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XENIX VERSION/ SYSTgVUy SYSTEMV 4.ZBSD WORK-flUKES 


UNIX WORLD 

THE MAGAZINE FOR MULTIUSER, MULTITASKING SYSTEMS 



NOVEMBER 1985 


$3 IN USA 


£2.20 IN UK 


A TECH VALLEY PUBLICATION 


m t-* 

+ > • . • 

• T 4- -L 


+ .!• . 

REVIEW: 

Zllog System > 

8000 

Zilog's Mac 
Connection , 

• 

Is The Onix System Retailable? 

Graphics Extension*: 

GKS, PRIGS, VDI 

\\ 1 ♦ 

Tutorial: Terminal Lines, Cron 

Record: Sun, AT&T Detente, 
New Fortune Products 


71572 04782 


BILL GATES 
ON THE 

FUTURE OF XENIX 











































How we 
improved Structured 



Actually, we didn’t change a thing. 

We just combined it with the best 
relational database management system. 
Introducing INFORMIX*-SQL. 

It runs on either MS™-DOS or UNIX™ 
operating systems. And now with IBM’s SQL 


as part of the program, you can ask more of 
your database. Using the emerging industry- 
standard query language. 

To make your job 
easier, INFORMIX-SQL 
comes with the most complete 
set of application building tools. 
Including a full report writer 
and screen generator. Plus a family of com¬ 
panion products that all work together. 

Like our embedded SQLs for C and 
COBOL. So you can easily link your pro¬ 
grams with ours. File-it!™ our easy-to-use 
file manager. And C-ISAM? the de facto 


( 


( 



INFORMIX is a registered trademark and RDS, C-ISAM and File it! are trademarks of Relational Database Systems, In. ■. IBM, UNIX and MS are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation 
AT&T and Microsoft, respectively. © 1985, Relational Database Systems, Inc. 

















standard ISAM for the UNIX operating 
system. It’s built into all our products, but 
you can buy it separately. 

And when you choose RDS, you’ll be 
in the company of some other good com¬ 
panies. Computer manufacturers including 
AT&T, Northern Telecom, Altos and over 
60 others. And major corporations like 
Anheuser Busch and The First National 
Bank of Chicago. 

Which makes sense. After all, only RDS 
offers a family of products that work so well 
together. As well as with so many industry 
standards. 


So call us for a demo, a manual and a 
copy of our Independent Software Vendor 
Catalog. Software vendors be sure to ask 
about our new “Hooks” software integration 
program. Our number: 415/322-4100. 

Or write RDS, 4100 Bohannon Drive, 
Menlo Park, CA 94025. 

And well show you how we took a good 
idea and made it better. 



RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEMS, INC. 






























ANNOUNCING THE 
2.7 MIPS,68020-BASED 

UNIVERSE 32. 



BUY BEFORE OH. 31, 
GET A140 MB DISK 



In 1982, we leapfrogged 
the 16-bit minicomputers 
when we introduced the first 
68000-based supermicro 
with a true 32-bit architec¬ 
ture. Mow, in 1985, that 
means we can take full 
advantage of the remark¬ 
able performance of the 
Motorola 68020 micropro¬ 
cessor simply by plugging 
it into a 32-bit architecture 
that’s already proven in 
2,000 Universe installations. 

The result is the new 
Universe 32: a 2.7 MIPS 
powerhouse that 


we can deliver now. 

To make sure we 
deliver more 68020-based 
systems in 1985 than any 
other company, and to plant 
the seeds for long-term 
relationships, we’re making 
an exceptional offer. 

You pay for the basic 
Universe 32 Model UV32/ 
35T (1 Mb RAM, 35 Mb disk, 
45 Mb streaming tape, four 
serial ports; price $24,900). 

You get the Universe 
32 with a FREE upgrade to 
140 Mb (114 Mb formatted) 
disk; FREE upgrade to 4 Mb 


RAM; FREE upgrade to 
12 serial ports; and FREE 
UM/System V Operating 
System (derived from UNIX 
System V under license 
from AT&T). Orders must be 
placed by October 31,1985, 
for delivery by December 31, 
1985. After October 31, this 
same system will cost you 
$43,700. Mo quantity limit. 
Mo additional discounts ap¬ 
ply. Offer available only in 
the United States. 

For full details call 
(617) 626-1000 or write 
Charles River Data Systems, 


983 Concord Street, 
Framingham, MA 01701, 
Telex 681-7373 CRDS UW. 


GRABBIT! 





CHARLES RIVER DATA. SYSTEMS 

Universe is a trademark of Charles River Data Systems. UNIX is a trademark of AT&T/Bell Laboratories. 

Please circle Ad No. 138 on inquiry card. 











UNIX/WORLD 

THE MAGAZINE FOR MULTIUSER. MULTITASKING SYSTEMS 

VOLUME II. NUMBER 10 

b 0 N T E 

N T 

S 

A TECH VALLEY PUBLICATION 






THEME 



* ♦ 

♦ . ♦ 

.♦ t ♦ 

# •♦*♦♦♦«. 
♦ .. ♦ ♦ 

♦ * * .♦ * 

• 

THE FUTURE OF XENIX by Bill Gates What new developments are in 
store for XENIX users and vendors? This month Microsoft chairman Bill Gates 
tells all. 

20 

^7 B 

EATURES 


_l 

• 

THE UNIX SYSTEM ON MAIN STREET: IS IT RETAILABLE? 

by Rod Turner A microcomputer software industry veteran surveyed computer 
retailer interest in Unix and XENIX systems. The results will surprise you. 

GRAPHICS EXTENSIONS TO THE UNIX SYSTEM by Thomas Clarkson 
and Richard Skrinde PHIGS, GKS, VDI —three proposed graphics extensions to the 
Unix system kernel that more than a programmer will love. 

38 

• 

• 

• 

47 

20 


REVIEW 


ZILOG SYSTEM 8000 by Bruce Mackinlay This month our crazed reviewer 
delves into the secrets of one of today’s fastest Unix system-based supermicros 
around, the Zilog System 8000 , and comes up wanting. Includes a look at the 
Ultra-Office , ZHog's Macintosh connection. 


i 

IOURNAL 







SYSTEMS ADMINISTRATION: CURES FOR BUSINESS ILLS, PART 7 

by Dr. Rebecca Thomas Dr. Thomas’ Systems Administration series draws to a 
close this month with a look at controlling terminal lines and scheduling tasks 
using the cron facility. 



TRENDS 


TRAINING 


/etc 


Editor’s Console 7 

For The Record 9 

mail 15 

Inside Edge 16 

New Products 96 

sync 110 


This months cover incorporates studio photography by Jim Cummins, Jim 
graphics onto one final sheet of film was done by photographer Brad Milliki 


WIZARD’S GRABBAG 81 

Starter Kit 89 

Calendar 106 


Advertisers’ Index 90 

Market Place 106 
Career Opportunity 


UNIX/WORLD (ISSN 0739-5922) is published monthly by Tech Valley Pul 
3579 to UNIX/WORLD, P.O. Box 1929. Marion. OH 43305. 

Subscriptions cost $18 for one year within the U.S.A. and its posses 
bank only. Subscription questions and problems: Contact UNIX/WORLD S 
to the Merchandising Coordinator. 

Address all editorial correspondence to the editor at UNIX/WORLD. 
is not responsible for lost or damaged manuscripts, photos, or artwork. 
Entire contents copyright (C) 1985 by Tech Valley Publishing, unless 
UNIX (TM) is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. WE and UNIX 
Ultrix-32, and DEC Rainbow are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corp. IB1 
Corp. CP/M, CP/M-86, GEM. and CP/M-68K are trademarks of Digital 
is a trademark of Charles River Data Systems. VENIX is a trademark oi 
Statements of fact and opinion are made on the responsibility of the 


NOVEMBER 1985 


Cummins Photography. Seattle, and computer graphics by Focus Communications Group. San Jose. Composite merging of the photography and computer 
;en, also of Focus. 

iblishing, with offices at 444 Castro St.. Mountain View, CA 94041. Telephone 415/940-1500. RETURN POSTAGE GUARANTEED. Postmaster, send Form 


NEXT MONTH 


NEXT MONTH: 
COMMUNICATIONS 

■ STATE OF THE 
LAN MARKET 

■ STREAMS VS. NFS 


lions. For Canadian subscriptions, add $6 for each year. For foreign subscriptions, add $20 each year for surface mail. Remit in U.S. funds drawn on a U.S. 
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444 Castro St.. Mountain View. CA 94041. Unsolicited manuscripts can be; relumed only if accompanied by a self-addressed, stamped envelope. UNIX/WORLD 

otherwise noted. All rights reserved. 

System III are trademarks of Western Electric. UNIX/WORLD is not affiliated with AT&T Bell Laboratories or Western Electpc. DEC. VAX. PDP. VMS. 
M. PC. PC/AT. PC/IX. and PC-DOS are trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. XENIX. MS-DOS. and Multiplan are trademarks of Microsoft 
Research Inc. Ethernet is a trademark of Xerox Corp. M68000 is a trademark of Motorola Inc. HP and HP-UX are trademarks of Hewlett-Packard Co. UNOS 
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authors alone and do not imply an opinion on the part of Tech Valley Publishing or the editorial staff of UNIX/WORLD. 


UNIX/WORLD 3 




































♦eForum designed by Marcus Watts, Copyright 1984, 
Network Technologies International, Inc. (NETI). 


fo • rum, n. (pi. FORUMS) 

1. A public meeting place for 
open discussion. 2. A medium (as 
a newspaper) of open discussion 
or expression of ideas. 3. A pub¬ 
lic meeting or lecture involving 
audience discussion. 4. A program 
involving discussion of a problem 
by several authorities. 


Electronic meetings continue the conclusions just like in-person meetings, 

automation of knowledge transfer which From an economics point-of-view, eForum 

started with electronic mail. is the most cost effective method for bringing 

Electronic meetings are an extension of the together the best minds in your company to 
communications revolution which started with meet on key issues—without the price of a 

electronic mail. It takes seconds to send a letter single plane trip, the aggravation of schedule 

using electronic mail instead of days via conflict or time-consuming delay, 

regular mail. Certainly e-mail is a giant eForum is a communications breakthrough 

step in automating correspondence between product. 

two people. eForum lets you create electronic meetings 

eForum goes yet further to provide with attendee lists as large as the company staff 

immediate communications automation. But or as small as a three-person design team, 

for groups. It creates electronic meetings Not only can eForum handle hundreds of 

which allow attendees to participate in meetings for your company, but, at the same 

discussions using the dynamic ebb and flow time, limits each participant to only attending 

of points, counterpoints, comments and meetings to which he belongs. 



eForum, n. 1. Low cost electronic 
meeting system (as in needing no 
scheduling or travel to attend), v. 

1. Automatically organizes, indexes, 
flies and leaves a complete written 
record of entire meeting. 2. Allows 
adding more attendees than normal 
at no extra cost. 3. Gives plenty of 
time to think before responding, 
adj. 1. Keeps everyone up-to-date. 

2. Doesn’t let geographic or time 
zones determine who can attend 
the meeting. 


The Electronic Meeting Manager 

If you have ever attended a meeting, 
you know how to use eForum. 


Simply attend eForum meetings any time 
convenient for you. Review new discussion 
materials. eForum keeps track of what you've 
seen. Enter your comments or new discussion 
points. Instantaneously, your ideas are 
available to every member of your eForum 
group regardless of geographic location. 
That’s productivity. 

eRormn Has the netlbillty to nt your 

communications needs. 

• eForum 4000 - a national communications 
network available with a local phone call 
from most locations. 

• eForum 2000 - UNIX ™ based central host 
software for supermicro and minicomputers. 

• eForum WS - software for the IBM PC and 


compatibles to interact with eForum central 
host software. 

Call 1-800-638-4832 or in Michigan call 

(313) 994-4030 collect for information on: 

• Automating your company’s meetings by 
using General Electric Information Service, 
the world’s largest communications network, 
to tie together your microcomputers and 

teiminals, 

• Creating your own meeting network for your 
department or company. Software, hardware 
and leasing available. 

• Establishing OEM and VAR agreements 
to enhance the value of your software or 
hardware, with the communications power 
of eForum. 



Network Technologies 

International, Inc. 

The Arbor Atrium Building 
315 West Huron 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48103 

11 UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell laboratories 
eForum is a trademark of Network Technologies International, Inc. 

(neti) Please circle Ad No. 66 on inquiry card. 













Who could work any where 
work for worldwide 
And go everywhere ± 


For many of America’s 
best software engineers, 

Worldwide has been the 
ticket into the most 
exciting jobs in the country. 
Worldwide consultants 
direct state-of-the-art 
projects for major 
industries such as 
telecommunications, 
military electronics and 
data base development 


Worldwide consultants 
choose among leading- 
edge assignments that 
can last anywhere from 
several months to several 
years. Let others handle 
the drudgery of maintain¬ 
ing systems -Worldwide 
people are too busy 
delivering one exciting 
start-up after another. 


WORLDWIDE 
COMPUTER 
SERVICES INC 



7 Doig Road, Wayne, NJ 07470 

1 - 800 - 526-5246 


Please circle Ad No. 73 on inquiry card. 










Unix/World 

Staff 

Editor-in-Chief 
Philip J. Gill 
Technical Editor 
Dr. Rebecca Thomas 
Managing Editor 
Monica E. Berg 
Art/Design Consultant 
Robert G. Bryant 
Copy Editors 

Seth Magalaner, Rhoda Simmons 

Editorial Assistant 
Julie A. F'ilbert 

Editors-at-Large 

Harry H. Avant, System Reviews 
Bruce Mackjnlay, System Reviews 
Irene Pasternack, /usrj Library 
Vanessa Schnatmeier, Features 
Omri Serlin, Inside Edge 
Ray Swartz, /usr/ Library 
Bill Tuthill, Starter Kit 
Lauren Weinstein, sync 
Alan Winston, Features 

Cover Art 

Photography by Jim Cummins 
Background by Focus Communications/ 
Brad Milliken 


Contributing Editors 

Dr. Brian Boyle, Director of Research, Novon Re¬ 
search Corp.: Market Research; Thomas R. Billa- 
deau. President, TRB & Associates: Office Auto¬ 
mation; Gene Dronek, Director of Software, Aim 
Technology: System Benchmarking; Dr. Bill King, 
Professor, UC Davis: Writer’s Workbench; Bob 
Marsh, Chairman, Plexus Computers: Supermicros; 
Irene Pasternack, Training & Publishing Director, 
Specialized Systems Consultants: Book Reviews; 
P.J. Plauger, President, Whitesmiths Ltd.: 
Work-alikes; Omri Serlin, President, ITOM Inter¬ 
national: Market Analysis; Deborah K. Scherrer, 
Computer Scientist, Mt. Xinu: Software Tools; Ray 
Swartz, President, Berkeley Decision/Systems: 
Book Reviews; Bill Tuthill, Member of Technical 
Staff, Sun Microsystems: The Unix System Starter 
Kit; Lauren Weinstein, Owner, Vortex 
Technology: Networking/Communications. 

Publisher 
Robert A. Billhimer 

Marketing Manager 
ArdithJ. Lowell 
Production Manager 
Gerald A. McEwan 
Production Artist 
James McEwan 
Circulation Manager 
Heidi Spiegelman 
Circulation Consultants 
Brandt/Klingel Associates 
Customer Service/Reprints 
Linda Van Horn 
Administration Manager 
Verlene Perry 
System Consultants 
WMZ/NOVATECH Inc. 


NOVEMBER 1985 


r 




TRENDS 

1 



E D I T 0 

R 

y 

S 

c 

c 

INSOLE 


The Unix system marketplace has a penchant (per¬ 
haps even a fixation, some might say) for certain key 
words. One of them you hear time and again is “stan¬ 
dards. ” You know—Unix system standards, commu¬ 
nications and networking standards, graphics stan¬ 
dards . . . The list seemingly goes on. And so does the 
list of standards committees and organizations formed 
to debate, stipulate, formulate, and promulgate these 
standards. 

Ironically, these very committees and organizations may be the single 
greatest barrier to industry standards yet conceived. Why? History has 
shown again and again that at least in the computer industry, standards 
are set de facto, not de jure, cp/m came out of nowhere to become a de 
facto industry standard for 8-bit micros. No standards organization was 
needed to stipulate and promote it to industry standard status— CP/M got 
there on its own. Granted, the history of PC/MS-DOS’s rise to prominence 
is different; it had IBM to bless it. Nevertheless, it was the users in the 
marketplace that set this industry standard, not some bureaucracy. 

I could go with this list indefinitely but I don’t have the space. My 
point, however, is simple: In the Unix system marketplace, it will be the 
users who set the standards, not /user/group, not AT&T, not even 
IBM. It’s not to say that these firms and organizations won’t help shape the 
eventual standard; they most certainly will. But they will shape that 
standard according to what their customers want to buy. And what cus¬ 
tomers are buying more than anything else is XENIX. For this reason, we 
focus this month on XENIX —by far the favorite flavor of Unix systems 
available—and its future. It is very likely that XENIX will set the Unix 
system standard most users will know and acknowledge. To do the 
honors, we thought it only appropriate to go straight to the source: 
Microsoft Chariman Bill Gates. □ 


Philip J. Gill 
Editor-in-Chief 


UN1X/WORLI) 7 




















One of the nation's leading suppliers of 
System V and 4.2bsd UNIX* systems and 
services is right in the Midwest. 

First Computer Corporation offers a wide 
range of UNIX systems, high performance 
peripherals, and advanced networking 
products for UNIX — everything to solve 
your problems today and to help you meet 
the challenges of tomorrow. 

Our business is helping you employ advance 
technologies to the solution of your problems. 
We have a decade of experience, thousands 
of successfully installed systems, and we will 
be here to serve you today and a decade 
from now. 

NCR. Our product offerings range from the 
M68010 based MiniTOWER and TOWER XP 
to the newest member in the NCR family, the 
M68020 based TOWER 32. These systems 
offer capabilities to serve from 4 to 32 
users. Engineered for ultra reliability, with 
standard features such as battery backup, error 
mapped ECC memory, and extensive remote 
diagnostic capabilities designed to keep 
your system running. 



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C/VDAAUJ) 9000 sequeht BSK 


CADMUS. The Cadmus 9000 series based 
on the M68010 offers you a distributed 
graphics workstation in a System V UNIX 
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bit-mapped graphics, unique UNISON** 
networking software, TCP/IP gateways, and 
the newest Macintosh compatible software 
graphics interface are iust a few of the 
advanced features of tnese systems. 

SEQUENT. Sequent Computer Systems 
Balance 8000 offers practical parallel 
processing today. From 2-12 lOMhz National 
32032 processors offer the wide range of 
parallel processing power required for a 
variety of complex computing tasks. Up to 
28MB of common pooled memory, 1-4 
MULTIBUS chassis for wide-band I/O 
performance and ETHERNET! are standard 
in each system. 

If a UNIX system is in your future, you owe 
it to yourself to check with First Computer 
Corporation, the Mid-America company with 
the system alternatives. Call us today for more 
information. We are close to you, and we 
understand your UNIX needs. 


Mid-America’s first source 



Sales Offices: 

Chicago: 1-312-920-1050 
Dallas: 1-214-385-8838 
Houston: 1-713-739-7380 
Minneapolis: 1-612-831-4634 
St. Louis: 1-314-653-1585 


‘UNIX is a trademark of 
Bell Laboratories 
‘UNISON is a trademark of 
Cadmus Computer Systems 
l Ethernet is a trademark of 
Xerox Corporation 
19S5 First Computer Corpo 


computer corporation 

645 blackhawk drive westmont, illinois 60559 


TWX 910 


Please circle Ad No. 29 on inquiry card. 








































TRENDS 


FOR THE RECORD 


Top of the News.. . Detente, of sorts, is the byword not just in Washington but in Unix system circles as well. 
Sun Microsystems Inc., Mountain View, Calif., and at&t Information Systems have agreed to cooperate with 
each other in bringing System V and 4.2BSD together. In effect, the agreement promises to bring about a cross 
pollination of both System V and 4.2BSD, though it appears that Sun is moving closer to System V than System V is to 
4.2BSD. A Sun spokeswoman said the two firms will jointly develop the necessary software over the next 12 to 24 
months. Full System V Interface Definition confonnance on Sun’s part is expected by early 1986, just in time for 
UniForum, the commercial Unix system users’ show, in Anaheim, Calif., the spokeswoman indicated. Full Base 
Level System V Interface Definition compliance will follow in the summer of next year. However, Sun added that 
software written for the current Sun Operating System software—including those using Sun’s Network File System 
(nfs), Sun Windows, Sun’s multi-window screen management packages, and the SunCore graphics library—will 
remain compatible with future operating system releases. As part of its strategy to co-exist with System V, Sun said it 
will port NFS^which it has proposed as an industry standard—over to System V. In addition, Sun said the two 
companies would continue to meet periodically “to discuss future directions of System V and the Unix system 
marketplace. ...” 

Hoping for a rebound, troubled Fortune Systems Corp., Belmont, Calif., has unleashed a barrage (25 +) of 
new products—including the new high-end four-member, Super Expanded Performance (sx) series systems, capable 
of connecting up to 24 users. In addition, a local-area network, new graphics products, and window management and 
communications software were also debuted. While the sx series performance improvements are much-needed and 
long-overdue, perhaps the most intriguing of the new Fortune products is Fortune: Windows, the new window 
management software package—and a nicely done one at that. According to the firm, Fortune: Windows allows users 
to create and display up to eight windows of data simultaneously, each spun out as a separate process under the Unix 
system. Moreover, and perhaps more to the point, Fortune: Windows permits data to be transferred from one active 
window to another via ASCII data streams. Fortune: Windows also permits a high-level of user customization. . . . 

On the financial front, however, Fortune continues to be a money loser, although the firm reported a profit of 
$222,000 for its most recent quarter, that ended June 30 . . . The reason for the discrepancy between what Fortune 
says and the financial community says about Fortune’s second quarter performance is that Fortune is counting as 
revenue some $350,000 or so in interest income off its $25 million cash reserve (the net still leftover from its initial 
public offering). Hence, the firm as an on-going business is still losing money. Moreover, the quarter would have 
looked much, much worse were it not for $2.2 million received from Kirloskar Computer Services Ltd. of India 
for Fortune source code. . . . 

On the Integration Front .. . Elsewhere on the integration front, Motorola’s Four-Phase System 
subsidiary has also brought out window management software that integrates the major office productivity tool 
applications in a single environment. Called the Business Assistant, the new window management software seeks 
“to hide the Unix system from the user” but still give them all of its power, Recording to Four-Phase executives. 

The product provides a.series of windows and menus that guide the user through almost all major steps in word 
processing, data base management, spreadsheet, etal. including a nice set of menus for systems administration 
functions. . . . 

On the Multiprocessor Front . . . We all know that multiprocessor architectures are one among many of the 
industry’s current fads, for better for worse. While it’s still too early to tell if multiprocessor architectures are just a 
passing fancy or are here to stay (consider that two multi-processor companies that made a lot of noise—Auragen 
Systems and Synapse Computer are now out of business permanently)—we’ve yet to find one who makes so 
bodacious a claim as a company named Icon Systems & Software, Orem, Utah. What makes Icon all the more 
intriguing is its recently disclosed connection with Japan’s Sanyo Group of companies, including Sanyo Electric Co. 
Ltd. of Osaka, Japan, whereby Sanyo poured in a large sum of money (seven or eight figures, according to some 
reports) in exchange for 40 percent of Icon. Under the agreement, Icon will research and develop a computer family 
based on 32-bit microprocessors under the “MultiMicro/Mainframe Architecture” monicker. Sanyo will manufacture 
the hardware in Japan, Icon will sell them in the u.s., Sanyo will sell them injjapan. They will all bear the Sanyo/Icon 
brand name. 


NOVEMBER 1985 


UNIX/WORLI) 9 








TRENDS 


FOR THE RECORD 


The Sanyo/Icon MultiMicro/Mainframe Architecture family will incorporate multiple 68020’s (two in the base 
model), multiple concurrent operating systems (both 4.2BSD and Unix System V, of course, but also MS-DOS and VM 
and MVS (!!) and maybe even Pick). And there’s still more—the base, two processor machine, rated at 3.0 MIPS 
(million instructions per second), will list for a market-busting, entry-level price of $15,000. It will be followed up by 
a 5.0 mips machine with a real-time version of the proprietary operating system kernel (it’s the glue that ties 
together multiple operating systems), and an ultra-high performance, expandable multiprocessor with up to 32 
symmetrical processors and a claimed 64 mips capability. Although we’ve got no reason to doubt the Icon folks at 
this time, we anxiously await the shipment of their first products. . . . 

Tandem and C.. . One of the last major holdouts on the Unix system, Tandem Computers, Cupertino, Calif., 
officially remains so, though the firm has endorsed the Unix system as a programming and development 
environment with the recent introduction of a Lattice Inc. C compiler for Tandem NonStop and txp systems. . . . 

Rumors of the Month.. . Right about now Oracle Corp., the Menlo Park, Calif., relational data base 
management system software house, is planning to launch two or three major new software products that will head 
it off in new, strategic directions including a tightly integrated spreadsheet/DBMS package called SQL Calc 
networking capabilities. . . . Meanwhile, despite the naysayers gloom and doom forecasts for its top-to-bottom, 
micro-to-mainframe Unix system strategy, one software developer in the know says the Sperry Corp. sales force 
sold 600-plus Unix system boxes in the first 90 days they were being shipped by the Blue Bell, Pa., computer maker 
to its customers. We don’t know how Sperry has fared since then, but we understand it is a key player in a major 
federal government bid that could “keep it in business into the next century,” joked one informed source. . . . 

Contracts .. . Philon, Inc., New York, a developer and marketeer of language compilers, has signed a major 
agreement with Digital Equipment Corp. to supply Philon compilers for dec vax, microvax I, and recently 
introduced microvax II computer (operating under Ultra). Philon will supply its Philon FAST/Compilers to DEC 
under the Digital Classified Software (DCS) program. . . . Pacific Microcomputers, Inc., a San Diego-based 
manufacturer of high-density single-board computers, has been awarded a $1 million, 18-month contract by Texet 
Corporation of Arlington, Mass. Under the contract, Pacific Microcomputers will supply Texet with PM68D 
Multibus single-board computers, MX68 memory expansion boards, and software support to be used in the Texet 
Live Image Publishing System, which integrates text, graphics, live page preview, design, and composition 
capabilities. . . . Imagen Corp., Santa Clara, Calif., a manufacturer of intelligent, non-impact page printing 
systems, has signed a major OEM agreement with photographic equipment giant Eastman Kodak Co. that totals 
more than $1 million. Kodak has agreed to purchase several hundred of Imagen’s image processors over the next 
year for use in the Kodak Ektaprint electronic publishing system. . . . Marc Software International, Palo Alto, 
Calif., said it has sold 32 WordMARC software licenses to the Water Resources Division of the United States 
Geological Society (USGS) for use on Prime Computer Inc. minicomputers. 32 programs will be installed 
immediately, and up to 75 programs may be installed over the life of the contract. . . . 

News From AT&T. . . NETI Technologies Inc.’s wholly-owned U.S. operating subsidiaries, Network 
Technologies International, Inc., and Huron Leasing, Inc., both of Ann Arbor, Mich., have entered into a major 
agreement with AT&T to become a Value Added Reseller (var) in the U.S. for AT&T products and systems. In a 
separate accord, NETI has also joined AT&T’s Vendor Involvement Program (vip) as an approved Independent 
Software Vendor (isv) for NETI’s proprietary Forum 2000 electronic meeting system. . . . Also, NETI has 
announced that one of the company’s major proprietary product/systems, docuForum, has passed all final product 
evaluation by AT&T Communications, Inc., Basking Ridge, N.J., and will be marketed by AT&T starting in 
September. . . . Under a major co-venture agreement signed in January between AT&T Communications and 
Network Technologies International Inc., NETI’s operating subsidiary, AT&T obtained the right to market 
docuForum to corporate legal organizations in the U.S. However, the implementation of that agreement was 
contingent on AT&T’s review and acceptance of the product. AT&T Communications is AT&T’s long-lines unit. . . □ 


10 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVEMBER 1985 






68020-based workstations: 

I ' Up to twice 
thefloating point speed’ 

ofDECMicroVAXII. 



At aprice 20% lower 
than Apollo DN33Q 
























Introducing the Sun-3" 
series of workstations: Maximum 
68020 performance. In an open 
system. At a minimum price. 

Advantage. Sun. 

Sun-3 performance 
enhancements include: 
Increased integer performance 
by a factor of 3. and increased 
floating point calculation speed 
by a factor of 15 f over 68010- 
based systems. A 50% increase 
in I/O speed With a 32-bit 
VMEbus. Up to 16MB on-board 
RAM. Up to 256MB virtual 
memory per process. 

And, faster 68020- 
product delivery speed by a 
factor of months. 

Sun’s Open Advantage. 

Sun's open attitude 
recognizes that technology is 
moving too fast, in too many 



Multi vendor Environment 


diverse directions to be effec¬ 
tively addressed by any one 
computer company. So. we 
elegantly integrated industry 
standards for hardware, soft¬ 
ware and data communications 
throughout the Sun family of 
workstations to allow our 
customers to benefit from the 
diverse activities of every other 
open-minded company. 

Sun made this relationship 
particularly attractive to end- 
users and third-party developers 
alike, by improving and 
extending the UNIX* operating 
system at the heart of every 
Sun Workstation* system. Sun's 
system enhancements include: 
Revolutionizing UNIX net¬ 
working capabilities. Greatly 
increasing the number of design 
tools in the Already compre¬ 
hensive UNIX toolchest. And. 
improving user interfaces 
to allow easier control of UNIX 
capabilities. 

The resulting family of 
supermini-performance work¬ 
stations. ranging from low cost 
diskless nodes to stand-alone 
workstations, has become 
the system of choice for end- 
users, OEMs and third-party 
companies looking to capitalize 
on the burgeoning UNIX market. 

And that's an open 
opportunity for you. 


Open Opportunities 

Sun's Catalyst third- 
party referral program presently 
boasts over 350 advanced 
products. Combinec with the 
Sun-3's tremendous speed 
and enhanced capabilities. 
Catalyst products can open 
entirely new doors or your 
company into previously cost- 
prohibitive. computationally- 
intensive applicatii ns such as 
logic simulation. 3-) finite 
element analysis and knowledge- 
based systems. 

Sun's Network File System 
(NFS) and SunLinkr products 
(SNA 3270 and BSC RJE 
IBM gateways, and nternetwork 
Router for linking remote 
Ethernets) assure tljiat your engi¬ 
neering teams have access to 
all the computing re sources they 


need. Mainframes 


Minis. PCs. 


Local or not. IN IX or not. 


With Sun. you 


'existing 


computer investment is protected, 
your future purchase options 
left open. 

Sun workstations: open 
architecture, open network, wide 
open possibilities.'b find out 
more about the Sun Microsystems™ 
family of high perft rmance 
workstations, featuring the new 



68020-based Sun-3's, write: 
Sun Microsystems, Inc., 2550 
Garcia Avenue. Mountain View, 
CA 94043. Or. simply call 
(800) 223-OPEN. In California 
(800) 322-OPEN. 



Open Systems 
for Open Minds. 



t with optional floating point accelerator board. Sun Microsystems, Sun-3, the Sun logo and SunLink are trademarks of, and Sun Workstation is a registered trademark 


of Sun Microsystems, Inc. *UNIX is a trademark of AT&T. DEC and MicroVAX II are trademarks of Digital 
PC/AT is a trademark of International Business Machines, Inc. Apollo is a registered t 

Please circle Ad No. 24 on inquiry card 


Equipment Corp. IBM is o registered trademark of, and 
ademark of Apollo Computers Inc. 


































TANDY... 

Clearly Superior" 


The Tandy 6000 lets your office balance the books, 
track sales and write memos.. .simultaneously. 


For many companies, its hard to 
justify the cost of a separate computer 
for each employee. That’s why we de¬ 
signed the efficient Tandy 6000 multi¬ 
user computer. 

The Tandy 6000 system allows 
three people to simultaneously access 
programs and data, and you 
can expand with up to six 
users at any time. 

With a single Tandy 6000 
and printer, you can save 


time and effort. Your accounting can 
be processed in one office, word pro¬ 
cessing in another, and data base man¬ 
agement in a third office. 

The Tandy 6000 can also help with 
other departmental functions, like 
financial planning, inventory, job 




costing, and sales analysis. 

The Tandy 6000 comes with 512K of 
memory, XENIX 3.0 operating sys¬ 
tem and a 15-megabyte hard disk 
drive (26-6022. $5469). 

Discover how your business can 
benefit from a Tandy 6000 multi-user 
office system. Drop by your 
local Radio Shack Computer 
Center for a free demonstra¬ 
tion. Ask about our leasing 
plan. too. 



Available at ovei 1200 
Radio Shack Computer Centers and at 
participating Radio Shack stores and dealers. 

Radio /hack 

COMPUTER CENTERS 

A DIVISION OF TANDY CORPORATION 


Prices apply at Radio Shack Computer Centers and participating stores and deal¬ 
ers. Display terminals sold separately. XENIX/TM Microsoft Corp. 

























TRENDS 


This space is yours. Tell 
wrong. Raise issues and 
respond to. Propose proje 
Take a stand. 


us what we’re doing right—or 
ideas that other readers may 
cts. Reject market trends. 


AN OVERSIGHT? 

Dear Editor: 


let me offer my 
one. I look forward 


As a continuing subscriber, 
compliments on a job well d 
to every issue. However, there is something 
which irks me that I believe you should be 
made aware of. 


As an involved user of Tandy Radio Shack, it 
does concern me that Tand^ is rarely men¬ 
tioned in your magazine. Th 
the Tandy 6000 (and its predecessor, the Model 
16) run Microsoft’s XENIX, with an installed cli¬ 
ent base in excess of 100,000. Tandy really has 

brought the world of Unix/r. 1 

public with system prices st 
$8000 (Gdn). 


In one issue, you carried a 
Tandy had sold it for XENIX 


at that time. In another issue, the merits of Ba¬ 


sic on a Unix system were 


Tandy had carried Microsoft’s MBasic for some 


XENIX to the general 
tarting as low as 


ag ; 


review of Multiplan, 
for several months 


discussed. Again, 


you compared vari- 
ur Scripsit-16 was 


disse: 


I believe that you do a 
Xenix community by ignorihi 
client base. While there are 
systems, Tandy has manage 
fordable and relevant for 


bu 


NOVEMBER 1985 


was training, but 


time. In your August issue, 
ous word processors, but oi 
ignored. 

In another issue, a focal point 
you ignored Tandy’s educational network. Not 
only do most of their Computer Centres boast a 
classroom and a full-time instructor, but the 
repertoire of courseware includes the Xenix 
operating system and our multiuser applications 
such as Scripsit-16, Profile- 
DBMS packages), Multiplan 
integrated accounting syster 


16, and Unify (our 
and a complete, fully 
m. 


rvice to the Unix/ 
ig Tandy’s large 
larger, more costly 
;ed to keep Unix af- 
sinesses of any size. 


Take a look 
pressed, a 


Sincerely, 
Doug Frith 


nd 


at TandyU- 1 believe you’ll be un¬ 
pleasantly surprised. 


Editors Reply: The oversight has not been in¬ 
tentional. Moreover, 1 hope I may allay your con¬ 
cerns by letting you know that our regular 
reviewer, Eunice Mack inlay, has a Model 6000 in 
his hot little hands right now.—Philip J. Gill 


KIDS AND KEYBOARDS 


[MORE] 

Dear Editdi 


Bouquets to Lauren Weinstein for his 
much-neeced caution regarding the new gener¬ 
ation of “computer nerds”: today’s children. 

hild 


one 


that a ten 
anytime. I 


’s best friend is a computer termi- 
’s exercise consists of strenuous 
ing, then we better prepare our- 
a population of overweight, emo- 
erate adults. While some children 
mputer whizzes, if they are lacking in 
human training in love, conflict, and 
tpen what have we as a society 


When aj cl 
nal and 
finger tappji 
selves for 
tionally illit 
may be coi 
that very 
laughter, 
gained? 

Don’t get me wrong—I’m not on a crusade 
against computer competence. I think it’s great 
year old can out-perform me on a PC 
m all for healthy intellectual training, 
but a healtjhy balance is what’s needed and 
sorely lacking. Maybe we need to relearn the 
the ancient Greeks: Health and hap¬ 
piness conhe only when the mind, body, and 
soul are equally well developed. Let’s start ap¬ 
plying this lesson before our whiz-bang ex¬ 
pertise strips away part of our humanity. 


Sincerely, 

Cindy L. 
Informatidi 


Scharf 

n Concepts, Inc. 


UNIX/WORLI) 15 























TRENDS 


INSIDE EDGE 


WHATEVER 
HAPPENED TO 
THE SUPERMICRO 
MARKET? PART 2 


BY OMRISERLIN 


Unfortunately, as 
I explained last 
month in Part 1 of 
this article, the 
supermicro has 
yet to live up to 
its expectations; 
in fact, the mar¬ 
ket now seems 

hopelessly stalled. 

The problems of the super¬ 
micro market are several: price 
point and distribution channels, ser¬ 
vice and support, competition from 
proprietary supermicros and LANs, 
and the double-edged connection to 
the Unix system. 

Price Point and Distribu¬ 
tion Channels. By far the most 
fundamental problem supermicros 
face is that they are positioned in an 
awkward price range. With typical 
system tags running $15-$30,000, a 
supermicro system is far too ex¬ 
pensive to be handled properly 
through the retail channel; at the 
same time, it is too low in price to 
justify direct sales. 

Fortune Systems is one com¬ 
pany that clearly suffered from a 
wrong choice of distribution channel. 
The company originally concentrat¬ 
ed on pushing its 68000-based, Unix 
system-running desktops through 
retail, partly because the company 
wanted the better margins, and 
partly because it failed to sign up any 
high volume OEMs. 

While the situation was compli¬ 
cated by a series of unfortunate 
technical problems, it is probably fair 
to say that the machine was basically 
unsuited for retail. The price was 
too high (Fortune never delivered 


the floppy-based, $5000 system it 
promised originally); the type of cus¬ 
tomer drawn to the stores wasn’t 
interested in multiuser capability; 
and the store personnel found it hard 
to understand the Unix system. 

Fortune later officially aban¬ 
doned the retail channel altogether 
(by that time, only ‘problem ac¬ 
counts’ carried the product anyway). 
Today, about 15 percent of Fortune’s 
output goes through var’s and dis¬ 
tributors; 45 percent to large cor¬ 
porate accounts; and 40 percent to 
international large accounts and 
OEM’s. Fortune reckons it has about 
40-45,000 units installed, with a ra¬ 
tio of about 1:3 CPU’s to intelligent 
terminals. 

On the other hand, Tandy has 
been reasonably successful in mov¬ 
ing its 68000-based, Xenix-running 
desktop (Models 16, 16B, and now 
6000) through its own extensive 
Computer Centers retail outlets. 
This has been possible for two rea¬ 
sons. First, the Tandy product, 
which supports a maximum of three 
users (one on the main system and 
two attached via dumb terminals), 
has always been priced beginning 
below $10,000. Secondly, Tandy 
owns most of its computer stores; 
shelf space for the product can be 
mandated, whereas in independent 
chains and stores, virtually all such 
space has been taken since the per¬ 
sonal computer boom that followed 
the introduction of the IBM PC in late 
1981. 


NEWS SUMMARY 


When supermicros began to hit 
the market in 1981-1982, their 
prospects seemed unlimited. 
Based on advanced micro¬ 
processors—the Intel 8086, 
Motorola 68000, and Zilog 
8000—the supermicros ap¬ 
peared headed for success 
as they challenged traditional 
minis and superminis with 
equal or superior performance 
at 1/2 to 1/5 the price. 


Other reasons for Tandy’s rela¬ 
tive success include the fact that 
Tandy’s stores provide post-sales 
service and support. Also, Tandy’s 
Radio Shack chain logo was an estab¬ 
lished, recognized entity, while 
other now-familiar computer retail 
chains were then just beginning to 
get national recognition. 

Tandy does not release in¬ 
stalled base figures; this author now 
estimates that since the product was 
introduced in January, 1982 through 
December, 1984, Tandy sold a grand 
total of about 50,000 units. Assum¬ 
ing an average of 300 carrying stores 
(Tandy had about 225 Computer 
Centers in early 1982 and has since 
doubled them), this translates to 
about 55 units per store per year-not 
bad, but hardly a smashing success. 

It’s interesting to note that 
whereas Fortune now derives nearly 
half of its revenues from large cor¬ 
porate accounts, Tandy’s 1982 at¬ 
tempt to establish a direct large ac¬ 
count program appears to have 
fizzled badly. This may have been 
due partly to the consumer-oriented 
connotation of the Radio Shack 
name, even though Tandy Corp. stu¬ 
diously avoided that term in its large 
account work, used the Tandy Corp. 
name exclusively, and even painted 
the corporate equipment a more 
business like ivory. 

Convergent Technologies is the 
only supermicro supplier that has 
succeeded in moving its product 
through large-volume OEM channels 
(Burroughs, NCR). In fact, CT has 
been so successful in recruiting large 
OEMs as to preclude other super¬ 
micros from reaching this channel. 
This may be changing now, as 
Sperry Corp. mounts a major Unix 
system thrust using gear from NCR, 
Arete, and Computer Consoles. 

CT owed its initial success to 
several factors. It was one of the 
early 8086/8088-based supermicro 
suppliers. Its product concept—a 
network of powerful, individual 
workstations sharing disk and gate- 



16 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVKMBKR 1985 















TRENDS 


INSIDE EDGE 


way functions at a ‘‘master” sta¬ 
tion—is now model which several 
LAN suppliers are adopting. It will¬ 
ingly gave OEMs both equity stakes 
in itself and manufacturing licenses 
(Burroughs for one has exercised 
this license, and is manufacturing ct 
gear in the UJS. with plans underway 
for manufacturing in mainland China). 
Finally, it offered extremely attrac¬ 
tive OEM pricing. Over the past year 
or so, it became evident that prices 
on the NGEN line were set so low that 
CT was actually losing money on ev¬ 
ery unit shipped of some models. 

Other OEM channels for super¬ 
micros have since opened up. In 
particular, as noted earlier, Sperry 
has launched a major Unix system- 
based effort. Nixdorf appears to be 


the next major computer manufac 
turer planning a Unix system thrust 
based in part on supermicros ac 
quired from independent suppliers. 

With the OEM channel being me 
nopolized by CT on the one hand, ana 
the retail channel proving itself un 
equal to the task on the other, supei 
micro makers had to turn to sm; 
vars as their main outlet. 

The key problems with the va| 
channel are corporate credibility ai 
service and support. These super- 
micro vars are typically even less 
well-capitalized than mini and super¬ 
mini resellers. They generally have 
only a short operating history, and 
hence are unable to command confi¬ 
dence. Furthermore, as discussdd 
below, they are often unable or u] 


willing to provide comprehensive 
service and post-sales support. In 
addition, they have to deal with the 
problem of supporting direct sales 
efforts on systems which, even after 
adding premiums for vertical soft¬ 
ware, are too low in price. 

Probably the most promising 
solution is the Businessland-type re¬ 
tail chain. Unlike other computer re¬ 
tailers, this chain specializes in busi¬ 
ness selling, both in-store and via 
direct sales operations. Key to the 
differentiation is the emphasis placed 
on pre- and post-sales support and 
service. A number of such chains are 
now developing; as they gain com¬ 
petence with larger systems, and as 
they gain national name recognition, 
they could become a key channel for 


UNIX 
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Please circle Ad No. 137 on inquiry card 


ENNA. VIRGINIA 


UNIX/WORLD 17 





















TRENDS 


INSIDE EDGE 


distributing supermicros to small 
businesses. 

Service and Support. Indus¬ 
try experience up to now has shown 
that users were willing to pay about 
10 percent of the total if-bought 
value of a computer system for a 
one-year, M-F, 8-5 maintenance con¬ 
tract. This allowed for reasonable 
margins in mainframes ($250,000 
and above), but became economi¬ 
cally questionable with minis, and 
absolutely unprofitable with super¬ 
micros (where typical base hardware 
prices range over $15-20,000, and 
total end-user price with vertical 
software is roughly $35-50,000). It 
is just not possible to support onsite, 
quick response service at 10 percent 
of such low prices. 

Furthermore, most small vars 
upon which supermicro vendors 
came to rely were barely able to of¬ 
fer meaningful maintenance on their 
own vertical software packages; 
they were unable or unwilling to un¬ 
derwrite the investment required to 
establish a competent hardware ser¬ 
vice organization. 

Supermicro vendors were 
therefore forced to assume respon¬ 
sibility for basic hardware and soft¬ 
ware maintenance, without being 
able to charge appropriate fees to 
the end user nor trim discount 
schedules to their vars proportion¬ 
ately. This is one of the key reasons 
why most supermicro suppliers are 
not profitable today. 

It has now become obvious that 
new support strategies are required 
for equipment in the supermicro 
price range. The best model for this 
strategy could be derived from the 
small copier business, where a sig¬ 
nificant number of local resellers are 
offering effective on-site service at 
reasonable ratios to the selling price. 
One key factor in making this possi¬ 
ble is simplicity of maintenance: eas¬ 
ily understandable illustrated indi¬ 
cators pinpoint the great majority of 
common problems (jams, out-of¬ 
toner, etc.) which office workers 


with minimal or no specific training 
can then fix. 

One company that is experi¬ 
menting with new service strategies 
is Parallel Computers of Santa Cruz, 
Calif. Parallel sells a 68000-based, 
Unix system-running supermicro 
that has a number of fault-tolerant 
features, including a dual-processor 
CPU. While the fault-tolerant aspect 
strengthens the story, it isn’t a man¬ 
datory element. 

The key element in the service 
story is “labor free” maintenance— 
a design so simple and so effective in 
self-diagnosis as to allow office 
workers in the users organization to 
fix, without tools, virtually any antic¬ 
ipated problem by replacing such 
components as printed circuit 
boards, disk drives, and power sup¬ 
plies. Needed parts can be ordered 
via a hot-line for next-day delivery 
using Federal Express. 

New Competition. Generic 
supermicros are also encountering 
increasing competition from two 
new developments. One is the pro¬ 
liferation of locally networked per¬ 
sonal computers, a configuration 
which is being perceived by many 
organizations as an alternative to a 
multi-user supermicro (see Unix/ 
World May 1985). 

The other competitor is the 
proprietary supermicro, i.e., a sys¬ 
tem priced on par with generic su¬ 
permicros, but which implements a 
specific vendors minicomputer ar¬ 
chitecture and typically supports a 
proprietary operating system. Some 
recent prime examples include the 
dec microVAX II, the AT&T 3B2, 
3B5, and 3B15 lines (especially no¬ 
table since they run Unix, of 
course!), and the ihm System/36 PC. 

Proprietary supermicros are 
especially effective in convincing ex¬ 
isting vars and vads to stick to their 
current hardware supplier. Not only 
is the architecture and the operating 
software already familiar, but also 
much of the substantial available 
base of cross-industry and vertical 


software can often be used “as is.” 
These advantages, combined with 
the comfort of doing business along 
already familiar administrative pat¬ 
terns with a known—safe sup¬ 
plier—are depriving the generic su¬ 
permicro suppliers from recruiting 
some of the best resellers in the in¬ 
dustry today. 

On a $60,000 basic configura¬ 
tion, Parallel charges $9000 for a 
five-year warranty, which supports 
the next-day parts shipment. Note 
that this very low three percent per 
year of the list price is made possible 
only by employing the “labor free” 
maintenance concept. IBM has been 
moving in this direction for a number 
of years now, establishing hot-line 
support centers for most of its prod¬ 
uct lines, and relying more and more 
on “customer set up” and self¬ 
maintenance. 

The Unix System Connec¬ 
tion. With a few exceptions, most 
supermicro suppliers chose some di¬ 
alect of the Unix system as their 
operating system. They did so not 
because of any specialty-attractive 
features in the software, but mainly 
for economic reasons: it was infi¬ 
nitely cheaper to use the Unix sys¬ 
tem than to develop a proprietary 
system, at&t sold source licenses to 
the Unix system at about $40,000; 
the additional porting effort, in- 
house or farmed out, added perhaps 
another $100,000 and 6-12 months. 
Developing a proprietary system 
would, in most cases, have taken 
two to five times as long and possibly 
have cost ten times more. 

Thus the Unix system became 
a classic “push” case, with manufac¬ 
turers and vars trying to entice 
users with promises of eventual 
availability of a large selection of 
software as well as with “portability” 
arguments. Both promises are tak¬ 
ing much longer to become a reality, 
although clearly much more Unix 
system-based software is available 
today. 

The wide variety of incompat- 


18 UNIX/WOKLl) 


NOVEMBER 1985 




TRENDS 


ible Unix system versions still crip¬ 
ples portability. Besides, the level of 
portability offered by the Unix sys¬ 
tem is just at the high-level language 


layer, and is 
that already 
or COBOL. ' 
contributed n 


iinly slightly better than 
available with fortran 
hus the Unix system 
lothing to the promotion 
of supermicros. On the contrary: the 
key component of the apparent ‘ suc¬ 
cess” of the Unix system is the num¬ 
ber of supermicro vendors usinjg it. 

In the longer term, the reliance 
on the Unix system creates ai in¬ 
sidious problem for the supermicro 
suppliers. The problem has two as¬ 
pects. First, if indeed a standard 
Unix system emerges (which will al¬ 
most certainly be based on AT&T's 
System V with Xenix and 4.2BSD 
features thrown in), then the market 
for Unix system-based machines will 
become a classic commodity market. 
In such a market, brand recognition 
is the key differentiation tool. Most 
supermicro vendors lack the re- | 
sources to undertake the promo¬ 
tional campaigns needed to establish 
such recognition. 

One supplier with the neces¬ 
sary deep pockets is at&t, which is 
the other part of the problem. AT&T, 
which controls the Unix system, 


would like to 


see all hardware i 


)anu- 

/hile 


facturers adopting the system; 
at the same time, AT&T intends to 
compete with them head-on for the 
hardware business. This presents a 
no-win situation for the smal fry. 
The only suppliers who can afford to 
stay in the Unix system game with 
at&t are thje likes of IBM, Sperry, 
HP, Nixdorf, and similar established 


>rf, ; 
3 . T1 


companies. That is probably jus: fine 


with at&t. it doesn’t care a 


what happens to the likes of Altos, 


Fortune, Plexus, and their ilk. 


Omri Serlin heads ITOM International 
Co., a research and consulting ft/m in 
Los Altos, Calif. He writes the Super¬ 
micro and FT Systems newsletters, 
which analyze technical and business de¬ 
velopments in the computer industry, in 
\uhich he has been involved since 1962. 


NOVEMBER 1985 


hoot 


□ 


INSIDE EDGE 




Please circle Ad 


UNIX” System V 
Ireen Hills Compilers 
Ethernet” 

Unify” 


Heurikon’s multiuser, 

station—puts the power ^*^of the 68010 microprocessor and the 
flexibility of UNIX all in 1.5 square feet of desk space. Designed with 
the OEM and VAR in mind, Minibox gives you the features you’ve been 
searching for: Heurikon’s high performance HK68 M10 microcompu¬ 
ter • Integrated streaming tape drive • Up to 280 MB of Winchester 
storage • 1 MB floppy drive • UNIX System V • Hardware for Ethernet 
(TCP IP), Imaging, Graphics, Communications and other applications 
• Software including UNIFY, Green Hills Optimized Compilers. UNI- 
PLEX *, CEEGEN GKS v and others. 

Call Heurikon today at: 


HELRIK0N 


UNIX !• a trademark of Bell laboretorlea Inc 

Ethernet la a trademark of Xeroa Corporation 

UNIFY la a trademark of UNIFY 

MlntBoa ia a trademark of Heurikon Corporation 

CEEOEN GKS <a a trademark of CEEGEN Corporation 

UNIPLEX la a trademark of UNIPLEX Integration Syalemi 


3201 Latham Onve Madison. Wl 53713 
Wisconsin 608 271 8700 Tetox 469532 


UNIX/WORLI) 19 































THEME 


THE FUTURE OF 


BY BILL GATES 


Photography by Jim Cummins 

Background by Focus Communications/Brad Milliken. 


S ince the introduction of the IBM PC, 
the microcomputer industry has 
learned several valuable lessons, the 
■Mmost important of which is this: To 
achieve a high level of success in the mi¬ 
crocomputer market, a single binary pro¬ 
gram standard must be established. 

A binary program standard means that 
a single version of an application product 
can be developed, distributed, and main¬ 
tained that will run on a variety of different 
computers. The establishment of a source 
level program standard is significantly less 
important in order to achieve success in 


the microcomputer market. Since 1983, 
Microsoft has committed all XENIX devel¬ 
opment resources to establish a version of 
the system that we believe will set a binary 
program standard for Unix systems. This 
version, developed for Intel’s 286 micro¬ 
processor, has been licensed by many man¬ 
ufacturers and is sold today on some of the 
most popular microcomputer systems, in¬ 
cluding the IBM PC-AT 

To set a binary program standard simi¬ 
lar to MS-DOS in the personal computer mar¬ 
ket, XENIX must achieve what we call “crit¬ 
ical mass.” This may be defined as a« 


UNix/wokU) 21 


XENIX may well set the program standard for Unix 
systems. Microsoft’s Bill Gates explains the possibilities. 






CREATE 

LASTING IMPRESSIONS 




HIEROGLYPH 

UNIVERSAL REPORT PRODUCTION SYSTEM 
INTEGRATED TEXT/DATA/ADVANCED GRAPHICS SOFTWARE 

A "report" is information presented in organized form-* stroke commands. Both text and commands can be in 
typically a printed document. If you are a professional English or several foreign languages. The user manual is 
whose work involves preparing reports HIEROGLYPH “ is written for three levels: New, Experienced and Expert, 
for you. HIEROGLYPH is designed to meet the needs of Regardless, you can be doing productive work the first 
technical and office report preparation and produc- _ day. HIEROGLYPH software incorporates Text 

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Whether you are an engineer, scientist architect, Together they comprise the most productive 

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THEME 



1 


market situation where there are 
enough software manufacturers de¬ 
veloping applications for XENIX that 
end-users will demand to buy 
XENix-based applications that work 
on it. This in turn will lead to greater 
volume, which will fuel greater de¬ 
velopment activity. 

A good example of a program 
that has achieved critical mass by 
setting a binary standard is the 
MS-DOS operating system. Today, 
more people do DOS-type devel¬ 
opment than any other operating 
system, including systems like MVS 
or vm. 


UNDERSTANDING 

COMPATIBILITY 

It’s important to realize that you 
can’t compare operating systems 
based on pure technical merit. An 
operating system is, after ail, a foun¬ 
dation that facilitates certain stan¬ 
dards and provides access to the 


“The ideal operating 
system allows hardware 
to evolve and improve 
without impacting... 
application software.” 


hardware. The ideal operating sys¬ 
tem allows hardware to evolve and 
improve without impacting the signi¬ 
ficant investments made in appli¬ 
cation software. Hardware changes 
that require applications to be re¬ 
written stand little chance of being 
successful unless they improve the 
product by at least an order of 
magnitude. 

A good operating system insu¬ 
lates the application software from 
the specifics of the hardware and 
permits hardware evolution without 
software obsolescence. That is, it 
should offer compatibility to software 
developers and end-users alike. To 
the software developer, com- 

NOVKMBKR 1985 


patibility offers the benefit of a larger 
market; to the end-us^r, it offers a 
more risk-free purchase. 

There are a number of ways to 
assess compatibility—they run the 
gamut from forcing users to have to¬ 
tally identical machines to a very 
loose source-level standard. Cloud¬ 
ing the issue of Unix system com¬ 
patibility is the sheer number of dif¬ 
ferent types of the Unix operating 
system. In fact, there are probably 
more forms of the Uriix operating 
system than any other. And yet try¬ 
ing to distinguish between these 
forms, to derive the benefits from 
any similarities that may exist, is of¬ 
ten a difficult task. 

THE LIMIT OF 

SOURCE-CODE 

COMPATIBILITY 

One level of compatibility is some 
form of source-code compatibility. 
Here, multiple processor architec¬ 
tures are a consideration. Although 
there may not be very many archi¬ 
tectures, there’s certailn to be more 
than one. Being able to move one 
version of the source code between 
them is beneficial but not so 
significant that it determines the 
overall success of an operating sys¬ 
tem. Actually, source-level com¬ 
patibility only benefits the software 
developer, and the actual devel¬ 
opment cost of a package is a minor 
factor in ensuring the success of that 
package. 

Having many different binary 
forms means greater effort on the 
part of the manufacturer: If the man¬ 
ufacturer has to produce several dif¬ 
ferent versions, each; step in the 
production process must be re¬ 
peated for each version. This in¬ 
cludes getting each version out in 
the distribution channel, updating it, 
putting it on different media, and 
verifying it when any changes are 
made. Thus, with the exception of 
the original programming effort, as 
much time and effort is involved as if 


svs 

FORTRAN 

The SVS FORTRAN-77 
language is now available on 
an expanded family of CPUs. It 
fully supports: 

• Full Ansi Standard 

MC68000 

• GSA Certifiable 

• Many Language Extensions 
derived from our large 
user community 

• Symbolic Debugger 

NS32000 

• Optimizing Code 
Generation 

• High Speed Compilation 

• Very Large Applications 

• Integrated Hardware 

Floating 
Point Interfaces: 
A/IC68881, SKY, NS32081, 
and Custom 

MC68020 

• Complete User 
Documentation 

• Available since 1981 

SVS has been a major 
OEM supplier of compilers 
since 1979. 






I i 



ipinf; 




Silicon Valley Software, Inc 

10011 N. Foothill Blvd., Suite 111 
Cupertino, CA 95014 



Please circle Ad No. 122 on inquiry card. 

UNIX/WORLI) 23 



























YOU CHOOSE: 


Terminal Emulation Mode 

MLINK 

CU/UUCP 

Menu-driven Interface 

Yes 


Expert/brief Command Mode 

Yes 

Yes 

Extensive Help Facility 

Yes 


Directory-based Autodialing 

Yes 


Automatic Logon 

Yes 

Yes 

Programmable Function Keys 

Yes 


Multiple Modem Support 

Yes 

Yes 

File Transfer Mode 

Error Checking Protocol 

Yes 

Yes 

Wildcard File Transfers 

Yes 

Yes 

File Transfer Lists 

Yes 

Yes 

XMODEM Protocol Support 

Yes 


Compatible with Non-Unix Systems 

Yes 


Command Language 

Conditional Instructions 

Yes 


User Variables 

Yes 


Labels 

Yes 


Fast Interpreted Object Code 

Yes 


Program Run 

Yes 


Subroutines 

Yes 


Arithmetic and String Instructions 

Yes 


Debugger 

Yes 


Miscellaneous 

Electronic Mail 

Yes 

Yes 

Unattended Scheduling 

Yes 

Yes 

Expandable Interface 

Yes 


CP/M, MS/DOS Versions Available 

Yes 



MLINK 


The choice is easy. Our MLINK Data Communications System is the most powerful and 
flexible telecommunications software you can buy for your Unix™system. And it's easy 
to use. MLINK comes complete with all of the features listed above, a clear and com¬ 
prehensive 275-page manual, and 21 applications scripts which show you how our 
unique script language satisfies the most demanding requirements. 


Unix System V 

BSD 4.2 

MS-DOS 

Unix System III 

Xenix 

CP/M 

Unix Version 7 

VM/CMS 

and more.. 

Choose the best. Choose MLINK. 


Altos 

Data General 

IBM 

Arrete 

DEC 

Onyx 

AT&T 

Kaypro 

Plexus 

Compaq 

Honeywell 

and more. 


MLINK is ideal for VARs and application builders. Please call or write for information. 



Corporate Microsystems, Inc. 


P.O. Box 277, Etna, NH 03750 


(603) 448-5193 


MLINK is a trademark of Corporate Microsystems. Inc. Unix is a trademark ol ATM Bell Laboratories. IBM is a registered trademark of IBM Corp. MS-DOS and Xenix are 
trademarks of Microsoft Corp. CP M is a registered trademark of Digital Research. 

Please circle Ad No. 103 on inquiry card. 







FORTRIX 


Without FORTRIX; moving up to C 
can cost you a bundle! 


The bundle we're referring to consists of your 
existing FORTRAN programs and files. Costly items 
you'll have to discard when you move up to C, 
unless you save them with 
FORTRIX™! 

Here at last is a program that 
automatically and rapidly converts 
FORTRAN code to C code, allowing 
you to salvage your FORTRAN 
material at approximately 600 lines 
per minute. This incredible speed 
allows a single programmer to con¬ 
vert, debug and put into operation a 
typical 50,000 line package in only 
one to two weeks. Plus, the resulting 
"C" program will run 15% to 30% 
faster than the original FORTRAN 
program, while occupying 35% less 
disk space! And the system even jRd 

helps you learn coding in C language 
as you compare your own familiar 
FORTRAN programs with the | f 

corresponding C language W * 

programs generated by 


There's a complete selection of FORTRIX™ versions 
to suit the full range of user requirements: Original 
FORTRIX™-C, which translates FORTRAN code to C 

code, allowing input data files to remain 
fully compatible with your new C pro¬ 
gram; FORTRIX™-C + , with the added 
ability to handle COMMON and 
EQUIVALENCE statements, character 
handling and direct I/O; FORTRIX™-C', the 
complete FORTRIX™-C+ package con¬ 
figured for non-UNIX* systems including 
VAX/VMS; and FORTRIX™-C/micro, stand¬ 
ard FORTRIX configured for use on the 
IBM PC and compatibles. 

FORTRIX™ has already been installed 
on 26 different brands of hardware, so 
whichever FORTRIX™ version meets your needs, you 
can be sure it will exceed your expectations in terms 
of speed and cost savings realized. Why not act now 

to save your bundle? Get full technical details, 
plus references from among over 100 
satisfied licensees, from Jim Flynn at (212) 
687-6255, Extension 22, or write to him at 
Rapitech Systems Inc, Dept. Al, 

565 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10017. 


FORTRIXT Fortran-to-C Conversionware™ from 

Rapitech 
Systems Inc. 


Telephone (212) 687-6255/Telex 509210 

HJNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories 

Please circle Ad No. 22 on inquiry card. 













SEARCH and you will FIND... 

...Even faster than Spot! 

Spot’s friendly and so is SEARCH... 

Spot’s smart and so is SEARCH... 

Spot finds things that are lost and so does SEARCH... 

Spot can be your best friend... 

...and SEARCH will be your business’ best friend 

If the system you use makes it difficult to find information, you need SEARCH. 


SEARCH is the information retrieval software that provides fast, comprehensive searching and 
display of all types of textual documents — letters, memos, reports, contracts, proposals — from 
one page to hundreds of pages. 

SEARCH is the only program that lets you store and retrieve information in its natural state — 
original text. It’s easy to use because it stores and retrieves the way you write and think. 
Your word processing output can be !*'!? 

the input to SEARCH, eliminating 


the need to index or tag specific 
parts of your text for retrieval 
Every word is stored for 
searching, even the full text of 
long, multipage documents. 

SEARCH was developed ft -, ■ 
by BRS, one of the larg- ( ^ \ */< 
est online systems in the \\ r ‘ * ‘ 

world. Its design reflects V\ 
the experience ofthousands 
of information professionals 
performing millions of online 
searches. 

Micruconip utera 

AT&T. IBM , and various other UNIX*-based systems 

Minicomputer* 

PUP* 11/70 (UNIX) 

VAX® 11/7XX series under UNIX* or VMS* 

AT&T 3H. r > 

AT&T 3B20. 

Computer Consoles Inc Power ti* 

Mainframes 

IBM® or IBM-compatible under MVS/CICS or 
UTS (UNIX*). 



Power... 
Flexibility... 
Ease of Use. 

SEARCH is the 
ultimate retriever 
for all your 
information 
management 
needs! 


MVS* and IBM* are registered 
trademarks of International 
Business Machines Corp 
UNIX* is a trademark of AT&T 
Information Systems 
POP* and VAX* are registered 
trademarks of Digital Equip¬ 
ment Corp. 

Computer Consoles Inc Power 
6* is a trademark of Computer 
Comp 

UTS* is a trademark of Amdahl 
Computers 


^SEARCH 

“The Ultimate Retriever” 

1200 ROUTE 7, LATHAM, NEW YORK 12110 • (800) 235-1209 or in NYS (518) 783-1161 


Please circle Ad No. 45 on inquiry card. 





Theme 


several different applications were 
being produced. 

In addition, a user cannot be ex¬ 
pected to walk into a dealer and find 
a piece of source code with in¬ 
structions that say “The first thing 
to do is compile this code. ” 

Moreover, when people d scuss 
source level compatibility, they gen¬ 
erally ignore the difficulties of port¬ 
ing applications. Factors like the 
syntax of the open command or 
whether the file name has eight or 
nine characters are trivial. Instead, 
the variety of matrix printers, the 
many types of cut-sheet feeders, the 
different keyboards with keys n var¬ 
ious positions, and the diverse inter¬ 
national character sets are among 
the difficult factors to be dealt with. 
Here’s where costs really increase, 
especially in terms of training sup¬ 
port personnel, knowing how to re¬ 
spond to the many configurations, 
and creating the libraries of drivers. 
Operating system calls have little ef¬ 
fect here. 

As far as source-level trans¬ 
portability goes, considerable bene¬ 
fit can be drawn from a very strict 
definition of high-level languages 
Efforts of the ANSI committee to 
clearly define the language will go a 
long way toward helping lowe;r soft¬ 
ware development costs. 

ACHIEVING CRITICAL 
MASS 


According to the market 
tation we have today, Unix s; 
do not have a large enough ii 
base to create a critical ma: 
software vendors are not 
large enough profits in the Un 
tern market. 

The projections, howev 
Unix/xENix system shipment: 
quite large. Most companies 
concentrating on Unix system 
opment assumed that the Uni: 
tern market would be large 
Their goal is to make their 
nies large, successful, and 


presen- 
ystems 
installed 
and 
making 
iix sys- 


that; 


NOVEMBER 1985 


er, for 
s are 
are 
devel- 
x sys- 
already. 
compa- 
profit- 


able; but Unix system-only software 
companies are rarely over $2-3 mil¬ 
lion dollars in size. 

The installed base that would 
fulfill the ambitious goal of Unix 
system software companies would 
have to be amazingly large. A five 
million dollar company would have to 
sell 20,000 packages a year at $500 
each. This assumes the company 
is selling through channels where 
there is a fifty percent discount (a 
typical percentage) between the 
company and the end-user. It is im¬ 
possible to sell that volume directly 
to end-users, and to date no com¬ 
pany has accomplished this. 

“The true measurement 
of an operating system’s 
success is the variety 
of quality applications 
that run on top of it.” 


In fact, penetration of any indi¬ 
vidual software package is very 
low. Beside the few atypical cases 
like MS-DOS, Lotus 1-2-3, or Flight 
Simulator, most companies fall 
below a ten percent penetration. 
Moreover, there are many packages 
that have only a one to two percent 
penetration and are considered quite 
successful. 

Achieving critica mass for 
XENIX is going to take more effort 
than merely declaring a market size 
that we wish to achieve, e.g., 
400,000 systems. This is particu¬ 
larly true in an environment where* 
venture capitalists are becoming 
more reluctant to fund software 
companies. 

In the next 18 months, there is 
a good chance that XENIX system in¬ 
stallations will be able to surpass the 
400,000 system mark and achieve 
critical mass. There are a number of 
reasons for this optimism. 

One significant fac :or is that IBM 
has announced XENIX as the multi¬ 
user operating system for the IBM 


svs 

Pascal 


The SVS Pascal language is 
now available on an 
expanded family of CPUs. It 
fully supports: 

• Ansi Standard 

MC68000 

• IEEE Floating Point, both 
Single and Double Precision 

• Full Featured with 
most UCSD Extensions 

• Interlinkable with SVS "C" 

and SVS FORTRAN 

• Symbolic Debugger 

MS32000 

• Optimizing Code 
Generation 

• High Speed Compilation 

• System Programming and 
Very Large Applications 

• Modular Programming 
• Secure Separate Compilation 

MC68020 

• Complete User 
Documentation 

• Available since 1980 


SVS has been a major 
OEM supplier of compilers 
since 1979. 


For further Information 
nd other qi 





Silicon Valley Software, Inc 

100IT N. Foothill Blvd., Suite 111 
Cupertino, CA 95014 



Please circle Ad No. 123 on inquiry card. 

UNIX/WORLl) 29 




































The Language for a New Generation 


Portability. UX-Basic™ application 
programs execute unchanged on any UNIX™ 
machine and are completely device independent. 

Power. UX-Basic contains the building 
blocks for efficient application program develop¬ 
ment. It also allows you to tap the full power of 
UNIX and gives you direct access to data bases. 

Productivity. UX-Basic is friendly and 
easy to learn and use. The interactive program¬ 
ming environment provides syntax checking as 
well as real-time debugging and testing. 


Performance. UX-Basic gives you speed 
when you need it with our efficient pseudo-code 
compiler/runtime package. We are constantly 
working to keep UX-Basic’s performance at the 
leading edge. 

Profit. UX-Basic programs are structured, 
modular and readable. Maintenance and support 
are easy. 

Perfect for UNIX ... a new generation of 
computers... a new generation of computer 
users. 


©UniForum 

The International Conference of UNIX Users 
Febmary 4-7,1986 


UX Software, Inc. 

10 St. Mary Street, Toronto, Canada M4Y1P9 
Tel: (416) 964-6909 TLX: 065-24099 

Available from major computer manufacturers such as Altos, AT&T, 
Siemens and an international network of distributors. 

UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Laboratories. 

UX-Basic is a registered Trademark of UX Software. Inc. 


See us at 

©COfflDCKM'85 


November 20-24. 1985 
Las Vegas Convention Center-West Hall 
Las Vegas, Nevada 


Please circle Ad No. 152 on inquiry card. 




















THEME 


PC-at. This version of XENIX is avail¬ 
able for $995 and includes a run¬ 
time system, software development 
tools, and a text processing system. 

Another important step in 
achieving critical mass is to convince 
software developers of the benefits 
of getting behind the standard early 
in the game. 

As we’ve seen in the DOS mar¬ 
ketplace, developers who come in 
early and make serious investments 
are the ones who. will be most re¬ 
warded after critical mass is 
achieved. The newer applications 
have a tough time achieving market 
share. One reason for this is that 
users feel more comfortable With a 
familiar product. They may eVen go 
so far as to use it for purposes for 
which it wasn’t intended. Thus, you 
find users using their spreadsheets 
for databases or project scheduling 
tools rather than buy another appli¬ 
cation dedicated to the new tc sk. 

The agreement between Micro¬ 
soft and AT&T for a precise method¬ 
ology to fully verify XENIX as < Unix 
System V product is also an impor¬ 
tant step toward obtaining critical 
mass. Achieving this verification 
while maintaining 100 percent binary 
compatibility with the current re¬ 
lease will ensure upward compati¬ 
bility for existing XENIX applications. 


SYSTEM V VERIFICATION 
OF XENIX 


speci- 

Unix 


AT&T has published a detailed 
fication of the components of 
system called the System V Interface 
Definition. The primary purpose of 
this specification is to provide a rig¬ 
orous definition of the Unix system 
for application software developers 
and end-users. Based on the speci¬ 
fication, at&t will complete verifica¬ 
tion for Unix system-derived prod¬ 
ucts that it does not own, or 
certification for Unix system-based 
products owned by AT&T. 

Verification consists of com¬ 
prehensive set of tests that check a 


NOVEMBER 1985 


Unix system for functional adher¬ 
ence to the System V Interface 
Definition. The areas tested include 
the system call interface, the library 
interface, the C compier, and the 
commands in the base category that 
are essential to running the system. 

At the same time, AT&T will be 
applying stringent tests to certify its 
own Unix system-based products. 
These tests include comparisons of 
source code of the product with the 
Unix system baseline. To be certi¬ 
fied, all hardware-dependent func¬ 
tion differences must be justified. 

Once it’s verified, will XENIX 
System V be the same as the Unix 


A HISTORY LESSON 


In mid-1980, Microsoft Corp. 
began developing what has be¬ 
come the most widely used 
version of the Unix Timeshar¬ 
ing System—the XENIX Oper¬ 
ating System. Since then, 
XENIX has been implemented 
on many different microcom¬ 
puters and sold by major 
microcomputer suppliers, in¬ 
cluding IBM and Tandy Corp. 
Today, there are well over 
1 00,000 XENIX systems in the 
marketplace. 

Microsoft’s original objec¬ 
tive in developing XENIX was to 
provide a strong operating sys¬ 
tem foundation for the new 
generation of lb-bit micropro¬ 
cessors. That foundation would 
become the base for new Mi¬ 
crosoft language and applica¬ 
tion products. More impor¬ 
tantly, the operating system 
implemented on each 16-bit 
microprocessor would provide 
compatible facilities, thus re¬ 
ducing the cost of porting prod¬ 
ucts between different micro¬ 
computers running XENIX. To 
achieve this, XENIX had to es¬ 
tablish a source level program 
standard across different mi¬ 
crocomputer architectures. 

Significantly, at the time 
the XENIX project was started, 
the IBM Personal Computer had 
not been announced, and mar¬ 
ket dominance of Microsoft’s 
MS-DOS operating system and 
Intel’s 8086 chips had not yet 
been established. 


svs 

BASIC-PLUS 

The SVS BASIC-PLUS language 
is now available on an 
expanded family of CPUs. It 
fully supports: 

• DEC BASIC-PLUS Dialect 

MC68000 

• Integer, String and IEEE 
Double Precision Variables 

• Vector and Matrix 

Arithmetic 

• String Arithmetic 

• Extended I/O, including 
Print Using, Get and Put 

• Multi-lined Functions 

• Renumber, Trace, and 

Chain Commands 

NS32000 

• Very Fast Interpreter and 
Source Code Protection using 
quasi-compiled Internal form 
• Interactive 

MC68020 

• Complete User 
Documentation 

• Available since 1982 

SVS has been a ma 
OEM supplier 
since 1979 



Silicon Valley Software, Inc 

10011 N. Foothill Blvd., Suite 111 
Cupertino, CA 95014 



Please circle Ad No. 124 on inquiry card. 

UNIX/WORLl) 31 




























CUT & 
PASTE 

DEPART MENT 


notki: 

l.\CK OF MANNINC* 
ON YOl K r\Kl 

lXTFSNOTVONSTHVI 1 
\\ FNlFJvO.lNO 
ON MY1WKT 


N ^'-T*'v 



Let QDRIVE help you out of a sticky situation. 


QDRIVE™ dissolves the glue from “cut 
and paste”. 

If you’re still using scissors and glue to 
merge your output from various soft¬ 
ware packages, you need QDRIVE 
from Talaris Systems. 

QDRIVE — The Integrator. 

QDRIVE is a software package de¬ 
signed to merge the output from your 
text formatting tools with the output 
from your graphics generating tools. 
QDRIVE will merge and print your text 
and graphics on the same page. You 
won’t need to coordinate separate 
printing steps, programmers and word 
processing operators, or a paste-up 
artist. And with QDRIVE, every copy is 
an original. 



Talaris software is compatible with 
your software. 

With QDRIVE, you can merge your text 
and graphics on a page-by-page 
basis or for an entire document. Text 
files generated with DITROFF' M ,TeX™, 
MASS-T1 ™, SCRIBE *, and many other 
word processing tools can be merged 
with graphics from UNIX plot files, 
CalComp, Versaplot ™, DISSPLA ™, 
TELL-A-GRAF ™, DI-3000 ®, MDL ,M , 
Tektronix *, TEMPLATE ", and RS/1 ™. 

All you need to know is the size to be 
allowed for the figure and the graphics 
file location. 

QDRIVE will do the rest — scaling the 
graphics file to fit, and positioning it 
correctly on the page. 

Talaris has the one-source solution. 

Talaris Systems offers a full range of 
software products for Berkeley 4.2 and 


System V UNIX: QDRIVE, LASERPLOT 
(graphic support package), DITROFF- 
support (includes AT&T DITROFF, fonts 
and printer support), TeX support 
(includes AMS’s TeX, fonts and printer 
support), and FontManager (general 
purpose font management software). 

Talaris Systems has the hard-ware to 
match the software. 

The Talaris full-page, bitmap graphic 
laser printers can print whatever 
QDRIVE can create, at speeds from 8 
to 24 pages per minute. And Talaris 
Systems offers you over 800 fonts to 
choose from. 

Call Talaris Systems for more infor¬ 
mation about the QDRIVE solution. 

Once you've tried it, we think you’ll 
stick to it. 

TM and ® product names subject to trademark claims. 


a software company 



SYSTEMS INC. 


The Talaris 810, priced under $4,000, prints 8 
pages per minute and is designed for word 
processing and proportional spaced composi¬ 
tion applications. 

Please circle Ad Nn 18 on inauirv card. 


Headquarters: P.O. Box 261580/San Diego, CA 92126/(619) 587-0787 

Regional Offices: 

Suite 400/67 South Bedford St/Burlington, MA 01803/(617) 229-5820 • Suite 319/1931 Meacham 
Rd/Schaumburg. IL 60195/(312) 303-0044 • 1521 Avenue G/Plano, TX 75074/(214) 423-6311 • 
Suite 330-B/626 Holcomb Bridge Rd/Roswell, GA 30076/(404) 587-3511 


































Theme 

i 


system? In some ways it will, but 
there will be important differences. 
Most significantly, XENIX will provide 
a very strong binary program stan¬ 
dard whilst Unix System V will pro¬ 
vide source code portability across 
different processor architectures. 
It’s therefore likely that XENIX [will be 
the first target system for software 
developers to develop their applica¬ 
tion products. 

XENIX VERSUS MS-DO 

There are several significant rea¬ 
sons for choosing the XENIX oper¬ 
ating system instead of MS-DCS. 

First of all, the 286 architecture 
is a consideration. The pro 
has two modes: a real mode 
protected mode. The real m< 
binary compatible with the 
while the protected address 
provides extended address features 
for up to 16 Mbytes of address 
space. The protected mode is not 
binary compatible with the real 
mode; thus, applications cannot take 
advantage of extended addresses 
(i.e., more memory) without a new 
operating system. 

Because of the allocation of ad¬ 
dress space in the IBM PC, only a 
maximum of 640K bytes of ram is 
allowed. In order to take advantage 
of a 286-type machine and have large 
data structures (like the mere ex¬ 
citing applications), it’s necessary to 
use the XENIX os to avoid the 640K 
byte limitation. 

Other XENIX advantages include 
its multitasking capabilities and es¬ 
pecially multiuser capability. Multi¬ 
user capability will never be a feature 
of MS-DOS, because by the time it 
could be achieved, the singe-user 
network approach will be 
effective. 


essor 
and a 
ode is 
8086, 
mode 


XENIX AND PC-AT CLASS 
COMPUTERS 


It’s important to understand 
at class of microcomputer 
only the first of what will be 




ust as 


that the 
really 
whole 


new generation of personal comput¬ 
ers that are effective for executing a 
Unix system-like operating system. 
Putting the Unix system on an 
8088-based PC still results in a 
single-user machine. This type of 
system is available from Microsoft, 
but in terms of matching the hard¬ 
ware and being appropriate for a 
broad class of applications, the at is 
one of the first computers available 
through retail channels offering mul¬ 
tiuser capabilities. 

In addition, because the 286 has 
memory management on chip, a 
standard environment has been 
defined for application programs. So 
each version of XENIX on each 286 
machine will run the same applica¬ 
tions programs. This eliminates the 
problem of trying to exchange binary 
programs within one CPU class. 

The 20-Mbyte hard disk is 
about the minimum size that is nec¬ 
essary for a run-time system and 
decently-sized database. Although 
10 Mbytes will suffice, it is barely 
adequate. Likewise, the ATs 10.2- 
Mbyte floppies are a distinct advan¬ 
tage. A basic distribution of a Unix 
system-like operating system on 
360K-byte floppies would require at 
least 12 diskettes—an intimidating 
thought for prospective end-users. 

ADVANCES IN USER 
INTERFACES 

An effective operating system should 
be a strong but silent foundation for 
the computer system. By strong, 
we mean it should be rich in function. 
By silent, we mean it should be 
transparent. 

Microsoft believes that the 
XENIX operating system should pro¬ 
vide all the functions that a soph¬ 
isticated user interface would re¬ 
quire. At the same time, we believe 
the operating system must not be 
bound to a particular environment, 
such as restricting the operating 
system to only those systems having 
high-resolution graphics capabilities. 


svs 


The SVS "C" language is now 
available on an expanded 
family of CPUs. It fully 
supports: 


Common 


dialects 


MC68000 

• Ideal for Applications 
Development and Rehosting 
Programs for Improved 
Efficiency 

• Emphasis on Floating Point 

* Single Precision Option 

* Integrated Hardware 

Floating 
Point Interfaces: 
MC68881, SKY, IMS32081 

• Interlinkable with 

SVS Pascal 
and SVS FORTRAN 

• Symbolic Debugger 

MS32000 

• Optimizing Code 
Generation 

• High Speed Compilation, 
No Assembler Passes 

* Free of AT&T Licensing 

MC68020 

• Complete User 
Documentation 

• Available since 1982 

SVS has been a major 
OEM supplier of compilers 
since 1979 



Silicon Valley Software, Inc 

10011 N. Foothill Blvd., Suite 111 
Cupertino, CA 95014 



NOVEMBER 19«f> 


Please circle Ad No. 125 on inquiry card. 

UNIX/WORU) 33 
























1986 Winter USENIX Technical Conference 
Marriott Hotel — City Center, Denver, Colorado 

January 15-17,1986 


TUTORIALS 

For each topic area, there will be related tutorials 
on adjacent days, concurrent with the other 
technical sessions. Tutorials of general interest 
will also be held. Possible topics include: 

• Ada Programming Language & 
Environment 

• Window System Implementation 

• SNA Networking & UNIX* * 

• UNIX System Internals 

• UNIX Interprocess Communication, 
and others 

Tutorial speakers will be highly qualified 
technical experts who are able to give an 
indepth presentation. 


THE SPONSOR 

For the latest in UNIX applications and research, 
people look to USENIX,a not-for-profitassociation 
of individuals and institutions dedicated to 
fostering the development and communication 
of UNIX and UNIX-like systems and the C 
programming language. USENIX sponsors 
technical conferences, produces and distributes 
a newsletter and serves as coordinator of a 
software exchange for appropriately licensed 
members. 

r\ i—i 


THE TECHNICAL SESSIONS 

The 1986 Winter USENIX Conference will consist 
of workshop-oriented technical sessions in 
three topic areas: 

WINDOW ENVIRONMENTS AND UNIX 
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 15, 1986 
A thorough exploration of the design and 
integration of UNIX-based window systems 
and their applications. 

UNIX ON BIG IRON 
THURSDAY, JANUARY 16, 1986 
An analysis of issues raised by the imple¬ 
mentation and operation of UNIX on very 
large, powerful mainframes, including 
those with multiple processors. 

ADA AND THE UNIX SYSTEM 
FRIDAY, JANUARY 17, 1986 
An examination of the Ada language and 
its relationship to the UNIX system. 


For complete conference information, call: 
(213) 592-3243 or (213) 592-1381 

Or write: 

USENIX Conference Office 
P.O. Box 385 

Sunset Beach, CA 90742 

*UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. 
J- 



Please circle Ad No. 154 on inquiry card. 
































THEME 


Instead, Microsoft intends to 
have XENIX provide all the functions 
necessary to support a windowing 
environment (or indeed any other 
environment). That is, XENIX will 
provide a rich set of functionality 
that will allow software developers 
to build environments to sit on top of 
XENIX. In this way, the end-user will 
be able to choose the environment 
that best suits his or her application 
and hardware. 


WHATS AHEAD FOR XENIX 

Today, a certain degree of com¬ 
patibility already exists between 
Xenix and ms-dos. After all, both 
operating systems were developed 
by Microsoft and can co-exist on the 
same disk on 286-based machines. 
Still, they are separate products that 
address different markets: DOS ad¬ 
dresses the single-user workstation 
market while XENIX addresses the 
multiuser, small business system 
market. Although there will be more 
areas of compatibility in the future, 
Microsoft does not intend to merge 
them into one OS. 

However, more areas of com¬ 
patibility are planned. For example, 
certain common utilities and con¬ 
cepts based on XENIX design con¬ 
cepts have been added to DOS 2.0 
and 3.0. These include the sor t and 
more utilities, pipes, I/O redirection, 
and device-independent I/O. Hier¬ 
archical file systems have also been 
added to Dos 2.0 and 3.0. Con¬ 
versely, MS-DOS cross-development 
tools and subroutine libraries were 
added to XENIX System III to facili¬ 
tate development for a DOS target 
environment. 

In addition, existing disk util¬ 
ities allow file exchange between 
ms-dos and XENIX file systems, in¬ 
cluding a directory command, copy 
command, make directory com¬ 
mand, and remove file command. 

The introduction of XENIX Sys¬ 
tem V will open up several important 
new areas of compatibility. For 
example, the standard Microsoft 


How to go 
from 

UNIX to DOS 

without 

compromising 

your 

standards. 

It’s easy. Just get an industry 7 standard file access 
method that works on both. 

C-ISAM” from RDS. 

It’s been the UNIX™ standard for years (used in 
more UNIX languages and programs than any other 
access method), and it’s fast becoming the standard 
for DOS. Why? 

Because of the way it works. Its B+ Tree index¬ 
ing structure offers unlimited indexes. There’s also 
automatic or manual record locking and optional 
transaction audit trails. Plus index compression to 
save disk space and cut access times. 

How can we be so sure C-ISAM works so well? 

We use it ourselves. It’s a part of INFORMIX? 
INFORMIX-SQL and File-it!? our best selling data¬ 
base management programs. 

For an information packet, call (415)322-4100. 

Or write RDS, 4100 Bohannon Drive, Menlo Park, 

CA 94025. 

You’ll see why anything less than C-ISAM is just 
a compromise. 



RELATIONAL DATABASE SYSTEMS, INC. 

I 

< 1985, Relational I tatalxisn Systems, Inc. UNIX is a trademark of AT&T INFORMIX is a rvgistcivd 
trademark and RDS. C-ISAM and File-It! am trademarks of Relational Iiatabase Systems, Inc. 


Please circle Ad No. 32 on inquiry card. 

UNIX/WORLI) 35 


NOVKMBKR 1985 














MCBA 

introduces 


shrink-to-nt 



With ten years in 
minicomputer software, 

22,000 installations worldwide 
and an established reputation in 
the mini world, MCBA is proudly 
shrinking its software line. 

Down to micro size. 

We’ve taken the impressive power 
of minicomputer software and made it 
available for micros. Right now. 

Alter the fit? Absolutely. 

Alter the functionality, modularity 
and capability? Not one bit...so to speak4 

This new line of serious micro¬ 
computer software is by far the most com¬ 
prehensive, well-tested and sophisticated 
in the industry today. By whose standards? 
Thousands of MCBA users who rank it the best 
in the business. 

MCBA’s library of 16 inte¬ 
grated manufacturing, distribution 
and accounting packages can be 
installed in whatever combination 


,nd sequence a user 
eeds for his or her 
usiness. 

It grows with 
businesses. No matter 
what size they are now. 
Or want to be later. 

And MCBA software 
now runs in RM/COS® 
PC-DOS, UNIX™ 
and UNIX look-alike 
environments. 

In other words, 
we’ve tailor-made our 
newest software to fit 
micros—as comfortably 
as it fits user needs. 

So whether you’re a 
dealer or a user, find out 
about it. Call us now at 
(818) 957-2900. 

Shrink-to-fit software. 
For growing businesses. 


Minicomputer Software for Micros. 

“ 9441 Honolulu Avpiuip Monfrosp California Q1020 


1 2441 Honolulu Avenue, Montrose, California 91020 

Also for DEC, Wang, HP, and TI minis. 

MCBA is a registered trademark of MCBA, Inc. UNIX is a trademark of AT&T. KM/COS is a registered trademark of Ryan McFarland Coni. 
Copyright* 1985 by MCBA. Inc All rights reserved MCBA* Isa registered trademark of MCBA. Inc 

Please circle Ad No. 94 on inquiry card. 








THEME 


XENIX and DOS. XENIX ard 
machines will then be able 
linked within one physical n 
and users of each system can 
files of the other. They will 
to execute programs aero: 
environments. 

The forthcoming Intel 3&6 pro¬ 
cessor is another exciting 
opment. Not only does it eliminate a 
lot of the limitations of the 286 archi¬ 
tecture, but it is also a very powerful 
chip upon which to build the 
operating system. Keep in mind also 
that it is upwards compatible from 
the current 286 chip. □ 


family of languages including COBOL, 
Pascal, fortran, C, the basic inter¬ 
preter, and the Macroassemb er will 
each be available as compatible im 
plementations for both XENIX and 
MS-DOS. 

Another new feature of XENIX 
System V was first introduced for 
DOS 2.0. Called loadable device 
drivers, this new feature will sup¬ 
port the wide variety of hardware 
options expected to be introduced 
for the pc-AT. Loadable device driv¬ 
ers allow users to install a device 
driver for a new peripheral at 
system start-up. As the computer 
loads the OS, it automatically installs 
software that supports the added 
peripheral. 

XENIX System V will alsq be of¬ 
fering another major advance in 
MS-i)OS capability in the last quarter 
of 1985—transparent networking 
between XENIX and ms-dos systems. 
This will provide users with a fully 
compatible networking interface for 


DOS 
to be 
^twork, 
access 
be able 
ss os 


William H. Gates, co-founder and chair¬ 
man of Microsoft, is responsible for tech¬ 
nical development, including product de¬ 
sign, internal development, outside 
software licensing, and documentation. 
Gates attended Harvard for two years, 
then took a leave of absence to, develop, 
with Paul Allen, the first BASIC for micro¬ 
computers. After an additional year at 
Harvard, Gates joined Allen full time in 
1976 to continue developing and market 
ing Microsoft software. 


NOVEMBER 1985 


WHEN 
IT COMES TO 
DEVELOPING 
DOCUMENTATION... 

Xanthus has the 
expertise to do the job 
economically. And on 
time. 



At Xanthus, we specialize in writing, design¬ 
ing, and producing hardware and software 
documentation: operators manuals, reference 
guides, tutorials, training programs, and 
more. 

And we offer special 
capabilities to UNIX 
software developers 
and value-added 


resellers nationwide. 



• We adhere to AT&T's documentation Style 
and Standards Guide. 

• We're experienced in the UNIX 
environment. 

• We can communicate electronically with 
your offices via AT&T equipment. 

Discover more about Xanthus and how we 

can help you with your documentation needs. 
Call us at (512) 450-0044. Or write to the 

address below. 

UN/X™ is a trademark of AT&T Bell Lab oratories. 



5926 Balcones Drive, Suite 210 
Austin, TX 78731 

! I 1 | i 


Please circle Ad No. 52 on inquiry card. 

UNIX/WORLD 37 




















\\\\\\ \ \ 





























































FEATURE 


THE UNIX SYSTEM ON 
MAIN STREET: 

IS IT RETAILABLE? 

The results of our poll of computer retailers will probably surprise you. 


BY ROD TURNER 


lushed with success and hungry for new 
markets, survivors of the PC bloodbath are 
eyeing the market for Unix system-based 
hardware and software products. Only 
time will tell if the Unix system market is indeed 
the next wave beyond j cs. Meanwhile, computer 
retailers, an important distribution channel that 
contributed to the personal computers over¬ 
whelming success, are toying with selling Unix 
multiuser computers in their 
; believe that these retailers 
in the success or failure of 


system-based 
stores. Many vendors 
will be a key ingredient 


Illustrations: Marcus Hamilton 


the Unix system in mass markets, yet little has 
actually been known about how retailers perceive 
the Unix system—until now, that is. 

With the research assistance of Bob Novick 
of Impulse Research in Lbs Angeles, I set out to 
poll computer retailers for their views of the Unix 
system and its chances for success in the retail 
market. 

In order to assess whether the Unix system 
and Unix-based applications are retailable, we 
must first agree on the definition of a retailer. 
Many categories of retailers exist, ranging from 

unix/world 39 

























































































Freedom of Communication 
in the Xenix Environment 


Nine Track Tape Subsystem 


If you are an IBM AT user running IBM Xenix, 
you can now declare your independence. Over¬ 
land Data has just introduced the TC50X, a high 
performance tape controller 
and software package spe¬ 
cifically designed to pro¬ 
vide you unlimited freedom 
to communicate with other 
Unix systems. 

Tape oriented Unix™ inter¬ 
change commands such as 
tar , cp/'o and dd are fully 
supported and are com¬ 
pletely compatible with the 
same format tapes from 
mainframes and minis. 

Standard file system backup and restore com¬ 
mands are supported as well. Frequent backup 
is now simple and fast. Disk allocation fragmen¬ 


tation is eliminated on a restore, preventing 
gradual performance degradation common on 
poorly maintained systems. 

The software driver is inter¬ 
rupt driven, with multiple 
data buffers for high speed 
transfer using the low cost 
Qualstar streaming drive 
supplied with the system. 
Error handling and recovery 
is fully automatic. Standard 
features of character tape 
device drivers are support¬ 
ed including rewind and no 
rewind on close (/dev/rmtl 
and /dev/rnmtl). This fea¬ 
ture allows multiple tar vol¬ 
umes or file system dumps on one tape. 

For more information contact Overland Data 
and ask for Xenix System Support. 




Overland Data, Inc. 

5644 Kearny Mesa Road 

San Diego, CA 92111 Tel. 619-571-5555 


Xenix is a Registered Trademark of Microsoft Corp. 

Unix is a Registered Trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. 

IBM AT is a Registered Trademark of International Business Machines Corp. 


Please circle Ad No. 144 on inquiry card. 



















FEATURE 

\ 


having 

Com- 

ntre. 


61 


Fortune 1000 full-service dealers 
that have a retail storefront only to 
satisfy their suppliers to small “Mom 
and Pop” independents and even to 
mass merchandisers. For the pur¬ 
poses of this research, we focused 
our attention on the following three 
categories of computer specialty 
stores: 

(one) Large retail chains 
nationwide outlets, such as 
puterLand, Businessland, or 

(two) Small, tightly controlled 
retail chains ranging in size from 2 to 
50 stores. 

(three) Independent retailers 
and software-only stores. 

Of the dealers surveyed, 
percent currently sell multiuser sys¬ 
tems, and 80 percent currently sell 
networking systems. Fifty percent 
of the stores surveyed employ fewer 
than six people. 

RETAIL AWARENESS 

Interestingly, almost all retailers (89 
percent) are aware of the Unix sys¬ 
tem and know something about it. A 
majority of these retailers learned 
about the Unix system from tan arti¬ 
cle in a trade magazine (50 percent), 
while only 6 percent said they first 
became aware of the Unix system 
through an advertisement. 

The Unix system has been 
around for some time, and there has 
been a fair amount of speculation 
about the significance of tHe Unix 
system to the microcomputer indus¬ 
try, speculation that has increased 
over the past two years. Although 
at&t has significantly stepped up its 
marketing of the Unix system over 
the last 12 months, it appears that 
AT&T's advertising is increasing 
awareness only in the end-user com¬ 
munity. In fact, one-third of retailers 
surveyed said that end-users are 
now walking into their storeb asking 


NOVEMBER 1985 


about the Unix operating system and 
that this did not happen a year ago. 

Most of the dealers surveyed 
are aware of the Unix system's 
multiuser, multitasking, portability, 


DO YOU KNOW ABOUT UNIX? 



| COMPLETELY UNFAMILIAR 
SLIGHTLY FAMILIAR 
2 KNOWLEDGEABLE 


and virtual-memory features. It 
seems likely that retailers have 
heard about the features of the Unix 
system but have no hard data on 
them. Dealer interest in the Unix 
system certainly has increased radi¬ 
cally since IBM's announcement of 
the pc/at and its support for Micro¬ 
soft’s Xenix operating system. IBM’s 
announcement has forced a large 
percentage of computer retailers, 
particularly those who sell multiuser 
hardware, to look seriously into the 
PC/AT/Xenix combination in order to 
keep the price/performance of their 
current products competitive. 

^Iven though retailers generally 
are surprisingly aware of the fea¬ 
tures of the Unix system, most feel 
that these features are not unique to 
the Unix system and that other 
operating systems offer the same 
capabilities. The retailers made 
several positive comments about the 
Unix system, however, including “It 
will be the next big thing, next to 
MS-DOS.” 

irr 


100-1 


BEST VERTICAL MARKET POTENTIAL? 



& & 


s? 4 #\J 

>r ,cF 


UNIX/WOKLl) 41 




































FEATURE 


loo-. 


90- 


80- 


70- 


60- 


50 


DID YOU KNOW UNIX PROVIDES? 



MULTIUSER 
MULTITASKING 
PORTABILITY 
VIRTUAL MEMORY 
MODULAR CODE 


Fifty-three percent of retailers 
that are knowledgeable about the 
Unix system rate it as very good, 
while 92 percent of retailers that are 
only familiar with the Unix system 
rate it as good, very good, or excel¬ 
lent. One dealer said that “it’s re¬ 
liable, portable, and bug-free." An¬ 
other stated that “it’s good for 
software developers. ” Retailers cer¬ 
tainly seem to believe that the Unix 
system is an excellent operating sys¬ 
tem and that it is being marketed 
correctly. 

TECHNICAL SUPPORT 
AND VERTICAL MARKETS 

Most retailers provide technical 
support by using one of the follow¬ 
ing four approaches: use in-house 
technical-support staff, refer cus¬ 
tomers to the manufacturer, refer 
customers to an independent consul¬ 
tant, and contract with an indepen¬ 
dent support company to provide 
end-user support. 

Six percent of the retailers we 
surveyed do not offer technical sup¬ 
port. Interestingly, this group tends 


to include the larger, more success¬ 
ful retailers, and perhaps they are 
simply more realistic about the rig¬ 
ors of providing support. Seventy- 
two percent of the retailers sur¬ 
veyed use outside consultants to 
provide technical support or custom 
programming to their customers. 

Retailers face a real challenge 
when they market more than a lim¬ 
ited number of software and hard¬ 
ware products. Most face the same 
dilemma: Should they dilute their 
limited resources by trying to be¬ 
come experts on a number of prod¬ 
ucts, or should they pass customers 
on to some independent entity or to 
the manufacturer and risk losing 
them for repeat business? This di¬ 
lemma will only become more diffi¬ 
cult as the industry develops, and 
the use of outside consultants and 
contract technical-support groups 
will grow increasingly popular. 

In general, retailers believe 
that the Unix system will be 
significant in a wide variety of verti¬ 
cal markets, presumably because of 
its multiuser capabilities and because 
of the performance of the super¬ 


microcomputers on which the Unix 
system is usually sold today. High- 
performance hardware has tradition¬ 
ally been the domain of mainframe 
and minicomputer systems. Now, 
though, the advent of supermicro¬ 
computer technology combined with 
the Unix system has made it prac¬ 
tical for these machines to displace 
minicomputer sales to both new and 
established vertical markets. 

When asked in which vertical 
markets the Unix system would play 
a major role, retailers picked the fol¬ 
lowing areas: retail point of sale, 
cad/cam, finance, and manufactur¬ 
ing control. 

A LIST OF DEMANDS 

Despite retailers’ generally favor¬ 
able impressions of the Unix sys¬ 
tem, they have a list of demands that 
they said would make it truly palat¬ 
able in retail markets. These include 
the following: 

Unbundling. No retail pur¬ 
chasers in their right minds are go¬ 
ing to buy the Unix system at retail 
when they need six feet of shelf 
space for the manuals and when it 
takes three hours to load the soft¬ 
ware onto their hard disks. Retailers 
said the Unix system must be un¬ 
bundled so that end-users can pur¬ 
chase the components they really 
need to run their programs sepa¬ 
rately from the rest. 

Along with this approach, the 
Unix system must be packaged to 
conform with PC industry standards 
and documented so that the manual 
is easy to use and understand. Un¬ 
bundling allows a manageable Unix 
system product, while simplified 
documentation would help it assume 
a proud role on retailers’ shelves. 

A standard version. A great 
deal of discussion about the stan¬ 
dardization of the Unix system has 


42 UNIX/WORLI) 


NOVEMBER 1985 















“CrystalWriter.... 
was the best and most logical 

choice for us." 


thril 


"Thank goodness we 
We are all very im 
product. We were 
covered how easy it 
functions we needed 
experienced word pn 


w. 


placed the order! 
pressed with the 
illed when we dis- 
as.yetit had all the 
and didn’t insult our 
ocessor operators.” 


Cari Laird Gray 
System Administrator 
Dept, of Anesthesiology 
University of Texas Health Science 
Center at San Antonio 

fectly at home in the multi-user environ¬ 
ment. In fact Syntactics’ newest product 
the Crystal'" Document Management System, 
is designed to integrate UNIX word 
processing into office automation sys¬ 
tems of tomorrow. 


CrystalWriter is the next generation of 
UNIX word processing software. 

"The first software to go through AT&T’s 
certification testing in just one pass!” 

AT&T Information Systems 
Distributor and Publisher of CrystalWriter 

"A truly superior package.” 

UNIX/WORLD Magazine 


For more information on CrystalWriter, 
call ( 408 ) 727-6400 (within California); 
( 800 ) 626-6400 (outside California); or 
write: Syntactics Corporation 

3333 Bowers Avenue, Suite 145 
Santa Clara, CA 95054. 


CrystalWriter word 
unsurpassed advan 


faster and it’s easier to use, and it's per- 


processing takes 
age of UNIX.™ It's 


When it comes to UNIX word processing 
software, make the same choice AT&T 
UNIX/WORLD Magazine, and the 
University of Texas made. 



- UNIX is a trademark of AT & T Bell Laboratories. 
-CrystalWriter and SVNTACTICS are registered trademarks of 
SYNTACTICS Corporation. 

-Crystal is a trademark of SYNTACTICS Corporation. 

CrystalWriter is now availably on the AT&T UNIX PC 7300,3B2,3B5,3B20; DEC VAX 750 & 780; NCR Tower; Plexus; 

Sun and many more. (The preceding are trademarked names.) 

Please circle Ad No. 39 on inquiry card. 


4 SYNTACTICS 













FEATURE 


been taking place. Retailers have 
more fundamental and practical con¬ 
cerns about standardization, how¬ 
ever. They require that Unix system 
applications be object code com¬ 
patible and use a consistent disk for¬ 
mat between various machines. 
This, for the first time, would allow 
application software vendors to de¬ 
velop and sell software to retailers 
safe in the knowledge that the soft¬ 
ware can be used simply in any one 
of a variety of machines. To date, 
some versions of the Unix system 
running on different machines have 
been source code compatible, but 
this is of no use to retailers. Remem¬ 
ber, retailers cannot recompile a 
program with customers breathing 
down their necks. Also, the source 
code to the Bell Unix system itself is 
very expensive—costing more than 
$40,000. 

The Intel 286 microprocessor 
may make standardization of the 
Unix system a distinct possibility. 
First, the 286 has an on-chip 
memory management unit (mmu) 
that prevents individual manufac¬ 
turers from developing proprietary 
mmus, therefore making object-code 
compatibility between 286-based mi¬ 
crocomputers relatively straight¬ 
forward. Second, IBM has “blessed” 
the 286 by incorporating it into the 
PC/AT, leading a series of manu¬ 
facturers to develop PC/AT-com- 
patible machines that will, by 
definition, use the same disk format, 
operating system options, and so on. 

Application software. Once the 
standardization referred to above 
has been achieved, the relatively 
large number of Unix system pro¬ 
grams that currently have been de¬ 
veloped or that are under devel¬ 
opment will be available in that 
standard format. Enough software 
has probably been written for the 
Unix system today to support it at 


retail, provided that all the software 
can be standardized into one format 
and package. 

“ Friendly ” user interface. Re¬ 
tailers said that a single, standard 
user-friendly operating system shell 
should be built for the Unix system. 
This user interface must be state of 
the art by personal computer stan¬ 
dards, which means that it must sup¬ 
port windowing, icon graphics, and 
the desk metaphor popularized by 
the Apple Macintosh. Existing PC 
technology could be used—that is, 
GEM from Digital Research, Top- 
View from IBM, or the new AT&T 
user interface for the 7300 machine. 

Everything end-users need to 
do must be possible within the desk¬ 
top metaphor, but programmers will 
need access to the Unix system di¬ 
rectly through its existing shells. 

A bridge from DOS. A major hur¬ 
dle for the Unix system today is that 
customers must choose between a 
computer running the Unix system 
and a computer running pc-dos, the 
current industry standard for which 
thousands of applications have been 
developed. If software developers 
could find a way of allowing DOS ap¬ 
plications to run interchangeably 
with Unix system applications, then 
end-users would no longer have to 
choose between the Unix system 
and DOS; instead, they could buy the 
Unix system and get “the best of 
both worlds.” 

PROGNOSIS FOR RETAIL 
UNIX SYSTEMS 

Comments from the retailers sur¬ 
veyed included “It is excellent,” “It 
has been tested for a long time,” 
“There are no bugs,” and “Unix is 
definitely going to become the stan¬ 
dard operating system. ” 

Certainly there has been a sub¬ 
stantial upswing in interest in the in 


the Unix operating system and in 
Unix system-based applications in 
the retail channel. This current up¬ 
swing has been fueled by the IBM 
PC/AT and Xenix and by AT&T’s ag¬ 
gressive marketing programs. An¬ 
other influence is preliminary ex¬ 
posure of the at&t Unix pc Model 
7300 computer, which many expect 
to be the first computer to make the 
multiuser Unix system retailable. 

Hewlett-Packard’s announce¬ 
ment of the Integral Personal 
Computer, which offers unparalleled 
price/performance and portability in 
a Unix system machine, has focused 
attention on the capability of the 
Unix system to deliver practical 
power and ease of use to end-users. 
If IBM continues to support the Unix 
system (which remains an open 
question at this point), it seems cer¬ 
tain that the Unix system will de¬ 
velop a substantial following in the 
retail area. 

There is still an outside chance 
that the Unix system will displace 
DOS as the industry-standard oper¬ 
ating system if the stars come into 
alignment in time. In this case, the 
“stars” are AT&T, independent soft¬ 
ware developers, and operating sys¬ 
tem developers such as Microsoft, 
Digital Research, and Microport. 

Regardless of what IBM chooses 
to do, a strong industry ground swell 
is moving toward the Unix system, 
and at&t has the resources to con¬ 
tinue to promote, develop, and 
change it so that it becomes a very 
significant factor. □ 

Rod Turner is chairman of Microport Inc. 
of Monterey, Calif, provider of porting 
and development services for Unix System 
V. He is also executive VP of Marketing 
and Sales for Symantec, a start-up micro¬ 
computer software publisher in Cuper¬ 
tino, Calif Research assistance was pro¬ 
vided by Bob Novick of Impulse Research, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 


44 UN1X/WORLD 


NOVKMBKR 19Kf» 





Non-stop flights 


tsoXENIX. 


The XENIX" market is taking 
off. To keep up you’ve got to 
convert your MS-DOS software 
to run on the new, faster 80286 
machines. Quickly. Efficiently. 

Nobody makes porting 
software to the XENIX environ¬ 
ment as easy as Microsoft; you 
simply recompile the original 
source code. 

Our full-featured XENIX 
languages use commands and 
syntax identical to their 
MS- DOS siblings. So you don’t 
have to rewrite your program to 
move it. 

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FEATURE 


GRAPHICS 

EXTENSIONS TO THE 
UNIX SYSTEM 


Device independent interfaces are cau\ 
controversy in the world of graphics a, 


ing excitement and 
kd implementation. 


BY THOMAS CLARKSON AND RICHARD SKRINDE 


, he original AT&T Unix 
system user interface was a 
single cryptic dimension of 
m command line and string 
editbr. The university environment 
added termcap and vi, and gave 
the Unix system further dimensions 
of screen editing, display attributes, 
and menu systems—enhancements 
which helped increase the user base 
by an order of magnitude. 

at&t and graphics interest 
groups have propelled the Unix 
system user interface to the 
threshold of the bit-mapped display 
envronment. The Unix system 
must be able to interface with 
contemporary graphics hardware 
and software technologies if it is to 
gain widespread acceptance in the 
commercial market. The issue of 
directly linking a standard graphics 
interface to the Unix system kernel 
must be resolved before the Unix 
system can be a high-performance 
graphics environment. 


HIS 


TORY 


The Unix system and graphics were 
wee in the university environment. 
In addition to termcap and 
the Berkeley implementation was 


extended to include a libriry of 
graphics primitives called plot. 
These primitives consisted of move, 
point, label, arc, circle, 
erase, etc. A set of filters a lowed 
these primitives to be dis Dlayed 
upon a few graphics devices 
allowed output to plotting de 
but had no interactive capabil: 

The cad/cae industries 
away from the Unix systenk 
recently, as their software 
designed around commercial 
ware configurations or highly 
tomized hardware and op< 
systems. Device interfaces 
constructed either by 
directly to the hardware 
application level, by writing a 
filters to control a limited num 
devices, or by embedding the 
drivers in the kernel of the op< 
system. Commercial Unix 
cad/cae systems began to apjjx 
the Unix system environment 
the introduction of 68000 
computer systems from v< 
such as Sun, Daisy, Valid Log^c, 
ComputerVision. 

Business graphics applications 
were first brought to the Unix 
system environment by vendors 
who ported their existing mini- 


NOVE WBER 1985 




plot 
vices, 
ties, 
shied 
until 
was 
hard- 
cus- 
efrating 
were 
Siting 
the 
set of 
ber of 
device 
aerating 
based 
ear in 
with 
based 
4ndors 
and 


mainframe applications writ :< 
fortran. A few vendors pioi 
graphics applications written 
Graphic Software Systems 
developed a complete 
application environment in< 
interfaces, tools, and end-use: - 
cations, while Graphic Comnn 
tions Inc. (gci) developed a p 
business graphics application. 

SOFTWARE DEVELOP 
APPROACHES 


Ft 


Application code can be wr 
directly access the display 
ware, can be split into a funic 1 
user front-end with a series of 
for each display device 
back-end, or the code can be 
to a device independent inter f; 

Writing application 
directly access the display hai 
is similar to programming 
sembly language. There can 
noticeable performance advai 
with a tremendous decrea 
adaptability. Any change in 
play hardware means re 
recompiling, relinking, and re 
the application program. 

Application developers 
usually chosen to implement < 


en in 
peered 
in C. 
(GSS) 
aphics 
(fduding 
appli- 
unica- 
emier 


RS’ 


iften to 
hard- 
tional 
filters 
n the 
\vritten 
: ace. 
e to 
dware 
in as- 
be a 
ntage 
se in 
e dis- 
(toding, 
nesting 

have 

front- 


tlv 


unix/world 47 












FEATURE 


end program to accomplish the 
desired functionality, with an I/O 
consistent linkage to a back-end 
program which consists of a filter for 
each device. This allows for some 
device flexibility. The limitations of 
semi-device independent interfaces 
are several: A decrease in 
performance caused by an added 
loop in the logic flow and increased 
memory usage, less interactivity 
with the peripheral due to the 
complication of interpreting device¬ 
specific information from the 
peripheral, and more steps for the 
end-user who must either install or 
select the desired peripheral before 
executing the application. The 
application software architecture 
becomes more and more complex to 
maintain as more devices are 
supported. Application designers 
usually have more expertise in the 


area of application design than in 
driver optimization, which also 
affects performance. 

DEVICE INDEPENDENT 
INTERFACES 

Device independent interfaces are 
the new wave of excitement and 
controversy in the world of graphics 
implementation. These interfaces 
exist at both the application program 
and operating system level. They 
offer the application designer an in¬ 
dustry standard approach to 
graphics interfaces. Application de¬ 
velopers must learn the conceptual 
and semantic differences between 
writing to high-level interface and 
writing directly to the display 
hardware. Once these differences 
are understood, application develop¬ 
ment is greatly simplified. There are 


currently three emerging graphics 
standards targeted to many different 
scale computers, ranging from 
mainframes to pcs (see Figure 1). 

Programmers Hierarchical In¬ 
teractive Graphics System : The Pro¬ 
grammers Hierarchical Interactive 
Graphics System (phigs) is an 
emerging standard specifying a pro¬ 
grammer’s interface to a rich, 
device-independent graphics envi¬ 
ronment. phigs is designed to sup¬ 
port such important applications as 
cad/cae/cam, command and con¬ 
trol, molecular modeling, simulation, 
and process control, phigs empha¬ 
sizes the support of applications 
needing a highly dynamic, highly in¬ 
teractive operator interface re¬ 
quiring rapid screen update of com¬ 
plex images to be performed by the 
display system. One advantage of¬ 
fered by phigs for sophisticated 


Illustrations: Robert Brvant & Assoc. 



ITU ITV CVCTCIt/1 


METAFILE 


DEVICE 

DRIVER 


PHYSICAL 


STANDARD 


APPLICATION 

PROGRAM 


GRAPHICS 


STANDARD DEVICE 
INTERFACE 


DEVICE DEVICE 


FIGURE 1: SCHEMATIC SHOWING SOFTWARE LAYERS OF DEVICE INDEPENDENT GRAPHICS INTERFACES. 


48 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVEMBER 1985 













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FEATURE 


CAD/CAE applications is its support 
for three dimensional graphics. 

The current state of technology 
dictates that the initial implemen¬ 
tations of PHIGS will be designed to 
run on nothing smaller than IBM 4300 
class and DEC VAX-11/780 class ma¬ 
chines with very high performance 
graphics workstations. 

Graphical Kernel System : The 
Graphical Kernel System (gks) is 
the principal systems standard at the 
application program level. GKS allows 
portability of graphics application 
programs between different com¬ 
puter installations by providing a 
consistent interface to high level lan¬ 
guages. It provides a common 
graphics model and syntax to make 
programmers more productive. GKS 
provides graphics-primitive com¬ 
mands for data input and drawing, 
support for multiple workstations, 
and device-independent picture seg¬ 
ments. It also supports raster graph¬ 
ics through a set of area-fill and 
pixel-array primitives. 

Future implementations of gks 
will support three-dimensional 
graphics (3-D). The initial work in 
gks 3-D is being done at the Rens¬ 
selaer Polytechnical Institute in 
Troy, N.Y. GKS is an interface at the 
application language level, not at the 
operating system level, and requires 
a substantial graphics engine (float¬ 
ing point hardware). For this reason, 
many systems developers have 
turned to the vdi. 

Virtual Device Interface : The 
vdi (also called Computer Graphics 
Interface or CGI) is being developed 
by the ansi X3H3 Technical Commit¬ 
tee as a standard interface between 
device-independent software and 
graphics devices. It is the emerging 
operating system level graphics 
standard. It is rich in primitives, as it 
has been developed with graphics 
hardware in mind. Both PHIGS and 
GKS can sit “on top of’ VDI making it 
a “root lever' interface. IBM and 
AT&T have licensed the Graphic Soft¬ 
ware Systems gss version of the vdi 
as their PC graphics standard. A 


companion metal file interpreter al¬ 
lows hard/soft copy and disk storage 
of images. 

vdi makes all devices appear as 
identical virtual graphics by defining 
a standard input/output protocol. 
The unique characteristics of the 
physical graphics devices are iso¬ 
lated in device-driver software mod- 

A fifteen percent 
performance overhead 
is a small price to pay for 
the advantages of the VDI. 

ules. The big advantage of VDI is its 
potential for industry-wide com¬ 
patibility under many operating sys¬ 
tems on different scale computers. 

The vdi structure is composed 
of two distinct units. The control 
software associated with the applica¬ 
tion program is coupled with the de¬ 
vice driver software associated with 
an input or output device. It is possi¬ 
ble to install many device drivers at 
one time, for input or output to a 
number of devices. The exact num¬ 
ber of devices that can be operated 
at the same time depends on memory 
size and other system parameters. 

The language binding portion of 
the vdi accepts input from the appli¬ 
cation in the form of run-time library 
sub-routine calls and translates the 
graphics request into code for use by 
the device driver portion. The code 
consists of several arrays containing 
the operation code (opcode), the 
device “handle” specifying which 
driver receives the code, and a num¬ 
ber of integers and points in the 
integer-in {intin) and points-in (pts - 
in ) arrays. The in tin array contains 
all data required by the opcode, 
while the ptsin array contains the 
graphics data that the opcode may 
require. 

The binding routines then route 
the code to the vdi control soft¬ 
ware, which uses system dependent 
inter-process communication to pass 
the data to the requested driver 


using the device handle obtained 
when the requested device was ini¬ 
tially accessed. 

The interface portion of the de¬ 
vice driver accepts the input data 
from the application and passes it to 
the device driver. By doing so, it 
transforms normalized coordinated 
space into device coordinate space, 
which defines the physical limits 
of a specific device. The effect pro¬ 
duces a graphic image on a scale ap¬ 
propriate to the device on which it 
will appear. 

The opcode interpreter portion 
reads the now device-specific code 
and sends it to the waiting periph¬ 
eral. It also returns device-specific 
information to the application. The 
I/O portion of the driver handles all 
I/O functions such as accessing a 
communications port, setting the 
port characteristics, or reading and 
writing data. 

Any data returned by a device 
is passed to the interpreter portion 
of the device driver, where it is con¬ 
verted from device coordinated 
space back to normalized device 
coordinate space. The interface por¬ 
tion of the driver to which it is re¬ 
turned uses interprocess commu¬ 
nications to route the data to the 
application program. Arrays intout 
and ptsout , similar to the input ar¬ 
rays, are used to contain the data. 

When the graphics input device 
is accessed for use by the application 
(for example, when moving the cur¬ 
sor on the screen using a mouse), its 
echo device (in this case the screen) 
is specified and also accessed. When 
data is requested from the input de¬ 
vice, the actual device values are 
converted into normalized coordi¬ 
nate space. This data is passed back 
to the echo device, which converts 
back into the normalized coordinate 
space and a cursor is positioned by 
the input device (in this case the 
mouse). The application could query 
the screen to find out the location 
of the cursor to determine if an icon, 
for example, is positioned under the 
cursor echoed from the graphics 


50 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVKMHKR 1985 






Another in a series of 
productivity notes on 
software from UniPress. 


Subject: Multi-window, 
full screen editor. 

Multi-window, full screen editor 
provides extraordinary text 
editing. Several files can be edited 
simultaneously, giving far greater 
programming productivity than vi. 
The built-in MLISP m programming 
language provides great 
extensibility to the editor. 


trademarks ol UnP.iss iMACS 4 WISP. UniPress Software. Inc. UNIX. AW 
Ben Laboratories, VA r/VMS 4 Rambow L00*. Digital Equipment Com , MS DOS. 
Microsoft Cm. Wo iStar. MicroPro. Pyramid. Pyramid. GouU. Gould 


New Features: 

■ EM ACS is now smaller and 
faster. 

■ Sun windows with fonts and 
mouse control are now provided. 

■ Extensive on-line help for all 
commands. 

■ Overstrike mode option to 
complement insert mode. 

■ New arithmetic functions and 
user definable variables. 

■ New manual set, both tutorial 
and MLISP guide. 

■ Better terminal support, 
including the option of not using 
unneeded terminal drivers. 

■ EMACS automatically uses 
terminal's function and arrow keys 
from termcap and now handles 
terminals which use xon/xoff 
control. 

■ More emulation-TOPS20 for 
compatibility with other EMACS 
versions, EDT and simple 
Wordstar emulation. 

Features: 

■ Multi-window, fullscreen 
editor for a wide range of UNIX, 
VMS and MS-DOS machines. 

■ "Shell windows" are support¬ 
ed, allowing command execution 
at anytime during an edit session. 

■ MLISP programming 
language offers extensibility for 
making custom editor com¬ 
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macros, too. 


■ “Key bindings' 
freedom for defitii 

■ Programmii 
Pascal and MLlSi 
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FEATURE 


input device (the mouse). This echo 
loop removes the burden from the 
application of coordinating the posi¬ 
tion of the input device, the position 
of the cursor, and the position of the 
icon. 

PERFORMANCE 
TRADE OFF 

Interprocess communication varies 
on the 30 odd versions of the Unix 
system. Pipes, message queues, 
and shared memory are three com¬ 
munication methods. Performance is 
linked to the speed of these commu¬ 
nications methods in common use. 
Available system memory is the 
trade-off against speed as through¬ 
put increases with increased mem¬ 
ory. Of course, the structure of 
application code that interfaces with 
the VDi can alter the performance. 
Surprisingly to many skeptical appli¬ 
cation developers, programs prop¬ 


erly using the vdi interface often run 
as fast as programs directly access¬ 
ing the hardware, and should create 
no more than a 15 percent per¬ 
formance overhead in any case. This 
is a small price to pay for the many 
advantages provided by the VDI. 

HARDWARE VENDORS’ 
APPROACHES 

Computer manufacturers gain sig¬ 
nificant advantages from standard 
graphics interfaces. Without the 
standard interface, every application 
requires a different device driver for 
every device. Thus a computer man¬ 
ufacturer supporting five different 
graphics applications, each support¬ 
ing the twenty different input and 
output devices used by their cus¬ 
tomer base, must support 100 dis¬ 
tinct device drivers. Production 
overhead becomes unmanageable 
(and expensive) for tracking, up¬ 


dating, and producing the myriad of 
drivers. 

It is impossible to keep up with, 
let alone control, the technology ex¬ 
plosion of graphics peripherals which 
are cutting prices and increasing fea¬ 
tures throughout the industry. State- 
of-the-art peripherals help sell com¬ 
puters. Companies have had to limit 
the number of peripherals they can 
support due to the significant sup¬ 
port expense. Standard interfaces 
drastically reduce this cost, making 
it feasible to support many more pe¬ 
ripherals. 

Software solutions also help 
sell computers. Without standard 
graphic interfaces, porting a new 
graphics application ties up valuable 
in-house resources developing and 
testing the port. It is prohibitively 
expensive to pay the application 
developer to do dedicated hardware 
ports, and it is a long and painful 
process to eliminate the hidden 
bugs. Standard interfaces make 
many more software solutions avail¬ 
able to the hardware manufacturer, 
helping them sell more hardware. 
Here is a look at some computer 
manufacturers graphics interface 
strategies. 

AT&T : Historically, graphics 
applications in the Unix system envi¬ 
ronment have been limited to CAD/ 
cam. Today, few software devel¬ 
opers offer graphics as a part of their 
application packages due to the cus¬ 
tom development required to im¬ 
plement graphics in the Unix sys¬ 
tem environment. 

AT&T bundles a copy of the vdi 
with every Unix i>c. This is a strong 
statement of commitment to a stan¬ 
dard graphics interface and will re¬ 
solve industry confusion over differ¬ 
ing graphics proposals. AT&T’s 
stance will also encourage software 
developers to start integrating high- 
quality graphics into their Unix 
system-based applications. 

SUN MICROSYSTEMS: Sun 
Microsystems manufactures a Unix 
workstation featuring a high-perfor¬ 
mance graphics-oriented user inter- 



Q-CALC 

A superior spreadsheet on UNIX* Systems 

As powerful as Lotus 1 -2-3** 

• 

large spreadsheet 

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• 

complete GRAPHICS package 

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translates 1 -2-3 models in Q-CALC 

• 

already ported to: VAX, Callan, 

Fortune, 3B2, Cyb, Plexus, Codata, 

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translated into Japanese 

Available since July ’83 

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"Lotus 1 -2-3 is a trademark of Lotus Development Corp. 

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52 UNIX/WORLI) 


NOVEMBER IMS 





SI/S™ FORTRAN 77/ 
Pascal/BASIC-PLUS/C 

SVS family of native mode 
compilers fpr MC68000" 

UNIX'“ machines. Full ANSI 
standard, symbolic debugger 
and optimized code generator 
with high speed optimization. 
Support for IEEE floating point, 
both single and double 
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; inten 


u4th 

FORTH prdgi 
for UNIX, 
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be loaded 
image. Usd 
Artificial Ink 


tramming language 
largely compatible 
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-active and allows 
sjrstem call interface, 
JNIX command 
th. Permits C 
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d frequently in 
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SSI TOOi 

SSI Toolkit 
cross deveio, 
UNIX and 
includes 
assembler |ci 
Intel ASM-, 
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LKIT 

is a set of Intel-style 
tpment tools for 
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face and an open systems architec¬ 
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that 

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technological advantages of vdi 


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appli- 


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LJNIX/WORLI) 55 














REVIEW 


THE ZILOG 
SYSTEM 8000 

Zilog’s System 8000 has one of the best price /performance 
ratios in the supermicro market, says our reviewer. 
Nevertheless, he found other limitations that may make it a 
questionable buy. 

BY BRUCE MACKINLAY 



Zilog’s superfast System 8000 supermicro has many pluses and minuses. 


J ust when I thought the Plexus 
challenge was all behind me, I 
received a letter from Gary 
Babcock, marketing manager at 
BASIS in Berkeley, Calif., telling me 
about the Zilog System 8000 (see 
Figure 1). The gauntlet was down; 
perhaps I hadn’t looked far enough 
afield. I armed myself with my trusty 
benchmark tape and off I went. After 
spending a month with a Model 12 
and visiting the Zilog factory, I can 
report that Babcock is right: the 
Zilog System 8000 is a fast, inexpen¬ 
sive supermicro. 

This machine is one of the bet¬ 
ter Unix system-based supermicros, 
with one of the highest perfor¬ 
mance/price ratios on the market. 
The Model 12 that I reviewed has 
a suggested retail price of $20,000 
(since reduced to $16,950). Fur¬ 
thermore, the Unix System III oper¬ 
ating system (Zilog has just released 
System V) supports a large selec¬ 
tion of end-user applications and a 
wide spectrum of communication 
protocols. 

Before the recent proliferation 
of VLSI processors (the Micro-VAX II 
and WE32000, to name two), four 
processors dominated in the Unix 
system market: the Intel iAPX86, 
the M68000, the Z8000, and 
NS32000. Of the four today, the 
Zilog processor has become a neg¬ 
lected stepchild, except in the mil¬ 
itary marketplace. 

Many attribute the Z8000’s 
fourth place showing in part to a half¬ 
hearted marketing effort and to the 
decision by former Zilog president 
Manny Fernandez to keep the chip 
“captive” for his own systems effort, 
despite its appeal to many of today’s 
larger Unix system vendors ru¬ 
mored to have come knocking on 
Zilog’s door back then (Tandy, for 
one, according to some reports). Al¬ 
though I hate to restate the obvious, 
Zilog, the king of the 8-bit CP/M mi- 


56 UNIX/WORLl) 


NOVEMBER 1985 









REVIEW 


cro world, has lost out to Intel and 
Motorola in the 16-bit environment. 

Nevertheless, Zilog's domi¬ 
nance in the 8-bit, CP/M world and its 
excellence in chip design led some of 
the first Unix system supermicro 
mar ufacturers to build their original 
machines around the Z8000. How- 
eve; in the micro world, where 
brand name recognition is most im¬ 
portant, Intel rules. In the Unix sys¬ 
tem world, some say that only 
cost /performance counts, and the 
Z8000 seemed to be losing the 
cost /performance war. While price/ 
performance as the sole selection 
criteria can be debated, its goes 
without saying that marketing is just 
as important if not more so, and that 
Zilo g has lost the marketing war 
against Intel and Motorola by a mile. 


M r. Bruce Mackinlay 
W MZ/NOVATECH, Inc. 

T.85-G Enea Court, Suite 1330 
Concord, CA 94520 

Dear Bruce: 

I’d like to compliment you on your 
informative and well-written articles in 
U nix/World. Of special interest is your 
most recent piece on the cost and 
performance of the Plexus P/35. In 
general, I believe we here at BASIS 
share your impressions of the Plexus 
machine: it appears to be a solid per- 
fc rmer with a good UNIX port and at 
a very reasonable price. 

As it happens, we also “took the 
P exus challenge” last fall with a Zilog 
IV odel 32. As a result, the Plexus- 
Heuer chronograph found a home in 
Berkeley. I enclose a variety of bench- 
n ark results for Zilog and several 
o her Unix machines. 

We’d very much like to know more 
about your findings, particularly any 
bised on tasks similar to those used in 
the benchmark reports I’ve enclosed. 

S ncerely, 

C ary Babcock 
Marketing Manager 
BASIS 

1700 Shattuck Avenue 
Berkeley, CA 94709 


FIGURE 1 


NOVHMBER 1985 


In the case of the Systerr 8000 
the engineers developed a good com¬ 
puter—but hardly anybody knows 
that Zilog sells supermicrx'om- 
puters. The System 8000 is price- 
competitive with Motorola- based 


The Zilog 8000 system 
has one of the best 
performance/price ratios 
on the market. 


nkl 


systems, and it’s a reasonably 
erful and fast machine. A 
dollar marketing campaign 
have captured a significant 
share, but I think that woulc 
little late now. The competitio 
either surpassed the Z8000 
formance or is close to prodi 
machines that are even faste: 
cheaper than the System 8000 
Although it’s an unwritten 
that chip manufacturers don't 
pete with the people who buy 


pow- 
illion- 
might 
njiarket 
be a 
>n has 
per- 
ucing 
r and 

rule 
com- 
their 


chips (the independent computer 
manufacturers), Zilog has chosen to 
break this rule. 

The new Zilog System 8000 
uses Zilog chips, Zilog boards, Zilog 
chassis, Zilog cable assemblies— 
you get the picture. Board fabri¬ 
cation, cable fabrication, indeed the 
whole manufacturing process takes 
place on Zilog's own assembly line. 
Zilog's competitors contrac: out 
most of this work because they can’t 
afford the capital investment re¬ 
quired for a complete fabrication 
plant. Zilog (a wholly-ownec sub¬ 
sidiary of Exxon Corp.) has c eeper 
pockets, and so can afford to make a 
cheaper machine. 

A firm called Lutzky-Baird As¬ 
sociates has used the System 8000 
and as the center of Ultra-Office, 
their new office networking system 
(see sidebar). This system uses the 
AppleTalk Personal Network to link 
up to 64 Macintoshes, with c Zilog 
System 8000 as the host. Unix sys¬ 
tem mail and other Unix system 


COMPANY OVERVIEW 

Company Name: Zilog, Car 
408/370-f 
Management: CEO, Dr. 

Miscellaneous Data: Units 
Campbell, CA; Boston, MA; 
major products, Z8, Z80, Z8( 
since 1976. 

ipbell, CA (Wholly Owned Subsidiary of Exxon), 
000. 

Edgar A. Sack; VP marketing, Richard H. Rubin, 
shipped, not reported; Major support centers, 
Chicago, IL; Atlanta, GA; Houston, TX; Other 
0, and Z8000; Stock symbol, XON. In business 






HARDWARE/SOFTWARE OVERVIEW 


Model: System 8000, Model 
main memory, 52 Mbyte Wind 
ligent processor); Related i 
October, 1984; Processor: 
MHz; Min. Memory: 512 
Point: In software (hardware 
none; Winchester, 2 52 Mbytes 
4M tape cartridge, (nine-track 
and tape. Other Hardware: 
model 22 & 32), Serial I/O utiliti 
Tools; Languages: C Z800(J 
Bourne, CSH; Libraries: tenm 


12; Price: $16,950; Configuration: 1 Mbyte 
hester hard disk, 8-port I/O controller (not intel 
lodels: Model 22, Model 32; First delivered 
CPU, Z8001, Cache, 32 Kbytes, Cycle time, 11.1 
Kbytes; Max. Memory: 8 Mbytes; Floating 
avail, on 22 & 32): Storage Memory: Floppy, 
ST506 (168 Mbyte SMD on Model 32); Backup: 
on 22 & 23); I/O Processor: 8-port serial, disk 
Serial ports, 8-port/card, max. of 16, (40 or 
;ies: zsc (source control), System Administration 
assembler. Software: Unix System V, Shells 
icap, curses, C-isam. 


unix/world 57 





























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REVIEW 


THE ULTRA-OFFICE: ZILOG’S MACINTOSH CONNECTION 


NOV 


The Unix system may well end 
up being the glue that ties the 
Macintosh office together. 

While Apple Computer 
Corp. has provided local- 
area networking products for 
stringing Macs together, the 
AppleTalk LAN only supports 
about 10 Macs in a row. This 
limitation for an otherwise ex¬ 
tremely friendly Mac work¬ 
station has hampered its intro¬ 
duction into Fortune 500 
corporations. With these large 
companies’ penchant for IBM- 
compatibility as well as MIS 
control, Apple is losing out on 
many contracts. 

But in Los Angeles last 
year, the software design firm 
of Lutzky-Baird Associates hit 
upon a solution that would al¬ 
low as many as 400 Macs to 
talk to each other—and to 
Unix system-based hosts. 

The approach? Lutzky- 
Baird decided to write a Unix 
system interface that resided 
both on the Macs and on Zilog 
Inc.’s System 8000 super¬ 
microcomputers. Initially, the 
two-year-old startup did this to 
solve a problem for a single 
large advertising agency. Since 
then, however, the custom 
project has evolved into a com¬ 
mercial product, called Ultra- 
Office, and has since gone on 
(through a co-marketing agree¬ 
ment with Zilog) to other end- 
users. 

In its first release, called 
Ultra-Talk, as many as 50 
Macs—or five strings of Apple- 
Talk LANs —could be hooked to 
a single System 8000 unit. 

The Zilog computer’s Zeus 
operating system, a version of 
Unix System III, acts as file 
server and system adminis¬ 
trator, handling file transfers 
between Macs and an elec¬ 
tronic mail system. In addi¬ 
tion, the Zilog’s Unix system 
updates a “public library,” 
(common applications and data 
files) of files that all the Macs 
could access. 

“Unix untied us from hard¬ 
ware vendors,” said Lutzky- 
Baird president Charles Baird, 
a former aerospace software 
engineer. “We selected the 


Unix system because it’s the 
operating system of choice for 
supermicro sys replacing many 
of the installed minicomputers 
in today’s offices.” 

In a release of Ultra-Office 
this summer, Mac users gained 
the ability to “window” to the 
Unix system, thereby enabling 
them to work on any Unix sys¬ 
tem application Zilog supports. 
Mac users can now reserve 
part of the Zilog system’s hard¬ 
disk space for their own use of 
Unix system applications is 
well, Baird said. 

In December, an Ethernet- 
based network is expected to 
be ready that will allow up to 
eight Zilog units to connect 
into a single LAN supporting 
400 Mac workstations. In addi¬ 
tion, Lutzky-Baird will provi de 
software to allow IBM PCs onto 
the Ultra-Office network. 

And the new networking 
Ultra-Office gateways and Zi¬ 
log’s communications capabil¬ 
ities—including X.25 packet¬ 
switching standard—create a 
new environment for Macs. 

In the future, says Larry 
Tesler, manager of the Mac¬ 
intosh Division’s software 
group, the Unix system may 
well be included in this Apple 
scheme of things as an oper¬ 
ating system for an App e- 
labeled file-server produc :s. 
“Our main interest in the Uriix 
system is in systems software 
and connections to the ma n- 
frame,” Tesler says. 

Still, Apple stops short of 
outright endorsement of the 
Lutzky-Baird and Zilog prod¬ 
ucts. “We’re acknowledging 
that this is a strategically i m¬ 
portant product,” says Barba ra 
Knaster, an Apple spokes¬ 
woman. “But what we’re doing 
with Lutzky-Baird is typical of 
the way we try to co-marl ;et 
without third-party suppliers.” 

Nontheless, the tripartite 
marketing relationship be¬ 
tween Apple, Lutzky-Bai *d, 
and Zilog will allow all three to 
make corporate sales none of 
them would likely have majde 
alone. 

—Jean S. Bozman 


EMBER 1985 


tools are available to network 
The user can store files ei 
local Macintosh files or as Un 
tern files (using the Zilog as 
disk”). Ultra-Office is a step 
right direction toward Unix s; 
based networking, although 
not really what I’d like to 
idea is a system using IBM 
very intelligent terminals ui 
Unix system where the actu; 
user never is sure when he i& using 
the PC or the Unix system bcjx.) 


users, 
tier as 
x sys- 
“hard 
in the 
^stem¬ 
’s still 
. (My 
3 cs as 
nder a 
al end- 

1S 


it : 

see 


HARDWARE 

The Zilog System 8000 uses the 
Z8001 processor. It has 32K cache 
memory and an intelligent disk con¬ 
troller (also based upon the 58001). 
It has two types of serial cont rollers, 
one with an intelligent processor and 
one without. Both serial con Toilers 
support 8 serial ports, with a fully 
configured System 8000 supporting 
up to 40 serial ports. 

I understand that so|ne of 
Zilog’s machines are supporting 40 
terminals, but based upcn the 
benchmarks I suggest limiting it to 
16 terminals and then only using the 
intelligent I/O processor. The intel¬ 
ligent serial processor supports 
very wide spectrum of protocols, in¬ 
cluding SNA, X.25, 2780/3780 (bi¬ 
sync) and AppleTalk. Recent y Zilog 
added a Berkeley 4.2/Ultrix-com- 
patible Ethernet card. While 1 was at 
the factory, I was shown a VAX com¬ 
municating with a Model 32. I under¬ 
stand that the Ethernet card is made 
by Excelan. 

Zilog offers a 9-track drive 
and/or a streaming cartridge tape 
for backup. The latter has a 25.7- 
Mbyte capacity. The system uses a 
32-bit ZBI bus (Zilog standard), but 
since the processor only handles 16 
bits at a time, having a 32-bit bus is 
of questionable value. (Maybe this is 
in preparation for the future Z80000 
processor?) 

The system comes ir three 
configurations: the Model 12 : Model 


IJNIX/VORLI) 59 

















REVIEW 


BENCHMARK MEASUREMENTS 


AIM TECHNOLOGY SUITE II: 

ZILOG SYSTEM 8000 MODEL 12 

ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION TIMES (microseconds per op) 



short 

long 

float double 

+ add 

541ns 

918ns 

450 450 

* multiply 

7 

30 

453 454 

/ divide 

11 

72 

1001 1001 

MEMORY LOOP ACCESS TIMES (nanoseconds 


read 

write 

copy 

CHAR type 

3 

2 

3 

SHORT type 

589ns 

827ns 

1 

LONG type 

391ns 

570ns 

885ns 

INPUT/OUTPUT RATES (bytes/sec) 


read 

write 

copy 

DISK 

47K 

28K 

23K 

PIPE 



218K 

TTY 1 


864 


TTY 1 + 2 


2K 


RAM l-byte 



378K 

RAM 4-byte 



1129K 


ARRAY SUBSCRIPT REFERENCES (microseconds) 

short[] longfl 

4 5 

FUNCTION REFERENCES (microseconds/ref) 

O-parameters 1-parameter 2-parameters 
functO funct(i) funct(i,i) 

3 7 10 

PROCESS FORKS 

(35K bytes) 

22 per second 

SYSTEM KERNEL CALLS 
(calls-per-second and microseconds per call) 

getpidO calls: 5 Kcalls/sec or 222 microseconds/call 

5 b r k ( 0 ) calls: 18 Kcalls/sec or 55 microseconds/call 

create/close calls: 256 pairs/sec or 3906 microseconds/pair 
uma 5 k ( 0 ) calls: 4 Kcalls/sec or 236 microseconds/call 


22, and Model 32. Ali three come 
with 512K bytes of memory stan¬ 
dard, expandable to 8 Mbytes. The 
top-of-the-line Model 32 supports up 
to 40 terminals and up to four very 
fast SMD 8-inch 168-Mbyte disk 
drives. The middle-range Model 22 
can also handle up to 40 terminals, 
but uses the much slower ST506 5 


Vi-inch disk technology, with up to 
four 52-Mbyte drives. The lowest- 
priced Model 12 can support only 16 
terminals and two 52-Mbyte drives. 

When I opened up the machine 
I found a lot of multi-layer cards, 
with some but not a lot of patching. 
I noticed the unusual fact that all 
their boards have a 96-pin plug on 


the back left-hand side of the board 
for I/O devices rather than the tradi¬ 
tional cables. This makes it much 
easier to remove and inspect a card. 
In essence, I found the cabling to be 
innovative, and I’d suggest that 
other manufacturers use a similar 
technique (but not the zbi bus). 

The aim Benchmarks showed 
the System 8000 Model 12 to be 
quite fast. Zilog’s integer arithmetic 
was faster than Plexus, but Plexus 
has faster floating point arithmetic 

The aim Benchmarks 
showed the System 8000 
Model 12 to be quite fast. 

(both systems do floating point in 
software). Plexus wins out in 
memory access time, a surprise be¬ 
cause it has a smaller cache. 
Memory speed is an important mea¬ 
surement because it figures heavily 
into an application’s overhead. The 
speed of memory I/O shows through 
in function call references where the 
P/35 is twice as fast as the Zilog. 
Strangely, the slowest Zilog disk is 
faster then the slowest Plexus disk, 
but the fastest Plexus disk is much 
faster then the fastest Zilog disk. 
This is interesting because disk i/o 
is one of Plexus’s weak spots. 

The real difference between 
these systems (besides memory i/o) 
lies in the measurements of the 
speed of the Unix system kernel. 
Zilog is a clear winner here. Pipe i/o 
is almost twice as fast on the Model 
12. Zilog’s Unix system kernel calls 
are faster than Plexus across the 
board. (The results for sbrk(O) 
seem to be an anomaly.) 

The benchmarks for the Model 
32 are almost identical. Disk speed 
was faster, but only by a disap¬ 
pointing 20%. Ironically, the supe¬ 
rior read speed on the Plexus can 
probably be attributed to its intel¬ 
ligent disk controller—a Z8000! 
(Plexus also uses the Z8000 in its 
intelligent serial i/o processor.) 


60 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVEMBER 1985 












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REVIEW 


ZILOG MODEL 12 COMMAND COMPLETENESS 






ADDITIONS 


64 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVKMBKR 1985 












THE unix/world 


COLLECTION 


VOL. 1, NO. 1 
The Legend of 
Supermicro 


UNIX WORLD 



VOL. I, NO. ii 
The Unix System 
in the Office 


UNIX WORLD 


VOL. I, NO. 3 
Unix: System 
Standards 


tniiMmvnw moncywua* *o«nuN 
66 A MM UCHANU MANOAHV 

WHAtlVl* MAHV«1 TO KJWTX. _ _ 



UNIXAA/ORLD 


UNI 


VOL. I, NO. 4 
The Unix System 
in the Lab 


fHYCWS APOLLO ACCOUNT**. VMIWAAI 


WOMONCWHACHNr 


X WORLD 


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VOL. I. NO. 6 
Unix System 
Portability 


ACUrr ACCOtMflMG. UX MASK 
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THI UNIX mTVA AM) *«ViA 


VOL. I, NO. 7 
Communications and 
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REVIEW 


BENCHMARK MEASUREMENTS 


AIM TECHNOLOGY SUITE II: 

ZILOG SYSTEM 8000 MODEL 32 

ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION TIMES (microseconds per op) 



short 

long 

float double 

+ add 

544ns 

918ns 

452 452 

* multiply 

7 

30 

456 456 

/ divide 

11 

73 

1001 1004 

MEMORY LOOP ACCESS TIMES (nanoseconds 


read 

write 

copy 

CHAR type 

3 

2 

3 

SHORT type 

591ns 

833ns 

1 

LONG type 

395ns 

570ns 

890ns 

INPUT/OUTPUT RATES (bytes/sec) 


read 

write 

copy 

DISK 

52K 

50K 

26K 

PIPE 



202K 

TTY 1 


871 


TTY 1 + 2 


2K 


RAM l-byte 



377K 

RAM 4-byte 



1124K 


ARRAY SUBSCRIPT REFERENCES (microseconds) 

short[] long[] 

4 5 

FUNCTION REFERENCES (microseconds/ref) 

O-parameters 1 -parameter 2-parameters 

funct() funct(i) funct(i,i) 

4 7 10 

PROCESS FORKS 

(35K bytes) 

22 per second 

SYSTEM KERNEL CALLS 
(calls-per-second and microseconds per call) 

getpidC ) calls: 4 Kcalls/sec or 224 microseconds/call 

sbr k ( 0 ) calls: 18 Kcalls/sec or 55 microseconds/call 

create/close calls: 228 pairs/sec or 4386 microseconds/pair 
uma 5 k ( 0 ) calls: 4 Kcalls/sec or 233 microseconds/call 


SOFTWARE 

On the System 8000 I reviewed, a 
full Unix System system is standard. 
Zilog’s added enhancements include 
a flexible record-locking mechanism, 
a screen editor, and C-isam file ac¬ 
cess. Missing were sees and f 7 7. 
In place of 5 c c 5 , Zilog offers a z 5 c, 


a Zilog Source Control system. I did 
not try it, so I can’t report whether 
it is any better or worse than sees. 
Also included were esh and vi 
(thank goodness!). 

The file locking mechanism is 
not /usr/group compatible. There is 
a “make segment” kernel call to al¬ 
low you to allocate data beyond the 


traditional 64K-byte limit on the 
Z8001. Once you have made a seg¬ 
ment you will have to call sgbrk 
to expand it. I found none of the 
Berkeley 4.2 system calls, even 
though the Ethernet is “compatible” 
with Berkeley 4.2 and Ultrix. 

System administration utilities 
include adduser, datem, down, 
and upkeep, adduser prompts you 
for details about a user and creates 
user accounts, datem is a “user- 
friendly” date command (hurray!), 
down shuts down the computer 
nicely, and upkeep is useful for 
maintaining directories (like /bin 
and /usr/b in). 

Among the programming and 
software migration tools offered by 
Zilog are RM/COBOL, fortran 77, 
SMC Basic, and Microsoft Pascal. 
Zilog also offers X.25 and 2780/3780 
(bi-sync) communications, as well 
as PC works, a communications 
package which allows an IBM PC to 
function as a work station. Zilog 
offers a Software Subscription Ser¬ 
vice, which includes two levels of 
post-warranty software support to 
customers. 

Zilog has been actively soliciting 
third-party software for the System 
8000 through its Referred Software 
Vendor Program (rsvp). Software 
currently available includes Multi¬ 
plan, Informix, Unify, and a variety of 
word processors, accounting pack¬ 
ages, development tools, graphics 
packages, and vertical applications. 

CONCLUSION 

I have a couple of bones to pick with 
Zilog. First, the slick, expensive- 
looking packet of marketing materi¬ 
als is long on hype and short on hard 
facts. The most glaring omission is a 
price list. When I asked, I was told 
that Zilog doesn’t publish a price list 
at all. It is available to OEMs and vars 
on request. 

While the information I do have 
suggests that the System 8000 is 
reasonably priced, I can’t help won¬ 
dering why Zilog would not publish 


66 UNIX/WORLI) 


NOVEMBER 1985 








REVIEW 


this information, since everyone else 
does. Perhaps the answer is that 
Zilog’s prices are only competitive in 
certain configurations. I don’t know, 
but I find this omission highly un¬ 
usual. 

These mysteries aside, I found 
it just plain difficult to get the cold 
technical information I needed from 
Zilog personnel. 

While I’m complaining, I’d like 
this system a whole lot better if it 
were a true 32-bit machine. Now, I’ll 
freely admit that I have a bias against 
16-bit machines. I have been trau¬ 
matized by long nights spent trying 
to cram a program into the 64K-byte 
limitation. 

That brings up a major flaw in 
the System 8000/Z8000 architec¬ 
ture: segmentation. You can seg¬ 
ment programs on the Z8000, but 
handling segments adds extra over¬ 


head to the application. In addition, 
concerns about segmentation inter¬ 
fere with programming, even in a 
high-level language such as C. If 
your application is going to use more 
than 64K-bytes, you have to use 
special non-Unix system-compatible 
system calls, which reduces the por¬ 
tability of your application. Of 
course, Intel has the same problem 
and is still a major force in the mar¬ 
ket, so the picture for Zilog is not 
completely black. 

Needless to say, there are 
tradeoffs to every design decision a 
system engineer makes. In partic¬ 
ular, the “to segment or not to seg¬ 
ment?” question is the subject of in¬ 
tense (and verbose) debate among 
system engineers. Unfortunately, I 
don’t have the space to elaborate on 
that discussion here, though you 
might want to take a look an article 


“Understanding the New Micro¬ 
processor Architectures: What They 
Mean to System Performance and 
You” to help you understand some of 
the issues involved. The article ap¬ 
peared in Unix/World’s August 
1985 edition (Volume 2, Issue 7). To 
make a long discussion short, let it 
suffice to say I’m ag’in it. 

Overall, Zilog has done some 
things really right. The System 8000 
is a reasonably fast supermicro with 
generally good performance for the 
price. 

However, despite its strengths, 
I’m not really all that impressed with 
the Zilog machine. Some features 
affecting performance are oddly out 
of kilter with the rest of the sys¬ 
tem architecture (slow disk drives 
teamed with a fast chip, for in¬ 
stance). Moreover, I doubt the Sys¬ 
tem 8000 can stand up for long 



’Wr 




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BENCHMARK COMPARISON 


AIM TECHNOLOGY SUITE II: 

ZILOG MODEL 12 VS. THE PLEXUS P/35 

(Numbers in parentheses represent the difference between the Zilog Model 
12 and the Plexus P /35 in cases where the Zilog is faster then the Plexus. 
Numbers NOT in parentheses are the differences whhere the Plexus P /35 
is faster than the Zilog System 8000 , based on the Aim benchmarks.) 

ARITHMETIC INSTRUCTION TIMES 



short 

long 

float 

double 

+ add 

(3.69) 

1.01 

1.31 

1.96 

* multiply 

(4.00) 

(1.26) 

(1.23) 

1.07 

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(4.45) 

1.38 

2.50 

3.37 Avg. (0.16) 

MEMORY LOOP ACCESS TIMES 

read write copy 


CHAR type 

3.46 

1.00 

3.00 


SHORT type 

1.34 

1.00 

1.63 


LONG type 

1.25 

1.29 

1.81 

Avg. 1.75 


INPUT/OUTPUT RATES 





read 

write 

copy 

DISK (model 12) 

(1.38) 

1.00 

(1.21) 

DISK (model 32) 

3.53 

1.04 

1.26 

PIPE 



(1.77) 

TTY 1 


(1.40) 


TTY 1 + 2 


(2.00) 


RAM 1-byte 


2.17 


RAM 4-byte 


1.82 


ARRAY SUBSCRIPT REFERENCES 



shortf] 

longt] 




1.00 

1.25 

Avg. 1.12 


Avg. 0.25 


FUNCTION REFERENCES 


0-parameters 

functO 

2.33 


1-parameter 
funct(i) 
1.85 


2-parameters 

funct(i,i) 

1.80 


Avg. 1.99 


PROCESS FORKS 

( 1 . 22 ) 


g e t p i d ( ) calls: 
sbr 


SYSTEM KERNEL CALLS 

(1.06) 

Avg. 1.38 

T Number from Zilog Benchmark is not meaningful. 

Note: the Model 12 disk is compared to the slowest P /35 disk while the 
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against the newest Altos, Plexus, 
and National Semi-based machines. 
In sum, I for one believe the lim¬ 
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JOURNAL 


SYSTEMS 

ADMINISTRATION: 

CURES 

FOR 

BUSINESS 

ILLS 

PART 7, 
CONTROLLING 
TERMINAL LINES 
AND SCHEDULING 
TASKS USING CRON 


BY DR. REBECCA THOMAS 


U sers generally access the 
Unix system via a terminal. 
Each terminal (or terminal 
mm—mmm line) has a particular g e 11 y 
process monitoring the line for a 
log-in request, getty prints the 
login: prompt and goes to sleep, 
patiently waiting for a user to type 
something. When a user begins typ¬ 
ing, getty wakes up and starts the 
chain of events that eventually logs 
him in. 

You may disable terminal lines 
that support system access. But 
why would you want to do such a 
thing? Well, when a terminal line is 
disabled it may be used for another 
purpose—such as sending output to 
a serial printer, communicating with 
another Unix system via a modem 
that’s attached to a serial terminal 
line, etc. Also, you should disable 
lines that are “floating”—that is, 
have nothing connected to them. 
How do you disable a terminal line? 
You do so by requesting that the sys¬ 
tem not run a getty process for 
that terminal line. 

The procedure for enabling and 
disabling the getty process is simi¬ 
lar for both Bell Version 7 and Berk¬ 
eley, but is substantially different 
from both Bell Systems III and V. 
We will describe the procedure for 
Bell Version 7 and Berkeley first. 

THE BELL VERSION 7 AND 
BERKELEY PROCEDURE 

Immediately after executing the pre¬ 
conditioning shell script, / e t c / r c, 
when going multiuser, the i n i t pro¬ 
cess reads the file /etc/ttys to 
determine which terminal ports (or 
lines) are to have a getty process 
created for them, /etc/ttys is a 
human-readable text file containing 
the names of the terminals, one ter¬ 
minal per line. Figure 1 illustrates a 
sample file for supporting five ter- 


NOVEMBEH 1985 


UN1X/WOHLI) 73 






JOURNAL 


minals—a system console and four 
additional terminals. 

The first character of each en¬ 
try is either a 0 (zero) or 1 (one). If 
the line begins with a zero, init 
ignores that entry line so no g e 11 y 
process is spawned and the corre¬ 
sponding terminal port is disabled for 
user log-in. An entry of one causes 
init to start a g e 11 y process that 
monitors that terminal line for a log¬ 
in request. Thus, in our exam¬ 
ple, terminal lines /dev/console, 
/dev/ttyO, and /dev/ttyl will 
support user access to the sys¬ 
tem, whereas /dev/tty2 and 
/dev/11 y3 will not. 

The second character of each 
entry line becomes an argument for 
the g e 11 y process. This argument 
tells g e 11 y the line speed or se¬ 
quence of line speeds to use while 
monitoring the terminal line. Each 
argument value corresponds to a dif¬ 
ferent entry in a correspondence ta¬ 
ble built into the getty program. 
Figure 2 shows a typical correspon¬ 
dence table. 

In 4.2BSD the second digit in 
the / e t c /11 y s file points to an en¬ 
try in another file/etc/gettytab. 
The gettytab file, which is similar 
in layout to termcap, specifies 



/etc/ttys FILE 


speeds and modes to be used before 
and after log in, the login banner, and 
other information. This file is used 
by 4.2BSD getty like System V 
getty uses gettydefs (discussed 
below). 

The getty process also dis¬ 
plays any Unix system sign-on 
banner and the login: greeting 
prompt. This prompt is recognizable 
only if the speed of the terminal 
line speed (controlled by getty) 
matches the terminal baud rate 
(which can be set by the user). 

You may try to match the baud 
rates in one of two ways. One , you 
could reset your terminal baud rate 
until you get a readable prompt. 
Older terminals require that you ad¬ 
just switch settings that control the 
baud rate. Often these switches are 
difficult to get to, especially if lo¬ 
cated inside the terminal case. Then 
you have to turn off and then turn on 
the terminal after changing the set¬ 
tings so the terminal will recognize 
the new settings (during its power 
on initialization). Some newer termi¬ 
nals allow you to adjust the baud rate 
from the keyboard without powering 
down. 

Two, if the correspondence ta¬ 
ble entry for your terminal line al¬ 
lows more than one line speed, you 
may instruct g e 11 y to cycle through 
them. When the line speed matches 
your terminal baud rate setting you’ll 
get a recognizable greeting prompt. 
Simply depress your terminal’s 
BREAK key, and getty will cycle 
through the baud rates. After each 
press of the BREAK key wait 
several seconds until getty 


changes the line speed. Pressing the 
RETURN key can have the same 
effect—the hardware detects a 
“framing error” if the baud rate is 
wrong when RETURN (or BREAK) 
is pressed. Do this until you see a 
recognizable login: prompt. 

You would edit the / etc/ttys 
file if you wanted to enable or disable 
user log-in or to change the line 
speed(s) used by get ty. Note that 
if a terminal line is in use, even if you 
change /etc/ttys to disable the 
line, it won’t be “turned off’ until the 
init process is sent a hangup signal 
(kill -1 1). 

THE BELL SYSTEM III 
AND V PROCEDURE 

Substantial changes have been made 
to init in these newer Bell Unix 
releases. One major change is that 
the init process is directed by 
the contents of a new file, /etc/ 
i n i 11 ab. (“Inittab” is short for ini¬ 
tialization table.) init is a special 
process created by the kernel during 
system initialization (or start-up)— 
hence its name. The inittab file 
may have several one-line entries, 
each consisting of four colon- 
separated fields. Figure 3A shows 
how the fields of Bell System III ver¬ 
sion are named. 

The init process wakes up 
when a user logs off the system and 
it checks / e t c / i n i 11 a b for in¬ 
structions. We assume that your 
system has /etc/inittab cor¬ 
rectly set up, so we’ll be concerned 
only with the contents of the flags 
and command fields for enabling and 
disabling the log-in sequence. 

The command field contains the 
command line used by init for in¬ 
voking g e 11 y to monitor the termi¬ 
nal line. The flags field is edited to 
enable or disable the ge 11 y process 
specified in the command field. If the 
flags field contains only the character 
c, the terminal line is enabled for 
user log-in; in this case the com¬ 
mand is continuously reinvoked 
whenever a user logs off. If the char- 


Argument 

Line Speed(s) 

Usage 

0 

1200,300,150,110 

For a dial-up line used with a variety of terminals. 

- 

110 

For a model 33/35 Teletype. 

1 

150 

For a model 37 Teletype. 

2 

9600 

For most hard-wired CRT display terminals. 

3 

1200,300 

For dial-ups with Bell 212 Datasets. 

4 

300 

For hard-wired 300-baud terminal, 
such as the DECwriter (LS36). 

5 

300,1200 

For dial-ups with Bell 103 Datasets. 


FIGURE 2: A CORRESPONDENCE TABLE FOR getty ARGUMENTS 


74 UNIX/WOK LI) 


NOVEMBER 1985 








JOURNAL 


a. General format of an ini t tab entry: 
state : id : flags : command 

b. A sample inittab file: 

$ cat /etc/inittab 

1 :co : c : / bin/ sh</ dev/console >/dev/conso1e 
2:co:c:/etc/get ty console 5 

2 : 01 :c:/etc/getty tty01 3 
2:02:c:/etc/getty 11 y0 2 5 
2:03:tko:/etc/getty tty03 5 
2:04:tko:/etc/getty 11y04 5 
$ □ 


FIGURE 3: BELL SYSTEM III i n i 11 ab ENTRIES 


a. General format of an i n i 11 a b entry: 
id : rstate : action ’.process 

b. The command field of the ini t tab entry: 
sh -c “exec command line” 

c. Part of an i n i 11 a b file: 

co: 2: respawn:/etc/getty console t_9600 
ttyO: 2: respawn:/etc/getty ttyO t_9600 
tty 1:2:respawn:/etc/getty ttyl t_9600 
tty2:2: off:/etc/getty tty2 t_9600 
tty3:2: off:/etc/getty tty3 t_9600 


FIGURE 4: BELL SYSTEM V i n i 11 a b ENTRIES 


acters t k o are present instead, user 
log-in for the associated terminal is 
disabled. First a software termi¬ 
nation signal (number 15) and then a 
“sure” kill signal (number 9) is sent 
to the process specified by the com¬ 
mand field. (You could use the mne¬ 
monic “technical knock out” to re¬ 
member “tko. ”) 

As an example, Figure 3B de¬ 
picts a typical System III /etc/ 
ini t tab file. The first line begins 
with the numeral 1 (one) in the state 
field, which specifies single-user 
mode. The other lines begin with the 
numeral 2 and are used by i n i t to 
designate multiuser operation. 

Looking at the multiuser en¬ 
tries, you can see five terminal lines 
with id fields: co, 01 , 02, 0 3, and 
0 4. These numbers correspond to 
terminal devices /dev/console 
(the system console), /dev/ 
ttyOl, /dev/11y02, /dev/ 
11 y 0 3, and /dev/tty04. The 
console and terminals 01 and 0 2 
are enabled for system access since 


the flags field contains a c, whereas 
terminals 0 3 and 04 are disabled as 
their flags field contains tko. 

The last field contains the 
getty command line invoked by 
init to begin the user log-in se¬ 
quence. For instance, /etc/getty 
console 5, where console is the 
terminal line name (/dev/ is under¬ 
stood) and the argument 5 specifies 
the correspondence table entry used 
for controlling the line speed. 

The entries for the System V 
version of /etc/inittab are 
somewhat different from those for 
System III. Figure 4A names the 
fields for this version. The id field 
contains one to four characters that 
identify the entry uniquely. The 
rstate field defines the run-level for 
which this entry is processed. An 
entry of s in this field specifies the 
single-user state, whereas the multi¬ 
user state may have one of seven 
levels, numbered zero through six. 
(Some implementations are set up to 
use level six as a single-user state.) 


For this article we assume the 
id and run-level fields have been set 
up correctly as we will only be con¬ 
cerned with changing the contents 
of the action and process fields for 
enabling and disabling the log-in 
sequence. 

As with the System III version, 
the getty invocation command line 
will appear in the process field; but it 
is passed to the Bourne Shell as the 
command line depicted in Figure 4B. 
That is, the Bourne shell “forks” 
creating an identical copy of itself 
and this copy “execs” the specified 
command line. This generalized ap¬ 
proach means that you may specify 
commands other than getty: For 
instance, you might invoke a dedi¬ 
cated graphics demo to run on a ter¬ 
minal. Also, the command lines can 
be more complex than for the Sys¬ 
tem III version; they may include I/O 
redirection, pipelines, and even 
comments. 

With the System V version, you 
enable user log-in by placing the 
word r e s pawn in the action field for 
i n i 11 a b entries with a numerical 
run level. Log-in is disabled if this 
field contains the word off. Figure 
4C shows examples of enabled and 
disabled init tab entries. In this 
example, entries corresponding to 
terminal lines labeled co (system 
console), ttyO, and ttyl are en¬ 
abled whereas 11 y 2 and 11 y 3 are 
disabled for log-in. 

With previous Unix system ver¬ 
sions the get ty correspondence ta¬ 
ble, which controls the search for 
the correct line speed, was “hard¬ 
wired” in the getty program code. 
If you needed to change this table for 
some reason, getty had to be 
modified and recompiled (which re¬ 
quired source code for getty). In 
the System V version, the internal 
correspondence table has been re¬ 
placed by an external, human-read¬ 
able ASCII file, /etc/get tydef 5 
(stands for “getty definitions”). 
Thus you may easily change or aug¬ 
ment the line speed search behavior 
by editing this text file. 


NOVEMBER 1985 


UNIX/WORLl) 75 









JOURNAL 


a. Fields of the 

gettydefs file: 

label 

Provides the link between a gettydefs entry and an ini t tab 
entry. This field is supplied as an argument to getty in the 


inittab file. 

initial flags 

Specifies how to set up the terminal line initially (when a log-in 
request is first made). 

final flags 

Specifies the terminal line conditions before control is passed to 
the next process in the log-in sequence (login). 

login message 

The greeting prompt for system sign-on. 

next label 

Tells getty the next entry to use if the line speed appears 
incorrect. 

b. A sample gettydef 5 file: 

t_9600 # B9600 # B9600 SANE # \r\nSystem V login: # t_1200 

t_1200 # B1200 # B1200 SANE # \r\nSystem V login: # t_300 

t_300 # B300 # B300 SANE # \r\nSystem V login: # t_9600 


FIGURE 5: THE SYSTEM V gettydef s FILE. 


Each entry in the gettydef 5 
file has five fields, each separated 
from the next by the # character. A 
blank line separates each entry line. 
The baud rates and line conditions 
are specified by special identifier 
words defined in the TERMIO man¬ 
ual entry (section 7 of the Bell 
System V Administrator s Reference 
Manual). These identifiers are easy 
to spot—they use upper case let¬ 
ters (and may contain numbers, too). 

Figure 5A describes the fields 
of the gettysdefs file and Figure 
5B shows some entries from a typi¬ 
cal file. In this figure the label field 
suggests the terminal device (begins 
with t _) followed by a number cor¬ 
responding to the baud rate. The 
initial flag only includes the line 
speed (for instance, B9600 for 9600 
baud). The final flag repeats the 
same speed designation and has an¬ 
other string, “SANE”, which has a 
special meaning not described in the 
termio(7) manual entry. It repre¬ 
sents a likely set of “normal” line 
parameters, such as seven data bits, 
one stop bit, even parity, echo en¬ 
abled, etc. From the shell enter 
stty sane then 5 11 y - a to display 
these settings. 

The login message field begins 
with \r and \n (which represent 
a carriage return and line feed, 


respectively) to insure that the 
login: prompt begins on a line by 
itself. This field could contain any¬ 
thing desired, such as an escape se¬ 
quence for clearing the screen (for a 
particular terminal hardwired to the 
terminal port). 

In our example the entries of 
the next label field form a closed cir¬ 
cle with the sequence 9600 —» 1200 
—» 300 —» 9600. This way, no matter 
where you enter the circle, sooner 
or later you should get the correct 
line speed for your terminal (by 
pressing the BREAK or RETURN 
key repeatedly). 


EXECUTING PROGRAMS 
PERIODICALLY WITH 
CRON 

The cron process executes com¬ 
mands at dates and times specified in 
the /usr/lib/crontab (or “cron 
table”) file. The cron process is ini¬ 
tiated when the system goes into 
multiuser mode—that is, the / e t c / 
cron command, which starts the 
cron process, is specified in the 
/ e t c / r c multiuser preconditioning 
file. Since cron never terminates, it 
only needs to be started up once. 

The contents of the /usr/ 
1 i b / c r 0 n t a b file are read into 


memory after cron starts up; cron 
examines this copy once a minute 
and executes any commands that are 
scheduled to run. If the disk copy of 
/usr/lib/crontab is changed 
while cron is executing, the new 
copy of /usr/lib/crontab will 
be read into memory. The cron pro¬ 
cess also updates a history log file, 
/usr/lib/cronlog, every time it 
performs an action. 

The entries in /usr/lib/ 
c r 0 n t a b consist of lines of six fields 
each. The fields are separated by 
spaces or tabs. The first five fields 
specify how often to execute the 
command line that is named in the 
last field. The first five fields specify 
the minute (0-59), the hour (0-23), 
the day of the month (1-31), month 
of the year (1-12), and day of the 
week (0-6, with 0 = Sunday), 
respectively. The last field contains 
the shell command line. The com¬ 
mand line can contain 1/0 redirection, 
pipes, and even multiple commands 
if separated by semicolons. 

Each of the first five fields can 
contain a single number in the range 
shown above; two numbers, m-n , 
indicating an inclusive range, such as 
1 - 5 in the day of the week field to 
stand for all days in the work week, 
Monday through Friday; a list of 
numbers separated by commas, 
such as 0 ,1 5,3 0 , 4 5 in the minutes 
field to stand for on the hour, quarter 
past, half past, and quarter to the 
hour; an asterisk (*), which means 
all valid values. 

Figure 6 shows several sample 
cron tab entries, which are inter¬ 
preted below. 

0 * * * * /bin/date 

>/dev/console The current date 
and time are displayed on the sys¬ 
tem console once every hour on the 
hour. 

30 2 * * * /bin/calendar - 
The calendar command is exe¬ 
cuted for all system users every 
night at 2:30 A.M. 


76 UNIX/WORLL) 


NOVEMBER 1985 






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JOURNAL 


$ cat /usr/lib/crontab 



0 * * * * 

/bin/date >/dev/conso1e 



30 2 * * * 

/bin/calendar - 



30 3 * * * 

cp /etc/passwd /etc/passwd. bak 


30 4 * • * 

find /tmp /usr/tmp -type 

f -atime *2 

-exec rm {> \; 

35 4 * * * 

find /tmp /usr/tmp -type 

d -mtime +5 

-exec rmdir O \; 

0 0 15 * * 

echo "Time to clean fan 

filters" 1 

/bin/mail root 

0,15,30,45 
$ □ 

* * * * /usr/lib/atrun 




FIGURE 6: A SAMPLE c r o n t a b FILE 


30 3 * * * cp /etc/passwd 
/etc/passwd . bak The password 
file is duplicated every night at 3:30 
A.M. 

30 4 * * * find /tmp 

/usr/tmp "type f -atime + 2 - 
exec rm {> \; All ordinary files 
in the temporary directories that 
haven’t been accessed within the 
last two days are removed every 
night at 4:30 A.M. 

35 4 * * * find /tmp 

/usr/tmp “type d -mtime +5 - 
exec rmdir {> \; All empty sub¬ 
directories of the temporary direc¬ 
tories that haven’t been changed 
within the last five days are erased 
every night at 4:35 A.M. 

0 0 15 * * echo "Time to 
clean fan filters" ! /bin/ 
mail root The message “Time to 
clean fan filters” will appear in the 
superuser’s mailfile after midnight of 
the fifteenth day of each calendar 
month. 

0,15,30,45 * * * * /usr/ 
lib/atrun Execute /usr/ lib/ 
at run on the hour, quarter past, 
half past, and quarter till for every 
hour of the day. Recall that a t r u n 
is the daemon that executes the 
commands specified at a particu¬ 
lar time in the future by the at 
command. □ 


Dr. Rebecca Thomas, UNIX/Worlds 
Technical Editor, is an author of A User 
Guide to the Unix System, the second 
edition of which is now available. She is 

NOVEMBER 1985 


currently writing a book on Unix system 
administration. 

This is the last installment of 
our system administration series 
that’s based on the second edition of 
A User Guide to the Unix System. 
However, because of overwhelming 
interest in this series, we aren’t end¬ 
ing it here. Next year we’ll be start¬ 
ing a new series that covers more 
advanced system administration top¬ 
ics, but still in a manner that begin¬ 
ning administrators can understand. 

Many of our future installments 
will be based on material from my 
forthcoming book on system admin¬ 
istration, which I’m coauthoring with 
Rik Farrow. This book will cover ad¬ 
ministering popular microcomputers 
with XENIX and Bell System V Unix 
systems, such as the AT&T 6300 and 
7300, the IBM XT at, popular pc com¬ 
patibles, Tandy, Altos, and a myriad 
of other systems. 

Furthermore, we are soliciting 
installments from outside authors. 
If you would like to contribute 
please send a written proposal to Dr. 
Rebecca Thomas, % Unix/ 
World magazine or electronically to 
ucbvaxlsun!idiluworld! 
sirius! beccat. 

Some topics we’ll be covering 
early on in the series will be file sys¬ 
tem backup strategies, system 
security, setting up and using UUCP. 
The UUCP program let’s two or more 
Unix systems communicate via their 
terminal lines. File transfer, remote 
command execution, electronic mail, 
and access to Usenet, a popular 
electronic bulletin board that con¬ 
nects thousands of Unix installations 


worldwide, are supported by UUCP. 
And in future issues we’ll show you 
how to setup an electronic mail link 
between two Unix machines and 
how to access the Usenet bulletin 
board network. 

Happy New Year 
Dr. Rebecca Thomas 

This article is based on A User Guide to 
the Unix, second edition, by Dr Rebecca 
Thomas and Jean Yates. Copyright © 
1985 by McGraw-Hill Inc. Used with per¬ 
mission of Osborne /McGraw-Hill. 

Acknowledgement 

I’d like to thank Rik Farrow and Ar¬ 
mando Stettner for reviewing this month’s 
installment. 


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UNIX/WORLI) 79 




















BREAK THROUGH THE 


SOFTWARE BOTTLENECK 

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TRAINING 


WIZARD’S GRABBAG 


PARAGRAPH 
REFORM, A 
SCCS-LIKE 
UTILITY, AND 
1 5 - 1 and file 


BY DR. REBECCA THOMAS 

In this month’s in¬ 
stallment of Wiz¬ 
ard’s Grabbag we 
have two contri¬ 
butions from our 
readers to share 
with you. How¬ 
ever, first we’d 
like to share a 
utility you might find useful when us¬ 
ing vi. 

Those who cut their teeth on 
WordStar may occasionally find vi 
lacking a feature that their favorite 
WordStar version had. We found the 
lack of the paragraph reformatting 
feature (the WordStar control-B 
command) frustrating. So I wrote a 
“quick and dirty” filter program (in 
C) to simulate this feature and sent 
the listing to an accomplished C 
programmer, Ray Swartz, for polish¬ 
ing. He suggested a word-oriented 
approach that gives clean modular 
code. We’d like to share the result 
with you this month. 

Figure 1A presents this pro¬ 
gram. It collects words from the 
standard input and sends them to the 
standard output until a predeter¬ 
mined line length is reached. Then a 
NEWLINE is output to end the cur¬ 
rent line. The next input word ap¬ 
pears on a new line in the output 
stream. This program is “smart” 
enough to maintain the sentence 
structure used by vi; that is, two 
spaces follow each sentence termi¬ 
nator (a period, question mark, or 
exclamation point). 



Why reform paragraphs? Well, 
a bunch of short or overly long sen¬ 
tences on the CRT screen are diffi¬ 
cult to read. Sure you can use v i’s 
“wrap margin” feature to format text 
during text entry, but this editor 


you’ve edited the paragraph. So why 
not send the paragraph through a 
filter that folds long lines and adjusts 
short ones, and have the output re¬ 
place the input text? This task is 
easy to do with vi—simply use the 


won’t 

adjust the margins after ! 

} command. If the filter is named 

a. The reform program listing: 


$ pr 

-n -t reform.c 


1 

o 

'include "stdio.h" 


c 

3 

'define YES 1 


4 

'define MO 0 


5 

'define LINELENGTH 70 


6 



7 

main( ) 


8 



9 

int endchar; /* Does this v 

word end a sentence? */ 

10 

int getwordO; /* get next w< 

3rd on stdin */ 

11 

int length; /* length of v 

word read by getword */ 

12 

int count; /» number of < 

:haracters on line so far*/ 

13 

int str1 en( ) ; 


14 

int printfO; 


15 

char word[811; /* word read • 

from stdin */ 

16 



17 

while ((endchar = getword(wor 

d)) ! = EOF) { 

18 

count ♦ ■ length = strlenl 

[word); 

19 

if (count > LINELENGTH) 1 

[ /* split the line here */ 

20 

putchar( ' \n # ) ; 


21 

count = length; /* be 

jginning count for next line */ 

22 

printfCXs ", word); 


23 

if (endchar = = YES) 


24 

putchar(' '); / 

f * end of sentence space */ 

25 

> 


26 

else if (endchar == YES) 

{ 

27 

printfCXs ", word); 

1 /* print an extra space */ 

28 

count♦+; / * to £ 

iccount for the extra space */ 

29 

> 


30 

else 


31 

printfCXs ", word); 


32 

c o u n t + ♦ ; / * to account fc 

>r the space separating words */ 

33 

> 


34 

if (str len(word) > 0) 


35 

pnntf( "7.s" ,word);/* prii 

nt the last word if applicable */ 

36 

putchar('\n'); 


37 

exit(0); 


38 

> 


39 



40 

int getword(word) 


41 

char *word; /* storage for wor 

‘d read */ 

42 

{ 


43 

char c; 


44 

int endflag = NO; /* Does 1 

:his word end a sentence? */ 

45 

int beginflag = YES; /* is tl 

his the beginning of new word? */ 

46 


Continued 


FIGURE 1: THE reform PROGRAM 


NOVEMBER 1985 


UNIX/WORLD 81 










TRAINING 


WIZARD’S GRABB AG 


47 

while Uc = getcharO) != EOF) { 

48 

switch(c) { 

49 

case '.': 

50 

case /« end of sentence characters */ 

51 

case 

52 

endflag = YES; 

53 

♦word++ = c; 

54 

break; 

55 

case * ': 

56 

case '\t': /* word delimiters - white space */ 

57 

case # \n': 

58 

if (beginflag == YES) 

59 

continue; /* skip leading whitespace ♦ / 

60 

♦word = '\0'; /♦ terminate word */ 

61 

return(endflag); /♦ non-EOF return ♦ / 

62 

default: /* just another character «/ 

63 

endflag = NO; 

64 

*word ++ = c; 

65 

> 

66 

beginflag = NO; /* no longer at beginning of word */ 

67 

> 

68 

♦word = 'NO'; /♦ terminate the last word */ 

69 

return(EOF); 

70 > 


S □ 


b. Defining the map macros: 

: map 

#1 !>reform*V A M<RETURN> 

: map 

#2 ! }reform A V A M}j<RETURN> 

: map 


fl * 

[OS !>reform A M 

f 2 A 

[0T !>reform A M>j 

: □ 


FIGURE 

1: THE reform PROGRAM continued 

$ pr -n 

-1 c 

1 

echo;echo;echo 

2 

for i in $* 

3 

do 

4 

echo "compiling $i\c" 

5 

if cc -c Si = 0 

6 

then 

7 

echo " no problem" 

8 

date >>Diff-dir/$i 

9 

diff Backup/Si Si >>Diff-dir/Si 

10 

cp Si Backup 

11 

else 

1 c 

13 

exit 1 

14 

f i 

15 

done 

16 

echo;echo "LINKING NOW" 

17 

cc reform.o -o reform 

18 

echo "*G" 

$ □ 



FIGURE 2: THE c SHELL SCRIPT 


reform, place the cursor at the be¬ 
ginning of the paragraph, type 
“!}reform” followed by RETURN, 
and lo and behold the paragraph is 
reformed a la the WordStar control- 
B command. 

Keystrokes can be reduced 
even further on a terminal with func¬ 
tion keys by mapping the refor¬ 
matting command to a function key. 
Actually, two different command 
forms seem useful—one that retains 
the cursor in its original position and 
one that moves the cursor to the 
beginning of the next paragraph. 
The latter is helpful for moving 
through the document reformatting 
paragraph after paragraph. Oh, the 
program could be even smarter; for 
instance, if it ignored embedded 
nr off directives and macros it 
could reform the entire document in 
one step! However, we’ll leave that 
enhancement as an exercise for an 
inspired reader. 

Figure IB shows what to type 
to map the two reformatting com¬ 
mands to function keys fl and f2. 
(The functions keys must have their 
definitions noted in the termcap or 
t e r m i n f o entry for your terminal.) 
Note that the control-V is necessary 
for entering the control-M without 
prematurely ending the definition of 
the map command. We hope you like 
this utility. Now let’s hear from our 
readers. . . 


A TOOK MAN’S” 
MAKE/SCCS 

Dear Dr. Thomas: 

When writing more complex pro¬ 
grams in the C language, I find it 
helpful to break the program up into 
several reasonably sized modules 
(100 to 500 lines of code). This ap¬ 
proach has advantages and disadvan¬ 
tages. Some of the advantages in¬ 
clude easier and quicker editing as 


82 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVEMBER 1985 










TRAINING 


WIZARD’S GRABBAG 


-t 1 52 
trap "rm 


-f /tmp/p5h$$ 1 5 2Cab] ; exit" 0 1 2 3 13 15 


3 

dir 


4 

for 

i 

5 

do 


6 


case $i in 

7 


-r) recur5 = "yes" ;; 

8 


* ) d i r = $ i ;; 

9 


esac 

10 

done 

11 

echo ${dir:='pwd') " "'date' 

12 

cd 

$di r 

13 

Is 

-al I sed Id >/tmp/psh$$ 1s2a 

14 

Is 

-a 1 xargs -1 file 1 sed s"/://" >/tmp/psh$$ls2b 

15 

joi 

n -jl 9 -o 1.1 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.9 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 \ 

16 

/tmp/pshS$ 1s2a /tmp/psh$$1s2b J\ 

17 

awk 

Mprintf "Xs Z8s X8s X7d X14s <Xs Xs Xs Xs %s Xs>\n",\ 

18 


$1,$2,$3,$4,$5,$6,$7,$8,$9, $10, $11 V l\ 

19 


sed s"/ *>/>/" 

20 

if 

test XSrecurs = Xyes; then 

21 


echo;echo 

22 


for i in * 

23 


do 

24 


if test -d Sdir/$i; then 

25 


ls2 -r $dir/$i 

26 


f i 

27 


done 

28 

$ □ 

f i 



FIGURE 3: THE ls2 SHELL SCRIPT 


well as faster compilation, since af¬ 
ter a change you only need to re¬ 
compile the appropriate module(s) 
(say 200 lines) as compared to the 
entire program (some 1500 lines, for 
instance). Also, hard-copy printouts 
only need be made for the small 
module rather than for the entire 
program. 

On the down side, this ap¬ 
proach requires more typing on the 
invocation command line. For in¬ 
stance, instead of “cc bigfile.c” you’d 
type “cc modl.c mod2.c mod3.o 
mod4.o”, or whatever. The ac¬ 
companying (Bourne) shell script 
(see Figure 2) solves this problem— 
and while we’re at it—adds sev¬ 
eral more features useful for C 
programming. 

The shell script is simply named 
c. All program modules should re¬ 


side in the same directory, along 
with a copy of this shell script. 
[Doctors notes : After making the 
script executable (enter chmod 
u + x c), you may invoke it by enter¬ 
ing . / c then the names of the source 
files. Alternatively, install the script 
in a directory that’s included in your 
command search path (defined by 
the PATH variable).] Note that you 
should tailor line 17 for the C pro¬ 
gram modules in your working 
directory. 

What does this shell script do? 
It speeds up program development 
by alleviating the repetitive entry re¬ 
quired for the cc command line; it 
allows you to compile one or more 
modules, and then automatically 
links all modules and libraries easily; 
it provides an optional backup facil¬ 
ity, an optional history of what was 



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Oct 10-11 
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Oct 21-25 85 
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Sep 2-3 85 
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TRAINING 


WIZARD’S GRABB AG 


changed and when, as well as 
alerting you with the terminal bell 
when all is finished or an error was 
detected. No... it doesn’t make 
toast. 

Here’s a blow-by-blow descrip¬ 
tion of how this shell script operates. 
Line 2 allows you to specify one C 
program name, several C module 
names, or use a wild card to compile 
all modules in your current direc¬ 
tory. The for loop will step through 
each argument on the command line, 


processing them one at a time. Line 
4 tells you what module is being 
compiled. 

Line 5 tries to compile the pro¬ 
gram or module into a relocatable 
object file. When successful cc re¬ 
turns a zero, otherwise a one. If suc¬ 
cessful, line 7 prints “no problem” 
along with the module name. Lines 8 
and 9 record the time and what 
changes you made since the module 
was last compiled. This feature is 
optional and you may choose to 


leave it out. The for loop will con¬ 
tinue the same way processing the 
next argument, if any. 

After all arguments have been 
processed control passes to line 16, 
which displays “LINKING NOW.” 
Line 17 invokes cc again, this time 
to link all relocatable object modules 
to create the final executable pro¬ 
gram. Line 18 rings the bell when 
done. 

If compilation (line 5) was not 
successful, you will see error mes- 


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UNIX/WORLD 85 





















TRAINING 


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WIZARD’S 


sages generated by the compiler 
while line 12 rings a bell and says 
that you have a “PROBLEM.” 

If you choose to use the backup 
facility on line 10 you must have a 
subdirectory named Backup (or 
whatever you prefer). If you choose 
to use the “line change” history 
feature provided by lines 8 and 9 
you’ll need a subdirectory named 
Diff-dir containing source files 
with the same name as in your work¬ 
ing directory. 

Jack Pierce 
President, 

Superior Software Corporation 
Augusta, Ga. 

“KILLING” TWO BIRDS 
WITH ONE SCRIPT 

Dear Dr. Thomas: 

Enclosed is a (Bourne) shell script 
named 1 s 2 that combines the output 
of the Unix file utility with the out¬ 
put from the 15 -1 command to pro¬ 
duce a single informative listing. 
Since I’m a new Unix system user, I 
find this script useful when exploring 
the various directories in the file 
system. 

[Doctors notes: See Figure 3 
for a listing of 15 2. The Unix file 
command performs a series of tests 
on the files named as arguments to 
classify the type of file. This output 
is appended to that produced by the 
15 -1 command (minus the link 
count and time/date stamp) to give a 
composite listing. I took the liberty 
of replacing some of the author’s 
code with sed and awk functions, 
making the overall script shorter and 
improving appearance of the output. 
If speed is an issue, interested read¬ 
ers could replace the awk command 
with appropriate sed commands; 
however, then the code for maintain¬ 
ing justified columns would be much 
more complicated.] 


86 UNIX/WOHLl) 


GRABBAG 


The script accepts two optional 
command line arguments, which 
may be specified in any order. Name 
a directory if you wish to list it in¬ 
stead of the current directory (the 
default). Specify the - r option to re¬ 
cursively list all directories under 
the starting directory. 

Paul Hite 
Falls Church, Va. 


“Wizard’s Grabbag” is a regular feature 
of Unix/World. Mail your shell scripts, 
C programs, or other code, tips, tech¬ 
niques, or discussions that ease the bur¬ 
den of system administrators and pro¬ 
grammers to “Wizard's Grabbag," 
Unix/World, 444 Castro St., Suite 
1220, Mountain View, CA 94041. Or 
submit electronically using the route 
(from ucbvax): ucbvax! sun! 
idiluworld!siriuslbeccat. 

Authors of published material re¬ 
ceive $50 for their contributions. As a 
new feature, we’ll pay $25 for questions 
of general interest that we publish. The 
best answer we receive will be published 
and its author will receive $50. 

Guidelines: Please write your code 
so that it is as portable as possible across 
the currently popular versions of the 
Unix system (System V.x, 4.x BSD, Xe¬ 
nix, etc.) Some hints to achieve this goal 
include: Write Bourne shell scripts if 
possible, although C shell scripts are still 
welcome since most of our readers have 
access to this popular command inter¬ 
preter. Use universally available utilities 
in shell scripts, such as who am i (all 
systems) in lieu of whoami (Berkeley 
only). 

Use the standard I/O library when 
writing C code. Check your source code 
for non-portable constructions with 
lint. Hardware dependencies, such as 
terminal control sequences, should be 
eliminated, if possible. (Use termcap 
or terminfo.) Isolate non-portable 
code to one region or a separate module. 
Keep your examples compact, say under 
100 lines of code, if possible. For in¬ 
stance, use sed in lieu of ed scripts, 
pipelines instead of intermediate tempo¬ 
rary files, etc. □ 


NOVEMBER 1985 






























The SAFE C™ Family Can 
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it 


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EnMasse Computer Corporation 


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The Safe C family includes the Runtime Analyzer, 
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WE DON’T 
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• At no charge, we will propose a curriculum tailored so that your people 
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• Our instructors will deliver the courses or you can license the courses 
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WE ARE ALSO COMMITTED TO BRING TO 
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TARGETED AT PROGRAMMER PRODUCTIVITY. 


The first of these products is: 

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you like. 

shacc allows you to write production code in'the Bourne shell: Do the fast prototyping in shell 
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shacc 

By Paul Ruel 

Concentric Associates 


For further information on our Educational Services or shacc, call or write: 

Linda Cranston/ Concentric Associates, Inc/ One Harmon Plaza/ Secaucus, NJ 07094 
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Please circle Ad No. 5 on inquiry card. 















TRAINING 


THE UNIX SYSTEM 
STARTER KIT 
THE sort 
FACILITY 


BY I ILL TUTHILL 

N obody outside the computer 
field knows what sort re¬ 
ally means. It just isn’t the 
■H^MaSort of word used by the 
sort of people who haven’t yet 
sorb id out what computers are good 
for. These people alphabetize their 
records, or they put their Visa slips 
in order. But they don’t sort them. 

Just think about your laundry. 
You sort it. That’s what com¬ 
pute r people mean by sorting: 
orga lization. 

CP/M and an early version of 
MS-DOS don’t (PC-DOS 2.01 does have 
a primitive one) include a sort fa¬ 
cility—you have to buy a database 
program, or something like it, in¬ 
stead. But all versions of the Unix 
system come with the sort com¬ 
mand. It isn’t called “alphabetize” 
because that’s too hard to spell, and 
because sort does more than just 
alphabetize; it also puts numbers in 
orde:; and can also merge two or¬ 
dered lists into a single list. 

Unfortunately, the documen¬ 
tation for sort epitomizes what is 
bad about Unix system manuals. De¬ 
spite the usefulness and complexity 
of the command, it has no tutorial 
introduction and no reference man¬ 
ual—only an incomprehensible man¬ 
ual page. Unlike most Unix system 
manial pages this one contains ex¬ 
amples, but they aren’t very well ex¬ 
plained. So this month’s column sup¬ 
plies a tutorial introduction to the 
sort program. 

BEGINNING sort 

In its simplest form sort alphabet¬ 
izes a list, starting at the beginning 
of the line. If you have a list of 

NOVEMl HR 1985 


STARTER KIT 


names, last name first, it’s easy 
Figure 1A). If the first name is 
you want to skip the first wo 
the line—so use the + 1 optic 
in Figure IB. 

Normally, sort organizes 
in a file according to machine 
lating sequence. On most coi 
ers, this would be ASCII order, 

IBM mainframes, it would be E 
order (the IBM PC, though, 
ascii). On most Unix systemd 
file /usr/pub/asc i i contair 
ordered chart of the ASCII char 
set. 

In ascii ordering, upper case 
letters sort before lower cas 3 let¬ 
ters; if you want them folded 


(see 
first, 
*d on 
n, as 

lines 
col- 
ii)nput- 
on 
XCDIC 
uses 
, the 
s an 
acter 


% cat names 

McReynoIds, Tom 
Hamilton, Mary 
McKee, Judy 
% sort names 
Hamilton, Mary 
McKee, Judy 
McReynoIds, Tom 


FIGURE 1A: 
OF NAMES 


SAMPLE LIST 


% cat names 
Tom McReynoIds 
Judy McKee 
Mary Hamilton 
% sort +1 names 
Mary Hamilton 
Judy McKee 
Tom McReynoIds 


FIGURE IB: SAMPLE LIST 
SORTED BY LAST NAME 

together, use the -f option, and 
sort will consider upper case l:o be 
the same as lower case. For exam¬ 
ple, if you have the last names 
MacVay and Mack, sort will place 
MacVay first, unless you specify -f, 
because capital V comes before low¬ 
ercase k. 

In ascii, punctuation marks 
scattered between digits, 
case, and lower case; if you 
sort to consider only alphanurr 
characters, use the - d option to 


up; 


are 

per 

^ant 

eric 

ndi- 


cate dictionary ordering. This is es¬ 
pecially useful with foreign lan¬ 
guages, which often contain weird 
accent marks. 


NUMERIC VALUES 

The sort program can also organize 
lists of numbers by numeric value. 
Suppose that the /usr file system 
has filled up, and you want to find out 
which directories are hogging the 
most disk space. If /usr contains 
protected directories, you need to 
be logged in as root to read them. 
See Figure 2. 

The -rn argument indicates a 
reverse numeric sort (to put the 
biggest numbers at the top). These 
statistics show that Mr. McReynoIds 
is using most of the system’s avail¬ 
able disk space; so this would be a 
good chance to practice your persua¬ 
sion techniques on him. Note that, 
without the -n flag, sort would 
have placed the three lines in exactly 
the opposite order. 

If you have two files that are 
already sorted, you can bring them 
together with the -m (merge) op¬ 
tion. When doing this, you may also 
want to eliminate duplicates with the 
- u (unique) option, as shown in Fig¬ 
ure 3. This may help save postage 
costs. You could also do this without 
the -m option, but it would take 
longer as sort would have to work 
to sort material which has already 
been sorted. 


# du /usr ! sort -rn 
4134234 /asr/mcreynoIds 
364231 2 /usr/mcreynolds/j link 
3295 /usr/tut 


FIGURE 2: SAMPLE OF A SORTED 
DIRECTORY DISK SPACE REPORT 


l sort -mu mailingl mailingH 


FIGURE 3: SORT COMMAND TC 
ELIMINATE DUPLICATE NAMES 

Continued on I page 95 

UNIX/WORILD 89 

































II NIX/WORLD 


CORPORATE OFFICE: 

444 Castro St.,Mountain View,CA 94041 
415/940-1500 

Publisher: Robert A. Billhimer 
Marketing Manager: Ardith J. Lowell 
Adv. Coordinator: Jeanne A. Ketchum 
Classified/Recruitment: Paul B. Fertal 
Reprints: Linda Van Horn 
List Rental: Heidi Spiegelman 

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Callahan, Hague & Associates 
23232 Peralta, Suite 218 
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Laguna Hills, CA 92653 
714/859-9822 

Edward E. Callahan William W. Hague 

SO CALIF/ARIZONA 

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Laguna Hills, CA 92653 

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Edward E. Callahan 

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23232 Peralta, Suite 218 

Laguna Hills, CA 92653 

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Richard V. Busch 
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Richard V. Busch 
INTERNATIONAL 
Tech Valley Publishing, Inc. 

444 Castro Street 
Mountain View, CA 94041 
415/940-1500 
Robert A. Billhimer 


ADVERTISERS INDEX 


If you are interested in products or services 
advertised in UNIX/WORLD, our adver¬ 
tisers are pleased to send you additional 
information. 

Simply fill out the reader service cards 
and circle the numbers of advertisers you are 
interested in. Then mail the card and expect 
prompt, pertinent information. 


Adobe Systems Inc. 72 

AT&T Unix System V Training 67 
bbj Computer Services Inc. 80 

BRS Search 28 

Butler Curless & Associates 68 

CCA Uniworks 87 

Celerity Computing 77 

Charles River Data Systems 2 

CMI Corporation 58 

Computer Technology Group 84 

Concentric Associates 88 

Corporate Microsystems Inc. 24 

DCC Data Service 106 

DISC 100 

Eakins Associates 86 

Electronic Specialists 86 

Emerald Systems Corp. 101 

Excelan 95 

Faircom 103 

First Computer Corp. 8 

Fox Software 83 

Franz Inc. 79 

Gould Inc. 69 

Heurikon Corporation 19 

ITOM International Co. 109 

Intergraph Corp. 61 

MCBA 36 

Microsoft Corp. 45 

Microware Systems 

Corp. Cover III 

M&M Technologies Corp. 97 

National Information 

Systems Inc. 103 


NETI 

4,5 

Norm DeNardi Enterprises 

70 

Overland Data, Inc. 

40 

Prescience 

22 

Productivity Products 

IntT, Inc. 

85 

Quality Microsystems 

46 

Quality Software Products 

52 

Radio Shack 

14 

Raima Corp. 

102 

Rapitech Systems Inc. 

27 

Relational Database Cover II, 

Systems 

1,35 

Santa Cruz Operation Cover IV 

Scientific Placement Inc. 

106 

Silicon Valley Software 

23,29, 

Software Express 

31,33 

78 

Software Systems Assoc. 

68 

Southeastern Data 
Products 

54 

Sun Microsystems 11,12,13 

Superior Software 

Systems 

106 

Syntactics Corp. 

43 

Talaris Systems 

32 

Uniforum 

108 

Unify Corp. 

62,63 

UniPress Software Inc. 

49,51, 

UNITECH Software Inc. 

53,55 

17 

Usenix Associates 

34 

User Training Corporation 

98 

UX Software Inc. 

30 

Vermont Creative Software 107 

Worldwide Computer 
Systems, Inc. 

6 

Xanthus Corp. 

37 

Yates Ventures 

105 


The ad index is published as a service. The 
publisher does not assume any liability for 
errors or omissions. 


90 UNIX/WOKLI) 


NOVKMHKR 1085 












TRAINING 


STARTER KIT 


Contit ued from page 89 

Ordinarily sort breaks a line 
down into words, or fields. In the 
second example, for instance, +1 
me^nt to skip the first word and sort 
on the second word. Fields are nor¬ 
mally separated by white space (a 
blank or tab); However, you can tell 
sort to use a different field sep¬ 
arator. The /etc/passwd file, for 
example, contains fields separated 
by tie colon. Thus, when sorting the 
password file, use the -t: option. 

To sort all users on your sys¬ 
tem by numerical user ID, try the 
command shown in Figure 4. The 
first field of the password file con¬ 
tains the user name, the second con¬ 
tains the encrypted password, and 
the third contains the numerical user 
ID. So you want to skip the first two 
fielc s, and use numerical sorting. 


Two 


live 


sor 

ing 

you 


N()\ I 


the 


£ sort -t: *2n /etc/passwd 


FldURE 4: COMMAND TO 
SORT ALL SYSTEM USERS 
BY NUMERICAL II) 


X sort <0.59 database 


FIGURE 5: COMMAND TO 
SKIP CERTAIN COLUMNS 
WHEN SORTING 


line, it doesn’t matter—sor|t will 
skip into following fields. 

This covers most of t \ 
tions, but there are a few 
For two of the best complete 
nations of s o r t Ive seen, see 
352-359 of Mark Sobell’s 
Practical Guide to the Unix S; 
or pages 472-482 oiA User Gk 


e op- 
olthers. 
expla- 
pages 
k, A 
ystem , 
ide to 


bool 


users should never have 
sanje numerical ID. 

The computer industry still 
s with the heritage of punched 
cards. Most vdt terminals have 80 
columns, many printers are limited 
to 80 columns, and many database 
;ems produce output with 80 col¬ 
umns. So it’s not unreasonable to as- 
sun|ie that someday you may have to 
a database with ZIP codes start- 
in column 60. Remember that 
must give sort the number of 
columns to skip, not the starting col¬ 
ump (see Figure 5). 

The decimal place means to 
skid) 59 spaces into field zero, which 
stalls at the beginning of the line. 
Even if there are more fields on the 


TCP/IP 


the Unix System second edition by 
Dr. Rebecca Thomas and Jean 
Yates. □ 


Bill Tuthill, a member of the technical 
staff at Sun Microsystems (Mountain 
View, Calif) was previously a systems an¬ 
alyst at Imagen Corp. and a programmer 
at UC Berkeley. 


themet 
for VAX/VMS 
he Shelf! 


Offt 


Complete package 
far $8,795 


:ed 


Excelan offers a 
munications pack^i 
transceiver and a. 
perform high spe< 
via Ethernet fro 
System V to UNIX 
Software include^ 
FTP (file transfer) 
cations. 


romplete high-performance com- 
ige including hardware, software, 
cables. Everything you need to 
file transfers or do remote logins 
fli a VAX running VMS or UNIX 
4.2 BSD machines and vice versa. 

TCP/IP protocols, and standard 
and Telnet (virtual terminal) appli- 


The entire VAX/Vi 
ing the EXOS 204 
bus board), EXOS 
transceiver and ca 
package is only 


Excelan also offer: 
UNIX supermicro? 


Please circle 


EMBER 1985 


MS package is only $8,795, includ- 
Ethernet controller (quad-size Uni- 
8040 TCP/IP software, EXOS 1100 
Dies. And the entire UNIX System V 
J 7,295. 


s similar packages for DEC PDPs, 
, and the IBM PC, XT and AT. 


EIXCELAIM 

2180 fortune Dr. San Jose, CA 95131 
Phont (408) 434-2300 Telex 176610 

a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories 
l.'nibu.s, VAX. VMS. an 1 POP arc trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. 


Ad No. 17 on inquiry card. 


UNIX/WORLD 95 

































TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


APOLLO UNVEILS 
TAPE DRIVE 

Apollo Computer Inc. has introduced 
the MSD6250, a new dual density 
high-speed tape drive that increases 
the density of data stored on a reel of 
a tape by a factor of four, and speeds 
backup operations. The new tape 
drive provides a fast, dependable 
network resource which can be ac¬ 
cessed by all users within a Domain 
network. 

The MSD6250 tape drive is 
priced at $26,000, and is available 60 
days after receipt of order. The 
monthly maintenance fee is $175, 
and the cost for field installation is 
$280. 

For more information, contact 
Apollo Computer Inc., 330 Billerica 
Rd., MA 01824; 617/256-6600. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 160. 


CORVUS WORKSTATION 

Corvus Systems Inc., manufacturer 
of the Omninet local area network 
(lan), has introduced a high-per¬ 
formance, multitasking graphics 
workstation for oem/var markets. It 
offers the power and features of 
leading graphics workstations at a 
substantially lower price. 

Cheetah, the new full-function 
workstation, features the powerful 
16/32-bit MC68010 microproces¬ 
sor, Unix System V, up to 4 Mbytes 
of dynamic RAM, a transparent vir¬ 
tual memory, and a high-resolution, 
bit-mapped graphics monitor. 

The Cheetah workstation of¬ 
fers the following features: a power¬ 
ful microprocessor, graphics aspect 
ratio of 1:1, Unix System V, Intel¬ 
ligent disk controller, Omninet local 
area network, the Corvus Con¬ 
nection, system ports, and floating¬ 
point co-processor. 

List price for the basic Cheetah 
workstation, including hard disk, is 
$9,995 (OEM and VAR discounts are 
available). Evaluation units are avail¬ 
able now, with production quantities 
expected in early fall. 


For more information, contact 
Corvus Systems Inc., 2100 Corvus 
Dr., San Jose, CA 95124; 408/ 
559-7000. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 161. 


UNBOUND 16-USER 
SUPERMICRO 

Unbound Inc. has introduced a new 
modular supermicrocomputer incor¬ 
porating Ultrix-11, a powerful DEC 
Jll microprocessor, and up to 369- 
Mbyte on-line disk capacity. 

The new epix system, based on 
Unbound’s Variable Storage Archi¬ 
tecture, offers value-added resellers 
and Unix system end-users the ad¬ 
vantages of Digital Equipment Cor¬ 
poration’s Ultrix-11 (an enhanced 
Unix system). 

The 16-user system accepts up 
to four full-height and one half-height 
five and one-fourth inch peripherals 
in a free-standing tower cabinet 



measuring only 24 inches high, 21 
inches deep, and 7.5 inches wide. 

epix systems with a 74-Mbyte 
fixed disk, 5-Mbyte removable car¬ 
tridge disk, 1-Mbyte main memory, 
eight channel multiplexer, and 
16-user Ultrix license sell for 
$16,400. VAR and volume discounts 
are available. 

For more information, contact 
Unbound Inc., 15239 Springdale St., 
Huntington Beach, CA 92649; 
714/895-6205. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 162. 


PERKIN-ELMER’S FPS-5000 

Perkin-Elmer Corp. has introduced 
the Floating Point Systems (fps) 
5000 Series of scientific array pro¬ 
cessors for users of its Series 3200 
superminicomputers. 

The fps-5000 Series is de¬ 
signed to expedite large-scale arith¬ 
metic computations when attached 
to a superminicomputer. 

fps-5000 Series handles com¬ 
putationally intensive tasks at ex¬ 
traordinarily high speeds, ranging 
from eight million floating point oper¬ 
ations per second (8 MflOPS) to 62 
MFLOPS. 

For more information, contact 
Perkin-Elmer Corp., 497 Hance 
Ave., Tintonfull, NJ 07724; 201/ 
530-5900. ’ 

Please circle Reader Service Number 163. 


ESPRIT'S IN VDT 

Esprit Systems Inc. has introduced a 
new video display computer terminal 
that provides full emulation of the 
ADDS Viewpoint at a price of $395. 
Dubbed the ESP 6110 -F , the new Es¬ 
prit terminal is designed with per¬ 
formance and comfort features to 
meet the needs of the Viewpoint re¬ 
placement market. 

The ESP 6110 -h is an enhanced 
version of Esprit’s ESP 6110. The 
new esp 6110+ features a larger 
screen than the adds Viewpoint, 
better resolution, and four function 


96 UNIX/WOKLI) 


NOVEMBER 1985 










TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


keys to provide users with full View¬ 
point emulation. 

The 6110+ operates at baud 
ratds of 50 to 19,200, with an op¬ 
tional bi-directional auxiliary port in- 
ice for connection to a local hard 
or data input device. This in- 
es either RS422 for data in- 
ity at high baud rates, or current 
interface. 

For more information, contact 
Esprit Systems Inc., 100 Marcus 
St., Melville, NY 11747; 1-800/645- 
4503. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 164. 


terf Ji 

cop^ 

clue 

tegr 

loop 


SO 


FTWARE CATALOG 


Uni 


duc*< 


sysu 


mgs 

“flai 

ope 

Unify 

sou: 

Cafoi 
bus: 
shefe 
deve 
Also 
offe 
the 
catdl 
info 
with 
usei 
hari 
me< 
and 


Unik 

St., 

491 


novi:; 


ource Software Corp. has intro- 
d the Unix Software Solutions 
Catklog, an 18-page guide to a com- 
pletje line of microcomputer Unix 
em software products. Offer- 
range from the company's 
ship" product, the Venix/86 
rating system, to the powerful 
Relational Database to Uni¬ 
ce’s newest product LaserLink. 
The Unix Software Solutions 
log contains all the standard 
{ness applications from spread- 
ts to word processors, program 
lopment tools, and then some, 
included are some non-standard 
rings such as the source code for 
Venix/86 device drivers. The 
log additionally provides specific 
rmation on what packages work 
which machines and guides the 
in developing the particular 
dware/software configuration to 
me$t his needs. The catalog is free 
available immediately. 

For more information, contact 
ource Software Corp., 71 Bent 
Cambridge, MA 02141; 617/ 
1264. 


Please circle Reader Service Number 165. 


MUMPS AVAILABLE 
ON MOTOROLA 

Motorola has announced that it is 
offering the Micronetics Standard 


MUMPS (msm) programming lan¬ 
guage with its Series 6000, Unix 
system-based multiuser comp iters. 

MUMPS will operate und 2 r the 
6000's virtual memory operating 
system derived from Unix System V 
under license from AT&T. 

The MUMPS licensing fee 
starts at $1995 and the product is 
available immediately. 

MUMPS is also available 
Motorola Series 2000. The 
2000 and the Series 6000 pi 
families consist of 32-bit* com] 
based on the Motorola 68010 
processor. Both product f< 
support a full range of softwaln 
eluding word processing, data 
cessing, database management, 
other office support functions. 



For more information, 
Four-Phase Systems, 107< 
DeAnza Blvd., Cupertino, 

95014; 408/255-0900. 

Please circle Reader Service Numbe 


pntact 
N. 
CA 


00 


ALLIANT 

INTRODUCES FX/8 


on the 
Series 
noduct 
iputers 
ilnicro- 
iies 
e in- 
pro- 
, and 


a milk 


Alliant Computer Systems 
Acton, Mass, has also introdui 
field-expandable, entry-level 
computer that offers perform; 
never before available in its 
range ($270,000 to $1,000, 

The new FX/8 computer 
first to apply parallel processinj 
liant concurrency) automatic; 
software programs used in 
and engineering, including e: 


Corp., 
iced a 
$uper- 
iance 
price 
)). 

is the 
;g (Al¬ 
to 
lence 


ally 


SCI 


xisting 


= XENIX™ 

X BY EXAMPLE’’ 

^ble training guide for you 
your employees. 


Detailed explanatf 
core system. Gives 
documentation. 
Examples of com 
Easy reference 
Real-Life situations 
lions that arise a 
Written by the 
Xenix operating 
Over 200 pages of 
tool for ANYONE 


ar 


ONLY 


USE YOUF 
C 

Pa. resid<(i 
XENIX 


n of all commands in the Microsoft Xenix 
the detail not provided in original Xenix 


inands in use. 
mat. 

section: gives real-life examples of situa- 
how to correct them, 
a’s LEADING AUTHORITIES on the 
sj/stem. 

clear, concise information. An invaluable 
using Xenix. 


Send check or money order for $39.95 
$3.50 postage and handling per copy to: 

& M TECHNOLOGIES CORPORATION 
. BOX 237, HERNDON, PA. 17830 


O 


MASTERCARD OR VISA- 
ALL (717) 758-9260 
nts please add 6% sales tax. 
TM MICROSOFT CORP. 


Please circle Ad No. 151 on inquiry card. 


IMBKR 1985 


166. 


UNIX/WORLD 97 





















TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


software programs that runs on Dig¬ 
ital Equipment VAX systems. 

The FX/8 supports two forms 
of parallel processing. Alliant con¬ 
currency simultaneously applies up 
to eight computational elements 
(CEs) to the execution of a single 
program. Multiprocessing applies up 
to 12 interactive processors (ips) to 
the execution of independent user 
interactive jobs, the operating sys¬ 
tem, and all I/O. 

An Alliant FX/8, configured 
with eight computational elements, 
delivers peak performance of 94 
mflops and 35.6 mips. Running the 
Unpack benchmark from Argonne 
National Laboratories in full 64-bit 
precision, a fully configured FX/8 
delivers more than 12 times the per¬ 
formance of the top-of-the-line Digi¬ 
tal Equipment VAX 8600. 


For more information, contact 
Alliant Computer Systems Corp., 42 
Nagog Park, Acton, MA 01720; 
617/263-9110. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 167. 


PPI EXPANDS 
OBJECTIVE-C 

Productivity Products International 
(PPI) has expanded and Is now mar¬ 
keting a broader version of their 
popular Objective-C, a compiler that 
accepts the full C Language, plus 
ppi-developed message/object ex¬ 
tensions. The reusable Objective-C 
dramatically reduces the bulk of pa¬ 
per and code throughout the devel¬ 
opment of various user programs. 

Objective-C is available for such 
Unix systems as Sun Microsystems, 
HP 9000-200 and 500, Digital VAX 


730, 750, 780, 785, and 8600, 
Digital’s VME family, Data General 
ads/vs family, IBM PC, and a variety 
of other popular systems. 

Available for $400 for use with 
the IBM PC, and up to $7200 with 
Digital’s VAX 730, users receive a 
complete package, including a 280- 
page reference manual; executable 
code on floppy disks or magnetic 
tapes; two libraries of 40 reusable 
Software-ICs from which to build a 
compiler or new products; plus a 
seat in a two-day concepts course 
and one-year maintenance. 

For more information, contact 
ppi Inc., 27 Glen Rd., Sandy Hook, 
CT 06482; 203/426-1875. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 168. 


7300 UPGRADES 
FROM CMS 

Upgrade kits, expansion boards, and 
add-on products that enhance per¬ 
formance and capability of the re¬ 
cently introduced at&t 7300 PC and 
the new Compaq 286 Deskpro and 
Portable computers are now avail¬ 
able from CMS, Inc. 

Upgrade kits include a 20- 
Mbyte hard disk, ram cards that 
allow memory expansion to 1.5 
Mbyte, and serial/parallel I/O boards 
that allow hook-up to additional pe¬ 
ripherals. Products available in kits 
are also available separately, includ¬ 
ing a combo board that combines 
ram memory and I/O port expansion. 

Tape backup systems offering 
25-, 45-, and 60-Mbyte storage ca¬ 
pacity with streaming (mirror im¬ 
age), start/stop (file by file), and 
random access (file update) read/ 
write modes are also available from 
CMS. 

CMS upgrade kits including 
20 -Mbyte hard disk, 384K byte addi¬ 
tional ram, and I/O card with serial 
and parallel ports carries a dealer 
price in volume of $1195. The RAM 
card is user upgradable to 1.5 Mbyte 
with 256K-byte chips. Separately, 
the hard disk is $995, the RAM card 


Great Learning 
Exhilarates, 
Motivates 



And it saves you money. 

user TRainmG coRPORarmn 

CALL NOW (408) 370-9710 

591 W. Hamilton Ave. • Campbell, CA 95008 


Please circle Ad No. 109 on inquiry card. 


98 UNIX/WORLI) 


NOVKMHKK 1985 





























TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


ialf- 


(38f 
(h; 

RAIil 

ex] 

Tapi 

vol 

Mt 

for 

imihi 


4K byte) is $295, the I/O card 
-card) is $95 and the combo 
-I/O card (with 128K byte, 
:jj>andable to 3 Mbyte) is $295. 
ie backup systems carry dealer 
jme prices of $695 for 25- 
yte, $950 for 40-Mbyte and $995 
60-Mbyte. All are available 
lediately. 

For more information, contact 
CMk, 401-B W. Dyer Rd. Santa Ana, 
CA 92707; 714/549-9111, 953- 
0407. 

ease circle Reader Service Number 169. 


MINX MANUFACTURING 
SYSTEM 


M 

the 

pr< 

sta 

m; 

is 

the 

gin 

CO] 


1] IX 


inx 


Mi 
sp: 
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for 
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whi 
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For more information, iontact 
Minx Software Inc., 4966 El Camino 
Real, Los Altos, CA 94022} 415/ 
969-6528. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 170. 


ALLIANT VECTOR 
PROCESSING 


|p. has 
-high, 
pputer 
price 
vector 


its 


Software Inc. has introduced 
Minx Information System, a com- 
ehensive, fully integrated line of 
i idard manufacturing and financial 
laiagement products. The system 
cjesigned to assist management in 
supervision of marketing, en¬ 
tering, materials and production 
ijtrol, and finance. 

The Minx Information System 
consists of 13 modules, including ac- 
coints payable, accounts receivable, 
general ledger, inventory manage¬ 
ment, material requirements plan- 
nin i, purchasing and shop floor con- 
tro. A sales order administration 
mopule is planned for September. 
Included with the system is the 
spreadsheet, an electronic 
njeadsheet that allows you to ana- 
information within the system. 
Hardware requirements for the 
sltem are a minimum of 30 Mbytes 
disk storage and at least 1-Mbyte 
main memory. The system is 
ailable in a minimum configuration 
L0 users for $35,000. Additional 
rs, in increments of 10, cost 
>00 per user. 

System support includes five 
of training; full documentation, 
ch includes a self-paced imple- 
ptation guide; and future en- 
cements. A software subscrip- 
service is available for a $4200 
drly fee. 


Alliant Computer Systems Coi 
introduced the FX/1, a disk 
multiprocessing superminico: 
that is said to be the first in i 
class to provide integrated 
processing. 

The FX/1 incorporates [vector 
processing. As a result, the FX/1 
typically delivers two times the per¬ 
formance of the Digital Equipment 
VAX 8600. The FX/1 runs existing 
software programs used in engi¬ 
neering and science, including those 
that run on VAX systems. 

Priced at $132,000 for fa com¬ 
plete system, the FX/1 adcresses 
many market needs. It can be used 
as a multiuser departmental system, 
a computational server on a network 
of engineering workstations, pr as a 


The Alliant FX/Series: FX/8, an entry level supercomputer 
and FX/1, a superminicomputer. 


EMBER 1985 


personal supercomputer. A ^ystem 
configured for original equipment 
manufacturers (OEMs) is available for 
$99,500 and is fully discount able to 
41 percent. 

For more information, Contact 
Alliant Computer Systems Cop., 42 
Nagog Park, Acton, MA 9172G; 
617/263-9110. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 171. 


PLEXUS UPS MEMORY 


said 


Plexus Computers Inc. 
density memory boards bak 
256K RAM chips that boost 
ory capacity of the P/35 and 
computers by 400 percent 
available. 

1 -, 2-, and 4-Mbyte boai 
also available. In a related 
Plexus also announced it is 
an Enhanced Mass Storage 
cessor (emsp) in conjunction 
larger 600-Mbyte Fujitsu har< 
drive for the P/60. 

With the new memory 
capacity can be increased fronji 
.Mbytes on the Plexus P/3! 



A ALLIANT 



' ~ 

- — 



— — 


IEEEEE 

- —- 


■■ ——■ 


; 

: 

| 




high 
ed on 
mem- 
P/60 
e now 


an 


rds are 
move, 
dffering 
Pro- 
with a 
d disk 

boards, 
2 to 8 
5 and 


UNIX/WORLD 99 



























TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


' SPEAK A 

ANGUAGE 





Speak the DIBOL language that 
means business . . . through portability 


P ortability is what DBL is all 
about. A DIBOL superset, DBL 
delivers your business software to 
more systems at less cost. Less money, 
less time. And DBL brings existing 
DBL and DIBOL based applications 
to a universal range of operating sys¬ 
tems. DBL is portable among the 
following: 


UNIX System 
III 

UNIX System V 
UniPlus + 

Unisis 

Xelos 

XENIX 

Uniq 


• Fortune O/S 

• MS-DOS 

• Novell’s 
Netware 

• TSX-Plus 

• VAX/VMS 

• RSX-11 

• RSTS 


The Decision 

Selecting a programming language is a 
fundamental decision. The quality of 
your product depends on the quality 
of your development tools. You have 
to trust the language you choose to 
make the most of your business appli¬ 
cations. 


DISC has worked hard to earn that 
trust. You can see it in our people, and 
you can see it in our product. We’ve 
designed DBL to make your life easier. 
So you can spend your time in sales, 
not in development. 

Speak a universal language. DBL. 


n Call me right away with information on DBL. 
□ I’d like to see your DBL literature. Please send 
a packet to my attention. 


Name_ 

Company. 

Address_ 

City_ 

Zip_ 


. State. 


Phone 


I am interested in DBL for: 
Hardware_ 


Operating System(s)_ 

yioK 


Digital Information Systems Corporation 

11070 White Rock Road, Suite 210 
Rancho Cordova, California 95670 
(916) 635-7300 

TWX 910-367-3701 UW j 


Please circle Ad No. 25 on inquiry card. 


from 4 to 16 Mbytes on the P/60. 
The new emsp disk controller pro¬ 
vides improved random disk access 
and allows the P/60 to utilize the 
larger storage facilities of the Fujitsu 
drive as well as existing drives. 

The new EMSP can control up to 
4 smd drives at transfer rates of 1.9 
Mbytes per second, emsp handles 
the more sophisticated and higher 
capacity drives at a faster transfer 
rate. 

For more information, contact 
Plexus Computers Inc., 3833 N. 
First St., San Jose, CA 95134; 
408/943-2248. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 172. 


MOTHERBOARD FOR PC 

Unisource Software Corp. has 
signed an agreement with Wave 
Mate Inc. to sell Wave Mate Inc.s 
new XT motherboard—the Bullet- 
286—throughout North America. 

The Bullet-286 enables an IBM 
PC/XT, Portable PC or Tandy 1200 to 
run up to 6 1/2 times faster—faster 
even than an at. It can be installed in 
less than ten minutes using only a 
screwdriver, completely replaces 
the XT’s own motherboard, and pre¬ 
serves PC hardware and software 
compatibility. 

The Bullet-286 is available im¬ 
mediately at a cost of $2495. 

For more information, contact 
Unisource Software Corp., 71 Bent 
St., Cambridge, MA 02141; 617/ 
491-1264. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 173. 


IMAGEN’S NON-IMPACT 
PRINTERS 

Imagen Corp. has introduced the 
ImageStation Series of text and 
graphic laser printers for the work¬ 
station market. 

The ImageStation Series con¬ 
sists of three models: The Execu¬ 
tive, priced at $5950; the Designer, 
priced at $6400; and the Innovator, 
priced at $7200. All three models 


100 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVEMBER 1985 


















TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


tefc 

si] 

pc 
d. 

O 
CO 

a 

8 - 
wi 
OF' 

and 

ho|s 

wl 


a 

sq 
ton 
ma 
Unix 
tho: 
E(|i 
tei 


aval 

Inr; 
wa; 
4i 


usle the popular Canon CX printing 
mechanism and print eight pages per 
minute on up to 14-inch cut sheet 
paper. 

The Executive is intended for 
t and business graphics, the De¬ 
icer for increased graphics sup- 
rt, and the Innovator for the most 
emanding graphics, including the 
r nting needs of very sophisticated 
omputer-aided design (cad) and 
mputer-aided engineering (CAE) 
p plications. 

Each printer includes Courier 
10-, 12-, and 14-point typefaces, 
th 10- and 12-point bold, in all 
entations—portrait, landscape 
inverted. Optional fonts may be 
t-resident or printer-resident, 
l(iich eliminates down-loading time. 

All ImageStation products have 
resolution of 90,000 dots per 
uare inch (300 by 300) and use dry 
er and plain paper. They support 
ny host computers running the 
operating system, including 
se manufactured by Digital 
uipment Corp., Sun Microsys- 
jns Inc. and Apollo Computer Inc. 

All three ImageStations are 
liable immediately. 

For more information, contact 
agen, 2650 San Tomas Express- 
y, Santa Clara, CA 95052; 
0)8/986-9400. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 174. 


Of'FICELAN 6300 LINKS UP 
TO 1,000 PROCESSORS 

Motorola Information Systems has 
introduced OfficeLAN 6300, a combi- 
na tion hardware/software system 
that allows as many as 1000 Motor¬ 
ola System 6300 Office Information 
Systems to be connected in a high¬ 
speed, baseband local-area network. 

The initial product offering, 
OfficeLAN 6300, transmits data via 
coaxial cable at speeds up to 10 
Maits per second. Each 6300 pro¬ 
cessor attached to the LAN must 
ha ye installed an intelligent LAN con¬ 
troller board or a combination 
R$232/lan board. Both boards pro- 

NO|/KMBKK 1985 


vide the physical link and dat i link to 
the network; the combination board 
also provides additional serial inter¬ 
face ports. 

The LAN controller boanjl 
available for $1195 per pri 
and the LAN software will be 
at $1300 per processor. All 


£1 

will be 
cjcessor, 
licensed 
e avail¬ 


able immediately, including the com 
bination RS232/LAN board. 

For more information, [contact 
Four Phase Systems, 10700 N. 
DeAnza Blvd., Cupertino, CA 
95014; 408/864-4783. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 175. 


an 



140 MB disk tape subsystem for XENIX 


Finally, a complete XENIX 
subsystem for the XT. 


Disk Features 

• 36, 50, 70 or 140 Megabytes 
(unformatted) 

• Combine drives with each other c 
existing drive 

• 25 milliseconds average access time 

• Simplified installation 

• Necessary file modifications done 
automatically 

Tape Features 

• 60 Megabyte 1/4 inch cartridge 

• Standard XENIX commands (cpio, tar, 
dd, etc.) 

• Fully integrated driver softwai 


Subsystem Features 

• Entire subsystem fits inside the A7 

• External version with 6 expansion slots 
available 

• 120 day factory warranty 


Emerald 

Systems Corporation 

Mamirame Storage tor Micros 

4 757 Morena Boulevard 
San Diego CA 92117 
(619) 270-1994 
Telex 323458 EMERSYS 
EasyLmk 62853804 


Emerald & Mui iframe Storage lor Micros'] Emerald Systems Corp. 


UNIX/WORLl) 101 











































C PROGRAMMERS’ 
DBMS 


TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


db_Vl5TA 

/^PREFERRED 
< over ISAM 
and file utili- 
^fJUivfS ties, POWER 
likeamainframe 
DBMS, PRICE like a 
microcomputer utility, 
PORTABILITY like only 
C provides. 

MS-DOS/UNIX 
db_Vl5TA FEATURES 

■ Written in C for C. 

■ Fast BMree indexing method. 

■ Maximum data efficiency using 
the network database model. 

■ Multiple key records—any or all 
data fields may be keys. 

■ Multi-user capability. 

■ Transaction processing. 

■ Interactive database access utility. 

■ Ability to import and export 
dBASE ll/lll and ASCII files. 

■ 90 day extended application 
development support. 

NO ROYALTIES 
SOURCE CODE INCLUDED 

dbj/l5TA PRICE 

Single user without source $195 

Single user with source $495 

Multi-user without source $495 

Multi-user with source $990 

MC/VISA/COD 

30 DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE 

Available for the Lattice, Microsoft, 
Computer Innovations, DeSmet, 

Mark Williams, and Aztec C compilers 
under MS-DOS, and most UNIX systems. 
DISCOUNTS ON ALL 
LATTICE PRODUCTS 

R4IMK 

CORPORATION 

11717 Rainier Avenue South 
Seattle, WA 98178, USA 
(206)772-1515 Telex 9103330300 

CALL TOLL-FREE 
1-800-843-3313 

At the tone, touch 700-992. 


MARKET DIRECTORY 

Unisource Software Corp. has pub¬ 
lished the Unix Market Directory, an 
up-to-date and cross-indexed listing 
of Unix system software, hardware, 
and services. 

The 80-page guide was devel¬ 
oped by Urban Software Corp. and 
contains 24 categories of software 
product listings from Accounting to 
Graphics to Word Processing; verti¬ 
cal market products for 19 industries 
such as Advertising, Law, and Real 
Estate; and service listings in five 
areas including Software Distribu¬ 
tion, Timesharing, and Training. 
The Unix Market Directory retails 
for $18.00. 

For more information, contact 
Unisource Software Corp., 71 Bent 
St., Cambridge, MA 02141; 617/ 
491-1264. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 176. 


PALOMINO DEBUGGER 

Palomino Computer Systems, Inc. 
has introduced SADB, a stand-alone 
debugger, to speed and simplify the 
debugging and maintenance of oper¬ 
ating systems and drivers. 

sadb runs co-resident with the 
host operating systems to pro¬ 
vide advanced operating system de¬ 
bugging capabilities. 

SADB features include full sym¬ 
bolic name support (including many 
C language data structures), 
disassembler, single line assembler, 
eight forms of breakpoints, com¬ 
mand level programming with flow 
control, command aliases, Unix file 
system access, structured data 
print-outs, and much more, sadb re¬ 
quires 256K bytes of main memory 
that is unused by the host operating 
system. 

sadb is currently available for 
M68000 microprocessors running 
AT&T System V, M68000 version. 
The license fee to run sadb on one to 
five machines is $15,000. This initial 
license fee includes porting sadb to 


the target system plus six months 
maintenance. Ports to new machines 
for sadb licensees run from $5000 to 
$10,000, depending upon the com¬ 
plexity of the port. The license fee 
for more than five machines is $3000 
per machine. 

For more information, contact 
Palomino Computer Systems Inc., 
5777 South Rural Rd., Suite 4, 
Tempe, AZ 85283; 602/897-UNIX. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 177. 


SUNBURST SOFTWARE 
AVAILABLE TO 
PERKIN-ELMER USERS 

Sunburst Software, a complete set 
of financial applications designed by 
Sunburst Software, Ltd., is now 
available to users of Perkin-Elmer 
Series 3200 superminicomputers. 

Modular in design, Sunburst 
Software features an extensive se¬ 
lection of financial applications in¬ 
cluding accounts payable, accounts 
receivable, general ledger, inven¬ 
tory control, job costing, and point of 
sale. A professional management 
module comprised of a word pro¬ 
cessor, spreadsheet, and database 
manager affords an easy-to-use tool 
for planning, modeling, and analyz¬ 
ing data. These menu-driven mod¬ 
ules are available individually or in a 
combination. 

For more information, contact 
Perkin-Elmer, 497 Hance Ave., 
Tintonfull, NJ 07724; 201/530-5900. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 178. 


80286-BASED 

WORKSTATION, 

FILE SERVER 

MAD Intelligent Systems has intro¬ 
duced two new products for OEMs 
and vars: its D1000 Workstation Se¬ 
ries and F2000 File Server Series. 

Both systems are based on the 
80286 microprocessor. These prod¬ 
ucts will run Xenix 3.0 and IBM DOS 
3.10 at NCC, and use IBM’s Profes- 


Please circle Ad No. 102 on inquiry card. 

102 UNIX/WORLD 


NOVEMBER 198f> 











S10 

se; 

thejii 

cob] 

tenfi 

MS 

op< 


map 

Zai 

401 


•Hal Graphics and Digital Re¬ 
ach’s gem packages to display 
ir impressive high-resolution 
r graphics capabilities. Both sys- 
s also support MS-DOS 3.1, 
Net, Venix, and Concurrent DOS 
grating systems. 

For more information, contact 
Intelligent Systems Inc., 2950 
ilker Rd., San Jose, CA 95134; 
8/943-1711. 


Please circle Reader Service Number 179. 


CR 


Syr t; 


versi< 

Prc 

730 


Wrti 

but:' 

feali 

pro 

um< 

lor^ 


PC 

Fild 
be 

mislsu 

Wrb 

$595 

coun 


Ave 

95C 


NEW PRODUCTS 


YSTALWRITER FOR 7300 


actics Corp. has introduced a 
ion of the CrystalWriter Word 
cessor for AT&T’s new Unix pc 
0 . 

The new version of Crystal- 
er supports the system’s three- 
on mouse, multiple windowing 
ure, and 35 function keys. The 
gram offers completely new doc- 
entation and on-line help files tai- 
d for the Unix PC. 

CrystalWriter also supports the 
7300’s electronic mail system: 
s created with CrystalWriter can 
used directly for data trans¬ 
ion without reformatting. 

The new version of Crystal- 
er is available immediately for 
from Syntactics. Quantity dis¬ 
its are offered. 

For more information, contact 
Syijtactics Corp., 3333 Bowers 
Suite 145, Santa Clara, CA 
54; 408/727-6400. 


Phase circle Reader Service Number 180. 


THE CONNECTOR 

Un source Software Corp. has intro- 
duced The Connector program for 
the at&t pc 6300. The Connector 
allows personal computer users for 
the first time to run both DOS pro- 
grans such as Lotus 1-2-3 and 
dBnse II and the group produc¬ 
tivity features of the Unix System 
sue i as multiuser, multitasking, and 
networking. 

In addition to the PC 6300, The 

NOVEMBER 1985 



FREEDOM FROM PROJECT MANAGEMENT PHOBIAS. 


srn 


Now you can stop worrying a i 
overruns, missed deadlines 
minute revisions. With VUE mki 
software you easily control sc hi 
budgets and resources accoi 
your exact requirements. You 
output a variety of managemdn 
bar charts and diagrams direc 
printer or plotter. 

So, whether you're in construction, 
electronics, aerospace, manufacturing 


UNIX: AT&T 3B, Convergei 
Pertec, VAX, Zllog 
Also: DEC 10/20, Honey v|< 

PDP-11, Perkin Eh 

Please 


bout cost 
d last 
wu-driven 
edules, 
ikding to 
can even 
t reports, 
tly to a 


or data processing, give us a c. 
show you how VUE offers free < 
the phobias of project managei 


$11. We'll 
1/7? from 
>hnent. 


National Information Systems, Inc., 
20370 Town Center Lane, Suite 130, 
Cupertino, CA 95014. Tel: 408-^57-7700. 
Telex: 750031. 


VUE 

For Enlightened Project Management. 


nt Technology MegaFrame, Fortune, Gould, NBI, 
System 8000, and more coming, 
ell DPS-6 and -8, HP 3000, IBM Mainframe VM/CMS, 
r 3200, VAX VMS, and timesharing. 

circle Ad No. 155 on inquiry card. 


UNU 

ZA\[p[p[](§ MAC 

c wm 9 

NETWORKS 8DDD(3 
mo($[R5o 


IX 9 


ALL! 


c -tree 

BY FAIRCOM 


2606 Johnson Drive 
Columbia MO 65203 


The company that introduced microsf to 
B+ Trees in 1979 and created ACCE SS 
MANAGER™ for Digital Research, now 
redefines the market for high performance, 
B-f Tree based file handlers. With c-tree T 
you get: 

• complete C source code written 
to K&R standards of portability 

• high level, multi-key ISAM routines 
and low level B + Tree functions 

• routines that work with single-user 
and network systems 

• no royalties on application programs 


$395 COMPLETE 


Specify format: 

5'A" PC-DOS 3>/a" Mac 
8" CP/M® 8"RT-II 

for VISA, MC or COD orders, call 

1-314-445-6833 


Access Manager and CP/M are trademarks of 
Research, Inc. MS is a trademark of Microsoft 
c-tree and the circular disc logo are trademarks 
of FairCom UNIX is a trademark of Bell 
Apple is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. 

©1984 FairCom 


Please circle Ad No. 59 on inquiry card. 


Digital 


























TRENDS 


NEW PRODUCTS 


Connector runs on the IBM PC/XT, AT 
and compatibles. The Connector is 
distributed on a single diskette and 
retails for $350. 

For more information, contact 
Unisource Software Corp., 71 Bent 
St., Cambridge, MA 02141; 617/ 
491-1264. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 181. 


TEKTRONIX AI SYSTEMS 

Tektronix’s Information Display 
Group has introduced the new 4405 
and 4406 Artificial Intelligence (ai) 
Systems. 

Engineered to be a cost-effec¬ 
tive ai development tool and delivery 
system for complex applications, the 
new 4406, priced at $23,950 (u.S. 
only), is powered by the new Motor¬ 
ola 68020, and assisted by a 68881 
floating point co-processor. 

The 4406 includes a 19 inch, 
60-MHz display with a resolution of 
128 x 1024, 2 Mbytes of dynamic 
ram (expandable to 4 Mbytes), a 
32-Mbyte virtual memory address 
space, and a 90-Mbyte hard disk 
(with 514 inch floppy). 

The new 4405 designed for a 
personal programming tool or appli¬ 
cation delivery system costs 
$14,905 (in the U.S.). 

Please circle Reader Service Number 182. 


TRANSTEXT LINKS 
MOTOROLA, IBM DISOSS 

Motorola Information Systems has 
introduced TransText, a series of 
software programs that allows its 
4000/5000 minicomputers to com¬ 
municate with an IBM Office Systems 
Network via DISOSS, the IBM Distrib¬ 
uted Office Support System. 

Transtext will provide Motorola 
users with document management 
capability within the DISOSS net¬ 
work, including the integration of 
data files with text and distribution of 
documents. 

Motorola users can transfer 


documents in one of three pro¬ 
grams. TransText Native Form pro¬ 
vides Series 4000 or 5000 users with 
the capability to assemble and trans¬ 
fer ForeWord word processing docu¬ 
ments in their native modes via 
Disoss to other Series 4000/5000 
systems tied into the network. 

TransText Revisable Form al¬ 
lows documents to be exchanged be¬ 
tween users, edited, then returned 
to the originator in a form that is 
compatible with IBM’s Revisable 
Form Text Document Architecture. 

The Transtext Interface, Na¬ 
tive Form and Final Form are avail¬ 
able immediately at licensed prices 
of $6,000, $800 and $1,000 respec¬ 
tively. TransText Revisable Form 
will be available in November at a 
licensed price of $1,500. 

For more information, contact 
Four Phase Systems, 10700 N. 
DeAnza Blvd., Cupertino, CA 
95014; 408/864-4873. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 184. 


MDT COMPUTER & TAX 
SERVICES 

MDT Computer & Tax Services has 
ported the entire Myte Myke soft¬ 
ware line to the Molecular System 
16/200 and the trs-80 Tandy Model 
16/600, both machines running un¬ 
der the Xenix operating system. Ad¬ 
ditional Xenix/Unix system ma¬ 
chines are also being planned. 

The Myte Myke Software con¬ 
tains the following intergrated mod¬ 
ules: Business System, Order 
Entry-Billing, Inventory Control, 
Sales Analysis, Accounts Re¬ 
ceivable, Accounts Payable, General 
Ledger, and Purchansing. They are 
designed for both business and man¬ 
ufacturing applications. 

For more information, contact 
mdt Computer & Tax Service, 905 
Harlem Rd., Suite 9 West Seneca, 
N.Y. 14224; 716/822-1185. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 185. 


BRIDGE'S TCP/IP 
LAN PROTOCOLS 

Bridge Communications has intro¬ 
duced a family of Ethernet local-area 
network (lan) communication serv¬ 
ers and internetwork gateways im¬ 
plementing the tcp/ip protocols 
standardized by the Department of 
Defense and widely adopted by the 
CAE/CAD/CAM community. 

The family’s three new mem¬ 
bers are the GS/3-lP-based Ethe¬ 
rnets; the CS/lSNA-TCP/lP, the first 
gateway permitting interconnection 
of two remote tcp/ip, the first 
server providing TCP/IP-based hosts 
and Bridge server-interfaced prod¬ 
ucts with access to IBM SNA hosts 
over Ethernet; and the cs/ 100- 
tcp/ip, a low-cost terminal server 
linking up to 14 RS-232 devices to a 
TCP/IP-based Ethernet. 

The CS/100-TCP/IP is priced at 
$5400 (14-port configuration) plus a 
$250 annual software fee; the 
cs/i-sna-tcp/ip is priced at $13,000 
plus a $1000 software fee; and the 
gs/3-ip is priced at $10,500 plus 
$250 for software. All are available 
immediately. 

For more information, contact 
Bridge Communications Inc., 1345 
Shorebird Way, Mountain View, CA 
94043; 415/969-4400. 

Please circle Reader Service Number 186. 


Unix/WorlD’S “New Products”" sec¬ 
tion is provided as a service to our read¬ 
ers, and our selection criteria are based 
solely on the needs of our readership. If 
you would like to have your product 
news considered for publication, please 
address your correspondence to 
Unix/World Magazine, New Products 
Editor, Castro St., Suite 1220, Mountain 
View, CA 94041. Because of the large 
number of press releases we receive, 
Unix/World cannot verify the accuracy 
of claims made by a product’s 
manufacturer. We advise that you thor¬ 
oughly test any product before buying. 


104 UNIX/WOKLL) 


NOVEMBER 1985 










MEET A WONDERFUL 
BUNCH OF SQUARES. 



Y A T E 



121 to be exact. 

And when they position themselve s 
correctly, we think they form a stupningly 
handsome logo. 

The fact that it just happens to belour 
logo has little to do with it. Well o.p., 
maybe more than a little. 

What we think is really important though, 
are the services and products thal this 
logo represents—the computer industry’s 
most comprehensive marketing research, 
product evaluation and information 
resource available. 


ses\ 


let 


In the coming months you’ll be 
more of this logo and learning a 
about what and who it represents, 


For the meantime though, we just , 
to be sure you were properly introd 



sing 

more 


wanted 

uced. 


YATES 


EARCI 


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MARKET RESI 
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card. 























_ MARKETPLACE _ 

CAREER OPPORTUNITIES 


TRAINING 


♦ 


JOBS 

REGISTRY 

National registry of candi¬ 
dates and jobs in the Unix 
field. Please give us a call; 
send a resume; or request a 
free Resume Workbook & 
Career Planner. We are a 
professional employment 
firm managed by graduate 
engineers. 

800 - 231-5920 

P.O.Box 19949, Dept. UW 
Houston, TX 77224 
713-496-6100 


Scientific Placement, Inc. 

Please circle Ad No. 126 on inquiry card. 


XENIX FILES: 

FAST SORT, UPDATES 
& RECONFIGURATION 
TANDY TRS-80 
MODELS 16 & 6000 

SORTPAX 

7 programs that sort & rearrange data in Xenix files. Sup¬ 
ports up to 999 fields & 16384 bytes/record; ascending & 
descending ASCII & BINARY fields, Fixed-length files 
converted to variable-length record files & vice-versa. Much 
faster than Xenix sort: 20,000 record file approx. 4x faster. 

DATEX 

Sortpax programs +11 more to Reconfigure and Batch 
Update data files: saves duplicate keyboard entry of data. 
Selectively update fields & records of one file from another. 
Make a mistake? Expand, delete & rearrange fields within 
records. Also includes: join unique, separate & congregate 
functions. 

SORTPAX: $195 DATEX: $295 

MC, VISA, Check, P.O. & COD accepted 

SUPERIOR SOFTWARE SYSTEMS 
609 Granger Rd., Syracuse, NY 13219 
Trademarks: TRS-80 — Tandy 
XENIX - Microsoft 



— 

UNIX 


Readers who have computer merchan¬ 
dise or services to sell, buy, or trade and 
want to be included as a classified Adver¬ 
tiser in Unix/World Magazine should 
write to: Advertising Department, Tech 
Valley Publishing, 444 Castro Street. 
Suite 1220, Mountain View, CA 94041. 
415/940-1500. The rate for the classified 
section is $12 per line. The deadline for 
ads is the 20th of the 2nd month prior to 
publication. Please include complete 
name and address in every ad. 


VI & NROFF MADE EASY! -Color- 
coded beginners guides make vi & nroff 
-ms simple to learn and easy to use. “Let 
Vi Do It” and “The Nroff Sampler,” writ¬ 
ten by M. Howard Hall, a nationally rec¬ 
ognized Unix spokesperson who has 
simplified vi & nrof f training. Available 
by mail-order only. $52.00 per set. 
(Calif, residents must add $3.25 sales 
tax.) Send check or money order to OF¬ 
FICE COMPUTER INTERFACE, 805 
S. Fremont Ave., Alhambra, CA 91803. 
(818) 289-4433. 

WE WANT A UNIX COMPATIBLE 

—screen painter package. Please 
contact Victor Drilea, Data Prompt, 
Inc., 3004 Oak Dr. Kensington, MD 
20895; 301/942-7505. □ 


Use the Power 
of Your Computer 

... to automatically look up 
city, state and county informa¬ 
tion based on zip code. Table of 
48,000 zips allows significant 
savings on data entry, error cor¬ 
rections and file maintenance. 
This set of floppy disks, includ¬ 
ing easy instructions, is just 
$149. Most popular 5 l A” and 8" 
formats are available. Hard disk 
required. Call or write for free 
information. 

DCC Data Service 
1990 M Street, N.W. Suite 610 
Washington, D.C. 20036 
Toll-free 1-800-431-2577 
In DC & AK 202-452-1419 


CALENDAR 


System Interface And Proto¬ 
cols: October 30-November 1, San 
Diego, Calif. Contact Herb Stem, 
Center for Advanced Professional 
Education, 714/261-0240. 

The Unix System For The dp 
Professional: November 4-8, 
Washington D.C. Contact Webco, 
301/498-0722. 

Unix For Users Including Shell 
Programming: November 4-6, 
Los Angeles, Calif. Contact aiqr 
Registrar, 408/978-2911 or 800/ 
621-0854 Ext. 290. 

Shell Programming: November 

4- 5, Edison, N.J. Contact Cindy Ca- 
pria, auxco, 201/572-5075. 

Programming In lisp And 

PROLOG: November 5-8, Palo Alto, 
Calif. Contact ics, 213/417-8888, in¬ 
side Calif. 800/352-8251, outside 
Calif. 800/421-8166. 

Computer Graphics: November 

5- 8, Boston, Mass. Contact ICS, 
213/417-8888, inside Calif. 800/ 
352-8251, outside Calif. 800/421- 
8166. 

Unix Tools: November 6-8, Edi¬ 
son, N.J. Contact Cindy Capria, 
AUXCO, 201/572-5075. 

Hands-On Unix For Program¬ 
mers: November 6-8, Bellevue, 
Wash. Contact David Cheyette ssc, 
206/367-UNIX. 

C Programming: November 7-8, 
Los Angeles, Calif. Contact aiqr 
Registrar, 408/978-2911 or 800/ 
621-0854 Ext. 290. 

C Unix Interface: November 
11-15, Edison, N.J. Contact Cindy 
Capria, AUXCO, 201/572-5075. 


Please circle Ad No. 16 on inquiry card. 


Please circle Ad No. 106 on inquiry card. 


NOVEMBER 1985 



















TRAINING 


CALENDER 


C liata Concepts For Managers: 

November 11-12, Tarrytown, N.Y. 
Contact Sessions & Gimpel Training 
Assjoc., 617/429-6350. 

Unix vi Editing: November 12, 
Washington D.C. Contact Webco, 
301/498-0722. 

Advanced Editing: November 
13-14, Washington D.C. Contact 
Webco, 301/498-0722. 

Data Concepts For Program¬ 
mers: November 13-15, Tarry- 
tovm, N.Y. Contact Sessions & 
Gimpel Training Assoc., 617/429- 
6390. 

Introduction To nr off: Novem¬ 
ber 15, Washington D.C. Contact 
Webco, 301/498-0722. 


Thle Concepts Of Object- 
ented Programming: Novem- 
18-19, Annapolis, Md. Contact 
203/426-1875. 


Ori 

ber 

PPI 


To 


sy: 

Ui 

cal|ei 

re; 

yob] 

Cab 


Legal Issues In Acquiring And 
Using Computers: November 
18--19, New York City. Contact Data 
Processing Institute Registrar, 212/ 
580-5200. 

C Programming Workshop: No¬ 
vember 18-22, Merrimack, N.H. 


Cohtact Suzanne B. Battista, 
Hal Inc., 609/927-3770. 


Plum 


cf 


View, CA 94041. All items should 
elude a title, a brief description 
course, seminar, or trade show, 
date of the event, the city and si 
where it will be held, the name 


in- sponsoring company or orgamzat ion, 

the and an address and phone number for 
the further information. Please submit 

1 ate all items at least four months in 
0f the advance. □ 


System Administration: Novem¬ 
ber 18-21, Edison N.J. Contact 
au (CO, 201/572-5075. 


further the education of Unix 
stems users and professionals, 
r ix/World each month provides a 
ndar of events as a service to our 
iders. Please send information about 
r seminar, trade show, or course to 
lendar Editor, Unix/World Magazine, 
44(4 Castro St., Suite 1220, Mountain 


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UNIX/WORLl) 107 






















SSUniForum 

The International Conference of UNIX Users 


February 4-7, 1986 / Anaheim Convention Center / Anaheim, California 


THE International UNIX* Event of the Year! 


UniForum 1986, the International Conference 
of UNIX Users, has established itself as 
THE premier UNIX conference/trade show. 

• Over 200 major vendors exhibiting their 
newest UNIX-based hardware, software, 
systems, services and peripherals. 

• A complete tutorial and conference pro¬ 
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tivity of UNIX between the user and techni¬ 
cal environments; the hardware and 
software technology for office systems and 
workstations; the interface between man 
and machine, machine and machine, and 
much more. Day-long tutorials provide 
intensive, focused material on specific sub¬ 
jects in UNIX.. .while the conference ses¬ 
sions highlight the latest developments in 
the continuing evolution of UNIX. 


• FREE UNIX Introductory Workshops. 

• Birds-of-a-Feather impromptu sessions. 

Call us NOW for your FREE Show-Only 
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The power and potential of UNIX are impor¬ 
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For Complete Information, Call: 

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(In Illinois, Call: 312-299-3131) 

Or Write: 

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‘UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories. 


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_i 


Please circle Ad No. 107 on inquiry card. 









TRENDS 


sync 


Conti tued from pane 110 


AI MATTER OF GOALS 


So 


t seems that the answers to our 


questions regarding computer train¬ 
ing programs revolve largely around 
an ndividual’s personal goals. Is he 
or she most interested in job secu¬ 
rity? Or are they really looking for a 
spr ngboard to aspects of computers 
and computer science that go far be¬ 
yond the typical training available 
from many commercial training 
schools? 

In the former case, word pro¬ 
cessing and “commercial” program- 
mir g courses may hold some value, 
as weve seen above—though ques¬ 
tions of job obsolescence still linger 
in tie background. In the latter case, 
hov/ever, we must strongly question 
whether many of these courses will 
provide much significant middle- to 
long-term benefit for the student. 

In cases where the student’s 
aspirations go far beyond the materi¬ 
als of the training courses, it might 
well be the case that their money 
would be better spent pursuing 
othrn avenues (when practical) to 
learn about computing. Some college 
courses, even on an extension basis, 
may be of real value to many such 
persons. 

Outside of their more directed 
technical content, such courses also 
frequently offer the student consid¬ 
erable access to computers for their 
own experimentation. In addition 
(nowadays at least), colleges tend to 
tea :h structured languages as a first 
choice rather than concentrating on 
the older, unstructured languages 
mere commonly used in business 
computing but used less and less fre- 
quently in other applications. 

Another possibility, where fea¬ 
sible, is to combine the somewhat 
“mundane” training of the commer¬ 
cial courses with outside learning of 
various sorts. This could include 
extension classes, a moderately- 
priced home computer (though 
choice of particular unit might be 
critical to real learning), participation 

NOVEMBER 1985 


in local “computer clubs,” anp simi¬ 
lar activities. 

Some commercial 
courses may play a useful role 
tablishing a person’s com 
oriented career—but if de 
upon for all training, this 
might turn out to be limitii 
might gradually even become 
lete. To the extent that such 
are augmented through other 
ing, a person has a much 
chance of establishing a caree: 


training 
in es- 
iputer- 
iended 
career 
d and 
obso- 
urses 
leam- 
better 
r base 


with a solid prospect of beirg both 
rewarding and secure. □ 

--Lauren-- 

UUCP: {ihnp4, decvax, 
5eismo, Clyde, 
bonnie, t rwrb > 

!vortex!lauren 


coi 


Lauren Weinstein is a computer I tele¬ 
communications consultant living in Los 
Angeles. He has been involved in an array 
of projects that range from the mundane to 
the bizarre. 



folks 


written by the 
who invented 
the term! 


t d 


Since 19& 
ing and an 
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terns basi 
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Supermfi 
planners, 
partments 


Supennicro has been cover- 
ifalyzing technical, market, and 
envelopments relating to sys- 
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UNIX/W( 


>KL1> 109 























TRENDS 


sync 


TRAINING FOR 
OBLIVION? 


BY LAUREN WEINSTEIN 

We’ve all heard 
them. . . 

“Can a phone 
call change your 
life? This one 
quite possibly 
might. . . 

memml te Such lines 

T m m umua . - .. are the com¬ 

mon bait in a variety of “train for a 
new career” promotions—usually in 
the form of slick TV ads suggesting 
new careers in almost every possi¬ 
ble field, from plumbing to bar- 
tending. In some cases, the ads are 
timed to tie in with a particular 
program (for example, some ads 
for a form of “paramedic” training 
are running with reruns of the old 
“Emergency” program—itself a 
show about Fire Department 
paramedics). 

Probably the most numerous of 
these career training commercials 
are the ones offering an “exciting 
new career” in the field of comput¬ 
ers. Some offer lucrative positions in 
hardware maintenance (oh boy!), 
but most are oriented toward pro¬ 
gramming or word processing. 

Because of the pervasiveness 
of these advertisements, it’s getting 
increasingly common for people al¬ 
ready working in the computer field 
to be asked by friends if these train¬ 
ing programs are really of any use. 
People who are bored by their cur¬ 
rent jobs, or who are unemployed 
and searching desperately for a job 
that won’t become technologically 
obsolescent too quickly, are easy 
prey for the claims made by many of 
these commercials. 

The question is, do these train¬ 
ing programs offer a viable entry into 
the world of computing? Can some¬ 
one who wants to learn how to do all 
sorts of amazing and creative things 
with computers get a start through 

110 UNIX/WOKI.I) 


such training? How should we an¬ 
swer if someone asks us, as persons 
already in the computer field, if 
these courses are of use? There is 
considerable cause to wonder. 

WORD PROCESSING 

A lot depends on what a person re¬ 
ally expects from this training. For 
somebody who would be happy be¬ 
ing a word processor, which often 
seems to entail fairly simplistic en¬ 
tering and manipulating of previously 
prepared text for eight hours a day, 
a word processing course might be 
of considerable value. This could be 
particularly true if this person’s cur¬ 
rent job prospects/training are fairly 
dismal. There’s certainly going to be 
more job security in word pro¬ 
cessing than in steel manufactur¬ 
ing—that much seems pretty clear. 

Of course, even some word 
processing jobs may be threatened 
by advanced optical text scanning 
systems, the potential (still down 
the line a ways) for voice-to-text 
systems, and other possible devel¬ 
opments. But for the middle-term at 
least, word processing would seem 
to represent a comparatively stable, 
though boring by some standards, 
career alternative. 

COBOL NEVER DIES? 

But what of the person with some¬ 
what loftier goals—someone who 
wants to become involved in sys¬ 
tems programming, graphics, or in¬ 
novative applications of various 
sorts? Will the training programs of¬ 
fering a programming career provide 
the needed stepping-stone? 

One can’t help but have serious 
doubts. While there are exceptions, 
many of these training programs 
concentrate on areas that many of us 
would consider to be limited and bor¬ 
ing at best. Often the languages 
taught in these courses are selected 
from the narrow menu of basic, 
fortran, and COBOL, with perhaps 
some specialized report generating 
languages on the side. 



The sorts of programming 
taught are often limited to the same 
old accounting, inventory, report 
generating, and similar necessary 
(but let’s face it—mundane) applica¬ 
tions that have been written in these 
languages for many years. Now, I’m 
not saying that such programs are 
unimportant. After all, COBOL pro¬ 
grams generate most people’s pay- 
checks! But this is hardly promising 
material for someone who envisions 
an “exciting career” as promised by 
the ads. 

OBSOLETE? 

True enough, a bright person may be 
able to train in unstructured lan¬ 
guages/accounting applications and 
move forward into other areas— 
into the more interesting areas that 
he or she really wanted to pursue. 
But how often is this possible? It 
seems likely that most of these per¬ 
sons will never be able to move 
much beyond the boundaries of the 
training material taught, not neces¬ 
sarily due to any deficiencies on their 
part, but rather due to the structure 
of their jobs and the sorts of work on 
which they have to spend most of 
their time. 

Even worse, many of these 
jobs, which in some cases people 
might seek more in search of “sta¬ 
bility” than anything else, would also 
seem to be fairly vulnerable to be¬ 
coming obsolete in their own right. 
While the claims made for “auto¬ 
matic programming systems” of var¬ 
ious sorts are usually vastly exag¬ 
gerated, there is little doubt that 
programming related to accounting, 
inventories, report generation, and 
similar areas, may be susceptible to 
a considerable degree of automation. 

To the extent that such auto¬ 
mation takes place, people who 
were searching for job security may 
still find themselves in the tech¬ 
nological “doghouse” as advances 
make the sorts of programming for 
which they trained increasingly 
obsolete. 

Continued on page 109 
NOVKMKKK 1985 















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MICROWARE’S OS-9 


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niplicated software and expensive hardware 
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ig system from Microware that gives 68000 systems 
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is versatile, inexpensive, and delivers outstanding 
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SUPPi 


Compreh 
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'P-ll make coordinated Unix/OS-9 software 
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ORT FOR MODULAR SOFTWARE 
- AN OS-9 EXCLUSIVE 

•nsive support for modular software puts OS-9 
ahead of other operating systems. It mu! 


written 
sembly 
ideal 
plicatioi: 
a broad 
systems 
or 680 
ROM- 
trollers 
systems. 


Ihan Unix because it's 
in fast, compact as- 
language, making it 
critical real-time ap- 
s. OS-9 can run on 
range of 8 to 32 bit 
based on the 68000 
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OS-9'. 

C 

YOUR 


Micnp 1 
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develop 
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OUTSTANDING 
COMPILER IS 
BRIDGE TO UNIX 

►wares C compiler tech- 


ce 

in assembly 


Key OS -9 Features At A Glar 
Compact (16K) ROMable executive writter 
language 

User “shell" and complete utility set writjten in C 
C-source code level compatibility with Un 
Full Multitasking/multiuser capabilities 
Modular design - extremely easy to adajit, modify, or 
expand 

Unix-type tree structured file system 
Rugged “crash-proof" file structure with 
Works well with floppy disk or ROM-basec 
Uses hardware or software memory man 
High performance C, Pascal, Basic and 


rpcord locking 
systems 
ia|gement 
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Cob 


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software modules inc 
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The modular structure lets 
you customize and . 
figure OS-9 for specific 
ware easily and quick' 

A SYSTEM WIT|H 
A PROVEN 
TRACK RECORb 

Once an underg 
classic, OS-9 is now £ 
hit. Since 1980 OS- 
been ported to over <i 


is another OS-9 advantage. The compiler produces systems und 
y fast, compact, and ROMable code. You can easily business. OS 
and port system or application software back and industrial, a 
standard Unix systems. Cross-compiler versions for independent 


dred 6809 and 63000 


I-r license to some of the biggest names 
>-9 has been imbedded in numerous con; 

OEM products, and is supported by 
software suppliers. 


rid 


— TtUCtoWG*- 

OS-f 


MICROWARE SYSTEMS CORPORATION 

1866 NW 114th Street 

Des Moines, Iowa 50322 

Phone 515-224-1929 

Telex 910-520-2535 

OS-9 is a trademark of Microware and Motorola 


Mien 


Chib 


Phoi 

Tel^: 

Unix is a 


oware Japan, Ltd 

41-J9 Honcho 4 Chome Funabashi City 
a 273, Japan 
ne 0474-22-1747 
ix 298-3472 

rademark of Bell Labs. 


Please circle Ad No. 10 on inquiry card. 


tiplies 


productivity and memory efficiency. Applica- 


built 


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UNIX is a trademark of AT&T Bell Laboratories • Lyrix and Multiscreen are trademarks of The Santa Cruz Operation. Inc. • IBM is a 
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Please circle Ad No. 11 on inquiry card.