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The 

Timex/Sfaslaiir NortkAmericin User Groups 



from out of 'THE ASHES' rises 



T/SHUG Chairmen 1 

T/SNUG Information 2 

ZXir QLive Alive! Article Contributions 2 

Contributors to this Issue 2 

INPUT/OUTPUT 2 

T/SNUG Meetings 3 

From the Chairmans Disk 3 

TREASURY NOTES 4 

SYSOP's Twisted Pair 4 

NEWS ITEMS 4 

LIBRARY 5 

REVIEWS 5 

Articles: 

T/SNUG, QUANTA, and PD-QL Software 6 

Converted TS1016 RAM that WORKS! 7 

CASSETTE LOAD /SAVE Problems Solved - PART 1 9 

SOLAR SYSTEM REVIEW for the TS2068 11 

Ads 13 

And now a word from our Venders 14 

CHAIRMEN 



Here is the list of 1991 T/SNUG Chairmen and how to contact 
them. We wish to support the following SIGS: Z):i)D/ZX81, Z88, 
SPECTRUM/TS2068/TC2068 and QL. If you have questions about any 
of these fine machines contact the Chairman. 

POSITION NAME PHONE PRIMARY FUNCTION 



Chairman Don Lambert 219-925-1372 Chief Motivator 

Vice-Chaiman Dave Bennett 717-774-7531 CATS/Z88 

Vice-chairman Al Feng 708-971-0495 CATUG/QL 

Vice-Chairman Rod Gowen 503-655-7484 CCATS 

vice-chairman Bill Harmer 613-722-7184 TS Bullltlr./ZXB0/ZX81 

Vice-chairman Rod Humphreys 604-931-5509 VSUG/TS2068 

Vlce-Chairman Bob Swoger 708-837-7957 Newsletter/ -3BS Sysop 

Copyright(C)1991 Timex/Sinclair NorthAmerican Users Groups 
ZXir QLive Alive! 



T/SNUG ImfoTmalioiri 



ZXir QLive Alive! (pronounced 
Sir dive Alive H is the 
newsletter of T/SNUG, the new 
Timex /Sinclair NorthAmerlcan 
User Groups. T/SNUG is not a 
user group but rather all the 
user groups. We wish to 
represent all of the North 
American TIMEX/Sinclair user 
groups by providing news about 
all that is going on in the T/S 
community in at least four 
newsletters a year. 

It is our goal to either build 
a Public Domain software 
library or develope a list of 
available software for all T/S 
machines showing the source. 

We shall try to keep venders 
alive by offering free space in 
this newsletter. Venders shall 
receive this newsletter free so 
that they may see that we are 
Still out here. If you feel 
that T/SNUG should perform 
other tasks, let us know your 
feelings. 

T/SNUG wishes to have one 
chairman from every T/S North 
American user group who will 
take charge of sending us your 
user groups newsletter and 
other correspondence. 

If you desire to reprint any 
articles that appear here, 
please provide credit to the 
author and this newsletter. 

Articles appearing in this 
newsletter can be obtained by 
downloading this newsletter 
from our BBS . We encourage your 
user group to copy this 




to all of 



For an annual contribution of 

keep T/SNUG alive! For now, 
send your contribution to: 

DON LAMBERT 

ZXir OLiva Aliva! Newsletter 

1301 KIBLINGER PL 
AUBURN IN 46706 



ZXir QLive Alive i 
Ariicie Contributions 



If you would like to contribute 
an article to the newsletter, 
upload a file to our BBS called 
TSNUG . AFT . If you have an AD 
for the newsletter UPLOAD a 
file called TSNUG . ADS . If you 
have NEWS to POST about your 
group, UPLOAD a file called 

TSNUG. NWS . 

if you need help contact the 
SYSOP by mail, E-MAIL on the 
T/SNUG BBS, or by phone: 

BOB SWOGER 

613 PARKS IDE CIRCLE 

STREAMWOOD IL 60107-1647 

It is preferred that you call: 
H708/837-7957 or W70B/576-B068 

If you can only contribute hard 
copy, tape or disk format, send 

DON LAMBERT 

ZXIr QLive Alive! Newsletter 

1301 KIBLINGER PL 
AUBURN IN 45706 

Tele: 219-925-1372 

It is not necessary to call 
before sending articles. 

CONTRIBUTORS TO THIS ISSUE 



Tony Farrell 

Joan Kealy 
Don Lambert 
EMSoft 

Bob Swoger, K9WVY 
Tim Ward 
Tony Willing 

INPUT/OUTPUT 



NEWSLETTER EXCHANGE 

We have been asked if we could 
EXCHANGE newsletters with Other 
groups. Since T/SNUG is not a 
group but is rather supported 
by all the groups, it can not 
EXCHANGE newsletters with 
groups. Each supporting group 
gets a copy of this newsletter. 

2 What might be better in this 
area would be to print the 



newsletters of all our member 
groups so that those groups 
would no longer have to bare 
the cost of newsletter 
exchanges. The group fee would 
go up a bit to cover the new 
load on T/SNUG and the starting 
date for "this activity would 
have to be co-ordinated. Let us 
know what you think. 

ABOUT CENSORSHIP 

One of our articles contains a 
statement from Al Feng towards 
Paul Holmgen which may be 
thought of as a businessman 
protecting his business from 
competition. From what we hear, 
Paul and Frank Davis do sell 
quite a bit of QL software. We 
could censor that portion of 
the article but then, where do 
we stop censorship? If Paul 
feels put out, he should write 
a rebutal to the observation. 
[Swoger was present with Feng 
at the time when the discourse 
occured and can attest to what 
happened] 

MAILING 

We beleive we have enough funds 
in the treasury to mail to ALL 
the user groups although we 
have only heard from just a 
few. Therefore, the second 
mailing shall be to all the 
known user groups, all known 
venders and all paid individual 



!!!!! HELP lilt! 
The need for T/SNUG to compile 
a list of available software is 
now evedenced by the request 
from Rod Gowen for a copy of 
CARTRIDGE DOCTOR for the QL. A 
corupted copy needs repair and 
no one at CATUG has it. If you 
can help send a copy to Rod 
Gowen at RMG , 

MILE HIGH TO RETURN 

We have received a call from 
Andy Hradesky of TIMELINEZ. He 
has recently relocated to the 
Denver area and will attempt to 
reform the MILE HIGH Users 
Group, [we are coming alive!] 
The address for contact is: 

MILE HIGH c/o CURT CARSON 
601 S GRANT ST 
DENVER CO 80209 



BILL FERREBEE OVERWHELMS USI! 

Bill Ferrebee of Mountaineer 
Software, who normally writes 
for COMPUTER MONTHLY, put down 

his pen and kindly ran our 
kick-off column in the July '91 
issue. Bill, you must really 
have faith in us! Words just 
aren't enough, we really 
appreciate it. We will do all 
we can to try to earn it. 

T/SNUG MEETINGS 



The next possible meeting will 
be at the DMA ComputerFest at 
Dayton on August 24th and 25th. 
No time has been set but it is 
expected that it will be 
decided at the Fest. ISTUG, 

CATS, SMUG and CATUG will all 

be there. 

FROM THE CHAIR MANS DISK 



Things are happening, and with 
joy I report that it looks good 
for T/SNUG. There are two items 
to report: 

1. VSUG sent in $15.00 to 
support T/SNUG and also — sent 
a contribution of S150.00 to 
help T/SNUG with postage and 
other expenses, ifhen I opened 
the envelope and saw the check, 
at first I was pi.zzled. Was it 
S165.00, or $1.65 or S16-50?? I 
hastily read the letter and 
sure enough it w<is for S165.00! 
When I called Bob Swoger, I am 
sure he was as stunned as I 
was. Once again our Canadian 
friends have overwhelmed us. 
VANCOUVER SINCLAJR USERS GROUP, 
thank you very much! 

2. While my subscription copy 
of Computer Monthly has not 
arrived yet, I have had two 
people send in their S12.00 
each for a subscription to ZXlr 
QLive Alive! . They both 
mentioned Computer Monthly and 
Bill Ferrebee's column as their 
source of information on the 
newsletter. Tha.->K you. Bill, 
for listing us. Hopefully, that 
is the start of several such 
letters. 

Note the small change in our 
name. In the first issue we 
3 called ourselves ' Users Group 1 . 



We shall call ourselves "User 
Groups' from now on. T/SNUG is 
indeed the voice of the total 
NorthAmerican user groups 1 

The DMA will be having a 
Computer Fest at the Kara Arena 
and Conference Center in Dayton 
Saturday and Sunday, August 
24th and 25th, 1991. We talked 
to Gary Ganger of Sinclair fame 
and found out that they are to 
group all the Sinclair groups 
together if we send our table 
requests to Gary. Here is a 
reprint from the SMUG 
newsletter : 

"If you are planing on having a 
table, send your money by the 
end of June. I hope we have a 
large contingent of Sinclair 
Users. Gary said the user 
group/flea market tables will 
not have a wall but will be in 
the center of the hall. 

OK, here are the costs: If you 
choose to go, to all you who 
want to go the big professional 
way, you can get a 10' x 10' 
both with two draped tables and 
two chairs for only S150, 5175 
after June 30. This also 
includes Friday night set up 
and tickets for the show. 

The user group way, also known 
as the flea market, is a little 
different. For S20, $25 after 
June 30, you can get a 6' x 8" 
table space with one chair. You 
will have to purchase your own 
tickets, at S5 each, for both 
days, and if you want to set up 
on Friday night the extra cost 
is $25. Also there will be a 
banquet Friday night. This will 
cost $13.50. Gary says they are 
looking for a name speaker . 
Gary also says that Friday 
night set up is not necessary 
as the vendors will be able to 
get in at 6 am with the show 
opening to the public at 10 am. 
Gary Ganger's home address is: 
812 HEDWICK ST, NEW CARLISLE OH 
45344-2619 . All tables have 
electricity. " 

So far CATS, CATUG, ISTUG, 
NESQLUG, SMUG and T/SNUG are 
planning on being there. Get 
your inputs to Gary Ganger 
before June 30th for the best 



prices on tables. 

Don Lambert, Chairman 
Timex/Sinclair NorthAmerican 
Users Group 

SYSOFs TWISTED PAIR 



Our 24 Hour BBS has crashed and 
when it will be back again is 
unknown . to accompl i sh any 
UPLOAD or DOWNLOAD activity, 
contact Bob Swoger: 
H708/837-T957 or W708/576-8068 

TRBASURY NOTES 



There have been 5 deposits 
totaling S390. There were 2 

checks written for the first 
mailing for $69.01. The balance 
as of 7/15/91 is $320.99. 

The current paid membership 
stands at 4 groups and 15 
individuals. 

Please include your ZIP+4 code 
when you renew your membership. 
It will speed up the mailing. 
Thank you! 

NEWS ITEMS 



%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%*<*%%%%%%%%%%%%% 
DAYTON Compute-Feat August 

%%%%%*%%%%%%%%%%*.*%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

Gary Ganger is putting the T/S 
community together at the 
DMA ComputerFest ' 91 . The 
dates are Saturday August 24, 
10 AM - 6 PM and Sunday August 
25, 10 AM - 5 PM. Tickets for 
both days are $5 in advance and 
S6 at the door. The event is at 
the KARA Conference and 
Exhibition Center, 1001 Shiloh 
Springs RD, Dayton, Ohio 

Contact Gary Ganger if you are 
going to the fest. 

GARY GANGER 

812 HEDWICK ST 

NEW CARLISLE OH 45334-2619 

Call H513-B49-]483 

So far CATS, CATUG, ISTUG, 
NESQLUG, SMUG and T/SNUG are 
planning on being there. 



*%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

TIMEX/ SINCLAIR 
PUBLIC DOMAIN LIBRARY 
AVAILABLE AS OF 01 JUNE 1991 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

TS-1O00 
(364/386 PROGRAMS IN 
RESPECTIVE LIBRARIES] 



Tapes (C- 

1001 (#10001- 

1002 (#10050- 

1003 (#10122- 

1004 (#10176- 

1005 (#10211- 

1006 (#102S2' 

1007 (#10294 

1008 (#10336 



:-60) 
■10050) 
10121) 
10175) 
-10210) 
-10251) 
-10293) 
-10335) 
■10364) 



LarKen disks (5.25" TS1000) 

1001 (#10001-10040) 

1002 (#10041-10092) 

1003 (#10093-10144) 

1004 (#10145-10187) 

1005 (#10188-10214) 

1006 (#10215-10250) 

1007 (#10251-10284) 

1008 (110285-10319) 

1009 (#10320-10348) 

1010 (#10349-10373) 

1011 (#10374-10386) 

TS-2068 
(163/209 Programs In 
Respective Libraries) 

Tapes (C-60) 

2001 (#20001-20060) 

2002 (120061-20082) 

2003 (120083-20120) 

2004 (#20121-20163) 

LarKen disks (5.25" DSDD) 

2001 (#20001-20060) 

2002 (#20061-20079) 

2003 (#20080-20128) 

2004 (#20129-20171) 

2005 (#20172-20209) 

2006 PIXEL PRINT PUIS ! 
FOR LKDOS 

STING GRAPHICS SUPPORT PACKAGE 
LARKEN DISK DOCTOR/ chambers 
THE RLE GRAPHICS COLLECTION 

The Pixel Print Plus! and Sting 
Graphics Package are LKDOS 
conversions and LOAD/ SAVE 
entirely to disc. All documents 
are contained as Pixel Print 
files on the respective disc. 



The Disc Doctor was written by 
George Chambers of the Toronto 
Timex -Sine lair Users Club. 

The RLE Graphics Collection 
contains 72 RLE files courtesy 
of Bill Ferrebee and QRLKDOS, 
Jack Dohany ' s QRL RLE file 
handler converted to LKDOS . 

be 



ALL S4.00 EACH, POSTPAID 

Send TS-1000 orders to: 
Tim Ward 

5142-D Ginkgo Dr SW 
Taccma WA 98439 



IREVJEWS 



%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

QL SURVIVOR'S SOURCE BOOK. 
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

Bob Dyl sent me a copy to see 
and ask if T/SNUG wanted to be 
the publisher thereof, but I 
said I did not think so and he 
called Frank Davis and he 
accepted. I do not know the 
price but a letter or call to 
Frank will get that. Frank's 
is: 



FRANK DAVIS 
513 E. Main 
Peru, IS 46970 

Tele: (317)473-5031 

The BOOK consists of 24 pages 
of single sided text and is 
strictly a source listing for 

QL HARDWARE SUPPLIERS; QL 
PUBLICATIONS (major J ; QL 

SOFTWARE SUPPLIERS; and QL USER 
GROUPS. 



This is not a book for 
looking for information on 
using a QL nor on programming 
but is a listing of sources to 
find the wherewithal to expand 
a QL system. I would recommend 
it for anyone that has a QL and 
wants to have more and better 
use of it and is willing to 
spend time and money to do it. 



%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%% 

INTERNATIONAL QL PEPORT 
%%%%%%%%%%%*%%%**%*%%%%%*% 

A new QL MAGAZINE has shown up 
on the scene . The Inaugural 
issue showed up in June and is 
published by a group called 
SeaCoast Services. The editor 
is Robert Dyl, Sr. who formerly 
owned the now defunct English 
Micro Connection. He told me 
on the phone that this 
publication is not the 
newsletter of a user group but 
rather a money making venture 
of about 16 QL users. 

The idea behind this magazine 
is to keep North American users 
abreast of what NEW QL PRODUCTS 
are currently being offered in 
Europe. Products are named and 
also the names, address and 
phone numbers of U.S. 



talk 
that 



Featured were articles on GOLD 

CARD, QL KEYBOARD 90 INTERFACE, 
MINERVA ROM UPGRADE, QIMI MOUSE 
INTERFACE, D-I-Y Toolkit and 
many other software products 
and news. Subscription rates 
are S10 per year US and Canada, 
$20 for the rest of the world. 




IQLR 

15 KILBURH CT 
NEWPORT, RI 02840 

H401-849-3805 

ARTICLES 



T/SNUG, QUANTA, 
And PD-QL Software 

by Al Feng 

Bob Swoger commented that he 
has catalogued about 300+ 
2068/Spectrum programs in his 
"personal" library, and Steve 
Cooper claims that he has well 
over 80 meg of uncataloged 



2068/Spectrum programs! Bob 
thought it would be a good idea 
if I would compile a list of QL 
software that is available. 

Unlike the 2068/Spectrum, it 
isn't a question of how much 
and/or what is out there for 
the QL, because there are 
titles /programs for just about 
every conceivable application 
from the exceedingly mundane to 

If your needs exceed the four 
Psion programs which were 
bundled with your QL, and you 
can't find what you want in a 
"commercial" program, then the 
odds are you will eventually be 
able to track it down in one of 
the PD disks. 

At the present time, T/SNUG's 
PD-QL library consists of the 
single CATUG PDL disk. 

If you would likf a copy of the 
disk (for the current time), 
send a S2.00 check made out to 
"Al Feng" and you will get not 
only the disk [specify format), 
but a coupon tor S2 . 00 off 
either QLUSTer or QLuMSl; or, a 
future T/SNUG PDL disk [if I'm 
still handling it and/or we 
ever expand our QL library!]: 

Al Feng 

15 Wake Robin Court 
Woodridge, IL 60517 

If we ever get "more" disks, 
then they will be available for 
S2.00 for the first disk; and, 
SI. 00 for each subsequent disk 
ordered at the same time. 
Don't forget to specify your 
disk format (5.2!," or 3.5"). 

If you are a group and want to 
contribute a disk(s), then you 
will receive "credits" against 

group's disk{s) . 

OKAY. This brings us to the 
matter of the extensive QUANTA 
library . . . 

If you are not familiar with 
QUANTA, it is the UK's (and 
therefore the world's) primary 
QL user group. 



With "apologies" to Roy 
Brereton, et al, I want to 
(finally) publicly voice my 
disdain for Paul Holmgren" s 
DENIAL (to me) OF "FREE" ACCESS 
to the QUANTA library at the 
1990 SMUGFEST and attempt to 
"charge" S3. 50 per disk despite 
the fact that I had my own 
disks, QL + drives, and had 
previously paid royalties on 
90+ per cent of the software 
despite my having been a Quanta 
member for four-plus years. 

As far as I know, the $3.50 
charge stands despite the fact 
that there is no longer a 
charge for the library [NOTE: 
you do have to be 



What am I saying? 

If you are a QUANTA member (or, 
you have been thinking about 
joining so that you might 
acquire the QUANTA library), 
and you want "cheaper" access 
to the library, then write to: 

QUANTA Librarian 
94 Teignmouth Road 
Clevedon, AVON 
BS21 6DR 
UNITED KINGDOM 



was quite defensive on behalf 
of Paul Holmgren. I suspect 
that this is ir. part because 
of Paul Holmgren's "visible" 
affiliation with SNUG. 

Well, we know about SNUG . . . 



is tired of the 
with the ~ 
the "lost" 



If you are 
hanky-panky 
library (or 



If you want access to the 
QUANTA library at a lower 
price, then write to Roy 
Brereton and voice your 
thoughts on the matter. 

The QL lives in North America 
as long was we all actively 
support it in a positive 



iiaborate t 



If you want to let the QL in 
North America go comatose then 
you don't have to do anything. 



If you wish t 
preceding [ 
anything else!] then tell 
about them. This space 
available for YOUR REMarks. 

HAPPY TRAILS, 
AND COMPUTING, 
TO If 00 . • • 



I suggested to R. Brereton that 
a NESQLUG member would be an 
obvious choice since they have 
become an official sub-group. 
I presume that they would 
"charge" SI. 50 per disk. 

I indicated to R. Brereton that 
(as an alternative) I accept 
the library and would "charge" 
32.00 for the first disk, and 
SI. 00 for each disk thereafter 
(if "ordered" at the same 
time) . This is a disk/postage 
fee for ANYWHERE in North 
America for 3.5" 720K, 5.25" 
720K or 5.25" 360K disks. The 
small "overage" for US disks 
will subsidize postage to 
Canada, Mexico, and Central 
America. 

At the time that I am writing 
this, R. Brereton tells me that 
no one else has complained 
about the pricing! In fact, he 



HAPPINESS IS A CONVERTED 
T/S 1016 RAM THAT WORKS! 

bl 

ANTHONY W. FARRELL 
1/25 NEWPORT ROAD 
SOUTH CLAYTON, VIC 3169 
AUSTRALIA 

(This is an addition to the two 
part article in Time Designs 
magazine in 19&6 by Tim 
Stoddard. Editor) 

Do you remember that I was 
having trouble with the 
conversion of my 16K RAM, the 
article was by Tim Stoddard in 
an issue of of Time Designs in 
•86. Well as the heading says, 
I do have the converted RAM 
working correctly. I finished 
assembling it about an hour ago 
and gave it a test program to 
POKE 0's and 251, to all the 



great 



well. 



0's and 25!. 
y locations a 
It is — 



feeling to have success under 
my belt. Thanks Don for all 
your help, and for the help 
from Fred Stern and Tim 
Stoddard. I do not think I told 
you that Tim Stoddard wrote to 
me and said that he had 
received a letter from you but 
he had been very busy at work 
lately. He had been in the 
hardware field but had been 
moved to software and was in 
some kind of a learning curve, 
and so was very busy . Tim wrote 
out a special check list for me 
to check out my RAM conversion. 
I went through it but it did 
not help in my case. 

It seems that one of the 
outputs of the 74LS157 was 
blown at least. 1 did not do 
too much checking when I found 
that blown gate. The 74LS393 
was the most expensive chip at 
SI. 20 so I replaced them all. I 
also found that I had left a 
decoupling cap (.047uF) 
connecting pin 7 of the DRAM' s 
to ground. This made the wave 
form look skewed instead of 
square and that was how I found 
the cap. 

One thing that puzzles me is 
that I thought the LS393 pin 3 
(lsb) would have toggled at the 
frequency of the clock input on 
pin 1. My Data book shows the 
LSB going high and low at the 
input frequency but on every 
chip that I probed, pin 3 Just 
stays high. No doubt I will 
find a logic person who will 
enlighten me. Also I was 
puzzled as to how the board 
worked as a 32K RAM with the 
64K chips at the half-way 
stage. Then I remembered the 
jumper "A" that was used in the 
32K stage and removed for the 
64K stage. 

Vou wrote that some members had 
said that my RAM conversion 
problem might be because of the 
poor design of the board which 
messed up the timing of the 

REFRESH cycle. I do know about 
this possible problem. The bad 
design is because the REFRESH 
needs a delay of 50 to 100 
nanoseconds to allow the 
address lines to stabilize (to 
stop "Ringing") before the 



REFRESH signal is applied. The 
good design way of achieving 
this would be to use a timer 
chip, but this pushes the cost 
up. So Sinclair used a resistor 
and a capacitor to give the 
delay. This works in theory but 
the resistor used has a 
tolerance of +/- 5%. And the 
capacitor also has a tolerance 
of some degree which I am not 
sure of. So the timing can be 
out by more then 5%, which 
theoretically could give taming 
troubles, especially when the 
board gets old and the 
components start to age . 

In TIMELINE Z JOL 1 #2 

■July/August 19B3 page 2 there 
is an article for a 64K RAM 
construction which uses a 
74LS74 flip-flop and other 
control signals to give the 
correct delay, which is a more 
accurate way but is more 
expensive. 

I will get down to the other 
RAM board conversion in a few 
days. I am a little tired of my 
"Memory Diet" so I will give 
myself a rest before I start 
the next board. 

You may wonder why I am 
converting two RAM boards. 
Well, I intend tc use my T/S 
1000 for many years to come and 
they are gettinc, scarce. Now 
that I can convert 16K's I am 
laughi ng . Al so I had two 
defective 16k RAM's, and 
instead of repairing them as 
16K's, I repaired them as 
64K'S. 

Our Sinclair group here in 
Melbourne is doing some sums 
again regarding membership. We 
are short of financial members 
at the moment. The hall that 
they hire cose v. a fair few 
dollars every month and a few 
alternatives have been 
discussed. We could drop back 
to only having a meeting every 
second month but then someone 
might want to book the hall 
every month and »'e would loose 
our booking. And there are two 
many people at the meetings to 
go to someones house. The club 
has Spectrums, QL's and an 
Amiga. Everyone laughs at the 



mention of my ZX81 so I do not 
take it along. 



CASSETTE LOAD/ SAVE ROUTINE 



While I have no 
back my thinking I believe that 
there are far more working with 
cassette than any other mass 
storage medium on either the 
ZX81 or the TS2068. while 
this is basically about the 
ZXB1 there are some of the 
following that will also apply 
to the TS2068. I am trying to 
be as accurate as possible and 
if anyone has anything to 
contribute or suggestions or 
changes, please let me know. I 
do want this to be helpful and 
only by being correct is this 
possible. After I got started I 
found that I had far more 
material than I realized and 
this will not fit Into one 
issue, so there will be more 
material later. 

We will start with theory or at 
least a little theory so that 
you will know what the computer 
Is looking for when it is 
waiting for the cassette signal 
to LOAD. It may not make much 
sense to all but does help to 
point out some of the possible 
problem areas. 

Source: "A PRACTICAL GUIDE TO 
MACHINE LANGUAGE PROGRAMMING ON 
THE TIMEX/SINCLAIR 1500 AND 

1000 (and ZX81) " by David B. 
Wood. 

The following material is from 
Chapter 15 starting page 135: 

TAPE ENCODING 

What does a bit look like on a 
T/S tape? A bit is composed of 
a series of 3.33 kilohertz 
pulses. It is high for 151 
microseconds and low for 149 
microseconds, so the total 
width (elapsed time) of 300 
microseconds provides the 3.33 
kilohertz tone. 

A zero bit consists of a series 
of four of these pulses. The 
total width (time consumed) of 
a zero bit is 1.02 mS. A one 



bit consists of 



A byte, as we all know, 
contains eight bits. The time 
between individual bits is 1.50 
milliseconds. 

The inter-byte spacing is 
virtually the same as the 
inter-bit spacing, so that if a 
bit is lost on tape read, every 
byte after will be out of step. 
The system simply assumes that 
each series of eight bits is a 
byte. 

When tape load is initiated, 
the system starts sampling the 
cassette Input at 21 
microsecond intervals . Note 
that this is almost exactly 1/3 
of the horizonta. scan rate of 
the TV. That is why this tape 
scan loop has such a 
distinctive fingerprint on your 
TV. The scan continues at this 
rate until a pulse is detected. 
Then after, 25 microseconds, 
the system starts sampling the 
tape at a higher rate: a little 
over 1 5 microseconds . The 
sampling frequency, once a 
pulse is detected, is about ten 
times the pulse vidth. An ideal 
pulse should thus provide about 
nine or ten s( : quential high 
samples. This 3hould be 
followed by an equal number of 
low samples. The total number 
of sequential high, then low, 
then high, etc., are 
accumulated. 

A one bit should provide more 
than twice as many samples as a 
zero bit. If less than 62 high 



be zero. Between 148 and 214 is 
assumed to be a one bit. If 
more than 214 hits are 
detected, the bit is rejected. 

During the low state between 
pulses, the system will scan 
for up to 400 microseconds to 
make sure that another pulse 
isn't there. This means the 
inter-bit space of 1.5 
milliseconds is more than a 



mi 1 1 i second longer than i s 
necessary for the tape read to 
work. Thus the tape read/write 
speed could be shortened by 
about 30 percent by cutting one 
millisecond off the inter-bit 
space . 

In spite of how it may appear 
to someone having tape reading 
problems, this tape read 
algorithm is quite insensitive 
to moderate distortion and to 
tape speed errors. The relative 
width of the high and low 
states of the pulses can change 
quite a bit , since lost hits 
in one state can be compensated 
for by extra hits in the other 
state. The error is 26 
successive low hits. 

Source: SYNCHRO- SETTE VOL. 1 11 
APRIL 19B2 

If you are loading a program 
and the volume is too high, the 
computer can receive distorted 
information and background 
noise may be picked up. The 
result of extreme high volume 
is that the screen goes blank. 

If the volume is too low, some 

of the data can be missed. Even 

if the program seems to have 
loaded OK, the program will not 
run properly. 

A proper load should be 

followed with (0/0) at the 
bottom of the screen. 

Another factor that may affect 
loading is whether the recorder 
has a HIGH and LOW frequency 
switch. Computer data pulses 
are consistently of a high 
pitched frequency. This can be 
easily observed by unplugging 
the jack from the EAR socket of 
the recorder and listening to 
the sound the tape makes when 
played. If the switch is in the 
LOW position, the recorder is 
not allowed to emit the 
frequency of sound needed by 
the computer. The low pitched 
sounds however are sent to the 
computer and distort the input 
to the point where the program 
load is a failure. 

If you think that your recorder 
may be the problem, try another 



recorder . Borrow one from a 
friend if you can. 

Mo volume adjustment is 
required when saving programs 
however . The recorder has a 
condenser microphone that 
automatically adjusts itself to 
the volume that is being 
inputted. It takes a second or 
two for this to happen and that 
is the reason why when you save 
programs, the screen pattern 
does not appear immediately . 
The computer is giving the 
volume level device in the 
recorder a chance to reach the 
correct threshold. 

Never save a program at the 
beginning of the tape unless it 
is a leaderless tape. All other 
tapes have a beginning and 
ending portion made of none 
magnetic material. None 
magnetic materiel of course 
will not hold computer data. 

Always make duplicate tapes. I 
cannot over stress the 
importance of back-ups, 
especially when writing 
programs . 

If the program you are writing 
is long, a good procedure is 
to write about 10 lines and 
then save it on one cassette 
twice. Then writs: 10 more lines 
and save it again, but on a 
second tape twice. Keep doing 
this procedure back and forth 
between the two tapes until the 
program is finished. This way, 
if the computji bombs, the 
power falls or it there is a 
nuclear attack, the most you 
would have lost is 10 lines. I 
realize this can be time 
consuming but there comes a 
time in every prcgrarmier 1 s life 
when he wishes he did it. 

SYNCHRO- S ETTE VOL. 1 #2 
MAY ]<)82 

If a program was recorded from 
a computer othei than your own 
or from computer duplication 
equipment loads OK, but 
programs that were produced 
from your own computer do not 
load easily, it could be 
because : 



1. The internal circuitry of 
the computer that controls the 
saving of the programs is 
defective. This is not usually 
the case but can happen. Since 
the programs that were produced 
from an outside source load all 
right, the programs you try to 
save can be recorded with 
various degrees of improper 
data pulses. Before blaming the 
problem on the computer, first 
investigate the procedures that 
follow. 

2. The computer and/ or cassette 
recorder are picking up excess 
noise from their Alternating 
Current power sources in the 
form of power spikes . These are 
caused by electrical machinery, 
such as florescent fixture 



air conditioners, etc. 

If you have the type of 
recorder that can be run by 
batteries, remove the AC power 
cord and Insert the proper 
batteries. Write a short 
program and then save it on 
cassette. Try to reload it and 
see if this helps. It should 
make no difference if the 
recorder is on AC or DC when 
you are loading the program 
back Into the computer. Some 
recorders may however, have a 
problem keeping the drive motor 
operating at a constant RPM 
when they are powered by pure 
DC current from batteries, SO 
make sure the batteries are 

If this does not help, then the 
DC power input into the 
computer may be the culprit . 
There are different methods of 
achieving this . The problems 
may be the 9-vdc power supply 
itself but again this is not 
usually the case. I replaced 
the 9-VDC power source for the 
C with a 9-VDC battery 
"-\DY 1276, the 



POLARITY when using this 

method. IMPROPER POLARITY MAY 
CAUSE DAMAGE TO THE COMPUTER. 



SOLAR SYSTEM REVIEW 

Modified by Joan Kealy 
From the magazine 
Computers and Teachers 

If you have found an 
informational gap where you 
have forgot facts you once knew 
or if you simply yearn to be 
more knowledgeable about some 
area this program called 
'solarsys' can actually review 
or refresh or tutor you in any 
subject . The subset of 
astronomy was selected because 
of my fondness for science 
fiction, but I realized I had 
long forgotten ;;o much of the 



ogy 



of 



al 



text on astronomy and tossed 

basic template from a magazine 
called 'Computers and 
Teaching' . " 

If you are an rstroengineer, 
then pick your own subject, 
delete the existing data 
statements and plug in the 
chosen info base. After typing 
the questions ana answers into 
the program — now called 17th 
Century Comic Opera or 
whatever — and running with the 
program twice, you'll have 
embedded said into into your 
mind and six months later, rev 
up the program for review. 
You'll be surprised at your 
retention bat regular 
reinforcement assures a solid 
expertise with an option to add 
more difficult information. 

Sometimes retirees feel as if 
their brain is ALTZing out, but 
recall that constantly dealing 
with the same aid knowledge 
base at work can result in 
burnout too. New input to the 
brain revitalizes it and 
extends your confidence. 

solar;; . Bl 

1 CLS : PRINT ' ' " 3K 
REVIEW OF SOLAR SYSTEM" 



6 POKE VAL "23658" , VAL "8": 

GO SUB VAL "8000": CLS 
8 DIM AS (VAL "25", VAL 

"100"): DIM BS(VAL "25", VAL "3 

1") : DIM Y (VAL "25") 

20 FOB I=SGN PI TO VAL "25": 

READ AS(D.,BS(1) : NEXT I 

30 FOB J=SGN PI TO VAL "25" 
35 LET X=INT (RND*VAL "25")+ 

SGN PI 

40 FOB Z=SGN PI TO VAL "25" 
50 IF X=Y(Z) THEN GO TO VAL 
"35" 

55 NEXT Z 

60 PBINT : PBINT AS (X) 
68 LET DS=" 

70 INPUT CS: LET CS=CS+DS: LE 
T CS=CS(SGN PITO VAL "31") 

72 IF CS-BS(X) THEN PRINT [ P 
APER VAL "5";"YOU'RE BIGHT ! " : LE 
T Y(X)~X: PAUSE VAL "180": GO T 
O VAL "76" 

74 PRINT INK VAL "9"; PAPER V 
AL "3";"SOBBY!";BS(X) : LET SC= 
SC+SGN PI: PAUSE VAL "180" 

76 NEXT J 

78 CLS 

80 PBINT PAPER VAL "6";"OUT O 
F 25 QUESTIONS, YOU MISSED"; SC; 
""YOUB GRADE IS ";VAL "100"-(S 
C*VAL "4") 

90 PBINT 1 "IF YOU ARE DISAPPO 
INTED WITH YOUR GRADE, A BET 
AKE WILL BESULTIN ABOUT 15 POIN 
T GROWTH. " 

100 STOP 
3000 REM QUESTIONS ON SOLAR SYS 

3005 DATA "GREATEST EGYPTIAN AS 
TBONOMER?", "JULIUS PTOLEMY" 
3010 DATA "TERM FOB PTOLEMY'S M 
ODEL OF UNI-VERSE?", "GEOCENTRIC 

3015 DATA "AFTER 1400 YRS . POLI 
SH MONK WHO REJECTED GEOCENTRIC 
MODEL?", "NICHOLAS COPERNICUS" 
3020 DATA "WHO FORMULATED 3 LAW 
S FOR MOTIONOF PLANETS?" , " JOHAN 
NES KEPLER" 

3025 DATA "ITALIAN WHO RECANTED 
HIS HELIO- CENTRIC THEORY UNDER 
RELIGIOUS PRESSURE?", "GALILEO 
GALILEI" 

3030 DATA "FORMAL NAME OF THE N 
ORTH STAR?", "POLARIS" 
3035 DATA "BECAUSE OF PRECESSIO 
N IN 12,000 YRS. THE NORTH STAR 
WILL BE?", "VEGA" 

3040 DATA "THE EQUATORIAL EQUAT 
OR IS 7,927 MILES BUT THE POLAR 
EQUATOR IS?", "7, 900" 
3045 DATA "EARTH'S ROTATION IS 
EASTWARD OR RE A CLOCK?" , "COUNT 



3050 DATA "DUE TO ROTATION PREV 
ALING WINDS IN U.S. ARE FROM?", 
"SOUTHWEST" 

3055 DATA "APPAE.ENT PATH OF SU 
N'S 1 YR. TRIP THRU THE STAR 
S IS CALLED?", "ECLIPTIC" 
3060 DATA "NEAREST STAR TO EART 
H?", "PROXIMA" 

3065 DATA "PROXIMA'S DISTANCE I 

N LIGHT YRS.?", "OVER 4" 

3070 DATA " TERM FOR ONE BODY TR 

AVE LING IN ORBIT AROUND ANOTHE 

R?" , "REVOLUTION" 

3075 DATA "TERM USED WHEN BODY 

TURNING ON INTERNAL AXIS?","BD 

TAT I ON" 

3080 DATA "EARTH IS FARTHER FRO 

M SUN IN JULY THAN JAN. BY M 

ILES?","3 MILLION" 

3085 DATA "EARTH'S EQUATOR EXTE 

NDED OUT TO STARS?" , "CELESTIAL 

EQUATOR" 

3090 DATA "TILT OF EARTH'S AXI 
S FROM PERPENDICULAR?", "23.5 DE 
GREES" 

3095 DATA "OUR 'JOLAR SYSTEM IS 
MOVING THRU MILKY WAY AT 12 MPS 
OR MPH?","43,200 MPH" 3100 DATA 
"LIGHT TRAVELS IN MILES PER SEC 
.?","186,000" 

3105 DATA "TWO PLANETS CLOSEB T 
O SUN THAN EARTH?", "MERCURY AN 
D VENUS" 

3110 DATA "DARK SIDE OF MERCUR 
Y IS ALWAYS WITHIN FEW DEGBEES 
OF PERFECT 0 OR ABOUT?" , "-440 D 

3115 DATA " ONE ASTRONOMICAL UNI 
T (A. U .)=?", "93 MILLION MILES" 
3120 DATA "ONE A.U. IS BASED ON 
THE MEAN DISTANCE OF EARTH FB 
OM?", "THE SUN" 

3125 DATA "KEPLEL' S 3RD LAW REL 
ATING SIZE OF DIBIT TO TIME OF 
REVOLUTION IS CALLED?", "HARMON 
IC LAW" 

3130 DATA "ABOUT 99. B% OF SOLAR 
SYSTEM'S MASS 13 CONCENTRATED 
IN ?","THE SUN" 

3135 DATA "ABOUT HALF OF .2% OF 
MASS OF OUR SOLAS SYSTEM IS CON 
CENTRATED IN WHICH PLANET?" , " JU 
PITER" 

8000 PBINT ""NC1E THAT FIRST A 
ND LAST NAMES ARE E 
ANSWERS, NO 
C OURSE, COMPUTERS ARE VERY ARB 
ITARY" 

8005 GO SUB VAL "9986" 

9986 PBINT AT VAL "21" , VAL 

"7" ; "PRESS ANY KEY" : PAUSE NOT 
PI : RETURN 

9987 STOP 

9992 CLEAR : RANDOMIZE USR 100: 
SAVE "SOLARS . Bl" LINE SGN PI