. exit to Basic. OtharwlE 

1 170-1 190 Set Antic and colours for [ 

1240-1260 Set Antic and colours for [ 

1310-1330 Set Antic and colours for i 

1370-1390 Set Antic and colours for i 

1440-1470 Set i 

1520-1530 Subr 

1580-1590 Subr 




Well -named 
Colossus 



COLOSSUS CHESS 30 



ENGLISH Software ate rol what 
ColOMiH Chaw 3.0 package In 


arthek^literature, and even in 


nK&' "^ 


T**-— ,, ._ J 




the manual, it's billsd as "the be 


St chess playing program for 


^^^HP^ !g i" 
















Maybe that only makes il a bi 












chess programs for the Atari. 










uld fare in the bigger pool that 










t what If offers. 








IwssgladtDSeetf^attheoroa 










to specify your move. You simply 


position it on the piece to be 








moved, press Return, position 11 










press fletum again. 






^^^^^^^ 




the more common ■■e2-e4- 


used to sat up and solve chess 


say much, Ihere'satableattne 


Colossus to be up there with 






problems, and not lusi the 








to do it that way,'.he program 


usual ■white to move and 


the results of Colossus v The 


Colossus Chess 3,0 comes 
on 4BK cassette or disc, with 




As chess programs go this 


type* 


The program was tested 


prices of £9,95 and £12,95 










respeotively. To call it the best 




consider its slanbarb of game 


home computer chess pro- 




chess program for the Atari 






gram ever to be able lo solve 


ines ranging from the ZXai to 










the Apple, Against each one a 










series of 1 6 games was played 


Dave Ruaull 




levels can be saleeted by 


""«■ ^^^ .^.^ 


number of whites and blacks 






program has to select a move, 
be selected or you can play an 


probably fair to say that 
Colossus is the best chess 


Colossus beat them all - 
most of them by 16 games to 


One for 




all-the-movee same in whicti 


Atari, 


nil, Sargon 111, widely recog- 






the total game time is 

You can even introduce a 
handkap for the program lor 


The manual gives a good 
description of all the features 
and how to use them, and fully 
describes all the different 


nised as an e«cBlleni program, 

Chess, another Atari version, 
went down 12-4, while Atari's 


joystick 




yojrself if youre that good) by 
putting soma time on one of 
the clocks before the game 


sections of the screen display. 


Knight Mk II won only three of 
its 16 games. 


jockeys I 


There's an "equality ' mode 


presentation is awful. It's 


Chess Z.O for the Commodore 


AS they say on all the best 


in which the program will try to 
keep its clock as close as 


printed in black on red paper- 
not a pretty sight. 


64 was advertised as "the 
finest chess program ever 


awards shows, I'll take them 




It looks to have been 




we reviewed Smash Hits 




photo-reduced to A5 slie from 




volumes 3 and Z, this month 




A4 dot matrH printer output. 


fared against its predecessor. 






which doesn't help, and you'll 






There are plenty of other 




Martin Bryant we can assume 


it opens with Jat-Boot Jack, 




read the loading instructions. 


that 3.0 would win . , . but by 


This is probably the best ' 






what margin? How much 


known of the English SofP«are 


''°esen?ria«A!isef''ul tutorial 


program is anything more than 
a big fish In a little pool we 


"^/Tthe manual t'oints out. 


games, which is presumably | 






the same set of results could 


volumes. It's a good game, so ' 


option which will sh=w all 


its game. 


not be guaranteed in every set 
of 16 games. Nevertheless, 


Next is Dan Strike* Back, 






even if the results are taken as 


the EeHuel to Diamonds from 


The program can also be 


mVJo sZeds. which doesn't 


only a rough guide, they show 


Volume 2- English Software 



Software | — 



Dan sallies forth 



f Hyper 



■, with the room. Fortjnately.raspon 

sally well the joystick is excBllBtil. 

RrefleellBadifficultga 

enBEcrolls anyw/iere-and thofrustral 



gel 



fe addict. Captain Sticky's from bottom to top, giving the thing ,„^ ..,= ,=.j„,cu 

his is miles members of the family, scroll in the other direction. challEnga, this one's for yoj. 
riginal. it's Finally, RrellBBt calls for The game requires a bll of All in all. it you're a joystick 

Diayeditlo. level of Brecislon. Your task is selective shooting, and a lot of ^alje foi money at E14.95''for 

idy s got to steer your space cruiser precision steering. If you hit the tape and £17.95 for the 



Next comes Hyperblagt. 


populated by tanks. It's s sort 




^^r^r^]Jmesl 


KEEPAN EYE OPEN 


stick and thumb plenty of 
rcise as you dodge the 


ONE of the features of the new 
Atari disc package is the 
inclusion of a new adventure 
game. The Pay-Oft. For- 


FOR LUIGI 


emy, although it has the 


tunately for this reviewer, who 




mpiest space warp ive ever 


already owns a complete Atari 


but the writers were one jump lead the villain of the piece. 








tween levels so the quality 


available In Its own right from 


success was nothing more New Jersey in search of a 




'all good Atari stockists". 


than a pipe dream. fabulous gem which, word on 


n Captain Sticky's Gold 


The game Is a double first 
for Atari, being both their first 


acles 1 soon found plenty answer to all your problems. 


plains hapless crew 


disc game and also their first 
adventure. Based on this 


ia\ life places to explore Yet the greatast crime has 


gold. LBvell starts off nice 
d easy, with only some fish 


hope that it won't be their last. 


avared a malevolent sense tlonally 1 might add) by the 


d an air leech to avoid while 


Despite the racent trend 




re grabbing the gold. 




B in the car park. enough rope to hang himself. 


ng used up all the time 


text-only game, Ullled in pub- 


1 fact 1 found myself more While it is possible to gain 


re under water. You can 


adte'ntur'e""'Ti;is'm7y''beseen 


position and deliberately eiplore it, despite the do?y 
"dying" in order to enjoy the guard - one very imponant 


ng, but there is also a time 
ge which shows how long 


in some quarters as Atari once 
more swimming against the 


author s sense of humour, piece of equipment is secreted 


have left to complete the 






When you've collected 10 


adventurer''wiN asMrt."^ '^^ 


yourself into the character the out difficulty. In tact, you've 


s of gold you move to the 
t level, where things are a 


lime hoodlum determined to 






stake your last few dollars on a 


alion calls for desperate m BBS- an adventure such as The 




— Software 1 

A micro version 
of Indiana Jones? 










It, Quicliclaw, 3 Raj diamond 

Id s Slone fat, 'a _ 

CollHoiing gold bars on the by misjudging 

ay to boost your points score earlier leap?. 

The quest starts on a ted mega lung Ci 

id as you Ofogress to Ihe eels, though 



Then 



giant arts - different haiards nun 
Contact Willi any of tHese, get 



OUTDO THOSE GREMLINS 




5 Gold Qftering, Mr 



s get more often th 



Paul HSMiitt 




Features • Play the computer or a friend • Computer 
player gets tougher as you do • 64 BattJe combinations 
9 Separate battleground screen # Medieval pieces 
like the wizard and the sorceress - magic spells and a board ^ 
that changes as you play • Deluxe boxed package JrKludes 
full instruction and hints manual • Joysiicic controlled * 



A message from 

[i(^©[iD§[}{] §(D[Fir\m[i( 

to all owners of 

ATARI, COMMODOf^E 64, BBC B, 

ACORM ELECTROM and AM5TRAD Computers... 

Software companies grow d' 

seems fromtfienumDerofnewcompanlesEpringingupeuery 

ETIGUSH SOFTlMftRE was launched three years ago with a 
smashing little game for Atal Computers called AIR5TRIKE 1, 

whlchqulcWy becameoneofthemostpopularU.rt programmed 
gamesfortheAtarl. I 

Then as now, Atari Computers were amongst the most 
advanced on the planet, but they were aTRIFLE enpen5|we! 
But we knevj that prices would come down, and f -' 
people would soon appreciate the great range o, 
Atari software produced by ErtGLISH 50r^^W^RE. 
But Atari owners used to be a funny lot, being '- - 
to utter such gems as' 

■'ltcan'tbeanycop,lfltco5t5lessthanfM" /^f9.95 
Honestly, that's what they used to say I Anyway, 
In the face of this rather strange attitude, we wen 
ahead and committed the ultimate sin. 

ATARI QAMES AT £9.95! 
IWe expected some slight resistance to these 
prices from Atari owners who only equated high 
quality with high prices, but we were wrong: 
Everybody thought the prices were great, and tf 

VJs even produced the fantastic ATARI CASSETTE 

EMhArKERat£7,95, a superiD utility program for 

BASK program me rs 

5o now, for those of you who might have missed out on 

all our excellent Atari titles, we ate releaslngsomething 

very, very special: 

ATARI 5HA5H HITS Volumes 1, 2 and 3 

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Each cassette features our top-rated JET-BOOTJACK plus four other popular tit 

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We have also Just released COLOSSUS CHESS 5.0, the best chess program available anywhere lor 

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For ourgood friends with other home computers, ourprogrammers are busy producing orlglnalgamesfor you as 

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Electron are now available at selected branches of W.M. SMITH. 
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PROGRAMMERS AHD PROGRAMS 
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— conTACTUsnow— 



ENCUSH SOFTWUtE.. 

-TXFTWffll.. 



comms 









Find out how to 








use your A tan 






to link up with 






the world 












networ/( of 


Happy davs. or a( least they werE for 
to a more itmndane lave-hale relalions 


me. Still, like all infatuations it gave way 
ip. Micros were stilt exciting, but the first 




communications 


thrills had gone, never to be recalled, t 
inlfoduced to the world of comms, Th 


t least that's what I thought until 1 was 
en that was it. Gone was the debonair, 




in this special 


"man of the micro wodd", "1 can tak 
II yoj're woridering what comms 


Ataris or leave them " attitude, 1 was 
e hacking fraternity 1 




12 page section 












- in this case, communications 






between micros via the telephone 


U.^l.. J -. 


_ 1. ■ ■ 


lines. It sounds so innocent, doesn't 
it? Then 1 suppose heroin doesn't look 
loo bad, but once you get hooked . , . 


Hooked on nacKing 


It started when a friend of mine 
who works for Atari User lent me a 
modem - that's the gadget for 


PETER ATKINSON confesses 


attaching a micro to the phone 
system - and his black book of 
bulletin board numbers. 

A bulletin board is just an 


his communications addiction! 


carry the phone numbers of other 


own electronic mailbon. H, like me. 


electronic noticeboard that you can 


boards, which carry numbers of yet 


you can't wait to open your mail inttie 


leave messages on. And, of course, 


other boards ... and so on ad 


morning, you'll enjoy logging onto the 




infinitum. 


system (as ringing it up is known). 


users leave, 


Of course, as with all addictions. 


There's a fresh crop of letters every 


It appears innocuous enough. 


you move on to harder stuff. My 


few hours. 


doesn't it? But its not. From my first 


encounters with bulletin boards led 


When 1 first logged onto it, 


session 1 was in its grip. 




IVIicroLink was in the development 


The messages are absolutely 


No hobbyist bullerin board this, but a 


stage, so there were only magazine 


fascinating. There are people asking 


nationwide commercial network 


editors and the like to write to, Sy the 


for (or supplying! help with program- 


based on a series of powerful 


time you read this, though, there 


ming problems, people swopping 




should be hundreds of real people 






sharing the fun. 


software packages (especially 


latest news, special interest groups 


rvlind you, MicroUnk isn't just 


adventures), people airing their 


and software to download - although 


restricted to sending letters to people. 


opinions on everything from politics 


this time you have to pay. (My habit 


although there are extremely power- 


to piano playing. 


was getting serious by now,] 


ful facilities for doing so 1 haven't 


There are second-hand and swap 


Still, you can get everything from 


even touched on. 


pages - everything from cars to 


train timetables to holiday bookings. 


There's a notice tiaavd and a more 


wives, pages of micro-news, gossip 


electronic shopping to interactive 


powerful bulletin board. You can chat 






with anyone who happens to be 


seen jobs advertised. 


days on Prestel (1 did) and not exhaust 
the possibilities. 




In my quieter, reflective moments 


"on-linB" to the computer at the same 
time as you are. You can find out 


(when the wife insists on using the 


And then 1 discovered Telecom 


which dealer's selling the equipment 


phone) 1 think the attraction is the fact 


Gold, It's not a dairy product, no 


you want at the price you want. The 


that microcomputing is normally such 




list of facilities goes on and on. 


a lonely business. 


incredibly sophisticated electronic 


How could 1 resist? The truth is 1 


As soon as you get into comms 


mail system, a sort of mega-bulletin 


didn't even try. Every spare minute 1 


you're freed from your isolation. It's 


board. 




amazing how many interesting. 






like-minded fellow maniacs there are 


beginning of MicroUnk. one of the 


moralising: 


out there i 


latest developments on Gold, as 


Go mother. Wll your children. 


And then there's the free software. 


afficionados refer to it, This is a joint 


Never do what 1 have done 


IMIost bulletin boards have software 


development between Telecom Gold 




for downloading, as it's known. 
A lot of it is encBJIent quality - and 


and the people behind Atari Useran6 


modem should have a government 




health warning. 


it's free! Even if I've no need for it 1 




Perhaps 1 should ... but 1 wont. 


cant resist having it. The boards also 


For a start, everyone gets their 


Comms is just too much fun. 



•E-veB-vo; 



,0-T»»-^ 






yOOT 



^!':;e;»>!, 



ation 



IK 



- often reforrBd ti 



Thsy decided 
lo a telephone ai 



Get your 

across 

bulletin 



« people with avallHble t 
even DrdinBrv that they 



!n priced systems si 



h of the hobbyists in 



Ifyousi 



■ ^ 



< hBBS 

a ound as yet, but 

be ng deuelaped. 



ols SJch systems 

thH USA, 

programs 



In fact enchanging 
iaily whst BBS are all 
There will always be 












agas can be private or public. 


But unless the system has a 




particular theme of its own, you are 


a a egories. They will tell you if 


unlikely to find much information of 


ha e a message waiting when 


general interest on it. 


a and also let you search for 


If you are looWng lor train times. 


m ages on a particular subject. 


weather reports, financial informa- 


he eaturesthalyQUwillfindon 


tion, hotel bookings and suchlike the 


a BBS n ude information and news 


large commercial systems such as 


fes ep for inenperienced users. 


Prestel are the place to go. 


softwa e download, games and 






amount of overlap between Prestel 


e ad ertising. 


systems and BBS, You will find some 


e eason 1 prefer using bulletin 




ds Preslal or Micronet, which 


Micronet and Vievriax 258 on the 



'■^mmjiem/^,tm 



Comms 



i- 



mmisM'}&m 



message 
on a 
board 




BBSs havE. 

The olher advantage Df BBSs is 
[hat they are open to anyone with no 

IreE of charge (except lor the cost of 
the phone call). 

On the other hand ordinary Prestel 
will cost voii C6.50 a quarter (+VAT), 
and Micro Preslel (which has the 









1 Ring-back prooedura ^^ 

back , It '^ • ^ 



« Swil 



^'°^oJl^O pe. cnt of P-f^'^lZ 



'go per cam "< ^""^^^^ ^ing I 
■ ''°'i^'^'Jhen^he sysop | 



'^raufmes. Then when t..= = 
I answers, assi.n'lnQ 'j^J "'(f^, 
! call t^iey hang up. bysops 
' ' irritating' 






^SM^L^eS^ 



Technology, primarily for the 
Youth Training Scheme (YTS). 
The ITEC opened for trainees in 
February 1984 and has been 
extremely busy ever since. 

Courses in oflice skills, such as 



Trainees call 
link Basildon 



agement, prograrnming and elec- 


ey. Th 


pear asking you lo press Return 


tronics are availahle to trainees, using 










this point it is testing to see 


Currently we have four computer 


Calli 


er it has an Atari on line or 




ach □ 


other computer. It will then 




ead, A 


:ransmilting pure text, asking 


We have been using an Atari 


he disc and printer and all messages 


you some polite questions. As soon as 




re primed out. Private messages lo 


you get clean, readable, text, put your 


Iniliallv this was an Atari 800, but it 


he sysop, however, are not logged to 


phone down. 


has rEcentIv been replaced with an 


he disc. 


After you answer it will log your 


800 XL, which is used for a variety of 


The system is very easy lo use and 


call and let you in to the system. If you 


tasks, including the trainee and staff 


offers help menus for the inespar 


call during the day you might like to 




enced. The information on offer is In 


try the Yell command (menu option 


Ttie Atari Is used as both the 


he main about Basildon ITEC 


Y). It will sound a bell at our end and 


manager, Malcolm Bridges and 




one of us may break in for a chat via 
the keyboard. We have made many 


myself have Alaris at home- and can 




transfer data easily from one machine 


By 


new friends this way. 

Once you get into our system you 


However the Atari's primary task is 
communications. It was initially used 


TONY DWYER 


will find information which we hope 
you find interesting and useful. One 






file in which you may be particularly 








interested is a list of other bulletin 


when we acquired some modems and 
a simple terminal program. This 


although we do get some intereslin 


boards in the U K (Beware, If you dont 


enabled us to log on to many private 


messages. 


and commercial bulletin board sys- 


If you would like lo call our BB, yo 






will need the following lassumin 


disconnected !) 


interest, particularly on my part, and 


that you are an Atari user): 


Our system permits the download- 


our phone bills jumped through the 


• An Atari computer |at least flBk 


ing and uploading of programs using 




• A disc drive (810 or 1050| 


Xmodem protocols. Xmodem will 


Basildon ITECs bulletin board runs 


• A modem (1 recommend WSZOO 


ensure that you get a clean download 


on an Atari BOOXL with a 1050 disc 


or Pace Nightingale), Set it at 30 


of data. 


drive and an 850 interface to handle 


baud. Depending on the modem yo 


It does this by sending a block of 


the signals lo the modem and printer 


choose, you may also need an Ata 


data and checking a checksum value i 


(an Epson MXlOO). 


850 interface unit. 


returned by the receiving computer. If 


It uses software from the USA 


• Terminal software 




known as Amis. This was sent to us 


• A telephone line 


again. In this way complex programs 


by the Rainbow Computer Company 


• A printer would be handy 


can be sent. Even machine code is 


in Orlando, Florida, after we had 


IReade's might like lo take advantag 


e transmitted safely. 


logged onto their system and had a 




f Many terminal programs are avail- 


chat with the systems operator 


on Page 35.) 


able for the Atari - commercial ones 


(sysop). 


Having connected it all logethe 


r such as Teletalk and the excellent 


The system operates at 300 baud 


and managed to get the software t 


Home Term. There are also some 


(300 bits per second] transmit and 




public domain programs around 


receive, accepting calls from any 


Dial our BB number- il isBasildo 


n including Jterm and Amodem. 


computer system operating in Ascii at 


0268 2S122, You will hear a ringin 


g Our Atari is also used for other 


that rata. However it is rather clever in, 


tone for a couple of seconds, then yo 


u tasks. For enample, we manufacture a 


that it can recognise Atari computers. 


will hear a continuous high pitche 


d light pen for the Atari computers, 


This is because Ataris can operate In 


tone. This is the carrier tone. 


Each one is tested on our machine 


an enhanced character mode known 


At this point switch on yo 


r using our own software and sent out 




modem - its carrier detect lig 


t with a disc of introductory programs 


When a user logs on it checks for 


should come on. Press the Return ke 


y written by myself. The pens are made 


the value transmitted by the Return 


on your Atari a few times, A dlspla 


1 in our electronics laboratory by our 



Comms 



on Atari to 
to the world! 



often work a' 



■king day is verv full I 



i- 



people. We even allow ihem access 
tq some of our computers. 

We have many plans for the future. 
One involves more Ataris - me have 
eight 800 XLs on order. These will be 
used to train primary school children 
in computer use. making use of the 
Atari touch tablets and probably 
Logo. 

We plan to involve local schools in 
this project, intending to gjve large 



with guidance on 
. We feel that Logi 



m, the 



ivity. This 
idea has already been very successful 
in the USA and we hope to achieve 
similar results here. J hope to keep 
you posted in Atar/ User later in the 



Join the communications revolution 

We've found the 



missing link! 



By DEREK 
MEAKIN 



I bullHlin board you could ace 
otlyou lo chat freely wllh o[h< 
1 or Ihe length of malenal •, 



VI 



For less than the CQ 
le size of this page 
lafrartionoiaaico 



iBcepllon the new service has been gver by our readers- am 
Its unlimited potential (or future development. 

Come and join us - and eiqiloie with ub the whole new iwrld thai / 
is being opened up by MkiroLink, 




£249.99 

BODXL/IOIORECaflDEFtPACK 



El 29.99 

gODXL COMPUTER 



ALl LATEST ATARI SOFTWARE 

INCIUDING V.C.S. CARTRIDGES, 

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THE MIDUNDS LARGEST STOCKISTS OF ATARI 

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REMEMBER 

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WE CAN NORMALLY 'OBTAIN IT' FAST! 

U.K. & AMERICAN SOFTWARE IS AVAILABLE 



^g^^ invitesyoutojoin. 



miaoLiDk 





MicToLink is this year's most 
exciting - as well as most 
ambitious - development in the 
rapidly-expanding world of 
telecomputing. 

For the first time, it combines 
tile enthusiasm of many thousands 
of computet users with the power 
and versatility of Britain's national 
database, Telecom Gold. 

The result is an international 
communications link that is your 
passport to new realms waiting to 
be explored, new experiences to be 
shared with kindred spirits who 
enjoy telecomputing just as much 
as you do yourself. 

Comniunicating the MlcroLink 
way is ultra-fast - and much 
cheaper than you might expect. 
Wherever you live, you get direct 
access to the Telecom Gold 
computer at local call rates. 

With your ouin electronic 
mailbox you can send a message to 
one destination - or to 5001 - for 
less than you would pay for a first 
class stamp. 

You can send and receive telex 
messages worldwide, or have a 
two-way chat with other users in 
real time. 

And the cost of using Micro- 
Link? Just £3 a month. Plus small 
additional access charges as 
detailed overleaf. 

Join MlcroLink now - and let 



you and 


your Atari be 


nthe 


fore&on 


of the ne. 


V revolution in 


commu 


■cations! 







These are some of the innovative features 
you'll be able to use when you join . . . 

maoLiDh 

What facilities you can use - directly from your micro: 

• Access at any hour ol (he day or niglil to Microsearch, out exclusiue product localer, which is 
con^laiitly updated by Britain's mejot distribulois. Powerful, easy-to-use keyword searching means 
you should find what you want within seconds, 

• Direct contact, via electronic mail, with other users Ihi^ughout the world. And because you're 
connected uia P5S, and not the normal phone links, it's usually much, much cheaper, 

• Full use of the closed user group bulletin board - with a special section ior Atari users. 

• Full service of news about new products and events. All presented in easy-to-read iomi to keep you 
right up to date with what is happening in the world of microcomputing and communications. 

• Send and receive mailbox messages of any length with other Telecom Gold mailbox users, the 
number of which is rapidly growing. 

• Send and receive lelex messages, both Within Britain and all over the world. 

■ Send telemessages to any address in the UK. [i sent bebre 10pm they will get guaranteed deHueiy 
the next working day. Including Saturday (This seniice commences shorlJy.J 

• If you live outside the 01 local call area, use of PSS at local phone call charges, including access to 
the international Dialcom system. (This covers neor/y 90 per ceni of the population of the UK.; 

• Use. should you require it of the Telecom Gold mainfiame for storage of your own data. 

• Encouragement to combine with friends or colleagues to set up your own closed user group within 
MicroLink. 

• Provision of free telesoftware, which you can download into your Atari. 

What you will receive when you join MicroLink: 

• Free registration on Telecom Gold - and your own private mailbox. 

• Free password, which you can change at any time you Bke. This gives you a tiigh level of security 
in order to preserve confidentiality, and is known only to you. 

• Free Instructional manual to Introduce you to Telecom Gold and its many services, 

• Free Help lacillty should you require additional assistance. 

• Free newsletter to keep you informed ol future developments in this ever-expanding service. 



What you need to access MicroLink: 

• Any personal computer, portable computer, hand-held device o 



communications facilities. 

• Appropriate communications software, 

• Modem (you can use 300/300, 1200/75 or 1200/1200 b. 



electronic typewriter with 



jd as you wish]. 



Whatwillitcost? 

■ Monthly standing charge of E3 (compared to Telecom Gold's normal £10 a month minin 

• Connect charges: 3.5p a minute (cheap rate); 10,5p a minute (standard rate). Plus 2p a r 
PSS charge if calling from outside the 01- call area. 

• Once only telex registration fee (if required): £10. 

• Outgoing teleK 5.5p per 100 characters (UK). 1 Ip (Europe) and 16,5p (USA). 

• Incoming telex: 50p. 

• International mail: 30p for fiist 2,048 characters, then 15p for each additlona) 1,024 char 

• Telemessages: £1.25 (or a marimum of 350 words or 35 single spaced lines, 

• On-line databases on Telecom Gold: cl^arges as indicated at time of log-on. 



To secure your immediale registration, complete the fonn opposite and ictum it to: \ 
MicroLink. Europa House, 68 Chester Road, Hazel Grove, Stockport SK7 5NY. y^ 



^ ^n 5 S^a » ^5 i^5 






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i o iinnr 

|s 

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ROBIN HUDSON says: Forget the past, 
get on to the right number and . . . 



tllCATIONSis, perhaps, 

I interesting area of 

iputing that has vet to 

:plored by the majority of 

computer users. 



Serialise, 

modulate, 

communicate! 



let's examine Iha passibility of 
telephone system. 



t is simply a m 
sphone calls 1 

ssages for othi 
:h systems oper 
s as far apart s 



progressed to a more 
lie than in Europe, 

which accepts 



interface, as opposed 
interface such as iha 
Centronics-type printei 
mental to the whole 



ransf erred 

within a CO 
reen different 



suitable equipment i 
are no longer prohibi 



phone c 




Anot 


er type of sy 


-bullelin 


board is peculia 


Bulletin 


boards were first 





A 


B 
















Da 


A 


Da,.^r..eiv.d 



Comms 



i- 



cablarinstead ora^nrand e 


venifthis 

□ parallel 

fact that 
tend lo 
vithin the 
know as 


Digital wavefor 






nA" 


complicalions with respect 
data transfer. 

These revolve arQund th 
the individual bits of dat 
travel at different speeds v 
wires and introduce what i 
data skew. The result is Iha 
becomes garbled. 


..^yV-vAv 


-y^ 



This 
more noticeable over greater distan- 

rarely longer than about a metre. 

We see then that the function of a 
serial interface is to convert data from 
a computer into serial form so that jl 

The parallel transfer of n data bits 
requires n+1 individual wires, n wires 



I parallel interface due to the a 

if the skew effect in serial ci 

What are the ather compon 



before being passed to the telephone 

Conversely, received analogue 
data is demodulated into digital form 
before being given to the computer. 

Modulate and OfModulate electrical 

The final element involved is the 
software. 

The facilities offered by communi- 
cations software may vary greatly, 

by which the serial interfaces, and the 



nts, apart from the computer, 
3e present in a communications 
n using the telephone network 
rial interface, a modem and the 



perfectly possible t 
computerstogetherv 
telephone system. 



Dnlrolle 



1 then 



sion of the human voice which is 
analogue, as opposed to digital, in 

The difference between the two 
types of signal, analogue and digital, 
can be seen in Figure II. 

waveform produced by digital corn- 
telephone network because of the 
nature of the network itself and 
various fillers and switching equip- 
ment used in telephone exchanges. 
To overcome this problem a further 
piece of equipment is required that 
will convert digital data into analogue 



although 
le physical i 



>e protocols may be regarded 
equivalent of word, sentence 






pounds. 



t any other type of 




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I 



YOU are a destrayar captain alone 
in a hostile sea surrounded by a 
pack of submarines which are 
travelling secretly to a rendez- 
vous. The submarines cannot 
break radio silence or send for 
help and must not attack you for 
feat of giving their position away 
but you can sink as many of them 
as you can - with as few depth 
charges as possible. 

On the screen will be shown a 
board divided into 
The submarine is hiding ir 




tho: 



Each line of boxes goes from 
to 9 and you have to give the box 
numbers to the computer when it 
asks for your entry. You will be 



asked to type in a number for the 
X and Y lines. If you think that the 
submarine is in a box 8 across and 
5 high then return 8 and 5 whan 
the X and Y positions are asked 
for. 

Remember you must press 
Return after each number. 

It you make a direct hit you will 
hear a noise and the screen will 
show you how many tries you 
took to sink the submarine. 

If you miss, the computer will 
tell you if your shot was North, 



South, East or West of the target 
and you imist then plan your next 
shot. As soon as the submarine is 
sunk your computer will search 



SUBROUTINES 



370 Header. 



binary system, whi 





MIKE BIBBY 




continues his series 




of articles aimed at 


ur usual 


lifting the veil of 


coding 


mystery cloaking 


which 


the fundamentals 


system 


of the Atari's 


.n,s,w. 


workings 



you why bi 
2*0. The , 
The fact i! 



162 = 100+60+2 

128 G432 16 842 1 

^ 10)00010 
= 12St-32 + Z 



s. B subjei 
ly covered at 



2-2 = 4 

2'2'2 = 8 
2'2'2'2 =. 16 

iltiplled together. 



4 2 1 

; 1 1 in 3 

i 1 denary + 2 



iwn and carry 1" when ya 
H you gat a three then "ci 



There are two 
schools of 

— % 1 1 1 in 7 

_ H ■ _ + % 11 decimal +3 

thought on .5==Sir~ 
subtraction -do you borroi 



Bitwise 



i- 



A' ordecompose! The latter 



Bit number 
Bit value 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 





1' 





" 


» 


' 


' 


» 


1 


1Z8 


64 


32 


16 


a 


4 


2 


1 



enough provided that vou remembe 
that it is twQ you're borrouving c 

Ihe process - without any attempt ti 
explain It, 

simple sums, look what happens if wi 
shift everything in a binary numbe 
over to the ieft, putting a zero into bi 
0, which would be left vacan 

For example: 
8 4 2 1 

% 10 1 which h 5 

8 4 2 1 



ie, 12 divided by 2 givf 

:olunin exactly one he 
one half iowHt. Nate ti" 



Bit number 
Bit value 


7 
Ll28 


6 
2''6 
64 


5 
2"5 
32 


4 
2"4 
16 


3 
2"3 
8 


2 
2"2 
4 


1 
2 AT 

2 



2'^ 
1 


h 


, 


» 





' 


. 


» 






















e 1, when it's halved it 



r example, if v^e try to d, 
id by 2 in binary by shifting 
|ht, the equivalent of 13, 



.If by 2 gives S.5, not 6, s 

Jid happened to the 0.57 

is. Well, when we shifted c 



whichisGindeci 


nai. Now13div 


„ 








enoug 


binary for on 
s hexBdecima 


4 2 

-% 1 


1 

1 OR 


% 
-% 

% 

Borro 


4 

A<in 


2 
~1 


'0 


Ind 


cimal -3 

3 


% 1 


i 


Decomposition 





Figure III: Binary subli 



oworjust decompose? 



— Sounds 



> 



PETE BIBBY strikes a chord with his Atari 

Have fun with these 
musical experiments.. 



LET'S start oH this month with 
four notes played at once by 
entering: 

SDIKIVI,12I,II,B iSDUND l,fi,ll,Bi 
SOUND Z,GUII>GiSOUIID 3,U,ll,e 
While not likely to make Beet- 



differenl pitch Darameter. The result 

hearing if vou haven't done anything 

If you're still plagued by the chord 
you can bring things to an end with: 

END 

or, more elegantly, with: 

FDR mmil'l TD 3i 
SOUND CHI!NNEL,l,B,fl: 
NEIT CHANNEL 

which switches off e 



turn. Table I sv 

Program I 

it plays lor is 

to 5(3 produc 

While the 



!• REM PflIK 


RM I 


la SOUHB 1 




3a SOtMB 1 


n.it.t 


** vumt, I 






,a,u,t 


S« FOR nit 


v:l TO SUlNEXT ML«Y 



Try Chan 
variables in 

parameterH. So fai 
adding up to 3) 



I. When the loop 

e values of the loop 

latl 
ig the 






range ■ 



ch not 

18 + 8+8+3), 

playing notes wit 
jrs that total over 3; 
in happen. You hau 



Program II has us entering 
world of music hy playing the sc; 
C, If you don't understand wl- 
scale is, don't worry too much, 
:s played and I - 



you'll 






It the 



le SOUND rising by a 



'sjust a delay 
is still going, 



working its way 


ound the 


loop, the 


known as th 


Channel 


oitch 


di5tGrtiar< 


VdluH 


Mo 3 


» to 255 


t to It 

(in 2'Bl 


t to 1! 



rst note played is 
121), the scale 
:ale of C lor, mc 





pncH 




NOI£ 


PAflANETER 






2? 








31 






Al 


3! 
35 






El 


37 






» 


48 

12 

47 




nCTSVE 1 


Dl 


51 

53 






CI 


57 
it 






At 


72 






61 


7i 












QCT/IVE 2 




n 






M 


192 

iia 






CI 

Al 


111 

121 
128 

m 

144 


"- 




Gt 


153 
li2 






Fl 


173 
192 
1« 




■ OCTAVE 3 


Dt , 


2B4 
217 






Ct 


238 
243 







it MH PROERM II 




is FM eELUVzl 10 SMiiEX 

M Miiiiin,m,i,,i 


I BCLftV 


J5 FOR KL«:I TO HI, NEK 




M 5auii» ■.»,»,« 




45 FOR BEL«»:l T8 SOOiNEX 


BEI.ftV 


S5 FOR DELftV=I TO saB:NEX 
6i 5BU» i,«.i«,» 


MLM 


6S FOB BELftYil TO 5*B:NEK 
70 5DUM) B,72,10,0 


BELftV 


7S FOR BELftV^l TO 5B«:NEK 
BR SOUM R.S^.IB.S 


OELft* 


IS FOR DEL*Y=1 ro SBBINEXT 
» 50UNB 8,00,10,0 


BELIIV 


»s FOR oEmvii TO loaaiHEx 

BELA* 





delay lODps, There's one after every 
SOUND command, each one deter- 
mining how long the note Is going to 



The n. 



II the 1 



plavs jnt 
loop IS Imished, then the program 
goes on to the nejit SOUND and its 
delay loop and so on. 

Apart from the final delav loop. 



The) 



!s for a ; 



IS REH PROGRBH IH 



ze S 



i, 121, 10 



zs ania iBai 

30 souNB a,its,it,a 

IS GBSUB ItBB 

*t SOURD B,H,1B,B 

45 GOSUB IBBB 



M lOSRB lOBO 

70 SOtOH B,7I,1B,B 

75 tOSUB IBBt 

OB SBIMB B,M,1B,S 

05 SBSUB IHt 

N 50IIRD t, BO, IB, a 

K FBR BELAr=l TS 1BBB:HXT 



MBB FOR BELav^l TO SBOiiEXT 

BELAV 

IBIB RETURN 




sing 



delay loop, apart fraj 

. has been replaced by on' 
loop. This is coded in , 

aroutine at line 1000, 

Now, when the SOUND com 

GOSUBs 1000 to produce the dele- 

If s not great programming, but if: 
a lot neater than Program II, 

Incidentally, the END of line IOC 
isn't there to stop the notes. Thesi 
will end after the final delay loof 
finishes. 

The purpose of the END is tc 

causing problems. Try leaving it ou1 

Despite the use of GOSU 
delay loops. Program III still le 
lot to be desired. 

Do we really need all 
SOUND statements, one aft 
other? After all, apart from thi 
parameter changing, they are 

Wouldn"l it be better to u; 
one in a FOR .. , NEXT loop, r( 

DATA stater 



in lines 30 to 60 cycles 13 
round, the READ of 
40 lakes a value from the DATA 
' ne 2010 and stores it 
in the variable P/rCH. 

Une 50 produces a note using 
PITCH while the GOSUB of line 60 
loop into play 



Looked a 






iiCfllly. t . 
isof 13notBs.fo^n■ 



^ prograi 



m a pilch gapoj 



fort 



la REM PBouan iv 

za BELAV^lOBO 

30 FOR sEfaroHE^i to ii 

48 KU PITCH 

sa SOURS 3, PITCH, IB, a 

H £OSilB DELAV 

78 BEXT SEHtTOHE 

08 ERR 

IBBB REH BEL8V LOOP 

IBtB FBR M.OU:l TO saaiNEXT SLOH 

lOiB RTTIHIH 

zaaa rem pitch rata 

2018 BATA 88,57,51,50,47,45,41, 
4B,J7,I5,K,I1,2» 



— Sounds 



IhBthBory-justlis 

pitch paramelHr E 
parameter ol 29, 



DATA 
Table II ani 



18 REH FRDERA 
29 VELAV-XMB 


• 




It FOR laME-l 


TO 




4* BEU PITCH 






54 50UNII 3, PITCH, 18, S 




G4 Unue BELA 






71 KEHT lUHE 












leSB HEN BE! A 


LOOP 




laie FOB HOH 


I TO 5*0: NEXT 


SLOH 


l«2e RETURN 






Z«Se REM PIIC 


BftTft 










»1,1W 







in ihe DATA line. 



B length. There's no 
ubroutine to produce 



aV loops of differs I 



ihers, Infact theva' 
langing tl 






id of going from 
ss previously, it goes from 1 to 
limes a variable LENGTH. As 
value of LENGTH cliangBS, so wil 
number o( limes the loop cvdes 
If LENGTH is 2 then the loop 
cycle from 1 lo 200. Ifil 



II go fr 



1000, 



LENGTH of each note. : 
data In Jine2010hasbe 
supply bolh the pitch a 

In this case the fiftbar 
hai/a a LENGTH of 10 v 
have a LENGTH of 5, 



latt RETURN 

210* REH PITCH/LENGTH DATA 
Zlll MM 1Z1,5,1IS,5,1Z1,S,1M, 
S, 72, 18, U, 10, 01, 5, 121, 5 



Western note 

One thing about Program VI is that 
it's slow. Program VII shows how to 

variable TEMPO. 

Again, we've tampered with the 
delay loop in line 1010, Now it cycles 
from 1 to TEMPO*LENGTH. 

Before we always had a value of 
1 00. Now this has baen replaced with 
TEMPO which was given the value 50 
in line 20, Asa result, the delay loop Is 
shorter and the tune is played more 

Notice that the effect of altering 
TEMPO is the same on every note of 
the tune. Each one plays for exactly 



!• REH PRDCRIK VII 

2» »ELaV=IOn:TEM>0:SH 

IB FOR TUNE-J TO a 

58 iOUIB J, PITCH, 10, a 

60 GDSUB KLAV 

78 NEXT TIME 

at END 

lOOi REH RELOV LOOP 

1010 FOR 5L0ltl TS TEM>im.CNGIH: 

NEXT SLSH 

M2« RETURN 

2100 REH PITCH/LENGTH RATA 

2110 BATA 121, 5, 108, G, 121, S, ISO. 

5,72,10,M,»,B1,S,121,S 



as long as it did before. 



SOUND command. As I think you'll 
agree, it's not all that difficult to use if 
you take it step-by-step. 

Now it's up to you. Program VII 

may wish to play. All you have to do is 



/ WOULD 


/*e 


aoor 


r^Clth 


in 


p,.s. 


Bnicll Iha 


Ith 


Ijqhl 


Basic 


ou 


ndan 














whole po: 
























first sight. 












Mv ap 


Th 


%%r. 


t Z" 


m 


T™ 


miusf.cs. 


PB 











BARGAIN SOFTWARE 

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IN Frc 
joystick tc 
trying tc 
tlia game i 



control a frog which is 
He. The object of 
to get five frogs safely 



...... 




'" '"" 


» KH» 


gy -...L DO.. 


»* . 


i> >IN PS( 


B1,L1S(M1,L 


i,„, „;„„ 


i'Ei 


MH>H:« the 


llSl!>l,YSH»l, 


i,iz.5:5EicH0t i.ii.e 




•r^!!-E 


n;u=si:j=i 


H:Iii:ii:r;ii: 


=7!l'llllE 7! 




THE isa 


1» MtU-< 


w$Il»l;1>!l 






















38 L1S=- 


T» l*:KM 


:cii;;,a..»s 


r»r 


''"'■"■'" 


"■"-'"''"' 


7» F0» 0=1 
V):NEXI S 
9S BAia 32 


m Zft:RE» 


:Tl$tl),<ll=CHIS 


» FIM 0=1 


,...:„. 


:I»ia,l»=CHRS 



e An r>i tier » 



■ IF CROli a» CI 



« Til=Tiiiz,iBi;riS(!e,i8i=iiSii, 

« I!S=T2SlZ.Iil:m(l«,i«:llSll, 




To venture 
forth with 
graphics or 
notjthat 
is the 
question... 



HAVING looked last month at the 



:, this month 



adventuring fralernily, a 



Adventuring ^ — 



a due nl lire -I ike ther 

The sequence si 

that from the devel 



large 



•eofth 



■■Questprabe" ; 
The charaoli 
t-onlv, the home fully [eproduce 
which emerged book origins, 

I of graphics 1o accept someth 
(ram two factors. with his own ie 



■ings 



that the software producers see the 
mproving the appeal, and therefore 



it more appealing to the arcade-gami 
freaks for whom adventures wen 
classified under "D" for Dull I 
Now this adventurer is a confirmei 

in that light. 

Test, as anyone who has played ar 

mote illuminating than some state 
of-the-art graphics. 

That is not to say thai there are m 
good graphic adventures 

The recent Adventure Interna 



Now lock up the 
Filthy Fifteen 



IF you like adventures you like 
Eolving puzxias, so here's one to 
bend your brain cells around. 



in ever be together 
Id they sleep three 

disposal, to keep th 




Micro 
Scope 



THIS month we look 
at a progTam which 
gives vou 3n 
"etc he-sketch" 
facility. Move the 
jovstick to drew and 
press the ioystick 
button to clear the 




ise 


llinXmVEI2«I.YnDVEIZB) 




COLOR l:MICOLOR i.Z.B 


12% 


&RAPHIC5 7^16 


13fl 


1<:8B:¥:«I 




U9 






1S4 


KHOUEEfil:! 


yHWEl6)--l 


168 


)umzni=i 


VHBVEt?)-* 


178 


XN0UE(9l:- 


iVMWEtW:! 


18(1 






1)6 


KNOVEUD- 


I;VM0»I£<111;8 


288 


ttmnidZi- 


:rHOVE{lI)=l 


218 


HHOVEUll- 


iYHOVEtUl:-! 


228 


KMOVEIISJ- 


:YH0UEUS1:8 


ZI8 


50ui» e,*. 


,8 




IF SIRISW 


-8 TIEN GRAPHICS 7*16 


2Sfl 


SrSTICXItI 




Its 


l(;K*KN0WE<51iY:V»yH0WEC5J | 


278 


TRAP 38B 




2M 


PLOT >I,Y 




]M 


XZII-XKIUE CSl : VTV-VmiUE C5) | 


III 


FOR VOLUME 




328 SBUM «,1I6.1«,VSLUHE ] 


3J8 


FOR BELftV: 


TO 18;NEKT »ELftY 


ZU 


NEXT VOLUIC 


35* 


GOTO 238 





100 



Sets up I 






110 Sats up the colour informalion. 

120 Selacts tA/hole-screen mode 7, 

130-220 Initialise variables and set up the move- 
ments corresponding to the different Joystick 

Turns off the sound. 



240 



pressed. 



(Brealsor Reset) in o 
loop and stop execul 



plotted positioi 

performed in lii 

310-340 Make a noise 



0, 

inify th! 



by trying to gi 
< to the las 
calculatior 



ONE of the many Basic com- 
mands which is taken for granted 
is RND. Simple in use, it conceals 
some very clever goings On in the 
heart of your Atari. 

Wlien RND " - - - 




RaNDom 
thoughts 

KEVIN EDWARDS considers 
RND — the Basic command 
wiiich can produce some 
unexpected results 

the RNDdl is multiplied by option usually being taken bee 



■n 53770 (SD20A in 



drawback of PEEKing 



5eB(l=I3FFfl 




4881 Ht 14 


rmiot LQV M 


4)12 m FS 3F 


Hi LM leed.y 


mi it Ffl 3f 


ADC iui*2 


4lfle 4D F; 3F 


EOR 6Hd*l 


4886 K 84 


LDI 14 


4111) 2i FA 3F 


Hlin flOL s«(!t2 


4811 SD Fa 3F 


EDA seed. I 


4111 F9 FB 3F 


SBC SEBd.y 


481 i FD Fa 3F 


SBC seed. I 


4119 lA 


ASL A 


48111 7E Fa !F 


ROR seed, I 


(im CA 


DEK 


4eiE 19 ED 


BPL iQiin 


4121 as 


DEY 


4821 D4 DF 


m ,02 


»2Z iB 


PLA 


4824 a 


RTS 



.isling I: Random number 



rnbers in the range lo 255. 
s PEEKing method lo generate a 



Random 





way of doing this. 


I ^^bbb*"^ . ■■■o*^r 


'■" ^^^_^ r-'rr 


Anywav, PEEKing ready-bui 












ing. It's more of a challenge to writ 








^L , \^f_^..,yz^ 


' / / 


The next program we'll look at is 


*\\ ^j 


^ -^ .. / / 


machine code equivalent to PEEKin 






location 53770, Tal(e a look at Listin 






i. Tiiis is the source listing of th 


X. ,-. 


-^""^ ^"v 








Those of you with last month 


— '•^—y"'^ 










Hexer. The code should be entered a 


byte printed may look very random. 


In Program 1 line 40 seeds all the 


location S4000 ( 1 6384), Remembe 


but in fact the numbers are Identical 


bytes with the value 20. 


all you enter is the hejcadedmal bytes each time you RUN the program. 




at the right of the memory locations 


Write down the first few bytes 


change the seeds by altering the 


If you are one of the unfortunate generated by the new routine and 


contents of locations S3FF8 to 


people who do not have Hexer type i 


compare Ihem with the numbers 


S3FFC, 


Program 1, 


printed when the program is re-run if 


If you change the seed number in 




you don't believe me. 


line 40 from 20 to 30 and RUN the 


execute option to test the routine. The What we have done is to generate 


program, the number sequence will 
be different. In fact, if you delete the 


e.ecution address is S4000. Whe 


pseudo-random numbers. By this 1 


the routine has finished five randon 


mean the sequence of numbers 


line which seeds the random number 


bytes will have been stored i 


printed repeats itself each time the 




memory starting at location $3FF 


routine is executed, but individual 


bytes each time you RUN the 


(16376). Use the e:<amine option to numbers appear to have no relation to 


program, since your "new" seeds are 






what's left over from the last time it 


If you've typed in Program 1 an 


If the numbers printed had been 




HUN it the random numbers will b 


1,2,4,8,16,32 we would reject them 


The Atari computers are very 




automatically - we could easily 


intelligent because they always 




predict what the next number is, 64, 


generate true random numbers. It you 




and could therefore say the numbers 


use a friend's micro, such as a BBC, 
and you turn It off then on and enter 






are not random. 








the command: 






p5eudo-random numbers is very 






n REN av levin Edwrds 


awkward. What we have to do is 


PfilNT RNDdl 






perform several operations on a 


you'll always get the same number. 




1« FOR L=l«76 ID IfilHlPDIE l,!l! 


series of numbers to produce another 


This is because it always seeds the 






set of numbers (random) so that both 


random number generator with the 






sets bear no obvious relation to each 








other. 


1 hope this has thrown some tight 




7» NEKT L 


There is, of course, a relationship 


on random numbers for you. I'm sure 




" f« u""" 


complex that it cannot be readily 


you'll agree that working through 
random numbers routines can be a lot 






calculated from a list of numbers 


of fun. It's always interesting to see 




J" "™^ '- 


generated by the routine. 


how each routines differ. 






To produce different sequences of 


Why not try writing one yourself? 






random numbers you can seed the 


Be careful though, you often find your 






random number generator with dif- 


generator has a bias in it. For 






ferent values before calling the 


example, some routines seem to picl^ 




17fl MIA 2«i,6J i»'m !46 63MI IE 


routine. 


a lot of Os and 255s, 






Seeding means setting up the 


Has anyone out there come up 






initial values of the set of numbers 


with a program to test how random a 






used by the routine. Changing these 
initial numbers causes the sequence 


particular generator is? If so - or if 
you've got any "random contribution " 


Program 1 




of numbers generated to be different. 


to malse- we'd love to hear from you. 








J„„B,^m„SE,„ 



Second in DAVE RUSSELL's series on the Atari's graphics modes 



LAST month wo looked at 
Graphics Mode 0, the text mode 
that appears when you switch on 
your micro. This month we'll take 
a look at two other text modes, 
Graphics 1 and Graphics 2. 

some difterences between Modes 1 
and 2, but they're Bimilar enough lor 
us to consider them together. 

You may recall that the Mode 
screen was like a piece of graph paper 



TAKE A LOOK 
AT MODES 



d 24 ri 



J imagini 



nllarto Mode 1. 

: mote accurate, the Mode 1 

s of Mode columns stuck 



The conceptual n 
simply requires you 
Mode 1 'fat" rows ; 
pairs. This gives a 



l)V typing GRAPHICS 1 
Return. 

Assuming you were 
before you did Ihis, yoi 




nd typed LIST naw, the listing 

It's not very useful being a 
3ad only four lines of a progra 
ime, which is why program v 
nd debugging tends to get d^ 



_i ,-_-_- 




















3: 


--g--^ 


iiiiii 


lillTf 


1. When you Run i 
up on the bottom 


the cursor will end 
line. 


a BWHICS 1 

31 PRIKI "H»E 1 TEKT HHIHV 



ffl 



inly the output from line 40 visible, 
empted to ask vi'hat use the text 



scroll out of the 



41 PRINT "THIS IJ M EXTM LIIE" 

When yoL Run the program now. 



Graphics | — 



1* OIM ftSCl) 

ze GRAPHICS 1 

le PBIHT "MOE 1 TEXT UIMftOH" 
«• PRINT "THIS 15 M EXTRA LIRC" 
St PRINT "PRESS RETURR" 
SB INPUT AS 



line, just after a que 

The reason the tt 

because the prograi 



Our use of PBItMT# 6 fallowed bv 
upper C3SB letters meant that register 
was selected and this register 
defaults to orange. 



IB ewiPHCS 1 




2« roR tt:i n s 




3i FOR fcfl TO IS 




41 POSITION 5,5 




51 SEICBLOR B,S,S 




SO PRINT Hti"ATftflI USER" 




7B FOR DELBV-l TO IBtiNEX 




80 NEXT B 




10 NEXT A 





colour by altering register 0, 

Line 50 performs the alteration 
and the loop set up by line 30 cvcles 
through all the available colours. 



programming, but i 

one possible use of 

Vou can print e 



A Mode 1 : A five 
colour mode with 
just lialf the 
character set 
available ^ 



selects register 3 and so the me 
should haue appeared in red. 



For enemple, with a clear Mode 1 
screen (which you can get by pressing 
Reset and typing GR.1), type COLOR 
65:PLOT 5,5 and press Return. 

The slightly confusing aspect of 
this method is that the COLOR 

Mode 1. 



If you Run this program youl 
ur name in lights. Note the or 
aloui of the letters. 

IB GRAPHICS 1 

20 POStllOR 5,5 

10 PRINT tK;"AT*RI USER" 



SETCOLOUR 
background c 



Now, type in line 30 again, only 



cl of changing t 
s register 4, the 



orange A at screen posi 
Vou can still use SE 

Ihflt you plot. If you Chan 
Program IV to read: 

60 COLOR 65:PtO 

and delete line 40 (bee 
needed), you can see 



30 PRINT ne;";it*ri user" 



The SETCOLOR command is tht 
key to changing the other registers 
from their default values. You can set 
the effect of this by entering Listing i\ 



might need to use COLOR, so 
am V shows how to produce a 
iar result with line 30 READing 



— Graphics 









can use the method selBctivelv to 
produce a mixed colour display. 






U SMPHIC-i 1 




^ Mode 2 characters 
are twice as high 




» REM K 




For example, relyps line 40 as it 




4B COLO» X 




alter line 70 to read: 


as those 




e« NEXT A 




78 MIft S7,M,>7,82,1I5,0,»5,U5, 


of Mode 1 ^ 








line 70, you'll notice that We addad 


»,« ' ' ' ' - - 










the character DATA from 


ine 70. 


32 to some of the values, causing 

green while the remainder are still 
printed ih orange. 


high as those of Mode 1 . 

This in turn means that the 
command POSITION 5,5 will refer to 
a different point on the TV screen 
depending on whether Mode 1 or 


quite as straightforward 
OR/PLOT as it is with PR 


mth COL- 
NT* 6. I'l 

d with the 


missing half of the charac 


at all. That's because everytiiing I've 
said about Mode 1 applies lo Mode 2. 


Mode 2 is in use. 

Mode 1 and 2 also differ in terms 




If you change the GRAPHICS 1 in 


of the amount of memory they require 


you can do, change 1 
Program V to read: 


ns 40 


all the programs to read GRAPHICS 
2, you'll get very nearly the same 
results. 


- Mode 2 needs less than Mode 1 - 
The programs we'll use won't be 


40 COLOR mil 




The only differences will be the 
size of the text and its position on the 


long enough to worry about memory 
considerations! 








• Next month we'll look at how to 






As 1 said earlier. Mode 2 rows are 


access the missing half of the 




to all the 




character set and how to select a 


numbers in the DATA Stat 




so iWlode 2 characters are twice as 


colour register with COLOR/PLOT. 



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coffiBaliblB with all Alari CONGRATULATIONS on a I AM pleased lo sav Itist I h^^e HDOriDfl 

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Crashing 


your magazine are high score 


the number one magazine for 


question of a check-sum 
routine, Liks most things in 


the buffers 


l/Vlyhigh score on OropZone is 


have gone oyer it several times 






help on Lords of Time.l 




For B«amplB, It could be 


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arguBd that they confuse the 


Train lAiarl User, May, page 
321 Is a deiiglitful liiite 


'whirTnTl7h'e''r 'mTailne 


Excellent, please keep II up. 


peoplB who nead tham most 








practice at de-bugging. 


printed and it works line as 


software for every letter and 


some kind of code listing typo. 


On the other hand, a good 


long as you don'l try to go 


Please keep your magazine 


/n™aff8°/n'^s ™^n(//rA« /" 


5 am e ^ t h^ e^V^c e" yo IJ ^v e 


aipliabel. /f you ley to move the 


the same sort of format. Ail too 


a great help to the many, many 


welcome readBi's opinions on 




ruined by naff ideas. - D. 


possible for you to do? - Las 


this while we're pondenng. 


"'itl,,.m.,.,. ,..,.,. 




















listing? i hope It's not de- 




liaven't, so why should you?) 




liberate because it spoils an 


The only way wb could gel a 




With DOS 2 booted, you 


otherwise areat aame. but mv 






can load the file from cassette 



Uxbridge, Middlsaex. The problem with high n maj . the transfer without going \ 

r"?,;r-S>';i. E'-^HrSiS There are two! ^^'iBHH. 



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500andE10a. f ^^,',^1^,^ q^.^Ji-^^and' we'^ Zte. b'utZe'lV,"wpTo''ut I FOUND Mike Cook's artic, 

thai doesn't spoil the " ' "'''e a program and on the 6502 chip ver 

■ for other people. save it on a disc, hovycanlgive interesting and informative. 

tried similar things and ~ Wayxa Exiay, Burgasa in the new ST machines? I'l 

:ly dropped the idea l^'"' Suaaei. sure many of your readei 

ise the cost gets too high. • Thsre ara two ways to wouW find it inlerasting I 

rather keep the cover transfer files from DOS 3 to weWss me.-Frank Robbini 

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Iha program works fine articles and programs pub- save it to oasBette, switch the has already writiah such 3 

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