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TIMEXISinclair NortkAmtricin User Groups Auburn. Indiana 

Volume 2, Number 1 Spring 1992 



ADDRESS 



T/SNUG Chairmen 1 

T/SNIJG Information 2 

ZXir QLive Alive! Article Contributions 2 

Contributors to this Issue 2 

From the Chairmans Disk 2 

TREASURY NOTES 3 

INPUT/OUTPUT 4 

NEWS ITEMS 5 

LIBRARY 6 

Articles: 

CASSETTE LOAD /SAVE Problems Solved - PART 4 G 

AN UPDATED ZX81 9 

BENCHMARKING THE 2X81 10 

DERIVING YOUR TAX THRESHOLD ON TS2068 12 

TAX-I-QL TIP 13 

Ada U 

And now a word from our Vendors 15 

2X-91 TEN YEARS LATER 13 27 



T/SNUG CHAIRMEN 



Here is the list of 1992 T/SNUG Chairmen and how to contact 
them. We wish to support the following SIGS: ZX80/ZXB1, Z88, 
SPECTRUM/ TS2068/TC20 68 and QL. If you have questions about any 
of these fine machines contact the Chairman. 

POSITION NAME PHONE PRIMARY FUNCTION 



Chairman I 
Vice-chairman Dave Bennett 
Vice-chairman Al Feng 
Vice-Chairman D.G. Smith 
Vice-Chairman Ed Snow 
Vice-Chairman Rod Gowen 
Vice-Chairman Rod Humphreys 
Vice-Chairman Bob Swoger 
Treasurer Abed Kahale 



219-925-1372 Chief Motivator 
717-774-7531 CATS/Z88 
708-971-0495 CATUG/QL Library 
814-535-6998 Tape s JLO Library 
407-380-5124 ZX81 Tape Library 
503-655-7484 CCATS 
604-931-5509 VSUG/TS2068 
708-837-7957 Newsletter/BBS SysOp 
708-885-4337 CATUG/Cash Tracker 



Copyright (C) 1991 TIMEX/ Sinclair NorthAmerican Users Groups 

ZXir QLive Alive! 
Volume 2, Number 1 1 Sprinc 



m\v mm mm\ is the 

newsletter of T/SNUG, the 
TIMEX/Sinclair NorthAmerican 
User Groups, providing news and 
software support to the T/S 
community in at least four 
newsletters per year. 

It is our goal to build a 
Public Domain software library 
and develop a list of available 
software for all T/S machines 
showing the source. 

Vendors have free space in this 
newsletter which they receive 
free of charge so that they may 
see we are still out here. It 
you feel that T/SNUG should 
perform other tasks, let us 
know your feelings. 

T/SNUG wishes to have one 



chairman from every T/S user 
group who will take charge of 
sending us their groups 




We encourage your group to copy 
this newsletter and distribute 
it at regular meetings to all 
of your members. If you can't 
copy this newsletter, perhaps 
we can provide a disk with the 
articles on it for use in your 
newsletter. 

Articles appearing in this 
newsletter can be obtained by 
downloading this newsletter 
from our BBS. 

For an annual contribution of 
S10 . 00 you can keep T/SNUG 
alive! Send your contribution 
payable to A. Kahale at: 

ABED KAHALE 

ZXIr GLlve Alive! Newslaller 

335 W NEWPORT RD 

HOFFMAN ESTATES IL 60195-3106 

Tele: H708-885-4337 

ZXir QLivfl Alive! 
Anicie CoatribMtou 



If you would like to contribute 
an article to the newsletter, 
upload a file to oir BBS called 2 



TSNUG.ART . If you have an AD 
for the newsletter UPLOAD a 
file called TSNUG.ADS. If you 
have NEWS to POST about your 
UPLOAD a file called 

NWS . 

If you need help contact the 
SVSOP by E-MAIL on the T/SNUG 
BBS, mail or by phone: 

BOB SWOGER 

S13 PARKSIDE CIRCLE 

STREAMWOOD IL 60107-1647 

It is preferred that you call: 
H708/837-7957 or W708/576-8068 

If you can only contribute hard 
copy, tape or disk format, send 
your inputs to: 

OON LAMBERT 
ZXIr QLIvs Alive! Newsletter 
1301 KIBLINGER PL 
AUBURN IN 46706 

Tele: H219-925-1372 
Please call before sending 
articles. 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE 



Al Feng 
Gary Ganger 
Warren Jackson 
Joan Kealy 
Marie Kendoll 
Don Lambert 
Robert Shade 
John Shepard 




END OF A YEAR 
AND 

LOOKING BACK. 

The Chairman reminiscences! 



I look at the world of ZX 
computers as a training 
field/hobby. Some use it to 
begin to learn acout computers 
and get thrilled by more bells 
and whistles and faster speed 

makes /mode Is; others look 
around and either because they 
don't want to spend (or can't) 
large bucks up front to get 
into heavily advertised 
computers they go into being 



T/Sers with the idea of 
learning about computers to 
satisfy an urge - or a need to 
have computing power and get 
hooked on the T/S machines or 
else learn enough to but don't 
want to go into the necessity 
of another learning curve to 
learn a new system. For some 
the T/S computers do as much or 
mote than they need and feel no 
desire to check out other 
computers . Some are like a 
young kid with his first jalopy 

- getting it only to 'learn to 
drive' and abandoning it when 
he can afford a more expensive 
model. 

So there Is a need for a 
National Organization to help 
tie all the T/Sers together and 
be a central clearing house for 
Information and support. That 
need was recognized in the past 
and is still true, with the 
demise of the leading magazines 
and those not so well known, 
there is no other source of 
information in North America 
except the user groups and 

UPDATE MAGAZINE. The groups are 

more concerned with their local 
members than the needs of non- 
locals. Corresponding with Out- 
Of-Town members is very time 
consuming. Only an organization 
dedicated to that concept can 
serve folks with no local user 
group. 

SNUG began in Florida during 
1988 and in concept was a good 
idea - what happened next, I do 
not know. Maybe all energy was 
expended in the process of 
getting a state charter and all 
Of that. 

The SNUG Organization has 
withered away except for the 
start of the software libraries 

- that is one good thing that 
has come out of SNUG. As far as 
promised newsletters go, the 
few issues Paul Holmgren did in 
1990 were paid for out of his 
own pocket. I was asked to be 
SNUG newsletter editor in 
November of 1990 and in the 
spring of 1991 there was an 
issue ready to mail but without 
finances there was no mailing. 
It was hard to face that fact. 



When Bob Swoger called me in 
April 1991 and suggested we 
issue T/SNUG's ZXir QLive 
Alive! on the back of CATUG's 
KH«-CIJH«S neuift - I was 
thrilled and yet - reluctant 
thinking about whether the 
T/Sers would be willing to take 
a chance on not being "burned" 
again and also knowing that, if 
I turned down the Chairmanship, 
there might not be a national 
newsletter. 

But checks kept coming in, not 
fast, but enough to get us 
going and of course the S150 
contribution from VSUG of 
Vancouver was a turning point 
in our finances. We hope to be 
able to provide a means to 
enable T/Sers to survive longer 
with support provided by 
T/SNUG. 

In hindsight, some of my fears 
never materialized, the proof 
of this is that there are some 
out there still working with 
the ZX computers and, more 
importantly, some are still 
developing new software and 
hardware. Our numbers have 
dwindled but we still exist. I 
look forward to another year of 
ZXir QLive Alive! 0/0 

Chairman Don 

TIMEX/Sinclair NorthAmerican 
User Groups 

TREASURY NOTES 



As of March 1, 1992 with S762 
from 6 groups and 44 
individuals, with expenses of 
S357.29, we have a balance of 
$404.71 

%%%%%%%%%*%%%%%%%%%%%%*%%% 

zxiv mm aitDe! 

Renewal Time 
$10.00 Tor ALL! 

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

Please include your ZIP+4 code 
and your phone number when you 
renew your membership. It will 
speed up the mailing. 

Abed Kahale, Treasurer 
TIMEX/Sinclair NorthAmerican 
User Groups 



INPUT/OUTPUT 



Warren Jackson writes : 
Thanks for sending those two 
issues. [?????] Impressed by 
the pro look a la UPDATE . 
Surprised -to see so many ads 
which is a big plus. On page 1 

of the Fall 91 LarKen 256K 

RAMDISK kit for $20, is that a 
misprint? If it isn't, where 
can I get one? [That was the 
price from Larry Kenny himself, 
but a recent request by John 
Shepard told us that they are 

now ALL GONE! Call RMG to see 

If he has any left.] 

Also, on page 5, Bill Angle was 
selling QLs for $55. I have one 
QL and would like to have 
another if he still has one 
left. [Bill is part of the 
Indiana group. Contact Frank 
Davis for Bill's address and 
phone number. ] 

May I have Vol 1, No.l and, of 
course, the winter 91 issue, my 
set would then be complete. 
[You should have them by now.) 

Warren Jackson 
1141 Edgemere Ter. 
Roscoe IL 61073 

Marie Kendoll writes: 
The copy of VU-CALC modified 
for Logical 1 you sent me 
crashes whenever I try to make 
calculations using IC. Can you 
check this out? [you're right.' 
I wonder how many copies went 
out with that bug? I will sent 

Also, does your version print 
to a large printer? [As a 
result of your request, I have 
generated two utilities for the 
Sinclair community and two 
articles for our nevsletters. I 
will send them along. ] 

Robert Shade writes: 
Enclosed $12 to start 
subscription with Vol 1, No. 1 
Interested in buying LarKen 
Library disks for 1000 £ 2068. 
Please send a list with 
synopsis of what's on each disk 
so I can make a reasoned 
selection. [Watch for up-coming 



It is my hope this TIMEX Group 
grows 6 grows to become a help 
6 comfort to all T/S users 
everywhere. [So do we all!] 

Robert Shade 

3210 K. Broad Street 

Philadelphia PA 13140 

Ivan Zachev writes: 
... I have a problem with 
LogiCall in regards to the 
standard LKDOS catalog. I use 
DSQD disk drives with my 
JLO/LarKen system. I wish to 
use the arrow keys feature of 
program LOADing but the 
programs I wish to LOAD scroll 
off the screen so that the 
HIGH-LIGHT LOAD routine is 
useless. HELP! [If you are 
using LogiCall V4.fi, update It 
to V4.9 by adding line 3 IF Z 

THEN ON ERR RESET. Modify line 

10 to become line 15. Add line 

10 IF Z THEN ON ERR GOTO H. Add 
LET Z=PEEK (PI*PI) = CODE "1": 

to line 49. Next change the VAL 
in line 110 to "460-l30*Z}" 
Finally, in line 20, change the 
-IS" to "21" . Now when the 
'scroll?' prompt appears after 
the program you wish to load 
shows up on your screen, press 
'N' and ENTER, you will then 
get the 'Program?' prompt and 
the arrow keys LOAD feature 
will work.] 

Jay Shepard writes (on BBS) : 
L.B1 - Is V4.6L3 a test version 
of LogiCall? How does it differ 
from V4.4A3? The copy I got of 
V4 . 6L3 from Don Lambert was 
marked that version on the disc 
but had V4.4L3 in your opening 
statement of the LISTing. What 
gives? [The latest version is 
V4.9_3 This means that the 
version is 4.9, the _ is for 
the base disk operating system 
type, L is for LarKen, F is for 
Fast LarKen, O is for Oliger, A 
is for AERCO and R is for 
RAMEX. Each type has to call in 
a different FORMAT. B_ program. 
Finally the LarKen DOS EPROM 
version number is given, 3 is 
the latest. ] 

AUTOSTART installation does not 
perform as described in your 
instructions - it's probably 
this dam AERCO style LKDOS 
abortion - when I key A at the 



program prompt to start the 
RAND 102 NMI save of L.Bl for 
AUTOSTART, I get 'error 430.1', 
but If I do a RAND 102:RUN from 
BASIC I get the AUTOSTART like 
it's supposed to perform but 
without the ease you had 
Intended with your L.Bl line 
460. [Please note that you will 
use 2 tracks Instead of one 
using that method. The problem 
is not AERCO/LarKen but rather 
the Jack Dohany EPROM Switch. 
It is slightly incompatible 
with LoglCall and other 
programs that use the DELETE 
keyword. Edit LoglCall lines 
430 thru 450 changing the '?'s 
to DELETE in the TS206B mode 
per Jack's instructions and the 
program will do what it 
intended to do using only 
track for AUTOSTART . Do not 
this in the Spectrum mode. 
Don't forget to re-save L.Bl to 
all your disks overwriting the 
old L.Bl programs. I can never 
seem to get Chairman Don to do 
that.] 

Z-88 - I know your ads work 
because I got three leads from 
the Z-88 ad. [and let me take 
this opportunity to add that 
when something has been 
transacted, let me know to 
remove it from the board. Ed ] 
The last was a Nigel with an 
800 number who use to be a 
dealer and is out of the 
business but has stock left and 
is sending a list with reduced 
prices. In looking for help and 
aids in running this jewel of a 
laptop I started with Mike Fink 
of Domino Cubes who had more 
trade paper ads than anyone 
including Sharps. 

Unfortunately, I had ordered a 
manual he had written on the 
promise of the glowing review 
that E . P . wannum (of John 
Last -Name -Unknown fame) had 
written. Well, E. P. not only 
doesn't know my name, he 
doesn't know a decent manual . 

Fink gets S30 for it but it's 
no where near the quality of 
Barry Carter's SMART modem SW 
manual that he only got S12.50 
for in it's hey day. [Ouch' 
There ought to be a way to see 
it first, humm. . . Ed. ] 



■ thought I'd try 
to read the PC discs Dave sent 
with this. HA! AERCO/LarKen 
bites me again. I can't read 
the HELP file because selection 
of that brings up a white no 
raster screen with the disc 
rolling, can't BREAK it so no 
way to modify it to show 
through INK s PAPER if that's 
the solution. I can read a 
track with option 2 on the menu 
but have no idea how to use it 
without a manual or HELP page 
and I have know idea what 
QUICKSCAN the files does 
because the cursor movement "A 
S, i X" makes no sense. I just 
want to cuss. [I don't know 

what QUICKSCAN is but I will 
"as upioad a working copy of 

MS DOS. Bx to fix your problem.] 

I have been pleased to watch my 
high school junior daughter 
type term papers using the 
three different wps - TASWORD2, 
MSCRIPT and wordmaster 
switching between them easily. 
If an air-headed female 
teenager can use these machines 
then they must be worth the 
trouble . 

Thanks so much. Bob, for taking 
time to read and try to resolve 
my problems and by the way, 
what 's the toughest question 
you've ever had to answer? 
TIMEXON, Jay [Weli, Jay, by a 
wide margin, the toughest 
question I've ever been 
confronted with began, "Do you 
take this woman. . . ?"] 



NEWS ITEMS 



Mel Nathenson has forwarded the 
SNUG Treasury to Paul Holmgren. 
Paul incurred expenses for 
which he was never reimbursed. 
It is Pauls intention that the 
remainder of these funds be 
forwarded to T/SNUG along with 
the names of the contributors 
so that these past members of 
SNUG can be brought into the 
T/SNUG fold. Many still do not 
know of T/SNUGs existence. It 
is not known if the list of 
names includes who contributed 
what or even how many names are 
on that list which is thought 
by Paul to be over 130. That 



Thanks to the efforts of Dave 
Bennett, SLIX now receives the 
newsletters of both T/SNUG and 
CATUG on disk. It still is not 
known why Bill Miller of SLIX 
would not download these 
newsletters from their 
prospective BBSs, unless it is 
( 20 cents per 



of the newsletters to you? 

SMUG, the Sinclair Milwaukee 
Users Group, has stated that 
they will cease publishing 
their newsletter soon. They 
also state that the club is not 
folding, so we hope to carry 
the minutes of their meetings 
in our pages soon. 

The DMA ComputerFest in Dayton 
is scheduled for August 29 and 
30 with a cut-off date for flee 
market tables of June 30. To 
date we have heard of no takers 
from the Sinclair community, 
perhaps because of low sales 
last year. Please let us at 
T/SNUG know if your group will 
be there so that we may try to 
spark some interest. See UPDATE 
magazine for details. 



UNVERIFIED BITES 

I have heard that someone in 
the Dubuque, Iowa area had made 
some hard drive interfaces for 
the ZX81/TS1000 computers and 
sold at least two. if anyone 
has any further details about 
this I would like to get that 
information. The information 
hopefully will be about who 
made the units, when and who 
bought the units. The units 
■ reported to have been sold 



ZX81 are single sided single 
density which would make a hard 
drive equivalent to 50 single 
density disks. Either way it 
would really be a lot of 
computer power for the zx81. 

One of the mass storage items 
missing from the TS2068 is a 
hard drive. I have heard that 
there might be a possibility of 
one. If so a 40 meg hard drive 
(if it is developed for that 
size) would be the equivalent 
of about 100 DSDD disks. Mind 
boggling. Perhaps if it were 
known that there is a market 
for a hard drive interface that 
would speed up development. The 
interface is the easy part, so 
I have heard, but the software 
would be a bearcat to write. 
Currently, someone is working 
on this and is trying to obtain 
the specs on the hard drives to 
help in writing the software. 
Someone also suggested that 
CP/M might be an answer for 
finding the software codes 
since CP/M is Z80 based. If 
anyone is interested let me 
know and if enough are 
interested perhaps one will 
appear. Wouldn't it be nice to 
have several hundred programs 
available without having to 
first find the disk they are on 
i to be able to load them by 
in their file name 
of first searching 
through the disk boxes for the 
proper disk. IG?t organized, 
Don, and use DISKS. Bl! ] 

If you have any other bits and 
bytes of unverified material on 
the T/S computers please send 
them to the me. O/O. 



in 191 



10 



drives. And that would be 
equivalent to 25 double density 
disks. Normal lj all the disk 
3 that I know of for the 



%%*%*%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
TIMEX/SINCLAIR 
PUBLIC DOMAIN LIBRARY 
AVAILABLE SOON! 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
We have found quality problems 
as we prepare the material to 
travel around the continent. 
Hum on the tapes makes some 
programs un-readable. Smitty, 
the LarKen disks are in better 
shape, we might use them to fix 
the tapes. 



ARTICLES 



LOAD/ SAVE ROUTINE 
AND PROBLEMS FOR THE ZX81 
PART 4 

Compiled by Donald S. Lambert. 

S YNC HRO-SETTE VOL . 2 15/6 
JUNE/ JULY 19B3 
HINKY BOARD 2 

For those of you who are not 
familiar with what the WINKY 
can do, you can make duplicates 
of a cassette tape from one 
recorder to another with this 
device in between the two 
recorders, no matter how many 
programs are on the tape. 

There is another important use. 
Do you have a noisy RAMpak that 
introduces noise onto a tape 
when you are trying to save a 
program? When you don't use the 
RAMpak, the noise disappears, 
so you know It is the RAMpak. 

We have one such RAMpak that 
is so bad, saved programs 
cannot be reloaded no matter 
what the volume adjustment is 
at. When listening to the tape 
with the cords disconnected 
from the recorder, it sounds 
like the sound a train makes at 
a high speed when played back 
with program pulses being all 
but drowned out. 

When the WINKY 2 board was 
installed (just plugs in 
between the computer and the 
recorder) the program loaded 
with no problem. Listening to 
the tape through 
showed all the noise to 
disappeared. 



LOADING /f 



1CRAMS BK BOM 



SAN DIEGO, CA 92105 
SAVING 

Keep the tape computer 
connector always plugged into 
the EAR and MIC receptacles of 
the computer, however at the 
tape recorder end only keep the 
one connected which you are 
using. Let us say the last line 



of your program is 1000 SAVE 
"SHOOTIST". Then press LIST 
1000 and ENTER. When the line 
1000 appears at the bottom 

screen DELETE (SHIFT 0) the 

1000. Move the tape to the 
position you want it . Then 
voice record SHOOTIST three 
times and immediately stop the 
tape. Set the tape volume to 
level which saves the best. 
Start recording and immediately 
press enter. The computer can 
be close to the TV but the tape 
recorder must be maximally 
full stretch) 
from the TV and 
. Only the MIC side of 
the connector is plugged into 
the tape recorder. You can have 
TV sound up a bit as you 
record. If you have a long 16K 
program SAVEing you can do 
other things and when the 
buzzing sound stops and there 
is a 0/0 report bottom screen 
stop the tape and you have 
SAVEd a program. Note the start 
and stop tape position and mark 
them in a catalog together with 
the SAVE title. Replay some of 
the tape to make sure you hear 
the shrill buzz of program (MIC 
plug pulled out) . 

LOADING 

LOAD in FAST mode. Type in the 
command LOAD "SHOOTIST". Locate 
your program on the tape from 
your catalog. After you hear 
the title (it should be three 
times) there is a faint buzz. 

In a few seconds there is total 
silence. Stop the tape at the 
beginning of th silence. Plug 
into the tape EAR side of the 
connector. Leave the MIC plug 
not connected to the tape. 
Adjust tape volume to the known 
proper level. Push the tape 
PLAY switch and immediately 
press ENTER on the ZX. Have the 
TV sound up a bit and when the 
buzz stops and there is the 0/0 
report bottom screen stop the 
tape and you have loaded the 
computer . 

SAVING FAILS 

Check to see the tape volume is 
high enough. Check to see that 
you are using the MIC 
connector. Is the MIC plug in 
the right receptacle? Is the 
tape remote from the TV and ZX? 
Reset the voice title and SAVE 



again... it should work after 
all these checks. 

LOADING FAILS 

Do the above checks and also 
put the computer end of the 
connectors in and out a couple 
of times to shine the contacts, 
if you have a 16k ram pack put 
it on and off twice to shine 
contacts. Sometimes the tape is 
stretched or glitched in other 
ways. Programs should always be 
saved twice. Do not load or 
save on metal tables. 

CONNECTORS 

The zx comes with an 18 Inch 
tape-ZX connector . The older 
ones had screw in tips which 
break after much use. The later 
deliveries are with unitary 
plastic tips and are more 
durable. In persistent failures 
check connector for breaks 
(this happened to one of our 
older models) . 

SAVING SCREEN DISPLAYS 

10 PRINT "THIS DISPLAY WILL 
ERASE WHEN YOU HIT SAVE 
""TEST""" 

20 SAVE "TEST" 

10 INPUT AS 

20 PRINT "THIS DISPLAY WILL 
NOT ERASE WHEN YOU HIT SAVE" 
30 IF INKEYS="S" THEN SAVE AS 
40 GOTO 30 

The first program i3 the 
regular way of saving. Try it 
and see that the screen display 
is lost when saving is 
finished. RUN the second 
program. Input any string (any 
set of one or more characters! 
and hit ENTER. Press SAVE and 
notice after saving the display 
remains on screen. IT will be 
saved. Remember you need the 
30-40 continuing loop to make 
line 30 work from the keyboard. 
The double quotation marks are 
SHIFT Q. 

FREQUENT SAVES 

When composing or entering a 
long program SAVE after every 
50 or 60 lines to avoid 
unfortunate losses from 
wipe-outs (crashesl . 

PAUSE CAVEAT 
With ZX80/8K ROM or ZX81 FAST 
mode right after a PAUSE line 
you need a POKE 16437,255 line 
or crash happens in a few 
minutes . 

VARIABLES AND ARRAYS 
In a long program with large 8 



arrays and many variables (all 
these arise from LET 
statements) saving is prolonged 
because these items too are 
saved. Press CLEAR and ENTER 
before you save and all these 
will be cleared away shortening 
saving time. A shorter program 
has less chance to be glitched. 
If you want to save these items 
because they would be hard to 
regain or type in then do this: 
For the second last line of the 
program insert a REM statement 
(the last line is the SAVE 
line) . Before you save hit LIST 
(REM line number) and ENTER. 
Then SAVE the program. Later 
when loading this program hit 
ENTER and the last two lines 
will appear on the screen. The 
REM line should be something 
like 990 GOTO 100 to PRSRV 
VARBLS. RUNning a program wipes 
out all variables. You use a 
GOTO statement to preserve them 
and the GOTO number must be 
past all the DIM and LET X=0 
type statements or there will 
be clearances. The REM line 
reminds you not to RUN when you 
first load the program. 

LARGE TO SMALL 

You cannot LOAD a small program 
SAVEd from a 16K ZX into a IK 
ZX. You can from IK to 16K. 
Large to small no, small to 
large yes. 

COMMOtJ-EST CRASHES 

Jiggling transformer Jack or 

RAM pack. SOURCE NOT KNOWN 
SUSPECT SYNC MAGAZINE . 
SAVING UNSAVEABLE PROGRAMS 
How do you back up programs you 
can't break into, like machine 
code (MC) or self running 
programs? You know the 
importance of backups if you or 
your tapes ever malfunction. 
This trick LOADs any program 
and then returns to BASIC, 
without activating the error 
detector . 

Hook up both EAR and MIC plugs 
SO you can LOAD then SAVE. Put 
the tape in the tape deck 
without turning it on. 

SAVE CHRS USR 832 "PROGRAM 
NAME" 



You must change tapes quickly 
in the five - second silence 
between LOAD and SAVE, and 



press RECORD/ P LAV . (It helps to 
keep your cassette deck's hood 
opened.) If the program self - 



finishing the SAVE. [This is 
when two recorders would work 
fine and use the PAUSE control 
on the recorder. Don.] 

How does it work? USR 832 calls 
the ROM LOAD subroutine, and 
the two quotes hold the program 
name. (You can also type 
with no program name . The 
computer reads this as LOAD "". 
After LOADing, the USR call 
RETurns to BASIC to finish the 
line, evaluating to zero. CHRS 
changes the zero into a string. 
The line reads SAVE ■ " (CHRS 
of 0 is the space character) 
and the computer SAVES the 
program. For SAVE and LOAD, the 
syntax checker looks only for 
quotes and any string, so the 
computer accepts the line and 



Save a self - running program 
(with or without MC) by 
pressing BREAK after the 
program LOADS and starts to 
RUN. (If you can't BREAK in 
here, try CHRS XX in response 
to an input prompt to get an 
error report. — LFV) This 
returns you to BASIC and a K 
cursor . LIST the program to 
find the line SAVE "program 
name". GOTO this line to SAVE 
the program under its name. 

These methods worked on all my 
unSAVEable programs. 

Gary Preston, Glade Hill. VA. 



5th) as I was backing out of my 
garage a UPS truck began 
beeping the horn and the driver 
pulled up with a next day 
priority package for me. I was 
headed for Ft. Wayne (some 
twenty miles away) to do my 
twice a month [more or less) 
shopping so I set the package 
in the house and left. Upon 
returning, I opened the box to 
find a TS1000, the likes of 
which I'd never seen before. 



The computer was sent to me by 
Terry Graham who told me about 
one he had modified that way. I 
had asked him if he would do 
one for me if I sent the parts. 
He sent it to me and asked for 
some copies of manuals that he 
didn't have. A fair exchange, I 
think. 

On the left side Just ahead of 
the power jack is a tiny toggle 
switch. Sticking out of the 
case below the keyboard is a 
ribbon cable for an external 
keyboard. On the upper right 
corner is a row of switches, 
the left is a red push button 
switch labeled '•reset"; to the 
right of that is a tiny toggle 
switch labeled "enable disable 
(8-16K) "; and still another 
labeled "64K and 16K". 

On the right edge is a row of 
three jacks labeled "Serial 
DATA PORT" . The first is 
labeled "ear TAPE/TS206B", the 
second "MIC TAPE" and the last 
"MIC TS2068". The three jacks 
were installed by instructions 
from the article "2K-SDP: A 
Serial Data Port" But Terry was 
not able to get it to work. I 
contacted the author of the 
article and he helped me get it 
working. 

But I had one difficulty: I do 
not have a TV in the computer 
room so I had to move a 19" TV 
in to test the computer. I got 
a blank nothing. I flipped the 
switch on the left side - still 
nothing. I tried my ZX81 in the 
Suntronics key board case that 
has been monitorized but still 
had the TV capability. That too 
had nothing. I eyed the TV, it 
had a game box attached. 
Touching the terminals with a 
screwdriver did not cause the 
screen to flicker at all. 
Luckily I had a game switch on 
another TV, I swapped it, the 
ZX81 in the Suntronics keyboard 
case worked, the new computer 
didn't. 

So I took the back off to 
visually confirmed that the 
left switch was a power switch, 
however I noticed a loose wire 
going to the switch's center 
terminal. Looking elsewhere I 



noted that a wire wrap wire 
going to a resistor on the 
reset switch was also loose and 
the resistor was loose. I 
re-soldered all three places, 
replaced the case bottom and 
tested it. 

I did the POKE 16389,255, POKE 
16389, 255 and NEW and then 
PRINT PEEK 16389 and got a 
report of 255. So the 64K in 
internal memory works. Without 
a monitor circuit I really 
couldn't test the computer 
further. There is a circuit to 
be installed to address 
individual blocks of 2K of 
memory in the 8K to 16K area 
(or I could use a SCRAM board) 
so that the 2K area that both 
the LarKen and the AERCO disk 
interfaces use can be switched 
off. I do need some of the 8K 
to 16K area if I want to use 
BBDOS for the aerco system 
since it LOADS the BOOT disk 
Into that area. The standard 
DOS for the AERCO does not need 
that area. But BBDOS makes a 
real disk system out of the 
AERCO so I want to use it that 
way. 

I will consider what to do with 
the computer after I make the 
monthly trip to the ISTUG 
meeting in Indianapolis on 
February 29th. There is one 
person that works only with the 
TS1000 and I would like to 
show the computer to him. 

Now I can move the computer 
board to the Suntronics 
keyboard case and add the 
switches to the case or I can 
wire a board like that. The way 
I look at it, with the RAM 
on-board the computer, there 
will be one less connector 
problem to worry about . 
Presently, the 8K to 16K is 
addressed as one 8K block but 
it is possible to address it in 
2K blocks. I could try a SCRAM 

back the connector problem 

again, maybe. Only by trying it 
will I find out. 

References: * INTERNAL 64K RAM 

FOR THE TS/ZX" by Tim Stoddard, 

TIME DESIGNS May/June '87 Vol 3 

No 4. "MAX 1000 MAKE THE MOST 



POPULAR "MODS " COMPATIBLE ON 
YOUR TS1000" by Tim Stoddard, 
TIME DESIGNS Sept/Oct '87 Vol 3 
No 6. "2K - SDP: A SERIAL DATA 
PORT" by Kent E . Cook, 
SYNCWARE NEWS Sept - Oct Vol 5 
No 1. 0/0 

by Edward Snow 

The term "benchmarking" refers 
to the process of running a 
computer program on a computer 
and comparing the time needed 
to complete the program against 
other machines. Compilers and 
interpreters are also 
benchmarked against others in 
order to develop the fastest 
applications. 

One program I often use as a 
benchmark is the "Magic 
Numbers" program. The term 
"magic numbers" refers to those 
four digit numbers that fit the 
following algorithm: 

Take the first two digits as 
number 1, the second two digits 

Add numberl to number2 giving 

Square numbers. 

if numbers is equal to the 
original number then the number 
is "magic." 

Take the number 2025 as an 
example. Numberl would be 20, 
and number2 would be 25. 
Number3 would be 20 + 25 or 45. 
Multiplying 45 by 45 gives 
202S, so the number is "magic." 

Since the range of four digit 
numbers extends from 1000 to 
9999 inclusive, there are 9000 
different numbers to check. If 
a person could check four 
numbers a mir.ute on a 
calculator, the job would take 
2251 minutes or about 37 1/2 
hours to complete ! Obviously 
this is a good job for a 
computer. By using a purely 
mathematical algorithm, the 
program lends itself to any 
computer language . A 

mathematical approach also 
gives the solution the 



qualities of a good benchmark 



The solution steps used, 
expressed in ZX81 Sinclair 
BASIC are as follows: 

10 FOR X = 1000 TO 9999 

20 LET A - INT(X/100) 

30 LET B = X - (A-100) 

40 LET C = B + A 

50 IF (C*C) = X THEN PRINT X 

60 NEXT X 

70 STOP 

In the above program line 20 
gives the first two digit 
number, line 30 gives the 
second two digit number, line 
40 combines them into a single 
number, line 50 squares the 
number and checks to see if it 
is "magic." 

when this program runs in slow 
mode on the ZX81 the computer 
takes 23 minutes 26 seconds to 
find the series of "magic 
numbers . " In fast mode the 
computer takes 3 minutes 44 
j find the series. 



Luckily BASIC is not the only 
language available for the 
ZXB1. Some alternative 
programming languages that I 
own are Artie's ZX-FORTH, 
Semper Software's Partial 
Pascal, and Intercomputer "s 

MCODER. 

Since FORTH is one of my 
favorite programming languages 
languages, and one I find to be 
well suited for 8 -bit micro 
processors, I tested it first. 
In the past I have found FORTH 
to be extremely fast in 
execution. Because FORTH is a 
unique language FORTH programs 
are often unreadable by anyone 
who is not familiar with the 
language. For those of you who 
are familiar with FORTH, or for 
those who are simply curious, I 
include the FORTH code: 

: MAGICNO 10000 1000 DO 
I DOT 100 /HDD ♦ DOP * 
= IF I . THEN LOOP .- 

As I expected, FORTH showed a 
substantial speed increase over 
BASIC. In slow mode FORTH took 
1 minute 17 seconds (22 minutes 



and 9 seconds faster than 
BASIC) . In fast mode FORTH 
completed the problem in just 
over 12 seconds; in both cases 
FORTH was about 19 times faster 
than BASIC! 

Next I tested a PASCAL 
compiler /editor that Semper 
Software developed for the ZX81 
in 1983. Although not a full 
OCSD PASCAL, Semper did an 
excellent job of putting a 
useful Pascal in a 16K 
environment . Partial Pascal 
makes excellent use of the ZX81 
system and performed the "magic 
numbers" program very well, 
code used was: Program 
(input, output) ; 

Var origno:integer; 
stepl : integer; 
step2 : integer; 
step3 : integer; 
step4 : integer; 



stepl:=origno 
dlv 100; 

step2:-origno 
mod 100; 

step3:= 
stepl+step2; 

step3*step3; 

if step4 ■ 
origno then 

write(origno); 



Partial Pascal completed the 
program in 2 minuses 40 seconds 
in slow mode and 25 seconds in 
fast mode. In both cases 
Partial Pascal was about 9 
times faster than BASIC. 

The final benchmark was done 
using Intercomputer' s MCODER 
program to convert the Sinclair 
BASIC program into machine 
language. I would have expected 
a machine language program to 
execute the algorithm faster 
than any of the other languages 
and I was not disappointed. The 
MCODER version of the program 
ran in 1 minute 13 seconds in 
slow mode, and 12 
fast mode. 



This represents a speed 
increase of about 20 times over 
BASIC. 



After completing 
tests, I decided 
the ZX81 itself 
machines: I chose 
known 8-bit machi 



IH ) 



16-bil 



language 
benchmark 

well 

: (the 



IBM PS/2 running at 12 

hertz). The following table 

shows the results of these 

(ZX81 times 




>u can see the ZX81 
compared very favorably to the 
Apple 11+ system which sold in 
1982 for over 20 times what the 
ZX81 cost. Although I am very 
fond of my Apple, if I want 
speed It appears my ZX81 is the 
best choice ! The IBM was about 
12 timea faster than the ZX81, 
but considering that the system 
Is 16 bit and costs about S3600 
the ZX81 still comes out 
looking pretty good. 

TSers, let 'em eat our dust! 

DERIVING YOUR TAX THRESHOLD 
FROM 

YOUR VOTING STATUS: 

IV 

Joan Kealy 



(2 ) MARRIED BUT LIVING APART 
FROM SPOUSE FOR ENTIRE YEAR & 
FILING SEPARATELY? 




FILING 
LIVING 
ANY PART OF THE YEAR? 

SINGLE PERSON 

TAXABLE INCOME 25600 

-ADJUSTMENTS 0 

RESULT IS1-K2) 25600 

+ EXEMPT INCOME BOO 

+ FOREIGN INCOME 0 



' {(3+4+5+6) 27240 

8. -THRESHOLD 25000 

9. AMOUNT OVER THRESHOLD 2240 

10. MULTIPLY BY .5 1120 

THE TAXABLE AMOUNT TO BE ADDED 
TO YOUR OTHER TAXABLE INCOME ON 
THE IRS 1040 IS THE SMALLER OF 
LINE 6 OR 10. 



MARRIED COUPLE FILING 
JOINTLY 

. TAXABLE INCOME 2861 



' (#l-#2) 

4. + EXEMPT INCOME 

5. + FOREIGN INCOME 

6. +HALF SS HUSBAND 

7. +HALF SS WIFE 
7a. TOTAL SS 

8. RESULT (#3+4+5+6+7) 

9. -THRESHOLD 

10. AMOUNT OVER THRESHOLD 

11. MULTIPLY BY. 5 



2184 
6552 
35152 
32000 
3152 
1576 



THE TAXABLE AMOUNT TO BE ADDED 
TO YOUR OTHER TAXABLE INCOME ON 
THE IRS 1040 IS THE SMALLER OF 
LINE 6 OR LINE 11. (DSL). 

51576 TAXABLE AMOUNT. 

P. S. I HAVE NOT RESEARCHED THE 
FACT THAT A WIFE'S SS WILL BE 
ADDED TO THE HUSBAND'S BUT I'M 
LEAD TO BELIEVE THAT THE IRS 
WOULD NOT LET THAT ESCAPE THEM. 

SOCTAX.B1 

1 CLS : LET A=0: REM BASED ON 
8/91 "FINANCIAL /OCUS" FROM SCO 
ODER 

10 PRINT AT 10,0;" DETERMINING 
THE TAXABLE AMOUNT OF YOUR SOCI 

AL SECURITY BENEFITS" : PRINT AT 
15,0;"ENTER NO SSS SIGNS WITH FI 
GURES; " 

11 PRINT "■ ROUND TO THE NEAR 
EST DOLLAR. " 

12 PAUSE 380: CLS : PRINT "DER 
IVING YOUR THRESHOLD FROM YOU 
R VOTING STATUS : " 

14 PRINT ' "ARE YOU"; ' ' " (1) SING 
LE TAXPAYER FILING AS AN INDIVID 
UAL?" ; 1 1 ■ (2 ) MARRIED BUT LIVING A 
PART FROMSPOUSE FOR ENTIRE YEAR 
S FILING SEPARATELY?"; •"" (3)A MA 
RRIED COUPLE FILING JOINT-LY?";' 
'"{4)A MARRIED COUPLE FILING SEP 
- ARATELY AFTER LIVING TOGETHER 

ANY PART OF THE YEAR? " 

16 INPUT "NUMBER OF CORRECT ST 
ATUS?",A: IF A>4 OR A<1 THEN GO 



to ie 

IB IF A=l OR A=2 THEN LET TH-2 
5000 

20 IF A=3 THEN LET TH=3200Q 

22 IF A=4 THEN LET TH=0 

24 CLS : INPUT "TOTAL OF TAXAB 

LE INCOME", 1$: PRINT AT 1,0;"1. 

TAXABLE INCOME";AT 1, 31-LEN I£;I 

26 INPUT "FROM IRS 1040-ADJUST 
MENTS TO INCOME?", A$: PRINT A 
T 2,0;"2. -ADJUSTMENTS" ," AT 2,31- 
LEN AS; AS 

28 LET Rl-VAL IS-VAL AS: PRINT 
AT 3,0;"3. RESULT (f l-<2) ";AT 3 
, 31-LEN STRS R1;R1 

30 INPUT "TAX-EXEMPT INCOME?", 
XS: PRINT AT 4,0; "4. + EXEMPT INC 
OME";AT 4,31-LEN XS;XS 

32 INPUT " FOREIGN INCOME NOT S 
HOWN IN #1",FS: PRINT AT 5,0;"5. 
+ FOREIGN INCOME";AT 5, 31-LEN FS 

;FS 

34 INPUT "1/2 OF SOCIAL SECURI 
TY BENEFITS?", BS: PRINT AT 6,0,-"' 
6. +HALF SS";AT 6, 31-LEN BS;B$ 

36 LET R2=R1+VAL XS+VAL FS+VAL 



RESULT i 



BS: PRINT AT 7,0;" 
+4 + 5+6) ";AT 7, 31-LEN STRS R2.-R2 

38 PRINT AT 8,0;*'8. -THRESHOLD 
"; AT 6, 31-LEN STRS TH;TH 

40 LET AM=R2~TH: PRINT AT 9,0; 
"9. AMOUNT OVER THRESHOLD"; AT 9, 
31-LEN STRS AM; AM 

42 IF AM<=0 THEN PRINT "NO TAX 
ON YOUR SOCIAL SECURITY BENEFI 
TS!": STOP 

44 LET R3=AM'.5: PRINT AT 10,0 
;"10. MULTIPLY BY .5";AT 10,31-L 
EN STRS R3.-R3 

46 PRINT AT 14,0;"THE TAXABLE 
AMOUNT TO BE ADDED TO YOUR OTHE 
H TAXABLE INCOME ON THE IRS 1040 
IS THE SMALLER OF LINE 6 OR 10 



50 IF R3<VAL BS THEN PRINT AT 
21, 4; "S";R3; " TAXABLE AMOUNT" 
9989 STOP 

9992 CLEAR : RANDOMIZE USR 100: 

SAVE "SOCTAX.B1" LINE 1 

9998 RANDOMIZE USR 100: LOAD "L. 



The matter of Uncle Sam's hand 
in your pocket should never be 
too far from your thoughts. 



TAX-I-QL is h-u-a-e spreadsheet 
template which requires a 256K 

(minimum) memory expansion. 
From what I can tell, TAX-I-QL 
is designed/ suitable for the 
CPA who need to "link" 

(virtually) ALL of the IRS 



Because "individuals" certainly 
comprise the majority of the 
users, the extent of the tem- 
plate will appear to be over- 
kill; with, the result being a 
minor penalty of a seemingly 
long calculation time. Time is 
very subjective, and you will 
find that it Is still faster 
than doing calculations on the 
forms in tandem with an adding 
machine or calculator. 

Unfortunately, nothing on/for 
the QL appears to be perfect; 
and, TAX-I-QL is no exception. 
But, TAX-I-QL is accessible for 
modification (but, use caution; 
and, always double check your 
calculations regardless of the 
spreadsheet and/or template 
your are using) . 

Any "adjustments" to schedules 
are limited only to your abili- 
ty to write/modify an Abacus 



A minor TAX-I-QL "flaw" is that 
the template presumes that the 
data taken from your W-2 forms 
for "state tax" is an absolute 
[i.e., that you will NOT deduct 
more-or-less than the amount (s) 
withheld]; and, this is reflec- 
ted in the value transferred to 
" A. 



For example, Illinois residents 
pay a percentage of the ADJUS- 
TED GROSS INCOME, less 
two-times (2x) the local real 
estate tax paid and a 
"standard" deduction similar to 
the Federal deduction. As I am 
only dealing with one state, I 
can input a simple, linked 
formula in the appropriate cell 
A: 



(G100 - (2*N13) - 2000) • 0.03 
■G100' is the cell containing 



the "adjusted gross income" (on 
the template I have!; 'N13' is 
the cell containing the "real 
estate tax" paid; '2000' is the 
"deduction" for myself and my 
wife [this could have been in- 
put as "Gli * 1000" (exemptions 
x deduction}) ; and "0.03 1 is 
the current "tax rate" in 
Illinois. 

Obviously (?!), the state in- 
come tax rate varies from state 
to state; and/but, an ASKN/ASKT 
macro might be incorporated to 
better quantify the state tax 
value on SCHEDULE A if you are 




Because TAX-I-PC is accessible, 
its one other "flaw" is that 
you may eventually decide that 
you only have to buy a copy for 
one year; and then, modify it 
for subsequent years . 

HHMmm. Definitely worth buying 
at least one time. TAX-I-QL 
($24.95) is available from: 

EMS OFT 

P.O. Box 3763 

Boston, MR 02114-8763 

EMSOFT accepts VISA and Master- 
Card (w/ surcharge) . 

HAPPY TRAILS, AND COMPUTING, 
TO YOU ... 



To put an AD In the BBS and 
newsletter, upload a file with 
the filename. filetype: 
TSNUGxxx.ADS 
where xxx is your initials. 
! ! ! Our ADS are free ! ! ! 
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WANTED: 920303 
%%*%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%<*,%%%% 
% WANTED % 

% USED * 

% SERIAL TO PARALLEL PRINTER * 

* CABLE (QL?) % 
% JOHN J. SHEPARD, III % 
1 281 - 130th ST. i 
% OGDEN, IA 50212 I 
% (515) 846-6378 % 

* HAVE ANS. MACHINE % 



WANTED: ON 920509 

TRACTOR AND/OR ROLL PAPER 
UNIT(S) FOR MANN ES MANN TALLY 
MT160 PRINTER. ALSO, ANY 
INFORMATION ON THE RC ALLEN (BY 
LITTON WESTREX) PRINTER MODEL 
NO. 88802-112 

D. G. Smith, R.415 Stone St., 
Johnstown, PA 15906 

FOR SALE: ON 920309 

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
GETTING RID OF EXCESS 
EQUIPMENT, HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, 
BOOKS, ETC. FOR BOTH TS1000 AND 
TS2068. SEND FOR LIST. 
WILLIAM VOLK, 6015 CARTER AVE, 
BALTIMORE, MD 21214 
H301-254-6258 

FOR SALE: ON 920509 

LOCAL COMPUTER GROUP GETTING 
RID OF EXCESS EQUIPMENT, 
HARDWARE, SOFTWARE, BOOKS, ETC . 
T/S USER'S GROUP, P.O.BOX 614, 
Johnstown, PA 15907 

FOR SALE: ON 920102 

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%*%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
TS2068 WITH: 

SPECTRUM BOM SWITCH 

MECHANICAL KEYBOARD 

RESET SWITCH 

SPEAKER ON /OFF SWITCH 
AMPEX COMPOSITE COLOR Monitor 
JLO FDD System with: 

780K Disk Drive cased with: 
power supply 
Centronic Printer Interface 
TS2040 Printer 
wico Trackball 
TS2050 modems (4) 
EPROM cards one with Mterm II 
Joysticks (2) 

Timex and Spectrum commercial 

programs 300+ 
Disk Drive DSDD 5.25 flaky 
Disk Drive DSQD 3.5 flaky 

Gary Lessenberry 

12 Alleghany Road 

Havelock, NC 28532 

919-444-3895 

FOR SALE: ON 911010 

%%%%%*%*%%%%%% 
CoCo 1 W/64K AND PRO KYBRD .520 

JSM Controller S65 

Dual TEAC Disk Drives $80 

Joysticks $10 

The whole package with software 
and manuals: $125 

CALL TONY SOKOL H708-4 28-4058 




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