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A  HISTORT  OF  THS  INQUISITION 

Vol.  m. 


WORKS   BY  THE  SAME  AUTHOR. 

A  HISTORY  OF  TUB  IXQUJSITION  Of  8PAIX.  In  tour  »ol- 
utnei,  octmvo. 

A  niSTOUY  OF  AURICULAR  CO.VFFSSIOy  A2fD  IHDUh- 
GENCES  ly  THE  LATIN  CIIVRCH.  Id  Uum  rolDinei,  oc- 
tavo. 

^.V  lllSTOairAL  SKETCH  OF  SACERDOTAL  CELIBACY  IN 
THE  CUHISTIAN  CHURCH.  Third  •dIUon.  (/»  prtpara- 
tioH.) 

'A    yORUVLARY    OF    THE    PAPAL    PSmTESTIARY    IK 

THE   THIRTEENTH   CENTURY.    Od«  volum«,  octavo.     {Out 
qf  print.) 

SUPERSTITION  AND  FORCE.  E«Mys  on  Tho  Wiger  of  Law, 
Tbe  Wiffer  at  B>ii)«,  The  Ordeal,  Torlura.  Fourth  edltlun,  re- 
vlwid.    In  on*  vuluuiD,  13mo. 

STUDIES  IN  CHURCH  HISTORY.  The  Rlae  of  the  Temporal 
Power,  Deneflt  of  Clerxy,  Exfoiiiriianlcallon,  Tbe  Kariy  Church 
and  Slavery.    Second  edition.    In  one  Tolrnne,  ISmo. 

CHAPTERS  FROil  THE  RELIOIOPS  HISTORY  OF  SPAIN, 
CONNECTED  WITH  THE  INQUISITION.  CenM>riailp  of  the 
PniM,  Myatloa  and  Illamlnad,  Endemonladoa,  El  Santo  NtDo  da  la 
Ouardla,  Biiandade  Bardaxi.    Iq  one  volume,  ISmo. 

THE  MORISCOS  OF  SPAIN,  THEIR  CONVERSION  AND 
EXPULSION.     In  one  volume,  lluu. 


CU) 


A  HISTORY  OF 

THE    INQUISITION 

or 
THE    MIDDLE    AGES. 


HENBY  CHABLES  LEA,  LL.IX 


IN   THREE   VOLUMES. 

Vol.  la 


THE   MACMILLAN  COMPANY 

LONDON;  MACMILLAN  &  CO.  Ltd. 

1922 

,f  ^  ri  i/hU  rM«p««d 


f 


raurrsD  ■■  TMM  DMmD  statu  ev  aiubioa 


/     ()\         f      ^      '' 


:^.\ ;»/. 


Copyright,  1887,  bf  IkxrEB  ft  Bbothbbs. 


Km  r"*!'-'- J  ^' — J- —     lUptMMi  r«bnwrr,  tgeC:  AagMt,  igu. 


Mlrightt  nmrvO. 


345401 


VirtMsk  Vnffff : 
Bnwkk  &  Smith  Co..  Norwootl,  Mm*.,  U.S.A. 


f 


CONTENTS. 


BOOK  ni.— SPECIAL  ITELDS  OF  INQmSITORIAL  ACnVlTr. 


,GpA^^  (.-rTpa  Spibitual  FBANcncuii. 

DiswDsioms  id  the  •FranciBcan  Order  from  E!lias  to  John  of  Vvrm*  .     .  1 

Josrhim  of  Blom. — His  Reputation  as  s  I^^het     : 10 

His  Apocalyptia  Speculations  as  to  the  Third  En    .......  14 

Adopt«d  by  the.  Spiritaal  Fnmriscani 18 

The  EverUsting- Gospel. — Its  Condemnation 20 

The  Spirituals  Gompremised. — John  of  Parma  Removed SS' 

PeTKst«Doe  of  the  JoacbiteS'     .■ Stf 

tncfeasing.  Strife  over  Forertj. 3f 

Ball  Exiit  qui  ttminat    .■                        .     .     .     .*    .     ......  30 

Persecntitm  of  Italian -Spirituals 33 

The  French  Spirituals. — Jean  Pierre  Oliri 42 

Aroalde  de  Vilanova 53 

Disputation  before  Clement  V. — Decision  of  Council  of  Vienne ...  57 

Renewed  Persecation  of  the  Spirituals 61 

Commencement  of , Rebellion. —rDisaensions  among  Them 6S 

Election  of  John  XXIL— His  Character 60 

He  Enforces  Obedience  ^nd  Creates  a  Heresy 00 ' 

Bloody  Persecutiion  of  th.e  Olivists 78 

They  Form  a  New  Churcii  .....,.,.     . 7fl 

Their  Fanaticism.— ^N^pr^us,  Boneta 81 

Suppression  of  the  ,Set;t.-;-It^  Qar^er  jn  Aragon 84 

JeAn  de  In  Roch^tailla^c.-:— Heniaiiis  of  Joachitism 86 


ClIAJ-TpB.II, — GufiLIEUfA.  AND   DoLOISO. 

IncamatioB  of  Holy  Ghost  ia  GrugHelma     .     .     .  ■   .  ■ 90 

The  Guglielmites  Form  a  New  Church 94 

Prosecuted  by  the  Inqnisition 98 


Tl 


CONTENTS. 


Kate  of  the  Sectaries 100 

The  Order  of  Apostles. — Spiritual  TendoQcica 108 

Oberardo  Scgarclli. — Dumed  ld  1300 104 

Dolcino  Assumes  the  Leadenibip •....  lOB 

Uiii  Open  Revolt. — Sappresiwd  after  Four  Crusades 113 

CoutiouaQce  aod  Character  of  tie  Uereny ISO 

Chapter  III. — ^Tbb  Frxhcxlu. 

Question  Raised  as  to  tlio  Puvcrt;  of  Christ 130 

Rcatitiuu  affaiiuit  the  UoIineKB  uf  I'overty 130 

I>oct|ine  of  the  t'overly  of  Clirist  Declared  a  Heresy 134 

It  ComplicffteH  thu  Quarrel  with  Ixtiiin  of  Bavaria 135 

Maraiglio  of  Padna  and  Willinm  of  Oclcham 139 

Gradual  &i1.rangemont  nf  the  FranriHcans 143 

Louis  Deposes  John  XXll.  as  a  Heretic 146 

Miohcle  da  Ccaena  Revolts 147 

Utility  of  the  IiKjiiisItidn. — Submission  of  the  Antipope     ....  149 

Struggle  in  Germany. — The  Franciscans  Support  Louis 138 

Louis  gradually  Gains  Strength. — His  Death 156 

Dissident  Franciscans  Known  as  Fraticclli 168 

Sympathy  for  them  aader  Persecution ISO 

Their  TcneU 163 

Fl«ticelli  m  France  and  Spain Ift7 

Orthodox  Ascctism. — Jesuata. — ObseTvantincs Ill 

The  Observantines  Replace  and  Snppreas  the  Fraticelli 174 

Chaptkr  TV. — ■Potmcii,  Hsubst  Utilizrd  by  tub  CmTBCB.  ^P 

Denial  of  Papal  Claims  Pronounced  Heresy IBl 

The  Slcdingers. — Tithes  Enforced  byCruaadee 183 

Crasades  to  Support  Italinn  IntercRls  of  Papacy 169 

Importance  of  Inquiiution  as  a  Political  Agency     ..••...  100 

Advantage  of  the  Charge  of  Heresy 101 

Manfred  of  Naples. — The  Colonnaa — Ferrara lOS 

John  XXII.  and  the  Visconti 168 

Cola  di  Ricniw. — The  Maffrcdi 303 

Use  of  Inquisition  in  the  Great  Schism 304 

Case  of  Thomas  C«nncct« 308 

Oitolamo  Savonarola 300 


CONTENTS. 


til 


I 


^BAmjt  v.— PoLiTicii.  IIkbbst  Vtilizmv  bt  tbb  Stats. 

of  Iniiaisitiob  by  Secular  Poto&tatcs 938 

[Ttfin[tl«ra. — Gro«lb  «ad  Uflatiomi  of  the  Order S38 

C«afie>t  of  its  PownfalL — FacilHiea  Furniahrd  by  the  Inquisition  940 

Papkl  C<>fnp)icity  SoughL^Var  tnjidc  of  InqaisitioD    ....  8S7 

EfTAn  dmrged  agaiufrt  Uie  Temphus 309 

Tlic  Question  at  their  Gath 364 

W*«ll«tir<n  of  dement. — The  Aasembly  of  Tonni 977 

Bargain  between  King  and  Pope. — (.'lemcnt  Joins  the  Pnuecu- 

lk>n      , 961 

Ptoaecntion  ihrougboat  Enrope. — Itn  Methodsi  in  France  ,    .    ,  384 

Tho-  Fapnl  Coiuintasion. — Its  Froceedinga S80 

Xkfcnc^  Prevetited  by  Burninj;  tb<i»e  who  Retract 895 

Proteedingtt  in  England. — Tti«  Inquisition  Necessary    ....  S98 

Aetioo-iD-Lomine  and  Qvrmany 301 

In  Italy  and  Uio  East SM 

In  Spain  and  Majorca , 310 

Turturc  in  Prupunitiun  for  tW  Council  of  Vienue     .....  317 

Arbitrary  Proceedings  Huquirvd  at  tlie  Conndl 819 

Disposition  of  Property  and  Persons  of  the  Order 338 

Fate  of  de  Uolay 33S 

Popular  Sympathies 330 

IHstribution  of  the  Property  of  tlio  Order 839 

of  Doetor  Jean  Petit 334 

of  Joan  of  Are. — Condition  of  ihe  French  Monarchy  ....  988 

Career  of  Joan  up  to  her  Capture 340 

The  Inquiaition  Claims  her. — Delivered  to  the  Bishop  of  Beaa- 

raiit 881 

Her  Trial SdO 

Her  CondemnalioD  nod  Execution 878 

Rer  Iniitatun  and  her  Reltabilitatioo 878 


Cbaptkb  VL — Sobcbbt  and  Occclt  Abts. 

and  the  Spirit  World   .- 879 

ibi  and  Succabi 388 

aman  iliniBterv  of  Satan. — Sorcerers     ,,.•• 888 

i*enaltiea  under  the  Roman  Law ."^i SOS 

le  betwevi  Pagan  and  Chriaitian  Theargy 808 

uoD  of  Sprcery  by  the  Karly  Church 808 


Tjii  ^^■'^  CONTENTS. 

.''Wgic  Practices  of  the  Bu-harians  .... 

Lconocf  of  Bubariaa  Legmlatinn 408 

L«^tsUuoD  of  (liarch  and  State  in  Carlovingian  Period 4Ifl  ^ 

Practical  Toleration  in  Early  Mediieval  Period 416  i 

Indifference  of  Secular  Legislation 427 

The  Inquisition  Assum^js  Jurisdiction 494 

All  &fagic  Becomes  Heretical 435 

Astrology. — Piclro  di  Abano. — Cccco  d'AKoli 437 

Divination  by  Dreams 446 

Comminatory  Cbun:h  Sen-ices 447 

The  Inquisition  Stimulates  Sorcery  by  Peraecution 448 

VDfonunatc  IndufiDce  of  Jobn  XXIL 452 

Oroorth  of  Sorcery  tn  the  FourteeDth  Century    , 464 

Xncreaae  in  th(>  Kift«eutii  Cvntury 404 

(^tA«  of  the  Marechal  de  Bius 408 

£nrique  de  Vilteiui 489 


« 


„,  Chattek  VII. — WrrcncB*rr. 

Ita  Origin  in  the  Fifteenth  Century  '  1  ". 493 

4he  SabbBt.~Regarded  at  Hnit  as  a  r^abollc  Ilttieion 493 

tL      Adopted  by  the  Church  as  a  Reality 497 

«(>    ba  Cenmunies .     .     .     .    ' 000 

TlAwer  and  Malignity  of  the  Witch 001 

Tko  Church  ilelpk-ss  to  Counterftct  ber  Spella 006 

Belii'f  Stiitiulated  by  Pereecutioo 008 

WttcheH  LuBc  Fowef  when  Arrested 009 

Secular  and  EirclvsiaatiL'al  Jurisdiction  orer  Witchcraft Oil 

InquiititnriAl  Pro»m  a^t  Applied  to  Witchcraft 013 

Case  of  the  Wit^b«s  of  the  Catiavcse 018 

Gafle  or  the  Vandoiji  of  Arras 019 

Mow  I>eve1i>i>ment  of  the  Witclicrraft  Craze 634 

Stimulated  by  the  Inqniftition  and  1h^  riinrch 038 

Influence  of  the  M<fUfu*  \fahjifarHm  .,,.,.,,,..  043 

Opposition  U>  the  liiqui»itJon,— France. — Cornelius  Agrippa    .     .     .  544 

Opposition  of  Venice, — The  Witches  of  Rreacia    .......  640 

Terrible  I>uvfli>pinvnt  in  the  Sixteenth  Centdry 640 

Chaptkb  Vin.— Iktkllect  awb  Faits. 

iBteUectnal  AberratioBa  not  DiiD^rouB. OOO 

Theolo^cal  TcndcQci«s  and- Development* 


COMTEKT&  ix 

T  Bacou SH 

inalism  and  Realism 566 

\rj  between  PhiloBOpby  snd  Theolt^ 587 

Tfaoism SS8 

ration  in  Ital;  in  the  Fifteenth  Centniy 665 

ified  AverrhoianL — Pomponazio. — Nifo 674 

nond  Lolly 676 

ation  of  Dc^ma. — The  Beatific  Vision 690 

Immaculate  Conception. S96 

orship  of  the  Press 013 

ChAFTEB  IX — CONOLVHOir. 

isionB  of  the  Inquisition. — The  Greek  Heretics 610 

stoaii,  or  Pardoners 031 

.ny 634 

oralization  of  the  Church 637 

its  of  the  Laity 641 

trials  for  the  Improvement  of  Humanity 646 

BeformatioD  Inevitable 647 

)araging  Advance  of  Humanity 649 

BITDIZ   or   DOCDMIHTB 651 

tx 666 


CHAPTER  I. 

TUC  SPIRIT1TAL  KRAKaSCANa 

Ik  a  fonncr  chapter  we  considored  the  Mentticaats  as  oa  active 
agency  in  the  suppression  of  heresy.  One  of  the  Orders,  how- 
ever, by  no  means  restricted  itself  to  this  fanction,  and  we  have 
now  to  examine  the  career  of  the  Franciscans  as  the  subjects  of 
the  spirit  nf  persecuting  imifomiity  which  they  did  so  maoh  to 
render  dominant. 

While  the  mission  of  both  Orders  was  to  redeem  the  Church 
from  the  depth  uf  degmdutiun  into  wliich  it  had  sunk,  the  Doinin- 
icaiu  were  more  e8{)ecially  trained  to  take  part  in  the  active  busi- 
ness of  life.  They  therefore  attracted  the  more  restless  and 
aggroBBive  spirits;  they  aocommodatod  themselves  to  the  world, 
like  the  JeBuits  of  later  days,  and  the  worldhncss  which  nocessa- 
rily  carae  with  success  awakened  little  antagonism  within  the 
organization.  Power  and  luxury  wore  welcomed  and  enjoyed. 
Even  Thomas  Aquinas,  who,  as  we  have  seen,  ehMjuently  defend- 
ed, against  William  of  Saint-Amour,  the  superlative  holiness  of 
ab8olat«  poverty,  subsequently  admitted  that  poverty  should  be 
proportioned  to  the  object  which  an  Order  was  fitted  to  at- 
tain.* 


■  Th.  Aqoin.  bumni.  Sec.  Sec  Q^  clxxxTiii.  ut.  ?.  4d  1. 
III.— 1 


s 


THE    8P1RITDAL  FRANCISCAN& 


It  was  otherwise  with  the  tVanciscans.  Though,  as  wo  have 
Boen.tho  founders  determined'  not  to  render  the  Order  a  simply 
conteraplative  one,  the  -Balvtttion  of  the  individual  through  re- 
treat from  the  worhl  ariO  its  tuinptalions  iKm*  a  imich  largwr  part 
in  their  motives  llian  in  those  of  Dominio  and  his  followoi-a.* 
AJjsolute  pov&rt/  and  self-abnegation  wero  its  primal  principles, 
and  it  inevitably  drew  to  itself  the  iatwllects  which  sought  a  ref- 
uge fVom  the  leniplations  of  life  in  BBlf-abaorbing  oouteniplation, 
in  dreamy  speculation,  and  in  the  renunciation  of  «ll  that  renders 
•  lile  attractive  to  average  hmuau.  nature.  As  the  orgaoizatioa 
grew  in  wealtli  aud  ]>ower  there  were  necessarily  developed  within 
its  bosom  antagonisms  in  two  directions.  On  the  one  hand,  it 
nourished  a  spirit  of  mysticism,  which,  though  recognized  in  its 
favorite  appellation  of  the  Seraphic  Order,  sometimes  found  the 
trammels  of  orthodoxy  oppressive.  On  the  other,  the  men  who 
continued  to  cherish  the  vie^vs  of  the  founders  as  to  the  supreme 
obligation  of  alwolute  poverty  could  nut  reconcile  their  cunscienees 
to  the  accumulation  of  wealth  and  its  display  in  splendor,  and 
they  iTJectod  the  ingenious  devices  which  sought  to  nccommo- 
date  the  possession  of  riches  with  the  abnegation  of  all  ftossee- 
non. 

In  fact,  the  throe  vows,  of  poverty,  obedience,  and  chastity. 
Were  all  equally  impossible  of  absolute  observance.  The  first 
was  irreconcilable  with  human  necessities,  the  others  with  Imman 
passions.  As  for  chastity,  the  whole  history  of  the  Church  shows 
the  impracticability  of  its  enforcement.    As  for  obedience,  in  the 


'  Sven  tlie  graat  Franciscan  praacher,  Berthold  of  [{ntishon  (wbo  died  in 
1372}  K-ill  concodc  oulj  quiUified  merit  to  Uiuso  vrbo  Inbor  to  mvo  tbo  souls  of 
Uieir  fellow -creatures,  auU  aucb  labors  can  ciuul;  be  carried  to  esccfla.  The  datj 
which  a  man  owu  to  bis  own  soul,  in  prayer  and  dfirotion,  ia  of  much  groAter 
mtHncnt— BcaUFr.  Bt-rlboldi  a  Rntialjoua  Scmouca  (MoniLctill.  1882,  p.  tV). 
flee  also  lil*  compurisnn  of  the  conlrniiOstivp  with  Ihe  nctivc  life.  Tiic  former 
b  RMhaDl,  the  latter  in  Lcali,  and  ii  tnoit  perilous  when  wholly  devoted  to  good 
WKika  (lb.  pp.  ♦i-S). 

So  tbe  gnu  Spirimal  Pmndacati,  Pierre  Jean  Olivi— "l^t  igitur  toUiis  ra- 
tiocia  siimtua,  quod  coiitomplutio  vet  ex  auo  generc  perffctior  nmni  alia  ncti^nv," 
thuugb  be  admits  that  a  It^acr  porlion  of  time  may  nllowitlily  he  devoted  t't  Uni* 
salvalioD  of  fvllow-crcaCurcs.— Fraiu  £bili;,  Aivluv  fUr  Litteratur-  und  Kirclien- 
goschichtc,  1887,  p.  503. 


Tni!  QITEaTlOH  OT  -POVBRTT. 

atlAchotl  Ui  it  of  abiM)hito  rcnnncintion  of  the  will,  ita  in- 
eompdtibtlity  with  the  conduct  of  liumnn  affairs  was  ghoxm  at  an 
early  j>eriod,  wheu  Friar  Uaymouf  Fevfrsliam  uverthrow  (in-gory, 
Ibe  Proviiwial  of  Paria,  antl,  not  lung  afterwanln,  witlistocMl  Ui& 
^aonil  Elias,  ami  procnivii  his  cleiiosition.  As  for  |>ov»trty,  we 
■faaU  see  to  n-hat  incxtrii:ablu  com  plications  it  led,  despit«  the 
efforts  of  suooeesive  popes,  until  tbo  imperious  will  and  resolato 
eotnnian-semie  of  John  XXII.  brou;^ht  the  Onler  frf)ni  ita  scrapbio 
beigtitfi  down  to  the  evcry-<lay  nocossities  of  human  life — at  the 
cod.  it  must  be  confessed,  of  a  schisio.  The  trouble  was  increased 
by  the  foel  that  tit.  Frauuis,  (unseeing  the  efforta  which  would  be 
nuule  to  evade  the  spirit  of  the  Uulo,  hatl,  in  his  Teetament,  strictly 
lurbiiltlea  all  ailemtioiis,  glosses,  and  explanations,  and  hud  com- 
manil»l  that  these  instnictions  sfaoidd  bo  read  in  alJ  chapters 
of  tJie  Orih*r.  With  the  groinh  of  the  Franciscan  legend, 
moreurer,  the  Rule  was  held  to  lie  a  special  divine  revelation, 
equal  in  authority  to  tlie  goapnl,  and  SL  Francis  was  glorified  antil 
be  liecame  a  being  rather  divine  than  human.* 

Kven  liefore  the  death  of  the  founder,  in  12a0,  a  Franciscan  is 
found  in  I'uris  opetdy  teaching  hereaj**  -of  what  nature  we  are 
not  tol<l,  but  probably  the  myutio  reveries  of  an  overu'rought 
brain.  As  yet  there  was  no  Incjuisition,  and.as  he  was  not  sub- 
ject to  epi£)CO[)al  jurisdiclion,  be  was  bi-ought  before  the  juipal 
legale,  where  ho  asserted  many  things  contmry  to  the  orthodox 
fai(It,  and  was  imprisoned  for  life.  This  foreshadowed  much  thai 
jVraft  lo  follow,  though  there  is  a  long  interval  before  we  bear 

in  of  similar  exam)iles.t 

The  more  serious  trouble  concerning  poverty  was  not  long  in 
developing  itself.  Mext  to  St.  Francis  himself  in  the  Order  stood 
£has.  Ifel'ort-  Francis  went  on  his  mission  to  convert  the  Soldan 
be  had  sent  Flias  as  provincial  beyond  the  sea,  and  on  his  return 
from  the  adventure  he  brought  Eliaa  homo  with  him.  At  the 
lint  general  ehuptur,  held  ta  12:il,  Francis  being  too  muuh  en- 


•  Tliom.  de  Ecclcitfon  He  Adtcntn  srinoniin  Coll.  v.  —8,  Fmiela.  Teft(»niRnl. 
(Opp.  1S49,  |i,  -Id).— Nii'ol.ii.  PI*,  lit.  Ilu1t.  KriU  ^iMcvunat  <Ll)j.  V.  Sexto  xU.  8), 
— Uh.  Sententt.  Inq.  ToIm.  pp.  801,  soa 

tChrea.  IHironen*.  snn.  13H  (D.  Bouqaet,  XVTII.  310).— Allwric,  Trium 
Foal.  Chroo-  nno.  1238. 


THE   81 


[ANCl 


feebled  to  preside,  £lias  acted  as  spokesmaa  and  Francis  sat 
his  feel,  {)uUin>^  his  gowu  when  he  wanted  anything  said. 
1323  we  hear  of  Ojesarins,  the  (Tcrman  provincijil,  going  to  Italy 
"to  the  blessetl  ymncis  or  the  Friar  Elias."  When,  through  in- 
firmity or  inability  to  maintain  disoiplino,  Francis  rotired  from 
the  gcncnilate,  Klias  was  vicar-genemi  of  the  Order,  to  whom 
Francis  submitted  himself  as  humbly  as  the  meanest  brother,  and 
on  the  death  of  the  saint,  in  October,  1236,  it  was  Klias  who  noti- 
fied llie  brethren  throughout  Eurui>e  of  the  event,  and  informed 
them  of  the  Stiginatii,  which  the  humility  of  Francis  had  aln-ays 
OOQC«aitid.  Although  in  February,  1327,  Giovanni  Parenti  of  Flor- 
ence was  elected  general,  Elias  seems  practically  to  have  retained 
control.  Parties  were  rapidly  forming  thcmiwlvcs  in  the  Order, 
and  the  lines  between  them  were  ever  more  sharply  drawn.  Elias 
was  worldly  ami  ambitious ;  ho  had  the  rrpiitntion  of  iK'ing  one 
of  the  ablest  men  of  affairs  in  Italy ;  he  could  foresee  the  power 
attaching  to  th«»  tominand  of  the  Oitlei',  and  he  had  not  much 
scruple  UA  to  iht  means  of  attaining  it.  He  undertouli  the  erec- 
tion of  a  magnificent  church  at  Assiui  to  receive  the  bones  of  the 
humble  Francis,  and  he  was  unsparing  in  his  demands  for  money 
to  aid  in  its  construction.  The  very  handling  of  money  was  an 
abomination  in  tho  eyes  of  all  true  brethren,  yet  all  the  prov- 
iooes  were  ciUled  upon  to  contribute,  and  a  marble  coffer  was 
placed  in  front  of  the  building  to  receive  the  gifts  of  the  pious. 
This  was  unendurable,  and  Friar  1ah>  went  in  Perugia  to  consult 
with  the  blesswi  UiUo,  who  had  been  the  third  associate  to  join 
St.  Francis,  who  said  it  was  contrary  to  tho  precepts  of  the  found- 
BT.  "  Shall  I  break  it,  then  t"  inquired  Leo.  "  Ves,"  replied  Oilio, 
"if  you  are  dead,  but  if  you  are  alive,  let  it  alone,  for  you  will 
not  be  able  to  endure  the  persecution  of  Elias."  Notwithstand- 
ing this  warning,  T^eo  went  to  Assist,  and  with  tho  assistance  of 
some  eommdcs  broke  the  coffer;  Klius  tilled  all  Assisi  with  his 
wrath,  and  Leo  took  refuge  in  a  hermitage.* 


•  FraL  lordftDi  Chron.  c  8, 14,  17,  81,  50  (Analrcta  Franci»can*,  Quaracchi, 
IftSS,  I.  4-6,  11,  ]6».~H.  FtudHs.  Testiiment  (Opp.  p,  47):  ^yusd.  Eplstt.  -ri., 
riL,  riii.  £lb.  10-11).— Auioai  Logen<l8  8.  Francisci,  p.  100  {Koma,  1880).— Wad- 
ding. VM.  1S39,  Ho.  S.— Cbron.  GLassberger  atm.  lSd7  (Analcct.  Pranciscana  U. 
p.  45). 


BLIA8  QENGRAL  MINISTER.  5 

When  the  edifice  was  sufficiently  advanced,  a  general  chapter 
was  bold  in  I:3H<)  to  snlomnizc  the  tnLnKlation  of  tlie  saintly  corpse. 
Eliaa  songht  to  utilize  tLe  occastuu  for  bis  own  election  to  the 
generulate  by  summoning  to  it  only  those  brethren  on  whose 
fiopport  be  could  rockon,  but  Giovanni  got  wind  of  this  and  made 
tlte  snnuiions  general.  Elius  then  caused  the  translation  to  Ito  ef- 
fected before  the  brethren  hiul  assomblod ;  his  faction  endeavored 
to  foreataU  the  action  of  the  chapter  by  carrying  him  from  his 
eeOf  breaking  open  the  doors,  and  placing  him  in  the  general's 
seat.  Giovanni  ap|)eare<).  and  after  tumultuons  proceedings  hifi 
friends  obtained  tbe  upper  hand ;  the  disturlwra  were  scattered 
among  the  provinces,  and  Elias  retreate<l  to  a  hermitage,  where 
be  allowed  his  hair  and  beard  to  grow,  and  through  tbiit  show  of 
nnetjty  obtained  reconciliation  to  the  Order.  Finally,  in  the 
chapter  of  1232,  his  ambition  was  rewarded  Giovanni  was  de- 
poeed  and  be  was  elected  general.* 

These  liirbulent  intrigue*  were  not  the  only  evidence  of  the 
rapid  d^eneracy  of  the  Order.  Before  Francis's  Testament  was 
ftve  years  old  his  commands  against  evasions  of  tbe  Uulc  by  cun- 
ning interpretations  had  been  liisregarded.  The  chapter  of  1231 
had  applied  to  Gregory  IX.  to  know  whether  the  Testament  was 
binding  upon  them  in  tbis  re8|)ect,  and  he  replie<l  in  the  negative, 
fur  Francis  could  not  liind  bis  successors.  They  also  asked  about 
the  prohibition  to  hold  money  and  property,  and  Gregory  ingen- 
ioasly  suggested  that  this  couhl  be  effected  through  third  par- 
ties, who  could  bold  money  and  pay  debts  for  them,  arguing  that 
snch  persons  should  not  be  regarded  its  tbeir  agents,  but  as  the 
agents  of  those  wlio  gave  the  money  or  of  those  to  whom  it  was 
to  lie  pJiid,  These  elusory  glosses  of  the  Rule  were  not  accepted 
without  an  energetic  opposition  wbicli  threatened  a  schism,  and  it 
is  easy  to  imagine  the  bitterness  with  which  the  sincere  members 
of  the  Order  watched  its  rapid  degeneracy ;  nor  was  this  bitterness 
(limioished  by  the  use  which  Klins  made  of  hiR  |)osition.  His  car- 
nality and  cruelty,  we  an)  told,  convulseil  the  wli<de  Onlor.  His 
rule  was  arbitrarj'.  and  for  seven  years,  in  defiance  of  the  regula- 
tions, he  held  no  general  chapter.    He  levied  exactions  on  all  the 


*  Thome  dc  Ecclcston  CotUt  xix.— JordaDi  Citron,  c  61  (Analccu  Franc.  L. 
IV).— Clinra.  Adod.  (lb.  L  280). 


t  THE   SPiniTtTAL  PRANCISCANa 

provincos  to  corapleto  the  t>jeal  structuPB  at  AHsiai.  Tbose  who 
resisted  him  were  rolofratod  to  distant  plaoea.  Kven  while  yet  only 
vicar  he  had  cuused  3t.  Anlliony  of  l'adu;t,  who  had  couitj  to  As- 
sisi  to  worship  at  the  tomh  of  Francis,  to  be  soonrgi?d  to  the  blcHjd, 
when  Anthony  only  expostulated  with, "  May  the  blefisod  (iod  for- 
give yoo,  brethren  1"  Worso  was  the  fate  of  Ciefiariua  of  Spoier, 
who  had  been  appointed  Provincial  of  Germany  in  12l'1  by  St. 
yraucia  himself,  and  had  built  up  the  Order  to  the  nurth  of  tlie 
Alps.  He  was  the  leader  of  the  puritjin  nuilcontonts,  who  were 
known  as  Ca^sarians,  and  he  felt  the  fuU  wralh  of  Elias.  Tllro^vn 
into  prison,  ho  lay  there  in  chains  for  two  years.  At  len^h  the 
fetters  were  remove<i,  and,  early  in  V2^0,  Ids  jailer  having  loft  the 
door  of  his  cell  open,  he  ventured  forth  to  stretch  \m  craini>ed 
limbs  in  the  wintry  sun.  The  jailer  retumud  and  Ihouf^bt  that  ho 
waa  attempting  to  cscapa  Fearing  tlio  pitilesa  anger  of  Etins.  he 
rashcd  after  the  priiwinor  fin<l  denlt  him  a  mortal  blow  with  a 
cudgel.  Oseearius  was  the  first,  but  by  no  means  the  last,  martyr 
who  ahed  his  blo«i  for  the  strict  obserranco  of  a  Kulo  brcnfliing 
nothing  but  love  and  charity* 

The  cup  at  last  was  full  t4>  overflowing.  In  1237  Elias  had 
nent  visitors  to  the  different  provhiues  whose  conJuet  caused 
genera]  exaapRration.  The  brethren  of  SHXony  a]il»ealed  to  liim 
from  their  visitor,  and,  finding  Ibis  fruitless,  thoy  carried  their  com- 
plaint to  Gregory.  The  pope  at  length  was  roused  to  inten-ene. 
A  general  chapter  was  convened  in  1239,  wlien,  after  a  stonny 
soene  in  presence  of  Gregory  and  nine  cardinals,  the  pope  finally 
annoiinccd  to  Elias  that  his  resignation  woiihl  Iw  ivoeived.  Pos- 
sibly in  thia  there  maj'  have  been  politicul  as  well  us  ascelic  mf>- 
lives.  Ellas  was  a  skilful  negotiator,  and  was  looked  upon  with  a 
friendly  eye  by  Frederic  11,,  who  forthwith  declared  tliat  the  dis- 


•  Qnptr.  PP,  IX.  Bull. Q»o  tiongati  (Pet.  Rodnlphii  IIiRt.  Scm|)b.  Rul ig.  LIT*.  II. 
M.  IM-5),  -Tlodulphii  np.  cit.  Lib.  ir,  fol.  177.— Chron.  OlnM-licrgcr,  imn.  1280, 
1231  (.\nalecla  II.  50,  iSfl).— FraL  Jonluiii  CljniD.  c.  18,  19,  01  (Analectu  !.  7,  8^ 
IS).— Frnnz  Ehric  (Arehiv  filr  LitL-  o.  Kirchciigeschichlc,  1888,  p.  128>.— Wad- 
diog.  BDD.  1239,  No.3. 

The  ing«nioiu  caauLitry  with  wliicli  the  Convi^ntunls  wttii^lictl  themaelvra  that 
llic  device  ofGrcyiwy  IX.  cnabkil  tU«m  lo  grow  ricli  witlimil  IniiisBTCjiBiiif;  tli« 
Rtils  »  Mcn  in  llicir  ili-rviirc  tKforv  Cisment  VI  ,  in  1311,  nn  priulcd  by  Kninz 
Elirlc  (Archiv  (Or  Litt.-  u.  Eirehcngcachichtv.  1887,  pp.  107-8). 


TWO   PARTIES   PORVtP.  f 

mtasal  was  done  in  liia  dtsptte,  for  F.Liuii  was  al  the  time  engnged 
m  ui  effort  to  heal  the  inr'tnudiahlo  bn^ooti  Ix^tween  the  papauy 
uhI  tb«  empire.  Cartain  it  is  ttutt  Elia«  at  oni.-«  took  refngo  witli 
fivdunc  uid  beoaiue  his  intimate  oompaoion.  (ingoay  made  an 
effort  U>  capluru  him  liy  invitmy"  him  In  a  piinfercnc*-.  Fiulinjf  in 
tilt*.  A  charge  n-ag  hmiight  against  liim  of  irisitiiig  puor  wumcn  at 
ortocia  without  pemiifflion.  auU  on  refusing  to  obey  a  auauuuDfl 
he  was  oxoommunicntcd.* 

Thus  alrciul y  in  the  Kranaisoan  Order  there  wore  established 
tiro  -weU-doSned  parties,  which  came  to  be  known  as  the  Spirituals 
and  ttie  Convontoals,  the  one  adhering  to  the  strict  letter  uf  the 
Hale,  the  other  willing  to  Itnd  excuses  for  its  roLuxation  in  obedi- 
enoo  lo  the  wants  of  hunian  nature  and  tlie  demands  of  wurUUi- 
BBB.  After  the  fall  uf  £lias  the  former  luid  the  supromary  dur- 
ing the  brief  ^rncniljites  of  Alljcrto  of  Plaa,  and  Haymo  of  Fever- 
shun.  In  11^44  the  ('onvenbuuls  triumphed  in  the  election  of  Cres- 
cenuo  Urizzi  da  .leei,  under  whom  occurred  what  the  ijpiritaals 
reckooed  as  the  "  Thin.1  Tri!)uJation,''  for,  in  aceordanco  with  tlieir 
apocalyptic  speculations,  they  wiire  to  undergo  seven  tribulations 
bttUmi  tlio  reign  of  the  Holy  Ghost  should  usher  in  tlie  Millennium. 
Crescenjao  followed  in  the  fouLnteps  of  Klias.  Under  ilaymo,  in 
1&42.  thftre  had  IxK-n  an  attempt  to  reconcile  with  the  ICule  Greg- 
ory's declaration  of  12.31.  Fnur  leading  doctore  of  the  Oixler,  with 
Alexandur  Haks  at  their  lica<l.  Iiiid  issued  the  Decittraiio  Quatw/r 
Jiayulrvrttnu  hut  even  their  logical  tiubtlety  hud  faile<l.  The  Ui^ 
dcT  was  Donstantly  growing,  it  was  constantly  acquiring  property, 


'  *  Jorduii  Chron.  c.  K,  03  (An*1«ct«  1. 18-16).— Thomie  do  Eoclaton  Coll&t 
Xn.— Ctiron.  01«MU!rg«r,  anti.  laSS  (AdiOccu  II.  00-1).— Huillnr(l-Brtfaallc«, 
lat«>J.p.imi.;  Il>.  Vl.«»-70. 

E(U»  lUll  mnnn^ci)  tu  vxcitc  diHiirlMkncc  in  Uio  Onlvr;  he  died  exoommuui- 
atf,  nnil  a  zealous  Fruimcan  guardian  had  bin  rcmaiai  dug  up  and  cut  upon 
m  dutigliill.  FrA  Sclfanbone  ftiTvs  full  diftaih  uf  his  pvil  wbts,  aod  the  tyna- 
>  RuUilmlnUtnitJon  nhich  precijnt&teil  his  (lownfull.  After  hb  aeocsnoc  to 
ric  n.  ft  popalar  rhyme  was  current  throagboat  Italy — 

•'llorattornftfnitl  Uelya, 
Ee  prcfl'  ha  la  tuAla  vi^J" 

SalloiboDv  Clirunieit,  Purma,  1857,  pp.  401-19. 

AflO,  bowevor,  aascrta  tbtt  lit  Has  absulrcd  on  liia  dtiit)i-l»d.— ViU  del  Besto 
Oi*atuu  di  Puma,  Parma,  1777,  p.  81.     Cf.  ChroD.  Olaaaberger  utin.  1M3-4. 


THBBPl 


iaTTcibcansT 


and  its  needs  were  constantly  increasinj^.  A  bull  of  Gregory  I^ 
in  1239,  authorizing  th«  KraneiBcans  of  I'aris  to  acquire  additiot 
land  with  which  to  enlarge  their  monastery  of  Sainl-Gennain-<U 
Fri-a,  is  an  cxainplo  of  what  was  going  on  all  over  Kui-ope. 
\H4,  at  tlio  chapter  wliich  elo<;tod  Ci'esceni'.io,  the  Kn^f'nshma 
John  Kethene,  suct'ccdci],  against  the  opposition  of  nejirly 
whole  body  of  the  assembly,  in  obtaining  the  rejection  of  Gi 
ory*8  detinition,  but  the  triunipb  of  the  Puritans  was  short-livt 
Cresocnzio  sympathized  with  the  laxer  party,  and  applied  to  Ii 
nooent  IV.  for  relief.  In  1245  the  poj)©  responded  with  a  decla- 
ration in  which  ho  not  only  repeated  the  device  of  Gregory  IX. 
by  authoriang  deposits  of  money  with  parties  who  were  to  be  re- 
garded as  the  agents  of  donors  and  croditore,  but  ingeniously  as- 
sumed that  houses  and  lands,  the  ownership  of  which  was  forbid- 
den to  the  Order,  should  t)c  reganlc*!  a.s  belonging  to  the  Holy 
See,  which  granted  their  use  to  the  friars.  Even  papal  authority 
could  not  render  these  transparent  subterfuges  satisfying  to  the 
oonsciences  of  the  Spirituals,  and  the  growing  worhllinoss  of  the 
Order  provoked  continuous  agitation.  Crescenzio  before  taking 
the  vows  had  been  a  jurist  and  physician,  and  there  was  further 
complaiDt  thai  he  encouraged  the  bretliren  in  acquiring  the  voia 
and  storilo  acienco  of  Aristotle  rather  than  in  studying  divine  wis- 
dom. UnderSimone  da  Assisi,  Giaco]X)  Maiifwdo,  Matteo  da  Monte 
Bubiano,  and  Lncido,  seventy-two  earnest  brethi-eu,  finding  Cres- 
cenzio  deaf  to  their  remonstrances,  ])re]>ared  to  ap|M^al  to  Innocent. 
He  anticipated  iheni,  and  obtained  fi-om  the  |>ope  in  advance  a 
decision  under  which  he  scattered  the  recalcitrants  in  couples 
throughout  the  provinces  foi'  puntshiueut.  Fortunately  his  reign 
was  short.  Tempted  by  the  bishopric  of  Jcsi,  he  resigned,  and 
in  1248  was  succeodetl  by  Giovanni  Borelli,  better  known  as 
John  of  Parma,  who  at  the  time  was  professor  of  theology  in 
the  University  of  Paris,* 


*  Tboms  de  Ecclcat  Collat.  mt,  xit.— Wadding,  arin.  1342,  No.  2;  urn. 
1443,  No.  10.— Pottliiist  No.  10825.— A dbcU  Cluriiifliu.  Epiat  Excusatnr  [Fnuiz 
Ehrte,  Archiv  fiir  I.iH.-  u.  Kirclir«gc«cliiclite,  1885,  p.  535 ;  188C,  pp.  113.  117, 
l£0).—Hij>U  IVtbulatiuD.  (lb.  t83S,  pp.  350  sqq.]. 

Till-  tfufuria  TrAiitalwntm  rrllccU  tlii:  contempt  of  the  SpiritiialB  for  himiKil 
learning.  Adam  was  led  to  dimbedicnce  by  n  tlilret  for  knovtcdgo,  nnd  retunied 
to  gracd  by  faiUi  aQ<l  not  by  diiU(Klics,or  geometry  or  lutrology.     Tbe  ctU  io* 


JOHN   or  PARMA. 


9 


The  election  of  John  of  Parma  mRrk«(l  a  reaction  in  favor  of 

strict  obaen'ance.     The  new  general  was  iiispirpcl  with  a  holy 

Kul  lo  realize  the  itl«il  uf  St.  Francis.    Tho  oxileil  Spirituala  were 

recalled  and  allowed  to  select  their  own  domiciles.    During  the 

first  ihrw?  yoaw  John  visited  on  foot  the  whule  Onler,  soinctinira 

with  two,  and  soniciiuiL-B  witli  onl)r  ono  compunion,  in  tho  most 

fanuble  guise,  so  that  he  was  unrooogmted,  and  coald  remain  in  a 

ttovent  fi>r  several  days,  observing  its  character,  when  he  wtmld 

nveal  himself  and  reform  its  abuses.     In  tho  ardor  of  his  zeal  he 

spared  the  feelings  of  no  one.     A  lector  of  the  Mark  of  Aneona, 

retuming  home  from  Kome,  described  the  excessive  severity  of  a 

smion  preached  by  him.  jaiying  that  the  brt'thnm  of  tho  Mark 

wotU^l  never  have  aUowe<l  any  one  to  say  such  things  to  them; 

sad  when  asked  why  the  masters  who  were  present  had  not  in- 

Iwferfd,  he  repliini,  "  How  could  tlioy  ?      It  was  »  river  of  tiro 

wbicb  floweii  from  his  lips."    He  suspended  the  declaration  of  In- 

Booent  IV.  until  the  pontiff,  better  informed,  could  be  consnlted. 

It  was,  however,  impossible  for  him  to  control  tho  tendencies  to 

tdaxation  of  tho  Kule,  which  were  ever  growing  stronger,  and  his 

efforts  to  that  end  only  serve^l  to  strengthen  disatTection  which 

finally  grew  to  determined  opixsition.    After  consnltation  between 

tone  influential  metiibera  uf  the  Order  it  wus  resolved  to  bring 

before  Alexander  IV.  formal  accusiitions  against  him  and  the 

fripnds  who  surrounded  him.    The  attitude  of  the  Spirituals,  in 

fict,  fairly  invited  attack.* 

To  DndcTstand  the  position  of  tho  Spirituals  at  this  timo:,  and 


dtHty  of  tbc  uu  of  AriaUiile,  «nd  Ihc  Kductire  sweetness  of  P]«to'«  eloquence 
•ra  E|[ypUaa  plagues  iu  Uiu  Cburcb  (lb.  244-0).  It  wan  mn  cnrljr  tntdttion 
<S  the  Order  tlint  Pnuicis  hud  predicted  iU  ruin  through  orrrmucb  learning 
(Arnold.  Lrgmdi  9.  FranciHci,  App.  cap.  xi.). 

Eiri  HlUler  (Die  Anf^ge  dcs  Minoritcnnrdcna.  Pntihurg,  1885,  p.  190)  «8- 
Kiti  that  the  election  of  Crr«CL-nzio  wan  a  trliinipb  of  the  Puritans,  nod  that  he 
«■«  known  for  hti  flsniing  Mai  for  the  rigid  olj6<>rranc«  of  the  Kule.  So  far  from 
lliu  iHriofi  the  case,  un  the  very  nij^ht  of  his  election  ho  scolded  tho  r.ealot«  (Th. 
Eocleelon  Collat.  xil),  and  the  history  of  his  genenilate  couilmis  the  view  taken 

of  him  hy  tlM>  HisL  Tribnlationum.    AflS  (Vita  di  Qioanni  di  Parmn,  pp.  31-2)  us- 

mtnes  that  he  cnduavorcd  to  fullow  a  nuddlo  course,  aud  ended  by  peraecQting 

tbe  iiTwoncilablcfc 

■  Hist.  Tribulat  (loo.  clt.  1666,  pp.  367-8,  274).— AffD,  pp.  36-d,  64,  87-S.— 

Woddiog.  aon.  MM,  No.  i. 


10 


'RAN0I8CAN9. 


sabsequcntly,  it  is  necessary'  to  cost  a  glanco  at  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  spiritual  dtiv^lupmenU  of  the  Lhirti-enth  oontury.  Its 
ot>eoing  yeai-s  hml  witaes^xl  the  death  of  Joachim  of  Floi-a,  a 
man  who  may  b«  regarded  as  the  founder  of  modern  mysticism. 
Sprung  front  a  vUU  and  noble  family,  and  trained  fur  the  Ufe  of  a 
courtior  undor  Kogcr  the  Norman  liukt^  of  ApuUa,  a  sudden  de- 
sire to  8e«  the  holy  places  took  him,  while  yet  a  youtk,  to  the 
East,  with  u  ratinue  of  servitors.  A  pestilence  was  raging  when 
he  reached  Coustantinuplu,  which  so  impressed  him  with  the  mis* 
eries  and  vanities  of  life  that  ho  dismissed  his  suite  and  continued 
his  vuvuge  as  an  liumble  pilgrim  with  a  single  companion.  Hia 
If^nd  relates  that  lie  fell  in  the  desert  overcome  with  thiret,  anil 
had  a  vision  of  a  man  gtanding  by  a  river  of  oil,  and  saying  to 
lum, "Brink  of  this  stream,'*  which  he  did  to  satiety,  and  when 
he  awoke,  although  previously  illitemte,  lie  had  a  knowledge  of 
ail  Scripture.  The  following  Lent  ho  passed  in  an  old  well  on 
Mount  Talx>r ;  in  the  night  of  the  Kesurrection  a  great  splendor 
appe^tred  to  Jiim,  lie  was  tilled  with  divine  light  to  understand  the 
concordance  of  the  Old  and  New  Laws,  and  every  dilliculty  and 
every  obscurity  vam8ho<i.  Tliosc  talcs,  rci>eatcd  until  the  seven- 
teenth century,  sliow  the  profound  and  hutting  impression  which 
he  left  upon  the  minds  of  men.* 

Thenceforth  his  life  was  dedicated  to  the  sen'ice  of  God.  Re- 
turning home,  he  avoided  his  father's  house,  and  commenced  preach- 
ing to  the  people ;  but  this  was  not  jiermissiblo  to  a  layman,  so  ho 
entered  the  priesthood  and  the  severe  Cistercian  Order.  Chosen 
Abbot  of  C'orazzo,  he  fled,  but  vraa  brought  back  and  forced  to  as- 
sume tiie  duties  of  the  ollice,  till  he  visited  lionie,  in  1181,  and  ob- 
tained from  Lncins  III.  permission  to  lay  it  down.  Even  the  severe 
Cistercian  discipline  did  not  satisfj'  his  thu-st  for  austerity,  and 
he  retired  to  a  hermitage  at  Pietralata,  where  his  reputation  for 
sanctity  drew  dist-iplos  around  lam,  and  in  spite  ul  his  yearning 
for  Bohtude  ho  found  himself  at  the  head  of  a  new  Onler,  of  which 
the  liule,  anticipating  the  Mendicants  in  tt«  urgency  of  poverty, 
was  approved  by  Celestin  III.  in  WW.  Already  it  had  spread 
from  the  mother-house  of  San  Giovanni  in  Fiore,  and  numbered 
several  other  monasteries. t 

•  Tooea,  L'Ereala  niA  Ht^ia  Ero,  Pircnxc,  1884,  pp.  SflS-ia  —  ProfiiUa  dell' 
A.b»te  OioacbiDO.  Vcn«iia.  1&4Q,  p.  8. 

t  Tocco.  op.  ciL  pp.  271-81.— Cttlcstln.  PP.  III.  Epiat.  37». 


JOJICHIM   OK   rtOHK. 

Joaofaim  oonsiclercd  himself  inftpirotl,  and  thoagh  in  1SO0  he 
sahmiuod  his  works  nnrescnmlly  to  iho  Ilctly  Soo^  ho  hail  nn  heot- 
lation  in  speaking  of  Uiem  as  ilirinely  revi^alcrl.  Durin/^  his  lif^ 
tmiB  he  enjoyed  the  roputation  of  a  prophet.  AVhon  Rirhard  of 
EngfauHl  atid  VUllip  Auf^UBtus  were  at  Meestna,  they  sent  for  him 
to  toqiiirv  as  to  the  oiitcoiric  of  their  enisado,  and  he  is  said  to 
b&re  foretold  to  them  that  ihe  liour  had  not  yet  come  for  the  de- 
liverance of  Jerusalem.  Others  of  liis  fulfilled  prophecies  are  also 
nthcted.  and  the  mystical  character  of  the  aporalyptio  Rpccnlations 
vhich  he  left  behind  him  served  to  increase,  after  his  death,  his 
repatatiun  as  a  seer.  His  name  became  one  customarily  employed 
for  centuries  when  any  dreamer  or  sharper  desired  to  attraot  at- 
tention, and  quite  a  literature  of  forgeries  grew  up  which  were 
aacribed  to  him.  Somewhat  mure  limn  a  century  after  his  death 
wo  find  the  Dominican  Pipino  cnumcrnling  a  long  catalogue  of 
bis  works  with  the  utmost  respect  for  his  predictions.  In  1319 
Bernard  D^Ucieux  places  unlimited  c^>nftdence  in  a  prophetical 
book  of  Joachim's  in  which  there  were  representations  of  all  fut- 
are  popes  with  inscriptions  and  symbols  under  them,  llemard 
points  out  the  dilTorent  pontiffs  of  his  own  period,  predicts  thft 
fate  of  John  XXII.,  and  dttclarus  that  for  two  liunditKl  years  there 
had  hecn  no  mortal  to  whom  so  mnch  was  revealed  as  to  Joochim. 
Oola  di  ItienjM  found  in  the  pscndo-prophecies  of  Joachim  the  en- 
couragement that  inspired  bis  second  attempt  to  govern  Kome. 
The  Franoiscan  tract  Dp  •nHimtt  A^taU  Eede*i(p.  written  in  1350, 
and  long  ascribed  to  Wickliff,  expresses  the  utmost  reverence  for 
Joachim,  and  frequently  cites  his  prophecies.  The  Liber  Con- 
Jontutatum,in  138i),  tpmteb  ifpeatetlly  the  piwliction  ascribed  to 
Joaobim  as  to  tlie  foundation  of  the  two  Mundicant  Orders,  sym- 
bolized in  those  of  the  Dove  and  of  the  Crow,  and  the  tribulations 
to  which  the  fonuer  was  to  bo  exposed.  Not  long  afterwards  the 
liBrmit  Telesforo  da  Coscnza  drew  from  the  same  source  prophe- 
cies as  to  the  course  and  termination  of  the  Great  Schism,  and  the 
line  of  future  popes  untU  the  coming  of  Antichrist — prophecies 
wliioli  attnictiHl  sutlleicnt  iilteiiUon  tu  coll  for  a  refutation  from 
IJenrj-  of  Hesso,one  of  tlic  leading  theologians  of  the  day.  Car- 
diiiut  Toter  d'Ailly  apealcx  with  rosjwct  of  Joitchim's  prophecies 
onnceniing  Anlicbriiit,  and  couples  him  with  the  prophetess  St. 
Uilde^rda,  while  the  rationalisUu  Cornelius  AgripiMi  endeavors 


12 


THE  SPIRITUAL  FRANCISCANS. 


to  explain  his  predictions  by  the  occult  powers  of  numbers.  Ill 
man  croduhty  preserved  his  reputation  as  a  prophet  to  modorn 
times,  and  until  at  least  as  hitc  as  the  seventeenth  century  prophe- 
cies under  his  name  were  published,  containing  scries  of  popes 
with  symbolical  figures,  inscriptions,  and  explanations,  apparently 
similar  to  the  Vatittima  Pontijicnm  which  so  completely  possessed 
the  confidence  of  Bemitrd  Delicieiix.  Even  in  the  seventeenth 
century  the  Carmelites  printed  the  Oraculum  Angeliinun  of  CypU, 
with  Its  pscudojoachitic  commentary,  as  a  proof  of  the  antiquity 
of  their  Order.* 

Joacbun's  immense  and  durable  reputation  as  a  prophet  was 
due  not  so  much  to  his  genuine  works  as  to  the  spurious  ones  cir- 
cnlated  under  his  name.  These  were  numerous— Prophecies  of 
Cyril,  and  of  the  Erytbrieaa  Sybil,  Commentaries  on  Jeremiah,  the 
Vati(n.ma  Pont\Jicumy  the  De  Onerthug  Eocl^steB  and  De  St'fiigm 
Tt'mporihus  EccUaiw.  In  some  of  these,  referenoo  to  Frederic  II. 
would  seem  to  indicate  a  period  of  com[x>sit)on  about  the  year 
12S0,  when  the  strife  between  the  papacy  and  empire  was  at  tho 
hottest,  and  tho  current  prophecies  of  Merlin  were  freely  drawn 
upon  in  framing  their  exegesis.  There  can  be  little  doubt  that 
their  authors  were  Franciscans  of  the  I'uritan  party,  and  their 
fearless  denunciations  of  existing  evils  show  liow  impatient  had 
grown  tho  spirit  of  dissatisfaction.    Tho  apocalyptic  prophecies 


■  Lib.  Cnncordte  Vrvet  (Vonct.  1819). — Fr.  Fnuicisci  Pipini  Chrnn.  (Muratnri 
8.  R-L IX. 40a-500).— Rog.  novedcii«. aon.  1 190.— 1I9S.  Bib.  Xiit,  Tond* latin,  No 
4S70,fol.  260-2.— Comb«.  La  RiCorma  in  Italia,  1.  388.— Lech ler's  Wirkliffe.  Lori- 
mcr'a  Traniilution,  11. 321.— Lib.  Conformitiit.  Lib.  t.  Fnict.  i.  P.  2;  Pnict.  ix.  P.  3 
{|bl,  18,  91). — Tclospliori  «li]  inagnii  Tribulationibias  Prce«ni, — llrnric.  do  Uaasin 
contm  Vatlcln. Telniphori  c.  xt.  (Fez  Tbeuor.  I.  n.  531).— FnuiE  Cbrlc  (Arcbir 
fOf  Lit.-  u.  Kircbenge»chictit«,  18&(J,  p-  381 ).— P.  d'Ailly  Concord.  Astron. Veritat 
c.  lis.  (August  Vindcl.  1490).— U.  Cornel.  Agripp.  dc  Occult.  Philosopb.  Lib.  n, 
c.ii. 

Tlie  Vaticinia  Pont\ficum  df  tb<-  t>Atiii!(>-.Tnacbim  li^ng  rcmnincd  a  popular 
omrlc.  I  bare  met  with  editions  of  Vonico  isEUoil  lu  t089,  IQOO,  I60r>,  and  IM*}, 
of  Fcmira  in  I591,of  Frankfwrt  in  IfiOS.of  Paduii  in  102J5,audof  Nnple*  in  IftBO, 
and  Ibcrv  are  doubtlc'^  nuiucnnis  others. 

Dante  represents  Bonareaturo  as  pointing  out  tbe  saintfl — 

"RabaB  h  quivi,  e  luc<^mi  dullato 
n  Calarreve  aboU  Oiuvuccbiao 
Di  spirito  profvUco  dotato." — (Paradiso  xn.). 


THE  P3ErDO-JOACniM.-ni3  OKNUTNE  WRITINGS.    13 

irere freely  iotcrprctiHl  an raforring  to  tlic  caraal  n'orldliness nbicb 

pervadHti  all  orders  in  the  Clitii'ch :  all  an;  re|mibatti,  noiu^  are 

dfict ;  Rome  is  the  Wlioro  of  Bal>ylon,  und  the  jmpul  curia  the 

moft  renai  and  extortionate  of  all  conrts ;  tlie  Roman  Church  ta 

thu  bjimin  fig-tivc,  accurswl  by  Christ,  wluuh  shall  bo  abamloned 

to  the  notions  to  be  Blrip|>e«l.     It  would  be  dilUcull  to  exag-gerato 

the  hiilpmefis  of  antjigonism  display«4l  in  theso  writings,  ovon  to 

the  point  of  recogaizlng  the  empire  as  the  instrument  of  God 

irhich  13  to  overthrow  the  pri<le  of  the  Church.    Thc6o  out8|>oken 

nttunintt^  of  rebellion  i*.ifit«Hl  no  little  interest,  esjiccially  within 

the  Order  itself.     Adam  do  Marigco,  the  leading  Franciscan  of 

Englonil,  sends  to  his  friend  (irotiseteste,  Bishop  nf  Lincoln,  some 

extracts  fn^m  these  works  which  have  l)een  brought  to  him  fnjm 

Italy.    He  speaks  of  Joaehim  as  one  justly  credited  with  divine 

insist  into  prophetic  mysteries ;  he  a^dcs  to  have  the  fnigmentfi 

rettiraed  to  him  after  copying,  and  meanwhile  commends  to  the 

bishop's  oonsidoratiou  the  impending  judgments  of  Proridenco 

Wiiioh  are  invited  by  the  abounding  wickuihie-ss  of  the  time.* 

Of  Joachim's  geruiirio  writings  the  one  which,  perhaps,  at- 
tmeted  the  most  attention  in  his  own  diiy  was  a  tract  on  the 
Datnre  of  the  Trinity,  attacking  the  definition  of  Peter  JA>mbard, 
and  «Herling  that  it  attributinl  a  (iuutomity  to  (iod.  The  subtle- 
ties of  theology  were  dangerouH.  and  in  place  of  proving  the  Ma» 
ter  of  Sentences  a  heretic,  Joachim  himself  narrowly  eseapivi. 
Thirteen  years  after  his  death,  the  great  Council  of  Lateiun,  in 
1215,  thnuglit  his  speculation  siifilcientlr  important  to  condemn 
it  as  erroneous  in  aji  olalHimte  refutation,  wliich  was  cairied  into 
the  canon  law,  ami  Innocent  III.  pnuiche<l  a  sermon  on  the  snb- 
jnl  to  the  atucnibled  fathers.  Fortuuat4.'ly  Juiichiin,  in  1200,  had 
ttprossly  submitted  all  liis  writings  to  the  judgment  of  the  Holy 
See  and  had  declared  that  he  held  the  same  faith  as  that  of  Rome. 
TheooaucIL,  therefore,  refraiuwl  from  condemning  him  personally 


*  PMnuIo^Toadiim  de  OncrihiiR  RcclcsiB  c  iii.,  zt.,  xt!.,  xtH.,  xx.,  xxL,  xzU., 
niH.,  1X1. — iy iiwl.  •upcr  Uk'n-miain  c  i.,  ii.,  iii,,  «*c— SftUmbene  p.  tft7.— Mon- 
•n«at«  Prwjdftcaiia  p.  H7  (SI.  R.  Series). 

The  nuUior  of  the  ComiDcnlarf  od  Jvremiuli  had  probably  Uiin  diticipllncil 
farftcedom  of  ftpewh  in  tliv  pulpit,  for  (oip.  1.)  tic  dcnouncvH  lut  bedtial  a  license 
to  preach  which  Rstricta  the  libertj  of  the  spirit,  and  oulj  pcniiite  thv  pKiicli«r 
Ift  dilate  OD  carnil  tIgc*. 


It 


THE   SPIRITUAL   FRANClSCANa 


and  expressed  its  approbation  of  bis  Order  of  Flora ;  but  notwitfa- 
standiog  this  the  monks  fuuad  themselves  derided  and  insulted 
us  tho  followei^;  of  a  heretic,  until,  iii  1220.  ihcv  (iroeiireil  from 
Honorius  III.  a  bull  rxprc»>;ly  declaring  tliat  be  ivor  n  gowl  Gatb- 
olic.  and  forbidding  all  dcti-action  of  his  disciples.* 

His  motit  important  writings,  however,  were  bis  expositions  of 
Scripture  compoaed  at  the  rf!t]uest  of  Lucius  UJ.,  Trhiin  III.,  and 
Clement  III.  Of  these  there  were  three — the  Concordia,  the  D&- 
caohordou,  or  2*siilicrium  decern  Cordarum.  and  the  Ejcpositio  in 
Apocalypsin.  In  these  his  a>'stem  of  ejiegoeis  is  to  find  in  every 
incident  under  tho  Ol<l  \jhyf  the  profigurution  nf  a  corresponding 
fact  in  chronological  oi-der  under  llie  Now  DisiK-nsation.  and  by 
an  arhitniry  pnralltdism  of  dates  to  reach  forwartl  an4i  ascertain 
what  is  yet  to  oome.  Ue  thus  determines  that  mankind  is  des- 
tined to  live  through  three  states— the  first  under  the  rule  of  the 
Father,  wbioh  ended  at  the  birtli  uf  Christ,  the  second  under  that 
of  tho  Son,  and  tlie  third  under  the  Holy  Ghost.  The  roign  of 
the  Son,  or  of  the  New  Testament,  he  ascertains  by  vanod  ajMXta- 
lyptic  speculations  is  to  last  through  forty-two  gc^nerations,  or  1260 
yonrB—for  instance,  Judith  remained  in  widowhood  throe  years 
and  a  luilf,  or  forty-two  months,  which  is  1260  tiays,  the  great 
number  representing  the  years  through  which  the  New  Testament 
is  to  endure,  so  that  in  the  year  I24iO  the  dumination  of  the  ilol}' 
Ghost  is  to  replace  H.  In  the  forty-second  generation  tliere  will 
be  a  puliation  which  will  separate  the  wheat  from  the  chaff — sucb 
tribulations  as  wan  has  never  yet  endured :  fortunately  they  will 
be  short,  or  all  flesh  would  porisli  utterly.  After  this,  religion 
will  be  renewed ;  man  will  live  in  j)oace  and  justice  and  joy.  as  in 
tho  Sabbath  wluch  closed  the  hibors  of  creation ;  all  shall  know 
God,  from  sea  to  sea,  to  the  iitniutit  conilncH  of  the  earth,  and  the 
glory  of  the  Holy  Ghost  shall  bo  perfeoL  In  that  final  abundance 
of  spiritual  grace  tho  observances  of  religion  will  be  no  longer 


.  *  Concil.  Lat«nin.  IT.  c.  3.— Tlu-incr  Monumont  Slnvor.  Horidional.  L  03. — 
lib.  1.  Sexki,  1,  a  (Gap.  ZJumfldmtu).  ~  Wadding,  luin,  1396,  Mo.  8,  9.  — Snlim- 
b«nc  Clirnn.  p.  lOS. 

Nevljhnlf  ft  ecatury  Lnt4.TTliomiiaAquiniis  still  considered  Joncliim's  vpccu- 
Utioni  on  tlie  Trinity  worthy  nr  elnborkte  rct^iCutiuu,  and  ocar  Ute  clow  of  Uia 
foorteenlh  ccatdr/  Gfiacricb  rcproduoes  the  wliole  cotitrorersy. — I>irccL  InquU 
•it.  pp.  4-0,  15-17. 


J 


L 


JOACUIUD   THIKU    ERA. 

nqobute.  As  the  paschal  Umb  waj  superseded  by  the  Kucharist, 
io  the  ncrifioe  of  the  altar  wiil  becume  superQuous.  A  netr  mo- 
Bttfltic  Order  is  to  arise  which  will  uonvert  tho  world ;  oontempta- 
ure  m'.marJi)tiin  is  iho  highest  development  of  numanity,  and  Uu 
world  will  become,  as  it  were,  one  vaat  monastery.* 

In  this  scheme  of  the  faturc  cloTiitioa  of  man,  Joachim  reco^- 

niaed  fully  the  evils  of  liis  time.     The  Church  he  describes  as 

thurooghly  giren  oror  to  avarice  and  grsod;  wholly  ahandoDed 

to  ihe  lusts  of  the  fleehf  it  sc>;lects  its  ohiUhvu,  who  are  carried 

off  by  u^uiis  benjlitis.    The  C^hurch  of  the  Sfounc)  state,  he  says, 

is  Ilagar,  but  that,  of  the  third  state  will  be  Soroh.     With  endless 

amplitude  he  iilustmtes  the  progressive  character  of  the  relations 

betwesn  God  ami  man  in  tho  8Uoces«ve  eras.    Tho  first  state, 

■nder  God,  was  of  the  circumcisioo ;  the  seooad,  under  Christ,  is 

of  the  crucifixion ;  the  third,  under  the  Holy  Ghost,  will  be  of 

qaietnde  and  peace.    L'nder  the  Unit  was  the  order  of  the  mnrncd  ; 

Doder  (be second,  ihat  of  the  priesthood;  under  the  third  wdl  be 

lha(  0/  monachism,  which  has  already  had  its  precursor  in  St.  Ren- 

edict.    The  first  was  tho  reign  of  Saul,  the  second  that  of  David, 

tho  third  will  be  that  of  Solomon  enjoying  tho  picnitudo  of  peace. 

In  tho  first,  man  wn^  under  the  law,  in  the  second  under  gmcc,  iu 

the  third  he  iviU  be  under  ampler  grace.    The  people  of  the  first 

stale  arc  synibolizod  by  Zacbariah  the  jH-iest,  th<%o  of  tho  eooond 

by  John  the  Baptist,  those  of  the  third  by  Christ  himself!    In  the 

fint  state  there  was  knowledge,  in  the  second  piety,  in  the  third 

will  1k5  plenitude  of  knowledge;  the  first  stat«  was  servitude,  the 

Kcood  was  filial  obodienoe,  the  third  will  1)e  lilrarty;  the  first  state 

Tas  pasBod  in  scourging,  the  second  in  action,  the  third  m-lU  be  in 

floatemplation ;  the  first  was  in  fear,  the  second  in  faith,  the  third 

will  be  in  love  ;  the  first  wjia  of  slaves,  tho  second  of  freemen,  the 

third  will  be  of  friends;  the  first  was  of  old  men,  the  second  of 

ymiths,  the  third  will  be  of  children ;  the  first  was  starhgbt,  the 

KCoad  dawn,  the  third  will  be  perfect  day ;  the  first  was  winter, 

Ui«  secsond  opening  spring,  the  thirfl  will  bo  Hiimmer;  the  first 

lirmight  forth  nettles,  the  second  roses,  the  third  will  bear  lilies; 

*  Jaactiimi  Coacordia  Lib.  IV.  c  31,  34,  88;  Lib.  v.  c.  58.  63,  65,  67,  66,  74, 
HWI.  119. 

JiMcbin  wu  h«l(l  to  bsv«  pre(Lct«<]  tho  riw  of  th«  Hrotlicuiti  (t.  43),  bet 
tiii  MiUcipations  looked  wbollf  to  cooMi&platiTe  numachum. 


16 


THE   SPIRITUAL    FHANC18CANS. 


the  first  was  grafls,  the  second  grain  in  the  ear,  the  third  will  bo 
the  ripened  wheat ;  the  firet  was  water,  the  second  wine,  the  third 
will  be  oil.  Finally,  the  first  belongs  to  the  Father,  creator  of  all 
things,  the  second  to  the  Son,  who  assumed  our  mortal  clay,  the 
third  will  belong  to  the  pure  Holy  Spirit.* 

It  is  a  very  curious  fact  that  while  Joachim's  mrtaphysical 
subtleties  respecting  the  TriBity  were  ostentatiously  condemned 
as  a  dangerous  herosy,  no  one  Boems  at  the  time  to  have  recognizeil 
the  far  more  i)erilous  conclusions  to  be  drawn  fmm  these  aimca- 
lyptic  reveries.  So  far  from  being  burned  as  heretical,  they  were 
prized  by  popes,  and  Joachim  was  honored  as  a  prophet  until  his 
audacious  imitators  and  followers  developed  the  revolutionary  doc- 
trines to  which  they  necessarily  lc<I.  To  iis,  for  the  moment,  their 
chief  signilicance  lies  in  the  pmuf  which  they  afford  that  the  most 
pious  minds  oonfcased  tliat  Christianity  was  practically  a  failure. 
Mankind  had  scarce  grovm  better  under  the  New  Law.  Vices 
and  passions  were  as  unchecketl  as  they  had  been  before  the  com- 
ing of  the  Kodeemer.  The  Churidi  itself  was  worldly  and  carnal; 
in  place  of  elevating  man  it  had  been  drugged  down  to  his  level ; 
it  had  proved  false  to  its  trust  and  was  the  exemplar  of  evil  rather 
than  the  ])attern  of  good.  To  sucli  men  as  Joachim  it  was  impos- 
sible that  crime  and  misery  should  be  the  ultimate  and  iiTemedi- 
able  condition  of  human  life,  and  yet  tiie  Atonement  had  thus  far 
done  little  to  bring  it  nearer  to  the  ideal.  C'hristiauity,  therefore, 
could  not  be  a  finality  in  man's  existence  upon  earth ;  it  was 
merely  an  intermediate  condition,  to  Iw  followed  by  a  further  de- 
velopment, in  which,  under  the  rule  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  the  law 
of  love,  fruitlessly  inculcated  by  the  gospel,  should  at  last  liecome 
the  dominant  principle,  and  men,  released  from  carnal  pEissions, 


*  Juaohimi  Concordia  lAb,  l  TnoL  11.  e.  6 ;  iv.  35,  26,  33 ;  v.  S,  21,  60,  65, 
66.  84. 

The  CommiiAlon  of  Ans^t  Id  ISSS  by  &  stmincd  interpr«tatioti  of  ft  puMge 
in  tbe  Concordin  {n.  i.  T>  accuKcd  Joncliiin  of  having  justified  thi;  scbisiu  of  tb« 
Greeks  (DoniHc,  Arcliiv  f.  Litt-  u.  K.  18SS.  p.  120).  So  fur  wai  he  from  this 
tbftt  he  ovYvr  lostu  lui  uccosio'a  of  ducryiug  thu  Oriental  Church,  eepcctiilly  for 
the  marriage  of  ita  prioU  (a  ff,,  v.  TO,  72}.  Yet  whe»  he  osAcrtL-d  thiit  .Antichrist 
«SB  alrcad;  horn  in  Rome,  mid  it  was  nhjcctcd  to  hlcn  thnl  Bahjhtn  was  aaeii^cd 
as  tho  ltirth|>liicc,  tie  had  no  Uvaitntion  in  mvihr  thai  Itiimc  wm  tbe  mystical 
Babylon.— Rad.  de  Coggetball  Chroii.  (Bmiqiiot,  XVItl.  76). 


iftoakl  realize  l-he  gkul  promisoa  so  constantly  held  out  before  them 
uid  so  miscmbly  withheld  in  the  performance.  Juachiin  himself 
might  seek  to  evade  these  dettuctions  from  his  premist's,  yet  others 
could  not  fail  to  make  them,  and  nothing  could  be  more  auda- 
eknisiy  gubvereive  of  the  established  spiritual  and  tcmponU  order 
of  the  Charch. 

T«t  for  a  time  his  specalations  attmcted  little  attention  and 
no  animadversion.     It  is  possiblo  that  the  condemnation  of  his 
theory  of  the  Trinity  mity  have  cast  a  shadow  nvrr  hia  <*sej,'<'tical 
works  and  prevented  their  general  dissemination,  but  they  wore 
tnamired  by  kindred  spirite,  and  oopies  of  them  wore  carried  into 
nuious  lands  and  carefully  preserved.    Curiously  enough,  the  first 
response  which  they  elicited  was  from  the  bold  heretics  known 
■8  the  Amauriana,  whoso  rutldL-ss  suppruRsion  in  Paris,  about  the 
Tear  1210,  we  have  already  considered.     Among  their  errors  was 
enumerated  that  of  the  three  Eras,  which  whs  evidently  derived 
from  Joatihim,  with  the  dilTurLMicf;  that  the  third  Kra  had  already 
comineneed.    The  power  of  the  Father  only  lasted  under  the  Mo- 
saic T,aw ;  with  the  advent  of  Christ  nil  the  sacraments  of  the  Old 
Ttttaiaent  were  sui)erseiled.    The  reign  of  Christ  has  lasted  till 
Ihe  present  time,  but  now  commeneee  the  sovereignty  of  the  Holy 
Ghost ;  the  sacraments  of  the  New  Testament — luiptism,  the  Gn< 
dkarist,  penitence,  and  the  rest — are  obsolete  and  to  be  discarded, 
ud  the  jKJwnr  of  the  ilnly  (rhiist  will  operate  through  the  pep- 
sons  in  whom  it  !s  incarnated.    The  Amauriuns.  as  we  have  seen, 
pmm]«ly  disappeared,  and  the  deri\'ative  sects — ^the  OrtlilKjnsea, 
ud  the  Urethren  of  the  Free  Spirit— seem  to  have  omitted  this 
feature  of  the  heresy.    At  all  events,  we  hear  nothing  more  of  it 
in  that  quarter.* 

(-iraiiually.  however,  the  writings  of  Joachim  obtainbd  currency, 
ind  with  the  ascription  to  him  of  the  false  prophecies  which  ap- 
peared towards  the  middle  of  the  century  his  name  became  more 
widely  known  and  of  greater  authority.  In  Provence  and  Ijin- 
gncdoc,  oepecially,  his  teachings  found  eager  reception.  Harried 
soooesfiively  by  the  cnisiides  and  the  Inqxiisition,  and  scarce  as 
yet  fairly  reunited  with  the  Church,  those  regions  furnished  an 


*  Rignrd.  de  0«st.  Pbil.  Aug.  onn.  1£10.— Guillel.  Xugiuc.  vm.  1210.— Obut. 
BcittCTh.  diat.  r.  c.  xxii. 

m.— a 


IS 


THE   SPIRITUAL  FRANCISCANS. 


ample  harvest  of  earnost  minds  which  might  well  seek  in  the 
hopwi-for  »|>e«iy  realization  of  Joachim's  droama  coni]>ensatian  for 
the  miBerii-'H  of  the  preaout.  Nor  did  those  dreams  hu:k  an  uposlle 
of  unqiiestionahle  orthodoxy.  ]Iugiies  de  Dip^ne,  a  hermit  of 
IlTores,  had  a  wide  reputation  forleamiug,  eloquence,  and  sauctily. 
IIo  liiLd  been  Franciscan  Provincinl  of  Provonee,  but  hail  laid  down 
that  dimity  to  gratifi'  his  {HisRion  for  aust43rity,  unil  his  sister, 
8t.  Doucehne,  lived  in  a  succession  of  ecstasies  in  which  she  was 
Hftod  from  the  groand.  IXupies  was  intimate  with  the  loaUing 
men  nf  the  Order;  Aicsandor  Halwi,  Adam  de  Mariscu,  and  Llio 
genei-al,  John  of  Tarma,  are  named  as  among  his  close  friends. 
With  the  latter,  especially,  he  had  the  c<immon  bond  thnt  both 
were  earnest  JotichiteH.  He  possosHud  all  the  u'orks  of  .Joachim, 
genuine  and  spurious,  be  had  the  utmost  contldoneo  in  their  proph- 
ecies, which  ho  regarded  as  divine  iuspiration,  and  he  did  muck 
to  extend  the  krujwledipo  of  them,  which  was  not  difficult,  aa  he 
himself  had  the  reputation  of  a  pwphet.* 

/  The  Spiritual  section  of  the  Franciscans  was  rapidly  bocoaaing 
leavened  with  these  idpoa.  To  minds  inclined  to  nnsticiiim,  tillod 
with  unrest,  dissatisKed  with  the  existing*  uulultjlmetit  uf  their 
ideal,  and  longing  earnestly  for  its  realization,  there  might  well 
be  an  irresistible  fascination  in  the  promises  of  the  Calabrian  ab- 
bot, of  which  the  term  was  now  so  rapidly  approaching.  If  those 
Joachitic  Franciscans  <levolop«l  the  ideas  of  their  teacher  with 
greater  boldness  and  detinitenoss,  their  ardor  had  ample  excuse. 
They  were  living  wiLnL'sseJS  of  tliu  mural  failure  of  an  effort  from 
which  everything  hail  Iweii  expected  for  thn  ivgenenition  of  hu- 
manity. They  hu<l  seen  how  the  saintly  teachings  of  Francis 
anti  tlie  now  revelation  of  which  he  had  henn  the  medium  wore 
perverted,  by  worMly  men  to  purpoaes  of  ambition  and  greed ; 
liow  the  Order,  which  should  have  been  the  germ  of  hunmn  re- 
demption, was  growing  more  and  more  carnal,  and  how  lu:  saints 
were  martyre*!  by  their  fellows.  Unless  the  universe  were  a  fail- 
ure, and  the  jiromLses  of  <;iod  were  lies,  there  must  bo  a  term  to 


"  Salltnlicnc  Climn.  pp.  07-  IW),  IM,  SIS-20.— Cliroa.  Glusbergcr  anii.  13W. 
— Vie  tie  Donceline  (Mtyer,  Hecucil  cl'nncipn*  Toxica,  jip,  I4'^-I0). 

Salimhonc,  in  ennnKntlDj;  tlic  special  inUniftteB  of  Jolm  of  Purina,  cliaracter^ 
izM  Kvcial  itf  tliem  ta  "grwt  Jonc)iiU»." 


H 


THE   JOACHITES. 


19 


komui  wickedness ;  and  as  tho  Goepel  of  Christ  and  the  Kule  of 
Amois  had  not  nccomplishud  tiiL^  galvation  of  mankiml,  a  new 
fiMqwl  wiis  indispensuhte.  Besules,  J<Mic)iim  hod  pn^tictoH  that 
there  would  arise  a  new  religious  Order  which  would  rule  the 
irarld  and  ihn  Church  in  the  halcyon  age  uf  the  Uuly  Ghost. 
They  ooald  not  doubt  ihat  this  referred  to  the  Franciwans  as  rep- 
resented by  tlie  Spiritoal  group,  which  was  striving  to  uphold  io 
»il  its  strictness  the  Rule  of  the  voneratod  founder.* 

Such,  wo  may  jiresumc,  were  thci  idona  which  won*  tmuhling 

the  hearts  of  the  earnest  Spirituals  ob  they  pondered  over  the 

prophecies  of  Joachim.     In  their  exaltation  many  of  tlieni  were 

tbemsetVQB  g-iven  to  ecaUisiee  and  visions  full  of  prophetic  insight. 

Pronunent  morobers  of  the  Order  had  ojieiUy  embrRced  the  Joa- 

chitic  doctrines,  and  his  prophecies,  genuine  and  Bpurioiu,  were 

applied  to  all  ovcnts  as  tboy  occurred.     In  l*i4N  Saliinbeiie,  the 

chronicler,  who  was  aJrcady  a  worm  believer,  met  ai  the  Francis- 

cui  convent  of  Trovins  (L'liamiiogne)  two  ardent  condisciples, 

Gbenrdu  da  Ikirgo  Han  Donnino  and  llartnlommco  (rhisrolo  of 

Puma.    St.  Louis  wqa  just  setting  forth  on  his  ill-starred  Kgyp- 

tiaa  crosade.    The  Joochitcs  had  recourse  to  the  pseudo-Joachim 

oa  Jeremiah^and  foretold  that  the  exi)edilton  would  be  a  failure, 

that  the  king  would  be  tiken  prisoner,  and  that  pestilence  would 

decimate  the  host.    This  was  not  cnloulatod  to  render  them  popu- 

lu",  the  peace  of  the  good  brethren  was  sadly  broken  by  quarrels, 

tod  the  Jottchites  found  it  advisable  t<i  dnparl.     Saliiiibeno  went 

lo  Auxerre.  Gliiscolo  to  Sens,  and  Gherardo  to  Paris,  where  his 

teaming  secured  for  him  admieeion  to  the  university  as  the  repre- 

Nntativeof  Sicily,  niirl  he  oblaineii  »  chair  in  tlieology.    Here  for 

four  years  ho  pursued  his  ajwoalyptio  studics-f 


*  PrntocoIL  CotnmJM.  Anignlfe  (DcDlfle,  Arcblv  fKr  Litt«ratur-  und  ElrcIivD- 
(tKhVbw,  1655,  pp.  111-13). 

t  Bial,  Tril)nl«l,  {ah\  sup,  pp.  178-91,— Sal! ra bene,  pp.  103,  333. 

Accofvlin^  to  tlic  Fsegpsia  of  the  JoaclillcB.  Fwnlcric  II.  wna  to  nltnin  tlie  nge 
of  •neuly.  Whpn  he  tited,  in  1250,  Saliialiene  r-^fused  lo  bvlieve  it,  aud  remained 
boednlnns  nnlil  InnM«»t  IV.,  in  his  Iritimiilinl  progress  rrom  I^yons,  came  Io 
P'Hnni,  neurlf  un  month!)  nnvrn'&rds,  nnd  cioiiung«d  coDgnluUtlons  upon  It 
StUmbeno  wi»s  pivscat,  nnd  Prd  GWrardiiio  of  Parma  tiinicd  to  him  iind  Bsitt, 
■Ton  know  it  now;  le»»e  your  Joacbiia  «ud  apply  your»elf  to  wisdom  "  (lb.  pp. 
JW.  287). 


so  THB    SPIRITUAL   PR  A  KC  ISC  AS  9. 

Suddenly,  in  1254,  Paris  was  startled  with  the  appearance  of  a 
book  under  the  title  of  "  The  Everlasting  Gospel " — a  name  derived 
from  the  A|K>culypse-  -"  And  I  saw  another  angel  fly  in  the  midst 
of  heaven,  liaving  the  everlasting  gu8i>el  to  preaeh  unto  them  that 
dwell  on  the  eiirtJi,and  to  every  nation,  and  kindreii.  and  tongue, 
and  people  "  (Uev.  iiv.  6).  It  consisted  of  Joachim's  three  un- 
doubted works,  with  explanatory  glosses,  prece<led  by  a  long  In- 
troduction, in  which  the  hardy  author  devclo])od  the  idejis  of  the 
prophet  audaciously  and  uncompromisingly.  The  daring  vent- 
m-e  bad  an  immediate  and  immense  ^>opuIar  success,  which  shows 
how  profoundly  the  conviction  which  prumptod  it  was  shared 
among  all  classes.  The  rhymes  of  Jean  de  Meung  indicate  that 
the  dL-mand  for  it  came  fn)m  lim  laiiy  rather  than  the  clergy,  and 
that  it  was  souglit  by  women  as  well  a&  by  men — 

"  Un^  Hvro  de  par  Ic  gmot  di&blo 
Dit  l'Cru]|;ilc  pardiintMe  ,  . . 
A  Paris  n'eiist  home  nc  ffinie 
Au  partis  devaut  Nostrc-Uame 
Qui  lure  avoir  no  Ic  pf  iiit 
A  traascrire,  s'il  II  pICusL"  * 

Nothing  more  revolutionary  in  spirit,  more  subversive  of  the 
eatablishwl  order  of  the  Church,  can  be  conceived  than  the  asser- 
tions which  thus  aroused  popular  sympathy  and  applause.  Joa^ 
ohim's  computations  were  accepted,  and  it  was  assuzoed  absolute- 
ly that  in  six  years,  in  12fi0,  the  reign  of  Chriat  would  end  and 
the  reign  of  the  Holy  Ghost  begin.  Already,  in  I2uO,  the  spirit 
of  life  had  abandoned  the  Old  and  New  Testaments  iu  order  to 
give  place  to  the  Everlasting  Gospel,  consisting  of  the  Concordia, 


"  Reniui,  Noiivelles  £(udc6,  p.  2flfl. 

Joachim  had  alreaily  iue<l  tliv  t«nii  ErcHaMtitig  Outpcl  to  desixnate  the 
spiritual  interpretation  of  the  EvangeliMii,  which  was  tirnccrorth  tn  rule  the 
world.  Hill  disciple  naturally  considorcd  Joachim's  commcntiiries  to  be  Uili 
spiritual  iiitcrprctntton,  and  that  thejr  cooatitutcd  the  Everlasting  Uospel  to 
which  ho  funiishcd  a  Olon  aod  UitroductioD.  The  Franciscaai  were  uvccasurily 
tliecontpcnplntive  Order  intruatcd  with  ita  dissemination.  (See  Dcnifle,  Arclitv 
fur  Lltteratur-  etc.,  1683.  pp.  &4-(Sd,  01.)  According  to  Dtuiile  (pp.  07-70)  the 
publicatioD  of  Glicrardo  conwuted  only  of  the  Introduetiop  and  th«  Conconlia, 
The  Apocal/pse  and  the  Dccacbordun  were  to  foUuw.bttt  the  veaturMome  en- 
terprisc  was  cut  ahort. 


THE    EVERLASTING    QOSPBL. 


SI 


the  Expositio,  and  the  Decachordon — the  dcrolopment  and  spir- 
itn&lizaCion  of  &U  tliat  hail  pi'cceded  it.  Eron  as  Jonchim  had 
dwelt  on  the  lUicending  scale  of  tho  Lhroo  Enut,  so  the  author 
of  the  Introduction  characterized  the  progressive  methods  of  the 
three  Scriptures.  The  Old  Testament  is  the  firet  hearen,  the 
New  Testament  the  second  heaven,  the  Everlasting  Gospel  the 
third  heaven.  The  first  is  like  the  light  of  the  stars,  the  second 
like  that  of  the  moon,  and  the  third  like  that  of  the  sim ;  the  first 
IS  the  [Kirch,  the  sewmd  the  holy  place,  and  the  thini  the  Holy  of 
Holies;  the  first  is  the  rind,  the  second  tho  nut,  tlio  third  tho  ker- 
nel; the  first  is  earth. the  second  water, tho  third  fire;  the  first 
Ls  literal,  the  second  spiritual,  and  the  thinl  is  the  law  promisoil  in 
Jeremiah  XTxt.  The  preaching  and  dissemination  of  this  supremo 
and  eternal  law  of  God  is  committed  to  the  barefooted  Order  (tho 
Franciscans).  At  the  tlirenhold  of  the  Old  Iaw  were  three  men, 
Abraham.  Isaac,  and  Jacob:  at  that  of  the  New  Ijlw  were  three 
others,  Zachariah,  John  the  Baptist,  and  Christ :  and  at  that  of 
the  coming  age  are  three-,  tho  man  in  linen  (Joachim),  the  Angel 
with  the  sharp  sickle,  and  the  Angel  with  tho  sign  of  the  living  God 
(Francis).  In  tho  blessed  coming  reign  of  the  Holy  Ghost  men 
will  live  under  the  law  of  love,  a6  in  the  first  Era  they  lived  in  fear, 
and  in  the  second  in  grace.  Joachim  had  argueil  against  tho  oon- 
tinoance  of  the  sacraments;  Gheranlo  regarded  them  as  symbols 
and  enigmas,  from  which  man  would  l>o  liberated  in  the  time  to 
come,  for  love  would  replace  all  the  observances  founded  u|>on  the 
noond  Disiwnsation.  Thin  was  destructive  of  the  whole  siicenlo- 
tal  lystcm,  which  was  to  be  swept  away  and  relegated  to  the  limlx) 
of  the  forgotten  past ;  and  scarno  loss  revolutionary  was  Iub  bold 
detUration  that  tho  Almmination  of  Desolation  would  be  a  ]w)pc 
tainted  with  simony,  who,  towards  the  end  of  the  sixth  ago,  now 
&t  hand,  would  obtain  the  papacy.* 


*  Pratocot  Coniniiwi.  An&gniie  (H.  Drnille  ArcUiy  fUr  Lilt-  ate.,  1885,  pp. 
•9-lW,  IW.  IM,  185-e). 

It  Kpiitran  to  me  tlmt  PaOicr  Dcnifle's  IxtiorioaH  rCMBrcb  bu  sulliciently 
pnw?d  tbkt  the  ermra  commonly  lucrllii'd  to  thn  ErvrlKSting  Goapcl  (U'Argentrt 
I  L  1((9~5 ;  Efmeric.  X>u«ct.  Inq.  I*,  ii.  Q.  9 ;  UcnnaDn.  Korneri  CUroii.  ap. 
Ceeud.  Corp.  tlUt  Mod.  Mvi.  U.  849~SI)  arc  the  Btronf;lj  partisan  ftccttwtinns 
wtt  to  Bome  by  VTilHuD  of  St.  Araour  (ulii  sap.  pp.  70-86)  which  have  led  to 


33 


THE   fiPlRITCAL    KUANClSCASa 


Tho  authorship  of  this  bold  challenge  to  on  infaiiiblc  Church 
WR8  long  attributed  to  John  of  I'arina  himself,  but  there  would 
Beem  little  doubt  tliat  it  was  tho  work  of  Ghorardo — the  outcome 
of  bis  studim  and  roverioR  during  the  four  years  spent  in  Uie  Uni- 
versity of  Paris,  although  John  of  Parma  possibly  bad  a  hand  in 
it.  (■ertainly,  as  Tocco  well  points  out.  he  at  least  sympathiaed 
trith  it,  fur  be  never  punished  tho  author,  in  spite  of  Ibe  Hmudal 
which  it  bpongbt  upon  the  Order,  and  Bernard  Gui  tells  us  that  at 
the  time  it  was  commonly  ascribed  to  him.  1  have  already  re- 
lat^Mi  with  what  jfty  William  of  Saint  Amour  seized  upon  it  in  tho 
ipiarrel  between  Che  tJnivoi'sity  and  tlie  Mendicant.^,  and  tlic  ad- 
vantage it  momentarily  gave  tho  former.  Under  existing  circum- 
Btunces  it  could  have  no  friends  or  defondcra.  It  was  too  reckless 
an  onslaught  on  all  existing  institutions,  temiwral  and  spirituaL 
The  only  thing  to  bo  done  with  it  was  to  suppress  it  as  quietly  at 
potwible.  Consideration  for  the  »auciscan  Order  demanded  Ibis, 
as  well  as  tho  pru<lonro  which  counscllod  tliat  attention  sliould 
not  be  undoly  called  to  it.  although  hundreds  of  victims  had  been 
burned  for  liei-esies  far  less  dangerous.  The  commission  which  sal 
at  Anagni  in  July,  1255,  for  ita  condemnation  had  a  task  over 
which  there  could  be  no  debate,  but  1  have  already  pointed  out 
the  contrast  between  the  reserve  witli  which  it  was  suppressed  and 
the  vindictive  clamor  with  which  ISaint  Amour's  book  ag^nst 
tho  Mondioants  was  ordered  to  be  burned.* 

'  ■  'i        ,■■  ■■..  I  I 


eXKftgcnted  misconceptiont  of  iu  rcbeUiouk  teodencieB.  Futliur  Dcnillo,  how- 
ever, procpeds  to  sUt«  that  the  tx'»ult  of  tlio  commiBsion  of  Anugui  (Jul jr.  1333) 
vna  mctv\y  tlic  contlcmnation  of  Uic  views  of  Ghcrardo,  and  tLat  tbc  works  of 
•I'lnchiin  [t-xccpt  hh  tract  agaiust  F^ter  Lomliorcl)  have  tii^rer  been  condoinned 
l)>-  the  Ctiurcb,  Yet  wlicii  tbo  usaggerattona  of  William  of  St.  Amour  tir« 
tlirtiwn  UrAiic.  there  is  in  reality  little  la  principle  Co  iliBtiu^iiiNli  Jonchim  frum 
Ghcmrdo;  »ntl  ifLhu  ruTiiiir  watoot  coDdei<iT!i.'d  it  wiui  not  the  fuultof  the  Com- 
mtHMflii  of  Anngni,  winch  climaed  both  together  and  ciK^rgclictillv  cndcarorrd  to 
prov*  Jodchio]  a  liUBtic,  even  to  sbowui;;  tbnt  b«  uurer  abandoned  liia  herttj  on 
the  Trinily  fubi  cup,  |i[>.  l37-tl(, 

'  Yet  if  tliuro  w:ia  liittc  difTcrenec  in  the  letter,  tliero  waa  n  marked  divergence 
in  spirit  hetwijcn  Jciiichiiu  and  his  com  men  tutor — tlie  former  being  cotuirucliva 
ODd  tho  latter  destmoclvo  as  regards  tbc  cxbting  Cliurcb.  ticc  Tocco,  Archivio 
Storioo  llaliwo,  198C. 

■  HaU.  Parii  iDD.  ISSG  (Ed.  16M,  p.  fl8S>.— Suliuibene,  p.  103.— Bern.  Guidon. 


J 


REaiOXATlON    OF   JOHN   OF   PARMA.  23 

The  Spiritual  section  of  Ihe  Franciscans  was  faeallv  compro  \ 
iiii9ed.and  the  worldly  pnrty,  which  lisxl  impaCientty  bomp  the 
strict  rule  of  John  of  I'ariiin,  snw  its  upportuaity  of  gaiain^  tho  ' 
MccndeoCT.     L(h1  by  Bcrnanlo  da  Uohsu,  Lho  (»m(iAnion  of  Bona- 
ronlura.  formal  articles  of  iiccusation  were  presented  to  Aloxander 
IV'.  mgajnst  tho  ^nerai.     He  was  accused  of  hatoning  to  no  ex- 
plaimtions  of  the  Kulu  and  Tcetoniant,  holding  that  the  phviie^cs 
ftDd  declarations  of  tbo  popes  were  of  no  moment  in  coro|iansoD. 
It  was  n<il  liinted  that  ho  wm  implicnt^Hl  in  the  Kvertastinjc:  Gos- 
pel, but  il  was  alleged  that  ho  pretended  to  enjoy  the  spirit  of 
propfaecy  luid  that  he  predicted  a  tUvision  of  Uie  Order  butweca 
tfacMe  who  procured  papal  relaxations  and  those  who  adhered  to 
the  Bale,  ibe  latter  of  tvUutn  wuuld  lluuhsh  under  the  dew  of 
bfltreo  and  the  benaLictifin  of  Uod.     Moreover,  he  was  not  ortho- 
4uL,bat  defend«l  the  errors  of  Joachim  coneeming  Uio  Trinity, 
and  his  immediate  comrades  had  not  hesitated,  in  sermons  and 
traotA,  to  praJRO  JotLrtiim  immoderately  and  to  a^Kail  tho  leuiling 
OND  of  the  Order.     In  this,  as  in  the  rest  of  the  proceedinga,  the 
tfudied  silence  ]>re8erved  as  to  the  Everlasting'  Uospel  shows  how 
dangerous  was  the  subject,  and  how  even  tho  ticroe  paasions  of  the 
strife  shmnk  from  compromising  the  Order  by  admitting  that  any 

U  its  mtODbens  were  responsible  for  that  incendiary  production.'^  • 

— —    --  I 

VlL  ALti.  PP.  IV.  (Murmtori  3.  R.  L  III.  l  51IS).  Cf.  Anmlr.  Anger.  Vit.  Alex.  PP. 
IV.  m>.  m.  a  404). 

For  iht  auilioTstitp  of  the  Everlutini*  Gospel,  ice  Tocco,  VTtiTcsh  eel  tkredlo 
Km,  pp.  473-i.  ftnd  his  review  nrDenine  xiid  H«upt,  Archivjo  Storico  Ittliauo, 
UH;  Bioui.pp.  S48.  377;  and  Deoiflo,  abi  Kup.  pp.  37-8. 

Ou  of  Um  tceuMtioui  ttrougbt  sgainat  William  of  Saint  Anujur  was  tlisl  be 
CMDplsinvd  of  the  deUy  in  conilcinmiijj  Ltic  Evcrliw>titig  Goffpol,  to  wlitch  be  rc- 
pIM  with  an  Bllusioa  to  the  influence  of  those  nha  defended  the  crrnni  of 
}atictiim. — Ddpin.  Bib.  dcs  .\iitpupi  f'.<rclca.  T.  X,  rh.  vii. 

Ttiomivt  nf  Cnntimprl!  assures  u»  that  8a(nt  Amour  would  haTc  vion  the  dn; 
■SiiBit  the  Mendicant  Orden  hat  for  th«  lettmlng  and  eloquence  of  Albertos 
IbfnuL— BaBum  llniTermlfi,  Lib.  d.  c  It. 

*  Waddmir.  ann,  Itm.  Ko.  a.— AflQ  (Lib.  n.  a  Iv.)  irgnn  that  John  of  Parma's 
■iifbttion  WAS  wbolW  spontaneous,  that  th«r«  were  no  arenutlonii  afrainst  him, 
ud  Uial  both  Ibc  pupo  aud  the  KraDciacaiis  were  with  difficulty  perBnadod  to  let 
Ura  retire.  ITc  quotes  Salimhcne  (CI>roiiir»  p.  187)  as  to  th«  ri'luctanrv  of  the 
ihiptcr  to  accept  hie  nsigoation.  but  does  not  nllutle  to  the  aitnirtion  nf  the  anme 
Mkoritr  '^"t  Jnhn  was  ohnmions  to  Alesand^r  and  to  manr  of  the  minitten 
of  the  Order  bj  reason  of  his  too  zealoos  U'llvf  in  Jtyachim  (lb.  p.  Hi), 


24 


TBS   aPIRITTTiL   FR ANCISCAUS. 


Alexander  was  &asi\y  persuade*!,  and  a  general  chapter  was 
held  in  tlie  Aracoeli,  February  2, 1257,  over  which  lie  personally 
prcfiidml.  John  of  Parma  was  warned  to  resign,  and  did  so, 
pleading  ago,  weariness,  and  disability.  After  a  decent  show  of 
resistance  his  resignation  was  accepted  and  he  was  asked  to  nom- 
inat«  a  successor.  His  choice  fell  upon  iionarentura.  then  only 
/thirty-four  years  of  age,  whose  participation  in  tlie  struggle  with 
1  the  University  of  Paris  had  marked  him  as  the  most  promising 
man  in  the  Order,  while  lie  was  not  identified  with  either  factioa. 
Tie  was  duly  elected,  and  the  leaders  of  the  raovomcnt  requircMl 
him  to  proceed  against  John  and  his  adherent^s.  Hunaventura  for 
a  while  hesitated,  but  at  length  consented.  Gherardo  refused  to 
recant,  and  IJoniivcntura  sent  for  liini  to  come  to  Paris.  In  pass- 
ing through  Modena  he  met  Sidiinbeuo,  who  had  cowered  before 
the  stomi  and  had  renounced  Joacliitism  as  a  folly.  The  two 
friends  had  a  long  colloquy,  in  which  Oherardo  oftered  to  prove 
that  Antichrist  was  alroatly  at  Iiand  in  tTie  person  of  Aionso  the 
Wise  of  Castile.  He  was  learned,  pure-minded,  tem])crate,  modest, 
amiable — in  a  word,  a  most  admirable  and  lovable  character ;  but 
nothing  could  wean  bim  from  his  Joachitic  convictions,  though  in 
his  trial  discreet  silence,  as  usual,  was  observtHl  about  the  Everlast- 
ing Gospel,  and  he  was  condemnwl  as  an  upholder  of  Joachim*s 
Trinitoii-ian  s])eculations.  Had  ho  not  been  a  Fninciscan  he  would 
have  been  burned.  It  was  a  doubtful  mercy  which  consigned  him 
to  a  dungeon  in  chains  nn*l  fed  him  on  bread  and  ivatcr  for  eigh- 
teen years,  until  his  weary  hfe  came  to  an  end.  He  never  wavered 
to  the  last,  and  his  remains  were  thrust  into  a  comer  of  the  gar- 
den of  the  convent  where  he  died.  The  same  fat«  awaited  his 
comrade  Leonardo,  and  also  another  friar  named  Piero  do'  Nubili, 
who  refused  to  surrender  a  tract  uf  John  of  Parma's.* 


•  ffojliiing.  Ann.  I25fl,  No.  3-5.— Salimbcne,  pp.  103,  335-^.— Hi>ct  Tribulat. 
(Archiv  fUr  L.  u.  K.  1888,  p.  385).— Although  Soliiubcnc  prucloatly  abandoned 
Joncliilisin,  lie  niivcr  uutgrcw  liii  belief  in  J<wcli)u)'s  pmpliL'tic  powers.  Many 
yeSTB  later  lie  p'lTea  iw  a  rea.4on  for  flii.ipecting  Uie  ScgnrcllUtii,  ihnt  if  tlify  were 
of  Ood,  Joitclitm  voouU)  tiave  predi<:4«d  them,  ax  be  did  tbe  AleodiciiuU  (lb. 
128-4). 

Tliv  KiUnca  of  tbe  Bistoria  Tribulationuni  with  n»pect  to  tbv  Everlaolin^ 
ao«pcl  U  uoleworthy.  By  common  consent  that  d&ngeroui  work  »e«ii)s  to  be 
ignored  by  nil  [wrtiL-s. 


PERSISTENCE   OP   THE  JOACHITES. 


S5 


Then  John  hinisoir  was  tried  by  a  special  court,  to  preside  over 
which  Aloxandpr  ]ipi>nintwl  Cantiniil  ('Mit^tano,  aftorwanis  Xicho- 
ias  III.  Tbo  accui*o*l  reailily  retracted  liis  advocacv  of  Joachim, 
bat  his  bearing  irritated  the  JudgeB,  and,  with  Itonjivontura'g  eon- 
■ent,  he  wouhl  have  shatvil  the  fate  of  his  a^jsociatcs  but  for  the 
Arenoous  intereession  of  Ottolmni,  Caniinal  of  S.  Adrian,  aftcr- 
wutls  A<lrian  V.  Bonaventura  gave  him  the  option  of  selecting  a 
pimoe  of  rotrent,  and  he  chose  a  tittle  coavcnt  near  Rieti.  There 
he  is  said  to  Iiave  livinl  for  thirty-two  years  the  life  of  an  angel, 
without  aljandoning  his  Joachitic  beliefs.  John  XX  I.,  who  greatly 
k>red  him,  thoaght  of  making  him  a  cardinal  in  1277,  but  was 
prevented  by  death.  Nicliulas  III.,  n-ho  had  presided  at  his  trial, 
a.  few  years  later  offereil  him  the  cardinalato,  so  as  to  be  able  to 
enjoy  hia  advice,  but  he  quietly  answered,  "  I  could  give  whole- 
flome  counsel  if  there  were  any  one  to  listen  to  mo,  hut  in  the 
RooHUi  court  there  is  little  discussed  bat  wars  and  triumphs,  and 
iiol  the  salvation  of  aouU."  In  1289,  however,  notwithstanding 
lits  extreme  age,  he  accepted  from  Nicholas  IV.  a  mission  to  the 
Ore^  Church,  but  he  died  ai  Camerino  soon  after  setting  <iut. 
Baried  tliero,  he  si>ee<lily  shone  in  miracles ;  he  became  the  object 
of  ft  lasting  cult,  and  in  1777  he  was  foi-nmlly  beatified,  in  spite 
of  the  op|M)sition  arising  from  his  allegoit  authorship  of  the  Intro- 
duction to  the  Kverlasting  (tospel.** 

The  ^th  of  the  Joachites  was  by  no  means  broken  by  these 
TCveraat.    William  of  Saint  Amour  thought  it  necessary  to  return 
to  the  charge  with  another  bitter  tract  directed  against  them.    Ue 
■hares  their  bcUef  in  the  impending  change,  but  declares  that  in 
(kce  of  being  the  reign  of  love  under  the  Holy  Ghost,  it  will  be 
the  reign  of  Antichrist,  whom  hr.  idcntiltcB  with  tho  Friars.     Per- 
secution, he  says,  had  put  an  end  to  the  oj>en  defence  of  the  pes- 
lifenHui  doctrine  of  the  Kverlasting  (tospel,  but  it  still  had  many 
believers  in  secret.    The  south  of  Fmnc<;  was  the  hoailquarters  of 
Uie  sect.    Florent,  Itishop  of  Acre,  had  been  the  oltlcial  prosecutor 
before  the  Commission  of  Anagni  in  1255.    He  xvas  rewarded  with 
the  archbishopric  of  Aries  in  12(12,  aiid  in  1205  he  held  a  provin- 


'  VTMlding.  tnn.  1250,  No.  6;  ann.  12S0,  No.  20.— Hist.  Tribiitat.  (loc.  cit. 
p.  885).— fialinobenc  Chmn.  pp.  181-SS,  an.— Tocco.  pp.  47ft-77.— P.  Roclolphii 
Uiit.  Senpli.  RcIIg.  Lib.  i.  ful.  117.— Aflo,  Lib.  ui.  c.  x. 


28 


THE   SPrRITUAL   PRAHCIBCAWa. 


f»al  s\'nwl  with  tho  object  of  condemning  tlie  Joacliit«s,  who  were 
atill  numerouH  in  his  province.  An  i^laboratc  refntation  of  th« 
errors  of  the  Kverlasling  Gospel  was  deemed  necessarv ;  it  was 
deplored  that  many  learniiU  mun  still  snlfni-etl  tticmRidvcti  to  he 
uuBled  l)y  it,  and  that  liuuks  containing  it  wem  writum  and  pu<;prly' 
panned  from  hand  to  hand.  The  anntliema  was  decreed  against 
tbia,  but  no  meufturus  of  active  ]>ersecutiou  aeem  to  have  been 
adopted,  nor  do  vre  hear  of  any  stops  taken  by  tbe  Inquisition  to 
suppress  the  Iioreay.  As  wo  shall  sec  hereafter,  tho  leaven  long 
remained  in  Languedoo  and  Provence,  and  gave  a  decided  itnpi'«» 
to  the  t^piritual  I'lauciscanismof  those  regions.  It  mattered  little 
that  the  hoped-fur  year  12C0  camu  and  ]Kis.'«_>d  away  without  the 
fulfilment  of  tho  prophecy.  Earnest  believers  can  always  liud  ex- 
cuses for  such  errors  in  oompatalion,  and  the  |>onod  of  the  advent 
of  the  Holy  (iliost  could  l«j  put  olT  from  time  to  time,  so  as  alrrays 
to  stimulate  hope  with  the  prospect  of  emancipation  in  the  near 
future.* 


Although  the  removal  of  John  of  Panna  from  the  ip^neralate 
had  been  the  victory  of  the  Conventuals,  the  choice  of  Bonaven- 
tura  might  well  seem  to  give  to  the  Spirituals  a^untnoe  of  eon- 
tinued  supremacy.  In  his  controversy  with  William  of  Saint 
Amour  lie  had  taken  tlie  most  mlvaneed  ground  in  denying  chat 
Christ  and  tho  apostles  hold  property  of  any  kind,  and  In  identify- 
ing poverty  with  |«?rfectiou,  "  Deep  poverty  is  laudable;  this  ia 
true  of  itself:  therefore  deeper  poverty  is  more  laudable,  and  the 
deepest,  the  most  laudable.  Hut  tliis  is  the  poverty  of  him  who 
neither  in  private  nor  in  common  keeps  anything  for  himself.  .  ,  . 
To  renounce  all  things,  in  private  or  in  ooumion.  ia  Clipistian  jier- 
fectton,  not  only  sufliciont  but  abundant:  it  is  the  principal  conn- 
sol  of  evangelical  ])erfection,  its  fundamental  principle  and  soblimo 
foundation."  Not  only  this,  but  ho  was  deeply  imbuetl  with  mys- 
ticism and  was  the  first  to  give  authoritative  cxpresfuon  to  the 
lUuuiinism  which  subsequently  gave  the  Church  so  much  trouble. 


•  Lib.  lie  Anlichristn  P,  i,  r.  x.,  Jtiii..  xiv.  (Martono  Ainpl.  Coll.  IX.  IS73, 
IBtS,  1823-83).— TlioDiw  Aqninal.  OpuBc.  contr*  ImpURii.  Rolip.  c  iiir.  8,  8.— 
Oonca.  Arclalcnm.  unn-  12(10  (1263)  c.  1  (Rftrdiiin.  VH.  K09-ia).— Pisnutt,  U 
Fnuicc  Pontifical)},  MGti-«^>Qle  d'Aix,  p.  ST7.— ]ten.iQ,  p.  334. 


J 


INCnBASlNO  DisconT>. 


27 


His  Myatiea  TKeMogia  Es  in  sharp  contrast  to  the  arid  soholds- 
tic  thpolng^-  of  the  day  as  roprMented  hy  Thomas  Aqtiinas.  The 
soal  is  liruaght  face  to  face  with  Uud :  its  sios  are  to  be  repented 
of  in  the  silent  watches  of  thd  night,  antl  it  ia  to  seek  C4od  tlimngh 
its  own  pfforts.  It  is  nnt  to  look  to  others  for  aid  or  leader- 
ship, hat,  depending  on  itself,  «triTo  for  the  vision  of  the  Wrinc 
Through  this  Path  of  Puliation  it  asocnds  to  the  i'ath  of  lllumi- 
ftatitm,  and  is  prepared  for  the  reception  uf  the  Oivine  liadiiuice. 
p--"  't  reaches  the  Third  Path,  which  lends  to  nnion  with  the 
<"  iitid  particii^tion  in  Divine  Wiwtom.     Molinos  and  Jla- 

dunc  Qnyon  indnlged  in  no  more  dangoroiM  specnlations ;  and 
the  mystic  tendencies  of  the  Spirituals  received  a  powerftd  stiimi- 
los  from  SQch  teadiings.* 

It  was  inevitable  that  the  strife  within  the  Order  hetwoeni 
propenr  and  |>overty  shouW  grow  increasinglv  bittor.  Qucstioosl 
were  constantly  arising  which  showed  the  incompatibility  of  the 
rowsu  laid  down  by  Bt.  Francis  with  the  functions  of  an  organ- 
ization which  had  grown  to  be  one  of  the  leading  factors  of  a 
wftthhy  uml  worldly  Chnroh.  In  1'2S5  we  find  the  sisters  of  the 
motttttery  of  8t.  EUzaU-th  complaining  to  Alexander  IV.  that 
wh?n  prDjiorty  was  given  or  bequeathed  to  thom  the  oceleBiastioa] 
aothoritiea  enforce<l  on  them  the  observanoo  of  the  Kule,  by  com- 
pfllinj  them  to  part  with  It  within  a  year  by  sale  or  gift,  and  the 
[VTpe  graciously  promised  that  no  such  custom  shoulil  be  enforced 
In  futtire.  About  tlie  stime  time  John  of  Parma  complained  that 
when  his  friars  were  pivjmoted  to  the  *-piRnopato  they  carried  away 
with  lliem  iKjoks  and  other  things  of  which  they  had  properly 
only  the  use,  1x;ing  unnblo  U>  own  anything  under  peril  of  their 
snail  Again  Alexander  graciously  replied  that  friars,  on  promo- 
tion, must  deliver  to  the  jirovinoial  everything  which  they  Jiad  in 
their  hands.  Such  troubles  must  Jiave  been  of  almost  daily  occur* 
r^Mc,  and  it  was  inevitJible  that  the  increasing  friction  should 
nsalt  in  schism.  When  the  blessed  Gilio,  the  third  disciple  who 
)W9ed  St.  yraiicis,  was  taken  to  Assisi  to  view  the  splendid  build- 
ing erected  in  honor  of  the  humble  Kranois,  and  was  oafriod 
^rcnigh  three  uiagnificont  churches,  connected  with  a  vast  refec- 


*  S.  DoDftvcnt.  Ac  Pinp.  Cbriali  Art.  i.  Xo.  L,  ii.- 
I^nic  S;  cap.  n.Partic.  1,9;  Cap.tii.  P»rtic.  1. 


-Ejiisd.  3Iyatic.  Tlieol.  cap.  t. 


S8 


THE  SPIRITUAL   PRATfCISCAIffl. 


torv.  a  spacious  dormitory,  and  other  offices  and  cloisters,  adorned ' 
with  lofty  arches  anil  spacious  portals,  ho  kept  silent  until  one  of 
his  guides  presfiwi  liiin  for  an  expression  of  udtuinition.  "  Breth- 
ren," he  then  said,  "  there  is  nothing  lacking  except  your  wives." 
This  seemed  somewhat  irrelevant,  till  he  explained  that  the  vows 
of  poverty  and  chastity  were  equally  hiudiug,  and  now  that  one 
was  set  aside  the  other  might  as  well  follow.  8alimbene  relates 
that  in  the  convent  of  Pisa  he  met  Fru  BoncAmpagno  di  Prato, 
who.  in  place  of  the  two  new  tunirs  per  year  distributed  to  each 
of  the  bi-ethren,  would  only  accept  one  old  one,  and  who  declared 
that  he  could  scarce  satisfy  God  for  taking  that  on©.  Such  exag- 
gerated conscientious  sensitiveness  couM  not  but  be  peculiarly 
exiispcrating  to  the  more  worldly  mumhen*.* 

The  Conventuals  had  lost  no  time  in  securing  the  rcsultfi  of 
their  victory  over  John  of  Panna.  Scarce  had  his  resignation  been 
secured,  and  before  Ronavcntura  could  arrive  from  Paris  they 
obtained  from  Alexander,  February  20,  1257,  a  repetition  of  the 
declaration  of  Innocent  IV.  which  enabled  the  Order  to  handle 
money  and  hold  pro^terty  through  the  transpiirent  device  of  agents 
and  the  lioly  See.  The  disgust  of  the  I*uritan  party  was  great, 
and  even  the  implicit  reverence  prescribed  for  the  papacy  could 
not  prevent  ominous  multcrings  of  disobeitienco,  raising  questions 
as  to  the  extent  of  the  pai)al  power  to  bind  and  to  loose,  which  in 
time  were  to  ripen  into  open  rebellion.  The  Rule  had  been  pro- 
claimed a  revelation  ecjual  in  authority  to  the  go8]>el,  and  it  might 
well  be  asked  whether  even  the  succpssor  of  St.  Peter  could  set  it 
aside.  It  was  probably  about  this  time  that  Bcrthold  of  Ratisbon, 
the  most  celebrated  Pranciscan  preacher  of  his  day,  in  discoui'sing 
to  his  brethren  on  the  monastic  state,  boldly  declared  that  the 
vows  of  poverty,  obwllcnce,  and  chastity  were  so  binding  that 
even  the  pope  could  not  dispense  for  them.  This,  in  fact,  was 
admitted  on  all  sides  as  a  truism.  About  1SJ90  the  Dominican 
Provincial  of  Germany,  Hermann  of  Minden,  in  an  encycHcal,  al- 
ludes to  it  as  a  matter  of  course,  but  in  little  more  than  a  quarter 
of  a  oentury  wo  sliall  see  that  such  utterances  were  treated  as  her- 
esy, and  wore  sternly  suppressed  with  the  stakc.+ 

•  Wndfiing.  Regcst.  Alex.  PP.  IV.  No.  89-41;  Annftl.  ann.  1302,  No.  8S 

Salimbcne,  p.  133. 

t  Wadding,  ftno.  ISW,  Ko.  4;  Rcgwt.  Alex-  PP.  IV.  No.  66.— Bertholdi  a 


s 

J 


BONAVBNTURA'S    EFPOllTa 


20 


BonaTentura.  as  we  have  seen,  honestl^r  sought  to  roetraiD  the 
>wing  laxity  of  tlie  Onler.     Before  leaving  Paris  he  ntldressed^ 
ml  ^3.  1257,  an  oncyolioJil  UHter  to  the  priiviiieials,  calling  their 
attention  to  the  prevalent  vices  of  the  brethren  and  the  contempt 
Uj  vrhich  they  exposed  the  whole  Order.     Again,  stiine  ten  years 
later,  at  the  instance  of  (.'bnicnt  I V'.,  he  issued  another  similar 
epistle,  in  which  he  strongly  expressed  his  horror  at  the  neglect  of 
the  Rule  shown  in  the  shameless  greed  of  so  many  ninmhers,  the 
importunaCe  striving  for  gain,  the  ceaauless  litigation  caused  by 
their  grasping  after  legacies  and  burials,  iind  the  sjilendor  and  lux- 
uy  of  their  buildings.     The  provincialB  were  instructed  to  put 
an  eod  to  tbeso  dtsonlecs  by  ]ibnnno4.>.  iiiiprlsontueni,  or  cxpulsiun  ; 
but  however  earnest  in  his  zeal  Bonaventura  may  have  been,  and 
however  self-denying  in  his  own  life,  he  lacked  the  fiery  energy 
which  enabled  John  of  Pnnna  to  give  effect  to  his  convictions. 
Uow  utter  was  the  prevailing  degeneracy  is  seen  in  the  complaint 
presented  in  l:iti5  to  Clement  IV.,  that  in  many  places  the  eccle- 
Biastical  anthnriiios  held  that  the  friars,  licing  dvati  to  tiie  world, 
were  incapable  of  inheritance.     Keliof  was  pniyed  from  this,  and 
Oletteat  issned  a  boll  declaring  them  competent  to  inherit  and 
ttea  to  hold  their  inheritunucH,  or  to  sell  them,  and  to  use  the  prop- 
erty or  its  price  as  might  to  them  seem  best.* 

The  question  of  poverty  evidently  was  one  incapable  of  per- 


Ititii{»u  SerraoDcs,  H'machU,  1883,  p.  6a  —  K  Denifie,  ArcbiT  fUr  Litt.-  n. 

To  lite  true  Kranriscau  tlio  Rule  and  tl>e  ^qwl  were  one  and  the  Mme.    Ac> 

conliBg  to  Tbotaw  of  Cclonu,  **!!  pc-rfcttu  aiuatorc  Uclt'  OMcrvanza  del  mdu> 

*ugelio  c  Jellft  pnifuwinne  della  noNtni  rcguLi,  die  iion  %  altro  die  pcrfc-lui 

wnrutii  del  vaogolio,  queslo  [Fnuicc&co]  ardenlisdimainenle  amnva,  c  quelli 

dMtoKi  e  ganiino  veri  amatori,  dond  a  cmi  eingidar  bcncdizione.    Vt'rainCDte, 

ficn,<|DMta  nostn  profcssionc  a  quetM  die  In  Kcguilaiin,  c«scr  libra  di  vitn, 

k^nuza  di  Mlate.  am  di  {{loria,  melodis  del  vangelio,  via  di  crvcc,  Btato  <ll 

■'PoMoite,  chi&To  di  paradiso,  e  patto  di  otcrna  pace." — Amoni,  I^egcnda  S.  Fran- 

I'Buci,  A|^  c  xiix. 

•  a  Bonarent.  Opp.  I.  485-«  (Ed.  1594J.— Wadding,  nun.  12«7,  No.  »;  Re- 
gtiLClttii.PP.rV.  No.  1. 

FS*rre  Jnun  Oltvi  slates  tiint  lie  liimMlf  licard  Bonarcntuni  declare  in  a  chap- 
Ia  beld  In  Paris  that  he  ironid,  at  an;  moment,  submit  to  be  ground  to  powder 
if  X  would  taring  ttie  Order  ba/ck  to  the  condition  designed  bj  SU  Fmucis.— 
PruiEbHe.  Archivfilrl*u.  K.  16(*7,  p.617. 


80 


THE  SPIRITUAL  PBAITCrSCAKa 


nanent  and  satisfactory  settlement.  Digsension  in  the  Order 
could  not  bo  healed.  In  vain  Gregory  X.,  ahont  1275.  was  ap- 
pcttktl  to,  and  dot^idud  tliul  Ihv  injunction  uf  Die  i^le  against  tbe 
possession  of  property,  individually  or  in  common,  was  to  be  strict- 
ly observed.  The  worldly  party  continued  to  ]>oint  out  the  in- 
compatibility of  this  with  the  noccMuties  of  human  nature;  they 
dfolared  it  to  be  a  tempting  of  (^od  and  a  suicide  of  tbe  individ- 
ual ;  the  quaiTel  continually  grew  more  bitterly  envenome*!.  and 
In  1279  Nicholas  III.  undertook  to  settle  il  with  a  formal  declara^ 
tion  which  should  forever  close  the  mouibs  of  all  cavillers.  For 
two  months  he  se<'retly  labored  at  it  in  consultation  with  the  two 
Franciscan  cai-dinals,  Palestrina  and  Albano.  tbe  g:eneral.  Bonar 
grazia.  and  some  of  the  provinciiils.  Thi-n  it  was  submitted  to  a 
commission  in  which  was  Benedetto  Oaietano,  afterwards  Boni- 
face VIXI.  Finally  it  ivas  read  and  adopted  in  full  consistory, 
and  it  was  included,  twenty  years  later,  in  tlie  additions  to  the 
canon  law  compiled  and  publluhetl  by  order  of  Boniface.  No  ut- 
terance of  the  Holy  See  could  liave  more  carefnl  consideration 
and  moru  solemn  authority  than  tliu  bull  known  er  £j^iit  f/ui  semi- 
nat..  which  wns  thus  usherod  into  the  world,  and  which  8u]>aequent>- 
ly  beoamo  the  subject  of  such  deadly  controversy.* 

It  declares  tbe  Franciscan  liule  to  be  the  inspiration  of  the 
Uoly  tihost  through  St.  Frauds.  The  renunciation  of  property, 
not  only  individual  but  in  common,  is  mei-itorious  and  holy.  Such 
absolute  renunciation  of  possession  had  been  practised  by  Christ 
and  the  apostles,  and  Imd  l^een  taught  by  them  to  their  disciples; 
it  is  not  only  meritorious  and  ]ierfect,  but  lawful  and  possible,  for 
there  is  a  distinction  l>ot\veon  use,  which  is  permitted,  and  owner- 
ship, whirb  is  rorbi<Idcn.  Following  tbe  oxaniplc  of  Innocent  IV. 
and  Alexander  IV.,  the  pmprietursiiip  of  all  that  the  Franciscans 
use  is  declared  to  be  vested,  now  and  hereafter,  in  the  Roman 
Church  and  pontilf,  which  concede  to  the  friars  the  usufruct 
Uiereof.  The  prohibition  to  receive  and  bandle  money  is  to  be 
enforced,  and  borrowing  is  especially  deprecated  ;  but,  when  neces- 
sity obliges,  this  may  be  effected  tlirougb  third  parties,  although 
the  brethren  must  abstain  from  handling  the  money  or  adminis- 
tering or  expending  iL     As  for  legacies,  they  must  not  be  loft 


■  Lib.  v.  Sexto  xU.  3.~Wad<JJDg.  aoo.  1S7B.  No.  U. 


FRUITLK83    SETTLKM  ENTft 


31 


<iiT«cUr  to  the  fhani.  but  oolj  for  thou-  uso ;  and  miout«  reflations 
are  drawn  up  fur  exchanging  or  selling  books  and  utensils.  The 
boll  ooDclades  vith  instrartions  that  it  is  to  l)C  read  iiiid  taught 
ID  the  achooU,  but  no  one,  uud^r  ))uin  vt  oxcoinmuaication  and 
loss  uf  office  and  benafioe,  shall  do  an^lbing  but  oxpnuod  it  liter- 
ally it  18  not  to  be  gloescd  or  commented  upon,  or  dist  us»ed.  nr 
explained  away.  All  doubt*  and  questions  aliaU  be  submiit^jd  di- 
rectly to  the  ilaly  Heo,  and  any  one  disputing  or  commenting  on 
the  Franciacan.  ICulo  or  the  deJinilions  of  the  bull  shall  undergo 
esoommunication.  ppmovable  only  by  the  pope. 

Had  the  question  be«n  capable  of  permanent  settlement  in  this 

■onsc,  Uiis  solemn  utterance  would  liave  put  an  end  to  further 

iroaMe.    TTnluckily,  human  natnro  did  not  cease  to  be  human 

Mtom  mth  its  pHsaionB  and  necessities,  on  crossing  tlie  threshold 

o(  a  Franciscan  oonvent     Cnlockily,  papal  c-onstitu lions  were  as 

QObwebs  when  they  sought  to  control  the  Jnenidicitble  rices  and 

WMkneas  of  man.     Unluckily,  moreover,  there  were  i-onscienoes 

too  BonsitiTC  to  be  satiidicd  mth  line-drawn  distinctions  and  sub- 

Uelies  ingeniously  devised  to  evade  tlio  truth.    Yet  the  Imll  /'jnU 

fvimiiinai  for  a  while  relieved  tlie  jmpacy  from  further  discus- 

BOD.  nJUinugh  it  could  nut  quiet  the  intestine  diEsens)on.s  of  the 

Order.    There  was  stUl  a  body  of  recalciirants,  not  numerous, 

ii  is  true,  but  emineni  fur  the  piety  and  virtue  of  its  members, 

which  could  not  be  rocuneiletl  by  these  Kubtcrfuges.    'riuwu  rc- 

cdotrants  gradually  formed  themselves  into  two  distinet  IkkIIbb, 

OBo  in  Italy,  and  the  other  in  southern  France.    At  first  there  is 

iitllc  to  distinguish  them  u|Nirt,  and  for  a  lung  while  they  acted 

is  unison,  but  there  gradually  arose  a  dlvergencM}  between  thom, 

vliidi  in  the  end  l>ecame  decisively  marked,  owing  to  the  greater 

nfloeiDce  exercised  in  i.angiiedoc  nnd  I'ruvcnco  by  the  traditions 

^^of  Joachim  and  the  Everlasting  (iospeL 

V  We  have  seen  how  the  thirst  for  ascetic  poverty,  coupled  in 

^_Jluy  cases,  doubtless,  with  tlie  detiire  tu  eBeiL|>e  from  the  twrdid 
^V^^B  of  daily  life,  led  thousands  to  embmee  a  career  of  wander- 
ui|r mendicancy.  SaiabJtes  and  ci.Tctfmt\llum€« — vagrant  monks, 
■■kJBctod  to  no  rule— hail  l>eeu  Hie  curse  of  Ilie  Church  ever  since 
tho  invention  of  cenobitlsm ;  and  the  oxnltHtion  of  [wveily  in  the 
tJurt4:ailh  century  had  given  a  new  impulse  to  the  crowds  who 


J 


33 


THE   8PIRITVA1-   FRANCISCANS. 


preferred  the  idleness  of  the  road  or  of  the  hermitage  to  the  re- 
straints and  labor  of  civilized  existence.  It  wiis  in  rain  that  the 
Lateran  Council  had  prohibited  the  formation  of  new  and  unau- 
thorized Onlers.  The  splendid  8u<.'ce88  of  the  Mendicants  had 
proved  too  alluring,  and  others  were  formed  on  the  same  basis, 
without  the  requisite  preliminary  of  tho  pajwl  approval.  The 
multitudes  of  holy  beggars  were  Itccoming  a  serious  nuisance,  op- 
pressive to  the  jjeople  and  disgraceful  to  the  Church.  When  Gre^ 
ory  X.  summoned  the  General  Council  of  Lyons,  in  1374,  thia  was 
one  of  the  evils  to  be  remedied.  The  Latemn  canon  prohibiting 
the  formation  yf  unauthorised  Orders  was  renewed.  Gregory  pro- 
posed to  suppress  nJl  the  congregations  of  hermits,  but,  at  the  in- 
stance of  Cardinal  fUchard,  the  Carmelites  and  Augustinians  were 
allowed  to  exist  on  suffcranco  until  further  nrdpr,  while  the  au- 
dacity of  other  associations,  not  as  yet  approved,  was  condemned, 
espcciaUy  that  of  the  mendicants,  whose  multitude  was  declared 
to  exceed  idl  bounds.  Huch  mendicant  Orders  tis  had  been  con- 
firmed since  the  Council  of  Lateran  were  permittetl  to  continnc, 
but  they  were  instructed  to  admit  no  new  members,  to  aoqnire  do 
new  houses,  and  nut  to  sell  what  they  posseesed  without  special 
license  from  the  Holy  See.  Kvidently  it  was  felt  that  tho  time 
had  come  for  decisive  meiiaurcs  to  check  the  tide  of  saintly  men- 
dicancy.* 

Stime  vague  and  inoorroct  rumors  of  tliis  legislation  penetrat- 
ing to  Italy,  led  to  an  explosion  which  start^^d  one  of  the  most 
extraordinary  series  of  persecutions  which  the  history  of  human 
perversity  atlords.  On  the  one  liand  there  Is  the  mar\-cU»us  con- 
stancy which  endured  lifelong  martyrdom  for  an  idea  almost  un- 
intelligible to  the  modern  mind;  on  tho  other  there  is  the  seem- 
ingly causeless  ferocity,  which  appears  to  persecute  for  the  mere 
plejisuro  of  persecution,  only  to  be  oxi)lained  by  the  bitterness  of 
the  feuds  existing  within  the  Order,  and  the  savage  detcnuinatiou 
to  enforce  submission  at  every  cost. 

It  was  reported  that  the  Council  of  Lyons  hud  decreed  that 
the  Mendicants  could  hold  property.  Most  of  the  brethren  ac- 
quiesced readily  enough,  but  those  who  regarde<l  the  Rule  as  divine 
revelation,  not  to  be  tam|X)rod  with  by  any  earthly  authority,  de- 


CoDcil.  Lugdu&cns  U.  c.  88  (Uftrduin.  VII.  713).— 8»limbcne,  pp.  1 10-11. 


,  it  wonid  be  apostasy,  and  a  ihin^  not  to  be  adiniltoi!  un- 
der any  circumstances.    Several  disputations  wcro  held  which  only 
oon&rmeil  each  side  ia  its  views.    One  point  which  gave  nso  to 
peeuiiar  animosity  was  the  refusal  of  tlic  SpiritnaU  to  take  their 
tana  in  the  daily  rounds  in  quest  of  moneyed  alms,  wliich  had 
grotro  to  be  the  custom  in  most  places ;  and  it  is  easy  to  imagine 
tiic  bitter  antagonism  to  which  this  disobedience  must  have  led. 
It  sfaoiivs  hoir  strained  wore  the  relations  between  the  factions 
that  proceedings  for  heresy  were  forthwith  commenced  against 
tfacfic  zealots.   The  rumor  proved  false,  the  excitement  died  away, 
aad  ibe  prneecutiuns  were  allowed  to  slumber  for  a  few  years, 
when  they  wore  revived  through  fear  that  these  extreme  opinions^ 
if  ieft  unpunished,  might  win  over  the  majority.     liborato  da 
Ifooereta,  Angeln  da  CingoU  (il  Clarono;,Trnymnndo,Tommasoila 
TollentiDO,  and  one  or  two  others  whose  names  have  not  reached 
Of  were  the  obdurate  ones  who  would  make  no  concession,  even 
b  tijKory.    Angelo,  to  whom  we  owe  an  account  of  the  matter, 
deekred  that  they  were  ready  to  ren<ler  implicit  oliedienoo,  that 
no  offence  was  provcfl  against  them,  but  that  ncvcrtholess  they 
were  condemned,  as  schisiaatice  and  heretics,  to  |ierj>etual  impris- 
Qunent  in  chains.    Thn  sentence  was  inhumanly  harsh.    They 
wwe  to  be  deprived  of  the  sucramenls,  even  upon  the  death-bed, 
Ihw  IciUittg  soul  ss  well  as  body ;  during  life  no  one  was  to  speak 
viUi  them,  not  even  the  Jailer  wliu  t;rouglit  tbu  daily  pittance  of 
brand  aad  water  to  their  cells,  and  examined  their  fetters  to  aeo 
UiU  Ihcy  were  attompting  no  escape.    Asa  warning,  moreover,  the 
Mi£«)ce  waa  ordered  to  be  read  weekly  in  all  tUe  chapters,  and 
DO  one  was  to  presume  to  criticise  it  an  unjust.    This  was  no  idle 
ttmt,for  when  Friar  Tommaso  da  Caateldemilio  heard  it  read  and 
■id  it  was  di.ipleasing  to  God,  ho  was  cast  into  a  similar  prison, 
»boe  he  rotteil  to  death  in  a  few  monlha    The  lierce  sjiirits  ia 
oooirol  of  the  Onier  were  evidently  determined  that  at  least  the 
n>v  of  obedience  sbould  be  maintained.* 


'Angel.  CUrinen!!.  E|iijiL  ExruMt.  (.ArctiW  Hir  Litt-  u.  KtrclicngcKhichte, 
1W>,  pp.  BSS-4).— Histor.  Tribulation,  (Fbid.  1886,  pp.  a02-4).— Vbcrtini  Re- 
•iWno  (Ibid.  1887,  p.  68}.  — Cf.  Rodulpliii  lliat.  Seraph.  B«lig.  Lib,  ii.  TuL 
180 

Tor  the  first  time  the  deTelopment  and  liistory  ot  the  Spiritunl  FranciscauB 
(V  Dow  be  traced  with  some  accuracy,  thanks  to  Franz  Kbrle,  S.  J.,  «bo  baa 
lU.— 3 


34 


TUfi  3P11UTUAL    PRAjiClSCANa 


The  prisoners  sepm  to  have  lain  in  jail  until  after  the  election 
to  the  f^eneralate  of  l^nymond  (iaurridi,  at  Kaster,  1289.  Visit- 
ing the  Mark  of  Ancona,  where  they  were  incarcerated,  he  invw- 
tigated  th«  case,  blamed  severely  the  perpetrators  of  tho  injustice, 
and  sot  tlio  martyrs  free  in  129(>.  The  Order  had  been  fj^ning 
more  lax  in  ils  observnnco  than  evw,  in  spite  of  the  bull  Eritt  qvi 
eermnat  Matleo  d'Acquasparta,  who  was  general  from  1287  to 
1S89,  was  eaay  and  kindly,  well-in tfintionod  bat  given  to  solC-in* 
dulgence.  and  by  no  means  inclined  to  the  effort  requisite  to  en- 
force the  Rule.  Hespect  for  it,  indeed,  was  daily  diminishing. 
Coffers  were  placed  in  tho  churches  to  receive  offerings;  bargains 
were  made  as  to  the  price  of  masses  and  for  the  absolution  of  sin- 
ners ;  boys  were  stationed  at  the  churth-doors  to  sell  wax  lapora 
in  honor  of  saints ;  the  Knars  habitually  begged  money  in  the 
streets,  ac.com j^mnied  by  boys  to  rooeive  and  carry  it;  tho  sepulture 
of  the  rich  was  ejjgcrly  sought  for,  loading  to  disgrncoful  quarrels 
with  the  heirs  ajid  with  the  st.>cular  clergy.  Everywhere  there 
was  solf-sfoking  and  desire  for  the  onjoyinont  of  an  idle  and  luxu- 
rious life.  It  is  true  that  lapses  of  the  flesh  were  still  rigidly  pun- 
ished, but  these  cases  were  sufficiently  frequent  to  show  that  ample 
cause  Utt  scandal  arose  from  the  forbidden  faniiliiirity  with  women 
which  the  brethren  permitted  themselveB.  8o  utter  was  the  gen- 
eral demoralization  that  Nichola.s,  the  Provincial  of  France,  even 
dared  to  write  a  tract  calling  in  question  the  bull  £iTiU  ipii  semi* 
nat  and  its  exposition  of  the  Rule.  As  this  was  in  direct  contra- 
vention of  the  bull  itself,  Acquasparta  felt  eomiwllod  to  condemn 
the  work  and  to  punish  :'ts  author  and  his  supporters!,  but  the  evil 
oontinuod  to  work.  In  the  Mark  of  Ancona  and  in  some  other 
places  the  reaction  against  asceticism  waa  so  strong  that  tho  Testa- 
ment of  tho  revered  Francis  was  officially  ordered  to  be  burned. 
It  was  the  main  bulwark  of  the  Spirituals  against  relaxation  of 
the  Rule,  and  in  one  instance  it  was  actually  burned  on  the  head 
oF  a  friar,  N.  de  Recanate,  who  presumably  bad  made  himself  ob- 
noxious by  insisting  on  its  authority.* 

printed  the  tnoM  impnrtiiiit  Awummte  rolMting  Xjo  thin  schiim  in  the  Order,  etn- 
cidiit«<]  with  ftll  tlifl  rewurcc*  of  c'lftct  rexeArch,  Mj  biiiiktoub  ri-ferencoa  to  bis 
p*pcrB  oliov  the  extent  oftuy  iii(h'Ute(lrii!S'S  to  lits  Inhont. 

•  Utelor.  TribuUt.  (loc  cit.  1836,  p.  305).  — Clwrtin.  K(>«|)onsio  (Ibi«i.  1887. 
|ip.  OB,  77).— Arliculi  TraDsgrcsdiooutu  ilhid.  1607,  pp.  105-7}.— Wadding,  nan. 


J 


Raymond  Qaafridi  was  earnestly  desirous  of  restoring  disci- 

pUm;,bat  tlio  rrlaxatioD  of  the  (Mler  had  jLrrown  pust  oiiring.   Uia 

rdouB  of  the  spirituals  at  Ancoua  atusod  niurh  murmuring;  he 

waa  ridiculed  us  a  patron  of  fantastic  and  gupcratitioos  men,  and 

conspiracies  were  set  on  foot  whicii  never  ceaaed  till  his  removaJ 

was  effected  in  1^95.   It  was  pi-rha])5  to  conjure  these  at  tempts  that 

hesent  Liberato,  Angclo,  Tommaso,  nnd  two  kindriMl  spirits  named 

Uarco  and  Piero  to  Artnenia.  where  they  ijiduced  King  Uaito  II. 

to  enter  the  Franciscan  Order,  ajid  won  from  hira  the  warmest 

•ologieB.    Even  in  the  East,  however,  the  hatred  of  their  fellow* 

■unonarios  was  so  earnest  anfl  so  demonstrative  that  they  were 

forced  to  return  in  1393.    On  their  arnral  in  Italy  the  provincial, 

UoDaldo,  refused  to  receive  them  or  to  allow  ihem  to  remain  until 

tilfly  could  communicate  with  Eaymond,  declaring  tliat  he  would 

mtber  entertain  famicators.* 

Tbe  nnicaaoning  wrath  which  insisted  on  these  votaries  of  pov- 
erty violating  their  convictions  received  a  check  when,  ia  liiV4,  tbe 
choice  of  the  exhausted  conclave  fell  by  chanoe  on  Uie  hermit 
Pier  Morrone,  who  sutidenly  found  liis  mountain  buiTow  tran^ 
(nnaed  into  the  pa])al  palace.  Celestin  V.  preserved  in  St.  Peter'i 
duirthe  predilection  for  solitude  nnd  maceration  which  h:id  led 
luni  to  tbe  life  of  the  anchorite.  To  him  l^ymond  roferrod  the 
Spirituals,  whom  he  seemed  unable  to  protect.  Celestin  listened 
to  them  kindly  and  invited  them  to  enter  his  special  Onier— the 
OslMAiaian  Bt-nedictines— hut  they  explained  U)  him  the  dilTerence 
of  their  vows,  and  how  their  brethren  dptested  the  observance  of 
the  Role.  Then  in  public  audience  he  ordered  them  to  observe 
itncUy  tho  Uuloand  Testament  of  Francis;  herelonsodtliomfroio 
obedience  to  all  nxcept  htntsclf  and  to  IJIximto,  whom  he  mode 
tiwir  chief;  Cardinal  Napoleone  Orsini  waa  declared  their  pro- 
UcUir.and  tho  abbot  of  the  Celestiniana  was  ordered  to  provide 


lM,I?o  ?S-3.— Ubertini  Dwlaratio  {Archiv.l8«7.  pp.  1B8-9).— Dftntp  contnistj 
&cqia»|Mru  n-llh  Ulierttno  iIa  Cosale,  of  whom  wc  flhnll  sec  more  presenlly — 
*'  Mft  Don  flin  dit  CbraI  ne  il'AcqiWBp«rta 
La  ondc  TPf^on  tall  kIIa  Scrittum 
Cli'  uuo  la  fuggu  (•  I'allra  In  c»arUi."^pandiK>  xn.). 
"*Bi|L  TrilMilnt  (lor.  eiU  1S86,  pp.  800-8).— An|i;el.  Clftrinena.  Epist.  (UnA. 
U».pp.934-9).-Wad[)iog.aDD.  1393.  Mu.  14. 


a« 


THE  SPIRITUAL   PRAKCI  8CAN8. 


them  with  hermitages.  Thus  they  were  fairly  out  of  the  Order; 
they  were  not  even  to  call  themselves  Minorites  or  Franciscans, 
and  it  might  bo  supjiosml  that  their  brothren  would  be  na  glad  to 
get  rid  of  them  and  their  lissiinipllou  of  superior  sanctity  as  they 
were  to  osca[w  fnmi  oppn-iision.* 

Yet  the  hatred  provoked  by  the  quarrel  was  too  deep  and  bit- 
ter to  spare  its  victiitui,  and  the  breatliing-Bpoco  which  thoy  eO' 
joyed  wns  sliort.  Colretin's  pontificate  came  to  an  abrupt  termi- 
nation. Utterly  unfitted  for  his  position,  speedily  madethetool  of 
designing  men,  and  growing  weary  of  the  load  which  he  felt  bim- 
sell  unable  to  endure,  after  less  than  six  monttis  lie  was  persuaded 
to  abdicate,  in  December,  1204.  and  ^vas  promptly  thrown  into  pris- 
on by  bis  successor,  Hoaiface  V'lII.,  for  fear  thai  ho  might  be  led 
to  reconsider  an  abdication  the  legaUty  of  which  might  be  qnca- 
tioned.  jVII  of  Cclestin's  uct.s  and  granta  were  forthwith  annulled, 
and  so  complete  was  the  oblitenttion  of  everything  that  he  had 
done,  that  even  the  apjiointment  of  a  notary  is  found  to  require 
oontirmation  and  a  fresh  commission.  Boniface's  contenipt  for  the 
unworldly  enthusiasm  of  asceticism  did  not  leail  him  to  make  any 
exception  in  favor  of  the  i>pirituals.  To  him  the  Franciscan  Or- 
der was  merely  an  instrument  for  the  furthemneo  of  hi8 ambitious 
schemes,  and  its  worldliness  was  rather  to  be  stimulated  than  n^ 
pressed.  Though  he  placed  in  his  Sixtli  Book  of  Decretals  the 
bull  Eeiit  qui  aemiiuU,  bis  pructical  ex{)o8ition  of  its  pruvisioiui  is 
seen  in  two  bulls  issued  July  17,  ISllfi,  by  one  of  wliich  he  as- 
signs to  the  Franciscans  of  Paris  one  thonsand  marks,  to  bo  taken 
from  the  legacies  for  pious  uses,  and  by  the  other  he  convej-ts  to 
them  a  legacy  of  three  hundretl  livres  ho(|ueatbed  hy  Ada,  lady  of 
Pemes,  for  the  benefit  of  the  Holy  I-and.  Under  such  auspices 
the  degradation  of  the  Order  could  not  but  be  rapid.  IJefore  bis 
first  year  was  out,  Bonifooe  ha<l  determined  u(Kin  the  removal  of 
the  genfral,  Raymond.  October  20,  1295,  he  offered  the  latter  the 
bishopric  of  Pavia,  and  on  his  protesting  that  he  had  not  strength 
for  the  burden,  llonifaco  said  that  ho  could  not  be  fit  for  the 
heavier  loml  of  the  genemlate,  of  which  he  relieved  him  on  the 
spot.    We  can  understand  the  insolence  which  led  a  party  of  the. 


«  Angel.  Cl&riii.  Eptst.  (op.  ciL  1885,  p.  526} ;  Hint.  Tiibulationom  (lb.  1 886, 
pp.  S08-0). 


BONIKACB  VIII. 


87 


Conventnal  faction  to  visit  Celestin  in  his  prison  and  taunt  and 
insall  him  for  the  fiivor  which  he  luul  shonii  to  the  Spirituata.  A 
praeeoutjou  for  heresy  which  Boniface  ordtTed,  in  Mai-ch.  1395, 
igminst  Fra  Pagano  di  Pietra-Satitu  was  doubtless  instigated  by 
the  same  spirit*' 

More  tbnn  this.  To  Roniface's  worldly,  practical  mind  tlie 
bordmof  wandering  momlicants,  subjected  to  no  autliority,  were  an 
intolerable  ouisanc«,  whether  it  arose  from  ill-r^^lated  asceticism 
or  idle  vagabondage.  The  decree  of  the  Council  of  Lynns  liad 
fifled  to  BUpprcftfl  the  cril^  and,  in  14ltfi  and  U07,  Boaifacc  issued 
utstractioiu  to  all  bishops  to  compel  such  wanderers  or  hermits, 
popularly  known  as  Uizoclu,  either  to  lay  aaido  their  fictitious  ro- 
ligioiu  habits  and  jjive  up  their  mode  of  life,  or  to  betake  themselves 
lo  mne  auLhorize^l  Order.  The  inquisitors  were  instructed  to  do* 
Bounce  to  tho  bis)iu|i8  oil  sus[fected  ]>erGons,  and  if  the  prelutcs 
were  pcmisa,  to  report  them  to  the  Holy  Pcm).  One  remarkable 
thuue  gives  special  authority  to  the  imjuisitors  to  prosecute  such 
of  (bfso  Uizoehi  es  uiay  be  members  of  their  own  Oi-ders.  thus 
diowing  that  there  was  no  hcrpsy  involvod,  as  otherwise  the  in- 
qnisiton  would  have  required  no  additional  powers.t 

The  following  year  Itoniface  proceeded  to  more  active  nieas- 
■Ptt.  He  ordered  the  Franciscan,  Mattix>  da  Chieti,  Inquisitor  of 
Ann,  to  visit  personally  the  mountains  of  the  Abmzxi  and  Mark 
oi  Ancona  and  to  drive  from  their  lurking-places  tlio  apostates 
fnm  mrious  religious  Orders  ami  the  Bizochi  who  infestal  those 
region*.  His  previous  stops  had  prohably  been  ineffective,  and 
pottibly  also  he  may  have  been  moved  to  more  decisive  action  by 
the rebelhons  attitude  of  the  Spirituals  and  proscribed  mendicants. 
Not  only  did  they  question  the  pai)al  authority,  but  they  were  be- 
ginninfr  to  argue  that  the  papacy  itself  was  vacant.  So  far  from 
being  content  with  the  bull  fu-h't  qui  st^mitial,  they  hold  that  its 
Mrtbor,  Nicholas  UI.,  had  been  deprived  by  God  of  the  papal  func- 
tioto,and  oonsequcntly  that  he  had  had  no  legitimate  snccossora. 
Thereafter  there  had  l)een  no  true  ordinations  of  priest  and  prel- 
»te,iuid  the  real  Church  conaisted  in  thomselvos  aJono.    To  rem- 


*n!iLTritwUt.  Oofi-cit.  IflM,  pp.  300-10). —Futicrinct  Tliomas,  ft^^RiBtrot  d« 
B«rth«  vni.  No.  87,  I23'.J.  riSiJ,  13W2,  1826.— W  ml  ding.  aati.  I'iaS,  No,  li. 
tfnat  Ebrle,  Arcliir  ftlr  L.  a  K.  16S6,  pp.  157-8. 


38 


THE    SPIRITUAL   FBA2iCI8CANa 


ody  this,  Froro  Matthieu  de  Uodici  came  from  Prorenoe,  bringing 
with  him  the  books  of  Pierre  .iean  Olivi,  ami,  in  the  Church  of  St. 
Peter  in  Kome  he  was  elected  poi>o  by  five  Spirituals  and  thirteea 
women.  Boniface  promptly  put  the  Inquisition  on  thoir  track, 
but  tliey  Med  to  Sicily,  which,  as  we  shall  see,  subBequentty  be- 
came the  headquarters  nf  the  sect.* 

Friar  Jordan,  to  whom  we  are  indebted  for  these  details,  as- 
sumes that  Liberato  and  his  associates  were  conoemed  in  this 
movement.  The  ilntcs  and  order  of  events  are  hopelessly  con- 
fused, bat  it  would  rather  seem  that  the  section  of  the  Spirituals 
reprcaentcid  by  Liberato  kept  themsolves  aloof  from  all  such  revo- 
lutionary projects.  Their  sufferings  were  real  nnd  prolnn]H^,but 
had  they  been  guilty  of  participating-  in  the  election  of  an  anti- 
pope  they  would  bavu  had  but  the  choice  l>etwoen  pcrpotnal  im- 
prisonment and  tlio  stake.  They  were  accused  of  holding  that 
Boniface  was  not  a  lawfnl  pope,  that  the  authority  of  the  Chnrch 
was  vested  in  themselves  alone,  and  that  the  (.Ti-eek  Church  waa 
preforablG  t*tthe  Latin — in  other  words  of  Joorhltism — but  An^o 
declares  cmphjiticmlly  that  all  this  was  untnio,  and  his  constancy 
of  endurance  during  fifty  years  of  persecution  and  suffering  en- 
titles his  aasertion  to  i^esiiect.  He  relates  that  after  their  authori- 
zation by  Celcstin  V.  they  lived  as  hermits  in  accordance  with  the 
l>apa]  concession,  sojourning  as  ]>anpers  and  strangers  wherever 
they  enul<l  lind  a  place  uf  retreat,  nnd  strictly  alistaining  from 
preaching  and  hcAring  confessionB,  except  when  ordered  to  do  so 
by  bishops  to  whom  they  owed  obetlionoc.  Even  bcforc  the  resig- 
nation of  C'elufitin,  the  I'>anciscan  authorities,  irritated  at  the  es- 
cape of  their  victims,  disregarded  the  papal  authority  and  endeav- 
ored with  an  armed  force  to  capture  them.  Oelestin  himself 
seems  to  have  given  them  warning  of  this,  and  the  zealots,  recog^ 
nizing  that  there  was  no  peace  for  thorn  in  Italy,  i-esolved  to  ex- 
patriate themselves  and  seek  some  remote  spot  where  they  could 
gratify  their  ascetic  longings  and  worship  God  without  human 


*  RaTnnld.  ano.  ISVT,  N^a  66.— Jnrdimi  Chron.  i^A|t.  S3R,  Pftrtic.  3  (MniatAri, 
Aiili(l  XI.  766). 

So  far  woi  Pierre  Joan  Olivi  froin  participating  in  tlt<:«o  ivlwIlioM  niOTetncnts 
tliAl  be  wrote  a  trace  to  prorc  tbe  Icgallt^of  CclcMin'aalKhcbtiooaod  Bonilaea'a 
aucc«saim)  (Fmtu  Ehrle,  Arcblv  f.  L.  a.  K.  188T,  p.  335). 


J 


tiLterfereaoc.    They  croaeed  tbe  Adriatic  nnd  settled  on  a  desert 
iiUad  off  the  Acliaian  coast.   Uere,  lost  to  view,  tbey  for  twi>  yean 
eaJDred  tbe  only  |ieri(id  of  |>e:ic(}  in  tlieir  a<^itut(Hl  Hvtiu;  hot  at 
length  news  of  their  phice  of  retreat  r-eachtKl  home,  and  forthwith 
^■i^ara  were  das}jatufaed  to  the  nobles  and  bii^ops  of  the  mainland 
Veosing  them  of  being  Cathari,  while  Uoniface  was  infurmiHl  tlial 
they  did  not  regiird  him  ns  popo,  but  held  tbemaelveB  tu  be  the 
only  true  CliOTch.    la  ISi'O  he  commisaoned  Peter,  i*ulriarch  of 
Constanlinoph.',  to  try  them,  wht-n  they  were  comlemnwl  wiiliont 
a  hearing,  and  he  onlured  Cliurles  II.  of  Naphjs,  who  was  overlord 
of  the  Morea,  to  have  them  ex{ielled,  an  order  which  Charles  trans- 
Bitted  to  Isabelle  du  Villeluii-douin,  Princess  of  Achaia.     Mean* 
vhile  the  locul  autliorilirfi  hod  recognized  the  falsity  of  the  aeeu* 
atioDs.  for  the  refugees  (!^lebrated  raaas  dady  and  pmyed  for 
Boiu^u»  aa  pope,  and  were  willing  to  eat  meat,  but  this  did  not 
ndiove  them  from  sm^eitlanoe  and  annoyance,  rme  uf  Uieir  princi- 
pal peraecntors  bein^  a  certain  Oeromnio,  who  came  to  them  with 
mu  books  of  Olivi's,  and  whom  they  were  forced  to  eject  for  im< 
monlity,  after  wbidi  ho  ttu-ncd  accuser  and  was  rewarded  »-ith 
tfaa  epjacopoto.* 

The  presgore  became  too  strong,  and  the  little  community  grad- 
sally  broke  up.  An  intention  to  accompany  Fra  Giovanni  da 
Itonti)  on  a  mission  to  Tartury  had  to  be  abandoned  on  account  of 
U»  excommuuicatiun  comuxiueni  upon  the  80Dt«uco  utterod  by 
Uh)  Patrirtrch  of  Constajitinople.  Liberato  sent  two  brethren  to 
^pnftl  to  ikmiface.  and  then  twu  iiion.>,  but  thoy  were  all  seized 
^W  prevented  from  machinf,^  him.  Thnn  l.il>onito  hiuiselt  de- 
pBAed  lecrelly  and  reached  Fenigia,  but  the  sudden  death  of 
BootbcQ  (tJctobrr  II,  11(03)  frustrated  his  object.  The  rest  ro- 
tarneil  at  variuus  times.  Angelo  bein^  the  last  Lo  reach  Italy,  in 
I3y5.  He  found  his  brethren  in  evil  plight.  They  had  l>ecn  cited 
by  the  DomioiciLn  luquiciitor.Tommaso  di  A  versa,  and  liad  obedient- 
ly prwented  themselves.  At  firet  the  result  was  favorable.  After 
*D  oxamination  lasting  several  days,  Toininaa*  pronounced  them 


•  Angpl.  CUriti.  EpiM.  (Archi*  Rlr  Litr.-  a.  Kirctiffngcscluchw,  tSSS.  pp.  322-8, 
«27-»)  -Hi»t.  TribuUt.{lbid.  1388,  pp-  314-l8).~Pr!inz  Elirk  (Ibid.  IWSO,  p.  3S5. 

Fnni  Bbric  ideotaflcA  the  icflige  of  the  fipirit\ialB  vritlt  ttio  laluid  of  Trizooio 
iailw  QuIfurCoriulli  (1NU1   1898,  pp.  813  14). 


A 


40 


THE   SPIRITUAL  FRAKCISCAWa 


orthmlox.  and  dismissed  thorn,  saying  publicly,  "  FrA  Ubemto.  1 
swear  by  Him  who  created  me  that  never  the  flesh  of  a  ]>oormaii 
could  he  sold  for  such  a  ])ric(i  ns  I  could  get  for  yours.  Tour 
brnthren  would  drink  your  blooti  if  they  could."  Ho  even  oob- 
ducted  them  in  safety  back  to  their  hermitages,  and  when  the  rage 
of  the  Couveutuals  was  found  to  be  uiiapj)easable  he  gave  them 
Uie  advice  that  they  should  leave  the  kingdom  of  Naples  that  night 
and  travel  by  hidden  ways  to  the  pope ;  if  they  could  bring  letters 
from  the  latter,  or  from  a  canlinal,  he  would  defend  them  as  long 
aa  lie  held  the  office.  The  advioo  was  taken  ;  T.ibcrato  left  Naples 
that  night,  hut  fell  sick  on  the  road  and  dicti  after  a  lingering  ill- 
ness of  two  years.  Meanwhile,  as  wo  shall  see  hereafter,  the  ex- 
ploits of  Doicino  in  IxJinbiu-dy  were  exciting  general  terror,  which 
rendered  all  irregular  fmternitiea  the  object  of  suspicion  and  dread. 
The  Conventuals  took  advantage  of  this  and  incited  FrA  Tommaso 
to  summon  before  liim  all  who  wore  uaautltorized  religious  habits. 
The  Spirituals  wore  cited  again,  to  the  number  of  forty -two,  and 
this  time  tlioy  did  not  escape  so  easily.  They  were  condemned  as 
heretics,  and  when  Andi-ea  da  Segna,  under  n*hose  protection  they 
had  lived,  interjKistKi  in  their  favor,  Tominaso  carried  them  to  Tri- 
Tento,  where  they  were  tortured  for  five  days.  This  excited  the 
compassion  of  the  bishop  and  nobles  of  the  town,  so  they  were 
transferred  to  Caiitro  Huiniirdo,  a  solitary  spot,  where  for  live 
months  thoy  wore  afllictod  with  the  8hnI^^est  tonnenu.  Two  of 
the  younger  brethren  yielded  and  accused  themselves  and  their 
comra«les,  but  revoked  when  released.  Some  of  them  died,  and 
finally  the  survivors  were  ordered  t-o  be  scourgEnl  naked  through 
the  streets  of  Naples  and  were  l>anishcU  the  kingdom,  although 
no  speeilic  heresy  was  alleged  against  them  in  the  sentence. 
Through  all  this  the  resolution  of  the  little  tiand  never  faltered. 
Convinced  that  they  alone  were  on  the  path  of  salvation,  they 
would  not  be  forced  back  into  the  Order.  On  the  death  of  IJber- 
ato,  Angeio  was  chosen  us  their  leader,  and  amid  f>ersecutLon  and 
obloquy  they  formed  a  congregation  in  the  Mark  of  Anoona, 
known  as  the  Clareni,  from  the  surname  of  their  chief,  and  under 
tiie  protection  of  the  cunlinal,  Kapoleone  OrsinL^ 


*  Aogel.  ClariD.  EpisL  (op.  cit.  1SS3,  S39~3L).— Hist.  Tribal*!.  (lb.  1886,  S30- 
6).— WsddtDg.  nnn.  1302,  No.  8;  1307,  Nu.  8-4. 


JACOPONE  DA  TOOL  41 

This  groap  had  not  been  b^  any  means  alone  in  oppo«tng  Ihe 
laxity  of  IbeConveiitiiaKfJthough  it  wastho  only  one  which  siic- 
cwdcd  in  throwing  otT  tht^  ynkr  of  its  ojt|Mments.  Thr  SpirituuU 
w««  nonierous  in  llie  Otxiei-,  but  the  policy  of  Boniface  VIII.  led 
him  to  support  the  efforts  of  the  Conventuals  to  k«ep  thoin  in  sub- 
joction.  .fRCo(>ono  ila  Todi.  the  author  of  the  8tabat  Mater,  was 
perhaps  the  most  prouunout  of  tlic^,  and  his  saviigo-  verses  directed 
■gainst  the  poi>e  cUd  not  lend  to  barmomze  tlie  troubles.  After 
tbe  rapture  of  Palestrina,  in  12!t8,  B<jniface  threw  him  into  a  foul 
iluogwn,  where  he  solacetl  his  captivity  with  canticles  full  of  the 
mystk  ardor  of  divine  love.  It  is  related  that  Boniface  once,  pass- 
ing the  grating  of  his  cell,  jeeringly  called  to  him, "  Jac(>|>o,  when 
will  yw  get  out  i"  and  was  promptly  answered,  **  When  you  come 
it**  In  a  sense  the  propbt-cy  proved  true,  for  one  of  the  hrst  acts 
of  Benedict  XI.,  in  IX>ceTulier,  1303^  was  iv  release  .lucoponu  from 
both  prison  and  excuniuumifation.* 

Fri  t'omtdo  da  Ofhda  whs  another  prominent  member  of  tbe\ 
Spiritual  group,   lie  hud  been  a  friend  of  John  of  Parma ;  for  fifty-  \ 
fire  years  he  wore  but  a  single  go\vn.  patched  and  repatclied  as  1 
Mccnity  reqnirc<l,  and  this  with  his  rope  ginllc  constitute<l  his   I 
aole  worldly  possessions.     In  the  mystic  exaltation  which  charaC'  / 
tcrized  tlie  sect  ho  had  frequent  visions  and  ecstasies,  in  which  he/ 
was  lifted  from  the  ground  after  the  fashion  of  the  saints.    When 
iJberato  and  his  companion*  were  in  their  Achaian  rofug©  bo 
dengncd  joining  them  with  Jaooptj  de'  Monti  and  otherH,  but  the 
oecDtion  of  the  project  was  in  some  way  prevented.f 

*  CintlL,  Enitici  d'  Italia,  I.  ISO.-Coiuba,  Lu  Itifoniift  in  Italia,  L  314. 
Atpccimcn  of  Jacoponn's  attacks  on  Boniface  will  show  the  temper  of  ttM 

"PntiMti  U  tun  lingua  O  pouiina  ATiirizia 

Contra  relifpone  Sale  iodaplicato, 

A  <lir  bla^vmia  Beror  tanta  pecunia 

BcDza  niun  <»giune.  £  noD  OHser  saziata  I" 

(Comba,  op.  cit  313.) 

T%m  b  doubllcee  foundatloo  for  tb«  »tor7  related  by  SavoDarola  Id  a  senooo, 
ikUJacopooe  wiuodv<!  brought  into  the  consistorj  of  cardinals  and  requested  to 
|»eKh,w)ien  bv  solvuiuly  n-pcatcd  lliriec. "I  wuniU-r  that  in  conaequcoce  of 
jaet  iiiiM  tli«  enrth  doe*  not  open  anil  awnlluw  you."— VUlari,  Pru  Savonamlu, 

a  E.i_  T.  11.  p.  3, 

t  But  Tiibulst.  <loc,  cit.  pp.  31 1-  tsy. 


1 


48 


THE  SPIRITUAL   FRANOISCANR 


Such  men,  6Ued  with  the  profoundest  conviction  of  their  holy 
calling,  were  not  to  bo  controlle<l  by  cither  kitiitnc'Sg  or  severity. 
It  was  in  vitin  that  the  gcnoru!,  tiiovanui  di  Muito,  at  llio  chupter 
of  1  ;j02,  bold  in  Genoa,  issued  a  precept  deploring  the  abandonmeot, 
by  the  Order,  of  holy  poverty,  as  sliown  by  tbe  posseiftuoQ  of  hiudj 
and  farms  and  vineyards,  and  the  assumption  by  friars  of  duties 
wJiich  involved  them  in  worldly  cams  and  strife  and  litigation. 
He  ordured  the  s&ie  of  all  property,  and  forbade  the  members  of 
the  Order  from  appearing  in  any  court.  Yet  while  bo  was  thus 
rigid  aa  tu  the  ownership  of  property,  he  was  Jax  lui  to  its  use,  and 
condemned  as  pernicious  the  doctrine  that  the  vow  of  poverty  in* 
volvL'd  restriction  in  its  enjoyment.  He  was,  moreuvw,  resulved  on 
extin^^shing  the  schism  in  the  Order,  and  hid  intliience  with  Boni- 
face was  one  of  the  in^polling  causes  of  the  continued  persecution 
of  the  SpirituaJft.  They  stubbornly  rejeoted  all  attempts  at  recon- 
ciliation, and  p]£ioc<l  a  true  estimato  on  theae  efforts  of  reform. 
Before  the  year  was  ont  Giovanni  was  created  Cardinal  liiahop  of 
Porto,  and  was  allo^red  to  govern  the  Order  through  a  vicar ;  the 
reforms  were  partially  enfurced  in  some  provinccti  for  a  short  time ; 
then  thev  fell  into  desuetude,  and  matters  went  on  as  before.* 


/  In  France,  where  the  influence  of  Joachim  and  the  Everlasting 
Gospel  was  much  more  lusting  and  pronounced  than  in  Italy,  the 
career  of  the  Spirituals  revolves  around  one  of  the  most  remark- 
able pei-sonages  of  the  jx-riod — Pierre  Jean  Olivi.  Bom  in  1247, 
he  vi-as  placed  in  the  Franuisuan  Order  at  the  age  of  twelve,  and 
waa  trained  in  the  University  of  Paris,  whore  Itn  obtained  tho 
baccjd aureate.  TTis  grave  demeanor,  seasoned  with  a  lively  wit.  his 
Irrepronchnble  morals,  his  fervid  eloquence,  and  tho  extent  of  his 
learning  won  for  him  universal  respfct,  while  his  piely,  genilenesa, 
humility,  and  zeal  for  holy  poverty  gained  for  Idm  a  reputation 
for  sanctity  which  assigned  to  bun  the  gift  of  prophecy.  That 
such  a  man  shuuld  attach  hiniBclf  tt^  the  Spirituals  was  a  matter  of 
course,  and  equally  so  was  the  enmity  which  ho  excited  by  un- 
sparing reprwof  of  the  laxity  of  obsorvance  into  which  the  Order 
bad  declined.    In  his  voluminous  writings  he  taught  that  absolute 


"  Wadding,  uin.  1303,  No.  1-8, 7 ;  win.  1310,  No.  9.— Fraoz  Elirlc  (Arcbi?  fUr 


PIBRBE   JEAN    01.1V1. 


43 


is  the  source  of  all  the  virtues  and  u(  u  saintly  Ufe;  that  ^ 
TqIp  prohibited  all  propnctoraUip,  whether  individual  or  in  oont 
lOon,  tLikd  that  the  tow  bound  Uic  membera  to  tlte  most  sparing  use 
of  &U  Tinrrmniririr.  the  meanest  gamieou,  the  absence  of  shoes,  etc, 
Tbile  the  pope  tiad  no  power  to  dispense  or  alffiolvo,  and  much  less 
to  order  anything  contniry  to  the  Kule.  The  convent  of  Ik^iers, 
W  which  he  belonged.  I)ecarae  the  centre  of  the  t>piriluul  Roct,  and 
the  devotion  which  be  excited  was  shared  by  the  p4:)pulation  at 
hrga,  as  well  a^  by  his  brethren.  The  temper  of  the  man  was 
Aownwhen  he  underwent  his  first  rebuke.  In  127S  some  writin^a 
of  hit  in  praise  of  the  Virgin  xvero  considered  to  trench  too  cJo»e- 
ly  un  Alariolatry.  The  Onlcr  had  not  yet  oommiLtiMl  itself  to 
thiiL  and  complaint  was  made  to  the  general,  (leronimo  d'Aacoli, 
ift«rwitrd8  Nicholas  IV,,  who  read  the  tn>;cl«  and  condemned  him 
10  bum  them  with  his  own  hands.  Olivi  at  once  obeyed  without 
my  sign  of  ])er(urbaiion,  and  when  his  wondorinjj;  brethren  asked 
bow  be  couM  endure  such  mortification  so  tranquilly,  he  rcplie^l 
that  be  bad  performed  the  sacrifice  with  a  thoroughly  placid  mind ; 
be  bad  not  felt  more  plca-sure  in  writing  the  tracts  than  in  bum- 
mg  them  at  the  command  of  bis  superior,  and  the  loss  wua  noth- 
■g;  tor  if  neceBsory  he  could  eaaily  write  them  again  in  better 
ibape.  A  man  so  self-centred  and  iju{N>rturbBbleeould  not  fail  lo 
imjireaa  his  convictions  on  those  who  surrounded  liim.'* 

What  his  convictions  really  were  is  a  problem  not  cnsily  solved 
« the  present  day.    The  (ie»-co  autagonisma  which  he  excited  by\ 
his  fiery  onsIaufrhtR  on  individuals  as  well  as  on  the  general  laxity 
of  the  Order  at  large,  caused  his  later  yoare  to  be  passet^L  in  a  sericsi 
c(  iorestigntions  for  heresy.    At  the  general  chapter  uf  t^tnu^s- 
blirg,iB  1^82,  his  writingH  were  ordered  to  be  examined.    In  1283  I 
Boaagrazia  di  S.  Giovanni,  the  general,  came  to  Kranoe,  onllwrtcd 
lad  placed  them  all  in  the  hands  of  seven  of  the  leading  members  of  I 
Ills  Order,  who  found  in  them  propositions  which  they  variously 


jdiDg.  ann.  1378,  Ha.  S7'8.— Fraoz  Ebrlc,  ArchiT  f.  L.  u.  K.  1887,  pp. 

Wlioi  Orrmiimo  d'Aacoli  attttined  the  papftry  h«  was  urged  to  prosecute  Olivi, 
1  ftfiued.  expn-98in^  lliu  Iii^lient  cnnsi duration  for  hia  t«li?nt8  and  pieiy,  Kiid 
Ihut  liift  rrbuke  had  Lieen  menily  intended  as  a  waming  (]Ji«t.  TiiU 
leccitlBSa,  p.  88fi). 


44 


THE    SPIRITUAL    FRANCISUANS. 


(bharactortzed  as  false,  heretical,  presumptuous,  and  dangerous,  and 
ordered  the  tracts  containing  them  to  be  surrendered  by  all  pos- 
sessing them.  Olivi  subRcrilxxl  to  the  judgment  in  12S4,  iittlimigli 
he  complained  that  he  had  not  bceu  ])ermitted  to  appear  in  person 
iKfure  liifi  judges  and  explain  the  eensiired  paasages,  to  H'bich 
distorted  meiiiiings  had  been  applied.  With  some  difliculty  he 
procured  copies  of  his  incidpiiii'd  writings  and  proceeded  to  justi> 
fy  himself.  Still  the  circle  of  his  discip'.es  continued  to  increase; 
incapable  of  the  self-restniint  of  their  master,  and  secretly  imbued 
with  Jonchitie  doctrines,  tiiey  were  not  content  with  the  ()uict 
propagation  of  their  principles,  but  excited  tumolts  and  seditions, 
Olivi  was  held  responsible.  The  chapttT  held  at  Milan  in  12Sft 
elected  as  genemi  minister  Arlolto  di  Frato.  one  of  the  seven  who 
had  condemned  him,  and  issued  a  decree  ortlering  a  slrict  perqui- 
sition and  seizure  of  his  writings.  The  ne\r  general,  moi-eover, 
summoned  him  to  Paris  for  another  inquisition  into  his  faith, 
of  which  the  promoters  were  two  of  tlic  members  of  the  previous 
commission,  Itichaixl  Middletou  and  Giovanni  di  Murro,  the  futuro 
genend.  The  matter  was  prolonged  until  ltJ8(i,  when  Arlotto 
died,  and  nothing  was  done.  Matteo  d'Acquasparta  vouchoi  for 
his  orthodoxy  in  appointing  him  teacher  in  the  general  school  of 
the  Order  at  Florence.  Itayinomi  Gaufridi,  uhu  succeeded  Matteo 
d' Acquasparta  in  1 20(),  was  a  friend  and  admirer  of  Oli  vi,  but  could 
not  prevent  fresh  pmceedings,  though  lie  appointed  him  tcjicher 
at  Mont{7ellier.  Excitement  in  I^anguedoo  had  reached  a  point 
which  led  Nicholas  IV.,  in  1290,  to  order  liuymond  to  suppreas 
the  disturbers  of  the  peace.  Ho  comuiissionyd  liertr.ind  de  Cigo 
tier.  Inquisitor  of  the  Comtat  Venaisain,  to  investigate  and  report, 
in  order  that  the  matter  might  bo  brought  iMjfore  tim  next  gen- 
eral chapter,  to  Imj  held  in  Paris.  In  1^92,  acconlingly,  Olivi  ap- 
peared before  tlio  chapter,  professed  his  acceptance  of  the  bull 
JSriit  qui  MfntmU!,  asserted  that  he  had  never  intentionally  taught 
or  written  otherwise,  and  revoked  and  abjure*l  anything  that  ho 
might  inadvert^.*ntly  have  said  in  oontnidiclion  of  it.  He  wjis  dis- 
missed in  ]>eace,  but  twenty-nine  of  his  zealous  and  headstrong 
followers,  whom  Bertmnd  de  Cigritier  had  found  guilty,  were  duly 
punishe*!.  His  few  i-emaining  years  seem  to  have  passoil  in  com- 
pjirative  peace.  Two  letters  wintten  in  1295,  one  to  Corrado  da 
Ollida  and  the  other  to  the  sons  of  Charles  II.  of  ]^a})lcs,  then 


PIERRE    JEAX  OLIVI.  45 

uld  as  hostages  in  Catalonia,  who  hati  a.skc<l  him  to  visit  them, 
show  that  ht>  \vm  held  in  high  eitleem.  thut  be  de^inMl  to  curb  the 
hnatic  zeal  of  iUu  more  ai[vaiice<l  Spirituals,  and  tliut  ho  could  nut 
mtrain  himself  fmni  a[Mx-»lrTitio  Kpeculatinn.     On  his  dcathbo<l, 
in  1^1^,  ho  attere*!  a  confession  of  faith  in  which  ho  professed  ab«o-\ 
iQlesubmixstun  to  the  lioman  Church  und  to  Itonifoce  ns  its  hetuj. 
He  also  submitted  all  his  works  to  the  Uoly  See,  and  mode  a ' 
dwiiimtion  of  principles  aa  to  the  matters  in  dispute  mthin  th*J 
Older,  which  containetl  nothin;^  that  Bonaventura  W4>ul(l  not  havof 
■gned,  or  Nicliulas  iU.  would  have  impugned  as  contrary  to  thq' 
bull  Eriit,  although  it  sharply  rebnked  the  money-getting  pratf- 
tkeeaad  relaxation  of  the  Order.* 

He  was  honornbly  buried  at  NarlKinne.  and  then  the  oontro- 
rcwy  over  hh  memory  Iwcamc  more  lively  than  ever,  rendering  it 
tlmoftt  impoesible  to  detenniue  his  re6{ionsibility  for  the  opinions 
vhich  were  ascribed  tn  him  by  lM)th  friends  and  foes.  That  his 
baas  became  the  object  of  assiduous  cult,  in  spite  nf  repeated 
prohibitions,  that  innumerable  miracles  were  worker!  at  his  tomb, 
that  crowds  of  pil<n'ims  flocke<l  to  it,  that  liis  feast-day  became  one 
<]i  the  great  tioleiiinities  of  the  year,  and  that  lie  was  regarded  as 
oae  of  the  most  efficient  saints  in  the  calendar,  only  shows  the 
popular  e«timat«  of  his  virtues  and  the  zeal  of  tUoso  M-ho  regarded 


•  Wtdding.  ttnn.  1283,  Nu.  2 ;  win.  1283,  No.  1 ;  aim.  1S85,  No.  5 ;  ann.  1260, 
Sail;  «DD  lSn2,No.  13;  nnn.  1207, TTo.  88-4.— Obron.QlnMbergeritiin.  tSS3.— 
ma  TribuUt.  (toe-  "t.  pp.  894-5).— FruiiE  Elirle,  Arehiv,  1886,  pp.  863, 889 ;  1887, 
Rn  417-87. 420. 433, 4:i«,5»4.—K»yin.  de  Fronci»cli.i  (Archiv,  1387.  [».  15). 

OliriV  ijfotb  M  commonly  amigned  to  1207,  but  tho  Trantittis  Saucti  PiitrU, 
tbkk  ««B  oae  of  the  boohs  most  in  rogue  aiuuit^  liis  UUcipIvs,  staloii  tliat  it 
otnirred  on  Frid«T,  Miireh  14.  I2l»7  (Bcni.inl.  Onidon.  Prafrticii  P.  v.);  Friday 
611  on  iUrcli  14  Id  I21I8.  und  ttie  common  liabit  of  comEtiL>ncing  the  vear  witb 
hMercxpUlM  iliv  tubHtitution  of  1297  for  1398. 

Ok  bones  arc  gcncnll;  oaid  to  have  been  dug  up  and  bumcd  n  frw  ntontbi 
■Air  lalcnnent,  b;  order  of  tlic  general,  CtioTnnni  di  Murro  (Tocco,  op.  ciL.  p. 
SKI.  Wadding,  indocd,  asscrta  that  tbej  wck  twicv  cxhnmcd  (ann.  1297,  No. 
Ml  EymericlinicntiansatnidiUou  tliot  iliejr  werccarrUnl  to  Aviguon  and  thrown 
fcjaiglit  into  tlic  Rhone  (Eyinerici  Direct.  In()nis.  p.  ai3),  The  cult  of  which 
Ih;  men  the  abject  shows  tluit  this  could  not  haw  bccu  the  cast*,  and  Uernard 
Qui,  Um  belt  pasMble  nulboiity,  in  commentiMK  on  the  TrautUnt  atatcs  that 
daj-wmabAntitcd  in  1318  and  hidden  no  one  knows  where— iloubtleas  bydi«- 
d|lalepnr«llt  the  iuipeu ding  profanation  of  cxhumatioa. 


46 


THS   8PIR1TDAL  FRAMCtSCANB- 


themselres  as  his  disciples.  Certain  it  is  that  the  Council  of  Vienne, 
in  1313,  treated  his  nieinory  with  givat  gentleness.  While  it  con- 
demned with  merciless  seventy  the  mystic  extravagancwi  of  the 
Brethren  of  the  P'roe  Spirit,  it  fonnd  only  four  crrore  to  note  in 
the  voluminous  writings  of  OUvi— errons  uf  merely  speculative  in- 
tei^est,  such  as  are  frequent  among  the  schoolmou  of  the  period — 
and  these  it  poiuted  out  without  attributing  them  to  him  or  even 
uiuntiuuing  bis  name.  These  his  iiuinediate  followers  denied  his 
holding,  although  eventually  one  of  them,  curiously  enough,  he- 
came  a  sort  of  shibboleth  among  the  OlivUts.  It  was  that  Christ 
was  still  alive  on  the  cross  when  pierced  by  the  lanco,  and  was 
based  on  the  assertion  that  the  relation  in  Matthew  originally  dif* 
fered  in  tins  resi^eot  from  that  in  John,  and  had  been  altered  to 
secure  harmony.  All  other  ([uestions  reUUii^  to  the  teachings  of 
Olivi  the  uouueil  referred  to  the  Franci^icaiis  for  settlement,  show- 
ing that  they  were  deemed  of  minor  imiiortanoe,  after  they  had 
been  exhaustively  debated  before  it  by  Bonagrazia  da  Bergamo  in 
attack  and  Ubortmo  da  Cosalu  in  dcfenoc.  Thus  the  council  con- 
demned neither  his  person  nor  his  writings;  that  the  residt  was 
held  as  vindicating  his  orthodoxy  was  seen  when,  in  1313,  his  feast- 
day  was  celebrated  with  unexampled  eutbuuiasm  at  Narbonne,and 
was  attended  by  a  conooui-so  equal  to  that  whicli  assembled  at  the 
anniversary  of  the  Portiuncula.  Moi'cover,  after  the  heat  of  the 
controversy  had  passed  away,  the  subsecjuent  condemnation  of  his 
writings  by  John  XXII.  was  removed  by  Sixtua  IV.,  towards  the 
end  of  the  fifteenth  century.  OUvi's  teachings  may  therefore  fairly 
be  concludeti  to  liave  contained  no  very  revolutionary  doctrines. 
In  fact,  shortly  after  his  deatli  all  the  Franciscans  of  Provence 
were  required  to  sign  nn  abjunition  of  his  errors,  among  which 
was  enumerated  the  one  respecting  the  wound  of  Christ,  but  uoth* 
ing  was  said  rcRpe<^ting  the  graver  aberrations  subsequently  at- 
tributed to  him.* 


•WvldinR.  Rnn.  1SQ1.  No.  18;  1£07.  No.  »G;  1313,  Nu.  4.— Lib.  8i.iit«ott. 
Inq.  Tnlfw.  pp.  800,  81!).— CoU.  Doab  KXVIL  fol.  T  sqq.— Lib.  r.  Clement.  1.  1.— 
Tooco,  op.  fit.  pp.  r.Oa-10.— 1198.  Bib.  Nat.  Ko.  4870,  foL  IflS.— Krani  Ii;iirl« 
<ubi  sup.  1885,  p. I>44 ;  lB8fl, pp. !t8t»-9B. -lOst-S ;  1887, pp.  440, 4&1).— RA^mond  rie 
PpHiciitclio (ArcliiT.  19«7,  p.  IT), 

The?  tradiiionnl  wroU)  of  the  OoiiTcnUiiil&  was  &till  itrong  eooagb  ia  the  reu 
ISOO  iv  k-sul  tlic  gcocnl  chapur  held  at  Tcrni  tu  forbid,  uudvr  ptiUi  uf  imprisun- 


J 


OLIVI  S    WOKK8   CONDfcMNBD. 


47 


Od  the  other  bAnd  he  was  unquestionably  the  heresiarch  of  tb«^ 
Spbitttais,  both  of  Fmnce  and  Italy.  re^rdfH  by  thfifn  as  the  di-/ 

tsaccessorof  .Tojichiin  nnil  FmrifiB.  The  /liniofta  Trihuiationum 

lib  in  the  psendo-Joachitic  prophpoiea  a  dear  account  of  all  the 
erpnt8  in  hia  career.  Rnthasiastic  Spirituals,  who  held  the  revolu- 
liauuT  rtoetrinofl  of  the  Kverlaslinp  (Joe]»e!,  testified  l)efore  the 
InqBJBition  that  the  third  age  of  the  Clunrh  had  it«  Ix-ginning  in 
Olin.  who  thus  supplanted  St.  Francis  himself.    He  was  inspired 

hearen  ;  his  doctrine  had  Iw-en  reveakil  to  him  in  Paris,  fwma 
,  while  he  was  washing  his  handit ;  othera  that  the  iliumination 
cane  lo  liim  from  Christ  while  in  church,  at  the  third  hour  of 
tboday.  Thus  liis  uttpranrcs  were  of  equal  authority  with  those 
of  8L  Paid,  and  were  to  be  obeyed  by  the  Thurch  without  the 
ehuge  of  a  letter.  It  ia  no  wonder  that  he  waa  held  account- 
»Ne  for  the  e3itravaganc438  of  those  who  regardeil  him  with  such 
WDeralion  and  reoognixed  him  as  thoir  loiider  and  teaeher* 

Vlien  Olivi  died,  his  fonner  prr^secut^^r,  Giovanni  di  Miirro, 
wu  general  of  the  Onier,  iind.  stronf^  as  were  hts  own  ascetio 
nmrictronfl.  he  lost  no  time  in  completing  the  work  which  he  had 
prei-iously  failed  t^  accomplish.  Oliri'a  memory  was  condemned 
w  thai  of  a  heretio.  and  an  order  was  issued  for  the  surrender 
«f  all  his  writingR,  which  waa  enforced  with  unsparing  rigor,  and 
continued  hy  his  succefwor,  Oonsalvo  de  HallxMi.  Pons  Botugatt, 
a  triar  eminent  for  piety  and  eloquence,  refuse*!  to  suirender  for 
ixjniing  some  of  the  prohibited  trauts,  and  was  chained  closely  to 
Uiemdl  in  a  damp  and  fetid  dnngRon,  where  brea<l  and  water 
*w  Bparingly  ftnng  to  him,  and  where  he  soon  rotted  to  death 
>i  filUi,  so  that  when  his  body  was  hastily  thmst  into  an  uncon- 
Meratud  grave  it  waa  found  that  already  thn  flesh  wn.s  hnrrowe<l 
tWoogh  by  worms.  A  number  of  other  recalcitrants  were  also 
inphaoned  with  almost  equal  harshness,  and  in  the  next  general 
rfiipterthe  reading  of  all  of  Olivi's  works  was  formally  prohibited. 
That  mnoh  incendiary  matter  was  in  circulation,  attrihntenl  direct- 
Ij""!"  indirectly  to  him,  is  shown  by  a  Gitalogue  of  Olivist  tracts, 
toting  of  snch  dangerous  questions  aa  the  j)oirer  of  the  pope  to 

••BitsWiy  nembcr  of  llie  Onlcr  from  postctslng  any  "f  Olivi's  writlugs. — Frtinz 
<W«  (mW  huiv  ia97.  pji.  4.%?-8). 

•  Htat,  Trilmlflt.  doc  cit.  p.  ^?8  0).— Coll.  Pdiit.  T.iVIT.  fbl.  7  sqq.— Lib. 
fcttntt  log.  Toloa,  pp.  806,  W)9.— BerniHrl.  Ouiduit.  Pmctica  P.  T 


48 


THE  SPIRITFAL  PHANCI8C AN 8. 


icit  uiHMlicncc  in  mi 
similar  luutterings 


dispense  from  vows,  biB  nglit  to  claim  i 
ters  concerning  faith  and  morals,  and  oi 
ro  boll  ion.'* 

The  work  of  Olivi  wbicb  caUM  forth  the  gi-eaCeet  discussion, 
and  as  to  wbicli  the  evidences  are  pocuUarly  irreconcilable,  was 
his  r{>t)ti]  on  the  Apocalypse.  It  vvius  froiu  this  that  the  chief 
arguitients  wore  drawn  for  his  condemnation.  In  an  inijuisitorial 
sonicncc  of  1318  wo  learn  that  his  writinj^s  were  then  again  under 
examination  by  order  of  John  XXII. ;  that  thoy  were  held  to  bo 
the  source  of  all  the  errors  which  the  sectaries  were  thon  expiating 
at  the  stake,  and  that  principal  among  them  was  his  work  on  the 
Apocalyjise,  so  thjit,  until  the  papal  decision,  no  one  was  to  hold 
him  us  a  saint  ur  a  Catbulii;.  When  the  condeninatury  repurt  of 
eight  masters  of  theology  camo^  in  1319,  the  Spirituuls  held  that 
the  outra^  thiis  committed  on  tho  faith  deprived  of  all  virtu©  the 
sacrament  of  the  altar.  No  formal  judgment  was  rendered,  how- 
/evor, until  Fobruarv  K,  132C,  when  .lohn  XXII.  liniiJIy  condemned 

t  the  Poatil  on  the  AtK>calyp»  after  a  cai-eful  scrutiny  in  the  Con- 
sistory, and  the  general  chapter  of  the  Order  forbade  any  one  to 

^  read  or  possess  it.  One  of  the  reports  of  the  experts  u|K)n  it  has 
reached  us.  It  is  im[)os3ihle  to  suppose  that  they  deUberately 
manufactured  the  extracts  on  which  their  conchisions  are  based, 
and  these  cxtraL-ls  are  quite  sulUuieiit  to  show  thut  the  work  was 
an  echo  of  tho  most  dangerous  doctrines  of  tho  Everlasting  Gog- 
pel.  The  fifth  age  is  drawing  to  an  end,  and,  under  the  figure  of 
the  mystical  Antichrist,  there  are  prophecies  about  the  pBeudo-[>opo, 
pseuilu-Christs,  and  pseudo-propliets  in  tt>rms  wliich  clearly  nlhide 
to  tho  existing  hierarchy.  The  pseudo-pope  will  be  known  by  his 
her(!sios  concerning  the  ])crfection  of  evanp^Ucal  |x>vorty  (as  we 
shall  sue  was  the  eaue  with  Julm  XXII.),  and  the  iisumlu-Joiichim's 
prophecies  concerning  Frederic  11.  are  quoted  to  show  how  prel- 
ates and  clergy  who  defend  the  Rule  will  be  ejected.  The  carnal 
church  is  the  Great  Wlioro  of  Babylon ;  it  makes  drunken  and 


'  Hist.  Tribulol.  (loc.  cit.  pp.  300-1).— Tocco.  pp.  itJO-fll,  505-4. 

Wmidicg  <an».  1207,  No.  83-5j  jd^ntifiea  I'ons  Uoiiigaii  witb  St.  Pon«  Ci»r- 
tKinolU,  UiQ  illustrioiu  tcaciicr  of  St.  LouU  of  Touluuw.  Frunz  £brle  (ArchlT 
fur  I>.  u.  K.  l^HA,  p.  300)  iA\%  \\v  can  find  no  cviilcncc  of  (bu,  «nd  tbfl  lutbor 
of  the  nut.  TriMal.,  in  liia  ilctuilcd  accouut  of  llic  affair,  would  bmrdlj  haT« 
omitted  ft  fact  lo  Mrriccable  to  bis  cmiuc. 


OPINIONS  ATTRIBUTED  TO  OLIVL 


4» 


corrupts  the  nations  with  its  camnlitics,  and  oppresses  the  fev 
t^nuuning  righteous,  as  under  Pugaoiam  it  did  with  Its  idolatries, 
Iq  forty  generations  fniiu  the  harvest  of  the  apostles  there  will 
be  &  new  harvest  of  the  Jews  and  of  the  whole  world,  to  bo  gar- 
nered hy  tho  ETaugelical  Order,  to  which  all  power  and  authority 
fftll  be  tninsferred.  There  are  to  be  a  sixth  and  a  seventh  age, 
ifter  which  uomes  the  Day  of  Judgment.  The  thit«  uf  this  latter 
cannot  be  computet),  but  at  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century  the 
flilth  8ge  is  to  open.  The  carnal  church,  or  Babylon,  will  expire, 
lad  the  thuuiph  of  the  spirituiil  church  will  coiumcnce.* 

It  has  been  customary  for  historians  to  assume  that  this  rcsur- 
rertion  of  the  Everlasting  Gospel  was  Olivi's  work,  though  it  is 
«V)deat  from  the  clntiing  years  of  his  career  that  he  could  not  have 
been  piilty  of  uttering  such  inflammatory  doctrines,  and  tliis  Is 
oiBJlnned  by  the  silence  of  the  Conned  of  Vionne  concerning 
Unid.  although  It  condemned  his  other  trIHing  errors  after  a  thor- 
ough debate  on  the  subjtict  by  his  enemies  and  friends.  In  fact, 
Booagrazia,  in  the  name  of  the  Conventuaht,  bitterly  attacked  his 
■wnory  and  adduced  a  long  list  of  his  errors,  including  cursorily 
owtwn  false  and  fantjistic  pmphecic?s  in  the  I'osld  on  the  Apoca- 
Irpseand  bis  stigmatizing  the  Church  as  the  Great  Whoro.  Had 
mch  passages  as  tlie  above  existed  they  would  have  been  swt  forth 
It  length  and  di>fence  would  have  been  imi>ossible.  Ubertino  in 
reply,  however.  bohUy  characterized  the  assertion  as  most  monda- 
cioio  and  impious;  Olivi,  he  declared,  had  always  spoken  most 
rewently  of  the  Church  and  lloly  See ;  the  Postil  itself  closed 
viUiasuhmlsHion  to  the  liijmiin  C'hurch  ils  the  univursai  niislress, 
ukI  in  the  body  of  the  work  the  Holy  See  was  repeate<lly  alluded 
to&stlie  seat  of  God  and  of  Chnst ;  the  Church  Militant  and  the 
Church  Triumphant  are  8|>oken  of  ns  tho  seats  of  Uofl  which  will 
hsl  to  the  end,  while  the  reprobate  are  IJabylon  and  tho  Great 
^iiore.  It  Is  impossible  that  Ubertino  can  have  qnoted  these  pas- 
B^  falsely,  for  IJonagrazia  would  have  readUy  ovenvheUned  him 
wHt  confusion,  and  the  ('ouncil  of  Vlenne  would  have  rendered  a 
^different  judgment.     We  know  from  undoubted  sources  that 

'  Btlira  cl  Manai  U.  24»-SO.-Born.  Ouiilon.  Piwrt,  P.  v.— Dott,  XXVU. 
ftil.T«n._Brni.  Oui.lon,  Vit.  4rth«nn.  PP.  XXII.  (Muratori  8.  R  I.  III.  n 
Ml).~Widaing.  nan.  ISZ-X  Nn.  4.— Alvar.  PeUig.  do  Plnoctu  Ecclos.  U\t.  u.  miX 
Si-BaJiu.  «t  HsDii  li.  SeU-TO. 

nL-4 


50  THE   SPTRITTTAL  PBAKCISC  AN8. 

the  rextjlutionary  doctrines  commonly  attributed  to  Olivi  if«i 
entertained  bv  ilio&n  who  considered  themaelves  and  were  consid-' 
ore<i  to  be  lua  dii)ci|)Les.  and  we  can  un),v  assuitio  that  in  their  nii»- 
l^idHl  Koal  tlioj  interpolftted  his  Postil,  and  gave  to  their  own 
mystic  dro&ms  the  autkority  of  his  great  name.* 

After  the  death  of  Olivi  the  Franciscan  otlicialR  seem  to  hav« 
felt  themRelves  nnable  to  suppress  the  sect  which  was  «prea<ling 
k,and  organizing  throughout  I^anguedoc.  For  some  reason  not  ap- 
parent, unit-'ss  it  may  have  been  jealousy  of  Ibe  Dominicans,  the 
aid  of  the  luquisitiuii  was  not  called  in,  and  the  inquisitorti  with* 
held  their  hands  from  offenders  of  the  rival  Order.  Tlio  regular 
church  authorities,  however,  wore  appealed  to,  and  in  I209  Giltes, 
Archbishop  of  NarlHinno,  held  at  liL-ziora  a  pnivincial  sjTiod,  m 
vhich  were  condemned  the  Itoguinea  of  both  soxes  who  under  tba 
lead  of  leaiTied  men  of  au  honorable  Order  (tho  Franciscans)  en- 
gaged in  religious  exercises  not  prL-soribod  by  the  Ohurcb,  wore 
veeitmeDl8  diBtinguisliing  them  from  other  folk,  i^erfoniied  novel 
penances  and  abstinences,  administered  vows  of  chastity,  often 
uol  <)b:terve4l,  held  nocturnal  conventicles,  frequented  horeUcG,and 
prcfohiiiuod  that  tlic  end  of  the  world  wa.s  at  hand,  and  tliat  already 
tbo  reign  of  Antichrist  hatl  begun.  From  them  many  scandals 
had  already  arisen,  and  t!iei*e  was  <langer  of  more  and  greater 
troubles.  The  bislioiis  were  therefore  onlered,  in  their  bevoral 
dioceses,  to  investigate  these  t^cclarioe  closely  a^d  to  supprees  them. 
We  sec  from  this  that  there  was  rapidly  growing  np  a  new  hereey 
based  upon  tlie  Kverlasting  (iospel,  with  tho  stricter  Franciscans 
as  a  nucleus,  but  extending  ninong  tho  people.  For  this  papular 
propaganda  the  Tertiary  Order  affowlod  peculiar  facilities,  and 
wo  shall  find  hentaftor  that  tlio  Hoguines,  as  they  were  gennrally 
called,  worn  to  a  ^ruat  extunl  Teitiaries,  wlien  not  full  members 
of  the  Order.    There  was  nothing,  however,  to  tera])t  the  cupidity 


■  Fttrnz  Ktirle  (Arcliiv  £  L.  n.  K.  1886,  |tp.  8flB-T0,  M^-S).— Wiutdinir.  amk 
13»7.  Na  36-17.— BaluK.  '.t  Mhiie!  1L  370. 

T^wcrt  C.\rdiivio  Storir-4)  Huliaiio.  T.  XVII.  No,  2.— Cf-  Fnmz  ElirU-,  Arcb)» 
(ilr  L.  II.  K.  tSST.  p.  498)  has  rccontlj^  founil  in  tlic  T^urcnlinn  Lilimr}-  «  M8.  of 
Oliri's  Poetil  nn  Die  A [^KAlypiw.  It  coiiUiiia  aU  the  p;i!i,^;{e8  cited  tu  U)e  cnn- 
(Icmnation,  Bhowind:  r.)iat  the  cocnmiminn  which  snC  iit  jtidgment  did  not  invent 
Uicm,  but  R9  it  IS  of  llie  tift«eiitli  oeottir?  it  does  Dot  iDvalidil«  tlie  BUggcstioa 
tbftt  hia  followers  Interpolated  liis  work  alter  lils  dcntb. 


KESCI<T8   OP   TH8    THIRTEBNTH 


of  the  episc<>|ul  offiotala  to  Ibo  prosuciition  of  those  irhoeo  prJnci- 
|m1  belief  comuatnl  in  the  renuntiiatioii  uf  all  worhUy  f^xla,  and 
it  it  not  likely  that  they  showed  ihomsclvcs  more  diUgMtt  in  th«ir 
(luies  ibtut  vre  have  seen  them  when  greater  inturests  were  at 
stake.  The  action  of  the  council  may  tbere£(jre  be  safely  otBiiiiied 
uwagted,  except  an  justifying  pnrftccutinn  within  the  tirder.  The 
liy  Beguines  donbtlesa  enjoyed  practioU  immunity,  while  the 
Spictnal  Friara  continued  to  endure  the  raueries  at  the  iiaada  of 
ibar  lUperiorH  fur  whii^h  mtmiistic  life  iilTonled  surh  nbumlant  | 
apportumtiea.  Tliuu,  at  \'iUe(ranche,  when  Ituymond  Auriole 
lid  Jean  Prime  refuited  tu  admit  that  their  vo\n  ^>erroitted  a 
Etwml  use  of  the  things  uf  the  world,  they  were  impriaoned  in 
duns  anil  starved  till  Raymond  died,  doprired  of  the  sflcrameuts 
u I  heretic,  and  Jean  barely  L-»;uu[>ed  with  his  ILfe.* 

Thns  poaaed  away  the  unfortunate  thirlconth  century — thatX 
lye  of  lofty  aspirations  uufulHUod,  of  brilliant  dreams  uusubstim-  J 
tal  u  visions,  of  hupee  evur  looking  to  fruition  and  ever  disap- 
pBiatad.    The  human  iuteiltKiL  had  awakened,  but  as  yet  the  ho- 
■aa  coDJcience  slnmborcd,  save  in  a  few  rare  souls  wlio  mostly 
pitd  in  disgrace  or  death  the  pi-nolty  of  their  precocious  sensitive- 
aw.    That  wondpTful  century  pnssfd  away  and  left  aa  its  legacy 
to  iiB  successor  vast  protn^-s^  indeed,  in  tntolloctnal  activity,  but 
aotlw  spiritual  side  of  the  inheritance  a  dreary  void.     All  efforts 
lO«bvate  the  ideals  of  man  had  mistirably  foiled.    Booioty  waa\ 
lanler  and  coarser,  more  carnal  and  more  worldly  than  ever,  and 
i  ii  not  too  much  to  say  that  the  Inquisition  luul  done  its  full' 
ibre  to  bring  this  abrjut  by  pumsliint;  aspii-ations.  and  by  tooch- 
Okfi  Ibat  the  only  safety  lay  in  mechnnic-al  confonmty.  regardlest  , 
of  ibuws  and  unmindful  of  con-uptiou.    The  res-.dti  of  that  huO'/ 
dnd  years  of  effort  and  sutTering-  are  well  symbolized  in  the  two 
popes  with  whom  it  began  and  endiHl— Innocent  IIL  and  that 
piacfabeck  Innocent,  Boniface  V'llf..  who.  in  tlie  popular  phrase 
of  the  time,  came  in  like  a  fox.  i-uled  like  u  liun,  and  died  lfk» 
A  dog.    In  intelleet  and  leomiag  lionifaoe  wna  superior  to  his 
model,  in  imperious  pride  bis  equal,  in  came^ness,  in  self-tlevo 


*  OonHI,  Ilit«rn?B!i.  ann.  I&Od  e.  4  (Mirtcnu  TlifiSaur.  IV.  S^fl).— iTberttnf 
DKUntio  (ArcUv  t  Utt-  U.  K.  ItlST,  pp.  183-4}. 


52 


THE   8PIBITTTAL  FRANCI8CAK8. 


tion,  in  loftiness  of  aim,  in  all  that  dignities  ambition,  immeasura- 
bly Ills  inferior.  It  is  no  wonder  that  the  apocalv-ptic  specula- 
tions of  Joachim  should  ac<[uire  fresh  bold  un  the  minds  of  those 
who  could  not  reconcile  the  spiritual  desert  in  which  they  lived 
with  their  conception  of  the  merciful  proridcnce  of  God.  To  such 
men  it  seeme*!  iui|K>88ible  that  he  could  permit  a  continuance  of 
the  cruol  wickedness  which  |M>rvade<l  the  Church,  and  through  it 
infected  society  at  lai^ge.  This  was  plainly  beyond  the  power  of 
a  few  earnest  zealots  to  cure,  or  even  to  mitigate,  so  the  divine 
iuterposition  was  retjuisite  to  create  a  new  earth,  inhabited  only 
by  the  few  virtuous  Elect,  under  a  reign  of  ascetic  poverty  and 
all-embracing  love. 

Oue  of  the  most  energetic  and  impetuous  missionaries  of  these 
beliefs  WOK  Amaldo  de  Vilanova,  in  some  resiiecttv  pcrhapK,  the 
most  remarkable  man  of  his  time,  whom  we  have  only  of  late 
learned  to  know  thoroughly,  from  the  researches  of  Sefior  Pelayo. 
As  a  physician  he  stood  unnvalled.  Kings  and  po]>L>s  disputed 
his  services,  and  his  voluminous  writings  on  rae<licino  and  hygiene 
were  reprinted  m  collective  editions  six  times  during  the  sixteenth 
oentury,  besides  numerous  issues  of  s[wcial  treatises.  As  a  chem- 
ist bo  is  more  doubtfully  said  to  have  loft  bis  mark  in  several 
useful  discoveries.  As  an  alchemist  he  had  the  repute  of  pro* 
ducing  ingots  of  gold  in  the  court  of  Robert  of  Naples,  a  great 
patron  of  the  science,  and  his  treati.ses  on  the  subject  were  in- 
cluded in  collections  of  such  works  printed  as  lately  as  the  eight- 
eenth century.  A  student  of  both  Arabic  and  Hebrew,  he  trana- 
lated  from  Costa  ben  Luca  treatises  on  iitcantatiuns,  ligatures,  and 
other  magic  devices.  Ho  wrote  on  astronomy  and  on  oneiro- 
niancy,  for  he  was  an  expert  expounder  of  dreams,  and  also  on 
surveying  and  wine-making.  He  draughted  biwB  for  Frederic  of 
Trinacria  which  that  enlightened  monarch  promulgated  and  en- 
forced, and  his  advice  to  Frederic  and  his  brother  Jayroe  II.  of 
Aragon  on  their  duties  as  munarchs  stamfM  him  as  a  conscientious 
statesnuin.  When  Jayme  applied  to  him  for  the  exphuiation  of  a 
mysterious  dream  bo  not  only  satisfied  the  king  with  his  exposi- 
tion, but  proceeded  to  warn  him  that  his  chief  duty  lay  in  admin- 
istenng  justice,  tirst  to  the  poor,  and  then  to  the  rich.  When 
asked  how  often  he  gave  audieooe  to  the  poor,  Jayme  answered, 
once  a  week,  and  also  when  he  rode  out  for  pleasure.     Amaldo 


J 


stemly  reproTcd  him ;  he  was  earning  damnation ;  the  rich  had 
aooen  to  hun  every  day.  murning,  noon,  ami  night,  the  \tnoT  but 
Btklnm;  ho  made  of  Go<l  the  hog  of  8t.  Anthon}*,  which  received 
(•nly  the  refuse  rejectcl  by  all.  If  be  wiahe<l  to  cnm  salvation  he 
[Qiut  devote  himself  to  the  welfare  of  the  poor,  without  which,  in 
ipite  of  the  Uyichings  of  the  Church,  iirather  pealms,  nor  masses, 
nt>r  fiisting.  nor  even  alms  would  sufHce.  To  Jaymo  he  was  not 
ooly  physician  but  counsellor,  venerable  and  much  beloved,  and 
he  VU6  n>[>eate<lly  employed  on  diplomatic  missions  by  the  kings 
of  both  Amgon  and  Sicily.* 

]tfultiCarious  as  were  these  occuiwlions,  they  consumed  bat  a 
pnlton  of  his  rciiieRs  lictivity.  In  dedioating  to  RolKrtof  Xaj^ 
Us  treatise  on  surveying,  he  describes  bimnelf — 

"  Yen,  Amitnt  <le  ViljuioTa  .  .  , 
Doctor  eo  leys  et  en  dccrota, 
Et  vD  ei«n»a  de  itrolomU, 
Et  till  r»rt  de  medidas, 
Bt  eD  1»  unU  teologia"— 

uii,  although  a  layman,  marriwl,  and  a  father,  his  favorite  field  of 

labor  was  theology,  which  he  had  studied  with  the  Dominicans  of 

Ibntpellier.     In  12d'i  ho  commenced  with  a  work  on  the  Tetra- 

inamraaton,  or  ineffable  name  of  Jehovah,  in  which  he  sought  to 

expbin  by  natural  reasons  the  m3-stery  of  the  Trinity.  Embarked 

bnoh  speculations  he  soon  became  a  confirmed  Joachite.    To  a 

Diai  of  his  lofty  spiritual  tendencies  and  tender  compassion  for  his 

HkwB,  the  wickedness  and  cruelty  of  mankind  were  appiilling,  and 

(vp«cially  the  crimes  of  the  clergy,  among  whom  he  reckone<l  the 

JIndicants  as  the  worst.    Their  vices  he  lashed  unsparingly,  and 

be  Mtorally  fell  in  with  the  speculations  of  the  pseud o-.Joachitic 

vriliogs,  anticipating  the  speedy  advent  of  Antichrist  and  the  Day 

of  lodgment.     In  numI)erlo.s8  works  composed  in  Ixtth  Lntin  and 

tie  remocular  he  commented  upon  and  popularized  the  Joachitic 

books,  even  going  so  far  iis  to  declare  that  the  revelation  of  Cyril 

ns  more  precious  than  idl  t>cripture.    Such  a  man  naturally   | 

■pnpathize<l  with  the  persecuted  Spirituals.    He  boldly  undertook 

their  defence  in  sumlry  tracts,  and  when,  in  1309,  Frederic  of  Tri- 

'  fVUiyo,  niiUtnKlnxas  EspaHuIeB,  I.  450^1. 475.  SOO-1, 736-7, 772.— M.  FIk. 
Dljr.  Cst.  T«tt,  VcriUUs,  pp.  17S2  sqq.  (Bd.  16()S). 


56 


THE   SPIRITTAt    FRANCISCANS. 


eflgorly  read  by  himself,  his  queen  and  his  children,  by  arehblsbopA 
and  bishops,  by  the  clergy  and  the  laity.  IIu  demandeti  that  the 
sentence  bo  revoked  as  uncanonical,  else  he  woidd  punish  Fray 
Guillemio  severely  and  visit  with  his  displeasure  all  the  Domini- 
cans of  his  dominions.  It  was  probably  this  royal  favor  which 
saved  Amaldo  when  he  came  near  being  bumc<l  at  8anta  Christina, 
and  escaped  with  no  worse  infliction  than  being  stigmatized  as  a 
necromancer  and  enchanter,  a  heretic  and  a  pope  of  the  heretics,* 
When  the  persecution  of  the  Spirituals  o£  Provence  was  at  its 
height,  Amaldo  [irucured  from  Cbartes  ilie  Lame  of  Naples,  who 
was  also  Connt  of  Provence,  a  letter  to  the  general,  Gerald,  which 
for  a  time  put  a  stop  to  it.  In  1309  we  find  him  at  Avignon,  on 
a  mission  from  Jaymo  II.,  well  received  by  Clement  V..  who 
prized  highly  his  skill  as  a  physician.  Ho  nsed  effectively  this  po- 
sition by  secretly  persuading  the  pope  to  send  for  the  leaders  of 
the  Spirituals,  in  order  lo  Icam  from  them  orally  and  in  writing  of 
what  they  complained  and  ^vhat  reformation  they  tlesired  in  their 
Order.  With  regard  to  his  own  affairs  be  was  not  so  fortunate. 
At  a  ]>ubliu  bearing  before  the  pope  and  cardinals,  in  October, 
1809,  he  predicte<l  the  end  of  the  world  within  the  centiiry,and 
the  advent  of  Antichrist  within  its  first  forty  years ;  ho  dwelt  at 
much  length  on  the  depravity  of  clergy  and  laity,  ami  complained 
bitterly  of  the  persecution  of  those  who  desired  to  live  in  evan- 
gelical poverty.  All  this  was  to  be  expected  of  him.  but  he  added 
the  incredible  indiscretion  of  reading  a  detailed  account  of  the 
dreams  of  Jayme  II.  and  Frederic  of  Trinacria,  their  doubts  and 
his  explanations  and  exhortations^matters,  all  of  thorn,  as  sacre«tly 
confidential  as  the  confession  of  a  penitent.  Cardinal  Napoleone 
Orsini,  the  protector  of  the  Spirituals,  wrote  to  Jaynio  congratu- 
lating him  on  his  piety  as  revoaleil  by  that  wise  and  illuminated 
man,  inflamed  with  the  love  of  God.  Master  Arnaldo,  but  this  ef- 
fort to  conjure  the  tempest  was  unavailing.  The  Cardinal  of 
Porto  and  Itamon  Ortiz,  Dominican  Provincial  of  Aragon,  promptly 
reported  to  Jayme  that  he  and  his  brother  hod  been  represented  as 
wavering  in  the  faith  and  as  believers  in  dreams,  and  advised  lum 
no  lunger  to  employ  as  bis  envoy  such  a  heretic  as  Amaldo. 
Jayme's  pride  was  dc<'ply  woumltHl.     It  was  in  vain  that  Clement 


PeUyo.  I.  481,773. 


CLEMENT    GIVES    THEM    A    nEARISG. 


57 


nmred  him  that  he  hail  paid  no  attention  to  Amoldo's  ducoante ; 
ihekiDjr  wrote  to  the  pope  and  cardinnls  and  to  his  brother  deny* 
in^  tlie  story  of  his  dreaiii  and  treating  Arnaldo  us  an  impostor. 
Fnxlcric  waa  less  susceptible :  he  wroto  to  Jayme  that  the  storj 
fioalddo  them  no  bann.a&d  that  the  real  infamy  would  lie  in 
abandoning  Arnaldo  in  his  hour  of  iwril.  Arnaldo  took  refuge 
with  him,  and  not  long  aftorn-ards  was  sent  by  hiiu  again  to  Avi- 
gBoi)  on  a  mission,  but  perished  during  the  voyage.  The  exact  dat« 
«(kis  death  is  unknown,  but  it  wua  prior  to  February,  1311.  For 
idftsb  reuiions  Clement  mourned  hia  lut»,  and  issued  a  bull  an- 
wnKing  that  Arnaldo  hail  been  his  ph^'sician  and  had  promised 
Una  most  useful  book  which  he  had  written;  he  hud  died  with- 
wt  doing  so>  and  now  Clement  sumnionod  any  one  jrassessing  the 
pnooos  Tolniuo  to  deliver  it  to  him.* 


The  interposition  of  Amaldr)  offered  to  the  Spirituals  an  un- 
eijiected  prtjspcctof  delivcrunt:e.  Krom  Langue<loc  to  Venice  and 
PloRUce  they  were  enduring  the  bitterest  persecution  from  their 
suiKTiors ;  they  were  cast  into  dungeons  where  they  starved  to 
deitli.and  were  exposed  to  the  infinite  trials  for  whicli  monastto 
lifeaflorded  such  abundant  opiwrtunities,  when  Amaldo[)er8uaded 
Ctenent  to  make  an  energetic  effort  to  heal  the  schism  in  the  Or- 
d^and  to  silence  the  accusation!)  which  the  Conventuals  brought 
against  their  brethren.  An  occa<iion  was  found  in  an  appeal  from 
tbe  citizens  of  Narbonne  setting  forth  that  the  books  of  Oltvi  hod 
Wn  unjustly  condenmetl.  that  tlie  Kule  of  the  Order  was  disro- 
|iid&d,and  those  who  observed  it  were  persecuted,  and  further 
pnying  that  a  s])ecial  cult  of  Olivias  remains  might  be  permitted. 
A  commission  of  ini|>urtanl  personages  was  fonned  to  investigate 
tbe  faith  of  Angelo  da  Clanno  and  his  disciples,  who  still  dwelt  in 
*1»  oeight>orho<xl  of  Rome,  and  who  were  pronounced  good  Catho- 
iKa.  Sucli  leading  SpiritmUs  as  Raymond  Chiufridi,  the  former 
gtoonU,  llbertino  da  Caaale,  the  intellectuiil  leader  of  the  aect, 
Hayraond  de  Giniac.  former  Provincial  of  Arugvm,  Gui  de  Mir& 
puix,Bartolonuueo  tiicardi,  and  others  were  summoned  to  Avignon, 


'  Hbi.  TribalaliooaiD  (Archiv  fOr  LitU-  ii.  K.  1888, 1.  189).— Pvlijo,  I.  481- 
8.  TTS,  770.— Wftdding.  ann.  1312,  No.  7.— Cf.  Trithem-  Chroa.  Hiraaug.  ua 
I'lO;  f .  LBDgU  Cbrou.  CiticeiM.  ano.  13^20. 


5g 


THE  SPIRITCAL   PRAKCISCAN8. 


Where  thej'  were  onleretl  to  dmw  up  in  writing  tim  points  whioh 
they  deemed  ret|iii8iL«  for  the  refoiTiiation  uf  the  Order.  To  en- 
able them  to  [HTfoiin  this  duty  in  safoty  tliey  wore  taken  under 
papal  protection  by  a  bull  which  shows  in  ita  minute  snecifications 
how  real  were  the  pi-rils  iucurrml  by  those  who  sought  to  restore 
the  Order  to  its  primitive  purilv.  Appiuvuily  sliniulatod  by  thaae 
warnings,  the  general,  t^onsaivo,  at  the  Cliapter  of  I'adua  in  ISIO, 
cautftMl  the  adoption  of  many  r^^atiuns  to  ditninish  the  loxury 
and  romovo  the  abuwis  which  pervailed  the  Order,  but  the  evil  waa 
too  decp-seatod.  He  was  resolviMi.  moi-eovor.  on  retlocing  the  Hpir- 
ftoals  to  obedience,  and  the  hatred  between  the  two  ]>arties  grew 
bitterer  than  ever.* 

The  articles  of  complaint,  thirty-five  in  number,  which  the 
'Spirituals  laid  before  Clement  V.  in  obe<tience  to  his  oommandi 
forniLHi  u  terrible  iiidiclment  of  tlio  hixity  iuid  corrupUun  which 
h[ul  crept  into  the  Order.  Itwasarsivored  but  feebly  by  theCon- 
vontualB,  pj^rtly  by  denying  its  aliogation-i,  partly  by  dialectical 
subtleties  to  prove  that  the  Rule  did  not  mean  what  it  said,  and 
pnrtly  by  nccusing  the  SpiritualB  of  hrrosy.  ('loment  appointed  a 
commission  of  cirdinals  and  theotogiatis  to  hear  both  Hides.  For 
two  years  the  contest  raged  with  the  utmost  fury.  During  its  con- 
tinuance Ihiymund  Gaufridi,  (iui  dc  Mirepoix,  and  iJartoLommoo 
Sioanli  died— poisonoil  by  their  adversariea,  acconling  to  one  ao- 
connt,  worn  out  with  iti-trcatmcnt  and  insult  according  to  another. 
Clement  had  temporarily  released  the  delegates  of  the  Spirilualfl 
from  the  jurisdiction  of  their  enemies,  who  had  the  audacity, 
March  1,  181 1,  to  enter  u  formal  protest  ugain^t  his  action,  alleg- 
ing that  they  were  exoonunuaicatod  heretics  under  tiial,  who 
could  not  1)0  thug  protoetetl.  In  i\i\s  prolonged  discussion  the 
opposing  leaders  were  Ubortino  da  Caaalu  and  Oonagraxia  (Bon- 


•  Vnm  Ehrle(Arc1iiv  fQr  LiU-  u.  K.  1S80,  pp,  380-1. 3W4.  888;  1887,  p.  3fl).— 
Baym.  cle  KToDCiAcho  (lb.  1887,  p.  l8},~Kym«rict)  p.  816.— AngaU  ClArini  LiU. 
Bxcus.  (Archiv,  188a,  pp.  681-3).— WatldiD];.  anu.  1210,  No.  6.— R4gMt  Clem- 
enL  PI'.  V.  T.  V.  pp.  370  »<iq.    Houue,  1887>- 

At  Ibc  satuf  liuiu  tliut  tlio  general,  Gonsalro,  vu  ooeking  lo  repres:!  the  oc- 
<|iii>ilivciirs«  of  the  friam  tli«y  ven:  procuring  from  the  Kmperor  Henry  VII.  a 
decree  annulling  &  local  Rtatut«  of  Karember;;  which  forbade  An;  citizen  fVom 
gftinf*  thorn  more  tlian  a  single  gold  piece  at  a  time,  or  a  nieosiire  of  corn. — 
Chron.  GlA8»)>cr[fcr  nnn.  i:tIO. 


TllKlR    ArPAKKNT   VIUTORT, 


S» 


))  da  Bergamo.  The  fonn<?r,  vrhilv  absorbed  id  devotion  on 
'  Alrerno,  tbo  scone  of  St.  Francis's  tmnsfi^iration,  hwl  been 
by  (Jhrist  find  raised  tn  a  lofty  dpjrnw  of  spiritnal  insipbl. 
repoiation  is  ilhwtratod  by  iho  story  that  while  laboring  with 
BDCti  ncceei  in  Tuscany  be  hod  been  sammnnrd  to  Rome  by 
Bcnediot  XI.  to  ansnor  sorao  nctiusations  lirou^'ht  aj^ainst  him. 
Sooi  afterwards  tho  people  of  I'erngia  sent  a  solemn  embassy  to 
tbe  popo  with  two  rwqaests— one  that  Ubertino  be  restored  to 
tbrn,  tbo  other  that  the  pope  and  eardin&la  would  reside  in  their 
oilf— whereat  lienniict  smiled  and  snid,  '*  I  see  ynu  love  ns  bnt  a 
liilJe,  since  you  prefer  Fri  III»ertino  to  us."  Fie  was  a  Joachite, 
momiTer,  who  did  not  hesitate  to  chamcterizc  tho  abdication  of 
Cetestin  as  a  horrihlo  innovation,  and  the  accession  of  Bonif.ire  m 
•  OBOrpation.  Booagrazia  was  perhajte  Biiperior  to  bis  opponent 
to  learning  and  not  his  inferior  in  steudfuj^t  devotion  to  what  be 
dwiaed  tho  tnith,  though  LD^ertino  characterized  him  as  a  lay 
sonec,  skilled  in  the  cunning  tricks  nf  the  law.  We  shall  see 
hweafter  hia  readiness  to  endure  persecutiun  in  defence  of  his  own 
idetl  of  poverty ;  and  the  antagonism  of  two  unch  men  upon  the 
points  at  issue  between  them  is  the  most  striking  iUnatratinn  of 
tlie  impracticable  nature  of  the  questions  which  raised  so  heated  a 
itiife  anil  cost  so  macfa  blood.* 
TheSpiritiials  failed  in  tht^ir  efforts  to  obtain  n  decree  of  sepa^ 
^Jiiioo  whiob  should  ejmble  thom.  in  jicnce. to  live  accoi-ding  to  their 
^■lU-ritretation  of  the  Rule,  but  in  other  rexpects  the  decision  (rf 
^Hie  commiasion  woa  wholly  in  their  favor,  in  spite  of  the  persist* 
^w  effort  of  the  C/onventuals  to  divert  attention  from  the  real 
IMtioDB  at  issue  to  the  assumtid  errors  of  Olivi.  Clement  ao- 
oe|H«I  the  decision,  and  in  full  oonsistor}-,  in  presence  of  both 
Parties,  ordered  them  to  live  in  mntnal  love  and  charity,  to  bujy 
^  pest  in  oblivion,  and  not  to  insult  each  other  for  past  differ- 
«*«6.  Ubertino  replied,  '*  Holy  Father,  they  call  ns  heretics  and 
Wanders  of  heresy;  there  am  whole  Ixmks  full  of  this  in  your  ar- 
^in  and  those  of  tbe  Order.  They  must  cither  allege  these  things 


'ApcIiIt  fQr  L.  a.  K.  1887,  pp.  08  Sfm.— flist.  Tribuliit.  (Ibiil.  1986,  pp.  ISO, 

<).— EJirledbid.  1866.  pp.366,3d0).— WadUing.Bnii.  1810. No.  1-5.— Cbron. 

ger  um.  ISIO.— Ulwrtini  dc  Cuali  Tr»ct  dc  septetn  StatitMU  Ecolcfim 


60 


THE   SPIRITUAL    FnANCIBCANa 


aad  let  as  defeml  ourselves,  or  tlioy  must  recall  thom.  Otherwise 
there  can  bo  no  peace  between  us.''  To  this  Clement  rejoined, 
"  We  declare  as  pope,  that  from  what  has  been  stated  on  botli 
sides  before  ub,  iiu  one  ought  to  call  you  heretics  and  defenders 
of  heresy.  What  exists  to  that  effect  in  our  archives  or  elsewhere 
we  wholly  erase  and  pronounce  to  \k  of  no  validity  against  you." 
Tlie  result  was  seen  in  the  Council  of  Viennc  (1311-lS),  which 
jwoptod  the  canon  known  as  KrUn  de  Paradtmj  designed  to  settle 

/toKver  the  controversy  which  had  lasted  so  long.  Angelo  da 
Clarino  declares  that  this  was  based  wholly  upon  the  propositions 
of  Ubertino;  that  it  was  the  crowning  victor}'  of  the  Spirituals, 
and  his  heart  overflows  with  joy  when  he  communicates  the  good 

-  news  to  his  brethren.  It  detennincd,  he  says,  eighty  questions 
concerning  the  interpretation  of  the  Rule ;  hereafter  those  who 
serve  the  Ixird  in  hermitages  and  are  obedient  to  their  bishops 
are  secured  against  molestation  by  any  person.  The  inquisitors, 
ho  further  statwi,  were  plaoHl  under  control  of  the  bisliopa,  which 
he  evidently  regardetl  as  a  matter  of  tqiecial  importance,  for  in 
Provence  and  Tuscany  the  Inquisition  was  Franciscan,  and  thus 
in  the  hands  uf  the  Conventuals.  We  have  seen  that  Clement 
delayed  issuing  the  <lecroc8  of  the  council.  He  was  on  the  point 
of  doing  so,  after  cjiroful  revision,  when  his  dcnth,  in  1314,  fol- 
lowed b}'  a  long  interregnum,  caused  a  further  postponement. 
John  XXII.  nos  elected  in  August,  1310,  but  he,  ton,  drairo4l  time 
for  further  revision,  and  it  was  not  until  November,  1317,  that  the 
ocmona  were  finally  issued.  That  they  underwent  change  in  this 
prooesB  is  more  than  probable,  and  tlie  canon  Kcivi  de  I^aradim 
was  on  a  subject  peculiarly  provocative  of  alteration.  As  it  has 
reached  us  it  certainly  does  not  justify  Angelo's  pseiin  of  tri- 
umph. It  is  true  that  it  insists  on  a  more  rigid  compliance 
with  the  Rule.  It  forbids  the  placing  of  oolTers  in  churches  for 
the  collection  of  money;  it  pronounces  the  friars  incapable  of 
enjoying  inheritances;  it  deprecates  the  building  of  magnificent 
churches,  and  convents  which  ai'c  ntther  pahK^s;  it  prohibits  the 
actjuisition  of  extensive  gardens  and  great  vineyards,  and  even 
the  storing  up  of  gmnaries  of  corn  and  cellars  of  wiue  where  the 
brethren  can  live  from  d,iy  to  day  by  beggary ;  it  declares  that 
"^*»atever  is  given  to  the  Order  belongs  to  the  Church  of  Rome, 
that  the  friars  have  only  the  use  of  it,  for  they  can  hold  noth- 


CLSMEXT   PROTBCTB  THBIT. 


61 


ing,  either  iDdividu^y  or  ia  common.  In  short,  it  fully  justified 
iba  complaints  of  tlie  Spiritimk  and  inter]>retiKl  the  Rule  in  &o> 
oonUncc  with  their  views,  hut  it  did  not,  as  Angelo  claimed,  al- 
low them  to  Uvo  by  themselves  in  peace,  and  it  Bubjectod  them  tO' 
their  superiors.  This  nos  tu  remand  theiu  into  shivery,  as  the 
gnat  majority  of  the  Order  were  Conventuals,  jealous  of  the  as- 
sonption  of  superior  sanctity  by  the  Spirituals,  and  irritated  by 
Umrdefeftt  and  by  the  threatened  onforoement  of  the  Rule  in  all 
its  rigidity.  This  spirit  was  Btill  further  inflamed  by  the  action 
uf  ihe  general,  Gonsjil^'o,  who  xealously  set  to  work  to  carrj'  out 
tile  reforuu  prescribed  by  the  canua  £e{vi.  He  traversed  the 
niioufl  provinces,  pulling  down  costly  buildings  and  comjicllinj 
tlifi  return  of  gifts  and  legacies  to  donors  and  heirs.  This  excited 
great  indignation  among  Uie  laxer  brethren,  and  his  speedy  death, 
in  I3I,%  waa  attributed  to  foul  play.  The  election  of  his  suocea- 
air,  Aleasandro  da  Alcssancbia,  one  of  the  most  earnest  of  the 
Oonrentuals,  showed  tliat  the  Order  at  large  was  not  disposed  to 
ttbuut  quietly  to  pope  an<l  council.* 

As  might  have  been  expected,  the  strife  between  the 
beetine  bitterer  than  ever,    Clement's  leaning  in  favor  of  osceti- 
cian  is  shown  by  his  canonization,  in  1313,  of  Celestin  V.,  but  wfaea ' 
tlu Spirituals  applied  Ut  him  for  protccttinn  against  their  brethren 
be  eontentcfl  him.wlf  with  ordering  them  to  return  to  their  con- 
vents and  commanding  them  to  be  kindly  treated.    These  com> 
kukls  were  disregarded.     Mutual  hatreds  were  too  strong  for; 
fOWM  not  to  be  abu.sed.    Clement  did  his  best  to  force  the  Oon-| 
Ttstoals  to  submission;  as  eariy  as  July,  1311,  he  ha<l  ordered 
fiooagrazia  to  betake  himself  to  the  convent  of  Valcabrere  in 
Comningcs,  and  not  to  leave  it  without  sjwcial  pa|)al  license.    At 
Ike  same  time  he  summoned  before  him  Guiraud  Vallett*,  the 
IWmcial  of  Provence,  and  fifteen  of  tlie  principal  officials  of  the 
(Wer  throughout  the  south  of  France,  who  were  regarded  as  the 
Ibm1«s  in  the  oppression  of  the  Spirituals.    In  public  consistory 

fc'^biIrUllI  Rcf^osiotArchir  fUr  L.  a.  E.  1887,  p.  87).— Baluz.  et  Mansi  IT. 
■-fnia  Bhrie  (Archiv  flir  L.  n.  K.  18W.  pp.  541-3,  W5;  1886,  p.  3«8).— 
I  TribnUt.  (Ibid.  1886,  pp.  ISfMl).— 0.  1,  Clctnciit.  r.  11.— Wadding,  nnn. 
I1U;Nd.»;  ana.  1313,  No.  1.— Clurwa.  01s»t«rger  anu.  1312.— Alvar.  Pelag.  de 
fiuxt  Ecdea.  Lib.  n.  art.  67. 


63 


TBI    SPIHITOAL    FRANCrreCAJTS. 


he  repeate<t  his  commands,  scolded  theiu  fur  disobedience  and  re- 
belliun.  disiiiitised  from  oflicn  Lliose  who  Uad  pmitiuns,  and  declared 
ineligible  those  who  were  not  otttriaJa.  Thono  whom  he  ejected  be 
replaced  with  goitable  persons  whom  he  strictly  coimitanded  W 
preserve  the  peace  and  show  favor  to  the  sorely  alllicted  minority. 
In  spite  of  thia  tiie  scandals  and  complaints  continued,  until  the 
general,  Aless&mlro,  granted  to  the  Spirituals  the  three  convents 
€d  Karbonne,  lleziers.  and  C^trcAsstinne,  and  ordered  that  the 
superiors  placed  over  them  shoidd  be  iieceptable.  The  change 
ma  not  effected  witliout  the  cmploymont  of  force,  in  which  the 
Spirituals  bad  the  advantage  of  popular  sympathy,  axid  the  &>o.- 
Tents  thus  favored  boranie  Iiouaf*  of  refuge  for  the  difloi:int«nted 
brethren  elsewhere.  Then  for  a  while  there  seems  to  have  been 
quiet,  but  with  Clement's  death,  in  IS14,  the  turmoil  commenced 
afrah.  Buna<^razia,  under  pretext  of  sickness,  hastened  to  leave 
his  ptaoe  of  contineiiient.  and  joined  eagerly  in  the  renewed  dia- 
torbaace;  the  dismissed  officials  again  made  their  influence  felt; 
the  Spirituals  complained  that  they  were  abused  and  defamed  iu 
private  and  in  public,  pelted  with  mud  and  stones,  de)>rivod  of 
food  and  even  of  the  soorameat-t,  de:«j>oited  of  their  habita,  and 
scattered  to  distant  places  or  imprisoned.* 

It  is  possilile  that  (Memunt  might  have  found  s<mie  means  of 
dissolving  the  lunds  betweoti  these  iri-cconeilable  pculiea,  but  for 
the  insubordination  of  the  Italian  Spiritual).  Thoso  grew  impa- 
tient during  the  long  oonforonocs  whicli  preceded  the  CounoU 
of  Vienna.  Suh]ectc<l  to  daily  nfllictinns  and  despairing  of  rest 
within  the  Order,  they  eagerly  listened  to  the  advice  of  a  wise  and 
boly  man.  Canon  Martin  of  ijiena,  who  assured  them  that,  how- 
ever few  their  numbors,  they  had  a  right  to  secede  and  elect  their 
own  general  Under  the  lead  of  Giacopo  di  San  Geraignano  they 
did  so,  and  etlected  an  iudejieadent  orgouizution.  This  was  rank 
rebellion  and  greatly  prejudiced  the  Du»e  of  the  Spirituals  at  Avig- 
non. Clemoni  would  not  listen  to  anything  that  savored  of  con- 
cessions to  tJiose  who  thus  threw  off  their  pledged  obedience.  He 
promptly  sent  commissions  for  their  tnal,  and  they  were  duly  ex- 


*  Junlao.  CliroR.  c.  324  Parlid  iii.  (Hurntnrf  Antiq.  XI.  797).-Hut.  Tribulat. 
( Architf.  Ibm,  140-1 ).— Pninx  Kliri«  (Iliiti  1S80,  pp.  i:iti~Ci ;  1887,  (ip.  33,  40>.— 
FUyoi.  de  Fronciacbu  (lb.  ItjST,  p.  37> 


J 


REBELLION    IN    ITALY. 


63 


inicaterl  m  schismatica  And  rehote,  foandors  of  a  superstb 
Uoot  sect,  and  dis«eminators  of  ia.\se  and  pestiforouB  doctrines. 
Pcneootion  againsi  thL<m  ru^^  mure  furimiBly  than  over.  In 
aone  placeA,  rapporlecl  by  the  laity,  they  ejected  the  Conventuala 
from  tjteir  houses  and  defended  tlienuhdves  by  foroc  uf  arms,  dig* 
ngtnlingtlio  censures  of  theCliunih  which  were  lavished  on  thonL 
Otlun  mode  the  boRt  of  tlioir  way  to  Sicily,  and  others  again, 
•iwrdy  before  Clement's  death,  sent  letters  to  him  profeniiig  tnlv 
ftauon  and  obcHlienoe,  but  the  friends  of  the  Hpiritunls  feared  bo^ 
flonpronuse  theniaelveB  by  even  proacntinR*  them.  After  the  ao- 
eeawm  of  John  XXII.  ihey  made  another  attempt  to  reach  the 
pope,  but  by  that  time  the  Conventmils  were  in  fuU  control  and 
tlimw  the  envoys  into  prison  as  excoininnnicatod  bei-etics.  Such 
rfihera  afl  were  able  to  do  so  wcaped  to  Sicily.  Il  is  worthy  of 
Kit«tbat  ererywliere  the  virtues  and  sanctity  of  tliese  so-called 
iMnties  won  for  them  prtpnlar  favor,  and  secured  them  prot«rtion 
mm  or  less  efficient,  and  this  wn<t  espechdly  the  case  in  Ricily. 
E^  Frederic,  mindful  of  the  lessons  taught  him  by  Amaldo  de 
V^datiova,  received  the  fugitives  graciously  anil  allon-od  thorn  to 
staMlsh  themselves,  in  spite  of  repeated  remonstniDCes  on  the 
jart  of  John  XXII.  There  Henry  da  €eva»  wliom  we  shall  meet 
Bgiin.had  alrea<ly  sought  refuge  from  the  {>ersecutiun  uf  Ikmifooe 
VIII.  and  harl  preimred  the  way  for  those  who  were  to  follow. 
In  1313  there  are  allusions  to  a  pope  named  Celcstin  whom  the 
"  foor  Men  "  in  Sicily  had  elected,  with  a  college  of  cardinals,  who 
ftinilitated  the  only  true  (?hurch  and  who  wero  entitled  to  the 
*Mienoe  of  the  faithful.  Insigoificant  as  this  movement  may 
loTt  seemed  at  the  time,  it  sabw(|Uontly  aided  the  foundation  al 
iW  »ot  known  as  Fraticelli,  who  so  long  braved  with  inarvelloos 
flOMUncy  the  unspftring  rigor  of  tho  Italian  Inquisition.* 

bto  these  dangerous  paths  of  rebellion  the  original  leaders  of 


'  HisL  Tribalat  (loc.  dt.  pp.  139-40).— Lami,  AolicliitJ  Twretne,  pp.  5M-fiO. 
-Ffuii  Elirl«,  Arclilv,  1885,  pp.  15(1-8.— Joann.  8.  Victor.  Cliron.  unn.  1810 
(MaWori  3.  R.  i  IIL  U.  478).— Wadding,  ann.  181S,  No.  4-7.— D'Arg«iitrC  1.  t. 
W— Areh.  de  llnq.  dc  Carcass.  (Ttont,  XXVII.  fn|.  7  sfiii).— Bnym.  de  Pmuci- 
"1^'irclilr,  1887,  p.  31). 

'A  PnuiCMCn  dwi  Rurgd  Pun  Stimlcm.  who  w.-««  trird  liy  the  InquHilinn  nt 
*■•*  in  131 1  for  »asuminp  gifij*  of  pr-iphecy.  wiw  prnhahljr  ft  Tuwaii  Jo»chito 
'•wBTiued  tubmiiuon  (Prioz  Ehrle,  Arclii?  fRr  L.  o.  K,  1887.  p.  IIV. 


u 


THE   SPIRITUAL  FRANCISCANS. 


the  Italian  Spirituals  wore  not  obliged  to  enter,  as  they  were  re- 
leaMx]  from  subjection  to  the  Conventuals,  ami  could  afford  to  re- 
main in  obedience  to  Rome.  Angelo  da  Clarino  writes  to  his  dis- 
ciples that  torment  and  deaUi  were  preferable  to  separation  from 
the  Church  and  its  head :  the  pope  was  Ibo  bishop  of  bishops,  who 
regulatwi  all  ecclosiastical  dimities ;  the  jiower  of  the  keys  is  from 
Clirist,  and  submission  is  due  in  spiteof  [tersecutJon.  Yet,  together 
with  these  appeals  are  others  which  show  how  impracticable  was 
the  position  croatod  by  the  belief  in  St.  Francis  as  a  new  evan- 
gelist whose  Rule  was  a  revelation.  If  kings  or  prelates  com- 
mand what  is  ooatrary  to  the  faith,  then  obedience  is  duo  to 
God,  and  death  is  to  bo  welcomed.  Francis  pJacod  in  the  Rule 
nothing  but  what  Christ  bade  him  write,  and  obedience  is  due  to 
it  rather  than  to  pi-olatcs.  After  the  persecution  nnder  John 
XXII.  be  oven  quotes  a  prophecy  attrihutpd  to  Francis,  to  the 
effect  that  men  would  arise  who  would  render  the  Order  odious, 
and  corrupt  the  whole  Church;  there  would  be  a  pope  not  canoni- 
oally  elected  who  would  not  believe  rightly  as  to  Christ  and  the 
Rule;  there  would  be  a  split  in  the  Oitler,  and  the  wrath  of  God 
would  visit  those  who  cleaved  to  error.  With  clear  reference  to 
John,  ho  says  that  if  a  pojw  condemns  evangelical  truth  as  an 
error  ho  is  to  Iw  loft  to  tlic  judgment  of  Christ  and  the  doctors; 
if  he  excommnnicates  aa  Iieresy  tic  jKjverty  of  the  Gospel,  he  is 
excommunicate  of  God  and  is  a  heretic  before  Christ.  Yet,  though 
his  faith  an<l  obedience  were  thus  sorely  triwi,  Anj^lo  and  lus  fol- 
lowers never  attempted  a  schism,  lie  dieil  in  1337,  worn  out  with 
sixty  years  of  tribulation  and  persecution — a  man  of  the  tinnest 
and  gentlest  spirit,  of  the  most  saintly  aBpirations,  who  had  fallen 
on  evil  days  and  had  exliaust^Kl  himself  in  the  hopelc^  effort  to 
reconcile  the  irreconcilable.  Though  John  XXJI.  had  permitted 
him  to  assume  the  habit  and  Rule  of  the  Cnlestins,  he  was  obliged 
to  live  in  hiding,  with  his  atHidc  known  only  to  a  few  faithful 
friends  and  followers,  of  some  of  wliom  we  he^ir  as  on  trial  Iwfore 
the  Inquisition  as  Fraticclli,  in  1331.  It  wiis  in  the  desert  henuit- 
age  of  Santa  Maria  di  Aspro  in  the  Basilicata ;  but  three  days 
before  his  death  a  rumor  spread  that  a  snint  wils  dying  there,  and 
such  moltitudes  assemblod  that  it  was  necessary  to  place  guards 
at  the  entrance  of  his  retreat,  and  a<hnit  the  people  two  by  two  to 
gaze  on  his  dying  agonies.    Ue  sbuno  in  uurucles,  and  was  finally 


INSUUUItDI.N'ATION    IN    PHOVENCE. 


65 


beallfied  by  the  Church,  which  through  the  period  of  two  geaera- 
tioits  had  never  ceased  to  trample  on  him.  but  his  httle  oongrega- 
lion,  though  lost  to  sight  in  tho  more  aggressive  energy  of  the 
Fraticelli,  continued  to  exist,  even  after  the  tradition  of  self-abne- 
^UoQ  was  taken  up  under  more  fortunate  auspices  by  the  Obser- 
TanUnes,  until  it  was  finally  absorbed  into  the  latt«r  in  the  re- 
organization of  1517  under  Leo  X.* 

Ib  Provence,  even  before  the  death  of  Clement  V..  there  wero  \ 
ifdait  spirits,  nursing  the  w^-erios  of  the  Everlasting  <^ospel,  who  ' 
•efeaot  BatisGe«l  ^Tith  the  victory  won  at  the  Council  of  Vionne. 
^hoi.in  ISll.the  Conventuals  assailed  the  memory  of  Olivi,  one 
of  tbdr  accnsationa  was  that  he  had  given  rise  to  sects  who 
dtiaed  that  his  doctrine  was  reve-cded  by  Christ,  that  it  was  of 
equl  authority  with  the  gospel,  that  sinoe  Nicfaohis  III.  the  papal 
Hpieinacy  bad  been  tranaferre*!  to  them,  and  ihey  conaoquently 
lad  elected  a  pope  of  their  own.  This  ITbcrtino  did  not  deny, 
but  iHilr  ar^ed  that  he  knew  nothing  of  it ;  that  if  it  were  true 
OiiTi  was  not  responsible,  as  it  was  wholly  opposed  to  his  teaching, 
of  which  not  a  word  could  be  cite*!  in  support  of  such  insanity. 
Yet,  ttfldoubtedly  there  were  sectaries  calling  themselves  disciples  of 
Oliviamong  whom  the  revolutionai-y  leaven  was  working,  and  they 
owld  recognize  no  virtue  or  authority  in  the  carnal  and  worldly 
Chaich.  In  1313  we  hear  of  a  Fn-rc  Raymond  Jean,  who,  in  a 
piblie  sermon  at  ^lontr^al,  prophesied  that  they  would  suffer 
pereecQtion  for  the  faith,  and  when,  after  the  sermon,  he  was 
mW  what  he  meant,  boldly  replied  in  the  presence  of  several 
penona,  "The  enemies  of  the  faith  are  among  ourselves.  The 
dhareli  which  governs  us  is  symbolled  by  the  Oreut  Whore  of  tho 
Apoenlypse,  who  persecutes  the  poor  and  the  ministers  of  Christ. 
Too  see  we  do  not  dare  to  walk  o|Jcnly  Ijefore  our  brethren.**  He 
*Med  that  the  only  true  pope  was  Celestin,  who  had  lieen  elected 
is  Sicily,  and  his  organization  was  the  only  true  Church.+ 
Hius  the  Spirituals  were  by  no  means  a  united  body.    When 

•  Fmni  Ehrie  (iscUiv  f.  U.  u.  K.  1885,  pp.  534-0,  658-5.  558-9,  861,  5e8-4, 
•♦-*;  1687.  p.  406J.— S.  Fnacisci  PropheL  xiv.  (0pp.  Ed.  IMS,  pp.  270-1).— 
(Va.  Qlusbirr^cr  ano.  1503, 1500.  1517. 

I  flint  Ehrle  {Archiv  filr  Utt.-  u.  K.  1888,  pp.  87 1,  411).— Arch,  de  rinct 
^Ckmamaoe  (I>osl,  XXVIL  fol.  7  sqt|.). 
lIL-5 


M 


THE    8PIRITCAL    FHAN018CAN8. 


once  the  tratnmols  of  aatbority  had  beon  shaken  off.  there 
omoiig  them  too  much  individuality  and  too  ardent  a  fanaticisa 
for  them  to  reach  precisely  the  samu  convictions,  and  they  well 
fnu:tionc<I  into  littie  groups  and  sects  ivhich  neutralized  whi 
slender  ability  they  might  otherwise  have  had  to  give  seriot 
trouble  tu  the  powerful  organization  of  the  hierarchy.  Ya 
whether  their  doctrines  wore  submissive  like  those  of  An^o,  c 
roToIutiouary  hke  those  of  Kaymuud  Jean,  they  were  all  guilt 
of  tho  nnpnixlonable  crime  of  in ilepen donee,  of  thinking  for  theo 
selves  where  thought  wm  forbidden,  and  of  believing  in  a  highd 
law  than  that  of  papal  decretals.  Their  stc«dfa.stness  was  soon  fit 
be  ]>ut  to  tlio  test.  In  1314  the  general,  Alessandro,  died, 
after  an  interval  of  twenty  months  Micliele  da  Cesena  was  ch 
as  his  successor.  To  the  chapter  of  Naples  which  elected  liim 
Spirituals  uf  Narbonne  sect  a  long  memorial  reoiting  the  wron, 
and  afflictions  which  they  had  rii<lnrc<l  sinoc  the  death  of  Cle 
cnt  had  deprived  them  of  papiU  pnitection.  The  nomination 
Michole  might  seem  to  be  a  victory  over  the  Conventuals, 
was  a  distinguished  theologian,  of  ri'solute  and  unbending  tero 
and  resolved  on  enforcuig  the  strict  observance  of  the  Rul 
Within  three  months  of  his  election  he  issued  a  general  precej 
enjoining  rigid  ol)edienoe  to  it.  The  veslmenta  to  bo  worn  wel 
mininely  preacrihed,  money  was  not  to  he*  accepted  except  in  cas 
of  alisoiuto  necessity ;  no  fruits  of  the  earth  were  to  be  sold ;  n 
si)IeDdid  buildings  to  bo  erected ;  meals  were  to  be  plain  aa 
frugid ;  tlie  brethren  were  never  to  ride,  nor  even  to  wear  shot 
except  under  written  jiermisaion  of  their  convents  when  cxigenoj 
required  it.  The  Spirituals  might  lio|)e  that  at  last  they  hadj 
general  after  their  own  heart,  but  they  had  unconsciously  drifUl 
away  from  obedience,  and  Michele  was  resnlve^l  that  the  Owlq 
should  bo  a  unit,  and  that  all  wanderers  should  l>e  4lriven 
into  the  fold.* 

A  fortnight  beforr^  the  issuing  of  this  precept  the  long  int 
regnum  of  the  papacy  ha<l  been  closetl  by  the  election  of  Job 
XXn.    Them  have  been  few  popes  who  have  so  completely  en 
bodiod  the  ruhng  tendencies  uf  their  time,  aod  few  wUo  ha]l 


exerted  so  large  an  iniluence  on  the  Church,  for  good  or  for  cv 


Frane  EbHe  (loc.  cit  1884,  pp.  100-4).— WaddiDg.  aoD.  1816, 


jons  xxu. 


m 


from  the  most  hnmblc  ori^n,  Uis  abilltietf  and  force  of 
sr  h»<l  cnrriiHl  him  from  nnc*  profeniicnt  to  anoUicr,  until 
ItemcLMl  tlie  clKiir  nC  St.  Pi*t<'r.  H<'  \\\\»  Hhort  in  tttjiture  but 
rokst  in  beaJtb.  cUolerio  und  cuaily  mov«I  to  wrath,  wliilo  his 
eunity  once  excit«(l  wuh  Uumlilo,  iiiul  his  it'Jiticin;;;  n'hen  Ins  Toes 
(vne  to  iin  evil  en<l  siivored  little  of  thu  ('hrialian  jMistur.  Per- 
nteiit  ami  inSexiblv,  a  imr|x»o  once  ondertalcen  was  pursued  to 
lk«iui  rej^aitilcsa  of  opposition  from  frieml  or  enemy.  He  was 
■pedaJly  (MtHul  uf  hia  theoluiric  mlAinuu^nts.  nnlont  in  dispnta- 
tiai,uid  impatient  nf  opiHisitinn.  At'tor  tlii<  fashion  of  tlif  time 
liens  pious,  for  be  celebrated  mass  almwt  every  day,  and  almost 
«wry  night  he  arose  to  n«ilo  the  (JIfioe  or  to  stndy.  Anum^  his 
good  works  is  enumerated  u  pocticiU  d<jscHption  of  tlic  I*iis.si(m  of 
Clihitt,  concluding  wltb  a  prayer,  and  )io  gratified  his  vanity  as  an 
latiior  by  proclaiming  many  indulgpn<H'a  tts  a  rowanl  to  all  who 
maid  reml  it  through.  Elis  clu«'f  elinnicteriatics,  however,  ^Yc»re 
imbitiuD  and  avarice.  To  gratify  the  fonner  lio  waged  endlww 
Win  with  the  ViKconti  uf  Milan,  in  which,  as  we  are  ataiured  by 
k  notempomry,  the  blixid  shod  would  havo  incamadtni'd  the 
mers  of  Ijike  Constance,  and  the  bodios  of  thfl  ahiin  wouhl  have 
JNidged  it  from  shore  to  shore.  As  for  the  latter,  his  (pienchless 
pwl  displayed  an  ejcliaustless  foilility  of  rt^^oupce  in  convi-rting 
Uie  treiuiures  of  si^lvution  Into  current  coin.  lie  it  was  who  first 
ndnoed  to  a  system  the  "Taxes  of  the  Penitentiary,*'  which 
Offered  abetjlution  at  fixed  prices  for  Q\ery  {Mi»sib)e  form  of  human 
tickcdufss.  from  five  grossi  for  homicide  or  iuet^st,  to  thirty-lhree 
pnaii  for  oniination  below  the  canonical  age.  l^fow  ho  bad  Iwen 
1»D  years  in  the  papacy  ho  arpogatoil  to  himself  thft  [irtwenlation 
toiiil  the  collcpiato  lipnefirrs  in  ('hristondom.  under  the  ronvi-nient 
petext  of  repressing  simony,  and  then  from  their  sale  v.-e  are  told 
tW  he  aceunitdated  an  immense  treasure.  Another  still  more 
'BBuiierative  device  w;is  the  practice  of  not  lilting  a  vacant  eplsco- 
late  from  the  ninks,  but  estalilishing  a  system  of  pivmiolion  frt)ni 
*  pwrec  see  to  a  richer  one,  and  thence  to  arehbisliojirics.  so  that 
(sck  vacancy  gavo  him  the  op]>oKunity  of  making  numerous 
*■■""  I  1  levying  tribute  on  each.  Brsides  these  regular  sources 
I'ved  gains  he  was  fertile  in  8jK*ial  ex[K^dii.-nt^  a.s  when, 
"i  1336,  needing  money  for  his  lj>mlMird  ware,  he  applied  to  ('harlos 
^  Bd  fur  auLliunty  to  lavy  a  su«iditly  un  the  ohnrchos  <*t  France, 


THE    SPiniTPAT.    FRANCISCAlfa 


(4ennany  being  for  the  time  cut  oIT  by  his  quarrel  with  Louis  of 
Bavaria.  Charles  at  first  refused,  hut  Hnally  agreed  to  divide  the 
spoils,  and  gRinted  the  ])ower  in  consideration  of  a  piLptd  grant  to 
him  of  a  tithe  for  two  years — as  a  oontemponiry  remarks,  "  et  ahuti 
nahictfi  ygliw.  quant  Cnn  U  t<nd,  Pauttv  Pctworchr.''*  John  pro- 
ceeded to  extort  a  large  sum;  frrjm  some  he  got  a  full  tithe,  from 
others  a  half,  from  others  again  as  much  as  he  could  extract,  while 
all  who  held  lM'neli(!cs  under  papal  authority  had  to  pay  a  full 
year's  revenue.  Ilia  excuse  for  this  insatiable  acquisitiveness  was 
that  he  designed  the  money  for  a  crusiide,  but  ur  he  lived  to  be 
a  nonagvnary  without  executing  that  design,  the  contemporary 
Villani  is  perhaps  justified  in  the  cautious  remark — "  Possiby  he 
had  such  intention."'  Though  for  the  most  part  parsimonious,  he 
spent  immense  sums  in  advancing  the  fortunes  of  his  nephew — or 
son — the  Cardinal-Icgato  Poyet,  who  was  endeavoring  to  found  a 
principality  in  the  north  of  Italy.  lie  lavished  money  in  making 
Avignon  a  permanent  residence  for  the  papacy,  though  it  was  re- 
8cr\'ed  for  Henedict  XII.  to  purchixse  and  enlarge  the  enormous 
I>aIace-fortre8s  of  the  popes.  Yet  after  his  death,  when  an  inven- 
tor}'of  his  ufTects came  to  be  made,  there  was  found  in  bis  treasury 
eighteen  millions  of  gold  fiorina.  and  jewels  and  vostmenta  esti- 
mated at  seven  millions  more.  Even  in  mercantile  Florence,  the 
sum  %vaa  so  incomprehensible  that  Villani,  whose  brother  was  one 
of  the  appraisers,  feels  obliged  to  explain  that  each  million  is  a 
thousand  thousands.  "When  we  reflect  upon  the  comparative  pov- 
erty of  the  period  and  the  scarcity  of  the  precious  metals,  we  can 
eslimale  liow  great  an  amount  of  suffering  was  represented  by 
such  an  accumulation,  ^vrung  as  it  wju*,  in  its  ultimate  source, 
from  the  wretched  peasantry,  who  gleaned  at  the  best  an  insuf- 
ficient subsistence  from  imperfect  agriculture.  Wo  can,  perhaps, 
moreover,  imagine  how,  in  its  passage  to  the  [»ii>al  treasury,  it 
represented  so  much  of  simony,  so  much  of  justice  sold  or  denied 
to  the  wi-etched  litigants  in  the  curia,  so  much  of  purgatory  re- 
mitted, and  of  pardons  for  sins  to  the  innumerable  applicants  for 
a  share  of  the  (Church's  treasury  of  salvation.* 

•  VitUni.  CIironicR,  T.ib.  xi.c.  20.— riimn.  Olaiwhcrgcrann.  1834.— Vitodurnni 
Chron.  (Eccard.  Corp.  IlUt.  Med.  JEW  [.  I80&-S>.— Priedrich.  St«(ul.  Bj-iiod. 
Wntlsla%'.,  niinoovcnp,  1827,  pp.  37,  3S,  41.— Grnndes  Cbroniquea.  V.  300.— 
Guiltel.  Nangiac.  Cootiu.  kud.  1326.— The  coU'ecliou  or{>«pil  brivfinlKtlng  to 


JOBK'6   VIQ0R0D8   ACTION.  09 

Tie  permanent  evil  which  he  wrought  by  his  shameless  traffic 
n  benefices,  and  the  reputation  which  he  left  behind  him,  .ire  visi- 
ble itt  the  bitter  complaints  which  were  nmde  at  the  Council  of 
Sataa,  a  century  later,  by  the  deputies  oi  tho  GalUcan  nation. 
They  refer  to  bis  pontifirato  as  that  in  which  Llio  Holy  Bee  ro- 
KTved  all  benefices  to  itself,  when  graces,  espoctalives,  etc.,  were 
pabtkly  sold  to  the  highest  bidder,  without  regard  tu  qualiiica- 
tioo,  so  that  in  France  many  benefices  wore  utterly  ruined  by 
nam  of  the  insupportable  burdens  hiid  upon  them.  It  is  no 
vooder.  therefore,  that  when  St.  Birgitta  of  iSwedun  was  applied 
to,  10  tho  latter  half  of  the  fourteenth  century,  by  somo  Francis- 
cus  to  learn  whether  John's  decretals  on  the  subject  of  the  pov- 
(rtr  of  Christ  were  correct,  and  she  was  vouchsafed  two  visions 
d  the  Virgin  to  satisfy  their  scruples,  tho  Virgin  reported  that 
his  decretals  were  free  from  error,  but  discreetly  announced  that 
Ae  was  not  at  liberty  to  say  whether  his  soul  was  in  heaven  or 
iaheU.  Such  was  the  luan  to  whom  the  cruel  irony  of  fate  com- 
aiucd  tho  settlement  of  tho  delicato  scruples  which  voxod  the 
SMlsof  the  Spirituals.* 

John  bad  been  actively  engaged  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
OmdcU  of  Vienne,  and  was  thoroughly  familiar  with  all  the  de- 
bik  of  the  qoeetion.  ^Vhen.  therefore,  the  general,  Uichele,  short- 
tf  after  his  accession,  applied  to  him  to  restore  unity  in  the  dis* 
tncted  Order,  his  impuriuus  temper  led  him  to  take  speedy  and 
Tigonras  action.  King  Frederic  of  Trinncria  was  ordered  to  seize 
the  refugees  in  his  dominions,  and  deliver  them  to  their  superiors  to 
bediicipUned.  Bertrand  de  la  Tour,  the  Provincial  of  Aquitaine, 
*u  ioslructcd  tu  reduce  to  obedience  the  rebels  of  the  convents 


^115  n-ceoLlr  prlutc<1  by  Schmidt  (P&hstliclto  Urliutidon  uml  Re^cBten,  pp. 
IT-SU)  win  explain  tbt*  iinriivRM:  suiiia  miwerl  \>y  Jolm  XXIl.  from  the  sale  of 
(iamuies.  Tt  is  wiUiin  tiounda  to  say  tlitil  more  ihiia  half  ttxa  letten  i«aed  dur- 
"t  lii*  pontifirs(«  nrv  AppoirLtinvnM  of  this  kinil. 

Tin  Bccotintji  of  the  pnpal  cNillcctor  for  Iliininiry  in  1320  thow  th«  thomugh* 
•*»ifHli  which  the  firet-friiils  nf  every  petty  benefice  were  looked  after,  aud  tliB 
''■"nBoiH  ftroponioo  consumed  tn  tlie  procc«8.  Tlic  collector  chttr^ccs  limimOf 
wiUi  ISIS  gold  florins  received,  ofwlncli  only  "32  r«*chtid  :ho  papal  treasury, 
fffaflnw,  Monuments  Slat-or.  Meridional.  1.  U7J. 

'  ia.  d«  RuguHiu  lull.  c(  Pro«;cul.  Busil.  Coiicil.  (Uufiuuiviit.  Cuocil.  Sac.  XT. 
T.  LpaaL— RercloLS.  Brigictif-  Lib.  vn.«.  riii. 


70 


THE  SPIRiTCAL  FK AXC'I8C A^'8. 


of  B^zitTB,  Narlxjnne,  and  Carcassonne.  Bertrand  at  first  tried 
persunsioiL  The  outward  sign  of  Uie  Spirituals  was  the  habit. 
They  wore  smaller  hoo<ls,  iiu  1  ^'^wus  shorter,  narrower,  aud  coanser 
than  the  Cunventualii ;  and,  holding  this  to  be  in  accordance  with 
tlic  prcoedont  set  by  Francis,  it  was  as  much  an  article  of  faith 
with  theni  as  the  absence  of  granaries  and  wine-eellars  and  the 
refusal  to  handle  money.  When  he  urgt-d  Ihem  to  abandon  these 
vestments  they  therefore  replied  that  this  was  one  of  the  matters 
in  whicli  they  could  not  render  obedience.  Then  he  assumed  a 
tone  of  authority  under  the  papal  rescript,  and  they  rejoined  by 
an  appeal  to  ttiu  \io\Hi  better  infonncd.  signed  by  forty-five  friars 
of  Narbonne,  and  fifteen  of  H(*zier3.  On  receipt  of  the  a])poal, 
John  i>ereniptorily  ordered,  April  aT,  1317,  all  the  appellants  to 
prest-nt  thonimdves  before  him  witldii  ten  days,  under  pain  of  ex- 
communication. They  set  forth,  seventy -four  in  number,  with 
Cemaitl  I)6Ucieux  at  their  head,  and  on  reaching  Arignon  did  not 
venture  to  lodge  in  the  Fninciscan  convent,  but  bivouacked  for 
the  ni^ht  on  the  public  place  in  front  of  tho  papal  donrs.^ 

They  were  rt-gardcd  as  much  more  dangerous  rebels  tlinn  the 
Italian  Spirituals.  The  latter  had  ab*eady  bad  a  hearing  iu  which 
Uburtino  da  Casale  confutwl  the  charges  bit>uglit  agiiinsl  them, 
and  he,  (ioffrido  da  Comono,  and  Philippe  dc  tVux,  while  ex]ir(?fla- 
ing  sympathy  and  readincsii  to  defend  Olivi  and  his  discijdes,  had 
plainly  let  it  bo  set'n  that  they  regarded  thenisulves  as  not  per- 
sonally conccmwl  with  thrni.  John  drew  the  same  distinction ; 
and  though  Angido  da  ('larino  was  for  a  while  imprisoned  on  the 
streitgtb  of  an  old  condemnation  by  Boniface  VIII..  ho  nas  soon 
released  aud  insrmitted  to  adopt  tho  Celcstin  habit  and  Kule. 
Ubertino  was  told  that  if  he  would  return  for  a  few  days  to  the 
Fi-aiiciscjin  convent  profwr  provision  would  be  made  for  his  fuU 
uro.  To  this  he  signilieimtly  replied, '*  After  staying  with  the 
friars  for  n  single  day  I  will  not  require  any  provision  in  this 
world  from  you  or  any  one  else,''  and  he  was  iiemiitted  to  tr.nis- 
fcr  himself  to  the  lkne<iictine  Order,  as  were  likewise  several 
otbffl^B  of  his  comrades.    He  had  but  a  tein|)orary  respite,  boiv- 


•  Wftdding  tiiiii,  i:jI7,  No.  &-H.— Hist.  Trilulntlon.  (Areltiv  flir  L.  «.  K. 
lS60,p.]«8>— Joann.  ».  Victor.  Cbron.  aoo.  1311,  I31G  (ilurntori  &  R.  I.  HI.  it. 
400, 478> 


THE    01IVI5TS   PREJrnOEn. 


n 


ercr.aod  we  shall  sec  licmnfter  that  in  1335  he  vran  obliged  to 

■•n'fiii^*  witli  Loitia  of  Kavaria.* 

Tiie  OlinsU  were  not  to  «M(ipe  so  tywily.  TliP  day  after  iheir 
irrirul  tliey  yrearo  admilttM]  to  audionee.  Ik-manl  Delicienx  ar> 
gaa\  tlieir  case  so  aljly  t!i:it  Iio  (-(hiIiI  tm\y  Ik"  nuswery<l  by  accus- 
ing him  of  having  imjui^locl  th[>  Imjaisition,  imd  John  onloreil  his 
unat.  Then  Fran^-ois  Snncti*'  t<^tok  np  the  jir^ment,  ami  vtm  ac- 
CKtl  of  havinj;  viliHtnl  the  Onlur  ]mbliely.  when  John  delivcrod 
fain  to  the  Conventuals,  who  prom])iIy  inipri.soned  him  in  a  poll 
nnt  to  the  latrines.  Tlien  liiullannie  do  Saint-Amand  assnnied 
lb  defence,  but  the  friars  ftcoase<l  him  of  dilapidation  and  of  do- 
wting  the  Convent  of  Narboniie,  and  John  unlered  bis  iirrest.. 
Tken  Gcoffroi  Btt«nipt«d  it,  but  Joiin  inltrrupted  him,  saying, 
""We  woodcsr  greatly  that  you  iluuiuiul  the  strict  observance  of 

Kale,  and  yet  yoa  wear  fire  gowns.'*    (iooffroi  replied, "  Holy 

!ier.yon  are  deceived,  for.  savin^^  yonr  reverence,  it  is  not  Inio 
liwt  I  wetvr  fire  gowns."  John  aiwwenwl  botly, "Then  wo  lie," 
Aad  ordenKl  GoofTroi  to  ho  seized  until  it  conld  be  determined  bow 
mny  gnwns  be  wore.  The  terrifiwi  bi-cthren.  sm>ing  that  their 
me  was  pr<'jndged,  fell  on  tbeir  Imces,  crying, "  Holy  Father,  jns- 
tice.  justiee !"  and  the  j>o|»e  ordered  them  all  to  go  to  the  Franois- 
(ta  amvent,  to  be  guanled  till  be  should  determine  what  to  do 
with  them.  Bemnnl,  Guillaume,  and  Geoffroi,  and  some  of  their 
cBarades  were  suhjeoteil  to  handi  imprisonment  in  chains  by  or^ 
<ter  of  tbo  pope.  liernard\s  fate  we  have  already  siien.  As  to 
itkB  others,  an  inquisition  wixs  held  on  tiioni,  whori  ail  but  twenty- 
fitt  sabmitted,  and  wore  rigorously  penance)  by  the  triumphant 
i.'MiTentaala.+ 

Tho  twenty-five  reealeitmnta  were  handed  over  to  the  Inquisi- 
tion of  Marseilles,  under  wboee  jurisdiction  they  were  arrej*ted. 
The  inquisitor  was  Frure  Michel  le  Moincone  of  those  who  bad 
Wn  dpfrraded  and  impri.soned  by  Clement  V.  on  aceount  of  their 
ttal  in  persecuting  the  Spirituals.  Now  ho  was  able  to  glut  his 
ti'Tt'ni^.  He  hiul  ample  wan'ant  fur  whatever  he  might  pleaw  to 
^  for  John  bad  not  waJtei)  to  bear  the  S])iriluals  lieforc  oondemn- 
ioetfann.     As  early  as  Fetmmry  IT,  he  had  ordered  tho  inqutsi- 


Si& 


*  niu.  TribtiUL  (Dbi  Mip.  pp.  142-14,  191-S).— Fraas  Elirle,  AxcUv,  1887,  p. 


♦  Bhl,  Trlbulnt.  (Ibul.  pp.  145-6).— Ttnytn  at-  Fmiimcho  (TU.  1887.  p.  M). 


n 


THE  aPIRITUAL   PRANCISCAKa 


tors  of  Langtieiloc  tu  denounce  as  heretics  aU  wlio  styled  them- 
selves Fraticelli  or  Frntres  de  paupere  vita.  Then,  April  13,  he 
bad  ksued  the  coDStituliou  Quorumdam,  in  which  he  had  dejinite- 
\y  SBltlet]  the  two  jioints  which  had  1)ecunie  the  huniing  ((tiestions 
of  the  dispute — the  pluiract^r  of  vrstinonts  to  Iw  worn,  and  the 
l^nlity  of  laying  up  stores  of  provisions  in  granaries,  and  colbirs 
of  wino  and  oil.  These  questions  he  referred  to  tho  general  of 
the  Order  with  absolute  power  to  det^'miine  them.  Under  Mi- 
chele's  instrnctions,  the  ministers  and  guardians  were  to  determine 
for  each  convent  what  umouat  of  provisions  it  required,  what  |)or- 
tion  might  be  stored  up,  and  to  what  extent  the  friars  were  to  btig 
for  it.  Such  decisions  were  to  ho  implicitly  followed  without 
llunking  or  a&ierting  that  they  dei-uguted  from  the  Rule.  The 
ball  wound  up  with  tho  significant  words,  *'  Groat  is  poverty, 
but  greater  ts  blamelossnoss^  and  perfcrt  obedience  is  tlie  greatest 
good."  There  was  a  hard  conuuonaense  about  this  which  may 
scorn  to  us  even  commonplace,  but  it  decided  the  case  ugninst  tho 
Spirituals,  and  gave  them  the  naked  alternative  of  submission,  or 
rebeUion.* 

Tills  bull  was  the  basis  of  the  inifuisitoriul  process  agfunst  the 
twenty-five  recalcitrants.  The  case  was  perfectly  clear  under  it, 
and  in  fact  all  the  proceedings  of  the  Spirituals  after  it.*!  issue  had 
been  flagrantly  contumacious — their  refusal  to  change  their  vest- 
ments, and  their  appeal  to  the  pope  better  informed,  Ii«foro 
handing  them  over  to  the  Inquisition,  they  had  beon  brought  be- 
fore Michele  da  Cesena,  and  theij"  statements  to  him  when  read 
before  the  consistory  had  been  pronouncud  hereticul  and  the  au- 
thors subject  to  the  penalty  of  heresy.  Efforts  of  course  had  been 
mode  to  secui-e  their  submission,  but  in  vain,  and  it  was  not  until 
Koveniber  G,  1317,  that  letkirs  were  issued  by  Joim  ami  by  Michele 
da  Cesena  to  the  Inquisitor  Michel,  directing  him  to  proceed  with 
the  trial.  Of  the  detaiU  of  the  process  we  have  no  knowledge, 
but  it  is  not  likely  that  tho  accused  were  spared  an}'  of  the  ligors 
customary  in  such  cases,  when  the  desire  was  to  bityik  the  spirit 
and  induce  compliance.  This  is  shown,  moreover,  tn  tlie  fact  that 
the  proceedings  were  protracted  for  exactly  six  months,  the  sen 
tence  being  rendered  on  May  T,  1318,  and  by  tho  furtlior  fact  ttiat 


•  Coll.  Doat,  XXXIV.  147.— Extrnr.  Joann.  XXII  TSt  xrr.  cap.  t. 


THE   MABTTR9   OF  MARBEItT.ES. 


the  ciilprit-s  Wi'rc  liruuglit  tn  rp[H!titance  and  abjuration. 

>nr  of  thera  Imd  the  ]>hy9ical  and  mental  endurance  to  per- 

jenn  to  the  last  —Jean  iJarmiii,  IXiKLit  Michel,  Guillem  Sainton, 

Pons  Koclia — and  Uieee  were  handf><l  over  the  same  day  to  the 

nhr  antlioritics  of  Marseillos  and  duly  humf^d.     A  fifth,  IVt- 

LAsi)a,  who  had  said  in  prison  that  he  repented,  but  who  re- 
recant  and  abjure,  was  morcifnlly  condemned  to  prison 

me,  thon^li  nnder  nil  inquisitorial  ndes  ho  should  have  shared 
the  fate  of  bis  accomplices.  The  rest  were  forced  to  abjure  pub- 
ltd;  and  to  accept  the  [lenanees  imi^osed  by  the  im|uisitor,  with 
the  warning  that  if  they  failed  to  publish  their  abjuration  wher- 
ew  Uiey  had  preached  llicir  errors  they  would  bo  burned  as  re- 
Upsel* 

Although  in  the  sentence  the  heresy  of  the  victims  is  said  to 
bite  been  drawn  from  the  poisoned  doctrine  of  Olirj,  and  though 
tbe  inquisitur  issued  letters  prohibitin^r  any  one  from  [Kissessiug 
or  reading  hia  liooks,  there  Is  no  allusion  to  any  Joachito  error. 
Il  iriis  simply  a  question  of  disobedience  to  the  bull  Quonmuiaff^ 
They  affirmed  that  this  was  contrary  to  the  Gospel  of  Christ,  which 
forbule  them  to  wear  garments  of  other  fashion  than  that  which 
Uuy  had  adopted,  or  to  lay  up  stores  of  com  and  wine.  To  this 
tie  pope  had  no  anthority  to  cuimpol  them  ;  they  would  not  obey 
luBi.uid  this  they  declared  they  would  maintain  until  the  Day  of 
Judgment.  Frivolous  as  the  (lueslions  at  issue  undoubtedly  were, 
it  waa  on  the  one  hand  a  ciujo  of  conscience  from  which  reason 
IhuI  long  since  been  banished  by  the  bitterness  of  controversy, 
ud  on  the  other  the  neoeKiity  of  authority  eoni[>eUing  ol>edience. 
If  iffivate  judgment  were  allowed  to  set  aside  the  commands  of  a 
[kIhI  decretal,  the  moral  power  of  the  i»apacy  was  gone,  and  with 
^  ill  tcjiiporul  supremacy.  Yet,  underlying  iUl  tliis  was  the  old 
Jduhitic  leaven  which  taught  that  the  Church  of  Etomo  had  no 
(piritaal  authority,  and  thus  that  its  deci-ees  were  not  binding  on 
the  elect.  When  IJemai-U  UL-hcieux  was  sent,  in  1319,  from  Avi- 
gtiOQ  to  Castelnaudari  for  trial,  on  the  ru;ul  he  talked  freely  with 
liisoacort  and  made  no  secret  of  his  ndniiration  for  Joachim,  even 
going  so  far  as  to  say  that  he  had  eruseil  from  his  copy  of  tlie 
"MTOtnm  the  I^atcran  canon  condemning  Joachim's  Trinitarian 


*  BalUL  et  Mnnai  II.  SiS-Sl.— HisL  Tribulat.  (loc.  dt.  p.  147). 


76 


THE  SPIRITUAL   FRANCISCANS. 


vrhen  he  was  contlemueU  in  an  auto  de  fi  as  a  convicted  heretic. 
Then  a  pui-se  was  raised  among  the  ftiithful  to  send  hini  to  the 
East.  After  an  absence  of  some  years  he  returned  and  was  as 
active  as  erer,  wandering  in  disguise  throughout  the  south  of 
France  and  assiduously  gnarde<l  by  the  devotees.  What  was  his 
end  docs  not  appear,  but  he  probably  perishcHl  at  length  at  the 
stake  as  a  relapsed  heretic,  fop  in  1327  we  find  him  and  his  daugh- 
ter Andrec  in  the  ]iitiless  hands  of  Michel  of  Marseilles.  Jean 
du  Prat,  then  Im|uisitor  of  Careassonno.  wanted  them,  in  order  to 
extort  from  them  the  names  of  their  disciples  and  of  those  who 
had  sheltered  them.  Ap|>arently  Michel  refused  to  surrender 
them,  and  a  jjeremptory  order  from  John  XXII.  was  requisite  to 
obtain  their  transfer.  In  Vi^h  Bernard  Castillon  of  Mout]>eUier 
confesses  to  harboringa  number  of  Beguinesin  his  house,  and  then 
to  buying  a  dwelling  for  them  in  which  he  visited  them.  Another 
culprit  acknowledges  to  reccinng  many  fugitives  in  hts  house  at 
Montpellier.  There  was  ample  sympathy  for  thera  and  ample 
occasion  for  it.* 

The  burning  of  the  four  martyrs  of  Marseilles  was  the  signal 
for  actire  inquisitorial  work.  Throiigliout  all  the  infected  region 
the  Holy  Otllce  bent  its  energies  to  the  suppression  of  the  new 
heresy ;  and  as  previously  there  hail  been  no  nonessity  for  conceal- 
ing opinions,  the  suspccta  were  readily  laid  hold  of.    There  was 


•OnUI.Nangiiic.Cnnim.iinn.I3t7, -Coll. Doul.XXVn.7  si)q.,170;  XXXV. 
18.— Uh.  ScnUrntt,  Inc).  Tol..!*.  pjt.  301,313,881. 

The  disc  of  Ra^ond  .lean  illitstrritvs  the  life  of  thn  pffiifirutt^  Splritnala. 
As  carl.v  as  1312  liG  liad  coniini-nueil  to  duiiuujico  the  Cliurch  ns  the  Wliore  of 
Bnbylon.and  to  proplii-tty  hie  own  fittv.  In  131?  lit*  was  one  of  tlio  appeltanU 
tiho  were  summoned  to  Avignon,  where  he  eubmitted.  Remitted  to  llie  obedi- 
ence of  Uis  Order,  be  waa  sent  by  his  superior  to  the  convent  of  Anduse,  where  ho 
remained  until  he  heard  th«  fate  of  hU  stonchcr  companions  at  MarfcilUit,  Vkiicn 
he  fled  with  a  comrade.  Ilenching  Btziers,  tliey  found  refuge  lu  a  house  where, 
in  company  with  aomc  female  apostates  from  tlic  Ordor,  tlicr  la;  bid  fur  thrre 
jean.  Alter  lUia  Rayuioud  led  ii  wauderJiig  life,  Hsaocintln};  fur  a  while  with 
Piern-  Trencavel.  At  one  timr  hi-  went  beyond  sens ;  then  rclnrninp.  he  adopted 
tlic  habit  nfaepcular  prit^t  and  iiiiiiuuied  tliecure  nf  souK  anmettineHlii  Oaacnnj 
and  again  in  Rodez  or  cn«t  of  tlii'  Rhone.  Captiirrd  nt  Iiuil  in  13^5  and  brouglit 
before  the  TnqniititionofCarca.'UHinnc,  after  conRidernbli>pnw.Mire  he  was  induced 
to  recant.  Ilis  sentence  ta  not  gifen,  but  doulitlcw  it  was  pcrpptu.il  impriioa* 
mcot.— Doat,  XXVn.  7  iqq. 


OKSPARtKO    PER9KCCTI0N. 


77 


tliiis  an  ample  harvest,  and  the  rigor  of  the  inqnisition  set  on  foot 
is  shown  by  the  order  issued  in  Fohruary,  I32)i.  hy  John  XXIL, 
Uucall  Tcrtiaries  in  iko  sus^tcd  districts  sUtiuld  be  summoned 
loippoar  tind  be  closely  exuniuied.  This  caused  ^'neml  terror. 
Ill  the  archives  of  Florence  there  are  i>rt'scrvc<I  niimorous  letters 
tolhe  papal  curia,  written  in  February,  132S,  by  the  magistrates 
nd  prelattiB  of  the  Tuscan  cities,  interceding  for  the  Tertiarice,  and 
bi^ng  that  they  shall  not  be  ounfouuded  with  the  new  sect  of 
6^giuQ€6.  This  is  doubtless  a  sample  of  what  was  occurring 
miynrhere,  and  the  oU-iwrvading  feai-  was  jmstilied  by  the  daily 
increasing  roU  of  martyrs.  The  test  was  simple.  It  was  whether 
the  iccosed  believed  that  the  pope  luid  jwwcr  to  dis])ense  with 
wrs,  e6)>eciaUy  those  of  [X>verty  and  chastity.  As  webavesoeu, 
rt  was  a  commonplace  of  the  schools,  wiiich  Aquinas  proveil  beyond 
aril,  that  be  had  no  such  power,  and  even  as  recently  as  1311 
lie  Couventnals.  in  arguing  before  Cleraeut  V.,  had  admitted  that 
10  Franciscan  could  hold  ptxjpurty  or  take  a  wife  under  command 
fraiu  the  pope;  but  things  hail  changed  in  the  interval, and  now 
those  who  adhered  to  the  established  doctrine  hiul  the  alternative 
of  recantation  or  the  stake.  Of  course  but  a  small  portion  of  the 
alprits  had  the  steadfastness  to  endure  to  tbe  end  against  the  per- 
msive  methods  which  the  Inquisition  knew  so  well  how  to  employ, 
vA  the  number  of  the  victims  who  j>erished  shows  that  tbe  sect 
Diosl  have  been  large.  Our  infuri nation  is  scanty  and  fragmen- 
tu^,  but  we  know  that  at  Narbonno.  where  the  hisho|Kt  at  first 
Milfavored  to  protect  the  unfortunates,  until  frightened  by  the 
tlinats  of  the  imiuisit<;rs,  there  w&e  three  burned  iu  i:j  19,  seventeen 
in  Lent,  1331,  and  several  in  1323.  At  Montpellier,  persecution 
wualr&aily  active  in  1S19.  At  Lunel  there  were  seventeen  humeri; 
^  Boziers.  two  at  one  time  and  seven  at  another ;  at  IVzcnas,  sov- 
«al  witli  .lean  Forraaynm  at  their  la-ad ;  in  Gironde.  a  number  in 
1319;  at  Toulouse,  four  in  1322,  and  others  at  Cabestaing  and  I.iO- 
^fe.  At  Carcassonne  there  were  burnings  in  1319, 1320,  and  1321, 
wl  Henri  de  Chamay  was  active  there  Iwtween  1325  and  1830. 
A  portion  of  his  trials  are  still  extant,  with  very  few  cases  of  bum- 
ittgtbut  Mosheim  had  a  list  of  one  hundred  and  thirteen  persons 
^"WBted  at  Carcassonne  as  Spirituals  from  1318  to  about  1350. 
^HLII  these  caaes  were  under  Dominican  inquisitors,  and  tbe  Fran* 
^■■KUswere  even  more  zealous,  if  we  may  lioliovo  Wadding's  boost 


78 


THX  SPIRITUAL  FRAWCISCiWa 


that  in  1323  there  were  one  hundred  and  foortecn  horned  by  Fran- 
oucao  inqaisiton  aloae.  The  int|ai:iitiuD  at  Marseilles,  in  fact, 
which  was  in  Franoiscaa  liamla,  had  ibe  n-piitatiun  of  Ixidog  exoes- 
sively  aeren  with  the  recalcitrant  brethren  of  the  Order.  In  a 
eaie  occurring  in  1329  FrC-re  GuiUem  de  Salvelle.  the  Goardian  of 
B^iiere,  statee  that  their  treatment  there  iros  rery  harsh  and  the 
imprisonnient  of  the  most  rigorous  deacriptioo.  Doubtless  Aagelo 
da  Clarino  has  jurtificalion  for  the  assertion  that  the  Conventuals 
improved  their  triumph  over  their  antagonists  like  m:ui  dogs  and 
wolres,  torturing,  slaying,  and  ransoming  without  nwrcy.  Trivial 
u  may  iieem  to  us  the  cansn  of  qnarml,  wc  cannot  but  respect  the 
«m])le  earnestness  which  led  so  many  zealots  to  seal  their  convio- 
tiona  with  their  blood.  Many  of  them,  wo  arc  told,  courted  mar- 
tyrdom and  eagerly  sought  the  flames.  Bernard  LMd  of  Mon- 
treal was  bumod  for  persistently  declaring  that,  as  he  had  rowed 
poverty  and  chastity,  he  would  not  obey  the  pope  if  ordered  to  take 
a  wife  or  accept  a  prebend.* 

Ferocious  persecution  such  as  this  of  course  only  intensified  the 
/convictions  of  the  sufferers  and  their  antagonism  to  the  Holy  See. 
8o  far  aa  rogords  Uio  ostensible  subject  of  controversy,  wo  leam 
trom  Pierre  Tort,  when  he  waa  before  the  Inquisition  of  Toulouse 
jn  13iJ2,  that  it  was  allowable  to  lay  in  stores  of  com  and  wine 
auHloient  foreigitt  or  ILfteen  days,  while  of  salt  and  oil  tiiere  might 
be  provision  for  half  a  year.  As  to  vostmonts,  Micheic  da  Ceaena 
had  exorcised  tho  power  conferred  on  him  by  thn  bull  QiMrmndam 
by  issuing,  in  llilT,  a  precept  requiring  the  gown  to  be  made  of 
coarse  stuff,  reaching  down  to  cover  only  half  tlie  foot,  while  tho 
cord  was  to  be  of  hemp  and  not  of  flax.  Although  he  seems  to 
haro  left  the  buniing  <|nestiun  of  the  hood  untouched,  this  regula- 
tion might  hav'Lt  WLtislietl  reiLsiumble  scruples,  but  it  Wiis  a  case  of 
Oonsoicnco  which  ndmittod  of  no  compromise.  Tho  Spirituals  de- 
clared that  they  were  not  bound  to  abandon  the  still  shorter  and 


*  ItayruM  Ann,  1S33,  No.  91. — Arcliivio  di  Pirttiie,  Prov.  del  ConTento  di 
SkbU  Cn>c«,  Felt.  13S1.— .S.  Tti.  Aqiiin.  Siiinin.  Sec.  Sw.  Q.  Lxxxrui.  Art.  xi. ;  (^ 
cutxxvt.  Art.  riiL.  id  3.-  l-'miiz  Klirlc  (Arc)tiv  tVir  liitt.-  a.  Kitx;b«Rge«chtchtc, 
I8B7,  p.  130),— Lib.  Scntemt-  Inq.  Toloa.  pp.  300,  813,  881-M.— Coll.  DobI, 
XIVn.,XXVin.-M(iihciin  df  BtifliarJIi  pp.  499, 033.— VmUsette.  IV.  18J-3.- 
Wftddinc  *nn.  1817.  No,  45.— Hint  TriliuluL  (loc.  cit.  p.  14»).— Areb.  de  l'  In^ 
4m  Oaniui.  (Dont,  XXVlt.  162).— Jolmun.  B.  Vlctnr.  Chron.  ana.  1310-19. 


0-19.     ^ 


BEVIV&L   OF  JOACHITIS». 


7» 


aogftinly  gotms  which  their  tradition  atthbat«(l  to  St.  Fran* 
CHiao  loalter  what  might  be  oonuniuiddd  by  pope  or  gciurml,  anil 
nlirgB  was  tho  im|furtance  attributed  to  tho  qm^tion  that  ia  th« 
populiir  belief  the  four  miirt yrs  of  Marseilles  were  b«mod  becAnso 
Uwy  vore  the  meau  and  tightly-littirig  garments  which  distin* 
gmKbed  tho  Spirituals.* 

TcchaicAlly  thoy  were  right,  for,  us  we  haro  seen  abore,  it 
tuul  hitherto  been  generally  admitted  that  tho  pope  could  nub 
fiipeB&e  for  tows;  and  when  Olivi  doTeIopc<l  this  tn  the  further 
foition  that  he  ouuld  nut  order  any  thing  contrary  to  an  evimgi'li- 
olrow,  it  was  not  rcckoneil  among  his  errors  condeinnoil  by  the 
Oooncd  of  Vienne.  \rhile  all  this,  however,  had  boon  ndjnittcd 
« t  tbeoraticail  podtnlate,  when  it  came  to  bo  set  np  against  the 
awnianda  of  snoh  a  pope  as  John  XXII.  it  was  rebellions  heresy, 
bk  be  crashed  with  the  sternest  mcasoree.  At  the  same  tune  it 
*u  impossible  that  the  sutTerers  could  recognize  the  authority 
which  was  condemning  thern  to  the  stake.  Men  who  willingly 
offmd  Iheowelves  to  be  burned  because  they  asserted  that  the  )K)I>q 
hid  no  jwwer  to  dispense  from  the  observance  of  vows;  who  dtv 
dited  that  if  there  won?  but  one  woman  in  the  world,  and  if  she 
bd  taken  a  vow  of  chastity,  tho  pope  oould  giro  her  no  valid  dig- 
pansation.  even  if  it  were  to  prevent  the  human  race  from  coming 
toon  end;  who  itsscrtod  thiit  <Tohn  XXII.  had  sinnod  agaiiist  the 
gwpei  of  Christ  when  he  liad  attempted  to  i>ermit  the  Krancis- 
oo  to  have  granaries  and  cellars;  who  held  ttiat  although  the 
pope  migbt  liave  i)ower  over  othur  Urdera  ho  hiid  none  over  that 
of  St.  Francis,  liocauso  his  Rule  was  divine  revelation,  and  not  a 
word  ia  it  could  be  altered  or  erased — such  men  could  only  defend 
thmseivee  against  the  po^io  by  denying  the  sonrce  of  his  nuthor- 
itr.  All  the  latent  Joacliitic  notions  which  Imd  t}ecn  dormant  woro 
TirifitKl  and  became  the  leading  principles  of  the  sect.  John 
XXII.,  when  he  isGUcd  the  bull  QuorumdattK  became  the  mystical 
Acliclirist.  the  forerunner  of  the  tmo  AnticJirist.  The  Roman 
Ohiinih  was  the  cnmal  Cbnrcli ;  the  Spirituals  wouhl  fonn  the  new 
Church,  which  would  light  with  Antiohrist.  and,  under  the  guidance 
of  the  Holy  Ohost,  would  usher  in  the  new  ago  when  man  would 


'  Lib.  Bmlfntt.  Inq.  ToIomd.  pp.  330,  S^S.^WkUdiog.  uu.  1317,  Nu.  £3.^ 
CoU.Dool,XXVlI.7Bqq. 


80 


THE   SPIRlTrAL    FRANCISCANS. 


1>c  ruled  by  lo%'e  and  poverty  be  universal.  Some  of  them  placed 
tliis  in  139S,  others  in  1330,  othors  ngnin  in  foiirtcpn  years  from 
1321.  Thus  the  scheme  of  the  Everlasting  Gospel  was  formally 
adopted  and  brought  to  realization.  There  wcro  two  churches — 
one  the  carnal  Church  of  Home,  the  Whore  of  liabylon,  the  Syna- 
gogue of  Satan,  tlnmk  with  the  blood  of  the  saint?,  over  wliich 
John  XXIL  preteuded  to  preside,  although  lie  had  forfeitetl  his 
station  and  Iwcome  a  heretic  of  heretics  when  he  consented  to  the 
death  of  the  martyrs  of  Marseilles.  The  other  ivfl,s  the  tnie  Church. 
the  Church  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  which  would  speedily  triumph 
through  the  arms  of  Frederic  of  Trinacria.  St.  Francis  would  be 
resurrected  in  the  fleah,  ami  then  woultl  commence  the  third  age 
and  the  seventh  and  last  state  of  mankind.  Meanwhile,  the  sacra* 
mentti  were  already  obsolete  and  no  longer  requi-sito  for  salvation. 
It  is  to  this  ])enod  of  frenzied  exaltation  that  we  may  doubtless 
attribute  the  inlorpolations  of  Olivi's  ^\Titing8.* 

This  new  Church  bad  some  sort  of  organization.  In  the  trial  of 
Naprous  Roncta  at  Carcassonne,  in  132A,  there  is  an  allusion  to  a 
Frere  Guillem  Oiraud,  wlio  luid  bc^en  ordained  by  Cod  as  pope  in 
place  of  John  XXU.,  wliose  sin  had  been  as  great  as  Adam's,  and 
who  had  thus  been  deposed  by  the  divine  will.  There  were  not 
lacking  saints  and  niart^Ts,  iM-sides  Fiuncis  and  Olivi.  Fragments 
of  the  iMxlios  and  bones  of  those  who  perished  at  the  stake  were 
treasured  up  as  relics,  ami  even  ])ieco8  of  the  stakes  at  which  they 
suffnrod.  These  were  sot  Iwfore  altars  in  their  houses,  or  carried 
about  the  person  as  amulets.  In  this  cultv  the  four  martyrs  of 
Marseillea  were  pre-eminently  honored  ;  tlieir  suffrages  with  God 
wore  as  potent  as  those  of  St.  Laurence  or  St.  Vincent,  and  in  them 
Christ  had  been  spiritually  cniciKed  on  the  four  anns  of  the  cross. 
One  poor  wretch,  who  was  burned  at  Toulouse  in  1322,  had  in- 
serted in  his  litany  t)ie  names  of  seventy  Spirituals  who  had  suf* 
fered ;  ho  invoked  them  among  the  other  saints,  attaching  equal 
im]>ort:iuce  to  their  intervention ;  and  this  was  doubtless  a  ous- 
tomary  and  recognixed  form  of  devotion.  Vet  this  cult  was  sim- 
pler than  that  of  the  orthodox  Church,  for  it  was  held  that  the 


"  Lib.  Scnletilt,  hM\.  Tnlosan.  pji.  SflR-Wft,  :iii'>-6,  S18.— Bcni.  rJuidnn.  Prac- 
itcft  P.  v.— Doai,  XX\1I.  7  aj^.-Joliana.  S.  Victor.  Cbroo.  ma.  1310-18  (Man- 
tori  8.  a  I.  lU.  u.  478-9). 


8PBDIVI8I0N   OF   THB   BECTAnXSS. 


81 


fflicU  Deeded  no  oblations,  and  if  a  man  liad  vowed  a  candle  to  one 
ot  ifcem  or  Ui  the  Virgin,  or  a  pilgriinagi'  to  ConijHwtella.  it  would 
be  better  to  give  to  the  poor  the  money  that  it  would  rnst.* 

The  Church  composed  of  these  enthuBiaaiic  fanatics  broke  off 
iill  relations  with  thw  Italian  Spiritojila,  whiwe  more  regulated  zeal 
seeoed  tukewannnoss  and  backsliding.  The  prisonerH  who  wero 
tried  by  Bernard  Gni  in  1322  at  Toulouse  described  the  Franciscan 
Qtder  aa  tlivided  into  three  fragments  —  the  Conventuals,  who. 
insitedon  havinggranarics  and  collars,  the  Fraticelli  under  Henry/ 
diCera  in  Sicily,  and  the  Spirituals,  or  Reguincs,  then  under  per^ 
Mention.  The  two  former  groups  they  said  did  not  observe  th* 
Rule  and  would  bo  dratroyed,  while  their  own  sect  would  endure 
Ui  Ibe  end  of  the  world.  Even  the  saintly  and  long  -  suffering 
Anpilo  da  Clarino  was  denounced  as  an  ai>ostate,  and  there  were 
int-betded  zealots  who  declared  that  he  would  ]>rove  to  be  the 
BTstical  Antichrist.  Others  were  diR]K)scd  to  assign  this  doubt* 
hi  honor,  or  even  the  position  of  the  grojitor  Antichrist,  to  Felipe 
of  Majorca,  brother  of  that  Ferrand  whom  we  have  seen  offered 
tkesovercignty  of  (?arcaiisonno.  Felipe's  thii-st  for  asceticism  had 
^hd  him  to  abandon  his  brother's  court  and  become  a  Tertiary  of 
Hk  Ftancis.  Angelo  alludes  to  him  repeatedly,  with  great  admi- 
^■Kian^BB  worthy  to  rank  with  the  ancient  ]M;rfcot«cl  suintji.  In 
Hkatormy  discussions  soon  after  Jotm's  accession  he  had  inter- 
nwd  in  favor  of  the  Spirituals,  petitioning  that  they  be  allowed 
lofonn  a  separate  Order.  After  taking  the  full  tows,  he  renewed 
Uus  gupplic-ation  in  139fl,  but  it  was  refused  in  full  consistory,  after 
»hjdi  we  bear  of  him  wandering  over  F^urope  and  living  on  bc^- 
IVy.  In  1341,  with  the  support  of  Robert  of  Naples,  he  made  a 
ihird Implication,  which  Benedict  XII.  rejecied  for  the  reaiMm  that 
bevua  supporter  and  defender  of  the  lieguines,  whom  he  had 
jwtified  after  their  condemnation  by  publicly  asserting  many 
enoraious  heretical  lies  about  the  Holy  See.  Such  were  the  men 
whose  self-devotion  seemed  to  these  flory  bigots  so  toiiid  a.';  to  ren- 
dffltbflm  objects  of  detestation.f 


^^Kat 


ii.  XXVn.  7  sqq.— Lit).  Bentcntt  Inq.  Tolos.  pp.  305,  907, 810.  888-8.— 
_B»o.  Oaidua.  Prmciic«  P.  r. 

'tUU  Ssnteatt  Inq.  TulcM.  pp.  308.  BOD,  836.  830.— Bern.  Guidon    PraMiok 
-t.— Pnnz  Ebrle  (up.  cit.  1885,  pp.  MO,  MS,  S&7),— Harm,  do  FtoDciacbo  (lb. 


THE    8P1RITDAL   PRANClSCAKa 

Tho  hei^htfi  of  esiiltation  reached  in  thmr  rclijEpous  delirium 
are  illustrated  by  the  career  of  Kaprous  Boneta.  who  waa  rever- 
enced in  the  sect  as  an  inspired  propbetess.  As  early  as  1315  she 
had  fallen  into  the  hands  of  tho  Inquitution  at  Montpellier,  and  had 
been  thrown  into  prison,  to  be  siibsoqimnlly  released.  She  and  her 
sister  Alissctte  were  wamily  intcn^ted  io  the perseoated  Spirituals. 
sad  gave  refuge  to  many  fugitives  in  thoir  bouse.  As  persecution 
grew  hotter,  her  oxaltation  increaaod.  In  1320  she  commenced  to 
have  visions  and  ecstasies,  in  whidi  she  was  carried  to  heaven  and 
bad  inteniows  with  Christ.  Kinidly,  on  Koly  Thursday,  1321, 
Christ  communicjitod  to  her  the  Divjno  Spirit  as  completely  aa  it 
had  been  given  to  tho  Virgin,  saying.  ••  The  Blessed  Virgin  Mary 
was  the  giver  of  tho  Son  of  God :  thou  shalt  be  the  giver  of  the 
Holy  GhoBt."  Thus  tho  promises  of  tho  Kveriasting  Gospel  were 
on  tha  point  of  fulfilment, and  tho  Third  Ago  was  about  to  dawn. 
Elijah,  she  said,  was  St.  Francis,  and  Enoch  was  Olivi ;  the  power 
/^nled  to  Christ  lasted  until  CJod  gave  the  Holy  Sjurit  to  OUvi, 
and  invested  him  with  aa  much  glory  as  hud  been  granted  to  the 
humanity  of  Christ.  The  papacy  has  ceased  to  exist,  tho  sacra- 
ments of  tho  altar  and  of  confession  are  su{x.-nieded,  but  that  of 
matrimony  remains.  That  of  penitence,  indcod,  still  exists,  Irat  it 
is  purely  internal,  for  beartfelt  contrition  works  forgiveness  of 
sins  without  sacerdotal  intercession  or  the  imposition  of  penance. 
One  remark,  which  she  casually  made  when  before  her  judges,  is 
noteworthy  as  manifesting  the  boundless  love  and  charity  of  these 
poor  souls.  Tho  Spirituals  and  lepers,  she  said,  who  had  l>een 
burned  were  like  the  innocents  massacred  by  Herod — it  waa  Satan 
who  procurnl  the  burning  of  the  S^iirituals  and  tciiers.  This  alludes 
to  the  hideous  cruelties  which,  as  wo  have  seen,  were  perpetrated 
on  the  lepers  in  1321  and  13^2,  when  tho  wholo  of  France  went 
mad  with  terror  over  a  rumored  poisoning  of  tho  wells  by  those 
oiitcasta,  and  when,  it  seems,  the  Spirituals  were  wise  enough  and 
humane  enough  to  sympathize  with  theui  and  condemn  their  mar* 
der.     Naprous,  at  length,  was  brought  before  Henri  de  Cbamay, 


1897,  p-  30.— OiitlM.  NiingiAc.  CvDtin.  aon.  13U0.— Wadding,  una.  lUl,  Ko. 
21,  23. 

A  vulHlivitioD  of  ttiG  Itfllian  Fniticplil  luuk  Llie  name  of  Brethren  of  Fra; 
Felipe  dcMallorc&lTocoo,Arcbivio  titorico  >tapoleiuoo,  1SS7,  Fuc  1). 


CHARACTERISTICS  OP  THE   8BCT. 


i» 


lii6  laquiutor  of  OarcaaBonne,  in  1325.  Sincere  in  the  belief  of 
htir  divine  mission,  she  sjiontiirn'ously  Aiul  fearlessly  related  her 
\aA'}ty  and  stated  her  faith,  and  in  her  replies  to  Iicr  examiners 
dio  vraE  runuirkably  quick  ami  intelligent.  When  her  confession 
«IB  rettd  over  to  her  she  confirmed  it,  and  to  all  exhortaUon«  to 
ntnct  she  i^uietly  nn>;n'ere<l  that  she  would  lire  and  die  in  It  as 
tbe  InitJ).  I;?he  vras  afconlingiy  handed  over  to  the  secular  urm 
ind  naled  her  oonriotions  \vith  her  blood.* 

Eitrava^:!  nces  nf  i>elief  such  as  thia  were  not  aeeompflnieil  H'ith 
otnTBgance  of  condiiol.  Even  Bomani  tJui  has  no  fault  to  find 
villi  the  heretics'  mode  of  life,  except  that  the  school  of  Satan 
imitated  the  school  of  Christ,  aa  laymen  imitate  like  monkeys  the 
putore  of  the  Clmrch.  They  all  rowed  povoKy  and  led  a  life  of 
■jj-demal,  some  of  them  laboring  with  their  hands  and  others  be^ 
ging  hy  the  wayside,  in  the  towns  and  rillagea  they  had  little 
dntlingB  which  they  called  Uouaea  of  I'overty.  and  where  they 
d»flU  together.  On  Sundays  and  feast-days  their  friends  would 
■Kmble  and  all  would  listen  to  readingb  from  the  prucepts  and 
■rticles  of  faith,  the  lives  nf  the  sainta.  and  their  own  religious 
books  in  the  vnlgar  tongue — mostly  the  writings  of  OHvi,  which 
ti^ey  ruganled  as  revelations  from  God.  and  the  "  Trantiius  JSanoH 
i'atris,'^  which  was  a  Ic^ndary  account  of  his  death.  The  only 
enernal  signs  by  which  Uernard  says  they  wore  to  bo  rocogni?^ 
■ve  that  on  meeting  one  another,  or  entering  a  house,  they  would 
nj*.  "3leeseU  be  Jesus  Christ,"  or'^BIeasod  be  the  name  of  the 
LonI  Jetins  Christ."  When  praying  in  clmreh  or  elsewhere  they 
«a  with  hooded  hcaids  and  faces  turned  to  the  wall,  not  standing 
V  kneeling,  or  striking  their  hands,  ns  was  cuBtomarv  with  the 
Qrtiiodwx.  At  dinner,  after  asking  a  blessing,  <mo  of  them  would 
kiiKland  recite  (tlonn  in  #»rW*i«,  and  after  supper,  ■Sa^j.'e  R^i/mn, 
Tha  Was  all  inoffensive  enough,  but  they  had  one  peculiarity  to 
I  Bernard  a£  an  inquisitor  took  strong  exwiptiotia.  When  on 
they  were  ready  enough  to  confess  their  own  faith,  btit  noth- 
^iag  MfuiUd  induce  them  to  betray  their  associates.  In  their  aim- 
naly  they  held  that  Uiis  wotild  be  a  violation  of  Christian  charity 
to  ibich  they  could  not  lawfully  be  compelled,  and  the  inquisitor 
infinite  pains  in  the  endeavor  to  show  that  it  is  oh&rity  to 

*  Coll.  Dost,  XXVIl.  7  sqq.,  OQ. 


u 


THE   SPIRITUAL  PRANC1SCAW8. 


one's  iieigh1x>r,  and  not  an  injury,  to  give  him  a  chance  of  con- 
version.* 


f  Evi<IontU'  these  poor  folk  would  have  been  harmless  enough 
if  let  alone,  ami  their  jwrsecution  could  only  be  justified  by  the 
duty  of  the  Church  to  preserve  erring  souIb  from  pei-dition.  A 
sect  based  u]»on  the  absolute  abnegation  of  pmi»crty  as  its  chief 
principle,  and  tlie  apocalyptic  reveries  of  the  Everlasting  Gospel, 
could  never  become  dangerous,  though  it  might  be  disafjreeable, 
from  ita  mut^j — or  ])erha|)s  vivacious — protuwt  a^^inst  the  luxury 
and  worhiliness  of  the  Church.  Even  if  let  alone  it  would  prob- 
ably soon  Lave  died  out.  Springing  as  it  did  in  a  region  and  at  a 
period  in  which  the  Inquisition  wsis  thoroughly  organized,  it  hml 
no  chance  of  smrrivid,  and  it  speedily  snccumbMl  under  the  fero- 
cious energy  of  the  j^roceedings  brought  to  bear  against  it.  Yet 
we  cannot  iix  with  any  precision  the  date  of  its  extinction.  The 
records  are  ira[>erFect,  and  those  which  we  possess  fail  to  draw  a 
distinction  between  the  Spirituals  and  the  orthodox  Franciscans, 
who,  as  we  shall  see.  were  driven  to  rt-bellion  by  John  X X II.  on  the 
question  of  the  poverty  of  Christ.  Tliis  httlor  dogma  became  one 
of  so  much  larger  importance  that  the  dreams  of  the  Spirituals 
were  speedily  lost  to  view,  and  in  the  later  cases  it  is  reasonable  to 
assume  that  the  victims  were  Fraticelli.  StUl,  there  are  several 
prosecutions  on  record  at  Carcassonne  in  1329,  which  were  doubt- 
less of  Spirituals.  One  of  them  was  of  Jean  Roger,  a  priest  who 
bad  stood  in  high  consideration  at  Rcziui's ;  he  had  been  an  asso- 
ciate of  Pierre  Trencavel  in  his  wanderings,  and  the  slight  penance 
iinpose<l  on  luni  would  seem  to  indicate  that  the  ardor  of  perseca- 
tioii  was  abiting,  though  we  learn  that  the  liones  of  the  martyrs 
of  Marseilles  were  still  hantlod  anmnd  as  rt^lics.  .lohn  XXII.  wna 
not  disposed  to  connive  at  any  relaxation  of  rigor,  and  in  Fobru- 
arj',  IUSI,  ho  reissued  his  bull  jSanvta  Uo-mana,  with  a  preface  ad- 
dresited  to  bislio^w  and  inquisitors  in  which  he  assumes  that  the  sect 
is  flourishing  as  vigorously  iis  ever,  and  orders  the  most  active  meas- 
ures takeu  for  its  suppression.  Doubtless  there  were  subsequent 
prosecutions,  but  the  sect  as  a  distinctive  ono  faded  out  of  sight-t 
Daring  the  period  of  its  active  existence  it  had  spread  oorow 


•  Bctd. Guidon. Practica  P.  v.        t  DwH.XXVII.  158, 170, 17^315;  XXXH 


f 


PERSECUTION    IX    ARAGON. 


85 


Pyrenees  into  Aragon.  Even  boforo  the  Council  of  BSziers, 
ifl  I9&9,  took  official  oojCTiiKanco  of  tho  nascent  hcrcwy.  the  bishops 
of  Aragon,  assembled  at  Tarragona  in  1'29T.  instituted  repressive 
iBMnms  against  tho  ltci^int?s  who  were  spreadingorrorftthrough- 
oatthe  kingdom,  and  all  Franciscan  Tertiarics  were  subjected  to 
HperTtsion.  Their  books  in  the  vulgar  tongiie  were  especially 
and  were  ordered  to  bu  sammdered.  Tliese  precautions 
not  avert  the  evil.  As  we  have  seen,  Amaldo  de  Yilnnova 
a  warm  advocate  of  the  Spirituals  ;  his  indcfatignbln  pen 
their  service,  his  writings  had  wide  circulation,  and  his  in- 
SMnoe  with  .Tayme  II.  protected  them.  With  his  death  and  that 
of  Clement  V.  persecution  commenced.  Immediately  after  the 
lnt«r  event,  in  1314.  the  Inquisitor  Bernardo  de  Puycerda,  one  of 
AnuUdo's  special  antagonists,  underttiok  their  suppression,  At 
Iheb  head  stooil  a  certain  Pedro  OIer,of  Majorca,  and  Fray  Bo- 
Brta  They  were  o1«stinate,  and  wore  handed  over  to  the  seridar 
when  all  were  burned  except  Bonato,  whu  recanted  on  being 
ed  by  the  flames.  Ho  was  dragged  from  tho  burning  pile, 
and  condcmnctl  to  perpetual  imprisonment,  but  after  some 
years  he  was  found  to  bo  still  secretly  a  Spiritual,  and  was 
boned  as  a  rejap»ed  in  I'S'S^.  £mboldene<.l  by  the  accession  of 
XXII.,  in  November,  1316,  Juan  de  IJotger,  the  inc)aisitor, 
Jofre  de  Cruilles,  provost  of  the  ^-acant  see  of  Tarragona, 
:od  together  an  asseinbly  of  Dominicans,  Franciscans,  and  Ci»- 
torcians,  who  condemned  the  apocalyptic  and  B|urituaUstio  writ- 
ogsof  Amalilo,  which  were  orderrMl  to  bo  BUiTendrmd  within  ten 
ftysnndor  pain  of  excommunication.  The  persecution  continued. 
DorinileBaldach  was  burned  as  a  Spiritual,  ^vith  a  disciple,  in  1325. 
ml  the  same  time  John  XXII.  issued  several  bulls  command- 
strict  inqnisition  to  be  ma<Ic  for  them  throughout  Aragon, 
Vakncia,  and  the  Balearic  Isles,  and  subjecting  them  to  the  juris- 
dklioQ  of  the  bifiho{>8  and  inquisitors  in  spite  of  any  privileges  or 
itamnnitieit  which  they  might  t-Iaim  as  Franciscans.  The  heresy, 
twwCTer,  Btems  never  to  have  obtained  any  firm  foothold  on  Span- 
wli  wil.  Tet  it  ponctratetl  even  to  Portugal,  for  Alvaro  Pelayo 
*«&  us  that  there  were  in  Lisbon  some  pseudo-Kmnciscans  who 
Aplilaaded  the  doctrine  that  Peter  and  his  successors  had  not  re- 
cored  from  Christ  the  jiower  which  he  held  on  earth.* 

•  Coneil.  Tarmconens.  ann.  1207  c  1-4  (Marteao  Am])!.  CoIL  VII,  805-6).— 


te 


I         ■  Uoneil. 


THE   8PIRITUAI.  FRANCISCANS. 


A  somewhat  different  development  of  the  Joachittc:  olfuni 
8&on  in  thp  Kranciscan  Juan  de  Pera-Tallada  or  do  Ruj* 
belter  kn'>\vn  perhaps  through  Froissaxt  us  Jea.n  do  la  Ro( 
taillnde.  As  a  preacher  nnd  niisfiionary  he  stood  pru-eminenb,  i 
his  voice  was  heard  from  his  native  Catalonia  to  distant  Moeci 
Somewhat  given  to  occult  acionoe,  various  treatises  on  alche 
have  boon  attributed  to  him,  among  n'hich  Polayo  tolls  ua  t 
it  IS  difficult  t4)  distinguish  the  genuine  from  the  doubtful,  m 
only  in  this  did  he  follow  Arnaldo  do  Vdanova,  but  in  meroUil 
lashing  the  corruptions  of  tlie  ('hurt-h,  and  in  commenting  on 
prophecies  of  the  iieetido-Jouchim.  Ku  man  of  this  school  seex 
able  to  refrain  from  indulging  in  prophecy  himself,  and  Ji 
gmneit  wide  reputation  by  jji'ediulions  which  were  justitied  by 
event,  such  as  the  battle  of  Poitiers  and  tlio  Great  Scltism.  ] 
ha)^<i  thiR  might  have  been  forgiven  hod  bo  not  also  foretold  t 
tlie  Clmrcli  would  bo  strippeti  of  ilie  superfluities  which  it  hac 
shookingly  abusoil.  ( )n«  metaphor  which  he  employed  was  Ian 
quoted.  The  Chuit^h,  he  said,  was  a  bir<l  born  without  fea|i 
to  wtiich  all  other  fowls  contribulod  plumage,  which  they  w« 
roolaim  in  consc(|ueucti  of  its  phtie  and  tynumy.  Like  the  Spi 
nals  he  lookod  fondly  Inck  to  the  primitive  days  bofoi-e  CodM 
tine,  when  in  holy  poverty  the  fonndations  of  the  faith  weraJ 
Ho  seems  to  have  steeredclearoftheexpress  heresy  as  to  lb«^ 
erty  of  Christ,  and  whon  he  came  to  Avignon,  in  1349,  to  prooli 
his  views,  although  several  attempts  to  bum  him  were  ineffefl 
he  was  promptly  thrown  into  jail.  Ue  vr&R'^ditrcrri^nt  grand  m 
and  bis  aconaers  vera  unablu  to  convict  him,  but  ho  was  too| 
gorous  a  Bum  to  be  at  largo,  and  ho  was  kept  in  oonflnefl 
When  ho  vrus  limdly  hberateil  is  not  stated,  but  if  Pelayo  is  i 
rrct  in  saying  that  be  retunwd  home  at  tho  age  of  ninety  ho 
have  been  relonscil  alter  a  long  incarceration.* 


Ml.— PcUjo,  Uetcnvloio*  R^wfialw,  L  T7T-S1,  793.— For  the  &te  of 
lie  VibDOTa'^  wriUn^  uUm  Index  EspurpUoriux.  m-c  1t<-it*cb,  I>«r 
Tfvtiutraen  RQcImc,  L  33-1.  Two  ot  tiie  tnuru  roculeiniinl  in  131S  bai 
fontxl,  tnulalvtl  into  Italian,  Iii  a  M9^  of  the  M&j*lut>MxbiaD  Ubrarr,  by  1 
T^cco,  vha  dr»aibfa  tbrm  tn  the  Arrhlrio  dtorieo  llalia&o,  IMS,  No>t,ub 
Uu  Qlotule  Slnrivtt  <l«lk  I^^  ItaL  VUl.  3. 

*  PahfOt  ll«icro«kaw  E^Mfieles,  1.  JI0O-&— Jo.  de  Rnpeacu^  Vtde  im 


d 


jrAN  DE  PERA  TALLADA. 


w 


Ibe  ostensibio  cause  of  his  punisbnieat  was  his  Joacbitio  spec* 
ebUioii  as  to  Antifhri-*!,  Ibongh,  its  Wiulding  obnorves.  many  holy 
OKU  did  the  same  witJiout  anuuad version,  like  6i.  Vicente  Ferrer, 
thorn  1412  not  only  precliotod  Antichrisl,  but  assorted  that  he 
m  oh-eady  nine  yoare  old,  and  who  waa  Dantuiizod,  not  peraocuted. 
Uibcz  of  Crcmaier  also,  as  wo  have  seen,  though  persecuted,  was 
lo^tted.  Fmy  Juan'a  reveries,,  however,  trenched  on  the  borders 
rf  the  Everiuting  GoepeU  aithou^  keeping  within  the  bounda  of 
tfthodoxy.  In  his  prison,  in  November,  1349,  he  wrote  out  an 
URKUtt  of  a  mimc-uloiis  vision  vouchstiled  liim  in  1345.  in  return 
lor  continued  prayer  and  maceration.  Ix}uia  of  liavaria  nriia  the 
Antichrist  who  would  gubju^to  Kuro[ie  and  Africa  in  I36fi,  wlule 
lainiiai'  tyrant  would  arise  in  A^iiL  Tlica  would  oume  a  sohism 
rilb  two  popes ;  Antichrist  would  lord  it  over  the  whole  earth 
mil  many  heretical  scct«  would  aHao.  After  the  dnath  of  Anti- 
daitt  would  follow  fifty-five  years  of  war;  tlie  Jews  would  be 
eaarartocl,  and  with  the  drsstnictinn  of  the  ktngilorn  of  Antichrist 
IW Millennium  would  open.  Then  ibo  converted  Jews  would  poe- 
MS  the  world,  all  would  bo  Tortiaries  of  St.  Fi-ancis,  ami  the 
huciaoans  woidd  be  inudels  of  hoUness  and  i>overty.  The  her- 
etita  would  take  rcfoge  in  inaocessiblo  mountains  and  the  islands 
of  the  sea,  whenoe  they  would  emerge  at  tho  close  of  the  JUllen- 
Bion;  the  second  Antichrist  would  appear  and  bring'  a  period  of 
pwt  suffering,  until  tiro  would  full  from  heaven  and  dctitroy  him 
Uhi  his  followers,  after  which  would  follow  the  end  of  the  world 
•aJ  the  Day  of  Judgment* 

AI«iitat,ion  in  prison  seems  to  have  modified  somrnvhathispro- 
pbetic  vision,  and  in  1356  he  wrote  his  Fade  mecum  in  Triintla* 
tim4,  in  which  h«  foretold  that  the  viooe  of  tho  clergy  n^ould  lead 

KLhe  speedy  spoliatiou  of  the  Church ;  in  six  yeajs  it  would  be 
bead  to  a  state  of  apostolical  poverty,  and  by  1370  would  com* 
Doe  the  process  of  recuperation  which  would  bring  all  mankind 
hrr  the  domination  of  Ohrist  and  of  his  eartldy  represeutativeu 

CiMric  R«.  Expotund.  et  Pugieof].  II.  4fi7).— Frviissart,  Liv.  i.  P.  ii.  ch.  IM; 
Ur.  m.  ch.  27.— Rrtlfwiuk  Fnscic.  Temp.  ami.  1304.— Mug.  Cliron.  Btlgio.  {Pi». 
f^fl  In.  Wfl),— Mereri  Annnl,  Fliinrtr,  nun.  1.W9.  —  Henr.  RebtlorQ",  Annnl.  ana. 
lUl.— pfeat  ,£m;li:  ils  Rob.  Uett.  Fraucor.  (Ed.  lAOS,  pp.  491-!}).— H.  Flae, 
WjT.  C«(.  Test  VcritAt.  Lib.  rvm.  p.  1786  (Ed.  1608). 
•  Wadding,  aiiit.  1857,  No.  17.— PbUvo,  op.  cic.  I.  501-2. 


Daring  tlie  interval  there  would  be  a  succession  of  the  direst  camra 
ities.  Vrom  iStiO  to  l.t05  the  worms  of  the  earth  would  arise  and 
destroy  all  beasts  and  birds;  temjXMt  and  deluge  and  earthquake, 
fuininc  and  pestilence  and  war  would  sweep  away  the  \\'icke<l ;  in 
1365  Anticliriat  would  come,  and  such  multitudes  would  apostatize 
that  bat  few  faithful  would  be  left.  His  reign  would  bo  abort, 
and  in  13TU  a  ]>ope  canonically  elected  would  bring  mankind  to 
Christianity,  after  which  all  cartlinals  would  be  chosen  from  the 
Greek  (.'hurch.  During  these  tribuhitions  the  Franciscans  would 
be  nearly  exterminated,  in  punishment  for  their  relaxation  of  the 
Kule,  but  the  survuvors  would  bo  reformed  and  the  Order  would 
fill  the  eaJ'th,  innumerable  as  the  stars  of  heaven ;  in  fact,  two 
Franciscans  of  the  most  abject  poverty  were  to  be  the  Elias  and 
£nocb  who  would  conduct  the  (Church  through  that  disustrooa 
time.  Meanwhile  he  advise<l  tliat  ample  store  should  be  made  in 
mountain  caves  of  be&ns  *nd  honey,  salt  meats,  and  dried  fruits  by 
those  who  desired  to  live  thraugh  the  convulsions  of  nature  and  soci- 
ety. After  the  death  of  Antichnst  would  come  the  Millennium  ;  for 
seven  hundred  years,  or  until  about  A.n.  90(H),  mankind  would  be 
virtuous  and  happy,  but  theu  would  come  a  decline ;  existing  vices, 
especially  among  the  clergy,  would  be  revived,  preparatory  to  the 
advent  of  (Jog  and  Magog,  to  be  followo<!  by  the  final  Antichrist. 
It  shows  the  sensitiveness  of  the  hierarchy  that  this  haruUeas 
nympholepsy  was  deemed  worthy  of  severe  repression.* 

The  inDuence  of  the  Everlasting  Ciosjwl  was  not  yet  wholly 
exhausted.  I  have  alluded  above  to  Thomas  of  Apulia,  who  in 
13B8  insisted  on  preaching  to  the  Parisians  that  the  reign  of  the 
Holy  Ghost  hud  commenced,  and  that  he  was  the  divinely  com- 
missioned envoy  sent  to  announce  it.  when  his  mission  was  hu- 
manely cut  short  by  confining  bim  its  a  madman.  Singularly 
identical  in  all  but  the  result  was  the  career  of  N  icholas  of  liuUies- 
dorf,  who,  about  1445,  proclaimed  that  God  hail  commanded  him  to 
announce  that  the  time  of  the  New  Testaincnt  had  passed  away, 
as  timt  of  tho  Old  had  done  ;  that  the  Third  Era  and  Seventh  Age 
of  the  world  had  come,  under  the  reign  of  the  Tloly  Ghost,  when 
man  would  be  restored  to  tho  state  of  primal  innocence ;  and  that 
lie  was  the  Son  of  God  deputed  to  spread  the  glad  tidings.    To 


•  FmcIc.  R«r.  ExjictCDd.  et  Fugieml.  U.  4W-508. 


ECHOES    OF    JOACniTlSM. 


89 


liie  council  still  sttttag  at  Basle  he  sent  various  tracts  containing 
these  doctrines,  and  he  Anally  had  the  audacity  to  appejir  Urforo 
it  id  person.  His  writings  were  i)ruiuptly  oonsigned  tu  the  tUmes 
ukI  be  was  imprisoned.  Every  nifort  was  loailo  to  induce  him  to 
Kcant,hut  in  rain.  The  BasiUan  fiithf^rs  were  less  considerate!  of 
inttnity  than  the  Paris  doctors,  and  Nicholas  peiished  at  the  stake 
ml«6.* 

A  last  echo  of  the  Everlasting  Gos]>el  is  hcani  in  the  teaching 
dtiTo  brothers,  John  and  Lewinof  Wiirzhiirg.  wlio  in  14(>fi  tauglit 
in  Eger  that  all  trihulations  were  caused  by  the  wickednecis  of  the 
deigy.  The  pope  was  Antichrist,  and  the  cardinals  and  jirelates 
toe  his  members.  Indulgences  were  useless  and  the  ccrcmoni4>s 
of  the  Church  were  vanities,  but  the  time  of  dehverancu  was  at 
hintl.  A  man  was  already  bom  of  a  virgin,  who  was  the  anuint- 
ai  of  Christ  and  would  speetlily  come  with  the  third  Evangel 
tad  bring  all  the  faithful  into  the  fold.  The  heresy  was  rapidly 
tad  secretly  spreading  aiuung  the  peoplu,  when  it  was  discovered 
bvliighop  Heni7  of  Ratishon.  The  measures  taken  for  its  sup* 
pession  arc  not  recorded,  and  the  inci<ient  is  only  of  interest  as 
ilioiring  how  persistently  the  conviction  reappeared  that  there 
muBt  be  a  final  and  higher  revelation  to  secure  the  happiness  of 
msn  in  this  world  and  his  salvation  in  the  next.f 


*  FtltMlioi  Dcaea.  unputbcy bche  Kirchcu-  u.  KctzcrliUtorie,  Pmakfurt,177^ 

ao-M. 

tCliton.  Olawberger  urn.  1460  {Analecta  Pruiciscaoa  U.  422-^). 


LPTER 


GUGLIELHA  AND  DULCINO. 

ToB  s^nritual  exaltutiun  whicli  pnxiuced  among  the  Fmnciscana 
the  developments  clt-wrilxNl  in  the  last  chapter  was  by  no  means 
confuied  to  the  nxro^niized  niemborsof  that  Oixlur.  It  maaifested 
itself  in  even  more  irregular  fasliion  in  the  little  gix)up  of  sectaries 
knou'n  as  GngUelmitoa.  cinil  in  the  more  forraitlabie  demonstration 
of  the  Uolcioists,  or  Apostolic  iJretbren. 

About  the  year  1300  there  came  to  MiUn  a  woman  calling 
herself  Uu^lielma.  That  she  brott^t  with  her  a  son  shows  that 
itha  hud  lived  in  the  world,  and  wiis  donbtloss  triecL  ^^'itll  its  victssi* 
tutJeii.  and  as  thu  child  makes  no  further  appearance  in  Iwr  history, 
he  probably  dial  younf;;.  She  had  wealth,  and  was  said  to  be  the 
daughter  of  (instance,  qucon  and  wife  of  the  King  of  Ikihomia. 
11  ur  ruyal  extraction  is  ijuestioaable,  but  the  matter  is  ecarcu  worth 
the  discussion  which  it  lias  provoked.*  She  was  a  woman  of  pre- 
eminent piety,  who  devolcnl  herself  to  guotl  works,  without  prac- 
tising special  austeritic-s,  and  she  gradually  attracttyl  around  her  a 
little  band  of  disciples,  to  whom  such  of  her  utterances  as  have 
been  roconled  aUow  that  she  gave  wholesomo  ethical  instru«:tion. 


■  ConttADce,  daughter  of  Bcla  III.  of  Hungary,  wa»  iecoiid  wif«  ofOttoknr  I. 
of  Bohemia,  who  died  in  1230  at  tlie  nge  ol"  dglity.  She  died  in  1240.  U-jirmg 
tlirc'v  dnu^UttTH,  Aj^m,  w1j<j  fouiidud  ihc  Friinciitciin  cunvtnt  of  8t.  Jnnuarina 
JD  Prague,  which  she  endured  Muy  IS,  12S0;  Beatrice,  wlio  muricd  Oiho  tha 
Pious,uf  UmndLiibur^,  and  LudumillH,  who  iimrrk-d  Luuisl.  of  Bftrftrio.  OuglU 
pltiia  c«ii  pcnrce  Jiavi-  hn-n  rifbcr  of  llicse  (Art  dc  Ver.  It*  flntf*,  VIll.  17). 
H(!r  disciple,  Andrea  SnruniitJi,  textifled  that  afliT  lii-r  deiilfa  he  Journojred  to 
Bohemia  to  obt»in  rrinilvuntinnrnt  of  ccrtHtii  rxjK'iiM-H ;  he  failed  in  hi»  ermnJ, 
but  TerlUcd  her  pehul(in!«hip  to  the  roynl  linxisr  of  Rnlicmk  ( AndrL-a  Ognilteii,  I 
Onglielniiti  del  Secolo  XIII.,  Perugia,  tS07,  pp.  10-11).— On  the  arlier  bud,  a 
Uerman  contcmpnmry  chronicler  ii!u>.i.-rtH  th;it  kIic  aimc  from  England  (Asual. 
OomlBfesQ.  Cobaarieus.  uin.  1301— Uratiaii  III.  33). 


TBB    GUQLIELMITE8. 


91 


Tk«r  adopted  the  style  of  plain  brown  garment  which  she  habitu* 
&lhr  irore,  and  Boem  to  have  formed  a  kind  of  uuorgBnized  congre* 
gtlion.  lK>and  together  only  by  common  devotion  to  her.* 

At  that  period  it  was  not  easy  to  set  bounds  to  veneration :  the 
ipihtnal  world  was  felt  to  be  in  the  clowst  relation  with  the  ma- 
WiaL  and  ilie  development  of  Jouchitisin  shows  how  wvulily  ro- 
OBTfd  were  suggostions  that  a  great  change  waa  impending,  and  a 
Kv  cm  about  to  open  for  mankind.  (TUgUelma's  devotees  came 
tui^anl  her  as  a  aaint,  ^ted  with  thaumatitri^c  |>nwer.  Some 
rf  her  disciples  churned  to  bo  miraculously  ciire<I  by  her — Dr. 
Giuobbe  da  Femo  of  an  ophthahutu  trouble,  and  Albertono  du' 
XoTBli  of  a  tistuio.  Tlien  it  waa  said  thai  she  had  received  the 
npereminent  honor  of  tho  Bti^ata,  and  althongh  those  who  pre- 
puvd  her  body  for  the  grave  could  nut  see  them,  this  was  held  to 
be  owing  tu  their  unworthincss.  It  was  oonHdcntly  predicted 
tkl  she  woidd  convert  the  Jews  and  Saracens,  and  bring  all  man- 
bod  into  tmity  of  faith.  At  laat,  about  1^76,  some  of  the  more 
wthiiiiastto  disoiplce  b^^an  to  whisper  that  she  was  the  inoama- 
twtt  of  tho  Holy  Ghost,  iu  female  form—the  Third  Person  of  the 
Tnnity,  as  Christ  was  of  tho  Second,  in  the  shape  of  a  man.  She 
nn  very  God  and  very  man ;  it  was  not  alone  the  body  of  Christ 
»iiich  suffered  in  tho  Passion,  bnt  also  that  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  so 
lint  her  deiih  waa  Ih©  same  us  that  of  Christ.  The  originatorB  of 
tUi  itrangc  belief  seem  to  hare  been  Andrea  Saramita,  a  man  of 
iluding  iiL  Milan,  and  Suor  Maifreda  di  I^rovano,  an  Umiliata  of 
the  ancient  cxjnvent  of  Bifiasono,  and  a  cousin  of  Mattw*  Visconil. 
There  is  no  probability  that  Guglielma  countenanced  these  al>surd 
■toties.  Andrea  SanuniLa  waa  the  only  witness  who  asserted  that 
be  bad  them  from  her  direct,  and  he  hml  a  few  <layB  before  testiflnd 
to  lii€  contrary.  The  other  immediate  disciples  of  Guglielma  stated 
tltttdie  mode  no  pretensions  to  any  supeniatural  character.  When 
fWfh  would  ask  her  to  cure  them  or  relieve  them  of  trouble  she 
»o«Iil  sjiy,  "  Go,  I  am  not  God."  ^^len  told  of  the  strange  lieliefa 
wtertaJne*!  of  her  she  strermou-sly  asserted  that  she  was  unly  a 
"werable  woman  and  a  vile  worm.  Marchisio  Secco,  a  monk  of 
Hiianivalle,  tcstifirHl  that  he  had  had  a  disjuite  with  Andma  on 
ae  subject,  and  they  agretHl  to  refer  it  to  her,  whoa  she  iudjg- 


*  OgDilwn,  op  cit.  pp.  58,  ^Z-6, 108-4. 


99 


GUQLIELHA   AND  OOLCINO. 


nantlj  replied  that  sbe  was  flesh  and  bone,  that  she  bad  brongbt 
a  son  with  her  to  Milan,  and  that  if  they  did  not  do  ponanco  for 
uttering;  such  words  they  would  be  condemned  to  hell.  Yet,  to 
minds  familiar  vrith  th«  promises  of  the  Ki'erlastlng  Gfispel,  It 
might  well  seem  that  tlio  era  of  the  Iloly  Ghost  would  be  ushered 
in  with  such  an  iuairnatiun.* 

Gugliclma  died  August  24,  IftSl,  leaving  her  property  to  the 
great  Cisterciaa  bouse  of  Chiaravalle,  near  Milan,  where  she  de- 
sired to  ho  buriwl.  Thoro  was  war  at  the  time  between  Milan  and 
Lodj ;  the  roads  wero  not  safn,  anil  she  was  tomporHrily  interred  In 
the  city,  while  Andrea  and  Dionisio  Cotta  went  to  the  Marquis  ot 
Montforrat  to  ask  for  an  est-ort  of  troops  to  accnmpany  the  cortege. 
The  translation  of  the  body  took  place  in  October,  and  was  eon* 
ducted  with  great  splendor.  The  Cistercians  ^s'elcomed  the  oppor- 
tunity to  add  to  the  attractions  and  revenues  of  their  establish- 
ment. At  tbat  period  the  business  of  exploiting  new  saints  w&g 
exceedingly  profitable,  and  was  prosecuted  with  corresponding 
energy,  fsalimbuue  complains  bitterly  of  it  in  referring  to  a 
speculatitm  mndo  in  1279,  at  Cremona,  out  of  tlio  remains  of  a 
drun5(en  vintner  named  Alberto,  whose  cult  brought  crowds  M 
devotees  with  offerings,  to  the  no  small  gain  of  all  concerned, 
Such  things,  as  we  have  seen  in  the  case  of  Armanno  Pongilupo 
and  others,  were  constantly  occurring,  though  Salimbene  declarer 
that  the  canons  forbade  the  veneration  of  any  one,  or  picturing 
him  as  a  saint,  untU  the  Roman  Churcli.  had  authoritatively  passed 
upon  his  claims.  In  this  Salimbene  wn.s  mistaken.  Zangbinc 
TJgolini,  a  much  better  authority,  assures  us  that  the  worship  oJ 
uncanonized  saints  was  not  heretical,  if  it  wore  believed  that  theii 
miracles  were  worked  by  God  at  their  intercession,  but  if  it  were 
beUeved  that  they  were  worked  by  the  relics  without  the  asseni 
of  Qod,  then  the  Inquisition  could  intervene  and  punish ;  but  sc 
long  as  a  saint  was  uncanonize<l  his  cult  was  at  the  discretion  oi 
the  bishop,  who  could  at  any  time  command  its  cessation,  and  the 

•Ognilwn,  op.  cit.  pp.  12,20-1.  3fi-7.  09.70.  71.76.  82.  81  G,  101,l(M-6.  US 
Dr.  Andrea  Ogniben,  t"  wlioni  wc  arc  indclikd  for  tlit  piihlirntJon  of  thi 
frsgiiientarjr  rvmuiuis  of  tlie  trial  uf  the  Gugltelniitus,  tbloks  timt  M&if>«(lft  d 
PiroTiino  wiut  »  cousin  of  Mattco  YiKcosti,  throagh  his  mothnr,  Anaatana  d 
PiroT&no  (op.  cit.  p.  33).  The  CuntinUttUun  of  Nangis  calls  lier  bis  balf-siatat 
(Qoillvl.  ?{an^c.  CoDtin.  uic.  1817). 


THE    QUQLIELMITKS. 


Shat  miracliTs  wero  perfonnod  was  no  evidence,  as  they 
tly  the  work  of  deiiiom  to  deceive  the  faithful.* 
In  this  cai>o  the  Arclihtitlkop  of  Milan  otfere«)  no  interference, 
ud  the  worship  of  GugUelxiia  was  suoa  tiniiJy  eetabUshud.  A 
nuith  after  the  translation  Andrea  hiul  the  bo«ly  exhumed  and 
orried  into  the  church,  where  be  washed  it  with  wine  and  water 
aoii  UTityed  it  in  a  splendid  embroidered  robe.  The  wasliings 
were  carefully  preserved,  to  l>e  use<l  as  a  nhriam  for  the  «cU ;  they 
were  placed  on  the  altar  of  the  ntinnery  of  Biassono^and  Maifreda 
employed  theui  in  anointing  the  alTectod  {mrts  of  those  who  came 
to  be  healed.  Presently  a  chapel  with  an  altar  antao  over  her 
tomb,  and  tradition  still  {mints  out  at  Chiaravalle  the  httle  oratory 
vberu  she  is  said  to  liave  tain,  and  u  portrait  on  the  wall  over  the 
tuant  tomb  is  asserted  to  be  hers.  It  represents  her  as  kneeling 
More  the  Vii^in,  to  whom  she  is  presented  by  St.  Bernard,  the 
JBUiNi  of  the  abbey  ;  a  crowd  of  other  figures  is  around  her,  and 
the  whole  indieatis  that  thoec  who  dc<Ucatod  it  to  her  represented 
beru  merely  a  saint,  ami  not  as  an  incarnation  of  the  Godhead. 
Aoutlier  picture  of  her  was  placed  by  Dionisio  Cotta  in  the 
Church  of  St.  Maria  fuori  di  Porta  >'uova,  and  two  lamps  were 
hji  burning  before  it  to  obtain  her  suffrage  for  the  sou]  of  his 
brother  interred  there.  Other  pictures  were  hung  in  the  Church 
ofS.£ufenua  and  in  the  nunnery  of  Uia^sono.  In  all  this  tiio  good 
mUcs  of  Chiaravallc  were  not  remiss.  They  kept  lighted  lamps 
Wore  her  altar.  Two  feast-days  were  assigned  to  her — the  anni- 
wnrtes  of  her  death  and  of  her  translation — whoa  the  devotees 
iroalil  assemble  at  the  abbey,  and  the  monks  would  furnish  a 
(imple  banquet,  outside  of  the  walls — for  the  Cistercian  rules  for- 
bsde  the  pi'ofanation  of  a  woman's  pre-sencc  within  the  saered 
adoBUfe — and  S4jrne  of  the  monks  would  iliscourse  eUHjuently  niwn 
tin  Mi&tliness  of  GugUelma,  comparing  her  to  other  saints  and  t4> 
^  Uoon  and  stars,  and  receiving  such  oblations  as  the  piety  of 
the  worshipjiers  would  offer.  Kor  was  this  the  only  gain  to  the 
aWtey.  Giaoobbo  do'  Novati,  one  of  the  believers,  belonged  to  one 
of  tbe  noblest  fonulies  of  Milan,  and  at  bis  castle  the  Guglielmites 


*Ogiiiben,  op.  cit.  pp.  30.44.  !15.— Satiiulwiic  Chrouica,  pp.  374-5.— CJimo. 
■"wwniOB.  ia79(Munitori8.  R.  I.  IX-  7»l-a>.~Z«nc!biiii  Trw;t.  tie  n«.TCl,  c. 

UiL 


94 


OCaLlELM^    ANU   DOLCtNa 


wore  wont  to  assemble.  "When  he  died  he  institut«d  the  abbey 
as  his  hoii',  and  the  inheritance  ponld  not  hnve  bcRn  inronsidor- 
nble.  Thero  were,  <lo\ibtlt'S5.  other  instances  of  similar  liberality 
of  whicli  thf  evidences  hiive  not  reached  ns.* 

All  this  was  innocent  enough,  but  within  the  circle  of  those 
who  worahippeti  GugHelnia  there  was  a  little  band  of  initiated 
who  believetl  in  her  us  the  incarnation  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  The 
history  of  the  Joachites  has  shown  us  the  readineeB  which  existed 
to  look  upon  Christianity  as  a  temporary  phaac  of  religion,  to 
bo  shortly  Ruccoedcd  by  the  reign  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  when  the 
Church  of  Ilomo  would  give  place  to  a  new  and  higher  organi/Ji- 
tion.    It  was  not  difficult,  tbei-efore,  for  the  Gugliolmites  to  per- 

,l!iiafle  thenifielvos  that  they  had  enjoyeil  the  society  of  the  Para- 
clete, who  was  shortly  to  api^ar,  when  the  Holy  Spirit  would  be 
received  in  tongues  of  flame  by  the  disciples,  the  heathen  and  the 
Jew  would  be  oonvertetl,  and  there  would  be  a  new  church  usher- 
\r\g  in  the  era  of  love  and  blessedness,  for  which  man  had  been 
sighing  through  the  weary  centuries.  Of  this  doctrine  Andrea 
was  chief  apostle.  lie  claimed  to  be  the  first  and  only  spiritual 
son  of  Gugltelma,  from  whom  ho  had  received  the  revelation,  and 
he  embroidered  it  to  suit  the  credulity  of  the  disciples.  The  Arch- 
angel Kapliael  had  announced  to  the  blessed  Ck>nstance  the  incar- 
nation in  her  of  tht^  Holy  Ghost ;  a  year  afterwards,  Ouglielma 
was  born  on  the  holy  day  of  Pentecost ;  she  had  chosen  the  form 
of  a  woman,  fur  if  she  had  come  as  man  she  would  have  died  liko 
Christ,  and  the  wliole  world  would  have  perished.  On  one  occar 
sion.  in  her  chamber,  she  liad  changed  a  chair  into  an  ox,  and  had 
told  him  to  hold  it  if  ho  could,  but  when  he  attempted  to  do  so  it 

fldisnppearod.  The  same  indulgences  were  obtainable  by  visiting 
her  tomb  at  Chiaravalle  as  by  a  pilgrimage  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre, 
^S'afers  which  had  been  consecrated  by  laying  them  on  the  lomb 
were  eagerly  partaken  of  by  the  disciples,  as  a  now  form  of  com- 
mnnion.  Kesidea  the  two  regidar  foiist-days,  there  was  a  third  for 
the  Initiateil.  signiiicantly  held  on  Pentecost,  the  day  when  she 
was  expected  to  reappear.  Meanwhile,  the  devotion  of  the  faith- 
ful was  stimulated  by  stories  of  her  being  in  communication  with 


"  Ojrnilwi.  op.  cit.  pp.  90-1,  85-6.  31.86,  «-fl0,«6-7, 81,  W-8, 74,63-4, 104, 
116.— Tuml»iri:ii,  Storia  dell'  IiKiuiMzione,  II.  17-19> 


TQB  GUOLlELMITSa 


95 


her  representatives,  both  in  her  own  form  and  in  that  of  a  dove. 
Uonr  slight  was  the  evidence  requirod  for  bdicvere  was  soen  in  an 
iaddeat  which  gave  tiiem  gi^eat  cumfurt  in  L2U3.    At  a  banquet 
in  the  bouM  of  Staoobbo  <la  Ferno,  a  wnrni  diRcussion  arorie  be- 
tween, tliose  who  doubled  and  tiiose   whose  convictions  wero 
decided.    Carabclla^  ^rifL■  of  Aniizzono  Toscanu,  one  of  the  earnest 
betievBrB,  vas  sitting  on  her  mantle,  ami  when  slic  arose  ahc  found 
three  knots  in  the  cords  which  had  not  been  there  before.    This 
WIS  at  once  pronouiitxxl  a  great  niiracle.  and  was  evidently  re- 
garded OS  a  full  coniimuition  of  the  truth.* 

If  it  were  not  for  the  tragedy  which  followed  there  would  be 
UAhiag  to  render  Gngliulmitisni  other  than  a  jcet,  for  the  Church 
wfaidi  was  to  repluce  the  niassive  8tnicturo  of  Latin  C'lmBtianity 
was  as  ludicrous  in  its  conception  us  these  details  of  its  faith.  The 
GvpeJs  were  to  be  replaced  by  eacred  writings  produoed  by  An- 
drea, of  which  hn  had  already  prt>pared  severat,  in  the  nainra  of 
Km  of  the  initiated-— '•  The  Kpintle  of  Sibilia  to  the  Knvaresi," 
-The  Prophecy  of  Carmeo  the  Prophet  to  all  Cities  and  Js'ations  " 
Mill  an  account  of  GugUelma'a  teachings  cummcnuing.  "  In  that 
tine  tlie  Holy  (ihost  said  to  hiii  dist-iples/'  Maifn^Iu  alfto  com- 
youd  litanies  of  the  Holy  Ghost  and  prayers  for  the  use  of  the 
Olnveh.  When,  on  the  second  adrent  of  Guglielma,  the  papacy 
"M  lo  pass  away,  Maifrmla  was  t-o  hocome  pope,  the  ^icar  of  the 
Holy  Ghuet,  with  the  keys  of  heaven  and  hell,  and  baptize  the 
Jew  and  the  Saracen.  A  new  college  of  cardinals  was  to  be  fonncd. 
o(  whom  only  one  appears  to  have  btH;ri  selected-  -a  girl  njinind 
Tarit,  who,  to  jadgo  from  her  answere  when  before  the  Inquisi- 
iHo.  aod  the  terms  of  contempt  in  which  she  is  alluded  to  by  some 
tA  UiQ  sect,  was  a  worthy  rrproscntativc  of  the  whole  ateurd 
•ohane.  While  awaiting  hor  exultation  to  the  papacy  Maifreda 
*ai  the  object  of  special  veneration.  The  disciples  kissed  faer 
tuttdt  and  feet,  and  she  gave  tUem  hur  blessing.  It  was  ptvbably 
lie  spiritual  excitement  caused  by  the  jui)ilee  pi-oclaimed  by  Honi- 
^  VHI.,  attracting  pilgi-ims  to  lioine  Uy  the  hnndiwl  thousand 
topin  the  proffered  indulgences,  which  led  the  Giii:liulniit«s  to 
«ae  the  Pentecost  of  1300  for  tho  a<lvent  of  tiio  Holy  Ghost, 
a  cuiiuuB  maoifestatioxi  of  nmlerialism,  the  woi-sliipjiers  pre- 


*  Ognibeo,  op.  ciL  [>[>.  -Jl,  25, 30, 30. 6S. 70, 73,06, 101. 


9B  OUGLIELSIA  AND  D0LCII70. 

pared  splendid  f^nnents  for  the  adornment  of  the  expected  God— 
a  purplo  inanLle  uith  a  silver  claiip  costtDg  thirty  jwunds  of  ter 
zioli,  golci-einhrt>ideriKi  silks  and  gilt  slippers — while  Piotra  do'  At 
Eate  contributed  forty-two  dozen  pearls,  and  Catella  de'  Oiorgj 
gave  an  ounce  of  i>earl8.  In  prejwiration  for  her  now  and  hoJy 
funottona,  Maifrcda  undertook  to  cclcbnita  the  myatories  of  the 
mass.  During  the  solemnities  of  £ast«r,  Ln  sacerdotal  vestments, 
she  consecrated  the  host,  while  Andrea  in  a  dalmatic  read  the 
Gos|)el,  and  she  administerod  communion  to  those  present.  ^VTien 
should  come  the  resurrection  of  GngUelma,  she  was  to  repeat  the 
ceremony  in  8.  Maria  JIaggiore,  and  the  sacred  vessels  were  al- 
ready pre]>ared  for  this,  on  an  extravagant  scale,  costing  more 
tlian  two  hundred  lire.* 

The  sums  thus  lavished  show  that  the  devotees  belonged  to 
the  wealthy  ninss.  What  is  most  noteworthy,  in  fact,  in  the  whole 
story,  is  that  a  belief  so  absurd  should  have  found  acceptance 
among  men  of  culture  and  intelligence,  showing  the  spirit  of  un- 
rest that  \vtts  abroad,  and  the  readiness  to  accept  any  promise, 
however  wild,  of  relief  from  existing  evils.  Tliere  were  few  more 
prominent  families  in  Milan  than  the  Garbagnati,  who  were  Ghibel- 
lines  and  closely  allied  with  the  Visconti.  Gasparo  Garbagnate 
filled  many  positions  of  importance,  and  though  his  name  does  not 
appear  among  the  sectaries,  his  wife  Bcnvcnuta  was  one  of  them, 
at  well  as  bis  two  sons,  Ottorino  and  Francesoo,  and  Bella,  the 
wife  of  Giacobhe.  Francesco  was  a  man  of  mark  as  a  diplomat 
and  a  lawyer.  Sent  by  Malteo  Visconti  in  1309  on  a  mission  to 
the  Emperor  Henry  VII.,  he  won  high  favor  at  the  imperial  court 
and  obtained  the  objects  fur  which  he  hatl  been  despatched.  He 
ended  hi.s  career  as  a  professor  of  jurisprudence  in  the  renowned 
Cniversity  of  Padua.  Yet  this  man,  presumably  learned  and  cool- 
headed,  was  an  ardent  disciple,  who  purcliase<l  gold-omhroidered 
silks  for  the  resurrection  of  Gugliclma,  and  compnsc<l  pmyors  in 
her  honor.  One  of  the  crimes  for  which  Matteo  was  condemned 
in  1323  by  the  Inquisition  was  retaining  in  his  service  this  Fran- 
cesoo Garbagnate,  ^^'ho  had  been  sontenced  to  wear  crusseB  fur  his 
participation  in  Iho  Guglielmite  heresy ;  and  when  John  XXII.,  in 


Ogaibeo.  op.  cit.  pp.  17,  20,  33,  23,  30,  34,  37,  40,  43,  47,  U,  62,  73,  80,  BO. 


M.fi& 


4 


TU£    QUOLIELUITEa 


W 


tSS4.  cosfinned  the  sentence,  he  added  tbiit  Itlatteu  had  terrorized 
tbeinquisitora  tu  save  his  sun  Galeauto,  who  was  also  a  GugUel- 

When  the  heresy  became  known  popular  rumor  of  course  at- 
iributed  to  it  the  castoiiian-  practices  of  indiscriminate  sexual  in- 
dulgence which  were  oacribcd  to  all  deviations  from  the  faith. 
Inihe  legend  which  was  handed  down  by  tradition  there  appears 
ifae  same  sior}*  as  to  its  diKcorery  wliich  we  have  seen  told  at 
Cologne  about  the  Brethren  of  the  Free  Spirit — of  the  husband 
Incking  his  wife  to  the  nocturnal  rendezvous,  and  thns  learning 
the  obscene  practices  of  the  sect.  In  this  case  the  hero  of  the 
is  Corrado  Cuppa,  wliose  wife  GiaooblKi  was  an  earnest  be- 

iTer-t    Tt  is  sufficient  to  say  that  the  official  reports  of  the  trial, 
iaeofar  as  they  have  reached  us,  contain  no  allusions  whatever 

uy  Ucentious  doctrinen  or  practices.     The  inipiisitors  wasted 

time  on  inquiries  in  that  direction,  showing  that  they  know 
iliens  was  nothing  of  the  kind  to  reward  investigation. 

Xmnericaily  s{)eakiDg,  the  sect  was  insigniHcant.  It  is  men- 
timied  that  on  one  occjisiun,  at  a  Imnqiiet  in  honor  of  Guglielma, 
pim  by  the  monks  of  Chiaravalle,  there  were  one  lumdrcvl  and 
tTfmtj-nine  persons  presont,  but  these  doubtless  included  many 
'ho  only  reverenood  her  as  a  saint.  The  inner  circle  of  the  ini. 
tiMed  was  apparently  much  smaller.  The  names  of  those  incul- 
p««d  in  the  confessions  before  the  Inquisition  amount  only  to 
*)>out  thirty,  and  it  is  fair  to  assume  that  the  number  of  the  soo- 
bncsat  no  lime  exceeded  thirty-five  or  forty .^ 

It  is  not  to  be  8up|>oeed  that  this  could  go  on  for  nearly  twenty 
Jttrsand  wholly  escape  the  vigilance  of  the  Milani?se  imjuisitors. 
Inl^i,  bnt  a  few  years  after  Gnglielma's  death,  two  of  the  dis- 
eipl'!>>  Ailegratua  and  Carabella,  incautiously  revealed  the  myste- 
ri«of  Uieir  faith  to  Belfiore,  motlier  of  Fr^  Knrico  di  Nova,  who 
W  DiKB  oonvoyed  it  to  the  inquisitor,  Fra  Manfredo  di  Donavia. 
Andrea  was  forthwith  summoned,  vritU  his  wife  Kiccadonji,  his 
^r,  Migliore,  and  his  daughter,  Fiordebellina;  also  MaJfreda, 

*  OgnOwn,  op.  cjt  pp.  65-7, 63-4, 00-1, 1  lD^Ugb«ttU,  T.  lY.  pp.  3B6  -93  (Ed. 
I<^l  -SkjrnBld.  ami.  1324,  No.  7-11. 

f  rhllip.  Bcrginnat,  Sapplem.  Clirun.  ono.  1298.— Bcni.  Corio  BIbL  Hilaau 
uaisoo. 

'.  Ot'oibeo.  op.  cil.  pp.  1,  3,  M,  7-1, 1 10.— Taunbnrini,  op.  dt.  tL  67-& 
III.— 7 


JUL. 


Its 


QVQLIELMA   AITD  DOLCINO. 


Bellacara  de'  Carentani,  Giacobba  dei  Baseanif  and  possibly  so 
others.    They  readily  alijured  and  were  treated  with  exceptio: 
nnklness,  for  rn'i  Manfredu  iibsolvwl  tiieni  by  striking  tbem  ovi 
thn  shouliIcrR  with  a  stick,  as  n  symtml  of  the  scourging  which 
penitonts  tlioy  had  incurred.     He  seems  to  have  attiiched  littU 
importance  to  the  matter,  and  not  to  have  coTn]>olIc«l  them  tfl 
reveal  tlieir  accomplices.    Again,  in  1295  and  1296,  there  was  ai 
investigation  nwule  by  the  Inquigitor  KrA  Tomma-so  di  (^omo,  a 
which  no  details  have  reached  us.  but  which  evidently  left  th 
loaders  unharmed.*  I 

Wc  do  not  know  wjiat  called  the  attention  of  the  Inquisition  t 
the  sect  in  tho  spring  of  1300.  but  we  may  conjecture  tliat  the 
pectCil  resurrection  of  GuglieJiim  at  tho  coming  Pentecost,  and  t 
preparations  made  for  that  event,  caused  an  agitation  among 
disciples  leading  possibly  to  incautious  revelations.    About  E 
(April  10)  tho  ini)uisitut^  summoned  and  esauiincil  Maifixnla,  Cri 
cobbn  dei  Bassant,  and  possibly  some  otLers,  but  without  reei 
Apparently,  however,  they  were  watched,  secret  information  w 
gathered,  and  in  July  the  Holy  Office  was  rcatly  to  strike  eft' 
tively.    On  July  IH  a  certain  Fru  tthirni-do  presented  himself 
Laiifranco  de'  ^Vmizzoni  and  revealed  the  whole  aiTair,  with  t 
names  uf  the  principal  disciples.     Andi'ea  souglit  him  out  and  e 
deuvored  to  learn  what  he  liad  said,  but  w:is  merely  told  to  1 
to  himself,  for  the  inquisitors  were  making  many  threats.    On  i 
20th  Andrea  was  summoned ;  bis  assurances  that  ho  had  nevi 
heard  that  Ciuglichiia  was  regarded  as  more  titan  an  ortUnar 
saint  were  apparently  accepted,  and  ho  was  dismissed  with  oi 
ders  to  return  the  next  day  and  meanwhile  to  preserve  abaolat 
secrecy,  t 

Andrea  and  Maifreda  wure  tiiorougbly  frightened ;  they  beggo 
tho  disciples,  if  called  before  the  inquisitors,  to  preserve  sileno 
with  regard  to  them,  as  otherwise  they  could  not  escape  deatl 
It  is  a  peculiar  Ulustratlon  of  the  recognized  hostility  between  tm 
two  Mendicant  Orders  that  the  first  impulse  was  to  seek  aasisi 
ance  from  the  Franciscans.  Ko  sooner  vrem  the  citations  issue 
thaji  Andrea,  with  tho  Doctor  Bettramo  da  Femo,  (Hie  oi  tho  ea 


•  Ogtiilwu,  pp.  14,  28. 83,  36.  89, 60, 72, 101, 110,  lU. 
t  Ibid.  pp.  18,  S0-»8. 3». 


THE  orOLIELMlTEft 


99 


avers,  went  to  tUe  KrimniscnTi  convent,  whCTe  they  learned 
Daniele  da  Kerno  that  Frk  Ouidone  de  CcMwlienat'O  and 
Uh)  rest  of  Uit;  inmiisitors  liad  no  power  to  act,  as  tlieir  lioiiimis- 
aom  had  been  annullod  by  tbo  pojie,  and  that  Km  Papuio  di  i'in- 
tttSaata  had  a  bnll  to  that  effect.  Some  intrigue  would  seem  to 
be  beJiind  thia,  which  it  would  be  intoi'cstin^  to  disentangle,  for 
IB  meet  here  witb  old  acquaintanoea.  Vra.  (Tuidone  ia  doubtless 
the  same  inqoiRitor  whom  wo  have  seen  in  1:^79  imrtioipating  in 
tin  punishment  of  Corrado  da  Venostn.  and  VH  I'agano  has  come 
WwenB  u  the  subject  of  a  proBecutiun  for  heresy  in  12t>5.  Po6- 
KUy  it  waa  this  which  now  stimnlatod  hii  zeal  against  the  inqniai- 
lon,  for  when  the  GiigUelmites  called  u]>un  liiin  tlie  next  liay  he 
fndiiced  the  ball  and  nrgod  them  to  appear,  and  thus  afford  him 
andence  that  the  inquisitors  were  discharging  their  functions — 
nidence  for  wliich  he  said  that  he  would  willingly  give  twenty- 
in  lire.  It  is  a  striking  pitxif  of  thr  impenctnLblt^  secrecy  in 
vjiich  the  operations  of  the  Inquisition  were  veiled  that  lie  had 
hEin  anxioufily  and  minly  seeking  to  obtain  testimony  as  to  who 
were  really  discharging  the  duticrs  uf  the  tribunal ;  wlien,  latterly, 
alwnjtic  hail  befn  hnrned  at  Balsenio  ho  ha^l  sent  tliither  to  find 
ont  trfao  had  rendere<l  the  sentence,  but  was  unable  to  do  so. 
Tbeatbe  GugUelmites  applied  to  the  Abbot  of  Chiaravallcaml  to 
OM  of  his  monks,  Marchisio  di  V'eddano,  himself  suspoctod  of  (rug- 
tUmitism.  These  asked  to  have  a  copy  of  the  bull,  and  one  ^vas 
4Jy  made  by  a  notary  and  given  to  them,  which  they  took  to  the 
-ifclibishop  of  Milan  at  ('assiino.  and  aski-^I  him  to  place  the  in- 
Tffitig!(tion  of  the  matter  in  their  bands.  He  proniiseil  to  inter- 
noe.bnt  if  he  did  so  he  was  probably  met  with  the  infomiatjon, 
vtltth  had  been  speedily  elicited  from  tiie  culprits,  that  ihey  liuld 
fionifaco  VI]].  not  to  be  pope,  and  consequently  that  tlic  arch* 
toop  whom  he  had  created  was  not  archbishop.  Either  in  this 
(VfaliQaie  other  way  the  prelate's  zeal  was  rofrigeratod,  and  ho 
offered  no  opposition  to  the  proceedings.* 


•  Ofmitwn.  pp.  21 ,  40, 49,  7B-ft 

DtoBBM  d*'  ^ovarl  tlepontid  (p.  dS)  that  Malfivda  wa-i  in  the  habit  of  uying 
t^BoinfiuM  WW  not  truly  pop«,  iind  that  &»ottiiT  poiitilT  biiJ  been  created. 
"*  Uve  wen  tbit  tlio  Bplrlttinl  FranciiwaDfl  hftd  ^onc  thrnnjtli  tb?  form  nf 
■iMIail «  IMW  pnpe.  Ther«  wks  not  tiiu<.'1]  in  coinmon  bptmrcn  tlii-iu  kdJ  tlie 
Oo^iclmilM,  aiitl  yet  tliis  would  point  to  «oine  tvlmimm  m  exi«ting. 


100 


OUOLIBLHA    AND   DOLCINO. 


The  Inquisition  was  well  manned,  for.  besides  Frd  Gaidone, 
whowi  ugc  lUiU  cx]X'rienco  seem  to  have  remlered  Iiiiu  the  leading 
iictor  in  the  tmg«(ly.  and  Lanfninco,  who  took  litllo  part  in  it,  we 
meet  with  a  thirti  inquisitor,  Uainerio  di  Pirovano,  and  in  their 
absence  they  ai'e  reftUtwd  with  de|>uties,  Niccoh'i  di  Como,  Niccol6 
di  Varenua,  and  L«unaitiu  da  Bergamo.    They  pushed  the  matter 
with  relentless  energy.    That  torture  was  freely  used  there  can 
he  no  duubt.    No  conclusion  to  the  contrary  can  be  drawn  from 
tliB  ubsencu  of  allusion  to  it  in  the  depusitiuus  uf  the  accused,  for 
this  is  customary.     Not  only  do  the  liistorians  of  the  affair  sjiealc 
without  reserve  of  its  employment,  but  the  character  of  the  snc- 
cossive  examinations  of  the  leading  culprits  indicates  it  unerring- 
ly— the  conlident  «.ssf'verationa  at  first  of  ignnranco  and  innocence* 
followed,  after  a  greater  or  less  interval,  with  uui-eserved  confes- 
sion.    This  is  espociatly  notable  in  the  cases  of  those  who  haiL 
abjured  in  12S4,  such  as  Andrea,  Maifreda,  and  Giaoobba,  who^ 
as  relapsed,  knew  that  by  a<1mitting  their  i>er8i8tent  heresy  they 
were  condemning  themselves  to  the  llatues  without  hop»e  uf  mercy. 
and  who  therefom  had  nothing  to  gain  by  confession,  except  ex- 
emption from  repetition  of  torment.* 

The  documents  are  too  imperfect  for  us  to  reconstruct  the  proc- 
ess and  asceilain  the  fat-c  of  ail  of  those  implicatod.  In  Langue- 
doc,  after  all  the  eWdence  had  been  taken,  there  would  have  been 
an  assembly  held  in.  which  their  sentences  would  have  been  deter- 
mined, nnd  at  a  solemn  Sermo  these  would  have  been  promul- 
gated, and  the  stake  would  liave  received  its  victims.  Much  lew 
formal  were  the  procee<ling8  at  Milan.  The  only  sentence  of  which 
we  have  a  record  was  rendered  August  23  in  an  assembly  where 
the  arc^hbisliop  sat  with  the  inquisitors  and  Matt)>o  Visconti  ap- 
jiears  among  the  assessors;  and  in  this  the  only  judgment  was  on 
Suor  Giaoobba  dei  Bassani,  who,  as  a  relapsed,  was  necessarily 
handed  over  to  the  secular  arm  for  burning.    It  would  seem  that 


*  Compuc  Androa'9  first  cxnminAtinQ,  July  SO  (O^ihcn.  op.  dt.  pp.  ^18>, 
and  his  m-coq<I,  Aug.  10  (pp.  63-7),  tritb  bU  defiHot  nssertinn  of  liis  beli«f,  Aug. 
13  (|)|i.flB-73).  So,  MAifredk's  flnt  inttrrogntorv,  July  31  (pp.  2U-6),  witli  Iter 
confeflAioti,  Aug.  0,  sad  revelaUoo  of  tbe  ooiues  of  ber  woraliijipon  (pp.  33-3), 
Also.  QiiicobbK  dei  Baasaiii's  dismal,  Aug.  8,  and  confcasinn,  Aug.  1 1  (p.  89).  It 
la  ttic  wme  with  those  not  rclapscO.  See  Suor  A(;dvho  ilci  Hootanftri's  flat  de- 
nUl,  Aug.  3,  and  hvr  coiireauon,  Aug.  1 1  (pp.  87-8). 


THE   0D0L1ELHITE8. 


loi 


erea  before  this  Ser  Mirano  di  Garbngnate,  n  priest  deeply  impU- 
ated,  bad  been  burned.  Amirea  wna  executed  probably  betwoen 
September  1  and  9,  and  Maifreda  aWut  Ihe  same  time — bul  we 
know  nothing  about  the  date  of  the  *«tthflr  executions,  or  of  the 
edtamatton  and  cremation  of  GugliclnuiV  Ix>iicb— while  the  exam- 
iutiofts  of  other  diftciplea  continued  until  the  Middle  of  October. 
Aaather  remarkable  peculiarity  is  that  for  the-  uiiuor  ponalties 
ibeinqaisitors  called  in  no  exjierts  and  did  not  even  conltalt  the 
Mtdibiihop,  but  acted  wholly  at  their  own  discretion,  a  ain^e 
iatt  absolving  or  {ranancing  each  individual  as  he  Baw  tit.  I'he 
Looihard  Inquisition  apparently  had  little  deference  for  the  epis^ 
nptte.  even  of  the  Arabrosian  Church.* 

Vet  the  action  of  the  Inigiusttion  was  remarkable  for  its  mild- 
nett,  especially  when  we  consitier  the  revolutionar}*  cbaractcr  of 
the  heresy.  The  number  of  those  aljsolutely  burned  cannot  be 
difinitely  stated,  but  it  probably  did  not  excM>ed  four  or  five. 
ITieee  were  the  survivors  of  thooo  who  had  abjured  in  1284,  for 
■iiain,  as  relap^  and  obstinate  heretics,  there  could  \>q  no  mercy 
The  rest  were  allowed  to  escape  with  penalties  remarkably  light. 
Tbas  Sibilia  Malcol^jiti  bad  been  one  of  tho  most  zealous  of  the 
sect;  in  her  early  examinations  she  had  resolutely  perjured  her- 
xU,  tad  it  hod  oost  no  little  trouble  to  make  her  confess,  yet 
rten.  on  October  fi,  she  apiM»ar«d  before  Fra  Uainerio  onfl  begged 
to  be  relieved  from  the  excommunication  which  she  had  incurred, 
be  was  moved  by  her  prayers  and  assented,  on  the  ordinary  con- 
ilitiuna  that  slio  would  stjiiul  to  tliu  orders  of  thu  Church  and 
Uqaisilion,  and  perform  tlic  obligations  laid  ujion  her.  Still  more 
nmarkablo  is  the  leniency  with  which  two  sisters,  Catella  and 
Pietra  Uldeganli,  wore  treated,  for  Frd  Ouidonc  absolved  them  on 
tbeir  objuring  tlicir  heresy,  contenting  himself  with  simply  n^for- 
nng  them  to  their  confessors  for  the  penance  which  they  were  to 
perform.  The  severest  punishment  recorded  for  any  except  the 
ivUpsod  was  the  wearing  of  crosses,  and  these,  imposeil  in  &e]>- 
Iniber  and  October,  wore  connautcd  in  Docemlwr  for  a  fine  of 
twwtj-'five  lire,  [wivable  in  February — showing  tliat  confiscation 
'M  nut  a  part,  of  tho  |wnalty.  Kv<;n  Taria,  the  cx]>octant  cardinal 
of  Uiu  New  Bispcnsatioti,  was  thus  p«nanccd  and  relieved.     Im- 


■  OgniWo,  p\h  19-20,  77,  01. 


f» 


OOGLIELMA    AND   DOLCINO. 


mediatoly  aft«r  Andrea's  execution  an  examination  of  his  wife 
Riccadona,  as  to  the  furniture  in  her  house  and  the  wine  in  her 
collar,  shows  that  the  Inquisition  was  prompt  in  looking  after  the 
ooniiBcationa  of  thoao  ooHilomncd  to  dc^th ;  and  tbo  fragment  of 
an  interrogatory,  F*brsary  IS,  ]303,  of  Marchigio  Seooo,  a  monk 
of  Chiaravalle,  mdicates  that  it  was  inrolvod  in  a  struggle  with 
the  abbey  to  compel  the  refuiK)i[i<r  uf  the  l>i><]uest  of  Guf^lielinAf 
as  the  heresy  for  whirh  she  ha<l  been  condemned,  of  course,  ren« 
dorecjvoid  all  dispositions  of  lier  property.  How  this  reeult«d  w€ 
iMlye'  no  meann  of  Icnowing,  but  we  may  feel  assured  that  the  ab* 
'bey  wits  forced  to  submit;  indeed,  the  oomplioity  of  the  monia 
with  the  heretics  was  so  clearly  indicated  that  we  may  wondei 
none  of  their  names  appear  in  the  lists  of  those  condemned.* 

Thus  ended  this  llule  episode  of  heresy,  of  no  im[>ortanoe  in 
its  origin  or  results,  but  curious  from  the  glimpse  which  it  aifordj 
into  the  spiritual  aberrations  of  the  tbie,  and  t}ie  procedure  ol 
the  Lombard  Inquisition,  and  noteworthy  as  a  rant  inatanoe  oi 
inqnisitorial  clemency.f 


.^ 


•  OBniben,  p|>-  K~i,  63,  (17-8.  61-2,  91-2,  05-6,  fl7,  100.  110,  113,  115-lB. 

t  spiritual  eccentricities,  «tich  m  tliosi?  of  tlie  Ougliol mites,  uc  not  to  be 
regnrdfitl  m  pfCiiliar  to  uiiy  nffi.'  nr  any  condition  t^(  clfilizntlon.  Tile  story  o( 
JoAtina  Bniitbcotc  is  well  kiiowo,  and  the  Ooutbcottian  Cliureli  miunlaioad  ita 
ezi>tenc«  in  London  until  the  middle  of  tlic  present  coutory.  In  July,  1880,  tiit 
AmcriciLU  joiimnLi  reporicd  tJie  (liBcovcry,  in  Cinciunutj,  of  a  sect  eren  more 
c]u8L-l>'  approximating  t<>  l\>e  Oug1t(;lin)tea,«D(l  aljotitu  [uim<:iou«,  oilling  ttiem- 
setvea  Pcrfcclionists,  and  bc'liuving  ill  Iwo  mnrritcl  flistore—a  Mrs,  Martin  as  u 
incaniation  of  (JotI,  and  a  Mnt,  Brooku  m  thnt  of  Christ.  Like  their  pradeoot- 
son  in  Milnn  thH  sect  U  by  uo  means  confiuod  to  the  iUitcn.t«,  hut  comprise! 
people  of  intelligence  and  cnltutv  who  Iiavu  nbaiidunod  all  worldly  ociupstifin 
in  tbe  cXtwclaliop  of  tho  approacliing  MUltrniiiiiin — Uie  fiual  eta  of  the  Ercc- 
loating  fiiwpcl.  Tlic  exposure  for  »  time  broKe  up  ibe  wet,  nf  n-hicJi  »omc  mcm- 
bere  deparlud,  wLilo  others,  witli  tlie  two  Bisters,  joiucd  a  Methodist  churcb. 
^Tboit  f»ith  WAS  not  ahakcn,  howcrer,  and  in  Jnne,  1687,  the  church  cipeHed 
them  after  an  Uircsllfiaf  ion.  One  of  the  cliargea  against  them  was  thnt  they 
held  the  Church  of  the  [tn-M^nt  day  to  Ik  Habylon  and  the  abominatioD  of  tb« 
aarth.  England  boa  alAO  rccctitty  hud  a  tiiiijilur  txpvrtcnce  Iii  ■  pcatiant  woman 
of  not  piiitkularl;  muml  lifv  who  for  Koiiie  tilU-cii  yuan,  until  her  deiith,  Smp- 
t«ml>cr  18,  18S6,  was  roi^rdcd  by  brr  followers  as  a  new  incarnation  of  Clu1«t 
Her  own  dcfiiiilioa  uf  berHelf  was, "  I  atn  thf  micoiid  nppraHiif;  und  incnmatioQ 
of  Jmus,  thf  Christ  nf  God,  the  Bride,  the  LamlVs  Wife,  the  GodMorher  and 
Saviour,  Life  from  Heaven,"  eta,  etc.    She  mgneA  hcrsolf  "Jcbos,  First  and 


A 


103 

the  Ume  vvbcii  Uugliuhim  ^tttud  iti  Milan,  Parma  wit- 
>  oomiiienoement  of  anotlipr  abnoriniU  dovi'lopmnnt  of 
lbo|;reaL  Franciscan  movement.  Tlie  stimulus  which  momu:Uism 
Ud  rec«iTed  from  the  aucoeas  of  the  Mendicant  Orders,  the  exal* 
tation  of  poverty  intfj  tho  greatest  of  virtues,  the  recogoiliuo  of 
la^ary  a&  the  hulieet  miMle  of  life,  render  it  lUllicult  tu  a|)]H>rtiua 
behreen  j'ettmings  for  spiritual  perfection  and  the  attractions  of 
idkiMs  and  vagabondage  in  a  temiwrate  clunat«  the  responsibil- 
ilf  for  the  numero)i»  associations  which  arose  in  imitation  of  the 
Mendicants.  The  prohibition  of  unauthoriKcd  religious  orders  by 
Lateraa  Council  was  found  impossible  of  enforcement,  Men 
^tooUl  herd  toguthor  with  more  or  less  of  organization  in  caves 
md  hennitages,  in  the  streets  of  cities,  and  in  abandoned  dwell- 
ings and  cli  urches  by  the  roadsides.  The  Carmelites  and  Auguft* 
luiu  hermits  won  recognition  after  a  long  struggle,  and  became 
vtablisfaod  Orders,  forming,  witli  (be  Francidcans  and  Domiaicaus, 
tie  font  Mendicant  religions.  Othora,  less  reputable,  or  more 
iKlepeudeut  in  spirit,  were  condemned,  uuil  wlien  they  refused 
tu  liisband  they  were  treated  as  n-.l>els  and  heretics.  In  tlie  ton- 
aoo  of  the  spiritual  atmosphere,  any  man  who  would  demise  and 
pit  in  practice  &  metliod  of  life  assiuiilating  him  most  nearly  to 
Uu  Ijnites  would  not  fail  to  tind  adniirurs  and  followers;  and,  if 
lie  possessed  cajmcity  for  coinmaml  and  organization,  he  could 
Miiiily  mould  thorn  into  a  confraternity  and  become  an  object  of 
Koeiatiou,  with  an  abundant  supply  of  olTitrings  from  the  pious. 

Tbo  ytair  la(U)  was  that  in  wliieli.  according  to  Abbot  Joachim, 
Uw  em  of  the  Uoly  Ghost  was  to  open.  The  spiritual  excitement 
wbioh  pervaded  the  population  was  seen  in  the  outbreak  of  the 
HagBllants,  wliich  (lIlRd  northern  Italy  wjtli  processions  of  peni- 
teola  scourging  themselves,  and  in  the  mutual  forgiveness  of  jiiju- 
net,  which  brought  an  interval  of  peace  to  a  distracted  land.  In 
anh  a  condition  of  public  feeling,  gregarious  enthusiasm  is  easily 
directed  to  wliatevcr  responds  to  the  impulse  of  the  moment,  and 


Uit.Mary  Ann  Girling."  At  one  timfl  berteot  niimberrd  n  hiiinilrcd  and  scr- 
tUj-ftre  tnvmt>iTi,  wime  of  them  rich  enough  to  make  it  considcmMe  doiintloDS. 
botuaiJor  the  petty  persecution  of  ttic  populace  it  dwindlctl  laltcrly  to  &  fcv, 
ud  Antlly  dUperved.  Aburratiuus  of  ttib  aature  belong  to  do  speciul  Binge  or 
inUliKtual  tlcrclopmcnt.  The  ooiy  Advance  made  in  modern  times  b  in  the 
ncibmli>rdeaUi>g  irilli  tbiriu. 


104 


O0OLIBLMA    AND    DOLCIKO. 


the  aelf-mortificatioti  of  a  youth  of  Parma,  called  Gherardo  Sega* 
relH,  found  abuadant  iiiiitators.     Of  low  extraction,  uncultured 
and  stupid,  he  had  vainly  applied  for  admission  into  the  Franciscan 
Order.     Denied  this,  he  passed  his  daya  vacantly  musing-  in  the 
Franciscan  church.    The  beatitude  of  ecstatic  abstraction,  carried 
to  tho  point  of  the  annihilation  of  consciousness,  has  not  been  con- 
finod  to  the  Tapas  and  Samadhi  of  the  Brahman  and  Buddhist 
The  monks  of  Mt.  Athos.  knoT.ni  as  Cmbilicani  from  their  pioofl 
contemplation  of  their  navels,  knew  it  well,  and  Jacoponeda  Todi 
shows  that  its  dan^^cruus  mpturu^i  were  faiuiltar  to  the  zealots  of 
the  time.*     Segarelli,  however,  was  not  so  lost  to  external  im- 
pressions but  that  lie  remarked  in  the  scriptural  pictures  which 
adomod  tho  walls  the  re])reaontation8  of  tlie  apostles  in  the  habits 
which  art  has  assigned  to  them.    The  conception  grow  upon  him 
that  the  apostolic  life  and  vestment  would  form  the  ideal  relig-ious 
existence,  superior  even  to  tliat  of  tho  Franciscans  whicii  had  been- 
denied  to  liim.    As  a  preliminary,  ho  sold  his  little  property ;  then^ 
mounting  the  tribune  in  the  Piazza,  he  scattered  the  pi-oceeds  among- 
thu  idlers  sunning  themselves  there,  who  forthwith  gambled  it- 
away  with  ample  floods  of  blasphemy.     Imitating  literally  th» 
career  of  Christ,  he  had  himself  circumcised ;  then,  enveloped  in. 
swaddling  clothes,  he  was  rocked  in  a  cradle  and  suckled  by  &. 
woman.    His  apprenticeship  thus  completed,  he  embarked  on  tho 
career  of  an  apostle,  letting  hair  and  beard  grow,  enveloped  in  a> 
white  mantle,  with  the  Franciscan  cord  around  his  waist,  and  san- 
dals on  his  feet.    Thus  accoutred  he  wandered  through  the  streets 
of  Panna  crying  at  intervals  "  PtmU^nsa^iU,''^  which  was  his  igno- 
rant rendering  of  "Penttentiam  cu/iu/" — the  customary  call  ta 
repontanee.f 

For  a  while  ho  hod  no  imitators.  In  search  of  disciples  he  wan- 
dered to  the  neighboring  village  of  Collechio,  where,  standing  at 
the  roadside,  he  sliouted  "  Enter  my  vineyard  !"  The  paasers-by 
who  knew  bis  crazy  ways  piiid  no  attention  to  him,  but  strangers 
took  his  call  to  be  an  invitation  to  help  themselves  from  the 


*         "0  glorioBo  stare 
In  ailiil  qui(!tatul 
Lo'  intcllctto  posato 
E  I'udvUo  donninl 

t  Sklimbcne,  pp.  113-13. 


Anniclillarsi  beoo 
Non  %  potere  liumtDO 
Anzt  a  virtil  dmnal" 

(CoDiba,  La  Riforaia  ia  lUlia,  I.  SKk.) 


J 


THE  AP08TOLIC  BRETORSH. 


106 


ripewng  grapes  of  an  adjooont  vineyard,  which  they  accordingly 
stripped.    At  length  he  was  joirnxl  by  a  certain  Robert,  a  Berrant 
of  lUe  Franctscana,  who.  as  Saliinbeno  informs  iih,  was  a  liar  and 
B  thief,  too  lazy  to  work,  who  Uourbthed  fur  a  while  in  the  sect  as 
Fnl  GIntto,  and  who  finally  apostatliceil  and  marrie<I  a  female  her- 
mit.   Gberardo  and  Glutto  wandered  through  the  streets  of  I*arma 
in  their  white  mantles  and  sandals,  calling  the  people  to  repent- 
anoe.    They  gathered  associates,  and  the  number  rapidly  grew  to 
three  hundred.    They  obtained  a  house  in  which  to  eat  and  sleep, 
ukI  Lacked  for  nothing,  for  alniR  came  pouring  in  u[K>n  them  more 
hberally  than  on  tbo  regular  Mendicants.    These  latter  wondered 
greatly,  for  the  self-styled  Apostles  gave  nothing  In  return — they 
ixrald  not  preach,  or  hear  confossions,  or  celL'bnito  mass,  an<l  did 
not  even  pray  for  their  benefactors.    They  were  moetly  ignorant 
peuaots,  swineherds  and  cowherds,  attracted  by  an  idle  life  which 
*ie  rewarded  with  ample  victuals  and  [wpular  veneration.    When 
gathnred  together  in  their  assembUes  they  would  gaze  vacantly 
on  S^arclli  and  repeat  at  intervals  in  honor  of  him,  "  Father ! 
>&therl  Father  !■•* 

When  the  Council  of  Lyons,  in  1274,  endeavored  to  control  the 
pESt  of  theae  unauthorized  mendicant  associations,  it  did  not  dis- 
pene  them,  but  contente<l  itself  with  prohibiting  the  reception  of 
ftnore  members,  in  the  exiMWtation  that  they  would  thus  gradu- 
kfl? become  extinguished.  This  was  easily  elude^l  by  the  Apostles, 
who,  when  a  neophyte  desired  to  join  them,  wonld  lay  before  him 
abbit  and  say,  "Wo  do  not  dare  to  receive  you,  as  this  is  pro- 
hibited to  us,  but  it  is  not  prohibited  to  you ;  <lo  as  you  think  fit." 
Tb«,  in  Bpite  of  papal  commands,  the  Order  increased  and  mul- 
tiplied, as  we  are  t^ild,  Iwyond  oomputation.  In  12M4  wo  hear  of 
«Tenty-two  postulants  in  a  b(Miy  j)assing  through  Mod^na  and 
Reggio  to  Parma  to  be  adopted  by  SegareUi,  and  a  few  days  after- 
*iKla  twelve  young  girls  came  on  the  same  errand,  wrapped  in 
tW  mantles  and  styhng  theinselvett  A^iostotessos.  Imitating 
Dwninic  and  Francis,  Segarelh  sent  his  followers  throughout  Eu- 
(wpe  and  beyond  seas  to  evangelize  the  world.  They  ]>enctrated 
^K  for  already  in  1287  wo  find  the  Council  of  Wiirxburg  stigma- 
titiagtho  wandering  Apostles  vks  tramps,  and  forbidding  any  one 


•  Balim))«n^,  pp.  114-10. 


lOS 


atraLiGLMA  and  dolcino. 


to  give  them  food  on  accotmt  of  their  religious  aspect  and  unusual 
dress.  I'edro  de  Lu^o  (G'.ilicia),  who  abjured  liefore  the  Inquisition 
of  ToulouHU  in  13^2,  tutitilied  tliat  he  h:ul  buen  iuductad  in  tho  seot 
twenty  years  previous  by  Richard,  an  Apoaile  from  Alessandria  in 
Lombardy,  who  was  busily  spi-eadiug  the  Uereoy  beyund  Compos- 
tella.* 

NotwithstJintUng  the  veneration  felt  by  the  brethren  for  Sega<- 
relli  he  steadily  refused  to  assume  the  headship  of  the  Order,  say- 
ing that  each  must  bear  his  own  burden.  Hml  he  }>een  an  active 
organizer,  with  the  materia)  at  his  disposition,  be  iiiiglit  have  given 
the  Church  much  trouble,  but  he  was  inert  and  indisposed  to  aban- 
don Lin  contemplative  self -indulgence.  He  seems  to  have  h**&itated 
somewhat  Ud  tu  tlie  form  which  the  asaociaLion  should  assume,  and 
consulted  Alberto  of  Parma,  one  of  the  seven  notaries  of  the  cui'ia, 
whether  they  should  select  a  superior.  Alberto  referred  him  to 
the  Cistercian  Abbot  of  Foiitanavlva,  who  wlvisetl  that  they  should 
not  found  houses,  but  should  continue  to  wander  over  tho  land 
wrapped  in  their  mantles,  and  they  would  not  fail  of  shelter  by 
tho  charitable.  t*4'garelli  was  nothing  loath  to  follow  his  counsel, 
bat  a  more  enei^tie  spirit  was  found  in  (Juidone  I'ut^igi,  brotlier 
of  the  Fodesta  of  Bologna,  who  entered  the  Order  with  his  sister 
Tripia.  Finding  that  Segarelli  would  not  govern,  he  seiaed  com- 
mand and  for  many  yeai-s  conducted  affairs,  but  he  gave  olTenoe 
by  abandoning  the  poverty  which  was  the  essence  of  the  associa- 
tion, lie  lived  splendidly,  we  are  told,  with  many  horsui,  lavish- 
ing money  like  a  cnrdinal  or  papal  l^ate,  till  the  brethren  gi-ew 
tired  and  elected  Mattco  of  Ancona  as  his  successor.  This  led  to 
a  split.  Guidone  retained  possession  of  the  person  of  SegiixoUi, 
and  carried  ]iim  to  Kuenza.  Mattco's  followers  came  there  and 
endeavored  to  seize  Sogarelli  by  force ;  the  two  parties  ca.rae  to 
blows  and  the  Anconitans  were  defeated.  Guidone,  however,  was 
so  much  alarmed  for  his  safety  that  he  left  the  AiKistlctiUud  joined 
the  Templara.f 

Bishop  Opizoof  Panua,  a  nephew  of  Innoc«ut  IV..  had  a  liking 


•  Concll.  Lugdun.  inn.  1«74  c.  33.— Salimbene.  pp.  117.  119,  329-30.— Con- 
di. Htirbipolenft.  ann.  1287  (Uanluio.  VU.  1141}.— Ub.  aratcDtt.  Inq.  Tolc 
p.  360. 

t  SftlimbcDe,  pp.  114-lfl. 


THE    APOSTLBB    PKRSBCCTED. 


107 


for  Segarelli.  &nd  for  his  sake  protocted  the  Apnstles,  which  serres 
to  aooount  for  Iho'ir  uninterruplwl  pvwth.  In  1286,  however, 
thrra  of  the  brethren  miabohavrd  flagrantly  at  Bologna,  and  were 
fiunmarily  haoged  by  the  podestiL  This  seems  to  have  drawn  at- 
tention to  the  sectaries,  for  about  the  same  time  llonorins  IV. 
issofy]  a  boll  ospoeinlly  din><!tnd  figtumtt  tbnm.  They  were  com- 
manded to  abandon  their  peculiar  vestments  and  eater  some  reoog- 
nized  order;  prelates  were  required  to  enforce  oh^lienoe  by  im- 
prisonment, with  rficourap.  if  necesBurv,  to  the  secular  arm,  and  the 
faithful  at  large  were  ordered  not  to  gire  thera  alms  or  hottpitality. 
The  Order  wan  thus  formally  proscribed.  lliRhop  Opir^  hastened 
to  obey.  He  banished  the  brethren  from  his  diooosc  and  impris- 
oned Segarelli  in  chains,  hut  subsequently  relenting  kept  him  in 
his  palace  as  a  jefitcr.  for  when  filled  with  wine  the  ApoBtle  ooald 
be  unnsing.* 

For  Home  years  we  hrar  little  of  Segarelli  and  his  disci]>lee. 
The  papal  condemnation  discouraged  thorn,  but  it  received  scant 
obedience.  Their  numbers  may  havediminished.and  publiccharity 
nay  hiTc  been  to  some  extent  withdrawn,  but  they  were  still  nu- 
inwoo8,tbey  continued  to  wear  the  white  mantle,  and  Ui  Ite  sup- 
ported in  their  wandering  life.  The  beat  evidence  that  the  bull  of 
Honorina  Cailed  in  its  pur|>ose  is  the  fact  that  in  1291  Nicholas  TV. 
iteemed  lis  reissue  necessary.  They  were  now  in  open  antagonism 
totlie  Holy  See — rebels  and  schismatics,  rapidly  riiieninginto  her- 
eliosand  fair  subjects  of  persecution.  Accordingly, in  1494,  wo 
hearof  four  of  them — two  men  and  two  women — burned  at  Parma, 
and  of  Segarelli's  condemnation  to  perpetual  imprisonment  by 
Bufeop  Opirxi.  There  is  also  an  allusion  to  an  earnest  mi.ssionary 
of  the  sect,  named  Stephen,  dangerous  on  account  of  the  elocjuenoe 
if  his  preaching,  who  was  burned  by  the  Inquisition.  Begarelli  hml 
Bi\-«1  his  life  by  abjuration ;  possibly  after  a  few  years  ho  may 
nave  been  rclcasrd.  but  he  did  not  abandon  his  errors ;  the  Inquisi- 
twnrpamia.FrA  Man fredo.  convicted  him  as  a  relapsed  heretio, 
3Jwl  lie  was  l»unie*l  in  Parma  in  lyi'o.  An  active  persecution  fol- 
^td  of  his  disciples.    Many  were  apprehcnde«l  by  tlio  Inquisition 


*  &«limbFDe,  pp.  117,871.— Hug.  Bull.  Rrait.  I.  15ft.— Al  t)ie  same  time  tloao- 
<^  qiprmfed  the  Orden  of  the  Canaelitea  and  of  St.  Wiiliftm  of  tlte  Ucacrt 
tR»rn»W.  «iii.  1886,  No.  M.  37). 


108 


OUOLIELMA    AND    DOLCINO. 


and  Rubjcctdl  to  various  puni8hments,until  rarma  congratuLited 
itself  that  the  heresy  was  fairly  stamped  out.* 

Fersocution,  as  usual,  had  the  immediate  effect  of  scattering 
the  heretics,  of  confij-niing  them  in  the  faith,  and  of  developing 
the  heresy  into  a  more  decided  antagonism  towards  the  Church. 
SegarelU^s  disciples  were  not  all  ignorant  peasants.  In  Tuscany  a 
Franciscan  of  liigU  reputation  for  sanctity  and  learning  was  in  secret 
an  active  missionary,  and  endeavored  even  to  win  over  Ubcrlino 
da  Casale.  Ubertino  le<L  him  on  aad  then  betrayed  him.  and  when 
we  are  told  that  he  was  forced  to  reveal  his  followers,  wo  may  as- 
sume tliat  he  was  subjected  to  the  customiiry  inquisitorial  proc- 
esses. This  points  to  relationship  between  the  Apostles  and  the 
disaffected  Franciscans, and  the  indication  is  Btmngthrnwl  by  the 
anxiety  of  the  Spirituals  to  disclaim  all  connection.  The  Apostlos 
■were  deeply  tinged  with  Joachilism,  and  the  Spirituals  endeavor 
to  hide  the  fact  by  attributing  their  errors  to  Joachim's  detested 
heretic  imitator,  the  forgotten  Amaury.  The  Conventuals,  in  fact, 
did  not  omit  this  damaging  method  of  attack,  and  in  the  contest 
before  Clement  V,  the  Spirituals  were  obliged  to  disavow  all  con- 
nection with  I>olciniam.+ 

"We  know  nothing  of  any  jieculiar  tenets  taught  by  Segarelli. 
from  his  character  it  is  not  likely  that  he  indulged  in  any  i-econdite 
■peculations,  wliilc  the  toleration  which  he  enjoyed  until  near  the 
end  of  his  career  prolmbly  prevented  him  from  fonnulating  any 
revolntionary  doctrines.  To  wear  the  habit  of  the  association,  to 
live  in  absolute  poverty,  ^vithout  labor  and  depending  on  daily 
charity,  to  take  no  thought  of  the  morrow,  to  wander  without  a 
home,  calling  upon  the  people  to  repent,  to  preserve  the  strictest 
chastity,  wiis  the  sum  of  his  teaching,  so  far  ns  wc  know,  and  this 
remained  to  tite  lust  the  bxtorior  obsurvancc  of  the  Apostles.  It 
was  rigidly  enforced.  Even  the  austerity  of  the  FmnciscAns  al- 
lowed the  friar  two  gowns,  as  a  concession  to  health  and  oomfort, 
but  the  Apostle  couKl  have  but  one,  and  if  he  desired  it  washed 


1 


"  Mug.  Bull.  Roin.  L  158.— Cliron.  Piinacna,  ami.  13W  (Mumtori  9.  R.  L  CS. 
BSC).— IlUt  Tribulat.  (Artlilr  flir  Litl.-  u.  KirclicngcAchichte,  1880,  p.  130).— 
AiiatL  Bd  lllst.  Fntt.  Dulcini  (Murutori  IX.  450). 

1  Hist.  TribulKt.  (ubi  sup.).— UUrtiui  Rcspouiio  (ArcliiT  f.  L.  a.  K.  1867,  p. 
51X 


J 


DOLCIXO'8    DOCTRlItEB. 


109 


had  to  remain  covered  in  bed  until  it  was  drieH.    I-ike  the  Wal- 

di8ns«6  and  Cathari,  the  Apostles  seem  to  hare  ooQsideivd  the  aw 

tf  the  oath  a^  unlawful.    They  were  accused,  as  Q8iiaJ,  of  incuL- 

taag  promiscuous  intercnurao,  and  thin  charge  seemed  aubstan- 

Ibted  by  the  mingling  of  the  sexes  in  their  wandering  life,  and  by 

the  crociBl  test  of  continenoe  to  which  they  habitually  exposed 

Ihemselree,  in  imitation  of  the  early  Christians,  of  lying  together 

naked ;  bot  the  ertatement  of  their  errors  drawn  up  by  the  inqniai- 

Ursffho  km*w  them,  for  the  instruction  of  their  colleagufs.«!iows 

that  liuense  funned  no  part  of  their  creed,  though  it  wimlil  not  be 

safe  to  say  that  men  ant!  women  of  evil  life  may  not  have  been 

attracted  to  join  them  by  the  idleness  and  freedom  from  care  of 

their  wandering  existence.* 

By  the  time  of  Ghcrardo'a  death,  however,  persecution  had  been 
lufficiently  sharp  and  long-oontinuod  to  drive  the  Apostles  into 
ifenying  the  authority  of  the  Holy  See  and  formulating  doctrines 
ol  pnnonnced  hostility  to  the  Church.  An  e])i3tle  written  by 
^'ri  Dolcino,  about  a  month  after  Segarelli's  execution,  shows  that 
cudft  more  powerful  than  that  of  tlie  founder  hod  lKH5n  at  work 
fnuDing  a  body  of  principles  suited  to  zealots  chafing  under  the 
(lamination  of  a  corrupt  church,  and  eagerly  yearning  for  a  higher 
theory  of  life  than  it  could  furnish.  Joachim  had  promised  that 
litem  of  the  Holy  Ghost  should  oi»nn  with  the  year  12tlo.  That 
prophecy  had  been  fnlfillod  by  the  appearance  of  Segarelli.  whose 
minoa  had  then  commenced.  Tacitly  accepting  this  coincidence, 
Doloino  proctHMls  to  descril)e  four  successive  states  of  the  Churoh. 
.The  first  extends  from  the  Creation  to  the  time  of  Christ ;  the  aec- 
&om  Christ  to  Silvester  and  Coostantine.  during  which  the 
Bfch  was  holy  and  poor:  the  third  from  Silvester  to  Segarelli, 
Bring  which  the  ChnT«h  declined,  in  spite  of  the  reforms  intro- 
Aicedby  Benedict,  Dominic,  and  Francis,  until  it  had  wholly  lost 


*  bUnbcne,  pp.  113, 117,  Iftl.— Lib.  Senteatt  Inq.  Tulua.  pp.  360-1.— Mun- 
I&RI.1X.4M-7.— Beni.GoicloD.  PractioiP.  V.  — Eymcric.  P.  n.  Q,  11. 

The  U-st  of  contincDce  was  n^nlcd  with  linrror  liy  tVie  ini^uiaiton,  bdiI  yot 
*lxs  practised  t>y  St.  Aldbelm  it  was  considered  aa  proof  uf  siipercminrnt 
"Wity  (Oirald.  Cftmbrena.  Ocmm.  Kcclfs.  Dirt.  ii.  c.  xv.).  Tbc  coincidence,  in 
^k  naaorkablo  bctwevii  the  penloui  Mties  of  tlie  A|K>»tleB  and  those  of  tb« 
Vhibtiin  xfalfltA  of  the  third  century,  tis  de*crit>cd  and  condemned  b;  Cypriui 
(Ifta.  IT.  sd  PumiwD.). 


no 


srGLIVLMA    AKD   D0LCI3VO. 


the  charity  of  God.  The  fourth  state  was  oommenoed  by  Sog^ 
leUi,  and  viUfatst  till  U»e  Day  of  Judgment.  Tliea  foUaw  prupbe- 
ows  vhidi  ieem  to  be  baaed  on  iboae  of  the  I^eod^Jottchim's 
Oommentahee  on  Jeremiah.  The  Church  now  ia  boooredf  hob, 
and  wicked,  mad  will  so  remain  until  all  clerks,  miHiks,  and  f  nam 
are  cot  off  with  a  cruel  deaths  which  will  happen  within  ttirbe 
rears.  Frederic,  King  of  Trinaoria,  who  had  not  yet  made  his 
peace  with  the  Holy  See,  was  regarded  as  the  ootning  avenger,  in 
oonaeqaeace^  doabUen,  of  Im  rvlaiiuns  witJi  the  Spiritoals  and  bis 
<ff"»f*t***f  in  tbetr  favor.  The  oplstle  concludes  with  a  masa  of 
Apocalyptical  proflbeeies  respecting  the  approaching  advent  of 
AntkAawt,  tba  tfwnph  of  the  eainta,  and  the  reign  of  holy  puv> 
txtv  and  lore,  whk&  is  to  follow  onder  a  saintly  pope.  The  seven 
angels  of  the  chnrchea  are  declared  to  be  Benedict,  of  Epbesus ; 
aaPMtT,<rf  PefgamoB;  Francis,  of  SaiUis;  I>oniinic,of  Laodioea; 
Seganelli,  at  &ujiiua  ;  Dohrino  himself,  of  Thyatiia ;  and  the  holy 
pope  to  oome,of  Philadelphia.  Dulcino  announces  himself  ua  the 
spedal  CBToy  of  God.  aenl  to  eluoidaie  Schptore  and  the  praphe- 
eiea^  while  tbe  dogjr  and  the  friars  are  the  ministefs  uf  Satan, 
who  p— tale  bow,  but  who  will  shortly  be  consoxned,  when  he 
and  his  foUowen,  with  Uwae  who  join  them,  will  prevail  till  the 


i 


Scgardli  had  porished  at  the  stake,  Joly  l8>,aBd  already 
Aagwi  here  wis  a  man  asuniing  with  easy  aasuance  the  danger- 
oas  positkm  of  benaiarch,  proclaiming  himself  the  moathpieoe  of 
Qod^aad  pvominig  his  foUowen  speedy  tnumph  in  reward  for 
wbat  they  night  ettdore  under  bis  leotlersliip.  Whether  or  not 
he  bdiered  bis  own  profiheoies,  whether  be  was  a  wdd  fanatic  or 
a  A^hl  cbariatan,  can  never  be  ab^lniely  determineii,  bat  the 
faaluKB  <d  psofaahility  lies  in  his  troth fubess.  With  all  his  gifts 
aa  a  barm  leader  of  men.  it  is  safe  to  assert  that  if  he  had  not  be- 
lieved in  his  mission  be  eooM  not  have  inspired  his  followers  with 
tte  devoikm  which  led  them  to  stand  by  him  throogfa  sufferings 
■aendoiable  to  ordinary'  human  natore ;  while  the  oool  sngacity 
which  be  displayed  nnder  the  most  pnBsing  emergencies  must 


'Mamlori  IX.  44»-5a.-GiulL  Kugtac  Oastia.  sul  ISO*.— R.  Frsa  Pipioi 
Ba.caf.Kv.  (Miinlan*  DL  SM>.— CC  Lib^  SvstasU.  Uq,  Ibtot.  p.  360.-.> 


P*^ 


L790. 


4 


hare  been  inflamed  by  apocalvptio  visions  ere  he  oould  have  em* 

itrk«d  in  nn  enterprise  in  which  the  mcAna  wcro  so  wholly  inadft- 

quale  to  the  end — ere  he  could  have  endeavored  ainglc-biindod  to 

ov^hrow  the  whole  niajesLic structure  of  the  t  huocmt  ic  church  and 

ogyjtiaed  feadalism.     Dant«  rocn^i7«4l  the  ^^rentnoss  of  Doloino 

«rh«n  be  represents  liim  as  the  only  hving  mau  to  whom  Maliomet 

from  the  depths  of  holl  deig'ns  to  send  a  mnisa^  as  to  a  kindred. 

B^iiriL     The  ^Md  Spiritual  KranciBcans,  who  emlurod  endless  iwi^ 

soctition  without  rosistancc,  could  only  explain  his  career  by  a 

re^'elation  made  to  a  servant  of  tiod  beyond  the  seas,  that  ho  was 

poewBsed  by  a  malignant  angol  named  Furcio.* 

The  paternity  of  Dolcino  is  variously  attributed  to  Oiulio.  a 

priest  of  Trontajio  in  tiio  \"jd  d'Ossiila,  and  to  (iiuho,  a  hermit  of 

Prato  in  the  Valaesia,  near  Novant.     Brought  as  a  child  to  Ver^ 

c«l)i.  he  was  hred  in  the  church  of  St.  AgnciS  by  a  priest  named 

'^gosto,  wLo  had  liun  carefully  trained.    Gifted  with  a  bi-illiant 

ittcJlect,  be  socm  became  an  oxcellcnt  scholar,  and,  though  small 

'^t  stature,  he  was  plejisant  to  look  upon  and  won  the  alTection  of 

*U-    In  after-times  it  was  said  that  his  elotjuence  and  pereuasive- 

"^Bb  wore  such  that  no  one  who  once  listened  to  hiin  could  ever 

^h^^w  off  the  apelL     Ilia  cunnection  with  Veroelli  came  to  a  aud- 

"^^u  end.    The  pri»?st  lost  a  sum  of  money  and  susiiected  his  ser- 

^nt  Patnis.    The  man  took  the  boy  and  by  torturing  him  forced 

["ihi  to  confeiK  the  theft — rightly  or  wrongly.    The  priest  intor- 

^-red  to  ]>revont  the  matter  from  becoming  public,  but  shame  and 

^^rror  caused  l>olcino  to  depart  in  secret,  and  we  lose  sight  of  him 

^*itil  wo  hear  of  him  in  Trent,  at  the  bead  of  a  band  of  Apostlea. 

*ie  h«d  joined  the  sect  m  1291;  he  must  early  liave  taken  apromi- 

*^«nt  position  in  it,  for  he  admitte<l  in  his  final  confession  that  he 

*\a<l  thrice  been  in  the  Iiands  of  the  Inquisition,  and  had  thrice ab- 

^Xired.    This  he  could  do  without  forfeiting  bis  position,  for  it  was 

^■>tie  of  the  principles  of  the  sect,  which  greatly  angered  the  in- 

^^uisitors,  that  deceit  was  lawful  when  before  the  Inquisition ;  that 

Tlist.  IVibnlst  (ulii  sup.). 

Or  dl «  Ft*  Dolcin  flnnqiie  rhc  ff  »rnii, 

Tu  chc  forsB  ve<ln»i  il  tmle  in  breve, 

8*  egli  noa  vuol  qtit  tnstn  »cguitann!; 
Bl  dl  vWiLU'ln.  clti*  elrcHa  di  (re»e 

Non  rechi  li»  vittnrin  »]  Noarp», 

Ch*  aLtriineDti  scquistar  non  saria  lieve. — Isperko,  xzmi. 


*^ 


lis 


ODOLIELMA  AND  DOLCINO. 


oaths  could  thon  be  taken  with  tlio  lips  and  not  with  tt 

but  that  if  death  coidd  nut  be  craped,  then  it  was  to  be  endured 

cheerfiUly  and  [Jiiticntly,  without  Iwtraylng  acoomplices.* 

For  three  years  after  his  eiilstle  of  Au^st,  1300,  we  know  noth- 
ing of  Dolcino's  movements,  except  that  he  is  heard  of  in  Milan, 
Brescia,  Ber^mo,  and  Como,  but  they  were  busy  years  of  pnjp- 
agandifiin  and  organization.  The  time  of  proiniscd  liberation 
came  and  passed,  and  the  Church  was  neither  shatteiwl  nor 
amended.  Vet  the  capture  of  Boniface  VIII.  at  Anngni,  in  Sep- 
tember, 13('."J,  followed  by  his  death,  might  well  seem  to  be  the  be- 
ginning of  the  end,  and  tlio  fulfilment  of  the  prophecy.  In  I>aoem- 
bcr,  1303,  therefore,  Dolcino  issued  a  second  epistle,  in  which  he  an- 
nounced as  a  I'evulutiun  frum  (Avd  that  the  Urst  year  of  the  tribu- 
lations of  tho  Cliurch  had  bc^m  in  the  fall  of  Boniface.  In  1304 
Fpoderic  of  THnacna  would  become  emperor,  and  would  destroy 
the  cardinals,  with  tho  new  evil  pope  whom  they  had  just  elected ; 
in  1305  he  would  carry  desolation  through  tho  ranks  of  all  prel- 
ates and  ecclesiastics,  whose  wickecbiess  was  daily  increasing. 
Until  that  time  the  faithful  must  lie  hid  to  escape  persecution,  bat 
then  they  wi>ul<l  come  fuilh,  they  would  be  Joined  by  the  Spirituals 
of  the  other  orders,  they  would  receive  the  grace  of  the  Holy  Ghoet, 
and  would  form  tho  new  f'hurch  which  would  endure  to  tho  end. 
Meanwhile  he  announced  himself  as  the  ruler  of  the  Apo&tolic 
Congrcgution,  consisting  of  four  thousand  souls,  living  without 
external  olxMlience,  but  in  the  oljodience  of  the  Spirit.  About  a 
hnrdred,  of  either  sex,  were  organized  in  control  of  the  brethren, 
and  he  had  four  pnnciiuil  lieutenants,  Longino  Cattaneo  da  Ber- 
gamo, Fciderigo  <la  Novai-Ji,  Alberto  da  Otnmto,  and  Valderigo  da 
Brescia.  Sui^rior  to  these  was  his  dcJirly-loved  sister  in  Christ, 
liargherit^'L.  Mai-gherita  dt  Trank  is  ilescribed  to  us  as  a  woman 
of  noble  birth,  considerable  fortune,  and  surpassing  beauty,  who  had 
been  educated  in  the  convent  of  St.  Catharine  at  Trent.  Dolcino 
ha<l  been  the  agent  uf  the  convent,  ami  had  thus  made  her  ac- 
quaintance. Infatuated  with  him,  she  lied  with  him,  and  remained 
constant  to  tho  ia.s't.    He  always  maintained  that  their  relations 


*  Bcnvcniito  tin  Imf)lii4Mu^^''i  AfiUq.  111.  437-9].^ Bcscap^,  Lft  Novnra  Sacra, 
Novani.  1S78,  p.  1.57. — BajfRioliui,  Dolciiio  e  i  PaUriiii,  Novum,  1838,  pp.  8.V-8. — 
Hist.  Dulcin.  Hicrxsiarcli.  (Hunitori.  S.  R  I.  IX.  430-7 >.—A(]tliL  &d  Hist.  (lUd. 
«7, 400). 


DOLCINO   COLLECTS    UlS  FOLLOWERS. 


113 


were  fmnjy  spiritoal,  but  this  was  nainmUy  doubled,  and  the 
cbarchmcn  assflrtcd  that  she  bfjru  him  a  child  whose  birth  Tras 
wpresentod  to  the  faithfnl  as  the  nporation  of  the  Holy  Ghost.* 

Although  in  this  letter  oC  Deueiubur,  1303,  Dolcino  recognises 
tbc  necessity  of  concealment,  perhaiw  thecxpectetl  approaching  fru-. 
Won  of  his  hopes  may  haveenrourngixl  him  to  relax  his  precautions, 
BMuning  in  l-tiH  to  the  home  of  hia  youth  with  a  few  scctarii"* 
dbd  in  the  white  tunics  and  sandals  of  the  Order,  he  ooramennsd 
■ikiog oonvert>»  in  the  noighlMirbood  of  (4attinant  and  SerrnTalle, 
tw  riUages  of  the  Valsesia,  a  few  leagues  above  VerceUi-  The  In- 
^ition  was  soon  upon  the  track,  and,  failing  to  catch  him,  nuide 
the  people  of  Serravalle  pay  dejirly  for  the  fnvor  which  they  had 
ibown  him.  Deep^eateU  <iiscontent,  both  with  the  Church  and 
lbdrfeo(hil  lords,  can  alone  espliiin  the  assistance  which  Dolcino 
BBcdTwl  from  the  hanly  population  of  the  foot-liills  of  the  Alps, 
wbfio  he  was  forced  to  raise  openly  the  standard  of  revolt.  A 
ibat  distance  above  tierravalle,  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Sesia,  a 
stream  fed  by  the  glaciers  of  Monte  Knsa,  lay  Borgo  di  Sesia,  in 
^(boceseof  Kovara.  Thither  a  rich  hnshandmiin,  much  esteemed 
by  his  nei;;hbore,  named  Milano  Sola,  invito  Dolcino.  and  for  sev- 
eral months  he  remained  there  undisturbed,  making  converts  and 
meiring  his  digoiplos,  whom  he  seems  to  have  eummoned  from  dis- 
taoi parts,  as  though  resolved  to  make  a  stand  and  take  advantage 
of  lbs  development  of  his  ajioculyptic  prophecies.  l*re|HLraiions 
Wila  to  dislotlge  him,  however,  convinced  him  that  safety  was 
nnljr  to  be  found  in  the  Alps,  and  under  the  guidiincc  of  Milano 
Soli  the  Apostles  moved  up  towards  the  head-waters  of  the  Sesia, 
iod  tstablislied  themselves  on  a  mountain  crest,  difficult  of  nceefls, 
where  they  built  huts.  Thus  passed  the  year  1304.  Their  num- 
lnwwero  not  inconsiderable — some  fourteen  hundred  of  both  sexes 
— iiflamed  with  religious  /x-id,  regarding  Dolcino  as  a  prophet  whose 
ligbtert  wokI  was  law.  Thus  contumaciously  assemble*!  in  defiance 
of  the  summons  of  the  Inquisition,  they  were  in  open  rebellion 


ll^' 


'  flmo,  nut.  Milanwii,  ann.  1307.— D*nv.  do  Imola,  loc.  dt.— Aclditamentnra 
IX.  4M-5S.4!ia>— Bapglolini.pp.  36-7. 

tWdoo's  two  epistlM  vtTv  r<inii»Ily  condemnt-d  by  thf-  Bishitp  of  Pftrmii  luid 
WJtuofredo,  llic  inquisitor,  ind  must  tlicniforehi'ebeeii  circolnted  ouUideof 
fxwrttEymM-ic  Direct  Inq.  P.  ti.  Q.  89). 

m.-8 


IH 


GUGLIELMA    AXD    DOLCINO. 


aggojiBi  tlio  Churafa.  The  SUito  also  soon  becamo  their  cnf^my,  for  as 
the year  ISOoopenod,  theirslcncier  stock  of  proviaionswaeexhausted 
iiQtl  they  replunialied  ihuir  stores  by  raids  upon  the  lower  valloys.* 
The  Church  coitld  not  aiford  to  brook  this  open  defiance,  to 
say  nothing  of  tho  complaints  of  rapine  and  sncrilc^  which  filled 
t)ie  Und.  yet  it  shonrs  tho  di'ea<l  which  Dolcino  already  inspired 
that  recourse  was  had  to  tho  pope,  under  whoso  auspices  a  fonnol 
crusade  wa^  pruachcd,  in  order  to  raise  a  force  dcomcd  sufficient 
to  ext<*miinat«  the  heretics.  One  of  the  early  acts  of  Cloment  V. 
after  bis  dectioo,  June  .%  lilOa,  was  to  issue  bulht  far  this  purpose, 
and  tha  next  step  was  to  hold  an  assembly,  August  24,  where  a 
leag-u©  was  formed  and  an  agreement  signed  pledging  the  aesem- 
blud  nobles  t<j  shc-d  the  hist  diop  of  their  blood  to  destroy  the  Gaz- 
zari,who  hod  bwn  driven  out  of  Sesiaand  Biandrate,  but  had  not 
ceased  to  trouble  tlie  hind.  Armed  with  the  papal  coramif«ios8, 
CainerLo,  Bishop  of  Verc«Ui.  and  tite  inquisitors  raised  a  consider- 
ablu  force  and  juIvanctMl  to  the  niounUiin  refuge  of  tho  Apogtlee. 
DoUiuo,  seeing  (he  futility  of  resistance,  decam|>ed  by  uight  and  cs- 
tablishod  his  Uttlc  comuninicy  on  an  almo^  inaccessible  mountain, 
and  the  vrusatlei-s,  apparently  thinking  them  dispersed,  withdrew, 
Dolcino  was  now  fairly  at  bay ;  tho  only  hope  of  safety  lay  in.  re- 
sistiinco,  and  since  the  ("hurdt  was  resolved  on  war,  ho  and  his  fo)< 
loAvers  troiild  at  leat^t  sell  their  lives  as  dearly  as  they  could.  Hia 
new  rotnait  was  on  the  rarete  Calvo— the  Hai-e  Wall — whose 
name  sufDoieutly  describee  its  character,  a  mountain  overlooking 
the  Tillage  of  Canipcrtogno.  On  this  stronghold  the  Apostlea 
fortJifd  themselves  and  coustructetl  such  hubitatious  as  they  could, 
and  from  it  thoy  ravagiHi  the  neighboring  valleys  for  subsistence. 
Tlie  Podefltji  of  VaiuUo  assemblotl  tho  men  of  the  Valsesia  to  dis* 
lodge  them,  but  Oolcino  laid  an  ambush  for  him,  attacked  him  with 
slunrs  and  such  other  wcaimns  as  the  A[K>stle8  chanoed  to  havo, 
and  took  him  prisoner  with  mo:it  of  his  men,  obtaining  ransoms 
which  enabled  the  sectaries  to  sup[K)rt  life  for  a  while  longer. 
Their  depredations  coutinueil  tilt  all  the  land  within  striking  dis- 
tance was  reduced  to  a  doscrt,  tho  churches  despoiled,  and  the  in- 
habitants driven  off.f 


•  DiBt.  Dukin.  (Slurntori  IX.  428-»),— Bcsoipfc,  loc.  cit. 
tnist.  Dulcin.  (Muratori  IX.  480-1).— Bcacnpi^  luc.  dt 


CRC9ADBS   A0AIX8T    DOLCINO. 


lift 


The  irint^r  of  130S-6  put  to  the  test  tlie  cndurHnco  of  the  her* 
etiCB  oa  tbeir  bare  moantain-top.  As  Lent  cauif  ou  tbejr  were  r^ 
dnced  to  ootinf^  mice  and  uthur  vunulii,  anil  hay  cooked  ia  grease. 
The  position  became  untenable,  tinil  on  the  night  oE  March  10, 
oompeUcd  by  atera  ne<;essity  U>  uUuntlon  their  iveakur  companions, 
tksy  left  the  Parete  t'alvu.  and,  building  paths  which  doomed  im- 
posible  over  high  mountains  and  through  deep  sno'^vii,  they  eatab- 
liili«d  themseU'es  on  Monte  Ru))eUo,  overlooking  the  viUa^  of 
Triverio,  iu  the  diooese  of  Vercelli.  By  this  time,  through  want 
ad  exhaustion,  their  numbers  wore  reduced  Ut  about  a  IhuusamJ, 
ud  the  aole  provisions  which  tbey  brought  with  them  were  a  fow 
MniM  of  meat.  With  such  secrecy  and  ux|>ediUua  had  the  muve 
teen  executed  that  the  Unit  intiioaliou  that  the  peuple  of  Triverio 
hd  of  tlie  neighborliood  of  the  dreaded  heretics  was  a  foray  by 
light,  in  which  their  town  wiut  ravaged.  We  do  not  hear  that 
iBT  of  the  unresisting  iidiahiuiocs  wei«  shiin,  but  wo  arc  tohl  that 
Ihirty-four  of  the  Apostlos  were  cut  off  in  their  retreat  nod  put  to 
dMth.  The  whole  region  was  now  alarmed,  and  the  Bisliop  of 
TorooUi  raised  a  second  force  of  crusaders,  who  bravely  advanced 
to  Monte  liubeUo.  Dolcino  was  rapidly  learuing  the  art  uf  war ; 
he  made  a  sally  from  his  stronghold,  though  again  we  leiirn  that 
uaae  of  his  oombatants  were  armed  only  with  stotius.  and  the 
Iwbc^'s  troops  were  beaten  back  ivith  the  loss  of  many  prisoners 
vko  were  exchanged  for  food.* 

The  heretic  encampment  was  now  organized  for  peniianeut  oo- 
capition.  Fortifications  wure  thn>wn  up.  housos  Imilt,  and  a  well 
dng.  Thns  rendered  inexpugnable,  the  hunted  Apostles  wore  in 
nfety  from  external  attack,  and  on  their  Alpine  orng,  with  all 
iBUildnd  for  enemies,  they  calmly  awaited  tn  their  isolation  the 
fulflUuent  of  Dokino's  prophecies.  Their  immediate  danger  was 
■Urralion.  The  mountain-tops  furnished  no  foud.  and  the  reuutius 
oi  the  episcopal  army  stationed  at  Mosso  maintained  a  stnct* 
blookade.  To  relieve  hims<-lf,  early  in  ^May,  Dolcino  by  a  clever 
■Quagem  lui«d  them  to  an  attack,  s^t  u|)on  them  from  an  am- 
bfidi,  and  dis|)or&ed  them,  capturing  many  prisoners,  who,  as  be- 
fw«,were  excliangcd  for  provisions.  The  bishop's  reatmrcea  were, 
eihaooted.    Again  he  app^ed  to  Clement  V.,  who  graciously 


•  Hi«t.  DulrUi.  (Mumtori  IX.  ISO^). 


■  'i 


116 


GUGLIELMA    AND   DOLCINO. 


anathematized  the  heretics,  and  offeniU  plenary  indulgnnce  to  all 
who  would  sflrve  in  the  army  of  the  Loi-d  for  thirty  <Iuys  ngsiinst 
them,  or  pay  a  recruit  for  such  service.  The  papal  letters  were 
jmblished  far  and  wide,  the  Vereellese  ardently  supported  their 
df^  bishop,  who  personally  accompanied  the  onisade;  a  large 
force  was  raised,  neighboring  heights  were  seized  and  machines 
erected  which  threw  stones  into  the  heretic  encampment  and  de- 
molished their  huts.  A  desiwrato  struggle  took  place  for  the  poe- 
aossion  of  one  commanding  eniinenoe,  where  mutual  slaughter  so 
deeply  tinged  the  waters  of  the  Riccio  that  its  name  became 
changed  to  tliat  of  Rio  Carnaschio,  and  so  strong  was  the  impres- 
sion made  nyton  the  popular  mind  that  within  tlie  last  century*  it 
would  have  fared  ill  with  any  sceptical  traveller  who  should  aver 
within  hearing  of  a  inountninecr  of  the  district  that  its  culor  was 
the  Bame  as  that  of  the  neighboring  torrents.* 

This  third  crusade  was  as  fruitless  as  its  pretlrcicssors.  The 
assailants  were  repulsed  and  fell  back  to  Mosso.  Triverio.  and 
CrevaooppT  while  Doloino,  profiting  by  experience,  foHifled  and 
garrisoned  six  of  the  nei|^boring  heights,  from  which  he  harried 
the  surrounding  coontry  and  kept  his  people  supplie<l  with  foo«l. 
To  restrain  them  tlie  crusaders  built  two  forts  and  maintained  a 
heavy  force  within  thera,  but  to  little  purpose.  Mosso,  Triverio, 
CMSato,  Flccchio,  and  other  towns  were  burned,  and  the  aocounts  of 
the  wanton  spoliatiou  and  desecration  of  the  churehos  show  how 
thoroughly  ant i sacerdotal  the  sect  ha<l  I)ec4)me.  Driven  to  des- 
peration, the  ancient  loving-kindness  of  their  creetl  gave  place  to 
the  cruelty  which  they  learned  from  their  assailants.  To  deprive 
them  of  reeourccei  it  wtia  forbidden  to  exchange  food  with  them 
for  prisoners,  and  their  cjiptivos  were  mercileasly  put  to  death. 
According  to  the  contemjiorary  inquisitor  to  whom  we  are  in- 
debtiMl  for  those  details,  since  the  days  of  Adam  there  had  never 
boon  a  sect  so  execrable,  so  abominable,  so  horrible,  or  winch  in  a 
time  so  short  accomplished  so  much  evil.  The  worst  of  it  was 
that  Dolcino  infused  into  his  followers  his  own  unconquerable 
spirit.  In  male  attire  the  women  accompanied  the  men  in  their 
expeditions.  Fanaticism  rendered  ihem  invincible,  and  so  great 
was  the  terror  which  they  inspired  that  the  faithful  Ued  from  the 


*  Hbt.  Dulcio  (ITunitori  IX.  433^.)— Bfiggiolini,  p.  181. 


DOLCINO    CAPT0RED. 


117 


fares  of  these  dogs,  of  whom  vre  are  told  a  few  would  put  to  flight 
:i  ho6l  ami  utterly  destroy  theiu.  The  laud  was  abandoned  by  tho 
inhabitants,  and  in  Deeeiuljur,  SKizeA  with  a  sudden  panic^  tho 
cnaulers  evacuatc<l  one  of  the  forts,  and  the  garrison  of  the  other, 
MBrtunting  to  seven  hundred  men,  was  rescued  with  difficulty.* 

Dolcino's  fanaticism  and  military  skill  had  thus  triumphed  in 
thefleldr  but  tho  fatal  weaknotta  of  his  position  hiy  in  bifi  inability 
Ui  support  his  followers.  This  was  clearly  apprehended  by  the 
Biibop  of  Vercelli.  who  built  five  nuw  furts  around  the  heretic 
potition  :  and  wlieu  we  are  luUl  that  all  the  nMih  and  (tasses  were 
tfrictly  giumlcd  so  that  no  help  should  reach  thorn,  we  may  infer 
liut,  in  spite  of  the  derastjition  t^)  which  they  had  been  driven, 
Uiey  still  had  friends  among  tho  popuhitinn.  This  jmlicy  was 
■ecessfuL  During  the  winter  of  1300-7  the  guffcrings  of  the 
Apostles  on  their  snowy  mountain-top  were  frightful  Hunger 
todoold  did  their  work.  Many  ]icriiihed  from  uxluiiistion.  Others 
bwely  maintaine<l  life  on  grass  and  leaves,  when  they  were  fortti- 
nntecnongh  to  find  them.  Cannibalism  was  resorted  to ;  the  bodies 
of  their  enemies  who  fell  in  successful  sorties  were  devoui-od,  and 
Wen  those  of  thoir  comra*Ies  who  siiccumlKjd  to  starvation.  Tho 
pious  chronicler  informs  us  that  this  misery  was  brought  upon 
them  by  the  prayers  and  vows  of  the  good  bishop  and  liis  flock-f 

To  this  there  could  bo  but  one  ending,  and  even  the  fervid 
gesnis  of  Dolcino  could  not  imlelinitely  jKjslitone  the  inevitable. 
As  the  dreary  Alpine  winter  drew  to  an  end,  towards  the  close  of 
Much,  the  bishop  organize<l  a  fourth  crusjule.  A  largo  army  was 
raiwd  to  deal  with  thr.  gjtunt  and  liagganl  suri'ivors ;  hot  fighting 
occurred  during  Passion  TTeok.  and  on  Holy  Thursday  (March 
5S,  130T)  the  last  entrenchments  wore  can-iod.  The  resistajico 
bad  been  stubborn,  and  again  the  Kio  (^moschio  ran  rod  with 
Wood.  No  quarter  waa  given.  "  On  that  day  more  than  a  thou- 
nnd  of  the  heretics  perished  in  the  Qames,  or  in  the  river,  or  by 
*he«wor(i,  in  the  cruellest  of  deaths.  Thus  they  who  made  sport 
of  God  the  Eternal  Father  and  of  the  Catholic  faith  came,  on  the 
•lav  of  the  last  Supper,  through  hunger,  steel,  fire,  pestilence,  and 
all  irpelchedness,  to  shame  and  disgraceful  death,  as  they  deserved." 


•  HifL  DulclD.  {^Uumtori  IX.  434.487-8). 
i  HiaL  Dulcin.  (lb.  430-40). 


118 


OaOLIELMA    AND   DOLCINO 


Strict  orders  had  been  given  by  tho  bishop  to  capture  alive  Dol- 
dno  «nd  his  two  chief  auboi-di nates,  Matf^herita  and  l-ongino  Cat- 
faneo,  and  g^eat  w«re  the  rejoicings  when  tho\'  were  brought  to 
him  on  Saturday,  at  the  castle  of  Biella,* 

Ko  case  oould  he  clearer  than  theirs,  and  yet  the  bishop  deemed 
it  necessary  to  consult  Pojre  Cleniunt — a  perfectly  superfluous 
ceremony,  i^xpllcable  ]>erliap<9.  aa  GallonjjH  sngg«sts.  by  the  oppor- 
tunity which  it  afforde<l  of  begging  assistance  for  bis  ruined  dio- 
cese and  exhausted  treasury.  Clement's  avanoo  rcspondod  in  a 
niggnnlly  fashion,  though  tho  extravagant  pa?an  of  triumph  in 
which  the  pope  hastened  to  announce  the  glad  tidings  to  Philippe  le 
Bel  on  the  some  evening  in  which  he  receiviid  them  shows  how 
deep  was  the  anxiety  caiiseil  by  the  audacious  revolt  of  the  handful 
of  Dolcinisis.  The  Bishops  of  Verc^Ui.  Novaro,  and  Pavia,  and  the 
Abbot  of  Lucedio  were  granted  tho  first  fruits  of  all  benotioes  be- 
coming vacant  during  the  next  three  yeiirs  In  their  rcapc<;tivo  ter- 
ritories, and  the  former,  in  addition,  was  axemptod  during  Ufe  from 
the  exactions  of  papal  legates,  with  some  other  privileges.  Whila 
awaiting  this  res|)onso  the  priaoners  were  kept,  chained  hand  and 
foot  and  neck,  in  the  dungeon  uf  the  Inquisition  at  VprceUi,  with 
numerous  guards  jxMrtod  to  prevent  a  rescue,  inilicating  a  knowl* 
edge  that  there  existed  deep  popular  sympathy  for  the  ivbeU 
against  State  and  Church.  The  cuatomory  efforts  were  made  to 
procure  confession  and  abjuration,  bui  while  tho  prisoners  boldly 
affirmed  their  faith  they  were  deaf  to  all  offers  of  reconciliation. 
Dolcino  even  pereistod  In  Lis  projiliecies  that  Antichrist  would 
appear  in  thi-ee  years  and  a  half,  when  he  and  his  followers  would 
bo  translated  to  Para<hse;  that  after  the  death  of  Antichrist  he 
would  return  to  the  earth  to  he  tho  holy  pope  of  the  new  church, 
when  all  the  infidels  would  bo  converted.  About  two  months 
passed  away  before  Clement's  orders  were  received,  that  they 
should  be  tried  and  puni6he(.[  at  the  scene  of  their  crimen.  The 
customary  assembly  of  experts  was  convened  in  Vercelli ;  there 
could  l>e  no  doubt  ns  to  their  guilt,  and  thoy  were  ationdoned  to 


•  HisU  Dulcin.  iSIuratori  IX.  43«). 

Ptolvmy  of  Litccii,  wlio  iit  (:«o(l  cuntemponuieoiiBautliorilj,  puta  tbe  number 
of  tliose  captured  with  Dolcino  at  one  l)iindn.'ii  and  flft^r,  nnd  of  thnso  who 
perisbvd  ttituu(j;li  expMun}  nml  bv  tlic  EHird  at  oa\y  about  three  liuuijred 
—Hist.  Gccles.  Lib.  xxnr.  <Mu»tori  XI.  13i7). 


DOLCINO-8   PUNISHMENT. 


119 


tba  McoUr  arm.  For  the  superfluous  croelty  wlticli  foUoweU  the 
CbtDch  vras  not  responsible ;  it  was  thn  cxpressiun  uf  tbo  terror 
of  the  secular  aatht)ntiuR,  ksulin^  Uiem  to  rcpn?s3  by  nn  awful 
iiample  the  evor-prcsent  dtingcr  of  a  {leusant  revolt.  On  June 
1.  1307.  the  pcisonen  wero  hruuj^ht  fortit  Mar^bcrita's  beauty 
mveil  all  hearts  tu  oiimpiifisiun,  luid  this,  coupteil  with  the  reports 
sf  her  weulih,  led  nixny  nobles  to  offer  licr  inarriogi;  and  jiunlon 
i  she  wonld  abjure,  but.  constant  to  her  faitli  and  to  Ikilvino,  she 
pntorad  tho  stake.  She  was  slowly  burno<l  to  death  hi-foru  his 
«fa,and  than  canimen(!ed  his  moru  pmlunfi^cd  tortniv.  Mounted 
fli  a  oart,  provided  witb  braziers  to  keep  the  instruments  of  tor* 
neiit  healed,  he  was  t^lowly  drven  along  the  roads  thruug'h  thai 
loBgauiainer  day  and  torn  fj;rH<lually  to  pieoee  with  red-hut  pincers. 
Tbe  manreUoufl  contitancy  of  the  man  was  shown  by  bis  enduring 
il without  rewarding  his  torturers  witb  a  single  (^hangv  of  feature. 
Only  wht>n  his  noso  was  wrenchtxl  off  was  observed  a  slight  shiver 
in  llie  shonldera,  ami  when  a  yet  crueller  pang  wim  indicted,  a 
nngle  sigh  escaped  him.  While  he  was  thus  dying  ia  Unger- 
iog  torture  Longino  Cattaneo,  at  lliclla,  was  similarly  utilized  to 
afford  a  salutary  ^vaming  to  the  people.  Thus  the  entbusiasta 
UEptatAd  their  dreams  of  the  regeneration  of  mankind.* 

Complete  as  was  Dfjloino's  failure,  his  uhamuter  and  his  fato 
left  an  inefTaceaUe  iinpressitm  on  tlitt  imputation.  Tbe  Parete 
Cairo,  his  fint  moantain  refuge,  was  conKidercd  to  bo  haunted  hy 
evil  spirits,  whom  be  had  left  to  guaj'd  a  treasure  buried  in  a 
care,  and  who  excited  sueli  tctufiests  when  any  one  invaded  thoir 
dooiain  that  the  people  of  Triverio  were  forced  to  inainlain  guards 
to  warn  off  pondstent  treusore-seekera.    titiU  stronger  was  the 


'  Nafintll  (A.  Galcns«l.  ^rk  IMc'inn  aiul  lii*  Tniiea,  Londoo,  I85S,  pp.  287- 
•8.-IWg«t.  Clement.  PP.  V.  T,  TT.  pj),  79-82.  fig  (FA.  Renc(lirtiii«.Rom»,J868). 
-Uttbi-iiaa  KfftiergescWchte  I.  3S3  — UpIiHli,  I(«Hrt  Sucrn.  Ed.  105?,  IV.  1104- 
a-Kbt.  DuMa.  (Mnratort  IX.  490.  440).— Bt-nv.  Ja  Ttnolit  (Miirarori  Antlq.  lit. 

-&n»rd.  Ovddoo.  Ylt  Clement.  PP.  V.  (Munitori  UL  i.  «74X~Bcicapfc. 

Cit. 

Tbe  puDUhinent  inflicted  on  Duiduu  uid  Loofpou  nM  nut  vxcvpUuuDl.  Bj 
>WUa«ie  Itatute  of  1898  alt  secrel  attetupU  upon  the.  life  of  adjt  iii«inl>cr  of  « 
Ctn&j  with  whom  the  criminal  \Uv<\  weru  Bulgect  ta  u  pminlLf  precisely  the 
••a*  ia  all  di-tail».  except  that  it  tntled  Ijj*  atUcliiD^r  tlio  olTfntli?r  to  a  wheel 
■•1  leaving  him  to  |>Dri«h  in  proknged  agon;.— Anliqiu  Ducuni  lli-diolani 
IVcrtU,  p.  187  (Mediolniii,  1&S4). 


190 


aUOLIELMA    AND   DOLCIKO. 


influence  which  he  exerted  upon  his  fastness  on  Monto  Kubello. 
It  bocamo  known  as  the  ^fonte  dei  (lazrjiri,  and  to  it,  as  to  an 
accursed  spot,  priests  grew  into  the  habit  of  consigning  demons 
whom  thoy  exorcised  on  account  of  hnit-stomis.    The  result  of 
this  wua  that  the  congrcgatetl  spirits  caused  such  fearful  tempests 
that  the  neighboring  lands  were  ruined,  the  harvests  were  yearly 
destroyed,  and  the  |)eople  reduced  to  beggary.    Finally,  as  a  cure, 
the  inhabitants  of  Triverio  vowed  to  God  and  to  St.  Bematxl  that 
if  they  were  reheved  thoy  wouhl  build  on  the  top  of  the  mountain 
a  chapel  to  St.  Bernard.    This  was  done,  and  the  mountain  thus 
acquired  its  modem  nanio  of  Monte  San  liomardo.    Every  year  on 
June  15,  the  feast  of  St.  Bernard,  one  man  from  every  hearth  in, 
the  surrounding  parishes  marched  with  their  priests  in  solemn 
procession,  bearing  crosses  and  bannera,  and  ceiebratiug  solemn 
services,  iu  the  presence  of  orowds  assenLble<l  to  gain  the  pardons 
granted  by  the  pope,  and  to  share  in  a  distribution  of  breail  pro- 
vided by  a  special  levy  made  on  the  parishes  of  Triverio  and 
Portola.    This  custom  lasted  till  the  French  invasion  undor  Nar 
poleon.    Renewed  in  1815,  it  was  discontinued  on  account  of  the 
disorders  which  attended  it.    Again  resumed  in  1S3'J,  it  was  ac- 
companied with  a  burncane  which  is  still  in  the  YaLsesia  attributed 
to  the  beresiarch,  and  even  to  the  present  day  the  mountaineers 
SCO  on  the  mountain-crost  a  procession  of  Dolcinists  during  the 
night  before  its  celebration.     Dolcino's  name  is  still  remembered 
in  the  valleys  as  that  of  a  great  man  who  perished  in  the  elTort  to 
free  the  populations  from  temporal  and  spiritual  tyranny.* 

Uolcino  and  his  immediate  hand  of  followora  were  Uiua  ex- 
terminated, but  there  remained  the  thousands  of  Apostles,  scattered 
throughout  the  land,  who  cherished  their  belief  in  secret.  Under 
the  skilful  band  of  the  Inquisition,  the  harmless  eccentricities  of 
Begarelli  were  hardened  and  converted  into  a  strongly  antisacer- 
dotal  heresy,  antagonistic  to  Kome,  precisely  as  we  have  seen  the 
same  result  with  the  exaggerated  usceticiem  of  the  Oli^ists.  There 
was  much  in  common  between  the  sects,  for  both  drew  their 
inspiration  from  the  Everl!L';ting  Gor[)c1.  Like  the  Olivists,  the 
Apoetlea  held  that  Christ  ha<l  withdrawn  his  authority  from  the 

*  A.  ArtiMo  (Rivista  CristiaiiA,  1877, 14fr-JI).— HUL  Dulcia.  (llurEtori  iX. 
Ml-3).— Baggiotuu.  pp.  lM-71. 


THE  ORDER  OP    APOSTLES. 


191 


Church  of  Rome  on  account  of  its  wickedness ;  it  was  the  Whoro 
of  Babylon,  anil  all  Bpirttu.i1  power  wa^  tiunsferretl  to  the  Spiritual 
Congr«^tion,  or  Order  of  AjMistloj;,  us  they  styled  thonuclves. 
As  time  passed  on  without  the  fulfilment  of  the  &))ocalyptic 
pionusGS,  88  Frederic  uf  Trinacriu  did  not  develop  Into  a  deliverer, 
nd  aa  Anticbriat  deJuyed  bis  appearance,  tbey  seem  to  have  ahaa- 
dooed  these  hopee,  or  at  least  to  have  repressed  their  expreasioit, 
bet  they  continued  to  cherish  the  hebef  that  they  had  attained 
■pirttnal  perfection,  releasing  them  from  all  obetlience  to  man,  and 
tkat  there  was  no  snlvation  otitHido  of  their  community.  Anti- 
ncerdotaUsm  was  thus  developed  to  the  fullest  extent.  There 
tMNU  to  have  been  no  organization  in  the  Order.  Keeeption  was 
parformed  by  tlie  aimpk'St  of  ceremonies,  either  in  church  before 
the  altar  or  in  any  other  place.  The  postulant  stripped  himself 
of  all  bis  ji^rments,  in  sign  of  renunciation  of  all  pro|)erty  and  of 
eatering  into  the  perfect  state  of  evangelical  poverty  ;  he  uttered 
no  voffs,  but  in  his  heart  he  promised  to  live  henceforth  in  poverty. 
Afler  this  he  was  never  to  receive  or  carry  money,  but  was  to  live 
on  alms  apontaneously  olTorcd  to  him,  and  was  never  to  reserve 
anything  for  the  morrow.  Uc  made  no  promise  of  obedience  to 
uoital  man,  but  only  to  God,  to  whom  aione  be  was  subject,  as 
vers  the  apostles  to  Christ.  Thus  all  the  e.\temal8  of  religion 
wvre  broshod  aside.  Chuitihes  were  useless;  a  man  could  better 
vonhip  Christ  in  the  woods,  ami  prayer  to  God  was  as  efifective 
m  a  pigHty  as  in  a  consecrated  building.  Priests  and  prelates  and 
monks  were  a  detriment  to  the  faith.  Tithes  should  only  be  given 
lo  those  whose  voluntary  poverty  rendered  it  superfluous.  Though 
the  sacrament  of  penitence  was  not  expressly  abrogated,  yet  the 
power  of  the  keys  was  virtually  annulled  by  the  principle  that  no 
pope  cotdd  absolve  for  sin  unless  he  were  as  holy  as  St.  Peter, 
living  in  perfect  poverty  and  humility,  abstaining  from  war  and 
penecotion.  and  permitting  every  one  lo  dwell  in  liberty ;  and,  as 
uU  prelates,  from  the  time  of  Silvester,  hail  been  seducers  and 
preraric&tors,  excepting  only  Fra  Pier  di  Morrone  (Celestin  V.), 
followed  that  the  indulgences  and  pardons  so  freely  hawked 
Christendom  were  worthleea.  One  error  they  shared  with 
Taldeiues — the  prohibition  of  oaths,  even  in  a  court  of  juiitioe.* 


'  idilit  aJ  HUt  Dutcia.  (Muntori  IS.  455-7).~Bcn].  Ouidun.  Pmci  P.  T. 


OraLTBLMA  A7CD  OOLCINO. 


The  description  which  Bormrd  Gui  girm  of  the  Apottles,  in 
oniiir  to  guide  his  lirothar  inquisitorB  in  thrir  detection,  show-s  how 
fully  thitfy  carriod  into  practice  the  pi-cce[)ts  of  their  simple  creed. 
Tbtj  wore  a  spocia]  habit,  closely  approaching  a  conventual  g&rb 
— pR^blr  the  white  mantle  and  cord  adopted  l>v  SegarelU. 
They  presented  all  the  exterior  si^s  of  saintliness.  As  they 
waiKlered  along  the  roads  aad  tUroagb  the  streets  they  sang 
bynnsrur  uttcriMl  ]n-uyers  and  exhortations  to  repentance.  What- 
tnr  yru  spontancoosty  fict  before  them  they  ate  with  thankful- 
ii««s,  and  when  appetite  was  satisfied  they  left  what  might  remain 
and  carried  nothing  vriih  thcra.  In  their  hnmble  fashion  they 
Mem  to  have  imitated  the  apostles  aa  best  they  could,  and  to  have 
carried  porerty  to  a  pitch  which  Angelo  da.  Clarino  himself  might 
have  envied.  Bernard  Gui,  in  addition,  deplores  their  introctabte 
obstinacy,  and  adduces  a  case  in  which  he  had  kept  one  of  them 
In  prison  for  two  years,  subjecting  him  to  frequent  examination, 
before  he  was  brought  to  confession  and  repentance — by  what 
gentle  persuasives  we  may  readily  guess.* 

AU  this  may  seem  to  us  the  must  harmless  of  heresies,  and  yet 
the  impression  produced  by  the  exploits  of  Dolcino  caosed  it  to 
be  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  formidable;  and  the  oomestneai 
of  the  sectaries  in  making  converts  was  rendered  dangerous  by 
their  drawing  their  chief  arguments  from  the  e\'il  lives  of  the 
clergy.  When  the  Brethrw  of  the  Free  Spirit  were  condemned 
in  the  Clementines,  Bernard  Gui  wrote  earneHtly  to  John  XXil., 
urging  that  a  clause  should  bo  inserted  including  the  Apostles, 
whom  he  described  as  growing  like  weeds  and  spreading  from 
Italy  to  Languodoc  and  Spain.  This  is  probably  one  of  the  exag^ 
gerations  onstomary  in  such  matters,  but  about  this  time  a  Dol- 
oinist  named  Juco|io  da  Querio  was  di»covere<l  and  burned  in  Avi- 
gnon. In  1313  Bernard  Gui  found  others  within  his  own  district, 
when  his  energetic  proroodings  soon  drove  the  poor  wretches  across 
the  Pymnees,  and  he  uddrc^ed  ui^gent  letters  to  all  the  prelates 
of  Spain,  describing  them  and  calling  for  their  prompt  extermina- 
tion, which  rcBult4>d,  as  mentioned  in  a  fonner  chapter,  in  the  ap- 
prehension of  five  of  the  heretics  at  far-off  Compostella,  doubtless 
the  tvmaaals  of  the  disciples  of  the  Apostb  Biuh&rd.    Poasibly 


'  Beniwd.  Oniiton.  Pnicticx  P,  V. 


PERSBCCTION    OF   THB    APOBTLEfi  m 

tba  may  have  driren  some  of  them  back  to  Franco  for  8af«t}r,  for 
in  the  atUo  of  September,  1 323,  at  Toulouse,  there  figures  the  Gali- 
ciaa  alreadj  referred  to  named  Pedro  de  Lu^,  who  had  been 
■tROitionsly  lalwrod  vrith  for  a  year  in  prison,  and  on  his  nbjnm- 
tioo  was  iDcarcerated  for  life  on  bn%<t  and  water.  In  the  tame 
auto  there  was  another  culprit  wbotv.  fate  illastratos  the  horror 
and  tcmir  inspir»l  by  the  floctrimn  of  the  Doldnists.  (railleoi 
Raffl  bad  been  previously  forced  to  abjuration  aa  a  Begnine,  and 
slbBcquently  had  betrayed  two  of  his  former  aseooiates,  one  of 
vhom  had  been  burned  and  the  other  imprisoned.  This  would 
■Ben  to  be  sufficient  proof  of  his  zcaJ  for  orthodoxy,  and  yet, 
wliea  he  happened  to  state  that  in  Italy  there  were  Fratioelti 
who  h^  that  no  one  woa  ]wrfect  who  coald  not  endure  the 
test  of  continence  above  alluded  to,  adding  that  he  had  tried 
the  experiment  bimaelf  with  success,  and  had  taught  it  to  more 
than  one  woman,  this  was  considered  sufficient,  and  without  any- 
thing further  against  tiim  he  was  inountiriently  burned  as  a  re- 
lapsed hcpotic* 

In  spite  uf  Bernard  Gai*s  exnggerated  apprehensions,  the  seot^ 
although  it  continued  to  exist  for  some  time,  gave  nn  further  son-' 
ons  trouble.    The  Council  of  Cologne  in  13M  and  that  of  TrevH 
in  1310  allude  to  the  Apostles,  sbo^nng  that  they  were  not  un- 
known in  (Jormany.     Yet  about  133S  so  well-informed  a  writer  as 
AJvar  Pelayo  speaks  of  Dolcino  us  u  Lteghartl,  showing  how  soon 
the  memory  of  the  distinctive  characteristics  of  the  sect  had  faded 
away.    At  this  very  time,  however,  a  certain  Zoppto  was  secretly 
spraading  the  horeey  at  Rinti,  whore  it  seems  to  hare  found  nu- 
mwont  ooDverts,  especially  among  the  women.    Attention  being 
oiUed  to  it,  Frd  Simone  Filippi,  inquisitor  of  the  Roman  provinoet 
hastened  thither,  seized  Zuppiu.  and  afUir  examining  him  delivered 
liim  to  the  authorities  for  safe-keeping.     When  he  desired  to  pro- 
ewd  with  the  trial  the  magistrates  refused  to  surrender  tlie  pris- 
flBv.  and  abused  the  inquisitor.     Bcne<liot  XII.  was  appealed  to, 
who  scolded  roundly  thi'  reralcitmnt  officials  for  deff^nding  a  her- 
wyw  horrible  that  decency  forbids  his  describing  it ;  he  threap 


M 

*  AddHs  ad  Hkt Dnlcin  (Hfumtnri  rX.458).— Bftmntd  Onidftn.Practic*  P.T. 
— Bnud. Qoidon.  Ornrnni. ( Dont.  XXX.  120-4).  -Kuyin.  ilr  Fronciwtio  (Archlr 
ftrlitl..  a  t  l«87.  p.  10.— Lib.  SententU  Inq.  Tolo*.  pp.  8S0-8,  »»1.  " 


lU 


GUaLIELMA  AND  DOLCrWO, 


eaed  them  with  exemplary  panishmont  for  continned  conturaacj*. 
and  promised  that,  if  they  were  afraid  of  dama^  to  the  repu- 
tation of  their  women,  the  latter  should  be  mildly  treated  and 
spared  humiliating  penanoo  on  giving  information  as  to  their  as* 
sociates.* 

After  a  long  interval  we  hear  of  the  Apoetlee  again  in  Langiie* 
doc,  where,  in  1368,  the  Council  of  l^vaur  calls  attention  to  them 
as  wandering  through  the  land  id  spite  of  the  condemnation  of  the 
Holy  See,  and  disseminating  errors  under  an  appearance  of  extop- 
oal  piety,  wherefore  they  are  orderetl  to  be  arrested  and  punished 
by  the  episcopal  oonrts.  In  1374  the  Council  of  Narbonne  deemed 
it  necessary  to  repeat  this  injunction:  and  we  hare  seen  that  in 
1402  and  1403  the  zeal  of  the  Inquisitor  Eylartl  was  rewarded  in 
Lubec  and  Wismar  by  the  capture  and  burning  of  two  Apostloe. 
This  is  the  last  authentic  record  of  a  sect  which  a  hundred  years 
before  hall  for  a  brief  space  inspired  so  wide  a  terror.f 


Closely  allied  with  the  Dolcinists,  and  forming  a  link  between 
them  and  the  German  Brethren  of  the  Free  Spirit,  were  some 
Italian  heretira  known  as  followers  of  the  Spint  of  Liljerty,  of 
whom  a  few  scattered  notices  have  reached  us.  They  seem  to 
have  avoided  the  pantheism  of  the  Genuana.  and  did  not  teach 
the  return  of  the  soul  to  its  Creator,  hut  they  adopted  the  danjier- 
OU8  tenet  of  the  perfectibility  of  man,  who  in  this  life  can  become 
as  holy  as  Christ.  This  can  be  accomplished  by  sins  as  well  as 
by  virtues,  for  both  are  the  same  in  the  eye  of  God.  who  dii'ects 
all  things  and  allows  no  human  free-will.  The  soul  is  purified  by 
sin,  and  the  greater  the  pleasure  in  carnal  indulgences  the  more 
nearly  they  represent  (tod.    There  is  no  eternal  punishment,  but 


'  Concil.  CoIonicoB.  ton.  1806  e.  1,  9  Cnnrtrhcim  TV.  100, 103).— Ctmcil.  Ttp- 
Ttfcns.  mm.  1810  c.  50  (Martcne  Thesmir.  IV  ■!.".0). — Alrar.  PeldK-  de  Plsortu  Ec- 
cleft.  Lib.  It-  art. Hi.  (fol  168,  178,  Ed.  1517).-  Wiulding. »QQ.  ]!t8fi,No.8~0.— Rjijr 
ailU.  ion.  I835.No.62. 

t  Concil.  VaurciuL  nnn.  1808  C.fi4;  Concit.  Kftrbonn.  ann.  1374  c.  5  (Hvduin. 
Vn.  1818,  1880).— Hertnan.  Corneri  Clirun.  ana.  1300,  1403  (Eccard.  Corp.  HUL 
Hed.  .£Ti  11.006, 1185]. 

Iliave  already  referred  (Vol.  IL  pi.  420)  to  the  pcrsMiilian  at  Progoe,  in  1815,  of 
MMDe  beretics  ^boni  Dubravius  qualifies  an  Dolcinitilx,  but  wtio  probtltlj  were 
Waldensca  nnd  Liidfcnns. 


not  sulllcientiy  purified  in  this  life  undergo  puliation  until 
adfflitUMl  U*  heaven.* 

We  first  hear  of  these  sectaries  as  appearing  among  the  Fran- 
of  Assisi,  where,  under  active  proceedings,  seren  of  the 
fnan  oonfeesed,  abjurud,  and  were  sentenced  to  [)er[)etua]  prison. 
When,  in  130G,  Clemont  V.  sought  to  settle  the  points  in  dispute 
between  the  Spirituals  and  ConventoaU,  the  first  of  the  foor  pre- 
liminary questions  which  he  pnt  to  the  contending  factions  reUited 
to  the  connection  bctwoen  the  Order  and  this  heresy,  of  which 
bc»tb  sides  promptly  sought  to  clear  themselves.    The  next  refer- 
ence to  them  is  in  April,  1311,  when  they  were  said  to  be  multi- 
plying ntpidly  iu  SiHjh'tu,  among  b<:ith  eccleaiastice  and  laymen* 
and  Clement  sent  thither  Ituimundo,  Bishop  of  Cremona,  to  stamp 
out  the  new  heresy.    The  effort  wan  unavailing,  for  in  1337,  at 
Florenoe,  Donna  l^pina.  belonging  Ut  the  sect  "  of  the  Spirit " 
whose  members  believed  themselves  impeccable,  was  condemned 
by  Fri  Accursio,  the  inquisitor,  to  confiscation  and  wearing  crosses ; 
and  in  132B  Kri  UartoUno  da  I'enigia,  in  announcing  a  general  in- 
qnuition  to  Iw  made  of  the  province  of  Assisi,  (inumcratea  the  new 
hocay  of  the  Spirit  of  Ubci-ty  among  those  which  he  proposes  to 
suppress.    More  important  was  the  case  of  Domenico  Savi  of  As- 
ooU.who  was  regardeti  as  a  man  of  the  most  exemplary  piety.   In 
1<137  be  abandoned  wife  and  children  for  a  hermit's  life,  and  the 
bishop  built  for  him  a  cell  and  oratory.  This  gave  him  still  greater 
repute,  and  his  influence  was  such  that  when  he  began  to  dissemi- 
late  the  doctnno»  of  the  Spirit  of  Lihi^rty,  which  he  undertook  by 
Toeans  of  circulating  written  tracts,  the  number  of  his  followers  is 
Kckoned  at  ten  thousand.     It  was  not  long  before  this  attracted 
tbft  attention  of  the  IiKjiiisition.    He  was  tried,  and  recanted,  while 
fcis  writings  were  onlorwl  to  lie  burned.     His  cf»nvictions,  how- 
ever, w«%  too  strong  Co  allow  him  to  remain  orthodox.    He  re- 
bpced,  was  tried  a  second  time,  appealed  to  the  pope,  and  was 
finally  condemned  by  the  Holy  See  in  1344,  when  he  was  handed 
tffcr  lo  the  secular  arm  and  burned  at  ^Vscoli.    As  nothing  is  said 

*  US.  ffibl.  Caaanat^Die  A.  tv.  40. — I  owe  the  commanicatjon  of  tliU  docu- 
(DCBl  to  tbe  kiadDGw  of  &I.  Cbarin  Molinier.     See  also  Amati,  Arohmo  tttorico 

itdiuo,  So.  sa,  p.  U. 

Tm  tlia  coonceliua  botwvcii  t)ic«e  beretica  and  tb«  DolcinUtii,  compAn  Ax- 

tbtifiif  Ut,-  u.  EircliiMigcscbklitc,  1B80,  p.  131,  with  1887,  pp.  tSS-l. 


126 

about  the  fate  of  his  disciples  it  may  be  afsmned  that  they  escaped 
by  abjumtioii.  lie  is  usually  rhissed  with  ibe  FraticeUi,  but  the 
errors  attributed  to  him  bcnr  no  rcsemblanco  to  tliose  of  that  sect, 
aad  are  evidently  exaggerations  of  the  doctriaes  of  the  Spirit  of 
Liberty.* 


Before  dismissing  the  career  of  Dolcino,  it  may  be  worth  while 
to  cast  a  passing  glanoe  at  tliat  of  a  modem  prophet  which,  lika 
the  casus  of  the  modern  (j  ugUeUoites,  teaches  us  that  such  spintuaJ 
pheooroena  are  common  to  all  ages,  and  that  even  in  our  colder 
and  mure  rationalistic  time  the  mysteries  of  hmuau  nature  are  the 
same  aa  in  the  thirteenth  century. 

Dolcino  mefoLy  organiEod  a  movement  whicli  had  lieen  in  prog> 
rets  for  nearly  half  a  century,  and  which  was  the  expression  of 
a  widely  diifuaotl  sentiment.  David  Lozzuretti  of  Arcidoaso  was 
both  founder  and  martyr.  A  wagoner  in  the  mountains  of  south- 
ern Tuscany,  his  lierculean  strength  and  ready  speech  made  him 
widely  known  throughout  bis  native  region,  when  a  somewhat 
wild  aJid  dissipated  youth  wan  suddenly  converted  into  an  asoetio 
of  the  severest  type,  dwelling  in  a  hermitage  on  Monte  Labbro,  and 
lu>&ored  with  revelations  from  God.  Hia  austerities,  his  Tisiont, 
and  his  prophecies  soon  brought  him  disciples,  many  of  whom 
adopted  his  mode  of  tife,  and  the  peasants  of  Arcidosso  revered 
him  M  a  prophet.  He  claimed  that,  m  early  as  1S48.  he  had  been 
called  to  the  task  of  regenerating  the  world,  and  that  his  sudden 
conversion  was  caused  by  a  vision  of  St.  Feter,  who  imprinteti  on 
his  forehead  a  mark  (0  +  C)  in  attestation  of  hia  mission.  He 
was  by  no  means  consistent  in  his  successive  stages  of  develop- 
ment. A  patriot  volunteer  in  1800,  he  subsequently  upheld  the 
cause  of  the  Church  against  the  oiwaultR  of  heretic  Germany,  but 
in  1876  hia  book, "  My  Struggle  with  God."  reveals  his  aspirations 
towards  the  headship  of  a  now  faith,  and  dcscribos  hiui  as  carrieii 
to  hcavnn  and  discoursing  with  God,  though  he  still  pniftased 
himself  faithful  to  Rome  and  to  the  papacy.  The  Church  dis- 
daiucd  his  aid  and  condemned  his  errors,  and  he  became  a  heresi* 


*  Arcliiv  tHr  Litt.-  u.  KirchengeiichiRhte,  lfj87,  pp.  EJl,  144-6. — Baynalti.  toa. 
I8I1.  No. 68-70;  uiiii.  1318.  No.44.— Arcliir.iU  Fin-nw.  Prov,8.Mari»Nowell», 
laST,  Ott.  81.— Pnnii  £lirl«,  Arcbir  fUr  Lit.-  u.  KirclifiigtMcliicbtc,  IMS,  p.  160. 
— D'Argentrfi  I.  L  38«-7.— CAittQ,  Erctici  dltulin.  L  Hi. 


ttrh.    In  the  spring  of  1S7(*  hu  nricjed  tho  ft#loptii>ii  of  ai«niot*l 

maiTiagB,  he  djsregnrded  fast-da\-8,  administered  comniuaion  to  hil 

dtBcrplM  in  a  rito  of  his  o^vn,  and  composed  fnr  them  a  creed  of 

which  the  twenty-fourth  articLu  \vaa, "  I  believe  that  oor  fomdoTf 

Dftvid  lAzaretti,  the  anfiinted  of  tho  Lord,  Jad|^  and  condemiied 

by  the  Koinaa  curiii,  is  really  Christ,  the  leader  and  the  judgvi** 

That  the  people  accepted  him  is  seen  in  the  fact  that  for  three 

■aoceauve  fiandays  iho  priest  of  Arcidnsso  found  his  church  with* 

oot  a  wopahipiwr.    David  founded  a  '*  Society  of  the  lloly  League, 

or  Christian  IJi-oIhorhood."  and  procUiimed  the  coining  Republic 

or  Kingdom  of  <iod,  when  all  property  Rhoiild  be  equally  divided. 

Even  this  comrannism  did  not  frighten  off  the  small  proprietors 

who  eonstitulwi  the  greater  portion  of  his  following.    There  was 

general  discontent,  owing  to  a  succession  of  unfortunate  harvcats 

ftod  the  increasing  pressure  of  taxation,  and  when,  on  August  14, 

1878,  he  announced  that  be  would  set  out  with  his  diseiples  peace- 

fullr  to  inangnrate  hi»  thcocratio  republic,  the  whole  population 

gathered  on  Monte  I-abbro.     After  four  days  spent  in  religiotu 

exercises  the  extraordinary  crusa^le  set  forth,  consisting  of  all  ages 

&n<l  both  aexes,  arrayed  in  a  fantastic  uniform  of  red  and  blue, 

and  bearing  banners  and  garlands  of  flowers  with  which  to  revoln- 

liomxe  society.    Its  triumphal  march  was  short.     At  tlio  village 

of  ArotdaeBo  its  progress  was  dis]mte<I  by  a  squud  of  nine  cura- 

binee3fi,vho  pouiw!  vnlleyB  into  tlie  defonceless  crowd.    Thirty- 

fonr  of  the  Ijuzarettists  fell,  killed  and  wounded,  and  among  them 

Da«d  himself,  with  a  bullet  in  his  brain.*    Whether  he  was  ea- 

thiwast  or  impostor  may  remain  an  open  question.    Travel  and 

stody  had  brought  him  training;  he  was  no  longer  a  rude  moun- 


*  Buodlotti,  David  Lozzaiftti  di  Arcido«so  detto  il  Sanlo.    Botogna,1885. 

fiMMwhat  elmibir  ia  thu  career  of  an  cx-Bcrgeant  of  tbc  ItaliAn  nrnj  nftm«d 

^•liriele Donoict,  wlio  liaa  fuunJcd  in  Itie  Calabriin  litgbl»iida  a  sect  dignifjiog 

iWr«itli  the  title  of  Lhv  Sninls.    Qaliricle  is  a  prophet  announcing  the  adveot 

of  I  H«  Meidkh,who  U  to  cotne  not  iis  n  lamb,  but  u  a  Hun  breathing  ren- 

fCrttn  tnd  uiDed  with  bliKidj  acoun^a.     ]I«  »ik1  hht  hmtlicr  AWk  wore  tried 

hrthemnrdcr  of  the  wife  of  the  liitl«r,  Giwia  Fwiiaro,  who  rrfuavd  to  aubmit  to 

tht  Rxnal  abaauiiatiuiis  taught  in  the  sect.    The;  were  condi'uined  to  hard  labor 

nd  imprlioninent,  but  wei*  discharged  on  appeal  to  the  Superior  Court  of  Co- 

MKa,  Other  mladeeds  of  the  sectariua  arc  ut  pre«t'nt  occupying  the  attention  of 

iht  [talian  trii>UD»lB. — Riyiata  Criatiana,  1B87,  p.  57. 


128  GUOLIELMA   AND  DOLCINO. 

tiun  peasant,  bat  oonid  estimate  the  social  forces  against  which  he 
raised  the  standard  of  revolt,  and  could  recognize  that  they  were 
insuperable  save  to  an  envoy  of  God.  Possibly  on  the  slopes  of 
Uonte  Amiata  his  memory  may  linger  like  that  of  Dolcino  in  the 
Yalseeia ;  certain  it  is  that  many  of  his  disciples  long  expected  his 
reenrreotion. 


lPter  nr 


THE    FRATICKLLL 

Wx  have  seen  hoiv  John  XXII.  created  and  cxtcrminatnd  the 

fceresy  of  the  Spiritual  Franciscans,  and  how  Michclo  da  Ccscna 

enforced  obedieuc*  within  the  Ortler  aa  to  tbo  quoation  of  gran- 

ihee  and  cellars  and  the  wearing  of  short  ami  narrow  gowns. 

The  settlement  of  the,  question,  however,  on  so  illo<^ical  a  basis  as 

this  was  impossible,  especially  in  view  of  the  restless  tlieological 

dogmatism  uf  the  ]M)pcandhis  inflexibliuleterminatiuD  to  crush  all 

dissidenoe  of  opinion.    Having  once  undertaken  to  ailenoe  the  dis- 

eoMions  over  the  rule  of  poverty  which  had  caused  so  much  trouble 

for  nearly  a  century,  his  logical  intellect  led  Uiui  to  ciutv  to  their 

Legitimate  conclusions  the  principles  involved  in  his  bulls  Quonini- 

daiA^  Sancta  Homana,  and  Gloriomm  ICccUttmm,  while  his  thorrmgh 

irorldliness  rendwed  him  incapable  of  anticipating  the  storm 

wbiofa  ho  would  provoke.     A  character  such  as  his  was  unable  to 

comprehend  tlie  honest  inconsistency  of  men  like  Michele  and 

L^onagrazia,  who  could  bum  thoir  brethren  for  refusing  to  have 

P^vuuries  and  c«;llar^  and  who,  at  the  same  time^  were  j-uiuly  to 

endure  the  stake  in  vindication  of  the  al^soluto  ]Jovcrty  of  Christ 

and  the  apostles,  which  had  so  long  been  a  fundamental  belief  of 

th«  Order,  and  had  beou  proclaiin«l  as  in-efragable  truth  in  the 

boU  Eiiit  qui  aeminat. 

In  fact,  under  a  pope  of  the  temperament  of  John,  the  ortho- 
dox Franciscans  had  a  narrow  and  dangerous  ]>ath  to  tread.  The  \ 
Spirituals  were  burned  as  heretics  because  they  insisted  on  follow- 
niff  their  own  conception  of  the  Ride  of  Francis,  and  the  distinc- 
tion between  this  and  the  oflicial  recognition  of  the  obligation  of 
pOTerty  was  sliadowy  in  the  extr-emo.  The  Dominicans  were  not 
■lov  to  recognize  the  dubious  position  of  their  rivals,  nor  averse 
to  take  advantage  of  it.  If  they  could  bring  the  received  doc- 
tlina  of  the  Franciscan  Order  within  the  definition  of  the  new 

ni.— 9 


130 


THE   FRATICELLI. 


( 


hereffy  they  would  win  a  triumph  that  might  prove  permanent. 
The  situation  was  so  artiticial  and  so  untenable  that  a  catastrophe 
was  inevitable,  aud  it  might  ho  preoipitatt-d  by  tiie  veriest  trilla 

In  1321,  when  the  persecution  of  the  Spirituals  was  at  its 
height,  the  Dominican  inquisitor,  Jean  de  Beaune,  whom  we  liave 
Been  as  the  cotleaguo  of  lkmar<i  Gui  and  the  jailor  of  Bernard 
D^lieicax,  was  cngagfxl  at  NarlKinno  in  the  trial  of  one  of  the  pro- 
8Ci*ibed  sect.  To  pass  judgment  ho  summoned  an  assembly  of  ex- 
perts, among  whom  was  the  Franciscan  licrenger  Talon,  teacher 
in  the  couviint  of  NarIw>nnQ  One  of  the  errors  which  ho  repre- 
sentofl  the  culprit  as  entertaining  was  that  C'hristand  thoaixistlos, 
following  the  way  of  jierfection.  liad  held  no  (KMBettions,  individu- 
ally or  in  common.  As  this  was  the  univorMU  Pranciacan  doctrine, 
wo  can  only  n^rd  it  as  a  challenge  when  he  summoned  Frcre 
Borongor  to  give  bis  opinion  rcs]>©cting  it.  Berenger  thereupon 
replied  that  it  was  not  horetical,  having  hi^en  definetl  as  orthodox 
in  the  decretal  Kptit,  when  the  inquisitor  hotly  demanded  that  he 
should  recant  on  the  spot.  The  poeition  was  critical,  and  Beren- 
ger, to  save  himself  from  prosecution.  interJLi-ted  an  apiteol  to  the 
pope.  Ho  hastened  to  Avignon,  but  found  that  Jean  de  Beaune 
had  been  before  him.  lie  wa.i  arrested  ;  the  Dominicans  every. 
where  took  up  the  question,  and  tlie  pope  allowed  it  to  be  clearly 
seen  timt  his  sympathieR  wiire  with  them.  Yet  the  subject  wa«  a 
dangerous  one  EordiajMitiints.  as  the  bull  Emit  had  aiiathematizod 
all  who  should  attempt  to  gloss  or  discuss  its  decisions ;  and.  as  a 
preliminary  to  reopening  the  tjuestion.  John  was  obliged,  March 
&6,  1333,  to  issue  a  special  bull,  Quia  nfmnmujvam,  wherein  he 
suKpendt'd,  during  his  pleasure,  the  ct-usures  pronounced  in  BpiU 
qm  seminiU.  Having  thus  intimated  that  tho  (liuroh  had  erred 
in  its  former  definition,  ho  procccilcnl  to  lay  before  his  prelates 
and  doctors  the  signiticant  question  whether  the  pertinacions  as- 
sertion that  Christ  and  the  apostles  possessed  nothing  individually 
or  in  common  was  a  heresy.* 

The  extravagances  of  the  Spirituals  had  home  their  fruit,  and 
there  was  a  reaotton  against  the  absiu^  laudation  of  poverty  which 
had  grown  to  be  a  fetich.    Tiiis  bore  haitl  on  those  who  had  been 


"  Nicbolftus  Hinnritfl  [Bfthix    rt  Mmiiti   IH.  907). — Chron.  Oliuntbcrgfr  aoD. 
1S31.— Wadding,  ua,  1321,  No.  Ift-lO;  hud.  1383,  No.  4»-ai>. 


REACTIOX   A0AIX3T   DOCTRINE   OV  POVEHTr.    181 


■ 


coQiscientiumly  iraineJ  in  the  belief  that  the  abnegution  of  pro]>- 
otf  was  thi<  surest  {Kitli  tti  s:iU'iLtion  ;  but  the  futhes  of  the  aBoetics 
\ai  becoTi]!^  uncoinfotijililo,  if  not  (hiiif^miis,  and  it  was  neoessarv 
tot  the  Chiirch  to  go  b«:bind  its  teachings  sinco  tlie  <kys  of  Antony 
ud  nihLrion  anil  SiiniK>n  Styliti«.  to  nviir  to  I  he  eonunon-eonse  c»f 
the  ^pol,  and  to  admit  that,  like  the  Sabbalb,  religion  was  mnilo 
tor  man  and  not  man  for  i-eligion.  In  a  work  written  some  ten 
ynis  after  tliis  time,  Alvar  Pelayo,  papal  jx-nitentiary  and  himself 
iFnsciacan,  treats  the  subject  at  nonsidemblu  length,  and  doubt- 
\m  repreaent4)  tlie  views  which  fonnd  fuvnr  with  John.  TI»e 
iBdiorite  should  be  wholly  dead  to  the  world  and  sliould  never 
kam  his  hermitage;  mf-nionible  is  the  abbot  whorefusttl  to  open 
hift  door  to  his  mother  for  fear  his  eye  should  rest  upon  hi>r,  and 
not  less  &o  the  monk  who,  when  his  brother  ii^ketl  him  to  come  a 
litUo  way  and  help  him  with  a  foundered  ox,  replied,"  Why  doet 
tfcou  not  ask  thy  broiher  who  is  3'et  in  the  world  r  "  Hut  he  Iwu 
fen  dead  lhe«e  fifteen  years !"  **  And  I  have  been  dead  to  the 
w«kl  these  twenty  j'eurs !"  Short  of  this  comjilete  renuneiation, 
allmen  should  e«m  their  living  by  honcHt  lalior.  In  spite  of  the 
QIuitTnus  example  of  the  Rliv^plns;  monks  of  IMoa,  tho  ajKtstolic 
ftmmand  "  Pray  without  ceatiing "  (TliessaL  v.  17)  ts  not  to  he 
Wttn  literally.  The  apostles  had  monoy  and  Ixmght  fooil  (John 
n".  8),  and  .ludaa  carrietl  tlic  purse  of  the  Lord  (John  xii.  fi).  Bet- 
ter thim  a  life  of  befj^ary  is  one  blessed  by  honest  labor,  as  a 
""'inehenl,  a  shepherd,  a  cowherd,  a  mason,  a  blaoksiiiith,  or  a 
ctiareool-bumcr,  for  a  man  is  thus  fuinUing  the  pni-jjose  of  lus  cre- 
aliuti.  It  is  a  sin  for  the  able-bo(he<I  to  Hvo  on  charity,  and  thus 
iitnp  the  alms  due  to  the  aick,  the  inQnu,  and  the  aged.  AH  this 
i*  a  lucid  inter\*al  of  oommon-sense,  but  what  would  Aijuinas  or 
fioDaventura  liave  said  to  it,  for  it  sounds  like  the  echo  of  their 
pnt  antagonist.  William  of  8aint- Amour  <* 


'  AUnr.  Pel»g.  dp  Plfinolii  ECfleaiff  Lih.  I.  Art.  81.  fnl  lfiR-J>. 

totiu:!,  the  ftdrocatra  ofpovrrty  diJ  not  misii  ihoiiisy  ojiportunily  of  stigmii- 
'ini^  lh«ir  «nti»Koni«U  tut  fnllowcw  of  William  of  Sfiint-.^moiir.  8pe  Torro, 
"Co  Codice  drlltt  WarcJana,"  Venezia.  18S7,  pp.  12.  3»  (Aioneo  Vencto,  188«- 

T^f  MS.  of  whicb  Professor  Toc«o  has  here  pHnti'J  tlic  mart  impnrtnnt  por- 
•""itiWhli  eludtlfttarr  notes,  isRWilWllmi  oftlicn-'ii'iiises  inadetollie  qoCTlion 
'"liutted  for  iliacua^don  by  John  XXn.  its  to  tbt  parcrt;  of  Christ  and  the 


182 


THE   FRATICELLI. 


It  was  inevitable  thjit  the  replies  to  the  question  submitted  hy 
Jolm  should  bo  mivorse  to  the  poverty  of  Christ  and  the  apostIe& 
The  bishops  were  univei-siilly  assumed  to  be  the  representatives  i»f 
the  latter,  and  could  not  be  expoctcil  to  relish  the  assertion  tliat 
their  prototypes  hml  hern  commandwl  by  (Christ  to  own  no  prop- 
erty. The  Spirituals  had  made  a  point  of  this.  Olivi  had  proved. 
not  only  that  I''rancis<;ans  proraotwl  to  the  episcx>pa.to  were  even 
more  bound  tliim  tlu'lr  hretliren  to  observe  the  Rule  in  lUI  its 
strictures,  but  that  bishoiw  in  genenil  were  under  obligation  to 
live  in  deeper  poverty  than  the  members  of  the  most  perfect  Or- 
der. Now  that  tliere  was  a  chance  of  justifying  their  worhllincss 
and  luxury,  it  was  not  liUely  to  be  kist.  Yet  John  himself  for 
a  while  held  his  own  opinion  sug]>ended.  In  a  debate  before  the 
consistory,  Ulwrtino  da  Casale,  tlio  former  le^ider  of  the  orthodox 
Spirituals,  was  summoned  to  present  the  Franciscan  view  of  the 
poverty  of  (^hrlst,  in  answer  to  the  Dominicans,  and  we  are  told 
that  John  was  greatly  pleased  with  his  argument.  Unluckily,  at 
the  (ionend  Cliapter  held  at  Perugia,  May  '.iu.  ^'^22,  tlie  Knincis- 
cans  appe^iled  to  Christendom  at  large  hy  a  dciinition  addressed  U^- 
hU  the  faithful,  in  which  they  proved  that  the  absolute  |X)verty  o^ 
Christ  was  the  accepted  doctrine  of  the  (,'hurch,  as  set  fortli  in 
the  bulls  Kciit  and  J''xii-i  tie  J*<ira4fliio,a\n\  that  John  himself  had 
approved  of  these  in  his  bull  Quorumdam.  Another  and  more 
comprehensive  utterance  to  the  same  effect  received  the  signatures 
of  all  the  Fi-aiiciseati  nmatora  and  luioheloi's  oFthoologj'  in  Fnince 
and  England.    With  a  disputant  such  as  John  thia  was  an  act  oi 


^ 


apoBtUa.  Tbey  are  Biguiflcaat  of  ihc-  gcncml  (taction  agoinet  tbc  previously  pre. 
vniling  itngmn,  Ami  of  the  Cftgi^rnesn  wUh  which,  as  aoon  as  the  free  «xpraiMoa 
af  n|)inu>n  was  Euift!,  the  prclatca  rcpudiutcd  a  Uuc:triuv  cuudumnntory  of  the  tem- 
ponilities  so  induslrimialy  arciinuiUti.-'l  hj  ■!!  rln^w-a  of  ecclmMtica.  Tticrc 
were  but  eight  rnpltcA  ntllriiihig  tht;  poverty  of  ChriEt,  ami  thcHe  wprv  nil  fVnm 
Franciscana — the  Cardinals  of  Alhanu  nnd  Sun  Vitidc,  the  Archbiehnpaf  Sulvri; 
the  BiKhopt  of  Caffa.  Lialinn,  Ulf^n,  nnd  Badajoz.  nnil  nn  unknown  uiiiat«r  of  i 
Order.  On  the  other  side  there  were  fourteen  cnrdinnls.  including  even  Napolvn 
OTBini.  the  protector  of  the  Spirituals,  and  a  large  number  of  archbithopa, 
bishops,  ahliobi,  and  doctont  of  thcolojiy.  It  is  doubtlera  true,  however,  that  the 
fear  of  oQcndiug  the  po^w  wuk  u  fnt^tor  in  producing  tbisTirtiiAl  uciaitinHty— a 
foariiot  uureiwonahlv.  us  was  shown  hy  the  disgntce  and  versecutlon  uf  tlioee  wlia 
maintained  the  poverty  of  CUrisL — (Tocco,  vi/i  tup.  p.  85). 


^ 


JOHN    XXIL    AROUSBD   TO    AMTAOONISH. 


133 


am  leal  than  discretion.  Ilts  passions  wore  fairly  arouscKt  aod 
bproeeeded  to  troat  tlio  Franciscans  as  antagonists.  In  Uecem- 
I«r  of  the  same  year  lio  iIpjiU  tliom  a  heavy  blow  in  tho  bull  Ad 
aynditoivin,  wherein  with  remorseless  logic  he  poisted  out  the  fal- 
tucy  of  the  device  of  Innocent  IV.  for  isluding  tho  provisions  of 
thfl  Rale  by  vestinf^  the  ownership  of  pro|ierty  in  the  Holy  S(«  and 
ibaae  in  the  FKars.  It  linil  not  made  them  less  eager  in  acrjuisi- 
OftDos,  while  it  had  led  them  to  a  senseless  prido  in  their  own  as- 
Krted  superiority  of  (wvcrty.  He  bIiowimI  tliat  use  and  eonsumif- 
tioii  OS  concoded  to  them  wcro  tantamount  to  ownci^hip,  and  that 
fwtended  oimerahip  subject  to  such  usufmct  was  illusory,  while 
il  was  absurd  to  s]>oak  of  Ilomo  as  owning  tin  e^g  or  a  piece  of 
cfaeese  given  to  a  Mar  to  bo  consumed  on  the  spot.  Moreover,  it 
ns  humiliating  to  the  Itoman  Church  to  appear  as  plaintiff  orde- 
fmUnl  in  the  countless  litigations  in  which  tho  Order  was  in- 
Tolred,  and  the  procnmtors  who  thus  apix-Arod  in  its  name  were 
aaij  to  abuse  their  position  to  the  injury  of  many  who  were  de- 
fmodMl  of  their  rights.  For  these  reasons  he  annulled  the  pro- 
TisiuQg  of  Nicholas  III.,and  dwlarml  that  henceforth  no  owner- 
ship in  the  possessions  of  the  Order  should  inhere  in  the  lionum 
Chnrch  and  no  procurator  act  in  Us  name.* 

The  blow  was  shrewdly  dealt,  for  though  the  question  of  the 
puverty  of  Christ  was  not  allu<[o<l  U\  the  Onlor  was  lieprived  of 
its  subterfuge,  and  was  forced  to  admit  pnictically  that  ownership 
of  property  was  a  necessary  condition  of  its  existence.  Its  mem- 
bets,  however,  had  too  long  nursed  the  deluai<in  to  reeogriizo  its 
Wlacy  now,  and  in  January,  1323,  Eonugnizia,  as  pnx-urator  spc- 
Cttlljf  cummissioned  for  the  purpose,  pn?sented  to  the  pope  in  full 
COBiistory  a  written  protest  a^iinst  his  action.  If  Itonagi-azia 
M  not  arguments  to  adduce  he  had  at  least  ample  precedents  to 
olc  in  the  long  tine  of  |xjpes  since  Gregory  IX.,  including  John 
bnuelt    He  wound  up  by  audaciously  ap[)ealing  to  the  po|>e,  to 


*IVuiz  Ehile,  Arrhiv  fUr  Lilt.-  u.  E.  1887,  pi>.  311-13— UnUizct  Mbqs!  II 
WJO-Nicholuiis  Hinorita  (Tljid.  III.  MS  \^). 

Oariousl;  enougb.in  this  John  did  exnctly  what  bis  «]ieoial  aotagonbts,  tlia 
^iriumJa,tud  dnlred.  Oltri  hail  long  bctbrv  pointed  out  tho  scandal  of  an 
Ontff  vowed  to  poverty  !itig«tiug  Ciigerly  for  jirnperly  umJ  usiiif;  tliu  lnine|ia- 
nai  corer  of  pap«l  procur&tora  <UisL  Tribukt.  up.  Archiv  tUr  Litu-  u.  K.  1886, 
ptW). 


tu 


THE   FIIATICELLI. 


1 


Holy  Mother  Cburoh.  and  tu  tho  aiKWtlos.  and  ihough  he  ooncluded 
by  suhmittinK  himself  In  tho  dooisions  of  the  Church,  he  oould  not 
escape  the  wrath  which  he  !i:»d  prorokwi.  It  waa  not  itany  yeort 
since  Clemxmt  V.  had  confiued  him  fur  resisting^  too  bitterly  the 
extravMgunce  of  the  Siiirituiils:  Iw  still  consisKait ly  occiipird  the 
same  position,  and  now  John  csist  hint  into  a  .'oul  and  disiual  dun- 
geon because  he  ha<l  not  moved  with  the  woHd,  while  the  only 
an!4wer  to  his  pi-otest  was  taking  down  fmm  the  church  doors 
hull  Afi  lY/tnlitoft  m.  and  replacing  it  with  a  rovisod  oditioii,  ni 
decided  and  ai^mucnlative  than  its  prwleceesur.* 

All  thia  did  not  conduce  toa  favorable  decision  of  thequestion 
as  to  the  (wverty  of  ('hrist.  John  was  now  fairly  enlist4;d  against 
the  Franci^-ans,  and  their  enennes  lost  no  opportunity  of  inliaining 
his  passions.  lie  would  listen  to  no  defence  of  the  docision  of  the 
Chapter  o(  I'erugia.  In  conslstoiT  a  Franciscan  cardinal  and  some 
bishops  timidly  ventureil  to  sug-gest  that  possibly  there  might  be 
some  truth  in  it,  wheti  lie  angrily  silenced  tbeni^ — '*  You  are  talking 
heiieay  " — and  foreed  them  to  recant  on  the  spot.  When  he  he-ani 
that  the  greatest  Krancfsrjin  schoolman  of  the  day,  William  of 
Ockttaii),  had  preached  tbat  it  was  heretical  to  aflirni  tliat  Christ 
and  theaiHJslles  owned  property,  he  promptly  wrote  to  the  Hishopa 
of  Bologna  and  Fcrnmi  to  investigate  the  tnith  of  the  report, 
and  if  it  wa«  correct  to  cito  Ockham  to  apiwar  before  him  at 
Avignon  within  a  month.  Ockhamolwyeil,  and  we  shall  horeoftef  j 
see  what  cjime  of  it.^  ^H 

The  papal  decision  on  the  momentous  question  waa  at  last  pnW 
forth,  Noveniber  12.  132:j,  in  the  bull  Cum  inUr  vonnullm.  In 
this  there  was  no  wavering  or  hesitation.  The  assertion  that 
Christ  and  the  a(K)$tle9  posso8se<l  no  projierty  was  flatly  declared 
to  bo  a  poi'vm'sion  of  Scripture ;  it  was  denounced  fur  the  fut- 
ure ns  erroneous  and  heretical,  and  its  obstinate  assertion  by  the 
Franciscan  chapter  was  formally  condemned.  To  the  believers 
in  the  su[»ereminent  holiness  of  poverty,  it  was  stunning  to  (ind 
themselves  cast  out  as  heretics  for  holding  a  doctrine  which  for 
generations  ha  1  passed  as  an  incontrovertible  truth,  and  had  re 
edly  received  the  sanction  of  tlie  Tloly  See  in  its  most  solemn 


■  Nicholsus  Minorita  (Ital.  et  Midu  m.  913-94). 
t  Wa<ldi&g.  Aun.  1323,  No.  3, 15. 


THE    PAPACY    AND    THE    EMPIRE. 


135 


nf  ratificfttion,  Tel  llicre  was  no  btOp  for  it,  ami  unless  they  were 
fnp&rod  to  Bhift  their  U'lief  with  thu  jx)[ie.  thcv  coithl  unty  ez- 
fMt  to  be  delivered  in  Mils  world  to  the  InqtiiRition  nnd  tn  the 
Mxt  to  Satftn.* 

Suddenly  there  nppeared  a  now  fnctor  in  the  quarrel,  \Thich 
speedily  gave  it  ini|«>rtjinp*'  an  a  pohticftl  question  of  the  first  map- 
iiitnde.  The  wmpitomal  antagviTiiBm  V»*'t»"ecn  the  papocy  ami  the 
erapLre  had  been  nxiently  lutfiuminj;  a  more  virulent  Aspect  than 
Qsmd  ninler  the  ini|)eriuii»  niiina^niont  (>r  John  XXH.  Hi-nry 
VII.  had  di«l  in  IHI.I,  and  in  October,  1314,  there  hnd  lie<*n  a  diB- 
pQtetl  election.  Louis  of  Bavaria  and  Frederio  of  Austria  both 
claiinod  the  kiua^rflhiji.  Since  I>eo  TTT,,  in  the  year  HOD.  hnil  ro- 
nfired  the  line  of  Tioman  emperors  by  crowning  Charlomnfpno, 
tbe  minigtration  of  the  pope  in  an  iiu|>enal  coronation  had  been 
halt)  essential,  and  had  gr.uliially  enableil  the  Holy  Kee  to  put 
fonrard  nndelined  claims  of  a  right  l*j  confirm  the  vote  of  iho 
German  eleot^jrs.  For  the  enforcement  of  such  claims  a  disputed 
elwtioogave  abandaut  opprtrtunity,  nor  were  titere  lacking  other 
elements  to  complicate  the  position.  The  Ango^-ino  papnlist  King 
uf  Xtiples,  Roljert  the  Good,  had  dreams  of  fimnding  a  great  Ital- 
iiui  (Jnelf  monarchy,  to  which  John  XXII.  lent  a  not  unfavorable 
ear;  especially  as  his  quui-rul  with  the  (rhibelUne  Visconti  of  Loin- 
banly  was  l>ecoTning  iinaii[)eftaablo.  The  trmiitional  enmity  be- 
tween France  and  Oemmny,  moreover,  renderwl  the  former  eager 
inflverything  that  could  cripple  the  empire,  and  Fi-enoli  inlluenca 
vu  necessarily  dominant  in  Avignon.  It  would  be  foreign  to  our 
purpose  to  penetrate  into  the  labyrinth  of  diplomatic  intrigue 
which  speedily  formed  itself  around  these  momentous  questions. 
Ao  alliance  Itetween  Ilobert  and  Frederic,  with  the  assent  uf  the 
pope,  seeme*]  to  give  the  latter  assurance  of  recognition,  when 
the  battle  of  Miihldorf.  September  38,  1323.  decided  the  question. 
I''wI«Mic  was  a  ]n'isoner  in  the  hands  of  his  rival,  and  there  could 
bo  no  further  doubt  ns  to  which  of  them  should  reign  in  (Jennany. 
It  dill  not  follow,  however,  that  John  would  consent  to  place  the 
lopwia!  crown  on  the  head  of  Louis-f 

*  NkhoUus  Mlaorita  (Ba,\.  ct  Mau&L  HI.  334). 

*  Ciri  Miillfr,  Tier  Kampf  Lmiwig*  tir*  Biiiem  mil  der  rOmisclw^  ChHp.  ^  4. 
-PcIIct.  T>ie  Bullc  A>  pretgreat.  Trier.  1885.— Pn^r,  Die  Polilik  dee  Pabsten 
Johann  XXII.,  MfiBchi-n,  1885,  pp.  4*-0. 


136 


THB  FRATICBLLL 


So  far  was  he  from  contemplating  any  sttch  action  that  he  still 
insisted  on  deciding  between  the  claims  of  the  oorapetitors.    Louis 
conteii)[>tuousl_v  loft  his  jii-e tensions  unansworcNl  and  proceetlwl  to 
acttlo  raattcre  hy  oonchiding  a  treaty  with  his  prisoner  and  sotting 
liim  free.     Morco\'cr,  he  intervened  effectually  in  the  affairs  of 
Lombardy,  rescued  the  Visconti  from  the  (iuelf  league  which  was 
about  to  overwhehu  Iheni,  and  ruined  the  plans  of  the  cardinal 
legate,  Bcrtmnd  de  I'oyet,  Johu*s  nephew  or  son,  who  was  carv- 
ing  out  a  principality  for  himself.    It  would  have  re<|uire<l  i&a 
than  this  to  awaken  the  implacable  liostitlty  of  such  a  man  as 
John,  whoso  only  hope  for  the  success  of  his  Italian  policy  now 
lay  in  dethroning  Louis  and  replacing  him  with  the  French  king, 
(.'harles  lo  liel.     llo  rushud  precijiitiitiily  to  the  cunfUct  and  pro- 
claimed no  quarter.    Octoljer  8,  1333,  in  tlie  presence  of  a  vast 
multitude,  a  buU  was  road  and  affixed  to  the  portal  of  the  cathe- 
dral uf  Avigtiou,  which  declared  not  only  that  no  one  could  act  as 
King  of  the  Komnns  until  his  person  had  been  approved  by  ihe 
pope,  but  repeated  a  claim,  already  made  in  13 1 7,  that  until  such 
approval  the  empire  was  vacant,  anil  its  government  during  the 
interregnum  belonged  to  tlio  Holy  See.     All  of  l^uis's  acts  wore 
pronounced  null  and  void  ;  he  was  sumiuoncfl  within  three  months 
to  lay  down  his  power  and  submit  his  person  lo  the  jxipe  for  ap* 
pruvul,  under  pnia  of  the  punishments  which  he  had  incurred  by 
his  robollious  pretence  of  l«ing  emperor;  all  oaths  of  allegiance 
taken  t<Khim  were  declared  annulled ;  all  prelates  were  threat- 
ened with  sus|)ension,  and  all  cities  and  states  with  excommuui- 
catiun  and  intenhot  If  they  should  continue  to  olrey  him.    Tx>ui8 
at  first  received  this  portentous  missive  with  singular  humility. 
November  12  he  sent  to  Avignon  envoi's,  who  did  not  airive  until 
January  2,  1<(24,  Cu  ask  whether  tlie  repoKs  which  he  luul  hoard 
of  the  papal  action  were  true,  and  if  so  to  request  a  delay  of  six 
months  in  which  to  prove  his  innocence.    To  this  Jolm.  on  Janu- 
ary 7,  gave  answer  extending  the  term  only  two  months  from  that 
day.    Meanwhile  Louis  had  taken  heart,  ptKsibly  encouraged  by 
the  outbreak  of  the  quarrel  between  John  and  the  Franciscans, 
for  the  date  of  the  cre<lentials  of  the  envoys.  November  12,  was 
the  same  as  that  of  the  bull  Cum  inter  nonnvUm.     On  December 
18,  ho  issued  the  Nuremberg  Protest,  a  spirited  vindication  of  tho 
^U  of  the  German  nation  and  empire  against  the  new  preten- 


the  papacy ;  he  demanded  the  assembling  of  *  general 
flMDJCQ  before  which  he  woalil  make  good  his  claims;  it  was  his 
iaty,as  the  head  of  the  tmpiru,  I'D  miiintjiin  tlie  purity  of  the 
f&iih  agnjnst  a  popo  who  was  n.  fatitor  of  heretics.  It  ghon's  hotr 
littlt'  he  yot  underelriod  aljout  the  qii«stions  at  issue  that  to  siis- 
Uu  Lhia  last  cliarga  ho  aocusetl  JuLu  of  unduly  prul4?t;tin^  the 
hwKttc&iu  against  universal  contpUints  that  they  habitually  vio 
bted  the  secrecy  of  the  confessional,  this  being  ap])arently  his 
fomon  of  tho  pa|)al  oondomnation  of  John  of  Foilly's  thesis  that 
oonfeanon  to  a  Mendicant  friar  was  insufHciunt.* 

If  Loais  at  first  thought  to  gain  strength  by  thos  utilizing  the 
jealousy  and  dislike  felt  by  tlie  secuhir  clergy  towanls  the  Men- 
dicants, be  soon  i-ealized  tliat  a  surer  source  of  support  vviis  io  be 
foaod  in  espousing  the  side  of  the  Franciscans  in  the  quarrel  forced 
tipoQ  them  by  John.  The  two  uioiillis'  delay  gmntcd  by  John  ex- 
pireii  March  7  without  t/iuis  making  an  nppcaranco.  and  on  March 
25  the  pope  promulgated  against  him  a  sentence  of  excommunica^ 
lion.vrith  a  threat  that  he  should  be  deprived  of  all  rights  if  he 
did  not  submit  within  tbn«  months.  To  this  Umls  speedily  re- 
joined ui  a  document  known  as  the  rroteslofSachsenliausen,  which 
•hours  that  since  December  be  had  put  himself  in  communication 
with  Uie  UisafTectetl  Franciscans,  had  entered  into  alliance  with 
tbeiiuand  hod  recognize<l  liow  great  was  the  advantage  of  posing 
IS  tite  defender  of  the  faith  and  a.s<iailing  the  popo  with  the  chai^ 
of  heresy.  After  paying  due  attention  to  John's  assaults  on  the 
rights  of  the  empire,  tho  Protest  takes  up  the  question  of  liis 
recent  bulls  resjicicting  poverty  and  argues  them  in  much  detail. 
John  had  declared  before  Franciscans  of  high  standing  that  for 
forty  years  he  had  reganlcd  the  Kulu  of  Francis  as  fantastic  and 
inposaible.  As  the  Rule  was  revealed  by  Christ,  this  alone  provi's 
Itim  to  be  a  heretic.  Horftovor,  as  the  Church  is  infallible  in  ita 
ilriinitions  of  faith,  and  as  it  has  ittpeatodly.  through  Honorius 
ffl-,  Innocent  IV.,  Alexander  IV.,  Innocent  V.,  Nicholas  III.,  and 
NiclK^  IV.,  pronounced  in  favor  of  the  poverty  of  Christ  and  the 
apostles,  John's  condemnation  of  this  tenet  abundantly  shows  hijii 


*  Cvl  XBIIer.  op.  ctt,  %  5.— Pn-f^r,  Pulitik  H«k  P&hstcs  Jolinnn  XX7I.  (Mfin- 
cbn,  I88S,  pp.  7,  S4).>-Martene  Tlieaaur,  II.  044-51. —Rayn&ld.  urn.  1333, 


138 


THE  PBATICBLLl 


to  be  ft  heretic.    Uia  two  conslitutiona.  Ad  flondiiorem  uaA  Omm. 

inter  nonn  nllm,  therefftre.  have  cat  him  off  from  the  Cliarcb  as  a 
numtfest  heretic  t<:aching  a  ooodemneO  heresr.  and  bsTs  ■*«'**'*t* 
him  (rom  tiie  papacy :  all  of  which  Loais  swore  to  prore  befoca  a 
general  council  to  be  oiHcmblal  in  sttxn^  plftcc  of  safety.* 

John  proceeded  with  liis  proeecuiiuu  uf  Loots  by  a  farther  dafr 
laration,  issued  July  11,  in  which,  without  deigning  to  notioe  tbe 
Protest  of  HachsenbauBen,  he  pronotmced  Louis  to  hate  forfeilal 
by  his  contamacy  all  claim  to  the  empire :  further  obstinacy'  woaU 
deprive  him  of  his  ancestral  duke<lom  of  Bavaria  and  other  poe- 
seesioDS,  and  he  was  summoned  tu  appear  October  1,  to  receive 
final  sent«nce.  Vet  John  could  oot  leave  unanswered  tbe  aanab 
upon  hid  doctrinal  potution,  and  on  November  10  he  issued  the  bdl 
Quia  (jiwramiUijn,  in  which  he  ar^ied  that  he  had  cxeroiaed  no 
undue  power  in  oontradictin^  the  decisions  of  his  prcdecomrs :  he 
declared  it  a  condemned  heresy  to  assert  that  Christ  and  the  apos- 
tles had  only  simple  usufruct,  \nthout  legal  possession,  in  the 
things  which  Scripture  decbred  them  to  have  possessed,  for  if  this 
were  true  it  would  follow  rlmt  Christ  was  unjust,  which  ta  blas- 
phemy. All  who  utter,  write,  or  teach  such  duotrineti  fall  into 
condemned  heresy,  and  are  to  bo  avoided  as  heretica-f 

Thus  the  poverty  of  Christ  was  fairly  launched  upon  the  world 
as  a  Kuropeau  question.  It  is  a  significant  illustration  of  the  intel- 
lectual condition  of  tbe  fourteenth  century  that  in  the  subsequent 

*  UartcDeTheMur.  11.  S5S-9.— Nicfa.  Uinorita  (Bal.  «t  Mutai  flT.  S34--aS). 

Tb«  dite  of  tbe  Protaat  of  Sochwiibftuwo  iv  not  poitttvoly  kDovro,  bnt  it  vas 
probabl;  Uuied  in  April  or  May,  1324  (MQIIcr.op.  cit.  I.  3^7-8).  \t»  tuthorvlifp 
is  aKfilwd  by  Prcgi^r  to  Fntix  von  LAutom,  ani.1  Khrle  hu  tihown  tlitt  much  of 
tis  irgtimcnUtion  Is  copieJ  literally  from  the  irritingt  of  OUvt  (ArchW  fOr  Liir.- 
<a.  KirebcnRencliichtc,  1887, 540).  Whm  tliere  were  nffj^otiatifins  for  A  Mtttemmt 
In  1386,  Loaia  n^cd  a  dvclwation  prepared  by  Benedict  XII.,  ia  nliicb  he  wu 
made  to  any  that  the  pnrtiona  concerning  the  ]ior«rty  of  Christ  vrere  iDM-rteil 
withont  h\*  knowledge  by  bis  nuUiry,  Ulric  tier  Wildu  fur  cbe  |>urpuK  of  itijur- 
ing  liipl  (Raynald  aan.  VA'id,  Ko.  SI-€);  but  he  accduipinnied  tlita  self-ubtutiDg 
atAUiiient  wicb  secret  inatructinuB  ofa  very  diderent  cbaracter  (Preger,  Eircfaen* 
politiflcbc  Kftmpf.  p.  13). 

t  Marteny  Tiiosimr  II.  6fl0-71.— Nlch.  Minnrlta  (Bal.  ct  Mansi  HI,  288-6). 

Kvea  in  far-off  Iralaild  tba  bull  of  Jaly  11,  depriving  Louie  of  the  empire,  was 
read  in  all  tba  churches  in  English  ood  Irish. — 'rtivini-T,  Uonument.  Hibem.  ct 
Bootor.  No.  456,  p.  aaO. 


UAU&IQT.IO   OP    PADDA. 


130 


^of  the  qa-invl  botveen  the  pajKicy  and  the  empire,  invoW* 
'■  most  momfintous  principlos  of  public  law.  those  principles, 
„.  :..d  nuLnifeaUHti  nf  cither  side.  iLsgumc  cpiito  a  sulwrdiniito  posi- 
6atL  Th<?  8hrer-'  I  and  able  men  who  conducted  the  controversy 
iiridentty  folt  that  pubHc  opinion  was  much  tnoro  readily  infla- 
and  by  accusatiunH  of  ht^resy,  eren  upun  a  point  bo  trivial  and 
anmbstantinl.  ctmn  by  iippoals  to  reason  upon  the  conflicting  juris- 
ifictiotts  of  Gtiurch  and  .St3,tQ.*  Tet,  as  the  quarrel  widened  and 
dMpenoil.  and  a^  tlio  8tron;^er  intellects  antagonistic  to  pajwl  {ire- 
loi^ons  ^tlinr»t  arouml  Ixiuis,  they  wore  able,  in  unwonted  hb- 
(fty  of  thought  and  speech,  to  investigate  the  theory  of  govem- 
ment  and  the  elninis  of  tho  papacy  with  unhnard-of  bohlness. 
17iqi)f«tionahIv  they  aided  Louis  in  his  struggle,  but  the  spirit  of 
the  .igi;  was  ngainjit  them.  Spiriloal  authority  was  still  too  aw- 
AU  for  suocessful  rebellion,  and  when  U}uis  pa&sed  away  affairs 
ratumpd  to  tho  old  routine,  and  the  labors  of  the  men  who  had 
irJM(t«l  his  iMiitle  in  the  hope  of  elevating  humanity  disappeared, 
baving  but  a  doubtful  trace  upon  the  modes  of  thought  of  the 
tim& 

The  most  audacious  of  these  champions  was  Marsiglio  of  Padua. 
Interpenetrated  with  the  principles  of  the  imperial  jurisprudonco, 
io  which  the  State  was  supremo  and  tlie  Church  wholly  subordi- 
nalwl,  he  had  seen  in  Franco  how  the  influence  of  the  Roman  law 
was  (Mnoncipating  the  civil  i¥)wer  from  servitude,  and  perhajw  in 
the  rniversity  of  Paris  hail  hoard  the  echoes  of  the  theories  of 
^taay  of  C-rhcnt.  tho  crlehnUtjiI  T)octor  Solemnis,  who  had  taught 
the  sovt-rcignty  of  the  people  over  their  princes,  lie  framed  a 
«Wcvption  of  a  political  organi73.tion  which  should  reproduce  that 
t>I  Rome  under  ihe  Christian  cmiwrors,  with  n  recognition  of  the 
pwple  as  the  ultimate  source  of  all  civil  authority.  Aided  by  Joan 
■h)  Jaadun  be  developed  these  ideas  with  great  liardifaood  and 
lifill  in  his  •^Defnixor  Pacis^'*  and  in  1326,  when  the  strife  Iw 
iwsen  John  and  T^nis  was  at  its  hott.est,  tho  two  authore  left 
I^oi«  to  lay  tho  result  of  their  lalx»rs  tjeforo  the  emperor.  In  a 
Ijrief  tract,  moreover,  ^ Pe  iransfatunu;  imperii"  Mareiglio  subse- 

'  Bm  th«  documenU  in  tbs  SM^ond  pmMcutioa  of  Louis  bj  Jnhn,  whore  th« 
MQtutlotiB  ngauiBl  liini  cuniilmitlv  commence  with  liia  p«rtinacioQs  hereoy  in 
mfttalniiig  lh«  cnndcnincil  itoctnnr  <>r  Dir-  pi>v«rlf  of  Christ — AlftTtcne  Tbesaut 
Il>  9H  tqq.    Cf.  Guill.  Nsngiac.  Cunttn.  uu.  18A& 


THB  PnATTCgnLL 

litei  tltat  hccairied  nn  tho  war;  merciletu ^rei«  hlsassaulta  on  the 
eiTors  and  inconsistencies  of  Jobn  XXII.,  who  was  pi-ovwl  guilty 
of  sovenly  siwcific  heresies.  Thus  to  the  bitter  end  his  dauntless 
spirit  kt>pt  up  thn  fsirife;  one  by  one  his  cnlloi^rs  diml  and  sub- 
mitted, and  he  was  left  alone,  but  he  continued  to  shower  ridicule 
on  tlio  ouria  and  its  croalurits  in  liis  matchless  dialectics.  Evea 
the  death  of  I^uis  and  tim  hojieloss  defeat  of  his  cause  did  not  stop 
his  f'-arless  pen.  Church  historians  claim  that  in  1343  he  at  last 
made  his  peace  and  was  n?conciled.  but  this  is  more  than  doubtful, 
for  ttiacontn  della  Marcucln^ses  him  wit)]  Micheleand  Bonagmzia 
as  the  three  unrepentant  heretics  who  died  under  excfimmunicflp 
tion.  It  is  not  easy  to  determine  with  accuracy  what  inftuenc6 
was  exei-cised  by  the  powerful  intellects  which  Kngland,  France» 
and  Italy  thus  contributed  to  tho  defence  of  German  independence. 
Possibly  they  may  have  stimulated  WickUff  to  question  the  founda- 
tion of  papal  power  and  tho  supremiioy  of  the  Church  over  the 
State,  leading  to  Husitite  insubordination.  J'ogsibly,  too,  they  may 
have  contributed  to  the  movement  which  in  various  tlevelopment 
emboldened  the  Councils  of  Constance  and  IJasle  to  claim  superi- 
ority over  the  Holy  See,  the  Gallit«n  Churcli  to  assert  its  liljertiea, 
and  Englaml  to  frame  the  hostile  legi.station  of  the  Statutes  of 
Provisors  and  I'nemunlre.  If  this  be  so,  the  ho|>ekt;s  entangle- 
ments of  German  ixditics  cause<l  them  to  effect  lees  in  their  own 
olKJScn  baitle-tieUi  than  in  lands  far  removed  from  the  immediate 
Mem*  of  conflict.* 

This  rapid  glance  at  the  larger  aspects  of  the  strife  has  been 
necessary  to  enable  us  to  follow  intelligently  the  vicissitudes  of 
the  discussion  over  the  jwverty  of  Christ,  which  oorupied  in  the 
struggle  a  position  bubcrouAly  disppn|>ortionat©  to  its  importance. 
For  some  time  after  the  issue  of  the  bulls  Onm  tjif^nonn  alio*  and 
i^uia  qm>rumdam  thert?  was  a  sort  of  anned  neutrality  between 
John  and  the  heails  nf  ihr  l-'mneisenn  Order.  Each  seemed  to  be 
afraid  of  taking  a  atep  which  sliould  precipitate  a  conflict,  duubt- 


•  MartPHf  ThcMiir.  V\.  74»-53.~Tocco,  LEreaU  oel  Medio  Etc, pp.  533-555. 
— Pn>g«r,  Der  KtivlKDpnItUaebe  Enapt,  p]v  9-9: —Cart  HQIIer,  np.  cit.  11.  Ml- 
1— TiilhHB.  Chnn.  HirauiK.  ftiiD.  lS38.~1U;aBld.  miu.  IMS,  No.  lS-17.— Jae. 
(!•  >Urctii&  Dul.  (lUL  et  Unosi  U.  «O0>, 


iniectvUi^  (elt  by  both  sides  to  be  inevitable.    Still  tlieni  was  a 

Bttle  iktmiishing  for  position.     In  1>1£o  Michele  hatl  summonerl 

the  general  cUiipter  to  assemblt*  uX  Paris,  but  be  feared  thai  an  ef* 

fort  truuld  be  nmtio  to  anrml  tbcdeclantiona  of  Penigia,  and  that 

John  would  exorcise  a  prossuro  by  mcuns  of  King  Charlet  le  Bel, 

wbuM  ioUueoce  was  great  through  tbc  number  of  benefices  at  hia 

lUfposaL    Suddenly,  thereforo,  ho  trunsferrod  the  call  to  Lyona, 

where  considerable  trouble  mils  i>x|)crioncod  through  tho  efforts  of 

Gervil  Odo,  a  creature  of  the  pope,  and  subsequpntlj  the  suc- 

oamr  of  Michele,  to  obtain  relaxations  of  the  Kulo  aa  regarded 

poverty.     Still  the  bretbrea  stood  lirm,and  these  attempts  wore 

tbfMted,  while  a  conslitntion.  threatening  iritb  imprisonment  all 

whoabould  speak  indisureetly  and  diijreB[)ectfuUv  of  John  XXll. 

and  faia  decretals  indicates  the  passions  which  were  seething  under 

the  auffooo.     Not  long  after  this  we  hearof  a  prosecution  suddenly 

corameucei)  against  our  old  iiec)uaintanoe  Ubertino  da  Casale,  in 

i^ite  of  \m  llent^lictino  habit  and  bi.s  quiet  rosidenoe  in  Italy. 

He  soema  to  have  been  iiuspectod  of  having  fnmisbcd  the  argn* 

HMXts  on  the  subject  of  the  |)0verty  of  Christ  in  the  Protest  of 

SadtaenltaUHeOf  and,  Heptomber  10,  1325,  an  order  was  scut  fur  his 

amA,  but  he  got  wind  of  it  and  escaped  to  Germany — the  Ib^t 

of  the  illuAtrious  band  of  refugee^s  who  gathered  aronnd  Ix>nis  of 

Btvuia,  though  he  ap|iears  to  have  niaidn  liis  |>eaoo  in  1^30.    J  obn 

swaiB  to  have  at  la^t  grown  rostire  nt  the  tacit  insubordination  of 

Ui6  Franoiacana,  who  did  not  openly  deny  his  definitions  as  to  the 

poverty  of  Clirist,  but  whom  he  knew  to  be  secretly  cherishing  in 

tbw  hearts  the  condemned  doctrine.     In  132*i  Michclu  issued  do- 

eretis  subjecting  to  a  strict  censorship  all  writings  by  the  brethren 

Ukl  tf nforciug  one  uf  the  rules  which  prohibited  the  discussion  of 

■ioubtful  upiuions,  thus  muzzling  the  Order  in  the  hope  of  averting 

dSKOsbn ;  but  it  wa.'^  not  in  John's  nature  to  rest  satisfied  with 

•teioe  wliicb  covered  op|xwit)on,  and  in  August,  1327,  he  advanced 

Uithe attack.     In  the  bull  Quia  mmnu/i^uar/i, adilxvssed  to  arch- 

tmbopB  and  inquisitors,  be  declared  tiiat  many  still  b»lieve<l  in  the 

pttvarty  of  Christ  in  spite  of  his  having  pronounced  such  belief  a 

Ix^y,  and  that  those  who  entertained  it  should  be  treated  as 

iwretics.     He  therefore  uuw  urdere  the  prelates  and  inquisitors  to 

EVQiooute  them  rigorously,  and  though  the  Franciscans  are  not 

^tjoally  named,  the  clause  which  deprives  the  aocuaod  of  all  papal 


lU 


THE   PKATICELLL 


privileges  and  subjects  them  to  tbe  opclinary  jurisdictions  sufR- 
ciontly  shuvvs  tliat  tliey  were  the  object  uf  tlie  a&sault.  It  istjuite 
possible  that  this  was  provokeii  by  some  movement  among  the  re- 
mains of  the  moilentte  Spirituals  of  Italy — men  who  came  to  bo 
kno^VTi  as  Fraticelli— who  ha*J  never  inclulgi>J  in  the  (hingeroua 
enthusia.'miR  of  the  f>li\i.sts,  but  who  were  ready  to  suffer  nuu"t3T> 
dom  in  defence  of  the  sacred  principles  of  poverty.  Such  men 
could  not  but  have  been  at  onco  excited  by  the  pa|)al  denial  of 
Christ's  |K)verty,  and  encoura;^  by  finding  the  Oi-der  at  large 
driven  into  antagtmism  with  the  Holy  See.  Sicily  ha<l  long  been 
a  refuge  for  the  more  zealous  when  forced  to  flee  from  Italy.  At 
this  time  we  hear  of  their  crossing  back  to  (.'alabrla,  and  of  John 
writing  to  Niccolo  da  Reggio,  the  Minister  of  Calabria,  savage  in- 
Btnictions  to  destroy  them  utterly.  Lists  are  to  be  made  out  and 
Bent  to  him  of  all  who  show  tliom  favor,  and  King  Hobcrt  is  ap> 
pealed  to  for  aid  in  the  good  work.  Robert,  in  spite  of  his  close 
alliAnco  with  the  pope,  and  the  necessity  of  the  jMipal  favor  for  his 
ambitious  plans,  was  sincerely  on  the  side  of  the  Franciscans.  Ho 
seems  never  to  have  forg<itten  the  teachings  of  Amaldo  do  Vila- 
nova,  and  as  his  father,  Charles  the  Lame,  bad  interfered  to  protect 
the  tSpirituals  of  Provence,  aonow  both  he  and  his  queen  did  what 
they  could  with  the  angry  pope  to  iTioderate  his  wrath,  and  at  the 
same  tiiuo  he  urged  the  Ortler  to  stand  firm  in  defence  of  the  Rule;. 
In  the  protection  which  he  afforded  lie  did  not  discriminate  closely 
between  the  organized  resistance  of  the  Order  under  its  general, 
and  the  irregular  mutiny  of  the  Fraticelli.  His  dominions,  as  well 
as  Sicily,  served  as  a  refuge  for  the  latter.  With  the  troubles 
provoked  by  John  their  numbers  naturally  grow.  Eiimcst  spirits, 
dissatisfied  witli  Slichele's  apparent  acquiescence  in  John's  new 
horcisy,  would  naturally  join  them.  Thoy  ranged  themselves  un- 
der Henry  da  Ceva,  who  had  fled  to  Sicily  from  persecution  un- 
der Boniface  VIII. ;  they  electc<l  him  their  general  minister  aad 
formed  a  complete  indc()ondRnt  organization,  which,  wlien  John 
triumphed  over  the  Order,  gathered  in  it^  recalcitrant  fnigments 
and  constituted  a  sect  whose  strange  persistence  under  the  fiercest 
persecution  we  shall  have  to  follow  for  a  century  and  a  half.* 


*  Wadding,  aoo.  1817,  No.  9;  win.  I81B,N».  8;  ann.  183R,No.  16;  ann.  13S5, 
Ko.  6;  ann.  IS^il, Mo. S.— Cliron. QlASGUrgeraan.  1323. 1826,13S0.— Raynsld,  aoa. 


CORONATION  OP  LOUia 


ur, 


Od  the  peraecntion  of  these  iiualmrdinate  brethren  Michele  da 
could  offonl  to  look  with  ct»mphiccncy,  and  he  eridently 
defied  to  rof^rd  the  bull  uf  August,  18:27,  as  (iireetpd  a^^irmC 
tbera.  He  maintained  his  attitude  of  suhmis^ilon.  In  Jnnp  the 
jiope  had  summuned  him  frum  Rome  t<>  Avi^on,  and  he  had  ex- 
Btmd  himself  on  the  ground  of  sickness.  His  me-sscngors  with  his 
apologies  were  graciously  rooeive^l,  and  it  win  not  until  December 
i  that  be  presented  himself  before  John.  The  pope  8ul«equently 
dacUred  that  ho  had  been  Kummonei]  to  answer  for  secretly  en- 
cramging  rebels  and  heretics,  and  doubtless  the  object  waa  to  be 
MORd  of  his  person,  but  he  was  courteously  welcomed,  and  the 
OBtoudble  reaAon  ^ny^u  for  sending  for  him  was  certain  troubles 
IB  the  provinces  of  Assisi  and  Aragon,  in  \vhit'h  Michele  obediently 
dna^  the  ministers.  Until  April,  1338,  ho  remained  in  tho  papal 
dwrt,  api>arently  on  the  best  of  terms  with  John.* 

Ueanwhilo  the  quarrel  Itetwoen  the  empire  and  the  fiapacy  had 
been  developing  aiuiee.  lu  tho  spring  of  13!J6  Louis  suddenly  and 
wtlhotit  due  preparation  undertook  an  expe<1ition  to  Italy,  at  tho 
ioritation  of  the  QhilM^llines.  for  his  im]>cnal  coronation.  When 
be  retched  Milan  in  April  to  roc^ive  tho  iron  crown  John  stflmly 
fwbttde  his  further  progress,  and  on  this  being  disregarded,  pro- 
eewled  to  excommuuiaite  him  afresh.  Thus  commenced  another 
pruloagcd  series  of  citations  and  sentoncses  for  heresy,  including 
(he  preaching  of  a  crusade  with  Holy  I^nd  indulgences  against 
the  impenitent  sinner.  Unmoved  by  thi.s,  Louis  slowly  made  his 
wy  to  Kome.  which  he  entered  January  7,  1327,  and  whero  he 
"fan  crtiwned  on  the  17th,  in  oontcmptuons  defiance  of  papal  pro- 
ftipiive,  by  four  syndics  elected  by  the  people,  after  which,  ao- 
PWding  to  usage,  he  exchanged  tho  title  of  King  of  tho  Romans 
itx  thai  of  Kmiieror.  As  the  defender  of  the  faith  he  pnxieeded 
to  try  the  pope  on  the  charge  of  heresy,  baseii  upon  his  dental  of 
tlift  poverty  of  Christ.  April  1 4  he  promulgated  a  law  authorizing 
^  prosecution  and  sentence  m  absentM  of  those  notoriously  do- 
luood  for  treason  or  heresy,  thus  imitating  the  papal  injustioo  of 

W,Ka.  ao,  *?.— PraM  Ehrlo  (Arcliir  fUr  L.  n.  K.  1888,  p.  181}.— Martrae 
TWaar.  11.  753-3.— Vitoduniii.  Cliroii.  {Ecc&nl.  C'grp.  lliat.  L  1780).— D'Argen- 
•itl.  L  SOr.— Eymrric  pp.  301-4. 

*  Mvtene  Tbwnar.  II.  749.— Ualiu.  et  AUnsi  HI.  315-16.— NichoUu*  UinoriU 
(BdoLct  Matui  HL  S38-10J. 

IH.— JO 


149 


THB    FRATICBLLl 


rioa 

'I 


which  he  himself  complamtHj  liilUirlv  ;  and,  on  the  ITih,  seiitonco 
of  deposition  was  solemnly  reaii  to  the  fl.-*sembled  people  before 
the  ba£ilict(  of  St.  Peter.  It  reuiUxl  that  it  was  rendf^red  at  tha 
raqnest  of  the  ciergy  and  peoplu  of  Rome ;  it  recapitulated  tbflM 
mines  of  the  ])0]>e,  whom  it  stijfiiiatizpil  as  Antichrist;  it  pro- 
nounced him  a  heretic  on  account  of  his  denying  the  poverty  oJ 
Chrigt,  dcfKwed  him  fmiii  the  papiwy,  and  tlu'catenoil  confiscation 
on  all  who  should  ronder  him  support  and  asaistanoe.* 

As  a  \xt\n3  was  ncoeeaary  to  the  Church,  and  a8  the  college 
cardinals  were  under  excomiuunicatiun  as  fautors  of  lioresy, 
course  was  had  to  the  primitive  method  of  uelection:  some  form 
of  deotion  by  the  people  and  clergy  of  Romo  was  gone  tbrougli 
on  May  12,  and  a  new   Bishop  uf   Rome  was  pru6vnt«<l   to  the 
Christian  world  in  tho  person  of  I'ior  di  Corbario^an  agori  Fran- 
ciscan of  high  repute  for  austerity  and  eloquence.    He  whs  Minis- 
ter of  the  province  of  the  Abruzn  and  [wjjal  penitentiary.     He 
had  been  marrictl,  his  wife  was  still  living,  and  he  yvan  said  to 
have  entered  the  Order  without  her  consent,  which  rendere<l  him 
"irregular"  and  led  to  an  ntiRurd  complication,  for  tho  womai 
who  had  never  before  com))laine(i  of  his  leaving  hor,  now  can 
forward  and  put  in  her  tOainis  to  Ito  bought  off.     He  a-ssumetl  the 
name  of  ^Nicholas  V-,  a  college  of  caniinals  was  readily  created 
for  him,  he  appointed  nuucios  and  legates  and  proceeded  to  d< 
grade  tlie  Guellio  bishops  and  replace  them  with  CThibellines.     Ii 
the  confusion  attendant  n|)on  those  ruvolutionaiy  pi*oc<«diugs 
can  bo  readily  imagined  that  tho  Fraticelli  cmcrgixl  from  their^ 
hiding-places  and  indulged  in  glowing  aatioi{)atioiis  of  the  future 
which  they  fondly  dceme<]  thou-  own.f  ,^M 

AUhongh  the  Franciscan  prefect  of  the  Homan  province  as-^ 
semblod  a  chapter  at  Aungni  which  pronounced  against  I'icr  di 
Curbario,  and  ordered  him  to  lay  aside  his  usurped  digaibyf  it  was 
impossible  that  the  Order  should  escape  responsibility  for  the  re- 
boUion,  nor  is  it  likely  that  jUichele  da  Ceeena  was  not  privy  U^_ 
tbu  wholu  proceeding.     Ue  had  remained  quietly  at  Avignon,  an^| 

*  Cttnm,  Sauons.  ntttirabiri  S.  It-  I.  XV.  77.  76).— Mvtvne  Tbesuir.  O.  t9^^ 
728.-.Nk-)tolKua  Atinorila  (Bal.  ct  Mtiiui  III.  240-8).  |^ 

t  Nichulikii.t  Minorita  CGi\l,  ci  Muiii>i  HI.  S48).--Plo1ouni  Lucetuis  Hist^ 
Soclm.  cap.  41  (Huntton  a  It  I.  XL  1210),— CItroD.  SuDtiiK.  (JUuntori  XV.  60)l 
— Wadtliog.  son.  1338,  No.  2-4,8  11. 


an^^ 


MH^V 


A 


MICHELE    IN    OPPOBITION. 


147 


Joba  hftd  manifested  no  abatement  of  cordiality  until  April  9, 
Tfa«i,on  being  sammonixl  to  nn  iiudionoc,  tUo  pnpo  ntLockeil  him 
aatltesobjectof  the  Chapter  of  rcragia,whic)i  six  years  befurehaU 
aaoited  tbe  poverty  of  l.'hnat  and  the  apostles.  Michele  stoutly 
defcndr-il  ihe  uiterancoB  of  tlu-r  chjipt4!r,  sayinjf  thitl  K  thoy  were 
il  then  Nicholas  IV. and  tho other  [K>]ie9  whu  had  affirmed 
doctrine  wei-e  heretics.  Then  the  jxapal  wrath  ejcploileU. 
Uicbele  was  u  headstrong-  fool,  a  faulor  of  heretics,  a  serpent  nour< 
ilbeilmthelM«omof  theChuroh;  and  when  thf!  stream  of  invec^tive 
had  (uihau^t«tl  it«.'lf  he  was  plac<'<l  under  constiiictive  nrre«l,  nn<l 
onlared  not  to  loave  Ariffnon  without  {Ktrmission,  uutler  |Hun  of 
excommunioation.  of  forfeiture  of  oltit^  and  of  futun)  disaliility, 
A  fifw  days  later,  on  April  14,  in  the  seci-ecy  of  the  Franciscan  con- 
nnt,  br  reherixL  bis  feelings  by  escciiliug  a  solemn  notarial  pro- 
totin  the  pres^ioe  of  William  of  Oekbam,  Bonagraxia,  and  other 
iniilT  adherents,  in  which  he  recited  the oircumstanoea,  argued  that 
tlw  pope  either  was  a  heretic  or  no  po{>e,  for  either  his  present 
otterances  were  ermnetjus  or  else  Xiobolas  1 V^.  had  been  a  heretio ; 
ii  the  latter  0ft8eik>nif ace  VIJ  Land  Clement  V.,who  hod  approved 
ti»BuU  £riUqm»fminat,vrete  UJfewise  heretics,  their  noiniuutioas 
of  Gordinaia  were  void,  and  the  conclave  wtuoh  eleotod  John  was 
ilkgaL  Ue  proteste<t  against  whatever  might  lie  done  in  deroga- 
tion of  the  rights  of  the  Order,  that  he  was  in  durance  and  in  just 
Iwr,  and  that  what  he  might  be  forced  to  do  would  be  null  lUiU 
nid.  The  whole  doonmest  is  a  melancholy  illustration  of  the 
Mblcrfugea  rendered  necessary  by  an  a^  of  violence.* 

Michele  was  detained  m  Avignon  while  the  general  chapter 
vftlic  Order  was  held  at  Bologna,  to  which  John  sent  I3«rtrand, 
Bahop  of  Ostia.  with  instructions  to  have  another  general  chosen. 
Tbe  Order,  however,  was  stabbom.  It  sent  a  somewhat  defiant 
iMsage  to  the  pope  and  i-e-elected  Michele,  requesting  Llm  morc- 
oiw  to  indicate  Pari.ii  im  the  next  place  of  assemblage,  to  be  held, 
•Wording  to  role,  in  three  years,  to  which  he  assented.  In.  \iew 
*>f  the  drama  which  was  developing  in  Rome  he  might  reasonably 
W  for  liberty  or  life.  Preparations  were  mode  for  his  escape. 
A  galley,  furuishf'd,  according  to  John,  by  the  Emperor  Ixiuis.  but 
KQotdiiig  to  other  and  more  trustworthy  accounts,  by  Genoese 


•  Micliolniu  liiiiortta  (B&l.  et  Maiui  III.  33&^0). 


148 


TRE    PRATtC'ELM. 


refagws,  was  sent  to  A  igues-mortes.  Thither  he  fieil.  May  26,  ac- 
companied by  Ockham  and  Bonagrazia.  TUe  iiishop  of  Porto, 
sent  by  Jolin  In  hut  haste;  after  liini,  liad  an  it)t«rview  with  lum 
on  the  drck  nf  his  gallny,  but.  failod  to  induce  him  to  return.  He 
reached  Piaa  on  Juno  !»,  and  there  ensue*]  a  war  of  manifestoes  of 
unoonscionablo  length,  in  which  Michole  was  pronounced  excom- 
municate and  dej>uHed,  and  .lolin  was  provet!  to  be  a  heretic  who 
liad  rightfully  fm-feitod  the  pjipncy.  Michele  coold  only  cjirry  on 
a  wordy  cunllict,  while  Juhn  could  act.  Bertrand  de  la  Tour, 
Canlinal  of  San  A'itale.  was  ap{>ointe<l  Vicar-general  of  the  Order, 
another  general  chapter  was  ordered  to  assemble  in  Pans,  June, 
1329,  and  prepaiations  were  ina<Ie  for  it  by  removing  all  pro- 
vincials favorable  to  Michele,  and  api»ointing  in  their  places  men 
who  could  be  relietl  on.  Out  of  tlurty-fonr  who  had  met  in 
Bologna  only  fourteen  were  seen  in  Paris;  Michele  was  deposed 
and  (Teranl  Odo  was  elected  in  his  ])lace;  but  oven  under  this 
pressure  no  declanttion  condemning  the  poverty  of  Christ  could 
be  obtained  from  tbo  chapter.  The  moss  of  the  Order,  redac«d 
to  silence,  reiiuiiiiL-d  faithful  to  the  principles  represented  by  its 
deposed  general,  until  forced  to  acquicsconoo  by  the  arbitrary 
measures  so  freely  em[»loyed  by  the  jmpe  and  the  examples  made 
of  those  who  dared  to  express  opposition.  Still  John  was  not  dis- 
posed to  relax  the  Knincisean  (lisciphne,  and  when,  in  1332,  Crerard 
Odo,  in  the  hope  of  gaining  a  cardinars  hat,  {>ersuaded  fourteen 
provincial  ministers  to  join  him  in  submitting  a  gloss  which  would 
have  virtually  annulled  the  obligation  uf  poverty,  his  only  reward 
was  the  ridiculo  of  the  |K)po  and  sacred  college.* 


"  NtcholttUs  Minorita  tB«iI«T..  ct  Muna  m.  343-340).— Jnc.  cle  Bfarchfa  IMttL 
(Ibid.  11.  IS98).-C'tirou.  B«nen9.  (ilurstori  S.  R.  I.  XV.  81).— Vitodarnni  Cliron, 
(Eccard.  Corp.  Ilirt.  I.  1708-1800).— Mnrtciie  Tliewmr.  II.  757-60.— Alvar.  Pclag. 
Dt-  rUnciu  Ecctca.  Lib.  u.  art.  OT. 

The  curccr  of  CartHiial  UcrtmncI  do  la  Tour  lllustraUs  the  ptiabiitt;  of  con- 
MJL'ncv  roiiutDiUt  u>  Uiuw  who  avrved  Joha  XXII.  lie  was  a  FntucUcui  of  Itij^ti 
Htniiding  A»  ProvhiHal  of  Aqiiitaino  he  bad  pcrficculed  the  Spiriliialii 
Eleratitd  to  tlie  ciirdituilutu,  wbuu  Jolm  callvJ  for  optutuus  oq  the  qumlioD  of 
tl>e  pnvvrly  of  Cbritit  tin  had  argm^d  in  tha  afRvinalivo.  In  con  junction  witU 
Vitale  du  Four,  Cardinal  of  Albaoo,  be  h»(l  secretly  drawn  u|>  tlie  duclar&UoD  of 
Ui«  Cbapt«r  nf  Hcniffia  wbkli  so  angered  the  pope,  but  wlien  the  latter  made  up 
hii  Dilod  that  Cbritt  bad  owned  propurt;,  the  csrdiual  promptl;  changed  bit 


J 


THE    IN^UldlTION    AT  TODI. 


149 


The  settlement  of  the  question  depended  much  more  upon 
political  than  U|x>n  religious  coiisidomtions.  Louis  had  abandouod 
Rome  and  established  himsolf  in  Pisa  witti  his  popi',  htu  canlinals, 
uid  bis  Franciscans,  but  tlie  Italians  were  becoming  tired  of  their 
kaiaer.  It  niattorod  little  that  in  January,  13:J'J,  he  indulged  in 
the  childish  triumph  uf  st>lemnly  burning  John  XXIL  in  cfDgy ; 
he  WM  obliged  soon  after  to  leave  the  city,  and  ton'anla  the  end 
of  the  year  he  relumed  to  tTemiany,  carrj'ing  with  him  the  men 
who  were  to  defend  hi.s  cause  vviih  all  the  learning  of  the  sclioola, 
and  abandoning  to  their  fnto  those  of  his  |)artisans  who  were 
niuble  to  follow  biui.*  The  pruoeedings  which  enaued  at  Todi 
will  serve  to  sliow  how  promptly  the  Inquisition  tracked  his  re- 
treating footstools,  and  how  useful  it  wa«  as  a  political  agency  in 
redncing  rebeUious  coniuiunities  to  submission. 

The  Toilini  were  Cfhitidline.  In  i;i37,  when  John  XXII.  had 
ordered  Francisco  Damianl.  Inquisitor  of  S[>oloto,  to  prooewl  vigor- 
ooily  against  l^fucio  Cauistmrio  of  Todi  as  a  rebd  against  the 
Church,  and  Mucio  had  accordingly  liocn  im[irisoned,  the  people 
tuul  risen  in  insurrection  and  Ubemtcd  the  captive,  whilo  the 
iDi|iusitor  liad  boon  forced  to  tly  for  his  life.  In  August,  132^*,  they 
had  welcomed  Louis  aseniperur  and  riertli  Corbariu  as  ()Ope,and 
had  ordered  their  notarit>8  to  use  the  re^al  years  of  the  latter  in 
ihHr  instruments ;  they  ha<l,  moreover,  attacked  and  taken  the 
<inelf  city  of  Orvieto  and,  like  all  the  cities  which  adhered  to 
Louis,  they  bad  expelled  the  Doniinicamt.  In  August,  1829,  aban- 
doned by  Louis,  procealinga  wore  commenced  against  them  by  the 
^nncifican,  Fra  BartoUuo  da  Perugia,  the  inquisitor,  who  an- 
Donnced  bis  intention  of  making  a  thorough  inquest  of  the  whole 
district  of  Assisi  against  all  Patarins  and  heretics,  against  those 
who  anert  things  not  to  be  sins  which  the  Church  tejiches  to  !» 
■II,  or  are  minor  sins  wliich  the  CImrch  holds  to  be  greater, 
tp-tinst  those  who  understAnd  the  Scriptures  in  a  sense  different 
bwn  what  the  Holy  Sjtirit  dcnmnds,  agaiust  thusL*  who  ttUk 
igaiust  the  state  and  oljservance  of  the  Koniau  ChuRtli  aud  its 

norictioat,  Mnd  wax  now  en}(ngeti  in  pirrwcitlin;;  those  wIjo  ndlicrDil  to  the 
miofwtaieb  ho  hnd  prescribed  fur  them.— Tooco,Uii  Codiccdolla  Mfttciua,  pp. 

*  Chtoa.  Cornel.  Z&nttlict  (Martcoa  AmpL  Coll.  V.  1S7}.— ViUaoi,  Lib.  x.  e. 


THE    FRATICELLL 


teachings,  and  against  thofie  who  havo  detracted  from  the  dignity 
and  pnraon  nf  tho  popo  and  his  oonatitutions.  Under  this  search- 
ing examinations  vrore  made  as  to  the  acts  of  the  citizens  daring 
the  visit  of  Txiuis,  any  sign  of  respect  paid  to  him  being  regarded 
as  a  crime,  and  two  seta  of  prosecutions  were  commenced — one 
against  tlic  Ghilvillincs  of  the  city  and  the  otlier  against  the 
"rebellious'"  KmucisuaiiB.  These  latter  were  summoned  to  rei>ly 
to  five  articles— 1,  If  (bey  believed  in,  favored,  or  adliered  to  the 
Bavarian  and  the  intrnsivo  nntipope;  2.  if  thtiy  had  marched 
with  a  cross  to  meet  these  heretics  on  their  entrance  into  Todi; 
3,  If  thoy  had  obeyed  or  done  revoronco  to  the  Uavarian  as  em- 
peror or  to  P.  di  Corbario  as  pope;  4,  If  they  had  taoght  or 
preached  that  the  oonstitutions  of  John  were  heretical  or  himself 
a  iK-tetic;  5,  If,  after  Michelo  da  Ceeena  was  txindeumed  and  de- 
posed for  heresy,  they  had  adhered  to  him  and  his  errors.  Tliese 
interrogations  show  how  conveniently  the  religious  and  politicaJ 
que:>tions  were  mingled  together,  ami  how  thorough  was  tho 
invefltigation  rendered  possible  by  tho  machinery  of  the  Inquisi- 
tion. The  procewlingR  dragged  on.  and,  July  1,  1330,  John  con- 
demned the  whole  community  as  heretics  and  fautors  of  heresy. 
July  7  he  sent  this  sentence  to  the  legate,  Cardinal  Onini,  with 
instniotiouB  to  cite  the  citizens  peremptorily  and  to  try  them. 
according  to  the  inquisitorial  formula,  ^'  gumrrmtne  el  de  piano  et 
tint  ttrf-pitu  (ft  fiijuray  tinder  this  the  Tmiini  flimlly  made  sub- 
missinn,  the  cardinal  sent  Fri^  Bartolino  and  his  colleagne  thither, 
and  (lie  city  was  reconciled,  subject  to  the  papal  approval.  They 
bad  been  obliged  to  make  a  gift  of  ton  thousiiml  Horinti  to  Ixiuis,  and 
now  a  fine  of  equal  amount  was  levied  upon  them,  besides  one  hun- 
dred lire  imposed  on  each  of  one  hundred  and  thirty-four  citizens. 
Apparently  the  terms  exacted  W(3re  not  Kalisfaclory  to  John,  for  a 
imjial  brief  of  July  2*>,  1331,  declared  the  submission  of  the  citizens 
deceitful,  and  ordered  the  interdict  renewed.  Tho  last  document 
which  we  have  in  the  case  ia  one  of  Juno  1,  i:i32.  in  which  the  legate 
sends  to  tho  Bishop  of  Todi  a  list  of  one  liundrcd  and  ninety-seven 
pei-aons,  including  Franciscans,  parish  priests,  heads  of  religious 
houses,  nobles,  and  citizens,  who  axe  ordered  to  appear  before  him 
ul  Orvielo  on  June  15,  to  stand  trial  on  the  inquisitions  which 
have  been  found  a^itist  them.  That  the  proceedings  were  pushed 
to  tho  bitter  end  there  can  be  no  doubt,  for  when  in  this  year  the 


J 


PATE    OP   PIER  DT    CORBARTO. 


tn 


Gerard  Oiio  prupuscd  to  revoke  the  oommiaaion  of  Kra 
ftH^ino,  Jnlin  int/'n'enod  and  extemlecl  it  for  ibe  puri>oge  of 
«oai)\\o'^  aim.  to  continue  tiie  prosecutioaii  to  a  dutioiti;  tieatcaco. 
Tbu  u  doubtliss  a  fair  6]>eeiiuoa  of  the  Diinnte  perseoutiuD  whiub 
waspiing-  on  wherever  the  (.IhibolUncs  were  not  strong  enough  to 
(iefend  IheiiiselTCfl  by  force  of  amis.* 

As  for  the  uoimppy  aotipope,  liis  fate  was  even  more  depUira- 
ble,  C'onlldeiJ  at  Pisa  by  Ijouis  to  the  care  of  Count  I'nzio  da 
DooemCiix),  the  lending'  noble  of  the  city,  he  was  oonceal«id  for 
iwbile  in  a  ouiille  in  i^laremma.  June  18,  1329,  the  I'lhans  rose 
and  dmre  out  tlie  ini|>erialisl.  garriaon,  and  in  the  following  Jaou- 
«y  they  were  reconciled  to  the  Church.  A  part  of  the  bargain 
vu  Uie  surreadvr  of  Pier  di  Corburiu,  to  whuin  John  promised  to 
■hov  binweir  a  kind  father  ami  benuvolont  friend,  beaidet)  enrich- 
ing Kasdo  for  the  betrayiU  of  his  trust.  After  making  public  «b- 
piTatioo  of  bis  heresies  in  Piaa,  Pier  was  sent,  guarded  by  two  state 
^lUtiys,  to  ^'ice,  where  he  was  tl<'!liverc<l  to  the  papal  agenta.  In 
erery  town  on  the  ruitd  to  Avignon  he  was  requirod  publicly  to 
KpaX  hi:j  abjuration  nnd  humiliation.  Augmt  25,  1330,  with  a 
htlter  arouud  Ins  nuck,  he  vvtui  bruught  before  tJie  pope  in  public 
cunnstory.  Exhausted  and  broken  with  shame  and  suffering,  he 
Bong  himself  at  his  rival's  feet  and  begged  for  piercy,  abjuring  and 
mUieinatizing  his  heresies,  and  e$|>«cially  that  of  the  po^'erty  of 
QaviL  Then»  in  a  private  consistory,  he  was  mudn  uguin  to  eon- 
Um  a  long  catalogue  of  ohmes,  and  to  accept  such  t>enanco  aa 
vight  be  awarded  him-  No  huiuiUation  waa  spared  him,  and 
iMhiog  was  omitted  to  make  his  abject  recanlatjuu  ouiiiplct«. 
Uitiog  thus  rendered  him  an  object  of  contempt  and  deprived 
fain  uf  all  further  power  of  harm,  John  mercifully  Kpaii-d  him 
faoiiily  torment.  Ho  was  lonliuoil  iu  an  apartment  in  the  jMipol 
ytHxa,  fed  from  tlio  pa[)al  table,  and  allowed  tlte  use  of  iKXiks,  but 
Bv  one  waa  admitted  to  soe  him  witliout  a  special  papal  order. 
"h  wretched  lifo  tMwn  canie  to  nu  end,  nnd  when  he  died,  in  13<i8, 
tKvras  buried  in  the  yranciscun  hui)it.  ('onsidering  the  ferocity 
ollhe  age,  his  treatment  is  one  of  the  least  discreditable  acts  in 
tli«s  career  of  John  XXII.    It  was  hardly  to  be  expected,  after  the 

*  Ftmnt  Ehrte  <  ArchW  fQr  L.  u  K.  I8H(S.  pp.  ir>tt-A4 ;  1880.  pp.  658-69),— 
•^luMti  iMurico  luiliiiiiu,  1  Ott,  I86A.  pp.  |i>-3l.~Kipoll  U.  180.— Waddiag. 
••0.1338,  No.  9:  13e7,No.a-4:  1831.N'o.4;  1333,  No.  & 


J 


153 


THB  FRATIC15LLL 


savage  vindictiveness  of  tho  Ernulphine  ourse  which  he  Imd  pab- 
JiBlied.  April  20,  1:12J>,  cm  his  nli<cady  fallen  rival — "May  he  in 
this  life  fep!  the  i,vrath  of  Putcr  and  I'liul,  whoso  clnireh  he  has 
sought  to  confound!  May  his  dwelling-place  l>e  deserted,  and 
may  there  ho  none  l«  live  under  his  riw»f  I  May  his  children  be 
orphans,  and  his  wife  a  widow  I  May  they  bo  driven  forth  from 
their  hearth-stones  to  beggary !  Way  tlie  usurer  devour  their  sub- 
stance, and  strangers  seize  the  wurk  of  their  hands !  May  the 
whuJe  earth  light  against  him,  may  the  elements  be  his  enemies, 
may  the  merits  of  all  the  saints  at  rest  oonfound  him  and  wreak 
vengeance  on  lilm  through  life!"* 

During  the  progress  of  this  eontost.  public  opinion  was  by  no 
means  unanimous  in  favor  of  Jolm,  and  the  lm|uisition  was  an  ef- 
ficient instrumentality  in  repressing  all  expression  of  adverse  sen- 
timents. In  1H28,  at  Carcassonne,  a  certain  Germain  Frovier  was 
tried  before  it  for  blaspheming  against  Jolm,  and  stigmatising  his 
election  as  simoniacal  because  he  had  promised  never  to  set  foot 
in  stirrup  till  ho  should  set  out  f<»r  l(ome.  Gorraain,  moreover, 
had  deelaral  that  the  Franciscan  jwpe  was  the  true  pope,  and  that 
if  he  had  money  he  would  go  there  and  join  him  and  the  Bavarian. 
Germain  M-as  not  disposed  to  mai-tyrdom  ;  at  first  he  denied,  then, 
after  being  left  to  his  rnfloetions  in  prison  for  five  months,  he 
plewled  that  he  had  been  drunk  and  knew  not  what  ho  was  say- 
ing; a  further  delay  showed  him  that  he  was  helpless,  he  coiu 
fcsscil  his  offences  and  beggeil  for  merey.f 

Another  case^  in  1329,  shows  ua  what  were  the  secret  fcclin 
of  a  large  portion  of  the  Franciscan  Order,  and  the  means  i-equired 
to  keep  it  in  subonlination.  Before  the  Inquisition  of  Carca»> 
Sonne,  Frere  Karthclemi  Bniguii-re  cnnfossccl  that  in  saying  mass 
and  coming  to  the  prayer  for  the  pope  he  had  hesitated  which  of 
the  two  ])0]ie8  to  pray  for,  and  ha«l  finally  desired  his  pra^-er  to 
be  for  whichever  was  rightfully  the  head  of  tho  Church.  Many 
of  his  brethren,  he  said,  were  in  the  habit  of  wishing  that  God 
would  give  John  XXII.  so  much  to  do  that  he  would  forget  tha   i 

*  Yllliuii.  Lib.  X.  c.  IS1,  U2, 1(10  — Oiiill.  ^nni^c.  CniiUn.  ann.  13S0  —Wad- 
ding, tan.  1830,  No.  0,^  Miirte&i!  Tlie&nur.  II.  736-70 ;  SOft-lS.— <^iniu.  ComeL 
ZMttflietftDD.1330  (M>rh-Ti«-  Ani|>1.r»ll,  V.  VM~H). 

f  Arcliircs  Ae  Vlati.  de  Cnrc:i»r»iiic  i  llom.  XXVtl,  7  Bqq.}. 


1™ 


J 


DISSENSIONS    WITHIN    THK    OltPER. 


153 


FnnoiscaQS.  for  it  seemed  to  them  tbat  his  whuli;  bnsineBs  was  to 
■ffiiottiieiii.  It  was^t'ner.illv  believed  atiiong  thetti  tliut  tlieirgen- 
tfRl,Mi<^elc,  h(nl  iHX'n  unjustly  di'] «.)«».•« i  iumI  I'xcomimininiu^L  In 
aUrg«  assembly  of  fmirs  he  haci  saiti,"  I  wish  that  nntipope  %vas 
I  Dominicau,  or  of  84iriie  ntlier  Oisler,"  when  another  rejoincil,"  I 
rejoice  still  inorp  that  tlie  anlipone  is  of  our  Order,  fur  if  ho  was 
of  another  we  should  have  no  friend,  and  now  at  least  we  have  the 
ItaUan,"  whereat  all  present  applau<led.  For  a  while  KK-re  J)ar- 
thel^  held  out,  but  imprisonment  with  threats  of  elmins  and 
bating  broke  down  his  resolution,  and  he  threw  himself  upon  the 
wtny  of  the  inquisitor,  Uenri  de  Chamay.  That  mercy  cun^icited 
io  &  sentence  of  harsh  prison  for  life,  with  chains  on  hands  and 
feet  and  bread  and  water  for  food.  Possibly  the  Dominican  in- 
qntntor  may  have  felt  pleasure  in  exhibiting  a  Franciscan  pris- 
ooer,  for  ho  allowed  BarthcU-mi  to  retain  his  habit ;  and  it  shows 
the  minute  care  of  John's  rind ictiven ess  that  a  year  later  he  wrote 
eipKssly  to  Henri  de  Chamay  reciting  that,  as  the  delinquent  had 
bttu  expelled  from  the  Ontcr,  the  habit  must  be  stripped  from 
linaiid  be  delivered  to  the  Franciscan  authoritie-s.* 

In  G^ttittany  the  Franciscans  for  the  most  ]mrt  remained  faith- 
ful to  Miohele  and  Louis,  and  were  of  the  utmost  assistance  to  the 
llUer  in  the  struggle.  The  test  was  the  olwervanco  of  the  inter- 
dict which  for  so  many  years  suspended  divine  service  throughout 
tiie  empire,  and  was  a  sore  trial  to  the  faithful.  To  a  great  ex- 
tent this  was  disregarded  by  the  Franciscans.  It  was  to  little 
PoiTxac  that,  in  January,  1331,  John  issued  a  special  bull  directed 
*{^st  them,  deprived  of  all  privileges  and  uuinunities  those  who 
Psoognked  Louis  as  emperor  and  celebrat4?d  services  in  interdicted 
pllces,  and  ordered  all  prelates  and  incpiisitors  to  prosecute  them. 
Oatbe  other  hand,  Louis  was  not  behindhand  in  enforcing  ctbedi- 
•iice  by  persecution  wherever  he  had  the  ]>ower.  An  imperial 
■W  of  June,  1380,  addressed  to  the  magistnites  of  Aix,  directs 
IlieiDto  assist  and  protect  those  teachers  of  the  truth,  the  Fran- 
li'KUiB  Si^elbort  of  Landsl>erg  and  John  of  Royda,  and  to  im- 
prison all  their  brethren  whom  tliey  may  designate  as  rebels  to 
tl>e  empire  and  to  the  Onler  until  the  general.  Micholo,  shall  de- 
^whal  is  to  be  done  with  them.    This  sliows  that  even  in  Ger- 


'  Doat,  XXVn.  803-3,  8S0;  XXSV.  87. 


154 


THF  PRATICELL!. 


many  the  Order  was  not  unanimous,  but  doubtless  the  honest 
FranciKCan,  John  of  Wintcrthur,  ratlf!cts  tho  foalings  of  the  great 
body  when  lie  says  tliat  tho  reader  wiU  be  struck  with  horror  ajid 
stopor  on  learning  the  deeds  with  which  the  pope  convulsed  the 
('hurcli.  IiiOaiue(.l  by  some  niadneas.  he  sought  to  argue  against 
the  poverty  of  Chi'ist,  and  when  tho  P'rancisoans  resisterfl  him  be 
perseoutixl  thorn  without  mcasura.  The  Dominicans  (encouraged 
him.  and  he  largely  rewarded  them.  The  traditional  enmity  be- 
tween the  Orders  found  ample  gi-atiilcation.  The  Dominicans,  to 
excite  contempt  for  the  Fnincisuans,  exhibited  paintings  of  Christ 
with  a  purse,  putting  in  his  hand  to  take  out  money ;  nay.  to  the 
horror  of  the  faithful,  on  the  waUd  of  their  monasteries,  in  the 
must  frequeutLHi  pluces,  they  pieturcd  Christ  hanging  on  the  cross 
with  one  hand  nailed  fast,  and  with  tlie  other  putting  money  in  a 
pouch  susjHMided  from  his  girdle.  Vet  ruucor  and  religious  teal 
did  not  wholly  extinguish  |»ttriotism  among  the  Dominicans:  thev 
were,  moreover,  aggrieved  by  the  sentence  of  heresy  passed  upon 
Master  Kckart,  which  may  perhaps  ex|)laia  the  fact  that  Tauler 
sup|3ort('d  Ivouia,  us  alst;  did  JUargaret  Kbner,  one  of  the  yrionds 
of  God,  and  the  must  euiiiient  Dominican  sister  of  the  day.  It  is 
true  that  many  Dominican  convents  were  closed  for  years,  and 
Iheir  inmates  scattered  and  exiled  for  persistently  refusing  to  cele- 
brate, but  oUiers  complied  unwillingly  with  the  pupal  inandatiis. 
At  Landshut  they  had  ceased  public  sen'ice,  but  when  the  em> 
poror  came  there  Uiey  secretly  an-aiigod  with  the  DiUce  of  Teck 
to  assail  their  house  with  torches  and  threat^m  to  burn  it  down,  so 
that  they  might  have  the  excuse  of  conatrjint  for  resuming  public 
worship,  and  the  comedy  was  succetisfully  carried  out.  In  fact, 
the  tiunerui  Chapter  of  1328  complained  that  In  Genoany  tho 
brethren  in  many  places  were  notably  negligent  in  publishing  tho 
papal  bulk  about  louis.* 

All  this,  however,  was  but  an  episode  in  the  political  struggle, 
which  was  to  Ik;  decided  by  the  rivalries  between  the  houses  of 
Wittelsbaeh,  Hapsburg,  and  Luxemburg,  atu3  the  intrigues  of 
Fnmoa     Louis  gradually   suooeeded  in  Hroasing  and  centring 


*  Mnilene  Tliewur.  II.  SSO-S.—Cnrl  Mutler,  op.  cit.  I.  399.— Vitodunni  Chron. 
(Eccwd.  Corp.  Hist.  L  1708,  1800,  184-(-5,  1871).— Andreaii  Raliaponens.  Chron. 
HHD.  1836  (IliiO.  L  210S-4).— Prcgcr,  Dcr  Klrchenpolitisolie  Kampf,  pp.  4i^. — 
Oi-aifle,  Archir  fur  Utt-  n.  Kirwlien^acliichie.  1888.  p.  8*4. 


THE  EMPIRE  AND  THE  fATACT. 


155 


apoQ  hinifieU  Uie  national  spiril,  aidixl  therein  by  the  arrogiuit  diB- 
dun  with  which  John  XXII.  and  his  succetwors  received  his  r^ 
pMt«cl  offers  of  qu&litied  submission.  When,  in  1330.  Louis  hud 
tamponrily  seouml  thn  8up]iort  of  John  vf  Luxentburg,  King  of 
Bohemift,  and  the  X>uke  of  Austria,  aad  they  offered  themsolrec 
uniretios  thnt  he  wi>uld  fiilHl  what  might  bo  mfiuimd  iif  tiim, 
prorided  the  iude[>endi*uct>  of  tlie  umi>ire  was  rccogtiiz«il,  John  ro- 
torted  thai  Louis  was  a  heretic  and  thus  iucapacitated ;  bo  wok 
k  Uuuf  and  a  robber,  ii  wiulied  man  who  txinsorted  with  iMiehole, 
OcUuuu,  Bonagraxia,  and  Marsiglio ;  not  only  hiwl  he  no  tith;  to 
the  empire,  but  tlio  state  of  <JhristeDdoni  would  be  inconceivably 
U^orable  if  he  wenj  recognized.  After  the  death  of  John  in  l>o- 
c«iber,  13iJ4,  unother  attempt  waa  mofle,  but  it  suited  the  policy 
of  Knmcu  and  of  Uuhuinia  to  pr(>h>ng  the  fitrife,  and  Benedict  XII. 
was  u  firm  as  his  predecessor.  Lotiis  was  at  all  times  ready  lu 
terifice  Itis  Fraociacan  allies,  but  the  papacy  dcmandcHi  tlie  ri^^ht 
pnctically  to  dictate  who  sliould  be  emperor,  and  by  a  skilful  use 
ulappraJs  to  the  national  |tride  Louis  gnulauJly  won  the  support 
of  u  increasing  number  of  states  and  cities.  In  133S  the  con- 
WtioQ  of  Rhense  and  the  Reichstaj^  of  Frankfort  fomially  pro- 
l^lDed  lis  a  puj-t  of  the  law  of  the  empire  Chat  the  choice  of  Lht 
electora  was  luiaL,  and  that  the  papacy  had  no  coofirntatory  power. 
Ti«  interdict  was  ordere<l  not  to  be  observed,  and  in  all  the  states 
kliiehng  to  Louis  ecclesiastics  were  given  the  option  of  resuming 
|iubLic  worehip  within  eight  days  or  of  undergoing  a  ton  years' 
nikt.  It  was  some  relief  to  them  in  this  ililcmma  that  the  Ho 
>nwi  curia  sold  absolutions  in  such  cases  for  a  florin.* 

In  the  strife  bctwerji  Ixmis  and  tlie  pa|muy  the  little  colony  of 
Fiinciscan  refugees  at  Munich  was  of  the  utmost  service  to  the 
iopenid  cause,  but  their  time  was  drdwing  to  an  end.  Uichele 
(UCesena  died  November  2!t,  1342,  Ins  latest  work  being  a  long 
muiifesto  proving  that  John  had  died  no  unrepentant  heretic,  and 
liwt  bib  successors  in  defending  his  errors  were  likewise  hert^tics ; 
if  liat  one  man  in  C'hristendoni  holds  the  true  faith,  that  man  in 


*  Uart«ti«  Theaaur.  tl.  »00-«.  —  Ruyiuili).  ann.  1836,  No.  »1-S.  — Vitodnru) 
Clnii.  cEccvd.  Corp.  llUt.  I.  164d-.7.  ]diO).~Prcecr,  Dor  Kirclii'spolitiMhc 
iLunpf,  p.  99.—Huif.he\m  IV.  823-;}2.~U.  Mutii  Genu.  Uhtoii.  aim.  13^  (Pis- 
t^rii  ti«rni.  Sciiptt  IL  87d-81> 


156 


THE  FBATICEtLT. 


IiiniBolf  is  the  Church.  The  dithyrambio  palinode  wluoh  possee 
as  his  death-bed  recantation  \s  clearly  a  foi'gery,  and  there  can  be 
no  doubt  that  Michele  persisted  to  the  end.  When  dying  he 
handed  the  seal  o(  the  Onler  over  to  WilUam  of  Ookliiun.  who 
uaod  it  as  Vioar-genoral ;  he  had  already,  in  April,  1342,  appointed 
two  citizens  of  Munich,  John  Schito  and  GrimoUl  Treslo.  as  syn- 
dics and  pmc.uratorB  of  tlie  (inlor,  the  latter  of  whom  Bulmequenb- 
ly  a8simte<l  the  genoralate.  Jlonngrtuia  died  in  June,  1347,  do- 
clanng  with  the  last  breath  of  his  indomitable  soul  that  the  cause 
of  Louis  was  righteous.  Tho  datfi  of  William  of  Ockham's  death 
is  uncertain,  hut  it  oucaired  between  1347  and  1350.* 

Thus  drop|)ed  off,  one  by  one.  the  men  who  had  so  gallantly 
defended  tlie  doctrine  of  tho  poverty  of  Christ.  As  regards  the 
politica^l  coiiwptions  which  were  the  sjMicial  province  of  Marsiglio 
and  Ockhnni,  their  work  was  done,  and  they  could  exercise  no 
further  influence  over  the  uncoiitntllable  march  of  events.  With 
the  death  of  ISene^lict  XII.,  in  I34a,  Louis  made  ronewed  oiforte 
for  pacification,  but  John  of  Uohcmia  was  intriguing  to  secure  tho 
succession  for  his  house,  and  they  were  fruitless,  except  to  strength- 
en liOUJB  by  dcmonstmting  the  impossibility  of  securing  tcnns 
tolerable  to  the  cm])ire.  Still  tho  intrigue  went  on,  and  in  July, 
134(!,  the  three  ecclesiastical  electors,  Mainz,  Troves,  and  Cologne, 
with  Kodolph  of  Saxony,  and  John  of  Uoiiemiii,  assembled  at 
Rhensu  under  the  impulsion  of  Clement  VI.  and  elected  the  son 
of  John,  Charles  Margrave  of  Moravia,  as  a  rival  king  of  the 
Roiuans.  The  movement,  however,  had  no  basis  of  popular  sup- 
[Kirt,  and  when  Louis  hastened  to  the  Rhiuolands  all  the  citii?s  and 
nearly  all  the  princes  and  nobles  a<lhered  to  him.  Had  the  election 
been  post|)oned  for  a  few  weeks  it  would  never  have  taken  ]>laoe, 
for  tho  next  month  occurred  tho  battle  of  Crecy,  where  tho  gallant 
knight,  John  of  Bohemia,  dic<l  a  chivalrous  death,  Charles,  the 
newly-elected  king,  saved  his  life  by  flight,  and  French  influence 
was  temporarily  wdijiKed.  Thus  imauapiciously  commenced,  the 
reign  of  Charles  IV.  had  little  promise  of  duration,  when,  in  Octo- 


*  Vltodunn  CbruD.  (Eccord.  L  1844).— 8Sclm»cIic  Wcltclironlk,  <Irittc  balrtscb 
FortMtUung  No.  9  (Pertx  U.  S46).— Balnz.  et  Mami  HI.  849-.W,— Mumtori  S.  R 
I.  in.  II.  613-a7.".Iac.  do  Mareliin  Dh\.  fBal.  ut  Mauri  11.  flOO).— Preger, op. dt 
pp.  a6_6,— Cif  I  MaUcr.op.  cit.  I.  870-8.— Cbroii.ai»«l>ci?;er»nn.  1849,  1M7. 


SPIRIT  or   THK   EMPIRE. 


157 


ber,  1IU7,  Louis,  while  indulging  in  bis  favorite  |>asl  inie  of  liunting. 
wasfitnick  with  a]>opl(>xy  ami  Ml  dead  from  his  hursts.  Tbo  hand 
cif  tuid  mijirtit  welt  be  trai:cd  in  the  remuval  of  all  the  erininipji  of 
ihf  Iloly  Sl-o,  and  Charles  had  no  furtfaor  organizcil  i>ppot}ition  to 
drcaiL* 

OesimuK  of  obtaining  the  ftdlest  advantage  from  tbld  nnhmked- 
for  gowl-forttme,  Clement  V  I.  commissionixl  the  Ai-chhisboi*  tif 
Prag:ue  und  the  Bishop  of  Baiuberg  to  reconcile  all  communi'-iee  and 
individuala  who  lia«l  IncurrLnl  oxcoiuniunication  bv  supporting  tlie 
Bmniui,  with  a  fonnula  of  absolution  by  wlucii  they  wgti--  ohligi<tl 
to  iwear  that  they  held  it  heresy  for  an  eni|)eror  to  doix»o  a  jiope, 
ud  that  they  would  never  oIh'V  an  emiH-ror  until  he  liiul  l>een  ajK 
proved  by  the  popo.  This  excited  intense  disgust,  and  in  many 
|dHM  it  could  not  be  enforced.  Tlie  toachings  of  Harttiglio  and 
Ockiiam  had  at  least  home  fruit  io  so  far  that  the  jKipal  proten- 
lioDSto  virtually  ton!  rolling  tbo  empire  werodii^dainfully  rejected. 
the  German  spirit  thus  aroustMl  is  well  exemplJIicd  by  what  oc- 
CQiTod  at  Battle,  a  city  which  had  observed  tbe  interdict  and  was 
Mgerfor  its  removal.  When  Charles  and  tbe  Bishop  of  Bamljerg 
ippeaned  before  the  gates  they  were  receivetl  by  the  magistrates 
ud  a  great  cro\vd  of  citizens.  Conrad  of  Barenfols,  the  burgo- 
nutter,  addressed  the  bishop:  "  My  Lord  of  JJambcrg,  yon  must 
koovr  that  we  do  not  behere,  nor  will  wo  confess,  tbat  our  late 
lord,  the  Emperor  Louis,  over  was  a  heretic.  Whomsoever  the 
elKturs  ur  a  majority  of  them  shall  chooso  an  King  of  the  iComans 
»e  will  hold  as  such,  whether  ho  applies  to  the  iwjhj  or  not,  nor 
*ill  we  do  anything  else  that  is  contrary  to  the  rights  of  the  em- 
pK.  But  if  you  have  power  from  the  pope  and  are  willing  to  re- 
mit all  our  sins,  so  be  it."  Then,  turning  to  tbe  people,  ho  colled 
«it,*'Do  yoa  pve  to  me  and  to  Connul  Mtinch  power  to  ask  for 
tlw  absolution  of  your  sinsf"  The  crowd  shouted  assent;  the 
tiro  Conrads  took  an  oath  in  aocordance  with  this ;  divine  servic(« 
Were  resomed,  and  the  king  and  bishop  entered  the  town.f 


'Sebmidt,  Pllistliche  tTrkundcn  ancl  Rcgcsteo,  p,  863.  —  Renr.  It«bdor1f. 
4»n4l.  tnn-  134fr-7  (Prelicr  ct  Stnir.  I.  flSft-B). 

tHenr.  RebdoriT.  .\nn«l.»nn.  1317  (Frchcr  et  Stnir.  T.  «39).— Maltbi»  Neu- 
Ntg.{All»ert.  ArKentinetiB.)  Chron.  nnn,  1948  (UntJait  U.  U2-3].— Picgcr.Dtr 
'GfthnpoUtbcbc  Kampf;  pp.  50~G0. 


158 


TBB  FHATIOELtL 


Yet  the  question  as  to  the  poverty  of  ChriBt,  which  had  been 
put  forwiml  hv  .John  and  Ix>uis  as  the  ostensilile  caus*^  (tf  qtiiim;], 
and  which  had  been  so  warmly  embraced  by  a  portion  at  least  of 
the  German  Franciscans,  sank  completi^Ly  out  of  siglit  north  of  the 
Alps  will]  t)i(j  deatli  uf  Ijnils  und  lliu  oxtiDUtion  nf  tlio  Munich 
colony  of  refugees.  Germany  h&d  her  own  honlesof  mendicants, 
regular  ami  irregular,  in  the  Beguuius  and  Ileghanls,  who  seem 
to  have  troubled  themselves  but  little  about  points  so  {mrely  specu- 
lative; and  though  wo  occasionally  hear  of  KraticcUi  in  those 
regions,  it  is  rather  as  a  convenient  name  employed  by  monkish 
chmniclcrs  than  as  really  rcproacnting  a  distinctive  soot. 

It  was  otherwise  in  the  South,  and  osiiecially  in  Italy,  the 
native  home  *jt  Franc!  scan  ism  and  of  the  peculiar  influences  which 
raoulded  the  special  ascetic  development  of  the  Unler.  There  the 
impulses  which  had  led  the  earlier  Spirituabi  to  endure  the  ex- 
tremity of  persecution  in  vindication  of  the  holiness  of  absolute 
poverty  were  still  as  strong  as  evei-.  Under  Boniface  and  Clement 
and  during  the  earlier  years  of  John  its  pmfeKsors  baAl  lain  in 
hiding  or  had  sought  the  friendly  refuge  of  Sicily.  In  the  con- 
fusion of  the  I<>nnoi8can  ecbism  they  had  emerged  and  multiplied. 
With  the  downfall  of  the  antipofx?  and  the  triumph  of  John  ibey 
were  once  more  proscribed.  In  the  quarrel  over  the  poverty  of 
Christ,  that  tenet  bad  naturally  become  the  distinguishing  mark 
of  the  sectaries,  and  its  condemnation  by  John  necessarily  entailed 
the  consequence  uf  denying  the  papal  authority  and  asserting  the 
heresy  of  the  Holy  See.  Yet  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  among  the 
austerer  members  of  the  orthodox  Order  who  accepted  the  defini- 
tions of  Uie  papacy  there  was  nmch  sympathy  felt  for  the  rel>oUiouB 
dissidents.  Ilesistjince  to  the  imperious  will  of  John  XXI  I.  having 
failed,  there  were  abundant  stories  of  visions  and  miracles  circu- 
lated from  convent  to  convent,  as  to  the  wrath  of  God  and  of  St. 
Francis  visited  upon  those  who  infringed  upon  the  holy  vow  of 
poverty.  The  Li/tet  Cmifitrmiiatum  is  manifestly  the  expression  of 
the  aspirations  of  those  who  wished  to  enforce  the  Kule  in  all  its 
striL'lness  as  the  direct  revelation  of  the  Uoly  Spirit.  Such  men 
felt  thiit  the  position  of  their  proscribed  brethren  was  logically  cor- 
rect, and  they  were  unable  tx»  jreconcile  the  decroes  of  Nicliolas  III. 
with  those  of  John  XXII.  One  of  tbeae,  described  as  a  mau  much 
beluveil  of  God,  applied  to  St.  Birgitta  to  resolve  bis  doubts,  where- 


ITALIAN    FKATIC'ELLI    FAVORER 


150 


epoQ  &be  hatl  two  visions  in  whicb  the  Virgin  sent  him  her  num- 
Dtandti  W  say  iu  all  who  believed  that  the  [tope  was  no  {Kipe,  nnd 
tlut  priests  ilo  not  truly  consecrate  the  lio«t  in  the  mass,  that  tboy 
vere  heretics  &Uud  witli  UiaboliLul  iniquity.  Ail  Ihiii  ]>uiiit6  to  a 
Strang  seoret  eympathy  with  thv  Fratiodli  which  extended  not 
only  ftmonjo;  the  pooplo,  but  among  tlio  friars  and  orcasiooally 
ereo  among  the  prelates,  explaining  Oie  ability  of  the  sectaries  to 
Quintain  their  cxiatonoo  from  generation  tn  gooeration  in  8]>ite  of 
limosl  unremitting  iKrsceution  by  tho  Inquisition. *^ 

In  13i&,  one  of  the  earliest  cares  of  Uenedict  Xll.  after  hi< 
anxisioa  was  the  repression  of  these  J'^atrea  iU  paupcre  Vita,  a£ 
tbey  styled  themselras.  They  still  in  many  places  publicly  Hi»' 
pUyed  their  contumacy  by  wearing  the  sliort  and  narrow  gowna 
of  the  Spirituuh).  They  slill  iield  Alichele  to  be  their  geneml,  in- 
tuited the  memory  of  Jc^q  XXII.,  and  were  eai-ncflUy  and  succe<is- 
fully  engaged  in  prosolytisra.  Atoroovcr,  they  were  ojwply  protect- 
ed by  men  of  rank  and  power.  Ail  the  iiuiuisitors,  Erum  Treviso 
AJKiI/)mbardy  toSicUy,  were  commanded  to  free  tho  Church  from 
Uese  impious  hypocrites  by  vigorous  action,  and  directions  were 
HDI  to  the  preJates  to  lend  efficient  assistance.  There  were  some, 
Mlfiut,uf  the  latter  who  did  not  re8p<md,  for  in  133G  Fjunoesoo, 
fiisbop  of  Camerino,  and  Giacopo.  liishop  of  Flrtiio.  were  sum- 
looaed  to  answer  for  favoring  the  sectaries  and  ]>enti)tting  them 
to  live  ia  their  diocestis.  The  whole  Onlor,  iu  fact,  wa£  »till  in* 
beted  with  these  dangerous  doctrines,  and  couhl  not  tw  bron^t 
to  Tiew  tho  dissidents  with  proper  abhorrence,  lieoedjct  com- 
pUaed  that  in  tho  kingdom  of  Naples  many  Franciscan  convents 
^Te  shelter  to  these  perverse  brctiircn,  aud  iu  a  bull  regulating 
tb  Order  iasaed  this  same  year  he  alludes  to  those  among  them 
vbo  we&r  peculiar  vostmcnts  and.  under  a  pix^tended  exterior  of 
»notity,  maintain  hcrosita  condemned  by  the  Church  of  Rome; 
^  such,  together  with  those  who  protect  them,  are  to  bo  impris- 
«ed  nntil  tliey  submit.  It  was  not  alwayii  easy  to  enforce  obedi- 
(oce  to  these  maudates.  The  Biiihop  of  Cainenuo  vios  stubborn, 
tm-l  the  next  year.  1337,  FrA  Giovanni  di  Bot^,  the  inquisitor  of 


*  WaddiDg  odh.  1830,  No.  14-lS.— A1vw.  Pvlag.  dv  PUnct.  Ecclea  Lib.  a. 
Kt.  51  (fal.  mu  a). — Lib.  Conform iUtum  Lili.  t-  PnicL  ix.  p.  ii.— Rct«I.  S.  Brigit- 
»■  Ub.  Tn.  c.  8. 


IfiO 


THE  FRATIGELLL 


tlio  Mark  of  Ancona,  was  instructed  to  proceed  severely  against 
him  and  other  fautors  of  thesci  horntips.  Hy  hiB  nctivo  o])erations 
FrA  Giovanni  incurred  the  iU-wiU  of  the  nobles  of  his  district,  who 
bad  sufficient  intluence  ^vith  the  general,  Gemrd  Odo,  to  procure 
his  replacement  by  hia  associate  Giaoomo  and  subsequently  by  Si- 
mone  da  Ancona,  but  the  Cardinal  legate  Bertrand  intervened, 
and  Benedict  restored  him  with  high  onconiiums  on  his  efficiency. 
Although  persecution  was  thus  active,  it  is  probable  that  few  of 
the  sectaries  had  the  srpirit  of  martyrdom,  and  that  they  recanted 
under  pressure,  but  there  was  no  hesitation  in  inilicting  the  full 
punishment  of  heresy  on  thoee  who  were  persistent.  Juno .%  1837, 
at  Venice,  Fri  Francesco  da  Pistoia  was  burned  for  pertinaciously 
asserting  the  poverty  of  Christ  in  contempt  of  the  definitioiis  of 
John  XXII.,  nor  was  he  the  only  victim.* 

The  test  of  heresy,  as  I  have  said,  was  the  assertion  that  Christ 
and  the  ajK>stles  held  no  property.  This  appears  from  the  abjura- 
tion of  FrJi  KriinceBco  d'  Ascoli  in  1344,  who  recants  that  belief 
and  declares  that  in  accordance  with  the  bulls  of  John  XXII.  be 
holds  it  t-o  be  heretical.  That  such  continued  to  be  the  customary 
fonuula  appeal's  from  Kymerich,  who  instructs  his  inquisitor  to 
make  the  jjcnitent  declare  under  oath, "  I  swear  that  I  believe  in 
my  heart  and  jjrofess  that  our  I-ord  Jesus  Christ  and  his  apostles 
while  in  this  mortal  life  held  in  common  the  things  wliich  Scrip- 
ture declares  them  to  have  luul,  and  that  they  liad  the  right  of 
giving,  selling,  and  alienating  tliem.''  f 

The  heresy  was  thus  so  puroly  an  artificial  one,  creatc<l  by  the 
Holy  See,  that  jjorhaps  it  is  not  difficult  to  understand  the  sym- 
pathy excited  by  these  poor  and  self-tlenying  usoetica,  who  Imre  all 
the  external  marks  of  what  the  Church  had  for  ages  taught  to  be 
exceeding  hoUness.  Camerino  continued  to  be  a  place  of  refuge. 
In  1343  Clement  VI.  oi-dered  the  IJiBhojvsof  Ancona  and  Osimo  to 
cite  before  him  within  three  months  Gentile,  Lord  of  Camerino, 
for  various  offences,  among  which  was  protecting  the  Fraticelli, 
impeding  the  inquisitors  in  the  prosecution  of  their  duties,  and  do- 

*  WaOdbg.  ann.  19%!,  :No.  lO-U;  urn.  1336.  No.  1;  sno.  1S87,  No.  1 :  ran. 
]889,M».  I.—Uajnalcl.ann.  13»S.  Na.63;  add.  18»0,Xo.  63,64,  66-7;  Rnn.  1337, 
No.  30:  nnn.  1375,  No.  O'l.— Combti,  La  Hiroruis  in  ItuliR,  1.  82Sv— Vit.  Prima 
Beoeilicti  XII.  utB-  1337(Muratori  ».  It.  I.  XXL  n.  531). 

t  D'ArgcatrtS  I.  I.  345.— £)  muric.  p.  4S0. 


ig  for  BeTem]  ypara  tbe  excomnmnication  which  they  had 
protiounced  a^insl  him.     Eren  the  inqnisitors  thcmsolves,  C8]>&- 
oittUy  in  KranciscaD  districts,  were  not  alwuyg  earnest  in  the  work, 
pOEsibly  because  there  was  little  prDS[)ect  of  profitahlo  confiscationB 
to  be  procumci  from  those  who  rpgnnlwl  the  possession  of  property 
uaan.Kn(l  in  134tt  Clomcnt  found  hinifielf  obliged  to  rcr^rove  them 
ahjirply  for  their  tepidity.     Tn  such  districts  tbe  Fraticelli  showed 
thentselreewith  little  concealment.    Wlion,  in  1348,  Cola  di  Kienzo 
ft<*il  from  Rrtme  after  his  first  tribuneship,  he  betook  himself  to 
the  Fralicelli  of  Monte  Maiella ;  he  was  c'harmi«d  with  their  holi- 
Ti«8  and  poverty,  enteroii  the  Order  as  a  Tertiary,  and  deplored 
lh«t  men  so  exemplary  should  be  pei'»eoute<l  by  tJic  pope  iind  tho 
Inquisition.    Tuscany  was  full  of  them.    It  was  in  vain  that  a)x>ut 
this  period  Floronr*'  adopted  severe  laws  for  their  ropression,  plac- 
ing them  under  the  ban,  empowering  any  one  to  capture  them 
and  deliver  thera  to  the  Inquisition,  and  im]>08ing  a  fine  of  five 
bniiilrpd  liro  on  any  oftlcial  declining,  when  summoned  by  the  in- 
qnisitoni, to  assist  in  their  arrest.    The  very  necessity  of  enacting 
BDch  laws  shows  how  difflcidt  it  was  to  stimulate  the  people  to 
join  the  persecution.     Even  this  nppeiirs  to  have  l>ecn  ineffoutuaL 
Tben?  is  extant  a  lett«r  from  (liovannl  delle  Cello  of  Vullombrosa 
to  Tommaso  di  Neri,  a  Kmtieello  of  Florence,  in  which  the  former 
ftlUcks  the  fatuity  of  the  latter  in  luakingan  idol  of  |}overty ;  tbe 
later  was  anKW4>ri-<l  and  led  to  a  controversy  which  seems  to  have 
been  conducted  openly.* 

Yet,  triWal  as  was  apparently  the  point  at  issue,  it  was  impos- 
nUc  llrnt  men  could  runiain  contentedly  under  tbe  iHin  of  llie 
Qureb  without  Itcing  forcwl  to  adopt  principles  destructive  of  the 
whole  ecclesiajitical  organ iy^tion.  They  could  only  justify  tliem- 
bpI^w  by  holding  that  they  were  the  true  Church,  that  the  iwipaey 
*TU  heretical  and  had  forfeited  its  claim  of  DlnMlience,  nnd  could 
no  longer  guide  the  faithful  to  salvation.  It  is  an  interest- 
"1?  proof  of  the  stat^j  of  public  opinion  in  Italy,  that  in  spite  of 
^f-  tiioroughjy  organizwl  niuchinery  of  [wrsccution,  men  who  held 
tfc«6  doctrines  were  able  to  disseminate  thera  almost  publicly  and 


I  'ffcrooaky  Eiccrpit  ci  KegUtt.  Clem.  FP.  VT.  pp.  23-4,— Ray iihM.  tnn. 

I       Iltt,  So.  70.— ComU«,  Lb  Riform*,  L  336-7, 887.— Lami,  Antichiti  Toscauo,  pp. 
1^       »W  505. 

Ill.-U 


i^ 


162 


THE  FRATICELLL 


to  make  numerous  prosolytee.  About  the  middle  of  the  century 
they  circulat»}d  throughout  Italy  a  document  written  in  the  ver- 
uacular,  "  so  that  it  caa  be  unilorstot^d  by  even'  one,''  giving  their 
Koaons  for  separating  theinselveii  from  pope  and  prelate.  It  is 
singularly  temjwraie  ia  tone  and  logical  in  structure.  The  argu- 
ment is  drawn  strictly  from  Scripture  and  from  the  uttenincea  of 
the  Church  it&elf,  and  from  even  the  st-uudpoint  uf  a  canonist  it  is 
nnansweruble.  There  are  no  !i.pocaly]>tic  hysterics,  no  looking  for- 
n-ard  to  Antichrist  or  to  new  ages  of  the  world,  no  luysticism, 
Theni  is  not  oven  any  reference  to  St.  Francis,  nor  any  claim  that 
his  Rule  is  inspired  and  inviolable.  Yet  none  the  lew  the  whole 
body  of  the  (^hurdi  ifi  declared  to  be  Ixerctic,  and  all  the  faithful 
aro  summoned  to  cut  louse  from  it. 

The  reasons  alleged  for  this  are  three— First,  heresy ;  second, 
simony ;  thii'd,  fornication.  As  to  the  first,  John  XXII.  ts  proved 
to  be  a  heretic  by  the  bulls  pi-onouncing  heretical  the  doctrine  that 
Christ  and  the  a[HLstleH  possse^setl  nuthing.  This  is  easily  done  by 
reason  of  the  definitions  of  the  previous  poj>es  cotifinned  by  the 
Council  of  Vienne.  The  corollary  of  course  follows  that  all  bis 
succBSSora  and  theii-  canltmils  aitj  heretics.  As  regards  airaony, 
the  canons  of  the  DtxTctum  and  the  utterances  of  the  doctors  are 
quoted  to  show  tiiat  it  is  heresy.  As  regards  fonucation,  it  was 
easy  to  cite  the  canons  embodying  the  II  iidebrandine  doctrine  that 
the  sacniraents  of  fornicating  priests  lu-e  not  to  be  received.  It  is 
true  that  there  are  many  priests  who  are  not  fornicators,  but  there 
are  none  who  are  not  simonista — who  have  not  given  or  received 
money  for  the  sacranicnl^.  Kven  if  he  could  bo  found  who  is  in- 
nocent on  all  these  heads,  it  would  be  neccasary  for  him  to  sepa- 
rate himself  from  the  rest,  for,  as  Raymond  of  Pennaforte  shows  in 
his  Surama,  those  are  guilty  of  mortal  ain  and  idolatry  who  receive 
the  sacramenls  of  heretics.  The  Fraticelli,  thei'efore,  have  been 
obliged  to  withdraw  from  a  heretical  church,  and  they  issue  this 
manifesto  to  justify  their  couree.  If  in  any  way  it  ia  erroneous, 
tliey  ask  lo  have  the  error  ]K>inted  out ;  and  if  it  is  correct,  the 
faithful  arc  bound  to  join  them,  because,  after  t)ie  facts  are  known, 
association  with  prelates  and  clergy  thus  heretical  and  excommuni- 
cate will  involve  in  heresy  all  who  are  guilty  of  it.* 


■  Comb*,  La  RIfotina,  I.  668-7 1. 


¥ 


IKFLCBXCE    OF    JOi.cniM. 


All  the  FmtioelU,  however,  were  not  uniformly  ap-eed  upon  all 

poioU.     In  the  above  document  a  leading  argument  is  drawn  from 

the  ausumed  %'itiation  of  the  sacramenta  in  [>uUutLHl  hands — a  <Un' 

gorou  t«net,  constantly  rL-curring  to  pljtgtio  the  sucee&sors  of 

Hildebraii<l— M'hicb  wc  do  not  find  in  other  utterances  of  the  aao* 

tuiea.    la  fa<:t.  we  find  them,  in  13C2,  di\idod  into  two  branches, 

one  of  which  recognized  aa  its  leader  Tommaao,  ex-Uisho|>  of 

Aqoino,  and  held  thai  as  John  XXll.  and  his  suoowsora  were 

twretics,  tlu*  sacrament  of  ordination  derived  from  them  wa»  void, 

and  reordmalion  was  required  uE  all  ec(-k«iastics  entering  the  sect. 

The  other,  which  took  its  rmnie  from  Felipe  of  Majorca,  vtm  reg- 

nlarly  orgimized  under  a  general  uiiniater.  and,  while  iM|unlly  n> 

guriing  the  popes  as  horetirs,  recognized  the  ordinatiana  of  the 

eitahlifihment.     All  branches  of  the  soct^  however,  drew  ample 

itOK  of  reaaons  from  the  venality  and  corruption  of  the  Chorch, 

viodi  xna  doubtless  their  most  convincing  argument  with  tho 

peopltt.    There  is  extant  a  letter  in  the  vulgar  tongue  from  a  frate 

to  two  female  devotees,  arguing,  like  tbe  moi'e  formal  manifesto, 

Uiat  thoy  ajrc  bound  to  withdraw  from  the  communion  of  the 

beretkal  church.    This  in  the  beast  with  aoven  honiH,  whicli  are :  I, 

■preme  pride ;  2,  supremo  cruelty ;  3,  supreme  folly  or  wrath ;  4, 

npreroe  decoit  aud  inimitabio  falsehood  ;  &,  supreme  carnality  or 

liBt;  fi, supreme  cupidity  or  ai'arioe  ;  7.  supremo  hatred  of  truth, 

or  malice.    The  ministcre  of  this  heretic  church  have  no  shame  in 

poUicly  keeping  concubines,  and  in  selling  Christ  for  money  in  tbe 

iruramcnts.    This  lutter  further  indicates  the  legitimate  descent 

of  the  Fraticelli  from  the  Spirituals  by  a  quotation  from  Joachim 

to  show  that  St.  Francis  is  Noah,  and  the  faithful  few  of  his  cUil- 

itm  are  those  who  are  saved  witli  him  in  tbe  Ark.* 

A  still  closer  connection  may  be  infpiTud  from  a  bull  of  Url)an 
v.,  imod  about  1365,  instructing  inquisitors  to  l)e  active  in  oxter- 
lainating  heretics,  and  describing  for  their  information  the  dilfer- 
aUberadeB.  The  Frnticelli  are  ropresontLMi  as  indulging  in  glut- 
looT  tnd  laaciviousness  under  the  cover  of  strict  externjiJ  sanctity, 
pretending  to  be  Franciscan  Tertiaries.  and  begging  publicly  or 
iirtDg  in  their  own  houses.    It  is  ])ussiblo.  however,  that  his  de- 


*  TocCQ,  AreUvio  Sturico  Na|)okUuo,  1897,  Fok.  1.— Combft,  La  Rifoma,  I. 


161 


THB  yUATlCELLI. 


Bcription  of  tbtir  hulding  assemblies  in  which  they  read  01ivi*8 
"  Postil  on  the  A))<ifii!yiist'"aiul  his  other  works,  but  chiefly  the  ao- 
oounL  of  his  (loath,  is  nuhor  horrowotl  from  JJenuird  (Jui'sareoutit 
of  the  Spirituals  of  Languodoc,  than  a  correct  statement  of  the 
cufltoms  (if  the  Fmtlcelli  of  his  time.* 

Of  tht!  linal  shape  which  the  heresy  ussumed  we  have  an  an- 
thoritativo  account  from  its  rtithloas  extcnninator,  the  Inquisitor 
Giaconio  della  Mania.  In  his  "  Dialogue  with  a  Fraticello,"  written 
about  m>0,  there  is  no  word  about  the  follies  of  the  SpirituuiB,  or 
any  extraneous  dogmas.  Tho  question  turns  wholly  on  the  pov- 
erty of  Christ  and  the  heresy  of  John's  definitions  of  the  doctrine. 
Tiie  FraticeUi  stigmatize  the  orthodox  -ds  Jouiinista?,  and  in  turn 
are  c-alled  Michaeliatce,  showing  that  by  this  time  the  oxtrava- 
gancses  of  the  Spirituals  had  been  forgotten,  and  that  the  heretics 
were  the  direct  descendants  uf  the  schismatic  Fiaiiciscans  who 
foUowcd  Michele  da  Ctsena.  The  disorders  and  immorality  of 
the  clei^y  still  afforded  them  their  most  effective  ai^umenta  in 
their  active  missionary  work.  Giacomo  complains  that  they 
abused  the  minda  of  the  simple  hy  representing  the  priests  as 
simoniats  and  concnbinarians,  and  that  the  (MKjple,  imbued  with 
this  poison,  lost  faith  in  the  clei^*,  refused  to  confess  to  tbein,  to 
attend  tlieir  masses,  to  receive  tlieir  sacmments.  and  to  pay  their 
tithes,  thus  becoming  heretics  and  pagans  and  children  of  the 
devil,  while  fancying  themselves  children  of  God.t 

The  Fiuticelli  thus  funuod  one  or  mure  separate  organljtations, 
eaoh  of  which  asserted  itijolf  to  he  the  only  true  Church.  In  the 
Bcanty  information  which  we  possess,  it  is  impossible  to  trace  in 
detail  the  history  of  the  fragmentary  jiarts  into  which  they  spliti 
and  we  can  only  say  in  genend  terms  tliat  the  sect  did  not  consist 
simply  of  anchorites  and  friars,  but  had  its  regular  clergy  and 
laity,  its  bishops  and  their  supreme  head  or  pope,  known  a^  the 
IJishop  oF  Philadelphia,  that  being  the  name  assigned  to  the  cuin- 
munity.  In  1-167  this  position  was  filled  by  Tommaso,  the  ex- 
liishop  of  Aquino;  chance  led  to  the  discovery  of  such  a  pope  in 
Perugia  in  lliTl;  in  WM  wo  happen  to  know  that  a  certain  Rai< 
naldo  iUitxi  the  position,  and  shortly  after  a  frate  named  Gabriel 


*  Hartini  Append,  ml  Mosliirltn  di;  Br;;luin1is  p.  S03. 
t  Jac.  (Ic  Mnrchia  Dial.  (Baluz.  ct  Miinsi  11.  695  •*|1•^ 


^bis  even  talk  of  a  chief  of  the  loJty  who  styled  hunsctf  Km- 
peror  of  the  Chriatians.* 

It  was  in  i-uin  iliat  snccessive  popes  ordered  the  Inquisition  to 
take  the  most  active  measures  for  tUu  ttujtpression  of  the  nvt,  and 
that  oocasionol  holocausta  rewarded  their  exertions,  as  nriion,  under 
Urban  V,  nine  wrrc  I>urned  at  Vitcrho.  and  in  138S»  KrA  XHchele 
Bcrti  de  Calci  suffenxl  the  aauie  fate  at  P'lorencv.  This  last  case 
reTeak  in  its  details  the  ]x>pnlar  Bym])athy  which  favored  tbe 
labors  of  the  Fraticelli.  Fri  Alichele  had  Imhmi  sont  to  Florence 
•B  *  missionary  hy  a  congregation  of  the  sect  which  met  in  a  car- 
en  in  the  Mark  of  Ancona.  lie  preached  in  Florence  ami  made 
m»ny  converts,  and  waa  about  l«iving  the  city.  April  l!l,  when 
he  waa  betrayed  by  five  fetiialo  7x^alota,  who  sent  for  him  pittend- 
ing  to  seek  convei'sion.  li  is  trial  was  short.  A  colloagite  sitvod 
hiilife  by  riHSintJitlon^  hut  Aliclicle  waa  firm.  When  brought  np 
itt  judgment  to  be  degnided  from  the  pricslhexxl  ho  refusal  to 
kneel  before  the  bishop,  saying  that  heretics  are  not  to  be  knelt 
to.  In  walking  to  the  place  of  elocution  nuuiy  of  the  (ovwd  ex- 
changod  wnnis  of  choor  with  him,  leading  to  considerable  disturb- 
uoe.  and  when  tied  to  a  stake  in  a  sort  of  cabin  which  was  to  l>e 
»t  on  fire,  a  number  put  their  heads  iusidu  to  beg  iiim  to  recant. 
Tlie  place  was  soverul  times  filled  with  smoke  to  frighten  him^ 
but  he  was  unyielding,  and  after  his  incremation  there  were  many 
people,  we  are  told,  who  regarded  liim  as  a  saint.f 

Proceedings  such  as  this  were  not  likely  to  diminish  the  favor 
with  which  the  Fraticelli  were  popularly  regarded.  The  two  Sici- 
Htt  continued  to  be  thoroughly  interpeaetntted  with  the  heresy. 
^^n,  in  1362,  Luigi  di  Vnnxzxo  made  liis  abortive  attempt  at 
nbcllion,  he  rogarde<l  the  popidarity  of  the  Fraticelli  as  an  elo- 

'  lUjiuld.  inn.  ^U^,  No.  6;  13&7,  Xo.  13;  1374,  Xo.  U.— Jnc.  do  MorcliiA 

It  BHij  ivfprlso  a  motlera  infnlllblliBl  to  Icam  that  m  tlioroughljr  orthodox 
Mdlnnted  tux  inquuiitor  as  the-  l)li.'««e>J  Qiacomn  doll*  Matcr  arlmits  ttmt  then 
hiTB  been  heretic  popc«— popL-a  who  persisted  Mid  died  in  tlicir  Imrvsy.  Ila 
ADorfbrt*  hlmn^r.  ItoncvCT.  wiib  the  rcflcvUno  tbal  tlicy  hive  sln'ay*  been  sue- 
iMtkd  hy  Catholic  pontic  ()-  c.  p,  •IBS). 

t  Wefaoiky.  Exccrplt.  ex  Reinfitt.  Clem.  VI.  et  Innoc.  VL  p.  91.  — Rayiiald. 
uo.  13.14,  No.  31 ;  nnn.  I:168,  No.  tH.—WuiMinR.  win.  18-U.  No.  ft-7 ;  1888,  No. 
i-ft.— CotDU«,  IjU  RifurQia,  I.  :)27.  It29'3i.— Caath.  Erullci  d'  ItaUa,  I.  133-4.— 


J 


I6fi 


TUE    FHATICELLI. 


mont  of  sufficient  importance  for  him  to  publicly  prochim  sym- 
pathy with  t}ieni,  to  collect  ihem  around  liim,  and  have  Tommaso 
of  Aquino  celebrate  mass  for  hira.  Francesco  Marchisio,  Arch- 
deacon of  Salerno,  was  a  Fraticello,  in  spite  of  which  he  was  ele- 
Tilted  to  the  seo  of  Trircnto  in  1^(>2,  ami  nccnpied  it  till  hia  death 
about  twenty  yeare  later.  In  1373  (irepjrj^  XI.  was  slioc!kett  to 
learn  that  in  Sicily  the  bones  of  Fraticelli  were  venerated  as  the 
relics  of  saints,  that  chapels  and  churches  were  built  in  their  honor, 
and  that  on  their  anniversaries  the  |>opulaoe  flocked  thither  with 
ranillea  to  worRhi]>  them ;  but  it  ia  not  likely  that  his  inatruotions 
to  the  inquisitors  to  put  an  end  to  these  unseemly  manifestations 
of  mLstaken  piety  were  suooessful.  At  Peru^a,  in  1308,  the  ma^ 
istnites  wen^  induce«l  to  throw  many  of  the  Fraticelli  into  prison, 
but  to  so  little  purpose  that  the  people  pei-sistod  in  r^arding  tliem 
as  the  true  children  of  Ht.  Francis  and  in  giving  them  shelter,  while 
the  Franciscans  were  despised  on  account  of  the  laxity  of  their 
obaorvanoc,  the  luxurj*  of  their  houaes,  the  coRtlineas  of  their  vest- 
ments, and  the  jjrofusion  of  their  table.  They  wore  ridicule<l  and 
insulted  in  the  streets  until  they  scarce  darwd  to  venture  in  public  ; 
if  one  chance*!  to  let  the  collar  of  his  shirt  show  above  his  gown, 
some  one  would  pull  up  the  linen  and  ask  the  jeering  crowd  if  this 
was  the  austerity  of  St.  FrlucIb.  Ab  a  last  resort,  in  1374,  they 
sent  for  Pai)h]ceio  of  Foligiin  and  n  public  ilisputat ion  was  nrrangpd 
with  the  Fraticelli.  Faolucciu  tnmed  the  tide  of  popular  favor 
by  proving  that  obedience  to  the  pope  was  of  greater  moment  than 
obodience  to  tho  Uule,  and  the  Fraticelli  wem  driven  from  the 
town.  Even  then  the  Inquisition  seems  not  to  have  dared  to  pros- 
ecute them.* 

The  pruselyting  efforts  of  the  Fraticelli  were  by  no  means  oon- 
finotl  to  It-nly.  lli'Iieving  themselves  the  only  true  (Jhurch,  it  was 
their  duty  to  carry  salvation  throughout  the  world,  and  there  were 

"  •Toeco,  Arebirio  Storico  Napoletano,  1887,  Fmc  1.— RftynaM.  uxa.  1868, 
Kn.  16;  uin.  1S73,  No.  Sfl.^Wsildlug.  udd.  1374,  Mo.  ]e-S3.^PeU  RodalpbD 
HiBt.  Serapli,  Rflig.  Lih.  n,  f«l.  IM  a. 

p4>mgiii  at  thia  pcriud  wuh  n  cantrc  uf  rclit^uus  cicitvinont.  A  certain  Pfen> 
Giirigli,  wlio  ■fvins  to  liavo  l>c*ii  in  some  way  coniifftted  with  llic  Fntlicelli,  gHT» 
himKlf  out  ftS  the  Son  of  Ond,  nnd  dignified  his  disciples  witb  the  D&mes  of 
■poilln.  In  the  brief  allusion  which  w«  have  to  liim  ho  ia  nld  to  liftve  oblnin^ 
ten  of  tliuc  and  to  be  in  scnrch  of  an  eleri^uth.  1U»  fat«  ta  not  reoonled. — Pro- 
oa$Miu  coaira  ViilJuucs  (.Aictiivio  Stohco  Italiauo,  \^C>'>,  No.  39,  p,  S0> 


etrnest  spiriU  amon;^  them  who  wero  roady  to  ilarc  as  much  as 
UiQ  orUiddox  iimong  the  inHUuU  and  l>Arhariuii:i.    AirtutUy,  in  1344, 
Cletnent  V 1.  fuutiij  himself  obliged  to  aildn^s  tho  arvhbislin))^,  biab- 
<^a.D«i  all  tho  faithriil  throughout  Annoiiin,  Persia,  and  the  VAal, 
warning  thuiii  a^inst  thesu  eniissari«:-s  uf  Satan,  who  wcro  soek- 
>ii^  to  -tcuttoi'  among  theui  the  sciHlti  of  error  ami  sc^hism.    He  had 
no  inquisitors  to  call  upon  in  those  reg^iuns,  but  he  onleroJ  the  prol- 
At6«  to  inquire  after  them  and  to  punish  thom,  authorizing  th«m, 
vitb  a  singular  biok  uf  ptirccption,  to  invoke,  if  nec^sKiry,  tho  aid 
of  the  acfuUir  arui.     Th«  Frattcolli  made  al  louHt  ono  convert  of 
Jmport&nce,  for  in  1346  Clement  fctt  himself  obliged  to  cite  for 
P-ppfHft ranee  within  four  months  no  less  a  personage  than  the  Arch- 
ijiliup  of  Sttleacia,  wlio,  infected  with  paemlrvminorito  crrorB,  had 
itton  in  Armenian  and  was  circulnting  tbrougliout  Asia  a  pustil 
XI  SU  John  in  wliich  he  asserttxl  the  forbidden  doctrine  of  the 
verty  of  Christ.     In  i;J5i  Inntment  VL  heaixl  of  Fnilicellian 
^rusaioo&ries  lalxiring  among  the  Chazara  of  the  Crimea,  and  he 
hCortU^nrh  ordered  the  Bishop  of  Cnffa  to  rcproiiji  them  with  inquis- 
ituziul  methods.     In  Ui5  (iregory  XI.  learned  that  they  were 
active  in  1^'pt.  8yria,  ami  AsIil,  and  ho  promptly  oixlurod  the 
Franciscan  provincial  of  ihixie  ri^iuna  to  enforce  on  them  the  se- 
verity of  the  laws.    One,  nanied  Lorenzo  Carlwnello,  had  ventured 
to  Tunis,  to  infect  with  his  horeiiy  tbf  Christians  of  lliat  kingdom, 
whereupon  Gregory  oommauded  Giacomo  Fataai  and  GuUien  de 
Uipoll,  the  captains  of  tho  Christian  troops  In  the  service  of  the 
Bey  of  Tunis,  to  seize  hiiu  and  send  bim  in  chains  to  tiiu  Arch- 
bishop of  Naples  or  of  I'lso.      LKiubtlr^  if  the  command  was 
obeyed,  it  led  the  unthinking  il^lcm  to  thank  Allah  that  they 
were  not  Christians.* 

In  Languodoc  and  Provencxj  tho  rigorous  severity  with  which 
the  Spiritnab  had  been  extcrminate<l  seems  to  have  exercised  a 
vhok-soine  intluence  in  repressing  the  FraticelU,  but  nevertheless 
a  few  eases  on  I'ecurd  shows  the  extstunce  of  the  sect.  In  IXiH  wo 
hear  of  a  number  confined  in  tho  papal  dungeons  of  Avignon — 
among  them  a  papal  chaplain — and  that  Guillaume  Lombard,  the 
jddge  of  ecclesiastical  causes,  ivos  ordered  to  exert  against  them 


'  Bayaald.  un.  1844.  Xo.  8 ;  uin.  J  SM,  tto.  70 ;  wo.  ISM,  Na  31 ;  ua.  I37&. 
N«.  27. 


168 


THE   FRATICELLl 


the  full  severity  of  the  laws.  In  1354  two  Tuscan  FraticelU,  Oio 
vnTini  da  Castiglione  and  Francesco  d'  Arquata.  were  arrested  at 
Monlpellier  fur  holding  that  John  XXFI.  Iiad  forfeited  bis  author- 
ity by  altering  tlie  deHnitions  of  tho  bull  Ketii,  an<l  that  his  suc- 
cessors wero  not  the  true  Church.  Innocent  VI.  canscil  them 
to  be  brought  before  him,  but  all  efforts  to  make  them  recant 
were  vain ;  Ibey  went  tranquilly  to  the  stake,  singing  GUtrta  in 
eacelsiji,  and  were  reverenc-ed  as  martyrs  by  a  Urge  numln^r  of 
their  brethren.  Two  otliors,  named  Joan  de  Narbonne  and  Mau- 
rice had  not  long  before  met  the  same  fate  at  Avignon.  In  north- 
em  France  we  hear  httio  of  the  hercey.  The  only  recorded  ease 
seems  to  be  that  of  Denis  Soiilcchat,  a  professor  of  the  University 
of  Paris,  who  taught  in  l'M'3  that  the  law  of  divitio  love  does  away 
with  property,  and  that  Christ  and  the  apostlca  hold  none.  Sum- 
moned by  the  Inquisitor  Guillaurae  Koch  in,  he  abjurwl  before  the 
Faculty  and  then  appeale<l  to  the  pope.  At  Avignon,  when  he 
endejivored  to  pui-ge  himself  hefoi-e  an  assembly  of  theologians, 
he  only  added  new  errors  to  his  old  ones,  and  was  sent  back  to 
the  Cardinal  of  Beauvais  and  the  Sorbonne  with  orders  to  make 
him  recant,  and  to  punish  him  properly  with  the  advice  of  the 
inquisitor     Jn  130S  he  was  forced  to  a  public  abjuration.* 

In  Spain  a  few  cases  show  that  the  heresy  extended  across 
the  P_\'Tenee6.  In  Valencia,  I'ray  Jayme  Justi  and  the  Tertiaries 
Guillermo  (ielahert  and  Marti  Petri,  when  arrssted  by  R,  de 
Masqucta,  commissioner  of  the  Inquisitor  Loonanio  do  Puyccrda, 
appealed  to  Clement  V!.,  who  ordered  the  Bishop  of  Valencia  to 
release  them  on  their  giving  bail  not  to  leave  the  city  until  their 
case  should  Ijc  decided  at  Avignon.  They  must  have  had  wealthy 
disciples,  for  security  was  furnished  in  the  heavy  sum  of  thirty 
thousand  sols,  and  they  wero  dist^hargpil  from  prison.  The  papal 
court  was  in  no  hurry  with  the  caso — probably  it  was  forgotten — 
when,  ill  1353,  Clement  leametl  that  the  two  Tertiaries  were  dead, 
and  timt  Justi  was  in  the  habit  of  leaving  the  city  and  spi^eading 
his  pestiferous  doctrines  among  the  people.    He  therefore  ordered 


■  Riynald.  tinn.  1336,  No.  M;  ann.  1331,  N"o.  31;  ano.  1S68,  Nn.  Ifl-T.—Ar- 
cblvea  de  riii<i.  <ic  Careaaa.  (Dwit,  XXXV.  130).— Moittieiiue  Kciwrgeschicbte  L 

367 Heiir.  Itobdorff  Annal.  nun.  ISGS  (Kreber  et  Struv.  I.  033).  —  Kymerio. 

p.3fi8.— DArgCDtje,  I.  i.  388-fl. 


THB  HERK8T   IN  BPAIX. 


169 


Hd^,  Bishop  of  Valoncta,  anil  tlio  Inquisitor  Nicolu  Koaelli  to 
prosecute  the  case  forthwith.  Jnsti  must  have  recanted,  for  he 
vu  merely  imprisoned  for  life,  while  the  bones  of  the  two  Terti- 

^iries  were  dug  up  and  burned.  Even  mwe  obdurate  was  Fmy 
Anuddo  Mutaner,  who  for  ninotoen  years  infeotwl  Piiycorda  and 
Ucgei  with  the  ^ine  heresy,  lie  wan  contumacious  and  refused 
to  appear  when  summoned  to  abjure.  After  contiultation  with 
Gn^ry  XI.,  Itoronger  DnriH,  Bislioj)  of  rrgd,  oondcmnnl  him, 
and  M  did  Eynierich.  Pureuit  apparently  grew  hot,  and  lie  fled 
to  tiie  East.  The  hist  we  hear  of  him  is  in  1S73,  when  Gregory 
ordered  his  vicar,  the  Franciscan  Aniuud,  to  sei^e  him  and  send 
him  in  chains  to  the  paiial  court,  but  whether  the  effort  was 
oooessfol  we  have  no  means  uf  knowing.  A  bull  of  Martin 
Y.  in  1+36  shows  the  oontinuod  existence  of  FraticeUi  in  Ara- 
goB  awl  Catalonia,  and  the  necessity  of  active  measures  for  their 
eitirpfltion-* 

It  was  probably  a  heresy  of  the  same  nature  whieh,  in  1443, 
WM  discovered  in  Durango.  Biscay.  The  heresiarch  was  the  Fran- 
citcan  Alonso  de  Mella,  bi'Otfaer  of  Juan,  CaiiUnnl -bishop  of  Zft- 
BOia,  and  the  sectaries  were  known  a«  Cercenis.  The  story  that 
AloDso  taught  indiacriniinate  sexual  intercourse  is  doubtless  one 
of  tlw  customary  cxags^rations.  King  Juan  11.,  in  the  aljsence 
of  the  Inquisition,  sent  the  Franciscan.  Fnincisco  de  Soria,  and 
Juan  Alonso  Cherino,  Abbot  of  AlcaU  la  Real,  to  investigate  the 
nutter,  with  two  alguazils  and  a  sufficient  force.  The  heretics 
wei»  seized  and  carried,  some  to  ValladoUd  and  some  to  Santo 
IloiDingD  de  lu  ('alvada.  where  torture  was  used  to  extract  oon- 

jfawm,  and  the  obstinate  ones  were  burned  in  considerable  num- 

IW8.     Fray  Alonso  de  ilella,  however,  managed  ti>  escai>i>  and 

HEd  to  Granadiii  it  is  salil,  with  some  of  his  girls;  but  he  did  not 

Wert  his  fate,  for  he  was  itCftHaveren/Io  by  the  Moors — tliat  is,  put 

a  lingering  death  with  pointed  sticks.    The  affair  must  haro 

i»do  a  profound  impression  on  the  popular  mind,  for  oven  until 

loiJem  times  the  people  of  Durango  WHre  reproaclied  by  their 

!ighborB  with  the  ** awto*  (^-c  Fnti/  Ahmnc"  and  in  iJSiiS  an  ovor- 

leatous  aloalde,  to  obUterate  all  record  of  the  matter,  burned  the 


■  RipollU.245.— Eymeric.pp.2M-7.— RAjDald.MD.1373,No.19;  aon.l42«. 
JTcl  18.— Wnddiag.  ann.  1871,  No.  3S-tO. 


170 


TU£  FBATICBLLL 


original  doouments  of  the  process,  wliicb  till  then  had  repoeed 
qiiietl}'  among  the  records  of  the  parish  church.* 


The  violent  measures  of  John  XXII.,  followed  up  by  his  suo- 
oessore,  for  u  wbilo  effectually  raprcssed  the  spiritual  asoeticism 
of  the  Franciscans.  Y«t  it  was  iiii))os3ible  that  impula«8  which 
were  so  marked  a  characteristio  of  the  a^  should  be  wholly  oblit- 
erated in  an  Order  in  which  they  had  become  ti-aditiouaL  We 
see  this  in  the  kindness  manifested  by  the  Franciscans  to  the  Fra^ 
tioelU  wheu  it  could  be  don'j  without  too  much  riak,  and  we  cannot 
doubt  that  there  were  many  who  aspired  to  iinitu^te  the  fouuder 
without  daring  to  overlejip  the  bounds  of  obe<lience.  Snob  men 
oould  nut  but  Look  with  alarm  and  disgust  at  the  growing  world- 
UnoBs  of  the  Order  under  the  new  dispensation  of  John.  When 
the  Provincial  of  Tuscany  could  lay  aside  five  hundred  florins  out 
of  the  alius  given  to  liis  bretht-en,  and  then  lend  this  sum  to  tbu 
Hospital  of  S.  Maria  of  btcna  at  ten  per  cent,  |>er  annum,  although 
so  flagninl  a  violation  of  his  vows  and  of  the  canons  againat  usury 
brought  upon  liim  the  penalty  of  degradation,  it  retjuired  a  divine 
visitation  to  impress  his  sin  u}>on  the  minds  of  his  fellows,  and  bo 
died  iu  1373  in  great  agony  and  without  tlie  sacraments.  Variona 
other  manfestations  about  the  same  time  indicate  the  magnitude 
of  the  evil  ami  the  iuipossibiUty  of  suppressing  il  by  human  means. 
Under  Boniface  IX.,  Franciscans,  we  aro  told,  vera  in  the  liabit 
of  socking  dispensations  to  enable  them  to  hold  Iieneflocji  and  erea 
pluralities ;  and  the  pope  decived  that  any  Kendicant  desiring  tu 
be  tranafon'cd  to  a  non-Mendicant  Order  should,  as  a  ]>r(^]iminary, 
pay  a  hundred  gold  florins  t^  the  papal  camera.  Under  suoU  a 
system  there  could  be  scarce  a  pretence  vl  iiuiintaining  the  holy 
poverty  which  had  been  the  ideal  of  Fiimcis  aiid  his  folioworB-t 

Yet  the  ardent  thirst  of  poverty  and  the  belief  that  in  it  lay 
the  only  assuretl  patti  to  salvation  were  too  widely  diffused  to 
be  repivssed.     Giovanni  Cohmibini,  a  rich  and  ambitious  eilizea 


'  •  Oftriljay,  Coinp.  HUlorisl  de  Espafta,  Lib.  xvr.  c.  31.— La  Puente,  Epit  de 
to  OiMica  de  JOM  II.,  Ub.  rv.  c.  t— Pela^o,  UoterodoxM  fitpafiolcs,  I.  Me-7.* 
Marians,  Lib.  xxi.  c.  18.— RotJrigio.  Inquiatcion,  II.  11-19.— Pammo.  p.  131, 

t  Wadding,  •no.  1883,  No.  2. — Uobclins  Penoiue  Coatuodroin.  Mt.  v,  o,  04 
(MdLoDi.  Rer.  Ocrtniiu.  I.  317). 


ot  Siena  had  his  thoughts  accidentally  directod  to  hearen.  His 
career  strikingly  resecnblci!  that  uf  Peter  Waldo,  »are  that  th« 
Charch.  ^ron-n  wiser,  utilized  his  zc>al  instead  of  antagoDizing  him. 
The  Order  of  Jesufttg  which  ho  foundeti  was  approved  by  UrbaaV. 
in  1367.  It  was  an  order  of  lay  brethren  under  the  Atigugtinian 
Rule,  vowed  to  imverty  and  devntod  to  the  care  of  the  sick,  not 
unlike  that  of  the  Cellitcs  or  Alcxians  of  the  IChiuelands.* 

It  was  inevitable  that  there  ghoald  be  dissatisfiwtion  among 
the  more  ascotio  Franciscans,  and  that  the  more  msIoqs  of  these 
ihonld  seek  some  remedy  short  of  lieixsy.  In  laso  (lentde  of 
Spoloto  obtained  from  Clement  VI.  authorization  fur  some  houaes 
<^itncter  obwrvaaoe.  Inimediatdy  the  experience  of  Angelo 
ud  Liberate  was  repeated.  The  wrath  of  the  Conventuals  was 
wrcitwt  The  innoviilors  wore  aocased  of  adopting  the  short  and 
nnoff  goivQS  which  had  been  the  distin^ishing  mark  of  the 
dreaded  Olivista  in  tho  GenenU  Chapter  of  13&3,  tlie  General 
fui^nano  was  ut^cd  to  exterminate  thom  by  the  measurofi  which 
M  proved  so  effective  in  Languodoc.  To  this  he  did  not  aaaeiit, 
WbeMt  spiett  to  work  to  obtain  evidence  against  them,  and  soon 
Tas  able  to  accuse  them  of  receiving  l-'nitlcclli.  Tliey  admitted 
Uw  fact,  but  argued  that  this  bad  been  in  the  hojw  of  converting 
fitt  heretics,  and  when  tliey  proved  obstinate  tliey  had  been  ex- 
pdlet^but  tbey  had  not  been  reportet)  to  tlie  Inquisition  as  duly 
reqiurod.  Armed  with  thia,  Farlgrano  representod  to  Innocent  VI. 
the  grave  dangers  of  the  innovation,  and  obtained  a  revocation  of 
ih«  papal  authorization.  The  brethren  Mere  diepersc*),  Gentile 
•nd  two  companions  were  thrown  into  prison  at  Urvieto;  his  uo- 
adjotor,  FrA  Martino,  a  meet  exemplary  man,  who  shone  in  mira- 
olfs  after  death,  dic<i  the  next  yeair.  and  the  rest  were  reduced  to 
obedience.  After  prolonged  captivity  Gentile  was  released,  and 
died  in  1362,  worn  out  with  fruitless  labors  to  restore  the  diaoi- 
pltne  of  the  Owier.t 

More  fortunate  was  his  disai]>le.  Paoluocio  da  Trinci,  of  Foligno, 
ftliiDple  and  unlearned  friur,  who  had  obtained  from  his  kinsman, 


*  BaluK.  et  Mmifti  IT.  SM  «4}q.    la  IflOO  Paul  V.  allowed  the  Jcsuats  to  tak« 

*  Wnddtng,  ann.  13S0.  No,  13 ;  ana.  1364,  No.  1,  S;  ann.  1362,  "So.  i.—Chroa. 
®"^r?CT  ann.  IS-W,  I»54. 1355. 


J 


una 


ITS  *rHK  FRATICFLLI. 

UgolJno,  Lord  of  Foligno,  a  dungeon  in  which 
for  iificetic^ism.  Thnugh  he  had  ppmiissjon  for  this  from  his  su* 
periore,  be  sutrerwi  much  from  the  hoslility  of  the  lajcer  brethren, 
but  his  austerities  gained  liini  great  popular  reverence  and  many 
disciples.  In  13G8  the  General  Farignano  chanced  to  attend  a  pro- 
vincial chapter  at  Foligno,  and  was  pereuacJed  to  ask  of  Ugolino 
a  spot  called  Brulliano,  in  the  mountains  between  Foligno  and 
Caraerino,  as  a  liennitage  for  Paoluccio  and  Im  followers.  After 
his  roqnesJ.  was  grantod  he  dreaded  a  schism  in  the  Order  and 
wished  to  recall  it,  but  Ugolino  held  him  to  his  pur|>Dse. 
place  was  wild,  rocky,  marshy,  unwholesome,  infestcit  with 
{Mints,  and  iilmost  uninliahiltMi.  Thither  Paoluccio  lotl  his  bretli 
and  they  were  forced  to  mlopt  the  sabota  or  W(H)deii  shoos,  which 
became  the  distinguishing  foot-gear  of  their  Order.  Their  repu- 
tation spread  apace;  converts  (locked  to  thorn;  their  buildings 
required  enlai-gemont ;  associate  houses  were  fonndeii  in  many 
phiccs,  and  thus  arose  the  01>scrvantine«,  or  Franciscans  of  strict 
observance— an  event  in  the  history  of  the  Church  oaly  second  in 
imjmrtunce  to  the  origintil  foundation  of  the  Mendicjint  Orders.* 

When  I'aolueeio  died,  in  1390,  he  waa  already  reckoneil  us  a 
provincial  within  the  Order.  After  nn  interval  ho  was  succeed' 
by  his  coadjutor,  Giovanni  Stronconi.  In  1405  began  the  uiarve' 
lous  career  of  St.  liemnrdino  of  Siena,  who  counts  as  the  fM*mal 
founder  of  the  Observantines.  They  had  merely  been  called  the 
Brethren  of  the  Ilermitages  until  the  CoimcU  of  Constance  estab- 
lisliod  them  as  an  organization  virtually  independent  of  the  Con- 
ventuals, when  they  took  the  name  by  which  they  have  since  been 
known.  Everywhere  their  institution  spread.  Kew  houses  arose^ 
or  those  of  the  Conventuals  were  refonin?*!  and  given  over  to 
them.  Thus  in  !+*26  thoy  were  introduo'd  into  the  province  of 
Strassburg  through  the  int«r\-entton  of  Matilda  of  Savoy,  wife  of 
the  Palsgrave  Ijouis  the  Hcnnled.  Familiar  in  her  youth  with 
their  virtues,  she  took  occasion  at  Heidelberg  to  point  out  to  her 
husband  the  Franciscans  in  their  convent  garden  lielow  them, 
amusing  themselves  with  militar}''  cjtercises.  It  resulted  in  tho 
reform  of  all  the  houses  in  his  dominions  aud  the  introduction  of 
tho  Obscrvnntine  discipline,  not  without  serious  trouble.     1 


eHl 
lal    I 


Wudding.  ann.  1368,  No.  10- 13. 


L_ 


RISE   OF   THE   OBSEBVANTINEa 


173 


XtdiolAs  of  Cusa,  as  legate,  foroe^l  all  the  honses  in  the  diooeM  of 
Bamberg  tu  adopt  tbc  Olisoi'vantiiie  distri])lino,  iintler  threat  of 
furfeiling  their  jjriviie^'s.  In  1431  tlic  lioly  house  on  Mt.  Al- 
XKena,  the  Franciscan  Mecca,  was  ntmio  over  to  them,  and  in  1434 
the  gitardiansliip  of  the  Holy  Placvfi  in  Jenisalem.  In  li^O  we 
horof  their  jienetrating  to  distant  Ireland.  It  is  not  to  be  sup- 
posed that  the  Conventuals  submittoJ  quietly  to  the  oncrooch- 
meots  and  tritimphs  of  the  hated  ascetics  whom  for  a  c«ntury  and 
ft  liaU  they  had  successfully  battled  and  [>ersecuted.  Quarrels, 
sbar[)er  unil  biiterur  even  than  thtise  with  tlie  Ucmiinicamt,  were 
oi  ooostant  oocunvnce,  and  wore  beyond  the  power  of  the  popes 
loUbj.  A  promisitig  effort  at  i-eunion  attein)iteil  bv  Capistrano 
in  1430,  under  tlie  auspices  of  Martin  V.,  was  (lefeate<l  by  the  in- 
canble  laxity  of  the  ("onventuaU,  and  there  was  nothing  left  for 
Ml  sides  but  to  continue  the  war.  In  1435  the  strife  rose  to 
iQcba  ]iitch  in  France  that  ('harlee  VII.  was  obliged  to  appeal 
lo  the  (Jonncil  of  Basle,  whioh  responded  with  a  deei-ee  in  favor 
of  tiic  Ohserrantines.  The  struggle  was  hopeless.  The  corrup- 
tion of  the  Conventuals  was  so  universally  reci^nixod  that  even 
fiuHlI,  does  not  hesitate  to  say  that,  though  they  generally  excel 
vs  theologians,  virtue  ia  the  last  tiling  about  which  most  of  them 
oonceni  themselves.  In  contrast  with  this  the  hoUuesa  of  the  new 
Organization  won  for  it  the  veneration  of  the  people,  while  the  un- 
flagging zeal  with  which  it  served  the  Uoly  See  secured  for  it  the 
(awr  of  the  popes  precisely  as  the  Mendicant  Orders  had  done  in 
ibo  thirteenth  century.  At  first  merely  a  branch  of  the  Francis- 
*18,  then  placed  under  a  nrtually  indopondout  vicargrnoml,  at 
Ittigib  Leo  X.,  after  vainly  striving  to  heal  the  diffei-ences,  gave 
*l»ObBervantincs  a  gi*neml  minister  and  reduced  the  Conventuals 
to&SDbordinau>  position  under  a  geneml  master.* 


■  Wkdding.  ftim.  1875,  No  44 ;  Min.  1300,  No.  I-IO;  fcrn  WOS,  No,  1 ;  »nn. 
l^«,Ko.  8:  ann.l41S.  No.  6-7;  ann.  U3I,  Nu.8;  ann.  1434.  Ko.  7 ;  ann.  14S3, 
"0.18-13;  wu),  1458,  No  18-20;  ann,  l-t-M.No.  2*-!);  ann.  14ri5,No.4ft-7;  ann. 
'*M.Xo.  126;  ann.  1468,  No. 7-8:  ann.  1468,  No.  18-20.  — Clirwi.  OUwabet^r 
«ta.l420.  1430,  1501.  1517.— Tlieiner  Monnment.  Uilwm.  rt  Scoter,  No.  801,  p. 
*V.  Ko.  844,  p.  460.— <¥:n.  SyliHI  0pp.  inedd.  (Attl  detla  Accademla  dd  Linccl, 
**«*.  p.  546).— Chron.  Anon.  {Aiialect*  Franciscaiia  I.  891-2). 

Tll^  bittrrncsi  of  tbc  strtfc  bctvccn  the  two  branclin  nf  tlip  Order  li  ttlu»- 
initd  by  ilie  fact  tint  the  Fnuicincuu  Churcli  of  Patnia,  id  ftt^Jorca,  wbeo  atruck 


Tfi£  PRATIOELLL 

A  religious  revival  snch  as  this  brought  into  service  a  class 
mea  who  were  worthy  representative*  of  the  Pet«r  Martyrs  and 
Ouillem  Ai-nauds  of  the  early  Inquisition.     Under  tlieir  ruthless 
enei^  the  Kralicelli  were  doomoti  to  extinction.    Tho  troubles 
of  the  Groat  Schism  ha"!  allowetl  the  heretics  to  flourish  almost 
unnoticod  and  uiunule«t«d,  but  after  the  Church  had  healed  its 
dissensions  at  Constanoe  and  hail  entered  u)h>u  a  Dew  and  vi^r- 
0U9  life,  it  set  to  work  in  earnest  to  tsmdiciito  them.     Hardly  had 
Martin  V.  returned  to  Italy  from  Constance  when  be  issued  from 
Mantua,  November  14,  1418,  a  bull  in  whicli  he  doploros  the  in- 
crease of  tho  aboiaiimhle  sect  in  many  part^,  and  es))ecially  in  the 
Roman  province,     t'ortifietl  with  the  protection  of  the  temporal 
lords,  thtty  ubuse  and  threaten  the  bi&ttops  and  inquisitors  who  at-     , 
lempt  to  re]>re8s  tUem.     The  bisho]w  and  inquiBitors  are  therq^f 
fore  iiiiitructOil  to  proceed  against  tliem  vigorously,  without  r«^^ 
gard  to  li[nits  of  jurisdiction,  and  to  pi-usiecute  tlieir  pi-uluclut 
even  if  the  latter  are  of  opiacojuil  or  regal  dimity,  which  sul 
ciently  indicates  that  the  Fraticelli  had  found  favor  with  those 
highest  rank  iji  botli  Church  and  btate.    Tliia  accomphtihed  httle, 
for  in  a  subtiequent  bull  of  1421  Martin  alludes  to  tlie  continued 
increase  of  the  heresy,  and  tries  the  expedient  of  appointing  the 


hy  liglitoiug  BDi]  partially  ruined  in  HtJO,  remained  on  this  account  unrepa 
for  ncnrl;  u  liuoclrcd  ye(ir»,  nntil  ttie  Ob**nfiiiitlnM  got  fhe  better  of  thi-ir  tivaj 
andivlilulnt-d  pos^eaBloflofit.— Danieto,  Pro  y  Bover,  Hist,  de  Srullurcs,  H.  KMM- 
(Pftlma,  IS41).     It  la  related  that  wbcu  SixtiM  Pi.,  wlio  had  betn  a  Conventin 
propcaed  in  14*7  to  Bubjuct  tbc  Obwrvantinus  tu  [heir  riraU,  llie  b1«fiaed  Ota 
conin  di-lla  Marca  tliraalenuii  hiui  with  au  evil  deatb,  and  tie  de«iKt(-d.-»(Chn)a. 
Olaaflbcr^r  aon.  1477). 

The  cxd-L'diiig  laxity  provailing  amuDg  Lite  Couvimtuals  ia  iudicated  by  Ic 
tm  granted  in  1431  by  tlie  Franciscan  general,  Antnoitia  dc  Pcrreto,  to  Priar 
Liebbftrdt  FnrBchatnmcr  permitting  bim  to  deposit  with  n  lahbful  fViend  nil 
alma  ^iTcn  tr>  liini.  and  to  i>xptmd  them  on  tii*  own  wiintv  or  fi>r  tlie  IxtneSt  of 
tb«  Order,  at  hb  (.li^retion:  he  waa  alto  r^iniriMl  to  cnnfeAi  only  four  timet  n 
year.— (Chron.  Olaseberger  ann.  Ulfl).  The  Weneral  Chapter  b«ld  at  Forll  in 
Ufll  was  obliged  to  prohibit  the  bretbrcn  froni  u-adiii^f  and  Icndiu^  inoncy  on 
luury,  under  pain  of  iuipriitouiLent  and  cotilUtutiou.—flb.  ann.  H!!l).  Frotu  the 
Clittpter  of  L'cbciiin|{eii,  held  in  143Q,  we  learn  that  there  irnn  a  cualom  by  whieb, 
fur  u  auiQ  of  loouey  paid  dumi,  Fratieisuaii  couTuots  would  enter  into  ubiigatiom 
vf  detinile  Ht)j)«n*la  to  individual  fnara. — <Ib.  ann.  1436).  In  fiurt,  th«  cHorta 
■m  at  tbia  period,  sUniulatiHl  by  the  rivalry  of  the  ObserviuiUuea,  rereal 
ir(}  olrliviouB  Qua  Urd«t  bad  bwoDie  of  all  tb«  prescriptions  of  tbc  Rul*. 


FAlLCnK  or  IKQUISITIOK. 


176 


CinlinalH  of  Alhnno  and  I'ortn  ns  spccinl  (xunraiasioners  for  its 
inpprewion.  The  car«liiniJ8  proved  a«  inf^tticient  as  their  pred^ 
CMBore.  In  142^  the  (iciieral  Council  of  biena  was  greatly  acan- 
iblized  at  finilin;^  that  at  Heniscola  thoru  watt  a  hurt'tiu  pu|)e  wiUi 
U>CoU«^  of  cftrdinaU,  apparently  flourishing  n-itliout  an  attempl 
at  cOMcnlment.  and  the  GalUcan  nattun  tDacle  tieveral  ineffectual 
fffoits  to  mdace  the  council  tu  taku  active  uicaaui'es  agaimit  the 
Mcdar  authorities  under  whose  favor  those  scandals  wrra  allowed 
toKdst.  IJoir  utterly  the  machinery  of  pei-socution  had  broken 
<to*n  18  illustrated  by  tho  i-ase  of  thm>  Fmticelli  who  bad  ul  this 
ptriod  been  detected  in  Florence— iiartoloimuoo  di  Matt«o,  Gio- 
nmni  di  Marino  of  Lucca,  and  Bartulonimeo  di  Pietro  of  Pisa. 
ErideDtly  distrusting  the  Klurentine  ImiuisiLiuo,  which  wan  Frau- 
ciKin.  Martin  Y .  sjtecially  inlnisteil  tho  raatt«r  to  his  le^toe  tlieo 
pTcotling  oTor  tho  Counoi)  of  Siena.  On  the  sudden  dissolution 
n*  tbe  wjuncD  the  logates  returned  to  Rome,  except  the  I>ominican 
Gfliwml,  TiEonanlo  of  Florence,  w!io  went  to  Florence.  To  him, 
tberefore,  Martin  wrote,  April  &4.  1424,  em]>OH'enn^  him  to  ter- 
minate the  cue  himself,  and  expressly  forMilding  tho  [nqtiiHtor 
^t  Flumnce  from  taking  any  part  in  it.  In  September  uf  tUo 
amfi  yeiar  Martin  instructed  Piero,  Ahlmt  of  ICoKioio,  his  rector  of 
the  Mark  of  Ancona,  to  extirpate  the  Fratio^lli  existing  there,  and 
thf  difficulty  of  the  undertaking  whs  recognJzeil  in  the  unwonted 
cJemency  which  authorized  Plero  to  reconcile  ovun  Ihuso  who  had 
been  guilty  of  pe|>eiited  relapses.* 

Seme  new  motive  force  wa8  evidently  reqnireil.    Thejpe  were 

latrs  ID  abundance  for  tho  cxti.-nuinaliun  of  heixtiy,  and  an  tslubo- 

rate  orgnniwition  for  their  enforcement,  but  a  paralysis  Beemp<l  to 

h«ve  fallen  at>on  it,  and  all  the  effoils  of  the  Iloly  See  to  make  it 

do  its  duty  was  in  vain.    The  prohlom  was  solved  when,  in  J-J26, 

Hartin  boldly  overslaughed  the  Inquiaititm  and  appointed  two 

Observantines  as  inquisitors,  without  limitation  of  distnct«  and 

irith  power  to  appoint  deputies,  thus  rendering  them  supreme  over 

the  whole  of  Italy.     The.su  wew  tho  men  whom  we  have  so  often 

met  before  where  heresy  was  to  bo  conibat«d — San  Giovanni  da 


•  Raynald.  ann.  1418,  No.  U  ;  ann.  1421,  N'a  4,  ann.  1424,  No.  7.— Jo.  dc  Ra- 
gmlo  de  Init.  Buil.  Cvaoil.  (Mou.  Cooc.  Ona.  Sue.  XV.  T,  L  pp.  30-1, 40,  65).^ 
Ripoll  U.  045. 


176 


THE  FRATICELLL 


Caputrano,  and  the  blessod  Qiaoomo  dn  Mont«pran<Ione,  gener- 
ally known  iisildbi  Marra — ^hoth  full  of  /ral  and  onorgy,  who  richly 
eaniLid  tlietr  rospwaivo  cnnoniziition  and  lH?utilicatioii  by  lifelong 
devotion  and  by  services  ivhich  can  scarce  be  overestimated.  It 
is  true  that  (TJacouio  was  oomnusskmcd  unly  as  a  missionary,  to 
preach  to  the  heretics  aud  reconcile  them,  but  the  dilTorence  was 
practically  nndiscoverable,  and  when,  n  quarter  of  a  century  later, 
he  fondly  looke<l  back  over  the  es]>loiU  of  liis  youth,  he  related 
with  pride  how  the  heretics  lied  from  before  his  faoo.  al«Midoned 
their  etronghohls,  and  left  their  fhwks  to  his  mercy.  Then-  heail- 
quarters  seera  to  have  been  in  the  Mark  of  Aneono,  and  chiefly 
in  the  dioceses  of  Fabrtano  and  .T«si.  There  the  new  intjuisitors 
boldly  attacked  them.  There  was  no  resistance.  Such  of  the 
teachers  as  could  do  so  soug-ht  safety  in  flight,  and  the  fate  of  the 
rest  may  be  guessefl  from  the  instructions  of  Martin  in  142S  to 
Astorgio,  Bishop  of  Ancona,  his  lieutenant  in  tlio  Mark,  with  re- 
spcct  to  the  village  of  Mag-njilata.  As  it  had  l>oon  a  receptacle  of 
heretics,  it  is  to  be  levelled  M'ith  the  earth,  never  to  be  rebuilt. 
Stubborn  heretiea  ai-e  to  Iw.i  dealt  with  ac^eonJing  to  the  law— that 
is,  of  course,  to  be  hurnwl,  as  Giaeonio  della  Marca  tells  us  was  the 
case  with  many  of  them.  Those  who  repent  may  be  reconcile*!, 
but  their  h'ailei's  are  to  be  Imprisoneil  for  life,  anil  are  to  l>e  tort- 
ured, if  neceasary,  to  force  them  to  reveal  the  names  of  their  fel- 
lows elsewhere.  The  simple  folk  who  have  been  misled  are  to  bo 
scattered  around  in  the  vicinage  where  they  can  cultivate  their 
lands,  and  are  to  be  recompensed  by  dividing  among  them  the 
property  confiscate*!  from  the  re,st.  The  children  of  heretic  i>arents 
are  to  be  taken  away  and  sent  to  a  distance,  where  they  can  be 
brought  uji  in  the  faith.  Heretic  books  are  to  be  diligently 
searched  for  throughout  the  province ;  nnd  all  ma^stmtes  and 
communities  are  to  be  warned  that  any  favor  or  protection  sliown 
to  heretics  will  be  visitwl  with  forfeiture  of  municijial  rights.* 

Such  measures  ought  to  have  been  clTcctivo,  as  well  as  the  de- 
vice of  Capifltrano,  who,  after  driving  the  FraticeUi  out  of  Massacio 
and  Palestrina,  foundwl  Obserrantino  houses  there  to  serve  as 
citadels  of  the  faith,  but  the  hereticH  were  stubborn  and  enduring. 


•  Wfiaaing.  BOn.  142«,  No.  H. 
DbL  (Boluz.  et  Maosi  II.  597.  009). 


-lUj-ukld.  naa.  1428,  Ko.  7. — Jac.  de  Sl&rctiia 


CAPISTRANO    ANU    1I£LLA  UAKCA. 


177 


Eugcnius  rV.  succeeded  to  the  papacy  he  renewetl  Capia- 
biBo'a  commission  in  143'J  as  a  general  inquiHitor  agninBt  the 
fniiceUl  We  have  no  details  of  his  nctirtty  during  this  period, 
bui  lie  iras  doubtless  bwsily  employed,  though  he  was  deprived  of 
tlietssistaiioe  of  C-riocoinn,  who  until  14441  was,  as  we  bare  seen,  at 
TTtvk  among  the  Cathiiri  of  Bosnia  and  the  Hussites  of  Hungary. 
The  Fmticelii  of  vVneona  were  still  troubletfouie,  for.  on  his  return 
fmn  Asia  in  1441,  Giacomo  waa  sent  thither  as  special  inquis- 
itor for  their  Riippression.  When,  in  1447,  NieholjLs  V.  aseended 
tk  papal  throne,  ho  made  haste  to  renew  Capistrano's  commia- 
iioti,and  in  1449  a  combined  attack  was  made  on  the  heretics  of 
\i»  Mark,  |iossihly  stimulate<i  by  the  captnre,  in  his  own  court,  of 
ftbtabop  of  the  Fratioelli  named  \fattoo,  disguised  in  a  Franciscan 
lubit.  Nicholas  himself  \vent  to  Fabriano,  while  Capislmno  and 
Oiaonnu  scoured  the  conntry.  Magnalata  hatl  boon  rebuilt  in 
tfiile  of  the  prohibition,  and  it,  with  Migiiorotta,  Poggio,  and 
Kerah),  was  brought  back  to  the  faith,  by  what  means  we  can 
Vol!  goesB.  tiiaeomu  biuists  that  the  hen*tic8  gave  tive  hundnxl 
(bats  lo  a  bravo  tu  slay  t'upislntno,  and  on  one  uccasion  two  hun- 
ilrud  and  on  another  one  hundred  and  fifty  to  procure  his  own 
<ltttl),  but  the  assassins  in  each  oaae  were  touched  with  oompuno- 
IkHi  itnd  came  in  and  made  confession — dnubtlefis  a  profitable 
iPvHation  for  sharpers  to  make,  for  no  one  acqiuiinted  with  Italian 
wiety  at  tliat  period  can  Imagine  that  such  sums  would  not  have 
eO«cted  their  object.  The  inr]uisitors,  however,  wore  specially 
prntectnl  by  Hi'avon.  Capistrauo's  legend  relates  that  on  one 
WOttion  the  heretics  waited  for-him  in  ambush.  His  companions 
IMned  in  safety,  and  wlien  he  followed  alone,  al)surhcd  in  medita- 
twn  und  prayer,  a  sudden  whirlwind,  with  torrents  of  rain,  kept 
fii*  usaiUnts  in  their  lair,  and  he  escape<l.  Giacomo  was  similarly 
<)>^Hy  guai-ded.  At  Matelica  a,  heretic  concealed  himself  in  a 
clinpfii  of  the  Virgin  to  assail  the  inquisitor  as  he  [mssed,  but  the 
^'*fpn  Jip]>ej»re<1  to  him  with  tliPt'iits  so  terrible  that  he  fell  to  the 
ground  and  lay  there  (ill  the  neighbors  carried  liiui  to  a  hospital, 
Bod  it  was  three  montlis  before  he  was  able  to  seek  Giacomo  at 
Fenao  and  abjure.* 


'Wftdding.un.  ]436.  Nik  19-10;  R(igest.HarL  V.  No.  169:  ana.  1483.  Ko. 
M;  ttun.  1441,  No.  a7-B;  »nn.  1447,  Mo.  10{  un.  1466,  No.  108;  uin.  1478, 
UL— 12 


178 


THE  PBATlCEtLL 


Tho  unlucky  captives  were  brought  liefore  ^'ioholafi  at  Fabri- 
ano  anrl  burned.  (JJacomo  tolls  us  that  the  st«ncb  lasted  for  three 
days  and  extended  as  far  as  the  n^nvent  in  which  he  was  staying. 
He  exert«d  iuiiu»el£  to  save  the  suulu  uf  those  whose  Uxlit»  \ver6 
forfeit  hy  reason  uf  relaiwe,  and  suctxrctlet)  in  all  cases  but  ona 
This  hnrdoncd  heretic  was  the  treasurer  of  tlio  sent,  named  Chiuso. 
ilo  refused  Co  recant,  and  would  not  call  upon  Ood  or  the  Virgin 
or  the  saints  for  aid,  but  simply  said  "  Fire  nill  not  burn  me." 
His  endurance  was  tPKt«l  to  tho  utmost.  For  three  days  he  was 
burned  piecemeal  at  intervals,  but  his  resolution  never  gave  way, 
and  at  last  be  expired  impenitent,  in  spite  of  the  kindly  efforts  to 
torture  him  to  heaven.* 

After  this  we  hear  tittle  of  the  Fraticelli.  althoagh  the  sect 
still  oontinuod  to  exist  for  a  wliiJu  in  secret.  In  1407  Paul  11.  oon- 
vorted  a  Jiumber  of  them  who  were  brought  from  Poll  to  Kome. 
Eight  men  and  sir  women,  with  paper  mitres  on  their  heads,  were 
exposed  to  tlie  jeei-s  of  the  populace  on  a  high  soaiTold  at  the  Ara- 
ooali,  while  tho  papal  vicar  and  five  bi8ho(is  pmiohcd  for  their 
conversion.  Their  penance  consisted  in  impriaonnient  in  the  <'sia.- 
pidoglio,  and  in  wearing  a  long  robe  bearing  a  white  Qro«s  on 
breast  and  back.  It  was  probably  on  this  ocoufiiun  thut  Kodrigo 
Sanchez,  u  favorite  of  I'aul's,  and  subsequently  Bishop  of  Paleuoia, 
wrote  a  treatise  on  the  poverty  of  Christ,  in  which  he  proved  that 
eccle-siastics  led  apostohe  lives  in  the  niid^it  of  their  podsesaiuns. 
In  H7i  TrA  Tommaso  di  8cariino  was  sent  to  Piombino  and  the 
maritime  parts  of  Tuscany  to  drive  out  some  Fraticelli  who  hod 
been  discovered  there.  This  is  the  last  allusion  to  them  that  1  have 
met  with,  and  thereafter  thoy  may  be  considered  as  virtually  ex- 
tinct. That  they  soon,  passed  completely  out  of  notice  may  be 
inferred  from  the  fact  tliat  in  148T.  when  the  Spanish  liiquisition 
persecnted  some  Observantines,  Innocent  VIII.  issued  a  general 
order  that  any  Franciscans  imprisoned  by  Dominican  inquisitors 
•faould  be  handed  over  fur  trial  to  their  own  superiors,  and  that  no 
such  prosocQtions  should  be  thereafter  undertaken.! 


No.  24-5.— Raynaltl.  Ann.  1432,  No.  S4.— Jac.  de  Mnrchia  DifcL  (BftlnE.  et  Harm 
IL  «10>. 

*  JnC  dc  MucMa,  I.  c 

t  Btcph.  iDfessune  DUr.  Urb.  Bom.  un.  1467  (Eccard.  Corp.  Hiat.  II 1891),-' 


The  ObserraiitiDO  movomont  may  becrediUHl  with  the  deetruo- 
tioo  of  the  FratJcclli,  not  so  mue!i  by  fiiniiBlun^  the  mnn  and  llie 
setl  required  for  tlioir  violent  8uppro8*ion  as  hy  supplying  an  or- 
guizotioD  in  which  asoetic  longings  could  bo  aaicly  grmtitiod,  and 
bvaliracting  to  theiuselres  the  iK)pular  veuemticin  wbiuti  bad  au 
long  served  as  a  safeguani  to  the  bereties.  When  vfe  road  of 
dpisltunuH  reputation  among  his  uounlrymen — huw  in  Viceoxa, 
is  U^l^  the  aothurities  bad  tu  shut  the  city  gates  to  keep  out  tbu 
inflax  of  surging  crowds,  and  when  ho  walkrd  the  Ktrpcta  bo  had 
to  Iw  mtojupanied  by  a  guaid  of  Frati  to  ke-ep  off  the  people  seek- 
ing U>  touch  him  with  atieks  or  tu  stwun;  a  fmgniont  of  tits  gar 
Dent  as  a  relic;  how  in  Kloroncii,  in  145ti,  an  armt.Nl  guard  was 
reqaiaito  to  prevent  his  sulTocation— we  can  reali?^  the  Irenieudous 
ioduence  oxercisetl  by  him  and  his  feUows  in  divurting  the  currant 
of  public  opinion  t«  tbo  Churcli  which  ibey  representod.  Like  the 
ilaiflicante  of  the  tlurteenth  wntury,  they  reetori.'d  to  it  rnnch  of 
Uie  revert-nce  which  it  had  furfiiiu^l,  in  upite  of  the  relaxation  and 
ttlf-indulgenc«  to  which,  if  Poggio  iato  tic  bGlievcd,  mnny  of  them 
Bpeadily  degenerated* 

Ifot  leeB  effective  was  the  refuge  which  tlie  Observantines  af- 
fuRlnd  to  tliose  whoso  morbid  I'Ondenciea  led  them  to  seek  supAr- 
fauman  austerity.  The  Church  having  at  last  recognized  the  ne- 
owily  of  furnishing  an  outlet  for  these  tendencies,  as  the  old 
Flnlioelli  died  or  wore  burned  there  wpre  none  to  take  their  place, 
ami  the  sect  duiappenrs  from  \new  without  leaving  a  trace  behind 
it  Ascetic  zeal  must  indeed  have  been  intense  when  it  could  not 
k*iatiated  by  such  a  life  as  that  of  I^renzo  da  Fenno,  who  <lied 
b  148]  at  the  age  of  one  hundred  and  ten,  after  passing  ninety 
Jiaw  with  the  Observan tines.  For  forty  of  these  years  he  lived 
wMonl  AJvemo,  wearintj  neither  cowl  nor  sandals — bareheaded 
wd  borefootefl  in  the  severest  M'enther,  and  \vith  the  thinnest  gar- 
■mts.  If  there  were  natures  which  craved  more  than  this,  the 
OiUrch  had  learned  either  to  ntilizo  or  to  control  them.  Thus  was 
Oi^inized  the  Onlerof  the  Strict  Olwervance,  better  known  as  the 


PWineVit  Piiuiirr.  (E«I.  1574,  [►.  30«).— Uod.  Saiitii  Hi«t-  niapmr.  p.  m.  C.M 
(11  m  Her.  Hisp.  Scriptt.  1. 433).  -Wniiaing.  anii.  ISTI.  No.  H.— RipoU  IV.  33. 
*  Bwl«raiM  dc'  Uirooi,  Ukt.  di  Vicfiiiza,  IL  104-5. — Pu^i^u  Bmcoia).  Dial. 
cootiB  H^pocrisim. 


ISO 


THE  TRATICBLLL 


Recollects.  The  Conde  tie  Sotomavor,  of  the  noblest  blood  of 
Spain,  hiulentetyMl  the  Franciscan  Order,  and.  l>eooming  dissatisfied 
with  its  hixity, obtainwl  from  Innocent  VIII..  in  1487, authority 
to  found  a  Tcfomied  bi'anch,  which  he  estftbhshed  in  the  wihts  of 
tilt!  Sierra  Moreno.  In  spite  of  the  angry  opiMisition  of  l>oth  Con- 
ventuals and  Observantines,  it  proved  successful  and  spread  per- 
manently through  Krancc  and  Italy,  An  irreguhir  and  unfortu- 
nate effort  in  the  same  direction  was  made  not  long  after  by 
Mat t<!0  da  Tivoli,  a  FnmciscAn  whose  thirst  for  supreme  asceticism 
had  led  him  to  adopt  tliu  life  uf  a  hermit,  with  about  eighty  fol- 
lowers, in  the  Roman  jiittvinoe.  They  threw  off  all  obedience  to 
the  Order,  under  the  influence  of  Siitan,  who  apix*ftre<l  to  Katteo 
in  the  guise  of  Chmt.  lie  was  m>ize<l  and  imprisoned,  and  com- 
menced to  doubt  the  reality  of  his  mission,  when  another  vision 
confirmed  him.  lie  succeeded  in  escsiping  with  a  comrade,  and 
lived  in  caves  among  the  mountains  with  numerous  disciples, 
illuminated  by  God  and  gifted  with  miraculous  power.  Keorgan- 
ized  his  followers  into  an  independent  Order,  with  general,  provin- 
cials, and  guardians,  but  the  Cbmvh  succeetled  in  breaking  it  up 
in  149.'),  Matte<t  finally  returning  tn  the  (Conventuals,  whUo  most 
of  his  disciples  entered  the  Ohservantines.* 

In  reviewing  this  history  of  the  morbid  aberrations  of  lofty 
impulses,  it  Js  impossible  not  to  reC'C^nize  how  much  the  Church 
lost  in  vitality,  and  how  much  causeless  suffering  was  inflicted  by 
the  thuolugical  arrogance  and  obstinate  perversity  of  John  XXII, 
With  tact  and  discretion  the  zeal  of  the  KraticoUi  could  have  boon 
utilized,  as  was  subsuxjuently  that  of  the  Ohservantines.  The 
ceaseless  quarrels  of  the  Conventuals  with  the  latter  explain  tbe 
persocutiona  endured  by  the  Spirituals  and  the  Fratiuelli,  l*aoluc- 
cio  was  fortonate  in  finding  men  high  in  station  who  were  wise 
enough  to  protect  his  infant  org;ini/.a.ti(»n  until  it  hatl  demonstrated 
its  usefubiess  and  was  able  to  defend  itself,  but  there  never  was 
a  time,  even  ^vhen  it  was  the  most  useful  weapon  in  the  hands  of 
the  lloly  See,  when  tbe  Conventuals  would  not,  had  they  been 
able,  have  treated  it  as  inhumanly  as  they  had  treated  the  follow- 
ers of  Angelo  and  Olivi  and  Michelo  da  Cesena. 

•  Wadding.  ann.l4St,Xo.&;  itiin.  14d7,  Ko.  3-S;  uio.  1485,  No.  11— Addli 
and  Arnold'*  Cvlliulk  Dictlutiftrjr,  «.  v.  Recdllecta. 


J 


CUAPTEB  IV. 


POLITICAL  IIKKEKV    CTIUZEU    BY   THE  CIllinCH. 

The  iilpnlificatinn  of  tho  causn  of  lIib  Charoh  with  that  of 
^Sod  wh£  no  new  thing.     Long  before  the  formulation  of  laws 
'^^ORt  heresy  nnd  the  organiuition  ui  the  lotjuisitiun  for  its  siip- 
{kression,  the  advantage  h:ul  \yeen  reof^inMl  of  denonncing  ns  her- 
etics all  who  refused  oJjedienc©  to  the  (Icmands  of  prelnlo  and  pope. 
X.n  the  quarrel  between  tliti  umpire  and  papacy  over  the  (]Ucstion 
^Df  the  inTestitures,  tho  Council  of  l^teran,  in  1103,  mquinxi  all 
^^be  bishops  in  attendance  to  subscribe  a  declaration  anathematizing 
^he  new  heresy  of  dtsregurdlng  the  jKipal  anathema,  and  though 
the  Church  as  yet  was  by  no  moans  determine*!  on  the  death-pen- 
aUty  for  ordinary  heresy,  it  had  no  hesitation  as  to  the  pimishmont 
<[f.w  u.t  the  imperialists  who  mnintained  tho  traditional  rights  of 
the  empire  against  its  new  pretvuBioiis.    In  that  same  year  the 
monk  Sigelwrt,  who  was  by  no  means  a  follower  of  the  antipope 
Alberto,  wa-s  scandalijunl  at  tho  savage  cruelty  of  Paschal  If.  in 
exlu>rting  his  adlierents  to  the  shiughter  of  all  the  subjects  of 
Henry  IV.     Robert  the  Iliemsolymitan  of  Flanders,  nn  his  re- 
turn from  the  first  crusade,  ha*l  taken  up  arms  against  Honrj*  IV. 
u»l  had  signalized  his  devotion  by  depopulating  the  rambresia, 
^hcreujHin  I'aucbal  wrote  to  liiin  with  enthiisiastie  pniises  of  this 
f^id  work,  urging  him  to  continue  it  as  qviite  as  pious  as  his  labors 
^J  rcfover  the  Holy  Sepulchre,  and  promising  remission  of  sins  to 
li'ta  and  to  all  his  ruthless  soldiery.     Paaclial  himself  bc<'ame  a 
h«relio  when,  in  1 1 1 1,  yielding  to  the  violonoe  of  Henry  V.,  ho  con- 
oalwi  the  imperial  right  of  investiture  of  bishops  and  abbots,  al- 
tiodgh  when  Hnino.  Ilishop  of  Segni  and  Abbot  of  Monte  (Casino, 
^Uly  proved  his  heresy  to  his  face,  he  deprived  the  audacious 
niaHmer  of  the  abbacy  and  sent  him  back  to  his  see.     In  his  set- 
^unteot  with  Henry,  he  had  broken  a  consecrated  host,  each  tak- 


182 


POLITICAL   IIEIiKfsY.-TKE    CnCIlCH. 


big  half,  and  had  solemnly  said, "  Even  as  this  body  of  Christ  is 
diridcd,  so  let  him  be  divided  from  the  kingdom  of  Christ  who 
shall  attempt  to  violate  our  compact ;"  but  the  stigma  of  heresy 
was  unendurable,  and  in  1112  he  presided  over  the  Coancil  of 
Lateran,  which  prunounced  void  his  oath  and  his  bulls.  When 
Henry  complained  that  ho  had  viohitcd  his  oath,  he  coolly  replied 
that  he  had  promised  not  to  exoommunicate  Uenr}',  but  not  that 
he  should  not  be  exoommunicat&d  by  others.  If  Paschal  was  not 
forced  literally  to  abjure  his  heresy  ho  did  bw  coustructively,  and 
the  principle  was  cstabLished  that  even  a  jmpe  could  not  aljandon 
a  claiiD  of  which  the  denial  ha<i  been  pronounood  heretical.  When, 
not  lon^  afterwards,  tlie  Genuaii  prelates  were  re(|uircil  at  tlieir 
consocr-alion  to  abjure  all  bei'csy,and  e«]HX>iuJly  the  Henriman.the 
alhrnon  was  not  to  the  errors  of  Honi-y  of  Lausanne,  but  to  those 
of  the  emperor  who  bad  sought  to  Umit  the  encroachmenta  of  the 
Holy  See  on  the  terajmral  power.* 

As  heresy,  rightly  so  called,  waxed  and  grew  more  aud  more 
threatening,  and  the  struggle  for  its  suppression  inoreased  in  bitr 
temess  and  took  an  organized  shape  under  a  formidable  body  of 
legislation,  and  as  the  application  o/  the  ttieory  of  indulgeucee  gare 
to  the  Church  an  armed  militia  ready  for  mo1>ilization  without 
cost  whenever  it  chot>e  to  proclaim  danger  to  the  faith,  the  tomptar 
tion  to  invoke  tho  fanaticism  of  Cliristendom  for  the  defence  or 
extension  of  its  temporal  interests  inevitably  increased  in  strongth. 
In  60  far  as  such  a  resort  oan  bo  justified,  the  Albigensian  era- 
satles  wore  justified  by  n  real  anta^Tmism  of  faith  which  fore- 
boded a  division  of  Ohriatianitv,  and  their  success  irresistiblv  led 
to  tho  application  of  the  same  moans  to  cases  in  which  there  was 
not  the  semblance  of  a  similar  excuse.  Of  these  one  of  the  earli- 
est, as  well  afl  one  of  the  most  tj-picnl,  was  that  of  the  Stedingem. 

The  6t«dingQrs  were  a  mixed  race  who  bad  colonized  on  the 
lower  YfeaeT  tlie  lands  wkioh  their  industry  won  from  the  orer- 
flow  of  rivor  and  sea,  their  territory  extending  southward  to  the 
neighborhorxl  of  Bromon.  A  rough  and  semi-Uirburous  folk,  no 
doabt — hanly  herdsmen  an<l  fishermen,  with  perhape  an  ocOBBiooal 


•  Concfl-LdttMO.  Btin.  1102OIap(IuiiL  VI.  ii.  lSOI-8).— Epi»t.  8igeberL(M*rt. 
Ampl.  Coll.  I.  687-lM}.— 4;;iirati.  Cauiiidii-.  rr.  i'3. 44  (Cf.  3Iftrtcne  Ampl.  ColL  L 
897.J^H»itxheito  til.  2S»-«S.— MirUme  Ampt.  Ci'lK  L  65». 


J 


THE  BTBDIXQERa 


iss 


i«DtIeDi!y  to  piracy  in  the  ages  which  colebratcfl  the  eX]>loitfi  of 

the  Viking  of  Jonisburg^.    They  went  fruuiuL'n  oudei*  the  spiritual 

'ttam  of  the  An:hbishops  of  Bremen,  whu  in  nitum  enjoyed  thuir 

tithes.    This  tithe  question  hml  been  immemorially  a  trouble«ome 

one,  crer  siaoe  a  linciuro  uf  ChmtLanity  Jiatl  overspread  thu^e  r^ 

^ioQS.     la  the  eleveoih  cciitury  Adaui  of  Hruioun  leLls  us  tiiat 

tlaroughout  the  arohiepiscopnto  the  bisliops  aold  their  benc<liotiont 

a.iid  the  people  \rere  not  only  abandoned  to  lust  and  gluttony,  but 

z*efiised  to  pay  their  tithea.    Tho  Stoditi>^rs  wore  governed  by 

j  Utiles  of  thrir  own  choice,  adniini»lL'riuK  their  own  laws,  until, 

^Iwut  11^7,  trouble  arose  from  the  attempts  of  the  Counta  of  Old* 

^Ktbiirg  to  extend  their  authority  over  the  rcileunieil  luarshtis  and 

i^Uands,  by  building?  a  castle  or  two  wbiuh  sliould  keep  the  popuW 

'C^^Ain  in  check.    There  were  few  cburcbet»,  and,  as  the  parishes  wer» 

l^uge,  the  matrons  were  UL-cu»toniud  to  carry  their  tlaughtera  to 

xaaasa  in  wa^ns.    The  gurrisoiis  were  in  the  habit  uf  sallying 

f  <irtli  and  seizing  tltese  women  to  »>lace  thoir  solitude,  till  the  poo- 

^aile  aruse,  captured  the  castles,  slew  the  Harrisons,  and  dug  a  ditoli 

^ajcroas  a.  neck  of  their  territ^iry.  loaving  only  one  ^atc  for  onlmnce. 

-John  Count  of  Okit-nburg  recoveriHl  Im  ciistles,  but  after  hisdciath 

Xiie  Stedingers  reassertod  their  indepeudeuce.    Among  their  rights 

"t^ihey  included  the  uuu-paymont  of  tithes,  and  they  treated  with 

ooatumely  the  priesis  sent  to  compel  their  obedience.    They 

strengthened  tlieir  defences,  and  their  freedom  from  feudal  aud 

cndeoiafitical  tyranny  attracted  to  them  rufugees  fruiu  all  the 

■uigfaboring  lands.     Hartwig,  Arrhhishop  of  liromon,  when  on  his 

way  to  the  Holy  Land  in  1197,  is  said  to  have  nskod  Celcstin  III. 

to  preach  a  crusade  against  them  as  heretics,  but  this  is  evidently 

aa  error,  for  the  AJbigciiriiiiu  wars  Iiud  not  us  yet  suggested  the 

OBploynient  of  such  methods.     Matters  became  more  embroiled 

vbeo  some  monks  who  ventured  to  inculcate  upon  the  peasants 

the  duty  of  tithe-paying  were  martyred.     Still  wort>e  wiis  it  when 

spriest,  irritated  at  tlie  smallnoss  of  an  oblation  otTcnxl  at  Easter 

b;  a  woman  of  condition,  in  derision.  slip]>ed  into  her  mouth  the 

own  in  place  of  the  Eucharist.     Unable  to  swallow  it,  and  fearing 

te  commit  sacrilege,  the  woman  kept  it  in  her  mouth  till  her  re- 

l«m  home,  when  she  ejected  it  in  some  clean  linen  and  discovered 

tlte  trick.     Enraged  at  this  insult  hor  husband  slew  the  priest,  and 

ll"iB  increased  the  general  feriniint.     After  his  rutum  Hartwig  en- 


184 


POLITICAL   HERRST.-THE   CHURCH. 


deavored,  in  1207,  to  reduce  the  recalcitrant  population,  but  with- 
out SHccnss.  except  to  get  some  money.* 

Yet  the  Stedinj^-rs  were  welwrned  as  fully  orthodox  when 
their  aid  was  n-ant«d  in  the  straggle  which  raged  from  1208  till 
1217,  between  the  rival  archbisho])s  of  Bremen,  first  t>etwoen 
Waldemar  and  Burchaitl.  and  tlien  between  Waldemar  and  Gor- 
hardt.  Ranged  at  first  on  the  si<Io  nf  Waldemar.  after  the  triamph 
of  Frederic  II.  over  Otlio  their  defection  to  Gerhardt  was  decisive, 
and  in  1217  tlie  Inttor  oI)taiiied  his  archiepiscopal  seat,  where  he 
held  his  allies  in  high  favor  until  liis  death  in  1219.  Ho  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Gerhardt  II.,  of  the  House  of  Lippo,  a  warlike  prelate 
who  endeavored  to  overthrow  the  liberties  of  liremen  itself,  and 
to  levy  tolls  on  all  tlie  commerct.*  of  the  Weser.  The  Stetlinger 
tithes  were  not  likely  to  6scai>e  his  attention.  Other  distractions, 
including  a  war  with  the  King  of  Denmark  and  strife  with  the 
recalcitrant  citizens  of  Bremen,  preventeil  any  iiiiniediute  effort  to 
subjugate  the  Stedingers,  hut  at  length  his  hRn<is  were  free.  His 
brother,  Henuaun  Count  of  Lippe,  came  to  his  assistance  with 
other  nobles,  for  the  indopnndoneo  of  the  Weser  peasant-folk  was 
of  evil  imjwrt  to  the  neigldioring  feudal  lords.  To  take  advantage 
of  the  ice  in  those  watery  regions  the  expedition  set  forth  in  I>e- 
cember,  122i),  uniler  the  leatlersliip  of  the  count  and  tho  archbishop. 
The  Stedingers  resisted  viJiantly.  On  Ohristtnas  Day  a  battle  wna 
fought  in  which  Count  Ilcrmann  was  slain  and  the  crusaders  put 
to  flight.  To  celebrate  the  triumph  the  victora  in  derision  ap- 
pointed mock  officials,  styling  one  emperor,  another  [wpe,  and 
otliei"s  archbishops  and  bishops,  and  these  issucd-lettcrs  under  these 
titles — a  sorry  jest,  wliicli  when  duly  magnified  represented  them 
&B  rebels  against  all  temporal  and  spiritual  nuthoritv-t 

•  Sctmmaciicr,  IHcBtL-dingcr,  Brenicn,  lH65,pp.a6-8.— AcUftl.  Brcmena.  Gent 
Potilif.  Hamnmbiiri;.  c.  30^.— C'hrt^u.  Erfordicna.  rdp.  1230  (ScUannit  Viadcm. 
Litt.  I.  98).— Chroti.  Riuite<1cna  (Meibom.  Ker.  Oenn.  11.  tOl).— Albert  StwJcDa. 
CbroD.  ann.  1207  (Sctiil  t.  S.  R.  Oonn.  1. 290].  —-Joan.  Ottoo.  Cut.  Arcliicpp.  Brcmena. 
■nu.  ia07  (Meiik«?n,  8  R  Genn.  n.  7»1). 

t  Albert.  Sladeus,  Chron.  nnn.  1209-17,  1330.— Jonn.  Otton.  Vnt.  Arohicpp. 
Bremeu.  uiii.  1211--20. — Annn.  iJoxon.  Hbt.  Impp.  ttaa.  1329  (Uenkeo.  UL 
185).— Chron.  Rastcileos.  (Meibom.  U.  101). 

There  is  coDsiiUTublc  onrurion  among  tbe  nutboritiei  vrilli  r«{nr<l  to  tbcM 
tTCnU.    I  lisTc  folluwiHl  Hie  carefiil  tcirefttig&tioas  at  Schumactier,  op.  at.  pp. 

2i»-2a. 


THE  STEntKORRR 

It  iru  indent  that  some  more  potent  means  most  be  found  to 
overcome  the  iDdomitJibli?  peasantry,  and  the  deyioe  ndopte<l  was 
ntggested  br  the  soceeiis.  in  133M,of  the  crusade  preached  by  WU- 
bnmd.  Bishop  of  ITtrwht,  against  tlie  free  Frisians  in  rerunge  for 
thdr  slaying  hia  predeoeasor  Otho.  a  brothrr  nf  An^hbislmp  Gar- 
banit,  and  imprtsoiung  his  other  brother,  Dietrich,  l*rovo8i  of 
Itereotor.  after  their  victory  of  Coevorden.  It  was  scarce  pos- 
shle  not  tci  folluw  this  example.  At  a  synod  held  in  Kroraen  in 
1^,  the  Stedingers  werp  put  to  the  ban  as  the  vilest  of  heretics, 
irbo  treated  the  Eucharist  «^ilh  contempt  too  horrible  fur  descrip- 
tion, who  sought  responses  from  irise-wonien,  matle  waxen  images, 
tod  irronght  many  other  works  of  darkness.* 

Doubtless  then;  were  remnants  of  pagan  superstition  in  Steding, 
sach  as  we  shall  hereafter  see  existing  throughout  many  parts  of 
Christendom,  which  serve*!  as  a  foundation  fnr  these  accusations, 
bat  that  m  fact  there  were  no  religious  principles  involved,  and 
llut  the  questions  at  issue  were  purely  political,  is  indicated  by  the 
piaiae  which  Frederic  II.,  in  an  epist  te  thited  June  14, 1230,  bestows 
on  the  Stedingers  for  the  aid  which  they  had  rendei'ed  to  a  house 
of  the  Teutonic  Kiughts,and  his  exhortutiuu  that  they  should  con- 
tinue to  protect  it.  We  leam,  moreover,  that  everywhere  the  peas- 
antiT  o|>enly  favon-<l  them  and  joined  them  when  opportunity  per- 
uiitted.  It  was  simply  an  episode  m  the  extemiion  of  feuOtdism  and 
ooerdotalism.  Thescattered  remains  of  the  old  Teutonic  trilial  in- 
dependence were  to  be  cnished,  and  the  combined  powers  of  Chnrch 
uul  Stalo  were  summoned  to  the  task.  How  readily  such  accusa- 
lioBs  could  be  imposed  on  the  croilulity  of  the  people  we  have  seen 
from  the  operations  of  Conrad  of  Marburg,  and  the  stories  to  which 
lie  g-jve  currency  of  far-pervading  secret  rites  of  den  ion -worship. 
TetUic  preliminaries  of  a  crti»:ulcconsumi'il  time,  and  ituriTig  ]'2iil 
Ud  12.S3  Archbishop  Gerhnnlt  had  all  ho  could  do  to  witlistnnd 
U»e&88ault«  of  the  victorious  peasnnts,  who  twice  captunxl  and  de- 
stJoyed  the  castle  of  Schliitter,  which  ho  had  rebuilt  to  protect  his 
tmitories  from  their  incursions ;  he  sought  support  in  Rome,  and  in 
(Mober,  1232,  after  ordering  an  investigation  of  the  heresy  by  the 
^jabops  of  Lubeck,  Ratzeburg,  and  Minden,  Gregory  IX.  came  to 


*  EmooU  Chron.  ana.  1337,  1230  (llaltlisi  AnnlfcU  ICI.  1SS,  1S2).— Sctiu- 


186 


POLITICAL   HERBSV.-THE   CHURCH. 


lus  aid  with  buUs  addressed  to  the  Bishops  of  Miuden,  Lubeck,  and 
Verden,  ordering  thora  to  preach  the  ci-osg  iigainst  the  rebels.  In 
these  there  is  nothing  said  about  tithes,  but  the  St«duigeni  are  de- 
scribed as  heretics  of  the  i\'ursl  description,  who  deny  God,  wor- 
ship demons,  ctmsult  seereaio^,  aliuse  tho  saorament,  make  w&x 
figurines  to  destro}'  their  enemies,  an<l  conimit  the  foulest  excewes 
on  the  der^y^  sometimes  uailing  prio«ts  to  the  wall  with  arms  and 
le^  spread  out.  iu  derihtiuii  of  the  Crucified.  Gr^ory's  long  pon- 
tificate \va.&  devoted  to  two  paramount  objects — the  destruction  of 
Frederic  II.  and  the  suppi-ession  of  heresy.  The  very  name  of 
heretic  8eeme<l  to  awiikc  in  him  a  wi-ath  which  deprivotl  bim  of  all 
reasoning  powf-Ts,  and  he  threw  himself  into  tho  cont*»t  with  the 
unhappy  peasants  of  the  Weser  mai-shee  as  unre«erTedly  aa  he  did 
into  that  whicli  Conrad  of  Marburg  was  oonteni|)oraneouKly  wag- 
ing with  the  powiTH  of  darkness  in  the  Rliinelands.  In  January, 
1233,  he  wrote  to  the  Bishops  of  Padcrboni,  Ilildeoheim,  Verden, 
Miinster,  aud  Osnabriick,  ordering  them  to  asaist  their  brethren  of 
Kat^cburg,  Mindon,  and  Lnbtxjk,  whom  he  had  commissioned  to 
fUH^och  a  crusade,  with  full  jiardons,  against  the  heretics  called 
Stedingers,  who  were  destroying  the  faithful  people  of  those  re- 
gions. An  army  had  meanwhile  been  collected  which  aooom- 
plislied  nothing  during  the  winter  against  the  steadfast  reaolution 
of  the  peasants,  and  disi)ei*sed  on  the  expiration  of  Its  short  term 
of  service.  In  a  jiapaL  opistle  of  June  IT,  U:j3,  to  the  iJishops  of 
Miudcn.  Lubeck,  and  UatKetmrg,  tliis  lack  of  success  is  represented 
as  njsuUing  from  a  mistaken  beUef  on  the  part  of  the  crusaders 
that  they  were  not  getting  tho  same  induigenoes  as  those  granted 
for  the  Holy  Ijiml,  leading  them  to  withdraw  after  gaining  decisive 
advantages.  Tho  bishops  are  therefore  ordered  to  preach  a  new 
ortisafle  in  which  thore  shall  l>c  no  error  as  to  the  pardons  to  be 
earned,  unless  mi^nwhile  the  Stedingere  shidl  submit  to  the  arch- 
bisliop  and  abandon  their  heresies.  Alreatly,  however,  another 
band  of  crusaduni)  had  been  organized,  which,  towards  the  end  of 
June,  \2SS,  iKMietrated  eastern  Stediog,  on  the  riglit  bonk  of  the 
Weser.  This  district  iiml  hitherto  kept  aloof  frtim  the  strife,  and 
was  defenceless.  The  crusaders  devastated  the  laud  with  fire  and 
sword,  slaying  without  distinction  of  ago  or  sex,  and  manifesting 
their  religious  zeal  by  burnin;^  all  the  men  who  were  captured. 
The  crusade  came  to  an  inglorious  end,  however ;  for.  encouraged 


I 


bj  ita  easy  success.  Count  Burcliard  of  OMenbui^,  ite  leader,  was 
emboldened  to  attAok  the  fortified  lands  on  the  west  Imnk,  when  he 
asd  some  two  hundred  crusaders  were  slain  and  the  rest  were 
glad  to  escape  with  their  lirt's." 

Hatters  were  evidently  growing  seriooa    The  euocces  of  the 

StfdtngtTS  in  battling  for  the  maintenance  of  thrir  indfpendpnoe 

iru  awakuQiug  an  uneaay  fueling  among  the  po)>ulat  ions,  and  the 

letidal  nobles  were  no  lees  interested  than  the  prelates  in  sub- 

daing  whiil  might  prove  to  !>e  the  nnclouR  of  a  dangerous  and  far- 

renching  revolt.    Tlie  third  crusade  was  Ihereforw  preached  with 

iiJditional  energy  over  a  wider  circle  than  before,  and  prepara- 

fons  were  made  for  an  exp«)ition  in  1234  on  a  aoaJe  to  crash  all 

fttistance.     Dominicans  siiread  like  a  cloud  over  Holland,  Flan- 

dere,  Brabant,  Wcfitphalia,  and  the   Khinolands,  Bummooing  the 

'&ithftil  to  defend  religion.     In  Friesland  they  had  little  Ruccesa, 

for  the  population   sympathized  with  their  kindi-ed  and  were 

tether  disposed  to  maltreat  the  preachert;,  but  elsewhere  their 

labors  were  abunilantly  rewarded.     Bulls  of  February  11  takeim- 

c3cr  papal  protection  the  territories  of  Henry  Raape  of  Thuringia, 

4nd  Otho  of  Brunswick,  who  had  assumed  the  cross — the  latter, 

liowRver,  only  with  a  view  Ui  self- protection,  for  ho  was  an  enemy 

«jf  Archbishop  Gerhardt.     The  heaviest  contingent  came  from  the 

■west,  tinder  TTendrlk.  Duke  of  Brabant,  consisting,  it  is  said,  of 

Jorty  thousand  uien  led  by  the  jnyrrix  vh*^)HJili<^,  I'lorent,  Count  of 

HoLlAnd,  together  with  Thierry,  Count  of  Cleves,  Amoul  of  Ondo- 

tuirde,  Rasso  of  Gnvres,  Thit^rry-  of  Dirmnndo,  Gilbert  of  Zott«- 

gbeoa^  and  other  nobles,  eager  to  earn  salvation  and  preserve  their 

fendal  rights.    Three  hundred  ships  from  Holland  gave  SfUiurance 

that  the  maritime  part  of  the  expedition  should  not  bo  lacking. 

Apparently  warned  by  the  disastrous  outcome  of  his  zeal  in  the 

tfair  of  Conrad  of  Marburg,  Gregory  at  the  last  moment  seems 

to  have  felt  some  misgiving,  and  in  March,  1234,  sent  to  Bishop 

faugliebuo,  his  legate  in  North  Germauy.  onlers  to  endeavor  by 

peaceful  means  to  bring  about  the  reconciliation  of  the  peasants, 


'  Hbt.  Dlplom.  Pricl.  H.  T.  IV.  p.  4»7.  — Albert.  8t»acn9.  Chroo.  un.  1833, 
1>M.— RavnaM.  bhd.  1333.  No.  9.— Uutlxlidiii  III-  6-1S.- Joao.  Ottoiiu  Cut.  Ar- 
(litopp.  Bimivn*.  aim.  13M.— Anou.  Snion.  Hi«l  Ii»piT:itnr  min.  122D.— Ciiron. 
CoRul.  Zaslflia  aoD.  1333.— Epiatt.  Select.  Bfccul.  XIII.  T.  I.  Mu.  38d  {.Pertz). 


188 


POLITICAL   HERE9T.-THE   CHURCH. 


but  tlie  effort  came  too  late.  In  Aprii  the  bostB  were  already  as- 
sembling, and  the  legate  (Ud.  ami  pmbahly  c*ml(\  do.  nothing  to 
avert  the  liimi  blow.  Overwlielniing  a^  whs  the  force  of  the  cru- 
saders, the  handful  of  peasants  met  it  with  their  wonted  resolu- 
tion. At  Altcnesch,  on  ilay  37,  they  miLdc  Iheir  suiml  and  re- 
sisted with  stubborn  valor  the  onslaught  of  Ilemlrik  of  Brabant 
and  Florcnt  of  HoUanU ;  but,  in  the  vast  dispai-itj,-  of  numbers, 
Thierry  of  CUeves  was  able  to  make  &  Qunk  attack  with  frcsli 
troops  which  broke  their  ranks,  when  tliey  were  slaaghtered  un- 
sparingly. Six  thousand  were  left  dea<l  ujwn  the  field,  besides 
those  (ipownetl  in  the  Wosor  in  tlio  vain  attempt  at  flight,  and  wo 
are  asked  to  U-'lieve  that  the  divine  favor  wn.s  manifested  in  that 
only  seven  of  the  crusadei-s  iwriBheil.  The  land  now  lay  defence- 
less before  the  soldiers  of  the  l^rd,  who  improved  their  vietory  by 
hiving  it  waste  with  lire  and  sword,  sparing  neither  age  nor  sex. 
Si:t  centuries  later,  on  May  27,  1834,  a  monument  was  solemnly 
dedicnte<)  on  the  lield  of  Altenesch  to  the  hei'oes  who  fell  in  des- 
perate defence  of  their  land  and  liberty.** 

Bald  as  was  the  pretence  for  tlii.s  frightful  tragedy,  the  Church 
assmneil  all  the  resixmsibility  and  kept  up  tho  transparent  fiction 
to  the  last.  When  the  slaughter  and  devastation  were  over,  camo 
the  solemn  farce  of  reconciling  the  heretics.  As  the  land  had 
been  so  long  under  their  control*  their  dead  were  buried  iadistin- 
guisliably  with  the  remains  of  the  orthodox,  so,  Kovomber  28, 
1234,  Gregorj'  gi-aciously  announce<l  that  the  necessity  of  exhu- 
mation would  bo  waive*!  in  now  of  the  impossibility  of  separat- 
ing the  one  from  the  other,  but  that  ail  cemeteries  must  be  conse- 
crated anew  to  overcome  the  pollution  of  the  heretic  bodies  within 
them.  Considerable  time  must  have  been  consumed  in  the  settle- 
ment of  all  details,  for  it  is  not  until  August,  1230,  that  Gregory 
writes  to  the  archbishop  that,  as  the  Stedingers  have  almndoned 
their  rebellion  and  humbly  supplicated  for  reconciliation,  be  is 


*  Emoiiis  CliroQ.  son.  1334  (MatOiKi  Aualccta  QL  180  sqi].}.— Pattliast  Xo. 
9899,  WOO.— EE»fttt.  P«lecl,  SteeuL  XIII.  T.  I.  No.  572.— M<  yrri  Annal.  Flnndr. 
Lib.  nil.  nnn.  12113. — Ctiron.  Coruul.  ZntiiHiiit  ann.  I2S4.— SHiiiiiincIier.  pp.  IIS- 
17.— Chron.  Erfordiwn*.  »nn.  1293.— Saclisisclie  Weltchronik  No.  378-^.- H.Wol- 
teri  Chron.  BrcmMW.  (Mt'it>oin.  Iter.  GtTiii.  II.  6S-1)).— Clirtm,  ItiiUcdeiis.  (Ilx  IL 
101). — Joon  UUoD.  <.'i«t,  Arcliu'pp.  Brvmen*.  aiiD.  1234.— Albert.  Sudooi. 
1834.— AuoD.  t3UXou.  Uist.  lupt-mtiir.  aoD.  122B. 


uthorucd  to  reconcile  thom  on  nxx-Mving  proper  aecarity  that 
ibey  will  be  obedient  for  the  fiilnre  ami  make  proper  amends  for 
ibe  put  In  tlm  dosiag  act  of  tlie  bloody  ilnima  it  is  nottiworthy 
that  there  is  no  allusion  to  any  of  the  s])ecific  heresies  which  liad 
been  alleged  as  a  reason  for  the  extortnj nation  of  the  heretics. 
Pu^ps  the  breaking  of  Conrad  of  Marburg's  bubble  had  shotm 
tin  ^ity  of  tlie  charges,  but  whether  this  wore  so  or  not  thoee 
(Purges  had  lieen  wholly  supererugatury  except  as  a  means  of  ez- 
(jtiag  popular  Rniniosity.  Disolto^ijonce  to  the  Church  was  wiffi- 
cioit;  rt-'sistunce  to  its  claims  was  heresy,  punishable  here  and  here- 
after with  all  the  [Kjnalties  of  the  teniponU  and  spiritual  swords.* 


U  is  not  to  bo  supposed  that  Gregory  n^ected  to  employ  in 
kis  onn  interest  the  moral  anil  mati^rinl  forc(^  which  he  had  thus 
pot  at  the  disposal  of  Gerhardt  of  Bremen.  When,  in  1238,  he 
became  involved  in  a  quarrel  with  the  Viterbians  and  their  leader 
Mlubmndini,  he  cuimnuted  the  vow  of  tlie  Pmtesta  of  Spoleto  to 
«rre  in  Palestine  into  sernce  against  Viterlw,  and  ho  freely  of- 
fered Holy  Ijind  indulgences  to  all  who  would  enlist  under  his 
bftnaer.  In  11!41  he  formally  declared  the  cause  of  the  Church  to 
be  more  important  than  that  of  i'alestine,  wheo^  being  in  want  of 
buds  to  cany  on  his  contest  with  Frederic  II.,  he  ordered  that 
craiadws  be  induced  to  commute  their  vows  for  money,  while  still 
iteeiving  full  indulgences,  or  elite  be  [>crsuaded  to  turn  their  arms 
ttgiinst  Frederic  in  the  crusade  which  ho  liad  cauaed  to  be  preached 
igainst  him.    Innocent  IV.  pursued  the  same  policy  when  ho  had 

up  a  rival  emperor  in  the  i>erBon  of  William  of  Uollund,  and  a 

croaade  waa  preached  in  1248  for  a  special  expedition  to  Aixla- 

pelle,  of  which  the  capture  was  necessary  in  order  to  his  coro- 

itioo,  and  vows  for  TiLlestine  were  redeemed  that  the  money 
he  handed  over  to  hinu  After  Fredericks  death  his  son 
Conrad  IV.  was  the  object  of  similar  measures,  and  all  who  bore 
WM  in  his  favor  against  William  of  Holland  were  the  subject 
of  papal  anathemas.     To  maintain  the  Italian  iuterefita  of  the 


•  Potlhast  Ko.  9777.— Hwizlwim  III.  854. 

As  th*  contvmpnniry  Abl>oi  Emo  ci{  Witt<rwenim  says,  in  dcacriMng  the  «f- 
(kir — "  principnlior  cnusa  fuit  iDolR-diutitia,  quw  Mxlvrv  ululoUtilK  uuu  «st  infi.- 
licr"  {HnUluci  Aualcct-tU.  143). 


190 


POLITICAL  HERE8T.— THB  CHUBCH- 


p^pacy,  men  slaughtered  each  other  in  holy  wars  all  over  Korope. 
Tiie  disaBlmus  cxpodition  U>  Aragon  which  cust  Thilippe  le  Uardi 
his  lifo  in  12ty  was  a  crusade  proachod  by  unler  of  Martin  IV.  to 
aid  Oharlee  of  Anjoa,  and  u>  punish  Podro  III.  for  his  oonquost  of 
Sicily  after  tlie  Sicilian  Ve8[»er8.* 

With  the  systemati/ation  uf  the  laws  against  heresy  and  the 
(ffganiz&tion  of  the  Inquisittun,  proceedings  of  this  nature  assume 
a  more  regular  shape,  especially  in  Italy.  It  was  in  their  charac- 
ter ait  Italian  princes  that  the  popes  found  the  supreme  utility  of 
the  Holy  Ofiicti.  Frederic  U.  had  been  forcod  to  p&y  for  his  coro- 
nation not  only  by  the  edict  of  persecution,  but  by  the  confirma- 
tion of  the  grant  of  the  Countess  Matilda.  Papal  ambition  thus 
stimulated  aspired  to  the  domination  uf  the  wholo  of  Italy,  and 
for  thi.s  the  way  seemed  open  with  the  death  of  Frederic  in  1250, 
followed  by  that  of  Conra*!  in  1254.  When  the  hated  Suabiana 
paased  away,  tliu  uniUcaLiuu  uf  lluLy  under  the  triple  crown  seemed 
at  band,  and  Innocent  IV.,  before  his  death  in  December.  1254, 
had  the  Buprome  satisfaction  of  lording  it  in  Naples,  the  most 
powerful  jwpe  that  the  Holy  S«e  had  known.  Yet  the  noUes  and 
cibiee  were  as  unwilling  to  subject  themselves  to  the  Innocents 
and  Alexanders  as  to  the  Frederics,  and  the  turbulent  factions  of 
Guelf  and  GhibcUine  maintained  the  civil  strife  in  every  comer 
of  ueutral  and  upper  Italy.  To  the  papal  {mliuy  it  was  ao  invaln- 
able  afisistanoo  to  have  the  power  of  placing  in  ever>'  town  of  im- 
jjortance  «n  inquisitor  whose  devotion  to  Komo  was  unquestioned, 
whose  person  M'as  inviolable,  and  who  was  authorized  to  compel 
the  submissive  assistance  of  the  secular  ann  under  terror  of  a 
prosecution  for  her«iy  in  the  case  of  alack  obedience.  Such  an 
agent  ooidd  cope  with  podeeta  and  bishop,  and  even  an  unruly 
populace  rarely  venturo<l  a  resort  to  temporary  violence.  The 
statutes  of  the  republics,  as  wc  have  soon,  were  mo<lified  and 
moulded  to  adapt  them  to  the  fullest  development  of  the  new 
])ou'er,  under  the  excuse  of  facihtutiiig  the  extermination  of  her- 
esy,  and  the  Uoly  Office  became  the  ultimate  expression  of  the 
serviceable  devotion  of  the  Mendicant  Orders  to  the  Holy  See. 
From  this  point  of  view  we  are  able  Lo  appreciate  the  full  sigmii- 


.     *  Bpistt.  SclecU.  Sine.  XIU.  T.  I.  Ka.  7S0,  80I.~Be^er.  Rcgiatrea  d'Innoccot 
IV.  No.  418t,4266,426a._Rip<>ll  I.  SlU.  W5.-V.iB»et<o,  IV.  46. 


i^e  terrible  bulls  Ad  ^xtirpanda,  described  in  a  previous 

It  was  pcesibly  with  a  view  thiis  to  utilize  the  force  of  both 
Orders  that  the  lnf|uUition9  of  northern  and  central  Italy  were 
diriiled  between  ihem,  and  tlieir  respective  provinora  permanent- 
ly assigufd  to  oadi.  Xur  {lerlmjis  would  wo  err  in  recog^nizin^  nn 
(Atyxt  in  iho  assignment  to  the  Dominicans,  who  were,  regitnlod 
tt  sterner  and  more  vigorous  than  their  rivals,  of  the  province  of 
LoD^Nirdy,  which  not  only  was  the  hot-bed  of  liorosy,  but  whieli 
reluaod  some  recollec lions  uf  the  ancient  indepondenoo  of  tlie 
Ambrosian  Church,  and  was  more  susceptible  to  Imperial  infla- 
cnces  from  (itmiiany. 

With  the  development  of  the  laws  apiinst  heresy,  and  the  or- 
guiiatioD  of  special  tribunals  for  the  apphcation  of  tbotie  laws, 
it  WIS  soon  jwrceived  that  an  aocusation  of  heresy  was  a  peculiar- 
ly easy  and  efficient  mothiMl  of  attackin*^  a  pohlical  enemy.  Kn 
dai^  was  easier  to  bring,  none  so  diliicult  to  disprove — in  fact, 
fivia  what  we  have  seen  of  the  proccdmo  of  the  Inquisition,  them 
was  none  in  which  acquittal  wns  so  abaolutely  impo8sibte  where 
the  tribunal  wa*i  dcairous  of  condemnation.  When  employed  po- 
litically the  accused  bad  the  nokeil  alternative  of  aulmiisslon  or 
of  armc<l  resistancn.  Xo  cnmo,  moreover,  nccording  to  the  ao- 
ttjited  legal  doctrines  of  the  a^.  carried  with  it  a  penalty  so  ac~ 
'cn  for  a  potentate  who  was  above  all  other  laws.  Besides,  the 
pooedure  of  tbu  inquisition  required  that  when  a  sus[iec'teil  her- 
elic  was  sunimonod  to  tnal,  \m  llrat  step  was  humbly  to  swear 
loiitand  to  the  mandates  of  the  Church,  and  perform  whatever 
[^liaiica  it  sliould  see  fit  to  impose  in  cose  he  failed  to  clear  him- 
*11  of  the  suspicion.  Thus  nn  immense  advantage  was  gained 
WW  a  political  enemy  by  merely  citing  him  to  apjwar,  when  he 
^obliged  either  to  submit  himself  In  udvance  to  any  terms  that 
■lught  be  dictated  to  him,  or,  by  refusing  to  appear,  expose  him- 
•ell  lo  condemnation  for  contumacy  with  its  tremendous  tem]>oral 
ttotcquances. 

U  mattered  little  what  were  the  grounds  on  which  a  charge 
if  herpsy  wns  liasfHl.  Tn  the  intricate  intrigues  and  fiictionu,!  strife 
^liich  seethed  and  boiled  in  evory  Italian  city,  there  could  be 
bolack  of  excuse  for  setting  the  machinery  of  the  Inquisition  in 
Diolion  whenever  there  was  an  object  to  he  attained.    With  the 


192 


POLlTICAt  HBRE9T.-THE  CHURCH. 


orgiLDi/aiion  nf  the  UiMchmndino  tlicoorocy  the  hcretieal  charac- 
ter of  simple  disobedienoo,  which  had  l»een  iin]>lied  rather  than 
cxprnsseil,  cniiin  to  bo  distioctly  furmulatcd.  Thoniiis  Aquiniis 
did  not  slirink  from  proving  that  i-eeistance  to  the  aalhoritj  of 
the  Roman  Church  wiia  hi^mticjU.  Hy  enilioflying  in  the  canon 
law  th«  bull  Unnm  I'kmci'im  the  Church  accepted  the  doHnition 
of  Boniface  VIII.  that  whoever  resists  the  iM»%vcr  Iudgc<l  by  God 
in  the  Church  rrsists  (Tod,  unloss,  like  u  Manlchiwin,  he  bcUeves  in 
two  principles,  which  shows  him  to  be  a  heretic.  If  the  supremo 
Bpiritual  jNiwcr  errs,  it  is  t<»  be  judged  of  (»od  alone;  there  is  no 
earthly  npiKsxI.  '*  We  nay,  declare,  define,  and  pronounce  that  it  is 
necessary  lu  salvation  that  every  human  creature  l>e  subjwted  to 
thii  Uoinari  [KmlilT."  Inquisitors,  thcrefnre,  were  fully  justified  in 
laying  it  down  us  an  accepted  principle  of  law  that  disobedience 
lo  any  commantl  of  the  Holy  Sec  was  heresy ;  so  was  any  attempt 
tu  tleprivu  the  Kotnan  Church  of  any  pnvik-^  which  it  saw  (it 
to  claim.  As  a  corollary  to  this  was  the  declamtion  that  inquisi- 
tors  had  power  to  levy  war  against  heretics  and  to  give  it  the 
character  of  a  crusade  by  granting  all  the  indulgences  offered  for 
tlic  succor  of  the  Holy  Ijind.  Armed  wilh  such  powers,  it  would 
be  difficult  to  exa^^rate  the  impurtance  of  tho  In4|uisition  aa  » 
poliliciil  instrument.* 

Incidental  idlusion  has  been  made  almve  to  the  application  of 
these  metho<l.i  in  the  cjtses  of  KKzeUn  da  Rtiniano  and  Uberto  Pal- 
laviciuo,  and  we  have  seen  their  eliioncy  oven  in  the  turaultaous 
lawlessness  of  the  period  as  une  of  the  factors  in  the  ruin  of  those 
{Hiwerfiil  chiefs.  When  tho  crusade  against  Kzwhn  was  preached 
in  the  north  of  Europe  he  was  represented  to  the  {leople  aimplj 
ns  n  |M)werftil  heretic  who  was  persecuting  the  faith.  Kven  more 
cons])icuous  was  the  applicatiun  of  this  principle  in  the  groat 


•  Til.  AquitiaL  See.  See  Q.  1 1,  No.  S-3.— C.  1,  Extnr.  Conmtin.  i.  8.— Zsncbinl 
TreO.  do  UniTt.  c.  ii.,  xxzvlL 

It  wiw  prntmlily  lu  »  tlorivRtivc  from  the  nticdl;  of  the  xxmtst  of  the  Hnly 
See  that  the  Inqoisition  vru  ^ivtn  jurif-iictiuu  otot  tbo  fofguv  ■d<1  Jmldfien 
of  papal  t>ulls — KfQtr;  wliiniu^  tuiliutry  we  hare  MWn  to  be  eoe  of  the  tavvi- 
btblc  coiiwiiuunvM  nf  the  nutocmcv  nf  Rouil-.  Letters  under  vrbich  Pti  Grt- 
DMUdo  Hr  Pnto.  ln<]aisitor  of  Toftcnny  in  1297,  w>»  dirrdrt]  to  act  in  c«ttaia 
OMea  of  tbc  klad  ore  priiitcd  b;  Anuti  \a  tho  Arcbirio  Storico  Italiano,  No.  8^ 


^Itnggle  on  which  all  the  rest  depemlwK  which  in  fact  <ltipiiletl  the 
i\ta'mj  of  the  wholo  |>cniiuntlA.  The  destrnctron  of  Manfwl  was 
u  BClaal  ne(K'i68i(y  to  the  success  of  the  jKipaJ  pulicy.  and  for 
rats  the  Church  sought  thmughoiit  Kurope  a  champion  who 
conJii  be  allured  by  the  promise  of  an  earthly  ci-own  and  assured 
■Ivation.  In  1355  Alexander  IV.authorizwl  his  legate,  Rustand, 
Ksbop  of  Bologna,  to  relejiae  Henry  111.  of  Enghiiul  from  his  cru- 
sufet'g  vow  if  he  would  turn  his  arms  against  Manfred,  and  the 
bribe  of  the  Sicihan  throne  was  offered  to  Henry's  son,  Edmund 
of  Lancaster.  When  Ilustand  preached  the  crusade  against  Man- 
fred and  offered  the  same  indulgences  as  for  the  Holy  Land  the 
ignorant  islanders  wondered  greatly  at  learning  that  the  saine 
ptrdoRs  twuhl  Imi  earntHl  for  shedding  ('hrlstian  Uhjixl  m  for 
tint  of  the  infidel.  Tlioy  did  not  understand  that  Manfred  was 
B««sarily  a  heretic,  and  that,  as  Alexander  soon  afterwards  de- 
cUiwi  to  Rainerio  Saccone,  it  was  more  important  to  defend  the 
faith  Rt  home  than  in  foreign  lan<ls.  Tn  ISfil,  when  Alphonse  of 
Poiticn  was  projecting  a  crusade,  UrWn  IV.  urged  him  to  change 
his  purjMse  and  assail  Manfred.  Finally,  when  Charles  of  Anjou 
was  induced  to  strive  for  the  glittering  prize,  all  the  enginery  of 
tieChnrch  was  exerted  to  raise  for  him  an  army  of  cnisaders  with 
a  krish  distribution  of  the  treasures  of  salvation.  The  shrewd 
liwyer,  Clement  IV.,  secomled  and  justified  the  api>eal  to  arms 
I  by  a  formal  trial  for  heresy.  Just  as  the  enisado  wae  burst- 
ling  npon  htm,  Clement  was  summoning  him  to  prr^nl  himself 
'or  trial  as  a  suspected  heretic.  The  term  assigned  to  him  was 
February  2, 12t)*i;  Manfred  hud  mure  pi-csstng  cures  at  the  nio- 
lfflent.and  contented  himself  with  seruling  procurators  lo  offer 
I  Piirgation  for  him.  As  he  did  nut  appear  jwroonally,  Clement,  on 
pFebroary  SI,  called  upon  the  consistory  lu  declare  Uim  condemne<l 
'XAContumacious  heretic,  arguing  that  his  excuse  that  the  enemy 
were  upon  him  was  invalid,  since  he  had  only  to  give  up  his  king- 
tl%to  avert  attack.  As  hut  Ave  days  after  this,  on  February  28, 
Vanfred  fell  upon  the  disastrous  field  of  Benevento,  the  legal  pro- 
<*ediags  bad  no  influence  on  the  result,  yet  none  the  less  do  they 
*erve  to  abow  the  spirit  in  which  Home  administered  against  its 
ptiitioal  opponents  the  laws  which  it,  had  enacted  against  heresy.* 

*  Th.  C«ntiiDprnteD8.  Bonum  uniTerwIo,  lAb.  n.  c  S. — Matt  PntiB  un.  1255 
111,-18 


i 


194  POLITICAL   HERESY  -THK  CHURCH. 

This  was  the  virtual  destroction  of  the  imperial  power  in  Italy. 
With  the  Angovinea  on  the  throne  of  Kaples  and  the  empire  niU- 
UJied  by  the  (ireut  Interregnum  and  its  oonsequtincei:),  the  popes 
had  ample  opporttinity  to  employ  tlie  penalties  for  heresy  to  grat- 
ify hatred  or  to  extend  Iheir  power.  How  they  used  the  weapon 
for  the  one  purpose  is  seen  when  Boniface  VIII.  quarrelled  with 
the  Cnlonuas  and  condemned  them  iia  horeticw,  driving  the  u-holo 
family  out  of  Italy,  tearing  down  their  houses  and  destroying 
their  propert.y ;  though  after  Soiarra  <\>lonna  vindicatod  his  ortho- 
doxy by  capturing  and  causing  the  death  of  Boniface  at  iViiagni, 
Bonedict  XJ.  made  ha^te  to  reverse  tho  sentence,  exco}it  as  to  oon- 
tiscation.*  How  the  principle  workod  when  apphed  to  temporal 
aggrantUzement  may  be  estiniatetl  from  the  attempt  of  Clement  V. 
to  gain  posseesion  of  Fen'ara.  When  the  Marchess  Azzo  d'  Este 
diedfiji  lSi)ii,  he  left  nu  le^iliiimte  iteint,  and  the  Bishop  of  Kemira 
WAS  Fra  Guido  Maltniverao,  tlie  former  inquisitor  who  had  suc- 
ceeded in  burning  the  bones  of  Armatiuo  Pougihiix).  Ho  forth- 
with couuiieuced  intriguing  to  secure  the  oily  for  the  Holy  See, 
which  had  aome  shatlowy  claims  arising  under  the  donations  of 
Charlemagne.  CJletnent  V.  eagerly  grasjwHl  at  the  opportunity. 
He  pronounced  the  rights  of  the  Church  unqueetionable,  and  con- 
doled with  the  Ferrarese  on  their  having  beeu  so  long  deprived  of 
the  mveetJiess  of  clerical  rule  and  Hubjecte^l  to  those  who  devoured 
them.  There  were  two  pretenders.  Azzo's  brother  Francesco  and 
hia  natural  son  Frisco.    The  Ferrarese  desired  neither;  they  even 


(p.  «U)— Ripvll  L  330.-Rn]rnaia.  aoo.  1344,  No.  14—Arcb.  de  I'loq.  do  Cw- 
ciuwonne  (^Doal,  XXXII.  27). 

Clenicnt  IV.  (Oui  ToucoU)  wm  regarded  us  ono  of  tUc  Iwst  Inwycre  of  hii 
dfty,  but  in  thp  wvcrity  of  hi«  iippltriition  of  the.  I«»  iig«in«t  Mnnfred  hf  wbb 
not  otMnimoufll^  supported  by  Llie  oarUinals.  Oa  Fobmarr  20  he  vrius  to 
tbe  Cki'dioi^  of  B>,  Nartino,  hia  leffaUj  in  th«  Mark  of  Ascons,  for  his  opiaioa  OD 
th«  quL«lion.  Manfred  aitd  Uberto  PiUlaricino  liiid  both  beta  citijd  to  tppMr 
ou  trial  fur  bercey.  Manfreil  bad  wut  procurjttors  to  offer  piirgalioa,  but  Ubcfto 
bad  disregarded  the  suoimonB  iind  was  a  conttiniacious  bcreTic  To  tbe  con- 
deiuuutiua  uf  ttit  latter  IhiMr  tviu  HiLTL-furc  do  oppottEtioii.  but  sotui'  cnrdinala 
thaiigbt  that  Manfred's  excitse  iraa  rtiisnnivbic!  in  vi(^w  of  the  eniMiiy  at  hh  galea, 
CT8D  though  he  could  oasily  nvert  attack  bv  sniTMulflr. — Clemuat  PP.  IV.  Epi«L 
239  (Martrnc  Tlicsaur,  U.  379). 

*  C  It  tacto  T.  8.— 0. 1,  BxlTftv.  CotumuQ.  t,  4. 


a  disregard  for  tbe  blessings  promisod  thorn  by  Clein- 
m  ami  prrKrlaiiiied  ft  republic.  Frisco  soughl  the  aid  of  thn 
Venetians,  while  Kntncesco  secured  tlie  snpport  of  tho  Church. 
frwo  obtained  possessioD,  but  fled  wlien  Kranceseo  advunoad 
«ilh  the  papal  legate.  Amaldo  di  PelRjy:rwa.  who  aB8um«l  the 
dctnination  of  the  tity — as  a  con  tern  pom  r\'  ohroniclor  obiervea, 
FMnccsco  had  no  reason  to  be  disappointed,  for  ecclesiastic:!  al- 
nvs  act  like  rapacions  wolves.  Then,  with  the  aid  of  the  Vene- 
tilBS,  Frisco  regained  posBession,  nn<l  peitce  was  made  in  llfveinber, 
1308.  This  wiis  but  the  commencement  of  the  stmggle  for  the 
BRkappy  citizens.  In  1309  Clement  proclaimed  a  crtuuula  against 
lie  Venetians.  Mnrcli  7  he  issued  a  bull  cjwting  an  intei-did 
tnw Venice  writh  confiscation  of  all  itR  podsraalons,  excnmmnnical- 
i(t^  the  doge,  the  senate,  and  all  the  gentlemen  of  the  republic. 
Mid  offering  Venetians  to  alaverT.'  throughout  the  world.  As  their 
liupB  sailed  to  ever)*  port,  man  v  Venet inn  merchants  were  nedueed 
to  wrvitude  throughout  Christendom.  The  legate  assiduously 
pr^cheil  the  crusaite,  and  all  the  bisltojm  of  the  region  assembled 
« lioIngniL  with  such  forces  as  thoy  could  mim^.  Multimdes  took 
theciTWs  to  gain  the  indulgence,  Holngnn  alone  furnishing  eight 
tlioosand  troojis.  and  the  li.'gate  advanced  ivith  an  overwhelming 
anay.  After  severe  fighting  the  Venetians  were  defeated  ttitb 
uch  slaughter  that  the  legate,  to  avert  a  {lestilenee,  offered  an 
indulgence  to  every  man  who  would  bury  a  <lead  body,  and  tbe 
fnptiveci  drowned  in  the  Po  were  so  nuiiiurous  that  the  water 
"■as  corniptotl  and  rendered  nntit  to  drink.  AH  the  ^irisoners 
Uken  he  blinded  and  sent  to  Venice,  and  on  entering  the  city  he 
all  the  aUlierents  of  Frisco.  Appointing  a  governor  in 
'Htsaame  of  the  Church,  he  returned  t<>  Avignon  and  was  splen- 
*Kdlr  rewarded  for  his  services  in  tlie  cause  of  Christ,  wliile  Clem- 
eat  unctuously  congratulatetl  the  Ferrarese  on  their  return  to  the 
>*eQl  bosom  of  the  Church,  and  declared  that  no  one  could,  witli- 
out  sighs  and  tearsi,  ivflect  upon  their  miseries  nnd  aOUctions  under 
Uwir  native  nilers.  In  spite  of  this  the  imgrateful  people,  chaf- 
ing under  tbe  foreign  domination^  arose  in  1310  and  nuissacred 
llio  pajBilista.  Then  the  legale  returned  willi  a  Bolognese  force, 
twined  possession  an*!  hanged  the  reljcU,  with  the  exception  of 
()u,wbo  bought  otT  his  life.  Fresh  tumults  occurred,  with  bloody 
'^[■risals  and  frightful  atrocities  on  both  sides  until,  in  i:ii4.Clem 


^  Uken  h 


i 


196  POLITICAL   HERESY.  — THE   CHURCH. 

ent.  fl-earietl  with  bis  prize,  made  it  over  to  Sancha,  wife  of  Robert 
of  Naplea.  The  iluscuu  gan'ison  excited  the  hatred  of  the  pco])Ie, 
who  in  1317  invited  Azzo,  sun  of  Kraiicesco,  to  eonie  to  their  re- 
lief. After  a  stul)borD  reiiiistanco  the  Gascons  surronderetl  on 
promiae  of  life,  but  the  fury  of  the  people  would  not  be  restrained, 
and  tboy  wore  Klain  to  the  lost  man.  From  this  brief  cpiso<le  in 
the  history  of  an  Italian  city  we  can  conceive  what  was  the  in- 
fluence of  papal  ambition  stimulated  by  the  facility  with  which 
its  opponents  could  be  condemned  as  heretics  and  armies  be  raised 
at  will  to  defend  the  faith.* 

John  XXII.  was  not  a  pope  to  allow  the  spiritual  sword  to 
rust  in  the  tiheath,  and  we  have  seen  inciJentally  the  use  which 
he  made  of  ilie  charge  of  heresy  in  his  mortal  cuniliai  with  Louis 
of  Bavaria.  Still  more  cliaracteristic  were  his  procwwlings  against 
the  Yiscottti  of  Milan.  On  his  accession  in  August.  131<j,  his  first 
thought  wiis  to  unite  Italy  uniter  his  nverU>nl8hip.  and  to  keep 
the  em]>ire  beyond  the  Alps,  for  which  the  contested  election  of 
Louis  of  Bavaria  and  Frederic  of  Austria  seemed  to  offer  full  op- 
portunity. KiU'ly  in  Dweniber  he  despatched  Beman]  (tui,  tlie 
In(|uisitor  of  Toulouse,  and  Bcrtrand,  Franciscan  Minister  of  Aqui- 
taine,  as  nnncios  to  effect  that  purpc«c.  Neither  Guelfs  nor  Glub- 
ellines  were  inclined  to  accept  liis  views — the  Ferrarese  troubles, 
not  aa  yet  ooncludetl,  were  full  of  pregnant  warnings.    Especially 


*  Burbtrauo  de'  Mii'oni.  Hi«t.  Ecctes.  di  Vlccnzan.  1S3-4. — ReguL  Olement. 
PP.  V.  T.  III.  pp.  354  sqq.;  T.  IV.  pp.  428  .*qq.,  pp.  46fl  aqq.;  T.  V. p.  413.  (Ed. 
Bonedictin.,  Roiujh,  tflSfl-7J.— Chron.Estcnsc  turn.  1809-17  (Mumtori  S.  R.  I.  XV. 
864-83). -FcrrctiVtncouiiuiniiit. Lib. lu. (lb.  IX  1037-47).— CroDicadi  Bologna, 
Min.  1809-10  (lb.  XVtn.  820-1;.— Oajiiiii,  DcH'  HUtor.  Eccle*.  di  Pcrnir*,  P.  m. 
p,  40. 

Even  the  ptoua  nml  tcmprmtc  Muratori  c&naot  reRtrain  himwU  fWioi  devcrib- 
iog  (ncm«nt's  bull  ngnimt  tbc  Venetians  lu  "  la  piu  t*rrSiiU  »t  ingiutta  Botta  eA« 
W  «Hi  inaivJU't"  (Annal.ann.  1309).  We  have  seen  iu  tlte  cueof  FlorrDCv  what 
control  ftiicl)  meiuiirea  cnnblcd  the  pBpucy  to  cscrcUe  over  the  commeminl  dp- 
publtcs  of  IulI;.  The  coaQicAtion  tbreittened  In  thcecDUiaoc  of  cxcomtnanlca- 
lion  WW  nnidle  inemvce.  WhtD.iti  1381,  MHrtin  IV.  (pihrTcllcd  with  the  cit;  of 
Port)  and  cxcocumuiiicstcd  it  hv  urdc-rcd,  UDcIur  ])ain  uf  cxcomtnuaicacioa  Dot  !«• 
mnvable  even  on  the  dv«tl)-l>eil.  all  who  owed  iiioiipr  t<i  the  dtizeoB  to  declare 
the  dcbt«  to  hid  representatives  and  pay  them  over,  and  he  thas  collected  many 
thoufaod  lira  of  hi*  cDemic»'  aub*t4inoe. — Cliron.  Pnroieitii.  ann.  1261  (Murftturi 
&  it.  L  IX.  797) 


TBE    CASK   OF  THK   VISCONTt.  m 

recalcitrant  were  the  three  GblbeUiae  chiefs  of  Lombard^,  Matteo 
Viaoonti,  known  as  tho  Ortjat,  who  ruled  over  the  greater  part  of 
the  region  and  still  retained  the  title  of  ImjK'rial  \'icar  bestowed 
on  him  by  Henry  VII.,  Cane  dclla  Scala^  Lord  of  Verona,  and  Paa- 
serino  of  Slantua.    They  received  his  envoys  with  all  due  honor, 
Imit  found  ejicuses  for  evmling  his  commands.    In  &Iarch,  VM"!, 
*Tohn  isnie<l  a  bull  in  which  he  doclarod  that  aU  the  imporinl 
ckppotDtments  had  lapsed  on  the  death  of  Henry,  that  until  his 
LOoeasor  hod  reooived  the  papal  approval  all  the  power  of  the 
pire  rested  in  the  Holy  See,  and  that  whoever  prc6unie<ii  to 
^*xerct9e  those  powers  without  permission  was  guilty  of  treason 
^io  the  Church.     I'ajml  im|H)riousness  on  one  aide  and  Ghibelline 
^rtubbomness  on  the  other  rendered  a  rupture  inevitable.     It  is  not 
oor  province  to  trace  the  intricate  maze  of  diplomatic  intrigne  and 
niilitari-  activity  which  followed,  with  the  balaaco  of  Buccess  pre- 
nderating  decidedly  in  favor  of  the  lihibelUnos.    April  (t,  1318, 
a  bull  docreoing  excommunication  on  Matteo,  Cane,  Puitaeri- 
no,  and  all  who  refused  obedience.    Tliis  was  speedily  followed  by 
formal  monitions  and  citations  to  trial  on  charges  of  heresy,  Mat- 
teo and  his  sons  being  the  chief  objects  of  pi-rseculion.    It  was  not 
diffirolt  to  find  materials  for  these,  furnislicd  by  refngoes  from 
Jtitan  at  the  paiwd  tniurt— Bonifacio  di  Farm.  IjurvxiTAy  GaUmi,and 
others.   The  Visconti  were  accuseii  of  erring  in  the  faith,  ospocially 
uto  the  resurrection,  of  invoking  the  devil,  with  whom  they  had 
compacts,  of  protecting  OugUelma;  they  were  fautors  of  heretics 
ud  inipeders  of  the  Inquisition ;  they  hod  robbed  churches,  rio- 
lited  nuns,  and  tortured  and  slain  priests.    The  Visconti  remained 
maltunaciously  absent  and  wore  duly  condemned  as  heretics.    Mat- 
teo summoned  a  conference  of  the  Ghibelline  chiefs  at  Soncino, 
which  treated  the  action  of  the  po]>c  ah  nn  effort  t^)  n^Hu-scitate  the 
filing  cause  of  the  UueUs.    A  GtilbelUne  league  was  formed  with 
tVn  Grande  delta  Seala  as  captain  of  its  forces.    To  moot  this  John 
olM  in  the  aid  of  France,  appoinl^-'d  Fbilip[K!  de  Valois  Imperial 
Vicar,  and  procured  a  French  invasion  wliic-li  prove*!  bootless.  Then 
^sent  his  son  or  nephew,  (,'ardinal  Uertrand  de  I'oyet  as  legate, 
With  the  title  of  '•  |«ici(ier."  at  tlielieati  uf  acruwiding  army  raised 
^  a  lavish  distribution  of  indulgences.     As  Petrarch  says,  he  as- 
*>il«(l  Milan  as  though  it  were  an  infidel  city,  like  Memphis  or 
Daaiascus,  and  Poyet,  whose  ferocity  was  a  proof  of  his  |»atemity, 


t98 


POtlTtCAt.   nERT!3T-*THE   CBDRCR. 


ctaae  not  its  an  apostle,  bat  as  a  robber.  A  d^vastiting  war  eosueU, 
with  litllpadvaiitagolotlip  pajialiats,  but  thespirituaiBWOi-d  provr*! 
tnope  effective  thnn  tho  tem|x>ral.  May  SH,  1321,  the  sentence!  of 
condemnation  iras  solemnly  promtilgated  in  tho  Church  of  San 
«^tefa^o  at  Itossei^nano,  and  wa«  re[>eattid  by  the  inquisitors  March 
14,  1322,  at  Valeuza.* 

Strange  aft  it  may  seem,  those  proceedings  appear  to  have  had 
a  deciidre  influence  on  public  opinion.  It  is  truu  that  when,  in  the 
seventeenth  century,  I*aolo  Sarpi  alluded  to  these  transactions  and 
asKumed  that  Mattoo*s  only  crime  whs  his  ndhercnco  to  I^nis  of 
Bararia.  Cardinal  Aibizio  admitted  the  fact,  and  argued  tliat  those 
who  adhei-od  t«  aBrhismjitic  and  heretic  nniporor.  and  disrep^iitled 
the  censures  nf  tho  (,'hurch,  rendered  tbeniselves  auspect  of  heresy 
Mnd  became  formal  hei-etica.  Vet  this  was  not  the  impression  at 
the  time,  and  John  had  reco^ized  that  something  more  was  re- 
quired than  such  a  charge  of  mere  teclmicul  heresy.  The  Continua- 
tion of  Xangis,  which  reflects  with  fidelity  tho  current  of  popular 
thought,  recounts  the  sins  of  Matteo  and  bis  sons,  described  in 
tho  papid  sentt'noe,  as  a  new  heresy  arisen  in  Uimbardy,  and  the 
papalisl  miliury  operations  as  a  righteous  crusude  for  its  suppres- 
sion. Althongh  this  was  naturally  a  French  riew  of  the  matter, 
it  was  not  confined  to  Fra.nce.  In  I^jinbardy  Matteo^s  friends 
were  disoouragwl  aj»i  his  enemies  took  fresh  heai*t.  A  peace  party 
s]>ec<Uly  formed  itself  in  >[i1an,  and  the  question  was  oponly  asked 
whether  the  whole  region  fthuuld  bo  saonticed  for  the  sake  of  one 
mim.  In  spite  of  Matteo's  success  in  buying  off  Ki-odorio  of  Aus- 
tria, whom  John  ha<I  bribed  with  gold  and  promises  to  intervene 
with  an  array,  tho  situation  grew  anteniiblo  oven  for  his  seasoned 
nerves.  It  is,  perhaps,  worthy  of  mention  that  Francesco  Oar- 
bngnate,  the  old  (tuglielmite,  association  witb  whom  was  one  of 
the  pi-oofs  of  heresy  alleged  against  M^atteo,  was  one  of  the  etBcient 


•  Piwjffr,  Die  I'olitik  tlwi  Pahste*  Johutti  XXII.,  Hfinclwn,  1885,  pp.  6-10, 
SI. — PrUwchi  Ub.  sino  Tituin  Bpist.  iriii.— RaynalO.  ana.  ISIi,  Ko.  27;  ana. 
1820.  No.  10-14:  ana.  183S,  Xu.  0-3,  II.— Berniud.  Conn,  IlUt.  Milaneie,  auL 
ISia,  1330, 1321 -£». 

A  buU  of  John  XXII..  Jiui.  S^,  IS33,  ordering  the  sale  of  iuOulgencca  tu  aid 
the  cnimde  of  Cardinal  Bcrtrand,  n?ciica  the  licrcRj  of  Vlseonli  and  hij  rcfiiaal 
to  obey  the  suiumons  fiir  bis  trial  a«  the  reason  rorasMilinf;  liltn. — R«g«st.  0*rm 
PP.  v.,  Hoiam,  1886,  T.  I.  Prolegom.  p.  cxcvilL 


THB   CASE  OP  TIIR   VISOONTI.  199 

aguiU  in  procuring  his  downfal!,  for  Matteo  hiul  estrang**<l  liim 

by  refusing  him  tho  capt;uncy  of  thf  Milanese  militia.    ?tlatteo 

sent  to  the  lognto  to  bi'g  for  tonus,  nnri  was  t4)Ul  that  nothing 

short  of  abdication  woqI<!  be  listened  to ;  he  consulted  the  citizens 

ind  was  given  to  umlL'rsland  that  Milan  noiild  not  expo»o  itnelf 

lo  rain  for  his  sake.     Ho  yielded  to  tlie  storm— (leriiaps  his  sev- 

«ilj:-lwo  years  h*<I  somewhat  \vejikone<i  his  powers  of  rcsistanco 

—be  sent  for  his  son  Galeazzo.  with  whom  he  had  qiiarreUcd,  and 

migned  to  him  his  power,  with  an  exim'ssion  nf  ivirn-l  that  his 

quarrel  with  the  Church  hiid  made  the  citiwos  his  enemies.    From 

llnl  thne  forth  he  devoted  htmHf  to  visiting  the  chnrche*.     In 

thef'hiesa  Ma^ore  he  assembled  the  e!er-,'A*,  recited  the  Syinhol 

in  EL  loud  voice,  cning  that  it  had  lieen  his  faith  during  hfv,  and 

tiat  siny  a3«rtion  to  the  contrary  was  false,  ami  of  this  ho  oause^l 

»poblic  instrument  to  be  drawn  up.     Departing  thence  like  to 

riOM crazed,  he  hasteiie<l  to  Monza  to  visit  the  Church  of  S.  Giovanni 
Vilttiitta.  where  he  w:ia  taken  sick  and  was  brought  Imck  to  the 
Monastery  of  Creaconzago,  and  died  within  threo  days,  on  Jone  97, 
to  be  thrust  into  anconseoraled  gn>und.  Tlie  Cliurch  might  well 
hoasl  that  its  ban  hatl  broken  the  spirit  of  the  greatest  Italian  of 
Uieage* 

The  younger  Viaconti — Galefizw),  Lncchtno,  Marco.  Giovanni. 
■od  Stefano  -  -  were  not  so  impressionable,  and  rapidly  ooncen- 
tnted  the  Ghihelline  forces  which  seemtHi  to  be  breaking  in  pieces. 
To  give  them  their  coup  <U  grucf,  the  pope,  December  fill,  1823, 
ontercd  Aicardo,  the  Archbishop  of  Milan,  and  the  Imjuisitiipn  to 
pnxecd  against  the  memory  of  Mattoo,  January  IS,  18iJ3,  from 
Ihe  safe  retreat  of  Asti.  Aicardo  and  three  Inquisitors,  Pace  da 
Vfclano,  OiordiLno  da  Moiitecucho,  and  Ilonesto  da  ('aria,  cited 
fcim  forap]>ear.inee  on  February*  25.  in  the  Church  of  Santa  Maria 
4t  Bftrgo,  near  Alessandria,  to  l»e  tried  and  jndgwl.  whether  (ires- 
TOt  or  not,  and  this  citation  they  affixed  on  the  portals  of  Santa 
Hiria  and  of  the  cathedral  of  Alessandria.  On  the  appointed  day 
they  were  there,  but  a  militjiry  demonstration  of  l^Lircu  Viscoatl 
^rbed  them,  to  the  prejudice  of  the  faith  and  impeding  of  the 


*  Supi,  Diicnrao,  p.  2S  (Ed.  Helmst&dt).  —  AILtzio,  RSspostb  al  1^.  Paolo 
^^  p.  75.— Contiouat.  Guill.  Niingiac.  aoD.  1317.— Btrn.  Corio,  ana.  1322.— 
%B»t  Jqwjil  pp.  XXn.  No.  89.  98.  94,  95  (Hanltiin.  VTI.  !432). 


J 


900 


POLITICAL   HERE8T.-THE  CHDROa 


Inquiaition.  Transferring  thomselros  to  the  securer  vraHa  of  Var 
lonzjL,  thoy  hoard  witnosKos  and  collected  testimony,  and  on  March 
14  they  oondemnod  Mattco  as  a  defiant  ami  unrepentant  heretic 
lie  hiul  imposed  ta:ikes  on  the  churches  and  collected  them  by  vio- 
leucMi ;  he  hud  furcihly  insUiUed  his  cn.-niurL's  iis  su]>t;riurs  in  mon- 
asteries and  bis  concubines  in  nunneries  ;  ho  had  impriMtned  occle< 
siastics  and  tortured  them — some  had  <lied  in  prison  and  others 
Btill  lingere<l  there;  lie  had  exjiellcd  prelates  and  seized  their 
lands;  lie  had  prevented  the  transmission  of  money  to  the  pn|>al 
icamera,  even  sums  collected  for  the  Holy  I<and ;  he  had  inter- 
[oepted  and  n[iGne<l  letters  between  the  )x>[ie  and  the  legates;  ha  fl 
bad  attacked  and  shiin  crusaders  assemble<t  in  Milan  for  the  Uoly 
I^nd ;  he  ha<l  disregarded  excommunication,  thus  sdio^ving  that 
be  erred  in  the  faith  as  to  the  sacraments  and  the  power  of  the 
keys;  he  had  prevented  tlie  interdict  laid  u|M>n  Milan  frtmi  being 
observed ;  he  lia<l  obstructed  prehitos  from  holding  synods  and 
visiting  their  dioceses,  thus  favoring  heresies  and  scandals ;  bis 
enonuous  crimes  show  that  he  is  an  otfshoot  of  heresy,  bis  ances- 
tors having  been  suspect  an<l  some  of  tliein  burned,  and  he  has  for 
officials  and  confidants  heretics,  such  as  Francesco  Garbognate,  on 
\rbom  crosses  had  been  imposed ;  he  has  expelled  the  Inquisition 
from  Florence  and  impeded  it  for  several  years ;  ho  interjmsod  in 
favor  of  Maifreda  who  was  burned ;  he  is  an  invoker  of  demons, 
seeking  from  them  advice  and  responses ;  he  denies  the  resurrec- 
tion of  the  flesh ;  lie  has  endured  papal  excommunication  for  more 
than  throe  years,  and  when  cited  for  examination  into  his  faith  he 
refused  to  appear.  He  is,  tiioreforo,  condemned  as  a  contuma- 
cious heretic,  all  his  territories  are  doclai-od  confiscated,  he  liimself 
deprived  of  all  honoi-s,  station,  and  dignities,  and  liable  to  the  {>en- 
alties  decreed  for  heresy,  his  person  to  be  captured,  and  bis  chil- 
dren and  grandchildren  subjected  to  the  customary  disabibties.* 

This  curious  farrago  of  accusations  is  worth  reciting,  as  it  shows 
'  what  was  regarded  as  heresy  in  an  opjionent  of  the  t«miK>ral  power 
of  the  papacy — that  the  simplest  act^  of  self-defence  against  an  ■ 
nv  who  xvas  carrying  on  active  war  against  him  were  gravely 
B  heretiait,  and  oonstitutod  valid  reasons  for  inflicting 
adous  penalties  prescribed  by  the  laws  for  lapsed 


UgbeUi,  Ilalia  Sacra,  IV.  286-03  (Ed.  f  ftSt). 


I 


4 


TUE   OMinELLlXES  OF    LOMBAHDY.  SOI 

ia  tuth.  Politically,  however,  the  portentous  sentence  was  inop- 
entire.  Galoazzo  mnintninetl  tlio  tielil,  and  in  Kebruarr.  VAti^, 
inflicted  a  crushing;  ti(;feiil  on  the  i>iL|i]il  tn>rj|)8,  the  oanlinallegate 
\tinly  escaping;  by  flight,  and  lils  genenil,  lUymondo  di  Carrtonii 
heiig  mrried  u  prisoner  to  Milan.  Kresh  cumminations  were  neo- 
tEsarr  to  stinitihite  the  faithful,  and  March  23  Jolin  iseued  &  bull 
oMuIeinnlng  Matttw  and  his  (Ive  sons,  reciting  thoir  evii  dermis  for 
'be  iDwt  part  in  the  wonU  of  the  inquisitorial  sentence,  though 
Uwlooaenemt  of  Itie  whole  ineriniiniition  is  seen  in  the  oiiitt»tion  of 
tiwauiKt  serious  charge  of  all— that  of  demon- worship  -and  the 
defence  of  Maifreda  is  repJacxHl  In'  a  statement  that  3ifatteo  bad 
intMfcnxl  to  save  <^Tnl«tzi;o.  who  was  now  stated  to  have  U«n  a 
tioglicbnite.  The  hull  concludes  by  offering  Uoly  Land  indal- 
gmset  to  all  who  would  assail  the  Visconti.  Tliis  was  foHoweil, 
April  13,  by  another,  reciting  tliat  the  huiis  of  Matteo  had  been 
hv  com|>etenl  judfii.^s  »Iuly  convicted  and  si^ntenc^il  for  hcrt'sy, 
bnt  in  spite  of  this.  licrthold  of  Xyffen,  calling  himself  ImiJoriiU 
Victt  of  Lorabardy.  and  other  representatives  of  Louis  of  Uuvht 
ria,tiad  assisted  ttic  mid  heretics  in  resisting  the  faithful  Catholics 
wiio  had  taken  up  anns  against  ihem.  They  are  therefore  allowed 
tvo  months  in  which  to  lay  down  their  pretcnde<l  offices  and  sub- 
nut,  as  they  have  renderetl  themselves  excommunicate  and  subject 
to  all  the  penalties,  spiritual  and  tenijtoral,  of  fautorship.* 

It  is  scarce  worth  while  to  pursue  further  the  dreary  details  of 
tliae forgotten  quarrels,  except  to  indicate  that  the  case  of  the  Vis- 
coui  was  in  no  sense  exooptionnl,  antl  that  the  same  wea{)ons  were 
«iii|doyed  by  John  against  all  who  crosswl  his  ambitious  schemes. 
TIm  Inquisitor  Aocursio  of  Florence  had  proceetled  in  the  same 
Wv  against  riiRtruceio  of  Ltieca,  as  a  fautor  of  heretics;  the  in- 
SOisitore  of  the  March  of  Anoona  had  condeiime<i  (iuido  MaJapicri, 
liiiiiop  of  Arezzo,  and  other  GhibtjUines  for  snpixirting  Jxtnis  of 
fiivaHs.  Frd  Lamberto  del  (^onligho,  Inquisitor  of  Romagnuola, 
*u  ordered  to  use  his  utmost  exertions  to  punish  those  within  his 
''aiTict.  Louis  of  Bavaria,  in  his  apix?al  of  1324,  states  that  the 
satue  prosecutions  were  brought,  and  sentences  for  heresy  pro 
HQoced,  against  Cane  <lella  Scula,  I'asscrino,  the  Marquises  of 
Voalfernit,  Saluces,  Ceva,  and  others,  the  Uenoese,  the  Luochese, 


Rayii&lil.  uin.  I31M,  No.  7-ia.— Mutcne  Thesaur.  H.  7M-6, 


SOS 


POLITICAL    HERESV.-THE  CHITBCH. 


and  the  ottius  of  Milan,  Como,  Bergamo,  Cremona,  Vercelli,  Trino, 
Vallate.  Pwofmii,  Panim,  Brescia,  Aiessuailria.  Tortona,  Albenga. 
J'lKa,  Aretino.  etc.  Wo  have  a  speciiiien  of  Frs'i  lAuiberto's  oper»- 
LJons  in  a  ftentenoe  pronounced  hy  him,  l->hruary  '2S,  1338.  ngiiinst 
Bei'nanlino,  Count  of  Cona.  Re  liad  alivady  condetiinod  for  Jteresy 
Kuiuaido  and  Uppizo  d'  Este,  in  spitu  of  n-hicb  Iku-nardinn  bad 
visited  thein  in  Ferram,  had  uaten  and  drunk  with  thorn,  und  iraa 
aaid  to  liave  entered  into  a  league  with  them.  For  these  offenws 
Lamberto  summoued  him  to  stand  trial  before  tke  Inquisition. 
He  duJy  uppoarcd,  and  adiuitled  tlie  vitilt  and  banquet,  but  denied 
tiie  alliance.  Ijimberto  proceeded  to  take  testimony,  called  an 
assembly  of  exix^rts,  and  in  due  form  )}ronounced  him  a  fautor  of 
heretics,  eQiiilemiiing  him,  lu:  Biicli,  to  dcgnulntion  fnun  hiii  rank 
and  knighthood,  and  incapacity  to  hold  any  honors ;  his  estates 
were  coiifiBcated  to  the  Chui-ch,  his  person  was  to  be  seized  and 
delivereti  to  the  Cardinal-lcgutc  lierLmnd  or  to  the  Inquisition, 
and  his  desoeudauta  for  two  generations  were  dechuied  incujiable 
of  holding  any  olfioe  or  benefloe.  All  this  was  for  the  greater 
glory  uf  God,  for  when,  in  132^1,  John  begged  the  clergy  of  Ireland 
to  send  him  money,  it  was,  ho  said,  for  the  puqiose  of  defouding 
the  faith  against  the  heretics  of  Italy.  Yet  the  Holy  Sec  was  i)er- 
fectly  ready,  when  occasion  suited.,  to  admit  that  this  wholesale 
distribution  of  tUimnation  was  n  mere  prostitution  of  its  control 
over  the  salvation  of  iiutnkimL  After  the  Viscontt  had  been  rec- 
onciled with  the  papacy,  in  1337.  Lucchino,  who  was  anxious  to 
have  Christian  burial  for  his  father,  applied  to  iieuwhct  XJI.  to 
i^Mipeu  the  process.  In  February  of  that  yoar.accorilingly,  Bene- 
dict wrote  to  Pace  da  Vt-dano,  who  had  conducted  the  proceedinga 
against  the  Visconti  and  ngaiiitit  the  oitiiicns  of  Milan,  Novara, 
Bei^mo,  C'remona,  Como.  Vfn?elli.nnd  other  places  for  adhering 
10  tliem,  and  who  bail  been  rewarded  mth  the  bishopric  of  Trieste, 
requiring  bim  to  send  by  Pentecost  all  the  ducumcnts  concerning 
the  trial.  Tiie  atfair  was  ]irotracted.  doubtless  owing  to  political 
vicissitudes,  but  at  length,  in  May,  1341.  Benedict  took  no  sluime  in 
pronounfing  the  whole  proceediugs  niUI  and  void  for  irregularity 
and  injustice.  StilL  the  same  machinery  wasusoil  against  Beriiabo 
Visconti, who wassommonetl  hy  Innocent  VI. to uppcarut  Avignon 
on  March  1, 1363,  for  trial  as  a  heretic,  and  as  he  only  sent  a  pro- 
curator, he  was  promptly  condemned  by  Urban  V.  on  March  3, 


J 


uh)  tt  cnuade  vm  preached  against  him.  In  1394  b«  made  his 
pHCO,  but  in  1372  the  ]i(^mnniii)  qminrl  ttmke  out  nfrcsh,  he  Wfts 
euommunicutcd  hy  Gregory  XI.,  aii<l  in  January,  1373,  he  wu 
nrnnuiiied  to  stand  another  trial  for  heresy  on  I^tarch  28.* 

In  the  same  way  hcnflv  was  the  naeieBt  charge  to  bring  against 
Coin  di  Kieu7Ai  when  he  diRre^nled  the  papitl  aovereigntv  itvcr 
Rome.  Wlien  he  fiiiled  to  ulicy  the  simmions  to  appear  he  was 
duly  excummunicat^d  for  contumacy :  the  legale  Giovanni,  BiRhop 
ofSjiolcto.  liC'ld  an  inquisitinn  on  him.  and  in  liV>*)  he  wasfnrmaJlr 
(teolared  a  herotic.  The  decision  waaitent  totlio  Em|)cror  Charles 
nr.,  vbo  held  him  at  that  time  prisoner  in  Prague,  and  who  dnti- 
folly  de8iiat<!he<)  him  t4i  Avignon.  Then\  rm  a  tirst  examinatiaD, 
b»wu  condemned  U>  death,  but  he  made  lits  {>eace,  and  there  ap- 
jMuwi  to  be  an  opiKirttmity  of  nstng  him  to  advantage  ;  he  tvas 
llwnjfbre  rtnaJly  pronounced  a  good  Cliristian,  and  was  sent  back 
to  Rome  with  a  legate. f 

Tiw  Maffrodi  of  Faenxa  affonl  a  case  very  aimilar  to  tlial  of  the 
Viwonti.  In  IMH  we  find  them  in  liigh  favor  with  Clement  VI. 
they  are  opposing  the  jmpal  poliny  of  aggnindizement  in 
mola.  Cited  to  appear  in  answer  to  charg»>  uf  hereRy,  they 
prfnse  to  do  so.  and  in  July,  1352,  are  excommoniaated  for  oontn- 

ey.  In  June,  1354,  [nnocenl  VI.  recites  their  |>ersi8tent  endur- 
Uwof  this  excommunication,  a4id  gives  theui  until  October  ID  to 
ptii  in  an  ap]>0Arance.  On  that  day  he  condemns  tbem  aa  oontu- 
"UoloHs  Iteretics,  declaiva  them  deprived  of  all  laiuls  and  honors, 

subject  to  the  canonical  and  civil  penalties  of  heresy.  To  ex- 
ate  the  sentence  was  not  ao  easy,  hut  in  135ij  Innocent  offered 
ouis,  King  of  Hungary,  ivbo  bod  shown  his  zeal  against  the  Ca- 


lK(t 


•  Mnrtonp  Thwwiir  Tf  74S-.')  —  Wa^dirgr  min.  1324.  No.  ?8 :  atiD.  1888.  'So. 
«i«n.  IM7.No.  a.-Riitnll  11.  ITS:  VII.  OO.-Ri.'Svsi.  Ck-mein.  PP.  V..  Rome. 

i('"T.'L  PlWfcfr-  p.  «Cxui.— Thi-^npr  Xtonumi^nt.  Hiliem.  ct  flcoMr.  No.  4«2, 
4.— C.  4,  Soptiroo  T.  8.— Mag.  Bull.  Roni.  I.  S04.— Bnliw.  rt  Mind  HI.  897.— 

tWlV.  9W-5,  3U  — Raynnlcl,  nnn,  18(12,  \'c.  13;  mm,  1»83,  No.  B,4;  ann. 
llW.No.  1 ;  fenn.  1373.  No.  10.  IS. 

In  tpltcof  ttiedecbion  nCBem^dict,  Malteonnd  his  Anns,  QitlciiXKO,  MRt«A,  and 
SttM.wereatill  onlmriM  in  1353,  wlittith*  remaining  hmthcr.  Oinvanni,  made 
"lothtr  elTdrl  lo  si-curc  C'liristliiii  sepolturv  for  thrtn.  -Raynntd.  nun.  1883,  No.  S8. 

tSajRaUt.  anil.  tS4S,  No.  13-14;  Ann  l340,  No.  &.~-Maratori  Antiq.  YII. 
*M,»»-82. 


301 


POLITICAL  HERBST— THE  CHURCH. 


thari  of  Bosnia,  three  years' tithe  of  the  Hungarian  churches  if  he 
would  put  down  those  boum  of  tiamnation.  the  Maffrcdi,  who  have 
been  sentenced  as  heretics,  ajid  other  adversaries  of  the  Churchy 
including  the  Ordelaffl  of  Friuli.  fVA  Knrtanerio,  Patriarch  of^ 
Grado,  was  al^o  commissioned  to  preach  a  crusade  against  them, 
and  8ucoee(le<i  in  raising  an  army  under  Malatesta  of  liimini.  The 
appeanuice  of  forty  thousand  Hun^rians  in  the  Tarvisina  fright- 
ened all  Italy ;  the  Maflredi  succumbed,  and  in  the  same  year  In- 
nocent ordered  thoir  absolution  and  reconciliation.* 

it  would  Ik>  easy  to  multiply  iiuttances,  hut  tliL-se  will  pn^bably 
Hufflce  to  show  the  use  made  by  the  (church  of  heresy  as  a  politi- 
cal a^nt,  and  of  the  Im|ui8ition  oh  a  convenieut  instrumentality 
for  it«  application.  When  the  Groat  Schism  arose  it  wjia  natural 
that  the  name  methods  should  be  employed  by  the  rival  popesH 
against  each  other.  As  early  as  l'SS2  we  And  Charles  III.  of  Na- 
ples confiiicating  the  property  of  thellishnpof  Trivcnto,  just  dead, 
aa  that  of  a  heretic  because  he  hatl  adliere*!  to  Clement  VII.  In 
the  commission  iesue<l  in  1+f'H  by  Alexander  V.  to  Pons  Feugeyron, 
as  Inquisitor  of  I'rovenco,  the  mlUerenls  of  Gregory  XII.  and  of 
Benedict  XIII.  are  enuinerat(\l  among  the  herctic«  whom  he  is  to 
exterminate.    It  happened  that  Frere  li^tionno  de  Combes,  Inquisi- 


•  WeruDtky  Encorptt,  ex  Rfjii»lt,  Clem.  VT.  el  Iiinoc  VI.  pp. 37, 74, 87, 101.— j 
Watlding.  onn.  1866,  No.  7, '20.— Havnuld   mm.  Kiod,  No.  38. 

Tliifi  ftbu«e  or  spiritual  power  for  purposes  of  tcrritoruil  ft^graDdizcnient  did 
BO*  p«c«i>e  the  trcnchnnt  antirc  of  Kruiiiiis.     Ilcdcicrilifi  "tlic  tcrriUe  tbuiid«r-^ 
bolt  which  liT  a  nod  will  send  the  eoals  of  mortnia  to  the  deepest  hell,  and  which  fl 
the  viciirB  of  Christ  ilt^cliarge  wiili  ipecial  wrath  on  those  vf  tio.  instigated  t>jr  tb« 
doril,  twuk  to  iiihlilc  at  the  Pntrimnny  of  Pt't«r.    It  is  thus  they  call  the  citieaand 
lerHtoriffl  and  ravcnues  for  wljicli  they  light  with  tiro  and  swortl.  tpilliug  much 
Chriatian  blood,  and  they  believe  Ihcnutolvoa  to  bo  defending  likt!  apoatlca  tli« 
BpooK  of  Christ,  tliQ  Church,  by  tli-iviag  awny  thoee  whom  they  Btigmatiie  w 
b«r  enomiei.  as  if  she  niiikl  bave  any  worse  enemiea  than  iuipioua  ]N>iililfii." — ^ 
£acom.  Monie.  Ed.  Lipsiens.  1830.  II.  370.  fl 

Thai  the  character  of  thww  pn|inl  wars  had  not  been  soUeoed  »inc«  the  hof. 
mra  dewcribod  nliovc  nt  Perrera,  i-s  seen  in  the  miiiuiirri!  of  Cescna.  in  1.^70,  when 
the  papal  legatd.  Itutwrt,  Cardinal  of  (iencva,  ordered  all  tlie  inhabitant*  put  to 
the  swurd,  witliottt  dbtinction  of  age  or  sex,  af^cr  they  liad  admitted  him  and 
his  haotllta  into  ilxi  ciiy  under  Uiu  •olemn  oatK  tlmt  no  injury  should  be  inflicted 
k  Til*  Dumber  of  the  ahiin  wbs  estimated  at  five  tliouaand. — PtkggU 
olln.  Lib.  a.  ano.  13T&. 


JOHN    MALKAW. 

tor  of  Tonlouse.  heltl  to  the  jwrty  of  Benedict  XTII.,  and  he  retiili- 
ticdbv  ifflprisuning^a  uiiiiilwrof  otherwise  unJtn{>eacbable  Uomio- 
kus  luid  Fraiieiscnns,  inrhiding  tlie  Pttivincial  of  Tuulouse  and 
the  Prior  of  CaroasaoDQc,  for  which  the  provincial,  ar  soon  as  be 
had  an  opportunity,  removed  him  and  appoints!  a  6ucc4»sor,  giv- 
ing rise  to  no  little  trouble.* 

The  manner  in  wliich  the  Imiuisition  wua  used  iut  nn  instrument 
by  the  contending  factions  in  the  Charcli  is  fairly  iUustraterl  by 
IheadTentares of  John  Mulkaw,  of  Pmssian  Strassburg  (Hrodnitz). 
lie  Vtt  ft  secatar  priest  aiid  luastor  uf  Ihcolu^y,  deeply  learned. 
Bldlfnl  in  dobato,  singularly  eloquent,  and  nnflinching  oven  to  mah- 
Ben.  £s]K>using  the  cause  of  the  Tioman  popes  against  tbeir 
Arignoneee  nvals  with  nil  the  enthusiasm  nf  his  fiery  nature,  he 
came  to  the  Rhinelandsin  1390.  where  his  sermons  stirred  the^wp- 
nlar  heart  and  ]>ix>vcd  an  effective  agency  in  the  strife.  After 
soioe  severe  ex|)eriences  in  &[ainz  at  the  hands  of  the  opposite  fao- 
tiog,  be  iindert<H)k  a  jnlgriina^  to  Konie,  but  taiTicHl  at  Strasslnirg, 
where  he  found  a  congenial  tield.  TJio  city  had  adhered  to  t'rlMUi 
VI.  and  liis  successors,  but  the  biKbop.  FriHlorio  uf  Illnnkenheim, 
fead  alienated  a  portion  of  his  (clergy  l>y  bis  oppressions.  In  th« 
qaarrcl  he  excommunicat/vl  them ;  they  appealed  to  Rome  and 
bad  the  excommunication  set  aside,  wliereupon  be  went  over,  with 
his  fullowing.  to  Clement  VII.,  the  Avignonese  antipope,  giving 
f»  to  inextricable  confusion.  The  situation  was  exactly  suited  to 
UaUcaw's  temperament;  he  threw  himself  into  the  turmoil, and 
Im  fiery  oloiiuencc  84>on  threatened  to  deprive  the  anttiKipalists  of 
Ibeir  preponderance.  Acwmling  to  his  own  statement  ho  quickly 
vdb  over  some  sixteen  thousand  schismatios  and  neutniU,  and  the 
B&lure  of  his  apt>eals  to  the  passions  of  the  hour  may  be  guessed 
Iff  his  own  report  of  a  sermon  in  which  ho  denounced  Clement 
ni.  as  less  than  a  man,  as  worse  than  the  devil,  whose  portion 
WW  with  Antichrist,  while  his  followers  were  all  condemned 
ictugmatics  and  herotlcs ;  neutrals,  moreover,  were  the  worst  of 
Kttn  and  were  deprived  of  all  sacnimcnts.  Flesidcs  this  he  assailed 
"nth  the  same  unsparing  vehemence  the  iieplorable  monUs  of  the 
Slrawburg  clergy,  both  regular  and  secular,  and  in  a  few  weeks  ho 


'  MSS.  Cbioccarello  T.  VUL-Waddiag.  urn.  1400,  No.  12.-RipoU  n.  010, 


i 


306 


POLITICAL    HCKEST.^TI1E  CHCnCB. 


J 


ihiu  excited  the  bitterest  hostility.  A  plot  was  made  to  deuounoe 
him  secretly  in  I£ome  aa  a  heretic,  so  that  on  his  arrival  ttiere  he 
mighl  he  seized  by  the  Irunusition  and  burned;  his  wonderful 
learning,  it  was  said,  cnuld  only  liavo  beon  acquired  by  necro- 
mancy ;  he  was  accused  of  being  a  runaway  priest,  and  it  was  pro- 
posed to  arrest  him  »s  such,  but  the  people  n^iLrdwl  him  aa  an 
inspired  prophet  and  the  project  was  abandoned.  After  four  we^^-ks  g 
of  this  stormy  agitation  he  resumed  his  pilgrimage,  stupping^  ^H 
Basle  and  Zurich  for  mi»«ionari,-  work,  and  finally  reoohcd  Koio^^ 
in  saiety.  On  his  return,  in  crossing  the  Pass  of  St.  Bornawl.  be 
bad  the  misfortune  to  loao  his  papers.  News  of  this  reached  Baale. 
and  on  his  arrival  tht-re  the  Mendicants,  to  whoui  he  was  peculiarly 
obnoxious,  domandiNl  of  Bishop  Imcr  that  he  should  he  arrested 
as  a  minderer  without  license.  The  bishop,  though  belonging  to 
the  Homan  obedience  yielded,  but  shortly  dismissed  him  with  a 
friendly  cuutiun  tu  return  to  his  home.  His  dauutlesa  combative- 
ness,  however,  can-ied  him  back  to  Strasshurg,  where  be  again 
began  to  preach  under  the  protection  of  the  burgomaster,  John 
Bock.  On  bis  previous  visit  he  had  beon  personally  tlireutcnod 
by  the  Dominican  inquisitor,  Buokder — thesamo  wlio  in  HOOper. 
seoutod  the  Winkelers — and  it  was  now  determined  to  act  with 
vigor.  He  h;ul  preached  but  three  sermons  when  he  was  suddenly 
aiTestcd,  without  citation,  by  the  familiaj's  of  the  inquisitor  and 
thrown  in  prison,  whence  ho  was  carried  in  chains  to  the  episcoifftl 
castle  of  Benfeld  and  deprivctl  of  his  books  and  paper  and  iidc. 
Sundry  examinations  followed,  in  which  his  rare  dexterity  scarce 
en&hltxl  him  to  esoapo  the  ingenious  elTorts  to  entrap  him.  }'^nallv. 
on  ATaroh  ai,  1391,  Bockeler  summoned  an  assembly,  consisting 
principiUly  of  Mendicants,  where  he  was  found  guilty  of  a  series 
of  cluiiges,  wliieh  show  how  t-asily  the  accusation  of  hen«y  could 
be  used  for  the  destruction  of  any  man.  His  real  offence  was  bts 
attacks  on  the  schismatics  and  on  the  corruption  of  the  clergy,  hut 
nothing  of  this  appears  in  tlic  articles.  It  was  assumed  that  be 
had  left  bis  diocese  without  the  consent  of  his  bishop,  and  this 
proved  him  to  be  a  Lollard ;  that  he  discharged  priestly  funciiooB 
without  a  liconset  sliowing  him  to  \te  a  Vaudois;  because  his  ad- 
mirers ate  what  iio  hiul  alro;uly  bitten,  he  was  declared  to  lielong 
to  the  Brethren  ot  the  Free  Spirit ;  because  be  forbade  the  -dis- 
cussion as  to  whether  Christ  was  alive  when  pierced  with  Ui« 


luce,  be  vu  anerted  to  bare  taught  tliat  doctrine,  awl,  therefore, 
to  be  a  followHr  of  Jean  i^oiTii  <  >Uvi.  All  thJH  was  surely  enough 
to  muranl  his  burning,  if  he  shuulil  vlMtiJiattily  refuiM  tu  recant, 
but  Apjtarently  it  was  felt  that  the  magistracy  would  decline  to 
exttnle  the  senlenc«,  and  tlie  assembly  ooatoutod  ii«elf  with  refttt* 
ring  tbe  matter  t-o  tlie  bishoj)  and  asking  Iiis  banishment  fivui  the 
ilioceie.  Nothing  furtlier  is  known  of  thti  triuL  but  as,  in  ViQ2, 
Uftikaw  IB  found  matriculating  liimBeU  in  the  University  of  Co- 
in^ the  biahop  [iroUibiy  did  a£  ho  was  aakwl. 

Wq  loao  sight  uf  Mulkaw  until  atx^ut  1414,  when  we  meet  him 
a|BJn  in  Oologne.  He  had  luaiotained  his  loyalty  to  the  Roman 
obedkooe,  but  that  olMsdiuace  had  been  still  further  fractioned 
hetirpen  Orpgi>ry  XII.  and  John  XXIII.  MalUaw'a  support  of 
the  former  was  accompaniiHl  with  the  same  unsjianng  donunrin- 
tioa  of  Joho  as  ha  Ijad  formerly  bestowed  on  the  Avigooaeee 
aatipopea.  Tbe  Juhamiites  were  heretics,  lit  only  fur  the  xtako. 
Oilugiie  was  Hti  attractive  ii  Held  for  the  aixlacious  iMjleiiiio  an  the 
StTMsborg  of  a  quarter  of  ft  century  earlier.  Two  rival  candi- 
fUtea  £ot'  the  archlmhupric  wert:  viiubcating  thuir  chiiuiK  in  tt 
Woody  civil  war,  one  of  thftui  ns  a  su]>poi'ter  of  Clregoty,  the  other 
oljohn.  Malkaw  raasoon  rooognjzod  as  a  man  whose  eloqaeaoe 
vu  highly  dangerous  auud  an  excitable  )>opulaition,aiid  again  the 
hiqatution  tixjlc  iiohl  of  liim  as  a  heretic.  The  inquisitor,  Jacob 
o(  iJocst,  a  DominiLViU  and  professor  in  tin?  university,  seema  to 
hit  treated  him  with  oxceptional  leniency,  for  while  the  iuveeti- 
g«tioa  was  on  foot  he  was  allowed  to  rtiuiain  in  the  St,  Ursula 
1<ttiter,  on  jtarolc.  lie  bn>ko  his  wuni  and  betook  himsulf  to 
Bicharaoh,  where,  wider  the  protection  of  the  Archbishop  of  Tre  vwj, 
ond  uf  the  Palsgrave  I^>uis  III.,  both  Gregoriatis,  he  maintained 
^  flght  with  his  oustonmry  vehoinence,  assailing  the  infjuisitor 
^  tbe  Joliannites,  not  only  in  senuona,  buL  in  an  incessant 
stiMn  of  i>ainphlets  which  kept  them  in  a  state  of  indignant 
aWm.  When  Cardinal  John  of  Kugusa,  Gregory's  lugate  to  the 
'^liBt'U  of  Constants,  caiue  to  Germany,  Malkavv  had  no  difficulty 
■u  procuring  from  him  absolution  from  tiio  inquisitorial  exoom- 
niQuicjition.  and  acquittal  of  the  elutrgt}  of  heresy ;  and  this  waa 
'""finned  nhen  on  liealing  the  scliism  the  council,  in  July,  1416, 
itoclurvd  null  and  void  all  protsecutiuus  and  seutencen  arising, from 
it  Still,  the  wounded  pride  of  the  inquisitor  and  of  tlio  University 


308 


POLITICAL    HEREST.-THE    CHtTRCH. 


of  Cologne  refuseti  to  Ije  piacate<U  and  for  a  year  they  continund 
toseoh  from  thcConnril  tliecondeTnmitioTi  of  theirenemy.  Their 
deputies,  however,  warned  tbcm  that  the  prosecution  would  bo 
prolonged,  difficult,  and  costly,  and  they  finally  came  to  the  resolu- 
tion that  the  action  of  the  Cardinal  of  Ragusa  should  be  regarded 
as  binding:,  so  long  as  Malkaw  kept  away  from  the  territory  of 
Cologne,  but  should  bo  disregarded  if  he  Tcntuml  to  return — a 
rery  aenaible,  if  gumewliat  illogical,  couclusiim.  The  obstinary 
with  which  Benedict  XIII.  and  Clement  ^'^II.  maintained  their 
position  after  the  decision  of  the  Council  of  Constance  prolonged 
the  struggle  in  suuthwestern  Europe,  and  as  late  as  14SS  the  rem- 
nants of  their  acUierent^  in  Ijuiguedoc  were  proceeded  against  as 
heretics  by  a  si^ecial  (>a]MLl  conimiBSioner.* 

When  the  schism  was  past  the  Tncjutsition  oould  still  be  util- 
ized to  quell  insubordination.  Thomas  Oonnecte,  a  Carmelite  of 
Britanny,  seems  to  have  been  a  character  somewhat  akin  to  John 
Malkaw.  In  143S  we  hear  of  him  in  Flanders,  Artois,  Picardy, 
and  the  neighboring  provinces,  preaching  to  crowds  of  fifteen  or 
twenty  thousand  soids,  denouncing  the  prevalent  vices  of  the  time. 
The  ^enniiui,  or  tall  huul-dresscs  worn  by  women  uf  rank,  were 
the  object  of  si)ecial  vituperation,  and  he  used  to  give  boys  certain 
days  of  pardon  for  following  hidies  thus  attired,  and  crying  "a« 
hennin,"  or  even  slyly  pulling  them  off.  Moved  by  the  eloquence 
of  his  sermouH,  groat  piles  would  be  made  of  dice,  tables,  chcea- 
boorda,  cards,  nine-pins,  hea^l-dresaes,  and  other  matters  of  vice 
and  luxury,  which  were  duly  burned.  The  chief  source,  however, 
of  the  immense  popular  favor  which  he  enjoyetl  was  his  bitter 
lashing  of  the  corruption  of  all  ranks  of  the  clergy,  particularly 
their  public  concubinage,  which  won  him  great  ap]>lau8e  and 
honor.  He  seems  to  have  reached  the  conclusion  that  the  only 
core  for  this  universal  sin  was  the  restoration  of  clerical  ninrriage. 
In  U32  he  went  to  liome  in  the  train  of  the  Venetian  ambamA> 
dors,  to  declaim  against  the  vices  of  the  curia.  Usually  there  was 
a  good-naturod  indifference  to  these  attacks — a  toleration  born  of 
contempt — hut  the  moment  was  unpropitions.  The  Hussite  heresy 
had  commenced  in  similar  wise,  and  its  persistenoe  was  a  warning 


■  H.  Haupt,  ZcitMhria  ftlr  Eorchengeschlchte,  1S83,  pp.  388  aqq.— Vsiu^tte, 
M  Print,  X.PT.Vm. 


THOMAS   CONNECTE.  i09 

Bot  to  be  disregarded.  Besides,  at  that  lime  Eugenius  IV.  was 
engaged  in  a  losing  struggle  with  tlie  (.'ouncil  uf  Baale,  which  was 
bene  on  reforming  the  curia,  in  obedience  to  the  universal  demand 
of  ChristCDdom.  and  Sigismund's  envoys  were  representing  to 
Eogeniiis,  with  more  strength  than  cMiurtlinesB,  the  disaetrons  re- 
sults to  be  expected  from  his  efforts  tn  prorogue  the  council. 
Connecte  might  well  be  suspected  of  being  an  emissary  of  the 
fathere  of  Basle,  or^  if  not,  his  etoquonoo  at  least  was  a  dangerous 
element  in  the  [jerturlted  state  of  public  opinion.  Twice  Kugeniua 
sent  for  him,  but  he  refused  to  come,  pretending  to  be  sick ;  then 
the  papal  treasurer  wiis  sent  to  fetch  him.  but  on  his  appearing 
Thomas  jumjMxl  out  of  the  window  and  attempted  to  eflcape.  Ue 
was  promptly  secured  and  carried  before  Eugenius,  who  commis- 
sioned theCanlitialsof  l^uenand  N'avurre  to  examine  him.  These 
found  him  suspect  of  heresy ;  he  was  duly  triec)  and  condemned 
as  a  heretic,  ajid  his  inconsiderate  zeal  found  a  lasting  quietus  at 
the  stake.* 

There  are  certain  points  of  resemblance  between  Thomas  Con- 
necte and  Girelamo  Savonarola,  but  the  Italian  was  a  man  of  far 
rarer  intellectual  and  spiritual  gifts  than  the  Breton.  With  equal 
moral  earnestness,  his  plans  and  aspirations  were  wider  and  of 
more  dangerous  import,  and  they  led  lilm  into  a  sphere  of  political 
acUrity  in  which  his  fate  was  inevitable  fi^^ui  the  beginning. 

In  Italy  the  revival  of  letters,  while  elevating  the  intellectual 
fncullies,  had  been  accompanied  with  deeper  degradation  in  both 
the  moral  and  spiritual  condition  of  society.  "NVithout  removing 
superstition,  it  had  rendered  scepticism  fashionable,  and  it  had 
weakened  the  sanctions  of  religion  without  sujiplying  another 
hatas  for  raomlity.  The  world  has  probably  never  seen  a  more 
defiant  disregard  of  all  taw.  human  and  divine,  than  that  dis- 
played by  both  the  Chureh  and  the  laity  during  the  pontificates 
of  Sixtus  IV.  and  Innocent  VIII.  and  Alexander  VI.  Increase 
of  culture  and  of  wealth  seemed  only  to  afford  new  attractions 
and  enlarged  opportunities  for  luxury  and  vice,  and  from  the 
highest  to  the  lowest  there  was  indulgence  of  unbridled  appetites, 


•  MoMlrelet,  11.  68.  1 87.— MurU-ne  Ainpl.  Coll.  Via  9S.— AltniBjer,  Prtoor- 
*>Br»  de  la  lUformc  aux  Pays-BaA,  I.  £37. 
IU.-U 


210 


POLITICAL   HERBST.-iTHBCHUncn. 


with  a  oynical  disregard  eron  of  hyjtocmy.  To  the  earnest  be- 
liever it  raij^bt  well  seem  that  (iod's  \\Tath  could  not  mucli  lon^pr 
be  restnilued,  and  tlial  cjilamities  must  Iks  inipcniiing  which  wduld 
sweep  away  the  wicked  and  restore  to  the  ('harch  and  to  mao> 
kind  the  purity  and  simpUuitv  fomliy  ascrihud  to  primitire  Af^- 
I'or  centurips  a  succession  of  prophets— Jfiacliim  of  Flora.  8t. 
Catharino  of  Siena,  St.  Uirgitta  of  Sweden,  the  Friends  of  God, 
Tommaaino  of  Foligno,  the  Monk  Telesforo — Iiad  arisen  with  pre- 
dictions which  had  bcon  rocnircd  with  rereronce,  and  na  time 
paiised  on  and  human  wickeitncss  increased,  somi-  new  measenjfer 
of  God  seemed  necessary  to  rC'Call  hiserrinjt  children  to  a  sense  of 
the  retribution  in  atore  for  them  if  they  should  continue  deaf  to 
lu8  voice. 

That  Savonarola  honestly  believed  himself  called  to  «uch  a 
mitision,  nu  one  who  has  im{>artially  stndied  lus  strange  career  can 
well  doubt.  Hie  lofty  sense  of  tlio  evils  of  the  time,  his  profound 
conWction  that  God  must  interfere  to  work  a  change  which  was 
beyond  human  power,  his  marvellous  success  in  moving  his  hearers, 
his  habits  of  solitude  and  of  profound  meditation,  his  fretjuent 
ecstasies  with  their  re^ulUnt  visions  mi^ht  well,  in  a  minil  like  bis, 
produce  such  a  belief,  which,  moreover,  was  one  taught  by  the  r»- 
ct-ive^l  tntditiuns  of  the  Church  aa  within  the  poBsibilitios  of  the 
experience  of  any  man.  Five  years  boforo  his  first  appearance  in 
Florence,  a  young  hermit  who  had  been  devotedly  serving  in  a 
leper  hospital  at  VoUenu,  came  thither,  preaching  and  predicting 
the  wrath  to  come.  He  had  had  visions  of  tit.  John  and  the  angel 
Itaphael,  and  was  burdeneii  with  a  message  to  unwilling  eiira. 
Huoh  tilings,  we  are  told  by  the  diaiist  who  happens  to  record 
this,  were  occun*ing  every  day.  in  14P1  Rome  was  agitated  by  n 
mysterious  prophet  who  foretold  dire  cahimitios  impen<ling  in  the 
near  future.  There  was  no  lack  of  such  earnest  men,  but.  ttnlilce 
Savonarola,  their  influence  and  their  fate  wore  not  such  aa  to  pre- 
serve tlieir  momory." 


*  Bitrlnm&cclii,  Vita  di  fi«roniiroU  (Bnlua.  el  MulU  I.  flSS-O-lS). — Loca  Laa- 
ducci.,  Diario  Fioivutino,  Firenx#,  ItfSU.  p.  30. — Stciili.  Infesanne  Diar.  (Eccard, 
Corp.  nUt.  McA  JEri  II.  eoooi 

Villari  ftbiws  (L™  Storii  tti  (Jir.  Siivoiur"Is.  Fireuze,  1887.  I.  pp.  TiJi.-xi.) 
thM  tb«  life  which  pcuBGsun^cr  Uic  nnme  of  Bariamocclii  isa  n^fwtiiMiifi)  of  an 
UDprintcd  LaUd  biography  hy  n  diHciplc  of  S^iroanrula.    I  uke  this  opportunity 


When,  in  his  thirtieth  year.  Savonarola  came  to  Florence,  in 
14KI,  bis  soul  was  already  full  i^f  his  mission  as  a  reformer.    Such 
opporUimiy  as  ho  haU  of  ex|)rcfising  his  twnnctions  from  the  pul- 
pit he  naod  with  earnest  zeal,  but  he  pnxiaceil  Utile  effect  upon  a 
ocunmnnity  sunk  in  sbamoless  debauchery,  ami  in  the  IL.ent  of  1466 
^9  VBS  scat  to  Ixmibanly.     For  tlireu  years  he  preached  in  the 
Xombanl  oiliis.  gradually  acijuiriug  the  p4>wer  of  tuuciiing  the 
iiearta  and  consciences  of  men,  and  when  he  was  recalled  to  Flor^ 
^tlce  in  1489,  at  the  instance  of  Lorenxo  de'  Medici,  he  was  already 
known  as  a  preacbor  of  rare  ability,     The  effect  of  hia  vigorous 
eloquoace  waa  enJianccd  by  bis  austere  and  blaiueluss  hfe,  and 
^V'itfaia  a  year  he  was  made  Prior  of  San  SXaruo — the  convent  of  the 
Ofaaervaatine  Dominicans,  to  which  Order  he  belonged,   in  1494  he 
Succeeded  in  reeutablishing  the  ancient  separation  of  the  Domini- 
<2«4Q  province  of  Tiisauiy  from  that  of  Ix)nibardy,  and  when  he  was 
«-j:»p«jinted  Viear-generai  of  the  former  he  was  rendered  indepen- 
dent uf  all  authority  save  that  of  the  general,  Giuvaccbino  Torriuui, 
■^^ho  was  well  affected  towards  hira.* 

He  claimed  to  act  under  the  direct  inspiration  of  God.  who 
<^clattid  his  words  and  actions  and  revealed  to  him  the  secrets  of 
t.  fce  future.  Kut  only  waa  this  accepted  by  the  niasa  of  the  Floren- 
tines, but  by  aome  of  the  keenest  and  most  cultured  intellects  of 
^lie  age,  such  a&  Francesm  Fico  della  Miraudobt  and  I'hilippe  da 
CJommines.  Marsilio  Ficino,  the  Platonist,  admittod  it,  and  went 
f^urthcr  by  declaring,  in  I4[r4,  that  only  Bavoniirola's  huUness  had 
aaved  Florence  for  four  years  from  the  vengeance  of  God  on  its 
'Wickedness.  Nardi  reluteM  that  when,  in  liV7},  Fienjde'  Medici  was 
nukingademonstration  upon  Florence,  he  personally  hoai-d  Savon- 
aroU.  pi-edict  that  Pieru  would  ad  vance  to  the  gales  and  retire  with- 
out acuoiuplisliing  anything,  wJiich  duly  came  to  puss.  Utiiers  uf 
his  prophecies  were  fulfilled,  suuh  as  tliosu  of  the  deallia  uf  Lur»n20 
tie'  Uedici  and  Charles  VIII.  and  the  famine  of  1497,  and  his  fame 
spread  throughout  Italy,  while  in  Florence  his  ioflueoce  l>ecaiu« 

orexpTceaing  my  tlinnks  to  Si|;noro  VillBri,  fnr  hi*  kindly  coiirteoy  in  fumiHliiiig 
mo  with  the  mcoik)  Tolrime  of  the  new  cilitinn  of  hU  classical  work  id  advance 
at  paUlcnlton.  Hy  ohiig&tiona  to  it  will  be  ac«n  in  th«  Dunwroua  referenoea 
uwl*  to  it  bolnw. 

*  Proc«9W>  AutoDtioo  (Baluz.  et  Mand  IV,  QS9,  B&l).— Burlanaccbi  (Baluc. 
*t  Kanii  I.  034-fi,  Ml-2).— Villari,  op.  ciU  Ub.  L  C  6, 9. 


J 


SIS 


POLITICAL    HEKEST.-THE   CDURCa 


dominant.  Whenever  be  preached,  from  twelve  to  fifteen  thou- 
sand persons  hun^  upon  his  lips,  and  in  the  gr»Lt  Duomo  of  Santa 
Maria  del  Fiore  it  was  necessary  to  hnihl  sciitfoUIs  and  benches 
to  accommodate  the  thix^ngingci'owds,  multitudes  of  whom  would 
liavo  cast  themselves  into  iii"^  at  a  u'onl  from  him.  He  paid  special 
attention  to  children,  and  interrsttyl  them  so  deeply  in  his  work 
that  we  are  toUl  tliey  could  not  he  kept  in  bed  on  the  mornings 
when  bo  pi-eachod,  but  would  hurry  to  the  church  in  ailvanue  of 
their  parents.  In  the  processions  which  he  organized  sometimes 
five  or  six  thousand  boys  would  take  part,  and  he  used  them  most 
effectively  in  the  moral  reforms  which  he  introduced  in  the  disso- 
lut«  and  ploaan re- loving  city.  The  boys  of  Krd  Girolamo  were  regu- 
larly organized,  with  officers  who  bad  their  sevei-al  spheres  of  duly 
assigned  to  tbem,  and  they  became  a  terror  to  evil-doers.  They 
entered  the  taverns  and  gambling-houses  and  put  a  stop  to  revelry 
and  dicing  and  card-playing,  and  no  woman  dared  to  Api)ear  upon 
the  8tre«ts  save  in  fitting  attire  ami  with  a  modest  mien.  ''  Here 
are  the  boys  of  the  Krato"  was  a  cry  which  inspired  fear  in  the 
most  recklftss,  for  any  resistance  to  them  was  at  the  risk  of  life. 
Even  the  annual  horse-races  of  Santo-Barnabo  were  suppressed, 
and  it  was  a  sign  of  Girolamo's  waning  inlluence  when,  in  1497, 
the  Signoria  ordered  them  resumed,  saying,  "  Are  we  all  to  become 
monks  r'  From  the  gayest  and  wickedest  of  cities  Florence  be- 
came the  most  demure,  and  the  pious  long  looked  t^ack  with  regret 
to  the  holy  time  of  Savonarola's  rule,  ami  thanked  God  that  they 
had  been  allowed  to  see  it.* 

In  one  respect  we  may  regret  his  puritanism  and  the  zeal  of 
his  boys.  For  the  profane  mummeries  of  the  carnival  in  1498  he 
substituted  a  bonfire  of  objects  which  ho  deemed  immodest  or 
impro[>er,  and  the  voluntary  contributions  for  this  ]>urpose  were 
BUpplemcnted  by  the  energy'  of  the  Imys,  who  entcrcil  bouses  and 
palaces  and  carric<l  off  whatever  they  deemed  fit  for  the  holocaust. 
Precious  illuminated  M8S.,  ancient  sculptures,  pictures,  rare  tapes- 
tries, and  pricelciu  works  of  art  thus  were  mingled  with  the  gew- 


■  Luiduec),  op.  ciL  pp.  73,  88,  M.  103,  108.  109,  IfiS-^,  151.— Hetotfires  de 
CommiDcs  Lir.  riii.  c.  lU. — Mnrsilii  Fk-hil  »ji]i.  Kil.  I5(it,  I.  9nit. — Nanli,  HiitU>rit> 
yiorrnUoe.  Lib.  it.  (Ed<  lH'*.  pp.  118^  HOt.—PerreDs.  Jitome  Savon&role,  p.  &42.~ 
Burltmaccbi  (loc.  cit.  pp^  M4-Q,  S58-3, 5M-7). 


^wsand  vanities  of  female  attire,  the  mirrors,  the  musio&l  instru- 
raentj),  thn  books  of  divinntion,  astrology,  and  magic,  which  went 
to  make  up  the  total.  We  can  understand  the  sachlioe  of  oopies 
of  Boccaocio,  but  Potmrch  might  have  oscapod  even  Savonarola's 
wreritjr  of  virtue.  In  this  ruthlms  auto  d^  fe,  tlie  value  of  the 
objects  was  such  that  a  Venetian  merchant  offered  the  Signoria 
twenty  thooBiind  scudi  for  Ihom,  which  ivas  unswerwl  by  taking 
the  would-be  chapman's  portrait  and  placing  it  on  top  of  the  pyro. 
We  cannot  wonder  that  the  pile  had  to  be  surroundwl  the  night 

E   before  by  armed  guarda  to  prevent  the  ticj>i(ii  from  robbing  it.* 
Had  Sftvonaroia's  lot  boon  caat  under  the  rigid  institutions  of 
feadalism  he  would  probably  have  exercised  a  more  lasting  influ- 
ence on  the  moral  aud  religious  character  o£  the  age.     It  nrajs  his 
'AiKfurtimc  that  in  a  republic  sucli  as  Florence  the  temptation  to 
<ake  part  in  poUtics  was  irresistible.    We  cannot  wonder  that  he 
Eagerly  embrace<l  what  seemed  to  be  an  opportunity  of  regener- 
ating a  powerful  stale,  through  which  he  might  not  unreafioiiably 
'lope  to  influence  all  Italy,  and  thus  effect  a  reform  in  Church  and 
^tate  which  would  renovate  Christendom.    This,  as  he  was  assured 
^*y  the  pro])hetic  voice  within  him.  would  bo  followed  by  the  con- 
^v-ersion  of  the  infidel,  and  the  reign  of  Christian  charity  and  love 
■^ronld  commence  throughout  the  world. 

Misled  by  the^  diuzling  tlay-dreams,  be  had  no  scniple  in 
'K%aking  a  practical  use  of  tlie  almost  boundless  inlltience  which  be 
liad  acquired  over  the  populace  of  Florence.    His  teaohings  led  to 
"fche  revolution  which  in  1404  expelled  the  Medici,  and  he  humanely 
Averted  the  pitiless  bloodshed  which  commonly  accompanied  such 
snovemonts  in  the  Italian  cities.     During  the  Neapolitan  expedi- 
'%ion  of  Charles  VIII.,  in  1494,  he  did  much  to  cement  the  alliance 
^Df  the  repubUc  with  that  monarch,  whom  ho  regardo<l  as  the 
instrument  destined  by  G<id  to  bring  about  the  rufonu  of  Italy. 
3n  the  reconstruction  of  the  republic  in  the  same  year  he  had,  per- 
lape,  more  to  do  than  any  one  tilse,  Iwth  in  fnuuing  its  tutructure 
and  dictating  ita  laws;  and  when  he  induced  the  pfMtphf  to  pro- 
claim Jesus  Christ  as  the  King  of  Florence,  he  iierhaps  himself 
hardly  recogaizicd  how,  as  the  mouthpiece  of  Crod,  he  was  inevi- 
tably iwmiming  the  position  of  a  dictator.     It  wajt  not  only  in  the 


Lsnducci,  p.  163. — Barlamftochi,  pp.  SSS-S.—N&rdi,  Lib.  n.  pp.  5ft-7, 


914 


POLITICAL    HERESY.— THE   CHURCH. 


pulpit  that  he  iDatnicted  bis  auditors  aa  to  their  duties  aa  citir.enE 
and  gave  vent  to  Iiih  inspiration  in  foretelling  llie  result,  for  the 
leaders  of  the  (lopulur  |ii»m'  nerr  constantly  in  the  habit  of  seek- 
itiff  fats  adrioe  and  obeying  his  wishes.  Yet.  itorsonnlly,  for  the 
inoKt  part,  he  hold  hiin.self  alof>f  in  aiistcn>  rotironionit,  nnil  loft  the 
nunagement  of  details  to  two  uooiidentJul  u>^(<nU,  tH>.ltKtcd  umoog 
the  friarg  of  San  Marco — Domenico  da  Pescia,  who  ivas  some- 
what hot-headetl  and  impulsive,  and  Salvostro  JUarufii,  who  was  a 
dreamer  anil  somnambuliiit.  In  thus  descending  from  the  position 
of  a  prophet  of  f  Joil  to  that  of  Uie  iiciui  of  a  faction,  popularly 
knowo  by  the  coDtemptuous  name  of  Piutjnoni  or  Houmeni,  he 
8tAke<l  his  all  upon  the  continued  supmniacy  of  ttiat  faction,  and 
any  failure  in  his  political  schemes  necessarily  was  fatal  to  the 
lai^r  and  nobler  plans  of  whicli  tliey  were  the  unstable  founda^ 
tion.  In  addition  to  this,  bis  resolute  adhoronco  to  the  alliance 
with  Obarlos  VIII.  finally  made  bis  removal  necessary  to  tlie  suc- 
cess of  the  pohcy  of  Alexander  VI.  to -unite  all  ^e  Italian  states 
against  tho  dauf^ra  of  another  French  invasion^ 

As  ihoMgh  to  render  failure  certaiti,  under  a  rule  dating  from 
the  thirteenth  century,  the  iSitrnoria  was  cbangetl  every  two 
months,  and  thus  retlectcii  every  passing  gust  of  popular  ptuision. 
When  tho  oritiojil  time  camo  ever^-tUing  turned  against  hiro. 
The  alliance  with  France,  on  which  he  had  staked  his  credit  both 
as  a  statesman  and  a  prophet,  resulted  disastrously.  Charles  Vlli, 
was  glad  at  Fornovo  to  cut  bia  way  back  to  France  with  shattored 
forocs,  and  he  never  returned,  in  spito  of  the  tlireats  of  God's  wrath 
which  Savonarola  repeate<Uy  transmitted  to  bini.  lie  not  only 
left  Florence  isolated  to  face  ihe  league  of  Spain,  the  papacy, 
Venice,  and  Milan,  hut  lie  dJ8a])pcinie<l  the  dearest  wish  of  the 
Florentines  by  violating  his  pledge  to  restore  to  them  the  stronjf-  ^ 
hold  of  Pisa.  When  tlio  newB  of  this  reached  Florenoe,  January 
I,  1496,  the  inconscti  populace  hold  Pavonarola  responsible,  and  fl 
crowd  around  8an  Marco  at  night  amused  itself  with  loud  tlireal* 
to  bum  ''  the  great  hog  of  a  Frato.^*  Besivlea  tliis  was  the  severe 
diatrass  occasioned  by  the  shrinking  of  trade  ami  commerce  in  the 
civic  disturbances,  by  the  large  subsidies  paid  to  Charles  VIII.,  i 


*  Villnrl.  Lib.  II.  c«p.  i».  r.;  T.  II.  App.  p.  ecxx.— L«ntlucci,  pp.  92-4, 112  — 
I*iw£MO  \TAtnX\ca  {'R'Aaw  et  UftasI  IV.  631,594.658). 


by  the  drain  of  the  Pisan  war,  leading  to  insapportablc  taxation 
and  the  destraction  of  |iul>lic  cr»lit,  tuall  which  wa.s  mldml  the 
feaa^ul  iamiue  of  Hi*",  followed  by  pestilence;  such  a  Buccessiun 
of  misfortunes  natarally  made  the  antbinlcing  masses  dissatiiified- 
and  ready  for  a  change.  The  Amii^ftiati,  or  faction  in  opposition, 
wen)  nut  slow  to  take  advantage  of  Ibis  revukion  of  ft>eling,  and 
in  this  they  wero  sup|K>rtod  fay  the  dan^^crons  classes  and  by 
all  those  oa  whom  the  puritan  reform  bad  pressed  beeyUy.  An 
asBociation  was  formeil,  known  aa  the  ( .'ompagnacci,  composed  of 
reckless  and  dissolute  youn<f  nobles  and  their  retainere,  wiih  OotTo 
Sptni  at  their  head  and  the  powerful  house  of  Altoviti  behind 
them,  whose  primary  objuct  naa  Savonarola's  deatruction,  and 
who  were  ready  to  resort  to  deeperule  meiiaurea  at  the  first  favor- 
able opportunity,* 

Such  opportunity  could  not  fail  to  come.  Had  SavonorolA 
contented  himself  with  simply  denouncing  the  corruptions  of  the 
Chnrch  and  the  curia  hn  would  have  been  allowed  to  exhale  his 
indif^tion  ld  safety,  as  St.  Dirgitta,  OJiancullur  Gerson^  Cardinal 
d*Aiiiy,  Nicholas  de  ('li'maiij^is.  and  so  many  others  among  the 
most  venerated  eccl-jsiasiics  bad  done.  Pope  and  cawlinal  were 
used  to  reviling,  and  endured  it  with  the  utmost  good-nature,  so 
long  aa  ])r«-ifiUtMe  abuses  were  not  interfered  with,  but  Savonarola 
had  nuule  himself  a  poUiical  itorsuiiage  of  importance  whose  in- 
ftuenco  at  Florence  was  hostile  to  the  policy  of  the  DtM-gias.  StiU, 
Alexauder  VI.  treated  him  with  good-natured  inditfen>not!  Avhich 
for  a  whilo  almost  savored  of  contcmjit.  When  at  last  his  im- 
lK>rtance  wan  recognized,  an  attempt  was  made  to  bribe  him  with 
the  archbiiihopric  of  Florence  and  the  cardinalate,  but  the  offur 
was  spurned  with  proplielie  indignation — *'  1  wimt  no  hat  but  that 
of  martyrdom,  rwUltinwl  with  my  own  blood!"  It  was  not  till 
■fuiy  m,  liOo,  aCter  Charles  VIU.  bad  abandoned  Italy  and  loft 
the  Florentines  to  face  singlu-Landeil  the  league  of  which  the 
jmpacy  was  tlie  head,  that  any  ontaj^mism  was  manifested  tow- 
ards  him,  and  then  it  assumed  the  form  of  a  f  rieudly  summons  to 
liome  to  give  an  account  of  the  revelations  and  prophecies  wfaieh 
he  had  from  God.    To  this  be  replied,  July  31,  excusing  himself 


■  Laadueci,  pp.  1 10, 1  IS,  128.— VUlari,  I,  4T8.— MfcuoirM  dt  Comcniavk,  tiT. 
Tm.  Ch.  IS.— Piocesao  AatenUooOoc  cit.  pp.  SSI.iHI).— PiTt«ns,p,S4!*. 


310 


POLITICAL   HERE9Y.-THE  CHURCH. 


on  the  groQnd  of  severti  fcvor  anil  dyitcntory ;  the  rc]>ublic,  moro- 
over,  would  not  porrait  him  to  leavo  its  territories  for  fear  of  his 
enemies,  aa  his  lifo  hud  ah'eady  b(M;n  attempted  by  both  poison  and 
steel,  and  ho  never  quitted  his  outivent  without  a  guard;  besides, 
the  unfinished  reforms  in  the  city  rcqwirwl  his  presence.  As  sooa 
as  possible,  however,  he  would  come  to  Home,  and  meanwhile  the 
pope  would  find  what  he  waiitetl  in  a  IkmI*  now  printing,  contain- 
ing his  prophecies  on  the  renovation  of  the  Church  and  the 
stntction  of  Italy,  a  copy  of  which  would  be  submitted  to  the  he 
father  aR  soon  as  ready.* 

However  lightly  Savonarola  might  treut  this  mis^nve,  it  waS: 
warning  not  to  be  disregarded,  and  for  a  while  he  ceased  preaching^ 
Suddenly,  on  Sejitemln-T  8,  AieJtander  returned  to  the  charge  witiu  j 
a  bull  intrusted  to  the  rival  FranciHcans  of  Santa  Croce,  in  which  hflB 
ordered  the  reunion  of  the  Tuscan  congr^ation  with  the  Lombard  " 
province;  Savonarola's  case  was  submitted  to  tlie  Lombard  Vicar 
general.  Sebastiauo  do  Madiis ;  Domenico  da  Fesuia  and  Salvestro 
Mamffl  were  required  within  eight  days  to  lictake  themselves  to 
Bologna,  and  Savonarola  was  commanded  to  cease  preaching  until 
he  should  present  himself  in  Rome.     To  this  Savonai-ola  replied 
September  20,  in  a  labored  justification,  objecting  to  Sebastiano  as 
a  prejudiced  and  suspected  judge,  and  winding  up  with  a  request     J 
that  the  pojie  should  point  out  any  errors  iu  his  teaching,  which 
he  would  ut  ouce  revoke,  and  submit  whatever  he  ha<l  s^wkcn  or 
written  to  the  judgment  of  the  Holy  See.    Almost  immediately 
after  this  the  eiiteq^risc  of  Pioro  do'  Medici  against  Florence  ren- 
dered it  impossible  for  him  to  keep  silent,  and,  without  awaitin 
the  papal  answer,  on  October  11  he  ascende<l  the  pulpit  and 
hemently  exhorted  the  jMHiplo  to  unite  in   resisting  the  tyran 
In  spilo  of  this  insubordinaticm  Alexutider  was  siitisliod  with  Sa- 
vonarola's nominal  submission,  and  on  October  16  replied,  merely 
ordering  him  to  preach  no  more  in  public  or  in  private  until  ho 
could  conveniently  come  to  Kome,  or  a  fitting  person  bo  sent  to 
Florence  to  decide  his  case ;  if  he  obeyed,  then  all  the  papal  briefa 
were  suspended.    Tu  Alexander  the  whole  affair  was  simply  o: 
of  politics.    The  position  of  Florence  under  Savonarola's  influe 


en-     I 

"M 

,n{^ 


iefg    I 


•  OnicMdiirtlini  lAh.  m.  c  & — Biirlam«<«;hi,  p.  Sfil.— VilUri,  T.  L  pp.  eir.-crU, 
— Laodiiccy.  p.  106. 


Km  hostile  to  bis  dmigBS,  but  he  did  not  care  to  push  the  matter 
further,  provided  he  could  diminish  the  Frate's  .power  by  silencing 
him,* 

His  voice,  however,  was  too  potent  a  Huitor  in  Klorentine  at- 
Eun  for  his  friends  in  power  to  consent  to  liis  silence.  Long  and 
earnest  efforts  were  nude  to  obtain  jtermitisiun  from  the  pope  that 
be  should  reeume  bis  exhortations  during  the  coming  l^mt,  and 
at  length  the  reqoost  was  granted.  The  sermons  on  Arooa  which 
be  Uien  delivered  were  not  of  a  character  to  placate  the  curia,  for, 
bndea  laahing  its  vices  with  terrible  eamoitnt>«8,  he  took  pains  to 
indicate  that  there  were  limits  to  the  obedience  which  he  would 
reeder  to  the  papal  commands.  These  sermons  produced  an  im- 
iMue  sensation,  nut  only  m  Florence,  but  throughout  Italy,  and 
CO  Easter  Sunday,  April  3,  14D6,  Alexander  assembled  fourteen 
Dominican  masters  of  theology,  to  whom  he  denounced  their  audo- 
ciou comrade  as  heretical,  schismatic.  disol)edient,  and  su[}er8titiouB. 
It  was  admitted  that  he  was  reHi)4)n.sihle  for  the  iiUHfoi-tunes  of 
i^ero  de'  Medici,  and  it  was  resolved,  with  but  one  dissentient  voice, 
ibtt  means  must  be  found  to  silence  him.f 

Notwithstanding  this  he  continued^  without  interference,  to 
pnaob  at  intervals  until  November  3.  /  £ven  then  it  is  a  signifi- 
cuit  tribute  to  bis  power  that  Alexander  again  had  recourse  to 
indirect  means  to  suppress  him.  On  Xoveraber  7,  14Wi.  a  papal 
brief  was  isHUCHl  creating  a  congregation  uf  Rome  and  Tuscany 
ud  placing  it  under  a  Vicar-general  who  was  to  serve  for  two 
yeferB,and  be  ineligible  to  rtatpixiintinent  exoept  after  an  interval. 
Aithaugh  the  first  Vieargenoral  was  Glaoomo  di  Sicilia,  a  friend 
of  Savonarola,  the  measure  was  ingeniously  framed  to  <leprive  him 
if  iade]}endence,  and  he  might  at  any  moment  be  transferred  from 
Flonnoo  to  another  post.  To  this  Savonarola  roplifd  with  open 
defluce.  In  a  printed  ^^  Apologia  d^^Ua  C'ongrvgatiwtt  di  Sdtn- 
if<ir»,"  he  declared  that  the  two  hundred  and  fifty  friars  of  bis 
conrent  would  resist  to  the  death,  in  spite  of  threats  and  excom- 
niuucation,  a  mcnanre  which  would  result  in  the  (terdition  of  their 
Wills,    This  was  a  declaration  of  open  war,  and  on  November  26 


'Vilkri,!.  40ft-7.  —  LBDduec!,  p.  ISO.  — Dinr.  Johatin.  Biirclmrdi  (Ecc&rd, 
t^HiBtll.  aiisi-9). 

*ViU»ri,  1.417,441-5.— Liioducci, pp.  1S5-9.— Pcirciw,  p.  3«l. 


POLITICAL    HEBE8V.-THE    CHURCH. 

he  l)o!(lly  resumed  pFeaciiinp:.  Tlio  series  of  aermans  on  Kzt^c 
wbicL  bo  tli<au  commcDCod  and  continued  through  the  Lebt  of 
14^7,  shows  clearly  that  he  had  abandoned  all  hope  of  reconctUa- 
tion  with  tho  pope.  The  Cboroh  was  worse  than  a  beaat,  it  was 
an  abominable  monster  which  must  J»  puriti«l  and  renorated  by 
the  svrvantfi  of  (lod,  and  in  ttiis  work  excommunication  was  to  be 
twtUeomud.  To  a  great  extent,  moreover,  these  sermons  were  politi- 
OtU  speeches,  and  indicate  how  absolutely  Savonarola  from  the 
pulpit  dictated  the  municipal  affairs  of  Florence.  The  city  bad 
been  rodaiXid  almost  to  duspair  in  the  anoqoal  contest  with  Pisa, 
iMihtu,  Venice^  and  the  )mpa«^iy,  but  the  close  of  the  year  Xiv^  had 
brought  some  iinex|)ccced  successes  which  seemed  to  justify  Sft- 
vonurohi's  exhortations  to  trust  in  tiod,  and  with  the  revivii 
hopes  of  the  republic  his  credit  was  to  some  extent  restored.* 

Still  Aloxarider,  though  his  wrath  was  daily  growing,  shi 
from  an  open  ru|)tuiv  nud  tnui  of  strvtt^lh.  and  an  elTort  wna  made 
to  utiliw  a^irist  Savonartila  the  traditional  antagonism  of  the 
Franciscans.  The  Obst^rmntiue  convent  of  San  Illiniato  was  made 
the  ccuti-u  of  o))crattond,  and  thither  were  sent  tlie  most  renowned 
prcacfaen  of  tlio  Order — Domenioo  da  I'oza,  Michele  d*  Aqm's, 
Giovanni  Toilesoo,  (*iAco{H)  da  Breaciav  and  Francesco  della  Poglja, 
It  is  true  that  when,  January  1, 1497.  the  Ptagnoni,  strengthened 
by  rtKcnt  sacct^iMcs  in  the  tield.  elected  Fmnoesoo  V^alori  as  Gon- 
falunioro  di  Giustizia,  he  endeavored  to  stop  the  Krancisoans  from 
preaching,  pn-)hiliitetl  Uie-ni  from  lagging  bread  and  wine  and 
neoeiifiarius,  and  boosted  that  he  would  starve  them  out.  and  one 
of  thera  was  al)6oluteIy  banished  from  the  city,  but  the  others  per- 
severed, and  Savonarola  was  freely  denounced  as  an  impostor  from 
the  pulpit  of  Sauto-Spihto  during  LenL  Yet  this  had  no  effect 
upon  his  followers,  and  his  audicncos  were  larger  and  more  entbu- 
siaatic  than  ever.  No  better  success  awaited  a  nun  of  H.  Maria 
di  Ca£ignjim>.  who  i^mo  to  Florence  on  tho  same  ernuid.t 

The  famine  was  now  ai  its  height,  and  pestilence  became 
threatening.  The  latter  gave  the  Signoria,  trhich  was  now  oom- 
poeed  of  Arral>biuti,  an  excuse  for  putting  a  stop  to  this  pnlpit  war- 
fare, wliich  doubilisis  mooaced  the  peace  uf  the  city,  and  on  May  3 


•  Villari.  I,  489.  lM-4. 406. 4M.  cxYu. ;  IL  i-«. 

t  Procwo  Auttntioo,  pp  688-4. — PMi«in,pp.  ISI^W.- 


-LondiMJci,  ppu  Hi- 


SAVONAROLA.  810 

ill  preftohin^  after  Ascension  Day  (May  4)  was  forbidden  for  the 
nuoo  th^it,  w^th  the  approach  of  summer,  crowds  would  facilitate 
:h»diBBominationuf  the  pla^e.  That  piiBsJonswiM'o rising be^nd 
nnirQl  wae  shoirn  when,  the  next  day,  Savonarola  preached  his 
tinwell  aormon  in  tlie  Duomo.  The  doors  had  Iwon  broken  open 
!■  ttlvanoe.  nnd  the  pulpit  was  sim>are<l  with  tilth.  Tli(>  Com- 
fugoooci  haxl  almost  o|wnly  inade  pro pamt ions  to  kilt  him;  they 
RiUiered  there  in  force,  and  interrupted  the  discount  with  a  (a- 
nnh.,dunnfz  which  tho  Fmtc's  friemls  ^tlicivd  around  him  with 
ilriwn  sworcls  and  conv(*}*ed  him  awjiy  in  aaifety.* 

The  affair  made  an  immense  sensation  throngfaoot  Italy,  and 

ttiu  sympathies  of  the  Si^noria  were  shown  by  the  absence  of  any 

ittempt  to  punish  the  rioters.    Encoura|?cd  by  tuis  evidence  of  the 

wttknees  of  tho  Piagnoni,  on  May  13  Alexander  sent  to  the  Fran- 

QMaas  m  bull  ordering^  tbem-to  pnbUsh  Savonarola  as  excomzniuU' 

tileand  aaspoct  of  heresy,  and  that  no  one  should  hold  converge 

with  httn.     This,  owing  to  the  fears  of  the  papal  cnmroiiunonor 

cUrged  with  it,  was  not  pubb'shed  till  June  Id.    Before  the  exists 

noBol  the  bull  was  kaown,  on  May  23.  Havonarola  bud  written  to 

Alexuider  an  explanatory  letter,  tit  wliicb  he  offered  to  submit 

bimwlf  to  the  judgment  of  the  Church ;  but  two  days  nfter  the  ex- 

cooununication  was  published  ho  replied  to  it  with  a  defence  in 

*kich  he  endeavored  to  pnivc  that  the  sentencu  wnit  invalid,  and 

on  Juno  26  he  had  thoaudaoit}-  lo  address  to  Alexander  a  letter  of 

oaodolence  on  the  murder  of  his  son,  the  Duke  of  Gandia.    Fort- 

lUilely  fur  him  another  revulsiun  in  niunit-i()al  {mlitics  restored 

Ua  frientls  to  power  on  J  uly  1,  tlio  elections  cill  the  end  of  ihc  year 

ooatinued  favorable,  and  be  did  not  cease  to  receive  and  administer 

tho  sacraments,  though,  under  the  previous  ordere  of  the  Signoria, 

Uiflre  was  no  preaohing.     It  mast  be  homo  in  mind  that  at  this 

penod  there  was  a  spirit  of  insubordinat  ion  abroad  which  regarded 

^lie  papftl  censures  mtb  slendcT  respooL    We  have  seen  above 

iVol.  U.  p.  187)  Lbat  in  luOd  the  wbok-  otei^'  of  Fruucc,  acting 

'anler  a  decision  (»f  the  University  of  Paris,  openly  detled  an  ex- 

wtninnracation  lau»clid<l  ut  tbeni  by  Aluxander  VI.    It  was  the 

wmt;  now  in  Florence.     How  little  the  I*iagnoiii  recked  of  the  ex- 

cummtmicallon  is  seen  by  a  jK^tition  pi-fsentcd  September  17  to 


Luducci,  p.  U8.— Villari,  U.  18-SS. 


J 


POLITICAL  HBREST.-THE   CHUnCH 

the  Sigrnoria,  by  the  children  of  Florence,  asking  that  their  beloved 
Frate  be  allowed  to  tvsume  preaching,  and  by  a  sermon  delivered 
in  biB  defence^  October  1,  by  a  Cannelite  who  deelareil  that  in  a  vis- 
ion God  hail  told  him  that  Savonarola  was  a  holy  man,  and  that  all 
his  opponents  woidd  hare  their  tongues  torn  out  and  be  cast  to  the 
dogs.  This  was  flat  rcbolllon  against  the  lioly  See,  but  the  only 
punishiiiBHt  inflict&i  on  tlie  (^rmelite  by  the  episcopal  officials  wa« 
a  prohibition  of  further  preaching.  Meanwhile  the  Signoria  had 
made  earnest  but  vain  attempts  to  have  the  excommunication  re- 
moved, and  Savonarola  liiul  indignantly  refused  an  offer  of  the 
Cardinal  of  Siena  (aftcrwanls  Pins  III.)  to  have  it  withdrawn  on 
the  payment  of  five  thousand  scudi  to  a  creditor  of  his./  Yet,  in 
spite  of  this  disregard  of  the  jMipal  censures,  Sjivonarola  considered 
himself  as  still  an  nbeiltcnt  son  of  the  Church.  He  employed  the 
enforced  leisure  of  this  summer  m  writing  the  Tri<mfo  dfUa  Orooe, 
in  which  he  proveil  that  the  papacy  is  supreme,  and  that  whoever 
separates  himself  from  the  unity  and  doctrine  of  Rome  separates 
himself  from  Christ.* 

January,  1498,  saw  the  introdnction  of  a  Signoria  composed  of 
his  liealous  ]>artisan8,  who  were  not  content  that  a  voice  so  potent 
should  be  hushed.  It  wa-s  an  ancient  custom  that  they  should  go 
in  a  body  and  make  oblations  at  the  Duomo  on  Epiphany,  which 
was  the  anniversary  of  the  Church,  and  on  that  day  citizens  of  all 
parties  were  astounded  at  seeing  the  still  excommunicated  Savon- 
arola as  the  celebrant,  and  the  officials  humbly  kiss  his  hand.  Xot 
content  with  this  act  of  rebellion,  it  waa  arranged  that  he  should 
recommence  preaching.  A  new  Signoria  waa  to  be  elected  for 
March,  the  people  were  becoming  divided  in  their  allegiance  to 
him,  anil  his  eloqueuce  was  held  to  be  indispensable  for  his  own 
safety  and  for  the  continuanoo  in  power  of  the  Pingnoni.  Ac- 
OOTdingly .  on  Februarj- 1 1  he  again  ap|)eared  in  the  Duomo.  where 
the  old  benches  and  scaffolds  had  been  replacnl  to  nccommoilnte 
the  crf»wd.  Yet  many  of  the  more  timid  Piagnoni  abstained  from 
listening  to  an  exooramunicate :  whether  jnst  or  unjust,  they  ar- 
gued, the  sentence  of  the  Church  was  to  he  feared.f 

'  VilUri,  II.  25-8,  3$-*,  79;  App.  xixix.— Procewo  Autentico,  p.  589.— Lao. 
dacci,  pp.  152-3,  157. 

f  lAcducci,  pp.  181-3.— UacliiaTelli,  Fnmmenti  istoiici  (Opere  Ed.  1783,  IL 


In  the  sermons  on  Exodus  preAcho^l  during  ttus  T^nt — the  Ust 

which  he  hail  the  opjwrt unity  of  ut tenner— Siivonanjhi  was  more 

violent  tlitui  nvor.    His  {Kwition  wimsuch  iltat  hucoiiltl  only  justify 

bimsi'Jf  by  proving  thiit  the  papiil  anathema  wan  worth Uvl-s,  iind  this 

he  dki  in  terms  which  excitetl  the  liveliest  imlignatiou  in  Rome. 

A  brief  was  des|)utche(l  to  tlioSignnriii,  Kobniary  2ti,  tM>niinanding 

them,  under  pain  of  iDterclict,  to  send  Savonarola  «a  a  prisoner  to 

Rome.    This  received  no  attention,  hut  at  the  same  time  another 

letter  was  sent  to  the  canons  of  the  Duomo  ordering  them  to  close 

their  ehureh  to  him,  and  Alarch  I  he  ap|>eare(i  there  to  say  that 

he  would  preach  at  San  Kfarco,  whither  the  crowde<l  audience  fol* 

lowed  him.    Ilis  fate,  however,  was  sealed  the  same  day  by  the 

adrent  to  power  of  a  government  composed  of  a  majority  of  Ar- 

nbhiati,  with  one  of  bis  bitterest  enemies,  Pier  l*o})i>lei)chi,  at  its 

bead  aa  Oonfaloniero  di  Giuatizia.     Vet  he  was  too  powerful  with 

tbe  people  to  be  openly  attacked,  and  occasion  for  his  ruin  had 

to  be  awaited.* 

The  first  act  of  the  new  Signoria  was  an  appeal  to  the  pope, 
^(arcb  4,  excusing  tliemselves  for  not  obeying  his  orders  and  ask- 
ing for  clemency  towanls  Savonarola,  whose  labors  had  been  bo 
fruitful,  and  whom  the  iwo|)le  of  Florence  believed  to  be  more 
tban  man.  Possibly  this  may  have  l>ocn  insidiously  intended  to 
kindle  afresh  the  papal  anger;  at  all  events,  Alexander's  reply 
tiiows  that  he  recognized  fully  the  advantage  of  the  sitnation. 
Skvonaxi^la  is  "  that  miserable  worm  ^'  who  in  a  sermon  recently 
printed  lia<l  adjured  <toiI  to  deliver  liim  to  hell  if  he  should  apply 
fur  absolution.  The  pope  will  waste  no  more  time  in  letters;  ho 
Wants  no  more  words  from  them,  but  acts.  They  must  either  send 
tlieir  luunstrous  idol  to  Rome,  or  segregate  him  from  all  human 
*jciety,  if  they  wish  to  escape  the  interdict  which  will  last  until 
they  submit.  Tet  Savonarola  is  not  to  be  perpetually  silenced, 
but,  after  due  humiliation,  his  moulli  sljall  be  again  ofwned.f 

This  reached  Florence  March  1:1  and  cxcitc<l  a  violent  di.ious- 
uon.    We  have  »een  that  an  interdict  inflicted  by  the  pojie  might 


*  LAndacoi.  p.  1S4.— Pcrraaft,  p.  231.— Villnrl,  II.  App.  Izvi. 
t  Perrtn*.  pp.  23^-8.  M5-7S.     Cf  ViUnri,  II.  11.1. 

The  almoxioaa  ftppejtl  to  (lot)  had  really  bocn  made  bf  StTOiuiroU  lo  bia  Mr- 
»«oof  FBbru»ry  11  (Villari,  II.  88). 


be  not  merely  a  deprivation  uf  spiritual  privUtigM.  bat  thst  it  mig-bt 
uumprehund  seKru^liun  fruui  tke  ouUJdu  world  and  aeLzar»  of 
person  and  pro}^>eny  wherever  foand,  which  wa-s  ruin  to  a  oaQunor> 
ciol  conuuunity.  The  merchants  and  bankers  of  Florence  received 
(rom  thtiir  l^Jmall  com.'6|>nnil)»nts  the  most  olarnung  accounts  of 
the  jiajial  wrath  and  uf  his  intention  to  cx|»ose  their  projicrty  to 
pillage.  Fear  took  possession  of  the  city,  oa  mmora  spread  from 
day  to  day  tliat  the  dreaded  interdict  had  been  proclaimed.  It 
shows  the  immense  iulluence  still  wielded  by  Suvonarola  thav 
after  earnest  discnssions  and  various  devices,  the  Signoha  conld 
only  bring  itaelf,  Maroh  17,  to  send  to  him  live  oitizens  at  night  to 
heg  hiin  to  siisjieut)  preauhingfor  the  time.  Ue  had  prumiseil  that, 
while  he  would  not  obey  the  pope,  he  wonld  re8)>6Ct  the  wishes  of 
the  civil  power,  but  when  this  re()uetit  reached  liim  lie  replied  that 
he  must  Hrst  seek  the  will  of  Him  wlio  bnd  onlered  bim  to  preach. 
The  nejtt  day,  from  the  palpit  of  San  Mai-oo.  he  gave  his  answer— 
"Listen,  for  this  is  what  the  TA>r\)  saith :  In  asking  tbui  Frate  to 
give  up  preaohing  it  is  to  Me  that  the  request  is  made,  antl  not  to 
him,  for  it  is  I  who  preach ;  it  is  I  who  grant  tlie  request  and  who 
do  not  grant  it.  The  Lord  assents  as  regui-Js  the  preaohing.  bat 
not  as  regards  your  salvatJon."  * 

It  was  Imposaible  to  yield  more  avvkwanllv  or  in  a  m.inner 
more  convincing  of  self-deception,  and  Savonarnla's  enemies  grew 
uumtipondingly  bold.  The  Franctacans  thnndcre<l  trimnphonUy 
from  tlio  pulpits  at.  their  command ;  the  tlisorderlv  eiemonta, 
wearir:d  with  the  rale  of  righteousness,  commenced  to  agitate  for 
tbe  license  which  they  cuuld  see  was  soon  to  be  theirs.  Prufone 
sooffftis  commenced  to  ridicule  the  Fmte  openly  in  tlie  streets,  and 
within  a  week  plaoords  were  po8t*.Hl  on  the  nmlU  urging  the  burn- 
ing of  the  palaces  of  Franceaeo  Valori  and  Paolo  Antoniu  Sode- 
rini,  two  of  his  lending  snpporteTB.  The  agents  of  the  Dnke  of 
Milan  were  not  far  wrong  when  tbey  exultinglr  wrote  to  him  pre- 
dicting the  speody  downfall  of  the  Frate,  by  fair  tueaiis  or  fouLf 

Just  at  this  juncture  there  came  to  Ught  a  deoperatc  expe^Ueot 
to  which  Savonarola  bad  recourse.  After  giving  Alexander  fair 
warning,  March  13,  to  look  to  bis  safety,  for  thero  could  oo  longer 


*  Parraiis,pp.  SS7. 3SS.-~Ljui(luoci.  pp.  lM-4fl. 
i  Lioducci,  p.  189. — MIUH.  H  App.  pp.  h-iii.-lxii. 


be  tnioe  between  tbeio,  &&Tonan>bi  appcailwl  to  lh«  sorenigw  tii 
Cliistendom.  in  letters  purporting  to  Iw  wriLlea  onder  the  direct 
oommand  of  God  and  in  his  nnme,  mHiug  upon  the  monarchs  to 
wnvoke  a  general  council  for  the  r«fon»a(ioD  of  tho  Church.  It 
was  diacnsed,  from  the  high«6t  to  the  Unrestt  and  on  aroouat  of  its 
iiitolefahle  sti^ncb  (^od  had  not  )>crinitto4l  ii  to  havo  a  lawful  head. 
Alexander  VI.  was  not  iwpo  aiui  was  not  elig:iblo  to  the  papacy, 
not  only  by  leoaon  of  the  simooy  through  which  he  had  bought 
tb»  tian^  fud  the  irirkodne»s  whicli,  when  exiKiecd,  woidil  pxdt« 
muTersal  execration,  but  also  Ix^causi;  be  was  not  a  Cihriatian.  and 
Bot  even  a  believer  in  God.  AU  this  tiuvonnrola  ofTenxi  to  prove  by 
ftrideooe  and  by  miracles  which  (yod  would  execute  tooonvinco  the 
■at  aoepticaL  This  portentong  opi<rtlc,  with  trifling  variants,  was 
to  be  addressed  to  the  Kings  of  France,  Spain,  England,  and  Uun- 
lE&ry.iuid  tu  tho  emperor.  A  preliminary  miwivo  from  Domenioo 
liazxiiiglii  to  Giovanni  GuHiiconJ.  Klorenline  Ambassadorin  Vraitce, 
Ittj^med  to  be  intercepted  by  the  Duke  of  ALilan,  who  wrati  hoetdc 
to  Bavoaarola,  and  who  pronifrtly  fonvarded  it  to  the  pope.* 

Aleiiuider'fl  wmth  ran  easily  ho  ixinceived.  It  wns  not  ao 
much  the  peraonal  accusations,  which  he  was  rea<ly  to  dismiss  with 
naical  indilTurence,  us  the  effort  to  bring  »l>out  Ihucunvocatiun  of 
a  council  whioli,  since  thosa  of  Com^tanoc  and  Baalu,  had  ever  been 
lie  cry  of  the  reformer  and  tlio  terror  of  the  paiwicy.  In  the  ex- 
iHing  discontent  of  Cliristendom  it  wa«  an  ever-preaent  d^inger. 
^rooontly  as  1462  the  hulf-oraxy  Andreim,  Arobbifihop  of  Kmin, 
Bad  set  all  Europe  in  an  uproar  by  convoking  from  l{a.ste.'Lcrmncil 
on  his  own  rosponiiiibility.and  dc-fying  fornix  mouths, under  the 
|irot4wtion  of  the  luagiutrute^,  the  ellortfl  of  Sixtus  IV.  and  the 
unthenuut  of  the  inquisitor,  Henry  Institoris,  until  Frwlerio  UI^ 
n/ier  balancing  aivbilc,  bad  liiui  thrown  into  jail.  In  the  sanie  year, 
•  i'S'i,  Fonlinand  and  IsalKlki,hy  tho  threat  of  calling  a  council, 
bnnight  Sixtus  to  renounce  the  claim  uf  tilling  the  seca  of  Spain 
with  bis  own  cre-atiires.  In  149A  a  rumor  wii.h  current  that  the 
«m])eror  was  about  to  cite  the  pope  to  a  ojuncil  to  be  held  in 


*  VUUri.  IL  IVO.  1S3-5;  App.  pp.  Ixrili.  IxxL.  olxxi.  ~~  Baluz.  ct  Mftnai  I. 
WW.— Pcrren*,  pp.  373-5. —  BuriKinaoelii,  p.  551, — In  biFcnnlVuion  olJHay  21, 
SkTOAEnilii  tlntod  ihftt  the  iilca  of  the  council  )ud  only  suggested  itself  u>  Uim 
UifnmuBlhs  prurloutly  (Villsri.ll.  App.  cxcii.). 


224 


POLITICAL   HKREST.-THE    CHCRCH. 


Florence.  Some  years  earlier  the  rebellious  Cardinal  Oialiano 
della  Rovere,  who  had  fled  to  Franco,  prraisl^ntly  urged  Charles 
Vni.  to  assemble  a  general  council;  in  1497  Charles  submitted 
tbo  qneetion  to  tlie  nniversity  of  Paris,  and  the  University  pro- 
nounoMl  in  its  favor.  Wild  as  was  Savonarola's  notion  that  be 
coald,  single-handed,  stimulate  the  princes  to  such  action,  it  was, 
^  nevertheless,  a  dart  aimed  at  the  mortal  spot  of  the  papacy,  and 
the  combat  there^ifter  was  one  in  which  no  quarter  could  be  given.f 
The  end,  in  fact,  was  inevitable,  but  it  ranic  sooner  and  more 
dramatically  than  the  shrewdest  observer  could  have  antici[xited. 
It  is  impossible,  amid  the  conflicting  statements  of  friends  and 
foes,  to  determine  with  [wsitiveness  the  successive  st«p8  leading  to 
the  strange  Uperimmto  dd  Fuoco  which  was  the  proximate  occa- 
sion of  the  catastrophe,  but  it  probably  oocnrrod  in  this  wise: 
FrA  Girolamo  being  silenced,  Domenico  da  Pescia  took  his  place. 
Matters  were  clearly  growing  desiderate,  and  in  his  indiscreet  zeal 
Domenico  offered  to  prove  the  truth  of  Iiia  master's  cause  by 
throwing  himself  from  the  roof  of  the  Palazzo  de'  Signori,  by  cast- 
ing himself  into  the  river,  or  by  entering  tire.  Probably  this  was 
only  a  rhetorical  flourish  without  settlml  purpose,  but  tlie  Francis- 
can, Franc^'sco  della  Puglia,  who  was  preaching  with  much  effect 
at  the  Church  of  Santa-Croce.  tflolt  it  np  and  offered  to  share  the 
ordeal  with  Fri  Girolamo.  The  latter,  however,  refused  to  under- 
take it  unless  a  papal  legate  and  ambassadors  from  all  Christian 
prinoes  could  be  present,  so  that  it  might  be  made  the  commence- 
ment of  a  general  reform  in  the  Church.  Fra  Domenico  then 
accepted  the  challonge,  and  on  March  27  or  28  ho  caused  to  be 
affixed  to  the  portal  of  Santa-Crooe  a  paper  in  which  be  offered  to 
prove,  by  argument  or  miracle,  these  propositions :  I.  The  Church 

*  Landiicci,  p.  1 13.— Chron.  Olawbergcr  «dd.  U82.— Raynald.  ann.  1492.  No. 
25. — Palgar,  Cronica  dc  loa  Kctm  Catolicos,  ii.  cit.— Combi,  L&  Itiforma  in 
ItslU,  I.  491.— NaMI.  Uh.  ii.  (p.  70). 

Til*  conltinporarT  Gtmjwlwi^r  myti  of  .Amlrm*  of  Kwin's  Bttempl,  "Nixl 
cnim  auctoritaii  impcmtnriii  inlervorki.<«et  mnxiniiim  in  ecrleflia  schiBma  sulxirtum 
fuiMi't  Ouium  enim  temuli  doniini  psptp  ltd  dotnini  impentoria  cnns«nMini 
respiciebant  pro  eonciUo  »lrbraii<to."  A  gear's  ImpriMnmcnt  in  chains  ex- 
htapl«<l  the  reeolutioc  of  Andreas,  who  excciiuiil  a  solocon  recantation  of  bis  io* 
Tcctinui  agaiDflt  tbo  Hnly  See.  This  wu  <tent  with  a  pptition  for  pnrdoo  to 
SIxtiu  IV.,  who  gniitcd  it,  but  before  iho  return  of  Ibc  mi?s8cii)jcr8  lh«  unhappy 
reformer  fanned  kituMiir  in  tiis  cell  (nbi  N»p.  ann.  1463). 


a£  God  reqnireB  reaovatioD ;  IL  Tbe  Charch  U  to  be  aooorgvd; 
III.  The  Church  *ril I  be  renovated;  IV.  After  chastisement  Flor 
eiKC  irill  be  rcnoratod  and  will  prosper;  V.  Tbe  iniidel  will  be 
ooorertetl :  Vt.  The  excommanication  of  Vrk  Girolamo  is  v<M ; 
VH.  Tb«v  is  DO  sin  in  nut  «->b6tin'inf(  the  excommnn Icatiop.  Fro. 
Fiascesco  reasunably  enuugb  said  that  most  of  these  propoeitions 
wtre  inca^iablo  of  argument.  Iwt,  as  a  demonstraticn  was  desired, 
^woold  enter  fire  with  Fii  I>omenico,althoagh  be  folly  expected 
to  be  boned:  stiUfbe  iraa  willing  to  make  the  sachtSoe  in  order 
to  liberate  the  KlofcndiUB  from  Ibvir  fatio  idol.* 

PassioiH  w«e  fierce  on  both  aides,  and  eager  partisaos  kept 
Uie  city  in  aa  nproar.  To  prevent  an  outbreak  ihe  Signoria  aent 
(or  both  dispotanta  and  canaed  them  to  enter  into  a  nritlen  agre^- 
nwBt,  March  3f».  to  nnd»go  this  strange  Criiil.  Three  hundred 
jreaam  eaiiier  it  would  have  seemed  reasonable  enooglL,  bat  the 
OooBcil  of  Lateran.in  121a,  had  reprobated  ordeals  of  all  kinds^ 
snd  tfaey  bad  been  definitely  marked  with  the  ban  of  the  Chofch. 
When  it  caune  to  tbe  point  Vri  Fraaoeaoo  said  that  be  bad  no 
qnarrel  with  Domenico;  that  if  Savonan^  would  Bndei;go  tbe 
trial,  he  was  ready  to  ibaie  it,  bat  with  anyoneebebeiroiildooly 
prodnoe  a  champion — and  one  was  readily  found  in  the  peratm  of 
Fn  Gioliano  Roodinelli.  a  noUe  Florentine  of  tbe  Order.  On  the 
other  side,  all  tbe  friaia  of  San  Marco,  nearly  three  hundred  in 
nunber,  signed  tbe  igreement  pledging  to  submit  tbemaelrea  to 
the  ordeal,  and  Savonarola  declaml  that  in  such  a  cause  any  one 
oocdd  do  so  without  risk.  So  gnat  was  the  enthnsia«ro  that  when, 
oo  tbe  day  before  tbe  trial,  be  pteacfaed  on  tbe  subject  in  San- 
Haroo,  all  the  audience  rose  in  masa.  and  offered  to  take  Doroeni- 
co*« place  in  vindicating  the  trnth.  The  conditions  preecnbed  by 
tbe  8ignorta  were,  that  if  tiie  Dominican  chsmpHMi  pertshed, 
whether  alone  or  with  his  rival,  Savonarola  should  leave  tbe  city 
until  officially  recalled  ;  if  the  Franciscan  alone  soocnmlied.  ihen 
Kia  Fnooeeoo  should  do  likewise ;  and  tbe  saaM  was  decreed  for 
either  ade  that  sfaoold  decline  the  ordeal  at  tbe  last  momeat-t 


*BariaBHefal,p.SM.~LMadacxi.pp.lM~7.— Procc-^«^  A.i-Er.L':  .  yy  '%',-7. 
— yiUari,  IL  Apjk  Ini  wiq. 

tLodocci.  pp.  l«7-8.— Proceaeo  Anttstko^  pjiL  9M-4.— Tllkri.  It  Appk. 

in.— 15 


POLITICAL  tTERteST.-THT!   CHURCH. 


The  Slgnoria  appoint«l  t«n  citixens  to  condnct  the  trial,  and 
fixed  it  for  April  6,  but  pustfjoned  it  for  a  day  in  hopes  of  receiv- 
ing from  the  \tape  a  HL'^tive  answer  to  an  appUcation  for  per- 
mission— a  refusal  which  cam«,  hnt  came  too  late,  poesibly  delayed 
on  pur^wse.  On  April  7,  accor<lingly,  the  preparations  were  com- 
plotod.  In  the  PiAzm  do'  Sigiiori  ii  hug*  pile  of  dry  wood  was 
built  the  height  of  a  man'n  ovrt*,  with  a  central  gangway  throngh 
which  the  champions  were  to  pass.  It  waa  plontifnlly  supplied 
with  gunpowder,  oil,  sulphur,  and  spirits,  to  insure  the  rapid  spread 
of  the  flames,  and  when  lighttKl  at  one  end  the  contc«tanta  were 
to  enter  at  the  other,  which  was  to  he  set  on  fire  behind  them,  so 
as  to  cut  off  aU  retreat.  An  immense  iTia.s.s  of  earnest  spectators 
lilled  the  piazza,  ami  every  window  and  house-top  was  crowded. 
These  wore  mostly  partisans  of  Savonarola,  and  the  Franciscans 
were  cowed  until  cheered  by  the  airival  of  the  Conipagnacci,  tho 
young  nobles  fully  armed  on  their  war-horses,  and  caali  accom- 
panied by  eight  or  ten  retainers — some  five  hundred  in  all,  with 
Doffo  Spini  at  their  head  *  !  // 

First  cyimo  on  the  scene  the  Franciscans,  anxions  and  terrified. 
Then  mapche<l  in  procession  the  Dominicans,  about  iwo  liuiidred 
in  number,  chanting  psalms.  Both  jwrties  went  before  the  Sig< 
noria.  when  the  Franciscans,  professing  fear  of  magic  arts,  de- 
manded that  Domcnico  should  change  bis  garments.  Altliongh 
this  wa«  promptly  acceded  to,  and  both  champions  were  clothed 
anew,  considerable  time  was  consumed  in  the  details.  The  Domlai' 
cans  claimed  that  Domenico  should  be  allowed  to  oorry  a  crucifix  in 
his  right  hand  and  a  consecriLtM  wafer  in  his  left.  An  objeclion 
being  made  tx>  the  crucifix  he  agreed  to  abandon  it,  but  was  un- 
moved by  the  cry  of  horror  with  which  the  pro])o6ition  as  to  the 
hoet  was  receivoil.  Savonarola  was  firm.  It  had  Ijoen  revealed 
to  FrA  Sajvestro  that  the  sacrament  was  indispensable,  and  the 
matter  was  hotly  dispniwi  until  the  shades  of  evening  fell,  when 
the  Rignorin  announced  that  the  ordeal  wiu;  abandoned,  and  the 
Franciscans  withdrew,  followetl  by  the  Dominicans.  The  crowd 
which  hod  patiently  waite^l  through  torrents  of  rain,  and  a  storm 
in  which  Ibe  air  aeemud  lilled  with  liuwUng  demons,  were  enraged 

*  Perrens,  pp.  370-6 l.—Burlaouoctil,  pp.  500,  S62.— Luidacci,  p.  106. — Pro- 
cet»o  Auteatico,  pp.  540-t, 


9AT0SAB0LA. 


ST 


at  tiie  loos  of  the  pmmbed  ipocUcie.  sod  s  b«aTy  armed  eacoit 
was  Decenary  to  coarer  tbe  Itaminicaos  in  wietr  bnck  to  Saa 
Marao.  Had  the  matter  bai«  one  with  whidi  KMon  luwl  anr- 
Uiin^  to  lio,  we  mi^t  perliaps  wondrr  thai  it  wai  rafardod  u  a 
li^inph  for  tbe  Fnnciscmns :  bo^SaToouoU  had  to  ooofideiiUT 
ftOBwed  a  mimsle,  and  bad  been  ao  baplkittjr  bebered  br  hU 
foUowea,  that  tber  Booeptad  the  dra.n-n  battle  ai  a  defeat^  and  at 
a  oonfeoiOD  that  be  eotiU  doc  retr  cm  tbe  intefpodtkai  of  God. 
Siieir  laitli  in  tbeir  prophH  wae  rfiaken.  white  the  emitant  Com- 
fagaacd  iariibed  abiue  uti  bim.  and  they  had  noC  a  word  to  otter 
ia  his  drfaace.* 

Bis  eneniei  vere  prompt  in  folLnwiag  ap  their  adnutageL 

Tbe  next  d&y  was  i^m  8uDday.    The  screeu  were  fall  of  iri> 

wnphent  Anabbiati.  and  «ach  Pntgaaiu  «•  showed  th<TftWilyM 

vexe  iranued  with  je«rs  and  pehed  wtth  stone*.    At  vespers,  the 

Dotninkan  ILuiaao  de'  Ugfai  attempted  to  preach  in  ibe  Doorao* 

which  was  ennrded,  but  the  Oompagiiarot  were  there  In  force,  in* 

Iffrupted  the  sermon,  ordered  ibe  aadienoe  to  diaperee,  and  ihoas 

who  rasisted  were  mruleil  and  wouniled.     Tfaea  arose  the  orv, 

fTo  San  Uaroo!"  and  tbe  erawd  homed  thither.     Already  the 

doors  of  the  Jiominican  chnrch  bad  been  sarronoded  bj  bors 

'Wbose  cries  disturbed  ibe  survioe  within,  and  who.  when  onlerad 

1  Id  be  silent,  had  replied  with  sbowen  of  sloaes  which  oompelltrd 

Ihe  entianae  to  be  closed.    Aa  the  ctotwd  surged  aroiiDd.  th«  wor- 

ihippers  wen  glad  to  escape  with  their  lires  througb  the  doistsssL 

VaUiH  and  Fmaio  Antoaio  Sodenci  were  there  in  ood< 

with  Sarunarola.    Boderini  made  good  hii  exit  from  the 

i  city ;  Valori  was  seized  while  ildrting^  tbe  walk,  and  carried  m 

It  of  his  palace,  which  had  alresdy  been  stiadced  by  the  Oom- 

Befnre  his  e}*es,  bis  wife,  who  was  pleading  with  tbe 

Its  from  a  window,  waj  slain  with  a  missile,  one  of  his 

I  sfaildrett  and  a  tanale  sertaat  woo  woimded.  and  tbe  paJaoe  was 

[■Kked  and  boned,  after  whidi  be  was  sunck  ftna  behind  and 

lulled  by  bis  eosmies  of  the  families  Tomabooni  and  Bkiiilfi. 


[ptgBioci. 


■  t^Ddoeci.  pp.  ISS-S.— PnxcHo  Amndco.  p.  M2.— Barti— fflii,  |l  SSSl— 
VUlari,  U.  App  pp.  Ixxv.-lxxx.,  ljixxiii.~xc — Gidccunltnl.  Lib.  tu.  c.  S. 

Tbe  fiwd  Fkwsii—  dU  aoc  &U  to  poiat  oat  that  Utc  miAdtat  daatk  of 
;  CkaclH  VUi.  oo  thb  i^M  April  7.  wh  «  viMiatioa  npon  bfaa  tat  bariw  sImh- 
!  deaed  BmvouoU  mad  the  rep*Uic — Sudi,  Uh.  il  p.  80. 


228 


POLITICAL  HERESr-THE   cnCRCH. 


Two  other  houses  of  Savonarola's  partisans  were  likewise  pillugod 
and  burned.* 

In  tlic  midst  of  tho  uproar  there  camo  forth  sacccssive  procla- 
miLtions  from  the  Signoria  orderiog  Savonarola  to  quit  the  Flor- 
entine territories  within  twelve  hours,  and  all  laymen  to  leave  the 
church  of  San  Marco  witiiiu  one  h«ur.  Although  these  were  fol* 
lowed  by  others  threatening  death  to  any  one  entering  the  chnrob, 
they  virtually  leg;alized  the  riot,  sliowing  what  had  doubtless  been 
the  secret  springs  that  set  it  in  motion.  Tlie  ass;iult  on  Sun  Marco 
then  biicainc  a  regular  siege.  Mutters  had  for  some  time  looked 
so  threatening  that  during  the  post  fortnight  the  friars  had  beeffi 
secretly  providing  themselves  with  arms.  These  they  and  Uieir 
friends  used  gallantly,  even  against  the  express  commands  of 
Savonai-ola,  and  a  md^^  occurred  in  which  more  than  a  hundred 
on  both  sides  were  killed  and  wounded.  At  last  the  Sigooria 
sent  guards  to  capture  Savonarola  and  his  principtU  aids,  Do- 
menico  and  Salvestro,  will)  a  pleilgo  tliat  no  liarm  sliould  be  done 
to  them.  Besistance  ceased ;  the  two  former  were  found  in  the 
libmry,  but  Salvestro  had  hidden  himself,  and  was  not  captured 
till  tho  next  day.  Tlio  prisoners  were  inmed  hand  and  foot  and 
carried  through  the  streets,  where  their  guards  could  not  protect 
them  from  kicks  and  bu£fets  by  the  raging  mob.f 

The  next  da}'  there  was  comparative  (juiet.  The  revolution  in 
which  the  aristocracy  hail  alhcd  it-solf  witli  the  dangerous  cbisscs 
was  complete.  The  Piagnoni  wore  thoroughly  oowed.  Oppro- 
brious epithets  were  freely  lavished  on  Savonarola  by  the  victors, 
and  any  one  daring  to  utter  a  word  in  his  defence  would  have 
been  slain  on  the  spot.  To  render  the  triumph  permanent,  how- 
ever, it  was  necessary  first  to  discredit  him  utterly  with  the  peo- 
ple and  then  to  despatch  him.  No  time  was  lost  in  preparing  to 
give  a  judicial  appearance  to  the  foregone  conclusion.  During 
the  day  a  tribunal  of  seventeen  members  selected  from  among 
his  special  enemies,  such  as  DofTo  Spini,  was  noitiiuated,  which. 
set  pmmptly  to  work  on  April  Ht,  although  its  fonnal  commis- 
sion, including  power  to  use  torture,  was  not  made  out  until  the 


'  LikniluRri,  p.  170. — PrA«e^M  Auleiiticc,  p|).  AEM,  &4S.— Bnrlitmaochi,  p.  M4, 
t  Landucvi,  p.  lit.— ProceMo  Aulcnticu.  pp.  MA,  S4&.— Burlnmaocln.  p.  M4. 
^JfMnii,  Lib.  JL  p-  78.— Villari,  IL  173-77 ;  App.  pp.  xdv.,  cuxr.,  ccxxziii.  ' 


SAVONABOLA.  SS| 

11th.  Papal  authority  to  disrcganl  the  clericul  immunity  of  the 
prisoners  was  applied  for.  but  the  proceedings  were  not  delayed 
by  waitiug  fur  the  answer,  which,  uf  course,  was  favorable,  and 
two  papai  eummissioners  were  adjoined  to  the  tribunaL  Sarona- 
rtila  and  bin  companions,  still  ironed  hand  and  foot,  were  carried 
to  the  Bargello.  Thu  ofllcial  account  states  that  he  was  first  in- 
terrogated kindly,  but  as  ho  would  not  confecs  he  was  threaUined 
with  torture,  and  this  proving  ineffectual  he  was  subjected  to 
three  and  a  half  l>-<tfti  Ji  /hm.  This  was  a  customary  form  of 
torture,  known  as  the  strappado,  which  consisted  in  tying  the 
prisoner's  bands  behind  his  back,  then  hoisting  him  by  a  rope  foxt- 
ened  to  his  wrists,  letting  him  drop  from  a  height  and  arresting 
him  with  a  jerk  befuro  bis  feet  reached  the  tloor.  Sometimes 
beary  weights  were  attached  to  the  feet  to  render  the  o]}erat)oa 
more  severe.  Officially  it  is  stated  that  this  first  application  was 
suffioient  to  lead  him  to  confess  freely,  but  the  general  behef  at 
the  time  was  that  it  was  rejwatetl  with  extreme  severity. ** 

Be  this  as  it  may,  Savonarola's  norvons  organization  was  too 
eeiuitive  for  liim  to  endure  agony  wltich  he  knew  would  be  in- 
idefiiiit«ly  prolonged  by  those  determined  to  effect  a  prodostlncd 
It.  He  entreated  to  be  released  from  the  torture  and  promised 
to  reveal  everything.    His  examination  lasted  imtil  April  18,  but 


*  T^nducci,  pp.  171^— Tflbrifll.  178;  App.  p.  clxv.— Proceaio  Antentico, 
pp.  5i50-I. 

Violi  (VillKri.  II.  App.  civi.-vii.)  aays  that  the  toiture  w&e  rrpcatedly  applied 
— on  oac  creaing  do  Ices  tlian  fourUva  times  froin  the  pulk-y  to  llic  floor,  aod 
Ui»t  his  irmB  wto  so  injured  that  lie  wu  unuhte  to  ftcd  himaclf;  bnt  this  must 
be  eiaggcraU-d  in  -riow  nf  the  pi<:uj  trentites  which  be  wrotr  while  in  prison. 
BurUmACchi  fsTt  that  he  was  tortuivd  n7p««l«dly  both  with  cord  and  fire  (pp. 

'866,  568).  Burchard.the  papal  prothonotftiy, statrit  that  hi*  was  tortitrcd  ieron 
times,  and  Burcbanl  was  likel;  to  koow  and  not  like);  to  exaggentte  (Btircb. 
Di«r,  itp-  I*rcures  dea  AKSiDoiKS  de  Commiaoo,  Unixcllca,  1708,  p.  424).     The  ex* 

kprMdon  of  Comtuini's,  who  waa  wc11-iiifi>rni(.i],  it '"  t*  gemiratt  A  merwlU$^ 
Onoaaires,  Lit),  viii.cli.1fi).  But  t\w  tnoet  rmphatic  crtdcnce  is  that  ofthr  Sig- 
Doria,  ivbo,  in  aoswcr  In  the  repmnclies  of  Alexander  at  tbcnr  tardtneaH,  declare 
tbiit  tbey  had  to  do  with  a  man  of  j^reat  cnduraocG ;  tliey  ha<1  aaaidooUHly  tOTt- 

'  Drt^l  him  for  man;  dajs  with  slpndcr  results,  which  they  would  suppress  until 
thpy  cDuId  forc«  biui  to  repeal  all  bis  aecrets— "  oiulta  et  BHtdun  quRstioae,  uul- 
tis  difbu*,  per  vim  vix  paaca  extoraimus,  qiin  nunc  ccUro  anlmns  ent  donoc 
omnia  oobts  patcrcnt  sui  aniuii  luvolucra"  <ViUari,  II.  197). 


d30 


POLITICAL  HEltEST.-TiTE  cnCRCE 


even  in  his  complying  frame  of  mind  the  rcsniltnnt  ^^onfession  i» 
quired  to  be  manipulated  before  it  could  be  made  public.  For 
this  infamous  picco  of  work  a  fitting  instrument  was  at  hand. 
Ser  Cecfone  was  an  old  partisan  of  the  Medici  whose  life  had 
been  8ave<l  by  Saronarola's  secretly  giving  him  refuge  in  8«n 
Marco,  and  who  now  reiiaid  the  benefit  by  sacrificing  his  bene* 
factor..  As  a  notary  he  was  familiar  \rith  such  work,  and  un- 
der his  skilful  hands  the  incoherent  answers  of  Savonarola  were 
moulded  into  a  narrative  which  is  the  most  abject  of  self-accttw- 
tioti.s  and  most  compromising  to  all  his  friends.* 

He  is  made  to  represent  himself  as  being  from  the  first  a  con> 
scions  impostor,  whose  sole  object  was  to  gain  power  by  deceiring 
the  |)eoplR,  If  his  projpct  of  conroking  a  council  bad  resnltod  in 
his  being  chosen  pope  he  would  not  have  refused  the  position,  but 
if  not  ho  would  at  all  events  have  become  the  foremost  man  in 
the  world.  For  his  own  puqtoses  he  had  arrayed  the  citizens 
against  each  other  and  caused  a  niptnre  between  the  city  and  the 
Holy  See,  striving  to  erect  a  government  on  the  Venetian  model, 
with  Francesco  Valori  as  [wrpetual  dogp.  The  animus  of  the 
trial  is  clojiily  iwcalod  in  the  scant  attention  paid  to  his  spiritual 
abermtions.  M-hleh  wore  the  sole  offences  for  which  he  could  be 
convlct^l.  and  the  immense  detail  devoted  to  his  political  activitj', 
and  to  liifi  relations  witli  all  nbnoxiuua  citizens  whom  it  was  de- 
sired Lo  involve  in  his  ruin.  Had  there  boen  any  pretence  of  ob- 
serving ordinary  judicial  forms,  the  completeness  with  wbioh  be 
WHS  represented  as  abasing  himself  would  have  overroaolied  \t& 
purpose.  In  forcing  him  t^j  confess  that  ho  was  no  pro]>het,  and 
that  he  had  always  secretly  believed  the  papal  excommunication 
to  be  valid,  he  waa  relieved  from  the  charge  of  persistent  heresy, 
and  he  could  legally  be  only  scjaionced  to  ponaJicc ;  but,  as  there 


'  LanfliMTet. )».  ITS. — Pmrewn  Antentico,  p.  HO. — Perrcti*,  pp.  9ST-8. — Bbf^ 
Inmicchi.  pp.  5W-7.— Villnri,  II.  189.  IB3;  App.  cxvitl-itxi, 

It  Is  pnrt  of  rhc  SftTonitrolA  lfg«Mi(l  thKt  8«ronnnila  tbratleocd  Ber  Oecoone 
irilli  denth  within  &  yvar  if  lie  did  not  remnve  oenntn  intorpoTBtiona  from  Ibe 
conrrMtion,  and  IbaL  the  prcdictioD  «m  TRilflvd,  OMone  dyhif*  irilhtn  tbe  dms, 
unliousellod,  and  rvniHlug  In  despnir  the  contolntions  of  rel)};;ioD  (Durlamkcchl, 
p.  B7ft.— Virtl)  fi/..  Yillori,  II.  App.  cxTrii.). 

C«rcane  perfomiiMl  the  same  offic«  for  tbo  coufttsioB  of  Fnl  Dufucaloo  ( VUlari, 
a.  App.  Doc.  xxrn.}. 


3&VOKAROLJL 


£31 


I  pMB  DO  iotcoiion  *A  h^ng  rescnctoU  to  Ivfpd  rules,  the  first  objoct 
K«8  W  (lucrudil.  liiiu  wiUi  Cluj  |>eople,  after  which  liu  couUI  be 
jxtdieiaUy  luimlered  with  intpunity.* 

The  objix-t  H  tis  tboruugUl  v  attained.  On  April  lU,  in  the  great 
)&aU  u(  tilt)  (XfUDi'il,  Uiti  cuiifesiioii  wiu  piiblioly  raad  in  tbe  pres- 
genoe  of  all  nUo  might  gco  fit  lu  attemi.  Tlie  effect  produced  is 
w«U  described  by  ihti  honest  Luca  I^nducci,  uho  had  been  an 
nnrinofit  and  devout,  though  timid,  follower  uf  Fra  Gindaoio.  and 
who  now  griorod  bitterly  at  the  disup[>euriince  uf  his  iUnBions,  and 
•t  tho  Ethattering  of  the  gorgetjiu  duy-<lreana8  In  wltioh  the  dis- 

^•ciples  iiad  nur$«d  theiii£«lv«&  Deep  waa  his  anguish  as  he  Its- 
[tuned  Ui  the  confetuiun  uf  uuu  "  whuiu  wo  iit-liuved  to  be  a  prophet 
aqU  who  now  t:onf«ii£eil  that  be  wus  no  proph«t,8iul  that  what  he 
{■reached  was  nut  revL-ttled  tu  him  bv  GtxL.  I  wus  stii]K>fted  and 
my  very  sonl  was  fiUed  with  gnel  to  see  the  destruction  of  mch 
M  «difice,  which  crumbled  because  it  was  fi>und(-d  on  a  be.  I  bad 
expected  U»  see  Flureuoe  a  new  Jerusaieia,  whencx*  sliuald  isMie 
the  htws  and  the  splendor  and  the  ojcamplti  of  the  holy  tile;  to 
K*  tbe  reno\-ation  of  the  Church,  tbe  crjiiversion  of  the  infidf^I,  and 
the  rejoiciog  of  the  good.  I  found  tlio  rvver^  of  ail  this  ^nd  1 
«waUowcd  the  do^" — a  natural  enough  metaphor,  seoing  that 
Landuoci  was  an  apothecary.f 

,  Vet  even  with  tlti^  the  Signoria  wb«  not  satisfied.  On  April 
SI  a  new  thai  wu«  ordered;  Savoonrula  was  turtui^  again,  and 
further  avowals  of  his  political  action  were  wrong  frooi  hlnu) 
while  a  general  arrest  wus  mode  of  those  who  were  compromised 
by  his  uonfmiiloiis,  uud  those  of  iKjiueniooaDd  Salvetitru,  creating  a 
terror  so  widrspnuui  tliat  Urge  numbers  of  liis  fuUowcrs  flnt  from 
the  city.  On  tbe  2Tth  the  prisoners  were  uken  to  the  lJ.*irgeUo 
and  HO  tortured  that  during  the  whole  of  the  aftemooa  tbedr 
shrieks  were  lieard   by  the  pa^si^rsby,  but  nothing  ^v-as  wrung 


'  Vntemo  Aauntico,  pp.  GSt~6i,  547.— Villari.  11.  App.  ctlrii.  fDjq. 

Viuli  itiUet  that  the  canfwsion  as  inUr^latiMl  by  C'CCcona  wm  printed  uxl 
circuUi«d  bj  tbr  Signoria  u  «  justification  of  their  kction,  but  tbsl  it  itroved  M 
UBMtlaractory  to  [he  public  tliat  iu  a  few  days  all  copies  wet«  ordered  b>'  {troo- 
U»»tlMi  to  be  BOrrendcred  iViUari,  tL  App.  p.  cxit.). 

t  Luiducci.  p.  173. — Burlnuucchl.  p.  SGI. 
„.  {.Thu  coaftmLioD  «riu  Mfer  taade  pablic    VUUri,  wbo  di»cof end  the  H3., 
Ill*  printed  it,  App.  p.  t:\xxv. 


i 


932 


POLITICAL    HEUESY-THE   CHURCH. 


from  them  to  Incriminate  Savonarola.  The  nfHcialn  in  power  bad 
but  a  sliort  time  for  aotion,  as  their  term  of  office  ended  with  the 
month,  although  by  arbitrary  and  illogal  devices  they  secured  suo- 
cessurs  of  their  own  party.  Their  hist  oBlcial  act,  on  the  30th, 
was  the  exile  of  t«n  of  the  accused  citizens,  and  the  imposition  on 
twenty-three  uf  various  tines,  amounting  in  all  to  twelve  thousand 
llorins.* 

The  new  government  which  came  in  power  May  I  at  once  dia- 
chai^ed  the  imprisoned  citizens,  but  kept  Savonarola  and  his  com* 
panions.  These,  as  Dominicans,  were  not  justiciable  by  the  civil 
l»ower,  but  the  Signoria  immediately  applied  to  Alexander  for 
authority  to  condemn  and  execute  them.  He  refustx!.  and  ordered 
them  to  b«j  delivered  to  him  for  judgment,  as  he  had  aln-ady  dune 
when  the  news  reached  him  of  Savonarola's  capture.  To  this  the 
republic  demurred,  doubtless  for  the  reason  privately  alleged  to 
the  ambassador,  that  Savonarohi  was  privy  to  too  many  state 
uecrets  to  lie  intrusted  to  the  Roman  curia ;  but  it  8uggeste<l  that 
the  pope  might  send  commissioners  to  Florence  to  conduct  the 
proceedings  in  his  name.  To  this  he  assented.  In  a  brief  of  May 
1 1  the  Hifihop  of  Vaison,  the  suiTrngan  of  tho  Archbishop  of  Flor- 
ence, is  instructeil  to  degrade  the  culprits  from  holy  orders,  at  the 
requisition  of  the  comuussiouers  who  had  been  empowered  to  con- 
duct the  examination  and  trial  to  final  sentence.  In  the  selection 
of  these  commissiunera  the  Inquisition  does  not  ap{)ear.  Even 
bad  it  not  fallen  too  low  in  popular  estimation  to  be  iutnist«d 
with  an  affair  of  so  much  moment,  iu  Tuscany  it  was  Franciscan, 
and  to  have  given  sjiecial  authority  to  the  existing  inquisitor, 
Fra  Francesco  da  Montalcino,  n-ould  have  been  injudicious  iu  view 
of  the  part  taken  by  the  Franciscans  iu  the  downfall  of  Savonarola, 
Alexander  showed  his  customaiy  slirewihicss  in  Rplccting  for  the 
miserable  woric  the  Dominican  general,  Giovacchino  Torriani, 
who  bore  the  reputation  of  a  kind-hearted  and  humane  man.  Ho 
was  but  a  stalk ing-horae,  however,  for  the  real  actor  was  his  asso- 
ciate, Francesco  KomoUno,  a  clerk  of  I^rida,  whose  zeal  in  the 
infamous  busineiis  was  rewarded  with  the  cardinalate  and  arch- 
bishopric of  Palermo.    After  all,  their  duties  were  only  ministerial 


■  Luiducci,  p.  174.— ProofiMO  AuteoUco,  p.  SeS.— Villftri,  n.  StO,  317.— Nudi, 
lib.  u.  p.  79. 


SAVONAROLA.  £33 

aod  not  judicia],  for  the  matter  had  been  prejudged  at  liome. 
Komolmo  opt^nly  boasted,  '*  We  shall  have  a  Kne  bonfire,  for  I 
bring  the  sentence  with  me.''  * 

The  conuoisiuonera  reached  Florence  May  19,  and  lost  no  time 
in  occomphiihing  their  object.  The  only  result  of  the  papal  inter 
Tention  watt  to  subject  tho  victims  to  a  sttrploso^  of  agony  and 
ibame.  Fur  fomi'n  sake,  the  papal  judges  could  not  accept  the 
proceedings  already  had,  but  must  ioHiot  on  Savonarola  a  third 
trial  Brought  before  Rornolino  on  the  *20tfa,  he  retracted  his  con- 
(euion  aa  extorted  by  torture,  and  asserted  that  he  waa  an  envoy 
of  God.  Under  the  inquisitorial  fomiulas  this  retraction  of  con- 
fenion  rendered  him  a  relapsed  heretic,  who  could  bo  homed  with- 
out further  ceremony,  but  hia  judges  wanted  to  obtain  information 
desired  by  Alexander,  and  again  the  HiitTcrcr  was  repeatedly  sub- 
jected to  the  strappado,  when  be  withdrew  his  retraction.  Special 
iuqoiries  were  directed  to  afioertain  whether  the  Cardinal  of  Kaplea 
had  been  privy  tu  the  design  of  convoking  a  genonU  council,  and 
ooder  the  streea  of  reiterated  torture  Savonarola  was  brought  to 
Admit  this  on  the  21rt,  but  on  the  22d  he  withdrew  the  assertion; 
and  the  whole  eonfetaion,  although  manipulated  by  the  alcilful 
hand  of  Ser  Ceccone,  was  so  nearly  a  ntix;titioii  of  the  previous 
one  that  it  waa  never  given  to  the  public.  Thi.H  mattered  little, 
however,  for  the  whoh*  pn>ceedingii  were  a  barefm;e<l  inwrkery  of 
justice.  From  soiuc  overeighl  IXmii'iiico  da  fwcia's  name  hmi  not 
been  inclndcd  in  the  papul  commission.  He  was  an  individual 
of  no  personal  importance,  but  some  zealous  Florentine  warned 
Rornolino  that  there  might  be  danger  in  s(>aring  him,  when  the 
oonunissioner  carelessly  replied  "■  A  frataccio  more  or  less  makes 
no  difference,"  and  his  name  was  added  to  the  sentence.  He  was 
vx  impenitent  heretic,  for  with  heroic  flrninees  he  hud  borne  the 
ttKMt  excruciaiing  torture  without  retracting  bis  faith  in  his  be- 
loved prophet.!  _ 

*  Landucci,  p-  174.— Ntvdt,  Lib.  ti.  p.  79.— Wwlding.  uin.  1496.  Xo.  7.— 
PcmuB,  p.  8&9.— Proce»o  Autetitico,  p.  BS3. — Barlunuchi,  p.  068.— Brer.  Eiai. 
Ord.  PiwdlcQt.  (Martene  Ampl.  Cull.  VL  StfS). 

t  T.aiKiucci,  p.  Wfl.—Nardi,  Lib.  ii.  pp.  M-1 .— Burlaniacchi,  p.  968.-^011 
(VUUri.  II.  App.  txxv.J.-Villari,  II.  3W-^.  32»-.^3;  App.  c!x]iiiv..cid».,cicriL 

There  ws«  one  peculiarity  in  this  cxaminMinti  Ixrfora  Koinulifia  wliich  I  have 
not  two  recorded  elsewhere.    During  the  iolcm>gatory  of  Maj  %V  a%iwuu<Aih 


Sdi 


POLITICAL   aSBEST.-^TffE    CHURCH. 


^  The  Hccused  were  at  least  spared  the  torment  of  Buspense.  On 
the  22d  ju(tgiuenl  was  pronounced.  They  wvrvi  wititlemned  as 
heretics  anil  stshismalics.  rebels  from  the  l!hiirf.h,  sowers  of  tares 
uud  reveolei-s  of  oonfeesions,  and  were  sontonced  to  be  abandoned 
to  the  secular  urm.  To  justify  ruhiJtation.  it  was  re(]uiaite  that 
the  culprit  sliuuld  be  u  rola^jsed  ur  u  defhmt  heretic,  and  Savonar 
rola  was  not  regarded  as  coming  under  either  cat^t>i*y.  H©  bad 
always  dechired  his  readiness  to  reti-act  anything  which  Kome 
might  deitne  as  erroneouR.  He  ha<l  oonfesseO  all  that  had  been 
required  of  him,  nor  u-aa  his  retraction  when  removwl  fi-om  tort- 
ure treated  as  a  relapse,  for  he  and  hia  companions  were  admitted 
to  communion  liefore  Hxocution,  without  urdwrgoing  the  ceremony 
of  abjuration,  which  shows  tliat  they  woto  not  considered  ad 
heretics,  nur  cut  otT  from  the  Church.  In  fact,  aa  though  to  com- 
plete tlie  irregularity  of  the  whole  transaction,  t^avonarola  himself 
was  allowed  to  act  as  the  celebi-ant,  and  to  {wrform  the  sacred 
uiystex'ies  on  the  uiorniuj^  of  the  execution.  All  this  went  for 
nothing,  iiowever,  wheo  a  Uorgia  was  eager  for  rerengo.  On  the 
previous  evening  a  great  pile  had  been  built  in  tho  piazTii.  The 
next  uiominjf.  May  aa,  tlie  ceremony  of  degTa<intion  fioni  holy 
urdem  was  jterformed  in  public,  after  which  tlie  convicts  were 
handed  over  to  the  secular  lua^stmtes.  Won  it  bypoci-isy  or  re* 
morse  that  led  JUomolino  at  this  moment  to  give  to  his  victims,  in 
thu  name  of  Ale^cauder,  plenary  indulgraice  of  their  sins,  thus  re- 
storing tlicm  to  a  state  of  primal  innocence  I  Irregular  as  the 
whole  affair  had  been,  it  was  renderetl  still  more  so  by  the  Signoria, 
which  uiwiilied  the  customiu-y  pemilty  to  hanging  befoit;  the  burn- 
ing, and  the  three  martyrs  endured  their  fate  in  silence." 

The  utm^jst  care  was  taken  that  the  bodies  should  be  ntterfy 
consumed,  after  which  every  fragment  of  ashes  was  scrupulously 
gathered  up  and  thrown  into  the  ^Vmo,  in  onler  to  prevent  the 
presen'ation  of  relics.  Yet,  at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  some  earnest 
disciples  secretly  managed  to  secui-e  a  few  floating  coals,  as  well 


waa  >ubJeot«d  to  fr«Bli  tortore  ns  a  preliminary  to  Miring  hia  coafirmttloD  of  tbt 
sutcQictil*  ju«l  mode  uoder  repeated  tonuns  (\llliiri.  II.  App.  eiori.). 

*  Lauducci.  pp.  17«-7.— ProcwHO  Autentioo.  p.  548.— Villnri.  II.  33ft:  App 
cxcviii.— L^til,  Eretlfii  d'lulift,  L  SSU.~BiirUmiicclil,  pp.  0S9-70.— NbihH,  r.i>>. 
ajji.  as. 


BAVONAROLA. 


981k 


as  some  fragments  of  garments,  which  were  treasured  and  vener- 
ated even  to  recent  times.  Thoagh  many  of  the  believers,  like 
honest  Landncci,  wc^re  disitlasion(!d,  many  were  pcraistent  in  ths 
fiuth,  a.nd  for  a  long  while  lived  in  the  daily  expectation  of  Savon- 
arola^s  advent,  like  a  new  Messiah,  to  work  ont  the  renoTation  of 
fThristianity  and  the  conversion  of  the  infidel  -  the  realization  of 
the  splendid  i)romi3es  with  which  he  hiid  liP|EriiiIe«l  himself  and 
them.  So  profound  and  lasting  was  the  impression  made  by  hk 
terrible  fat«  that  for  more  tlmn  two  centiiritw,  until  170^.  llie  place 
of  execntion  was  secretly  strewed  with  flowers  on  the  night  of  the 
anniveraar}',  May  33.* 

The  papal  commissioners  reaped  a  harvest  by  snmmoning  to 
Rome  the  followers  of  Savonarola,  and  then  specnlating  on  their 
fears  by  selling  tlietn  exemptions.  Florence  itself  was  not  long 
in  realtnng  the  strength  of  the  reaction  against  the  puritanio 
methods  whirh  Savonarola  had  enforced.  The  streets  again  be- 
came filled  with  reckless  desperadoes,  quarrels  and  murders  were 
frequent,  gnnihling  was  unchecked,  and  license  reined  supreme^ 
JTardi  tolls  us  thai  it  seemed  as  if  decency  and  virtue  had  been 
prohibited  by  law,  and  the  common  remark  was,  that  since  the 
coming  of  Mahumet  no  sach  scandal  hat!  been  inflicted  upon  the 
Church  of  Ood.  As  Landncci  says,  it  seemed  as  if  hell  had  broken 
loose.  As  thongh  in  very  wantonness  to  show  the  Thurch  whut 
were  the  allies  whom  it  had  sought  in  the  elfort  to  crush  unwel- 
come reform,  on  the  following  Christmas  eve  a  horse  was  brought 
into  the  Duonio,  and  delihoratcly  tortured  to  donth.  goats  were 
let  loo«ie  in  San  Marco,  and  in  all  the  churches  assaf(Otida  was 
placed  in  Iho  censers;  nor  does  it  soom  that  any  punishment  waa 
ri3ite<l  npon  the  perpetrators  of  these  public  sacrileges.  The 
Church  had  used  the  sceptics  to  gain  her  ends,  and  conltl  not  com- 
plain of  the  manner  in  which  they  repaid  her  for  her  assistance  in 
the  nnholv  anianc'C+ 


■  XjODdDBci.  p.  178.— rrmmt,  p.  tSI.— Prorivgn  Autentko,  p.  647. — <Nar4i, 
Lib.  n.  p.  »3.— Villnri,  U.  Mt. 

BorlntDarchi's  nliktloo  (pp.  570-1)  of  the  in&nnor  in  whicli  an  itria,  »  Iwnd, 
10(1  the  l)«nrt  ot  SftvoDitroI*  were  prcocrvvil  fur  tlic  TL'Dvmti'iii  of  tbe  fuillifut, 
hiu  i\\e.  evident  appearance  of  a  legend  to  jiistif}-  the  authcnticilj'  of  llic  relics. 

t  ^u-di,  Lib.  U.  pp.  63-3.— Lnoducci,  pp.  iBO-l. 


236 


POMTICAL    BER89Y.-TBE   CHURCH. 


Savonarola  had  built  hi»  house  upon  the  Rand,  and  ws 
airay  by  the  waters.  Tet,  in  spite  of  hia  execution  a&  a  heretic^ 
the  Church  bos  tacitly  conl'essed  its  own  crime  by  admitting  that 
he  was  no  heretic,  but  rather  a  saint,  and  the  most  convenient 
evasion  of  responsibility  was  devoutly  to  refer  the  whole  matter, 
as  Luke  "Wadding  does,  to  the  mybterious  judgment  of  tiod.  Eve^j 
Torriani  and  Romolino,  after  burning  him,  when  tbey  ordere^H 
May  27,  under  pain  of  oxcommunicjition,  all  his  writings  to  be  de-  ' 
livered  up  to  thom  for  examination,  were  unable  to  discover  any 
heretical  opinions,  and  were  oblige<l  to  return  them  without  cras- 
uree.  Perhaps  it  might  have  been  as  weli  to  do  this  before  cson- 
domning  him.  Paul  III.  declared  that  he  would  hold  as  a  heretic 
any  one  who  should  assail  the  memory  of  Kra  Girolamo ;  and 
Panl  IV.  had  his  works  rigorously  examined  by  a  special  congre- 
gation, which  declared  that  they  contained  no  heresy.  Fifteen  of 
bis  sennoQs,  denunciatory  of  ecclesiastical  abuses,  and  his  treatise 
De  Veritat'e  Prop/ieliaiy  were  placed  upon  the  index  as  unfitted 
for  general  reading,  donee  corrigantur,  but  not  as  heretical/ 
Benedict  XIV*.,  in  his  great  work,  De  Servorum  Dei  Beatijicathtt^ 
includes  Savonarola's  name  in  a  list  of  the  saints  and  men  illustri- 
ons  for  sanctity.  Images  of  him  graced  with  the  nimbus  of  sanc- 
tity were  allowed  to  be  publicly  sold,  and  St.  Filippo  Neri  kept 
one  of  these  constantly  by  him.  St.  Francesco  <U  Paola  held  him 
to  he  a  saint.  St.  Catarina  Ricci  used  to  invoke  him  as  a  saint, 
and  considered  his  suffrage  peculiarly  cfficacions;  when  she  was 
canonized,  her  action  with  regard  to  this  was  brought  before  the 
consiatory,  and  was  tliornughly  discussed.  Trospcro  1-Ambertini 
afterivards  Benetlict  XIV.,  was  the  Promotor  Jidd^h-aA  inv< 
gated  the  matter  carefully,  coming  to  the  conclusion  that  this 
no  degree  detrucleii  from  the  nuTils  of  St.  Catarina.  Benedict 
XIII,  also  examine<i  the  case  thoroughly,  and,  drewling  a  renewal 
of  the  old  controversy  as  to  the  justice  of  Savonarola's  sentence, 
ordered  the  discussion  to  cease  and  the  proceedings  to  continue 
without  reference  to  it,  which  was  a  virtual  decision  in  favor  of 
the  martyr's  saintliness.  In  S.  Ufaria  Novella  and  S.  Marco  he  is 
pictured  as  a  saint,  and  in  the  frescos  of  the  Vatican  RapliacI  in- 
cluded hiiu  among  the  doctors  of  the  Church.  The  Dominicans 
long  cherished  his  memory,  and  wore  greatly  disposed  to  regard 
him  as  a  genuine  prophet  and  uncanonlzed  saint.    "When 


rtini,  1 
restjU 
lis  ii^^ 


SAVONAROLA. 

Tni..  in  1593,  hoped  to  acquire  Ferrara,  he  is  saul  to  have  nude 
a  TOW  that  if  successful  be  wuutd  canonize  Savonarola,  and  the 
hopes  uf  the  Boitiinlcans  grew  bu  san^ne  that  they  composed  a 
litan)'  for  him  in  advance.  In  fact,  in  many  of  the  Dominican 
convents  of  Italy  during  the  sixteenth  century,  on  the  anniversary 
of  his  execution  an  ofHco  was  ming  to  him  ns  to  a  martyr.  His 
marvellous  career  thus  furnishes  the  exact  antithesis  of  that  of  his 
Ferrarese  compatriot,  Armanno  Pongilupo— the  one  was  vener- 
ated as  a  saint  and  then  bunted  a^  a  heretic,  the  other  was  burned 
as  a  heretic  and  then  veaemted  as  a  saint.* 


*  Wadding,  uta.  14&8,  N'a  33.— I^aducci,  p.  178.— Perreoft,  pp.  39B-7.— Pro- 
CCMO  Autentlco.pp.  534,  .V38.— Catitfi,  Eretlol  cJ'IUIift,  L  234-5.— BcDcdicli  PP. 
XIV.  De  Bervoniaj  Del  Beat iO cat ionc,  Ub.  ni.  c.  xrr.  H  17-flO.  -Brer.  Hi«. 
Ord.  Pnedic.  (M&rUoe,  Ampl.Otll.  VL  »M).— lt£uscli,l>er  ladex  der  rerbotenea 
fiUcher.  1.  StfS. 

A  goofllj  catalogue  uf  minclei  perfoniied  by  SaronaroU*)!  latcrccsiduD  will  bt 
found  pioualy  cbrooickil  bjr  Builaoucclil  and  Boltuido  (B&luz.  et  3klaiun  1.  pp. 
Sn-83). 


CHAPTER  V. 
pouneAi,  HKRKsy  nTiLrzBD  ht  thb  statb. 

Tt  was  inevitable  that  secular  potentates  ithould  follow  the  ex- 
ample of  the  Church  in  the  eniployineiit  of  a  weaiwu  su  eflieient 
ay  the  charge  of  horosy,  wln^n  they  chanceU  to  he  in  the  position 
of  controlling  the  ccclc-iiastical  oi^inization. 

A  typical  illustration  of  this  is  se«n  when,  during  the  anarchy 
whit:b  prevailed  in  ICome  after  the  deAth  of  Inn<x:eDt  VII.  in  I4i)«;, 
BosiUo  OrdelalH  incuiTed  the  enmity  of  the  Colonnas  and  the  Sa- 
velll,  and  they  found  that  the  ensiiTst  way  to  deal  with  him  was 
through  the  Inquisition.  Under  their  impulsion  it  8017,1x1  him  and 
two  of  his  aitliercnts,  Matteo  and  Mcrcnda.  Throui^fh  means  pro- 
cured by  hi8  (laughter,  Ordelafli  escaped  from  prison  and  wasooa- 
demnod  »n  co/itumcutiam.  The  others  confessed — doubtless  under 
torture — the  heresies  attributed  to  them,  were  handed  over  to  the 
secular  arm,  and  were  duly  burned.  Their  houses  wore  torn  down, 
and  on  their  sites  In  time  were  erected  two  othere,  one  of  which 
afterwanls  binaitne  tho  dwelling  of  Michael  Angeto  and  the  other 
of  Snlvator  Roaa.* 

Secular  jwtentatcs,  howerer,  had  not  waite<l  till  the  fifteenth 
century  to  appreciate  the  facilities  ulfurded  by  hei'esy  and  the 
Inquisition  for  the  accomplish mont  of  their  objects.  Already  a 
hundred  years  earlier  the  methods  of  the  Inquisition  had  suggested 
to  Philippe  Ic  Bel  the  great  crime  of  the  Middle  Ages — tlie  de- 
struction of  the  Onler  of  the  Temple. 

When,  in  1119.  Hugues  de  Payen  and  Geoffroi  de  Saint-Adh6- 
mar  with  seven  companions  devoted  themselvf?s  to  the  pious  task 
of  keeping  the  roads  to  .lerusiUem  clear  ot  robbers,  that  pilgrims 
might  traverse  them  in  safety,  and  when  Itaymond  du  Puy  about 


■  RipoU  II.  946.— WftddiDg.  Kno.  1409,  Mo.  19.— TkmlMiriul,  8torU.Q«D.  dkU* 
InquU.  U.  437-9. 


TOE  TCSrLAR&  ■§ 

(be  mme  time  o^wMd  tW  Poor  Brvttna  ei  thm  Hai|iil«l  o4  81. 

John.  Ucy  miMiil  A  aenr  canv  wUah  «m  iiiwiiinil.i  attradin 

to  the  wadikt  «idor  sad  rdigiaas  OBlhaaaan  of  ibe  «je:b.    Tbe 

ittu^  n»MhimiiiW>  of  mni^at^r^f  and  cfairalrT  concipoiKlMl  to 

UM^f  to  tb«  iik«l  of  Otfuiin  h-igh^hn"*  Uut  tfar  HiiiUiy 

Oaden  dia>  fwinJwl  cpcoifilr  wnare  reekfwiad  aaaung  the  hamtimg 

JatkitMiiamoi  Emopa.     At  Ue  Gocnca  of  T^vjw*  in  1 1^  b  Rnk, 

dmwn  up  it  a»  6»id  by  Sc  Beraud,  «ao  iwif  id  to  Htigoes  «ad 

fait  MgniMini,  «iw  vcn  knova  w  the  Tov  SoUiefs  of  the  Tob- 

pl&    Tbe^  vera  Mi^pinl  a  whit«  hshd,  as  a  symbol  ol  inaocoBoa, 

to  which  Fn^MJiMi  111,  aided  a  red  croaa.  a^d  ihwrauadfd.  Bsm- 

MMlthaU  falMk  Md  half  while,  with  Oa  U^vtvi,  '^.Vm  «(^m  i^a- 

iMV"  aooD  beoune  the  laUri^g^ot  of  the  Chnrttan  chtnbif. 

Tha  Rale,  bated  npoa  that  of  the  Axict  Oneraao  Order. 

uceadiBglj  aercn.    The  meaibaB  wore  booad  bjr  the  three 

ntim  n>wB  oi  obedience,  povertj.  and  chaEtitjr,  aad  Iboe 

•nforoed  in  the  itmtiiics  of  the  <^>nW  with  the  atmosi  ligar.    The 

•ppboaot  for  Mlmuewa  was  reqpiired  to  ask  permiiaHM  lo  becDBM 

Ihe  fleciaadalaTO  oi  the  "Hook"  foreTer,  aad  waa  warned  thai 

^ha  heaorfofth  famndered  hi*  own  will  irreTDcaiUj.     He  was 

pfomiaed  bread  and  water  aad  the  poor  fiwHaeaU  of  the  Houae ; 

'  »od  if  after  death  goKl  or  silver  were  lovad  ainaeg  his  effects 

bis  body  was  thmsi  into  oaconaecntad  graaad.  or,  if  boned,  it 

vns  exhoBwd.     Cha«titr  wu  preacribed  in  the  i&me  nnspaiiag' 

faabioo,  ani  even  the  kisa  of  a  molher  was  f-^rbiiidoa.*^ 

The  fame  of  the  Order  qaickly  filled  all  Eanipe ;  knights  of 

thaaohiBBt  blood,  dakea  aad  priDoe>»  reooODoed  Ibe  work!  ui  serve 

Ohriel  in  its  tmnkei  and  soon  m  its  geooal  ch&pler  three  hundred 

^hsi^ite  woe  gBthorod,  in  addition  to  serriog  brethrea.     Tbeir 

rpnenrminaii  spread  immeaaely.    Towns  and  viUe^  and  cfamches 

and  manors  were  bestowed  opon  them,  from  which  the  rereoaes 


*  J«c  d»  VilriMO  Hia.  HteroaoL  tap.  «S  (Boogpn,  EL  leSS-t).— BbtswioA 

'•  Twiic.  ToBpM.  CP'atnrii  R.  Qmnm.  Scnptt.  U.  544i— Rigik  ftii—  Cam- 

|»ilitOoma  TcAfdi  c  Ti  tnu-JatiL  \1   tL  tU<>  — BAgI*  «t  Sl^aU  wcret*  dn 

T—yliwi.  fl  130,  U8  fUAillirU  tie  Cbuftlnic,  Fvi%  IttM,  pp.  US.  i$»-4Q. 

4H-CV 

Siaee  diH  chsptor  wm  mntu%  ite  SedfeU  dc  I'Wmein  di  Fniic*  hm  bmmi 
lanomwmcttedoMiipl^*  editioo  or  U»  BnU  aad  HCMlw  of  Uw  TtmflaOt 
iasda-thccwcarM.  Heati  dc  Cvraoo. 


ji 


» 
» 


PULITICAL   UEBESY-THE   8TATK. 

;  to  tbe  Grand  Master,  whose  official  residence  wna  Joni- 

loMth«r  with  tbe  prooocds  of  tbe  collections  of  aa  organ- 

mfiem  *rf  b^gary,  their  agents  for  which  penetrated  into 

eoraer  of  Christendom.     Scarce  had  the  Onlcr  lieen  or 

when,  in  11  S3,  the  mighty  warrior,  Alonso  T.  of  Aragon, 

ifi  el  Bataliador  and  also  as  4  Kmpfmdor,  because  his  rule 

ed  over  Navarre  and  a  largo  portion  of  Caatile,  dying  witb- 

^^Miwn.  left  his  xvhole  domioiona  to  the  Holy  Sepulchre  and  to 

^Katghts  of  the  Temple  and  of  the  Hospital  in  undividetl  thirds ; 

^llnagh  the  will  waa  not  exeuut€<l,  the  knights  were  promised 

^  donbtloa  received  compensation  from  bin  .successor,  Ramiro  el 

Mpoia.    More  practical  was  the  liberality  of  Philip  Augustas,  in 

■ay^  when  he  left  the  two  Orders  two  thousand  marks  apiece 

^tolutelv,  and  the  enormous  sum  of  fifty  thousand  marks  each 

«■  cosKlition  of  keeping  in  service  for  three  years  three  hundred 

^BJfffats  in  thn  Holy  Ijind.     We  can  underRton<l  bow,  in  IISI,  the 

ftonpUu^  could  buy  the  Island  of  (Cyprus  from  Richard  of  Kng- 

^  for  twenty-five  thousand  silver  marks,  although  they  sold  it 

^  Doxt  year  for  the  same  price  to  C4ui,  King  of  Jerusalem.    We 

0M  oniierstand,  also,  that  tliis  enormous  development  hogan  to  ox- 

ote  apprehension  and  hostility.     At  the  Council  of  Ijiteran,  In 

1179,  there  was  bitter  strife  between  the  prelates  and  the  Military 

{Ifilere,  resultinjr  in  a  dccpnc  which  rnquirwl  the  Templars  to  sur- 

(^rrall  recently  acquired  oharcbes  ami  tithes— an  onler  which, 

^  l!S6,  Urban  IIL  defined  as  meaning  all  acquired  within  the 

(^  years  previous  to  the  council.* 

This  indicates  tluit  already  the  prelates  wore  beginning  to  feel 
jgBlous  of  the  new  organizatiou.     In  fact,  the  antagonism  which* 


•  J»c.  dc  VUriaoo  Iw,  cit.— Boberti  Av,  Monia  CooUn.  Sigcb.  GeniW.  (Pistorii, 
(((.  clU  I.  875).— Zuriu,  AfittlM  <Ie  Aragon,Lil>.  I.  c.  84-3.— Art  de  Vfiriller  lu' 
IMUM  V.  887 — Teulet.  Uyettes,  I.  550,  No.  1M7.— OraixlM  ClironiquM.  IV.  86. 
-Oiuli.  M«p«,  Je  XugU  Curiiillum  Dirt.  i.  c  XEia-UuiB  Pratt,  MallaMr  Ur- 
londtM).  MfiiK-hen,  I8S3,  p.  43. 

A  carifnis  llluiitntioD  of  the  promincoce  which  the  TemplarB  wore  ac^airing 

(  **•  "^»al  organiiation  is  •flbnied  in  llfll,  when  ihcy  were  nude  coo9enr»t«M»' 

(f  tbfl  Truce  of  God,  by  which  the  imbloa  nud  prt^latcs  of  LAngoedoc  iini]  Pro-' 

•***  •Breed  tlini  ben«U  nnd  itupk'iuenU  and  seed  cniplDycd  iu  ugricullure  should 

'  "otBolwtwi  in  limp  of  war.    Fnr  enforcing  thi*  thi-  Tinuplitni  were  to  rccaiTO  ■ 

•Mw  of  com  for  CTerr  plough.— Praia,  op,  cit,  pp.  44-fl. 


THE  TEIIPLAB&  341 

we  hare  already  trao<>rl  in  the  thirteenth  oenlurv  between  the 
Mendicant  Orders  and  the  nwrnlar  dorgy  wna  but  the  repetition 
of  that  which  had  long  existed  with  respect  to  the  Military  C)r- 
den.  These  from  the  first  were  the  eepecial  favorites  of  the  Uoly  > 
See,  whose  policy  it  was  to  eleirate  them  into  a  militia  depending  < 
acdclT  on  Rnme,  thus  rendering  them  an  instnimonl  in  extending 
its  influence  and  breaking  down  the  independence  of  tlic  Iikmi) 
churches.  Pririlegee  and  immiinitiee  were  showere4l  upon  them; 
ibey  were  exempte*!  from  tolls  and  titlies  and  taxes  of  all  kinds; 
their  churches  and  houses  were  endowed  \rith  the  right  of  asylum; 
their  pereons  enjoyed  the  inviolability  accorded  to  ecoleBiastkn ; 
they  were  released  from  all  feudal  obligations  and  allegiance ;  they 
were  justiciable  otUy  by  Rome ;  bishotw  were  forbidden  to  excom- 
municate them,  and  were  even  ordered  to  refer  to  the  Roman  curia 
nil  the  infinite  questions  which  arose  in  local  quarrels.  In  m\ 
after  the  misfortunes  of  the  cnisade  of  St.  I^uis,  alms  given  to 
their  coUectont  were  declared  to  entitle  the  donont  to  Holy  X^nd 
indulgenoes.  In  short,  nothing  was  omitted  by  the  popes  that 
would  stimulate  their  gro^vth  and  bind  them  firmly  to  the  chair 
of  St.  Peter* 

Thus  it  was  inevitable  that  antagonism  should  spring  up  bo- 
tween  the  secular  hierarchy  and  the  Military  Orders.  The  Tern- 
plus  were  continually  complaining  that  the  prclfUcs  were  en- 
dearoring  to  oppress  Lhinn,  to  imjKise  exactions^  and  to  regain 
by  rariouB  devices  the  jurisdiction  from  which  the  popes  had 
reeved  them ;  their  right  of  asylum  was  violated ;  the  priests 
interfered  with  their  begging  collectors,  and  repressed  and  inter- 
cepted the  pious  legaciisf  designed  for  them  ;  the  customary  quar- 
rels over  burials  and  burial-fees  were  numerous,  for,  until  the  rise 
of  the  Mendicants,  and  even  afterwards,  it  was  a  frequent  thing 
fur  nobles  to  onler  their  se]>ulture  in  the  Temple  or  the  Hospital. 
To  these  complaincs  the  popes  ever  lent  a  ready  ear.  and  the  favor- 
itism which  they  manifested  only  gave  a  sharper  e<lge  to  the  hos- 
tihty  of  the  defeated  preJntcs.  In  V2(H  there  was  a  threatened 
rapture  between  the  papacy  and  the  Templa  Citienne  de  Sissy, 
Marshal  of  the  Order  and  Preceptor  of  Apulia,  refused  to  assist 


*  Rymer.  Pttder*,  I.  80i»Cill.  10,  11,  Extra.  tlL  80.— Pnitx,  op.  dt.  pp.  SS, 
4tt,  48,  4ft,  SI.  &2,  as,  ad-Bl.  84.  76.  78-». 

Ul.-ir. 


343 


POLITICAL   UERESY.-TBE    STATE. 


iu  tii«  crusaiif]  preimring  against  Manfred,  and  was  remared  hyi 
Urban  IV,  Whon  ordered  to  resign  his  ooniraission  he  boldly'' 
replied  to  I'rban  that  no  pope  had  ever  interfered  with  the  inte^ 
nal  affairs  of  the  Order,  and  that  be  would  resign  his  office  only 
to  the  Grand  Master  wlio  had  conferred  it.  Urban  exoomronni- 
cated  him,  but  the  Order  sustained  him,  being  discontCTitod  be- 
cause  tbf  suocuni  levied  for  the  Holy  Land  wore  diverted  t<)  the 
papal  enterprise  against  Manfred.  The  follovring  year  a  new 
pope,  rUeinpnt.  iV.,  in  removing  the  oxoom  muni  cation,  bitterly  re- 
proached the  Order  for  its  ingratitude,  and  pointed  out  that  only 
the  support  of  the  papacy  could  sustain  it  against  the  hostility  of 
the  bishops  and  prinoea,  which  apparently  wna  notorious.  Still 
the  Order  held  out.  and  in  common  vrith  the  Hospitallers  and  Cis- 
tercians, refused  to  pay  a  tithe  to  (,'harlcs  of  Anjou,  in  spite,  of 
which  Clement  isHued  numerous  bulls  confirming  and  enlarging  its 
privileges.* 

That  this  antagonism  on  the  )>art  of  tempor.il  and  spiritual 
potentates  had  ample  justification  there  can  be  little  doubt,  if^ 
as  we  have  soon,  the  lilcndicant  Orders  rapidly  declined  from  the 
enthusiastic  seli-ab negation  of  Dominic  and  Francis,  such  a  body 
as  the  Templars,  composed  of  ambitious  and  warlike  knights,  could 
hardly  be  t.>xpected  long  to  ret-ain  its  pristine  ascetic  devotion. 
Abeftdy,  in  ll.'ii.  the  selfish  eagerness  of  the  Grand  ^faster,  Ber^ 
nard  do  Tremelai,  to  secure  the  s[HjilK  of  Ancalon  nearly  prevented 
the  capture  of  lluit  city,  and  the  fall  of  the  Kingdom  of  Jenualiaa 
was  hastened  when,  in  li  72,  the  savage  ferocity  of  Kudos  do  Saint* 


•  Pnite,  op,  cil.  pp.  38^1.  48,  «,  47-8.  67,  64-9.  7fi-80.— J.  Delaville  |e 
Ruuli,  Duc-uuicnta  conccrnaot  Ics  TempHGra  t^aria.  IA82,  p.  39, — Bini.  Dei  Tem- 
pwri  in  Tosrwm,  I.tifc*.  !845,  pp.  45B-5S.— Ibiytinlil.  fton.  1865,  No.  76-0.— Uar- 
tem  TbeSMur.  II.  111.  119. 

'H'TlM  tyfttetnAlic  htfifptrj  of  the  Teinplnn  most  liave  been  pecuHtrly  exasper- 
ntinf  both  to  th<  ucutnr  clergy  and  tlie  Mendicants.  MonBignor  Rlni  prinu  m 
docuuicul  vf  1241  in  wtiicb  tlie  Pn.>c«ptor  of  Lik'cu  tjivci  to  Albertiuo  di  Pontn* 
moli  «  roHitiiistion  to  liog  for  the  Order.  Alhcrtino  eniplnjrft  a  certain  \lioito  Co 
Ha  Lhe  bpg^ng  &om  June  tUl  Uiv  fultunrin^,'  Carniviil,  uud  paj'8  bliu  by  unipow- 
erlng  him  to  \teg  on  HU  own  account  from  the  Carnival  to  the  octave  of  F».>ler 
(op.  cit.  ii|i.  101-2.  430-10).  For  the  dwgraeefiil  nquiilibles  which  arose  belwcet) 
tht  aecular  clergy  and  tbe  Miliury  Orders  over  this  pritiltgvd  begK«r7',em  Pau- 
con,  negiBtivB  de  Boniface  Vm.  No.  IMO,  p.  740. 


THE  TEMPlARft  US 

Amaod,  then  Grand  Master,  prevented  the  converaion  of  the  King 
of  the  jVssassin^  iiml  all  liU  jHvipl^!.  It  wiis  not  withnat  show  of 
jtutilicatiun  that  abuut  thin  time  'Walter  Mnpes  atlribatos  the  int^ 
(uilun(3S  of  the  OlirisLians  nf  the  Kust  to  tlio  cnmtptiun  of  the  MIU- 
tarj*  Ortlere.  By  tho  t>nii  of  thfl  ccnturj*  we  have  seen  from  King 
Biohftrd's  rejoinder  to  Koultjues  de  Nciiilly  that  TenipUr  wm 
already  synon^'mous  with  pride,  and  in  1207  Innocent  III.  took 
the  Order  lu  taak  in  an  epistle  of  ^iolenl  denunciatioti.  His  apos- 
tolic ears,  he  said,  were  fre(|U£'ntiy  dt8turt>c4l  with  comphunts  of 
their  exceeuGi.  A\xyiitiXmag  (rout  God  and  acandnlizing  the  Church, 
their  unbridled  pride  abiisml  the  enormous  privilcj^  bestowed  upun 
them.  Employing  doctrines  wnrtliy  of  dimions,  tliey  give  their 
uross  to  every  trauip  who  c«n  pay  them  two  or  tluee  pence  a  yew, 
and  then  a^uert  that  thoso  are  entitled  to  ecclesiustieuJ  ser^'ices  and 
ChristifUi  burUil,  even  though  laboring  under  i'XGoninuinic;U.i«a- 
Tliu«  tjnsnared  by  the  devil  they  en«na.re  tli<:  souU  of  the  CaitLiuL 
lie  forbuuni  to  dwell  [ui-ttier  on  those  and  other  wickednttus  bjr 
wfaicli  they  deserve  to  bo  despoiled  of  thcii*  privileges,  preferring 
to  hope  that  they  will  free  themswlves  from  their  turiiitudo,  A. 
concluding  allusion  to  their  lack  of  re6i)ect  towaitls  {Hipal  legates, 
pruliably  explains  the  venomous  vigor  of  the  pa|)ul  attack,  but  the 
nccusiitiuns  which  it  makes  touch  puiuls  on  which  tliere  is  other 
conclnsive  e\idenee.  Althongh  by  the  slatutes  of  the  Order  the 
parcha^  of  admission,  directly  or  indirectly,  wna  simony,  entaiting' 
expulsion  on  him  who  paid  and  degradation  on  the  preceptor  who 
was  privy  to  it,  there  can  be  no  doubt  tliat  many  doubtfiU  cbaraO' 
ters  thus  effected  entrance  into  the  Order,  The  pai>al  lettent  and 
privileges  so  freeJy  bestowed  upon  them  were  moreover  largely 
abased, to  the  vexation  and  oppression  of  those  ■with  whom  they 
came  in  contact,  for,  exclusive!}'  justiciable  in  the  Roman  curia,' 
they  were  secure  against  all  pleaders  who  could  not  afford  that 
distant.doubl fill, and  expensive  litigation.  The  evils  tiience  arising 
weru  greatly  intemulied  when  the  pulley  was  adopted  of  forming 
a  L-iass  of  aerving  brethreo,  by  whom  theii'  extensive  properties, 
were  cultivated  and  nianagei)  without  the  cost  of  hinwl  lahor.> 
Ohorls  of  every  degr-»»e,  husbandmen,  shepherds,  swineherds,  me- 
chanics, household  servants,  were  thus  admittotl  into  the  Onler, 
oniil  they  oonstituttsd  at  teatit  nine  tenths  of  it,  and  although  Uieae, 
were  distinguished  by  a  brown  mantle  in  place  of  the  white  gar- 


944 


IBHE8T,-THE   6T \ 


ment  of  the  knighU,  and  although  they  coinplaineil  of  the  con- 
tempt and  oppression  with  which  they  were  treateti  by  their 
knightly  brethren,  noverthrloss,  in  their  relations  with  the  out- 
side world,  they  were  foil  menibera  of  the  Order,  shrouded 
with  its  inviolability  and  entitled  to  all  its  privileges,  which 
they  were  not  likely  by  moderation  to  render  Iwb  mliouB  to  the 
oommnnity  * 

Thus  the  knights  furnished  ample  cause  for  external  hostility 
and  internal  disquiet,  though  there  m  probably  no  ground  for  the 
accusation  that,in  1229, they  betraye<l  Frederic  II. to  the  infidel, and, 
in  1250,  St.  Louis  to  the  Soldan  of  Egypt.  Yet  Frederic  11.  doubt- 
Icag  had  ample  ruiison  for  dissatisfaction  with  their  conduct  dur- 
ing his  crusade,  which  he  revenged  by  expelling  tliem  from  Sicily 
in  1229,  and  confiscating  their  property ;  and  though  he  recalled 
them  Boon  after  and  assuinetl  to  restore  their  po!5»?sBions,  he  re- 
tained a  large  jHirtion.  Stilt,  pious  liljcrality  contiuuod  to  increase 
the  Tvealth  of  the  Order,  though  rs  the  Christian  jwssessions  in  the 


■  Guillel.  Trrii  Hut.  Ub.  zvii.  c.  27;  xx.  81-3.— Quail.  M»pea  de  Xiigis 
Cnriftlmtn  DUt.  i.  c  xe,— Tnnoc  PP.  m.  Regut.  x.  131.  Cf.  xv.  13J.— Rtgic  et 
SUtuU  *fcwu.  {  1?8,  p.  S69.— Hiclielel,  Proct*  dea  Temt>]>frK,  I.  39;  H.  «,  S3. 
140,  186-7,  406-7  (Colleciion  de  DncutnenU  in&diu,  Paris,  lUl-AI). 

Wb«D,  in  1307,  IIhj  TtiiipUra  iit  Be«ucnin)  were  seJMd,  uut  of  rixty  umtcd, 
five  were  knigliCe,  one  a  prii^,  and  fltty-four  wcr«  H<tn-ing  br<!tliren ;  in  Ji]n«,  1310, 
out  of  lliirty-tbre«  prUoaen  in  the  Clilltvsu  d'Aliits,  there  ware  four  kiiighu  tiiid 
ooc  pricftt,  with  twcnty-eifj^ttervlnjT  brethren  (VAittMite,  IV.  141).  In  the  triali 
which  have  reached  ui  the  proportion  of  kaights  ii  cvcu  less.  The  urviug  breth- 
ren occasionally  reached  Ihc  dignity  of  preceptor;  but  how  littlo  this  implies  is 
abown  by  the  rxumiiiation,  in  June,  ISIO.  of  Olovanni  di  Nrritonc,  Preceptor 
of  Caftullo  Viilorl,  a  Krviog  brother,  who  «p«aks  of  biaiaelf  w  "  $impi«t  et  ru«- 
Mom"  (BcbottniUllcr,  Der  Attagang  dcs  Templar- Ordeoa,  Berlin,  1687,  II.  13S, 
ISO). 

The  pride  of  birth  in  tlie  Order  is  illusiraled  by  the  rule  tliat  nore  could  be 
admitted  a«  knights  except  thoM  of  knightly  dcseont.  In  thf  Stntutes  &  case  U 
cited  of  a  knlgbt  who  was  received  as  «uch ;  those  who  wuru  of  liii  country  de- 
elaied  that  he  waa  not  the  son  of  a  knight.  He  wiu  aent  for  from  Antioch  to  s 
chapter  where  this  wus  found  tu  bo  true,  when  the  white  laantle  was  removed 
and  a  brown  one  put  on  him.  ni*  receptor  wss  then  tu  EnmiH-.Htid  when  he 
returned  to  Syria  he  was  called  to  account.  He  justified  himaelf  by  bU  having 
acted  under  the  ordi'ra  of  his  cnntmandtr  of  Poitou,  This  was  found  to  be  true ; 
othenriM,aDd  bat  that  be  waa  a  good  knight  {provdatu),hovio\i\d  hare  lost  the 
habit  (Rigle,  I  133,  pp.  493-3). 


THE    TSHPLARS. 


946 


KaKt  slinuik  more  and  more,  people  begao  to  stlribatfi  the 
IcMB  tnufortanes  to  Ibo  btttt^r  jeaJotisy  and  aaimosity  exutting  biv 
tween  the  riral  Orders  of  the  Temple  and  the  Hospital,  which  in 
U43  had  broken  out  into  open  war  in  Palestine,  to  the  great  oom- 
iori  of  the  infideL  A  remedy  was  naturally  sought  in  a  unioa  of 
the  two  Orders.  logeUier  irith  that  of  the  Tentonic  Knighta.  At 
tbe  Council  of  Lyoos^  in  1274.  Gregorj*  X.  rainly  ende&rore<l  to  ef- 
fect this,  bat  the  countenraihog  influenceK.  including,  it  was  said, 
the  gold  of  ilie  brrthn-'n,  were  Uxt  |K>n-erfuI.  In  these  reproacfaet 
lierhape  tbe  Orders  were  hekl  to  an  nndeserred  aocoantabOitj* 
for  wbUe  their  quairelB  an<l  the  general  misconduct  of  the  Tiatins 
in  Palestine  did  much  Ut  wreck  the  kingtlom  of  Jerusalem,  the 
real  re^poniibility  lay  rather  with  the  papacy.  When  thousands 
of  berelics  were  sent  »&  crusaders  in  punishment,  tbe  glory  of  tho 
•enrioe  was  fatally  tamishal.  When  money  raised  and  vows  taken 
for  the  Holy  Land  wexe  diverted  to  tho  purposes  of  the  papal 
power  in  Italy,  when  the  doctrine  was  publicly  announced  that 
the  home  interests  of  the  Holy  See  were  more  important  than  the 
recovery  of  the  Holy  Sepiik'lire,  the  enihusiaam  of  Christendom 
against  the  infidel  wba  chilled,  ^hen  salvation  conld  be  gained 
Bl  almost  any  time  by  a  short  term  of  service  near  home  in  the 
qourels  of  the  Church,  whether  on  the  Weser  or  in  Lombardy, 
the  devotion  which  had  carried  thousands  to  the  Syrian  deieitfl 
found  a  Jess  ntgged  and  a  safer  path  to  heaven.  It  is  easy  thu 
to  understand  how  in  the  development  of  papal  aggrandizement 
throagh  the  thirt**enlh  century  recmita  and  money  were  lacking  to 
maintain  against  the  conntlc-ss  hordes  of  Tartars  the  conquests  of 
(Godfrey  of  Booillon.  In  addition  to  all  this  the  H0I3'  Land  was 
made  a  penal  settlement  whither  were  sent  the  maJefactors  of 
Europe,  rendering  the  I^itin  colony  a  horde  of  miscreants  wboae 
crimes  deserved  and  whose  disorders  invited  tbe  veogeanoe  of 
Heaven.* 


\ 


■  HaU.  Paris.  un>.  1328.  1243  (Bil.  1S44,  p.  MO.  430)1— MuuoH  1«  Jorae, 
Bin.  dea  T<wplien,  P&m,  1*89,  L  MO-1.— Prntx,  op.  clt.  pp.  80-1.— lUg.  Chnia. 
Belg'tcitDD.  1374.— Paucno,  RqiirtiMde  Booihce  VllL  So.  1S91-3, 1097.— SUrin. 
Suuti  SccreL  FUel.  LIU  at.  P.  Ix.  o.  1,8  (BoogKn,  11  I88-9X 

Tbi  BMpiu)  wu  opeo  to  the  mtue  rcproAcbc*  m  tbt  TcmpV.  In  13S8 
Ongor;  IX  Tigoronal;  uaAiled  the  Koigbtv  of  St.  John  for  tht^ir  mhotv  of  th« 
privilegn  bitowsd  oo  tbam— ibelr  uacbaility  uiil  tbe  betnjal  of  tbe  cuue  ol 


34« 


POLITICALHERESY.-THE    STATE. 


With  the  fnll  of  Acre,  in  1291,  tlie  Christians  were  driven 
definitnly  fnun  tho  shores  of  Syria,  causinfj  intenso  j^rief  and  in- 
dignation throog-bout  Europe.  In  that  disastrous  siege,  brought 
on  by  the  perfiiJy  of  a  band  of  cruHuders  who  refused  to  observe 
an  existing^  truoe,  the  Hospital  won  more  glory  than  the  Temple, 
ftlthotigh  theOrand  Mtistnr.  Guillaimmdc  Beanieii,had  bwTi  chosen 
to  command  the  defenct?,  and  fell  bravely  fighting  for  the  cross. 
After  the  snrrender  and  maRAHore,  his  soooessor,  the  monk  Gaudini, 
milrd  for  Cypnis  with  ton  knights,  thn  solo  survivorn  of  fivn  hnn- 
dred  who  had  hold  out  to  the  last.  Again,  not  without  reason,  the 
ory  went  op  that  the  disaster  was  tiie  result  of  the  quarrels  be- 
tween the  ^filitarj'  Orders,  and  Xicholas  IV,  promptly  sent  letters 
to  the  Icings  and  prelates  of  Christendom  asking  their  opinions  on 
the  pn>jfct  of  uniting  them,  in  view  of  tho  projected  cnisa<ie  which 
was  to  (mil  on  St.  John's  day,  1903,  under  Edward  I.  of  England. 
At  leiwt  one  afflrmntive  answer  was  received  from  the  prorincial 
council  of  Salzburg,  but  ere  it  reached  Koine  Nicholas  was  dead. 
A  long  interregnrini,  followed  by  the  election  of  the  hermit  Pier 
Morrone,  put  an  end  to  the  project  for  the  time,  but  it  was  again 


GoA  in  PakiXiiie,    Ho  *trcu  auortA  th*t  ituire  ato  uot «  few  heretics  Mno&g  tbetii. 
—HujnniU.  auD.  1*239,  Ho.  31  -2. 

A  airvL-nic  by  a  Teinplsr,  evidcutlj  written  soou  after  the  tall  of  Acre,  alludes 
bitterly  lu  tbe  fcncrifiou  made  uf  tUu  UvXy  Lioil  io  SkfOt  of  tlic  ambULoa  tad 
enpidit;  of  tho  Holy  8if*— 

*'  I.O  jwipa  la  de  [Wfdon  gnin  larg^ueza 
Cuotr'  Aliiiiiiiii»  nil  Arl<7  e  Fntnci.'*; 
K  aal  Hint  noi  iiuistraiii  Hraii  cobcex*, 
Qu»t  DostraH  crutz  vaii  jier  uruu  d«  lonws; 
E  qui  vul  catnjar  Romania 
Per  1a  guerm  de  I<omhnr*lia  I 
Nostres  legatr,  don  yen  vob  die  per  Ter 
Qu'els  vcndon  Uicu  cl  ptnlon  |)cr  aver." — 

Meyer,  Reeueil  Xanrifua  Tate*,  p.  06. 
Tl  is  r1«o  in  \».  hornt  in  ttAnA  that  indulgenees  wore  vulg:arixed  in  many  ottier 
way".  Whrn  St,  FraoeiHiinnniinwd  to  Honorius  III.  tliat  Christ  bad  sent  him  to 
rrbtain  plenary  pardons  fur  tluive  who  iihoidd  vistL  thr  Cluirch  of  'A.  Maria  di 
Porzlnncnln,  the  cardinals  al  once  objected  that  this  would  nullify  the  indali^eea 
for  fhe  TloTy  Land,  imd  nonoiiun  tbereiipon  limited  tlie  PortiuDcnla  iadal^n(.-« 
lA  the  twrnty-fbur  bonn  commencing  with  the  vespen  of  Anguat  1.— AnMMti, 
Xr,irnrda  8i  FraoaJMi,  Appeud.  c.  zxxUi. 


J 


TBK   TEMPLARa;  

taken  op  hr  Bonifaoe  VI]].,  to  be  iiiterrujit<«l  ami  laid  aside,  pmb- 
tbly  bv  hb  eagroBsia^  qiuural  with  Tiiilippe  le  Bel.  What  was 
itf  ilnft  of  public  opiniun  at  the  time  is  [irobabk  rtiileot«d  in  a 
met  on  tho  recorpry  of  tbn  Hrtly  Ljuid  addrosftiKl  tn  Kdward  L 
]t  is  there  prupoeed  that  tlie  two  f >rders.  irhnso  scandalotit  quar- 
mla  hare  reiulerai  them  the  object  of  scorn,  sludl  bo  fused  togvtber 
and  oonlined  U*  tlu^ir  eawtern  posjessioiia.  vliit-b  sboukl  be  siiflicieut 
fortiwir  supfiort,  irhik  their  combined  rcvenaes  from  their  west- 
MS  property.  HSti mated  at  eigbt  bundred  thoiuaad  Uvrvs  ToiiTDois 
par  aiuiuiu.  Ije  eiiiploytMl  to  fiinluT  the  cmsada  Evidently  the 
idea  waa  wpreoding  that  tlieir  wealth  coald  be  fHuuxl  and  useil  to 
bettei-  parpose  tbnn  it  was  likely  !o  be  in  their  fmnd*.* 

Tbiw  ibo  Unlcr  wiut  somi.'whiit  iliscrwiit*'*!  in  jiopulnr  nstima- 
lion  when,  in  1207,  Jarqacs  do  Molay,  whose  terriblo  ^e  has  oaat 
a  xmibri?  shadow  over  bis  name  through  the  csituries,  was  fleciod 
ijniul  Master^aftur  a  ri<^if)us  and  bitter  uppoaition  by  the  \Kkr- 
tiaaiM  of  HogiUB  de  Peniud.  A  few  yeiLrs  of  uarnest  stmg:gle  to 
regain  a  footliold  in  Palestine  seemed  to  exhaust  the  <aior^y  and 
resotirceB  of  the  Order,  axid  it  bt^canie  qui(f».ent  in  Cyprus.  Jta 
naxi  exploit,  tJioiigh  not  ollicial,  waa  not  of  a  notare  to  coucitiato 
public  opinion.  Chnrica  de  Valois,  tho  evil  genius  of  hia  brotlier 
Philippe  li?  Bel.  and  of  his  nephewB,  in  ISiWf  married  Clatheriue, 
granddaugliter  of  J3nld\Yin  II.  of  Constantinople,  and  titular  em- 
press. ]n  13n({  he  proposed  to  make  good  his  wife^s  claims  on 
the  imperiiil  tbronQ,  and  he  found  a  ready  instrument  in  Clemont 
v.,  who  persu;tdo(l  hiiiut;!/  thai  the  uttuuipl  wutUd  not  be  u  weak- 
ening of  Christianity  in  the  Eust.  but  a  means  of  recovering  Pultis- 
tine,  or  at  least  of  reducin^^  the  Greek  ChnrcTh  to  subjection.  He 
therefore  endeavored  to  nnitc  the  Italian  ri'])uhli(^  and  princes  in 
this  crusjide  agtiinsi  Christians.  Charles  II.  of  Naples  undertook 
an  expedition  in  conjunction  with  tho  Teraphirs.  A  floot  Was 
fitted  out  under  the  command  of  lioger,  u  Templax  of  high  reputa- 
tion for  skill  and  audacity.  It  captured  Thessaluuicaf  but  in  place 
of  actirely  ^mrsuing  Andronious  II.,  the  Templars  turned  their 

*  UuiiDei,  op.  cit.  ir  101, 138.— De  Biciaio  Urbit  Aceook  (^lutene  Atnpt. 
OqILT.  767).— RAjrnnld.ftnn.  1891.  Ko.  30.  St.— Archive  Nat.  do  Pnaec,J.4Sl, 

Ko.  40.— Cbroo.  SftUttbor^.  unit.  1391  (Caniaii  et  Bttsanffe  III.  n.  4&9>.— AtimJ. 
Ebciharcl.  Altahcns.  (lU  IV.  SSH).— lie  ReclIperatianeTerm&lneta|Baogare,li 
W0.1).  i 


^8 


POLITICAL   HEREST.-THE   STATE. 


arms  againsl  the  Latin  princes  of  Greece,  ravageil  oruell}'  the  shores 
of  Thrace  and  the  Morea,  an<l  returned  with  immense  booty,  hav- 
ing aroused  ennuties  which  were  an  element  in  their  dowrialL  In 
contrast  to  tliis  the  Hospitallers  were  acquiring  freuh  rettown  as 
the  champions  of  Christ  hy  giilhintly  nontniering,  after  a  four 
years'  struggle,  the  island  of  Rhodes,  in  which  they  so  long  nmin- 
taincd  the  cause  of  Christianity  in  the  Kast.  In  1306  Clement 
V.  sent  for  tie  Molay  and  Guillaume  de  Villaret,  (irund  Master  of 
the  Uospitalloi's,  to  consult  about  a  new  cnisade  and  the  often  dis- 
cussed project  of  the  anion  of  the  Orders.  lie  told  them  to  come 
fls  secretly  as  possible,  but  while  the  Hospitaller,  engrosstMl  with 
preparations  for  the  siege  of  Khodes.  excu3e<l  himself,  do  Molay 
came  in  state,  with  a  retinue  uf  sixty  knights,  and  inanirestal  no 
intention  of  returning  to  his  station  in  the  East.  This  well  might 
arouse  the  question  whether  the  Templars  were  about  to  abandon 
their  sphere  of  duty,  and  if  so,  what  were  the  ambitioua  schemes 
which  might  lead  them  to  transfer  their  hcadquiirtera  to  Kmnoe. 
The  Teutonic  knights  in  withdrawing  from  the  East  were  carving 
out  for  themselves  a  kingdom  amid  the  Pagans  of  northeastern 
Europe.    Had  the  Temphirs  any  similar  aspirations  nearer  home  i  * 


•  noTiiald,  ano.  1306,  No.  3-S,  12.— K«gMt.  Cleuient.  PP.  V.  (Ed.  Benedict.  T. 
X  PI*.  4U-48 ;  T.  II.  p.  55,  B8,  Roma,  1885-6).— Mansuel,  op.  cit.  II.  132.— lUy- 
Douard,  Moouinrota  liifitoritiuett  rdatSfs  i  la  CnndutiDatlon  dcs  Chovullen  du  Tvm- 
ple,  Pari*,  1818,  pp.  n.«. 

The  snmmonii  to  the  Gmnd  Uutcr  of  tlio  Hospital  is  dated  June  B,  1S06, 
(Reycal.  Clem.  PP.  V.  T.  I.  p.  IftO).  Thnt  to  de  MoUj  was  probuMy  issued  at  tho 
Baiwf  time.  From  Mine  briefs  of  Clonient,  June  18, 1808.  in  fator  of  Humbert 
Blanc,  Preceptor  of  Aurergne,  it  would  scum  Uiat  tlio  Intter  waB  CDgoged  iu  tome 
cruH4ing  enterpriw  (IWd.  pp.  191-S),  pmliaUlj  in  coniiiecUoM  witli  the  attempt 
ofCbftrles  of  Valols.  'When  Huguesdc  PerauU,  however,  and  other  chiefs  of  the 
Ordttf  were  almut  to  soil,  in  NovembtT,  Clfintnt  rclxinod  llicm  (lb.  T.  U   p.  (j). 

H  baa  rather  bc-ro  tho  fusbion  with  hli<torinns  toiuuiime  tlmt  de  Molay  trana- 
ftrred  tbi-  beadtiuortcn  of  the  Order  from  Cypnn  to  Paris.  Yet  when  the  papal 
orden  for  arrest  reached  Cyprus,  on  May  27, 1 IIOS,  tho  nuinhal,  draper,  and  treu- 
ut«r  uirrendered  ttiotnsdvcs  witb  others. ihowiug  (hat  there  bnd  been  no  tbou|;ht 
of  removinij  tbd  actirc  adminiiilration  of  the  Order. — <Dopuy,  Trtiitcr.  conceniant 
rHiatoirc  de  Prance,  £d.  1700,  pp  flS.  133).  Riiiubnut  du  Otiroo,  Preceptor  of 
Cjprtu,  apparently  had  accompnnicd  de  Molay,  and  was  arrr»t«d  with  him  in  th« 
Temple  of  Pikria  (Procia  dc«  Templiera,  11,  374),  but  with  this  oxceptjun  all  the 
principal  koigliis  seized  were  only  local  difinitarieB. 

I  think  also  that  ScbottmilUer  (Der  Untei^ang  des  Tcmpler-OrdeDs,  Berlbi, 


THB   TBMPtAHA.  M9 

SospictoTU  of  the  kind  mtgbt  not  unnaturally  be  excited,  and 
ret  be  wholly  itrithont  foundation.     Modf^rn  irritors  have  exer- 
tb<ar  ingpnuity  in  con  jeclurinj;  I  hat  there  was  a  plot  on  hand 
tor  the  Templars  Ui  seixe  the  south  of  France  nod  erect  it  into  an 
leat  kiogdoui.     The  Onler  had  early  multiplied  rapidly 

fim  the  provinces  from  the  <Taninne  to  the  Rluine :  it  itt  uHiumed 
that  they  were  deeply  tinctured  with  Cathariftm,  and  held  relations 
with  the  concealed  heretics  in  those  regions.  All  this  isthe^heer* 
est  assumption  without  the  slightest  foundation.  There  was  not 
a  trace  of  Catharism  in  the  Order,*  and  we  have  seen  how  by  this 
time  the  Catbari  of  Ljkng;aedoc  had  been  rirtuaUy  extemn'nate>d, 
and  how  the  land  liad  been  Gallicized  by  the  Inquisition.    Such 

'fta  alliance  would  have  been  a  source  of  weakne^a,  not  of  strength. 
for  it  wonlrl  hare  brought  upon  them  all  Europe  in  arms,  and  hail 
there  been  a  shred  of  evidence  totlmt  effect,  Pbllippu  lu  Ik-1  would 
have  maile  Uie  most  of  it.  Neither  can  it  be  assumed  that  they 
were  intriguing  with  the  discontented,  orthodox  population.  Ber- 
nard I>elicieux  and  the  Carcoesais  would  never  have  turned  to  tbo 
ieeble  Ferrand  of  Majorca  if  they  ooold  have  summoned  to  their 
loe  the  jwwerfu!  ( InJer  of  the  Temple.  Yet  even  the  Onler 
of  tbo  Temple,  however  great  might  hare  been  its  aggTc^at«,  was 
fatally  weakened  for  such  ambitious  projects  by  lieing  8cattere<l 
in  isolate<l  fragment*  over  the  wliolo  extent  of  Enroiie ;  and  its 
inability*  to  oonoentratc  its  forces  for  uither  aggression  or  defence 
was  shown  when  it  surrendered  with  scarce  an  effort  at  selfpreS' 
oration  in  one  countrj'  after  another.  Besides,  it  was  by  no  iC 
means  so  nomerouA  and  wealthy  as  has  been  (wpularly  supposed. 
The  dramatic  circumst^HUces  of  its  destruction  have  inflamed  the 
imagination  of  all  who  liave  written  about  it,  leading  to  a  not  un- 
natural exaggeration  in  contra-iting  its  prosipcrity  and  its  miitcry. 
Au  anonymous  contemporary  tolls  us  tliat  the  Templars  were  so 


1887, 1.  66, 99 ;  11.  88}  nufSdeutly  proves  the  incredibility  of  the  atary  of  tlie  im- 
meiiie  tmsore  bruught  tu  France  by  de  SIoU;,  and  fas  further  paint«  out  (I.  B6> 
that  the  preiu-n-atjuaof  the  archive*  of  the  Order  fn  Malta  allows  that  tlify  conld 
not  have  lK«n  mnored  to  Franre. 

•  Perhaps  the  moat  detailed  and  authoritatire  cnnleniporary  account  of  the 
domffflll  of  the  Templun  U  that  of  Bernard  Gul  (Plor.  Chronic,  np.  Bouquet 
XXLTIA-vqq).  It  ia  impowible  to  doubt  that  httd  there  Iwen  anythrn^f  sovoring 
urCalkuisni  in  the  Order  be  would  liavc  scented  ft  out  and  alluded  to  It 


250 


POLITICAL    BBHESY.  — THE   STATE. 


ricli  and  pon-erftil  tlmt  they  couW  scarce  have  been  guppreesed  bnt 
fur  lUu  sccfnt  and  8uddon  moveiiient  of  I'hilippe  le  lk>l.  ViUam, 
who  wait  alau  a  cuntetnpuiur>',  says  Lbai  their  power  and  wealth 
were  well-aigh  incomputable.  As  time  went  on  conceptions  be- 
came laaguilitMl  by  distance.  Tnt*"?"'"'*  atttjuruft  ub  that  it  was  the 
richoBt  uf  all  the  iiiunastic  Orders,  nut  only  in  gold  and  ailrur^  but 
in  its  vast  dominiona,  towns  and  castlee  in  all  the  UindB  of  Europe. 
Modern  writers  have  oven  e.\ceeded  this  in  their  efforts  to  present 
deJinite  liguniA.  Maillard  doX!Jjat"bure  a-sauinee  that  at  the  time 
of  its  downfall  it  numbered  thirty  thousand  knights  with  a  revenue 
of  eight  million  livres  Toumois.  Wilcke  estimates  ha  income  at 
twenty  miUiou  thalers  of  modem  money,  and  aa^erts  tlmt  in  Frunoe 
aloue  it  oould  keep  in  the  field  an  army  of  fifteen  thousand  oavalieK. 
Zficklcr  calculates  its  income  at  fifty-four  millions  of  francs,  and 
that  it  numbered  twenty  ihuusand  knights.  Even  the  cautious 
tlaXfuumn  echoes  the  extravagant  statement  that  in  wealth  and 
power  it  could  rival  all  the  princes  of  Christendom,  while  Schott- 
miiUer  {ujisimit^  that  in  France  ulune  there  were  fifteen  thousand 
brethren,  and  over  twenty  liiousand  in  the  whole  Order.* 

The  ]>ocuiiar  secrecy  in  which  nil  the  affairs  of  the  Order  were 
shrriude<l  renders  such  estimates  purely  conjectural.  M  to  num- 
berti,  it  h:ui  been  uvurlouketl  that  the  great  body  uf  meuiberE  were 
serving  brethren,  not  tighting-men — herdsmen,  husbandmen,  and 
mentals  employed  on  the  himls  and  in  the  houses  of  the  knighta, 
and  adding  little  to  their  effoctive  force.  When  they  considered  it 
a  Icj^itimatt!  boast  that  in  the  one  hundred  and  eighty  3'oars  of 
their  active  existence  twenty  thousand  of  the  brethren  had  per- 
ished in  Palestine,  we  can  see  that  at  no  time  could  the  roll  of 
knights  have  exctiedetl  u  few  thousand  at  most.  At  the  Couuuil 
of  Vienne  the  dissolution  of  the  Order  was  urged  on  the  ground 
that  more  than  two  thousand  depositions  of  witnesses  had  be«n 
taJ^en,  and  as  these  depositions  covered  viilually  all  the  prisoners 


*  Wilolce,  GcscTiitilite  dos  Ordetis  der  TempelbBrraii,  II.  ADSgsbo,  ISGO,  H.  51, 
103-4,  188.— Chnin,  Ationyme  (Bouquet,  XXL  U»),— VUI»ni  Cron.  vin.  98.— 
Mtg.  Cbroo.  B«lgic  (Piator.  III.  156X~Trltbcm.  Chron.  UirMug-  aiD-  i^f.— 
]t^U«l  SUIuU  wcr«te,p.04. — Keal-Eucyklop.  XV.  305.— IXaveinun,  OmcLicIiUi 
det  Ausgugs  d<.-8  Teinpolberrenordcu^  StuUgkrt,  IMS,  p.  169.— ScltotUulUler, 
op.  cit.  i.  386,  696. 


THE    TEMPLAIta  351 

[txaniined  in  Fraooo,  KngUnd.  Spain,  Italy,  and  Germaifjr,  whom 
[.vvideaoe  could  be  used,  it  shows  that  the  whole  nurnber  can  only 
iT«  been  iiutgnificant  in  comparison  with  what  had  been  general- 
'iinagineiL    (^rprus  was  the  headqiuirt ers  of  the  Dnier  after  the\ 
hl\  of  Acre,  yet  at  the  time  of  the  setzme  there  were  but  one  Hon*  ) 
.drod  and  eighteen  meiut>ers  there  of  all  ranks,  and  the  numbera 
with  whirh  we  meet  in  the  trials  everywhere  are  ludicrously  out 
of  pmportion  with  the  enonnona  total  popularly  altrifaut<yi  to 
itho  Order.     A  contemporarj'.  of  warmly  papalist  sympathies,  ex- 
fpresses  his  grief  at  the  penaltios  right4>otislr  incarred  by  flfteen 
[thousand  champions  of  Christ,  which  may  be  taken  as  an  ap|vaxi- 
[mato  guess  at  the  existing  number ;  and  if  among  these  we  amune 
Ijfteen  hundred  knights,  we  shidl  probatdy  be  rather  over  than  un- 
'  der  the  reality.    As  for  iho  wealth  of  tho  Order,  in  ihe  general  ef- 
fort to  appropriato  ita  possessions  it  wns  erery  one's  int43Y»t  to  con- 
the  details  of  the  aggr^ate.  but  we  chance  to  hare  a  standard 
rhudi  ahowR  that  the  estimates  of  ita  snpcremiiient  riches  are  gross- 
ly exaggerated.     In  1244  Matthew  Parts  states  that  it  possessed 
tjironghont  Christendom  nine  thousand  manors,  while  the  Hospi- 
tailers  bud  nineteen  thousand.     Kowbere  vraR  it  more  prosperous 
than  in  Aquitaine.  and  at>out  the  year  1300.  In  a  computation  of  a 
tithe  granted  to  Philippe  le  Bel,  in  the  province  of  Borfloaux,  the 
Templars  are  »et  down  at  six  thousand  livrea,  the  Hospitallers  at 
the  same,  while  the  (Msterciuna  are  reg^tered  for  tivelve  thousand. 
In  the  aocounu  of  a  royal  ooUcctor  in  lif&3  there  are  specified  ia 
Anvergne  fourteen  Temple  preceptones,  paying  in  all  three  hon- 
dr»l  and  ninety -two  livred,  while  the  |)reueptohe8of  the  Jiospital- 
lei»  nnmbnr  twenty-four,  with  a  payment  of  three  hundred  and 
tnxty-foar  livres.    It  will  be  remembered  tliat  a  contemporary 
writer  estimates  the  combined  revenues  of  the  two  Orders  at  eight 
hundrM  Ihouannd  livreaToumois  per  annum,  and  of  this  the  larger 
pertioii  probably  belonged  to  the  Hospital.* 


•  PtmAi  dtf>  TftopHen.  I.  144— IbiviuUtl.  aim.  1907.  No.  12;  un.  1811,  No. 
tS.— BcfcottmBllcr.op.  cit.  I.  4<S.— Fcrreti  ViccntiDi  Hist.  (Muntori  8.  R.  I.  IX. 
101S>.— Matt.  P»rw.  ann.  1344  (p.  417).— Dofn  Bouqnvt,  XXI.  545.— Chkaraiog, 

As  Hhiatntion  n(  tb«  cxB9:g«nlioiH  CDtrcnt  «■  to  th«  Ti^mpbrt  is  teeo  ra  Uie 
cnioD,oofilidcutl7  nude,  tlut  id  RnuMdlloa  kod  CenU|ttio  the  Otdei  OKocA 


J 


35S 


POLITICAL  HEHESY— THE  STATU 


Yet  the  wealth  of  the  Order  was  more  than  suflictent  to  excite 
the  cupidity  of  royal  freeljooters,  and  its  iwwer  ami  privileges 
quit©  enough  to  arouse  diHtriist  in  the  mind  of  a  less  suspicious 
despot  than  Philippe  le  Bel.  Many  ingenious  theories  have  been 
advanood  to  cx|)tain  his  action,  but  they  are  sujwrfluous.  In  his 
quarrol  with  Honiface  VIII.,  though  the  Tfimplnra  were  aocused 
of  secretly  sending  money  to  Rome  in  defiance  of  his  prohiliition, 
they  stood  by  him  and  signetl  an  act  approving  and  conGrming 
the  assembly  of  the  Umvre  in  June,  1303,  where  Bonifjice  was  for- 
mally accused  of  heresy,  and  an  appeal  was  made  to  a  future 
oooDcil  to  be  assembled  on  the  subject.  So  cordial,  in  fact^  waatho 
understanding  between  the  king  and  the  Tcmiilars  that  royal  let- 
ters of  July  10,  1303,  show  that  the  collection  of  all  the  royal  rev- 
enues throughout  France  was  intrusted  to  Ungues  de  Peraud,  the 
Visitor  of  France,  who  had  narrowly  missed  ohtaining  the  Grand 
Mastership  of  the  Order.  In  June.  i;i04.  Pliilippe  confirmed  all 
their  privileges,  and  in  October  he  issued  an  Ordonnance  grunting 
them  additional  ones  and  siieaking  of  their  merits  in  terms  of 
ivarm  apprtx-iiition.  They  lent  him,  in  ]*291>,  the  enommus  sum  of 
five  hundnsd  thousand  livrcs  for  the  dowry  of  his  sister.  As  late 
as  1306,  when  Iluguea  de  Peraud  had  suffere<l  a  loss  of  two  thou- 
sand silver  marks  deposited  with  Tonimaso  and  Vanno  Mozzi,  Klor 
entine  bankers,  who  fniudidently  di^ppeared,  Philippo  promptly 
intervened  and  ordered  restitution  of  the  sum  hv  Aimon,  Ablxilof 
8.  Antoine,  who  luid  gone  security  for  the  hankers.  When  in  his 
extreme  financial  stmtts  ho  dehaawl  the  coinage  until  a  popular 
insurrection  was  excited  in  Paris,  it  was  in  the  Temple  that  he 
took  refuge,  and  it  was  the  Templars  that  defended  him  against 
the  assaults  of  the  moh.  Hut  these  very  obligations  wore  too  great 
to  be  incurred  by  a  monarch  who  was  striving  to  render  himself 
absolute,  and  the  recollection  of  them  could  hardly  fail  to  surest 
that  the  Order  was  a  dangerous  factor  in  a  kingdom  where  feudal 


hiiJf  the  l&nd,  wliUe  an  emnlnatloa  of  its  Carlulnry  sliowa  that  Id  tvallty  it  [w»- 
teueil  Init  four  !i>Td!iliip9.  together  with  frnjrim-nUir)'  rigbU  over  rcDt«,  tithce,  or 
YillciDK  in  seventy  other  places.  A  single  filihcy.tfiat  M  BU  Michel  dc  Cuxa, 
poMB—ed  thirtj  lordships  aud  umilar  rij^bts  in  twu  bondrud  other  places,  unci 
lliero  were  two  other  abttcyn,  Arlc-s.  and  Onrndlft  de  OonCleiit,  each  richer  thnn 
the  Templuv. — AlUrt,  Builetia  de  la  Soci^t^S  Agricole,  Sctonilfique  et  IJtt^nirc 
dn  Pyrto6M  Orienlalvc,  T.  XV.  pp.  10;-«. 


inatitations  were  being  converted  into  a  despotism.  While  it 
might  not  have  strength  to  sever  a  portion  of  the  provinces  and 
nect  an  independent  prineip^ity,  it  might  at  any  nioinent  become 
a  disagreeable  element  in  a  cxintest  with  the  great  feudatories  to 
whom  the  knights  were  bound  by  common  sympathies  and  inter- 
ests, lie  was  engaged  in  reducing  them  to  subjection  by  the  ex- 
tension o{  the  royal  jurisdiotion,  and  the  Templars  were  subject 
to  no  jurisdiction  save  that  of  the  Holy  See.  They  were  not  hi» 
subjects ;  they  owed  him  no  obedieuoe  or  allegiance ;  he  cuutd  not 
BUiiiiuou  them  to  perform  military  service  as  he  could  his  bishops, 
hat  they  enjoyed  the  right  to  declare  war  and  make  peace  on  their 
own  account  without  resixmsibility  to  any  one ;  they  were  clothed 
in  all  the  personal  inviolability  of  ecclesiastics,  and  be  possesHod  no 
moons  of  control  over  them  as  ho  did  with  the  hierarchy  of  the 
OaUican  Church.  They  were  exempt  from  all  tajces  and  tolls  and 
customs  dues ;  their  lands  contributed  nuLhing  to  his  necessities, 
save  when  he  oould  wring  from  the  pope  the  concession  of  a  tithe. 
THiile  thus  in  every  way  independent  of  him.  they  were  bound  by 
rules  of  the  blindest  and  most  submissive  ol>edience  to  their  own 
superiors.  The  c-ommand  of  the  Master  was  received  as  an  order 
from  (lod ;  no  member  could  have  a  lock  upon  a  bag  or  trunk, 
could  bathe  or  let  blood,  could  open  a  letter  from  a  kinsman  with- 
out permission  of  his  commander,  and  any  disobedience  forfeited 
the  habit  and  entailed  imprisonment  in  chains,  with  its  indelibla 
disabilities.  It  is  true  that  in  !2C>5  there  had  been  symptoms  of 
turbulence  in  the  Or^lor,  when  the  intervention  of  Boniface  VIII. 
was  required  to  enforce  subjection  to  the  Master,  but  this  had 
passed  away,  and  the  discipline  within  its  ranks  was  a  religious 
obligation  which  rendered  it  vjistly  more  efficient  for  action  than 
the  elastic  allegiance  of  the  vussid  to  his  seigneur.  Such  a  body 
of  armed  warriors  was  an  anomaly  in  a  feudal  organization,  and 
when  the  Templars  seemed  to  have  abandoned  their  military  ac- 
tivity in  the  East,  Philip])e,  in  view  of  their  wealth  and  numbers 
in  France,  may  well  have  regarded  them  as  a  ]>osaible  obstacle  to 
his  schemes  of  monarehical  aggrandizement  to  be  got  rid  of  at  the 
iirst  favorable  moment.  At  the  commencement  of  his  reign  he 
had  endeavored  to  put  a  stop  to  the  [lerjielual  a(.Hjui8itions  of  both 
-.  the  religious  Orders  and  the  Templars,  through  which  increawng 
bodies  of  land  were  falling  under  mainmorte,  and  the  fruitlessness 


954 


POLITICAL  HJCRKSY.-THE  STATE. 


of  the  effort  must  huve  strengthened  bis  convictions  of  ite  noces- 
aity.  If  it  bo  asked  why  ho  alUickwl  the  Templars  rather  than  llie 
HoBpitallers,  tlio  answer  is  probably  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that 
the  Temple  was  the  weaker  of  the  two,  while  the  secrecy  shroud- 
ing its  ritual  I'cnderetl  it  an  object  of  popular  suspicion.* 

Wolsinffliam  asserts  tliat  Philippe's  design  in  assailing  the  Tern- 
jriars  vrae  to  procure  for  one  of  his  younger  sons  the  title  of  King  of 
Jerusalem,  with  the  Tem])lar  possessions  as  an  appanage.  Such  a 
project  was  completely  within  the  line  of  thought  uf  the  time,  and 
would  have  resulted  in  precipitating  Europe  ane^v  upon  Syria.  It 
may  possibly  have  been  a  motive  at  the  outset,  and  was  gravely 
discussed  in  the  Council  of  V'ienne  in  favor  of  Phdippe  le  Long, 
bat  it  is  evident  that  no  sovereign  outside  of  France  would  have 
permitted  the  TempUr  duminions  within  his  tui-ritories  to  pan 
under  the  control  of  a  member  of  the  aspiring  house  of  Capet.t 

For  the  explanation  of  Philippe's  action,  however,  we  need 
hardly  look  further  than  to  finaocial  considerations.  Ue  was  in 
desperate  straits  for  raonoy  to  moot  the  rndlcss  drain  of  the  flejn- 
iah  war.  Ue  bad  imposed  taxes  until  some  of  bis  subjects  were  in 
rerolt,  and  others  were  on  the  vei^ge  of  it.  He  bad  debased  the 
currency  until  he  earaed  the  name  of  the  (.Counterfeiter,  had  found 
himself  utterly  unable  to  redeem  his  promises,  andtuul  discovered 
by  experience  that  of  all  financial  devices  it  was  the  most  costly 
and  ruinous.  His  resources  were  exhausted  and  his  scruples  were 
few.  Thestreamof  oonfiscatiitnsfnim  Langiiedoc  was  beginning  lo 
run  dry,  while  the  sums  which  it  had  supplied  to  the  royal  treasury 
for  more  than  half  a  century  had  show  a  the  profit  which  was  d&- 
hrable  from  well-applied  pci-secution  of  heresy.     Ue  had  just  can 


•  Dti  Puy.Hist.  d«  Differpm!,  Prravfis.  pp.  !.%-7.— Bsodonia,  Lcttreslnftditea 
de  Philippe  Ic  B«l.  p.  103.— Mailltnl  <le  CltBinbarc,  p.  61 ,— ClnndM  Ohri>ftitiij«,V. 
17a.— lUynounrd,  pp.  14,  St.— Rymer,  1. 30.— Rce««t,  Clfimeni.  PP.  V.  T.  I.  p.  IM 
(Ea.  Beiieilict.  Roma.  18*5).— Pr«t7,  pp.  23.  31,  58,  4«,  4»,  51-2,  5».  78.  7H,  79, 
W.— Kijfk- rt.  StRluU,  S  2il,  p.  22fi ;  5  58,  pp.  349, 254  ;  (  136,  pp.  463-4.— Ttiooai, 
RcgiitLKS  (le  Eiinifacc  VIIl.  T.  I.  No.  490.— BauJouln,  np.  cit.  p,  212. 

ScliottuiQIIvr  (Orr  TTntergxng  iles  Templcr- Orel  ens,  Berlio,  1887,  T.  6S)  eon- 
jMtuWB  tlint  the  toon  of  five  lionrlred  tliouBand  Uvrea  u>  Philippe  is  probaWy  a 
popular  error  Brisinji  from  thv  inlerTttntion  at  thi:  Templftr*  m  banken  in  Ibe 
pAyment  of  tbo  dowrj-, 

1  D'ArgcDtrt  1. 1.  SttO.— Wilclc«,op.  cil.  1].  9(H-9, 


THE   TKMPLARS. 


9W 


ritd  out  a  tinancial  expedientof  thosame  kindaehis  dealings  with 
the  Templars,  by  arresting  idl  the  Jews  of  the  kiogdoni  simultane- 
onslj,  stripping  them  of  their  property,  and  banishing  them  andor 
pftin  of  death.  A  memorandum  uf  qnestions  for  consideration, 
RiiU  praservod  in  the  Trvsor  dee  (Miartres,  aliows  that  he  exjiected 
,to  boiefit  in  the  same  way  from  tlm  ronfiscation  of  the  TonipUr 
^pooseMioDS,  while,  as  wo  shall  see,  he  overlooked  the  fact  that 
these,  as  ecclenastioal  property,  were  subject  to  the  improsoriptible 
rights  of  Lho  Cliurrh.* 

The  stories  a>)out  Sqain  de  Florian,  a  renegade  Templar,  and 
flt'offo  Dei,  a  wicked  I'lorentine,  both  condeiiuie«l  to  de»tii  and  con- 
cocting the  accusations  to  save  themselves,  are  probably  bat  the 
[conception  of  an  imagitifttive  chronicler,  handixl  down  from  one 
ii&Ust  to  another.t  8uch  s|>uciHl  interposition  was  whully  un- 
ry.  ThP  foolish  secrecy  in  which  the  Tcmplara  enveloped 
proceedings  was  a  nnturaJ  ciiimilos  of  popular  curiosity  and 
'■uspicion.  Alone  among  religious  Onters,  the  c<.>remonie6  of  reoep- 
tjoo  were  conducted  in  the  striolest  privacy ;  chapters  were  held 
at  daybreak  with  doors  closely  guarded,  &nd  no  paKicipaut  was 
allowed  to  speak  of  what  was  done,  even  to  a  fellow-Tomplar  not 
JDcemed  in  the  chapter,  under  the  heaviest  penalty  known — that 
lof  expulsion.  That  this  should  lend  to  gossip  and  stories  of  rites 
too  repulsive  and  hideous  to  hear  the  light  was  inevitable.  It  was 
the  one  damaging  fact  against  tliera,  and  when  Humbert  BUnc, 
Preceptor  of  Auvergne,  wue  asked  on  his  trial  wliy  such  secmcy 
was  observed  if  they  had  nutJiing  to  conceal,  he  could  only  an- 
swer "  through  folly."  Thus  it  was  common  report  that  the  neo- 
phyte was  Kubjoctcd  to  the  hamiliation  of  kissing  the  posteriors 
of  his  preceptor — a  report  which  the  HospitallerR  took  special 
pleasure  in  circulating.  That  unnatural  lusts  should  be  attributed 
to  the  Order  is  caiily  understood,  for  it  was  a  prevalent  rice  of  the 
Middle  Ages,  and  one  to  whioli  monastic  comniunittes  were  eepe- 


,*6uill.  Nangiiic.  Coutin.  ami.  1306.— Vaiseettc.  IV.  tSJ.—Raynousrd,  p.24 

(  Villani,  Uron.  •nii.  fi-J.— Aiii«lr.  Aiijjeni  VU.  Clem.  V.  (Miir«iori  S.  H.  I.  IIL 

.  448-44).— &.  ADtooioi  Hihi.(D'ArgDntr6  I.  i.  281).~TriLkuMn,Clirun.  Hirauig. 

un,   1307.— IU]riuiJ<l.  »tiD.   |:)07.  No.  12.     Tli«  bctt-in formed  contamponuiw, 

Bernard  Gui,  the  CuDtiouatioD  uf  Naogia,  Jiah  do  6.  Victor,  tlu  Gimndes  Cbro- 

njiluB*,  rajr  Dotbiog  «lwut  this  story. 


256  POLITICAL  HERESY.-TnE  STATE. 

cially  subject ;  as  recpntly  bs  1309  a  horrible  Rcandal  of  this  kind 
had  led  to  the  banishment  of  many  professors  and  theolc^ians  of 
the  University  of  Paris.  Diirkcr  ruuiora  wore  not  laekingof  un- 
christian piTictices  intpoducctl  in  the  Order  by  a  (imnd  ^[HRtor 
taken  prisoner  by  the  Soldan  of  Babylon,  and  procuring  his  release 
under  proniiso  of  rendering  them  obligatory  on  the  members. 
There  was  also  a  legend  t}iat  in  the  early  days  of  the  Order  two 
Templars  were  riding  on  one  horse  in  a  battle  beyond  seas.  The 
one  in  front  reconinieaded  IiJmself  to  Christ  and  was  sorely 
wounded;  the  one  behind  rocommeudetl  hiiuself  to  him  who  beet 
could  help,  and  he  esc.apc<l.  The  latter  was  said  to  be  the  demon 
in  human  shape  who  told  his  wounded  comrade  that  if  he  would 
believe  him  the  Order  would  grow  tn  wealth  and  power.  The 
Templar  was  seduced,  and  thence  came  error  and  unbelief  into  the 
organization.  "We  have  seen  how  readily  such  stories  obtained 
credence  throughout  the  Middle  Agis,  how  they  grew  and  became 
embroidered  with  the  most  fantiistio  details.  The  public  mind 
■was  ripe  to  believe  anything  of  the  Templars;  a  spark  only  was 
needed  to  produce  a  conflagration,* 


•  B^Rlc  ct  8t*t«t«  »«:i!«l8,  §81,  p.  314  ;  S124,p  Hfl.— WiJkins  Concilin  n. 
SS8.— Procis  (le»  Templiere,  I.  180-7. 454 ;  II.  130. 153.  H)5-«.  ns.  410. 445,  471. 
—8.  Daiijiani  Lib.  Oomorrhiao.— Gailk'I.  Nangiftc  nnti.  I  ISO. — Al»ni  de  Innulis 
Lib.  lie  Pluuclit  Nniune. — Gualt.  Mapes  de  Nugn  Curtaliuiu  l  laiv. — Prcdiche 
del  R.  Fril  Oiorduo  d&  Kiv*Uo,  Kircnw,  183],  1.  2aO.— Itegest.  Cltment.  PP.  V.T. 
V.  p.  ««»  (Ed.  BcDtilictin.  Rouiir,  1887).— Alvnr.  Prlag.  do  Planet,  Krclc*.  Ulj.  n. 
Art.  ii.  fol.  Ixxxiii. — Mtmnireii  de  Jacques  Dii  GEen:ii,  Lir,  lit.  cli.  43;  Liv.  rv. 
ch.  8. — Rogeri  Bticon  Compond.  Htudii  Phitosophuc  cap.  ii,  (it.  R.  8eri«8  L  412). 

Cnnolural  critau  vraa  subjoct  to  ccclcsiostica]  jurisdiclion  mtui  tbe  panlshni'cnt 
tTM  bnmiDg  Alive  (Tr&(  Ancien  Cnut.  de  HreUgnu,  Art  1  IS,  143  ap.  Bourdot  dc 
Richcbourg.  IV.  227,  832.— Slatiitn  Criminulbi  Slediolani  c  l«npbm  in  lucein 
cdito,  cnp.  Kl,  Bergomi,  1994).  An  iiiBtaiH?«  of  tlic  inflictiuQ  of  t)ic  pca&lty  by 
«cciil&r  justice  Is  recorded  at  Bourgrs  In  1449  (Jean  Charticr.  Hi«l.  de  Cbnrln 
MI.  Ed.  Oodefroy.  p.  73),  and  auuthur  at  Zurich  in  14SS  (T.  Andtidtn,  Die  Horner 
Cli miiik,  Bern,  1884, 1.991).  tbniit;li  in  1451  Nicbnliu  V.  hiiilsu)je<-t«d  the  crime 
to  thv  ItiquiHition  (RipoII  III.  801).  F>'Ar;^nlrC  sMiy.*  "ITfcc  pn*nn  toln  trgno  et 
TTulgo  vtKliilia  Italia!  indicittir  per  civilatci".  sed  p«ne  irritis  Icgibus"  (ComuienL 
Conaaetud.  Due.  Britann.  p.  IStO).  In  Eof^land  it  nos  &  secular  crime,  punish- 
»bl*  by  burning  nlive  (Home,  Myrior  uf  Justice,  cap.  iv.  )  14)  and  in  Spain  by 
ewtntlon  n&d  Uptdation  (Kl  Kucro  real  de  KspaHa,  Lib.  it.  Til.  ix.  I.  2). 

The  gowiping  cxperieuces  iu  Syria  uud  Italy  uf  Autonio  Sicci  da  Vercelli,  ts 


TRK    TEHPLAns.  Wl 

Philippe's  ministers  and  of^cnU — Cnillaumc  tie  NoRarpt,  (Jnil- 
lanme  de  Plaisian.  Henand  de  Hoye,  and  Kn^terrand  de  Mftrigny 
—were  quite  litt«d  lo  appreciate  swh  an  opportunity  to  relievo 
Che  royal  escheqiier.  nor  could  they  be  at  a  luss  in  finding  testi- 
mony upon  which  to  frame  a  formidahle  list  of  charges,  for  w© 
have  already  seen  hour  readily  evitlence  was  procured  from  ap- 
parently pespoctablo  witneasefl  convicting  Boniface  VI  il.  of  orinice 
p<]Ually  atrtK*inus.  In  the  prcsnnt  cabc  the  task  was  cosier:  the 
Templars  could  liavc  been  no  exception  to  the  general  demoraliza- 
tion of  the  monastic  Onlcrs,  and  in  their  ranks  there  must  have 
been  many  de6{ierate  adventurers,  ready  for  any  crime  that  would 
bring  a  profit.  Exini-lle*!  memljers  there  were  in  plenty  who  had 
been  ejected  for  their  misileuds,  and  who  cuuld  luse  nothing  by 
gratifying  their  resentments.  Apostates  also  were  there  who  had 
find  from  the  Order  and  were  liable  to  imprisonment  if  canght, 
besides  the  crowd  of  worthless  ribalds  whom  the  royal  agenta 
Douhl  always  secure  when  evidence  for  any  purpose  was  wonted. 
These  were  quietly  collected  by  Guillaume  do  Nogaret,  and  kept 
in  the  greatest  secrecy  at  Corbeil  under  charge  of  the  Dominican. 
Humbert.  Heresy  was,  of  course,  the  most  available  charge  to 
bring.  The  Inquisition  was  there  aa  an  unfailing  instrument  to 
Mcnre  conviction.  Popular  romor,  no  matter  by  whom  affirmed, 
was  sufficient  to  require  arrest  and  trial,  and  when  once  on  trial 
there  were  few  indeed  from  whom  the  inquisitorial  process  oould 
not  wring  conviction.  When  once  the  attempt  was  determined 
upon  the  result  was  inentable.* 

Still,  the  attempt  could  not  bo  successful  without  the  concur- 
ronoe  of  Clement  V.,  for  the  inquisitorial  courts,  both  of  the  Holy 
Office  and  of  the  bishoiM,  were  under  papal  control,  and,  besides^ 
public  opinion  would  i-equire  that  the  guilt  of  the  Order  should 


nlsted  before  the  pnpal  Commtuioii  in  March,  1811,  show  tlie  popular  bdief 
thit  there  vma  n  terrible  secret  in  the  Order  wliich  none  of  its  members  darwl 
rereaJ  (Proc««,  1.  M4-5). 

It  U  pcrhnpA  n  coinclclrncfi  thst  in  1807  the  Teutonic  Order  ma  likcTrise  ma- 
nuod  of  bertiy  by  the  Aicbhishop  of  lUga.  Its  Graad  Uuter,  Cul  Bcffiut.wu 
nnunoQ&d  by  Clement,  and  with  difficiiltj  aTcrted  from  his  Order  the  fate  of  the 
Tomplar*.— Wilcko,  n.  118. 

•  Proc^  de«  Templiera,  1. 36, 168.— Chron.  Anonjoae  (Bouquet,  XXI.  187).— 
Jiwnti.  dc  B.  Victor.  (Buuqaet,  XXl.  649-50). 

HI.— 17 


358 


POLITIC*:!:!  HERESY. -THE  STATE. 


be  proved  in  other  lands  besides  France.  Tu  enable  Philippe  to 
enjoy  the  expected  conAscations  in  his  own  iloiiiinionB,  coqIis- 
catiun  must  be  genraal  throughout  Europ<^,  and  for  this  the  co- 
operation of  the  Uoly  See  waa  essential.  Clement  subsequently  de- 
clared that  Philippe  broach<xl  the  subject  to  hira  in  all  its  details 
before  his  coronation  at  Lyons,  ^iovembor  14, 1305,*  but  the  papal 
bulls  throughnut  the  whole  matter  are  so  infootwl  with  mendacity 
that  slender  reliance  is  to  be  placed  on  their  statements.  Doubtr 
leas  there  was  some  diacMission  about  the  current  reports  defaming 
the  Order,  but  C'lemont  is  probaldy  ntrt.  subject  to  the  iraputntion 
which  historians  hare  thrown  upon  him,  that  his  summons  to  de 
Molay  and  de  Villaret  in  1306  was  purely  a  deooy.  It  seems  to 
me  reasonable  to  oonclude  that  he  sent  for  them  in  good  faith, 
>ad  that  de  Molay's  own  impnidence  in  establishing  himself  in 
France,  as  though  for  a  pL'rnianence,  excited  at  onco  the  suspicions 
and  cupidity  of  the  king,  and  ri{>encd  into  action  what  had  pre- 
viooaly  been  merely  a  vague  conception.f 

If  such  was  the  oase^  Philippe  was  not  long  in  maturing  the 
projects  nor  were  his  agents  slow  in  gathering  material  for  the 
ac<'UsatiOD.  In  his  inlt-rview  with  Clement  at  Poitiom,  in  the 
spring  of  1307,  be  vainly  demanded  the  condemnation  ni  the 
memory  of  Boniface  VIII.,  and,  failing  in  this,  he  brought  for- 
ward the  charges  against  the  Templnra,  while  temporarily  drop- 
ping the  other  matter,  bat  with  equal  lack  of  immediate  result. 
Clement  sent  for  de  Molay.  who  came  to  him  with  Kaimbaud  de 
Caron,  Preceptor  of  ('yjmis,  Geoffroi  de  Gonneviile,  Pi-eueptor  of 
Aquitaine  Eind  Poitoo,  and  Huguea  de  Perand,  Visitor  of  France, 
the  principal  officers  of  the  Order  then  in  the  kingdom.  The 
ohai^fes  wore  communicated  to  tJiem  in  aU  their  foulness.    Clom- 

■  Ball.  Pailaratit  pra^minmtiai  (}hg.  Bull,  Rom.  Siipplrm.  IX.  146>,— Bull. 
I^aeuna  tKuerieordiam  (V).  p  13Q). — The  Itineraries  of  Philippe  sndtbe  record  of 
paatonl  vltit«tioni  b^  BeitMnd  do  Goth  (Clcmcct  V.)  lufficiontly  dleproT«  tho 
legraduy  story,  origioaliag  with  Viltaoi,  of  tbeoonditioM  «tit«rod  into  iu  Kd^iiioa 
at  St.  Jean  il'j\iifr<rl}-  bet.%«€cn  Philippe  and  Clement  (««  van  Os,  Do  Abolitjoac 
Ordloix  Templnriorutn,  HcrljipoU,  1874,  pp.  ti-lS).  Nooe  tb«  leaB,  however,  was 
CleitieDt  practicallj  subonlinatod  to  Phill|)p«. 

t  HchotttiiUllur'a  theory  (Dor  Untcr^Dg  d«s  TcmplorOrdcns,  L  91 )  that  Glcm- 
cnl  tuiuuioDed  the  chiefs  of  the  two  Mililarj-  Ordcru  to  amuign  wild  thoni  for  the 
prot«ctiOQ  of  the  Uoljr  Beo  Kgaiiut  Plulipp«  appears  to  nu  destitute  of  all  prob- 
afadUtj. 


J 


I 

L 


THK   TSMPtAnfiL 


ent  ^Qhseqaently  had  the  aadadtv'  to  declare  to  all  tCiirnp«  that 
d»  Uolay  before  his  arreit  oonf<e««ed  their  tnith  in  the  prtsencA 
of  Jiit  sobunlinatofi  and  of  aodoeiastics  and  Uyuion.  bot  this  is  & 
manifest  Up,  The  Tomplais  retamni  t»  Paris  evidently  relieved 
of  all  anxiety,  thinking  that  they  had  jutititiiNl  thotiigelvea  com- 
pletely, and  de  Molay,  on  Uctobor  IJ.  the  ero  of  the  am»t,  had 
the  honor  lo  tie  one  of  the  four  paU-lieurfre  at  the  obsequies  of 
Oatbarine,  wife  of  Charhw  de  Volois,  oridontiy  for  the  purpose  of 
Inlliog  tiim  with  a  Beose  of  sectirity.  Xar,  more,  on  August  34, 
dement  had  written  to  P)ub{>{)e  urging  liint  to  make  peace  iritb 
England,  and  referring  to  his  chargos  a^inst  the  Tiimplara  in  their 
convenatioiu  at  Lyons  and  Poitiers,  and  the  rcpreeentations  on 
the  sabjeot  made  by  his  agenta.  The  chnrgi^,  he  says,  up]>iwr  to 
him  incredible  and  impoosible,  but  a^  de  Mohiy  and  the  chief  of- 
ticer«  of  the  Onler  had  oomplaine<I  of  the  reports  as  injurious,  and 
had  rvpHuledly  ai»ked  fur  an  inve«tigatiun,  i>freruig  tu  submit  to 
the  sererest  punishment  if  found  i^ilty,  ho  proposes  in  a  few  days, 
on  his  return  to  Poitiers,  to  commence,  with  tlie  adriee  of  hid  car- 
dinals, an  examination  into  the  matter,  for  which  he  asks  the  king 
to  send  him  the  proofs.** 

No  imprefifiion  had  evidently  thus  far  been  made  upon  Clement, 
and  he  vrns  endcftroring,  in  so  far  as  he  <bired.  to  slitiflle  the  aJTair 
aside.  Philippe,  however,  had  under  his  hands  the  machinery 
reqnisite  to  attain  his  ends,  and  be  felt  assured  that  when  the 
Chorch  wan  onoe  committed  to  it,  Clement  wonid  not  venture  lo 
witbdrnw.  The  Inqnisitor  of  Franco,  Ouilliwime  de  Piiris.  was  hia 
ooafessr»r  us  well  as  papal  chaplain,  aiul  could  l>e  relied  u|Hin.  It 
WQS  his  ofiicitU  dnty  to  take  cogtiiziince  of  all  accusations  of  heresy, 
and  to  summon  the  secular  power  to  his  axsistanon,  while  his  aw- 
ful authority  i^tverrode  all  the  s|H>ciHl  immunities  and  |M'r»(mnI  in- 
violability of  the  Order.  As  the  Templars  were  all  defamed  for 
heresy  by  credible  witnesses,  it  was  strictly  aceoniing  lo  legal  form 
for  Frcre  (iuilliiume  to  sunuoon  Pbilip{je  to  arrest  those  within 
his  torritories  and  bring  them  before  the  Inquisition  for  trial.    Aa 


•  VflUal  Chroa.  viu.tl-S.— R»yntId.um.l8II.  No.  2<.— Ptol.  Luoeni.  HuL 
BectoL  Ub.  XXIV.  (Kuratari  S.  R  T.  XI.  1228).— CAntin-  Guill.  Nutgiac  ann.  I30T. 
— TUynooard.  pp.  18.  19  —  V«o  Ob  De  Atml.  Onl  Tt-initlv.  p  48.— Pr»r-^)  dm 
TVroplicr*.  11. -100.— .Mn^.  HmH  H"m.  IX  181— I'lwK  r,  9fi— Du  Pitj,  Traiu-ft 
flaneeraant  I'Histoiie  ile  Fniic«,  P&rii,  1700,  pp.  10. 1  IT. 


POLlTIOAl 


STATE. 


the  enterprise  "'as  a  large  one.  secrecy  and  combine*!  operations 
were  requisite  for  its  success,  and  Philippe,  as  soon  ns  Clement's 
letter  bad  shown  bim  that  he  was  not  to  expect  immediate  gupal 
cooperation,  lost  no  time.  He  always  asserted  that  be  had  acted 
under  requisition  fmm  the  inquisitor,  and  excused  his  haste  by  de- 
claring thai  bis  victims  wore  oullecting  limir  treasures  and  prejMir- 
ing  to  fly.  On  September  14  royal  letters  were  sent  out  to  the 
king*s  representatives  througbuut  t'nuice.  ordering  the  simultane- 
ous arrest,  under  autbority  fi-om  Krere  (jiiillauiim,  uf  all  membem 
of  the  Order  on  October  1.3,  and  the  sequestration  of  all  proiwrty. 
Frere  (iuillaume,  on  September  2(1,  addressed  all  inquisitors  and 
all  Dnmitiican  priors,  sub-priors,  and  ItKtoi^.  commissioning  them 
to  act.,  and  reciting  the  crimes  of  the  Teniplara,  which  he  charac- 
terized as  sufHcient  to  move  the  earth  and  disturb  the  elements. 
He  bad,  lit!  said,  examined  the  witnesst^s,  be  bad  sutumuned  the 
king  to  lend  bis  aid.  and  he  cunningly  added  that  the  po^e  was 
informed  of  the  charges.  The  royal  instructions  were  that  the 
Templars  when  seized  were  to  be  strictly  guarded  in  solitary  con- 
finement ;  tboy  were  to  Im  brought  licfore  the  inquisitorial  com- 
missioners one  by  one ;  tbe  articles  of  accusation  wore  to  be  read 
over  to  them ;  they  were  to  be  promised  pardon  if  they  would 
confess  the  truth  and  return  to  tbe  Church,  and  be  told  that  other- 
wise they  wofo  to  be  put  to  death,  while  torture  was  not  to  be 
.  spared  in  extracting  confession.  The  dcj>os3tions  so  obtained  wore 
to  be  sent  to  the  king  as  speedily  us  possible,  under  the  seals  of 
tbe  inquisitors.  All  Templar  property  wim  to  bo  sotjuratrated  and 
careful  inventories  be  made  out.  In  undertaking  an  act  which 
would  shock  public  opinion  in  no  common  fashion,  it  was  neces- 
aary  that  it  should  be  justiflecl  at  once  by  the  confessions  wrung 
from  the  prisoners,  and  nothing  was  to  I>e  si>arod,  whether  by 
promises,  threats,  or  Tiolence,  to  secure  the  result.* 


*  Dh  Puy,  pp.  18-19,  8fi.— Stcmlcr,  CoDliogcnl  tut  Ge»chichl«  der  Tvmpler, 
I<dpxig,  178S,  pp.  30-50. — Viaol,  Pruc^  «t  Cundnumation  dm  TempHera,  PuU, 
l$CW,  pp.  99-43. 

Clemeot  V.,  in  his  lottcra  of  Noviuiiber  St  to  Edwurd  of  Engliuid,  nod  No- 
vember  33  to  Robert,  Dtiko  of  Calnbrin,  (li-KribusPhilippa  w  haviDgr  acted  imdec 
tfac  orders  nfthc  Tn(|iiUUinn,andMpreH«ncingthe  pri«oncre  forjudgmont  to  the 
Church  (Rjroer  UI.  30 ;  MSS.  ChiiKxurrllo.  T.  Vlll.).  The  lioly  OIHce  mt  iw 
Ofptizcd  At  the  timd  u  being  the  responsible  metrutncDtality  of  th«  whole  aAtir 


J 


THE    TEMPLARS. 


sei 


This  was  all  strictly  in  accordance  with  inquisitorial  practioo, 
and  the  result  correspondeti  witli  the  royal  expectations.  Under 
the  able  management  of  Guillauine  de  Nogaret,  tu  whom  the  di- 
^-leotion  of  the  atTair  was  oonJtded,  i^n  October  13  at  daybreak  the 
arrests  took  place  throughout  the  land,  but  few  of  the  Templars 
escaping.  Xt^^aret  himself  took  charge  of  the  Paris  Temple, 
■where  about  a  hundred  nn<l  forty  Tcmjilars,  with  de  Molay  and 
hie  chief  officials  at  their  head,  were  seized,  and  the  vast  treasure 
of  the  Order  fell  into  the  king's  hands,  The  air  had  heen  thick 
with  presages  of  the  impending  storm,  but  the  Templars  under- 
rated t)ie  audacity  of  the  king  and  had  made  no  preiHirations  to 
avert  the  blow.  Now  they  were  powerless  in  the  hands  of  the 
unsj>anng  tribunal  which  could  at  will  prove  them  guilty  out  of 
their  owti  mouths,  and  hold  them  up  to  the  soom  and  detestation 
of  mankind.* 

Philippe's  first  care  was  to  secure  the  support  of  public  opinion 
and  allay  the  excitement  caused  by  this  unexpected  move.  The 
next  day,  Saturday,  October  14,  the  masters  of  the  university  and 
the  cathc^Iral  canons  were  assembled  in  Notre  Dame,  where  Guil- 
laume  Ue  Kogaret,  the  Prevot  of  Paiis,  and  other  royal  officials 
made  a  statement  of  the  olTonces  which  had  been  proved  against 
the  Templars.  The  following  day,  Sunday  the  iSih,  the  people 
were  invited  to  assemble  in  the  garden  of  the  royal  palace,  where 
the  matter  was  expliiinud  to  them  by  the  Dominicuna  and  the 

C royal  spokesmen,  while  similar  measures  were  ailoptod  through- 
oat  the  kingdom.  On  Monday,  the  Kith,  royal  letters  wore  ad- 
dressed to  all  the  princes  of  Christendom  announcing  the  dis- 
covery of  the  Templar  heresy,  and  urging  them  to  aid  the  king 
in  the  defence  of  the  faith  by  following  his  example.  At  once 
(atron.  Fran.  PIpini  c.  49  «;>.  Momtori  S,  li  I.  IX.749-.'.0).  The  bull  Faeieng 
wtiMrkvnliam  of  August  13,  1309,  i^ivL-s  tliv  iiKiuisitura  thmujjfliciul  Eurojio  io- 
•tractioiiH  to  pftriicipAte  in  tlie  sulMequent  proe«ediiiga  (Msi{.  Bull.  Rom.  IX.  198). 
In  ract,  tbc  wliolc  ma(ti:r  tins  atricily  inqui«itnrial  buiitn<iA6,  and  tL  iaa  noti>- 
worthy  f»ct  that  wh*!rc  Hie  ltiiiiii>iltiiiii  wiw  in  Bonrl  wnrking  nnlcr,  iw  in  Pmooe 
■tid  lulj".  then  was  no  ilifflfiilty  in  nliUiining  tlie  rrq^uisite  cvi<lenc«,  In  Cnatllo 
and  Oerniany  it  failed  ;  in  Kn;;UmI.  iis  wv  shall  wc,  notliiiif:  could  be  done  until 
Uiti  Inquintion  vas  practically  catabltahed  Compornrily  for  the  purpose. 

•  Dom  Bouquet.  XXI.  448.  — Valawtte.  IV.  139.  — Chron.  Anon.  (B'mqoet, 
XXI,  137,  HO).— Cont.  Ouill.  Nangiac.ftnn.  1307.— Joann.de  S.Viclor.  (Bou^juet, 
XXI.  640).— Proct*  dva  T<.mplim,  1.  458;  U.  873. 


S«2 


POLITICAL  UTSnEST.-THE  STATE. 


the  Imiuisition  was  sirt  biuiily  at  work.  From  Octolwr  10  to  No- 
rember  24  Kr^re  GuiUnumc  ami  liis  assistants  were  employed  Jn 
recording  the  confessioiis  of  a  hundcwl  and  thirty-eight  prison- 
ers captui'cd  in  the  Temple,  and  so  cltioacious  wore  the  moans 
employed  that  hm  three  refused  to  admit  at  least  some  of  the 
charges,  What  these  methods  were  the  reconls  of  course  fail  to 
ehow,  for.  us  we  have  seen,  t)ie  oltiuiul  I'cjnfL'saion  was  always  made 
aft«r  removal  from  the  torture-chamber,  and  the  victini  was  pc- 
quireil  to  swear  Chat  it  wus  free  and  unconstnuDed.  without  fear 
or  force,  though  he  knew  tliat  if  he  ivtracteil  what  he  ha<l  uttered 
or  promised  to  uttcT  on  the  mrk  lie  would  lie  liable  to  fresh  tort- 
ure, or  ti>  the  stake  as  a  relapsed  heretic.  Tlie  wimo  scenes  were 
enacting  all  over  France,  where  the  commiRsioncrs  of  Frere  (tuil- 
laume,  and  sometimes  Krtre  (iuillaurae  himself,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  royal  officials,  were  engaged  in  tlie  same  work.  In  fact, 
the  complaisant  Guillannie.  in  default  of  proper  materiiO  for  labor 
BO  extensive,  seems  occasionally  to  have  commissioned  the  royal 
deputies  to  act.  A  few  of  the  reports  of  these  examinations  have 
been  preserved,  from  Clianipagno,  Nomi.iTidy,  Querci,  Bigon-e, 
Beaucaim,  and  l^nguod(;o.  and  in  these  the  occasionid  allusions 
to  torture  show  that  it  was  employed  whenever  neoessary.  in  all 
oase«,  of  course,  it  was  not  required,  for  tlie  promise  of  pardon  and 
the  threat  of  burning  would  frequently  sutlice,  in  conjunction  with 
starvation  and  the  harshne68  of  the  prison.  The  rigor  of  the  ap- 
plicAtion  of  the  mqnisitorial  process  is  shown  by  the  numerous 
deaths  and  the  occasional  suicides  jn-oniptod  by  des]wir  lo  which 
the  records  hear  testimony.  In  Paris  alone,  according  to  the  tes- 
timony of  Ponsard  de  Oisiac,  thirty-six  Templars  perished  under 
torture;  at  Sens,  Jaeqnes  dc  Saciac  said  that  twenty-five  had  di*Ki 
of  torment  and  suffering,  and  the  mortality  elsewhere  was  noto- 
rious. When  a  nuralwr  of  the  Templars  subsexincntly  repeated 
Iheir  confessioiis  before  the  pope  and  cardinals  tu  consistory,  they 
dwelt  upon  the  excessive  tortures  which  they  had  endured,  al- 
though Cl(!ment  in  reiwrting  the  result  was  careful  to  sp4«;ify  that 
their  confessions  were  free  and  unconstrained.  De  Molay.  of 
course,  was  not  sparc<I.  Tie  was  8i»eedily  brought  into  a  comply- 
ing state  of  mind.  Although  his  confession,  ()clo1>er  24,  is  exctiod- 
ingly  brief,  and  only  admits  a  portion  of  the  errors  charged,  yet 
ho  was  induced  to  sign  a  letter  addresstxl  lo  the  brethren  slating 


that  he  had  confessed  and  recommending  tbem  to  do  the  same,  os 
iving  boen  lieceivwl  hy  ancient  vrror.  As  Boon  as  lie  and  otber 
''obiefs  of  tho  Onier  were  thus  oommittod,  tho  ma«tors  and  studentfi 
r»f  Jill  the  faciillifw  of  tho  univereity  wero  BummonwJ  t«  meet  in 
the  Temple;  the  wretched  rictims  were  bmnght  Itefore  them  and 
wfiTB  re^iuired  to  repeat  their  cMufessioas,  which  they  did,  with 
the  adUitiuD  that  these  errurs  hwl  prevailed  in  the  Order  for  thir- 
ty yeare  and  more.* 

The  errors  charged  against  them  were  viilually  five:   J.  That 
■when  a  neophyte  was  reooiTed  the  preceptor  led  him  behind  the 
altar,  or  to  the  Biirristy  or  other  secret  place,  showod  him  n  crucifix 
and  ntado  him  thrice  renounce  the  prophet  and  dpil  u^pon  the  crott. 
U.    lie  wns  then  sinpiMMi,  and  th«  precept^jr  kissed  him  thrice,  on 
the  post«riora,  the  navel,  and  the  month.     III.  He  waa  then  told 
that  unnatural  hist  was  lawful,  and  it  was  commonly  indulged  in 
throughout  the  Oi-^ler.     IV.  The  cord  which  the  Tomjjlani  wore 
over  the  shirt  day  and  night  as  a  symbol  of  chastity  had  heen 
consMrated  by  wrapping  it  around  an  idol  in  the  form  of  a  human 
heaJ  nith  a  great  beard,  and  this  head  was  adored  in  the  chapters, 
though  only  known  to  the  Grand  Master  and  the  eldera.     V.  Tho 
priests  of  tho  Onler  do  not  consocmte  the  host  In  celebrating 
inass,    When,  In  August,  I  ."ins,  Clement  sent  throughont  Kurope  a 
•eriosof  articles  for  the  interrogation  of  the  accused,  di-nwn  up  for 
liim  hy  Philippe,  and  varying  according  to  different  rorcnsions 
from  eighty-seven  to  one  hundretl  and  twenty-seven  in  number, 
these  charges  were  elaborated,  and  varied  on  the  basis  of  the  im- 
mense mass  of  confessions  which  ha<l  meanwhile  been  obtained. 
The  indecent  kisses  were  represented  as  mutual  Iwtween  the  re- 
ceptor and  the  received ;  dlsljelief  in  the  ^ncranient  of  the  altar 
'was  assertetl ;  a  cat  waH  mid  to  niiftear  in  the  chaitters  and  to  be 
worshipped  ;  the  Gmnd  Master  or  preceptor  presiding  in  a,  chap- 
ter was  held  to  have  power  of  absolving  from  all  sin ;  all  brethren 


*  Jonnn.  dc  8.  Victor  (BMiquot.  XXI.  640-50).— CAiitin.  Ouin.  Nanginc.  tmo. 
13D7.  — Chnm.  Anon.  (Banquet.  XXL  137).  — Butiottmilllcr,  op.  ulu  L  131-32.— 
ZuriUi,  Afldlwdc  AraK"n,I.il».  v.c.  73.— Procfe*  d«*i  Tcui|ili.Ts,  11,  8.  ST6,118«,394. 
—Da  Puy,  pp.  aft-6,  88  »!,  lOl-O.— Baynouiinl.  pp,  3ft-40,  l«4.  235^8,  MO-5.— 
Provil  des  Tetaplwrs,  I  M,  6il,  SOU,  »0I ;  II.  ^WS-I).— Ptol  Luccii*.  Hist.  iik^^lM. 
Lib.  XXIV.  (MuTAlori  8.  R.  L  XL  ISSO).— Tritheoi.  Chron.  Hinaug.  inn.  1^07.-~ 
CtuuD.  AooD.  (Bouquet,  XXL  149). 


POLITICAL    HERE9T.-THE    STATB. 


were  instructMl  to  acquire  prnperU-  for  the  Orxler  by  fair  means 
or  foul,  and  all  the  above  were  declared  to  be  fixed  and  absolute 
rules  of  the  Onier,  dating  from  a  tiine  beyond  the  memory  of  any 
member.  HesideB  these,  it  was  reproa^-hed  for  the  secroc}'  of  its 
proceedings  anfl  neglect  in  the  distribution  of  alms.  Even  tliis, 
however,  did  not  satisfy  tbe  public  imagiDation.  and  the  most 
absun]  exaggorations  found  credence,  such  as  we  have  no  frequeatly 
seen  in  the  caiie  of  other  heresies.  The  Templars  were  said  to  have 
admitted  l>etraying  St.  Louis  and  the  stronghold  of  Acre,  and  that 
they  had  such  arrangements  with  the  Soldan  of  Babylon  that  if  a 
new  crusade  were  undertaken  the  Christians  would  all  be  sold  to 
bim.  They  hati  conveyed  away  a  portion  of  tbe  royal  treasure, 
to  the  great  injury  of  the  kingdom.  The  cord  of  chastity  was 
magnified  into  a  leather  belt,  worn  next  the  skin,  and  the  moAon^ 
i7«T(V  of  this  girdle  was  no  |»owcrful  that  as  long  oa  it  was  worn 
no  Tmuplar  could  aliandon  his  errors.  Sometimes  a  Tem])lar  who 
died  in  this  fahw  belief  was  burned,  and  of  his  ashes  a  powder  was 
made  which  confirmed  the  ncophytea  in  their  infidelity.  When 
a  child  was  bom  of  a  virgin  to  a  Templar  it  was  roasted,  and  of 
its  fat  an  ointment  was  matte  wherewith  to  anoint  tbe  idol  wor- 
shipped in  the  chapters,  to  which,  according  to  other  i-nmora, 
human  sacrifices  wore  offenxl.  Such  were  the  stories  which  passed 
from  mouth  to  mouth  and  served  to  intensify  popular  abborreuoe.* 
It  is,  pcrha[)s,  necessary  at  this  point  to  discuss  the  still  mooted 
question  as  to  the  guilt  or  innoconce  of  the  Order.  Disputants 
have  from  various  motives  been  leil  to  find  among  tbe  Templars 
Manicbccan,  (inostic,  and  Cabalistic  errors  justifying  their  destruo- 
lion.  Hammer- I'urgstall  boasted  that  he  had  discovered  and 
identified  no  less  than  thirty  Templar  images,  in  spite  of  the  fact 
that  at  tbe  time  of  their  sudden  arrest  the  Inquisition,  aided  by  the 
eager  creatures  of  Philippe,  was  unable  to  lay  its  hands  on  a  single 
one.  The  only  thing  approaching  it  was  a  metal  reliquary  in 
tbe  form  of  a  female  head  produced  from  the  Paris  Temple,  wliich, 
on  being  opened,  was  found  to  contain  a  small  skull  pree>er\'ed  as  a 
relic  of  the  eleven  thousand  Tirgin9.f 

*  Piai90t,pp.  41-2.— PnK&t<l«8T«mpUera,  I.  80  iqq.— Hsg.  Bull,  nomfto.  IX. 
ISd  sqq.— RayuuuArd.  p.  SO.— Qrandiw  Cbroniqnes  V.  188-90. — Cbron.  Aoon. 
(Bouquet,  XSS.  137).— Naucleii  Chron.  ua.  IS06. 

t  Wilcke,  II.  434.— ProG&j  ili-s  Tcuiplicn,  U.  218.— Tlis  OimeiaesA  of  tbt  >Ti- 


THK    TEMPLARa 


965 


This  fact  alone  would  serre  to  dispose  of  the  gravest  of  the 
ohai^es,  for,  if  the  de|Msltioii3  of  some  of  tlie  accused  are  lo  be  be- 
liered,  these  idols  wero  kept  in  even-  coininandcry  and  were  em- 
ployed in  every  reception  of  a  neophyte.    With  regard  to  the 
I  oth«r  accusations,  not  a«hnitting  thus  of  physical  proof,  it  is  to  he 
[obserred  that  much  haii  beea  luadu  by  modem  theorists  of  the 


d^nce  wliich  saflieM  to  mtutfy  archteotoguu  nf  ihU  kind  i*  wvn  in  the  Intior- 

lotu  trifling  of  H.  Uignaril,  wlio  finds  in  &  M:al|)tiirccl  stone  coffer,  diKorerefl  at 

i-BMaroia  in  17S9,  ill  the  wcn-t>  of  giuMtic  Msnicb»i«ai,  and  who  thereupon  leaps 

||a  the  eonclasioii  lliu  tlio  cnKer  rnu^t  hnvc  V>e]ongp<1  to  the  Tem]i1nn  vho  had 

'  »  preceptor;  witliin  ei;jlit  or  t^-n  miles  of  llie  pUce,  and  that  it  m;rve<l  u  a  re- 

c«ptju-Ie  for  the  Hiiphi-ini«tlc  idol  (Mi^^ard,  MonrigKpbio  du  cofl'ret  d«  M.  le 

doc  de  Blacai^  Parb,  1852.~Siiite,  1858). 

It  is  impossible  to  listen  without  respect  to  Professor  ITntis  Pnitjt,  whoM 
labon  in  tlio  nrchiva  of  Valvtta  I  hiivc  freely  quotrd  aliovr,  and  one  can  only 
view  with  regret  the  4>flurt»  of  »ucb  a  man  wimti'd  in  pii:cin|;  to^^lher  contra- 
dictory statements  of  torturud  witncases  to  evolve  out  of  them  n  dunlistic  heresy 
— nn  amalgamatiun  ofCatbaran  ol«uieiits  with  Lnciferan  twliefs,  to  whicli  ejea 
the  unlucky  6t«dingers  contrihnte  cnnoboration  (Oeheimlehre  u.  Gchciroat*. 
toten  des  TcmpelberrenOrdonit,  Berlin,  1970.  pp.  03,80,100).  It  ought  to  be 
aufficieot  to  preTent  aucb  wasted  lalwr  for  tlio  future,  tocall  attention  to  the  fact 
that  if  there  had  been  ardor  aud  conriction  enough  in  tlio  Order  to  risk  tbo 
orgaiuxatioo  and  propagntirtn  of  a  new  heresy,  there  would,  uncjiiestionnbly,  hare 
I'beeo  at  least  a  tev  murtyni,  euch  as  all  utbi-r  bereticral  SL-cts  rumiahLMl.  Yet  not 
ft  aingl*  TvmpUr  iivuned  tlit-  fuilh  nttribnted  to  them  and  pi>rai«ted  in  it.  All 
mho  eonfeaaed  under  the  stn^sa  of  the  proB«ciition  eagerly  abjnred  the  errors 
ftttiibuted  to  tlMsm  and  uskod  for  absolution.  A  singte  case  of  obstinacy  woald 
ire  been  worth  to  Philippe  and  Clement  all  the  other  testimony,  and  would 
iTfl  been  mnile  the  pirotal  point  of  the  trials,  hat  there  wns  not  one  such.  All 
the  Templars  who  were  burned  were  mrtrtyrs  of  annlher  sort — men  who  had  oon- 
feased  under  torture,  had  retracted  their  confcisions,  and  who  preferred  thi^  stake 
to  tho  diagrace  of  persisting  in  the  admiasion  extorted  from  them.  It  dous  not 
-smm  to  occur  to  the  ingenious  framers  of  heretical  belief  for  the  Templars  that 
^ttiey  inuE<t  construct  a  heray  wboeo  believers  will  not  HufTer  de:iLb  lu  ita  Uufeuce, 
but  will  envlnro  to  be  bnm<;d  in  Moores  riilhi^r  ttian  Hubmit  to  the  stigma  of  har- 
Ing  it  ascrllieil  to  them.  The  more  statement  nf  thu  case  is  enough  to  sliow  the 
fabalous  character  of  all  the  thtsoriwi  so  lalmriously  ooiMtract«d,espeoinlly  tbntof 
W-  Mtgnard,  who  proves  that  the  Tomplara  were  Cathari— hereUca  wlrnse  Ki|)im- 
tton  fur  martyrdom  wilm  peciiliarl;  notorious. 

I  hare  not  been  able  to  conflult  Lolscleur'tt  "La  Doclriiw  Svcrllte  dcsTem- 
pliers"  (Orlenua,  1673),  but  from  Pruiz's  references  to  it  I  gather  that  it  is 
grounded  on  the  umc  fslse  Inai.i  and  is  open  to  the  same  easy  refutation. 
Wtlcke's  speculations  are  too  pervorst'ly  crude  to  be  worth  utt«ution. 


SCO 


POLITICAL    HEREST.-THE    STATE 


fact  that  the  ni]<«  ami  statutes  of  the  Onif-r  ^\■i•re  rvacrved  exchi- 
aively  for  its  chiefs,  anil  it  has  tteon  assumed  tiiat  in  them  were 
developed  the  s«'itit  mysteries  of  the  heresy.  Vet  notliing  of  the 
kjml  v,&a  alif ^ed  in  Llio  proceedings :  the  statutes  were  never 
offered  in  cvidenoe  hy  t!io  prosiKiution.  although  many  of  them 
must  have  Ixhju  obtaiued  in  the  sudduii  seizure,  and  this  for  the 
best  of  reasons.  SetUilonsly  as  they  were  destroyed,  two  or  three 
oo|it«s  Cficapei),  and  these,  ciu'efully  eulluted,  have  been  printed. 
They  breathe  nothing  but  the  most  ascetic  piety  and  devotion  to 
the  Church,  and  the  numerous  lUustistive  cases  cited  in  them  show 
that  up  to  a  |)erioi)  not  long  anterior  to  the  destruction  uf  the 
Order  there  were  constant  efforts  mode  to  enfor-ce  the  rigid  Rule 
framed  by  Hi.  Bernard  and  promulguteit  by  the  Council  of  Truyes 
Id  112^1.  Thus  there  is  alisotutely  no  external  evidence  against  the 
Order,  and  the  proof  rests  entirely  «|Hjn  confessions  extracted  by 
the  alternative  of  pardon  or  burning,  by  torture,  by  the  threat  of 
torture,  or  by  the  indirect  torture  of  prison  and  starvation,  which 
the  Inciuisition,  bolh  p;i[Bd  and  epist^uiwl,  know  so  well  how  to 
employ.  We  sliall  sec,  in  tlic  development  of  the  affair,  thai  when 
these  aguneies  were  not  emjdoyed  uo  admissiuiis  of  criminality 
oould  be  obtained.*     No  ono  who  hwl  studied  the  criminal  juris- 


y 


*  Wriun  unfAmillu  with  the  jndioinl  pmcetUM  of  th«  period  are  miftted  hy 
Ut«  cUHtDBiKry  Ibnuula,  to  tbe  effect  thnt  tlic  oinlirniiitina  of  a  coafeMioo  is  nut 
obtained  by  force  or  fov  r>{  turture.  Hut  ltti>'imUI.  aoii.  lUgT,  No.  12,*nd  Bini, 
Dei  Ti'nipii-ri  la  ToKuia,  p.  42S.  VVilcke  nsavru  |)o»ilivuly  (op.  ciU  U.  S16} 
tbat  (1«  HoUy  never  waB  tortured,  wliicli  niAy  [>o«il>ly  be  true  (Ainalr.  Aun^vr. 
ViL  Clem.  V.  <i;».  ICunitori  III.  ii.  461;.  but  lie  euw  !ii»  ccnunules  aruuiid  hiui  eub- 
}oct«d  to  turtun:.  :iud  it  wtt«  a  invro  qiiesLioti  or  »treDgtli  of  nerve  wlivtlicr  be 
jiehbHi  lieforc  or  after  tlic  rnck.  I'ruU  cveo  sAy*  that  in  Koglnuil  iieitlier  tort- 
are  nor  tcrmriem  wnit  uai|iluycd  lUvlicIutlvlire,  pi  IM).  wlik-lj  wo  will  via  bnlow 
Wuool  tl>e  cat*.  Vim  Ok  (De  Aliol.  Ord.  Tempi,  pp.  107,  100)  u  bolder,  hoU 
argttM  that  a  oonfession  confirmisl  after  torturu  la  an  ooiivinciD]{  as  if  mi  torture 
bad  been  u»ed.  He  carvfuHy  siipprrtfmw  tin-  fact,  howwwr,  Uiat  re tniclinn  waa 
brtld  to  be  relapsf  nad  rntMilcd  d<-Aili  by  bunting. 

How  tbs  syatetu  worked  U  iUusti-ut«d  by  tbo  examination  of  the  Preceptor  of 
Cyprus,  Rainibftiid  de  Caron,  1)cfora  the  iaitultitor  Ouillaitme,  Nov.  10,  1307. 
Wlun  first  interro|rat«d  he  vrould  only  adiitil  thul  be  bud  beeu  told  in  tlic 
praeaoe  of  bis  unclr,  tlie  Biabop  of  Carpentras  tliat  lie  would  bnvc  to  reDoauca 
OblitC  to  obUiit  admtiaioii.  Ue  w:ia  tbea  rotnoved  and  subsi-qucutly  Inuught 
twck,  wbeo  be  reioembcred  that  «L  Im  receptioD  be  bad  been  forced  to  ceiioooee 


THE    TEMPLARS, 

ptiirtcnee  of  the  liiler  Middle  Ages  will  uttiicb  the  Blightest  weight 
to  confessions  obtainM  under  stich  conditionB.  We  have  seen,  In 
!ho  case  of  the  Stedingers,  how  easy  it  was  to  rreate  belief  in  the 
most  gronadlefis  charges.  We  hare  aeeo.  tinder  Conrad  of  Mar- 
burg-, how  reiidily  the  fear  of  death  and  the  promise  of  absolution 
would  canso  nobles  of  birth  and  station  to  convict  themsplves  of 
the  foulest  and  most  impossible  offence*.  We  shall  see.  when  we 
comn  to  ronsider  pprsocution  for  witchcraft,  with  what  facility  the 
rack  and  strappndo  procnrml  from  virtlms  of  all  ranks  confeBsions 
of  participating  in  the  Sabbat,  and  of  holiling  pei-sonal  intopoonree 
with  demons,  of  charming  away  harvests,  of  conjuring  hail-fitonns, 
snd  of  killing  mm  and  cattle  with  spells.  Riding  through  the 
ntr  on  a  bnjomstick,  and  conimeroo  with  incubi  and  snccuhi  rest 
upon  evidence  of  precisely  the  same  character  and  of  much  greater 
weight  than  that  uiwn  which  the  Templara  wore  convicted,  for 
the  witch  was  sure  of  burning  if  she  cnnfes.ied.  and  bad  a  chance 
"f  escaping  if  she  could  endure  the  torture,  while  the  Templar  wa« 
threatenpil  with  death  for  obstinacy,  and  was  promised  inimumty 
88  a  reward  for  confession.  If  we  accept  the  evidence  against  the 
Templar  we  cannot  reject  it  in  the  case  of  the  witch. 

A«  the  testimony  thus  has  no  intrinsic  weight,  the  only  scien- 
(iflc  method  of  analysing  the  affair  is  to  sift  the  whole  mass  of 
Confcwioni*,  and  determine  their  credibility  necnrding  to  the  in- 
ternal eridonee  which  they  nffon!  of  Ijeiiig  credible  or  othcrwisa 
Bereral  hundred  depofiitions  have  reached  us.  taken  in  France, 
England,  and  Tlaly,  for  the  most  ]>art  nnttirally  those  incriminat- 
ing the  Onler.  for  the  assertions  of  innocence  were  usually  sup- 
pressed, and  the  most  damaging  witnesses  were  wade  the  most  «f. 
Thp«?  are  sufHriently  nnmerons  to  afford  us  ample  materia!  for 
estimating  the  character  of  the  proof  on  which  the  Onler  was 
condemned,  and  to  obtnin  from  tliem  a  reasfjnable  approximation 
to  the  truth  reif]nires  only  the  application  of  a  few  testa  suggested 
by  common-Rense. 

l*bere  is,  firstly,  the  extreme  inherent  improbability  that  a  rich, 


Cbiiat  uid  spit  oa  the  croM,  ani]  bnd  boeo  taugbt  tbat  th«  gratification  of  UD- 
■atonl  1p«I  wm  jicniiiwihle.  Tct  thJ«  conffMlon,  so  cvidenll;  llie  rmult  of  tort- 
nre,  winds  up  with  tba  customary  {^^rniula  tbnt  tie  awore  it  was  not  the  result  of 
force  or  Icttrof  pmno  ortorluru. — Procfts,  IL  874--B. 


S68 


POLITICAL    HEREST-THB  STATE. 


worldly,  and  amlntioas  body  of  men  like  the  Templars  should  be 
secretly  engaged  in  tho  ilangorous  and  visionary  tjisk  of  laying  the 
foundutions  of  a  new  rt-lifjion,  which  would  bring  them  no  advan- 
tage if  they  succeeded  in  supplanting  Christianity,  and  which  vrsA 
certain  to  lead  them  to  destructioa  in  the  iofinitu  chances  of  deteo- 
tiun.  Tu  admit  this  is  to  ascribe  to  them  a  spiritual  exaltation 
and  a  readiness  for  martynlom  which  we  might  expect  from  the 
asceticism  of  a  Catharan  or  a  Bolcinist,  but  not  from  the  worldli- 
ness  which  was  the  real  corroding  vice  of  the  Order.  Secondly, 
if  the  Templars  were  thus  engaged  in  tho  desperate  enterprise  of 
propagating  a  new  faith  under  the  eyes  of  tho  Inquisition,  they 
would  lie  wary  in  initiating  strangers ;  they  woidd  exRrcise  ex- 
treme caution  as  to  the  admission  of  members,  and  only  reveal  to 
them  their  secrets  by  degrees,  as  they  found  them  worthy  of  con- 
fidence and  zealously  willing  to  incur  the  risk  of  martyrdom. 
Thirtily,  if  a  new  dogma  were  thus  secretly  taught  as  an  indispon- 
sable  portion  of  tho  Rule,  its  doctrines  would  be  rigidly  defined 
and  its  ritual  be  closely  atlministered.  The  witnesses  who  con- 
fessal  to  initiation  would  all  tell  the  same  story  and  give  the  same 
details. 

Thus  e^'idenco  of  the  weightiest  and  most  coherent  cliaxacter 
would  he  retiuisite  to  overcome  the  inherent  improbability  that 
the  Templam  could  be  embarked  in  an  enterprise  so  insane,  in 
place  of  which  we  liave  only  confessions  extracted  by  the  threat 
or  application  of  torture,  and  not  a  single  instance  of  a  persistent 
heretic  maintaining  tho  belief  imputed  to  him.  Turning  to  the 
testimony  to  see  whether  it  comports  with  the  conditions  which 
we  have  named,  we  find  that  no  discrimination  whatever  was 
exerciBe<i  in  the  admission  of  noophytes.  Not  a  single  witness 
speaks  of  any  preliniinarii'  preparation,  though  sevcnil  intimate 
that  they  obtained  entrance  by  making  over  their  projierty  to  the 
Order.*  Indeed,  one  of  the  charges  was.  that  there  was  no  pre- 
liminary probation,  and  that  the  neophyte  at  onco  became  a  pro- 
fessed member  in  full  standing,  which,  as  explained  by  a  knight  of 
'Mas  Deu,  was  because  their  servitses  were  considered  Ut  Xte  at  once 
required  against  the  SHiucens-t  Youths  and  even  children  of 
tender  yeai-s  were  admitte<l,  although  in  violation  of  the  statutes 


■  Proc»8,  n.  188,  407. 


i  ibid.  n.  461. 


THE  TEMPLARa 


269 


of  the  Order,  of  ages  ranging  from  ton  or  oleven  years  upward.* 
Hi^h-bom  kniffhti.  pri<lin^  themsfllvca  on  their  honor,  priests,  la- 
borors,  littsltantlmen,  menials  of  all  kimls  were  brought  in,  and,  if 
we  are  to  believe  their  evidence,  they  were  without  notioe  obliged, 
by  threats  of  ileatli  and  lifelong  inipriHonment,  to  undergti  tbe 
Sf^vorest  porsoniU  hinniUation,  and  to  perform  the  awful  task  of 
renouncing  their  Saviour  and  ttpitting  on.  ur  even  mure  outrur 
geuusly  tlofiling,  tho  tinws  which  was  the  object  of  their  voneratioa 
and  the  aynihol  of  their  faith.  Such  a  method  of  prnpiigating 
heresy  by  force  in  tho  Europe  of  the  Inquigitton.  of  trusting  such 
fearful  secrets  to  children  and  to  unwilling  men  of  all  conditions, 
is  so  absurd  that  its  mere  assertion  deprives  tbe  testimony  of  all 
claim  to  ci-edence. 

Equally  dmuaging  to  tbe  credibility  of  the  evidence  is  the  self- 
contmdictory  character  of  its  details.  It  was  obtained  by  examin- 
ing tbe  Hccnscd  on  a  scries  of  chains  elaborately  drawn  ap,  and 
by  requiring  answers  to  each  article  in  succession,  bo  that  the  gen- 
eral features  of  the  so-called  confessiona  were  sugge-sted  in  mlvanoe. 
Had  tbe  charges  been  true  tliere  could  bare  been  little  variation 
in  the  answers,  but  in  place  of  a  definite  foitb  or  a  systematic 
ritual  we  tind  every  jiossible  variation  that  oouid  suggest  itself  to 
witnesses  striving  to  invent  storicBlIiat  should  satisfy  their  tort- 
nrers.  Some  say  that  they  were  taught  Deism — that  God  in 
beaven  alone  M'as  to  be  worshipjHMl.f  Others,  that  they  were 
forced  t*i  ronoimcc  God.J  The  usual  formula  reportwl,  however, 
was  simply  to  renounce  ('brist,  or  Jesus,  while  others  wore  called 
upon  to  renoimce  Notre  Sire,  or  la  Profeta,  or  Christ,  the  Virgin, 
and  tbe  Saints.^  Some  ]>rufessed  tliat  they  could  not  rcooUeot 
whether  their  renunciation  ha<i  been  of  God  or  of  Christ.  |     Some- 


"  Pnvis,  I.  Wl.  412,  415, 002. 81 1 ;  IL  7,  MS.  208,  854,  35»,  882,  SM— Rfegto, 
57.  p.  411. 

i  Proc^I.  Sn.SSS;  It.  38S.4IM.— Tfjiynou&nl,  p.  $81.— In  tliUkQCl  tli«  fol- 
lowing no<rj  T  can  only  girc  a  few  rcrorenoe*  m  examples.    To  do  m  exhrast- 
rtrely  nnuld  be  to  make  an  analytical  index  of  tbe  whole  volumiaoua  man  of 
•testimony. 

t  ProcK  I  S0«,  34S.  303,  878, 88S.etc. ;  II.  6,  27,  etc. 

(Proc«a,L  261,417:  11.  34,68.  73, 104.-BIni,I>«i  Tempicii  lo  Toscana,  pp. 
13.470,476. 
|Pnict!s,tL43,44,09. 


370 


POLITICAL  HEBEST.-THE  8TATK 


times  we  hear  that  mgtniction  was  g^iven  that  they  shoukl  not 
believe  in  Christ,  that  he  was  a  false  prophet,  that  he  sufferod  for 
his  own  hihb,  but  more  fruigueiitly  tliat  tlio  only  reason  aJleged  wa£ 
chat  ituch  was  the  Itulo  of  the  Onler.*  It  was  thn  same  with  the 
idol  which  has  so  greatly  exercised  the  imagination  of  coramen- 
tators.  Some  iiTitneescs  sworo  tiiat  it  waa  produced  whenever  a 
neophyte  vraa  rocctved,  and  that  its  lulnnition  was  a  ])art  of  the 
ceremony  ;  others  that  it  was  only  exhibited  and  woi-sliippo*!  in 
the  secrecy  of  chapters ;  by  far  tlie  greater  number,  however,  had 
nerer  seen  it  or  heard  of  it.  Of  those  who  ]>rufessed  to  have  seen 
it,  acurce  two  dcscnbcd  it  alike-,  within  the  limits  sug^sted  by  the 
articles  of  accusation,  which  spoke  of  it  as  a  head.  Sometimes  it 
is  black,  sometinics  white.  smuHnnes  witli  black  hair,  niid  some- 
times white  and  black  mixed,  and  again  with  a  long  white  beard. 
Some  witnasaes  saw  its  neck  and  shoulders  covered  with  gold ;  one 
declared  that  it  was  a  demon  {Ma/t'fe)  on  which  no  one  ixjuUl  look 
without  trembling ;  another  that  it  had  for  eyes  carbuncios  which 
lighte<l  up  the  room;  another  that  it  hadtwofacos;  another  three 
faces;  anotlier  four  L^^two  behind  and  two  beforehand  yet  an- 
other said  it  was  a  stntue  witli  three  heads.  On  one  occasion  it  is 
a  picture,  on  another  a  painting  on  a  plaqnc,  on  another  a  small  fe- 
male figui-e  which  the  preceptor  draws  from  under  his  garments, 
and  UD  another  the  statue  of  a  hoy,  a  oubit  in  height,  sedulously 
concealed  in  the  treuaiiry  of  the  preceptory.  Aooonling  to  the  tea- 
timony  of  one  witness  it  degenerated  into  a  calf.  Sometimes  it  is 
called  the  Saviour,  and  sometimes  Bafomet  or  Maguineth — corrup- 
tions of  Mahomet— and  is  woi-sliipjxni  lus  Allah.  Sometimes  it  is 
Ood, creating  all  things,  causing  the  trees  to  bloom  and  the  gr.iss  to 
germinate,  and  then  again  it  is  a  friend  of  (Jod  who  can  approach 
him  and  intercede  for  the  suppHiint.  SouKitinu's  it  givi'.s  iT-sponses, 
and  sometimes  it  is  aocom])anie<l  or  replaced  by  the  devil  in  the 
form  of  a  block  or  gray  cat  or  raven,  who  occasionally  answers  the 
quifstions  addressed  to  him,  the  performance  winding  up,  like  the 
witches'  SttblMit,  with  the  intl^x^uction  of  demons  in  the  form  ol 
beautiful  women-f 


-  Pn>o»l,I.  SO0-7,3M.4I1,436,4<I4.533;  a  31. 138,  US,  304. 
t  Procis,  t.  lUO,  207.  3W,  OO'i.  5^7;  TI.  193.  t>0.1,  £12.  S;U.  300,  313.  313.  863, 
304.— Du  Pu5,  pp.  ISS-S.— Uayuouanl,  pp.  UQ  8.  279-83,  998.~Uini,  yp  4C5, 


Rimilar  contradictions  are  obserrable  in  the  eridenw  as  to  the 
ritual  of  i-iM-pption.  The  detailn  laid  down  in  tho  Kule  are  aoon- 
tmtely  and  QDiformly  described,  but  when  the  witnoases  oome  to 


474. 4W,  467,  iSa-WilkiM.  CflriciUa.  H.  859.-Sclio»maikr,  op.  dt.  H.  89,  W, 
6»,70,127,  *10,41!,— Tal«wttP,lV.  Hi.— BtrniliT.pp.  134-8. 

It  IB  In  this  moUirnrni  creature  of  the  ima^iriAtmn  that  Dr.  Wllckc  (TI.  181-9) 
Midi  •JtrroRtelT  ma  inuf^  of  Jotm  tl)e  Baptinl  and  tho  tiianu  Makropotopui  of  tb< 

Cdbatii. 

AtDODC  the  fsw  oat«i(]«  witueB-«es  who  spjieared  before  llio  pnpnl  commiwioo 
in  1310-11,  woa  Antonio  Siocl  of  VorcclH,  inipcrinl  snd  apnatolic  ootarr,  who 
forty  yean  before  Iik<1  icrreOl  tltc  Teiuplitr!>  iu  3ym  iu  t)mi  cnpacily,  and  had 
recently  twen  ctuplojed  in  the  CMe  by  the  Inquifiitioti  of  Pnrii.  Among  his 
Easuni  expcrienci's  l>e  i?nivHy  rHat4.Hl  u  xlorr  current  in  Ridon  Ihiil  a  lord  of 
th»t  exij  once  lured  (.l«»pemt«l)'  but  fruitlneity  n  noMg  nmidcn  of  Armeain:  she 
tUhI,  ssd,  like  Pvrisndsr  of  Corintli,  on  tho  night  of  her  UiiriAl  he  opened  her 
t:(imb  «nd  gretilioU  liik  poasion.  A  uijaterious  voice  nid. "  Iteturu  in  nine  months 
nnd  fou  will  flnd  a  hcvl,  your  son !"  In  duo  time  ht'  cnmc  back  and  found 
a  human  head  in  the  louib,  when  the  vo!c«  said,  "  Guard  this  Iicnd.  for  ail  your 
f[ood>fortUDc  will  come  from  it !"  At  the  time  the  n-Etacas  henrd  linn,  Mntthiim 
1«  fiaav^c  of  PicsT'ly  vras  Preeeptor  of  Sidon,  who  liad  catalili»hcd  l»roiherhood 
^rilh  tbe  ttolilon  of  Babylon  by<>Mch  drinking  tlientber'n  blood.  Then  a  ciitaiji 
■JoIbuD,  who  bad  Euccoedcd  to  Btdon  and  to  tha  posseeaion  of  the  h<!«d,  entered 
t:b«  Order  and  gave  to  it  t)i«  town  and  iJl  liis  waaltb.  II«  ww  subscqueutty 
expi-llcd  and  (entered  the  ItoRptialk-n,  whom  hn  finally  abandoned  for  the  Prc- 
Dion6trati.'ni<i.-ii)s  {IVocfts,  I.  fHH-H).  Tlii»  lionicwliat  irrcIeTunt  and  discoanccteii 
Btnry  an  imprrMH  the  eommimloners  that  they  made  Antonio  rodnce  it  to  writ- 
ing ti'misetf^  and  lost  no  sobaeqaent  opportunity  of  inquiring  uljont  Uic  UvuA 
cif  Bidon  from  nil  other  wltnemeswho  had  been  in  Syria.  Hhorlly  art«rivard« 
Jma  Bonandi,  who  had  lived  in  BIdoD  for  Ave  yesni,  infonm-d  lliem  that  iha 
Tc-mplara  purchamd  the  city,  and  that  Jnlinn.who  had  been  one  of  ita  lords, 
e>«t«T«d  tho  Order  but  apoacatixcd  and  died  in  porerty.  One  of  his  nnc^stom 
waa  said  to  have  loved  a  maiden  and  abused  liir  coq>9e,  but  ho  had  heard  notlt- 
iag  of  Ibc  head  (Pi.  If,  140).  Pirrre  de  Nobiliac  had  Iwwi  for  many  Ti-«n>  l)c- 
ytaiA  was,  but  )md  likewisv  never  beard  of  it  (tb.  915).  At  leu^li  their  curiosity 
wu  gratified  by  lIuguM  de  Paure,  who  confirmed  the  fact  that  Sidon  liml  been 
purchaacd  by  the  Grand  Maeter.  Tbonian  Ttenird  (1357-1273).  and  added  that 
after  the  fall  of  Acre  he  liad  heard  in  OjpruB  that  the  hetrciia  nf  Slamrten,  in  Trip- 
oli, hiwl  been  loTod  by  a  noble  who  had  ciliumrd  her  body  and  Tiolatert  It.  and 
cut  off  her  head,  a  roice  tilling  him  to  Rtwrd  it  well,  for  it  would  dealioy  all  who 
loiikei]  upon  iL  He  wrapped  it  np  and  kept  It  tn  n  coffer,  and  in  Cyprus,  when 
be  wiabcd  to  destroy  a  town  ur  the  OreLkn,  he  would  uucuTcr  it  and  accuuiplisb 
ItU  purpooe.  Desiring  tn  destroy  ConManlinopte  b«  aailed  thither  with  it,  but 
hit  old  DOTsr,  curious  to  know  what  wu  in  the  coffer  to  airvfully  pmervad, 


972  POLITICAL  HERKSV.-TnE  STATE. 

speak  of  the  SAcrilegioiis  rites  imputed  to  them,  they  floander  among 
almost  every  viirinlion  tlmt  could  sngf^cst  itself  lo  their  imag;ina- 
tions.  Usudly  rpnunciatinn  of  God  or  Christ  and  spitting  on  the 
cross  are  both^  reqnir6<l,  but  in  many  cases  reounciatlon  without 
spitting  suffices, and  in  as  many  more  spitting  without  renuncia- 
tion.* Occnsionollyspilting  is  not  sufficinnt,  hut  trampling  isiulded, 
and  even  urination ;  iodeeii  some  over-zealous  witnesses  declared 
that  the  Teraiilnre  iwsemhSed  yearly  to  perform  the  latter  cere- 
mony, wliilo  others,  while  admitting  the  sacrilt^c  of  thoir  reception 
rites,  say  that  the  yearly  adoration  of  the  cross  on  Good  Friday, 
pi-cscribed  in  tlie  Rule,  was  also  observed  with  great  deTotion.+ 
GencruUy  a  plain  cross  is  described  as  the  ohjec^t  of  contempt,  but 
sometimes  a  crucifix  is  nsed,or  a  painting  of  the  crucifixion  in  an 
illuminated  missal ;  the  cross  on  the  preceptor's  mantle  is  a  com- 
mon device,  and  even  two  straws  laid  crosswiso  on  the  ground  suf- 
fices. In  some  cases  s^ntting  thrioe  upon  the  ground  was  only 
required,  without  anything  being  said  as  to  its  being  in  disres])ect 
of  OhrifltJ  Many  witnesses  declared  that  the  Kicrllege  was  per- 
formed in  full  view  of  the  assembled  hrethren.  others  that  the 
neophyte  was  taken  into  a  dark  comer,  or  behind  the  altar,  or  into 
another  room  carefully  closed ;  in  one  ease  it  took  place  in  a  field, 
in  another  in  a  grange,  in  another  in  a  cooper-eliop,  and  in  another 


opcDcd  It,  whsQ  a  suddea  storm  liur»t  over  the  ship  and  sank  it  witb  all  od 
boKDJ,  cxcejit  n  fcwuilors  vhocAcaped  to  toll  the  tAlft.  ^nccthen  no  fUh  have 
\Ktta  ruund  III  ihat  part  of  tlie  bcr  (lb.  333-4).  Quillaonie  Aviil  bad  l)eon  aoTtm 
jeart  Iwynml  sou  williout  hearing  of  the  Iteud,  but  iMtl  been  told  that  iti  th« 
whirlpool  of  Setalto^  a  hciid  wmetimoA  tippetircd,  and  then  all  tlio  vessels  there 
wen  loEt  (III.  ^3S}.  All  this  rubtMsh  n-ao  aeut  to  the  Couucil  of  Vieimo  us  put 
of  tlie  cvidenRu  against  the  Order. 

■  ProcK  ■-  2»».  343,  SJO.  4t4.  433,  429.  S83,  S80,  S4S,  olc. 

t  Pmcfe.,1.283;  11.219,  SS3,  237,  2iM.—Rajiiouard,274-^,S7&-80.—Dim,  pp. 
463,  «a7. 

At  iho  fenst  of  the  Italy  Cross  in  Hay  and  September, aod  on  Oood  Friday, 
the  Templnni  all  nisenihlod,  and,  laying  aside  shoes  and  bead-gear  and  swords, 
adnrod  thu  cross,  with  the  hymn— 

Ador  te  Crist  el  twnejicsc  ta  Cruit 

Qui  per  la  sancla  tus  crou  uos  rcsemlst. — 

(PtwKn.  474,4«!,  608.) 

X  Procts,  I.  233,  SJtO,  S36,  53fi,  Ml,  048,  606;  IL  226,  282,  336,  360,  SeS.-' 
Raynouard,  p.  »75. 


in  ft  room  used  for  the  mannfacttire  of  shoes."  As  a  role  the  pro- 
oeptor  iras  rcpceeente^l  as  enforcing  iU  but  in  many  caacs  the  doty 
vu  €5onlide*l  to  one  or  more  syrviiig  bretlireu.  anil  in  one  inslancw 
tfa«  penon  officiating  had  his  head  hidden  in  a  ooirl.t  Almost 
nnirers&lly  it  furmi^  part  of  the  ceremonies  of  reception,  Kpme- 
timea  even  before  tJie  vows  vrcro  athnlnisterod  or  the  mantle  be- 
riowed,  bat  generally  at  the  -  oanclusion,  after  the  neophyte  wu 
fully  conunitte<l,  but  there  were  occasional  instances  in  Trhich  it 

ivaft  poBtponed  until  a  later  hour, or  to  the  next  day,  or  to  longer 
itervals,  extending,  in  one  or  two  caaea,  to  months  and  years.} 
Some  witnesses  dcclar&l  that  it  formed  part  of  all  receptions; 
othcos  tbat  it  bad  been  enforced  in  their  case,  but  they  bad  never 
seen  it  or  heard  of  it  in  other  rec-eptiona  at  which  they  bad  been 
preaent.  In  general  they  swore  that  they  were  told  it  was  a  rule 
if  the  Order,  bat  some  said  tbat  it  was  explained  to  them  as  a  joke, 
others  that  they  were  told  to  do  it  with  the  mouth  and  not 
with  the  heart.     One,  indeed,  deposed  that  he  bad  be«n  offered  the 

Iftoie^  between  renouncing  Christ,  spitting  on  the  cross,  and  the 
indecent  kis8,and  be  selected  the  spitting.g  In  fact,  the  evidence 
as  to  the  enforcement  of  the  Hachlege  is  bopdeaaly  coniradictory. 
In  many  cases  the  neophyte  was  excused  after  a  slight  reswtanoe ; 
in  others  he  was  thmt  into  a  dark  dungeon  untU  he  yielded. 
£gidio.  Preceptor  of  San  Oeniignano  of  Florence,  stated  that  he 

(had  known  two  recalcitrant  neo|^ytea  carried  in  chains  to  Rome, 
where  they  perished  in  prison,  and  Niocolo  Begino,  Preceptor  of 
Grasaeto,  said  that  recnaants  were  shun,  or  acot  to  distant  part*, 
IQce  Sardinia,  where  they  ended  their  days.  Oeoffiroi  de  Chamey, 
Preoeptor  of  Normandy,  swore  tbat  he  eoforoed  it  apoa  the  flret 

rtteophyte  whom  ho  receired.  bat  that  be  never  did  ao  afterwards, 
and  Gui  Dauphin,  one  of  the  high  oBoen  of  the  Order,  said  virtu- 
ally tlie  same  thing ;  Gaudier  de  LiaDcoori,  Preceptor  of  Beuna, 
on  the  other  hand,  testified  that  be  had  required  it  in  all  casea,  for 


pkooiii,  L  sao.  •*«,  sM,  oi,  M«,  M9. 9«s.  S7S,  ata :  a  M,  IT.  M^  n,  >ai; 

Ml,  atf.  «7S.— flehoitealkr.  IL  412. 
t  Pioo^  L  tM,  SM.  5M,  S««,  S7S,  nS. 
t  ProeK  L  4ia  Ut.  444.  4Ca,  SM,  U»,  taS;  Q.  7S,a»,  113,  ISS^  90S.— fisj- 

p.  180L— BetettBlIkcop.ciLlLiai410. 
I  Pnn^  L  407. 41S.  495, 4*2, 579,  aaS ;  n.  a7,  as,  «7.  n<  lat,  114. 

IlL— Ift 


1 

J 


27*  POLITICAL  HEREST.-THE  STATE. 

if  he  had  not  ho  would  have  buen  imprisoned  for  life,  and  HugncB 
de  Peratid,  the  Visitor  of  Franco,  doclarod  tha.t  it  wa«  obligatory 
on  him.* 

It  would  bo  a  work  oE  suporerogation  to  purgiio  this  examina- 
tioD  further.  The  sjinie  irreconcilable  fonfurfion  n^igns  in  the  evi- 
dence as  to  the  other  charges — the  cord  of  chastity,  the  obscene 
kiss,  the  mutihkttoii  of  the  canon  of  ttie  masB.i'  the  power  of  abso- 
lotion  assigneil  to  iho  Grand  Master,  the  licoDHu  fi>r  unnataral 
orimo.  It  might  bo  argued,  ns  thosw  witnesses  hod  been  received 
into  the  Order  at  times  varying  from  fifty  to  sixty  years  prerious 
to  withio  a  few  months,  and  at  placott  so  widely  aiuirt  ai;  T'alci^tino 
and  Knglund,that  thcso  ^-ariutions  are  explicable  by  hical  usage* 
or  by  a  gi-oduolly  ]>erfectod  bohef  and  ritual.  An  investigation  of 
tile  confessions  allows,  however,  that  no  such  explanation  will  siif- 
Oce ;  there  can  ba  no  grouping  hs  to  the  time  or  place  of  tlio  eere- 
raony.  Yet  there  can  l>e  a  grouping  which  is  of  snpreme  gignifi- 
oaace,  a  grouping  aa  to  the  tribunal  through  whiuh  the  wttnesH 
paswxl.  This  is  often  very  notable  innong  the  two  hundred  and 
tweflty-five  who  were  sent  to  the  papal  commission  from  Tarioas 
parts  of  France.and  examined  in  1310  and  1311.  As  a  rule  they 
manifestcil  oxtromc  anxiety  that  their  present  depositions  should 
accord  with  those  which  ihey  ha4  made  when  suliject  to  inquisi- 
tion by  the  bishops— doubtless  they  made  them  as  nearly  so  as 
their  memories  would  pci*mit — and  it  Is  easy  to  see  how  greater  or 
less  rigor,  or  how  concert  between  those  oontlnod  in  the  samn  pris- 
on, had  led  to  the  concoction  of  stories  such  as  would  satisfy  their 

*  ProQhs,  I.  40-1 ;  IL  *360,  2^1,  2S4,  2'M^  2W,  836,  354,  »50,  90S,  SAO,  300,  30a. 
407.— Biiii.  pp.  468.48S. 

n  i»  not  cnny  to  appreciate  the  r^ftAAning  of  Mielielet  (Proci*,  11.  vii.-vlii.), 
wlio  arguGfl  tlint  tbi-  uniCurtnity  of  di-nial  m  a  series  of  dcpositinna  taken  b;  the 
Bichnp  of  Bine  »iigg«»t»  r<>nccrC  of  KlAlemciit  it;Tn>Ml  upon  in  advnncr.  while  tb« 
VMrifttiuDS  in  tlineo  who  viiiiittnl  guilt  lu-n  an  evidence  of  Uicir  Tcrudtf.  If  the 
Tflmplare  were  innocent,  deninl*  nf"  tNc  ciinrges  remJ  to  tlieni  seriatim  n-ouM  b« 
nt'ccssarilj  identical :  If  the;  were.  <^i)ty.  the  confcssiotifl  would  bo  UkcvriM  imi- 
form.  Thus  tlie  Iduntilj  of  the  one  groap  uid  the  diveiiity  of  the  other  both 
concur  to  disprove  the  accusations. 

*  Inci'Dtrovcriibli;  «vUlciic«  (hat  tho  Tctnpliir  prieate  did  not  nuititstc  the 
Kunia  of  con  nee  m  lion  in  the  n\u9a  in  fuminhe^l  in  llic  CypHotf  pritcriwlitii^bjr 
ecclesiastics  who  haO  lung  dwelt  wiib  thcra  ia  the  EMt. — ProcewuB  Cjpricoi 
tSchottmijllor,  11.  879,  S63, 988). 


jndges.  Tbas  the  confessions  obtained  by  the  Ordinary  of  Poi- 
.iicra  have  a  clinracter  dl.stinca  fn>m  Ihiist*  exturu-d  by  tlie  Bishop 
of  *;?lennont,  and  we  can  classify  the  penitents  of  the  Bishop  of 
1^  Mans,  the  Archbitdiop  of  Sens,  the  Arohbishop  of  Tours,  the 
HiBhn|>s  of  Amiens,  Itodez,  Macon,  iu  fact  of  nearly  all  the  prelates 
who  took  part  in  the  tcirihle  drama.* 

Another  t<-<ature  indicating  the  untnutworthy  character  of  the 
eiideace  is  that  largo  nuinbont  of  the  tritneasos  sn'ore  that  they 
had  confeaaMl  the  Euicrilpj^  committed  to  pncsts  and  fi-iars  uf  all 
kinds,  to  bishoi*.  ami  even  to  jxipal  ])eiiitontiarie8,  and  had  received 
absolation  by  tlio  imiiosition  of  ])onunco,  usually  of  a  trifling  char- 
iuu?r.  such  as  fasting  on  Fridays  for  a  few  months  or  a  year.f  No 
urilinai-y  confessor  could  absolve  for  liei-esy  ;  it  was  a  sin  reserved 
bir  the  tniiuisilor,  pn]>al  nr  epiRco|)al.  The  most  that  the  con- 
fess it  ooidd  have  dune  would  havu  been  to  send  the  penitent  to 
s  11)11^  one  competent  to  grant  atisolution,  which  would  only  have 
been  aduiinistured  under  the  heaviest  penance,  including  donunoi- 
iition  of  the  Order.  To  au)>pos<>,  In  fact,  that  thousands  of  men^ 
(luring  a  period  of  fifty  or  a  hundred  years,  could  have  been  en- 
irappeti  into  such  a  heresy  without  its  becoming  matter  of  noto- 
riety, is  in  itfiolf  sn  riolont  an  assumption  as  to  deprive  the  %vhole 
srtorj'  of  all  claims  upon  In-'Iief. 

Thus  the  more  closely  the  enormous  a^rgregate  of  testimony  ia 
exaiuined  the  more  utterly  worthless  it  appears,  and  this  is  con- 
Dnneil  by  tlie  fact  that  nowhere  could  compromising  evidence  be 
nbia.in(d  without  tho  nse  of  iiirjuisilorial  methods.  IIa<l  thousands 
of  men  been  unwillingly  forced  to  abjure  their  faith  and  Ijeen  ter- 
n>n7.4!<l  into  keoping  tho  dreail  secret,  ae  soon  as  tho  pressure  was 
roinore<l  by  the  seizure  there  would  have  been  a  universal  eager- 
ness to  unburden  the  crmsciencn  and  seek  reconciliation  with  the 
Churoh.  No  torture  would  have  been  requisite  to  obtain  all  the 
evidence  required.     In  view,  therefore,  of  the  extreme  improbar 


■  ProoSs,  L  asiO-l.  984-74.  3W-307,  38t-eT.  4rr-»8,  603-18,  «81-41 1  IL  1-8. 
*«-W,  »l-lt4.  182-59,  1S4-77.  184-91.  a34-S6,  26«-7. 

1  Priw&s  I  208.  80-1.  319.  33C.  373,  401.  40.1.  497,  4«fl.  etc. 

It  U  not  enST  tn  uiKlfnMknd  the  pre«tf-ri)it tofi  nf  Kridky  ftuting  u  *  peo4nc« 
fat  n  Tnnplar,  for  the  ascetic  rulea  of  tlie  Ordnr  alreidjr  nquired  tho  Dio«t  rigfd 
fastinil-  \ivtii  WM  only  Mllmrr-'l  tliree  dayn  in  tho  wi-rlc.  »»d  it  wTOnd  Lvut  WM 
kffpt  from  th«9uBda7  before  Mnrtlnmiu  tinlU  CtiriAlina.?(Regle,K15.S7^ 


2T6 


POLITICAL  HEUEST.-THB  STATBl 


iMlity  of  the  charge,  of  the  means  employed  to  oUtain  proof  for  its 
support,  anil  the  lack  of  coherence  in  the  proof  so  obtuined.  it  ap- 
[H>Ai-s  to  me  that  no  judicial  iniml  in  ]>o8Sf«sion  of  the  facts  can 
hcttitatn  to  pronounce  n  sentflnoe,  not  merely  of  not  proven,  but  of 
aajuitUl.  The  theory  that  there  were  inner  gnuies  in  the  OnJer, 
by  which  tho«e  alone  to  ho  trusted  were  initiated  in  its  secret  doc- 
trines, is  perfectly  untenable.  As  there  is  no  evidence  of  any  kind 
to  support  it,  it  is  a  matter  of  mere  corjecture,  which  is  RutHciently 
negutived  by  the  fact  that  ^vith  scarce  an  exception  those  who  oon- 
feHsed,  whether  ptuu^hinen  or  knights,  relate  the  sacrilege  aa  tak- 
ing place  on  their  admission.  If  the  witnesses  on  whom  the  proo- 
ecutioQ  relied  are  to  be  believed  at  all,  the  infection  pervaded  the 
whole  Onler. 

Yet  it  is  by  no  means  improbable  that  there  may  have  been 
some  foundation  for  the  popular  gossip  that  the  neophyte  at  his 
reception  fl'as  forceiJ  to  kiss  the  posteriors  of  liis  preceptor.  As 
we  have  seen,  a  large  majority  of  the  Onler  consisted  of  serving 
brethren  on  whom  the  knights  looked  down  with  infinite  con- 
tempt. Some  such  occasional  cx)minand  on  the  part  of  a  reckless 
knight,  to  enforce  the  princi]>le  of  alisolute  ohiiMiience,  in  admitting 
a  plebeian  to  nominal  fraternity  and  equality,  would  not  hare 
been  foreign  to  the  manuere  uf  the  age.  \VIio  can  say,  moreover, 
that  men,  soured  with  the  disillusion  of  life  within  the  Order, 
chullng  under  the  bonds  of  their  irrevocable  vow,  and  perhaps  re- 
leased from  all  religious  convictions  amid  the  license  of  the  East, 
may  not  oeoasionally  liave  tested  the  obedience  of  a  ncophyt«  by 
bidding  him  to  spit  at  the  cross  on  tht*  mantle  that  had  grown 
hateful  to  him  i*    No  one  who  recognizes  the  wayward  perversity 


*  This  vouUl  seem  not  'unlikely  if  we  are  to  beltev?  the  coiifmsion  of  Jcao 
d'AtmiOnes,  a  serving  brother  who  Mnttd  that  at  his  ruMpdon  his  piveeptnr 
turned  ■])  the  othvr  brethren  out  of  th«  chapel,  and  after  tome  difficulty  furvvd 
him  tn  *pit  at  tlie  cross.  Aft«r  which  he  aaid  '*  Oo,  fool,  and  confess."  This  .fe«a 
■t  unce  did,  to  a  Franciscaa  who  impowd  on  him  only  the  pcDuoco  uf  throe  Fri- 
day fiuda,  aajiDg  th»t  it  was  intended  aa  a  test  of  conatnncy  in  c&ae  of  cnptarv 
by  the  Boncem  (ProcK  I-  568-01). 

A&olher  serving  brother,  Pierre  d«  Clu-rrat,  relntad  that  nfter  ho  had  been 
forcfd  to  rcnonnc«  Ood  his  preceptor  smiled  disdainfully  at  bim,  u  though  de- 
ipiaiiig  him  (It>,  I,  531). 

E<|uall7  Mg^rcstiYe  is  the  story,  told  by  the  urring  brother  Eudn  de  Bare*, 


THE   TKMPLARS.  277 

of  human  nature,  or  who  is  familiar  n-ith  the  condition  of  mnnas- 
ticism  at  the  period,  can  deny  the  i>os8ibilitie«  of  «uch  occasion&l 
performances,  whether  a8  brutal  jokes  or  spiteful  assertions  of 
Bupremacy*  but  the  only  rational  concluRion  fmm  the  whole  tre- 
mendous tragedy  is  that  the  Order  was  innocent  of  the  crime  for 
which  it  was  punished. 

While   Fhilippo  was  soizing^  his  prey,  Clement,  at  Poitiers, 
wta  oocnplod  in  the  equally  lucrative  work  of  sending  coUoctors 
throughout  Gerntany  to  exact  a  tithe  of  all  ecclesiastical  rcTonues 
for  the  recovery  of  the  Holy  lAnd.     When  aroused  from  this 
with  the  news  that  Philippe,  under  the  authority  of  Fri're  Guil- 
laume  the  inquisitor,  had  thuis  taken  decided  and  irrevucubje  action 
in  a  matter  which  was  still  before  him  for  consideration,  his  first 
emotion  naturally  waa  that  of  wounded  pride  and  indignation, 
sharpened  perhat^s  by  the  apprehension  that  he  would  not  be  able 
to  secure  his  share  of  the  s|)oiLs.     He  dared  not  publicly  disavow 
reaiwnsibility  for  the  act,  and  what  would  lie  tlie  current  of  pub- 
lic opinion  outside  of  France  no  man  could  divine.     In  this  cruel 
dilemma  he  wrote  to  Philippe,  Octol>er  27,  1307,  expressing  his 
indignation  that  the  king  shouhl  have  taken  action  in  a  matter 
which  the  brief  of  August  24  showed  to  be  receiving  papal  con- 
8i<leration.    Carefully  suppressing  the  fact  of  the  intervention  of 
the  Inquisition  which  legally  justilied  the  whole  proceeding,  Clem- 


^•jt»th  of  twent;  at  the  time,  that  After  his  reception  he  v&a  Ukcn  into  noother 
I  noro  bj  two  of  tlic  brethren  and  forced  to  renouacw  Christ.  On  hit  ntfnsiag  at 
5r»t,  one  of  tlicm  suict  that  in  his  country  people  renounced  Ood  a  hundred  time* 
for  II  flea— porhnps  an  exaggeration,  but  "  Jc  renye  Dica  "  vcaa  one  of  the  com- 
inotWAt  of  expletives.  When  the  preceptor  heard  him  nreepin^  he  called  to  the 
tormcnlora  to  let  him  nlonc.  aa  they  would  set  him  crazy,  «nd  he  unlweniienHy 
told  EydcH  that  it  wiis  «  juke  f lU  11.  100-3). 

Wlitit  is  (he  rca!  Import  of  unth  inc.iiltnilA  may  l>c  gathen-d  rrntn  n  utivry  re- 
lotcd  by  A  tviliicsfl  daring  tliu  inqueutlield  in  CyprtiH.  May,  1310.  He  had  heard 
from  a  OconcMi  named  ^iKtteit  Znccjirin,  who  lind  i»ng  Iim.-ii  u  pn«onvr  in  Osim, 
that  whoa  thu  uowa  of  thi;  pmecedinga  agninst  the  Order  reached  the  Soldan 
of  Bj^ypl  he  dn-w  fnun  his  priwras  aIhiuI  forty  Temphre  captured  ten  yean  l»c- 
fcro  on  the  inland  of  Tortosa,  and  offiircd  thorn  wealth  if  they  would  renounce 
their  religion.  Surprised  and  angered  by  their  refusal,  be  a'inamlcd  them  to 
their  dungeons  aud  ordered  them  to  bo  deprired  ot  food  and  dnnk,  when  they 
perished  to  a  man  rather  than  apotiatiEe.— ScboUmUllur,  op.  cit.  11. 16€i 


S78 


POLITICAL  HERE9T-THE    STATB. 


ent  nought  a  further  ground  of  nompUint  by  reminding  the  king 
that  Tomplars  were  not  under  royal  jurigdiclion,  but  unfler  thai 
of  tho  lloly  Sen.  and  hn  bad  ctnnmittGd  n.  grave  act  of  diRobedi- 
ence  in  seizing  tlieir  persons  and  property,  both  of  which  must  bo 
forthtritli  delivere<I  to  two  cardinals  sent  for  the  pnrpose.  These 
were  Berenger  de  Frudole,  Cardinal  of  SS.  Nereo  and  Achille, 
and  l^tienne  de  Siiissi  of  8.  Ctriaco,  both  Frenchmen  and  creatures 
of  Philippe,  who  had  procured  tlicir  elevation  to  tho  n&cnul  college. 
He  seem*  to  have  had  no  trouble  in  coming  to  an  understanding 
with  tticm.  for.  though  the  trials  and  tortures  were  pushed  unre- 
mittingly, another  letter  of  (Moment's.  December  1.  praises  the 
king  for  putting  the  matter  in  the  hands  of  the  Uoly  See.  and  one 
of  ['tiili))pu'K  of  Ueci^mlMAr  ^4  announces  that  he  had  no  intention 
of  infringing  on  the  rights  of  the  Church  and  does  not  intend  to 
abandon  his  own ;  he  lias,  ho  says,  delivered  the  Templars  to  the 
cairlinalfi,  and  the  administration  of  their  proi>crty  shall  be  kept 
•epnrate  from  that  of  the  crown.  Clement's  susoeptibilitios  \ye- 
ing  thtis  soothed,  even  before  the  trials  at  Paris  were  ended  he  is- 
sued, November  22.  the  bull  PaMorafU  pnxeminentm,  addressed  to 
all  tho  potontiite^  of  Europe,  in  which  he  related  what  Philippe 
had  done  at  the  requisition  of  the  Inquisitor  of  France,  in  order 
that  the  Templars  ntight  be  pre*ente<l  to  the  judgment  of  the 
Church;  how  the  chiefs  of  the  Order  had  confessed  the  crimes 
imputed  to  them  ;  how  he  himself  had  examinoii  one  of  thom  who 
was  employed  about  his  jwrson  and  had  confinncd  the  truth  of 
Uie  allegations.  Therefore  he  orders  all  the  sovereigns  to  do  Uke- 
wiBO,  retaining  tho  prisoners  and  holding  their  property  in  the, 
name  of  tho  pope  and  subject  to  his  order.  Should  the  Or<i^^| 
prove  innocent  tlu?  pmperty  is  to  Iw  restored  to  it,  otherwise  ^^ 
is  to  bo  employed  for  the  recovery  of  tlie  Holy  Umd.*    Tbj^i 

•  Rcgflflt.  Clcmcnl.  PP.  V.  T.  11.  p.  «5.-Du  Puy,  pp.  117-J8.  tS4. 134— Schott      ' 
mViWvT.  I.  M.— Rjiiier,  P«.l.  IH.  30.— M8S.  Cbioccarwll«  T.  Vm,— Mag.  Bq! 
Hum.  IX.  126. 1»1.— Zuritn,  Lib.  t.  c  73, 

App»ri?nll5  tli«r«  wii«  n  funeral  expectation  thitt  the  rioxpittilleni  would  vh 
thu  futc  of  the  TcmpUn,  Kti<)  n  (llFpo«ltion  ytt^  nuioifcMed  at  once  tn  ptlln. 
tbntl.  for  Ckm«iit  felt  olilig«d,  Deccnilji-r  31,  1307,  to  isaae  a  Lmll  coaflrtnin^  ftll 
Uitlr  pri<rilp|^  iind  lnlmunUi<^a,  iind  to  ocad  throu^out  Ettrope  letters  ordering 
UietD  to  be  protected  rrom  nil  cncroulimvuU  (Regcst.  Clem.  PP.  V-  T  HI-  pp. 
14, 17-18,  «0-l,  878;  T.  IV.  p.  418). 


THE   TEMPIAHS. 


fl79 


was  tiie  iiTcrocable  act  which  tletMtled  the  fate  of  the  Tetnplars,  aa 
we  sdall  bi*  lieri^nfter  when  we  considor  the  action  of  thepnncea 
of  Eurtrpe  outside  of  ]"i-ancc. 

Philippe  thus  had  forcod  Clement's  hand,  and  Clomont  was 
fairly  fouiiuittcd  lo  the  invpstipition,  which  in  the  hands  of  the 
Iiu|uisition  could  only  end  in  the  destruction  of  the  Order.  Secure 
in  hut  f>08ition,  the  kin^  pushed  on  the  oxaminotion  of  the  prison- 
em  tliroughout  the  kingdom,  and  the  vigilance  of  his  agents  ia 
ahovm  in  the  case  of  two  German  Templars  returning  home,  whom 
tb»y  arrested  at  Chauwout  and  delivered  to  the  inquisitor  uf  the 
Three  Bishoprics.  One  was  a  priest,  the  other  a  serring  brother, 
and  the  in(]ui>iitor  in  rc|H>rting  to  Phihppc  ^m  that  he  had  not 
torturod  the  latter  because  he  was  veiy  siok.  but  that  neither  had 
admitted  that  there  was  in  the  Order  aught  that  was  not  pure 
awl  holy.  The  examiuationu  went  on  during  the  winter  of  1308, 
^rhen  Clement  unc:tpected)y  pal  a  atop  to  tlieni.  Wliat  was  his 
motive  we  can  only  conjecture ;  probably  he  fotuid  that  I'biUppe's 
promises  Tdth  regard  to  the  Templar  possessions  were  not  likely 
to  be  fidfillcd,  iind  that  an  assertion  of  hi.'f  control  was  necessary. 
Whatever  bis  reasons,  he  suddenly  suspended  in  the  premises  the 
power  of  all  the  inqtiisitora  and  bishops  in  Knuinc  and  evoked  to 
himBelf  the  cognizance  of  the  whole  affair,  alleging  that  the  sud- 
donnen  of  the  seizure  without  consulting  him,  although  so  near 
and  80  acoeesible,  had  excited  in  him  grave  suspicions,  which  had 
not  been  nllayetl  by  the  recorda  of  the  examinational  submitted  to 
bim,  for  those  were  of  a  character  rather  to  excite  inCTedullly — 
tlM»ugh  in  November  he  had  proelainied  to  alt  Christendom  his 
uonviction  of  their  trutli.  It  shows  how  oomplotely  the  whole 
jndioial  proceedings  were  inquisitional  that  tliis  brought  them  to 
aa  immediate  close,  provoking  Thilippo  to  uncontrollahle  wrath. 
Angrily  he  wrote  to  t'lemtmt  that  he  had  sinned  greatly:  even 
popes,  he  hinUi,  may  fall  into  heresy  ;  he  had  wronged  all  the  prel- 
ate* and  inquisitors  of  France ;  he  had  inspired  the  Tem]>laiB 
with  hopes  and  they  were  retracting  their  confessions,  especially 
Hngucs  dc  Pcraad,  who  had  had  the  honor  of  dining  with  tho 
cardinal-deputies.  Evidently  some  intrigue  was  on  foot,  and  Clem- 
ent was  bulajioing,  irresolute  as  to  wJiich  side  otfei'cU  most  lulvan- 
tage,  and  salislied  at  least  to  show  to  Philippe  that  be  was  indis- 
pensable.   Philippe  at  first  was  disposed  to  assert  bis  indepen< 


J 


980 


POLITICAL    nERESY.-THE   STATB. 


denoo  ami  claim  jurisUictioa,  and  he  applie<I  to  the  UniverBity  for 
an  opinion  to  support  hiH  claims,  but  tlit>  Faculty  of  Theulugy  re- 
plied, March  25,  1308,  as  it  could  not  help  doing:  the  Templars 
were  religious  aud  consequeatly  exein])t  front  siKular  jurisdiction ; 
the  only  cognizance  which  &  secular  court  could  have  over  heresy 
was  at  the  request  of  the  Church  after  it  hwl  abandoned  the 
heretic ;  in  caete  of  neceasity  the  secular  power  could  arrest  a 
heretic,  but  it  could  only  be  for  the  purpose  of  delivering  him 
to  the  ecMJlesiasticiil  couit ;  and  finally  the  Templar  property  must 
bo  hehi  for  the  purpfwe  for  which  it  was  given  to  the  Order,* 

I'hilippc,  thus  foiled,  proceeded  to  bring  a  still  stronger  pressure 
to  bear  on  Clement.  He  appwiled  to  Lis  subservient  bishops  and 
summoned  a  national  assembly,  to  meet  April  15  in  Tours,  to  delib- 
erate witli  him  on  the  subject  of  the  Templars.  Already,  at  the 
Assembly  of  Paris  in  l>t03,  he  had  called  in  the  Tiers-£tat  and  had 
learned  to  value  its  support  in  his  quarrel  with  Boniface,  and  now 
he  again  brought  in  the  eomtaunes,  thus  foumUug  the  institution 
of  the  Stfttoa-Gonoral.  Alter  some  delay  the  assembly  met  in 
May.  In  his  summons  Philippe  had  detailed  the  crimes  of  the 
Templara  as  admitted  facts  which  ought  to  arouse  for  their  pun- 
ishment not  only  arms  and  the  laws,  but  brute  cattle  and  the  four 
elements.  Ho  desired  his  subjects  to  jiarticipate  in  the  pious  work, 
and  therefore  he  ordered  the  towns  to  select  each  two  deputies 
zealous  for  the  faith.  From  a  gathering  collected  under  such  im- 
pulsion it  was  not  difficult,  in  spite  of  the  secret  lejining  of  the 
nobles  to  the  proscribed  Order,  to  procure  a  virtually  unanimous 
expression  of  opinion  that  the  Teuiplara  ileserved  death.f 

With  the  prestige  of  the  nation  at  his  back,  Philippe  went  from 
Tours,  at  the  end  of  May,  to  Clement  at  Poitiers,  accompanied  by 
a  strong  deputation,  including  his  brothers,  his  sons,  and  his  coun* 


■  Da  Poj,  pp.  li-18,  84-5,  89,  109,  111-18,  IM.— D'Achwy  Spiciteg.  H. 
109.— RayncHiard,  p.  338,  309. 

Jean  do  8.  Victor  gim  the  dab)  of  the  declaration  of  tlie  UnlTerattf  u  Iba 
Sfttunluy  after  AmwusIoq  (MaF  ^^^  '^P-  Bouquet,  XXI.  OSl),  but  Du  Puy  de- 
scribes the  document  as  sealed  with  fouitceo  spaU,  and  dfttcd  on  Ladjr  Dftj 
(HArcb  iS}. 

t  Archire*  AdmlnliitrttiK*  dc  Uciin»,  T.  IT.  pp.  W,  8B.— ChMwing  Spicily 
giiitD  Brivatcnae,  pp.  Si-i-.t.— Du  Put.  pp.  38-9.  8fi.  n»,  110— Contiu.  NangiM, 
Min.  1308.— Joaiiii.  do  S.  Victor.  (Bouquvt,  XXI.  USO).— Rnynouard,  p.  4S. 


THE   TEMPLARS.  BSI 

<;inors.  Long  and  earnest  were  the  ilisputations  over  the  affair, 
Philippe  urging',  througli  his  HjMikestiinn.  (Tuitlaiiiue  tin  Pluisiiin,  that 
the  Tomplara  had  been  found  guilty  untl  that  imniodinte  piinJsh- 
~iuent  B}iould  follow;  Clement  reiterating  his  grievance  that  an 
Affair  uf  sucti  nia^iitude,  exclusively  ap|>ert»ii)ing  to  the  Holy 
Jfee,  ahouid  be  carried  on  without  liis  initiative.  A  body  like  the 
Order  of  the  Temple  had  powerfol  friends  all  over  Europe  whose 
influence  with  the  curia  waa  great,  and  the  papal  {lerjilexities  wen 
manifold  as  one  BJdc  or  the  other  prejwnderateil ;  but  ('leinent 
hail  irrevocably  committed  hiniself  in  the  face  of  all  Europe  by 
bis  bull  of  November  22,  and  it  was  in  reality  but  a  question  of 
the  terms  on  which  be  would  allow  the  affair  to  go  on  in  France 
by  removing  the  suspension  of  the  powers  of  the  Inquisition.  The 
iMrgaining  was  sharp,  but  an  agreement  was  reached.  As  ('lement 
had  reserved  the  matter  for  impal  judgtneDt.  it  was  necessary  that 
some  show  of  investigation  ahouhl  Ui  had.  Seventy-two  Templars 
were  drawn  from  the  prisons  of  Paris  to  be  examinetl  by  the  \Kt\ye 
and  sacred  college,  that  they  might  be  able  to  assert  [wrsonal 
knowle<lge  of  thoir  guilt.  Clement  might  well  shrink  from  con- 
fronting de  Molay  and  the  chiefs  of  the  Order  whom  he  was  Iw- 
trayiag,  wliile  at  the  same  time  they  could  not  be  arbitrarily  omit- 
ted. They  were  therefore  stop|it>d  at  Chmon  near  Tours,  under 
pretext  of  sickness,  while  the  others  were  sent  forward  to  Poitiers. 
From  the  28th  of  June  to  July  1  they  were  solemnly  examinetl  by 
five  cardinals  friendly  to  Philippe  deputed  for  the  pnr]>ose.  The 
official  report  of  the  examinations  shows  the  care  which  ha<l  been 
exercised  in  the  selection  of  thcjso  who  were  to  perform  this  scene 
in  tbe  drama.     A  portion  of  them  wore  spontaneous  witnesses 

Cwho  had  left,  or  bod  tried  to  leave,  the  Order.  Tbe  rest,  with  the 
terrible  penalty  for  retraction  impending  over  them,  contirmed  the 
oonfeBsions  made  before  the  Inquisition,  which  in  many  cases  had 
heen  cxtractal  by  torture.  Then,  July  2, they  were  brought  before 
the  pope  in  full  consistory  and  the  same  scene  was  cnactwl.  Thus 
the  papal  jurisdiction  was  recognized ;  Clement  in  his  subsequent 
bulls  could  speak  of  his  o^m  knowledge,  and  could  declare  that  the 
accused  had  confcssoil  thf^ir  errors  siHintancMJiisly  and  without  coer- 
cum,  and  had  humbly  begged  for  absolution  and  reconciliation.* 


'  Plot.  Laceaa.  RiaL  Eeclea  Lib.  xxtr.  (Muntori  S.  R.  I.  XI.  lS3fl-S0).— 


S82 


POLITICAL  HBRE9T.— THE  STATU 


The  agreement  duly  eie(rute<I  between  Clement  and  Philippe 
bore  thai  tliu  Templars  shouhl  be  dvUrered  tu  the  |H)p«;,  but  be 
guaitietl  in  his  name  bv  the  king;  that  tlicir  trials  should  be  pro 
coecled  with  by  thn  bisho}Ki  in  their  several  dioceses,  to  whom,  at 
the  8[K;ciai  and  eaitiest  request  of  the  king,  the  iuquisitors  were 
adjoinwl^but  do  Molay  iind  the  I'roceptors  of  the  East,  of  Nor- 
mandy, Foitou,  and  Frovenoe,  were  reaiTved  for  tlip  pa|MU  judg- 
ment ;  the  property  wsis  to  be  ])laceil  in  the  hands  of  comuussion/' 
ers  Dame<^l  by  the  po|>e  and  bishojis,  tu  whom  the  king  was  secretly 
to  add  appointeeH  of  bin  own,  but  he  was  to  pledge  himself  in  writ- 
ing that  it  shoDld  bo  employed  solely  for  the  Holy  Land.  Cl^nent 
as8uuie<l  that  Clie  fate  of  tlie  Order,  as  an  inslitution,  was  too 
wi>i;^lily  a  queslhjn  to  be  decide<l  without  the  intervention  of  a 
iBfencral  council,  and  it  was  decided  to  call  one  in  October,  1310. 
The  CaitUnal  of  Palestriaa  was  named  as  the  papal  ropresentativei 
in  charge  of  the  pereans  of  the  Templars — a  duty  wliich  he  spoed- 
dy  fultilicd  by  transferring  them  to  the  king  under  condition  that 
they  should  be  held  at  the  disposition  of  the  Church.  Clement 
performed  hiH  part  of  the  bargain  by  retnoving.  July  5,  the  sus- 
pension of  ilm  inquisitom  and  bishops,  and  restoring  thoir  jurisdic- 
tion in  the  matter.  Directions  were  sent  at  the  same  time  to  naoh 
of  the  bishops  in  France  to  associate  with  himself  two  cathedral 
canons,  tno  Uuminicans.  and  two  Franciscani;,  and  prcweed  with 
tlie  trials  of  the  indivitiuat  Templars  within  his  diocese,  admitting 
inquisitors  to  participate  at  will,  but  taking  no  action  against  the 
Order  as  a  whole ;  all  persons  wei-e  ordered,  under  pain  of  excum- 
munication,  to  arrest  Templais  and  deliver  them  to  tho  inquisitors 
or  episcopal  officiate,  and  PhUippe  furnished  twenty  copies  of  royal 
letters  eommanding  his  subjects  to  rcHtore  to  the  papid  deputies 
aU  pro|HTty.  rwil  and  {fer»oual,  of  thu  Order.* 


Jo«Dn.  d«  S.\n€tnr  ^Rnurjuet,  XXL  FlliO}.— RAVuDiinrd,  pp.  44-^"),  340-08.-1111  Pay, 
pp.  m-U.—ScboltmUUcr,  op.  cit.  II.  13  eqq.— BulL /Winu  mi«srta)rdi«n,  IS 
.\ug.  YMi  (Kyrocr,  IL  lUI.— Mnp.  Bull,  llopi.  IX.  13tf). 

•  Dii  Puy.pp.  l.J-17,a0.3l),8il,107-8.Il&-lU,I2U*22.12.'j.— CoiitiiLNangi«c. 
SDD.  1S0>?.— IliiyDoiianl.  pp.  4fi,  4V. — Joann.  d«  S.  Victur  (Bouquet,  XXI.  051).— 
D'Aclicry  Spicilpp.  II.  200, 

Oulllaauc  dc  Ptnisiau,  who  liad  b«en  PhiUppe'n  chief  icatnimeut  in  tfaese 
tnn«artion>,  receivi-d  special  marks  of  Clf mcnt's  favor  bj  bricfi  daLed  August 
3<Bc«e8t.  CkmcoL  PP.  V.  T.  lU.  pp.  314,  3^ 


THE  TEJrPLAHS.  3g^ 

Although  Cleiiieni  doulared  in  his  bulls  to  Europe  that  Philippe 
lad  mnnifosU'd  his  (lisintorenedness  by  Rurrendering  all  the  Tcm- 
tar  pro)>ertv,  the  queatioa  was  one  which  gtive  rim  to  a  good  deal 
of  skilful  fencing  on  botli  sides.  It  is  not  worth  while  to  pursue 
le  affair  in  lU  details,  but  wn  shall  see  how  in  the  ond  Philippe 
Roccessfully  cheated  his  partner  in  the  game  and  retained  the  oon- 
trol  which  be  appar«*ntly  gave  up.* 

Tlie  rival  powers  having  thus  come  to  an  understanding  about 
.their  viotimB,  proccodinjiTS  were  resnm«>d  with  fresh  energy.  Clem- 
'«nt  ma'le  up  for  his  prvvious  hL-situlion  with  ample  show  vt  zeal. 
De  Molay  and  the  chief  officials  vvitli  him  were  detained  at  Chinon 
natii  the  middle  of  August,  when  the  Cardinals  of  SS.  Nereo  and 
Achille,  of  S.  Ciriiujo  aud  of  8.  Angelo.  wera  sent  thither  to  ex- 
ainitto  them.  These  rcp^irtod,  August  iH>^  to  Philippe,  that  on  the 
nth  and  following  days  ihey  had  interrogated  the  (irand  Maater, 
the  Waster  of  Cyprus,  the  Visitor  of  France,  and  the  Preceptors  of 
N'ormandy  and  Poitou,  who  ba<l  ijonlimied  their  previous  eonfes- 
aions  and  hod  humbly  asked  for  absolution  and  reconcihation, 
whii'h  had  lieen  duly  given  them,  and  the  king  is  aske<l  to  pardon 
them.  There  are  two  things  noteworthy  in  this  which  illui^trate 
the  dnpUoity  per^iuling  the  whole  affair.  In  the  papa!  bulla  of 
Augiist  12,  five  days  before  this  examination  was  commenced,  its 
resnile  are  fully  set  forth,  nith  the  assertion  that  the  confessions 
W««  free  and  spontaneous.  Moreover,  when,  in  November,  1309, 
this  bnil  was  read  over  by  the  papal  comRiission  to  de  Molay,on 
hearing  its  recital  of  what  he  was  said  to  have  confessed  he  was 
stupelied,  and,  crossing  hiniself  twice,  said  he  wished  to  God  the 


■  Bull.  Facitnt  miterin^rdiam. — Rnyiuild.  San.  1309,  No.  3.— Du  Puy.  pp.  M-5, 
SMW,  127.  307-0.— ProcRg  dps  Tcmplicra  1.  50-3.— Raynouard,  p.  47.— R«g08t. 
Ctamtot.  PP.  V.  T.  IV.  pp.  433^  4. 

OlRmcnt  npjioiiited  six  cur*U>ni  in  Franco  lo  look  &ftrr  llir  prnp«rty  for  the 
Holy  6«e.  B;  leltvra  uf  Jxausry  ii,  [>10H,  lie  gavo  tlioiu  an  allanoncu  fmm  the 
TeinpUi  properly  of  fort;  MPU0/>amu  of  good  monvy  uitcli  for  every  tiiglil  which 
thr-1  ini|jht  Imve  to  Apeod  kwajt  from  home,  nt  the  .lame  liini!  cautioning  them 
Ihat  tlitfT  niurf  not  fraudulently  lea'e  their  houses  without  necee^ity  (Regest. 
T.  IV.  p.  4aO>.  A  brief  nf  J.inoanr  3S,  laiO,  triinufcrririf;  ftnm  the  Bishop  of 
Vniiofi  to  tb«  canon.  Qi^raril  du  Bnxsy.  the  custody  of  certain  Templar  houses, 
tbutiD  that  CIcmODt  succeeded  in  obtaining  posKSBJon  of  a  portion  (lb.  T.  V. 
p.M). 


m 


POLITICAL  HERB8T.— THE  STATR 


custom  of  the  Saracens  and  Tartars  were  observed  towards  persons 
s<)  perverse,  for  they  beheaded  or  cut  in  two  those  who  thus  per- 
vert«d  the  trutli.  Ho  might  liavesaid  more  liod  not  Gruillaume  de 
Plaisian,  the  royal  agent,  who  pretcndc<l  to  be  his  friend,  cantinned 
bim  as  to  the  risk  which  he  ran  in  thus  constructively  retracting 
his  confession,  and  he  contented  hinueU  with  asking  for  time  for 
oonside  ration.* 

On  Aiig^ist  12  Clement  issnwl  a  series  of  bulls  which  regu- 
lated the  methods  of  procedure  in  llie  case,  and  showed  that  he  M-as 
prepared  fully  to  jwrform  his  jiart  of  the  agreement  with  Philippe. 
The  bull  J'Wi^ns  miterieordiatn,  addressed  to  the  prelates  of  Chris- 
tendom, recited  at  grejit  length  the  proceedings  thus  far  taken 
against  the  aecusc^l,  and  the  guilt  which  they  hud  sjHintaneously 
acknowledged  ;  it  directed  the  bishops,  in  conjunction  with  inquisi- 
torial commissioners  api>ointed  by  the  jwpe,  to  summon  all  Tem- 
plars before  tliem  and  make  inquisitioa  uoneeming  them.  After 
tliis  provincial  councils  were  to  l>e  summoned,  uhero  the  guilt  or 
innocence  of  the  Individuals  was  to  be  determined,  and  in  all  the 
prooetxlings  the  local  inqiiislt^jn;  had  a  right  to  take  part.  The 
results  of  the  inquisitions,  mnreovor,  wore  tn  be  promptly  trans- 
mitted to  the  pope.  With  this  was  enclosed  a  long  and  elaborate 
series  of  articles  on  which  the  accused  were  to  be  examined — arti- 
cles dniwn  up  in  l*aris  by  the  royal  otticials — and  the  whole  was 
ordered  to  be  pubUshed  in  the  vernacular  in  all  parish  churches. 
Tlio  bull  I?t'ffnatts  m  otdi^,  addressee!  to  all  princes  and  prelate*, 
rejMiiited  the  oaiTative  part  of  the  other,  and  ended  by  convoking, 
for  Octoljer  1,  1310,  a  general  council  nt  Vienne,  to  decide  as  to 
tlic  fate  of  the  Onler,  to  consult  as  to  the  recovery  of  the  Holy 
l^nd,  and  to  take  such  action  as  might  Iw  roquiretl  for  the  refor- 
mation of  tln!  ('hunh.  Hy  another  hu\l, /•'(wi^tm  rnitiericordium^ 
dated  August  S,  a  formal  summons  was  issued  to  all  and  singular 
of  the  Templars  to  appear  before  the  council,  penwmilly  or  by  pro- 
curators, on  a  certain  day,  to  answer  to  the  charges  against  the 
Order,  and  the  Cardinal  of  Pnlcstrina,  who  was  in  chai^  of  them, 
was  ordered  to  produce  de  Molay  and  the  Preceptors  of  France, 
Normandy,  Poitou.  Aquitaino,  and  Provence  to  receive  sentence. 
This  was  the  simplest  rf^quiroment  of  judiciaj  procedure,  and  the 


*  Du  Puf .  pp.  33-4, 133.— BuU.  Faeunt  fniMrievn/icim.— Procta,  L  a4-fi. 


manner  in  which  it  was  sultsrquRntty  cladod  forms  onn  of  the  dark- 
est features  in  the  whole  tr.insftction.  Finally  thoi-e  wore  other 
bulls  elubunitely  pruviding  for  the  payment  of  the  |>a[>al  commis- 
sioners  and  inquisitors,  and  ordering  the  Templar  posseRsions  ev- 
erywhere to  be  seqaestRited  to  await  the  result  of  the  trial,  and 
to  bedevotetlto  the  Holy  Land  iacaaeof  condemnatiun.  Mucii,  it 
was  BtAted,  hiul  already  been  wickedly  seized  and  appi-opriateil,  uud 
all  persons  wore  siimmnnod  to  make  restitution,  umlor  p)un  of  ex- 
communication. All  debtors  to  the  Ortler  were  summoned  to  \yay, 
and  all  persons  cxjgniuint  of  such  debts  or  of  stolen  property  were 
required  to  give  infonnation.  The  series  of  bulkt  was  completed 
by  one  of  Deceraljer  3ii,  lo  be  read  in  all  churches,  declaring  all 
Templars  to  be  su8]>oct  of  heresy,  oniering  their  capture  as  such 
and  delivery  to  the  episcojml  ordinaries,  and  forbidding  all  poten- 
tiates and  prelates  from  harboring  them  or  showing  them  any  aid 
Dr  favor,  under  pain  of  excomutunic-alion  and  interdict.  At  the 
f'Bame  time  another  hull  was  direote<l  to  all  the  princoH  of  Clirlst^m- 
dom,  commanding  thorn  to  scixc  any  Templars  who  might  as  yet 
not  have  been  ari-ested.* 

The  pKHCcution  of  the  Templars  throughout  Europe  waa  thus 
iorganized.  Kven  such  distant  points  as  Achaia,  Corsica,  and  Sar- 
dinia were  not  neglected.  The  large  nimibor  of  special  inquisitors 
to  be  appointed  was  a  work  of  time,  and  the  coj:res|)ondence  be- 
tween Philippe  and  Clement  on  the  subject  shows  tliat  they  vir- 
tually were  selcctwl  by  the  king.  In  France  the  work  of  prose- 
i;Cution  was  speedily  set  on  foot,  and,  after  a  respite  of  some  six 
months,  the  Templars  found  themselves  transferred  from  the  im- 
provised inquisitorial  tribunals  set  on  foot  by  Frero  Quillaume  to 
Uie  episoopal  courts  as  provided  by  Clement.    In  every  diocese 

•  Rymer,  m.  101.— Mag.  Bull.  Rom.  IX.  134.  1  aiS.— Harduin.  VII.  1383.  128», 
1831,  I WS,— Schmidt,  P«l»iliuhc  Urkundtu  und  KcKesten.  Halk*.  1880.  pp. 
71-fl,— Rayn»ld.  win.  laOft,  No.  8.— Contin.  OuiM,  NHogiBC.  ann.  I80B  — Ruy. 
Bouard,  p.  50.— Rcgral.  CletnRnt,  PP.  V.  T.  III.  pp.  281  (qq.,  pp.  »«3  aqq.,  886 
«jq.;  T.  rV.  pp.  8,  276  sqq.,  47»-y2. 

The  Unstcr  of  Englitnd  Bad  the  Muter  of  Qcrmftny  wen;  rcwrvcd  for  pupal 
Judgment.  Tbe  bull  b\teitn»  miteriwrdiam,  addressed  to  Ovrmuay,  coulainvd  uo 
comotud  to  asscmblo  provincial  councils  (Hardiiin.  VTI.  VAU'A). 

In  spile  of  all  lliut  had  occurred,  X\\\*  bull  vxm»  to  tiave  taken  Ihe  public  by 
■Vprlw  oatude  of  Pnnce.  Wnlt<;r  of  Hemingford  grIIs  it  "  buUata  horrHnUm 
amtra  Ttmplariot "  (Chrou.  Ed.  1849,  H.  STQ). 


J 


386 


POLITICAL  UEREPV— THE   STATE. 


the  bigliops  wore  soon  busily  at  work.  Curiously  enoug-h.  some  of 
tlieni  (l()ui>lL'<l  uiietlier  tliey  L'ltuUI  use  lurlure,  and  H{>)))i(>il  for  in- 
structions, to  which  Clement  answerent  that  they  were  to  lie  gov- 
erned by  the  writtea  law,  which  removed  their  misgivings.  The 
pc^ial  inatriictions  intlicttta  that  these  proceedings  only  coneemeU 
tliose  Templars  who  had  not  pjissi.'d  through  the  hands  of  Frere 
GuiUaume  and  his  oominissionere,  but  there  seems  to  have  been 
little  distinction  observed  as  to  this.  Clement  urge<l  forward  the 
proceedings  with  little  mgnrd  to  formality,  iind  HUthorized  the 
bishops  M  act  outside  of  their  reapective  dioceses,  and  withoxit 
respect  to  the  place  of  origin  of  tlie  accused.  The  sole  object 
evidently  wils  to  oxtraot  from  them  satisfiictory  confessions,  as 
a  preparation  for  the  provincial  coimcila  which  were  to  be  sum- 
moned for  their  linal  judgment.  Those  who  hiul  already  confessed 
were  not  likely  to  retract.  Before  the  pat>al  commission  in  1310, 
Jean  do  Cochiac  exhibited  a  letter  from  Philippe  de  Vohet  and 
Jean  de  Jamville,  the  pu)ml  and  royal  cu6to<lians  of  the  prisoners, 
to  those  oontincd  at  Sens  at  tho  time  the  Rishop  of  Orleans  waa 
scut  then.^  to  rxamino  them  (the  archbishopric  of  Sens  was  then 
vacant),  warning  them  that  those  who  revoke*!  the  confessions 
made  before  "/*»  guiaiior"  would  be  burned  a£  relapswl.  Vohet, 
when  summoned  before  tho  commission,  admltU>d  the  seal  to  be 
his,  but  denied  authorizing  the  letter,  and  the  commission  prudent- 
ly nhstu-inetl  from  pusliing  the  investigation  further.  The  ner\*ous 
anxiety  manifested  by  most  of  those  brought  before  the  commis- 
sion that  their  statements  should  accord  with  what  they  had  said 
before  the  bisliojw,  shows  that  they  recognizeti  the  danger  which 
they  incurred.* 

The  treatment  of  those  who  refused  to  confess  varied  with 
the  temjior  of  tlie  bisho]>s  and  their  adjuncts.  The  records  of 
their  tribunals  have  mostly  disappeared,  and  we  are  virtually  left 
to  gather  what  we  can  fri>m  tlio  utterances  of  a  few  witnesses 
who  made  to  the  commission  chance  allusions  to  their  former  ex- 
Ijcriences.  Vet  tlie  ](n»c(>eilings  before  tlio  Bishop  of  Clermont 
would  show  that  they  were  not  in  all  coses  treated  with  undue 
harshness.    He  had  sixty-nine  Templars,  of  whom  forty  confessed, 


•  Du  Puy.  pp.  1 10. 135.--RuyDOttani,  p.  ISO.— Regnt.  Cleueot  PP.  V.  T.  IV. 
PP.45S-55, 457-8— Pwces,  I.7I-a,128,  133,  1S6.  463, 511, 040, etc 


■nd  twmty-nmo  n'fnswl  to  admit  any  oril  in  tlip  Order.  Then  he 
Mscmbled  ihcm  and  divided  them  into  llie  two  emnps.  The  re- 
ooiaiits  declared  that  thoy  aiihered  to  their  assertion,  and  that  if 
they  ^onld  Buhseqoently  oonfesa  throug^i  fear  of  torturv.  prison, 
or  other  aftliction,  ihoy  prote9t4»d  that  they  should  not  be  l>e!ieved, 
&nd  that  it  should  not  prejudice  them,  nor  doe«  it  appear  that  any 
constraint  was  afterwards  put  upon  them.  The  others  were  asked 
whether  thoy  hail  any  defence  to  offer,  or  whether  ihcy  were  rnndy 
for  definitive  «?nti»nco,  when  they  unanimously  divlared  that  they 
had  notiung  to  offer  nor  uisheil  to  hear  thnir  sentence,  bnt  ku1>- 
mitted  theinaelvM  to  the  mercy  of  the  Church.  What  chat  mercy 
was  wc  shall  see  hereafter.  AU  bishops  were  not  as  mild  as  he 
of  <Jlermont,  but  in  the  fmg'menlary  rocitals  before  the  comniis- 
sion  it  is  not  always  easy  to  distinguish  the  action  of  the  episeo- 
ptd  tiibanaL*  fmm  that  of  Fr^re  Gnillnume^s  inquisitors.  A  few 
iastancee  will  sulHce  to  show  how,  between  the  two,  testimony 
waa  obtained  against  the  Order.  Jean  de  Kompreyc.  a  hushand- 
inaa,  declared  that  he  knew  nothing  but  good  of  the  Order,  al- 
though he  had  confessed,  otherwise  before  the  Biahop  of  Orleans 
after  being  thrice  torturod.  Kobort  A'igier,  a  serving  brother,  hko- 
viae  denied  the  accusationH,  though  he  had  confessed  them  before 
the  Bishop  of  Nevers  at  Paris,  on  account  of  the  fierccne*w  of  the 
loriun;.  under  wbii-li  he  understoo<I  that  three  of  his  comrades, 
Gantior,  Henri,  and  Phant«lonp.  hnd  diwi.  Bernard  do  Vado,  a 
priest,  had  boon  tortnml  by  fire  applied  to  the  soles  of  the  feel  to 
aacU  an  extent  that  a  few  days  aftenvaitla  the  bones  of  his  heels 
dropped  out,  in  t4'stimony  of  which  he  exhil>itiMi  the  hones.  Nine- 
teen brethren  from  Purigord  had  confessed  before  the  BiRht)p  of 
J^igonl  through  torture  and  sturvation — one  of  t!iem  had  >x«n 
kept  for  six  months  on  bread  and  water,  witliout  shoes  or  uppw 
clothing.  Ouillsnme  d'Err/^,  when  brought  befort!  the  Bishop  of 
SaintcH.  had  denied  all  the  charges,  but  after  I>eing  put  on  bread 
and  water  and  thi-eatened  with  torture,  had  eonfessetl  to  renounc- 
ing rhrifrt  and  splitting  at  the  cross — n  confession  which  he  now 
retracts.  Thomas  de  Pamplona,  under  many  tortures  inflicted  on 
him  at  8t.  Jean  d'Angely,  had  confirmed  the  confession  made  by 
lie  .Molflv,  and  then,  npnn  being  put  upon  bread  and  water,  had 
ooafesaed  bufore  the  Bishop  of  Saintes  to  spitting  at  the  ctobs.  aU 
of  which  ho  now  retracts.    These  instances  might  be  multiplied 


J 


I 


hadUie  hardihood  to  incur  the  risk  of  raariyr^ 
withilrawinp^  thoir  confessions.  Indeed,  in 
unpressed  on  llie  friendless  and  defenceless 
condemn  those  who  yielded,  and  can  only  od- 
of  Uiose  who  endured  the  torture  and  braved 
of  the  Order.  What  was  the  general  feeling 
roioed  by  Aymun  de  liarbani,  who  had  thrice 
ami  had  for  nine  weeks  heen  kept  ou  bread  and 
ttk  pibfnlly  said  that  he  had  suffered  in  body  and  soul, 
ta  Willi liif^  his  confession,  he  would  not  do  so  as  long  as 
nwo.  The  mental  struggles  which  the  poor  creatures 
^«  w^l  illustrated  by  Jean  de  (domicile,  Preceptor  of 
who  when  brought  before  the  commission  hesitated  and 
W(  desctrilie  the  ceremonies  at  his  own  reception*  though 
Uwt  he  had  seen  nothing  wrong  at  the  reception  of 
TW  recollection  of  the  tortures  which  he  had  endured  in 
whi^  he  had  lust  four  teeth,  completely  unnerved  him, 
te  Wg9^  t^  have  time  for  consideration.  Ho  was  given 
L  A*  next  day,  and  when  he  n^appeare^l  hifi  resolution  had 
down.  He  confessed  the  whole  catalogue  of  villainies ;  and 
^^1^  tAitd  if  he  had  consulted  any  one,  denied  it,  but  said  that 
^  Wi  nqncsted  a  priest  to  say  for  him  a  mass  of  the  Uoly  Ghost 
^ac  God  might  direct  him  what  to  do.* 

fWae  instances  will  illustrate  the  nature  of  the  work  in  which 
lA*  viiole  episcopate  of  Franco  was  engaged  during  the  remainder 
Mrifettjcar  1308  and  through  1309  and  I3!0.  All  this,  however, 
«iaoenied  merely  the  members  of  the  Order  as  individuals.  The 
^le  of  tiio  Templar  possessions  depended  u)>on  the  judgment  to 
to  mndercd  on  the  Order  as  a  lK>dy  corponite,  and  for  this  pur- 
pose Clement  had  assigned  for  it  a  day  ou  ivhich  it  was  to  appear 
bT  its  syndics  and  procurators  before  the  Council  of  Vienne,  to 
pot  in  its  defence  and  show  cause  why  it  should  not  be  abolished. 
Seeing  that  the  olHcers  and  mcniliers  were  scattered  in  prison 
througliout  Kuro[>o,  this  was  a  manifest  impossibility,  and  some 
method  was  impt^rativoly  required  by  which  they  could,  at  least 
oonstruuiivoly,  he  represented,  if  only   to  hoar  their  sentence. 


•  IlAjiwUBrd,  pp.  5S-a,  _  IVwt*,  I  40.  75,  230,  608-9,  fll  1-14,  620-1,  6a7-a ; 


TUE   TEMFLAns.  SBV 

Among  the  bulls  of  August  12,  1308,  tbereforo,  there  was  one 
cn^titii^  a  rutnniLssiun,  with  the  Archhishup  nf  NarlHiniie  at  lis 
head,  amhoi-iw'il  to  summon  before  it  all  the  Toinplars  of  France, 
to  examine  them,  and  to  report  the  result.  Subsequent  bulls  of 
May,  13'J^,  dircctoil  the  commission  to  set  to  work,  and  notified 
Pbihppe  conocniing  It.  August  8,  1309,  the  cominlssioD  assem- 
in  the  abbey  of  Sainte-Genevieve,  and  by  letters  addresseii 
to  all  the  archbishope  of  the  kingdom  cited  all  Templars  to  a]> 
peaJ*  before  them  on  the  first  working-day  after  Martinmas,  and 
le  Order  itself  to  appear  by  its  syndics  and  pi-ocnrators  at  the 
Council  of  Viemie,  to  receive  such  sentence  aa  God  should  decree. 
On  the  appointed  day,  Noveml>er  12,  the  wjiimiissioners  reassem- 
bled, but  no  Templars  appearetl.  For  a  week  they  met  daily,  and 
daily  the  forui  w&s  gone  through  of  a  proclamation  by  the  ap- 
paritor that  if  any  one  wished  to  appear  for  the  Order  or  its  mem- 
bers the  commiffiion  was  ready  to  listen  to  him  kindly,  but  with- 
out result.  On  examining  the  replies  of  the  prelates  they  were 
found  to  have  imiwrfoctly  fuIHIled  their  duty.  Philippe  evident- 
ly regarded  the  whole  proceeding  wiUi  distrust,  and  was  not  in- 
cline<i  to  aid  it.  A  somewhat  peremptory  communication  on  No- 
vember IS  was  addretised  to  the  Bishop  of  Paris,  explaining  that 
their  procewlings  were  not  against  indi^ndiials,  but  against  the 

E whole  Order;  that  no  one  was  to  he  forced  to  appear,  but  that  all 
who  so  chose  must  be  allowed  to  come.  This  brought  the  bishop 
before  them  on  November  22,  with  explanations  and  a|Hjlogies; 
and  a  summons  to  Philippe  de  ^'ohet  and  Jean  de  Jamville,  the 
papfil  and  royal  ciistodiatiu  of  the  Templars,  brought  those  officials 
to  promise  obedience.  Vet  the  obstacles  to  the  performance  of 
their  taak  did  not  disappear.  On  the  2&f]  they  were  secretly  in- 
formed that  some  pereon»  had  come  to  Paris  in  lay  garments  to 
defend  the  Onler,  and  had  been  tlirown  in  prison.  Thereupon 
they  sent  for  Jpim  dc  Plublaveh,  j!>rr')v;(  of  the  ('hfltelet,  who  said 
that  by  royal  order  ho  had  aiTestetl  seven  men  said  to  Iw  Tem- 
plars in  disguise,  who  had  come  with  raouey  to  engage  advocates 
in  defonoo  of  the  Order,  but  on  torturing  two  of  them  he  had 
found  this  not  to  ho  the  case.  The  matter  proved  to  lie  of  little 
Mgnificance  except  :tg  manife»!ting  llie  pui-pose  of  the  king  to  ooa- 
Irol  tlie  action  of  the  commi.sfiion.* 

•  Jonnn.  dc  8.  Viciop  (Btmijuct,  XXL  G51 1.— Procfie.  1. 1  -31. 

m.— 19 


290 


POLITICAL  HERESY.-TnE  STATE 


At  length  tho  commission  succeeded  in  aocuiinfr  the  presence 
of  de  Mola\\  of  lluf^ea  de  i*enin<l,  and  o£  some  o£  the  brethren 
oonfinc'l  in  f^nris.  Do  Molay  said  lie  was  not  wiso  and  learned 
onoUf^ii  to  dt^rend  tlic  Order,  but  be  would  bold  himself  vilo  and 
miserable  if  be  did  not  nttempt  it.  Yet  be  was  a  prisoner  and 
pennilesB ;  he  bad  not  four  deniers  to  3}H.>tid,  and  only  a  poor  serv- 
ing brother  with  whom  to  advise ;  he  prayed  to  have  aid  and  coun- 
sel, and  be  would  do  bis  best.  The  eomniisai oners  reminded  him 
that  trials  for  bcresy  were  not  conducted  according  to  legal  forms, 
that  lulvocatcs  were  niU  admitted,  and  they  cnntioned  him  as  to 
the  risk  he  incumxl  in  defending  the  Order  after  tlic  confession 
which  ho  had  made.  Kindly  they  read  over  to  bim  the  report  of 
tho  cardinnlsaji  to  bis  confoKsioii  at  Cbinon;  and  on  bis  manifest- 
ing indignation  and  astonislmicnt,  Guillaume  do  Plaisian,  who 
soems  to  have  been  watching  the  proceedings  on  the  part  of  the 
king,  gave  bim,  us  we  have  airuady  seen,  another  friendly  caution 
which  clotied  bis  lips.  Jle  asked  for  delay,  and  when  be  rcap> 
peared  Qaillaume  de  Nogaret  was  there  to  take  advantage  of  any 
imprudence.  Fi-om  the  |>a{>al  letters  which  had  t>een  read  to  bim 
he  leanied  ihat  the  jwim*  bad  rcst'rveil  him  and  ibc  other  chiefs  of 
the  Order  for  special  judgment,  and  he  therefore  asked  to  liare 
the  opiwrtunity  of  ai)pearing  before  the  papal  tribunal  without 
delay.  The  sbrewdncss  of  this  device  thus  mode  iLself  apparent. 
It  tte|iarated  the  lemiere  from  the  rest;  do  Molay,  Ungues  do  Po- 
raud,  and  Geoffroi  de  GonneviUe  were  led  to  hope  for  special  con- 
Kidemtion.  and  selliKbly  abandoned  their  folluwere.  As  for  the 
brethren,  their  answers  to  tlie  conmii^ion  were  substantially  that 
of  G^raud  de  Caux — ^he  was  a  uimple  knigbt,  without  horse,  arms, 
or  land  :  be  knew  not  how.  a?id  could  not  defend  tho  Order.* 

Jty  Ibis  timo  l*hilipi>e  seems  to  have  (wen  satisfied  that  no 
harm  could  come  from  the  operations  of  the  commission.  His  op- 
position disap]Ht:ir<>d,  and  he  gi-nciously  lent  tbem  bis  assistanco. 
November  2^S,  a  second  summons  was  sunt  to  the  bishops  tbreiiten- 
ing  them  with  pa)>al  indignation  for  a  continuance  of  their  neglect, 
and.  what  wus  far  more  eflicacdous.  it  was  accompanied  with  orden 
from  riiibppe  directing  his  jailers  to  afford  to  the  episcopal  ofll» 
otals  Mcc^as  to  the  imprisoned  Templars,  while  the  baUlis  wora 


PracM,  I.  98. 89.41^88. 


instruoteU  tn  gend  to  Paris,  under  sure  guard,  all  Templars  desir- 
ing to  dnfend  Ibeir  Order* 

Fel>rnary  3. 1310,  wbs  the  day  named  in  this  new  citation.     By 
tlie  5th  Templars  be^an  to  pour  in,  nearly  all  eager  to  defend 
tii^  Onler.    They  accumulated  unlii  the  coinmisBiun  was  embar- 
iMsed  bow  to  deal  with  thcin,  uml  linally,  on  March  28,  five  hun- 
dK<t  und  forty-iiix  who  had  offered  to  defend  were  itSHtiinbled  in 
(be  garden  of  tho  epiflcoptti  palace,  whore  tlie  cointnissionorH  ex- 
plained to  thom  what  was  proposed,  and  Hu^gcsted  that  they 
ibould  nominfite  six  or  eight  or  u^n  of  their  number  to  act  as  pro- 
curators; tbey  would  not  again  hare  an  opportunity  of  meeting. 
.tml  llie  Commission  would  pniceed  on  the  Slat,  hot  th«  procum- 
(ura  :«hould  have  access  Co  them  in  their  several  pHsone,  and  should 
a^^reti  with  tbera  ns  to  what  defence  should  bo  otTenxl.     A  pro- 
xuiscnnoa  crowd,  whose  differcnctse  of  dialect  renderod  intennm- 
•nontcation  Imposiiible,  abandoned  by  their  nataral  leaders  and 
thus  suddenly  brought  together,  was  not  fitted  for  deliberation 
on  so  delicnto  an  emergency.    Many  hesitat'Cd  about  acting  with- 
out orders  from  the  Master,  for  all  initintivo  on  the  |Mirt  of  snh- 
«3rdioKtM  was  strictly  forbidden  by  the  Kule.    The  commissioners 
ae<iUi  to  have  been  sincerely  deairous  of  getting  the  mattoj'  into 
ecMue  sort  of  shape,  and  finally,  on  the  31st.  they  ordered  their 
'Siotarica  to  viiiit  tlio  houses  in  which  the  Templars  were  confined 
ziitd   report  their  wishes  and  coucliuiions.    This  was  a  process 
voc|niring  time,  and  the  reports  of  the  notaries  after  making 
their  daily  rounds  arc  pitiful  enough.    Tho  wretched  pri*>ners 
"fiuunderdd  helplessly  when  called  upon  to  resolve  ;is  to  thoir 
action.    Ifoet  of  them  declared  the  Order  to  bo  pure  and  hdy, 
lint  knew  not  what  to  do  in  the  absence  of  their  superiors. 
Thtre  was  a  genenil  clamor,  often  on  bonded  knees,  for  reailuiis- 
flton  to  tlio  sacraments.    Many  begged  to  lie  assured  that  when 
ley  died  they  should  bo  buried  in  consecrated  ground ;  others 
fered  to  pay  for  a  chaplain  out  of  the  miserable  allowance  doled 
them  i  some  asked  that  tho  allowance  bo  increasoi].  nthers  that 
r  should  have  clothes  to  cover  their  nakcdnpss.    They  were 
jnt  in  the  impossible  rcfjuest  that  they  should  liave  experts 
'uul  learned  men  to  advise  with  and  appear  for  them,  for  they 


•  Proc*«,  I.  47 -as. 


293 


POLITICAL    HEBEBT— THE    STATE 


were  simple  and  illiterate,  chained  in  prison  and  nnable  to  act;  and 
they  farther  begged  that  security  shuuld  be  given  to  witneGses,  aa 
oU  who  had  confessed  wurt^  ibreatened  with  burning  if  they  should 
retract.  A  paper  presented  April  4t  by  those  coniined  in  the  house 
of  the  Abbot  uf  Tirott  is  eloquent  in  its  suggestivencss  as  to  their 
troatiueDt,  for  the  housoe  in  which  they  were  quartered  had  appar. 
ently  taken  them  on  speculation.  They  aascrt  the  purity  of  the 
Order  and  their  readiness  to  defend  it  as  nrell  as  men  can  who  are 
fettored  in  jirison  and  pass  the  night  in  dark  fosses.  They  further 
complain  of  the  insufficiency  of  their  allowance  of  twelve  deniers 
a  day,  for  they  pay  three  deniers  each  per  day  for  their  beds ;  for 
hire  of  kitchim,  najwry,  and  clotlis.  two  sols  sijt  dt^uient  per  week  ; 
two  sola  for  tjiking  off  and  replacing  their  fetters  when  they 
appear  before  the  commission ;  for  washing,  eighteen  deniers  a 
fortnight ;  wood  ami  candles,  four  deniers  a  day,  and  ferriage  acrues 
from  Xutre  Dume,  sixteen  deniers.  It  is  evident  that  the  poor 
creatures  wore  exploited  relentlessly.* 

The  outcome  of  the  matter  was  that  on  April  7  nine  repre- 
sentatives presented  a  paper  in  the  name  of  all,  declaring  that 
without  authority  from  the  Master  and  Convent  they  could  not 
appoint  procurators,  but  they  offer  themselves  one  and  all  in 
defence  of  the  Order,  and  ask  to  be  present  at  the  c-ouncil  or  wher- 
ever it  is  on  trial.  They  declare  the  charges  to  be  iiorrible  and 
impossible  lies  fabricatttl  by  apostates  and  fugitives  expt'lled  for 
criiue  from  the  Order,  confirmed  by  torturing  those  who  uphold 
the  truth,  and  encouraging  liai-s  with  recompenses  ami  great  prom- 
ises. It  is  wonderful,  they  say,  to  see  greater  faith  rejiosed  in 
those  corrupted  thus  by  worldly  advantage  than  in  those  who^ 
like  the  martyrs  of  Christ,  have  died  in  torture  with  the  palm  of 
martynlom,  and  in  tlie  living  who,  for  conscience'  sake,  have  suf- 
fered and  daily  suffer  in  their  dungeons  so  many  torments,  tribula- 
tions, and  misenefi.  In  the  universal  teiTtsr  prevailing  they  pray 
that  when  the  brethren  are  examinoil  there  may  bo  present  no 
la5Tnen  or  others  whom  they  may  fear,  and  that  security  may  be 


'  P^lK■^«,  1. 103-51.— It  must  \k  bome  in  niin<l  tliat  tlie  Mllnwaocc  wm  in  tbc 
fe&rfally  dcbaacd  currency  nf  PblUppe  1c  Bel.  According  to  ndoruiiicntonSlS 
Uio  livrc  Tournois  slill  wan  to  tlie  eterlin^  pound  as  1  to  -I-J  (Oliin,  III.  1279). 

Other  Tf inplura  sabsotjufntly  ofTcired  to  defend  tbc  Order,  malting  Uve  huo- 
dred  and  sevvoty-threc  up  to  May  'i. 


Assured  them,  for  all  who  bare  confessed  are  daily  threatened  with 

burning  if  they  retract.     In  reply  tlio  eominissioners  diBavowed 

responsibility  for  their  ill  usage,  and  promised  to  ask  that  they  be 

iiiimanely  treated  in  accordance  with  tlie  orders  of  the  Cardinal 

oi  Faleslrina,  to  whom  they  had  been  committe<l  by  the  pope. 

"X'tie  Grand  Master,  they  added,  hiul  been  urged  to  defend  the 

Order,  but  had  tieclined,  an<i  claimc<l  that  he  was  reserved  for  the 

t>ope.» 

Having  thus  given  the  Tcmpiars  a  nominal  opportunity  for 
defoncc,  the  commissioners  proceo<Ie<i  to  take  testimony,  appoint- 
^Tig  four  of  the  representatives,  Itenaud  de  Provins,  Preceptor  of 
dDrleaJis^  Fierro  do  lioutogno,  procurator  of  tho  Order  in  the  pajwil 
<3<jurt.  and  (JeolTroi  de  ('hamlmnnet  and  Bertrand  de  Sartiges, 
l^uig'hta,  to  be  present  at  the  swearing  of  the  witnesses,  and  to  do 
^^nrbat  might  be  requimte  without  oonstitnting  them  fonnal  defend- 
ers of  the  Order.    These  four  on  April  13  presented  another  ]>aper 
in  which,  after  allnding  to  the  tortures  employed  to  extort  oonfes- 
^cions,  they  stated  it  to  be  a  uotoriuus  fact  tliat  to  obtain  testimony 
^rom  Templars  sealed  royal  letters  bad  been  given  them  promising 
them  liberty  and  large  pensions  for  life,  and  telling  them  that  the 
Order  was  {permanently  abolished.    This  was  evidently  intended 
A8  a  protest  to  |kivo  the  way  for  disiil)ling  the  adverse  witnesses, 
xvbich,  as  we  have  seen,  was  the  only  defence  in  the  inquisitorial 
process,  and  with  the  same  object  they  aUo  asked  for  the  names  of 
all  witneases.    They  did  not  venture  to  ask  for  a  copy  of  the  evi- 
dence, but  they  earnestly  retjuestwl  that  it  should  lie  kept  secret, 
to  avert  the  danger  that  might  otherwise  threaten  the  witnesses. 
Subject  to  the  interruptiun  of  the  Easter  solemnities,  testimony, 
mostly  adverse  to  the  Order,  continnod  to  ho  taken  up  to  May  9, 
from  witnesses  apjNirenlly  CArefully  selcctwl  for  tho  purjKiso.    On 
8-unday,  May  10.  tho  eymmissioners  wore  suddenly  called  together, 
at  the  request  of  lienaud  de  Provins  and  bis  collejigues,  to  receive 
the  startling  announcement  that  the  ]*roviTicinl  f  "ouncil  of  Sens, 
n-hich  bad  been  hastily  assembled  at  Paris,  ]>roposed  to  prosecute 
idl  the  Templars  who  had  offered  to  defend  the  Order.    Most  of 
these  had  previously  confessed ;  they  had  heroically  taken  their 
lives  in  their  hands  when,  by  asserting  the  purity  of  the  Order, 


-  Procta,  1.  HMV-78. 


^ 


POLITICAL    nEREST.-THE   STATE. 


'1 


they  hftd  coostractively  reroked  their  eoofeeaions.    Th«   fc 
Tcnpbn  tlisreforc  appealed  to  the  eommisaioncrs  for  protection 
am  the  action  of  ibi-'  Liiuncil  ^voultl  fatally  interfere  with  the  wor] 
ia  hand;  they  (lemaaded  np^ut/tli^  and  that  their  persons  at 
hgfata  and  the  whole  Order  should  he  placed  under  the  ^tardial 
sfei^of  the  Holy  •:^ee.aDd  time  aiul  inonoy  he  allowed  to  prosecut 
the  appeal.    They  further  asked  the  oommissioneni  to  notify  the 
Archbishop  of  Sens  to  take  no  action  while  the  present  examinar 
tion  was  ia  progress,  and  that  they  be  sent  before  him  with  one 
two  notaries  to  make  a  protc6L,as  they  can  find  no  one  who  dai 
to  draw  up  such  an  instrument  for  tliem.    The  commission 
were  sorely  perjilexed  and  debated  the  matter  until  evening,  when" 
they  recalleil  the  Templars  to  say  that  nhile  they  heartily  cota-. 
pasaionated  them  tbey  could  do  nothing,  for  the  Archbishop 
Sens  and  the  council  were  acting  under  powers  delegated  by  tl 
p<^.* 

Il  was  no  part  of  PhiUppe's  policy  (o  allow  the  Order  ani 
opportunity  to  be  beard.  The  sudden  rally  of  nearly  six  hum 
members,  after  their  chiefs  had  been  skilfully  detached  fr 
thorn,  and  their  preparatiuiis  for  defence  at  the  approaching  coui 
eil  promised  a  struggle  which  he  proceeded  U>  crush  at  the  outset 
with  his  customary  unscrupulous  onerg)'.  The  opjiortunity  was 
fuvuraljle,  for  after  long  effort  he  hud  just  obtained  from  Clemen^— 
the  archbishopric  of  Sens  (of  which  Paris  was  a  suffragan  se4^| 
for  a  youthful  creature  of  his  own,  Phihppe  de  Marigny.  brother 
of  bis  minister  Knguemind.  who  took  possession  of  the  dignity 
only  on  A|»ril  5.  The  bull  Facims  miaerii'^rdiani  had  prescribed 
that,  after  the  bishops  had  completed  their  inquests,  pixirjncial 
councils  were  to  be  called  to  sit  m  judgment  on  the  individnal 
brethren.  In  pursaance  of  tliis.  the  king  ihrough  his  archbishops 
,was  master  of  the  situation.  ProvinclaJ  councils  were  suddenly 
called,  that  for  8eus  to  meet  at  I'aris.  for  ICeims  at  i^entis,  for 
Normandy  at  Pont  de  I'Arche.  and  for  Narbunne  at  (Carcassonne, 
and  a  demonstration  was  orgnnixed  which  should  paralyse  at  once 
and  forever  all  thought  of  further  opposition  to  his  will.  No  time 
was  wasted  in  any  prelonco  of  judicial  pmceedings,  for  the  canon 
Uiw  provided  that  relapse4t  hcroticB  wore  to  be  ooQdemned 


Pn>c«a,  L  173.  Ml-4, 95»-$4. 


THE   TEHPLARS.  Mf 

^Xt  a  hearing.  On  the  1  Lth  the  Council  of  Sens  wait  oi>eiied  &t 
On  Uiu  I'illi,  white  the  comtnissiuners  wrrt'  cnj^^^agi.Ml  in 
testimony.  vron\  was  bmi^jlil  them  tbal  lifty-four  nf  those 
~^h<t  haA  otft<Tod  to  defend  the  Order  had  been  oondenmtKl  as  re- 
^psiil  lirrt'ties  fur  rutractiiig  Ibeir  cunfeBsiuns,  and  were  to  bo 
latiHxl  thiit  day.  lla.<iti)y  they  wnt  to  the  coonoil  Philippe  de 
Tohet,the  pufiiilcuaUHtian  of  the  Templars,  and  Amis,  Archdeacon 
-<i  Orleans,  tu  ask  for  delay.  Voliet,  they  aaid,  aniL  many  othiars 
juierted  tliat  the  Templara  who  died  in  prison  dwlflr^l  i»n  peril 
of  Uieir  sunlft  that  tlie  crimes  alleg&d  were  false;  Uenaud  de 
PniTins  and  his  n^cogues  liod  apjtealnd  before  them  from  Uie 
conncil;  if  the  propose<l  exeeations  took  placx*  the  functions  of  the 
conumaAou  would  bu  impeded,  for  the  witneaseti  tbat  day  and  the 
day  liefore  were  crazetl  with  terror  aiid  wholly  utiHt  to  give  evi- 
dence. The  envoys  hurried  to  the  conned  hall,  where  they  were 
treate<l  with  contempt  and  told  that  it  was  intpossible  that  the 
commission  exiuld  have  sent  such  a  measa^^  Tlie  Qfty-four 
martyrs  were  piled  in  wagons  and  carriud  to  the  fields  near  the 
convent  of  S.  Antoine,  wliore  ihcy  wore  slowly  torttiroil  to  liwitli 
with  fire,  refusing  all  olfcrs  of  pardon  lor  confession,  and  manifest- 
ing a  oonstancy  which,  as  a  oontemporery  tells  us,  placed  their 
souls  in  great  peril  of  damnation,  for  it  led  the  people  into  the 
error  of  believing  them  innocent.  The  council  continued  its  work, 
md  a  few  days  later  burned  four  more  Templars,  so  that  if  there 
wera  any  who  still  proposed  to  defend  the  Order  they  might 
recognize  what  woidd  be  their  fate.  It  oi-dered  the  bones  of  Jean 
do  Touiiie,  former  treasui^r  of  the  Temple,  to  be  ejchunied  and 
horaed;  those  who  confessed  and  adhorcd  to  their  confesgions 
were  reooncUed  to  the  Ctiurub  and  hlwrated ;  those  who  persisted 
in  refusing  to  confess  were  eondenitiod  to  perpetual  pristin.  This 
was  rather  more  humane  than  the  rvgnlar  inquisitorial  pructioe, 
bat  it  suited  the  royal  policy  of  the  moment.  A  few  weeks  later, 
at  Senlis^  the  Ooancil  of  Keims  burned  nine  more;  at  Pont  de 
I'Arcbe  throe  were  burned,  and  a  number  at  Carcassonne.* 


"  Fisqiiet.  L.1  Fninr«'  PimtiGciili',  Henii,  p,  G8,— Pnicf«,  I.  2(4-B,  S81- — Cootit. 
Chmn. 0.  dc  PrnvhetofBmifinet,  XXI.  »8>.— Cbron.  Anon. (Bouquet,  XXI.  140).  - 
&Bi«>r.  Angvr.  UM.  I'ontif.  (Bri-itnl  Tl-  1.S10).-.Tnlh4>iii,  nimtn.  HireaitR.  adu. 
I30;  — Bern.  Ouldou.  Flitr.  Clinm.  (B»uquet,  XXI.  71D).~JiMnD.  de  S.  Victiir 


I  POLITICAL   HERESY— THE    STATS. 

This  ferocioDS  expedient  acconiplialietl  its  puriwse.  When,  on 
t  «Ib>'  after  the  executions  ai  I'aris,  May  1-1,  the  commisgion 
ita  session,  the  lirst  witness,  Aijiiery  tie  ViUierSj  threw 
If  on  his  knees,  pale  and  dosporately  friglitened ;  beating  his 
and  stretching  forth  his  hands  to  the  altar,  he  invoked  snd- 
1  death  and  perdition  to  body  and  soul  if  ho  hwl.  He  declared 
aU  the  crimes  iui]>uttMl  to  the  Order  were  false,  altliough  he 
M.  under  tortupo,  confessed  to  soiae  of  them.  When  he  heui  yes- 
taiday  seen  his  fifty-four  brethren  carrieti  in  wagons  to  be  burned, 
a*d  heard  that  they  hud  been  burned,  he  felt  that  he  could  not 
Mdnre  it  and  would  fonfess  to  the  commissioneiM  or  to  any  one 
■In  whatever  might  be  required  of  him,  eren  that  he  had  slain  the 
[lOrd.  In  conclusion  he  utljured  the  commissioners  and  the  notar 
lin  not  to  reveal  what  he  hail  said  to  his  jailers,  or  to  the  royai 
officials,  for  he  would  be  burned  like  the  fifty-fonr.  Then  a  pre- 
vious witness.  Jean  Itertmnd,  came  before  the  cuminission  to  sup- 
plicate that  his  de]>osition  be  kept  secret  on  account  of  the  danger 
impending  over  him.  Seeing  all  this,  the  commission  felt  that 
during  this  general  terror  it  would  be  wise  to  suspend  its  sittings, 
and  it  did  so.  It  met  again  on  the  18th  to  reclaim  fruitlessly  from 
the  Archbishop  of  Sens,  Renaud  de  Proving,  who  had  been  put  on 
trial  before  tho  council.  Pierre  de  Boulogne  wa«  likewise  snatched 
away  and  couhl  not  be  obtained  again.  Many  of  the  I'emplars 
who  hail  olTered  to  defend  the  Order  made  lia^ito  to  withdraw,  and 
all  effort  to  provide  for  it  an  organized  hearing  before  the  Council 
of  Vienne  was  pei-force  abandoned.  Whether  Clemeut  was  privy 
to  this  high-handed  interruption  of  the  functions  of  his  conimi»iion 
is  i)erha]>8  doubtful,  but  ho  did  nothing  to  rehabilitate  it.  and  bis 
quiescence  reudei-ed  him  an  accomplice.     Ue  had  only  succeeded 


(Bouquet,  XXL  0<')4~Aa).— Contin.  Oiull.  Nangtac.  ano.  1310.— Or&udes 
alques,  V.  187.— Ctirun.  Corn<-L  Zantfliot  unn.  1910  (Mnrti^nv  Ampl.  Coll.  V.  168).— 
Bossin,  Concil.  nntnmagcns.  p.  iii. — Itayiiouard.  pp.  118-20. 

It  WHS  not  all  biftliopN  wlio  wen'  rwnily  to  nccwpt  tli«  inqiiimtorial  doctrine 
that  revocation  of  con fi-a-tion  wma  equivnlcnl  to  rclaps<>.  The  question  waa  di»- 
caued  io  the  Cuuucit  of  NarbonaG  and  decided  id  the  negative. — BayaoQ&rd, 

Tb«  number  of  thoto  wlio  rcftiscd  to  confeae  woi  Dot  ItLei^ni&cant  Some' 
pttpcni  ropi'ctiitg  Lite  expcnsfrs  af  detc&tinn  of  Templars  at  SenlU  iloMcribc  lixtjr- 
flve  aa  not  recondled,  wUo  tbordum  cunuot  liavti  coofeesed, — lb.  p.  107. 


Chi^H 
58).-     ] 


nw    " 


in  bt'traying  to  a  fier}'  denth  the  luckless  wretches  whom  he  bad 
lanpted  to  come  forwanl.* 

On  April  4,  by  the  bull  A/ma  Mater,  CXemiint  hwl  postponed 
tHe  Council  of  Vienne  from  October,  1310,  uatU  October,  1311,  in 
Cffflsequcnce  of  the  inquisition  against  the  Temi>lai^  rcijuiring  mora 
lime  than  had  been  expected.  Thi're  was,  tht'n'ftn-e,  no  necessity 
ftrr  baete  on  the  part  of  the  cotnniission.  anil  it  a<ljonmed  until 
^orembur  3.  Its  membere  were  long  in  getting  together,  and  it 
^d  not  resume  its  sessions  until  December  IT.  Then  Guillaunia 
lie  Chambonnct  and  Itertrand  de  Sartigos  were  brought  Ijefore  it, 
when  they  prot«8ted  that  they  could  not  act  for  the  Order  ^ritliout 
theaiil  of  licnamlde  Prorina  and  Pierre  4lo  Ifoulogne.  These,  the 
commission  informcfl  them,  had  solemnly  renounce<l  the  defence 
_  of  the  Order,  had  returned  to  their  first  confessions,  and  had  been 
^B  Dondemned  to  perpetual  impris<mmnnt  by  the  (Muncil  of  Sens^ 
^H  flJter  which  Pierre  had  broken  jail  and  tied.  The  two  knights 
^H  Vere  offered  permission  to  be  present  at  the  swearing  of  the  wit- 
^B  Aesses,  with  opportunity  to  file  exceptions,  but  they  declared  them- 
^^  selves  unfitted  for  the  lask  and  retirwl.  Thus  all  pretence  of 
affording  the  Order  a  chance  to  be  heard  was  abandoned,  and  the 
substiqueiit  proceedings  of  the  commission  became  merely  an  ete 
fMtrte  accumulation  of  a<lverao  testimony.  Tt  sat  until  June,  in- 
Uustrinusly  hearing  the  witnesses  brought  Iiefore  it;  but  as  thofte 
>*-ere  selected  by  Philip|>e  de  Vohet  and  Jean  de  JamviUe,  care 
*va8  evidently  taken  as  to  the  character  of  the  evidence  that  should 
fr-iLch  it.  Most  of  the  witnesses,  in  fact,  had  been  reconciled  to 
t:l»e  Church  through  confession,  abjuration,  and  absolution,  and  no 
loQj^r  belonged  to  the  Order  vvtLieh  tliey  bad  abandoned  to  its 
fate.  Among  the  larg*!  number  of  Templars  who  liad  refused  to 
Confess,  only  a  few,  and  these  apparently  by  accident,  were  allowed 
to  appear  Iwforo  it.  There  wei-e  also  a  few  who  dared  to  i-elract 
what  they  had  stated  before  the  bisliops,  hut  with  these  slender  ex- 
jCeptions  all  the  evidence  was  adverse  to  tlie  Order.  In  fact,  it 
frequently  happened  that  witnesses  were  sworn  who  never  reu|>- 
pcared  to  ^ve  their  testimony,  ajid  that  this  was  not  accidental  is 
rendered  probable  by  the  fact  that  Renaud  de  Provins  was  one  of 
these.    Finally,  on  June  5,  the  coiumiasiou  closed  its  labors  and 


•  Proc**,  !.  S75-88. 


2»8 


POLITICAL  HEREST.— THE  STATE. 


transmitter!  without  comment  to  Clement  its  records  an  part  of 
the  itrnteriii)  i<j  guiiiu  the  jud^iuetit  uf  the  afiMmbled  Church  at 
the  (JounclLuf  Vieoiie.* 


fi«fore  proceeding  to  the  iast  scene  of  the  drama  at  Tienne,  it 
is  neoewairy  to  consider  briefly  the  action  taken  with  the  Tomplars 
ouiHide  of  Krince.  In  Knji^land,  Edward  II.,  on  Odxiber  3<i,  1307, 
replied  to  Philippe's  announcement  of  October  lU,  to  the  effect 
that  ho  and  Im  cuuncil  have  ^ven  the  must  earnest  attention  to 
th(3  matter;  it  has  ciLiised  the  greatest  aiituut»hiuent,and  iu  so 
abominable  us  tu  be  irell-nigh  incretlible,  and,  to  obtain  fui'ther  m- 
furmation.  he  liati  sent  for  his  Senesdiul  of  A^n.  Su  sli-uiio;  wens 
hiseoiiYJi'lionii  and  no  eamo^t  his  desii-e  to  iirott>ct  the  tJirtNatened 
Order  that  on  Deconibor  +  he  wrote  to  the  Kings  of  Portugal,  Cas- 
tile, Aragon,  and  Nafdeb  that  the  accusntiooB  must  pi-oceed  from 
cupidity  and  envy,  and  begging  thorn  to  shut  their  eara  to  detrac- 
tion and  do  nothing  %vithout  deliberation,  so  that  an  Order  so  dis* 
tinguisbed  for  purity  and  honor  shoidd  not  be  molested  until 
luj^ilimately  convicted.  Not  content  with  this,  on  the  10th  he  re- 
plied tu  Olemeut  that  the  reputation  of  the  TeniplarM  in  Kngbtnd 
for  purity  and  faith  i%  such  that  he  caimot,  without  further  proof, 
beUeve  tlie  terrible  nimors  about  them,  and  ho  begs  the  ]xipe  to 
resist  the  caliimnips  of  onrioua  and  wickeil  mnn.  Id  a  few  days, 
however,  he  received  Clement's  bull  of  November  32,  and  could 
no  longer  doubt  the  fiicts  asserted  by  the  head  of  Christendom. 
He  hastened  to  oliey  its  coinmandH.  and  on  the  15th  rialwrate 
oitiers  were  already  prepared  and  sent  out  to  aU  the  sheriffa  in 
England,  with  minute  instructions  to  ca[)ture  all  the  Templars  on 
Juimary  10.  1308,  iucludiiig  dirm-liuna  aa  to  the  setpieBtnition  and 
(.liaposition  of  their  proiierty,  and  this  was  foUowed  on  the  20th  by 

•Wrluir.  VTT.  1334,— Proo*<»,l.  284-7;  IT.'R-4,  a69-.?a— ■RajiKiii»rtI.  ppt 
234^. — A  nntarint  Atte^itAtion  dcKorihes  the  voluminoiis  record  tu  consisting  of 
210  fiilioB  whli  forty  lirrt  \o  the  puRP,  pi)iiivi»l*nt  tn  IT.fiSO  linw, 

Hotr  cloM  «  wnu'U  wiu  k«pt  on  the  wit»eiinp-»  b  ^en  ia  the  case  oftlu^c, 
Mmin  dc  Muut  Kicltaril,  Jean  I>umoc),unLl  Jena  de  Haanv,  who,  dq  March  SS, 
iWBen4:>J  Ukcil  itic;  knew  of  no  ovil  in  the  Order.  Tva  dajv  Utcr  ibej  are 
bmuglit  tuiifk  to  fii^'  thiLt  lh<:y  hb<l  lii^d  llirou^h  Tolly.  WI]«o  tMruru  ttieir 
hishops  Xhcy  lind  confi'Mcd  to  renouncing  and  spilling,  and  it  «aa  true.  Whiit 
pcr*ti»ftiou»  wvru  applied  tu  tbuui  during  lliu  intvrvul  no  ouu  van  telL — Procte, 
H.  88-08.  I07~fi. 


TOE    TEMI'LAHS. 


S99 


nmilitr  onmmunHR  to  the  English  anthorittes  in  Ireland,  Scotland, 
and  \Viiles.  Possibly  Edwanl's  ini[wnding  vojage  to  Itoiilogno  to 
maiTy  Isabella,  thi;  daughter  uf  Philipi>e  le  Bel,  may  have  had 
flomething  to  do  with  his  tmdden  ohanf^  of  pur]>ose.* 

The  seinire  was  made  accordingly,  and  the  Templars  were  kept 
in  hnnorablo  duninoe,  not  in  prison,  awuitin^i^  ]>apjil  action ;  for 
trherofioems  tohiLvebwn  nodi^ipMBitionon  the  [lart  either  of  ('huroh 
OF  State  to  take  the  initiative.  The  delay  was  long,  for  though 
ooramiNiions  were  issikhI  Augut!t  12,  IJWS.  to  the  pjipMl  inqnisilors, 
fiioard  de  La^'aurand  the  Abbot  of  l.agtiy,they  did  not  Hturt  until 
September,  1300.  and  on  the  18th  of  that  month  tbe  royal  safe- 
coDUuot«  it»u»l  for  thom  show  their  arrival  in  England.  Then  in- 
fitractinns  wore  sent  out  to  arroHt  all  Templars  not  ypt  seized  and 
j^ther  them  together  in  London.  Lincoln,  and  York,  for  the  ex- 
uninations  tt^t  be  held,  and  the  bishops  of  those  sees  wore  strictly 
charged  to  bo  present  tliroughont.  Similar  orders  were  aent  to 
helancl  and  Scotland,  whei-e  the  inquisitors  appitintedilelegiiteft  to 
attend  to  the  matter.  It  apparently  was  not  onsy  t<t  get  the  offi- 
eiald  to  do  their  duty,  for  Deceiiilwr  14  instructions  were  riMpiired 
U>  all  the  sheriffs  to  seixo  the  Templars  who  were  wandering  in 
■ocular  habitA  Ihroughont  the  land,  and  in  the  following  March 
and  again  in  January,  1311,  the  Sheiiff  of  York  wasscolde^l  fural- 
loiring  those  in  his  cnistoily  to  wander  abroad.  Popular  s^tiipalby 
evidently  was  with  the  incul(>atefl  brelhren.f 

At  length,  on  Octol»er  S*),  13<i9,  the  pa|ia]  inqidsitors  and  the 
Bnthop  of  I.ondoti  sat  in  the  episcopal  palaire  to  examine  the  Tem-' 
plars  otdlected  in  London.  Intermgntecl  singly  on  all  the  numer- 
ous articles  of  aocn»ation,  they  all  asserted  the  innocence  of  the 
Order,  Outflide  witncRSf*  were  called  m  who  mostly  declared 
their  belief  to  tbe  same  effect,  tliough  some  gave  expression  to 
theyague  popular  nimors  and  scandalous  stories  8iiggeste<l  by  the 
aeoTdoy  of  proceedings  within  t!ie  Order.  Tbe  Inquisitorfi  were 
nonplussed.  They  hail  como  to  a  txiuntry  whose  laws  did  not  nec- 
ogniKc  the  ose  of  torture,  and  without  it  they  were  po\rerleS8  to 
111  

*  Rymer,  Fceden,  111.  16, 84-7, 48-6. 

t  RfigeHl.  acmenl.  PP.  V.  T.  III.  pp.  SI«,  177.— Rjmer,  Fred.  m.  168-»,  178, 
179-80.  I?t2,  in.1,  SOS-4,  3-14. 

The  puy  w<s]gneit  to  the  In()tiisiton  wiis  three  florins  each  per  dUm,  Lo  be 
taKiKd  OD  tbe  T«iupUr  property  (Ttvgcst.  obi  sup.). 


SOS 


POLITICAL   HERBST.-TnE   8TATB. 


"^ 


icy  of  Philippe  with  completo  success.    A  large  number  of  the 
Ti>mplare  were  burned,  and  he  managed  to  secure  must  of 
pr«i>orty.* 

In  Germany  our  knowledge  of  what  took  place  is  somewhat 
fragmentary.  The  TeuluQic  Unler  afforded  a  career  for  the  (ier- 
maii  eliivaJr.-,  and  tho  Teruplars  wore  by  no  meanu  so  immeruus 
at)  in  Franco,  their  Tute  was  not  ko  dramatic,  and  it  altrai;ted  com- 
paratively little  attention  from  the  chroniclers.  One  annalist  in- 
forms ua  tliat  they  were  destroyed  with  the  assent  of  the  Kmpeixir 
Heni^'  on  act'oimt  of  their  collusion  with  the  i>aiue«nB  in  P:d^- 
tine  anii  Egypt,  and  their  pro))nnttion  for  estJihlishiTig  a  new  em- 
pire for  tlteinselres  among  tho  C'hristians,  which  shows  how  little 
impression  on  the  popular  mini!  wiuj  nmile  by  the  assertion  q^j 
their  heresies.  For  the  most  }>art^  indeed,  tho  action  taken  dl|^| 
pendeil  u|x;ii  the  personal  views  of  the  princely  prelates  who  pi-e- 
aidwi  over  the  ^roat  aruh bishoprics.  liurciiard  111.  of  Magdeburg 
was  the  iirst  to  act.  Obliged  to  vitiit  the  pa|)al  txiurt  in  130T  to 
obtain  the  pallium,  ho  rotumod  in  May,  13(>8,  with  orders  to  seize 
all  the  Templars  in  his  province;  and  as  he  was  already  hostile  to 
them,  he  oljeyod  with  alacrity.  There  were  but  four  booses  in  hia 
territories:  im  theaeand  their  occupants  he  hiid  his  hands,  leading 
to  a  long  series  of  obscure  quarrels,  in  which  he  incurieil  excom- 
munication from  tlie  Ilishop  of  IJalbL^rsludt,  which  (Element  hast- 
ened Co  remove ;  by  burning  some  of  the  more  obstinate  brethren, 
moroover,  ho  involve*!  himself  in  war  with  tboir  kindred,  in  which 
he  fare^:!  InkUv.  As  lute  an  I'dia  the  Hospitallers  are  fimud  com- 
jilaining  to  John  XXII.  that  Tonijdara  were  .still  in  iw}ssp.ssion  of  ■, 
the  gj-eater  ]K>rtioD  of  their  property.f  ^M 

The  bull  Faciena  minefusirdiatn.  of  August,  1308,  sent  to  tl^^ 
^lerman  prelates,  reserved,  with  Clement's  usual  [iulicy,  the  Gi-and 
Precepbor  of  Germany  for  i)ai>al  judgment.     With  the  oxoeption 
of  Magdeburg,  its  instructions  for  active  measures  received  slack 


■  Pmc6»,  II.  267.— Caltnct,  HUt  Oim.  do  limine,  II.  430. 

tr.n^wri  Anna!.  Auyniburgt-OB.  luin.  1318  (Mtokon.  Scriplt.  I.  1473J.— Ti 
•)ii»li  Suri'-w  rnitliC  M»j{iltbur|i;.  nun.  1307-8  (Mi'nkvn.  IH,  SflO}.— Ititynakl.  ftnn. 
1310.  No.  4(1.— Chnm.  E)>i)>c.  Mcnm burdens,  c.  xxrii.  (  2  (Ludewig  IV.  408), — 
Bolliouis  Cliron.  nun.  1311  (Uibnili  III.  a74).— Wiickf.  U.  M^.  24(1,  aW-S.— 
Bc^sL  Cli»iont.  PP.  V.  T.  V.  p.  371.— Scliiuidt,  piibaUicli*  nrkuaOcu  uod  R»- 
gesUQ,  Ilatle,  Itj84.  p.  T7.— llavemaun,  p.  S38. 


CK.       I 


bedisnoa  It  was  not  to  much  puqxKo  that,  on  December  30  of 
tit*?  same  .var,  lie  wrulo  to  tlio  Uuko  of  Austria  to  am»st  nil  the 
'I'empLirs  in  his  dominions,  nnil  conimissionMl  the  Ordinarica  of 
^ainz,  TrC'ves.  (Julufroe.  Mu^lebui^.  Strnssbur^.  and  OonstAnee  tus 
^»ocul1  inquifiitors  within  tln-ir  stn'ural  dtoceoi-s.  while  he  sent  tho 
^Xiihot  of  C'nidiicio  as  in(|uiaitiir  for  tlio  rutU^  of  Gcnnnny,  ordering 
t,be  {>r<*lalc»  u>  pay  him  five  gold  florins  a  day.  It  was  not  tinlil 
1  j£10  Ibat  the  grwil  archbishops  twuld  ho  got  to  work,  and  thon  the 
results  weru  disappointing.  Trt'Vt'S  and  f'ologno,  in  fact,  nmdo 
<»v«r  to  Iturcliard  of  MngdeKorg,  in  i'AU),  their  authority  as  oom- 
xiuKsionera  fur  thu  seizure  of  the  Templar  hinils.  and  Clement  con- 
lirmed  this  with  insinalions  to  pnjt«e<.l  with  vigor.  As  regi\rdB 
tJie  (Jersontf  of  the  Templars,  at  Treves  an  inqnost  waa  held  in 
-wbicb  smenteen  witneKscB  were  beanl,  including  thivu  Templars, 
cuid  resulting  in  tlieir  aniuittal.  At  Mainz  the  Archbishop  Feler, 
1  ^ffho  bad  incurred  Clement's  displeaanro  by  transferring  to  his  siif- 
I  fmgaus  his  powers  as  commissioner  over  the  Templar  |)ro})eity, 
f  ^vas  at  length  forced  to  cidl  a  provincial  conncit,  May  11,  1310. 
^K^ucUIeniy  and  unbidden  tliere  entered  the  Wild-  and  Uheingrnf, 
^Hjl^lugo  of  Salin,  Commaniler  of  Grumhach,  with  twenty  knights 
^Bfully  anued.  There  were  fears  of  Tiuleaoe,  but  the  archbishop 
^^  .(uikeil  Hugo  what  he  had  to  say  :  the  Templar  aaserlwl  the  Inno- 
^_  cencfl  of  tiie  Order ;  tlioao  who  had  Iseon  burned  had  steadfastly 
^^ciooied  the  cjiarg<e8,and  their  truth  liad  been  praved  by  the  crosses 
on  iJieJrmantb^s  remniuing  unimmed — u  miracle  popuhirly  I)elieved, 
wltich  had  much  iufluenee  on  public  opinion.  Me  concltide<l  by 
appoaJiog  to  the  future  pope  and  the  whole  Church,  and  the  arch- 
biahop,  to  escain  a  tumult,  admitted  the  protest.  Clement,  on 
hearing  of  these  procef-dings.  ordered  the  oonnHI  t^n  be  reassembled 
and  to  do  it«  work.  He  was  ol>eye<l.  The  Wildgraf  Frederic  of 
Sftlm,  brother  of  Uugo  and  ilnster  of  tho  lUiino-provincc,  ofTcred 
to  underg<j  the  rod-hot  iron  ordod.  but  it  was  unnecessary.  Fort}*- 
nine  witnesses,  of  whom  thirty -seven  were  Templars,  wore  exam- 
iavdy  and  all  awore  to  the  innocence  of  the  Order.  The  twelve 
Don-Teniplara,  who  were  ]>ersouages  of  distinction,  \vere  ompliatia 
in  their  d«-ln.rntions  in  its  favor.  Among  others,  tlie  Archpriest 
J^nhn  tijstified  that  in  a  time  of  scarcity,  when  the  measui-e  of  corn 
row  f  1*001  three  suU  to  thirty-three,  the  eomniamlery  at  Moslaij-e 
foil  a  thousand  persons  a  day.    I'he  result  was  a  verdict  of  acquit- 


POLITICAL    UEHESY— TUE   BTATE. 

tal,  which  was  so  displensing  to  the  i)ope  that  he  ordered  Burchard 
of  Magfleburg  to  take  the  matter  in  bund  and  bring  it  to  a  more 
satisfactory  conclusion.  Bun-Jianl  seoms  to  have  eagerly  obeyed, 
bnt  the  results  havo  not  reached  us.  Archbishop  Peter  continued 
to  hope  for  some  adjustment,  and  when,  after  the  Council  of 
Vionnc,  he  Wiis  forcwl  to  hand  over  the  Templar  property  to  the 
Hospitallere,  he  requirotl  the  latter  to  execute  an  agreement  to  re- 
turn the  manor  of  Topfetadt  if  the  pope  should  restore  the  Order.* 


In  Italy  the  Templars  were  not  numerous,  and  the  pope  had 
better  control  over  the  machinery  for  their  destniction.  In  Na- 
ples the  appeal  of  Edwanl  II.  was  in  vain.  The  Angeviue  dynasty 
wns  too  closely  allied  to  the  papacy  to  hesitate,  and  when  a  copy 
of  the  bull  P*i$U>ralU  jirte^mtnentiw,  of  November  21,  1307,  was 
addressed  to  Robert,  Dulio  of  Calabria,  son  of  Chai-lea  II.,  there 
was  no  hesitation  in  olxirlicncc.  Orders  were  speedily  sent  out  to 
all  the  provinces  under  the  Nea])olitan  crown  to  arrest  the  Tem- 
plars and  setiuestrate  their  property.  Philip,  Duke  of  Acbaia  and 
Romania,  the  youn^^t^ist  son  of  Cbai'les,  whs  foithwith  commanded 
to  carry  out  the  papiil  instructions  in  all  the  possessions  in  the 
T*vant.  Jammry  3,  1308,  the  ofilcials  in  Provence  and  Foreal- 
quier  were  instructed  to  make  the  seizure  January'  23.  The  Order 
was  numerous  in  those  districts,  but  the  members  must  have  mostly 
fled,  for  only  forty-eight  were  arrested,  \vho  arc  said  to  have  been 
tried  and  executeil,  but  a  docuniont  of  1318  shows  that  Albert  de 
Blaeas,  Pnxreptor  of  Ais  and  St.  Maurice,  wlio  had  been  impris- 
oned in  1308,  was  then  still  enjoying  the  Cominandery  of  St. 
Maurice,  with  consent  of  the  IIos])ilaUer8.  The  Templar  mova- 
bles wore  divided  between  the  ]m\m  and  king,  and  the  landed  pos- 
sessions wore  made  over  to  the  Ilospilal.  In  the  kingdom  of  Na- 
ples itself,  some  fragmentary  reports  of  the  papal  commission  sent 


•  Harduin.  VII.  1353. —Regent,  ClemcDt,  PP.  V.  T.  TV.  pp.  8-4 ;  T.  V.  p.  873. 
— Dii  i*uT,  pp.  03-3,  IBO-L— Schmidt.  PSbslliche  Urkunden,  p.  77.— Kaynald, 
■nn.lSlO.  Xn.40. — RayoouArcl,  pp.  137, 370.— Jo.  Lutomi  Cut.  Arcliiepp.  MoguDtL 
(Mcnktn.  HI.  52(1).— H.  Mulii  Chrun.  Lib.  XML  ann.  ISU.— Wilckc,  U.  MS, 
240,  33R,  389.— SchottmQllcr.  I,  U&-9. 

Evrn  RajiiuMu*  (add.  1307,  No.  13)  alludes  to  tlic  incumbuBtibility  of  Uie 
TempUrs'  crouca  u  no  eridcuce  in  tbcir  litvor. 


in  1310  to  nhtAin  cvidenco  against  the  Onlor  aa  a  whole  and  against 
the  Granti  Procoptor  of  Apniia.  Oddo  de  Valdric.  show  that  no  ob- 
stacle vcaa  thrown  in  tho  way  of  the  inquisitors  in  obtaining  by 
the  customary  methods  the  kind  of  testimony  desired.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  Sicily,  whore,  as  wo  have  seen,  Frederic  of  Aragon 
iivud  adniilted  the  Inquisition  in  1304.* 

In  the  States  of  the  Church  wo  have  Bomowhat  fuller  accounts 
of  the  lat«r  proccf^lings.    Although  wo  know  nothing  of  what 
-was  done  at  the  time  of  arrest,  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  in  a 
territory  subjected  <Uroctly  to  Clement  his  bull  of  November  23, 
1307,  was  strictly  obeyeil;  that  all  members  of  the  Order  were 
seized  nnd  that  appropriate  means  were  employed  to  secnre  con- 
cessions.    When  the  papal  commission  waM  sent  to  Paris  to  afford 
■the  Ortler  an  opportunity  to  pre[*are  its  defence  at  the  Conncii  of 
"Vienne,  similar  commissions,  armed  with  inquisitorial   powers, 
-were  despatched  elsexvhero,  and  the  re|>ort  of  Giacomo,  Bishop  of 
5>utri.  and  iMa5t«r  I'andolfo  di  SalH-llo,  who  were  commissioned  in 
-•.hat  capax^ity  in  the  Patrimony  of  St.  Peter,  although  unfortu- 
3iateh-  not  complete,  gives  us  an  Insight  into  the  real  object  which 
xinderLiy  the  ostensible  pur|>o«e  of  theee  conunissiona.    In  October, 
130f),  the  inquisitors  commenced  at  Some,  where  no  one  appeared 
Tjeforc  them,  although  they  snmmoned  not  only  members  of  the 
Order,  but  every  one  who  had  anything  to  say  about  it.    In  De- 
cember Ibcy  went  to  Vitcrim,  where  five  Templars  lay  in  prison, 
who  declined  to  appear  and  defend  the  Order.     In  January,  1310, 
they  proeoc<Ie*l  to  Spoleto  without  tinding  either  Templars  or 
other  witnesses.     In  February  Ihey  moved  to  Asfiisi,  where  they 
adopted  the  form  of  ordering  all  Templars  and  their  fautors  to  be 
brought  before  them,  and  this  they  rejHjated  iu  March  at  Gubbio, 
but  in  both  places  without  result.     In  April,  at  Aquila,  they  sum- 
moned witnesses  to  ascertain  whether  the  Templars  had  any 
churches  in  the  Abruzzi.  but  not  even  the  preceptor  of  the  Hoft- 
pitallers  could  give  them  any  information.     All  the  Franciscans  of 
the  place  were  then  uasumbled,  but  they  knew  nothing  to  the  dis- 
credit  of  the  Order.     A  few  days  later,  at  Penna,  they  adopted  a 


•  M»?.  Rull.  Rom.  IX.  131-8.- Arrtilvio  di  NapoH.  M8S.  ChioMnrello,  T. 
Vni.— Du  Puj-.pp.  68  -i.S", '222-0.— Jtoynouard.  pp.  200,  27»-W.— ScboUoifll- 
ler.II.  108  •qr). 
III.— 20 


auo 


POLITICAL    UEltESY.— THE    STATE. 


ne%v  fonnula  by  inviting'  all  Tem]>lars  and  others  who  desired  to 
iK*feiid  the  Order  to  appear  before  them.  Here  two  Templare 
«"cro  touad,  who  were  peivonally  summoned  ro]>eatedly,  but  they 
refused,  siying  that  they  vvoujd  not  defond  the  Order.  One  of 
them,  Walter  of  Napi«,  was  excused,  owing  to  doubts  as  to  his 
Iwing  a  Templar,  but  the  other,  named  Cecco,  was  brought  before 
Die  iiK(uigitoi'6  nnd  told  them  uf  an  idol  kept  for  worehi]>  in  the 
treasurc-ehanilier  of  a  preceptory  in  Apulia.  In  May,  at  Chicti, 
they  gucccc<le'l  in  getting  hold  of  another  Templar,  who  oonfessed 
to  renouncing  Christ,  ido]-wr»rBhip,  and  other  of  the  chargee.  By 
JU^ay  23  they  were  Iwck  in  Home  issuing  eltntions,  but  again  with- 
out result.  The  following  week  they  were  back  at  Viterbo,  p&- 
eoWtxl  to  prooiire  somt;  evidnnce  from  the  Hvo  captives  imprisoned 
there,  but  tliu  latU'r  agiiiii  sent  word  that  none  of  them  wished  to 
appear  before  the  inquisitora  or  to  defend  the  Order.  Five  times 
in  all  they  were  suiiinis>ned  and  tire  times  they  refused,  but  the  in- 
qiiisitore  wore  not  to  be  bnlkiNl.  Four  of  the  prisoners  were  bronght 
foi'waitl,  and  by  nie»na  which  nan  readily  be  guessed  were  induced 
to  talk.  From  the  Ttli  of  June  to  the  I'Jtb,  the  inquisitors  were 
employed  in  ix'ceiviug  their  do|»}sition8  as  to  renouncing  Christ, 
spitting  ou  tiie  cross,  etc.,  all  of  which  n-as  duly  recor<le<l  as  free 
and  s|x>ntaneons.  On  July  3  the  coiumissioners  were  at  Alhano 
ifisuiug  the  custuniHry  sutumons,  but  on  the  8tli  their  mps;!wnger 
repoi'l^tl  that  bo  oould  iind  no  Templai-s  in  Campania  and  Mnri- 
limn;  and  a.  session  at  Volletn  on  tlio  16th  was  similarly  fniitless. 
The  uext  dsy  they  summoned  other  witnesses,  but  eight  ecclesias- 
tics wlio  appeared  huil  nothing  to  tcU.  Then  at  Segni  they  heard 
five  iritnesses  without  obtaining  any  evidence.  Castel  Fajole  nnd 
Tii'oli  were  e<|U;Uly  barren,  but  on  the  2Tth,  at  Palombara,  Walter 
of  Kaplw  was  brought  to  them  from  Fenna,  the  doubts  as  to  bis 
memborsliip  of  the  ( »rder  having  apparently  boon  removed.  Their 
{lenastence  in  tliis  oaae  was  rewarded  with  fnll  details  of  heretical 
priictjoes.  Here  the  record  ends,  the  industrious  search  of  nine 
montJw  tlirough  (liese  extensive  tciTitorii's  having  resulted  in  lind- 
iug  eiglil  Teniplai-s,  and  obtaining  seven  incriminating  depositions.* 
Even  making  allowance;  for  those  who  may  liave  8uocee<led  in 
escaping,  it  shoivts,  like  the  rest  of  the  Italian  proeoodings,  how 
scanty  were  the  numl>ers  of  the  Order  in  the  Fouiosulii. 

•  SchottmQIIer,  U.  40S-10. 


In  Uie  rust  uf  Italy  Clement')}  but)  of  1307,  addressed  to  theucb- 
l)isho]K  anil  ord.'ring  an  in<]nest,  seems  t*>  liave  been  gomcvrliMt  alack- 
ly  obe^ved.  The  uarliejit  actiuaun  record  m  an  urder,  in  13t'3,  o(  KrA 
H>lione,  Inquisitor  of  Lombardy.  roqaihugtbe  delivery  of  throe  Tem- 
plars lo  thn  PmleetiLof  Casale.  Some  further  impulsion  apparent- 
ly was  reqai^ite,  and  in  1309  Giovanni,  Archbishop  uf  J'itut,  was  ap- 
pointed  A(><>stoIic  Nunoio  in  charge  of  the  affiur  throughout  Tus- 
cany, Lombanly,  Daliuatia,  and  Isbria,  nnth  u  stipend  of  eight 
florins  j'^r  tlirw.,  to  Ije  assessed  on  tJie  Templar  property.  In 
Ancuna  tbo  Iji^ibop  of  Fano  examined  one  Templar  wliu  con- 
fessed Dolltiug,aiid  nineteen  other  wilnetues  wlio  furnished  no  in- 
criminating evidence,  and  in  Bomagnnola,  Uainaldo.  Archbishop 
of  Kaveuna, and  the  Itishupof  Rimini  interrogated  two  TcmplurH  at 
Osena^  Ituth  of  %vhuni  testified  to  ilie  innooenue  of  the  Onler.  The 
arcbbLshoi>,  who  was  papal  imjulsitor  against  the  Templars  in  Lom- 
bardy, Tuficauy,Turvi!iiua,aiul  Istria,  &{>enis  to  have  exten<led  his 
in(|UfnL  over  part  of  b^nibaidy.  though  no  results  are  reoortltxl. 
Papal  letters  were  published  throughout  Italy,  empowering  the 
io(|uisitora  to  look  after  the  Templai-  pifi[)erty.  of  which  the  Areh- 
lnstio[>s  of  Bologna  arul  PJsik  wvjv  a]>pointod  administrature;  it 
iras  farmed  out  and  the  proceeds  remitted  to  Clement.  Kainaldo 
of  Ravenna  syuiputhizwl  wsth  the  Templars,  and  no  very  earnest 
eiforts  won;  Lri  l>e  ex{KH?ted  of  him.  lie  callud  a  syuod  at  Uolugna 
in  13u9,  whero  somo  show  was  nia^le  of  taking  up  the  subject,  but 
QO  rfsulta  wera  reached,  and  whon,  in  1.110,  bis  vicar,  Boninoontro, 
went  to  l^iv'cuna  with  thu  {opal  bulls,  he  m:ule  no  secret  of  hia 
favor  towards  the  acftirtml.  At  length  llainaldo  wiis  forced  to 
fiction,  and  issued  a  pnx-lamation,  November  25, 131U,  reciting  the 
papal  conmiands  to  hold  ]>rQvincial  councils  fur  the  extuiiinution 
find  judgment  of  tho  Templars,  in  obedience  to  which  he  summoned 
one  lo  ;i£sembie  at  Kavenna  in  .lanuar}',  1311,  calling  upon  the  in- 
qutsitui^  to  bring  tbittior  the  uvidence  which  they  bad  obtained  by 
the  use  of  torture.  The  council  wjis  held  and  the  matter  discussed, 
but  no  conclusion  was  reacheil.  Antitlier  was  summonod  lo  metit 
at  Bologna  on  June  1,  but  ^vafl  ti-ansferred  to  Ravenna  and  post- 
poned till  .lune  IS.  To  this  tho  bishops  were  ordered  to  bring  all 
Templars  of  their  dioceses  under  slnei  guard,  the  i-usuU  of  which 
won  that  on  June  10,  seven  knights  were  produce*!  before  the 
connoil.    They  wei-e  sworn  and  interrogated  «rWafim  on  all  tli« 


308 


PULITICAL   HKUB8Y.-TUE   STATE. 


artides  ua  furnishwl  by  the  pope,  which  they  unanimously  denied. 
The  question  was  then  put  to  the  council  whether  they  should  be 
tortured,  and  it  was  answered  in  the  negative,  in  spite  of  the  oppo- 
sition of  two  Dominican  infiuisitora  ]>r(!sent.  It  was  decided  that 
the  case  should  not  be  referred  to  tlie  pope,  in  view  of  the  nearness 
of  the  Council  of  Vienne,  but  that  the  accused  should  be  put  upon 
their  purgation.  The  next  day,  however,  when  the  council  met 
this  action  was  reversed  and  there  was  a  unanimous  decision  that 
the  innocent  should  be  aajuitted  and  the  guilty  punished,  reckon- 
ing among  the  innocent  tliose  who  ha*l  confessed  through  fear  of 
torture  and  had  revoked,  or  who  would  have  revoked  but  for  fear 
of  repetition  of  torture.  As  for  the  Order  as  a  whole,  the  coun- 
cil recommended  tliat  it  should  hn  pi-eserved  if  a  majority  of  the 
members  were  innocent,  and  if  the  guilty  were  subjected  to  abju> 
ration  and  punishment  within  the  Order.  In  addition  to  the 
seven  knights  theni  wore  five  brethren  who  were  ordered  to  purge 
Iheniselvea  by  August  I,  before  IJberto,  Bishop  of  Bologna,  with 
•even  conjurators;  of  these  the  purgations  of  two  are  extant, 
and  doubtless  all  succce«led  in  (>erfurming  the  ceremony.  It  was 
no  wonder  that  (Moment  was  indignant  at  tliia  reversal  of  all  in- 
quisitorial usage  and  ordered  the  burning  of  those  who  hud  thus 
relui)8ed — though  the  command  was  probably  not  obeyed,  as 
Bishop  Bini  assures  us  that  no  Tonijilare  were  burned  in  Italy. 
The  council  further,  In  ap|iointing  delegates  to  Vienne,  instructed 
them  that  the  Order  should  not  be  abolished  unless  it  was  found 
to  lie  thoroughly  cornjptod.  ForTusejiny  and  I.ombardy, Clement 
appointed  as  special  inquisitors  Giovanni,  Archbishop  of  Pisa, 
Antonio,  Bishop  of  Florence,  and  Pieti-o  Giudici  of  Rome,  a  canon 
of  Verona.  These  were  instructed  to  buhl  tlie  inquests,  one  upon 
the  bretliren  individually  and  one  upon  the  Order.  They  were 
troubled  with  no  Hcruples  as  t«  the  use  of  torture  and,  as  we 
shall  presently  see,  secureil  a  certain  amount  of  the  kind  of  l€«ti- 
mony  desired.  Venice  kindly  jiostpom^  the  inevitable  uprooting 
of  the  Order,  and  when  it  eventually  took  place  there  was  no  un- 
oecessar}'  hardship.* 


•  Repwt  Clement.  PP.  V.  T.  tV.  p  301. -Bini.  pp.  490-1,  4S4,  487-8.— 
RayoBld.  rdo.  1809,  No.  8.— Raynoa&rd,  pp.  »73-77.— Cliron.  Purmeoa.  tan. 
IBOO  (Mnrstori  8.  R  I.  IS.  S80).— Du  Poy,  pp.  5:-8.— Kub«l  Uist.  lUvennM.  Ed. 


THE    TEMPL^tRS.  ifj^ 

Cyprus  n-as  the  headquarters  of  the  Order.  There  resided  the 
Tnarsihal,  Ayme  d'OaiUere,  who  was  ils  chief  in  the  absence  of  the 
Grand  Mastur. and  there  was  the  ''Convent,"  ur  governing  body. 
It  was  not  until  Afay,  1308,  that  the  papal  bull  commanding  the 
arrest  reached  the  island,  and  there  could  be  no  pretence  of  a  secret 
and  Rudden  seixure,  for  the  Templars  wore  advised  of  what  had 
oc'cuprtMi  in  Fni.nc«.  Thoy  had  many  enemies,  for  they  had  taken 
an  active  part  in  the  tarbulent  politics  of  the  time,  and  it  bad  been 
by  their  aid  that  the  regent,  Amaury  of  Tyrp,  had  been  placed  in 
power.  He  liust«nod  to  obey  the  papal  commands,  but  with  many 
misgivings,  for  the  Templars  at  first  assumed  an  attitude  of  de- 
fence. Kusistance,  however,  was  hopeless,  and  in  a  few  weeks  they 
submitted;  their  property  was  sequestrated  and  ihey  were  kept  in 
honorable  conflnemout,  without  being  deprived  of  the  sacraments. 
This  oontiuued  for  two  years,  until,  in  April,  1310,  the  Abbot  of 
Alet  and  the  Arrhpriest  Tomransoof  Rioti  came  ns  pa|>al  inquisi- 
tors to  inquire  against  them  individually  and  the  Order  in  general, 
under  the  guidance  of  the  Bishops  of  Liniisso  and  Fantagoeta. 
The  examination  commenced  May  1  and  continued  until  Juno  5, 
when  it  came  abruptly  to  an  en<l.  in  consequence,  doubtless,  of  tlie 
excitement  caused  by  the  murder  of  the  Regent  Amaury.  All  the 
Templars  on  the  island,  seventy-five  in  number,  together  with  fifty- 
stx  other  witnesses,  were  duly  interrogated  upon  the  long  list  of 
articles  of  accusation.  That  the  Templars  were  unanimous  in 
denying  the  charges  and  in  assorting  tlie  purity  of  the  Order 
shows  that  t-orture  i^nnot  have  l»oon  employed.  More  convincing 
as  to  their  innocence  is  the  evidence  of  the  other  witnesses,  con- 
sisting of  ecclesiastics  of  all  ranks,  nobles,  and  burghers,  many  of 
them  jwhtical  enemies,  who  yet  rendered  testimony  emphatically 
favorable.  As  some  of  them  said,  tliey  knew  nothing  but  good 
of  the  Order.  Ail  dwelt  upon  its  liberal  charities,  and  many  de- 
scrilied  the  fen'or  of  the  zeal  witli  which  the  Templam  discharged 
their  religious  duties.  A  few  alluded  to  the  jwpular  suspicions 
aroused  by  the  secrecy  observe*!  in  the  huldin|{  of  chapters  and 
the  admi.%ion  of  neophytes ;  the  Dominican  Prior  of  ^Nicosia  spoke 


M6fi,  pp.  1)17, 321.  M%  !iU,SiSy  n3fi.— Cunpl.  DpirBlst  BuIcb.  Hi  Piacenza,  P. 
m.  p.  41, — B«rl>9nino  dei  Mirooi  IHst.  Eccle*.  <Ii  VIceniA,  U.  157-8.— Anion, 
Veraach  einer  Genchichte  dcr  TempcUicrrcnordcns,  Leipzig,  1770,  p.  189. 


310 


roLITICAL'ilERfesy.-THE  STATE. 


of  the  reports  brought  from  France  by  his  brethren  after  the  arrest, 
and  Simon  de  SarezariJB.  Prior  of  the  Hoepitallers,  said  that  he  had 
had  similar  intelligence  sent  to  him  by  his  correspondents,  but  the 
evidence  is  unquestionable  that  in  Cyprus,  irhore  they  were  beat 
known,  among  friends  nnd  foes,  and  especially  among  those  who 
had  bpfn  in  Intimatf  relations  with  the  Templars  for  lonj*  periods, 
there  was  genera!  sympathy  for  the  Order,  and  that  there  had 
been  no  evil  attributed  to  it  until  the  pa[>al  IjuIIs  had  so  uiiquali- 
fimlly  assLM'ted  it,s  j*^uilt.  All  Ibis,  when  sent  to  Clement,  was  nat- 
urally most  unsatisfactory,  and  when  the  time  nppronchetl  for  the 
Council  of  Vienne.  he  despatchwl  urgent  orders,  in  August,  1311, 
to  have  the  Templars  torturml  so  as  to  procure  confessions.  What 
was  the  result  of  this  we  have  no  means  of  knowing.* 


Tn  Arngon,  Phihpixs'a  letter  of  October  16, 1307,  to  Jayme  TT. 
was  accompanied  with  one  from  the  Dominican,  Fray  Itomoo  do 
Bruguera.  asserting  that  he  had  been  present  at  the  confession 
made  by  de  Motay  and  others.  Notwithstanding  this,  on  Novem- 
ber 17  Javme,  like  Kthvar*!  11..  respondeil  with  warm  praises  of 
the  Templars  of  the  kingdom,  whom  he  refused  to  arrest  without 
absolute  proof  of  guilt  or  orders  fi*om  the  pope.  To  the  latter  he 
wrote  two  days  later  for  advice  and  instructions,  and  when,  on 
December  I.  he  reeeive<l  Cleinent's  bull  of  November  22,  he  could 
hesitate  no  longop.  Ramon,  Bishop  of  Valencia,  and  Ximenes  de 
Lnna,  Itishopof  Saragossa,  who  chance<l  to  be  with  him,  received 
orders  to  make  in  their  reapectJve  dioceses  diligent  intinisition 
against  the  Templars,  and  Fray  .Tuan  IJotgerj  Inquisitor-general  of 
Aragon,  was  Instmctcd  to  cjctirpate  the  heresy.  As  resistance  was 
anticipntrTH!.  royal  letters  were  issneil  Decembers  for  the  immediate 
arrest  of  all  members  of  the  Order  and  the  se<juestration  of  their 
pTXjperty,  and  the  inquisitor  published  eillcts  summoning  them  be- 
fore him  in  the  Dominican  Convent  of  Valencia,  to  answer  for  their 
faith,  and  prohibiting  all  local  officials  from  rendering  them  assist- 
ance. J  ayme  hIs'>  summone".!  a  conucil  of  the  prelates  to  meet  Jan- 
nary  fi,  1808,  to  delilieratc  on  the  subject  witJi  the  inquisitor.  A 
number  of  arrests  were  effcctal :  some  of  the  brethren  shnvctland 


•  SchottmQIler,  L  WT-fiB,  4W;  U.  147-100.— X)u  Puy,  pp.  03,  10(^-7.— R«j- 
Douard,  p.  S8S. 


threw  off  thtiir  mantles  aud  aacoeeUed  in  liitlinj^  themselves;  some 
cmifnivorml  in  iswajw  by  swi  with  a  qmintily  of  treiiKiiro,  but  ad- 
verse Blonns  cast  ihi^in  back  upon  the  coiiat  a»il  they  were  seized. 
Tb*  great  Ixxly  of  the  knighu,  however,  threw  themselves  into 
their  caatloB.    Knmon  Su  Gunrdia,  Treceirtor  of  Mas  Ueu  ia  Kous- 
sillnn,  waa  acting  as  lioutena.nt  uf  the  C^Jiiimaruier  uf  Ara^^jn,  and 
fortitied  himself  in  Mintvet.  while  <ithers  occupied  the  strongholds 
of  Ascon,  Munt(o,  ('Hiitaviuja.  Vilell,  CaeteUot,  and  C'halaniera. 
On  Januui-y  2'f.  130S,  they  were  summoned  to  ap|)car  before  the 
Council  of  Tarragona,  l^ut  they  n'fuapd,  and  ifHyme  promised  the 
prelates  that  he  would  use  the  whole  forces  of  the  kingdom  for 
tlit'ir  fiuhjugatinn.     This  priired  no  easy  task.     Tlio  temjioml  and 
Spiritual  lords  pmnii^eil  aasistnnct*,  except  the  Count  of  Urffel,  the 
Viscount  of  ICooaljerti.  and  Iho  Bishop  of  Girona ;  but  public  sym- 
pathy  vfaa  with  the  Teuiplars.     Many  noble  youtbii   eiiibniued 
their  cause  and  join»l  them  in  their  c:istles,  while  the  people 
obeyed  staekly  tho  order  to  take  up  anns  against  them.    The 
knights  defead€Hl  tliemselvos  bravely.    Castellot  surrendered  in 
Noverabor,  soon  aft^r  which  Su  (inantia,  in  Mimvet,  rejetitc<i  the 
rovoJ  tdtimaluin  that  ihev  should  inartjh  out  with  their  artn^  and 
betake  themselves  by  twocj  and  tlirees  to  places  of  residence,  from, 
which  they  wore  not  lo  wander  further  than  twti  or  throe  bow- 
sbota,  receiving  a  litieral  allowance  for  their  supiujrt,  wtiile  the 
king  should  ask  the  popo  to  order  tlic  bishops  and  inquisitors  to 
ox]icdilti  the  pnx'css.    In  response  to  this  Sa  Ouardia  addretwed 
Clement  a  manly  appeaJ.  pointing  out  the  aej-vitics  ifjido-rcd  Ui  ro- 
ligion  by  the  <-)ixler  ;  tliat  many  knighla  cipturcd  by  the  tViracong 
languislied  in  prison  for  twenty  or  thirty  yeai-s,  whon  by  abjuring 
they  oould  at  once  re;.'nin  theii*  liberty  and  be  richly  nswarded — 
seventy  of  their  brethren  were  at  that  moment  emluring  such  el 
fota.    They  were  ready  to  up)>ear  in  judgment  before  the  popo,  or 
to  maintain  their  faith  against  aJl  accust^ra  by  arms,  as  was  custom- 
ary with  knight-s  but  they  hail  no  prelates  or  advocates  to  defend 
Ibem.  and  it  was  tlie  duty  of  iJie  i>ope  to  do  so.    A  month  after 
this  Alirnvct  was  forced  to  surrnndor  at  discretion,  and  in  another 
month  all  the  rest,  except  Moni^  ami  ('ludameni,  which  held  out 
imttl  near  July,  1309.    Clement  at  once  took  measures  to  gtit  pos- 
8««ian  of  the  Templar  property,  but  Juyme  refusod  to  doliver  ift 
to  the  papal  cummissioQum,  alleging  that  tuocit  of  it  hud  bwn  d&^ 


313 


POLITICAL  HEREST.-TBE  STATE. 


rived  from  tho  crown,  and  that  he  had  made  heavy  outlays  on  the 
sieges ;  the  most  that  he  would  promise  was  that  if  the  council 
should  abolish  tlio  Order  ho  would  surrender  the  property,  subject 
to  tho  rightit  and  claims  of  tho  crown.    Clement  seems  to  have 
souglit  a  tem|K>rary  compromiso.    In  letters  of  January  5,  1309, 
ho  announces  that  the  Templars  of  Aragon  and  Catalonia,  like 
faithful  sons  of  the  Church,  had  written  to  htm  offering  to  surren- 
der their  persons  and  projwrty  to  the  Holy  See,  and  to  obey  his 
oommandii  in  every  way ;  he  therefore  sends  his  chaplain,  Uer- 
trand,  Prior  of  Ctaaenon,  to  receive  them  and  transfer  them  to  the     i 
custody  and  care  of  the  king,  taking  from  him  sealed  letters  th^H 
he  holds  them  in  the  name  of  the  Holy  See.    Whether  Jayme  a»^ 
scntcd  to  tluR  arrangement  as  to  the  proiierty  does  not  ap|K>ar,  but 
he  was  not  punctilious  about  the  persons  of  the  Templars,  and  on 
July  14  he  issued  orders  to  the  vigulers  to  deliver  them  to  the  in- 
quisitor and  onlinaries  when  required.     In  1310  Clement  sent  to 
Aragon,  aa  elsewhere,  special  pa|«U  incjuisilors  to  conduct  the  trials^    , 
They  were  met  by  the  same  difficulties  as  in  England  :  in  Aragc^H 
torture  was  not  recogiiizetl  by  tli«  law,  and  in  1325  we  find  th^^ 
Cortes  protesting  against  its  use  and  against  the  inquisitorial  pn>- 
oes-s  as  infractions  of  the  recognized  liberties  of  the  land,  and  the 
king  adniitting  the  pi*otest  and  pitraiising  that  such  methods  should 
not  be  employed  OKcopt  for  counterfeiters,  and  then  only  in  the 
case  of  strangers  and  vagabonds.     Still  the  inquisitors  did  what 
they  could.    At  their  request  the  king.  July  5,  1310,  ordered  his 
baillis  to  put  the  Templars  in  irons  and  to  render  their  prison 
harsher.    Then  the  Council  of  Tarragona  interfered  and  asked 
that  they  be  kept  in  safe  but  not  atHictive  custody,  seeing  that 
nothing  harl  aa  yet  proved  their  guilt,  and  their  csise  was  still  un- 
decided.   In  accordance  with  thii;,  on  Octolwr  *2f»,  the  king  orderei 
that  they  should  be  free  in  the  castles  where  they  were  oonfin 
giving  their  parole  not  tfl  escape  under  pain  of  Ixiing  reputed  her- 
etios.    This  waa  not  the  way  to  obtain  the  desired  evidence,  and 
Clement,  March  IS,  1311,  ordered  them  to  be  tortured,  and  asked 
Jayme  to  lend  his  aid  to  it,  seeing  that  the  proceedings  thus  far 
bad  resulted  only  in  "  vehement  suspicion."    This  cruel  command 
was  not  at  ttrst  obeyed.     In  May  tho  Templars  ])rayeil  the  king 
Co  urge  the  Archbishop  of  Tarragona  to  have  their  case  decided  in 
council  then  impending,  and  Jayme  accordingly  addressed  the 


THE    TEMPLARa 


m 


arcbhishop  to  that  eflTcct.  bat  nothing'  was  done,  and  in  August  be 
ordered  tbem  to  be  again  put  iu  chains  and  harshly  imprisoned. 
The  juipal  represontatives  were  evidently  growing  impatient,  as 
the  timo  set  for  the  Council  of  Vionnc  was  approaching,  and  the 
papal  demands  for  adrcrae  evidence  remained  unsatis6e<i.     Finally, 
on  the  eve  of  the  nssembling  of  the  council,  the  king  yieldod  to  the 
pope.    September  20  be  issunl  nn  onier  appointing  IJmbert  de  Cap- 
(iepont,  one  of  the  royal  judges,  to  assist  at  the  judgment,  when 
sentence  should  be  rendered  by  the  inquisitors,  P«lro  de  Montchis 
and  Juan  Uutger,  alung  with  the  llit>hoj)ii  of  Lerida  and  Vich,  who 
bad    been  especially  commissioned  by  the  pope.    Wo  have  no 
knowledge  of  the  details  of  the  investigation,  but  there  is  evidence 
that  torture  was  utisiwrlngly  used,  for  tliero  is  a  royal  letter  of 
December  3  ordering  medicaments  to  be  prepared  for  those  of  the 
Templars  who  might  nee<l  them  in  consequence  of  sickness  or  tort- 
ure.     At  last,  in  March,  1312,  the  Archbishop  of  Tamtgona  u-slcfxl 
Xg  bavG  ttiem  brought  before  bis  provincial  conncil,  then  about  to 
Assemble,  and  the  king  assented,  but  nothing  was  dono^  probably 
liecuuse  the  Council  of  V^ienne  was  still  in  session ;  but  after  the 
clistitilution  of  the  Order  had  bw»n  prcKjlaimed  by  Clement,  and  the 
fate  of  the  members  was  relegated  to  the  local  councils,  one  was 
lield.  October  18,  1312.  at  Tari-agona,  which  decided  the  question 
BO  long  ponding.     Tht!  Templars  were  brought  bef«)rf  it  and  i-igor- 
oualy  examined.    November  4  the  sentence  was  publicly  read, 
pronouncing  an  unqualified  acquittal  from  all  the  errors,  crimes, 
and  impostures  with  which  they  wen?  charged ;  they  were  declared 
beyond  suspicion,  and  no  one  should  dare  to  defame  them.     In 
view  of  the  dissolution  of  the  Order  the  council  was  somewhat 
puzzled  to  know  what  to  do  witti  them,  but  after  prolonged  debate 
it  was  dctormine<l  that  until  the  |>ope  should  otherwise  decree 
they  should  reside  in  the  dioceses  in  wliich  their  property  lay,  re- 
eeiWng  pro[tor  support  from  their  sequestrated  lands.    This  decree 
waa  carried  out,  and  when  the  property  passed  into  the  liands  of 
the  Hospitallers  it  was  burdened  with  these  charges.     In  1319  a 
list  of  pensioiui  thus  payable  by  the  Hospitallers  would  seem  to 
show  that  the  Templura  were  liberally  provided  for,  and  received 
what  was  duo  to  them.* 

■  Allart.  Bultelin  iIb  la  SocieiS  il(«  P;renfics  Orivnbtles,  IttQ?.  Ttim.  XV.  pp. 
3T-4V,  07-9,  n,  T&-8,  U-6.— Zuritn,  ASales  de  Aragon,  Lit*,  r.  c.  79,  Lib.  n.  c. 


8U 


POLITICAL  UERBSY.-THE   STATE. 


Jiiyme  I.  of  Majorca  was  in  no  jxisition  to  resist  the  pressure 
l)rouglit  u])nn  Iiim  liy  Philippe  I^  liel  ami  Clement.  His  little 
kingdom  cousistod  of  the  Balcai'ie  Isles,  t  lie  counties  of  Koussiilon 
and  Cordagne.  the  Seignory  of  AlontjMjllior  and  a  few  other  scat- 
terwl  possessions  at  the  nieivy  of  his  powerful  ncighlwr.  He 
promptly  therefore  obeyed  the  papal  bull  of  November  22, 1307, 
and  by  the  end  of  the  month  the  Teniplurs  in  bis  dominions  were 
nil  antsated.  In  lioiiBsilloii  tho  only  prt'et-plory  was  that  of  Maa 
Deu,  whieJi  was  one  of  the  9tiv>nghiild.s  of  the  land»  and  there  the 
T«mplars  were  collected  and  confined  to  the  number  of  twenty* 
Ave,  including  tlio  Preceptor.  Kamon  Sa  Gnai'dia,  the  gallant  de- 
fender of  Mirnvet,  who  after  his  surrender  was  demiinde<l  by  the 
King  of  Majorca  and  willingly  joined  his  comrades.  We  know 
nothing  of  what  took  place  on  the  islands  iieyond  tho  fact  of  the 
arrest,  but  on  the  mainland  we  can  follow  with  some  exactness 
tbe  course  of  events.  Uoiissilloii  constituted  the  diocese  of  Kbio, 
wliioh  was  suffnigan  to  the  archbishopric  of  ^I'arbonne.  May  6, 
1309,  the  arehbishop  at'ut  to  Ramon  Costa,  Hishup  of  Blue,  the  ar- 
ticles of  accusation  with  the  pupal  bull  ordering  an  inquest.  The 
good  bishop  seems  to  ha.vu  been  in  no  haste  to  comply,  but,  jilead- 
ing  iilnesB,  jxistjKined  tho  matter  until  January,  1310.  Then,  in 
obedience  to  the  instructions,  he  summoned  two  Kronciscans  and 
two  Doniinicuns,  and  with  two  of  his  cathedral  canons  he  pro- 
ceeded to  interrogate  the  prisoners.  It  is  evident  that  no  torture 
WHS  empdoyed,  for  in  their  prolonged  examinations  they  substan- 
tially agreed  in  asserting  the  purity  and  piety  of  the  Onler,  and 
their  chaplain  offered  in  evidence  their  book  of  ritual  for  recep- 
tions in  the  vernacular,  commencing, "  ^ftrtn  afeum  proom  requer 
la  CQiHpaya  J*!  la  Mayio^  ^Vith  manly  indignation  they  refused 
to  behove  that  tho  Grand  Master  and  chiefs  of  tho  Order  had  coA- 
feesod  to  the  tnith  of  tho  oliarges,  but  if  tliey  luul  done  so  they 
bad  lied  in  their  throats— or,  as  one  of  them  phniaed  it>,  they  were 
demons  in  human  skin.  With  regard  to  the  cord  of  chastity,  an 
bumble  peasant  serving  bi-other  explained  not  only  that  it  was 
procured  wherever  they  olio«o,  but  that  if  it  ohaooed  to  break 


ei.— RegMt.  Claraent.  PP.  V.  T.  IV.  pp,  430  sqq,— La  Puente,  m%\  Ecl«.  At 
Ei|)tifia,  IL  1M&-70.— PtoL  Laceot  Um.  Vjca\et.  U\>.  xxir.  (Munttori  3.  a  I.  XL 
12S9).— Coocil.  Turnooucns.  ann.  l'A\t  TAguinc,  VI.  £33-4). 


m 


TBK  TEMPtAUa 

wbile  ploag^ltiog  it  was  at  onc«  tem{>onuily  replaced  with  one 
awde  of  rmrda.  Tbp  volmninous  toetiiiuiny  was  fonvanlcHl.  with  a 
Bimplc  «?rtiticftto  of  its  occunicy,  b}'  Ijishop  Ramon,  Au^nist  31, 
131U,  which  shows  tliat  he  was  in  no  baste  to  transmit  it.  It  coold 
ha^'e  proved  in  no  seoM  satisfactory,  and  there  can  be  little  doubt 
thut  (he  cruel  orders  of  (*Iement,  in  Marcli,  I31I,  to  procure  con- 
feseione  by  torture  were  <laly  obeyed,  for  Jean  de  Iiourg<^ne,  sac- 
ristan of  Miijorcit,  was  appointed  by  Clement  inqoisitor  for  the 
Templars  in  Ani^run.  Navarro,  and  ^lajorea.  and  the  same  methods 
must  unqupslionaltly  have  been  followed  In  ail  thi^  kingdoms. 
Aft«r  the  CoDncil  of  Vienne  there  ensued  a  rather  cnrious  con- 
tmvorsy  between  the  archbishops  of  Tarrn^na  and  Narbonnn  on 
tbc  subject.  The  former,  with  the  Bishop  uf  Valencia,  was  papal 
custodian  of  Tontplitr  property  in  Aragon,  Majorca,  and  Navarre. 
V  seems  thus  to  have  imagined  that  be  held  jurisdiction  over  the 
emplans  of  Roussillon,  for,  (->ctoher  15, 1313,  he  declared  Ramon 
6a  CTuaixUn  alwolvc^I  and  innocent,  and  directed  him  to  live  with 
his  brethren  aX  Mas  Deu,  with  a  pension  of  three  hundred  and 
fifty  livres,  and  tlu^  use  of  the  giirdcns  and  orchards,  the  other 
Templars  having  pension.^  ranging  from  ont*  hundred  to  thirty 
Urres.  Yet.  in  September,  1315,  Bernard.  Archbishop  of  Kar- 
bonne.  ordenKl  Rishop  Kamon's  successor  Guillen  Ut  hrinf?  to  the 
provincial  council  wliich  ho  lind  summoned  all  the  Templars  im- 
priwneil  in  his  diocese,  together  with  the  documents  relating  to 
their  trials,  in  ordi^r  thai  tiieir  [icrsons  might  be  dis|)Osed  of.  King 
Jaymo  L  had  died  in  1311.  but  his  son  and  successor,  Sancho.  in- 
lervontxU  saying  that  Clement  had  placed  the  Tempers  in  his 
charge,  and  he  would  not  surrender  Ihera  without  a  papal  order 
— the  pnjiaey  at  that  time  lieing  vacajit,  with  little  prospect  of  an 
early  election.  He  added  that  if  thty  wore  to  be  punished  it  be- 
lottged  to  him  to  have  them  tried  in  his  court,  and  to  protect  his 
jurisdiction  he  u])]ionled  to  the  fttture  pope  and  oouncih  This  was 
efTectual,  and  the  Templars  remained  undisturbed.  A  statement 
of  f»en.siouij  paid  in  131d  shi>w>s  tliat  of  the  twenty-five  examined 
Mt  Mas  Deu  in  1310  ten  !iad  died;  the  remainder, Avith  one  addi- 
tionjil  brother,  were  druwiiiij  ]M'nsion.s  amounting  in  the  aggregate 
to  nine  hundre*l  and  lifty  livres  a  year.  On  the  island  of  Majorca 
there  were  still  nine  whose  total  pensions  were  three  hundred  and 
sixty-two  livres  ten  soU.     In  13:!9  there  were  still  nine  Templars 


S16 


POLITICAL  nEnKST-THE  BTATB. 


receiving  iwnsions  allotted  on  the  Preceptory  o(  Mas  Deu,  though 
mo6t  of  tliRiii  liad  retired  to  their  houses,  for  they  do  not  appear 
to  have  hern  restricted  as  to  tlieir  place  of  residence.  By  this 
time  the  indomitable  lUmon  Sa  Guardia's  name  bad  disappeared. 
One  by  one  they  drojiped  off,  until  in  iJl.'iO  there  was  but  a  single 
survivor,  the  knight  Bercngor  de-Z  Coll.* 

In  Castile  no  action  seems  to  have  been  taken  until  the  bull 
Faciens  muericordiarn  of  August  12,  13(JS,  was  sent  to  the  prel- 
ates ordering  them  to  net  in  conjunction  with  the  Dominican, 
Eymeric  de  Navas,  ils  intjuisitor.  Fernando  IV.  then  ordered  the 
Templars  arrested,  and  their  fatids  placed  in  the  hands  of  the 
bishops  until  the  fate  of  the  Onler  should  \m  determined.  There 
was  no  alacrity,  however,  in  pursuing  the  affair,  for  it  was  not 
until  April  15,  lt}10,that  Archbishop  Oonzalo  of  Toledo  cited  the 
Master  of  Oastile,  Kodrigo  Vbannii,  and  his  brethren  to  appear  be- 
fore him  at  Toledo.  For  the  province  of  Com[K«telltt,  comprising 
Portugal,  the  archbishop  held  a  council  at  Medma  del  Camjio, 
where  thirty  Templai-s  und  three  other  witnesses  were  examined, 
oil  of  whom  testilled  in  favnr  of  the  Order ;  a  priest  swore  that 
he  had  heaixl  the  confessions  of  many  Templnre  on  their  death- 
beds, as  well  as  othei^  mortally  wounded  by  the  inlidel,  and  all 
were  orthodox.  No  better  success  nttcndcnl  inquests  held  by  the 
Bishop  of  Ijslioij  at  Medina  Celi  and  Orense.  Tlio  only  judicial 
action  of  which  we  have  notice  was  that  of  the  Council  of  Sal&* 
raanca  for  tlje  pit)vince  of  Composlella,  where  the  Templars  were 
unanimously  acquitted,  and  the  cruel  orders  to  torture  them  issued 
the  next  year  by  Clement  seem  to  have  been  disregarded.  After 
the  Order  was  dissolved  the  Templars  for  the  most  part  continued 
to  loa