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ADDRESS 

2 
3 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 



Routines 

Information and Chairmen — Trea$ury NoteS 
Input/Output — bvAbedKahale 
QUANTA 

Timex 3256 

OS-64 — David Solly 
Sinclair E-Mail List 

FILES 
QL Hacker's Journal 



MEMORY MAP 

ADDRESS 



tl 

13 
15 

20 



21 



FILES 
FORTH — GlenHaydon 

TS - ZX Spectrum — David Solly 
EZ80 Micro Computer — Wilf Rigter 
Z-88 — Dave Bennett 

SUBROUTINES 

Unclassified Ads 




ZXir Olive Alive! © 
Established 1991 The Timex/Sinclair NorthAmerican User Groups Newsletter 



T/SNUG Information 



We wish to support the following 
platforms : ZX-80/81, TS-1000, 
Spectrum, TS-2068, Z88 and QL. If 
you have any questions about any of 
these fine Sinclairs, contact the: 

Chairman 

Chief Motivator 
Donald S. Lambert 
738 Guraiar Ln. 
Forsyth, IL 62535 
(217)875-8043 

Vice-Chairmen 

Tape & JLO PD Library 
Luke Perry 
3708 NE 109th Ave 115 
Vancouver WA 98682 



Library 

Dave Bennett (HATSUG) 
12 75 Timber View Dr. 
Mechanicsburg, PA 17055-9146 
717732-4374 

QL Hacker's 

Journal 

Timothy Swenson 
2455 Medallion Dr. 

Union City, CA 94587-1914 
swensontc@geocities.coin 



Rod Humphreys (VSUG) 

10984 Collins PI. 
Delta, BC V4C 7E6 Canada 
604 583-2819 

QL PD Library 

John Donaldson (CATUG) 
835 Foxwood Cir. 
Geneva, IL 60134-1631 
630 232-6147 

AERCO & Z80 Emulator 
Keith Watson 
41634 Amberly Dr. 
Mt. Clemens, MI 48038 

GAIOfc— 

Bob Swoger (CATUG) 
613ParksideCir. 
Streamwood, IL 60107-1647 
630 837-7957 Woric 847 576-8068 



ZXir QLive Alive! 

Is the newsletter of T/SNUG, the Timex/Sinclair North American User Groups, providing 
news and software support to the T/S community in a VO L U M E of four newsletters 

per year; beginning with the Spring (March) issue. 

T/SNUG's main goal is to preserve and encourage the use of 
Sinclair computers by providing an open forum for the 
exchange of knowledge, building and maintaining of 
software libraries. Providing vendors, repair service and 

members with free ad space. 

It is the user groups and individual subscribers, rather than the vendors, that provide the 
pecuniary support for this newsletter. Vendors and developers receive this newsletter free 
of charge, though contribution from vendors and user groups is gratefully accepted. 
Please support our vendors and service providers whenever possible. 
If you have a problem or you have solved a problem, please share it with the rest of us. 
No problem will be considered unimportant. 



ou can keep T/SNUG alive by an annual contribution of $12 for one VOLUME 
made payable to Abed Kahale. Send check to:- 



ABED KAHALE 
232 WEST OAKS TRL 
WOODSTOCK GA 30188 



jsfew 



the 



do not send mail to 



ruary 1 O, 2001 



111 



I am moving into the Atlanta, GA. area (How I hate moving!!) 
Back copies are available for $1.00 each postpaid. 

Article 



iiiiliilllltlli 




Send in your articles by disk, hardcopy mail, or e-mail and your inputs to:- 

Abed Kahale 
E-mail: AKahale@compuserve.com 



Q-Box BBS 310 254-9878 

Utica, Michigan 
SOL BBS 520 882-0388 

Tucson, Arizona 

0JEBPR6E5 

http://users.aol.com/clubbbs/tsnug/ 
http://www.outlawnet.com/~jboatno4 
http://www.unixvilie.com/2068 

qi-users@nvg. ntnu. no 



J^s of January 13, 2001, we have a balance of $71 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



2 



Winter 2001 




Hi Abed, 

I do have one request and that, is someone to explain 

how to move files from the Z88 to the PC in step by step 
procedure. I have Windows 98 and I use WORD 97 for my 
word processor. I have tried it a couple of times but no 
success since I can't find the rile on the PC afterwards. 1 do 
hope that I can read the files in WORD 97 I suspect that 
can be a problem but am not sure. I will have to try again 
since I have learned more since last time. The manual for 
PC-LINK (the ZS8 to PC software and connecting cable) 
states that Lotus and Wordstar are used. The manual was 
written in 1988 so much has happened since then. T need a 
way to use the Z88 for note taking since my handwriting is 
bad. Even I sometimes can't read it even if I print. 
Smclairly yours, 

Don Lambert 

dslambert^emait.msn.com 

„ , , — , — , . - .,.■„■ .l-rr. -. ,. . ■■ 

Dear ZX-TEAM friends, please excuse my German 
mail to you. (Now I have created an English and a German 
distribution list, so 1 hope you will never more receive 
German mails ;-)) 

I would like to ask you to support ZX-TEAM- 
MAGAZIN with articles, small unclassified ads, questions 
and what ever you think, we should print about you and 
your doings with ZX-81 . 

With issue 4/2000 we will start out 10th year! 
Some dates of interest: 1 6 Sept. 2000 Sinclair meeting in 
UfrechtOSfetherlands, I hope to come Spring 2001 5th ZX-- 
TEAM-meeting. 

Peter Liebert-Adelt 

P.Lie b ert@t -online.de 

I am still looking for WSndOW Print 2000 on 
tape (the DOCs as well if possible but no problem if not) 
of someone knows of a snapshot posted someplace T could 
probably use that since I use an emulator also 

I am also looking for a LarKen or OHger Disk 
Interface ("combined I hear is nice but do ihey exist?) 

I have a drive already, just need the controller, the 
cablefs) and the OS cartridge ... 1 wonder if the Oliger can 
ran an OS-64 at the same time? Thanks! 

Eofeeii L Gilbert 
dstar33@juno.com 

Abed; 

Sorry I haven't contacted you before now. I have not 
had much time to work on the interface over the last few 
months. 

About two months ago 1 decided that my interface 
would be most useful if used to support CP/M Plus on the 
2068 In the last two weeks T have been working on the 
BIOS routines for a 64 column screen and keyboard. I 
have nearly completed the screen BIOS routines and will 
next will be completing the keyboard and IDE routines in 
that order. After I get CP/M Plus up and operating I will 
try porting over the Z-System as it has more advanced 
features. I have been conversing with Gaby Chaudry in 
Munich about the Z-System and an enhancement to the 




interface. 

JeifBurrell 

JBurren@endocardial. com 

I am always willing to answer any questions about 

how I use the old TS-1000 with my trains. You could 
mention my web site since it has the page devoted to the 
Timex and Byte-Back I/O board if you would like, but it is 
practically the same info you have already included in past 
issues. 

Joe Rampoiia 

ht tp:/yyourp age.bi azen et.nefrjpranipolia _ 

Dear friends, " ~ ~ 

In the past months there have been some shortages in 
new QL hardware. 

Additionally there has been a lot of discussion for the 
potential future of the QL. Sooo I just have to show you 
something without any other comment.. Just tell me what 
you think:-) 

Here's a REAL address that you should look at ... 

http :/ /virtuals. atlant.ru/peters/e-mdex. htm 

http://www.dgonetse/~rsm/z^ 

Ifs info about the "Splinter" computer ... extended 
ZX-Spectrum architecture! 

Al Feng 

_ alfeng@jun o.com 

There seems to be a successor to the QL called the 
Q40. Click on the link on the T/SNUG homepage to the 
QUANTA homepage. — ==GATOR=-- 

Robert Swoger - Senior Product Designer 
Voice 847 576 8068 Email: CENG108@email.mot.com 
bobs@commrnot.com bobswoger@yuno.com 
ciubbbs@aol.com 

Hello Abed, 

I hope things are well with you . I am writing for two 
reasons. First is I would like to re-subscribe to the 
T/SNUG Newsletter. Please tell me what amount and 
where to send the check. 

Secondly, I'd like to announce that the one and only 
unofficial Timex Sinclair 2068 Website is now 
operational! After a 2 year hiatus, I've finally gotten on 
the ball and assembled the site with the information I had 
available. This is material I've been collecting over 2 
years, so there is quite a bit of info to be had 

I've got the official history of the TS-2068, 
peripherals that will work with it, programming howto's, 
and much more. I hope to eventually grow the site into a 
highly useful resource for the rest of the TS2068 users to 
enjoy. 

As always, I welcome comments and material to add. 
The site will be a work in progress, as all websites are. I 
recently got a digital camera (very nice) and I've 
photographed most of my personal collection. 
Thanks to Johnny Red, of Portugal, and Jack Boatwnght 
who have supplied lots of the information, images, and 
other tidbits for the site. Finally, here's the link: 

http://www.unixvyie.com/2068 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



Winter zuui 



Hope you will enjoy it. I will be asking the T/SNUG 
group how to move TS2068 files over the internet- my 
software collection is quite lacking at this time, i would 
also like to post the various disk ROMs, if they're available 
as files (LarKen DOS, Aerco, etc.) so that you could take 
the schematics from the Website and make your own 
Aerco drive interface . 

One more tidbit: 1 will be restarting the 2068 email 
list once again in a few weeks. I still have rnanv of the 
original email addresses and will trv to contact the 
individuals. Many thanks! 

Louis Fiorii 
fiorit($unixviUe.com 

Hello everyone, If you receive this email, it 
means you were originally subscribed to the Timex 
Sinclair 2068 emaii list that went offline around the 
end of 1999. 

Everything has been rebuilt, and the email 
list is back online! You can send a message to 
all the rest of the people subscribed to this list by 
emailing 2068@unixville.com 

i would also like to announce that the 
unofficial Timex Sinclair 2068 Website is up with 
lots of images, information and links to many 
interesting resources. If you have any articles to 
post, i wouid sure appreciate it if you dropped 
me a link 

The Website is at 
httD://www,unixviS!e.com/2068 

Thanks, and hope to see lots of messages 
on the pipe again. 

Louis Florit 



I am wondering who among you has used the 
Warjevo Emulator and has any remarks - good or bad -- 
about it T am especially interested in how the program 
loRfta icvftwar^* from ^ao° and then 3 3fy «ort of 
inicrodiive emulation. Also, I would like information on 
where to obtain the latest version. Thank you ail in 
advance. 

David Solly 

Zabad@freenet. carleton ca 

I believe the latest veision should be available from 
the Website 

http://www.void.jump.org/warajevo/ 
I haven't used it myself, because of the fact that it is 
dos only. (No gui/windows). According to miscellaneous 
reports I've read, its supposed to be one for the most 
accurate and quickest emulators available. 

Louis Florit 

Hi, 

I have used the Warjevo Emulator a lot and like 

it: very much It does support the microdrives in the 
Spectrum mode, and with a special driver it can support 
the microdiives m Timex 2G&8 mode. The reason i tike it 
so much is, it can support OS-64 and the nricrodrives at the 
same time. This driver is not vet available on the Warjevo 
Fmulation site 



microdiive plug-in intended to be uploaded to ihe Warjevo 
Emulation site, but it was never done. I don't know why. 
Zeljko Jurik may have lost mterest in the project. 
Anyway, there are two attached ASCII text files that give 
some explanation of the use of the Warjevo Emulation in 
Timex 2068 and OS-64 modes. One, titled 
SERIESi.TXT, is a copy of me text nle already available 
at the Warjevo Emulator site, the other, titled SEkl.TXI, 
was to be uploaded by Zeljko sometime in mid 1999 along 
with the enhanced code for microdrive eompatiMity with 
Timex 2068 mode and OS-64. I hope attachments are 
acceptable for this address. Regards, 

Keith Watson 
2068@ unixville .com 

Is there an active users group for Timex/Sinclair 
computers any longer? 

i have questions concerning using Tasword II with 
the LarKen disk system and printing with the Aerco 
parallel interface to the Legend 808 printer in 
particular... linefeeds, window width. I have misplaced the 
documentation that came with the Larken disk system. Isn't 
there a screen copy command something like PRINT USR 
100: LPR1NT CHR$ 1 to get a screen copy? That is only if 
you are in B ASIC this command cannot be typed from 
within Tasword. MSCRPT seems to print fine.. Thanks, 

Neil 

pxxl@netz£rojiet 
Here is what I use to print program listings to a 
Panasonic printer. For screen COPY. LogiCal! by 
Robert Swoger is your best bet. 
10 RANDOMIZE USER 100. OPEN #3 "LP" 
20 RANDOMIZE USER 100: POKE 16090,132; REM 
sets left column 

30 RANDOMIZE USER 100: POKE 16092 0: REM 

right column 
40 PAUSE 10: RANDOMIZE USER 100: POKE 
16094,1. LPRINT: REM margin rot right column 
50 OUT 127.30: OUT 127.2/: QU f 127,20 
60 OUT 127,27- OUT 127,56 

70 LUST 

Hi Abed, 

i redid my opening page on my site with a new 
animated photo. If you have the time, take a look-see. 

Joe Rampolla 

http://yourpag8.blazenet.n8b'jprampGila 

jprampoila@biazenet.net 

I had a look at the site you marked. I believe that 
TC3256 is the "Portuguese" Timex. I understand that it is 
almost an exact copy of the T/S 2068 except mat all trie 
messages are in Portuguese, the video output is for monitor 
or uhf and the bus is a ZX Spectrum bus rather that the T/S 
bus that was used in the US Hope this helps 
Davit! Sally 

'ihe TC2068 doesn't have the messages in 
Portuguese. Trie TC2068 have the TS2068 ROMs and 48K 
RAM. The TC3256 was a new computer, new ROMs, new 
hardware. It had 256KB RAM, network, ZX Spectrum 
compatible mode, etc... To know why Timex of Portugal 
puiied ihe plug, read ihe Timex oi Portugal pan in me 
Timex Historv page. 

Johnny Red. Portugal 



lxh QLive Alive •: 



Winter 200 1 



ilttp .// liOilieptige . SaO LuiiCii.p b '~j uiii Ecu. OI* 

h^:/ywwwxoiprinterxom/tmx 

Keith Watson: 

I have used the Warjevo Emulator a lot and like it 
very much. It does support fee microdrives in the 
Spectrum mode, and with a special driver it can support 
the microdrives in Timex 2068 mode. The reason I like it 
so much is, it can support OS-64 and the microdrives at the 
same time. 

I've used it quite a bit too. Its strongest feature, what 
makes it special IMO, is the built in monitor/ disassembler. 
1 used it a few times to try out some TS2068 snapshots 
(MSCRIPT, techdraw, zeus assembler, etc.) and they 
worked great. The only problem is, you can't load the 
snapshots from within Warajevo - for some reason the 
emulator changes to Spectrum mode when it loads 
snapshots. I had to start up the emulator with "TS2068 
/rMSCRIPT.sna" or something similar. 

Ahin Albrecht 

Alvin..,. 

The only version of "C" for the ZX. Spectrum I have 
seen and used is the HiSoft version. The only useful thing 
T have «ee about it is that it comes packaged with, an 
extensive graphics package which might be great for game 
developers, otherwise, it is pretty useless, it has only 
integer addition and subtraction and no built-in function 
for multiplication or division. To multiply or divide you 
have to poke two system variables with values and call the 
ZX Spectrum ROM routine. It also uses the hated and 
unreliable 128-byte block method for loading itself and 
for source or object code you want to save or load. I 
believe there is one other version of "C" available for the 
ZX Spectrum but I have never seen it. 

For fee record, I have tried Abersofi and Hawg Wild 
FORTH. It is still integer math only, however, you can do 
16 byte math by using specialized functions. For Abersoft 
FORTH the storage device is strictly tape with no ability to 
change the file name. It saves everything as "DISC" and 
that is fee only choice you have unless you w r ant to write a 
new function. Hawg Wild FORTH gets most of its 
fimctionality by hooking into the T/S 2068 ROM routines 
which in some cases makes it slower that calling the 
equivalent routine in Sinclair BASIC, There is also 
Sinclair- FORTH which I have never been able to load into 
my ZX Spectrum emulating T/S 2068 but i have been able 
to make it run under Gerton Lunter's Z80 ZX Spectrum 
emulator. 

Davjd Soily 

Hi David, 

The one fm thinking about is available here: 
http://z88olc.sourceforge.net/features.htnil 
If s a cross compiler, meaning you ran it on your PC but it 
generates a code block for a z80 machine. It does support 
floating point using its own routines (or stabs, which I 
presume you can nil in with calls to the 2068 ROM rp 
calculator, if desired) and it has a decent subset of ANSI-C 
(or it seems to me..) including support for far-pointers: a 
method for dealing with bankswitehed memory. 

It looks nifty but I haven't had rime to really check it 
out. Dominic started a library of routines for the Spectrum 
(which we could modify for the TS2068) but his interests 



m this C compiler vvould do us a xavoi by working on a 
TS2068 library of routines :-). 

Arviit Albrecht 

I did this with a TS1 000 a long time ago. Y ou pulled 
it off by switching from FAST to SLOW mode and as I 
recall, the PLOT command (or anything that wrote to the 
screen) would do it. It's been years since I did this but 
with a little experimentation you should be able to 
duplicate it. 

/ _/_/ 

J J J 

J J 

J J J J 
J J 

J J J 
J J J 

jfarr@icubed.com 

htip://www.icubed.com/~ifarr 



Hello 

We are pleased to announce a major upgrade to the 
original QL Users Email Database now found on 

www.q4iania.iiiii.ee 

New features include much cleaner and simplified access, 
and a communications facility The database at the time of 
writing, has some 388 entries, with numbers steadily 
increasing. 

Access to database functions is now achieved directly 
from Quanta's homepage (which incidentally has also been 
completely re-hashed!). For instance, if you have forgotten 
your password or simply do not have one, all you do is 
enter your email address on Quanta's homepage, select the 
forgot/hone option, and press Go! 

The communications facility has been introduced to 
keep up with inter-computer voice and chat 
communications. Two options are available Both use a 
pop-up window thus allowing you to continue surfing fee 
net. The Comms option displays details of other users 
logged on, giving details such as then - IP address and 
software package/ID employed for direct voice 
commiinications. The QL Users Chat option additionally 
displays text input and output windows. 

Since it would be ideal to know when other users 
might be iogged on, you can place a diary entry in your 
database record and this will be displayed on Quanta's 
homepage. 

Quanta Links Page. 

This has been removed due to misuse by advertising 
organizations on the net. A new links list is now generated 
however from your database LTPJ, and site name entries. If 
you placed URL details on the old links page, these will no 
longer be visible, so update your database entry . 

More on Database Entries 

If you have not 3'et updated your entry since the databases 
relocation to wi-vw.quanta.uni.ee, please do so. if you do 
not have a password simply go to wviw.quanta.uni.ee and 
get one. Make sure you enter the email address this letter 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



.5 



Winter 200 i 



iux instance, Quanta and. QL Today nieinoership. 
Completing these entries are quite important because not 
only will these details be used when sending information 
to different interest groups, some future facilities will only 
be available to certain interest groups. Regards. 

Quanta Support 

This email has been generated using the bulk email facility 
at www.qumta.uni.ee. In the event of a complaint or 
enquiry contact 

quanta_suppoit@uk2. net 
wwwrun@www.jakintemet.co.uk 

rime% computer 'Mm 

Timex Computer 3256 liad really existed; Not a prototype, but a 
Hilly functional atid fiuusktsd iuacidiu>i ii vvas totally developed 
by Timex Computer of Portugal. TC3256 have 256K. base 
memory and a keyboard like the actual PC's, ii was based in 
Z80A CPU and it have live modes of operation. 

1- 8ASIC This is the Spectrum mode. 

2- TIMEWORD 

TIMEWORD is a word processor in ROM. It. uses 80 
columns screen, have all the Portuguese charters. It. can use the 
RAMdisk, FDD or tape for storage. Have T ABS, copy and move 
blocks of text.. 

3»Terminal CPM This mode was to replace the TT3000. It 
sets the TC3256, to use the FDD3000 in CPM mode and it 
works in SO columns. 

4- Disk Start 

litis gives io the programmer 64K of RAM lo development 
of software. Ihe biggest advantage is that the 64K RAM starts at 
00H. 

5- CATR!DGE 

Specially designed for the software houses to protect the 
software, using cartridges TC3256 have a Network, the TENET 
(Timex Educational NETwork) 

* .25 stations 

4 Maxuauiu length: 100 meters 
4 Shadiig Printer aud FDD System 

♦ Messaging system 

♦ Can be used in Timex Extended BASIC 

* Station low cost My transparent to users software 
4 P esists to failure or loss of stations 

Timex Extended BASIC, has added more commands: 

I OAD'.SAVE!, CAT!,' MERGE!, ERASE! and CI .EAR! to 

control the .EAM&ivs. 

£' Oa-iiVlt u i«t Xui> i , i^iO A ixJ vUUUOi Ul£ i\£>*2* 

mrrrrpi . -- nif.n _ J ,1. ; , 

SCREENS, DRAW-!, PLOT J, CIRCLE; to control the high 
resolution screen mode, it allows to work with PAPER and INK. 
TC3256 doesn't need anymore the FDD/FDD3000 interface. The 
FDD3000 is just connected like the TT3000. 
TC3256 Specifications 
Processor: Z80A 

RAM: 256K (208K RAMdrive/48K base memory) 
ROM: 64K 

\ 6K Sinclair BASIC 

16K TIMEWORD word processor 

16K Timex Extended Basic (Tenet, disk, RAMdrtve) 

16K CPM Temiinal emulator 
Screen: s*)ua i ohk^a 
Resolution. 256x192 / 512x192 
Sound: BEEP and AY-3-8192 (can output to TV) 
Joystick: 1 Kempson 
Cartridge Port: 1 
Disk Drive: TOS/CP/M 
TV Output 



Monitors: "Video composite and RGB (colour/ monochrome) 
Colours: S+BRIGHT^IS 

Keyboard: 69 keys, professional keyboard with numeric 
keyboard and function keys (Caps Lock, Extended, cursors, edit 
delete, break) 

RS-232: 1 (300 to 9600 baud; 
Mic and Ear: Can use Tape 

Timex of Portugal stop selling, repairing and 
manufacturing all the Timex Computers range when the TC3256 
was about to be launched in the market. The destiny of TC3256 
is unknown, but I think IH get this Mo, later! 

A. Portuguese guy have send me an email telling that he 
hove a working TC3256. He said thai be "would get pictures of it 
tome. 

Portugal Timex Computer World 
http://hom 

www.colprinter com/tmx 

Here is a translation to fee text on ilie TC 3256 that the 
link below refers to. TC 3256 (Computer, Portugal) 

Z80A CPU, 256 Kb RAM, 64 Kb ROM (16Kb Sinclair 
BASIC, 16 Kb Timeword, i6 Kb Timex Extended BASIC 
(TeNet, Disk and RAM-Drive), 16 Kb CP/M Terminal 
Emulator)., 32 x 24 and 64 x 24 characters respectively 256 x 
192 and' 512 x 192 pixels (8 colours + BRIGHT), five 
operating modes: 

1. BASIC - Spectrum mode, 

2. Timeword - Text processor with SO characters per line, 
uses FDD or cassette for mass storage, 

3. Terminal CP/M - This should replace the TT3000; uses 
the FDD3000 in CP/M mode, 

4. DtskStart - Gives the developer 64 Kb of free storage 
from address 0000H, and, 

5. Cartridge - Software is loaded from cartridge. 
Louis Floric wrote: 

Anyone ever hear of a TC32.56? I his site makes 
mentions of it (in German) [and. saves a nice Timex 
Sinclair/computer timeline 1 

htrp://miiseiirn .rulir.de/rlocs/timex3 htm 

Loafs Flodt 

Deal - Abed, 

Please find with this letter a copy of TirnexSinekir 

ZX Spectrum ROM Routine Look -Up Table 
for publication in the next edition of ZXir QLive Alive! I 
have referred to tins table a few tunes myself and i hope 
readers of ZQA! will find it useful. However, cannot take 
credit for having created it, It is something that was 
photocopied from somewhere else and given to me. I have 
merely made a new copy by scanning the original and 
doing some "rly spot" removal. (Someday, when I have the 
time and ambition, I might enter all this data into a 
database and create a two-way table.) Your friend, 

David Solly 

(See the next pages) 

HelloT" 

I would just like to remind people that the following 
LarKen manuals are available on the World Wide Web. 
Larry Kenny. LarKen disk editor, edited and annotated by 
David Soily. HTML conversion by W. McBrine. Ottawa. 
BibiiouiecaSagittani@1999. URL: 

http://www cl ark net/~wmcbrine./1arkdi sk .html 
LarKen disk operating system. Version L3F: operating 
manual / edited and annotated by Laviu souy . ti l aLu 
conversion by W. McBrine. Ottawa: Biohodieca 



ZXir QLive Airvei 



lillp./ f WW vv ,oioiis..iicu ~ftiIiC0ffii&iaikenUOS.iifflli. 

LarKen sequential/random access rile utility, edited and 
annotated by David Solly. HTML- conversion by W 
McBtine. Ottawa: Rihliotheca Sagitrarii, ©2000. URL: 

htrp:/%ww. cladc.net'-^oiicbiine/larkenseq.htiBl. 
In addition, I am euiietuly working on two othci LaiKen 
manuals. LDOS tor tne TS-iOGO Manual & LOGS for the 
TS-2068. For the TS-2068, LDOS was the forerunner of 
LKDOS . T don't know if William. McBrine mil make them 
available on his web site because I have yet to hear from 
him. I will post a notice to the news group as they become 
available. 

David Solly 

Zabad@ncf.ca 

Gentlemen, 

I received a question from a man from US News & 
World Report asking if there is still a Timex User group 
out there. He's considering an article about us diehards. In 
my response I mentioned the ZXir QLive Alive! newsletter 
as well as the existence of NESQLUG and the Cleveland 
group to him. I hope you won't mind that I gave him your 
email addresses. You may be getting email from Al 
Werner shortly so this may give you some time to think 
about it. 

John Donaldson 
Jiojiidsii@aoi.coni 

This site (www outlawnet com/~jboamo4/welcome,htm) is 
the only place on the web T got a hit for Gladstone 
Electronics. Do you happen lo have a current phone or 
address? I am trying to find a uansfomier for some audio 
modules I purchased from them m the mid 80 f s. Thanks, 
anv help would be appreciated. 

JeffiySczepansid 
jsczepan@foid.com 
Sony, I don't have any info on Gladstone. 
But you can try Radio Shack of course. 
All Electronics - www allelectronics.com 
MCM Electronics ~ www.mcmeiectronics.com 
Mouser Electronics - www.mouser.com 
James - www.jam eco. co m Newark. . . . . „„ . 

Does anyone have a TS-202Q tape player that 
they'd care to part with for relatively cheap (25$)? You 
can reach me at florit@hudat.com 

Louis Florit 

fioritffamixville com 
LOUIS FLORIT 
1 60 PASiTO TER 71 8 
SUNNYVALE C A 94086 

Hello, does anyone have any experience using the 

t,tfVf*-rt ft-** ■*■-"> -to- "» *"V"Wi -£rv+- 4-1-"* £i f~\. A /"> r> -ff^'i rvo*^ A r* e\ i 

W.jUiiJUCU y±\J^iuli.x xi-iu-^i* JAJx U.1.W v~t VOiuiUgvi xjiiu U 

so, can you use it independent of the cartridge or is the 
cartridge needed? I would like to get a different terminal 

program for my TS2068, the MTERM software program is 
very limited thanks, 

cioiuy jH\w~y aiioo.cuiii 

Thanks for the great info David. I would love to get 
the OS 64 cartridge and ZTerm terminal program for my 
TS2068. If anyone on this mailing list has this for 
sale/trade please let me know. Also, is the Oliger disk 




iieno Ferry.... 

The OS o4 cartridge is more properly called the 
Zebra OS 64 cartridge. It is designed to fit into the 
cartridge dock of the Timex/Sinclair 2068 Colour 
Computer. However, because my T/S 2068 shares His 
same dock with the LarKen DOS chip, i had built an 
arrangement that piggy-backs the Zebra OS 64 chip over 
the LarKen DOS chip. A small toggle switch is used to 
switch the Zebra OS 64 system in or out. The Zebra OS 
64 chip is also completely compatible with LarKen DOS. 

The terminal program written for 
the Zebra OS 64 is called ZTerm. 
ZTerm is specifically designed to run 
under Zebra OS 64. It is also designed 
in such a way that it can only be run 
using die Westridge 300 baud modem. All attempts that I 
know of to patch it to run on a standard modem failed. 
Despite this, it was an excellent telecommunications 
program for the time. Because of the Zebra OS 64 chip, 
ZTerm can display 64 characters per line in full sized 
character, i.e. 8 by 3 pixel characters, which is a great deal 
less stressful on the eyes than the compressed character 
sets used by such applications as Tasword II. You can 
also install a customized character set if you so wished T 
used the Amstrad character set myself for terminal work. 
Other features of ZTerm are the ability to create and stole 
address books, up and download programs using x- 
modem protocol, capture text to a text buffer and program 
nmctionkeys 

Shortly after the appearance of ZTerm, a program 
from Britain called Specterm made its appearance. 
Specterm has most of the features of ZTerm, however, it 
requires your computer to be fitted with a ZX Spectrum 
emulator chip. Specterm is not as stable as ZTerm. and 
tends to hang up easily. Specterm also uses a compressed 
character set to obtain 64 characters per line. This 
character set is very suessful on the eyes - even with a 
good momtor - after only a very snort time. Where 
Specterm outshines ZTerm, however is that it comes with 
several overlay packages which allows it to be used with 
several mass storage devices and also, with the aid of an 
RS232 board, with standard Hays compatible modems in 
addition to the Westridge modem. Specterm also used x- 
rnodem protocol for file transfers but in addition, it sends 
header information with the file. This is both a blessing 
and a curse. A blessing in that you do not have to won} 
yourself over whether the program was s BASIC, machine 
code, a screen save or a data file. The header information 
insured that the program will be saved in the correct 
format to whatever storage device you are using. Hie 
curse is that both parties must oc ruismng Specterm ioi 
mis to work otherwise you get garbage instead of a 
program. 

I hope this information is helpful or at least provides an 
interesting history lesson. 

It I remember correctly, Zebra Systems is still in 
business and the Zebra OS 64 chip and ZTerm program is 
still available from them. Zebra is one of the very few 



easiness left that still supports Timex/Sinclair. 

David Soiiy 



Lit, 



ZXir QLive Alive I 



Winter 200 i 



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ZXirQLive Alive! " 8 Winter 2001 




Supporting All QL Programmers 



#33 October 2000 





The QL Hacker's Journal (QHJ) is published by Tim 
Swenson as a service to the QL Community. The QHJ is 
freely distributable. Past issues are available on disk, via 
e-mail, or via the Anon-FFP server, garbo.uwasa.fi. The 
QHJ is always on the look out for article submissions. 
QT. Hacker's Journal 
c/o Tim Swenson 
2455 Medallion Br. 
Union City, CA 94587 
swensontf«)lanset. com 
bttp:#www .geocities.com/SiliconValley/Pines/586 5/ 

Editor's Forum 

don't know if I'm old enough to claim that old 
age is to blame for why I'm not able to get as 
many QHJ issues out in a year as I would like. 
Maybe I can blame my oilier attractions, such as family, 
house, work, and my other hobbies. I've also been a little 
distracted with the Q40 and Q4Q/Linux. 

o, here I sit not doing any coding on trie Q4G, but 
just thinking about coding. This issue Is mostly 
on tilings to help code, but no actual code. As I 
putter around the house, fixing this and working on that, I 
keep thinking to myself; "I'll get a chance to work on that 
program tomorrow." Then tomorrow comes and there is 
more disfractions. Ahh, Well 

Turbo and TurboPE 

, i n the May/June 2000 issue of QL Today, George 
S I Gwilt mentions that lie has updated Turbo to 
work under SMSQ/E. He also mentions creating 
TurboPE, a Pointer Environment interface for Turbo. He 
does not go into any details nor give any code examples, 
so I can't say how easy TurboPE will be to use over other 
PE tools (QFTR, EasyPTR, and Qmenu). He does not 
even mention if these existing tools will work with Turbo. 

iven that Turbo will be freeware, I'm making a 
fair guess that TurboPE will also be freeware As 
useful as QPTR, Eas}>PTP.., and esp. Qmenu are, 
they are all commercial programs. It is possible to write 
freeware applications with these tools, but distributing a 
fully working program is limited. Qmenu may not be 
distributed with a freeware application, EasyPTR. routines 
may be compiled into an application, but permission must 
be granted for each application, and QPTR does not 
mention if it can be compiled into an application. Granted 
the PE can not be freely distributed so any freeware PE 
programs must assume the user already has the PE, only 
Qmenu is distributed with other programs. 

o having a freeware SuperBasic compiler with a 
freeware toolkit for accessing the PE will give the 
QL programmer a little more freedom in what he 
can write and distribute. I look forward to the release of 
both Turbo and TurboPE.. 

Recent Commercial to Freeware Released 








ecently a number of commercial programming 
tools have been released as freeware. They are 
ProWesS, DJToolKit MasterBasic, and the 
TurboToolkit. 

Of the four packages. ProWesS is the biggest and most 

surprising to be released as freeware. If is a major piece of 
work, fairly complicated, and gives a lot a capability to the 
user (and programmer). 

fi"! et me ta ^ s a mrnute m & §i ye a quick description 
of ProWesS HI start with something most of 
you would already blow about, the Pointer 
Environment. Hie PE is composed of two parts, the 
Pointer Interface (ptr gen) and the Window Manager 
(wman). The PI takes care of the mouse and the WM takes 
care of the screen displays The look of the PE is based 
upon the Window Manager (wman). ProWesS is another 
Window Manager for QDOS. It is used to create a whole 
different look for applications and provides some features 
(such as scalable fonts) not found in the PE Window 
Manager. 

nother way of looking at this is to vi ew Windows 
3. 1 1 and Windows 95 as two different Window 
Managers. A program written for Win 3. 1 1 will 
run under Win 95, but it will have the look of a Win 95 
program. For users of Q40/Linux, they are finding out that: 
Linux has quite a number of different Window Managers 
available. 

If" 7~i 1L ^ e most Window Managers, PE and ProWesS 
II U I prog 131118 can be run at the same time and be 
1 S— i displayed on the same screen. 
For the programmer what ProWesS gives is another way 
to create pointsi driven programs. If piogiaiiiiiiiiiy for toe 
PE is a little beyond a programmer, they might find 
programming for Pro WesS a little easier. Plus, the various 
additional features that ProWesS has over the PE gives the 
programmer additional capabilities for the application 
=j he DJToolKit * (DJTK) is a collection of 
I I SuperBasic extensions written by Norman 
mmmm Dunbar, i bought DJTK a few yeais back and 
have found it useful in my programming. It contains 44 
new keywords, which are broken down into 4 main areas: 
File handling, Font handing, Screen handling, and Heap 
handling. The distribution comes with die complete 
documentation, giving enough information to get started. 
I'd recommend that all SuperBasic programmers give this 
toolkit a look. You might just find THE extension that 
makes your programming easier. 

3urboToolKil (TTK) lias been updated to fix a 
number of bugs and to have it work with newer 
versions of QDOS and SMSO/E Like the DJTK, 
TTK is a collection of extension for SuperBasic I have 
never used Turbo or the TTK so I don't know any specifics 
abour the extensions. Some or toe extensions are 
document in the text files that come with the distribution. 



/.Air ULive Aiivei 



Winter 200 f 





reading. I don't plan my code to be syntactically correct 
when I write it. My first draft is very similar to a rough 
pencil sketch. Once I've done the mental dump to the 
editor, 1 can then flesh out the code and make sure it's good 
SuperBasie. 

LibXmenu 

(rfnl ibXmenu is a C68 library, written by Jerome 
II L I Grimbert, to help write menu-based programs. 
1 Www J When I first heard of ft t was thinking that it was 
a library that converted X-windows routines to PE 
routines, but (Ms is not what it does. 
Jerome described Xmenu as a collection of C routines that 
he wrote to assist him in writing PE programs. He found 
himself doing the same routines so be jnst created some 
Surly generic routines that could easily be used from one 
program to Hie next. Looking at Hie routines available, it 
iooks a iot iike Qmenu ibr Co8. Jerome did tell me that 
this was not his intention. 

'■4 quick nindown of the routines are- 
^ J Item_SelectQ - Choose from a list, of items. 
mmm Iteru_Seleet _Airay() - Same as above, but using 
an array. 

Message ReportQ - Display some text. 

Srring_ Edit() - Get a string from the user (with edit), 

XDialogO - Display sprite and text. 

Menu_Button_TextO - Text for Hie Button. 

Menu_.Button_LogoO - use a sprite in a Button. 

List SelectO - Choose 1 or more from a list. 

List Seleet_ArrayO - Same as above, but using an array 

Check_SizeO Find size of window. 

Get CliarSlze - Find size of characters. 



DefauitCoiourSetO - Change color set to aetauit. 
DisplayXSizeQ - Maximum X value of current display. 
Display YSizeQ - Maximum Y value of current display 
SetWmdowColourO - Set color of the window. 
SetZnfoCoiGiirQ - Change color of Hie info window. 



but they look to cover those parts of TTK that have been 
updated. Like DJTK, now that TTK is freeware, it's worth ' 1 
a look co see what it lias. Maybe better documentation will 
be released with Turbo is released. 
^^t! asterBasic by Davide Santachiara (and released 
^ 1 by Ergon Development) is a SuperBasie tool for 
=bseJ assisting in the creation and debugging of 
SuperBasie programs. Tills program has recently been 
released as freeware and is available on the Ergon 

Development web page 

must admit that I bought this program a few 
years ago, but have not realty gotten around to 
trying it out. MasxerBasic is a collection of 
routines and programs with a graphical front end. it is 
designed to work on a program in memory (i.e. a LISTable 
program). It can do things like searching for a string in the 
program, quickly find and edit Procedures and Functions, 
quickly finding a variable, arid so on. It also comes with 
some accessory utilities iike a calculator, notepad, and job 
management tool 

guess the reason J have never tried MasterBasic 
is that I prefer to write SuperBasie in an editor 
(like MicroEmacs, ED, etc) and then LOAD and 
test it. With an editor I can quickly jump around putting in 
bits of code as I think of them. I can easily put more 
verbose comments in the code Add white space for easy 



hese routines can be used in both Mode 4 and 
Mode 8. On Jeromes' web page he has a page 
describing libXmenu with example screen shoots 
showing Hie results ot some of Hie commands. I'm not 
much of a C68 programmer (heck, I hardly have enough 
time to program in SuperBasie), but if I was to start, T 
would start playing around with libXmenu to see how easy- 
it is to write a menu-based program. 



Recent Upgrades To Microemacs 



t i icroEmacs is becoming my favorite editor, esp. 

i ^ J now that I have a Q40. As MicroEmacs becomes 
iiaa— 1 more powerful, it needs some more horsepower 
to run quickly. On the Q40, speed is not an issue at ail. 
There are some new features to MicroEmacs that impact 
the programmer. They are: 

> Support, for Client-Server Manager (CSM) 

> Syntax H^hligliring 

> Support ibr CTAGS 
SM is an easy way for one program to control 

(j, I another. The Server program handles requests 
mm& from the clients, and passes back to the client an 
acknowledgement of the request or some data. When I 
first encountered CSM I was not too sure how it could be 
used. It was created to provide scripting for QEM. The 
scripts are written in SuperBasie, sending commands to 
QEM via CSM. 

Now MicroEmacs has CSM support, allowing SuperBasie 
programs to send MicroEmacs commands to the editor. 
This opens up a number of possibilities ibr having other 
program interact with MicroEmacs. 
f^^i ow * ^ thinking about using the MicroEmacs- 
H I CSM ^ k m Structured SuperBasie (SSB). 
LmntJ SSB is just a simple filter mat converts SSB code 
to SuperBasie. If SSB encounters a syntax error, it just 
reports it and exits. WiHi a link to MicroEmacs, SSB 
could connect to MicroEmacs via CSM, move the cursor 
to the exact line with the error, then SuperBasie can exit. 
The user would switch to MicroEmacs and be at Hie 
problem line, ready to edit it. This would move SSB and 
MicroEmacs closer to an Integrated Development 

Environment 

ere is an Structured SuperBasie example of how 

easy someHiing like tins would be. 
## Make sure MicroEmacs is running as a 
server 

IF FINDSERVER("emacs") THEN 
## Connect to MicroEmacs 
CLIENT "emacs" 

## Add line count to goto-lme command 
commands = "goto-line "&var 
## Send a request to MicroEmacs 




REQUEST "emacs"ccm^and$/eturn$ 
IFreton$-"KO ,, THEN 

## There was an error 
END IF 
END IF 



2 yntax Highlighting is a way for MicroEmacs to 
^ 1 show Hie syntactical elements of a program by 
showing the different words m different colors 
and italics. Syntax Highlighting supports C (_c and _h 
files* SuperBasie ( has, sbas, _ssb files), and assembler 




X* J.V jUAWtJ/. 



1 fi 



I've rvnlv nzprt Sh/r»tax Hi8hli9htin& with Structured 

Comment liiies (##) are shown in white and italics. There 
is a slight problem here as SSB defines comment iines as 
any line starting with ##, excluding any spaces in front of 
the ## (thjs allows for indented comments) MieroFrnacs 
only supports lines that begin with ## in column 1 . 
iT'l^nf- u P ei ^ as * c y0n tioi commands (DEFine, FOR, TO, 
jj S I NEXT, RETURN, IF, THEN, ELSE, etc.) are 
UmmmJl shown in white. The SuperBasic short cuts (such 
as DEF for DEFine) are not supported The case of the 
words are ignored. DEFine, DEFINE, and define are all 
understood to be die same. The rest of the code is shown in 
the normal green. 

he color used to highlight the different elements 
can be changes by using 4 different MicroEmacs 
variables. So, if you prefer comments to be in 
xed, y ou can do that. 




^ tags come from Unix and w£f£ originally cr^st^d 



7 1. 



using me program etag. me eoiLOi men reaas 
this file to understand the tags. 

Ctags is designed to be used on a collection of source files 
in a directory. The tag file is sort of like an index file 
showing what procedures are defined and used in what 
source files. Ctags is not very useful with source code 
residing only one hie. 

j 77T~ i icroEmacs understands how to read a tag file and 

>e used to navigate through the source code 



Lsssaai files, by 



■fw/vrTf-Miry ir\ r» ■*i.-pr\/\nAi-irn> A /x*r t 



seating the 

'tag-word' command. Moving forward is accomplished 
with the 're-tag-word' command and moving back is done 
with the 'back-from-tag-word' command. 
Hags understands C, C++, Eifiel. Tava, Fortran, and 
SuperBasic. This means that MicroEmacs also supports 
these languages with tag files. 



an 



■ 



fflYGHE? 



Glen 3. Havdon. MD. 



Epsiion Lyra Corporation 
Route 2 Box 429 

La Honda, CA 94020-9726 
t would like to build my Forth Philosophy this year (1998) 
iarouiul lire concept that (here is strength in diversity. Ovci 
the years, Forth has evolved in many divers ways. 
Individuals have taken different directions and the vendors 
have gone their own wavs Trvmcr to force all Forth into a 

eiiilfyljS" mnW Tfrill Aic+rnr-h &y-,t"»-s it*? rvvtvars.i-T.I 

k>Jli>^lW iliwlu V/1JU <J£dllUvb j_t.wX4.Jt iiiJ £/v> WSJ ilJXli.. 

Forth as an Operating System 

Oist off. Forth was designed as an operating system. As 
I such it improved the efficiency of the application 
However, it restricted the system on which it could be 
used. Even with that limitation, Chuck brought up most of 
his implementations on dedicated systems and directed 
them to specific applications including any necessary 
operating system It is interesting that again there is 
discussion of making Forth the operating system after 
having taken a turn as only one program available in other 
operating systems Perhaps this idea needs cioser 
examination. 

Early Public Forth Implementations 

^aily on, Tire Forth Primer horn the Kitt Peak National 
L.Observatory provided a tutorial to tne implementations 
on a set of minicomputers. But it was not until the fig 
Forth implementation was made available as the Forth 
Installation manual that the language began to spread. 

Several groups were taken with the power of Lire 
language and the Forth interest Group eventually 
published source code for the implementation of Forth on 
some 12 different platforms 

iuoiiiiily jug Funk meetings weie Well attended. Regularly 
150 to 200 were present at these meetings, "there were 
problems and individuals contributed to solutions. The 
openness of the source and the sohmons was stimnlatinp 



vtsnuuf rumi iinpittiiitfiiiiciuuna 

O t about this time several vendors developed and 

i i 



marketed their Forth implementations, there were 
numerous discussions about the need for more 
implementations of the Forth kernels Each company had a 
good one. It was time to forgot about implementing Forth 
and get Oil with Lite work ofForth applications. 

it is mteresting tiiat most ot the Forth Vendors could 
not make a business on sale of their implementations 
alone As far as T know thev all provided custom services 

•fv-yr ivrtPOlfif! o-j-vnlio^+i/vnc* \Jar\Aryre oftcm -fnilnr +"hair Irarnolp 

Sji each appiiuauon. 

The early conflicts in goais among forth users 
stimulated a wide variety of directions. The differences 
were alwavs well discussed at fm meetings and 



The 



Wcic at times a little 01 i tire sharp side. 

The Forth Heyday 

This was the time of the heyday of Forth interest We had 
I a Byte issue which featured Forth. Wc had nearly 5000 
members of fig. Hie FORML meetings were attended by 
100 or so interested Forth users For a tew years we had an 
annual Forth Day which ran on to two days and were 
attended by 1000-9000 interested people 

A S™* I— — — — 

r\ ui icxi tyc 

This review of history is designed to highlight some of 
I the diverse events which led to a rapid growth of interest 
in Forth. There was something about the philosophy at the 
time which was positive and stimulating. 
Since then, lire size of (he Forth Interest Group lias 
gradually decreased. We hear less and iess about toitti m 
the general Hterature. The Rochester Conferences have 

ended after 1 R v?>ars 

11 

continue after 20 years. What happened? lite Standards 
Team entered trie picture. Fust with the 79 Standard, tiien 
the 83 Standard, and then over a period of years the ANS 
Standard was developed At the same time, fig offered no 



imj^iwiiieiita.ii\jijitj iWx tj.lv IIv 

Tins was left to tlie Vendors. 



rrr C 1 +•/-. -r>/lo -vA t ~* £ -s ^ tti/jfr oo-rw^ ont 



I see the problem to be that Forth, in contrast with 



T%r: ... ,-.t ; *1 : i 



1 1 



1*4 /Vlt 



nttw kncnawfii was nriowft'teH p. knorjaa^ aIa^pIv fleyiof* ^ he merl if D^wloT*rn^nt Platform allows 

-_:_ i . i3 — -...-j--.,. j • • s to— ~" *"' -* 1 to to- j -' 

■*v>1 r.-trtf-l fv>. rt«*^14>-so+-**^*^ A f i> *-nr r<v#y>-«"* , l t>/3f+^r>- A if *-\£»-f 

programmers die noi faiiiiiiai with closely bound hardware 
and software. 

A second problem was that most users wanted to use 
their computers for other programs too These systems 
came with an operating system to manage the other 
programs. 

j^orth became just another program. True, by renaming 
I the Forth program C0MMAND.COM, the Forth 
program would become the operating system. However, it 



1 in1nn -t 

envhorutieiri, Forth becomes yet another tool. In many 
cases Forth is an ideal tool. This seems to be a direction 
that some of Forth is moving. 

Embedded Systems 

There are a number of simple hardware systems under 
l computer control These systems are dedicated to the 
application. There is no need for all of the over head of a 
full Development Platform The Forth kernel can be very 
small and the dialed used is 



ther programs on the same 
system. 

Then there was demand for Forth Libraries and other 
tools to which programmers had become accustomed. 
Programmers new to Forth thought it had to look and work 
like other languages. 

Hardware Evoiution 

Over the years, the computer systems have become more 
Uand mo r e complex Memory managers have been added 

disk managers were needed to allocate space on Lire floppy 
and then the hard disks m ever increasing size and used tor 
many different programs. 

Forth, originating as an operating system nlosely 
linking the hardware to the program tor optimal efficiency, 
lost out for many of the major systems on die market. 

Windows Operating Systems 

■Hexi came the windows paradigm starting with the Star 
S (system at Xerox Palo Alto Park. Over years, 
programmers became accustomed io a windows 
presentation. The operating system exploded in size and 
complexity. 

Forth became a smaller and smaller part of the 
common computer systems. At present, many people are 
working to And a niche foi Foiih in tut evei larger and 
more complex world. 

A Return to Diversity 

fn a review of the history of Forth, we sec that it has been 
I used in diverse ways. A major iiend has been away fiora 
hardware and implementations. Other features have been 
added such as libraries. The problem with libraries is that 

they require a standard kernel The advantage is that they 

-.4 A ~ 4-V. + 1 r , ~ ~ sh-i-i tint./. t-v-» n >-B ~r~t ...if -ft- n f- 

(ire direction that Forth seems to be taking as iar as 
development is concerned. But there are many other uses 
of Forth being actively implemented in embedded 
processors. We need to be aware of these many embedded 



The 



at/|jiivutis_'ii miuo i. will vail wo u. iiiajui sjkji 



programmers. 



A Development Platform 



O Development Platform includes many tools. Not all of 

»' » OiCAli cue tta&iiy iiiipiSiliwiitCU iu lv/iai. wiiv Ox vu%* majui 

tools wiiiuh mosi Forth Piogtaiiuners ignore completely is 
version control. As applications get large with many 
programmers and changing requirements, it is necessary to 
maintain version control for mamtaining programs in the 



Then there is the problem of drivers for the many 
additions to hardware Each controller seems to do things 
iust a little differently. Separate modules for each new 



program need not be portaole. 

With such Systems we are almost back to tire origins 
of Forth. There is a surprising number of such applications. 
A great diversity of Forth implementations continues to be 



developed 



embedded Program Development 

in many ways, it is convenient to develop the application 
jfvn fhf> «rv«tern on which it is °oins? to ran. Often a snrmle 



'*6 



i.i W tilitiilgt.iiis;j.ti. j.u jiiAiiCi^iiL iliulv io iiaj i.v/i LUij UiU 

more complicated. 

On toe other hand, a iuliy equipped Development 
Platfonn can be convenient. A simulator of the embedded 
system can be written The application can be target 
compiled for the embedded process. The tools of program 
control can be invoked. Trie embedded system can be 
tethered to the Development Piatibrm and tested. 

It is a choice for the programmer of the embedded 
system. How much rime does he want to spend to learn the 
power of a folly endowed Development Platform, and how 
much time is necessary to develop the embedded 
application. 

The answer is in diversity. We need to get beyond the 
Forth "choir" to the many diverse users and encourage all 
of their diverse ways. 

A Model Operating System 

I inux is an open operating sy stem with many participants 
Uworld wide. It can be very large and is certainly 
complex. 

(Qorne months ago, I attended a Linux Day. Actually, it 
-Jwas only an evening, it was attended by about 1000 
people. It reminded me of the Forth Days of years past. 
The enthusiasm of tht* narnHpa"ts was amazing They 

In iimrkmg about what is going on, I can see many 
parallels to what we went through with Forth, i can see 
where they may well end up with some of the same 
problems we have in Forth 

HOwCvOA, i\Jl umjbo All IlO^U Ul u. JLUil) Ol^LlipJJwU. 
Development System, Linux might just provide die 
iramework. Forth could provide another tool on a Lmux 
platform. But a minimal Forth as the operating system and 
application may be all that is necessary I think that Forth 



A Forth Philosophy of Diveisity 
It is time to open Form to all. There is no requirement 
that any program is necessarily standard. 

Conclusion 



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WilfRigter 



Introduction 1 Jan, 1998 revision 
H^he EZ80 (pronounced "eazy 80") is an all CMOS Z80 
controller with some novel features. The simple 



if: 



H^design, powerful debugging features and low power 
(<10 ma) consumption make it suitable for battery 
powered robotics hand-held and/or educational 
applications. The EZ80 consists of a CMOS Z80, 32K of 
battery backed up CMOS RAM, a CMOS 8255 with 24 
I/O lines, and five simple 74HC type glue chips. The EZ80 
connects to the world via three connectors: the EZiCE 
port, the EZI/O port and the EZKEY port, 
g^o EPROM?", you say? The core features of the EZ80 
jj'ftlare the BLANK memory and the unique on-board 
programming hardware which does not need a 
monitor program in EPROM. This makes the EZ80 
similar to some single chip micro-controller chips with on- 
chip EEPROM prograrnming capability. The programming 
functions operate on single bytes or blocks of up to 32K 
bytes. Program code is normally stored in the 0-1 6K block 
which is non-volatile and write protected. The read/write 
data is stored in the 16K-32K block. Actually 
programrning is only a small part of the build-in debugging 
hardware called the EZiCE port. 

Hiring program and hardware development the EZiCE 
ll'T/port is connected to a standard IBM PC parallel port. 
l^The EZ80 single stepper circuit, when combined with 
a control decoder and 3-state buffer can transfer opcodes 
and data between the PC printer port and the Z80 data bus 
and ultimately the Z80 registers. This method of "stuffing" 
opcodes on the Z80 data bus is also used to generate 
random access addressing to program the on board non- 
volatile memory and perform a range of debugging 
functions. The EZiCE software so far provides the 
following menu: 



1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 



FILE 

LOAD 

SAVE 

VERIFY 

LIST 

STEP 

TRACE 



8. BREAKPOINT 

9. RUN 

10. RESET 

11. SETUP 

12. SHELL 

13. USER 

14. EXIT 



j|)y^he EZ80 uses a 8255 24-bit parallel interface with 
four registers corresponding to 3 general purpose 8- 
*ky^ bit TTL computable I/O ports and a control register. 
The 8255 supports the EZI/O port and the EZKEY port. 
The EZI/O port emulates a PC printer port to take 
advantage of the many LPT peripheral projects designed 
for the PC. Conversely any EZ80 I/O expansion project 
should be computable with the PC LPT port as well! 
The EZKEY port is connected to 8255 Port B and has 
added hardware to interface directly with a scanned 64 
contact keyboard matrix. The 26 pin EZKEY connector is 
also used for other front panel functions such as the 
POWER and RESET switches and 5 LEDs. 
||^fhe EZiCE port is a Direct Memory Access (DMA) 
W\ interface designed to connect to a PC LP"~ 
Import during prograrnming and debugging. 



interface designed to connect to a PC LPT printer 

In the 

RUN mode, the EZiCE HC573 latch has a secondary 



function as a general purpose TTL level 8-bit input 
register. 

Circuit Overview 
g^lie EZ80 circuit details are shown in the schematic fig 
|| fy 1. The basic design is simply a Z80 connected to a 

32K SRAM and some I/O. The simple battery backup 
for the SRAM is connected to the RAM Vss pin and uses 
5V as the common. This has a big advantage over the more 
conventional designs in that the WR and CE lines are 
automatically pulled up to Vcc during power down. The 
RAM is partially write protected providing 16K bytes of 
write protected memory from 0K-16K and 16K of 
read/write memory from 16K-32K. 
H^fhe RESET circuit uses a push button, a decoded reset 
IH'T command and a power supply under-voltage monitor 

to reset the Z80 and 8255 chips. This prevents 
undefined Z80 operations during power cycling which 
could corrupt memory or send spurious signals to the I/O 
pins. 

jbifhe basic I/O circuit consists of a 24-bit I/O 8255 PPI 
WV chip and an 8-bit tristate buffer which connect the 
Ilx EZ80 to the outside world via the EZI/O port, the 
EZKEY port and the EZiCE port. 

g^rie EZiCE port is a on-board In Circuit Emulation 
II *Y interface used for program and hardware 
JsL/ development. A key component is the SINGLE 
STEPPER circuit to step the CPU one bus cycle at a time. 
The CPU uses bus cycles to access memory or I/O devices 
which can be a Ml opcode fetch or any other read or write 
cycle. The EZiCE PORT uses the PC LPT control lines to 
override the Z80 IORQ, RD and WR control signals. 
When these signals are applied in the correct sequence, the 
EZiCE port provides a kind of direct memory access 
(DMA) to the EZ80 RAM and Z80 data bus. Data from 
RAM and CPU bus (and CPU registers) is read in two 
nibbles to four of LPT status lines. The fifth, line (ERR) 
conveys Ml and HALT. 

e EZI/O PORT uses the 8255 Port A and Port C to 
emulate a true PC type bi-directional printer port. 
l/^The EZKEY PORT uses the 8255 Port B and the A8- 
A15 CPU address line to scan a matrix of up to 64 key 
contacts. 

Z80 Inside 

The EZ80 uses a CMOS Z80 CPU for reduced power 
consumption. Details of the CPU functions can be found in 
the ZILOG Z80 hand book. The section on bus cycles 
requires close examination since during "single stepping" 
each bus cycle is frozen and the data can be examined. 

e Z80 is reset both from a switch, a TL7705A 
supervisory circuit which pulls the reset line low 
when Vdd falls below 4.75V and reset is also 
controlled via the EZiCE port. ZX-81 fans will be happy to 
hear that with minor modifications, the ZX-81 ROM code 
is compatible with the EZ80 hardware and control 
programs can be written in ZX-81 BASIC. Without ZX 
video, the INT and NMI lines are now available on the 
board for user applications. Future projects will customize 
the ZX-81 ROM for use with the EZ80 I/O and such add 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



15 



Winter 2001 



on hardware as a DFILE computable LCD interface. 
What makes it tick? 

B^lhe 4 MHz CPU clock is generated with a text book 
II^L low power CMOS Pierce oscillator using one section 
fty of the 74HC02 NOR gate as an inverter with the 
crystal in the feedback path. 

Lest we forget 
My^he 62256 RAM chip, which is also low power 
j| *y CMOS, uses a 3V lithium cell for non-volatile 
mS program storage. Note the novel use of a common 
Vdd line and the negative battery connection to the RAM 
Vss line. This ensures that the RAM CE and WR lines are 
disabled by automatically switching to Vdd during 
powerdown. With the simple one chip memory, no address 
decoding is required for the EZ80. However the WRITE 
PROTECTOR circuit divides the memory map as follows: 
16K of program memory from 0K-16K is write protected 
during normal program execution and the 16K-32K block 
is always accessible as read/ write RAM. All memory is 
read/write accessible in the programming mode. 

Bootstrap? 

M^jlie EZ80 uses a hardware "boot strap" circuit to 
If w P 10 ^ 3111 me "Wank" memory from power up. This is 
similar to many modem single chip microcontrollers. 
Ironically, a similar procedure was used in the early days 
of ROMless computers when programs were entered 
manually through the front panel switches. That toggling 
procedure was tedious and only a short "boot strap" 
program was loaded through the front panel which was just 
enough to start the paper tape reader to load in the next 
layer of operating system software. The way a PC 
initializes it's BIOS and DOS in successively more 
complex layers follows a similar sequence but has evolved 
so that by now the operator's front panel actions have been 
reduced to, at most, using in the proverbial three finger 
salute! In fact a bank of 12 switches and some LEDs could 
still be used to program the EZ80 but instead we have 
finally found a useful application for the IBM PC, as a 
high priced front panel for the EZ80. 

EZ Ports Rule, OK! 
gL^he EZ80 circuit in Fig 1 shows EZI/O port using a 26 
ipV pin male header which matches a standard IDC DB25 
IL-^comieetor. With this, the EZ80 can be connected to a 
standard printer or other PC printer port compatible device. 
It can also be connected to the PC printer port for high 
speed bi-directional data transfer. Future EZI/O expansion 
devices also use this bus for data transfer but will be 
connected via a 26 pin connector and flat cable. Note the 
use of pin 26 to distribute +5 V to EZI/O expansion devices 
which can also be powered from a separate external power 
supply. The EZI/O port is accessed at I/O address 00. 
||yjkhe EZiCE port uses a 74HC541 tristate buffer, a 

Sfl74HC257 multiplexer, a 74HC02 NOR gate, a 
-^74HC74 D flip flop and a 74HC139 decoder. The 
74HC139 is used to decode the PC printer port control 
lines during programming to control and override various 
internal EZ80 signals. The 74HC139 control functions and 
codes are shown in fig 7 for the relevant PC printer port 
control line states. The LPT control register codes are used 
to reset, single step and run the Z80 and to control the 
RAM OE and WR lines. The 74HC541 buffer is connected 
to the PC printer port data lines which are used to control 



the EZ80 CPU data bus. The tristate buffer is controlled by 
the PC to write data from the LPT data lines to the CPU 
data bus. It is used by the PC to "stuff' opcodes and data 
to the Z80 register or to write data to the RAM. 
||^he 74HC257 is used to read the memory data in two 
W\ nibbles to 4 of the PC printer port status lines. The 
Bl^PC LPT ERR status line is connected to the Z80 
HALT and Ml lines to monitor and trap Breakpoints and 
Ml opcode fetch cycles during debugging. In the RUN 
mode, the EZ programmer port can be read as a general 
purpose 8-bit input port at I/O address 04. 
The EZKEY port is similar to and compatible with the ZX- 
81 keyboard port. 

g^his keyboard interface connects up to 64 contacts of a 
Wy matrix keyboard. It uses diode isolated A8-15 lines to 
Il ^scan 8 rows and 8-bit of column data are read on Port 
B at I/O address 01. In order to use the address lines for 
scanning the keyboard rows we can use tie Z80 IN A,(C) 
opcode to scan each row while rotating a low-bit through 
the B register. This opcode uses the C register to address 
the I/O port on the A0-A7 lines while the B register 
appears simultaneously on the AS-A15 lines. If fewer keys 
are required (i.e. 40 keys tor ZX-81 emulation), only 5-bits 
of Port B are needed while the other three-bits (D5-7) can 
be used for a synchronous serial interface or for a-bit 
banger UART application. 

One Small Step for Man 
M^he novel 74HC74 SINGLE STEPPER circuit controls 
the Z80 WAIT line to single step the Z80 one bus 
*ky cycle at a time. The WAIT line is normally used to 
lengthen CPU bus cycles in order to synchronize the CPLT 
bus to devices with slow access time. In the case of the 
single stepper, the CPU is held in the WAIT state and is 
advanced one bus cycle at a time by "tugging" the WAIT 
line with a "step" pulse. When the single stepper is 
combined with the 74HC541 and the 74HC139 control 
decoder, the PC can force external OPCODES on the Z80 
data bus during each instruction cycle while the RAM OE 
line is disabled. The RUN signal activates the 74HC74 
preset input to force the WAIT line positive and to allow 
the CPU to run at full speed. The WAIT line is also used to 
enable the NIBBLER circuit to read the CPU data bus to 
the LPT status register one nibble at a time. I really like 
this simple Z80 single stepper circuit which is destined to 
become a classic ( if it isn't already) . It adapts itself to any 
CPU clock frequency unlike the usual monostabie pulse 
generator designs. The single stepper tuning states are 
shown in fig 3. 

One Giant Leap for Mankind 
Ij^fn the programming mode, the EZiCE software uses 
|| T combinations of control codes to enable the 74HC541 
'JL/to place externally generated disabling the RAM 
Output Enable (OE) line. This can be used to "stuff" 
opcodes on the CPU data bus. This is such a powerful 
feature that I have only uncovered the tip of the iceberg of 
possibilities. For example, the PC software presently stuffs 
NOPs to the CPU to increment the Z80 program counter 
(and address lines) to desired starting address but it is just 
as easy and a lot fester to write a 3 byte jump instruction to 
load the PC counter. NOPs are still used to STEP through 
and LIST a block of the memory contents. Ideally, the data 
read by LIST is automatically disassembled to mnemonics. 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



16 



Winter 2001 



(This one is on my wish list :) During TRACE, the single 
stepper simply advances the ZSO to Hie next bus cycle 
without forcing data on the CPU bus. The PC can use ERR 
status line to advance as many bus cycles to get to the next 
Ml cycle. At each Ml cycle the contents of the ZSO 
registers can be examined with a couple of POP and PUSH 
instructions. As you can see (his is pretty powerful stuff for 
such a simple circuit! While single stepping through a 
program in memory , the PC writes a sequence of opcodes 
at each Ml cycle which makes the ZSO describe if s current 
register state and then restores everything back before 
executing the next memory instruction. 
||k£fhe current revision of the PC software does not yet 
|| have capability to perform this task in a transparent 
ii,/ fashion. Any volunteers? The RUN command 
simply releases the WAIT line and allows the CPU to 
execute the code in real time from a given starting address. 
This is useful to check out subroutines, etc. In order to 
return control to the PC after executing the subroutine or 
any other code segment we want to be able to insert a 
break point at the point where the PC takes over. This can 
be done by inserting a HALT in the code e.g. replacing the 
RET instruction at the end of the subroutine. The Z80 
HALT line is connected to the PC LPT ERR status line ( 
and the Ml line is disconnected at this time) and when the 
HALT instruction is executed, the CPU pulls the HALT 
line low and stops. When HALT is active, the PC dumps 
the Z80 registers mcluding the Program Counter (PC) and 
compares the PC to a list of break point addresses and then 
restores the missing instruction. The current PC software 
oruy has a rudimentary version of this installed. 

Yippee I/O 

ll^he 8255 is a general purpose parallel I/O port. The 
1 4. 8255 defaults to 3 input ports on reset and to 
IlX configure ports for output, a control word must be 
written to the control register. Port A and C are used for 
the EZI/O PORT, a bi-directional PC computable printer 
port. Port B is used as a 64 contact keyboard interface. 
The 8255 can also be used in small applications 24-bit 
TTL parallel I/O. The 8255 uses the A and B pins, 
connected AO and Al to address internal registers. The 
8255 chip select is connected to a 74HC139 and is enabled 
when A2 is low. The 8255 data registers for ports A, B 
and C and control registers are addressed at 00, 01, 02 and 
03 respectively. Note: Port C output-bits can be accessed 
at two different locations.. Port C is accessed at address 02 
but in addition, individual Port C-bits can be set or reset by 
writing data values 00 to OF to the control register at 
address 03. Use even data, 02 to 0E, to reset-bits 0 to 7 
respectively and odd data 01 to OF set-bits 0 to 7. In a 
future article, applications will be presented which will 
explore all the features of this excellent chip. In the RUN 
mode the 74HC541 can be used as a general purpose 8-bit 
input port located at I/O address 04. 
.jl^he EZI/O port uses 8255 Port A. a true bi-directional 
data port, for data lines and Port C for the 4 
■"'CONTROL and 4 STATUS lines. The EZI/O 
connector matches the PC LPT pinouts except for trie ERR 
line, and connects via a 26 pin male header using standard 
PC DB25 connecting cables to standard LPT devices like a 
printer or PC LPT. 

Several EZ80 digital and analog I/O expansion units. 



which we will design in future articles are, can be 
connected in parallel to the EZI/O CON which also 
provides +5V power on pin 26". As a bonus, these I/O 
expansion units can be used with any IBM PC. 

Who Controls the Controller? 
M^fig 6 shows how PC LPT control lines are used to 
Wfj control access to the EZ80 internal bus. Plugging in 
the PC cable enables programming mode and the 
appropriate LPT control codes can be used to read, write, 
etc. Fig 7 shows the state of the LPT control lines as well 
as the internal control signals and the control code which is 
written to the PC LPT control register. This control code 
value is made up from binary weighted values (shown in 
brackets in fig 6) but some register-bits are inverted with 
respect to the control line. Therefore writing a 0 to some 
control register-bits will result in a 1 state of the control 
line. The STB (1), ALF (2), and SEL (8)-bits are all 
inverted but the INI (4) line is true. In fig 7, a plus or 
minus indicates a true or inverted-bit. 
||/Sro wonder the odd relationship between the control 

II U* co ^ e m ^ ^ e sta * e °^^ le conn "°l lines. Note that WR 
•Impulses have to be generated by writing three control 
codes in sequence. Similarly, writing OPCODES and 
TRACING bus cycles require a sequence of control codes. 
I have shown one possible sequence but other sequences 
which combine stepping and reading the data bus are also 
possible. It must be remembered that DATA must be 
stable at certain times and the STB line must be held high 
while changing the INI and ALF lines to avoid glitching of 
the decoder outputs This is important because of the slow 
rise and fall times of the LPT port signals. Note the SEL 
line, which activates the srngh stepper, is conditioned with 
a Schmidt trigger to avoid double stepping. The INI lines 
is also used to enable the RAM OE or the 74HC541 . When 
the EZiCE port is disconnected from the PC LPT, the 
control lines are pulled up and automatically decodes the 
RUN control signal and thereby enables the EZ80 RUN 
mode. While in the RUN mode, the 74HC541 can be used 
as an input port but the control lines must be left 
disconnected. 

Wrap Up 

jl^yhat can I say about the EZ80 that I haven't already 
him said twice? I was pleasantly surprised to discover a 
O^nurnber of new ideas/features just writing the article. 
That's always a good indication that there are more 
features waiting to be uncovered. This project feeds my 
belief that many interesting things happen at the simple 
end of the complexity spectrum. This is the nurture phase 
of the EZ80 project where I look for some support. The 
simple hardware, elegant design and interesting attributes 
make the EZ80 "eazy" to use for a variety of applications. 
Let's have those ideas, comments, corrections and let's 
have some fun! Use the mail server for group discussion 
but feel tree to contact me at: rigter@cafe.net 

Revision History 
27 Dec, 1997 - released preliminary design. 
] Jan, 1998 - Added 74HC54L revised control codes, replaced 
74HC138 with 74HC139 replaced MC32164 with TL7705, 
changed I/O addresses, reduced number of passive components, 
removed run/prog switch, changed port descriptions, refined 
article layout. THANK YOU! To Give Sinclair's "small is 
beautiful" ZX-81. To all who have commented with helpful 
criticism and kind remarks. Enjoy. Wiif 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



17 



Winter 200 i 



POWER SUPERVISORY 
AND RESET CIRCUIT 



5V 
f 



I 



[10K] 



f i SENS RST( 

RESET — j RESET | 

+ + _ [ 1K] - j CT | 

| j __!REF /RST| 

SI | ! ! "l TL7705 j' 



j I .1 I .1 
OV OV OV 



[lOK] 
I 

5V 



5V 

_J_ 

vdd 

DO 
Dl 
D2 
D3 
D4 
D5 
D6 
D7 
62256 
CE 
AO 
Al 
A2 
A3 
A4 
A5 
A6 
A7 
A8 
A9 
AlO 
All 
A12 
A13 
A 14 
QE 
WR 

vss 



5V 



o o o o o o 



! Vdd i 
i / RST j 
I DO DO i 
Dlj' 
D2| 
D3| 
D4| 
D5! 
D6|" 
D7|' 



.1-1-1 
l-l-l 



l ~ i 



KEY MATRIX HI 4 4 48 

I-!-}-- o >| -AS 

■i~J — o >|— A9 

j- j o > | — AlO 

j j 0 > j — All 

j - i o > j --A12 

j _ j 0 > j — A13 

j-f o > j — A14 

| _ | 0 > | — A15 

j | E2KEY 

0 O PORT 

1 I 5V 



! I 



! I 



I I 
i f 



-I 



I ! 



_ |D1 
JD2 
~JD3 
_ '|D4 
_JD5 
_|D6 
_)D7 

j £80 ) 
— j MREQ ! 

-| AO AO |— 

-jAl Al| 

-IA2 ! _ 

-| A3 IORQI — IE 0| 



RDj 



1 A4 

j A5 

1 A6 

1 A7 

IA8 | 

1 A9 | 

; A10 | 

— — I All | 

|A12 Mil 

| A13HALT ! 

|A14 | 



A2| — |B 139| 
A3 | — | A 1| 



j 32 \ 

+-I / 



f 



WRj 



CLKI 



j!32\ 

- [ 10K] + ! / 



+-I32 \ 

— i r 



H/L 



BATTERY BACKUP 
1N34A 

->! ov 

luF -f 

j 5v 

i 1N34A 

f — >J — [3V]+- 5V 
3V LITHIUM 



Vdd 
PBO 
PB1 
PB2 
PB3 
PB4 
FB5 
PB6 
PB7 
RST 
DO 
Dl 
D2 
D3 
D4 
D5 
D6 
D7 
8255 

A 

B PAO 
PA1 

CS PA2 
PA3 
PA4 
PA5 

RD PA6 
PA7 
PCO 
PCI 
PC2 
PC 3 
PC 4 
PC5 
PC 6 

WR PC7 



4 



EZI/O 
PORT 

- PDO 2 

- PD1 

- PD2 

- PD3 5 

- PD4 6 

- PD5 7 

- PD6 8 

- PD7 9 

- STB 1 

- ALF 14 

- INI 16 

- SEL 17 

- SIN 13 

- PE 12 

- ACK 10 

- BSY 11 

- OV 



EZiCE 
PORT 
ERR 15 



5V 1 i 




IG 


SI 


STB 


1 


i ! i 


DO 


1 Y 


A| 


PDO 


2 


[ 10K] [ 10K] ( 


Dl 


IY 


A| 


PD1 


3 


! 1 1 


D2 


!Y 


A! 


PD2 


4 


1 c ! ! 


D3 


IY 


A! 


PD3 


5 


\l II 


D4 


IY 


A| 


PD4 


6 


/! b ! 


D5 


|Y 


A! 


PD5 


7 


! e 


D6 


IY 


A| 


PD6 


8 


| 2N3904 j 
1 i 


D7 


_J Y 

i 5 


A| 
73) 


PD7 


9 



WRITE PROTECTOR 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



IS 



Winter 2001 



OSCILLATOR 



j 4Mz j 
|-[10M3 — | 

i [2K] 

+— 102 \_|_ 
+ — I / I 



ov 



ov 



DO __!B1 Gj 
Dl ^_ |B2 A/3| 
D2 _|B3 ! 
D3 _fB4 J 
IA1 
|A2 
j A3 
|A4 



D4 



1.7 "I | 



D6 
D7 



Y2| 
Y3f 
Y4 | 
257 |" 



NIBBLER 



SINGLE STEPPER 



3 -STATE 
LATCE 



i ic s Qi i 

I 74 | | 

ID /Q|_J 

I R I 



l_ic s Qi_i i 

I 74 j j 

_JD /Qi ! 

! R I I 



CONTROL 
DECODER 



/132!~ 
~\_ !- 
/132|- 
\ |- 



i >l ' 

IH/L— >j 



A| 



II 

12 3j 

I 0 /E | 

|3 139| 



/ 1.32 | 



RESET 



EZiCE 
POB.T 

SIN 17 
EN 

ALE 15 
EN 

DO 2 

Dl 3 

INI 16 
EN 

SEL 13 

PE 12 

ACK 10 

BSY 11 



Figure 1 - The EZ80 Complete Circuit 



IC S QI 
! 74 | 
ID /Q| 
! R I 



Figure 2 



I I __ I C S Q I ) _ 

I I 74 | 

I ID /Q|_ 

The Single Stepper 



CLOCK 
/ RUN 

/WAIT 



STEP 



CLOCK 
STEP 
/ RUN 
/WAIT 



> 



> 



> 



l l l I I I i I I l i l l 



Figure 3 - Single Stepper Timming 



! - I +5V 

11-11 IF CPU /WR = 0 I 

I 4Mz I AND A14 = 1 I 

I - [10M] — I THEN RAM /WR = 0 [10K] 

I [2k] _ _ | RAM /WR 

+•—102 \_| _ | | J |_ |/c 

+— 1__ / i A14 [10K]~bl 

I " ! I\e 

== 82p === 22 Op | CPU /WR 

I I 

OV OV 

Figure 4 - Oscillator Figure 5 -- Write Protector 

Control Decoder 



LXxr QLive Alive! 



1 A 



Winter 2 00 i 



FUNCTION CODE - 


<- LPT C 

STB -ALF 


* -Jri 1 KL 
J.T'M' 7 ' 


T -v 

_ OT7T 
— OJiii 


jjir i < -.. 




•iX I 


7P O r 


-•'-•U.M j. iiU 
U /T 


r otp 




— % 
STTTv 


READ RAM LOW* 


vx 




1 

-L. 


n 
u 


-\ 

X 


A 


o 


n 


-] 


"1 

X 


1 
X 


-i 
X 


READ RAM HIGH 


on 




-1 
X 


^-i 


X 


v 
i\ 








"1 
X 


-1 
X 


X 


WXVX 1 St 




KJ 1 






X 


X 


V 

A 


n 


i 


i 
X 


1 
X 


1 
X 


1 

X 


WKX i SL 


l^rluKi ( <£. ; 




X 


u 


1 


X 


£>L AHliht 


0 


-1 
X 


X 


U 


X 


-) 


WfrvX I Jii 




n "i 


f \ 
\j 


fi 


X 


1 




u 


X 


i 
X 


'i 

X 


1 
X 


X 


WRX 1 & 


OfLOUJli i. X } 




H 
\J 


U 


u 


X 


Y 

A 


u 


1 

X 


X 


X 


X 


1 
X 


Wr\X A Hi 




"1 n 


n 

w 




U 


u 


0 1 ADXiJSi 


u 


1 

X 


1 
X 


1 

X 


■1 

X 


X 


WRITE 


OPCODE (3) 


m 


u 


u 


U 


1 




X 


X 


1 

X 


X 


X 


X 


TRACE 


OPCODE (1) 






1 

J. 


u 


X 


A 


u 


u 


1 


1 

X 


1. 


X 


TRACE 


OPCODE (2) 




n 

VJ 


1 

X 


u 


u 


A 


U 


U 


-l 

x 


X 


X 


X 


TRACE 


OPCODE (3) 


m 

ux 


U 


-1 

X 


u 


X 


V 

A 


X 


n 


1 
X 


X 


X 


X 


RESET 




02 


1 


0 


i 

x 


X 


A 


U 


X 


1 

1 


X 


u 


T 

-X. 


RUN* 




06 


1 


U 


U 


-1 

X. 


A 


1 


X 


-1 

X 


'1 

X 


X 


U 


NO FUNCTION RAM 


01 


0 


1 


u 


1 
X 


A 


A 
U 


n 


X 


1 

X 


1 

a- 


1 

4. 


NO FUNCTION I/O 


03 


0 


o 


0 


1 


A 


0 


1 


X 


1 


X 


X 


1* = positive pulse for 


2 elk periods 






















LOW* = 


= also reads Ml line on ERR 























RUN* = also reads HALT line on ERR 



Figure 7 - Control Func tion Codes 



EZ80 Parts List 



1 


Z80 CMOS 


3 


IK 1/4 WATT RESISTOR 


1 


82C55 PPI 


3 


10K 1/4 WATT RESISTOR 


1 


HM62256 SRAM 


10 


.1 iiF CERAMIC CAPACITOR 


1 


74HC02 QUAD 2 INPUT NOR 


3 


1 uF TANTALUM CAPACITOR 


1 

1 


74HC14 HEX SCHMITT TRIGGER 


1 

X 


100 uF 25V CAPACITOR 


1 


74HC139 DUAL 1 OF 4 DECODER 


1 


82 pF CERAMIC CAPACITOR 


i 


74HC257 4X2 MULTIPLEXER 


i 


220 pF CERAMIC CAPACITOR 


I 


74HC541 OCT AL BUFFER 


1 


4 MHz CRYSTAL 


7 


IC SOCKETS (OPTIONAL) 


4 


1N34A GERMANIUM DIODE 


3 


26 PIN MALE HEADER (. 1) 


1 


RESET PUSH BUTTON 


5 


9 X 10K RESISTOR SIP 


1 


2N3904 TRANSISTOR 


2 


PC 26 PIN TO DB25 CABLE 


1 


64 KEY MATRIX KEYBOARD 


1 


EZ80 PCB 


1 


26 FEMALE IDC WITH CABLE 


8 


1N4448 SMALL SIGNAL DIODE 


1 


3 VOLT LITHIUM CELL 




Don and Abed, 

A couple things come to mind. 
It is possible that Word 97 can not 
read Wordstar files. Maybe you can 
try sending a text file. You create a text file in Pipedream 
by Saving as Plain Text. Text files on the Z88 and the PC 
are formatted differaiuy. The ends of lines on the Z88 
include a carriage return. The ends of lines on the PC 
include a carriage return and a line feed. PC-Link may 
convert the file correctly . If not you have to run the file 
through a conversion program. You say you can't find the 
file on the PC afterwards. It is possible that your files did 
not have the proper three letter extension. That is the only 
way PCs recognize files. Or you may have to look for the 
file with Find on the Start Menu 

I have a PC and a Mac. I do not have Word or PC- 
Link on (lie PC. I do have Mac-Link on the Mac. i can 
provide step by step directions to send files with PC-Link 
but I do not have PC-Link. If you want you can send me a 
copy of your PC-Link disk. I already have the Z88 PC-Link 
ROM (which is the same as the Mac-Link ROM) and a 
cable. I can borrow my laptop from woik which has W T ord 
on it. 

Here is a disk with Z88 communication files on it. 
You can use this instead of PC-Link to send files back and 
forth. You must install the Z88COM program first. Use 
HypeiTerminal on your PC. It is built into Windows. I have 
included a shortcut to HyperTerminal. Z88.ht You must use 
the built-in Import-Export program on the Z88 and send the 



files phone.log and z88eom.cli to the Z88. You send them 
as text files. Wait until the numbers have finished counting 
up. Once Z88com.cli is in your Z88 select it in Filer and 
choose Execute. You will see all the lines of the file scroll 
by one at a time. Once it has stopped at Line 51 50 type on a 
new line SAVE "Z88com.bas" Now when you want to run 
it type RUN "z88com.bas" from BASIC. This procedure is 
also in the manual. Now try transferring some files with 
XModem. There is another XModem program on the disk 
zcp.bas. Try sending that over to the Z88.. Select Transfer 
and Send File on the PC and Receive file on the Z88. Type 
the filenames on both maciiines and press entei at the same 
time on bolh maciiines . Now you will notice that it does not 
seem to be working. Don't be alarmed. Z88COM and ZCP 
use Checksum for Error Checking. HyperTerminal initially 
uses CRC but changes to Checksum on the third retry. 

Actually if all y ou are doing is sending text files y ou 
oily need the built-in HyperTerminal and Import-Export 
programs. But if you want to transfer BASIC programs then 
you need to use Z88COM or ZCP You can convert the 
BASIC programs to text (cli) files but it is easier to transfer 
the BASIC programs as is. The disk also includes 
fadder.bas. This is a fast line feed adder for text files going 
from the Z88 to the PC. Kermitbas is another transfer 
program which uses the kermit protocol. ZFU is a file 
utility to archive files. It is nice for backups. Finally I 
included the Patch to extend BASIC graphics commands. 
Let me know how you make out with the disk. 

Dave Bennett 



ZXirQLive Alive! 



20 



Winter 2001 



U n c I a s s i f i e d 



Ads 



Place your ads here, it is free! 



Please inform and/or update the Editor of any changes in your ad/s 



We have been a part of the Sinclair scene since 1982, repairing 
IX Spectmms for Sinclair Research in England. 
We provide Sales, Service, and Software for the 

QL, Spectrum, ZX-81 and Z88 

www. members. Mpodxorn/hescomputing/hesLhtrnl 
E-Mail 74601.1535@compuserve.com 

Hours of Operation is Monday - Friday 1300 hrs. to 2100 
hrs. central time zone. 
Phone 210 661-4376 

Home Electronics Service 

John R. Rish 

5222 Kazen Dr. 
San Antonio TX 78219 USA 

Pro Digital Electronics 

323 SE 28th Ave. 
Portland, Oregon 97214 
503-232-3200 



Pro Act Consulting, Inc. 

2660 N. Houghton Rd. 
Tucson, AZ 85749 
520-749-5395, fax 520-749-3626 
email <proactmd@aol.com> 

The John Oliger Co. 

11601 Widbey Dr. 
Cumberland IN 46229 
The John Oliger Floppy Disk System 
FOR THE TS-2068 

2068 U ser Cartridge 
DISK BOARDS W A W & "B" 
2068 Parallel Printer Fort 
2068/SPECTRUM Joystick Port 
DFh Mapped Universal I/O Port board 
User Manual only : $5.00 (Read before you buy) 

joliger ^mindspring. com 



QLAMBer $20 
SeekQL $10 



jPLATYPUSf 




QLuMSi $20 
Upgrades $5 

91 4 Rio Vista Cir SW 
Albuquerque NM 87105 
(505)843-8414 







ARCHIVE Based QL Software 

QLerk - A complete financial program for the QL 

QLerk software (v3.21 ) with tutorial $29 

QLerk manual $29 

QLerk software & manual $50 

DBEasy - A menu based database system 

DBEasy software (v1 .6) $24 

DBEasy upgrade from V1 .5 $7 

DBProgs - A toolkit of ARCHIVE procedures 

DBProgs software (v1 .8) $18 

DBProgs upgrade from V1 .7 $7 

DBTutor - A general purpose learning program 

DBTutor software(v1 .5) $12 

PC DBEasy - Just like QL DBEasy 

PC DBEasy software (v1 . 3) $ 1 2 

Bill Cable 

Wood & Wind Computing 

RR3BOX92 
Cornish NH 03745 USA 
Phone (603) 675-2218 



ID € m i n c C ui ib e s 



Hardware & Software 
352 7 th Ave. 15 th Fir. 
New York, NY 10001 
Phone 212 631-7563 

Fax 212 947-5069 Voice mail pager 917 490-8407 
Domino.cubes@excelsior.net 



QL 



Hacker's Journal 



Supporting All QL Programmers 

Timothy Swenson, Editor 

2455 Medallion Dr 
Union City, CA 94587-1914 
swensontc@geocities. com 
http.'/Avww. geocities. com/SilconValley/Plnes/5865/ 



ZXir QLive Alive! 



21 



Winter 2000 



NESQLUG 

X£!WS 
New England Sinclair QL Users Group 

Ed Kingsley, Editor 
16 Highland Avenue 
Saugus MA 01906 
(781) 233-3671 EdK4@aoi.com 


Keith Electronics 

224 North Grove St 
Lock Haven, PA. 17745 




Peter Liebert-Adeit 
LUETZOW STR 3 
D-38102 BRAUNSCHWEIG 

GERMANY 
Email: p.liebert@t-online.de 
http://home.t-oirlme.de^ 

Amateur Radio: DK4BF@DB0FC.#NDS.DEU.EU 


QL Today is published by Jochen Merz Software. The 
representative in Britain is Miracle Systems Ltd. who take sub- 
scriptions and do the distribution. 

English Office 
Miracle Systems Ltd. 
20 Mow Barton 
Yates, Bristol, UK BS17 5NF 
Tel. +44 1454 883602 Fax. +44 1454 883602 

Editor 
Dilwyn Jones 
41 Bro Emrys 
Tal-Y-Bont, Bangor, Gwynedd, UK LL57 3YT 
Tel. +441248 354023 Fax. +441248 354023 


The ZX Spectrum 48/128 Emulator 

for IBM & Compafables: Z80 Version 

Turn your PC into a real ZX Spectrum 48/128 
r> Full Spectrum emulation, border, flash, beeper, Interface 1, 
Microdrive in cartridge file, RS232 input and output redirection 
to file, COM or LPT, joystick support, 128K sound through 
Soundblaster or internal speaker, built-in monitor, 

Runs okay under DOS, Windows and DesqView, 
Runs on any 640K PC; too slow for practical use on PC/XT's 
but fast enough on AT's, uses VGA/EGA/CGA or Hercules. 
This program costs US $20. You will receive a 3.5" DD disk 
(5.25" disks on request), and you'll be kept informed about up- 
dates. Please send bank notes (bills), name and address to: 

Gerton Lunter 

PO Box 2535 
NL-9704 CM Groninaen 
Netherland 


Zebra Systems, Inc. 

122W26thSt. Suite. 904 
New York, NY 10001 
Basics of Timex Sinclair 1500/1000 BASIC 
BASIC Basics for the Timex/Sinclair 1500/1000 
The Ins and Outs of the Timex TS-1000 & ZX-81 
Computer Interfacing Technique in Science TS-1500/1000 




^ Resources 




Keith Watson (AERCO & Z80 Emulator) 
41634 Amberly Dr. 
Mt. Clemens, Ml 48038 


Jcctien Merz Software 

SMSQ/E for the QXL 

SMSQ/E for the Super GoldCard 

QL Games <& Upgrades QL Applications 
ProWesS + Applications 
Jochen Merz Software 
Imstiiien Winkel12 
47169 Duisburg, Germany 
* 0203-50201 1 Fax 0203-50201 2 
Credit Cards accepted 
http://wvw.j-m-s.com/smsq/ 
e-mail smsq@j-m-s. com 


RodGowen (RMG) 
14784 S Quail Grove Cir 
Oregon City OR 97045-8843 

: ;S UfDlUS 


JOHN J SHEPARD 11! 
281 130 th ST 
OGDEN1A50212 
< jshepard@wccta.net > 

Mostly QL &TS-2068 

JACK BOATWRIGHT 
67325 FRYREAR RD 
BEND OR 97701 
< jboatno4@outlawnet.com > 

Mostly ZX-81 /TS-1000 & TS-2068 


Items for the Timex\Sinclair Computer 

Timeworks Programming kit #1 For T/S 1000 & ZX81 $4.95 
Mindware Gulp Game Timex 1000 & Sinclair ZX81 $4.95 
Timex Horace & The Spiders for the 2068. $5.95 

Chess (16K RAM) qty 5 price $2.95 ea 
MC, VISA, American Express. Phone 717-748-1747 


QL TS*2068 ZX-81 

Books msi^mmsm 

Software 



ZXir QLive AJive! 22 Winter 200 1