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Amiga & Atlanta Go For The Gold, p. 40 

maziiiQ Amig 


Your Original AMIGA .Monthly Resource 

19 96 


Volume 5 No. 10 October 1990 
US $3-95 Canada $4.95 

X-CAD Designer & Professional, 
UltraDesign, Aegis Draw 2000 
and more! 

'"74470V4710'I' 9 


> Saxon Publisher 

> Perfect Sound & Master Sound 

> Stripping Layers Off Workbench 

> Commodore's VAR Program 



Atlanta, Georgia Tech, 
and an Amiga combine 
forces to attract fhe 1996 
Summer Games. 
See page 40. 


Notes on PostScript 

Printing With 

Dr. T's Copyist 21 

by Hal Balden 

Bringing tlie world of PostScript 

music notation to ttie Amiga 


BlolVletol 37 

by John lovine 

Mal<e thie Amiga flex its first 

electric muscle. 

Atlanta 1996 40 

Will Atlanta host thie 1996 Summer 
Olympics? Their best salesperson is 
on Amiga 2500, 

Be AVAR! 96 

With Commodore's new Value 
Added Resaler program, creating 
specialized Amiga applications 
could moke you a VAR, 


by Douglas Bullard 


As It Gets 42 

CadVision International's X-CAD 
Designer, for the average user, 
and X-CAD Professional, for the 
high-end user. 


Draw 2000 48 

A program that could be a real 
help for architects or electronics 

IntroCADPIus 49 

A good introductory package for 
someone who doesn't want to 
jump into a major investment. 

UltraDesign. .. 50 

Advanced enough that the user 
can create complex drawings, 
but simple enough that it doesn't 
overwhelm him or her. 

Cover by 

Ernest P. Viveiros, Sr. 

Amazins Amiga 



Vol. 5 
No. 10 



Saxon Publisher 10 

by David Duberman 

A new contender in the fight for top desktop pubiishing 

pacl<ag0 title. 

AutoPrompt 19 

by Frank McMahon 

Turn your Amiga into a broadcast teieprompter. 

Centaur's World Atlas V2.0 25 

by Jeff James 

A solid educational tool for world geography. 

Sound Tools For The Amiga 31 

by Morton A. Kevelson 

Sunrize Industries' Perfect Sound and IVlichTron's Moster Sound. 

ProMotion 56 

by Michael DeSpezio 

The complete motion and production interface for the 

VideoScape 3D environment. 


Stripping Layers Off Workbench 27 

by Keifh Cameron 

Remove unneeded files on your Workbench to make room for 

other programs. 

Audio Illusion 66 

by Craig Zupl<e 

Produce fascinating auditory Illusions on your Amiga. 

Call Assembly Language From Modula-2 75 

by Martin Combs 

Integrating small, fast machine language programs Into BASIC. 

Koch Flakes 77 

by Paul Castonguay 

Using the preprocessor to perform selective compilation. 


New Products and Other Neat Stuff 15 

Walt Disney animation comes to the Commodore Amiga. 
Alaska on videodisc, and more. 

Snapshot 23 

byR. Bradley Andrews 

Journey through New York City with the Teenage Mutant Ninja 


PD Serendipity ...58 

by Aimee B. Abren 

A look at SID VI .06, a directory utility for the Amiga. 

Bug Bytes 60 

by Jotin Steiner 

Upgrades this month include: F-BASIC 3.0, ProWrite 3.1, and 

shareware program Geotime 1.2. 

Roomers 62 

by The Bandito 

Will those people who bought an Agnus upgrode for their 

A2000 hove to buy it again to get the new Denise chip? 

C Notes From The C Group 73 

by Stephen Kemp 

A program thot examines an archive file and removes any 

files that have been extracted. 


Editorial 4 

Feedback 6 

List of Advertisers 80 

Public Domain Software. 




B B 



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October 5-7 at The Disneyland Hotel 
^ Anaheim, California 

Sponsored by 


^ Admission includes the Exhibition, Seminars, Keynotes & 
^ Amiga Artists Theatre! 

120 Amiga Exhibitors Featuring State of the Art 
^ Software and Hardware, at the lowest prices! 

Master Classes Available in Amiga Graphics^ Video, MultiMedia, Animation, Rendering and Publishing! 
Seating for Master Classes is limited; call for schedule and availability before registering. 
:. (No cancellations or refunds after deadline) 



For Hotel Reservations Call the Disneyland Hotel at (714) 778-6600 
Hotel reservations deadline: September 19, 1990 
"nted airfares. caU American Airlines at (800) 433-1790 and give them this ID: I2Z 04F 

Register by Mail iisini; flic coupon below or Call H00-32-AMIGA Nationwide (or 914-741-6500) 

For Your Ticket to The Amiga Event! 

Yes, I watit to come to AmiEXPO-Califoniia 

Friday Saturday Sunday 

One day - S15 

Two days - $20 

Three davs - $25 

Registration is 
$5 Additional 
At The Door 

Master Class(es) - List Class and Time - $60 Eachi 


Total Amount Enclosed 






For MasterCard or 

Expiration Dale 

Account Number 

VISA Pavment 

Name as il appears on card: 

Make Check or Money Order Payable te): 

AmiEXPO 465 Columbus Ave., Ste. 285 

Valhalla, NY 10595 

CIrcl* IIS on Readsr Sarvlce card. 


Tlie following Amazing Dealers, carry Amazing Computing™, your resource for information 
on the Amiga^", and AC'S Guide To The Commodore Amiga, ttie total Amiga product guide. 
if you are not an Amazing Dealer, but would like to become one, call. 





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As you can see, my colleagues have 
left me very little room for my comments 
tills issue. It was not tliat tliey were trying 
to silence me (at least I HOPE it was not), 
but this issue is filled with a great deal of 
information and some extremely 
interesting last-minute articles. Aside from 
the CAD programs in this issue, we were 
fortunate to get the lead on a few other 
important items. 


Please take a moment to read the 
article on Atlanta's bid for tlie 1996 
Olympic Summer Games on page 40. This 
is probably tlie year's best application of 
the Amiga I have seen, Bltie Elibbon 
Bakery was contracted to develop the 
soft\vare for tlie Amiga 2500 which runs 
the entire display. Todor Fay, a past 
Amazing author and Blue Ribbon 
Bakery's mam programmer, created tlie 
program for the Amiga. Melissa Jordan 
Grey, Blue Ribbon Bakery's President, 
composed tlie entire musical score as a 
gift to Atlanta. 

The experience not only helped 
Atlanta, but it created new products for 
Blue Wbbon IJaker>', the Bars&PipesMIDI 
Recorder a nd tlie Bars&I^ipes MIDI Player. 
These two tools are now part of the 
recently released Bars&Pipes Multimedia 


The Coinmodore Value Added 
Reseller (VAR) program launched by CBM 
in late June is off to a great stan. Jeff Goss, 
National Sales Manager at CBM, spent a 
few moments with me on the telephone 
discussing ihe program and its 
importance. From past experience, I am 
certain lliere are several readers who ha\'e 
been contemplating an Amiga application 
perfect for this program. 

Not only is the VAR program an 
excellent way for developers to create and 
sell their applications, but it expands the 
possibilities for the entire Amiga market. 
With tlie addition of specialized products, 
the entire Amiga product line becomes 
more complete. Sometimes the tools 
created in these separate fields find tlieir 
way into tJie mainstream. Remember 
desktop publishing? 


There is one stoo' ^'e just could not 
gel in time and it refers to another 
Southern university. Virginia Polytechnic 
institute and State University (Virginia 
Tech) became the first university to 

receive Commodore's new Unix-based 
Amigas. The Amiga 3000 with AT&Ts UNIX 
System V.4 operating system was delivered 
(in a pre-release version) to Virginia Tech 
August 24, 1990. 

Virginia Tech had previously 
required all incoming computer science 
majors to purchase Apple's Macintosh 
computers running A/UX, but they chose 
the Amiga after seeing the new UNIX 
implementation . Virginia Tech agreed to be 
a beta test site for the final stages of product 
testing on the Amiga with UNIX before its 
official launch this fall. 

Amiga users fiave waited some time 
for this Implementation. There is every 
reason Eo believe that Virginia Tech's roie in 
finishing tliis product will guarantee 


On a final note, there are two Amiga 
shows scheduled for the weekend of 
October 5 to October 7, 1990. AmiEXPO 
will appear in Anaheim, California, and The 
World Of Amiga wUl be in Chicago at tlie 
Rosemont O'Hare Expo Center. Our 
experience is tliat tliese have bodi been fine 
shows in die past and we feel any time 
Amiga people can get togetlier they should. 

It is unfortunate two shows should 
be scheduled this way. The Amiga 
community is based on a great deal of ssnall 
companies. Each of tliese companies find it 
ver>' difficult to attend botli shows and tliey 
are now forced to choose between one or 
the otlier. 

Yet, tlie management of botli shows 
have reported an excellent sale of floor 
space and advanced tickets. Both shows 
are offering a fijll agenda of events. And AC 
wEl be at both shows. Wliat more could you 

An Amiga event should never be 
missed. It is an opportunity for Amiga users 
to talk to the people who create their 
products. This exchange gives Amiga 
de\'elopers a chance to create the type of 
sofhvare and hardware you need most. 

An Amiga Show is a time to find out 
about user groups in your area. You can 
discover more applications for your Amiga 
and you can see the next great Amiga 
program. Tt is always a time to say hello to 
AC. Please stop by. We are always glad to 
meet a reader and we appreciate your 

Don Hicks 
Managing Editor 

Amazing Amiga 

Amasitig Computing For Tlje Commodore AMIGA™ 


Publisher: Joyce Hicks 

Assistant Publisher: Rolsert J. Hicks 

Admin. Assistant: Alisa Hammcnd 

Circulation Manager: Doris Qambte 

Aast. Circulation: Brigitle Renee Plante 

Corporate Trainer: Virginia Terry Hicks 

Traffic Manager: Robert Gamble 
International Coordinator: Donna Vivelros 

Marketing Manager: Ernest P, Viveiros Sr 

Marketing Associate: Greg Young 

Marketing Assistant: Lisa Fhedlander 

Programming Artist: E. Paul 


Managing Editor: 
Associate Editor: 
Hardware Editor: 
Technical Editor: 
Teclinical Associate: 
Video Consultant: 
Art Director: 
Graphic Designer: 
Research & 
Editorial Support: 
Production Assistant: 

Don Hicks 
Elizabeth Fedorzyn 
Ernest P. Viveiros Sr. 
J. Michael Morrison 
AimSe B. Abren 
Frank McMahon 
William Fries 
Paul Michael 
Brian Fox 
Kim Kerrigan 

Marilyn Gagne 
Melissa-Mae Viveiros 

Advertising Manager: Donna Marie 



FAX 1-508- 675-6002 


Buddy Terrell & Byrd Press 
Bob at Riverside Art, Lid. 
Swansea One Hour Pholo 
Pride Olfset, Warwick, Rl 
Mach 1 Photo 

Amazing Computing ForThe Commodore Amiga'" (ISSN 088$-9480) is 
published monthly by PiM Publications, Inc., Currant Road, P.O. Box 
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POSTMASTER: Send address changes lo PiM Publications Inc., P.O. 
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address listed above. 

AMIGA™ is a registered trademark ol 
Commodore-Amiga, Inc. 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

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There's a question diat bogs the minds 
of many Amiga users (at least many of my 
friends), although I don't really remember 
seeing it ever appearing in the pages of 
Amazing. The question is: Is the new 
Denise chip pin-compatible witli the old 
Denise chip, die one which is installed in 
the Commodore A500 and A2000 models 
CI know that die AlOOO Denise chip is 
different than the A500 or the A2000 one). 
Would it be possible just to purchase the 
new chip, remove the old Denise, insert it 
to its place on the motlierboard, and see an 
improvement on the graphics display? Is 
there a company which is working on an 
A2000 card which includes some of the 
new chips (e.g. , the Amber chip) which are 
installed as a standard in the A3000 com- 
puter? (A2000 Rejuvenator:-) 

Rafael Salomon 

P.S. Also (yet another remark), as long as 
die pictures that I have are accurate, the 
number of pins diat the new Denise and die 
old one have is the same. Hope it's of some 
help CO you. 

— A Spokesperson in technical support at 
Commodore stated that the)' are planning a 
neiu enhanced chip set which uHll replace 
the curre?7t chips and make them compat- 
ible. At this time they do not support the 
interchanging of the old Denise chip with 
the new Denise chip. The new enhanced 
chip set should be available sometime 
around Christmas. There is a company 
working on an A2000 card which includes 
some of the new chips, but the technical 
support person at Commodore would not 
specify which company. — ED 


In reference to the letters from R.P. 
Haviland & Jeremy Bim concerning Inter- 
lace Fl icker, I ha ve a problem accepdng Mr. 
Birn's argument diat the flicker is inherent 
to the television styie interface mediod, 

especially the statement that television 
flickers, but we don't notice because the 
picture is moving. Tune in your local sta- 
tion either very early or very late and catch 
die test pattern. This picture does not move 
and also does not flicker. Flicker is not 
inherent to the NTSC standard. The scan- 
ning frequencies and Phosphor Persistence 
of the television screen have been very 
carefully matched to eliminate any visible 
flicker. l/30di of a second was chosen as 
the frame rate because this speed is just 
slighdy faster than die human eye can 
perceive the changes in the picture. 

As most Amiga artists have discovered, 
carefu! choice of colors and contrast levels 
will minimize the flicker. I did some play- 
ing around and found that, when display- 
ing thin horizontal and vertical lines in the 
primary colors (red, blue, and green) the 
horizontal green lines flicker faster than 
blue & red. Blue and red lines flicker 
slighdy, green will give you a headache. If 
the flicker were inherent, it should showup 
equally in all three colors. Vertical lines 
don't flicker, even when fattened up. 

A remark by another Amiga user the 
other day caused me to think of another 
hole in the argument. He said that, if the 
explanation being given for the flicker is 
true, die 1080 must be an inexpensive 
multisync monitor, odierwise it would 
need to be interlaced all the time. Mr. Bim 
says that the pardal scan lines at top and 
bottom of die screen are present in inter- 
laced mode because of scan timing. This is 
true, and die partial scan lines look exacdy 
the same whether die Workbench is inter- 
laced or not. I don't believe the 1080 is 
multisync. The monitor is always inter- 
laced. What changes is die data being sent. 

I nodced a few interesting things in die 
A2000 manual. The diagrams in the Tech- 
nical Reference section show the horizon- 
tal and vertical sync pulses as I/O for 
Agnus. The red, green, & blue signals are 
generated by Denise, but the sync is not 
passed to Denise. Instead Denise has a 
horizontal sync counter running off signals 
for the data bus. Could that counter get out 

of step when Interfacing? In the A2000 
schemadcs, Denise and the video out 
connector are missing. Was someone su- 
perstitious about including page 13? 

I agree with Mr. Haviland, someone 
with access to the proper test equipment 
should investigate tlie problem 

Keep on muldtasking, 
Jerry Masters 
Oriando, FL 


For the last several months I have 
dismissed the scarcity of Amiga mentions 
by The New York Times computer col- 
umns and Info World magazine as a mere 
irritant. Too often dieir computer journal- 
ists cite Amigas only occasionally in game 
articles and perfuncdy press releases. Re- 
cendy, this neglect has become blatant and 
suggests a cold shouldering at Amiga bor- 
dering contempt, as cite among many Peter 
H. Lewis's New York Times's August 5, 
1990 feature on computer-video integra- 
tion which utterly shuns even Amiga's role 
in this field. 

This is an intolerable situation. It's one 
valid argument to voice that it's impractical 
to co%'er every computer make, even 
though Amiga business and creativity soft- 
ware could hold its own against any other 
platform, It is required quite anotlier to 
totally ignore a computer which for years 
was virtually peerless within a "hot new" 
category only recendy encroached by 
"serious" makes (Mac and IBM) such as 
multimedia. Either most computer journal- 
ists are woefully ignorant of Amiga's "pro- 
fessional" dioroughness and general 
knowledge, or out of personal bias are 
willfullly ignoring these machines, which 
would negate their joumalisdc objectivity. 

I hope die periodicals and newspa- 
pers concerned will heed exacdng long 
overdue even-handedness regards the 
Amiga, lest be viewed as IBM/Apple snobs. 

Thank you 
James Greenidge 
Jamaica, NY 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

GVP Annotmces a Jtchnological Breakthrough.,, 



in SCSI and RAM Controllers for the A2000 

GYP'S New SERIES II A2000 SCSI and RAM Expansion 
Controllers provide the ultimate hard disk and RAM expansion 
solution for the A2000. Choose from two new models: 

The Series II A2000 
SCSI ''Hard-Disk + RAM-Card" 

Statc-of-thc-Art iiHejsiation packs a high 
pcrformaEice SCSI tontriilltr, 8MB FAST 
RAM Expansion aird a 3.5" hard disk drive 
SLOT!! Saves BOTH a valuable 
expansion slot and a peripheral bay! 
Incredible SCSI hard disk performance 
achieved through GVP's innovative new 
custom chip design, which provides DMA 
performance and unique direct dual port 
memory' access to FAST RAM, eliminating 
t>'pical DMA side effects under heavy 
graphics load. 

Easy-to-install SIMM memory modules 
allow flexible memory configurations from 
ZERO through SMB. Supports 6MB FAST 
RAM configuration for BridgcBoard users. 
NEW FaAASTROM'-'' SCSI Driver offers 
optimum performance and includes such 
features as: 

/ Supports virtually any SCSI device 
including, CD-ROMs, Tape Drives, 
IOMEGA Bernoulli drives, etc. 
/ Fully implements SCSI Disconnect/ 
Reconnect protocol, allowing 
overlapping SCSI commands to be 




(no comimnentsl 

for direct 


of 3.5' 

Hard Disk 



VSLI Chip 

Up to 




v^ Fully implements Commodore's Rigid 
Disk Block (RDB| standard as wel] as 
the new DIRECT SCSi interface 

/ Removable media drive support. 

Automatically senses cartridge changes 
and informs AmieaDOS, ensuring safe 
and reliable use of removable media 
SCSI drives. 

/ Allows Direct AUTOBOOT from Fast 
File System Partition. 

installation and "tuning" utility 
included. Major features include: 

i/ ICON and gadget based INTUrriON 

»' Bad Block Remapping of hard drives. 
»^ Auto or manual hard drive partitioning 

and AmigaDOS formatting. 
/ Read and modify existing RDB 

parameters on hard disk. 
y^ Simplest and Easiest SCSI installation 

in the industry. 

• Low parts count [through VLSI Integration) 
EQUALS: lower power, higher reliability, 
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• Same as above but without the SMB FAST 
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• Specially designed for those users who 
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need maximum hanl disk performance at a 
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• UNBEATABLE VALUE. See S99 trade-up 

GVP's New FaaastROM SCSI driver and 
installation software is also available as an 
upgrade kit for GVP's original IMPACT SCSI 
controllers, for ONLY S49.95. Offers major 
performance increase over previous GVP 

New Series H 48M6 Removable media hard 
disk drive. GVP now also offers the NEXT 
GENERATION removable media hard disk 
drive which offers increased capacity |48MB 
formattedl and major tecfmological advances 
in cartridge air flow filtering design and 
robustness. Call for details. 

"l£t^ Standardize" 

1990 1 


Trade-Up Offer??? 

GVP today introduced us new Senes 11^^^ 

product line -f .---; l\Xhcr bolster 
up program. -h"^_;. l^^^ hare in the Amiga 

'"its oTgVFs new trade-up program 

Series 11 bCS.1 n.v present 


. owners ot any GVP ar^^-^ ^j.,i„„,, 
controllers, are eligible tor 

check/motjey order for SOonly^^^^^^^^^^ 
cat. be ir^ded^up to ine ne _^ .^^^^^^^ 

Series II. FAMSTROM and GVf are tractemarte ol Great WIe/ PrDduets. inc. 
Amiga and ASOM are ragislEred IraiJemarte ol (^nodore-Amlja. Inc. 

600 Clark Avenue, King of Prussia, PA 19406 

For more information, or for nearest dealer, cati today. Dealer Inquiries welcome. 
Tel. (215) 337-8770 • FAX (215) 337-9922 

circle 123 on Reader Service card. 


Shipping On Any Ground Order For 
Amiga Or Commodore Chips!!! 

1 MEGX4-80 Static Zip $58.00 
256X4-80 Static Zip $9.95 

256X4-80 Page Zip $8.95 

1X8-80 Simm $55.00 

256X8-80 $18.00 

Call for 68000 family ciiips 
starting at $15.00. 

Prices subject to change. 

800-433-3570 NJ 201-321-0800 FAX 201-321-0880 



Circle 122 on Reader Service card. 

We, too, find it 
more than surpris- 
ing tbat The New- 
York Times could 
overlook or other- 
wise ignore the 
Amiga's role in the 
hot "neiv" areas of 
hypermedia, and 
the sudden popu- 
larity of computer- 
video integration 
in general. 

To more than 

— Against our better Judgment, perhaps, tve 
continue to hold out hope that things will 
indeed change for the better, especially as 
those working in these hot "new" fields on 
less-capable platforms catch up to those of 
who practically invented these fields using 

We thank you for your letter, Mr. 
Greenidge, and tve could not agree with 
you more. With that in mind, tvefonvarded 
a copy of it to Mr. Lewis, along with a letter 
qfourown (reproduced here),pluscopiesof 
our August and September issues, and the 
latest edition ofACs Guide To The Com- 
modore Amiga. 

Let 's see what happens.'- — ED. 

Dear Mr. Lewis: 

Enclosed please find a copy of a letter 
we recently received from a concerned 
Amiga user. Please do not lead yourself to 
believe that there is only oneperson in the 
world who feels this ivay about the lack of 
credible, unbiased Amigacoverageinsome 

Tliere are thousands. 

Amiga Digest Video Series 

Tap© 1 - Mastering Wortcbench* and CU* 
Tape 2 - DeskTop Publishing with PageStream" 
.^p|\j\Tape 3 - The Power of AmigaVlsion* 

S30each Two for $50 AH Three $70 

InokjM* UPS iti^ifKng VA rw. add <.S1Ha 

Orders Only: 1-800-992-GRVP 

Grass Roots Video Productions 
P.O. Box 10B89 
Bums, VA 2201 5 

Inquiries: {703) 569-2652 

Cad for FREE dltcoum coupofi and Product Guhl* 

MasterCanl, VISA, Chock. MO, COD 


one million Amiga users worldwide (that 
number is growing by the minute with the 
opening of Eastern European markets to 
Western products; the Amiga is far and 
atvay the number-one selling personal 
computer in Europe) — none of these areas 
are "new" (wake up, ladies and gentlemen 

Recently, a number of national publi- 
cations have acktwtvledged the Amiga's 
lead over IBM and Macintosh in these ar- 
eas — we would be happy to provide you 
with a bibliography in order that you may 
fully research the field of computer-video 
integration beforeyou take the time to write 
and/or publish another article that is so 
embarrassingly shallow. 

Surely somebody from The New York 
Times attends, reports on, or is otherwise 
aware of The Advertising Club of New 
York's annual aivards ceremony . For each 
of the past ttvo years, this gala live (black 
tie!) multimedia event has been produced 
usingAmiga computers. 

You need more? OK — Amigas were 
used in the production o/Three Men And 
A Baby and Total Recall, to name two 
movies your writ- 
ers may be aware 
of . And we suspect 
that anybody ivho 
write articles on 
integ ra tio n proba- 
bly appreciates the 
personal com- 
puter's role in the 
production oftAss. 
Headroom for 
television (we 
should also men- 
tio n Amazing Sto- 


U w Li mmM^ af aM^^Lo^■ Pu m n i i u Co*pq>— P" 

ries and My Secret Identity^. Max was 

done with Amigas. 

Thousands of Amiga users inNew York 
and around the country who have the op- 
portunity to read your esteemed publica- 
tion would appreciate increased coverage 
of their computer platform, and a response 
to this letter. 


PiM Publications, Inc. 

Fall River, MA 


We have had a tremendous response 
to our Amiga on Cable campaign, as set 
forth in Editorial Content in our August 
issue (page 4). To those who sent us the 
name and address of their local cable 
television company, be assured that free 
copies of AC V5.8 are already on the way 
to those companies. 

We would now like to repeat die terms 
of this informal campaign here. If your local 
company does not use Amigas for their on- 
air visuals, send us their name and address, 
and we will send them a copy of the 
"Hands-On Amiga Video! issue, featuring 
Frank McMahon's "Amigas in Television". 

It is always nice to talk and write letters 
about the Amiga, but it is a much more 
powerful message when professionals see 
their peers and their competitors in the 
industry using Amigas in a creative and 
cost-saving manner. 

Please send your cable station's name 
and mailing address to: 

Amiga On Cable 

c/o Amazing Computing 

P.O. Box 869 

Fail River MA 02722-0869 

Again, dianks for taking an interest in the 
Amiga, and the many ways in which it is 
making a difference in the world today. 

Ail letters are subject to editing for 
space and clarity. Questions or 
comments should be sent to: 

Attn: Feedback 
Amazing Computing 
c/o PiM Publications, Inc. 
P.O, Box 869 
Fall River, MA 02722-0869 

All published letters will receive five 
public domain disks FREE. 


Circle 112 on Reader Service card. 


Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 



ASDG's ScanLab 100 and The Art Department • Active Circuits' ImageLink and CineUnk • Applied 

Engineering's Ai 3.5 Disk Drive, DataLink Express, DataLink 2000, RamWorks 2000 and RamWorks 

500 • Avatar Consultings Heart of ttie Dragon • BiGcl< Belt Systems Softpanel LED Display, RWI-1 

Analog Card, HAM-E Color Adapter and Board Master • Br0derbund's Where in Time is Carmen 

Sandiego?, Where in the World is Carmen Sandiego?, Where in the USA is Carmen Sandlego? and 

Where in Europe is Carmen Sandiego? • Brown Wag in Publishings 

BGraphics, Easy Ledgers and Service Industry Accounting • -^^ 

Commodore Business Machines' AmiqaVision • Gonsultron's ^' 

CrossDOS V4.0 • Diemer Development's C-ZAR • Dr T's iVlusic ^^ 

Softwares Tiger Cub, Keyboard Controlled Sequencer and a 

Level II • Elan Design's Elan Performer 2.0 • Feisina . ^ 

Softwares A-Talk III, Rel. 1.3 • Gfx Bases X Windows a 

System • GlassCanvas Productions' Art Libraries, 

Enhanced Xerox 4020 Printer Driver and Enhanced a 

Sharp JX- 730 Printer Driver • Gramma 

Softwares CalCalendar Maker, Fred Speed a 

Dialer and NAG Plus • Hypercube . 

Engireering's Vista arxi Fractal Fligtrt - - 

inovatronic's CanDo • innoVision 

Teciinoiogy's Broadcast Titler 2 ^ 

• Interactive Video Systems' IVS 
Trumpcard Disk Utilities and 
IKimpcard/Disk Manager Mac Utilities * 
JMH Software of Minnesota's The Talking 
Coloring Book and The Talking Animator • 
KFS Software's The Accountant • Microsearch's 
City Desk 2.01 • Micro-Systems Software's 
excellence v2.0 • Natural Graphics Scene Generator 

• New Horizons Software's ProWrite V3.0 • NewTek's 
Digi-Paint 3 • The Other Guys Synthia Pro 2.40 and Synthia II 
2.40 • Polomaxs MAX-125 Hard Disk Adapter • Passport 
Designs' Master Tracks PRO and TRAk • The Puzzle Factory's 
Resource • Radical Eye's Amiga TgX -Right Answers Group's The 
Director • Saxon Industries' Saxon Publisher • Shereff Systems' Pro 
Video Gold and Pro Video Post • Slide Citys TV Graphics • Softwoods Pen Pal • Syndesis' TSSnet, 
Interfont and Interchange • Taliesin's ProVector • Vega Technology's Amikit 2.0 • Virtual Reality 
Laboratories' Distant Suns • Zuma Group's TV*SHOW Version 2 and TV»TEXT Professional • 

19W c cHTf ixxsofe BjsneM Ktocrtfwv iTK I no proouctj oerwftd n mt oa h^ 
iBttfng lo ffiese i»ajch SKxJa De ci#ec(eo ro me* oevetopeis Borne ot r* <ie««^ 

Amgoisapegiflc*edtioaema*ofComfTiqOc«-An»g«i»ic t]iecCTTic*j^TQ«Jnec:e!rr--;m!rdandAm.gLM90nc»etiodemcnao(C^^ 

Circle 10B on Reader Service card. 

Watch for the Release 2 compatibility sticker 
on your favorite software. 




i;y David Duberman 


been vying for the title of premier Amiga DTP software: Professional Page, from 
Gold Disk, and SoftLogik's Pagestream. Now, a Canadian company — Saxon In- 
dustries — has introduced a new contender called Saxon Publisher, specifically 
designed for fast and easy construction of complex documents. The program has 
a number of unique features, including intuitive implementation of style sheets, 
and gives the user the ability to add special textures to both text and backgrounds. 

Saxon Publisher is aimed at the pro- 
fessional publishing market, and as such, 
can only output in the PostScript format 
used by high-end laser printers and elec- 
tronic typesetting machines. The program 
can handle color IFF bitmapped images 
and can output four-color separations. 

Saxon Publisher's interface is similar 
to that of many desktop publishing pto- 
grams, in tliat there is an icon-based tool- 
box (Saxon calls it a Sidebar) of commonly 
used functions along one side of tlie screen 
(the left), with most oilier functions acces- 
sible via drop-down menus along the top of 
the screen. Unlike the others, however, 
Saxon's Sidebar is context-sensitive, pre- 
senting a different array of functions for 
each of the four different operating modes: 
Cursor, Paragraph, Text, and Drawing. 

The four different mode gadgets are 
always available at the top of the Sidebar, 
as is a page scrolling gadget (similar to 
Professional Page's) tliat lets you select one 
part of an enlarged page to work on. Also 
continually displayed below the mode 
gadgets is a scrollable "Tag"' list of styles or 
files, depending on whicli mode you're in. 


Once the program starts, you're 
placed in Cursor mode and presented with 
a blank screen. You must first use the Add 
command from die Page menu (or equiva- 
lent keystroke) to invoke the Add Page 
requester, from which you can select one of 
several preset page sizes, including Letter, 
Legal, Business Card, A3, and A4; or, enter 
your own dimensions. The program only 

lets you add one page at a time. However, 
since you can assign ten different page 
setups (including boxes, tiieir contents, 
and textures) to shifted function keys, you 
can add a series of pages simply by repeat- 
edly pressing the proper shifted fiinaion 
key(s), ,\las, the program doesn't provide 
any sort of reference as to which npe of 
page you 've assigned to each key, so it's up 
to you to keep track. However, the Page 
menu does let you sa\'e and load pages to 
named files. 

The Page menu also includes a vai'i- 
ety of commands used to affect the cur- 
rently displayed page, such as New Cur- 
rent, wliich lets you alter that page's size 
(pages can be of differing sizes within a 
document). However, when you do tiiis, all 
page contents are lost, with no warning 
from the program. Other Page menu com- 
mands let you delete a page, push a page 
forward or back to a specific page number, 
and even let you actually measure a dis- 
tance on tlie page, as if you had a measur- 
ing tape. 

Once you've added a page, you'll 
probably want to define areas for text and 
graphics, called boxes. There's no provi- 
sion for automatically creating multi-col- 

Saxon Developers Moving Ahead With Enhancements and a Major Upgrade 

As we went to press with this review of 
Saxon Publisher, we received word from its 
developers tliat some improvements have 
already been made to this impressive DTP 
package. The company has also 
announced a major upgrade to Saxon 
Publisher scheduled for later this year, and 
has notified us of other new technologies 
and products that are presently under 
development, for early winter release. 

Changes to Saxon Publisher that have 
already be sent to existing users by Saxon 
Industries, Inc. include the following: 

1) The installation procedure has been 
revised, to make installation very simple; 

2) Printing routines for bit-mapped 
graphics have been modified, only to 
increase the speed of printing them, 
according to Saxon; 

3) A number of "subtle" changes have 
been made to the File Requester: presets 
have been added, and it now recognizes all 
devices and assigned partitions, etc.; 

4) Saxon has recei\'ed ftiil 2.0 
compatibility status from Commodore; 

changes here also related to the File 

Additionally, Saxon is redoing screen 
font defmitions, and adding Zapf Chancery 
and Zapf Dingbats to the package. New 
diskettes covering these enhancements 
will be sent to existing users by mid-to-late 
September, according to Saxon. 

Finally , the late October or early 
November upgrade will include the 
following features: automatic page 
numbering, a template feature, master 
page capabilities, automatic hyphenation, 

10 Amazing Computing V5.10 ^1990 

Saxon Publisher was clearly designed by someone with a 
good deal of working experience in publishing. 

umn setups, but die Page menu's Column 
Guides command leis you create outlines 
for any number of regularly spaced col- 
umns interactively on the page. Then you 
can add rectangular boxes for text and 
graphics by clicking on opfX>site corners. 
The program defaults to a 1/8" grid snap, 
which is handy. 

There's also a Freehand Box tool, 
which lets you create polygonal boxes of 
any shape, truly a unique feature. This is 
primarily used for flowing text around 
unusual-shaped graphics, but can also be 
useful in specialized page layouts. Ulti- 
mately, however, this scheme lacks flexi- 
bility, because if you move the graphic you 
must also move the specially-shaped text 
box along with it. 

To move a selected box, click on a 
gadget in the Sidebar. A shadow image of 
tlie box attaches itself to your mouse cursor 
while the original remains in place until 
you dick in a new location. Menu com- 
mands lee you add or delete corners or 
'hooks", and other Sidebar gadgets let you 
delete a box or just its contents, and places 
boxes in front of and behind each other. 
The Vertical Justification gadget adds space 
between a text box's lines to fill up the box. 

The Alter Box menu com- 
mand invokes a requester for ap- 
plying a number of special attrib- 
utes to a selected box. First, two 
graphics gadgets let you set per- 
meability, which flows text around 
the box, and transparency, an op- 
tion that lets you see objects placed 
underneath. There are numeric 
gadgets for setting top, bottom, left 
and right margins (these can be set 
to negative, for special effeas). 
There are also settings for rotation 
and slant, which can be at any 
degree, and scaling on the horizon- 
tal and vertical sizes lets you resize 
tlie box's contents, whether text or 
graphics. Each of these numeric 
settings has a row of clickable 
numeric gadgets containing com- 
monly used settings alongside; if 
you don't want one of the presets, 
you must enter a new value with 
the keyboard. In general, the pro- 
gram tends to force you to switch 
between mouse and keyboard ar- 
bitrarily, an aspect fairly common 
to most complex software. 



■r ■ -■ ■ rar; 

• j'.i .1 jXi.Lj.f.ij. i.i'..L, f, i I I', I , I*, I , i'i.i.^_r. 


■■H ^•wartwtlm^^ 

....... c a^^^ggis 

Of bBI kB|.ba UKU^I UI! u 


FM-MU-d SiMt I 

■ y- - 



Above: A sample newsletter /n progress. 
Below: Saxor\'s Alter Box requester. 

revised drawing routines and improved 
memory management, Point, pica and 
centimeter rulers will also be added 

New products already in development 
include a PostScript interpreter for printing 
Saxon files to non-PostScript output 
de\'ices. Though the interpreter will one 
day be a part of the Saxon Publisher 
package, it will be disk based, rather than 
incorporated into the existing program ("in 
order to maintain efficiency", according to 
the company). It will also be sold 
separately, for use with any other Amiga 
program that uses PostScript. 

Among other capabilities, Saxon's 
inteipreter will be able to print four-color 
separations to color printers, convert any 
portion of a printed page to EPS or IFF EPSF 
format, and will produce monochrome or 
color previews on-screen, with textures. 

The Saxon PostScript Interpreter is 
due for release in January, 1991. It will also 
employ a new font engine technology now 
under development "to provide Adobe- 
qualitj' output to laser printers", according 
to Saxon. 

The font engine technology will also 
be an integral part of Saxon's forthcoming 

Font Creation Program, due out in 
November of this year. 

This program will let users create new 
outline fonts and bitmapped screen fonts 
for a wide variety of applications in 
addition to Saxon Publisher. 

Develojiers expect users to be able to 
create new fonts from scratch, or by 
modifying existing fonts, in a "matter of 
minutes". Its interface will be true 
WYSIWYG, and is expected to give users 
nearly unlimited flexibility in manipulating 
fonts. — Greg Young 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 11 


Clicking the ■'Define Texture" button 
near the bottom of the Alter Box requester 
brings up the Texture Definition requester 
for defining tlie box's graphic attributes. 
You can also assign unique textures to text, 
structured drawings, and even entire 
pages. The three basic textures are Solid or 
opaque (can be translucent if set to Trans- 
parent in the main box requester), Trans- 
parent or completely clear, and Bitmap- 
ped, ^fhich lets you apply one of Saxon's 
ra'enty special bitmapped professional- 
looking textures: four each of the Fade and 
Band textures, nine Radial textures, and 
diree special Stone textures. 

Other settings in the Texture re- 
quester let you define an optional oudine 
thickness and color, as well as a drop 
shadow distance and color. Set colors from 
to 100 per cent with RGB sliders and 
numeric gadgets, with the current color 
displayed alongside in a large box. Finally, 
for tliose who need to produce four-color 
separation documents, you can "trap" any 
or all of the separations. This advanced 
function creates thin outlines around color- 
separated images in order to fill in the inevi- 
table white gap when die separations are 
printed slightly out of register. The manual 
provides helpful suggestions for using this 

The Box menu's Assign F-Key com- 
mand lets you assign up to ten different box 
styles to function keys, so that they may be 
recalled at will. When you press the func- 
tion key to call a new box, the box is placed 
on the current page in the same location 
from which it was originally saved. Other 
Box menu commands let you save boxes to 
text files and reload tltem. Finally, the Box 
menu's Globalize command lets you assign 
a box containing localized text (text that 
was t>'ped direcdy into the box) to the 
Sidebar tag list, allowing it to be linked to 
odier boxes. Naturally, the complementary 
Localize Text command removes the box's 
entry from the tag list. 

Once you have created pages and 
boxes, of course, you're ready to add text 
and graphics. Text can be typed directly 
into boxes, which is fine for headlines and 
captions. For longer documents, you'll 
want to import text created with a word 
processor or text editor. The only word 
processor directly supported is Word Per- 
fect; its text styles (i.e., boldface, underline, 
and italics) are retained when imported. 
Otherwise, you're limited to Generic or 

ASCII text, with orwithout carriage returns 
or line feeds. Saxon Publisher is more gen- 
erous with its supponed range of graphics 
formats, including IFF, IFF 24-bit, EPS (En- 
capsulated PostScript), and ProVector, a 
structured drawing program for the Amiga 
yet to be released. I attempted to impon an 
EPS file output from ProDraw, y^nth no 

When you import a text or graphics 
file, it isn't placed into a box immediately, 
but is first loaded into memory, and its 
name entered in the tool box Cursor mode 
list. To place it in a box, first dick on the 
box, then on the desired item from tlie list. 
To make an article flow from box to box in 
a series, click on each of the boxes, then on 
the file name in the list. Doing this with 
graphics or pictures creates duplicate im- 
ages, without incurring the memory cost of 
loading the image several times. This is a 
nice memor>"-efficient feature, but if you 
delete the image, its removed from all 
boxes containing it. In order to conserve 
disk space, imported files aren't saved with 
the document, but Lf tlie program can't find 
an item upon loading the document, you're 
given the opportunity to specify a different 
patli and/or filename. 

When you import a bitmapped image 
into a box, the program tries to completely 
fill the box widi the image, so it may not be 
entirely visible. Clicking on the Sidebar's 
Graphic Fitting gadget automatically cen- 
ters and resizes the image, so that it's fully 
visible in the correct aspect ratio. By the 
way, a Preferences menu item lets you 
decide whether or not to display graphics 
on screen — not displaying them speeds up 
screen refresh quite a bit (though tlie pro- 
gram is a bit sluggish at redrawing screens 
in any case). You'll definitely benefit by 
using SP wiih a 2500/30 or 3000. 

Saxon Publisher's text handling is 
unique in the Amiga world in many ways. 
First of all, you can preformat imported text 
while in the word processor by inserting 
imbedded text commands, which let you 
determine where to turn on and off bold- 
facing, underlining, italics, superscript and 
subscript, one of two special fonts, and 
type style. Type style is a fairly complex 
specification that can be applied to an 
entire paragraph with a single click of the 
mouse — I'll explain this more fully in a bit. 
In Text mode you can apply special styles 
to portions of text on die page by higlilight- 
ing sections with the mouse, then clicking 

! on the appropriate style in the Sidebar list 
at die left side of die screen. 


When you enter Paragraph mode, 
the Sidebar presents you a list of currendy 
available type styles. This is one of Saxon 
Publisher's powerful features, un- 
matched in power and ease of use by any 
other Amiga desktop publishing program. 
To apply a type style to a paragraph, just 
click anywhere within a highlighted para- 
graph, then on the desired new style from 
the Sidebar list. This is a fast, easy way to 
make global changes within a paragraph. 
Changes are visible on the screen immedi- 
ately. You can edit existing type styles or 
create new ones at any time. 

The program uses a large requester to 
define or redefine a type style definition, 
which can contain up to five different font/ 
size settings. You can define different fonts 
and sizes for normal text, for capital letters 
within a paragraph, and for the paragraph's 
first letter, which you can set as a drop cap 
(a \'ery large letter that extends down 
alongside at least several lines of text; its 
lop is even with the first line of text). You 
can also define two special font/sizes to be 
applied selectively within the paragraph 
via Text mode. 

The program is supplied with a var- 
ied selection of PostScript fonts: American, 
Avant Garde, Benguiat, Bookman, Courier, 
Garamond, Helvetica, Lubalin, New Cen- 
tury, Palatine, Souvenir, and Times. Some 
of these, such as American and Benguiat, 
require you to purchase printer fonts to be 
uploaded separately to the laser printer for 
proper output. Curiously, the Zapf Ding- 
bats and Zapf Chancery fonts found on 
most PostScript lasers aren't supported. 
Selea a font by scrolling through the list, or 
click on gadgets showing the letters A 
tlirough Z to jump the list to a font starting 
widi a specific letter. 

Other options available from the 
Type Style requester let you toggle HQ 
(high quality) Text, which uses oudine 
fonts to display text. This takes longer to 
redraw, but gives a more accurate onscreen 
representation of final output. If you don't 
need to see text onscreen and want to work 
very quickly, die Greeking opdon displays 
text as solid gray rectangles, which speeds 
up redraw significantly. The kerning op- 
tion spurs automatic respacing of certain 
letter pairs within die text, for a more 
professional-looking and readable docu- 

12 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 


To serve our growing customer base, we are moving into larger quarters! 


8-UP Memorycard-2MB 


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FData-20 Double drive 

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AIR drive externa! 


Master 3A 


Internal 3.5 drive for A2000 


Cutting Edge MAC drive 

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Quantum Hardcard 40MB 


Quantum Hardcard 80MB 


HardFrame SCSI Controller 


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For the /IM/G/i 1000: 

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System Packages 

We customize AMIGA 2000 and 
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needs. Call and talk to one of our 
system specialists to get the best 
price for your requirements. 



iD Professional 


Turbo Silver 


Disney's Animation Studio 


Saxon Publisher 


Pagestream 2.0 


The Art Department 




Scene Generator 


Digi Paint 


Pro Write .3.0 


Pro Video Post 


Mega Paint 


Deluxe Paint 111 


Homebuilder's CAD 

1 19.95 

Lattice 5.0 


Disk Manager MAC 


SoundScape Pro MIDI 



Digi View 4.0 


Digi Works 3D 


Color Splitter 


Flicker Fixer 


Framebuffer with 1MB 


Magni 4004S w/ remote 




Neriki Imagemaster II 


Panasonic 1410 w/ lens 


Panasonic 1500 w/ lens 


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Sharp JX-100 Scanner 




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Purchase Orders Accepted. 


with 4MB & 501 trade-in 349.95 
without 501 trade-in 399.95 


InterComputing, Inc. 1-800-800-9177 

2112 Sandy Lane, Dallas, TX 75220 • Customer Service: 214-556-9666 • FAX: 214-556-2336 

InterComputing France 

34, Avenue des Champs Elysees 
75008 Paris 

InterComputing Deutschland Inc. 

Schonebecker Str. 55-57 Telefon: 0202/89155 

5600 Wuppertal-2 Telefon: 0202/89304 

As always we have the most ' vustomer friendh' terms: S/H $4.95 in aim. USA; S30.00 mill, order : MASTERCARD Sc VtSA with NO aedii 
card fee: in Texas add H25% Sales Ta.\-. $12.00 shipping in APOiFPO addresses. RMAU required tm all returns. Alt prices .whject tit change. 

Ctrcte 114 on Reader Service card. 

Phone: (1)42821603 
FAX: (1)42806649 

ment. Sec type justification from a row of 
gadgets labeled Left, Right, Center, Flush, 
and Forced, and apply one of Saxon's built- 
in textures completely to the type style, or 
selectively to the First, Capitals, Speciall or 
Special 2 text subsryles. 

The Type Style requester's numeric 
settings let )'Ou control the amount of space 
above and below each text line and each 
paragraph (leading), the space to the left 
and right of each paragraph, the space 
becn.'een text baselines Oeading again), 
each paragraph's first line indent, and 
tracking (tiie horizontal distance between 

The Type St^'le menu lets you alter, 
delete, rename, save to disk, and load from 
disk the current type style. From here you 
can also save or load the entire Stylesheet, 
which contains all existing type styles, and 
assign the current type style to a function 
key, as you can with pages and boxes. The 
New gadget at the bottom of ihe Sidebar's 
Type St>'le list lets you easily replicate an 
existing type style for modification into a 
new style. And last but not least, the 
powerful Style Transfer gadgets in the 
Sidebar let you impose the currently high- 
lighted paragraph's style on the preceding 
and/or follo'wing body of text , either within 
the current box only, or tliroughout the 
entire article. 


In Text mode, select and highlight a 
contiguous block of text on the page by 
clicking and dragging the mouse, a familiar 
procedure. Then, apply any of tlie current 
text style's subsrj'les to the highlighted 
block by selecting it from the Sidebar list 
with the mouse, or simply delete the block 
by pressing the Del key. Curiously, if the 
block extends over two or more lines, 
deletion forces a double redraw. The Side- 
bar tag list sets highliglited text to any of tlie 
current t^-pe st\'le's substyles, plus super- 
script and subscript, while four gadgets 
above the tag list let you set tlie text to any 
combination of plain, bold face, italics and 
underline. You cannot, as witli Profes- 
sional Page and PageStream, arbitrarily set 
any highlighted text to any font/size setting 
available within the program. 

Further operations on higtilighted 
text, namely the familiar Cut, Copy, and 
Paste, are available from the Edit menu. 
The Search and Search/Replace functions 
can affect either die current box or the 
entire article. 


Saxon Publisher includes a limited 
structured drawing program, accessed via 
Drawing Mode. In this mode, the Sidebar 
displays gadgets for drawing any of the 
following: straight Hne, bezier (smooth) 
curve, polygon, filled polygon, rectangle, 
filled rectangle, ellipse, and smooth line. 
This last is unique in that you draw a series 
of connected line segments, as in polygon, 
which the program then smooths into a 
curved line. Interestingly, while drawn 
objects must be associated with a selected 
box, they can be anywhere inside or out- 
side the box, so tlie box's size is inconse- 
quential. You can't edit drawn objects' size 
or shape, and to move them you must move 
the associated box. The Sidebar's Retexture 
gadget lets you assign colors, line weights, 
drop shadows, and textures to all of a box's 
drawn objects. 


The Document menu includes the 
standard New, Quit, Load and Save docu- 
ment commands. The latter two, as well as 
other disk-oriented commands, always 
default initially to the RAjVI disk. The pro- 
gram's author claims that these default 
settings can be customized by accessing a 
file from the desired path, then using the 
Preference menu's Save State command. 
Although this does apply to other global 
program settings, it doesn't seem to work 
for Load/Save path settings. 

The Document menu's Print Page 
and Print Document commands each offer 
a sub-menu with five selections: Proof, 
which prints everything except bitmaps; 
Final, which prints everytliing; Final Nega- 
tive, which prints an inverse-color image; 
Final MisTor, which flips the page in the left- 
right direction; and Final Negative Mirror, 
which combines the last two. Selecting any 
of these brings up tlie Print requester, 
which lets you set the output device to 
Parallel, Serial, or a disk file. From here you 
can also toggle color/monochrome output, 
or set tlie program to print any combination 
of color separations in yellow, cyan, ma- 
genta and black, each of which has its own 
setting for screen angle and density. Odier 
settings include a scaling ratio which ap- 
plies to the whole page, number of copies, 
and page width and height. Finally, two 
on/off gadgets let the program adjust out- 
put for printing on a Linotronic typesetting 
machine, and print bitmaps at maximum 

The Preferences menu contains a 
number of display-related and other global 

program settings. Magnification choices 
include Enlarged (double size), Actual Size, 
Full Width, Full Height, Reduced (full 
page), and Define, which lets you set a 
variable zoom from 30% to 300%. Other 
commands let you toggle the display of 
rulers and box outlines. The Imposed Grid 
command lets you define and temporarily 
show die current alignment grid. Quick 
Display, Color Display, and Bitmaps let you 
reduce the graphic information that's to be 
displayed in order to speed up redraw, a 
feature professionals wiU appreciate. And 
the Save and Load Print commands let you 
store and retrieve complex print setups in 
disk files. Two sample preset print states 
that offer optimized color-separated output 
to Linotronic typesetters are included. Inci- 
dentally, the program's screen display uses 
only the Amiga's high-resolution interlaced 
graphics mode. 


Saxon Publisher was cleariy de- 
signed by someone with a good deal of 
working experience in publishing. There 
are a few curious omissions (see related 
story); no capability to automatically num- 
ber pages, no abort print function, no indi- 
cation as to whether imported text has been 
fully flowed into boxes, and no onscreen 
gadget for mousing between pages. Since 
the program doesn't support dot-matrix 
output, I can't recommend it to "weekend 

When used efficiently, which re- 
quires fairly intensive study (and restudy) 
of the manual, Saxon Publisher should be 
able to save die working professional sig- 
nificant amounts of time and effort. Speak- 
ing of the manual, which includes two 
helpful tutorials, it offers many useful tips, 
but is sketchy in many areas. According to 
Saxon Industries, a complete rewrite 
(which should double the current 170 
pages) is in progress, and should be avail- 
able by the time you read tliis. Although I 
didn't ha\'e the opportunity to test Li- 
notronic output, the print quality on Post- 
Script laser printers is excellent. 

Amiga-based professional and ad- 
vanced desktop publishers should give 
Saxon Publisher a uy. Preview it at a local 
retailer first, if possible. 


Soxon Publisher 

Saxon Industries 

14 Rockcress Gardens 


Canada K2G 5AS 

Price: $450.00 

Inquiry #225 

14 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 


Hardly a Mickey Mouse 
effort, Walt Disney Computer 
Software's new Animation 
Studio allows would-be 
cartoonists to enhance or create 
full-length animated sequences 

Exclusive features of The 
Aniinaiion Studio include its 
"onion skin" technology, which 
allows the user not on]\' to see 
tlirough the eel one is working 
on, but three eels behind it. 
Another prominent feature of tlie 
Disney program is the exposure 
sheet, which puts tl:e power of 
both the director and editor into 
the hands of the user, enabling 
one to order tlie eels any way one 
likes, and to control the timing of 
each. The user decides which 
eels are to be shown when, and 
for how long. 

The comprehensive ink and 
paint program of The Animation 
Studio supports overscan high- 
resolution, and allows the user to 
colorize his/her animations. 
Special features include fill-to- 

color, fiil-on-color, dithering, 
and a camera section which 
superimposes the animation 
on a variety of background 
pictures. Thirty-two 
colors are available 
aldiough, with the 
dither option, many 
more can be created. 

And through the 
Sonic score format, 
Che SiMUS score 
format and .INSTR 
sound effects, users 
can add music and 
sound to their 
animations. Indeed, 
with The Animation 
Studio, music and 
sound can be added 
to animations created 
with other programs. The 
program is fully compatible 
with image and animation 
formats such as IFF and ANIM, 
making the interchange of 
artwork from other paint 
packages easy. 

The Animation Studio 
comes complete with three 
disks including the "studio" 
disk, the "morgue" disk, and 
the "demo" disk. The studio 
disk includes sample Disney 

animations for one to modify 
and study, and a library of 
favorite cartoon effects to blend 
into one's own animations. The 
morgue disk includes original 
animations from classic Disney 
films. The demo disk contains a 
fully executed color scene of 
everyone's favorite water fowl, 
Donald Duck. The Animation 

Studio incorporates tutorials on 
classic animation techniques as 

The Animation Studio, 
Price: $179.95, Walt Disney 
Computer Software, Inc., 3900 
West Alameda Avenue, 23rd 
Floor, Burbank, CA 91505, 
(818) 567-5340. Inquiry '*226 

Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 15 

The entire Amazing Computing library is now avaiiable at incredibie savings of over OU /o! 
AC Volume 1 is now available for just § 1 9.95*1 

(A regular $45,00 value, this first year of AC includes 9 Info-packed issues.) 

AC Volumes 2, 3, & 4 can be yours for just$29.95* eOChl 

(Volumes 2, 3, & 4 Include 1 2 Issues each and regularly sell for S60,00 per volume set.) 

And subscribers con now purcinase freely redistributable disl<s*' at distribution prices, so stocl< up! 
Tliis offer includes all Fred Fisi-i, AMICUS, and AC disks. Pricing for subscribers is as follows: 

1 to 9 disks: $6.00 each 

10 to 49 disks: $5,00 each 

50 to 99 disks: $4.00 each 

100 disks or more: $3.00 each 

(Disks are $7.00 each for non-subscribers.) 

To order volume sets, freely redistributable disks, as well as single issues, use your Visa or MasterCard and 

call 1-800-345-3360. 

Or just fill out the order form insert in this issue. 

•Postoge & hand ing tor each volume is S4.00 in the iJS, S7.50 tor surface in Conocia Ohd Mexico, ond S iO.iM for oil other tofeign surfoce. 

"AC waranties alt disks tor 90 dovs. No odditionai civsrge for postage and tiandiing on disli orders. AC issues Mr. Fred Fish a royaity on oli disk sales to encourge the leading Amiga 

program onthologist to continue his outstanding work. 


The Videoplex, an /\nchorage- 
based video company, along with 
Fliglit Tniining Devices- A]asi\a, Alaska 
Video Postcards, and Tom Huglies 
Graphic Design have released a public 
information system using AniigaVision 
and the ^Vmiga as a display platform. 

By combining footage of Alaska 
on a laser videodisc ■?\ith an integrated 
graphics program on the Amiga, this 
public information program is 
displayed on a touch-sensitive monitor 
that allo■^^■s users to obtain informalion 
at the touch of a screen. 0\-er 100 
separate screens of information can be 
accessed qiiickl}- by touching a 
pictorial representation of the subject 

of interest on the screen. Each subject 
area accesses a short video with full 
motion and high-quality sound from a 
laser videodisc. 

The public information has been 
used in the Anchorage International 
Airport as a service for visitors. The 
entire program, including the 
AmigaVision program witli comments 
about development and a database 
obtained from several tltousand users 
of the system, is being made available 
through Arniga dealers and dii'ectly 
from the \''ideoplex and Flight Training 

The package includes video 
laserdisc and 3 floppy disks, along with 

a book on the development of 
interactive programs. 

Ptice: S3 99. 00. The Videoplex, 
3700 Woodland Drive, *700, 
A7icbomge, AK 99517, (907) 248- 
9999. InqiUrj' ^233 


Gold Disk recently announced 
Gold Disk Type, a series of four 
separate custom font packages, each 
containing three specially selected 
typefaces designed to suit the needs of 
a wide range of Amiga users, including 
grapliic artists, desktop publishers, 
and \'ideo buffs. 

Including the Publisher Pack, 
Designer Pack, the Decorative Pack, 
and the Video Pack.The Gold Disk 
Type fonts are based on .\GFA 
Compugi-aphic outline fonts. Stored as 
objects, rather than bitmapped 
typefaces, the fonts can be scaled to 
any point size and output without fear 
of the "jaggies". 

Each Gold Disk Type font 
comes with CreateFont, a udlitj' 
which lets you scale and conveit and 
Gold Disk Type font into a bitmapped 
typeface for use in amy Amiga 
software spplication that accepts 
native Amiga fonts. The CreateFont 
utilit\' can also be used to conven Gold 

Disk Type fonts into two other formats: 
downloadable PostScript and 
Professional Draw outline fonts. 

Gold Disk Type fonts may be 
used with any Amiga application that 
uses regular Amiga bitmapped fonts. 
Typefaces included in the Gold Disk 
Type series include Garamond 
Antiqua, Futura Book II and Antique 
Olive in the Publisher Pack, and Park 
Avenue, Microsyle Extended and CG 
Bodoni Book in the Designer Pack. 
The Decorat!\-e Pack features Letraset 
Re\'iew Shadow, and Cooper 
Black. Futura Bold II, Clarendon and 
Dom Casual are coniaijied in the Video 
Pack. Users can also order individual 
typefaces from Gold Disk's libran' of 
over 100 Compugraphic oudine fonts 
by contacting Gold Disk directly, 

Gold Disk Type, Price.- $59-95/ 
pa ck, Individual Co mp ug raph ic 
Outline Fonts, Price: S20.00/each, 
Cold Disk. 5 155 Spec/mm Way, Unit 5. 
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada, L4W 
5A1. (416) 602-4000. Inquiry ^235 


Here's one to boost the ol' 
palletie. New from Pseudo Vision 
Computer Graphics is Mega Paint, a 

24-bit paint program designed for the 

Among its features, Mega Paint 
provides multi-direcdonal gradient fills 
with variable dithering, l6.7 million 
levels of tran-Sparency, blending, 
smoothing, and colorizing. The 
program also features the ability to 
import and export several file formats. 
With direct control of the Mimetics 
FrameBuffer, Mega Paint users can 
capture images from video, edit, and 
then redisplay the images in broadcast- 
quality NTSC. 

Mega Paint, Price: $249.00, 
Pseudo Vision Computer Graphics, 
9319 E. Main, Spokane, WA 99206, 
(509) 926-6623 . Inquiry -23 1 -*- 

Other Ppoto 


Bethesda Sottworks 

15235 Shady Grove Rd.. Ste. 

Rockville, MD 20850 

(301) 926-3300 

Inquiry #229 

Heart Of The Dragon 
Avotar Consulting 

9733 Roe Drive 

Soniee. CA 92071 


InquiiY ^230 


Operation Spruance 

Parsec Software. Inc. 

P.O. Box 234 

Land O' Lakes, FL 34639 

inquiry #228 


King Publist^ing 

1200 Treadwell Street. *Z26 

Austin. TX 78704 


Inquiry *227 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 17 

simply put, ACDA provides the only complete line of Scxentif ic- and 
Engineering enhancements for your Amiga computer. 

1. High performance data-acquisition (A/D) and process-control (D/A, DIO) 
The DataStation'-products. 

2. GPIB IEEE-488. 

3. Digiscope and other signal analysis software tools. 
4. Laserdisk Control Software. 

5. Hardware and Software Consultation. 

6. Unsurpassed quality and support 

ACDA Corporation 

Tel. 516/689-7722 
FAK 516/689-5211 

♦Amiga is a trademark of CBM, Inc. 

circle 104 on Reader Service card. 


The Song Dynasty of China is near 
collapse. Barbarians are invading from 
the north and the evil Imperial Minister 
Gac) Qiu has quickly risen to power. 
Good men, cast out by Gao Qiu have 
become bandit kings. They are die 
only ones who can defeat Gao Qiu and 
restore the stability of die Empire. 

Nevi- from KOEI Corporation, 
it's Bandit Kings of Ancient China, 
where players assume the role of a 
bandit king, and are given attributes 
including mercy-, wisdom, sti'ength, 
courage, and dexterity. These factors 
help determine their ability to fight, 
negotiate, and lead. Players ti-j' to gain 
popuhij-ity, economic strength, 
poI itical , and military- power. Once this 
is accomplished, the emperor grants 
you permission to battle against Gao 

Victory is yours when Gao Qiu is 
defeated, btit it is not that easy. 
Haphazard conditions such as attacks 
from wild beasts, typhoons, 
snowstorms, and riots also influence 
your progress. 

The majority of the action takes 
place on a strategic map screen 
comprised of four windows; a map of 
the entire country, another for the 
input of commands, portraits of the 
current character, and a window where 
still lifes and smooth animated 
scrolling displays appear in response 
to various events within the game 
(riots, epidemics, deseiiion, festivals, 
aging, attacks from wild beasts, etc.). 

The other major display is the 
tactical combat screen widi a hexagon 
battlefield. Mountains, forests, ri^•ers, 
castles, and unit zones of control are 
featured, as well as animated 
sequences for victory and defeat. 

Bandit Kings offers full mouse 
suppon, 3-^'oice backgroimd music, 
digitized sampled sound effects, and 
l6 colors diroughout. The faces of all 
255 characters have been redrawn 
since the PC version of Bandit Kings 
was released last year, A very detailed 
manual complete with character 
descriptions and historical facts is 
included, along with a reference map 
and reference card. The game is 
installable on a hard drive, requires 
one megabyte and is not copy- 

Bandit Kings of Ancient China, 
Price: $59-95, KOEICoiporation, One 
Bay Plaza, Ste. 540, 1350 Bayshore 
Highway, Burlinganw, CA 94010, 
(415) 348-0500. Impiiiy -232 


18 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 


Turning your Amiga into a broadcast teleprompter. 

by Frank McMahon 


vision prompters. They work behind the scenes, mostly in news operations, 
displaying typed text on a large monitor for the anchorperson to read. For those 
of you who do not work in the television industry and think you have no need 
for this t)-pe of program — read on! You may be surprised at how AutoPrompt can 
v,'ork for you. 

As anyone in television can tell you, 
sometimes these setups can be expensive 
(the better models, anyway). Australia's 
DigiSoft has come up with a low-cost 
alternative. Their software is a self-con- 
tained television prompter designed for 
use on any model Amiga with at least 5 1 2K. 
The program is simple to use, and presents 
a host of features. 


The program consists of two main 
screens, an EDIT screen and a PROMPT 
screen. Before you roil your documents, 
you must first create them in the EDIT 
screen, which is as simple as booting up 
and .starting to t>'pe once the edit screen is 
loaded. No menus or modes to sift diroiigh. 
The program automatically wraps your 
worcis around as you type. Above are 4 
different pull-down menus, including 
ERENCES. The Project menu allows you to 
start a new document, or to load or save an 
existing one. Any text file in standard 
"ASCII" fomiat may be loaded in with no 

You may also load in docunients in the 
AutoPrompt standard format, which is fol- 
io-wed by tiie ".pmt" suffix. The Au- 
tol'rompt standard differs only in that in 
addition to saving the text, it also saves 
\'arious settings (such as page markers, 
^•hich we'll gel into in a little bit). Options 
that let you print out a copy of your 
document are also included. in the 
Project menu is a ".New CLI" and "Load WB" 
option, which allows you to get back to 

The Edit menu is where most of the 
text manipulation takes place. You can 
delete characters, delete lines, insert new 
lines, replace words, etc. There is also a 
Search command which lets you look for a 
certain string or pattern, with full support of 
the standard AmigaDOS wildcards. The 
Edit menu also has a "Strip All LP's" com- 
mand, used for importing ASCII text files 

may need to flip back to during a scroll. 
Function keys are also used to delete 
markers, as well as to delete all markers 
forward or backward from the current 
selected marker. You can also hop to the 
beginning or die end of the document with 
Rinction keys. 

Preferences lei you set such items as 
palette and right margin. There is also an 
option to set up an icon for a certain 
document before it is saved. Then, when- 
ever you need to use the particular docu- 
ment again, you simply double click on it 
from the Workbench and AutoPrompt, as 
well as the document, is loaded in auto- 
matically. This menu is also where you can 
select "Prompter Mode" which brings you 

dial have teen saved widi a linefeed char- 
acter at the end of each line. Normally, a 
line feed occTjrs at the end of a paragraph, 
but this command reformats those texi files 
which have one at the end of every line. It 
saves time because it takes quite a while to 
manually delete all unwanted linefeeds. 

The Jump menu is fun there 
are many options to place markers all over 
tlie document. It's as simple as hitting a 
hrnction key to set a certain spot where you 

to the main scrolling text screen. From 
there, you can see your document pre- 
sented in scrolling fashion in a large, easy- 
to-read font. The arrow keys can be u.sed to 
scroti your document fonvard or back- 
ward, as well as to increase or decrease the 
speed. More function key commands are 
pro^'ided; tliese allow you to start ancl stop 
the scrolling clisplay. You can also set a 
timer to activate continuous displays. With 

Amazing Computing V5. 10 ®1990 19 

the F1-F4 keys you can switch from the 
beginning to the end, or to tlie next, or to 
tlie last previously-set marker. In the 
Prompt mode, there is yet another way to 
display info aside from tlie continuous 
scrolling display. 

The lower 1/6 of tlie screen remains 
blank. All you need to do to display a 
message iiere is type it in. The message will 
"crawl" horizontally from right to left across 
the bottom of tlie screen. 

This is an excellent option, as it allows 
detached message presentation which 
does not affect the main screen. For ex- 
ample, a production assistant can, during a 
news broadcast, i\pe in messages to die 
anchorperson like "little faster" or "we only 
have five minutes", in addition to the scroll- 
ing news text. This mode is limited as to 
what can be set up ahead of time, because 
it is really meant for spur-of-the-moment 
direction. All other text should be included 
in the main .scrolling screen, tagged with 
markers, and brought up by ftinction key. 
Also on the main prompt screen is a long, 
horizontal slider which lets you easily regu- 
late the speed of the message crawl via the 


All lo Prompt sets out to provide a low- 
cost television prompter, and succeeds one 
hundred percent. It's extremely easy to use, 
and \"ci"y stable. It works in all resolutions 
and installs easily on any hard drive. 

I did have a problem booting the 
floppy off of my hard drive Workbench. 


16-bit Linear stereo 

Audio Processor with 

Sound Sampling Capabilities 

Beta Unlimited 

87 Surmmit St. Brooklyn, NY 
11231 /PHONE 718^852^8646 

However, it seems AutoPrompt is picky 
about what is needed in your "libs:" direc- 
tory, and causes a recoverable alert when 
it begins to load. A quick copy command 
from CU fixed tlie problem for me, and it 
ran fine from hard drive or floppy diereaf- 

The manual does not lie Bat when 
open, and while it is not needed very often, 
it sure would be nice for more developers 
to follow the ring binding method. Tliere 
should also be a function key to go from the 
Edit screen to the Prompt screen. This 
function is used often and should require 
one key press, radier than an ALT-E. All of 
the other most-used commands are set up 
on die funcuon keys, as diey .should be. 




QO-fYif^C Designed for Ages 4 to 7 

Learn ttiG Alphabet and Have Fun 
Animation, Pictures, Letters, and Song 


Check or COD - Maryland Raskfents Add 5% 

Dealer Inquiries Wek;ome 


6281 TrotterRoad, Claiksvilfc, Maiylmd 21029 
301-531- 3527 

Circle 126 on Reader Service card. 

Circle 115 on Reader Service card. 

Because it uses different resolutions, 
fonts, font sizes, and word lengths, once in 
a while half of the last letter in a line gets cut 
off. This can be previewed and corrected 
easily, and it's actually pretty amazing how 
Autoi'rompt manages to keep lines of text 
on-screen and properly centered, with so 
many variables. One big plus is the fact that 
the keyboard, the mouse, or a joystick can 
be used to control scrolling. VERY handy. 
In fact, witli a long enough joystick exten- 
sion cord, you could actually control die 
prompter from within a control room. 

The custom font that comes with 
AutoPrompt is excellent, and perfect for 
diis format. I recommend sticking with this 
font, even though any font can be loaded 

Ham It Up! (v. i.oi) 

ANEW! "The Blender" 
blends and saves 
color brushes lasl! 


ASIxleen chorls o( 
256 colois each 

AR9B & CMY values 
given (or each color 

ATakes the guesswork 
out ol color seleclion 

Displays and prints 
gll 4096 Amiga colors! 

S39,95" Includes shipping & handling in U.S. 

Call or send a checl< or money order to: 

ADelta Graphics A 48 Dighton St. 

Brighfon.MA02135A (617)25'1-1506 

"Mass. residents odd S2.00 soles tax 
Dealer inquiries welcome 

Clrel» 11B on Reader Service card. 

in and used. Font directories can easily be 
relocated to hard drive and different floppy 
disks. Requesters (such as the LOAD re- 
quester) can be relocated arotind the 
screen and saved via Preferences. Hitting 
die right mouse button in the requesters 
automatically (without disk access) brings 
up a list of drawers and devices. Color 
control is good too, with a different palette 
allowed for both edit and pi^ompt mode. 


While this ]3roduct is designed foi' 
work in television, it can actually be used 
anywhere a speaker or performer must 
deliver a scripted message: in school plays, 
in church, at social functions, during con- 
certs, and in stand-up comedy, and so on. 

Full instaictions and diagrams on 
building a prompter hood (to cover die 
television that the worcls are displayed on) 
are also included in die manual. The hood 
is helpful , but certainly not needed for most 

All in all, AutoPrompt is a solid per- 
former that is ver>' user-friendly, and ex- 
tremely quick in its execution. 'AC* 



!2 Dinmore Street 

Mootooka, Brisbane 4105 

Queensland, Australia 


Price: $295.00 

inquiry §221 

20 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

Notes on PostScript Printing 
With Dr. Ts Copyist 

by Hal Belden 


of specific and highly specialized applications for computers over 
the years. Among them, sequencing, voice editing and librarians, al- 
gorhythmic music generators, sample editing, and notation printing 
have become some of the necessities of life in the music profession. 

In view of these developments, life 
has been difficuk for the Amiga user, be- 
cause tliose last two categories have not 
been addressed by the software commu- 
nity. Rumors of a couple of definitive, full 
featured, l6-bii sample editors abound, but 
these are not yet available. 

With tlie release of the Copyist DTP 
(Desk Top Publishing), Dr T's Music Soft- 
ware, Inc. has brought the world of Post- 
Script music notation to the Aniiga musi- 
cian. Now we can produce tj'peset quality 
music transcription, just like tlie big boys. 
Though the program i^'ill print to H-P and 
dot-matrix printers as well, the main focus 
of this article will be on printing PostScript 
files with the Copyist DTP package. 


PostScript is a language that de- 
scribes what is on your screen in terms of 
angles and directions of lines, rather than 
pixels. When that information is sent to a 
compatible printer, it is printed in a resolu- 
tion far finer than \he best monitor can 
display. The most popular of these printers 
print at a resolution of 300 dots per inch. PostScript is descriptive, it can 
work with any resolution-compatible 
printer. Many commercial printers exceed 
3000 dots per incli, and still print from the 
same fUes used on tlie 300-dot machines. 

With all that pertinent knowledge in 
mind, I immediately ripped open the pack- 

age of my newly acquired Copyist DTP, 
loaded a demo file, hit "print" ... and waited 
to see the hi-res image emerge from my 
LaserWriter Plus, Ten minutes later, I de- 
cided something was wrong. Nothing was 
coming out. It was time to read the manual! 

I did just that, tried it once more .. .and 
again, nothing came out of my printer. 

Now, most people I know that have 
LaserWriters plug them into the serial port, 
but having done that, the PostScript printer 
driver couldn't find my printer. Obviously, 
I had to check Preferences, and sure 
enough, it was set to parallel. I corrected 
this — and it stil! refused to print! 

After confirming that my printer was 
working (by sending it a file from the CLI), 
I hit upon the idea of typing "sen" in the 
info file of the drivers' icon. It worked! 

Here, then, is a step-by-step proce- 
dure for printing a PostScript file with 
Copyist DTP: 

1) Put the Auxiliary disk in a drive, 

2) Double click on the disk icon, 

3) When the window opens, double 
click on the printer_driver drawer icon. 

4) When that window opens, drag 
tlie PostScript_driver icon over into the 
other (disk) window. The printer driver 
MUST be in the same director^' as the 
Sonata.txt file; this is the PostScript font 
licensed from Adobe Systems, Omit diis 
step, and you get no print. 

5) SINGLE click on the Post- 
Script_drtver icon, then hold down tlie 
right mouse button while pointing the 
pointer at the menu bar at the top of your 
screen. Under the menu item "workbench", 
point down to the word "info", and let go 
of die mouse button. 

6) A window will open up showing 
information about the file. 

7) Click once where it says "add". 

8) Type tlie word "ser;" (no quotes) 
where it says "tool types". 

9) Click the word "save" at the bot- 
tom of the window. Make sure the disk is 
not locked, first. 

10) Double click on the Post- 
Script_driver icon, 

11) Now, ifyou click the right mouse 
button, you will get a requester asking what 
fonts you will be needing. You get a choice 
of six. Select one, or use the default fonts, 
and close this window. 

12) If this is your first printing of this 
session, click on down load fonts "yes". If 
not the first printing make it "no". Fonts 
only need to be downloaded once (unless 
you turn off the printer). 

13) Click on "open" to enter a direc- 
tory of score files. Click on the file you want 
to print and click on "ok", which will dose 
thai wndoTv. 

14) Define the starting and ending 
page (if you are printing one page, you 
must specify page one to page two). 

15) Finally, click on "print" and sit 
back for a while. Watch the light on your 
printer for activity. PostScript prindng does 
take a while, so be patient. 

The result will be a beautiful, hi-res 
print of the file you have selected. 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 21 

The result will be a beautiful, hi-res print of the file you have selected. 

Savant Poseur 

M Hosjwrs 


Sample printout 

If you are a interested in greater 
speed, ASDG's dua! serial board has utili- 
ties for high-speed data transfer to a Laser- 

One caveat: Dr. Ts states that they 
were unsuccessful in using the original 
LaserWriter witli this software, so, you 
better have a Plus model or better. Most 
laser printers require a meg ormore for full- 
page graphics, 


Also included in the package is an 
"EPS" driver. EPS refers to "Encapsulated 
PostScript", a file format wliich is a standard 

for transferring PostScript documents be- 
tween programs. 

I tested this driver by creating an EPS 
file using the driver provided, then loading 
it into Professional Page, but I ran into a 

When PPage uploads an EPS file into 
one of its boxes, it does NOT show you the 
graphics. It does show you a shaded area in 
tlie box. I found tliat this area has little or 
no relation to die scaling of the printed 
grapiiic. If you first load tlie file, and then 
try to print it without examining the box's 
parameters, you will get the same surprise 
I did — die entire printed area will be less 
dian a quarter inch square! 

Once you have loaded the EPS file 
into a box, double click in that box with the 
pointer gadget. A window will open ■with 
various parameters to be set. You must set 
the scaling parameters by trial and error. Af- 
ter a liide experience with this, you will be 
able to estimate approximate settings with 
some accuracy. Now you can incorporate 
music into your documents and desktop 
publishing efforts, but you are limited to 
scaling the full page, or a portion of it. 

It would be nice to be able load an 
EPS file into a structured drawing program, 
but neither Professional Draw nor Laser 
Up! Draw can read these files. I tried to 
"print to RAM:" to create a PostScript file. 
The Copyist does not allow paths (or num- 
ber of copies) to be specified from the Post- 
Script printing window. I tried saving an 
IFF file using the IFF driver provided. The 
resulting file was an unwieldy 960 x 2934 
pixels. My paint programs couldn't load it, 
but PPage could — only to crash when I 
tried to print it. SuperView did display it 
and could scroll around it, which was 
rather impressive. A quarter note came out 
about a inch tall! 

Possibly ProVector or PDraw 2.0 will 
be able to handle these files. There are 
graphic symbols and devices used in 
modern music notation that aren't found in 
any notation program. It would be nice to 
be able to add them after creating the basic 
file widi Copyist DTP. 


Copyist DTP 

Dr. r* Music Software, Irrc. 

220 Boylston St. 1(206 

Clieslnut Hill, l\4A 02167 

(617S 244-6954 

Price: $339.00 

Inquiry »2 19 

22 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

byR. Bradley Andrews 


Wings of Fury, from Broderbund Soft- 
ware, puts you in control of the US Navy's 
powerful 6F Hellcat fighter. Using an arse- 
nal of bombs, rockets, torpedoes and built- 
in machine guns, you must single- 
handedly liberate a series of enemy-occu- 
pied islands, and sink their ships. 

While it may be intended as a vehicle, 
simulator, Wings of Fury provides pure 
arcade action. After choosing a load for 
your current mission — 30 100-pound 
bombs, 15 high-velocity aerial rockets, or 
just a single torpedo — the mission is on. 
The bombs can be used on enemy huts, 

top: Bfoderbund's Wings of Fury 
botfom: Flood from Electronic Aits 

machine gun pillboxes, or nmnlng enemy 
soldiers. The rockets are needed to elimi- 
nate potent enemy anti-aircraft (AA) instal- 
lations. And torpedoes can be used to 
forever end the threat of enemy ships to 
your fleet. 

Not only must you combat forces on 
the ground, enemy aircraft complicate your 
mission. Enemy Fighters take off against 
you from hostile airfields, and torpedo 
planes make periodic runs against your 
home carrier. Torpedoes launched against 
you must be shot out of the water, or your 
carrier will soon be sunk, and your mission 
will be over. Only one enemy fighter can be 
airborne at a time, a welcome 
limitation. But each is very 
deadly, and highly skilled at 

The game features sev- 
eral difficulty levels, from Mid- 
shipman to Captain. One advan- 
tage of competing at the lower 
levels, beyond learning the 
game itself, is the extra life you 
receive after successfully com- 
pleting the missions that com- 
prise each level. 

Wings of Fury uses a 
side view of the action as your 
plane flies side to side and en- 
emy installations scroll along the 
bottom. Two slightly different 
views are actually pro- 
vided during flight. 
When the plane is 
close to the ground, a 
close-up view shows 
all on-screen action 
with a good degree of 
detail, but when the 
plane rises a bit be- 
yond sight of the 
ground, a Eoomed-out 
view takes over. This 
view shows less detail, 
but a wider area of the 

Control can 
be a bit difficult. Some 
joysticks do not work 

that well, but I found that my TAC-2 joystick 
worked well with this game, especially 
when combined with the STIK-GRIPPER 
which was mentioned last month (though 
I did have to resecure the joystick every so 
often, as it worked loose of the mountings 
due to the degree of movement during 

Overall, Wings of Fury is an enjoyable 
game; it has enough of a background to 
make play interesting. But the controls can 
sometimes be difficult. That, combined 
with the great difficulty in shooting down 
enemy planes, can make game play a bit 
frustrating. It is still worth checking out, 


As mentioned last month, it appears 
that Electronic Arts is finally directly im- 
porting products from their European divi- 
sion. Since arcade action titles are the most 
common, it is no surprise that the first title 
to enter the country, Flood, is just such a 

In a bizarre future world, a race of 
beings which feeds on trash has evolved. 
Only our hero, Quiffy, is on the side of 
good. All other creatures are evil and, as 
such, have it in for our hero. The primary 
concem: a flood of water has begun to fill 
the caves where Quiffy lives and, since he 
cannot breath underwater, his only hope is 
to travel through all the tunnels and escape 
to the surface, where he can live his life in 

Quiffy's trip can take him through a 
total of 42 different caverns. At the end of 
each cavern is a transporter that is activated 
only when Quiffy has successfully picked 
up all the trash on that level. This job is 
complicated by the fact that water is also 
flowing into the cave, and our hero must 
quickly complete his mission before the 
entire cave is filled. Fortunately, Quiffy is 
very adept at climbing and jumping, and 
can even swim underwater for brief peri- 
ods of time. 

The graphics and animation are very 
well done, while the soundtrack and sound 
effects are also very appealing. The joystick 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 23 







^^^''* '\-JwTrj 

\\^' missi 


ciockv/tss from below: 
Accolade's European Challenge, 
<c>nam/'s Turtles, and Electronic 
Zoo's Tre<isure Trap 

works well as a control, once you learn the 
basic mechanics. 

The game's only real failing was evi- 
dent in my failure to locate the passwords 
that are supposed to be located on the later 
levels. The rules sheet says they are located 
under "?" marks on these levels, but I never 
came across any during play. Loading de- 
lays for each level are also annoying — but 
what do you expect, given such detailed 


This is a fun game and I recommend it 
for any gamer's library'. First they invaded 
tele\'i5ion, then the movies, and now 
computer games. Teenage Mutant Ninja 
Turtles pits the halt-shell heroes against 
their evil nemesis, the maniacal Shredder. 
Shredder has captured their friend, April 
O'Neil, and now, only by following the 
crude trail he has left can they ever hope to 
see April alive again. 

Their journey goes both above and 
below ground, and takes the Turtles 
through many areas of New York City. But 
this is not the Big Apple we know and love. 
This city has been infested with other mu- 
tated animals, all hostile to our heroes. 

Only one of the Turdes can l^e con- 
trolled at a time. Each has a different 

weapon and his 
own strengdis and 
(measured pri- 
marily by the 
reach of the 
weapon each 
Turtle uses). 

Both side and 
overhead views 
are used during 
play. The side 
view is detailed 
and sharply 
drawn, animation 
is smooth, and the 
sounds comple- 
ment game play. 
The game's crea- 
tors have managed to capture much of the 
feel of tiie usual Turtles storyline here, and 
have put together a package likely to 
please diehard Turtle fans everywhere. 


Treasure Trap, by Electronic Zoo, 
takes us under the deep sea. A ship has just 
sunk, a fact that might othenv^ise be unre- 
markable, except that this ship was filled 
with gold bars, making it a very lucrative 
salvage target. Your boss has decided to 
mount the salvage expedition, with an eye 
toward the loot to be gained. 

As his most experienced diver, and 
most trusted employee, you have been sent 
to the site in a metal diving suit. But your 
boss is a spendthrift, so you only have a 
limited amount of air, and must carry out 
the salvage very quickly. Adding to your 
troubles, many unfriendly sea creatures — 
crabs, jellyfish, sting rays, and the like — 
have invaded the ship, and are ready to 
block your progress along the way. 

All is not lost. In addition to the gold 
scattered about, someone has thoughtfully 
provided replenishment air tanks in strate- 
gic locations. But each room poses a differ- 
ent puzzle to overcome. While some are 
simple and straightforward, many are ex- 
tremely difficult and require well-though- 

out solutions. The overhead, pseudo- 
three-dimensional view and graphics are 
outstanding. The demo mode itself is en- 
joyable to watch, and the sounds are 
done well. 

But, the game falls way short in the 
area of control. Maneuvering the on- 
screen character is extremely difficult, 
and even many hours of play may not 
prove sufficient to result in mastery. Only 
those who are somehow able to master 
these difficult controls will have a good 
time with this one. 


Finally this month is a brief look at a 
scenery disk for Accolade's The Duel: Test 
Drive II. European Challenge provides 
authentic backgrounds from Italy, Ger- 
many, France, The Nethedands, Switzer- 
land, and Spain, as all host different seg- 
ments of this head-to-head race. The 
graphics are at the same level as those 
included with the basic disk — a nice 
change of pace, but nothing really new. By 
the way, the basic game is required to use 
tills expansion disk. 

Fans of the original will probably want 
to add this to tlieir collection, but it is really 
not original enough by itself to convert any 
new players. -AC* 

Product Information 

Wings o1 Fury 

Brsderbund Software Inc. 

17 Paul Drive 

Son Batael, CA 94903 


Price: $39.95 
Inquiry 1214 


ftecfronJc Aril 

ISIO Gateway Drive 

San Mateo, CA 94404 


Price: $39.95 

Inquiry (12 IS 

Teenage Mutant NEn)o Turtles 

Konoml/UIIra SoWwore Corporalior\ 

900 Deerfield Parkway 

Butlalo Grove, IL 60039-45 10 


Prtoe." $39.95 

Inquiry 0216 

Treosure Trop 

Cleclronic Zoo 

343 1 -A Benson Avenue 

Batllmote, MD 21227 


Price: $39.95 

Inquiry t2i 7 

European Challenge 

(scenery disk tor Tfte Duel: Test Drive II) 


SSOSouHi Winctjeiler Boulevard 

Sulle 200 

San Jose, C A 95 1 2a 

t40a) 985- 1700 

PrlCB: $19.95 

Inquiry una 

24 Amazing Computing VS. 10 ©1990 

Centaur's World Atlas v2.0 

by Jeff James 

ware couldn't have been released at a better time. According to several recent national 
studies, American students are getting failing grades when it comes to identifying 
countries on a world map. 

This lack of geographical knowledge among American 
students is shocking. In one study, an alarming number of 
Americans couldn't even recognize the United States on a 
map of Earth, let alone .such important geographical areas 
as the Persian Gulf, Eastern Europe and Japan. World Atlas, 
as the first "Atlas on a disk" for the Amiga, succeeds 
admirably in educating young and old alike about the planet 
on which we live, and the nations that populate it. 

World Atlas comes on four non-protected diskettes with 
a small, well-written manual, and a last-minute addendum 
sheet of changes to the program that were implemented after 
the manual was printed. Amiga owners with hard disks will 
be' pleased to hear that World Atlas is fully hard disk 
installable, with an icon-based installation routine. Kudos to 
Centaur for avoiding copy-protection of any sort. World 
Atlas requires at least 512K of RAM and a single floppy drive, 
but I had no problems whatsoever running' it on my Amiga 
500 equipped with a 20MB hard disk and three megs of RAM. 
The World Atlas program disk is bootable, but it can be used 
from the Workbench as well. 

World Atlas is the epitome of "point and click" simplic- 
ity. After you've selected your home country and set the 
correct time on the opening screen, you're then taken to the 
Select Menu, which presents you with four options: World 
version, USA version. Info on Earth, and a quit option. 

The first menu option loads data for the worid version, 
and the second option does the same for the fifty United 
States. "Info on Earth" leads to another menu which allows 
the user to display interesting infomiation on global time 
zones, the Earth's physical composition, the land area, and 
human population of each of the seven major continents, 
and the location of special geographical features. 

World Version is the heart of World Atlas; after selecting 
that option, the user is presented with the Main Menu, which 
provides four different ways to access visual and textual 
information on selected countries. Select the first option. 

Maps, andyou're presented withamap of the Earth. Clicking 
on a continent zooms you in for a closer view of aO the 
countries on that continent. Clicking on a country from this 
view takes you to that country. 

If you think you might be embarrassed in front of your 
kids by your inability to find Yugoslavia by using the map 
function, Worid Atlas can help you salvage your self-respect. 
Simply select the List option from the Main Menu , and World 
Atlas presents you with an alphabetical, scrollable list of 
ever>- country shown, allowing you to select the peskj- 
country in question by name. 

Choose the third option, Seek, to acquire a limited 
search and sorting ability, allowing you to find a country by 
specifying a capital, a population range, area, or common 
language. I fotmd the common-language search function 
makes for yet anotlier enlightening learning experience: I 
used it to discover all of the French-speaking countries of the 

The founh option in World Version, Organizations, lists 
the largest military, political, and social organizations on 
Earth, such as NATO, OPEC, and the Warsaw Pact. This static 
list is useful, though not nearly as interesting as a world map 
with highlighted member countries for each organization 
would be. 

Once reaching the country you wish to examine, you are 
presented with the Info-Card screen. Besides showing that 
country's flag and time (in relation to that of your home 
country) at the top of the screeny the lower part of the screen 
is divided into three parts. An outline map of the country ap- 
pears in the upper right comer, vertically scrolling text 
information appears in the upper left, and a set of VCR-like 
buttons with a horizontally scrollable text field appear 

The upper left window contains a short list of factual in- 
formation about the country, including literacy rate, lan- 
guages spoken, etc. The text field below presents the history 

What's most impressive about World Atlas is how good it 
looks. The graphics are bright and crisply done ... 

of the country, and you can easily control tlie scrolling of the text 
by clicking on the embossed VCR buttons to speed up, slow down, 
or stop the scrolling. 

From this screen you can also print information about the 
countrj', and access an editor that lets you change bodi the text re- 
lating to tlie country's historj' at the botloni of the screen, and the 
data listed in die upper left of the Info-Card screen. This ability to 
manually edit data on all of tlie included countries is one of the 
strongest features of Worid Adas. It is easy to change and add to die 
geographical and historical data contained within the program to 
accurately reflect recent social and political events, such as those 
taking place in Eastern Europe. 

Europe is just a click away wHh Centaurs World Alias 

What's most impressive about Worid Adas is how good it 
looks. The graphics are bright and crisply done, and all of the menu 
selections are shaded and embossed to look like three-dimensional 
metal buttons. Whenever text is scrolled on the screen, it slides by 
smoothly and quickly, without any [itier or hesitation. I tested the 
program on a variety of hardware, ranging from a 5 12K single-drive 
A500 to a fully loaded A2000, and not once was I visited by the guru . 
The program works smootlily and flawlessly. 

Someone once said that notliing in life is perfect, and that old 
adage holds true for World Adas as well. World Atlas does indeed 
contain maps for every counuy on Earth, but maps shown on the 
Info-Card screen are simple oudines of the countries; the don't 
show any major cities (except capitals) or important geographical 
features. While you can print out the text files for each country or 
state included in the program, you can't print or save the maps to 

adom your 8tli grader's term paper, I even tried running Discovery 
Software's Grabbit screen capture program in die background to 
grab a few maps the hard way, but World Adas absolutely refused 
to cooperate; all I could capture was a blank screen. A quick call 
to Centaur Software's technical support staff confirmed that Worid 
Adas will not work widi Grabbit. 

Also, while World Adas holds a great deal of infomiation about 
the Eardi, hundreds of countries, and even detailed information 
about each of the 50 United States, the information is presented in 
a somewhat rigid and inflexible manner. While most of the data in 
the program can be changed by the user and the search functions 
in the seek menu offer a rudimentary searching ability on a limited 
range of criteria , die program has no way to compare odier data 
between countries. 

For example , if you want to compare the GNP (Gross National 
Product) of Japan with that of Poland, you have to wade 
through the menus of both countries, locate the information 
visually, then make the comparison yourself. The program 
won't grab the data you wish to compare and display it in graph 
or chart form. 

In this same area, an excellent MS-DOS program, PC-Globe+ 
(published by PCGlolie Software) produces graphs and com- 
parisons of countries based on dozens of factors, such as 
literacy rate, standard of living, etc. I hope that the prograrnmers 
of World Atlas will look to this, and other excellent programs 
available in the MS-DOS market to get some ideas for improv- 
ing Worid Atlas's ability to cross-reference and display informa- 
don visually. 

World Adas is neither a game nor a game-oriented, interactive 
learning tool like Broderbund's Carmen Sandiego series. World 
Adas won't hold the short attention spans of younger children 
long, but it is recommended for everyone around the ages of ten 
and up. 

Quibbles aside, World Adas is dre only progaram in the Amiga 
software market that truly puts that bulky, dusty, conventional 
worid adas (buried under those stacks of encyclopedias in your 
basement) to rest, once and for all. It's educadonal, fairly inexpen- 
sive, and very user-friendly. 

If you need or want a solid educadonal tool for worid 
geography. World Adas is definitely worth a look. 


Centaurs World Alias v2.0 

Centaur Software 

P.O. Box 4400 

Hedondo Beaclr, CA 90278 

(213) 542-2226 

Price: $59.95 

Inquiry t213 

26 Amazing Computing V3.W ©1990 

Stripping Layers Off Workbench 

by Keith Cameron 

were three other things that I absolutely had to have: a hard drive (the 
bigger, the better!), more RAM (the more, the better!), and at least one 
external drive. If you own an A500 straight off the shelf, you know what 
I mean! Sometimes it seems that I spend more time swapping disks than 
using programs. Not being able to afford to buy all those goodies, I had 
to discover some sort of alternative. I decided, instead, to strip down my 
Workbench disk. 

One "problem" witli Workbench is ihat 
it is so full. The version I have is 98% full. As 
a result, there really isn't enough room to 
save any otlier programs to it. If you use 
Workbench as your boot disk, tliis means 
tliat you can't auto load all kinds of useful 
programs, like a mouse accelerator, a vims 
checker, or a screen blanker, since there 
isn't any real space available for these on 
your disk. So, let's strip down the Work- 
bench to make room for these programs; in 
tile process, we'll even save a Htde RAM. 

Since buying my A500, I have made 
one addition; I added on the A501 memory 
expansion so tliati nowhave 1 megabyte of 
)RAM. However, many dealers are now in- 
cluding tlie extra 512K of RAM, so tfie 
foUov-'ing should still be relevant to many 
500 users. The figures I will be using, by the 
way, are for 1 meg of RAM. 

For this project, I have elected to use 
version 1.2 ofWorkbench. If you have a dif- 
ferent version, you may need to make a few 
alterations from time to time, but die prin- 
ciples discussed should be tlie same. 

First of all, if you haven't already done 
so, make diree back-up copies of your 
original Workbench disk. One will be used 
for this project, one will be the copy diat you 
use on a regular basis, and the tliird should 

be put away and used only to make copies 
if anything happens to tlie other two. Ide- 
ally, you should never have to your 
original Workbench disk again. 

Now boot your Amiga -with die copy 
you have made. To avoid confusing it witli 
the real Workbench disk, rename it any- 
thing you want. I call mine "Workdisk". You 
can change the name by first selecting the 
disk icon. Then, select "Workbench" from 
tlie menu bar and drag down to "Rename" 
and release. When tlie gadget appears in the 
middle of tlie screen, type in die name you 
want to use and dien hit the return key. Now 
we are ready to begin. 

After booting, notice first of all the free 
space that is available in the menu bar. If no 
number is showing in the white bar at the 
top of your screen, click your left mouse 
button once anywhere in the blue area. For 
my 1 meg, I show 925,864 bytes. Since my 
1 megis actually 1,024,000 bytes, diat means 
I have used almost lOOK of RAM just booting 
up my machine. The amount used will be 
tlie same with a 512K Amiga. Thus, for such 
users, one-fifth of available resources have 
already been used and you haven't even 
loaded a program yet! Now click open die 
Workbench disk and nodce how your 
memory resources lose another 1 IK or so 

just for displaying those icons. I now show 
914,304 bytes available. 

Next, click open the System drawer. 
The first change we will make is to move the 
CLI from widiin die System directory and 
place it in the root directory. Do this by 
placing die pointer on die CU, clicking and 
holding die left mouse button, and then 
dragging die CLI icon to the main window. 
This way, when you open up your disk, the 
CLI will be available immediately. Don't 
worry at diis time about rearranging the 
layout of die window, for we will be making 
other changes before we finish. Now close 
die System window. 

Now open up the CLI and resize the 
windowtofiil the screen. Don't worry if you 
don't have much (or any) exp>erience with 
the CLI; I ■wU! take you through step-by-step. 
In the CLI, you will see the following: 1>. 
This is your prompt, and it lets you know 
that you are in CLI window number one and 
that the computer is ready to accept a 
command from you. Now type INFO <re- 
tum>. Please be aware that it is necessary to 
write all commands exacdy as they apf>ear 
as regards to spacing and punctuation; it 
does not matter, however, whetlier you use 
upper- or lower-case letters (<retum> 
means to press the return, or enter, key). 

Amazing Computing V5.10 m990 27 

After executing this command, you will 
be given some information about the RAM 
disk and Workdisk. For our purposes, we 
are only interested in how full the DFO: disk 
(Workdisk) is. Mine shows that it is 98% full. 
Not much room left here. Since tliis is, 
technically, an 880K disk, that means that 
only about 18K are free on the disk. How- 
ever, a full 880K is not really available, so 
you have even less than 18K. 

Now we are ready to begin stripping 
away unwanted programs. The easiest way 
to go about this is to type DIR OPT 1 
<return>. This is one OPTion of the DIR 
command. It will take us through each 
direaory and file in the root (main) direc- 
tor^'. As soon as you Wpe this, it will give you 
die first direaory, and you should see 
something like this: 

DIR OPT I <return> 
Trashcan (dir) ? 

The question mark is a prompt which 
shows tliat the CLI is waiting for a command 

from you. For this director^', type DELETE 
<return>. The u-ashcan director^' will then 
be deleted, and you ha\'e taken tlie first step 
to stripping down Workdisk, After the dele- 
tion has been performed, you will automati- 
cally be presented witli the next direct or)^ 
The complete process thus far will look like 

DIR OPT I <return> 
Trashcan (dir) ? DELETE <retum> 

c (dir) ? 

There are many commands in the 'c' 
directoiy which you will need to keep, so 
you can't delete the entire directory here. 
Instead, you will need to look at each item 
individually. To do tliis, type E <return> at 
the question mark prompt, like this: 

DIR OPT I <retum> 

Trashcan (dir) ? DELETE <retum> 


c (dir) ? E <retum> 
AddBuffers ? 

You are then presented the entire con- 
tents of the 'c' directory, one file at a time in 
alphabetical order. At the prompt for each 
one, you can type DEUETE <retum> if you 
wish to delete the command, or you can 
simply t>'pe <retum> if y ou wish to keep the 
command. Different people find different 
commands here to be usefiil, so your needs 
may differ from mine. Use your own judge- 
ment/experience to' dictate what you keep 
and what you throw away. If you are not 
veiy experienced, here is a list of what I 






















Dont' worry if you inadvertently delete 
a file you need to keep. It is a simple matter 
to make a copy of that file from Workbench 
at another time. This is just one of the many 
reasons why you should always make a 
backup of all of your disks. Likewise, if you 
neglect to delete a file, you will need to 
continue through the process and then 
delete it at a later time. Once you hit the 
<retum> key, you can't back up. 

Once you have finished witli the 'c' 
directory, you can continue on through the 
list. The next direaory is tlie Demos direc- 
tory. You will not need any of the contents 
of diis directory on your Workdisk, so delete 
the entire directory. However, when you 
try, notice that the computer responds with 

"Error code 216," which means the direaory 
could not be deleted. The CLI will not allow 
you to delete a directory' wliich has files in 
it while you are using the DIR OPT I option. 
No problem here, though; we will come 
back to Demos later, so leave it at this time 
and i^roceed with the other directories. I 
recommend that you do the following: 

System (dir) ? E <reciim> [keep only 
Diskcopy, FastMemFirst, and Format, and 
theii" -info files] 

1 (dir) ? <retum> [keep all of this di- 

devs (dir) ? E <retum> 

•keymaps (dir) ? E <retum> [keep 
only usaO, usal, and usa2] 

•printers (dir) ? E <retum> [keep 
whatever your printer is — ^mine is a 
foreign brand compatible with Epson, so I 
keep both of the Epsons] 

'clipboards (dir) <retum> (some word 
processing programs will need these] 

s (dir) ? <return> [keep] 

t (dir) ? <retum> [keep] 

fonts (dir) ? <retum> [we will delete 
some files here using a different method, 
so leave this director}' for now] 

libs (dir) ? <retum> [keep] 

Empty (dir) ? <renjm> [keep! 

Utilities (dir) ? E <retum> [delete 
everyiliing — ratlier than use Notepad, I 
just use ED from the 'c' directory] 

Expansion (dir) ? <retum> [keep] 

('Note: keymaps, printers, and clipboards 
are all subdirectories of the devs directory.) 

Following these directories, several 
files ■will pop up next. 

Delete Clock and any .info files belong- 
ing to any directories you have completely 
deleted so far, such as Trashcan and Utili- 
ties. The .info extension on such files simply 
means that these are icons. 

Now we need to go back and delete 
those entire directories we were unable to 
do so earlier. The first one is Demos. From 
the CLI, simply type DELETE DEMOS ALL 
<return> and the entire directory will be 
deleted, one file at a time. For the fonts 
directory, type CD FONTS <retum>. This 
will make fonts your current directory. Next, 

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type DIR <reairn> to get a listing of the files 
in this directory. Now you can delete each 
subdirectoiy you wish to. For example, if 
you wish to delete the entire niby subdirec- 
toiy, you would type DELETE RUBY ALL 
<retiirn>. I keep garnet and emerald. Be 
sure to delete the .font files for any font 
subdirectories you deleted. When you fin- 
isli, r>'pc CD DFO: <reiurn> to make die root 
directory your cuirent directory once again. 
Continue making any other deletions that 
are neces.saiy. 

After all deletions have been made, we 
need to alter our startup-sequence. From 
<return>. The startup-sequence is a list of 
commands that tell the computer ■^•hat to do 
as it boots up. Now that you have deleted 
certain commands from the C directory, 
some of them will need to be deleted from 
die startup-sequence as well. Otherwise, 
when the disk is booted, the computer will 
look for these commands and won't be able 
to find them. 

Let's walk through deletion of the 
.A.ddBuffers command near the top of the 
list. To kill this entire line, use the arrow 
keys to move down to the first letter in this 
line. Once the cursor is positioned, press 
your ESC button, then the letter "D" to 
delete, followed by <retum>. Tlie entire line 
should disappear. Do thi.s with oilier lines 
that have commands which are no longer in 
your C director)', such as tlie "If' slaiements. 
In fact, you can delete ever>' line in tlie 
startup-sequence except for the following 

Dir RAM; 

Endcli > nil: 

I must confess that 1 delete the last of 
these as v^'ell. This way, when my disk boots 
up, the CLf remains the active window, thus 
saving me the time of opening the Work- 
bench, then the CLI window. However, I am 

an avid CLI user, so this might not be some- 
diing everyone wants to do. 

Once you have deleted everjthing, 
press the ESC key one more time, followed 
by the letter '"X" and <return>. This will save 
any changes and automatically return you to 
the CLI. 

By the way, the program ■we "were just 
working in here is the Workbench's text 
editor, ED, whicli I use in place of Notepad. 
Notepad is nice and certainly more user- 
friendly, but it is also more than twice the 
size of ED. So, naturaliy, I use ED. 

Now that you have done all of this, 
check to see how fiil) your disk is by using 
the INFO coinmand, as we did earlier. My 
disk is now 46% full, which means there 
should be about 450K of space available. 

If you'd like, reset your Amiga now, 
and reboot using your new disk. If, while 
loading, the Workbench screen does not 
appear, look in the on-,screen window, 
which is actually the CLi. You will probably 
see something like, "Could not find 
AddBuffers". This means diat you deleted a 
command from the C directory, but failed to 
delete that command line from your startup- 
sequence. Since you are in the CLI window, 
now is a good lime to do that. If you 
experience no such problems, notice how 
quickly Workdisk boots up. That is a minor 
advantage of diis project. 

After booting, I now have 936,600 bytes 
available. This is a savings of 12.736 bytes. 
Likewise, after opening Workbench, I have 
931,232 free b^tes, whereas before I had 
91'4,304, The big advantage, though, is 1 am 
now able to save a number of useful pro- 
grams on this disk. Previously, to load such 
programs, I'd ha\'e to swap around. Now, 
everything I need can be placed on one 
disk. We will take a look at how lo do this 
soon. But first, let's look at another way of 
reducing the size of your disk. 

This next stage involves replacing cer- 
tain programs still on your disk widi otliers 
that perform the same functions, while 
comsuming less space. For example, there Ls 
a program in die ptihlic domain which will 
replace Preferences. This program claims to 
do eventhing Preferences does while using 

Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 29 

only one-tliird of the space. Tliere are also 
a number of programs available in the 
public domain which will replace many of 
the C directory commands. Sometimes, one 
program will replace two or even tlrree C 
commands. iMany of these programs do eve- 
rything the originals do (and quite often, 
much more), while using less space 
and/or RAM, By making such substitutions, 
you can save considerable space. 

As an example, I recendy replaced just 
one program on my Workdisk witii a similar 
one from the public domain. After doing so, 
I discovered that my disk wa.s only 40% full, 
compai'ed to 46% full prior to the change. If 
you insist on running a clock, for example, 
the public domain is inundated with many 
good ones to choose from. So, check the 
public domain, and save some space. 

Now, how can you the space you 
have created? I higHy recommend that you 
put at least two program.s into your startup- 
sequence. First, with all of tlie viruses 
around, it is wise to have a virus checker of 
some sort in your startup-sequence. There 
are several in the public domain to choose 
from, so you might ask around as to which 
one is the best (I will refrain from naming 
any specific programs here, as I do not want 
to endorse any one product over another). 
I also reconunend that you install a mouse 
accelerator and screen blanker. Once again, 
there are many available in tlie public 
domain. These programs will speed up the 
movement of your mouse (you'll never go 
back to an unacceJerated mouse!), and 
make tlie screen blank after a certain time of 
inactivity', thus saving your screen from 
having images burned into it if left unat- 
tended for extended periods of time. 

How do you install such programs to 
have them loaded when tire disk is booted? 
There are various ways; let's look at two. 

One metliod involves using your text 
editor to create a new file. To do this, type 
ED STARTUP-FILE <retum>. This command 
does two things. First, it automatically cre- 
ates a new file named STARTUP-FILE and, 
second, it opens the te.xt editor to this blank 
document. At tlie bottom left of the screen, 
you should see "Creating new file" ^vritien in 
red letters. Next, you w^ill state die programs 
you wish to ha\'e your computer load as it 

boots. If you wish to run a virus checker, for 
example, you will designate the location of 
the program and then name it. For example, 
if the program is named VIRUS and you 
have saved it to the C directory, you would 


In odier words, yoii must tell tlie com- 
puter exactly where to find the program and 
what the name of the program is. Now do 
the same thing with any other program you 
want loaded. If you choose to install a 
mouse accelerator as well, and you saved 
this program to the root director^', you 
would type 


Thus, if these are the only two pro- 
grams you are loading, you would have the 


Once this is done, press ESC, die letter 
"X", and then <retum>, and the file will be 
saved and you will be returned to die CLI. 
Now we need to return to your startup- 
<return>). Just before tlie LOADWB com- 
This tells the computer to read the file 
named STARTUP-FILE and to do what is 
described in that file. After you have fin- 
ished, press ESC, the letter "X", and Uien 

Another method of installing diese 
commands is to simply list them in the 
startup-sequence itself rather than in an 
executable file. However, if you anticipate 
placing a number of programs in the 
startup-sequence, I suggest you use a sepa- 
rate file. 

Now you should have a disk widi 
plenty of space left for creating text files, 
saving various utility programs, and other 
tilings. I have done this with various disks. 
I'm a regular user of BBS systems, and I have 
two fa\'orite terminal programs I use to 
access area bulletin boards. [ have made a 

separate Workdisk for each program. These 
are now my boot-up disks. As they load, I 
have my startup-sequence configured to 
automatically load a mouse accelerator/ 
screen blanker and a virus checker. Since I 
do have 1 meg of RAM, I also have config- 
ured my startup-sequence to auto load cer- 
tain C directory commands and my favorite 
program compressor into the RAM: disk. 
That way, I can use other disks from the CLI 
without a lot of disk swapping after com- 
mands (see "A CLI Beginner's Questions 
Answered", AC V4.12, page 82). 

Whichever boot-up disk I decide to use 
for die day can also be used for running my 
favorite word processor programs, graphic 
programs, etc. In addition, I have enough 
space left on the disks tliat I can download 
many programs from a computer bulletin 
board direcdy to tlie disk, Also, I compose 
most of my messages off-line (using ED), 
and I save these, as well as any messages 
and bulletins I capture, direcdy on die disk. 
The extra space does help, 

I am always looking for mediods to 
help me use my Amiga more effectively. 
Since I live in Saudi Arabia, I'm somewhat 
isolated from the mainstream Amiga com- 
munity', so many of the things I do are on an 
experimental basis. When I first started 
trying to strip my Workbench down, for 
example, I eliminated the "run" command 
from tlie C director)'. I had no idea that the 
CLI would not work without this command. 
It took me quite a while to discover my 
mistake. However, it has been through such 
trial-and-error experiments that I have 
taught myself how to use the Amiga. My 
advice to you is to take a similar approach. 
Obviously, if you are unsure of what you are 
doing (as I am), it is best to proceed cau- 
tiously. Remove only one command or file 
at a time, and use the disk for a while to see 
if anyUiing has been affected. Be sure to 
keep a list of the changes you make so that 
you can correct any problems tliat may 

That is die mediod I have used in dis- 
covering tlie above process. If you have 
suggestions for improving upon this 
method, I'd like to hear diem, 


30 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

Sunrize Industries' Perfect Sound and MichTron's Master Sound 

OUND Tools For The Amiga 

by Morton A. Kevelson 

analog sound playback system was the creation of sound effects for games and the simulation of musical 
instruments for programs such as Deluxe Music and SonLx. Since the Amiga's sound hardware performs 
true digital-to-analog conversions, the best sources for these sounds are digitized samples from the real 
world. The ad\-ent of multimedia application programs such as Ultracard, CanDo, and Commodore's own 
Amiga'Vision has created a new need for high-qualit)', digitized sound samples. Perfect Sound and Master 
Sound are two products whicl: >^ill be able to meet tliis need. 

Perfect Sound 

packages for die Amiga. A careful .scruliny of the credits onmany 
jiopLilar game packages will reveal that Perfect Sound was the 
instalment which was used to digitize their sound effects. Sunrize 
Industries has released version 3.0 of Perfect SoLind. This release 
features improA-ements to both the sampler hardware and the 
accompanying software. 


As -^-ith pre\'ious versions of Perfect Sound, the sampler is 
housed in a sturdy metal case about tiie size of a pack of playing 
cards. The package connects direcdy to the computer's parallel 
port. A pair of RCA-C>'pe phone jacks accept a line level stereo 
audio signal, ■w^hich can be obtained from die tape outputs of any 
receiver or at tlie headphone jack of any audio device. A 
miniature headphone jack is also available to accept the signal 
from a monophonic microphone. If you wish to do live sampling 
In stereo, you will have to preamplify botli of your microphone 
signals and mn die output to Perfect Sounds line level inputs. 

Perfect Sound's mechanical volume control has been elimi- 
nated. It has been replaced by a 1 6-level digital control which can 
be adjusted from widitn the sound editor. The heart of the 
sampling hardware is an AD7575IN analog-io-digital con\'ener 
chip, whose five microsecond conversion rale is more than 
adequate for its intended application. Perfect sound is able to 
sample a monophonic signal at a maximum rate of 40,000 
samples per second. However, playback is still limited to the 
Amiga's own sampling rate of 28,000 samples per second. 
Stereo sampling is limited to a maximum sampling rate of 14,000 

lidilor's twie: Perfect Sound tias recently upgraded to version 3. 10. This 
new tietvion supports reat-timeecho. real-time dekiynitd source codeand 
libraries for programmers. I'ur information on upgrading, refer lo this 
mouth s Bug Bytes (p. 60), or contact Sunrize Industries directly. 

samples per second. I found that high-quality samples could be 
obtained in either stereo or mono wdi no audible distortion. 


Perfect Sound's software lias undergone a major face lift as com- 
pared to its cai'licr incamadons. In keeping with the trends of other 
sampling software. Perfect Sound spoits a new graphical interface 
■;\-iih the basic editing functions available via mouse-driven buttons. 
The bulk of die editing functions, as well as die file management and 
sampling, are suU accessed from either die pull-down menus or via 
keystroke sequences. The menus have been reorganized widi all of 
the editing commands placed under one heading. Perfect Sound's 
edit menu offers a baker's dozen editing commands such as Ramp 
Up, Ramp Down, Scale, and Mix. 

Low pass filtering can be applied to samples; however, the 
process takes several minutes to complete. Samples can also be 

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Petted Sound's sample editing scteen. 

Amazing Computing V5. 10 ®1990 31 

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resampled to a new sampling rate without dianging theii- pitch. Keep 
in mind that resampling to a lowei' sampling rate can result in a 
permanent loss of the signal's high frequency content. On the other 
hand, the re\'erse proces.s — that i.s. re.sampling to a higher sampling 
rate — does not improve the fidelity of the signal by adding to the 
high frequency content. Resampling to a higher rate can be used to 
eliminate die aliasing distortion tliat can result from too low an 
oiiginal sampling rate. 

Samples can be easily retuned to the desired pitch b}' combining 
resampling with a change in tlie playback sampling rate. This is 
important if you are creating instruments with Perfect Sound since 
die center octave of an IFF instrument must play as a middle C at a 
sampling rate of 8363 samples per second. Perfect Sound also lets 
you multiply or divide samples by a factor of two to create the 
additional octaves which are needed for three and five octave Il-F 
instruments. Perfect Sound also lets yoti set the looping point in an 
IFF instill nient. In face, any set of three or five san^ples can be 
combined into an IFF instrument by Perfect Sound. 

The top diird of Perfect Sound's editing screen is a graphical 
display of the current sample. Ranges can be set in this vv-indow by 
simply clicking and dragging the mouse. The pair of \\'indows, 
directly below the main screen, contain ;i .sample-by-sample closetip 
of the start and end range markers. This allows die range markers lo 
be set widi maximum precision. The size of Perfect Sound's samples 
is limited only by the a^'ailable memory", -n'hich includes fast RAM as 
well as chip RiViM. However, certain operations are limited to 
samples which are entirely in chip RAM 

Although Perfect Sound does not limit the size of the samples, 
it does limit die number of samples to six. Each sample is assigned 
a slot and gi\'en a name. The list of samples are shou'n in a window 

in die lower left-hand corner of the display . Samples are selected by 
clicking on dieir name. A double click automatically plays the 
sample. Many of Perfect Sound's editing functions generate a new 
sample in one of the slots. As a result, it is easy to rapidly run out 
of slots during a typical editing session. For example, the a'eation of 
a five-octave IFF instrument requires the use of five slots, one for 
each octave. The solution is to clear the slots when you are done with 
iJieir samples. Be sure to save the samples to disk in IFF. RAW, or 
COMPressed format if you think you might need diem again. 

The recording level is set l:iy invoking the monitor mode from 
the Digitize menu. This turns a part of the screen into a real-time os- 
cilloscope w'hich makes it easy to set the signal level below clipping. 
The sampled sound can a!so be heard \'ia the Amiga's sound 
channel; however, distortion is Iiigh while the real-time oscilloscope 
is active. The sound can also be monitored, via the Amiga, while 
recording is taking place. Monitoring is limited to sample rates which 
are less than 28,000 samples per seconcl. Although Perfect Sound can 
record at rates as high as 40,000 samples per second, you will ha^'e 
to resample to a lower rate in order to piay them back at their original 

Perfect Sound is a quality product which has been significandy 
improx'ed by this latest tipgracle. It is particiilariy well suited for the 
creation of IFF instRiments for use ■^'ith the Amiga's music sofrware. 


Perfect Sound 

Sunrize Industries 

270 E. Main SI. Sle., C 

los Gatos, CA 95030 

(40S) 354'34SS 

Price: $99.95 

Inquiry if 210 

Master Sound 

consisting of die basic .sound-sampling hardware, sound-sampling 
editing software, and a aidimentary sample sequencer. 

The Sequencer's conlrol panel replaces the 
lower halt of Master Sound's editing screen. 


The Master Sound sampling hardware comes in a diminuti^'e 
plastic package whose width and height is only slightly larger than 
tlie Amiga's parallel port, to which it is connected. Although the 
package is nearly five inches deep, I found that circuit board insicie 
it was mtich shorter. In fact, the length of the entire package could 
ha\'e been easily shrunk down to less than two inches. In this case, 
small size does not mean poor quality. The samples which I created 
^■itli the .Master Sound hardware w-ere low in distoiiion and high in 

The sotiiid sampling is handled by an .Af)7576lX, 8-bit, analog- 
to-digital converter chip. The ten microsecond conversion time, 
which is specified for the AD7576, is more than adequate to handle 
the 59,600 samples per second sampling rate of which .Master Sound 
is capable. Signals are sent into die Master Sound cartridge via a 
miniature, nionophonic microphone jack. The signal level should 
be around 2.5 volts peak to peak. This signal level is available at die 
headphone jacks of most portable radios, tape recorders, or at the 
tape output jacks of most receivers. Since Master Sound does not 
have its own gain control, you will have to adjust the level of the 
input signal at its source. 


Master Sound's sampling and editing functions are accessed via 
its mouse-driven graphical interface. All of the controls are repre- 
sented by on-screen push buttons and sliders without the use of any 
pull-down menus. The keyboard is used only to enter file names, 
to change the sy,stem's memory allocation, and to quit tlie program 
via a Ctrl-C keystroke sequence, ->■ 

34 Amazing Computmg V5.10 ©1990 

AC Disks 

Source code and executable programs included 
for all articles printed inAmazing Computing. 


AC V3.8 and V3.9 

Gets In MultlForth Parts I & II: Learn how lo use Gels in MuliiFanti. 
Aultor; John Bushakra 

FFP t IEEE: An Example of using FFP i IEEE inalh rautnes in Modula-Z. 
Auihot: Sieve FaJwisieMk' 

CAl: A comolel* Compuier AkJed Instructisn progiam wKi editor written in 
AmigaBASfC- Airfior; Paul Cas'ongjay 

Tumblin' Tots: A complete game wrffien in AssevntVy languag«. Save tlie 
tailing babies in this game. Auitat: David AsMey 

VGad: A gadget ediio: ttia; aliows you to easiy Cfeale gaogets. The 
proQram Lnen genetaies C ctxJe Itiai you can lts* in your cwn programs. 
Aulnor: Stephen Verraeulen 

MenuEd; A menj KJilor tnai aliows you to easily create menus. The 
prog^at; ihe.T Generates C coce ttiat you ran yse ;n your ffwn programs, 
Autnor: David Petirscn 

Bsprtid: A powertui spread sheet program wtittwi in AntioeBASIC. 
Author- B^anCatefy 


AC V4.3 and V4.4 

Fractals Part I: An inioducton lo the basics of fractals with examples 
in AnigaBASIC. True BASIC, and C. Auihor: PaiJ Caslonguay 

Shared Libiaries: C source srid eiecutatle code Ihal shoos the use of 
sfiared Itjraries. Author: John Baez 

MulllSoit: Sorting and intertask communication in Modubi-2. 
Autfor: Steve Farmszewsh 

Ooitble PlaySeld: Shows ^ow to use dual piayHelds in AmigaBASIC. 
Author: Rotjert D'Asro 

'881 Math Part I: Programming the 68681 math coprocessor chip in C 
Avjlhor: Read PrerJmore 

Args: Passing arguments to an AmigaBASIC program from the CLI. 
Aulbor: Brian ZupSe 


AC V4.5 and V4.6 

Digltlied Sound: Us rg ine Aad o.dewe to tVay dgitized sounds in lilodua- 
2. Author. Len A. Wnite 

'SSt Malh Part II; Part II of programming the 68381 matri ct^rocessor 
ctr'p using a Iractal sa.Tpl6. Author: Read Predmore 

At Your Request: Us:-^ the system-suppfied requestors from 
AmigaBASIC. Author: Jonn F Weiderhim 

Insia Sound: Tapping the Amga's sound from AmtgaSASIC using t^ 
Wave command. Aulfior; G'eg StrirgteHow 

MICX Out: A MIDI program that you can expand upon. Wr.tten in C. 
Author Bf. Serapfim Wtnslow 

Diskless Compiler: Setting up a compiler environment that doaanl need 
floppies. Author: Chuck Raudonis 

^ AC V4.7 and V4.8 

Fractals Part it: Pan ll on franais am cashics on Ih» Amiga in 
AmigaBASiC and True BASIC. AuCior: Pai Castonguay 

Anslog Joysticks: The code for using analog joysticis on the Amiga, 
WriMn in C. Author: David Kimar 

C Notes: A small program to search a file for a spedlk: strir^ in C. 
Au:tior: Slephen Kemp 

Better String Gadgets: How to tap the power of string gadgets in C. 
Aunor; JohJt Bushatta 

On Your Alert: Using the System's alerts from AmigaBASIC. 
Aunor; John F.Wiederniin 

Batch Files: Eiecutng tjatch fries from AmigaBASiC. 
Aulwr: Mark Aydel'otte 

C Notes: The beginning ol a uMity program in C, Author: S»ph«n Kemp 


AC V4.9 

Memory Squares: Test j-our memory with this Am^BASIC game. 
Author- M kE Womson 

High Oclaiw Colors: Use ocenno in AmigaBASiC to gel the appear- 
arxe ol many srore coiors Author: Ftobeft OAsto 

Cell Animation: Us;ng cell animation in Modu!a'2. 
Author: Ncho^ CiraseBa 

Improving Gfaphics: Improve tt^ way your program kioks no matter 
what screen it opens on. In C, Aulhor: Fiichard M^n 

Gate In Multl-Forth^tn Z; Tha Ittird and final part on using Qeis m 
Fonh. Author: John Bustakta 

C Notts V4.9: Look at a Simple utility program m 0. 
Author: Stephen Kemp 

ID Cells: A program that simulates a one-dimensional cellulsr automata. 
Aulhor: Ru^eli Wallace 

Colourscope: A shareware program that shows diffeteni graphic designs. 
Author: Russell Wallara 

SIVowlLBM: A program that displays ^res, N-ras, imertsct iti HAM IFF 
p«tures. Author: Russell Wallace 

Ubyrlnlh_lt: Roll paying text adventue game. Author: Russell Wallace 

Most: Text file reader that vnll dstfay one or more fiies. The program will 
automat£aliy fo'mat the text lor you. Author: Russeli Wallace 

Ttmilnator: A virus protecion program. Author: RusseE Walace 

^ AC V4.10 and V4.11 

Typing Tutor; A program written in Am^aSASIC Mwl help y«i improve 
yCKjr typing. Author: Mike Morrison 

Glalt's Gadgets: Using gadgets in Assembly language. Author: Jeff Glalt 

Fuoctlon Evaluaior; A orogram that accepts mathematical func^ons arrd 
evaluates them. Writtenln C. Author: Ranoy Fmctt 

Fratnals: Part III: AmigaBASiC code (tat shows you how a savertoad pictures 
to dsk. Aultxjr: Paul Castooguay 

Mont Requestors: Using system cafis in AmigaBASiC to buld taquasiors. 

Author: John Wiederhirn 

MuKI-Foith: Implementng the ARP library from Forth. 
Author: Lonnie A, Watson 

Search Utility; A fife search utfity mitlen in C. Author: Stej^sn Kemp 

FbsI Pics: Re-wriling tie pixel draviing routine in Assembly language lor 
speed. Author: Scott dteinman 

64 Colors: lAirg eitra-haiUxrte mode m AmigaBASiC, Author: Bryan Caaey 

Fast Fractals: A fast fractal program wmten in C with Assembly language 
susroulmes. Autor. Hugo M. H. Lyppens 

Mullltasklna In Fortran: AH the hard work is ddne here so you can multiiash 
in Fortran. Aulnor. Jim Locker 


AC V4,12 and V5,1 

AnixPart II: Inlormation on how toset up your own ARen programs** 
examples. Autfor: Steve Gfmm 

drstmas tree with 

Ijggo My lOGG: A Logo program tr^ generates a 
decoraticrs. Author: Hike Momson 

Trees and Recursion: An introductian to binary trees and how to use 
recursion. Written m C. Author: Forest Amokl 

C Hottt: A look at two data compressing techniques In C. 
Author: Stephen Kemp 

Animalfon? BASICally: Using cell atnaiion wthAmigaBASfC. 
Author: Wike Morrison 

Menu Builder: A uSIity to help buDd menus in you own programs. Written in 
C, Author: Tony Preston, 

Dual Demo: hlow to use dual playlieFds to matu your own arcade games, 
Wnttoh in C ALthor: Thomas Eshelman. 

Scanning the Screen: Pan four in the fractals series. This article covers 
drawing to Ihe screen. In AmigaBASiC and True BASIC. 
Aulhor: Paul Castonguay. 

C Notes: Recursiva fardnns in C. Autttor: Steplien Kemp. 

^ AC V5.2 and V5.3 

Dynafflk: Memory!: Flexible stnng gat^et requester using dynamic memory 
allocation. Author: Randy Finch. 

Caff Assembty fanguage Irom BASfC: Add speed to yoi/ programs wth 
Assemb'y Author. Mar-jn F. Combs. 

Conundrum: Ar: A-^gaBASIC prc^ram that is a puzzle- like ga'ne. similar to 
the game S'mcn Author: Dave Senger, 

Music TItltr: Generates a iSer Osplay to accomparry ttie audio on a VCR 
record ng. Author Bnan Zupke 

C Notes From the C Group: Wntlng funcliors that accept a variable 
number of arguments. Aulhor: Stephen Kemp 

Screen Saver: A QuicH remedy lo profong the ffte of your monitor. 
Author; Bryan Calley 

^ AC V5.4 and V5.5 

Bridging The 3.5" Chasm: MaMng Amiga 3.5' drives compatUe with IBM 
3.5' drives. Author: Kan D. Beisom. 

Ham Bone : A neai progm that illustates programming in HAM mode. 
Author: Robert D'Asto. 

Handling Gadget and Mouse IntulEvents; Moregadgels in Assembly 
language. Author: Jetl Giatt. 

Super Bitmaps in BASIC: Hokling a grgpTiks display larger than the monitor 
screen. Author: Jason Cahil 

Hounding Oft Your NuiDberj: Ptogrammingi rcutinas to make lounding 
your numbers a Isttte easier. Autt^r: Sedgwick Simons 

Mouse Gailgets: Faster BASIC mouse Input hifor: Michaet Faliion 

Print Utility: A homemade pnnt utilty, with some extra added ftaturts. 
Autvor; Bnan Zupke 

Blo-le«dl»ctdLI« detector D*vlc«: Biild your own ie detector device. 
Author John lovine. 

Do It By Ren^ote: Biikj anAmiga-oper^ed remote controller for your home. 
Author: Andre Theberge 


^ AC V5.6 and VS.7 

Convergence : Part dye of Die Fractal senes. Author Paul Castonguay 

Amiga Turtle Graphics; Computer grap^ cs and programming with a lOQO- 
like graphics system. Auihcr; Dylan MnNamee 

C Notes; Doing linked iist and doubly linked lists in C. Author: Stephen Kemp 

Tree Traversal & Tree Searcli; Two common methods lor traversing trees. 
Aulhor: Forest W. Arnold 

Exceptional Conduct : A quick response to user requests, acKevod through 
eflicien: program logs. AuJior: Mark Cashman. 

Getting Is the Point; CuSDm Intuition pointers in AmigaBASiC. 
Au'ihor; Robert D'Asto 

Crunchy Frog If: Adding windosirs and other odds and ends. Author: Jim Fiore 

Synchronlcity: Right and left brain lateralization. Author: John lovine 

C Noles From the C Group: Doubty Inked lists revisited. 
Author: Step'-ien Kemp 

Poor Man's Spreadsheet: A smDie ayeadsheet progian that demoistrates 
man pdat rg a'rays. Autho-: Gemy L. Pec-ose. 


AC V5.B , V5,9 and AC V5.10 

Fully Utilizing the CBSet Math Coprocessor Pait III: Timings an) 
Tu[t)0_Fuel Function. Aulhor: Read Predmore, Ph.D. 

C Holes From the C Group: Functions si«»rtng doutjly Inked liSS. 
Author: Stephen Kemp 

API and Ihi Amiga: Programming APL on the Amiga. Author; Henry T. 

Tint Out!: Accessing the Amiga's sysmn timer device via Modula-2. 
Author: Mark Cashman 

Slocf<-Portfollo: A program to organize and tracH investments, music 
litjranes. mailing lists, etc, in AmigaBASiC. Author: G. L. Penrose. 

CygCC: An ARexx piogramming tutorial Aulhor: Duncan Tnomson, 

Programming In C on a Floppy System: Begin to develop programs in 
C Nib Just one mega&yte of RAM. Autnor Pauf Miifer. 

Koch Ffakes; Using the preprocessor 10 organize your [fcgramming. 
Author: Paul Castonguay 

CALL Assembly language from Modula-J: lilusrating ih,« procedure ol 
integrating machine language into Modula-2. Author: Martin F, Combs 

Audiollluslon; Ex;>eriencB an artsiing audto inus.on generated on the Amiga 
in BencH-nark Wodj;a-2 Autnor: Craig Zupke 

C Notes From Tlie C Group: A prograr: that wis eia.'nine an archive f3e and 
remove any flies that have tseen extracted Author: Sieoiien Kemp 

To be continued 

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■A2000Servce Manual 539,00 


New Product - 'Iho Amiga 1000 Expansion Board i5 now available with Lhe 

following fe3iurcs:L'tilizes lhe raucr Agnus Chip, 1.3/1 4 Kickslan RO.M and New 

Dcnisc ■ One Meg of Chip HAM • clock-naiier>' liackup • Simple SoUcrlcbs Insiallaiion ■ IDOTf 

Compilihility Willi all froduas/Srifuvare ' $479-00 Complete. 

Send for New Frci; 27 page catalog of upgrades, ijiagnosiks, pans, memories, 
Amifia lulorial VHS uipt:.s. and pages and paffl'i of items you won'; find elsewhere. 

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I'nCf.^ subject to change 

The Grapevine Group, Inc. 

3 Chesmur Street 

Suffern.NY 10901 


F.AX (914) 357-6243 

VVc strip «orl(3widu- 

Circle 147 on Reader Service card. 

.Ma.scer Sound's sampling rate can be adjusted from a minimum 
of 5000 samples pei' second to a maximum of 59600 samples per 
.second in increments of 100 samples per second. These rates are 
.stippoiied for both recording and playback. The ujiper sampling 
rate is actually tiouble the rate of that which the .-Sjniga's built-in 
digital-to-analog ]-)layback system is supposed to be capable of. Il 
also exceeds the 44000 sample per second rate which is utilized for 
compact disc recordings. I could only assume that Master Sound 
coLiples wo of the jVmiga;s playback chamiels in order to obtain 
tliese high playback rates. Ic was impossible to verify die high 
sampling rate without the use of dedicated test equipment. How- 
ever, the samples \"\'hich I recorded and played back did not show 
any loss of fidelit)' N«,'hen compared to the originals. Of course Master 
Sound lets you turn off the .Amiga's internal low pass filter in order 
to take advantage of its high sampling rates. 

Although tine Amiga's sound playback chip can only access chip 
RA.N1, Master Sound lets you utilize fast RAM as well. On my 7- 
megal-iyte -\:niga 2000, Master Sound came up witli a 3.9-megabyte 
sample buffer. Memory allocation is automatically taken care of by 
■Master Sound. In addition to the buffer for the sample, space is also 
reserved for the editing functions. This left about 2.2 megabytes free 
on my 7-megabyte .system. If you have an une.xpanded system — tiiat 
is, a system which only contains chip RAM — .Master Sound lets you 
adjust die meraon' allocation between the sample buffer and the edit 
buffer. This function is accessed via a Ctrl-E keysti'oke sequence 
when -Viaster Sound is in its Sequencer mode. Oddly enough, Master 
Sound does not pro\-ide Uiis fLinction if your sy.stcm has expanded 

I did run into a rather peculiar limitation in Master Sound's 
editor as result of tlie 6 megabytes of Fast RAM I had installed on my 
system, Although Master Sound provides a zoom function for 
detailed editing of the sound sample, it is a one .shot deal. That is. 
you cannot set a range, zoom into it, refine the range, anci then zoom 
in a second time for greater detail. On my expanded system, the 
smallest sample I could zoom into was limited to about 40 kilobytes. 
When I limited my system to only 1 megabyte of chip RAM, I was 
able to zoom down to a sample size of 3.5 kilobytes. 

Master Sound's editing screen is divided up into three pans. The 
upper half is devoted to a graphical display of the sample. A pair 
of sliders are used to set the range 'n'hich will be affected by die 
%'arious editing functions. The right part of the lower half of the 
screen is a reul-tiine oscillograph display. The oscillograph is used 
to .set the \evc\ of the input .signal. It is also po.ssible to listen to tlie 
input .signal tlii'ough die Amiga's sound .system. However, all other 
control functions are disabled while in the oscillograph or monitor 
modes. Sample recoicling can be staned manually or automatically 

at a preset trigger level. The signal is monitored dirough the .•\jiiiga 
^'hile the recording is taking place, and recording can be stopped 
at die apjiropriate instant v'm a click on die mouse. 

A variety of editing liinctions are provided. These let you cut. 
copy, paste, adjust the level, revei^se, overlay, and fade in and out 
portions of the sample. The sample can also be compressed by a 
factor of t^'o by remo\'ing e\'ejy odier sample. After compression the 
playback sample rate should be reduced to restore the original 
playback speed. The combination of these Xv-'o operations is 
equivalent to resampling at half the rate. The sample can also be 
digitally low pass filtered. Successive operations of the digital low filter rcmo\'es more of the high frequencies, Howe\'er. the level 
of filtering is not specified. 

For saving and loading samples iMaster Sound sui^ports tlie IFF 
format for individual samples as weli as three and five-octave 
instninients. Files can also be saved as or loaded as R/'vW'' data. When 
loading an IFF in,sm,iment , only the middle octave is brought into tlie 
editor. When saving ,in IFF instnjment, .Master Sound automatically 
creates the upper and lower octaves based on die cun-ent sample. 
The program does not let >'Ou specif}' individual octaves based on 
different samples, nor does it let you specify the loop point for die 
repeat pun of the instrument, 


In addition to the sound sampling and editing functions. Master 
Sound contains a rudimentary sequencer. Tlie sequencer' is accessed 
from the sample editor by simply clicking on the SEQ button. The 
lower half of die editor screen is replaced by tlie sequencer control 
panel. The instruments for tiie Sequencer are nothing more than 
sound samples which can be stored in any part of Master Sound's edit 
buffer. You .set the buffer markers and assign the marked sample to 
any of die 18 keys on die .Amiga's numeric keypad. A portion of die 
.Amiga's keyboard lets you play a two-octave range derived from the 
selected sound sample. 

Sequences are recorded in real-time based on a clock which 
advances at 25 counts per second. The clock has a maximum count 
of 4999 which translates to 200 seconds. Up to four tracks can be 
recorded corresponding to the Amiga's four sound channels. The 
Sequencer's controls let you rewind or fast forw^ard to any pan of the 
sequence, record a new track while listening to any or all of the 
tracks, and overdub a prerecorded track, Since die Sequencer only 
works in real time you will have to learn to play the Amiga's 
keyboard just like any other musical instrument. Completed 
sequences can be saved to disk as a single combination file which 
contains the score and the sound samples for the associated 

Master Sound comes with a demonstration program which lets 
you play your sequence file while displaying an IFF graphic of your 
choice, Tiie demonstration program, along with voursequence file 
and IFF image, can also be configured as .self-booting demo disk. 

Master Sound combines high-quality, monophonic. sound- 
sampling hardware with verj' good editing software. The included 
Sequencer progi-am, along widi the demonstration ,sofrv\-are, is a 
unique application for die resulting sound samples. The high level 
of skill which is required to use the real-time sequencer may limit its 
usefulness to dedicated enthusiasts. ./\q. 

Master Sound 


3285 Lapeer Road 

West Auburn Hills, Ml 48057 

(3 13) 377-SS9S 

Price: $69.95 

Inquiry #211 

36 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 


by John lovine 

...achieve electrical movement without 
using m.otors, stepper motors or solenoids. 


that has been nicknamed BioMetal. BioMetal has a few unusual 
properties. One of these is that the material contracts when heated. 
This is analogous to the contraction of muscle tissue. Notice that this 
effect is exactly opposite to that of standard metals, which expand 
when heated and contract when cooled. This property makes 
BioMetal useful in robotics. It lets us achieve electrical movement 
without using motors, stepper motors or solenoids. 

Another property of the material is 
known as the Shaped .Memory Effect 
(SME). Simply defined, thi.s material will 
always return to its previous shape when 
heated to a critical temperature. That is, you 
can twist, bend and fold a piece of 
BioMetal, then get it back to its original 
shape jusr by heating the material up. It will 
quickly unrw.'ist, unbend and unfold itself 
into its original shape. This is like a self- 
healing effect. 


In 1951, researchers L. C. Chang and 
T. H. Read obser^'ed the Shaped Memory 
Effect in an alloy of gold and cadmium. In 
1958, they made a cyclic weight lifting 
device to be displayed at die Brussels 
Worid Fair. 

In 1961, while working at U.S. Naval 
Labs, William BeuUer discovered SME in 
an alloy of titanium-nickel. At the time, the 
Beuhler team was looking to develop a 
heat- and corrosion-resistant alloy. In any 
case, this alloy was by far cheaper and safer 
to work with tlian any SME alloy known to 
date. The team named the new alloy Nitinol 
(pronounced "nighc-in-all"). The materials 
name is representative of its elemental 
components, and place of origin. The "Ni" 
and "Ti" are the atomic symbols for nickel 
and titanium, tlie "NOL" stands for the 
"Naval Ordnance Laboratory" where it was 

In the sixties and seventies other alloys 
were discovered that exhibited SME. 

In 1985, Dr. Dai Homma of Japan's 
Toki Corporation announced an improved 
version of nitinol. This improved version of 
nitinol is sold today in this country under 
the trade name BioMetal™ from Mondo- 
Tronics in California (address at end or 
article). For the remainder of this article, 
references to either BioMetal or nitinol are 
to be considered one and die same. 


Many interesting applications for this 
material have been put forth in the years 
since it was discovered. NASA once 
proposed using nitinol to make spacecraft 
antennas that would deploy when heated 
by the sun, or a secondary heating unit. 
More down-to-earth ventures have seen it 
used in eyeglass frames, dental alignment 
material, pumps, solenoids and an artificial 
heart. For our application, we'll have the 
Amiga flex its first electric muscle. 


BioMetal can generate a shape- 
resuming force of about 22,000 pounds per 
square inch. We will be working with a 6- 
mil wire (.006 inch diameter) that can 
generate a contractive force of 1 1 ounces. 
If you need more pull, simply multiply tlie 
number of wires used, until you achieve 
the contractive force you require. 

The wire can contract up to 10 % of its 
length. For a longer wire lifetime (greater 
than 1,000,000 cycles), restrict die 
contraction to only 6% of its length. 

Nitinol wire is heated by passing an 
electrical current through it. Care should be 
given not to overheat the wire, or its 
properties will degrade. The wire has an 
electrical resistance of a litde less tlian one 
ohm per inch. BioMetal is supplied with 
crimp terminals (see Figure 1). These 
terminals are used to connect the material, 
because BioMetal wire should not be raised 
to the high temperature that is required for 

Reaction time can be quite short, 
measured in milliseconds. In addition, full 
strengdi is developed at the beginning of 
the cycle. This is in contrast to standard 
solenoids, which develop fu!l strength 
near the endoE their cycle. 

Nitinol is stronger tlian many steels; 
the 6-mil wire has a breaking strength of 
about 6 pounds. 

Fig. 1 

Crimp Terminal 
(Supplied With BioMetai) 


(}»MAtal Wire 


1) Insert BloMetQl wire In channel 

2) crimp channel with pliers 

3) cut off excess chonnel 

To Solder vwfe: 

1) solder power wire to ctiomel 

2) go to procedure 

Fig. 2 

Direct Electrical Heating 

9V V Swilctl 

— o 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 37 

Pulse Widtii Modulation (PMW) Fig. 3 

ntoTBjai CcfUroi; 


Xitinols resistance to the electrical 
current passed through it heats the wire 
and causes it to contract. The wire's volume 
doesn't change during contraction. So, as 
the wire decreases in length, its diameter 
increases by a proportional amount, 
thereby keeping the volume tlie same. The 
activation temperature of the wire is IOOp to 
130° C (or 190"'-260'' F). 

Nitinol wire can be activated by 
heating it directly using low voltage, such 
as a 9-volt transistor battery. A simple 
circuit can be constructed using a battery, 
switch and a small length of nitinol (see 

Fig. 4 




Fig. 5 Simple Digit Flexor 

101 Mkd IHfrf 

!Ci C>Yv«m« 

From Amiga Porollel Port 

4011 C 



Par^M Port 

For Control from Amiga Computer 
sliminole Manual Control Switch - Connect 
PBOtoPinl of 4011 IC. 
Poke DR, I = To Activate 
Poke OR. = Turn OFF 

Figure 2). Care must be taken not to 
overheat the wire. Also be aware; direct 
application of electricic>' doesn't heat the 
wire evenly. Connections to the nitinol 
draw heat away from the ends of the wire. 
This results in the center of the wire heating 
faster than the ends. So, although direct 
electric heating works, a better method is 
pulse widtli modulation. 


Heating the wire is more efficiently 
controlled via pulse width modulation 
(P'WM) heating. Here, we use a square 
wave from a simple circuit to turn the 
electric current on and off. Depending 
upon the frequency and duty cycle of the 
square wave, we can adjust the amount of 
contraction, and maintain the wire in a 
contracted condition for a longer period of 
time. The rapid on-and-off puise allows 
tile wire to distribute the heat gradually and 
results in a more uniform heating. This is 
the method that we shall use. 


Usually a 555 timer is used to provide 
a square wave to activate nitinol wire. 
Although diis is a good stand-alone 
method, it doesn't permit easy interfacing 
to the computer. The circuit we will use is 
designed around a 401 1 Quad NAND gate 
(see Figure 3). The NAND gate is made to 
generate a square wave that can be 
operated as a stand alone, using a switch, 
or can be connected to the Amiga parallel 
port. The output of the 4011 is connected 
to a >fPN transistor which is capable of 
switching the higher cuirent required of the 
nitinol wire. 

Some of you may remember that way 
back at the beginning of this series on 
interfacing tlie Amiga, we connected NPN 
and PNP transistors directly to the parallel 
port to control larger current devices. Use 

this method to activate the BioMetal if you 

wish; program the parallel port in BASIC to 
generate a square wave for P'WM or direct 
electric heating. The metliod I will describe 
here is to have the Amiga control a PWM 

The circuit can be wired on a proto- 
typing breadboard. To Stan, use a manual 
switch to activate the nitinol. After you're 
sure the circuit operates properly, make the 
connection to the parallel port (if you so 
desire) to let the Amiga control the circuit. 


To demonstrate the potential of diis 
material, we need to buUd a small 
mechanical device. If you are like me, 
you'l! want the simplest unit to start with. 
To make our electric muscle, you'll need 3 
machine screws with six nuts, a piece of 
perf board, a small rubber band and, of 
course, a length of BioMetal material. 

The machine screws, nuts and perf 
board are available from Radio Shack (see 
parts list). The BioMetal is available from 
-Mondo-Tronics. You'll have to find a 
rubber band on your own! 

Look at Figure 4. Drill three hoies in 
the perf board to accommodate the 
machine screws in a triangular pattern, as 
shown. The BioMetal is connected to the 
two top screws. The rubber band is looped 
around the bottom machine screw, with 
the BioMetal wire looped dirough tlie top 
of the rubber band. To determine the 
proper placement of the bottom machine 
screw, stretch tlTe rubber band from a 
position that is parallel with the top screws, 
and down. Remember, the BioMetal has an 
inherent pull of about 11 ounces; don't 
make the rubber band so tight that the 
BioMetal can't contract and move upwards. 
The rubber band should be tight enough to 
take up the slack of the BioMetal wire when 
it is deactivated. 

I used small jumper cables to make my 
connections from tlie circuit to the 
BioMetal. You can simply use wire. 

When the unit is activated, the wire 
gets hot, contracts and pulls up from the 
rubber band. "When the unit is deactivated, 
the wire cools, elongates and lowers into its 
resting position. 


Once you have the circuit wired and 
the electric muscle unit built, apply power 
to the circuit. The control switch allows you 
to contract the muscle by putting the switch 

38 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 


Mons Olympus - Mars • Yosemite 
Crater Lake • Mt. St. Helens 
4 Billion Fractal Landscapes 


" . . .it's really beautiful, esfxckdly when the lights are off. 
I'm totally awed Irj' what you have done!" 

Arthur C. Clarke Authiir of 2001: A Space Odyssey 

Virtual Reality Laboratories, Inc. 2341 ganadorct. • san luis obispo, ca 93401 • sos 545-8515 

circle 131 on Reader Service card. 

in die + Voltage setting. Connecting the 
switch to ground will turn off the square 
wave generator, and tlie eiectric muscle 
will relax. 

My own unit performs slowly, 
probably due to the high tension I put on 
the wire. Again, be careful not to overheat 
die nitinol wire. You can check for 
overheating of the circuit by touching the 
transistor: if it is hot, you should assume tlie 
wire is overheating. To reduce the current 
and eliminate overheating, add anodier 10 
ohm resistor in line widi die first. 


To connect your electric muscle to 
your Amiga, remove die control switch. 
Connect a ground wire from the parallel 
port (GND = pin 25) to the circuit ground. 
Connect a line from PBO (pin 2 on Parallel 
Port) to pin 1 of die 4011. Before applying 
power to the circuit, set up die DDR 
register. A simple program follows: 

DDR = 12575489 
DR = 12514977 

Poke (DDR) , 255 : REM DDR set-up 

At this point, a Poke CDR>,1 will activate the 
nitinol wire; Poke CDR),0 will turn it off. 


'We have just scratched the surface of 
possible applicadons for tiiis material. It is 
possible, for example, to build a realisdc 
android hand — a simple digit flexor is 
illustrated in Figure 5. 

This unit is constructed using three- 
hole soft rubber or silicone tubing. The 
nitinol wire is threaded in a loop through 
Che two outer holes. A copper wire is 
threaded up dirough tlie center hole. The 
loop of nitinol wire and die end of the 
copper wire is crimped in a small terminal 
(see Fig. 1). By applying current between 
die copper wire and one end of die nidnol, 
you can make the tube flex to the right (A- 
C) or to die left (B-C). Or, by applying 
power to both ends of the nitinol wire, the 
tube will flex backwards. 

Mondo-Tronics sells a book tided 
BioMetal Guidebook which show various 
actuators and uses of this material. It is a 
worthwhile investment if you plan on 

doing any further experimentation with 

Parts List 

Available tram Radio Shack: 

PWM circui! 

40 1 1 Quad N AND Gote RSi 276-24 11 

lufCop RS# 272-1434 

15K Resistor RS# 271-036 

2N2222 Ironslstor (NPN) RS# 276-1617 

Misc. switches, 9 V battery & cap 


Round Head Machine 

Screws 6-32 X 3/4' RS# 64-3012 

Hex Nuts 6-32 RS# 64-3019 

Pert Board RS# 276-147 

Available from Mondo-Tronlcs: 

BioMetal Guldeboak pn« 3-009 price $9.00 
BloMeial 6 mil x 15 cm (app. 6') 

pnf 3-005 price S6.D0 
Shipping: S4-0O 

Orders under $20.00, must add $3.00 handling. 
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Amazing Computing VS. 10 ©1990 39 


that will never be decided on a playing field. It 
will not be seen on a skating rink or in a 
swimming pool. It will make news, but it will 
soon be forgotten. Tlie "athletes" in this 
competition comprise a team of brilliant people, 
trainins vvitli advanced technology. The 
competition will detemiine which city will host 
tlie Summer Games of 1996 — and Atlanta's star 
player is the .\miga. 

Atlanta is competing with five other 
notable rnetropolises — Athens, Greece; 
Belgrade, Yugoslavia; Manchester, England; 
.Melbourne, Australia; and Toronto, Ginada — 
for llie honor of hosting the Olympic Games of 
1996. Altliough ever\' city is considered equal, 
each holds a particular advantage over tlie 
oilier, and each would make a good choice for 
the Iniernational Olyinpic Committee (IOC). 
However, the !OC will only \'ote one as the best. 

The final competition (each city has given 
several presentations by now) will be held in 
Tokyo from September 1 1 through September 
IS, 1990. Each city is permitted a 20 by 20 foot 
booth in which lo present their case 
(appro.vimiste cost for each city is S2000 per 
day). Within thus area, each city attempts to 
attract the attention and support of die voting 
IOC members by demonstrating the city 's ability 
to provide athletic facilities, services, housing, 
administriition, security, and entertainment for 
the Olympic athletes. 

Atlanta chose Georgia Tech's campus as 
[heir proposed sight for the Olympic Village. 
Georgia Tech's President, John P, Crecine, is a 
believer in die advancement of computer- 
controlled presentations, and offered GT's 
participation in creating the presentation. Their 
first impressive display was a multiple aerial 
view of Atlanta photographed by helicopter and 

Atlanta, Georgia Tech & An Amiga: 

An Olympic Team 

then reduced to two video disks. Though 
limited to views mapped on a grid, with staged 
computer-generated displays of tlie events and 
facilities, the presentation was appreciated by 
all of the IOC members who viewed it. 

Having learned from the first interactive 
presentation, Georgia Tech's Mike Sinclair 
decided to do an interactive muliimedla 
presentation, Aldiough tlie first presentation 
used a Macintosh™, Mr. Sinclair doubted his 
new plan would work with a Mac. Mr. Sinclair's 
previous work had been in pioneering flight 
simulators with multiple screens, and he wanted 
the same sensation for the Atlanta presentation. 
However, there were no computers on campus 
that could adminLster all parts of the finished 
project. With a choice of NeXT machines, IB.M 
PS/2 computers, and any Macintosh he could 
want, he was still not able to complete the work. 

Andy Quay implemented the large 
database required. .Mr. Quay also programmed 
tlie Z80 computer used in the input table and the 
Mac displays projected on the surface of the 

The Amiga program to tie aU die individual 
devices together and create a complete 
interacti\e environment was contracted to Blue 
Ribbon Bakery, and programmed by .Amiga 
notable Todor Fay. Tlie entire original score 
created to cover every segment of film and each 
portion of the presentation was composed on 
the Amiga by Blue Ribbon Bakery's President, 
NSelissa Grey. This impressive work was 
donated by Ms. Grey to Atlanta at no cli;irge. 

Tlie e.xperience did yield a brand new 
Amiga product. Wliile Blue Ribbon Bakerj' was 
developing material for the presentation, they 
developed a series of tools included in their 

'We tried to do it on the Mac and this 
project brought the Mac to its knees"- 

Mike Sinclair 

Senior Research Engineer 

Georgia Tech 

Tlien, Mr. Sinclair aroused the interest of 
Commodore, who offered an Amiga 2500, It was 
perfect. .VIr. Sinclair, along with GTs Director of 
Special Projects, Fred Dyer, fashioned a 
program and launched a team of active minds 
and talent. 

The computer graphics for tlie proposed 
Olympic structures and other features of the 
Olympic Village were created by E\'elin Hirata, 
an animator and instructor at the Atlanta College 
of An and Georgia State Universiry; Ray 
Haleblain, an animator and recent graduate of 
Georgia Tech; and Frank Vilz, a professional 
animator whose credits include tlie Disney 
movie TRON. The Georgia Tech campus was 
itself transformed into a proposal for the 1996 
games, and filmed using all volunteer "actors" 
by the Georgia State University Educational 
Media. The film was then processed by 
Crawford Post Productions 10 videodisk, under 
the supervision of Dr. Mike O'Bannon. 

recently released Bars&Pipes Multimedia Kit. 
The MIDI Recorder tool records input from 
keyboards for use in Bars&Pip>es. The MIDI 
Player f>erforms Bars&Pipes music under user 
and/or .ARexx control and synchronization, 
Botli tools were utilized heavily in tlie 
composition of the score. 


When the display is set up in Tokyo by 
Mike Sinclair and Andy Quay, the IOC members 
will be greeted witli a beautifully furnished 
room. In the focal point of this area is a small 
square table with a map of the Olympic Village 
projected from beneaili onto its translucent 3-D 
surface. Behind tlie table are three screens set in 
a 120-degree arc. 

When IOC members want to learn about a 
portion of Adanta's project or a building in the 
layout, they will press the object on the map or 
tiie icon they wish. A smalt Z80 computer in the 

40 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

An Amiga 2500 is powering Atlanta's bid for the 
Summer Olympic Games of 1996. 

table will recognize the input by monitoring the four corners of the 

surface and registering tlie exact location of tlie input. The Amiga 
will receive the message from tlie .small Z80 computer and select 
die portions of tlie video disks and music created for tliat request. 
Members will view a three-screen, perfectly synchronized 
recorded scenario with computer graphics or live actors and 

The narration, completely digitized, stored, and replayed by 
the Amiga, is u.ser selectable between French and English. Since 
I he multimedia presentation is controlled by the Amiga, the 
narration will suggest selections for presentations based on 
previous input. Tliis "Artificial Intelligence" control insures that 
the display will never remain idle. If someone lias not activated 
a demonstration, tlie Amiga will offer choices and then, if its input 
remains siienl, it will play the next most probable selection. 

The presentation will allow people toviewlheentire project, 
or just the items in which diey are interested. Tlie panoramic view 
creates tlie impression of touring the actual facility six years from 
now. As the different sections — such as housing or medical 
fecil iiies — a re selected, tlie shon films are run on the three screens. 
E;ich film is designed to answer as many questions as possible 
through a short story. 

The impression one is left with is not only how well Atlanta 
will be able to accommodate tlie Olympics, but also how the 
rela.xed style and technical expertise of the Adanta residents will 
make the Surnmer Games a pleasant experience. 

Behind the screens, out of sight of the viewers, is the Amiga 
2500 and a Macintosli in". The Mac is u.sed to project images on 
the tronslucent table top. The Mac receives its direction from die 
Amiga. The Amiga is completely in charge of die entire multimedia 
pre.sentation. From driving die advanced Proteus 2 board which 
powers the music to monitoring the [able for input, the Amiga 

Adania has a great deal to gain by l>eing chosen the host for 
diese events. According to a flyer prepared by die Atlanta 
Organizing Committee, "An Adanta Olympic Games will produce 
unprecedented economic benefits for our community, including 
an estimated S4 billion positive economic impact, tens of 
thousands of man years of employment, and tens of millions of 
dollars of tax revenue for state and local governments." It is 
obvious that Adanta is competing for high stakes. 

It is very exciting diat Atlanta has been considered for this 
honor. It is noteworthy that with so much depending on providing 
a good impression, tiiey have chosen an Amiga to be dieir 


Atlanta Organizing Committee, Stc. 340 
One Atlantic Center 
1201 West Peachtrce Street 
Atlanta, Georgia 30309 
Inquiry #24o 

Blue Ribbon Bakery 
1248 Claimiont Rd., Ste. 3D 
Atlanta, GA 30030 
Inquiry #24l 

top: Atlanta's three screen display creates a powerful image, 
middle: The "bare bones" of the system's three sony projectors, 
bottom: Behind the scenes, Andy Quay finishes a few last minute 
adjustments to the Amiga 2500 and its devices. 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 41 


X-CAD As It Gets 

CadVision Intemational's X-CAD Designer and X-CAD Professional 

by Douglas Billiard 


good Amiga CAD programs. I work at an aerospace company with professional CAD pack- 
ages on a daily basis, so I tend to be a little bit wary of Amiga CAD packages because they 
are often left wanting, either in functionality or price. The system used at my work place, 
Anvil 5000, runs on a VAX 8800 mainframe with a Tektronix 4129 display. An IBM PC port 
of this system costs several thousand dollars — a lot more than most people can really afford 
to pay for a CAD package. AutoCAD is similarly priced, which means that it, too, is fairly 
expensive. Quite frankly, I haven't been too impressed with the CAD packages offered for 
the Amiga, and none of them seem to fully utilize the computer's graphic potential. 

Ads for X-CAD Professional claim the 
product offers professional-quality CAD, 
with the capabilities of a mainframe program 
in a package created especially for the 
Amiga — and at an affordable price. For small 
companies or individuals that can't afford 
large mainframe CAD packages, such a pro- 
gram would be ideal, if it lives up to its 
advance billing. 


X-CAD was originally developed by 
CadVision, marketed through Taurus Impex, 
and sold in the U.S. by Haitex Resources. 
After some reorganization, CadVision ac- 
quired the marketing rights, then revised and 
split the package into rwo forms: X-CAD De- 
signer, for the average user, and X-CAD 
Professional, for the high-end user. Haitex 
stopped marketing X-CAD, and it is now dis- 

figure ;.• A ray-frace of one offhe parts of the object shown in Figure 3 done using 
Turbo Silver with a little help from Sculpt 3D and Interchange. 

42 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 


A reasonably-priced, professional CAD package 
for the Amiga that lives up to its billing. 

tributed in the U.S. by American Software. Unfortunately for 
owners of the old X~CAD (this according to American Soft- 
ware), the change in ownership of X-CAD means that the old 
version cannotbe upgraded to the newversion. There is also 
no upgrade a-\'ailable from Designer to Professional. 


X-CAD comes in an attractive package similar to 
WordPerfect's. The package consists of a binder with the X- 
CAD disks and a rather large owner's manual, plus a peculiar 
piece of plastic with a joystick connector on one end. Yes, 
it's a 'dongle', that scourge of the software pirate (the disks 
are not copy- protected). If you have enough memory, X- 
CAD allows multitasking. Be forewarned: you use a lot of 
memor>' in a large drawing. 


The manual for X-CAD is written with the assumption 
you know a little about the functioning of the Amiga. It 
documents all operations needed to know to run the 

The manual is thick, and covers a lot of territoiy. X- 
CAD has many features, and each command can luive many 
qualifiers and identifiers. X-CAD Designer's manual has an 
extensive tutorial section which guides the user through 
creating drawings. This section is absent in the Professional 
version; it should have been included. Most of that manual 
is devoted to command descriptions, and is littered with 
examples. An extensive index and table of contents does 
make finding topics easy. 

An important warning about tlie registration card that 
comes with the manual: it is too small to be sent through the 
international mail. Put it in an envelope and use two stamps 
to get it there! 


Simply put, a dongle is a method of using hardware 
to protect the software from unauthorized usage. Copying 
disks or transferring the software to a hard dri^^e works 
without hassle (and is, in fact, recommended). But if you 
want to print, plot, or save a drawing, you'll need the 
dongle to do so. 

The advantage of dongle protection is that, while it 
is very easy to copy disks with a copy breaking program 
such as Marauder, making dongles takes more time, 
money, and knowledge than most people posses. Disad- 
vantages of the system: the possibility of losing or damag- 
ing the dongle, or of having more than one dongle (hea\'en 
forbid!) and getting them mixed up. To keep from losing 
the darn things, affix a bit of Velcro on the dongle and some 
on the computer to keep them together. 

While some people are rigidly opposed to the 
principle of dongles, I feel that, given the large amount of 
time that goes into creating a program like X-CAD, it is a 
crime to allo-w- pirate copies to spread, thereby depriving 
programmers of their royalties. A dongle is a reasonable 
method of copy protection which does not require the user 
to enter codes, look up words, or use key disks eveiy time 
he or she wants to run the program. Enough said. 


X-CAD handles all of the standard C-VD drawing 
functions widi ease — lines, fillets, circles, arcs, ellipses, 
and even splines are drawn quickly and effordessly. Input 
is supplied to the program via either the mouse with 
menus, or commands entered through the keyboard. 
When typing in commands, only the first couple of unique 
letters need to be typed. X-CAD displays the needed 
portion in upper case letters, and unnecessary letters are 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 43 

•C A D» 

Attention all PPage' useis: 


Introducing MIFONT' 

tlic .\l;ic-r()-Ainii;a'scte(;nt"t)iu 
conversion utilit)', 

MIFOXT" gives font-stan'ed 
[-'Page users easy access to the 
.AilobeTxpe Libran,- ", the most 
popular and extensive collection 
of PostScript- fonts available 

MIFONT'k extremely easy to 
use. Just tell it where your files 
are anil it does the rest. 

.■\nd how will you cope with 
literally hundreds of new fonts? 
MIFO.ST' is also the ultimate 
font mover and organiKingutilit)'! 

Yesterday, there were a handful 
of PostScript^ fonts useable 
^^ith Professional Pa^e. 

MIFOST"' features: 

• convertsall standard.Mac 
bitmap screenfonts into key-press Today, there are over 600! 
compatible .Ajniga-standard 

format, aililiiig many chunMers not 
in the origiiml Mac binimps. 

• converts all .*\F.M"s into 
PPage .metric files. 

• point and dick user-interface 

' .\Lh HtwBMif U>l«>Ht>n#pKrr<nfo4HiKidAF^1 

l:U! Jfc K.HU .\tnnA> tiln ut t^iiUbb trn ut ihttfw fRMii muu 

|jn>tn«iut)HJtitnK» lfni,knb(.lnlfrtcti>ronactui 

* .Ul hnnil 4ml jmixl tultut mcAlinncd iir HhIdruIi of thrii 

■Hut ul wai m^nj Tsmrlr »lA Pnifemcoil Pj^ Inuif Tian 
tn.1 HclvMcii » wtn M mmtlnl AiVibc ir^b l.n'h40l 

Only from 

Mirror Image 



Phone Orders 



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displayed in lower case. For instance, to open a drawing, the 
full command line reads 'Open Drawing Xame ...'. The same 
command can be executed by simply t^-ping in 'O D N ..." 
(see Figure 7, pg. 55). This saves the user excessive typing, 
while retaining the flexibility- of keyboard input. If youVe 
ever tried to input a long filename one character at a time 
using a mouse for character input, you'll understand how 
helpful this feature can be. 

Professional has a strip of menus along the top of the 
screen wdtli all of the command options displayed, while 
Designer uses a partial strip of menus down one side witli 
Intuition-st^'le pull-down mentis which stay out of the way 
when you're not using them. Both Designer and Profes- 
sional let you toggle menus out of sight by clicking a bar on 
the side of the screen when you want to see tlie entire 
drawing. This is similar to what the FIO key does in Deluxe 
Paint (see Figure 5, pg.47). 

X-CAD allows the option of using tlie menus that come 
with the package, or, users can make their own supplemen- 
tal menus, using either pictographic menus or text descrip- 
tions. This is an especially handy feature, because user- 
created menus can string system commands together. They 
sa\'e one lots of time when working with frequently used 

Professional comes with a demo of what Cad Vis ion 
calls "Dynamic Menus". Simply put, a dynamic menu is a 
pictographic menu that, when an item is clicked, is replaced 
by a sub menu. In other words, if you click the icon of a line, 
the menu is replaced by another pictographic menu show- 
ing icons for all the different t>'pes of line commands. This 
is a very powerful method of command input, and has been 
utilized by Grafe in the X-Shell package (see sidebar, pg.46). 

Below is a list of the major commands; 

Command Function 

ZOOM Enlarges a part of the drawing. X-C.\D can zoom 

in on specified windows, and can sa\'e ^'indow.s 
with names. I'rofessionai has the ZOO.M M\P 
function, whidi draws a small -window with an 
linage of the drawing on it; this allows the 
user to specify a window outside the current 
viewing window. ZOOM ALL resets the display 
to die full dravi'ing. All of tlie zoom functions 
can be carried out while in tlie middle of other 
functions. Zoom ■tvindows can be named and 
saved for future recall. 

DEFINE SHEET Defines the default scale of the drawing 'sheet". 
Imagine the drawing as a large sheet of paper, 
with vitriotis views on other pieces of tracing 
paper pasted in place. The large sheet of papur 
is the drawing sheet, and the other pieces ol 
paper are the viewports. This allows multiple 
views witli different scales to exist all on one 
drawing, yet retain their own defaults. You can 
even mi.x units, if you "re so inclined. 

DEFINE \1E\XTORT Defines a viewport to be located some 
where on the drawing sheet. Location, scale, 
etc. can be specified for each viev.-. 



By using aspects of the grid, X-CAD allov,'s a 
visual reference grid to be displayed. Ctirsor 
movement is restricted to intersection points on 
the grid, which makes drawing parallel or 
perpendicular lines very easy. 

X-CAD allows entities to be drawn with different 
layers. A layer allows the user to turn off levels 
of drawings, or allows mass manipulations. For 
instance, my main application for X-CAD is a 
model sailplane design. All avionics are on one 
level, all the wood on another, the covering on 
a third, etc. By activating just the co^'er level, I 
can took at the paint job Fm creating. To look 
at the structure, I blank the covering, and un- 

44 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 















blank the structure layer. If you wish to design 
and draw a house, all wiring can be color 
coded on the drawing, as can the plumbing 
and woodwork. 

Available only in Professional, tliis command 
tells X-CAD the stacking priority; that is, which 
layer is to be displayed on top of another. For in- 
stance, should a solid patcernfill be superim- 
posed on top of some lines, or the lines on top 
of the pattemfill? 

IDEr^S tell the program how to select a datum: 
by cursor position (LOC), on the nearest part of 
an entity to the cursor (NEAR), the end of the 
nearest entity' to the cursor (END), etc. 

X-CAD ^11 draw system- or user-generated 
dimensions. Text size, arrow parameters, font, slant, 
etc. can all be specified using system defaults or preset 
user defaults, or set separately when the dimension is 
input. An easy way to set the defaults is to modify an 
existing dimension to get the appearance you want, then 
use the SELECT DIMENSION ENTITY command to done 
tlie defaults from that entity'. 

Entities can be drawn in the default font (a solid line), or 
can be drawn in any one of the system fonts. 

If you don't like the system fonts, diis will let you create 
your own fonts. 

Only available with Professional, PATTERNFILL lets the 
user fill a specified area with a specified pattern. Eitlier 
system generated or user provided patterns can be used. 

Crosshatching is easy in X-CAD. X-CAD even lets you 
trim and add crosshatching after it is drawn, and lets you 
cliange the angles and distance, too. 

These commands let you modify entities, or 
make copies of entities and manipulate them. 

Trims endties against cursor positions, other entities, 
intersections, etc. 

Wlien selecting entities, sometimes you want all 
of tlie entities in an area except a few. After sel- 
ecting entities, these functions let you include 
or exclude other entides. 

Announcing a bold step fonArard 
In learning technology . . . 


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POINT and click on tlie picture. 

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correct spelling in English and the foreign 

LISTEN as the word is pronounced by a 
native speaker- 
Each Audio Gallery includes: 

18-25 general topics such as Restaurant, 
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• Diclionaries in both languages 

• Pronunciation Guide - teach yourself 
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Manual and ftve-disk set: $89.95. 

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Amazing ComptUing V5.10 €)I990 45 

•G A D' 


Don't waste money, slots, or desk space buying extra 
IBM-compatible or Amiga floppy drives! The Bridge Drive 
Commander + gives you direct access to all your internal 
and external Amiga drives from the Bridgeboard, and direct 
access to IBM type 360K and 720K drives from AmigaDOS. 
Bridge Drive Commander + is totally transparent and 
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like on any IBM compatible! Put in an Amiga disk and return 
to Amiga use! Just that simple, just that fast! One drive can 
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slots used up. Plugs onto motherboard at internal drive con- 
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These functions generate the appropriate primi- 
tive entity, which can then be modified. Fillet 
can automatically trim intersecting entities if 
desired. Text can be drawn in different system 
or user-created fonts. 

Plots a drawing or a section of a drawing. 

Deletes entities and viewpoi-ts. 

Measures the angle between entities, areas 
proscribed within entities, and distances 
betw^een entities. 

Lets custom menus be created using either pic- 
tographic menus (which can be read in from 
an IFF brush) or custom automenus. Available 
in Professional only. 

Perhaps the most important and useful func- 

Check Under This X-Shell First 

menus created for use on X-CAD Professional. It turns off the 
standard X-CAD menu.s and uses its own pictographic 
menus. The concept behind the package: some users find 
X-CAD's command language difficult to understand and coo 
time-consuming to implement. 

The screen menus diat can be created with ModMenu 
(included with X-CAD Professional) can contain many com- 
mands in a sore of batch file that can be activated by clicking 
on a section of tlie menu with tiie correct icon. For instance, 
to draw a line parallel to another line, you would click on 
die picture of two parallel lines instead of typing or clicking 
the "Draw Line Parallel'' sequence. One of the submenus is 
shown in Figure 6. As the illustrations show, there are a lot 
of menu items to choose from. 

X-Shell is designed to be used for architectural draw- 
ings, With some slight modifications, such as changing the 
default drawing size and units, it can be changed to suit the 
individual user. 

Several minor problems I found witli X-Shell: the 
manual was printed using a desktop publishing program, 
and while the pictures are very clear and sharp, the 
bitmapped typeface used in the manual is small and difficult 
to read. Instructions for installing the menus onto a hard 
drive are included in the manual, but they require a long se- 
ries of a.ssignments to be added to the startup-sequence file. 
It would have been nice if a short text file with the proper 
assignments had been included on the disk. Any simple 
wordprocessor could then be used to insert them into the 
startup sequence. 

X-Shell is intended to be easier to learn than the 
regular commands in X-CAD, but I have my doubts if that 
is the case for the occasional user. Some of the menu icons 
are not obvious as to their function without reading the man- 
ual, and it takes some study to use the package efficiently. 
The high cost of the package (around $200) will also deter 
the person who uses his CAD once a year, to design 
bookshelves or something. At this price, I might not recom- 
mend this package to the average X-CAD user, unless tliey 
were going to use it a lot and intend to become ver\' familiar 
with it. \s the manual implies, this is designed with profes- 
sional architects in mind. With an experienced user at the 
mouse, X-Shell saves diat person a significant amount of 
time. — D.B. 
[Ed. note: Grafx has Just updated X-Sbell to version 2.01] 

X-Shell V 2.0} 
Grafx Computing 

66S0 Wittsie Rd 

Panama, NY J4767 


Price: $199.95 

Inquiry #222 

46 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

•G A D* 

tion in X-CAD, UNDO allows you to reverse 
the effects of a ti'imming, deletion, or other 
command when you've made a mistake. 


I brought some drawings home from work to use for 
practice on X-CAD. After a few false starts, the drafting pro- 
ceeded smoothly. Getting the drawing sheet the right size 
and scale may take a few tries before you get it right. The 
dimension functions work vet^' well, as does crosshatch- 
ing. X-CAD lets the user edit crosshatching after it is drawn 
(even my system at work won't let you do that!), as well as 
change the font attributes and line widths. Text, especially 
that set using filled fonts, is drawn more slowly than simple 
entities because of its complex namre. If you get stuck on 
a function, the menus outline all of your possible choices, 
and the manual's table of contents and index are a quick 
way to find what you need Ever^'thing is documented and 
easy to fincl. 

X-CAD runs faster the longer the user session runs. 
Every time X-CAD accesses a function from the disk, it 

stores it into memory for future recall (this is similar to the 
resident command used in shells in AmigaDOS). The more 
functions that are used, the less often the disk is accessed. 
I suppose that this feature is not as important to users with 
hard drives, but it sure speeds things up if you only have two 

The drawbacks of the system are noticeable if you have 
Professional and only two floppy drives. If you remo-\'e the 
Libraries disk and in.sert a data disk with your drawings on 

Figure 2 (above): The opening menu for X-CAD Dew'gner. 

Figure 3 (below): The opening menu tor X-CAD Professional with a 
sample drawing of a Space Shuttle solid roclcef motor Ignition system. 

Figure 4 (above): X-CAD Designer has many levels to the intuition- 
style menus. 

Figure 5 (below): All of the menus can be blanked by clicking on 
the colored bars at the right of the drawing when you need to see 
the whole thing. 

it, the first time you save a drawing, you must reinsert the 
Libraries disk for X-CAD to access the file which tells it how 
to save the drawing. If you don't have a hard drive, but do 
have in excess of 3MB of memory, I suggest rewriting the 
startup sequence supplied with Professional. By copying tlie 
contents of the Libraries disk into memory and changing the 
assignments provided on the startup sequence, the second 
drive is left open for data disks. This saves much inconven- 
ience and prevents the "disk drive shuffle". Since the 
program runs well with 1MB, the extra meg lost is not 


(continued on page 53) 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 47 

;^^^^^^^«&v Ami 

€ A D» 

Aegis Draw 2000 

bi/ Douglas Bullard 

manual that is several hundred pages long. Although there are no hard disk install programs 
on the disk, I installed it on my hard drive by manually selecting and copying some files. From 
there, it runs just fine. Due to the large files and disk space required, two drives are suggested, 
and a hard drive extremely helpful. One point of confusion: the box indicates that 1MB is 
required to run the program, while the manual says it will run with 512K. It's best to be on the 
safe side and have at least that one meg. 

Top: Sample drawing provided with Aegis Draw 2000. 
BottomSample drawing displaying Aegis Draw 2000 tools. 

Draw 2000 comes on two disks, and includes a copy of 
ViiusX 1.6 for virus protection. Now seriously outdated, the copy 
of VirusX should have a documentation file accompanying it, 
with instructions to look for a current copy on a BBS, Inclusion 
of an outdated virus program might lead a novice user into 
thiniting tliat his or her machine is safe from all viruses; actually, 
such a user is still vulnerable to recent viaises. Anotlier problem: 
the manual references a 68020/30 version to use witli an '030 
board, but it is not included anyi^'here on the disks. 

The manual has a good "getting siarted" section, and an 
interesting introduction which describes working at Aegis in the 
early days of the Amiga. It also lists tlie files needed to run die 

The drawing tools for Draw 2000 include Line, Rectangle, 
Poly, Freehand, Arc, Curve, Ellipse, Text, Rotate, Clone, Eraser, 
and others. The box states diat the program is accurate to .001 
inches, which may not be accurate in this day of four-place 
tolerance machining. The program includes what is called a 
'Tast Menu", in which a menu appears in the middle of the 
screen and the user can select what they want to do, or they can 
go through the menus and submenus. Draw 2000 uses a 
clipboard for editing, and has a helpful Undo feature. 

Unfortunately, once I made a mistake in printing, and 
discovered that there was no way to abort printing once it had 
started, otlier than to shut off die printer and wait for the Intuition 
message about printer trouble. A minor gripe, but it is annoying. 

Draw 2000 is fairiy weak at dimensioning entities. As far 
as I can tell, only point-to-point distances can be measured. Arc 
or fillet radii, angles, etc. cannot be dimensioned automatically. 
This is a serious weakness for a CAD program which is to be used 
for engineering work. 

(continued on page 52) 

48 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 


IntroCAD Plus 

Progressive Peripherals and Software's entry-level CAD program 

by Douglas BuUard 


Software's entr^'-level CAD program. It comes with a 232- 
page manual, in addition to the two disks. For those familiar 
with IntroCAD, IntroCAD Plus is an expanded version with 
more feaaires. More on this later. 

The two disks are not copy-protected, and include 
icons for easy, hard disk installation. Although the program 
can am on a single disk drive system, it is not recommended; 
you would have to switch disks constantly. The user is 
required to create a data disk for drawings, as the program 
disks themselves are already full. A hard drive installation is 
the painless way to go, and I had no problems whatsoever 
with installation. 

Included on the disks is a special version of IntroCAD 
which is designed for 68020/30 accelerator boards equipped 
with math coprocessors to increase program speed. 

The spiral-bound IntroCAD manual is beautifully done. 
It is well organized, beginning with a 'Getting Started' section 
w^hich describes some of the fundamentals of CAD, while 
taking the Amiga novice through the installation process. 
The next section provides a quick tour of the program, 
guiding the user through the creation of a simple drawing. 
The rest of the manual is devoted to detailed descriptions of 
the command functions, including a whole chapter on using 
ARexx with IntroCAD, .\n extensive index completes the 


IntroCAD's basic tools for drawing are: Line, Freehand, 
Box, Text, Arc, Circle, X^T-ine. Clone, and Hatch. These are 
accessed through a well-laid-out Intuition interface. Com- 
mands can also be entered through a console, using scripts 
or ARexx. Through other menus, the user can control the 
number of bitplanes used, colors, interlace or de-interlaced 
screen, text types and sizes, etc. 

Advantages of IntroCAD Plus over IntroCAD include 
the capability of using layers, a console handler interface 

Italic Fixed Font 
IntroCAD Font 

Roman Font 
rptec ♦oi/T 


Snimolh Fixad Font 

Out I tne Font 

Basic Font for Everyday Use 

Top: Sample drawing showing versatility ot IntroCAD Plus's 

muliiple fonts. 

Bottom: The Amiga 3000 rendered in IntroCAD Plus. 

which uses scripts, hatching, support for interlaced or de- 
interlaced screens, and ARexx suppoit. 

Making simple drawings is easy with IntroCAD, but if 
you need to make coordinate accurate drawings (i.e., if you 
want a box 1 .344 inches long by 2.567 high), you have to use 
the scripting functions to do this, which is not as as it 
sounds. The program is best suited for simple figures, 
illustrations, flowcharts, and other drawings which do not 
need precise dimensions. It is difficult to trim entities after 
they are drawn, as the only way to correct an error is to grab 
one of the endpoints and move it. One entit)' cannot be 

(continued on page 51) 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 49 



Progressive Peripherals and Software's Advanced CAD Package for the Amiga 

in/ Douglas Billiard 


lo IntroCAD Plus. It comes with a manual 
and addendum to tlie manual, plus an en- 
velope containing the two disks and a reg- 
istration card. 

What IntroCAD Plus lacks in func- 
tional sophistication is present in UltraDe- 
sign. To start with, the manual is much 
thicker than IntroCAD's, totalling 348 
pages. Like IntroCAD's, tliis manual is a 
shining example of how softTS'are docu- 
mentation should be done. It is laid out 
clearly in sections which guide the Amiga 
user in getting the program installed and 
running. Like IntroCAD, hard disk installa- 
tion is nearly painless — as simple as click- 
ing on an icon. 

Unlike IntroCAD, there is no floating- 
point version of UltraDesign with the disk 
package. Registered users must contact the 
manufacturer for a 6S020/30 version of the 
program if they want to speed things up 
with their '030 boards. 

The opening screen in tliis program 
is quite different than that of IntroCAD. I 
like the method of entering system defaults 
used in UltraDesign. Figure below shows 
an example of how to set the presets for di- 
mensioning. This provides a dear, all-at- 
once view of system modals which is vei-y 
easy to comprehend and edit. 

Drawing primitives for UltraDesign 
include Lines, Boxes, Polygons, Circles, 
Ellipses, Dimensions, and Text. Aside from 

X-CAD, UltraDesign provides the liesl 
handle on dimension parameters, and 
gives enough descriptions illustrating the 
concepts of witness lines, etc., to educate 
no\-ices as to what they're adjusting. The 
dimensioning capabilities are somewhat 
weak when it comes to arcs and circles. 

Surprisingly, you cannot print a high- 
quality plot directly from UltraDesign. In- 
cluded in t!ie disk package are two extra 
programs, CADVerter and PasteUp. Pas- 
teUp is a program which reads in drawings 
and allows tlie user to manipulate the size, 
scale, and position onto the sheet of paper. 
Many printers and plotters are supported. 
Although it is a pain to have to exit the 
program every time you need a plot, the 


Sample drawing showing a CAD pari 

P»«ril*«f PJUIUTMI 

Sample of dimension menu presets 

50 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 


program is amazingly flexible in use, and 

e\-en allows [he user to put multiple plots 
on one piece of paper, or use several pages 
of paper to plot a large drawing. One 
apparent drawback — you cannot plot only 
a part of a drawing, such as a section view. 
Instead, you must create a copy of your 
drawing and delete all unwanted objects. 
Of all the programs examined, UI- 
traDesign is the most flexible for input and 
output. It passes drawing input/output 
from otlier formats with a separate program 
called CADVerter. CADVerter is just what it 
sounds like; a program which converts 
drawings from one CAD format to another. 
It reads in UltraDesign, IntroCAD, Au- 
toCAD DXF, Aegis Draw, HPGL, and Ro- 

land DXY formats as input, and then con- 
verts them to either Ultra CAD, AutoCAD 
DXF, ILBM IFF, or UltraDesign Hatch files. 
This lltde formatter is worth its weight in 
gold. It practically guarantees that you can 
read someone else's part files from another 
package. If this program were expanded to 
include other formats, it could be sold as a 
stand-alone program, similar to 
SYNDESIS's Interchange. 

In all, UltraDesign is a useful package 
which, although limited in its CAD func- 
tions, is nevertheless quite versatile. How- 
e\'er, considering it is priced higher than X- 
CAD Designer, and only slightly lower than 
X-CAD Professional, the X-CAD Profes- 
sional package is definitely the better buy. 


UltraDesign is probably the program 
best suited for a CAD novice, of those 
presently available. It is advanced enough 
that the user can create complex drawings, 
but simple enough that it doesn't over- 
whelm him or her. Altliough lacking the 
wider range of functions in X-CAD, it is 
sufficient for the low-end CAD user. 

MIn. J MB of RAM 
Two disk drives or 
hard drive recommended 


Progressive Peripherals & Software, Inc. 

464 Kalamalh Street 

Denver, CO 80204 

(303) 825-4 144 

Price: $399.95 

Inquiry §2 12 

(JntroCAU Plus, continued from page 49) 

trimmed relative to the location of another. 
IntroC.'\D also cannot dimension entities, 
which rules out any serious design work. 

As already mentioned, IntroCAD 
supports layers, which allows tlie user to 
plot entities on top of other entities. This al- 
lows placing a line on top of a colored 
background; l6 layers are permitted. 
Hatching is also supported, using an unlim- 
ited number of user-definable patterns, or 
l6 resident patterns. The user interface is 
configurable, so you can program "hot' 
keys on your keyboard to shorten com- 
mand interfacing. 

IntroC\D Plus features excellent 
printer support, and generates drawings at 
maximum resolutions on an extensive list 
of printers. The ten or so fonts supplied 
with IntroCAD Plus print with laser-like 

IntroCAD Plus comes with several 
otlier programs which are very useful. 
MultiPlot is a public domain program that 
takes coordinate data from a text file and 

enters it as an IntroCAD Plus drawing. This 
makes it easy to create and modifj' custom 
graphs, and lets the user create much 
better-looking graphs than do most spread- 
sheet programs. Multiplot includes a 
68020/30 version as well. StrokeFont 
Maker is a special program that takes an 
entity a user has created and transforms it 
into a system strokefont, so users can cre- 
ate their own fonts. ThreeDPIot is another 
public domain program similar to Multi- 
Plot, except that it plots data in three 
dimensions. It is a bit harder to use, though 
similar in function. 

IntroCAD Plus can only read in Intro- 
CAD files, but can export files in IntroCAD, 
Aegis Draw, or IFF formats. 


IntroCAD is easy to use, and when 
used properly, it can be very productive. It 
is not designed to do computer drafting, 
but is more oriented towards figures and 
illustrations. One thing it should have, but 

doesn't, is an undo feature; such a feature 
makes learning mistakes easier to deal 
with. Still, IntroCAD is a good introductory 
package for someone who doesn't want to 
jump into a major investment, and it is 
capable of educating one on the funda- 
mentals of CAD work. The manual is one 
the best I've seen: it's concise and clear. 
The printing output is also superb, with 
beautifully clear printouts. 



Min. 1MB of RAM 

Two disk drives or 

tiard drive recommended 

IntroCAD Plus 

Progressive Perlptierals & So/tware, Inc. 

464 Kalamatly Street 

Denver, CO 30204 

(303) 825-4144 

Price: $149.95 

Inquiry i200 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ®1990 51 

•C A D* 

CAegis, continued fmmpage48) 

Similarly, I found tlie editing tools 
lacking in versatility. I could not find a way 
to trim an enticv' relati^^e to anodier entity' 
(such as trimming a line where it crosses a 
circle). This makes it difficult to correct 
mistakes (I hardiv ever draw a line the 

Unfommately, while Draw 2000 has elec- 
tronic symbols for schematics, that is tlie 
extent of its capabilities for circuit design. 
As compared to other CAD packages. 
Draw 2000 screen redraws take much time, 
esfjecially when drawing crosshatching. 
This is particularly irritating, since watdiing 

Included in the disk package is an extensive 

library of architectural and electrical parts ^ 

symbols, and components. 

proper length the first time), and can make 
drawing a hassle. 

or the CAD packages reviewed here, 
Draw 2000 is the most limited in file 
formats. Most of the otlier programs will 
read in other file formats in one form or 
anotlier, but Draw 2000 lacks any kind of 
import function. If you want it in Draw 2000 
format, you're going to have to draw it. For 
output, Draw 2000 lets the user port 
information to Aegis Modeler, where solid 
modeling of the object can be performed. 

Included in the disk package is an 
extensive library of architectural and 
electrical pans, sj'mbols, and components. 
Aegis is the only program of those 
reviewed here to come with so many useful 
part and pattern files. The most time-sa\^ing 
functions of CAD are those that save the 
user from having to draw the same thing 
over again. Most programs let the user 
create a library of patterns, but none I've 
seen — except Draw 2000 — come with 
enougli patterns to be a real help for the 
architect or electronics engineer. 

drawings being traced on the screen each 
time is as exciting as watching paint peel. 

Draw 2000 also does not fully utilize 
my Epson 24-pin pi-inter's capabilities to 
produce high-qualit>' images; the plots end 
up looking like 9-pin printouts. 

Since all of the other CAD programs 
have printed properiy on this printer with 
the same Preferences settings, I must 
attribute this to the program, and not the 
printer or Preferences settings, 


There is a disparity in pliilosophy of 
CAD programs which focuses on the 
difference between "drawing" and 
"drafting". Be aware that CAD can, in fact, 
stand for Computer Aided Drafting, 
Design, or Drawing. A drafting package 
will have a different emphasis than a 
drawing or design package, because lines 
are referenced from other lines and entities, 
and when the part is done, tolerances will 
have to be measured from other entities. A 
design or drawing program does not have 

to provide the measurement features and 
overall precision of a drafting program, and 
is, as a result, better suited for graphics and 

With thai in mind, of the four CAD 
packages reviewed in this issue, X-CAD is 
my choice for tlie professional engineer. It 
has more features, and permits more 
precise measuring and tolerancing, than do 
the otiier packages. 

If you're into smaller drawings, 
graphics, and flowcharts, IntroCAD or 
UltraCAD is your best bet, though X-0\D 
or UltraDesign may be better for someone 
considering using the Amiga for 
commercial CAD , due to the AutoCAD DXF 
input/output capability. 

IntroCAD Plus is definitely a drawing 
program, while X-CAD is definitely a 
drafting program. UltraDesign is a hybrid of 
the two, performing some graphic tasks 
better than the higher priced X-CAD (such 
as arranging plots on plot paper), while it 
lacks some of the features that X-CAD has 
(such as flexibiliry in drawing and 
dimensioning). X-CAD has the fastest 
screen redraws of tlie four programs 
reviewed, hands down. 

Although Draw 2000 is well-styled and 
has a very nice interface, I found it to be not 
as useful as UltraDesign. 




Two disk drives 

Hard drive recommended 

AeglsD raw 2000 

Oxxl/Aegis, Inc. 

13S9 East 28th Street 

Long Beacti, CA 90806 

(21 3) 427- 1227 

Price: $79.95 

Inquiry ^209 

52 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 


(X-CAD , contin ued from page 4 7) 

The drawing shown in Figure 3 (page 47) was drawn 
with Professional, and has about 5000 entities occupying 
about 300K on a floppy without graphics scored, or about 
500K with graphics. The difference between tlie two meth- 
ods of storage affects the time it takes to display a drawing 
when loaded from a disk. Note the screen menus displayed 
in Figure 3. The user can use either the keyboard for input, 
or can use the mouse and screen menus shown in Figure 3- 
Figure 7, (pg.55) shows a part of the drawing from Figure 3, 
but this was displayed using Designer. Note the difference 
of appearance in the screen menus, as Designer uses Che 
Intuition-style menus. Indeed, as Figure 3 shows, there can 
be many, many sub-menus in the Intuition system, in 
addition to the screen menus. 


Plotting is divided into 3 categories: raster, plotter, and 
IFF. Plotting a drawing as an IFF image is quite fast. The 
resulting file can be viewed with any of the IFF viewing or 
paint programs. Professional allows the use of a plotter, 
while Designer restricts the user to Epson-compatible print- 
ers. I ciid not have access to a pen plotter to tn- the plotter 
option. Plotting using dot matrix or laser printers is done in 
t^'o steps, 'PLOT RASTER', and then (for example, an Epson 
printer) 'PLOT EPSON'. 'PLOT RASTER' takes the drawing 
and subdivides it into sections, which are displayed on tlie 
screen. A raster file using the specified dots per inch is then 
generated. 72 dots per inch is nominal for 9-pin dot-matrix 
plotting, and 180 for a 24 pin dot-matrLx. If you use the 
default, 300 dots per inch, your plot will take a lot longer, and 
a dot-matrLx printer is incapable of printing at that resolution 
anyway. The laser printers, however, are fully capable of 
utilizing the 300 dots per inch resolution. I was quite pleased 
at the qualit)' of the 24-pin printout on my Epson, but the 
qualit\' of a 9-pin printer will be disappointing. 9-pin print- 
ers just don't hack it in the modern world anymore .The deta il 
on a laser plot is absolutely fantastic. Yes, the pros who want 
high-qualit)' 8x11 inch prints will use the laser printers. For 
the hardcore designer, a 'D' or 'E' size plotter (S3, 000 to 
$5,000, more than I paid for my whole Amiga system!) is nec- 
essary to plot full-size drawings. There are public domain 
programs which will take an HPGL plot file and print it out 
onto 8 X 11 inch sheets with index marks for alignment. Look 
for them on your local BBS. 

If only a portion of a drawing is to be plotted, the 'PLOT 
WINTDOW" option restricts the plot window to the area 
indicated. Plots can be scaled up or down in size, and rotated 
to fit into a landscape format, if desired. 

For DPAINT 111, DVIDEO III & other programs 
that support the Aniin Brush format. 



Marmor teoHkes, 8color,mart3l&4ooklng, 
mcjssiva and Impressive font In caps 
friat comes boiti In ksyboord and 
Anlm Brush format. Keyboard 
version supports most characters In 
German.Frenchi, Spanish) & 'Scan- 
dinavian', Two sbes CT20 & 140 pis). 
Animated version covers tetters A-Z 
in 120 pts. Each letter grows from 
out of dull stone. The sun llts It up 
and lets the beautiful marble 
pattam glow. Rfty animframes per 
letter makes mony combinations 
possible. Comes standard In 
Ivory-palette witti Red and Green 
mangle palettes added. 

Twodsk-set S 39.95. 
Also available withi similar and 
eaually nice characteristics are 
Glider and Gold. Each come« 
OS keyboard and Animated Font. 
Two dsfc-set S 39.9S each. 

1Mb(Ke /board), i. 5 Mbf Animated} rsguirad. 

Ar^ftUin e&\ Byaivs v.65. si 2174 Jhov. Sweden 
HllOVmjetl Phone: t6l 1 )46-8497t02 

VISA & MasterCard accepted if you send for and then till in our 

orderform. Else send bank-cheque. 

Shipping charges are $5 first item and $2 for each addition. 

Write or calffor catalogue & orderform on our fonts & backgrounds. 

circle 10G on Roader Service card. 

Once the plot file is generated, the 'PLOT XXJOCX' 
fimction is tised to format and print the raster file to a printer. 
X-CAD Professional supports a wide variety of printers and 


Professional gives you more detailed control over the 
environment than does Designer, although both packages 
are very powerful. Professional accepts more than one t^'pe 
of output device, wliile Designer limits the user to Prefer- 
ences-supported printers. Professional's output includes 
several plotter formats not available in Designer. Polygon 
patternfills, user-defined fonts, and a host of other small — 
but noticeable — details separate the t^'o packages. 

Professional also allows the importation and exporta- 
tion of drawings into or from other drawing formats; most 
notably, AutoCAD DXF files. With some of the included 
programs, you can process HPGL files into Sculpt 3!3/4D 
script files. 

Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 53 

•C A D* 



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Since CadVision is located in England, technical sup- 
port would at the least be very costly, as intercontinental 
phone calls rack up the bucks in a hurr^". Fortunately, 
CadVision has an agreement with X-Sliell manufacturer 
Graftc Computing to provide technical support for X-CAD in 
the United States, An extended ser\ice contract may be pur- 
chased for an annual fee of S72. This price includes two 
hours of telephone support or onsite training, a one-year 
subscription to an X-CAD newsletter, bug fixes, and more. 
One of the extras is a modification to the original program 
which puts the screen menus into the overscan area, 
allowing the drawing to be viewed at normal size, without 
being covered up by the menus. This may be purchased 
separately, for just $29. 


X-CAD's best feature is its speed; it is, in fact, the fastest 
persona! computing package that I have ever seen. AutoCAD 
on a 386 AT pales before the incredibly fast screen redraws 

of X-CAD. The program utilizes the Amiga's graphics poten- 
tial to the fijllest. Its syntax editor lielps prevent most entry 
mistakes, if instructions are entered by the keyboard. X-CAD 
is full-featured, and stands up well against the professional 
mainframe systems. The ability to create custom menus 
speeds up operations considerably. And, as many times as 
I have erred in entering commands, I've never been able to 
make the program guru. So, X-CAD is also the most bug-free 
commercial program of such complexity that I have ever 
used. Even Anvil 5000 on a mainframe can be twitchy at 
times, but X-CAD is unflappable on my Amiga. 

Professional uses hi-res interlace mode, so the screen 
will flicker if you do not set your colors properly (a 
flickerFixer comes in handy here; a Multi-Sync monitor 
reduces flicker, too). Designer provides the option of using 
hi-res, or med-res for conserving memory (I feel the med-res 
is unsuitable for detail work). For photographic clarirj' I used 
a black background for the photographs used in this article, 
but normally I find that using a light grey background with 
either black or white lines gives minimum flicker on a 
normal monitor. The obvious solutions, especially for busi- 
ness applications, would again involve the purchase of a 
flickerFixer or a high-persistance monitor. 

^Sliat X-CAD should have but doesn't: higher magnifi- 
cation when ZOOMing. Currently, X-CAD limits the maxi- 
mum inagnification allowed. Elements drawn much closer 
than a few thousandths of an inch apart will be difficult to 
distinguish on a D or E size drawing. This should not present 
a problem in most engineering applications, but is annoying 
nonetheless. The problem stems from the use of integer 
arithmetic, which prevents coordinate 'creep' when manipu- 
lating objects. Floating-point programs ha"\'e round off errors 
which accumulate when scaling or moving objects. After a 
number of manipulations, the object you have left is not 
exactly the same as the object you started with. To prevent 
this, X-CAD uses extended integer arithmetic. Proper use of 
viewports reduces the problem. 

Currently, X-CAD does not have 3-D drafting capabili- 
ties, but X-CAD Professional is able to input and output files 
in the AutoCAD format for flexibility. X-CAD Professional 
is also able to export your drawing in Sculpt 4D format, so 
you can make a solid model of your drawing! I used 
Interchange from Syndesis to convert the output to Turbo 
Silver, and did a little ray tracing. See Figure l(pg,42), w-hich 
is a ray-trace of one of the parts of the object shown in 
Figure 3. The effect is especially impressive when the X- 
Specs glasses are used. Now, if they just made X-CAD 
capable of drawing in 3-D! 

54 Amazing Computing V3. 10 ©1990 


Although sales of X-CAD in the United States have not met 
with the developer's expectations, X-CAD seems to have an 
excellent future. With the release of the Amiga 3000, and the 
use of UNIX available for the Amiga, this high-end package 
should be taken more seriously by the CAD community. Of 
course, Amigas still have the reputation of not being well- 
suited to business applications. 

Ideas presently being considered by the manufacturer 
include a 2-D package which would allow 3-D manipulation 
of objects. Also being considered are modifications to allow 
easier outputting to Turbo Silver, which many people prefer 
over Sculpt for ray-tracing. No plans are made to include any 
sort of built-in solid modeling in X-CAD. 

Is it worth the price? Definitely! X-CAD is as fast as the 
mainframe CAD packages I seen, and has almost all of the 
same functions, and X-CAD costs much less than those main- 
frame (or other competitive) CAD programs. One piece of 
advice I'd like to offer: X-CAD Professional is not a package 
the novice can or should use without preparation. It is 
designed as a professional-level CAD package, and makes 
some assumptions about the user's drawing ability. If you 
don't already know how to draft, neither of the X-CAD pack- 
ages will teach you. 

X-CAD is also not a paint program, and it won't make 
a poor draftsman into a good draftsman. Learning to create 
engineering drawings takes some experience, and is quite 
different than learning to use a paint program. You should 
have some drafting experience to get the most use out of any 
CAD package. X-CAD will not teach you proper drafting 
construction technique.s. 

Figure 6: One ot the sub-menus accessible in X-Shell. 

If you do not have any drafting experience, there are 
many good textbooks written on the subject, check out 
what's available at your local library. Take a class at your 
local community college, it'll be worth your while. As the ads 
imply, X-CAD is a professional package, and has many 
features that the CAD novice wiU not be able to use without 
a good deal of practice. If you are already skilled at using 
CAD applications, you should adapt to X-CAD with few 

Since there is no upgrade available from Designer to 
Professional, it would be worth tiie extra money now to go 
straight to Professional, if the possibility exists that you might 
want the extra power later. 

"With that caveat, my recommendation is, if you want a 
full featured CAD package that lives up to the potential of the 
Amiga, buy X-CAD. I don't think you'll regret it. 



Minimum 1MB of RAM 

Two disk drives 

Hard drive & fticl<erFixer suggested 

Made by CadVision International 

Distributed in ttie U.S. by 

American Software 

RR 1 Box 290 

BIdg. 30 



Prices: $ 149.95 (Designer) 

Inquiry #223 

$499.95 (Professional) 

Inquiry §224 

Figure 7: An example ol the shortl^and mettiod ot typing com- 
mands wilt} Professionol. Tt)e two lines ol command input are 
interpreted idenlicaily, and the parser will capitalize only tlie letters 
it needs to use. 

Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 5> 


IS the complete motion and production interface 
for the VideoScape 3D environment! 

As the fighter races beneath the midnight 
sky, its shadoiv etches a trait along the ocean 's 
surface. In the distance, the shifting panorama 
of constellations and coastal moii mains reflects 
the jet's changes in heading and relative veloc- 
ity. Btioyspassing beloivgiL:efiirther reference to 
the jet 's incredible speed and agility. Suddenly, 
a surfaced submarine appears up ahead. Bank- 
ing to avoid a potential disaster, the jet flies on, 
confirming once again that the mission was a 
complete success — all of the motionfites worked! 

most powerful tliree-dimensional animaljon 
programs a\'3i]able for ihe Airiigu. Despite the 
fact that \'id3D was cle\'eloped several years 
ago, it has retained its position as one of tlie 
Amiga's premier desktop offerings. 


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by Michael DeSpezio 

However, even software this outstanding 
has its limitations. Those of us who use Vid3D 
lo develop animations know all too well thai the 
keyboard entry of an object's motion file can 
often turn a pleasant computer session into a te- 
dious, time-consuming adventure in fmstration. 
That's where OXXI's brand-new software 
release, ProMotion CProMo), comes in. This 
powerful program goes beyond what Modeler 
3D (Mod3D) did for the design of object geome- 
tries. ProMotion is the complete motion and 
production interface for the Vid3D environ- 

The manual is well written and thorough in 
its approach to this powerful program. Quick 
Tour inserts are dispersed throughout the book. 
These paragraphs give the well-versed and/or 
impatient user a chance to take the program for 
a "test drive", without having to read lite fine 
print. Although the ntmual could use 
additional screen illustrations, it is 
amply stocked with great hints lo 
make your animations exciting and 
engaging. Like Vid3D and Mod3D, 
this software has high-end graphics 
potential, so expect to spend some 
lime on learning its intricacies. 


As you can imagine, a pro- 
gram with such potential chews up 
memory. To run it, you 'II need 1 .5MB 
of RAM. This shouldn't present any 
real problems, since most animation/ 
graphics- minded individuals have al- 
ready invested in RAM 

To generate tlie 
actual animations which 
are designed within the 
ProMotion environment, 
you'll also need Vide- 
oScaf>e 3D. Since, for a 
limited time, new Vid3D 
packages are being sold 

Top: A clapper-like 
display let's you 
monitor scene 

Bottom: Not only can 
you select your 
camera's local length, 
but you can examine 
Its angle ol view. 

witli ProMo, new buyers will be able to pur- 
chase both programs together. For those of you 
who already own Vid3D, you can purchase 
ProMo as a separate software package. 

ProMo is supplied on a non<opy-pro- 
lected disk. Although ProMo can be run from a 
diskette copy, you can install it and the required 
Version 39 of the arp.librar>' Tiles by clicking on 
the respective install icons, if )'ou to 
forgo tlie arp. library installation, you'll need to 
trim down your bootable Workbench diskette in 
order lo make room for this required file. 


When ProMo first boots up, its main screen 
and an overlay requester appear. The requester 
allows you to set the maximum number of ob- 
jects (referred to as Prop.s) and tlie number of 
■■legs" assigned to each of the animation's com- 
ponents. When you accept a value, you're ready 
to begin designing a production. 

Taking a cue from professional media pro- 
duction departments, tlie opening screen dis- 
plays four main drop-down menu choices: DI- 
PREPRODUCnON. For those that dislike 
mouse clicking, every command except one has 
a keyboard equivalent. Now let's take a look at 
these menu categories, and some of tlie options 
they present. 


The DIRECTOR menu is a selection of the 
basic software options. Like most left-column, 
drop-down menus, this is where you select new 
settings, load old settings, file saves, sleep, etc. 
A selection called REFRESH clears the current 
screen, tlien redraws the entered motions using 
the turned-on custom options. 

One of the program's most powerful fea- 
tures is also found within the DIRECTOR menu. 
It's called ACTION. When it is selected, tlie pro- 
gram generates a stylized map of the animation 
motions. Ail prop locations and camera [xjsi- 
tions (and all relevant angles) are shown for 
each frame of the animation. By "rehearsing" 
and reviewing tliese quickly generated paths, 
you can greatly cut down on the time that would 
ordinarily be needed to evaluate a fully ren- 
dered animation file. 


Tlie FOLLOW FOCUS menu contains a 
selection of choices which control motion and 
customize tlie overall screen display. When 
ProMo boots up, the default settings for these 

56 Amazing Computing V5.W ©1990 

choices are indicated by an asterisk. Tilings sucli 
as Key Frame positions, aside view window, di- 
rectional vectors, and prop path data can be 
toggled on/off within this menu. Once these 
preferences are set, t]ie program follows these 
parameters to refre,sh tlie screen, 

Within tlie FOLLOW FOCUS menu is a se- 
lecdon called BANK/PITCH. When it is toggled 
on, a new window appears during an ACTION 
"rehearsal". This dedicated window contains 
two aircraft-type instruments. These instru- 
ments painlessly illustrate the bank and the 
pitch of tlie selected prop. 


The PROPS DEPT is where all the fun 
begins. When you select PROPS, you are 
prompted to enter tlie name of a motion file. 
Then, enter the geometry file of the associated 
prop. Once a prop is loaded into the program, 
you set its position of appearance. Coordinates 
can be entered with eitlier keyboard strokes or 
mouse clicks. By selecting BLOCK IT (a tlieatri- 
cal term used to define stage movement), you 
enter tiie coordinates of the key positions which 
form the prop's movement path. When the 
prop's path has been entered (and ended, by 
clicking on the appropriate new window op- 
lion), special attributes including AUTO-CURV- 
be applied to the current path, 

AUTO-CUR\aNG generates a smooth 
curve that fits beOA'een the points of your motion 
padi. That means by sequentially enteririg the 
vertices of a polygon and activating AUTO- 
CUR\TNG, you'll get an irregular circular path 
Uiat reflects the eccentricities of the entered 

When a prop is allowed to DRIFT, its path 
is affected by the wind patterns generated in tlie 
PREPRODUa'lON menu. Although you set die 
wind magnitude and prevailing direction, die 
actual matrbi of eddies, breezes, arid gusts is a 
random pattern generated by the program. This 
pattern so closely resembles realistic winds, that 
its display looks as though it was generated by 
the National Weather Service. 

Props can also have magnetic attributes. 
By assigning positive, negative, and neutral val- 
ues, you can create a world of attraction and re- 
ptifsion. Just as you learned in high school phys- 
ics, tlie magnetically induced movements de- 
pend botli on tlie relative charge and the dis- 
tance Ijetween charged objects. 

When GRAVITY is selected, you can set 
the rate at which objects rise and fall berween 
tlie Key Frame positions. As the manual states, 
the final motion achieved with tliis option re- 
sembles Tarzan swinging between treetop 


The PREPRODUCTION menu controls die 
basic staging positions, camera movements, il- 
lumination, and special effects that remain ac- 
tive within a scene. It also has a MODIF PAL- 
ETTE option, which t found to be quite useful in 
customizing the current display. Altliough the 

manual states that the default 
palette is designed for flicker 
resistance, i generated a 
much more stable display 
using the RGB sliders. 

By clicking on this 
menu's FRAME ADJUST op- 
tion, you're able to set tlie 
number of frames that tlie 
total animation will occupy. 
So if an animation appears 
too jerky, you can smootii it 
out by spreading the move- 
ment over a greater number 
of frames. If a specific leg 
needs smoothing, llien )'ou'Ii 
have to modify its frame al- 
location through the 
BLOCK IT options. 


When you're finally 
pleased witli the stylized 
motions displayed during 
an ACTION rehearsal, its 
time to save your settings. 
You can save files in sev- 
eral formats, but you'll 
need to generate a file that 
VtdeoScape 3D can inter- 
pret before your settings 
can be turned into an ac- 
tual animation. Once the 
settings have been saved, 
its time to quit the prognim 
and Ixjot Vid3D, When the 
Vid3D main screen ap- 
pears, all you have to do is 
click on LOAD SET- 
TINGS and tell the pro- 
gram where the ProMo 
setting file resides. 
Then, sit back and let 
Vid3D generate the ani- 
mation frames. 

So as you've seen, 
ProMo is a vital player in 
the universe of Vide- 
oScape 3D. AlthougJi 
you can always gener- 
ate motion files inde- 
pendent of this program 
(using CU or Mod3D in- 
put), ProMo gives you 
total control and visual 
cue monitoring of all 
motion parameters. But 
ProMotion does more 
than just take the drudgery out of writing motion 
files, it actually makes this task fun! 

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OXXI Inc. 

I339E. )2SmSt. 

Long BecKh, CA 90306 

aw 427-1227 

ProMolion ■ Price: $99.95 

Price lor registered 

WdeoScope 3D owners: 174,95 

VldeoScape 3D - Price: f 199.95 

Modeler 3D - Price; $99.95 

Inquiry *220 

Top: By using the features of ProMotion, 
you can create intricate camera and 
object motion files. 

Middle: Wtjile adjusting the palette, you 
can get a sense of ttiis program's 
outrageous graphics potential. 

Bottom: You can select ttie 
display parameters whicti will 
be active eactx time the screen 
is REFSBSHed. 

Amazing Computing V5. 20 ©1990 57 




into the 
World of 


for the 


directory utility for the Amiga that I mentioned briefly four issues ago. 

I must confess, before being introduced to the Amiga, the only 
computer I had used was an IBM. So when I did begin working on an Amiga, 
I was quite naturally impressed by the fact that you could dick on a gadget 
or icon with tlie mouse and a task would be performed, a window would 
close, or a program would run. To go from typing out every command, to 
simply clicking on a command was truly amazing (today, IBM PCs can use 
Microsoft Windows, a program that allows them to work in a window 
environment similar to the Amiga's and Mac's). 

SID VI. 06 window 


::n rzab HAKanUEXECum move celeie set i \m \mm\ iiwci 


m/m Files 889/816 Dirs Ho DiPectoi>« 

When I came across STD, and found there was an easier way to mo\'e 
files from one directory to another, \'iew direaories subdirectories, and run 
programs, I decided to investigate it further. 

Sooner or later, you will come to realize that working in the CU is 
unavoidable. Having used MS-DOS on the IBM, the CLI was not too difficult 
to get into. For others; however, the CLI is something they would rather not 
deal with. SID makes some of those unavoidable CLI contacts a breeze. 

SID VI. 06 is accompanied by several document files. SID.ConfigDocs 
describes the setup and operation of the SID configuration files. Here, you 
can customize SID to your own needs. Directions to change the default of 

by Aim^e R Abren 


Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

the settings are included with this file, along with a description of 
each setting option and its default, 

Other document files include SID. docs, the file that describes 
ho^' to use the program, and ati update file that lists changes made 
from the pre^'ious SID, Plus, SID. subscription has infomation on 
how to ha\-e SID delivei-ed to your door, and SID. keys lists 
command-key shoncuts available. 

Before I forget, SID is shareware, so if you try SID out and like 
it, send the author a contribution so he will be encouraged to keep 
updating tlie program. Support this great shareware system. After 
all, where else can you try out a product in your own home before 
you buy? 

All registered users will receive the current version of SID, 
along witli any support programs, u]>dated manuals, and docs 
update to tell you of SID changes. Registered users will also receive 
announcements of major SID updates. 

SID can he mn from both the CLI and Workbench. From the 
CLI Cor Shell), type SID at the prompt; frotn Workbench, double 
click on the SID icon. 

Once loaded, SID displays a .screen (see photo) containing 
se\-eral commands along the bottom. Each command can be 
activated by clicking l!ie mouse. Two director)- listings are dis- 
played in the middle of the screen. There ai'e also pull-down menus 
for further options. 

Atthe bottom of the screen you may select which device (i.e., 
dfO:, dfl:. dhO;. etc.) you ■?vant to load in the directory listing. You 
can choose up to rwo devices to display at one time. Each directory 
listing has its own slider to scroll the displayed files and directories. 

The active directory list is highlighted. To activate an entry 
(file or directoiy) in diat list, simply click the left mouse button over 
the entr^'. The name of tlie current directory can be found in the 
Path field located above each directory list. 

To load a directory, simply double click on the name. The 
directory list window then displays that directory's files and direc- 
tories. The Patli field displays the name of tlie root director)' and the 
previously seleaed subdirector)'. Return to the root directory by 
highlighting the Path field and typing in the root director)' name. 

Below die directoiy listing is a set of commands. These 
commands accompany the directory listing which is currently 
active. Some of these commands include: PRINT, VIEW, HEAR, 
COMMENT, and DUP. If you wanted to RUN a program from die 
left directory listing, make that listing tlie active listing, select the 
program you want to run, and select RUN from tlie command 

COPYing files from one directory to another is as simple as 
selecting the file to be copied and clicking on the COPY command. 
Make sure the large arrow between the directory listings is pointed 
to the listing you want to copy to. 

Other commands include UNARC and EXECUTE, SID recog- 
nizes several compression programs. You can select a compressed 
file to have SID UNARC and it will try to identif)' the arcing method 
used. If unable to do that, SID prompts you with a requester. 
EXECUTE executes any highlighted program )'ou When 
fini.shed with the program, you are returned to the SID x\'indow. 

Double clicking on a file executes the pioper command for 
that file. For example, if you double click on an ASCII file, the READ 
command is executed. If you double click on an IFF picaire file, tlie 
VIEW command is execuited. 

Displayed at the bottom of the window is a Directory Message 
which displays messages for die acti\'e director)' listing. Messages 
include: Number of highliglited files, total number of files, number 

of highlighted directories, total number of directories, and approxi- 
mate number of bytes free. I'lus, when you select to load a director)' 
it quickly flashes each file and/or directory found in that selected 

SID allows you to choose tlie size of its window. Choose from 
half size (3 files visible), full size (15 files visible), and lace size (38 
files visible). You can also iconify SID's windo\\' on the W'orkbench 
screen (this makes SID's window appear small on the Workbench 
screen for future use). The gadget to make the SID Tvindov.' iconify 
is located at tlie top right hand side of the window, labeled SHRINK. 
Click widi the left mou,se button once and the window lA-ill iconif)-. 
To restore the window back to iLs original size, click the left mouse 
buttion on the EXPAND option. 

The pull-down menus are as follows: Program Jvlenu, Envi- 
ronment Menu, System Menu, Flags Menu, Disk Menu, and File 
Menu. The Program Menu is where you can change tlie configura- 
tions for any of the SID ojitions to letter fit your needs. Load the 
config file into a text editor and make changes according to the 
config.doc file pro\'ided wiih the program. You can select the 
Information option to see the current version you are v\-orking on 
or select the Last Error or Last Message options to view the last 
messages displayed. 

The Environment menu is where you select the size of your 
SID windo-ft-. There is even a Specify Size option where you can 
pick anodier windofv size besides the ones mentioned earlier. The 
screen option lets you choose from Workbench, Custom, or 

The System Menu lets you run Preferences where you can 
change colors, edit your pointer, change printer options, etc. Two 
otiier options include running a new CLI, which according to the 
documentation is actually an AmigaDOS Shell, and a Command 
option where you can execut AmigaDOS commands from a 

Tlie Flags Menus allows you to set different options. For 
instance which archive method will be used, or if you want a 
requester when deleting a file or directory, Otlier options include 
display hidden files or if byte count should be actual or occupied. 

The Disk Menu has two interesting options. Fit tells you if the 
selected files and/or directories from die active list will fit in the 
inactive list. A requester will display the amount of blocks needed 
or in some cases how many are left. The Relabel option will relabel 
die disk relating to the active file. When selected, a requester will 
appear asking for the new name. 

The last menu is the File Menu. The three options include 
Copy As, Create, and Select by Date. Copy As will allow you to 
rename files being copied from one director)- list (disk) to another. 
Creat allows you to create a blank file for editng purposes. This file 
must have a name that is not already used, Select by Date will allow 
you to highlight files in the active list by date. 

There are many additional features of SID tliat I haven't even 
touched upon here. Among these are options to display Uie date, 
time, bytes available, and much more. You can arc files as well as 
unarc them, delete, rename, and attach comments to files and 
directories, A new feaaire is the iVLAJCEDIR command. 

The included documentation is well written and is easil)' 
understood. Each set of commands is broken into sections. The 
included ConfigDocs provides a great way of customizing SID to 
your own liking. 

Widi the man)' great feaaires SID has to offer, it's definitely 
a program wortli checking out for vourself. 


SID VI. 06, Fred Fish Disk *338, Author: Timm Martin. 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 59 

bv John iStcincr 

companies have announced products that 
work under tlie current beta version Work- 
bench 2.0. These products are just tlie first 
of many that will be certified under the new 
operating system. The only problem witii 
tills is that Workbench 2.0 is still under 
development, and tliere may still be 
changes to it capable of breaking any of 
these programs. Aside from software devel- 
opers, the only i\miga owners who are 
rtmning on the beta version 2.0 operating 
system are Amiga 3000 owners. Hopefully, 
by the time you read this, 2.0 will be 
solidified to tlie point where it is just about 
ready to be released, so it can become the 
operating system for the rest of us as well, 

ceived a letter from Mike Smithwick, share- 
ware author of Geotime, He writes that the 
program has been upgraded to version 1,2, 
In addition to several otlier features, the 
program now works under Workbench 
version 2.0. Registered users can upgrade 
for S8.00. All unregistered users can up- 
grade for the S 17.00 shareware registration 
fee. The software is only available from the 
author directly. Contact: Mike Smithwick. 
25215 La Loma Drive, Los Altos Hills, CA 
94022. Inquiry -201 

Treasure Trap from Electronic Zoo. He 

cannot get tlie program to run with his 
Supra Memory Expansion card. Teclmical 
support at the software company was not 
able CO help him get it working. If anyone 
has a solution to tliis problem, pass the in- 
formation on to me. I'll see that he gets it. 

nounced tlie release of version 3.0 F-BA- 
SIC, and the F-BASIC Source Level DeBug- 
ger (SLDB). Improvements to F-Basic in- 
clude an integrated editor environment, 
direct 68020/68881 support, IFF sound file 
player and faster compiler code. The SLDB 
adds find commands, keyboard control 
and integration into the 3.0 editor/com- 
piler/linker/debugger environment of F- 

Upgrade notices have been sent to 
registered users; it is required tliat they be 
returned for upgrading to version 3.0. 
Upgrade cost is S17.45, and covers the 3.0 
compiler, 3.0 SLDB for those who own tlie 
DeBugger, and dozens more sample pro- 
grams to add to the sample programs disk. 
The 3.0 SLDB is also being offered to those 
users who have not previously purchased 
the SLDB, for S59.95 (for a limited time 
only). Users who have sent in their registra- 
tion cards at purchase and have not re- 
ceived their upgrade notice by September 
1, 1990 should phone Delphi Noetic Sys- 
tems, Contact: Delphi Noetic Systems, Inc., 

2700 West Main St., Box 7722. Rapid City, 
SD 57709, (605)348-0791. Inqtwy^202. 

Canadian offices, and they ha^'e now 
moved to larger quarters. They iiave also 
increased the number of full-time staff 
members available to answer technical 
questions. Extra phone lines have been 
added to improve response time. The new- 
facility will also be offering a customer 
support BBS in the near fuaire. Contact; 
Gold Disk, 5155 Spectmm Way, Unit 
5,Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W5A1, 
(416) 602-4000. FAX: (416) 602-4001. 
Inquiry ^203 

rently shipping version 3.1 of ProWrite. 

New features of this latest version 
include a much more sophisticated file 
requester than found in earlier v'crsions. 
Also, they have added a user-customizable 
font submenu, so you can put your most 
often used fonts in a separate menu. A 
'Speak" feature uses the Amiga's voice 
syntliesizer to read your text back to you. 

Version 3 . 1 is Workbench 2 .0-compat- 
ible, and the program can open its own 
custom screen in either SuperHiRes or 
Productivity modes, if you have the en- 
hanced chip set. 

Improved AREXX command handling 
is also supported in the latest version. 

60 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

To obtain Pro Write 3.1, send New 
Horizons your ProWrite program disk and 
a check for the appropriate upgrade 

Upgrades to 3.1 version are priced as 
follows: from 1.0, $75.00; from 2.0, $60.00; 
from 2,5, S50.00. To these prices, add $5.00 
for shipping and handling (SlO for interna- 
tional shipping). 

If you already have version 3.0, the 
upgrade to 3.1 is $10, with no shipping or 
handling charge (international shipping 
charge is S5.00). Contact: New Horizom 
Software, Inc., P.O. Box 43167, Austin, TX 
78745, (512) 328-6650. FAX: (512) 328- 
1925. Inquiry *204 

itizer, Perfect Sound, has been upgraded to 
version 3.10. Current version 3.0 users and 
above can upgrade to 3. 10 just by sending 
in the original disk and $12.50. The latest 
version supports real-time echo, real-time 
delay and source code and libraries for 
programmers. Users who currently have 
version 2.3 or below can upgrade to ver- 
sion 3.1 for $12.50 for the software upgrade 
only, or can upgrade both hardware and 
software for S43.00, plus the old Perfect 
Sound hardware and original disk. Con- 
tact: Sunrize Industries, 270 E. Main St., 
Suite C, Los Gatos, CA 95030, (408) 354- 
3488. Inquiry ^205 

upgrade to version i.i, which contains 
several bug fixes and a new interactive 
object editor for object creation. Tiie up- 
grade has been sent to all registered 
UltraDesign users at no charge. If you 
ha\'en't registered your sofr^vare, send in 
your registration card today to recei\'e your 

DiskMaster, the disk file utility pro- 
gram from Progressive Peripherals, has 
been upgraded to support Workbench 2.0. 
Additional features include a new confirm 
delete requester, as well as added support 
for .Izh archive files. 

To upgrade your • DiskMaster, send 
$10.00 plus the original disk. Contact: 
Progressive Peripherals & Software, 464 
Kalamath St., Denver, CO 80204, (303) 
825-4144. Inquiry *206 


nounced two new additions to its 
Bars&Pipes Add-on Series: MusicBox B 
and The .Multi-Media Kit. 

MusicBox B contains tools and acces- 
sories which work within the Bars&Pipes 
environment. Included are: Event Scrub- 
ber, Velocity Modifier, Chord Player, Key 
Filter, Alternator, Pan, Volume, Notepad, 
Current Events, Fostex MTC-1 Controller, 
Disk Jockey Multi-Song Loader, 4 Check- 
point MIDI Ins and -MIDI Outs. 

The Multi-Media Kit is designed to 
coordinate Bars&Pipes music with Amiga 
graphics and animation through Multi- 
Media applications such as AmigaVision 
and CanDo, among others. All contents of 
this kit coordinate Bars&Pipes with all 
leading Amiga multimedia and authoring 

The Multi-Media Kit includes: 

• S.Moose, which converts Bars&Pipes 
files to SMUS files (and vice- ve rsa) and 
ARexx, which receives ARexx com- 
mands to control and synchronize. 

• Bars&Pipes. It can be used with any 
program capable of sending ARexx 

• Bars&Pipes .MIDI Player, which per- 
forms Bars&Pipes music under user 
and/or ARexx control and synchroni- 

• Bars&Pipes Recorder, which records 
Bars&Pipes music for use with the 
MIDI Player. 

•Cue Card, which uses MIDI Events to 
cue animation and graphics both via 
ARexx and keystroke macros. 

MusicBox B and The Multi-Media Kit 
each retail for S59.95. Contact: BlueRibhon 
Bakery, Inc., 1248 Clairmont Rd., Suite 3d, 
Decatur, GA30030, (404) 377-1514. FAX: 
(404)377-2277. Inquiry #207 

for the Amiga, has been upgraded to ver- 
sion 4.0. The new ^^ersion includes faster 
device drivers that improve disk access 
time, and faster formatting speed. The new 
version is somewhat easier to install for 
novice Amiga users, and includes a pro- 
gram that fixes bugs in the AmigaDOS 
Trackdisk.device. The new version is fully 
compatible with version 2.0 of the Work- 
bench (at least the current beta version 

2.0). To upgrade your CrossDOS disk, 
check the local bulletin boards, or informa- 
tion services such as PeopleLink's Amiga 
Zone, for the patches that can be made to 
a copy of your earlier version CrossDOS 
disk. You can also call Consultron's BBS, 
which uses the same phone line as their 
technical support number listed below. 
The BBS is only available after business 
hours and all day weekends. If you don't 
have a modem, you can send the original 
disk (along -ftdth the warranty card, if you 
haven't already done so) and SI 0,00 for the 
upgrade and return shipping and handling. 
Contact: Consultron, 11280 Parkview, Ply- 
mouth, MI 481 70, (3 13) 459- 72 71 .Inquiry 

found out about a "workaround" for those 
who have a Bridgeboard with 5.25-inch 
drive, and want to read an IBM format 720K 
3.5-inch disk. Just throw tlie IB.M format 
3.5-inch disk into your CrossDOS- 
equipped Amiga floppy drive, and use the 
.AEJEAD command from MS-DOS on the 
Bridgeboard. It will copy from the MS-DOS 
3.5-inch disk to the destination you se- 
lected when you used the AREAD com- 
mand. For example, AREAD 
copy the file called FOOBAR.EXE to the 
Bridgeboard's hard disk. 

That's all for this month. If you have 
any workarounds or bugs to report, or if 
you know of any upgrades to commercial 
software, you may notify me by writing to: 

John Steiner 

c/o Amazing Computing 

P.O. Box 869 

Fall River, .MA 02722-0869 

or, leave EMail toPublisher on People Link 

or 73075,1735 on CompuServe. ^ _ 


Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 61 

R O O 

E R S 

by Vie Bandito 

[The statements and projections 
presented in "Roomers" are rumors in 
the purest sense. The bits of 
information are gathered by a third- 
party sourcefrom whispers inside the 
industry. At press time, they remain 
unconfirmed, and are printed for 
entertainment value only. Accordingly, 
the staff and associates of Amazing 
Computing^" cannot be held 
responsible for the reports made in 
this colttmn,] 

new attitude, here it is: Commcxiore 
announced at DevCon that they intend to 
license CDTA" technology. Of course, this in 
essence means tliat diey are licensing 
Amiga technology. The Bandito hears that 
several Japanese firms ha\'e expressed an 
interest, and the delicate dance of 
negotiation is beginning. 

Wliy would Commodore do diis? Weil, 
remember that they did sometliing similar 
for the arcade market, selling Amiga 500 
motherboards to arcade game 
manufacturers. So it's not something 
completely new to them, tliough this is 
different dian selling a motherboard — it 
will allow o±er people to build tlieir own 
units based on tlie Amiga chip set. 

The most important reason for taking 
this step? CD-I. You see, CD-I is a 
technology that is freely licensed to all, the 
idea being that many companies will 
manufacture die players and increase the 
size of the market. This is what happened 
with VCRs and CD players, and even IBM 
computers. So this move by Commodore is 
an attempt to steal a march on CD-I. The 

thinking is that Commodore must do this to 
create a large market for CDTV before CD- 
I comes out and buries it by sheer numbers. 

Of course. Commodore is starting this 
effort rather late, but better late than never. 
Does this mean we could see Amiga 500 
clones? Possibly, though it's unlikely. 
Commodore's biggest hope is that they 
may convince some Japanese consumer 
electronics manufacturers to switch from 
CD-I to CDTV. 

Many have suggested Apple take a 
similar course of action by licensing out 
their ROMs for use by done manufacturers, 
who could then create a truly low-cost 
Macintosh. Of course, that's what Ready- 
Soft has done, in effect, with A-Max. 

And now, ReadySoft has finally 
introduced A-Max II, a huge improvement 
o\'er the first version. It now supports hard 
disks and digitized Mac sounds, among 
other bells and whisdes (so to speak). So 
who needs Apple's Cheap Mac, when you 
can get an A500 and A-Max II for the same 
price? By the way, ReadySoft is working on 
a card for the A2000/3000 that includes A- 
Max and some AppleTalk ports for 
complete compatibility. The Bandito 
expects the card to be priced in the $600 
range. This will be a blockbuster product, 
especially given the ridiculously high price 
of Macintoshes. Apple should be quaking 
in their expensive boots. 

density disk drives for the Amiga before, 
and now it looks like we'll actually be able 
to buy one. Applied Engineering, a 
hardware firm lltat got its start in the Apple 

II market, now offers a 1 .76-megabyte 
floppy drive for the Amiga. It reads and 
writes standard Amiga disks, as well as 
regular and high-densitj' IBM disks with the 
right software- Expect such high-density 
drives to be a standard feature on future 
.Amigas. Some folks are agitating that the 
capability to read and write MS-DOS format 
disks be built into the system. Sounds like 
a Workbench 3.0 feature to The Bandito. 

Speaking of tlie elusive Workbench 
3.0, it's already under way, according to 
data leaked from West Chester. Well, at 
least diey're already listing what will be 
included, and some of the changes that 
they couldn't fit into 2.0. Actual 
programming will begin next year. 

Features on that list include virtual 
memory and outline fonts, as ■well as 
support for true color (24-bit) graphics. 
Timing? Don't expea to see it until at least 
1992, says The Bandito. But in the interim, 
we can expect to see at least one update to 
2,0 to fix any bugs (oops! that should read 
"unexpected features"). 

fiUed world of Big-Time Amiga Show 
Wrestling! Yes, sports fans, in this year's 
Main E^'ent the challenger, World of Amiga, 
squares off against reigning champ 
yVmiEXPO, This will be a fierce one, folks, 
widi no holds barred. Wliat's that? You say 
you didn't know that there was a fight 
going on? Well, wake up and smell the 
power supply frying, my friend. Is it a 
coincidence that both shows are on the 
.same weekend in October (WOA in 
Chicago, AmiEXPO in LA)? If you believe 

62 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

that, The Bandito would like to sell you 
some Atari stock. The brutal show battle is 
being fought o%'er publishers, who really 
can't afford to attend both. Who will win? 
Tune in to a later column and find out. 

ting deals from Commodore; their 
marketing department has decided it's a 
great gimmick. So now there's more 
bundles tlian you can wave a joystick at — 
bundles for education, for graphics, for 
business, for video, etc. It's a good deal for 
the customers, and a pretty good deal for 
the luckj' software publishers who get their 
goods included. Not so lucky for those 
publishers who are left on the outside 
watching their competitors get all the sales 
and publicity. 

throat in the games business, according to 
the readout on The Bandito's sensors. SheLf 
Space is tight, and there's more titles than 
ever for our favorite game machine. 
Publishers expect that the Amiga 50O's 
push into the mass market could mean big 
sales for software, IF the software is 
available in the right places. So there wUlbe 
many sales promotions to get stores to pick 
up software. And advertising will pick up 
for the winter months, which is good news 
for the magazines. And the customer? He 
or she will be overwhelmed by die amount 
of software. If you want a current tide, 
better get it soon. The flood of new tides 
will make it harder for a store to keep older 
titles in stock. 

The quality of the games is improving, 
too. Better art, better music, better sounds. 
Now if only the ga mes were more fun ... but 
even that aspea is improving. You won't 
see qu ite as much Eurotrash di is year — it's 
getting too difficult to sell to the ever-more- 
disceming public. 


Tandy has introduced a home 

computer, following in the footsteps of 
IBM's PSjr. The lOOORL— what a sexy 
name. Do they pay somebody big bucks to 
think these things up? Tlie Bandito would 
like a crack at diat job. Anyway, Tandy 
thinks they've figured out what the home 
computer user wants. Not speed; it's 
powered by an 8086 chip that moves like a 
greased abacus. Not graphics — 16 colors 
out of 16 in 320 x 200 is the best resoludon 
it can muster. No, the big brains at Tandy 
have figured out that home computer users 
want to do their checkbooks and keep 
recipes on their computer. So they've 
included lots of software to handle 
shopping lists, grocery inventory, the 
checkbook, recipes, etc. The lowest priced 
model, at $749.90, contains a 3 1/2" 720K 
floppy drive and a monochrome monitor 
with a massive 51 2K memory. With a color 
monitor, it's $899.90. Toss in a 20MB hard 
drive for only an extra 5400. Such a deal. 

You gotta wonder if these Tandy 
people have spent a litde too much time in 
the Texas sun. Have you ever tried to do 
your checkbook on a computer? It's 
overkill — like using an Uzi to kill flies in the 
kitchen. And somehow, Tandy got a Good 
Housekeeping sea! of approval on the silly 
thing, asif that will help sell it, The Bandito 
can just see these things sitting in the 
kitchen next to the food processor and the 
toaster oven. Sure. You bet. 

Hey, get a clue, Tandy. Computer 
owners don't want underpowered, 
overpriced hardware. And they don't give 
a d igitized hoot for doing their checkbooks 
on a computer. They want power at a good 
price. For instance, an Amiga 500. Now 
[here's a home computer for you. Or that 
which represents the real future of home 
computing, CDT\'. 

CDTN'' is a true home computer, 
[though Commodore may market it as 
otherwise] because it provides high 
performance, remarkable ease of use, and 
a reasonable price. No, you won't want to 
do your checkbook on it. But imagine a 

CD-ROM encyclopedia with dynamic 
HAM-quaiity pictures on it. Or a game with 
HAM movies and killer audio. Of course, 
CDTV lacks a built-in storage method 
unless you buy the disk drive. But Uie cost 
is quite low. And you can always add the 
other peripherals to create a full-fledged, 
full-powered system. 

evaporating faster than free booze at a 
DevCon. So where does the market for 
other software stand these days? For 
entertainment, it's IBM, followed by Amiga, 
then Macintosh. Of course, the 
entertainment business is down overall 
from last year. No wonder the big guys are 
getting into the cartridge business. But the 
Bandito hears that the cartridge business is 
getting crowded, so it's no longer an instant 
gold mine. Plus, cartridges (even for die 
new machines like the Sega) are more 
limited than disk-based games. Could 
CDTV be the savior? It certainly looks like 
there will be a lot of sofm-are, just because 
CDTV offers a good platform. If nothing 
else, a CDTV game makes for a great PR 

plans for the Amiga market. After deciding 
to drop Amiga development, and then 
reconsidering after an outcry from Amiga 
fans, WordPerfect has been mostly silent. 
The Bandito hears that they are seriously 
considering renewed development for the 
Amiga, including WordPerfect 5.0 widi a 
tnie graphical interface and a version of 
PlanPerfect for the Amiga. Of course, this 
wouldn't happen until sometime in 1991, 
supposing that the project does get the 
green light. Commodore is lobbying 
WordPerfect in an effort to influence their 
decision; WordPerfect is the only major 
software company that supports the 
Amiga, and therefore is very important to 

Amazing Computing VS. 10 ©1990 63 


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P.O. Box 475, Manteno, IL 60950 U.S.A. 

(USA) 800-522-6922 or SIS-JSB-BOSI 

(Carnadai 800-621 -54'1<; 

Circle 120 on Reader Service card, 
Microsoft is continuing development on a 
new version of OS/2 written entirely in C 
that is said to be quite portable, even to a 
6SXXX: environment. Could we see OS/2 on 
the Amiga someday? It's possible. Though 
The Bandito doesn't know who would 
want to use it, other than some bizarre 
corporate type with masochistic 
tendencies. Hey, it takes all kinds, right? 

aimor is making the rounds once again. It 
goes (ike this: there's tliis terrible virus 
(created by an anonymous European 
hacker in most versions of the tale) that 
hides in die clock, and you can only 
eliminate it by running down tlie battery on 
your clock. Through some software hocus- 
pocus it can vsTite into normal memory and 
screw up your programs. Of course, this is 
die same kind of story that you tell at the 
campfire wlien you're tr\'ing to scare the 
little kids. And it's just about as tme, Tiie 
Bandito sez. 


Here's a hot one for you. Commodore 
put a slick ad into the business section of 
many major newspapers, offering a good 
deal on the A 2000 — they'll throw in the 
monitor for free. Sounds good, but the 
Bandito diinks they should look more 
closely before sending ads off to be 
printed. In mentioning that the Amiga can 
run MS-DOS, the ad stated diat the Amiga 

has MS-DOS "compatabUity". Good diing 
they weren't advertising a spell-checking 
program. The Bandito suggests hiring 
people who can read, write, AND spell for 
marketing. The)' don't have to be able to tie 
tlieir shoes or walk erect, though that does 
help at trade shows. Sharpen up. 
Commodore — the world is watching, 

an Agnus upgrade for their A 2000 going to 
have to buy it again to get tlie new Denise 
chip? Commodore's initial plans were to do 
just that, charging about $200 for the 
complete upgrade to 2.0 with chips and 
sofr^'are. Outcry from enraged Amigans 
may change diis, though. 

Have your photos, schematics, 

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circle 124 on Reacjer Service card. 

software surprises up their sleeve, 
according to The Bandito's snoops. They 
already dominate the page layout software 
market for tlie Amiga, and are now working 
on the graphics software market; 
apparently, they also plan to market some 
of tlie other more popular types of software 
for common office functions. Of course, 
they'll try to exploit the unique capabilities 
of the Amiga. Look for several product 
introductions in 1991. 

enterprising hackers are attempting to 
emulate a Cray computer on an Amiga, 
using softVk'are and a small hardware add- 

on module. Of course, performance is 
somewhat slower than that of an actual 
Cray, but they're working on that. And if 
you believe that rumor, the Bandito has 
some Atari stock he would like to sell you. 

million dollar bid to supply computers to 
the Treasury Depaitment, and that means 
the Feds won't be getting Amigas, after all, 
Amiga 2000s were part of the bid, and, in 
fact, were pan of the reason the contract 
was overmmed. Other vendors protested 
that Sears had fudged some of the 
requirements. Among other things, the 
A2000s in the bid included nonstandard 
101-key keyboards, and an accelerator card 
that was not certified by the FCC, Besides, 
the Amigas probably just weren't 
expensive enough for a government used 
to buying $700 hammers, 

of cheerful rumors and innuendo, has 
some very sad nev,'s to pass on. One of the 
Amiga's founding fathers, Rob Peck, 
passed away July 3 at the age of 44. Rob 
was the technical ^Titer for the original 
Amiga devel opment team and tlie author of 
many fine Amiga books. Cancer took him 
at an early age, and he will be missed. The 
Bandito suggests an appropriate gesture 
would be a donation to the American 
Cancer Societ>- in his memory. 



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64 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

AC Tops The New York Timesl 

We already knew that Amazing Computing provides its readers with more tiniely, 
more complete, more authoritative news coverage than any other Amiga publication. 

Still, even we never realized just how good our news coverage is. 

August 29, 1990 - 

The Nezo York Times 
reports on the opening 
of Battletech Center in 
Chicago. Unfortunately, 
they fail to mention that 
the 4,000-square-foot, 
$3.5 million "virtual-world 
interactive" video game 
parlor is done with Amigas. 

\ Computer Game Simulates BattJes So [?eal Tocy Almost Hurt 


July 30, 1990 - 

In its August issue. Amazing 
Computi)ig reports that Battletech 
Center will open in early August, 
and that the Amiga 500 will be at 
the heart of the system. AC gives 
complete details on the A500 
configurations that provide all input, 
graphics, sound, and communications 
to the 16 "Mech" cockpits, each of which 
contains more than 200 viable, critical 
controls, switches and readouts. 

Keep ahead of the times. 
Be an AC subscriber. 

To subscribe, distribute, or advertise, call: 
toll free: 800-345-3360 (U.S. & Canada) • 508-678-4200 • FAX: 508-675-6002 

PiM Publications, Inc. • One Currant Road • P.O. Box 869 • Fall River, MA 02722-0869 


by Craig Zupke 

visual illusions. Typical examples are drawings in which suaight 
lines appear curved, or identical lines appear to have different 
lengths, as demonstrated in Figure 1. Yet, while many people are 
aware of these visual illusions, most do not realize that we can ex- 
perience auditory illusions as well. I will describe a class of fascinat- 
ing auditoiy illusions and provide routines, written in Modula-2,to 
generate them on the Amiga. 


Figure 1. Visual Illusions: a) The straight lines appear curved, b) The two 
horizonfal lines ate the same. 

When presented with a sound, our brain tries to identify what 
It has heard, and where what it has heard is coming from. When the 
two ears are presented with conflicting information, the brain can be- 

come confused, giving rise to a perception which is dramatically dif- 
ferent from tlie sounds acttially presented. 

Dr. Diana Deutsch, a psychology professor at the University of 
California at San Diego, has extensively studied the particular t>'pe 
of illusion we will discuss here ("Musical Illusions," Scientific Ameri- 
can, Oct. 1975). An example, diagrammed in Figure 2a, consists of 
a sequence of alternating tones, an octave apart, presented simulta- 
neously to both tlie right and left ears tlirough headphones. 
However, the two sequences are out of phase, so that when the right 
ear gets a high tone, the left ear gets a low tone, and vice versa. Al- 
tliough tliis pattern of tones is quite simple, most people do not 
"hear" it correctly. Instead, they experience an auditor^' illusion, with 
tlie most common perception being that they hear a high tone in one 
ear, alternating with a low tone in the otlier. 

As shown in Figure 2b, right-handed people tend to localize 
the high tone in dieir right ear, while leit-handers are likely to localize 
the high tone in dieir left ear. It is remarkable diat even diough both 
ears are always presented with a tone, the subject perceives nothing 
in each ear half the time. Also, as shown in Figure lb, the left ear 
"hears" a low tone when it really is receivinga high tone. Although 
this is the most common perception, there can be many odiers. Ex- 
amples include: tones alternating between each ear which differ by 
less than an octave (or not at all), alternating tones with a constant 
"drone" in the background, and for some listeners the Elusion is 
subject to spontaneous reversal of the high and low tones. Interest- 
ingly, Dr. Deutsch has found that left-handers show more variation 
in tlieir perceptions than right-handers. 

Although tliistype of illusion is not completely understood, ex- 
periments indicate that there are separate mechanisms for the local- 
ization and determinadon of pitch. One ear tends to be dominant, 
and it determines what pitch is perceived, suppressing the percep- 
tion of the pitch presented to the non-dominant ear. The localization 
of pitch, on the other hand, follows die location of the higher tone. 
Thus, considering the common right-hander perception of Figure 2, 
we see that die right ear is dominant and hears the high tone. The 
left ear perceives the low tone because that is what the right ear is 
presented with, but it is localized in the left ear because diat is where 
tlie high tone is. One amazing aspect of tiiis illusion is that the 
orientation of the headphones doesn't matter. It is a very strange 
experience to listen to a pattern of tones and hear die high on die 
right alternating with tlie low on the left, tlien switch orientation of 
die headphones and find that the high tone is still on the right! 

Anodier illusion is depicted in Figure 3- This is the scale 
illusion, which consists of simultaneous ascending and descending 
scales, with each scale alternating betu'een ears, as shown in Figure 

66 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

Left ear input 

IHght ear Input 

ur } r n a » j- ^ J r j r j j 

left eor perception 

Rigtit ear perception 

i J i J i J^^ »' <g) r j r j f g 


Figure 2. The Octave Illusion: a) Patterns presented to eacti ear. b) Most common perception lor rlgtit-tionded listeners. 

3a. The most common perception is shown in Figure 3b, and consists 
of rtvo melodies, with tlie high notes occurring in the right ear and 
llie low notes in the left. For many peopie, switching lieadphone 
orientation again has no affect. What does tliis tell us about how we 
localize sound? Normally, we face complex patterns of echoes and 
reverberations which make the spacial localization of sounds 
difficult. It therefore seems reasonable that secondar\' cues, like the 
similarii)' of sounds, are im]>onant for interpreting auditory input. 
This iUnsion suggests that tlie brain automatically assumes that tones 
of similar frequencies arise from the .same source. 


Dr. Deutsch generated ihelones in her experiments using two 
Wavetek sine wave generators conti'olled by a PDP- 8 computer. 
Sine wave generators have tlie important feature d:at neitlter their 
output voltage nor the sign of their slope changes when tlie 
frequenq' is changed. This prevents any clicks, which tend to 
degrade the illusion, hi addition to the transitions betT,veen tones 
being smootli, both channels should be well synchronized, so their 
tones change simultaneously. 

When I first learned of these illusions several years ago, I 
wanted to produce tliem myself for a project in an undergraduate 

R , 

^ '^ L L 

books, I was able to understand the Audio Device well enough to 
.successfully generate the illusions. 

As mentioned eariier, it is desirable for the transition between 
tones to be smooth. This is easily accomplished by playing an integer 
number of wave forms, so the transitions always occur at the 
beginning of a cycle. While diis ensures that the wave form transition 
is smooth, il actually creates a timing problem, lx:cause v.'s arc not 
guaranteed tliat an integer nimiber of cycles will exactly fit in the 
desired time inter\'al. This means diat a transition may occur early or 
late, by as much as one-half of a cycle. 

Since the middle notes range from about 260 to 1000 cycles/ 
.second, the timing for transitions may be off by a few milliseconds. 
In addition to this sotirce-of-liming en'or, die ROM routines which 
actually control the hardware can potentially conuibute as well. With 
no way to control diese problems, I didn't worry about them. The 
bottom line is tliat liie timing seems precise enough to give rise to 
the exfjected illusions. It '^'ould be interesting to observe the output 
on an oscilloscope to determine empirically how good (or bad) the 
synchronization really is. 

The audio equipment used to listen to die illusions should be 
of good qualit)', but it need not be great (the average home .stereo 
should work fine). I've had good results with an Onkyo TX-28 tuner 

o I. R 


left ear perception 

L R L 

Rigtrl ear perception 







Figure 3. me Scale Illusion: a) Patterns presented to each ear. b) Mosf common perception for right-handed listeners. 

class "Projects in Music and Science". This was before I owned an 
Amiga, so I connected two Commodore 64's together, one for each 
channel. While my setup worked pretty well, it was a bit cumber- 
some (besides, ! had to bon-ow a friend's computer). The Amiga, on 
the otlier hand, has built-in stereo sound, and would seem ideally 
suited for exploring auditory illusions. 

After getting my Amiga 500 I challenged myself to generate illusions using Benchmark Modula-2. By suidying Rob Peck's 
AudioTools routines, as well as a few Amiga programming hand- 

along witii JVC H-404 or Koss HV/XLC headphones. The most 
important variables are die flatness of tlie headphone frequency re- 
sponse, and die balance of tlie sound le\'els to each ear. .Aldiough 
good-quality equipment gives the best results, most people will 
perceive an illusion even with poor equipment — it is just more likely 
that the perception will be more complex than the most common 
one, shown in Figure 2. 

Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 67 


The definition module AudioSaiff.DEF is a simple one, with 
only three pi-ocedure,s. InitAudioO initializes the Audio Device and 
wave forms and reutms TRUE if successful, PlayPatlern plays the 
specified pattern the desired number of lirnes. Before exiting. Audio- 
CleanUp shcHild be called to restore resources back to the system. 
The implementation module, AudioStuff.IMP, is largely modeled 
after Rob Peck's AudioTools routines, originally written in C. 

An example program making use of the AudioStuff routines is 
called Audk)!llusions.MOD. Ii can generate both the octave illu.sion 
and the scale illusion. You also have tlie option of listening to them 
with the right and left channels reversed (so you don't have to physi- 
call)' .switch the headphones). The calibration tone is included to 
help balance the output to each ear. You can also use the balance 
control to isolate each channel, and hear what is really presented to 
each ear. 

This is a very simple program and I'll leave it as an exercise for 
the reader to write a full-blown 'Amigatized' interface. 


That is ihe ty piCLil response I get from friends and relatives who 
don't share my entliustasm for these audio illusions (after I force 
tliem to listen to them!). So, what can the average Amiga user do with 
tliese illusions? Tliey have mostly been the subject of academic 
reseai'ch into the psychology of soimd and music perception. By 
studying how we interpret diese simple patterns, we can gain insight 
into how the brain works, and how ii perceives sound and music. 
Tilts program lets anyone experiment with an interesting phenom- 
ena that typically takes diousands of dollars worth of specialized 
equipment to obsen'e. 

As was the case for me, tliis could be a great project for a 
psychology or music class, and I am sure that some creative 
musician/composer could incorporate this phenomenon into a 
musical performance. Imagine a musical score diat sounds different 
to every listener, making the beauty of that music truly in the ear (or 
brain) of the behokler. 

My hope is thai this article and program will expose many 
people to a fascinating audio illusion wliich until now has only been 
ofinteresttoacademicians. Potential applications certainly exist, and 
Amiga owners being some of the most creative people around, they 
are boimd to discover them. 


I'd like 10 acknowledge the time and assistance kindly pro- 
\'ided to me b\' Dr. DetiLsch when I first became interested in these 
phenomena (back in 1985). With the exception of the Scientific 
American article, very litde has been written about tlu-se illusions in 
die popular press. Although most of the work in this field has been 
published in specialized audio and psychology journals, much of it 
is easily understood by us ordinary folk. 

For an)'one interested in learning more about auditory illu- 
sions, I recommend reading the September 1983 issue oi'ttie Journal 
of the Audio Engineering Society <yo\. 31, No. 9). The aforemen- 
tioned is a special issue devoted to auditory illusions and describes 
several different c>'pes of illusions, including those I've dealt with 
here. Also, Diana Deutsch edited a book called The Piycbology of 
Music (Academic Press. 1982) which deals with Ulusions, as well as 
otlier aspects of musical perception. 

LISTINi; OKE: MODtJLE Audiolllusion; 

This program generates two diCferent patterns of notes 
which CD.Tiaionly give rise to auijitoty illusions. Each 
pattern^ the octave illusion and the scale illusion, 
can tie played with the high tone starting in either 
ear, giving a total of 4 patterns to choose from. 

Written by Craig Zupke in Benchmark ModuLa 2. 

FROM AudioStuff 



NumOf Patterns 


InitAudio, AudioCleanUpr 
PlayPattern, channel; 
IMPORT MriceString, WriteLn* ReadCard; 


Sequence ; ARRAY {1. .NuiiOf Patterns) OF PatternType; 

loops : ARRAY (l..NumOfPatterns| OF CARDINAL; 

duration : ARRAY [1 . .NunOf Patterns] OF CARDINAL; 


ARRAY (1. ,NU3iOf Patterns 1 or CARDINAL 


Write5t;^ing ( String ); 


END Cleanup; 


OK := InitAudioO; 


Cleanup ( "Problem wi-h InicAudio" ); 


{* Sequence 1 1 1 is a calibration tone *} 
SequencellHleft, 0] :- S; Sequence [1] [right, 
length[l] :- 0; 
duratlontl! := 500; 
loopstU :- 20; 

(' SequenceI2] is the octave illusion ') 

0! :- 5; 

:- 5; Sequence [2Hright, 01 ■.- 12; 
;- 12;Sequence[2| [right, 1| ;- 5; 

SequencefZI (left, 01 
Sequencei2| [left, II 
length [2] :* 1; 
durationI2I :■ 250; 
loopsU] :- 15; 

I" 3emjenceI3] is octave illusion with L and R switched '1 

Sequence [31 [left] := Sequence [2] [right] ; 

Sequence[31 [right] :- Sequence [2] [ left] ; 

lcngch[3) :- length(2!; 

ciuration[3] ;- durationi21; 

loops [3] :- loops [2]; 

(* Sequence [4 J is Che 

Sequence [■]] [left. 




Sequence[11 [left. 




Sequenqe[4] [left. 




Sequence [4] [left, 




SequenceHl [left. 




Sequence(fl] [left. 




Sequence^] [left. 




Sequence[4) [left. 




length [4] := 7; 

duratian[4] := 2S0; 

loops [fl] := 5; 

scale illusion *) 

Sequenced] [right, 01 

Sequence [41 {right, 1] 

Sequencel^l [right, 2] 

Sequence [4 1 [right, 3] 

Sequence(4](right, H] 

Sequence[4][ right , 5 ] 

Sequence [ 4 1 [ right , 6 ] 

Sequence [4] [right, 7] 

f Sequence[51 is scale illusion with L and R switched 

Sequence(51 [left] :- Sequence 14) [right] ; 

SequencelS] [right] :- Sequence{4] [left j ; 

length[5] := length[4I; 

doration[5] ;. duration[4]; 

loops[Sl :- loopsUl; 

Em InitStuff; 


68 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

(• Form Feed to clear screen ■) 

Auditory Illusions: "> ; 

Calibracion tone") ; 

Octdve Illusion") ; 

CcCave rilusiori with R and L swirched"); 

Scale Illusion"! ; 

Scale Illusion with R and L switched"); 

Which pattern? (1-5, □ to quit): ") ,- 

(* Print menu and get choice of illusion (or quit) . 

number : CARDIHftL; 



WriceStringt I'^C J 

Write Ln, • 

WriteString t" 



WriteString (" 




WriceString {"* 








ReadCard (number) ; 

UNTIL number <- NurnOfPatterns 
RETURI,' number; 
EtJD GetChoice; 



choice :^ GetChoice O; 

WKIlnE choice # Do 

Plav?attern( Sequence [choice! , 

length [choice] , 

duration [choice] , 

choice := GetChoice (); 
CleanUpC^No Problems"); 
END Aiidiolllusion. 


This -MODULE is designed to play sinple patterns of notes 
to each channel- Much of the code was inspired by 
Rob Peck^ s RudioTcols routines originally written in C, 
The routines in this module are greatly sirapLified and 
specialized for creating audio illusions. Some of the 
limitations include: 

no sampled sounds, only one waveform (sine), 
only two octaves, and no sharps or flats. 

Written by Craig Zupice using Benchmark Modula 2. 



channel = 


(* Arbitrary maximum length of pattern *1 
{* REST in a pattern villi play nothing *^ 

(left, right}; 

PatternType = ARRAY [ left ,. right ], fO . .E-iAXNDTES] OF CARDINAL; 
(* We only have two octaves so the values of the AHRAV 
can range from to 13. Note 1 is ffiiddle C. 


(* Initialises AudioOevice and waveforms. Returns TRUE if 
successful. IF FALSE then must call ^Cleanup' to free 
up any resources that might have been allocated. •) 

PROCEDURE PlayPattern^ 

pattern : PatternType; 
number : CARDINAL; (* number of notes *) 

duration i CARDINAL; (* in milliseconds • ) 
loops : CARDINAL {• times to repeat -J 
J ; 
Plays the pattern of notes with the left and right 
channels synchronized. The length of the pattern is 
contained in 'nu.-nber', the duration of all the notes as 
well as the number of tines to repeat the pattern are 
also specified. 

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PROCEDURE AodioCieanUp; 

(■ Free all resources claimed with ^InitAudio' 

END AudioStuff. 


This MODULE contains the routines which drive the 
AudioDevice. They are specifically designed to play 
repeating patterns of notes to both the right and left 
channels for the purpose of creating auditory illusions. 

Much of this module was derived from Rob Peck's 
AudioTooIs routines. It has been pared down quite a bit 
so it is much less general than the original. I found 
this process very instructive as I had to understand 
the worlcings cf the AudioDevice pretty well in order to 
modify and eliminate unnecessary parts. 

Many thanks go out to Rob Peolc and to Ervin Thompson 
(whose M2 translation I used as a starting point] . 

Written by Craig ZupKe, using Benchmark Modula 2, 

FROM AudioDevice 

FROM lODevices 


FROM Henicry 


IMPORT AudioChannelsSet, LeftO, RightOj 

Leftlr Rightl, AudioNane, 
lOAudio, lOAudioPtr^ 
ADIONoWait, ADIOPerVol; 
If^ORT lOFlagsSet, CmdWrite^ OpenDevice, 
CloseDevioe, BeginIO, WaitlO^ 
CevicePtr, UnitPtr, CmdStart, 
CmdStop, lOQuick; 

IMPORT MriteStrinc, WriteLn; 

IMPORT MemReqSet, MemChip, AHocHem* 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 69 

fROM Ports 
FROM PorcsUlil 
FROM Tasks 
PROM MachLibO 
FROM InltMathLlbO 
FROM Conversions 



IMPORT MsgPortPtr, MessagePCr, GeEKsg; 

IMPORT CreacePort, DeletePorC; 
IMPOBT SignalSeC, Wait; 

IMPORT sin^ real, pi; 
IMPORT OpenHathLibO, CloseMathLibO; 
IKPORT Cor.vScringToHaffiier; 



(* Size of largesc waveform *) 
(• nu.Tiier of waveforms [2 octaves) •) 
' BicwAVE d:v 2; 

(■ total size of waveform data *> 
(■ diatonic scale (no sharps or flatsl "1 
(* nurrber of I/O message blocks *J 

CLOCKFREQ - 3579545D; 



WavePtr - POINTER TO WaveData; 

Name - ARSAY |0,.l) OF CHAR; 


(* AudioDevice 

AudDevicePtr : 

OpenHsg : 

OpenMsgPtr : 

AudioIOBs ; 

inuse : 

AudioPortPtr : 

ControlPortPtr : 

channels : 

AllocKey : 

unit : 

I/O variables *1 




ARHAY 10.. lOBNUHBER] OF lOAudio; 






ARRAY ileft-.tightj OF UoicPcr; 

ARRAY [ . . I0BKUH3ER1 OF Name; 


Have form variables 



MaveLength : ARRAY [0. .MAVEHUM-1] OF CABDINAL; 

WaveOtfset : ARRAY 10. .HAVEHUM-1] OF CARDINAl; 

Wave : WavePtr; 

volume ; CARDINAL; 

KatbLibOpanned : BOOLEAN; 

PROCEDURE AudioCleanUp; 
(' Close, delece, 

and free allocated resources 



IF AudDevicePtr I NIL THEN CloseDevice lOpenMsgPtrl ; END; 

IF AudioPortPtr 4 NIL THEN DelecePorc lAudiOPortPtr'") ; END; 

IF ControlPortPtr I NIL THEN DeletePort ICintrolPorcPcr"! ; END; 

IF Have f NIL THEN FreeMem <Wave, WAVETOTALI ; END; 

IF HathLlbOpenned THEN CloseMathLibO; END; 
END AudioCleanUp; 

PROCEDURS StereoOpenneddOBloclePtr : lOAudioPtr ) 
f Try to open any stereo pair ■) 


NumberOf Masks <• 4; 

SCereoMasit : ARRAY [0. .Nun*erOfKas!ts-!l Of AudioChannelsSet; 



- AudioCha,inelsSet(Leftl,Rig.hc01; 

- AudiocnannelsSet(LeftO,RighcOI; 

- AudioChannelsSet (Lef to, Rightl I; 
= AudioChannelsSet ( Lctcl , Right 1 1 ; 

lOFlagsSet [ADIONoKait ) ; 

- ADRistereoMasic); 

- SIZEIScereoHaslt); 

WITH lOBlockPcr- DO 



END ("WITH'); 

RETURN OpenDevicel AOR{AudioNane| , OD, lOBiockPtc, ODI - OD; 
END stereoOpenned; 

PROCEDURE InitArrays; 



'■ ■''« Period values I chose arc different fro 

commonly seen tie. in Rob Peck's AudioTools) . I chose 
a BIGWAVE of 5fi in an attempt t& ffliriiisize the harmonics 
which can be quite .aoticable at tiaies. Even this set 
is not perfect. What would probably be best is to have 
several different wave forms, each responsible for a 
fraction of an octave. in that way each small range 
could be optimized by itself. "j 


:- 244 


■= 218 


:- 194 


= 133 


!■ 163 


- 145 


:» 129 


. 122 

VlaveLength[01 :- BIGWAVE,- WaveLengthtl) :• BIGWAVE OIV 2; 

MaveOffsec[0| :- 0; WaveOtfset 11] ;- BIGWAVE; 

AudioIOBNamelO] := -0"; AudioIOBName [1] := -1"; 
AudioI03NameI2] :- "2"; AudioIOENaneni :■= "3"; 


inuse[i| :- FALSE; 
END InitArrays; 


t" Initialize the 1/0 Blocks for communicating with the 
AudioDevice. We give them each a name so that we can 
keep track of which ones are free CO use, *), 


string - ARRAY i0..6| OF CHAR; 

i : CA.RDiNAL; 
StringPtr : POINTER TO string; 


AudioIOBs [il . loaRequest. ioDevice :■ AudDevicePtr; 
AudioIOBs [ i] . loaRequest. ioMessage-:anNode. InName 

;• ADR (AudioIOBName [1] 1 ; 
AudioIOBsU! -ioaAllocKey :- AllocKey; 
END InitlOBs; 

PROCEDURE HakeSineiwptr : MavePCrl; 




wptr":i] :- SYTEtTRCNC) 

sin (2.0 'pi "real (i)/real [BIGWAVEl 1 '120.0 

IF (i MOD 2( » THEN (■ make second wave half as big •) 

wptr"[(i DIV 21 * BIGWAVE] :- wptfti]; 
END ["IF'); 
END KakeSine; 


I* If chip RAH is available make the two sine waves 



Wave := AllocMemtWAVETOTAL, HemReqSet (."lemChipl ) ; 

OK := [Wave I NILl ; 

IF OK THEN MakeSine(Wavel ; END; 

END MaXeWaves; 




MathLibOpenned :■ OpenHathLibO () ; 
OK := MathLibOpenned; 

OK :- HakeWaves ( I ; 
END ('IF'); 




CreatePort (NIL.OI ; 
(AudioPortPtr t NIL); 

70 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

ConcrolPortPtr :- CreatePort INIL, 0) ; 
OK := IConcrolJorLPtr i till,); 


Op&nMsgPcr :- ADKiOpenMsg) ; 

IF ScereoOpenneaiOpenMsgPcr) TKEN 

AudDevicePtr := OpenMsgPtr" . ioaRequest . loDevice; 
channels : = AudloChar.nelsSet ( 

OpenMsgPur". ioaRequesT: .ioUnit) ; 
AllocKey :^ OpenKsgPtr*. ioaAllo::Key; 
unit [left] := ADDRESS ( channels • 

AudioChannBlsSeC ILeftO, Left! ) I ,- 
unit [right! ;= ADDRESS I channels ' 

AudioChannelsSec IRightO, Righcl ) ) ; 

OK := "ALSE; 
END (>ir-i,- 
END ("rF'l; 
volume ;- 32; 
EIJD initAudio; 

PROCEDURE RetrievelOBlocJcs; 

(" Frees up all I/O Blocks which have finished, modifies 

^inusetl' to reflect new status. 

nuniber ; LONGCARD; 

stringPtr ; POINTER TO ARRAY t0..1] OF CHAR; 

string : AHRAI [0..1J OF CHAR; 

successful : BOOLEAN; 

iobPtr : lOAudioPtr; 


iobPtr ;- (GetMsg(AudiaPortPtr*l I ; 
WHILE iobPtr # KIL DO 

stringPtr : ■» iobPtr^ . ioaRequest , ioMeasage .mnNode . InName; 
successful :- ConvStringToNuffiber (StringPtr^, number, 

FALSE, 101; 
IF successful THEN 

inuse [CARDINAL (number) ] :^ FALSE; 
ELSE ( ■ this should never happen •) 

WriteString ("Unexpected message name: ") ; 
Writestring (string) ,- 
END (-IF"); 

iobPCr :- GetMsg(AudioPortPtr") ; 
END RetrieveIOBloc)is; 


SignalMask ; SignalSet; 

<« This would probably be a good place to detect a signal 
to abort. Either a button clic)( from intuition or 
perliaps CTRL C. 

SignalMask := SignalSetl CARDINAL(AudioFortPtr^ .DpSigBit) ); 
IF Wait ISignalHask) - SignalMask THEN 

END ("IF"); 
END WaitForlOB; 


(* This function returns a pointer to the next available 

Audio I/O Block. •] 


found : BOOLEAtI; 



i :»* 0; 

found := FALSE; 


IF inuselil - FALSE THEN 
inuseti) !- TRUE; 

Audio I(3Bs 1 il . ioaRequest .ioHessage.nnRepLyPort 
:= AudioPortPtr; 
found :- TRUE; 
END ("IF"); 
UNTIL (found - TRUE) QR (i > lOBKUtlSER] ; 
IF NOT found THEN 




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found :- WairForlOB () ; 


RETUBB ADR(AudiDlOB5[i-ll) ; 
IF found THEN 


E!JD <-IF->; 
EKD GetlOB; 

PROCEDURE PrepareForWtiCedobPtr : lOAudioPtr; 

Chan ! channel ) ; 
(* Prepare I/O Block to send a copi-TLand to proper channel, ■} 


WITH icbPLr' 



. ioUnit := unit[chan},- 

ioa Request 

. ioComnanci ;^ CmdWrite; 


.ioFlags := lOFlagsSet { ADIOPerVol ] 


. iDMessage.innR.eplyPDrt: :- AudioPortPtr,' 

END rwITH*); 

END ^repareForWr 


PROCEDURE PlayNacef chan : channel; 

note : CARDINAL; 

wavefsrin : WavePtr; 

volume I CARDINAL; 

duration ; LOKGCARD; 

niessage : Messa^gePtr} : BOOLEAN; 


period ; 


length : 


octave : 


WavePo inter : 


iabPtr : 


frequency : 


Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 71 








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iobPtr := GecIOBO ; 
IF iobP=r * NIL THEN 
IF note = REST THEN 
volume :^ 0; 
note :- 0; 

prepareForWrite i iobPLr, Chan) ,- 
octave :- note DIV (SCALES12E-1J ; 

IF octave > WAVEHUM - 1 THEN 

WriceSnring ("Note out of range"}; 
note i^ 0; 
tfoiurne ;•» 0; 

WavePointer :^ waveforra; 

INC (ADDRESS (WavePointer) , tONGCAKO (WaveOf fset loctave] ) ) ; 
length := WaveLengch [octave] ; 
period := Period{note XOD tSCALESIZE-i) 1 ; 
iobPtr*.ioaData := WavePointer; 
iobPtr^-ioaLength ;= LONGCARD (length) ; 
iobPtr" -ioaPeriod := period; 
iobPtr" .ioaVolume := volume; 
iobPtr*. ioaRequesc-ioUnit := unit (chanl ; 
frequency :- CLOCKFREQ DIV {LONGCARD Uength • period)]; 
lobPtr'.ioaCycies :« CARDINAL^ 

tfreqiiency * duration) DIV lOCOD) ; 
BeginIO (iobPtr) ; 

END {•IF-l; 
ET'D PlayNotej 

Couldn't get an AudioIOE 

PROCED'JRE WaitTillDone; 

(' Wait for all commandE to AudioDevice to be finished *) 




IF inuselii THEN 

IF WaitIO(ADR|AudiOlOBs|in J - OD THEN 

ifluselil :- FALSE; 
END (*IF'}; 
EHD [*FOR*); 
END WaitTillDone; 


= CTid; 

= AudDevicePtr; 

- UnitPtr{charinels> ; 

= lOFlagsSet ilOQuic'n 1 ; 


PROCEDURE Ccrnmand { Cmd ; CARDINAL) ; 
{- Sends a command to AudioDevice using 


CommandBlock : lOAudio; 

WITH CommandSlock DO 
ioaKequest , ioCoruTiand 
ioaRequest . ioDevice 
ioaRequest . ioUjiit 
ioaRequBSt . ioFlags 
ioaRequest .ioMessage.mnReplyPort 
loaAllocKey :- AllocKey 
END ('WITH*); 

SeginiO (ADR (ConunandBloc^) ] 
EMD CorrJTiand; 

PROCEDURE Synchronize ( pattern ! PatternType; 

duration : CARDINAL ) ; 

i* This routine queues up the first note for each channel 

before telling AjdioDevice to play them. In this way 

any delays between the left and right channels starting 

are Tfiinimized., This is important for the proper 

generation of a Certain type of audio illusion. *) 


sec; IN 

CORunand (CcndStopI ; 

OK :-' PlayNote (left, pattern [left, 0] , Wave, 

voluTTie, duratior., NIL); 

OK := PlayNoce (rights pattern [right, 0] , Wave, 

volurae, duration, NIL); 

Command (CndStarc) ; 
END Synchronize; 

PROCEDURE PlaySeguence( pattern ; PatternType; 
duration : CARDINAL,- 

number ; Cardinal; 
loops : CARDINAL ) ; 
<* Play the repeating pattern e:<cept for the first note 

which has already been taken care of by the Synchronize 
procedure- ■) 


i, i : CARDINAL; 

{* play pattern once, skipping first ncte •) 
FOR i ;= 1 TO numJoer DO 

OK '.- PlayNote (left, pattern[left, i). 

Wave, volume, duration, NILl ; 
OK ;" PlayNote (tight, patterA[right, i]. 

Wave, volume, duration, NIL); 
END {*FOR*); 

1* Now play the complete pattern the rerr^ining # of tines •) 
FOR j i^ 1 TO loops DO 

FOR i := TO number DO 

OK := PlayNote (left, pattern [left, i], 

Wave, volume, duration, NIL) ; 
OK :^ PlayNote (right, pattern [right, ij, 

Wave, volume, duration, NIL) ,- 
END («F0R*1 ; 
END (*FOR«l; 
END PlaySequence; 

PROCEDURE PlayPatternI pattern i PatternType? 
number : CARDINAL? 

duration : CARDINAL; 

loops : CARDIKAL ) ; 

Synchronize (pactern, duration) ; 

PlaySequence (pattern, duration, nurtber, loops) ; 
END PlayPattern; 

END AudioStuff, 


72 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

by Stephen Kemp * 

to dismantle our office and live out of a box for a while. After 
adding a tiled floor, new moldings, and fresh paint, we have finally 
begun tlie process of restoring the office to its former glory. 
Runimaging tlirough some old diskettes during the process, I 
found somediing I want to present for this month's column. 

As I have mentioned in tlie past, I find it is good practice to 
never throw out the code I have written for programs. Just archive 
tliem up to conserve space and put them away. For myself, 
conserving space is always of importance. When I have a directory 
of files diat I am not currently using, I archive tliem using one of 
the public domain archive programs like ARC. This allows me to 
have the maximum amount of free space available at all times on 
my disk — provided that I remove the files from the disk after they 
have been archived. 

Early renditions of these programs did not provide for tlie 
removal of die files from the disk once archi\'ed. This prompted 
me to write a program named Arcdel diat would examine an 
archive file and remove any files that had been extracted. After its 
completion, I released it into the public domain in the PC DOS 
world. This program is still very \-aluable to me and others that I 
work widi daily. It is used extensi\'ely in batch programs and 
"make" programs used to perform regular programming orlinking 
operations. Usually the process goes sometliing like this; Extract 
the source and objects from the archive; make some changes; 
recompOe and relink; update the archive with the changed 
modules; and, finally, run Arcdei to clean off die disk. 

When land one of my co-workers got Amigas (many, many 
moons ago) this was one of the programs we needed. My friend 
Tony offered to port the program to tlie Amiga and I agreed to 
provide tlie original source (since I never throw source away). 
After completing it, he placed the Amiga version in the public 
domain too. And we have all lived happily ever after.... 

Now, I am using the source again as a topic for this column. 
It is provided in Listing One. I don't diink it is necessary to explain 
everything about the code, but there are t%'o things that should be 
pointed out: One is in regards to porting between machines; the 
second pertains to porting between compilers. 

One diing that Kernighan and Ritchie warn against in their 
book The C Programming Language is to not rely upon the 

specific "format" used to store data types internally by the 
machine. For instance, a long integer requires 4 bytes of storage 
in both die IBM PC (Intel) world and in the Amiga (68000 
Motorola) world. However, although each is 4 bytes in length, the 
format used to store liie data is not the same on both machines. 

In general, most prograrruners never have to worry about 
such things. If you declare a variable of some type in die C 
language, you are assigned whatever is required/supported by 
your environment for that type. However, when you want to write 
programs diat can "trade" data between environments, tiien you 
must consider such things. Archive programs just happen to fit in 
this category. The originators of diese pi'ograms wanted to ensure 
that die archive files could be transferred between different 
machines since it was a convenient way to send large amounts of 
data compressed into a smaller size. AlUiough it still requires a 
version of the program specific to the environment, the archive 
files themselves are "portable". The program diat I have provided 
in Listing One must take this into account when determining the 
size of the file stored within the archive. 

You will notice that in the "header" structure, defined at die 
top of the program, the "size" area is simply defined as a character 
array for 4 bytes. This is die simplest definition possible that will 
allow the program to derive the necessary information from the 
data. The size is stored in those 4 bytes with the lowest significant 
byte first (size[0]), followed by die next sequentially significant 
byte (size[l]), etc. By enforcing this storage mediod in die archive 
file, it becomes possible to use tlie archive in different 

If you are familiar widi the internal storage format of longs 
on the Amiga, you know diat \he metliod used in tlie archive is not 
the same. Some of you may now assume that tills must be the way 
Intel machines (IBM PCs) store longs, however it is not compadble 
there either. If you simply defined a long in die header structure 
on either machine you would not use the proper value. I have to 
assume diat this method probably did originate on some 
architecture, but no matter where it came from, it is simple to 

In our code, the actual size is determined by "adding" the 
sequential bytes together. The first byte is simply assigned into the 
variable. Next, byte 2 is multiplied by hex 100 (256) and added to 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 73 

the original by:e. Byte 3 is multiplied by hex 10000 and byte 4 by 
hex 1000000, each in aim added to the sum. After al! four bytes 
have been accumulated (via tlieir formula), the variable now 
contains die size of the compressed data. This size is later used to 
move to the next file header contained in the archive file, which 
brings us to our second topic — poning betv.'een compilers. 

Over the years, I have always tried to enstire that the code 
presented in this column would he as compatible between 
compilers and environments as possible. On many occasions, I 
have -^'ritten the program on the Amiga and then recompiled it on. 
die PC just to ensure compatibility. However, few programs ever 
pass the test entirely. 

After digging out die program for diis article, I decided to 
recompile it using my Lattice C (which neither Tony nor myself 
had back in the good of days). To my surprise it compiled just fine 
without changing one line. ..however, it did not work. Debugging 
into the situation revealed two incompatibilities between Lattice 
and Manx. The listing diat I have provided has been modified to 
allow you to select which compiler you will be using and will 
"adjust" the two items accordingly. If you want to compile with tlie 
lvL\NX compiler all yoti have to do is force die definition of 
MA>JXC to occur by removing the comment markers surrounding 
the statement, "-define iVLANXC". 

The first difference can be found in the fopen function. 
Manx apparently assumes that files should Iw opened in a binary 
mode automatically when using fopen. This fact never really 
bothered me in the past — I suppose since 1 didn't realize it before. 
But Lattice requires you to indicate the binary mode when 
opening the file. You could change die mode later, but diis 
program ^vill always require binary mode, so why not open it that 
way? If I were pressed to say which nielliod ! prefer, I would have 
to pick Lattice's bu t, as 1 have said, I have used Manx for years with 
no problems. 

A second difference was discovered in the fseek function. 
This one is a litde more baffling dian the first. Under Manx, it is 
necessary to decrement tlie seek distance derived by the size 
formula. I am not sure but, if I had to guess, I would say that one 
assumes that the current position in tlie file represents the byte to 
read next, and the other assumes that the current position is the 
last byte diat you read. 

For instance, consider a number line like this: 
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10. If you are positioned on the 1, does tliis mean 
that you haue read the 1 or will read the 1? In one scenario, 9 
moves are required to reach the 10; in die other, 10 are required. 
Who is right? I don't know. This is die first time I have encountered 
somediing like this. As with the first instance, a statement will be 
included if you are compiling with the Manx compiler tliat will 
perform the adjtistment. 

These types of situations are bound to occur when porting 
between machines and compilers. Sometimes nothing we can do 
as programmers (assuming you have to keep portability in mind) 
■u-ill prevent such problems. The most you can do is use these 
e%'ents as learning experiences that will make it easier the next 
time a port is required. 

For diose interested, I have MANX version 3.6 (although I 
diink 3.4b was used for Arcdel) and Lattice version 5.04. Perhaps 
latter revisions are available and these problems no longer exist. 
Tr\' a few experiments and see. 

LISTING ONE: Arcdel. c 

hzcdsl examines deterraines what files are contained in an archive */ 

/* file and if that file exists in the directory (outside the archive) */ 

lent '/ 
froa "/ 

then it is deleted from the directory. This provides a convenie 

way CO clean up a disk after you have finished using the files 

an archive. 

Originally writte.-i for ?C EQS by Stephen Kenip 

Ported to the A.T.iga by Tony Jackson for MANX C 

Hew modification nayr added to work on Lattice C 

f include <stdio.h> 

/-tdefine MANXC*/ 
Sifdef t-lMJXC 

tdefine RMDDE "r" 

• define R.^:aDE "rb" 

typedef struct 

char start; 

char type; 

char name 113] ; 

char size [4]; 

char date [2]; 

char tiine!2]; 

char crc[2]; 

char length[4]; 
} heads; 

tdefine UL_ {unsigned long} 

eKtern int errno; 

main (argc, arg*.?) 
unsigned argc; 
char ■argv[]; 


/* printf, fopen, fread, fseek, unlink 

/• if using MAHXC "un-con-jnent" the define 

/* archive entry header format */ 

/* start of a compressed file */ 

/* type of compression^ used */ 

/* file name */ 

/* size of file, in bytes */ 

/* creation date */ 

/* creation time */ 

/* cyclic redundancy check */ 

/* true file length •/ 

/* global error number ^/ 

heads hdr; 
int i; 
FILE 'ifp; 
unsigned long 



naffles E256] ; 

if (argc — 1) { 

printf f*ARCDEL pattern. ARC [pattern. ARC) T. Jackson 03-2&-S8\n"J ; 
printf!" original author S. KenpNn"); 

printf <*■- Remove files that have been extracted from AKC filesNn"); 
eKit (1) ; 

printf (-ARCDEL T. Jackson 03-28-88\n") ; 
for (i=l; i < argc; ++i) i 

printf {"**** !iS ***'\n",argv[ i] ) ; 
if (iifp = fopen(argv[i], RHODE) ) == NULL) { 
St rcpy (names, argv( i) ) ; 
strcat (names, " . arc") ; 
it ((ifp = fopen (names, RHODE)) -- NULL) I 

printf ("ARCDELiCan' t open %s\n", argv[i] ) ; 
printf C^Error number: %d\n",errno) ; 
for (;;) { 

if (freaddchar *1 Shdr,si:eof (heads) , 1, ifp) < 1) ( 


siz =* UL_ hdr.size to] ; /* take low order */ 

siz s= 255; /" not sign extended '/ 

slz +- (aL_ hdr.size 111 • UL_ OxlOO); 
siz += (tJL_ hdr.size [2] • DL_ OxlOOOO); 
siz f (UL_ hdr.sizeO] • UL_ OklOOOOOO); 
if (hdr.type == 01 ( /* end of arc file */ 

if (unlihk( -■ 0) 

printf (" Deleted %s\n'', ; 
lifdef KANXC 

siz-; /* reduce seek distance by 1 for MANX */ 
fseektifp, siz, 1) ; /* seek from here*/ 


fclose lifp) ; 


74 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 

CALL Assembly Language 
From Modula-2 

with applications to BASIC 

by Martin F. Combs 


grating small, fast machine language programs into BASIC. The procedure included 
creating a set of DATA statements and POKEing them into an array. This is only one way 
of getting machine language into an array; another method appropriate for both BASIC 
and Modula-2 will be discussed in this article. 

Here is a very simple Modula-2 program to illustrate the 
procedure of integrating machine language into Modula-2. It was 
compiled witli the TDI version of Modula-2 but should be compat- 
ible witlT any odier \'ersion. 

MODULE PassParameters; 



FROM LonglnOuc IMPORT WriteLongInt; 


startcode: ADDRESS; 

p[01 : — 34567; 



ptli] :-LONG(0'IE754E71H) ; 

startcode: "ADR (p(l 01 ) ,- 

SETBEG 16, startcode) ; 

CODE (2 0112), ■ 

WriteLonglnt (pfll , 8) ; WriteLn 
END PassParaT.eters. 


What tliis program is supposed to do is certainly not apparent 
from looking at it. It obviously writes out the value of the long 
integer in p[ll, but what might that be? Actually, it writes out the 
number -34567, which originally was stored in p[0]. Since the first 
few lines of tlie program are pretty standard stuff, let's start widi the 
assignment of values to p[]0] through p[l4]. These are just the 
machine language program. Then the function ADR assigns the 
location of tlie 10th element of die p-array to the variable stancode. 
SETREG(8,startcode) puts die value of startcode in register 8, wliich 
is die address register aO. Registers dirough 7 are die data registers. 
Modula-2 permits insertion of machine language code into a 
program by including it in parentlieses following CODE, and in 
dieor>' a large program could be shoved into one CODE statement. 
Tliat would be messy, and would not provide an easy mediod to 
pass parameters to and from the machine language program. 
Therefore the only code is 20112, which translates as jsr (aO). The 
in.struction is simply a direction to jump to the location pointed to 
by aO, and that location holds variable p[10], the start of die machine 

movem. 1 




move , 1 


movem . 1 






language program. This sequence of startcode, SETREG and CODE 
statements can be used to start any machine language program 
mnning from Modula-2. 

Let's look at die assembly language program: 

save registers 
point to p[0) 
move p[01 to p[ll 
restore registers 

The first line is unnecessary in a program as simple as this, 
but saving registers is a safe habit to get into, and it provides an easy 
way to recognize the sta rt of the program. More atxiu t that later. As 
discussed in the previous article, the lea instruction causes register 
aO to point to p[0]. The move instrucdon moves the contents of p[0] 
to p[l]. The registers are then restored and the program returns to 
Modula-2. The program is trivial, but it illustrates passing parame- 
ters to and from die machine language program, an absolute 
necessity in any program. 

Once the assembly language is written, it needs to be as- 
sembled, for which the a68k public domain assembler works fine. 
I usually also follow that by linking widi the blink linker. Both are 
available on Fred Fish Disk #110, and a later version of a68k is 
available on Fred Fish Disk #1S6. Using die output of the linker or 
assembler to create a file of Modula-2 assignment statements like 
diose of p[10] through p[l4] takes less effort than might be expected. 
A good text editor helps, and an outstanding text editor is readily 
available in the public domain. This is Matt Dillon's dme editor, 
available most recendy on Fred Fish Disks *168 and *169, but also 
on -153, -134, or =113 if you happen to have one of them. 

If you are new to the dme text editor, the first thing to do is 
to read the documentation, with a copy of die file with the strange 
name ".edrc" close at hand. This file is kept in the s directory, but 
the mappings in it can be supplemented by another .edrc file which 

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yoLi will create and keep in the same directory with your assembly 
language programs. The documentation for dme is far from easy 
reading, but mastery of dme is uemendously rewarding. At any race, 
here are three lines which can be put into the .edrc Tile which you 
will create. 

map A-£ (top first repeat -1 (repeat 5 right repeat 5 bs down) ) 
map A-g Itop first repeat -1 (repeat 38 right remeol first down)) 
map A-h (top first findstr 1 ) repstr 'H\ ) ;p[ ] :"LONG\ (0' repeat 

-1 (Note: this should all be on one line.) 

In the map A-h line the single quote following repstr is a left 
single quote, the one just above tlie TAB key. The single quote 
following on the same line is die right single quote, the one on 
tlie same key as the double quote. From ilie dme documentation, 
you might diink tliat parentheses would do the job, but at least in 
the version of dme I am using the single quotes are necessarj'. 

A bit of explanation of dme is in order here. Top means move 
the cursoi' to the top of the file, and first means move it to the left 
edge. Repeat Cakes two arguments, first the number of times to be 
repeated, and second the operation to be done. If more than one 
operation is to be done, tlien tliese operations must be enclosed in 
parentheses. Repeat -1 means essentially repeat forever, but the 
repetition will be terminated when the end of the file is reached. 
Right moves the cursor right, down moves it down and bs is a back- 

space. Remeol removes everything on a line after the cursor. Findstr 
specifies a string to be searched for, in this case a space. Repstr 
specifies a replacement string, in this case the string 
H);pO:=LO.\G(0. The two backslashes are necessarj', since they tell 
dme to regard the parentheses as parendiesis symbols rather than 
as delimiters. Nextr means find the next occurrence of the string 
specified by findstr and replace it with the string specified by repstr. 

The machine language in the p-array is in hexadecimal, since 
an easy way to create a file of machine language numbers is to use 
tlie opt h option of the DOS type command. Assume that you have 
created an assembly language file called mach.asm and have 
assembled and linked it to create a file called mach. From CLI use 
die command "type mach opt h to mach.txt". Now you have a file 
called mach.txt whidi consists of several rather odd looking lines. 
The first thing on each line is the line number, 4 digits followed by 
a colon. Use dme to edit the file. Holding down one of the Amiga 
keys, hit f and tlie line numbers disappear as if by magic. (Review 
the previous paragraph to see why.) Next, hold down an Amiga 
key and hit g and the right half of die file disappears, What is left 
is the hexadecimal code you want, plus some code which you don't 
want. Hold down one of the Amiga keys and hit h, and die file is 
almost in the proper form. You will want to check on tlie mappings 
CONTLOL s and CONTROL j in die .edrc file to make tlie file look 
more orderly. 

In Modula-2, hexadecimal numbers muse be followed with an 
H, and if the number starts widi A through F it must be preceded 
with a 0. Since it is a bit tedious to track down which numbers start 
with A dirough F, we might as well put an extra zero in front of all 
of them. The option opt h of the type command produces groups 
of 8 hexadecimal digits each of which fits nicely into a 32 bit 
LONGINT or LONGCARD array. It would be simpler to have a p- 
array of LONGCARD type, but in many cases the parameters to be 
passed in the same array will be both positive and negadve 
numbers. Using the type transfer hmction LONG will permit 
passing signed parameters. 

The only tasks remaining are to get rid of the extra code put 
in by the assembler and linker and to put the appropriate array 
indices between each D. Since we started the program with a 
movem instruction, we need to find it and discard everything above 
it. All movem instructions start with 48E7 in hexadecimal, so find 
48E7 and discard everything abo\'e ii, usually about two lines of 
junk. If you end all assembly language programs with two or three 
nop instructions tliey will also be easy to find, since nop instructions 
transiate into 4E71. Another clue is tlie rts instruction, which 
translates into 4E75, though not all programs end widi rts. Discard 
tlie 4E71 numbers and any after diem, unless of course 4E71 is the 
lower half of die last number of the array. Typing in die indices is 
the most time consuming part of the job. Ever\thing else takes 
much more time to describe than to do, and once the .edrc file is 
set up it becomes a matter of seconds to process the file. Widi a bit 
of practice the file of assignment statements used in this Modula- 
2 program can be produced from die mach file in under two 

Creating a file of assignment statements to fit into a iModula- 
2 program is easy, and it is just as easy to apply the same teclinique 
to assignment statements for a BASIC program. The main differ- 
ences are diat square brackets in Modula-2 become parentheses in 
BASIC (remember the backslash) and that the semicolons separat- 

(continued on page 94) 

76 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

Koch Flakes 

Using the preprocessor to organize your programming 

by Paul Castonguay 


uses the preprocessor to perform selective compilation, producing 
executable code by compiling only certain sections of a file 
containing C source code. It is not a complete presentation of the 
preprocessor's command set. That has been done well enough by 
other authors (see AC V4.3, March, 1989, or CPhmerPlushy Waite, 
Prata, & Martin, Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., 1985). Instead, this 
article uses the concepts from those articles in a real world example, 
using the Amiga's Intuition environment. The example's several 
hundred lines of code reveal the full potential of the preprocessor 
on the Amiga. But first, a few words of introduction. 


A beginning programmer wanting to program the Amiga in 
C may initially be overwhelmed by the complexit)' of the Intuition 
environment. Even simple things, like opening windows and 
screens, require keeping track of many complex details, such as: 

1) Declare pointers to Screen, Viewport, Window, and RastPort 

2) Declare NewScreen and NewWindow structures, 

3) Initialize members of NewScreen and NewWindow structures 
with all the characteristics of the screen and windows which will 
be opened. 

4) Call the OpenScreenO and OpenWindowO functions. 

5) Assigning the addresses returned by these fiinctions to the 
pointers declared in step 1 above. 

6) Verify that the addresses returned by these functions are legal, 
meaning that enough memoi'^' was available for the functions to 
work properly. If this last step is not done, the machine may crash 
when the screen or window is used. 

7) Assigning addresses to the ViewPoit and RastPort pointers 
declared in step 1 above. These are needed to use the Amiga's 
graphics functions. 

Is it worth it? I think so. In fact, the example program with this 
article demonstrates the power and speed that can be realized by 
programming the Amiga in C. The same program written in 
Amiga BASIC executes terribly slowly. But how do you deal with all 

this complexity, especially in step 3, which in\'olves aspects of the 
operating system that most users know litde about.' Is it really 
necessary to go through all these details every time a new program 
is written? Even a very simple program? 


C is one of many programming languages called "structured 
languages". It is an important characteristic of all such languages 
that the complex details of one part of a program can be hidden 
from other parts that don't need to know about them. It is a formal 
principle in Computer Science and is called Information Hiding. It 
is accomplished in C by putting those details within functions. 

Let's say a program is written which opens a window in 
Intuition, and suppwse a sizing gadget is desired for the program. 
AmigaBASIC required that the t^^pe parameter of the 'WTNDO'W 
command be set to 1. In C, the Flags member of a NewWindow 
structure has to be initialized to WINDOWSIZING (step 3 above). 
But watch out! The MinWidth, MaxWidth, MinHeighE, and 
MaxHeight members also have to be initialized to whatever size 
limits the window may have. Whenever I write a new program I 
always forget this little detail, and tlie result is that the sizing gadget 
of my window doesn't work. I end up becoming frustrated trying 
to figure out what is wrong. 

Suppose, instead, that a function is written to open that 
window. While doing so, many details have to be considered. Let's 
say that is done, and the function is finally completed without any 
errors. The function is saved to disk, and it is called 
my_fine_windowO, Great! The next time a program is written that 
needs a similar window this work does not have to be repeated. 
Simply include the my_fine_windowO function into the new 
program and use it. All diose nasty details get performed automati- 
cally. But wait a minute! 


It turns out that the Intuition environment offers so many 
functions with so many options, each of which involve so many 
details, that it is easy to become overburden with details if they are 
all considered at once. It is easier to decide exactly which aspects 
of the system need to be controlled, and which ones do not. Then, 

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write functioas that allow controlling information to be passed as 
arguments for those few things that are really going to be control, 
but perform internally those nasty details that need to remain 


Suppose programs are being created which use only full size 
borderless windows. In this case, many details of the NewWindow 
staicture, like position of the window, width, and height, will 
remain the same every time a window is opened. Wouldn't it be a 
waste of time to have to take care of those details every time a new 
program was created that used such a window? 

Why would anyone who bought a computer as complex as 
the Amiga want to open a simple borderless window? Well, borders 
and gadgets lake up room on the screen and maybe maximum 
drawing area is needed, like in the Koch Flakes example of this 
article. The program is an excellent demonstration of the Amiga's 
powerful graphic capability, yet it uses a relatively simple function 
to open two full size torderiess windows. 

Near the end of listing =3 the function get_blank_windowO 
can be found. It uses only four arguments: 

1) The address of the pointer to the Window structure that was 
declared in .siep 1 in the list at the beginning of this article. The 
function will give this pointer its proper value automatically. 

2) The address of the Window's RasLPort pointer that was also 
declared in the same step 1 earlier. Again the ftmction will give 
this pointer it's value. This pointer will be needed whenever you 
execute one of Amiga's graphic commands, like WritePixelO, or 
DrawO, are executed. 

3) The IDCMP flags. These are used to tell the computer what type 
of input the window should have, 

4) The screen pointer where the window should appear. Uses 
NULL if it is wanted on the Workbench screen. 

This function is easy to use. There is no need to waste time 
thinking about steps 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 in the list at the beginning 
of this article. Naturally, consideration should be given to all diose 
details when the function is written, but once that is done, simply 
use the function with its fourarguments. Al! other details are hidden 
within the body of the function. 

That's fine for borderless windows, but there are other times 
when more control is needed, such as in setting window location 
and size. In such cases, functions that pass specific parameters to 
control, while still hiding others, are required. Listing *3 has another 
function, called get_new_window(), which offers much more con- 
trol at the expense of an increased number of arguments. But I'm 
not writing this article just to provide a couple of limited functions 
to use in personal programs. Rather, this article is about how to use 
functions that were self-written. 


It doesn't take long before .so many fi.mctions have been 
created that it gets hard to keep track of them. Sloppy individuals 
like myself who carelessly leave them on assorted disks belonging 
to different projects, soon forget where they are. Worse, we start 
forgetting exactly what these funaions do! 


A preprocessor is a utility within the C compiler which can be 
used to perform certain types of modifications on programs, like 
adding functions. Preprocessor commands, called directives, al- 
ways start with the « symbol and must start at the far left edge of 
each line. No indentation or tabbing is allowed. The preprocessor 
is invoked automatically whenever a program is compiled, so there 
are no special AmigaDOS commands required to make it work. 
Also, it reads directives directly from the program. Easy, right.' 

This famous line should look familar: 


How about this one? 

# lnclude< intuit ion/intuit Ion. h> 

Using this line causes the compiler to get the contents of the file 
called intuition.h, which is on disk *2 of the Lattice 5.02 compiler, 
and to add it to the program. It is added at the exact place where 
the directive appears in the program. This line is usually the first line 
in the program, in which case it gets added to the beginning. What's 
in this file anyway? All kinds of declarations and macro definitions; 
things that need to be done before the Intuition programming 
environment can be used. But it is unnecessary to worry about that 
right now. All that complicated stuff is conveniently hidden from 
view. That's Information Hiding. 

78 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

The compiler knows where to find this file because when the 
Amiga booted up with the Lattice compiler, the INCLUDE: device 
was assigned to the directory Latiice_C_5.0.2:CompactH. (com- 
plete path name = Lattice_C_5.0.2; CompactH/intuition/ 
intuition. h) If not, the compiler would have complained that it 
could not find the file. 

The same ^include directive can be used to make the 
compiler add functions to programs. Simply put those functions in 
a file and use the "include directive on llial file. I called the file that 
contains my functions My_Graph.h. Then I put the following 
directive in my program: 


Notice that in the above *include directive (for My_Graph.h) 
I used quotation marks, whereas in the previous one (for intuition/ 
intuition.h) I used angle brackets. Angle brackets tell the compiler 
to look for the file in the system include library, ihe INCLUDE; 
device. Quotation marks tell the compiler to look for the file in the 
current directory. I like to use the RAM Disk as a current directory. 
The compiler works faster, and my disk drives don't get worn out 
so much. 


What I am leading up to is that all the functions that have been 
written should be placed into one file. Then, use the *)nclude 
directive to add those functions to any new programs. 

But, suppose fifty functions have been written and saved in 
My_Graph.h. Every time a program is compiled, fifty functions will 
be added to it. That's cleariy not the desired result. The preproces- 
sor should add only those functions that will be used by that 
program. How is that po.ssible? How can the preprocessor know 
ahead of time which functions the program will need to use? Well, 
it can't. But instnjctions can be given within each program that 
identify the functions the program must use for the preprocessor. 

Define Director 


This directive causes the preprocessor to recognize that the word 
USE_SIMPLE_\VINDOW exists. By itself, it doesn't actually change 
the way the program gets compiled. It simply adds the word 
USE_SIMPLE_'WaNDOW to the list of things that it has to remember. 


Selective compiling of a file can be accomplished by using two 
other preprocessor directives: 




Look in My_Graph.h, at the end, and the function called 
get_simple_windowO can be seen. Notice that the function is 
enclosed within the two preprocessor directives s'ifdef 
USE_SIMPLE_WINDOW, and *endif. 

Now this function, get_simple_windowO, is not very useful. 
It doesn't allow any of its characteristics to be changed, It is only 
a simple example which I put in My_Graph.h to show how the 
preprocessor can be used to perform selective compilation. 

Try the following short program: 

(define U3E_SIMPLE_WIND0M 

#include''My_Graph. h" 

struct Window *simple_window; 
struct RastPort ^rp; 

Simple. c 

main i) 

inc i; 

open_iibrarie3 ; 

if ( :gec_siifiple_wifidowHsii:iple_window, srp) ) 

printfCI can't open your sinple window. Xn") ; 

elose_librarie5 IEMERGEKC:t_Ex:TI ; 

EetAPen(rp, 3); 

Setroncup. emerald_nj; 

Movefrp, 75, 50); 

7ext^^pt "Hello out there!! I ', IB); 

for(i.J; KIOOOOOO; tti) 

CloseWindow(siffiple_window) ; 
close libraries (HORHM, EXIT) J 

A koch flake 

Save the above program in the file Simple.c in the current directory. 
Then, with My_Graph.h also saved in the same current directory, 

Ic -L Simple 

Execute the program and confirm that it opens a small window in 
the 'Workbench screen which says "hello" and then, after about 
three seconds, disappears. Great, it works. The function 
get_simple_windowO got included into the program by the pre- 

Now, delete the first line in Simple.c and compile it again. 
This time the linker reports that get_simple_window is an 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 79 

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undefined symbol. Aha! The function gec„simple_windowO did 

not get added this time. Don't mn the executable file that the 
compiler produced because it will cause the computer to crash. To 
execTJte the program again, put back tliat first line and compile it 

The above experiment proves that the ^define directive can 
be used in conjunction with the =ifdef and =endif directives to se- 
lectively compile different parts of a file. Each pair of ^ifdef and 
*endif directives mark off one seaion of the file that will or will not 
be added to die program depending on whether it's specified word 
is or is not defined. Sections of My^Graph.h tliat were not defined 
in the program Simple.c, like USE_BLANK_WINDOW and 
USE_CUSTOM_SCREEN, did not get added. But when the pre- 
processor saw the line: 

#ifdef USE_SIt'lPLE_WINDO>I, 

it recognized USE_SIMI'LE_\VINDOW, and from that point on it 
started copying lines into tlie program. It copied al! lines up to the 
next ^endif directive. 

Incidentally, it is wise to always tise uppercase letters for 
defined words, like USE_SIMPLE_'W]NDOW. That way they won't 
get mixed up witli any of the function names or variable names 
within the program. 


Xo'tt- take a look at other parts of tlie iMy_Graph.h Ttle. Notice 
(he pointer definitions for 'IntuitionBase, *GfxBase, and 
'DiskfontBase. I wanted all my programs to use these pointers, so 
1 didn't surround them by -ifdef and »endif directi\'es. They get 
added to every' program, every' time I compile. Similarly, tlie 
openJibrariesO function gets compiled into all my programs. 
Details like calling the OpenlibraryO function and assigning ad- 
dresses to the proper pointers all get performed automatically, by 
calling open_librariesO- That's information hiding! 

Notice all ^ifdef directives for the different fonts that are 
on the workbench disk. I like to use different fonts in programs, as 
I did in the Koch Flake example, but I don't like to waste lime trying 
to figure out all those crazy things tliat I have to do whenever I want 
to open one. Instead I simply say; 

#define USE_DlAMONt)_FONT 

and all the diamond fonts automatically load into my program. They 
are accessible through die pointers •diamond_12 and 'dia- 
mond_20. 1 never forget those names because they are die same 
names that the fonts are stored under on die workbench disk. Enter 
the following AmigaDOS command in a CLI window: 

dir fonts: ope a 

and a list of all the fonts will appear on the 'Workbench, 

Incidentally, My_Graph.h does not contain code to open all 
die fonts on a standard version 1,2 workbench. I didn't include 
ihem here because tliey would have made the listing too long. Add 
the code required for whatever fonts that will be used. 

I could keep on describing all the functions in My_Graph.h, 
showing how in each case I conveniently hide certain system 

details, but the jxjint has already been made. Besides, many of 
these functions ma)' not apply to the needs of other users. Everyone 
has tlieir own special programming needs and favorite style. That's 
fine. It's the concept of how the file of functions is organized that 
is important, not tlie specific functions that I happen to ha\'e stored 
in it. 


To come to grips with the complexity of the Intuition 
programming environment, decide which features meet the needs 
of specific programming requirmenis. Everything can't be used at 
once, there is simply too much! Write functions that allow access 
to whatever needs to be controlled, while shielding everything else 
(infomiation hiding principle). After saving those functions in a file, 
use the preprocessor directives to selectively compile them as 


Someone might be thinking that this system of organization 
won't work for everyone because some people are constandy 
writing different types of programs, all of which use different 
features of Intuition. Well, if a completely new feature is going to 
be used, it means starting from scratch. For instance, the 
Jvly_Graph.h file doesn't contain any functions for opening Intui- 
tions pull down menus. They have been omitted here, due to space 
limitations. So yes, you may have to write a few new functions once 
in a while. But most of the time it is much easier to modify existing 
functions. .A.lso, if care was taken in writing the ftinctions — by using 
the informative member names while initializing structures, for 
instance — functions will be self-documenting. This makes ihem 
much easier to modify, and easier to understand. Intuition expertise 
should come easily, 


I wanted to demonstrate the organizing abilities of the 
preprocessor in a real live Amiga example, using the fewest 
possible directi\'es. That done, I should make users aware of others: 




These can be used together with those already presented here to 
build more complex selective compiling routines. 


A koch flake is a graphic pattern that resembles a snowflake 
or a flower. The example program of this article creates diem by 
drawing many different sized six-pointed stars at various positions 
on the screen. The program is interesting in four respeas. First, it 
uses recursion, a principle in which a fttnction calls itself numerous 
times. Second, it is an example of the Amiga's very fast AreaDrawO 
function, which draws filled shapes. Third, it opens two windows 
and uses page flipping. And finally, it demonstrates die principle 
presented in this article, how the preprocessor can be used to 
selectively compile some pre^'iously written functions. 

The program consists of three files. Compile them by putting 
all three in die current directory and executing the following: 

82 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

Ic -Lm Koch 

The m is needed because the program needs to access tlie matli 


I chose a ratlier complex prograjnming example for this 
article to drive home the tlieme of the article, but perhaps it's the 
example itself which has touched an interest. For more information 
on the example refer to the book "The Art of Graphics for the IBM 
PC, by Jim McGregor and Alan Watt, Addison- Wesley Publishing 
Company, 1986." The book has an excellent explanation of 
recursion and gives lots of examples in IBM-BASIC. AmigaBASIC 
was modeled to resemble IBM-BASIC, thus allowing easy transla- 
tion of programs between the two machines. (Clie biggest differ- 
ences are in tlie use of die WINDOW and SCREEN commands 
which have different meanings on each machine) After understand- 
ing die various algorithms in BASIC, translate them to C. They will 
execute at impressive speeds. 


/* Koch.c •/ 

# include "Koch.h* 

struct XYScale 

int .xmin; 

int ymin; 

int xnax; 

inc ymax; 

struct XYScale s; 

int reduce [5]; 

VOID main t I 

aSHORT tJiO , fy(| ; 

SHORT level; 

int li X, y, size; 

inake_display { ) ; 

E.Kmin ■ -ISOO; 
a.ymin - -JCOO 
s.KmaK - 1500 
s.ymaK = 1000 

while (1) 

if (rp==rpl) 

rp = rp2,' 

rp - rpl; 

clear_old_f lake |rp) ; 

shaw_name () ; 

for(i-2; i<6; i++) 

redueelil - 2O00 + randd % 1638,- 

X = 0; 

y H 0; 

size = 512; 

level » 1; 

kach(x,y,size, levelj ; 


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mix_up_colors ( ) ; 

for ( i=l; i<5; i++ ) 


SetBGB4 i svp, i, redfi], gree.nd], bluelil ); 
windowToFront [window one) ; 


lIlix_up_colors ( 1 ; 
for~l r.l; 1<5,- i++ I 


SBtRGE4 ( svp, i, red[i], green[il, blueli] 

WindowroFront (windDW_twoJ ; 


kochfx, y, size, level) 
SHORT level; 
int K, y, size; 

USHORT fxl) , lyl); 

int xl, x2, yl, y2, y3, y4; 

if (pre3s_key ) 

St Qp_prog ra.T. ( J ; 

size J / 1000; 
size i I 1000; 

Kl = X - (866 
x2 = X 1- ( S66 
yl = y - size; 
y2 = y - size / 2; 
y3 = y + size / 2; 
y< = y + size; 

SetAPen (rp, level) ; 

if {level^-^flj 

AreaKove(rp, fx (xl) , fy (y2) 1 ; 

AreaDrawCrp, fx(x>, fylyO); 

AreaDraw(rp, fx(x2) , fy(y2) ); 

AreaEnd(rp) j 

Amazing Computing VS.] ©1990 83 

AreaMove<rp, fK{x) , fy<yll 1 ; 
AreaDrawirp, fx{xl) , fy <y3) 1 ; 
AreaDraw^rp, txixl) , fy(y3l ) ; 
AreaEndfrp) ; 


A^eaKo^J'e(rp,fx(xll, fy (y2)); 
AreaDraw(rp, fx (k) , fy (y4) j ; 
AreaDraw(rp, fx(K2l, fy (y2) >; 

AreaKove (rp, fx (x) ^ fy (yl) } ; 
AreaDraw(rp, fx(xl) , £y(y3|); 
AreaDraw{rp, fx(x2l , fy(y3),); 
AreaEnd (rpl ; 

jtoch(K, y4, 

koch{x2, y3, 

]toch[x2, y2, 

l^och [K , yl, 

JtochtKl, y2, 

koch(x, y. 

fslse'lOOOl /reduce [level+1 
(size" 1000) /reduce [level+1 
(SL2e»10O0j /reduce[level+l 
(stze*100D! /reduce [ievel+1 
(size*1000! /reduce[lev&l+l 
{size*1000] /reduce [l&vel+l 
(size* lOOOl /reduce [level+1 



s.xpiin) / (s.x-Tiax-s.xr.iii) ) ) ; 

/" scale f "liner icns */ 

USHORT fx(xl 

Inc x; 


iftx>s.Kniin Si x<s,Ktra3<> 

return ( (USHORT} (639- U- 
else if(K<5-KninI 

return E (USHORT) 01 ; 
else return ( (USHOHT) 639> ; 

USHORT fy{y) 

int y; 


if(y>s.ymin && y<s.ymax) 

return( (USHORT? (199-199" (y-s.yfnlnl / ts.yffiax-s^ymin} ) ) ; 
else if (y<=s.yr:iini 

return ( (USHOR?) 199) ; 
else return ({USHORT) 0); 

/• Koch.h */ 


♦ define USE_0?Ai._FONT 
•define USE cus?OM_scREEN 
Idefine USe"blank_WINDOW 

linclude *My_Graph^h'' 

♦ include <nQt.h.h.> 

Define screen and window as global variables 

sc ruct Screen * screen_one ; 

steuct Viewport "svp? / 

struct Window 'window_one, •window_cwo; 

struct SastPort -rp, *rplr *rp2; 

struct IntuiKessage ^imesg; 

U3YTE ''r::esg; 

struct TnpRas TRas_Qne, TRas^^two? 
struct Arealnfo AInfo__cne, Alnfo^two; 
UWORD AreaBuf_one[2001 , AreaBuf_two[200) ; 
PLANEPTR TBuf_one, TBiuf_two; 

int red[51, green[5I, toluetS]; 


open_libraries ( 1 ; 

gec_screen_one ( ) ; 

get_window_'LWO {) ; 

get_-«'indQw_one (I ? 

get_buffer () ; 

show_title(} ; 

init_rand(> ; 

return (0) ; 

screen ViewPorc "/ 
window RaatPorts •/ 

printfCl can't open screenVn*); 
clDse_libraries (EMERGENCY_EXIT) ; 

return {01 ; 

get_window_two () 


if ( ! get_blanlc_window(twindow_fwo, &rp2, RAWKEIT, screen_oneJ ) 

printfCl can't open windo'i-r_two\n") ; 

uninake_diaplay(EHERGENCY_EXlT) ; 

get_window_one ( ) 

if (!get_blank_window [twindow_one, Srpl, RAWKEYi screen_one) ) 

printf(*l can't open windDw^oneVn") ; 
unraake display (EMERGENCY_EXIT) ; 

rp = rpl; 
return (01 ; 

get_buf fer 

/* Initialize memory space for AreaDrawO ■/ 

InitArea (fiAInfo_onei AreaBut_one, SO) ; 
InitArea(SAInfo_two, AreaBuf_two, 80) ; 

if {( TBuf_one ■ (PLANEPTR) AllocRaster I S40, 200) ) =-^ N'ULLI 

gec_screen_one () 

if (:get_new_screen(4Screen_or:e, fisvp, MULL, 640, 200, 3>) 


printf(**t cannot make temporary buffer. \n'M ; 
unraa;ce_di3play |EMERG£tJCY_EXIT) ; 

if (( Tauf_two - (PLAHEPTRIAllocftaster(640,200) ) 


ptintfC"! cannot nake temporary buffer An") ; 
unniake_display (EHERGEKCY_EXIT) ; 

rpl->TmpBas «■ (struct TmpRas *) 

InitTmpRas (iTRaa^^onc, TBuf^one , RASSIZE i^AO, 200) 1 ; 
rp2->TmpRas - (struct TmpRas *) 

rnitTnipRas(£,TRas_two, TBuf_two , RASSI3E (€40, 2001 1 ; 

rpl->AreaInfo • tAInfo_one.- 
rp2->AreaInfo ■ tAInfo_two; 

return (C) ; 

Show tltleO 


SetRG34 ( svp, 

SetRGB4 [ svp, 

SetRGB4 t SVp, 

SetRGB4 I svp, 

SetRG34 t svp, 

SetRGa4 ( svp, 

SetRG34( svp, 

SetRGB4 ( svp, 

0, C, 0, 1 

1, 15, 10, 10 1 

2, 15, 13, ID 1 

3, 12, 7, 7 J 
A, 2, 2, 15 i 

5, 4| 8, 15 ) 

6, 0, 15, 15 ) 

7, 7. 7, 7 J 

SetFont (rp, dianond_20) ,* 
r|>->T;tSpacing " 3? 
SetDrKd(rpl, JAMl) ; 
SetDrKd£rp2, JAMl) ; 

SetAPen(rp, 1}; 

mesg"" computer generated"? 

Moveirp, (6<0 - TextLength (rp> mesg, 3Crlen(mesg) ) ) /2, 30); 

Text (rp, mesg, strlen{mesg> J ; 

r,esg-''KOCH FLAKES"; 

spot - (640 - TextLength (rp, mesg, strlen (mesgj } I /2; 

SetAPenlrp, 3); 

MoveCrp, spot + 2, 69); 

Text Irp, mesg, 3crlen(ne3gJ ) ; 

SetAPen(rp, 21 ; 

Kave(rp, spot, 70) ; 

TGxt(rpr nesg, strlen (mesgj I ; 

SetFont (rp, opal_121,' 
SetAPen(rp, <) t 

nesg » ^by Paul Castonguay"; 

Move(rp, (640 ' TextLengthtrp, nesg, strlen (raesgl J ) /2* 132); 

Text (rp^ mesg, strlen{ir,esg) ) ; 

84 Amazing Computing V5.10 ^2990 

SetFont {rp, diainond_12) ; 
rp->TKSpaciiig = 2; 
SeCAPen (rp; 5) ; 

meS9-"for AMAZING GOMPUTI>JG -TLagazine"; 

Movelrp, i6AC - TexLLength (rp, mesg, strlen (nesg) ) ) /2, 152); 

Texc (rpi =iesg^ scrlen (mesg) ) ; 

return (0); 


unsigned seed; 

ULQNG Seconds, Micros; 

CurrentiTime (^Seconds, ^Micros) ; 
seed = tunsigned) Micros; 
srand (seed) ; 

return (0) ; 

inix^uD_colors () 

inc i; 

red{0] = green[0] = blue [01 = 0; 

lnit_rand () ; 

for |i~l,- i<5; i++| 

red [i] = (unsigned) rand (] % 16; 

9reeri[il = (unsigned) rand (J % 16; 

bl-je[i} - (unsigned) rand (> % 16; 
return (0) ; 

show_name () 

SetFont (rp, eraerald_20) ; 

rp->TxSpacing = 3; 

SetAPendp, 5) ; 

Movetrp, 22, 31) ; 

TGXt(rp, ^'KOCH FLAKES", 11); 

SetAPen trp, 6) ; 

Move(rp, 20, 30); 

text(rp, "KOCH FLAKES", 11); 

SetFont {rp, opal_l2 ) ; 
rp->Tx3pacing ^1; 
SetAPen (rp, 7) ,- 
Move(rp, 540, 17S) ; 
Text {rp, "press", 5); 

SetFont (rp, opaI_12) ; 

rp->7xSpacing - 1; 

SetAPen (rp, 7) ; 

Move (re, 500, 190] ; 

TentUp, ^MF-10] to QUIT", 14); 

return (0! ; 

clear_old_fldke (rast_pDrt) 
struct RastPort *rast^ort; 

Moveirast_porc, 0, Q); 

ClearScreenfrast^ort) ; 

return (0) ; 



int rr.essage_code; 

rBessage_code = iiaesg->Code; 
ReplyMsg (imesg) ; 
if (message_code != 39) 
return (0) ; 

while (pce3s_5<:ey () ) 

ReplyMsg (imesg) ; 

unmalcedisplay {NORMAL_EXIT) ; 
recurn (0) ; 

un]nake_display (status! 
int status,- 

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iffTBuf_one != KULL) FreGRaster(T3uf__one, 640, 200); 
iffTBuf two != NULL) rEeeRaster<T3uf_two, SAC, 200); 

if (window^cre 
if (windDw_cwo 
i£ (screcn_one 
close_libraries (status) 
return (0) ; 

= NULL) ClQseWindov (wi.ndow_one) ; 
NULL) CloseWindQW (window_cwo) ; 
NULL) closescreen (screen one); 

int press_>!ey(} 


ifttimesg - (steuct intuiKessage *) 

(GecMsg (window_Dre->U5erPort) 1 ) 1= NULL) 

return (1) ; 
if((imesg - (struct IntuiMessage ■) 

(GecMsg (window two->UserPort) )) != NULL) 

tetucn (1) ; 
return ( > ; 


/* My_Headers :Hy_Graph.h */ 

f include <intuition/intuition .h> 


struct IntuiCionBase -IntuiCionBasej 
struct Gfxaase "CfxEase; 
struct Library 'DiskfontBsse; 

lifdef USB_0PAL_FONT 

struct TextFeint~*opal_9, 



Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 85 

struct TeKtFont ■diaSiOncl^2Q, 


s'ruct TextFor.t 'e:neEald_17, 

lifdef USE_T0PAZ_FONT 
struct TejtEFont *topaz_fl, 
• etidif 

open_librarles (1 


struct TextAttr tt 

'empty. font" 


(.ta_YSize - 

f.ta_Style - 

f.ta_Flags - 

IntuitionBase-Cstruct IntuitionBase *i 

OpenLibrary ("intuition. library*^ 0) ; 

if (IntuitionBase ~ NULL) 

prlntfCI can't open intuition library. \n"l ; 

clo3e_llbraries IEMERGEHCY_EXIT) ; 

GfxBase ■ (struct GfxBase *) 

CrpenLibrary ("graphics .library", 01 ; 
if (GtxBase -- NULL) 

printf("I can't open graphics library ,\n-) ; 

close libraries (EKERGEKCY_E1CIT), • 

DiakfontBase » (struct Library *) 

OpenLibrary C^di3)t font. library" 
if (DiskfontBase — NULL) 

lprintC["I can't open font library. \n") ; 
close libraries (EMERGENClf EXIT); 


tifdef U5E__OPAL_F0NT 

f.ta_Nama « "opal. font"; 
f.ta_ysize 1 9; 
f.ta_Style = 0; 
f.ta_Flags = 0; 

opal_9 » (struct TextFont •) CpenFont (fif ) ; 
if (opal_9 "■ NULL) 

( /* ■» no opal fonts in ram ■- */ 

/* -- open thera from disk — ■ */ 

opal_9 - tflcnjct 'extFonc •) 0penDi3lsFflnc(6fl ; 

if(opal 9 — MULLI 


printfCI can't open opal_9 fo.^C.\4';'') ; 

e:ose_iibraries (EHERGE}:CY_EXI7) ; 

£,ta_lfSiie - 12; 

opal_12 - (struct TextFont *)0penDi3JcFDnt (6f ) ; 
if(opal_12 — NULL) 



printf(~I can't open opal 12 font.\n''); 
ciose libraries (EMERGENCY~EX1T); 

/■ »^ opal already in ram -- */ 
/» -- chec)t sizes -- •/ 

if (opal_9->tf_YSizo !" 91 

opal_9 " (Struct TextFont "(OpenDisXFont (tf ] ; 
if(opal_9 — NULL) 


printfCl can't open opal_9 font.Vn'); 
close_llbrarles (EmergEncy_exit) ; 


f.ca_vsije . 12; 

opal 12 - (struct TextFont ') OpenFont (if ) ? 

lf(opal 12->tf_5(Siie I- 12) 


0p8l_12 - (struct TextFo.-.t ■) OpenDlsicFont (tf) ; 

if(opal_12 " NULL) 


printfCI can't open opal_:2 font.Vn"]; 
close_libraries (EMERGENCY_EXIT1 ; 




#ifdef USE_t)IA«0ND_FONT 

f.ta_Kanie - "diaiaond.font'; 
f.ta^YSize - 12; 
f.ta^Style - 0; 
f.ts~Fl»gs - 0; 

diamofi!l_12 - (struct TextFont *)OpenFont (if) ; 
if (diaiiiond_12 -- HULL) 

{ /* "» no diamond fonts in ran 

/* — open them from dis)c 

diamonil_12 - (struct TextFont *)OpBnDis):Font (if ) ; 

If (dlainonil_l2 — NULL) 


prlntfl"! can't open diamand_12 font.Xn"); 

close libraries (emergency_exit] ; 

f.ta_YSize - 20; 

diamond_20 - (struct TextFont *) OpenDiskFont (4 f) ) 
i£(diamond_20 — NULL) 





printf(*l can't open diattion(i_20 Eont.Nn"); 
close libraries (1); 

If (diamond _12->tf YSiie 

/* " diano.'id already in cap. 
I* ■■ check sizes 



diamond_12 - (struct TextFont 'jOpenOisltFont (if) f 

if (diamond_12 — IJULLI 


printf(*I can't open diainond_12 fonC,\n'); 
close_libraries(EMERGENCY_EXlT) ; 

f.ta_YSire - 20; 

diaraond_20 - (struct TextFont •) OpenFonC (i f ) ,- 
i£idla»ond_20->cf_YSi!e !- 20) 

diaraond_20 - (struct TextFont ")OpenDlsltFont (if) ; 

it(diaiiiond_20 -- MULLI 


printf("I can't open diarnond_20 font.Xn"),- 
close_libraries (EHERGEHCY_EXIT) ; 



f.tft_Narne - "emerald. font"; 
f.ta_Y5ize - n,- 
f.ta_Style - Oi 
f.ta_Flags ■ Q; 

emerald 17 ■ (struct TextFont *) OpenFoot (*f) ; 
if (eitierald_n •• NULL) 

I /* ■- no emerald fonts in ran 

/• ■■ open them from disJc 

eiiierald_l7 - (struct TextFont •(OpcnDlskFont (it) ; 

if(enerald_n ~ NULL) 


pr4ntf("t can't open cinerald_17 font.Vn'); 

close_libraries (EMERGEKCY_EXIT) ; 

f.ta_YSize - 20,- 

emerald_20 ■ (struct TextFont "iOpenOiskFont (sf ) ,- 
if (emerald 20 -- NULL) 

prlncf("l can't open einerald_20 font.Vn"); 

close_llbrsrieS (EHERGEKCY_EXIT) ; 



/* "- diamond already in ram -- 
/* ■- check sizes ■■ 

if lemerald_n->tf_YSiie !- 17) 

e)rerald_n - (struct TextFont •) OpenDiskFont lit) ; 

if(einerald 1") —- NULL) 


printfCT can't open emerald_n font.Nn"); 
close libraries (EMERGENCY EXIT); 

f.ta_YSiie - 20; 

einerald_20 " (struct TextFont "JOpenFont (if ) ; 
lf(«merald 20->tf_YSize !- 20) 

emerald 20 - (struct TextFont •)OpenDis)tFont (if ) ; 
if (emerald 20 -- NULL) 


printf(*I can't open emerald_2Q font.Xn"); 
cl08e_libraries (EMEPGENCY_EXIT( ; 

86 Amazing Computing V5. 10 ©1990 


llfdef USE_TOPAZ_F0NT 

f.ta_Name » "topaz. font"; /* 

£.Ca~1fSize - 8; /■ 

f.ta_Styie - 0; 

f-ca_Flags = C; 

tcpa2_8 ^ (struct TextFont 'JOpenFcnt l£f ) ; 

if (tcpa2_8 1= HULL) 


princfCI can't open topaz_9 fcntAn"); 

clo5e_librarles (E!e:RGEtiCy_EXITI ; 

f.ta_YSize - 9; 

topaz_9 ■ (struct TextFont "IQpenFont (S£i ; 
if (topaz_9 ■" NULL} 

-■ Topaz S and 9 =■ 
«= always in ram " 


printf("I can't open topai_9 font.\n">; 
close_:ibraries (EMERGENCY EXITI ; 


f.ta_YSize - U; 

topaz_ll - (struct TextFcnt ■ 1 openFont (if ) ; 

if (topiz_i:->tf VSize !- Ill /• check size •/ 


topaz_ll ■ (struct TextFont ■} OpenDisJcFont (i f ) ; 

if(topaz_ll =» NUILI 


printfC*! can't cpen topa2_ll font.Vn"); 
close_llbraries (EttERGEHClr_EXIT) ; 


return (0) ; 

close^libraries (status) 

int status; 


• ifdef USE_OPAL_FONT 

if(opal_9 !- NULL! closeFont (opal 9); 

i((op«l_12 := HULL) CloseFont (opal~12); 

•ifdef USE_D1AM0HD_F0NT 

if (diamond_12 != NULL) CloseFont (diaiiinnd_l 2) ; 

i£(diaiiiond_20 !- NULL) CloseFont (diamond_20) ; 

lifdef USE_EKERA1.D_F0HT 

if (e3eralcl_17 !- NULL) CloseFont (e!nerald_n) ; 

if (enerald_20 := NULLl CloseFont (eii!er3ld_2a) ; 


if(topaz_8 != NULLl CioseFont(topa2_8); 

if (topazes 1= NULLl CloseFont (topaz_9) ; 

if(topaz_ll I- NULLl CloseFont (topaz_ll) ; 

if {IntuitionBase !^ NULLl CloseLibrary (IntuitionBasel ; 

if<Gfx3ase != NULL) CloseLibrary (GfxBase) ; 

if {DiskfontBase != NULLl CloseLibrary (DiskfontBasel ; 

itistatus " EWEBGENCY EXIT) 

printf PProgram aborted! ! I \n') ; 
for(i-0; K300000,- i**) 




A ut oPro inp 1 is a sophisticated scrol ling prompter and lent edit program designed for 
TV script proiiiptiiig and infomiatlon displays. 1( has been developed in coiisutlation 
witti TV industry professionals, with flexibility, simplicity and speed as the primary 
design considerations. 

■ A u1 oProinpt has a fu II inluilion interface with menus and keyboard shortcuts. 

• Selectable font, font size, pallet, speed and scroll direction, 

• Markets for instant movement to pre-defined cue points. 

• Message window and graphic scroll speed indicator, 

■ Simple easy-to-use menu driven text editor with load, save and print options. 

• Impons ASCii or rrFFTXTfamint text files. 

• Supports PAI, and NTSCin both interlace and non-interlace. high or low 

■ Rcqutrcs.5l2kormcmoryandKicl(star< l.2orlater. 

AiiloPrompt VS $295.00 

Dciuonstmrioii disk ,..US $15.00 


12 Dinmore St 
DrLsbane 4105 
Quecn-^land Australia 

Internalional toll free order numbers from the USA and Canada; 
from USA 1.600-525-2167 

from Canada l-ROO-663-3940 

other countries 61-7-277-3255 

within Australia (07) 277-3255 

FAX (11-7.277-8.173 

KickMui [I • biil-inHjl, c,( ropiirm-Icir Aniffk jm 

exit 101; 


return (01 ; 


screen_spec . Le f tEdge 



screen_spec . TopEdge 



5creen_spec . width 




s creen_spec . Height 


height ,- 

get_new_screer. (my^screen. 


pointer no screen pointer ■/ 

screen spec.Detail?e,i 



ray screen 3vp, 


pointer to Viewport pointer '/ 






NULL for no title •/ 

s creen_spec , Type 





320 or 640 •/ 

s creen_spec .Font 





200 or 400 -/ 






1, 2, 3, i, or 5 •/ 

screen_spec, Gadgets 






Struct Screen ' ('ny_scceen> ; 
struct Viewport * (*ini'_screefi._svp) ; 
char "title; 
SHORT widtfi, height, depth; 


struct Newscreefi screen_3pee; 
if{width -- 320 it, height «» 200) 

CircJe 137 on Readof Service card. 

screen_spec.View>!ades = NULL; 
else if(width — 320 44 height -- 4001 

screen_spec.ViewKodes ^ LACE; 
else iflwidth "■ 640 ii height ■■ 2001 

screen_spec,ViewModes = HIRES; 
else if (width »= 640 && height == 400| 

screen_apec.ViewMode3 - HIRES i LAC 

printf ("Illegal screen coordinate values! JNn"! ; 
return (NULL) ; 


if (depth "111 

depth »•«■ 2 I I 

depth "311 

depth — 4 I I 

(depth " 5 t« width — 32011 
scceen_spec, Depth " depth; 

printf ("tllegal depth, number of colorslNn") ; 

return (HULL) ; 

•By screen '* (struct Screen "> OpenScreen (fiscreen_specl ; 
if (''my_screen == NULL) 


return (1> ; 

4 C (•py_screen) ->ViewPort) ; 

Amazing Computing V5.20 ©1990 87 

get_bl.anJc_window (window_po inter* 
idcmp_f lags, 
screen_po inter) 

str-jct Window • (•window_polnterj ; 
struct RaatPart ■ (*windDw_RastPortl ; 
ULONG idcmp_flags; 
struct Screen "5creen_jJointer; 


struct HewWindow specif y_window; 


specif /_ 
specif y_ 
specif y_ 
specif y_ 
specif y_ 
ap&cif y_ 
specif y_ 
speci fy_ 
specif y_ 
speci fy_ 



Left Edge 















if {3creen_poincer -- HULLJ 


speci fy_wir dow . Type 
speci fy_wirdDw. width 
apecify^window. Height 




specify_window. Type 
specify_wiii dow. Width 
speci fy_window.Keight 







idci:ip_f lags; 












acreen_po inter- >width; 

•window^aiuter = (struct Window *) OpenWindow(4specify_wiridow) ; 

if (*windou_pointer — KULL) 

return (HULL) ; 

'window_RastPort " f *window_poincerl ->RPort; 

return (11 ; 

iifdef USE_KEW_^WINI>OM 


struct window • (*windOw_pointer) ; 
char *title; 

SHORT J(_mifi, y_min, st_max, y_max; 
ULOHG wnd_flags, idcnip_f lags; 
struct Soeeen -screenjointer; 


struct Kewwindow speclfy_window; 

specify_window.LBfcEdge ^ K_niin; 

specify_window.TopEdge - y_min; 

speci fy_window. Width " x_max-x_min; 

flpecify_window. Height - y_niax*-y~min; 

specify^windaw.DetailPen » 0; 

specify_window.Bloc)eP6n ■ i; 

specify_window. Title - title; 

specify_window. Flags - und_flags; 

3pecify_window. iDCMPFlagg ■ idcnip_flags; 

specify_windQu^FirstGadget ■ MULL; 

3pecify_^window.CheckMarlc - HULL; 

3pecify_window, Screen - screefi_pointer; 

3pecify_window.BitMap - NULL; 

if (acreen_pointer ■■ NULL! 

specify_window*Type ■ WBENCHSCREEN; 

apecify_wifidow.Type - CUSTOMSCREEK; 

if(wnd_flags (. WINDOWSIZING^ 

specify_window,KinWidth - 45; 
specify_window.Min.Height - 20; 
if {screen_pointer " NULLJ 

speci fy_window.HaxWidth 
speci fy_window. Ma i( Height 



spe ci f v_window .MaxWi dth 
speci fy_wirdow. Ma xHeight 




specify_window.HinHidth - 
speci fy_window. Hi nHeight = 
speci fy_windaM.MaxWi dth - 
specify_window,KaxHeight - 


*windowjpolntet ■ (atruct Window ») OpenWlndowUspecify window); 
if ^*window_poincer -- NULL) 

return (NULL); 

return (1} ; 


9et_3imple_window(window_po inter r rasc._pOft_po inter) 
struct window * (*window_j30intec) ; 
atruct RastPort * (• rast_port_pointeE> ; 


struct NewWindow specify_windoM.- 

spec ify__window. Left Edge 



apecify_window. TopEdge 



sped fy_wlndou. Width 



specify_window. Height 



specif y_window.DecallPen 



speci fy_win<iow . Bl □ ckPen 



speci fy_win(!ow .Title 


-My Simple Window 

speci fy_window. Flags 



specify_windo«. IDCKPFlags 



speci fy_window. Type 



sped fy_window. FirstGadget 



speci f y_«indov, .CheclcMar)t 



9pecify_window. Screen 



speci f y_Mindow . BltHip 






spec ify_window. Mi nHeight 



speci ty_window.MaxWidth 



3peei£y_wi ndow , msk He ight 



•wlndow_pointer - Cstruct window •) OpenMindow<(speci«y_window| ; 

if <*window_pointer -- NULL) 

return (NULL! i 

•rast_port_pcjinter - (■wlndovi_poincer) ->RPort; 

return ID ; 


88 Amazing Computing V5J0 &1 990 



* Vol. 1 No. 1 Premiere, 1986 
Highlight! include: 

"Super Spheres", An ABasic Graphics Prograrti, by KcWy 


"Dale Virus", by J Foust 

"HZ -Term", An ABasic ierminal program, by Kelly Kauffman 

"Miga Mania"/ Programming fixes & mouse care, by P. 


"Inside CLI'^, A guided insight into Amiga Dos, by G. Musser 

* Vol. I No. 2 I9S6 
Highlights include: 

"Inside CLl: Part Two", In vestigatiitgCU & ED, by G, Musser 

"Online an d the CTS Fabite 2424 ADH Modem", by J Foust 

"Superteim V 1.0"^ A terminal program in Amiga Basic, by K. 


'A Wofkbench ^More" Program", by Rick Wirch 

*■ Vol. 1 No. 3 1986 

Highlights include: 

"Forth!", A tutorial 

"Deluxe DrawlJ", An AmigaBASIC art program, by R. Wirch 

"AmigaBASlC", A beginner's tutorial 

Inside CLI; Fart 3", by George Musser 

** Vol. 1 No. 4 19S6 

Highlights include: 

"Build Yowr Own 5 1/4" Drive Connector", by E, Viveiros 

"AmigaBASIC Tips", by Rich Wirch 

"Soimpen Part One", A program to print Amiga saeen, by P. 


W Vol. 1 No. 5 1986 

Highlights include: 

*The HSl to RGB Conversion Tool", Color manipulation in 

BASIC, by S. Pielrowicz 

"Sciimper Fart Two" by Perry BCivolowitz 

'building Tools", by Daniel Kary 

* Vol.1 No. 6 1986 
Highlights include: 

"Mailing tisl", A basic mail Jist program, by Kelly Kauffman 
"Pointer Image Editor", by Stephen Pietrowicz 
"Scrimper Part Three", by Perry Kivolowitz 
"Optimize Your AmigaBasic Prt>granis Fof Speed", by Steve 

« Vol. 1 No. 7 19S6 

Highlights include: 

'Try 3-0", An introduction to 3*D graphics, by Jim Meadows 

"Window Requesters in Amiga Basic", by 5teve Michel 

"I C What I Think", A few C graphic progs, by R. Peterson 

"Your Menu Sirl", Programming AmigaHASiC menus, by B 


"Linking C Programs with Assem^bler Routines", by Gerald 


* Vol. 1 No. 8 1986 
Highlights include: 

"Computers in the aassroom", by Robert Frizelle 
"Using Your Printer With The Amiga" 
"Using Fonts from AmigaBASIC", by Tim Jones 

"SCTcen SaVer", Monitor protection program in C, by P* 


"A Tale of Three EMACS", by Sieve Poling 

".bmap File Reader in AmigaBASIC", by T Jones 

*• Vol. 1 No. 9 1986 

H ighlights include: 

"The Loan Information Program", A BASIC program for 

your financial options, by Brian Cailey 

"Starting Your Own Amiga-Related Business", by W. 


"Keep Track of Your Business Usage for Taxes", 

by [, Kiimmer 

"Using Fonts from AmigaBASIC: Part Two", by Tim Jones 

"68000 Macros On The .4miga", by G- Hull 

H Vol. 2 No. 1, January 1987 

Highlights include: 

"What Digi-Vie w Is™ Or, What Genlock Should Be!", by J. 


"AmigaBASIC Titles", by Bryan Catiey 

"A Public Domain Modula-2 System", by Warren Block 

""One Drive Compile", by Douglas Lovell 

"A Megabyte Without Mcgabucks", An internal megabyte 

upgrade, by Chris Irving 

H Vol. 2 No. 2, February 1987 

Highlights include: 

"The Modem", Efforts of a BBS sysop, by Josph L. Rothman 

"The ACQ Project.. ..Graphic Teleconferencing on the 

Amiga"^ by S. R. Pietrowicz 

"Flight Simulator II: A Cross CouJitiy Tutorial", by John 


"A Disk Librarian In AmigaBASIC", by John Kennan 

"Creating And Using Amiga Workbench Icoiu", 

by C Hansel 

"Build Your Ovim MIDI Interface", by Richard Rae 

"AmigaDOS Operating System Calls and Disk File 

Management", by D. Haynie 

"Working with the Workbench", by Louis A. Mamakos 

¥ Vol. 2 No. 3, March 1987 

Highlights include: 

"An Analysis Of The New Amiga PCs tA2000 & A500)", by 

J, Foust 

'^Subscripts and Superscripts in AmigaBASIC", by Ivan C- 


"AmigaTrix", Amiga shortcuts, by W. Block 

"Intuition Gadgets", by Harriet Maybeck Tolly 

"Forth!", Put sound in your Forth prograims, by Jon Bryan 

"Assembly Language on the Amiga", by Chris Martin 

"AmjgaNotes", No stereo? Y not?, by Rick Rae 

* Vol. 2 No. 4, April 19S7 

Highlights include: 

"Jim Sachs Interview", by S. Hull 

"The Mouse That Got Restored", by Jerry Hull and Bob 


"Household Inventory System in AmigaBASIC", by B, 


"Secrets of Screen Dumps", by Natkun Okun 

"Amigatrix 11", More Anaiga shortcuts, by Warren Block 

* Vol- 2 No. 5, May I9fi7 

Highlights include: 

"Wriling a SoundScape Module", Programming wilh MIDI, 

Amiga and SoundScape in C, by T. Fay 

"programming in 68000 Assembly Language", by C. Martin 

"Using FutureSound with AmigaBASIC", Programming 

utility with real digitized STEREO, by J. Meadows 

"Waveform Workshop In AmigaBASIC", by J. Shields 

"intuition Gadgets: Part 11", by H. MaybeckTolly 

% Vol.2 No. 6, June 1987 

Highlights incJude: 

"MDdula-2 AmigaDOS Utilities", by S. Faiwiszewski 

"Amiga Expansion Peripherals", by J. Foust 

"IVhat You Should Know Before Choosing an 

Amiga 1000 Expansion Device", by S. Grant 

"68000 Assembly Language Programm ing", by Qiris Martin 

If VoL2 No. 7, July 1937 
Highlights include: 

"Video and Your Amiga", by Oran Sands HI 
"Amigas £c Weather Forecasting", by Brenden Ijrson 
"Quality Video from a Quality Computer", by O. Sands 
"Is IFF Really a Standard?", by John Foust 
"All About Printer Drivers", by Richard Bielak 
"66000 Assembly Language", by Chris Martin 

If Vol. 2 No. 8, August 1987 

Highlights include: 

"Amiga Entertainment Products" 

"Modula-2 Programming" 

"Assembly Language" 

"Dtsk-2-Disk", by Matthew Leeds 

"Skinny C Programs", by Robert i?i(?mersma, Jr. 

H Vol. 2 No. 9, September 1987 

Highlights include: 

"Madula-2 Programming", Ravv console dev. events, by B 


"AmigaBASIC Patterns", by Brian Cailey 

"Frogranuning wilh Soundscape", by T. Fay 

"BUI Volk, Vice-President Aegis Development", interview 

by Steve Hull 

"Jim Goodnow, Developer of Marw 'C", Interviewby Harriet 

M Tolly 

If Vol. 2 No. 10, October 1987 

Highlights include: 

"Max Headroom and the Amiga", by John Foust 

Taking the Perfect Screen Shot", by Keith Conforti 

"Amiga Artist; Brian Williams", by John Foust 

"All About On-line Conferencing^, by Richard Rae 

"Amiga BASIC Structures", by Sieve Michel 

"Quick and Dirty Bobs", by Michael Swinger 

"Fast File I/O with ModuJa-2", by Steve Faiwiszewski 

"Window I/O", by Read Predmore 

■¥ Vol. 2 No. n, November 1987 

Highlights include: 

"Jez San Interview", StarCUder author speaks!, by Ed 


"Do-it-youTself Impiovonents To The Amiga Genlock" 

Amaziftg Computing V5.10 ©1990 89 

"AmigaS'oles", Electronic music bcraks, by R. Rae 
"ModuJa-I Programming", Devices, I/O, ic serial port, b\" S. 

-feSOOO Assembly Language", by Chris Martin 

The AMICUS Network", by John Foust 

"C Animal ion; Pjrt 1 1", by Mike Swinger 

"SoundSrapc Part 111", VU Meier and more, by Tfxlor Fay 

"Fun with Amiga Numbers", by Alan Bamett 

"Flic Browser", bv Bryan Catley 

■*■ Vol. 2 No. 12, December 19B7 

Highlights include: 

"The Ultimate Video Accessory", by Lirry White 

'The Sony Connection", by Stewart Cobb 

"CLI Arguments in C", by Paul Cislonguay 

"MIDI Interface Adaptor", by Barry Massoni 

"Moduli'S", Command line calculator, by S. Faiwiszewski 

"AmigaMoies", Audiochangesniade in (he A500 &A2000, by 


"Animalipn for C Rookies: Pari HI'', by M. Swinger 

*The Big Pidurc", Assembly language programming, bv 

Warren Ring 

"Insider/Kwikslart Review", K.-VM & ROM expansion: 

Comments & insiallation tips, by Ernest P. Viveiros, Sr. 

"Forthr, DumpRPort utility for your Multi-Forth looibox, by 

Jon Bryan 

*' Vol, 3 No, 1. January 19S8 

Klghlighls include: 

"Amiga No (es", Amiga digital music generadon, by Richard 


"C Animation: Part [ V, by Michael Swinger 
"Forth", Sorting out Ami gaCHIP and FASTmemory, by John 

"The Big Piciucc", CLI system C4lls and manipulating disk 
files, by Warren Ring 

"68000 Assembly Language Programming", Created multi- 
color screen ivithout using intuition routines, by Chris Martin 
"Modula-2 rrogramming", by S. Faiwis^ewski 
"The Ultimate Video Accessory: Part II", by L- White 
"FormatMaster Professional Disk Formalling Engine", by 

"BSprcad", Full featured AmigaBASlC spreadsheet, by Brian 

V Vol. 3 No- 2, Februarj' 1958 

Highlights mclude: 

"Laser Light Shows with the Amiga", by Patrick Murphy 

"TTie Ultimate Video Accessory: Part III", by L White 

"Hooked On The Amiga With Fred Fish", by Ed BcrcoviU. 

"Photo Quality Reproduction with the Amiga and Digi- 

View", bv Stephen Lebans 

"Balancing Your Checkbook With Word Perfect Maaos". bv 


"SoEutJons To Linear Algebra Through Matrix 

CompuUdons", by Robert EUb 

"Modula-2 Programming", Catching up ivjth Calc, by Seve 


"68000 Assembler Language Programming", by Chris 


"AiKT", Icon-based program language, by S, Faiwiszewski 

*' Vol. 3 No. 3, March 1988 

Highlights include: 

"Desktop Video: Part IV". by Llrry White 

"The Hidden Power of CLI Batch File Processing", by J. 


"A Conference With Eric Graham", edited by John Foust 

"Perry Kivolowitz Interviewed", by Ed Bercovitz 

"Jean "Mocbius" Giraud Interviewed", by Edward L. 


"PAL Help", AlOOO expansion reliability, by Perry 


"Boolean Function Minimization", by Steven M. Hart 

"Amiga Serial Port and MIDI Compatibiltty for Your 

AlOOO", by L. Ritterand G. Rentz 

"'Electric Network SoluS]ons*heMatrixWay",by Robert Ellis 

"Modul a-2 Program ming". The gamopor i device and simple 

sprites in action, by Steve Faiwiszewski 

"The Big Picture", Unified Field Theory by Warren Ring 

i' \'ol. 3 xVo. 4, April 1936 

Highlights inclyde: 

"Writing A SoundScape Patch Librarian", by T. Fay 

"Upgrade Tiour AlOOO to A5O0/2O0Q Audio Power'', b> H, 


"Gel* in Mulli-Fofth", by John Bushakra 

"Macroba tics'. Easing the trauma of Assembly language 

programming, by Patrick J. Horgan 

"TTie Uittiodti: Video Accesoty; Part V'',by Larry White 

"The Big Picture, Part 11: Unified Field Theor>'", by W. Ring 

If Vol. 3 No. 5, May 1988 

Highlights include: 

"Interactive Startup Sequence", by Udo Pemisi 

"AmigaTrLx III", by VVarren Block 

"Prolelarial Pro^amming", Public domain compilers, by P 


"The Companion", Amiga's event-handling capability, by 


The Big Picture, Unified Field Theory: Part III", by Warren 


"Modula-Z", Termination modules for Benchmark and TDI 

compilers, by Steve Faiwiszewski 

"63000 Assembly Language", Peeling away the complication 

of display routines, by Chris Martin 

"The Command Line: The First Installmenl", by Rich 


* Vol.3 No, 6,Junel9SS 
Highlights include; 

"Reassigning Workbench Disks", by John Kennan 

"An IFF Reader in Multt-Forth", by Warren Block 

"Bask Directory Service Program", Programming alternative 

to the CimmeyZeroZero, by Bryan Catley 

"C Notes from the C Group", A beginner's guide to the power 

of C programming, by Stephen Kemp 

An Amiga Forum Conference with jimMackru 

The Amiga market as seen by the "Stepfather of Intuition." 

The Command Line: Exploring the multi-talented LIST 

command", by Rich Falconburg 

*' Vol. 3 \'o. 7, July 19S5 

Highlights include: 

"An Interview with 'Anim Man,' G^ry Bonham" by B, Larson 

"Roll Those Presses!'*, The dandy, demanding world of 

desktop publishing, by Bame)' Schwartz 

"Linked Lists in C", by W. E Gammill 

"CNotes from thcC Group", The unknown "C" of basicobjeet 

and data types, by Stephen Kemp 

¥ Vol 3 No, S, August 1988 

Highlights include: 

"The Developing Amiga", A gaggle of great programming 

tools, by Stepiien R. Pietrowicz 

"Modula-2 Programming", Libraries and the FFP and lEE 

math routines, by Steve Faiwiszewski 

"C Notes from the C Group: Arrays and pointers unmasked", 

by Stephen Kemp 

'TrackMouse", Converting a standard Atari trackball into a 

peppy Amiga TrackMouse, by Darryl Joyce 

"Amiga 1 nterf ace for Blind Users", by Carl W. Mann 

'Tumblin' Tots", Assembly language program, by David 


Plus — A Look At Amiga Entenainm^nt 

? Vol. 3 No. 9, September 1988 

Highlights include: 

"The Kideo Tapes", A Gc-orgia elementary school puts 

desktop video lo work, by John Dandurand 

"Speeding Up Your System", Floppy disk caching, by Tony 


"Computer-Aided Instruction", Authoring system in 

AmigaBASIC, by Paul Castonguay 

"Gels in MuIli'Forth, Part 11: Screenplay', by John Bushakra 

"AmigaNotes: How IFF sound samples are stored", by 

Richard Rae 

"C Notes from the C Group". Operators, expressions, and 

statements in C uncovered, by Stephen Kemp 

* VoL 3 No. 10, October 1988 
Highlights include: 

"The Command Line:NEWCLl; A painless way (o create a 

new console window^', by Rich Falconburg 

"Record Keeping for Freelancers: A Superbasc Professional 

Tutorial", by Marion Deland 

"On The Crafting of Programs", Optimizalion kicks off our 

series on programming savvy, by David J. Hankins 

"Bob and Ray Meet Frankenstein", Create, animate, and 

nietamorphose graphics objects in Amig^^BASlC, by Robert 


"Digital Signal Processing in AmigaBASIC, Perform your 

own digitiil experiments with Fast Fourier Transformsj by 

Robert Ellis 

"HAM t AmigaBASIC, Pack your AmigaBASIC progs with 

m.nn\' of the Amiga's 4096 shades, by Bryan Catley 

"CAI — Computer Aided Instruction: Part H", by FauJ 


¥ Vol. 3 No. 1 1, November 198S 

Highlights include: 

"Sttuclures in C, by Paul Castonguay 

"On The Crafting of Programs", by D. Hankins 

"Desktop Video VI: Adding the Third Dimension", bv L 


'More Linked Lists m C: Techniques and Applications", 
Procedures for managing lists, storing diverse data typ« in 
the same list, and putting lists to work in j-our progranris, by 
Forest W, Arnold 

"BASIC Linker", Combine individual routines from your 
program library to create an executable program, by B. Zupke 

If Vol. 3 No. 12, December 1988 

Highlights include: 

The Command Line; What to do when the commands of 

AmigaDos fail", by Rich Falconburg 

"Converting Patch Librarian Files", by Phil Saunders 

"The Creation of Don Blulh'a Dragon's Lair", by Randy 


"Easy Menus In jForlh", by Phil Burk 

"Extending AmigaBasic", The use of library calls from within 

AmigaBASIC, by John Kennan 

"Getting Started In AssembljT, by Jeff Glatt 

"C Notes From The C Group: Program or function control 

coding", by Stephen Kemp 

"AmigaDos, Assembly Language, And FllcNotcs". 

Weapons in the war against file overload; accurate, 

descriptive file naming, by Dan Huth 

* VoL 4 No. 1, January' 19S9 

Highlights include: 

"Desktop Video", by Richard Starr 

■"Industrial Strength Menus'", by Robert IXAslo 

'Scrolling Through SuperBitMap Windows", by Read 


'8)^0 Tips: Dot crawL the Amiga and composite video 

devices", by Qran J. Sands 

"Stop-Motion Animation On The Amiga", by Brian Zupke 

The Command Line: New and Improved Assembly 

Language Commands", by Rich Falconburg 

"Pointers, Function Pointers, and Pointer Declarations In 

C", by Forest W. Arnold 

'Death of a Process", Developing an error-handl ing module 

in Modula-2, by Mark Cashman 

¥ Vol. 4 No. 2, February 19S9 

Highlights include; 

"Max Morehead Interview", by Richard Rae 

"A Common User Interface for the Amiga", by Jim Bayless 

"SPY:Programming Intrigue In Modula -2", by Steve 


"Sync Tips: Getting inside the genlock", by Oran Sands 

"On the Crafting of Programs: A common standard for C 

programming?", by D J. Hankins 

"C Notes from the C Group: An Introduction to unions", by 

Steven Kemp 

The Command Line: Your Workbench Screen Editor", bv 

Rich Falconburg 

"An Introduction to AResra pro^amming"^ by Steve 


¥ Vol. A No. 3, March 19S9 

Highlights include: 

"Fractal Fundamentals", by Paul Castonguay 

"Image Processing With Photosj-n thesis", by Gerald Hull 

"Benchmark 1: Fully Utilizing The MC68881", Part I: 

TurbcKharging the savage benchmark, by Read Predmore 

'Breaking the Bmap Barrier", Streamline AmigaBASIC 

library access with Quick— Lib, by Robert D'Asto 

"Double Play", Amiga BASIC program yields double vision, 

by Robert D'Asto 

"The Video Desk; The Amiga meets Nikon Camera", by 

Larry White 

¥ Vol. 4 No. 4, April 1989 

Highlights include: 

"AmiEXPQ Art and Video Contest Winners", by Steve 


"Adding the Not-So-Hard Disk", by J P. Twardy 

"The Max Hard Drive Kit", A hard drive installation project, 

using Palomax's Max kit, by Donald W. Morgan 

"Sync Tips: A clearer picture of video and computer 

resolutions", by Oran J, Sands 

"Passing Arguments", Step-by-sleponhow to pass data from 

the CLI to AmigaBASIC, by Brian Zupke 

"Creating a Shared Library", bv John Baez 

¥ Vol.4 No. 5, .May 1989 

Highlights include: 

Tlie Business of Video", by Steve Cillmor 

'An Amiga Adventure", The globetrotting Amiga in 

Cologne, Gemianv. bv Larrv White 

"Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS), Pari I", bv S. Bender 

"Building Vour 0*'«x Stereo Digitizer", by Andre Thcberge 

"MIDI Out Interface", by Br. Seraphim Winslow 

"Digitized Sounds in Modula-2", b)- Len A. While 

"S>TicTips:Theseciet5hsddenbeneathlhe flicker mode", b)" 

Oran J. Sands 

90 Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

"Insla Sound in AmigaBASIC, by Greg Stringfellow 
"CNotesfrom Ihe C Group: FormattEd output functions", by 
Siephen Kemp 

%■ Vol. 4 No. 6, June 1989 

Highlights includr: 

"Adventures in ARexx", by Steve Cillmor 

"At Your Request: Design your own requesters In 

AmigaBASIC", by John F. VVeiderhim 

"Exploring Amiga Dish Structwres'% by David Martin 

"Diskless Compile in C", by Chuck Raudonis 

"(UPS), Pari 1 r, by Steve Bender 

"Programming Ihe *SB1 Part 11", A discussion on how to 

calculate Mandelbrot & Julia seis^ by Head Predmore 

"C Notes h-om the C Group: Ways to avoid problem^ when 

passing parameters between functions", by Stephen Kemp 

% Vol.4 No- 7, July 1989 

Highlights include: 

"An Inside look at UltraCard", by Steve Cillmor 

"Adapting Analog J oyslicks to the Amiga"^ by David Kinzer 

"Using Coordinate Systems: Part It of the Fractals series 

addresses the basis of computer graphics", by Paul 


Pius — A Look At Amiga Entertainment 

% Vol. 4 No. 8, August 1989 

Highlights include: 

"Getting Started in Video", by Richard Starr 

"C Notes: Directing programs via the Command Line", by 

Stephen Kemp 

"Executing Batch Files in AmigaBASIC, by Mark 


"Building a Better String G adget", by John Bushakra 

"On YourAterl: Using System Alerts from BASlC",byJohn 

F. Wiederhirn 

V Vol. 4 No. 9, September t989 

Highlights include: 

"Digitizing Color 51 ides And Negative on the Amiga", by 

Ron Gull 

"Improving Your Graphics Programming", by Richard 


"Cell Animation In Modula-2", by Nicholas Cirasella 

"More Requesters In AmigaBASIC", by John R. Wiederhirn 

"DcluxePainl III — The Inside Story", EA's Dan Silva tells 

how DeluxePaint HI evoUed, by Ben & Jean Means 

''Amiga In Desktop Presenlalion", Presentation techniques 

to enhance your meetings and seminars, by John Steiner 

"Multitasking In Fortran", by Jim Locker 

"Gels In Multi-Forth: Part III", by John Bushakra 

li' Vol. 4 No. 10, October 1989 

Highlights include: 

"BelierTrackMouse", A tmeone-handed trackball mouse, by 

Robert Katz 

"Conference with Will Wright and Brian Conrad of SimQty 

fame^', edited by Richard Rae 

"AlOQO Rejuvenatoij, Conference with Gregory Tibbs", 

edited by Richard Rae 

"APL & the Amiga", by Henry Lippen 

"Saving iS-color pictures in high-resolution", Part Three of 

the Fractals series, by P.iul Castonguay 

"More requesters In AmigaBASIC", by John Wiederhirn 

"Glatl's Gadgets", Adding g^idgels in Assembly, byjcff Glatt 

"Function Evaluator in C", by Randy Finch 

"Big Machine On Campus", Humboldt Bt^te University in 

Northern California goes Amiga, by Joe! Hagen. 

"Typing Tutor", by Nlike"Chip" Morrison 

¥ Vol. 4 No. 11, November 1989 

Highlights Include: 

"The Amiga Hardware Interface", by John lovine 

"The Command Line: Examine the features in the 

AmigaDOS 1^ Enhancer software package", by Rich 


"C Notes from the C Group: Creating your own libraries 

in C", by Stephen Kemp 

"APL & the Amiga, Part TI", by Henry Uppert 

"FastPixO", A faster pixel-drawing routine /or the Aztec C 

compiler, by Scott Steinman 

"64 Colors in AmigaBASIC, by Bryan Catley 

"Fast Fractals ", Generate Madelbfot Fractals at lightning 

speed, by Hugo M.H, Lyppens 

"Multitasking in Fortran", by Jim Locker 

¥ Vol. 4 No. 12, December 1989 

Highlights Include: 

The MIDI Must Go Thru", by Br. Seraphim Winslow 

"View From the Inside; Bars&ripes", Bars&Pipes designer 

gives a tour of HI ue Ribbon Baker)''s music program, by 

Melissa Jordan Grey 

"ARexx Fart II", by Steve Cillmor 

"A CLl Beginner's Questions Answered", by Mike 


"Trees and Recursion", by Forest W. Arnold 

"C Notes from the C Group", A look at two compressing 

data lechniquif^s, by Stephen Kemp 

"The Command Line; Exploring commands in 

AmigaDOS", by Rich Falconburg 

"Amiga Circuits", The techniques required to input 

infonnation via. the parallel port, by John lovine 

IT Vol. 5 No. 1, January 1990 

Highlights include: 

The Making Of The 1989 BADGE Killer Demo Contest 

Winner, The Sentinel", by Bradley W. Schenek 

"Animation For Everyone", by Barry Solomon 

"Animation With Sculpt-^imale 4D"', by Lonnie Watson 

"Animation? BASICallyJ", Using Cell animation in 

AmigaBASIC, by Mike Morrison 

"Menu Builder^, Building menus with Intuition, by Tony 


"Facing the CLI", Disk structures and startup-sequencO', by 

Mike Morrison 

"Dual Demo", Programming an arcade game, by Thomas 


"Scanning The Screen", Part Four in the Fractals series, by 

Paul Castonguay 

"It's Colder Than You Think", Calculating the wind chill 

tempcralure, by Robert Klimaszewski 

* Vol. 5 N*0. 2, February 199C 

Highlights include: 

"A Beginner's Guideto Desktop Publishing OnThe Amiga", 

by John Steiner 

"A Desktop Publishing Primer", Clearing up some of the 

mystery surrounding printers. 

"ResUing the shell/CLl Window", by William A. Jones 

"Call Assembly Language from BASIC", by .Martin F. Coml^ 

"You Too Can Have A Dynamic Memory", Flexible string 

gadget requester using dynamic memory allocation, by Randy 


"An Amiga Conundrum"^ An AmigaBASIC program for a 

puzzle-like game, by David Senger 

"View From The Ir\side: ScanUb", ASDG's President shares 

the development of ScanLab, by Perry Kivolowitz 

"AMIGANET", by Ernest P, Viveirosjr. 

¥ VoL 5 No. 3, March 1990 

Highlights include: 

"Screen Aid", A quick remedy to prolong the life of your 

monitor, by Bryan Catley 

"An IntroducJion to MIDI", by R. Shamms Mortier 

The Other Guys' Synthia Professional", review by David 


"Passport's Master Tracks Pro vs. Blue Ribbon Bakery's 

Bars&Pipcs", by Ben Means 

"Microillusions' Music-X", review by Rob Bryanton 

"Diemer Develapraent's C-ZAR", review by R. Shanims 


"Dr. T's Keyboard Controlled Sequencer^, review by Phil 


"MusicTitler", Generating a tiller display to accompany Ihe 

audio on a VCR recording, by Brian ZupJte 

1' Vol.5 No. 4, April 1990 
Highlights include: 

"Handling MS-DOS Files", Adapting your Amiga to MS- 
DOS using a 5.25" disk drive, by Jim Locher 
"Bridging the 3.5" Chasm", Making Amiga 3,5" dri\'es 
compatible with IBM 3.5" drives, by Karl D. Belsom 
"Bridgeboard Q & A", by Marion Deland 
"Handling Gadget & Mouse IntulEvenls", More gadgets in 
Assembly, by Jeff Glatt 

"Ham Bones", Programming in HAM mode in AmigaBASIC, 
by Robert D' As to 

"Gambling with your video, Amiga-style", Problems with 
trading genlocks with your friends, by Oran Sands 
"Distant Suns", rex-iewby Mike Hubbart 

1i' Vol.5 No. 5 May 1990 

Highlights Include: 

^Commodore's Amiga 3000", preview 

"Newtek's Video Toaster", preview 

"Getting started With Deluxe Video III", tutorial by David 


"Do It By Remote", Building an Amiga-operated remote 

con troller for your home, by Andre Theberge 

Turn Your Amiga 1000 Into A ROM-based Machine", by 

George Cibeau Jr. & Dwighi Blubaugh 

"SuperBitmaps In BASIC", Holding a graphics display larger 

than the monitor screen, by Jason Cahill 

"Rounding Off Your Numbers", by Sedgewjck Simons Jr, 

"Faster BASIC Mouse Input", by Michael S. Fahrion 
-Print Utility^, by Brian Zupke 

» Vol.5 No. 6, June 1990 

Highlights Include; 

"Convergence", Part Five of the Fractal series, by Paul 


"C++: An introduction to object-oriented Amiga 

pjogramjning'^, by Scott B. Steinman 

"APL and the Amiga: Primitive Functions and Their 

Eiecution"j by Henry T. IJppert 

"Amiga Turtle Graphics", by Dylan McNamee 

"Building A Rapid Fire Joystick", by John lovine 

The AM 512", Upgrade your A500 to a 1 megabyte machine, 

by James Bentley 

"FageStream 1.6", review by John Steiner 

"WordPerfect Macros", by Mike Hubbartt 

"Mail Order Macros", Addressing envelopes using 

WordPerfect macros, by Armando Cardenas 

"DigiMate lU", review^ by Frank Mc .Mahon 

** Vols No. 7, July 1990 

Highlights include: 

"Commodore announces CDTV" 

''Apples, Oranges, and MIPS: fiSOSQ-based Accelerators For 

The Amiga 20OO", by Ernest P. Viveiros. Jr. 

■^Fixound", revie^v by R. Shamms Mortier 

"Hyperchord". by Howard Bassen 

"Exceptional Conduct", Quick response to user requests, 

through efficient program logic, by Mark Cashman 

"Poor Man's Spreadsheet", A simple spreadsheet program 

that demonstrates manipulating anrays, by Gerry L. Penrose 

Tree Traversal and Tree Search", Two methods for 

traversing trees, by Forest W. Arnold 

"Crunchy Frog II", by Jim Fiore 

"Getting to the Poinb Custom Intuition Pointers In 

AmigaBASIC", by Robert D'Asto 

"Synchionicity: Right Ic Left Brain Lateralization", by John 


"Snap, Crackle, tc POPl", Fixing a monitor bug on 

Commodore monitors, by Richard Landry 

If Vol.5 No. 6, August 1990 

Highlights include: 

"Mimetics' FrameBuffei", review by Lonnie Watson 

"The VidTech Scanlock", review by Oran Sands 

"Amigas in Television", Tlie Amiga in a cable television 

operation, by Frank McMahon 

"Desktop Video in a University Setting'', The Amiga at work 

at North Dakota Slate Universit)-, by John Steiner 

"Credit Text Scroller", review by Frank McMahon 

"Graphic Suggestions", Other ways to use your Amiga in 

video production, by Bill Burkett 

Title Screens That Shine: Adding light sources with 

DeluxcPaint 111", by Frank McMahon 

The Amiga goes to the Andys", by Curt Kass 

"Breaking the RAM Barrier", Longer, faster, smoother 

animations with only one meg of RAM, by Frank McMahon 

"Fully Utilizing Ihe 63881 Math Coprocessor: Timings and 

Tuibo_Fisei Junctions", by Read Predmore 

"APL and the Amiga: Part IV", by Henry T. Lippert 

''Sound Quest's MidiQuesI", review by Hal Bglden 

*■ Vol. 5 No. 9, September 1990 

Highlights Include: 

"KCS 3.0 Review'*, by Phil Saunders 

"Acting On Impulse", A visit to Impulse by John Steiner 

"3-D Professional", review by David Duberman 

" How Fro is 3-D Professional?" review by Frank McMahon 

"Programming in C on a Floppy System", Yes, e\'en a stock 

A500 with a 5I2K RAM expander, by Paul Miller 

Time Out", Accessing the Amiga's system timer device via 

Modula-2 by, Mark Cashman 

"Stock-Portfolio", Here'sanoriginal program lo or ganizeyour 

investments, music library, mailing listj, etc, bv G.L^ Penrose 

'■^o ice-Con trot led Joystick", by John lovine 

'■■CNotes FromThe C Group", by Stephen Kemp 

" FrameGrabbcr", review by Frank McMahon 

'*KARA Fonts ", review by R Shamms Mortier 

'''Gradient Color Dithering on the Amiga Made Easy", by 

Francis Gardino 

"Sculpt Script", by Christian Aubert 

"The Alt Depatmenl", review by R. Shamms Mortier 

"Scene Generator", review by R. Shamms Mortier 

"Breaking the Color Limit with PageRcndcr3D", review by R. 

Shamms Mortier 

Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 91 

The Fred Fish Collection 

Due to tha increasing size oi the Fred Rsh 
Collection, only the latest disks are 
represented here. Far a complele list ol all 
AC, AMICUS, and Fred Ftsh Disks, 
cataloged and cross-reierenced for your 
convenience, please consult the current 
AC'S Guide To The Commodore Amiga 
available at your local Amazing Dealer. 

Efftd Fish Disk 335 

BoinsOerTio Oemo version of a nea! game flue lor 

release in March 1590. H is Mfy lijncSDnai bui ffw 
ptay ■fm« is fimitsd lo rr«& mortes por ftif. Version 
JO, bifa-y wfy. Ai/htx; Kevin Ketn, Aiemaie 

DTC A mltlyp'Svi^jsiiTifie calendar «h)Ch can hold 
and stow appcint-nanis. i; oiay M uwM n 
ifiana^ng your tine. I'kS diiiel goa^ veie to provide 
flay, week and mor* 3l a pianos for any tfate 

t»iweemnyOQ03 and i2'3l.9999Hd«iaLj!:ng to the 
cufte^! oate, n is risru dnven and farfi/ easy to 
use. Includes source in Fortran. AuBtoi: Wlch Wy^e. 
Am^a ,K>fi by Glenn Everharl 

See^tear A program to iJo a spKlrog-a-Ti o( a sampled sour^J 
Ue. ^^s IS a grapfi with sr:ie on one aus^freq-jer^^y 
onttH ffJBf and tr» Wi^idnKrisiy al each poirl 
aetern jiirg rte ;toeJ cotor, Wrjisaufca in C. 
>ndL.^rTgFFTrou*jr€.Ths-sversx)nl,l A-Tior 
Darici T. Johnson 


Car A ^ft-c-dcT'.ensicrHJ hji screen s:rcffa^ r&Ofg ga'^e 
with j^aliSTc fcfur chaineJ swreo Mur^d and 
overscan, lor ether NTSC cr PAI^Arrigas- Thegcat 
is to gmde youf car atojnd one ol len se^'ecied 
tracts. Eacli irack fias its iniivKfuaJ ht^ score list 
VetsionZ Q, buiary only.AuJw: A'xJcrs Bjenn 

Fi!eVWnUow A completely pubiS dornain W&reqv^isf 

vihicm nay be used ;i any prog<^[n, even 
ccmTEfoal ones. H uses (Jpiaimca^t)' atocaiwl 
nentj^ 10 hdcl itis fi'a sc fte orty tT.;taiJcn 
is the aixurtt cJ meroy avaiabie. ^ndudes a SEff 
edition o liT-i cstfay d Eiensmes w crJy one? iwti 
a specirc extension. Nar^esarffaiitamatcaiy 
jOKd wh^lfi 9vy ate tKif^ read and cispfayed- 
VI. 10, iiDd-jdes source. By: Anders Bjerb 

MiikBidSI A shcor^ upgame wHiOt njns [usi i^ne ii a miA' 
tasking EfivKonfJient. Alias! yoycan enjoy a 
satisf^jr^gmegablast white you arewniing a bonrig 
essay- ShoQ! anything ihai mc>v^. and il ii doesn^ 
noN-e. shoo: i! anyway. V] .CO. I:<na7 tjriy By- 
Arttefs Ejaai 

S^ A^amebuftoniJieajSctrtigwwPOWSOBui 
mty yr^rz\ ad4>d fttbitt. Ydu t4v« bMn 
assigned ne demandngtadtflf dawiing vtiusas 
livn yoiT SYSO?'; harif (fsk. Total ai virus, you 
simply luck a [is^ SI i'L. T3i«fr ar« fifly dflvsni 
levels, and on each level, fvs speed wl increasa 
ar^d [he wr-jses wB be snnaitef and stan to hyni ycu. 
V2.10. binary oniy.B)'; Anders B;5nn 

CManuat A coTLp'eta C nrarwal lor the Arn'^ga wficti cJe$0:be5 
hew la open and work with ECreorre, vrxXf/iS. 
grapfres. g^^eis.i'^^ws. ai^ts, ;rerus, 
JDGMP. sp^fes. ett Tf.ensrxjalffliniJSClnDw 
r^an^Mpa^n j: c-'iapierj.iogettienrthmore 
V<r*(i i/ip^£kM, the T^ar -jal and eia.-npies nearly 
ifl u? three Elarcard ArTitja ''ocpes. Th4 4 i*"S^ 
1 .00 and inOiKies soiree Irai Enampies. AuVicr: 
An'JerS Bjerin 

Fred Fish Dtsk 353 

Cpti Tir--i^ is a copy ol the Dectjs cpp, ponedto i^e 
^.miga. This cpp is rr-ore powerful ar<3 compleje 
ilhan ether ci Ihe binit in cpp's n Man* zn Latt'ceC. 
This is an update to ^ versiw ai iSs-k 28 it has 
had some AflSi te3i/^« adcfed. ireijdes source. 
By, fAarttn iArc#, OeI Seitien 

SASTods V5rwyS$ubmtssiQn?fiorT5"ScKAmJ9aSon". 
Enciu*s i£fr.i -reus tods. ssfne sctesi hacKs. 
some SiUal games, svi niscetowous uJites. 
irxi^jdee source b asssfnUy a.'id Modjlall. Ajthor 

SID A very ccmpfchensrve directory utility tor t^e Amiga 

thai supports at Ilea sla oupis oT dozen tlifierent 
Donmandsforopft'aiing on files, Vei&on IC*. 
brnarycniy, AuthDriTtmrnWartfi, 


PCO A Iree^y redistribuHble, ses wTipdifig. Pascal 

com p^ier ( Of the A/r.iga. The oni y n: ajof ! eatire 0< 
Pascaf ttet a no! i-npicfriented s sets. Ths dS 
vesoni . 1 c an up(j3!e B version 1 cn d sk i 83 . 11 
IS much enhanced and atou! loi/ tasiet. 
indudes the coTt;j!er sixsrce and example 
prooram^, Authcf:Patr»:i(>jaid 

Fred Fish Oisk3JO 

NonnC A codipteie treely iBdistributatJe C environment lof 
tti«! Ami^a based on the Sczobon Lid C conpiief, 
CharltB Gibb'sasMfnliler. ihe Software Cisti^ery's 

leikef, and poftons Irom o:hK sources, Steve has 
pulled everything together and abided soma 
enhancements in me pfocess. Version 1 .0, paniaf 
sojrce omy. By: Ste^ Kawl:;. e;. al. 

Piploi A l^ti-afy 0) C funct«is useful iw soentlic pfaftng on 
thfl AJniQ3- T^e ktirarv is Ul^ C rampate^e Cortour 
pfoOnQ. three dmensonalplotling.^srsdefi^Tiio^. 
ktg^ phMCtng and midtipie subpages arc a fen ol 
pJptorsteaTires Thflp:tf5ta.*i»<*spia|fMofia 
monfcx or sent to a gra^Shics Me lor subSrqueni 
p[irting.Thisisversicinl6,and-jpcatfltovefs»on 1-00 
W FF22J- Ths vefsion includes a greatly ifr.provsd 
intuition inleffacs, preler eress support 'cr hardcopy. 
several new {teviw dnvers. and She capal>iity of adding 
additional device drwers easify . Incit'des source. 
ALiihof:Tony Richardson 

SpeakerSim Demo version of SpeaJwfSin 20. a loudspeaker 
CAD pfogram S>.Tii^tes verted [Tlie3eSmaJI)and 
closed bci Systems AI$« jin^i^j«stsi.^,and3rd 
orderfnghand low pass Site's, SftaryCrty, By: 

Fftd Fish Dial.- 341 

F^ P2C is a lotf for raralafeig Pascal pro-ams infflC. It 
handles She telknmg Pascal dialeds: MP Pascal 
TurboUCSD Pascal. DEC VAX Pascal. Oregon 
SeftwafePaSvatS.UacintashPiojrammefs Workshop 
Pascaf. Sun.'Befkeiey Pascal Mcdjla-2 syniai i$a3so 
suppcfued Most reaswiatjie Pascal programs are 
converted. nto lu'iy L-naron^ C wbch wjI compJe and 
runwlhroliflhetrrOdiBcati&ns.Vl 13 b^ludflS 
soijrce. Ai^tha'iDaveGliespe.ArrigaportbyG n. 
I Fred) Waftef 

Fftd Fish Pish 342 

!= Thsisan con eCitcr Ahjch canceate and notify 

iccnj up ;o &t0r2OQp'je^ in sze (also dual rende). & 
can sel sadr rze. positjcj of icoi (5lEo free-l^tif^l. 
default icjof, 1 ico' types and ciwtfoi oi«r opened 
winoow. ill can atso generate in>e Q souroa code behmd 
|t>e ton far [Sfogram jnciu$^ Vfrrsion lO, t>naryonty. 
source availaWe !rom.ajthot. Aufiior: Pelor Kiern 

SK^ A Vrfi'ltke shfliE for ttw Amga. Ecme ot is leaJuies 
indkcle cc>mjTka.'>d substiti^on. it<A luncbons tf.ih 
pararneters. aliases, local variables, focal iLmcticr^. 
local aliases. pc^stU centred saubres and lesis. 
envacs sryls Ine Kflhg and tKsbY ^'^^^'"^ • ^ 
redvection, pipos, tttQS v3net]r of biA-tn ctfTtmands. 
Unii styte widcart^ Uni styteRlensme convflrtions, 
f*ename compteioi. and meidsssncB witti scr^jts (rom 
other shefls, ^flfy iveii doojmerted Version 1 4, an 
update to verswn i -3 on rfijk 3C9- f*iv iMiures 
incfude a imy' versjon. a nwk'ne case constnjd. 
Support loftesiden! commands, smaller and fasiei 
eflemal commands, and moe. &na.7oniy- AuBior: 
Steve Koren 

SoflSom Oyivi9flspairaiisof;fcftt5fofHPLaserJetcorapat;hte 
lasff pnfttfifs 10 landscaK temia'. This is an uptjase to 
F¥2Zi. in:»udes souxe. Lyncft 


SnakePi! As)!ac>iCr^e5ar?ieJrtwfK:,1younjsi(jeiPB 
jrtaiie (youiioto! tie screen. Ttoe aie. hcwvw, 
soTie 'Q-Jp SfB^s ar>d some ctisiadM mat may need 
to [?£■ overcome. Etc^erteiamj^o! a garne im isas 
system t;jeadly as pcssbte(w;!h sou-ce). By: Kchael 

SoUSpan SoftSpanflBSprogran.irturtive.commarxJ-trnetHsed 
menu System w^thmessagstuseiiuc-'down loads, Me 
ffetil system, erte^siveheipsyserfl. ex TNsis 
sharewwe vebon i o. tiinary orjy, laTtOT C sDuxe 
code avadaM from tftt autwr. Author lAark V/oKsKeM 

5lXlkS(0f# Apnjgfifnihathe^ycuWTifiherecenttabia 
ol BKhan^ Irom one (tf mar«} th3i«(t) . Bui ol Cftn« 
you must tel the Amiga Ihe recot lafi^ q( exchange 
9vefy day. Requves Amig^iAStC. Binary only. Autnor 
Michael Hanee 

Fred Rsh Disfc 344 

Keytoard Functions lo iranslgi&RAWKEY hturton messages 
into usatjieheycodes. Transialicninio Modula-Jol C 
source (by Fabban G Duloe. Ill) ondish 291 . Version 
vO.mdi^aes source Author: FaboianGDufooiii, 
Peief Graham Evans 

nKMCompanion A two diikss^olrraiefial created by 

CommajCnj for Lise w* 9"* 1 3 revtson c^ the Amija 
ROW Kem«t neierence Wartal. Ubfa^es and Oe«c«. 
puUshed by Mtson-WesJey. A^nosl 300 fies. 
including C $our^ code exam^Ses and eiecuubles, 
have bean packed imo two Iharc acchives. one lor each 
diskol thahvodisi set These enampSes a/enot puUc 
doirain, but may be used and d^rjibuted under [he 
coreitions specified in Ihecopyrighis, Author: Commo- 
dore Business Mach^ies, Inc. 


Cftotois AgaTiebaredencompuiefprojfamraing.Unfte 
arcade type ga-Ties ntKh cequre human input 
csnoio&ig: some ohjeo. ^ stratsgy in CRoboti & 
condBT^sed iri3 a C largjageprjgra.':! 1^31 ycu SesJgn 
and wnte. to control a robot Ythose inssicn is 10 seeit 
duCh track, and desin;/ other robots, eatii Mnr^ 
dilleieni prograns. Al robots aia^ouaJy egiipped, 
and upio 'our may compelealorca, TNsis vcison 
2,3w, an updaia lo f^F331. Binary only, soufca 
avaitable Irom auihor- AuiTKir: Ton Poin(teiter, Amqa 
version hy Da^id Wri^ 

Du PEinis nurbw ol disc Weeks used in selected tSte 

Of cbredores. Wodiled Iran original vraonon dife 
ifl lo riake output more readable, afid handle ^C 
ewT. Incii^des souTce. 9y;,Jos ^'uelef, 
enfiancerrenis &y Ga^y D^ican 

GelL-rage AntnhaTcadvers.^d'grtromd'sJt 14. Snow 
l{)CAs 'w te GRAS rrarVpr. in nsDmsft Tie, 
instead ol assin rg pal it is at a spw?^ p^ice, 
seis up lie PUnef icfe value in ?w image structure, 
and aeie!« any unused bitpLan«s ra save memory 
arrJ diSk space, induoes soyrw. Audw: Mike 
f ajren. enhancsmants by Chucfc Brand 

fitemF/ag Displays number o! memory chunks'sizes to show 
memory ^a^entaton. Chunks are disjiayed as 
Z"ti Bytes which isa rough giida but ssjB use^uf. 
This isan enhanced version ol 'Frags' fnjn disk 
G9- hcludes source. By: Wlce HeyBr, 
enhariMff-enis by Gary Dyncan 

Hoses A program that ct-aws s^ roses. IrT^pieierRs an 
agomtim jrrtnmiheancte'AFtoieisaPose.,." 
byPeterM VaurcfinAmerican WairiertaECa! 
McrJSy. Vol &a. No. ?J 967, p 535 . A sine Eoseis 
a graph of The polar equaeon '.r - siri<n'd)' for 
various \9"yes of h and d Aifihor- Ca-^^ Aftno 

Umshar ThspnjgrameflrBclsfiesfrom Unii sha.- aichives, 
llscoresovci' similar prograims by being small and 
fast, handing eiftraaiion ol Eubdirec:ofiM, 
rerognisifXl a "^iJe variety of sed' and 'jal shar 
fomnats. ancfhand'ing large liies spread ktoss 
severaF shar Nes This is version 1 .3, an i^xlaw to 
me verwn on dsk 297- indudes C wucs Autvi. 

Vc£d A Voice (Tone) Echor for the Yyr.aha 4 OpeMlot 
ser*ssyfmes!:ers- Biwyarfy. source ai-a'aise 
!rom. a-JSv. Aulhcr: Chuck BrarxJ 

X2X Ctcss converts BetAren Moa:oIa-ki!e*JTekKCoi( 

ASCil-^ei Fies These ffes are lypitaJJy u-sed for 
down-iirw -loading imo EPftOMS, or lor 
trarjsmission where binary Wes causeciaos- 
Handles S l. S2. S3. INTEL (fnc USBA records). 
Tetdrcnix { nc edendedl- Source i^ud^d, Aul*>f ; 
Ga/y Duran. 

FffldRih Disk 346 

Az Ari^ l.rae leited^tof that is las; sirrtpia :oLse. 

and very A-nigaized. Thrsis vsrscn 1.60, an 
^pdaG ID FF 22S, will iots of new leaires. bug 
fMBS. and other improvemerte. Bina7 onfy. By: 

CassEt Casseae tape label printer. b^udessoweeir^GFA 
Basic. Ai/lfw: Thorsten Ludwig 

FHE Patch i& A»ocMem() to aUcw batf y (Jes^ned 
ptogfams which irequestfasl men withoul 
nocessi1^i3benjnon512kmatfTines. incSjdes 
SOuif£ in as$emblef. AL^tiur: Holg«f LubiLi 

Go^^ Very smaH (^ by;es) and effsctrve repiKemsit 
lor the weB known toadWB' srd "EncCLr 
ftxiTiart; pair. This r^ease fi^es a wv^s bug m 
the k*i v«rson wfKfi iised to guru i' rji ojI dl a 
scr^jL WuOei source in C. A-'ior: 0<ver Wajner 

PackaS^wfl A iif* htrary, foj lw w:th utia c. 

prcvdng a lew furctons to ha.nj-e DOS pac';et 
postage ircludes soiree. AuThor:Oi.Ye- Wagner 

PaJch^TSC OSfij to HKw she croweig number of PAL 
[tsoiay programs lo be fiflcr^MTSC machines, 
Will patch fie Inttiicn OpenSweenfj fuwion to 
assure sa«ns with PAL hatghl to be opened m 
iffltertaco mode, Indudes sourre in asseitfer. 
Author: Of r^KWagrwr 

TeflParrt Secondriaj(i'reJe3S86iih&A-*e(*io' AFHipsf 
bjgs hav« been fjBd. and a bi/tch c^ n>w op! ens 
have beon added, e.{|. possi^i^ :c re'load ar^ 
fiei V Ctlrrodu<es. < ccior E^icn, of^imized 
keyboartJiayoui ftewdrai*^ mooes, rghi mouse 
button support (Site DduieParfi) and njch more 
Bir4ary Cflly. shareware. Ey: Oiver v^aaf« 

rmeiest WofkiiigeMm?lct05howihetime||an(Jgmtme{| 
lundtons o. Ihe LarjceC support li^brary. Includes 
source in C AuUw: Qli*^ Wagner 

waO PtasiWy tfw imaltest utiily lo set tha workbench 
screen to any depth. mcWJes source m C By: 

Fred Fish Disk 347 

CiTsa A 3-pass BASC Compte lor BASX: programs 

written in ATiigaSASX. dOSS not yBt SupJSrI b3I Of 
the BASIC scnnands bulls ab*s So comp*eitsei I. 
This S version 1.Q, indudes source. Aunor: Ju^^en 

Dnp Drip is an s-cade style ganfl with 15 floors {Jevets). 
Ycu must move alor^ ihe pipes ot each floor artd 
ijst them lo advance to the next l&ve^. Every 3 
flcots conpieled w^l entrtJe you lo a tonjs najni 
fthere erjadnpscan be wn. Anenradrip wil 
also M awj/ded lor every 10.000 poinit Binary 
orjy.Auikr: Art Sides 

Fr^ Rsh Dish 345 

(^?lorF^eo [}?scrilM:sneupda!eiothecQhy-ib2ryandhas 
an eiampie progia^n. w!fi scurx. that 
[JefionE5"afts its use. Autxx: DssidenU Sofrwaje 

DisEdiur ThasisademoolthedissFdentssharewareteii 
editor. Version 1.1 . binaiy only. Author; Oissideriis 

DisSecetary Th^ progmn can be used |o file inlormation 
in a tile cabinef type environment. It is well suited 

lof jobs sutfi as ma-rtaining a diskcatatog, or user 
group membership, e!c, Bndudcd is a dala fiieoE the 
l*yafy caiakjg. :fsks i to 3i0, Version 'Warida', 
binary only. Au-Jior: CiSSidents Sohware 

FieO Chains upOai&d fd« for versan 1-6 c! Sie 

dssidents requester ibrary. There is. a bug fm to the 
tiraryasweflasanewfiriaon SseFF2S7toriti3 
corrpitte Mcumena'nin, and $iaT.p;^ By: 
Dissidents Software 

IL3UQb Containsupdaied files lor tnedsside;:aii!bmJibrary 
on FF237, with new lib feati^es and a new t^yary. 
Also included is a much improved {better or gariiedl 
doc lileHandnew C eramptes that show how to use 
the litrary for any kind ol IFF Ttls. See FF237 for 
other fijamples. Author: Dissidents Soltwa.'e 

InsafiUbs ApiDgr3mtoci3pyf;tesI0lheU93:(*rofaboei 
dsk. Can be used to :reale a handy iristallation 
pro^m (hard disliLL tspeoaEyl for programs il^ 
needdsk-based f*>raries. inc\jdesscwta. By: 

SAMP An IF? sampled sotrt >cr:iai ffesigfed lor 

protessiof-ai nusc ^jm- rt caji be usKJfor Ifrbt 
sampfBS, mul'jple wave^onns.e;:. Irciudes a SAMP 
featJer.w^ite:' siia.*ed i tirary, inerface rxtt^es. anfi 

pfO^ramnrng example &- Ww tnclixJas a p^c^a.^. e 
conved BSVX lo SAVP- Author: Dss^ents Soltware 


MED A rnu^k: edrlDf fTiuCh fcke SoundT/aa^er. A SOng 

consists ol up to 50 blocks ot rnusi:. whicji can be 
piaytd in any order. Edong featues Include o/i 
;asts'ccpy L'acXs o' UocXs. cnaf^r^ ne vioraso. 
tempo, cescendo. anJ noie voi-jx-t O^ser jsai'^jes 
mdude si»*icbng ol v^ low-pass fJta- x ot ofl on a 
pef scrg bass, and acute tflfeanrratedpointsri^ 
a gjy ctorq "jumping jaiXs' in trre to tf^ music! 
Version 2,00, an L^telo verson 1.12oniFF255. 
New i!itli»ees iMi isufc*- Autfw: Te^o Kinnynw 

tons A large vaDSly ol icons lor rnany uses, ol practcaliy 
every descnplion. Vosi areanraaied. By: Bradley 
W, Scher^k 

MenMometer Aprogram [hatopensara.Towwndowand 
9raphrca:iy isplays ys,a- memory usage iike a 
gauge. Based on iVFrags, by Tomas FtaWcki. 
Vereion tttJ. iftcWes source- Aii:thcr Howart Hul 

Stthery This sharware ■program Icals in I PFfmages and 
creates charted patims from theri lor use n 
counted cross-sKichtid other Icrmso! needlswa^. 
Il reijuires one fne$aty^e o( m&msry is run. and 
work? tpesl w)lh a good frg^-resolutbn printer (or 
printing tht) paiticms- The Stiiche^was written witfi 
The [)iiecior and tfip ProjeciDT is included. Versoo 
1.21. Authorrfiradiey W, Scherxk 

TrackLfSts Twoutiiiliesihaidc^iwfldiS tracks. TCopycopies 
one or rriow SracJtf (torn one (fsk to anofte-. and is 
useful tef copying part of a floppy fSsk imo RAD: 
Axing bootup- TRe opiates a dinmy H« whi^ 
marks' a sp«''>M tanje cl tra:Xs. prevenjin^ 
AiiflsDOS 'rem ijs>ng r»eii andai'oiwgthem to 
be used br raw irackdish data. Indvdes C source. 
Au-Jxy; Eddy Cariod 

Fred Rsh Disk 351 

PCC PubiiOy DisiriPuiabfe C (PDC) fsa conplste C to:ii- 
platon system tndudng a cotnp:!er,assemHer, 
linkef, liiyartan, ar>d numerous utiiia-es^docimenta- 
Lion files, liteartes. and header files. PX suppcfls 
many 4*^51 feaures ircft^tngaii AMSEprecracess^t 
cirecitves, ^iicton prototyping, structure passing 
and usismca In lofcion ( support LsBia C 
compflfiUe tti^ pcignas. {)rBcciBpji6(ti)e&(lai 
ties, bt^iin bfidions, and staclc ChKling codQ. 
V3^ nMK source. Byr: Umd Hunmel. PaJ 
Petersen, ma. 


VG Ss",a veis<or;c\ mg^, iicluding ABe» Syf^JCfl TNi 

is probably the mosi state a tela (or l?ie next year, as 
many new leaiures are going in after th:s, Ami^a- 
ortlyrelaase SftirCS* compressed with Iharc 10 M 
cn thadis*:. Update !oFFl47. Author: Wke Meyer, et 


PnniHancSer AcuslonPfiT:dnwrwtii:hcff»seasy single 
sheet support as weJ as [mited daa spoofing. 
Vorsiort 1 £, an almost eriirely rewrr.en update m 
FF292. tcWftS source in 'C - fiiff<r.CUl Ba.-thei 

TreeiWaJk Ptetrsevratkir^ subroutine deigned tc be tasl 
robusin and not use a '01 cl any critical f^so^ce 
inducJes boPi a CU imerface to Ihji rcoSne ihe lorn 
ol a Sndiiko ijtiiity !ha! uses C expressions instead 
o! IJni:c-liks flags, arda posgram to te)l ycu il 
:^rectory InftflS vffllfil cn a given disk, fir how many 
flKtra bfociis you'll r^eed il it*y won't Inefudes 
source, Update to Ff2S3. Author: Milte hteyer 

Fred Fish Dijik 353 

AzteiArp A-tAtp package B,ied to work with ?h 5.0 release ci( 
the Anec C compter The origria] Mara support 
fees were incom(^.£. ccntained bi^ preventing 
them from worXjng prcperty and had ffie W^Of^ 
rinker tormat :incLides soijce. Au'thor: Oal Bartiel 

CorrpOisk A disk compression^ sk conpressiori package 
wTsch was written to be fast and easy lo use. 
IrKludes an Arp and a^i Nuition interlace. Includes 
source in C - Author: Dial BanheC 


Amazing Computing V5.10 ©1990 

For PDS orders, please use form on page 9:3 
Visa anc! MasterCard is available on orders of $20.00 or more. 

UorvC A cMTiptete freeiy rediirtutable C erwrocmeri tar the 
Cbb's assexsief. ihe SolTv.3^ OistiP^SlrSier. and 
pofions from off*r sources. SteveMas puiSed evtything 
{ogelhgf and a<Wetl saxie enJiafKerierrtE in Lhe process, 
This is i-ersion M, an update 10 version 1.0 on disk 340, 
PardatsoutK only. Au;fM(: S!eva Kavitiin.'e!, ^. 


Fas'.Biit As/naIiit»JtoJp»flupt)Sneroperafcrabyupto60%. 
Vision 1 S, binaiy ort/, Autor; Hail Thannft- 

KffyVacro Akeytoart macro pQ3ra.-:i.corAgi/atiflvi4iiert fife, 
V\u also Supports ro&ej* pograx executjori. Ytwcan. 
map upioeighi hjncions a>ea£^!ce^, irc'udingXeys 
si£h as curscf keys. :t>9 reU'n ^^. eic. Version 1.4, an 
update loversOT i.Oon tf^$k325, which fi»es ihalnigs 
in version 1,0. Includes soufca in 'CAuttwiOiaf 

Mar<telMcmiairs A pfogram sKat nendiers three^mensiofia! mages 
d Mwjps of the l.ia!id>e:bf ::^ sel inctjcles sevpi 
rcaTipieimasei Thit is version 2.D. an update u 
vefpoo 1 .1 on doK 2SS, S.'Wf?war&. yAjty enijt. Aultior: 
Matfias Onmann 

MenGuatti MetnGuard is 9 MenWaic^ lixs program t&Kh has 
been remilen in assersibi/ tsnguage ia masiimura 
speed and «fSdency.UniiXeMe(iiWs!ch,h!gri Guard 
does rot run ssiash inadui:)rT^y4oopbuTra:lherasa 
row-lerel interrupt routine which is capabte of trapping 
men 37 irashmg ewn be'cxe eiw; m'^ knpw cl 1 and 
e^^nwtiile tasktwhriiing is lorOkJdai Vssion i;ii, an 
tpdala to ^-ffSion III cfi di^ 325. ttnaJ7 ordy, Autfior 

MJOi^Ub Anexampie Ami^a isharcd tCxaiy conipiled ivith Aztac 
■C 5.0. Vi$ lixaiy coTSains basic support lunctior^ 
employed by prog:arrs such as KeyWaao at 
PrrtHantf w. In short: nuniiiSrafy is the standard MX?.1 
S'/SEen Support lifsi^. Version 34.U. irKltnies soo/a. 
Ailhcr Otat 88rS»l 


B€fsef>£' A '.i-L-s^i 'er ftfwh efwckj fff certain ccnAtiora 

i-xiicaif^ poESti!e Mfjs irfecBOfi:. DiRkwti Jroo Wfw 
prog^fns &I tfiisJiftf. Beiefterdo^s rxB teiyon, 
ciiecksums o,i1y, ii wis also £bK* IW possf&te vifL^ 
behlrxJ ihe altered checksun. ThHeloreei^n r>ew 
vmses with oid inleci on methods can betaced ird 
resident tocts affl ndl toutfied- indu<ts£ soiree in 

IfnagaEi^u AsrT)pleipiA«graVtti:sedlwwhi:haKiwsvajio 
dravi and save inugey^fis as asser^^ sr C »te w 
code. Indudes iFFsLOPcrt undo, and aniconty 
runciiion.Ami^>e: iGatjneis ti^smafi memory usage so 
fw cin v%ettni]iikik{i^ $v&n an a SMK m^^rw 
Wa);imum picture size i:S 1 66'58 pixels. Tliis is veniOfi 
2,4 and tnciudes soufce, Auihor;flot3ert Jungtians 

Loadimage An IFF ilBM t&adef '.hai access overscannedpetures, 
allows pj to scroll assynd in ifte tfEfia? if ttie pfl-jte is 
larger tnan tne ewer c^spiay. wofks on both PAL and 
NTSC machnes. &Jp«ra co'or cydiig using irtcrupt 
code, and supports prntngolinage pofSons, Verjion 
} ,1 5 .updale n verscn 1.9 en (Ssk 2S1 . JXlutJes sourw. 
Air^hof : Oa! Banhel 

RenHosibb Tnis is3 sJwed btxary package \a simpcfy ifie ARen 
fx35!creation'manaffeTieni procedure. Re^x-messaga 
parsing is also fxluded makirig i! possible to control 
ARexi fron prcigrains such as AiRMjaBASK; (can jou 
versin i!.I2 wtich tas been reca7pled and macea 
kKBtxjfte- usingAzsec 'C 5.D,.ancpi:ta:eto wEfson t.S 
ontfsJtSSg.linduaes wirce AjSurOaf Banhei 

SourtdEdtor At55VX sie-Bo jsund fi'eeOil3f vKiRen [nassiemWy 
language (or speed ard jiniTum size. Version V.6, 
bnary on[y. Aiithot; Hbwaid Dotch, Mike Cotieii, Han 

TrackSalve A TrackdisXpaiefiwfiichJ'iemortis all known bugs and 
floa unkroim So lar. and paWes 5ie TracWsh las* ta 
a'-ow ra.'bus er^a-xierrens. sucJi as reaSng ^ood 
secixs fron paiM^y tad Kaifcs. wria vsriScatcn. wflK 
pfc^K-.sJi^u'ajQrp. 31(13 ,T.o:cf off. aijito updaie and 
iLpning oft cficKing. Cthef features are MFM-upaleand L' 
ObyroO'Cftlpbtrflers This js version 1 3,afnrp^a!.eo! 
version 1 .0 or disk 3l 2. Indudes souicff m C arxJ 
asEemWer, Auflior: Dii^t Res-g 

Iron A'wtlWgaTToabou! !i^lght::ycte race sequence in. the 
sdence fifflofi computer liin -Trem". i>e or two ptaj-rs 
andcthtroptons. WTHenJnGFA-BASlCarKJtienKm- 
pi'ed. Version 1.1, birajyorty. ALfSicr DirKHasse 


AljoRhythJfis An algoffthmic com»siton pnsgran th>at impnwses 
cnuBcovef aMtDJrmelaceixnneciediothesefialpOft, 
A MIDIinierfaw arW synihewer are needed. Thenusic 
does not have a strong pui5&, and does not repes! motifs 
Of inelodies. bui can be very preHy. Verstcn i.Q wiili 
source in C.and same* data liles. Author: Thcmas E, 
Jan; en 

HOof'tTi Afitxnnunicat>onspi!^ra.Tibased«iiCom[nverBoi 

1 .3i, iff DJ James, mtt tois ol '^ nie Efiianceme^. 
AfidCaJI. Cailbilo. GenUsi. PbCorrvert, and Reaflf^sir, 
This fs version 1.9.anupflateto vereofi LflondiskESO. 
Biliary only. Author: QJ James, Darad Bloch, Tofkal 
Lodberg, et af. 

Ffednsh Disk 357 

Emp-Tfl Empire isa m^t^pJayergame ol eiploration, ecoromcs. 
war, a.c. wfichcan lasia coupled monfis. Can be 
plaj^ eiihef on me [Qcai fceyscard or rffnote'y through 
a modem. Tfrsss version 2.iw. an i^xJatB to versior 
1.S3W on askjS. Cnaf^es include a drent-serv&i 
syslem, a chai-'CB mocis. reilfeme private player 10 
player messages, and ci her enharcefrienis, Binary orJy, 
AuthG*: Cf^ris Gray. Oavjd Wrghi, Peter Laigstw 

FrtdRsh Dish 35a 

HloO AnoLhef screen haa ^*akes re^ ^ops ci' sime T<?* 
&}xri yiur K-?en. Ver^cn ^,^ .rduoesscu'ie n C 
Ai/to' : Gu 00 WCMTfl I 

0FS5C OPSSc i? a compbr tor the eipcn system language 
OPSS- The oi^pte laii^s OPSS soufcs code as input 
BitJ ceaies a C scuce code fils 10 be eompilfla to 
create an ejcealaWe. Arblirary C code m-ay be finked 
witi (he etecutable and sx^cui'Sd as a result of fbnng 
rules. The system's strcrg pjni is Us speed and as a 
resJt it sometimes has large e:>Ku'iables and large 
menc"> 'equrremms. At least 1 Megi. ol memocy is s;^- 
gnbd. Binaries only lor oofnpiief andnjn-tifne library. 
Vefwwi VOea. Requires a C con-plw. Aupfts: Berrie J, 
Lo«zso,Jr, DanMira-TKefandAonChandfi- 

Pipe're Ajarnflikiiethccomrr,etia35amePipedreiT.'(Ptpe 
raarta). ttewls apysticfe and PAL ttsplay. Higih soofes 
are saved to disk Versicn T.O.jrttJodes sajica. Atflbor: 

Rebate Scans a disk and dales each directory according lo the 
mosi lecefit Hif^ contairKd within (not inducing Jnfo 
fiesi, Idea] tor use after a COPY ALiaONE. where the 
OitecHnes are CREATED rather tr^n copied and Dus 
)o» Iheir Etaie intomiaiAn . hciuoes source n 
assvnbier. Author Jm Bt/ttsriietd 

RoadFibut^ Revisicno{trippta.nnefpro73nitolind1xstmd 
route' beSwe^ any Two points ol travel. Tha user is 
encouraged 10 cusiomiieflfls CITIES and HOADE 10 
sit 73*^ interests. This is versicn 1 .5, an update 10 the 
criginaE version on dsk ^1 , and ma>es pnyvision lof 
vBfy large cily menus a-nO itinefanes. Vou m igh} Bke © 
use fies Irom disk 32B (MaywOflicf |. Kk InCiriK 
BcaiScan. a checker for fl<*JReu!e ESes (CITES and 
ROAOS}- Vffy large Res may ft^iiaii QOC^S (ciJes «th 
no loads, the same road entered twee, ^c), v Oddriimt 
(direc! road nol as last as mtriti^ pont). These are 
poinjKJ out. logmh^f wilh areas wbef e usvs mi^ viish 
to make eooncmiesinihB data base, includes source in 
C. Ajthoc: im ButterfteU 

ScaniFF Scans ivough an iFF ITe, irtentHying 1J» etenents. 

FastDT than starxiard u-t^iry l"Check since il uses S«k, 
but does not do IFFCheciis delajied 'ormat chKking. 
1rier,ood loruse a^ a "".emolate" ^om i»Jich 
prograrTimers can cwJe B^et spec^appicaiicr. Fof 
enanple, an expanded verson has bem used loeiuact 
instrjmeni daSa from music (:lss. IncSudes source in 
asser:iblef , Autliw: Jm Bunerfteld 

VevvDir A LIST type 0) ul^^ty shewing corSefrtS Of a diiA W 

d-rectory. Fordiredocies. stwws S'ZE. fo( files. ta?(es a 
(frdn. iack ard identf^s TYPE 1! pcss.Se. Update ta 
OTg^^-al version on ij«.l( 25;. !4owwcrVsw.!!n[ SPATICif 
pa:em .Taxrtrg. ard has a srrtal style change, hcludes 
sour:e maswrTiblet. Author: Jif^i B^j^erteid 

FfWlFis^ Dirt 359 

AS.'idg'e An irtcffn sotution 10 fisim^S Inccmpala&iiy pcotiems. 
Idenriljes tfieongind an Anirn-5 file and modifies it 10 
facliate easy BKChange between AmWagic. V*cleoscape. 
AniTaiJon Suion, CPaini I'l, AfLinaton: £ditof(«l.: 1), 
The 3rec.or. SWD, MevieZOH Photon P,aini2X) andCd 
ArwratDT. FJIy irTtuttc-naEisd interia*. fuQ ARcu 
suppofl irOuting a "Firri AFtets' Dpt<]n il you start 
Aflfluaftef tvrnrq ASridge. This is version 1.0. 
sfiarBware.traryorJy. Auffw: Ron Tarrarrt. Myttira- 
matjons Arimation and Sofwaffl 

DiCE Dilld's iniegrated C Enviroment A C If s^ntend. pre- 
procassof, C compter, assembtefn lirlw, and Support 
libraries, Aisotndudes ttx editor,dme. Feali/esixlude 
ANS'c«Tipatifci!itir. many code CfOmuaiicns, art) 
autont rou^sriK (use' rcylines caT«J ft;nng sBiTi^ 
belOTB mjrn is laled). T^ee is v&vxi 2.D2. shareware, 
binary on^. Author MafHwOlon 

TertPius A wcrfl processor for [he Amiga, urth both Genr,an BftJ 
English yerscns, TeflPJus enabfesycu towrlo ie5efs, 
books. prDgrami etc in a very eaiy artd comfcfl^e 
way. Version 2.0, hnary only, Aut^jr: Martin Siepf^e* 


ULCP An irrplemeniasonof Ljucpfcr the Amiga, incXidir^ mail 
andnews TynsisMatfsvefS'onfofiJieWnga.basedotii 
Wfiam Lo^-s's A.t*!^ULICPO 43 release wih news 
C0def!^3m hii 050 leiease. and mon?^ ol work by Wa3 
10 rrfike fiies and add Er>,2ncem«:ts. Ths is vesion 
: ,06D, an L-paate ;o FF3i3- Enciixies source, Auaer: 
Varcus^majoi enhancemerrls by Matt &lk:n 

^red Fish DtsV 161 

Brush 4D Con^ns IFF images into SculpliDc^jecilOrmai Works 
w.f\ irvf IFF i.magfl.jrciu(ipg HAM I Eittra Halfbnie. 
Corrve<t bnushes in hil cobr, wih Dponal wrap, to 3D 
shapn. AlsQ inckxlea optioiosiion tarter^. VI .DO. 
sharflnrarfl. binaiy onfy/uthor Bnjce Thomson 

FfeVasiec A Tte ato ae New&n or FedUp, wfirch a'ows you to 
manip^iata byies of a fie. You ma^ also change the file 
srze cr eiecute a patSi. Vl .20, ii?xJale FF2SS, ncbdes 
source in assQmb{y.Atnhor: Roger Fi$cfllin 

TeflPaint V0.97oline Ana edlor. Several sgnificant 

enhartemenis and twg fi^es S:nce ffie release of V&.50 
cnFF346. BwaTDrtyAutncfjOlrwr Wagner 

Tun An inBrestm^boa.'rlQa.'nfr With the Jim pMy Of Checkers 
yet rajyirif^ |fW *rnove4«* a-head" of a good chHS 
p'ayer.Binary onlyAjiihof: Peler Handei 

XCotor-Lib Link I brary wi^ a full-fledged Ktor requesia akjng with 
several cokif tunttions lie copy, spread, exchange, 
amiijue bfadc 4 whitB. etc, toaidincreaiingyourown 
custom cciior re^^uestors. Contains several d&mos aJcng 
with ircluOe fifes tor C, A^iKgaBasic, DevPac Assember 
and KckPascal Aulhof: Roper FiKt-Zm 

fml f iaJ^tLlifiZ 

Ar^£t^ Irfjr^icnimeriacelorsevefaloflhBmatepofUar^ 
a-'cfivng unities sychas ARC. ZOO, LHARC and 
PAK IrKiuOesan -Auio-Paf functorvthatwH 
indtxJes assem^y Kufce, Author: Roben Lang 

Fensier A ipfiisram wh^h can operate on wndows owned by 
arwihcr program, io cbse ihem, charge their siie, 
refresh ga(^« V<^ window 15 She backg^w/id. 
«L This 4 V J 2. 4n update to FF305 Indudes sowce 
n assern6ly,Aut'«(: Roger FiscNn 

[r,pen-^_RomarMr. Straieg*, "RISK" sTyie game tor up Bforf 
play^ers.Based in Sie andsm Smes oi flome. Athens. 

A'eiandria aid Carthago. Biraiyoriiy, sharffiifarB(S50). 

with C source avulabia fromihe auihor. VI .5CE. Ai/thor: 

Bota-Td Hichter 
KffyMenu Alkjw last, easy skbss 10 puil-d(h*fi menus Irom the 

keyboard wihout hav^ig 10 remember ail 'M spodaJ 

amiga key sequences V1.01. binary onfy Author: Rairwf 

MemRciJiJnes Sons *p*jg<ompatiWe' nepfacemenis lor itw 

Uiwe C 'ij^ona memcpyO, mamcmpo, arnJ 

memse^l Unike [he Utbw firtSor^ Ihai iaaJ wrih data 

onfrbytfl at a tame, r-«e V s deal wi^i kiT^ wsrd 

chunlts, which can impnsve pedotmance ol Amigas 

eq-jipped win a £3320 or 68030. [nductes soiree in 

assembly .Ainlhor: Robflrt Broughjon 
PU22 Very nice mpleraentatjon ol V>i sliding -Wock-puulo 

concepL Good grap^cs arxl the abtty lo create ycm 

smn Ewzies using an IFF ILBM file arid alext liie. 

Indudes soiree and sevtr^ sanp'e pvj^de$- 

VI QAj*0f:Maf5n Round 
Rub)( Another 3D l^-b& t cu» sohier independanuty auSured 

from the VondsxraS. Vl.O,irtJu«*iWMAjchor. 

Manin Round 
sMOViE A unooSi fettling len: displayer, useEt/l lor creaUng 

video titles, sJide show intios. eiC- inclntJes 

sajrcs.Author: MaJlin Royr^l 

FrwJ Fish Disk 363 

BootBase Another booiiodtsavaYestofautiiiTy.lniudes an ayto- 
compara fiixtoa Indudw source AjJwr, Steven 

LabtfPmQ.S A program thai ^lows you to easily pnm lab^ 
for your (SsS». Thi ij V3.5, tn update lo FF277 
Shareware, binary only (sou ce available irorr 
auPior)A;3>3r AnflreiSKrebs 

MigaMind A smalWoilBendTMasier-Mind'iype game, indudes 
scufce -Author ElOoi Vftrtaul 

PLW Phone-Line-Watchec, For ijse<s of Hayes uxTpi^'ble 
T-odens. Monitors the serial port and records 43 
inconing cals. Current version only sfows remote user 
to reoei'-'e a pre4e!ermir«d mLessa^, iogn, arxl leave a 
repiy. Possi'e updates wj Bi!cw!^)ef^ actew to 
Aiiiga Dos. V 1 , 1 . btTiary onJyAiffior : Chn Stan Fries 

^arySam Plays random sound sampfesai random ernes, with 
rar^ter:! voluma. random cydfls.anda hi random 
period. !! wilt dersirte^y caich ihe attention of ihe 
ufisu^secting Amiga user {partoJar!/ ok Lhat has the 
stereo turrwd ■u-p!) wten 8 Eon si;dden!y rears as Lhey'ie 
lyptng away on Ihe* iivonte word processM ! User 
mo^abte siari-up c^^ura^cr^ die. lndud« source and 
soQfl »mpte sounds Author: Steven Lagerwe^ 

Sam^leScar^^ By-pa$s«s the Amiga Dos fLie systsm and scans 
a diEfc dtrectty. Wocit by t^«k. f« sound sampf^s. Allows 
you to "hear" ihe disk as it Is being scanned. i( a sample 
isfo/^d. i( caa^ be saved to O^sk for editing, direa use, 
etc Alton Steven Lagenne j 

WO An iniufbca tased address booh ihat allows sav^ of 

siata in norrral or ;^asswcrd-encoded form. VI .0, 
indudra partal sour». liHssword encoding twicm not 
mAxi^. AiOct. htt'nzelmann 


<^iptrs2 SoenerroTQantmaledpoiniersnchoosetromio 

liven'up your display erMnjnmenl. Binary only. Authbf: 
Bob McKain. peinier animaSon progam by Tim Kemp 

DPFFT Update to FF324. OPFFT indudes the ab?itytopJc(a 
Fast Fouief 'ransform (FFT) of ihe data, customized 
aripJemle and pdaie speoum. prewftseftng cai>at»tiy. 
and aWelchwivliM lor spectral smootttr^.VZZ. binary 

ItOftahoIsm A selection of some very njce loc^ng »ooftt 

Cesigiodtor an 8-coiof WorkBench- Indudes Scnpl dies 
to view the sens in ther imended colors. Author: 

MemL«k SimilarlO -WffTtFlick'on FF2(J6. For lack ol a betlBr 
SJplarHton; i: gives sort ol a graphical view ol you 
matftne's efrt re memory area. Feanres mer; cry guago 
and consoCaye scnjJirg speed via The ftrtor 
heys.Vl .IB, bir^ry orVy, 5oun:e avalabie trom author. 
ALthor^ Thomas Jartsen 

5NAG_Pointe[5 Resiitsollhfl Southern Nevada Aniga&'oups 
(SMAG) firsi animated pomlercootesi Authors: 

Various, poinief arimaiEon pro^ffaJTi by Tim Kemp 

Badger Reminder p^ram loe you' startLp-seq-jence Ba^« 

wil open a wiridcw ard (ispiay any importari events thai 
a,'e ■due'. Eat^r wil nol boi3ier ycu A ihete 'S nofsngi to 
report. Evcr.s are efiiered vi menu a.Td pronp'.s 
Einarycoly. yiarewi-e Author George KertJe: 

DmeAsm AutSityforthcsswhoLfSQ MattD)lbn'sDmeeditcra.'>d 
HiShSofl's DevPac Assembfer. DmeAsm is a Cu 
command fFe that takes yom source code as a 
parameter a.'Xl opens a window simiar ID the Assambit 
window insfde Devpac (GenamE) and gives similar 
options. If na parameler is supplied ttien th» window wS 
sti3 open nd youcan st^ipfy >iw own. V 1 .t. tndutes 
socrce in ass&fr.Uy Autrur, Ntc Wil$2f^ ji W Weber 

EasyBaiup ACU-basedhard-tfskt)acfcupTeflcr5u*jlty. 
FeaiuTK incremental backjjps by arn^iive bt status, by 
date stamp, or command -iine queo'. Ir<:"emenial 
backups tan be aftwntjed l^: an ewsling bacHup sel. 
Indudes souroa. Author: Ofiver Ensefing 

EasyMouse Another dvesWioJdrDouse aaeieraLng.scfeen- 
iG-back, windcM lo-froni. mcuse^ankir^. screai- 
bia.-'Jcing. aub-wmdowii^viSr^ Jow-mfifnoY-vaming. 
autoi-window sz^ig, oonAguaiiorvsavKbiectxV! Vt 0, 
tndudes EourcsArfw: OTiver Eflsefr^ 

TraekDos Aproj^ti SiataJiowseaTytranslsfcIdataberiwen 
DOS, msmory and irac>(dis)(.devee- DOS risansihe 
data consaij"^ within a fie. merrcty iineans the data 
cer:iained anynrfiere «ihin the memory maa and 
tracSuSsk-devcB means data stored on a di5> W, 
axessattewTTiDCSte^ bOcTbiOcks speciaHoader 
*iiis etc ]. The rans'er 0! (lata be^vften these three 
areas is :ka no^maty eajy cr conveian Track Dos wb 
wntsen to Dvercofne inis. Bmai^ ertyJWOwr Mc Wison 

PisswonJ A program which enhaxes your canputore 
secuiTy by maii;r^ 1 C5tfl pfcaied enough liat 
users withou your password wJi pet di scar aged 
^ng 10 hoei and use you system. ThssHoufd 
iteep Dul most caaaf cr nontechnical users. 
LJpdaie to FF243. Vf .42p. binary or^yj^uPw: 
George Keft^er 

Udate Udata n a repfacemen; for !he Arr.jgaDOS €ate 
command, containing manyopUms, similiirioihe 
UNIX daieccnmand. Udaie wii ^low you lo set 
tn date and time via prcmpts ortSrecty Irom the 
Dcmmand ir>e, wil iSipUy any part 0! the dae or 
&ne using Ihe eptxvis n any cotor des^ed, and wfl 
also make an automalK: ac^ustmen! of yow system 
CfdCkfor Daylight Savings Time so your cornputer 
wil be one less dock yw will evei have 10 set twice 
a year la- 03T. Update lo Ff 31 1 . this vft-sion is 
sJighity smaler and wodis correctly with ihe 63030. 
VI. 14c, twury only,Ai*of; Geor^fl Kerbor 

View*) Very imprsssiy«e saolino Kit fie reader. Three 
sooling mci3es and ccntro&abfe via teytoard or 
nvoose. Opens lie requesjor if n&rilename is given. 
Automatcaly tionTigures screen sie Iff PAL O' 
NTSC n^achine. Sam;^ operation in reactng the 
dociiner^ files. VI .1 , indudes source. Auihor, 
Federim Giannid 

3DTicTacToe A ihrewfcnensanal tw-Hn-a-row" V o( 
TcTaoToe. hJTian against cofTipuls'. VI .i. Exnary 
orty. Au-Jier: Ren parlton 

Dos&Tor AimaBCLii/tiiJtylhaiwilieiaffiisijMymoni 
verbose descripton c^ a DOS error code it^ n That 
reiurnetj by ihe Sysiem, Can save a tip lo the 
manuaJ tor vague or urfamiliar ecori^ides. V2.0, 
.ndodes source in assembly.Auihor; Rofcen Ung 

tiftiFace Aniniuioninierfaceihathafxjiesiheimpoflani 
functions ol crta^Tg. irseriing. eriaciing and 
lisang fifes tor Jiree popular arcrtymg uirtjes: ARC. 
ZOOand LHARC VI .03, bt^iryonfy, 
sharewi'e Auihor; UaChias 2ep' 

LoanCal: EntirdykeyboarddrivBnmorigageutiiily ARWygh 
jtmdiar programs exist this one is unique in ihati! 
is designed iatradi'Op«n' mortgages Ehai aElcw 
any sue payment lo be made at any ame as wsli as 
pfoviiing an anonsiEion labfe for f-<ed motgages 
wtihmortthly. serrii-mon^iy. bi-weeWy antJweeJify 
paymen: scheA/es. V1 2, taiary orty. Author: 

PhorKWofd ta'kes a fUl cr partial telephone hLmber and 
a^ernpts to i^reaie a wad fron the varuius 
'aSphabodig-f comfena'jcrs- Inckwles 
sourcoAuihor: Ron Charlton 

UnjumWa may 69 useful msoivingfl^eSufitJay morning 
newspaper 'Scranye'. Incfudes source Author 

UeMetar AsmaHutiifylorincrTitoringlheAr^igasf^eTiay 
usage. Urvque snapshot tacii^f allows you lo Store 
l-he anv^ rtrnbers. laincft a program, we hqw 
much memory it retjuires, end ihe program, and 
see il It returns all ihememory. V2.1, binary only. 

HDett ^Lsing, but saddenf^, thisprogram opensa 

smalt windcw thai cE spliys a con^nuously updated 
laly oi Amerca's n,atiofial debt, based on f-s 
histonca^y prKToriena growth rate. V! 1 , indudes 
source Ajjiwr:Refi Chi^cn 

PiirtStufcJ Very nice imilion -based general purpose prtn 

uiJ'iiythatpfvnisieilwiihavairietyo'opionL. Pnnts 
severalgrapn^fofTnaiswiihystmoreopions Print 
any part of a picture, prnt saeens and wndows, 
save saeens and wincfewsas IFF liies, modily 
color paler^s. change prlniirtg parameters and lois 
more! Viz bif^ary orty, s^iareware. Author: 
Andreas Krebs 

EEBdJIah Disk 367 Nifty graphic smulaliDnof tfie Worid War (I Germai 
Enigma Macnine. a rmessage eflcodi/i^'i^toiSng 
devce that produced ertremeiyd'liiajit to crack 
ctypJographc cooe. Binary oniy. Mha: Gaylan 

GwPriii An intuiton-based text lie print u;*[y. Offers a wide 
selectcn ol ac^L^abie features for ccntr^ling 
paflinabon, headers, faiers, marg-ns. dale and 
fi«ge-nLr.benng ard vi-kxis pnn; stytes'sces. 
V2.0,biJiaryonly. s.^«rewiire- Auih^rGaitiar! Wahs 

HyperiJiafer Oatatase for ry^es and addresses. !u3 
imjiion imerfaCia Dynamically a'locaied. wrth 
configurable KrJpl siartup fie.iconifies to titfebai 
icon. £«arch. son, fnsen, delete, M file requesters. 
LIses modem to cortd d^aiing cif muiiipfe phor^ 
ftunbtfs. BjftarycnJy, shairewara with source 
ava-iabeiron a-jnor, A;;*iorj David Pkrr.mer 

SCV, So-een Color MoStier. A pa^em pfogram that 
aft3ws the cha-.ging savJ^'-caar^ ol a screen's 
miMS. IncfuWs a separate loader program trjt can 
be used in hatch fiies "a set a sceen's colors to 
predefined values attera prografTi f-.asbeen 
launched, VI .Q, binary o^Iy.Aulhoc Jean'Matc 

SuperVew A shareware fi'e-vi ewer ihat osp^ays al types ol 
IFF Mes wilh rr,any leatjie? lli«; M viecnch 
Kfport. il ct^y modes, alio omscan. color 
cycle (CRMG. CCHT}, AmigaBasK ACBM fifes, first 
ce3 in and ASIM fite, Type 5 animations and more. 
Wrinenin asseoibiy, pu're cods lo! residency under 
1.3. V3.0, bnaryonVAiThor: David Grothe 

Tricky Armhej ol Peters inno'/aT-Ve and aMiCiive gemes. 
Sort el a 'vidw- bowling" concept where the ot^ecl 
11 to wipe out ff-oups of 'compter Md' symbols tn 
Ajch a tashicr tiai ihelaa Jcem r-i; b«»nes 7« 
wgH lor fw mg baV ^ a few tncks Q[ ccurse< j. 
t.oa o( mtfs arxl fl« , usual level e^tor inai 
acccmpan« most of Pest's games Binaiy 
onty Ajthor : Peier HandeJ 

Amazing Computing V5J0 ©1990 93 

For a complete listing 
of the 

Fred Fish 

as well OS everything 
else for the Amiga, 
don't miss 



HO- f^i 
5J"" K IP 



flT' ^ 



Over 2700 Amiga Products 

More than 560 Amiga Vendors 

Over 240 Amiga User Groups 

Plus the Complete Fred Fish Collection 

Available at your local 
^ Amazing Dealer 

c-ems^ii 'i/s^ nee j-l6rai:ive dscsay ol the the Penoac T^e o[ 
Eiemerits This is V^O, an up^ts 19 FF297, Tnjs 
version adds genefal row and cofumn miofmai'Cii. sIlis 
a IBS' mate »vtiere the p'ogram asKs specific quesECns 

G-'spf: rtPaK A SCI cf fuKlcns tor general ^raphes 

dosftig tf» lijrares. It is L-sed 6y ttJtfi 0^ Pw Psp'.tenu 
and ListWmaowtesiprog^ms. iWudas source Ai^or: 
PauilRiomas MSie: 

ULa A sharevvare ulfity lh£t a*!ov>'s you ^ prin; [i5<ings d* 

offiw lefl files en Pos^afipipfirten, wnfi headef. page«niJfe»Unn[p33e$ Ca*! pnni in porraj; 
or landscape onentawn. V^lZa. tMnary cnV. By 

Lis::^"/ifWow 0:vss simpferwiafiiatcn. ^4fyfi''5. ar^ (reeng 
ol Waonto^h-aKeiia-wiriCo*?," These ara user- 
sizeable w!ii(knvs w.tha scfol'iaMo hsicllext stnincs, 
op'JoTia'l^ soriaWa, Ths Es^ can w scroiittj wish a 
scfol ba.', up and down amwre, arrc* heys. or a 
SHlFT-k^CSffi^naton wticn searchM IcrC^ first 
occurancs c* !l* speared Key. Saxes zni a saTiDle 
pro5ram ^nojcted Ai?icf : PaiJ Trismus M-lgf 

NwBt AnasMnbiyproyamaj^araicon, tconXand 
smiar utliiet. Ui^Qus n Erie Ian t>iai i^ lw? a 
WtrtBwicfl 'Tool" icon injiead d a "Pr^^Kr ion.Ttts 
allows ivoi>:bench sUlu? ol prograns thai caM 
ordinary aniifbfrsiartfta by ihe CLl, VI, 1, ircludes 
assembly source AuLts: KjeS Ced^e^tfi 

PopMeni Aselof^jretcmtof^sestf^up.ora'ning and 

r^nd^f^ fit po;Hi;p menus !hal are allied B wnkMs. 
C'ic'^ir^ on ^ meu box area ml open up the U 
cnenu. wlh ifie ^ of ffl enu Item} tftSidfl. SoBca aid a 
sampTQ prograin induced. Autfur: Paul Tliomas i^ff 

SupetMeni An Intutnnion disptay lysten you can uh tP 
QuiEhly sni eas^ cbsplay text fites (and Eecions of teit 
Mesj with l^e press erf a butioa V2,0. shareware, 
ninary otify Artw: Paul Thcmas Wlfer 

Syslrte A prcgrST! w?iicfi fEpofls rnKesling ntccnalcn ^i;! 
KB ccnffliraiion oT jotf niKrtne. if^lytSng some 
speed oimparsoiiswsli other nnfigtf^Ci^. versions 
ot the OS softwa^. Eie. V1.4, binary trJy.By ffc Wison 

Totfsy Am^ga impiemer,talBnof IBM Pl/l htswy program. 
Te^fs y&u tmpwunl evens and tirtidays en turom c 
speolncd day . Ccirmand lina options tnchjde oncsper- 
eay sen ng \a stanup sequences. V0-9i . tjryfy orty, 
s.Harewai'e Au!r<r: David Plunmci. dan 'ites oTigif'-al* 
frtKi ai laW VUCfJS •i'etsjcn tiy U.Ve 3i/tiej- 

ff ytjRsh&skaSS 

AQDsia Inform3?ron 10 aid i:=ers in i^tirq S. Lennan Oskji^'S 
Afl*janijr;i Vi.T2(i2!a;ias9 IfKltries inlomaSonw 
cSiksup to rumter 3S0. Auirwr: Howard Hgfl 

Rp Afvsiher pii^ram in tte tong fadition oi i&'een hacks 
Run jtard see What ^a,f^>ffifis Binary cyTj^Aiflw:: 
Anifoas Sc^lAJbac^ 

fol-jne RaiWii^ ffspiay a'lonune seiectetflitm i taljnes 
He (Suppiedl. by eu oc voi^. hew varecn ml wcrt 
trcn me WcrVbenc'i c CLl. V^frig updaK to rf-3^l. 
soytca r.i^'jxisd, Av^ff: George Kerber 


A DTKra-'Ti Tia: yacvs aJ^s to An gaOOS and £iec 
Suxt-cni. repcr,irg Fieni to ?i9 s^raen, a'or^ irDi I'lei: 
caliir^ parsme'^rs ard 'Sk resLyis. VI ,0. inciixte 
swiM.A'jihof: FfldeficoGianraci 
VAXterni A \n?20i>sfn:ralefrg!atof thai LS dose tQitM real 
VTzajirmraNrt Mti supartsi !a:iii^es afxJ usp 
iftef^ce, Desi y^d primar Jy lor cwTectiw lo VAX' 
VWS. r! iho^;'ti wsrik wrpi a,iy hcs coT.puiaf mh ^1220 
terminal lupoort Sjppcts "lietransletr^ 'cr ASCIlft!« 
by rreansol DCL EWr.TaAas. VZ.4. nckries soiree. 
Ai4w:Tuc>roo Wc^olssor 
XprTransTiii XprTransfTi'i is a ClJ-&ased cojnmand that aHows 
you :o easiy access tQ a::y Xpr Lteary wi^oui havifig lo 
worry fibcu-l call-back-Juncicfi ei c&iera. ft is abJe to 
access every "5ena1,dev>:e"-ii*i? e(«-Oevice. OrJy liHie 
cfccuTT^naiion VI.O. tuna.^ onfy AL-^iff : Andreas 
Fmdflth Disk 370 

5K;h A ksh'ttosl>cJllcrtteAjnioa.Scfnec^iis teases 
ind irie command subsiji^jtion, shea IwiaiCifTswith 
pa-£me!HS. a'iases. isul varia&iss. tocal functons, tocal 
aJ'iases. powerlul conlrof slriiKtjres and lasts, emacs 
st^B i;f«£d.:ing and hiiiay l;jracra, 1.0 red'^ect'on, 
pipes. iMije vjnetf of 6w*:-in ccnmands. Ursj sr/o 
witfeans, Urw siyte Bsflame etyivemors, liename 
oyrpteliQruand'E O B iUa efi ce wig'sgipBlryncg^ 
Shels. V#Y wll iJwirwntefl. Vt .5. an. uDdate » FF342. 
New teiti/es ir^We yjer ijg^nab'e keynaps, an Afloxx 
port, many rKwiniema! and eflemai eommands, 
£ei«iive disabling d (Midcards, pteparswitfof sen pi Tiles. 
bug fyies. and mere A\,i^cr; Steve Koren 

In Conclusion 
To !i-je best cf cl' V'-c-- icce tb -.a^=-.aE in thjs 
li&rary are freely cs:n=,:a:;e. Trs.T^eans they were 
either piJc^ity pcsteo a-'d piaced ;r 1*^$ pcDlkJ dona'n 
by their ault'.crs, or ttiey have rest? ictior^ p'jijiished in 
th&if flies 10 v^ich we have adhered. II you become 
aware of any vioiaijon of the authors' wishes, please 
contact LiSD^ mail. 


This Eist is compiled and ojtf ishetj as a service to tfte 
Conmodoi'e Amiga comnufiity for informational 
purposes only. Its use 15 restricted :a non-commerctal 
groups or^ly! Any duplication lor cor^merciol purposes is 
s:rialy forbidden. As a part of Amazing Computing™, 
ihis list is tnnerently copyrighted. Any jnfrmgerTient on 
this proprJeary copynght without exDressed wntten per- 
miss^n of tit pvbiishets will incur tie full force 0' Segal 

Ahy non-conmefDal Amiga ussrgrajp wishing to dupii- 
cate this list sfioufd contact: 

piM Pub'ications, Irx:. 

P.O.Box 869 

Fall River. WA 05722 

AC IS extremely imeresied in helping any Amiga usef 
groups in non-co'umerda! suppQft for ^e Am?ga. 

(CALL Assembly^ continued from page 76) 

ing statements in Modula-2 become colons in BASIC. If you're not 
thrilled with the idea of POKEing numbers from DATA statements 
into an array, try this technique as an altemative in BASIC. The 
mappings A-f and A-g are still correct but A-h must be changed for 
BASIC, Try: 

map A-h (top first findstr 

1 ) jrepstr ':p\(\)=SH' repeat -1 

This may leave you with a few extra colons, which can be quickly 

As you are already becoming familiar with dme, you might 
as well take greater advantage of it and create another directory 
witli another .edrc file in it, in which you will write your Modula- 
2 programs. Use the mapping capability of dme to map the function 
keys or any other key combinations you choose into the most 
commonly-used Modula words or expressions. Why keep typing 
WriteString dozens of times when you can get the same result by 
hitdng a function key? Unfortunately, at least in the TDl version of 
Modula-2, you need to use the Modula-2 editor to take advantage 
of the error finding capabilities of the compiler. Here another 
extremely useful public domain program comes into play. Key- 
MapEd (version 1 .04), by Tim Priest permits you to map just about 
any key to anything you want, and in the case of the function keys 
and cursor control keys to give keys several different string 
meanings when combined with ALT, CONTROL and SHIFT. Key- 
MapEd won't work with every editor, for instance it won't work in 
the LIST window in AmigaBASIC or widi the Scribble! word 
processor, but it does work with Amiga's generic editor ED and witli 
the CONMAN command line editor, as well as with the TDI Modula- 
2 editor. As far as I'm aware KeyMapEd CV1,02) hasn't appeared 
on a Fred Fish Disk yet but it must be floating around on numerous 
buUedn boards. You can write Tim Friest at 3861 Steller Drive, 
Anchorage AK, 99504. 

Converting the highly iterative parts of a program into assem- 
bly language is guaranteed to speed up the program, regardless of 
what liigh-level programming language you call it from. If you do 
everything possible to provide the program with the most efficient 
algorithm in the high-level language, and then translate diat algo- 
rithm into assembly language you will have a very fast program. 

Is it the fastest possible, given the physical limitations of your 
machine? Probably not! Here we go again! Any algorithm can be 
translated into assembly language in many different ways, and even 
tliough they all may produce the same result, they will do so with 
widely varied elapsed times. For instance, how do you set a data 
register to zero? There are at least four ways to do it, each taking 
a different amount of time. If your goal is blinding speed, then 
prepare for another round — or several rounds — of optimization. 

The next in this series of articles will deal with speeding up 
assembly language programs and wiU include a program which will 
time various assembly language instructions, or groups of instruc- 
tions. Often die results will not be what you would expect, but that's 
part of the challenge of assembly language programming! 

[Editor's note: KeyMapEd VI. 02, by Tim Friest, can be 
found on Fred Fish Disk #193. Please note that this is an 
earlier version to the one mentioned in this article.! 



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Be A VAR! 

Commodores continued com- 

lllitmcnt [() provitk- fiLfjh-quality Amiga 
:ip[ili<.;Uinn.s wliiili liigliliglit the unique 
c;i]i;iliiliiii.'S of thf AmiHU i-. tiirrcntly bcinj; 
tlLMiinnMr;ilL'd lhnHi,i;li the .successful l;iunch of 
llic Value Added Reseller (VAR) program. 

ConuiKxJore categorizes a VAR a.s a reseller 
who add.s \alue to the Amiga product tlirough 
iiltej-ralion of tlieir proprielary .>ioft\vare. 
iiardware, or peripjierals. The \'AR then .sells ilieir 
prt»duct inio liieir particular indtisir)-. 

ConioKitlure's \'..\!i jirograin. first announced 
on June 2H, 1990 at tile .-^niiga Developer's 
Conference in Atlanta. Georgia, has attracted a 
great deal of interest front thiill-pany developers. 
In a recent interview. Commodore's National 

Photo by Miccolo Johnson 

Sales Manager, left Cross, said, "There are 
approximately It V'AUs signed now. and an 
additional ~t requested application.s are out (in 
the hantls of developers). That is no: had for a 
program that is only two months old." 
Commodtirc expects to sign "t V^ARs by yeai- end. 

Mr. l(X)k a lew moments to .speak with 
AC before traveling to Washington. DC to 
promote the .^niiga at the .'Society for .Applied 
Learning Technolrigies I.S.ALT) Conference. Mr, 
Goss'.s schedule lakes him to a great many trade 
shows, conference.s. and expositions, where he 
demonstnite the .Amiga's adaptafiilirj". .\lr Gtxss'.s 
duties also include handling of the Original 
I'.quipment Manufacturer (ORM) program, and 
special owrvie'W of Commodore's large! accounts. 

Through the Oli.M program, companies may 
purchase the Amiga's moiherboard. power 
supply, ant! other equipment for installation in 
iheir own produns. This allows a manufacturer to 
lake atKaniage of the /\miga's graphics, sound, 
and multitasking capabilities for in their own 
projects. .-Vfier installalion, the .^n1iga i.s ahsorlx'd 
i)v the functions of the machine. 

Target accounts are specialty stores and 
chain,s where the Amiga's inherent abilities ckwely 
niaich those of a reiailer'.s e.' product line. 
-Mr Goss points to three chain.s as prime examples 
of targe! account.s — Cimnecting Point, Midwest 
Communicaiions, and Intelligent Klecironics, 


A key criterion of tile \'AR program is that all 
companies participating as VARs also he 
cominercial developers. VARs receive all ihe 
technical help and developer support of other 
commercial companies through the ComnHxiore 
-Applications Technical Stjpport (C.4TS) program. 

For applicants interested in Commodore's 

"My whole goal at CBM 
is to create the best 

opportunities for 
Commodore and the 
Amiga." - 

Jeff Goss 
National Sales Manager 
Commodore Business 
Machines, USA 

WR program, emphasis is on the words "Value 
Added". CBM is .searching for individuals and 
companies thai will take atlvantage of the .Amiga's 
uniqtic cap.ibilities and effectively aiiply them in 
new applications. The individuals will be adding 
value to the standard .Amiga by supplying a 
combination of sofrware and or hardware for their 
particular market. The result is de\-elopment of 
more specialized and targeted markets for the 
Amiga in fiekl.s Commodore has neither the time 
nor ihe resources to penetrate on il.s own. 

.leff Goss is the chief individual in charge of 
securing these new Amiga markets. Mr. Goss 
commented. "My whole goal at CBM Ls to create 
the best opportunities for Commodore and the 
Amiga," To apply for the Commodore \'.'\R 
program, contact: 

Jeff Goss 

VAR Program 

Commodore Business Machines 

1200 Wilson Drive 

West Chester. PA \93S0 

Inquiry # 238 

A VAR Success 

Attention Shoppers! 

POST ln-SU)re Adventsing Network, 
Inc, uses a network of Amiga.s in grocers- 
stores to deliver a client's mes,sage direcilv 
to con.sumers at their moment of 
decision. A specially designeil computer 
monitor is moimteil above the store display 
and provides brand advertising, announces 
specials, provides seri'ing suggestions, luid 
carries other specific messages. The 
messages can even be designed for a 
particular time of day. and can l.x' changed 
as consumers' neetis change. 

The monitor is connected to an .Amiga 
^1)0 with a 2ll,\tH hard drive and internal 
clock hidden beneath the display, The 
.Amiga 500 is then netuorked with an Amiga 
2000 somewhere in ihc store's offices. The 
.Amiga 2000 has an internal modem thai 
allows it to call or lie called by the central 
office of I'O.ST in Memphis, Tennessee. The 
entire system is monitored and updated 
from the .Memphis office. If a human 
technician is rL'([ttired, the .Memphis office 
will notify the local repair center. 

When a new series tjf advertising spots 
is released, the POST system calls each 
.A2tKJ0 and downloads the new material, rlie 
.A20l)0 then sentis the updated material to 
the .salelliie .Amiga SUO's placed throughoui 
the store. Downkiads can occur as often as 
once a month or every night. The 
monitoring anti self diagnostic system is 
working constantly 

The .Amiga became the system of 
choice for three reasons. First, Amiga 
graphics are easily adaptable to the 
advertising formal required. Second, the 
Amiga's multitasking ability allows the 
system to receive new information or 
perform a self e.taminLition without 
interrupting ihe very important message 
being delivereil to the cu-stomer. .And third, 
the .Amiga is ver\' reasonably priced. 

Test marketing has occurred in several 
parts of the country and the first system 
should lie operational by the first cjuarter of 
1991. Charter stilwcribers to this new ,service 
include Coca-Cola^", Ralston Purina. 
General Foods, and Camplxfll Soup. 

POST In-Store Adveriising Network, Inc. 

800 nidge Lake Blvd., 3rd floor 

Itiemphis, TN 38119 

Inquiry # 236 

A VAR Success 

Painting By Trackball 

Color choices and paint decisions are as 
easy as pushing a button with Color\'ision. the 
new color planning system from Commodore 
VARs Colwell/General Inc. and Target 
Computer Software. A trackball, mtmitor. anti 
button is all the customer .sees of the Amiga 
that is buried deep within the .stylish kiosk. Vet, 
the .Amiga is capable of displaying ihou.sands of 
different color combinations for homes in Ixith 
internal and external views. .A customer no 
longer is 1'orcei.i to imagine how the color of the 
walls will look with the furniture and drapes. 
Now the entire house can be coordinated with 
care liefore a single brush Is used. 

Color\'ision is a unique system created as a 
sales tool for paint and hardware stores. There 
are several different tiesigns for units planned and 
in operation. Once ihe customer has selected the 
perfect coordination of paint for ceiling, trim, aiul 
walls. CoIorVision then ]>rints the color coiles ,ind 
other information. The consumer has the color 
combination they want and the dealer can supjily 
the exact shade of paim. 


200 Sim street 

P.O. Box 329 

Fort Wayne, IN 4680 
inquiry #237 

Reach Out And Grab It. 


ifc." _, 






HB^ -^^i^^Lj^^j-- " 



Real Time Video Image Digitizer 

For desktop publishing, video production, computer art or any multimedia application, nothing's faster than FrameGrabber! 
Digitize hve color or B&W video images from a Video Camera, VCR, or other video sources in as little as 1 160th of a secorad... with 
a single keypress. Use FrameGrabber's live software video switch to preview the shot on your Amiga monitor - before digitizing^! 
FrameGrabber captures live images in 2 to 4,096 colors, in screen resolutions ranging from 320x200 to 640x400, including 
overscan^. FrameGrabber's external control knobs give you full hardware control of Intensity, Hue, and Saturation, to adjust for 
all types of lighting and video conditions. FrameGrabber uses its own built-in RAM to digitize, leaving the RAM in your Amiga 
free to run other applications. 

Powerful image control software (included) offers the following unique features: 

• 'Time Lapse' digitizing with user-selectable intervals and parameters • Captures images for desktop publishing applications with quick "Black & Wtiite' mode 

• Display ttiousands of apparent colors in 640x400 resolution witfi optional dithering • Store portions of images as IFF brushes with "Save Frame" feature 

• Sharp, crystal-clear digitizing of static images with multiple exposure mode • Instantly create complex VSKiP IFF animations - automatically or manually 

This compact, external unit comes with power supply, 
software, manual, and 3 foot cable for easy placement and 
connection to your Amiga monitor-'-. Available in NTSC 
and PAL versions. Optional advanced "Version 2.0" image 
control software also available - ask your local dealer or 
call the number below for more information. 

FrameGrabber. The #1 realtime video digitizing choice of Amiga users since 1988, 

Another fine video product from: 

Progressive Peripherals & Software 

464 Kalamath St. 

Denver CO 80204 

Telephone: (303) 825-4144 Fax: (303) 893-6938 

IWith HLandnrd Amign UI80, 1084, and 10H4S moniturs. Other moniUiw may reqiiirt special cubling. 
I ^Resolutions slijiriUy higher jn PAL \-ersion. 

! Ainiga is a regiiilerod Irademark of Commodore Business Machines inc. 

Circle 1 28 on Reader Service card. 

Title Page 

Title Page is a new video titling package for the Amiga. It will 
finally allow you to create screens full of effects poss^ible once 
onlyjri your imagination! If the look' you want is not ih<i|jr__ 
package, simply create it! Modify text, effeots, patterns, brushes, 
even backgrounds. If that's no|^^nough, aydd klouch of fantasy 
^ith rambow letters. So if wha^ yothu^e jsn't w)^t you need, 
come experience Title Page. 

Supports all video modes, except H]f\M 

igrselectable overscan level 
Create copper display lists allowing 
thousands of extra colors per screen 

vM^ '^& '^S^ 

,De cote. a cote 
. I ancienne . 

^jd .^■^, >^p. ^^, , 

! Le tram c est plus agreable! 

-oe s uiassic 


- Apply 40+ effects to text, bi<jshes, or images 

- Use standard Amiga fonts. 

- Includes 9 regular fo^ in 3 sizes PLUS 4 
colorfonts in 2 sizes. 

- Keymap support allows you'tCHose accents 

U9§,..0V^r 65 AReitx commands to customize 
Title Page to your Veeds 
Includes a n ARexx^ ompatible slideshow 
"pikyer witti 45 different transitions 

(■if College Football 

' <ti Oi »»«g looena<« •*-«»* -^^ 


Title Page functions properly ori^ny 512Kb 
Amiga. W&^^lso remember^isKhat everyone's 
needs are noU?ie^mTie7so we included a 
variety of features for users with more memory 
and faster CPUs Qniy $199.95 

ESCHALON L^ — =^ information call: 

DEVELOPMENT ^^^ (514)340-9244 

Circle 125 on Reader Service card. 

\ , \ Esohalon E^eveloprt^ iK 110-2 Renaissance Square, N^ Westminsterfl^C, V3M 6K3 CANADA, TEL: (5\4) 340-9244. Dealer inquiries w^come. Title Pa^e and Eschalon^ 
■■' <^ ^-^ DevelopmeiiWogoareYraOBjnatksofEschakjivflevelopmemjnc-. OlherprodycHiames and b;amJsaietraderi)a»ks and/or regijstefedtraberiiartss^jlttieirVespectivec^