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Volume 3 Number 4 Winter 1 993 



T/SUNG 
Chairmen 

Here is the list of 1993 
T/SNUG Chairmen and how to 
contact them. We wish to support 
the following SIGs:- ZX-80/81/ 
TS-1000, Z88, SPECTRUM/TS- 
2068/TC-2068 and QL. If you 
have any questions about any of 
these fine machines, contact the 
Chairman. 

Chairman 

Don Lambert (ISTUG) 
Chief Motivator 
219 925-1372 

Vice-Chainnen 

D. G. Smith 
Tape & JLO Library 
814 535-6998 

Dave Bennett (CATS) 
Z-88 
717 774-7531 

Ed Snow 
QL&ZX-81Tape 
407 380-5124 

Rod Gowen (CCATS) 
RMG Enterprises 
503 655-7484 

Rod Humphreys (VSUG) 
TS-2068 
604 583-2819 

BobSwoger(CATUG) 
BBS/LarKen 
708 837-7957 

Treasurer 

Abed Kahale (CATUG) 
Cash Tracker/Newsletter 
708 885-4337 



ADDRESS 
1 

2 
3 
5 
13 



6 
8 
9 

11a 

12 

14 

15 

17 

19 



20 
22 
27 
28 
31 
32 
43 



MEMORY MAP 

ROUTINES 

T/SNUG Chairmen 
T/SNUG Information 

Input/Output - Help - Monitors (Lace!) - Keep'em Coming 
TreaSury Note$ - Membership List 
From The Chairman's Disk 

ARTICLES 

Memotech - Memopak Manual 

TS-2068 Talks to a PC by Abed Kahale 

QL Hardware Project - Monitors by Bob Gilder 

Cassette Tape LOAD/SAVE by the late William Pederson 

Tandy CM- 11 Monitor 

MSDOS to LKDOS and MSCRTPT by Les Cottrell 
Disk Utility Software (D.U.S.) Review by Don Lambert 
TURBO Switch for the ZX-81/TS-1000 by Tony Willing 
16K MEMOPAK by Don Lambert 

SUBROUTINES 

Unclassified Ads 

Public Domain Library List Update 
Toronto's TTSUC QLPD Library 
ZQA! 1991-1993 Index 
Our Dealers 
Dealers' Ads 
Complementary Copies 



Established 1991 



The Timex/Sinclair NorthAmerican User Groups Newsletter 

ZXir QLive Alive! © phtkr 03 



T/SNUG Information 



ZXir QLive Alive! * n» 

newsletter of T/SNUG, the Timex/Sinclair NorthAmerican 
User Groups, providing news and software support to the 
T/S community in at least four newsletters per year; mailed 
on January, April, August, and October. 

It is our goal to build and maintain a Public Domain 
software library and develop a list of available software for 
all T/S computers showing the source. 

T/SNUG wishes to have one chairman from 
every T/S user group who will take charge of sending us 
their group's newsletter contents and other correspondence 
for inclusion in the ZQA! Newsletter. 

We encourage your group to copy this newsletter 
and distribute it at regular meetings to all your members. If 
you cannot copy this newsletter, perhaps we can provide a 
disk with the articles on it. 

You can keep T/SNUG alive for an annual 
contribution of $10 made payable to Abed Kahale. Send 
check to:- 

ABED KAHALE (LarKen Library) 

335 W NEWPORT RD 
HOFFMAN ESTATES IL 60195-3106 
Phone:- 708 885-4337 

Back copies arc available for 500 each postpaid. 

This Newsletter is mailed free to all vendors listed 

in the " (8hzr jBexUre^ page. 

And to the following Users Groups/Newsletters :- 



CAPITAL DISTRICT 
CATS 
CCATS 
DTP 
FDD 
GCSUG 
ISTUG 
LIST 
NESQLUG 



QZX 
SEATUG 
SMUG 

TSB 
TTSUC 
VISTA 
VSUG 
ZX-91 



ZXir QLive Alive! 

Articles Contributions 

By BBS :- We now have a 24 hour 300-2400 
BAUD RBBS. We encourage you to exchange mail 
and contribute to the download section. 



Use extension .ART for articles, .ADS for 
ads and .NWS for news. Have fun. 

Call the BBS at 708 632-5558 and register. 
On your next call your security level will be 
increased to 5 for most of the privileges. 

For help, contact the SYSOP by leaving a 
message, mail or phone:- 

BOB SWOGER (Chicago Area Timex Users Group) 
613 PARKSIDE CIR 
STREAMWOOD IL 60107-1647 
H 708 837-7957 W 708 576-8068 

By tape or disk send your inputs to:- 

DONALD LAMBERT 
ZXir QLive Alive! Newsletter 
1301 KIBLINGER PL 
AUBURN IN 46706-3010 
Phone 219 925-1372 

Or by hardcopy mail to:- Abed Kahale (address above) 

For software libraries, write or call the 
following Vice-Chairmen.When writing, 
please enclose a LSASE . 



DAVE BENNETT 

329 WALTON ST REAR 

LEMOYNE PA 17045 

ROD GO WEN 

14784 QUAIL GROVE CIR 

OREGON CITY OR 97045 



(Z88) 



(CCATS/RMG) 



(VSUG/2068) 



ROD HUMPHREYS 
10984 COLLINS PL 
DELTA B C V4C 7E6 CANADA 



D G SMITH (2068 TAPE Library & JLO) 
R 415 STONE ST 
JOHNSTOWN PA 15906 

ED SNOW (ZX-81 TAPE & QL) 

2136 CHURCHILL DOWNS CIR 
ORLANDO FL 32825 



2 



Input/Output 





"I am a retired TS2068 
user who continues to 
use the 2068 computer. 
About 10 years ago I put together a program 
that produces fishing and hunting times as a 
hobby. I had a 2068 user out east (Imre 
Augsberger) write the technical code to calculate 
the various times, i.e., sunrise, sunset, etc. Imre, 
who is an astronomer, can't be located. Unfor- 
tunately, he made use of Function Calls in his 
calculations." .. "My problem is that the 2068 
takes about 4 hours to perform the calculations 
necessary for me to produce one set of 52 
weeks of tables for one customer. Now this is 
O.K. when I go fishing ... I just load it up and 
start it running." .. "Is there anyone who could 
help? I would be willing to pay, of course." 
Jack H. Payne 
Solunar Services, Inc. 
1107N. Morgan St. 
Rushville IN 46173 

^DlCk Wagner, CCATS and Secre- 
tary of the PLOTTER came to the rescue. 



William B. Horner III called (Don 
Lambert) with a question about how to connect 
up a Radio Shack High Resolution Color 
Monitor (CM-11) to his Sinclair QL with TK2, 
Ciimana and dual disk drives. He sent me a 
spec, sheet on the CM-11 and it is elsewhere in 
this newsletter. Can anybody out there help him 
out? He has connected it up one way (not de- 
tailed) and the screen rolls, another way and the 
screen leans drastically to the left. Don. 0/0 
WIT J JAM B. HORNER m 
4311 BUCKINGHAM 
DETROIT MI 48224 

/ hate to be the one to bring you bad 
tf dings. A non-interlaced monitor is not com- 
patible with Sinclair Computers. However, all 
is not lost; see the HARDWARE PROJECT by 
Bob Gilder of LIST elsewhere in this issue. 



LACL I 



Televisions (NTSC) and interlaced 
monitors sequentially scan 262.5 odd then even 
lines per each frame (frame = 1/30 of a second) 
while non-interlaced monitors scan the whole 
512 lines per frame to deliver flicker free 
picture. The fairly new "high resolution non- 
interlaced monitors" deliver state-of-the-art pic- 
ture quality, unfortunately we can not benefit 
from them. 

The 2068 can deliver a composite 
color picture to the VIDEO input on a 
TV or through the VCR video input to a 
TV. The QL (perNazir Pashtoon) is capable 
of delivering excellent black and white 
picture to the same. Of course RGB 
monitors are best suited to our comput- 
ers if they can be found. 




David E. Lassov System Oriented Lan- 
guages Corp. of Tucson AZ> "Thank you for 
continuing your fine support of Timex/Sinclair 
products. While my first such machine was a 
TS1000, the extra color, memory, and expand- 
ability of the 2068 have dominated my interests 
in personal computing to such an extent that the 
(open) 2068 system is my main, and the (closed) 
Apple II C+ is relegated to support duties." .. 
"We need more interesting articles; and I for 
one, intend to submit more such material. It has 
been a long time coming for me, but we now 
have a handle on Bill Jones' fine word processor 
and disk data base manager and we mean to use 
it." .. "Wow !!!!!!! Where did you get all those 
disks? I want them all, and now, not later." 



We thank you for your support. The 
Public Domain Library disks wens received by 
him. 

Francine Sklar of Loch Sh rake NY:- "I 
let my membership lapse, could get the back 
issues of 1993?" .. " I have changed my ad- 
dress." "Although I still use the TS2068, the 
Z88 is the machine I use most frequently. I 
would be most interested to read 

articles on ZBASE. 

How about it Z88 users? 

Greg Simmons of Peoria IL.> I would like 
to join the T/SNUG. I an interested in the 
TS2068 computer." " I have always beer an 
of the Sinclair line of computers." .. " lost 
track of the Sinclair users for a while. I lound 
them again when I saw an ad in the Computer 
Shopper for UPDATE! Magazine. I found a 
wealth of information on the Sinclair computers 
and people that still sell and support the com- 
puters." " I hope to restock on the Sinclair line 
of computers soon. I have read a little of a disk 
drive for the 2068 called LarKen Disk Interface. 
Can you help and explain about the Disk Inter- 
face and 

where can I obtain a LarKen? 

A response was mailed including 
suggestion to check with RMG, Ed Grey and 
John Oliger. 

Quentin Kent of Allentown PA:- Called to 
find out whether Timex/Sinclair is still alive! He 
requested information about upgrading his 2068 
to disk drive and all of the ZQA! available 
issues. 

Where can I obtain a disk 
interface? 

A response was mailed: The LarKen 
Disk Operating System is the most popular 
that provides interface to 4 disk drives, SS- 
DD(200K}, DSDD[400K), and QUADfSOOK], 
a RAMDISK too [256K). Larry Kenny is no 
longer supplying the boards but there maybe 



some around like at RMG Enterprises, Me- 
chanical Affinity and Ed Grey. The John Oliger 
Co. interface is still available (see ad in this 
issue, retyped from the Toronto Sine-Link). 
The two interfaces are not compatible. Also 
check AERCO. 

"Dealers - Do you have Larken? 

Please drop me a line and let 
us all know. Ads are for free." 



tKosJLgas u 

five pytu^idln^ CjAtit as pz+& 



Gilliam Parrish of Beggs OK:- "Dear 
Don," "Got the last issue of ZQA!— still 
doing a great job. And I again got the guilty 
feeling I wasn't doing anything to help the 
cause." "A while back, I got directly from Byte- 
Back a 300 BAUD modem/serial interface. The 
device comes with terminal software and RS- 
232 printer driver software. The modem cer- 
tainly works; I used it to contact a local BBS 
which allow users to set the number of columns 
they wish to receive (quit a benefit when you 
have only a 32-columns screen!). First (and to 
be fair, this is clearly stated in the ad), the device 
does not support x-modem or similar program 
transfers, although it will support limited trans- 
fers between two ZX/TS machines. I am not 
clear if this is a limitation of the modem, the 
supplied terminal software, and/or a relatively 
easy hardware hack, that would allow x-modern 
transfers on these modems? Secondly, although 
some sources indicate the serial interface on the 
device can be used to connect to a faster mo- 
dem, nothing in the supplied RS-232 software 
appears to be relevant to anything but a serial 
printer. Does anyone have other terminal soft- 
ware designed for such an RS-232 interface and 
a faster (say 2400 BAUD) modem? 

Another question, you mentioned in the 
Newsletter getting a 16K Memopak expander 



4 



with DIP switches. Can you tell me the DIP 
switch settings, to use it with another 16K ex- 
pander for 32K total?".. "A few weeks ago in a 
thrift store, I ran into a fully functional 2068 and 
2040 going for about $8 total. I'd like to stum- 
ble onto a few more of those deals!" 
"Do you know of any source for those 4" wide 
aluminum coated rolls of electrostatic paper, 
used by the ZX Printer?" 

See the MEMOTECH instructions next page. 
Bob Swoger, who owns a MEMOTECH mo- 
dem, is trying to find answers to your ques- 
tions. 

The oniy software avaiiable for the 2068 that 
provides more than the 300 BAUD is LarKen 
MaxCom that requires a serial port to go on- 
line at 1200. 

For the ZX-Pr inter, try the thermal paper 
which is still available from our dealers, I be- 
lieve. Otherwise, Radio Shack carries slightly 
narrower paper rolls. 



Err a ta 

Page 17 of the Fall 93 issue, Line 7 of 
the program should read:- 

7 RANDOMIZE USR 100: POKE 
8214, 16100 

Supporting T/SNUG 







Date 


Paul 


Anderson 


5/93 


Ronald 


Baty 


6/93 


Dave 


Bennett 


8/93 


Don 


Berry 


11/92 


Alvin 


Bluman 


6/93 


Daniel 


Chattin 


7/93 


Les 


Cottrell 


6/93 


Jamie 


Cruz-Figueroa 


11/93 


Robert © 


Curnutt 


8/93 


Frank 


Davis ISTUG 


9/92 


Daniel 


Elliott Computer Classics 


5/93 


Ruth 


Fegley 


5/93 


Ferdinand 


Gunlher 


5/93 



Robert 

Fred 

Fredrick 

William © 

Glenn 

Rod 

Warren 

Edward 

Jon 

Joan 

Quentin © 

Wayne 

Jeffrey 

Donald 

David 

David 

Robert 

Lt. Col. Walter 

Lafe © 

Harry 

Frank 

Gregory 

Gilliam 

Jack © 

Hugh 

Hugh 

Greg © 

Louis 

Francine 

Edward 

Dane 

Mike 

Alexander 

Ivan 

Wesley 



Hartung 

Henn 

Hill 

Horner 

Hufstedler 

Humphreys VSUG 

Jackson 

Jordan 

Kaczor GCTSUG 

Kealy 

Kent 

Knaust 

Kuhlmann 

Lambert t/snugzqai 

Lassov 

Leech Byte-Back 

Madaris 

Malin 

McCorkle 

Miller Jr 

Mills CATUG 

Newkirk 

Parrish 

Payne 

Polley 

Scriven 

Simmons 

Simon 

Sklar 

Snow 

Stegman 

Stephens 

Sweitzer 

Zachev 

Zapotochna 





4/93 

7/93 

4/93 

12/93 

7/93 
Charter 

4/93 

6/93 

8/93 

4/93 

12/93 

2/93 

7/93 

4/93 
12/93 

9/92 

5/93 

3/93 

9/93 

5/93 

5/93 

5/93 
12/93 
10/93 

5/93 

11/92 

11/93 

6/93 

12/93 

5/93 FLA 

8/93 

7/93 

7/93 

12/93 

6/93 



etcome, 

As of December 31, 1993 
we have a balance of $388.56 
Jklreit ^txfyxlje fEzeztsurer 



5 



MEMOTECH MEMOPAK 64K 



A few of our readers requested this information. 

There are two memory locations which you change 

in order to tell the computer the upper limit of your memory 

(or RAMTOP). These are 16389 and 16388. 

To set top of RAM at 64K, type the following: 
POKE 16388,255 (this is not usually needed) 
POKE 16389,255 (this is usually set at 128 for a 32K limit) 
NEW (the memory is now cleared to start afresh; and will 

now be organized to the new limit). 

To check the current top of RAM, type PRINT PEEK 16389 
and the value 255 should appear in the top left-hand corner of 
the screen.For a quick check that the memory is now atyour 
finger-tips you can now try the following little programs: 

10DIMA$(90,500) 
or 

10D1MA(9000) 
or 

10 POKE 65000,128 
20 PRINT PEEK 65000 

These programs reach the top end of memory Re- 
member numeric fields take up five bytes. (Tip_if you want to 
store more numbers and they are integers which don't exceed 
255, then why not use the CODE and CHR$ functions to 
store values as single byte characters?). 

How can I test that all my variable locations are good? 

First, set the top of RAM back to 32K (either POKE 16389, 
128 or just power up again). 

Type in this program which will test every bit in the 32-64K 
area, in FAST mode. 

10 FAST 

20 FOR I = 32768 TO 65535 

30 POKE 1,255 

40 LET A = PEEK I 

50 POKE 1,0 

60 LET B = PEEK I 

70 IF A0255 OR B<>0 THEN 

GOSUB 130 
100 NEXT I 

110 PRINT "END OF RAM TEST" 
120 STOP 
130 SLOW 

140 PRINT "ERROR AT:";I 
150 STOP 
160 FAST 
170 RETURN 

You can find how far your program has got by doing 
a BREAK. Resume by using CONT. The program will print 
an error message if a bad location is found, and halt. By 
keying CONT, the program will continue its testing. 
If it reaches "END OF RAM TEST" without having shown an 
error, you' re now ready to start that BIG program. 

6 



What is where? 

First of alL our pack does contain a full 64K RAM (and this 
can be used by other Z80 processors, in principle). But the 
ZX81 can only address 64K locations altogether, and the first 
8K are obviously dedicated to its own ROM. So although 
we've got 64K RAM, and the ZX81 can address 64K loca- 
tions, this MEMOPAK cannot add on more than 56K to the 
ZX81 ROM. This brings the ZX81 - MEMO-PAK configura- 
tion to 64K total. The original 1 K of RAM of the ZX81 
(located at 16K + ) is disabled and its functions will take place 
in the MEMOPAK 64K RAM. Confused? There is a diagram 
on the inside cover to sort it out. The main thing 
to remember is that the top 48K is automatically used by the 
ZX81 BASIC. 

As programs are entered into the system the ele- 
ments are sifted into the instruction file and the array file. The 
instruction file, the display file (holding screen data) and the 
array file lie next to each other in that order at the bottom 
end of memory. Gradually, as the instruction file increases, 
the other files are pushed up through memory. 
Remember, the original 1 K of RAM in the ZX81 (located at 
16K+) has been disabled and all its functions take place in the 
MEMOPAK. 

This pushing goes on until either the array file 
reaches the top of the memory or until the display file begins 
to straddle the 32K mark (by going above 32767). 

Does this mean if I've got 32K or more of RAM, I still 
can't have more than 15K or so of instructions? 

No. Many people think you are restricted but there is a neat 
trick where you can force your display file to leap the 32K 
mark in one bound by putting in a large, dummy instruction. 
The important thing is to make sure that the display file never 
straddles the 32K mark. Here is how: 

a) On input, check from time to time the value in the VARS 
system variable, as this lies just above the 

end of the display file: 

PRINT PEEK 16401 * 256 + PEEK 16400 

b) When the values of VARS approaches 32767, enter a huge 
line into the program, like: LET ZERO = O + O + O + O etc. 
with about 100 repetitions of [+0]. This will push the display 
file entirely above 32768. 

c) Check the system variable D-FILE to make sure the display 
file now begins above 32768: 

PRINT PEEK 16397 * 256 + PEEK16396 
If it is, then you can carry on programming. 

What about the mysterious 8-16K area? 

On the ZX81 this area does not exist. We have supplied it, 
and you can now reach it directly in your BASIC program, 
using PEEK and POKE, or with machine code. The sort of 



thing you can use it for will depend on how expert you are, 
but we can suggest: 

a) Storing data and machine code sub- routines 

b) Passing them from one program to another 

c) Memory-mapping buffer areas for add-ons. 

For Sinclair ZX80/81 users, the simplest thing is to 
set switches 2 and 3 ON and 1 and 4 OFF (MODE E). This 
gives the biggest possible area. This is how the pack leaves us, 
and normally there will be no need to change the settings. The 
other settings are intended to accommodate the needs of 
special add-ons being developed. 

MODE SWITCH 



- 12 3 4 



A ON OFF OFF OFF 

This mode is not compatible with the ZX80/81 but offers a 

M 64K RAM to a Z80 that is designed to address it. 



B* OFF ON OFF OFF 
Memory is available in the 12-1 6K area. 



C* OFF OFF ON OFF 
Memory is available in the 8-1 2K area. 



D* OFF OFF OFF ON 

No memory is available in the 8-1 6K area. 



E* OFF ON ON OFF 
Memory is available in the 8-1 6K area. 

* In these cases, 48K for normal BASIC work is still available 
Memory made available in the 8-16K area can be used with 
PEEK and POKE, or for machine code. For ZX81 users, 
switching between modes B, C, D and E is possible, as long 
as at least one and no more than two switches are ON at the 
same time. Never have more than two switches ON at a time, 
as this can lead to overloading. Remember ON is UP! 

Have you any tips for running a ful ZX81 system? 

Yes. These may or may not help in your situation. When 
connected to MEMOPAK 64K and printer, make sure that 
LOADing takes place with cassette recorder volume set at 
maxi- mum. If possible, make sure that your cassette recorder 
and ZX81 are plugged into different main sockets. With some 
cassette recorders, you shouldn't have the LOAD (EAR) and 
SAVE (MIKE) connectors plugged in at the same time. 
LOADing is more likely to be successful If you quote the file 
name, rather than null (" "). Clean your connectors regularly. 
Don't use the first twenty seconds of a cassette tape, as that is 
where a lot of LOAD bugs live. 

Can I run programs written for a 16K pack on the 
Memopak64K? 

Yes, they should run straight away, but things are a little 
tricky if you want to en-large your arrays to use the larger 
memory and you have been SAVEing your data. Basically, 



you have to re-enter all data after you have re-dimensioned, to 
be sure that the right data is going to be accessed. What we 
suggest is: 

a) LOAD the original program. 

b) Edit in a special routine which will list and label the con- 
tents of all variables on the printer. 

c) Run this routine. You now have a hard copy of you r date. 

d) Re-set your dimensions. Also enter a routine to allow you 
to re-input all your old values plus any new ones. 

e) Run your program and enter the values. 

One more thing, to use the memory fully it is much better to 
use a multi-dimensional string array rather than a simple 
string, since the ZX81 limits single string sizes to a maximum 
length of 1 6K, and also duplicates it unnecessarily. 

A couple of program examples 

BASIC strings are stored in the instruction area of RAM (1 6- 
32K). This means that when you set a literal, say, LET A$ = 
"CAT" the word CAT is actually duplicated, once as a literal 
as part of the instruction, and once in the variable area A$. It 
would be more economical if we could set up an initialization 
routine which would store all literals once only in the 
variables area. This simple loop would let you input up to 10 
strings of 20 characters each: 
10DIMA$(10,20) 
20 INPUT I 

30 IF 1 = 0 THEN GOTO 70 

40 INPUT B$ 

50 LETA$(1) = B$ 

60 GO TO 20 

70 INPUT I 

80 IFI = OTHEN GOTO 110 
90 PRINT A$(l) 
100 GOTO 70 

1 10 REM AUTOMATIC SELF SAVE 
120 SAVE "SELF" 
130 GOTO 20 
140 STOP 

Breakdown: 

Lines 20-60 Store strings 

Lines 70-100 Display strings 

Lines 1 10-140 Save program with string arrays 

Now look carefully at the instructions from line 110. 
With increased array capacity in the memory you will prob- 
ably want to store your data more permanently. The ZX81 
system does not (at least as yet) support free-standing files 
but it is possible to save your arrays (and their contents) along 
with your program. However, it is important that when you 
next load the program, it does not carry out a RUN but a 
GOTO instead; otherwise RUN will automatically clear the 
arrays. This program will SAVE itself automatically (Tine 120). 
When you next LOAD it will pick up straight away at line 130 
the line after the SA VE and branch back to the line quoted 
there (in this case 20). In this way, the RUN instruction is 
avoided and the variables are not cleared. But make sure you 
don't branch back to a point where you re-dimension the 
array you' re trying to save ! 
Good luck from all at MEMOTECH! 



TS-2068 Talks to a PC by Modem 



by <^fecf ^(a£a(e 



T 

I t has been a challenge to have a 2068 
communicate directly via modem with 
a PC modem to transfer text files. The pro- 
cedure was to upload files to a BBS by one 
computer and then download with the other, 
until Bob Swoger spent an evening with me 
to tackle this problem. 

To communicate, modems have to 
have a line that has a tone "carrier" and 
provides a ring "signal". Connecting two 
modems together from two computers elimi- 
nates the carrier and the signal and the mo- 
dems will not turn on. It has been done with 
the two modems connected to the same 
phone line that held up calling or receiving 
phone calls for the duration, at 18 text char- 
acters per second 
which is what I got 
with the 2050 
modem. 

With a Hayes 
compatible PC mo- 
dem, here is how:- 

1. Connect 
the two modem lines 
that normally go to 
the telephone line together using a two-line 
plug without any connections to the 
telephone line. 

2. Turn on both modems and load 
the modems software. MTERM n (Loader 
V) or MaxCom Xmodem for the 2068. Load 
buffer etc. I used MaxCom. 

3 . Set both computers to terminal 
mode and the TS-2068 to ASCII (toggle 
con: none). All other parameters have to 
match the PC modem's of course or vice 
versa. 

The following has to be done rapidly 
before the PC abandons the connections. 

4. On the PC modem, ENTER ATA 
(which is Hayes command that forces the PC 
modem to answer the phone without the 




benefit of a ring or a tone). The PC modem 
emanates a long squeal and recognizes the 
signal from the other modem and connects. 

5 . Set the PC in RECEIVE mode, 
Xmodem 300 BAUD and enter the file 
name. 

6. From the TS-2068 select SEND 
(transmit) file "name. Cm" and ENTER. 

7. The PC acknowledges and re- 
ceives the file. 

8. Exit SEND to TERMINAL mode 
and ENTER Ctl Z (SKFT-7 Z) to tell the 
PC "end-of-file". 

I asked Don to send his input in MS CREPT 

on disk, it worked as 
you can see the results 
in the "From the 
Chairman's DISK". 
Don, please! No 
" (%%%%) line, the PC 
goes crazy with these 
-n placeholders. 

version of the above to 
Electronics Now 
Magazine after reading K. G. Pratt letter. 

Electronics NOW January 1994 
LETTERS Page 17 

" I wanted to transfer several megabytes from the 

files of my 1983 model Timex/Sinclair TS2068 com- 
puter to an IBM-compatible 286 PC with modem. 

The TS2068 has 64K of memory, etc The TS2068 

uses a non-ASCII code and cannot be directly con- 
nected to a PC. 

However, the hardware and software associ- 
ated with the modem allow the transmission of ASCII 
files. Therefore, the two computers can be connected 
by phone line. It ties up the person's phone line .. I 
had transferred some sensitive material by printing 
them out from the 2068 and later reading them by an 
optical character reader (OCR scanner) into the PC. 

K. G. Pratt 
Newport News, VA 



8 



QL 



ARE 



CT 



QL To IBM RGB Monitor Connections 

In the past few weeks I have had three reqt: is for information on how t "hook-up an 
lln CGA or RGB Monitor to a QL. The following information mil aUcw anyone with 
soldering experience to make an appropriate cable between the QL and an RGB monitor. 

The only problem you may encounter is with the horizontal sync i nv ^^°"^°" * 
negative going sync signal from the QL to a positive going horizontal signal required 
for most, if not all, American CGA/RGB monitors. 

In the following diagrams, I use a 74LS00 TTL IC (Quad 2-input posit ive-nand gate), of 
which we will use pins 1 and 2, tied together to form an- inverter input The signal 
from the QL, which is negative, enters the input of the inverter, pins 1 & 2. The sync 
signal is now inverted within the IC and a positive horizontal sync signal is 
available at pin 3 which is connected to the horizontal pin on the monitor connector. 

If you happen to have a 74LS04 Hex inverter IC, it also can be used - just use pin 1 
as the horizontal input from the QL and pin 2 will be the inverted sync signal output 
connected to the monitor connector. 

All parts for this project can be purchased at any Radio Shack store. In addition to 
purchasing the two connectors and IC, you will need a 9 pin »D' connector hood, which 
if you are careful, can house the IC - just carafully clip all unused pins on the IC 
and bend pins 1, 2, 3. 7,& 14 in towards the center of the IC. Solder he wires with 
minimum solder and install the IC upside down (pins facing up) and the two piece 
connector hood will louse it, allowing a clean appearing installation. You win also 
need a length of cjole determined by your requirement. The cable need only □« / 
conductors, or if you wish, use 7 - single lengths of multi-stranded wire to form your 
cable. 



Male 9 Pin *D' plug (solder pin side) 



5 

\ o 



4 
o 



3 
o 



O" 



-o< Jumper pins L & 2 



\ 



/ 



8 



Connections to the male 9 pin 'D ' connector 

Pin it's 

1 Ground ( common ) 

2 Ground (common) 

3 Red ( RGB signal ) 

4 Green (RGB signal) 

5 Blue (RGB signal) 

6 N/C (no connection) 

7 N/C ( no connection ) 

8 Horizontal Sync (negative signal - must be inverted) 

9 Vertical Sync (Most monitors do not require Neg . sync) 




9 



ZOIJU Putter 93 



ground ->7 
Use pin #7, IC-1 as common 
Ground points for both 6 
cable connectors - 
( 9 pin 'D' pin # 1 & 2 ) 5 
( 8 pin 'Din pin 2 ) . 

4 

Horiz Sync out to 9 pin<-3 
'D* connector, pin #8. 
Horiz Sync input from ->2 
QL connector (pin 84 ) 
(Pins 1 & 2 are jumped 1 
together to form an 
inverted signal input). 



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14<- 



IC-1 will only have 
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+5 volts from QL connector 
(Pin #1 ). 



74LS00 TTL IC wired as an inverter - IC-1 
Bottom side up (pins up) 




LIST 



2 



8 Pin DIN connector( solder pin side) 



Connections to the male Din 8 pin connector 

Pin *'s 



1 +5 volts DC 

2 Ground (common) 

3 Composite Signal ( not used for RGB ) 

4 Horizontal Sync (negative sync - must be inverted) 

5 Vertical Sync (Most monitors do not require Neg . sync) 

6 Green (RGB signal) 

7 Red (RGB signal ) 

8 Blue (RGB signal) 



Cable Connector hookup 

Pin *1, 8 pin Din connector to pin #14, IC-1 ( + 5 Volts DC) 

Pin #2, 8 pin 'Din connector to pin #7, IC-1 (Common Ground) 

Pin #3, 0 pin Din connector NOT USED! 

Pin #4, 0 pin Din connector to pin #'s 1 & 2, IC-1 (Horizontal sync input) 



10 



Pin #5, 8 pin Din connector to pin #9, 9 pin '0' connector (Vertical Sync) 

Pin #6, 8 pin Din connector to pin #4, 9 pin *D* connector (Green RGB signal) 

Pin #7, 8 pin Oin connector to pin #3, 9 pin '0* connector (Red RGB signal) 

Pin *8, 8 pin Din connector to pin #5, 9 pin 'D* connector (Blue RGB signal) 



Pin #1 and #2, 9 pin 'D' connector to pin #7, IC-1 (Common Ground) 
Pin #3, 9 pin '0' connector to pin #7, 8 pin Din connector (Red RGB signal) 
Pin #4, 9 pin *D" connector to pin #6, 8 pin Din connector (Green RGB signal) 
Pin #5, 9 pin »D' connector to pin #8, 8 pin Oin connector (Blue RGB signal) 
Pin #6 & #7, 9 pin 'D* connector NO CONNECTION 

Pin #8, 9 pin '0* connector to pin #3, IC-1 (Positive Horizontal sync output) 

Pin #9, 9 pin 'D* connector to pin *5, 8 pin Din connector if required (Vertical sync) 

Pin it's 1 & 2, IC-i to pin #4, 9 pin »0 f connector (Negative Horizontal sync) 

Pin #3, IC-i, to pin #8, pin 'D* connector (Positive Horizontal sync out) 

Pin #7, IC-i (two wires), to pin #'s 1 & 2, 9 pin '0' connector and to pin *2, 8 pin Din 
connector 

Pin #14, IC-1, to pin #1, 8 pin Din connector (Pin #1 is labeled PAL in the OL manual, 

however, the US QL's have a 5 volt OC connection at this pin). 

List of parts: Radio Shack part numbers indicated 

274-026 8 pin male OIN plug $1.79 

276-1537 9 pin male 'D' plug $0.99 

276-1539 9 pos '0* Hood $0.79 

276-1801 7400 Quad 2-input NAND gate $0.89 

276-1802 7404 Hex inverter $0.99 * 

270-775 9 conductor, double shielded cable $0.59 per foot 

x Use the 7404 Hex inverter as an alternate IC. 

Additional Information: 

An RGB monitor will display 8 primary colors; black, red, yellow, cyan, green, blue, 
magenta and white. If you purchase a CGA monitor, yellow will appear brown and white 
will be tinted blue or dirty looking. This is set-up in the G2*s (grids of the 
picture tube) to produce these differences in color because; CGA monitors have one 
additional line called Intensity. CGA will provide 16 colors if the intensity line 
is used - IBM only! Yellow will be yellow when intensified and white will be white. 
You may also find that when you power-up the QL, the tweed memory check display and 
the Fl - F2 display will roll until you press either function key; then it will 
stabilize. Try not using the vertical sync line, it may eliminate this problem. 

NOTE : If you require any assistance, contact me through LIST. 

Bob Gilder 



LISTimgs 
NEWSLETTER 
11 March 1991 



« {f e t 



CASSETTE TAPE LOAD / SAVE MON I TOR 



Figure 1: LOAD/SAVE Monitor 



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Figure Z 

HEADJU UGNMENT 



side 1 




side 2 



by William Pederson 

Oiie problem is the feedback generated by 

most cassettes recorders. So you have to pull 

one of the EAR plugs when SAVEing. 

A second is feeding the cassette recorder 
too strong a signal. For the ZX81/TS1000 this 
is seldom a problem, its signal is weak, The 
TS2068 puts out a relatively ear-splitting 
signal. 

A third is getting the right amount of 
signal to the computer for successful LOAD. 
The ZX81/TS1000 is very finicky. It is so 
obstinate that a commercial tape will seldom 
LOAD with setting the user found to be 
optimum. 

A TS2068 needs about 6 V. P-P for best 
results, though this range is quite wide. The 
level for the ZX81/TS1000 is near 1 V. P-P. 

The first problem is solved by using a 
switch instead of pulling an EAR connection. 
Other things can be done, like grounding out 
stray signals. 



11 



The second problem is solved by 
potentiometer R2 which allows you to control 
the signal strength heard by the recorder. 

The third problem is solved by a Peak-to- 
Peak voltmeter for the EAR signal so you can 
see what you are getting before attempting to 
LOAD. Sometime you can even adjust the 
level on the fly to salvage a cassette that fades 
out. 

Unless you really have horrible tapes, this 
will solve your problem. Of course you might 
have an equally horrible recorder. In that case, 
this monitor comes in handy for finding out 
what hind of output you are getting. 

There has been a lot said about head 
alignment being the major cause. Oscilloscope 
picture Fig. 2 shows this unlikely. The effect 
of head misalignment is not severe it rounds 
off the corners and reduces signal strength. In 
severe cases like (C, D, E) more than one 
magnetized strip is seen by the head. Luckily, 
this is almost never the case. 

Signal conditioners like WINKY Board 
are best used to salvage tapes made on bad 
recorders. 



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3 



FROM THE CHAIRMAN'S DISK S 



Sometimes I am like a computer - 1 sit 
here with a blank mind and I have a 
column to write. But sitting at the left 
upper corner of my T/S 2068 is a 
joystick that I bought for $2.00 at the Ft. 
Wayne HamFest and ComputerFest on 
November 13th. The joystick is a WICO 
COMMAND CONTROL which was offered 
by a table with a lot of Commodore stuff. It 
works very well and the stick looks like it saw 
little wear. 

They were dealing very well, in fact if 
you weren't really wanting to buy you should 
not make an offer when asked to since they 
just might accept a ridiculous offer. For in- 
stance I say two quite dirty full 
height 5.25 disk drives with a tag 
that read $5.00 each. Out of 
curiosity I lifted them up to see 
what make and model and they 
were Tandon TM 100-2 A and 
the seller said they were a bar- 
gain. "Very dirty and 
overpriced," I said. "Make an 
offer" and I offered $1.00 for 
both of them. So my "loot bag" 
got heavier. Not a total loss since 
they both worked as is but not 
without some bell ringing on my 
Oliger disk system. I wrapped 
them in newspapers and stored 
them with other disk drives I 
have. I wanted to keep the other 
disk drives clean. One other 
good buy and at my price was a 
book. "The Brady Guide To 
Microcomputer Troubleshooting 
& Maintenance" by Henry F. Beechhold for 
$2.00. It gave me lots of clues on how to 
clean a dirty drive. 

My very first buy was a full height single 
drive case with a Radio Shack disk drive in it. 
Very compact case and very clean. The case 
even had an extender for the ribbon cable 
which meant that I did not have to open the 




case to plug in the ribbon cable to test the 
drive. And as I knew it would be, it was a 
single sided 40 track drive, a TEXAS Periph- 
erals drive. Worked very nicely with no 
changes to the drive select socket. But it is 
single sided. I bought the case with the idea 
of having a pair of half height 40 track drives 
put in it. A school was selling all their Radio 
Shack equipment since they have upgraded 
to a MSDOS clone. 

I did buy what was supposed to be 40 
track 360K half height drives but turned out 
to be 720K 80 track drives when I tested 
them at home. They were marked 360K 
drives and in another stack was a sign 720K 
and I wonder if the signs got 
mixed. He wanted three 
times as much for the 720K 
drives. I will have to watch 
for another chance to buy a 
360K drive or two that is half 
height. What I got is a pair of 
TEAC 55GFR-553-U drives. 
I am after a set of drives that 
is easier to transport to 
meetings. 



The computer column in 
Popular Electronics (January 
1994 issue) was moaning 
about the fact that the com- 
puter industry does not have 
a full complement of engi- 
neers. What they need is a 
DOCUMENT ENGINEER 
to write the manuals so that 
they make sense and are well 
written. He suggested that a DOCUMENT 
ENGINEER should have a Masters in Eng- 
lish and at least a Masters in computer pro- 
gramming. So that would require a DOCU- 
MENT ENGINEER to have at least a Doc- 
tor's degree. And here I am trying to write a 
document to explain how to use a rather 
simple program and I am not a programmer! 



13 



Here I am trying to swim and I can not even 
float yet! 

If anyone is using SPDOS (RAMEX 
Millenia K) there is one oddity that will make 
you think that the computer and SPDOS has 
locked up. In both the Larken and the Oliger 
disk systems the interfaces try to LOAD or 
SAVE 5 or 6 times before reporting an error. 
But SPDOS makes 50 tries. So if it goes off 
with a blank screen and the disk drive is run- 
ning that is what is happening. Amazing what 
one can learn if you read and reread the 
manual. 

Yesterday, November 24th, I took an- 
other look at the full height drive and case I 
bought at the HamFest and saw that since the 
cable connector was extended to outside the 
case that I could easily use the case without 
the process of making slots in it for the rib- 
bon cable to add a third drive to the 3.5 and 
5.25 720K drives in another case. I remem- 
bered my prior try with a 3.5 drive and that 
nothing worked when it was on line so I 
thought that it was worth a try since this was 
a different type of 3. 5 drive. I had to swap 
the SSDD drive with a DSDD drive and then 
add a connector to the ribbon cable on the 
720K case. I made the DSDD drive (a 
TANDON TM 100-2 A drive) drive #2 al- 
though it is the first on the line of the ones on 
the cable. Also since the other drives had no 
place for a terminator resistor I tried it with 
out one. I had success with the setup. So now 
I have three drives in two cases to represent a 
3.5 720K and 5.25 both 360K and 720K 
drives. I was even dreaming of a 3 inch drive 
but I did not see any place to get disks so that 
is out. But does anvone even use the 3 inch 
drives? 

I have used the Oliger disk interface so 
much and even when using the Larken inter- 
face it does the same disk drive light on the 
selected drive that it does on the Oliger inter- 
face alone. Now what I am writing about is 
the LED on the front of every drive. On the 
Larken interface it only comes on when the 
drive is in use but on the Oliger it is on all the 
time on whatever drive is the selected drive. 
Why the comment? Well, I was recently set- 



14 



ting up a set of three drives for my traveling 
computer and it has a pure Larken interface. 
I was testing them and panicked until I real- 
ized that on the Larken the selected drive's 
light does not light up till it is in use. I 
thought that the system was down. I had 
gotten so used to looking at the drives to see 
which was selected that I forgot about the 
way that the Larken handles the drive light. 
On the Oliger even in the Larken mode the 
drive light is on all the time. 

This week (today is 12 03 1993) I re- 
ceived more information on how Richard 
Jelen is converting his T/S 2068 into a port- 
able using nicad batteries to power it and a 
12 volt TV. I will include the material in the 
next issue of ZXir QLive Alive! since I will 
have to type in the hand written material and 
get the sketches and drawings included. He 
did cut the current draw using some CMOS 
chips. One other project Mr. Jelen is in- 
volved in is building up a disk interface from 
bare boards he ordered from John Oliger. 
See the cassette LOAD AID circuit sche- 
matic that is in this issue for some of his ear- 
lier work. 

MSDOS to LarKea 
and MSCRIPT. 

Letter from Les Cottrell, Cocoa, FL. 

I have done this several times using two 
different schemes. The last time I took 
a file done on a MAC in MSWord, 
moved it across a network SAVEd as an 
A SCII file to an IBM and then to Larken. To 
make it easy to find I use a disk with only the 
files I want to convert. 

1 . Using the Larken Disk Editor I 
searched using the "Edit a block" function 
until I find the beginning of the text I want. I 
write down the address and look for the end 
of the text on that block and write that down. 
Also look for any ASCII codes that won't be 
in MSCRIPT such as 9 for tab. (MSCRIPT 
tab stops are "padded" with spaces - 32's.) 
Then I break out of the Editor and do a code 



save such as "textl.CT" CODE (start), 
(length). You may find more than one place 
with MSDOS text on a Larken block so I 
save the next as "text2.CT CODE (start), 
(length). This process is repeated until all the 
text is located and SAVEd over to Larken 
files. 

2. Then I load MSCRIPT and load 
"textl.CT". If you then look at a file with 
tabs in it will have short lines where tabs 
were. I then break out of MSCRIPT and add 
a few lines of basic to correct this such as: 

1000 FOR 1=46927 to 
(46927+length of file):IF PEEK 1=9 THEN 
POKE 1,32 

1010 NEXT 1 

Then GOTO 1000 will find the tab nd 
replace them with a single space. MSCRIPT 
doesn't have much room left for added basic 
so keep it short. The last line of basic in my 
version of MSCRIPT is 950 so 1 000 was a 
safe starting point. 46927 is where the CT 
files start and of course 32 is a space. You 
could also delete the unknown codes using 
"delete left" or "delete" keys if you only had 
a few problems. After I finish this I always 
delete lines 1000 and 1010 just in case. 

3. Next I run MSCRIPT and add spaces 
where needed to get the tabs lined up. Some 
other cleanup such as added carriage returns 
might also be required. File is SAVEd with a 
new name from MSCRIPT. 

4. Steps 2 and 3 are repeated until all the 
files are cleaned up. 

5. Now I would load "name ! " and as- 
suming that it was only part of what I had iv 
MSDOS I would merge "name2" and so or 
until I had the file recreated in MSCRIPT. 
The is SAVEd again as "finall". 

The last file that I converted was the 
Larken DOS cartridge disasse bly that was 
done in 2 columns as I had q e a bit of 
cleanup, but I ended up with the same thing 
in MSCRIPT that I had started out with in 
MSWord on the MAC. 

15 



The other method is to use a utility 
called MSDOS. Bx written by George 
Chambers of the Toronto Users Club and 
published on page 8 of May '90 Sine-Link. 
(George Chambers; 14 Richome Court; 
Scarborough, Ontario; Canada M1K 2Y1) 
He has built the "unknown" code remover 
into his program. I used this program to con- 
vert the index of all Sine-Link articles from 
MSDOS disk to MSCRIPT and it worked 
quite well. 

Editor's comments: I have used George 
Chambers' MSDOSOS.Bx several times but 
I thought that Les's information would be 
helpful to someone with other than a Larken 
interface. If someone gets this running on 
other than a Larken disk interface please let 
me know or let Frank Davis of UPDATE 
MAGAZINE know because it might be 
handy for someone else to use. (UPDATE 
MAGAZINE; P. O. BOX 1095; Peru IN 
46970). Further information is available in 
the form of documents for MSDOS. Bx 
which I can supply. 0/0 

D.U.S. 

DISK UTILITY SOFTWARE 

By Donald S. Lambert 

Comments about one of the programs 
that I have used. 

you have a virgin copy of D.U. S. do 
not ever remove the write protect 
sticker. Any dedicating to the programs 
should be done on a copy disk. Get the copy 
done first, copy by any means the program 
COPYH. Bl and then dedicate that copy. 
When the program COPYH.B1 is LOADed it 
will halt with a line or two of programming 
and a warning of some kind. EDIT the line 
and between the quotes of the A$ enter the 
letter given that applies to your disk interface. 
Run the cursor over to get in between the 
quotes in LET A$="". Use only capitals and 
if you have a pure Larken interface use an 
"L", if a Larken on an AERCO interface use 
an "A", if a Larken on a RAMEX interface 
use an "R" and if a Larken on an Oliger 
interface use an "O". It must be an upper 




case letter. And then RUN 9999 and that will 
automatically (you must mot write protect the 
disk till this is done) SAVE that to disk. This 
is what the program will display on the screen 
till it is dedicated: 

9910>LET a$="": IF a$="" THEN 
PRINT AT VAL "5", NOT PI; "THIS PRO- 
GRAM MUST BE CUSTOMIZED! : 
BEEP VAL ".25",NOT PI BEEP VAL 
".25",NOT PI: LIST VAL "9910": STOP 

9920 PRINT #VAL "4": LOAD 
"COPYILC"+A$CODE : RUN VAL "5" 

9999 RANDOMIZE USR VAL "100": 
SAVE "COPYILBr LINE VAL "9990" 

Now run the program and it will ask you 
for the original drive number, then the num- 
ber of copies to be made and finally the drive 
the copy will be made in. The drives must be 
the same number of tracks both 40 track or 
both 80 track (size of the disk is immaterial) 
and both have the same number of sides or at 
least the target disk needs to have the same or 
more sides than the original. Now with a 
working COPYH.B1 program you are ready 
to copy the master disk. COPYH.B1 will 
copy the original disk exactly as it is on the 
disk, same number of sides, same disk title 
and same number of tracks plus the same 
head step rate. And it does it at the rate of 5 
tracks at a time and then as it SAVEs to the 
target disk it FORMATS the disk. And it will 
report if the disk has something wrong with 
it. If the copy work ends with a notice BAD 
DISK it is bad and try again. In either case 
(good disk - it doesn't say good but if a bad 
disk it does say BAD) you will be asked 
ANOTHER? if so press " Y" and it will have 
you set up for the next copying routine. As it 
copies it will tell you how many tracks and 
sides the disk has plus head speed. 

When I send a disk to Bob Swoger I use 
COPYRBl to make up the disk for me from 
a master disk I made back when. The reason 
for this is that Bob uses a single sided drive 
and only 40 tracks but he requires a head 
step rate of 30. COPYH.B1 does all that so 
that I don't have to worry about getting all the 
current information on the disk and since 



LogiCalll is on the disk that also is there 
readv to use. 

When you use the full disk you will find 
that it will load by pressing ENTER and 
powering up the computer. The screen will 
clear and then the first display will be on the 
screen. If you wait a while then it will pro- 
gress to the menu display, but if you hit enter 
when the first display is shown it will imme- 
diately go to the menu. The menu will not 
display all the programs, use the up and 
down arrow keys to get the other titles. Then 
enter the letter for the one that you want and 
that program will be LOADed into the com- 
puter. The letters that you ENTER will not 
change as the titles scroll up or down but the 
computer knows what you want. 

I had a disk that the Oliger disk interface 
quit at about the tenth or twelfth track. Now I 
could FORMAT that with FORMAT.B1 
(Has to be customized) on the Larken disk 
interface and that will report how many bad 
bytes. But still it can end up with a problem. 
So after Formatting with FORMAT.B 1 1 
used MAPOUT.B1. MAPOUT.B1 will go 
through a disk and map out the bad blocks so 
that you never need worry about a failed 
program from a block with a bad byte. I have 
added the screen displays for the various 
above programs: 

This shows the result of Formatting with 
bad bytes. 

FORMAT DISK 
WRITTEN BY KRIS BOISVERT 
1989 BYTE POWER 

FORMATTING DISK IN DRIVE 0 
2 SIDES, 43 TRACKS, 6 ms 

FORMATING COMPLETED... 
256000 BYTES IN BAD BLOCKS 
409600 BYTES AVAILABLE ON DISK 

And this is the result of using 
MAPOUT.B1 with LogiCall installed on the 
above disk: 

Disk Name : Lambert 11 27 1993 

L.B1 001 AUTOSTART 001 



16 



LarKen LKDOS ©1986 
Track/Side 043/002 
Total Files 002 
Free Blocks 076 

And since the drive call-out on 
MAPOUT.B1 lists the drives as 0-4 then 
apparently it will work with RAMDISK. 

Conclusion: If you have the Larken disk 
interface then this is a must have disk. The 
other must have is George Chambers' utility 
disk of TTSUC Library Disk #1. (also ZQA! 
PD Lib. Disk #9) What one disk won't do the 
other will very likely do. In addition there is 
provision on the D.U. S. disk to convert the 
menu load program to your own use. And an 
important factor is that the D.U. S. disk is 
almost so user friendly so that the manual is 
not required for every program. 0/0 

Note: D.U.S. is a Public Domain disk. 
Page 2, § 4 of the manual reads:- 
D.U.S. is Public Domain, this means you 
may freely distribute it to any LarKen LK- 
DOS user so long as no charge is made 
for the package other than the cost of the 
media and/ or time. Also, you must 
distribute exact copies of the disk(s), no 
program should be altered in anyway 
without first consulting me. etc. 

Kiristian Boisvert 
How about it Don, can we add it to 
our P D Library? Abed 

TURBO SWITCH For The 
ZX-81 

by Tony Willing,. Vashon, WA 

I np whole idea of experimenting 
with a "TURBO Switch" 
came from reading the book "EXPLORER'S 
GUIDE TO THE T/S 1000" bv Mike Lord. 
On page 58(1) of this book under the 
heading "Keyboard Scanning" he tells how 
the system variable MARGIN may be 
changed from 55 to 31 by taking pin 22 of 
the ULA chip HIGH or LOW. This is 
supposed to be of use to the computer 
manufacturer to enable the T/S 1000 to be 
used in either the USA which uses 31 blank 
lines at the top and bottom of the screen, or 
in the UK which uses 55 blank line. The -J "J 



book also states on page 52(2) under the 
heading "NMI Handler" that "When in the 
SLOW mode the ZX81 uses the time 
occupied by these blank lines to carry on with 
your program". 

So I thought if I increased the number of 
lines on my T/S 1000. 1 might increase the 
speed of program execution. And it works 
well. I use direct video and have not tried it 
using the RF modulator, but if you use direct 
video I think you will have success from the 
modification. 

To test the speed of program execution I 
use the following BASIC program: 

10 FOR N = 1 TO 500 

20 NEXT N 

30 PRINT "FINISHED" 

With pin 22 HIGH the computer takes 
20 seconds. With the pin low, the program 
takes 28 seconds. (About a 28% increase in 
speed. Don). This is a considerable increase 
in speed. One might ask "Why have a 
TURBO Switch?" Well, when I use my 
WORD* program (word processor) at the 
"TURBO" speed the cursor blinks at about 
twice the normal rate and does not seem to 
miss keys as it did in the past, and when 
playing games I use the slower speed so that I 
can get a higher score! 

When using the higher speed I find the 
monitor screen is filled with lines from top to 
bottom, when using the slow speed I find a 
blank screen at the top and bottom 1/2 inch 
of the screen. I can switch from "TURBO" 
to normal at any time without any crashes. 

Lastly, how is the modification carried 
out? You have to take the T/S 1000 circuit 
board out of it's case and locate resistor R30 
which is located between the ULA chip and 
the regulator heat sink. It should have the 
colors Brown Black Brown. 

Using a soldering iron, lift the left hand 
end of the resistor clear from the circuit 
board hole. Also locate resistor R38 which is 
four resistors down from R30, and solder 
one end of some two core cable to the left 
hand end of R38, which should be a 5V rail. 
To the raised left hand end of R30, solder 



one end of a IK 1/4W resistor. Bend the re- 
sistor upwards and solder the other end to the 
right hand end of R34, which is a OV rail. To 
the junction of R30 and the added IK resis- 
tor solder the other core of the two core ca- 
ble. To the other end of the cable solder a 
switch of the single throw single pole type. 



change the voltage from nearly OVolts to 
nearly 5 Volts, and if you have your monitor 
connected you should see the screen flicker. 

The switch should be mounted some- 
where convenient, accessible from outside 
the T/S 1000. 1 have my T/S 1000 mounted 
inside a steel chassis and so I mounted the 




■RESIST* 




I x ST/sr swtch 

I x IK "RES'SToR 



-Tun^BO / A/OKM/li. SWITCH tfObirtCAT/otf r/siOOG. 



id 

W22 




That completes the circuit board modifi- 
cation. Try connecting a multimeter at the 
solder connection between R30 and the IK 
resistor, and ground. When the T/S 1000 is 
powered up, the "TURBO" switch should 



18 



>0V 




1 



"TURBO" switch on the front panel with the 
words "TURBO" and "NORMAL" along 
side the switch. Try ENTERing and running 
the program that I LIS Ted earlier and see the 
difference the switch makes. ENJOY! 



(1) (Page 58) KEYBOARD SCAN- 
NING 

This is a fairly straightforward subrou- 
tine which is normally called from the Main 
Display routine, but which can equally well 
be used by your machine language programs. 

It returns a code in the EL register pair 
corresponding to the key pressed, or FFFF if 
no key was pressed. It also loads the System 
Variable Margin (4028) with the correct 
number of blank lines needed at the top and 
bottom of the picture; 55 for U. K. ma- 
chines, 31 for the U. S. A. models, by detect- 
ing whether pin 22 of IC1 is strapped to 0V 
or not. 

(2) (Page 52) NMT HANDLER 

As each horizontal TV scan line is com- 
pleted in 64 micro-seconds, it takes 24 X 8 X 
64 micro-seconds - which is just over 12 
milli-seconds - to output the complete 24 
rows of characters displayed in each TV 
frame. But, to synchronize the TV set prop- 
erly, each frame must last for 20 milli-sec- 
onds (16.7 milli-seconds for the U. S. A. 
model), so additional - blank lines are needed 
to fill in the top and bottom margins of the 
picture, before during and after the frame 
synchronization pulse. 

When in the SLOW mode, the ZX81 
uses the time occupied by these blank lines to 
carry on with your program. But, to keep 
track of the time, it is interrupted by the SCL 
chip every 64 micro-seconds. The non- 
Maskable Interrupt is used for this function, 
and calls the routine starting at 0066 hex. 0/0. 

USING A 16K MEMOTECH 
MEMOPAK THAT HAS SWITCHES 

by Donald S. Lambert 

This was in a letter that I wrote to 
Gilliam Parrish in regards to using a 16K 
MEMOTECH MEMOPAK. 

AX the Dayton ComputerFest I did find 

a 16K Memotech ram module of 
the latter manufacture with the DIP switches 
which are located where the oval opening in 
the back is. I really did not know that they 
made two versions but am not surprised. And 



19 



I would expect that it could be possible to 
upgrade a switchless version to one with 
switches. How much circuitry would have to 
be changed is not known. But the switchless 
version will not work with more than 16K of 
memory. 

But this is what the manual stated: 

HOW DO I SET UP THE MEMOTECH 16K? 

Make sure your power supply is not 
connected to the ZX81 when you attach the 
pack. We recommend that the ZX81 + (this 
was wrote in the U. K. where they never had 
the T/S 1000) MEMOPAK configuration 
should go in this order, according to what 
add-ons you have: 

ZX81 + (Commercial Printer I/F) + 
(HRG) + Master Memopak 16K or 32K + 
(Sinclair Printer - Silver paper one) + (Slave 
Memopak or Sinclair 16K). (You will have 
to experiment to find out where to connect 
the T/S 2040 printer.) 

WHAT ABOUT THE SWITCH SETTINGS? 

There are two possible modes for using 
the Memopak 16K: MASTER and SLAVE. 
The mode you require depends on which of 
the possible memory configurations you are 
using. The configurations and modes are as 
follows: 

a) MEMOPAK 16K alone (MASTER). 

b) MEMOPAK 16K (MASTER) + 
MEMOPAK 16K (SLAVE). 

c) MEMOPAK 16K (MASTER) + 
SINCLAIR 16K (SLAVE). 

d) MEMOPAK 32K (MASTER) + 
MEMOPAK 16K (SLAVE). 

Now, if your MEMOPAK 16K is being 
used as a MASTER (alone or with a SLAVE 
pack attached somewhere behind) then 
switches 2 and 3 should be ON and switches 
1 and 4 should be OFF. On the other hand , 
if your MEMOPAK is sitting behind a 
MEMOPAK 32K or another 16K then it 
should be switched into SLAVE mode (1 and 
4 ON and 2 and 3 OFF). 

REMEMBER "ON" IS UP. 

WHAT SHOULD I DO TO USE THE NEW, 
LARGER MEMORY? 



If you have a total of 32K RAM then to 
make the most of it youll need to kev in: 
POKE 16389,192 
NEW 

To raise the RAMTOP. For the 48K 
RAM, you should key in: 
POKE 16388,255 
POKE 16389,255 
NEW 

To check RAMTOP, type in: 
PRINT PEEK 16389 * 
NEW 

and you will get back the current RAM- 
TOP. This should be 192 for 32K of mem- 
ory. If I remember right 2K should get 72, 



16K should get 128, 32K should get 192. 
Remember that the default is to 16K (128). 

With 32K of memory you will have to 
watch that the display rile does not straddle 
the 32K mark (ROM is 8K, 8K is set aside 
for use of some accessories) which is where 
the RAM starts at 16384 (16K times 1024). 
And that means that 16K of RAM has a 
RAM top of 32768. So you need to fool the 
computer and jump the program above the 
32768 mark and later that can be edited out 
of the program. 

If you wanted to convert your old style 
16K MEMOPAK to the new style Dan 
Elliott probably could do it. But on the other 
hand it might be cheaper to go to a new 
MEMOPAK or a static RAM memory. 0/0 











111 


ll 




§§ 



I 



SPECTRUM for your 2068 

If you are a LarKen LK-DOS owner and would 
like to run SPECTRUM programs on your system, 
we will supply a V2 EPROM, socket and 
74HCT32 for $12 which includes shipping and 
handling. The installation instructions are in your 
LarKen manual. We shall not be responsible for 
your install job. AERCO owners need only the 
EPROM for $10 forwarded to LarKen. 
Bob Swoger Address on page 2 

747 Jifitgtfi gmmlatat 

So you like to fly, the 747 Flight Simulator for 
SPECTRUM by Derek Ashton of DACC sold 
over 40K copies in Europe. Requires a SPEC- 
TRUM equipped 2068. At this time supplied on 
LarKen SSDD disk only for $10 which goes to 
Derek now working at Motorola with Bob. 
Bob Swoger Address on page 2 

PAL Chips 

Programmable Array Logic chips are available for 

some Timex or QL's from NAP Ware. 

Nazir Pashtoon 

940 Beau Dr. Apt. 204 

Des Plaines IL 60016-5876 

Phone(eve.) 708 439-1679 20 



Update! 
Magazine 

Our Only Magazine 
513 E MAIN ST 
PERU IN 46970 
317 473-8031 



CONQUEST 



A Strategic generic War Qamejor the 2068 
TIME: A few centuries from now. 
PLACE: An unknown inhabited planet. 
YOU: Commander of Expeditionary Force. 
MISSION: Capture said planet. 
INTELLIGENCE: Enemy seen scouting same planet. 
STRATEGY: Find and capture Planet's cities. 
Direct production to aid your war effort. 
Defeat enemy when found. 
SITUATION: You have just captured your first city. 
S Can generate new random map every time or 
play map of your choice. 

S For 2 or 3 combatants. Play against the com- 
puter or your friends. 

S Production times and fighting ability adjustable 
for each player - keeps game a challenge at all 
times. 



S Completely in fast machine code. Games can 
be SAVEd and CONTINUEd. 
Available on tape, or disk, AERCO, Oliger. Game 
and map SAVEs in BASIC to allow adaptation to 
your system. Price $19.95 + $2.50 S&H. 

Order from:- or 
Llovd Dreser SMUG 
2461 S. 79th St. BOX 101 
West Allis WI 53219 Butler WI 53007 


WANTED: MINI-MOD AND Z-COM docu- 
ments. They are modem programs for the T/S 
1000. 

FREDERIC STERN 
P O BOX 264 
HOLBROOK NY 11741 
Tele: (516) 737-0963 


WANTED: Articles or material for the QL and 
the Z88 for publication in ZXir QLive Alive!. Also 
articles on any other T/S computer. Can't publish 
what we do not have. Will accept even hand- 
written notes. 
DONALD S LAMBERT 
1301 KIBIJNGER PLACE 
AUBURN IN 46706-3010 


The John Oliger Co. 

11601 WidbeyDr. 
Cumberland IN 46229 
The John Oliger Floppy Disk System :- 
DISK BOARD "A" 

Bare PC Board only : $17.95 pp. 

Kit of PC Board & parts : $55.95 pp. 

Assembled and tested : $66.95 pp. 

Two drive cable for above, 3 foot long: $16.95 pp. 

Four drive cable for above, 4 foot long : $26.95 pp. 

DISK BOARD "B" 

Bare Board with JLO Safe Disk EPROM : $26.95 pp. 
Kit of PC Board with parts : $45.85 pp. 
Assembled and tested : $63.95 pp. 
PACKAGE OF BOTH DISK BOARDS M A" & W B W 
Bare PC Board with JLO Safe EPROM : $43.95 pp. 
Kit of both Boards with parts : $99.95 pp. 
Both Boards assembled and tested : $127.95 pp. 
Both Boards assembled and tested w/2-drive data 
cable: $139.95 pp. 

THE DISKWORKS: Both Boards assembled and 

tested w/2-drive data cable and assembled 2068 

EXPANSION Board : $189.95 pp. 

2068 EXPANSION BOARD : plugs in the expansion port 

on back of 2068. Pass-thru for other peripherals, giving you 

4 expansion slots. All devices use this Board, except for the 

2068 dock cartridge Board,. 

Bare PC Board: $14.95 

-Doara wiin pans . 

Assembled & tested : $54.95 

Indiana residents, please add 5% sales tax 


FREEBIE! Take a look where your disk drive 
interface cable comes out of the disk case. If you 
have a sharp piece of metal (all my metal cases 
had) and want to protect your interface cable from 
wear here is a deal. I have some plastic protectors 
that are 3.5 inches long (49 of them) and some 
that are 2.75 inches long. They are easy to cut to 
length if necessary (mine all were) and the protec- 
tor are such that they will slide onto a piece of 
metal or plastic that is up to about .050 inches 
thick. To get one or so send a stamped self ad- 
dressed letter and I will send you up to 3 per re- 
quest. These were given to me by Paul Holgren to 
be passed on. DONALD S. LAMBERT: 1301 
KIBLINGER PLACE; AUBURN IN 46706. 


FRANK DAVIS 

MECHANICAL AFFINITY 

513 E MAIN ST 
PERU IN 46970 
317 473-8031 

Z88 QL GOLD CARDS QXL Card 
Falkenberg Hard Drive Interface 
TEXT78PLUS4 
Software Hardware and Disks 
For T/S Computers 

PAUL HOLMGREN 

MECHANICAL AFFINITY 

5231 WILTON WOOD CT 
INDIANAPOLIS IN 46254 
317 291-6002 


LIS Ting Newslei-fer, 

Annual dues to receive LISTing is $16.00. Fred 

Stern is the editor and is doing great in keeping it 

going. 

LIST 

5 PERI LANE 

VALLEY STREAM NY 11581 





21