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JULY 1954 


R T T Y 

R T T Y 


Station ttte Tftont/l "DefiaittKCtt 


“TfCotUfacatcott oh t&e "Vuiutty 

1/?0 fa. 'PS'K 

By KD CLAM M KR, W2BDI, Merchantville, New Jersey 


The rig is an 813, 225 watts with 811 
modulators fone and the VFO is right 
behind me in the picture. The receiver 
is a surplus Super Pro (and a good one) 
and the chassis on the upper deck by 
the scope is the RTTY TU. 1 use the 
scope for tuning in the conventional 
way and also on the upper right hand 
corner of the chassis you can see a 
6AL7GT staring at you which also makes 

a good tuning indicator (and which I 
will describe in my article. The 304TH 
is a paper weight. The 26 of course is 
at the lower left with some hot copy 
on it! 

That’s about the set up here. Oh yes 
— that’s me staring out at you. The 
XYL clicked the shutter and the print 
is by me. I am a darkroom fanatic also. 

The circuit below shows the necessary 
modifications to provide for Frequency 
Shift Keying. All of the wiring changes 
are shown in heavy lines. 

First, the original connections to the 
key jack were removed and a 4700 mmfd. 
capacitor was connected from the lower 
end of the RF choke to ground. A lead 
was run from this connection to the RF 
choke to number eight pin of PL-51 to 
allow keying from the Viking Trans- 
mitter. Next a 50K ohm wire wound 
resistor was mounted between the lower 
controls on the front panel. This con- 
trol sets the amount of shift, and is con- 
nected in series with an RF choke to 
a 1,000 mmfd. silver mica coupling cap- 
acitor which in turn connects to the 

cathode of the 6AU6 oscillator tube. 
L is a 30 mh coil, which in my case 
is the antenna coil from a BC746 sur- 
plus set. However any similar coil such 
as a TV slug tuned coil which can be 
adjusted thru the necessary 30mh range 
will be satisfactory. 

I use the VFO set for the eighty 
meter band on both 80 and 40. Two set- 
tings of the 50K potentiometer provide 
the proper shift on either band. This 
system does not require a polar relay, 
however it is better to use one though. 

I have used this modification since 
June of 1953 and have worked quite a 
number of stations, including some of 
the west coast stations. 


R T T Y 

R T T Y 


0 Dc£ttUtiQK& ‘RecaHtmeKcLeei 6y (£. *). 7 

The following information was sub- 
mitted by Mr. John Brown of the Shell 
Oil in Maracaibo, Venezuela. Many of 
the articles in the past has been some 
what confused in regards to the term 
‘‘Baud ” The “Baud” is the unit of 
telegraph speed and can not, therefore, 
be used interchangeably with “Signifi- 
cant element” or “Unit Interval.” — Ed. 

1. — Telegraph Modulation and Telegraph 

Telegraph modulation is the series of 
discrete conditions assumed successively 
by the appropriate moving part of a 
telegraph instrument (or by an electrical 
device performing a similar function) 
having a significance according to the 
code used, with the object of effecting 
on the appropriate receiving device a 
series of changes of condition permitting 
the reconstitution, according to the same 
code, of the message transmitted. This 
series of changes of condition is called 
a restitution of the telegraph modulation. 

2. Significant Conditions (of a modulat- 
ion or of a restitution). 

Discrete conditions assumed by the ap- 
propriate moving part of a telegraph 
instrument (or by an electrical device 
performing a similar function) used to 
define the modulation (or the restitution). 

3. Characteristic or Significant Instants 
(of a modulation or of a restitution). 

Instants at which the appropriate mov- 
ing part of a telegraph instrument (or 
an electrical device performing a similar 
function) reaches its significant con- 

4. Significant Interval (of a modulation 
or of a restitution) 

The time which elapses between two 
successive characteristics (or significant) 

5. Significant Element (of a modulation 
or of a restitution). 

That part of a modulation (or of a 
restitution) occurring between two suc- 
cessive characteristics (or significant) 

6. Unit Interval. 

The modulations of the standardized 
telegraph systems are composed of sig- 
nificant elements having a duration 
equal to or a multiple of the duration 
of the shortest element. 

The theoretical duration of this short- 
est element is called the unit interval. 
An exception to this rule occurs with 
the start-stop systems for which the 
stop element may have a duration greater 
than the unit interval and not necessarily 
equal to a multiple of it. 

7. Unit Element. 

Significant element having the dur- 
ation of a unit interval. 

8. Modulation Rate (or telegraph speed). 

Reciprocal of the duration of the unit 
interval, measured in seconds. The 
modulation rate (or telegraph speed) is 
measured in Bauds. Example: If the 
unit interval is 20 milliseconds, the 
modulation rate is 50 Bauds. 

9. Restitution Delay. 

The delay between a characteristic or 
significant instant of modulation and the 
corresponding characteristic instant of 

10. Isochronous Modulation. 

Modulation appropriate to a standard- 
ized system in which the significant in- 
tervals are equal to the unit interval or 
to a multiple of it. 

11. Stop-Start (or arythmic modu- 

Modulation appropriate to a standard- 
ized system consisting of isochronous 
modulations having a duration limited 
to a certain number of unit intervals, 
separated by intervals of any duration 
equal to, or greater than, the unit 

12. Perfect Modulation or Restitution. 

Modulation or restitution conforming 
accurately to the code adopted (as re- 
gards both the significant conditions and 
the characteristic instants). 

13. Distorted Modulation or Restitution 
(or modulation or restitution affected by 

Modulation (or restitution) not having 
all the characteristics of a perfect modu- 
lation (or restitution). For standardized 
modulations and their restitution, the 
series of conditions must be in accordance 
with the code, without omission or ad- 
dition; this being understood, the dis- 
tortion concerns only the characteristic 

14. Degree of Individual Distortion of a 
Particular Characteristic Instant ( of 
modulation or of restitution). 

Ratio to the unit interval of the dis- 
placement, expressed algebraically (i. e. 
early or late), of this characteristic 
instant from a specified instant. It is 
necessary to state in each particular case 
the basis on which this specified instant 
is determined. 

15. The Degree of Distortion of an Iso- 
chronous modulation (or restitution). 

Ratio to the unit interval of the maxi- 
mum difference, irrespective of sign, be- 
tween the actual and theoretical intervals 
separating any two characteristic in- 
stants of modulation (or restitution), 
these instants being not necessarily 

16. Degree of Distortion of a Start-Stop 
(or arythmic) modulation (or restitution) 

Ratio to the unit interval of the maxi- 
mum difference irrespective of sign, be- 
tween the actual and theoretic intervals 
separating any characteristic instant of 
modulation (or of restitution) from the 
commencement of the start element im- 
mediately preceding it. 

(a) Degree of gross start-stop (or 
arythmic) distortion). 

Degree of distortion determined when 
the unit interval and the theoretical in- 
tervals assumed are those appropriate to 
the standardized modulation rate. 

(b) Degree of synchronous start-stop 
(or arythmic) distortion. 

Degree of distortion determined when 
the unit interval and the theoretical in- 
tervals assumed are those appropriate to 
the actual mean modulation rate of the 
signals under consideration. 

17. Degree of Service Distortion (of a 
circuit, including apparatus). 

Degree of distortion of the restitution 
measured during an unspecified period of 
time when the telegraph apparatus is in 
service. The result of this measurement 
may be completed by an indication of the 
probability of exceeding this degree of 

18. Degree of Standardized Test Dis- 
tortion (of a telegraph channel). 

Degree of distortion of the restitution 
measured during a specified period of 
time when the modulation is perfect and 
corresponds to a specific test. 

19. Analysis of Types of Distortion. 

It is useful, for certain applications, to 

(a) Bias Distortion. 

Distortion suffered by a modulation (or 
a restitution) of which the characteristic 


R T T Y 

R T T Y 


instants corresponding to a particular 
change of condition are systematically 
advanced or retarded. 

(b) Inherent Distortion. 

Distortion suffered by a restitution 
when the modulation is perfect and when 
the receiving device is ideally perfect. 

(c) Characteristic Distortion. 

Distortion suffered by a restitution 
when the modulation is perfect, with the 
normal receiving device in correct adjust- 
ment and in the absence of disturbances 
of anv kind. 

(d) Fortuitous Distortion. 

Distortion resulting from disturbances 
affecting the circuit including apparatus. 

( NOTE : Definitions 10 and 15 do not 
apply to Teletypes). 

$2.50 Per Year 

RTTY is the Official Publication 
of the 

RTTY Society of -Southern 

and is Dublished for the benefit 
of all RTTY Amateurs 
and Experimenters. 
Permission to copy is granted 
provided credit is given. 

For Information regarding the 
Society contact the following: 
WGCLW— Ed Simmons 
W6AEE — Merrill Swan 
W6SCQ — Lewis Rogerson 

For Traffic Net Information: 

For “RTTY” Information: 



Sc*nfrli(iect frequency 

I ran into trouble in attempting to 
use the Diode Modulator Circuits de- 
scribed in CQ and RTTY with the Meis- 
ner Signal Shifter. With the frequency 
changing condenser attached to the 
cathode of the oscillator insufficient 
shift is obtained and with injection into 
the grid Hum Modulation occured. Jack 
Seitner suggested putting a suitable re- 
sistance across the keyboard contacts 
and the keying plug into the oscillator 
keying jack of the Signal Shifter. It 
works. The values used here are, fixed 
2200 and, 1000 ohm pot in series. 

— “Doc” Lipscomb, W4RTJ 


t ' 


OCTOBER 30 -31 

Details to be announced SOON! 

7.5 'Unit 7.43 7i*ut 

Williams Bay, Wisconsin 

Referring to the Electronic Tape Dis- 
tributor of which 1 sent you a paper 
recently, 1 think I should expand a 
little on why I chose 7.5 Units rather 
than 7.43, the latter being the standard 
teleprinter dimension. 1 did that to 
keep the distributor as simple as pos- 
sible Introduction of the .43 Unit in- 
stead of the .5 Unit would have required 
additional circuits, such as a one-shot 
multivibrator to delinate the odd-valued 
“Stop” interval. With all the added 
circuitry complications, not to mention 
an added timing adjustment. After all, 
the difference between 7.43 and 7.5 Units 
is only one percent In all my experience 
with the two models of Electronic Dis- 
tributors I have built thus far (the 8 
unit and the 7.5 unit) I have never run 
into a situation due to the 8 or 7.5 Unit 
l used. All printers synchronize readily 
to the Distributor’s signal after several 
several character trials upon starting up. 
In case the signal is being transmitted 
when one’s printer is turned on. 

So — the 7.5 Unit Distributor actually 
has a generating speed of 365 OHM, in- 
stead of 368. All in all the 3 OPM dif- 
ference is very insignificant and one 
obtains the precision and convenience of 
Electronic Scaning Of course the dis- 
tributor driving oscillator could be ad- 
justed to a Very slightly higher frequency 
so as to obtain the 368 OPM, if desired. 
If this is done, it results in a very slight 
shortening (overall) of the 22MS Bauds. 
The net effect would be one percent for 
the whole of the teleprinter signal (one 
cycle). This won’t hurt printers at all, 
as they all have a range of something 
like ten percent tolerance. That is a 
large in comparison with the one per- 
cent difference between 368 and 365. 
Considering all the above factors, the 
Distributor is on 365 OPM basis and 
as it reproduces the teleprinter signal 
correctly and without error in timing. 

' Jan. ’54, RTTY 

*?6ve 7t*ut 'l/iai&te (fate 

The following information was sent in 
by RTTY’s good friend, Doc., while at 
first it may not seem of much use, but 
after a second glance it has a good use. 
To identify “slips” or tapes, used in the 
lead end of the tape for future reference. 
All of our readers have seen the bank 
check cancelations which employ punched 
holes Here is a simple version which can 
be useii quite easily. 


A— V-S-V i.!i.l 

B — LTRS-Y-R S :L 

C— C-Z-Z 

D — LTRS-Z-C J.: 


F — LTRS-S-E H" ! 

G — C-Z-B -M 


I— LTRS "!"• 

J — N-T-K ’•!"< 

k — ltrs-r-z ;;!;■* 


M— V-A-N-A-V liL 

N — LTRS-A-N-LTRS ••!••• 

P — ltrs-s-U 
Q— C-B-V-T 

R — LTRS-S-FIG H !,i 

S— L-Y-D -P 

T— E-LTRS-E 'I'" 

U—K-T-K H™ 

V— U-T-U 
W — K-O-I-O-K 

X— Z-C-Z I"' 

Y— A-M-A H“ 

z— B-Y-w 


1 — LTRS 

2— B-Y-L i-M 

3— z-Y-R *:!::* 


5 — W-Y -D 

6— C-Y-N j“ 

7— Z-S-A T" 

8— R-Y-R 

9 — L-Y-C jjj 

0— C-Z-C [ j 


R T T Y 

R T T Y 


“I am enclosing several leaflets de- 
scribing European equipment which you 
may find interesting. The recently in- 
troduced Model 54 is developed from the 
well-known Model 7 and incorporates all 
the improvements made to the latter 
during the last few years as well as 
several new features. I will be pleased to 
let you have further information on 
Creed teleprinters if you want it.” 

— John Brown, Cia Shell de Venezuela 


“Thing? hot and slow here. No leg 
yet so am out of circulation. Had a nice 
letter and card from W2PAU re har- 
monic has from keying FSK. Think 
there is two approaches, one is reduction 
of bandwidth, key from 100/200 CPS in- 
stead of 2125/2975 he tells me the Navy 
is doing it now. Says it sounds uike a 
noisy carrier till you pull out and use 
filters, then it is as clear as mud. The 
other way is up my sleeve until 1 can do 
some preliminary work on it.” 

— Doane c/o St. Joseph Co. Infirmary 
South Bend, Indiana 

“Fellows, drop Doane a line. Ed.” 


“To be honest with you there isnt 
room for very many more on 7140 at 
»nce now as nearly all my contacts are 
spoiled by QRM from too many RTTY 
hi, so am thinging of going on 20, until 
get high power going, am rebuilding 
shack with acoustic tile, floor tile, etc and 
new desk and then will get the KW back 
»n the air, and hope to knock a hole in 
the wall then, hi.” 

— Don Newman, W7CO 

“I got my 26 and it seems to be ir 
good condition, as I had it hooked up 
and printing an hour after getting it 
home. At present I am working a six 
day shift out here at the Station (Press 
Wireless), but manage to get on the 
air from time to time and do a little 
RTTYing, Hi.” 

—Rich, W6RZL 


“Thanks a million for the Manual on 
the 21 -A printer. It clears up a lot of 
questions 1 had on the operating of the 
printer.” — 73, Walter, W0UJC 


“I am banging this out on my printer 
so your RTTY eyeballs will be able to 
read it. Since writing you for infor- 
mation on RTTY equipment. I contacted 
your old friend Tom Banks and he was 
good enough to loan me all his copies 
of ‘RTTY.’ Now I have so much dope on 
on terminal units that I don’t know which 
one to try to build.” —Doc, W5Q7.T 


“For your information my present in- 
terest in teletype operation is confined 
to reception of weather broadcasts from 
CAA stations at New Orleans and 
Miami. The weather is a combined 
hobby with ham radio and 1 use the 
information to make up a weather map 
and do a little amateur forecasting.” 

—73, Mac, W30B 

"Anyone interested in this phase of 
RTTY operations, drop Mac a note. Ed.” 

“I have recently come into possession 
of a model 26 teletype machine and 
since 1 know from nothing about the 
requirements for getting on with RTTY, 
I am seeking information. Is it possible 
to make the oscillator of a BC459 stable 
enough for FSK? What is the gang on 
80 and 40 using for receiving converters? 
Where and how can I obtain the con- 
struction dopeon them?” 

— Hratzell Boren, W9FVI 


“We have been slowed down consider- 
able by the summer noise, which is fierce 
down here on 80. Of course the hoys 
in the Eastern Seaboard are still on 80 
and we hear their signals trickling 
faintly through sometimes, but not well 
enough for a QSO. Also, of course the 
conditions are worse in the summer, and 
a combination of that with the noise 
level is just too much for the ole RTTY. 
10 meter operation is not so hot for us 
since you guys out there are on pretty 
late, our time. And also there is much 

—Doug, W4TJU 


“Congratulations to Merrill Swan for 
his excellent monitoring of the 'HJO kc 
RTTY frequency. When I landed at the 
Man; Island Naval Shipyard I borrowed 
a local ham station and got on the 
frequency. I called him three times and 
signed and there he was. I was in con- 
tact with the old home town faster than 
l could have been by placing a long 
distance telephone call. (Look who is 
saying such things! 1 will probably be 
fired from Ma Bell in the morning for 
that one, hi) Merrill has also been 
sending ‘RTTY’ to me in the Philippines 
Not only have I been enjoying it to the 
utmost myself but I have been passing 
it around to my gang. They are all 
hams and are getting very interested. I 
wonder what the shipping charges on 
twenty-six machines to the Philippines 
would amount to?” 

-de W6CMQ 

“Thought I would drop you a line or 
two as to whats going on — the National 
Geographic Society eclipse expedition is 
now set up near here on a farm 4 miles 
north. Right on the middle of the path 
of totality. There are three of us mann- 
ing an assortment of cameras, wide 
angle and color; and photo electric gear. 
The latter is my responsibility and we 
are trying to get the intensity profile 
of the zoduacal light in order to test a 
theory that the zodiacal light is an exten- 
tion of the outer coma o fthe Sun.” 

“This is why W9TCJ has not been on 
the air — Ed.” 


“I was informed a few days ago that 
I was to receive a teleprinter probably 
by next Saturday, in view of this I should 
like to have the available back issues of 
RTTY Bulletin. — W6NPB 

“There are still a few of the back issues 
available Ed.” 


“I enjoyed reading the RTTYs and am 
now building a W6UPY converter. Hope 
to be copying RTTY in the not too dis- 
tant future. 1 have no rig built up now, 
however I do have a complete 15 printer, 
so all the rest is just a case of getting 
the time and money to get a rig on and 
a converter.” 

—Bill, W9ABC 


“Sure enjoyed my visit with you, 
W6ZBV, W6IZJ, etc. Mani thanks and 
hope to see you all and have more time 
next time. Sure sorry that conditions 
nd on 7 me., sure wanted to talk to 
Frank, W3PYW from your place.” 

—Bob, W9TCJ 


. . . . W1FGL de W3PYW RTNET Con- 
trol. GE Al. You are QSA 4 to 5 here. 


R T T Y 

^ Styttala ^taect &cf 0O4H4tt&icicLC4 
‘R 77 'Zf Ofrexatt&'AA 

The following list of Z Signals was 
sent in by WGVYI in response to a 
request for information as to what was 
useil instead of Q Signals. 

ZAL — Altar you r wave length. 

ZAN — We can receive absolutely nothing. 

ZAP — Acknowledge please. 

ZAR — Revert to automatic relay. 

ZBN — Break and go ahead with new slv — 

Back normal. 

ZBR — Break circuit returning. 

ZBY — Break, go back a yard. 

ZCC — Collate code. 

ZCD — Your collation is different. 

ZCF — Check your center frequency please. 

ZCK — Check keying. 

ZCL — Transmit call letters intelligibly. 

ZCP — Local receiving conditions poor, please 
increase to maximum power. 

ZCR — Now using concentrator, please make 
warning signal. 

ZCS — Cease sending. 

ZCT — Send code twice. 

ZCW — Are you in direct communication with. ? 
ZDF/1-5 — Your frequency is drifting to degree 

ZDH — Your dots are too heavy (long) adjust 

ZHL — Your dots are too light (short) adjust 

ZDM — Your dots are missing. 

ZDT — Following transmitters running dual. 

ZDV — Your dots varying length, please remedy. 
ZED/ 1-5 — We are experiencing drop outs to 
degree indicated. 

ZEF/l-5 — We are experiencing fillins to degree 

ZEG/1-5 — We are experiencing garbles to de- 
gree indicated. 

ZFA — Failing Auto. 

ZFB — Signals are fading badly. 

ZFC — Check your FSK shift please. 

ZFD/1-5 — Depth of fading of your signal is as 

ZEF — Please observe and furnish frome code re- 
ports on (call letters and frequency). 

ZFK — Revert to FSK. 

ZFO — Signals faded out. 

ZFQ — Frequency shift your signals to... cycles. 

ZFR /1-5— Rapidity of fading your signal as in- 

ZFS — Signals are fading slightly. 

ZGF — Getting fair signal, good for w.p.m. 

ZGP — Please give priority. 

ZGS — Your signals getting stronger. 

ZGW — Your signals getting weaker. 

ZHC — How are your receiving conditions? 

ZHS — Send high speed auto . w.p.m. 

ZHY — We are holding your 
ZHA — How are your conditions for auto 
reception 7 

ZIP — Increase power. 

ZIR — Your signal has strong idle radiation. 
ZJF/1-5 — Your frequency is jumping tu degree 

ZKO — Revert on on-off keying. 

ZKQ — Say when ready to resume. 

ZKW — The keying weight of your signal is 
ZLB — Goive long breaks please. 

ZLD — We are getting long dash from you (long 
mark signal). 

ZLL — Distorted landlinc control sigs apparently 
caused by control wire pickup. 

ZLP — Low (minimum) power. 

ZLS — We are suffering from a lightning storm. 
ZMG — Magnetic activity. 

ZMO — Stand by moment. 

ZMP — Mispunch or perforator failures. 

ZMQ — Stand by for . . 

ZNB — We do not get your breaks, we sent twice 
ZNC — No communications with 
ZNG — Receiving condx no good for code, or 
just no good. 

ZNN — All clear of traffic— nothing now. 

ZNO — Not on the air. 

ZNR — Not received. 

ZNS — Here new slip. 

ZOH — What traffic have you on hand. 

ZOK — We are receiving OK. 

ZOL — OK on line. 

ZOR — Transmit only reversals. 

ZP A — Printer line advance not received. 

ZPC — Printer carriage return not received. 

ZPA — Punch everything. 

ZPF — Printer motor last. 

ZPO — Send plain once. 

ZPP — Punch plain unly. 

ZPR — Rerun slip at present running. 

ZPT — Sent plain twice. 

ZRA — Reversed automatic tape. 

ZRC — Can you receive code. 

ZRK — Reversed keying. 

ZRN — Rough note. 

ZRR — Run Reversals. 

ZRY — Run test slip please, send RY please. 

ZSF — Send faster. 

ZSH — Static heavy here. 

ZSO — Transmit slip once. 

ZSS — Send slower. 

ZTA — Transmit by auto. 

ZTH — Transmit by hand. 

ZVB — Varying bias. 

ZVF — Signals varying in frequency. 

ZVP — Send V please. 

ZWC — Wipers or clicks here. 

R T T Y 


7tet 'Kcw* 


The KTTY Society of Southern Calif- 
ornia Net operates every Tuesday eve- 
nin'? at 8:00 p. m. on 147.85 me. 


June 1 — W6SCQ NC— 

WGAEE (Excus 

21 Checkins 

June 8 — WGRWQ, N. C.- 

June 15— W6ZBV, N. C. 

June 22— WGIZJ, N. C.- 

-13 Checkins 

—20 Checkins 

-19 Checkins 

June 29— WGFLW, N. C.— 21 Checkins 





















WGBNB (San Leandro thru W6CLW) 

SaAt Tiet 

The East Coast RTNET meets regular- 
ly on Wednesdays at 8:00 p. m. on 
3G2I) kcs. At present approximately 
twelve to fifteen have been checking in 
and taking part in the handling of traffic. 
The Mid Western RTNET also meets 
on Wednesday at 7 :00 p. m. on 3G30 kcs 
from information received by RTTY. 10 
to 15 stations have reported in during: 
the last few weeks. 

'PlontcU Steti*** 

W4DFU is the club station of the 
Gator Amateur Radio Club at the Uni- 
versity of Florida. Only available oc- 
casionally for KTTY at present but will 
be more in use later. 

W4EHU and W4TJU copied the Armed 
Forces Day transmission on May 15. Don 
got perfect copy from NDF and Doug 
copied from A4USA with only 2 mis- 
takes. Signals were pretty good in 
spite of local thunderstorms. 

W4FPC in St. Petersburg: is very much 
interested in RTTY and was shopping 
around for a machine when an Elmac 
caught his eye. So W4FPC won’t be on 
RTTY for a while yet. 

W4GZV in Palatka is shopping for a 
machine now, is all fired up to get on 

W4EHU and W4TJU are checking into 
the East Coast RTNET but the summer 
QRN and general conditions are about 
to get the best of all. Can’t print W3- 
PYW a lot of the time and Frank’s 
signal is usually best of all in Florida.