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COMPUTER 

ENTHUSIASTS 




Wellington Atari Computer Enthusiasts! 


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:ULY NEWSLETTER 
Dear Members. 

Herewith the WAGE newsletter tor 

NEXT MEETING .. 

Our next meeting will be held on Wednesday, 
at 7.30 pm. Once again, the venue will be the TAB 


3uV-i 19S4 * 


beginning, as usual 
buil'ciing on Lambton Quay. 


WiU bS ” Mu5ic and the Atari". Dennis Dawson and 
K-.th Hoboen (the latter having returned -from Ye 01 de Tims Musi ok Hall) will 
both talk about work thev have done with a musical Atari. 

THREE NEW CLUB TAPES 

At the meeting, three new club tapes will be distributed, each 
containing upwards of 7 progammes. The tapes are; 

(a) a "normal" club taos with games (including two machine language) on 
one side and utilities- on the other; 

>.b) our third "Educational” taoe. This has a number of aood math*--, d'-ill 
programmes. Another programme is a 25 question quiz based on the Bible - this 
programme will not be demonstrated by your Secretary! and 

(c)thirdly. "The Best of WAGE 1-5". These programmmes are the best 
programmes on club tapes*1-5 which have been withdrawn. On this tape is the 
original version of "Tinytext": members wanting the upgraded version (which 
f needs editing) can obtain it from Dennis Dawson, the club programme 

librarian. 

SERVICES TO MEMBERS 

Because we have so many new members, it might be worthwhile our settine 
of services available to members. These are; 

Tapes - these are put together from programmes available from 
sources. We aim to put together at least one such tape per 
they are CIOs (with 3-5 programmes) but sometimes they are C30s. 
distributes them at club meetinqs. 

(b) Club magazines -The club subscribes to a number of good magazines 
(notably Antic ana Analog - both of which many members find sufficiently 
invaluable for them to have on subscrition). These are available at~the first 
meeting after they arrive, after which they are placed with the Wellington 

Council Library where they are available to members when the Library >s 

open. 

(c) Books - see Felix Bettslheim’s note below. 

(d) Club Programme Library — we have an extensive collection of public 
domain programmes, including the -’Translator Disks-’ which are required if the 
XL machines are to play some of the commercially produced prgrammes. Dennis 
Dawson (ph. 731176) is the contact point. 

- (e) Technical Services - Rodger Sheppard (oh. (058) 87248) is ou 1 * 

technical whiz. 

(f) Out of Towners - Neil Upton (ph 328473 or 38 Fyvie Avenue, Linden) 
is your contact point. 

(g) Newsletters - "edited" by Des Rowe. The Supplement is put together 
bv Michael Munro. 


out the range 
(a)Club 
public domain 
month. Often. 
R o g a n M a x well 









a 


SUBGROUPS 

One area the club could make more progress in is the -Formation and usS 
o-f ’Subgroups’. These can be on any of a huae number of topics. At the n 
meeting, your Secretary will call for the nomination of topics (eg, how to'use 
"Vi si calc 11 or "Fi 1 emanager 800% programming in Basic, Action! or'Assembley 
language etc). We also shall require people to run the subgroups. Given the 
club’s rapidly increasing "computer-1iteracy", we should be able to make 
progress in this area. 

OTHER POINTS OF NOTE 

For sale - Rogan Maxwell (ph 660867) has a Microline SO printer for 

sale. 

The Wellington Microcomputing Society has organized a talk on "r D p yright 
and Your Computer" by a member of the Law Society. It will be held on 6 Sept 

at 7.30 pm at the Memorial Theatre, Victoria University 

Memory Upgrades. Upgrades to 48k for Atari 40o/n, ,v _ = 
organized through Neil Upton. The poet wUl hi o/the ’rLr o/illn ™ _ 

pos. and packaging. Members should listen ‘-arefullv tn Wa i h , ‘ * P* us 

the whys and where-foree of this tran^ction! V he e>!plain3 

Htari’s new management. Members will hav» s<=>*=n tnsi ha - w 

trick. us nope mat T-ramiel can repeat the 

Yours sincerely, 

Des Rowe 
(secretary) 


TH 


oo 


The W.A.C.E. library 


^urziry qt books is one of the many 
t services offered to members, and possibH? one'of themos^ 

md i-M 6 b °° k UbrarV haS been Rowing at a steady r^ 
“ nd will continue to grow as more books on the ATARI 

computer are published. The library now holds 31 volumes 
packea wi_h invaluable information specifically for our 
machines. 


To borrow one of these books from the library you 
simply need to select one of those books which is no+- 

Y -r thdraWn (I WU1 have the5e with at each club 
"r 9 l’ " rXt f Y ° Ur name on the library records with the dat* 
of withdrawal, and take it away! If the book which you are 

mmth 2! t°H i : 5 . n0t T there %then it should be available next 
■ t 1 r<:;l i r 'i=*n I must impress upon members the need for 

them to keep a book for ONE month only, this is to let other 
members have a fair chance to read the books too. 

There are no specific limits on the numbers of books 
that a member may withdraw at any one time, but, in order to 
r*J-on~M = IL members, a limit of THREE books seems 

,311. who can digest the entire Operatinq 
Sy_t...m source Listing, DE RE Atari and the DOS 2 Utilities 
Source Listing in one month? So, please remember to brino 
<any books you have out to the next meeting. 


O r 




3 


Here is 
the library: 


a comolete list of all the books currently 


’Atari BASIC programs in minutes’ 

’Making the most af your ATARI’ 

’ATARI BASIC tutorial’ 

’Games for your ATARI’ 

K“ r ATARI in 6502 Machine Language’ 

The best of ANTIC — An anthology’ 

’BASIC exercises for the ATARI’ 

’Rainy day activities for the ATARI’ 

’Get more from the ATARI’ 

101 ATARI computer programming tips ?< tricks’ 

Forth on the ATARI - Learninq by usinq’ 

’DE RE ATARI’ ' y 

™° uter P™rams for home, school office’ 
The ATARI book of games’ 

’The Creative ATARI’ 

’ATARI PILOT for beainners’ 

’Games for the ATARI’ 

’Understanding ATARI graphics’ 

’Stimulating simulations (ATARI version)’ 

'ATARI BASIC - Learning by using’ 

’ATARI software 1983’ 

’Some common BASIC programs’ 

Machine language for beqinners’ 

’Operating System source listing’ 

’DOS 2 Utilities source listing’ 

’ATARI player missile graphics’ 

’The elementary ATARI’ 

’The musical ATART’ . 

’Games ATARI’S play’ - 

’ATARI LOGO - Programming examples’ 

’Mapping the ATARI’ 

Felik Bettelheim. (Club Librarian). 




4 - 


BUMPAS REVIEWS 

TOP DOS (Eclipse Software, 1058 Marigold Court, Sunnyvale, CA 
94086, 150) is an enhanced Disk Operating System for the Atari. If 
you’re familiar with Atari DOS 2.0, you will be able to use this one 
Immediately as it presents a menu format which is very similar and 
contains the familiar commands. The documentation tells you TOP 
DOS occupies the same space in memory as Atari DOS, so all Atari 
software should be fully compatible. TOP DOS is not compatible with 
the very early Ataris which still use the Revision A OS ROM. TOP DOS 
will tell you upon booting when you have Rev. A. 

One of the first differences you will probably notice is the entire 
screen scrolls when you begin entering commands. Atari DOS only 
scrolls four lines at the bottom. For example, you may not have to 
keep calling up a disk directory to see the next file upon which you 
want to work. You may limit commands to one line as you enter them, 
keeping more of the history on the screen. 

Control of directory format is one of the more interesting powers of 
TOP DOS. Directories may be displayed in up to 6 columns. Two 
columns is the default. Four columns may be used in an 80-column 
display. Six columns may be printed out. Directories may be 
alphabetized on disks formatted in TOP DOS format. Unfortunately, 
the TOP DOS format prevents use of the disk by any program which 
uses Atari DOS. But TOP DOS can also format a disk in the Atari 
format, and TOP DOS can use disks formatted with Atari DOS. 

Other added commands permit the user to create command files 
which execute a series of operations (formatting, copying files, etc.) 
with one command. Bytes in memory may be examined and changed 
directly from the DOS menu. Deleted files may be restored with the 
Undelete command. 

The TOP DOS system disk contains extensive help files. The “?" 
key pressed after calling up any command will access a help file 
describing the function. Pressing “T" after getting any error message 
will print out a short description of the error (saving the effort of having 
to look up the error). 

The command menu also displays additional information. Each 
active disk drive is listed, with the default drive indicated. Each drive 
shows single, double or quad density. The number of buffers available 
for open files is shown, as are MEMLO and MEMTOP. Various other 
statuses which may be toggled on and off are shown: MEM.SAV, Auto- 
RS232, Verify Write, DOS Resident, and Bypass Cartridge. Control 
over each of these functions indicate a very powerful DOS. This review 
has insufficient space to describe them further. 

I am pleased to say the documentation for this DOS seems 
excellent. In a manual of more than 80 digest sized pages are 
complete descriptions of the use of all the functions. And examples of 
use are included to help make these descriptions clear. I am very 
impressed by the documentation. The only improvement I can suggest 
is an index. 

TOP DOS does not seem to adjust automatically to disks of 
different densities. The Indus ‘ drive I use switches density 
automatically when a disk is inserted. But to access the disk, you 
must reboot, or else call up the Status menu and toggle the status for 
that drive. We tested several programs using TOP DOS, on an XL as 
well as a regular 800. We encountered one problem on both machines 
when running Telengard by Avalon Hill. The text display disintegrates 
when using TOP DOS, and does not disintegrate with Atari DOS. This 
indicates some problem in handling graphics in some way. Perhaps 
the excellent programmers at Eclipse can find and correct this 
problem, which might extend to other programs. I recommend this 
DOS for advanced users, and those who are using double or quad 
density disk drives. 



Microprint (also from Microbits, $80) is MPP’s new printer interlace. 
When you first see it you think it is a printer cable with a large plug at 
one end. Inside the large plug is housed all the electronics needed to 
make the interface work. 

I tried it on many types of printers: dot matrix, ink jet and daisy 
wheel. The only thing all of the printers had in common was they were 
all parralle! with centronics type plugs. 

If one only needs an interface to do one job and is not fancy, but 
does the job well and at a resonable price then I highly recommend 
this interface to them. 

—Larry Gold 


SYftJCALC 

Well, ATARI really did something right! They are marketing the new 
worksheet program by Synapse. SynCalc ($100) does everything 
possible with Visicalc, and a whole lot more. Many of the features of 
Lotus 1-2-3 are incorporated into SynCalc. For instance, you can alter 
column widths on an individual column basis, rather than for the entire 
worksheet. You can also type descriptive labels without having to stop 
and jump the cursor as in Visicalc. Anyone who has had to cope with 
this Visicalc limitation will probabiy buy the program for this reason 
alone. 

Other features of SynCalc include many more built-in formulas, 
sorting capability, printing with or without column and row headings, 
and others too numerous to mention here. 

For those of you who hate to memorize command instructions, the 
program is completely menu driven. You can execute commands 
simply by moving the cursor. If you are an expert user, you can bypass 
the menu and use the commands directly (they are very similar to 
Visicalc and Lotus). 

SynCalc can also share data with SynFile, SynTrend and 
AtariWriter. I have not had a chance to work with this feature. 

You get all the above, plus one additional bonus if you have Visicalc 
files; yes, you can copy Visicalc files to SynCalc files, and do away 
with a lot of re-entering. The copied files will require some 
modification of formulas to make them run on SynCalc. 

The program comes with an excellent instruction manual which 
consists of three progressively more difficult tutorials. The first 
tutorial is short enough so you can have your first worksheet ready in 
minutes. 

SynCalc is a powerful, user-friendly spreadsheet program which has 
many of the capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3. 

— Jim Landen 

7800 PROSYSTEEVI 

The 7800 PROSYSTEM is a new game maching from Atari ($150) 
which will run all 2600 games without adaptor, and has many new 
features. It has a proprietary "Maria" chip which permits more moving 
objects per scan line — up to 100 independently moving objects on 
the screen at one time. They advertize more realistic color and more 
programming flexibility than ever before on any videogame or home 
computer system. 

A keyboard will be available with 4k RAM, expandable to 20k. They 
plan word, processing, creative learning, and personal development 
software for this system. Most XL line peripherals and accessories 
will also be compatible with the 7800. It comes with a serial I/O 
expansion port to allow it to be upgraded with future game 
technologies. 

Video game machines are still selling — at the right price. A friend 
of mine just bought two 2600s for about $25 (total!). But I don’t know if 
people will pay a home-computer price for a video game machine 
which can (for extra cost) be made into a 20k computer. I haven't seen 
it yet, but if the graphics and action are really a great leap beyond what 
is available now, then the machine will probably be successful. When 
you start using this machine, let us all know what you think of it. 

— Jim Bumpas, Co-Editor 

f^lioroFiler 

MicroFiler (Microbits Peripheral Products, 225 W. Third St., Albany, 
Or.,97321, $50) is just what its name implies, a filer program or small 
data base. One of the things making this program differant from other 
programs of its type is it is on a cartridge, and because it is on a 
cartridge it will work with either a cassette recorder or disk drive. 

Here is a menu driven program allowing you to browse through files, 
change the fields to customize them to fit your needs, prints labels or 
lists. It allows you to sort or alphabetize files, does addition or 
subtraction and even averages numeric information. Permanent 
storage can be made to either disk or cassette. Alot from one ROM 
cartridge. 

The manual covers everything step by step so you learn how to use 
this program with a minimum of fuss and bother. For all those who 
only have a cassette recorder this is an ideal program for you as you 
only need use your cassette to store your data on, and a person with a 
400 and 16K can use this program the same as anyone else with larger 
systems. This program is for anyone who needs a small data base for 
lists, expense accounts, collections, recipes or anything you need for 
storing data. 

—Larry Gold 

j/A I Kl+ 










(Reprint: June, 1984, Suburban Chicago Atarians) 

The electronics ol the Atari 410 recorder can be used with a stereo 
cassette recorder for data storage. The 410 circuit itself can be used 
as an interface. Maybe your 410 has its head out of alignment and you 
cannot get the unit to work dependably, maybe the motor speed is off 
or does not run at all. This “how-to" article will allow you to salvage 
your 410 as long as the electronics are ok. Since it’s solid state, I 
guess the electronic part is more reliable than the mechanical part. 

Figure 1 shows the 410 printed circuit board with a partial path 
layout for easy identification. The black, filled-in areas signify the 
copper paths. The white dots within the black areas are soldered 
connections. All you have to do is run a few jumper wires from the 
circuit board to a couple of jacks mounted in the 410 case. First, 
locate, drill and mount two jacks into the bottom half of the 410 plastic 
housing. I used phono jacks (Radio Shack #274-346) to keep the 
connections standard between the 410 and my stereo cassette deck. 
Mount the jacks on the back, or on the side near the back. There is 
plenty of room there. Next, carefully solder the jumper wires to the 
printed circuit board. I used shielded cable because I had some. You 
can probably use non-shielded wire if you keep the length short. One 
wire connects one jack to the point on the board labelled “Input to 
Filter Section". The jack ground is wired to the "Ground Path”. The 
brown wire from the I/O cable is soldered to the board to the other 
jack. You can wire the two jack ground connections together. Be 
careful when soldering to the printed circuit board. You could add a 
coupling capacitor between each jack and the other lead to the jumper 
wire. Use 0.1 mfd capacitors (Radio Shack #272-1069 or equivalent). Be 
sure to kee the wires properly insulated. 

The jack with the brown wire going to it should be connected to the 
right channel input of your stereo recorder. This wire carries the signal 
out of your computer. Set your recording level tc Odb as you do 
normally. The other jack is connected to your stereo recorder’s right 
channel output. This signal is injected into the 410's filter circuit 
which then goes to the computer. The signal level from your stereo 
recorder is not critical. 

The stereo recorder has to be manually started and stopped. When 
you press the RETURN key on the computer, you have to start the 
stereo recorder in either the play or the record mode. If you play back a 
multi-load tape, you are going to have to stop and start the stereo 
recorder between the appropriate sections. 

Hopefully, this setup wilt help someon use Atari program tapes with 
their mechanically defective 410. It may not be as convenient to use as 
a properly working 410, but for the price of two jacks, a little wire, and 
a little time, you can get your cassette-based system up and working 
again. 

J It 



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Jhw/hc- AAAr/A*. ‘■A/e-r 



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(Reprint: May, 1984 Redwood Atari Group) 

AtariWriter provides for creating form letters by using 
(OPTIONJINSERT). This function halts the printing and prompts the 
user for input at each point in the letter which needs to be 
individualized. You must hang around the printer, so it might not be 
practical for you. 

An interoffice memo at Atari, Inc. reveals a way around this 
limitation. The (OPTIONj(INSERT| feature can only handle 35 
characters at a time. The manual warns you to make a list if you have 
several "blanks” to be filled in, because you cannot see the text as it 
is printing. The key to the mail-merge feature is to create a data file 
(the list) which contains each “fill-in” in sequential order. Then you 
chain the file while printing. 

Here’s a sample ietter using (Ol] for [OPTIONfflNSERT] and [R| for 
[RETURN): [Olj[Olj 
DearJOl], 

It sure was great to get your letter of last [Ol]! I’ve been [Ol). It 
sounds like you've been [Ol]. let's keep in touch! 

[Ol] 

Here s a sample data file: .«**■■>.——' 

[R][R]Mom[R]month[R]well[R]well, too[R]Love,[R] 

Here's another sample data file: 

[RJ[R]Buford[R]year(R]busy, I'm still busy, and I can't talk now[R]busy 
yourself, after graduating from Folsom.. .[R]Sincerely,(R] 

Jo use the mail-roerge, create your form letter using 
[OPTIONJINSERT]. Then create your data file in sequence, making 
sure each item is followed by [RETURN], You must be sure to have the 
same number of items in your data file as are to be entered in your 
letter, otherwise the subsequent letters could be messed up. The 
[RETURN) acts as the delimiter for the data — AtariWriter goes back to 
the original and continues printing when [RETURN] is encountered 
until the next [OPTION][INSERT] occurs. 

Print the letter. When the prompt reads "MAKE ENTRY PRESS 
RETURN," you enter [CONTROL][V], the chaining command, and 
D:DATAFILENAME in capital letters. Printing will resume and 
AtariWriter won't bother you again until it is out of data (or done). 

— Mary Varley 


Nont; x*# reo~. 

^•vbfrrttCk T* Ci«Cw*r 1JaA<o As «H« Uu M6t.fr 
O* C'fCwi t to*tL * 







OWE LAST BLAST 

acOv, y^My wife claims this is because . was nevlr home (whfch isn 

spend alf O^mu i ; emember havin 9 bjnner with her last month) and I 
spend all of my time running around at meetings. Generally it has 
been a very worthwhile investment of my time y 11 has 

velrsTX*; 0 r» U,er , ind , USl,V h3S Chan9ed qui,e a lp < durin 9 my two 
years m office Texas Instruments sparked an industry-wide price war 

H K h | 6 °' d 9as Wars - This msulted in Tl dropping the 99/4A 
computer and helped several other major computer makers lose manv 
mdhons of dollars in the effort to maintain a piece of the market Atari 

more" mt UnSC f !hedth ' s liUle ,iasco; in fact A:ari has been one oMhe 
more interesting companies to watch over the years Latelv I am 

some CM°and lim^? '°' "^i" 9 S ' eel: Take Seve ^ al ,ons °< add 
some coal and limestone, and burn the daylights out of the Jheio 

mess. The good stuff stays put and the slag floats off the ten 

Honef1i" S .h tan haS h3d " S Share 01 P ers onnel turnover and upheaval 
Hope ully the new stripped down version of Atari will be "lean and 

leadership fiT™' and *"< °'<er another new generahon ol 
leadership in home computer design. I don't yet know what the final 

“» ^D will look like or act like. If i, teas good is some 
al A * an claim, it will be good indeed 

' avaitahiL ^ pur °base d my 800 it was because I had studied all of the 
available home and personal computers. The study convinced me the 
Atari had more to offer for the dollar than any othPrsystem Over thl 

Ate m/400 is a 7Jri eC r!, S ‘? n , WaS the C ° rreCt °" e ' The des '9° of the 
..shT 4 t S ahead of ,ts t,me . and is now basically the industry 
standard as far as conceptual design. (Hopefully l won‘t aet sued for 
saying I think the COMMODORE 64/VIC 20 and T 99/4A am bas^cahv 
clones of the Atari design, Graphics and sound have become i 
requirement among both personal and business computers within me 

iddiin ,h earS ' and "' ari was ,he ,irst 10 besign a sensible system for 
adding those capabilities to a microcomputer 

C T haller ]9 c . n ° w ,or Atari is to once again step out in front of the 

marhl'nlef P A ' ad ,a ' ked about haa <° bo this time with hi 
machine/human interface. The iovstick k»uhn=,H ' L, 

controllers are bound for retirement if Atari has'anything to sayaboil 

. T he , user groups also have a new challenge today. The software 

takteo mare haVln9 h abS °! Ule convulsions ov er the amount of piracy 

iround the rr, m k S ,° COPiSS °' any 9iven new releaa « a ^ spread 
around the country before any legitimate copies are sold 

The industry s trying everything they know to stop or at least slow 

down the rate of loss, but this is really something only consumers can 

nmimf« U ,f er 9 a1 PS ^ her0es ° r yilleins . bepeding on how me 
group is run and how they react to piracy 

Another challenge faced by the user groups is filling the nans in 

of’n'Hr^hf ' by commercial software publishers. One of the rules 

be ^expected TsZTJ* ^ D °, NT PUb " Sh any sbf,wara wS aaa ‘ 

De expected to sell a certain large number of copies Since the 

microcomputer market has shown a tendency to be hea y 

teilfT ° r, f n ' ed and faidy b ^ness oriented, there has seemed 
to be little room left for educational software, in particular there has 

suffer? 17 ’ 6 pr0 S rammin 9 bone for the minority of people who 
sal min m V a 3 Ac U d cduca,ional ° r Physical handicaps. I am happy to 
say the new ACE President, Bob Browning, is very concerned with this 

of S buXvt?I be 'T 9 !° enC0Ura9e bevelopmen, o, a large br^y 
of public-domain educational software. Our library already has a fair 
number of educational programs, but again there are me inevitable 

? Pre ? ident ’ 1 'boob the general membership of the 

de C vo, S ti a m Cd ' a,ed and 9 ' vms 9r0up 01 pe0pls wh0 are willing to 
devote time and energy in a good cause. As I step down from office I 

want to encourage all of you who have time to program to work at 
developing educational software, especially software for the 
handicapped I thank all of you for the suport over the past two years 
and for being patient with me. You will continue to hear from me as i 
a ™, a T mbe f° f M,CR08ITS Pedpberal *°buts, a corporation 
Thank you all ** '" 9 deVelopments in ,be of,i h9- Until next time, 

—Kirt E. Stockwell 

' , Past President 


iliem/s and Rei/ievus 

by Mike Dunn, Co-Editor 

,° r Lr? a ,J 9 Disa bled or Handicapped children or adults These are 

mmMmrn 

§Is!«lS=I 

SU W m e e P test ra ACE ,0r ,hi f- VCry imPOr,an,yW " h S ° me 

Robert Browning is now oCrVw* ^“"as 

worked whh r'hf?-'I X Ve,y n,c ®' cost each - I have not 
worked with them, the Demo was by a local computer store We will 

youfrhlUik'e to do"™®? " ^ 9St 3 r ° VieW copy; if not . maybe one of 
youwtlt tike to do so. Also seen at the meeting was the fabulous new 

game fmm m r ter " Den ? ons,rate b was a demo vefsiof ofa,“ic 
game from Synapse also called Viper!. Featuring 3-D oraDhics 

fa.hfr,ha y n ™ f^"" 9 ' “ had a '™ a * a mo.io^-pictufe effed 
ramer than a computer generated game; very impressive Also a r An 
type drawing program by MindSet and Ms 6^e°e^ a 
P ° fpas ' onal co i or graphics package costing $400. This turns the 
th» f Sel m ° I f S50 ' 000 ' ,ype CAD computer. The demo pictures with 
Cnnfn ? ra d S | °° k i' ke C ° l0r Slides ~ ver Y beautiful! Local dealers are 
rney P am te sio a ck. h 03 * 83 ' 5361 and ACE Computer 503-343^91 and 

_ rcceived some more very nice books from Prentirp-Haii 
jznglewood Cliffs, N.J. 07632. For general use, The Encyclopedia of 
Microcomputer Terminology, a sourcebook for CSs and 
professional people has more than 4000 terms du'mnd and has 

arte»o'this a $1 P odoo?ha Wril,en ,h by Lin<Ja GaM Chris,,e aa b John 
diossa™ color * everything. Appendices include a bar-code 
g ossary, color codes for electronic components, logic functions and 

anrt rn "’“'T syns,hesis g'ossary, videodisk technology and glossary 
fnvaluabTe to?? "' Ce re,erence book - Tha other is a beautiful booT 
tesfis Se mlere steb, Visual Display Terminals: Usability 

te a texmook°t CemS | 6d by Bennett 61 al " lhis $2S hard cover book 
nchiriesdotr- r professionals designing computer display setups It 
P 5 specific, proven techniques introducing VDT's, including the 
social and organizational problems, human factors, etc. Has much 
data supporting their recommendations, many charts, formulas etc 

Appears to be a definitive work for those in the field 

shot hS - desolh®’ S !f Ve ? er9 Sent in an article (" Give y°or oid Atari a 
b^ ds 'from Art 9 l upgraded his Atari and drive with surplus 

boards from American TV Sales. Shortly after, I received an ad from 

othe?ve < ^?o P | U " n r <P °P 1268, M ° r9an Hil1 ' CA 95037 > with, among 
other very interesting items, an Analog upgrade disk drive Kit. Thev 

supply the upgrade boards for a new powersuppiy and speed control 

I" 0 ° Pera,i0n ° f y°ur You'?.? ,e?ytu 

‘ 1 b° no. have the analog board above the disk drive 

make mt S oh ° n Y S5 °' '* inclu bes very fine directions on how to 
temas k- pban 9 e ®’ aad the difference in the operation of the board is 

drive tririmo ey t °H ha ?, a “ Happy " enhancement for the Atari 1050 
drive adding true double-density. CDY Consulting (421 Hanbee 

PflK nl SOn ’ TX 75 °P 0) ' ,be makers 01 OMNIMON.i, now have a new 
unnriaT m ° n Wl h „ many new fea >uras, as wdll as a 80 column 
upgrade giving you 80 columns on the screen. There is even a new 

new ntnri° r 6 ?°? L I a [ ld 800XL due out s00n - 1 have not seen these 

be'iantastic S y6t ' PUt ' ^ “ 9 °° d aS lhe old one ' they should 

The more I use the new Letter Perfect Version 6 by LJK (see June 
Lteoa n? re h' e ?K ,h M T° re 1 am iraprassed. Their new DalaPerfect is 
under review 3 " e bugS remove b and many new features — still 

' sum™?" 66 '' ,he " eX ‘ iSSUS ° f ACE Wi " be in September. Have a nice 


J/a llfy 






TREET JOURNAL 


itari Plans tolntroduce Big Computer 


By Laura Landro and Dennis Kneale 

Special to The Aslan Wall Street Journal 

CHICAGO — Warner Communications 
ic.'s Atari Inc. unit plans to introduce a 
iwerful home computer for about $1,000 that 
says will be partly compatible with other 
'stems, including International Business 
achines Corp.’s personal computers. 

Atari is showing a prototype of the 64K 
imputer, temporarily named the 1450, to 
iftware designers at the consumer electro- 
cs show running here through Wednesday, 
ave Ruckert, Atari’s head of marketing, 
lid Atari plans to formally announce the 1450 
-with a new name—in three to four months ' 
id will ship it in the fourth quarter. 

Atari will introduce the computer with a 
iw new programs in time for a major Christ- 
las advertising campaign, Mr. Ruckert 
lid. But extensive software developed by in- 
ependent vendors won’t be available until la¬ 
ir in 1985. In addition, executives said here 
unday, the product will be only "70% or 80% 
umpatible" with the IBM Personal Compu- 
:r, a limitation that will make it less attrac- f 
ve to consumers who want a busmess- 
riented machine. 

Atari, which hada loss of $538.6 million last I 
ear because of troubles in video games and 
>w-priced home computers, is preparing to 
nter the expensive segment of the home com- 
uter market at a time when there are wide- 
pread questions about consumers’ willing- 
ess to pay $1,000 for a home computer. IBM is 
aving trouble selling its 64K PCjr home com- 
uter, which retails for $669, and a 128K ver- 
ion that retails for $1,269. In addition, an 
BM-compatible product is expected next 
ear from Commodore International Ltd., the 
ome computer leader. 

Other Products 

Separately, Atari Sunday introduced 
everal home computer software and 
ideogame products. They include several 
ames for IBM’s PCjr, whose slow sales will 
estrict Atari production to “very modest 
uantities,” at least initially; several educa- 
tona 1 programs for infantsone-to-three years 
Id, endorsed by child psychologist Lee Salk; 
nd an unusual headband device that makes it 
ossible to play video games without using 
ne’s hands. In addition, Atari will sell a 
ideo game version of “Gremlins,” the latest 
tovie involving director Steven Spielberg, 
’he last time Atari based a game on a Spiel- 
erg film — “E.T., the Extraterrestrial”—it 
jst money by producing far too many car- 
ridges of the poorly received product. 

In closed door meetings with software 
ompanies at the show here. Atari also is 
howing the 1090 expansion system, which 
dll work with both the 1450 and Atari’s cur- 
ent 800XL model. The 1090 will enable both 
omputers to expand to 128Kof memory and is 
fie device that will enable Atari computers to 
ave “a degree of compatibility” with other 
perating systems, including IBM’s, accord- 
ig to Mr. Ruckert. 

Mr. Ruckert said Atari is entering the high- 
nd of the home-computer market to "make 
itari more highly regarded in the computer 
rarld” and provide growth while still concen- 
rating on the home user. 

Atari’s new computer will have a built-in 
nodem and built-in disk drive that will oper¬ 


ate five times faster than ones incurrent Atari 
models; each disk will store 250 pages of in¬ 
formation. The 1450 will also have built-in soft¬ 
ware to allow access to the Atari Grapevine, a 
new data base for consumers the company is 
establishing. 

The headband device unveiled Sunday is 
called Mindlink. The product, which will re¬ 
tail for about $79, is connected to a remote- 
control infrared receiver that enables the 
, user to direct the actions of a video game on a 
television screen. 

Toughest Problem 

Mindlink’s toughest problem at a news 
conference Sunday seemed to be its inability 
to stay fastened to a user’s head. “It falls off,’ ’ 
Mr. Ruckert said after it slipped down around 
his neck for the second time in a demonstra¬ 
tion. Positive and negative impulses from 
muscles in the forehead “tell” the computer 
to move a playing figure or video-screen cur¬ 
sor one of two ways—faster or slower, left or 
right, and so on. “It’s done by furrowing the 
brow. Gave me a headache,” said one maga¬ 


zine reporter who tested the product. 

Mr. Ruckert acknowledged that "most 
peopledon’tbelieve it when they hear the con¬ 
cept. But we see it as a peripheral, a new way 
in interact with the computer or video game 
that makes it fun.” Initially, Mindlink will 
work with the Atari 2600 and 7800 video game 
players; in early 1985, software enabling its 
use with Atari computers will be introduced. 

To spur sales of higher-priced videogame 
cartridges, Atari introduced several new 
video games with what it calls "superchip 
cartridges.” Currently, most video games 
have 6K or 4K of permanent, or read-only 
memory. Seven of Atari’s new games will 
have quadruple that, or memory for about 
16,000piecesofinformation. 

Mr. Ruckert said the games will retail for 
$23, which is less than they cost to produce,, 
“butwefeltthatwastheceilingandwewantto 
bring new excitement into the video-game 
market.” 

Atari also introduced a piece of software 
for infants one month to three years of age. 




Warner Sells most of Atari 



BY LOUISE KEHOE IN SAN FRANCISCO 


WARNER Communications, the 
U.‘S. leisure industry, group, yes¬ 
terday announced the sale of 
most of the assets of its loss¬ 
making Atari home computer 
and video games subsidiary to 
a group headed by Mr Jack 
Tramiel, founder and former 
president of Commodore Inter¬ 
national, Atari’s chief rival in 
the home computer market* 

A new company formed by 
Mr Tramiel has paid a total of 
$240m (£178m) in senior and 
subordinated debt for the con¬ 
sumer electronics division of 
Atari and for lm warrants to 
purchase Warner shares. War¬ 
ner received warrants to 
acquire common stock of the 
new entity. 

Warner has retained owner- 
ship of some Atari assets, 
including the coin-operated 
games and the Ataritel division. 
However, Warner is believed to 
be negotiating the sale of these 
opreations with other parties. 

Warner expects, after the 
sale, to incur a second-quarter, 
loss of about $425m. . - 

Within hours of the announce¬ 
ment, Mr James Morgan, Atari’s 
chairman, was clearing out his 
office at the company’s head¬ 
quarters at Santa Clara, Cali¬ 
fornia. Mr Tramiel, and a group 


of colleagues who recently 
formed Tramiel Technology 
Incorporated, were at Atari 
yesterday and were said to have; 
frozen all its expenditure. 

The takeover of Atari is 
understood to have come as a 
shock to the executives of the 
company. Even Mr Morgan is 
believed to have had only a few 
days* notice of the transaction. 
“ Atari executives are bitter 
about Warner’s decision to sell 
the company without having 
given them time to turn it 
around,” said a former Atari 
.executive. 

Since he arrived at Atari last 
September, Mr Morgan has been 
reshaping the company so as to 
create a profit He reduced the 
company’s workforce by 1,000 
people to reduce overhead costs. 
He has also scrapped dozens of 
product development projects 
that showed no immediate pros¬ 
pect of revenue. 

Mr Morgan, who was 
appointed by Warner Com¬ 
munications, set a goal of profit 
by the fourth quarter of this 
year. However, he modified his 
forecast recently,' saying that 
“ cash management ” was now 
a higher priority than profit. 
Atari reported a loss of more 
than $500m last year. 


Yesterday was to have been 
the turning point for Atap. Mr 
Morgan had_ set July, 1 as. a 
“ philosophical deadline ”* for 
Atari to be ready with 
reorganised operations and a set 
of new products. 

Most of Atari’s senior execu¬ 
tives are expected to leave the 
company shortly. Plans for 
Atari, which recently an¬ 
nounced new products; include 
a $1,000 home computer, video 
games designed by Lucas Film 
and an enhanced version of the 
company’s video-game player— 
but all are now in doubt. 

Mr Tramiel is believed to be 
already at Atari headquarters, 
but could not be reached for 
comment. > 

For the past nine months, 
Warner has been involved in 
what it described as “wide- 
ranging discussions ” with 
Philips, of the Netherlands, 
which had been expected 
either to acquire all or part of 
Atari, or to form a joint ven-| 
ture with the consumer elec-'f 
tronics company. Philips saidr 
yesterday that it was unaware 
of the Warner announcement. 






'uommouore gavs J&x-iiiaes stole Secrets 

; - By Dennis Kneale "W . ** • , , nrB . 


By Dennis Kneale ALQf | 

Special Id The Asian Wall Street Journal 

• • NEW YORK—Commodore International 
Ltd. sued four former engineers, charging 
they stole design secrets shortly before leav- 
: tag the home-computer company to join its 
former president. Jack Tramiel, in a 
competing venture. 

The lawsuit, filed eight days after Mr. 
r Tramiel bought Atari Inc.’s home computer 
And video-game operations for $240 million in 
notes payable to Warner Communications 
Inc., is the first public salvo in what many in 
the industry expect to be an iftcreasingly 
bitter face-off between Mr. Tramiel and 
Commodore, the company he founded. 

Mr. Tramiel ran Commodore for 25 years 
before abruptly resigning in January in a 
dispute with Irving Gould, his longtime part¬ 
ner and Commodore’s chairman and largest 
shareholder. Ironically, Mr. Tramiel 
masterminded the aggressive Commodore 
price cutting that contributed to Atari’s huge 
losses in 1983. 

Mr. Tramiel has lured several top mana¬ 
gers to Atari from Commodore. Included are 
Commodore’s operations vice president, 
Japan-based vice president, software 
director, engineering director and general 
counsel. And an Atari spokesman confirmed 
that David J. Harris, the Commodore vice 
president responsible for the mass- 
merchandising accounts providing more 
than 60% of Commodore sales, has joined 
Mr. Tramiel as vice president, sales. 

‘Absolute Adversaries’ 

“Irving and Jack are absolute adver¬ 
saries at this point. Irving basically forced 
Jack out of the company, and Jack’s trying 
to come back and get him in any way he 
can,” said a Commodore alumnus who may 
also join the Tramiel venture, now known as 
Atari Corp. 

Though covering alleged thefts in May 
and June, Commodore’s suit was filed Tues¬ 
day, just eight days after Mr. Tramiel’s 
Atari venture was announced. 

Filed in state court in Chester County, 
Pennsylvania, the suit alleges that Commo¬ 
dore’s engineering director, Shiraz Shivji, 
resiped in May and began persuading other 
company engineers to join him in a new 
Tramiel venture. It further alleges that Mr. 
Shivji persuaded the engineers to bring with 
them pilfered design documents, consultant 
papers and a machine prototype. 

According to the suit, the secret materials 
concern a business computer that Commo¬ 
dore plans to introduce next year. The com¬ 
puter is built around the Z-8000 micro¬ 


Two of the four engineers sued Dy com¬ 
modore — Arthur S. Morgan and John E. 
Hoenig — couldn’t be reached for comment. 
The other two, Mr. Shivji and Douglas L. 
Renn, declined to comment on most of the 
suit’s allegations. 

Mr. Renn, who joined Commodore a year 
ago after graduating from college, said he 
quit because of “unstable internal politics” 
and that all four engineers will work for Mr. 
Tramiel. He called the lawsuit “an attempt 
to slow down our progress.... They (Com¬ 
modore) have lawyers who like to sue people, 
but I didn’t expect it this quickly." 

The four engineers were expected to meet 
Friday with a lawyer referred to them by 
Leonard I. Schreiber, the Commodore 
director and general counsel who resiped in 
May. He has since become a vice president, 
general counsel and an investor in Mr. 
Tramiel’s Atari Corp. Mr. Schreiber, 
reached at Atari headquarters, wouldn’t say 
whether Atari will pay the engineers’ legal 
expenses. He said all four engineers deny the 
charges. 

Commodore’s lawyer, reading a state¬ 
ment, said the lawsuit amounts to the mini¬ 
mum step necessary to preserve proprietary 
information. He stressed that the court 
papers refer to Atari and Mr.Tramiel “only 
as necessary to explain the employee 
departures.” 

But Mr. Schreiber countered, “Commo¬ 
dore should have sufficient regard for the 
intelligence of Jack and his team to know 
that, if it were improperly acquired informa¬ 
tion, he’d be wise enough to know not to use 
it." 


ATARI LOGO 

Atari IntMratiqnai has introduced a new 
version of their computer programming 
language Logo for use in schools on4 
homes. The version, it is claimed, is a fuB 
version of logo with features not usually 
found in other Logos. These include 
animation and four dynamic graphics 
turtles. The Logo cartridge requires 16K 
RAM and costs £59.99, It comes with a 
reference guide and two 20fJnage 
manuals: ’Introduction to Programming 
ThroughTurtleGraphics’ and 'Atari's 
Logo Reference Manual'. 

In addition. Atari have announced a 
special offer to schools: ar. Atari 600XL 
Home Computer with tre Logp for 
£175 (excluding VAT). The normal 
price of the Atari 600XL without the Logo 
is£159 including VAT 


Tramiel picks 
up the pieces 

“ I’M NOT in business to be 
loved. I’m here to make 
money," says Jack Tramiel, 
founder of Commodore. Inter¬ 
national and now the owner of 
the major portion of Warner 
Communicatons’ Atari Home 
Computers and video games 
subsidiary. 

True to his word.' Tramiel 1* 
not well liked by many of his 
former colleagues. Over the 
years he has a record of 
abruptly firing executives. 

! And he is positively disliked 
by competitors who charge him 
with masterminding the home 
computer price war of 1982/83 
[ that drove Texas Instruments 
| out of the business and resulted 
in industry-wide losses of close 
to half a billion dollars last 
year. 

For Commodore, however, 
hte price war was a huge 
success. It now holds an 
estimated 70 per cent market 
share in the U.S. home com¬ 
puter market and expects its 
sales to double over the next 
12 months. 

But in January. Tramiel 
abruptly resigned frwom Com¬ 
modore. Industry sources say 
he had » row with chirman 
. Iriving Gould, but neither has 
confirmed the story. The prob¬ 
lem may have had something 
to do with Tramiel'* plan to ap¬ 
point his son to senior positions 
at Commodore. 

At Atari, Tramiel must pick 
up the pieces of a company 
shattered by his own competi¬ 
tion and by the virtual col¬ 
lapse of the video game mar¬ 
ket. 

He believes in rnnning a 
“ leeci and mean ” operation. 
“ We pride ourselves on our 
ability to cut costs—treating 
company budgets as if every 
penny were our own.” said 
Tramiel and Gould in Commo¬ 
dore's September annual re¬ 
port. 


Learning how to use their new machines has become an obsession for children and 
adults alike. Here, vacationers test their skills at a Club Med resort. 


processor chip licensed from Exxon Corp.'s 
Zilog Inc. unit. 

A state judge in Chester County granted 
'Commodore's request Tuesday for a tem¬ 
porary injunction tarring the engineers from 
“using or disclosing in any manner whatso¬ 
ever any trade secrets or proprietary or 
confidential information of Commodore.” 
The injunction was granted after one Com¬ 
modore employee said in an affidavit that he 
saw the defendants copying confidential ma¬ 
terials and two other Commodore employees 
said they were asked to take the designs and 
join the Tramiel venture. 

Night Meetings Alleged 

According to the affidavits, the coworkers 
mentioned two nighttime recruitingmeetings 
at Mr. Shivji’s home and said that the four 
defecting engineers were preparing to load 
their possessions into a van headed for Atari 
headquarters in Sunnyvale, California. A 
Commodore attorney said the company, in a 
hearing this Friday, was to seek a perma- 



4 





AN ADVANCED system for linking up 
to 16 educational computers has been in¬ 
stalled at a major Singapore computer 
centre. 

The ATARI Centre, on Outram Road, 
has installed the American-made Network 
216 in the centre’s classroom to link 12 
ATARI 800 home computers used in 
computer education classes. 

A spokesman for the ATARI Centre 
said the network is the first of its kind 
in use in Singapore. 

“The network is an effective and 
economical classroom tool which enables 
a teacher to run a computer class 
efficiently and to keep track of every 
student’s progress on the computers,” he 
said. 

“Hardware and software costs are 
minimised because, with the network, only 
one disk drive, one printer and one copy 
of a program are necessary for use by an 
entire class of students.” 

Using the network, every student has 
access to the same computer lesson 
simultaneously. Students can work on the 
lesson at their own pace and the teacher 
can monitor each student’s progress from 
a computer screen at the front of the 
classroom. 

If a student has particular difficulties 
the teacher can speak to him through the 
voice box on the computer monitor and 
can type in the correct answers from a 
computer at the front of the class. 

Hin Seng Pte Ltd, exclusive distributor 
for ATARI in Singapore, plans to market 
the network along with ATARI compu¬ 
ters and educational software to schools 
and centres interested in setting up their 
own computer classrooms. 

Network 216 is manufactured by 
United States-based Wolsten’s Computer 
Devices Inc. 


SPACE KNIGHTS 

SPACE KNIGHTS by Reston Publishing Company is an interesting 
innovation in adventure software. This package comes with a. book of 
science fiction adventures and disk of programs to put the reader into 
the action of ttie story. 

This package is well worth the price. Nine games are included on 
the double sided disk. Of these our favorites were: GAMMALON 
ENCOUNTER, a code cracking then “shootem up" game; WAR ROOM 
a dungeon type game; BUG BUSTER, a “find and destroy the enemy" 
game; and WEOMBY, a good landing simulation. 

The games in general were not easy, In fact, the MYSTERY GAME is 
really that — a real head bender. 

Our problem with this package is it comes on a speed sensitive disk 
we have not yet been able to get our drive to read, so we have had to 
go visiting to use this software (no small trick with a house full of 
kids). I must say, however, that Reston bent over backwards trying to 
provide a disk which would work with our system. 

If you are interested in science fiction and want to experience some 
of the "feeling of being there," or if you like the variety of not so easy 
games, this package will probably meet ail your expectations. It 
requires 24K minimum, a BASIC cartridge, joysticks and paddles. 

— Ruth Ellsworth 



r T^comDUters'am t ^e t 'ii^eTtoi^'’Heiwo‘r^i^9^^^^M 


COMPUTER SECURITY 

‘Car lock’ against 
software pirates 




BY ELAINE WILLIAMS 

KKAG BROTBY describes his 
company’s product as the com¬ 
puter software equivalent of 
the car ignition lock. Vault 
Corporation has developed a 
series of anti-pirate programs 
which protect computer soft¬ 
ware from unauthorised use. 

The idea is very simple. A 
computer program called PRO- 
LOK, is used to encode software 
companies’ programs on speci¬ 
ally imprinted floppy disks. 
PROLOK impresses each disk 
with the software equivalent 
of a fingerprint. It is unique 
and cannot be changed. 

Once a program is stored on 
the disk, it is permanently 
linked to a unique key. The 
program cannot be run on the 
computer if the decoding key 
is not present in the customer's 
computer. The principle can 
also be applied to read only 
memories which contain pro¬ 
grams, bubble memories and 
tape. 

Vault is aiming its products 
at the microcomputer markets. 
Already some estimates put the 
scale of computer software 
piracy as five illegal copies for 
every legitimate one. 

Mr Brotby said: “ The biggest 
pirates are in the business and 
education community. They are 
usually casual copiers and not 
iii it for any outright profit.” 
Like audio and video tapes, 
unauthorised copying is illegal. 
Most people ignore this fact. 

This year Vault hopes to 
have sales up to $20m. It now 
employs GO people in Westlake 
Village in California. Mr 
Brotby hopes to set up a manu¬ 
facturing and distribution plant 
in Europe at a cost of $500,000. 


Set up In 19R3, Vault was 
Initially funded by a group of 
Chinese farmers from Fresno. 
They invested $250,000 in the 
venture. Now Ashton-Tate, a 
large software company, has 
taken 20 per cent in Vault. Mr 
David Cole, Ashton-Tate’s head, 
told Krag Brotby at the time: 
“We have kissed many frogs, 
but you are the first prince! ” 

Several other companies are 
discussing the possibility of 
investing in Vault or forming 
joint ventures. For example, 
both Mitsui and Mitsubishi are 
talking about a possible joint 
venture in the Far East. By 
August, Vault hopes to know 
which one it will be. Also 3M 
is jointly distributing Vault’s 
products and further joint ven¬ 
tures may be in the pipeline. 

Every month. Vault turns out 
about 250,000 disks. Mr Brotby 
said that there were five main 
markets for the product; cor¬ 
porate, governmental, educa¬ 
tional, original equipment manu¬ 
facture and retail. The range 
of anti-piracy products covers 
communication of software over 
telephone lines, data and pro¬ 
grams. 

Vault also sees potential for 
the principle of its software 
protection system to be 
extended to credit cards and 
bank cash cards. 

This would work in a similar 
way by providing a uniquely 
etched “ fingerprint ” on each 
card which is difficult to copy. 
Up to now credit cards have 
been easy to duplicate. 

Vault hopes that other soft* 
ware companies will adopt 
its, fingerprinting technique. 












*•*«*» earexw.x i iu.vajl. auhrutMENT ZJJ» 



K that version* of LOGO - 

I \ I and by that ! mean the Logo 
I \| Programming language - are 
*• 7 beaming awailabe on 

sachine* in tee in schooU. tt seems a 
ood time to iook at what the language 
as to offer. It is also an opportunity to 
x>k at the implications of the use of 
x>go to the classroom for the teacher. 

la die first place. I must explain 
rhat I mean by the "‘Logo program¬ 
ming language . Due to the extreme 
iownessot British computer manufac- 
irexs to provide Logo for their 
sachioes (with the honourable excep- 
.an of RML), we have seen a proltf- 
radoo of programs masquerading as 
.ego which are in fact merely “turtle 
raphtes' packages. Some of these are 
site good, some are bad. and some 
re diabolical. This phenomenon 
which is not peculiarly British) has 
bscured the relationship between tur- 
« geometry and the Logo language. 
There is nothing wrong with turtle 
raphics. On the contrary, exploring 
te world of the turtle, with its clear 
fenttneation with body-movements - 
jrward. back, left and right-offers an 
ttraoive entry programming for lear- 
ers of all ages. The turtle ■‘micro- 
orid“ enables the programming 
uvice to achieve exciting results in a 
icrt bene: it is for this reason that 
tber programming languages, for ex- 
Bple Pascal, have incorporated turtle 
raohks into the language. 
Turtle-graphics packages restrict the 
mer to programming pictures and 
ittenrs. bur that is cor the real 
roWeta. The problem is that many of 
wm do not provide the learner with 
« tools for the job. Real Logo, by 
lowing children access to powerful 
KCputmj ideas enables them ro ex- ! 
ore and to solve problems without 
ring dictated to by the restrictions of 

* computer. The importance of ihe 
rtte graphics idea is precisely that it is 
i enrrv route rather than a cul-de-sac. 
So wh*t can children do with the full 
ago language? The answer is more or 
ss anything. Anything, that is, that 
m or they have ever seen done on a 
TOputer {there are exceptions to this 
it even these are disappearing as 
ore and mors powerful versions of 
^language become available). 

Take an example from the world of 
n-graphics programming - not in 
cer to devalue turtle work, but 
cause other Logo facilities are less 
rU-known. Two ten-year-old girls 
ft writing a quiz program. The ques¬ 
ts arc wide-ranging: current affairs 
pital dries, arithmetic. They deride 
write a mini-program (or in Logo- 
rgon. a “procedure'*) for each one so 
it they can later assemble them as a 
moiete quiz. One of the procedures 
RES) asks for the name of the US 
ssident. They have programmed the 
reputer to accept the answer 
3NALD REAGAN. Unfortunate- 

. their teacher answers REAGAN, 
ce of their friends, seeing the 
Scuity. insist on answering MR R 
EAGAN. What constitutes a correct 1 
swer?. 

They discuss the problem with each 
>er. with their awkward friend, and 
^ their teacher. They decide that 
» answer whose last word is 
SAGAN would be acceptable. Now 
r problem is ro translate their an- 
tbtguous rule into Logo code - an 
portuniry for the children to be 
Kxtuced (in this case via their 
<cher) to a new sec of powerful words 
4 ideas of the language: simple 
fds like FIRST and LAST, but ones 
ten greatly enhance the children's 
«*cr over the language. 

2tber issues arise*with the arirhme- r 
questions. Can we get the computer 
choose numbers for us? What, is 7 ri? 
lat happens if it chooses 0? By the 

* they have incorporated an auto- 
aic scoring procedure, and a set of 
ssages for nght and wrong answers, 
or seven one-hour sessions have 
wed. 

jt is the process of writing the 
•grams which is iraoortam - not the 
l-product. The difference is one of 
itrol: as Seymour Papert. author of 
’uistorms and co-invsntor of Lotto. 

► said, it ts a question of the child 
■camming the computer rather 
n the computer programming the 
d. 

khat are the implications of this 
d of work for schools and teachers? 
t advent of Basic-speaking micros 
allowed a minority of bright secon- 
y children to learn to program. This 
ready leading to reforms within the 
Litional curriculum. The idea that 
dren right across the age and ability 
ge could Seam to program in Logo 
unost revolutionary, 
cm.' there is- the problem - of 
■grating programming-* activities 



Richard Noss discusses LOGO 


into the existing school curriculum, often a place where literally dozens of the problems are more acute. Which 

One of the reasons why Logo has so far different activities are going on at once- department should use it? Which year 

been more readily accepted in primary - a .couple of children in a comer with- groups should have priority? Is it the- 
rather than secondary schools is re- the computer learning to program is province of computer studiesor a more 

Sated to this. A primary classroom is just one more. In the secondary school general part of computer awareness? 

"HETIMES EDUCATIONAL SUPPLEMENT. 2.3.84 


The difficulties have been intensified 
by the belief that Logo is simply about 
drawing pictures. 

~ There is a current view among a few 
Logo-devotees that Logo is a kind of' 
educational panacea. Ills not. But. the 
implications for teachers are far- 
reaching. Logo provides the means by 
which children can pose and solve their 
own problems. But children (except 
for a small minority) cannot learn to 
program by themselves. Not surpri¬ 
singly. the problems of helping chil¬ 
dren to learn Logo are much the same 
as they are in any other domain. 

For the teacher who is used to 
lecturing to whole classes, of emph¬ 
asizing teaching- at the expense of 
teaming, the problems of integrating 
Logo into the classroom will be for¬ 
midable. For the teacher who is pre¬ 
pared to relinquish control to his or her 
COjddren, the challenges are the same 
as elsewhere - when to suggest an 
approach, hew to provide a “nudge”, 
when to probe understanding, wheiher 
to offer an idea; 3bove ail. when to say 
nothing. 

Of course helping childrenTeam to 
program in Logo presupposes that we 
are agreed that we want children to 
• learn to program in the first place. For 
those who identify “programming” 
with Basic, there is good reason to 
refuse the challenge. Fortunately, 
there is now an alternative. 


Richard Noss b Director of ihe Ckiltem 
Logo Project, Endymion Road. Hat- 
field, Hertfordshire ALIO 8Alt 

On p**e 51 Derek Ball and Barrie 
Gal pin reort on a MEP project to 
explore tlx use of PROLOG in the 
teaching of mathematics. 


S eymour PaperFs book Mind- { T # 

SSHHS 2 Gran nr mprirrc 

produced packages which ailow pupils V.X-L j is/ J. I I \ y{ J I k) 

to move a "turtle” around the tloor or J. ~ 

around a computer screen. Turtle 

SSSS- b »,rUSS! lSgo.'I Derek Ball and Barrie Galpin on the use < 

powerful and flexible language in T\Tyr\7 r\r+ 

which applications packages can be Jri\vJJLiV-)vw7 

written. The next stage of develop- ... . 

men* could be the use of languages The current turtle position may for , - 

uud. as Loso to unify the nelly example, be named ™h a ItSr Ar tet coro^do^^"!, 

availab* Turtle geometry" with the user may then use a number of other ,he blackboard^nd mav wr rnS 
other geomemes commonly taught in com mama which refer to a point oossibilitv nf u.in. of? flif 
schools, by enabling, for example, named in this wav: for ejtamphTthe j ? COmp , ul 

points on the screen to be named, and wife can be told to face A. or to move screen rurfvftir?" a o. SC te * e ' 
lengths of lines to be calculated. to A. When several points hav°™en 

PROLOG is a relattvelv new prog- named a command such as DISPLAY lengths anSSfinH 
rammtn, language which, like" tell AflCD .til draw the named po,v^n ta’eSSdtaS?*' ^ * 

psgo. ts a language for processing lists, uxi tt is also posstble to specify vraot Another rackaae ^rrentlv I 
It has recently Become available on the movements (with the command STEP t shJ’' cwrc * y I 

RML 380Z microcomputer in a ver- AB) and to Construct a perrendicular usor '^onstruc 

ctrtn rhs.___ .... _i_ ;___.■ ^ v investigate the Drooerties ot a s 



Derek Ball and Barrie Galpin on the use of 
PROLOG 


rate, fast constructions of this sort on 
the blackboard and may welcome the 
possibility of using the computer to 
demonstrate this on a large television 
screen, particularly as they can then 
use the machine to calculate the 


The third package already produced 
enables two. three or four turtles to be 
displayed on the screen simultaneous¬ 
ly. In this package the user is able to 
control the movement of one turtle i 
while rhe other turtles move in related 
ways. This enables learners to consider ■ 
the properties of transformations and : 


RML 38DZ microcomputer in a ver¬ 


sion that supports the use of graphics, from a point to a line. ! 

A research project has i?een set up at Once points have been named you » 
the Universry of Leicester School of can set the computer to calculate‘the i 
Education to develop packages using- lengths or lines, the sizes of angles and « 
Prolog with graphics, to assist the die areasoc shapes. This opens up the 
ceaemng of geometricai topics to cnii- cossibihty of using the package :o 
dreo aged between II ana 14.. reach a great vaneiy of gcomerricai 

Three of these packages are current- top«3. You can. for example draw a 
ly being tested in scnools and the quadrilateral on the screen and then 
teachers using them are enthusiastic iovesagate such properties as the sura 
about the opportunities offered by the of its angles, its area, and whether any 
materials. By using Prolog it ts possible ot its s»dcs arc eoual. 

-o wnte the packages so that they can To help you discuss such matters the 


lengths, angles and areas of the object to investigate the combined effects of 
arid its enlarged image. ***0 or more transformations. j 

Another package currently being Characteristically the user remains ; 
tested allow* the user to construct and Control of the situations being j 

investigate the properties of a set of displayed and is able to change the I 
*‘ 1 type of transformation with ease* j 


•o wnte the packages so that they can To help you discuss such matters the 
be used in a large number of different Caldron package offers you the option 

31 superimposing a square gnd on the 
’ lrawins «particularly useful when 
^ area of shapes). 

■ ,?T-t FiirrhKmitr# <harw*« maw 


; 'Vf“* 

u - '’S smsm 




' v'..c 


mmm 


mm 




mm 




z q f; arv emarcemert 


ways and can support a variety of [ 
machine styles. * f 

The erst package, called Caldra w. i 
provides a general*facility for drawing s 
and caicularions. The package offers | 
the usual turtle commands {forward, i 
back, right and left etc > and the facility [. 
to create programs to draw shapes, j 
Additional commands are also avail- 1 
able. I 


drawing {particularly useful when 
dealing with the area of shapes). 
Furthermore, sbaoes mav be stored in 
iata-files and recalled ’easily when 
required. In this wav you can prepare 
jo advance diagrams which you wish to 
ac ia a lesson. 

The structure of the Prolog language ; 
s such that'it is easy to add*extra 
jiaedities to an existing packaee. Thus it ! 

& possible to add to Caldraw those 
commands which may be needed when ‘, 
'reaching any particular zeamerncaj { 
ijcpic. Aa example of this Is the extra . 
ami which can be used in conjunction ’ 
•nthCaidraw to aid the teaching of the ! 
x>p»c ot enlargement. This allows the 
reacber to draw his own object using 
'he rurtie commands (or call the objea 
tp from a disc), choose any scale- 
actor and centre of enlarzement and 
irieo use a single command to enlarge 

he object. ___ . . , > 

LTs2<icr*c^jaatbcraatais wiILrrcog- > j 


shapes known as pentommocs. These I 
consist of five equal squares placed jS 
vtogether so that they touch along an r 
edge. There are 12 essentially different f 
ways of arranging the squares, and j 
unding the 12 penteminoes is a worth¬ 
while mathematical exercise, which 
involves discussing issues such as i 
whether two shapes are to be counted 
as different when one is a rotation or a 
reflection of the other. Usually this 
investigation is carried out by pupils, 
working on squared paper. j 

The package called Pentoms allows 
them to be built up (and then rotated 
and reflected) on the computer.screen 
and this provides the teacher with an 


wm mmw* m 

immm 









easy way of discussing some of j 

issues with a group of learners. W" T■ 

Once the pentominoes have beetf I 4« 

constructed, their symmetries arid i 
other properties can be discussed and f w .-J 

they can be used to draw tessellation [ 

* ****** P rov,d “ !bc j Fig 2: a tessellation 

mnvr rho> nentnmin,.^ t 7 



they can be used to draw tessellation 

■ I pa^erns. The package provides the. 
' faciliry to move the pcmomin«>cs 

around the screen very quickly and 
j‘ easily, so that complicated tessella- 
! dons, such as the one shown in Figure 

■ 2. can be drawn. 

This package. like Caldraw is very 
flexible. The user can. for example, 
write a program to draw a different 
shape, (eg a hexomino) and use that to 
produce a tessellation pattern. 

Also provided with the package are 
a number of puzzles. One of these 
draws the outlines of two of the titles 
on top of each other and asks the user 
to identify them, providing a cfUlieng- 
j ing exercise in spatial reasoning. Other 
j puzzles provide rectangles to be filled 
i using the pemominoes. 


One cf the outstanding properties of 
I the Prolog-driven turtle is the speed at 
j which it will draw pictures on the 
j computer screen. In recent turtle rac- 
: ifi? a t Leicester the antepost favourite. 
! Logo, from the Edinburgh stable 
i (RML 380Z) was beaten bv the Hert- 
i tcrdshire-based. DART (BBC), but 
oniv by a short head. However, the 
locally bred turtle. Prolog-with- 
Graphics. was able to outpace both the 
others easily when given the command 
TURTLE RUNS. When riven a diffe¬ 
rent instruction. TURTLE HUR- 
t TLES. it proved itself to be in a 
: completely different class. For exam¬ 
ple. JfUMLY Logo takes about 8 m»- 
^>Rirais.shvwr\^ 










the high-tech hype 


THE. potential success of a new 
personal computer product has, 
until recently been gauged in 
terms of bits and bytes, rams 
■and roms. Today, however, 
industry’ analysts are more 
concerned with the advertising 
budget that a manufacturer has 
planned than the size of the 
machine’s data storage. 

•As the personal computer 
■industry heads into a “ shake- 
.out ”, phase “when many of the 
weaker players are expected to 
be .forced out of the business, 
marketing, together : with soft¬ 
ware and . distribution, have 
become recognised as the key 
to longevity. . 

V A huge increase in television 
advertising of personal com¬ 
puters demonstrates the market¬ 
ing. trend. In 1980 eight com¬ 
puter manufacturers spent 
?13m on TV advertising. Last 
year more than 20 companies 
budgeted over $200m to buy 
television time. This year the 
figure is expected to increase 
dramatically with IBM planning 
a $40m budget for its PCJr 
home computer and Apple 
spending over $50m on TV 
advertisements for its new pro¬ 
ducts. 

“ The personal computer, 
whether aimed at home or office, 
is a consumer marketing pro¬ 
duct,” declares John Sculley, 
president of Apple Computer, 
“ and you don’t introduce a con¬ 
sumer product by putting out a 
Press release—product intro¬ 
ductions are events.” 

Apple’s latest such “event,” 
the introduction of the Apple 
IIC "serious personal com¬ 
puter” cost $2m and comprised 
an all day party for thousands 
of Apple dealers and press 
representatives in San Fran¬ 
cisco.- It was the grandest affair 
ever seen An the computer 
world. 

Although many wondered if 
Apple was wasting its money, 
industry’ analysts have since 
recognised the value of the 
extravaganza. Apple took orders 
from attending dealers for over 
50,000 units and widespread 
press coverage made the Apple 
IIC a household name over¬ 
night, points out Aharon 
Orlansky, an industry analyst 
at Sutro and Company in San 
Francisco. 

Apple is not alone in bring¬ 
ing the hype of consumer mar¬ 
keting to the high-tech field. 


\ BY LOUISE KEHOE 



“ Not much of a launch—the only 
one we jold wa» to the liquidator ” 


“We are going to change the 
face of Silicon Valley by intro¬ 
ducing the concept of market¬ 
ing,” boasts Atari’s new chair¬ 
man, James Morgan, formerly 
an executive at Philip Mo.rris, 
the cigarette company. 

Advertisements are also be¬ 
coming more imaginative and 
hard-hitting. Apple Computer 
has taken the credit for the 
most unusual commercial with 
its Orwellian “ 1984 ” ad that 
announced the coming intro¬ 
duction of the Macintosh com¬ 
puter without ever showing the 
product. 

“ Why 1984 is not going to be 
like 1984,” the commercial an¬ 
nounced. Its purpose, says 
Sculley, was to show that the 
reverse of Orwell is true. " The 
personal computer is going to 
free our lives.” 

As the opener for a 815m 
ad campaign for Macintosh, the 
“1984” commercial was a great 
, success. Its shocking imagery. 

! made it a story in itself and pro¬ 
duced considerable publicity for 
the company. 

Using less outrageous, but ; 
nonetheless imaginative, adver- 
tising themes, even the most 
conservative computer makers 
have begun to hawk their wares 
on television. Hewlett-Packard, 
for example, will spend $10m on 
commercials for its new .port¬ 


able personal computer. Accord¬ 
ing to company executives, H-P 
has, for the first time, consid¬ 
ered using hard-hitting compara¬ 
tive ads that put down its 
competitors’ products. 

And IBM has forged itself 
a new and friendly image using 
a Charlie Chaplin silent spokes¬ 
man on advertisements for its 
personal computers. 

tuvti I14mig 12., HOW- 

ever, just one aspect of the 
elaborate process of product 
introduction in the personal 
computer business. ■ With its 
last three product introductions: 
the Apple IIE, the Macintosh 
and the. Apple ; nc, Apple Com¬ 
puter has undertaken enormous 
public . relations efforts to 
ensure that the products are 
widely covered in the world’s 
press. Hundreds of people were 
invited to preview the products 
and provided with copious 
material describing every aspect 
,of their development and per¬ 
formance. Other companies 
have followed suit, in an effort 
to ensure that their products 
get noticed. 

“ In the U.S. it costs at least 
$5m to launch a new consumer 
product,” suggests John Far- 
rand, president of Atari. 
Despite huge losses for the past 
18 months. Atari will under¬ 
take a major new advertising 
and promotion scheme this 
autumn to promote new video 
game and home computer pro¬ 
ducts. With the theme song 
“Kids just want to have fun,” 
Atari will make a last ditch 
effort to revive the enthusiasm 
for video games. 

Commodore, the home com¬ 
puter market leader, is not, 
however, planning to follow the 
trend toward spending more on 
advertising. Commodore’s 
advertising budget for fiscal 
1984 was $63m. In 1985, the 
company’s budget will decrease 
slightly as a percentage of 
sales although that implies a 
substantial increase overall, 
says the company’s advertising 
agency. 

“ Other personal computer 
companies may believe that 
this is a marketing-driven busi¬ 
ness but we believe that prices 
and the physical features of the 
product are more important," 
says Steven Greenberg, Com¬ 
modore’s PR and advertising 
. consultant ., . ,. h 


Figur: 3. whereas Prolog-wiih- 
Graphics can do it in less than 10 
seconds. 

Speed is. of course, nor only crite¬ 
rion that should be used to evaluate 
turtle performance. But. speed is an 
important issue for those wanting to 
wnre a wide range of applications 
packages that make use of tunic, 
graphics. Whea speed, flexibility and 
the range of facilities described in this 
article are alt taken into account, it 
seems dear that Prolog-with-Graphics 
will play an important part in the. 
further development of computer- 
based geometry teaching. 

Derek Ball and. Barrie Galoin are 
involved in a MEP project on the use of 
PROLOG in schools at the Leicester 
School of Education .. 



Fig 3: spirals 


‘Video Game Palsy *j 
May Cause Paralysis j 


BOSTON, July 6 (AP) — To the list 
of hazards of daily life, doctors are 
adding “video game palsy,” a poten¬ 
tially serious nerve damage that can 
result from prolonged zapping of 
space invaders. 

In a letter in the Thursday issue of 
The New England Journal of Medi¬ 
cine, doctors described the case of a 
28-year-old man who suffered numb¬ 
ness and weakness in his left hand 
after playing the games for about an 
hour a day for a month. The man re¬ 
covered after he stopped playing 
video games, said Dr. Robert P. 
Friedland, but he could have suffered 
permanent nerve damage if he had 
not stopped. 

The problem occurred when the 
man pressed the side of his palm 
against the machine as he rotated the 
playing knob. This put pressure on his 
ulnar nerve. “Most nerves are deep 
inside the body and can’t be damaged 
easily,” said Dr. Friedland, a physi¬ 
cian at the Veterans Administration 
Medical Center in Martinez, Calif. “It 
■ just happens that the ulnar nerve is in 
a position where it can be damaged if 
it’s continually smashed against a 
surface.” . 

He said that numbness, tingling 
and weakness are signs of potential 
harm and should be taken as warn¬ 
ings to stop doing whatever is causing 
the symptoms before permanent 
damage occurs. 



A Degree, 
Yes, but Do 
You Type? 


¥ ICTORIA RUSSO graduated 
from Sarah Lawrence College, 
prepared a proper resume and 
went to Manhattan to look for a job. 
When she got there, employment 
agencies said she had forgotten some¬ 
thing: learning how to type. 

Like many other job-hunting col¬ 
lege graduates this summer, she has 
found out that her diploma is hot the 
only thing employers are looking for 
these days. They want people who can 
type, who can use word processors 
and who can write shorthand. 

“Today, being a college graduate is 
not enough,” said Norman Locke of 
the Locke Career Center. “Whatever 
extra tools a college graduate can get 
are useful.” 

Of course, job seekers who could 
type have always had an edge. Until 
recent years women often had to ac¬ 
quire such skills to get hired, while 
men could go through a whole career 
dictating or writing in longhand. But 
now the spread of computer tech¬ 
nology has made mastery of the word 
processor’s keyboard a virtual must 
for job hunters of both sexes. 

Both word processing and typing, 
according to executives at many New 
York City employment agencies, are 
two of the skills that can lead to entry- 
level positions in the country’s top 
corporations. 

• • • | 

“Because of the economy, compa¬ 
nies have the choice,” said Jeff 
Klare, assistant manager of Fifth 
Avenue Personnel Consultants. 
Companies that used to hire a col- 
graduate and a typist can now 
hire one person and pay one salary." 

This happens most often in publish¬ 
ing and advertising, Mr. Klare said, 
where college graduates must be able 
to type copy as well as do paste-up 
and stoiy lines. 

Even in banking, typing can be im¬ 
portant. While most banks and large 
companies, such as the Procter »- 
Gamble Company and the ITT Corpo¬ 
ration, say their recruitment and 
training programs for college gradu¬ 
ates have remained stable, the re¬ 
cruiting season is over for most of 
them. Secretaries and administrative 
employees, on the other hand, are re¬ 
cruited year-round. 

At Harvard University, about 200 of 
fee some 750 seniors participating in 
fee school’s interviewing program 
are able to secure executive training 
positions, according to John Noble 
associate director of the Harvard Ca¬ 
reer Services and Learning Center. 

For most of those seniors, he said, 
skills such as typing are not vital. 

• • • 

But for most of those who do not win 
training positions, clerical jobs pro¬ 
vide a way to break in, Mr. Noble 
said. And in those positions, typing or 
computer literacy can be essential. 

At Harvard, for instance, word pro¬ 
cessing and computer literacy are 
considered so useful that the Ivy 
League school has decided to require 
Us undergraduate students to take at 
beast one computer course. 



Richard Bennett J 

This doorway to employment is so 
significant that some employment 
agencies have begun urging their 

young clients to take typing courses. 

Miss Russo, who studied philosophy 
in college and can speak French and 
Japanese, has decided to take the em¬ 
ployment agencies’ advice. She plans 
to enroll in an evening typing class at 
the Katherine Gibbs School. 

“Now we’re in a technical era, and 
I think these skills are very neces¬ 
sary,” she said. “Nietzche and Plato 
are very successful in cocktail parties 
but not in the job market.” 


Phillip Stone, vice president of 
Mahoney Placement Services Inc., 
believes young people should regard 
college as a vehicle of education 
rather than as a key to a career. Ac¬ 
cording to Mr. Stone and a number of 
employment agency executives, 
many college graduates expect to be 
offered excellent positions with large 
i salaries even though they have few of 
i fee specific skills such jobs require. 

Because of this, Mr. Stone and 
others find, college graduates who 
are willing to take a typing course 
after graduation, as Miss Russo is, 
are rare. 

But according to Nancy Fisher of 
the Berkeley-Claremont School, that 
is beginning to change, at least in the 
evening coursed she directs. In the 
last four years, Mrs. Fisher said, she 
has been seeing many more college 
graduates who are interested in 
learning how to type. 

How many college graduates have 
trouble getting jobs because they can¬ 
not type? “I know hundreds of them,” ! 
said Marla Hewitt, an office adminis¬ 
trator at the Stanton Employment 
Agency. 

Still, graduates who were not re¬ 
cruited on campus and who cannot 
type or use a word processor do not 
have to give up all hope. Mr. Stone of 
the Mahoney agency said, “If you 
work really hard and are really 
lucky, you might get a job.” 


Software: Where ; , 
To Start? 

- • • -> t ‘ ‘ ■ - • f 

Like a car without gasoline, a per¬ 
sonal computer goes nowhere with-; 
out software—the instructions that 
tell it what to do. ' ..\ 
In fact, most experts advise con-1 
. sumers to select the type of software 
they want before going out and buy-; 
ing an expensive computer’. ;’ 


.This year, Americans are expected 

V , to bu y software packages totaling 1.8 
; billion dollars, according to Softwaire 
Centre International, the nation’s 
i largest chain. That figure is expected 
|| to jump to 8 billion dollars by 1987. 

■ •••• Priced from $20 for a videogame 
cartridge to $500 and up for an ad¬ 
vanced word-processing or tax- 
; preparation system, software can do 
; just about everything: Keep the., 
family budget, track stocks, write 
• / music, teach spelling or design a 
; house.. Among the top sellers now 
: on the market: ’ ‘t ’ 

: ■ PFS:FILE by Software Publish- 1 

' ing. Creates and retrieves lists. Re- . 

‘ tail price: About $140. ? 

* VisiCalc by VisiCorp. A spread- ; 
sheet program for forecasting and 
budgeting. Sells for about $250. v.k'k 
% a The Home Accountant by Conti-. 
V nental. Balances checkbooks, 

’ 5 t prepares budgets and net- v 
I worth statements. Priced at 
S $70 to $150, depending on 
•j the computer. • . 

j-M* The Bank Street Writer 
% by Broderbund. An easy-to¬ 
-use word-processing pro- . 
if gram! Sells for $70. • 
i * -.f ■ WordStar by MicroPro. 

V ikOne of the most widely used 

\ ^-word-processing packages. 

I ^.Retails for about $500. 

1 SAT Program by Pro- . 

I §§- gram Design. A program de- 

I i&signed to.prepare a student- 
/ |—for the college-admission 

f |=r. exam. Price: $150. • ■ 

Jffei ■' Story Machine by Spin- : ? 
ifi naker Software. A program 
J@jto. introduce 4-to-10-year-, 

. olds to the computer, making 
>' 1 use of keyboard, small vocab- ■ 

iulary and graphics. Sells for $35. 
f •! ■ Zaxxon by Datasoft. A 3-D 
rgame in which players simulate 
‘ fighter pilots. Retails for $40. - i;; 

ftZork I by Infocom. A game with ; 
van adventure scenario in which the 
l player tries to: get the 20 treasures 
: of Zork. Priced at $40. , • • - 

|@ In addition, some 6,000 other pro- 
fgrams—no longer under copyright 
or simply offered to others by com¬ 
puter wizards anxious to make a 
' name for themselves—are in the 
: public domain and are either given 
away or can be purchased for as lit¬ 
tle as the cost of a disc. Is 

As with the computer, printer and 
other hardware, consumers are 

urged not to buy software from retail- 

ers who won’t give advice. Says one 
expert: “You run into barriers and 
need someone to hold your hand.” 


U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT, July 25, 1983 








CONTENTS 


FEATURES 


COVER STORY: 

AN ATARI 
HOME COMPUTER 
CURRICULUM 


page 


16 


The Fine Art of Computing 
by Anita Malnig 
A Learning Guide for the 
Compleat Computerist 


page 



page 


1 


The Professional AtariWriter 
by Len Lyons 

How to Create Form Letters, 
Footnotes and Formats, 
Step-by-Step 



page 

Dr. C. Wacko Astounds you 
With Sound 
by David Heller 


To Copy or Not to Copy 
by Teddi Converse 
Computer Ethics 


Cover art: Vincent Van Gogh, Self 
Portrait in Front of Easel, 1888, Arles, P® 3 ® 

Netherlands. Computer translation _ _ 

rendered by Russell Brown using a Via Ten Tips From the Programing 
Video Graphics Generation System. Pro Bill Wilkinson Speaks 


DEPARTMENTS 


4 Letters 

10 Editor’s Terminal by Ted Richards 

12 Home Computer News Hollywood 

Hotline, APX Winners and more! 

21 Kidbits Find The Bug Contest, Plus 
Musical Programs 

26 Telecommunications RCA Telex on 
Your Home Computer and Getting Job 
Market Connexions 

44 Education Building a Computer 
Laboratory 

45 Home Computing Shared Typing 


51 Bits and Pieces Reader Submission 
Winners 

57 Computer Classroom Create Your Own 
Graphics Mode by David Fox and Mitchell 
Waite 

64 Products Review 600XL Computer Test 
Report, Touch Tablet, the Translator 

68 Software Review Excalibur, Atari 

DOS 3, Jungle Hunt 

76 Book Review by Jim lnscore 

78 Electronic Cottage by Herb Kohl 

79 Interconnections by Earl Rice 


ATARI CONNECTION is published quarterly by the Atari Products Company of Atari, Inc., 1349 Moffett Park Drive, Sunnyvale, CA 94086. Third-class postage paid 
at Sunnyvale, Calif, and at additional mailing offices. Copyright ® 1983, Atari, Inc. 

trademark of Atari, Inc. ATARI CONNECTION. 400, 410, 600XL, 800, 800XL, 810, 825, 830, 850, 1010, 1020, 1027, 1030, 1050, 
? i' ' ri n AtariArtist, Atari PILOT, AtariWriter, Centipede, Crystal Castles, Eastern Front (1941), An Invitation to Programming, Millipede, My First 
Alphabet, The Programmer, STAR RAIDERS, Scram, and TeleLink are trademarks of Atari, Inc. 

Dig Dug is created and designed by Namco Ltd. manufactured under license by Atari, Inc. Trademark and c NAMCO 1982. Donkey Kong Junior, Nintendo and Mario 
, ° Nintendo 1982, 1983. ATARI Logo is designed and manufactured for all Atari home computers by Logo Computer Systems, Inc. of Montreal. MS. 
PAC-MAN, PAC-MAN and characters are trademarks of Bally Midway Mfg. Co. licensed by Namco-America, Inc. Juggles’ House and Juggles’ Rainbow are trademarks 
of The Learning Company. Mickey in the Great Outdoors® 1983 Walt Disney Productions. ATARI MicroSoft BASIC copyright ° by MicroSoft, 1983, All Rights 
Reserved. SuperCalc is a registered trademark of VisiCorp. Pengo is a trademark of SEGA ENTERPRISES. INC. and used by ATARI, INC. under license. Joust is a 
trademark and ° Williams 1982, manufactured under license from Williams Electronics, Inc. Jungle Hunt is a trademark and ° of Taito Americ a Co rporation 1982. Pole 
Position is engineered and designed by Namco Ltd. Manufactured under license by Atari, Inc. Trademark and ° NAMCO 1982. HomeTax is a trademark of Learning 
Source Inc. 


WINTER 1984 















I 





Introduction — Using Games to Learn BASIC 


Programming Word and Number Games 
SCI-FI ... 

Atari Learner. 21 

Biorhythm... 45 

Craps.. ... 

Alarm Clock . 55 

Hangman .. 61 

Digits . *...69 

Pizza .. 77 

IRS Man. 83 

Kingdom .. *... • • 87 

Area ....• • • 93 

Brain Teaser. ... 

Numbers Away. 105 

Reverser .. .*. 111 

Transition ...'.'.'.'.W'.’. . . 117 

Nim.. !..... . . 

Cryptogram... 127 

Phone Decoder .. ' . 131 

.. 135 

Programming Graphic Action Games 

mubble chase. 

Air Attack . 139 

Atari Artist .. *.... 1 5 5 

Rocket Duel.. 163 

Block ’Em ... .*... ..167 

Dragon’s Lair . ...• 1 7 3 

Brick Wall ... 177 

Land Baron .... 187 

Robot Chase. 193 

Stranded ... ..*.. 

Point Attack_ *.. • 209 

.. 215 




| 

| 

i 

I 


DATAMOSt 

8943 Fullbright Avenue 
Chatsworth. California 91311-2750 
(818) 709-1202 


(7R1 






































TABLE OF CONTENTS 


Programs for Business 

j /'■ . "" 

Programs for the Home .......... 

13 

Interest Calculator ... 
Profit Calculator ... 

Checkbook Balancer. 

15 1 

Appointment Log _ 

Expense Log. 

Christmas Cards. 

19 

23 

Auto Trip Log. 

Address Loq. 

Inventory File ... 

Date Log . 

Jogging Log ....:. . . 

33 

41 




ducationa! Programs .... 

State Capital Quiz.* . 

Math Quiz. 

Spell ing E xerciser ... 

Pattern Recognition_... 

English - Metric Converter 


Utility Programs. 



69 

75 

81 


Printer Program Lister. 

Dollar Formatter. 

Printer Font Selector.. 

Binary-Hex-Decimal Converter 

List Sorter. 

Julian Date Converter ... . 77 


,Tf. 


rograms for Entertainment. 93 


Number Guess.. 95 

Joystick Doodler. 99 

Craps Game. 103 


Role - Playing Dice Roller .. 107 i 

Role-Playing Character Generator ... Ill; 



RESTON PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC. 

A Prentice-Hall Company 
Reston, Virginia 


175 

177 

181 f. 
187 3 
1911 
195 



































eface .... 

iapter 1 — What is Music? ... 

How Does the Atari Make Musical Notes? 

Getting Started. 

What the Numbers in the Sound Command Do 
Control Key Magic... 

iapter 2 — Resonance and Harmony. 

More Ingredients for Making Music . 

Harmonic Vibrations . 

Harmony on the Atari . 

iapter 3 — BASIC Programming and Music 

The Beat Program . 

Saving Your Music on Disk or Tape 

Using the Disk Drive . 

Using the Program Recorder. 

apter 4 — Starting the Player Programs ... 

A Little History .... 

The One Voice Player .... 

apter 5 — The Two Voice Player. 

Making the Title Screen. 

Adding to the Two Voice Player .... 

apter 6 — The Four Voice Player. 

From Notes to Data ... 

Time Values... 

Atari DATA Statements .. 

apter 7 — The Round Player. 

Using Arrays. 

. How the Round Player Works . 

apter 8 — The Atari Keyboard Organ . 

Playing Live Music on the Atari .... 

PEEKing at the Keyboard . 

How the Keyboard Organ Works ... 

M DATAMOSt" 

.. I 20660 Nordhoff St. 

Chatsworth, CA 91311 -61 52 
(818)709-1202 



Chapter 9 — Special Effects with Sound .. 

Joystick Space Zap .. 

Fade Routines. 

Fade Routines for the Player Program 
Sound Effects Programs . 

Chapter 10 — The Song Menu. 

Combining Program Segments. 

At Your Fingertips. 


Chapter 11 — Music Arranged for the Two Voice Player 

America . 

Au Claire de la Lune .... 

Good Night Ladies.. 

0 Christmas Tree . 

Swing Low, Sweet Chariot ... 

Chapter 12 — Music Arranged for the Four Voice Player 

America the Beautiful . 

Auld Lang Syne .. 

Bicycle Built for Two. 

Deck the Halls. ... 

For He’s a Jolly Good Fellow .. 

He’s Got the Whole World. 

Hush Little Baby . 

I Know Where I’m Going. 

Jingle Bells... 

Kumbaya... 

Michael Row the Boat Ashore . 

My Bonnie.. 

On Top of Old Smokey ... 

She’ll be Coming Round the Mountain .. 

Shenandoah . 

Sur le Pont d’Avignon . 

We Wish You a Merry Christmas. 

When the Saints Go Marching In... 

Yankee Doodle .. 

Chapter 13 — Rounds .. 

Frere Jacques .; 

Hey, Ho, Nobody Home.'. 

Oh How Lovely is the Evening. 

Row, Row, Row Your Boat.. 

Scotland’s Burning... 

Glossary of Musical Terms. 

A Brief Glossary of BASIC Commands..