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^ I ^enthusiasts 

Mtelli 

Wellington Atari Cor 


ICUSLETTER NO. 12: NC 


Dear He«ibers> 

HereMith your Noveaber newstetteri probably the last o 
held at the TAB buildins on Laabton Quay at 7.38 p.m. on 7 
on DISK SYSTEM. Ai I our experts on disk systens Mi II ansM 
how they do it> what they don’t dOi traps to avoid, etc. e 
experts it they lapse into Jarson. this Forua should be ot 

At this weetins. we shall also have Club Tape 9 aval 
Mill be a C30: sowe of the prosraitMes on this tape are ' 
Urath" (a stratesy sane). ''Laddernaze" (a 3-D aaze sane 
Instructions for these sames are included in this newsiett 
the Decewber weetins. 




VO tkiji ism 

liBiiiuytOn 


COMBINED MICRO CLUBS MtEIING 
7.30 PM. TIIURSOAV. 8 OECEMaLR 1083 
2N0 FLOOR, WESTBROOK HOUSE, 131 WILLIS STREET 




AU ca«p.t« club .„e„u.cxc. ic.cnua 

- 

7.JO st.tt 

“•00 Kuirnot. Speaker, M. N«U Scett 

“•<5 Light toirakhwiitk. 

wiil, b. bnccurtgbd to bt u.c c f u 

. “...ctet, .ill bo ..tAbitchod -tth.:::.!'!:: r- 
by ...y ««b,r of th, ptt..thood .hkll b. coo.idot.d 
gtounda for •»oom«unic«tioii. 

Tb.r. wiii b. A door ch.rg. o, ,i .^.r hAAd, » for fA„,iifA.. 
for furthar iiiformAtlon coiitAoti 

«.7U„gto„ Micro Club, hruca wiiiu 

at*l-tib2 H 

BiU Vdrkiii d44-ius wik 
?W5-0Md il 

BliC • • 

Allton gfoiBttuaon 2a6-o«y wrk 
u 

Atdri 

Bes Huwti 72d-tjba Wik 
7Jt»-Vit U 


On the evenins followins the Atari weetins (ie.8 

orsanizins a set-tosether for all owner/users of wicro/personal cowputers. The weetins will be at {^tbrooke 
House (2nd floor) in Upper Willis Street, besinnins at 7.38 P.W.. A minor cover charse will be levied, but the 
company of fellow computer freaks, coupled with some displays of other (inferior) computers Plus tea and 
bikkies. will be awpie compensation. Ue hope that member’s suouses will trust them sufficiently to let them 
out two nishts in succession.! 


Other points of interest: 

One of our out-of-town wembers. M.E.Bath of 9 Leatham Avenue. New Plymouth, has been sufficiently wise as 
to trade up from a IBk 480 to a 48k 888. renderins the 3 month old 400 redundant. Its for sale, complete with 
two Joysticks Plus reference manuals, for $550. 

On Tape 8. there is a prosrawwe called "Spell ins Bee". This could be improved if a facility to save the 
list of words used were added. Some members with youns children (e.9.your secretary) are particularly 
interested in this. Would any member be will ins to do the necessary prosrawmins Please let we know?. 

Computer Cawps for children are beins orsanized for the Christmas holidays. Members wishins to pursue 
this matter further should set in touch with "Computers for People". PO Box 3225 or Phone 847B28. Wellinston 

COMSEC, of PO Box 38. Waihi Beach South, have written to say that they sell “computers and peripherals at 
18% off (or wore). Members wishins to start off "on the cheap" may be interested in contact!ns them. 

We saw. in a recent Auckland Herald, that the Atari 6M is beins retailed (up there in the provinces) for 

$758. 


Des Howe 
(Secretary) 



/ 


A TAR 

^ I ^COMPUTER 

^ I ^enthusiasts 

V ELLINGTON 


Wellington Atari Computer Enthusiasts 


hEMSLETTER NO. 12: NOVEMBER 1983 


Dear Henbersi 

HereMith your Noveiiber neNsleUer> probably the last of the club's first year. Our NEXT MEETING will be 
held at the TAB buildins on Laabton Quay at 7.3B p.m. on 7 Deceaber. At this aeetine we Plan to hold a FORUM 
on DISK SYSTEI^. Al I our experts on disk systeas wi II ansaer your questions on ahat disk systeas do> tdty and 
hoN they do it. what they don’t doi traps to avoidi etci etc. Chaired by Keith Hobden> who will restrain our 
experts if they lapse into Jarson. this Forui should be of sreat value to our aeabers. 

At this aeetinsi we shall also have Club Tape 9 available for aeabers. Beins the Christaas Tapei this 
Will be a C30! soae of the prosraaaes on this tape are "FliP-it" (otherwise known as "Othello“)i 'Stones of 
Urath" (a stratesy saae)i "Ladderaaze” (a 3-D aaze 9aae)> and 'Roundup* (a Western Style Arcade Gaae). 
Instructions for these saaes are included in this newsletter. Both Tape 8 and Tape 9 will be deaonstrated at 
the Deceaber aeetins. 

On the evenins foilowins the Atari aeetins (ieiS Dec)i the HeiIinston Micro-coaputins Society is 
orsanizins a set-tosether for all owner/users of aicro/perswiai coaputers. The aeetins will be at Westbrooke 
House (2nd floor) in Upper Willis Streeti besinnins at 7.M p.a.. A ainor cover charse will be levied, but the 
coapany of fellow cowputer freaks, coupled with soae displays of other (inferior) coaputers Plus tea and 
bikkies. will be aapie coapensation. He hone that aeaber’s spouses will trust thea sufficiently to let thea 
out two nishts in succession.! 


Other points of interest: 

One of our out-of-town aeabers. M.E.Bath of 9 Leathaa Avenue. New Plyaouth. has been sufficiently wise as 
to trade up froa a 16k 400 to a 48k 800. renderins the 3 i»nth old 400 redundant. Its for sale. coaPiete with 
two Joysticks Plus reference aanuals. for $550. 

On Tape 8. there is a prosraaae called 'Spell ins Bee'. This could be iaproved if a facility to save the 
list of words used were added. Soae aeabers with youns children (e.s.your secretary) are particularly 
interested in this. Would any aeaber be will ins to do the necessary prosraaains Please let ae know?. 

Coaputer Caaps for children are beins orsanized for the Christmas holidays. Members wishins to pursue 
this matter further should set in touch with "Coaputers for People'. PO Box 3225 or Phone 8476ffi. Heliinston 

COMSEC, of PO Box 30. Waihi Beach South, have written to say that they sell “computers and peripherals at 
m off (or more). Members wishins to start off 'on the cheap' may be interested in contactins thea. 

We saw. in a recent Auckland Herald, that the Atari 600 is beins retailed (up there in the provinces) for 

$750. 


Des Rowe 
(Secretary) 



***** BOLT-ON GOODIES FOR TIE flTRRI 4N ***** 


TtK> MeetiMS *90 I brought my ATARI 4N alone to denonstrate its full stroke keyboard. Des has asked Me 
(several tiMes) to write an article -for the Newsletter to describe it and the other bolt-on goodies I have 
recently acquired. I have now run out of eucuses so here soess- 

My ATARI 480 now consists of! 

S4k Mosaic RAM. 

InhoMe B Key 400 (keyboard). 

PercoM AT-88-S1 Disk Drive. 

Bruce Goldstone> a fellow Atarian. recently went to the States and did ail the research otd buying. 

The 64K RAH cost $US 157.57 froM Computer Out let. air Mail postage i5.M and NZ custOMS $48.17. FittiM 
it took 1 1/2 to 2 hours - no solderiM and very clear instructions and it is guaranteed for 4 years. 

The keyboard cost $US 53.20. airmail $9.80 and customs $25.90. It replaces the existing Membrane 
keyboard and again was very easy to fit (1 hour). Sorry but I have mislaid the address of the shop where it 

was bought. It is very easy to use once you have sot used to the slightly different positions of the ESC. 

CTRL. DELETE, and CAPS/LOMR keys (type in two programs from COMPUTE and you will he OK). 

The Disk Drive cost $US 424.94. airmail postage $B2.15 and customs $142.23. I also had to buy a 
transformer and Plug for $37.00 froM Uisewan Electrical in Vivian Street. The drive was bought from HU 
COMPUTERS. REDm BEACH (^LIFORNIA. HaviM used the OS/iH release 2 DOS and ATARI DOS release 2 I prefer the 
OS/A. but it is probably a Matter of Personal choice - both load CHICKEN in seconds! 

Remewber that all the above US prices include local sales tax. If ordered direct from N.Z. they would be 

tax free, but you way be charged 2-Zi extra for use of plastic cards (AIEX. Mastercard. Visa. Diners, etc. are 

usually accepted) and don't forget the cost of the phone cal I. Also with the way that prices for computer gear 
(and the N.Z. $) are dropping, these prices are only a rough guide. 

P.S. If anyone is going to Singapore I can recommend: 

Cost Plus 

SCOTTS 

No S Scotts Road (opposite the Holiday Inn). 

They stock a good range of computers and bits and Pieces and they offer you your money back if you can 
get the goods cheaper in Singapore. 


David Pick 



WELLINGTON RTRRI COMPUTER ENTHUSIRSTC,. NEW ZERLRND. 
PUBLIC SOFTWARE LIBRRR'iL 


UTI”UTILITY. 
DEM-BEMONSTFlTIOH. 

GOOD. 

?^:-POOR. 

UNLESS OTHERWISE STATED ALL 16K MAX 


EDU-EDUCRTIONRL.. 
GRM--GRME. 
RATING^” 


RDV-RDVENTURE. 


I :T 


:;lub trfe» 
tt-good. 

BUG-NEED SOME WORK! 


TITLE 

TYPE 

SOURCE 

RATING 

TITLE 

TYPE 

SOURCE 

RATING 

C'ISC MO 

- 1 







CHICKEN 

GAME 

ANTIC 


GOLDMINER 

GAME 

SOFTS IDE 

J.- -J.' 

•+• .7 • 

NUMBER BATTLE 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

t.% . 

BREAKOUT BAS IC 

GAME 

LAI 

4 , 

SHOOTING STAR 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

t . 

SPLICER LAUNCH 

GAME 

MICRO 

•J.* 

A- • 

TIMETRAIL 

GAME 

ACE 

Y . 

ATTACK 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

44 . 

STARER3E 13 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 


LUNARLANDER 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

4 . 

iSLOSEOUT SALE 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

■4::+: . 

MARTIAN EXP, 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

44 . 

SOLITAIRE 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

*4: 4 :. 





OISC MO 

- S 







ALIEN INVADERS 

GAME 

MACE 

4: 

OIL MINER 

GAME 

MACE 

•X* J.' 

•f- t n 

WORD SCRAMBLE 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

: 4 ; . 

SURERFONT 

UTI 

COMPUTE 

:4:4'4, 

WORD-SEARCH 

EDU 

COMPUTE 

4:4' . 

CONCENTRATION 

EDU 

COMPUTE 

4:4 . 

MOUSE CHICAGO 

ADV. 

SOFTSIDE 

4:4: . 

SABOTAGE 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

4 . 

O ISO MO 

- 3 







MASTERGOLF 

GAME 


4: . 

MAZESEARCH 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

4 . 

BLOCKADE 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

4:4:4: . 

BOING 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

44 . 

STRRTOELAST 

GAME 


44 . 

SUPERCHASE 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

4:4 . 

PIZZAHOTEL 

ADV. 

SOFTSIDE 

44 . 

ENGINEER 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

44 . 

DOUBLE CANNON 

GAME 


'4* « 

DRAWING BASIC 

'T' '7 *? 

LAI 

-t- N 

CAVE 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

4 . 

LASER BARRAGE 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

44 . 

SKI 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

44 . 





CISC MO 

m 







JUGGLER 

GAME 


4 . 

DUEL 

GAME 


4 . 

PMHELP 

UTI 

ACE 

44 . 

STELLAR DEF. 

GAME 

ANTIC 

4 

TUNDERBIRD 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

44 . 

WILDSTRAW. 

GAME 

CSV . GAME 

44 . 

SUBHUNT 

GAME 

C&.V.GBME 

SLOW 

AIRLOCK 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

SLOW 

DR.WHO 

ADV. 

CS^V. GAME 

44 . 





OISC MO 

_ 5 







COPYCAT 

EDU 


444. 

POKER 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

4'4 . 

PUCKMAN 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

% . 

IMHOTEP 

EDU 

CSV,GAME 

44 . 

CASINO ROYALE 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

44 . 

HAUNTED 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

BUG i 

URANIUM 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

BUG! 

ORCHARD 

GAME 

CSV.GAME 

E 

COLOR 3D 

DEM 

LOGAN 

4: . 

TAG-2 PLAYER 

GAME 

COMPUTE 


HORSERACE 

GAME 

COMPUTE 

4:4 . 





OISC MO 

- e— 

roe: oisc 





FROG 

GAME 

ACE 

4^ ■ 

BATS 

GAME 

ACE 

4 . 

BANKSHOT 

GAME 

ACE 

44 . 

DOGGIES 

GAME 

ACE 

44 . 

SLOT MACHINE 

GAME 

ACE 

44 . 

R0B0T-24K RAM 

GAME 

ACE 

44 . 

BLACKJACK 

GAME 

ACE 

4:4 . 






O I ©C MO . 7 - 

MERRYCHRISTMRS 


BALLOONS 

TIGER 

CASTLE HEX 

JTERMODEM 

LUNAR 

MUNCHERS 

ROMRNCLOCK 


GAME 

GAME 

GAME 

MODEM 

GAME 

GAME 

DEM 


ROE OIS 

GREETING CARD 
ACE tt 

ACE 
ACE 

ACE ??? 

ACE ** 

ACE 

ACE * 


GOBBLER 

GRUBS 

EGGS 

TINYTEXT 

GALLERY 

PLUSfi^ZERO 

TRUCK 


GAME 
GAME 
GAME 
LIT I 


ACE 

ACE 

ACE 

ACE 


■.n . 

ttt. 


game ACE t . 

game how to PLAY?? 










WELLINGTON ATARI raiPUTER ENTHUSIASTIS, NEW ZEALAND. 
PUBLIC SOFTWARE LIBRARY (cont.). 


ISC M O- S 

:;b GFir'iF£ 

^ISTERMRZE GRME 

;eg!jesser edu 

lESS RHIMRL EDU 

iSIC SCRLE EDU 

:TRH 32K GAME 

' ISC MO- S 

10KEY 24K GAME 

TRRI BURSTER GAME 

IFEHSE GRME 

•ISC MO - 10 

[GIDRAFT DRRW 

=ITERFRLL DEMO 

[DDEN riflZE GAME 

ITTER S.: NO. EDU 

JMPIHG JACK GAME 

•^THFUH EDU 

• ISC MO- 1 1 

:;rerm demon game 

IGITIZER UTI 

JSIC KEYBOARD UTI 

ISION EXC UTI 

ISC SPEEDTEST UTI 

>ISC MO- IS 

^lONTIER 
='RCEMINES 
_IPIT 
INANCE 
EXT READING 
>ISC MO 


COMPUTE 
COMPUTE 
COMPUTE 
COMPUTE 
COMPUTE 
SOFTSIDE 


Y . 

Y . 

« 

m 


SOFTSIC 
SOFTS I [: 
SOFTSIC 


>E YY 
>E YY 
:;-E YY 


MICRO 

BYTES 

COMPUTE 

COMPUTE 

COMPUTE 

COMPUTE 

SOFTSIDE 

COMPUTE 

COMPUTE 

'7' ■“* '7' '7' 

COMPUTE 


YYY. 
YY . 
YY . 

Y . 

Y . 

Y Y • 

Y:Y . 

Y . 

YY . 

Y 

YY . 


CATACOMB PHA. 

RDV, 

SOFTSIDE YY . 

SAFRYLRND 

EDU 

??? YY . 

SOLAR SYSTEM 

DEMO 

FELIXUFRIEMD. 

MINOR &: MOJOR 

MUSIC 

COMPUTE Y . 

LEYTE 32K 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE YY . 

SPACE RESCUE 

GAM!;.:. 

SOFTSIDE YY . 

POKER SQ.24K 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE YY , 

GAMBLER 24K 

GAME 

SOFTSIDEFYY . 

STRATEGY STRII^ 

'E BUG 


FLIT IT 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE YY . 

BULL & COWS-- 

-HOW TO 

USE IT ? 

OLD MACDONALD 

EDU 

ACE YYY. 

ONE ON ONE 

GAME 

COMPUTE YY 

DEFLECTOR 

GAME 

COMPUTE Y . 

BLOK 

GAME 

FELIXS.;FRIEND. 

CHUTES 

GAME 

COMPUTE Y . 

VIDEO Se COL 

LIT I 

CCMPUTF Y:Y „ 

CASS TO DISK 

UTI 

COMPUTE Y . 


SOF^XS I OE—MOX XESXEO VEX 


DEM 

SOFTSIDE Y 

Y . 

HOME BUDGET 

UTI SOFTSIDE 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

« 

WIZARD'S SWORD 

GAME SOFTSIDE 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

m 

BAUDOT PRINTER 

UTI ????? 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

a 

MICROTEXT 

UTI SOFTSIDE 

UTI 

- 1 3- 

SOFTSIDE 

-SOF^XS I OE 

—NOX XE 

3XEO VEX- 


DKEY NOTICE 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

POKEY PLAYER 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

□KEY COMPILER 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

POKEY EDITOR 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

OKEY PLRYER2 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

PERSONAL FINAN 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

LIKER 


DEMO 

SOFTSIDE 

SPIRAL GRAPHS 

DEMO 

SOFTSIDE 

LAYERS 



SOFTSIDE 

PLAYERS 


SOFTSIDE 

RR RACE 


GAME 

SOFTSIDE 




> I SC 

MO 

- 1-4 

—SOEXSIOE 

—MOX XE 

3XEO 

VEX - 

RRPPED-3 

PART 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

DATABASE SORT 

UTI 

SOFTSIDE 

OODLE 


DEMO 

SOFTSIDE 

GRS DISPLAY 

DEMO 

SOFTSIDE 

Rll DISPLAY 

DEMO 

SOFTSIDE 

ABOUT TIME 40K 

???? 

SOFTSIDE 

INIGOLF 


GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

POKER SQUARE 

GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

> I SC 

MO 

- IS 

—SOEXSIOE 

— MOX XESXEC* 

VEX - 

MOKEY 


GAME 

SOFTSIDE 

VOLCANO 

RDV 

SOFTSIDE 

TIR DISP 

LAY 

DEMO 

SOFTSIDE 

ATLANTIS 401< 

*7' '7' ‘7* 'T' 

SOFTSIDE 


OTRL 14e PROGRAMS IN THE LIBRARY 







WELLINGTON RTRRI COMPUTER ENTHUSIRSTC.. NEW ZERLRND 


PUBLIC SOFTWRRE 0 


CLUB XRBE MO- 

1. RENUMBERING PROGRRM, . 
3. RAM MEMORY TEST, 

CLUB XRRB MO¬ 
RTAR I LISTER. 

DOGGIES. 

GRAPH PROGRRM. 

SOLITfilRE. 

MRRTIRN EXPLORER. 

SLOT MRCHINES. 

CLUB XFIRE MO- 
SHOOT. 

EGGS. 

TINY TEXT. 

GOBBLERS. 

CLUB XFIRE MO- 

CflSTLE HEX. 

LUNAR LANDER. 

GRAPHIS DISPLAY DEMO. 
CLUB XRRE MO- 
CRSS. BACK UP MAKER 
COPY-CAT. 

DIGIT DRAFT. 

CLUB XRRE MO- 

DEFENCE. 

FLAG. 

CLUB xrbe: MO- 

SCRERMING DEMON. 

ROAD BLOCK. 

ANTIC 4S.5 DEMO. 

CLUB XRRE MO¬ 
GUL MINER. 

SPELLING BEE. 

CLUB XRBE MO- 


iN CLUB TAPES. 


1 

2. JOYSTICK DIAGNOSTIC. 
4. DAIRY FARMING. 


iS=. 

PLAYER MISSILE HELPER, 
HIDDEN MAZE. 

SMASH-OUT. 

E.T.<GTIR DEMO> 
BANKSHOT. 

3 

TIME TRIAL. 

POKER. 

CHICKEN. 

HOME INVENTORY. 

MASTER CATALOGUE. 


SAFRYLAND. 

HAVYWRLL BANGER. 

TOUCH TYPING TRAINER. 
GUESS THE ANIMAL. 

ROSE PLOTS 
NUMBER PUZZLE. 

B 

WORD SEARCH. 

COLOR RAINBOW, 

^-SREC I RL 

fcHRISXMRS 


l^-VRLUE ! 




WAGE BOOK LIBRARY 


We now have a book library, l^hen we started out it was 
possible for individual members to buy all the books that were out 
on the Atari - there simply weren't very many of them. But now, 
as you saw in the October newsletter, they're pouring off the 
presses. We've bought a few and kindly been donated one. We hope 
to build up the library by both means. At present we have some 
books for lending and one for reference. 

This is how the system will work. David Burns has agreed to 
be our librarian - thank you^ David - and to each meeting he will 
bring all the books available for lending. Members will be able to 
inspect them during the meeting and at the end of it to borrow them 
for a month. They must be returned to the next meeting and^if the 
member is going to be absent from it, he should make his best effort 
to get it back to David so that others can see and use it. The 
reference books I will bring to each meeting. But they will not 
be lent out. Accordingly members who need information from them 
can phone me during the month and get what's available in them. 

We'll keep you informed as we get more books but meanwhile what we're 
starting with is as follows: 

A. Reference 

Stanton, J et al. 

The Book of Atari Software 1983 

B. General 

Bloom, Michael 

Understanding Atari Graphics 

Conlan J et al. 

Atari Pilot for Beginners 

North, Alan 

31 New Atari Computer Programs for Home, School, Office 

101 Atari Computer Programming Tips and Tricks 

Roberts, Sam 

Games for the Atari 

ir 

Mike Munro 



***** CLUB TAPE NINE—INSTRUCTIONS ***** 


"FLIP-IT" (SOFTSIDE) 

FLIP-IT is a computerized board samei in dhich you and the computer Mtch wits tryins to outflank and 
capture one another’s pieces on an eisht-by-eisht board. The same besins with a square arransewent of four 
Chips in the centre of the board, two per Player. You can choose your colour and who will besin first. When it 
is your turn, your Object is to pick an unoccupied square such that Putt ins one of your chi ps there wi 11 
outflank one or wore of the computer’s chi ps. This aeans that the computer’s chi ps would be sandwiched in 
between one of your existins chins and the new one you’re Play ins. in a straisht line. 

When you do this, all the computer’s Pieces which you have outflanked will became yours. This can happen 
in more than one direction, so that in any siven turn you misht capture Pieces horizontally, vertically, and 
diasonal ly. 

Use the joystick to move the cursor horizontally, vertically, or diasonally from its current location and 
press the button to enter the move. 

Durins your turn, you may ask the computer to recommend yor best move by pressins ’B’. If you see no move 
that you can make, you must press ’N’ sthe computer will check to see if you are correct and. if so. it wi ll 
continue with its Play. (Note, before you Press 'B" or "N*. move the cursor to an already occupied square.) 

You will soon find that winnins a same involves more than just caPturins as many Pieces as you can on any 
siven turn. More iwortant to the eventual results will be the Position of your chips on the board. CaPturins 
edse. and especially corner squares. Pays off in the end. After all. thats the way the computer Plays it! 

“STONES OF WRATH' (CtVG SEP) 

This same is for two Players, each represent ins a Wizard. They besin in a forest at the top of the 
screen, and must pass throush the forest, penetrate the three enchanted walls and capture either of the 
Stmes. which are behind the final wall. 

Each same turn is made up of two Phases: a spell cast ins Phase and a movement Phase. A Wizard will cast 
spells to penetrate the walls, and to defend himself from the spells cast by his opponent or the 
Towers.Cast ins a spell requires enersy- the enersy remainins to a Wizard is shown at the bottom of the screen 
next to a Picture of him. one red. one blue. To assist the Wizards in selectins a spell, the six avaiittle 
spelIs are shown across the bottom of the screen followed by the amount of enersy required to cast them. 

In Phase two. the Wizards move.In turn, each Player will press a cursor arrow key. but without usins the 
control key. to indicate the directitm he wishes to move. A Wizard will move one Place in the direction 
chosOT. provided the way is clear (or if there is a Stwies symbol on the screen). 

By pressins ’X’ a Wizard is siven SB extra enersy points, which is taken from his reserve (shown next to 
his enersy).Should a Wizard’s reserves run out he dies,It is important to keep a hish reserves fisure in the 
early stases. for at the end of each turn, the Wizards receive extra enersy Points equal to IBK of their 
reserves. 

When 'Cast your Spell" is displayed the Wizard whose face is lit presses a key between 1 and 6. This 
indicates which spell is beins cast. Then key in a srid reference to show the tarset point of the spell. Thus, 
keyins S4.16 means cast a Vortex at point 4.IE: keyins 112.9 casts a Demon at Point 12.9. Grid references are 
siven across then down. 

Note! 

If a Wizard is within two Places of a Demon when it reaches its tarset. he is attacked by it. A Demon 
will destroy any eiementals in its Path.It is removed from the screen at its tarset. If two Demons collide 
then they destroy each other.(3B) 

When a Swarm reaches its tarset. it spreads into all empty adjacent Places, and remains on the screen. If 
a Wizard is in this zone, he is attacked. A Swarm itestroys any Demons in its path, or that subsequently try to 
pass throush it. (IS) 

A Shield destroys Fireballs, and spreads into a protective cup shape on reachins its tarset.It remains 
on screen. It is also the only spell that has any effect on a Drason will be destroyed or Pick a new tarset 

The Vortex is the only spell to affect a wall. Three hits in the same Place are needed to form a breach. 
It destroy any Shields that it touches. The Vortex is removed at its tarset. or if it hits a wall or another 
Vortex(2B) 



The Eie»iental is useful to hinder your opponentt as it renains on screen at its tarset. and destroys any 
Vortices that collide «ith it.(li) 

The Drason destroys all spells except the Elenental. Also, when it reaches its tarsett there is a chance 
that it will Merely pick a new tarseti and wake its way to that one. fl Drason can rewain on screen a ions tiwe 
in this way.(SB) 

fl Fireball is the only snell to destroy trees thereby ciearins a Path for a Mizard. fl Fireball also 
destroys any Swarws. flt its tarset it expands like a Sware affectins anythins adjacent (20). 

Spells are noved in the foliowins sequence: Spells cast by the Towers) Snells cast by the Wizard in 
Power; Snells cast by the other Wizard, fl Wizard can have up to six spells aaive at the sawe tine. Finally, 
note that the Towers are unaffected by any sneils. and that their snells pass over the walls freely. The 
nuwber in brackets is the nuwber in brackets is the nuwber of reserve points a Wizard loses if attacked. 

•LflDDER maze- 

ladder MAZE’S instructions are in the Ausust Cownuter and Video Gawes.Otherwise, try the next 
newsletter. (My f inner is tired!). 

-ROUNDUP- 

This was typed by the relief tewpl Don’t let three (3) cows set past you. You can only rope the Black 
Steers. Different colour cows sive different points. For full dewo be at next weetinsl! 


***** BOOKS ***** 


I shall continue to brins books to the UflCE weetinss. and if I can’t be there wyself I'll ask soweone to 
look after thew for we. Please Phone we a week ahead if Possible, if you particularly w«)t a special book. My 
hone nuwber is Uellinston 72S-8E6. 

Titles available at present are: 

-IieiDE ATARI BASIC- $21.7E 
-ATARI PILOT FOR BEGIWERS- 125.12 
•ATARI ASSEMBLER- *21.76 
-ATARI QAHES AND RECREATIONS- *25.12 
•ATARI PILOT ACTIVITIES AND OAKS* *25.12 
•T* TURTLE’S SOURCEBOOK (LOGO)- *37.80 

Keith reveiwed 'SPACE KNIGHTS' at the Novewber Club Meetins. If you have a disk drive and at least 24k 
it’s worth bavins: a fairly sood space fiction story and at least 6 Quite sood sawes — three wore if you 
also have paddle controls. Club price should be about *42.00. 

The foliowins books are projected Publications, sowe of which should arrive soon. I have ordered sowe as 
RESTQN publications all seew to be sood value: 

■ATARI GAMES AND PUZZLES' 

■ATARI PLAYER MISSILE GRAPHICS' 

•ATARI BEGIUCRS’ GUIDE" 

■RAINY DAY ACTIVITIES FOR TT€ ATARI* 

Another new title for 1984 frow a different publisher. SAMS, is 'ATARI BASIC TUTORIAL* by Robert A. Peck. 
Whitehall Books tell we that SAMS ’really take a cowputer to Pieces’ before they start to write for it. so 
this too should be worth lookins at. 


Jenny Chisholw. 



stereo Cassette Interface 

Essence Peripheral Systems. Model 600 for $50.00. 

Here is a new product for all cassette users. This interface allows 
you to use your stereo cassette deck to load and save your programs. 

The stero cassette deck gives you clearer, sharper and better all 
around copies of your programs. 

This IF comes complefe & ready to use except lor a set of patch 
cords which can be bought at Radio Shack. EPS even gives you the RS 
part no. 

Instructions are quite clear and once you hook up the patch cord to 
the interface, the cassette deck and then to the computer you are 
ready to go. The interface has only one switch to use. One position is 
CLOAD, the other CSAVE. The only thing left to do now is to load one 
of your programs in with the deck and turn everything on as you nor¬ 
mally might, except the interface is in the CLOAO mode or load a 
blank tape and use the CSAVE mode. 

One of the things I found annoying was that my cassette deck was 
with the Hi-Fi equipment In another part of the house. And to bring in a 
portable deck to use lust means more equipment around the com¬ 
puter. For those of you who have Hi-Fi or cassette decks close by, this I 
Interface makes or plays cassettes better than the 410 Program I 
Recorder does. It is a good Investment for those who use a lot of 
cassettes and want to make sure they have the best possible recor¬ 
ding or playing of their programs. 

The ACE librarians will use this interlace to make cassettes for the 

ACE 


NIBBLING BYTES 


by Kirt E. StockweM 


An old Arab curse goes like this: "May you live in interesting times." 
Apparently they preferred not having to keep up on current events. 
Since we DO live in interesting limes, we might as well make the best 
of them. 

You are probably aware this has been an extremely interesting year. 
ATARI has announced a new line of computers. ATARI has made many 
personnel changes, and ATARI stock has done interesting things. The 
industry as a whole is buzzing with activity, not the least of which is 
the effort to develop a computer better than the one the competition is 
going to release soon. The micro computer makers are all trying to 
beat the pants off of each other. Business computer makers are at 
each others’ throats as usual. The entire nation of JAPAN has 
challenged the US to a race to see who can develop the next genera¬ 
tion of SUPER-COMPUTER. 

You can read about all of this in any weekly magazine, but have you 
thought about how it will affect you? Consider some of the following 
items: 


32 bit mainframe computers on a single chip are already available 
from 3 different manufacturers. This may change by publication time. 

The 64K memory chip is now affordable. The next step is the 128K 
chip, expected within 2 years. 

Disk drive prices are falling, while densities and storage capacities 
are growing. 10MEQ and 20MEG drives will be reaching the point OI 
common affordability within 2 years. 

With every passing year the newly available software becomes more 
powerful and easy to use, as well as less costly. 

The question I hear most these days is: "Should I buy an 800 or wait 
for the NEW machines?" I must admit the new machines are pretty. 
But the 800 is a proven product of high quality. My tendency is to ad¬ 
vise NOT WAITING for any new equipment. Once a person makes the 
decision to buy a computer, the computer should be bought. Waiting 
for the perfect computer will only result in frustration and wasted 
time. Vl/ithin the computer industry, NEW usually means BUGGY. 

I don’t mean to imply ATARI will release inferior products, but this is 
a reflection of an industry reality. The 1200XL also slicks in the back of 
my mind. Overall, I feel ATARI has spent the past year LEARNING, 
sometimes painfully, the realities of the computer market. I expect 
they will emerge from their problems as a leaner, cleaner, more 
methodical corporation. 

Any of you who may be trying to decide what to buy will be well ad¬ 
vised to buy an 800 NOW. Every day you waste puts you and your fami¬ 
ly that much farther behind. Future equipment, both from ATARI and 
from the various mainframe companies, promises to be quite advanc- 

What you have now, or buy in the near future, will not be particular- 
y Important. What will be important is whether or not you understand 
the equipment and the market. 


2 


Wac£ Smuimr 

News and Reviews 

by Mike Dunn, Co-Editor 

Atari computers are being sold now lor amazing low prices. I’ve 
heard of $180 for an 800 with BASIC and 48K. and a 1200 for $219. 
Speaking of the ill-fated 1200XL Atari has made available for 1200 
owners who are having trouble running third party software a pre-boot 
disk turning the 1200 OS to a 800 OS. Contact customer service for 
details. 

Have you read the Oct issue of Consumer Reports’’ They have been 
doing a several part article on computers and peripherals the first last 
month was not particularly favorable to AUri. This month, they have 
upgraded the Atari considerably because of AlariWriler. which they 
consider one of the best and easiest to use wordprocessors available 

- they even rate it in the league of WordStar, and other big league 
programs. They think AtariWriter is worth buying an Atari lor alonsK^ 
APX now has the AtariWriter printer drivers available lor only $j«^nd 
they are much better than I expected them to be. New printers are add¬ 
ed all the time; they now include the Epson MX80. FX8 RX80 
GeminilO, IDS480, MX100, NEC8032a and the C. Itoh Prowriter. Eacti 
driver allows the use of all the special features of the printer: they even 
allow right justification of proportional print. None of the other word- 
processors for the Atari have this option; and until they do, it does 
make the AtariWriter a best buy If this is important to you. Since these 
files are automatically booted in, it also makes this wordprocessor the 
easiest to use for the printers noted above. 

The most impressive new program I’ve seen in the entertainment 
area ever is the fantasic new program by Chris Jochumson and Doug 
Carlston of Broderbund called The Arcade Machine. (17 Paul Drive. 
San Rafeal, CA 94903. $60. Although it arrived too late lor a full review 

— see next issue — this incrediable new "language" allows you to 
make arcade quality games of your own design with great ease, tt in¬ 
cludes 4 made games on files as examples; the manual tells you how 
to modify them. You can easily create shapes, backgrounds and title 
pag^, then make the shapes move in any path you wish. You can add 
all kinds of "canned" sound effects as well as make your own, in¬ 
cluding music. You can make up to 5 levels lor each game, have 
various options,etc. The games that are included are simillar to com¬ 
mercial quality games. You can easily lest and change them to your 
hearts content; then, when all is ready, automatically create a “boot 
disk" and send them to your friends (or ACE!) to amaze your friends. It 
Is very easy to create a game like, say, "Joust". If you create 
something you really like and think is great, you can send it to Broder¬ 
bund and win prizes or even a contract as a game creator. If you like 
Pintiall Constniction Set by Electronic Arts, you’ll go wild over this 
one! A "must buy" for Arcader’s— please send the ones you really 
like to ACE, and we can trade them around!! More next month on this 
one. 

Last month I mentioned a book by Jim Carr which indexes ACE, as 
well as A.N,A.L.D.G., ANTIC, Creative Computing and Compute!, and 
available from Valley Soft, 2660 SW DeArmond, Corvallis, OR 97333 lor 
$6.1 forgot to give the name: it is the Soft Finder 1.1, and I find I use it 
all the time — well worth getting. 

LOGO is out but not available easily — Atari is test marketing it on 
the East Coast only; so if you have one, consider yourself fortunate in¬ 
deed. I have never even seen it except fora 5 minute demo, and have 
had it ordered for quite a while. Good Luck. 

TARICON ’83. the first all Atari Computer Convention, will be held at 
the Southfield Civic Center Pavillion, Southfield, Michigan, from Oct 
21-23. Sponsored by Michigan ACE. There will be over 50 exhibit 
booths, seminars and workshops featuring famous software authors, 
game tournaments, etc. Write TariCon '83 Info, MACE Box 2765 
Southfield, Ml 48037 lor details. 

We’ll appreciate receiving articles from those of you going to this 
exciting confererence!! 

The ATH 8000 company, SWP, has finally released the final version 
of MYDOS which allows use of double-sided drives, as well as the use 
of the Atari RS-232 port. I have not received it yet, but it is ready. $30 
from SWP or your local dealer. There is also a new upgrade EPROM 
(3.2) to allow this DOS to work. 

Last month, I mentioned my Austin Franklin 80 Col Board (Austin 
Franklin Assoc., 43 Grove St., Ayer, MA 01432). After talking to Mr. 
Franklin, I found out the problem was my 32K memory board. Since I 
had one of the first 32K boards made, it used too much power, and 
made the image unstable. He is going to send me his 48K board to 
Show me the difference. I have not received it yet, but will report on it 
when I do. 

The cover cartoon is by a new member who is stationed somewhere 
In the tropics, A. Grimm Richardson. Mr. Richardson is a prolific writer 
for various publications, but, unfortunately all the ones he has written 
for have gone out of business. His cartoon is somewhat obscure, but 
very funny when you figure it out. The optional caption is “And where 
do you think computer hardware and software gets them?" 
Remember, the artist is from the tropics, where they really grow well. 





2 - 



Ultn Diuuamblar 

Adventure International, Box 3435, Longwood, FL 32750, $50 

Written by Ralph Jones, this new disassembler is one ot a series 01 
utilities, including Oiskey, caiied the Ultra series by Al. If the future 
one are as good. Atari owners can rejoice. 

Dlsassembiers ali translate machine language (binary ioad) fiies in¬ 
to assembly language so you can see "List" the program. The Ultra¬ 
disassembler adds some amazing features. First, it allows you to take 
the assembly language listing and put it into the assembler of your 
choice for modification and reassemblirtg it to machine code. 

Although specifically designed to use the Atari MacroAssembler, 
there is a utility program ailowing you to use almost any of the other 
available assemblers. The assembly language listing produced is for¬ 
mated in pseudo^xxfe with standard Atari system labeis. As an exam¬ 
ple, the memory location $02E5 is called MEMTOP by Atari, since it is 
the memory location of the Atari operating system which gives the 
location of the top of memory of the sytem. When a program is 
disasembled, instead of listing something like STA $02E5, which is 
difficult to understand. It will say STA MEMTOP. This allows for much 
easier understanding of the listing. A great tool for learning machine 
language by example. 


ACTION! 

O.S.S., 10379 Landsdale AVE., Cuperino, CA 95014, $99 ROM 

From the originators of Atari BASIC, as well as many other lanuages 
for the Atari; BASIC A-t-, C, MAC-65, etc., comes a new, original 
lartguage available only for the Atari. ACTION! is In the new Precision 
Software Tools series which are on the OSS “SuperCartridge", allow¬ 
ing 24K on one ROM by bankswitching. This cartridge includes the 
language ACTION!, a Text Editor, a Compiler, monitor and a library of 
useful procedures all on one cartridge! Switching back and forth is in- 
stantaneos. 

The language is a extremiy high speed, high level, structured 
lahguage combining the best features of C, Pascal, Ada and BASIC. It 
runs 100 to 200 times faster than BASIC. Although it Is compilied, the 
compiler Is built In and does not have to be loaded in. 

You begin programing by using the powerful editor. This built-in 
screen editor uses the horizontal and vertical scrolling window techni¬ 
que allowing a line to be 120 charactors wide or more — I recommend 
you set the line width to the width of your printer. The editor has many 
features of a good text editor, such as Search and Replace, ability to 
move text blocks, 2 windows, various types of deletions, restoring 
deletions if you change your mind, scrolling up and down, etc. The AC¬ 
TION! language does not require line numbers, 

ACTION! Is a structured language similiar to C. It is actually easy to 
program In — the manual Includes a section on translating BASIC to 
ACTION!, and it was very easy to translate some of the programs writ¬ 
ten in C In Byte. The cartridge includes many procedures in its library 
to simplify programming. The language Includes many bit manipula¬ 
tion operators. You begin programming by naming the procedure, then 
declaring data types and variables. Structured statements include 
IF...WHILE...UNTIL, as well as ELSE and ELSEIF. These conditional 
statements end with FI. DO...UNTIL.OD are used for loops. Available 
also are attended data types such as pointers, arrays and powerful 
record manipulation comrrtands, rather than Just simple string 
manipulatiora. 

After the program Is written, you go to the monitor and start to com¬ 
pile it If you made an error, the program stops, and you go back to the 
editor; your cursor Is on the error. Unlike most compiled languages, 
the editor and compiler are instantly available on the cartridge, so you 
do not have to re-load everything again. When it is compiled, you run 
the program, or. If testing, just a particular procedure in the program. 
Since it is a compiled language, everything Is very fast 

The language is very easy to program with, probably easier than 
BASIC for a beginner. The manual, however, makes it very difficult tor 
a beginner to leara There are too few examples, and several of them 
have typographical errors that are frustrating for a beginner. There Is 
no Index, and the organization makes it difficult to follow the ex¬ 
amples. Anyone used to structured programming should find it easy to 
learn, and because of the built in compilier/editor ROM, should find it 
a pleasure corhpared to Pascal and C. 

Compiled programs need ACTION! to run — there does not appear 
to be a run-time utility. O.S.S. will be releasing a disk of ACTION! pro¬ 
grams which should go a long way toward helping us learn. This could 
be a very popular language, especially if is made available for use with 
other micro-computers. If any of you develop some programs, 
especially comparing BASIC with ACTION!, please send them in and 
we can start a regular column. 

— M. Dunn 




BUMPAS 


REVIEWS 


This month I have five games, all of which I rate a 10. 

Excalibur, $29.95 from APX, is the latest and greatest creation from 
the mind of Chris Crawford. You are Arthur with the quest to become 
King of England forever. But first, the other 15 kings must pledge feal¬ 
ty to you. One or two of them might even rise to compete with you dur¬ 
ing the game for the control of all England. You must use your 
prestige, the Knights of the Round table and your army of men at arms, 
and Merlin to complete the quest. 

The game includes three modules: A beautiful map of all England 
which scrolls across more than a dozen screens: Camelot castle with 
five separate rooms full of objects to manipulate; and the field of bat¬ 
tle where the knights and men at arms appear in battle array. 

Each king has his own castle, and Arthur can only enter the castle 
of a vassal. But with Merlin's help, he can “see" into the castle of any 
king to watch how the computer manipulates treasury, taxes and ar¬ 
my. Arthur keeps a strategic map in his Throne Room which highlights 
each kingdom in a distinct color indicating a vassal, neutral, tributary 
or hostile king. 

This is a real-time strategic game. Weeks pass without regard to 
how fast or slow you do your moves. An "Intermission" is available in 
case you are called away from the game briefly. One game in progress 
may be saved on a disk. I'm interested in exchanging information on 
the experiences you will have in this game. I've already united England 
under Arthur once, but I'm sure I did not do it the most efficient way. 
I've never seen a strategic game I enjoy more than this one. 

Dark Crystal is a graphics adventure game on 3 disks from Sierra 
OnLlne for $60. I'm not a real fan of adventure games, but you don't 
have to be one to enjoy this game. Fans of the movie will enjoy how 
closely this game parallels the movie. This game makes you the 
character Jen in the movie. As the last surviving Gelfling, your quest is 
to find and repair the broken shards of the Crystal. All the baddies 
from the film are here to stop you. 

Operation Whirlwind from Broderbund for $39.95, puts you in com¬ 
mand of a German mechanized battalion with the task of driving 15 km 
through Russian lines to take and hold a town. The map scrolls across 
nearly 10 screens of finely detailed terrain. Enemy units are hidden un¬ 
til they move or fire. There is some real-time action during the combat 
phase. The longer you take to complete your combat, the longer you 
are bombarded by Russian artillery. You must also be concerned with 
the range and effect of your weapons against the various targets. A 
game in progress can be saved at the end of any tura Player perfor¬ 
mance is evaluated by headquarters and reported each turn. 



POOYAN, $29.95 from Oatasoft is a joystick game for small children 
which will give the rest of us a challenge, too. The name means 
"piglet" in Japanese. This may mean the game is an import of a 
popular Japanese arcade game. 

The player is a mother pig protecting her piglets from wolves. She 
has arrows and raw meat to keep the wolves away. The wolves must 
descend a canyon wall holding onto balloons to get at the piglets. As 
they descend, they throw acorns at the pig, trying to knock her out of 
her basket hanging from the opposite canyon wall. Two piglets with a 
pulley mechanism attached haul the basket up and down. 

Once a wave of wolves passes and one has pig lives remaining, the 
scene shifts to the wolves' lair. Here the wolves try to ascend to the 
clifftop. Seven wolves at the top will be able to push a stone over the 
edge and knock the pig out of her basket. 

If she survives this scene, a bonus scene allows her to gain points 
by throwing raw meat to the wolves without risking being knocked out 
of her basket. A second bonus scene is mentioned in the documenta¬ 
tion where points are gained by shooting strawberries. I guess you 
need more ^ill than I have to get to that page. 

COMBAT LEADER for $39.95 from Strategic Simulations, Inc. is a 
Joystick game simulating small-unit tactics. The player may command 
an individual tank, scout vehicle or personnel carrier. Or one may com¬ 
mand a whole squad, platoon, or even an entire company. Enemy units 
and any units not commanded by the player will be commanded by the 
Atari. 

The map scrolls vertically across more than six screens, covering a 
40x77 grid. The terrain shows woods, hills with topographical lines, 
rocky areas and depressions (these look like shell-holes to me). The 
map is predominantly green or olive-drab depending upon the 
scenario. 




The little tanks show turning turrets; the carriers look like boxes; the 
Infantry are only little "-i-”s. Shooters show little muzzle flashes of 
red; targets blow up in a bigger red fireball, leaving wrecks which look 
like ants or beetles. Each weapon produces its distinctive sound. 
Engine noises accompany movement. 

Dozens of “canned" scenarios are available on the disk by combin¬ 
ing various mixtures of terrain, weapons systems, and missions. Or 
one may design custom scenarios to one's own specifications by 
responding to a couple of dozen prompts setting the various terrain 
densities, unit sizes, weapons characteristics, pace of the game and a 
random number from 1 to 8 which alternates the positioning of the 
various terrain features. 

A chart of dozens of tanks, scout vehicles and carriers is provided 
so one may create scenarios using historical vehicles with 
characteristics which conform to game parameters. It's been a long 
time since I've enjoyed playing a wargarne more than this one. 

—Jim Bumpas 















F or the past nine years, we’ve all witnessed how 
computers have changed our daily lives. But 
one thing will never change: Whenever a new 
computer language is intn^uced, its advocates 
will ^gin challenging the other languages. In¬ 
evitably, battle lines are drawn and a furor erupts. 

The current furor has to do with the differences between 
Logo and BASIC. Logo advocates extol its sophisticated 
learning philosophy, contrasting Lf)go’s educational appli¬ 
cations to BASIC’S pedestrian applications. BASIC’s 


champions, on the other hand, point to BASIC’s 
tradition"—its vast collection of software and universal 
appeal, not to mention its ability to efficiently program a 
cornpletc microcomputer system of printers, disk drives, 
and other peripherals. 

When microcomputers were first introduced to the 
n A ci% people had few languages from which to choose. 
BASIC was the predominant language available because it 
was so easily adaptable to small computers. Choosing a 
language wasn t an issue. But now we are faced with having I 





















to make decisions which are often based 
on very little understanding or experi* 
ence. Novice owners of home computer 
systemSi individuals and educators 
alike, are likely to have questions such 
as: Which programming language is 
best? Which language can do the most? 
Do I need more than one language? 
Which language is the easiest to learn ? 
Which is the easiest to use? 

In the case of Logo and BASIC, there 
are no simple answers to these ques¬ 
tions. Each programming language was 
designed to nil particular, and often dif¬ 
ferent, needs. 

For most home computer applic 
tions, many different program- ' 
languages can be used to accomplish i ; 
same goal. However, different languages 
can make it easier or harder to accom- 
pish some goals depending on the task 
at hand. The task environment —what 
you want to do with your computer—is 
therefore an important consideration 
when choosing a language. Some of the 
most common and interesting tasks yo.- 
can perform on the Atari Computer 
include: 

• ^''^phic Designs—creating color 
drawings and desigiu on the com¬ 
puter screen or for color plotting and 
printing. 

• Animation—moving shapes, figures 
or objects on the computer screen. 

• Music—using computer-generated 
sounds to create melodies or sound 
effects. 

• Data Processing—the manipulation, 
storage and retrieval of information 
to and ftom the computer and its 
peripherals. 


The Task Environment 

Graphics 

O NE OF THE MORE endearing features 
of Logo is its “Turtle Graphics." 
Logo’s structure evolved from LISP, 
a powerful list processing language used 
by computer scientists and researchers in 
the field of Artificial Intelligence. When 
^go was first designed by Seymour 
Papert there were no graphics. The first 
experiments with children involved pro¬ 
cessing lists of words. Although Papert’s 
initial experiments were successful, he 
felt that younger children would find pro^ 
gramming easier to comprehend if they 
co^ actually see their program at work. 

L ® “turtle" was originally a mechanical 
robot with a plastic domed top; its appear¬ 
ance resembled a turtle, hence its Logo 
namesake. TTie turtle has since evolved 
into four computerized turtle-shaped cur¬ 
sors residing in Atari Logo. To program 
the turtles, you simply tell them where 
to go.. 

This graphics system is known as rela¬ 
tive geometry, or “turtle geometry." The 

*• atari CONNECTION 



Logo 


analog of giving directions helps illus¬ 
trate this concept. If a stranger were to 
ask you how to get to a certain gas station 
in your town, you could give him direc- 

(1) You could 
tell him the gas station is on the comer of 

^ n L*’ Main St.; or (2) you could 
tell him to go down three blocks, then 
Wm left onto Elm St. until he reaches 
3rd St; turn left onto 3rd St. and drive 
three blocks until he arrives at the comer 
of 3rd and Main. 

The Mcond example is an illustration 
of relative geometry. The first example 
illustratesCartesion Coordinates. In Logo, 
you have access to both types of graphics 
systems; thus, in a sense, the programmer 
is placed on the screen along with the 
turtles. 

basic graphics system uses Car¬ 
tesian Coordinates to set up a “pixel grid" 
of X and Y coordinates that plot each 
graphic point. 

Although its graphics are not nearly as 
wphisticated as Logo’s “Turtle Graph¬ 
ics, BASIC offers a broad range of 
graphics capabilities that include mul- 
**P‘® colors and a diverse selection of 
resolutions. With ATARI 
BASIC’ you can access all 20 Graphics 
Modes of the Atari Computer (26 with 
the new Atari XL Home Computer se- 
rie^. Logo’s Turtle has only three 

Graphics Mode 0 and 7 (full-sceen) 
and Graphics Mode 7 (split-screen). 

Animation 

One of the features that sets the Atari 
Computers apart from other home com- 
putera is their built-in player/missile 
SJ^pbics anitndtion system. This feature 
allows programmers to move shapes 
quickly and smoothly across the screen. 
Although player/missile graphics are not 
hilly supported in ATARI BASIC, you 


can use simple machine languag >b- 
routines to access this animation sy.....m. 
The experienced ATARI BASIC 
programmer can create entertaining 
arcade-style game animation using 
player/missile graphics and character set 
animation. 

In Logo, the turtles are players. You 
can redefine the four turtle “players" on 
the screen with four different shapes and 
colors. You can move these shapes 
smoothly—even rapidly change them for 
animation. Logo is the only Atari lan¬ 
guage that directly accesses player/missile 
graphics. 

In addition to moving the Logo turtles 
around, we can tell a turtle to start 
moving in a direction at a certain speed 
and it will keep moving until it’s told to 
stop. This becomes a very useful and 
powerful programming feature when 
combined with the use of “WHEN 
demons." 

Using the WHEN demon feature al¬ 
lows us to have the program execute spe¬ 
cial instructions WHEN the turtle hits 
something. An easy way to picture this is 
to imagine the WHEN command calling 
on a WHEN demon, who watches for a 
condition to be met and then performs 
the operation. Once the WHEN demon 
hM its instructions, the program can 
relax and continue without worrying, 
confident that someone’s “on the job" 
watching for collisions or conditions to 
ari^. In BASIC, the program has to ^ 
either continually on guard or must 
periodically check for collisions. 

Music 

Logo has two distinct tones that can 
be simultaneously turned on, with con¬ 
trol over their frequency, volume and 
duration. With Logo, you can create 
simple melodies and game sound effects. 

BASIC offers four distinct tones, with 
control over their frequency, volume, 
and even a distortion factor for creating 
sound effects. The skillful programmer 
can create four-part harmonies, from 
those used in barbershop quartets to New 
Wave rock, not to mention the complete 
complement of standard arcade game 
sound effects. 


Data Processing 

In most computer languages, data is 
represented by single numbers, or string 
arrays of characters. In Logo, however, 
we have numbers, words arid lists. A word 
consists of characters, while a list is a 
group of numbers, words, or lists 
separated by spaces. 

Usually, we think of text as groups of 
words, sentences and paragraphs. Logo 
mimics our concept of “text" which 
makes the handling of words very simple 
and natural. On the other hand, if we 
want to break a word down to its individ¬ 
ual characters, we can treat a word much 




like a list. 

Lists are also useful for “normal” appli¬ 
cations. Obviously, a mailing list would 
be pretty simple, but what about a word 
processor that “reads” entire words in¬ 
stead of individual characters? Anything 
that can be handled using strings and ar¬ 
rays can be handled using a list processing 
routine. “Thought processing” designed 
for human interaction is much more 
efficient in Logo than in a language using 
data arranged in strings. 

On the other hand, BASIC is well 
suited for programming an entire com¬ 
puter system to process data—retrieving 
the data from a disk drive, updating it, 
printing it, and putting it back on disk¬ 
ette. Atari Logo would also be a great 
language for true data processing applica¬ 
tions because of its list processing capa¬ 
bilities, but you can’t easily get the data 
to and from the storage and printing 
devices. When Atari Logo was designed, 
I/O (Input/Output) simply wasn’t part of 
its repertoire, because of the excessive 
amount of memory required for system 
programming. 

The Programming 
Environment 

Another consideration when choosing 
a language is what we’ll call the program¬ 
ming environment. Different languages of¬ 
ten require a different user approach, 
even when the task is the same. Most 
programming languages are constructed 
in a way that makes them very difficult to 
use if you try to program in a style or 
approach that conflicts with the way the 
language is designed. However, you can if 
you understand what a language is good 
at doing and capitalize on its strengths. 
The following are examples of program¬ 
ming environments: 

• Interactive—allowing the user to 
sit down at a terminal, “talk to the 
computer," and receive immediate 
responses. 

• Modular—each task can be written 
expressing as an individual piece of a 
program that can later be used as a 
building block in larger programs. 

• Extensible—creating new program¬ 
ming commands that become part of 
the langauge and, in effect, make the 
language grow. 

• Recursive—allowing people to define 
a task or concept in terms of itself. 

Logo Programming 

Logo was conceived and designed as a 
computer langauge that could help 
children learn how to structure their 
thinking and discover new thought pro¬ 
cesses. A child learning to program in 
Logo also becomes familiar with basic 
problem solving techniques as well. Asa 
result, Logo’s strongest point is its leam- 



BASIC 


ing structure. 

The research and development work in 
Artificial Intelligence, from which LISP 
grew, has revealed how some of our 
human thought processes and “belief sys¬ 
tems” are structured. Logo has inherited 
this tradition and structure, and 
therefore, more closely approximates the 
structure of our natural human thinking. 

This capability makes Logo a truly ex¬ 
tensible language, which means it can 
“learn” new commands in ways that are 
similar to how people learn. In most Ian-, 
guages we have a fixed set of commands. 
In Logo we start with a fixed set of com¬ 
mands (called primitives) but we can 
write our own commands as well. This 
feature creates a rich environment for 
exploring how people think and solve 
problems. Logo programmers will also 
find the language to be extremely inter¬ 
active, allowing ideas to be created and 
immediately tested and c'nanged if so 
desired. Each task can be solved indepen¬ 
dently and later incorporated into a 
larger program. This is a result of the 
modular structure of the language. 

One of Logo’s most powerful features is 
its recursive problem-solving capability. 
Recursion provides you with a program¬ 
ming tool that not only helps you solve 
problems in a program, but teaches you a 
sophisticated problem-solving technique 
you can use in your daily life. Although 
recursion is a simple technique once 
learned, it’s a difficult concept to grasp 
and requires learning a new way of 
thinking. 

Recursion encourages you to look for a 
simple solution to a complex problem. To 
apply recursive problem-solving, you first 
see if you can break a complex problem 
down to a simpler version of itself. You 
then look for a solution to this simple 
problem. Once you’ve discovered a solu¬ 


tion, you use it to solve the more com¬ 
plex problem. This may all seem 
“simple,” but you’ll find this a difficult 
technique to apply in practice. Still, 
Logo’s recursion feature can be used to 
write programs that solve problems cre¬ 
ated by a larger program. The applica¬ 
tions possibilities are indeed very 
powerful. 

BASIC Programming 

BASIC is not extensible, modular, or 
recursive. Its strength lies in its use as an 
all-purpose tool that is especially tailored 
to solve simple or complex computa¬ 
tional problems. 

Unfortunately, programs written in 
BASIC are not easy to modify. The inter¬ 
active nature of BASIC does allow a 
programmer to test pieces of a program, 
but this facility is not extremely useful 
because of the lack of structure built into 
the language. 

Many experienced BASIC program¬ 
mers will argue that this structure (called 
“structured programming”) is possible in 
BASIC. This is true, but it takes a great 
deal of self-discipline to write structured 
code in BASIC, while in Logo you 
structure your program naturally along 
the lines of your own thinking. Thus, 
Logo teaches good programming habits 
and, therefore, some say, good thinking 
habits. 

We would like to warn the reader at 
this point to be careful when comparing 
these languages by their commands 
alone. It is true that there are some literal 
translations of Logo and BASIC com¬ 
mands. But, for the most part it’s a 
frustrating approach, because the 
structures of both languages are so differ¬ 
ent. You’re faced with a similar problem 
when comparing different human 
languages—especially in the case of lan¬ 
guages from Western and Eastern 
cultures. Certain social habits and cus¬ 
toms that are peculiar to each culture 
simply cannot be translated literally. 

The User Environment 

Finally, before choosing a computer 
language, it is important to consider your 
purpose in using the computer—the 
environment in which you will be 
working. Following are several distinct 
User Environments: 

• Computer Literacy—the user wishes 
to learn how to use computers. 

• Problem Solving—the user who is de¬ 
veloping logical skills and creative 
thinking. 

• Computer Science—the user who 
wants to learn about the design of 
computers and programming 
languages. 

• Computer Enthusiast—the person 
who loves to “compute” and who 
learns everything he or she can about 

(continued on page 72) 


■ FALL 1983 » 




Logo vs. BASIC 

(contirtued frum page 29) 


the powers of the machine. 

Logo 

Logo is ideal for the no\ icc computer 
user who just wants to get his or her feet 
wet—it’s an excellent intnxluction to 
the world of computers and program¬ 
ming. Logo was especially constructured 
to help individuals develop their 
problem-solving skill.s and to encourage 
logical thinking. It is ideal in this envi- 
ronment, even for advanced 
programmers. 

Logo also provides a very getod envi¬ 
ronment for studying various concepts in 
the domain of computer science, but 
these concepts (Artihcial Intelligence, 
data structures, list priKessing) are all 
quite complex and not foi the beginner. 

The Logo language was designed so a 
programmer w ould not have to encounter 
the internal architecture or operating sys¬ 
tem of the computet. With Logo, people 
can be creative without iia\ ing to worry 
about technical details, but Logo does 
share BASIC’s capability to store and 
retrieve data directly from the computer’s 
memory (RAM). In BASIC, the com¬ 
mands are PEEK and POKE; in Logo you - 
use .EXAMINE and DEPOSIT. Also, j 
both have the abiliry to call upon a ma- [ 
chine language routine In Logo this com- 1 

Warner Denies 
Plans to Get Out 
Of Computers 

By l.iaura I auulro 
S^riat to The AiUn Wall stmt Joureil - 

NEW YORK - Warner Communications 
Inc. has strongly denied reports that it is 
considering leaving the home computer busi¬ 
ness as a result of heavy losses at its Atari 
Inc. unit 

Although'Warner declined comment In 
the past about its plans. Steven J. Ross, 
Warner’s chairman and chief executive, re¬ 
sponded to growing speculation about Atari’s 
future in the computer business. “We are 
unequivocally not getting out of the computer 
business," Mr. Ross said. 

Vulnerability to Takeover ‘ 

Warner's troubles have led to all manner 
of speculation about the company, including 
its vulnerability to a hostile takeover. Com¬ 
petitors and some Wall Street analysts have 
also speculated that Atari will soon decide to 
withdraw from bie fiercely-competitive 
home computer market, shifting its focus to 
supplying computer and game software. 

"Atari has been the high-priced product 
with no market share,"- said David 
Londoner, an analyst -at Wertheim 6 Co. “If 
Ibey get out of the manufacture of computers 
and into pure software," the company stands 
a good chance at siicc«m. he added. 

M ATARlCTiNNtCTIOS 


mand is a simple CALL; in BASIC, the 
USR command. 

The machine language features of both 
these languages are indispensable for pro¬ 
grams that need fast processing speeds 
and need to “talk" directly to the com¬ 
puter’s hardware. But with Logo’s limited 
“access commands" you really can’t 
“tinker" with yiiur computer. In this 
regard. Logo is probably not the kind of 
language that would satisfy the computer 
enthusiast. 

BASIC 

BASIC is a good language to start 
with when first using computers, but 
many people develop poor habits when 
BASIC is their fir.st programming lan¬ 
guage. As programming languages go, 
BASIC doesn’t encourage systematic ap¬ 
proaches to problem solving. 

As far as learning about computers, 
BASIC provides an adequate environ¬ 
ment for developing an understanding of 
computer sciece, but cannot be recom¬ 
manded as a language that can teach 
human interaction with computers—one 
of the more challenging and sophisti¬ 
cated aspects of computer science. 

But, for the computer enthusiasts 
— you hacker types ready to jump in and 
get your hands dirty — BASIC provides a 
plethora of programming features that al¬ 
low easy access to the internal operating 


system of computers. In this respect, 
BASIC is clearly the choice for this type 
of user environment. 

Which Language is Best? 

You could say BASIC is best |f you 
want to write programs for simple data¬ 
base managers, arcade-style computer 
games and system utilities—it’s a true 
worUunse language, in other words. 

Then again, you could say Logo is best 
if you simply wish to learn a language to 
know more about computers or if you 
want to teach your child about com¬ 
puters. Logo is also the perfect language 
for writing short, easy-to-program learn¬ 
ing games that are fun to play, because of 
the turtle graphics and list processing ca¬ 
pabilities. After you start learning Logo 
you will find that it is an excellent lan¬ 
guage for challenging your mind. It is like 
a very complex and exciting video game 
that never ends—and doesn’t use up your 
quarters. 

In answer to the question Which lan¬ 
guage is best?, you should ask yourself, 
“What do 1 want to do with my com¬ 
puter?” The chances are you’ll answer 
“Logo and BASIC ..." 


by Dave Mencoru and Ted Richards, with 
portions excerpted from Language Com¬ 
parisons by Dr. Wayne Harvey of Atari 
Special Projects. 


Last Friday. Warner reported a third- 
quarter loss of (122.3 million, in constrast 
with a profit in last year’s quarter of $78.6 
million, or (1.21 per share. Sales plummeted 
, to (768:8 million from (1.06 billion in last 
: year’s third quarter. That brought Atari’s 
total losses for the first nine months to $424.6 
I million, compared with a profit of $224.8 
million, or $3.46 a share, last year. Nine 
month sales fell to (2.37 billion from (2.93 
' billion. 

Warner has been unable to offset the 
losses at its Atari video game and computer 
unit with profits, from other businesses; a 
32% increase in combined operating income 
from its movie, consumer products and rec¬ 
ords businesses "did not overcome the sub- 
stontial operating loss at Atari." Mr. Ross, 
said. 

Operating Loss 

Atari had a third quarter operating loss of 
I 880.2 million on sales that plummeted to 
887.7 million from S28.8 million. Atari’s 
nine month loss amounted to $536.3 million on 
revenues that fell to $753.6 million from 8.41 
billion. 

Geoffrey Holmes, a Warner vice presi¬ 
dent, noted that the company will have four 
new computer models on retailers’ shelves 
this Christmas. "We’re just starting to get 
into our selling season for Christmas,", he 
said. And although he acknowledged that the 
expected introduction of the "Peanut" from 
international business machines "will take 



its share of the market," he pointed out that 
other competitors are dropping oiit. For 
example. Texas Instruments Inc. announced 
last week that it wouldn’t introduce a new 
home computer. Mattel Electronics Inc. is 
expected to exit the home computer market 
and Colecb Industries Inc. has been ex¬ 
periencing delays with its new Adam 
computer. 


PILOT 

TAKES OFF IN 
PENNSYLVANIA 
SCHOOL 


Along with readin’, writin’, 
and ’rithmetic, students at 
Yeadon, Pennsylvania’s 
Evans Computer Magnet 
School, are getting a strong 
dose of computer learning by 
way of Atari PILOT. 

Now in its second year, the 
computer program at the 
Philadelphia-area elementary 
school offers classes in com¬ 
puter literacy and applica¬ 
tions in a special “computer 
center." All 4(X) students and 
15 teachers at the school par¬ 
ticipate in the program. 

The school chose Atari 
PILOT because it allows stu¬ 
dents to manipulate the com- 











computer talk 


Mrs CUsholm has now set 
up her own company to ' 
market computers with 
speciil!y''prepered teaching \ 
ai<)s for primary classroom 1 
use, J^rpp^tely named I 
diassropmiCcnnputers. f 
^Five*^ families, including | 
Mrs Chisholm’s, got together ^ 
about 18 montte ago and | 
looked .into ,what was 
available in computers for 
younger children. They 
found that Basic, the ^ 
language i|ked with most 
home computers, was not 
particularly useful fw work 
with ahil^en. 

Further research turned 
up two“-simple cmnputer 
langua^,'^l*not and Logo, 
whl£K 'incorporate graphics 
in the early stages. 

The'tomputer bii^age is 
the system which is us^ to 
“taUc to">itr programme a 
coihputer. 

Turtle talk 

These systems are based ' 
- oh thb idtt tiiat there is a 
I turtle inside the computer— 
instructi<»s typed into the 
computer monitor tell the 
turtle what to do. 

For. examine a child may 
tel the turtle to draw 20 units 
m Qie screen. The turtie will 
take 20 steps and draw a line 
asitgdes.^. 

In ‘thischildren learn ' 
bow to use a computer, 
which in turn opens up a vast 
.aumber of possibilities, The 
kirtle can ^aw all kinds of 
mings given the right in¬ 
structions. 

Mrs Chisholm sajn one of 
die best things about using 
computers with children is 1 
di&axea of success it gives to 


those who. may havd dif¬ 
ficulties in other areas. They 
..can. make mistakes .j-r it 
doesn’t hurt the computm* 
..and th«i woilc out host to 
^correct them. V 

> “QiQdrai get trem«id^ 

^ satisfaction from getting die 
computer to do somethii^;. 
, sorkinf it out, getting it 
/right. It can imprqve &ir 
.ySelf image a lii”,Mrs 
Chisholm Said. ^ 

- Computers can hdp siip- 
iriement other classroom ac-' 
thdfies, and can sup^ement: 
^ teacher quite effectively, j 

to stay I 


tinother reasm for bring- 
computers into schools 
«he says is that nearly 
wery^ is going to find 
kind of ccHDuier or 
'terminal in their \mqiiace. 

, A lot of pe^ie aret<itTified 


across teachers who are too I 
scared to put a hand on the 
computer. That’s another i 
reason for familiarising 
children with computers — 
to reduce Qie mystique and 
help themT realise that com¬ 
puters are just a verv 
sophisticated tool. 

Mrs Chishdm is working 
on a series of activity cards 
for use in the classroom. Her 
company offers a computer 
for aound $900 and the school 
would have to obtain its own 
TV set and tape recorder. 
She offers demonstrations 
and activity cards along with 
the computer. 

One example of an activity 
card is one Mrs Chisholm 
based on a picture book. The I 
computer is programmed to 
ask “What goes iqi?’’ If the | 
child types in a ccnrect ^ 
answo- such as'a rocket, a 
rocket will shoot across the 
screen and tiie chQd will 
know he or she has answered 
correctly. If the answer is 
wrong no picture will ap- | 

Withlhisku^ofo^fsea | 
oWld learns how to use the 
r«eomputar, read the instiw- 
^tion and whethar his or her 
^spellu^ is correct of *io*- 

Logical 

Oiildren also get an in- 
bb^tion to orderly, lo0cal 


thinking Mrs Chisholm said. 

She and the other four 
families who formed a com¬ 
puter group each bought an 
Atari computer, which is no 
bigger than a ' typewriter, 
wlidcb they ctnild connect to 
a television set. They cost 
around $1700 each, then, 
thou^ now they are much 
cheaper. 

Hie group meets regularly 
in each others’ homes m at 
tile local school to learn 
about computers. 

Mrs Chisholm displayed 
her activity cards at the re¬ 
cent “Learning in the Com¬ 
puter Age Exhibitiim’’ at the 
Michael Fowler centre and 
she is circularising primary 
schools at present, offering 
demonstrations of com¬ 
puters, her teaching aids and 
the possibilities offered by 
computers in the laimary 
school classroom. 

Atari computers are 
, cheaper than some others 
1 she said, but bemuse the 
Atari firm also market video 
games a lot of people think 
they doh’t make “rw’’.cpm- 
(Hitm: l^iey do. 

Mrs Chisholm t«»ches 
senior EngMi, part-time at 
I Wellington High school, 
'where emnpotmr studies is 
part of the curriculum <rf- 
fered to all pupils. 




puters, “not the other way 
around,” explains principal 
Thomas G. Kerr. “We also 
needed a program that would 
tie in closely with our other 
instructional areas.” 

The Evans School staff 
went one step further. They 
redesigned the Atari PILOT 
student manual to fit teachers 
specific lesson plans. “This 
became our curriculum guide 
for all the teachers, from first 
through sixth grades,” says 
Kerr. 

Students were introduced 
to the computers as “another 
curriculum area,” explains 
Kerr. “This way they knew it 
would be hard work, not just 
fiin and games.” 

“What’s exciting is that 
every student and teacher is 
involved in this program. 
Every teacher has had to 
learn Atari PILOT. At first 
they were frightened, but af¬ 
ter a year behind them, 
they’re looking forward to 
working with the computers 
again.” 

The Evans Computer Mag¬ 
net School welcomes inquiries 
from other elementary schools. 
For more inforrruxtion, contact 
Dr. Thomas G. Kerr, The 
Evans Computer Magnet 
School, Church Lane and Baily 
Road, Yeadon, Pennsylvania 
19050. 



Wafpiaa iMwiire^ miSkw Xealfy- 

t X,1llsll<Mnat tbe <*r;Mirnin<r In tKaWnmnntnr nv-hlMNAn 






PILOT ELLSWORTH 

learning with logo or picking pilot 

(A Comparison of the PILOT and LOGO Languages) 

Parents, educators, and beginning programmers who own ATARI 
computers now find themselved faced with the dilemma of choosing 
the language which will best meet their needs. While both PILOT and 
LOGO are considered introductory languages, each has some very uni¬ 
que characteristics which should be taken into consideration when an 
"either or" choice must be made. 

Perhaps, the first difference noticed between LOGO and PILOT after 
booting is the difference in editing procedure. Editing in both 
languages In the Edit Mode is very easy. PILOT, being like BASIC, ac¬ 
cesses the Editor through the LIST command and allows lull cursor 
control. It has the added advantage over BASIC of having an AUTO 
numbering and RENumbering function in the Editor. 

The Editor is called in LOGO by the command, EDIT “name of" pro¬ 
cedure. There is a full range of edit commands in LOGO, but no ability 
to edit in the immediate mode as procedures are being developed. We 
find this inability causes a considerably greater amount of typing and 
frustration to a beginning programmer, and the first plus for PILOT. 

Structurally LOGO, which is a subset of USP, is like PASCAL; 
PILOT is like BASIC. Both languages encourage structured programm- 
ming, although PILOT is not as tightly sturctured as most languages 
and allows beginners more freedom. PILOT requires line numbers, 
LOGO does not. PILOT uses modules around which programs are 
builL while LOGO requires them. Like PASCAL or FORTH, LOGO is 
completely modular, and fully expandable. In LOGO a defined pro¬ 
cedure is treated like a built in command. This ability becomes an im¬ 
portant plus tor LOGO in more compiicated or creative programming. 

Each of the languages has structural abilities the other lacks. PILOT 
has the MATCH command which easily allows the creation of interac¬ 
tive instructional programs or games with a mimimum amount of pro¬ 
gramming or effort. LOGO has the ability to handle LISTS which 
allows one to write programs dealing with symbolic manipulation, or 
complex data structures without having to encode them in 
nwthematical terms or strings. LOGO also has the ability to use recur¬ 
sion, which is the ability to define a problem in terms of itself. 

This concept, which can be quite confusing, may be explained in 
mathematical terms as being similar to the factorial of a number, X be¬ 
ing equal to X (X-t) factorial. For me, a nonmathematical person, it is 
easier to think of recursion as being like a pudding cake. Both the 
cake and the pudding use themselves and parts of the other in the in- 
complete state to come out with the finished product. This ability of 
LOGO makes possible very sophisticated programming. In my opi¬ 
nion, understanding recursion will help one to learn more of the com¬ 
plicated coiicepts in computer sciences as well as the nature of 
linguistics and thought processes In general. 

Screen output Is superior in PILOT. The screen is automatically 
cleared when a program is run. Text is broken only at the end of a 
word, making It easily read and the product neat In appearance. PILOT 
also has three text modes: Gr.O, and overstaid text modes 1 & 2; LOGO 
has only Gr. 0. 

Sound In both languages Is good. PILOT is slightly Inferior since It 
allows four voices and control of duration, while LOGO allows two 
voices with control of both volume and duration. 

Both languages allow practically unlimited lengths for variable 
names. Neither requires dimensioning. Both tanuages allow global 
variables (constant during a program). Only LOGO allws local 
variables which are used in a procedure then discarded. This permits 
their later rouse with different meaning in the same program. PILOT 
uses numerical and string variables similar fo BASIC, and has a max¬ 
imum of 26 numerical variables per program. LOGO considers all 
variables as "ol^ects”, numerical variables being viewed as words 
made up of digits. LOGO has the ability to manipulate variables In 
LISTS and to use them in recursion which PILOT does not, while 
PILOT has the ability to combine text literals with variables without 
designation as text literals making it easier for a beginner to write pro¬ 
grams with screen or printer output. 

PILOT is much easier to debug than LOGO because It contains a 
TRACE command which allows the programmer to view the lines be¬ 
ing used as the program progresses. This command is extremely 
umIuI. In my opinion it does not slow execution speed enough for 
beginners, but when the listing is interspersed with PA: commands to 
make the program run slowly, it becomes indispensable to beginners. 
PILOT also supports Remark statements, which LOGO does noL 
allowing explanations to be added for beginrrers or children. 

Both languages support Turtle Graphics. LOGO has superior Turtle 
Graphics since up to lour turtles can be visible if desired. LOGO also 
has a collision register, speed control, and either full or split screen 
graphics display. PILOT has an invisible turtle, and only split screen 
display but it does have a fill command which greatly enhances 
graphic's displays. The PILOT Turtle Is very much faster than the 
LOGO Turtlefs). 

tA-a 13 


The accompanying chart gives a thumbnail sketch of the major dif¬ 
ferences and abilities of LOGO and PILOT. In my opinion, PILOT is the 
language best suited to parents, educators, and those interested in 
programming who do not have the time or inclination to become deep¬ 
ly involved with programming languages and skills. It allows easy 
adaptation of text materials into electronic media, and programming 
using matching. Most instructive materials used by parents and 
educators, and simple game type programming written by children will 
fall into one of those two categories. 

The question which I am inevitably asked next is: Why LOGO. 
LOGO is a more sophisticated language which has the ability not only 
of manipulating more complicated data, but in my opinion, has the 
ability to develop in children a more creative approach to problem solv¬ 
ing and a more structured, scientific if you will, way of thinking. The 
ability to manipulate LISTS makes linguistic-type prj^raming available 
as well as the beginnings of programs that "learn." 

There are numerous concepts of mathematics and physics which 
can be taught painlessly through the use of LOGO Turtle graphics 
because of the Inclusion of speed control and recursion. In shorL I 
believe the LOGO type languages are the languages of the future. 
They may not be of necessary or even of interest to everyone. 

Unlike PILOT, LOGO will take some time to learn, and I recommend 
persons interested to take a class of some kirx) in LOGO. For those 
who cannot, the following are recommended: LOGO by Harold 
Ableson (the blue book): THE TURTLE'S SOURCE BOOK by Beaden, 
Martin, and Muller; and TURTLE NEWS and LOGO NEWSLETTER 
published by the Young Peoples’ LOGO Association, Inc., P.O. Box 
855067, Richardson, Texas 75065. 

The two short modules which follow are purely for demonstration of 
the difference in the coding of simple graphics procedures. The 
modules do not include printed prompts, although they require value 
input lor the three variables used. To use the POLYSPll LOGO pro- 
cedure, one must type POLYSPll followed by 3 values. To use the 
PILOT module, one must type U:*SQUIRL then type each value follow¬ 
ed by return when the graphics screen appears. 

Next month I will continue my regular PILOT articles, including the 
program translated into LOGO with notes on the necess^ changes. 
Later I will be preparing and explaining programming which uses the 
unique abilities of LOGO, as well as continuing to share some of the 
things we are doing with PILOT in our home. 

LOGO - PILOT COMPARISON CHART 



LOGO 

PILOT 

EDITOR 

X 

X 

Full cursor 

X 


Renum and Auto 

NA 

X 

Immediate mode 

X 


SCREEN OUTPUT 

Auto Clear 

X 


Does not break words 

X 


Multiple text modes 

X 


SOUND 

Voices 

2 

4 

Duration control 

X 

X 

Volume control 

X 


VARIABLES 

Local variables 

X 


Global variables 

X 

X 

No dimensioning 

X 

X 

Unlimited name length 

X 

X 

Maximum If variables 

X 


Mix with text literals 

X 


Data Types 

Numeric 

NA 

X 

Strings 

NA 

X 

Words 

X 

NA 

Lists 

X 

NA 

DEBUGGING 

Trace command 

X 


Remark statements 

X 


STRUCTURE 

Line numbers 

X 


Modular 

X 

Not completely 

Encourage structure Best 

Good 


Recursion 

X 


List processing 

X 


"Matching"functlon 

X 


Data manipulating 

X 

None 

Random Access 

None 

TURTLE GRAPHICS 

Visible Turtle 

X 


Multiple Turtles 

X 


Speed Control 

X 


Collision register 

X 


Fast execution 

X 


Fill command 

X 


Full screen graphics 

X 


Split screen graph. 

X 

X 





A Conversation With Sara Kiesier 



Communicating by Computer: 
The Good News, the Bad News 

Sara Kiesier is a professor of social science and social 
psychology and a member of the Robotics Institute faculty 
at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh. She and 
her colleagues conduct research on the social aspects of 
computers and the impact of new technology on organizations. 




W W ft C H K. t£FFLES-USN«IMt 


"Altering the way people relate to each other” 


Computers could markedly change human behavior 
by altering the way people relate to each other. 

On a telephone, you hear the other person’s tone of 
voice. Face to foce, you see a person’s smile or you see 
who takes the head seat at a meeting, and that provides 
a cue to status. 

But there is no such feedback in computer ex¬ 
changes. When people use a computer to send elec-, 
tronic mail, they do not see the other person, and so 
they lack nonverbal cues. 

Moreover, there are no social norms built up around 
electronic mail the way there are when you meet 
someone in person or talk to someone on ^e phone 
and say, “Hello, this is John Smith.” Consequently, 
computer exchanges are less predictable. 

What this means is that people are likely to be less 
inhibited when communicating by computer. A psychi¬ 
atrist in Wisconsin has found that people will say more 
to a computer in a diagnostic interview than to a physi¬ 
cian. It seems that they reveal more about themselves 
as fewer cues inhibit self-disclosure. 

In addition—and we have evidence of this—^people 
exchanging electronic messages are less likely to hold 
back strong feelings. They’re more 4kely to swear and 
insult others and to communicate in an abrupt manner. 

**A me-and-my-machine feeling” 

People involved ,in computing tend to get totally 
absorbed—sort of a me-and-my-machine feeling. 

Studies show that when people are absorbed in . a 
task, they are less self-aware. Hiis could mean that 
workahoUcs—and I’m just speculating—^will get worse 
as a result of using computers because they forget that 
they ought to stop. And people who are depressed, 
who are too self-aware, could become less depressed. 
Thus, computers might make a useful tool in therapy. 

I also think that shy people will benefit from using 
computers. The machines could help them communi¬ 
cate without embarrassment because no one would be 
looking at them. Their self-consciousness would be 
reduced. 

Computer communication could even promote de¬ 
velopment of deeper relationships. People might meet 
someone on the computer and then get together face 
to face. In this way, computers could stimulate human 
contact instead of reducing it, os some people fear. 

The “democratizing effect” of anonymity 


Computer communication has a democratizing ef¬ 
fect. If you have a face-to-face meeting of people, one 


person is likely to talk 30 to 40 percent of the time, 
another 20 percent, and the others are minor talkers. 
On a computer, we find that participation evens out 
and people talk about the same amount because they 
are less conscious of status and are protected by a 
feeling of anonymity. . 

Does this mean people will communicate more with 
superiors and superiors more with people to whom 
they don’t usually talk? 

liiat kind of shift could change communication pat¬ 
terns not just in small groups but in big organizations. 
It might lead to more face-to-face meetings because 
people wiQ raise issues they would not have raised 
otherwise. There may be more confrontation, and that 
can be good. 

In corporations that have electronic mail, there are 
already phenomena called “distribution-list inflation” 
and “copying up.” It’s very easy to communicate with 
many people on the computer. 

Put this together with the absence of inhibitions, 
and you’re likely to find that people communicating 
with their immediate superiors may also want to send 
copies to others, to whom they would not ordinarily 
send messages. 


Growino 


> between haves and have-nots” 


I believe that exposure of children to computing will 
tend to help all youngsters. But I worry that disadvan¬ 
taged children have less access to computers than 
well-to-do children. So while all children will be in¬ 
creasing in competence, the gap between the haves 
and have-nots will grow. ; 

The gap may be particularly important for women. 
Right now, computing seems to be a boys’ sport. Ar¬ 
cades tend to be male domains. 'The gam^ appeal to 
boys because they involve aggression or sports that 
boys tend to play more than girls. Even in schools and 
computer camps, behavior is generally male oriented. 
There’s more swearing and more aggression. The boys 
oome to act and the girls to watch. 

I’m afraid that if girls are not encouraged to use 
computers, there will be a larger and larger difference 
between men’s and women’s computer skills. This 
could mean that some of the gains made by women in 
the professions and in science in recent years might 
be reversed. 

That doesn't have to happen. I’m convinced that the 
difference in the behavior of boys and girls when it 
comes to computing is largely a cultural and social 
phenomenon that can be changed by developing edu¬ 
cational software that attracts both sexes. 


Copyright © 19B3, U.S.News & World Report, Inc. 



ATARI 410 RROCRAM RECOROCR 
DtGITAL PLAYBACK CIRCUIT 
SCHEPIATK OIAGRAPI 


I 


M WKIIfeM, >100 

.1 Inc. 

.65 Borregas Ave. 
lunnyvala, CalH. 94086 
IvaUabla for: Atari 600, Atari 1200XL 
:artridge). 

yalom Roquiromonta: 16K RAM, Atari 
Bssatte recorder or disk drive. Atari 850 
rioter interlace module ($220). 
hia very nice program In a cartridge la a 
elcome replacement for what waa a medi- 
cre disk-based program (Atari Word Pro- 
essor). It can be used with documents 
lored on tape. (You can use disks for stor- 
ge, too, but the cost of a disk drive 
ouldn't be justified uniess you pian to 
ore and frequently re-use many docu- 
lents.) A spiral-bound Instruction manual 
sntains an easy-to-follow tutorial and a 
eH-wrltten reference sectiofL A refererwe 
ird is also supplied. 

Writing. The menu-driven program Is 
isy to pick up and use. It makes Intelligent 
le of the Atari 800’a good keyboard. (Al- 
lough the program also runs on the Atari 
OQ, that model's membrane keyboard and 
nited RAM make it unlit lor word-process- 
g.) Most commands take two keystrokes, 
few operations are prompted. Column ; 
Id line raimbers are shown on the screen. 
Editing. The program provides full cursor i 
>ntrol and scrollir:g, full Insert and delete > 
nctlons, and the desired block com- 
ends. You can delete by letter, by line, or 
am the cursor to the end of the document, 
le program will recall the most recent 
iletion, and will search and delete as well 
I search and replace. 

H a document grows too long for the Atari 
OO’a 48K memory (about 18 double- 
weed pages), you can turn the document 
to separate files and chain them together 
r uninterrupted printing. 

Screen tonnatting. The TV-screen dis- 
ay is limited to only 36 characters per line. 

It the letters, upper and lower case, are 
Bll formed. The program lets you “pre- 
iw” on the screen what the printed ver- 
an will look Hke In the fornrwt you've Set: 

Ml scroll back and forth and up and down 
see a complete printed "page," so you 
in make changes If the format doesn't 
ipear to your liking. 

Rrint fernwHing. Atari Wrttar has all the 
isired print-formatting functions, and then 
me. Many character enhaiKements are 
wilable. Including compressed, ax- t 
iiKled, and proportional spacing. r 

This program offers more than Color 

T/ps/f and eon* Straat Writer, and Is more 
nvenlent to use than Talawritar 64. It 
ds greatly to the potential utility of the 
'art BOO and to its attractiveness as a 
taming'' computer. 


Cii4 im. 




•BAWTOSig 

SCHEMATIC 




See^eXfOAD ERRORS by Steven Matein, pgl5 


New Sdertm IS September 1983 

Computer boom bails out tape industry 


r lE PRICE of programs for home 
computers is falling because firms 
equipi^ to transfer inusic to cassette tapes 
are using the same high-speed process for 
data tapes. The work has helped the 
companies to survive a seasonal dip in 
music sales. 

One of the companies is Ablex, which 
has a tape-duplicating factory in Telford. 
The firm, once owned by the Decca record 
company but now under Racal’s wing, 
made as many computer programs as 
music tapts this summer. 

Paradoxically, the chaotic state of the 
home computer business helps duplicators. 
Because most programs work on only one 
type of computer, everything has to be 
separately mastered, duplicated and 
packed. But the process is cheap because 
the bleeps that carry the program on a 
computer cassette are of audio frequency, 
and can be copied as if they were music. 

T^e firms make musicassettes by trans¬ 
ferring the original music on to a 2S-mm 
tape, which is spliced into a closed loop. 
This is run round and round very quickly 
past a playback head. At the same time, a 
bank of slave recording machines, loaded 
with large open reels of cassette tape, run at 
the same high speed and record the signal 


finm the loop. The equipment is exactly the 
same for computer tapes, except that they 
must be recorded in mono and on high- 
quality tape. 

The large reels of cassette tape, each bear¬ 
ing the same computer program as many as 
300 times over, are thw cut up into ^ort 
lengths, and loaded into standvd cassette 
cases. 

Cassette makers normally duplicate 
computer programs at the same speed as hi 
fi music tapes, 32 times normal speed. But 
Ablex has found that Sinclair’s Spectrum 
home computer has such a wide tolerance 
that it is possible to duplicate tapes for it at 
an even higher speed. Master tapes for 
Spectrum proems run at 64 times foe 
normal recording speed. 

But foe tape makers still face one prob¬ 
lem with duplicating computer programs - 
testing foe product. To test a music tape 
you just listen to it. But foe only way to 
check a program is to run it forou^ a 
computer. To load every pre^ram before it 
goes bn sale would send the price zooming 
up-so Ablex tests only the first and last 
program on each bulk reel of tape. If both 
work properly, there is a good chance that 
foe hundreds of programs in between are 
also up to scratch._ □ 








co^vtxw*’ 



w 


, D. W H io w Ntw i w m 

An Alan customer Can the video-game maker come back—or is the end near? 


Door 


F or nearly a year it has seemed as if 
someone let Pac>Man loose on Warner 
Communications. Plagued by a glut of vid¬ 
eo games and a vicious price war in home 
computers, the company has racked up 
hundreds of millions of dollars in losses at 
its Atari suteidiary—and laid ofr4,CXX) em¬ 
ployees in Silicon Valley in order to transfer ■ 
operations to Asia. Last week it became 
clear Warner was still being eaten alive. In 
an unexpected move, the company said it 
was laying off nearly a third of Ae staff 
at its Manhattan corporate headquarters. 
Then it reported a sta^ering $122 millinn 
loss for the third quarter—bringing its 
losses so far in 1983 to $425 million. ‘This 
hM been a year in which [Warner] has faced 
difficult problems,” said chairman Steven 
Ross, “and its results are a significant 
disappointment.” 

The news underscored the contin uing 
shakeout in the home-computer and video- 
game markets. The turmoil has resulted in 
huge losses for firms like Atari, Mattel and 
Texas Instruments; only a day before War¬ 
ner’s announcement, it was reported that TI 
would postpone plans to intr^uce its 99/8 
home computer, the second TI computer to 
be called off this year. 

But few companies have been hit as hard 
as Warner. A year ago the company serious¬ 
ly overestimated video-game demand while 
underestimating the competition—and 
Christmastime sales plummeted. Warner 
mbsequently fired chairman Raymond 
Kas^—^who was later accused of insider 
trading in the company’s stock—and 
brought in former Philip Morris marketing 
man James J. Morgan in his place. When 
Warner reported a loss of $283 million for 
the second quarter of 1983, the company 
announced it had written down unsold in¬ 
ventories of video games and said the worst 
was behind it. But within the past several 


^®eks three top-ranking Atari executives 
have unexpectedly resigned and analysts 
now wonder whether the company might be 
about to scale back its computer and video- 
game business—Or fold it up completely. 

Warner officials have denied that any 
such moves are in store. But Atari may be 
running out of time: nearly 40 percent of 
annual video-game and home-computer 
sales are racked up during the Christmas 
season; although an upswing in video-game 
s^es had been predicted, dismal orders for 
video-game players and cartridges suggest a 
virtual replay of last year’s debacle. “The 
ranch is bet on the fourth quarter,” says 
Barbara Dalton Russell, an analyst at 
Pn^ential-Bache Securities. What’s more, 
while Atari is currently shipping two new 
computer mt^els, the 600 and the 800, ana¬ 
lyst John Reidy of Drexel Burnham Lam- 
bm says the company hasn’t m«H<» up its 
mind whether to intr^uce two adH irinnnl 
models this year as well. The risks are con- 
sidmble. The new products—a combi¬ 
nation computer and telephorie dubbed 
AtariTel that could be used to run home 
appliances, and a new personal computer 
that may be compatible with IBM’s Person¬ 
al Computer—are promising. But the latter 
also faces stiff competition by 
IBM’s upcoming PC Jr., Cole- Ross: A bat 
co’s soon-to-be-shipped Adam 
and by price-cutting by Com¬ 
modore and other competitors. 

Given the depths of the 
problem at Atari, cutting 
back at corporate headquar¬ 
ters may have been one of the 
oidy alternatives—^in fact, it 
might ^ve been a necessity. 

As chairman, Ross had insti¬ 
tuted a decentralized manage¬ 
ment structure that kept his 
New York staff quite lean— 



WORLD BUSINESS 


and ^owed division managers great lee¬ 
way in running their own operations. But 
things started to change as money rolled in 
with Atari’s rapid success. Division man¬ 
agers still ran their businesses, but all of a 
sudden, corporate headquarters grew. A 
research-and-development staff sprang up 
in New York, and jobs that were once done 
by a single individual were token over by a 
1^ dozen prople, usually at higher sala¬ 
ries. “It was like building redunctoncy into 
the product,” said one Warner executive. 
“Corporate was always intended to be 
lean, but we’d gotten away from that con¬ 
cept as things became fat and happy.” In¬ 
deed, New York’s six-man R&D depart¬ 
ment—one of the more visible extrav¬ 
agances—was among the first to go in last 
week’s round of layoffs. 

The risks of bloating its corporate staff 
would have been easier to swaltow if other 
Wmer divisions weren’t also facing rough 
going. Although two new Warner movies, 
“Never Say Never Again” and “The Right 
Stuff,” are expected to bring in big dollars at 
the box office, “Superman III” and ‘Twi¬ 
light Zone” received disappointing recep¬ 
tions when they were released last summer. 
And at least one hoped-for big Christmu 
movie, “Greystoke,” has already had its 
release date pushed back. Meanwhile, 
Warner-Amex Cable, the company’s joint 
venture with American Express, is still los¬ 
ing money despite efforts by Warner-Amex 
chairman Drew Lewis to eliminate jobs and 
cut costs. In the first half of 1983 alone the 
venture lost about $40 million. The com¬ 
pany’s three record labels—Warner, Elek- 
tra/Asylum and Atlantic—aren’t perform¬ 
ing u well as expected. Although the 
division is ^efiting from the industry’s 
raurgence, it hasn’t been placing as many 
hits on Billboard’s Top 10 as it once did. 

‘Bite the Bullet’: While last week’s layoffs 
will save the company only an estimated 
$10 million or so over the next year, 
analysts applauded them as a step in 
the right direction. Warner has fre¬ 
quently been criticized for lax controls; 
one analyst at a major brokerage firm 
calk the company “inept and misman¬ 
aged.” .^d Ross agreed last week that 
“streamlining” was needed and vowed the 
company would now be able to hold its own 
in what he pledged would be a 
Ross: A bad year “new, more competitive envi- 

2£SSI221 roMcnt.” But “even if Atari is 
going to come back, it’s not 
going to come back overnight,” 
saj^ Lee Isgur, an analyst with 
Paine Webber. “They had to 
bite the bullet and say, ‘There 
may not be a Christmas this 
year’.” With the cuts behind it, 
Warner is clearly hoping Santo 
will show up all the same. 

SUSAN DENTZER with PETER 
McALEVEY in Los Angeles and 
CX)NNIE LESLIE in New York 


NEWSWEEK/OCTOBER 24. 1983 





. I Home-Computer Users Left in Lurch 

Company’s Pu^u^eans EvaOual Dearth of Software, Service, Peripherab 

By Andrew Pollaclr^* ******* “■ <*“« to »«« LOGO, a program- TI entered the market in 191 

* Will Stick iinth Kitt/*/\mnani*c men __i.. • . 


v»* T.— ***** **'8 convatu**. *««* 

■ u wintenutional Business Machines 
YORK —The losing b«- Coip. and Apple Computer Inc. 
e of Texas Instruments Inc. m the Analysts say the pullout leaves 
ome<oiimuler market has t^en a niarket even more wide open 

Evere toll on the company’s ri- - fo^ j, mjecied to jo. 

ances, its repuUtion and itt on- troduce iu PC Jr. home computer 
loyees.Y« more t^ one nulhOT Tuesday. The machine. wWi a 
lie will suffer as well: the tmrting price of about $800, •« 


thapeopi 
wnen a Texas InstiumenU 99- 
A home computers. 

They are likely to find it much 
lore difficult to get their machines 
paired and to find new programs 
id peripheral equipment, such as 
ita-storage devices and printers, 
heir situation, aiulysts My, will 
e somewhat eltin to, but periiaps 
lore severe than, that oi people 
ho own eight-tra^ Upe players. 
“It’s a r^ letdown to have al- 
lost 2 million users left without a 
luntry,” said Roger Harrison, vice 
resident of a group of Texas In- 
Tuments home computer users in 
mthern New Josey. “All of a sud- 
en, we’re aliens.” His estimate of 
le number of users is higher than 
uny others. 

Texas Instruments announced 
ite Friday that, because of oon- 
nuing heavy losi^ it wu cearing 
)emanufactureahdsaleofthe99- 
A But it said it would continue to 
dvertiae the computer, and slash 
s price to dear inventory. 

Texas Instruments was not die 
nt and is not likdy to be the last 
oeq^y to get out of the hi^y 
olatile small-computer business. 
Osborne Cooqiuter Corp., whidi 
uule somewhat more expoirive 
lachines than Texas Instruments, 
edared bankruptcy last monti^ 
<any other smaikr oonqumies are 
xpected to fall by the wayside and 
ven tome larger companies may 
ull out of the butmest, aduch u 
lagoed by severe price cutting and 
imdly changing tedmology. 
Buying a home or office oomput- 

. aW.... _•_S_1_«_•_ 


eiqpected to bring some stability to 
the market Apple is expected to 
counter by droroing the price of iu 
^mle II mto tne same range. 

Texas Instruments, Commodore 
InternatitHul Ltd. and the Atari 
unit of Warner Communications 
have been battling at the low end of 
the market with crmiputers sdling 
for $200 or lest. TI and Atari have 
been plagued by heavy losses. 
Cmnmodore, the victor for now, 
also seems to be hurting, with prod¬ 
uct reliability problems and prod¬ 
uct shortages. The PC Jr. and Cole- 
co’s new Adam are expected to 
move the market toward mote ex¬ 
pensive, more powerful machikies. 

' For Tl oistomers, the future is 
not dear. The company has said 
little a^t the matter. Future 
Computing Inc., a market-research 
conmany, estinutes that 1 million 
to 1J millkm 99-4A computers 
have been add, malcing the ma¬ 
chine the most i^dy owned home 
computer after the Commodore 
VIC-20, and slightly ahead of tk 
Amle II lirw. 

TI did My it would continue to 
provide service for the computer. It 
IS not clear for how long, but it 
should be for at least a year, «ince 
the compuy is selling its comput¬ 
ers now with a one-year warranty. 

It is likdy that it will be more 
and more difficult to get new soft- 
wm or peripherals. How seriousW 
this will affect oonsumen depeniu 
on how they use the madiine. 

Particularly hurt could be the 
many elementary schools t^t 


ming language particularly suitable 
for child^ 

A qwkesman for TI said the 
conqiany would continue to supply 
some software. But it seems dear 
that, while existing software might 
be sold, new software such as video 
games and educational programs 
will not be made available unless a 
software conqiany wants to under¬ 
take Uieir production and market¬ 
ing on its own. 

Some observers think software 
companies will find the task attrac¬ 
tive. “You can’t ignore a million 
and a half people,” said Charies W. 
LaFara, a large mail-order distrib¬ 
utor of the 99^A and rdated prod- 
uds. “With that lar^ an installed 
base, it’s not just going to die out 
overnight” 

But sc^tware company offidals 
said they had no intention of con¬ 
tinuing to provide new software for 
the machine. 

“We won’t be supporting them, 
simply because retaOen don’t stock 
serftware for hardware they don’t 
carry." said Doudas Carlston, 
president of Broderbund Software. 

The problem is exaceii»ted 
Tew Instruments* long-standing 
policy of marketing virtually all 
thm with oc^yri^t infringement 
smts. But software company offi¬ 
cials My such pennisskm will come 
too late. 

Indeed, Texas Instruments has 
made a series of miMteps, and there 
m few tears beiu shixl in the 
industry now that 11 is leaving the 
home computer business. 


_ 1979 

software for its computer, so there 
sre few companies in the business 
ol supplying software for the 99- 
4A. It is considered likely 
^t Texas Instruments will allow 
independent software companies 
to make and market software for 
the 99-4A without threatening 
with a machine selling for more 
than $1,100. It was a failure. Only 
late last year, when price wars and 
leu expensive parts brought the 
price down to $200, did sales start 
to soar. TI was an eager participant 
in the price ware, believing that a 
low price gained market sl^ and 
that the hi^er volume that resulted 
yielded a profit. 

But the company started losmg 
money because Commodore Int»- 
national, its chief rival, could con¬ 
tinue to produce its VIC-20 at the 
same low price for a profit 

When the big loss was an- 
- nounced last quarter, Texas Instru¬ 
ments said it would stay in the 
business. William J. Turner, the 
head of consumer operations, re¬ 
signed in July and was replac^ in 
late August by Peter A Field, a 
general manager of Procter ft 
Gamble’s coffee division. Thecmn- 
p^y alro cut the price of expan¬ 
sion devices for the computer, and 
sales of those grew rapi^y; 

But the efforts did not work. On 
Sept 20, Mark Shepherd Jr., chair- 
■usn of Texas Instruments, 
ag^ that the company would re¬ 
main in the home cmiqHiter buri- 
ness, but added that “succeu is by 
no means certain.” 


r u thus becoming risky for ooo-' bought TI conmuten and will now 
juners. AnalysU mv the result of find it difficult to obtain more of 
lie TI puUout and the Osbone themMthciriieedsgiow.Tlieooiii- 
ankruptcy u that cemsumers will puten were pqjiular for sdmd use 
ither put off buying con^mters because they were the first ma- 


V.S. Retailers Face] 


Computer Shortage 


“‘ By G. Christian W1 
» triil >iTteAslaa Will Itrest Jamal ' • 
NBW YORK —. Unles computo’ maken 
piill off productini miracles wnlliy of Santa 
Claus, most U.S. Ktallm say they bee a 
shortage of home honvuters for the big 
GhrlstmassdUngsMson.- 
Oongnters priced bdow 1600 sold brt last 
Christinas afiCT the mgjor mambetums 
cut prices b mid-lML But sales slowed 
considerably b niid-1983 as consumers db- 
covered that the. most popular brands 
couldn’t do much.unless expenbve extra* 
equ4»nent aras bought Some ctmiputer mak¬ 
ers bus ended up wib br too many ma¬ 
chines and had \oues of hundreds of miuimif 
ofdollars. 

Commo d ore btmatton&l Ltd. won sbhe 
consumers back bb summer wib a more 
powerful but still low-priced machine, be 
Commodore M. But it has sold so fast bat it 
probably will be gone from retailna* shelves 
by the ad of November, a qiokaman pre- 
Companies that were supposed b b- 
traduce new and more ndvanred onm- 


puten - Texas Instrumab Inc., Colea 
Industries Inc., Warner Ounmunications 
lnc.’s Atari unit and International Busben 
Machines Oorp. - haven’t done so. Now, 
most retailers da't expect to reoive many 
(d the new m od d s eva if manubebrers 
begbproductionlmmedbtely. 

“irs an btoesting ir^,’’ says nil 
Meserve, an dectronics-indintry strategist 
for Arbur D. littte ft Co. “The glut has| 
turnedbto dw opposite of a giut’’ 

Refers’Strategy 
The remit: Christmas home-computa 
sales, which account for 40% to S0% of the 
year's total, won’t be as robust as expected, 
and most of the majm* mamibcturers will 
lose'inofib and a cha^ to get ahead of bdr 
com^tors. That may eva drive some out 
of be business, retailers and marketing con-; 
sultanbbdieve. ! 


> \ ' Atari’s Position ] 

. Atari abo b likdy to miss out bb Christ- 
' mas, weakobg lb conpetitive positla. Re- 
tailos si^ bey have bea told by be compa¬ 
ny that a total of 100,000 to 120,000 of 
Atari's new 600XL and 800XL conputera willj 
; be available bb Christmas. 

^ < "That’s not enough to suniort sales at 
. eva be major retailers,” says Samud 
Crowley, gen^ manager of be Videoland 
store diab b Dallas and HousUrn. “I fed 
strongly that unless Atari shows a strong 
maikebig thrust fw Christmas, it wa’t be 
here after January." . 

Atari, wUch reputed a sno miUla opa- 
1 ating loss for be second quarter, woolto't 
iConunent 

f ' Some retaders are now stocking more 
^ Texas Instrumab home cunputers to take 
' the {dace of Odeco and Atari. “TI will bene¬ 
fit from tbe.dwitage of product,” says 
Broadway’s Mr. Kapicka, Idio b orderly 
more 99/4As. “It has a good software fine 




ja growing entnusiasm tor (^mpntfr tecnnology and increasingly sopnisticated sottware, 
Michael Dixon, Education Correspondent, highlights some diften-forgotten factors in the 

human decision-making process. . pf ,.3, 


' !» 

* > 


Technology has its limitations 


/ 

lOi 

•li¬ 

st 

lit 


rHE INSTANT the radarriinked computer decided that 
he unidentified aircraft were on an attacking course, 
he system prepared to launch Armageddon. Through 
he control-room displays it swiftly supplied the com- 
nander of the-U.S. Navy task unit with the best tactics 
or interception, back-up deployments and so on. 

“I’ll never forget how he reacted,” says Dr Donald 
Jroadbent of Oxford University’s Department of Experi- 
nental Psycholo^. 

“After glancing at the displays, he calmly flicked 
lown the switches that cancelled them. Then he said in a 
outhern drawl; ‘Ah gue-ss we’ll just let this situation 
levelop itself a while.' “ 


The result of that decisiot\ 
urina an exercise with- com- 
uter aids for military common- 
ers was a bOoSt to the Navy 
aptain’s reputation. For the 
pproach of the enemy aircraft 
imed out to be'a feint The 
cal attack came later in 
nother form and from an en- 
rely different direction'. 

But when the Captain was 
sked why and how he had 
ecided to ignore the compu- 
ir system’s warning, he was 
impletely vmable to explain, 
e had made was proved to be 
le right judgment without any 
lea clear enough to be ex- 
ressed in words of either what 
iformation or what mental pro- 
isses he had been using to 
lake it 

In doing so he exemplified a 
ictor which Dr Broadbent 
nong other psychologists, feels 
being forgotten by computer 
cperts and lay people alike 
nid the growing enthusiasm 
Mut advances in information- 
rocessing technology. 

Not everyone would go as far 
I the zealots who predict that 
tmputers will one day "keep 
i as pets.” But there seems 
‘ be a widespread assumption 
lat the development of micro- 
ectronics, software and allied 
chnologies will ensure that 
formation-processing systems 
the hands of a few highly 
tellectual people increasingly 
ke over the world’s decLsion- 
aking from the less academic- 
ly able majority. 

Much is expected,..for in- 
ance, of so-called er^ert sys- 
nu which it is assumed will 
ovide an instantly accessible 
id constantly updated compen- 


um of the best human expert I 
le in the field concerned. -1 
But if a computer system is 
stand in for human experts 
Oiat way, Dr Broadbent says, 
must first be told unam- 
guously, and in deUil, pre- 
»«ly what . the expertise 
insists of — and how can that 
! done if fn most practicai 
slds (ts distinct from purely 
tellectual pursuits, such as 
>rmal logic and . pure 
athematics) the human 
wrti are not able to 
rolstn hnw fhev rnalr* their 


Abilities 

Besides military commanders, 
the Oxford University psycho- 
lo^st has lately been studying 
managerial abilities. He has 
tested the performance of about 
200 people in. managing 
extremely complex systems, 
such as a computerised model 
of a national economy. 

The results show that the 
ability to manage effectively 
has no connection with the 
person’s ability to answer qu^- 
tions, either before or after¬ 
wards, on how the managing 
ought to be, or was in fact, 
done. Such correlation as there 
is between the two is negative, 
implying that the better 
explainers tend to be the worse 
practitioners—^but . it is not 
statistically significant. 

This finding has so far been 
received in stunned silence by 
an academic profession which 
has hitherto largely taken it as 
self-evident that in an increas¬ 
ingly complex and computer¬ 
ised world, management can be 

safely entrusted only to people 
of high intellectual ability as 
measured by their ability to 
answer questions in words and 
figures. 

. But however much It con¬ 
flicts' with the conventional 
wisdom about education. Dr 
Broadbeint’s evidence merely 
supports something demon¬ 
strate by the philosopher Kant, 
200 years ago.'He showed that 
the intellectual procedures 
developed by scholarly educa¬ 
tion, such as -logic, amount 
only to rules for thinking in 
a self-consistent way. 

Yet the ability to apply those 
rules wisely—as, for instance, 
in deciding which bits of the 
available information are rele¬ 
vant to a real-life problem and 
in which way—depends on a 
different mental faculty. 

Kant called that faculty 
“judgment ... the want of 
which no scholastic discipline 
can compensate." The only way 
to develop judgment, he added, 
was by practical exercise. 

Moreover, good judgment 
looks likely to become more and 
more imnortant than the dif¬ 


ferent mental skills promoted 
by academic education as infor¬ 
mation-processing technology 
advances. 

For one thing, computers by 
their nature are better than 
people at InteHectual pro¬ 
cedures of the kind measured 
by IQ tests. But for another, 
while they will make available 
increasing amounts of informa¬ 
tion, they can never be made 
capable of necessarily distin¬ 
guishing between the true and 

the false, let alone of de^r 
mining which of the true bits 
should be applied in what w^ys 
in tackling real-life problemsrfio 
as to provide wise solutions.ru 
There is consequently a clqgr 
need for the education syst^ 
to stop concentratii^ alnigst 
exclusively on intellectual ski^, 
and to equip itself with ^ 
practical forms of education 
required to develop judgmegyL 

Education 

ev: 


Fortunately, the present UK 
Government has made a fijist 
move in the right direction iby 
funding experimental technigtl 
and other practical conrses for 
schoolchildren aged 14 and 
upwards. But the mo\:g dons 
not hold out much hope for tte 
early establishment of a gengs^ 
ally available alternative educa¬ 
tional route by which children 
can develop their judgment 
through the medium of succes¬ 
sively harder practical exgcr 
cises. ■ uo 

The total funds being mafia 
available for such experimenfai 
courses represents less thamdl 
per cent of the £14bn spsnt 
overwhelmingly on convention*! 
academic activities and Six 
Keith Joseph, the Educatioa 
Secretary, sees no way'.of in¬ 
creasing the proportion to l^ 
invested in innovatory proji^s. 

So, while any move in ttw 
right direction is bette.r thim 
none at all. the GoVemmeuhs 
present effort to equip futi^ 
citizens with better ^ judgcipiit 
would seem to be a classic ciKh; 
of too Utile, too late. i',7' 

■' ' . i> 


CALLING EDUCATORS! 

The Atari Teachers ’ 
Network 


Now, elementary school 
teachers and administrators 
who use Atari Computers can 
exchange ideas, experiences, 
and software through the 
Atari Teachers’ Network. 

The newly formed organi¬ 
zation publishes a quarterly 
newsletter which reports on 
educational programming ac¬ 
tivities with Atari PILOT 
and Atari Logo, computer 
happenings in the classroom, 
questions and answers about 
classroom use of computers, 
and more. 

Highlights of a recent issue 
include a look at voice syn¬ 
thesizers for the Atari Home 
Q)mputer, and a discussion 
of ways to ensure that all stu¬ 
dents get equal computer 
time. 

The Network's co-founders 
are Nancy Austin Shuller, a 
computer specialist at the 
Day School in New York 
City, and Curtis Springstead, 
an educational computer 
consultant. 


“1 work two days a week in 
a computer lab with elemen¬ 
tary school children," says 
Nancy. “I’m also working on 
my dissertation for a diK- 
torate in Mathematics 
Education.” 

Curtis is the local Atari 
PILOT “Expert” for his Users’ 
Group, and is teaching busi¬ 
ness programming languages 
at a community college while 
he pursues his MA in Educa¬ 
tion with a specialization in 
computers. “1 enjoy teaching 
as much as doing program¬ 
ming and system design 
work,” he says. 

Network membership 
(newsletter included) is only 
$4.00 annually. 

For more in/ormation utite 
to: 

Atari Teachers’ Network 
P.O. Box 1176 
Orange. NJ 07051 

— Dorothy Heller I