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NOV/DEC 86 BULK RATE 


U.S. Postage 
VOL. 3 NO. 1 PAID 
; Colton, OR 97017 
$3.00 Permit No. 51 
POSTMASTER: 


They Are S+'l/ Around EF Write then Fer Dr, QATED MATERIAL. 


——— 








as ia | 
| eh = | “What's All The 
a\ea/lvy : AC 


— ots Diag yy ) Commotion About? 


ITS 
TDM's 


2nd 


NIVERSARY 
ISSUE!" 



















~ 

SS . 
aod oF OF on oe oe on 
1S 2 08 OF 06 oe eer 


pow Bz Bx Bc Bv Bs Bun Bu § § | 


IT’S HERE! ! 


QL TRIVIA—-GQLUE 


HERE IS GREAT NEW COMBINATION GAME! 
IF YOU LIKED QLUE AND TRIVIA, THEN THIS IS FOR YOU! 
We HAVE COMBINED THE 


SE TWO GREAT THINKING HANS’ GAHES 


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QUESTIONS COVER EVERY CONCEIVABLE SUBJECT! 
RELIGION - HISTORY ~ SCIENCES ~- GEOGRAPHY - 
YOU’VE NEVER SEEN QUESTIONS LIKE THESE! 


Also included, at no extra cost r choice of 
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WE THINK YOU’LL LIKE THIS ONE! 
OUR PRICE? ONLY $19.95 +$2ph 


AVAILABLE EXCLUSIVELY FROM: 
RMG ENTERPRISES 


ANNOUNCING 


SOUNDESIGN 2068 
A NEW PROGRAMMING UTILITY FOR YOUR 2068! 


This little package allows you to design your own 
sound effects or musical effects for your programs 
Simply and easily. Completely menu driven, usi 
only 3 keys, you can design a sound, print out t 
necessary program line (generated by our 
program) and insert it into your progran. 


The core Will let you test out sounds, change 
volume & pitch, open or close the sound channels 
- all with only 3 keys! 


Sound simple? IT IS! 
We want you to be able to use our utilities, and the 
ie we make them, the easier they are to use and 
the more likely you will use and recommend then! 


This one it NEW from ARROW SOFTWARE, a company we 
hope to hear a lot from in the months ahead! 


AT ONLY $12. 9S5t$1.50ph 
THIS ONE IS A MUST FOR ALL RS! 
IT WILL SAVE YOU MORE THAN THAT IN TIME ALONE! 


SOUNDESIGN 
TS AVAILABLE EXCLUSIVELY FROM 
RMG ENTERPRISES 


MAKE CHECKS OR MONEY ORDERS OUT TO: 
RMG ENTERPRISES 
off? 1/2 7TH STREET 
GON CITY, OR 97045 

503/655-7484 


10 AM TILL 1@ PM TUE-SAT 


te ere Tee) ee ee eee oe PuteMa2 P88, SE SRP ORR See np x wat Sn a MIR 


SEKTOR 29068 
FOR THE FD468 USER 


bart A full-featured sector editor for use 
with your 2068 and AERCO FD68 disk system. 
Very user friendly! Many features that you 
would not expect at this price! 


Some of the features included are! 


READ DISK SECTORS - WRITE SECTORS - CORRECT SECTORS 
DELETE/ERASE FILES - COMPARE BLOCKS - COPY SCREENS 
TE IBM CLUSTERS - MSDOS (2 VERSIONS) 
~ WORKS WITH RP/M AND HORE! 


All of this at a price that all FD48 users can afford: 
ONLY $15. @@t2ph 


Available on 5 1/4" disk, 3° disk or cassette. 
Please add $5 for 3s disk version. 
Complete with very thorough documentation. 


AVAILABLE EXCLUSIVELY FROM: 
RMG ENTERPRISES 


OUR NEW CATALOG IS COMING! 
WE WANT YOU TO GET YOUR COPY! 


OUR NEW CATALOG IS BIGGER AND BETTER THAN EVER! 





WE’VE ADDED NEW PRODUCTS IN ALL OF OUR OLD LINES 
AND ARE ADDING NEW LINES OF MERCHANDISE. 


OUR OLD LINES INCLUDE: 
TS 2068 & TS 1500 & TS 1000/ZX81 * OL 


OUR NEW LINES INCLUDES 
COMPUTER FORMS & PAPER PRODUCTS * DISK DRIVES 
DISK DRIVE CASES & POWER SUPPLIES & DISK DRIVE CABLES 
BLANK DISKS % BLANK VIDEO TAPES & CB RADIOS 
MUCH MORE TO COME!! 


BECAUSE OF THE HIGHER COSTS OF PRODUCING AND MAILING A 
NEW CATALOG, WE ARE FORCED TO ASK, THAT, IF YOU ARE A 
SERIOUS CUSTOMER, AND WOULD LIKE TQ RECEIVE ONE OF OUR 
NEW CATALOGS, YOU ‘Sep US $2.00 TO COVER THESE COSTS. 


IN RETURN 
REGULAR ORDER! THAT WAY YOU DON’T ACTUALLY LOSE 
ANYTHING AND HAVE A LOT OF SAVINGS TO GAIN! 


JUST FILL IN THE INFORMATION BELOW AND SEND THIS FORM 
ALONG WITH YOUR CHECK OR MONEY ORDER FOR $2.00 TO THE 
ADDRESS BELOW! 


AND THAT’S NOT ALL! 

IF YOU ENCLOSE 12 LEGAL SIZED S.A.S.E.s WITH THIS FORM 
YOU WILL BE SURE TO RECEIVE OUR MONTHLY SPECIALS 
CLOSE-OUTS, NEW PRODUCT NOTICES AND CATALOG UPDATES. 
YOU WILL ALSO RECEIVE A COUPON GOOD FOR A $5.00 
DISCOUNT ON YOUR NEXT CATALOG ORDER! 


THAT WAY IT ACTUALLY COSTS YOU NOTHING! 
DON’T MISS OUT! ORDER TODAY! 


NOV/DEC 86 










VOL. 3 NO. 1 


FOR ALL TIMEX AND 
SINCLAIR COMPUTERS 






TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE CoO. 
29722 Hult Rd.e Colton, Oregon 97017 


(503) 624-2658 


TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE is published bi- 
monthly and is Copyright © 1986 by the Time 
Designs Magazine Company, Colton, Oregon 
97017. All rights reserved. 


Editor: Tim Woods 
Assistant Editor: Stephanie Woods 
Editorial Assistant/Production: D.L. Woods 


Photography: 
(unless otherwise noted): Thomas Judd 
Printing by; Toad’! Litho Printing and Comp., 
Oregon City, Oregon 97045 


SUBSCRIPTIONS: $15 a year for six issues (US 
funds only). No extra charge to Canadian 
subscribers. All other countries please write for 
information on air mail rates. 


CUSTOMER SERVICE: Customer satisfaction is 
our goal. For subscription service problems 
please write or call TIME DESIGNS. 


CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Write or call to prevent 
delay of sevice, 














































Reproduction of this magazine in whole or in 
part by any means without written permission is 
prohibited by law 


“NOTICE: Contributors to TIME DESIGNS are independent 
of the TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE CO., and opinions ex- 
pressed in the contents of the magazine are not necessarily 
those of the management or its advertisers. Time Designs 
Magazine Co. will not be held liable for any damage or conse- 
quences resulting from instructions, assertions of fact, 
review of products or companies provided in the magazine's 
content." 





GIVE A 
GIFT SUBSCRIPTION 
TO TIME DESIGNS 


* You'll Help Spread Interest in 
sinclair Computers 


* We will Supply a FREE CARD 


SEND YOUR ORDER BEFORE 
DECEMBER 15th 
TO INSURE DELIVERY. 


Michael E. Carver 


eee 


D. Hutchinson 


The Folks Who Bring You 
TIME DESIGNS 


y , 





a 


Tim Woods and Tom Judd, 
Staff Photographer 


Stephanie Woods 
Assistant Editor 


Woods 
Editor 


Tim 













SEES. 
































Soe: Mii tinea 











Syd Wyncoop Stan Lemke 

This being our 2nd Anniversary Issue and the start 
of our 3rd year of publication, I'm going to pass up the 
usual column featured here, and introduce you to some 
folks responsible for putting out TIME DESIGNS six times 
a year. Most of you know this is a "family" business, 
which not only employs both my wife and I, but also 
other family members and friends on a part time basis. 
TDM really wouldn't be possible without our great 
contributors...I feel the very best around. Some of them 
have been with us since Volume One. 

Above you will find photo's of some of these people 
who you have read about, but this time you can tie a 
picture to a name. It's all in fun, and at the same time 
gives them some deserving recognition. (I've even in- 
cluded my own "mug shot" for what it's worth.) There are 
many others who aren't pictured above, who are also 
regulars to our pages, such as: Tim Stoddard, Warren 
Fricke, Bill Ferrebee, Charles E. Goyette, Dick Wagner, 
Dennis Jurries, Dennis Silvestri, R. Lussier (as well as 
several others). We'll have to get them next time. 

I look forward to working with everyone for the 
next six issues of TDM, and serving you our readers with 
the magazine "written by Sinclair enthusiasts---for 
Sinclair enthusiasts". I also want to wish our writers, 
their families, as well as our entire readership... 


ge 
Happy Holidays! Tim ds 


Earl V. Dunnington 


TDM TWO YEAR ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION 





Tim Woods has asked me to reminisce about the early 
days of the Timex Sinclair microcomputers. Ah, nostalgia 
time! The good ol' days...or were they? 

When you think about it, the "good ol' days" of the 
Timex computers only go back to April 1982. That was 
when Timex Computer Corporation, a wholly-owned sub- 
sidiary of the Timex Watch Company, announced to a 
stunned press that it had made an agreement with  Sin- 
clair Research Ltd. (England) to produce and market the 
Timex Sinclair 1000, Timex's version of Sinclair's 
ZX8l1...and it was going to sell at 150,000 Timex North 
American retail outlets for only $99! That didn't 
happen, since most stores that sold Timex watches de- 
cided not to try to sell computers...but it was sure 
exciting to think about! 

But the genesis of the TS 1000 goes somewhat 
further back to when "Uncle Clive" Sinclair shocked the 
computer world in early 1980 by announcing the first 
under-$200 computer, the ZX80. This was an immediate hit 
in England and came to the U.S., mail-order only, in 
late 1980. This was followed by the ZxX8l1, which was 
actually manufactured in Scotland by Timex. It sold for 
5150 assembled, or $100 in kit form. The ZX8l quickly 
became the largest-selling computer in the world. 

I got my first ZxX81 in early 1982. I ordered a kit 
for $100, but they had more assembled units than kits, 
so they apologized for sending me an assembled unit! 

I had already cut my computing teeth on a Radio 
Shack TRS-80 Model I 4k with Level I BASIC, which I had 
upgraded to 16k with Level II BASIC language. I had 
written one book for Hayden Publishing ("Programs For 
Beginners On The TRS-80") and many magazine articles, so 
the ZX81 was not my first micro...but it quickly got my 
attention. 

It was FUN to program the ZX81 in Sinclair BASIC, 
which was much more powerful than the TRS-80 Level I 
BASIC. Because there was only lk of RAM, and much of 
that was devoted to the screen, there was not much 
memory left for a program...making the challenge much 
greater. The graphics were limited, but easy to use. 

I started writing articles about the Zx81 and the 
Timex Sinclair 1000. Since they were identical, except 
that the TS 1000 had a 2k RAM instead of lk, everything 
I did with the ZX81 worked on the TS1000. Furthermore, 
by adding the 16k RAMpack to a ZX8l, it was the same as 
a TS 1000 with a RAMpack. In fact, I never did get a TS 
1000. By the time they were available, I had two ZX8ls 
with RAMpacks! 

I recall the difficulty in getting a printer in the 
early days, before the Timex Sinclair 2040, Sinclair put 
one out in England for about $100. I don't even remember 
what they called it, but it put out so much radio- 
frequency interference that the FCC banned it in this 
country. It used an electrostatic process that vaporized 
a thin aluminum coating to expose the black surface on a 
carbon-coated paper roll. I ordered one of these little 
printers from Gladstone Electronics, via Canada. The 


“Remember Back When...” 


by 
Fred Blechman 


import paperwork, shipping and tariff cost about $35! It 
was strange, but gave an acceptable 32-column printout 
that duplicated every dot on the screen. To do that on 
many of today's micros takes special graphic screen dump 
programs! 

My first ZX/TS-oriented article was in the Sept/Oct 
1982 issue of SYNC Magazine. I subsequently wrote 20 
other articles covering the 2Zx8l1, TS 1000, TS 1500, 
TS 2068, Spectrum, and OL for other magazines...Elec- 
tronic Fun, CES Daily, Microcomputing, TODAY (Compu- 
Serve), Timex Sinclair User, Computer Shopper, Computers 
& Electronics, Computer Trader and Modern Electronics. 
My last "Timex" article was a 7-page hands-on review of 
the Sinclair QL in the June 1985 issue of Modern Elec- 
tronics. 

Along the way, I wrote the book, "Timex Sinclair 
2068 Beginner/Intermediate Guide" for Howard W. Sams. It 
is now out of print, but available from the E. Arthur 
Brown Company. They also sell my friend Jeff Mazur's 
book, "Timex Sinclair 2068 Intermediate/Advanced Guide", 
also published by Sams, which picks up where mine leaves 
off. Writing that book was a real challenge, since I 
didn't have a TS 2068 Personal Color Computer! Dan Ross, 
the man running Timex Computer at the time, made an 
arrangement for Jeff and me to each have a Sinclair 
Spectrum, on which the TS 2068 was based. We also got 
some advance information, but had to make some educated 
guesses. Sue Mahoney and George Grimm at Timex were very 
helpful...thanks, wherever you are today... 

The real irony was that my completed book manu- 
script went to the publisher in early August of 1983... 
and later that same day Federal Express delivered the 
first TS 2068 I had ever seen! Luckily, after checking 
out the actual 2068, I only had to change one paragraph 
in my manuscript. 

As it turned out, the computer had been delayed so 
long my book hit the streets before the computer...and 
Timex closed down the computer division just a few 
months later. What a shame! A great little computer 
caught in a web of bad engineering and marketing de- 
cisions. 

In their defense, Timex management had a host of 
problems with the real value of a "home computer" being 
challenged, and price wars created by the competition 
forcing profits too low. Add the unreality of trying to 
effectively sell a device as complex and unfriendly as a 
computer in drug stores, and the stage was set for re- 
percussion. Timex was not the only micro manufacturer to 
fall on bad times. It just seems, however, that if they 
had “hung in there" about another six months, the 
superior features of the TS 2068 would have become 
known. 

What have I done since? Well, I've had other 
computers in my collection...TRS-80 Model III (two of 
those), TRS-80 Model 4P (two of those), Coleco ADAM, 
Radio Shack MC-10 Microcolor Computer, Sanyo MBC 555-2, 
Apple IIc, and just recently got an IBM PC/XT clone. 

I've written three more books since my Timex 2068 
book, and over 200 computer-related magazine articles. 
"The ADAM Beginner & Intermediate Guide", a book written 
for Sams, was cancelled after acceptance and editing, 
due to the fall of the ADAM. My "Sanyo Beginner & Inter- 
mediate Guide" and "Apple IIc - An Intelligent Guide" 


were published by CBS Computer Books, just before they 





abandoned the computer book market. I've personally sold 
ever 1000 copies of the Sanyo book, since like the Timex 
machines...it has many devoted users. 

I hated the Apple IIc, the ADAM was "unspeakable", 
but I love the Sanyo! It offers the ease and power of 
programming remindful of the TS 2068, but with two 
built-in disk drives and 48,000 pixels on the screen 
(640 x 200), each in any of eight colors! Wow! 

Thank goodness I've got my Amway Emerald Direct 
Distributorship to support my computerholic tendency! 





Nowak’s Letter Gets Response 


Editor's note: Our mai£ box has been quite full the past 
two months due to a fetter and request we published in 
the Sept/Oct '& issue of TDM, on page 3. To paraphrase 
Mn. Nowak's fetter, he requested a short program or 
noutine that would by-pass the monitor and dump dinectly 
to the printer for doing simple computations. While the 
angwea appears fo be 4impfe, such as the use of the 
LPRINT command, here 14 what some of our readers came up 
with, And thanks to everyone who took the time to write. 


Dear Tim, 


In the Sept/Oct 1986 issue Michael J. Nowak asked 
for a way to have the 2068 print to the printer instead 
of the screen. One simple method, which will work in the 
immediate mode or as a program line, is: OPEN #2, "Pp" 
The “#2" part refers to PRINT and LIST commands. The “P" 
refers to the 2040 printer ("S" would mean screen in 
this syntax). Hence, PRINT or LIST will subsequently go 
to the printer instead of the screen, LLIST, LPRINT, 
INPUT, and lower screen messages will still appear on 
the screen. CLOSE #2 gets things back to normal. 

Opening and closing files in this way was not 
mentioned in the 2068 User Manual (more Timex unfinished 
business), but it can be a useful feature. Listing #1 is 
an example in which channel #4 is used to give a screen 
or printer option for the output. I chose #4 because #1, 
#2, and #3 are reserved for INPUT, PRINT/LIST, and 
LPRINT/LLIST commands, respectively. It's worth ex- 
perimenting with! 


Sincerely, 


Larry Dietrich 
Blanca, CO 


100 REM EXAMPLE OF DEVICE INDEPENDENT OUTPUT 
110 LET GETKEY=1000 


120 PRINT “Output to Screen or Printer? 
or P>*** 


130 GO SUB GETKEY 


‘Press & 


140 IF I8<>"S" AND I$<>"s" AND I$<>"P" AND I$<>"p" THEN 


GO TO 130 

150 OPEN #4,15 

200 REM BODY OF PROGRAM 

£10 FOR L=1 TO 10 

220 PRINT #4; TAB (L<10);L;" squared = "; L&L 
230 NEXT L 


240 PRINT ‘"DONE": REM THIS PRINTS TO SCREEN 
2 30 STOP 


1000 REM GETKEY SUB 1 squared = 1 
1010 LET IS=INKEYS 2 squared = 4 
1020 IF I$=""" THEN GO TO 1010 3 squared = 9 

1030 RETURN 4 squared = 16 

5 squared = 25 

6 squared = 36 

< 7 squared = 49 

LISTING 1 An par ge 

9 squared = 61 

10 squared = 100 





TDM TWO YEAR ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATION 


Also, well over 1000 Amway Product Distributors have 
purchased my $100 "AMBIZ—PAK" of 10 programs for the IBM 
PC/Clones, TRS-80 Models III/4/4P/4D, and the Sanyo MBC 
550 series. 

I'm pretty much out of the Timex environment now, 
and will not be writing about the QL. However, I can 
well understand the fascination and dedication many of 
you hold for the Sinclair and Timex machines. As I 
recall, at one time Timex used ads with the slogan "The 
POWER is in your hands!" May the POWER be with you... 


-LETTeR Ss 


To the Editor, 


In response to Mr. Nowak's letter in TDM Sept/Oct ‘86 
issue--the enclosed program works well on the 2068 and 
TS 1000 (using the proper “to the power" symbol). It can 
be enhanced by putting in an entry counter with C$ and B 
tabbed to other locations and/or reversing the position 
of C$ and B. The base program is: 10 INPUT C 
20 PRINT C or LPRINT C 
30 GOTO 10 
The value of C is calculated and printed (Lprinted) as a 
single value. The entry prompted by an L cursor jis not 
printed (Lprinted) and is “lost”. 


W.B. Gray Jr. 
West Caldwell, NJ 


1 REM seeeesEValvatorS.s.eneer 

2 REM ..e.+sLINES 1,2,3,4,51, 
100,101 NOT NECESSARY......2.65 

3 LPRINT “INPUT, “ANSVER"™ 

4 LPRINT “eases” ,™ . 

20 INPUT Cs 


30 IF Cg$="0" THEN GO TO 102 


# ee © @ © @ 


40 LET B=VAL Cs 
50 LPRINT C$; TAB 15;"=";B 
51 LPRINT 


na 
a a a ee ee 
iT} 


101 LPRINT “a24444444444434444% 
ESEESESER EEE" 


182 STOP 

348= ii 

Bi56 50 aad shea ato ba a oe 
Sikes 465-0 SS ee 
wens 2 oe ee oe, 


eS SS SS SS ia i a ee i ie ee 


SSS SF SF SF SS SS SS SSS SE SE ee eee ee ee ee ee 


To the Editor, 


Regarding Mr. Nowak's letter: There is a very simple 
solution to this, but it has two small drawbacks. After 
turning on the 2068, type in: 

POKE 26692,80 : POKE 26697,80 (Enter) 

Now everything that would normally go to the screen will 
go to the printer. Drawback #1- No program line or  im- 
mediate command can be entered that is longer than 32 
characters (the length of the printer buffer). Longer 
program lines can be loaded from tape, before or after 
the Poke's, or typed in before the Poke's. Drawback #2- 
with an immediate command like: PRINT 2+2 (Enter) the 
answer (4) will overwrite the “P" in the word PRINT in 
the printer buffer before it is sent to the printer...so 
type in: PRINT 2+2 and then hold down the space bar to 
fill the printer buffer. When the printer starts to 
print, press enter and the answer (4) will print on the 
next line, 


Yours Truly, 
P. Aylesworth 


Bradford, Ontario 
Canada 


ALSO AVAILABLE FOR THE T/S 2068 


POWERFUL AND INEXPENSIVE BUSINESS SOFTWARE 
FOR 2X81, T/S1000 and T/S1500 COMPUTERS 


ZX-TEXT 


CorPYRIGHT 
ALBERT F, 


“RHSUEE BY ENTERING A NUMBER’ 


A word processor is to a computer user 
what a typewriter is to a typist, except that the 
former has more advantages than the latter. 
£X-Text can operate in 16-64K RAM providing 
from 1300 to 6500 words per document. It 
features 6 different options: write, read, edit, 
print, save and clear text. Text is written on a 
per-line basis with quick speed and with 
horizontal back-space and delete capabilities 
being available. You can also access the 
editor directly from write mode and vice-versa. 
Text can be proof-read on a per-line basis 
allowing for enough time to determine if any 
editing is needed. The text editor allows a line 
of text to be deleted, inserted, replaced and 
listed for editing. You may also change a word 
or expression within a line, stop or start text 
while it is scrolling up the screen, begin 
reading text from the first line of the file, re- 
enter write mode from the editor, return to the 
main-menu or create a window so that you 
can read-edit two files simultaneously. The 
print option takes text displayed in 30-column 
format on the screen and outputs to either the 
ZX/TS printer. (With Memotech's Centronics 
Parallel interface §80-column and lower/ 
higher - case output is possible.) Files may 
be saved on tape cassette with the use of 
one single Command, or by the same token they 
can be erased from memory / storage so that 
the full capacity of the program can be used 
for other purposes such as composing letters 
reports, articles, memos, standard forms, 
instructions, ads, graphs, telephone 
directory, lists of customers, members, 
friends...etc. Also copies of files are always 
less expensive and easier to run than using a 
photocopier. Other advantages are savings in 
lime, paper, ink, correcting mistakes and 
adding afterthoughts more efficiently than 
doing them through either handwriting or 
using a typewriter 


$16.95 


ZX-CALC 


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An electronic spreadsheet calculator is the 
fundamental basic tool for summarising, reporting 
and analyzing in matrix form any accounting, 
mathematical or scientific manipulation of num- 
bers. 7X-Calc operates in 32-64K RAM andatfords 
a Maximum of 3360 characters / spreadsheet. The 
entire matrix consists of 15 columns (letters A-O) 
and 30 rows (numbers 1-30) with 8 characters / 
cell. Unlike other popular ESCs, 7X-Calc uses in 
calculations and within cells all 14 math functions 
on the ZX-81/TS1000. It offers a unique “SUM 
function that totals one or more rows/ columns 
simultaneously. Parenthesis can be used within 
equations. There is no fixed limit on how many 
equations may be entered. Formulas may be 
stored in all 420 cells of the spreadsheet. The 
display affords 15 rows/colums. Loading of data 
into more than one cell can occur across /down 
one or more row/column simultaneously. With 
vertical windowing you Can arrange a set of col- 
umns in any order, or practice using fixed-variable- 
alignment display formats. The menu offers 6 
options. enter / erase, move, calculate, print, save 
and clear the spreadsheet. Enter/erase allows 
the entering, deletion or data alignment within a 
cell through the use of a mobile cursor. With the 
move option you may move around the entire 
sreadsheet to access any row, column or cell. 
The calculate option allows you to enter labels, 
values or formulas into a cell or write and enter 
equations that will act upon the data already within 
the spreadsheet. You can also enter bar graphs 
into a cellinthis option. Absolute / relative replica- 
tion, down/ across acolumn/row, isalsoallowed 
by this option. Also this option allows the auto- 
matic calculation of the entire spreadsheet with 
one single command. Print allows youto outputto 
either the ZX / TS printer the entire spreadsheet by 
column-sets and row-pages through use of the 
COPY command. The entire spreadsheet may be 
saved on cassette tape or you may clear all data 
from it or erase the program from RAM entirely 
The most salient advantage provided by anESC 
over specifically vertical applications software is 
that an ESC provides a reusable framework with 
which you can compose any specific financial 
model rather than just belimitedto only one stati- 
Cally fixed format for storing. displaying and 
manipulating numerical data 


$16.95 


ZX-CALENDAR 


re M ADE 


| DAT! ZO @4-i7 ea 


ae." EVAH REFO, CAREER 
6.308 A... 


SOQUEL ae 2 HOUR 
LT CACE: J 2358 SALZEDO sT., NO. 
G., 44-1598 


De wt 
RE, O36 , 8008-7 





Time management is an important aspect of 
any serious business and personal agenda. 
Planning how to spend our time leaves us better 
prepared before and while we are spending it 
and we remain better organized after we finish 
spending it. ZX-Calendar operates in 16-64K 
RAM affording 25 appointments in 16K, 100 in 
32K or 180 in 48K and 64K. Each 
appointment record holds a maximum of 220 
characters. The main menu includes enter, 
search/check/sort, change, save, clear and 
print any and all appointments made on a 
specific date or with any party. Output to either 
the ZX/TS printer is permissible. This program 
will permit you to remember to do something or 
to be somewhere important by cataloging your 
answers to six questions that you must account 
for in order not to waste time when it is scarce: 
when, with whom, at what time, for how long, 
where and what are you going to discuss and 
conclude when you get together with someone 
else? The program lets you permanently 
originate, record, classify, search, sort, 
calculate, modify, summarize, obtain a written 
report and store your answers to the preceding 
questions so that you will not forget what you 
decide to do with your time. This program 
identifies your time according to when you are 
going to spend it and with whom you are going 
to share it. Through these forms of labeling 
appointments you are able to verify or modify 
how your time is budgeted without wasting ink, 
paper or more time trying to remember what you 
said to yourself or what someone else said to 
you or where you placed certain written 
messages that you now can't find. With this 
program you will know where you can find 
exactly what you need to know about where you 
want to and have to be, or where you have been, 
before you get and after you got there. Thus, ZX- 
Calendar will let you plan your time so that you will 
never have to worry about what ts ahead or what 
came before, for you will always know, by using it, 
lo never be caught astray by any time-frame. 


$16.95 


$3. 00 SHIPPING AND HANDLING / ‘PROGRAM 


A.F.R. SOFTWARE - - 1605 Pennsylvania Avenue, No. 204 - Miami Beach, Florida 33139 
DEALER INQUIRIES WELCOME (305) 531-6464 FLORIDIANS ADD SALES TAX 
L-1 © 1984 a . | 


Goyette’s “Ski” and “Cavern” A Hit 


Dear Tim, 


I found "SKI" (TDM-July/August 86) by Charles €E. 
Goyette, to be a fantastic game. The only problem was 
that the person with the highest score for a game was 
not always listed as being the winner. Changing H$ to S$ 
in line 500 seems to correct this." 


Sincerely, 


Kenneth Fracchia 
Buffalo, NY 


Dear Time Designs, 


I have enjoyed both "CAVERN" and "SKI" by Charles 
E. Goyette. They both act and react faster than my 
fingers can manipulate the keys. I did however, make a 
slight change in "SKI". I changed the trees that look 
like "bugs" to trees that look like trees with: 
g000 DATA 1,128,1,128,3,192,3,19 
2,7,a@24,7,224,1,128,1,128 
This makes a nice pine tree with the addition of color, 
“INK 4", in line 1100. 
For what it's worth, 


Sincerely, 


Richard B. McMahill 
Washington, DC 


Mathematics 
Dear Sir, 


Readers of TDM might be interested in the following 
equalities produced by my 2068. Other such relationships 
can be obtained by use of the program shown on page 232 
of Laurie Buxton's book, "Mathematics For Everyone”. 


PI - 103993/33102 

EXP 1 - 49171/18089 

SQR 2 - 66922/47321 

SQR 3 - 70226/40545 = 
SQR 10 - 168717/53353 = 0 

-125 - 1/8 = 5.8207661E-11 

1.3 - 13/10 = 4.6566129E-10 


oe 
oocea 


Sincerely yours, 
Howard R. Wilkerson 


Greenville, SC 


Request for LARKEN Help, etc. 


Dear Sir, 


I am writing in the hopes that you may be able to 
help me with a few questions. First of all I understand 
that there is a version of Prologue available for the 
Spectrum. I have searched all present and back issues of 
ZX Computing, Your Sinclair and Sinclair User that I own 
and could find no mention of it. I am hoping that you or 
one of your readers might know of the program I am 
talking about. 

secondly, I am hoping that someone might be able to 
help me with some conversion problems. I am trying to 
convert some of the other languages for the TS 2068 and 
the Spectrum onto the LARKEN disc drive system. I have 
Abersoft FORTH, Hi-Soft C, Hi-Soft Pascal and YS Mega- 
basic which I would like to make full compatable with 
the Larken system. So far, I have been able to put the 
main Basic loaders and machine code onto disc, but I do 
not know how to convert Save-Load routines within each 








language to save and load from disc. Perhaps someone has 
already solved the problem and could offer me some help. 
I thank you for your time and trouble. 


Sincerely, 


David Sdlly 
OTSUG Librarian 
Ottawa, Ontario 


Editon: I have found no reference to a "Paofogue" pro- 
gram jor the Spectnaum, but some other ieeceie alti may 
provide the answer. AS fon your software conversion 
probfems with the LARKEN disc daive interface, it sounds 
fike you may have an eanfier version of the LARKEN DOS. 
I have been in contact with Lanny Kenny (a.k.a.; Larken 
Efectronics) and he mentioned that a mew 72068 DOS 6 
available on disc that has improved LOAD/SAVE commands 
[Supporting Arrays, Basic Code), and also FORMAT, CAT, 
ERASE and OPEN® commands. Larry also mentioned that he 
will begin work on offering the DOS (which 4 Spectaum 
compatib£e) on a cantnidge, therefore using no computer 
RAM, Ho£d on to youn seat on this one...4t will have the 
NMI save feature. This will alfow you to do "snap shot" 
saves Like that on the John Oliger Dise Interface. I 
would suggest that anyone requiring information on new 
LARKEN ampnrovements umite to: Lanken Electronics, RR#2 
Navan, Ontario, Canada K4B-1H9. 


“Pigskin Picks” 
Dear Tim, 


I am sending my check for another enjoyable year of 
TOM...the only real connection I have with the TS world, 
and I always look forward to receiving my TDM. I have 
enclosed a small football prediction program that I 
wrote. The program will average about 653 correct over 
the whole season. 

I am also wanting to start a Users Group in the 
Bee County Area. If I can start one, it will be called 
"Bee County Timex Sinclair Users Group"- 6.C.1.S., and 
if it is possible I would like to give the members that 
don't have computers a ZX81 or TS 1000 for joining. I 
would like to hear from other TS users for some input on 
this subject. 


Sincerely, 


Tom Proffitt 
706 Morales St. 
Beeville, TX 78102 


Editor: "Pigskin Picks" was fun, but my team Looked just 
as bleak as before I keyed in your program (better fuck 
for me next year, I guess). Hope you get a users group 
off the ground. A free computer offer 18 hard to beat. 


1 REM “BY: eos PROFFITT 


AT 
PLACE: BEEVILLE, TEXAS 

e& REM “Pigskin Picks" Can alse 
o be used for Batketbatt. It wor 
KS bEett after the fourth game. ‘ 
Not to be used for gambling if y 
ou want toa acer aS money!" 

~ BORDER 1: P : INK F: € 
iS : POKE 236095, 7a 

18 PRINT TAB &:' ‘PIGCSRIN PICKS" 

li PRINT ‘FRSFEEFTSETIAATE EADS 
FFFFRETILERS™ 

[0 INPUT “enter 1st. team “;ag 

ss wae ENTER OFEENSE-POINTS 


130 REM ENTER DEFENSE- POINTS 
160 INPUT "“POINTS-A8GAaINST “0 
178 INPUT “enter games played " 


200 INPUT “enter Ond.team “; fs 
255 REM ENTER OFFENSE-POINTS 
299 INPUT “POINTS-FOR “;1 

oO REN ENTER DEFENSE-POINTS 
3209 INPUT “POINTS-AGAINST sll ee | 
350 INPUT “enter games played 


460 LET t=c re 

470 LET ve-d-e 

430 LET rai -t 

4008 LET s=j +k 

SO@2 LPRINT ag; " “"“; IMT (45), 
S108 LPRINT fs; “; INT (u4 é 
Se LPRINT 

S320 LPRINT 

540 GO TO 180 














TS COMPUTERFEST II Plans Aired 


While May is months away, plans and groundwork for 
the Second Annual Mid West TS Computerfest continue. The 
"Main event" this time will be held in Indianapolis, 
Indiana, on May 2nd and 3rd. It is being planned and 
hosted by nearly all of the representatives of the 
highly successful TS Computerfest held in Cincinnati 
last year, including Chairman, Frank Davis of Peru, 
Indiana. 

Time Designs has been in contact with many of the 
dealers who attended the first show, and the over- 
whelming response has been "we'll be there again!". In 
fact several dealers who were unable to attend last year 
are definetly coming this time. Most preliminary figures 
estimate that the Indianapolis Computerfest will have 
double the attendance this time around, with perhaps as 
many as a thousand, now that the word is getting out. 

Interested parties can write to Mr. Davis at: 513 
East Main Street, Peru, IN 46970, for further details. 
Be sure and plan now to leave the first weekend in May 
open...you won't want to miss the Timex Sinclair “event 
of the year"! 


New SPECTRUM Off To Giant Start 
American Travelers Abroad Report on PC Show 


American Timex Sinclair distributors Rob and Debbie 
Curry of Curry Computer and John Warburton of Sunset 
Electronics attended the annual Personal Computer Show 
in Olympia, Great Britain, the first weekend of Sep- 
tember. The well-attended showing featured among other 
things, the premier of the Amstrad/Sinclair Spectrum 
128k+2. Many thanks go to Mr. Warburton who thoughtfully 
picked up an extra brochure, which is pictured to the 
right, for Time Designs readers. The new Spectrum which 
replaces the previous 128k computer released six months 
ago by Sir Clive, offers both a professional full-travel 
keyboard and an integrated cassette recorder. It also 
has on-board twin joystick ports that use the Sinclair 
Interface 2 protocols (non Atari-type). Gone is the 
traditional black Sinclair look, for a new grey color. 

It was curious that Commodore for the most part 
was absent at the show, while both Amstrad and Atari had 
huge displays. The Atari section featured many after- 
market companies, but all were integrated into the main 
Atari section with corresponding displays and decor... 
now that's company support! Meanwhile, Amstrad launched 
the new PC1512, an inexpensive IBM PC clone that is 
already receiving extremely rave reviews from the press. 
Watch for this one, it is rumored that it is coming to 
the U.S. 

There were many software companies in attendance 
including an outlandish display by BEYOND, which rep- 
licated the bridge of the star ship Enterprise...a 
gimmick to announce their coming program, "Star Trek". 
Their were many other Spectrum related booths, and even 
some for the seemingly ill-fated Sinclair OL, such as 
the London-based support group, Quanta. 

The Curry's stated that software and hardware 
"deals" struck at the PC Show, will greatly benefit U.S. 
Sinclair consumers in the coming months. 


‘*All The News Fit To Print’’ 


ARCTAN COMPUTER VENTURES or Northampton, England, 
is an excellent source of support for the 2X81 or TS 
1000 computers. The part software company and 2ZxX8l 
magazine publishers have a five page brochure available. 
Arctan Computer Ventures (or A.C.V.), offers over a 
dozen different software titles, many of which are games 
(but also some utilities...like a 280 Disassembler). 
The ARCTAN ZX8l1 Users Club has now published five ex- 
clusive magazines for ZX8l users. For complete infor- 
mation and prices, write to: A.C.V., 1 Foxwell Square, 
southfields, Northhampton NN3 5AT, England. 

Many months ago, we reported on the E. Arthur Brown 
Company of Alexandria, Minnesota, purchasing the ex- 
clusive U.S. publishing rights to England's popular 
computer telecommunications book, THE HACKER'S HANDBOOK. 
Now, Eben Brown (of E. Arthur Brown) reported to Time 
Designs, that the book is in it's second printing here. 
Hugo Cornwall, the author of the hacker's guidebook, 
made a scheduled appearance in San Francisco, California 
for a lecture at the "Hacker's 2.0 Conference", on the 
25 and 26th of October. Mr. Cornwall is a noted in- 
ternational expert on modem "hacking". For information 
and prices on "The Hackers Handbook", write to E. Arthur 





The Hacker's Handbook 


Brown at: 3404 Pawnee Dr., Alexandria, MN 56308, or call 
(612) 762-8847. 

DUNGEON OF YMIR Version Three is here. The all new 
high resolution maze game is available now for the 2X81] 
or TS 1000 that has both a 16k RAM pack and an 8k CMOS 
(static) RAM board such as the popular "Hunter NVM" 
board. Incidentally, if you have a copy of "Thrust" by 
the Weymil Corp., you are already set up to run Dungeon 
Of Ymir V3. Further details on this mega-game and other 
fine products for your ZX/TS, write to: Fred Nachbaur 
[Silicon Mountain Computers], C-12, Mtn. Stn. Group Box, 
Nelson, B.C. VIL 5Pl. 

Improvements on the "tried and true" appears to be 
the trend this month. In the May/June 86 issue of TDM, a 
program called “Money Machine" was mentioned for those 
that like word/thinking type games. We said that it re- 
sembled the TV game show "Wheel of Fortune". Now, the 
author has taken the program one more step...and we 
can now say that MONEY MACHINE II is a Wheel of Fortune 
clone. This should sell a lot of copies, as the TV show 
has gained a tremendous following. A lot of detail has 
been incorporated in this 2068 program, including a 
Vanna White ("Banna Brite" in the program, to protect 
author Herb Bowers from any legal implications) sprite 
that turns the letters. Play is conducted as in the show 
and up to three players can participate. Libraries of 
additional puzzles will be released periodically, but 
the 250 that come with the program should keep you and 
your friends up all night playing this one. Very good 
graphics and sound. Price is $15 from ABBA Soft, 2588 
Woodshire Cir., Chesapeake, VA 23323. 





Banna Brite turns the letters. 


We've been impressed with all of the new stuff 
coming out of RMG Enterprises (1419 1/2 7th St., Oregon 
City, OR 97045) these days. New software titles include 
SOUNDESIGN (a utility for easy development of sound 





code utility for the 2068 that was inspired by a feature 
on the Sinclair QL. Interrupts allow the user to witness 
the actual execution of BASIC programs, as program lines 
are simultaneously displayed.) RMG also has excellent 
prices on disk drives, cases and power supplies, and 
many other items for the computer hobbyist. A new 
catalog is available for $2 (your $2 is deducted from 
your first order...so actually you pay nothing for the 
their catalog). Write for a copy. 

Pete Fischer and Steve Ishii have put together the 
TS GUIDE TO TELECOMMUNICATIONS, which lists BBS phone 
numbers, hardware and software, and many useful tips. To 
obtain your own copy, write to P.O. Box 2002, Tempe, AZ 
85281. 

Have you blown your 2068's SCLD chip? Symptoms in- 
clude video display problems, excessive LOAD and SAVE 
troubles, problems with internal clock timing and key- 
board decoding, and others, you may have a faulty SCLD 
that needs to be replaced. You could send your 2068 in 
for repairs, but you can now (with some difficulty) 
replace your own. You may, or may not be aware that the 
SCLD is the only chip in your computer that isn't 
available commercially. Through the efforts of the 
Capitol Area Timex/Sinclair Users Group (P.O. Box 725, 
Bladensburg, MD 20710), which bought a large supply of 
them from the Timex computer factory in Portugal, you 
can now obtain these custom chips. C.A.T.S is offering 
them for $20 each ppd. 

Knighted Computers, 707 Highland St., Fulton, NY 
13069 (phone 315-593-8219) has obtained the U.S. rights 
to market TOMAHAWK, a combination helicopter flight 
simulation program and arcade game. Knighted has  con- 
verted this popular Spectrum program to the stock Timex 
Sinclair 2068. The helicopter is a U.S. Army AH-64A 
APACHE, and features a 3D cockpit/window display, and 
use of both 2068 joystick ports! Price: $16.95. 


i 






TOMAHAWK has landed 
on U.S. shores. 


A new ROM resident Monitor/Disassembler is now 
available for the Sinclair QL called ROMON. This comes 
from Meta Media Productions, 726 West 17th, Vancouver, 
B.C., Canada V5Z 1T9. ROMON 1.21 sports a host of fea- 
tures not usually found in a monitor. These include the 
display of SuperBASIC Functions & Procedures currently 
resident, the display of Jobs resident including the 
starting address and length of the job, the display of 
the major system variables and SuperBASIC variables, and 
more, in addition to the usual monitor functions of 
memory display and modification, register display, ect. 
ROMON is supplied on a ROMcard for the QOL ROM port. Less 
than 1k of RAM is used for the storage of Monitor Vari- 
ables. Write for pricing and further information. 

Zebra Systems Inc., has just purchased the entire 
remaining stock of the popular SOFTSYNC line of 2068 
software including the ZEUS ASSEMBLER, ZEUS MONITOR/ 
DISASSEMBLER, Personal Accountant and several games. 
zebra is now selling these commercial quality programs 
at a special price in time for the Holidays (stuff your 
stockings with these!). Consult their catalog or ads 
for further details, or write to: 78-06 Jamaica Ave., 


effects in your 2068 programs) and TRACER (a machine 7 Woodhaven, NY 11421. 


KNIGHTED GOMPUTERS 


707 Highland Street 


(315) 593-8219 


FULTON, NY 13069 


Software & Peripherals 


TS 2068 ° 





TOMAHAWK 
TOMAHAWE is a real-time flight 
Simulation based upon the US ARMY AN-64A 
APACHE Advanced Atack Helicopter - the 
meanest, deadliest combat helicopter 
ever Co rale the skies! Its specialized 
job is to hunt tanks and destroy 
anything that gets in its way. The 
Apache was built specifically to fight 
aad survive, night and day, in the thick 
of the battlefield. 
Flying a real helicopter is a demanding 
task, requiring training and practice - 
particularly ground attack. TOMANAWK 
gives you this challenge. Cliab into 
your cockpit and prepart for 
take-off.... 
FEATURES: Spectacular 3D real 
world display *Fally aerobatic (within 
limits of the real helicopter) *Ground 
attack & air-to-air interception *Over 
7000 ground features *Day/Hight vision 
systems *Cloudy conditions, crossvinds ¢ 
turbulence *Doppler navigation & target 
tracking system *Laser guided missiles, 
plus rockets & jam chain gun *Selection 
of training and combat missions 
*Iapressive sound effects *Pilot ratings 
- Trainee to Ace "Uses BOTH TS2068 
joystick ports! 

ITM * 1212 





$16.95 


MICRODRIVE CARTRIDGES 
(pk of 4) Item #1158 
_ey ~Microdrive 





TRANSFORM BOX - HOLDS 20 CARTGS. 


Item #1205 $ 9.95 


[S1l2K RAM 
EXPANSION 


This 512K card increases the 
QL's memory to 640K of Random 
Access Memory. With this memory 
expansion you can take full 
advantage of your QL. Our 
memory board is equipped with 
thru-porting so that you will 
still be able to connect a disk 
drive interface. This is 
another high quality product 
from KNIGHTED COMPUTERS. 
Item #1069 


HARDWARE FOR YOUR QL COMPUTER 





QL PRINTER 

80 CPS, 9 PIN DOT MATRIX, AND 
COMES WITH LQ MODE (LETTER 
QUALITY) AND CABLE TO HOOK UP 
DIRECTLY TO YOUR QL SERIAL PORT. 


Item # 1198 $199.00 
QL PRINTER RIBBON 
Item # 1180 §$ 11.95 


VISA 





§ 11.95 


$199.95 


Sinclair QL’ 


BEST BUY 


DUAL 3" DISK DRIVES 





ONL Y $249.95 11 
These top quality dual disk 
drive units have their own power 

Supply and fan built-in, and 
very attractively encased. Now, 
cut your data storage costs by 
more than half. These drives 
are single sided, double density 
drives and format out at 180K 
per side - with just two disks, 
you'll have data storage capa- 
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convienience of having two 
drives available at your 
command. INCLUDES: CABLE AND 
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PUT ONTO TWO DISKS FOR YOU. 

ITEM# 1210 $249.95 
3" DISKS (for above) 

Hard plastic encased top grade 
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ITEM# 1211 
(BOX OF 10) ITEM# 1212 


$ 4.50 
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QL COMPUTER - 
With power supply, manual, 
dual microdrives, Data-base, 
Wordprocessor, Spreadsheet, 


and Business Graphics programs 


g209.95 | 


Item #1140 











GUIDE TO TIME OESIGNS BACK ISSVES 


COMPILED BY PAUL BINGHAM 


Time Designs Nov/Dec ‘84 Vol 1, No. 1 
TS2050 Modem announced, Spectrum Emulator announced, 
U.S.A. @L released, 2068 Tech Manual released, 
Recoton Cassettes, "Rise & Fall if Timex Computer 
Corp.", 2068 Software Directory, Portable TS 
project, BASIC languages, 2048 Music I, 2048 Tasword 
II review 


Time Designs Jan/Feb ‘85 Vol 1, No. 2 
MT Sprit Printer (TS2080), Comparing Data Base 
Services, TS Modems, 2068 MTERM II review, TS1000 
& 2068 Screen storage prorm, 2068 "Ant Attack" 
review, ROMSWITCH review, Static Discharge Bracelet, 
2058 BREAKing and SAVE, 2068 "Great Game/Graphics 


Show" review, 2068 "Compass" compiler review, 2068 
“Straits of Hormuz"&"Exec Clue" review 
Time Designs Mar/Apr ‘85 Vol 1, No. & 


Timex & Dave Higginbottom, TS User Group Directory, 
2068 Text Entry/recall in M.C., TS1000 DATA/READ, 
2968 House Payment prgrm, TS1000 "Basload" & "Super- 
tape" reviews, Guidelines on Over-seas Ordering, 
2068 Z-LINK I/F review, 2048 OMNI-EMU review, Spctrm 
"White Lightning", “Lords of Midnight" & “BRAxx 
BLUFF" reviews 


Time Designs May/Jun ‘85 Vol 1, No. 4 
User Group Update, Oliger/Kingsley Disk I/F 
announced, TS2068 returning via Portugal, TS1000 
“Intro to Computer Control", 2068 M.C. joystick 
routine, 2068 Graphics Problem, TV to Monitor kit, 
Tasword II Tips, 2068 Pro/File review, 2048 "Bill‘s 
Coupon Magic" & "Dealer's Den" reviews, Damco’s 
Spectrum Wafadrive review 


Time Designs Jul/Aug ‘85 Vol 1, No. 5 
Timex Network, Softaid hunger relief, Users Group 
Update, 2068 Graphics, 2068 Tic-Tac-Toe prorm, 

TS 1000/2068 Alphabetizer prgqrm, TS1000 Set RAMTOP, 
TS1000 8K upgrade & Bank Switching reviews, Aerco 
FD-68 2068 Disk I/F review, 2068 Zebra-Talker 
review, 2068 "Night Gunner"&"Grade Book" & Spectrum 
"Deus ex Machina","Pajamarama" & "Sherlock" reviews 





- a 


‘i 
‘ 
4 
4 


| 
ia 
im | 
4 
1 
rth. 
ae 
- 


Time Designs Sept/Oct ‘85 VYol 1, No. 6 
Portugal 2068 Update, 1TS1000/2068 Pablo Pixel-o 
HIRES Graphics prorm, TS1000 Adventure in the RAM 
Jungle, TS1500 Monitor Adaptor, 2048 Zebra Graphics 
Tablet review, 2068 Zip Compiler review, Book review 
“Minute Manual for Dot Matrix Printers", User Group 


Update, Damco Spectrum Emulator, Spectrum “American 
Football" review 
Time Designs Nov/Dec ‘85 Vol 2, No. 1 


U.S. QOL reduced to #299, 
Sinclair TV review, User 
Guide to Halley's Comet, 2068 "Shuttle 
review, TS1000 Adventure in RAM II, TS1000 Interest 
praorm, FD-68 Disk I/F review II, Zebra 2068 Disk 
Drive review, 2068 Obsticle Run prorm, 2068 ZPRINT- 
BO review, 2068 VIEWord/MAIList/FORMail review, 
spectrum D‘KTronics Speech Synthesizer review 


128K Spectrum 
Group Update, 


released, 
£068 Gazer'‘s 
Designer" 


Time Designs Jan/Feb ‘86 Vol 2, No. 2 
"Why The QL?7", TS1000 Adventures in RAM III, TS1000 
Chroma-Soft review, 2068 Shell Game prorm, Linear 
Programming for TS user, 2068 "Turbos" engine praorm, 
Radio Shack Mouse & Zebra 2068 Graphics Tablet, 


2068 
Wrap 
Disk 


"lollipops" prorm, Gamesmate fix, Joystick 
Around prorm, 2068 Labelmaker prorm, Portuguese 
Drive for 2068, 2048 Machine Code Tutor review, 


2068 05-44 review, 20668 Rainbow Plus emulator 
review, Spectrum "Astronomer" review 
Time Designs Mar/Apr ‘864 Vol 2, No. 3S 


Frogramming in QL SuperBASIC, QL "Graphi@QL" review, 
"Of Strings and Things" TS1000, ZBO Machine Code I, 
2966 Tasprint & Aerco printer I/F, 20468 Phone # 
prorm, Convert WC2050 Modem to RS-2232 I/F, How to 
connect with BBS, 2068 Burglar Alarm, HI Res/64 col 
utility 2068, Oliger 2068 Disk I/F review, 2068 
"ARTIST" review, Top-10 2068/Spectrum prorms, Mini 
amp for Spectrum SW 





A a 
VOL Pou 


(ine 
DaiCny 







maf soo 


Time Designs May/June “86 
Five TS1000 tips, Printer tips, improve Zebra 
Graphics Tablet, NEWS: Amstrad Buys Sinclair, TS 
Computerfest Report, User Group Update, 640K OL 
upgrade, QOL "Qspell" review, TS1000 Consentration 
game, TS1000 progrm chaining I, Z80 Mchn Code II, 
2068 Cassette Directory prorm, 2068 header reading 
w/ Mchn Code, 2068 Cavern game, Moving an AROS 
cartridge to FD-68, Adding a Spectrum/2068 joystick, 
More on Oliger Disk I/F, 2048 Pro/File Extentions 
review, 2068 "Address Book" review 


Vol 2, No. 4 


Time Designs July/Aug ‘84 Vol 2, No. 53 
Sinclair Micro Update, Meet the OL Clones, 
Time Designs Acquires 5.U.M., @L Game reviews: 
(Matchpoint, Chess, War in the East, Wanderer, 
Squadrons & Hyperdrive), QL "Cosmos" review, TS1000 
External Keyboard Buffer, TS1000 Digital Clock, 
TS1000 prgrm chaining II, 780 Mcehn Code III, 2068 
Bankswitching “Missing 253", Embellishing 2068 MTERM 
Il, 2068 Ultra-Easy Designer Graphics, 2048 "Poly- 
scroll" prorm, 2068 Video file prorm, Datagen 2068 
DATA statement prarm, 2068 Ski game, 2068 Tasword 
Word Count addition, 2068 "MacIntosh" Menu, 2068 
Sound Synthesizer review, Spectrum "Saboteur"review, 
2068 "Colonize the Universe" review 





Time Designs 


Sept/Oct 
Sir Clive’s Confessions, User Group Update, "Light 


Vol 2, No.6 

Show 2000" 2068 prgrm, 2068 Pixel Sketch & Graphics 
Editor review, 2068 Timachine Compiler review, 
Larken TS1000 Disk I/F review, TS1000 7X-CALC + 
R.F.R.G. review, 2068 Bank switching: more about 
missing 253, 2068 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe prgrm, GL Peintre 
review, QL,s U.S.A. future, QL Graphic/CAD Systems 
review, ZBO Mchn Code IV, TS1000 Pragrm Chaining III, 
Upgrading TS10146 RAM to 64K 


SOFTWARE IN REVIEW 
SMART TEXT TS-2068 





A warm grin began to pass over my face late last 
night. In my mind's eye I could see a little light bulb 
beginning to glow dimly in the cartoon balloon above my 
head. 

I was curled up with a good book, uh manual. After 
my second reading of this thirty page treatise and three 
sessions with the two hour electronic introduction to 
the program, the concepts by which it functioned were 
finally beginning to fall into place. I was becoming a 
cursor instead of a curser. 

"SMART TEXT TS-2068" is Bill Jones' effort to 
create an AppleWorks environment for your TS-2068. The 
package includes a text editor and manager integrated 
with a small mailing list routine. Other convenient 
features are printer formatting for a variety of utili- 
tarian purposes and in a variety of type styles. 
The $39.95 price tag makes SMART TEXT one of the more 
expensive programs available for the 2068. The pro- 
gramming and memory saving tricks alone seem to justify 
the cost. In addition to some valuable techniques in 
data management, you can also perform some useful tasks 
with SMART TEXT. 

Of the programming tricks mentioned, three are 
Significant. The first is the routine that manages text 
entry. The character code of the keystroke is checked 
for validity. This approach is preferable to use of the 
INKEYS function. It allows, from BASIC, a typing speed 
of 100 words per minute, according to the manual. Read 
this as you would a mileage claim on a car window 
sticker. 

SMART TEXT makes extensive use of memory saving 
techniques we learned in our TS 1000 days. Two old 
standards are employed by SMART TEXT to include within 
the software as many functions as possible while still 
retaining enough memory for a decent amount of text 
storage. 

One of these is the use of letter variables to 
represent often used numbers, including program line 
numbers. "Pseudo Hex" is a term coined by Bill Jones to 
refer to his assigning of the variables oo, oa, ob, ect. 
to represent the numbers 0, 1, 2, ect. Another memory 
saver is the use of logical operators in long single 
program lines to replace the need for many lines to act 
on menu choices. Bill calls the technique "Dense Pack 
BASIC". 

SMART TEXT functions are many, varied, and utili- 
tarian. This software appears to have been developed by 
a "user", first for himself, and now for others. There 
are so many choices not offered in other word processors 
that it will take the new user a good number of hours to 
appreciate the alternatives presented by this text 
editor and manager. 

The first and most basic function is typing. Like 
other word processors, SMART TEXT allows you to delete 
mistakes and to retype. You can also insert new text be- 
tween already typed words. Entire blocks of text can be 





10 


deleted and inserted. Additional text can be appended to 
the original, and the whole text file can be saved. 
Pretty standard stuff. 

Unlike other word processors I have seen, SMART 
TEXT allows you to print what you have just typed with- 
out having to make a lot of decisions about how the 
printer should format the output. The text you've en- 
tered is quickly printed perfectly centered on the page 
in any print style but without any embedded printer 
commands. 

The secret to this "smart typewriter" mode is the 
fact that you have already spent some time explaining to 
SMART TEXT the various commands your printer requires to 
enable and disable any special modes or pitches. 

Program lines must be revised, within the guide- 
lines of the Oliger protocol, to set up your printer's 
various capabilities. I altered the review copy to re- 
flect the pica, elite, condensed, and proportional 
pitches available on my Prowriter as well as its bold 
print and double width modes, 

SMART TEXT automatically calculates the maximum 
length of a text line in the selected pitch or mode. It 
asks you what length line you want to print. Then it 
calculates the correct margins and adjusts accordingly. 

One of the reasons my hair is grey is the time I've 
spent calculating margins for center printing different 
print pitches and widths. Embedded commands that are 
counted in some word processors and not counted in 
others have driven me to considerable distraction. No 
longer. 

In addition to printing text centered on the page, 
SMART TEXT provides the capabilities of center printing 
captions and letter heads, flush left printing of 
addresses and salutations for business-like letters, and 
automatic formatting and printing of the signature block 
of a letter. 

Printing form letters to different people is accom- 
plished by the integration -of a small mailing list. 
Twenty-four records can be added, displayed, corrected, 
deleted, and saved. 

Mailing labels or form feed envelopes can be 
printed. The mailing list is also used to "personalize" 
form letters with the first name of the recipient. A 
comma should be appended to the first name field, since 
the software does not include it. 

In addition to letter formatting, SMART TEXT TS- 
2068 assists with the printing of manuscripts, documents 
other than letters. The document can be printed with 
justified or non-justified right margins, with the first 
line of each paragraph indented or with the entire 
paragraph in block form, and with entire paragraphs 
block indented with properly adjusted margins. 

The key to the preparation of manuscripts is the 
concept of the paragraph. SMART TEXT is set up to store 
discrete paragraphs in separate elements of two string 
arrays. It can alternately be organized to store con- 


tinuous text in three large strings. When one string is 
filled, the text automatically moves into the next con- 
secutive string. 

Discrete paragraphs are stored in the HS and IS 
arrays. The dimension of the elements in the arrays is 
user slected. The maximum is about 850 characters each. 
Ideally the text stored in these paragraphs has already 
been edited and does not need to be changed. 

Continuous text is stored in the A, B, and C 
"banks". Any of these banks can be reviewed and edited 
via menu selections. The user can selectively copy a 
portion of one of these banks to another string (LS), 
called "The Paragraph". 

This storage area can be altered or appended fore 
and aft. These editing functions can occur even if you 
are currently entering new text into the typing buffer 
(US). 

Prior to any editing action, any text that may be 
currently in the typing buffer is temporarily "set 
aside" into and S$ storage area. The text to be edited 
is then placed into the typing buffer for viewing or 
alteration. When the editing is completed, all the text 
is automatically restored to its former position. 

When all your text has been edited and ready for 
printing, you have a veritable plethora of printing 
sequences from which to choose. The text may have been 
stored in up to twenty different positions. User alter- 
able program lines determine which text is printed and 
in which order. 

Repeat printing functions take care of the number 
of copies and the page formatting. Fifty-four lines are 
printed per page, the pages are automatically numbered, 


MUSICIAN ROYAL 


MUSICIAN ROYAL is one of the most recent programs 
released for the 2068. Written by Dr. Oleg D. Jefimenko 
and sold by Electret Scientific Company, it proves to be 
one of the more comprehensive music programs available. 

One of the most useful features of the program is 
the ability to transcribe already written music into the 
computer and have it play it back to you using the 
BEEP command. Even though only one voice is available, 
the control over the parameters makes up for it. 

The play options allow you to change the key in 
which the composition is played, the tempo can be 
changed as well as the order in which the song(s) can be 
played. The editing features allow you to change any 
possible errors. 

The tape comes with three programs as well as a 
demo program with six compositions already transcribed 
and ready to play. The first program is the actual 
transcribing program where you are greeted by a screen 
that asks you for the name of your composition and the 
number of sharps or flats contained in your selection. 
You are then greeted with a musical staff with notes and 
their respective pitch (several octaves worth) graph- 
ically pictured on the screen. A prompt with several 
different menu choices are also displayed. You enter the 
notes one at a time adding the inflections (sharp, flat 
or natural) as needed. The treble clef is displayed but 
you can change it up or down an octave and also the same 
can be done with the bass clef. 

Next you enter the value of the note for the time 
Signature (whole, half, quarter note, ect.). At the end 
of each measure, you can enter a Q which is an aid when 
going back and editing. A duplicate function is also 
available when you have two groups of notes that are in 
the same order which really saves some typing. Entering 
Z allows you to correct your last entry. 

With a printer (TS 2040) attached, the information 
is printed as it is entered so as to see where you are 
and to make it easy when looking for entry errors. Once 
the transcribing is completed, you have the option of 


pie | 





and form feeds are sent at the appropriate times. 
make yourself a cup of coffee. 

My Aerco Disk version of SMART TEXT makes excellent 
use of those areas of DOS which have been implemented 
and works around those that have not. A lengthy tutorial 
is included. 

The tutorial is filled with bells and whistles that 
tended to get on my nerves after a while. A list of the 
clever graphics and sounds is provided by. the tutorial 
to serve a reference for the use of these techniques in 
your own programming. 

The tutorial and the software are both tributes to 
the fact that the BASIC syntax checker of our Timex 
Sinclair computer will not forgive misspellings and 
grammatical errors except in "Print" statements. This 
untidiness detracts from the cosmetic appearance of the 
software, although it does not affect its usefulness. 

SMART TEXT is available for cassette users in both 
32 column and OS-64 versions. A&J Micro Drive, Aerco 
Disk, and Oliger Disk versions are also available. 
Aerco, A&J, Tasman, and Oliger printer interfaces are 
supported. Specify version. 

SMART TEXT is $39.95 and is available from Bill 
Jones, Gulf Micro Electronics, 1317 Stratford Ave., 
Panama City, FL 32404. Bill welcomes your comments and 
questions. Call him after 6 pm local time at (904) 9871- 
4513. You'll enjoy the experience. 


Go 


-—-Duncan Teague 





playing, SAVEing, LPRINTing, or editing. You 
play as written, or in any order you wish, 
ually repeat itself. 

The manual is very well written and leads you 
through the program carefully. The second chapter is de- 
voted to those with very little background in music. It 
gives you a crash course in music notation and what all 
"all them little symbols mean". 

The second program on the tape is called MUSIC BOX 
and it allows you to take the music transcribed in 
MUSICIAN ROYAL and collect them. Each MUSIC BOX that you 
make can hold up to 8 compositions with up to 1500 notes 
(total) in the first seven and 1500 notes in the eighth 
composition. MUSIC BOX is easily filled by loading in 
data saved from MUSICIAN ROYAL. A table of contents 
helps you keep track of what is stored already. 

MUSIC ALBUM is called the “ultimate procram" for 
collecting and playing compositions transcribed in 
MUSICIAN ROYAL. It can hold up to 2000 notes total in 8 
compositions. You have the most control over the tonal- 
ity of each composition. You can have the slections play 
in any order, control the tempo, and control the dur- 
ation of the pauses between compositions. 


have it 


can 
or contin- 


The programs all have certain safeguards built in, 
but are all easy to convert to mass storage such as disk 
drives. Large printer drivers are also easily added. 

All in all, the program is very professionally done 
from the packaging to the 75 page manual which comes 
with it. I had no problem loading the tape and my order 
was delivered within three weeks of placing the order by 
letter. 

Needless to say, I was disappointed that it only 
used the BEEP command. I remember that I was so excited 
when I saw the ad and ordered it thinking "Great! A 
decent looking SOUND program has finally been written 
for the 2068". At least I assumed it used SOUND. Because 


SPRITES 2068 


Sprites, for those of you unfamiliar with them, are 
very simply User Defined Graphics (UDG's) which are 
capable of moving about the screen. Aside from movement, 
one large difference from regular UDG's is that sprites 
are normally larger than a single character space. A 
good example of a sprite, is the ghouls and goblins that 
appear on the screen of most arcade games. 

SPRITES 2068 is a sprite development and handler 
package. Those of you that have the TDM Technical Manual 
will note that there is an appendix, number C-5, devoted 
to this subject. This program is none other than this 
same code. 

SPRITES 2068 co-authors Tidwell and Ruegg have "de- 
bugged" the Timex sprite package code. This was no small 
task as I had tackled this myself and found many "bugs". 
They have also enhanced the original package with the 
addition of an automatic RAMTOP setter and additional 
screen attribute capabilities. 

Having the Timex sprite service code is of no use 
however, if you cannot interface a program with it. 
Therein lies the true value in this package as Tidwell 
and Ruegg have prepared a comprehensive manual and a 
very mice Basic program to demonstrate the sprite 
packages' abilities. The user manual is clear and easy 
to understand. They have assumed you know nothing on the 
subject, yet, have not "talked down" to the advanced 
programmer. 

Authors, Tidwell and Ruegg have included in the 
manual, a section on machine code interfacing. This 
section is the poorest part of the manual, but if you 
can write machine code programs, you will not suffer for 
it. They have thoughtfully listed all of the variables 
and a memory map, and of course...you already have your 
own copy of the Technical Manual to go by. 

And as if all of that were not enough, there is 
also a very nice UDG development tool included with the 
Basic demo program. This could be used alone to aid in 
the addition of UDG's to your programs. It allows the 
Gesign of each UDG in enlarged format and then displays 
the UDG in normal size, as it would appear on your 
screen. It will also display a group of UDG's, 8 across 
by 8 down, to view your sprite (or a portion of it) as 
it will appear. 

SPRITES 2068 will allow up to 256 sprites, each one 
up to 256 by 256 characters. In practice however, you 
will find the constraints of memory size will not allow 
for this. The invisible wall, RAMTOP, will not interfere 
with your use of sprites, as there is enough memory in 
the 2068 for most all the sprites you will want to use. 

The smallest sprite possible is one character space 
(8 by 8 pixels), due to the use of the UDG's as designed 
by Timex. This means that your sprites will require some 
thought as you can only use two colors in each character 
space. Also, movement of the sprites can appear “blinky" 
if there is too much going on in your program. 

There are vertical and horizontal screen scrolls in 


SPRITES 2068, however, they too use the character space 


le 


of this, I think the $20 price tag is a bit steep. It 
would be well worth it if it used SOUND with all of the 
features it contains. Hopefully Dr. Jefimenko will come 
out with a sequel using all four voices. 

The program is available from Electret Scientific 
Company, PO Box 4132, Star City, WV 26505 for $20. If 
you would like a sample of what you can expect, (a nice 
courtesy) they will send you the DEMO ALBUM for $3 which 
will be subtracted from the $20 if you do decide to 
order the whole program. 


——Joe Williamson 






An animated sprite display 
from the demo program 
of SPRITES 2068. 





as the smallest unit of measure. They can be combined to 
create a scroll in eight different directions. The 
scrolls, as well as the sprites should really be ad- 
dressed on a pixel-by-pixel basis. However, it appears 
that Timex never intended us to have that kind of con- 
trol from the "normal" video mode. 

SPRITES 2068 is a crude sprite package BUT it is 
the ONLY one available for the Timex Sinclair 2068. If 
you are accustomed to the graphics abilities of other 
computers, such as Commodore or Atari machines, you 
might be a little disappointed. Keep in mind, however, 
that those computers were initially designed to play 
games and therefore, have sprite capabilities as part of 
their operating systems. 

I found SPRITES 2068 to be an excellent "starter" 
package. If you want to include sprites in your own 
programs, you will find this utility very easy to use. I 
would suggest that you do follow the user manual's 
suggestion of programming in small blocks, as you must 
be very careful to maintain control over what is happen- 
ing on the screen. This control is needed due to SPRITES 
2068 use of the Attr-P system variables instead of 
Attr-T. With some careful planning, you will be amazed 
at the results you can accomplish. 

Tidwell and Ruegg deserve a big hand for their 
thorough treatment of sprites. They have taken the Timex 
sprite routines and explained them to us in laymans 
terms. 

Price for the SPRITES 2068 development package on 
cassette, complete with a comprehensive 34 page manual, 
and an educational (and entertaining) demo program, is 
$19 ppd. It is available directly from the authors (Vern 
Tidwell- 1303 Whitehead St., Key West, FL 33040 or Ron 
Ruegg- 37529 Perkins Road, Prairieville, LA 70769) and 
some Timex dealers handle it also. 


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Controller Boards for 2POEE 


Feotures Common to Both 


- LDOS on Eprom supports Basic Programs, Code blocks and Arrays 
- Commands sre-DIRECTORY LOAD, SAVE,FORMAT, DELETE and EXIT 
- Up to 52 files per disk - Directory is DOS maintained 


- Coan be modified to work on either computer (eprom and cable req) 
- The most Powerful DOS for the ZX-81 : Very User Friendly 
- 2066 version is Spectrum Emulator Compatible: Extra commands 
- Requires double sided 5.25" drive 60 day money back guarantee 
Prices: $95.00(US) for single dive $99.00 for | or? drives 
$400 for drove cable (all other cables included) 
include $5.00 shipping : Send certified cheque or MO. 
To - LARKEN ELECTRONICS 
RR#? NAVAN ONTARIO 
CANADA E4B-1H9 


(specify 2X-B81 or 2068) 














For wrour 2x81 /TS 


KALEIDOSCOPE 


A Superior Version Of This 


“Dildo Standara™ 
16005 And 15800 


By feck Xewier Haqueér 


Many "Kaleidoscope" programs have appeared over the 
years. These simple, but fascinating graphics displays 
have been adapted to virtually every computer ever 
built. The ZX81/TS family is no exception. Unfortun- 
ately, since the Z80 CPU in these machines is (effec- 
tively) clocked at only .5 mHZ in SLOW mode, the result 
is rather slow and BO-RING. Type in the program Listing 
#1 (BASIC prototype), and you'll see what I mean. 

Now, let's take essentially the same program and 
write it in Z80 machine code. For a graphic demonstra- 
tion (pun intended) of the speed and compactness of code 
»+.-Start by entering a 1 REM line, followed by 172 X's 
or other character. (HINT: use FAST mode.) Now enter the 
rest of Listing #2 (machine code loader). RUN the pro- 
gram, and input the values given in Table #1 (decimal 
machine code). Go from left to right, top to bottom. 
Take your time, and proof each number before you enter 
it. 

When you're done, your 1 REM line will look like 
sheer nonsense. Don't worry about that; just check it 
against the 1 REM in listing #3 to make sure it's the 
same. Enter lines 2-6 of Listing #3, overwriting the 
loader. Delete lines 7 and 8. SAVE to tape with RUN 5. 
The program will auto-run when the save is finished. 
WOW! Press BREAK when you're adequately hypnotized. 

Line 2 contains the fill characters used for the 
display. Change this however you see fit: there is no 
limit on length. HINT: use symmetrical characters, like 
O, *, =, +, the grey squares, spaces, and their in- 
verses, 

This will run on 2k machines if you modify the 
BASIC portion as shown in listing #4 (2k changes). This 
is because this program relies on a fully padded-out 
display file. 

If you're interested in studying the machine code, 
use a disassembler or HOT Z to take a look at the code. 
As mentioned, it pretty much follows the structure of 
the BASIC prototype, so you should have little trouble 
finding your way around. the code from 408Fh to 49B4h 
gets pseudo-random numbers in B and C. Next are two ways 
of implementing a modulo function. At 40B5, C is reduced 
mod 16 (exact power of 2), and at 40BD B is reduced mod 
12 (mot a power of two). The CALLs to 40F6, 40FB, 4100, 
4105 and 410A correspond with the BASIC GOSUBs to 250, 
300, 350, 400 and 1000, respectively. The routine at 
410A is a “print at BC" routine which is MUCH faster 
than the comparable ROM call to O8F5 followed by RST 
10h. It prints the character pointed to by CH ADD at row 
B, column C. NOTE: it does NOT check for over-range. 

The next time some smart-aleck ribs you about your 
"slow" ZX/TS, boot this program and watch his jaw sag. 
Isn't this fun? 


LISTING 3: M/C KALEIDOSCOPE 


1 REM JNINKEYS$<¢, RETURN 
A487 -RND)I? GOSUB ?MRND™?7LN e< 
FAST ?77LN =iAT Tek" « 77HRK® O7FEHR 
ND?7ACS Tacs Tacs TACS Teresi 
IF 7TVUAL LN PLOT RNDLN INKEY4SLN 
“INKEY $AT VAL LN PLOT RNDLN § INK 
EYS$LN “INKEYSAT VAL LN CLS RNODLN 
INKEYS$SLN “INKEYSAT LN CLS RNDL 
BINKEYSLN “INKEYSLN 77 AN Y¥¢ 
OOTAN ¥ (BBY RAND Y2SBCTAN Yf™iy RAN 
D E£LRND7VVAL : ACS SACS ;ACS SACS 
;ACS SACS ;eAT 72 7m GOSUB 7-R 
ND,ACS 3 Ae 


SLoU 

RAND USR 16514 
SAVE “KSCOPE” 
RUN 












nue wn 


13 


LISTING 1: BASIC Prototype 


10BLET Fs="i Saye 
20 POKE 16418.0 
30 LET POINT=0 _ 
40 LET POINT=POINT41 | 

SQ IF POINT>LEN F§ THEN GOTO 3 


60 LET AS=FS (POINT) 
70 LET B=INT (RND#12) 
S60 LET C=INT (RND#16) 
90 GOSUB 250 

100 GOSUB 3590 

110 GOSUB 1809 

120 GOSUB 250 

13Q@ GOSUB 489 


on 





1010 RETURN 


LISTING 2: Machine-code Loader 


1 REM XXXXXXMMMMXMRRMK RRM MERE 
KM MMMM MMMM RM MM ME KM KK KOK 
x MXM XMM MK MMM MM MMR MMM MRK MMMM KM 
KM KAKA KKK KK A KKK KAKA ARK AKA KKK KKK 
XMM MMMM MRM MMMM MMMM RMR KKK 
XK KKK KKK KKK KKK KKK KKK 

FAST 

FOR A=16514 TO 16665 

| L 


E A,6 
PRINT A, PEEK A 
NEXT A 


ayaaFoN x 
te | 
Iz 
a 
Ce 
a 
~ © 


TABLE 1: Machine-code Decimal Data 


af: oa: 683: if: fei e Bias 40; 
2e47:237: 83: @2: 64: 17: : a: 
237: 735: 53@: 64: =: 98 104 205: 

9: 19:229: 98:105:205 19: 
193:124:129: 468: : 4:103:125: 
144 46 1 or:i111: 43 od 50: 

64 69 *6:203: S7:203 S7:203: 

S7:203: S7 6: 12:184: 56 i 
ddd: 24:2590: 71:197:205:246: 64: 
205 ©: 65:205: 10: 65:193: 197: 
205:246: 64:e205: 5: 65:205: 16: 

65:193:197:205:251: 64:205 Q: 

65:205: 18a 5:193:205:251: 64: 
205 S: 65:205: 10: 65:205: 720: 

15 S6:i44:201 62 16:i29 79: 
201: 62: 16:145: 24:249: 62: 12: 
128: 71:201: 62: 12:144: 24:249: 

42 12 64 wo:i197 14 @:203: 

56:203: 25:203: 5S6:203: 25:203: 

56:203: 25 9:193:120:129 6: 

7 23/7: Si: 22: 64: 26: 


LISTING 4: 2K Changes 


3 SLOU 

4 POKE 16418, 

= FoR a=o TS 23 

5 PRINT AT A,31;" " 
7 NEXT A 

3 POKE 16418,2 

3 RAND USR 16514 

18 SAVE “KSCGPE2K” 
11 RUN 


| VERN TIDWELL OR RON RUEGG 


SPRITES 2068 






FANTASTIC NEW PROGRAM! Exciting & Educational 


You’ve heard of SPRITES. Explore the subject. 
Create Moving Displays and Games. Buy a copy 
for your TS-2068, they belong together. 





FEATURES: 
SPRITE SERVICE UTILITY (2520 Bytes IMPROVED 
professionally written machine code) 
SPRITEDRAW Program (Great NEW program makes | 
drawing a SPRITE both fun and easy) 
Operate from BASIC (Utilizes a Machine Code 
Interface. Twelve SPRITE Commands) 
Operate from Machine Language (VERY QUICK 
Screen Action! Bonus MCSPRITES program) 
Cassette Tape (Includes demonstrations and 
instructions. Menu driven. Fun to watch) 
Manual (34 pages written in "user friendly” 
style for all programmers) 










Authors INTRODUCTORY SPECIAL Includes Postage | 
| To ORDER: Send Check or Money Order $19.00 To 





1303 Whitehead St. 37529 Perkins Road 
| Key West, FL 33040 Prairieville, LA 70769 }¥ 


"Il heave seen SPRITES 2066. I Have read it and |] heave tested it; 
and I cannot say enough good about it If I had to sum it all | 
up, I'd sey that if you HAVE sa TS-2066, SPRITES 20668." If 

Uneolicited Testisonial ' r* 






79 





C. W. Associates 
419 N. Johnson Street 
Ada, Ohio 45810 








Ne 
s ~s = — 
ee et i 
ets Ses2=D 
ib = v ba — 
~—s— : 
o's? -- @'@, 2 — ~~ = 
SOE es 
Sh SE 
+. 
=1,1 


—_ 













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Write or Call: 
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DEVELOPMENT Chome of the PIXEL SKETCH and GRAPHICS EDITOR v2.0 
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THE TRACER 
A NEW PROGRAMMING UTILITY FOR YOUR 248! 


This little package allows to SEE WHAT YOUR 
PROGRAM IS DOING! Ina ine being able to watch the 
program lines go by at the bottom of the screen as the 
display continues unaffected (other than the speed)! 
A GREAT LEARNING TOOL!! 


You can see what each command does! What better way to 
learn the basics Hag itate ’ 


YOU SET THE SPEED! AS SLOW OR AS FAST AS YOU LIKE! 
SIMPLE COMMANDS - ONLY 3 OF THEM! 


We think that TRACER is the best Learning and de- 
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it is INTERUPT driven! 


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AT ONLY $14. 955+$1.5¢ph 
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Presents the 26,8 


CHECK EPOOK /BUDGET Master 


The CHECKBOOK/BUDGET MASTER is a checkbook database program and 
8 powerful home or business budget analysis progrem in one 
compact/lightning Fast program. CBBN was written in BASIC and 
compiled with the TIMACHINE Cby Novelsoft) Basic Compiler! 


Program Specification: 

Datebeses holds 600 checks (withdrawl or deposits) 
Check Receall/Review by: Check Number, Month, Paid To 
Functions: REVIEW, LPRINT, DELETE, SUBTOTAL ¢+ or -) 


Budget Analysis: 14% User Defined Categories + 2 
Ceach category has 4 sliases) 


Assign 3 Budget to each category (for each month) 


Automatically tallies EXPENDITURES as checks are filed 
end INCOME es deposits are Filed! 


Update feature: change categories at any time, use the 
UPDATE command to re-catalog checkbook Files 


OUTPUT: Tabulec or Graphic format 
2040 printer or essy Full size printer mod. 





Budget 
Darina Cetagariana 


Sonat st Busgtres 
ef 







,  Silaectirie 
Renta Grant Budget 


a 



































For a practical demonstration of a chained program, 
using the Above RAMTOP method of passing data from one 
module to another, I have chosen one consisting of three 
modules. A module to set RAMTOP ("RT"), a text entry 
module ("TE"), and a text LPRINT module ("PRT"). The 
program will allow you to enter, store above RAMTOP and 
print out a set of lines consisting of 32 characters per 
line. The number of lines in a set is available as 


follows? veer Ran LINES PER SET 
ne Ai 
meee 489 
nol 1001 
48K i513 


With a full 64k memory, the 8k area between the ROM and 
the system variables area is available and the program 
could be modified to store an additional 256 lines per 
set. 

In addition to the computer, a tape recorder, and a 
TS2040 or equivalent 32 column printer, you will need 
two tapes. Optionally, one of these can be a_ telephone 
answering machine message cassette tape--either 60 sec. 
(RS #43-406) or 3 min. (RS #43-407)-—-price: $4.95 each. 
These are both endless loop tapes. If you plan on adding 
more modules to the program, then purchase the 3 minute 
tape. I have not found a supplier for a longer endless 
tape. 

Figure No.1 is the program listing for the "RT" 
module that sets RAMTOP to address 17096. Line lis set 
up to receive a four byte machine code routine to be 
POKEd by lines 14] to 144, which are then deleted. Line 
10 makes the module self running when the program is re- 
corded with the direct command: GOTO 10. Line 20 pre- 
vents a TV interupt from occuring during the execution 
of the program. Lines 30 and 40 POKE the desired address 
of RAMTOP into the system variable RAMTOP. Lines 50 thru 
80 POKE the four addresses under the desired address of 
RAMTOP with the decimal values that must normally be 
there (except after a GOSUB and before a RETURN) for the 
computer to operate properly. Lines 90 and 100 POKE the 
system variable ERR_ SP with the address in line 80 
(i.e.; the addresses of the first item on the new 
Machine Stack). Line 110 calls the machine code routine 
that is POKEd into the REM statement (Line 1) by lines 
141 to 144. Line 120 in conjunction with 140 activates 
the actual resetting of RAMTOP to the desired address. 
Line 130 automatically loads the next self running 
module if the tape is not stopped. Unfortunately, there 
is no provision in Sinclair BASIC by which you can 
directly address any of the Z80 internal registers. You 
must resort to machine code and the USR_ function. 
Looking on the left side of page 138 in the TS 1000 or 
page 142 in the TS 1500 User Manuals, you will find that 


15 





the Z80 assembler language mnemonic corresponding to the 
decimal value 49 in line 141 is ld sp,NN. This means 
load the machine stack pointer registers S and P with 
the address represented by the values stored in the next 
two addresses (low byte then high byte). In this case 
the values 196 and 66 POKEd into addresses 16515 and 
16516 by lines 142 and 143. Locating decimal code 201 in 
the same appendix, you will find that it stands for ret 
(return). In this case, this returns you to the next 
line of the BASIC program after the USR function. I hope 
you noticed that I did not need to use the word hexa- 
decimal until now. Dr. Ian Logan, the leading authority 
on the Sinclair ZX, T1TS1000/1500, and Spectrum ROM, 
states in his book, UNDERSTANDING YOUR 2ZX8l: "The 
principal behind Hex coding is once again very simple, 
but it takes a very long time to become fluent in its 
use, and even programmers of some years experience still 
have trouble". Because of the interference with the ex- 
isting GOSUB and machine stacks, RAMTOP must be moved 
down a minimum of sixty addresses or up a least two 
addresses using this routine. 

Figure No.2 is the listing for the text entry 
("TE") module. The program is designed to use as little 
display as posssible, in order to be able to store more 
text. Top Down programming was not used in order to 
locate the text entry loop at the front of the program, 
adding to the entry speed of text. For the same reason, 
some memory saving techniques are not used in some 
places of lines 20 through 80. The dimension for TS and 
the value of the variable B, are to be entered by direct 
commands prior to recording the program. The STOP in 
line 30 is typed using the shifted A key. 

Figure No.3 is the listing for the LPRINT module 
("PRT"). The programming is fairly straightforward. The 
dimension for AS and the value for the variable B are to 
be entered by direct commands before recording the 
module. 

As each of the modules will fit in lk of RAM, in 
order to save both loading time and tape, set RAMTOP to 
17408 before typing in each module. To do this’ enter: 

POKE 16388,0 

POKE 163897,68 

NEW 
I advise using a regular tape as a master, recording 
each module with the normal SAVE command before re- 
cording it on an operating tape using the GOTO command. 
Those who elected to use an endless tape as their op- 
erating must locate the place where the ends of the tape 
are spliced with a yellow strip. Never try to rewind an 
endless tape. The are designed to operate in one direc- 
tion only. Be sure you turn the sprocket in the correct 
direction when locating the yellow splice. After lo- 
cating the splice, make an audio recording, using the 
built-in mic, of one word only, such as "“start" or 
"one". This will make it easy to locate the splice again 
should you need to re-record the program. The three 
modules will just fit on a one minute endless tape with- 
out much to spare. 

Set RAMTOP to 17408 with the commands given above. 
Type in the listing of Figure No.l. After checking the 
program against the listing, record it on the master 
tape using SAVE "RT". Now use the command GOTO 141 which 
Will poke the machine code into the REM statement. 
Delete lines 141 to 144. Record the second version of 
the module on the master tape using the SAVE command. 
Without rewinding, remove the master tape from the re- 
corder, replacing it with the operating tape and re- 
cording the module using the command GOTO 10. When the 
diagonal LOAD command lines appear on the screen, stop 
the tape. Without rewinding, remove the operating tape, 
replacing it with the master. 

Again set RAMTOP to 17408. Type in the listing of 
Figure No.2. Check the program against the listing. 
Enter the direct commands: 


DIM T$(32) 
LET B= (as listed below) 


User RAM B 

2K RAM 18409 
16K RAM a2745 
uzkK RAM 49129 
48K RAM 65513 


Record this module on the master tape using SAVE "TE", 
then on the operating tape using GOTO 140. When STOP THE 


TAPE appears on the screen then stop the tape. Replace 
the operating tape with the master tape. 
As the TE module does not change RAMTOP, you can 


clear the program using NEW. Type in the listing in Fig- 
ure No. 3 for the "PRT" module. After checking for 
typing errors, enter the direct commands: 

DIM A$(1) 

LET B=(as listed above). 
Those using endless tape, replace REWIND TAPE in line 
100 with spaces. Save this module on the master tape 
using SAVE "PRT" then on the operating tape using GOTO 
10. When STOP TAPE appears on the screen, then stop. the 
tape. 


INPUT TS 
FOR N=il TO 


REM 1234 fee 


hd 
- = 


180 
33 ANY 
110 PAUSE VAL 


“2 
“6 
"6 
"2 
"6 
“3 
“s 
“6 


ies = 
= Go 


P TAPE 
160 PAUSE VAL 


ER TEXT” 
160 LET A=VAL 
1988 GOTO VAL 


POKE 16517,.201 
FIGURE NO. 1 





Understanding And Upgrading 


2. 
=" STOP “ 


POKE A,CODE Tsini 
LET A=A¢1 
IF - i =B THEN GOTO VAL “Se” 


er’ 


WAL 
AT SIN PI, ‘SIN Pi;,” 
KEY THEN START THRE” 
“32768" 


15a PRINT AT SIN PI,S5IN PI; " 


"120" 
170 PRINT AT SIN PI,SIN PI; 


“i7es?" 
t | 18” 


FIGURE NO. 





To operate the program, turn off the computer and 
then power up. Those not using endless tape must rewind 
the operating tape. Enter the direct command: LOAD "RT". 
Then start the tape. When the second module has loaded 
and STOP TAPE appears on the screen, stop the tape. When 
the cursor appears on the screen you can start typing in 
text. The left hand quote symbol marks the end of a 32 
character line. After checking the text, use the enter 
key. Corrections must be made before the enter key is 
pressed. Spaces to fill out a line need not be typed. 
Any characters over 32 will be dropped. To stop text 
entry use the shifted STOP on the A key as the first 
entry of the next line. Follow the directions on the 
screen to load the LPRINT module. After the text is 
printed you have the option of printing another copy or 
reloading the text entry module to enter a new set of 
text. 

In the CONCLUSION of this series, I will cover how 
the values for RAMTOP and for the variable B were de- 
termined. 


10 SAVE “PRT” 
rT AT SIN PI,SIN 


VAL "120 
aA Pr, SIN 


THEN GOTO 


LS 
IF Ag="N" THEN GOTO | 
IF Ag="¥" THEN GOTO VAL 


GOTO VAL "40" 
1@8 PRINT “REWIND TAFE,PRESS 
Y,START TAPE” 
11@ PAUSE UAL "32768" 
128 CLS 
13@ LOAD “TE” 
149 FOR N=VAL “17e97" To 
150 IF PEEK N=VAL "227" 
TO VAL “1380" 
160 LPRINT CHRS PEEK N; 
17@ NEXT 
180 LPRINT 
198 GOTO VAL “4a” 


B 
THEN & 


2 


FIGURE NO. 3 





The TS1016 RAM Pack 


by Tim Stoddard 


This is the second part on upgrading your TS 1016 
RAM Pack to 64k. Last issue we discussed the ins and 
outs of dynamic memory and how the Sinclair RAM Pack 
works. This issue it's time to warm up the soldering 
irons! 

Take a look at Fig.l. You'll note that the circuit 
schematic looks quite similar to the one in the last 
issue. There are, however, some significant differances. 
The biggest change is the addition of selection logic 
(the 74LS138, 74L5139). Missing is the noisy Dc to Dec 
converter that generated the +12 and -5 volt bias volt- 
ages needed by the older 16k DRAMS. 

Another more subtle change is the addition of the 
active low OR gate in address line 15. This brings up 
the unusual architecture used in the ZX/TS machine. The 
interupt routines in the Sinclair ROM ASSUME the display 
to be under the 32k boundry! So if y:ou add enough 
memory to extend beyond the 32k boundry and then in- 
itialize it, you will lose the display! To get around 
this problem we must force the memory to “look" like 
32k during an interupt cycle. This is done by oring Al5, 
the address bit that determines which 32k boundry were 
in, and Ml which occurs during an interupt cycle. Un- 
fortunately the Ml cycle also occurs during EVERY in- 
struction fetch. The effect of this is that you CAN NOT 
EXECUTE PROGRAMS ABOVE 32K. However, you CAN store data, 
such as a large array above the 32k boundry which is 
what most people want the extra memory for anyway...So, 
warm up the old soldering iron an let's go... 

The conversion is done in two steps and should take 
someone with "good" experience a weekend to complete. I 


16 


should point out at this time that neither myself not 
Time Designs Magazine is responsible for any damages 
caused to your RAM Pack or your computer by this modi- 
fication. THIS IS NOT A GOOD FIRST OR EVEN A TENTH 
PROJECT. You'll need experience in PCB repair and 
handling a low power soldering iron. I will assist any- 
one having trouble by either BBS communication (Compu- 
Serve ID 73127,2664; Zebra BBS ID "Tim"), or S.A.S.E. 
mail from you (85-48 66th Road, Rego Park, NY 11374). I 
would recommend, if your not too confident, that you 
purchase a 16k RAM Pack from Zebra Systems or other 
source, to modify. They are inexpensive (under $10) and 
Will allow you to use your ZX/TS while taking a break 
from the modifications. 

A WORD ABOUT STATIC ELECTRICITY: Very simply, it 
can destroy all the work you put into a project in just 
a few nano-seconds. Work on an anti-static mat. This can 
be a commercial item or a piece of aluminum foil. The 
idea is to keep you, the project, and anything that 
touches the project at the SAME POTENTIAL. Use an un- 
grounded tip type soldering iron. 


You'll need the following PARTS: 


(8) 4164 or equivalent 64K DRAMs 
(1) T4HCT138 or 74L5S138 

(1) ?V4HCT139 or 74L5139 

(1) T4HCTOO or 74LS00 

(8) 16 pin IC sockets 

(1) 1K 1/4 watt resistor 

(11) 184148 or 17914 diodes 





1) 


2) 


4) 


= 


6) 


7) 


8) 


1) 


2) 


3) 


4) 


ce 


6 


ta 


a 





You'll need the following TCOLS: 


23 watt soldering iron 

solder sucker/wick 

small wire cutters (Xcelite 73CG is ideal) 

small needle nose pliers (Xcelite 79CG is ideal) 

30 gauge wire-wrap wire 

20-24 gauge solid wire 

Dremel moto-tool with extra-small ball cutter or an Zacto 


knife 
Crazy glue @s) ‘ : 


solder Ts =c i 
Anti-static mat an > ‘Db, Wa 
FIVE VOLT DREAM CONVERSIONS 


Dissasemble the case on your anti-static mat. From this point on BE 
CAREFULL with the ribbon cable connecting the two PCBs, it is very 
easy to break a wire in it and not even know it ‘till you have 
powered up. 


Remove all componants from the DRAM PCB not marked in Illustration 
"A". Start with the small componants first by using the solder 
sucker/wick to remove the solder from the pad and then using the 
needle-nose pliers to work the wire loose. TAKE YOUR TIME! When you 
get to the DRAM ICs use this method: take the small wire cutters 
cut all the leads on one side of the IC close to the PCB, then bend 
the IC up then back & forth to break off the leads on the other 
side of the IC. Now use your solder sucker/wick to remove the 
solder and old IC lead from each of the pads. WORK VERY CAREFULLY 
HERE. DON'T LIFT ANY OF THE FOIL PATTERNS. Take a break after each 
DRAM removed.....you'll be rewarded with good clean job, and a ran 
pack that works! (GE) Tas 


Check the DRAM PCB for solder splashes, shorts, etc. At this point o) 1 
you should only have 6 de-coupling caps and 1 electrolytic cap left (%) Te 


on the board. (@) TA doe 








Install the eight 16 pin sockets in the DRAM locations placing pin as c 
1 toward the electrolytic cap. (ea) TH “edo 

Figure 1: Modified Sinclair RAM Pack Schematic 
Install jumper "A" where a cap used to be as shown in Illustration 
"A". This jumpers one of the multiplexed address lines to ground to 
make the ram pack a 16K version. This jumper will be removed later, 
after testing. 


Make the 3 cuts, and 3 adds as shown in Illustration "B". 


Carefully install the PCBs onto the computer (leaving them out of 
the case), and power up. If all is well you should get the usual 
“K" cursor in just a few seconds. Check to see if the ram was 
properly initalized by executing the following command: PRINT PEEK 
16388 + 256 * PEEK 16389. You should get 32768. If not re-check the 
above steps and find where you went wrong? 


This completes the 5 volt conversion step. 


SiIxtY FOUR K CONVERSIONS 


Illustration A: Component Side 


Your ram pack should be fully operational as a 16K pack using the 5 
volt only 64K DRAMS at this point. DO HOT CONTINUE ON UNTIL THIS IS 
TRUE. 


Perform the cuts and adds as shown in Illustrations "C" 4& "D". 
: as Peewouny cvT 
Take the three [Cs (74LS138,139,00) and bend all leads horizontal gg ft convenes) 
from the body except the power leads (pins 8,16 for the 74LS138,139 
and 7,14 for the 74L500). See Illustration "E”. 


Using Crazy glue, and working VERY FAST glue the 7415138, lining up 
the power leads on top of IC "A" the 74LS157 on the CONTROL PCB 
{the PCB with the connector on it). See Illustration "G" for IC 
identification. Next glue the 74LS139 lining up the power leads 
again to the 7415136 just glued on. Finally glue the 74L500, lining 
up it's pin 14 to the 74L5139's pin 16. 


Carefully bend back pin 7 on the T4LS00 (top of IC stack) so that 
it touches pin 6 of the 74L5139 under it. After insuring all the 
power leads are lined-up and touching, solder them. Check with 
Illustration “E". 





cowreon §=PCR BAG-SIce 
e ' 
Using Illustration "F" and 30 gauge wire-wrap wire: Illustration C: Cuts 


ih 


Illustration D: Adds 


7) 


8) 


9) 


10) 


11) 


12) 


ADD WIRE FROM HERE TO HERE 


74LS500, PIN 3 74LS138, PIN 3 
74L5138, PIN 14 74L5139, PIN 15 
MREQ on connector 74L5138, PIN 4 
74L5138, PIN 6 74L5138, PIF 5 
74L5138, PIN 16 74L5138, PIN 6 
Al4 on connector 74L5138, PIN 2 
Al3 on connector 74L5138, PIN 1 
Ml on connector 74LS00, PIN 5 
A15 on connector 74LS00, PIN 4 
74L500, PIW 6 74L500, FINS 1&2 
Al2 on connector 74LS139, PIN 13 
All on connector 74LS139, PIN 14 


Add a prepared diode with the anode soldered to pin 15 of the 


74L5138. Then add a 30 gauge wire from ROMCS on the connector to 
the cathode of this diode. 


Add five prepared diodes with the cathodes soldered to pins 
9,10,11,12,& 13 of the 74LS138. Then add a NOR-PREPARED diode with 
the cathode soldered to pin 7 of the 74L5138. Bring the diode 
around the IC “stack” and line up it's anode with the other 5 
diodes. solder all six anodes forming a “buss". See [Illustration 
biel ind ! 

Next solder a 1K resistor from pin 16 of the 74L5138 (+5 volts) to 
the "anode buss". 


Add diodes in the following table for each of the 2K blocks of 6K 
"hidden" area that you want to use. 


RAM AREA RANGE CATHODE TO PIW OF 74L5139 
6192 to 10239 12 

10240 to 12287 11 

122868 to 14335 10 

14356 to 16383 9 


Tie the anodes of any of the diodes used above to the 
"anode buss". 


Add wire from the "anode buss” to pins 9 & 10 of the 
74LS00. Then add a wire from pin & of the 74L500 to the pad 
shown in Illustration "G" (this pad runs to pin 5 of the 
74LS00 IC "F" on the CONTROL PCB. 


Remove jumper "A" in Illustration "A". 


Plug the ram pack onto the computer and power up. If all is well 
you should get your "K" cursor. Execute: PRINT PEEK 16388 + 256 * 
PEEK 16389. This should give you 32768. If this works enter the 
following command lines one at a time: (1) POKE 16388,255 (2) POKE 
16389,255 (3) NEW (4) PRINT PEEK 16388 +256 * PEEK 16389. You 
should now get 65535! indicating that the entire ram is now 
initalized and ready for use. 


re-assemble the PCBs back into the case and re-test as above. This 
completes the conversion. 


OPTIONS: You can use the internal RAM socket via 
the RAM Pack selection logic. This is where I placed my 
ZX-LRS ROM for high speed cassette access. The cuts for 
this option are shown in illustration "C", and the adds 
are shown in Illustration "D". Those cuts and adds just 
isolate the RAMCS pin on the connectior from the +5 volt 
buss it was normally connected to (the RAM Pack normally 
disables the internal 2k RAM). Illustration "F" then 
shows where to connect the wire to use the RAMCS pin to 
enable the internal RAM socket. Note that you could use 
any of the 2k selection blocks from the 74L5139 chip. 
See the schematic (Fig.1). 

Another great option is the ability to change the 
configuration of the RAM Pack via a DIP switch. On one 
of my prototypes, I installed a DIP switch to allow en- 
abling or disabling any of the four 2k blocks in the &k 
"hidden" area. The best physical location is shown in 
Illustration "F". The way I electrically connected it is 
shown in the schematic of Fig.2. You could also use the 
switch arrangement to enable or disable any ot the 6&k 
system blocks too. In fact, Fig.2 shows a combination of 
switching both the 2k "hidden" blocks and the 8k system 
blocks. After you glue the switch in place, you can cut 
a small access hole in the side of the case with the X- 
acto knife so you can change the configuration without 
taking apart the case. 

That's about it. Write and let me know how you made 
out. I've also designed from the ground up an expansion 
RAM that uses the new 256k RAMS (64k by 4 bit). The en- 
tire circuit uses just 9 chips and takes advantage of 
the mewer DRAM's internal refresh logic. If there is 


enough interest, I'll submit the article to TDM. 18 








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Illustration E: IC Stack 





Illustration F: Sor Signal Locations 


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Illustration G: Pad/Feed-Through Locations 


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Pigure 2: Optional RAM Pack Configuration Switch 





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I left the last lesson with a challenge to you to rewrite 
the sample disassembly from Lesson 2 to eliminate the overflow 
error it contained. If you had difficulty, refer to Lesson 4. 
The answer was given in the comparison which explained the ADC 
instruction. How many of you thought of rewriting the routine 
using the sixteen bit intructions? Did you use LD HL,(pq) and LD 
BC, (pq)? Can you see how a short Basic interface (program) 
could collect the values and call the MC routine to perform the 
addition? I trust some of you are beginning to have some ideas. 

We know how to load a register (pair) of memory location 
and perform arithmetic with the values loaded. We would, how- 
ever, find MC of very limited value if these were all it could 
do. Most of you are familiar with the Basic commands GOTO and 
GOSUB. In truth, it is these instructions that give a program 
the power to do some real work for us. 

In MC, the equivalent instructions are referred to as Jumps 
and Calls. The syntax for these instructions are given in Chart 


LESSON FIVE 


eyr Syrosd Wyncoop 


5. You will note a new abbreviation, c, which is a test for the 
condition (or status) of a flag. 
We briefly discussed the Carry flag last lesson. Here is 
how the F (flag) register is arranged: 
Bit# 7, 6&© 3&3 43535 2 i 6 
Flag 5S £ .H .«.§FPAVN C 
Where: 
S = Sign 
Z = fero 
H = Hal#-Carry 
P/V= Parity/Overflow 
N = Subtract 
C = Carry 
.» = Not used 
Sign Flag - Stores the sign of the last result. Flag will 
be set for a negative result and reset for a 
positive result (always reflects the most 
Signifigant bit of the result). 
Zero Flag - Checks whether last result was zero. Flag will 
be set if result is zero, else reset. 
Note: flag = 1 if result = @. Watch it! 


Hal #¢-Carry- 
bit 3S 
lz in register pairs. 


We will ignore it. 


Used internally by CPU to record carry from 
to bit 4 in registers or bit 11 to bit 


Parity/Overflow- Has two jobs depending on the instruction 


last executed. 


Farity is the number of set bits in the result 


and is referred to as odd or even. 
be set if parity is even and reset if odd. 
Note: even parity generates an odd flag. 
this one, also' 


Flag will 


Watch 


Overflow records a carry from bit 6 into bit 7 


which effectively changes the sign of result 
Flag will be 


in signed arithmetic operations. 
set for overflow, else reset. 


Subtract Flag- Used internally by CFU to record whether 


last instruction was addition or subtraction. 


Flag will be set 


We will ignore this one, also. 


Carry Flag- 
bit 8 in registers or bit 15 to bit 146 in 
register pairs. Is also used to 
bit in the shift and rotate instructions. 


You will note that two bits of the flag register are wun- 
used. The status of these bits are important and there are no 
instructions that affect them. 

Each flag can be in one of two states...set or reset (on or 
off). A set bit = 1 (on) and a reset bit = O (off). This can 
become very confusing when using the Zero or Parity/Overflow 
flags, as the flag will not be as we expect it. For instance, 
the Zero flag = 0 if the result was not zero. Most of the time, 
however, you can use the flags without knowing whether they are 
set or not. You need only test their status and jump accord- 
ingly. 


Our old friend records a carry from bit 7 to 


if was subtraction operation. 


save the lost 


19 


Each flag indicates a specific condition based on the 
result of the last instruction executed. Chart 6 indicates how 
the flags are affected by the various instructions. It is 
important to know how the flags are affected as every 


in- 

struction does not affect them and many instructions do not 
affect them as you might expect. 

Enough of that, back to the Jump instructions. This in- 

struction has two versions, Jump and Jump Relative. The mne- 


monics are JP and JR, respectively. 
JP is equivalent to Basic's GOTO. JP begins executing the 


next instruction at the absolute address you specify as its 
argument. A JP 4000h instruction will send the CPU off to 
address 4000h to find the next instruction tc execute. Your 
umps can be conditional...that is, they can test one of the 


flags and jump only if the condition is met. 

JR requires the introduction of another Hex to Decimal con- 
version chart, Chart 7. You will note that the first half of 
this chart is the same as our previous Hex to Dec chart (Lesson 
1). The last half, however, indicates negative numbers. When 
numbers are used in this fashion, they are referred to “signed 
numbers". Signed numbers merely means that the most significant 
bit (bit 7) is used to represent the sign of the number. A set 
bit (1) is a negative number and a reset bit (0) is positive. 

JR also requires a brief discussion of the register pair 
Pc. PC is a special register pair not normally accessible to us. 
It is called the Program Counter and its job is to keep track of 
where the next instruction to execute is located. All 280 in- 
structions are 1,2,3 or 4 bytes in length. The CPU will always 
advance PC by the correct number of bytes for the instruction it 
is about to execute. The effect of this is to skip any arguments 
belonging to the current instruction so as to be in position to 
fetch the next instruction. 

Any jump instruction causes PC to discard the address it 
contains and replace it with the new address, as specified in 
the jump instruction. Note, PC will always contain the address 
of the next instruction to execute, not the current one. 

The JR instruction adjusts the PC by adding the value 
specified to the current value of PC. In other words, JR tells 
the CPU to Jump to address X, which is Y bytes from where PC is. 
¥ can only be in the range of -128 to 127 and X is the calcu- 
lated new address. In the case of negative values, the program 
would jump back to a previous instruction (loops) while positive 
numbers would cause the skipping over of the next Y bytes. 

JR can also be conditional as indicated in Chart 5 and 
discussed above for JP. 

When programming in Basic, it is quite common 
line such as: 


to have a 


100 GOTO 10#VAL At+1000 

There is a MC instruction, JP (HL), which emulates this 
type of operation. This instruction will jump to the address 
held in the HL register pair. This allows a routine to build up 
an address from tables or inputs and transfer program control to 
that address. We will not discuss this much further now as it 
represents some pretty advanced programming. 

CALL is our GOSUB equivalent. It acts exactly like BASIC's 
GOSUB. A jump is made to the specified address and a return is 
made to the instruction that would have been executed next had 
the CALL not been encountered. This is accomplished by saving 
the address in PC on the stack (we will explain the stack later) 
before making the jump. 

There is a special case of CALL, that does not require an 
address to be specified, which is know as RST. RST is read re- 
start , and is unique because it is the only instruction that 
uses an eight bit address. RST calls a subroutine with a one 
byte instruction. 

Some important points about RST are that it is uncon- 
ditional and usually computer specific (can not run on another 
Z80 based computer). Being computer specific is due, unfor- 
tunately, to there already being instructions at all the RST 
addressed, which cannot be changed. This is due to our operating 
system being in a ROM type memory. All is not lost though. Since 
these are very handy instructions, Sinclair put some of the most 
accessed routines there. We will find that we can use some of 
the RST instructions, after all. 

As with any GOSUB instruction, Calls and RSTs require a 
return instruction to let the CPU know the routine has finished 
its task. The mnemonic for return is amazingly enough RET. RET 
Will perform exactly the operation you would expect it to, and 


your returns can be conditional. Conditional returns allow for 
many exit points based on completing certain tasks. There are 
two special RETs which we will discuss later because they are 
used to return from the interrupts. 

We have learned about the flags and how to make jumps and 
calls based on their status. We now need to explore some of the 
ways to set these flags in order for our tests to be mean- 
ingful. One of the ways to do this is directly with the CCF and 
SCF instructions. 

CCF means Complement the Carry Flag. If Carry was set, it 
Will be reset and vice versa. SCF means Set the Carry Flag. The 
Carry flag will set by this instruction. 

Another way to affect the flags is with the remainder of 
the arithmetic instructions (I've been holding out on you 
again). These are also listed on Chart 5, and can not truely be 
refferred to as arithmetic instructions, except for CP. 

CP, which means Compare, is a neat and often used in- 
struction. CP sets all the flags as if a value were subtracted 
from the Accumulator, but without changing the value of the 
Accumulator! It is important to realize the result of the 
Compare is not stored anywhere, only the flags are affected. 
CP has two special forms, CPI and CPD, which are read Compare 
with Increment, and Compare with Decrement. CPI performs the 
same as a CP (HL) instruction would, except that HL is in- 
cremented and BC is decremented. The only flag affected is the 
P/V flag which is set according to the value of BV. If BC = O, 
then P/V = 0. 

CPD is the same as CPI except that HL is decremented. The 
effect on the flags is the same. 

The next instruction is DJNZ...which is not Greek! DJNZ is 
read "decrement the B register and jump relative if B is not 
zero", This is an extremely useful instruction which leads to 
the B register being used as a counter. DJNZ can be compared to 
the Basic loop control variable. The equivalent Basic statement 
would be as follows: 1@ For X = 18 to @ Step -1 

20 (do job here) 
=@ Next x 

In order to perform the same operation as DJNZ using any 

other register, you would need two instructions: 
DEC L 
JR NZ, Loop 


To use DJNZ, you must properly load the B register. You 
can then construct a loop to do whatever task you wish. You can 
even reuse the B register in the loop, if you properly preserve 
its value first. More on this preservation of values later. 

CPL stands for Complement. Each bit of the Accumulator is 
altered (complemented). For example: if the Accumulator contains 
1101110lb, its complemented form would be 00100010b. 

NEG is the last unexplained instruction on chart 5. NEG 
will negate the Accumulator, which means to place the two's 
complement of the A register in the Accumulator. if the Accumu- 
lator contains 5, it will be negated to -5. 

You now have about one third of the 280 instruction set, 
and with the stack instructions next issue (they are certainly 
the most used of the instructions). You are now armed with the 
tools to write a MC program of your own design. I encourage you 
to experiment and see if you get the desired results. I will 
reply personally to all enquiries that contain a S.A.S.E., if 
you have difficulty (send to- 2107 S.E. 155th St., Portland, OR 
97233). 

With the next lesson, we will explore printing to the 
screen as that will give us some immediate feedback as to how we 
are doing and whether our routine is working. If you have any 
information on the display file and/or ROM routines, you should 
review it, in anxious anticipation. 


CHART 5 
Jumps Flag setting 
JF man CCF 
JF c,mn SCF 
JP (HL) 
CP n 
JR e cP r 
JF c,# CP (HL) 
DJINZ & CFI 
CFD 
CaLL nn 
CALL c¢,nn CPL 
RST xx 
NEG 
RET 
RET c 
Where: mn |= any numeric constant @ to 255 
nn @= any numeric constant © to 465555 
r = any single register 
© |= any numeric constant -128 to 127 
e = flag status 
xx = O8O8h, O8h, 10h, 16h, 2Oh, 26h, 38h, or Sh 





N 
Oo 





RRC, SLA, SRA, 


' or right 
SRL 


CHART 6 

Instruct 12 P/V: St Nt Ht Comments 
ADD, ADC ‘oe t@e#twyvt«»t @ !' # ! B6 Bit add or add 

' ! ! t t ! ' wrearry 
ADD (ere Pe ft= Ff oe!t= !? 16 BLE add 
ADC '@etlh«e#twvyt @# ! @ !' = !' 16 Bit add w/earry 
AND '@!t #!t F t # !' @ ! 1 ! Logical operations 
BIT f=—-!f #@f=—t=- 160 ! 1 ! Specified bit copied 

t ' : ! : ? ' into zero the flag 
RES, & SET fe-e be be Pet = 1 = 1 Bt instructions 
CCF Pe Pr]|= tf = bt = 1 Bt = | Complement carry flag 
SCF '@!re=- t= ' = !' B ! @ ! Set carry flag 
CP, NEG, SUB, 'e# '!@twvt!t #! 4 ! # ! @ bit subtract or sub- 
EBC, DEC, & ' : ; - : : ! tract w#/carry, compare 
INC : ! ! ! ! . ' or negate accumulator 

1 ! ! ! \ ' &£ B bit decrement 
DEC, & INC fet—t—t=-_t—! = ! 16 bit decrement and 

f . , : ! increment 
SEC {f@etetyv?t @ ! @ tf = ! 16 Bit subtract w/fearry 
CFI, CrIF, t= |e iP he Fe ' Block searches; f=i1 if 
CPD, & CPDR : : : : ' ' B@=(HL), elee 2=0;P/V¥=1 

! . L ! : ' ' aif BC not equal to 6, 

4 : : ' ' else Ps/V¥ep 
CPL P_ te Pe Pe toy to tt! Complement accumulator 
DAA ‘@! # ' Pt # § = | # ! Decimal adjust accum. 
In Pom Fe Pe Pe 2 = t = | Inpet register direct 
It '{—!#*# tfPte!t BB! BB ! Input register indirect 
INIT, IND, f$=— te ti=-t=—- 1 2 ! = 1 Block in & out instruc 
OUTI, OUTD, f t ! | L ! tions; 220 if B is not 
INIR, INDR ! : ! : : ' ' equal to @, elee z=1 
OTIR, & OTDOR '! f i ! i 
Lo Ppeebe=be t= ' = + = | Aoignamemnt instructions 
LOI, LODO, fete t Pt =! 8 ! OB ! Block transfers; P/¥=1 
LDIR, & LDDR ! : . . - 4 ' if BC is not equal to 8 

t . ; | ' ' elee P/¥=0 
OR, & XOR '@t#!P!'# ! @' 8 !' Logical OR accumulator 
FLA, RLCA, '‘@#te t= ' = ! @ ! @ ! Rotate accumulator 
RRA, & RRCA } | ' ! ! ! 
RL, RLC, RR, '* !'o# ' Pt o# !' 8 !' B ! Rotate and shift left 

i 4 i] | i] i] i] 

- ' : : : : 


Where: #® = Flag changed according to result 

= Flag either unchanged or undeterminable 
= Flag reset 

= Flag set 

= Parity changed according to result 

= Overflow changed according to result 


<_< ve6 i 


CHART 7 


Signed Numbers--Hex/Dec Conversions 
i@tat2etistwet St &@t Ft Ot Ft At Bt Ct wot Ef FF? 
Bt @t at BF St £1 St hot FirvOet Ftmtaat iz: 13 aia} it 


1? dh f iF fat at et 2h tl ei at oe oe ae Oe ze a2? Be | ' 31 ' 


=---! asee | anes | eee | eoee ! eee | eee | eee | eee | eee | eee | ee = I == | == I feces lees lee I 


Z!'st' 33! Set St et Ot Oe oe) ae at at! at oat OS a! OF 
ese | eee I oes | eee | eee | eee | eee) eee |) eee | eee | eee = | eee = I a | ee Feel eee I | oo 
3:86! a9! SB! 81! Set Sst oe! St oe! 6! Se! Se tl lee! ol tl Uo ht 6S 
eee | eee i eee |e | es Joe | ee fee J eee! eee | eee | eee | eee | eee | eee I ee lee | 
* ! 68 ? 68 ' 66 ! O67! OB! Ot Fe! at Pat 2! ae) Pt Pe) 2th Pe! ot 
sees) eee | eee | eel ee = t= | = tl eee | eee | eee en) eee | eee | eee | een | = | | 
3S! ' Bi! ot ! Ot oe! eS! ae Oe ! Be! ee! es 2k a! a ae 
‘= LY 


cone loos ) eee | eee |) eee | eee | ee | ee lee! eees | oees | coe | eee eee =! ! 
bof ee! Pe! ae ee! 2! eS! 1S! 2! 1S! 1! 1! 1! eee! 118! iit 
—----!---- i ases locas lessee !eces loess | eens | eee = | eee | eee = | ea | ee | eee fbeaees fossa /ee==! 
7 § £12! 213! 224! BES! 206! D7! 118! 1099 128! AL! ABZ! 12S! ARs! ABS! 126! w2zr! 


were fee PF et et =!) 0 eee Pee ee Pee ee Pe | He ae eee lee! 


a (128! <127!-126!-125!-126!-123!-122!-121 '-120'-219!-118!-117!-216!-1105!-1148'-113! 
see | ee | eee eee Fe He I aee5 lessen lense! eee lee = fees fees fee | eee = bi-==! 
P '=202'=$110'=-110 9-189! =188! $187! =186'=$185'=-104'=183!=-182!-181'-188! <9! -F7e! =-97! 


- a be ee eee 


A! ~9b! -75! ~74! -95! -92! -91! -9O! -OP! -G8! -B7! -O6! ~O5! -O4! -85! -82! -e1! 


ad eee | eee Fee ee Fe eases loses loses | eeee ) eee | ee | ee | =! 
. 


Fo! <6! <15! <149 <13! <12! <1! -10! -9! -@! <7! <a! <s! <a! <3! <2! -1! 


SS ee ee ee ee  eeE*T TT | 


Tes SS 


8 FS gp HOLIDAY SPECIAL: $199 
WITH FREE EXTRA SOFTWARE! 


A COMPLETE QL FOR ONLY $199! Our retail 
price after 1/1/87 will be $459 due to a price in- 
crease. The QL comes with our extra 
FREEWARE cartridge filled with additional 
Super Software! Get Backup Utilities, 
Graphics Demos, Clocks, Maps, Sound 
Generators, a Postermaker! Too much to men- 
tion! All FREE with each OL ordered. Add 
$7.00 for S & H please. We also offer Special 
programmers, OS/Languages, Educational 
and Business System Packages! And 
Modems. CALL us up on our O LINE! 


But what If you ALREADY HAVE A OL? THEN 
JUST SEND IN A BLANK CARTRIDGE with 
$2.00 for S & H and you'll get all of the above 
FREE PROGRAMS tool We offer OL Users 
QUANTUM SUPPORT. The Computer that by 
far out-classes the Status Quo PCXTAT & 
Cloneys! 


QUANTUM COMPUTING 
Box 1280, Dover NJ 07801 
Call: (201) 328-8846 


(anytime...24 hours!) 


eg 
a SE 





Fi i 


, 


-~_- 








QL,with 4 Psion programs,4 blank mdv cartridges,and 640K RAM $399.00+ 


012K RAM PAK for QL, brings total memory to 640K.......... a $199 PP! 
AVATEX 3000/1200 BAUD MODEMS, 8 LED, RS232, etc.........500. , $109 PP! 
AVATEX 3000/1200, 100% Hayes Compatible. ........ccccecccsenes $159 PP! 
@L MODAPTER, allows use of 300 Baud moden ith QL, includes QCODE 
terminal program which supports up/downloading, etc......... $ 59.95+ 
Modapter WITH AVATEX 1200 HC (Hayes Compatible)........ svew S209 FPP! 

QL ASSEMBLER WORKBENCH, includes monitor, disassembler, assembler, by 
teatent; a great tuy, great coftware! Only. ....0.2.ccceeses one S$ 49,95+ 
TRANSFORM CASE, plastic case holds 20 MDV cartridges........ $ 5.99+ 
MICRODRIVE CARTRIDGES for QL, ZX Microdrives ONLY(4 carts). $ 10,.95+ 
QL BOOKS, Assorted, call for titles, only.........eeee: ceeee S$ 9.,95+ 


stiles? 2Ooe5 is NOT forgotten i! :* 





= Machine Code Tutor, Fighter Pilot, Night Gunner, or 


pA tescer vs a ey $10 each POST PAID while current supply lasts! 


OPRITES 2066, all new! Design, combine, and use sprites quickly and 
easily. Includes GREAT demos! Includes detailed manual, sprite service 
utility (2520 bytes MC), spritedraw program. ......sceccecsceces $ 19.95+ 


oa 


SABOTEUR, you are a ninja spy who must get a disk from the eneny 


wharehouse; use lethal Eicks,/ punches, leila knives, grenades to 


*remove’ guards and dogs who iget in the way’. Super graphics! $ 15.95+ 


gaa a ne eee ee, 
eee 
a ee ee cee 
eg 
gee 
ee 
oon 


CRITICAL MASS, aliens thieaten to. rs your solar system by taking 


Pelee 6, es 2. odo 
ae 00 fe a 


over your anti-matter convérsion piant. You must infiltrate the plant 


be 
ee es 0llti‘«i‘éR 
ee ha 


and destroy the converter tefore’BOOM! and it turns into a black hole, 


eee ee 
aa ne 


destroying all stars and pianets ie your SISTEM. ss «ssa we $ 15.95+ 


SPECTERM 64- Brand new 64 colum terminal software for the Spectrum 

or 2068 with Spectrum Emulator and 2050 modem OR ANY RS232 BOARD! Yes, 
1200 BAUD (300 baud with 2050 modem on a 2068! You get 64 columns ON 
SCREEN, built in XModem up and downloading, half/full duplex, S1K 
buffer, can transmit/receive ANY file- Bytes or Program. Automatically 


“saves Tasword II files properly! 4K user menu area, and documentation 


-or SUL Power Sodeming, ail for only. .. 66s sce ee eee a eee $$ 29.95+ 


DOUBLE SIDE/DOUBLE DENSITY floppy disks, highest quality, lifetime 
guarantee, Tyvec sleeves, user ID labels, and write protect tabs, only 


15% 73 CENTS each (minimum 10), or 100 for 65 cents each! (100 shipped PP!) 


D Unless oOtrerwis=} moteci, Pleas] acici 


Ss shippins,g Tor software, s.5 for 
rAardware, or $10 For Aa Qe package. 


Send check or Money Order to: 


VARIETY SALE=> COMPUTER DIVISIOPNrn 
Department TON—sS 
wae VEST JERSEY ST REET , ## =—1D 
ye ed ee eo NEW JERSEY O77 cow 
=_O1l—-S27—-O0OS35 FOR MORE INFORMAT Lor. 


SOFTSYNC TS2068 Inventory Liquidation Sale 


Zebra Systems just made a special purchase of all the 
Timex/Sinclair product left in Softsync's warehouse in order to 
bring you these fine programs at special low prices. Softsync 
started in the Timex market with excellent products, but they now 
focus on IBM, Commodore and other large markets, where they 
sell products like the Personal Accountant for much more money. 

All product is new and packaged with documentation in 
Softsyne’s attractive four-color boxes. Quantities are limited, so 
act now. These products list at $19.95 to $24.95 and are in our 


regular catalog for $17.95 to $22.95. But now our liquidation sale 
prices are as follows: 


INVENTORY SALE PRICES: 


1. for $20 1st $10 
2 for $19 2nd $9 
2: for S27 3rd $8 
4 for $34 4th. $7 
5 for $40 5th $6 
6 for $45 6th $5 


Zeus Assembler Cat# SS0S 


Machine Code programming is made simple with Zeus. This 
sophisticated programmers’ aid allows the use of the full Z- 80 
mneumonic instruction set and comes with a step by step 
instruction booklet. 

Unique features include: a full screen editor, automatic line 
numbering and renumbering and mini monitor. Displays current 
registers and single stroke commands save machine code. 


Zeus Monitor and 
Dissassembler Cat# SS06 


Acclaimed by reviewers as the most comprehensive Monitor and 
Dissassembler available. 

This powerful programming tool allows you to translate 
machine code into comprehensible assembly language instructions, 
enabling you to examine the BASIC ROM, to investigate the 
workings of the Timex/Sinclair 2068 or to analyze your own 
machine code routines. 

With the highly versatile Monitor, you get an extensive set of 


facilities to aid the entry, inspection, modification and debugging 
of your own machine code programs. 


CYBERZONE Cat# S802 


Special Feature: Use your voice to activate your laser fire! The 
sound of your voice sends lasers shooting at the enemy. 

Imagine yourself pitted against the Cyber’s ultra accurate laser 
fire. The situation is tense as you avoid the swooping, spinning 
fighters coming to get you. 

Can you stay alive long enough to chip away at the floor of 
Cyber’s spinning spacecraft? And is your aim deadly enough to 
hit the Cyber’s only vulnerable spot...his left foot? 

Cyberzone is a fast game with five levels of play and exciting 
graphics that place you in the center of the action. 





22 


bene 


SS 
———<— = ee ee oe ee 
1 


Personal Accountant sso. 


The Personal Accountant is a powerful yet purposefully simple 
accounting program for household and small business use. Using 
a time honored accounting practice known as "Double Posting 
Book-keeping” the Personal Accountant will instantly organize all 
your financial information. 

Open as many accounts as you need, balance your checkbook 
instantly, track loans, charge card purchases, expenses and IRA's. 
Generate financial reports ranging from trial balances to 
profit/loss, expense vs. income and assetts over liabilities. An 
amortization table can calculate payments and changing rates, 
generate future value and growth tables. And a built in data base 
keeps names, addresses and other vital data at your fingertips. 

The Personal Accountant is comprehensive yet simple to use 


with no codes to memorize and the screen will guide you every 
step of the way. 


VOICE CHESS cate sso 


The Most advanced chess game available for the Timex/Sinclair 
2068 actually talks to you during the game. A digitized voice 
speaks through the computer's speaker, advising of its move, 
recommending moves for you and making facetious comments. 


Voice Chess is written in fast machine code so it responds to 
your moves quickly. 





Features include: analyze mode, recommend move, change colors 
or levels at any point in the game, save, reload and print out any 
game you play. Displays full Chess board in detail. 


GULPMAN Cat# SS03 


The cursed wormoids are out to get control of Gulpland, 
chasing its inhabitants out of their apple orchards. Eat as many 


apples as you can to get bonus points and use your lasers to stun 
the wormoids. 15 different mazes. 


Ordering Instructions: Include $3.00 S&H. VISA/MC 
Accepted. 


Zebra Systems, Inc. 


78-06 Jamaica Avenue 
Woodhaven, NY 11421 
(718) 296-2385 


| Dear Time Designs Reader, 


|We are very pleased 
Catalog as the 
November / December Time Designs Magazine. 
| economic reasons the catalogs were _ printed 
previously in one large batch and have become 
| slighted dated. For that reason we 
supplementing it with several pages of new product 
announcements, sales, and a short list of updates. 
Particularly exciting are the new bargain 
prices we are able to offer on Softsync’s very high 
quality software products, and on our TS2068 
compatible Trackball controllers. We will continue 


to bring you our Zebra 


to strive to bring you the best support products for 


prices. | 
Please accept our best wishes for the Holiday' 


Timex computers and at _ the best 


| season and for a happy and healthy New Year. 
| Sincerely yours, 


Jane, Linda, Jeff, Tom, and Stewart 
The Staff of Zebra Systems 


TS2068 
Trackball | 
Only $19.95 


Originally sold for $69.95 
Specify Cat# TBTMX02 


Plugs into TS2068 Joystick Port and 


works with all joystick software. 
Bonus Feature: Also works on Commodore 64, 


VIC-20, ATARI 800, and more. Contact factory 
for more complete list. 





You can benefit from our recent purchase of brand new WICO 
Trackball Controllers at closeout prices. We've taken the model 
WICO originally made for the Texas Instrument 99/4A and made a 
very simple modification so it now is fully compatible with the 
Timex TS2068's joystick port. 

WICO is the largest designer and manufacturer of control devices 
for commercial arcade video games. If you've ever played an arcade 
video game, chances are you've used a WICO joystick or trackball. 
You've experienced the superior control. 
accuracy. The exceptional durability. 

Features: Phoenolic ball offers 360-degree movement. Two optical 
encoders provide split-second movement. Quick-action fire button 
for smooth, two handed arcade response and feel. Long 5’ computer 
connection. Heavy duty plastic case for long hard use. 

The WICO warranty has been voided by our modification. But we 
give you our 15-day money back guarantee and a one-year limited 
warranty from Zebra Systems. 


The pinpoint firing 


23 


center fold of the | 
For 


f\ f) 
Neve VOY ll 


are 











SY Gaia Sella Odile 
Zebra Best Sellers 2 


4 For those who are interested, here is a 
Short list of our currently best selling 
products to check out in our Time 
| Designs ads and on the various pages in 
our 1986B Catalog. 


[tsa ated 


iJ a_i = 


TS2068 Trackballs (TD) 
Sprites 2068 (TD) 

2 Greeting Card/Banner/Sign Designers (P3) 
TS2068 Technical Manual (P1) 
Tech Draw Jr.(P2) 

OS64 Cartridge (P7) 
Mscript (P4) 
64K TS1000 RAM PACKS (P13) 
Machine Code Test Tool (P15) 
Discounted Books (P10-11) 
TS2050 Modem Boards (P12) 


AA LIDTUTAD UNMIS) OND A 





Siete f dil A 





Timex Games $2 Each 


With your order for a TS2068 trackball you can purchase any of the 
following Timex TS2068 Trackball and Joystick compatible games at 
the special low price of $2.00 each for cassettes and $3.00 for 
cartridges. 

CAT# TITLE 

Cassettes at $2.00 each 

64001 Androids 

64002 Penetrator 

64004 Casino I 

64005 Crossfire 

64006 Circuit Board Scramble 
64007 Dragmaster 

64009 Guardian 

64012 Fun Golf 


CAT# TITLE 

64014 Hungry Horace 

64015 Horace Goes Skiing 
64019 Horace and the Spiders 
64021 Blind Alley 

64023 Crasybugs 


Cartridges at 3.00 each 
74001 Androids 
74005 Crazybugs 


$5 Off Tech-Draw Jr. 


You can save $5.00 on the purchase of Tech-Draw Jr. if you 
purchase it at the same time as a TS2068 trackball. Instead of the 
regular price of 19.95 you can get it for 14.95. See our catalog for a 
complete description of Tech-Draw Jr. and a list of printers that it 
supports. Order Tech-draw Jr. Catalog# C256. 


oo WW i oaan ai - is aee 
< = eh ee TR | La ed 





CRITICAL MASS Zebra Catalog Updates 


An arcade game by Durell. 
Distributed by Knighted Computers. Cat#KC12 $15.95 


SABOTEUR 


A martial arts arcade 


adventure by Durell, distributed by 
Knighted Computers. 


Cat #KC13 $15.95 


iii ee SSS. 22 SS SS SSS SS ee ee ee ee 


MUSICOLA 


Great music program for the TS2068. 


New low price! Cat#TEJ1 $9.95. 


GRAPHIST 


Graphics software from T.E.J. Associates. New low price! 
Cat#TEJ2 $9.95 


SS ZB BB SS SS SS SS Se SS Se ee sf SF SF SS SS SS SP ee ee eS ee ee ee ee 


SOUNDESIGN 


This TS2068 programming utility allows you to design your own 
TS2068 sound effects and musical effects and make them a part of 
your BASIC programs. Wonderfully simple to use. 


Software & RMG. CLONE 


Now you can make backup copies of all of the tapes that you 
thought were unbreakable. New program from RMG Enterprises 
backs up virtually any tape that you can load into the 2068 
including spectrum tapes. 
documentation package. 


From Arrow 
Cat#RMG1 $14.95 


Includes very well written 


Cat#RMG2 $9.95 


THE KRUNCHER 


From RMG , this utility helps you compress your BASIC programs 
so that you can squeeze more program into your machine. Works 
on TS2068 and Spectrum. Cat#RMG3 $9.95 


Used ZX8I’s, RAM’s, 
etc. 


Working ZX81 with Zebra 15 day money back 


quarantee. Does not include any documentation, cables or power 
supply. $15.00 
Not Working ZX81's (as is, usually easy to fix) 8 for $25 
ZX81 Power supplies when purchased with a ZX81 (new) $2.00 
Case of 30 new ZX81 power supplies $50 & Shipping. 
Video Switch (used, working) $1.00 
Cassette Cables or Video Cable (used) $.50 ea. 
ZX81 Manual (used) $3.00 
16K RAM (used, working) $6.00 
16K RAM (not working, as is) $2.00 


Se eee OE a a. ep ee ee ee 


BOOK BARGAINS 


Here are some excellent books still in stock but not in our catalog 
becouse we only have limited quantities available. We'll only take 
phone confirmed orders on these. 

Understanding Your ZX81 ROM by Logan ( 35 left) #C105 $5.00 
Machine Language Made Simple for TS1000 (21 left) #C106 $5.00 
The Timex Sinclair 2068 Explored by Hartnell (11 left) $5.00 


The following are 


typographical and other 


corrections to Zebra’s 1986B Catalog. 
Page 1 - We do not cary Omnicalc. 
Page 5 - The correct cat# for Profile 2068 is TWO2. 


Page 6 - The last sentence of the first paragraph is in error. 
New A&J TS2068 drives use black, version 1 wafers. 


Page 8 - 


The correct catalog numbers for the following 


cartridges are 07-7400 Pinball, 07-7300 Flight Simulator, and for 
cassettes 06-1000 Vu-Calc, 06-1001 Vu-File, 06-1002 Vu-3D, and 
06-3000 Flight Simulator. 


Page 12 - MTERM II Tape is currently priced at $24.95 not 


$29.95. MTERM II is not available on cartridge. 


We no longer 


sell Mini Xmod 1.7. 


Page 14 - We are now sold out of 03-3020 Computer Coach, 
and 03-3016 Conversational Spanish. 


Page 15 
TS1000 software: 


We are now sold out of the following Softsync 
SSTO2 Advanced Budget Manager, SST18 


Mothership. 


SSS 22282 SSS SS Ss SS SS SSS Se ee ee ee ee ee 


TS1000 Joystick 


Adaptors Plugs into the back of the TS1000 and 


allows a standard Atari compatible joystick to work on the 


TS1000. 
TS1500. This is a closeout. Only 40 left. 


Includes free joystick games tape. Won't work on the 
Cat#C120 $5.00 


Sa aS SS SS SSS SS SS SSS SS SS 2 2 SSB SB SS SSS SS SP VB TTT ee 


SPRITES 2068 


As you may already know, "sprites" are computer graphic 
objects which can be easily and quickly moved around on a 
video screen. Hints of how to write sprite software for the 
TS2068 are given in Timex's TS2068 Technical Manual but it 
is not really adequately explained. 

Now there has been a major breakthrough. After months 
of research, two TS2068 dichards: Vernon Tidwell and Ron 
Ruegg, have now figured out how to use sprites on the 
TS2068. And even more importantly, they have written an 
excellent 34 page manual that explains all about it in their 
product called SPRITES 2068. 

It doesn’t matter whether you're a BASIC or machine 
language programmer - with the easy interface of the sprite 
service utility and the superb manual that explains it, you 
will be able to create your own moving sprite graphics. You 
may want to create complete games or just experiment and 
learn more about computer graphics techniques. In either case 
you'll enjoy the ease and the amazing high speed with which 
your own graphic creations will move. 

SPRITES 2068 consists of the 34 page manual and a 
cassette tape. The cassette includes a 2520 byte machine code 
sprite service utility, a SPRITEDRAW BASIC program for 
defining and moving your own sprites (including twelve sprite 
commands), and exciting sprite demonstration programs. 

Considering the quality of this product, its excellent 
documentation, the fact that there isn’t anything else like it 
available, and most importantly what it can do for you on 
your TS2068, this is beauty of a program, and a bargain at 
only $19.00. Be sure to order yours now. 
Order Catalog No. 321 SPRITES 2068 


ZEBRA SYSTEMS, INC. 


78-06 Jamaica Avenue, Woodhaven NY 11421 (718) 296-2385 


Only $19.00 














A Hearty Thank YWou 


The heading really says it all. I've been quite pleased and 
encouraged by your response to Part 1. This is really turning 
into an “interactive series", as I'd hoped, and I want to invite 
you to keep writing and calling with your ideas and questions. 
Your're truly making these articles much better than I could have 
done alone. 

I wish I could have said all this sooner, but the publi- 
cation delays on my end do get in the way. I have to submit my 
"stuff" about a month ahead of the publication date. The 
result is that I'll be submitting Part 4 about the same time you 
read this. In the same way, your first responses began to come 
just as I submitted Part 2, when it was too late for me to in- 
clude a mention of them. 

So you see, there's no escaping this little nuisance, and 
I'll just have to be content in extending a late, but very 
sincere thank you. 


sag _- = anc Now , Thz riai i - = # = 


A number of you deserve much more than just a mention for 
the valuable contributions you've provided. Sadly, that's all I 
can do. Please don't be insulted if I didn't include you here; I 
have to limit this much more than I'd wish. 

The first pat on the back goes to Robert Orrfelt, from 
Redwood City, CA. He shows that you needn't use my trick to SAVE 
the EXROM code to tape; just put your disassembler into RAM, then 
type: OUT 255,128:0UT 244,16. This will switch the EXROM into 
chunk 4, starting at hex 8000. Really clever! If you use a 
Spectrum disassembler, and your emulator is in the cartridge slot 
(as I use), this won't work, since it would require enabling Dock 
and EXROM chunks simultaneously. Also, if you want to disassemble 
in decimal, you can't get the code to start at decimal location 
4000. Still, this should be a big timesaver for almost everyone. 

For reasons to be seen later, I'd like to thank Eric Johnson 
of Orange City, FL, and fellow SINCUS member Dave Schoenwetter 
for making several “dead" SCLDs available to me. 

Marty Egan of Herndon, VA has also been busily studying the 
EXROM code, and working out Timex's bank switching protocol. I've 
spent a great deal of (very pleasant) time with him over the 
phone, as we compared out notes. I hope my infor was as helpful 
to you as your insights were to me, Marty. I don't just owe you 
one...I owe you a million. 

Marty has also suggested that I include a cross-reference 
between a few of my terms and some of the acronym-like bank 
switching names that Timex included in a few spots in the Tech 
Manual. I chose to try to “expand” these acronyms in this series, 
to make the text clearer. 


Timex Name New "Improved" Name Used Here 


ENA Bank Number Access (register 60) 

ABN Assigned Bank # (AO, in setup mode) 

HS Horizontal Select (register 40) 

HSP Universal Deselect Byte (AO, in normal mode) 


Timex also referred to HSP as HS-prime, but this seemed too redundant 


I avoid acronyms as much as I can, and was surprised (and 
suitably humbled) when Rick Best, from Largo, FL asked if I 
couldn't include a glossary of terms in my articles; explanations 
of things like AROS, LROS, SCLD, ect. Well, I'll certainly be 
glad to explain them. (It's amazing how we can let acronyms be- 
come a part of our vocabulary without even realizing it!) 

AROS (Application ROM Oriented Software) and LROS (Language 
ROM Oriented Software) are the two types of cartridge programs 
that the system can run. T5.0 tells about these in detail. Note 
that AROS and LROS are “nested acronyms"; that is, one of their 
letters actually stands for another acronym. (A sign that these 
things have long since gotten out of hand. I gleefully enjoy 
pointing out such verbal perversities. ) 

The term SCLD probably stands for either Semi Custom Logic 
Device, or Standard Cell Logic Device, (both are true) and 
usually refers to the specially made “workhorse chip" inside the 
TS 2068. It appears that this term was intended to refer to any 


20 


Mystery 





of the Missing LS 


Part Three 


Sy Wes Brtorowwsk i 





“special” chip to be used in TS 2068 products, and so I've also 
used it to refer to devices that we can only speculate about. 

Another reader who's sent a large amount of infomation is 
William J. Pederson, owner of the Widjup Co. Mr. Pederson tells 
me he has a bank switching system working, which he expects to 
incorporate into a product. Note that some of his bank switching 
concepts are VERY different from what we'll be discussing here. 
Interested readers may wish to drop him a line to find out what's 
available. 

If you've written me with a request for a reply, please be 
patient. I get swamped sometimes, and my time for writing replies 
is limited. Between queries on my articles in the newsletter for 
the SINCUS user group and now my articles here, (not to mention 
actually WRITING the articles) things can get very busy. But I 
will get to you just as soon as I can. 


A Bit “OO The Hard Stuff 


We talked hardware last time, but some updates may be 
useful. You may have noticed that it requires a huge quantity of 
TTL chips to implement the functions we've described. But there 
may be easier ways to do it. Marty Egan is investigating ways to 
persuade a 74L5610 chip to do some of the grunt work, and I might 
suggest locking at an AMD2901 bit slice chip to do the same. 

Further, if we wish to rewrite the READ BS REG and WR_BS REG 
routines, as was suggested in Part 1, a really dramatic drop in 
parts count seems possible. Since these routines are the only 
ones that actually access the bank switching hardware, they can 
be changed to control circuitry that's simpler to build. Since we 
already have to make massive bug corrections to both ROMs anyway, 
changing these two is trivial. 

Last time, I said that the RESET signals in my block dia- 
grams were probably not what Timex really intended, and that some 
odd “unlock" code was instead intended to disarm some power-on 
“lock up" circuitry. I'd mightily appreciate it if you'd forget 
I'd ever said this. (Sometimes we look at a simple problem and 
imagine complex solutions. Sorry, gang.) The odd code will be ex- 
plained later. The reset signal really should be there, but i 
probably doesn't go to the backplane's RESET line. 

This is because the RESET signal desn't go to a pin on the 
standard TS 2068 SCLD either, and so wouldn't reset the standard 
Horizontal Select register. If RESET only worked on an expansion 
bank, then applying that signal could result in some chunks not 
being allocated to any bank. That would hang the machine up, were 
it to exclude chunk 0. 

Were does the signal go, then? A quick look at the sales 
literature for the NCR Corporation's standard cell devices (of 
which the 2068's SCLD is one) shows that they can include a 
power-on-reset circuit right on the chip. I've extracted the 
actual silicon chip from a dead SCLD, and sure enough, near one 
edge, is the large capacitor needed to perform such a_ function. 
(Well, it LOOKS large, at 500X mag.) The SCLD circuits needed to 
control an expansion bank probably would have had the same 
function inside. As such, both TS 2068 and its expansion banks 
would have gotten their Horizontal Select registers reset ONLY at 
Power-Up. That way, if an expansion bank were in control of chunk 
0, and a RESET occurred, someone would still be in control. 

It turns out that Chapt.5 of the "T/S 2068 Intermediate/ 
Advanced Guide" (SAMS) has a tutorial on Extended Bank Switching, 
which has useful information. Unfortunately, that chapter was 
obviously written before the 2068's design cycle was completed, 
and a lot of its information has been rendered incorrect by en- 
gineering changes in the machine. it shows the old scheme, with 
I/O ports FC and FD as bank switching controls, making no mention 
of the memory mapped I/O scheme we can see in the TS 2068 code. 
It also makes no mention of the Universal Deselect Register, and 
the bank switching example given sometimes sends data out in 
nybbles, and sometimes as a byte. 

Among the more useful gems to be found is the fact that bit 
O of a bank's status byte (bit 0 of register AO, to us) would 
have been set to 0, if that bank had caused an interrupt. The 
"Interrupt Priority", shown in the SYSCON table last time, 
affects the final renumbering of the banks. (High priority gives 
a low bank number.) This means that if we poll each bank to learn 
if it caused an interrupt, starting with bank #1 and working up- 


ward, we will have automatically first checked the ones that 
demand a fast response. 

As a final (and totally unrelated) hardware note, the de- 
Signer should use caution in designing a Daisychain circuit. 
Since the clock signal is generated Separately by each bank (as I 
showed it), the Daisychain flip flops aren't really being clocked 
synchronously, as is required for a shift register. This type of 
Situation requires the use of master-slave flip flops, or two 
flip flops in a master-slave configuration. This will prevent one 
flip flop from changing its data before the next one clocks it 
in. If all the banks to be used are on the same circuit board 
however, only a single clock signal is needed, and synchronous 
operation is possible. 


Wry Bother FT 


This is a reasonable question. With considerable circuit 
complexity and ROM bugs galore, reconstructing the thing would 
first seem like an exercise in self-punishment. There are already 
Simpler expansion schemes available. 

As it turns out, this would be a very bad method if all we 
wanted was extra memory. We can now buy RAM cards that plug into 
the cartridge slot, and one of the available disk systems can 
“Switch banks" that overlay one another in the Dock bank. User 
group newsletters have published various "RAM in the Dock slot" 
methods. (I published one in 1984!) But the level of 2068 soft- 
ware being developed today doesn't even make full use of the 
machine. Why would we need another way to expand it? 

We don't simply need more memory, but we CAN use many of the 
undocumented (and presently bug laden) capabilities that are 
hidden in the ROM. If you're aware of the stream-and-channels I/O 
system tht the 2068 uses, you understand how it's possible to 
LOAD in a “print driver" program that redirects the Basic LPRINT 
and LLIST commands to a large printer. The 2068 tries to expand 
on this "Spectrum-based" theme allowing such print drivers, or 
any other software for an intelligent I/O device, to be located 
permanently in an expansion bank. These programs would take up 
NONE of your Home Bank memory and so wouldn't conflict with any- 
thing else running there. 

But there's no reason for an I/O device to completely domi- 
nate a bank. While the extra memory space could have been taken 


i771 647D - F awe registers ‘ted (ech Tle ex head 
dia able i afereapt a 
TE- 44 “F 





4Ad-b4i4~ Sand OO te vegitter BO. (Bask Na mbe- 
Avcass 2 @) Since the fewest Expansion 
ask wember is Di, makes ture so 
En pansion Banks wacenve an Becass 
GTAD-64B|-Sen4 dhe invested Mevinents| Select 
byte te regal ae. Deselects the chunks 
7] Ba i: 





é4CF-d407-A clever Git « gicel contortion | 
thet give TYo Peet Fa és tha EX WOM 
BasE Carly «Ff the bewzestsl cn leck 
b, te aay od chunk @ it tht bas, Dlbarsive, 
the Perk gets astigned de the Deck bank. | 

eer h a e- "age i a7.Cro wrt 


e— - 





| J648¢-£4F5-Combinn the Hevit Sclect byte with the 
present Contes és of Port Ft. All clusks 
specified mtte C wegit Cer will be added te 
tleia gon teoliad \ the Newe bask, wn Jess 
vy rte a) * - # 5 i E : 














A-WAFF- Giga Pod F4 = Dek Bank 
é500-650F - Give Chank & owe Bask (seems 






redundant) wks ca cha! 


de the Hone bank iv) 
OF 1510-Send the bask sumber to register be Cow, 

bSN-E518- Levert the G veqisfler te make the bits 
= ihe kde registe. 4 CHewiz Select 


D* Restore registers (Enable 





Flewchart 2. BANKENABLE mA AM Residevt Coda 


26 





|Koor TOcdo-Read the a ade ae ti (Dank 






ToBD/-WE4- Deceem ent MA BAK (hots, flies b's 
Stored) This stark unde fh, arumplie, that dh 
Bethan begk te find. | 

MODDB-KOBEL- Send dha new *Manimem Bawk Ma=sbkun” bs 
registe AQ Ty dhe getup wmode, thes ing balls 
lhe bank member inte the bank galected by 
the Darsy thar, 

YORE |- LORE - Send the nem “Mayenne Bask Member” to 
Regist Og CBWA). Mow we can talk de thal 
bank's Unique Fagus bers. | 

BED-YOBED- Send @@ to regit ler 46 (AS). Disables 
all Chunk, Ged fe Femever Gbatevece “Pewee -, 
Darbaze” may have bean in the rezistee 

JOBEE Save the” “Mapiman Bank A’amben” 

WOBEF-YORF]-Alew that the bawk :s Hev:gental Selec? 

vegiste has bees “diteeneds we unlock ¢t 

the mags ® Cesnaed Ee Speeral baud woe 




































tates) Jf bri 272 the, t0e bak 
ere, beg bye EJ 


evs, ond 
t=J . 


pli de 












Reston the momar locadtes Ehed 
gol wiped whe we “unlecked® He bank 
xota7- Take wen ec SEs hy gorbaye of F the stack 


howg- Sel Cy flay —> he wawk reall, eveuts 
ocop- RET. : : 













XRCA-XKOD-Lestere the memery lecgtie, that 3 ok 
wiped whe we “swleked” ¢he bask 
|YOdae- Gel back what we Ehenyht war the wen 
“mene, baek temban* 
MOCOF -TociS- Since the bank did't really enn this 
mramben ig owe tee large. Decrement fd and 
tere it ai bef, MADR Oe Iman trons 
WoC - KOcic- Sad OF te epistles C8. Teesimal cs 
the Setsp Mode 
NOCID -Ragat CY Flay the bask deeset evist 
q = Sf Ta: 













Flowehat 4. Tie stalls a bawk a ints the 
bank selectes dhe Daisychain. CY tells 


wekhee ae wat Eheee's waally & kan k theme 


wonr'd—~ = feet te STSCO Table 
Or 7-x0Te bh - Inv fishes Maginen Bark # fe DB 
jnctre-xoAoi ~ Pond te the LAS aren of SYS" table 
|XOsol-XOAim ~Traeslee the 4 LROS ove-bend 
bates inte the S¥SCOM Cable 
o bates te tae iF es LROS wp present 








HOAIC- Marck Ehe LAOS wean 23 In gc éive 
YOAIE-TOAIS- Traasfee BARC warkend bates 
| inde the SYSCOW table 

YOA34-VOAM~Check bytes te See of AROS 13 present 















Fresh “expansion bask* i= ST 
te Bask Meggtee CO: thew 
gtents dhe peter wep = 









NOMC- CAL X@BD! ~ Fastells a bank wuwmbeo 
imte the begnk Presently selected by tire 
‘i im, 


poast-yousT- Fit a member Into SYSCOM OL. Tey 
bewest Thrts wee the bank member Edie MsB 
fg 2, de signify dhad the bust's oct ren umber cd 
MOATE-Point te STFCOM C2 
KOAST-¥OAGB -Mewe abyte feem lee SOE 7 of new 
bank & Geog f ELRKomM bank, THIS Is A 
BUG!IN Shoeld ba the ether way arena! 
NOAGC-YOATE -Mewe a le (ex) byte block fio. lee OPO) 
| of fs pang len, bain be de STSCON OF aed Fal lensing. 
: freegest bank ¢g a FAM bank, how dhis iz 
grekaye, TF a ROM bask (hese are overhead by ie. 
Kouto-youge- Gat SYSCON OZ Lempare it te (¥oea 7), 
These shosld definitely match if wy a RAM 
bask, & petshl, match by telsctdesce if a hom 
bank, Me mahal Jelini bely eevee ROM back, 
Howe VER... btcusge ihe theeve rheey denegfee 
jas backaaed test ig ereusinglaas. 


No4el- Youtg- Meve « begbe firme, lee, CAFE Cmany bank) 
to K660¢, ALSOA BUG! bad like abeve 
joatB -yoaac - Move lé(bes) byte Meck, jor liked 
|XO4AF-YOATI-Compare S¥Scow O2 to (ianeT) B 
thet awe oe aval id ds ioaac) 


IOA¥4~CALL YOADB - Mark SYSCow 02 wilh the 
thonkys ton taining nr, tery tafe byad | ee 
Me age Sey = | 4s rut inleck of SYS COW table 


10M bank-reset SYSCoM OL Ley 
“This byte ts semse My % chanel space ty en, 
Cenvcete pt be appee ota, 
Lafcé ~ Pend te SY Stow gi 
hp -CALL KOCIF -Dusdralite Bask -T peques ted te 






KOUDS- yo 4% - Fad Gp al END OF Tae 
JeoAD7 - CALL Locr SB =Fosember banks 
according te in tereayel peicerties 
A Tr 





FLOWCHART 4, Build The SYScOM Table 





up by something like an interrupt driven printer buffer, it sould 
also have been possible to include extra RAM, or utilities in a 
ROM. Further banks might have contained a disk operating system, 
or spiffed-up versions of the 40/64/80 column display utilities 
in the Technical Manual. And they could have been made directly 
accessable from Basic! No PEEKs, POKEs, or USR calls should have 
been needed. 

These things just scratch the surface. The point is that the 
expansion banks, and some extra BEU circuitry similar in function 
to Sinclair's Interface One for the Spectrum, would have easily 
extended the TS 2068's repertoire of Basic commands to handle 
some very nifty 1/0 functions, and they'd have been immediately 
available when you powered up your machine. We'll begin a dis- 
cussion of the 2068's I/O system and extended commands later on. 
Until then, keep in mind that this is where the extended bank 
switching system would have really made the 2068 shine! 


Taking Ca re OF Old Business 


Let's first consider Flowchart 2, which describes the BANK 
ENABLE routine in the RAM Resident Code. To use this, we would 
first put the bank number in B, and the Horizontal Select byte we 
want for the bank in the C register. This will work for the 
standard banks and expansion banks both. No one really uses it 
for the standard banks at the moment; it's a lot easier to pro- 
gram the standard banks directly. As we'll see, that's not the 
case if there are any expansion banks in the system. 

At 64A2, we check if there are any expansion banks. If there 
are, we run some code to deselect the chunks specified from any 
expansion bank that might have them. Note that if mo expansion 
bank has them, this can't hurt, and if we're about to give the 
chunks to a bank that already has them, this momentary loss won't 
be noticed. At 6487, we check if it's the Dock bank we're 
selecting. If so, we program it directly, and we're done. 

If not, we check if we're selecting the EXROM bank. If so, 
we pretty much do the same thing, except the code only allows us 
to give chunk 0 to that bank. Remember, that's the only chunk 
originally intended to be used there. 

If it's not the EXROM bank, then it's either the home bank 
or an expansion bank. In either case, it doesn't hurt to try to 
give it to the home bank, because an expansion bank will override 
this if it has to. We do this at 64EC. The code from 64F6 to 6505 
appears benign, but useless. 


At 6506, we see if we were selecting the Home Bank. If so, 


then we're done. Otherwise, we send the bank number to register 





80 (Bank Number Access), and the the Horizontal Select infor- 
mation to register 40. And that's that. 
Flowchart 3 is a bit of an embarassment, because it refer- 


ences that incorrect "unlock" scheme I asked you to forget. (You 
don't remember, I hope.) My explanation will correct two errant 
lines in it. Since I first thought this routine controlled 
special hardware, it was mentioned last time. Unfortunately it 
doesn't, and now it would be more appropriate if I first describe 
the routine that CALLS it. That's the routine that builds the 
SYSCON table. 


Daddy, Where Do SYSCONsas Come FromT 


Well, we're mature enough in ovr understanding of bank 
switching that we know that the stork does NOT bring them! The 
high level initialization routine (Flowchart 1, in Part 1 of this 
series) CALLs the routine to build the table. Shown here in Flow- 
chart 4, it works as follows. 

We start by pointing to the SYSCON table and assuming there 
are no expansion banks (we'll update this assumption if and when 
we find some.) We then transfer the 4 LROS bytes into the SYSCON 
table. (TM 5.1.1 explains these bytes.) If no LROS is present, 
the & AROS overhead bytes are transferred (see TM 5.1.2). In 
either case, if the device wasn't present, its space is marked to 
show it inactive. The “bug” described in TM 6.1.4 can be cor- 
rected by having the JR at XOAIA go to XOAIE, if no LROS is 
present. 

At XOA3E, we point to the SYSCON space for the first ex- 
pansion bank and enter the setup mode. In this mode, anything 
written to register AO will become the Assigned Bank Number of 
the bank selected by the Daisychain. Also, during the bank in- 
itialization, the HL register is always supported to point to the 
SYSCON location we're working with. 

At XOA4C, we CALL routine that tries to install a bank 
number, checks to see if it succeeded, and ends the setup mode, 
if not. Returning from that routine, if we've run out of banks, 
we leave the setup loop to XOAD4, mark the end of the SYSCON 
table, and CALL a routine that RE-ASSIGNS the bank numbers, 
according to their value in SYSCON 17. This is called the In- 
terrupt Priority. 


[Editor: WOW! Wes, we ran out of space already! And just when 


Was getting good. We will all have to hold on to our hats 
next issue! ] 


it 
"til 








TONE/PHONE 20687 2. 5. ~2r.0 Peuieen 


No, this is not about modems...this is about using the TS 
2068's sound chip to have a little fun. We leave it to the 
individual as to how enthusiastic one's fun becomes. 

What we plan on doing here is simulating the tones produced 
by a touch tone type phone. Each button or key on a tone phone 
produces two tones when it is pressed. Since the 2068 has three 
channels of sound on the sound chip (plus another if you include 
the BEEP command), we easily have enough equipment to do the job. 


In order to find out what tones are used I had to do some 
investigation. Luckily, a friend of mine at the plant where I 
work was taking an electronics course, and had a book at home 


that contained the information...and so, we're in business. 

The diagram shows the layout of a standard tone phone key- 
pad. To the left of each row of numbers is the frequency for one 
of the two tones produced by that number key on the phone. At the 
bottom of each column is the frequency for the other tone pro- 
duced by that key. For example, if you press the "1" key on a 
phone it simultaneously produces a tone at a frequency of 697 and 
a tone at the frequency of 1209. 

What we need to find is the coarse/fine values for the tone 
registers of the sound chip. On page 194 of the TS 2068 User 
Manual is a short program just for this purpose. A little 
rounding of numbers is required to get the values that 
reasonably close to producing the tones we need. 


come 


2848 PRINT "Press D to dial* 

aeé2 GO TO 2a62¢+CINKEVSe="d*) 

2658 SOUND 7.68: FOR d=ii7 TO 126 

2652 IF dt(F)(d)e*=" THHEN GO TO 2675 

2655 IF déiFi(¢d)=e" * THEN GO TO 288 

2657 LET neVAL (4607) (d)): PRINT fi: GO SUB 28604n 
2658 GO TO 2e78 

2840 SOUND B,1509.1588.11611.82:2.8213.0: RETURN 
2641 SOUND 6,.1527-21518,15411,0812-0:3.8: RETURN 
ZBé2 SOUND 8.1587.1518-154601,012,8213.8: RETURN 
2643 SOUND 8,.15:7-15:8,15411.012.76:3.8: RETURN 
26464 SOUND 8.15:9.1510.14211-+0:12.90:3.08: RETURN 
2645 SOUND 86.15:9.15:80.14251.0:2.82:13.8: RETURN 
2846 SOUND 8.15717 1518+1462:1,812,7413.8: RETURN 
2647 SOUND 8.1579.15:50.,12811,.012.70:3.8: RETURN 
2848 SOUND 8.15:9.,1510-12611-.0:2.82:3.8: RETURN 
2649 SOUND 8.15:9.151:0,12811+0:2.74:3.0: RETURN 
2870 PAUSE 18: SOUND 6.0:;7.@: PAUSE 1 

Z2e75 KHEXT a 

2860 RETURN 





Once this is done, a short subroutine like the one in the 
listing can be written to simulate tone dialing. The example 
listing is based on the assumption that it is part of an address 
book type file. In this case, the file is stored in a string 
array--d$—-whose DIMensions are something like 75 different files 
each 128 characters long [DIM d$(75,128)]. The phone numbers are 
stored starting at the 117th character in each file. 

Let's review the listing: Line 2850 executes the command to 
open the sound chip channels, A and B, and sets up the FOR/NEXT 
loop for reading the phone number off the file. Lines 2852 and 
2855 skip over characters which are not numerals, but are usually 
found in phone numbers. Line 2857 figures which line further 
below to call based on the number it is "reading" and calls it 
(GO SUB 2860+n). Lines 2860 thru 2869 do the actual execution of 
the tones. The last digit of the line number corresponds to the 
number of the telephone key which is being simulated. Line 2870 
off the tones and gives a proper break (silence) between the 
current and next tones. Line 2880 ends the subroutine and RETURNs 
you to your main program. 

WARNING: You should not use this on your phone as your 2066 
in not FCC approved for use as telephone dialing equipment. This 
is merely for simulation and fun. You certainly don't want the 
boys from Washington knocking on your door. 

Enjoy your Tone/Phone 2068! 





SIMPLY MCSIC 


ey 5S. 


10 REM S880 Rae aE TERT e22 


Simply Music 
(c) by S D Lemke 
Lemke Software Development 
2144 White Oak 
Wichita, Kes. 67207 


PERS SES ELSES SEC EP SSE S Pee eee tse: 


=-0 PAPER 1: BORDER 1: INK 7: Cc 
LS + PRINT AT 10,73 FLASH 1: “PRE 
PARING SCORE": GO SUB 8000 
=O LET p=0: LET vwb=13: LET vs= 
iS: LET va*i3: LET g=0: GO SUB 5 
oo 
40 LET bi=0: LET di=0: 
o 
50 LET b=0: LET d=0: LET f=0 
60 LET beb—1i: LET d=d-1: LET # 
=f=1 
7O IF INKEYS<>"" THEN GO SUB 
200 
75 IF q THEN FRINT AT 10, 15;" 
75 
76 IF NOT q THEN PRINT AT 10, 
LS; "'?* 
77 LET q=NOT q 
BO IF b¢=0 AND p THEN 38,0 
85 IF b¢=0 THEN LET bl=bi+1: 
LET best(1,3,61): LET sv=ve: IF « 
(1,1,b61)=0 THEN LET sv=0 
70 IF d<=0 AND p THEN 39,0 
935 IF d<=0 THEN LET di=di+1: 
LET d=s(2,3,d1)2 LET av=va: IF s 
(2,1,01)=0 THEN LET av=0 
100 IF #<=0 AND p THEN 310,0 
105 IF #<=0 THEN LET #1=1+41:; 
LET #=g(3,3,#1)1 LET bvevb: IF s 
(3,1,#1)=0 THEN LET bv=0 
110 IF bitni OR disn2 OR fiSn2 
THEN GO TO 4006 
12030,5¢1,1,b1);1,s(1,2,b1);2,s 
(2,1,01)33,8(2,2,4d1);4,5(3,1,#1) 
j5,8(3,2,41)5;68,sv;9,av;10,bv: GO 
TO 60 


LET f1i= 


i950 REM Adjust Settings 
200 LET it=INKEYS: IF if="" THE 
NW RETURN 


210 IF if=*B" OR itf="b" THEN L 
ET vwboevb+l: IF wb>15 THEN LET v 
b=0 

220 IF i@=*A" OF if="*a" THEN L 
ET wa'vatils IF vwa>15 THEN LET v 
a=0 


220 IF it="S" OR if]="s" THEN L 
ET vweeveti:t [IF we>i5 THEN LET wv 
2=0 


240 IF i$="S" OR if="s" THEN FP 
RINT AT 12,0; "SOPRANO "sAT 12 
eO8;vezAT 12,123: FOR i=1 TO ws: 
PRINT PAPER Ss" “g: NEXT i: FOR 

deve TO 15: PRINT PAPER 1;" “; 
: NEXT i 

250 IF igf="A" OR if="a" THEN FP 
RINT AT 14,0; "ALTO ";AT 14 
»B:varAT 14,133: FOR i=1 TO var 
PRINT PAPER &6:" “3:2: NEXT it FOR 

itva TO 15: PRINT PAPER 13% “3 
: NEXT i 

260 IF if="B" OR iS="b" THEN PF 
RINT AT 16,0; "BASE "SAT 14, 
Bsvb;AT 14,123: FOR i=1 TO vb: P 
RINT PAPER 23" “3: NEXT i: FOR 
i=evb TO iS: FRINT PAPER 13° “;3 

NEXT i 

270 IF if="P" OR if="p5" THEN L 
ET p=NOT pt PRINT AT 18,0; "Phras 
ing is “; ("not “ AND p); "Legato. 


280 RETURN 

40038,0;9,0;10,0: PRINT #0;AT 1 
sot"FPress any Key to Continue. ": 
PAUSE 0: GO SUB 500: GO TO 46 
S00 CLS : PRINT AT 3,8;"Simply 
Rusic™: PRINT AT &4,0;t#: LET it= 
*S"1 GO SUB 2401 LET if#*A*: GO 
SUB 250: LET it="B": GO SUB 240 
510 FRINT AT 20,0; "Press 5 for 
SOPRANO, A for ALTO B for E 
ASE, F for PHRASING* 

20 FRINT AT 18,0: "Frrasing is 
";("not " AND p); "Legato. ™ 
530 PRINT #0; INVERSE 1;" Fress 

*"ENTER"" to Start Song. ” 

540 GO SUB 200: IF if<>CHR® if 
THEN GO TO 340 

SSO PRINT #0;AT 0,0; TAB 31;" “; 
TAB 31;" *: RETURN 
8000 DIN s(t,3,400)130,0;1,0;2,0 
15,0; 7,56;6,0;7,0; 10,0; 11,50; 12, 
120;13,10 
68001 RESTORE 8100: READ t#: READ 
mit FOR imi TO mit FOR j=l TO 3 
s READ s(1,j,4): NEXT j: NEXT i 


oO. L_emk & 


8002 RESTORE 8110: READ n?: 
i=1 TO mz: FOR j=i TO 3: 
2psnidt NEXT Jt WEXT i 
8003 RESTORE 6120: READ nz: FOR 
i=1 TO nd: FOR je-1 TO 3: READ at 
S,jJ,4)2 NEXT j: NEXT i 

6OO4 DATA 0,192,532, 14,460,40,40,2 
35,0,13,4,8,60,40,40,255 


6005 RESTORE 8004: FOR i=0 TO 15 
' READ b: POKE USK “a“+i,b: NEXT 
i 

8006 RETURN 

80978 REM 


FOR 
READ st 


Canon in D 
by Pachebel 


8099 REM 
8100 DATA " 


S0FRANO 
Canon in D 

by Pacheb 
e1",56,119,1,8,245,1,8,170,1,8,8 
4,2,8,51,2,8,259,2,6,51,2,5,245, 
1,8,74,0,6,84,0,8,74,0,8, 77,0,8, 
112,0,8,125,0,8,112,0,8,99,0,8,7 
4,0,8,84,0,8,74,0,8,997,0,8,112,0 
78, 125,0,8,112,0,8,79,0,8 
8101 DATA 74,0,8,684,0,8,74,0,8,7 
7,0,6,112,0,68,125,0,8,112,0,6, 99 
»o,8,74,0,8,84,0,8,94,0,8,97,0,8 
2112,0,8,125,0,6,112,0,8,99,0,8 
8102 DATA 74,0,8,84,0,8,74,0,8,7 
7,0,6,112,0,6, 125,0,8,112,0,8,99 
»9,8,74,0,8,64,0,8,74,0,8,99,0,8 
7 112,0,68,125,6,8,112,0,8,99,0, 20 
B1l09 REM ALTO 
68110 DATA 126,119,1,8,245,1,6,19 
0,1,8,84,2,8,51,2,8,2397,2,8,51,2 
»6,245,1,8,119,1,8,245,1,6,190,1 
»8,84,2,8,51,2,8,239,2,8,51,2,8, 
245,1,8,94,0,8,997,0,8,112,0,8,12 
3,0,6,141,0,8,1497,0,8,141,0,8,14 
7,0,8 
8111 DATA 74,0,4,125,0,4,99,0,4, 
125,0,4,112,0,4,149,0,4,125,0,4, 
1497,0,4,141,0,4,168,0,4,149,0,4, 
168,0,4,141,0,4,1688,0,4,147,0,4, 
141,0,4,74,0,2,125,0,2,94,0,2,12 
3,9,2,979,0,4,125,0,4,74,0,2,149, 
0,2,112,0,2,149,0,2,125,6,4,149, 
0,4,112,0,2,188,0,2,141,0,2, 1868, 
0,2,149,0,4,188,0,4,112,0,2, 188, 
0,2,141,0,2,188,0,2,147,0,4,141, 
0,4 





6112 DATA 74,0,2,125,0,2,94,0,2, 
125, 0,2,84,0,2, 125, 0,2, 99,0, 2, 12 | 
5,0,2,94,0,2,149,0,2,112,0,2, 149 
»O,2,797,0,2,1497,0,2,125,0, 27,149, 
O, 2,112, 0,2, 188,0,2,141,0,2, 188, 
0,2,125,0,2,188,0,2,149, 0,2, 188, 
0,2,112,0,2, 188, 0,2, 141,0,2, 188, 
0,2, 99,0, 2, 147, 0,2, 125,0,2, 141,0 
2 
. 
B11 DATA 94,0,2,125,0,2,94,0,2, 
125,0,2, 99,0, 2,125,0,2, 99,0, 2, 12 
S,0,2,112,0,2,149,0,2,112,0,2,14 
7,0,2,125,0,2,1497,0,2,125,0,2, 14 
7,0,2,141,0,2, 168,0,2,141,0,2,18 
6,0,2,149,0,2, 188,0,2,149,0,2,18 
6,0,2,141,0,2, 165,0,2,141,0,2,18 
8,0,2,125,0,2, 167, 0,2, 125, 0,2, 14 
1,0,14 
6119 REM BASE 


8120 DATA 54,119,1,8,245,1,8,190 | 


,1,6,64,2,6,51,2,8,239,2,8,51,2, 
8,64,2,6,51,2,8,259,2,6,51,2,8,2 


45,1,8,119,1,8,245,1,8,190,1,8,8 


4,2,8,51,2,8,229,2,8,51,2,8, 245, 
1,8 


B121 DATA 119,1,8,245,1,8,190,1, 


8,64,2,8,51,2,8,237,2,8,51,2,8,2 | 


45,1,6,119,1,8,245,1,8,190,1,8,8 
4,2,8,51,2,8,2397,2,8,51,2,8,245, 
1,8,119,1,8,245, 1,8, 190,1,8,84,2 
»8,51,2,8,239,2,8,51,2,8,245,1,8 
B122 DATA 119,1,8,245,1,8,190,1, 
8,64,2,8,51,2,8,239,2,8,51,27,8,2 
45,1,8,119,1,8,245,1,8,190,1,8,8 
4,2,6, s1,2; 6,237, 2,48, si »=,8, 245, 
1,8,119,1,8,245,1,8,190,1,8,84,2 
»8,51,2,8,239,2,8,51,2,8,245,1,2 
o 


9999 SAVE “Simply M" LINE 1 


SIMPLY MUSIC is an all Basic program that uses the three 


SOUND channels of the TS 2068 to create music. Each 


"volce" can 


* SMART TEXT TsS-206s x 


“gives you the prettiest letters that 
you'll ever see from a computer. It's DATA 
BASE lets you edit and move data at will. 
It's MAIL MERGE lets you create or LOAD mail 
list files for PERSONAL FORM LETTERS. 
HEADERS, FOOTERS, BLOCK INDENT, Repeat Print 
reports, do invoices, outlines, AUTO 
LETTERHEADS, AUTO SIGN OFF! A complete 
ADMINISTRATIVE PACKAGE for home or office. 

$39.95 Check or H/0. Fost Paid. 

Specify type of Interface, and for 
Cassette, Micro Dr, or AERCO FD Disk. 
Supports all printers. 70 page illustrated 
manual, plus Phone info service. 
Guaranteed. 

Bill Jones, Gulf Micro Electronics, 
1317 Stratford Ave, Panama City, FL 32404. 
904-871-4513 Inquiries welcome. 





Lio a 
BS Fesacoiution 


ate ee a } Graphics = 


_Lolossts 


ta) Welcome 

Home 
EA ndMSie 
at" it’s 

Teudtsi edeyte 


cirt! 
COLOSSUS is a graphics-banner program. Now you can mix 
banner-size TEXT with banner-size graphic PICTURES. 
Route your graphic banner to the 2040 thermal Printer or a 
full size printer (you must supply your own customized 
Zprint-80 printer driver code.) 
Specifications; 
Banner size: 24 rows a 102d coniinecus columns 
(32 screens long!) 


Font Typer Standard Moder, Italics, Bold, 
Load Font (Chancery included) 


Font Size: fa, 162, and 24 2 normal 


Scrolling 
Banner 
Program 


Functions: Scroll Forward / Backward 
Insert’ Delete Columns 
InsertDelete Rows 
Copy/ Erase Segment 
Load/Save Banner Dota 
32 Sereen, Low Res Animation 


Output: 240 Printer 
Pull Size Printer (Z-Print £0 
Printer driver required!) 
(Print from any column!) 


Se sic 
Bboan 


be adjusted before and while the music is playing {although the 
music is interupted while the adjustment is made). Phrasing can 
be selected as Legato (smooth), or not smooth. A tiny metronome 
ticks off the beats while the music plays. 

The program creates a “musical score" by READing in values 
from DATA statements. Each tone consists of three pacts, a FINE 
TUNE value, a COARSE TUNE value, and the duration (in beats). See 
chapt.21 of the 2068 User Manual. Note durations are all rela- 
tive, but in the present song, a WHOLE note gets 8 beats, a HALP 
note gets 4, a QUARTER note gets 2, and an EIGHTH note gets 1 
beat. RESTS are input as O (zero). The MUSICAL SCORE begins with 
the DATA statement in line 8100. First is a title (in quotes). 
The first number is the number of notes played by this voice. 
Voice 1 in this case is the Soprano voice. The second number 
(119) is the FINE tune value, the third value (1) is the COARSE 
tune value, and the fourth number is the duration of the first 
tone, 8 beats, a whole note. The following numbers continue to 
define the musical score of voice one. Line 8110 starts the 
musical score of voice two. The first number defines the number 
of tones (and rests) played by this voice. This is followed by 
the values that define these tones. Line 8120 starts the musical 
score for the third voice. 

This particular arrangement of "CANON IN D" starts with all 
three voices in harmony, and it sounds as if there is only one 
voice. After a few bars, the second voice appears, and a short 
time later, the third. Though simple, the music is effective! 

Listing notes: Lines 75 and 76 each have a "?" in quotes, 
These are UDG "A" and "B" characters respectively. These are the 
tiny metronome defined in lines 8004 and 8005. Lines 80, 90, 
100, 120, 400, and 8000 all have “brackets" in them. This is 
really the Basic SOUND command, and must be typed with the key- 
word SOUND. About the only way to debug this song, is to listen 
as it plays and seek out the "kinks". When you INPUT data from a 
printed score, you can actually follow the music one voice at a 
time and find your errors. If the program plays too slow, it can 
be speeded up by deleting lines 70 to 77. Lf you want only Legato 
(smocth), delete lines 80, 90, and 100 also. SAVE the program to 
tape after you have typed it in by “RUMing 9999". The program 
will auto-run when it loads. "PREPARING SCORE" will flash on the 
screen as the DATA is read. When completed, you will be able to 
adjust the voices by pressing "S" for Soprano (voice 1), "A" for 
Alto (voice 2), and “B" for Bass (voice 3). Press "P" to change 
the phrasing. Press "ENTER" to play the song. 


28 


Get your copy of Colossws (only $19.95 ppd!) from: 
Lemke Software Development 
2144 White Oak 
Wichita, KS 67207 








oe, 
Gs 


The FootePrint 
Printer Interface 


® for Centronics parallel printers 

® works in both 2068 and Spectrum mode 

* compatible with OS5-64 & Spectrum emulators 

* EPROM socket and on/off switch on board 

© works with both Tasman and Aercodriver software 

® plugs into cartridge dock—door completely 
closes with cable running back under computer 

® frees up rear edge connector allowing other 
peripherals to be used; less chance of a crash 

* print driver software for LPRINT, LLIST, and 
COPY included for 2068 and Spectrum modes 

FootePrint Interface w/software & cable .$45° | 

FootePrint with OS-64 option included . 65° 

Bare board & instructions only ..... save hl 50 


Cable only for use with bare board ....... $1509 | 
All prices are pre-paid and include shipping charges. 


FOOTE 2%, SOFTWARE 


P. O. Box 14655 — Gainesville, FL 32604 
904/462-1086 (6 pm -9 pm EDT) 


Now at last... 












































O 
Ultra-Easy Designer Graphics 


by Paul Bingham 


The large and warm response to the ULTRA-EASY DESIGNER 
GRAPHICS Program for the 2068 (which appeared in the July/August 
1986 issue of Time Designs attests to the many 2068 users 
yearning for ways to use UDGs effectively. Many sent listings of 
enhancements they had added, some sent tapes, one wrote to say 
he had been looking for this program for a long, long time and 
wished I had written it sooner. ‘Truth is, so do I! I think all 
this renewed interest in our 2068's graphic programming abil- 
ities is great. 

In the first article I made mention, "that there were only 
21 of them,"--UDGs that is. Well, as things turn out I was wrong 
again! So what appears here is some new program lines to soup up 
the old version 1.0 so it will do 115 UDGs at a whack instead of 
just 21. I call it "SON OF UDG". 

Now if you crack your 2068 manual open to page 262 you will 
find the name CHARS listed. By reading the content note you will 
discover that by altering the address in CHARS we can set up an 
alternate table of letters and symbols in RAM and the 2068 will 
use them instead. How exciting! New symbols, new fonts, new 
graphics--its all possible. CHARS covers the Character set 
starting with the space (code 32) and through to the copyright 
symbol (code 127). This is in diference to an article on fonts I 
just read in SWN. The entire set is not pointed to by CHARS, 
only CHRS codes 32 through 127. 

Check the listing of these characters in the manual's 
Appendix B (page 240 and on). Now lets experiment. Type in the 
short Listing #1. This looks in the table in ROM and lists the 
values for each of the eight bytes which comprise each char- 
acter. Character #124 and #126 list eight bytes the same as_ the 
rest, but the manual states they are STICK and FREE. What the 
table lists produces a vertical bar symbol and a reverse quote, 
just like the SPECTRUM. But elsewhere in the ROM, the 2068 
ignors this and prints STICK or FREE...two commands the SPECTRUM 
does not have. Because of this fluke "SON OF UDG" ignors #124 
and #126 as well, so as not to cause problems. 


Figure l 
120=0,0,638,42,16,40,63,2, 
121=0,0,68,68,68,60,4,56, 
122=0,0,124,8,16, 252,124, 0, 
123=0,14,8,48,8,6,14,8, 
12420,8,8, S°3/8's. Qo, 
125=0,112,16,12,16,16,112,2, 
126=0,20,49,0,0,8,6,0, 
127=60,66,153,161,161,153,66,60, 


Figure 2 


1 136 2127531554156uDG: 


110M 
1116 
1112p 
1139 
1idr 
Liss 
13161 
iifu 
1i18v 
1icSw 
i120x 
i12i1y 
12e2z 
iz3t 
1e4- 
iz5; 
iz6- 
127= 1625 
addr:i6z 
6S464164de@ 


PF Cu 
SUATH 
SAVE 
CODES 


3 
a 
3 
=) 
3 
a 
3 


ager eo 


730 
SaP1904 
81i0i1d1e 
B2R1def 
6351039 
S47 id4n 
| 8SU1asi 
86V106 j 
B7W1id7k 
BSax1a3l 
ao7v13om 


i6i® 





2Q 


The program keeps track of what CHARS is set to at any 
given time, but in your own programs you must change the con- 
tents back to the original values before, say breaking or 
listing. If you don't every symbol will become total gibberish. 
In that case try POKEs to put things as they were: 23606 should 
be 0 and 23607 should be 60. In the program GOSUB 610 will per- 
form the same service. 

The "SON OF UDG" program uses all the same keys 
original plus the “a" key which is a screen toggle. One 
old graphic work slate, the other is a current list of 115 
Characters (see Fig.2). You will be asked upon switching screens 
if you will be returning or wish the work slate's contents dis- 
played. This is so if you toggled in mid-stream to check some- 
thing that your current efforts won't be obliterated. SAVE and 
LOAD have also been modified to proper size for all 115. 

In order to get your old listing up to "SON OF UDG" status 
you will need to do the following: 


1. DELETE lines 10 thru 20, 36 thru 39, 43 thru 110 
=20 thru S20, 7010 thru 97050, 9095 thru 97120, 9220 


as the 
is the 


thru 9225, line 25, and line 200 
2» Alter "65368, 1597" in lines 28 & 29 to "64598, 9741" 
Ss. Alter "20" in line 190 to "750" 
4. Alter line 9060 by removing "PAPER 5S:" command 


= 


Alter line 1 to include "SON OF" so you know later 
é. 


Add all the lines of Listing #2 


And thats all there is to it! You are of course welcome to 
make any alterations or enhancements you wish to the program 
(Several found grids on the work slate to be helpful last time, 
for example)...and feel free to send ideas and comments to me 
also. If you would like a complete listing of the entire "SON OF 
UDG" program the way it is supposed to look, just mail a dollar 
and I'll send you one. Write Paul Bingham, P.O. Box 2034, Mesa, 
AZ 85204. (If you're not up to typing, I will send copies of 
the complete program on tape for $5.) 


Listing l 


1 REM 
18 


‘pe 


30 
40 


2063 CHRS Table Peeker 
FOR f=32 TO i127: PRINT f;"= 


FOR t=f284i1526e@ To 


PRINT PEEK t:", 
NEXT t: PRINT 


F#8+1536 


NEXT Ff 


Listing 2 


ps CLEAR 64597: GO SUS eae: 
FR =15616 TO i6384: PCKE 
3) ‘PEER 1: NEXT t: 
O 65525: READ o: 
t: FLASH @: CLS : 
0 ‘Bo, gs DATA. 8,08,63,252,252, 
£4 

22 DIM K(257): OIM cla): FOR t 
21 TO 4: LET cit) s32: NEXT t: DI 
d(32): OIM u(2a): LET ese7: LE 
at=s7:; LET px=S: LET pysi: INPU 
“Press ENTER to continue...";h 
GO TO i185 
25 GO Tc 350 
36 LET LET qx =@: 
af LET LET qx zi: 
car LET s2i7: LET ax =6: 
a" LET s=25: LET Qx2i: 

42 INPUT "“Zsi:";c1);" 2nd: ";¢ 
(2);" Ord: ";,c(3);," 4th: "j;¢c (4) 

43 IF ci=8303 THEN GO SUB 358: 
GO SUB 609: PRINT AT @,1;CHRS c 
(1) ;,;CHRS cCi2);AT 3,3;CHRS$ ci3i;c 
HR$ ci(4): GO SUB 6108: FOR t=6 TO 
18 STEP 4: PRINT AT @,t;ct14+(t- 
5) 7/4): WEXT t: PAPER 1: RETURN 


FO 
(t+4898 
FOR t=65526 T 
POKE 1,0: NEAT 

; SUB S015: G 


e4a4tw 


$=]: 


&=0: 


GO TO 41 
GO TO 41 
GO TO 4 
GO TO 4 


44 FOR t=1 TO 4: IF ti=2 THEN S : 9550 BRIGHT i: LET a=za: =1 
eens es ee ee ;CHRS e: Go $05 (620. RETURN oT “OR 5 eeenate 
+4: GO S25 PRINT AT 20, 7 9560 LET j=19: GO SUB 9500: LI 

2O T =e: oy = ¥ 
46 IF ¢(t).143 THEN LET haicit 9o8nt ok “Se ioe) ee ee . BalsHt 6: BETiRn °° | PAPER 
)-144)48+655368: GO TO 63 S35 IF e€:70 THEN LET ox=6: LET S600 INPUT “Returning to current 
47 LET h=(c i(t)}-32) 43+64598 gy=48: GO To sso work? ";ng$: IF ng<>"n" THEN PAP 
ated FOR m=h TO h+7: LET ai1=PEEK S40 IF ©4908 THEN LET gx=10: LET ER 7: Go Sus S20: LET tx=5: LET 
ae : ‘ 9y=68: GO To 5é6e tyel: FOR t=1 To 256: GO TO 9602 
ar FOR g=8 TO 1 STEP -1: LET a S45 IF e<110 THEN LET gx=14: LE 9691 GO To sées 
isaive: IF INT 31<a1 THEN PAPER T gu=88: GO To Sse S602 IF INT (ATTR (ty,tx) 48) «97 
Sr steiur'sat ange gg Mo) + TSBBTER edb orheg ter axaso: ve SRN PETE it}zd "a0 ¥6 8068 
Se: eee a T gy=108: 7" 360. - 
65 PAPER 7: PRINT AT y1,x149;C eke LET evens, cet euates 9605 LET tx=tx41: IF tx»20 THEN 
HR$_ 125; * » eaoeine 56@ PRINT AT 21,16;1;AT_@,6+INT LET txsS: LET ty=ty+i 
66 NEXT 9: LET ylsyiti: NEXT m (s/8)44;" “J AT 8,64INT (578) 4 da ae iklce 
p . =) L Ci=9000: ) 
123 GO SUB 9008: GO sUB ss2a ait 0058, S00: oe aes oe bhas : HT 8: FOR t=O) 


$ €;AT 9u-e,9x;CHRS RP 5S: PAPER 5S: BRIGHT @: FOR t=a 


105 PAPER 1: PRINT AT cs,26;" “ €: GO SUB 6i@- RETURN TO 21: PRINT AT t,9;” 
2 PAPER 7: PRINT RT cs,26,CHRS 1 60@ POKE 23605,85: PCKE 236297,2 “: NEXT t ; 
64: IF ci=9690 THEN GO SUB Soca: 9610 LET bb=@: LET xp=32: 
Go To 110 ee he ne a =49: LET wp=28: LET beet G0 sus 
hg hg ora ee. ore parame iret selena 
: ; Ont : | xp=5@: LET yp=69 
_ if CODE INKEYS=S1 THEN LET’ cs = . Ree THEN GO SUS cies p=43: LET xt=4: GO sip e720 
ee 790 IF ci=¢909 AN = - = LET xp2e2/0@: LET yp=s89: LET w 
yg02, IF CODE INKEYs=97 THEN GO $ ior ta 548 She OG nen scat mee p26s: LET xt=8: 60 SUB S720 
= ‘oo = H : => ‘ UL 
218 GO TO 105 i 795 RETURN P=83: LET xt=12: GO SUB 9720 
35@ PAPER 7: IF ci=9@00 THEN PR S0@ FLASH 1: PRINT AT 17,8; "jes S650 LET xp=i@d: LET yp=i@9: LET 
ANT ne O33 | 7A €,6; 7 oe ght emenet!": RETURN Xt=ll: GO SUB 9720 
@,10;"  _";AT @,44;° ;AT 0,18 S808 GO SUB 9015; INPUT “Display pe + i a gt Le A 
pe GE Sai ;AT 21,16; previous work? “;ng: IF n$<¢>" jwpsies: LET xt=i6: G0 SUB S722 
: RETURN : THEN LET tx=S: LET ty=1: FOR t= 9670 LET xp=i44: LET yp=i64: LET 
362 FOR m=21 TO 24: GO SUB m: N 1 TO 256: GO TO See2 wp=i43: LET xt=21: LET bb=1: 60 
EXT m: RETURN 9701 RETURN SUS s720 
see FOR hex TO Sirians Gan Meee 9003 IF kit)=1 THEN PAPER ®@: PRI Ee eee S: tie art 
t: NEXT h: RETURN A oe one Hi Ge 2607 Peren 7: © 16,25)" “iAT 16,18;"- “jAT 18,19 
410 INPUT "“CHRS Number (cH) as _s ge05 PRINT AT ty, tx: CHRS 125 = “SAT @,0;"2° 3"; AT 1,0; "2 
torage: “;¥v¥n: IF VnosSl AND Yh¢ R=tx41: FP tx>20@ THEN 7 eke 
AND vn<>led AND vni>226 OR vn>d LET tx=S5: LET ty=ty41 eA hee ioe. BR tc saT 
43 AND vn<i6S THEN LET e=vn: GO S@11 NEXT t: GO SUB 34: RETURN “4: PRINT AT 3,0; “Ca: “ "AT 2, 21; 
aa: ~¥iteest ehttys~ohis S015 LET ci=96@0: BCROER 1: PAPE UDG: "“; AT 28,16; "addr:”: PAPE 5. 
ENTER’ - vs: GO TO 410 bbe. RS: GERICGHT i: FOR t=@ TO 21: PR BRIGHT @: PRINT AT a1, 16; ' ‘63563 
ad 2¥5: se ‘ INT AT 1.8; ‘AT @,1:; -AT 1, 
420 IF €9127 THEN LET j=INT (s. NEXT 1 otee ehchicr o) RETR 
vd og a LET 31 =65560+5 2u sane PAPER = BRIGHT Oo 9720 FOR z=xp TO up: LET aa=z-wp 
: = BRIGHT @: FOR t= . BI — T 
Ort AdnGee LET wre =o1 oe . mrs s eae 5: BRIGHT bb: PRINT AT a 
= : gree OR t=@ TO 21: PR an Steen | 
430 LET russ: FOR t=i TO i+7: P INT AT 1,27; “: NEXT t as. pee pees fa Aegggr Baad BE 
OKE t.dtru): LET fusrud¢i: NEXT t 9540 BRIGHT 32: PRINT AT @,27;' geo ; sir i ami " 
435 PAPER 7: IF ci=9@00 THEN GO ASE"; AT 7,27; “SWATH”; AT 8,27; ri a a ts 
TO 530 VE “IAT 9,27; "CODES"IAT 19027; "5 | i ws 
S08 LET kisi: LET f=e: FOR h=18 TORE’; AT 21,27; “PRINT” 


+i TO 21: GO SUB 68@: PRINT AT h 
»11;,CHRS €;AT h,23;CHRS fF: GO SU 
610: PRINT AT h,13; hi; AT h,1i9; 
;: PAPER 5S: BRIGHT 1: PRINT 

;; PAPER 7: BRIGHT G@: LET ki=khi+ 
3: LET fef+i: NEXT fh 

SOS IF CODE CHR§$ e=124 OR CODE 

CHRS €=126 THEN RETURN 

510 GO SUB 609: FOR h=19 TO 21: 

PRINT AT h,Jj+1:;CHRS €: NEXT h 


edit 










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T/S 


MODEM-ing 





If you have spent any time on a local Bulletin Board 
System, you will have certainly found the mighty, but humble, 
TS 2068 in the minority. I have had the occasion to offer BASIC 
programs to fulfill a few BBS users' requests. However, Sinclair 
BASIC is incompatible with other computer BASICs. With the help 
of BASIC2text, one can upload a Sinclair BASIC program via MTERM 
II to another brand of computer. On the receiving end, the re- 
ceiver can print out the text/program and key it into their 
computer, making needed alterations. Some computers can compile 
a text file into BASIC format, allowing some receivers to simply 
tailor the text file to their system requirements without having 
to key in the program. 

Sinclair BASIC is stored in the machine using many control 
codes (number slugs, floating point numbers, line length, ect.) 
and single codes for Tokens (IF, THEN, GO TO, ect.). BASIC2text 
will remove any non-ASCII control codes and expand the Tokens to 
their full ASCII equivalents. 

To use BASIC2Ztext, first LOAD a BASIC program, set RAMTOP 
to 64900 (CLEAR 64899), then LOAD in the machine code version of 
BASIC2text (LOAD "BASIC2text"CODE 64900). BASIC2text is run in 
two separate steps. PRINT USR 64909 will move the actual BASIC 
program to high memory, allowing room to build the text file. 
When this step is complete, a message will appear on the screen 
prompting you to Press Any Key to reset memory. RAMTOP will be 
raised to 28416, protecting the area for the text file. The 
screen will black out and the copyright message will appear. The 
machine is now ready to translate the moved BASIC into a text 
file (use PRINT USR 65042). The program will now convert 
Sinclair BASIC to an ASCII text file starting at 28416. When the 
translation is complete, a message will appear on the screen 
providing information on the start of the text file and its 
length. Follow the prompts to SAVE a copy to tape. IMPORTANT 
NOTE: Both routines must be called with the PRINT USR...not the 
commonly used RANDOMIZE USR. This will insure that the messages 
will appear on the screen. 

To send the text file via MTERM II, load MTERM's buffer 
with the text file. I prefer to use LOADER IV. If the length of 
the text file is larger than the buffer area, it should be saved 
in two parts, allowing two smaller text files to be loaded and 
sent separately via MTERM. 

BONUS: I have two different printer-drivers for a full-size 
printer, both of which do not faithfully reproduce a BASIC 
listing. By using the text file produced by BASIC2text, a 
faithful copy of the listing can be sent to a full-size printer. 
Set the driver's margin to 32 characters wide, and use the 
following BASIC program to print it to your printer: 

10 FOR X=start of text file To 


end of text file: LPRINT CHRS PE 
EK X3: NEXT xX 


ENTERING BASIC2text 


In order to save space, I have not provided a BASIC program 
to install the machine code. If you have access to an assembler 
I would suggest enterign the program via the mnemonics. If you 
do not have and asembler or a favorite machine code loader use 


Listing 2, and enter the OP Code column in the DATA statement 
lines. 


The author can provide a copy of this program on tape for 
$4.00 (includes shipping). Please send a check or money order 


to: Michael E. Carver, 1016 NE Tillamook, Portland, OR 97212. 
Please specify "BASIC2text". 
ROM CALLS 
NEW #gu OD1D 
PR_STRING equ 21DB 
TO_TABLE «#gu OOoOfe 
PO_SEARCH equ o77Cc 
K_SCAN equ OZEO Listing i 
STSTEM VARIABLES 
PROG equ 3C33 
VARS equ Sc4B 
RANTOP equ Sceaz 
ORIGIN equ FDa4 (447000) 
Address Op Code Mnemonics Label Hotes 
|PROGRAM VARIABLES 
FRea4 oo @ FLAG defb OO 
FODesS 6000 MOVED_BAS defm OOOO jAddress of moved BASIC 
Foe? oooo HOVED_END defw OOOO fend of moved BASIC 
Foe? 0000 BAS _LENG defw 0800 jlength of BASIC 
FOeR oo00 T_FILE defun 0000 


ptile 


jcurrent pointer in Text 31 


Foeod 
FO?! 
Fora 
Fo? 
Fo?? 
FD?s 
FO?? 
FO?A 
FOVE 
FDAZ 
FOAG 
FDA? 
FDAB 
FDAC 


FDBO 
FDES 
FDBS 
FOR? 
FOaC 
FOBD 
FOSF 
Foci 

Fpc2 
Fpc4 
FDCé 
Foc? 
FOCA 
FocEe 
FORCE 
FOOD. 

FDDS 
FoDea 
FODOR 
FDEL 

FDES 
FDREA 
FDF1 

FDF4 
FOFA 
FOFE 
FEO? 
FEOS 
FEOB 


FE1IZ 
FE1S 
FEIG& 
FEIB 
FEID 
FE2O 
FE24 
FEZ22 
FE23 
FE24 
FE2S 
FEZ6 
FE2? 
FE28 
FE29 
FE2ZC 
FEZD 
FEZF 
FES2 
FE33 
FEI64 
FEI? 
FE3c 
FEF 
FEa2 
FE44 
FE43 
FE46 
FEB 
FE4E 
FES. 
FES4 
FES? 
FESA 
FESD 
FE4o 
FE4&3 
FE4&é3 
FE4&8 
FEa&? 
FEéA 
FESR 
FEAD 
FESF 
FE? 1 
FEZ 
FE?4 
FE?S 
FE?76 
FE?8 
FE??? 
FEBi 
FEa? 
FEoF 
FE?v4 
FE?S4 
FE? 
FEAZ 


f1Enter here to move BASTC 
iCall vis PRINT USR 449707 


ED4ES335¢ 
Z2A4B5C 
ED4z 


MOVE _ BASTe 


ED43e9FD 

EDSBEB25¢ 

EDS387FD 

2A4B5C 

EDES 

413 

EDS3esFD 

Reset RAMTOP and NEW 
11D68FD 
o13A00 
CDDB21 
cDBOO2 
78 
FEFF 
z20Fe 
7a 
FEFF 
20F3 
cpBOO2 
7B 
FEFF 
26Fe 
11006F 
EDS3525C 
cDiDOD 
160000 MOVED_MSG 
424153494320 
68617320 
62654654E20 
6D4F7665642E20 
140200 
505245535320 
41465920 

48455920 

S44F20 
434045415220 
4D454D4F52592E 


WAIT 


NO_KEY 


Program to translate the moved BASIC to 


id be, (PROG) 
id hl, (VARS) 
abc hl,be 
inc hl 

inc hl 

push hl 

pop be 


ld (BAS_LENG),be 


ld de, (RAMTOP) 


ld ({hOVED_END),de 


ld hil, (VARS) 


lddr jMowe BASIC 


ld (MOVED_BAS) ,de 


System 

ld de, AOVED_ASo 
ld Bc, OO3A 
call PR_STRING 
call K_SCAW 

ld «,# 

cp FF 

jr nz,¥ArT 

ld a,d@ 

cp FF 

jr nz,WAIT 
call K_SCAN 

ld a,@ 

cp FF 

jr 2,HO_KET 

id de,4F0o 

ld (RAMTOP) ,de 
call NEW 

defb 14,000,006 
defm "BASIC = 
deftm "has * 
defm "been * 
deim “moved, * 
defb 14,07,00 
defm "PRESS * 
defim “ANT * 
defm "KEY * 
defm "TO * 
defm "CLEAR = 
defm "MEMORY. * 


1Call via PRINT USR 43042 


ZAB25C 
226BFD 
Z184FD 
3400 
2AeS5FD START 
34 LINE_NO 
23 

SE 

23 

23 

23 

ES 

ES 

ci 

2A87FD 

AF 

ED42 

D2AEFE 

El 

LL76FE DONE 
013700 

CDDBZ1 

2ABBFD 

11006F 

EDS2 

2B 

111027 

CDé6FE 

11E803 

CD69FE 

114400 

CDé9FE 

110A00 

CD469FE 

110100 

CD69FE 

3EFD 

cD3012 


SET_UP 


AF CONVERT 
aC COUNT 


i? PR_LENGTH 


1400 SAVE_MSG 


S44P 2073417466320 
a2413 34742320 
6173207465787 420 
6é64746CH6S534 

oDpoD 

3341344320 
2276E4140452220 
ai444443520 


Id hl, (RAMTOP) 
ld (T_FILE),h1 
id hl, GFLAG 

ld (¢hl),00 


id Al, (MOVED_BAS) 


id d,thl) 
inc hl 

1d @#,¢hl) 
imc hl 
inc hl 
imc hl 
push hl 
push hl 
pop be 


ld Kl, (MOVED_END) 


Zor 2 

gbe hl, be 

ip nc,OT_DONE 
pop hi 

ld de, SAVE_MSG 
ld Be,0037 
call PR_STRING 
ld hl, «{T_FILE) 
ld de,4De4 

abc hl,de 

dec hil 

ld d#,2710 
call CONVERT 
ld de, O3E8 
call CONVERT 
ld de,0044 
call CONVERT 
id de, 000A 
call CONVERT 
id de#,0001 
call CONVERT 
id a,FD 

call 12306 

ret 

nor & 

inc - 

sbc hl,de 

jr c,PR_LENOTH 
yr COUNT 

add Al,de 

add a,2F 

ret io 

ret 

defb 14,000,060 
nop 


defm “To gave = 


defm "BASIC * 
defim "as text * 
defm "“#ile:* 





BASIC2 text....Extending the use of MTERMII 


by Michael E. Carver 


ifind length of 
IBASIC program 


iProgram length 


lend of moved 
FBASIC 


jetart of moved 
BASIC 

message length 
[Print Fesseage 


fWeailt until noe 
fkey is pressed 


iWailt until a 
jkey if pressed 
iNew RANTOP 


{Reset Memory 
IPRINT AT O,O1 


IPRINT AT 2,05 


text #ile 


lprogram flags 
iClear flags 


iskip length of 
jline 


icheck for end 
jof BASIC 


[me@pfpage length 


Text #ile Start 
18% of bytes in 
itext #ile 

1 LOOOOd 

to decimal 
,io000d 


11000 


1104 


jlower screen 
jfor cutput 


febtain CHES code 


IPRINT AT 0,01 


defb OD,00 tline#@eed * * * 


defim “SAVE * 
detm *"*name** 
defm "CODE * 


FEA? 
FEAD 
FEAE 
FEAF 
FEB! 
FER4 
FEB? 
FEBA 
FEBD 
FECO 
FECS 
FEC4 
FEC4 
FECa 
FECA 
FECD 
FECE 
FECF 
FEDO 
FED! 
FEDS 
FEDS 
FEDA 
FED? 
FEDS 
FEDE 
FEDF 
FEE! 
FEES 
FEES 
FEE? 
FEES 
FEEB 
FEED 
FEEE 
FEFO 
FEF2 
FEFa 
FEFS4 
FEFB 
FEFA 
FEFR 
FEFE 
FFoOo 
FFOX 
FFo4 
FFOa 
Fro? 
FFOB 
FFOE 
FFL 
FFis 
FFILS 
FFié 
FFL? 
FFIA 
FFID 
FFLF 
FF22 
FF23 
FF24 
FF24 
FF28 
FF24 
FF2c 
FF2ZE 
FF30 
FFIs3 
FFiS 
FFi? 
PF.i? 
FFIB 
FFID 
FF4ao 
FF43 
FF43s 
Fra? 
FFa? 
FF4B 
FF4pD 
Frar 
FFS1 
FFS3 
FFS5 
FFs? 
FS? 
FFSA 
FFSD 
FFF 
FFa2 
FFés 
Fras 
Free 
FFAB 
FFé&eE 
FFP 
FFT3 
FFT4 
FRE?? 
FETA 
FF?B 
FFTVE 
FFeO 
FFex 
FFeSs 
Fre? 
FFa? 
Free 
FFeD 
FFeF 
FF?2 
FF? 
FER4a 
FFs 
FF?? 
FF?a 
FFoA 


SZ2I383431342C 


oo 

EB 
iE20 
OLEBOS 
CDB4FF 
14400 
COBAFF 
o10400 
CDB4FF 
7D 
FEZO 
2802 
C430 
COCerFF 
El 

7E 

Fe | 

ES 
FEZ2 
2004 
FS 
SAB4FD 
EEO! 
a3284FD 
Fi 
FEOD 
2817 
FEOE 
2007 
El 
o10300 
ED4A 
ES 
isDD 
FEZO 
so002 
isp? 
FE?S 
JO2A 
FS 
S484FD 
CESr 
IZ64FD 
Fi 
FEOD 
CcCLSFF 
FETA 
ccilvFr 
CocrrrF 
FEOD 
2OBGa 
El 
CIZ20FE 
FS 
S484FD 
che? 
I264FD 
Fi 

Cc? 
FE&O 
2010 
FE7c 
250F 
FE7E 
2608 
Z2164FD 
cB44 
2o0c3 
CEs4 
2OBF 
Da4iF 
Cao77FF 
CO4EFF 
isee 
FE?O 
2004 
SEZO 
IBAD 
FEAS 
2004 
DéAaP 
1BAS 
FEEA 
2004 
FS 
SAB4FD 
CBD? 
=284FD 
Fi 
DAAS 
€a77FF 
CoAEFF 
CcIcorE 
S3A84FD 
Ccacr 
2264FD 
Cc? 
LLi?eoo 
Fa 
corco? 
as80C 
SAB4FD 
Char 
2005 
sEZO 
CDOASFF 
1A 
Ea7F 
CDASFF 
1A 

ia 

a? 
30FS 
Di 
FE46 
z7B03 


NOT_DONE 


STORE 
BODY 


ENTER 


NHOT_SLUG 


PRINTABLE 


ASCII 


UNREM 


NONASCII 


ExXPaAnD 


BLOCK_GRAPH 


GRAPHICS 


TOKENS 


NOT_REM 


TOKEN_FLAG 


TOKENS_1i 


PO_TABLE 


FO_EACH 


defm "26414," 
nop 

x de,hi 

id «#,20 

id bc, O3E8 
call OUT_SP_NO 
Id be, 0064 
call OUT_SP_NO 
id be, OOOA 
call OUT_SP_NoO 
ld a,1 

cp 20 

jr z, STORE 

add 4,230 

call STORE_CHAR 
pop hl 

Id a, (hl) 

inc hl 

Push Al 

ep 22 

ir nz, ENTER 
push af 

Id a, (GFLAG) 
nor Of 

Id (@FLAG) a 
pop af 

ep OD 

jr 2, ASCII 

ep OF 

jr nz,NOT_SLUG 


Pop hil 

ld be,0005 
adc hl,be 

Push Al 

jr BODY 

ep 20 

jr nc, PRINTABLE 
jr BODY 

cp 75 

jr nc,MONASCII 
Push af 

ld a, (@FLAG) 
ree l,a 

ld (GPLAG),a 
pop af 

cp oD 

call z,UNREM 
ep IA 

call z,UNREN 
call STORE_CHAR 
cp OD 

gr nz,Bopr 

Pop Al 

jp LINE_NO 
Push oF 

id a, (@FLAG) 
ree 2s - 

ld (GFPLAG),« 
Pop af 

ret 

cp 80 

ir nc, BLOCK_GRAPHC 
cp 7c 

ir z,EXPAND 

cp 7E 

jr 2, EXPAND 

id h1,@FLAG 
bit 0, (hl) 

jr nz,ASCII 
bit 2, ¢hl) 

jr nz,ASCII 
gub iF 

call TOKENS_1 
call TOKEN_FLAG 
jr BODY 

cp 70 

jr nc, GRAPHICS 
id a,20 

jr ASCII 

cp AS 

jr ne, TOKENS 
gub 4F 

jr ASCII 

cp EA 

jr nz,NOT_REM 
Push a¢ 

id a, (@FLAG) 
get 2,8 

id (@FLAG),a« 
Pop af 

Sub AS 

call TOKENS_1 
call TOKEN_FLAG 
jp BODY 

id a, (G@FLAQ) 
get 1,a 

ld (@FLAG),« 
ret 

id de, TO_TABLE 
push af 

call PO_SEARCH 
jr c,PO_EACH 
ld a, (GFPLAG) 
bit l,« 

jr nz,PO_EACH 
id a,2z0 

call PO_SAVE 
ld a, ide) 

and ?7F 

call PO_SAVE 
id a, (del 

inc de 

add a, 

jr nc, PO_EACH 
pop dea 

cp 468 

jr z,PO_TRSP 





{convert ling # 
ito decimal 
$1000d 

1100d 


10d 


| space 


[obtain CHR® code 


(Guoten 


iTeggle Guotes 
flag 


1ENTER 


iNumber Slug 


[BASIC Pointer 
Igkip #loating 
ipoint number 


iControl Code? 


FASCII? 


Reset Token flag 


iff Enter 
ireset REM flag 
Vi¢ & 

Ireset REM flag 


fEnter? 


[REAR #lag 


1Block Graphics? 
STICK? 


i FREE 


iGuotes flag? 
1REM #lag? 


1044 eet 


iUser graphics? 
Space 

User graphics? 
IHake ASCII 


[Set REA flag 


'Set Token flag 


ibase address of 
iToken Table 
find Token in 
jtable and store 


iToken flag set? 
iPrint space 
ti? needed 


jecancel any 
binverted bites 


pif inverted 
fend of Token 
ftrailing space? 


32 


FFec 
FFE 
FFoF 
FFAO 
FFA2 
FFAaz 
FFAS 
FFAS 
FFA? 
FFAA 
FFAB 
FFaAc 
FFAD 
FFAE 
FFEO 
FFBZ 
FFB4 
FFBs 
FFB? 
Fro? 
FFBA 
FFEC 
FFED 
FFBEE 
FFco 
FFC2 
FFC4 
FFc4 
FFc? 
FFCA 
FFCD 
FFCE 
FFCF 
FFD2 
FFOD 


NOTE: 
which 





FEG2 


ep 62 
De retic 
7a PO_TRESP ld a,d@ 
FEO ep oF 
Dea ret ic 
SsE2O ld a,20 
DS PO_SAVE Pugh de 
Db? x= 
CDCeFF call STORE_CHAR 
BF fxn 
Di Pop de 
Cc? ret 
7B OUT_SP_2 id a, 
FEFF cp FF 
200E jr nz,PR_DIGIT 
SEOO ld 2,00 
180A jr PR_DIGIT 
AF oUT_SP_NO Or - 
EDAZ OUT _SP_i Sbc fhl,be 
a | = inc - 
JOFB jr ne,OUT_SP_i 
oF? add hl,be 
aD dec a 
2BED jr £,O0UT_SP_? 
FE2ZO PR_DIGIT ep 20 
2805 jr z,STORE_CHAR 
C430 add 4,230 
11FFOO id de,OOFF 
ES STORE_CHAR push hl 
Z2AGBFD ld Ki, t{T_FILE) 
7? id thl),a 
za inc hl 
226EBFD ld (THFILE), hl 
El pop hl 
CF ret 


Code from FF??? = FFCH has been borroned 


Print trailing 
lspace 


fPrint line @ 
(an decimal 


[Space 


[Obtain CHR® code 


from the ROM 


handles LLIST with necessary changes for present Program. 


Listing 2 


7000 CLEAR 648797: LET as=""*; 
TORE ©: FOR i#0 TO 73: 
ET a@=atst+ds: NEXT i 
7010 IF LEN aS<¢>1164 THEN PRINT 
FLASH 1)"°Error in Machine Code D 
ATA Lines F9235-98996"'' "Plea 
Se correct before continuing": § 
TOP 
7020 LET address=44700: 
TO LEN aS@-1 STEP 2 
7030 POKE address+INT ((i-1)/2), 
(CODE aS(i)-(48 AND CODE ag(i)<5 
2)-(335 AND CODE a®iti) >44))#14+CO 
DE aS(i+i1)-(48 AND CODE asti+i)< 
38)-(35 AND CODE a®ii+i) >44) 
7040 NEXT i 
7050 CLS : PRINT "Machine Code h 
as been Loaded into memory."" 
*"Press any key to SAVE & VERIFY 
BASICZ2text": PAUSE 0: SAVE "BA 
SIiC2text*CODE 64700,35972: CLS : P 
RINT "Rewind and play tape to Ve 
rity": VERIFY "BASIC2text"CODE 6 
4700,592 
7925 DATA 
7926 DATA 
7927 DATA 


RES 
READ d@: L 


FOR i=1 


*0000000000000000" 
"OOEDSBS35C2A4B5C* 
*EDE223523SES5CiED4S" 


-Continue this pattern 


using Line numbers 7928-9997 in 


increments of il. . =. 


7998 DATA "FD7723228BFDEic9"* 





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USING GRAPHICS ON THE QL 
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WRITE FOR OUR NEW 6th EDITION CATALOG. 


CLS: PAPER ®: PAPER #0;@: INK 


IS AN ETCH-A-SKETCH" 


3 PRINT" 
4 PRIWT" 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
35 
43 
42 
43 
44 
£5 
46 
Av 
48 


120 
130 
1498 
150 
160 
17@ 
180 
219 
211 
S49 
350 


PROGRAM CREATED FOR THE STRANGE" 
AND DEMENTED; POSSIBLY FOR THOSE" 
WE BELIEVE THAT THIS PROGRAM " 

PRINT” WILL PROVIDE MINUTES OF ENJOY-" 

PRINT” MENT, SECONDS OF ECSTACY, AND A" 

PRINT" BETTER OUTLOOK OW LIFE, THE UNI-" 

PRINT" VERSE, AND EVERYTHING." 

PRINT" { TV MODE )": PRINT: PRINT 

FOR K=1 TO 35 

PRINT Fe ie . fine : 

NEXT K 

PAUSE 100 

PRINT" DO YOU WISH TO SEE THE DIRECTIONS”; ,"«Y/N)" 
IF DIS="N" THEN GO TO 40 
CLS:CLS #0: PRINT" DIRECTIONS ARE AS FOLLOVS:" 
PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" USE:" 

PRINT: PRINT “O-FOR 
PRINT: PRINT "L-FOR 
PRINT: PRINT "P-FOR 
PRINT: PRINT “O-FOR 
PRINT: PRINT "Q-FOR 
PRINT: PRINT “T-FOR 
PAUSE 300: CLS:CLS 
PRINT "TO BEGIN" 
PRINT: PRINT"1> DRAWING" 

PRINT: PRINT"2) SEE A PICTURE" 

PRINT: PRINT’ PRESS 1 OR 2": INPUT YESS 
IF YESS="1" THEN GO TO 349 
IF YESS="2" THEN GO TO 150 
GO TO 4@ 

IF ES="Y" THEN GO TO 150 

IF ES="N" THEN GO TO 322 
GO TO 110 
LET DS = CHRS(93):LET LS = 
PRINT DS;"OPEHN POINTS1”" 
PRINT DS;:"READ POINTS1" 
LBYTES mdv1_ POINTS1, 131072 
PRINT DS;"CLOSE POINTS1" 
PAUSE 1900 

CLS: MODE 512 

PAPER #0;7: INK #0:0:CLS #@: 
L=DN, O=#4, P=}, Q=STOP FOR 


PRINT" 


UP" 

DOWN" 

RIGHT" 

LEFT" 

DRAWING COMMANDS" 
TEXT COMMANDS" 

#2 


CHRS (93) 


PRINT #0; "O=UP, 
COMMANDS" 


OO ——  ——————— 


7:CLS #@: PRINT" 
2 Al 3,0: PRINT *<<-<3<86=5665666<-s—-— = 3222 = == === “: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT" 





SINCLAIR QL" 
THIS 


Cnr 


sinks el eS 


By David and Robert Johnson 


re 





: INPUT DI$ 
37 LET Y=1 
390 LET X=¥ 
295 LET Y$=INKEYS 
40@ IF Y$="" THEN GO TO 395 
42 IF Y$="0" THEN LET Y=Y+1 
425 IF Y$="L" THEN LET Y=Y-1 
43® IF Y$="0" THEN LET X=X-1 
435 IF Y$="P" THEN LET X=X+1 
436 IF Y$="Q" THEN GO TO 560 
437 IF Y$S="T" THEN TEXT 
520 POINT X,Y 
521 PRINT #0;"X=";X;" Y="; 
522 INK 7 
550 GO TO 395 
56 CLS #0:PRINT #0;"DO YOU WISH TO PLACE A CIRCLE 


34 


AT a tania’ esi ? 


CY,N)": INPUT #0; Cs 
Program Continued On Page 36... 


MARKEL ENTERPRISES 
Post Office Box 2392 
secaucus, New Jersy 07094-0992 
(718) 627-1293 





serving the Sinclair community since 1982! 


INCREDIBLE! FULL FEATURED! 
SINCLAIR QL 


Includes Manual, All 4 PSION Bundled 
Programs, 4 Blank Microcartridges and 
Markel’s Own Address Book Software 


$209.00 


THIS IS NOT A DO-IT-YOURSELF KIT! 


1.C.E. Cartridge...$20.00 when bought with QL 
Reduced prices on many items in our Catalog. 
WRITE! 


A FEW STILL AVAILABLE 








MARKEL ENTERPRISES WISHES TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE A 
HAPPY 2nd BIRTHDAY! 


MORE ITEMS BEING ADDED DAILY AS WE EXPAND OUR QL SUPPORT. 
IF IT’S NOT LISTED - WE CAN GET IT - PLEASE CALL OR WRITE. 


ADD $3.00 FOR C.O.D. SHIPMENTS 
ADD 3% FOR SHIPPING AND HANDLING. 
NY AND NJ RESIDENTS ADD APPROPRIATE SALES TAX. 


Our address says mail order / Our phone says NYC / Our name says support 


5965 IF Cs="Y" THEN GO TO 570 
566 IF Cs="N" THEN GO TO 600 
572 PRINT #0;"CIRCLE PARAMETERS: RADIUS, ECCENTRICITY, ANGLE": INPUT #0; Z,V,V 
575 CIRCLE X;¥;Z,W,V: PRINT #@;"DO YOU WISH TO FILL ? (Y/ND" 

O76 INPUT #0;C8: IF Cs="Y" THEN PAINT 

577 IF C8="N" THEN GO TO 395 

600 PRINT #0:PRINT #0;"DO YOU WISH TO CHANGE X & Y ? 
6@1 INPUT #@; CS: IF CS="Y" THEN GO TO 610 

602 IF Cs="N" THEN GO TO 395 

610 PRINT #2;"YOU ARE NOW AT X";X;"¥":¥;" INPUT NEV X**: INPUT #0; X 
611 PRIWT #@;"NEW Y ??": INPUT #@;: Y¥:GO TO 395 

13000 DEFine PROCedure PAINT 

13010 PRINT #0;" WHAT COLOR 7? (« ® - 7 >": INPUT #@; COLOR 


Program Continued From Page 34 


(Y/N)" ***HOW TO USE THIS PROGRAM*** 

This is a drawing program for the QL, and is 
self-explanatory—-with directions in the pro- 
gram itself. You can view the program ona TV 
(F2) or a monitor on F2. 


13015 INK COLOR: FILL 1: CIRCLE X;¥;Z,W,V: FILL ® 
13¢2@ END DEFine 

13999 REMark ©4244 4444444424440 204 HEHE KEKE 
14¢@0 REMark BY David Johnson and Robert Johnson 
14500 REMark for the Sinclair QL : 1986 


14510 REMark CELELELELAK ELE ECA KLEE ALE CALETA ECE EECEEYE 
15000 DEFine PROCedure TEXT 


15010 PRINT #0;"TEXT AT CURRENT X ";X;"¥ ";¥;" POSITION ?7 C(Y/ND" 


15615 INPUT #0; TEXS: IF TEXS="Y¥" THEN GO TO 15017 
15@16 IF TEXS="N" THEN GO TO 600 

15017 PRINT #0;"INK ? (@-7)": INPUT #@; COLOR: INK COLOR 
15@39 PRINT #0;" INPUT YOUR TEXT: ": INPUT #0; TES 

15035 CURSOR X,Y: PRINT TES 

15¢4@ END DEFine 


The most important 


thing is to have your CAPS LOCK ON! Just 
follow the programs built in prompts. 


Anyone who wants a copy of this program on 
Microdrive, just send a formatted cartridge 
to: D. Johnson, 2399 St. Rd. 95, Edison, OH 
43320. Include $1.00 for shipping. 


“| Built A QL Kit” 


By Bob Howard, WA6DLI 


| As soon aS you read the title, you will say.."He 
did WHAT". Yes, its true...like the early Sinclairs, you 
can now buy a OL Kit by mail order from A+ COMPUTER 


RESPONSE in Keene, New Hampshire (and some QL dealers 


also have them now). 


Well, as I am primarily a 2068 buff...I ordered one 
as a way to dabble in the QL without a major investment. 
The kit price is $139 plus $7 shipping from A+. I 
ordered the QL kit on September 25, and it arrived 
October 8th. 

But you say... isn't this a dirty trick...selling 
the OL by mail as a $139 kit when they are also ex- 
pecting the 17 or so QL dealers to sell the assembled 
OL package at $299 list less what the dealers want to 
throw in as discounts or added software and accessories? 
I think not as you have to consider what you DON'T get 
with the kit. First you will be in the true Atari ST or 
Amiga "class" as your computer kit comes with absolutely 
NO SOFTWARE! This is more of a problem than you think, 
as you can't run to your local downtown store and buy 
some. Also while you can buy commercial software from 
the QL dealers...they don't offer the four bundled pro- 
grams that come with the dealer-sold QL (word processor, 
data base, spread sheet, and graph programs). Since you 
didn't get the programs...you don't get the standard OL 
documentation either. (The QL kit only comes with parts 
of the User Guide, and there is no nice binder either. 
Most of the documentation concerns technical aspects of 
the QL.) The kit sales might hurt dealer sales of 
complete QL packages, but you could look at it as an 
expanded market for the dealers sale of peripherals and 
software. 

If you don't need the business package...then the 
QOL kit is a great "deal", for learning SuperBASIC and 
for typing in programs from tutorials such as in Zx 
Computing Monthly from England and also TDM. 

Well enough said on the ethics of the deal...what 
is the QL kit like and how hard is it to build? First of 
all, a kit it is not...it is a knocked down QL out of 
the case and consists of: a case with keyboard in the 
top half, two micro-drives, a heat sink, and a_ single 
mother-board computer, assembled and apparently tested 
by A+ (derived from the stickers on the bottom of the 
case.) Also a bag of screws and miscellaneous parts like 
covers for the ports not used. The heavy power supply 
and cord, and TV switch box and lead is also packed in 





the box. Also supplied are two blank micro cartridges, 
and two cables; an RGB cable and a serial port cable. 
(Note: these last two items are not included with pre- 
assembled QL's and are an option.) 

The "Kit" is about as difficult to assemble as_ the 
average lawn chair or knocked down hardware you might 
get at a department store. This doesn't mean there are 
not pitfalls (you might be a klutz at reading the dir- 
ections!). The QL Kit comes with the following docu- 
mentation: An assembly manual produced by A+ Computer 
Response, A Beginners Guide to the QL by Sinclair, A 
Technical Description of the QOL by Sinclair. It is all 
well packaged and the instructions are very good as far 
as they go. They look like they might have been produced 
with a QL graphics program. 

I had the thing together in no time at all...but I 
am an old hand at stuffing the Sinclair keyboard ribbons 
into those slots! This is the most difficult part, along 
with not dislodging it all when you are plugging the LED 
wires into their sockets. These wires and the keyboard 
ribbons are both coming from the top lid of the case and 
you must do a balancing act to hold the lid at a 45 
degree angle while you push the wires into sockets. One 
slip and you risk ruining the ribbons or may crumple the 
ribbons while fighting to get the LED wires into their 
holes and held in until you push down on the socket to 
lock the wires in place. 

The wires for the two Microdrives can only go in 
the right way if you don't twist them and you have the 
Grives in the right position as shown in the drawings. 


36 





My big trauma came when everything worked fine 
(keyboard all keys, LED lights, and drives)...but I 
couldn't pass the formatting test. Then I read the OL 
Beginners Guide and found that the formatting command: 
FORMAT MDV1_ shown in the assembly manual must include 
the underline symbol as part of the command (or you get 
the dreaded "not found" report). I thought the "_" was 
just their way of indicating the following flashing 
cursor! So my microdrives were OK but my command was in- 
complete. This needs to be stated in the assembly manual 
I think...at least it cost me a lot of grief. Oh yes, 
the TV switch box and cable allowed me to test the OL 
on a convenient TV set nearby. 

A+ Computer Response does offer a phone consul- 
tation service for kit problems from 3 to 5 pm Eastern 
time. I am sure this is for kit assembly and test pro- 
cedures only...they will not be willing to hold your 
hand on how to use SuperBASIC and otherwise program your 
QL...and your phone bill couldn't stand this either. 

When you move from that TV set, you are going to 
find that Sinclair expected you to purchase the Sinclair 
RGB Monitor. You won't be able to use the OQL's monitor 
mode on most TV's, but you could on a green or amber hi- 
res monitor if you know how to connect one up. The QL's 





RGB plug (an 8-pin DIN plug) is a rare bird to buy...its 
not at Radio Shack. I happen to have color monitors in 
my computer room/ham shack and one is a TI composite and 
the other is a Comrex CR-6600 RGB. Fortunately, I had 
been through the RGB cable/plug mess in getting my 2068 
onto the RGB monitor. 

What is my verdict on the kit? I feel that if you 
want a "bargain" in a “super computer" (with the under- 
standing of the hassels you will have to go through to 
hook it up to bargain monitors, ect.), then the QL Kit 
is a good deal, especially if you want to program in 
SuperBASIC or other languages. If you want to use ICE (a 
GEM like desk top format operating system) and the 
bundled business software, you would be ahead to buy an 
assembled OL from an authorized dealer. You will be 
buying other software and peripherals from them anyway, 
so you might as well get off to a good start by getting 
the computer from them too. 

How do I like my QL? Well, it is great, and I have 
had fun trying some of the QL programs in ZX Computing. 
Now...if I just could get color on one of my monitors! 

For further information on the QL Kit, contact A+ 
Computer Response, 69-B Island St., Keene, NH 03431 
(603-357-1800). 


Ql Q“uiall/Word Processor Tips 
ract:-{7 


by 


Mike de Sosa 


QL Word Processor AKA QLWP AKA Quill--the least 
acclaimed of the four Psion software programs bundled 
with the Sinclair QL--is still a good word processor, 
especially with added memory and RAMdisk. Quill's chief 
fault is that it is a bit slow in carrying out some 
operations. Quill's chief virtue is its ease of use: it 
is even simpler than Tasword II for the TS 2068. So much 
for criticism, now for some tips. 

In this and future articles on Quill, I will first 
deal with rather elementary things which it is essential 
for any user of Quill to master and then with more 
complex matters. 

If you have not already done so, clone a _ working 
copy of Quill from the master Quill cartridge. 

Put a blank or no longer needed Microdrive cart- 
ridge in Microdrive 1. If it is a new cartridge, format 
it five times using: 


FOR F=1 TO S: FORMAT MDV1_ 


Otherwise, put your master Quill program cartridge in 
Microdrive 2, then key and enter: 

LRUN MDV2_CLONE_BAS 
This will take about ten minutes. When complete, return 
your Quill master program to its protective case and 
store it in a safe place, load a formatted file cart- 
ridge in Microdrive 2, then key and enter: 


LRUN MDV1i_BOOT 


Quill should load in under 20 seconds. You are now ready 
to write! (To load and run Quill from boot up, just in- 
sert a Qull program cartridge in Microdrive 1 and key 
Fl.) 

Quill like most software programs has preset (or 
default) values for line spacing, margins, tab settings, 
ect., SO you may, if you wish, proceed immediately. (To 
set or check what values are set you will have to use 
various commands.) If you are not impatient to begin the 
great American novel, hold off a few minutes, and let's 
check out your Quill monitor ‘screen. 

At the top is the control area where prompts and 
reminders are shown and where additional instructions 


37 


will appear from time to time. For HELP it says to press 
Fl. Try it. Once in the HELP facility, key Fl again for 
instructions on how to use the facility. Key ESC to re- 
turn to the program. 

Keying F2 "toggles" the control area on and off, 
creating a larger working area (you can usually infer 
what's going on without the control area visible by re- 
ferring to the status area--the three lines below the 
working area.) 

Reading to the right in the control area is a block 
indicating that you can move the red cursor using the 
cursor (arrow) keys. (You cannot move the cursor on a 
blank screen or beyond the end of the text for the first 
time using the cursor keys; if you wish to leave a space 
at the top of the working area or later between para- 
graphs, you must use the ENTER key which starts a new 
indented paragraph or the SPACE bar or TABULATE key. 
Using ENTER to do this has the disadvantage of creating 
a new paragraph each time it is keyed which will slow 
your later movement through the text using the SHIFT and 
up and down cursor keys.) 

With text on the screen, keying the up and down 
cursor keys moves the cursor up or down one line; keying 
the left and right cursor keys moves the cursor one 
character space left or right. Depressing the SHIFT key 
while keying the up and down cursor keys moves the 
cursor up or down one paragraph at a time. Depressing 
the SHIFT key while keying the right and left cursor 
keys moves the cursor right or left a word at a time. 

Type in a paragraph of four or five lines; DO NOT 
USE THE ENTER KEY TO CHANGE LINES--just keep on typing 
without regard to where you are on a line and don't 
attempt to separate words at the end of a line or 
correct any errors. Quill will change lines for you. Now 
key ENTER to begin a new indented paragraph. Type a_ two 
or three line paragraph, then key ENTER again to begin a 
third indented paragraph. Practice moving the cursor 
right and left and up and down using the cursor keys and 
SHIFT plus the cursor keys. Do not worry that you cannot 
always place the cursor precisely where you wish: this 
is an unfortunate quirk of Quill! Check "Cursor" in the 
HELP facility. 


The wide central window in the control area displays 
the information shown upon loading Quill, two sets of 
commands when F3 is keyed, and screen prompts during 
command sequences. The top line of the center window in- 
dicates you are in the Insert mode wherein characters 
keyed appear at the cursor position, displacing any 
existing text to the right--note that if more than one 
word is inserted the text will separate to permit a 
longer section of text to be inserted. Contrary to what 
it says in you QL User Guide (QLUG), the text will not 
rejoin itself automatically. To rejoin the text, place 
the cursor one space past the final character at the 


front of the separation and press CTRL and the right 
cursor key. 


The bottom line in the central window of the con- 
trol area advises how to change to the Overwrite mode, 
the other Quill mode, by depressing SHIFT and keying F4. 
In the Overwrite mode, which you will find is much 
Slower than the Insert mode, you can type over existing 
tex. Use of the Overwrite mode, which I tend to forget 
is available, is frequently quicker and more useful way 
to edit text. Note that the current Quill mode is in- 
dicated in the status area. Check "Insert" in the HELP 
facility. 

The second item in the central window of the con- 
trol area reminds you to key ENTER to begin a new in- 
dented paragraph. Check "ENTER key" in HELP. 

The third line indicates that to delete text, you 
depress CTRL and a cursor key. CTRL and the left cursor 
key delete the character to the left of the cursor. CTRL 
and the right cursor key delete the character under the 
cursor; CTRL and the cursor key delete all text on the 
line to the left of the cursor; CTRL and the right 
cursor key delete all text on the line under and to the 
right of the cursor. Depressing the SHIFT and CTRL keys 
and the left cursor key deletes the word to the left of 
the cursor; SHIFT, CTRL, and the right cursor key de- 
lete the word to right of the cursor. Check "Delete" in 
HELP. 

The window to the right of the central window in 
the control area reminds you to key F4 to select another 
of Quill's other four typefaces (bold, underlined, high 
(superscript], and low [subscript]. Combinations are 
possible, for example, bold, underlined, high script. 
Another option is made available by keying F4--the Paint 
option with which the typeface of existing text may be 
changed; again, combinations are possible. Key F4 and 
follow screen prompts to add bold and underlined text, 
Superscripts, and subscripts to your practice para- 
graphs. Use the Paint option to change the typeface of 
existing text. Check "Typeface" in HELP. 

The upper right window in the control area prompts 
you to key F3 to select and toggle between two sets of 
Quill commands. 

In Quill, unlike Archive, the command to be sel- 
ected must appear in the central window of tthe control 
area. Once a command sequence is selected, subsequent 
prompts and instructions will appear in this window. A 
command is selected by keying the first letter of the 
command. Key F3, then Key F3 again, noting the commands 
available. When the command Justify is displayed, Key J. 
Use the up cursor key to move the cursor to the be- 
ginning of the second paragraph. Press the SPACE bar and 
note that the justification of the text in the second 
two paragraphs is changed. Note also that text cannot be 
added while in a command sequence. Key ENTER to return 
to the normal (Insert or Overwrite mode.) It is not a 
good idea to use ESC to terminate a command sequence; in 
some cases this might cancel a desired command change. 

ESC is used to abort a command sequence in progress 
or to perform some designated function within a command 
sequence. 

The working area consists of 17 lines of text with 
the control area present or 21 lines without the control 
area. 


38 


The status area consists of the three lines at the 
bottom of the screen. The uppermost of these is the in- 
put line editor on which the cursor, command sequence in 
use, and prompts sometimes appear, and on which entries 
(filenames, ect.) are made. The cursor will appear on 
this line when an input is required. The Quill mode, 
typeface, number of words typed, document name, and the 
page and line number of the cursor line are displayed on 
the bottom two lines in the status area. 

PRACTICE, PRACTICE, PRACTICE all of these pro- 
cedures now or you may develop ingrained bad habits 
which will slow you down later! 

So far, this article has dealt with elementary but 
essential procedures that must be mastered. For the 
novice, don't wait for the next issue of TDM to continue 
learning Quill. Make use of the Quill section of the 
QLUG, and the HELP facility to teach yourself to use the 
program. Make sure you fully understand each command 
sequence as you proceed. If you are using the basic 128k 
QL, I advise you to SAVE your document every twenty or 
thirty minutes on two Microdrive cartridges and begin a 
new document file when the document can no longer be 
stored in RAM, that is, when Microdrive 2 begins to 
operate during text insertion. Leave at least 30 sectors 
free on your file cartridge when creating longer docu- 
ments. Next time out I will assume that you have pro- 
gressed to "the more experienced Quill user" status. 


Tips for the More Experienced Quill User 


Once your program is configured using CONFIG BAS 
and your printer data is installed using INSTALL BAS, 
delete these programs and INSTALL DAT from your Quill 
working copy to make room for auxiliary SuperBASIC and 
machine code programs relevant to word processing. On an 
unexpanded QL, it is a toss-up wether you should add 
machine code programs to multitask with Quill; it may be 
better to save most of the unused RAM for document 
files. But you can expand your BOOT file to include many 
auxiliary procedures and functions without reducing the 
available RAM for document files significantly. 

On my 640k QL, I multitask four programs with 
Quill: QDTG, a date-time-group program which appears in 
the status area, based on a program appearing in QUANTA 
and three proprietary programs, CAPS, QUILL KEY and 
MINI_CALC. My BOOT program proper consists of about 46 
lines and uses QL TOOLKIT II commands. The bulk of the 
BOOT program consists of about 25 defined procedures and 
functions. With Quill loaded in RAMdisk, I can quickly 
QUIT Quill, perform any necessary tasks--most frequently 
saving my current document file to Microdrives--and 
return to Quill ina flash. 

Listing 1 is my Quill BOOT program. It can be 
easily modified to suit your needs and equipment mainly 
by deleting lines. Listing 2 is a machine-code program 
loader for a program, QtoRAMl, which transfers Quill 
from Microdrive 1 to RAMdisk 1, making necessary pro- 
visions for efficient RAM management. Listing 3 is the 
QDTG program loader. 

Most of the defined procedures and functions in 
Listing 1 are, I trust, self-explanatory. If you can't 
figure something out, drop me a line, in care of TDM and 
include a self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

[If you would like me to send you my Quill BOOT 
program on Microdrive, including non-proprietary machine 
code programs; the programs in listings 2 and 3; four 
PRINTER DAT programs; and a few useful SuperBASIC pro- 
grams of my own devising, you may order it through TIME 
DESIGNS for $15. Send check/money order to: TDM, 29722 
Hult Rd. Colton, OR 97017. VISA and MASTERCARD charges 
accepted--telephone orders O.K. Please specify "Mike's 
Quill Cartridge" when ordering. ] 

NEXT MONTH: More on Quill, particularly on in- 
creasing the number of Quill typefaces readily available 
Fo you. 









hk — 





fm * = a a 
_h kh : > 
oo. Da he| ‘Wess = 
®'eeea.."*** ee \ 
a 88 wwe ' 


@ FORNAT rame_e00: SBYTES rame_space,131072 
, 60000 

“ CLEAR: WINDOW 512,256,0,0: CSIZE 1,1: CLS 
6 PRINT “ rami = *; 

68 FORMAT rami_24o 

10 PRINT ” ramS = "; 

12 FORMAT ramS_360 

14 PRINT ” Setting up QUILL on RAMNdisk" 

16 COPY mdvi_quil_hob TO rami_quil_hob 

18 COPY mdvl_compare_exe TO raml_compare_ex 


e 
20 COPY mdvil_solhead2_doc TO ramS_solhead2_ 





76 FORMAT ram2_ 

78 PRINT ” Executing QUILL” 

BO CLOSE #1: CLOSE #2: WINDOW #0,400,20,35, 
£15 

Be EXEC_W raml_quill 

64 OPEN #1,con: OPEN #2,con 

BE wscr 

6B CSIZE 1,1: PRINT ™ Copy ramS_ document F 
iles to mdve_” 

S80 WCOPY ramS_,mdve_ 

S32 CLS: DIR mdv2_: PAUSE 150 

S4 PRINT: PRINT " Key and enter ‘'reb' to re 
boot QUILL”\\" or ‘lreb’ to load more doc 
uments and reboot QUILL”"\\” or ‘cop i‘ / 
*cop 2’ to backup Files on mdvil_ or mdve_™ 

S56 STOP 

S000 REMark PROCEDURES & FUNCTIONS 

3002 DEFine PROCedure C 

S5004% CONTINUE 

S006 END DEFine 

3008 DEFine FuNction SGNCn): IF n=0: RETurn 
0: ELSE RETurn n/ABSCn) 


doc 3010 DEFine FuNction FeC(f): RETurn (f-32)* 
@2 COPY mdvi_lhead_doc TO ramS_lhead_doc 3S 
e6 COPY mdvl1_Fastcopy TO rami_Fastcopy e : 

28 PRINT: PRINT ”™ Do you wish to set clock 301% DEFine FuNction R10: RETurn RNDC1 TO 1 
CY/NI? ™ 0) 

30 IF INKEYS(-1)=="y": PRINT :PRINT ” SDATE 9016 DEFine FuNction R100: RETurn RNDC1 TO 
yyyy,mm,dd,hh,mm,ss"\\" Key and ENTER ‘C’ 100) 

to continue”: STOP $018 DEFine FuNction DICE: LOCal a,b: a=RND 
32@ CLS: PRINT ” Executing multitasked progr C1 TO 6): beRNDC1 TO 6): RETurn atb 

ams" 3020 DEFine PROCedure LIST1154 
34 EXEC mdvi_quill_key 30ee LOCal a,b,ns 

36 EXEC mdvl_mini_calc s0e4 CLS #2. ) 
38 EXEC mdvi_caps 8026 INPUT " Program name? ";nS 

40 EXEC mdvi1_qdtg 30cs8 INPUT ” Enter program start line ";a 
42 CLS: PRINT ” Transferring Quill to RAM1_ 3030 =6INPUT " Enter program end line ";b 

" 9032 OPEN #3,serl 
44 EXEC _W mdvi_qtoraml $033 PRINT #3, CHRS(27);CHRS(G2) ; CHRSCB) 
46 CLS: PRINT " Select Printer Driver” s3034 PRINT #3, CHRSC27);CHRSC77);CHRSC11) 
48 PRINT " 1 —- Std STAR SG-10”" $036 PRINT #3, CHRSC27);CHRSCB81);CHRSCS4) 
SO PRINT ” @2@ = Std STAR Delta 10” 8037 PRINT #3,CHRSC27) ; CHRSC78) ; CHRSC6) 
S2 PRINT “ 3 - Std EPSON FXBO Compatibles” S038 PRINT #3,CHRSC14);nS: PRINT #3 

S4 PRINT ”" 4% - Book Manuscript” S040 PRINT #3,CHRSC27);CHRSC66); CHRSC%) 
56 INPUT " Your choice? “;pr so¥2 LIST #3, a TO b 

S58 SELect ON pr so4%4 PRINT #3,CHRSC27);CHRSC66);CHRSCS) 
60 “1: COPY mdvil printeri dat TO rami print S046 PRINT #3,CHRS(12) 

er_dat af i os S048 CLOSE #3 

62 <2: COPY mdvi_printer2@_dat TO rami_print S0SO END DEFine 

er_dat 30Se DEFine PROCedure wscr 

64 =3: COPY mdvi_printer3_dat TO raml_print S054 WINDOW #0,508,4%0,4,216: WINDOW SO6,2 
er_dat 16,4,0: WINDOW #2,508,216,4,0 

66 =4: COPY mdvl_printer4_dat TO raml_print SOS6 PAPER O: INK 7: PAPER #2,0: INK #2,4 
er_dat 3058 MODE 4 

68 END SELect S060 CLS #0: CLS: CLS #2 


70 CLS: PRINT " Copy MDVe Files to RANS” 306e END DEFines 
72 WCOPY mdv2_,ramS_ 306% DEFine PROCedure DSCRe 


74 PRINT "More? ”: IF INKEYS(€-1)=="y": GO T 3066 WINDOW#O,460,56,16,c00: WINDOW#1,160 
0 7e ,©£00,320,0: WINDOW#2,295,200,16,0 


Now Available! “THE BEST OF SUM, PART II” 


The original “THE BEST OF SUM” is now in its 












Over 60 pages of program listings, reviews, hard- 
ware projects, hints and tips, and articles. Covers 2nd printing. 112 pages of articles going all the 
TS-1000, TS-2068, and QL. All are reprints from way back to the beginning of SUM — 3 years 
the last year of SUM plus a few that didn't make it worth! 
into print before now. 11.95 postpaid 
Articles include Building an EPROM Program- 
mer, Sprites on the 2068, Adding RGB to 2068, QL 
Word Processing, What's Available for TS-1000, 
and much more. Does overlap the “Special Issues” 
advertised to the right. 


$6.95 postpaid Everything! $20.00 postpaid 
FOOTE <%, SOFTWARE P.O. Box 14655 — Gainesville, FL 32604 904/462-1086 (6 pm - 9 pm EDT) 
oa 39 ig ean 


QL Special Issue (12/85) — *3.95 postpaid. 
TS-1000 Special Issue (5/86) — ‘3.95 postpaid. 


5068 PAPER#0,0: INK#0,7: CLS#0: PAPER O: 
INK 7: CLS: PAPER#2,0: INK#2,7: CLS#2 

9070 MODE 4 

9072 END DEFine 

3074 DEFine PROCedure DSCR 

5076 WINDOW#O,480,56,16,200: WINDOW#1,480 
,£00,16,0: WINDOWHe,480,200,16,0 

5078 PAPER#0O,0: INK#0,7: CLS#0: PAPER O: 
INK 7: CLS: PAPER#2,0: INK#2,7: CLS#2 

S080 MODE 4 

S082 END DEFine 

$084 DEFine PROCedure listdir 

5086 CLS: OPEN #3,serl 

95088 OPEN_NEW #4, ramS_NF2 

5090 PRINT #3,CHRSC27)8"R”"8CHRSC10) 

s0Se2 PRINT #3, CHRSC27)8&"N"8CHRS(6) 

9034 PRINT #4,CHRSC27)8&"N”"8&CHRSC(E) 

9056 PRINT #3,CHRSC27)8"N"&CHRSC10) 

93098 PRINT #%, CHRS(C27)8"M”"&CHRS(10) 

9100 INPUT "NDY Number? ”;kS 

§10e PRINT "q to quit” 

9104 INPUT "NDV Name? ": FS 

9106 IF FS=="q" THEN GO TO 93lee 

53108 PRINT #3,CHRS(27)8"E” 

$110 PRINT #3,CHRSC14);FS: PRINT #3 

Slie PRINT #4,CHRSC14);FS: PRINT #4 

911% DIR #3,"mdv" & kS & "_” 

9116 DIR #4, "mdv" & kS & ”_” 

9118 PRINT #3 

§120 PRINT #4: GO TO 9104 

Siee CLOSE #3 

S§ic4 CLOSE #4 

$126 END DEFine 

$128 DEFine PROCedure reb 

9130 GO TO 60 

§$i32 END DEFine 

313% DEFine PROCedure LREB 

9136 CLS: PRINT "Select NOV2 documents to 
RANS”™ 

9138 WCOPY mdve_,ramS_ 

9140 PRINT "Nore? ": 
GO TO 9138 

§14%e GO TO 60 

95144 END DEFine 

5146 DEFine PROCedure cz 

9148 CLS#O0 

§150 END DEFine 

§$15e¢ DEFine PROCedure VAL 

9154 LOCal y,fS 

95156 FORMAT ram8_1i0 

9158 CLS: PRINT "Input Formulae? Cz to 

end)” 

5160 CLEAR 

9516e INPUT FS; 

3164 IF fFS==-"z": END DEFine 

9166 OPEN_NEW #4, ram8_work 

9168 PRINT #4,"9174% y = "&FS 

95170 CLOSE #4 

9172 MERGE ram6_work 

$174 REMNark working space 

9176 DELETE ram@8_work 

5178 PRINT "= ";y 

9180 GO TO 93160 

91682 END DEFine 

918% DEFine PROCedure COPCn) 

5186 WCOPY ramS_, "mdv"&n&é"_” 

5168 DIR "mdv"&an&”_ ” 

§190 END DEFine 

9192 DEFine FuNction root Cnumber,root): RE 
Turn number *(€1/root) 

9194 DEFine FuNction fFact(n): IF n=1: RETur 

ni: ELSE RETurn n*fact(n-1) 

9196 DEFine PROCedure sample 

9198 LOCal ans* 

9200 CLS 

9202 INPUT "Percent pro or for candidate 
A? ";:a 

520% b=100-a: PRINT 

9206 INPUT "Size of sample? ";n 

S206 ans%"1 .956*SORTCa*b/n) 

5210 PRINT 

S2ie PRINI "Sampling error is plus or min 
us “;ans*%;" percent Cat 55% confidence leve 
1)"\\ 

9214 PRINT "Range pro or for candidate A 
= ". ga-ans*;" to "; atans%;” percent”\\ 
9216 PRINT "Range con or for candidate B 
= ". b-anss;" to "; btans*s;” percent”\\ 
$218 PRINT "NOTE: Non-sampling errors may 
exceed the sampling error! "\\ 


IF INKEYSC(-1)=="y": 


40 


Seco PRINT “Expand ranges plus/minus 2-4% 
For greater confidence factor." 

S222 END DEFine 

See% DEFine PROCedure OLe 

S226 wide=2S4 

9228 WINDOW 250,206,254,0: WINDOW #2,wide 
,©06,2,0: WINDOW #0,2@*wide,50,254-wide,206 

93230 PAPER O: INK 4: BORDER 1,7,0,3: PAPE 

R #2,0: INK #2,7: BORDER #2,1,7,0,3: PAPER 

#0,0: INK #0,4 

$232 FOR fF-0,1,2@: CLS#F 

S23% END DEFine 

93236 DEFine PROCedure sav(drive, names) 

9238 DELETE "mdv"&driveéa"_"&namesS 

8240 SAVE “mdv"Sdrives”_ "&names 

S242 DIR "mdv"&drivea”"_” 

S244 END DEFine 

S24%6 DEFine PROCedure OLS 


$248 WINDOW#O,512,50,0,205: INK#0,4:PAPER 
#0,0:WINDOW 256,206,257,0:PAPER 2: INK 7:BOR 
DER 1,255: WINDOW#2, 256, 206,0,0: PAPER#2, 7: IN 
K#2,0: BORDER#2, 1,255 

8250 CLS#0:CLS:CLS#2 

$252 END DEFine 


Listing = 


REMark QtoRAMN1 Loader 

REMark Courtesy Barry Ashfield in QUANTA 
RESTORE i4% 

start-RESPR(C10c4%): checksum=0 

FOR Festart TO start+e279 

READ byte:POKE F,byte 
checksum=checksum+byte 

NEXT F 

IF checksum¢>21753: PRINI "error in data 
STOP 

DELETE mdvl1_qtoraml 

| SEXEC mdvl_qtoraml1,start,280,256 

PRINT "QtoRAN1 saved ok": STOP 

DATA 96,14,0,0,0,0,74%,251,0,6 

DATA 61,95,114,57,109,%9,112,11,114,255 
DATA 116,127,78,65,65,250,0,208,112,1 
DATA 114,255,118,1,78,66,74%,1268,103,4 
DATA 936,0,0,172,73,250,0,216,40,136 
DATA 67,250,0,214,112,71,116,14,118,255 
DATA 76,67,7%,128,103,4,96,0,0,146 
DATA 67,250,0,194,34,17,112,24,116,255 
DATA 786,65,74,128,103,4,96,0,0,126 
DATA 73,250,0,166,40,136,34,72,118,255 
DATA 32,122,0,160,112,72,75,250,0,1568 
DATA 36,21,78,67,74,128,103,4,96,0 

DATA 0O,9%,112,2,78,66,65,250,0,116 
DATA 112,1,114,255,118,2,78,66,74,128 
DATA 103,4,96,0,0,70,73,250,0,114% 

DATA “0,136,112e,73,75,250,0,110,36,21 
DATA 116,255,34%,122,0,5%,78,67,74%,1¢e8 
DATA 103,4,96,0,0,40,67,250,0,688 

DATA 112,70,78,67,74,1268,103,4%,96,0 
DATA 0,24,112,2,78,66,32,122,0,60 

DATA 112,25,78,65,74,57,0,2,12e8,238 
DATA 102,248,96,12,32,124,0,1,0,1 

DATA 5S2,120,0,204%,768,146,114,255,112,5 
DATA 118,0,78,65,0,10,109,100,1168,49 
DATA 95,113,117,105,108,108,0,10,114,97 
DATA 109,49,95,113,117,105,108,108,0,0 
DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 

DATA 0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0 


sFP WON oOWF Ne 


Oo 


' WW WW Pe ll ll el cl a 
Ce BOON OU SUNK OUOVOO Lune 


Lasting = 


100 REMark QDIG Loader 

105 RENark Courtesy Derek Wilson in QUANTA 
110 C=RESPRC100) 

120 FOR i=-0O TO 66 STEP e 

130 READ x: POKE_W i+C,x 

140 END FOR i 

150 SEXEC mdv2@_OD0TG,C,100,e56 

1000 DATA 29439, 29697 ,2°8683,2°0033,1740e 
1010 DATA 48,1394%4,200,20115, 12040 

1020 DATA 28691,20033,17402,74,-27698 
1030 DATA 139%4,236,20115,6279,-11314% 
1040 DATA 139544, 208,20115,16961,1656e 
1050 DATA 30463, 28686, 20035,24734 

1060 DATA 0O,7,2%0,10,168,ce4%6 





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And More-Write for Free Catalog! 


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The Sinclair Story 

Putting Your Spectum to Work 
Mastering M.C. on the ZX81 
Delving Deeper / Spectrum 
Spectrum M.C. Made Easy II 
Database Primer 

Using a Modem W/Your Computer 
101 Things to do W/Dead Compt 


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Buy 1 ROM Switch at Regular Price 
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Spelling $2.00 
States & Caps $2.00 
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And More - Write for Free Catalog 


3D Grand Prix $2.00 
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ZXDB (as is) $2.00 
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sinclair User $4.00 
Computer & Video Games $4.00 
Your Computer $4.00 
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3 mags shipped at one time 3/$10.95 


(some back issues available.) 


And More - Write for Free Catalog 


* FREE S/H on all Software. Add .75 on Books if ordering alone - FREE S/H if ordering with Software. 

* Add $1 S/H on ROM Switch, Speed King Joystick and on 2040 Paper Packs. 

* All Software or Software/Book orders over $50 are shipped via UPS 2nd Day Air FREE (Cont. U.S. Only.) 

* Please Write or Call for a FREE Catalog for Timex/Spectrum; QL or Atari ST Software, Hardware and Peripherials. 
* Toll Free ORDER Line: 1-800-628-2828 Ext. 950 24 hrs. a day, 7 days a week. 

* Call for Info on our “VIDEO CATALOG” of software. 


P.O. Box 5607 @ Glendale, Arizona 85312-5607 © 1-602-978-2902 e Telex (via WUI): 6501267701 


OFFICE: 2412 West Greenway e Suite B-10 e Phoenix, Arizona 


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THE PC TALKER 


An exciting new Hardware item for the QL. Plugs into the Ser2 port. Utilizing 
some very special speech chips TALKER can Say practically anything you type, and 
the “voice”’ is very understandable. 


Extremely easy to program using PRINT statement. A demo program is includ- 
ed when you purchase TALKER. 


TALKER is professionally housed in black ABS plastic. It comes with a 90 day 
warranty and includes its own power supply. 


PC TALKER is $64.95 plus $2.95 s/h. 
CONCEPT 3D 


A completely interactive program. All functions and choices are called with 
single key entry. All required information and prompts are displayed on screen when 
required. We like to think of the program as a “3D Graphics Processor’ since many 
of the functions are much like those of a good word processor. 








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\ AQ \ ‘ AN \\ ANN AKAN SF 
maa NN Nt — aw AS 





SONS “The United States has small 

















































kes a Ni ‘S wht » : 5 A * . 
. ae RAK SN ~\ == La tte SKN AN part of the QL pie but, if quality 
AWS Rs r " wth AN AN ih Cee SAN Re ht Sy SSS Sh hh eh -— . ee 
Aas \\ ‘ ANY mee | 

AG Wik SO ANY AY \\ve ‘\“\ AN = St “ products such as Concept 3D 
ny i KN % i‘ th ‘he .. 7 eh te iy ‘ Say Aa 

a eS ARS we » =. * xin rs CO . ANON Soy SEEN continue to come from the 

\ AN ht 4 i Nhs WAN 4 - a i 

ae x SN AQ WK Ree ae = 28 \\ LOK \\ AWS AY . ~ “8 cou ntry which owns Silicon 





AS \ SAAN 


Sy ee = Valley, the American software 


se AMAR « See ane 













\\ ae A << ANY i 
‘ AN YN AN A\\ - 


AO Rin 












\ \\ a f Se A hae Ls ae 

a “ aS \ CAs ATs co Sy Mans tao SS. «Rouses Concerned should con- 
AN Soh A Ss SON SN \\ A AN RRR Sa NY \ AS BAHN ro, ue o 
ANS mee ayes aN ANN AA n “sagan oe SEN SA WON a Satta 3 AWE hoe =. g ratu jate themse | ves. 
aes \\ Nis AW AN AS WAS Si “\ AX NS SAX BARR WQS ah “ \\ SS ws Ser ‘ NA ss 
A AWW UK s AW ANY WAY WW Naenth eee N A SAN Nh ye St ate ese 
My WEAN ~ \ SA NN ‘ a \\ WN AN \ NAS = ae \\ REN . » AN ONO WN, ANE AE ae 

AN SAN x ANS SN \ SANE shina SAN ANN NS . AN A Shoe AN: Ne SA MWS Si . 

ee RNR a inclair User 


Oct. 1986 


Call our Toll Free ORDER Line to order either of these fine products. 
1-800-628-2828 ext. 950 24 hrs. a day - 7 days a week. Or call1-602-978-2902 
for more information on our catalog. 








We know the QL...We’ve been appreciating it longer. 


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Othello $24.95 
Mortville’s Manor $34.95 
Presidents $14.95 
Wanderer $34.95 
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GraphiQL $34.95 
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Concept 3D $39.95 
QL Pientre $29.95 
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Avatex Modem 3000/1200 $109.95 
512K RAM Expansion CALL 


Adv. Programming on the QL $12.95 
Word Processing onthe QL $12.95 
Using GraphicsontheQL $12.95 
Machine Code Prog. on the QL$12.95 
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QL Games Master $12.95 
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Baron Rouge $16.95 
Vroom $24.95 
Early Learning $24.95 
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Choice Cartridge (use wice) $22.95 
|.C.E. ROM Cartridge $34.95 
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Cartridge Doctor $23.95 


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Talker - Speech Synthesizer $64.95 
RS232 Cable $14.95 
Modem Cable $15.95 


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Introduction to SuperBASIC $12.95 
Desktop Computing on the QL $12.95 
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Quantum Theory $11.95 
QL Adventure Handbook $9.95 


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Early Learning 
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Karate 
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QL Mail Merge 
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Joystick Adapter 


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CALL 


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FREE Shipping on all Software. Add .75 per Book if ordering alone - FREE S/H if ordering with Software 
Add $2.95 for Modem and Talker; $1 for Cables. 


All Software of Software/Book orders over $50 are shipped via UPS 2nd Day Air FREE (Cont. U.S. Only) 


Please Write or Call fora FREE Catalog for QL; Timex/Spectrum or Atari Software, Hardware and Peripherals. 


Toll Free ORDER Line: 1-800-628-2828 ext. 950 24 hrs a day - 7 days a week. 


P.O. Box 5607 e 


OFFICE: 2412 West Greenway e Suite B-10 e Phoenix, Arizona 


Glendale, Arizona 85312-5607 @ 1-602-978-2902 e Telex (via WUI): 6501267701 


ASSIA 


FREE ADS FOR SUBSCRIBERS 


HOW WILL TAX REFORM AFFECT YOU? 
Calculate 87, 88, 89 tax. Use 
current or future data. Include 
itemizing, not business. 2068 
tape. $5 ppd. Max Schoenfeld, 

2612 Princeton, Cleveland, OH 
44118. 

MONEY MACHINE II starring BANNA 
BRITE! All new format. Banna turns 
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Game for TS 2068 from ABBA SOFT. 
$12.00 postpaid. Herb Bowers, 2588 
Woodshire Circle, Chesapeake, VA 
233e3< 

WANTED: INTERCOMPUTER OSAVE fast 
loading system for TS 1000. Also 
any TS 1000 hardware working or 
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me your list. Dan Elliott, Rt l, 
Box 117, Cabool, MO 65689. 

FOR SALE: RAMEX MILLENIA K DDI. 
Retail- $200.00 -— call with offer. 
Also, Tasman C CPI - retail $70 - 
call with best offer. Bill Nemitz 
412 W. Golf Ave., Ottumwa, Iowa 
52501. (515) 683-1367. 

WANTED: HUNTER BOARD and/or other 
TS 100 "what have you's". Contact: 
Fred Henn, c/o Rockelman & Henn 
Pump Co., Inc., 1333 Military Rd., 
Buffalo, NY 14217. 

CLOSEOUT!!! TS 1000 SOFTWARE from 
just 99¢c. Box 2382, La Jolla, CA 





92038. 
2068 SOFTWARE: Send S.A.S.E. for 
FREE CATALOG to: TIMEWARE, INC., 


1907 1/2 W. Genesee St., Syracuse, 
NY 13204. 










FOR SALE: QL, Sinclair Monitor and 
Printer. Memory boards, software, 
new blank cartridges, various OL 
books, QOL technical manual, spare 
power supplies, ect. Call for 
prices and details. (603) 847-3448. 


FOR SALE: SEIKOSHA SP-10O00A NLO 
Dot Matrix Printer. 2 Months old. 
$130 ppd. UPS. Jerry McKouen, 
2580 Lanier Dr., Lansing, MI 
48911. 
FOR SALE: TIMEX SINCLAIR 1000 
Computer in METAL SLOPING CABINET, 
with keyboard, power switch, 
Westridge Modem, Aerco Centronics 
Parallel Interface, Memotech 64k 
RAM, RS cassette recorder, large 
library of software including: 
QOSAVE, Extended Basic, Sincartist, 
Memotext WP, Games. Available as 
complete package or by piece. If 
interested, please contact: 
Richard Beier, 1 Darwin Dr., N. 
Merrick, NY 11566. Leave EMAIL on 
CompuServe U.I.D. #73137, 1565. 
SINCUS NEWS- $8/year= 6 issues. 
Heavy on 2068 help, hints and 
programs: Mail check to SINCUS, 
1229 Rhodes Rd., Johnson City, NY 
13790- a non profit, all volunteer 
user group for 1000/2068 users. 
NEW BOOK 1000/2068 of 20 (mostly) 
Basic program listings and ex- 
planations: Grocerylist, Edit- 
Writer (wordprocessor), Treasure- 
tract (accounting), Danceshoes, 
Minutes, Songs (sing-a-long), 
Studygame, Barg (graph-maker) and 
more. Start where I left off! 
Send $25 Canadian to: BLUE VIOLET 
PUBLISHING Inc., 1452 Kingsdale, 
Gloucester, Ont., K1T-1G9 Canada, 
for a copy. 
SOFTWARE FOR THE TS 2068. Send 
SASE for FREE CATALOG & price list 
to: E. Ray Rash, 2424 SW 78th St., 
Oklahoma City, OK 73159 






Do you have some equipment or a program that you would like to sell? Looking for something hard to find? Place an 
ad in THE CLASSIFIEDS! Subscribers can place one free personal ad in each issue. Ad size is 32 Col. wide (like 2040 
paper) and maximum of six lines. For additional lines - $3 each. NON-SUBSCRIBERS and DEALERS: $4 a line. 
DEADLINE FOR ALL CLASSIFIED ADS: Two weeks before publication date. Mail your ad to: 

TIME DESIGNS MAGAZINE, The Classifieds Dept., 29722 Hult Rd., Colton, Oregon 97017. 








a 





== NEW PRODUCTS 
For TS2068 and SPECTRUM 





VERSION 1.1 


* Pull-Down Menus *® Auto-Speed Control ® Includes Spectrum & TS2068 Versions 
* Several Brushes ® Magnify & Reduce * Supports Microdrives and Kempston 
* Spray * Rotate & Mirror Joystick 

* Auto-Fill ® Full Attribute Control * Includes GALLERY, the slide 

* Zoom * Fully Elastic Shapes including Circle, show/animator 

* Undo Box, Triangle, Ray and Line ¢ 5 Samples of Artwork 

* Several Text Fonts * Fast Ellipse and Arc * Excellent Manual 


* Cut & Paste Windows 


Unshackle your creativity with ... ARTWORX!! 
ARTWORX V1.1 - $19.95 U.S. plus $3.00S & H 


REVOLUTIONARY NEW BASIC COMPILER... 


The dream of every BASIC programmer has now been realized! 


* TIMACHINE will turn your BASIC * Handles all BASIC except 1/O 
into super-fast machine code, * Includes an excellent manual and 
running up to 200 times faster! 4 demonstration programs 

* Handles floating point operations * Compiles up to 27K in seconds 
like SIN, COS, TAN * Includes Spectrum & 2068 versions 


Super-Charge your BASIC programs with... T/MACHINE! 


TIMACHINE — $19.95 U.S. Plus $3.005 & H 


| he ew QOULeSoRr qs 
fie" at 


ai, 


A unique combination of planning aids, Ss BS tools, and utilities. 


* Scheduler/Planner * Biorhythms 
* Notepad * Perpetual Calendar 
* Telephone Book * International Time Zones 
* Programmable Calculator * Superb Manual 
* Decision Factoring * includes Spectrum & TS2068 
* Real Time Clock Versions 
* Supports Microdrives 


A TIMELY ADDITION TO YOUR SOFTWARE LIBRARY... THE WORX! 


— $19.95 U.S. Plus $3.005 & H 


: = fllovelsoft 


————— — eae — — A FORMAT FOR THE FUTURE 


106 Seventh Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M8V 3B4 ¢ TEL. (416)259-8682 ¢ CompuServe 70416,1435 





WEYMIL presents... 


A small collection of truly innovative products for Sinclair computers 








THRUST TS1000 

True hi-res graphics for the TS 1000. THRUST is two 
great programs on one tape. Sinc-Artist 1.3 is the most 
user friendly software ever developed for printer 
graphics. Completely cursor and menu driven. For 
Hunter Board users, there’s Sinc-Artist HR which pro- 
duces fantastic screen graphics. THRUST is both the 
most sophisticated and easiest to use hi-res graphics 
software ever developed for the TS 1000. If you are 
ready for no-nonsense, hassle free graphics, then 
THRUST is a ‘must have.” 


THRUST for the TS 1000 only $20.00 


ARTWORX V1.1 TS 2068 

England’s finest graphics package! ARTWORX V1.1 
establishes a new standard for color graphics with 
features never before available on small systems. Auto 
speed control, pull down menus, unique cut and past 
windows, ZOOM!, elastic shapes, multiple fonts, 
CENTRONICS I/F capability for full-size print-outs, 
and more. All this plus an absolutely uncluttered 
screen for full creativity. Easy to use. The joystick 
controls EVERYHTING except text entry. The highly 
supportive well-written documentation is almost un- 
nessesary. 


ARTWORX V1.1 for the TS2068 only $19.95 


PIXEL SKETCH AND GRAPHICS 


EDITOR V2.0 TS 2068 

This program by Stan Lemke still remains the finest 
graphics program produced in the United States and 
one of the best in the world for the TS 2068. It has had 
excellent*user group reviews and is a snap to use. Well 
written, step-by-step documentation guides you ef- 
fortlessly from loading to producing you own 
““masterpiece.”’ Great pixel and text placement contol. 


PIXEL SKETCH AND GRAPHICS EDITOR V2.0 
only $19.95 


KRUNCHER TS 2068 / TS 1000 


From the Pacific Northwest comes one of the most ex- 
citing utilites ever written. KRUNCHER takes any 
BASIC program for the TS 2068 or TS 1000 and in- 
stantly reduces it to the tightest BASIC possible 
thereby conserving precious memory. Imagine all of 
those litthke memory saving tips developed over the 
years in one program which performs automatically 
and takes up less than 190 bytes! Simply load KRUN- 
CHER, locate it where you want it, load or write your 
BASIC progrm, invoke KRUNCHER, blink your eye 
and it’s done. Memory savings average 20-40%, Great 
learning aid for programmers of all levels. 


KRUNCHER for TS1000 or TS2068 only $10.00 
(Please specify TS1000 or TS2068) 


TIME MACHINE TS 2068 

The first SERIOUS COMPILER for the TS2068. Now 
you can convert BASIC programs to super fast 
MACHINE CODE without a lot of hassle. Converts 
both TS 2068 and SPECTRUM Programs. It func- 
tions as both an integer and floating point compiler 
simultaneously without the restrictions of either. Com- 
piled code can be placed anywhere in RAM. Handles 
up to 27K of BASIC. Programs can be either written 
or loaded from tape. You've wainted a long time for 
this one and here it is! 


TIME MACHINE for the TS2068 only $19.95 


RIGTER JOYSTICK INTERFACE TS 1000 
This is a software programmable Atari-type joystick 
interface. it can handle up to 16 different directions or 
commands easily. It has it’s own self-contained 
memory so that it’s software occupies no system ram. 
The software allows you to configure your joystick to 
ANY TS1000 game or graphic software (THRUST, 
for example) and it’s ready to go. Rear expansion bus 
allows other peripherals and the interface is completely 
transparent. 


RIGTER JOYSTICK INTERFACE for TS 1000 
only $39.95 


MINI XMOD TS 1000 
Use your TS1000 and Westridge modem to 
up/download TSi000 software to any XMODEM BBS 


and see them run. Supports Memotech Centronics I/F 


and others for print-outs to full size printers. Standard 
RAM and Hunter Board versions included on same 
tape. 

MINI XMOD for the TS 1000 only $20.00 


LOADER V TS 2068 

This program turns MTERM into a REAL com- 
munications program. Here’s what you get. Auto- 
repeat dialing, extra 20 number dialing directory, full 
TASWORD II and MSCRIPT text file handling 
capability, disk drive and Wafer drive compatible, 
multiple loading of Mterm’s buffer while on line, and 
full XMODEM capability. This program is the COM- 
PLETE LOADER SERIES, 


LOADER V for TS 2068 only $10.00 


CLONE TS 2068 
A sophisticated program which allows the user to 


make back-up copies of ANY TS2068 or SPECTRUM | 


software for their own use. Requires no fancy filters or 
extra tape recorders. Easy to follow instructions make 
it simple to protect your valuable originals. 


CLONE for the TS2068 only $10.00 





i 


EE oT 


— 


SPECIAL OFFER!!! 

Save $5.00 when you order the combination of THRUST, RIGTER JOYSTICK INTERFACE, and KRUNCHER 1000 
you pay only $64.95 

SHIPPING INSTRUCTIONS Please enclose $2.00 shipping and handling with your order. 


~ A A 


WEYMIL CORPORATION 


BOX 5904 
BELLINGHAM, WA 98227—5904